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'I; \ 

rip PAGE 

Jl HE Defign of a Treatife on the Plants of India i 

On the Spikenard of the Ancients ------ g 

Additional Remarks on the Spikenard of the Ancients - - 23 
Botanical Obfervations on the Spikenard of the Ancients, intended 
as a Supplement to the late Sir William Jones's Papers on that 
Plant, by William Roxburgh, M. D. - - - 33 

On the Fruit of the Meliori - - 37 

A Catalogue of Indian Plants, comprehending their Sanfcrit, and as 
many of their Linnsean Names as could, with any degree of 
Precifion, be afcertained - 3g 

Botanical Obfervations on felect Indian Plants - - - - 47 

Preface - - - 121 

Of Letters - - 135 

Of Confonants ----- --137 

Of Vowels - - - Ml 

Of Nouns ; and firft of Genders - - - - - -146 

Of Cafes ------ - 147 

Of the Article __.-__--- 150 
Of Numbers - - - - - -- - -151 




OfAdjedHves - 153 

Of Pronouns - - 154 

Of Verbs - - 162 

OfTenfes - l68 

Of the Compofition, and Derivation of Words - 193 

Of Perfian Numbers - 21 

Ordinals - -212 

Adverbs ---------- ib. 

Conjunctions - - - - - - - - -214 

Prepofitions - __. - -215 

Interjections --------- ib. 

Of the Perfian Syntax - 217 

Of Verification - 230 

A Catalogue of the moft valuable Books in the Perfian Language 247 
Index to the Perfian Grammar - - 203 

The Hiftory of the Perfian Language - - - 303 


Prooemium - - - 333 

CAPUT I. Afiaticos fere omnes Poeticse impenfius efle deditos - 347 
CAPUT II. De Metris Afiaticis - - - - - 362 

CAPUT III. De Idyllic Arabico - - - - - -390 

CAPUT IV. De Carmine Perfieo - - - _ _ 404 

CAPUT V. De Imaginibus Poeticis - - - - - 417 

CAPUT VI. De Tranflatione - - - - r - - 430 

CAPUT VII. De Comparatione - - - - - -4 39 

CAPUT VIII. De reliquis Figuris 456 

CAPUT IX. De arcana Poematum Significatione - 467. 

CAPUT X. De Elato dicendi genere 479 




CAPUT XI. De Venuftate - 48g 

CAPUT XII. De Poefi Heroica - - 501 

CAPUT XIII. De Poefi Funebri - - - 518 

CAPUT XIV. De Poefi Morali - - 531 

CAPUT XV. De Poefi Amatoria - 543 

CAPUT XVI. De Laudatione - - 553 

CAPUT XVII. De Vituperatione - 563 

CAPUT XVIII.- De Defcriptionibus - 574 

CAPUT XIX. De variis Arabum, Perfarum, ac Turcarum Poetis 587 

CAPUT XX. De Afiatica Di&ioue ..... 594 





j ''IB'RAKl 




J. H E greateft, if not the only, obftacle to the progrefs of knowledge 
in thefe provinces, except in thofe branches of it, which belong imme- 
diately to our feveral profeffions, is our want of leifure for general 
refearches j and, as ARCHIMEDES, who was happily mafter of his 
time, had not fpace enough to move the greateft weight with the 
fmalleft force, thus we, who have ample fpace for our inquiries, really 
want time for the purfuit of them. " Give me a place to ftand on, 
" faid the great mathematician, and I will move the whole earth :" 
Give us time, we may fay, for our irrveftigations, and we will transfer to 
Europe all the fciences, arts, and literature of Afia. " Not to have 
" defpaired," however, was thought a degree of merit in the Roman ge- 
neral, even though he was defeated; and, having fome hope, that others 
VOL. n. B may 


may occafionally find more leifure, than it will ever, at leaft in this 
country, be my lot to enjoy, I take the liberty to propofe a work, 
from which very curious information, and poffibly very folid advan- 
tage, may be derived. 

Some hundreds of plants, which are yet imperfectly known to 
European botanifts, and with the virtues of which they are wholly 
unacquainted, grow wild on the plains and in the forefts of India : the 
Amarcojh, an excellent vocabulary of the Sanfcrit language, contains in 
one chapter the names of about three hundred medicinal vegetables; 
the Mcdirii may comprize many more ; and the Dravydbhidbdna, or 
Dictionary of Natural Productions, includes, I believe, a far greater 
number j the properties of which are distinctly related in medical tracts 
of approved authority. Now the firft ftep, in compiling a treatife on 
the plants of India, mould be to write their true names in Roman let- 
ters, according to the moft accurate orthography, and in Sanfcrit pre- 
ferably to any vulgar dialect -, becaufe a learned language is fixed in 
books, while popular idioms are in conftant fluctuation, and will not, 
perhaps, be understood a century hence by the inhabitants of thefe Indian 
territories, whom future botanifts may confult on the common appel- 
lations of trees and flowers : the childifh denominations of plants from 
the perfons, who firft defcribed them, ought wholly to be rejected ; for 
Champaca and Hinna feem to me not only more elegant, but far pro- 
perer, defignations of an Indian and an Arabian plant, than Micbelia and 
Laiofonia ; nor can I fee without pain, that the great Sivedijh botanift 
confidered it as the fupreme and only reward of labour in this part of 
natural hiftory, to preferve a name by hanging it on a bloflbm, and that he 
declared this mode of promoting and adorning botany, worthy of being 
continued with holy reverence, though fo high an honour, he fays, ought 
to be conferred with chajie referee, and not projlituted for the purpofe of 
conciliating the good will t or eternizing the memory, of any Lut his chofen 

followers , 


followers; no, not even of faints : his lift of an hundred and ffty fuch 
names clearly {hows, that his excellent works are the true ban's of his 
juft celebrity, which would have been feebly fupported by the ftalk of 
the Linncea. From what proper name the Plantain is called Mufa, I 
do not know ; but it feems to be the Dutch pronunciation of the Arabick 
word for that vegetable, and ought not, therefore, to have appeared in 
his lift, though, in my opinion, it is the only rational name in the 
mufter-roll. As to the fyftem of LINNAEUS, it is the fyftem of Nature, 
fubordinate indeed to the beautiful arrangement of natural orders, of 
which he has given a rough fketch, and which may hereafter, per- 
haps, be completed : but the diftribution of vegetables into clajjes, 
according to the number, length, and pofition of the ftamens and piftils, 
and of thofe claJJ'es into kinds and fpecies, according to certain marks of 
difcrimination, will ever be found the cleareft and moft convenient of 
methods, and fhould therefore be ftudioufly obferved in the work, which 
I now fuggeft; but I muft be forgiven, if I propofe to rejed: the Linnean 
appellations of the twenty-four claJJ'es, becaufe, although they appear 
to be Greek, (and, if they really were fo, that alone might be thought a 
fufficient objection) yet in truth they are not Greek, nor even formed by 
analogy to the language of Grecians ; for Polygamos, Monandros, and the 
reft of that form, are both mafculine and feminine ; Polyandria, in the 
abftraft, never occurs, and Polyandrion means a publick cemitery ; dicecia 
and dicecus are not found in books of authority ; nor, if they were, 
would they be derived from dis, but from dia, which would include 
the tricecia; let me add, that the twelfth and thirteenth clafles are ill 
diftinguiflied by their appellations, independently of other exceptions . 
to them, fince the real diftin&ion between them confifts not fo much in 
the number of their ftamens, as in the place, where they are inferted ; and 
that the fourteenth and fifteenth are not more accurately difcriminated 
by two words formed in defiance of grammatical analogy, fince there 
are but two powers, or two diverjities of length, in each of thofe clafles. 



Calycopolyandros might, perhaps, not inaccurately denote a flower of the 
Twelfth clafs; but fuch a compound would ftill favour . of barbarifm 
or pedantry; and the beft way to amend fuch a fyftem of words is to 
efface it, and fupply its place by a more fimple nomenclature, which 
may eafily be found. Numerals may be ufed for the eleven firft clafles,, 
the former of two numbers being always appropriated to thejlamens, and 
the latter, to the pijlih : mort phrafes, as, on the calyx or calice, in the 
receptacle, two long, four long, from one bafe, from two, or many, bafes* 
with anthers connected, on the piftils, in two flowers, in two di/linSt plants, 
mixed, concealed, or the like, will anfwer every purpofe of difcrimina- 
tion; but I do not offer this as a perfect fubflitute for the words, which 
I condemn. The allegory of fexes and nuptials, even if it were com- 
plete, ought, I think, to be difcarded, as unbecoming the gravity of 
men, who, while they fearch for truth, have no bufinefs to inflame 
their imaginations; and, while they profefs to give defcriptions, have 
nothing to do with metaphors : few paffages in Aloijia, the moft im- 
pudent book ever compofed by man, are more wantonly indecent than 
the hundred-forty-fixth number of the Botanical Philofopby, and the 
broad comment of its grave author, who dares, like OCTAVIUS in his 
epigram, to fpeak with Roman Jimplicity; nor can the Linnean defcrip- 
tion of the Arum, and many other plants, be read in Englijh without 
exciting ideas, which the occafion does not require. Hence it is, that 
no well-born and well-educated woman can be advifed to amufe her- 
felf with botany, as it is now explained, though a more elegant and 
delightful fludy, or one more likely to affiil and embellilh other female 
accomplifhments, could not poffibly be recommended. 

When the Sanfcrit names of the Indian plants have been correctly 
written in a large paper-book, one page being appropriated to each, the 
frelh plants themfelves, procured in their refpedlive feafons, muft be 
concifely, but accurately, clajjcd and defcribed ; after which their feveral 



vfts in medicine, diet, or manufactures, may be colle&ed, with the 
afliilance of Hindu phyiicians, from the medical books in Sanfcn't, and 
their accounts either difproved or eilablifhed by repeated experiments, 
as fail as they can be made with exa&nefs. 

By way of example, I annex the defcriptions of five Indian plants, 
but am unable, at this feafon, to re-examine them, and wholly defpair 
of leifure to exhibit others, of which I have collected the names, and 
moil of which I have feen in bloiTom. 


Twenty, from One Bafe. 
CaL Five-parted, thick ; leaflets, oblong. 
Cor. Five petals, oblong. 

Stam. From twelve to fifteen, rather long, fertile ; five ihorter, 
fterile. In fome flowers, the unprolifick ilamens, longer. 
Pift. Style cylindrick. 

Peric. A capfule, with five cells, many-feeded. 
Seeds: Roundiih, comprefled, winged. 
Leaves: Of many different fhapes. 
Ufes: The quality, refrigerant. 

One flower, ileeped a whole night in a glafs of water, forms a cooling 
mucilage of ufe in virulent gonorrhoeas. The Muchucunda, called alfo 
Picbuca, is exquifitely fragrant : its calyx is covered with an odoriferous 
duil j and the dried flowers in fine powder, taken like fnufF, are faid, in 
a Sanfcrit book, almofl inilantaneouily to remove a nervous head-ach. 

Note. This plant differs a little from the Pentapetes of LINNAEUS. 

II. B I L V A 



Many on the Receptacle, and One. 
Four, or five, cleft, beneath. 

Cor. Four, or five, petals ; moftly reflex. 

Stam, Forty, to forty-eight, filaments ; anthers, moftly erecl:. 

Fiji. Germ, roundifh ; Style, fmooth, fhort ; Stigma, clubbed. 

Peric. A fpheroidal berry, very large ; many-feeded. 

Seeds: Toward the furface, ovate, in a pellucid mucus. 

Leaves: Ternate ; common petiole, long ; leaflets, fubovate ; ob- 
tufely notched, with fhort petioles ; fome almofl lanced. 

Stem: Armed with (harp thorns. 

Ufes: The fruit nutritious, warm, carthartick; in tafle, delicious ; in 
fragrance, exquifite : its aperient and deterfive quality, and its efficacy 
in removing habitual coftivenefs, have been proved by conflant 
experience. The mucus of the feed is, for fome purpofes, a very 
good cement. 

Note. This fruit is called Srip'hala, becaufe it fprang, fay the 
Indian poets, from the milk of Sri, the goddefs of abundance, who 
beftowed it on mankind at the requefl of Is WAR A, whence he alone 
wears a chaplet of Eiha flowers ; to him only the Hindus offer them ; 
and, when they fee any of them fallen on the ground, they take them 
up with reverence, and carry them to his temple. From the firft 
bloflbm of this plant, that I could infpeft, I had imagined, that it be- 
longed to the fame clafs with the Durio, becaufe the filaments appeared 
to be diftributed in five fets ; but in all, that I have fmce examined, 
they are perfectly diftincT:. 


Four and One. 
Cal, Four cleft, with a long peduncle, above. 

Cor. Four 


Cor. Four petals. 

Stam. Anthers, kidney-fhaped. 

Pift. Germ, roundifh; Style, long as the filaments; Stigma clubbed. 

Seed: A Nut with four oppofite angles (two of them /harp thorns) 
formed by the Calyx. 

Leaves: Thofe, which float on the water, are rhomboidal ; the two 
upper fides unequally notched, the two lower,, right lines. Their 
petioles, buoyed up by fpindle-fhaped fpongy fubftances, not bladders. 

Root: Knotty, like coral. 

Ufes: The frefh kernel, in fweetnefs and delicacy, equals that of the 
filbered. A mucus, fecreted by minute glands, covers the wet leaves, 
which are confidered as cooling. 

Note. It feems to be the floating Trapa of LINNAEUS. 


Ten and one. 

Cal. Five-cleft. 

Cor. Five equal petals. 

Peric. A thorny legumen ; two feeds. 

Leaves: Oval, pinnated. 

Stem: Armed. 

Ufes: The feeds are very bitter, and, perhaps, tonick; fince one of 
them, bruifed and given in two dofes, will, as the Hindus aflert, cure an 
intermittent fever. 

V. M A D H U' C A. (See Afiat. Refearch. vol. 7, page 300.J 

Many, not on the Receptacle, and One. 
Cal. Perianth four, or five, leaved. 

Cor. One-petaled. Tube inflated, flefhy. Border nine, or ten, parted. 
Stam. Anthers from twelve to twenty-eight, erect, acute, fubvillous. 

Pift. Germ, 


Ptft. Germ, roundiih ; Style, long, awl-{haped. 

Peric. A Drupe, with two or three Nuts? 

Leaves: Oval, fomewhat pointed. 

Ufes: The tubes, efculent, nutritious; yielding, by diftillation, an 
inebriating fpirit, which, if the fale of it were duly reftrained by law, 
might be applied to good purpofes. An ufeful oil is exprefled from the 

Note. It refembles the Bajfia of KOENIG. 

Such would be the method of the work, which I recommend ; but 
even the fpecimen, which I exhibit, might, in fkilful hands, have been 
more accurate. Engravings of the plants may be annexed ; but I have 
more than once experienced, that the beft anatomical and botanical 
prints give a very inadequate, and fometimes a very falfe, notion of the 
objects, which they were intended to reprefent. As we learn a new 
language, by reading approved compofitions in it with the aid of a 
Grammar and Dictionary, fo we can only fludy with effect the natural 
hiftory of vegetables by analyfing the plants themfelves with the 
Philofophia Botanica, which is the Grammar, and the Genera et Species 
Plantarum, which may be confidered as the DiStionary, of that 
beautiful language, in which nature would teach us what plants we 
muft avoid as noxious, and what we muft cultivate as falutary, for that 
the qualities of plants are in feme degree connected with the natural 
orders and claJJ'es of them, a number of inftances would abundantly 



The Pr/iii.r ,t/;- W/iit,- 

falmianst , 

Q-J/uAYtwni . 




IT is painful to meet perpetually with words, that convey no diftinft 
ideas; and a natural deiire of avoiding that pain excites us often to 
make inquiries, the refult of which can have no other ufe than to give 
us clear conceptions. Ignorance is to the mind what extreme darknefs 
is to the nerves : both caufe an uneafy fenfation ; and we naturally love 
knowledge, as we love light, even when we have no defign of apply- 
ing either to a purpofe effentially ufeful. This is intended as an 
apology for the pains which have been taken to procure a determi- 
nate anfwer to a queftion of no apparent utility, but which ought to be 
readily anfwered in India, " What is Indian Spikenard? All agree, 
that it is an odoriferous plant, the beft fort of which, according to 
PTOLEMY, grew about Rangamritica or Rangamati, and on the bor- 
ders of the country now called Eutan : it is mentioned by Diosco- 
RIDES, whofe work I have not in my poffeffion ; but his defcription of 
it muft be very imperfeft, fince neither LINNAEUS nor any of his dif- 
ciples pretend to clafs it with certainty, and, in the lateft botanical 
work, that we have received from Europe, it is marked as unknown. 
I had no doubt, before I was perfonally acquainted with KOENIG, that 
he had afcertained it ; but he afTured me, that he knew not what the 
VOL. ii. ^\\ Greek 


Greek writers meant by the nard of India: he had found, indeed, and 
defcribed a fixth fpecies of the nardus, which is called Indian in the 
Supplement to Linnaus -, but the nardus is a grafs, which, though it 
bear a Spike, no man ever fuppofed to be the true Spikenard, which 
the great Botanical Philoibpher himfelf was inclined to think a fpecies 
of Andropogon, and places, in his Materia Medica, but with an ex- 
preflion of doubt, among his polygamous plants. Since the death of 
KOENIG I have confulted every botanift and phyfician, with whom I 
was acquainted, on the fubjecl: before us ; but all have confeffed with- 
out referve, though not without fome regret, that they were ignorant 
what was meant by the Indian Spikenard. 

In order to procure information from the learned natives, it was 
neceflary to know the name of the plant in fome Afiatick language. 
The very word nard occurs in the fong of SOLOMON ; but the name 
and the thing were both exotick : the Hebrew lexicographers imagine 
both to be Indian ; but the word is in truth Perfian, and occurs in the 
following diflich of an old poet ; 

A'n chu bikheft, in chu nardeft, an chu fhakheil, in chu bar, 
A'n chu bikhi payidareft, in chu nardi payidar. 

It is not eafy to determine in this couplet, whether nard mean the 
ftem, or, as ANJU' explains it, the pith ; but it is manifeflly a part of a 
vegetable, and neither the root, the fruit, nor the branch, which are all 
feparately named : the ^/vzArhave borrowed the word nard,. but in the 
fenfe, as we learn from the Kdmus, ~ of a compound medicinal unguent. 
Whatever it fignified in old Perfian, the Arabick word fumbul, which,, 
like fumbalah, means an ear or fpike, has long been fubftituted for it ,- 
and there can be no doubt, that by the fumbul of India the Mufelmdns 
underftand the fame plant with the nard of PTOLEMY and the Nar- 



doftachys, or Spikenard, of GALEN; who, by the way, was deceived 
by the dry fpecimens, which he had feen, and miftook them for 


A fingular defcription of the fumbul by ABU'LFAZL, who frequently 
mentions it as an ingredient in Indian perfumes, had for fome time 
almofl convinced me, that the true Spikenard was the Cetaca, or Pan- 
danus of our botanifts : his words are, Sumbul panj berg dared, ceh dirazii 
an dab angofotejlu pahndi feh, or, " The fumbul has five leaves, ten 
" fingers long, and three broad." Now I well knew, that the minifter 
of ACBAR was not a botanift, and might eafily have miftaken a thyrfus 
for a fingle flower : I had feen no bloflbm, or afTemblage of blofToms, of 
fuch dimenfions, except the male Cetaca ; and, though the Perjian 
writer defcribes the female as a different plant, by the vulgar name 
Cyora, yet fuch a miftake might naturally have been expected in fuch 
a work : but what moft confirmed my opinion, was the exquifite fra- 
grance of the Ce'taca-fiower, which to my fenfe far furpafled the 
richeft perfumes of Europe or Afia. Scarce a doubt remained, when I 
met with a defcription of the Cetaca by FORSKOHL, whofe words 
are fo perfectly applicable to the general idea, which we are apt 
to form of Spikenard, that I give you a literal tranflation of them : 
" The Pandanus is an incomparable plant, and cultivated for its odour, 
" which it breathes fo richly, that one or two Spikes, in a fituation 
" rather humid, would be fufHcient to difTufe an odoriferous air for a 
" long time through a fpacious apartment; fo that the natives in ge- 
" neral are not folicitous about the living plants, but pur chafe the Spikes 
" at a great price." I learned alfo, that a fragrant eflential oil was 
extracted from the flowers j and I procured from Eandres a large phial 
of it, which was adulterated with fandal ; but the very adulteration 
convinced me, that the genuine effence muft be valuable, from the 
great number of thyrfi, that muft be required in preparing a fmall 



quantity of it. Thus had I nearly perfuaded myfelf, that the true nard 
was to be found on the banks of the Ganges, where the Hindu women roll 
up its flowers in their long black hair after bathing in the holy river ; 
and I imagined, that the precious alabafter-box mentioned in the Scrip- 
ture, and the fmall onyx, in exchange for which the poet offers to 
entertain his friend with a cajk of old -wine, contained an eflence of the 
fame kind, though differing in its degree of purity, with the nard, 
which I had procured : but an Arab of Mecca, who faw in my ftudy 
fome flowers of the Cctaca, informed me, that the plant was extremely 
common in Arabia, where it was named Cddbi; and feveral Mnhomedans 
of rank and learning have fmce aflured me, that the true name of the 
Indian Sumbul was not Cetaca, but Jatdmdnsi. This was important in- 
formation : finding therefore, that the Pandanus was not peculiar to Hin- 
dujldn, and confidering, that the Sumbul of ABU'LFAZL differed from it 
in the precife number of leaves on the thyrfus, in the colour, and in the 
feafon of flowering, though the length and breadth correfponded very 
nearly, I abandoned my firft opinion, and began to enquire eagerly for the 
Jatdmdnsi, which grew, I was told, in the garden of a learned and in- 
genious friend, and fortunately was then in bloffom. A frefh plant was 
very foon brought to me : it appeared on infpedtion to be a moft elegant 
Cypirus with a polifhed three-fided culm, an umbella with three or 
four enfiform leaflets minutely ferrated, naked proliferous peduncles, 
crowded fpikes, expanded daggers j and its branchy root had a pungent 
tafte with a faint aromatick odour ; but no part of it bore the leaft re- 
femblance to the drug known in Europe by the appellation of Spikenard ; 
and a Mufelmdn phyfician from Dehli aflured me pofitively, that the 
plant was not Jatdmdns}, but Sud, as it is named in Arabick, which the 
author of the Tohfatu'l Mumemn particularly diftinguiflies from the 
Indian Sumbul. He produced on the next day an extract from the 
Dictionary of Natural hiftory, to which he had referred ; and I prefent 
you with a tranllatkm of all that is material in it. 

" i. SUD 


" i. SUD has a roundifh olive-fhaped root, externally black, but 
" white internally, and fo fragrant as to have obtained in Perfia 
" the name of Subterranean Mujk : its leaf has fome refemblance to 
" that of a leek, but is longer and narrower, ftrong, fomewhat rough 
"at the edges, and tapering to a point. 2. SUMBUL means a fpike 
" or ear, and was called nard by the Greeks. There are three 
" forts of Sumbul or Nardin ; but, when the word ftands alone, it 
" means the Sumbul of India, which is an herb without flower or fruit, 
" (he fpeaks of the drug only) like the tail of an ermine, or of a 
" fmall weafel, but not quite fo thick, and about the length of a 
" finger. It is darkifh, inclining to yellow, and very fragrant : it 
" is brought from Hinduftdn, and its medicinal virtue lafts three 
" years." It was eafy to procure the dry Jatdmdnsi, which corre- 
fponded perfectly with the defcription of the Sumbul; and, though 
a native Mufelmdn afterwards gave me a Perjian paper, written by 
himfelf, in which he reprefents the Sumbul of India, the Sweet 
Sumbul, and the Jatdmdnsi as three different plants, yet the autho- 
rity of Tobfatu'l Mumenin is decifive, that the fweet Sumbul is only 
another denomination of nard, and the phyfician, who produced that 
authority, brought, as a fpecimen of Sumbul, the very fame drug, 
which my Pandit, who is alfo a phyfician, brought as a fpecimen 
of the Jatdmdns} : a Brahmen of eminent learning gave me a parcel 
of the fame fort, and told me that it was ufed in their facrifices j that, 
when frefh, it was exquifitely fweet, and added much to the fcent 
of rich efTences, in which it was a principal ingredient} that the 
merchants brought it from the mountainous country to the north- 
eaft of Bengal ; that it was the entire plant, not a part of it, and re- 
ceived its Sanferit names from its refemblance to locks of hair ; as it 
is called Spikenard, I fuppofe, from its refemblance to a Spike, when 
it is dried, and not from the configuration of its flowers, which 
the Greeks, probably, never examined. The Perjian author defcribes 



the whole plant as refembling the tail of an ermine ; and the 
Jatdmdns}, which is manifeftly the Spikenard of our druggifts, has 
precifely that form, confirming of withered ftalks and ribs of leaves, 
cohering in a bundle of yellowim brown capillary fibres, and con- 
ftituting a fpike about the fize of a fmall finger. We may on the 
whole be afTured, that the nardus of PTOLEMY, the Indian Sumbul 
of the Perfians and Arabs, the Jatdmdnsi of the Hindus, and the 
Spikenard of our mops, are one and the fame plant -, but to what clafs 
and genus it belongs in the Linnean fyftem, can only be afcertained 
by an infpeclion of the frelh bloffoms. Dr. PATRICK RUSSEL, who 
always communicates with obliging facility his extenfive and accurate 
knowledge, informed me by letter, that " Spikenard is carried over 
" the defert (from India, I prefume) to Aleppo, where it is ufed in 
" fubftance, mixed with other perfumes, and worn in fmall bags, 
" or in the form of effence and kept in little boxes or phials, like 
" dtar of rofes." He is perfuaded, and fo am I, that the Indian 
nard of the ancients, and that of our mops, is one and the fame 

Though diligent refearches have been made at my requeft on the 
borders of Bengal and Eekar, yet the Jatdmdnsl has not been found 
growing in any part of the Eritijh territories. Mr. SAUNDERS, who 
met with it in Butdn, where, as he was informed, it is very common, 
and whence it is brought in a dry ftate to Rangpur, has no hefita- 
tion in pronouncing it a fpecies of the Baccharis ; and, fmce it is not 
poflible, that he could miftake the natural order and ejjential cha- 
ratter of the plant, which he examined, I had no doubt that the 
Jatamdnsi was compofit and corymbiferous with ftamens connected by 
the anthers, and with female prolifick florets intermixed with herma- 
phrodites : the word Spike was not ufed by the ancients with bota- 
nical precifion, and the Stacbys itfelf is verticillated, with only two 



fpecies out of fifteen, that could juftify its generick appellation. I 
therefore concluded, that the true Spikenard was a Baccharis, and 
that, while the philofopher had been fearching for it to no 

the dull fwain 

Trod on it daily with his clouted fhoon, 

for the Baccbaris, it feems, as well as the Conyza, is called by our 
gardeners, Ploughman 's Spikenard. I fufpefted, neverthelefs, that 
the plant, which Mr. SAUNDERS defcribed, was not 'Jatdmansi; 
becaufe I knew that the people of Butan had no fuch name for it, 
but diftinguifhed it by very different names in different parts of 
their hilly country: I knew alfo, that the Butias, who fet a greater 
value on the drug than it feems, as a perfume, to merit, were ex- 
tremely referved in giving information concerning it, and might be 
tempted, by the narrow fpirit of monopoly, to miflead an inquirer 
for the frefh plant. The friendly zeal of Mr. PURLING will pro- 
bably procure it in a ftate of vegetation ; for, when he had the kind- 
nefs, at my defire, to make inquiries for it among the Butan merchants, 
they aflured him, that the living plants could not be obtained without 
an order from their fovereign the De'vardjd, to whom he immediately 
difpatched a meflenger with an earneft requeft, that eight or ten of 
the growing plants might be fent to him at Rangpur ; fhould the 
Devardja comply with that requeft, and mould the vegetable flourim 
in the plain of Bengal, we mall have ocular proof of its clafs, order, 
genus, and fpecies ; and, if it prove the fame with the J atamans} of 
Nepal, which I now muft introduce to your acquaintance, the 
queftion, with which I began this eflay, will be fatisfadorily anfwered. 

Having traced the Indian Spikenard, by the name of Jatdmansi, to 
the mountains of Nepal, I requested my friend Mr. LAW, who then 
refided at Goya, to procure fome of the recent plants by the means 



of the Nepalefe pilgrims ; who, being orthodox Hindus and poffefling 
many rare books in the Sanfcrit language, were more likely than the 
Eutias to know the true Jatamdnsi, by which name they generally 
diftinguifh it : many young plants were accordingly fent to Gaya, 
with a Perfian letter fpecifically naming them, and apparently writ- 
ten by a man of rank and literature ; fo that no fufpicion of decep- 
tion or of error can be juftly entertained. By a miftake of the 
gardener they were all planted at Gaya, where they have bloflbmed 
and at firft feemed to flourifh: I muft therefore, defcribe the 
Jatdmdnsi from the report of Mr. BURT, who favoured me with a 
drawing of it, and in whofe accuracy we may perfectly confide ; but, 
before I produce the defcription, I muft endeavour to remove a 
prejudice, in regard to the natural order of the fpikenard, which 
they, who are addicted to fwear by every word of their mailer LIN- 
NAEUS, will hardly abandon, and which I, who love truth better than 
him, have abandoned with fome reluctance. Nard has been gene- 
rally fuppofed to be a grafs ; and the word Jlachys or fpike, which 
agrees with the habit of that natural order, gave rife, perhaps, to the 
fuppofition. There is a plant in Java*, which moft travellers and 
fome phyficians called fpikenard; and the Governor of Chinfura, who 
is kindly endeavouring to procure it thence in a ftate fit for examina- 
tion, writes me word, that *' a Dutch author pronounces it a grafs 
" like the Cypirus, but infifts that what we call the fpike is the fibrous 
" part above the root, as long as a man's little finger, of a brownim 
" hue inclining to red or yellow, rather fragrant, and with a pungent, 
" but aromatick, fcent." This js too flovenly a defcription to have 
been written by a botanift; yet. I believe the latter part of it to be 
tolerably correct, and fhould imagine that the plant was the fame 
with our J atamanst, if it were not commonly aflerted, that the jfavan 
fpikenard was ufed as a condiment, and if a well-informed man, who 
had feen it in the ifland, had not affured me, that it was a fort of 



Pimento, and confequently a fpecies of Myrtle, and of the order now 
called Hefperian. The refemblance before mentioned between the 
Indian fumbul and the Arabian Sud, or Cypirus, had led me to fufpedt, 
that the true nard was a grafs or a reed-, and, as this country abounds 
in odoriferous gra/es, I began to colled* them from all quarters. 
Colonel KYD obligingly fent me two plants with fweet-fmelling roots; 
and, as they were known to the Pandits, I foon found their names 
in a Sanfcrit dictionary : one of them is called gandbas at' ht, and ufed 
by the Hindus to fcent the red powder of Sapan or Bakkam wood, 
which they fcatter in the feftival of the vernal feafon; the other has 
many names, and, among them, ndgaramajiac and gonarda, the fecond 
of which means ruftling in the water j for all the Pandits infift, that 
nard is never ufed as a noun in Sanfcrit, and fignifies, as the root of a 
verb, to found or to rujlle. Soon after, Mr. BURROW brought me, 
from the banks of the Ganges near Heridwar, a very fragrant grafs, 
which in fome places covers whole acres, and diffufes, when crufhed, 
fo ftrong an odour, that a perfon, he fays, might eafily have fmelt it, 
as ALEXANDER is reported to have fmelt the nard of Gedrofa, from 
the back of an elephant : its bloflbms were not preferved, and it cannot, 
therefore, be defcribed. From Mr. BL ANE of Lucnow I received a frefh 
plant, which has not flowered at Calcutta; but I rely implicitly on his 
authority, and have no doubt that it is a fpecies of Andropogon : it has 
rather a rank aromatick odour, and, from the virtue afcribed to it of 
curing intermittent fevers, is known by the Sanfcrit name otjivardncus'a, 
which literally means a fever-hook, and alludes to the iron-hook with 
which elephants are managed. Laftly, Dr. ANDERSON of Madras, 
who delights in ufeful purfuits and in affifting the purfuits of 
others, favoured me with a complete fpecimen of the Andropogon 
Nardus, one of the moft common graffes on the Coafl, and flourifhing 
moft luxuriantly on the mountains, never eaten by cattle, but extremely 
grateful to bees, and containing an effential oil, which, he understands, 

VOL. II. D J s 


is extracted from it in many parts of Hindu/Ian and ufed as an dtar or 
perfume. He adds a very curious philological remark, that, in the Tamul 
dictionary, moft words beginning with ndr have fome relation to 
fragrance ; as ndrukeradu to yield an odour, ndrtum pillu, lemon-grafs, 
ndrtei, citron, ndrta manum, the wild orange-tree, ndrum panel, the 
Indian Jafmin, ndrum alleri, a ftrong fmelling flower, and ndrtu, which 
is put for nard in the Tamul verfion of our Scriptures j fo that not only 
the nard of the Hebrews and Greeks, but even the copia narium of 
HORACE, may be derived from an Indian root : to this I can only 
fay, that I have not met with any fuch root in Sanfcrit, the oldeft 
polifhed language of India, and that in Perfian, which has a mani- 
feft affinity with it, ndr means a pomegranate, and ndrgil (a word ori- 
ginally Sanfcrit) a cocoa-nut, neither of which has any remarkable 

Such is the evidence in fupport of the opinion, given by the great 
Swedi/h naturalift, that the true nard was a gramineous plant and a 
fpecies of Andropogon j but, fince no grafs, that I have yet feen, bears 
any refemblance to the Jatdmdnsi, which I conceive to be the nardus of 
the ancients, I beg leave to exprefs my diflent, with fome confidence 
as a philologer, though with humble diffidence as a ftudent in botany. 
I am not, indeed, of opinion, that the nardum of the Romans was 
merely the eflential oil of the plant, from which it was denominated, 
but am ftrongly inclined to believe, that it was a generick word, mean- 
ing what we now call dtar, and either the dtar of rofes from Cajhmir 
and Perfia, that of Cetaca, or Pandanus, from the weftern coaft of 
India, or that of Aguru, or aloe-wood, from Afdm or Cocbinchina, 
the procefs of obtaining which is defcribed by ABU'LFAZL, or the 
mixed perfume, called dbir, of which the principal ingredients 
were yellow fandal, violets, orange-flowers, wood of aloes, rofe-water, 
muik, and true fpikenard : all thofe effences and compofitions were 

coftly ; 


coftly ; and, moft of them being fold by the Indians to the Perjians 
and Arabs y from whom, in the time of OCTAVIUS, they were 
received by the Syrians and Romans, they muft have been extremely 
dear at Jerufalem and at Rome. There might alfo have been a pure 
nardine oil, as ATHENE us calls it ; but nardum probably meant (and 
KOENIG was of the fame opinion) an Indian eflence in general, taking 
its name from that ingredient, which had, or was commonly thought 
to have, the moft exquifite fcent. But I have been drawn by a 
pleafing fubject to a greater length than I expected, and proceed 
to the promifed defcription of the true nard, or "Jatdmdnji, which, 
by the way, has other names in the Amarcdjh, the fmootheft of which 
are jatild and /omasa, both derived from words meaning hair. Mr. 
BURT, after a modeft apology for his imperfect acquaintance with 
the language of botanifts, has favoured me with an account of the plant, 
on the correctnefs of which I have a perfect reliance, and from which 
I collect the following natural cbaraSlers: 


Cal. Scarce any. Margin, hardly difcernible. 
Cor. One petal. Tube fomewhat gibbous. Border five cleft. 
Stam. Three Anthers. 
Pift. Germ beneath. One Style erect. 
Seed Solitary, crowned with a pappus. 
Root Fibrous. 
Leaves Hearted, fourfold ; radical leaves petioled. 

It appears, therefore, to be the Protean plant, VALERIAN, a fifter 
of the mountain and Celtick, Nard, and of a fpecies, which I mould 
defcribe in the Linnean ftyle : VALERIANA JATA'MA'NSI floribus 
triandrls, foliis cordatls quaternis, radlcallbus petiolatis. The radical 
leaves, rifing from the ground and enfolding the young ftem, are 



plucked up with a part of the root, and, being dried in the fun or 
by an artificial heat, are fold as a drug, which from its, appearance 
has been called fpikenard; though, as the Perjian writer obferves, 
it might be compared more properly to the tail of an ermine : when 
nothing remains but the dry fibres of the leaves, which retain their 
original form, they have fome refemblance to a lock of hair, from 
which the Sanfcrit name, it feems, is derived. Two mercantile agents 
from Eutdn on the part of the Devardjd were examined, at my 
requeft, by Mr. HARRINGTON, and informed him, that the drug, 
which the Eengalefe called Jatdmdnsi, " grew ered: above the furface 
" of the ground, refembling in colour an ear of green wheat; that, 
" when recent, it had a faint odour, which was greatly increafed by 
" the fimple procefs of drying it; that it abounded on the hills, and 
" even on the plains, of Eutdn, where it was collected and prepared 
** for medicinal purpofes." What its virtues are, experience alone 
can afcertain j but, as far as botanical analogy can juftify a conjecture, 
we may fuppofe them to be antifpafmodick ; and, in our provinces, 
efpecially in Eehar, the plant will probably flourish; fo.that we may 
always procure it in a ftate fit for experiment. On the defcription 
of the Indian fpikenard, compared with the drawing, I muft obferve, 
that, though all the leaves, as delineated, may not appear of the fame 
fhape, yet all of them are not fully expanded. Mr. BURT allures 
me, that the four radical leaves are hearted and petioled; and it is 
moft probable, that the cauline and floral leaves would have a fimilar 
form in their ftate of perfect expanfion ; but, unfortunately, the plants 
at Gay a are now fhrivelled; and they, who feek farther information, 
muft wait with patience, until new ftems and leaves mail fpring 
from the roots, or other plants mall be brought from Nepal and 
Eutdn. On the propofed inquiry into the virtues of this celebrated 
plant, I muft be permitted to fay, that, although many botanifts 
may have wafted their time in enumerating the qualities of vegetables, 



without having afcertained them by repeated and fatisfactory experi- 
ments, and although mere botany goes no farther than technical ar- 
rangement and defcription, yet it feems indubitable, that the great end 
and aim of a botanical philofopher is, to difcover and prove the feveral 
ufes of the vegetable fyflem, and, while he admits with HIPPOCRATES 
the fallacioufnefs of experience, to rely on experiment alone a$ the bafis 
of his knowledge. 





-INI EARLY at the time, when the refult of my firft inquiries concerning 
fpikenard was publifhed in the fecond volume of our Afiatick Refearcbes, 
there appeared in the Pbilofophical f franfa5tlom an account of the 
ANDROPOGON Jwarancufa, the fpecimen of which Dr. BLANE had 
received from Lucnonv, and which he fuppofes to be the true Indick 
nard of DIOSCORIDES and GALEN : having more than once read his 
arguments with pleafure, but not with conviction, I feel it incumbent 
on me, to flate my reafons for diflenting from the learned phyfician 
with all the freedom of a fearcher for truth, but without any diminu- 
tion of that refpedl, to which his knowledge and candour juftly entitle 

In the firft place, there is a paffage in Dr. BLAKE'S paper, which I 
could not but read with furprife ; not becaufe it is erroneous or difpu- 
table (for nothing can be more certain), but becaufe it is decifive againfl 
the very propofition, which the writer endeavours to fupport: " Dios- 
" CORIDES mentions the Syrlack nard, fays the dodtor, as a fpecies 

" different 


" different from the Indian, which was certainly brought from fame of the 
" remote parts of India-, for both he and GALEN, by way of fixing 
" more precifely the country, whence it came, call it alfo Gagnites." 
We may add, that PTOLEMY, who, though not a profefled naturalifr, 
had opportunities in Egypt of converfing with Indian merchants on 
every thing remarkable in this country, diftinguifhes Rangamati, as 
producing the true fpikenard j and it is from the borders of that very 
diftridt, if we believe modern Indians, that the people of But an bring 
it yearly into Bengal (a). Now it is not contended, that the new 
fpecies of Andropogon (if it be a new fpecies) may be the Indick nard 
of DIOSCORIDES, (b), becaufe it was found by Mr. BLANE in a re- 
mote part of India (for that folitary fact would have proved nothing) ; 
but it is learnedly and elaborately urged, that it tnuft be the true Indian 
fpikenard, becaufe it differs only in the length of the flalks from the 
nard of GARfiAs, which, according to Him, is the only fpecies of 
nardus exported from India, and which refembles a dried fpecimen 
feen by RUMPHIUS, and brought, he fays, among other countries, 
from Mackran, or the ancient Gadrqfia, the very country, where, 
according to ARRIAN, the true nard grew in abundance; for " the 
" Phenicians, he fays, collected a plentiful ftore of it, and fo much of 
" it was trampled under foot by the army, that a ftrong perfume 
" was diffufed on all fides of them ;" now there is a fingular coin- 
cidence of circumftances ; for our Andropogon was difcovered by the 
fcent of its roots, when they were crufhed by the horfes and elephants 

(a) PTOLE'ME'E diftingue le canton de Rhandamarcotta, en ce qu'il fournit la plante, que nous 
appellons Sfic nard, ce qui peut convenir a Rangamati ; et des differentes efpeces \lndiyte eft bien la 
plus eftimfje. 

D'ANV. Antiq. Geogr. hid. 81. 

(I) Dr. ROXBURGH with great reafon fuppofes it to be the Murlcaud ANDROPOGON of KOENIG, 
who mentions the roots as odoriferous, when fprinkled with water. 

See RETZ. III. Fa/cic. 43. and v. 21. 



in a hunting-party of the Vazir A'SUFUDDAULAH; Ib that, on the 
whole, // mujl be the fame with the plant mentioned by ARRIAN : but it 
may be argued, I think, more conclufively, that a plant, growing with 
great luxuriance in Gadrojia, or Mackran, which the doctor admits to 
be a maritime province of Perfia, could not poflibly be the fame with a 
plant confined to remote parts of India; fo that, if G ARC IAS, RUM- 
PHIUS, and ARRIAN be fuppofed to have meant the fame fpecies of 
nard, it was evidently different from that of DIOSCORIDES and GALEN. 
The refpedtable writer, with whofe opinions I make fo free, but from 
no other motive than a love of truth, feems aware of a little geogra- 
phical difficulty from the weflern pofition of Macrdn ; for he, firft, 
makes it extend to the river Indus, and then infers, from the long 
march weftward and the diftrefles of ALEXANDER'S army, fabfequent 
to the difcovery of the fpikenard, that it muft have grown in the more 
eaflern part of the defert, and confequently on the very borders of 
India ; but, even if we allow Gedrqfia, or Gadrojis, to have been the 
fame tradt of land with Macrdn (though the limits of all the provinces 
in Perfia have been confiderably changed), yet the frontier of India 
could never with any propriety be carried fo far to the weft ; for* not 
only the Oritee and Arabitce, but, according to MELA, the whole pro- 
vince of Ariana, were between Gadrojis and the Indus; and, though 
Macrdn (for fo the word mould be written) may have been annexed 
to India by fuch whimfical geographers as the Turks, who give the 
name of white Indians to the- Perfians -of Arachojia, and of yellow 
Indians to the Arabs of Temen, yet the river Indus, with the countries 
of Sind and Multdn on both fides of it, has ever been considered by 
the Perfians and Arabs as the weftern limit of Hind or India; and 
ARRIAN himfelf exprefsly names the Indus as its known boundary : let 
Gadrqfis, however, be Macrdn, and let Macrdn be an Indian province, 
yet it could never have been a remote part of India in refpecSt of Europt 
or Egypt, and, confequently, was not meant by GALEN and Dios- 



CORIDES, when they defcribed the true fpikenard. It muft be admitted, 
that, if the Siree of RUMPHIUS, which differs little from the nardus of 
GAR9IAS, which correfponds for the moft part with the new Andro- 
pogon, was ever brought from the province of Macrdn, they were all 
three probably the fame plant with the nard of Arrian ; but, unfor- 
tunately, RUMPHIUS thought of no country lefs than of Perjia, and 
of no province lefs than of Macrdn; for he writes very diftindlly, 
both in his Latin and his Dutch columns, that the plant in queftion 
grows in Macian, which he well knew to be one of the Moluccas fc) : 
I am far from intending to give pain by detecting this trifling miftake ; 
and, as I may have made many of greater confequence, I mail be truly 
obliged to any man, who will fet me right with good manners, the 
facred laws of which ought never to be violated in a literary de- 
bate, except when fome petulant aggreffor has forfeited all claim to 

ARRIAN himfelf can by no means be underftood to affert, that the 
Indian fpikenard grew in Perjia; for his words are a fragrant root of 
narA fdj, where the omiffion of the definite articles implies rather a 
nard, than the nard, or the moft celebrated fpecies of it ; and it feems 
very clear, that the Greeks ufed that foreign word generically for 
odoriferous plants of different natural orders: but ARRIAN in truth 
was a mere compiler ; and his credit, even as a civil hiftorian, feems 
liable to fo much doubt, that it cannot be fafe to rely on him for any 
fadt in the hiftory of nature. " We cannot, fays the judicious and 
** accurate STRABO, give eafy credence to the generality even of 
" contemporary writers concerning ALEXANDER, whofe fame was 

(c) Hi flores faepe, immo vulgo fere, obfervantur in vetuftis Siree ftipitibus, qui in Ternata, Motirai 
et Mackian crefcunt. Vol. 5. Lib. 8. Cap. 24. p. 182. 

/ J i XT ' 5.. *>y i 

(J JNccgdy py ivoa~iJ.oV' 

" aftonifhingly 


" aftonimingly high, and whofe hiftorians, preferring wonders to truth, 
" wrote with fecure negligence ; well knowing, that, as the fartheft 
" limits of Afia were the fcene of his actions, their aflertions could 
" hardly be difproved." Now ARRIAN'S principal authority was 
ARISTOBULUS of Cafl'andra, whofe writings were little prized by the 
ancients, and who not only aflerted, " that Gadrofis produced very tall 
" myrrh-trees, with the gum of which the Phenicians loaded many 
" hearts" (notwithftanding the {laughter of them from the diftrefs of 
the whole army) , but, with the fancy of a poet defcribing the neft of 
a phenix, placed myrrh, incenfe, and cajfia, with cinnamon and fpike- 
nard itfelf, even in the wilds of Arabia: " The fruitfulnefs of Arabia" 
fays ARRIAN, " tempted the king of Macedon to form a defign of in- 
" vading it; for he had been aflured, that myrrh and frankincenfe 
" were collected from the trees of that country; that cinnamon was 
' procured from one of its fhrubs ; and that its meadows produced 
" fpontaneoufly abundance of fpikenard." HERODOTUS, indeed, had 
heard of cinnamon in Arabia, where the Laurus, to the bark of which 
we now give that name, was, I verily believe, never feen : even the 
myrrh-tree does not feem to have been a native of Arabia, and the 
public are now informed, that it was tranfplanted from Abyjjinian 
forefts, and has not flourifhed on the oppoiite more ; but, whatever be 
the countries of myrrh and cinnamon, we may be certain-, that any 
learned Arab would laugh at us, if we were to tell him, that the 
Sumbulul Hind grew wild in abundance on the plains of Tahdmah. It 
feems a bold allegation of GAR9IAS, that he has exhibited " the only 
" fpecies of nardus known in India, either for confumption by the 
" natives or for exportation to Perjia and Arabia;" if he meant, that 
any plant was either ufed in this country or exported from it by the 
name of nard, he had been flrangely deceived ; and if he meant, that 
it was the only fragrant grafs ufed here as a medicine or as a perfume, 
his error was yet more grofs. But, whatever his meaning might 



have been, if the nard of GAR9IAS and of ARRIAN was one and the 
fame plant, it is wonderful, that it fhould ever have been 'exported to 
Perfia and Arabia, where it grew, we are told, in fo great abundance. 
The nard of Arabia was, probably, the ANDROPOGON Schaenuntbus, 
which is a native of that country ; but, even if we fuppofe, that the 
fpikenard of India was a reed or a grafs, we (hall never be able to dif- 
tinguifh it among the many Indian fpecies of Cypirus, Andropogon, 
Schcenus, Carex, and other genera of thofe natural orders, which here 
form a imldernefs of fweets, and fome of which have not only fragrant 
roots, but even fpikes in the ancient and modern fenfes of that empha- 
tical word ; one of them, which I never have feen in bloflbm, but fup- 
pofe from its appearance to be a Schcenus, is even called Gonarda, and its 
dry root has a moft agreeable odour ; another, which RHEEDE names 
Ealaca, or Ramacciam, or white Irive'ti, and which BURMAN thought a 
variety of the Schcenanthus , is a conliderable article, it feems, of Indian 
commerce, and, therefore, cultivated with diligence, but lefs efteemed 
than the black fort, or Carabala, which has a more fragrant root and 
affords an extremely odoriferous oil (e). All thofe plants would, per- 
haps, have been called nards by the ancients ; and all of them have 
ftronger pretenfions to the appellation of the true fpikenard, than the 
Febrifuge ANDROPOGON, which the Hindus of Bebdr do not ufe as a 
perfume. After all, it is afluming a faft without proof, to aflert, that 
the Indian fpikenard was evidently gramineous -, and, furely, that fact is 
not proved by the word arifta, which is conceived to be of a Grecian 
origin, though never applied in the fame fenfe by the Greeks them- 
felves, who perfectly well knew what was bejl for mankind in the ve- 
getable fyftem, and for what gift they adored the goddefs oiEleufis. The 
Roman poets (and poets only are cited by Dr. BLANE, though natur- 

(e) u Hort. Malab. tab. 12. and 9 H. M. p. 145. See alfo the Flora Indica, and a note fromHER- 
MAN on the valuable oil of Sitee. 



alifts alfo are mentioned) were fond of the word arijla, becaufe it was 
very convenient at the clofe of an hexameter, where we generally, if 
not conilantly, find it; as HOMER declares in LUCIAN, that he be- 
gan his Iliad with MJIHV, becaufe it was the firft commodious word, 
that prefented itfelf, and is introduced laughing at a profound critick, 
who difcovered in that fmgle word an epitome of the whole poem on 
the ivratb of ACHILLES: fuch poets as OVID and LACTANTIUS de- 
fcribed plants, which they never had feen, as they defcribed the neft 
of the phenix, which never exifted, from their fancy alone ; and their 
defcriptions ought not ferioufly to be adduced as authorities on a quef- 
tion merely botanical -, but, if all the naturalifts of Greece and Italy had 
concurred in alluring us, that the nard of India bore an ear or fpike, 
without naming the fource of their own information, they would have 
deferved no credit whatever ; becaufe not one of them pretends to have 
feen the frefh plant, and they had not even agreed among themfelves, 
whether its virtues refided in the root or in the hujky /eaves and ftalks, 
that were united with it. PIETRO DELLA VALLE, the moft learned 
and accomplimed of eaftern travellers, does not feem to have known 
the Indian fpikenard, though he mentions it more than once by the ob- 
folete name of Spigonardo ; but he introduces a Sumbul from Khatd, or 
a part of China, which he had feen dry, and endeavours to account for 
the Arabick name in the following manner : " Since the Khatdian 
" Sumbul, fays he, is not a fplke but a root, it was probably fo named, 
" becaufe the word Sumbul may iignify, in a large acceptation, not 
" only the fpike, but the whole plant, whatever herb or grajs may be 
' fo\vn , as the Arabick dictionary (f), entitled Kamus, appears to in- 
" dicate :" The paflage, to which he alludes, is this : " SUMBUL, fays 

(f) Giacche il Sombol del Cataio i radice e non e Spiga, potremmo dire, che cost s'i chiamij perchd 
forle la parola Somioi polk piu largamente fignificare uon folo la fpiga, ma tutta L; fianta di ogni 
erba 6 biada, che fi femini ; come par, che il C^raus, vacabolano Arabico, ne dia indizio. 

Lett. 18. di Baghdad. 

" the- 


" the author of the Kdmus, is an odoriferous plant, the flrongefl of 
" which is the Sun, and the weakeft, the Hindi; but the Sumbul of Rum 
" has the name of nardin." I fuggefted in my former paper, and fhall 
repeat in this, that the Indian fpikenard, as it is gathered for ufe, is in 
faft the whole plant ; but there is a better reafon why the name Sumbul 
has been applied to it. By the way, DELLA VALLE failed, as he tells 
us, along the coaft of Macrdn, which he too fuppofes to have been a 
part of Gedrojia; but he never had heard, that it produced Indian fpike- 
nard, though the Perfians were fully acquainted with that province ; 
for he would not have omitted fo curious a fad: in his correfpondence 
with a learned phyfician of Naples, for whofe fake he was particularly 
inquifi tive concerning the drugs of Afia : it is much to be wifhed, that 
he had been induced to make a mort excurfion into the plains of Ma- 
crdn, where he might have found, that the wonderful tree, which 
ARRIAN places in them, with flowers like violets, and with thorns of 
fuch force and magnitude, as to keep wild beajis in captivity, and to transfix 
men on horfeback, who rode by them incautioujly, was no more probably 
than a Mimofa, the bloflbms of which refembled violets in nothing but 
in having an agreeable fcent. 

Let us return to the Arabs, by whom DIOSCORIDES was tranflated 
with affiftance, which the wealth of a great prince will always pur- 
chafe, from learned Greeks, and who know the Indian fpikenard, better 
than any European, by the name of Sumbulul Hind: it is no wonder, 
that they reprefent it as weaker in fcent and in power than the Sumbul of 
the lower AJia, which, unlefs my fmell be uncommonly defective, is 
a ftrong Valerian ; efpecially as they could only have ufed the dry nard 
of India, which lofes much of its odour between Rangpur and Calcutta. 
One queftion only remains (if it be a queftion), whether the Sumbulu'l 
Hind be the true Indian fpikenard ; for, in that cafe, we know the plant 
to be of the natural order, which LINNAEUS calls aggregate. Since the 



publication of my paper on this fubject, I put a fair and plain queftion 
feverally to three or four MuJJ'elman phyficians, " What is the Indian 
" name of the plant, which the Arabs call Surnbulu'l Hind?" They 
all anfwered, but fome with more readinefs than others, Jatdmdnsl. 
After a pretty long interval, I fhewed them the fpikes (as they are 
called) of Jatdmdns}, and aiked, what was the Arabick name of that 
Indian drug : they all anfwered readily, Sumbulul Hind. The fame evi- 
dence may be obtained in this country by any other European, who 
feeks it ; and if, among twelve native phyficians, verfed in Arabian and 
Indian philology, a fingle man mould after due confideration give differ- 
ent anfwers, I will cheerfully fubmit to the Roman judgement of non 
liquet. My own inquiries having convinced me, that the Indian fpike- 
nard of DIOSCORIDES is the Sumbulu'l Hind, and that the Sumbulu'l 
Hindis the Jatdmdns). of AMARSINH, I am perfuaded, that the true 
nard is a fpecies of Valerian, produced in the moft remote and hilly parts 
of India, fuch as Nepal, Morang, and Butan, near which PTOLEMY 
fixes its native foil : the commercial agents of the Devardja call it alfo 
Pampi, and, by their account, the dried fpecimens, which look like the 
tails of ermines, rife from the ground, refembling ears of green wheat both 
in form and colour ; a fact, which perfectly accounts for the names 
Stachys, Spica, Sumbul, and Khufhah, which Greeks, Romans, Arabs, 
and Perjians have given to the drug, though it is not properly a fpike, 
and not merely a root, but the whole plant, which the natives gather for 
fale, before the radical leaves, of which the fibres only remain after a 
few months, have unfolded themfelves from the bafe of the item. It is 
ufed, fay the Butan agents, as a perfume and in medicinal unguents, but 
with other fragrant fubftances, the fcent and power of which it is 
thought to increafe : as a medicine, they add, it is principally efteemed for 
complaints in the bowels. Though confiderable quantities of Jatdmdns}. 
are brought in the caravans from Butan, yet the living plants, by a law 
of the country, cannot be exported without a licence from the fovereign, 



and the late Mr. PURLING, on receiving this intelligence, obligingly 
wrote, for my fatisfadlion, to the Devaraja, requeuing him to fend 
eight or ten of the plants to Rangpur: ten were accordingly fent in pots 
from Tajifudan, with as many of the natives to take care of them under 
a chief, who brought a written anfwer from the Raja of Butan -, but 
that prince made a great merit of having complied with fuch a requeft, 
and my friend had the trouble of entertaining the meflenger and his 
train for feveral weeks in his own houfe, which they feem to have left 
with reluctance. An account of this tranfa&ion was contained in one 
of the laft letters, that Mr. PURLING lived to write; but, as all the 
plants withered before they could reach Calcutta, and a*s inquiries of 
greater importance engaged all my time, there was an end of my endea- 
vours to procure the frefh Jatdmdnsi, though not of my conviction, 
that it is the true nard of the ancients. 







GENERIC CHARACTER. Jr LOWERS triandrous, leaves entire, four- 
fold, the inner radical pair petiol'd, and cordate ; the reft fmaller, fef- 
file, and fub-lanceolate -, feeds crowned with a pappus. 

V. Jatamanji of Sir WILLIAM JONES. See Afaatick Refearcbes, 
vol. 2, page 405, 417, and vol. 4, page 109. 

NOVEMBER 6th, 17Q4. I received from the Honourable C. A. 
BRUCE, Commiflioner at Coos-Beyhar, two fmall balkets with plants of 
this valuable drug ; he writes to me on the 2/th September (fo long 
had the plants been on the road), that he had, the day before, received 

VOL. ii. F them 


them from the Deb Rajah of Boot an, and further fays, that the 
Booteahs know the plant by two names, viz. Jatamanji, and Pampe or 

I need fcarce attempt to give any further hiftory of this famous 
odoriferous plant than what is merely botanical, and that with a view- 
to help to illuftrate the learned diflertations thereon, by the late Sir 
WILLIAM JONES, in the 2d and 4th volumes of thefe Refearches, and 
chiefly by pointing out, the part of the plant known by the name, Indian 
Nard or Spikenard; a queftion on which MATHEOLUS, the commentator 
of Diofcorides, beftows a good deal of argument ; viz. Whether the 
roots, or ftalks, were the parts efteemed for ufe, the teftimony of the 
ancients themfelves on this head being ambiguous. It is therefore ne- 
cefTary for thofe who wim, for a more particular account of it, to be 
acquainted with what that gentleman has published on the fubjed:. 

The plants now received, are growing in two fmall bafkets of earth, 
in each bafket there appears above the earth between thirty and forty 
hairy, fpike-like bodies, but more juftly compared to the tails of 
Ermines, or fmall Weafels *; from the apex of each, or at leaft of the 
grcateft part of them, there is a fmooth lanceolate, or lanceolate-oblong, 
three or five-nerved, mort-petiol'd, acute, or obtufe, (lightly ferrulate 
leaf or two mooting forth. Fig. l. reprefents one of them in the above 
ftate, and on gently removing the fibres, or hairs which fur round the 
mort petiols of thefe leaves, I find it confifts of numerous fheaths, of 
which one, two or three of the upper or interior ones are entire, and 
have their fibres conne&ed by a light-brown coloured membranous fub- 

* The term fpica, or fpike, is not fo ill applied to this fubftance, as may be imagined ; feveral of 
the Indian grafles, well known to me, have fpikes almoft exaftly refembling a fingle ftraight piece of 
nardus, and when thofe hairs (or flexible arifta like briftles) are removed, PLINY'S words, "frutex- 
" radice pingui et craffa," are by no mean* inapplicable. See Fig. 2, from to 6. 



fiance as at b. but in the lower exterior (heaths, where this connecting 
membrane is decayed, the more durable hair-like fibres remain diftinct, 
giving to the whole the appearance of an Ermine's tail : this part, as well 
as the root itfelf, are evidently perennial *. The root itfelf (beginning 
at the furface of the earth where the fibrous envelope ends) is from 
three to twelve inches long, covered with a pretty thick, light-brown 
coloured bark : from the main root, which is fometimes divided, there 
iffues feveral fmaller fibres. Fig. 2, is another plant with a long root, 
here the hair-like (heaths, beginning at a. are feparated from this the 
perennial part of the (tern, and turned to the right fide -, at the apex is 
feen the young fhoot, marked 6, which is not fo far advanced as at 
Fig. 1, c cc (how the remains of lad year's annual ftem. When the 
young (hoot is a little further advanced than in Fig. 2, and not fo far as in 
Fig. 1 . they refemble the young convolute (hoots of monocotyledonus 
plants. June 1795. The whole of the abovementioned plants have 
periftied, without producing flowers, notwithftanding every care that 
could poflibly be taken of them. The principal figure in the drawing 
marked Fig. 3, and the following defcription, as well as the above 
definition, are therefore chiefly extracted from the engraving and de- 
fcription in the fecond volume of thefe Refearches, and from the in- 

* The above defcribed perennial hairy portion of the plant, is clearly the Indian fpike-nard of our 
(hops ; but whether the nardus of the ancients, or not, I leave to better judges to determine ; however, 
I believe few will doubtit after having read Sir WILLIAM JONES'S Diflertations thereon, and compared 
what he fays with the accompanying drawings of the perennial hairy part of the ftem of this plant, 
which are taken from the living plants immediately under my own eyes : the drawing of the herba- 
ceous, or upper part of the plant, is out of the queftion in determining this point, and only refers to 
the place the plant bears in our Botanical Books. While writing the above, I defiredan Hindu fer- 
vant to go and buy me from their apothecaries (hops a little Jatamanji^ without faying more or 
lefs : he immediately went and brought me feveral pieces of the very identical drug, I have been 
defcribing; a drawing of one of the pieces is reprefented at Fig. 4, and agrees not only with thofe I 
have taken from the living plants, but alfb exceedingly well with GARCJIAS AB ORTA'S figure of the 
nardus indica which is to be found at page 129, of the fourth edition of CLUSIUS'S Latin tranflations 
of his hiftory of Indian drugs published in 1693. 



formation communicated to me by Mr. BURT, the gentleman who had 
charge of the plants that flowered at Gaya, and who gave Sir WILLIAM 
JONES the drawing and defcription thereof. 

Defer iption of the Plant. 

Root, it is already defcribed above. 

Stem, lower part perennial, involved in fibrous {heaths, &c. as above 
defcribed -, the upper part herbaceous fuberecT:, fimple, from fix to 
twelve inches long. 

Leaves four-fold, the lowermoft pair of the four radical are oppofite, 
feflile, oblong, forming, as it were a two-valved fpathe ; the other 
pair are alfo oppofite petiol'd, cordate, margins waved, and pointed j 
thofe of the ftem feflile, and lanceolate, all are fmooth on both fides. 

Corymb terminal, firft divifion trichotomous. 

Bratfs awl'd. 

Calyx fcarce any. 

Carol one petal'd, funnel-fhaped, tube fomewhat gibbous. Border 

Stamens, filaments three, project above the tube of the corol ; anthers 

Piftil, germ beneath. Style ered, length of the tube. Stigma fimple. 

Pericarp, a fingle feed crowned with a pappus. 


H 4, 





jf\.S far as we can determine the clafs and order of a plant from a 
mere delineation of its fruit, we may fafely pronounce, that the Leram 
of Nicobar is the Cddhi of the Arabs, the Cetaca of the Indians, and 
the Pandanus of our botanifts, which is defcribed very awkwardly (as 
KOENIG firft obferved to me) in the Supplement to LINN^US : he 
had himfelf defcribed with that elegant concifenefs, which conftitutes the 
beauty of the Linnean method, not only the wonderful fructification of 
the fragrant Cetaca, but moft of the flowers, which are celebrated in 
Sanfcrit, by poets for their colour or fcent and by phyficians for their 
medical ufes ; and, as he bequeathed his mamifcripts to Sir JOSEPH 
BANKS, we may be fure, that the publick fpirit of that illuflrious 
naturalift will not fufFer the labours of his learned friend to be funk 
in oblivion. Whether the PANDANUS Leram be a new fpecies, or 
only a variety, we cannot yet pofitively decide ; but four of the plants 
have been brought from Nicobar, and feem to flourifh in the Com- 
pany's Botanical Garden, where they will probably bloflbm ; and the 
greateft encouragement will, I truft, be given to the cultivation of fo 
precious a vegetable. A fruit weighing twenty or thirty pounds, and 
containing a farinaceous fubftance, both palatable and nutritive in a high 


\ JP h rP 


degree, would perhaps, if it were common in thefe provinces, for ever 
fecure the natives of them from the horrors of famine ; and the Pan- 
danus of Bengal might be brought, I conceive, to equal perfection with 
that of Nicobar, if due care were taken to plant the male and female 
trees in the fame place, inftead of leaving the female, as at prefent, to 
bear an imperfect and unproductive fruit, and the diftant male to fpread 
itfelf only by the help of its radicating branches. 









A'CA'SABALLI', Ca/yta. 
Achyuta, Morinda. 
A'cranti, Solanum* 

5 Agaftya, flLfchynomene . 
Aguru, Cordia. 
Alabu, Cucurbit a. 
Alamvuflia, Bryonia. 
\ Alarca, Afclepias, 
A'malaci, Phyltanthus. 

Ambaftit ;> ha. 
15 Amlana, Gomphrena? 

Amlalonica, Oxalis. 

Amlavetafa, Hypericum. 

Amlica, Tamarindus. 

Amra, Mangifera. 
20 Amrataca, Spondias. 



An'u, Oryza. 

25 Aparajita, Clitorla. 

Area, Afclepias. 




A'rdraca, Amomum. 


Arifhta, Xanthlum. 
30 Arjaca, Ocymum. 

Arjuna, Lagerjiroemia? 

Arufhcara, Semecarpus. 


As'oca, a new genus. 
35 A'sp'hota, Nyctantbes. 
A'us'vrihi, Oryza. 

Atimufta, Bantfteria. 
40 A'vigna, Cariffa ? 
Bacula, Mimufops. 
Badari, Rbamnus. 

Bahvanga, a new genus. 
45 Bala. 

Bandhuca, Ixora. 
Banga, Cannabis $ 
Bata, Ficus. 

50 Bhadramuftaca, Cyperus? 
Bhanga, Goflypium. 
Bhanti, Clerodendrum. 
Bhavya, Dillenia. 

55 Bhuchampaca, Kcempferia. 
Bhulavanga, Jujfieua. 

Bhurandi, Ipomcea? 

60 Bhustrina, Andropogon? 

Bhutavesi, Nyctanthes. 


Bimba, Bryonia ? 

Bimbica, the fame ? 
65 Brahmani, Ovieda. 


Brahmi, Ruta. 

Bilva, Cratceva. 

7o Cacamachi. 

Cacangi, Aponogeton? 

Cachu, Arum. 

Cadali, Mufa. 

Cadamba, Nauclea. 
75 Cahlara, Nymphaa. 



Ca Iambi. 

80 Calaya Calinga, Cucurbita. 


Camalata, Ipomcea. 

Campilla, a new genus. 

Canchanara, Eaubinia. 
B6 Canda, Dracontium. 


Candura, Dolichos. 

Canduru, Scilla ? 





00 Cantala, Agave ? 

Capitt'ha, Limonia. 
Caranjaca, a new genus. 
g5 Caravella, Cleome? 
Caravi, Laurus. 
Caravira, Nerium. 
Carmaranga, Averrboa. 
Carnicara, Pavetta. 
100 Carparala, Aloe? 
Carpasi, GoJJypium. 
Carpura, Laurus. 
Caruna, Citrus. 
Cafa, Saccharum. 
5 Cdjhmird. 

Cataca, Strychnos. 
Catp'hala, Tabernaemontana. 

10 C&ara, Crocus. 
Cetaca, Pandanus. 
C'hadira, Mimofa. 
Ch'hatraca, Agaricus. 
15 Champaca, Michelia. 


Chandana, Santalum. 
20 C'harjura, Phoenix. 



Chitraca, Plumbago. 
25 Chorapufhpi, Scirpus.. 

Covidara, Bauhinia. 
30 Clitaca. 

Crifhnachura, Poinciana. 
Cfhiravi, Afclepias ? 
35 Cfhuma, Linum. 
Culaca, Strychnos. 
Cumbhica, Pijlia* 
40 Cumuda, Menianthes. 
(Cuncuma, Crocus) ? 
Cunda, "Jafminum. 
Curubaca, Earleria. 
45 Curuvaca. 
Cus'a, Poa. 

Cufhmanda, Cucumis? 
Cufumbha, Carthamus. 
Cutaja, Jafminum. 
50 Cuvalaya. 

Cuveraca, Swietenia? 






55 Darima, Punica. 


Devadaru, Unona. 


Dhuftura, Datura. 
60 Dona, Artemijia. 

Dracftia, Vitis. 

Durgajata, OphiogloJJum. 

Durva, Agrojiis. 

Dwipatri, Impatiens. 
65 E'la, Amomnm. 


Eranda, Ricinus. 

Gajapippali, a new genus ? 

70 Gandalf. 

Gandharaja, Gardenia. 

Gandfra, Solanum ? 

Gaurichandra, Hedyfarum. 

75 Ghonta, Rbamnus. 



Grinjana, Daucus. 

G6cantaca, Barleria. 
80 Godhapadi. 

Godhuma, Triticum. 

Gqjihya, JLlephantopus. 

Golomi, Agrojlis ? 

Gonarda, Cyperus ? , 
85 Goraefha. 


Govara, Eranthemum ? 


90 Gunja, Abrus. 

Guvaca, Areca. 


Halaca, Nymphcea. 

95 Haricus'a, Acanthus. 

Haridra, Curcuma. 


Haritaci, Terminalia. 

200 Haryanga, CiJ/us. 

Htemapufhpica, Jafminum. 

Hemasagara, Cotyledon. 


5 Hingu, Terebmtkus. 

Hinguli, Solanum. 

Hintala, Elate. 


Jambira, Citrus. 
10 Jambu, Eugenia. 

Jatamansi, Vakriana. 

Java, Terminalia? 

Jayap'hala, Myrijtica. 




Jayantl, Mfebynomene. 
15 Icfhu, Saccharum. 




Indivara, Yradefcantia ? 
20 Jiraca. 




25 lYwaramula, Arijlolochia. 

Lacucha, Artocarpus ? 

Langall, Nama ? 

Latarca, Allium. 

Lafuna, Allium. 
30 Lavali, Averrhoa. 

Lavanga, Caryophyllus. 


Madana, Pifonia. 

Madhuca, Baffia. 
35 Madhulaca. 


Madhusigru, Guilandina. 


40 Malapu. 

Malati, Jafminum. 

Mallica, Nyctanthes. 

Manaca, Arum? 

Mandara, Erytbrina. 

45 Marcara. 


Maricha, Capjicum. 


50 Maflia, Phafeolus. 

Mafhandari, Callicarpa. 


Matulanga, Citrus. 

55 Mayura. 

Muchucunda, Pentapetes. 



Mulaca, Rapbanus. 
60 Mundaballi, Ipomcea. 


Murva, Aletris. 

Muftaca, Schanus? 

Nagabala, Stda. 
65 Nagaballi, Baubinia. 

Nagacefara, Mefua. 

Nagadana, Artemifia. 

Nagaranga, Citrus. 

Nala, Ariftida ? 
70 Nali. 


Naricela, Cocos. 

Nichula, a new genus. 

Nili, Indigofera. 
75 Nilotpala, Pontederia. 




Nimba, Melia. 

Nivara, Oryza. 


Padma, Nymphosa. 
80 Palandu, Allium. 

Palafa, Butea. 

Panafa, Artocarpus. 

Parnafa, Ocymum, 

Patali, Bignonia. 
85 Patola, Solanum ? 


Pichula, Tamarix. 

Pilu, Aloe? 

go Pippala, Ficus. 

Pippali, Piper. 



Placfha, Ficus. 
Q5 Prifniparni. 


Potica, Pbyfalis. 

Punarnava, Boerhaavia. 

300 Pundra. 

Puticaraja, Guilandina. 

Radamula, Oldenlandia. 


5 Rajica. 


Rafna, Opbioxylum? 


10 Rifhabha. 


Rohita, Punica. 

Sacotaca, Tropbis. 

Sahacara, Mangifera. 
15 Sahachari. 

Saileya, Mufcus. 

Sairiyaca, Barleria. 


20 S'alanchi. 

S'almali, Bombax. 

Samanga, 2 ? 

S'ami, Mitnofa. 

S'amira, Mimofa. 
25 Samudraca, Aquilicia. 

Sana, Crotalarla. 

Sancarajata, Hedyfarum. 

S'anc'hapufhpa, Co'ix. 

30 S'arala. 




35 S'ep'halica, Ny&anthes. 

Septala, Nyttanthes. 

Septaparna, Ecbites. 




Serfhapa, Slnapis. 

S'imbi, Dolicbos. 
40 Sindhiica, Vitex. 

Sirffha, Mimofa. 

S'ifu, Croton ? 


Sobhanjana, Guilandina. 
45 Somalata, Rufa ? 

Somaraji, Pcederia* 


S'onaca, Bignonia. 

Sringataca, Trapa. 
50 S'riparna. 

St'halapadma, Hibifcus. 


Sunifhannaca, Marjika. 
55 Surabhi. 

Suryamani, Hibifcus. 

Suvernaca, Cajfla. 

S'yama, a new genus. 

60 Tala, Bora/Jus. 

Talamiilaca, Cochlearla ? 

Tali, Corypha. 

Tamala, Laurns? 

Tambuli, Piper. 
65 Tamracuta, Nicotiana. 

Taraca, Amomum ? 

Taruni, Aloe. 

Tatpatri, Laurus. 

Tila, Sefamum. 
70 Tilaca. 

Tinduca, Diofpyros. 
Tinfa, Ebenus ? 
Trapufha, Cucumis. 
75 Trivnta. 
Tula, Morus. 

Udumbara, Ficus. 
80 Ulapa, Ariftida ? 
Urana, Cajfia. 

Vajradru, Euphorbia. 
85 Valvaja, Andropogon? 
Vanaceli, Canna. 
Vanardraca, Coftus ? 
Vanda, Epidendrum. 
90 Vanda, Loranthus. 
Vanda, Vifcum. 
Vandaca, >uercus. 
Vans'a, Bambos. 

05 Varangaca, Laurus. 

Vafaca, Diantbera. 
Vailuca, Amaranthus f 

400 Vafu. 


400 Vafu. 

Vatsadani, Menifpermum. 
Vetafa, Barleria. 
5 Vetra, Calamus. 
Vichitra, Tragia. 
Vfrana, Andropogon* 

10 Vifhani. 

Viftaraca, Convolvulus. 

Vrithf, Oryza. 

Vyaghranac 'ha . 

15 Yafa. 

Yava, Hordeum* 

Yavafa, Poa ? 


Yut'hica, Jafminum* 





J.F my names of plants difpleafc you, fays the great Swedijh botanifl, 
' choofe others more agreeable to your tafte,' and, by this candour, he 
has difarmed all the criticifm, to which as it muft be allowed, even the 
critical parts of his admirable works lie continually open : I avail myfelf 
of his indulgence, and am very felicitous to give Indian plants their true 
Indian appellations j becaufe I am fully perfuaded, that LINN^US him- 
felf would have adopted them, had he known the learned and ancient 
language of this country ; as he, like all other men, would have retained 
the native names of Afiatick regions and cities, rivers and mountains, 
leaving friends or perfons of eminence to preferve their own names by 
their own merit, and inventing new ones, from diftinguiming marks 
and properties, for fuch objects only as, being recently difcovered, could 
have had no previous denomination. Far am I from doubting the 

* This paper was announced in the (pecimen of an Afiatick Common-place Book, which the Pre- 
fident added, in the third volume of thefe Tranfations, to Mr. HARINGTON'S propofal for an inv 
provement of LOCKE'S ufeful plan. 



great importance of perfect botanical defcriptions ; for languages expire 
as nations decay, and the true fenfe of many appellatives in every dead 
language muft be loft in a courfe of ages : but, as long as thofe appel- 
latives remain underftood, a travelling phyfician, who fhould wifh to 
procure an Arabian or Indian plant, and, without afking for it by its 
learned or vulgar name, fhould hunt for it in the woods by its botanical 
character, would refemble a geographer, who, defiring to find his way 
in a foreign city or province, mould never inquire by name for a ftreet 
or a town, but wait with his tables and inflruments, for a proper occa- 
fion to determine its longitude and latitude. 

The plants, defcribed in the following paper by their claffical appel- 
lations, with their fynonyma or epithets, and their names in the vulgar 
dialecls, have been feledled for their novelty, beauty, poetical fame, re- 
puted ufe in medicine, or fuppofed holinefs ; and frequent allufions to 
them all will be found, if the Sanfcrit language fhould ever be generally 
ftudied, in the popular and facred poems of the ancient Hindus, in their 
medical books and lawtracts, and even in the Vedas themfelves : though 
unhappily I cannot profefs, with the fortunate Swede, to have feen with- 
out glafles all the parts of the flowers, which I have defcribed, yet you 
may be allured, that I have mentioned no part of them, which I have 
not again and again examined with my own eyes ; and though the weak- 
nefs of my fight will for ever prevent my becoming a botanift, yet I 
have in fome little degree atoned for that fatal defect by extreme at- 
tention, and by an ardent zeal for the moft lovely and - fafcinating 
branch of natural knowledge. 

Before I was acquainted with the method purfued by VAN RHEEDE, 
neceffity had obliged me to follow a fimilar plan on a fmaller fcale j 
and, as his mode of fludying botany, in a country and climate by no 
means favourable to botanical excurfions, may be adopted more fuc- 



c efsfully by thofe who have more leifure than I mall ever enjoy, I pre- 
fent you with an interefling paffage from one of his prefaces, to which 
I mould barely have referred you, if his great work were not unfor- 
tunately confined, from its rarity, to very few hands. He informs us, 
in an introduction to his third volume, " that feveral Indian phyficians 
" and Brdbmens had compofed by his order, a catalogue of the mofl ce- 
" lebrated plants, which they distributed according to their times of 
" blofibming and feeding, to the configuration of their leaves, and to 
" the forms of their flowers and fruit ; that, at the proper feafons he 
" gave copies of the lift to feveral intelligent men, of whom he fent 
" parties into different forefts, with inftruftions to bring him, from all 
' quarters, fuch plants as they faw named, with their fruit, flowers, and 
" leaves, even though they mould be obliged to climb the moft lofty 
" trees for them j that three or four painters, who lived in his family, 
" conftantly and accurately delineated the frefh plants, of which, in his 
" prefence, a full defcription was added ; that, in the meanwhile, he 
" had earneftly requefted all the princes and chiefs on the Malabar 
*' coaft to fend him fuch vegetables, as were moft diftinguifhed for ufe 
" or for elegance, and that not one of them failed to fupply his garden 
" with flowers, which he fometimes received from the diftance of 
" fifty or fixty leagues ; that when his herbarifts had collected a fuf- 
" ficient number of plants, when his draughtfmen had iketched their 
" figures, and his native botanifts had fubjoined their defcription, he 
" fubmitted the drawings to a little academy of Pandits, whom he ufed 
" to convene for that purpofe from different parts of the country; 
" that his aflembly often confifted of fifteen or fixteen learned natives, 
" who vied with each other in giving correct anfwers to all his quef- 
" tions concerning the names and virtues of the principal vegetables, 
" and that he wrote all their anfwers in his note-book -, that he was 
" infinitely delighted with the candid, modeft, amicable, and refpecl:- 
'* ful debates of thofe pagan philofophers, each of whom adduced paf- 
VOL. ii. H " fages 


" fages from ancient books in fupport of his own opinion, but without 
' any bitternefs of conteft or the leaft perturbation of mind ; that the 
" texts, which they cited, were in verfe, and taken from books, as they 
" politively aflerted, more than four thoufand years old ; that the firft 
" couplet of each feftion in thofe books comprifed the fynonymous 
" terms for the plant, which was the fubject of it, and that, in the fub- 
" fequent verfes, there was an ample account of its kind or fpecies, its 
** properties, accidents, qualities, figure, parts, place of growth, time of 
" flowering and bearing fruit, medical virtues, and more general ufes ; 
" that they quoted thofe texts by memory, having gotten them by 
" heart in their earliefl youth, rather as a play than a ftudy, according 
" to the immemorial ufage of fuch Indian tribes, as are deftined by law 
" to the learned profeflions ; and on that fingular law of tribes, pe- 
" culiar to the old Egyptians and Indians, he adds many folid and per- 
" tinent remarks." Now when we complain, and myfelf as much as 
any, that we have no leifure in India for literary and philofophical pur- 
fuits, we fhould confider, that VAN RHEEDE was a nobleman at the 
head of an Indian government in his time very confiderable, and that he 
fully difcharged all the duties of his important ftation, while he found 
leifure, to compile, in the manner juft defcribed, thofe twelve large vo- 
lumes, which LINNAEUS himfelf pronounces accurate. 

1. TA'RACA : 

VULG. 'Tarac. 

LINN. Amomum. 

CAL. Perianth fpathe-like, but fitting on the germ; tubular, one 

leaved, broken at the mouth into few irregular (harp toothlets ; 

downy, ftriated ; in part coloured, in part femipellucid. 
COR. One-petaled, villous. Tube fhort, funnel form. Border double. 

Exterior three parted j coloured like the calyx ; dvuifions oblong, 

ftriated, internally concave, rounded into flipperlike bags; the two 



lower divifions, equal, rather deflected ; the higher, fomewhat longer, 
oppofite, bent in a contrary direction, terminated with a long point. 
Inferior, two-lipped (unlefs the upper lip be called the filament); 
under lip revolute, with a tooth on each fide near the bafe ; two- 
parted from the middle -, divifions axe-form, irregularly end-nicked. 
NcStaries, two or three honey-bearing, light brown, glofly bodies at 
the bafe of the under lip, juft below the teeth; erect, awled, con- 
verging into a fmall cone. 

STAM. Filament (unlefs it be called the upper lip of the interior 
border}, channelled within, fheathing the ftyle; dilated above into 
the large flemy anther, if it can juftly be fo named. Anther oblong, 
externally convex and entire, internally flat, divided by a deep fur- 
row j each divi/ion, marked with a perpendicular pollen-bearing line, 
and ending in a membranous point. 

PIST. Germ beneath, protuberant, roundifh, obfcurely three fided, 
externally foft with down. Style threadform, long as the fila- 
ment, the top of which nearly clofes round it. Stigma headed, per- 

PER. Capfule (or capfular berry, not burfting in a determinate mode) 
oblong-roundifh, three ftriped, fmooth, crowned with the permanent 
calyx and corol ; with a brittle coat, almoft black without, pearly 

SEEDS, lopped, with three or four angles, very fmooth, enclofed within 
three oblong, rounded, foft, membranous integuments, conjoined by 
a branchy receptacle ; in each parcel, four or five. 

Interior Border of the corol, pink and white ; under lip, internally milk- 
white, with a rich carmine ftripe in each of its divifions. Seeds aro- 
matick, hotter than Cardamoms. Leaves alternate, iheathing, oblong, 
pointed, keeled, moil entire, margined, bright grafs-green above, 
very fmooth -, pale fea-green below. Stem comprefled, three or four 
feet long, bright pink near its bafe, erect, ending in a beautiful pani- 


clc. Peduncle* many flowered ; bratts few lance-linear, very long, 
withering. Root fibrous, with two or three bulbous -knobs, light 
brown and fpungy within, faintly aromatick. 

Although the Taraca has properties of an Amomiim, and appears to be 
one of thofe plants, which RUMPHIUS names Globba, yet it has the air 
of a LANGUAS, the///, I believe, of a RENEALMIA, and no exadl 
correfpondence with any of the genera fo elaborately defcribed by 
KOENIG : its e/ential charaSter, according to RETZ, would confift in 
its two parted interior border, its channelled filament, and its fwocleft 
anther w\tii pointed divifions. 


VULG. Bhuchampac. 

LINN. Round-rooted KJEMPFERIA. 

CAL. Common Spatbe imbricated, many flowered -, partial. Perianth 
one leaved, fmall, thin, obfcure. 

COR. One petaled. Tube very long, (lender, fub-cylindric below, fun- 
nel form above, fomewhat incurved. Border double, each three 
parted : exterior, divifions lanced, acute, dropping j interior, two 
higher divifions eredl, lapping over, oblong, pointed, fupporting the 
back of the anther ; lower divifion, expanding, deflected, two cleft j 
fubdivijions broad, axeform, irregularly notched, endnicked, with a 

STAM. Filament adhering to the throat of the corol, oblong below, 
enlarged, and twolobcd above, coloured. Anther double, linear, 
higher than the mouth of the tube, fixed on the lower part of the 
filament, conjoined round the piftil, fronting the two cleft divifion 
of the border. 

PIST. Germ very low near the root, attended with a neffareous gland. 
Style capillary, very long. Stigma funnel form below, comprefTed 

above ; 


above; fanfhaped, twolipped, downy, emerging a little from the 
conjoined anther. 
PER. and SEEDS not yet feen. 

Scape thickim, very mort. Corol richly fragrant ; tube and exterior 
border milkwhite, divifions dropping, as if fenfitive, on the flighteft 
touch, and foon yielding to the preflure of the air j interior border 
purple, the higher divifions diluted, the lower deeply coloured within, 
variegated near the bafe. One or two flowers blow every morning in 
April or May, and wither entirely before iunfet : after the fpike is 
exhaufted, rife the large leaves keeled, broad-lanced, membranous 
nerved. Root with many roundifh, or rather fpindlefhaped bulbs. 

This plant is clearly the Bencbdpo of RHEEDE, whofe native affiftant 
had written Bhu on the drawing, and intended to follow it with 
Champa : the fpicy odour and elegance of the flowers, induced me to 
place this K.EMPFERIA (though generally known) in a feries of feledt 
Indian plants j but the name Ground CHAMPAC is very improper, fince 
the true Champaca belongs to a different order and clafs ; nor is there 
any refemblance between the two flowers, except that both have a rich 
aromatick fcent. 

Among all the natural orders, there is none, in which the genera feem 
lefs precifely afcertained by clear eJJ'ential characters, than in that, which 
(for want of a better denomination) has been called fcitamineous -, and 
the judicious RETZ, after confefling himfelf rather diflatisfied with his 
own generick arrangement, which he takes from the border of the corol, 
from the ftamen, and principally from the anther, declares his fixed 
opinion, that the genera in this order will never be determined ivith abfolute 
certainty until all the fcitamineous plants of\n&\&Jhallbe perfectly defcribed. 

3. SE'P'HA- 



SYN. Suva ha, Nirgudl, Nilicd, Nmdricd. 
VULG. Singabdr, Nibdri. 

In all the plants of this fpecies examined by me, the calyx was vil- 
lous -, the border of the corol white, five-parted, each divifion unequally 
fubdivided j and the tube of a dark orange-colour ; the jlamens and 
piftil entirely within the tube ; the berries, twin, comprefled, capfular, 
two-celled, margined, inverfe-hearted with a point. This gay tree (for 
nothing forroivful appears in its nature) fpreads its rich odour to a 
confiderable diflance every evening ; but at funrife it fheds moft of its 
night -flowers, which are collected with care for the ufe of perfumers 
and dyers. My Pandits unanimoufly affure me, that the plant before us 
is their Sep'hdlicd, thus named becaufe bees are fuppofed to Jleep on its 
blofToms j but Nilica muft imply a blue colour ; and our travellers 
infifl, that the Indians give the names of Pdrijdtica or Pdrijdta to this 
ufeful fpecies of Nytfantbes : on the other hand, I know that Pdrijdta 
is a name given to flowers of a genus totally different j and there may 
be a variety of this with blueifh corols ; for it is exprefsly declared, in 
the Amarcojh, that, " when the Sep'hdlica has white flowers, it is 
" named Sive'fafurafa, and BMtave's'i." 

4. . MAGHYA. 
SYN. Cunda. 

LINN. Nyftanthes Sambac. 

See RHEEDE : 6 H. M. tab. 54. 

Flowers exquifitely white, but with little or no fragrance ; ftem, 

petioles, and calyx very downy ; leaves egged, acute ; below rather 

12. SEPTALA : 



SYN. Navamallicd, Navamdlicd. 

VULG. Bela, Muta-bela. 

BURM. Many-fowered Nyftanthes. 

See 5 RUMPH. tab. 30. 6 H. M. tab. 50. 

The bloflbms of this variety are extremely fragrant. Zambak (fo the 
word mould be written) is a flower to which Perfian and Arabian poets 
frequently allude. 


SYN. Trinafulya, Malli, Bhupadi> Satabhiru. 

VULG. Disi-bttt. 

LINN. Wavy-leaved NYCTANTHES. 

Berry globular, fimple, one-celled, SEED large, fingle, globular. 

According to RHEEDE, the Brdhmens in the weft of India diftin- 
guifh this flower by the word Cajiuri, or mujk, on account of its very 
rich odour. 

6. A'SP'HOTA': 
SYN. Vanamalti. 
VULG. Ban mallica . 

LINN. Narrow-leaved NYCTANTHES. 

The Indians confider this as a variety of the former fpecies j and the 
flowers are nearly alike. Obtufe-leaved would have been a better fpe- 
cifick name : the petals, indeed, are comparatively narrow, but not the 
leaves. This charming flower grows wild in the forefts ; whence it was 
called Vanajdti by the Brdhmens, who affifted RHEEDE ; but the Jdti > 
or Mdlati, belongs, I believe, to the next genus, 

7. MA'LATI N : 


7. MA'LATI': 
SYN. Sumand, Jdti. 

VULG. Mdlti, Jdti, Chambeli. 
LINN. Great-flowered JASMIN. 

Buds blufhing; corol, moftly with purplifh edges. Leaves feathered with 
an odd one ; two or three of the terminal leaflets generally confluent. 

Though Mdlafi and Jdti are fynonymous, yet fome of the native 
gardeners diftinguifh them ; and it is the Jdti only, that I have exa- 
mined. COMMELINE had been informed, that the Javans give the name 
of Mdleti to the Zambak, which in Sanfcrit is called Navamallicd, and 
which, according to RHEEDE, is ufed by the Hindus in their facrifices ; 
but they make offerings of mod odoriferous flowers, and particularly of 
the various Jafmins and Zambaks. 

8. YUT'HICA': 

SYN. Mdgadhi, Gant'cd, Amba/kf'hd, Yuf&. 

VULG. J6t'h), Jui. 

LINN. Azorick JASMIN. 

Leaves oppofite, three'd. Brancblets crofs-armed. Umbels three-flower- 
ed. Carols white, very fragrant. The yellow Tiit'bica, fay the 
Hindus ', is called Htmapu/hpica, or golden-flowered; but I have never 
feen it, and it may be of a different fpecies. 

9. AMLICA': 

SYN. Tintidi, Chinchd. 

VULG. Tintiri-, tamrulhindi, or Indian Date. 

LINN. Tamarindus. 

The flowers of the Tamarind are fo exquifitely beautiful, the fruit fo 
falubrious, when an acid fherbet is required, the leaves fo elegantly 



formed and arranged, and the whole tree fo magnificent, that I could 
not refrain from giving a place in this feries to a plant already well 
known : in all die flowers, however, that I have examined, the coalition 
of the ftamens appeared fo invariably, that the Tamarind (hould be re- 
moved, I think, to \hejixteentb clafs ; and it were to be wifhed, that fo 
barbarous a word as Tamarindus, corrupted from an Arabick phrafe 
abfurd in itfelf, fince the plant has no fort of refemblance to a date-tree, 
could without inconvenience be rejected, arid its genuine Indian appel- 
lation admitted in its room. 

lo. SARA: or Arrow-cane. 

SYN. Gundra, or Playful ; Tejanaca, or Acute. 

VULG. Ser, Serberi. 

LINN. Spontaneous SACCHARUM. 

CAL. Glume two-valved ; valves, oblong-lanced, pointed, fubequal, 
girt with filky diverging hairs, exquifitely foft and delicate, more 
than twice as long as the flower. 

COR. One-valved, acute, fringed. 

STAM. Filaments three, capillary j Anthers, oblong, incumbent. 

PIST. Germs very minute, fiyles two, threadform. Stigmas feathery. 

FLOWERS on a very large terminal panicle, more than two feet long, in 
the plant before me, and one foot acrofs in the broadeft part ; con- 
fifting of numerous compound fpikes, divided into fpikelets, each on a 
capillary jointed rachis, at the joints of which are the flowerets alter- 
nately feffile and pedicelled. Common peduncle many-furrowed, with 
reddilh joints. Vahelct of the corol purple or light red ; ftamens and 
piftils ruddy ; jligmas, purple ; pedicels, of a reddifh tint j finely con- 
trafted with the long filvery beard of the calyx. Leaves very long, 
ftriated, minutely fawed; teeth upwards ; keel fmooth white, within; 
meathing the culm ; the mouths of the {heaths thick, fet with white 
hairs. Culm above twenty feet high ; very fmooth, round and light ; 

VOL. II. I more 


more clofely jointed and woody near the root, which is thick 
and fibrous ; it grows in large clumps, like the Venu. -This beau- 
tiful and fuperb grafs is highly celebrated in the Puranas, the 
Indian God of War, having been born in a grove of it, which burft 
into a flame ; and the gods gave notice of his birth to the nymph of 
the Pleiads, who defcended and fuckled the child, thence named 
Cartictya. The Cafa, vulgarly Cafia, has a fhorter culm, leaves 
much narrower, longer and thicker hairs, but a fmaller panicle, 
lefs compounded, without the purplifh tints of the Sara : it is 
often defcribed with praife by the Hindu poets, for the whitenefs of 
its bio/Toms, which give a large plain, at fome diftance, the appear- 
ance of a broad river. Both plants are extremely ufeful to the 
Indians, who harden the internodal parts of the culms, and cut 
them into implements for writing on their polifhed paper. From 
the munja, or culm, of the Sara was made the maunji, or holy thread, 
ordained by MENU to form the facerdotal girdle, in preference even 
to the 

11. DU'RVA': 

SYN. S'ataparvica, Sahafravirya, Bhdrgavi, Rudrd, Anantd. 

VULG. Dub. 


Nothing eflential can be added to the mere botanical defcription of 
this moil beautiful grafs ; which VAN RHEEDE has exhibited in a coarfe 
delineation of its leaves only, under the barbarous appellation of Beli- 
caraga: its flowers, in their perfedt ftate, are among the lovelieft 
objedls in the vegetable world, and appear, through a lens, like minute 
rubies and emeralds in conftant motion from the leaft breath of air. It 
is the fweeteft and moft nutritious pafture for cattle j and its ufefulnefs 
added to its beauty induced the Hindus, in their earlieft ages, to believe, 



that it was the maniion of a benevolent nymph. Even the Veda. 
celebrates it ; as in the following text of the A'fhariiana : " May 
" Duma, which rofe from the water of life, which has a hundred 
" roots and a hundred flems, efface a hundred of my fins and pro- 
" long my exiftence on earth for a hundred years!" The plate was 
engraved from a drawing in Dr. ROXBURGH'S valuable collection of 
Indian grafles. 

12. CUS'A ; orCus'nA: 

SYN. Cut' ha, Darbha, Pavitra. 

VULG. Cujha. 

KOEN. Poa Cynofuroides. 

Having never feen this mofl celebrated grafs in a flate of perfect in- 
florefcence, I clafs it according to the information, which Dr. ROX- 
BURGH has been fo kind as to fend me : the leaves are very long, with 
margins acutely fawed downwards but fmooth on other parts, even on 
the keels, and with long points, of which the extreme acutenefs was 
proverbial among the old Hindus. Every law-book, and almoft every 
poem, in Sanfcrit contains frequent allufions to the holinefs of this 
plant j and, in the fourth Veda, we have the following addrefs to it at 
the clofe of a terrible incantation : ' Thee, O Darbha, the learned pro- 
' claim a divinity not fubjeift to age or death; thee they call the 

* armour of INDRA, the preferver of-regions, the deftroyer of enemies j 
a gem that gives increafe to the field. At the time, when the ocean 
refounded, when the clouds murmured and lightnings flamed, then 

* was Darbha produced, pure as a drop of fine gold.' Some of the 
leaves taper to a moft acute, evanefcent point ; whence the Pandits 
often fay of a very fharp-minded man, that his intellects are acute as the 
point of a Cus'a leaf. 

13. BAND- 


13. BANDHU'CA : 

SYN. Raftaca, Bandhujivaca. 

VULG. Bandhuti, Ranjan. 

LINN. Scarlet IXORA. 

CAL. Perianth four-parted, permanent ; dimfions, coloured, erect, acute. 

COR. One-petaled, funnel-form. Tube, cylindrick, very long, flender, 

fomewhat curved. Border four-parted ; divi/ions, egged, acute, de- 

STAM. Filaments four, above the throat very mort, incurved. Anthers 

oblong, deprefled. 
PIST. Germ roundifli, oblate beneath. Style, threadform, long as the 

tube. Stigma two-ckft, juft above the throat ; divifions, externally 

FLOWERS bright crimfon-fcarlet, umbel-fafcicled. Leaves oval, crofs- 

paired, half-ftem-clafping, pointed ; pale below, dark green above, 

leathery, clothing the whole plant. Stipules between the oppofite 

leaves, erect, linear. Stem ruffet, channelled. 

The Bandi/ca-fiower is often mentioned by the beft Indian poets ; but 
the Pandits are ftrangely divided in opinion concerning the plant, 
which the ancients knew by that name. RA'DHA'CA'NT brought me, 
as the famed Bandbuca, m {ome flowers of the Doubtful PAP AVER ; and 
his younger brother RAMA'CA'NT produced on the following day the 
Scarlet IXORA, with a beautiful couplet in which it is named Bandhuca: 
foon after, SERVO'RU mowed me a book, in which it is faid to have the 
vulgar name Dop'bariya, or Meridian ; but by that Hindujtdni name, the 
Mufelmans in fome diftrifts mean the Scarlet PENTAPETES, and, in 
others, the Scarlet HIBISCUS, which the Hindus call Suryamani, or Gem 
of the Sun. The lafl-mentioned plant is the Siafmin of RHEEDE, which 



LINNAEUS, through mere inadvertence, has confounded with the Scarlet 
Pentapetes, defcribed in the fifty -fixth plate of the fame volume. I can- 
not refrain from adding, that no Indian god was ever named IXOR A ; and 
that Is'ivara, which is, indeed, a title of SIVA, would be a very improper 
appellation of a plant, which has already a claflical name. 


SYN. Drumotpala, Perivyddha. 
VULG. Cdncrd; Cat'bachampd. 

It is wonderful, that the Pandits of this province, both priefts and 
phyficians, are unable to bring me the flower, which CA'LIDA'SA men- 
tions by the name of Carnicdra, and celebrates as a fame of the "woods : 
the lovely Pavetta, which botanifls have fufficiently defcribed, is called 
by the Bengal peafants Cancra, which I mould conclude to be a corrup- 
tion of the Sanfcrit word, if a comment on the Amaracojh, had not 
exhibited, the vulgar name Cat?'ba-champd ; which raifes a doubt, and 
almoft inclines me to believe, that the Carnicdra is one of the many 
flowers, which the natives of this country improperly called wild 


VULG. Mafandari in Bengal; and Bajira in Hindujldn. 

LINN. American GALLIC ARPUS ; yet a native of Java ? 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, four-parted ; Divijions pointed, ere<5h 

COR. One-petaled, funnel-form ; border four-cleft. ' 

STAM. Filaments four, thread-form, coloured, longer than the coroL 

Anthers roundifh, incumbent. 
PIST. Germ above, egged. Style thread-form, coloured, longer than 

the fUmens. Stigma thickifh, gaping. 





FLOWERS minute, bright lilack, or light purple, extremely beautiful. 
Panicles axillary one to each leaf, two-forked, very {hort in compa- 
rifon of the leaves, downy. Brals awled, oppofite, placed at 
each fork of the panicle. Leaves oppofite, petioled, very long, 
egged, veined, pointed, obtufely-notched, bright green and foft 
above, pale and downy beneath. Branches and petiols hoary with 
down. Shrub, with flexible branches ; growing wild near Cal- 
cutta : its root has medicinal virtues, and cures, they fay, a cutaneous 
diforder called mafha, whence the plant has its name. Though 
the leaves be not fawed, yet I dare not pronounce the fpecies to be 
new. See a note on the Hoary CALLICARPUS, 5 RETZ. Fafcic. 
p. l. . 1Q. 

S Y N . S'ringdtaca. 
VULG. Singhdra. 
LINN. Floating TRAPA. 

I can add nothing to what has been written on this remarkable water- 
plant j but as the ancient Hindus were fo fond of its nut (from the horns 
of which, they gave a name to the plant itfelf), that they placed it 
among their lunar conftellations, it may certainly claim a place in a 
feries of Indian vegetables. 



SYN. Gandhafdra, Malay aja, Bhadrasri. 
VULG. Chandan, Sandal, Sanders. 
LINN. True Santalum ; more properly Sandalum. 
SEED large, globular, fmooth. 



Having received from Colonel FULLARTON many feeds of this 
exquifite plant, which he had found in the thickets of Midnapur, I 
had a fanguine hope of being able to defcribe its flowers, of which 
RUMPHIUS could procure no account, and concerning which there is 
a fingular difference between LINNAEUS and BURMAN the younger, 
though they both cite the fame authors, and each refers to the works of 
the other ; but the feeds have never germinated in my garden, and the 
Chandan only claims a place in the prefent feries, from the deferved 
celebrity of its fragrant wood, and the perpetual mention of it in the 
moil ancient books of the Hindus, who conftantly defcribe the beft 
fort of it as flouriming on the mountains of Malaya. An elegant Sanf- 
crit flanza, of which the following Verfion is literally exacT;, alludes to 
the popular belief, that the Venus, or bambus, as they are vulgarly 
called, often take fire by the violence of their collifion, and is addrefled, 
under the allegory of a fandal-tree to a virtuous man dwelling in a 
town inhabited by contending factions : " Delight of the world, be- 
" loved CHANDANA, flay no longer in this foreft, which is overfpread 
'* with rigid pernicious Vans' as, whofe hearts are unfound j and who, 
" being themfelves confounded in the fcorching ftream of flames 
" kindled by their mutual attrition, will confume not their own fami- 
*' lies merely, but this whole wood." The original word dur-vans'a 
has a double fenfe, meaning both a dangerous bambu, and a man with a 
mifchievous offspring. Three other fpecies or varieties of Chandan are 
mentioned in the Amaracojha, by the names Tailaparnica, Gos'irjha, and 
Herichandana : the red fandal (of which I can give no defcription) is 
named Cuchandana from its inferiour quality, Ranjana and Rafta from 
its colour, and Tilaparni or Patrdnga from the form of its leaves. 

18. CUMUDA : 
SYN. Cairava. 
VULG. Ghain-chu. 



RHEEDE : Tsjeroea Clt Ambel. 1 1 H. M. t. 2Q. 


CAL. Five-parted, longer than the tube of the corol, expanding, per- 
manent ; divi/ions, awled. 

COR. One-petaled. Tube, rather belled ; border five-parted ; divi/ions 
oblong, wavy on the margin , a longitudinal wing or foldlet in 
the middle of each. The mouth and whole interior part of the 
corol maggy. 

STAM. Filaments five, awled, eredt; Anthers twin, converging; five, 
alternate, fhorter, fterile. 

PIST. Germ egged, very large in proportion; girt at its bafe with 
five roundifh glands. Style very fhort, if any. Stigma headed. 

PER. Capfule four-celled, many-feeded. 

SEEDS round, compreffed, minute, appearing rough, with fmall dots or 

LEAVES hearted, fubtargeted, bright green on one fide, dark ruflet on 
the other. Flowers umbel fafcicled, placed on the ftem, jult below 
the leaf. Glands and Tube of the corol yellow ; border white ; both 
of the moft exquifite texture : Cumuda, or Delight of the Water, 
feems a general name for beautiful aquatick flowers ; and among them, 
according to VAN RHEEDE, for the Indian Menianthes ; which this 
in part refembles. The divi/ions of the corol may be called three- 
"winged: they look as if covered with filver frofl. 


SYN. Pdt'b'in, Vabni, and all other names of Fire. 

VULG. Chita, Chiti, Chitra. 


CAL. Perianth one-leaved, egg-oblong, tubular, five-fided j rugged, 
interfperfed with minute pedicelled glands, exuding tranfparent glu- 
tinous droplets ; ere<ft, clofely embracing the tube of the corol ; 



mouth five-toothed; bafe protuberant with the valves of the nec- 

COR. One-petaled, funnel-torm. Tube five-angled, rather incurved* 
longer than the calyx. Border five-parted, expanding. Divi/ions 
inverfe, egg-oblong, pointed, fomewhat keeled. 

NeStary five-valved, pointed, minute, including the germ. 

STAM. Filaments five, thread-form, inferted on the valvelets of the 
nectary, as long as the tube of the corol. Anthers oblong, oblique. 

PIST. Germ egged, very fmall ; at firfl, when cleared of the nectary, 
fmooth j but afluming, as it fwells, five angles. Style columnar, as 
long as the ftamens. Stigma five-parted, {lender. 

PER. None, unlefs we give that name to the five-angled coat of the feed. 

SEED one, oblong, obfcurely five-fided, inclofed in a coat. 

Racemes vifcid, leafy. Calyx light green. Corol milkwhite. Anthers 
purple, feen through the pellucid tube. Leaves alternate, egged, 
fmooth, pointed, half fheathing, partly waved, partly entire ; floral 
leaves, fimilar, minute. Stem flexible (climbing), many-angled, 
joined at the rife of the leaves. Root cauftick ; whence the name 
Vahni, and the like. Cbitraca means attracting the mind ; and any 
of the Indian names would be preferable to Plumbago, or Leadwort. 
The fpecies here defcribed, feems moil to refemble that of Seilan ; 
the rofy, Plumbago is lefs common here : the joints of its ftems are 
red ; the brals three'd, egged, equal pointed, coloured. 

20. CA'MALATA': 

SYN. Surya-canti, or Sun/bine, 11. H. M. t. Oo. 

VULG. Cdm-lata, Ifik-pichah. 

LINN. IPOMOEA Quamoclit. 

The plant before us is the moft beautiful of its order, both in the 

colour and form of its leaves and flowers ; its elegant bloflbms are celef- 

VOL. ii. K tial 


tial rofy red, loves proper hue, and have juftly procured it the name of 
Camalata, or Love's Creeper, from which I mould have thought ^uamoclit 
a corruption, if there were not fome reafon to fuppofe it an American 
word : Camalata may alfo mean a mythological plant, by which all de~ 
Jires are granted to fuch as inhabit the heaven of INDRA ; and, if ever 
flower was worthy of paradife, it is our charming Ipomoea. Many fpe- 
cies of this genus, and of its near ally the Convolvulus, grow wild in 
our Indian provinces, fome fpreading a purple light over the hedges, 
fome fnowwhite with a delicate fragrance j and one breathing after 
funfet the odour of cloves ; but the two genera are fo blended by play- 
ful nature, that very frequently they are undiftinguifhable by the corols 
and Jiigmas: for inftance, the Mundavalli, or Beautiful Climber, of 
RHEEDE (of which I have often watched the large fpiral buds, and 
feen them buril into full bloom) is called Ipomoea by LINNAEUS, and 
Convolvulus (according to the Supplement) by KCENING ; and it feems 
a (hade between both. The divifions of the perianth are egg-oblong, 
pointed ; free above, intricated below ; its corol and tube, thofe of an 
Ipomoea; its filaments of different lengths, with anthers arrowed, joint- 
ed above the barbs, furrowed, half- incumbent ; the ftigmas, two globu- 
lar heads, each globe an aggregate of minute roundifti tubercles ; the 
Jlem not quite fmooth, but here and there bearing a few fmall prickles ; 
the very large corol exquifitely white, with greenifh ribs, that feem 
to adl as mufcles in expanding the contorted bud; its odour in 
the evening very agreeable j lefs ftrong than the primrofe and lefs 
faint than the lily. The clove-fcented creeper, which blows in 
my garden at a feafon and hour, when I cannot examine it accu- 
rately, feems of the fame genus, if not of the fame fpecies, with the 

21. CADAMBA : 

SYN. Nipa, Priyaca, Halipriya. 



VULG. Cadambt Cadatn. 
LINN. Oriental Nauclea. 

To the botanical defcription of this plant I can add nothing, except 
that I always obferved a minute five-parted calyx to each floret, and 
that the leaves are oblong, acute, oppofite, and tranfverfely nerved. It 
is one of the mofl elegant among Indian trees in the opinion of all, who 
have feen it, and one of the holieft among them in the opinion of the 
Hindus : the poet CA'L IDA'S alludes to it by the name of Nzpa ; and it 
may juftly be celebrated among the beauties of fummer, when the mul- 
titude of aggregate flowers, each confifting of a common receptacle per- 
fectly globular and covered uniformly with gold-coloured florets, from 
which the white threadform Jlyles confpicuoufly emerge, exhibits a 
rich and fingular appearance on the branchy trees decked with foliage 
charmingly verdant. The flowers have an odour, very agreeable in the 
open air, which the ancient Indians compared to the fcent of new wine ; 
and hence they call the plant Halipriya, or beloved by HALIN, that is, 
by the third RA'MA, who was evidently the BACCHUS of India. 

22. GANDI'RA: 

SYN. Samajht' hila, Lavana-bhantdca. 

VULG. Lona-bhant ; Ins j Sulatiya. 

LINN. SOLANUM. Is it the Fertiafctim-lezved ? 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, cup-form or belled ? Obfcurely five-cleft, 

downy, pale, frofted, permanent. Divi/ions egged, erecl:, pointed, 

very villous. 
COR. One-petaled. Tufa very fhort. Border five-parted. Divijions 

oblong, pointed, expanding, villous. 
STAM. Filaments five, moft fhort, in the mouth of the tube. Anthers 

oblong, furrowed, converging, nearly coalefcent, with two large pores 

gaping above. 



FIST. Germ roundiih, villous. Style thread-form, much longer than 
the ftamens. Stigma obtufe-headed. 

PER. Berry roundifh, dotted above, hoary, divided into cells by a flefhy 
receptacle with two, or three, wings. 

SEEDS very many, roundim, compreffed, neftling. 

LEAVES alternate, egg-oblong, pointed, rather wavy on the margin, de- 
licately fringed with down ; darker and very foft above, paler below 
with protuberant veins, downy on both fides, moftly decurrent on the 
long hoary petiols. 

STEM mrubby, fcabrous with tubercles, unarmed. Flowers umbel-faf- 
cicled. Carols white. Anthers, yellow. Peduncles and pedicels hoary 
with deciduous froft. 

This plant is believed to contain a quantity of lavana, or fait, which 
makes it ufeful as a manure ; but the fingle word Bhantdca, vulgarly 
Bbdnt, means the Clerodendrum, which (without being unfortunate j 
beautifies our Indian fields and hedges with its very black berry in the 
centre of a bright-red, expanding, permanent calyx. The charming 
little bird Chatrdca, commonly called Chattdrya or Tuntuni, forms its 
wonderful nefl with a leaf of this dowriy Solanum, which it fews with the 
filk-cotton of the Seven-leaved BOMB AX, by the help of its delicate, but 
fharp, bill : that lovely bird is well known by the Linnean appellation of 
MOT ACT LL A Sartoria, properly Sartrix, but the figures of it, that have 
been publifhed, give no idea of its engaging and exquifite beauty. 

S Y N . Dhola-famudra. 
V u L G . Dhdl-famudr. 
LINN. Aquilicia ; but a new fpecies. 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, funnel-fhaped, five-toothed, ihort, \hzteetb 
clofely preffing the corol ; permanent. 



COR . Petals five, egg-oblong, feflile, greenifh ; acute, curved in- 
wards with a fmall angled concave appendage. Neffary tubular, 
flefhy, five-parted, yellowifh; divi/ions, egg-oblong, doubled, com- 
prefled like minute bags with inverted mouths ; enclofing the germ. 

STAM. Filaments five, fmooth and convex externally, bent into the 
top of the nettary, between the divifions or fcales, and compreffing it 
into a globular figure. Anthers arrowed ; the points hidden within 
the nectary, furrounding the Jiigma ; the barbs without, in the form 
of a ftar. 

PIST. Germ roundim. Style cylindrick. Stigma obtufe. 

PER. Berry roundim, flattened, naveled, longitudinally furrowed, 
moftly five-celled. 

SEEDS folitary, three-fided, externally convex. Cymes moftly three- 
parted. Stem deeply channeled, jointed, two-forked. Peduncles 
alfo jointed and channeled. Fructification burfting laterally, where 
the ftem fends forth a petiol. Berries black, watry. Leaves alter- 
nate, except one terminal pair ; hearted, pointed, toothed j twelve or 
fourteen of the teeth mooting into lobes -, above, dark green ; below, 
pale, ribbed with procefles from the petiol, and reticulated with pro- 
tuberant veins j the full-grown leaves, above two feet long from the 
apex, and nearly as broad toward the bafe ; many of them rather tar- 
getted : this new fpecies may be called large-leaved, or AQUILICIA 
Samudraca. The fpecies defcribed by the younger BURMAN, under the 
name of the Indian STAPHYLEAJ is not uncommon at Crijhna-nagar ; 
where the peafants call it Cacajangbd, or Crow's foot : if they are 
correct, we have erroneoufly fuppofed the Going of the modern 
Bengalefe to be the Cacdngi of the ancient Hindus. It muft not be 
omitted, that the ftem of the Aquilicia Sambucina is alfo channeled, 
but that its fruftification differs in many refpects from the defcriptions 
of BURMAN and LINN^USJ though there can be no doubt as to the 
identity of the genus. 

24. SO'MA- 


1M. So'MARA'JI : 

SYN. Avalguja, Suballi, Somaballicd, Cdlamejhl, Cnjhmpbdld, Vdcucbi, 

Vdgujl, Putip'balfi. 
VULG. Somrdj, Bacucbi. 

The character as in LINNAEUS, with few variations. Calyx incurved. 
Carol very fhaggy within. Style two-cleft, pubefcent ; divifions con- 
torted. Stem climbing, fmooth. Leaves oppofite, long-petioled ; 
the lower ones oblong, hearted j the higher, egg-oblong ; veined, 
with a wavy margin. Panicles axillary (except the highefl) , crofs- 
armed. Flowers beautiful to the fight, crimfon, with milkwhitc 
edges, refembling the Dianthus vulgarly called Sweet William, but re- 
fembling it only in form and colours ; almoft fcentlefs to thofe, who 
are very near it, but diffufing to a diflance a rank odour of carrion. 
All the peafants at Crtjhna-nagar called this plant Somrdj ; but my 
own fervants, and a family of Erabmens from Tribeni, gave that name 
to a very different plant, of the nineteenth clafs, which I took, on a 
curfory infpedtion, for a Prenanthes. 

25. SYA'MA': 

SYN. Gdpi, Sariva, Ananta, Utpalafdriva, Go'pa, Gopdlica, Gopavalh. 

VULG. Syama-latd . 

RHEEDE : in Malabar letters, Puppal-ijalli. 

CAL. Perianth, one-leaved, five-toothed, erecT:, minute, permanent. 

COR. One-petaled, falver-form. Tube, itfelf cylindrick, but protu- 

berant in the middle with the germ and anthers ; throat very villous. 
Border five-parted j divifions very long, lance-linear, fpirally con- 

torted, fringed, clofed, concealing the fructification. 
STAM. Filaments, if any, very Ihort. Anthers, five, awled, erect, con- 

verging at the top. 



PIST. Germ above, pedicelled, fpheroidal, girt with a neStareous ring. 

Style threadform, rather awled. Stigma fimple. 
PER. Capfule one-celled ; one-feeded, roundifh, hifpid. 
SEED oval, very minute, glofly. 
Flowers raceme-panicled, greenifh-white, very fmall, fcented like thofe 

of the hawthorn, but far fweeter ; and thence the Portuguefe called 

them honey -flowers. 
Peduncles axillary, ruflet ; pedicels many-flowered. Eranchlets milky, 

Leaves oppofite, lance-oval, pointed at both ends, moft entire veined - f 

above dark green j below, pale. Stipules linear, axillary, adhering. 

Stem climbing, round, of a ruffet hue, rimmed at the infertion of the 


The ripe fruit of this elegant climber, which CA'L IDA'S mentions in 
his poem of the Seafons, has been feen by me only in a very dry ftate ; 
but it feemed, that the hifpid appearance of the capfules, or berries,. 
which in a microfcope looked exadtly like the burrs in VAN RHEEDE'S 
engraving, was caufed by the hardened calyxes and fringe of the perma- 
nent corols : \\iefeeds in each burr were numerous and like black mining 
fand ; for no (ingle pericarp could be difengaged from it, and it is de- 
fcribed as one-Jeeded merely from an infpeciion of the difTefted germ. 
Before I had feen the fruit, I thought the Syama. very nearly connected 
with the Shrubby APOCYNUM, which it refembles in the leaves,, and in 
parts of the corol. 

Five of the SANSCRIT names are fining together, by the author of 
the jlmaraco/Jj, in the following verfe -, 

Gopi s'yama s arivdjyddanantdtpalafarrva : 

and his commentator obferves, that the lafl name was given to the 
Sarfod from the refemblance of its flowers to thofe of the Utpala, which 
I thence conclude to be a Menianthes - } efpecially as it is always de- 



fcribed among the Indian water-plants. The other fynonymous words 
are taken from VA'C HASP ATI. 

26. A'VIGNA, or Avinga: 

SVN. Crijhnapdcap' bala, Sujhe'nas, Caramardaca. 

VULG. Caro'nda or Caraunda in two dictionaries ; in one, Paniamala. 

LINN. CARISSA Carandas. 

CAL. Perianth five-cleft, acute, very fmall, coloured, perfiftent. 

COR. One-petaled, funnel-form. Tube longifh; throat fwoln by the 
inclofed anthers. Border five-parted ; divijions oblong ; one fide of 
each embracing the next. 

STAM. Filaments five, extremely fhort. Anthers, oblong, ereft. 

PIST. Germ above, roundifh. Style thread-form, fhort, clubbed. 
Stigma narrower, pubefcent. 

PER. Berry, elliptoidal, two-celled. 

SEEDS at leaft feven, oval, comprefled, margined. Flowers milkwhite, 
jafmin-like. Fruit beautiful in form and colour, finely ihaded with 
carmine and white ; agreeably acid. Branches two-forked. Leaves 
oppofite, fhort-petioled, elliptick, obtufe, mofl entire, fmooth ; fome 
fmall leaves roundifh, inverfe-hearted. Thorns axillary, oppofite, 
expanding j points, bright red. Peduncles twin, fubterminal, three- 
flowered j pedicels, equal. The whole plant, even the fruit, milky. 
We have both fpecies of Cariffa in this province; but they melt, 
fcarce diflinguifhably, into each other. 

The Pandits have always brought me this elegant plant, as the Car- 
candhu mentioned by JAYADE'VA ; but, judging only by the fhape and 
tafle of the fruit, they feem to confound it with the RHAMNUS Jujuba-, 
and the confufion is increafed by the obfcurity of the following pafTage 
in their beft vocabulary : 



Carcandhu, vadari, coli; colam, cuvala pfi e'nile , 

Sauviram, vadaram, ghonta . 

All agree, that the neuter words mean fruits only ; but fome infift, that 
the Ghonta is a .diftinft plant thus defcribed in an ancient verfe : ' The 
' ghonta, called alfo gopaphontd, is a tree fhaped like the Vadari, with 
' a very fmall fruit, growing only in forefts.' For the ghonta, here 
known by the name of Sehdcul, my fervants brought me a RHAMNUS 
with leaves alternate egg-oblong, three-nerved, obfcurely fawed, paler 
beneath, and moil beautifully veined j JJoral young leaves crouded, very 
long, linear ; prickles often folitary, fometimes paired, one ftraight, one 
curved ; a fmall globular drupe, quite black, with a one-celled nut : 
the flowers I never faw perfect ; but it feems the nineteenth Ipecies 
of LINNAEUS. We have many fpecies of Rhamnus in our woods and 
hedges ; fome like the Alaternus, polygamous by male and hermaphro- 
dite flowers ; others, diftinguifhed by various forms and pofitions of the 
prickles and leaves ; but the common Badari or Baiar, is the jfuju6e-tree 
defcribed by RHEEDB ; and by RUMPHIUS called Indian Apple-tree. 
Its Perjian name is Condr, by which it is mentioned in the letters of 
PIETRO DELLA VALLE, who takes notice of the foapy froth procured 
from its leaves ; whence it has in Sanfcrit the epithet p'henila, or frothy. 
To the plant the Arabs give the name of Sidr, and to its fruit, that of 
Nabik ; from which perhaps, Napeca has been corrupted. 

27. CARAVI'RA : 

SYN. Pratihafa, Sataprdfa, Chan data, Hayamdraca. 
LINN. NERJUM Oleander, and other fpecies. 
VULG. Caner, Carbir. 

A plant fo well known would not have been inferted in this place, if 
it had not been thought proper to take notice of the remarkable epithet 
hayamdraca, or horf e -killer ; which arofe from an opinion ftill preferved 

VOL. ii. L among 


among the Hindus, that a horfe, unwarily eating the leaves of the 
Nerium, can hardly efcape death : moft of the fpecies, efpecially their 
roots, have ftrong medicinal, but probably narcotick, powers. The 
blue-dying Nerium grows in woods at a little diftance from my garden ; 
and the Hindu peafants, who brought it me, called it Nil, or blue ; a 
proof, that its quality was known to them, as it probably was to their 
anceflors from time immemorial. 

28. SEPTAPERNA, or feven-leaved : 

SYN. Vifdla-twach, Sdradt, ViJJjama-cb'hada. 

VULG. Cb'hitavam, Cb'bdtiyan, Ctihdtin, Ch' baton. 


CAL. Perianth five-parted, fub-acute, fmall, villous, permanent ; clof- 
ing round the germ, immediately on the removal of the tube. 

COR. One-petaled, funnel-form. Tube cylindrick below, prominent 
above with enclofed anthers, very villous in the throat. Border five- 
parted, fhorter than the tube : divi/ions inverfe-egged, obtufe, ob- 
lique, reflected, waved on the margin. Neffary, a circular undi- 
vided coronet, or rim, terminating the tube, with a mort erecT: villous 

STAM. Filaments five, cylindrick, very mort, in the throat of the tube. 
Anthers heart-arrowed, cleft, pointed, forming a ftar, vifible through 
the mouth of the tube, with points diverging. 

PIST. Germ above roundifh-egged, very villous, fcarce extricable from 
the calyx enclofing and grafping it. Style cylindrick, as long as 
the tube. Stigma two-parted, "with parts diverging, placed on an 
irregular orblet. 

PER. Follicles two, linear, very long, one-valved. 

SEEDS numerous, oblong, comprefled with filky pappus pencilled at 
both ends. 




The whole plant, milky. Stem dotted with minute whitifh tuber- 
cles. Leaves moftly fevened in verticils at fhort diftances, very foft, 
oblong inverfe-egged, Ibme pointed, fome obtufe, fome end-nicked j 
fome entire, fome rather fcallopped -, with many tranfverfe parallel 
veins on each fide of the axis ; rich dark green above, diluted below. 
Petiols furrowed above, fmooth and convex beneath, elongated into a 
ftrong protuberant nerve continually diminishing and evanefcent at the 
apex. Stipules above, creel, acute, fet in a coronet round the ftem ; the 
verticils of the leaves anfwering to the definition of fronds. Flowers ra- 
ther fmall, greenifh white, with a very particular odour lefs pleafant than 
that of elder-flowers. Peduncles terminal with two verticils pedicelled 
umbel- wife, but horizontal. Pedicels fix, headed, many-flowered; 
higheft verticils fimilar to thofe heads, more crowded. Tree very large, 
when full-grown -, light and elegant, when young. This plant fo 
greatly refembles the Pa/a of VAN RHEEDE (which has more of the 
Nerium than of the TabernamontanaJ that I fufpecl the genus and 
fpecies to be the fame, with fome little variety : that author fays, that 
the Brdbmens call it Santenu, but his Nagari letters make it Savdnu, and 
neither of the two words is to be found in Sanfcrit. With all due refpedl 
for PLUMIER and BURMAN, I mould call this plant NERIUM Septa- 
parna: it is the Pule of RUMPHIUS, who enumerates its various ufes at 
great length and with great confidence, 

29. ARCA: 

SYN. Fafuca, A'fp'hota, Gondrupa, Vicirana, Manddra, Arcaperna; and 
any name of the Sun. 

VULG. Ac and, A'nc, 


NeElaries with two-glanded, comprefled, folds, inftead of aivled horn- 
lets at the fummit ; fpirally eared at the bafe. Filaments twifted 



in the folds of the nedlaries. Anthers flat, fmooth, rather wedge- 
form. Styles near half an inch long, fubcylindrick. Stigmas ex- 
panded. Flowers terminal and axillary umbel-fafcicled ; amethyft- 
coloured with fome darker fhades of purple on the petals and necta- 
ries j the ftarred corpufcle, bright yellow. Leaves oppofite, heart- 
oblong, moftly inverfe-egged, fubtargeted, very rarely ftem-clafping, 
pointed, villous on both fides, hoary beneath with foft down; pettols 
very fhort, concave and bearded above; with a thickifh conical jiipule. 
The whole plant filled with cauftick milk. A variety of this fpecies 
has exquifitely delicate milkwhite flowers; it is named Alarca or 
Pratapafa, and highly efteemed for its antifpafmodick powers. The 
Padmarca, which I have not feen, is faid to have fmall crimfon 
corols: the individual plants, often examined by me, vary confiderably 
in the forms of the leaves and the tops of the neftary. 


SYN. ybdvaca. 

VULG. J'hau. 


Flowers very fmall, whitifh, with a light purple tinge, crowded on a 
number of fpikes, which form all together a moft elegant panicle. 
Stem generally bent, often ftraight, and ufed anciently for arrows by 
the Per/tans, who call the plant Gaz: the celebrated maft of ISFEN- 
DIYA'R was formed of it, as I learned from BAHMEN, who firfl 
mowed it to me on a bank of the Ganges, but afTerted, that it was 
common in Perfia, The leaves "are extremely minute, feffile, moftly 
imbricated. Calyx and corol as defcribed by LINN^SUS ; five fila- 
ments confiderably longer than the petal; anthers lobed, furrowed j 
germ very fmall ; ftyle, fcarce any ; Jiigmas three, revolute, but, to my 
eyes, hardly feathered. 



Nothing can be more beautiful than the appearance of this plant in 
flower during the rains on the banks of rivers, where it is commonly 
interwoven with a lovely twining ASCLEPIAS, of which the following 
defcription is, I hope, very exadt : 

31. DUGDHICA': or Milkplant , 

SYN. Cfiirdvi, Dugdbicd. 

VULG. Kyirui, Dudhi, Dudb-latd. 

LINN. Efculent Periploca. 

CAL. One-leaved, five-parted; divifions awled, acute, coloured, ex- 

COR. One-petaled, falver-form, flarlike ; divifions five, egged, pointed, 

Neflary double, on a five-cleft bafe, gibbous between the clefts, pro- 
truded, and pointed above, furrounded with a bright green villous rim : 
exterior five-parted ; divifions egged, converging, attenuated into dag- 
gers; each concave externally, gibbous below the cavity, which is 
two-parted and wrinkled within. Interior, a five-parted corpufcle> 
lopped above, five-angled, furrounding the fr unification ~ 

STAM. Filaments fcarce any. Anthers five, roundifh, very minute 1 , iet 
round the fummit of the lopped corpufcle. 

PIST. Germs two, egged, pointed, eredl, internally flat. Styles none, 
unlefs you fo call the points of the germs. Stigma, none but the in- 
terior netfary, unlefs you confider that as a common Jligma. 

PER. Follicles two, oblong; in fome, pointed; in others, obtufe ; in- 
flated, one-valved ; each containing a one-winged receptacle. 

SEEDS numerous, roundifla, comprefled, crowned with pappus. 

To each pair of leaves a peduncle moftly two-flowered, often with 
three, fometimes with five, flowers. Calyx reddifh. Carol white, ele- 
gantly marked with purple veins ; fringe, white, thick; anthers black. 



Leaves linear-awled, pointed, oppofite, petioled with one ftrong nerve; 
Jlipules, very foft, minute. Stem fmooth, round, twining; the whole 
plant abounding with milk. 


SYN. Saradi, Toyaplppati, Saculddam. 

VULG. Cdnchra, IJholdngolyd. 

R H E E D E : Cheru-vallel ? 

LINN. NAM A of Sildn. 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, five-parted, villous; diviftons, lanced, point- 
ed, long, permanent. 

COR. One-petaled, nearly wheeled. Tube very fhort. Border five- 
parted. Diviftons egged. 

ST AM. Filaments five, awled, expanding ; from the mouth of the tube, 
adhering to the divifions of the border by rhomboidal concave bafes 
convergent above. Anthers large, arrowed. 

PIST. Germ above, egg-oblong, two-cleft. Styles two, azure, funnel- 
form, diverging almoft horizontally. Stigmas lopped, open. 

PER. Capfule rnany-feeded. 

SEEDS very minute. 

Stem herbaceous, branchy, fmooth, pale, creeping. Leaves alternate, 
fhort-petioled, moft entire, lance-oblong, fmooth, acutim. Peduncles 
moftly axillary, fometimes terminal, villous, often many-flowered, 
rarely fubumbelled, three-rayed, with involucres general and partial. 
Carols bright-blue, or violet ; Stamens white. The plant is aquatick ; 
and by no means peculiar to Si/an : I have great reafon, however, to 
doubt whether it be the Langali of the Amaracojh, which is cer- 
tainly the Canchra of Bengal; for though it was firft brought to me 
by that name, yet my gardener infifts, that Canchra is a very different 
plant, which, on examination, appears to be the Afcending JUSSIEUA 
of LINNAEUS, with leaves inverfe-egged, fmooth, and peduncles Jhorter : 



its fibrous, creeping roots are purplifh, buoys, white, pointed, folitary; 
and at the top of the germ fits a nettary, compofed of five fhaggy 
bodies arched like horfe fhoes, with external honey-bearing cavities. 

33. UMA': 

SYN. Atasi, Cfiumd. 

VULG. Tisi, Mafand. 

LINN. Mojl common LINUM. 

CAL. Perianth five-leaved. Leaflets oblong, acute, imbricated, keeled, 

fringed, minutely having fomewhat reflected at the points. 
COR. Small, blue; petals, notched, ftriated, wavy, reflex, imbricated. 
STAM. Anthers light-blue, converging, no rudiments of filaments. 
PIST. Germ large. Style pale-blue. Stigma fimple. 
PER. Capfule pointed. Furrowed. 
Root fimple. 

Stem. Herbaceous, low, erect, furrowed, knotty ? naked at the bafe. 
Leaves linear, threenerved, alternate croflwife, feffile, fmooth, obtufe, 

reflected, ftipuled, glanded? 
Stipules linear. Q^a minute gland at the bafe. 

34. MU'RVA': 

SYN. De'vt, Madhurafd, Mora fa, Te'jam, Surva, Madhulica, Madhus- 

rerii, Go'carm, Piluparrit; 
VULG. Muraga, Murahara, Murgdbl. 
LINN. Hyacintboid, ALETRIS. 
CAL. None. 
COR. One-petaled, funnel-form, fix-angled. Tube Ihort, bellied with 

the germ. Border fix-parted. Divifions lanced ; three quite reflected 

in a circle ; three alternate, deflected, pointed. 
STAM. Filaments fix, awled, as long as the corol, diverging, inferted 

in the bafe of the divifions. Anthers oblong, incumbent. 



PIST. Germ inverfe-egged, obfcurely three-fided, with two or three 
honey-bearing pores on the flattifh top. Style awled, one-furrowed as 
long as the ftamens. Stigma clubbed. 

PERICARP and SEEDS not yet infpedted. 

Root fibrous, tawny, obfcurely jointed, ftolon-bearing. Scape long, 
columnar, fheathed with leaves, imbricated from the root; a few 
(heaths above, flraggling. Leaves flefhy, channelled, fwordform, 
keeled, terminated with awls, the interior ones longer ; moflly 
arched; variegated with tranfverfe undulating bands of a dark green, 
hue approaching to black. Raceme erect, very long ; Flowers, from 
three to feven in each fafcicle, on very fhort petiols. Braffs 
linear, minute. Carols, pale pea-green, with a delicate fragrance, 
refembling that of the Peruvian HELIOTROPE ; fome of the Sanfcrit 
names allude to the honey of thefe delicious flowers ; but the nec- 
tareous pores at the top of the germ are not very diftindl: in one 
copy of the Amaracojha we read Dhanuhs'reni among the fynonyma ; 
and if that word, which means a feries of bows, be correct, it muft 
allude either to the arched leaves or to the reflected divi/ions of the 
corol. This ALETRIS appears to be a night-flower; the raceme 
being covered, every evening, with frem bloflbms, which fall before 

From the leaves of this plant, the ancient Hindus extricated a very 
tough elaftick thread, called Maurvi, of which they made bowftrings, 
and which for that reafon, was ordained by MENU to form the facrificial 
zone of the military clafs. 

35. TARUNI: 

SYN. Sahd, Cumdri. 

VULG. Ghnta-cumdri. 

LINN. Two-ranked ALOE, A Perfoliata, P ? 



Flo-wers racemed, pendulous, fubcylindrick, rather incurved. BraSls, 
one to each peduncle, awled, concave, deciduous, pale, with three 
dark flripes. Carol fix-parted -, three external divijions, orange-fcar- 
let -, internal, yellow, keeled, more flefhy, and more highly coloured 
in the middle. Filaments with a double curvature. Germ fix-fur- 
rowed. Stigma iimple. Leaves awled, two-ranked ; the lowefl, ex- 
panding ; fea-green, very flemy ; externally quite convex, edged with 
foft thorns ; variegated on both fides with white fpots. VAN RHEEDE 
exhibits the true ALOE by the name of Cumdn ; but the fpecimen, 
brought me by a native gardener, feemed a variety of the two-ranked, 
though melting into the fpecies, which immediately precedes it in 

36. BACULA : 

SYN. Cesar a. 

VULG. Mulfari or Mulafri. 


CAL. Perianth eight-leaved; leaflets egged, acute, permanent -, four 

interior, fimple ; four exterior, leathery. 
COR. Petals fixteen, lanced, expanding -, as long as the calyx. Nec~ 

tary eight-leaved ; leaflets lanced, converging round the ftamen and 

STAM. Filaments eight (or from feven to ten), awled, very fhort, 

hairy. Anthers oblong, erecl:. 
PIST. Germ above, roundifh, villous. Style cylindrick. Stigma 


PER. Drupe oval, pointed ; bright orange-fcarlet. 
NUT. Oval, wrinkled, flattifh and fmooth at one edge, broad and 

two-furrowed at the other. 
F/owers agreeably fragrant in the open air, but with too ftrong a per-, 

fume to give pleafure in an apartment : fmce it muft require the 
VOL. n. M imagination 


imagination of a BURMAN to difcover in them a refemblance to the 
face of a man, or of an ape, the genus will, ' I hope, be called 
BACULA, by which name it is frequently celebrated in the Pur anas, 
and even placed among the flowers of the Hindu paradife. Leaves 
alternate, petioled, egg-oblong pointed, fmooth. The tree is very 
ornamental in parks and pleafure-grounds. 

37. AS'O'CA : 
SYN. Vanjula. 

CAL. Perianth two-leaved, clofely embracing the tube. 
COR. One-petaled. Tube long; cylindrick, fubincurved; mouth en- 
circled with a nedlareous rim. Border four-parted, divifions, roundifh. 
STAM. Filaments eight, long, coloured, inferted on the rim of the tube. 

Anthers kidney-fhaped. 
PIST. Germ, above, oblong, flat. Style fhort, downy. Stigma bent> 

PER. Legume long, comprefled at firft, then protuberant with the 

fwelling feeds ; incurved, ftrongly veined and margined, fharp- 

SEEDS from two to eight, folid, large, many-lhaped, fome oblong- 

roundifh, fome rhomboidal, fome rather kidney-fhaped, moftly thick, 

fome flat. 
Leaves egg-oblong-lanced, oppofite, moftly five-paired, nerved ; long 

from four or five to twelve or thirteen inches. 

The number of ftamens varies confiderably in the fame plant : they 
are from fix or feven to eight or nine ; but the regular number feems 
eighty one in the inteftices of the corol, and one before the centre of each 
divifion. Moft of the flowers, indeed, have one abortive ftamen, and 
fome only mark its place, but many are perfect ; and VAN RHEEDE 
fpeaks of eight as the conftant number : in facl no part of the plant is 



conftant. Flowers fafcicled, fragrant juft after funfet and before fun- 
rife, when they are frefh with evening and morning dew ; beautifully 
diverfified with tints of orange-fcarlet, of pale yellow, and of bright 
orange, which grows deeper every day, and forms a variety of {hades ac- 
cording to the age of each bloflbm, that opens in the fafcicle. The ve- 
getable world fcarce exhibits a richer fight than an ^so'ca-tree in full 
bloom : it is about as high as an ordinary Cherry-tree. A Brahmen in- 
forms me, that one fpecies of the Asoca is a creeper j and JAYADE'VA 
gives it the epithet voluble : the Sanfcrit name will, I hope, be retained 
by botanifts, as it perpetually occurs in the old Indian poems and in 
treatifes on religious rites. 

38. S'AIVA'LA.: 

SYN. Janalifi. S'aivala. 

VULG. Simdr, Sydld, Pdtafydla, Sehdld. 

LINN. Vallifneria? R. 

CAL. Common Spat he one-leaved, many-flowered, very long, fur- 
rowed, two-cleft at the top ; each divifion end-nicked. Proper 
Perianth three-parted ; divifions, awled. 

COR. Petals three, linear, long, expanding, flefhy. 

STAM. Filaments invariably nine, thread-form. Anthers erect, oblong, 

PIST. Germ egged, uneven. Styles always three, fhort, awled, ex- 
panding. Stigmas three, fimple. 

PER. Capfule very long, fmooth, awled, one-celled, infolded in an 
angled Spathe. 

SEEDS very numerous, murexed, in a vifcid mucus. 

Flowrets from fix to fourteen, fmall. Scape comprefled, very narrow, 
flefhy, furrowed in the middle. 

Pedicel of the floweret, thread-form, crimfon above; proper perianth, 
ruflet ; petals, white ; anthers, deep yellow. Leaves fwordform, 



pointed, very narrow, fmooth, and foft, about two feet long, crowded, 
white at the bafe. Root fmall, fibrous. It in the ponds at 
Crijhna-nagar : the refiners of fugar, ufe it in this province. If this 
plant be a ValKfneria, I have been fo unfortunate as never to have 
feen a female plant, nor fewer than nine ftamens in one bloffom out 
of more than a hundred, which I carefully examined. 


SYN. Pracirya, Put lea t Calimaraca. 

VULG. Ndtdcaranja. 

LINN. GUILANDINA Bonduccella* 

The fpecies of this genus vary in a fingular manner : on feveral plants, 
with the oblong leaflets and double prickles of the Bonduccella, I could fee 
only male flowers, as RHEEDE has defcribed them ; they were yellow, 
with an aromatick fragrance. Others, with fimilar leaves and prickles, 
were clearly polygamous, and the flowers had the following character : 


CAL. Perianth one-leaved, falver-form, downy ; Border five-parted, 
with equal, oblong dfoifions. 

COR. Petals five, wedge-form, obtufely notched at the top ; four 
equal, eredt, the fifth, deprefied. 

STAM. Filaments ten, awled, inferted in the calyx, villous, very un- 
equal in length. Anthers oblong, furrowed, incumbent. 

Calyx, Carol, and Stamens, as before. 

PIST. Germ oblong, villous. Style cylindrick, longer than the fila- 
ments. Stigma fimple. 
PER. and SEEDS well defcribed by LINN^US. 



Flowers yellow j the depreffed petal variegated with red fpecks. Bratts 
three-fold, roundifh, pointed. Spikes, fet with floral leaflets, lanced, 
four-fold, refle&ed. 


SYN. Sigru, Tic/hna, Gandhaca, A'cjhha, Mochaca, 

VULG. Sajjana, Morangq. 

LINN. Guilandina Moringa. 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved. Tube fhort, unequal, gibbous. Border 
five-parted. Diiiijions oblong-lanced, fubequal ; firfl deflected, then 
revolute ; coloured below, white above. 

COR. Petals five, inferted into the calyx, refembling a boat-form flower. 

#7f-like, two, inverfe-egged, clawed, expanding. 

Awning-\\ke, two, inverfe-egged, erect ; claws, fhorter. 

Kee/-\'ike, one, oblong, concave ; enclofing the fructification ; beyond 
it, fpatuled ; longer than the w/g--petals. 

STAM. Filaments five, fertile ; three, bent over the piftil : two fhorter, 
inferted into the claws of the middle petals. Anthers twin, rather 
mooned, obtufe, incumbent. Five fterile (often four only) alternate 
with the fertile, fhorter ; their bafes villous. 

PIST. Germ oblong, coloured, villous j below it a neftar-bearing gland. 
Style, fhorter than the flamen, rather downy, curved, thicker above. 
Stigma, fimple. 

PER. Legume very long, {lender, wreathed, pointed, three-fided, chan- 
neled, prominent with feeds, one-celled. 

SEEDS many, winged, three-fided. 

TREE very high j branches in an extreme degree light and beautiful, rich. 
with cluttering flowers. Stem exuding a red gum. Leaves moftly 
thrice-feathered with an odd one; leaflets fomeinverfe egged, fome eg- 
ged, fome oval, minutely end-nicked. Raceme-panicles moftly axillary. 
In perfedt flowers the whole calyx is quite deflected, counterfeiting 



five petals; whence VAN RHEEDE made it a part of the corol. 
Carols delicately odorous; milk-white, but the two central ereft 
petals, beautifully tinged with pink. The root anfwers all the pur- 
pofes of our horfe-radifh, both for the table and for medicine : the 
fruit and bloflbms are drefled in can's. In hundreds of its flowers, 
examined by me with attention, five ftamens and a were in- 
variably perfect ; indeed, it is poflible, that they may be only the 
female hermaphrodites, and that the males have ten perfeft ftamens 
with piftils abortive ; but no fuch flowers have been difcovered by 
me after a moft diligent fearch. 

There is another fpecies or variety, called MEDHU SI'GRU, that is 
Honey-iS/grw ; a word intended to be expreffed on VAN RHEEDE'S 
plate in Nagari letters : its vulgar name is Muna, or Raffia fajjana, be- 
caufe its flowers or wood are of a redder hue. 

LINNAEUS refers to Mrs. BLACKWELL, who reprefents this plant, By 
the name of Balanus Myrepjica, as the celebrated Ben, properly Ban of 
the Arabian phyficians and poets. 

41. CO'VIDA'RA: 

SYN. Cdncbandra, Chamarica, Cudddla, Tugapatra. 

VULG. Cacbndr, Raft a cdnchan. 

LINN. yariegafedBAumxiA. 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, obfcurely five-cleft, deciduous. 

COR. Petals five, egged, clawed, expanded, wavy ; one more diflant, 

more beautiful, flriated. 
STAM. Filaments ten, unequally connected at the bafe; five, fhorter. 

Anthers, double, incumbent. 
PIST. Germ above, oblong. Style incurved. Stigma fimple, afcend- 




PER. Legume flattifh, long, pointed, moftly five-celled. 
SEEDS moftly five; compreffed, wrinkled, roundifh. 
LEAVES rather hearted, two-lobed; fome with rounded, fome with 
pointed, lobes. F lowers chiefly purplifh and rofe-coloured, fragrant; 
the fweet and beautiful buds are eaten by the natives in their favory 
mefTes. We have feen many fpecies and varieties of this charming 
plant : one had racemed flowers, with petals equal, expanding, 
lanced, exquifitely white, with a rofe-coloured (tripe from the bafe of 
each to its centre ; anthers, four only, fertile j fix, much fhorter, 
fterile ; a fecond had three fertile, and feven very fhort, barren j 
another had light purple corols, with no more than five filaments, 
three longer, coloured, curved in a line of beauty. A noble Climb- 
ing BAUHINIA was lately fent from Nepal; with flowers racemed, 
cream-coloured ; Jlyle, pink ; germ, villous ; Jlamens three filaments, 
with rudiments of two more ; Jiem, downy, four-furrowed, often 
fpirally. Tendrils oppofite, below the leaves. Leaves two-lobed, 
extremely large: it is a flout climber up the higheft ARUNDO Venu. 
The Sanfcrit name Mandara is erroneoufly applied to this plant in 
the firft volume of VAN RHEEDE. 


SYN. Grdbin, Dadbitt'ha, Manmat'ha, Dadhtp'hala, Pujhpap'hala, 

VULG. Cafh-bel. 

KOEN. Crafeva, Valanga. 

CAL. Perianth five-parted, minute, deciduous j detofims expanded, 

COR. Petals five, equal, oblong, reflected. 

STAM. Filaments ten, very fliort, with a fmall gland between each 
pair, awled, furrowed. Anthers, thick, five times as long as the fila- 
ments ; furrowed, coloured, erecl-expanding. 



PIST. Germ roundifh, girt with a downy coronet. Style cylmdrick, 
fhort. Stigma fimple. 

PER. Berry large, fpheroidal, rugged, often warted, externally, netted 
within; many-feeded. 

SEEDS oblong-roundifh, flat, woolly, nettling in five parcels, affixed 
by long threads to the branchy receptacles. 

Flowers axillary, moftly toward the unarmed extremity of the branch. 
Divifions of the Perianth, with pink tips; petals, pale; anthers, crim- 
fon, or covered with bright yellow pollen. Fruit extremely acid 
before its maturity ; when ripe, filled with dark brown pulp agreea- 
bly fubacid. Leaves jointedly feathered with an odd one ; leaflets 
five, feven, or nine ; fmall, glofly, very dark on one fide, inverfe- 
hearted, obtufely-notched, dotted round the margin with pellucid 
fpecks, very ftrongly flavoured and fcented like anife. Thorns long, 
fliarp, folitary, afcending, nearly crofs-armed, axillary, three or four 
petiols to one thorn. KLEINHOFF limits the heighth of the tree to 
thirty feet, but we have young trees forty or fifty feet high ; and at 
Eandell there is a full-grown Capitt'ha equal in fize to the true 
Bilva, from its fancied refemblance to which the vulgar name has 
been taken : when the trees flourifh, the air around them breathes 
the odour of anife both from the leaves and the bloflbms ; and I 
cannot help mentioning a fingular faft which may indeed, have been 
purely accidental : not a fingle flower, out of hundreds examined by 
me, had both perfect germs, and anthers vifibly fertile, while others, 
on the fame tree and at the fame time, had their anthers profufely 
covered with pollen, but fcarce znyjlyles, and germs to all appearance 

43.. CUVE'RACA : 

SYN. Tunna, Tuni, Cach'ha, Cdntalaca, Cum', Nandvvricjha. 

VULG. Tuni, Tun; abfurdly, Vilayati Nim. 




CAL. Perianth one-leaved, five-cleft, minute, deciduous ; dmifions 
roundifh, concave, villous, expanding. 

COR. Rather belled. Petals five, inverfe-egged, obtufe, concave, 
erecl, white with a greenifh tint, three exterior lapping over the 
two others. Nectary fhort, five-parted; di-uifions roundifh, orange - 
fcarlet, bright and concave at the infertion of the flamens, rather 

STAM. Filaments five; inferted on the divifions of the nedlary, awled, 
fomewhat converging, nearly as long as the flyle. Anthers doubled, 
fome three-parted, curved, incumbent. 

PIST. Germ egged, obfcurely five-cleft. Style awled, erecl:, rather 
longer than the corol. Stigma, broad-headed, flat, bright, green, cir- 
cular, ftarred. 

PER. Capfule egged, five-celled, woody, gaping at the bafe. Recep- 
tacle five-angled. 

SEEDS imbricated, winged. 

Leaves feathered, fcarce ever with an odd one ; fairs from fix to 
twelve ; petioles, gibbous at their infertion, channelled on one fide, 
convex and fmooth on the other. Stipules thick, fhort, round- 
ifh; leaflets o\Aor\g-lanced, pointed, waved, veined, nerve on one 
fide. Panicles large, difFufe, confifting of compound racemes. 
Nectaries yielding a fine yellow dye. Wood light, in colour like 

44. NICHULA : 
SYN. Ambuja, Ijjala. 
VULG. Hijala, Bad'ia, Jyuli. 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, belled, flefhy, downy, coloured, permanent, 
five-parted ; divt/ions eredt, pointed. 

VOL. n. N COR. 


COR. Five-petaledj petals egged, fhort pointed, revolute, downy with- 
in and without. 

STAM. Filaments ten, five moftly ftiorter j inferted in the bell of the 
calyx ; awled, villous. Anthers eredt, oblong, furrowed. 

PIST. Germ egg-oblong, very villous. Style thread-form, curved. 
Stigma headed, with five obtufe corners. 

PER. Drupe fubglobular. 

Nut fcabrous, convex on one fide, angled on the other. 

Leaves feathered j pairs, from five to nine ; leaflets oblong, daggered, 
notched. Calyx pale pink. Corol darker pink without, bright yel- 
low within. Cyme terminal, fpreading. 


SYN. Pun'draca, Vafanti, Mddbavilatd. 

V u L G . Mddbavilatd. 


RHEEDE: Deivenda. 6. H. M. tab. 59. 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, five-parted, permanent j divt/tons, coloured, 
oblong-oval, obtufe j between two of them, a rigid gloffy honey- 
bearing tubercle, hearted, acute. 

COR. Five-petaled, imitating a boatform corol : wings, two petals, 
conjoined back to back, involving the neStary, and retaining the 

Awning, large concave, more beautifully coloured. Keel, two petals, lefs 
than the wings, but fimilar. All five, roundifh, elegantly fringed, 
with reflected margins, and fhort oblong claws. 

STEM. Filaments ten -, one, longer. Anthers 'oblong, thickifh, furrowed. 

PIST. Germs two, or three, coalefced. Style one, threadform, incurv- 
ed, morter than the longeft filament. Stigma, fimple. 

PER. Capfules two or three, moftly two, coalefced back to back ; each 



keeled, and extended into three oblong membranous wings, the lateral 
fhorter than the central. 

SEEDS roundifh, folitary. 

Racemes axillary. Flowers delicately fragrant ; white, with a (hade of 
pink : the large petal, fupported by the neftareous tubercle, fhaded 
internally with bright yellow and pale red. Erals linear ; Wings 
of the feed, light brown; the long one ruflet. Leaves oppofite, egg- 
oblong, pointed. Petiols fhort. Stipules linear, foft, three or four to 
each petiol. Two glands at the bafe of each leaf. Stem pale brown, 
ringed at the infertion of the leaves, downy. 

This was the favourite plant of SACONTALA, which fhe very juftly 
called the Delight of the Woods ; for the beauty and fragrance of its 
flowers give them a title to all the praifes, which CA'LIDA'S and 
JAYADE'VA beftow on them : it is a gigantick and luxuriant climber; 
but, when it meets with nothing to grafp, it affumes the form of a 
fturdy tree, the higheft branches of which difplay, however, in the air 
their natural flexibility and inclination to climb. The two names 
Vafanti and Madhavi indicate a vernal flower; but I have feen an 
Atimufta. rich both in bloflbms and fruit on the firft of January. 

46. A'MRA'TACA : 

SYN. Pit ana , Capitana. 

VULG. Amdd, pronounced A'mrd, or Amid. 

LINN. SPONDIAS Myrobalan [2. or a new fpecies. 

The natural charaSler as in LINN^US. Leaves feathered with an 
odd one : leaflets moftly five-paired, egg-oblong, pointed, margined, 
veined, nerved; common petiol, fmooth, gibbous at the bafe. Flowers 
raceme-panicled, yellowifh white. Fruit agreeably acid ; thence ufed 


in cookery. VAN RHEEDE calls it Ambado or Ambulant-, and, as he 
defcribes it with Jive or fix ftyles, it is wonderful, that HlLL fhould 
have fuppofed it a Chryfobalanus. 

-17. HE'MASA'GARA -, or the Sea of Gold. 

V u L G . Himfdgar. 

LINN. Jagged-leaved COTYLEDON. 

CAL. Perianth four-cleft j dfai/ions acute. 

COR. One-petaled : Tube, four-angled, larger at the bafe ; border four- 
parted j druijions, egged, acute. Neflary, one minute concave fcale 
at the bafe of each germ. 

STAM. Filaments eight, adhering to the tube , four, juft emerging 
from its mouth ; four, alternate, ftiorter. Anthers erecl, fmall, fur- 

PIST. Germs four, conical. Styles, one from each germ, awled, 
longer than the filaments. Stigmas fimple. 

PER. Capfules four, oblong, pointed, bellied, one-valved, burfting 
longitudinally within. 

SEEDS numerous, minute. 

Panicles terminal. Flowers of the brighteft gold-colour. Leaves thick, 
fucculent, jagged, dull fea-green. Stem jointed, bending, in part 
recumbent. This plant flowers for many months annually in Ben- 
gal: in one bloflbm out of many, the numbers were ten and^/W $ but 
the filaments alternately long and mort. 

48. MADHU'CA: 

SYN. Gurapufopa, Madbudruma, Vdnaprajl' ba, Madbujhi'bila, Madhu. 

VULG. Mauydla, Mabuyd, Mabwd. 

LINN. Longleaved BASSIA. 



4ii. CAHLA'RA: * 

SYN. Saugandbica, or Swect-fcented. 

VULG. Sundbi-bdld, or Sundbi-bdld-ndli. 


Calyx as in the genus. 

COR. Petals fifteen, lanced, rather pointed and keeled ; the exterior 
feries green without, imitating an interior calyx. 

STAM. Filaments more than forty; below flat, broad ; above narrow, 
channelled within, finooth without ; the outer feries erect, the inner 
fomewhat converging. Anthers awled, erect j fome coloured like 
the petals. 

PIST. Germ large, orbicular, flat at the top ; with many (often feven- 
teen) furrows externally, between which arife as many procefTes, 
converging toward the jligma: the diilc, marked with as many fur- 
rowed rays from the center, uniting on the margin with the con- 
verging procefles. Stigma roundilh, rather comprefled, feffile in the 
center of the difk, permanent. 

PER. Berry, in the form of the germ expanded, with fixteen or feven- 
teen cells. 

SEEDS very numerous, minute, roundifli. Flowers beautifully azure j 
when full blown, more diluted ; lefs fragrant than the red or rofe- 
coloured, but with a delicate fcent. Leaves radical, very large, fub- 
targeted, hearted, deeply fcollop-toothed. On one fide dark purple, 
reticulated, or the other, dull green, fmooth. Petiols very fmooth 
and long, tubular. The feeds are eaten, as well as the bulb of the 
root, called Sdluca ; a name applied by RHEEDE to the whole plant, 
though the word Camala, which belongs to another Linntran fpecies 

* Accenting to the facred Grammar, this word was written CA/Wr, and pronounced as Callera, 
would be in ancient Britiih. When the flowers are red, the plant is called Halite* and Rafi* 



of Nymphcea, be clearly engraved on his plate in Nagari letters. 
There is a variety of this fpecies with leaves purplifh on both fides ; 
flowers dark crimfon, calycine petals richly coloured internally, and 
anthers flat, furrowed, adhering to the top of the filaments : the 
petals are more than fifteen, lefs pointed and broader than the blue, 
with little odour. 

The true Lotos of Egypt is the NYMPHCEA Nilufer, which in San- 
fcrlt has the following names or epithets : PAD MA, Nalina, Aravinda, 
Mabotpala, Cama/a, Cufe/haya, Sahafrapatra, Sdrafa, Panceruha, Td- 
marafa, Sarastruha, Rdjiva, Fis'aprajuna, Pufhcara, Ambhoruha, Sa- 
tapatra. The new blown flowers of the rofe-coloured PADMA, have 
a moft agreeable fragrance ; the white and yellow have lefs odour : 
the blue, I am told, is a native of Cajhmir and Perfia. 

SYN. Champeya, Hemapujhpaca. 
VULG. Champac, Champa. 
LINN. Michelia. 

The delineation of this charming and celebrated plant, exhibited by 
VAN RHEEDE, is very correct, but rather on too large a fcale : no 
material change can be made it its natural character given byLiNN/eusj 
but, from an attentive examination of his two fpecies, I fufpedt them to 
be varieties only, and am certain, that his trivial names are merely 
different ways of exprefling the fame word. The ftrong aromatick fcent 
of the gold-coloured Champac is thought ofFenfive to the bees, who 
are never feen on its bloffoms ; but their elegant appearance on the 
black hair of the Indian woman is mentioned by RUMPHIUS ; and both 
fkfts have fupplied the Sanfcrit poets with elegant allufions. Of the 
wild Champac, the leaves are kneed or lance-oblong ; the three leaflets 



the calyx, green, oval, concave ; the petals conftantly fix, cream- 
coloured, flefhy, concave, with little fcent ; the three exterior, inverfe- 
egged ; the three interior, more narrow, morter pointed, converging j 
the anthers clubbed, clofely fet round the bafe of the imbricated germs, 
and with them forming a cone ; \hzjligmas, minute, jagged. 

Both Mr. MARSDEN and RUMPHIUS mention the blue Cbampac as. 
a rare flower highly prized in Sumatra and Java -, but I mould have 
fufpedted, that they meant the K^MPFERIA Bhucbampac, if the Dutch 
naturalift had not aflerted, that the plant, which bore it, was a tree re- 
fembling the Champaca with yellow blofToms : he probably, never had 
feen it ; and the Brdhmens of this province infift, that it flowers only in 

51. DE'VADA'RU : 

SYN. Sac rapddapa , Pdr'tbhadraca ; Bbadraddru, Duhcilima, Pitaddru, 

Daru, Puticafht"ba. 
V UL G . De'vadar. 
LINN. Mojl lofty UNONA. 

52. PARNA'SA : 

SYN. Tulasi, Cat''binjara, Cut"heraca, Frindd. 
VULG. Tulost, Tulft. 

The Natural Character as in LINNAEUS. 

See 10 H. M. p. 173. 

It is wonderful, that RHEEDE has exhibited no delineation of a fhrub 
fo highly venerated by the Hindus, who have given one of its names to 
a Jacred grove of their Parnafjiis on the banks of the Yamuna : he de- 
fcribes it, however, in general terms, as refembling another of his Tolajfis 



(for fo he writes the word, though Tula si be clearly intended by his 
Nagart letters) ; and adds, that it is the only fpecies reputed holy, and dedi- 
cated to the God VISHNU. I mould, confequently, have taken it for the 
Holy OCYNUM of LINNAEUS, if its odour, of which that fpecies is faid 
to be nearly deftitute, had not been very aromatick and grateful ; but it 
is more probably a variety of that fpecies, than of the Small-jloivered, 
which refembles it a little in fragrance : whatever be its Linruzan ap- 
pellation, if it have any, the following are the only remarks that I have 
yet had leifure to make on it. 

STEM one or two feet high, moftly incurved above j knotty, and rough, 
below. Branchlets crofs-armed, channelled. Leaves oppofite, rather 
fmall, egged, pointed, acutely fawed ; purple veined, beneath ; dark, 
above. Petiols dark purple, downy. Racemes terminal; Flowers 
verticilled threefold, or fivefold, crofs- armed j verticils from feven to 
fourteen ; Peduncles dark purple, channelled, villous ; braSts feffile, 
roundifh, concave, reflected. Calyx, with its upper lip orbicular, 
deeply concave externally. Carol bluifh purple. The whole plant 
has a dufky purplifh hue approaching to black, and thence perhaps, 
like the large black bee of this country, it is held facred to CRISHNA 
though a fable, perfectly Qvidum, be told in the Purdnas concerning 
the metamorphofis of the nymph TULASI, who was beloved by the 
paftoral God, into the fhrub, which has fince borne her name : it 
may not be improper to add, that the White OCYMUM is in Sanfcrit 
called Arjaca. 

53. PA'TALI : 

SYN. Pdtala, Amogha, Cdchafihdli, P'hale'niha, Crtjhnavrinta, Cu- 

ve'rdc/hi. Some read Mo'ghd and Cdld/i'hdli. 
Vu L G . Pa raid, Parali, Pdrul. 
LINN. BIGNONIA. Cbelonoides? 



CAL. Perianth one-leaved, belled, villous, withering, obfcurely five- 
angled from the points of the divifions, five-parted ; divifions, round- 
iih, pointed, the two loweft moft diftant. 

COR. One-petaled, belled. Tube very fliort; throat, oblong-belled, 
gibbous. Border five-parted -, the two higher divifions reflected, each 
minutely toothed ; convex externally j the three lower divifions, 
above, expanded j below, ribbed, furrowed, very villous. Palate 
nearly clofing the throat. Neflary, a prominent rim, furrounding 
the germ, obfcurely five-parted. 

STAM. Filaments four or Jive, incurved, inferted below the upper divi- 
fion of the border, fhorter than the corol, with the rudiment of a 
fifth orjixth, between two fhorter than the reft. Anthers, two-cleft, 
incumbent at obtufe angles. 

PIST. Germ oblong-conical. Style thread- form, as long as the ftamens. 
Stigma headed with two folds often clofed by vifcidity. 

PER. Capfule one-celled, two-valved, twelve inches long at a medium, 
and one inch thick j rounded, four-fided, pointed, incurved, rather 
contorted, diminifhing at both ends, dotted with amy fpecks, here 
and there (lightly prominent, ftriated ; two ftripes broader, very dark, 
at right angles with the valves. 

REC. A feries of hard, broadifh, woody rings, clofely ftrung on two 
wiry central threads. 

SEEDS numerous, forty-eight on an average, three-angled, inferted by 
one angle in cavities between the rings of the receptacle, into which 
they are clofely prefled by parallel ribs in the four fides of the cap- 
fule ; winged on the two other angles with long fubpellucid mem- 
branes, imbricated along the fides of the receptacle. 

Tree rather large. Stem fcabrous. 

Brancblets crofs-armed, yellowifh green, fpeckled with fmall white lines. 

Leaves feathered with an odd one ; two or three paired, petioled. 

Leaflets oppofite, egged, pointed, moft entire, downy on both fides, 

VOL. ii* o veined; 


veined ; older leaflets roughifh, margined, netted and paler below, dag- 
gered. Petiols tubercled, gibbous at the bafe ; of the paired leaflets, 
very fhort ; of the odd one, longer. Stipules, linear. Flowers pani- 
cled ; pedicels oppofite, moflly three-flowered ; and odd flower fub- 
feffile between the two terminal pedicels. Corol externally, light- 
purple above, brownifh purple below, hairy at its convexity ; inter- 
nally, dark yellow below, amethyfline above ; exquilitely fragrant, 
preferred by the bees to all other flowers, and compared by the 
poets to the quiver of CA'MADE'VA, or the God of Love. The 
whole plant, except the root and ftem, very downy and vifcid. The 
fruit can fcarce be called zjilique, fince the feeds are no where affixed 
to the futures ; but their wings indicate the genus, which might pro- 
perly have been named Pterofpermon : they are very hard, but enclofe 
a white fweet kernel -, and their light-coloured fummits with three 
dark points, give them the appearance of winged infedls. Before I 
faw the fruit of this lovely plant, I fufpefted it to be the BIGNONIA 
Cbelonoides, which VAN RHEEDE calls Pddri; and I conceived that 
barbarous word to be a corruption of Pdtali : but the pericarp of the 
true Pdtali, and the form of the feeds, differ fo much from the Pddri, 
that we can hardly confider them as varieties of the fame fpecies -, al- 
though the fpecifick character exhibited in the Supplement to LIN- 
NAEUS, correfponds very nearly with both plants. 

The Pdtali bloflbms early in the fpring, before a leaf appears on the 
tree, but the fruit is not ripe till the following winter. 


SYN. Palancafhii, Icjhugandhd, S'lvadanjhtrd, Sivdducant'aca, Go'c/hu- 

VULG. Gosjhura, Gokyura, Culpi. 
RHEEDE : Bahel ChullL 



LINN. Long-leaved BARLERIA ? 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, hairy, five toothed; upper tooth, long, in- 
curved, pointed ; two under, and two lateral, fhorter, fubequal, 
winged with fubpellucid membranes. 

COR. One-petaled, two-lipped. Tube flattifh, curved, protuberant at 
mouth. Upper lip eredt, two-parted, reflected at the fides, concave 
in the middle, enclofing the fructification. Under lip three-parted, 
reflected, with two parallel, callous, hifpid bodies on the center of its 
convexity ; Divifions, inverfe-hearted. 

STAM. Filaments four, inferted in the mouth of the tube ; connected 
at their bafe, then feparated into pairs and circling round the pifHl ; 
each pair united below, confifting of a long and a Jhort filament. 
Anthers arrowed. 

PIST. Germ awled ; pointed, furrowed, with prominent feedlets, fit- 
ting on a glandular pedicel. Style thread-form, longer than the fta- 
mens, incurved above them. Stigma fimple. 


Flowers verticilled ; Carols blue, or bright violet ; center of the under 
lip yellow. Verticils, each furrounded by fix thorns, very long, di- 
verging, coloured above ; under which are the leaves, alike verticil- 
led, lanced, acutely fawed, pubefcent, interfperfed with briftles. Stem 
jointed, flattifh, hairy, reddifh ; furrowed on both fides ; broader at 
the joints, or above the verticils ; furrows alternate. 


SYN. Sindbuvara, Indrafurifa, Nirvandi, Indrdnica. 
VULG. Nis'inda. 

LINN. Three-leaved VITEX ; or Negundo ? 

CAL. Perianth five-toothed, beneath, permanent; toothlets acute, 



COR. One-petaled, grinning ; Tube funnel-ftiaped, internally villous ; 
border two-lipped ; upper lip broad, concave, more deeply coloured ; 
under lip four-cleft ; divijions, acute, fimilar. 

STAM. Filaments four ; two fhorter, adhering to the Tube, villous at 
the bafe. Anthers half-mooned. 

PIST. Germ globular ; Style thread -form ; Stigma two-parted, pointed, 

PER. Berry (unlefs it be the coat of a naked feed) roundifh, very hard, 
black, obfcurely furrowed, with the calyx clofely adhering. 

SEEDS from one to four? I never faw more than one as RHEEDE has 
well defcribed it. 

FLOWERS raceme-panicled ; purplifh or dark blue without, greyim with- 
in, {mall. Racemes moftly terminal ; fome pedicels, many-flowered. 

STEM diftindlly four-fided , Jides channelled j jointed, bending. Sti- 
pules egged, fcaly, thickifh, clofe. Branchlets crofs-armed. 

The tube of the corol is covered internally with a tangle of filvery 
filky down, exquifitely beautiful ; more denfe below the upper lip. 

This charming mrub, which feems to delight in watery places, rifes to 
the height of ten or twelve, and fometimes of twenty, feet ; exhibiting 
a moft elegant appearance with rich racemes or panicles lightly dif- 
perfed on the fummit of its branchlets. On a comparifon of two en- 
gravings in RUMPHIUS, and as many in VAN RHEEDE, and of the de- 
fcriptions in both works, I am nearly perfuaded that the SINDHUCA or 
Nirgandi, is the VITEX Negundo of LINN^US ; but it certainly refem- 
bles the three-leaded VITEX in its leaves, which are oppolite, egged, 
acute, petioled ; above moftly t breed '; below moftly Jived; paler be- 
neath ; rarely fawed and very (lightly, but generally entire : they are 
very aromatick, and pillows are fluffed with them, to remove a cold in 



the head and a head-ach occafioned by it. Thefe, I prefume, are the 
fhrubs, which BONTIUS calls Lagondi, and which he feems to confider 
as a panacea. 


SYN. Catillac-ay Sujhavz. 

VULG. Beng. Hurhuriya ; Hind. Caraila. 

LINN. Five-leaved Ckome ? 

CAL. Perianth four-leaved, gaping at the bafe, then eredl; leaflets 
egg-oblong, concave, downy ; deciduous. 

COR. Crofs-form. Petals four, expanding, claws long ; folds wrinkled. 

NecJary t from fix to twelve roundifh, perforated glands, girding the gib- 
bous receptacle. 

STAM. Filaments fix, threadform, hardly differing in length, inferted 
on a pedicel below the germ. Anthers ere<ft, pointed, furrowed. 

PIST. Germ eredl, linear, long, downy, fitting on the produced pedi- 
cel. Style very fhort. Stigma headed, flat, circular. 

PER. Silique one-celled, two-valved, fpindle-fhaped, with protuberant 
feeds j crowned with the permanent ftyle. 

SEEDS very many, roundifh, nodding. Receptacles linear, often more 
than two. 

The whole plant, moft diftindlly one piece. Root whitim, with fcat- 
tered capillary fibres. Stem herbaceous, pale green, in parts purple, 
hairy, crofs-armed, produced into a long raceme crowded at the fummit. 
Branchlets, fimilar to the Item, leaf-bearing ; fimilar, but fmaller leaves 
rifing alfo from their axils. Leaves fixed, roundifli-rhomboidal, notch- 
ed, pointed, hairy, dark green, the lower pairs refpedlively equal, the 
odd one much larger, ftrongly ribbed with procefTes from the petiol- 
branches, conjoined by the bafis of the ribs, in the form of a flarlet, 
each ray, whitim and furrowed within. Calyx green. Petals white. 



Anthers covered with gold-coloured pollen. Pedicels purplifh. Bratts 
threed, fimilar to the cauline leaves. The fenfible qualities 'of this herb 
feem to promife great antifpafmodick virtues ; it has a fcent much re- 
fembling a/a fcetida, but comparatively delicate and extremely refrefti- 
ing. For pronouncing this Cleome the Cdrave/ta of the ancient Indians, 
I have only the authority of RHEEDE, who has exaftly written that 
word in Malabar letters : as to his Brahmanical name Tiloni, my voca- 
bularies have nothing more like it than Tilaca, to which CJhuraca and 
Srimat are the only fynonyma. 


SYN. Champeya, Cefara ; Canchana, or any other name of gold. 
VULG. Nagafar. 

To the botanical defcriptions of this delightful plant, I need only add, 
that the tree is one of the moil beautiful on earth, and that the delicious 
odour of its bloflbms juftly gives them a place in the quiver of CA'MA- 
DE'VA. In the poem, called Naijhadha, there is a wild, but elegant, 
couplet, where the poet compares the white of the Ndgacefara, from 
which the bees were fcattering the pollen of the numerous gold-colour- 
ed anthers, to an alabafter wheel, on which CA'MA was whetting 
his arrows, while fparks of fire were difperfed in every direction. 
Surely, the genuine appellation of an Indian plant mould be fubftituted 
for the corrupted name of a Syrian phyfician who could never have feen 
it j and, if any trivial name were neceffary to diftinguifh a iingle fpecies, 
a more abfurd one than iron could not poffibly have been feledted for a 
flower with petals like filver and anthers like gold. 

58. S'A'LMALI : 

SYN, Pich'hild, Puram, Mocha, St'hirdyufh. 



VULG. Seme!. 

LIN. Seven-leaved BOMB AX. 

5Q. S'ANA': 

SYN. S'andpujhpicd, Ghant dravd. 

VULG. San, pronounced Sun. 

LINN. Ruihy Crotalaria. 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, villous, permanent; fhort below, gibbous 
on both fides, with minute linear traits. Upper teeth, two, lanced, 
preffing the banner; lower tooth, boatform, concave, two-gamed 
in the middle, cohering above and below; fheathing the keel, rather 
fhorter than it ; pointed. 

COR. Boat-form. 

Banner, broad, large, acute, rather hearted, with two dark callofities at 
the bafe, and with comprefled fides, moftly involving the other parts: 
a dark line from bafe to point. 

Wings inverfe-egg-oblong, with dark callous bodies at their axils, two 
thirds of the banner in length. 

Keel flattened at the point, nearly clofed all round to include the fructi- 
fication, very gibbous below to receive the germ. 

STAM. Filaments ten, coalefced, cleft behind, two-parted below; 
alternately fhort with linear furrowed eredl, and long with roundifh, 

PIST. Germ rather awled, flat, villous, at a right angle with theafcend- 
ing, cylindrick, downy Style. Stigma pubefcent, concave, open, fome- 
what lipped. 

PER. Legume pedicelled, fhort, velvety, turgid, one-celled, two-valved. 

SEEDS, from one or two to twelve or more, round-kidney-form, com- 

Flowers deep yellow. Leaves alternate, lanced, paler beneath, keeled ; 
fetiols very ihort ; Jiipules, minute, roundifli, villous. Stem ftriated. 



Threads, called pavitraca, from their fuppofed purify, have been made 
of Sana from time immemorial : they are mentioned in the laws 
of MENU. 

The retufe -leaved CROTALARIA, which VAN RHEEDE by miftakc 
calls Scbama Pufpi, is cultivated, I believe, for the fame purpofe. 
RUM PHI us had been truly informed, that threads for nets were made 
from this genus in Bengal: but he fufpeclied the information to be 
erroneous, and thought that the perfons who conveyed it, had con- 
founded the Crotalaria with the Capfular COR CHORUS : ftrong ropes 
and canvas are made of its macerated bark. 

The Jangal-s'an, or a variety of the watry CROTALARIA has very 
beautiful flowers, with a greenifh white banner, purple-ftriped, wings, 
bright violet: Jlem, four-angled, and four- winged; leaves egged, 
obtufe, acute at the bafe, curled at the edges, downy ; Jlipules, two, 
declining, mooned, if you chufe to call them fo, but irregular, and 
acutely pointed. In all the Indian fpecies, a difference of foil and 
culture occaiion varieties in the flower and frudtification. 


SYN. Jayd, Tercdri, Nddeyi, Vaijayanticd. 

VULG. Jainti, Jdbt; fome fay, dram. 

RHEEDE. Kedangu. 


CAL. Perianth one-leaved, rather belled, five-cleft ; tootblets, awled, 
creel, fubequal, more diftant on each fide of the awning j per- 

COR. Boat-form. 

Aioning very broad, rather longer than the wings, inverfe-hearted, 
quite reflected fo as to touch the calyx ; waved on the margin ; fur- 
rowed at the bafe internally, with two converging hornlets, front- 
ing the aperture of the keel, gibbous below, awled upwards, acute, 



ereft, within the wings. Wings oblong, clawed, narrower above, 
obtufe, fpurred below, embracing the keel and the hornlets of 
the awning. 

Keel comprelTed, enclofing the fructification, inflected nearly in a right- 
angle, gafhed below and above the flexure ; each divifion hatchet- 
form ; beautifully ftriated. 

STAM. Filaments fimple and nine-cleft, inflected like the keel; the 
fimple one curved at the bafe. Anthers oblong, roundifh. 

FIST. Germ comprefled, linear, erect as high as the flexure of the 
filaments with vifible partitions. Style nearly at a right angle with 
the germ, awled, inflected like the ftamen. Stigma rather headed, 
fomewhat cleft, pellucid. 

PER. Legume very long, flender, wreathed when ripe, fmooth at the 
valves, but with feeds rather protuberant, many-parted, terminated 
with a hard fharp point. 

SEEDS oblong, rather kidney-fhaped, fmooth, flightly affixed to the 
future, folitary. 

Stem arborefcent, rather knotty. Leaves feathered, pairs from nine to 
fifteen, or more, often alternate; leaflets oblong, end-nicked, fome 
with an acute point, dark green above, paler beneath, with a gib- 
bofity at the infertion of the petiols ; {leaping, or collapfing, towards 
night. Racemes axillary ; pedicels with a double curvature or line of 
beauty; flowers fmall, fix or feven ; varying in colour; in fome 
plants, wholly yellow ; in others, with a blackifh-purple awning 
yellow within, and dark yellow wings tipped with brown ; in fome 
with an awning of the richeft orange-fcarlet externally, and internally 
of a bright yellow ; wings yellow, of different fhades ; and a keel pale 
below, with an exquifite changeable light purple above, ftriated in 
elegant curves. The whole plant is inexpreflibly beautiful, efpe- 
cially in the colour of the buds and leaves, and the grace of all the 
curves, for there is no proper angle in any part of it. The Brah- 
ii. p mens 


mens hold it facred : VAN RHEEDE fays, that they call it Cananga , 
but I never met with that word in Sanfcrit, it has parts like an Hedy- 
farum, and the air of a Cytifus. 

61. PALA'SA: 

SYN. Cins'uca, Parna, Vatapoi'ha. 

VULG. Pa/as, P/as, Dhac. 

KOEN. Butea frondofa. 

CAL. Perianth belled, two-lipped; upper lip broader, obfcurely end- 
nicked ; under lip three-cleft, downy ; permanent. 

COR. Boat- form. 

Awning reflected, hearted, downy beneath ; fometimes, pointed. 

Wings lanced, afcending, narrower than the keel. 

Keel, as long as the wings, two-parted below, half-mooned, afcending. 

STAM. Filaments nine and one, afcending, regularly curved. Anthers 
linear, eredt. 

PIST. Germ pedicelled, oblongifh, downy. 

Style awled, about as long as the ftamens. Stigma fmall, minutely cleft. 

PER. Legume pedicelled, oblong, comprefled, depending. 

SEED one, toward the apex of the pericarp, flat, fmooth, oval-roundifh. 

Flowers raceme-fafcicled, large, red, or French fcarlet, filvered with 

Leaves threed, petioled; leaflets entire, flipuled, large, rhomboi'dal; 
the lateral ones unequally divided ; the terminal one, larger, equally 
bifle&ed; brightly verdant. A perfeff defcription of the arborefcent 
and the twining PALA'SA has been exhibited in the laft volume, with 
a full account of its beautiful red gum ; but the fame plant is here 
fhortly defcribed from the life, becaufe few trees are confidered by 
the Hindus as more venerable and holy. The Palafa is named with 
honour in the Vedas, in the laws of MENU, and in Sanfcrit poems, 
both facred and popular ; it gave its name to the memorable plain 



called Plajfty by the vulgar, but properly Paldfi; and, on every 
account, it muft be hoped, that this noble plant will retain its an- 
cient and claflical appellation. A grove of Paldfas was formerly the 
principal ornament of Crtjhna-nagar, where we flill fee the trunk 
of an aged tree near fix feet in circumference. This genus as far 
as we can judge from written defcriptions, feems allied to the 


SYN. Cbirabifoa, Natfamdla, Caraja. 

VULG. Caranja. 

RHEEDE : Caranfchi, 6 H. M. tab. 3. 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, cup-form, obfcurely five-toothed, or fcal- 

loped, beaked. 
COR. Boat-form. 
Awning broad, end-nicked, flriated, rather fpirally inflected, with two 

callofities at its bafe. 

Wings oblong, of the fame length with the awning. 
Keel rather fhorter, gibbous below, two-parted. 
STAM. Filaments nine in one body, gaping at the bafe, and difcover- 

ing a tenth clofe to the %le. Anthers egged, erect. 
PIST. Germ above, oblong, downy. Style incurved at the top. Stigma 

rather headed. 
PER. Legume moftly one-feeded, thick, rounded above, flattifh, beaked 


SEED oblong-roundifh, rather kidney-form. 
Racemes axillary. Awning pale ; wings violet. Leaves feathered with 

an odd one, moftly two-paired ; leaflets egg-oblong, pointed, keeled, 

fhort-petioled ; brownifh on one fide, pale on the other. Common 

petiol gibbous at its bafe. The feed yields an oil fuppofed to be a 

cure for the moft inveterate fcabies. 

03. ARJUNA : 


63. ARJUNA: 

SYN. Nadifarja, Virataru, Indradru, Cacubha, 

VULG. Jaral. 

RHEEDE. Adamboe; 4 H. M. tab. 20, 21, 22. 

LINN. .Braztfj//MuNCHHAUsiA ? 

KOEN. Queens-flower LAGERSTRGEMIA ? 

CAL. Perianth one-leaved, fix-cleft, top-fhaped, furrowed, with pro- 
tuberant ridges, downy, permanent; divijions, coloured, with points 

COR. Petals fix, roundifh, fomewhat notched, expanding, wavy ; (laws 
fhort, inferted in the calyx. 

STAM. Fi/aments coloured, numerous, capillary fhortifh, obfcurely 
conjoined in fix parcels, one to each divijion of the calyx j Anthers 
thick, incumbent, roundifh, kidney-fhaped. 

PIST. Germ above, egged.- Style coloured, longifh, thread-form, in- 
curved. Stigma obtufe. 

PER. Capfule egged, fix-celled, fix-valved. 

SEEDS numerous. 

Panicles, racemed, terminal, eredl. Flowers violet or light purple, in 
the higheft degree beautiful. Leaves alternate, leathery, fome oppo- 
fite, egg-oblong, ftipuled, moft entire, fhort-petioled, fmooth, paler 
beneath. Branches round and fmooth : I have feen a fingle panicle, 
waving near the fummit of the tree, covered with bloffoms, and as 
large as a milk-maid's garland. The timber is ufed for the building 
of fnaall boats. 

04. VANDA': 

SYN. Vricfoddan), Vricjharuhd, Jivanticd*. 

VULG. Banda, Perfdra, Perafdra. 

Thefe names, like the Lirmcean, are applicable to all para/tte plants. 

LINN. Retufe-leaved EPIDENDRUM ? 



CAL. Spathes, minute, ftraggling. 

COR. Petals five, diverging, oval-oblong, obtufe, wavy; the two low- 
eft larger ; the three higheft, equal, bent towards the neftary. 

Neflary central, rigid : Mouth gaping oblique : Upper lip fhorter, 
three-parted, with a polifhed honey-cup ; under lip, concave in the 
middle, keeled above, with two fmaller cavities below; two pro- 
cefles at the bafe, incurved, hollow, oval-pointed, converging, honey- 

STAM. Filaments very fhort. Anthers round, flattifh, margined, 
covered with a lid, eafily deciduous from the upper lip of the 

PIST. Germ beneath, long, ribbed, contorted with curves of oppofite 
flexure. Style very fhort, adhering to the upper lip. Stigma fimple. 

PER. Capfule oblong-conick, wreathed, fix-keeled, each with two 
fmaller keels, three-celled, crowned with the dry corol. 

SEEDS innumerable like fine duft, affixed to the Receptacle with ex- 
tremely fine hairs, which become thick wool. 

Scapes incurved, folitary, from the cavity of the leaf, at moft feven- 
flowered: pedicels alternate. Petals- milk-white externally, tranf- 
parent; brawn within, yellow-fpotted. Upper lip of the nectary 
fnow-white ; under" lip, rich purple or light crimfon ftriated at the 
bafe, with a bright yellow gland, as it feems, on each procefs. The 
flowers gratefully fragrant and exquifitely beautiful, looking as if 
compofed of mells or made of enamel; crifp, elaftick, vifcid internally. 
Leaves meathing, oppofite, equally curved, rather flefhy, fwordform, 
retufe in two ways at the fummit, with one acute point. Roots 
fibrous fmooth, flexible ; mooting even from the top of the leaves. 
This lovely plant attaches itfelf chiefly to the higheft Amras and 
Bihas ; but it is an air-plant, and lives in a pot without earth or 
water : its leaves are excavated upwards to catch and retain dew. It 
moft refembles the firft and fecond Maravaras of VAN RHEEDE in 



its roots, leaves, and fruit, but rather differs from them in its in- 
florefcence. Since the parafites are diilinguifhed by the trees, on 
which they moft commonly grow, this may in Sanfcnt be called 
Amaravanda ; and the name Baculavanda mould be applied to the 
Lor ant bus ; while the Vifcum of the Oak, I am told, is named Vanda 
fimply and tranfcendently, the Vanddca, or Oak, being held facred. 

05. A'MALACI': 

SYN. Tijlyap'bald, Amrita, Fayaft'-bd. 




SYN. Caripippali, Capiballi, Colaballl, Sreyas'i, Vas'ira. Some add, 

Chawed or Cbavya, but that is named, in the Amaracojh, as a diflinct 

plant, vulgarly Chava or Chayi. 
VULG. Pippal-j'banca, Maidah. 

Male Flowers. 
CAL. Common Perianth four-leaved; leaflets, roundifh, concave; the 

two exterior, oppofite, fmaller; containing from eight to fourteen 

florets. Partial calyx, none. 
COR. None. Neflary, many yellow glands on the pedicel of the 

STAM. Filaments from eight to eighteen in each floret, connected by 

a fhort villous pedicel, threadform, very hairy. Anthers large, netted, 

irregular, inflated, containing the pollen. 
PIST. Rudiments of a. germ zndjty/e, withering. 

Female Flowers. 
CAL. Common Perianth as in the male, but fmaller ; containing from 

ten to twelve florets. 
Partial calyx, none; unlefs you aflume the corol. 



COR. Many-petaled, belled. Petals erect lance-linear, flefhy, covered 
within, and externally with white hairs. NecJary, yellow glands 
fprinkling the receptacle. 

PIST. Germ oval. Style cylindrick, curved at the bafe. Stigma headed. 

PER. Berry globular, one-feeded. 

SEED, fpherical fmooth. 

Flowers umbelled, yellow from their anthers. Leaves moilly oblong- 
lanced, but remarkably varying in fhape, alternate. Both flowers and 
fruit have an agreeable fcent of lemon-peel ; and the berries, as 
a native gardener informs me, are ufed as a fpice or condiment : it 
was from him that I learned the Sanfcrit name of the plant ; but as 
balli means a creeper, and as the Pippal-jbanca is a tree perfectly able 
to Hand without fupport, I fufpect in fome degree the accuracy of 
his information ; though I cannot account for his ufing a Sanfcrit 
word without being led to it, unlefs he had acquired at leaft 
traditional knowledge. It might be referred, from the imperfect 
mixed flower, to the twenty-third clafs. 

67. SA'CO'TA'CA : 


VULG. Sy'ura, or Syaura. 

KOEN. Rough leaved Trophis? 


CAL. Common imbricated; leaflets fix or eight, egged, acute, fmall, 
expanding, withering, containing generally from five to feven flow- 
erets. Partial four-parted ; d'ruifions egged, expanded, villous. 

COR. None, unlefs you aflame the calyx. 

STAM. Filaments moftly four (in fome, three; in one, five) awled, 
flemy, rather comprefled, fpreading over the divilions of the calyx, 
and adhering to them at the point. Anthers double, folded. 

The buds elaflick, fpringing open on a touch. 




CAL. Four-parted; divifions egged, concave, pointed, permanent, 
propped by two fmall braSts ; unlefs you call them the calyx. 

COR. None , unlefs you give the calyx that name. 

PIST. Germ roundifli. Style very fhort, cylindrick. Stigma long, two- 
parted, permanent. 

PER. Berry one-feeded, navelled, fmooth, fomewhat flattened. 

SEED globular, arilled. 

LEAVES various, fome inverfe egged, fome oblong, fome oval, pointed, 
irregularly notched, alternate (fome oppofite), crowded, crifp, very 
rough veined, and paler beneath, fmoother and dark above. Berry, 
deep yellow. The Pandits having only obferved the male plant, in- 
fift that it bears no fruit. Female flowers axillary, from one to four 
or five in an axil. 

08. VIRANA : 

SYN. Viratara. 

VULG. Bend, Gdnddr, Cat a. 



The root of this ufeful plant, which CA'L IDA'S calls us'ira, has nine 
other names thus arranged in a Sanfcrit verfe : 

Abhaya, Nalada, Sevya, Amrmdla, J aids' aya, 
Ldmajjaca, Lagbulaya, Avaddha, IJhtacdpat'ha. 

It will be fufficient to remark, that Jaldfaya means aquatick, and that 
Avaddha implies a power of allaying feveriJJ) beat ; for which purpofe 
the root was brought by GAUTAMI' to her pupil SACONTAL'A: the 
flender fibres of it, which we know here by the name of Chas or 
Khajkhas, are moft agreeably aromatick, when tolerably frefti; and 



among the innocent luxuries of this climate, we may affign the firfl 
rank to the coolnefs and fragrance, which the large hurdles or icreens 
in which they are interwoven, impart to the hotteft air, by the means 
of water dafhed through them ; while the ftrong fouthern wind fpreads 
the fcent before it, and the quick, evaporation contributes to cool the 
atmofphere. Having never feen the frefh plant, I guefled from the 
name in VAN RHEEDE and from the thin roots, that it was the Afiatick 
ACORUS j but a drawing of Dr. ROXBURGH'S has convinced me, that I 
was miftaken. 

Og. S'AMI V : 

SYN. Satfu-p'bald, S'ivd. 

VULG. Saen, Babul. 

LINN. Farnefian MIMOSA. 

Thorns double, white, black-pointed, ftipular. Leaves twice-feathered ; 
firft, in three or four pairs ; then in pairs from fourteen to fixteen. 
Spi&es globular, with fhort peduncles ; yellow, perfuming the woods 
and roads with a rich aromatick odour. A minute gland on the 
petiols below the leaflets. Wood, extremely hard, ufed by the 
Brdbmens to kindle their facred fire, by rubbing two pieces of it to- 
gether, when it is of a proper age and fufficiently dried. Gum femi- 
pellucid. Legumes rather fpindle-fhaped, but irregular, curved, 
acutely pointed, or daggered, with twelve or fourteen feeds rather 
prominent, gummy within. Seeds roundifh, comprefTed. The 
gum of this valuable plant is more tranfparent than that of the 
Nilotick or Arabian fpecies; which the Arabs call Ummu Ighildn, or 
Mother of Serpents, and the Perjians, by an eafy corruption, Mug- 

SAMI'RA means a fmall Sami; but I cannot learn to what fpecies that 
diminutive form is applied. 



LAJJA'RU (properly LajjahiJ fignifies bajbful, or Jen/ifive, and appears 
to be the word engraved on a plate in the Malabar Garden ; though 
VAN RHEEDE pronounces itLAURi : there can be no doubt, that it is 
ti\e fwimming MIMOSA, with fenjithe leaves, rootenclofed inafpungy 
cylinder, and flowerets with onJy ten filaments. LINNJEUS, by a 
mere flip, has referred to this plant as his -Dwtfr/"./EscHYNOMENE ; 
which we frequently meet with in India. See Q H. M. tab. 20 
The epithet Lajjalu is given by the Pandits to the Modeft MIMOSA. 


S Y N . Cbandrapufipa. 

VULG. Ch'fibta Chdnd, or Moonlit.. 

RHEEJ>E : Sjouanna Amelpodi, 6 H. M. t. 47. 


CAL. Perianth, five-parted, fmall, coloured, ereft, permanent; dvol- 
Jions, egged, acutim. 

COR. Petal, one. Tube very long in proportion; jointed near the mid- 
dle, gibbous from the enclofed anthers ; above them, rather funnel- 
form. Border five-parted ; divifions, inverfe-egged, wreathed. 

PIST. Germ above, roundifh. Style threadform. Stigma irregularly 
headed ; with a circular pellucid bafe, or nettary, extremely vifcid. 

PER. Berry moflly twinned, often fingle, roundifh, fmooth, minutely 
pointed, one-feeded. 

SEED on one fide fkttifh, or concave ; on the other, convex. 

Flowers fafcicled. Bratfs minute, egged, pointed, coloured. Tube of 
the corol, light purple ; border, fmall, milkwhite. Calyx, firft pale 
pink, then bright carmine. Petiols, narrow-winged. Leaves oblong- 
oval, pointed, nerved, dark and glofly above; moftly three-fold, 
Sometimes paired, often four-fold near the fummit ; margins wavy. 
Few fhrubs in the world are more elegant than the Chandra, efpe- 
cially when the vivid carmine of the Perianth is contrafted not only 



with the milkwhite corol, but with the rich green berries, which at 
the fame time embellim the fafcicle : the mature berries are black, 
and their pulp light purple. The Bengal peafants affure me, as the 
natives of Malabar had informed RHEEDE, that the root of this plant 
feldom fails to cure animals bitten by fnakes, or flung by fcorpions ; 
and, if it be the plant, fuppofed to affift the Nacnla y or VIVERRA 
Ichneumon, in his battles with ferpents, its nine fynonyma have been 
flrung together in the following diftich : 

Ndculi, Surafd, Rdfnd, Sugandhd, Gandhandculi, 
Ndculejhtd, Ehujangdcjhi, Ch'hatricd, Suvahd, nava. 
The vulgar name, however, of the ichneumon- plant is Rdfan, and 
its fourth Sanfcrit appellation fignifies "well-fcented ; a quality which 
an ichneumon alone could apply to the Ophioxylum ; fince it has a 
ftrong, and rather a fetid, odour : the fifth and fixth epithets, indeed, 
feem to imply that its fcent is agreeable to the Nacula -, and the 
Seventh (according to the comment on the Amaracofo), that it is 
orFenfive to fnakes. It is aflerted by fome, that the Rdfan is no other 
than the Rough Indian ACHYRANIHES, and by others, that it is one 
of the Indian ARISTO'LOCHIAS. From refpecl: to LINNAEUS, I leave 
this genus in his mixed clafs ; but neither my eyes, nor far better eyes 
than mine, have been able to difcover its male flowers ; and it mufl 
be confefled, that all the defcriptions of the Ophioxylum, by RUM- 
PHI us, BUR MAN, and the great botanifl himfelf, abound with erro- 
neous references, and unaccountable overiights. 


SYN. Bodhi-druma, Chala-dala, Cunjards'anas, Amvaftha. 
VULG. Pippal. 

LINN. Holy Ficus : but the three following are alfo thought - holy. 
Fruit fmall, round, axillary, feffile, moflly twin. Leaves hearted, 



fcalloped, glofly, daggered ; petiols very long j whence it is called 
chaladala*, or the tree with tremulous leaves. 


SYN. yantu-p'hala, Tajnyanga, Hemadugdhaca. 

VULG. Dumbar. 

LINN. Racemed Ficus. 

Fruit peduncled, top-fhape, navelled, racemed. Leaves egg-oblong, 
pointed, fome hearted, obfcurely fawed, veined, rough above, netted 
beneath. VAN RHEEDE has changed the Sanfcrit name into Roem- 
badoe: it is true, as he fays, that minute ants are hatched in the ripe 
fruit, whence it is named yantu-p'bala ; and the Pandits compare it 
to the Mundane Egg. 

SYN. Jati, Parcati. 
VULG. Pacari, Pacar. 

LINN. Indian Ficus citron-leaved; but all four are Indian. 

Fruit feffile, fmall, moftly twin, crouded, whitifh. 

Leaves oblong, hearted, pointed, with very long flender petiols. 

74. VATA: 

SYN. Nyagrddha, Bahupdt. 

VULG. Ber. 

LINN. Bengal Ficus, but all are found in this province, and none 

peculiar to it. 
Fruit roundifh, blood-red, navelled, moftly twin, feffile. Calyx three- 

leaved, imbricated. 
Leaves fome hearted, moftly egged, obtufe, broadilh, moft entire, petiols 

thick, fhortj branches radicating. 



The Sanfcrit name is given alfo to the very large Ficus Indica, with 
radicating branches, and to fome other varieties of that fpecies. VAN 
RHEEDE has by miftake transferred the name Afivatt'ha to the Placjha, 
which is never fo called. 

75. CARACA : 

SYN. Bhauma, Cb'batraca. 


LINN. FUNGUS Agarick. 

This and the Phallus are the only fungi, which I have yet feen in 
India: the ancient Hindus held the fungus in fuch deteftation, that 
YAM A, a legiflator, fuppofed now to be the judge of departed fpirits, 
declares " thofe, who eat mufhrooms, whether fpringing from the 
* ground or growing on a tree, fully equal in guilt to the flayers of 
" Brahmens, and the moft defpicable of all deadly finners." 

76. TA'LA: 
SYN. T'rtnardjan . 
VULG. Taly Palmeiro. 

This magnificent palm is juftly entitled the king 'of its order, which 
the Hindus call trina druma, or grafs trees. VAN RHEEDE mentions 
the bluifh gelatinous, pellucid fubftance of the young feeds, which, in 
the hot feafon, is cooling, and rather agreeable to the tafte ; but the 
liquor extracted from the tree, is the moft feducing and pernicious of 
intoxicating vegetable juices : when juft drawn, it is as pleafant as 
Pouhon water frefh from the fpring, and almoft equal to the beft mild 
Cbampaigne. From this liquor, according to RHEEDE, fugar is ex- 
traded ; 


tradted ; and it would be happy for thefe provinces, if it were always 
applied to fo innocent a purpofe. 

77. NA'RICE'LA: 
SYN. Ldngalin. 
VULG. Nargi/, Ndrjll. 
LINN. Nut-bearing Cocos. 

Of a palm fo well known to Europeans, little more needs be men- 
tioned than the true Afiatick name : the water of the young fruit is 
neither fo copious, nor fo tranfparent and refreming, in Bengal, as in the 
ifle of Hinzuan, where the natives, who ufe the unripe nuts in their 
cookery, take extreme care of the trees. 

78. GUVA'CA: 

SYN. Gbont'd, Puga, Cramuca, Capura. 
VULG. Supyari. 
LINN. ARECA Catechu. 

The trivial name of this beautiful palm having been occafioned by a 
grofs error, it muft neceflarily be changed; and Guvdca mould be fub- 
flituted in its place. The infpiflated juice of the MIMOSA C'hadira 
being vulgarly known by the name of Cat'b, that vulgar name has been 
changed by Europeans into Catechu ; and becaufe it is chewed with thin 
flices of the Udve'ga, or ^ravz-nut, a fpecies of this palm has been di- 
ftinguimed by the fame ridiculous corruption. 

*) -X2ll 






JL HE Perfian language is rich, melodious, and elegant ; it has been 
fpoken for many ages by the greateft princes in the politeft courts of 
Afia ; and a number of admirable works have been written in it by 
hiftorians, philofophers, and poets, who found it capable of expreffing 
with equal advantage the moft beautiful and the moft elevated fen- 

It muft feem ftrange, therefore, that the ftudy of this language 
mould be fo little cultivated at a time when a tafte for general and 
diffufive learning feems univerfally to prevail ; and that the fine produc- 
tions of a celebrated nation mould remain in manufcript upon the 
(helves of our publick libraries, without a fingle admirer who might 
open their treafures to his countrymen, and difplay their beauties to 
the light ; but if we confider the fubjeft with a proper attention, we 
mail difcover a variety of caufes which have concurred to obftrucl: the 
progrefs of Eaftern literature. 

Some men never heard of the Afiatick writings, and others will not 
be convinced that there is any thing 'valuable in them; fome pretend to 
be bufy, and others are really idle ; fome deleft the Perfians, becaufe 
they believe in Mahomed, and others defpife their language, becaufe 
they do not underftand it : we all love to excufe, or to conceal, our 

VOL ' JI R ignorance* 


ignorance, and are feldom willing to allow any excellence beyond the 
limits of our own attainments : like the favages, who thought that 
the fun rofe and fet for them alone, and could not imagine that the 
waves, which -furrounded their ifland, left coral and pearls upon any 
other more. 

Another obvious reafon for the .negleft of the Perfian language is the 
great fcarcity of books, which are necefTary to be read before it can be 
perfectly learned, the greater part of them are preferved in the different 
mufeums and libraries of Europe, where they are fhewn more as objedls 
of curiofity than as fources of information ; and are admired, like the 
characters on a Chinefe fcreen, more for their gay colours than for their 

Thus, while the excellent writings of Greece and Rome are ftudied 
by every man of a liberal education, and diffufe a general refinement 
through our part of the world, the works of the Perfians, a nation 
equally diftinguifhed in ancient hiftory, are either wholly unknown to 
us, or confidered as entirely deftitute of tafte and invention. 

But if this branch of literature has met with fo many obftrudlions 
from the ignorant, it has, certainly, been checked in it progrefs by the 
learned themfelves -, moft of whom have confined their ftudy to the 
minute refearches of verbal criticifm ; like men who difcover a pre- 
cious mine, but inftead of fcarching for the rich ore, or for gems, 
amufe themfelves with collecting fmooth pebbles and pieces of cryflal. 
Others miftook reading for learning, which ought to be carefully 
diftinguimed by every man of fenfe, and were fatisfied with running 
over a great number of manufcripts in a fuperficial manner, without 
condefcending to be flopped by their difficulty, or to dwell upon their 
beauty and elegance. The reft have left nothing more behind them 



than grammars and dictionaries ; and though they deferve the praifes 
due to unwearied pains and induftry, yet they would, perhaps, have 
gained a more mining reputation, if they had contributed to beautify 
and enlighten the vaft temple of learning, inilead of fpending their 
lives in adorning only its porticos and avenues. 

There is nothing which has tended more to bring polite letters into 
difcredit, than the total infenfibility of commentators and criticks to the 
beauties of the authors whom they profefs to illuftrate : few of them 
feem to have received the fmallefl pleafure from the mofl elegant com- 
pofitions, unlefs they found fome miftake of a tranfcriber to be correct- 
ed, or fome eftablifhed reading to be changed, fome obfcure expreflion 
to be explained, or fome clear paflage to be made obfcure by their 

It is a circumftance equally unfortunate, that men of the moil re- 
fined tafte and the brightefl parts are apt to look upon a clofe applica- 
tion to the ftudy of languages as inconfiftent with their fpirit and ge- 
nius : fo that the ftate of letters feems to be divided into two clafles, 
men of learning who have no tafte, and men of tafte who have no 

M. de Voltaire, who excels all writers of his age and country in the 
elegance of his ftyle, and the wonderful variety of his talents, acknow- 
ledges the beauty of the Perfian images and fentiments, and has verfified 
a very fine paflage from Sadi, whom he compares to Petrarch : if that 
extraordinary man had added a knowledge of the Afiatick languages to 
his other acquifitions, we mould by this time have feen the poems and 
hiftories of Perfia in an European drefs, and any other recommendation 
of them, would have been unneceflary. 



But there is yet another caufe which has operated more flrongly than 
any before mentioned towards preventing the rife of oriental literature; 
I mean the fmall encouragement which the princes and nobles of Europe 
have given to men of letters. It is an indifputable truth, that learning 
will always flourifh moft where the ampleft rewards are propofed to the 
induftry of the learned j and that the moft mining periods in the annals 
of literature are the reigns of wife and liberal princes, who know that 
fine writers are the oracles of the world, from whofe teftimony every 
king, ftatefman, and hero muft expecl: the cenfure or approbation of 
pofterity. In the old ftates of Greece the higheft honours were given 
to poets, philofophers, and orators ; and a fingle city (as an eminent 
writer * obferves) in the memory of one man, produced more numerous 
and fplendid monuments of human genius than moft other nations have 
afforded in a courfe of ages. 

The liberality of the Ptolemies in Egypt drew a number of learned 
men and poets to their court, whofe works remain to the prefent age 
the models of tafte and elegance ; and the writers, whom Auguftus pro- 
tected, brought their compofition to a degree of perfection, which the 
language of mortals cannot furpafs. Whilft all the nations of Europe 
were covered with the deepeft made of ignorance, the Califs in Afia en- 
co\iraged the Mahomedans to improve their talents, and cultivate the 
fine arts ; and even the Turkifh Sultan, who drove the Greeks from Con- 
ftantinople, was a patron of literary merit, and was himielf an elegant 
poet. The illuftrious family of Medici invited to Florence the learned 
men whom the Turks had driven from their country, and a general 
light fucceeded the gloom which ignorance and fuperftition had fpread 
through the weftern world. But that light has not continued to mine 
with equal fplendour ; and though fome flight efforts have been made to 

* Afcham. 



reflore it, yet it feems to have been gradually decaying for the laft cen- 
tury : it grows very faint in Italy ; it feems wholly extinguifhed in 
France ; and whatever fparks of it remain in other countries are confined 
to the clofets of humble and modeft men, and are not general enough 
to have their proper influence. 

The nobles of our days confider learning as a fubordinate acquifition, 
which would not be confident with the dignity of their fortunes, and 
mould be left to thofe who toil in a lower fphere of life : but they do 
not reflect on the many advantages which the ftudy of polite letters 
would give, peculiarly to perfons of eminent rank and high employ- 
ments j who, inftead of relieving their fatigues by a feries of unmanly 
pleafures, or ufelefs diverfions, might fpend their leifure in improving 
their knowledge, and in converfing with the great flatefmen, orators, 
and philofophers of antiquity. 

If learning in general has met with fo little encouragement, ilill lefs 
can be expected for that branch of it, which lies fo far removed from 
the common path, and which the greater part of mankind have hitherto 
confidered as incapable of yielding either entertainment or inftrudtion : 
if pains and want be the lot of a fcholar, the life of an orientalifl muft 
certainly be attended with peculiar hardfhips. Gentius, who publifhed 
a beautiful Perfian work called The Bed of Rofes, with an ufeful but 
inelegant tranflation, lived obfcurely in Holland, and died in mifery. 
Hyde, who might have contributed greatly towards the progrefs of 
eaftern learning, formed a number of expeniive projects with that view, 
but had not the fupport and affiftance which they deferved and required. 
The labours of Meniniki immortalized and ruined him : his dictionary 
of the Aliatick languages is, perhaps, the moft laborious compilation 
that was ever undertaken by any fingle man ; but he complains in his 
preface that his patrimony was exhaufted by the great expence of em- 

12(5 PREFACE. 

ploying and fupporting a number of writers and printers, and of raifing 
a new prefs for the oriental characters. M. d'Herbelot, indeed, re- 
ceived the moft fplendid reward of his induftry : he was invited to Italy 
by Ferdinand II. duke of Tufcany, who entertained him with that ftrik- 
ing munificence which always diftinguifhed the race of the Medici : 
after the death of Ferdinand, the illuftrious Colbert recalled him to 
Paris, where he enjoyed the fruits of his labour, and fpent the remain- 
der of his days in an honourable and eafy retirement. But this is a rare 
example : the other princes of Europe have not imitated the duke of 
Tufcany , and Chriftian VII. was reCerved to be the protector of the 
eaftern mufes in the prefent age. 

Since the literature of Afia was fo much negle<fled, and the caufes of 
that negledl were fo various, we could not have expected that any flight 
power would rouze the nations of Europe from their inattention to it ; 
and they would, perhaps, have perfifted in defpifing it, if they had not 
been animated by the moft powerful incentive that can influence the 
mind of man : intereft was the rnagtck wand which brought them all 
within one circle ; intereft was the charm which gave the languages of 
the Eaft a real and folid importance. By one of thofe revolutions, 
which no human prudence could have forefeen, the Perfian language 
found its way into India ; that rich and celebrated empire, which, by the 
flourifliing ftate of our commerce, has been the fource of incredible 
wealth to the merchants of Europe. A variety of caufes, which need 
not be mentioned here, gave the Englifh nation a moft extenfive power 
in that kingdom : our India company began to take under their pro- 
tedlion the princes of the country, by whofe protection they gained 
their firft fettlement ; a number of important affairs were to be tranf- 
adled in peace and war between nations equally jealous of one another* 
who had not the common inftrument of conveying their fentiments ; 
the fervants of the company received letters which they could not read, 



and were ambitious of gaining titles of which they could not compre- 
hend the meaning j it was found highly dangerous to employ the natives 
as interpreters, upon whofe fidelity they could not depend ; and it was 
at laft difcovered, that they muft apply themfelves to the ftudy of the 
Perfian language, in which all the letters from the Indian princes were 
written. A few men of parts and tafte, who refided in Bengal, have 
fmce amufed themfelves with the literature of the Bail, and have fpent 
their leifure in reading the poems and hiftories of Perfia; but they 
found a reafon in every page to regret their ignorance of the Arabick 
language, without which their knowledge muft be very circumfcribed 
and imperfedl. The languages of Afia will now, perhaps, be ftudied 
with uncommon ardour ; they are known to be ufeful, and will foon be 
found inftru&ive and entertaining ; the valuable manufcripts that enrich 
our publick libraries will be in a few years elegantly printed ; the man- 
ners and fentiments of the eaftern nations will be perfectly known -, and 
the limits of our knowledge will be no lefs extended than the bounds of 
our empire. 

It was with a view to facilitate the progrefs of this branch of litera- 
ture, that I reduced to order the following inftru&ions for the Perfian 
language, which I had collected feveral years ago; but I would not 
prefent my grammar to the publick till I had confiderably enlarged 
and improved it : I have, therefore, endeavoured to lay down the clear- 
eft and moft accurate rules, which I have illuftrated by felet examples 
from the moft elegant writers; I have carefully compared my work 
with every compofition of the fame nature that has fallen into my 
hands j and though on fo general a fubjecl: I muft have made feveral 
obfervations which are common to all, yet I flatter myfelf that my own 
remarks, the difpofition of the whole book, and the paflages quoted in 
it, will fufficiently diftinguifh it as an original production. Though I am 
not confcious that there are any eflential miftakes or omiflions in it, yet 

I am 


I am fenfible that it falls very (hort of perfection, which feems to with- 
draw itfelf from the purfuit of mortals, in proportion "to their en- 
deavours of attaining it ; like the talifman in the Arabian tales, which 
a bird carried from tree to tree as often as its purfuer approached it. 
But it has been my chief care to avoid all the harm and affected terms 
of art which render moft didactick works fo tedious and unpleafant, and 
which only perplex the learner, without giving him any real know- 
ledge : I have even refrained from making any enquiries into general 
grammar, or from entering into thofe fubjects which have already been 
fo elegantly difcufled by the moft judicious philofopher*, the moft 
learned divine -j-, and the moft laborious fcholar of the prefent age J. 

It was my firft defign to prefix to the grammar a hiftory of the Per- 
fian language from the time of Xenophon to our days, and to have add- 
ed a copious praxis of tales and poems extracted from the claffical 
writers of Periia -, but as thofe additions would have delayed the publi- 
cation of the grammar, which was principally wanted, I thought it ad- 
vifable to referve them for a feparate volume, which the publick may 
expect in the courfe of the enfuing winter. I have made a large col- 
lection of materials for a general hiftory of Afia, and for an account of 
the geography, philofophy, and literature of the eaftern nations, all 
which I propofe to arrange in order, if my more folid and more im- 
portant ftudies will allow me any intervals of Ieifure. 

I cannot forbear acknowledging in this place the fignal marks of 
kindnefs and attention, which I have received from many learned and 

* See Hermes. 

| A fliort Introduction to Englifh Grammar. 

J The grammar prefixed to the Dictionary of the Englifh Language. 

See the H:Jioty of the Per/tan Language, a Defcriplion of Afia, and a Short Hijlory of Perfia, pub- 
lifted with my Life of Under Shah in the year 1773. 



noble perfons -, but General Carnac has obliged me the moft fenfibly of 
them, by fupplying me with a valuable collection of Perfian manufcripts 
on every branch of eaftern learning, from which many of the beft ex- 
amples in the following grammar are extracted. A very learned Pro- 
feflbr* at Oxford has promoted my ftudies with that candour and bene- 
volence which fo eminently diftinguifh him ; and many excellent men 
that are the principal ornaments of that univerfity have conferred the 
higheft favours on me, of which I mail ever retain a grateful fenfe : but 
I take a fingular pleafure in confeffing that I am indebted to a foreign 
nobleman -f- for the little knowledge which I have happened to acquire 
of the Perfian language ; and that my zeal for the poetry and philo- 
logy of the Afiaticks was owing to his converfation, and to the agree- 
able correfpondence with which he ftill honours me. 

Before I conclude this Preface it will be proper to add a few remarks 
upon the method of learning the Perfian language, and upon the ad- 
vantages which the learner may expedt from it. When the ftudent can 
read the characters with fluency, and has learned the true pronunciation 
of every letter from the mouth of a native, let him perufe the grammar 
with attention, and commit to memory the regular inflexions of the 
nouns and verbs : he needs not burden his mind with thofe that deviate 
from the common form, as they will be infenfibly learned in a mort 
courfe of reading. By this time he will find a dictionary neceflTary, and 
I hope he will believe me, when I aflert from a long experience, that, 
whoever poflefles the admirable work of Meninfki, will have no occa- 
fion for any other dictionary of the Perfian tongue. He may proceed 
by the help of this work to analyfe the paffages quoted in the grammar, 
and to examine in what manner they illuflrate the rules -, in the mean 
time he muft not neglect to converfe with his living inftru&or, and to 

* Dr. HUNT. f Baron REVISKI. 

VOL. ii. s learn 


learn from him the phrafes of common difcourfe, and the names of vifi- 
ble objects, which he will foon imprint on his memory, if he will take 
the trouble to look for them in the dictionary : and here I muft caution, 
him againft condemning a work as defective, becaufe he cannot find in 
it every word which he hears ; for founds in general are caught im- 
perfectly by the ear, and many words are fpelled and pronounced very 

The firft book that I would recommend to him is the Guliftan or 
Bed of Rofes, a work which is highly efteemed in the Eaft, and of 
which there are feveral tranflations in the languages of Europe : the 
manufcripts of this book are very common ; and by comparing them 
with the printed edition of Gent.ius, he will foon learn the beautiful 
flowing hand ufed in Perfia, which confiils of bold ftrokes and flourifhes, 
and cannot be imitated by our types. It will then be a proper time for 
him to read fome fhort and eafy chapter in this work, and to tranflate it 
into his native language with the utmoft exactnefs; let him then lay 
afide the original, and after a proper interval let him turn the fame 
chapter back into Perfian by the affiftance of the grammar and dictio- 
nary ; let him afterwards compare his fecond tranflation with the 
original, and correct its faults according to that model. This is the 
exercife fo often recommended by the old rhetoricians, by which a 
ftudent will gradually acquire the ftyle and manner of any author, whom 
he defires to imitate, and by which almoft any language may be learned 
in iix months with eafe and pleafure. When he can exprefs his fenti- 
ments in Perfian with tolerable facility, I would advife him to read fome 
elegant hiftory or poem with an intelligent native, who will explain to 
him in common words the refined expreffions that occur in reading, and 
will point out the beauties of learned allufions and local images. The 
moft excellent book in the language is, in my opinion, the collection of 
tales and fables called Amah Soheili by Auffein Vaez, furnamed Cafhefi, 



who took the celebrated work of Bidpai or Pilpay for his text, and has 
comprifed all the wifdom of the eaftern nations in fourteen beautiful 
chapters. At fome leifure hour he may defire his Munfhi or writer to 
tranfcribe a fe&ion from the Guliftan, or a fable of Cafhefi, in the com- 
mon broken hand ufed in India, which he will learn perfectly in a few 
days by comparing all its turns and contractions with the more regular 
hands of the Arabs and Perfians : he mufl not be difcouraged by the 
difficulty of reading the Indian letters, for the characters are in reality 
the fame with thofe in which our books are printed, and are only ren- 
dered difficult by the frequent omiffion of the diacritical points, and the 
want of regularity in the petition of the words : but we all know that 
we are often at a lofs to read letters which we receive in our native 
tongue ; and it has been proved that a man who has a perfect knowledge 
of any language, may, with a proper attention, decypher a letter in 
that idiom, though it be written in characters which he has never feen 
before, and of which he has no alphabet. 


In fhort, I am perfuaded, that whoever will fludy the Perfian lan- 
guage according to my plan, will in lefs than a year be able to tranflate 
and to anfwer any letter from an Indian prince, and to converfe with the 
natives of India, not only with fluency, but with elegance. But if he 
de fires to diflinguifh himfelf as an eminent tranflator, and to underftand 
not only the general purport of a compolition, but even the graces and 
ornaments of it, he muft neceflarily learn the Arabick tongue, which is 
blended with the Perfian in fo fingular a manner, that one period often 
contains both languages, wholly diftincl from each other in expreffion 
and idiom, but perfectly united in fenfe and conftrudlion. This muft 
appear ftrange to an European reader ^ but he may form fome idea of 
this uncommon mixture, when he is told that the two Afiatick languages 
are not always mixed like the words of Roman and Saxon origin in this 
period, " The true law is right reafon, conformable to the nature of 

" things j 


" things ; which calls us to duty by commanding, deters us from fin by 
" forbidding *;" but as we may fuppofe the Latin and Englifli to be 
connected in the following fentence, " 'The true lex is redta ratio, con- 
" formable naturas, which by commanding vocet ad officium, by forbidding 
" a fraude deterreat." 

A knowledge of thefe two languages will be attended with a variety 
of advantages to thofe who acquire it : the Hebrew, Chaldaick, Syriack, 
and Ethiopean tongues are dialeds of the Arabick, and bear as near 
a refemblance to it as the lonick to the Attick Greek ; the jargon of 
Indoftan, very improperly called the language of the Moors, contains fo 
great a number of Perfian words, that I was able with very little diffi- 
culty to read the fables of Pilpai which are tranilated into that idiom : 
the Turkifh contains ten Arabick or Perfian words for one originally 
Scythian, by which it has been fo refined, that the modern kings of 
Perfia were fond of fpeaking it in their courts : in fhort, there is fcarce 
a country in Afia or Africa, from the fource of the Nile to the wall 
of China, in which a man who underflands Arabick, Perfian, and 
Turkifli, may not travel with fatisfadtion, or tranfacl: the moft im- 
portant affairs with advantage and fecurity. 

As to the literature of Afia, it will not, perhaps, be efientially ufeful to 
the greater part of mankind, who have neither leifure nor inclination to 
cultivate fo extenfive a branch of learning ; but the civil and natural hif- 
tory of fuch mighty empires as India, Perfia, Arabia, and Tartary, cannot 
fail of delighting thofe who love to view the great pidlure of the univerfe, 
or to learn by what degrees the moil obfcure flates have rifen to glory, 
and the moft flourifhing kingdoms have funk to decay -, the philofopher 
will confider thofe works as highly valuable, by which he may trace 

* See Middleton's Life of Cicero, vol. Ill, p. 35 1. 



the human mind in all its various appearances, from the rudeft to the 
mod cultivated flate : and the man of tafte will undoubtedly be pleafed 
to unlock the ftores of native genius, and to gather the flowers of unre- 
ftrained and luxuriant fancy *. 

* My profcffional ftudies having wholly engaged my attention, and induced me not only to abandon 
oriental literature, but even to efface, as far as porlible, the very traces of it from my memory, I 
committed the conduft and revifal of this edition of my Grammar, and the competition of the Index 
to Mr. Richardfon, in whofe (kill I have a perfeft confidence, and from whofe application to the 
eaftern languages, I have hopes that the learned world will reap no fmall advantage. 

i T TP"P \ J> % "' 
j i a[>lvAiu : - 

iA.-./V. . 

/ f . 

^ '''H ^ }^/ / 


lAwj ~Xj* 





J. HE learner is luppofed to be acquainted with the common terms 
of grammar, and to know that the Perfians write their characters from 
the right hand to the left. 

.-* ' 

There are thirty-two Perfian letters. 

IV. III. II. I. 


Conne&ed. Unconne&ed. Connefted. Unconne&ed. 


. ' -i < 



1 1 I 




^ ' - v r* 
*\ ^^ > 




^ V * 





ex ci X, / ijNl 




ex d> x 




^ 7T ^ 





IV. III. II. I. 


Connected. Unconne&ed. Connefted. Unconnefted. 



Chim. -; 

Hha. J 



Dal. cX 


Zal. iA 


Ra. ^ 


Za. j, 


Zha. j 


Sin. QW, 


Shin. ^jiis 

U* 1 

Sfad. (^2 


Zzad. {j& 


Ta. la 


Zza. la 


Ain. *. 


Gain. i. 


Fa. *_i 


Kaf. v_i 


Caf. idXTuC" 

(i \ i y 

Gaf. (diTLJr 


Lam. (Jk. 


Mim. p. 


Nun. ^ 


Vau. ^ 


Ha. A 


Ya. ^ 


Lam-alif ^ 


-j- ,^ 


V V 

= =^ 


2: =k 


cX ti 


<A ^ 


r J 


- ' > J 


J J 






A,2 *3 


A^ ^^ 


JL^ lo 


la ..-.;-.>fr.iloM 




ji i 


A J 


A J5 


^3 /or^s 


=a .^gg? 


X J 


^" ^T ^ 


A j 


^ J 


V$ * 


X J 




The fecond and fourth columns of thefe letters from the right hand 
are ufed only when they are connected with a preceding letter} as 
cXyST Mohammed. Every letter mould be connected with that which 
follows it, except thefe feven ; I alif, ti dal, O zal, j ra, j za, j zha, 
and * vau, which are never joined to the following letter, as will appear 
from the words <*iT\j berk a leaf, (^ilti daveri a dominion. 

Though the perfect pronounciation of thefe letters can be learned 
only from the mouth of a Perfian or an Indian, yet it will be proper to 
add a few obfervations upon the moft remarkable of them. 


It will be needlefs to fay much of the three firfl confonants (~j L_> (^j 
fince their found is exactly the fame as our b, p, and /, in the words 
bar, peer, and too, which would be written in Perfian_^Lj vu and j'. 

This letter, which the Arabs pronounce like a th, has in Perfian the 
fame found with a ^j* or j, as v^J *j! Abu Leis, a proper name. It 
might, therefore, have been rejected from the Perfian alphabet with- 
out any inconvenience j but it is ufeful in mowing the origin of words, 
as it is feldom, or never, ufed in any that are not Arabick. The fame 
may be obferved of the following letters, u^> ix? la la c. c. ^ which 

c c c 

rarely occur in words originally Perfian. 



The firft of thefe letters anfwers to our foft g in gem, which a Periian 
would write ^a. or to our J in jar ^(^*: the fecond of them __. founds 

exadlly like our ch in the words cherry, cheek; as <j*J. Chirke's 


is a very flrong afpirate, and may be expreffed in our characters by 


a double h, as JU*. hhal a condition. 

is formed in the throat, and has a found like the German ch ; but 
the Perfians pronounce it lefs harlhly than the Arabs, and give it the 
found of c before a, o, or in the Tufcan dialedl, as ^ Lk chan a lord, 
which a Florentine would pronounce like can. This is the word fo 
varioufly and fo erroneoufly written by the Europeans. The fovereign 
lord of Tartary is neither the cham, as our travellers call him, nor the 
ban, as Voltaire will have it, but the ^1^. khan, or can, with an 
afpirate on the firft letter. 

anfwers exactly to our d in deer jv 

This letter, which the Arabs pronounce dh, has in Perfian the found 
of _J z, and is often confounded with it ; thus they write ^jJC^ 


to pafs : It is feldom ufed but in Arabick words; 
though it fometimes occurs in words purely Perfian, as ^ls>jjO! 
Azarbijan the province of Media, fo called from j& I azar, an old word 
forjire, becaufe the adorers of fire, if we believe the Afiatick hiftorians, 
firft built their temples in that province. 

_j and the three liquids <J . (^ are pronounced exadlly like our r, /, 

m, n; as ^j\ aram reft, <jj^ laleh a tulip, j\^ mar a ferpent, (^(j nan 
breed. But ^ before a i__> has the found of m, as tXxJL> kumbed a 
tower, -*JLc amber ambergris. 

J has the found of our z, as^ljx)^ lalehzar a bed of tulips. 



This letter has the found of oury in the words pleafure, treafure ; and 
correfponds precifely with the foft g of the French in gens, or their j in 
jour. It may be exprefled in our characters by zb, as jJ\J zhaleh Jew j 
for it has the fame relation to z which Jh has to s. 

and rjz 
and (ji are our s andyZ>, as 9 Lij ^i>w Selim fhah king Setim. 

la \a 

Thefe four letters are pronounced by the Arabs in a manner peculiar 
to themfelves ; but in Perfian they are confounded with other letters. 


(jjs differs little from (w* as^)<3<Jw> Saddar the name of a,PerJian 
and la has nearly the fame found with c^> as Joe otr ejfence , a word 
often ufed in Englifh, fince our connection with India, to denote the 
precious perfume called otter ofrofes. The word is Arabick, as the 
letters c and L fufficiently prove. (j& and L? differ very little from^; - f 


but they are pronounced more forcibly, and may be expreffed by zz, as 
/^Uaj Nezzami the name of a -poet ; ^*. Khezzar the name of a pro- 
phet in the eaftern romances. 

c and c 

* {** 

Thefe two letters are extremely harfh in the pronunciation of the 
Arabs. The found of c, fays Meninfki, eft vox vituli mat r em vocantis ; 
but in Perfian it is a fort of vowel, and anfwers generally to our broad 
a, as i >.c Arab the Arabians ; (^s. ain a fountain. Sometimes it has a 
found like our o, as in the word before- mentioned, -kc otr perfume. 
As to d it is commonly pronounced in Perfia like our hard gh in the 
word ghoft t as *&. gholam a boy t afervant. 

y has the found of 'fin fa//, as JU an omen. 


is another harm Arabick letter, but in Perfian it is often con- 
founded with t^J7 which has the found of our k, as ^Lc-f'' Ker- 
man the province of Carmania- t ^U Kaf a fabulous mountain in the 
Oriental tales. 


When ViT~has three points above it, the Perfians give it the found of 
g in the word gay, as ^U^Jj^guliflan a bed of rofes ; but thefe points 
are very feldom written in the Perfian manufcripts j fo that the diftinc- 
tion between O" k and (*iT g can be learned only by ufe: thus they 
often write ^^S' r of e -water, and pronounce it gulab. 

<-) f- o 
See the remark on^ Thefe letters are the liquids /, m, n, r. 


is a flight afpiration, and is often redundant, as^Lj behar thefpring, 

which is pronounced almofl like bear; eul & Herat a city in the pro- 
vince of Cora/an, which the Greeks call Aria : 9 therefore is the h of the 
French in honnete, whence came our honejl without an afpiration. At 
the end of a word it frequently founds like a vowel, as <s_> ke, which 
has the fame fenfe and pronunciation as the Italian che which. 


THE long vowels are I j (_ and may be pronounced as a t o, ee, In 
the words call, Jiole, feed-, as (^Uk khan a lord, JiJ ora to him, -^ 
neez alfo ; but the fhort vowels are exprefled by fmall marks, two of 
which are placed above the letter, and one below it> as Cj as ba or be, (^t 
be or bi, L_J bo or bu; thus, 

OJ O, 


'r6^ jr^^sr? Qji^j 



Egher an turki Shirazi bedeft ared dili mara 
Bekhali hinduifh bakfhem Samarcand u Bokharara. 

The mark placed above a confonant fhows that the fyllable ends 

O^ O x x 

with it, as {_<J^ ,4^ Sa-mar-can-di a native of Samarcand; the firfl 
of which fyllables is fhort, the fecond and third long by pofition, and 
the laft long by nature : but this belongs to the profody. Thefe fhort 
vowels are very feldom written in the Perfian books ; and the other or- 
thographical marks are likewife ufually fuppreffed except Medda , 
Hamza*, and Tefhdid " ; the two firfl of which are mofl common. 

Medda above an I gives it a very broad found, as ^1 aun : Hamza 
fupplies the place of (j in words that end in 5 ; it therefore fometimes re- 
prefents the article, as &^\J namei a book, or denotes the former of two 
fubftantives, as LiCL*> AS U nafe'i mufhk a bag of mujk , or, laftly, it 

marks the fecond perfon flngular in the compound preterite of a verb, 

as 5 olti dadei, which would regularly be (__l 5 c}!<^ dadeh i tbou haft 

given. Teftidid fhews a confonant to be doubled, as 8 JL? turreh a lock 
of hair. 

The omiflion of the fhort vowels will at firft perplex the ftudent ; 
fince many words that are compounded of the fame confonants, have 
different fenfes according to the difference of the vowels omitted : but 
until he has learned the exacl: pronunciation of every word from a native, 
he may give every fhort vowel a kind of obfcure found very common in 
Englifh, as in the words fun, bird, mother, which a Mahometan would 
write without any vowel, fn, brd, mthr; thus the Perfian word <Ju bd 
may be pronounced like our bud. 



Vau * and Ya (__ are often ufed as confonants, like our v and y, thus, 

Van a town in Armenia; ^j^juvznjuvenis, giovane, young; 
Yemen, that province of Arabia which we call the happy, 
Khodayir, a proper name fignifying the friend of God. before I 
often lofes its found, as (j^L khan a table. 

I would not advife the learner to fludy the parts of fpeech until he 
can read the Perfian characters with tolerable fluency ; which he will 
foon be able to do, if he will fpend a few hours in writing a page or 
two of Perfian in Englifh letters, and reftoring them after a fhort inter- 
val to their proper characters by the help of the alphabet. I mall 
clofe this fedlion with a piece of Perfian poetry written both in the 
Afiatick and European characters : it is an ode by the poet Hafiz, the 
firft couplet of which has been already quoted ; and a tranflation of it 
(hall be inferted in its proper place. 

Bedeh fakee mei bakee ke der jennet nekhahi yaft, 
Kunari abi rucnabad va gulghflieti mufellara. 


Fugan kei'n lulian mokhi fhiringari fhehrafhob 
Chunan berdendi fabr az dil ke turkan khani yagmara. 




Ze efhki natemami ma j email yari muftagnift 
Beab u reng u khal u khatt che hajet ruyi zibara. 

i^Xj (jn<J &f 

Hadis az mutreb u mei gu va razi dehri kemter ju 
Ke kes nekfhud u nekihaied behikmet ein moammara. 




Men az an hufni ruzafzun ke yufuf dafhti daneftem 
Ke efhk ez perdei ifmet berun ared zuleikhara. 

Nasihet gofhi kun 5 a na ke az jan doftiter darend v 
Juvanani faadetmendi pendi peeri danara 

j,Oj ,2 ^ 
k JC^, JoJ ^J <A/Jj> 



Bedem gufti va khurfendem afak alia neku gufti 
Juvabi telkhi mizeibed lebi lali mekerkhara. 

OJi VJJU cXiUof 


Gazel gufti va durr fufti bea va khofh bukhan Hafie 
Ke ber nazmi to afthaned fclek ikdi furiara. 

In this fpecimen of Perfian writing the learner will obferve a few com- 
binations of letters, which he muft by no means forget; as $ lamelif, com- 


pounded of <_) / and I a, in the word JLo* mofella: but the moft ufual 
combinations are formed with ^ JJT ^ which have the fingular pro- 
perty of caufing all the preceding letters to rife above the line, as \j\^s! 
nakcheer, ^s^^ nakhara, ^j^s^ tas-heeh. The letters that pre- 

^" V " 

cede * m are alfo fometimes raifed. 

The Arabick characters, like thofe of the Europeans, are written in a 
variety of different hands ; but the moft common of them are the 
(^sf Nifkhi, the v-JLJju Talik, or hanging, and the &ZJ& She- 
kefteh, or broken. Our books are printed in the Nifkhi hand, and all 
Arabick manufcripts, as well as moft Perfian and Turkiih hiftories, are 
written in it; but the Perfians write their poetical works in the Talik, 
which anfwers to the moft elegant of our Italick hands. As to the 
Shekefteh, it is very irregular and inelegant, and is chiefly ufed by the 
idle Indians, who will not take time to form their letters perfectly, or 
even to infert the diacritical points ; but this hand, however difficult 

VOL. ii. u and 


and barbarous, mufl be learned by all men of bufinefs in India, as the 
letters from the princes of the country are feldom written in any other 
manner. A fpecimen of thefe different forms of writing is engraved, 
and inferted at the end of this Grammar. 


THE reader will foon perceive with pleafure a great refemblance 
between the Perfian and Englifh languages, in the facility and fim- 
plicity of their form and conftruction : the former, as well as the 
latter, has no difference of termination to mark the gender, either 
in fubftantives or adjectives : all inanimate things are neuter, and 
animals of different fexes either have different names, as ^j pufer 
a boy, ^^ keneez a girl, or are diftinguimed by the words J ner 
male, and s <3Lc made female; as J ^Ji* fheeri ner a lion, 5 iiU, ^& 
fheeri made a lionefs. 

Sometimes, indeed, a word is made feminine, after the manner of 
the Arabians, by having 5 added to it, as U^Lx^, mafhuk a friend, 
amicus, aSkx* mamuka a mijirefs, arnica, as in this verfe : 

^-<J j 

Flowers are in my bofom, wine in my hand j and my miftrefs yields 
to my defire. 

ofh vd wffcai f>na.; f '.-i.;j! 

But in general, when the Perfians adopt an Arabick noun of the feminine 
gender, they make it neuter, and change the final 5 into cj ; thus A^JU 



nimct a benefit is written cx^ju : and almoft all the Perfian nouns end- 
ing in u^, which are very numerous, are borrowed from the Arabs. 


The Perfian fubftantives, like ours, have but one variation of cafe, 
which is formed by adding the fyllable \j to the nominative in both 
numbers -, and anfwers often to the dative, but generally to the ac- 
cufative cafe in other languages ; as, 

Nominative, j*o pufer a child. 

Dative and Ace. \j -**_> puferra to a child or the Mid. 
When the accufative is ufed indefinitely, the fyllable \\ is omitted, as 
{^cXoi. <JO gul chiden to gather a flower, that is, any flower; but 
when the noun is definite or limited, that fyllable is added to it, as 
Ax^. I Jj^gulra chid be gathered the flower, that is, the particular 
flower. There is no genitive cafe in Perfian, but when two fubftantives of 
different meanings come together, a kefra or fhort e (') is added in read- 
ing to the former of them, and the-latter remains unaltered, i-Jci. LLLL* 

^^ s 

the mujk of Tartary, which mufl be read mufhke, Khoten. The 
fame rule mufl be obferved before a pronoun poffeflive ; as ( .^ fC ^MJJ 
pufere men my child: and before an adjective; as ;i)Lutj' .^^i fhem- 
fhire tabnak a bright fcymitar. If the firft word ends in I or the 
letter _ is affixed to it; as L^L> pafha a bafia, J^o^o C^tilj pafha'f 
Moufel the baJJoa of Moufd. l^vy mivaha fruits, ^ ^^ (jljbvy m ^ 
vahai' (hireen frveef fruits : if nouns ending in 8 come before other nouns 
or adjectives, the mark Hamza * is added to them, as (^Lxi*. A^jio*. 
chefhmei heyvan the fountain of life. 



The other cafes are exprefled for the moft part, as in our language, 
by particles placed before the nominative, as 

Vocative, j*u ^l ai pufer O child. 
Ablative, j*u u! az pufer from a child. 

The poets, indeed, often form a vocative cafe by adding I to the 
nominative, as Ui'Uw fakia O cup-bearer, (JbL* fhaha O king-, thus Sadi 
ufes sX/Jb bulbula as the vocative of J^xJlj bulbul a nightingale. 

Bring, O nightingale, the tidings of fpring ; leave all unpleafant news 
to the owl. 

In fome old compofitions the particle -* mer is prefixed to the accu- 
fative cafe; as ..Out} ljl ^ mer ora deedem I Jaw him; but this 
is either obfolete or inelegant, and is feldom ufed by the moderns. 

The reader, who has been ufed to the inflexions of European languages, 
will, perhaps, be pleafed to fee an example of Perfian nouns, as they 
anfwer to the cafes in Latin : 

a rofe, rofa. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. (J>Ja rofe, rofa. LX> rg/fj, rofae. 



Gen. Ju of a rofe, rofae. \^j^ of rofes, rofarum. 

*. A 

Dat. I Jj to a rofe, rofae. \jLJJ^ to rqfes, rofis. 

Ace. I SJ^ the rofe, rofam. I^LJj^the ro/^j, rofas. 

Voc ' e ' 6 rofa * 1 ' r ^ x> 6 

Abl. (Jij'jjl from a rofe, ro&. LJLT^J! from rofes, rofis. 

Jj bulbul nightingale. 


Nom. and Gen. J^xXj a nightingale. 
Dat. and Ace. IJ-sXj /<? <z nightingale. 
Voc. JuJlj (^1 (Poet sXxb) O nightingale. 
Abl. <_K^.J' yro/w <z nightingale. 


Nom. and Gen, (^JUJb nightingales. 
Dat. and Ace. I JJiJU to nightingales. 
Voc. O"^-^ <-' ^ nightingales. 

Abl. ^jsXJj _J! ^raw nightingales. 

Boy, bring the wine, for the feafon of the rofe approaches ; let us again 



break our vows of repentance in the midft of the rofes. O Hafiz, thou 
defireft, like the nightingales, the prefence of the rofe : let thy very foul 
be a ranfom for the earth where the keeper of the rofe-garden walks ! 

I fhall in this manner quote a few Perfian couplets, as examples of 
the principal rules in this grammar : fuch quotations will give fome 
variety to a fubject naturally barren and unpleafant; will ferve as a 
fpecimen of the oriental ftyle ; and will be more eafily retained in the 
memory than rules delivered in mere profe. 


Our article a is fupplied in Perfian by adding the letter ^ to a 
noun, which reilrains it to the fmgular number -, as /_A=j guli a 
Jingle rofe ; 

One morning I went into the garden to gather a rofe, when on a fudden 
the voice of a nightingale ftruck my ear. 

Without this termination s^=> gul weu-ld lignify rofes or fawers 
colledtively, as 

Call for wine, and fcatter flowers around, 



When a noun ends in 5 the idea of unity is exprefled by the mark 

Hamza, as A^ji*^. chefhmei a Jingle fountain. 


From the two examples in a preceding feclion it appears that the 
Perfian plural is formed by adding ^\ or 1$ to the fingular: but ihefe 
terminations are not, as in many languages, wholly arbitrary ; on the 
contrary they are regulated with the utmofl preciiion. The names of 
animals form their plural in (^,!, as 

i*f"g^ gurk a wolf. (^ l*==> j=b gurkan wolves* 

t^XLL* pelcnk a tyger. ^jLXXU pelenkan tygers. 

but words which fignify things without life make their plurals by the 
addition of the fyllable ($>, as 

j bal a wing. l_JL balha wings. 

fahil ajhore. 

Both thefe plurals occur in the following elegant diftich. 

U, JLs*. tX^JlO (jsr 

The night is dark ; the fear of the waves opprefs us, and the whirlpool 
is dreadful! How mould thofe, who bear light burdens on the 
mores, know the mifery of our lituation ? 



There are, however, a few exceptions to thefe rules: tbe names of 
animals fometimes make their plurals in l& as well as in (jl, as Juii 
fhutiir a camel, U> J/& fhutUrha and ^ ! Jo* miituran camels ; and on the 
other fide the names of things fometimes have plurals in ^1, as (^J leb 
a lip, ^LJ leban lips. 

Names of perfons ending in ! or form their plurals in ^U, as Ul<i 
dana a learned man, ^jUUIti danayan learned men\ and thofe that end 
in 5 are made plural by changing the laft letter into ^jLT^ as &s^. peche 
an infant, ^iX-s^. pechegan infants , and fometimes by adding (jlJas 
a feparate fyllable ; thus, &j& J ferifhte an angel, ^(J^A^ J ferifhte 
gan angels. 

If the name of a thing ends in 5 , the final letter is abforbed in the 
plural before the fyllable l>, as AJbL. khane a houfe, khanha houfes. 

In fome modern Perfian books, as the Life of Nader Shah and others, 
the plural often ends in iol or in ^(z* if the fingular has a final 8 . 

Sing. Plur. 

nuwazim a favour. CjUJI^j nuwazifhzt favours. 
j' kalat a cajlle. e .j| ,^.,xJLa kalajat cajiles. 


But thefe muft be confidered as barbarous, and are a proof that the late 
dreadful commotions which have ruined the empire of the Perfians/ 
have begun to deftroy even the beautiful fimplicity of their language. 

It muft not be omitted, that the Arabick fubftantives frequently have 
two forts of plurals, one formed according to the analogy of the Perfian 
nouns, and another after the irregular manner of the Arabians ; as u*x 
aib a vice, I$AA aibha and t^-oUt avaib vices-, AjtXi' kalah a cajlle, 


li' kalaha and c $3 kalaa cajtles ; \~+j\j nayib a -viceroy, plur. \-Ay 


navab, which our countrymen have miflaken for the fingular number, 
and fay very improperly a nabob. This is one argument out of a great 
number to prove the impombility of learning the Perfian language ac- 
curately without a moderate knowledge of the Arabick ; and if the 
learner will follow my advice, he will perufe with attention the Ara- 
bick grammar of Erpenius * before he attempts to tranflate a Perfian 


The Perfian adjectives admit of no variation, but in the degrees of 
comparifon. The pofitive is made comparative by adding to it J, and 
fuperlative by adding <^jy> as 

*. khubjfa/r, Ju*^. khubtery^/Vvr, (^j Ju*^. 
khubterin faireft. 

Our than after a comparative is exprefied by the prepofition^) I az, as 


_IO V A^JVJiJ^I ^S-\J_^U 4J V_ HJJ OliJ*l 

The brightnefs of thy face is more fplendid than the cheek of day j the 
blacknefs of thy locks is darker than the hue of night. 

* There are two fine editions of this grammar, the firft publifhed by the very learned Golius, and 
the fecond by the late Albert Schultens; both thefe Orientalifts have added a number of Arabick 
odes and elegies, which they have explained in excellent notes : but thefe editions are fcarce, and 
Meninfld has inferted in his grammar the fubftance of Erpenius, with many new remarks. 

VOL. II. X xL, 


j! J^sri3 *j cXi 

The moon is bright, but thy face is brighter than it; the cyprefs is 
graceful, but thy fhape is more graceful than the cyprefs. 

An adjective is fometimes ufed fubflantively, and forms its plural like 
( a noun, as ^jL^>O^.hhakiman the 'wife; if it be a compounded adjective, 
the fyllables ^ \ and \j denoting the plural number and the oblique cafe, 
are placed at the end of it, as JcX^Lo fahibdil an honejl man ; oblique 
I JtXys.Lj fahibdilra; plural ^JltX^Uj fahibdilan, oblique I J 
fahibdilanra ; as 

The damfels with faces like angels are dejected at the fight of that 
cheek; the nymphs with the fragrance of jeflamine are filled with 
envy when they view thofe curls. 


The perfonal pronouns are thefe which follow; 

men /. 

Sing, ^j^ men /. Oblique, f .* mera me. 

Plur. U ma we. U mara us. 


*j' to Thou. 


to thou 
fhuma you or ye. 


Sing. J o he,Jhe, or /V. 
Plur. <^U*jf iman they. 

Obi. |J' tura 

i fliumara 

o He. 

Obi. lij 6ra &/, her, or ;/. 

I Jtijl ifhanra 

The poets often ufe (^Li for ^jLwjl, as 

I went, and bruifed their helmets ; I disfigured their beautiful faces. 

After a prepofition ! is often changed into (_ or or (^ J oe, as 

When the king of the world ftiowed his face, the general kifled the 
ground, and advanced before him. Ferduji. 

Sometimes after the prepofition ^ in, the letter is inferted to pre- 
vent the hiatus, as jOu bedo for jLj beo in it; the fame may be obferv- 
cd of jlcXj bcdan for ^lj bean in that, J<AJ bedeen for .lj in this.* 

* In the fame manner and from the fame motive the old Romans added a el to many words 
followed by a vowel ; thus Horace, if we adopt the reading of Muretus, ufes tlbid for titi. 
Omne crede diem tilld illuxiife fupremum. 



The pofTeflives are the fame with the perfonals, and are diftinguimed 
by being added to their fubftantives ; as 

Sing. ^J^ 9 J<3 dili men my heart. 
J ,Ji} dili to thy heart. 
{* or J Jti dili o his or her heart. 

Plur. Lc c_lgJii dilha'i ma our hearts. 

[^A> cl^M dilha'i fhumajyotfr hearts. 
Poet. O U 

l^Ujjl CJ>W^ dilha'i ifhan their hearts. 
Poet. (jU* 

They are often exprefTed in the fingular number by thefe final letters ^ 
em, cj et, and ^ efh, and after an I or 5 by J am, o! at, and yi,! 
afh: but after nouns ending in I elif or vau the letter (j ya is inferted 
before the finals * cj (jx, j as 

Jii dilem my heart. 
dilet thy heart. 
ti dilefh his or her heart. 
i>. ame'i am wy 

*. jame'i at thy robe. 
<suols, jame'i afh his or her robe. 
mu'im my hair. 
muit //6y hair. 
mu'im /6/j or her hair. 



In poetry, and fometimes in profe, the oblique cafes of the perfonal 
pronouns are alfo exprefled by ^ o and />, as 

* * - 


Joy be to Shiraz and it charming borders ! O heaven, preferve it from' 

Thefe oblique cafes are joined to any word in the fentence which the 
poet finds convenient ; thus in the couplet juft quoted the pronoun ^ji 
it is added to J I *J ; fo in the following diftich, cj the dative of ^i' 
thoit, is placed after the conjunction ^^gher if. 


Tinge the facred carpet with wine, if the mafter of the feaft orders 
thee-, for he that travels is hot ignorant of the ways and manners 
of banquet-houfes. 

Our reciprocal pronouns own andfe/fare exprefled in Perfian by the 
following words, which are applicable to all perfons and fexes j as 

Nom. i^p* or (jiiO^k Oblique, 

or (j+j^L 
or (p. 



thus we may ufe 

tSt=L (^o myfelf. C^L Lc ourfehes. 

cW=L J thyfelf. C^L l^ y ourfehes. 

t3*=L. jl bis or kerf elf. i^L (jl*jj tbemf elves \* 

. is alfo joined like the Latin ifcfe to every perfon of a verb, as 

Sing. Plur. 

v_ Aw_ 

i*L ipfe vent. ,JtX! <^4=*- ^ venimus. 

_ * ^ 

S2i. ?^ venifti tXj<_X<! JW2k *J/? venijiis. 

Ov! tW^k /j&/^ vmV. tXJtX^I tWk /}^ verier unt. 

The word cip* feems to be redundant in the following beautiful lines 
,of Sadi, 

Doft thou know what the early nightingale faid to me ? " What fort 
"'of man art thou, that canft be ignorant of love ?" 

* I here u(c bis fct/a.nd their /elves mftead of the corrupted words bimfelfa.n& tbemfel-vcs ; in which ufage 
I am juftified by the authority of Sidney, and of other writers in the reign of Elizabeth : felf feems to 
have been originally a noun, and was, perhaps, a fynonymous word for foul; according to Locke's de- 
finition of it, " Self'is that confcious thinking thing, which is fenfible or confcious of pleafure and 
" pain, capable of happinefs and mifery :" if this obfervation be juft, the Arabs have exally the fame 

idiom, for their (yi*Aj foul, anfwers precifely to OUT felf, as _^j / ^i t"UwJL> / ^j / -V^O 
" a boy threw bis felf into a river." 

^ '' ' 



When cWi> is ufed as a pronoun pofleffive, it anfwers to the Greek 
rQsTspos, and Signifies my, thy, our, your, his or her, and their, accord- 
ing to the perfon and number of the principal verb in the fentence j as 
in this couplet of Hafiz, 

I fee no man, either among the nobles or the populace, to whom I 
can trufl the fecret of my afflicted heart. 

The demonstrative pronouns are the following : 

(jjl this. 

Sing. ^jj| this: Oblique cafes, I Jur 

Phar. Uj| tbefe- 

or l^Jul or 

' ^T that. 

Sing. o l that.. Oblique cafes, I Jl 

Plur. ^\S\~thofe. UUT 

or J or 

When (jjl een is prefixed to a noun, fo as to form one word, it is fre- 
quently changed into J im, as u-\^l imfheb to-night; 



Heaven! how great is my happinefs this night! for this night my be 
loved is come unexpectedly ! 

imruz to-day; 

_jt w! CXxwoAA<3 CA ^Jat 

" This day is a day of mirth, and joy, and the feaft of fpring ; this day 
** my heart obtains its defires, and fortune is favourable." 

The words ^j1 and ^I_J! prefixed to pronouns perfona/, change them 
into poffejfi'ues, and are read with a fhort vowel, ani to or ez ant to, i. e. 
thine, as 

4j (^) 
O my moon of Canaan (O Jofeph) the throne of Egypt is thine. 

The relatives and interrogatives are fupplied by the invariable pro- 
nouns &=> ke and A*V che, of which the former ufually relates to per- 


fons, and the latter to things : in the oblique cafes of thefe pronouns 
the final s is abforbed before the fyllable \j, as 



Nom. A=> who. Oblique, \*=> whom.. 

which. I jsk which. 

;*. are interrogatives, and are very often joined to the 
verb Ovwl, as ^^ttj^f who is it? OU**A=X what is it? 

O heaven ! whofe precious pearl, and whofe ineftimable jewel is that 
royal maid, with a cheek like the moon, and a forehead like 
Venus ? 

JcX> kudam is alfo an interrogative pronoun, as 


* *?. < AAw y*i 

We are fond of wine, wanton, diffolute, and with rolling eyes j but 
who is there in this city that has not the fame vices ? 

Our foever is exprefled in Perfian by Jb or (^Ij* prefixed to the re- 
latives, as 

<JL> Jb and AXJJi whojbever. 

and Asr'l Jb whatfoever. 

VOL. II. y OF 



The Perfians have active and neuter verbs like other nations; but 
many of their verbs have both an a&ive and neuter fenfe, which can be 
determined only by the conflruftion. Thefe verbs have properly but 
one conjugation, and but three changes of tenfe ; the imperative, the 
aorift, and the preterite ; all the other tenfes being formed by the help 
of the particles ,^ and (-4^, or of the auxiliary verbs ^jJC*^ or ^ti *j 
to be, and (.JCwjLrL to be willing. The paflive voice is formed by add- 
ing the tenfes of the verb fubftantive ^jtXi to the participle preterite of 
the active j tXwJ oOu'Urk it was read. The inflexions of thefe auxilia- 
ries muft be here exhibited, and mull be learned by heart, as they will 
be very ufeful in, forming the compound tenfes of the active verbs. 

to be. 

The prefent tenfe of this verb is irregular, but very eafy, and muft be 
carefully remembered, as it is the model for the variations of perfons in 
all tenfes. 

Indicative Mood, Prefent Tenfe. 

Sing. J lam. Plur. ^j! we are. 

thou art. Ou! ye are. 

he is. cXj! they are. 



This tenfe joined to nouns, pronouns, or adje&ives often coalefces 
With them, and lofes the initial ! elif ; as with pronouns, 

Sing. JLo egofum. 
j' tu es, 
ilk eft. 

Plur. >jLc nosfumus, 
OoUji vox eftis* 
tXJuUol illifunt. 

With adjectives, 

i I am glad. 
j tbou art glad. 
i be is glad. 

The negatives are formed by prefixing 
but civw! AJ is commonly written CX 

.jtiti we are glad. 


OuciLi you are glad. 

i they are -gla&. '*, 


j or ^, as ! tJIam not,-fcc. 
w not, as 


'* The path of love is a path to which there is no end, in which there 
' is no remedy for lovers, but to give up their fouls." Hafiz. 

Second Prefent from the defective 


Sing. JC*Jt> / am. 

tbou art. 

to be. 
toe are. 








j thou waft. 
he was. 


<were - 
u were. 
j they were, 

Preterite Imperfect. 

Compound Preterite. 

I have been. 

we have been. 

or y&jj thou haft been. Oo! e^^j you have been. 


thou hadft been. 

^ had been. 
OutXji s tS*j they had been. 


I will be. 

thou wilt be. 
he will be. 

k we will be. 
sk you will be. 
j OU^I*^ they will be. 



Sing. Plur. 

f^b let us be. 

or *j be thou. *-\V*^ be ye. 

or t^U let him be. tX/^b let them be. 


Subjundtive or Aorift. 
.jilj or ..j I be. or 

or J CM ee * t) *' or 


be* t^/uiLj or c\Jj /^ be 

I would be. /-yjtijj w? woa/</ ^. 

wouldjl be. (^<JuC^ you would be. 

be would be~ ^OsJt3*j they would be. 

.Future Subjunctive. 
.jib ji^J I Jh all have been. f**^ s 4 ^ we Jhall have been. 

J tboujhalt have been. cXAj**b v&jj you Jhall have been. 
-j hejhall have been. c\\&lj 5 Ojj they Jhall have been. 


Prefent, (jtS^J by contra&ion 
Preterite, Os& 



being. v&j-} been. 

(M<-X>ij to be, 
ufed in forming the Paffive Voice. 

Indicative Prefent. 

Sing. Plur. 



(^ji /^* tbou art. <J^v*' (<* y u 

cW& i^> he is. cXA>* i^ they are. 


/ was. fj<^ <we toere. 

& thou waft* OocXji) jyow were. 

i /6^ WtfJ. 

Preterite Imperfedt. 


Compound Preterite, 
^j I have been. o! 5 cX*i w^ have been. 

j or $<_>ugg ^OK <T^ been. tX^I %oJ*i you have been. 
gtXwa /fo ^^r ^. cX>l a t\i //6<?y ^<zt>^ ^w. 



Sing. Plur. 

/ had been. fJ-^Jt 5t - Xj * w ^ ^ een " 

i* thou hadji been. ^.^ft 5^* yu had been. 

he bad been. <Ju'O*J etX^ they had been. 


x >5f w/// ^^. tX> t*= 


>j ji /<?/ us be. 


/ /6/w be. 

Subjunctive, or Aorift. 

' . 
i thou beejl. 

.ji I be. 

kj^i /6^ ^^. OJ j*j //6^ be. 



i hawing been. 


(^Xwjl^ or (-jO^\jL to be willing. 


nfed in forming the Compound Future of verbs. 
Sing. *^U^>. I wilt- P\ur. ^Jbl^sL. -we will. 

^. thou wilt. O^>\^.ou will. 

a* be will. <_XJl&!^=L they will. 

The other tenfes are formed like thofe of the regular verbs. 


It will here be ufeful to exhibit an analy fis of all the tenfes of a Per- 
fian verb, and to fhow in what manner they are deduced from the infi- 
nitive, which is properly confidered by the oriental grammarians as the 
fpring and fountain of all the moods and tenfes, and which, therefore, is 
called in Arabick ~c\*2*e mafdar or the fource. 

All regular infinitives end in ^jOu, as (^tXy*^ to arrive, ^jtxJU to 
grieve, (^cXyw y to fear. 

The third perfon of the preterite is formed by rejecting ^ from the 
infinitive, eXA^ he arrived, cXxJ U he grieved, cXx^w J he feared. 

I faid, is the zephyr breathing from the garden ? or is a caravan of mufk 
coming from Khoten ? 

The letter <*._> prefixed to this tenfe is often redundant, as 
y j -o he took the mantle, and departed. 



From the preterite is formed the imperfect tenfe by prefixing the 
particles /^* or t~>> as OV^-A* or tXy*^/-^ be was arriving. 

In the third perfons the imperfect tenfe is fometimes expreffed by 
adding (^ to the preterite, as Cj<JyJ U he 'was grieving, <jOJcXj U they 
'were grieving ; this form is very common in profe, as 

^-^S* o'-i^-J' ^'y <X T"* J 5 (^tXJC^J J^Xw^c ia\^J j t-fjJeJ 

" They were immerfed in pleafure and delight, and were conftantly 
" liftening to the melody of the lute, and of the cymbal." 

The fame letter (_ added to the firft and third perfons of the 
paft tenfe forms the potential mood, as ^^etXj U / might, could, Jhould, 
or voould grieve, /-^jtXJLJ we might, &c. grieve -, fo Ferdufi in a 

" If I could fleep one night on thy bofom, I Ihould feem to touch the 
" iky with my exalted head." 

and Hafiz, 

vu /v- 

5 T^ o' 

" Thofe locks, each curl of which is worth ^ hundred mufk-bags of 
VOL. ir. z " China, 


' China, would be fweet indeed if their fcent proceeded from fwcet- 
" nefs of temper." 

The participle preterite is formed from the infinitive by changing ^ 

into y, as y<^f^j arrived, ^<J^J^i fprinkled ; from which participle and 

the auxiliary verbs <^^jJ and ^tXi are made feveral compound tenfes, 

and the paflive voice ; as J 5 <L\A>ijl-> Ibavefprinkled, ^tWj gtXyilj I had 

fyrinkted, ,^(j B (AA>^L IJhall ba-vefprinkled, ^cXij 5 cX^lj Iwasfprinkled. 


,jl g^L^JjcX/J^tJ^Aw jti <^!<-Xj Jo ^ 

We have given up all our fouls to thofe two inchanting narciffus's 
(eyes), we have placed all our hearts on thofe two black hyacinths 
(locks of hair) . 

The Perfians are very fond of the participle preterite ; and it is very 
often ufed by their elegant writers to conned: the members of a fen- 
tence, and to fufpend the fenfe till the clofe of a long period : in poetry 
it fometimes is ufed like the third perfon preterite of a verb, as in this 
fine couplet : 


The brightnefs of the cup and the goblet obfcures the light of the 
" moon j the cheeks of the young cup-bearers fteal the fplendour of 
" the fun." 



In the ode from which this couplet is taken every diftich ends with the 
word otSj for iij he ftruck. 

In compofition the infinitive is contracted by rejecting (j, as 
I will be ; fo Hafiz, 


!L (jUs o^l-J -bti ^xJ 

The breath of the weftern gale will foon fhed mulk around ; the old 
world will again be young. 

This fhort infinitive is like wife ufed after imperfonal verbs, as (j|*i' 
ti-T^/V is poffible to do ; & -^Oob // is necejfary to do ; thus Hafiz, the 
Anacreon of Perfia, 


" It is impoflible to attain the jewel of thy wifhes by thy own endea- 
'* vours 3 it is a vain imagination to think that it will come to thee 
" without affiftance." 

and the poet quoted in the hiftory of Cazvini, 




" The life of man is a journal, in which he muft write, only good 
" actions." 

The imperative is regularly formed by throwing away the termina- 
tion ^Oy from the infinitive, as IJHJ arrive thou, from QtXxxwj to ar- 
rive : the letter j is often prefixed to the imperative, as ^==^> f a y ^ ou > 
{ j H Ju fear thou ; fo Ferdufi in his noble fatire againft a king who had 

flighted him; 


u if 

O king Mahmud, thou conqueror of regions, if thou feareft not me, at 
leaft fear God ! why haft thou inflamed my wrathful temper ? doft 
thou not dread my blood-dropping fword ? 

It muft be here obferved, that the negatives AJ and j are changed in 
the imperative into &^ and ^, as (j-fr* do not ajk -, 


gtXxwjJ / w^c 

" I have felt the pain of love ; ajk not of whom : I have tailed the 
" poifon of abfence; ajk not from whom." 



Before verbs beginning with I elif the letters j ^ and j are changed 
into /^', /-^ and /^, as before^jl are ufed_^U,j bring tbou,j\^ da 
not bring ; 


^Lu S-jlvSj -iLw 

Boy, ^r/tfg- a cup of wine j bring a few more cups of pure wine." 

I JU* A= t^otuo Uc U 

<f Say, ^r/wg" <? tapers into our aflembly, for this night the moon of my 
" beloved's cheek is at its full in our banquet j fprinkle no perfume 
" in our apartment, for to our minds the fragrance that conftantly 
" proceeds from thy locks is fufficiently pleafing." 

The contracted participle ufed in compound epithets is exactly the 
fame with the imperative, as jxXjl excite thou, v^Xjl i^Jyixc mirf/y- 
exciting ; J j I inflame thou, j*f\ /JC\= 'world-inflaming, Getiafro/e, 
the name of a fairy in the Perfian tales tranflated by Colonel Dow. 

The participles of the prefentr tenfe are formed by adding ^f, I or 
oOJ to the imperative, as ^Lw^, Lwj and ocXxwjj arriving ; which laft 
participle is often ufed for a noun of adion, as oOJjilj a player. 



From the imperative alfo is formed the conjunctive tenfe or aorift by 
adding to it the ufual perfonal termination, as from <jl come tbou, 
may or ivill come. 

_> j < * ->*~* 

" When the fun of the wine fliall rife from the eaft of the cup, a thou- 
" fand tulips will fpring from the garden of the cup-bearer's cheek." 

By this affeded, yet lively allegory^ the poet only means that " the cup- 
" bearer will blufh when he mail prefent the wine to the guefts." 

For the moft part this form of the Perfian verb, which the gram- 
marians properly call the aorift, or indefinite tenfe, anfwers to the po- 
tential mood of other languages, and is governed by conjunctions as in 
Latin and Englifli : this will be feen more clearly in the following ex- 
ample taken from the life of Nader Shah j 

t\*~^ (^LgAJLc / ^ 



It is evident to the difcerning and intelligent part of mankind, that, 
" whenever the affairs of the world are thrown into confufion, and 
" fortune favours the defires of the unjuft, the great Difpofer of 
" events, in the effufion of his endlefs mercy, feledls fome fortunate 
" hero, whom he fupports with his eternal favour : and whom he 
" commands to heal with the balm of benevolence the wounds of 
" the afflicted, and to fweeten the bitter draught of their misfortunes 
" with the honey of juftice." 

in which period the words OO J^kerded, cXJL= kuned, OjlO,j per- 
dazed, and OjLw fazed, are the aorifts of ^OuO ykerdiden, ^jii J^ 

kcrden, ^JoJo _ perdakhten, and ^JckL* fakhten, governed by the 
conjunction \ > that. 

The prefent tcnfe is formed by prefixing / or (> to the aorift, 

y I know, /-j !tXy tbou knoweft, OultX^e be knowetb : 

o^=5AJ Jti 

O gentle gale, pafs by the place which thou knoweft, and difclofe the 
fecrets of my heart which thou knoweft. 



With that fweet hue which thou bear eft on the rofe of thy cheek, tbou 
draweft a line over the face of the garden-rofe. 

The particles /^ and i~^ are foretimes joined to the verb, and 
fometimes feparated from it, according to the pleafure of the writer, as 

Purfue thy pleafures eagerly, for while thou canft clofe thine eye, the 
autumn is approaching, and the frefh feafon is pajjing away. 

The letter j prefixed to the aorift reftrains it to the future tenfe, as 
***>jj Twill arrive ; thus Nakfhebi in his work called 3ucLJ /JaJa or 
The Tales of a Parrot, Night 35, 


O Nakfhebi, a man who defires to enjoy his beloved muft be active and 
diligent : whoever labours diligently in his affairs, will at laft attain 
the objedl of his wimes. 

After having given this analyfis of the Perfian verb, it will be necef- 
fary to add a table of the moods and tenfes as they anfwer to thofe of 
European languages. 




Verb Aftive, (jOou* _j porsfden to ajk. 
Indicative Mood, Prefent Tenfe. 

Sing. Plur. 

w*j _j (^# / ajk. ^M -j (^o we ajk. 

thou ajkeft. cXxwj -j /^o you ajk. 

Simple Preterite. 

y* J_ J tf^/. 

^j /^o ajkedft. 
y*i _ he ajked. tXltX^w-j /^<?y ajked. 

Compound Preterite. 
J 5 cXo*i ^ / have ajked. ^\ 5 cXx*w -> 

^1 jcXx>*j - 

^" thou haft ajked. 


Ou! 5 cX^ -> they have ajked. 

Preterite Imperfedl. 

<-Xxj j /^ / wtf,f ajkmg. -jtXx>*j -> / ^ w? w^r^ ajking. 

w^/? ajking. OucX>uw_ii i^, you -were ajking. 
ajking. tXJOyuw _ /^o ^<?y w^r^ ajking. 

VOL. ii. , A A Preter- 


Sing. Plur. 

/ had asked. f^-*^JJ 8t * w Vv <we 

yw _> thou bad/I asked. cXicWj gtXxwj _j jyotf had asked. 

, ., - - Firft Future. 
o IJhall ask. 

/-AW _AJ />6<?a y^^// ^i^ . ^AM j+jyou foall ask. 

J-,*J hejhallask. OJuw_xj they Jhall ask. 

Second Future. 
^. -^ w/// ask. <-\y* 

jf ask. tX^ tXU^. " w/7/ ask. 

w/7/ ask. <^frjf. tXJL^Lsk /^fy w/// ask. 


wuw-j /<?/ j ask. 

/?/ ///w <7j^. tXJ^-j /</ them ask. 

Conjunctive, or Aorift. 
,>*j_j I may ask. <* J *V. we 

J thou mayft ask. ^f^ji )' ou ma y 

_j be may ask. <-*^>*y. they may ask. 






j I might, Gfc. ask. 
j thou mightft ask. 
J he might ask. 

Compound Future. 
Sing. tj ocXxxKi-j IJhall have asked. 

-i thou Jhalt have asked. 
M-j he Jhall have asked. 
jj we Jhall have asked. 
^-j^w Jkall have asked. 
jj they Jhall have asked. 


j we might, &c. ask. 
j \you might ask. 
j they might ask. 



Preterite, ( 



, contracted 
j to have asked. 


J and otX\>^-j asking. 
/ asked or having asked. 



,* / 

Pafllve Voice. 
Indicative Prefent. 

/ <?OT asked. 



Sing. c*^ /_<* O<JSAMJ_J thou art asked. 

ci jij ,_*c o<-Xxwj,J he is asked. 
Plur. ** / OC\A>*-J w *v asked. 
cXy* iyj you are asked. 

* /-^> 



>i otXy*j-J / 'was asked. 
i, OC\AMJ_J thou waft asked. 



he was asked. 


uKi .j 




/ bad been asked. 


oJoi ocXA*w_ ^ 
oOui ocX>o*i-j 

^tf</ been asked. 
w^ had been asked. 

oOoi otXu*i 


^W been asked. 



j / /<?y ^ 

^jiy? ^ asked. 
way be asked. 



Plur. *^w oOyy*j_j we may be asked* 
y*j_j you may be asked. 
be asked. 

Sing. <_\ 

Plur. cX 


Second Future. 

J IJhall be asked. 
L OC\AJ*I_J //5o /halt be asked. 
k oeXx*j.j hejball be asked. 
j ivejhall be asked. 
y*.-j \youjhall be asked. 
Usk otXy*jj they Jhall be asked. 




otXi otXxwj~> to have been asked. 


Negative verbs are formed by prefixing &j or j to the affirmative in 
all the tenfes, as 

Sing. >jl 


not know, nefcio. 

^ >f^K' nefcis. 
he does not knoiv t nefcit. 

not know, nefcimus. 
you do not know, nefcitis. 
they do not know, nefciunt. 



why the damfels, tall as cyprefles, with black eyes, bright as 
the moon, have not the colour of love. Hafiz. 


In the ancient language of Perfia there were very few or no irregu- 
larities : the imperative, which is often irregular lathe modern Perfian, 
was anciently formed from the infinitive by rejecting the termination 
(Mt\j eeden ) for originally all infinitives ended in. ^jti den, till the 
Arabs introduced their harm confonants before that fyllable, which 
obliged the Perfians, who always affected a fweetnefs of pronunciation, 


to change the old termination of fome verbs into ^jj' ten, and by de- 
grees the original infinitives grew quite obfolete : yet they ftill retain 
the ancient imperatives and the aorifts which are formed from them. 
This little irregularity is the only anomalous part of the Perfian lan- 
guage, which, neverthelefs, far furpaffes in fimplicity all other lan- 
guages, ancient or modern, of which I have any knowledge. This re- 
mark on the formation of the Perfian imperatives from an obfolete verb, 
may be ufeful to thofe who are curious in ancient dialects ; as it will 
enable them to trace out a confiderable part of the old Perfian language 
or Pehlevian (^JLgj, which has the fame relation to the modern (.j^ci 
or Perfick, as the Icelandick has to the Danifh, and the Saxon to the 
EngHfh ; and which was, perhaps, fpoken in the age of Xenophon. 
This is the language in which the works of Zeratuiht or Zoroaller are 

prefer ved, 


preferred, and into which the fables of Bidpai or Pilpai were firft tranf- 
lated from the Indian: but as we rejected the Saxon alphabet to admit 
the Roman ; fo the Perfians, when they embraced the religion, of Ma- 
homet, adopted the characters in which the Alcoran was written,, and 
incorporated into their language a multitude of Arabick words and. 

The Perfian verbs that form their imperatives, and confequently their 
aorifts, from obfolete infinitives, may be diftributed into the following 
clafles : the old infinitives may be found by adding (^<Ju eeden to the 
imperatives, and the aorifts by. adding to them the perfonal terminations.- 


Irregulars that form their imperatives by rejecting ^O or 

Infin. Imper. Aorift. 

/* ys 

to draw afabre A ^1 

tofo<w together j\ "i\ 

to rebuke j\j\ 
to embrace 
to cut 

tofpeak idly 

tofprinkle <j* *. 

toprefs ^&*\< *5| 

to throw down 



i ^f^r *AJ*I 

i to Jlumber 
3 to freeze 

for Q<JJlil 

<? perform 



Infin. Imper. Aorifl. 

>^. , ' 

/o ^r/g" f j 

XiU /<? A^f /o weave 
^^ to bear 

to educate 
to wither 
to be 
^ to read 

> rejign 

and ^U>*i and 

\^ ' 
X*i to /have 

r 1 

& to cleave 
| *JC& /<? ^?tf 
a /0 number 

_ and 

for (^jO yj**J'j 

(X^ 50 ^ \s [- 


Infin. Iraper. Aorift. 

to Jiro'W Jt!j*y ~ Ju^^y 

to kill , ^y %if 

to move 
to remain 


Irregulars that change into 

- ( or < j or 

^ia 3 

UJ tofx liJ w' 



to defile 
The participle of this verb, ufed in compound adjeftives, 

is tijJl, as t3^J| ^.j\^L Jkepy, drowned injleep. 
\ to befmear 



to open 


Irregulars that change t^J into i_> or* 


\. to difturb 


Infin. Imper. Aorift. 

to Jiroke 
J to command 
J tojhow 


/o inflame L_>(J ,j 

/o under/land V^^ 

bore L-^XWJ 

This imperative is very anomalous. 
ij to hajlen 
i* to blojjbm 
to deceive 
to finite 
/o he hid 

I have never met with this ftrange imperative. 
to find ^-r^. 

to S 
to dig 


Infin. Imper. Aorifl. 

to f a y 


to mix 

J\ to throw _J!<Jjl 

Jl to gain _j cXJl 

( .Jcs?^ ==J l to excite *^<z,\\ 

^Jcs^l to hang 
{.JicLlj to play 

rf tofinijh 
(o beware 


|.KA2i.lj' tO 

to prepare 

to hear *AMJ 


Irregulars that change into^}, (j or (jz 


to exalt _JM' 

i I to inflame jif I 

to learn 


Infin. Imper. Aorift. 

^Z^M to prick J^v*** 

to burn Jj* 

melt JltxT fj\0&> 

. V. 

Irregulars that change ^ i 
to think 
\ tofwallow 
j to raife 
u tofuppofe 
to have 

(-J^fii ' C\_> 1 



Irregulars that rejedl 

to adorn 

to be neceffary 

to foot he 

to underftand ^j^Uji* **** 


.. > L u teuufy ]"*J* ' l>" j 

.JCiJO 3 and jlJvJ and 


Infin. Imper. Aorift. 


to fee k 

~ \ 

^ to Know i*)'*^ pJ 

to grow 

to ivafh 

to refembk 
jj /o 


Irregulars in /.o 

/o create 
to gather 

to cboofe 


Irregulars in _> that reje<ft 

/o accept 
to take 




Irregulars that change Q* into 9 

Infin. Imper. Aorift. 


Irregulars that add 

(.JCwj^ to leap 

to be delivered oj 

2s. to be "willing ol =s 

to leffen 



Irregulars that change /^ into ^ or 

Awj^iu-j to afcend ^AjiJ_j .AxjiJ-j 

to bind cXij 

Xj. to join t^J^y. 

break (.^Xi, >>LCij 


to open (^UjJ^ *j 




Irregulars that reject o o 

to fall 

to place 


Irregulars not reducible to any clafs. 
to prepare JUT 

to come 
to be 

to give 

to take 

and .X>igj 








Example of an irregular verb. 
(jJoU yaften to find. Contra<fled infinitive 

Prefent Tenfe. 

Sing. Plur. 

I find. wub ^t we find. 

thoufindeft. ^f^^". i^> you find. 

OuU i^> he finds. &*J\->. (<* they find. 


Job I found. f^^?. we found. 

/Job thou foundeft . t\j(j you found. 

OoU he found. OJJCiU they found. 

Future, or Aorift. 

,jL> IJhall or may find. j^.^. we flail or may find. 

^jt> thoujhalt or mayjlfind. tXoU you Jb all or may find. 

Oub hejhall or may find. <-^yL ) . they Jhall or may find. 

or ^^jfind thou. ^^j find you. 


Prefent, UU or ^>\^ finding. 
Preterite, 3JoL having found. 




It is better for me not to turn my face from patience j it may happen 
that I may find what my heart defires. 


The contracted participles, as it has been before obferved, are of 
great ufe in the compofition of words, as ;-Oo! O_*i* mirth- exciting* 
from CDyixc which in Arabick fignifies mirth, and the participle of 


^jJCzk^ Xj l to excite : but of thefe elegant compounds I mall fpeak at 
large in the next feftion. 




of the chief beauties of the Perfian language is the frequent ufe 
of compound adjectives ; in the variety and elegance of which it fur- 
pafles not only the German and Englifh, but even the Greek. Thefe 
compounds may be multiplied without end according to the pleafure 
and tafte of the writer ; they are formed either by a noun and the con- 
traded participle, as u-oJ J<3 or u--vj JUti heart -alluring, or by prefix- 
ing an adjective to a noun, as (^x^^L fiaeet-fmelling ; or, laftly, by 

* * 

placing one fubftantive before another, as^fJutX/ ' rofe '-cheeked* 

VOL. ii. c c Since 


Since one of the nouns in a compound word is often borrowed from 
the Arabick, a man who wifhes to read the Perfian books with fatif- 
faftion, ought to have a competent knowledge of both languages. I 
fhall fubjoin a lift of the moft elegant compounds that I can recolle6t ; 
but I muft exprefs moft of them in Englifh by circumlocutions ; for 
though we have fome compound epithets which give a grace to our 
poetry, yet in general the genius of our language feems averfe to them. 
Thus .pi^^M from *>! a fawn, and ^L=v an eye, a Perfian epithet, 
which anfwers to the Greek cAix7r/, feems very harm in Englifh, if we 
tranflate it fawn-eyed\ Lady Wortley Montague's tranflation * ftag- 
eyed is not much better, and conveys a different idea from what the 
eaftern poets mean to exprefs by this epithet. 

Adjectives compounded of nouns and participles. 
<Jo gul effhan Jhedding flowers. 


_j& durr effhan fprinkling pearls. 
&*$' goher effhan fcattering gems. 
i-o teeg effhan brandijhing a fcymitar. 
(^jz*. khon effhan dropping blood. 
j\j\ Jci dil azar afflifling the heart. 

\\j\ (-jU^ jan azar wounding the foul. 

^(j tab efken darting fames. 

^-? beekh efken tearing up roots. 
feng efken cajiingjlones. 

efken throwing down mountains. 

* See her Letters from Conftantinople. 


jJo! O-*c merd efken overthrowing heroes. 
^^=s\ -yx amber agheen full of ambergris. 
(-i>' c ^l M i"-* furur agheen /// ofpkafures. 
if Ol--* murad aver fulfilling our defer es. 
i4 1 JO dil aver ftealing hearts. 
\j\ (^Lg^. jehan ara 


? adorning the 'world. 
and 1^1 JLc alem ara 3 

Ijl fj^JLs:' mejlis ara gracing the banquet. 

\j\ Jo dil ara rejoicing the heart. 

Jj! J<3 dil aram giving reft to the heart. 

-xJ neberd azma experienced in battle. 
ju ruh asa appeajing the fpirit. 
^Uw jan asa giving reft to the foul. 
J ! (^^ khon alud fprinkled with blood. 
gubar alud covered with duft. 
khata alud ftained 'with crimes. 
Li I _^; ruh efza refrejhing the fpirit. 
\js\ CXs:^ bihjet efza increajing chearfulnefs. 
4-Ujil ^>i fhehr afhob difturbing the city ; 

elegantly applied to beauty, to which likewife the poets, give 
the following epithet, 

ruz e ^ zun increajing daily. 
fer efraz rai/ing his head. 
^J gerden efraz exalting his neck. 

alem efruz i " . 

> enlightening the world. 
an efruz ) 



jj! jJCx/"giti efruz inflaming the univerfe. 
marikeh efruz kindling the fight. 
j boftan efruz inflaming the garden: 
a beautiful epithet for the anemone, 
danifli zmvizJkilJedinfcience. 
r amuz expert in affairs. 
ixj B^;'* muzhdeh amees mixed with joyful tidings. 

This participle Lyd is ufed in a great variety of compounds. 
iA^,! eu=Jj rahet ameez giving reft. 
i<yj J!AM fitem ameez full of threats.. 
>*c! cX^ii fhehd ameez mixed with honey. 
i>yj (^SJj reng ameez /wc^ with colours, that is, deceitful. 
_J!<Jj! *J',J pertu endaz darting rays. 
_j!<_Xjl Oui^ti dehfhet endaz jlrikmg with fear. 
^ItXJl (jiJ'l atefh endaz cajling out fire. 
^JcXJl yy' teer endaz Jhooting arrows. 
jjcXJI C^JJo zulmet enduz gathering darknefs, an epithet of 

the night. 

jcXjl d>jx ibret enduz attracting wonder. 
jxXjl ui>Ui/Jl iltifat engeez exciting refpeSt. 

" ** 

ixXjl i^y^cL khulus engeez promoting fincerity. 
jxXjl AXO fitne engeez raifing a tumult. 
>XiM cxksr^- khejlet engeez caufing blufoes to rife. 
>X)I (jliiA=k khefekan engeez making the heart beat. 
VOUl tiU^I irfhad engeez producing fafety . 
^jbj! merdum obar devouring men* 


*. jan afereen that created the foul. 
<> (Jo dil her a ravijher of hearts. 

AJ.Lw fayeh perver bred in the Jhade, 
an epithet for an ignorant young man who has not feen the 

l v Xc ulema perver cherifhing learned men* 
ten P erv ^ r nourifhing the body.. 
ifhk baz /porting with love* 
)tX (jiij*ji puzifh pezeer accepting an excufe. 
Jlti>.j AJlJ' turaneh perdaz compofing tunes,, a mufician.. 
j\&-r>. (^^" fekhun perdaz compofing fentenc es, an orator. 
J nekil bend compiling narratives, an hiftorian. 

adu bend /^ en/laves his enemies. 
j-o AX/J fitne beez fpreading /edition. 
c-o Joe atar beez /bedding perfume. 
I-AJ o^cili nadereh peera collecting memorable events* 

afoman peyvend reaching the Jky. 
alem tab inflaming the world, an epithet of the fun. 
ii deuletjui ivifoing pro/perity. 

cheen gathering rafes. 
J fhukufeh cheen cropping flowers. 

fekhun cheen collecting words, an informer, 
feher kheez rijing in the morning. 
L khofh khznfweetfyjingtng. 
*. jehandar pojjeffing the world. 
j nukteh dan ^^7 / fubtleties. 


khurdeh been feeing minute objects. 
fekhun ran lengthening bis difcourfe. 
lJ kamran gaming his defires. 
jj (jjj^ khun reez Jhedding blood. 
L>J ^-*::. flicker reez dropping fugar . 
LJJ q^ goher reez fcattering jewels. 

^SJiA afhk reez Jhedding tears. 
'^c ghemzeda dtfperfing care. 

zulmet zeda difpelling darknefs. 
rahzen infejiing the 'way, a robber. 
-3^" iihr faz preparing inchantments. 

dilfitan raviflting hearts. 
dilfuz inflaming the heart. 
U*. jan fhikar a hunter of fouls. 
^s. umr fhikaf dejt raying life. 
i> < Cu3 fef fhiken breaking the ranks. 

en j" m fhumar equal to the Jlars in number. 
LT kar fhinas Jkilful in bu/inefs. 
i-j j _Xji iheker furufh felling fugar. 
i-j j <^*2k khod furufh boajling of himfelf. 
-\j_3 JaU nazer fereeb deceiving the beholder. 
jig er gudaz melting the heart. 
fumma gudaz difpelling a calamity. 
zeya kufter fpreading light. 
alem geer fubduing the world. 
dilkufha rejoicing the heart. 


kifhver kufha conquering provinces. 
aurung nifheen fating on a throne. 
iJ &j\j->t viraneh nifheen inhabiting a defert. 

rehnuma Jhowing the way. 
\^ u-o-c ghereeb nuvaz kind tojlrangers. 
jjj berbut nuvaz tuning a harp. 
kam yab that finds what he defires. 


Words compounded of adjedlives and nouns. 

(_* 4-*p- khob ruyi with a beautiful face. 

j pakeezeh khui having pure intentions. 
khofh khui ofafweet difpojition. 
pakdamen with unblemi/hed virtue. 
khob avaz with a pleajing voice. 
khob ray he with a pleafant fcent. 
khofh elhan withjweet notes-, 
an epithet of the nightingale, as in this elegant diftich, 


The brightnefs of youth again returns to the bowers ; the rofe fends 
joyful tidings to the nightingale with fweet notes, 
^jlo^ (j~>^* khofh reftar walking gracefully. 
Aj-A fhireenkar with gentle manners. 

(^jAji fhireen dihen with a fweet mouth. 


-j&2. oLo* fish chefhm black-eyed. 

The compounds of this form are very numerous, and may be 
invented at pleafure. 


Adje&ives compounded of two nouns. 

Each of thefe epithets is a fhort fimile. 

peri ruyi } 

> with the face of an angel. 

-j[ peri rukhsar with the cheeks of an angel. 
Gemfhid kulah w/M /^ diadem ofGemfhia. 
Dara hifhmet w//^ ^ /roo^j of Darius. 
fimeen sak W/^ legs like Jifoer* 
fheker leb with lips offugar, 
/JaJa tuti guftar talking like a parrot. 
guncheh kb w///6 ///>j //'^ rofe-buds. 

n buyi w//>6 thefcent ofjejjamine. 
-> ^v* 1 f ernen ber with a bofom like jejjamine. 
with cheeks like rofes. 
i with a rofy face. 

mufhk buyi with the fcent of mujk. 
iuSLj yakut leb with lips like rubies. 
fheer dil with the heart of a lion. 



When we confider the vafl number of epithets that may be com- 
pounded after thefe three forms, and that thofe epithets are often ufed 
for fubftantives without a noun being exprefled, we muft allow that the 
Perfian language is the richeft in the world. Thefe compounds are 
thought fo beautiful by the Perfian poets, that they fometimes fill a 
diftich with them, as 

A damfel with a face like the moon, fcented like mufk, a raviflier of 
hearts, delighting the foul, feducing the fenfes, beautiful as the full 

The particle * hem together, prefixed to nouns, forms another ele- 
gant clafs of compounds implying Jbciety and intimacy, as 
hemafhiyan of the fame neft. 
hemaheng of the fame inclination. 
hembezm . of the fame banquet. 

hempifter lying on the fame pillow. 
hemkhabeh jleeping together. 

hemdem breathing together, that is, 

very intimately connected. 

The particles U not, f little, and ^j without, are placed before 
nouns to denote privation, as tXyJ U na umeed hopelefs, (j*U^ U na 
fhinas ignorant, jX/JLCi U na fhu kufteh a rofe not yet blown -, L-^-^ 

VOL. n. D D kembeha 


kembeha of little value, JJLc ..J^kem akil with little fen fej LiTL ^j 
bee bak fearlefs, <^U i^> bee aman mercilefs : this particle is often 


joined to Arabick verbals, as J^>b' ^ bee tammul inconfiderate, 
j bee terteeb irregular. 


Henceforth, wherever I write thy name, I will write falfe, unkind, and 

Names of agents are generally participles adlive in oJJ, as 
fazendeh a compofer -, or they are formed by adding ^J x ger,^>LT'gar, or 
o b ban, to a fubftantive, as Jjj a goldfmUh,j\S^k:> a writer, ^LA^U 
a gardener. 

Nouns of action are often the fame with the third perfon preterite of 
a verb, as CX=L.J ^T=^ buying and felling, cX& CA*>! coming and 

Adjectives implying pofleffion or plenty are formed by adding to 
nouns the termi nations^ Lw far, ^xJ^keen, cXJL* mend, (^Tlj nak,^>L 
var or ij ver, as^Lj^,^ bafoful, ^jj^-c forroivfu/, tX^jijJlO learned, 
i^TU J&J venomous, _^LcXy1 hopeful, M-^>. having life, 

The Arabick words j6 zu, (^-J&Lo fahyb, and Jjb! ehl prefixed to 
nouns form likewife adjectives of pofleffion, as (J-M^. *ti majejlick, dig- 
nitate prseditus, Jlyi* (-NS^Lo beautiful, venuilate prasditus, cx^Joi. <J~l 




ivife, fapientia prseditus. We may here obferve, that the Indians ufe a 
great variety of phrafes purely Arabick, fome as proper names and 
titles of chiefs and princes, and others as epithets or conftant adjuncts 
to fubftantives; fuch are the names <jJjOJ! As^" Shujaheddoula, 
aJjOJ! iSr* Nejmeddoula, aJjOJl (JM^& Shemfeddoula, <jj<jj! -Jr** 
Serajeddoula, which fignify in Arabick the force, the Jlar, the fun, and 
the lamp of the ft ate j fuch alfo is the title which they gave Lord Clive, 
(wCLyJl t\jj Zubdatulmulk the flower of the kingdom; in the fame 
manner they feldom mention the province of aJLXxj Bengala without 
adding, by way of epithet, tisXJI OJcs*. jennetulbelad the paradife of 
regions, an Arabick title given to that province by 4-0) (^Sjj ! Au- 

Some adjedtives are formed from nouns by adding /..j as {-j^tj'l 

fi er y> (j^JJ S^ en (yj.&j*} made of emeralds. 

The termination AJ! added to fubftantives forms adverbs that imply a 
kind of fimilitude, as ajLjUIci prudently, like a prudent man, <xjlti_^ cou~ 
rageoujly, like a man of courage. 

Adjedlives of fimilitude are formed by adding LJ afa, LJ fa, or /ji* 
vefh, to fubftantives, as LJ .xxc amber afa like ambergris, LJ tiC^o 

s**~ w . * 

like mujk, LK, ! Cioc^ like paradife ; Lw ^^ ^ e magick ; (jij A=s^ 
like a rofe-bud, Q^,. "$ or /ji,*^ like the moon. 

Some adjcftives and adverbs are formed by nouns doubled with the 
letter I elif between them, as u-JLJ up to the brim, ^\^,from the be- 
ginning to the end, (dJo^LXj^ or ^^^^ many -coloured. 





A garden, in which were the clearefl rivulets, an orchard in which the 
notes of the birds were melodious ; the one was full of many-coloured 
tulips, the other full of fruits with various hues. 

The two firft lines of this tetraftich are in pure Arabick. 

The termination Aj fam, as well as (M-> goon, denotes colour, as 
.UULJ x 'or \*ji&jrofe-coloured, ^lici-^J emerald-coloured. 

From the compounds above mentioned, or any other adjedtives, com- 
pounded or fimple, may be formed abftracl: fubftantives by adding (^, as 
*i bajhful, (,^jLw^->i bafhfulnefs. 

learned, (^OJL^jiJl^ learning. 

black, /^L^, blacknefs. 

If the adjedlive end in $ the abftraft is made by changing v into 

as Aj'UCu new, /JoUCu novelty. 
Other abftradts are made either by adding^;! to the third perfon .of 
the paft tenfe, as^,!Ou<3 fight, j\*jffpeech)j\>j motion ; or by adding 


ii to the contracted participle, as (jioLJ reft, QiuUwj praife, (ji^UjI 

The letter I elif added to fome adjectives makes them abftradl nouns, 
as pjf'warm, [^^tvarmth. 

Nouns denoting the place of any thing are formed by the termina- 
tions ^U>*il iftan, (^jl<^ dan,^j]J z ^ r oL/'gah, or L^. ja, as 

negariftan * a gallery of pictures. 
behariflan the man/ion of the faring. 
a bower ofrofes. 

flickered -> 

(. cw// o/ uvar. 

I X^ /"I1 *nA ^/*/O 

or (^U>*).Jsj^ mekeriftanJ 

^U>*jXJuN fumbuliftan ^ garden of hyacinths. 
(^)U*j-x<i fheeriftan /^ country of lions. 
o U^o* ginniftan fairy-land. 
_jldL) gulzar bed of rofes. 

lalehzar border of tulips. 

^- khab ja the place ofjleep, a bed. 

m IC^U.X/J^ 
The learner muil remember, that when thefe compounds are ufed as 

* The five firft of thefe names are the titles of as many excellent books : the Behariftan and 
Guliftan are poetical compofitions by Jami and Sadi ; the Negariftiin is a very entertaining mifcel- 
lany in profe and verfe ; and the Shekerdan is a mifcellaneous work in Arabick upon the hiftory of 
Egj'pt : as to the Sumbuliflan, I have feen it quoted, but recolleft neither the fubjedt, nor the name 
of its author. The Greeks fometimes gave thefe flowery titles to their books ; thus Pamphilus pub- 
lillied a treatife on different fubjefts, which he called Ai^u>^)\ j^r^ ' meadow \ and Apoftolius 
compiled m'\un*J>\J <X>^X>J a garden of vietets, or a colledlion of proverbs and fentences. 



diftindl fubftantives, the termination ^1 of the plural, and \j of the 
oblique cafe, muft be added to the end of them, as 

Sing. Nom. ^ 

c a g* r l with pvoeet lips. 

/"Vl-1 I J. % * V * 

Obi. l-xfl&o /.j->o**J 

Plur. Nom. /jl/^ti ^j_Ajij^ 

\ girls with fiveet lips. 
rvui i M - i ' + * 

Obi. l-jl 

The Perfian verbs are compounded either with nouns and adjectives, 
or with prepofitions and other particles. The verbs chiefly ufed in the 
firft fort of compofition are ^<^-==> to do, (^i^jj! to bring, ^JC^Iti to 
have, (> jJcL.Lj to make, ^ti^J to order, ^cSj^dL to devour, i^j&j to 
Jirike, (j&jJ to bear, ^ci^J to Jho<uo, (^jJCSjJ^or (^cXjti-=> to become, 
(^tX*! to come, ^Ouvi to fee, ^Jo_= to take, and ^jJoL to find. The 
moft common of thefe is (^'^.'^~~* which is joined in all its inflexions to 
a multitude of Arabick gerunds or verbal nouns, as well as to Perfian 
adjectives and participles, as 

! ikrar kerden to confefs. 
AJl intizar kerden to expeft. 

ruju kerden to return. 
_X fLfj temam kerden to complete. 
ti-/ .j por kerden to fill. 

terk kerden to leave. 
tulu kerden to rife (oriri). 




Thus Hafiz, 

y*' jf. v 

It is morning ; boy, ^// the cup with wine : the rolling heaven makes 
no delay, therefore haften. Tlje fun of the wine rifes from the eaft of 
the cup : if thou feekeft the delights of mirth, leave thy deep. 

,43: hujum averden to ajjault. 
tiL yad averden to remember. 
ajeb damten to wonder. 
mazur damten to excufe. 
hefed berden to envy. 

itikad berden to believe. 
k *i ghemm khorden to grieve. 

3*>*j feugend khorden tofwear. 

rumen fakhten to enlighten. 
J' ter fakhten to moijien, 
CjUL\JI iltifat numuden to ejleem. 

medhufh gemten to be aftonijhed. 
^-c gemnak gerdiden to be afflitted. 
OU<AJ pedeed ameden /o appear. 

ihfan deeden A? ^ benefited. 
P erve "*h yaften to be educated. 
3 kerar griften to be confirmed. 



The verbs (j<) and ^tW^J are very frequently ufed in compo- 
lition, as (j<3J o_xJ nareh zeden to call aloud y ^ti^oJ Jo fikr fer- 
muden to confider j thus Gelaleddin Ruzbehar, 


While the nightingale fings thy praifes with a loud voice, I am all ear 
like the flalk of the rofe-tree. 

and Hafiz, 

Confider attentively ; where is a rofe without a thorn ? 

Some of the particles, with which verbs are compounded, are fignifi- 
cant, and others redundant and ornamental, as 

der ameden to enter, 
der averden to carry in. 
der khaften to require. 
der yaften to underjland. 
.j ber ameden to afcend. 

ber gefliten to return. 
-j ber afuden to reft. 
Lj baz dafhten to witb-hold. 
J furud ameden to dejcend. 


Jj vapes dafhten to detain. 
y*j fer daden to banijh, to confine to a place. 

In the prefent tenfe of a compound verb the particle / ^ is inferted 


between the two words of which it is compofed, as Q&j'^ to fill. 

Sing. Plur. 

t I fill. ^S^,^ -we fill. 

j> tboufilleji. AjjJ'^t^j you fill. 

j he fills. OJJj'^t j they fill. 

Sometimes the two words of which a verb is compounded are placed 
at a great diftance from each other, as 

JLc (^, 

j' ^LjLxj 5*-V />M !L> 

** O weftern breeze, fay thus to yon tender fawn, thou haft confined us 

to the hills and deferts." 

where 8 cMa ^ the preterite of ^tilti^w to confine, releguer, is fepa- 
rated by three words. The noun^, has a number of different fenfes, 
and is therefore the moft difficult word in the Perfian language ; it fig- 
nifies the head, the top, the point, the principal thing, the air, defire, love, 
'will, intention, &c. and fometimes its meaning.^ fo vague that it feems 
a mere expletive, though the Perfians undoubtedly feel its force. 

VOL. ii. E E There 


There are derivative verbs in Perfian, as in Hebrew and Arabick, 
which may be called caufals ; they are formed from the tranfitive verbs 
by changing ^jOo into ^jtXol, and fometimes into ^tXyUI, as 
ctcX/jlJ' tofhine. ocXxjUlj' and < M cX>JljLLj to caufe to (bine. 

\^S * * \^r/ * * \*S .. .- . * * 

to arrive. o cX ^'- M i^ to cau f e to arr * ve > to bring. 

O heaven ! ^r/^ that mufky fawn back to Khoten ; bring back that 
tall waving cyprefs to its native garden. 


THE numerals and invariable parts of fpeech belong more properly to 
a vocabulary than to a grammar ; but for the ufe of fuch as will take 
the trouble to learn them by heart, I will here fubjoin the moil 
common of them : 

t I 

V v_> 



! yek 






;>. chehar 




& mem 


i& heft 




A _ 

Ci\>ijJ^ hefht 


q la 

&j nuh 


\' c 

6 t^ deh 


tt ^. 

8 i^jb. yazdeh 


*r V* 

jiijljti duazdeh 


II- g! 

^OJjUM iizdeh 


^ Ou 

5<3jlg2s. chehardeh 


ID <xj 

gtijjU panzedeh 


n ^ 

jtijjLi* fhanzedeh 



jjtXi^ hefdeh 


,A ^ 

yOJ&> heflideh 


M ^ 

jiij^j nuzdeh 


r O" 

OOMJU beeft 


N L^ 

LiXj CX^MJU beeft yek 

* * ^ 

twenty -one* 

r. J 

^ > _ 5 *. fee 


^' r 

( _|'^> chehel 



v \=& penjlh 


v o- 

CXMJWAM fhefht 


v ' t 

iiUoi> heftad 



A' v^5 

tiUCi^ hefhtad 


q (j* 

ti*j naved 


to v 5 

cX^o fad 

a hundred. 

KM ^ 

cXo<3 dufad 

two hundred. 


cXw2xM feefad 

three hundred. 

cXuo^l^^ cheharfad 

four hundred. 

)'. Cb 

cX^Jb panfad 

Jive hundred. 





| M M 

I I I I I I 




fhelhfad Jix hundred. 

j nuhfad 

oci deh hezar 
X*j fad hezar 
or <iJ lac 

feven hundred, 
eight hundred, 
nine hundred, 
a thoufand. 
ten thoufand. 
a hundred thoufand. 


nukhuft firft. 

duum . fecond. 

liuin third. 

cheharum fourth. 

penjum fftb. 
All the other ordinals are formed in the fame manner by adding ^ to 
the cardinal numbers. 


besiar much. eToJl endek little. 

rV.I eenja here. Lar* I anja there. 

If I could fend my foul to that place, how trifling a prefent would it be ! 


Ur^lJI ez eenja hence. \^= > \j\ ez anja thence. 

AWAAJI! eenfu hither. >*J I anfu thither. 

Lsr cuja 'where or whither. bsr _JI ez cuja whence. 
O^lsr Jb her cuja ke wherefoever. 

beerun without. /> i^ derun 7 

^ > within. 
or MOJl enderun) 

The nightingales were warbling in the garden, and the fawns were 
fporting on the hills. 

_9 foru ") 

S- below. ^b bala above. 

or ti J forud j 



**?* . 

That evil which comes from above is not evil. 

i bamdad ~\ 

I. . .r.r 

fehergah \in the morning. 

or -3^* feher J 

sLX^Uij fhamgah in the evening. 
dee yejlerday. Ivi j ferda to-morrow. 

^xj peifh before. JJJAJ pes after. 

eknun 5w. 5 lXj I angah /^. 

chun w^. ^JjL^ hemandem direSily. 


i/^b herkez ever. ^r^ ^ er ^ ezn eh never. 

_Jux& henuz yet. o'-^' tXxj bad ez an 

(j ta until. A&j^Jb hemeimeh always. 

(j(j baree once. _j(jjj& deigerbah again. 

*$> hem alfo. i/J neez even. 

r ^ 

The following fix adverbs are nearly fynonymous, and fignify as, like, 
in the fame manner as ; 

^p^ hemchu, - (M^STT^ hemchun, 

(j^Sf. cheneen, (^.AJcsrr* hemcheneen, 

JL*^ chenancheh, 5juLb. chenankeh. 


Jl ez behri che 

chun hoia ? 

eenek behold! 
~&o megher perhaps. 
*$> hem 




I j=j. chera wherefore ? 

account ? 

^Xas. cheguneh how or 

iL) cam would ! 

ada //? /5y chance 

*J* tenha 


* u or va and. J& hem, or >J neez <2^o. 

b ya or. Jf\ egher, or Jgher if. 

Aa.-H eghercheh, A^J^ghercheh though. 
U! emma, ^jjCJ leiken, Ju bel, .sjOb belkeh 


La. yfc herchend, tS'oJ^ ,J> herchendkeh although. 
_>Uj benabereen therefore. ^wj pes then, moreover. 

e. \,J Z e"ra becaufe. 

megher unlefs. juz 


J! ez or J from, by, of. j| aber, or _j w/xj. 

(j^. P es after. (j^Ai P 6 ^ ^g/om 

AJ beh, or ^ be, joined to the noun, in, to. 
b ba with. ^ be without. 

j pehlevi wr. ^ti der in. 

berai, Oysd bejehetyor. 
iy^JI ez jehet, _j Jl ez behr o account of. 

meian between. <+> fu'i toward. 

j forud beneath. jj zeer 

-/) zeber rf^w. ^vj nazd 


b! eia, LgjJ ayoha <?/5 / j,Tah <zA 

or bu^^i dereega alas ! 

Thus in the tale of the merchant and the parrot by Gelaleddin Rvtmi, 

Alas ! alas ! that fo bright a moon fhould be hidden by the clouds ! 


jlxa fugan and (j^^wj! efsus are likewife inter) edions that exprefs 

grief : thus in a tetraftich by the fultan Togrul Ben Erflan, 

Yefterday the prefence of jaiy beloved delighted my foul ; and to-day 
her abfence fills me with bitternefs ; alas ! that the hand of fortune 
mould write joy and grief alternately in the book of my life ! 

This great hero and poet was .the laft king of the Seljukian race : he 
was extremely fond of Ferdufi's poetry, and in the battle in which he 
loft his life, he was heard to repeat aloud the following verfes from the 

Shahnama : 

. .<"<' ., ,^^ 



When the duil arofe from the approaching army, the cheeks of our 
heroes turned pale ; but I raifed my battle-ax, and with a fingle 
flroke opened a pafTage for my troops : my fteed raged like a furious 
elephant, and the plain was agitated like the waves of the Nile. 


Thele lines are quoted by d'Herbelot, p. 1029, but they are written differently in my manufcript 
of Ferdufij which I have here followed. 



JL HE conftru&ion of the Perfian tongue is very eafy, and may be re- 
duced to a few rules, moft of which it has in common with other lan- 
guages. The nominative is ufually placed before the verb, with which 
it agrees in number and perfon, as in this pious fentence of a Perfian 


&S x<L 


I* 3 Jj 1 

Wherefore art thou come ? if thou art come to learn the fcience of ancient 
and modern times, thou haft not taken the right path : doth not the 
Creator of all things know all things ? and if thou art come to feek 
him, know that where thou firft waft fixe -d, there he was prefcnt. 

yet it is remarkable, that many Arabick plurals are confidered in Perfian 
as nouns of the fingular number, and agree as fuch with verbs and ad- 
jectives, as 


By the approach of fpring, and the return of December, the leaves of 
our life are continually folded. 

* See the TJibliotheque Orientale, p. 950. 

VOL. ii. F F where 


where ^jjjl the plural of ^ ^jj <* kaf, governs <^i}_xL in the 

There is another ftrange irregularity in the Perfian fyntax ; the car- 
dinal numbers are ufually joined to nouns and verbs in the fingular, as 
3> <*dXj^>l > a tkoufand and one days* 

Ou i3_^Oo j=>\ C-JUJ 

If the gale (hall waft the fragrance of thy locks over the tomb of Hafiz, 
a hundred thoufand flowers ivill fpring from the earth that hides his 

Thefe idioms, however, are by no means natural to the Perfian, but 
feem borrowed from the Arabs, who fay, LJ dLLJ u-*J I a thoufand 
and one nights. In Arabick too a noun of the plural number, if it 
fignify a thing without life, requires a verb in the fingular, and that of 
the feminine gender, for the Arabick verbs have diftindl genders like 
nouns, as 

The rivers murmured, and the branches were bent to adore their 

Their cups overflowed with wine, and my eyes with tears. 



Moft active verbs require the oblique cafe in \j after them, as 

If that fair damfel of Shiraz would accept my heart, I would give for the 
black mole on her cheek the cities of Samarcand and Bokhara. 

It has before been obferved (fee page 147) thai the \j is omitted if 
the noun be indefinite or general, (M-> w ^l^. fill a cup ; but that it is 
inferted, if the thing be particular and limited, &-f - }jfk** he filled 
the c up ; examples of this occur in almoft every page. 

All nouns or verbs by which any profit or acquifition is implied 
govern the oblique cafe, as 

& &f 


Yes ! whenever the fun appears, what advantage can -there be to 
* Soha, but his being hidden ? 

The following remark relates to the polition rather than to the 
fyntax : in a period of two or more members, each of which might 
end with an auxiliary verb, the firft of them commonly contains the 
verb, which is underftood in the reft, as 

* Soha is the Arabick name for a very finall and obfcure ftar in the conftellation of the Great 


J Y** ^ 

The difadvantages of hafle are many, and the advantages of patience 
and deliberation (are) innumerable. 

The adjective is placed after its fubftantive, and the governing noun 
is prefixed to that which it governs, as ^_>^< fc {*j a beautiful face, 
<J-> C*T^ tbefcent of a rofe\ but if this order be inverted a compound 
adjective is formed, as^jj S-J^ fair-faced, (y^S ' rofc-fcented. 

Conjunctions which 'exprefs conjecliure, condition, will, motive, &c. 
require the conjun&ive, or potential mood, as 

j C_5*^ > 



" j 

had known that thy abfence would have been fo forrowful and af- 
flicting, I would not have departed from thee a fingle day ; I would 
not have left thee a fingle moment. 

Prepofitions and interjections are fixed to nouns in the nominative 
cafe, as 

I have 


I have heard that two doves lived together in one neft, and whifpered 
their fecrets in one chamber ; the duft of jealoufy had never fullied 
their minds, and the anguifli of misfortune had never pierced their 

- <_AA==> ^J T^ * 

The fpider holds the veil in the palace of Caefar ; the owl flands fen- 
tinel on the watch-tower of Afrafiab. 

Thefe are the principal rules that I have collected for the Perfian 
language ; but rules alone will avail but little, unlefs the learner will 
exemplify them in his own refearches : the only office of a grammarkn 
is to open the mine of literature, but they who wifh to poflefs the gems 
muft endeavour to find them by their own labours. 

CXj*J is an Arabick word fignifying a turn, a change, a luatcb, excubiae: hence CXJ^J 
in Perfian, and ^ JLjJLss. CXjJ inTurkifh, {ignify to relieve the guards ly the founds of 

drums and trumpets. This office is given by the poet to the owl, as that of_^!ti Q ^r}. or chamber- 
Iain is elegantly afligned to the fpider. Some copies have Cio^jJ inftead of Oo*j which reading 
would make very good fenfe, but deftroys the beauty of the allufiou. 





&j <Aj 

/jwaj ^y, (j** x>*j< 15 / 

JltXXcl [^Lgj x*wJ (^1 C 

yckLw Jox^ l^j^ 


J ^ 



A literal tranjlatlon of the foregoing Fable. 

It is related that a huibandman had a fweet and pleafant orchard, 
and a garden more frefh than the bower of Irem. The air of it gave 
mildnefs to the gales of the fpring, and the fcent of its herbs that re- 
frefhed the fpirits, conveyed perfume to the very foul. 


A bower like the garden of youth, a bed of rofes bathed in the waters 
of life, the notes of its nightingales raifing delight ; its fragrant gale 
fhedding perfume. 

And in one corner of his garden there was a rofe bufh frefher than the 
fhrub of defire, and more lofty than "the branch of the tree of mirth. 
Every morning on the top of the rofe bufh the rofe bloflbmed, coloured 
like the cheek of heart-alluring damfels with gentle minds, and the face 
of lily-bofomed maids fcented like jefTamine. The gardener began to 
fliow an extreme fondnefs for thefe excellent rofes, and faid, 



I know not what the rofe fays under his lips, that he brings back the 
helplefs nightingales with their mournful notes. 

One day the gardener according to his eftablimed cuflom went to view 




(^^! Juu _J 

j Jbs. 

A>M u*i ^ /yii^y*. Ji>jjj wj 

tJ^Xj ^>ULLc co_s^ 


/-AJ- -<3 jcX^ OuOu 

toJ^^ti jci-T tX^o Ijj! cJ^=*. <!u!tXj 



the rofes j he faw a plaintive nightingale, who was rubbing his head on 
the leaves of the rofes, and was tearing afunder with his {harp bill that 
volume adorned with gold. 


The nightingale, if he fee the rofe, becomes intoxicated ; he lets go 
from his hand the reins of prudence. 

The gardener viewing the fcattered condition of the rofe-leaves, tore 
with the hand of confufion the collar of patience, and rent the mantle of 
his heart with the piercing thorn of uneafinefs. The next day he 
found the fame action repeated, and the flames of wrath occafioned by 
the lofs of his rofes 

added another fear to the fear which he had before. 

The third day, by the motion of the nightingale's bill, 

the rofes were plundered, and the thorns only remained. 

Then the refentment caufed by the nightingale broke out in the breaft 
of the gardener, he fet a deceitful fpringe in his way, and having 
caught him with the bait of treachery, he confined him in the prifon 
of a cage. The difheartened nightingale opened his mouth, like a 
VO , L ' " GO parrot, 


.Lp aj 

&J iutXJ 






parrot, and faid, Oh, Sir, for what caufe haft thou imprifoned me ? for 
what reafon haft thou refolved to diftrefs me ? if thou formeft the de- 
fire of hearing my fongs, my own neft is in thy garden, where in the 
morning thy bovver mall be the houfe of my mufick ; but if thou haft an- 
other idea, inform me of what thou haft in thy mind (an Arabick phrafe). 

The gardener faid, Doft thou not know how thou haft fpoiled my 
fortune, and how often thou haft diftrefled me with the lofs of my 
favorite rofe ? it is right that thy a&ion mould be requited, and that 
thou being feparated from thy friends and family, and fecluded from all 
joy and diverfions, fhouldft mourn in the corner of a prifon j whilft I, 
afflidted with the anguifh of feparation from my darling flowers, weep 
in the cottage of care. 



Mourn, O nightingale ! if with me thou regretteft the lofs of thy friend, 
for we are two mournful lovers, and our employment is weeping. 

The nightingale faid, Depart from that refolution, and confider, that if I 
am imprifoned for fuch an offence as tearing a rofe, what will be thy 
punimment if thou teareft a heart afunder? 


He that formed the fky by exadl meafure, knows the right rewards for 
good and evil ; whoever does well, good will come to him -, and if 
he does ill, evil will attend him. 



r 1 . CXwJ 


JUl J^J 1 



iJ O^L 4 -xJcXj' 


This difcourfe taking effecl upon the heart of the gardener, he fet 
the nightingale at liberty. The bird tuned his voice in his free ftate, 
and faid. Since thou haft done me this fervice according to the fentence 
(in the Alcoran), Is there any recompenfe for benefits, but benefits ? it 
is neceflary to reward thee for it. Know, that under the tree where 
thou flandeft there is a coffer full of gold j take it, and fpend it to fup- 
ply thy wants. 

The gardener fearched the place, and found the words of the night- 
ingale to be true j he then faid, O nightingale ! what a wonder it is, 
that thou couldft fee the coffer of gold beneath the earth, and not dif- 
cover the fpringe upon the ground ! 

The nightingale faid, Doft thou not know that (an Arabick fentence) 
when fate defcends, caution is vain ? 

It is impoflible to contend with fate. 

When the decrees of heaven are fulfilled, no light remains to the 
eye of underftanding, and neither .prudence nor wifdom bring any 



A HE modern Perfians borrowed their poetical meafures from the 
Arabs : they are too various and complicated to be fully explained in 
this grammar ; but when the learner can read the Perfian poetry with 
tolerable eafe, he may receive further information from a treatife writ- 
ten profefledly upon verification by (^cXxa>.j Vahidi, who was himfelf 
no contemptible poet. 

There are nineteen forts of metre which are ufed by the Perfians, but 
the mofl common of them are j^j jsz? or the iambick meafure, jsJ 
<J^ or the trochaick meafure, and & ysr^ a metre that confifts 
chiefly of thofe compounded feet which the ancients called 'Emi-p/Vs?, 
and which are compofed of iambick feet and fpondees alternately, as 
ama tores pue llarum. In lyrick poetry thefe verfes are generally of twelve 
or fixteen fyllables, as 

Bebul na j fei kakher [ seba zan tur j re bucfhayed 

Zi jadl zul j f i mufhklnefh \ chi tab uftad \ u der dllha. 

When the zephyr difperfes the fragrance of thofe mufky locks, what 
ardent defire inflames the hearts of thy admirers ! 



They fometimes eonfift of fourteen fyllables in this form, 


x- * 

tilt* tl>\. *) Cj C^jIcXJcL &=s** \J 

Ta ghunche ] ekhendanet J devlet be J ke khahed dad 
AT (hakhi | giili rana J ez behri J ke miruyl 

Ah ! to whom will the fmiling rofe bud of thy lips give delight ? O 
fweet branch of a tender plant ! for whofe ufe doft thou grow ? 

or in this, 

> - u | u - - u | u--o|o-- 


CXm^xL^ CX^J J gJ JjJ ^ 

JoJ j 

Gofhem he | me ber kuli [ ney u nagma | ti chengueft 

Chemmem he J me ber lali I to u gherde I mi jameft 


My ear is continually intent upon the melody of the pipe, and the foft 
notes of the lute : my eye is continually fixed upon thy rubied lip, 
and the circling cup. 

This kind of meafure is not unlike that which Sappho ufes in thofe 
elegant lines quoted by Hepheftion, 

<7a pang, OVTOI Suva/xa; KfXKttv TW \<f\w 



which he fcans thus, 

\ Tt^, OVTOI Si/ | VCCJJLXI xptx.nv \ TOV Idj 
oj (3ga \ 5/vav S/ 'A 

Other lyrick verfes contain thirteen fyllables in this form, 



(i^Jr^yc / ^o Ci-vxJLJ' AJ 

Seba be teh [ neltl peer J I melforofh j amed 
Ke musiml | tarbu eifh j u nazu noih \ amed 

The zephyr comes to congratulate the old keeper of the banquet-houfe, 
that the feafon of mirth, joy, wantonnefs, and wine is coming. 


u-o-}y--ju-y -|-- 


A (^)ju 

Seba belutf \ bogou an | gazali ra | nara 
Ke ser becouh \ va byaban | to dadel | mara 

This couplet has been tranflated in another part of the grammar. 
See p. 2og. 

The Perfians fometimes ufe a meafure confifting of trochees and 
fpondees alternately, like thefe verfes of Catullus and Ariftophanes, 



Cras amet qui nunquam amavit, quique amavit eras amet. 

thus Hafiz, 

Aber azari ber amed badi neuruzi vazeed 
The vernal clouds appear, the gales of the pleafant feafon breathe. 

But the moft common Perfian verfe contains eleven fyllables, as 


Chunkeh gul reft va guliftan derguzemt 
Neihenvi zan pes zebulbul ferguzefht 

When the rofes wither, and the bower lofes its fweetnefs, you have no 
longer the tale of the nightingale. 

In this laft meafure are written all the great Perfian poems, whether 
upon heroick or moral fubje&s, as the works of Ferdufi, and of Jami* 
the Boftan of Sadi, and the Mefnavi of the excellent Gelaleddm. This 
fort of verfe anfwers to our common heroick rhyme, which was brought 
to fo high a degree of perfection by Pope, and which the Englifh poets 
will do well to retain, inftead of adopting the lefs harmonious meafures 
of other nations. 

I have dwelt the longer upon the different forts of verfe ufed in 
Perfia, becaufe there are few books or even common letters written in 

VOL. ii. H the 


the Perfian language, which are not interfperfed with fragments of 
poetry ; and becaufe all the Perfian verfes muft be read according to 
the paufes of fcanfion : thus the following elegant couplet quoted by 


muft be pronounced, 

Tebader che j ne her taree | buved zulfee j tera fad cheen 
Ke fazee ber J gulee furee | zefumbul pu | de cheen ber cheen 

with a ftrong accent upon every fourth fyllablej and it may here 
be obferved, that the Perlians, like the French, ufually accent the 
laft fyllables of their words. 

As to their profody, nothing can be more eafy and fimple ; their 
vowels I elif, * vau, and (^ ya are long by nature ; the points, which 

^S * 

they commonly fupprefs, are naturally ihort ; and every fhort fyllable 
that ends with a confonant is long by pofition ; as^JI--^ Shlraz, ^J-y^i 
sumbul, (jl^ti dehan, \^* semen : but the Perfians, like other poets, 
have many licences ; they often add a fhort vowel which does not pro- 
perly belong to the word, as in the firft ode of Hafiz, 

l$UCL* tilo! (gJj veil aftadu mufhkilha, 
and t JU*. OjJlti Lsr cuja danendi hall ma. 

They alfo fhorten fome long fyllables at pleafure by omitting the 
vowels I elif, vau, and (__ ya ; thus (jij^ beeriin, which is a fpon- 



dec, becomes an iambick foot when it is written <MJW berun : in the 

fame manner J&> is ufed for ^ZsjiS and ^Ou for (jjj- The 
omiffion of ! elif is more common -, fo yj is put for v \j, and ^l&j for 
^jU^sf, as in this beautiful couplet, 

*' Call for wine, and fcatter flowers around ; what favour canft thou 
*' expe6t from fortune ?" fo fpake the rofe this morning ; O nightin- 
gale ! what fayeft thou to her maxim ? 

In which lines (^UJU^=> is ufed for ( ^U^X/' Jhedding flowers, and 
for gl/Csc**' the morning* 

I mail clofe this feftion with fome examples of Perfian verfes from 
the $-\f*'S or hemiftich, to the Jj or ode, which differs from the ocX***** 
or elegy in nothing but the number of the diftichs, of which the ode fel- 
dom contains fewer than five, and the elegy feldom fewer than twenty. 
I mail not fet down thefe examples at random, but mall felecl: fuch as ar 
remarkable for beauty of fentiment or delicacy of expreffion. 


He that plants thorns will not gather rofes. 



The caravan is departed, and thou fleepeft -, the defert lies before thee ; 
whither wilt thou go ? of whom wilt thou afk the way ? what wilt 
thou do ? how wilt thou exift ? 




At the time that the dawn appears, doft thou know for what reafon the 
bird of the morning complains ? He fays, that it is mown in the 
mirror of the day, that a whole night of thy life is patted, while 
thou art loft in indolence. 




Doft thou deiire to be free from forrow and pain ? hear a maxim more 
valuable than a precious gem : Defpife not thine enemy, though he 
be diflrefled ; and truft not thy friend, if he be proud and malevolent. 

In all the Perfian elegies and odes the two firft hemiftichs have the 
fame rhyme, which is continued through the whole poem at the end of 
every diflich. A fhort piece of poetry, in which the two firft lines do 
not rhyme together, is called Ajilai' a fragment ; as this elegant fable of 
Sadi on the advantages of good company : 



Ji*>~e jJ j.^J 

A^w^Jwl (^-J U 

J^K^) A/'./Lk 


One day, as I was in the bath, a friend of mine put into my hand a 
piece of fcented clay*. I took it, and faid to it, " Art thou mufk or 
" ambergris ? for I am charmed with thy delightful fcent." It an- 
fwered, " I was a defpicable piece of clay ; but I was fome time in 
" the company of the rofe -, the fweet quality of my companion was 

{JAIJZ*. (3-^ ghili khoftibui, a kind of unflatus clay, which the Periians perfume with 
eflfence ofrofes, and ufe in the baths inftead of foap. 



" communicated to me -, otherwife I mould have been- only a piece 
" of earth, as I appear to be." 

When both lines of each couplet rhyme together through a whole 
competition, it is called (j^jLc as in the following examples : 

j&& ocXftV-) (j~J\ C 
* i _ 

Such is the nature of inconftant fortune, neither her mildnefs nor her 
violence are of long duration : me exalts no one whom fhe does not 
at laft opprefs ; for fhe is light in her affection, but moft harfh in her 

% " A 

0*>J AAwJ-**i 

The happy * Feridun was not an angel $ he was not formed of mufk or 
ambergris. He gained his reputation by juftice and liberality : be 
thou juft and liberal, and thou wilt be a Feridun. 

* An ancient king of Perfia, highly celebrated for his eminent virtues. The learned and excel- 
lent d'Herbelot has made a miftake in his tranllation of thefe lines (fee the article Farrakh in his 
Bibliotheque Orientale) for not recollecting the fenfe of ~ J HAPPY, he made a proper name of it, 
and tells us that Farrakh was a man whom the Perfians confider as a perfeft model of juftice and 




There was an affectionate and amiable youth, who was betrothed to a 
beautiful girl. I have read, that as they were failing in the great fea, 
they fell together into a whirlpool. When a mariner went to the 
young man that he might catch his hand, and fave him from perifh- 
ing in that unhappy juncture j he called aloud, and pointed to his 
miftrefs from the midft of the waves ; " Leave me, and take the 
" hand of my beloved." The whole world admired him for that 
fpeech j and when he was expiring he was heard to fay j " Learn 
" not the tale of love from that wretch who forgets his beloved in 
" the hour of danger." 

Thefe examples will, I hope, be fufficient to undeceive thofe who 
think that the Afiatick poetry confifts merely in lofty figures and flowery 



defcriptions. There is fcarce a leflbn of morality or a tender fentiment 
in any European language, to which a parallel may not be brought from 
the poets of Afia. The verfes of eleven fyllables, which are ufed in the 
' reat Perfian poems, always rhyme together in couplets. It is unne- 
ceflary in this fecTion to give an example of the Perfian ocX^ai' or elegy t 
as it differs only in its length from the Jic or ode, except that the Caf- 
fideh often turns upon lofty fubje&s, and the Gazal comprifes for the 
moil part the praifes of love and merriment, like the lighter odes of 
Horace and Anacreon. The moft elegant compofers of thefe odes are 
/ ^la* Jami and Liit>. Hafiz, each of whom has left an ample collec- 
tion of his lyrick poems. I may confidently affirm that few odes of the 
Greeks or Romans upon fimilar fubjefts are more finely polimed than 
the fongs of thefe Perfian poets : they want only a reader that can fee 
them in their original drefs, and feel their beauties without the difad- 
vantage of a tranflation. I mall tranfcribe the firfl ode of Hafiz that 
offers itfclf, out of near three hundred that I have paraphrafed : when 
the learner is able to underftand the images and allufions in the Perfian 
poems, he will fee a reafon in every line why they cannot be tranflated 
literally into any European language. 

j Jo 

/ j 







iiJiJ J> 


The rofe is not fweet without the cheek of my beloved ; the fpring is 
not fweet without wine. 

The borders of the bower, and the walks of the garden, are not pleafant 
without the notes of the nightingale. 

The motion of the dancing cyprefs and of the waving flowers is not 
agreeable without a miftrefs whofe cheeks are like tulips. 

The prefence of a damfel with fweet lips and a roiy complexion is 
not delightful without khTes and dalliance. 

The rofe-garden and the wine are fweet, but they are not really charm- 
ing without the company of my beloved. 

All the pictures that the hand of art can devife are not agreeable with- 
out the brighter hues of a beautiful girl. 

VOL. u. I i Thy 


Thy life, O Hafiz, is a trifling piece of money, it is not valuable enough 

to be thrown away at our feaft. 

The laft diftich alludes to the Afiatick cuftom of throwing money 
among the guefts at a bridal feaft, or upon any other extraordinary oc- 
cafion : the Perfians call this money ^UJ nifar, and him who collects it 
Uj nifar cheen. 

I mail conclude this grammar with a tranllation of the ode quoted in 
the fection upon the Perfian letters; fee p. 143. 

If that lovely maid of Shiraz would accept my heart, I would give for 
the mole on her cheek the cities of Samarcand and Bokhara. 

Boy, bring me the wine that remains, for thou wilt not find in para- 
dife the fweet banks of our Rocnabad, or the rofy bowers of our 

Alas ! thefe wanton nymphs, thefe fair deceivers, whofe beauty raifes a 
tumult in our city, rob my heart of reft and patience, like the Turks 
that are feizing their plunder. 

Yet the charms of our darlings have no need of our imperfecT: love ; 
what occafion has a face naturally lovely for perfumes, paint, and ar- 
tificial ornaments ? 



Talk to me of the fingers, and of wine, and feek not to difclofe the 
fecrets of futurity ; for no one, however wife, ever has difcovered, or 
ever will difcover them. 


I can eafily conceive how the inchanting beauties of Jofeph affedted Zo- 
leikha fo deeply, that her love tore the veil of her chaflity. 

Attend, O my foul ! to prudent counfels j for youths of a good difpofi- 
tion love the advice of the aged better than their own fouls. 

Thou haft fpoken ill of me -, yet I am not offended j may Heaven for- 
give thee ! thou haft fpoken well : but do bitter words become a lip 
like a ruby, which ought to fhed nothing but fweetnefs ? 


O Hafiz ! when thou compofeft verfes, thou feemeft to make a ftring of 
pearls : come, fing them fweetly : for Heaven feems to have fhed on 
thy poetry the clearnefs and beauty of the Ple'iads. 

The wildnefs and fimplicity of this Perfian fong pleafed me fo 
much, that I have attempted to tranflate it in verfe : the reader will 
cxcufe the fingularity of the meafure which I have ufed, if he con- 
fiders the difficulty of bringing fo many eaftern proper names into 
our ftanzas. 

I have endeavoured, as far as I was able, to give my tranflation the 
eafy turn of the original ; and I have, as nearly as poffible, imitated the 
cadence and accent of the Perfian meafure ; from which every reader, 



who understands mufick, will perceive that the Afiatick .numbers are 
capable of as regular a melody as any air in Metaftafio. 


Sweet maid, if thou wouldft charm my fight* 
And bid thefe arms thy neck infold ; 
That rofy cheek, that lily hand 
Would give thy poet more delight 
Than all Bokhara's vaunted gold,. 
Than all the gems of Samarcand. 

Boy, let yon * liquid ruby flow, 
And bid thy penfive heart be glad,, 
Whate'er the frowning zealots fay : 
Tell them their Eden cannot mow 
A ftream fo clear as Rocnabad, 
A bow'r fo fweet as Mofellay. 

Oh ! when thefe fair, perfidious maids^ 
Whofe eyes our fecret haunts infeft, 
Their dear deftrudtive charms difplay, 
Each glance my tender breafl invades,. 
And robs my wounded foul of reft, 
As Tartars feize their deftin'd prey* 

l~-MiX- ^J<3J a melted ruby is a common periphrasis for wine in the Perfian poetry. See 
Hafiz, ode 22. 



In vain with love our bofoms glow ; 
Can all our tears, can all our fighs 
New luftre to thofe charms impart ? 

Can cheeks where living rofes blow, 
Where nature fpreads her richeft dies, 
Require the borrow'd glofs of art ? 

Speak not of fate ah ! change the theme, 
And talk of odours, talk of wine, 
Talk of the flow'rs that round us bloom : 
'Tis all a cloud, 'tis all a dream ; 
To love and joy thy thoughts confine, 
Nor hope to pierce the facred gloom. 

Beauty has fuch refiftlefs pow'r, 
That ev'n the chafte Egyptian dame * 
Sigh'd for the blooming Hebrew boy : 
For her how fatal was the hour, 
When to the banks of Nilus came 
-f- A youth fo lovely and fo coy ! 

But ah ! fweet maid, my counfel hear j 
(Youth mould attend, when thofe advife 
Whom long experience renders fage). 

Zoleikha, Potiphar's wife. f Jofeph, called by Perfians and Arabians Jufuf. 



While mufick charms the ravifh'd ear, 
While fparkling cups delight our eyes, 
Be gay ; and fcorn the frowns of age. 

What cruel anfwer have I heard ! 
And yet, by heav'n, I love thee ftill : 


Can aught be cruel from thy lip ? 
Yet fay, how fell that bitter word 
From lips which ftreams of fweetnefs fill, 
Which nought but drops of honey lip ? 

Go boldly forth, my fimple lay, 
Whofe accents flow with artlefs cafe, 
Like orient pearls at random ftrung ; 
Thy notes are fweet, the damfels fay, 
But, oh, far fweeter, if they pleafe 
The nymph for whom thefe notes are fung ! 






Oxf. The Publick Libraries at Oxford. 
Par. The Royal Library at Paris. 
Land. The Britifh Mufeum at London. 
Prtv. The Collections of private Men. 


T^ garden of purify, by Mirkhond. A general hiftory of Perfia in feve- 
ral large volumes. Oxf. Priv. 

The hiftory of the life of Sultan Acber, by the learned and elegant Abu 
Fazl. Oxf. 

A defcription of the Indian empire, written by the order of Sultan Acber 



by a fociety of fkilful men. A tranflation of this book .would be ex- 
tremely ufeful to the European companies that trade in India, as it 
contains a full account of every province and city in the dominions of 
the Mogul, of his revenues and expences, both in peace and war, and 
of all the cuftoms and ceremonies in his palace j together with a de- 
fcription of the natural productions of his empire. Oxf. 

The actions of Sultan Baber -, written either by himfelf, or under his in- 
fpeftion. This book contains a minute account of that prince's wars, 
and a natural hiftory of his dominions. Oxf. 

^J^it^SS jj^jlj' 

The biftory of Cafhmir, by a native of that extraordinary country. 
A very curious and entertaining work. Oxf. 

The hiftory of the lives of the Perfian kings, from the head of the Sefi 
family to the death of Abbas the Cruel, improperly called the Great. 

ThefekSl chronicle. This work is an excellent hiftory of Perfia, and has 
been tranflated into Arabick and Turkifli. Oxf. 


A fhort hiflory of Perfia, in one volume, by Khandemlr, a learned and 
agreeable writer. Oxf. 

The heart ofhiftories. A copious hiflory of the Perfian empire, written in 
the middle of the fixteenth century by Abdallatif, a native of Cazvin. 

j Jda 

The book of vifiory.A. hiflory of the life of Timur, commonly called 
Tamerlane, written in a moft beautiful and elegant flyle. 

OUw CXJjti ^^Cy^aJ' I^JjiJI B*jS=SU\i* 

An account of the lives of the Perfian poets, by Devletfhah of Samar- 
cand. Par. 

U U 

The hiflory of the life of Nader Shah, king of Perfia, written by Mirza 
Mahadi, and tranflated into French by the author of this grammar. 


Shah Nameh. A collection of heroick poems on the ancient hiflories of 
VOL. ii. K K Perfia, 


Perfia, by Ferdufi. See the Treatife on Oriental Poetry, in Vol. IV. 
Oxf. Priv. 

The works of Khakani, a fublime and fpirited poet. Oxf, Priv. 

The odes of Hafiz : fee the treatife above-mentioned. Lond. Oxf, 
Par. Priv. 

The works of Sadi; containing ^U M JL/'or the bedofrofes, ^Uwjjj or 
the garden, and olXyX* or the rays of light. The two firft of thefe 
excellent books are very common ; but I have not feen the laft : 
they are all upon moral fubjedls, and are written with all the ele- 
gance of the Perfian language. Oxf. 

The works of Ahli ; containing, 

J^a*. s^* 1 fawfal magick, a poem. 
ajl*-j &r"> f ^ e ta p er and the moth, a. poem. 
cXjL^Jj -jlX^<z book of elegies. 
CjLjji UjUo a book of odes. 

The works of Jami ; containing, among others, 

the chain of gold, a poem in three books. 


(^jl^JUw &* Selman and Abfal, a tale. 

_^OOJo*i the life of Alexander. 

j ^ -*>"*J f fa twes fjf e pb an ^ Zuleica, a very beautiful 
AJLsr* (_5^ ^ ^^ f Leila and Megenun. 

/-^s*. (^j< collection of odes. 

wjjLj M? man/ion ofthefpring. 
\ AAS^ /^ ^ of the noble. 
i^\ '^ffs^ the manners oftbejujl. Oxf. 

A book of elegant odes, by Mir Chofru. Oxf. 

A poetical work called Mefnavi, upon feveral fubjecls, of religion, hif- 
tory, morality, and politicks; compofed by Gelaleddln, furnamed 
Rumi. This poem is greatly admired in Perfia, and it really de- 
ferves admiration. Oxf. Prfo. 

The poems of Anvari, which are quoted by Sadi in hi$ Guliftan, and are 
much efteemed in the Eaft. 

The works of Nezami ; containing fix poems : 
j I -MJ I thefecrets of lovers. 


Jou exi the feven faces. 

<5Uolj _jOJJu,w the life of Alexander. 

(_J^J /# #^ Megenun, a tale. 
ST* thetreafureoffecrets. Lond. Priv. 

Pendnama, a book of moral fentences, not unlike thofe of Theogenis in 


Greek, by^Uoc (.j<jJltX>j Ferideddin Attar. Lond. Oxf. 

The works of Catebi, containing five poems : 

fcr^* the junction of two feas. 
<3 the ten chapters. 
j ^j->** ik beauty and love. 
^o\j the conqueror and triumpher. 
.!oJX=9 *\jQj the loves of Baharam and Gulendam. 

There are many more hiftories and poems written in Perfian ; but 
thofe above-mentioned are the moft celebrated in Alia. The poets of 
the fecond clafs were (J^'&jj Roudeki, who tranflated Pilpai's 
fables into verfe ; <^<^&j Refhidi, who wrote an art of poetry 
called ys****'! ^Ju!<Ax the inchanted gardens ; (^C,<^^ Ahmedi, who 
compofed an heroick poem on the actions of Tamerlane : not to men- 
tion a great number of elegiack and lyrick poets, who are very little 
known in Europe. 




The light of Soleil or Canopus. A very elegant paraphrafe of Pilpai's 
tales and fables, by Cafhefi. Oxf. 

The touchftone of learning; a more fimple tranflation of Pilpai, by Abu 
Fazl. Oxf. 

The Perfian tales of a thoufand and one days, tranflated into French by 
Petit de la Croix. 

Negariftan the gallery of pictures, by Jouini. A mifcellaneous work 
upon moral fubjects, in profe and verfe. There is a beautiful copy 
of this book in the Bodleian library at Oxford. Marjh 397. 

A fyftem of natural philofophy, by Isfahan!. Oxf 

The natural hiftory of precious ftones. Oxf. 

There are many books in Perfian upon Geometry, Algebra, Aftro- 
nomy, Mechanicks, Logick, Rhetorick, and Phyfick ; all which de- 



ferve to be read and ftudied by the Europeans. The Perlians are very 
fond of elegant manufcripts ; all their favourite works are generally 
written upon fine filky paper, the ground of which is often powdered 
with gold or filver duft : the two firft leaves are commonly illuminated, 
and the whole book is fometimes perfumed with eflence of rofes or 
fandal wood. The poem of Jofeph and Zuleica in the publick library 
at Oxford is, perhaps, the moft beautiful manufcript in the world : the 
margins of every page are gilt and adorned with garlands of flowers ; 
and the hand-writing is elegant to the higheft degree : it is in the col- 
lection of the learned Greaves, N. 1 . The Aftaticks have many ad- 
vantages in writing : their ink is extremely black, and never lofes its 
colour j the Egyptian reeds with which they write, are formed to make 
the fineft flrokes and flourifhes ; and their letters run fo eafily into one 
another, that they can write fafter than any other nation. It is not 
ftrange, therefore, that they prefer their manufcripts to our beft printed 
books ; and if they mould ever adopt the art of printing, in order to 
promote the general circulation of learning, they will flill do right 
to preferve their claffical works in manufcript. 

I mail conclude with a Perfian ode in three Afiatick hands, and (hall 
add a few remarks upon each of them. 



This is die only form of writing that we can imitate exactly by our 
types ; it is the hand of the Arabians, who invented the characters ; and 



it muft, therefore, be learned before we attempt to read the other hands : 
it is frequently ufed by the Perfians, and the hiftory of Nader Shah was 
written in it. 


This beautiful hand may eafily be read by Europeans, if they under- 
ftand the Perfian language ; and if they do not, what will it avail them 
to read it ? In this form of writing the ftrokes are extremely fine, and 
the initial letters j j j are fometimes fcarcely perceptible. The charac- 
ters are the fame with thofe ufed in printing, except that <j+, and yi 
are often exprefled by a long ftroke of the reed, as in the third word of 
the fecond line, which anfwers to (JflKw : there are alfo two examples 
of this in the third line. As the Perfians always write their lines of an 
equal length, they are obliged to place their words in a very irregular 
manner ; if the line be too fhort, they lengthen it by a fine ftroke of the 
reed ; if too long, they write the words one above another. In the 
Perfian poems the tranfcribers place both members of a couplet on the 
fame line, and not the firft above the fecond, as we do : a Perfian would 
write the following verfes in this order, 

With ravifhed ears The monarch hears, 

Ajfiimes the god ; AffeSts to nod. 

It muft be confefied, that this irregularity in writing, joined to the con- 
fufion of the diacritical points, which are often placed at random, and 
fometimes omitted, makes it very difficult to read the Perfian manu- 
fcripts, till the language becomes familiar to us ; but this difficulty, like 



all others in the world, will be infenfibly furmounted by -the habit of 
induftry and perfeverance, without which no great defign was ever 



In this inelegant hand all order and analogy are neglected ; the points 
which diflinguifli i*_ from wJs from , and ;__> from cj, () and ^j, 
&c. are for the moft part omitted, and thefe feven letters, t 1} ^^) j j $ 
are connected with thofe that follow them in a moft irregular manner. 
This is, certainly, a conliderable difficulty, which muft be furmounted 
before the learner can tranflate an Indian letter : but I am perfuaded, 
that thofe who chiefly complain of it have another difficulty ftill greater,, 
which is their imperfedt knowledge of the language. 




AJlu Lj^oI 


jl A= 

VOL. II. j, L 


JL HE following Index will be found, it is hoped, of confiderable ufe 
to learners, to thofe in particular who are unprovided with dictionaries j 
fince it is not only intended as a literal alphabetical explanation and 
analyfis of the extrafts and authorities from the various writers inter- 
fperfed through the Grammar, but as a vocabulary it may be employed 
to advantage, by imprinting on the memory a number of ufeful words. 

It may not be improper, however, to inform thofe who have made but 
little progrefs in this language, that, in confulting any dictionary, there 
are a variety of infeparable particles prefixed and annexed to words, 
which muft be analyfed or feparated before the meaning can be found : 
for example, 

CXwjvLXj which literally fignifies to defire /V, muft not be looked for 
under the letter j but under f, the j prefixed being the infeparable pre- 

pofition jfrr, to, in, JJ^ implying defire ; &c. and ex** (for C**J) the 

third perfon prefent of ^tS*J to be. 

It is unneceflary to multiply examples, but it will fave the learner 
much trouble if he keep in mind, that the principal of thefe prefixed 
particles are, 

Jl the Arabick particle the. 

i (or ^j before words beginning with I ) the chara&eriftick of the 
firft future, and fometimes of the imperative. 



AJ or j the prepofition in, to, for, &c. 

j prefixed fometimes by way of pleonafm, to which no tranflation can 
give any precife meaning. 
U 'with. 


/ j without. 
( ^' 

j (for j\] from, with, by, &c. 
aJ^) which, what. 
or tt& chara&erifticks of the prefent tenfe. Thefe charac- 

terifticks of the prefent are frequently omitted by the Perfian authors. 

^ (or / ^ before words beginning with I ) the negative prefixed to 

AJ or j (or /j before words beginning with I ) the general negative 
prefixed to all other tenfes*. 

The particles which are commonly annexed to words are as follow : 

The pofleflive pronouns 
f J or ~j my, mine. Ue our. 

o c^l or Oo thy, thine. l^ your. 

his, her, its. ^i or ^jiu their. 

U\ the plural of nouns having reference to living creatures. 
l& the plural of inanimate nouns. 
I or U the poetick vocative. 
\j the termination of the oblique cafes. 

the third perfon prefent of (j&jJ to be. 

* Notwithftanding the above obfervations 3 which will fave the learner fomc perplexity in confult- 
ing dictionaries, many of the compounded words, and fuch oblique tenfes as differ moft from their in- 
finitives, are for his greater eafe and fatisfa&ion inferted in this Index. 


is fometimes equivalent to our a or one ; and at other times after 
nouns ending with I or y it marks that the following noun is in the ge- 
nitive cafe ; and it is then equal to our of. 

The Perfian writers make frequent ufe of the contracted infinitive ; 
when the learner therefore cannot find fuch words as cXy*_> or 
in the Index, let him look for ^j<_Xxwj_j (^O^nJ &c. 

* The A prefixed to fome words in the Index mows that they are 
of Arabick original. 


iT Water, fountain : luftre. A^tyekl choice, liberty j prudence. 

j| upon: a cloud. A jJ end, finally ; another. 


A ^Ljl //. <?/" j the juft. A (jJ.^\ moderns ; pofterity. 

eXJLjT colour, paint, <:<?;/>. of <_>' A f' Adam * a man : a meflenger. 

water and^Sjj colour. A 161 when. 

A JL*J Abfal, proper name. j\A\ the gth Perfian month ; ver- 
A Jv^ia^j! Abufazel (father of vir- nal. 

tue) proper name. ^til fire. 

A OvxJjjl Abuleis (father of the ^jts^jti! the province of Media. 

lion) proper name. j\ bringing, bring thou, from 
*ol (annexed to 'words) thy. O^J.}' 

fire. ^j^>ij'l fiery. C'j' or \J\ adorning, from 

] a mark, impreflion. ^-^IjTto adorn. 

to plant. .1^1 reft. 

A ^_?!<A=xl pi. o/*Ai'tXs. the eyes. &Jj\ is worth, from (jOyuTJjf 


A ^jly^.1 />/. of .a*, the noble, free. li^l may bring, yr^w o^J^' 

A (j^aJ or ^)ljis.l care, grief. A viU^f fafety, redtitude. 

A ^ Ljj>J a prefent, favour, benefit. ^>l Irem, name of a fabulous garden 
A tXy^.1 Ahmed (moil worthy of in the Eaji, fuppofed to have been 

praife) a proper name. built by a king named Sheddad. 

A <JI^.I pi. of ( ^ a , affairs, condi- _)\ from. 

tions , fecrets. ^y^tijjthe fets at liberty. 

s/ckl to draw afword, knife, &c. (^AljT liberty. 



j\j\ afflicting, from 
(^&j\j\ to rebuke, afflict, wound. 
(^\j\ from that. 
^I thence. 
\ from this. 
lJ! hence. 
\ on account of. 
aj. ^J j I wherefore ? why ? 
! on account of. 

JI afflicted, from 
Lsr \ whence. 

I experienced,//?; ( 

temptation, experence. 
to try, tempt. 
t from amidft. 

! from one another. 
jci^'l to few together. 

like, refembling : appealing. 

*s_ ^~ 

reft, both from ^ 
a horfe. 

A ^V^MJ! hearing, found. 

pL of ^ fecrets. 
to reft. 
il (annexed to 'words) their. 

2(5-1 ) 

' a tear. 

&l clear, evident. 
Ajil love, friendmip, familia- 
rity : knowledge. 
__*jiil difturbing, from 

to difturb. 
a neft. 

A L_>lJLaJ3l confulion, pain. 
A OIJo! />/. of^Ja parts, tradls. 
A (JlcXXcl equality, temperance. 
A ciUuCcI belief, faith. 
A >Ugl great ; greater. 
_Jli! a beginning. 
A (^L^cl />/. of (.y&s. branches. 

cl to embrace. 
>il />/. o/' -A^: rivals, jealoufy. 

' to cut. 
i__>Uol the fun. 

AjLXsl or AjUul a bottle ; an ewer. 
(^jt^Uo! to fall. 
JlJl exalting, from ^Jc-JJ! 

a\ Afraiiab, proper name. 
i! to inflame. 
) _5 1 inflaming, from the above. 

M<-)ujl to create. 
u Rjr 

,jV.j*' creating, yr>/ //6^ above. 



to increafe. 
f'' increafing. 
I alas ! 

o! to fpeak idly. 
^)Lwj! fprinkling, medding. 
jOJU*i! to fprinkle, fhed. 

ii-^jl to prefs. 
^Jol throwing, from 
>LXj I to throw. 

A _f<_XJ'l pi. of <^3 cups. 

A ^g2*.l <Ai' I their cups. 

A^jLj'l affirmation, confirmation. 

A -*S\ Akber (greater) proper name. 

A/I or oL/1 intelligent, vigilant; 

_J I if. A^.j-^1 though. 

o fill. 


A. ^\ the article the. 

A Jl but, except. 
A c^UUJl efleem, refpedt. 
A ..LyJl gentlenefs, lenity. 
mufical notes. 
the mind. 
VOL. ir. 

265 ) O l 

A V_JL)( a thoufand. 

fprinkled, ftained, from 

to ftain, fprinkle. 
A ^^J I O God, heaven j divine. 


A tXj I the Arab, article prejixedto 

Ou aid, ftrength, hand, &c. 
^1 (annexed to words J my. 

to prepare -, to be ready. 


A ^Ul fecurity, mercy; fmcerity. 
he came ; coming, 
to approach : the approach. 
c\*>! coming and going, 

to learn, teach. 
Ikilled, teaching. 

to mix. 

hope. .jf^tXyc! hopeful. 
_A^I| a prince, noble, 
oli cXJ^p^yc! Mirkhond fhah, 
proper name. 

A*_ /Sfc _ 

i/ ^l mixing, from ^^Jcs^* I 
^j ! he : that : time : now. 
O UI thofe. 
( >: jJCUjl to fill. 

( 206 ) 

iXjl defire, expectation. ^^j' devouring, fwallpwing,yro/ 

there, in that place. (^^bjl to devour. 

bringing, from \^&jA 
him, her, it ; to him, &c. 

A ,.bsrM and 

l to throw, dart. 

}lcX?l thro wing, from the above. 



l within. 
! little. 

l to gain, gather. 
! to befmear. 


Ou! gathering, gaining. 
iijOJl thought, confideration. 



l thither. 

to bring. 

Jjj! a throne : a manufacturing 


A 5-Uijl />/. o/"x*0. affairs, actions. 
A Jjl firft : the beginning. 


A (^-Jj! forefathers, the ancients. 

(jJCs^-jl to hang. 

A A$! Ikilful : endowed with, 

}\ that which j he who. 

=Jl or ol=aJl then, at that time. poflefled of: people. 

'A to think. C^J^. (JJ&I wife. 

=^1 to excite, raife. l a fawn. 

^=aj| raifing, exciting. (^1 coming j come thou, 

A _^Ujl Anvar (fplendor) proper 

name. (Cl or Ul O ! //> o////^ -uoc. c^/?. 

^7^ .. */ o k/ ./ 


Lgjl thofe. A ,L| times, days, pi. of +v 

A ilgj! />/. of -Q rivers. 
Ci' or l or he, me, it: his, 
hers, its. 

to ftand. 

: their. 

k ! himfelf, herfelf. 
a voice, found : fame. 


them: to 



A (-^f3\ the right hand. 

this. (jUul thefe. 
. S!| here. 
f.j^JLsr^l fo, thus. 

^^ * v 

AJ! hither, 
a mirror. 
\j\ thefe. 

j with ; in : to, for. 
U with, poflefied of: fince. 
i_jU a gate j a chapter. 
^L> Baber, a proper name. 

to play. 

b the wind, air ; let it be. 
^o lib zephyr ; a gentle gale ; 
eaft or morning wind, 


a load, baggage. 

JU playing, play thou,/r. 
JL, again, anew. 

iJU to with-hold. 
jU a player ; playing. 

( 26; ) U 

(jilt being, be thou, from 

\Si\j a balhaw, governor. 

<A>ijL> it may be ; it may happen, 

from \^)^*J 

(^jO^Lj to fprinkle, diffufe. 
db a garden. (jUcb a gardener. 
j^Jolj to weave : to tinge. 
A (^ LJ the remainder; permanent. 

fear, care. 

j.pure, chafle, clean. 
_jl/j LJ affectionate. 
-A/ L more pure. 

>j1j innocent, unblemifhed. 
beautiful, amiable, 
j gentle, pure, lovely, 
a wing : an arm. 
above, upwards. 

to ftrain. 

j in the morning, 
five hundred. 
*&lj together. 
jU it is nQCG.ffa.ry, from 
'Oub permanent, 

the participle of 
to have> 

Jy. ( 

i M j\j to be neceflary. 

b to accept. 
jj he took or bore up. 
j fear thou,/ra o cXu*y 


he kiffed, 

^ redundant. 

) an infant ' 

rf metre : the fea. 

^ the lambick meafure. 
j the Trochaick meafure. 
a kind of verfe, confift- 
ng of lambicks and Spondees. 
.' -^ dual of fsJ the two feas. 

s^ Bokhara, name of a place. 
xs^ to boil. 
i-gr/ I may or can give, from 

isx^s^ to give. 

bad. ^tX> bad of me. 

Ju to or for thefe. 

know thou. /^JO^JlcXj I 
might have known, fr. ^^wjlti 

j give thou, from (j^!<3 
jc\j confpicuoufly, publickly. 

fcX!OucXi [to become confpicuous. 
jiAj accepting, from 

j,jj Ju to accept. 

full. ^ the bofom : upon 
v^y upon thy bofom. ^ car- 
r y in g> ravifhing, from 

to reft ' 

fl 10 ^ 11 reft - 

to afcend - 
for ' becaufe. 


Ooly arifes, comes,/r. ^ 
Jajy a harp, lute. 
^j'j a ray, fplendor. 
( ^JCwjL^._j to rife, arife. 
<^jci.!<3.j. to finifh, compofe. 
JI<Xj compoling, completing. 

^ n ^ es > performs. 

to raife, exalt. 

to ^ ear ' Carr 7> ^ ead> 
J^j? tne y carry off. 
! a veil, tapeftry. 

j a chamberlain, porter. 
aflc thou, aflcing. 

<A>*J^J it arrives. 

^ a bove, on the top or head. 

to aik. 

! Oo*j_ we have afked. 
went away. 



iTlj a leaf j power j arms ; orna- 
ment ; a mufical inftrument. 

to ^' 

to return, recede. 

i.4jo*k>iJ-j to afcendi mount. 
AjLj a butterfly, moth. 
j j _> a protector, nourimer ; edu- 
cating -, educate thou. 

to educate, nourifh. 
without, out of. 

Jij together. 


to beware, abflain. 

i>Jbj abftinence, chaftity. 
(^ j an angel, fairy. 
^jU*j-j ruinous, difordered, feat- 

_>ij under, below. 
^O-*jj to wither, decay. 

J^Ly^iJ they will give up, from 

j a garden : a breaft. 

to bind, ihut. 
jjjj a boy, child. 
kj much, many. 

it bloflbmed. 


pAJjt&j let us break. 
A ey-A*2j fight : prudence. 
A JUaj lazy; a mifcreant. 
A JdaJ vain, fruitlefs. 
Oou after. ^1^)1 <A*J afterwards. 
per/on, imperative from 
j to command, &c. 
j is to my defire. 
tX*Uu he mall dig, from (^JoL> 
_^lJUu leave thou. 
Ju fay thou,yro#z (.^/JL^ 
t^vXJij it mail pats, from 
<J<j but. 

A JO misfortune : without. 
A tiJIj a country, region. 

^Jj a nightingale. 


L_dL> a tiger. 
A t_^-> yes. 

ci-^j it mall perim,yr<?/w ^ 
^_Uj therefore. 
Jtu mourn thou,yr<?^ 
-sr^. five. oLsrV. fifty. 
>srV. the fifth. 

Ju binding, compiling; bind thou. 

,/u advice, counfel. 

2/0 ) 

JL to fuppofe, think. 
<u can bind, from ^o**J 
JAmJuo a garden of violets. 
Ju fhowed, from ^jii^J : 
j prefixed feems to be redundant. 
to be. 
j they were, from 


a little branch. 

an excufe. 
a kifs. 

jj a garden. 
he kifled,y 

to hide, cover, conceal. 
an owl. xj to the owl. 


j fragrance, fmell. 

> *j rofe-fcented. 
j good : in, into. 
j the fpring. 

U*wjL$j the manfion of the 

! chearfulnefs. 

becaufe, for, on account of: 
all, every one : fortune ; pre- 

j Baharam (the planet Mars) 
proper name. 

the breaft, fide : near : the 
ancient Perfian language. 
j together, one with another. 



Lu come thou,yr<?#7 QtXJ 

a defart : uncultivated. 
I fhall find, 
^to bring ihou,from ^j^jt\ 
A vj^L^ white ; brightnefs. 
<jJLu a cup. 


faithlefs, mercilefs. 
thou fhalt learn, 


a houfe ; a diftich. 

j irregular. 

*. without affiftance. 
a root, origin. 
ffi without a thorn. 

,AS^ ignorant. 
cJcs^ to fift. 

Czk^. to take captive. 

^ falfe, faithlefs. 
openly : a difcovery. 
xj heartlefs, difconfolate. 

old ; an old man. 
I-AJ adorning, collecting. 
^jJC*.Lo to deck. 
() .AJ without, out of doors. 
>j medding, fift'mg,from j^Jcs 
Ou*iju twenty. 

before j the front. 

uj inconftant ; afflicted. 

new. XjUCo novelty. 

271 ) 

^jli' heat, flame; fplendor; ftrengthj 
defire ; a fever ; contortion. 
J(j(j to caufe to mine. 

Jou the face, form. 
Jou an elephant, 
^j fear, danger. 

LX^AJ unequalled, 
to meafure. 

^AJ feeing. 
JLo I may fee, both from r^tXjti 
L^Xxxj or IgXjl / j endlcfs.- 
LAAJ helplefs, unfortunate. 
^jJCwjj-u to join, touch. 
cXA-o touching, joining, reaching. 

ijlj' I may turn, kc.from 

lj' to turn, twift ; to mine, 

>\ or \j (annexed to words) thy. 
j until, that, in order to. 

make warm ; to be able. 
uTUjlj' bright, mining. 
^Jiklj' to twift ; haften ; wager. 
J(j obfcurity j a hair ; a thread ; 

the fummit. 
!j fpoil, prey, ruin. 
(j obfcurity, darknefs. 
A j#?^lj' a hiftory, chronicle. 
eXjjlj' dark. JCJujli' darker. 
ojlj' frefh, new, young. 
J'ojb' more frefh, &c. 
^.^Xilj' to inflame, burn. 
A J^Ly confideration, fpeculation. 
IAJ' let alone, leave, relinquifh. 
A AJLsr' a prefent ; rare, elegant. 
A vUtXJ' prudence, advice j govern- 

ment ; regulation. 
A g_K\J' a record, obligation. 
J' moift, frefh. 
l_j' thee ; to thee. 

jlJ' harmony, modulation. 


' a tomb. 

y'jJ' order, regularity. 
thou feareft,yhw 
j to fear. 
thou mayefl fear. 

272 ) 


A UyJ a wifh ; fupp-lication. 
...j' the body, perfon. 
LgjiJ alone, only j folitary. 
*j' thou : thy. &^L J thyfelf. 
A 'f?-j\y (pl> f ff^^} hiflories. 
* ^ * s poffib\e,Jrom ^jJC 


' a fword. 

A wvkJ pointing j fhame, anguifh. A AJJJ' repentance ; conversion. 

A ^S"-^ a beautiful man or woman ; i^J^L^i to collecl: ; to pay debts. 

a Turk ; leaving, relinquifhing. A OvxJLJ congratulation. 

correcting ; arranging. /^i' wretched, empty, naked, poor, 

j' compofition, invention, yy an arrow : the river Tigris. 

A xAJ I /J LXJ' or /J Lsu' <jJJ ! om- :>.j fharp ; violent, paffionate. 

nipotent God. 
A <J k xs* J hafte. 
A **JLJjO' hanging, dependent ; 

the moft elegant kind of Perlian A C^jJ moiflure. 


A JoUj' negligence: contempt. A ^A^J precious : the eighth. 


A _Ju' relaxation, walking; con- t 
bitter j feverely. 

bitter in the mouth, 
jj diverfion ; a fpedlacle, feeing. 
A ..Lyj* full, perfedt; completion, 
end: completely. 

A b J' the conftellation Pleiades. 

a place. 

an inchanter ; inchanting. 
*. a remedy. 

a fiffure, a breach. 
to tear. 

a cup, glafs ; mirror. 
a mantle, robe ; bed. 
*. a collection. 

the foul , a beautiful woman. A 
fouls ; friends; lovers. 
=^ delighting the foul. 
having life, an animal. 

the forehead. 
ftudy, endeavour. 
!.=*. which ; wherefore, why ? 
A OisJ.^. (pL Li>b*.l_i.) a wound. 
-.ia. fortune ; the world, globe. 
a crime. 
^ except, unlefs. 



. to leap ; .to feek, examine. 

jiox an eye. 

a fountain. 



io. to tafte, try. 

I have tafted. 


a curling lock, 
a kind of mufical inftru- 
ment, a lyre, a lute. 
Jo* the heart. jjbjGL heart- 
^xX-L what doft thou do ? comp. 


( 273 ) 

ofz* (for &*.) what, and the id 
perfonpref. of ^^ 
how ? what ? 

Gelaleddin (the 
glory of religion) proper name. 
A oJLs*. a volume : the fkin. 
A (JL^ beauty, elegance. 
tXxji^^. Gemfhid, proper name. 
A Xy^. collection, affembly, troops, 
a garden, meadow, 
verdant plains, meadows, 
in like manner. 
;>. in the fame way. 
. in this manner, thus. 
ia* or AX^. paradife. 

how many ? 

how often ? 
^ fairy land. 
i. a harp, lute, 
when (or ^.jjj^.] 
feek thou, from 
an anfwer. 

like, as. 

y oun g > a young man. 
. youth. 

A ,*l^. (pi. ofgjs*) jewels, 
how ? when. 

N N 

( 274 ) 


when that. 

(a man, of great me- 

/JLus*. Jouini, name of an author. mory) name of a poet. 

thou mayeft feek, from A J 1=*. a condition, ftate : a thing : 

time prefent. 

A C-J U*. motion, adtion ; ftate. 
A (jj^xsa. imprifonment. 

/^AJutXs*.) gardens, 
news -, an accident, 

^. motion : a vowel. 
envy, malevolence. 
beauty, elegance. 

followers, troops, 
true : truth, reafon. 
fincerity : truly, 
a decree j wifdom. 

fcience; a myftery; a 
^. what doft thou fay ? A *>J^ wife : a doctor, learned 

what, which, 
s*. leaping, from ^jJu, 

four hundred, 
the fourth, 
the world. 

s. conqueror of the world. 
^ftXJLa*. pofleffing the world. 
A tX-ja*. diligence, folicitude. 

what ? CX>w^i*. what is it ? 
he gathers, from ^cXo*. 

what doft thou feek ? 

China : a ringlet. 
I may gather, from 



neceflity : poverty. 
arriving i completion ; A 

man, philofopher, phyfician. 

A (J-Xs*. lawful. 

A ..1^2*. a bath. 

A tXy^k praife. 

A i^jcil^. (pi. of i;<ibsw) acci- 
dents, news. 

harveft, produce : profit. 

affiftance, fupport : a for- 
trefs j eminence, mountain. 

: ' ' A 

( 275 

(pl- of^^s^.) necefla- 
ries, necefllties : things. 
A uulo*. life ; a portico, veftibute. 
A <J^o^ (pi- of&^^] frauds. 
A ^1^x2*. living, life j an animal. 

j\s* a thorn. 

^jbL^lsL anguifh, refentment. 

^.yuwLi. to rife. 

A (j^bk pure, excellent ; noble. 

A Jsbi. mind, heart, difpofition. 

li'tsL Khakani, name of a poet. 
L earth, duft. 

A Jbi. a mole on the face. 
A i-JUbk the Creator. 
(^(* a lord, grandee ; an inn. 
lgjl=L (pi. of '<5ubL) houfes. 
A x^ hiftory ; news -, fame. 
oti-xiw relate thou,from 
(j^A-^L to inform, relate. 
^^X=L Khoten, Tartary. 
A .J^sr^ afhamed, blufhing j envy. 
A C-Jjsf^ a blufh, fhame. 
k God. 
jlOcL a prince, lord, patron. 

O God ! O heaven ! 

AJLXjcXJjIOck the only Lord God. 
^Ljljck friend of God, prop. name. 
^jLJ-cL ftately, pompous. 

ui w 

A u^-ik murmured : fell, from ^, 
k intelle<ft: fmall. 
^ minute, fubtile ; minutiae. 
Juwys*. contented. ^CXAMJ.^. I am 
contented. eXJUN.aL content. 

*<* charming, pleafant. 
^ a cock or hen. 

iijj^. rage, emotion : an attack. 

j-^L buying j he bought. 
^j!:=k the autumn. 
4j*^ Khofrou, Cyrus. 
A w?^. Khezar, proper name. 

A k-^ a muftacho ; a line, rule. 
A i,U~L a crime, error. 

^UiJbk palpitation of the heart. 
A cx^jJl^. the befl part of any 

thing, the fubftance, cream. 
A (j^JcL fincerity, purity. 
JeL fmiling, pleafant. 
L fleep ; a dream. 

i. drowned in lleep. 
^. the place of reft ; a bed. 

( 276 ) 

:k. eating, devouring. 

=k to be willing. 
a* a reader, finger, finging : 
viands, vidluals ; a table. 
(^cXiU^. to read, fing. 
oLcL afk, call, wiih for. 
/ _^l i^Lyou will, both from (-^JM\^> 
vusi. pleafant, fair, gentle. 
JUATS*. more beautiful, &c. 
moft beautiful. 
a*, fair- faced. 

^k one's felf. 
a* -to eat, devour. 
:L the fun. 
>*=*. fweet. 
ji^ck joy be to 

jij*~* fweet-fcented. 
s^iL fweet-tempered. 
a*. blood. ij-j*^ blood-dropping. 
a^. difpoiition, temper. 
:i. to chew the cud. 
LcL imagination, phantafy ; a 
fpe&re : vain, fruitlefs. 
:>ck rifing,ynwz ^jJC^l^ or 
(jtXjj^^. to rife, fpring up. 
(S^jjj^. thou haft rifen. 

darknefs, night. 

equity; a gift; lamentation. 

to give. 

having, from (^jJCilti 
l<3 a family ; houfe ; town, 
l^lti Dara, Darius. 
^jlti I have, enjoy, poflefs. 
<AJ^!^ they have or hold. 
Ovwglci he had, both from 
^jJC^Iti to have, hold. 
clii a wound, fear. 
^Iti a net, fnare, trap. 

a fold, lappet, or hem of a 

,1^ knowing : a veffel ; fheath. 
a wife or learned man. 

AJUUI<^ prudently, wifely. 
*A***Jlii I know, 
(r^wjlii to know. 

)iJl<^ learning. 
A.yjiJlti learned ; a doclor. 
^cX^iJlt} learning, literature. 
AJlti they know,yr0#z /..sXwjJlti 
jlci fnare, allurement ; a grain : 
cannon ball. 


( 277 ) 

thou knoweft, doft thou Joti a regifter, journal ; index, 
know ? A c-JLoti minute ; fubtile, fmall j 

(jj\<5 dominion, adminiftra- a fubtilty : a minute, 

tion of juftice. ^jJsJjti depart from, leave, 
in, above ; around : a gate. ex JsJ^ it pafles away. 

ofiij&) pearls. J\$ again : another. 


to enter, 
to carry in. 

to fufpend ; contend ; 
cL^ti a plant, tree. 

to require, demand, 
a wound, torment : dregs, 
right, compleat. 
harm, hard. 

was betrothed, 

he beholds, from . 
j& to view, behold. 
^ within : the heart ; intrails. 
> the Perfian language, 
the fea, a wave, 
to underiland. 
alas ! 

the heart. 

raviming, delightful, 
of Jii and jjjl participle of 
(^xs^.! to exalt, fufpend. 
^sr'<^ agreeable, falutary, comp. of 

^ (f or C^^) port, of 
to defire, afk. 

a miftrefs ; heart-ravifhing, 
comp. of Jti and j\& particip . of 

to have, hold. 

\ heart-wounding, comp. of 
and jy* part, of (^JCsLy*, 
to burn. 

O heart-deceiving, comp. of 
and t*~*jj> part, of /.kJuu-s 
to deceive. 

heart- conquering, comp. 

or , 

the hand. 

an enemy. 

to open, conquer, &c. 
time : breath : pleafure. 

( 278 

the brain, the palate. 

a friend ; harmony, comp. 
of +& breath, and _JUw from 
^jJcLLw to do, make. 
^ two. 
A Ocsw*ti a fpecies of large trees; 

orchard : rattles for children. 
A i<3 a circle, orbit, revolution: 


(C\*& diftance, abfence. 
j <3 fewing, piercing, 

a friend, miftrefs. 


Juw jti dearer, more friendly. 

cXot^ two hundred. 

A CiJjO or <*J y& felicity ; riches j 

a kingdom, ftate. 
..jii the fecond. 

a village ; a giver : ten. 
fortune, fate, time, world, 
a gift, liberality. 

fear, aftonimment. 
ijUC&O a villager. 
i!: oO ten thoufand. 

winter, firft winter month, 
December -, yefterday. 

jii (pL ofj\S) friends, fami- 
lies, habitations : a country. 
O he faw, from 
to fee. 

><^ fight. 

jjjti yefterday. 

Jo<3 another. ^L^jt3 again. 

(^I^j0> a collection of an author's 
works, chiefly poetical : a royal 
court, tribunal of juflice. 

A .6 pofTefled of, endowed with. 
A JJU* j6 majefKck. 
A <--J&6 gold. 


A CA^J^J tranquillity, 
a fecret, myflery. 
a declivity, foot of a hill. 

compaffion, favour, 
to draw, drive, banifh. 
a way, path. 

to r b> fteal, infeil the 
A AS^JJ fragrant -, fragrance. 


A t^Jj a verfe of four lines, a 
word of four letters. 



A c <?^> returnng. 

a cheek, face j a groan ; the 
found of a mufical inftrument. 
a cheek. 
; an embafiy J a mandate. 

to caufe to arrive. 
to grow ; to be delivered. 
manner, law, regulation. 
arrives, yr^OT 

to arrive. 
a line, thread. 
A <-Xx>ij Rafhid (a conductor) 

proper name. 

A Uc^ tender, delicate, lovely. 
^Loj motion. 

I went, from 
to go : departure. 

to dance : motion. 
colouring, painting, embroi- A 
dery : writing j a letter, cha- A 
rafter ; arithmetick. 

Roknabad, ^w<? of a place. (SjJ 
(pl- fj*j) enigmas. 
he threw j throwing. 

forrow, pain. 

a wanton, diflblute, drunken 

colour, paint. 

many-coloured, various. 

A Lj right, competent, worthy. 
A _ the foul, life, fpirit. 
Iji I j fpirit-raifing, 

Rudeki, proper name. 

encreafing daily. 
fortune, world, time r an 
age ; wind, air, vanity. 
a journal. 

one ^ a 7 : fortune. 
fplendid, evident. 
more fplendid. 
light, fplendor. 
a garden. 
beauty, elegance. 

or J_^ ^ ace ' to P- 
t ^ ou ^^ g ^^ (y^U 
t ^ lou d& grow, from t jJ 

a road, way. 

( 280 ) 

A j^Lsr-j herbs (in general} pro- &Sj from 

perly fweet bafil. 
(jj^sfj to pour. 
^jj pouring, dropping. 

to buz. 


') (for_j\) from : if. 
\-)&}j to be born ; to bring forth. 
; a complaint : a bed, a place. 

j dew ; froft, hoar froft, hail. 
^jUJ the tongue; language. 
A oOoJ the moft excellent of any 
thing, the flour, cream. 
') above, high, fuperior. 
Lj a wound, blow, flroke. 
} difpelling. 
*) to ftrike, hurt, impel. 

} to polim. 
} gold. 

') pale, yellow. 
; a goldfmith. 
tjj ornamented with gold. 
.KjjJ golden, 
j to live. 

a lock of hair. 

siVj Zuleikha, Potiphar's 'wife. 
A (^\-*j the world j fortune j time, 


; emerald-coloured. 

J made of emeralds. 
J ground, earth, 
ftriking, difturbing, Jr. 
Jj a prifon. 
Jj life. 

J decay, mifery. 
poifon, venom. 
j poifonous. 
Venus ; courage ; gall, 
lofs, damage, 
an ornament ; beauty. 
\j^J) beautiful. 
J' L*j_J more beautiful, 
agrees, from 

O ' J 

^f^U to quadrate, agree with. 
_[j under, below. 
; becaufe, for. 

like, refembling. 

A (JesxUj a more, coaft, bank. 
JckLw to prepare, make, 
full of. 

;Lw he makes, both from (^JckL 
r)Lw a compofer, performer. 

a cup. 
A O'Lj the leg. 

A (J>Lw a cup-bearer, water- 

A L_Q Lw a traveller ; going. 
jj Uw a year, age. 
Aj.Lw a made. 
A u-vx*w a caufe, motive. 
^<XA>* to refign, commit, recom- 
mend, charge, enjoin. 

light of weight. 
IxXlwj bearers of light burdens 
(jAzL^m to prick. 
A>y*j a foldier, foldiery, army. 
OC\AX>*J white. 

J<3 O<_XXAJ*J the morning, aurora. 
^j^^iLXwvi to take, ravifh. 
o U*w taking: a country. 
(ji/jU>w praife,yr<?/?; (^^^1, 
(^)<_Xxxw to take. 


281 ) 

(^ti-Awj to ihave, erafe, efface. 
-^MJ injury, oppreflion, tyranny, 

jjcX^JCwj the injured, afflidted. 
JCwj a tyrant. 
,-Xwj the wicked. 
(jiUAj^JG* a tyrant. 
(^)O>>C*i to praife. 
A gtib^ 1 a kind of carpet. 
A 2=*" rhyme, melody ; the coo- 
ing of doves. 
A t^s^* 1 adoration. 
A CXcs^" difpolition, temper. 
A V3^ N the morning, crepufcle ; 


oLJ^s^ or &fjsf the morning. 
A (^gjsf belonging to the morning. 
-A2s^* J adverfity, danger, poverty, 
s^ fpeech ; a word. 
,** head, end, extremity ; love, 

defire : principal, fupreme. 
A \yu a lamp, lanthern -, the fun. 
,wjL^w from beginning to end. 
j \j> lyw lofty, tall; glorious. 
(^^(Oyw to banifh to a place, to 

o o 

^ ( 282 

/.kAMJ-wj to mix, compofe. 

an occurrence, accident : /. 

a tale, fong, warbling. 

wanton ; aftonifhed, con- 


fufed : a vagabond, 
-wj a cyprefs-tree j a horn. 
A j*f joy : a prince, chief. 
,^y*i mixing, from (jJC>iy*. 
|j>w convenient, proper. 
I ^w it is proper. 

of a good difpofition ; 
happy, augufl. 

A / Jiwj an endeavour, diligence. 
, JUUM thou pierceft,jfo?flz 
..Jijjj^i to pierce, bore. 
lOJJv+i Sekander, Alexander. 
A ^)*X*i quiet, refignation. 
A JLJL**) pure water: a chain. 
A AJUwJLu a chain, feries, lineage. 
A (jL^Lw Selman, proper name.- 
A *AA>*I Selim (perfecl:, unblemifh- 
ed) proper name. 

Samarcand, a city. 
AA^J*! jeflamine-bofomed. 


AAJ*I a hyacinth. 
A^jJlAAJvM a garden of hyacinths. 


AWJ a ftone. 
AXLw ftony. 

t^L^N blacknefs : melancholy. 
A=L^WJ to burn, inflame. 

I would touch, rub, from 
to ftroke, rub, touch, 
a beautiful kind of red rofe. 
in flaming, from ^/^^t 

an oath. 

towards ; a place, part, fide, 

Soha, name of ajlar. 
tall, ered:. 

the Jlar Canopus ; name of a 
Perjian author. 

or &AMJ black. 
w blacknefs. 
bathed, full of water, 
three hundred, 

the face, colour, 

( 283 ) 


the bofom, breaft. V'T*** w i ne - 

the third. _jL**cyw bamful. 

i bafhfulnefs. 
* to wafh. 

JU><M lix. O<\M*J& lixty. 
l or /ji (annexed to words J his, A IjtwJ ^/>/. o/^ jL*j) poets, learned 

men, doctors. 

A &Xx>i light, flame, fplendor. 
_^li> a hunter. 

.JUC& breaking, from 

ji to cleave, tear, break. 

her : to him, to her. 
:.l a branch, twig, horn. 

i mirth. 

A& the evening. 

ij in the evening. 

i, /(/or i^Uxjl) they; their. A C-u_lXi a complaint. 

jCi fugar. 

&. -X^< eating fugar, 
\ ^-.^ to hunt, take, feize. 


jLi to comb. 
Sjj'Li fixteen. 
ji a king, emperor. 

ji royal, princely. 
u-\>i night. 
A 4->t^ij youth. 
& one night. 
LiLij hafte. 

^.^/L^L/oii or /^jULi make hafte. 
(^JoUCii to make hafte. 
3^** ^/^- O'T^ or ^j>^) a camel. 


A js ysc'*' a tree. 

A 3=*" ftrength, force, agility. OJj3i>theyb\oSbm, from the afove. 

& he was : going, from aj^a^ a flower. 

& to be, 6cc. Ux^=^ patient. 

i a cheft of fugar. 
' L'-'-' ~ *" -* 

ji fugar-lipped. 

^ to break, defeat, over- 

'^gW;. Shekefteh (broken) 
current Perjian hand-writing, 
ufed in Hindojlan. 

>i to bloflbm j to admire. 

( 284 ) 
^j patience, toleration. B tiL.x>ij a lionefs. 


i your- J _A& a lion. 

/-. jA 

you, your 

ij number ; numerous. 
ye, you; to you. 
i odour, fragrance. 
to number, enumerate. 
the fun ; gold. 
a fcymitar. 
a candle, wax taper. 
odour: nature, cuilom ; an 

w to underftand. 
knowing, from the above. 
or ^jti^w to hear. 
otJoi I have heard. 


ooi they heard, fr. 
jovial, gay, wanton, bold, in- 

A cX..^ honey, honey-comb. 
A ^t a city ; the moon ; a knave. 
& infane ; enamoured, 
a lion ; alfo a tiger. 
ij the top band of a book. 
& Shiraz, name of a place. 
i the habitation of lions. 

Shireen (fweet, gentle), 
proper name. 
Lvyi of gentle manners. 


a lord, mailer, pofleflbr, 
friend : endowed with. 
v ^ 1 '-*^ beautiful. 
a.Lo honeft-hearted. 
the zephyr ; youth. 
or ,,1*0,3 morning, aurora. 
in the morning. 
/-^cXsr^ one morning. 
A _*o patience. 
a boy. 



company, fociety. 

a leaf, book, page, 
a hundred. 

Saddar (a hundred gates), 
of a Perlian book. 
a hundred thoufand. 

a to expend, employ, 
difficult, fevere. 
a rank, file ; order. 


( 285 ) 


purity, pleafure. 
a calamity, 
voice, found, noife. 

a parrot. 

the deluge. 

a fold, ply : folding. 

fancy, image, form ; a A .xL a bird. 


/ f iO 

(j&jj (^jj^o to reign. 

A -L^3 failing j the feafon of faft- A JLlo vidtory : Timur or Tamer- 
ing among the Mahomedans ; lane. 
metaphorically the fpring. A cx^JLL* darknefs. 

hunting ; prey. 

AXAO to take prifoner. . 




j mind, confcience. 
light, fplendor. 

joy, mirth, feftivity. 
the houfe of mirth. 




cuftom, ufage. 

a cheek ; a tooth ; an 
accident ; a heavy cloud. 
A uJLiLc a lover, miftrefs ; ena- 

A ^jsAJbiLc two lovers. 
A Axilc the end, iflue, event, fuc- 

cefsj finally. 

a border, margin, part. A JLc the world, time ; learned, 
a lock of hair. (^j^i J Lc enlightener or inflam- 

cuftom, way, manner. er of the world. 

A \s. univerfal : plebeian. 


A /^silxc Abbafi, name of a dy- 

najly of Arabian khalifs. 
oLXS'Otxc a place of worfhip. 


thou afkeft,^r<7/ ( 
rifing, <j- the fun. 

defire, avarice. 
a circuit, walk. 


( 286 ) 

A cu_x wonder, myftery, example. A ^ life. ^-^ myiife. 
wonder, admiration. A ^K^-C adlion, operation, 

juftice. A vjJLc amber, ambergris, 

an enemy. 

a cheek, face, temples, 
a wild Arab. 



empty fpace : a dice-table. 
A L><?, poetry, profody. 

A t--yJc}JL a nightingale. 
A uu^odc a fpider. 
A L_-O!* (pi. 0/*u-*xc) vices. 

an Arabian inhabiting a city. A cX- age, time ; compadt, pro- 
a field, court, area ; an mife. 

A^Ls. a touchflone, proof. 
A <~-AA a vice, crime, ftain. 
A ij^c magnificent, incomparable. A cXxc a feftival, folemnity ; joy. 
A eu^Lc mirth, converfation ; the A (jiux mirth, delight ; life. 

pleafures of the table. A (^xc a fountain ; an eye, look j 

A i_X>** love. gold ; efTence : paradife. 

t_jb Ouj^ fondnefs. 
A cx^ac chaftity, integrity; de- C 

fence, fafeguard. 
A Jo perfume, ottar of rofes. 
UM Jo perfumed, fragrant. 
>> 5LJtc God preferve. 

a firing of pearls : a treaty. 


A (JjLC prudence, memory, art, A 
knowledge ; a narrative. A 

A OOJJLC punifhment, t9rment. 
A J^ knowledge, fcience, art. 

learned men. A ~Xc a boy, fervant. 

A u-oli abfent, invincible, con- 

A_jlxi duft ; a thick vapour. 

A V--0-C a ftranger, foreigner ; ex- 
JLc a fawn. 
Jji an ode.' 

A ejlJ_ ^/. ^/^ above} odes. 

A <jua vexation. 



> care, grief, terror. C^ckj j felling : he fold, from 

c forrowful. ,. J^J to fell. 

c affliction. < M tX!OyJ to defcend. 

*-' JT 

arofe-bud. (Xj^ (for cCj^\) inflamed, 

c to fleep, flumber. from <.JC=L 

ij felling. 

& J he fells, both from (.JsaLjJ 

A OvA0lj overflowed, from I^MZO A cjj fplendor. 

A JU an omen, prefage. ^OJUj J to be dejected. 

Aa coloured. C_5^ or W.^ deceit, j9ow 
A AJLo a tumult, faction, difcord, (/>Aju ^j 

mifchief, fcandal. (MjOo J Feridoun, name of a king. 

A db 3 glorious; glory, ornament. (jJCJu J to deceive. 

A fcXi ranfom, redemption. ^& _*i to freeze, congeal. 

A l 'IjJ abfence, feparation. ^jLio fcattering,yrow rjcXJLij 

3 oblivion, from ^ti^j to prefs, fqueeze. 

i to forget. A Ooi.L^i3 eloquence, melody. 

A J happy. O^ 3 " ^ orrow complaint : alas ! 

l<^ J to-morrow. A Jo confederation, care. 

<^^ Ferdufi (belonging to Ui^Ju Jo confider ; L Ju w //5f 
paradife) #/<? <?/"^ />^/. imperative of Q^O, J 

cilXwj-i to fend. (^-^ throwing, throw thou,ym 

X^J an angel, meflenger ; fairy. ^tX*Jo to throw, throw away, 
A cxij abfence; a troop; a feet. lay afide. 

(j&j* ji to command. A OJJ heaven ; the world ; for- 
i below : dejected. tune. 


( 288 ) 

A {_3* in > into. S-'^' (P?" of^" <v ^>) hearts. 

A o-a-o abundance : he diffufed. A ^-> the moon. 
US an elephant. cAj/r 5 like the moon. 

A (J^jj a word, fpeech, eloquence. 
A ,gi' violence, force, oppreffion ; 

jla Kaf, /&? << of a fabulous power ; chaflifement ; anger. 
mountain. A (j*Lo meafure ; reafoning, 


A Oo a form, figure, mape, ftature. thought, advice, argument ; a 

A _(Jo a cup, goblet. fyllogifm. 

A_^cJo fate ; predeftination ; quan- A ..Lo ftation, ftanding ; refurrec- 

tity ; value ; dignity, power. tion : confufion, tumult. 

A jlJj conftancy, confiftency, con- A yua-o Cefar, an emperor. 

firmation ; quiet. 
A ^/KJ contiguous, related to. 

A <JoLa (pi. of otXy^zi) poems, A (dJT^as, like, in the fame manner. 

elegies. A /^u'L^=> Katebi (a writer, fe- 

A ^as a palace. cretary) proper name. 

A uai* a tale; an action. A ^yj!<Jc^U like my eyes, c omp. 

A otXyaJj an elegy, poem. of => like, ^_J|(Jc^.l eyes, and 

A l^2J> fate, death, judgment ; ju- (_ the Infeparable pronoun my. 

rifdidlion. ^t\\^> to carefs. 

A xxlaJ> a fragment: fegment, part. _j^=> bufinefs, objecl; ; a maker, 

(jijii' a cage. AJLi^L^s a mop, place of buii- 

A Axte (pi. e^Ls*^ 9 ) a caftle. nefs; the world. 

A Jo' a pen. _j\jj^=> a battle, conteft. 

Ljj a writer, an engraver. *==>j\=i expert : one who la- 

( 28Q ) 

bours, adjufts, penetrates, brings ^ if: a performer, maker, 

a thing to bear. I ./whom ; to whom ? hire, rent. 

t <\. c \ <z^j[<z, to penetrate, la- o<JJj I -Sporting, fkipping, flrut- 

bour, &c. ting- 

a caravan. A/X. ^ though. 

to lefTen. <3_J^bufinefs, labour : he made, 

would ! /-jlci-=> a whirlpool, gulf, pre- 

a houfe, hall, gallery, cipice. 

chamber. ^ 1 6_/' action, labour, profeffion ; 

^jJol= to dig. life. 

a curling lock. ^ls* (jiici^the circling glafs. 

r J 

the body ; a form, model. ^^1 made,yraa 
defire, wim. (^ti-^to do, make. 

t<z. delire; the obtaining M)C^^=> the neck. 


one's wim. .Jj^ a Battle-axe, mace. 

t(=> a place : a ftraw : leflening. ^1'; ^, to take. 


A ^^ pride, magnificence. O^/'a wolf. 

JT^x^s a dove. ..^ warm. ^T^=> warmth. 

A i__>U^=3 a book, letter, writing. ^Lc^J Carmania, name of a place. 

where ? whither ? how ? J-f^ 3 marriage, nuptials, betroth- 
^i to melt, difpel. ing, a pledge. 

_JlcX=> melting, from the above. C^T^ 3 or A .' '^ lamentation, 
JcJsJ'who ? cXolcXJ^who is there ? weeping. 

<^JC>ij<A=3 to leave, negleft. ^jJCs^-^to flee, efcape. 

^tXuljvA=j to pafs through. <jJuwo^=3 to weep. 

(^JC^iX^to pafs : to leave. ;J^that, which. 


( 290 ) 

:==s to perform. 
.jsJi>^==> to pafs. 

choofe ; to bite. 

; mofl excellent, no- 
ble, glorious : bitten. 
perfon, any one. 

, ftrewing, from 
fpread, ftrew, fcatter. 
to break, tear. 

the above. 

JoU^I faid, both from 
^jJoiJ to fpeak, fay j fpeaking. 
^Jub^thou hafl faid ; he faid. 
<_M^(gul) a rofe. 

tM^ (g ee ^) c ^ a y- 
ir, locks. 

word, writing, oration. 
Gulendam (rofe-refem- 

bling, from j a rofe, and 

ing, opening, Stc.from JOul form, figure, 6cc.) a pro- 
open, difcover, con- per name. 

diadem, cap. 

quer; to reoce. 

difcovers, from the above. 
become : to kill. 
break, rend. 
fcatter, diflblvc. 
^ Cachemire, name of a place. 
has difcovered, Scc.from 
to difcover, open, con- 
quer, delight. 

jyL/'a region, climate, country. 
J o<AA J iJ X I have fuffered or drawn. 
hand, the palm. 
faid. ^jUoLT'fpeech. 


clofet, cottage, hut. 

bed of rofes. 

(a rofe-garden, 
bower of rofes) title of a cele- 
brated book. 

j^tJj^a. beautiful fpecies of red 

a rofe-garden. 


( 291 


. ; bower, de- 
lightful place. 

(M*XLT" rofe-coloured. 

A ejUX/7^/. of ( \^} the whole ; 
univerfal. The whole works. 

^ little ; defective ; abfent. 

(^jJCiLjJ to infert, place, commit; 
to loofe, liberate. 

A (Jl^^s perfection, accomplifh- 
ment, finiming. * 

l^^J^of little value. Jl^^rs lefs. 

with little fenfe. 
lothou ; doing, from ^A f 
?<>' ' a boundary, margin, fide, 
part, more ; an embrace. 

vault, arch, tower, cupola, 
rotting, from 

\A^=> to rot. 

fervant maid, female {lave. 
t^-- where ? 

=3 fay thou, from (.^Jut=> 
an ear. 

liften thou, from 

a corner. 


Jo &=> I fmote, from 
to fmite. 


various, many- coloured, 
a mountain. 

jewel, pearl; luftre; ef- 
fence ; felf-exifting. 
A=> who, ;which : fince. 


take, both from 
is it ? comp. of ( 
who, and 3d f erf. pref. oj 

or (^j=> hatred, revenge, 
rancour. ^J-A= full of. 

thefe, comp. ofjand^jj\ 


a tulip. 

a border or bed of tulips, 
to move. 

) a lip ; margin. 
A (^J the heart, pith, marrow. 
L--JLJ up to the brim, 
an army. 

a conquering army. 

U ( 2Q2 ) 

>enignity,gentlenefs, grace, (^JCjJU> to referable-/ 
favour, humanity, generofity. <JJUU> they remain, from 

8 Le the moon: a month. 

with cheeks like the moon. 
; Lo with a face like the moon, 
lunar, monthly ; a fim. 
A JuLc inclining, having a pro- 


!<^U^ left, by chance. 
A la^m^c extended, dilated, fpread. 

A JUc fimilitude, refemblance. 

A (^AAJC* rhyme. 

A (jt+ksr an aflembly, banquet. 

A (-^csf 9 Megenun (diftracted 
with love) proper name. 

A ^jsr* a place where people af- 
femble ; a collection, junction. 

A CXA3T" 6 love, friendfhip, benevo- 
lence ; affection ; company. 

A v-^xsr* a friend, miftrefs ; ami- 
able, dear, beloved. 

A (jjwitAsr'* confined, imprifoned. 

A ..jST a friend, counfellor ; fpoufe, 
hufband, wife ; any one who 
from, their ftation in a family is 


a ruby, ruby lip. 
a lack, a hundred thoufand. 
A cWsr**^ for the worfhip (of 
God) comp. of J for, and J for 
the Arab, article ^ and tWsr*" 

A ^ LJJ the moft precious fort of 
pearls ; beautiful women. 

A cU>J a lion. 

(.jvXxJ but. 

A <J<jJ Leil or &LJ night. 

.jLiJ Leila, a woman's name. 

* (annexed to 'words) my. 
A &Lo water, liquor, juice. 
A Le that, which. 
I* we j our. ti^L. I* ourfelves. 
female : a woman. 

a ferpent. 

us ; to us. 

to rub, grind, polim. 
to remain. 


admitted into the baram or wo- 
men's apartments. A 


1 vile, contemptible, trifling. tent. 


place, time, opportunity. A ^ 
Mohamed (praife-worthy), A 
proper name. 

A cxijsr affliction, difgrace. A 

A yaXsr* contracted ; an epitome. A 
A <>_iAJcsr c difcordant, confufed. 
a magazine, treafury. 

enamoured, intoxicated. 
%X>M* difdainful ; rich; con- 

perfumed ; the palate, 
the fight. 

to view, 
the eaft. 


attentive; attention, 
mufk. (J^/jCL* fmelling 
of mufk. ^xXL* mufky. 
A _tX governing ; a governor, A c. or c ly^ an hcmiftich ; one 
magiftrate. half of a folding door. 


A CixX* a fpace of time. 

A e vi^cX* aftoniflied, difturbed. 

-x me; to me. 

A j^'j-o 

to tafte ; the tafte, palate. A 

} favours, A 

a fource : infinitive. 
Mofella, name of a place. 
damage, difad vantage, 
a finger, mufician. 
an excufe. 


defire, will, affection. 

A sXsuo a battle ; field of battle, 
a friend, a lover. 

remedies, A Ai^L*^ a miflrefs. 

A Jo**, fcented, perfumed. 


A .^l^c ^/>/. /" 


ty> or ^.<^ a man, hero ; brave. A JyU^ reafonable, rational, pro- 
courageouny, manfully. bable, pertinent. 

an enigma, myftery. 

fenfe, idea, fignification, 
eflabliflied, known. 

to die } to be extinguifhed. A 

courtefy, generofity. 
joyful tidings. 


( 2Q4 

A jiff a prieft of the Perfees, Gue- A 

bres or worfhippers of fire. 
(^LXs^V*^ cup-bearers. 
jjL* the brain, head, marrow, fub- 

fiance, or beft part of any thing. 
A Oo^ULc feparation, alienation. 
A ^UC condition, ftation ; dignity -, 

office : refidence : mufical tone. 

quantity, fpace, number. A ^ 

a conqueror, triumpher. 
A CXxiJL* advantages. 
A_jUiJL* a bird's bill. 

do not bring, the imperative 
of ^)3j*l with the negative pre- 

z^J^e liften not, the negative 
imperative of ^(Jyoij^y 

a wave. 
A vo, a caufe,j an acceptor. 

A t^t*2JUo intention, will, defire. 


A L--vXiL a conductor, mover, dif- A ^jjjv* melodious; adjufted, ar- 
pofer. ranged, weighed. 

time, feafon. 

a recompence, reward. A *>*jv 
_S^ perhaps, by chance : unlefs. A ^o^> Muful, name of a place. 


A ^s)^c a failor. 

A UCU a kingdom, power, poflef- 

fion, inheritance ; an angel. 
A OOL,JU> rays of light. 
^.^ I : my. ci yL ( .^ myfelf. 
A LJCA^ finifhed, concluded. 
cX>U> full of, endowed with. 
A Jjx a houfe of entertainment, 

an inn ; any place where tra- 

vellers reft at night; a day's 

journey, a ftage. 

A cXjj-o firm. 

A jjs&* feparated, repudiated, 

the fun ; moon ; love ; a feal- 

ring : a gold coin about 1 1. 1 Gs. 



char aft erijiick oftbepref, tenfe. 
do not bring, the negative 
imperative of (^><3jJ 

between, among: middle. 

U ( 295 ) 

ix-cLy do not mix or fprinkle, the jx^.L> worthlefs, defpicable. 
negative imperative of \.J^s^>\ A o^ciU memorable events; rare. 

thou faweft, id perfon B U,_^lj Nadir Shah, prop. name. 

blandifhments ; wantonnefs. 
}U gentle, tender, delicate. 
JJU elegant, delicate, amiable. 

) unblown, unblemifhed. 
\>i)L> ignorant. 

prefent of ( 

jl^ssy* a wine drinker j an earth- 
en drinking veffel. 

thou knoweft. 

vy dying, from O 0y 

the fon of a prince or great A ^a\j a conqueror, defender, 
man, a knight. ccX--o jjj-yo A 7^^ a fp e & a tor, fuperintendant. 
Mirza Mahadi, proper name. 

AJU a bag (of muik) : the navel, 
doft thou grow ? from Ulj full of. A/U fuddenly. 

thou ftrikeft. 
*;Cy is it becoming ? 
A*O a cloud, a fog. 
i^^JLyc a feller of wine, cow/, 
wine, and part, of (jJ^Lt 

thou draweft, beareft. 
JLyo I complain, from ^ 

U not. tXy1 U hopelefs. 
<-jlJ pure, fincere ; like. 
^Lp'U imperfect. 

, complaining. 
j to complain. 
Jj a name. !JC*(j thy name. 

J illuftrious ; a hero. 
li a book, hiftory. 
^jlj bread. 

A v-j-uU a viceroy, deputy. 
ti-*J a battle, war. 
c^xj is not. /^ <3>J I would 

not have been. 
A / ^J a prophet. 

(Jo I will not turn. 
/^NJ Ju do you not fear. 

206 ) 


Xl it is impoffible. A ocsr*^ counfel, exhortation. 

j fcattering, difperfing. ^^cllaj Nezami, name of a poet. 

A JCj profe; to diffufe, ftrew. A -ill the fight, the eye. 

, ^'m-y' I would not have fought, _jLj_LaJ rolling the eyes, ogling. 


or leaped. A JaJ verfe ; a firing of pearls. 

A sr' a ftar, planet: fortune. (^cij s ju to call or fing aloud, 

grammar, fyntax. A C^xJ a benefit j victuals, 

hunting ; the chace ; prey. :i beautiful, good ; fwift. 

U mufick, harmony. 

Nakfhebi, proper name. 

J male. 

xj V .<^-. I a narciflus. 

f J gentle, tame ; light : foft. 

3jL> near. 

A J J defcending ; hofpitality. 

A JjJ defcent ; happening. 

A ( a _ 5 =s= M * J Nifkhi (a tranfcript) the 
character in 'which Arabick ma- 
nufcripts are generally 'written. 

A *-y*jJ a gale. 

jijj to caufe to fit down. 


A /^twJij foul, felf; breath; defire. 

A gJu gain, utility. 

A <jjij ready money. 

A (jixiu* painting, embroidery. 

A <JJij a narration, report, copy, 

^LXj a pidture, ornament"; a beau- 
tiful woman. 

{jU^wjLXj Negariflan (a gallery of 
pictures) title of a celebrated book. 
} fubtilties, myfteries. 
> to view. 

A LUJ alacrity, pleafure. 
(jtXJtSJ to fix. 

oSJ to fit down. 
xi*J you do not hear. 
^x>iJ fitting, 

or Jo good. 

or sLXj cuftody, care, obferv- 

prefer ve thou, imperat. of 


> foothing, 

foothing, warbling, 

mowing. OJtWyj they mow. AJ placing, from 
* to mow. (^liLj to place. 

j melody, voice : wealth. -j! stiLJ we have placed. 

(pi. of(^j\J] viceroys, &c. JLj a tree, fhrub. 

to foothe. o'v hidden, _/ra (^JoLJ 

above. A. ^J a. river ; flowing. 

a favour. . (jJoLJ to hide, lie hid. 
/j a pipe, flute. 
vu even, alfo : again. 

xJLj a benefit. OVM^AJ there is not. 

A Oojj a turn, change, watch, jjJC^J to write. 

centinel. ^t^jcx^jj to relieve UCL> good, excellent. 

guard. jXu* bright, beautiful, elegant. 

j\-^*y the fpring, the early fpring j ^j^jCy' reputation, goodnefs. 

new year. J^AJ the river Nile. 
A _jj the prophet Noah. 

J a complaint. -J 

ninety. j and ; he, ihe, it. 

light, brightnefs. U^-'j after behi nd, again. 

J the firft day of fpring. (jJCilti (j**jjj to detain. 

J nineteen. A ^\j evident. 

t*y drinking, a drinker j any A ejlxi'U actions, occurrences, 
thing drinkable, from ^<Jyyi*J events : battles : misfortunes. 

jAj or (^JCijij to write. (^L Van, <7W^ o/"<z /i?^/?. 

j^J write thou,/r(?/ /^ ^OTV. A ii eflence, fubftance, exift 


ence, nature, body, perfon. 


", g, ( >a^j to commit, per- 
form, give a being to. 
U 0r i* like, pofleffing. 
A * 2 a leaf o/^z tree or paper. 

j and from. 

Ovjji* it blows, 

Ou*i he, ihe, it is. 

(jiij like, refembling. 

A JLusj enjoyment; arrival; meet- 

ing; conjun&ion. 
A X*i fituation ; adljon ; geflure. 
A Uj good faith ; a promife. 
A /Jj but : a prince : a flave. 

he, me, it ; his, her, its. 
J!_P* a defer t ; depopulated. 

A JuL* dreadful, terrible. 
A^S* or oLs^ feparation, ab 


A r ^?r i an affault ; impetuofity. 
<$ or ^jly^ every: foever. 
Cj| Jb Herat, #/* o/"^ '/y. 

or Asr'lJi whatfoever. 

A=j<JJb>y& or cXJe^Jb although. 
Jb wherever. 

^ wherefoever. 

ever - 


or &\j\> whofoever. 
^ a thoufandj a nightingale. 

to be, exift. 
cxiJ> eight. tiUCiJS eighty. 
ocX&Ji eighteen. 
oJi^ feven. tiUxJ> feventy. 
oeXA& feventeen. 
A <JJ> whether, but. 

and, alfo ; together : both. 

A ~3* (annexed to words) their. 
of the fame neft. 


V } 

of the fame inclination. 

^ ame banquet. 
lying on the fame pillow. 

in the fame way. 
or ysrr* 5 like, as. 
fleeping together. 
breathing together. 

b ( 209 ) J* 


an intimate friend. S-O^. ^ heaven ! O Lord ! comp. 

fitting together ; a com- of b O ! and i__>^ a lord, mafter. 
panion. Q &j\->. eleven. . 

all, univerfal. l j^ v >*b jeflamine. 

it arrives, comes. Cob he found, from (^b to find. 

I went, from ^jJoj ( ^ J vL. a ruby, 

always. C-u (annexed to words J thy. 

jcXJJs black ; an Indian. A e\j the hand 5 aid, power, 

time, feafon. ftrength. 

yet. yij^ (annexed to words J their. 

A l^& air : wind : found. Cj^^V. ^ at * s to ^ a 7 v ^ z> 

no, never. (^ju prey, fpoil, booty. 

^ dofl thou not know ? OC> one. 

jUu a hero, conqueror; incom- 
is> to lay down. parable ; unequalled. 

UCxi precious, valuable, rare. 

ineftimable, rare, 
one moment. 


b O ! or. 5<-*Xl one or two > a ^ ew - 

^j(j or fsbb finding. JutXXj one another. 

^^J * I < * 

jb I may find, both from ^jJoL> ^Jr^S! one 

> remember ; memory, record. .. (annexed to words J my. 

a friend, miftrefs ; defender ; (^^J Yemen, Arabia the happy. 

power, advantage. V^JUM*.; Jofeph. 


Ji HE greatejl part of the following Piece was defigned to be added to 
a Grammar of the Perfian language, -which was printed in 1771. 
// might eafily have been fuelled into a larger treatife, by adding more 
copious extracts from the Perfian writers, both in profe and verfe ; but, 
as the change ofjiyle may be feen as well in ten lines as in a thoufand, it 
feemed equally ufeful and lefs ojlentatious, to exhibit only a few cbofenfpeci- 
mensfrom the beft authors, and chiejly from the Poets, who, in all nations, 
have taken the greatejl pains to harmonize and improve their language. 









1VJ.OST of my readers will apprehend, that, in attempting to trace the 
progrefs of the Perjian language, through a period of two thoufand years, 
I am entering into a fubject, which will afford them neither amufement 
nor inftrucliion, and can be agreeable only to thofe few men, who apply 
themfelves to the obfcurer branches of literature, and have very little in- 
tercourfe with the reft of mankind. The title of my piece feems, indeed, 
to give a reafonable ground for their apprehenfions ; and the tranfition 
appears rather abrupt, from the hiftory of Monarchs to the hiftory of mere 
words, and from the revolutions of the Perjian Empire to the variations 
of the Perjian idiom : but it fhall be my endeavour to remove, as far as 
poffible, the drynefs of the fubjecl:, by interfperfing the narrative with a 
variety of Eaftern anecdotes ; and, as to the fecond objection, it may be 
alledged, that a conjidcrable change in the language of any nation is ufually 
effeSted by a change in the government ; fo that literary and civil hiftory arc 
very nearly allied, and may often be ufed with advantage to prove and 
illuftrate one another. 

The Hiftory of the Perjian tongue may be divided into four periods, 
like that of the Empire ; not that the language was immediately altered 



upon every revolution of the ftate, but it is obfervable, that, under each 
Dynafty of which we have any monuments remaining, there was an ap- 
parent change in the dialect of the kingdom, efpecially under the two laft, 
namely, the Saffanian and Mohammedan dynafties : and thefe, indeed, are 
the only periods, of which we can fpeak with any degree of certainty. 

It is natural to fuppofe, that, in the infancy of the Perfian Empire, 
under Caiumaras and his defcendants, no great pains were taken to culti- 
vate and polifh the language, which in that rude age muft needs be 
thought fufficiently elegant, if it were fufficiently clear and intelligible ; 
and we are aflured by Herodotus, that, even after the reign of CYRUS, 
the whole education of the Perfian youth, from the age of Jive years to 
twenty, confifted in three points only, riding, throwing the javelin, and the 
practice of moral virtue ; which account is alfo confirmed by Xenophon. 
The ftory mentioned by Diodorus of the old volumes of parchment, on 
which the Per/tans were obliged by a certain la<w to write the annals of their 
country, was probably invented by Ctejias, that he might give -an air of 
authenticity to his impertinent fables ; for fuch literary impoftures were as 
frequent among the Greeks, as among us, who imitate the Ancients in 
nothing but their failings. We are far from contending, however, that 
the ancient Perfians, efpecially thofe of the fecond period, were entire 
ftrangers to the art of compofition either in verfe or profe ; for there 
never was a nation fo rude and unpolifhed, who had not a cuftom of ce- 
lebrating the noble aSts of their ancejiors, and inciting one another by fongs 
and panegy ricks to an imitation of their virtue ; and Strabo, a very differ- 
ent author from Diodorus, aflerts, that the Perfians ufed frequently to fmg 
the praifes of their ancient Heroes and Demigods, fometimes with a mufical 
inftrument, and fometimes with the voice alone : but what their language 
really was, what were their rules of verification, or what was the courfe 
of their ftudies, no mortal can pretend to know with any ihadow of 



The Greek Hiftorians can give us no light on this fubject ; for neither 
Tbemiftocles, who fpoke the dialect of Perjia like a native, though he had 
fpent only one year in learning it*, nor even Xenopbon, whofe intimacy 
with the younger Cyrus could not have been contracted without a know- 
ledge of his language, feem to have read the works of the Perfiam, or 
even to have known their characters ; but were perhaps contented to 
exprefs their fentiments in Perfian with eafe and fluency. Nor are we 
much enlightened by the writers after Alexander ; not even by thofe, 
who have defcribed the life of that Hero : for Curtius, who compiled his 
rhetorical Hiftory from the Greek authors, feems to have known as little 
of Per/tan as of Scythian, though he drefles up a number of fpeeches for 
the chiefs of thofe nations, which, certainly were never fpoken by them. 
A few words, indeed, are here and there interfperfed in thefe hiftories, 
which are ftill ufed in the modern idiom of PerJia-\-, but we can no 
more form an idea of a whole language from a lift of broken phrafes or 
detached epithets, than we can judge of a poem or piece of oratory,, from, 
an unconnected line or a fmgle member of a period.. 

Since the Greeks afford us fo little information, nothing remains but to 
confult the Perfians themfelves j and the great Traveller Char din, whom 

* Tkemifttcles omne illud>tem.p'us (anni unius fpaiium) literis fermonique Perfarum dedit, quibus 
adeo eruditus eft, ut raulto commodius dieatur apud Regem verba fecifie, quanv hi poterant, qui in 
ferjide erant natr. Corn. Nrp. in Tbcmiji. 

J-. Thus Roxaaa, Statira, Parifatis, feem to be corrupted from Rojban (^}J*>*^) Sitara OjUo*i 
Parizada O($\jJjJ which fignify, Splmdid, a Star, Angel-born. Pafargades, or, a Prince of the Blood, 
appears to be compounded of Pefer y*O -a Child, and Q^jGada, a Houfe : i. e. a child of the Royal 
Family. To this we may add, i. that Art or Ard &_J\ which begins many Perjian names, fignifies 
Strong ; as Ardejldr t Artaxerxes, rV** <^r or, Theftrong Lion r Arde<uan or Ardeban (^)*-*C>j\ The 
ftrong Guard, &c> 2. that the termination- dates, as MitbriJatei, &c. is the Ptrfian dad <3 Iti and an- 
fwers to the Jwj. of the Greeks, as 'EjfwJWf&', and the like. If it were poflible to recover a whole Cata- 
logue of thefe old Per/tan names, fuch an enquiry would be little more than learned trifling ; for to 
colled a number of folitary words, without any books which they might enable us to read, would be 
like procuring at random a multitude of keys, without any caflcet which they might help us to unlock. 

VOL. ii. R R every 


every Orientafift muft always mention with reverence, feeras to have en- 
quired very diligently into the ancient language of the people, among 
whom he refided fo long, and whofe manners he defcribes with fo much 
copioufnefs and learning: but he declares, after all his refearches, " That 
" the old Per/I an is a language entirely loft; -in which no books are 
" extant, and of which there are no rudiments remaining : that the 
" Guebres, who aYe-the regains of the Par/is, or Adorers of Fire, have 
" an idiom peculiar to themfelves ; which is fuppofed, by the Perftans 
" in general, to be rather a jargon of their own, than a part of their an- 
" cient tongue : that, if you believe their own account, the Magi, who 
" refMed at Yezd in Carmama, have preferved this language from father 
" to fon, after the diflblution of their Monarchy ; but that, for his part, 
" he has found no reafon to give any credit to their ftory : that they 
" have, indeed, fome books in ftrarige characters, : but he cannot perfuade 
" "himfelf that they are old Perfian letters ; eipeciaHy, fince they bear no 
" kind of refemblance to thofe on the famous monuments at Perfepolis" 
The authority of this excellent "writer is decifive, and puts an end at once 
to the controverfy lately ftarted, concerning the authenticity of the books 
afcribed to Zoroafter, which a French adventurer, who tranjlated them 
from the tranjlation of a certain Gipfy at Surat, has had the bold nefs to 
fend abroad as genuine : but, to avoid any fufpicion of mifreprefenting 
the paflage, it feems neceflkry to tranfcribe the very words of Sir John 
Char din, which the reader may fee at the bottom of the page*, From 

* Quand a I'ancien Per/an, c'eft une langue perdue ^ on n'en trouve ni livres ni rudimens. Les 
Guftres, qui font les reftes des Ptrfes ou Ignkoles, qui fe perpetuent lie pere en fils depuis la deftruc- 
tion de leur MoTiarchie, out un Idiomc particulier; mais on le croit plutot un jargon que leur 
ancienne langue. Us difent que les Pr^tres, qui fe tiennent a Yezd, ville de la Caramaitie, qui eft leur 
Pirit et kur princ'tpale place, fe font tranfmis cette langue jufqu'ici par tradition, et de main en 
main : mais quelque recherche que j'en ai'e fait, je n'ai rien trouve, <jui me pit perfuader cela. Ces 
Guelres ont a la verite des livres en cara&eres et en mots inconnus, dont les figures tirent aflez fur 
celles des langues, qui nous font le plus connui's ; mais je ne faurois croire que ce foit la I'ancien 
Perfan, d'autant plus que le caraftere, dont j'ai parle, eft entierement different de celui des infcriptions 
<le Pei-fepolis. Je donnerai des iCiypes de 1'un et de 1'autre caraftere, dans la defcription du fameux 
jnonument qui refte en ce lieu-la. CHARDIN, Tom. V. Chap. III. 



this we may reafonably conclude, that the gibberifh of thofe fwarthy va- 
gabonds, whom we often fee brooding over a miferable fire under the. 
hedges, may as well be taken for ffld Egyptian, and the beggars them- 
felves for the priefts of I/is, as the jugglers on the coaft of India for the 
difciples otZoroaJler, and their barbarous dialect for the ancient language 
of Perjia. But let the rofy-cheeked Frenchman, to give him his owa 
Epithet, reft happy in the contemplation of bis perfonal beauty ^ and the 
iiajl extent of his learning : it is fufficient for us to have expofed his 
follies, detected his impofture, and retorted his invectives, without infult- 
ing a fallen adverfary, or attempting, like the Hero in Dryden's Ode, to 
Jlay the Jlain* 

We have no genuine accounts then of the Perfian language till the 
time of the SASSANIAN kings, who flourifhed from the opening of the 
third century to the middle of the feyentb ; in which period an Academy 
of Phyfick was founded at Gandifapor, a City of Khorafan, and,, as it 
gradually declined from its original inftitution, it became a fchool of 
poetry, rhetorick, dialectick, and the abftract fciences^ In this excellent 
feminary the Perftan tongue could not fail of being greatly refined, and 
the rufticity of the old idiom was fucceeded by a pure and elegant dia- 
lect ; which, being conftantly fpoken at the court oiBehardm Gur in the 
year 351, acquired the name of De ri, or, Courtly ', to diftinguifh it from 
the Peblevi, or, Language of the Country. 

It muft net, however, ,be imagined, that the ufe of the ancient dialect 
was wholly fuperfeded by this more polifhed idiom ; for federal compo- 
-fitions in Pehlevi were extant even after Mahomed,, which appear to have 
been written by order of the SaJJanian Princes. Anujljirvan, furnamed 
The yuft, who reigned at the clofe of the Jixth century, having heard 
from fome travellers, that the Indian Monarchs had a collection of moral 
fables, which they preferved with great care among their archives, fent 
his chief Phyfician Barzuieh into India, with orders to make himfelf 



mafter of the Sanfcrit language, and not to return without a tranflation 
of thofe fables. Thefe orders were punctually executed ; Barzuieh 
learned the Indian tongue, and, having at a great expence procured 
a copy of the book, tranflated it into the Pehlei)ian dialect : about an 
hundred and forty years after, his work was turned from Pehlevi into 
Arabick, by order of Almanfur, fecond Calif of the Abbqfides ; and this 
is the volume which we fee in every language of Europe, under the 
name of Calila iva Demna, or, The fables of Pilpay. There is a fine 
copy of the Arabick verfion in the publick library at Oxford; and if 
the work of Barztiieh could be found, we mould be enabled to recover 
a considerable part of the old Perfian language ; the fame, perhaps, 
.which was fpoken in the fecond period by Themiftocles and Xenophon* 

In the reign of Anufoirvdn, who protected the arts and fciences in his 
own dominions, MAHOMED was born ; who, by the force of his Elo- 
quence, .and the fuccefs of his Arms, eftablifhed a mighty Empire, and 
fpread his new religion from the wilds of Arabia, to the mountains of 
Tartary and the banks of the Ganges: but, what belongs more parti- 
cularly to the fubject of this difcourfe, be polijhed the language of his 
country , and brought it to a degree of purity and elegance, which no 
Arabian writer fmce his time has been able to furpafs. The battle of 
Cadejfia in the year 65 6 gave the laft blow to the Perfian Monarchy ; 
and the whole Empire of Iran was foon reduced under the power of the 
firft Mahomedan Dynafty, who fixed the feat of their government in 
Bagdad, where the Arabick language was fpoken, for many ages, in its 
utmoft perfection : but the ancient literature of Perjia, which had been 
promoted by the family of Saffan, was exprefsly difcouraged by the im- 
mediate fucceflbrs of Mahomed, for a reafon, which it is proper to 

At the time when the Alcoran was firft published in Arabia, a mer- 
chant, who ha<l lately returned from a long journey, brought with him 



fome Perfian romances, which he interpreted to his countrymen, who 
were extremely delighted with them, and ufed to fay openly, that the 
Jlories of griffons and giants were more amufmg to them than the moral 
leflons of Mahomed : part of a chapter in the Alcoran was immediately 
written, to flop the prqgrefs of thefe opinions; the merchant was fe- 
verely reprimanded ; his tales were treated as pernicious fables, hateful 
to Ged and his prophet ; and Omar, from the fame motive of policy, 
determined to deftroy all the foreign books which fhould fall into his 
hands. Thus the idle loquacity of an Arabian traveller, by fetting his 
legends in competition with the precepts of a powerful Lawgiver, was 
the caufe of that enthufiafm in the Mabomedans, which induced them to 
burn the famous library of Alexandria, and the records of the Perfian 

One book, however, befides the fables of 'Pilpay , efcaped the fury of 
thefe unmerciful zealots : it was an Hiftory of Perfia in the Pehlevian 
dialect, extracted from the Saj/anian annals, and compofed, it is believed, 
by the command of Anujhirvan. Saad, one of Omars Generals, found 
this volume, after the victory at CadeJ/ia, and preferved it for himfelf as 
a curiofity: it paffed afterwards through feveral hands, and was at length 
tranflated into fome other languages of AJia*. 

It was a long time before the native Per/tans could recover from the 
ihock of this violent revolution ; and their language feems to have been 
very little cultivated under the Califs, who gave greater encouragement 
-to the literature of the Arabians : but, when the power of the Abbajides 
began to decline, and a number of Independent Princes arofe in the dif- 
ferent provinces of their empire, the arts of elegance, and chiefly Poetry r , 
revived in Perjia, and there was hardly a Prince, or Governor of a city, 
who had not feveral poets and men of letters in his train. The Per/tan 

* This ftoiy is mentioned in the life of the Poet Fenfaff, prefixed to an eo'ition of his works. 



tongue was confequently reftored in the tenth century ; but it was very 
different from the Deri or Pehlevi of the Ancients : it was mixed with 
the words of the Alcoran, and with expreflions from the Arabian Poets, 
whom the Perfians confidered as their matters, and affected to imitate in 
their poetical meafures, and the turn of their verfes. 

That the learned reader may have a juft notion of this new idiom, it 
feems neceffary, firft to produce a fpecimen of pure Arabick, and, after- 
wards, of the pureft Perjian that can be found j by which means he will 
form a more accurate judgement of the modern Perfick, in which both 
languages are perfectly incorporated. 

The following ode was written by a native of Damafcus : it contains 
a lively defcription of an Eajiern Banquet ; and nibft of the couplets are 
highly elegant in the original. 

* U *^sr* UJ 

T 6 iLAKK 
L-XJ ( 



oltilc JaJJf 

XwjJJI / X***o C 4AOJ 




JoJl o LUi! 



that is ; " We have a banquet, into which forrow cannot enter, and 

*' from which mirth can never depart. It comprifes every fpecies of 
" Beauty ; and he, who feeks the joys of life, cannot rife beyond it. 
** A fprightly Song gives more pleafure to, youth than Riches*: here 
** the ftream of life is unfullied, and all our cares are difperfed. Here 
" the mildnefs of our gentle darling gives eafe to our love ; and here 
" the timid dervife becomes an Apoftate from his faith. We have a 
" bower, on which the dew-drops fparkle ; and in which the breeze 
" becomes fcented with the fragrance of mufk. You fee the various 
" bloflbms, which refemble ftars blazing and glittering in the firmament. 
" Here the wonderful beauties of the flowers, among which are the 
'* narciflus and the violet, bring the fair objects of my love to my 
" remembrance. You would think you faw my beloved looking mildly 
" on you with her foft, tender, languifhing eye : a nymph, in whom 
** every charm and every perfection is collected j whofe curled locks 

* The lame word Ghana in Arnblck fignifies both Singing and Wealth, 

" hang 



hang always dangling, black as the fcorpion, or the mace of ebony 

" (with which the Afiaticks Jlrike an ivory ball in one of their fa- 

" vourite plays), the pomegranate brings to my mind the blufhes of 

" my beloved, when her cheeks are coloured with a modeft refentment* 

" Our cups are fuch as our fouls defire ; they feem to be filled with 

" the ftreams of friendfhip and cheerfulnefs. The goblets and vafes of 

" China appear to my fight, like the ftars of heaven fhining in the 

" Zodiack? 

I might here have felefted a more ancient example of Arabick, either 
from the poets before Mahomed, or from the illuftrious Abu Temdm, who 
flourifhed in the ninth century*; but the language has remained unaltered 
from the earlieft antiquity to the prefent time, and it would not have been 
eafy, without a number of notes, to have made an ancient Ode intelligible 
in a literal tranflation. 

The oldeft Perfian poems, which have come to my knowledge, are 
thofe of FERDUSI, of which it will not be improper to give a fhort 
account, as far as they relate to my prefent fubjedt. 

At the clofe of the tenth, and beginning of the eleventh centuries, Mah- 
mud reigned in the city of Gazna : he was fupreme ruler of Zabkftan, 
and part of Khorafan, and had penetrated very far into India, where by 
this time the religion and language of the Arabs and Perfians had begun 
to prevail. Several poets were entertained in the palace of this Monarch, 
among whom was FERDUSI, a native of Tus or Me/tied. This moft 
learned man, happening to find a copy of the old Perjian Hiftory above- 
mentioned, read it with eagerneis, and found it involved in fables, but 

* Abu Temam published an excellent Antbologia of Aralick verfes, entitled Hamafa, of which he 
gave a copy to an AJlatick Prince, who prefented him in return with five tboufand pieces of gold, and 
made him at the fame time this elegant compliment, UJ XAN (McX! U-J I My prefent is lefe 
valuable than thy foems. 



bearing the marks of high antiquity : the moft ancient part of it, and 
principally the war of Afrafiab and Kbofru, or Cyrus, feemed to afford 
an excellent fubject for an Heroick Poem, which he accordingly began to 
compofe. Some of his epifodes and defcriptions were mown to the Sul- 
tan, who commended them exceedingly, and ordered him to comprife 
the whole Hiftory ofPerJia in a feries of TLpick poems. The poet obeyed; 
and, after the happieft exertion of his fancy and art for near thirty years, 
he finifhed his work, which contained fixty thoufand couplets in rhyme, 
all highly polifhed, with the fpirit of our Dryden and the fweetnefs of 
Pope. He prefented an elegant tranfcript of his book to Mabmud, who 
coldly applauded his diligence, and difmifled him. Many months elapfed, 
and Ferduji heard no more of his work : he then took occafion to re- 
mind the King of it by fome little epigrams, which he contrived to let 
fall in the palace ; but, where an Epick poem had failed, what effect 
could be expected from an Epigram ? At length the reward came ; which 
confifted only of as many fmall pieces of money, as there were couplets 
in the volume. The high-minded Poet could not brook this infult : he 
retired to his clofet with bitternefs in his heart ; where he wrote a moft 
noble and animated invective againft the Sultan, which he fealed up, and 
delivered to a Courtier, who, as he had reafon to fufpect, was his greateft 
enemy, affuring him, that it was a diverting tale, and requefting him to 
give it to Mabmud, when any ajfair of Jlate or bad fuccefs in 'war jhould 
make him more uneafy and fplenetick than ufual*. Having thus given vent 

* See a tranflation of this Satire in a Treatife on Oriental Poetry, added to the Life of Nader Slab in 
French, Vol. II. page 283. This poem is not unlike the Xo^ri; of Theoc ritus, who, like the impetu- 
ous Ferduji, had dared'to expofe the rices of a low-minded King. The Perjlan poet has this couplet 
in his Satire, 

~O CXi 

*i-> cxj 

that It ; Had I written as many iier/es in praife of Mahomed and Ali, as I ha-ve compofed for King Mah- 
mud, they would have jbmutred an hundred <blejfittgs on me. A thought like that of Sbakfptare in Woljey's 
celebrated fpeech : Had I tut fervd try God with half the zeal 

Iferv'd my King, ht would not in mine age 
Have left me naked to mine enemies'. HEN. VIII. 

- VOL. II. S S tO 


to his juft indignation, he left Gazna in the night, and took refuge in 
Bagdad, where the Calif protected him from the Sultan of Zableftan> 
who demanded him in a furious and menacing letter. 

The work of Ferdiift remains entire, a glorious monument of Eaftern 
genius and learning ; which, if ever it fhould be generally underftood in 
its original language, will conteft the merit of invention with Homer him- 
felf, whatever be thought of its fubject or the arrangement of its inci- 
dents. An extract from this poem will exhibit a fpecimen of the Perjian 
tongue, very little adulterated by a mixture with the Arabick, and, in 
all probability, approaching nearly to the dialect ufed in Perjia in the 
time of Mahomed, who admired it for its extreme foftnefs, and was heard 
to fay, that it -would be fpoken on that account in the gardens of Para- 


-f AX>*wiJ (^tiU**J 


'- - 


(Mj~? fr'-J cX*J ^jtiji 


j^wLi* <_}-* j^ t\Jj OjlX 


>u u 

. O 

X- O. i$ 

that is ; " Seeft thou yonder plain of various colours (Perf. red and 
" g re y}> ^7 which th heart of a valiant man may be filled with de- 
4< light? It is entirely covered with groves and gardens and flowing 
*' rivulets ; it is a place belonging to the abode of Heroes. The ground 
*'. is perfect filk, and the air is fcented with muflc : you would fay, Is it 
" roje-water which glides between the banks ? The ftalk of the lily bends 
" under the weight of the flower ; and the whole grove is charmed with 
" the fragrance of the rofe-bufh. The pheafant walks gracefully among 
** ihe flowers ; the dove and nightingale warble from the branches of 
*' the cyprefs. From the prefent time to the lateft age, may the edge of 
*' thofe banks referable the bowers of Paradife ! There you will fee, on 
' the plains and hills, a company of damfels, beautiful as fairies, fitting 

" cheer- 


" cheerfully on every fide. There Mamzba, daughter of Afrafiab, makes 
" the whole garden blaze like the Sun. Sitara, his fecond daughter, 
** fits exalted like a Queen, encircled by her damfels, radiant in glory. 
" The lovely maid is an ornament to the plains ; her beauty fullies the 
" rofe and the jafmine. With them are many Turki/h girls, all with 
" their faces veiled ; all with their bodies taper as a cyprefs, and locks 
" black as mufk ; ill with cheeks full of rofes, with eyes full of fleep ; 
" all with lips fweet as wine, and fragrant as rofe-water. If we go 
" near to that bower, and turn afide for a fmgle day, we may take 
" feveral of thofe lovely nymphs, and bring them to the noble Cyrus." 

This is part of a Ipeech by a young amorous Hero, the Paris of 
Ferdufi, who had reafon to repent of his adventure with the daughter of 
Afrafiab, for he was made captive by the Turks, and confined in a difmal 
prifon, till he was delivered by the valour of Rojiam. 

Of thefe two languages was formed the modern dialect of Perfta, 
which, being fpoken in its greateft purity by the natives of Pars or Far- 
Jiftan, acquired the name of Parfi*; though it is even called Deri by 
Hafez in the following couplet ; 

that is ; " While the nightingale, Hafez, makes a boaft of his elo- 
" quence, do thou leflen the value of his lays by finging thy Perjian 
" (Deri) ftrains." 

Nearly in the fame age with Ferdufi, the great Abul Ola, furnamed 
Alami from his blindnefs, publilhed his excellent Odes in Arabick, in 



which he profefledly imitated the poets before Mahomed. This writer 
had fo flourifhing a reputation, that feveral Perjians of uncommon genius 
were ambitious of learning the Art of Poetry from fo able an inftrudtor : 
his moft illuftrious fcholars were Feleki and Khakani*, who were no lefs 
eminent for their Perfian compofitions, than for their {kill in every branch 
of pure and mixed Mathematicks, and particularly in Aftronomy ; a 
ftriking proof, that a fublime Poet may become a mafter of any kind of 
learning which he chufes to profefs ; fmce a fine imagination, a lively 
wit, an eafy and copious ftyle, cannot poflibly obftruct the acquifition of 
any fcience whatever, but muft neceflarily affift him in his ftudies, and 
fliorten his labour. Both-thefe poets were protected by Manucheher, 
Prince of Shirvan ; but Khakani was always averfe to the pleafurable and 
diffipated life of a Court, fo that the Prince was obliged to detain him by 
force in his palace, and actually confined him for fome time in prifon, 
left he fhould find fome opportunity of efcaping. 

The works of thefe authors are not very fcarce ; but it feems need- 
lefs to give any extracts from them, which would fwell this difcourfe to 
an immoderate length : it will be fufficient to fay, that, in this and the 
following century^ the Perjian language became altogether mixed with 
Arabick ; not that the pure ftyle of the ancients was wholly obfolete, 
but it was the fafhion among the Perjlans to interweave Arabian phrafes 
and verfes into their poems, not by way of quotations, but as material 
parts of a fentence. Thus in the following diftich, 

The phantom of her, ivhofe beauty gives brightnefs to the Jhades, appeared 
to me at night : I wondered at the kindnefs of Fortune, and faid, Whence 
came this profperity ? the firft line is pure Arabick in the ftyle of the 
ancient poets. 

and .-j 



This elegant tetraftich is of the fame kind : 

/ //6w manfion of darknefs, how long mujl I fit expeSling my beloved ; one 
while with my finger on my teeth, one while 'with my head bent on my knee? 
Come, O fortunate cup-bearer, bring me the tidings of joy : who knows but 
my days may again be profperous, as they were before? Where the laft 
line is taken from an Ode in the Hamafa of Abu Temdm, which begins, 

We pardoned the fans o/"Dhohal, and fold, The tribe are our brothers, 

At the opening of the twelfth century lived Anveri, a native of Abiurd 
in Khorfifan y whofe adventures deferve to be related, as they will {how in 
what high efteem the polite arts were held in AJia, at the time when 
learning firft began to dawn in Europe^ Anveri, when he was very 
young, was fitting at the gate of his college, when a man richly drefled 
rode by him on a fine Arabian horfe, with a numerous train of attend- 
ants ; upon his afking who it was, he was told, that // was a Poet belong- 
ing to the Court. When An*veri reflected on the honours conferred upon 
Poetry, for which art he had a very early bent, he applied himfelf to it 
more ardently than ever, and, having finifhed a poem, prefented it to the 
Sultan. This was a prince of the Seljukian dynafty, named Sanjar, a 
great admirer of the fine arts : he approved the work of Anveri, whom 
he .invited to his palace, and raifed him even to the firft honours of the 
ftate. ,He found many other poets at court, among whom were Selman, 
Zehir, and Rejhidi*, all men of wit and genius, but each eminent in a 




different way ; the fivft for the delicacy of his Lyrick verfes, the fecond, 
for the moral tendency of his poems, and the third, for the chaftity of 
his compofitions ; a virtue, which his predeceffors and contemporaries 
were too apt to neglect. 

But of all the cities in the Perjian Empire, none has given birth to 
more excellent poets than Shiraz ; which my noble and learned friend 
Baron Revizki juftly calls " the Athens of Perfia*." SADI, a native 
of this city, flourished in the thirteenth century, when the Atabegs of 
Parjiflan encouraged men of learning in their principality : his life was 
almoft wholly fpent in travel ; but no man^ who enjoyed the greateft 
leifure, ever left behind him more valuable fruits of his genius and in- 
duftry. A fine manufcript, about two hundred years old, was lately put 
into my hands, containing a complete collection of his works j among 
which are feveral pieces, both in verfe and profe, which have never been 
mentioned by the Scholars of Europe. The following extract from his 
Gulijtan, or Bed of Rofes, will mow how the Perfian and Arabick lan- 
guages were mixed together in his age : 

Xi/ UL) vid-J 


* See Specimen Pee/ens Ptrjic/e, Vindobonae 1771. Prtxem- page xviii. 



' ** 





that is ; " My companion oft reproaches me for my love of Leila. Will 
" he never behold her charms, that my ex<:ufe may be accepted ? Would 
*' to heaven, that they, who blame me for my paflion, could fee thy 
" face, O thou ravifher of hearts ! that, at the fight of thee, they might 
" be confounded, and inadvertently cut their heads inftead of the fruit, 

" which 


" which they hold*. Thou haft no companion for my diforder : my 

" companion fhould be afflicted with the fame malady, that I might fit 

" all day repeating my tale to him ; for two pieces of wood burn toge- 

" ther with a brighter flame. The fong of the turtle dove pafles not 

" unobferved by my ear j and if the dove could hear my ftrain, fhe 

" would join her complaints with mine. O my friends, fay to them, 

" who are free from love, Ah, ive ivijh you kneia^ what pafles in the heart 

" of a lover ! The pain of illnefs affects not them, who are in health : I 

" will not difclofe my grief but to thofe, who have tafted the fame 

" affliction. It were fruitlefs to talk of an hornet to them, who never 

" felt its fling. While thy mind is not affected like mine, the relation 

" of my forrow feems only an idle tale. Compare not my anguifh to 

" the cares of another man ; he only holds the fait in his hand, but it is 

" I, who bear the wound in my body." 

The fame city had the honour of producing, in the fourteenth century ', 
the moft elegant Lyrick Poet of Afia, Shemfeddin, furnamed HAFEZ ; 
onwhofe life and productions it is the lefs neceflary to expatiate, becaufe 
the Baron before -mentioned has exhaufted the fubject in his fpecimen of 
Perjian Poetry, and will, it is to be hoped, be perfuaded to complete 
that moft learned work, in the fhort intervals of leifure, which his im- 
portant affairs will allow him. It will be fully fufficient, therefore, to 
tranfcribe two of his Qazals or Anacreontick Odes ; the firft of which was 
chofen, on account of the Arabick verfes interwoven in it, and the 
fecond, for its exquifite beauty, which makes it a genuine example of 
the true Shirazian dialect. 

* Alluding to a ftoiy in the Aheran. 


ocX_Co OJOJu AJ tO 



" The dawn advances veiled with rofes. Bring the morning draught, 
" my friends, the morning draught ! The dew-drops trickle over the 
" cheek of the tulip. Bring the wine, my dear companions, bring the 
" wine ! A gale of paradife breathes from the garden : drink then incef- 
*' fantly the pure wine. The rofe fpreads her emerald throne in the 
" bower. Reach the liquor, that fparkles like a flaming ruby. Are 
" they ftill fhut up in the banquet-houfe ? Open, O thou keeper of the 
" gate. It is ftrange, at fuch a feafon, that the door of the tavern 
" mould be locked. Oh, haften ! O thou, who art in love, drink wine 
" with eagernefs ; and you, who are endued with wildom, offer your 
" vows to Heaven. Imitate Hafez, and drink kifles, fweet as wine, 
" from the cheek of a damfel, fair as a nymph of paradife." 


Li;! AJ 

U cjUL=L tXcs^ (J 



srf (jick^ Jl IjUc W*U OJJ^ 
JJ| a 



iwAci. 4-^J. 


Another, by the fame. 

" Rife, boy ; for the cup of the tulip is full of wine. When will 

** this ftridtnefs end ? how long will thefe fcruples laft ? No more of this 

" pride and difdain ; for time has feen the crown of Ccefar humbled, 

" and the diadem of Cyrus bent to the ground. Oh ! be wife ; for the 

" bird of the morning is intoxicated with love. Oh, awake ! for the 

" fleep of eternity is juft before you. How gracefully thou moveft, O 

" fweet branch of a vernal plant ! May the cold wind of December 

" never nip thy buds ! There is no reliance on the favours of Fortune 

" or her deceitful fmiles. Oh! wo to him, who thinks himfelf fecure 

** from her treachery. To-morrow, perhaps, the ftream of Cuther, 

" and the girls of paradife will be prepared for us ; but to-day alfo let 

" us enjoy a damfel bright as the moon, and quaff the wine from the 

" full cup. The Zephyr (Saba) reminds us of our youth fSabiJ ; 

" bring us the wine, boy, which may refrefh our fouls, and difpel our 

" forrow. 

" Admire not the fplendour and dignity of the rofe; for the wind 
*' will foon fcatter all her leaves, and fpread them beneath our feet. 
" Bring a larger cup to the memory of Hatem tai * ; that we may 
" fold up (Taij the gloomy volume of thofe, who want generofity. 
" This wine, which gives a lively tint to the Argavan (a purple 
" flower J, communicates its fweet nature from my beloved's cheek to her 
" heart. Attend ; for the muficians of the bower have begun their 
" concert, joining the notes of the lute and harp to the melody of the 
" dulcimer and flute. Bring thy Sofa into the garden, for, like active 

* An Arabian Prince, celebrated for his extreme liberality. 

" attendants, 



w attendants, the cyprefs ftands before us, and the green reed has 

" tucked up his girdle. O Hafez, the fame of thy fweet alluring 

" forcery has reached from the extremity of Re'i and Rum, to the 

** limits of China and Egypt." 

There is nothing, which affords a ftronger proof of the excellence of 
the Perjian tongue, than, that it remained uncorrupted after the irrup- 
tion of the Tartars, who, at different times, and under various leaders, 
made themfelves matters of Perjia ; for the Tartarian princes, and 
chiefly Tamerlane, who was a patron of Hafez, were fo far from dif- 
couraging polite letters, like the Goths and Huns, that they adopted even 
the language and religion of the conquered country, and promoted the 
fine arts with a boundlefs munificence : and one of them, who founded 
the Mogul Empire in Hindojian, introduced the Perjian literature into 
his dominions, where it to this day ; and all the letters from 
the Indian governors are written in the language (I do not fay, in the 
ftyle) of Sadi. The Turks themfelves improved their harm dialed: by 
mixing it with the Perjian ; and Mahomed II. who took Conftantinople in 
the middle of the Jifteenth Century, was a protector of the Perjian poets : 
among thefe was Noureddm JAMI, whofe poem on the loves of Jofeph 
and Zelikha is one of the fineft compofitions I ever read. The follow- 
ing defcription will ferve as a fpecimen of his elegant ftyle : 

^ j 







^ ^^- 

ti-> aX J*t & 8*^ T** 2-XLa^ 

4 ' In the morning, when the raven of night had flown away, the 
44 bird of dawn began to fing : the nightingales warbled their enchant- 
44 ing notes, and rent the thin veils of the rofe-bud and the rofe : the 
44 jafmine flood bathed in dew, and the violet alfo fprinkled his fragrant 
44 locks. At this time Zelikha was funk in pleafing flumber ; her heart 
44 was turned towards the altar of her facred vifion *. It was not fleep \ 
44 it was rather a confufed idea : it was a kind of phrenzy caufed by her 
44 nightly melancholy. Her damfels touched her feet with their faces ; 
44 her maidens approached, and kifled her hand. Then me removed the 
44 veil from her check, like a tulip befprinkled with dew ; me opened 
44 her eyes, yet dim with fleep. From the border of her mantle the 
44 fun and moon arofe ; fhe raifed her head from the couch, and looked 
44 around on every fide." 

This poem contains about four thoufand couplets, and deferves to be 
tranflated into every European language : though I fhall have neither 
time nor inclination to tranflate it myfelf, yet I may perhaps be induced, 

* A metaphor taken from the cuftom, which prevails among Mahometans, of turning their faces, 
when they pray, towards the temple of Mecca. 



fome years hence, to prefent the Original to the learned world, which 
any man, who has the advantage of greater leifure, may take the pains 
to interpret. 

In the fame Century with Jami, flourished a poet named CATEBI, 
who was highly honoured at the court of Mirza Ibrahim, one of Tamer- 
lane's defcendants, Mr. d'Herbelot tells a very pleafmg ftory of this 
writer, which deferves a place in this eflay ; though, in order to under- 
ftand it, we muft remember, that the Perfians frequently end their 
couplets with the fame ivord, which is often continued through a long 
poem ; but in that cafe, the rhyme falls upon the preceding fyllable. 
" Catebi, fays he, having compofed an Elegy, each verfe of which 
" ended with the word, (?/, a rofe, or any flower^ repeated it to the 
" prince Ibrahim, his Patron ; who, being extremely delighted with it, 
*' could not forbear interrupting him, by faying, From what bower did 
" this tuneful nightingale (meaning the poet) take its flight ? that is, 
u without a metaphor, In what city were you born? to which Catebi^ 
** without hefitation, replied in a couplet of the fame meafure with the 
*' poem, and with the fame rhyme, as if he had only continued to read 
** his Elegy: 

*' that is, Like Attar *, / came from the rofe-garden of Nilhapor ; but I 
" am only the thorn of that garden, and Attar was its moft beautiful 
" flower :" 

This diftich, though delivered extempore, is at leaft equal to any of 
the reft in fpirit and elegance. The poem confifts of about thirty-five 
couplets, the firft of which is the following : 

* Attar a Perjian poet, author of the Pendnama* 


that is ; Again the rofe advances towards the bower with an hundred 
leaves ; like the narcijjus, it is a charming objeft to every difcerning eye. 

In. \hzjixteenth and feventeenth Centuries, under the family of Seji, the 
Perjian language began to lofe its ancient purity, and even to borrow 
fome of its terms from the Turkifh, which waa commonly fpoken at 
Court. As to the modern dialect, no fpecimen of it needs be produced, 
fmce the Life of Nader Shah, which was written in Perjian about four- 
teen years ago, and tranflated into French by the author of this Volume, 
may be confulted in the original by the learned reader. 






L I M O N, 

















a Nicaea decefliflem, qua in urbe feptem prope menfes fueram 
commoratus, et, tota fere peragrata Gallia, in Britanniam rediifiem, nihil 
magis cupiebam, quam annos complures alios in literarum humaniorum 
ftudiis confumere ; ita enim fore putabam, ut ad publicas res obeundas, 
quas mea Temper affe&averat ambitio, maturior aliqtiando poflem ac 
paratior accedere : fed hunc otii fructum vel fortuna, vel potius rerum 
humanarum omnium moderatrix, providentia, defidiae mese largiri' no^- 
luit ; nam et ipfos literas, quibus a puero deditus fueram, fubito deferere 
fum coaftus, et Ille, qui ftudiorum meorum fuerat hortator atque adjutor, 
qui me, qualifcunque eram, aut fi quis eflem omnino, inftruxerat, eru- 
dierat, effinxerat, ROBERTUS SUMNER, primo anno poft meum in pa- 
triam reditum, morte immatura extindlus eft. Ac literas quidem poli- 
tiores quibus caufis addu&us vel reliquerim vel certe intermiferim, aptior 
erit exponendi locus^ fiquando rerum mearum commentaries perfecero, 
au&oribus ufus et multis et bonis, quorum exemplis me defendam ; fed 
veniam mihi lector, ut fpero, dabit, fi nequeam a me impetrare, quin hoc 
loco viri doctiflimi et familiariffimi cum virtutes laudibus efferam, turn 
luduofum fane interitum jufto profequar dolore. Fuit enim vir, fi quif- 
quam alius, memorabilis, ingeniofus, integer, admirabili praeditus indole, 
moribus perhumanis, exquifita doctrina ; facultatem porro talem habuit 
et communicandi et docendi, qualem in nullo alio magiftro cognoverim ; 
hilaritatem denique ac fuavitatem earn, ut ineertum omnino fit, amicifne 
fuis an difcipulis eflet jucundior : in literis egregie verfatus eft cum 
Graecis turn Latinis, ac tametfi, velut alter Socrates, perpauca ipfe fcrip- 
ferat, nemo tamen illo perfpicacior fuit et fcientior in fcriptorum omnium 
feu vitiis cafligandis, feu comprobandis virtutibus ; quod fi eum aut vitas 



ratio aut fortuna benlgnior in forum ac fenatum eduxiflet,' neque in ludo 
folum et gymnafio docendi munus fufcepiflet, nemini profe&o in elo- 
quentiae laude, quam ex omnibus terris una jam Britannia excolit, ce- 
deret ille fafcefque fubmitteret ; nam fmgulse virtutes, quse per fe ipfae 
oratorem commendant, in eo, fi non perfedlas, admodum certe lau'dandas 
fuerunt, vox canora, fermo politus, oratio volubilis, lepos feftivus, me- 
moria fmgularis ; oculi denique, vultus, actio, non hiftrionis, fed alterius 
pcene Demofthenis ; ad fummam, quemadmodum fere de Q^ Rofcip 
dixit Cicero, cum magjfter fuerit ejufmodi, ut folus dignus videretur, 
qui pueros inftitueret, turn orator erat ejufmodi, ut folus dignus efle 
videretur, qui amplifiimis in republica fungeretur officiis. Hujus ego 
nomen non in primis honorandum putem ? Hunc non defiderem ? Ob 
hujus mortem non angar animo ? Sed videndum eft, ne noftra impen- 
fius caufa dolere videamur, quam ob amici ac prseceptoris noftri acer- 
bilfimum interitum : quid enim ille moriens reliquit aliud, quam vitam 
fragilem, incertam, serumnofam, in qua, praeter virtutem et gloriam, nihil 
fit, quod vir probus magno ftudio expetere debeat ? Nos, eo mortuo, et 
jucunduTima ftudiorum conjundione privamur, et adjutorem amifimus, 
cujus judicium ingenii juvenilis redundantiam reprimeret, vocis aut 
geftus vitia notaret, fermonem perpoliret ; et non folum nos hortaretur 
ad fcribendum, quern laborem ob infinitam difficultatem plerique omnes 
refugimus, fed in fcripta noftra benevole animadverteret, errores dete- 
geret, fortafle etiam arnica laudatione, qua; in optimo quoque animo vim 
habet fummam, ad majora incenderet. In hoc ipfo opere, quod nunc 
edimus, quantum defideravimus tarn eruditum ilium atque urbanum cen- 
forem ! etenim licet ab illo femel et curfim fit opus hoc perledum, tamen 
ne verbulum quidem addidit ; vix unam fyllabam mutavit ; quseque in 
libri margine ipfms manu notantur, magis laudandi caufa fcripta funt, 
quam reprehendendi ; ftatuerat autem vir mei amantifllmus totum volu- 
men mecum ad examen accuratius revocare, quod fi ei facere licuiflet, 
multis fortafle mendis eflet cariturum, cultius faltem et limatius in lucem 
prodirec. Levis tamen eft jadura, libelli noftri perfeftio ; csetera, quaa 



cum illo perierunt, non definam fummo moerore requirere, confuetu- 
dinem, officia, confilium ; fed, ut paullo ante dixi, noftrum eft id irifor* 
tunium ; nam et ipfe, ut confido, eft feliciflimus, et potius curas morta- 
Kum inanes mifericordia profequitur, quam aut laudes eorum aut dolorem 

Nee vero fola viri hujus amiffio caufa eft, cur opus hoc meum, non, 
ut vellem, perpolitum, in manus hominum perventurum fit: alias funt 
caufse, quas operse pretium erit plenius exponere. Primo, adolefcentis 
opus fuit, annos nati vix unum et viginti, cujus adeo ingenium nondum 
maturitatem fuam confecutum eft ; deinde, argumentum ita varium fuit 
ac multiplex, ut, fi plene et copiofe traftaretur, tot poene requireret 
annos, quot in eo et inveniendo et difponendo 'ihettfes impenderim ; quid 
enim majus aut difficilius, quam de fmgulis poefeos Afiaticse generibus 
apte diflerere, et e -poetarum operibus, quorum eft infinita multitude, 
flores omnigenos atque elegantias libare ? Hoc aliquatenus pneftare fuin 
conatus ; fed, ut verum eloquar, mihi ipfi nee fatisfeci, nee, fi dup^lica- 
retur et tempus et labor, fatisfalurum fuifle puto. Hue acceffit codicum 
manu fcriptorum paucitas ; quo factum eft, ut, fi unum duntaxat fuppe- 
teret poematis cujufpiam exemplar, et prcefertim frdeeflet locorum obfcu- 
riorum explicario, verfus quofdam, librariorum incuria corruptos, vel 
minus intelligerem, vel in fenfum forfan alieniflimum detorquerem ; quo 
vitio me fempervacare non audeam dicere : fufficiet me libnim, ut potui, 
limavifle, et errores taiitum fere cavifle, quantum humanae naturse inibe- 
cillitas pateretur; riec profiteri vereor, me, fi quid habuerim in arte 
poetica judicii, in corrimentarios hos contulifle. Poftremo, fine maxim'o 
otio, quo per tres annos omnino carui, et poftea fum magis cariturus, 
fieri non potuit, ut fingulas voces ac fententias quafi in trutina exami- 
harem ; et quoniam mihi Londini, a bibliothecis Academicis remoto, preli 
cufam fufcipere commodum fuit, ad poematum Afiaticorum /xp-yJruTia, qiiae 
negligentius aliquando Oxonii refcripferam, recurrere non potui, ' fi qua 
in loco quovis a me citato mendse fufpicio incident. Nolo igitur fibi 



perfuadeat le&or, me librum hunc tarn perfectum edere, quam ilium 
edidifle poflem, fi accefliflet vel otiiim ad limandum uberius, vel aptior ad 
excudendum opportunitas : quod fiquis in fermonibus Afiaticis eruditus 
errores forte noftros detexerit, nofque per literas benevole monuerit, et 
ilium nobis amiciflimum putabimus, et, fiquando alteram .paraverimus 
commentariorum noftrorum editionem, corrector liber in lucem perfec- 
tiorque prodibit. 

Tllud etiam addamus necefle eft, verfus Afiaticos, qui in hoc libro 
foluta oratione redduntur, non eo animo converfos efle, ut in fermonibus 
Arabum ac Perfarum tyrones erudirent : itaque fi quis, in his literis non- 
.dum imbutus, fperaverit a meis verfionibus, locorum, qui citantur, o-J>- 
Tu%tv ordinemque grammaticum perfpicere, nse ille fe turpiter falli vide- 
bit ; non enim in hoc opere philologus, fed criticus, non interpres, fed 
poeta, efle volui ; non quafi in ludo pueros inftituere, fed cum viris 
undequaque doctis de poefi in genere, ac fpeciatim de Afiatica, colloqui. 
Cum igitur locum quemvis vel legendo obfervarem, vel meditando revo- 
carem in memoriam, qui ad argumentum illuftraudum accommodaretur, 
primo quid poeta vellet, haberetque in animo, quaerebam, deinde quo 
modo id pure ac Latine, fi poflem, fin minus, breviter fimpliciterque 
redderem; parum follicitus, fi nomen nomini refponderet, aut fi jufta 
voculse cujufvis Perjicce et Arabicce fignificatio, tanquam in verborum 
indice, notaretur : ad fummam, res et fententias, non verba, interpretari 
fum conatus ; quod fi vel in fententiis vel in verbis hallucinari mihi con- 
tigerit, veniam libenter dabunt, ob incredibilein rei difficultatem, poli- 
tioris jngenii homines : caeterorum fufFragiis facile carere potero. 

Aliud eft porro, quod hoc loco animadvertendum velim ; quanquam 
hujus aetatis lectoribus exquifitum nimis ac longius petitum videbitur : 
illud volo dicere ; fi hujufmodi opus de integro fcribere inftituiflem, 
vitarem cum omnes in libri margine notationes, turn in primis diverfo- 
rum fermonum uno in libro concurfionem ; quse mirum eft, quantum 



abfit ab elegantia, ideoque a Romanis et pnecipue a Cicerone, fcripto- 
rum elegantiflimo, repudiata eft ; illi enim, utcunque Gracis literis eru- 
diti fuerint, noluerunt tamen Graces vel poetas vel philofophos proprio 
fermone loquentes citare : fie varia?, qure in commentariis noftris infe- 
runtur linguae, quantumvis ad philologorum gloriolam conferre exiftimen- 
tur, inxqualem nimis et quafi vermiculatam reddunt paginam ; quo fit, 
non folum ut minus folute ac volubiliter legatur, fed ut viri elegantiores 
a legendo deterreantur, cum horridius nefcio quid et incultius in libro 
fufpicentur delitefcere. Hortor itaque fcriptores noftros, ut ledlorum 
ufui ac voluptati impenfius, quam folent, confulant ; ut veteres ill 6s 
dicendi magiftros imitentur, qui artem oftendere maluerunt, quam feip- 
fos oftentare ; ut denique fimpliciter pureque fcribant, et literas feu 
Gracas feu Latinas, perinde ac fi Grasci eflent aut Romani, tra&are 
difcant. Mea fuit hxc femper fententia ; fed mos gerendus erat recen- 
tiorum fcriptorum confuetudini, ab adolefcentulo praefertim, qui non alios 
ducere, fed ipfe ducem fequi, deberet. 

Hsec lectoribus plerifque omnibus fatisfactura efle confido; nee vero 
me fugit nonnullos homines, qui pertenues Gallorum libellos leclitare 
confueverint, totum hoc opus efle reprehenfuros, quod fcilicet Latine 
fit confcriptum, et prsecipue quod Graecos quofdam verficulos aufus fim 
contexere. Grave crimen et vix ferendum ! quod tamen haud vereor 
confiteri : fateor me fermone Latino efle ufum, ut ab omnibus in Europa 
gentibus legerer ; fateor me librum verfibus confperfTfle, ut le&ores va- 
rietate rerum allicerentur ; fateor me in Latinis Hor'atii, Ovidii, Virgilii, 
Phaedri, in Grsecis, Theocriti, Anacreontis, Callimachi, numeros (vim 
et copiam non dico) iinitatum fuifle, feliciter necne alii judicent ; fateor 
denique, ut habeant quod multo magis reprehendant, Hebraea quaedam 
noftra atque Arabica fubjungi ; Perfica etiam, fi jubeant, proferre poflu- 
mus. Quod fi Galli, homines, ut fcimus, delicatiflimi, temeritatem 
hanc noftram excufare nokierint, illud pollicemur, nos, fi quid aliud 
in pofterum fcripferimus, patria lingua ufuros efle, quam fedulo edifcant 

VOL. ii. xx velim, 



velim, fi noftra legere cupiant ; quod fi Dani, RuJJi, Gertoani, Poloni, 
Hungari, idem hoc fadtitaverint, profecto prius canefcemus, quam tot 
fermones difficiles ac dilfimiles didicerimus, cum una folummodo nobis 
fufFectura fit, modo Latine fcribendi confuetudo fautores invenerit, et 
Romanorum fermo reipublicce^ ut dicitur, literarice communis permanfe- 
rk. Ad alias linguas quod attinet, certe, fi nihil praster utilitatem fpec- 
temus, non eft omnino neceffarium vel Gra.xe vel Arabice fcribere, cum 
in fubfelliis noftris ac fori cancellis ne Demofthenes quidem aut ipfe 
Mohammedes, fi revivifcerent, intelligerentur a populo ; fed cum nihil 
fit ad memoriam confirmandam aptius, aut ad linguas condifcendas 
magis conferat, quam ftylum exercere, nefcio cur verfus aut orationes, 
utcunque eae fint inutiles atque imperfectae, in lingua qualibet contexere 
vetemur r epiftolas nimirum ad do&iores in exteris regionibus viros mit- 
tere, perfaepe nobis ufu venit, quas fatius eft elegantes efle atque urba- 
nas, quam nudas et impolitas. Quid alii fecerint, nefcio ; ego multa 
me Latine fcripfifle confiteor, multa Grsece, multa etiam Gallice ; nee 
vereor afErmare, fiqua mihi fit in linguis edifcendis facilitas, ab hac earn 
exercitatione et profectam efle et promotam. Qu^e cum ita fint, mirari 
fatis nequeo, quare vir eruditus, Erne/tits, et ille, non minus in geome- 
tric ac philofophiaj ftudiis, quam in literarum elegantiis verfatus, Alem- 
bertus^ tantopere laborare videantur, nequis pofthac Graece et Latine 
poemata aut politioris doctrinae libros contexat. Quo tandem fermone 
uti debet is, qui poetico fe ingenio inflammari fentiat ? Num Gallico ? 
at fermo ipfe a poefi eft alieniflimus. Num Anglico ? at in una tantum 
infula legetur, et uno fortafle feculo. Nee vero cuivis perfuadere velim, 
ut peregrinis fermonibus ufque eo ftudeat, donee linguae oblivifcatur fuse, 
aut horas eas omnes, quas patria atque amici fuo jure fibi vindicant, 
adeo tenui atque umbratili ftudio impendat ; fed interdum, varietatis aut 
honeftas relaxationis causa, Latmum vel Grascum etiam carmen compo- 
nere fi quis reclie poflit, cur irrideatur non video. Equidem Alemberti 
libellum, qui infcribitur de recentiorum fcriptorum Latinzfafe, bis terve 
perlegi, nee tamen in eo quidquam probatum inveni, nifi id, de quo 



nemo fanus difputaverit, recentiores fcilicet, cum Lat'me fcribant , non tarn 
pure ac perfects fcribere, ac Ji M, Tullii et Virgilii temporibus Rom<? 
Jlorutffent, nee veterum nos linguarum elegantias ceque perfplcere ac Ji Ro- 
mani e/jemus ; praeclarum fane afa^x fed vix dignum, quod tanto argu- 
mentorum apparatu probaretur ! Sermonis Latini fuavitatem non fenti- 
mus, ut Roman! ; fed ita tamen fentimus, ut delectemur : cur ideo, 
cum tantae fmt in vita moleftiae, una hac deletatione careamus ? Quod 
autem afferit vir ingeniofiflimus, fe dubitare, an quifquam e recentiori- 
bus philologis, quantum inter Virgilii et Lucani numeros ac modula- 

tionem interfit, fentire poffit ; id a tanto viro dici mirabar, ab illo pra> 
fertim, qui tarn bellum de Mufica fcripferit opufculum, cum nemo fit, 
in Britannia nimirum, qui non tantam fentiat inter Jineidis et Pharfalise 
verfus difcrepantiam, quantam inter molliflimam puellas Neapolitanae 
cantionem, ac lacrymofum fidicinae Lutetianse ululatum : fed non mira- 
bar amplius, cum viderem ab eodem fcriptore Ruxi nefcio cujus hexa- 
metros quofdam citatos, quos Virgilianos ille putat, nos vero ne Statianos 
quidem. Non ludtabimur tamen pluribus verbis ; fufficiet fuam cuique 
fententiam efle ; nobis, noftram : illud autem oramus ; ut, quoniam ipfe 
Alembertus ab aliis magni nominis viris diflentire folet, nos quoque a. fe, 
omnino fine iracundia, fed non fine dolore, diflentientes asquo animo 

Utrum vero Gallis aut Gallorum amatoribus opus hoc noftrum fit pla- 
citurum, folliciti parum fumus ; dummodo civibus noftris, et nobiliflima?, 
quac nos aluit, Academia t in quorum honorem et coepti funt et perfecti, 
labores noftri arriferint ; quid enim aliud optamus, quam ut illis jucunda 
fint et utilia, quae et adhuc perfecimus et fadhiri fumus in pofterum? 
Illud dolet, quod literis humanioribus cogimur vale dicere : dolet autem ? 
nonne potius laetari decet, eum nobis patere vitse curfum, quo melius et 
efficacius oppreflbs levare, miferis opitulari, tyrannidem avertere poteri- 
mus? Si enim quaeratur, Ecquis hominum fit maximus -, Ille, inquam, 
qui optimus : fi rurfus interroger, Quis optimus hominum fit ; relpon- 



deam, Is, qui de humano genere fit optime meritus. Utrum vero per 
literarum ftudia, per mutas artes, per molliores animi lufus, de homini- 
bus tarn bene mereri poffimus, quam agendo, laborando, eloquendo, ifli 
viderint, qui ita fe in ftudiis abdunt, ut nihil inde ad patriam aut cives 
commodi perveniat : equidem haud puto. Satis jam in umbra prolufifle 
videor ; nunc in pulverem atque aciem vocor. Quid de me fortuna 
ftatuerit, ignore ; illud fcio, nihil a me ardentius expeti, quam, provecta. 
tandem aetate et excurfo fpatio, ad Academias dilectiflimos recefius, tan- 
quam ad portum, confugere ; ubi non inertia, quam natura mea haud 
patitur, fed otio honefto perfrui potero, et ftudia haec diu intermiffa re- 
colere, quae me curriculum hoc forenfe, in quod fum ftatim ingreflurus, 
ulterius profequi non finit. 





Ajiaticos fere omnes Poetic ce impen/ius effe deditos. 

AUCTORIS confilium in libro de poefi AJiatica. componendo. Argument! 
novitas, varietas, copia. Ex interpretationibus exiguum efle fumendutn 
judicium; ex ipfis fontibus hauriendum. Ingenia AJiaticorum efle ad 
poeticam aptiffima. Ejus rei caufa. "De variis in Alia gentibus, quse 
poeticam videntur coluifle. Attingitur poefis Indica, Sinenjis^ Tartarica, 
Syriaca, Armeniaca: atque /Etbiopica, qu- Ajiaticee fubjungitur. Poefin 
Gracam efle in hoc libro attingendam, fed ftridtim ac leviter, ubi fcilicet 
cum AJiatica aliquam habeat cognationem. De Arabum^ Perfarwn, 
ac Turcarum poefi. Exempla qusedam proferuntur. De illorum linguis, 
diflimilibus quidem inter fe, fed fuo quibufque in genere praeftantibus. 

Page 347 362 


De Poematum Afi&tKorum forma. 

Sive, De Metris AJiaticis. 

METRA Arabica 6c Per/tea, quibus utuntur etiarp 'furcae, breviter 
exponuntur. Metri Hebrcei notitiam non ita efle deperditam, ut de ea 
recuperanda plane defperemus : cum Arabico non omnino convenitj 
verfus enirn Arabici fimiliter definunt, Hebrcei non item; in Arabia's 



cadem metri fpecies per totum carmen continuatur, Hebrah multo mi- 
nus. Sed numeri ac pedes vel iidem efle videntur, vel certe quidem 
perfimiles. Pag. 362389 


Sive, De Idyllio Arabico. 

Kaslda, poematis genus, quod elegiae noftras, vel potius idyllic Grce- 
coruniy refpondet. Ejus leges. Profertur brevis idyllii exemplum. Varia 
Arabum poemata in hoc genere perfedlifllma recenfentur. Septem 
idyllia in templo Meccano fufpenfa, quas Moallakdt vocantur. Exponitur 
Amralkeifi carmen venuftiflimum. Ex quo fimilitudines quaedam ele- 
gantiores delibantur. Ebni'l Faredbi elegia, metro Ovidiano Latine 
reddita. Pag. 390 403 


Sive, De Carmine Perjlco. 

ODE amatoria Per/is praecipue exculta. Ejus forma, imagines, diclio. 
Hafezi, poetae Perftci elegantiffimi, carmina duo : quorum unum Latinis 
verfibus adumbratur, alterum Greeds daclrylicis. Ferdujil ode. Carmen 
Arabicum imprimis venuilum. Pag. 404* 4 10 


De Poefeos Ajtaticee jiguris ac diftione. 

De Imaginibus Poeticis. 

IMAGINES poeticas vel ex natura efle depromptas, vel ex vita com- 
muni, vel ex religione, vel ex vera hiftoria, vel denique ex fabulis : 
harum rerum omnium cognitionem poemata Afiatlca legentibus efle ne- 
ceflariam. Hi quinque imaginum poeticarum fontes in hoc capite bre- 
viter illuftrantur. Attingitur poefis Runica, & Peruviana. Hafezi car- 
men apponitur. Pag. 417 129 



Sive, De Tranjlatione. 

FIGURA pra?cipua, qua utuntur AJiatici, eft TranJIatio; quse fimilitudo 
eft occultior, 6c fi apertiiis profertur, Comparatio nominatur j fi longiu 
continuatur, 'AxXijyo^/ : quae Latine Permutatio appellari poteft. Tranf- 
lationi fubjungitur Verbi immutatio, quam Arabes AxJL> kinia vocant, 
Graeci MtTuvvpia.v ; eftque fpecies Fiflte tnduffionis, & magnam afFert 
poefi Afiaticce venuftatem. Tranflationum elegantiorum exempla. 

Pag. 430 43Q 

Sive, De Comparatione. 

Similitudinum ufus tripartitus. Apollonii Rhodii laudantur compara- 
tiones qusdam, alixque infigniores elegantias. Hujus poetas defenfio. 
Comparationum AJiaticarum exempla, ex variis poetis elegantioribus 
libata. . Pag. 43Q- 455 

De reliquis Fignris. 

MINUTIORES quagdam figurae exponuntur, quibus Afiatlca dictio orna- 
tur. FiSd perfonarum induftione utuntur poetas Afiatici faepiffime ; eft- 
que figura cum ad venuftatem, turn ad elationem di&ionis comparata. 
Exemplum magnificum Tranfitus in aliam perjbnam. Fiftae indudtionis 
varia exempla. Hyemis indutfio apud eximium fcriptorem Ahmed Ebn 
Arabjhab. Hafezi ode. Eadem Grceti reddita verfibus Anacreonteis. 

Pag, 456 467 

A^LxJ! BjUxJ! 

Sive, De arcana Poematum Significatione. 

ABDITUM quoddam nvrypiov in carminibus Per/arum amatoriis latere 
alii dicunt, alii ftrenue negant. Hafezi carmina duo proferuntur : 
quorum primum Latinis redditur verfibus. Utriufque fententias defen- 
fores difputantes inducuntur. Pag. 467 478 




De Elato dicendl genere.- * 

Elationis praecipui fontes, Terror, \Obfcuritas, Magnificentia, Poteftas ; 
qui exemplis illuftrantur ex Alcorano, Jobi poemate, Ferdujlo, & reli- 
quis AJiaticorum fcriptis. Locus magnificus ex Siracbidis fapientia, He- 
braiti converfus. Diluvii defcriptio Mohammedana omnium elatiffima. 

Pag. 479 489 

Sive, De Venujlate. 

Venujice poefeos definitio. Sappbiis poefis venuftiffima. Exempla 
quaedam venuftatis ex Afiaticis poetis deprompta. Carmen Arabicum 
Ebn Arabjhah. Aliud Mefihii Turcice. Idem verfibus^ Trocbaicis La- 
tine redditum. Pag. 489 500 


De Poematum AJiaticorum arguments* 

Sive, De Poefi Heroicd. 

POESEOS Afiatica praecipua argumenta, Fortitudo bellica, Luftus, Offi- 
ciorum prseceptio, Amor, Laudatio, Vituperatio, & nataralium rerum De- 
fcriptiones. Arabes antiques cum bellatores fuifle, turn poetas elatirlimos> 
ac fuarum laudum praecones : cujus rei proferuntur exempla. Alceei 
& Hybritz Cretenfis ZxoXwe beliica citantur. Attingitur veterum IJlan- 
dorum poefis, quae Runica appellatur, eflque plurimum heroi'ca, Majora 
AJiaticorum opera de heroum rebus geftis. Hiftoriae numerose & modu- 
late compofltae inter poemata heroi'ca recenferi debent : Inter eas palma 
deferenda eft hiftoriae Timuri; cujus libri laudatur venuftas & elatio. 
Ferdufi poeta vere epicus, 6c Homero proximus. Ex illius poemate ex- 
promitur prselii defcriptio ; quas Latinis hexametris converfa apponitur. 

Pag. r.oi 518 




Sive, De Poeji Funebri. 

Duo funt poefeos luftuofas & flebilis genera : alterum Nema&u LeJJus 
vocatur ; eftque lamentatio lugubris in funeribus : alterum, 'ETrutyiuov 
feu Rlegia nominatur, & compleditur mortui laudationem cum ludhi 
mixtam : utriufque generis exempla proferuntur. Apponitur elegia Ara- 
bicdy eaque fatis pulchra, & cum Davidis carmine" in obitum Sauli & 
Jonathani congruens : quod carmen Hebraice citatur in verficulos di- 
ftinftum: ejufdem adumbratio quaedam Grceti. Pag. 518 531 


Sive, De Poefi Morali. 

confuetudo fapientias per fententias breves &c modulatas 
docendae. Sententiae quasdam de humanarum rerum contemtione, de 
taciturnitate, de doclrina, aliifque communibus locis. Caput libri 
Pendnama de Avaritia. Fabula Perjica de verecundise laudibus Arabic^ 
reddita: eadem Latinis iambis converfa. Pag. 531 5-43 


Sive, De Poeji Amatoria. 

NULL AM fere gentem effe tam incultam, quin poefin habeat ad 
amorem exponendum accommodatam. Alcmanis, Ibyci, & aliorum ver- 
ficuli citantur. Pindari carmen amatorium. Ex AJiaticis poetis varia 
excerpuntur exempla in hoc genere leftiflima. Carmen Arabicum; 
idem lyrie Romanae aptatum. Pag. 543 553 


Sive, De Laudations. 

.LAUDATION is poeticae tria genera. Citatur fcholion Graecum, vel 

potius Hymnus. Carminis celebrati, quod Banat Soad vocitatur, locus 

VOL. ii. Y Y eximius. 


eximius. Variae Arabum ac Perfarum laudationes. Abflola carmen ela- 
tiffimum: ex quo loca quaedam infigniora delibantur. Pag. 553 563 


Sive, De Vituperatione. 

Grcecorum iambi mordaces. Satyrae Arabicce exempla proferuntur. 
Carmen in hoc genere abfolutum ex libro de Ant ares & Ablce amoribus. 
Acerrima Ferdufn fatyra in regem Perfarum. Pag. 563 573 

CAPUT xvin. 

Sive, De Defcriptionibus. 

Cheeremoms tragici, Platonis, & aliorum, defcriptiones poeticas. Quae- 
dam ex libro Hamafa libantur. Multa denique proferuntur ex AJiaticis 
poetis exampla, quibus defcribuntur flores, horti, locorum amoenitates, 
& humana pulchritudo. Pag. 574 58C 


De varit's Arabum, Perfarum, ac Turcarum Poetis. 

icorum infinita multitudo. Recenfentur poeta? quam- 
plurimi: quorum verfus quidam exponuntur. Pag. 587 5Q3 


De Afiaticd Dittione. 

DICTIO modulata & numerofa, poefeos fpecies, AJiaticis admodum 
exculta. Recenfentur libri fatis multi in hoc genere compofiti; alii a 
rhetoribus, alii a philofophis, alii ab hiftoricis fcripti. Tria effe dicendi 
genera, Elatum, Venuftum, Tenue : quorum omnium ex Aiiaticis fcrip- 
toribus exempla proferuntur. Epilogus. Pag. 5Q1 611 






Aftaticos fere omnes Poeticee impenfiiis effe deditos. 

1NSTITUENTI mihi de Poefi Afiatica diflerere, prima fefe ofFert He- 
braeorum poefis, verbis fplendida, fententiis magnifica, tranflationibus 
elata, compofitione admirabilis,' origine tandem, quod de nulla alia dici 
poteft, vere divina. Laudare tamen Vates illos Sanftiffimos, &, quanta 
fit in eorum carminibus cum elatio dicendi, turn etiam pulchritude, ex- 
ponere, nee mihi fane erit facile, nee le&ori neceflarium. Opus enim 
de Sacra Poefi abfolutiffimum, nemo eft, opinor, in his ftudiis verfatus, 
qui non perlegerit ; nemo, cui non fummam admirationem attulerit cum 
argument! dignitas, & eruditi audtoris fmgulare judicium, turn Latini 
fermonis venuftas ac nitor. 

Humilius equidem argumentum mihi tratandum propofui ; fed dif- 
ficultatis, fed laboris pleniffimum. Etenim e fontibus reconditioribus, ac 



prope obftructis, haurienda eft materia ; revocandi funt in lucem Poetsr, 
quorum opera obfcuravit vetuftas, & quorum poene memoriam delevit 
oblivio. Praeterea, refutandi funt imperitorum hominum fermones, de- 
bellandi errores / minuenda opinionum perverfitas. Itaque, ut Varronis 
utar verbis, " non mediocres tenebrse in fylva, ubi \\xc captanda ; neque 
" eo, quo pervenire volumus, femitaz tritas ; neque non in tramitibus 
" quasdam objedta, quse euntem retinere poffunt." 

Aggredior fcilicet de iis gentlbus difputare, quarum poefin reformidant 
faftidiofx Europeeorum aures. Nos enim tranflationes mitigare folemus, 
ac lenire ; Afiatici vero, temere & incitatius exaggerare : nos ftudemus 
ut verecundae flnt, & quodammodo fe facile infmuent metaphorae ; illi, 
ut violente irruant : nos, ut fint politae, nitidse, venuftas, nee longe 
duftae ; illi res pervagatas & in medio pofitas tranfvolant, & interdum 
longiffime repetitas captant imagines, quas ad fatietatem ufque cumulant : 
JLuropeei denique poete in eo potifiimum laborant, ut jucunde, ut dilu- 
cide fcribant ; Afiatici, ut vafte, ut luxuriose, ut diflblute. Inde fit, ut, 
fi cum Arabum ac Per/arum carminibus comparetur elatiflima Europae- 
orum poefis (Grcecam femper excipio), remifse protinus fluere, & quafi 
labi videatur, 


Ut lana tintta purpuram cltra placet* 
Atji contukris earn lacernce, 
Confpeftu melioris obruatur* t 

fed hanc tamen Afiaticas didionis elationem, vix aut ne vix quidem per- 
cipiet is, qui Interpretationes tantummodo leget : fua eft enim linguis 
omnibus gratia, & quafi color proprius ; fua porro verborum feries & 
collocatio, ac fententiarum jundtura, quas fi quis diflblverit, totam con- 
tinuo diftulerit fuavitatem, totumque venuftatis lumen extinxerit. 

* Ovid, apud Quintil. Inflit, lib, x. cap. x. 



Afiaticorum igitur poemata legentibus, tenenda eft eorum hiftoria ; 
perdifcendi fermones, quorum exquifitiores elegantias funt inveftigandae, 
cognofcendi mores, difciplinae, opiniones, fabulae, proverbia ; carmina 
demum Perfarum atque Arabum, oculis & mentibus, ut ita dicam, AJla- 
ticis, legant necefle eft *. 

Nee verb me latet nonnullorum hominum increbuifle fermonem, qui 
harum gentium poefm incultam efle autumant, & horridam. Illis abunde 
erit, ut fpero, in hoc opufculo refponfum, fatifque probatum, ea ipfa po- 
emata, quae injucunda & impolita temere dici folent, deledtare potius 
atque allicere incredibili varietate et copia. Vere mihi videor efle dic- 
turus : tametfi majeftatem Homeri, fuavitatem Theocriti, magnificen- 
tiam Pindari, Apollonii elegantiam, Sophoclis vim, Euripidis facilitatem, 
JEfchyli audaces figuras, Anacreontis hilaritatem, Ibyci ardorem, Stefichori 
gravitatem, mollitiem Alcmanis, venuftatem Bacchylidis, neminem un- 
quam fcribendo confequi pofle cenfendum eft ; negari tamen non poteft, 
quin fux fmt poetis Afiaticis, a naturalibus eas quidem rebus dedudtse, 
proprietates ; fui-que pulchritudinis colores, ad quorum laudem poefis 
Europcea haudquaquam accedit. 

Neque enim abefle poteft, quin ii poetse laetiffimis abundent imaginibus, 
qui verfentur inter amoeniffimos campos, lucos, hortulos; qui deliciis 
atque amoribus toti vacent, qui tandem in iis regionibus commorentur, 
ubi folis nitor coelique ferenitas raro nubibus obfcuratur; ubi fumma 
florum ac frudluum ubertate cumulata natura luxuriat quodammodo & 
quafi lafcivit ; ubi denique (ut vetus ait poeta) 

Segetes largirijruges r jlorere omnia, 
Fontesfcatere, her bis prat a convejlirier f . 

* Vide, De Sacra Poefi, PraeleA. vi. & viL f Apud Cic. Tufcul. Qu*Jt. lib. i. 



Ac nemo fere eft, qui nefciat plurima poefeos ornamenta ex imaginibus 
rerum naturalium derivari : maximam autem Perfidis partem, totamque 
earn Arabian, quae eft a veteribus primum Felix nominata, feraciffimas 
regiones, ac deliciarum omnium abundantiffimas, elTe Icimus. 

Arabia vero ea, quae Deferta vocatur, rerum earum plena eft, ex quibus 
formidinis ac terroris depromantur imagines, quseque adeo ad elationem 
dicendi fmt longe omnium aptiffime : fxpe igitur in Arabum antiquo- 
rum carminibus, heroes inducuntur incedentes 

Via alta atque ardud 

Perfpeluncasfaxisjlruflas^ a/peris, pendentibus, 
Maximis ; ubi rigida conftat crajja caligo. 

Ob has prsecipue naturae proprietates, & ob hanc vivendi confuetudi- 
nem, Arabas Perfq/'quQ imaginibus, turn -uenuflis turn etiam elatis, abun- 
dare arbitror, ideoque poeticam, quse his imaginibus potiffimum conftat, 
ftudiofifiime colere. 

Hoc argumentum ad reliquas etiam gentes Ajiaticas transferri poteft, 
quarum fcilicet ulla ad nos pervenit cognitio : fed juvat opinionem nof- 
tram exemplis illuftrare, & pauca de Sinenfium, Indorum, Tartarorum^ 
aliorumque, poefi ante dicere, quam ad Arabum fylvas, & uberrimos 
Perfarum hortos, acceflerimus-. 

In Sinenfium lingua, quae, fi magno fcriptorum gregi * fides habenda 
fit, eft omnium copiofiffima, volumen extat pervetuftum, quod partes 
comple&itur quinque, & Shi king vocatur : trecentas hie liber Odas con- 
tinet de moribus, officiis, virtutibus ; quae eximiam habere dicuntur nu- 

* Du Haldfe. Fourmont. Couplet. &c. 














gut /imat 

PrinrrfM riiwn 



-/V M 


merorum dulcedinem, imaginum venuftatem. Una ex his Odis, quas 
mihi valde arrifit, citatur a Confucio, Platone illo, fi ita dicere liceat, 
Sinenfium ; cujus * opera graviffima Oxonii afiervantur. Carmen ipfum, 
Latinis verfibus utcunque redditum, libet fubjungere : verba Sinica, & 
verfionem fidam, feparatim addamus necefle eft, propter novas literarum 
formas, quas asnese tabulaj incidendas curavimus. 
Vides ut agros dulce gemmates lavet 

Argenteus rivi latex ; 
Virides ut aura ftridulo modulamine 

Arundines interftrepat ! 
Sic, fie amoeno cin&e virtutum choro, 

Princeps, amabiliter nites. 
Ut maximo labore, & arte maxima 

Effingit artifex ebur, 
Sic ad benignitatem arnica civium 

Blande figuras peftora. 
Ut delicata gemmulam expolit manus 

Fulgore lucentem aureo, 
Sic civitatem mitium eaudes tuam 

I i TJ *f ^"^^ \J 

Ornare morum lumine. 

V V/^ V*^*"^ I \ 

O quam verenda micat in oculis lenitas ! 
* ,4 

Minantur & rident fimul ; 
O quanta pulchro dignitas vultu patet, 

Et quantus inceflu decor H \ 44 
Scilicet amoeno, cinde virtutum choro, 

Princeps, amabiliter nites. 
Annon per omne, Veris inftar, feculum 

Memoria florefcet tui ? f 

Egregium hoc eft vetuftatis monumentum ; floruit enim princeps, qui a 
poeta Sinico laudatur, circiter o&ingentos ante Chriftum annos : docet 

* In Archiv. Bodl. A. I. fol. 7. p. a. f Vid. Coufleti Scient. Sin. pag. 10. 



porro, fimilitudinibus a fculptore eboris, & gemmarum politore du&is, 
quam remoto feculo gens ea ingeniofiffima elegantiores artes coluerit. 

Nee pauciora in fermone Indlco fcripta funt poemata * ; fed Indi re- 
centiores, poft Mogolorum Sumg-eietv a Timuri nepotibus inftauratam, 
Perfice omninb fcribunt, ideoque funt Per/is fubjungendi. Dicendi ge- 
nere utuntur elato & magnifico, vel podus abutuntur ; quod ex verfibus 
quibufdam (licet fubinfulfis) intelligere poflumus, quos contexuit Indus 
quidam, ex illorum ordine qui Bramanes appellantur. Hie enim, fin- 
gularis cum dignitatis turn eruditionis virum laudare inflituens, carmen 
compofuit ; quo patronum in coelum efFert, & verbis hifce tumidis ac 
ridiculis alloquitur : 

Utcunque celeris terga fonipedis pr etnas, 

Agitatafubito terra contremifcere ; 

Ofloque elepbantes, -vajla mundi columina, 

Sub impetu afcendentis incur-vefcere. 

Aftabat turn forte, cum hajc recitarentur, Eernierus medicus -f-, vlr in 
primis dodus, & jucundus fcriptor, qui illo tempore commorabatur in 
India. Is, infulfam hominis irridens adulationem, dixit in aurem Prin- 
cipi, quo utebatur perfamiliariter, " Cave igitur faspivis equum confcendas, 
" princeps, ne miferi populi tarn crebris terras motibus peflime multen 
" tur." Turn ille comiter, " Ob hanc rem, inquit, in JecTica J ple- 
" rumque vehi foleo." 

Quails tamen fuerit veterum Indorunti, in regione Coromandelica habi 
tantium, poefis, plane nefcimus. Extat certe quidem vetuftiffimus liber 
Indicus, per totam Afiam collaudatus, quern Arabes Calila iva Demna 

*. Vid. Catal. MSS. in Bibl. Reg. Parif. in qua etiam Carminum Sinicorum Shi king fervatur 

j- Vid. Bernieri tie Statu Impirii Mogolici Librum. 

* Leftica) Indoftanice XAJ U vulgo Palanquin. 



recant, & quern in omnes fere Europse linguas redditum habemus. In 
eo fummam gravitatem & fapientiam non defidero j fed prorfus ei deefie 
videtur poeticus ille flos & color: quod ex interpretatione fida doGti 
cujufdam Arabis intelligi poteft, qua nihil exilius, nihil prefiius, nihil a 
poefi magis alienum. Poftea vero Perficus interpres, & deinde Turcicus, 
mirificos addebant cincinnos, ut ita loquar, & pigmentorum colores. 

'Tartarorum etiam poetae, poft receptam apud eos Mohammedis reli 
gionem, linguis utuntur Arabica & Perfica ; nee dubito quin fit illis ex- 
celfum ac vehemens ingenium, licet paullo horridius : quod perfpici 
poteft ex duobus illis in libro Zqfar nama verfibus, quibus invidtus ille 
Tartarian rex, Timurus, milites fuos ad acriter dimicandum dicitur in- 
-pendifle : 

1>_MJC CX**^j &*0j. ^jti-^o *i* 

hoc eft ad verbum, Locus compotationis fortium virorum eft belli campus ; 
latltice autem cantus, pugnantium clamor es ; vmum, Janguis boftium -, prfi 
crateribus verb, gladiis acfpiculis identidem utuntur* 

Aflerit porro fcriptor graviflimus, Ibn Arabfhah, " Incolas Corafmic6 
" & Sogdiance pariter efle poeticse deditos, fed his illos efle prseftanti- 
*' ores ; adeo ut in urbe eorum prazcipua, pueruli etiam in amis delica* 
" tiflimis vocibus & cantioni finitimis vagiant f." 


f Hift. Timut. pag. 



Armenu quoque & Syris, non dubitari poteft, quin fui fuerint poetse. 
In Kircheri de Mufica libro verfus quidam cilantur, in Armeniaco fer- 
jnone, non invenufti ; & ab Herbeloto laudatur Syrus nefcio quis, qui 
Homeri poemata dicitur patria lingua elegantiffime reddidiffe. Perpauca 
tamen, reor, vel in hoc vel in illo fermone extant carmina ; nam, cum 
Mohammedani omnes fere Chriftianorum, in Afta commorantium, libros 
combuflerint, facerdotes, plus sequo fuperftitiofi, eos tantummodb e flam- 
jnis eripere voluerunt, quos ad religionem 6c facras difciplinas fpe&are 
-arbitrarentur f . 

. Idem JEtbiopibus arbitror contigifle ; quorum linguam haud vereor 
inter Afiaticas numerare, utpote quse fit Arabics fimillima, & ex AM 
fine dubio oriunda. 

Cseterum in JEthiopum fermone pauciflima mihi videre contigit poe- 
feos fpecimina. Saepe a Ludolfo eitatur Jithiopicum poema de Fajiis,. 
five, ut ipfe ait, de rerum coeleftium ac terreftrium laudatione, quod nee 
jnjucundum efle videtur, nee inelegans ; &, tametfi multus fit fortafle & 
nimius in miraculis denarrandis poeta, in eo, tamen ardor quidam &&', 
ac vis ingenii illucefcit ; praeterea carmen fuum laetis iis imaginibus 
ornat, quibus tota fere dictio Afiatica colluftrari folet. Verfus quofdam 
.ex hoc poemate, Latins adumbrates, apponam ; fed literae ^thiopicse, 


Kimis hsec funt facilia, quam ut interprete egeant. Ultima vox eft Perfica, Muficse proprla. Vid. 
etiam Herbel. Bibl. Orient, pag. 1001. 

f Stephanus Petrus, patriarcha Antiochenus, ad Huntingdonum Italice fcribens, haec habet : 
J nojiri libri fono artdati tutti /otto facqua e fuocbi, e, mancando chi fcri'va di auovo, It litri anticbi fono 
aaa'ati fempre fcemando ; e non ft fan confervati fer la fiu, fe nan i libri cWerano neceflarii per il culto delta 
Jcmtiffima religiont. 



quippe minus elegantes, & vix dignse cognitu, omitti fine difpendio, 
poflunt : 

Nunc immitis hyems fugit, 

Nee fonantibus agri 
Molles rigantur imbribus* 
Tu, qui pratula floribus 

Suave-olentibus ornas, 
Qui lucida regis fydera, 
Flores fac rofeos tui 

Colligamus amoris, , 

Fructufque pietatis novos J 
Ac, dum per virides apis 

Dulce murmurat hortos, 
Jucunda delibans thyma, 3 ' nc 
Da, fuavi mihi carmine, ut 

Diligentior ilia 
Laudes tuas cnunticni. 

Fuit etiam JEthiops quidam, quo familiariter utebatur Ludolfus, 5e 
cui poeticum ingenium non videtur defuifle. Scripfit is elegiam in obW 
turn Principis Ernefti, qui puer admodum ceffit e vita j &, pulchritudi^ 
nem pueri laudans, ait, 

Vultus nitore vicit ille beryllon. 
deinde copiofius, 

Filo crinis erat pulchrior aureo, 

Quod Indicus bombyx vomit 9 > . 

Et luna enituit fplendidior gena, 
Cum rara tingat nubila f. 

Haud fclo an multi e poetis Graecis, qui Lyrici appellantur, inter 
Afiaticos non fmt numerandi ; quorum alii in Afiaticis infulis, alii in ipfa 

: '. f 

f Vid. Xudolf. iEthiop. 

' i Afia, 


Ana, Minori fcilicet, nati fint, & qui Arabum ac Perfarum poetis vide- 
antur efle perfimiles, non metris folum & compofitione, fed figuris etiam* 
& poematum argumentis. Ideoque, tametfi in hoc libro de iis prsecipue 
poetis, qui vel Arabice vel Perfice fcripferunt, inftitui diflerere, tamen. 
baud alienum erit eorum poefm cum Grjeca identidem comparare, fi qua 
inter eas fingularis affinitas intercedere videatur. 

Abunde hsec, ut puto, oftendunt quantum Afiaticsc gentes poeticarrt 
coluerint j quantum verb aliis gentibus Arabes ac Perfe praeftent, in iis,, 
<jua2 deinceps fequentur, capitibus, fpero me uberrime demonftraturum. 
Turds etiam fua dabitur laus, fed hi Perfas nimis fervili more, ut RomanL 
Grzcos, imitantur. 

Satis arbitror do&iori cuivis efle notnm, Arabes ita fuifle huic arti de*- 
ditos, ut de re qualibet verfus. funderent ex tempore, mediocres eos qui- 
dem plerumque, fed nonnunquam fane pulcherrimos j quod minus vide- 
bitur admirandum iis, qui confiderent cum metrorum facilitatem, turn- 
fonorum fimilium in illorum fermone abundantiam. Hsec autem res 
apud illos ita frequens erat, ut pluriinus etiam nunc habeant voces quibua 
artem verfuum fubito componendorum fignificentf. Exempla funt innu- 
mera : unum folummodo atque alterum fubjiciam. 

Primum in libri Shekerddn capite decimo-quarto narratur^ Ipfius auc- 
toris verba apponam : " Ibam, inquit poeta Almofadhal, tz^rrC Arrajhid 
'* falutatum j apud quern calathus erat rofarum plenus, & puella formofa, 
'* crudita, poeticae peritiflima. Ad regem itaque acceffi ; dixit autem, 
" Fac audiatn, O Mofadhal, brevem quondam rofez fimititudlnem. Recitavi 
** igitur ex tempore, Similis eft puellce gence, qua, dum fuaviatur earn 
** amatoris labium, rubore fuffundi incifit. 

t uiJji & ^i==^i & 

* Tum 


" Turn interpellavit puella, eodem metri genere, 

" Similis eji potius gence me<z* cum me provocet ArraJJndi manus ad 
V dulces amoris lufus f." 

Belliffimi videbuntur hi verfus ledori Arabice fcienti; & pulchrar 
profe&o funt fimilitudines cum poetse turn poetrise : eandem compara- 
tionem innuit, cum deflore illo verecundite loquatur, venuftus poeta Lyco~ 
phronides, cujus verficulos (etfi Gracas fententias Latinis immifcere ad- 
modiim. difpliceat) ob eximiam dulcedinem citabo : 

Ours srai^of 

OIITS arot.f&tvuv r 

Oure "yvvawu 

KasXov TO srpc<r7nw > 


*TT ? '5> ^ 

H yo uiouf 

Alterum hujus rei exemplum in libro quodam incerti auflorfs 
legifle memini. " Formofara ac dodtant adolefcentulam quidam e poetis 

L; JUS AJI CXtX*l Ooj jLcU 


. ... / 


u i w^u u 

Vide etiam Herbel. in voce DMdt. 

; A pud Athenaeum lib. xiii. 


" illuftrioribus diligebat. Puella viciflim eum ita unice amabat, ut nun- 

? * quam, nifi una adeflet amicus, lastaretur. Die quodam in febrim in- 

" cidit puella, &, jam prope fopita asgritudine, in le&ulo dormivit. 

" Turn amicus, qui antea cubiculum non reliquerat, lavatum ibat. Ilia 

** expergefada, ubi eflet amicus, percontata eft. Dicebant famuli in bal- 

** neo efle : ea vero chartulam afferri juflit, & hos fcripfit verficuloSj 

** quos illico ad poetam mifit : 

Li Ulilc 


/, fi vert me amares, non fe fortunes iniquitas a me disjun- 
*' geret : profeSlo baud aqua mibi tecum pars amoris eft ; ego in ipfd morte 
*' -verfor, tu in balnea te obleSlas" Ubi obfervandus eft non illepidus, ut 
Afiatici putant, verborum lufus, vox enim blmam mortem fignificat, ham- 
mam Vero, balneum. 

*' Poeta verfus amicx legit; aliquantulum charts illachrymavit ; turn 
*' refcripfit ex tempore : 

O-2XJ ^oLXj J 

'* JVb idea intrabam balneum, ut me oblettarem: quomodo enim ? dum ignis 
" dejiderii in peElore meo ardet : fed non mihi fatisfecit lachrymarum effufio\ 

* l idcirco intrabam^ ut ab unoquoque membra flere poffem." 


1 Veniamus ad Perfas. li vero quam ftudiose poeticam excoluerint, & 
"quanti earn azftimarint, intelligi poteft ex ingenti poetarum multitudine, 



qui in Perfide floruerunt, ad quorum opera percurrenda hominis vham 

vix arbitror fuffeduram. Illi, pulcherrima ufi tranflatione, pro verfus 

facer e dicunt mar gar it as nettere-, quemadmodum in illo Ferdufii verficulo 


Siquidem calami acumine adamantino margaritas nexi j in fcientue mare 
penitus me immerfi. 

Turcse, ut fupra di&um, Perfas fequuntur, imb, fsepe ita fide, ut ver- 
bum de verbo reddant. Sed f Alcasum, J Archilochuni, Bacchylidem, 
|| Anacreontem, alios, permultis in locis imitatus eft Horatius : Latina 
tamen non minori cum voluptate quam Grseca legimus. Multi funt 
praeterea verfus Turcici, qui, e Perficis non redditi, videntur efle valde 
belli ; velut illi, quibus Imperatoris Soleimanni laudatur juftitia, libe- 
ralitas, fortitude : 

ocX*-UI &**-f) 

iXjl ,^y!j oOJJUj 

f Lib. i. Carm. . rV a/ altajlet, &c. 

Sj "Yet (/> o Ziv;, c> J' ogxru fu 

Et quae fequuntur. Item Carm. xiv. < ma/M cderi faucius, &c. Ale. apud Heracl. Pont. 

To f/.i yaj tV$ii> xi/fxix xuXivJirai, &C. 
J In Epodis paflim. 

Lib. i. Carm. xv. Pa/lor cum traberet, &c. " Hsec inquit Porphyrion, a Bacchylidis Caflandri- 
" fumuntur." 
U Lib. i. Carm. xxiii. Pitas blnnuho mejtmilis, 8rc. 


ATI vi^goir rcodi}X^ 

!>o> S", o; t> {,'?. 


Illo regnant e nullus eft audit us gemitus^ nifi arc us t inn tent is ; Ufa regnant f 
nihil cwvum, prater arcum, inveniri potult ; illo rege, nullus prater Adeni 
unionem, fult pupillus ', illo imperatore, nullwn, prater Khoteni 

Nee foliim poetica efle videmus Afiaticorum ingenia, veriim etiam 
lingua eorum funt ad poefin accommodatiffimae ; diffimiles eae quidem 
inter fe, fed fuo quseque in genere praeftans, Suavitatem Perfica, uber- 
tatem ac vim Arabica, mirificam habet Turcica dignitatem : prima al- 
licit atque oble&at ; altera fubli,mius vehitur, & fertur quodammodo 
incitatius; tertia elata eft fane, fed non fine aliqua elegantia & pul- 
chritudine. Ad lufus igitur & amores fermo Perficus, ad poemata 
heroica & eloquentiam Arabicus, ad moralia fcripta Turcicus videtur 

Philofophorum omnium poft renatas literas (Magnus ille nofter New- 
tonus perpetub excipitur) princeps, Verulamius, opus egregium fore re- 
batur de variis linguarum proprietatibus tra<3:ationem J. Ait enim, idque 
veriffime, " Ex populorum fermonibus mores eorem atque ingenia accu- 
*' ratifiime dignofci pofle." Quod vero aflerit Vir admirabilis de Grse- 
corum ac Romanorum linguis, nempe has verba compqfita valde reformi- 
dare, illos vocum compojitionibus in primis dcletari y id transferri ad Perfa- 
rum atque Arabum fermones re&iflime poteft ; unde colligimus Perfas 
artibus^ Arabes rebus gerendis fuifle aptiores j " Artium enim, inquit ille, 
" diftinftiones, verborum compofitionem fere exigunt ; at res & negotia 
" fimpliciora verba poftulant." Deinde hos graves ac feveros efle cog- 
nofcimus, illos luxuriofos, voluptuaries, diflblutos ; quod illi in compo- 
fitione redundent ac diffluant, hi contra breves fmt, cafti, enucleati, 
prefli ; raro efFundantur, neque abutantur verborum copia, & fzpe uno 
verbo fenfa dilucidius exponant, quam nos pluribus fententiis. 

t Vid. Pnefationem elegantem libri Homaiun Naraa. Et Herbel. in voce Kboten. 
% De Augm. Sclent, vi. i. 



Exemplo fit Motanabii, poetse nobiliflimi, verficulus, quo puellse de- 
fcribit pulchritudinem : 


hoc eft, Tanquam luna enituit^ & tanquam ramulus myrobalani delicate fe 
inflexit j G? ambari odorem habuit, hinnuleique tenerum afpeftum. 

Confitendum eft Graces, etiam in hac re, ad Arabum laudem proxime 
accedere; fie enim, five Pherecrates, five audor fabulse, quae Perfa 
infcribitur : 

pTrveuv $' vctxtvdov, 
[AXi\taTivov, KJ (loScc, 

1 <pt\UV (4,6V KftKgCCKOV, TTpOffKIVUV B fl 

Nihil certe his verfibus dulcius, nihil venuftius. Sed verficuli illius 
Arabici, cum fumma brevitate conjundta, elegantia lingua Latina exponi 
nullo pa&o poteft ; fi dicamus enim, 

Non vitis ilia, flexa delicatior, 

Non clarius lunse jubar, 
Non dulcis aura balfami fragrantior, 

Non hinnuli oculus blandior. 
quam inconcinna haec fmt cum illis comparata ! 

Sed de poefi Afiatica in genere fatis multa. Nunc ad earn fpeclatim 
tratandam accedimus ; ac primum de Arabum, Perfarum, ac Turcarum 
poefi, quatenus ad verfuum formam & ftru&uram attinet, eft difleren- 



De poematum Afiaticorum forma. 



De metris AJiatlcis. 

,/xSIATICI carminis naturam ac leges traftaturus, videor mihi quodara- 
modo in dumetum quoddam efle delapfus, in quo nihil eft aut fuave aut 
jucundum. At ne qua tamen res, quae ad poefin AJiaticam pertinet, 
intacta a. me relinquatur, exponam in hoc capite, quam breviffime po- 
tero, varia metrorum genera, quibus turn Arabes ac Perfae, turn etiam 
Turcae utuntur : & quoniam in hoc fermone Europeeos alloquor, utar 
vocabulis in Europa cognitis, ne peregrinis durifque vocibus le&ores de- 
terream ; quod illos fecifle video, qui idem argumentum antea trafta- 
verunt. Quis enim intelligere poteft quid haec velint : " Aruda fecunda 
" Hadhdhata eft ; cui duae competunt Darbce, prima Hadkdhata, fecunda 
" Hadbdhata Damrata. Quaternario Aruda unica eft fana, cui Darba 
".quatuor, Raflata, Dbailata Nuda, & Katataf?" Profedlio hsec legenti 
cnivis tam obfcura videbuntur quam Hannonis in fabula Plautina per- 
fonati oratio Punlca. Sed nos ad argumentum, magis dilucide traftan- 
dum, veniamus, 

f Vid. Cleric! Prcfod. Arab. pag. 73. 


/i'7 -//./', !''',! 



j> *^.i*> 


A 9.^ x ^ 
i -^ fct^^ 

^=^^ V ^^ 

^ a! 




Magna eft in poefi Afiatica metrorum varietas, in qua ne Graecse qui- 
dem cedit : hoc tamen praecipue intereft, quod Arabes & Perfae plures 
habeant fyllabas longas quam breves, Grseci verb pluribus utantur brevi- 
bus quam longis ; unde fit, ut tribrachyn, proceleufmaticum, primum 
paeona, aliofque pedes volubiles, quibus Grseci turn poetae turn oratores 
delectantur, Afratici in verfibus non adhibeant. Apud Arabes, fi litera 
(ut vocant) immota fyllaba terminetur, longa Temper eft, fin minus, brevis; 

',-;/- ' 

ut cXi Aaa, v_j be. 

Plerzque voces, quibus de re metrica utuntur Afiatici, a tentorio tran- 

flatse funt, propter fimilitudinem quandam inter aedificium tentorii, & 
verfuum ftrucT:uram, quemadmodum ilia Pindarica, 

i, ff n ay luyapi 
n % of tu - & qu* fequuntur. 

Sic verfum CX>u feu domum vocitant, & hemiftichium p'y^ mn 
fyllabam longam, & pyrrichium longae temporibus asqualem, chordas no- 
minant, iambum & choreum, paxillcs. Hzec autem imago, quas non eft 
fane injucunda, a communi Arabum NoftaXv feu campeftrium vita de- 



Sequitur ut de pedibus poeticis difleram. Purl ieitur pedes funt vel 

Pynichius i faa. 

Iambus JSS/. 

Trochsus Jii fa/a. 

W ^~ Juiuf " 

vel trify, 



g) Bacchius ^P^*J faulon. 



Amphimacer ^jJLcU Jot Ion. 

J ' ' 
Amphibrachys J^*J fauto. 

J J Cx 

Antibacchius J^juu* mafulo. 

O J J Ox 

MolofTus ^JaAJL* mafulon. 

Pedes compofitiy feu potius numeri y funt 
Pseon fecundus J^cUU mojailo. 

J X X 

Pason tertius toJlaj failato. 

O -Jx- x 

Paeon quartus ^jJCbti failaton* 

6 O XX 

Epitritus primus (M*JUcULo mafailon. 

O J x x 

Epitritus fecundus ^.O'Jlcts Jailaton. 


O J O x O -> 

Epitritus tertius ^.^Xxixuw^ mojlafilon* 

J x J Ox 

Epitritus quartus O J*jul mafulato. 


Diiambus ^XcUue tnafTulon. 

Dichoreus cjJiiU Jatlato. 

-5 xx 

Antifpaftus JurULo mdfaito. 


O J x O J 

Choriambus ^jJLx>uu moftatlon. 

J O x O J 

lonicus a majori ^JouoCwj^e tnoflafilo. 


lonicus a minori /jJ'Xxi fddlaton. 

Habent praeterea duos pedes cornpofitos ; alterum, ex iambo & ana- 
psefto, alterum ex anapaefto & iambo. Haud fum nefcius pedem dochi- 
mum ex bacchio & iambo componi, ut reipublicce ; fed, quoniam aliud 
vocabulum non occurrit, duos illos pedes dochimos nominabo. Eft 



O - 

Dochimus prior (^/JLcUuo mojaalaton. 

G J j-xj 

Dochimus fecundus <^Jlclx motafaiKn. 

qui dochimo veterum funt numero fyllabarum aequales, temporibus non 
valde difpares. 

Nunc de carminum generibus five jS& I dicendum eft: ca funt 

Longwn^ Epitritobacchiacum. 
OucXt.1 Extenfum, Trochaeocreticum. 

Expanfuftt, lambocreticum prius. 
Copiofum, Dochimeum prius. 
PerfeStum^ Dochimeum fecund. 

_ j^\ Lyricum, Epitriticum. 

Tremulum, lambicum. 

, . 

Breve, Trochaicum. 

Velox, lambocreticum fecundum. 

_ _>w-vtl Mobile ', lambotrochaicum. 
~ * 

Zm?, Trochaeoiambicum, 

iS/w/Tr, Antifpafticum. 
Concifum, Qioriambicum , 
Amputatum, lonicum. 
Conjun&um, Bacchiacum, 
Confequens, Creticum." 

Prima fpecies conftat ex bacchio & primo epitrito quater repetito j fed 
in quarta & odava fede recipere poteft diiambum, ut 

u'..|u ..O -U. 



Amator | puellarum J mifer fae J pe fallitur 

Ocellis j nigris, labris | odoris, j nigris comis. 

& in oftava bacchium, ut 

Amator [ puellarum | mifer fae | pe fallitur, 
Ocellis j nigris, blanda | que vocis j loquela. 

Interdum vero in locis imparibus admittit pro bacchio amphibrachyn, in 
quarto diiambum, ut 

u, -o|o-o-J.u-u|u-- - 

Legenda, J puer, rofa eft : | Aprilis | adeft, adeft! 
Legenda, | puer, rofa eft : j Corinna j rofas pofcit. 

interdum in prima fede fpondasum recipit, in fecunda & fexta anti- 
fpaftum, ut 


Phyllis | comas pulchra | renoda | bat aureas j 
Hylas hanc j videns igne j calebat j Dei alati. 

Nonnunquam etiam in prima fede trochaeus invenitur, ut 

Ridet j amatores | Corinna j ah ! [ cave, cave. 
Amator | puellarum j mifer fae j pe defperat. 

Hujus generis eft Tarafae elegia, feu fecunda, ut vocatur, Moallaca^ ut 

" In tribu autem erat hinnulus fufcos habens oculos, qui recentes 

baccas decuflit, 
" Exhibens duo fila margaritarum & fmaragdorum." 

u.- I u... I u .. I o - o - 

Wafi'lbai \ iabwayan \fodhflmerd \ afhadinon. 

O - J I o - - - I (J-O I U-(J h 

Modbaher \ ofimthalu \ luimjoa \ zabargidin. 



Secunda fpecies conftat ex epitrito & amphimacro, fequente epitrito, 

Inter umbras J arborum | fie jacentes 
Dulce carmen j barbito j fuccinamus. 
in tertia & fexta fede pro epitrito amphimacrum admittit, 


Inter umbras j arborum | fie jacens 
Dulce carmen J barbito | fuccinis. 
& interdum in fexta fpondaeum, 

Inter umbras j arborum J fie jacens 
Dulce plectro | fuccinis | carmen. 
& in tertia ac fexta anapaeftum, 


Inter umbras } arborum J virides 

Dulce plangis, | dum nemus j refonat. 

Nonnunquam penitus mutatur verfus, & in primo, tertio, quarto & 
fexto loco ionicum a minori recipit, in fecundo & quinto anapxftum, 

o o--|oo-|uu-- 
u u..|uu.]uu-- 

Miferorum eft | nee ama | re puellas, 
Neque blandae | Veneri | dare ludum. 
aut pro ionico dichoreum, pro anapaefto amphimacrum, 


Nunc bibamus, j O boni, | nunc amemus, 
Nunc canamus | ad lyram ] fuave carmen. 

Tertia fpecies conftat ex epitrito tertio, & amphimacro quater repetitis, 
fi tetrameter eft verfus : in quarta & otava fede anapaeftum recipit, ut 

,-u-l.u-j-- u.luu. 

..U.J.U-J-- U . I U U . 



Vobis cano, { virg'mes, ( vobis cano, | pueri, 
Jucundius | nil amore | eft, pulchrius j ve pio. 
& in oclava fpondaeum, 

Vobis cano, j virgines | vobis cano, j pueri, 
Jocundius | nil amore, | aut pulchrius | nil eft. 
Verfus trimeter quatuor habet epitritos, & duos amphimacros, ut 

.-. o . I . o - I - o - 


Vobis cano, J virgines, | vobis cano, 
Jucundius | nil amore | eft mutuo. 
qui etiam in tertia & fexta fede moloflum admittit, 


Vobis cano, | virgines | formofas, 

Jucundius | nil amore J eft puro. 

Nonnunquam pro epitrito tertio diiambum habet, pro amphimacro ana- 
paeftum, ut 


o-o : -|oo-|o-o*l"- 

Per arbores | Philome | la, blanda avis, | quid ait ? 

41 Ubi eft merum | nitidum ? | rofe, fides, [ ubi funt ?" 
aut in primo, tertio, quinto, & feptimo loco choriambum habet, in fe- 
cundo & fexto creticum, in quarto & ultimo anapasftum, ut 

. u ,1. u -I. u .1 uu . 

-U 0-|JO-|-00- !|UO- 

Alma Venus, j parvuli | mater amo | ris, ades, 
Sit facilis | jam mihi, | fit mihi ami | ca, Chloe ! 
vel pro choriambo paeona quartum admittit, ut 

o VO ... u ., UU ., 00 . 


Amor habet | dulce mel, | fed habet idem j aloe'n, 
Leviter is | mella prae | bet, aloe'n | cumulat. 
Porro verfus trimeter in ultima fede recipit interdum diiambum, ut 



Vobis cano, | virgines, | vobis cano, 
Jucundius | nil amo j re mutuo eft. 
aut choriambum, 


Vos alloquor, | virgines, | vos alloquor, 
Jucundius | nil amo | re eft tenero. 
aut quartum pseona, 

o u u - 

Vos alloquor, j virgines, | vos alloquor, 
Jucundius | nil amo | re tenero eft. 
Nonnunquam vero & in tertio & in fexto loco bacchium habet, ut 

Vos alloquor, | virgines | venuftse, 
Jucundius | nil amo J re puro eft. 

Ad hoc genus pertinet Tograi elegantiffimum carmen, ut 

" Dormis me reliclo ; at ftellas oculus non dormit : 
" Et tu mutaris ; at noctis color non mutatur." 

<j-U. -|-O-|--O-j (J O - 

Tenamo an | niwaei | nonnijmifa | hiraton 

u - <j -|u u - | - - u - [ u u - 

Wataftahei | lo wafib | golleili lam [ yaholi. 

Nos quoque fumus eodem genere ufi, in tribus verficulis Arabicis, 
quos olim exercitationis gratia adolefcentuli compofuimus : 

VOL. II. 3 B 


xi- Uil J! Lo 

* -Xj*JI S*jJ U.-VMJ ^S^S^-J L_>Lw L> 

id eft ad verbum, 

Cum /em's zephyrus inter arbor es fubrepit, 

Annon fecum offer t mofcbi, & pomorum odor em ? 

Gcerulei rivuli ex hortulu ludentes faliunt y 

In quibus dulcis ocimi & Jiorum odor ajflatur : 

Sic, O puella hinnuleo jimllis, cum poculum mihl offers, 

Tuus halltus, arnica, vini odorem auget atque accendit. 


Obferva in ultimo verfu lufum verborum i_>Li) & u-oij quorum pofterius 
cum adolefcere^ turn etiam accendere fignificat. 

Quarta fpecies ex priore dochimo conftat fexies repetito, (i trimetri 
funt verficuli, fi dimetri, quater, ut 

Genis rofeis, | nigrifque oculis, | nigrifque comis, 
Amore facis } tepere meum, | Corinna, fmum. 

u - u u-tu-u u- 

Venufta puel | la, tarda venis ; 
Parata rofa eft, | parata chelys. 
Trimetri in tertio & fexto loco admittunt bacchium, ut 


Venufta puel | la, tarda venis | ad hortum, 
Parata lyra eft, | paratus odor J rofarum. 
& in primo vel choriambum, ut 

- UU - I O - O 

Pulchra puel | la, tarda venis j ad hortum, 
Parata lyra eft, j paratus odor | rofarum. 



vel moloflum, ut 

... lu-uu.fu-. 

u-uu-|u-o u - I u . - 

Phryne pul | chra, tarda venis | ad hortum, 
Parata lyra eft, | paratus odor | rofarum. 
vel amphibrachyn, ut 

o-o lu-uu-lu-- 

u-u u - I - u u-lu-- 

Chloe me j a, tarda venis, &<x 
vel etiam creticum, ut 

-u- lu-uo-lu-- 

o - u u-|u-uu-|u-- 

Pulchra ami | ca, tarda venis, &c. 
Dimetri in ultima fede epitritum primum recipiunt, ut 

u-u t - I u - u o - 
-> - u u-lu-- - 

Puella venuft J a, tarda venis, 

Parata lyra eft, | merum, flores. 

Nonnunquam hoc carminis genus in fmgulis locis, excepto tertio & 
ultimo, (ubi faepius eft bacchius) primum epitritum admittir, ut 

Amatores [ puellarum | mifellos 

Ocellorum | nitor multos | fefellit. 

nifi hi verficuli potius ad fextam fpeciem pertineant ; certe eodem metro 
utitur Hafez, poeta Perficus, in illo carmine, 

Ah dulcem urbcm Schirazum ! & Jitum ejus eximium ! 
O Deus, bane urbem a ruind defends ! 

interdum vero recipit diiambum, ut 


qui verfus funt iambici puri trimetri cataledici ; velut illi Horatiani, 



Yrabuntque Jlccas machine car mas : 
Nee prat a canis alblcant pruinis. 

fed Arabic! puriores funt, 

Menazilon | lekartana | kifaron 
Cainnama | rofumoha | fothuron. 
nonnunquam verb fiunt antifpaftici trimetri cataledlici, ut 


Chloe pulchra, | venis tarda ; ] parantur 
Scyphi, vina, \ lyra v unguenta, | corolls. 
Ad hanc fpeciem pertinet admirabile illud Abtlola carmen, 


An e celeri camelorum grejju robur eorum cognofcis? 
An e tenebris divitias petis? 

u . . . | u . u u - I u - - 

Aan wakhd'il | kilaficafliaf | tahala 

u - - - I u - u (j _ I a - - 

Waminindadh ] dhalamithalab | tamala. 

Quinta fpecies ex dochinris fecundis conftat : funt autem verfus vel 
fenarii, ut 

o u.o.fu o-u- 

UU-U.|-U U.O-|O U-U~ 

Tria grata funt | animo meo, ut | melius nihil, 
Oculi nigri, | cyathus nitens, | rofeus calyx. 

qui in ultima fede ionicum minorem admittunt, 

u u.u-lu u-u-lu u- - 

Tria grata funt | animo meo, ut | melius nihil, 
Oculi nigri, | cyathus nitens, | rofa fulgens. 



vel fpondasum, ut 

u o - u - I u u . o - J u u-o. 

u u - y - I u u - o 

Tria grata funt | animo meo, ut J inelius nihil, 
Oculi nigri, | cyathus, rofarum | hortus. 

interdum in tertio & fexto loco anapseftum habent, ut brachycataledici 
fmt dochimei, 

u u - o - t o u.u-lu u 
u u - u - I o u - u - I u f j 

Tria grata funt | animo meo, | Glycere, 
Oculi nigri, | rofeus calyx, | cyathus. 

vel quaternarii, qui nonnunquam fyllaba longa ita augentur, ut fiant hy- 

u u - o - I o u.u.l 
u u.u-ju u-tt|* 

Tria grata funt | animo meo, 
Oculi nigri, ] cyathus, rofse [ flos. 

nonnunquam ionicum minorem in ultima fede habent, ut 

u u - o - 

U O - O - 

Tria grata funt | animo meo, 
Oculi nigri, J rofa, vinum. 

Dicitur etiam hoc carminis genus recipere in fingulis locis vel epitritum 
tertium, vel diiambum, ut fiant verfus iambici trimetri acataleclici ; fed 
hi ad feptimam fpeciem feu carmen tremulum referendi funt. Porro ad 
hanc fpeciem pertinere dicuntur verfus choriambici, ut 

L-^sr 1 J C-dx 

Menzilaton j fammafada | hawaafat 

Arfomoha | infoilat j lamtogibi. 
Man/to, cujus Echo fur da eft, & delentur 
Veftigia,fi inter rogetur, non refpondet. 

Senarii denique verfus in quarta fede tertium epitritum, in ultima mo- 
loffum poflunt admittere, ut 



u u - o . I w o - o - I o o - o - 
- - o - I o o . o - [ 

Tria grata funt j animo meo, | Glycere mea, 
Vinum nitens, j oculi nigri, J flos halans. 

Quaternarii verb in ultimo loco recipiunt epitritum tertium & longam 
fyllabam, ut 

O O - O - I o O - (J - I 

o o - o - I - - o - J. 

Tria grata funt j animo meo, 
Oculi nigri, j vinum, rofse | flos. 

vel diiambum & longam, ut 

00-0-1 0-0-1 

oo-o-|o.o- I - 

Tria grata funt J animo meo, 
Oculi nigri, | merum, rofas | flos. 

vel choriambum & eandem, ut 

O O - O - I O O - o - 

o o-u.l. o o 

Tria grata funt | animo meo, 
Oculi nigri, | vina, rofse J flos. 

vel etiam moloflum fine longa, ut 

Tria grata funt j animo meo, 
Oculi nigri, | flos, vinum. 

Sexta fpecies conftat ex epitritis primis : Verfus funt plurimum qua- 
ternarii, ut 

Puellarum J doli multos 
Fefellerunt j amatores. 

qui in ultimo loco bacchium recipiunt, 

Puellarum J doli multos 
Fefellerunt [ amantes. 

& in 


& in locis imparibus diiambum, 

u- u - I o . * . 

Vide ut doli [ puellarum 
Fefellerint j amatores, 
vel in omnibus prater ultimum antifpaftum, 

Rofae, vina, j lyra, unguenta, 
Decent haec vi | ridem zetatem. 

Recipiunt tandem in prima fede vel moloflum, 

. .. ... 


Nympharum | doli multos 
Fefellerunt J amatores. 
vel creticum, 

- u - jo--- 
o --. I o ... 

Virginum | doli multos 

Fefellerunt j amatores. 
vel antibacchium, 

Nymphaeque | doli multos 

Fefellerunt | amatores. 

Hoc genere frequentiflime utuntur poetse Lyrici, ut Hafiz in ifto car- 

> O 1 

jw wi^d^ 

.SV furca Sbirazia manu fud cor meum acciperet, navo illtus nigro 
darem urbes Bokharam & Samarcandam (vel Maracandam^ ut 
Curtio placet). 

Septima fpecies eft iambica: & conftat ex epitrito tertio fsepius con- 
tinuato j funt autem verfus vel trimetri, 



Fontefque lym | phis obftrepunt j manantibus, 
Somnos quod in | vitet leves | paftoribus. 
qui in ultima fede aut bacchium admittunt, 

Fontefque lym J phis obftrepunt j manantibus, 
Somnos quod in J vitet leves | puellis. 
aut moloflum, 

Fontefque lym | phis obftrepunt [ manantibus, 
Somnos quod in | vitet leves | paftori. 
Interdum vero fmguli pedes in choriambos mutantur, 

.0 0-1-0 0-1-0 U. 
.0 0-1-0 U-I-U O - 

Jane pater, | Jane tuens, | dive biceps, 

O cate re J rum fator, O | principium. 

Septim. apud e Terentian. 

fed ex foils choriambis conftare debent, nam," fi admifcetur dochimus, ad 
quintam fpeciem pertinent : nonnunquam in pseonas, 


Nitida te | rofa monet, | Glycerium, 
Nimia ne | tibi fuper [ bia fiet. 
nonnunquam in diiambos ; ut puri fmt iambici trimetri, 

u-u-lo-o-lo- o- 

Phafelus il j le quern vide | tis, hofpites, 
Ait fuif J fe navium | celerrimus. Catull. 

ut in illis Arabicis, 

Yadobbo an | hareimihi [ befeifihi 
Waromhihi [ wanablihi | wayahtomi. 
vel dimem, ut 

O car- 



O carminum | dulces notar, 

Quas ore | fundis melleo ! Incert. 

vel trimetri catale&ici. 

.. O .|.. .|o-. 

Florefque nu | bes irrigant J odoros. 
Sunt etiam dimetri catale&ici, 


Praterea apud recentiores quofdam poetas verfus eft breviflimus j qui ex 
uno epitrito conftat, 

I I o '. 

Ut prifca gens 

Hac etiam fpecie utitur Hafiz, ut in illo venuftiflimo carmine, 

Chun bulbulan | nezul kuneim | afhiani gul. 
Tanquam lufclnlce in rofeum nidum defcendamns. 

Species o&ava eft trochaica : & epitritum fecundum fajpe continuatum 
r r r 

habet. In verfu fenario pes tertius eft cataleticus, ut 

Cras Dione j jura dicit, J virgines, 

Ipfa gemmis | purpurantem j pingit annum, 
& nonnunquam etiam fextus, 

p u . I - u - ' I - v - 


Cras Dione j jura dicit, | virgines, 
Purpurantem j pingit annum | floribus. 

ijnaternarii funt vel acataleftici, 

VOL. ii. 3 c Vef 


Ver novum, ver | jam canorum eft ; [ eras amet, qui { nunquatn 


vel cataledici, 

- u - . ] - o--|-o--|- o- 

Ver novum, ver J jam canorum ; | vere nubunt | alites. 
Interdum in paribus locis recipiunt ereticum, 

- u - - | - o - ] - o --(- u - 

Ver canorum eft, J ver novum, | vere nubunt J alites.. 
Nonnunquam in ultima fede ionicum minorem habent, 

Alites can J tant arnores ; | pulchra ridet | rofa in horto. 
Mutantur praeterea in fenariis fmguli pedes in ionicos, prseter tertium, 
qui anapaeftus eft, 

o u - - I u u - - I o o - 

O U - - I O U - - I U u - - 

Miferarum eft J neque dulci | lavare 
Mala vino, J neque amori | dare ludum, 
vel in ditrochasos, tertio cretico, 

Feriatus | eft amor, pu j ellulse, 

Juflus eft in | ermis ire, | nudus ire. 

Tnterdum fecunda & quinta fedes in tertium paaona vertuntur, tertia vero 
in amphimacrum, 

.. o - - I u u - u I - u - 
- o - - I o o - o I - (j - - 

Vere grato | modulantur | alites, 
Perque fylvas | refonantes | duke cantant. 
Eft vero ubi pes tertius amphimacer fit, fextus vero anap3ftus, 

Cras Dione | jura dicit, | virgines, 
Ipfa gemmis | pingit annum | nitidia. 

Nona etiam fpecies eft iambica : conftat ex epitritis tertiis, fequente 
vel cretico, 




Fontefque lym j phis obftrepunt | garrulis, 
Somnos, quod in J vitet puel ] lis leves. 

vel, in ultima fede, fpondeo, 


- - -I- - u -I- - 
Fontefque lym | phis obftrepunt | garrulis, 

Somnos quod in | vitet mihi [ dulces. 
vel in tertia & fexta, anapsefto, 

--0-I--O.O U - 


Fontefque lym [ phis obftrepunt | querulis, 
Somnos quod in | vitet leves j pueris. 

vel moloflb, ut in verfu dimidiato, 

...). -o-l--- 

Fontefque lym | phis obftrepunt j manantes. 
Interdum vero pro epitritis diiambos admittit, ut 

J . 


Vale, Pria | pe, debeo | nil tibi, 
Jacebis in J ter arva pal | lens fitu. 
vel choriambos, 

.U 0.1-0 U - - U - 

.uu-|-uu.|. u . 

Alma Venus, | diva potens, | hue ades, 
Linque Paphon, | linque Cypri | fylvulas. 
vel pseonas quartos, 

u u u - I u u u - I - u - 

1 - o - 

Nitida te | rofa monet, j ne, Chloe, 
Nimia fit [ tibi colo | ri fides. 

Verfus pariter dimidiati pro epitritis diiambos habent, & in ultima fede 


Phafelus il j le quern, boni, j videtis. 



vel in prima, choriambum, 


Omnibus haud | idem eft nitor | puellis. 
Hujufmodi autem generis verfus etiam Scazontes appellari poflunt. 

Decima fpecies eft ea quam Grseci 'A<nWp-njToi> appellant ; eomplecti- 
tur enim epitritos quartos inter tertios, qui pedes natural funt diflbciabiles, 


Dulces notse, | quas blando ca } nis barbito, 
Per fylvulas, | per virgulta, | perque nemus. 

ubi in ultima fede choriambus eft ; recipit interdum pro tertiis epitritis, 
choriambos, pro quartis, dichoreos, & in fexto loco moloflum habet, 

: r ::|::::1: r r tt 

Diva potens, | diva: fuavis, [ alma Venus, 
Gratam Cypron ( fperne, diri ] ge hue cygnos. 
aut pro tertiis, diiambos, pro quartis, antifpaftos, fequente choriambo, 

(J-0-|U-.u- u u - 

Phafelus il [ le quem cerni | tis, hofpites : 
Phafelus il | le quem cerni j tis, pueri. 
aut pro tertiis, choriambos, pro quartis, dichoreos, 

.u t>-f-u-o|-u u- 

.U O_|_O-OJ-O U- 

Diva potens, | diva fuavis, | alma Venus, 
Prata Cypri | fperne ; linque | prata Paphi. 

Interdum funt paeonici ; & quartum pasona in primo & quarto loco reci 

piunt, in fecundo vero & quinto, pseona tertium, 

Iy CJ - U 1 - - 'J - 
U U-U|-U U- 

Nimia ne | tibi fit co | lori fides, 
Nitida te | rofa, Phylli | pulchra, monet. 
Ad hanc fpeciem pertinere dicuntur iambici dimetri cataledici, 

Eftne in domkllio aliquis ? 



Hal biddiari anfo. 
Lymphae cadunt loquaces. 

qui etiam pro bacchio moloflum recipiunt, 

. . -|- - - 
Fontes ftrepunt | manantes. 

Species undecima etiam eft 'Aa-tWprijTo?, & continet numeros iambicos 
inter trochaicos ; id eft, epitritos tertios inter fecundos, 

Ver novum, ver | jam floridum eft, | jam canorum : 
Vere concor | dant alites, | vere nubunt. 

recipit tamen in tertia & fexta fede amphimacrum, 



Ver canorum, | ver floridum eft, | ver novum, 
Vere carmen | la?tum canunt | alites. 

vel in fexta tantummodo, ut verfus fit cataleticus, 



Ver novum, ver | jam floridum eft, | jam canorum, 
Vere carmen | Isetum canunt | alites. 

Admittit nonnunquam in fecunda & quinta fede diiambum, in reliqiris 
ionicum minorem 

Miferorum eft | neque impigro | pede terram 
Quatere, aut lu ) dum amoribus j dare blandis. 

vel pro fecundis epitritis dichoreos habet, & pro tertiis ionicos a majori, 

.u_ul--u V u u 

It puer co | mes virgini | bus, paratque 
Spicula infci J is pedlori [ bus cruenta. 

Interdum hi pedes varie inter fe mifcentur, ut 

I - 


uu.u|-.o .luu-u 
. u - - I u _ u " I - o - - 


Amarylli, J dulci lyra | modulare 
Molle carmen ] fub arbore | fufa facra. 

ubi quintus pes pseon fecundus eft ; & 

o - O O | - O - - 
O U - - - O - 

Molle carmen | fub arbore | fufa facra 
Modulare, | dum fylvulse | refpondent. 

Nonnunquam in tertio & fexto loco recipitur anapseftus, 

_u--o.u-u u - 

Jam puella: | per hortulum, & j pueri 
Lufitantes, | breves legunt j violas. 

vel in fexto tantum, 

- U . . I _ . U - 1 - U 


Ver novum, ver | jam floridum eft, | jam canorum 
Vere cantu | dulci nemus | refonat. 

Verfus quaternarii funt vel acataledtici, 

Ver novum, ver | jam floridum eft, | vere amores | fpirant leves. 
vel cataledVici, id eft, in ultima fede bacchium admittunt, 


Ver novum, ver | jam floridum eft, | vere ludunt | amores. 

Species duodecima eft antifpaftica, & conftat ex antifpafto, fequente 
fecundo epitrito, 

Merum fuave | jam bibamus, | melos dulce | jam canamus. 
fed in primo loco admittitur vel creticus, 

. U - | - u - - J J - - ^ | - U - - 

Ad lyram | jam canamus, | merum dulce | jam bibamus. 
vel antibacchius, 


Per prata J lufitantes j rofas fulgi j das legamus. 



Ad hanc fpeciem pertinere dicuntur iambici & trochaic! puri a 

u - o - I - o - ulu-u-l-u-u 

I I I 

Mihi placet j jam per omne | nemus canens [ lufitare. 
ut in illo exemplo, 

Vidi autem homines, at neminem Zeido fimilem vidi. 
Wacad arai | torrijala | fama ari | mithla Zeidin. 
In hac fpecie verfua tantum funt quaternariL 

Species decimatertia partim trochaica eft, partim choriambica, ut 

. u - o - o u--u-o|-u o - 

Audienda | virginibus | blanda carmina | et pueris. 
In prima fede admittitur antifpaftus,. 

U..UI-U U-l-U-UlO (J - 

Canam fuavi [ ter pueris [ mollibufque j virginibus. 
Species decimaquarta tertium habet epkritum, fecundo fequente, 

Ver dulce, ver [ jam canorum eft, [ Iseti alites | vere nubunt. 

In ultima fede admittit moloflum. 

Ver dulce, ver | jam canorum eft, | & fylvulse J refpondent. 
Item in locis imparibus diiambum recipit, in paribus icuiicum minorem, 


Placet color [ violarurn, at | fuperbius | rofa fulget. 
Interdum in fedibus aequalibus ionicum majorem habet, 

u.U-u-.U u . U . . 

Tanquam breve [ lilium ve | nuftas tua j mox peribit. 
vel lecundum pseona, 

o-o u|-o--|u-o-|'-o-- 

Monet rofa, | quam caducus [ nitor tui | fit coloris. 
Ob frequentem pedis ionici ufum, placet hanc fpeciem ionicam vocare. 



Species decimaquinta eft bacchiaca, & vel tetrametros habet verfus, qui 
conftant ex octo bacchiis, vel trimetros, qui fex. Hi verfus apud Latinos 
in prima fede moloflum recipere poflunt, in reliquis, pseona, ut in En- 
niana fabula perfonatus Thyeftes, 

Nolite, hof | piles, ad j me adire il J lico iftic. 

apud Afiaticos verb funt vel tetrametri acataleHci, 

Puellas | amo de | licatas, | venuftas, 
Capillos | odoris j revinctas J corollis. 

vel catale&ici, 

Puellas | amo de | licatas, | venuftas, 
Capillos j odoris j revin&as | rofis. 

vel brachycatalectici, 

Puellas | amo de | licatas, | venuftas, 

Capillos | odoris j rofis cine | tas. 

Interdum recipiunt etiam in unaquaque fede, printer ultimam, amphi- 

u . 
u . 

Bibamus, | amice, [ canamus, | ameinus, 
Amoeni | us eft quid | amore [ beato ? 

& nonnunquam fpondeum in prima fede, 

Quis non | puellas | amat de j licatas 
Capillos J- odoris j. revin<5his J corollis ? 

interdum etiam in prima rrochasum, in quarta iambum, 

-u ju--jo--|u- 
o - -|o--|u--|o- - 

Ipfe j pviellas | venuftas j amo 
Capillos | odoris | revinilas j coronis. 



Verfus trimetri in tertio loco & in fexto, iambum habent, 

U . -I u . -I O . 

Puellas J venuftas | amo 
Capillos | revinctas | rofis. 

vel in tertio iambum, in fexto fyllabam longam, 

o - - 1 o -I o 
o - - I u - - I - 

Puellas I amo fplen I didas 
i r i 

Capillos I rofis cine I tas. 
r i i 

Species ultima eft cretica: tetrammetri autem puri funt, & ex odo 


conftant amphimacris, 

Quid petam | praefidi, aut | exequar ? | quove nunc 
Applicem ? | quo rece | dam ? arce & ur | be orba fum. 

Vet. Poet, apud Cic. 
Trimetri vel puri funt, ut 

-O- I - u - I - u - 

Quid petam j prasfidi, aut | exequar ? 
Quo rece | dam ? arce & ur J be orba fum. 

vel in tertio & fexto loco minorem ionicum recipiunt, ut 

Quid petam | praefidi ? | miferam me ! 
Nee mini | gaudium, [ neque fpes eft. 

Nonnunquam fmguli pedes, excepto primo, in anapseftos mutantur, ut 
fit verfus prope anapasfticus, ut 

o-1u o-|u o-ju o- 
o o-|u u - I o o, - I u u- 

Hinnulo | fimilis | fugis, O | Glycere, 
Tenero, | pavido, | gracili, j querulo. . . 

VOL, II. 3 D Ad 


Ad hanc fpeciem pertinent verfus fpondaici, anapaefticis tempore aequales; 
cujufmodi eft ille ab All, Mohammedis genero, "f compoiitus, 


UbA^jXAwJ* UutgA>jJ* UJ-C Oo Ly'cXj ! ^jl 
In neddunya | kad gharratna | waftahwatna | waftalhatna. 
hoc eft fere ad verbum, 

Vitas fplendor | nos decepit, | nos obledtat, | nos delenit. 

De Afiaticorum re metrica vereor ne nimis loquaciter (cum brevilo- 
quens efle inftituiflem) difleruifle videar ; fed me a propofito abduxit ar- 
gumenti varietas & copia. Exempla Arabica aut Perfica fubjungere 
nolui, ne potius eruditionem plus aequo curiofam oftentare, quam leto~ 
ris aut dele&ationi aut utilitati confulere, viderer. 

Eft autem ars metrica apud Arabes antiquiflima : tametfl enim prin- 
ceps de ea libellum contexuit Ferahidius^ feculo poft fugam Mohamme- 
dis fecundo, tamen ante Mohammedem natum, & fortafle a prima gentis 
engine, poetas Arabia tulerat innumerabiles. 

Atque in hoc loco de Hebrcei carminis natura non alienum erit paucis 
diflerere ; fiquidem ea eft linguas Hebraese cum Arabica cognatio, ea 
poefeos utriufque gentis cum in imaginibus, turn in figuris, fimilitudo j 
ut nequeam mihi perfuadere, quin metra etiam Hebraea fuerint Arabicis 
perfimilia, nifi quod Arabum verficuli fimiliter defmant, veterum He- 
braeorum, non item ; & hi quidem in eodem poemate diverfis carmi- 
num generibus uli fuifle videantur, quod Pindarum ca2terofque Lyricos 
fecifle perfpicuum eft. Itaque analogia dudlus quafdam poefeos Hebraeae 
regulas defcribere conabor, non eas quidem ut certas, fed ut probabiles 
tantum proponens ; neque enim fum nefcius plena efle errorum omnia, 
& in profundo demerfam latere Veritatem. Puto igitur eas fyllabas, 
quae aut confonante, aut vocali, N, % 1 quiefcente terminantur, ut "?l bal, 
C" 1 hi, longas efle, quae fecus, ut 3 be y breves ; fed in iis vocibus quae 

\ Vid. Clcrici Profod. Arab. pag. 148. 



vocalibus carent, tenendas autumo vocales Arabicas. Et quoniam Arabes 

dicunt /kwJu nafsi, anima mea y eodem modo vocem Hebrajorum 

nafsi efFerre non abfurdum videtur ; utrum vero Hebraei nafson pro nafs 
dixerint, ut in verfibus metiendis Arabes, id certe neminem unquam 
fciturum arbitror. 

Statuam itaque hos effe pedes Hebraeos, 

Spondaeum, W33 nafsi. 

lambum, pnx sadlk. 

Trochasum, 7 

r .. , . > n'QD'O coiica him. 

pnmze fyllabae vocis, 3 

Pyrrichium, 7 

. ' .. . \ nrvw safa I rat. 

pnmas iyllabas vocis, J 

Anapaeftum, /imty earabat. 

Bacchium, nwii deruam. 

Amphimacrum, D^IDO coucabim. 

Moloflum, Drrssrr bafztbem. 

Ex quibus paeonas, epitritos, & reliquos, ut vocantur, nutneros^ facilli- 
mum erit componere. Equidem fatis accurate obfervavi Jobi poematis 
caput o&avum & vicefimum, Solomonis carmen, unum atque alterum 
Pfalmum, Jeremice QzrivuNotv, Mq/is & Deborcz carmina, & Davidis in 
obitum Sauli & Jonathan! elegiam, (in qua bacchius prope fingula di- 
fticha claudere videtur,) & in iis omnibus perfpicuam vidi cum metris 
Arabics afEnitatem. Age, legat quivis plures verfus Arabicos, 



# cXxLfl ^ Coo 

& deinceps totidem Hebrxos f . 

f Job iv. 10, u. 


brr& bipi nnt* 

: lyru nn-' 

, , 

epa TOD TIN F 

: msjv 

iummani inter eorum numeros ac modulationem perfpiciet fimilitudt- 

Sic elegantis hujus diftichi, 

rroa mwi ON rrnrw 

Fufcafum, at formofa, Solymitides, ' 
Tanquam tentoria Kedari, tanquam aulaa Solomonis. 
primum verficulum ad fpeciem fecundam pertinere arbitror, ut 


Sehureh a | ni vana | uhbenut ye | rufalem. 
fecundum verb ad quintamdecimam, feu bacchiacam, ut 

o - - I o.o I o-- I oo- 

Caahli | kedarca [ yeriut | Solomeh. 

hi enim verfus in ultima fede (ut ditum eft) recipiunt anapaeftum. 
Quod attinet ad Pfalmum undecimum & centelimum, quern jam expo- 
fuerunt duo eruditiffimi viri, f alter ferio & fatis infeliciter, \ alter 
facete & eiguvntus equidem eundem infpexi, & nullus dubito, quin fin~ 
guli verficuli ad unam vel alteram harum fedecim fpecierum referri fa~ 
cillime poffint. Sic verfus odtavus, 

Semukim j lead j Ie5lam 

asulm | beamat | vaylser. 

purus eft bacchiacus, excepto, in fecunda fede, iambo, qui pes, ut fupra 
dixi, in hac fpecie locum habet. Sed huic quaeftioni, fine infinite labore, 

f Vide Harii Pfalmos. 

J Vide Metrica Harianse Confutationem Praeleft. de Sacra Poefj fubjeftam. 

& fum- 


& fummo otio, quod mihi minime fuppetit, fatisfacere non potero : 
fufficiet fontem aperuifle, & novam rei metricae Hebraeorum inveftigan- 
dx viam quafi digito monftrafle. 

Nee vero affirmare audeo (quo nihil arrogantius) Hebrasi carminis 
naturam, quae caeteros latuit, mihi foli innotefcere. Quid enim, poft 
inutiles tot docliflimorum hominum conatus, efFecturum me confidam ? 
aut cur me pervenire pofle fperem ad illud littus, ubi tot fcriptores ad- 
mirabiles naufragium pafli funt ? Id folum innuere volui, cum linguae 
Hebrasa atque Arabica forores germanas fint, veriiimillimum efle eas, fi 
quando iis poetice loqui contigerit, iifdem numeris ac pedibus, & iifdem 
fere metrorum generibus ufas fuifle. Ac fi cui verfus ifti antifpaftici, 
paeonici, aliique, folutae orationi fimiliores efle videantur, is in mentem 
revocet, iifdem- metris ufos efle poetas eos, qui Au^xo* a Graecis appellan- 
tur, & " quos, ut'ih Oratore ait M. Tullius, cum cantu fpoliaveris, 
" nuda pcene remahet oratio." Quod fi quis hujuimodi verficulos 
neget efle poeticos, eidem non videbitur Pindarus aut Bacchylides poeta. 

His pofitis, fine quibus ea, quae fequuntur, intelligi nullo modo po- 
terunt, ad amoeniora tandem poefeos Afiaticas fpatia veniamus. 





De Idyllio Arabico. 

JTERANTIQUUM & prsecipue Arabibus excultum poematls genus 
eft, quod sOuuoj kasida vocatur. Quod ad kasidce formam attinet, primi 
verficuli fimiliter defmunt, & delude per totum poema verfus pares funi- 
libus fonis terminantur : debet autem poema modicae efle magnitudinis ; 
raro enim aut plura quam. centum difticha completitur, aut pauciora 
quam viginti : funt tamen nonnulla quae feptem tantum continent, velut 
f Ulud de laudibus collegii cujufdam, cui praefuit vir eximie dodus, Abu 



jl* CXxJ' J ^J 



f Shecardan, cap. v. 


A*Uj ic 


* ^UJ! 

3 <J 

" Ei autem (collegia} ob hunc (virum) tanta eft prse caeteris excellentia, 
" quanta inter ramos enitefcit prseftantia myrobalani. 

" Succrefcere facit Deus in fancto ejus receflu florem, qui auri puri 
" monilia obfcura reddit. 

'* Tanquam eflet (Perfarum rex) Cofri Anujhirvan, cui in palatio corona 
" imponitur. 

" Nifi ita ftaret, efletque praefes ejus Abu Hantfa, non effet cum ane- 
" monis (ob eximiam pulchritudinem) comparatum. 

" Felicitur JEgyptum circumdat mare doctrinarum ejus, ade6 ut populus 
" diluvio inundetur. 

" Fleditur in illud ( 'collegium) dodrina, eft autem tanquam habena ejus, 
" & Abu Hanifa, facerdos nofter, earn fledit. 

" In difputationibus autem fmguli curfus ad veritatem inveftigandam, & 
*' pernofcendam fcientiam referuntur." 

Hoc tamen ftatui poteft : ea carmina quae ex paucioribus quam viginti 
conftant diftichis, fl amores, lufus, ac delicias continent, efle inter Odas 
recenfenda, at fi laudationem, fi vituperium, fi praecepta moralia, fi quid 
heroicum, fi quid tandem funebre & luduofum complecl:untur, ad horum 
poematum, feu kafidarum claflem, referri pofle. Atque hsec poematis 



fpecies elegiaj noftrse nee undequaque convenit, nee eft tamen prorfua 
diffimilis. Hoc autem inter earn & elegiam maxime videtur interefle, 
quod hsec in amore aut triftitia plerumque verfetur, ilia verb intra nullius 
argument! limites reftringatur, fed vel praecepta, vel querimoniam, vel 
laudationem, vel delicias ac lufus, vel vituperationem poffit complecti. 
Sed mos erat perpetuus antiquis Arabum poetis, aut ab amoribus poema 
ordiri, aut amorum defcriptionem medio poemati apte intexere ; deinde 
equum aut camelum defcribere, quo vecti ad amicarum tentoria acce- 
derent ; & poftea ad argumentum prsecipuum uberius tradtandum pro- 
perare, donee per fuavem rerum varietatem carmen deducentes, lapfu 
quodam molli & squabili, in claufulam quafi fubito caderent. 
autem mihi attente confideranti, videtur hoc poematis genus 
Graecorum mirifice congruere. Sic Abil Olce nobiliflimum illud poema 
in laudem principis Sa'id, Theocriti 'E/xw^t/w tl? Hro\^a,~ov convenit ; nifi 
fit potius ob audaciffimas figuras & crebras a propofito declinationes, cum 
Pindari odis conferendum. Tograi porro carmen in primis politum atque 
elegans, ad Idyllii, quod Xag ire$ infcribitur, naturam videtur accedere ; 
nam ut in hoc vituperatur Hieronis atque aliorum avaritia, fie in illo, 
amicorum perfidia ac fortunae temeritas reprehenditur. Itaque inter Idyl- 
lia recenfeo venuftiflimum illud carmen Caab Ben Zobeir, & illud, quod 
Eordah appellatur, & cui amores, ut aflblet, intexuntur : velut in illis 
molliffimis verfibus, 


i, Lc tXju Us*. 

" Putatne 


" Putatne amator, amorem celatum iri, 

" Qui pardm efFufis lachrymis, partim cordis ardore detegitur ? 

" Nifi amares, non lacrymafles ob ruinofa domicilia, 

" Neque ob myrobalani & collis recordationem infomnis efles. 

" Qui itaque amare te neges, fiquidern teftes funt 

" In te veri, pallor ac lachrymarum effufiof?" 

Sed longe omnium celeberrima in hoc genere poemata ea funt feptem 
Idyllia, qux, ob eximiam elegantiam, in templo Meccano fufpenfa fuifle 
memoriae proditum eft. Atqui de iis prolixe diflerere, non eft necef- 
farium : hujus enim linguce cultoribus tarn nota funt, quam Grsecarum 
literarum ftudiofis Pleias ilia .ffigyptialj:. Praeterea de illis ita fuse, ita 
erudite difleruit Reifkius nihil ut dici melius poffit : quamvis majorem 
effet laudem confecutus, fi modum tenere potuiflet ; nimis enim ob varias 
eruditionis copiam efFunditur ac redundat. 


Septem his Idylliis difpari in genere laus prope fimilis tribuitur. Am- 
ralkeifi poema molle eft, tatum, fplendidum, elegans, varium, venuftum : 
Tarafce audax, incitatum, exultans, quadam tamen hilaritate .perfper- 
fum : Zoheiri acutum, feverum, caftum ; przceptis moralibus, ac fenten- 
tiis plenum graviflimis : Lebidi leve, amatorium, nitidum, delicatum, & 
fecundse Virgilii eclogae non diffimile ; queritur enim de amicse faftu ac 
fuperbia ; divitias etiam fuas, ut Virgilianus ille Corydon, enumerat, fuas 
denique virtutes, fuaeque tribvis gloriam in ccelum efFert : Antarce porro 
carmen elatum eft, minax, vibrans, magnificum, cum quadam etiam de- 
fcriptionem atque imaginum pulchritudine : Amrl vehemens, excelfum, 
& gloriofum ; Harethi denique pleniflimum fap5enti, acuminis, digni- 
tatis. Sunt autem Amri atque Harethi poetic^e quodammodo orationes, 
inter fe, ut ^Ifchinis illx ac Demofthenis, contrarias : habitse funt enim 

f- Vide Poema hoc Lugdunl eclitum, & a viro eruJito Jo. Uri quam accuratiffime verfum. 
J Lycophron, Homerus Junior, Nicander, Philicus Theocritusj Aratus, Apollonius, 

VOL. II. 3 E in 


in quodam Arabum conventu ad foedus inter duas tribus faciendum con- 
gregato. Suam autem Hareth Ben He/za vehementiffimo animi im- 
petu, arcui fuo, more Afiatico, innixus, effudifle ex tempore dicitur. De 
fingulis horum poematum elegantiis commodior erit aliquando differendi 
locus : nunc de primo folum, Amralkeiji fcilicet, loquar. 

Eft igitur hujus poematis didtio beta, picta, florida, animata, & ad 
fuavitatem ac delicias unice comparata : imaginibus abundat ita fplen- 
didis, comparationibus ita variis ac delicatis, ita tandem leftis & exquifitis 
coloribus verborum, & nitidis figurarum luminibus, ut divinum illud Sa- 
lomonis carmen prope sequare videatur. Operae pretium erit pulcher- 
rimj hujus Idyllii argumentum exponere, & deinde prsecipuas imaginum 
& comparationum venuftates delibare. 

Deflet initio amicarum difceflum, duos fodales allocutus, quos fecum 
affert, ad deferta manfionum veftigia intUenda. Haec infpiciens, lacry- 
mat, queritur, defperat. Socii eum folari cupiunt : at folatium repellit. 
Illi vero haud minus dura eum antea paflum efle affirmant : Sed enim 
tune, inquit, cum difcederent arnica mea^ & fuaviffimus odor ab Us afflatus 

" Effundebantur ob defiderium ex oculis meis lachrymas ufque eo, ut 
** in gremium defluentes balteum meum madefacerent." Reipondent ; 
Verum hanc mcejlitiam lenire debet prateritee bilaritatis recordatio, fape 
enim cum iilis jucunde vixijli. Hac confolatione aliquantulum levatus 
poeta, hilariores quofdam dies commemorat ; delicias quafdam defcribit, 
& amatoria fua colloquia cum formofiflimis puellis Oneiza & Fathima, 
mira jucunditate, recitat. Gloriatur fe virginem pulcherrimam amavifle, 
& per medias.haftas ac media pericula, ad earn ufque adeo perrexifle, 
donee optato fueretur laboris frudu. Amorem deinde collaudat, cujus 



reprehenfores irridet. Poftea feipfum ob fortitudinem laudat & conftan- 
tiam, qua per valles incultas ac tenebrofas noctu incedit. Turn equum 
nobiliflime pingit ; venationem defcribit, & poft earn, epulas ; ac tandem 
cum eximia imbris defcriptione, poema claudit. Ad fummam, hoc Idyl- 
Hum (quod ad minorem illam poefeos dramaticae fpeciem pertinet) deliciis 
ac fuavitatibus abundat, & cum venuftiffimis Europseorum poetarum eclo- 
gis poteft comparari. Quam larta & vivida hsec eft fimilitudc ! 


Cum duas puellz aflurgerent, afflatus eft ab illis odor, 
" Tanquam zephyrus auram f floris Indici perferens." 

qua comparatione creberrime utuntur poetae Perfici ; ut Hafiz, 

" Aura matutina ambari hodie odorcm habct, 
" Forfan, puella mea in prato incedit." 

& alibi fepius. Similiter J alius, amicam accedentem defcribens, ait 


" Suavifne aura ex hortulo proveniens fpirat ? 
" An mofcho onufta caterva ex via- Kboteni redit I 

Alias proferamus comparationes non minus venuftas : 

UyUI U 1 


Cum in coelo fplenderent Pleiades, 

Tanquam extrema pars chlamydis margaritas ornatae." 

f Anglice clave gillyflwutT, * Vide Herbelotum in voce Kktfen, pag. 999. 



Comparatur sether coeruleus cum puellas vefte, Pleiades vero cum gemmis 
fuper earn fparfis. Pulchre eafdem comparat Mohammed Ben Abdalla el 
Catib cum gemma Turchefa margaritis diftin&a, 

S Uixla 

" Similes funt (Pleiades) vafi e gemma ccerulea fafto, 
" Super quod fparguntur feptem margaritae." 

" Gracilis puella, fplendida, non amplum habens corpus, 
" Cujus pectus politum eft tanquam fpeculum." 

Poteft etiam reddi tanquam f argentum liquidwn* 


" Se avertit, ac detexit molles genas, circumfpiciens, 
" Tenero afpeftu velut timida hinnulorum mater." 

Confert languidos puellas oculos, amoris pleniffimos, cum cervae tener- 
rimo afpeftu. 

" Collum ejus, ficut collum capreolse non invenuftum, 
" Cum illud erigat, nee monilibus carens." 

Quicunque / ^xloJf pulcherrimum animal afpexerit, hujus compara- 
tionis elegantiani & fuavitatem perfpiciet. 

f Vide Kamus in voce 



" Crines, qui tergum ornant, nigri, imp nigerrimi, 
" Denfi, tanquam racemi palmse copiofi." 

Eandem fimilitudinem innuere videtur Salomo, licet capillos haud no- 
minet : 

b nn nsan 

" Racemus uvarum diledus meus mihi, 

" In hortis Eingedi." 

Certe Grasci cincinnos plexos & nigros cum uvarum racemis creberrime 

" Medium ejus corpus funiculo tenui fimile, 

" Cms autem palmae aqua rigatae remiflb furculo. 



" Caliginem noclis illuminat, velut 

" Lampas viri folitarii, verfpertini, abditi." 


" Similis eft (facies ejus) margaritae partim Candida?, partim flava;, 
" Quam nutrivit dulcis aqua, non turbata viatoribus." 
Pulchrior eft nimirum color margarita3, quas non fit puri candoris. 


Poflunt hasc atque alia hujus ppematis loca cum Salomonis f delicatis 

t ' 

f Cap. iv. & v. 9 16. 



illis ac venuftis defcriptionibus comparari ; cujus fan&ifllmum carmen 
inter Idyllia Hebraea recenfendum puto. 

Inter poetas recentiores facile omnibus praeftat Ebno'l Faredh^ cujus 
elegans volumen in Academiae bibliotheca vidimus : unam hujufce fcrip- 
toris elegiam, quae imagines Arabum campeftrium luculente demonftret, 
libet huic capiti fubjungere. 

j v^ 9- 

J' C^J A=-J U^ ^**L)\ ,-' 
LdxJI c^Ju (-yLwj ^-t^o LoxJI^U! 


r 1 c 



AJ 16 U A^ 




-etc t-oui UtXsu -clc 






JK^l>M i_A/JUj ^- 'LAw^o /jjvuJiU* 

Hoc eft fere ad verbum, 

" Fulgurne apparet ex latere vallis rutilans ? an amoventur e facie Leilie 
" puellce vela ? 

" Ignifne inter arbores diclas Gadha fplendet, dum Solima in loco his 

" arboribus cbnfito commoratur ? an renident, fupra quam dici poteft, 
" illius oculi ? 

" Odorne her bee Khozami fpirat? an Hageri fragrantia ex matre urbium, 

" Mecca ? an dulcis halitus Azzae puellee difpergitur ? 

" Hui ! utinam fcirem num habitet Soleima in valle inaccefsa, ubi ama- 

" tor defperans luget. 

" Cupio autemfcire, num fonet adhuc tonitru plena, nubes pluviofa in 
" Lalao monte, &, num irriget eum effufio pluviae manantis : 

" Num hauriam aniplius aquam Azibi & Hageri, aperte dum arcanum 

" nodis ab Aurora detegitur : 



" Num 'planities arenofa virides habeat colles ; & num vita, quae in ea 
" tranfadla eft, fit aliquando tandem reditura : 

" Num in collibus Najdi & Taudhi fit qui narret, O dulcis amicule, de 
" eo ardore quern peftora fua contegunt : 

" Num in arenae cumulo mantis Salai, roget quifpiam de amatore per- 
" dito in Cadhemd, dicens, Ecquid eft in eo quod amor efficiat ? 

" Nuin 


" Num ramuli myrtei decutiant flores fuos, & num ar bores Salamae in 
" regions Hegiaz maturefcant : 

" Num myricse vallis florefcant, & num adverfse.fortunae oculi procul ab 
" illis dormiant : 

" Num. puellse demiffis oculis, iifque amplis, in loco Alija, fidem fervent, 
an negfigant : 


" Num hinnuli Rakimatein duorum hortulorum procul a nobis commo- 
" rentur in iis, an fit qui eos prohibeat : 

" Num virgines in vallicula monftraturae fint mihi vernas Noamse puellce 
" fedes ; O fedes dulciffimas ! 

" Num loti fylveftris umbra, quas lotus orienti foli exponitur in Dbarijd, 
" fpifla adhuc maneat ; certe illam arborem oculi mei lacrymis irriga- 
" bant: 

" Num colitur, nobis abfentibus, vallis Ameri, & num vallis ifla ama- 
" toribus congrediendi locus unquam futura fit : 

" Num templum Meccanum, O mater Malikaj, petivermt Arabes ado- 
" lefcentuli, quibus omnibus ob benefacta gratia: a me habenda: funt : 

" Num coetus equitum Chaldjcorum defcenderint in monte Arafat reli- 
" gionis ergo; & num apud tentoria patefactae fint leges Moham- 
" medis: 

" Num faliant in anguftiis Mecca & Arafez^ camelae juvenca2, & quati- 
" antur inter eas albae dorforum turriculas : 

VOL. ir. 3 r " Num 


" Num falutet Solima lapidem apud quern foedus noftrum- fuerat, & 
" premat eum digitis : 

" Forfan amiculi mei in Mecca extinguent, recordatione Soleimas, ignem 
" quern eorum celant pectora : 

" Spero autem nodes, quas tranfegimus, redituras nobis aliquando, ut 
" exultet perdite amans, 

" Et gaudeat triftitia oppreflus, & vivat amore percitus, & focietatem 
" petat defiderio flagrans, & delectetur quicunque hasc audiet." 

Hoc poema verfibus elegiacis reddere conati fumus, vel potius imitari, 
aliis fententiis paullulum mutatis, aliis omnino reje&is, ita tamen ut ele- 
gize Arabics fprma atque argumentum fatis accurate ferventur. 

Fulgur an e denfa vibratum nube corufcat ? 

An rofeas nudat Leila pudica genas ? 
Bacciferumne celer fruticetum devorat ignis ? 

Siderea an Solimce lumina dulce micant ? 
Nardus an Hageri, an fpirant violaria Meccce, 

Suavis odoriferis an venit Azza comis ? 
Quam juvat ah ! patrios memori tenuifle receflus 

Mente, per ignotos dum vagor exul agros ! 
Valle fub umbrofa, pallens ubi luget amator, 

Num colit afluetos mollis arnica lares ? 
Jamne cient raucum prxfradta tonitrua murmur 

Montibus, effufse quos rigat imber aquse ? 
An tua, dum fundit primum lux alma ruborem, 

Lympha, Azibe, meam pellet, ut ante, fitim ? 
Quot mea felices vidiftis gaudia, campi, 

Gaudia vas ! mifero non renovanda mihi ? 



Ecquis apud Nagedi lucos aut pafcua Tudce 

Paftor amatorum fpefque metufque canet ? 
Ecquis ait, gelida Sales dum valle recumbit, 

Heu ! quid Cademeo in monte fodalis agit ? 
Num graciles rident hyemalia frigora myrti ? 

Num viret in folitis lotos amata locis ? 
Num vernant humiles in aprico colle myricas ? 

Ne malus has oculus, ne mala Isedat hyems ! 
An mea Aleglades, dulcifiima turba, puellae 

Curant, an zephyris irrita vota dabunt ? 
An viridem faliunt, nullo venante, per hortum 

Hinnuleique citi, capreolique leves ? 
Vifamne umbriferos, loca dile&iflima, faltus, 

Ducit ubi facilem Iseta Noama chorum ? 
Num Daregi ripas patula tegit arbutus umbrS, 

Ah ! quoties lacrymis humida fata meis ? 
Grata quis antra colit, nobis abfentibus, Amri, 

Antra puellarum quam bene nota gregi ? 
Forfan amatores Meccand in valle redudtos 

Abfentis Solimcz commeminifle juvat. 
Tempus erit, levibus quo pervigilata cachinnis 

Nox dabit unanimi gaudia plena choro j 
Quo dulces juvenum fpirabit coetus amores, 

Et ketos avida combibet aure modos. 





De Carmine Perfico, 

poematis fpecies qua utuntur Afiatici, & ex iis prascipue 
Perfae, JpUl feu carmen amatorium, vo'catur. Hujus autem carminis 
leges infigniores funt, ut fit breve, ut varium, ut venuftum : breve, nam 
pluribus quam feptendecim diftichis conftare nequit, & feptem tantum 
aut oto plerumque complecYitur ; varium, utpote cujus finguli verfus 
fmgulos habeant fenfus, qui vix ullo inter fe nexu cohsereant ; venuftum, 
quia imaginibus laetis ac floridis abundat, quas poene neceflario fubfequi- 
tur verborum pulchritudo ac nitor. 'Duo porro primi uniufcujufque 
Odae verficuli fimiliter defmant oportet, idemque fonus per totum car- 
men in verficulorum parium fine continuatur. In ultimo autem verfu, 
vel faltem in eo qui ultimum prsecedit, poeta nomen fuum artificiose & 
jucunde intexit. Quse res ut clariores reddantur, fubjiciam carmen 
venuftiflimum, a poeta admirabili Hafez fcriptum, quern in hoc opere 
fsepiffime laudabo ; 

*j^j c^-jijjtj <!u AJ ^jl 

" Amici, rofarum tempore, melius eft hilaritati curam impendere ; 
" Vox eft fenis tabernarii animae noftrffi ; ne cunclemur." 

" Nemini 

*Aji)-ij / ?V J 


" Nemini eft moeftitia ; at lietitiae tempus avolat ; 
" Illud nobis erit auxilium, ut f facrum ftragulum vino permu- 
" temus." 

u*i_x_> '<-X=*' (jicr _-j 

" Dulcis aura eft, gaudium prabens ; mitte, 6 fauftum numen, 
" Lafcivam puellam, qua praefente vinum rofeum bibamus." 

" Lyram apta : fortuna proborum hominum praedatrix eft ; 

" Siquidem ob ilium dolorem non queramur, cur non clamorem 


^^jJ ( J'j 

*' Rofa cum ftrepitu venit : annon e vino aquam illidemus ? 
" Prascipue cum igne amoris & defiderii tumultuemur." 

A/'b i-r+zsP JLs*. (jj\ laj 

<X -' 


" O Hafez, mirum eflet fi quis poflet dicere, 
" Nos lufcinias efle, & tempore rofarum filere." 

Hsec verti, ut multa ejufdem poetse ; exemplum fecutus amiciffimi & 
nobiliffimi viri Caroli Revizkii, qui Temper eft a me honorifice nominan- 
dus | : 

Jam rofa purpureum caput explicat. Adfit, amici, 
Suavis voluptatum cohors : 
Sic monxiere fenes. 

f Super quo fe profternunt Mobammetlani, cum preces fundunt. 
J Vide Specimen Ptefeas Perfcec Vindobonse editum. 



Nunc laeti fumus : at citius laeta avolat aetas. 
Quin facra permutem mero 
Stragula nedlareo ? 

Dulce gemit zephyrus. Ridentem mitte puellam, 
Quam molli in amplexu tenens 
Pocula laeta bibam. 

Tange chelyn. Sasvit fortuna ; at mitte querelas. 
Cur non canoros barbiti 
Elicimus modules ? 

En ! florum regina nitet rofa. Fundite vini, 
Quod Amoris extinguat facem, 
Ne&areos latices. 

Suave loquens Philomela vocor : Qui fiat ut umbra 
Te&us rofarum nexili 
(Veris avis) taceam ? 

Haac Ode longa explicatione non eget. Pauca tamen hie breviter 
notanda funt, ad ultimi verfus fuavitatem mtelligendam, quse f alias 
fufius exponam. Primum poetas Afiatici feipfos cum lufciniis fepiflime 
comparant ; .qua; res a poefi Graeca haud multum abhorret : fie enim, fi 
memini, Anacreon : 


i -srfos 

^>a<?. weTopott & oaov 

*A. "'"/ 

AAAOT eir uXXotv 

Deinde, refpicit poeta fabulam illam jucundiflimam, & in Afia pervaga- 
tam, de lufcinias & rofae amoribus, de qua in capite de Imaginibus ube- 
rius difleram. Dick itaque, ferine potejl qutn, cum rofce, foris dile5tljjimi t 

t Vide Caput De Jmaginilus Poeticit. 



pukhritudinem intuear, latitid me efferam, Gf in dulcem modulationem 
erumpam? Qua2 imago quam hilaris eft, quam vivida! & ut clarius 
oftendam, quantum jucunditatis poefi Perficae afferant ab hac fabella de- 
promptag imagines; aliud ejufdem poets carmen exponam, breve illud 
quidena, fed, ut ait poeta, 

& quod pulcherrimum Gazelce erit exemplum. 


** Puer, afFer vinum : venit enim tempus rofarum j 
'* Ut pietatis vota iterum inter rofas violemus." 

" Hilares, ftrepentes, in hortum eamus, 

" Tanquam lufcinia in rofeum nidum defcendamus." 

** In horti receflu vini cyathum ebibe, 
** Nam la?titi figna juflu rofae veniunt. 



Rofa in hortum venit ; ne fis e digreflus metu omnino vacuus 
Sodalem, & vinum pete, & palatium rofeti." 

" Hafez, rofarum adventum peds, tanquam lufcinia. 

*' Anima tua pulverem vise redimat, qua rofeti cuftos incedit. 



Hanc Odam, varietatis caufa, Graece imitari fum conatus, veffibus dady- 
licis Theocriteis : 

'Eyx/pva, <>t\e -arai", yXvxuv cH-op K^e^eca;, 

'Ev foStif KUTUKe'iir , 'ctrot JE %$EJ U7TE 
Xctftepov Z<j5upci? 

*Apa f^et^iouvTes, eraTfe, xoptvtropsv, 
*ilj S" dydovts lo[*.evati l-rn Sevfytu 


if KoiTrov, (j5*Xe xvpe, Gaoit^e GatSviriciov, 
Tlctl'ox o eupct-jtzpifyu jM.eX/<ppcvu affffeX 

ev (f)ia\ui<riv a 
Tapif/<? ya^ rAuxor?;? TS 
'Opa?, wV ^O^EOV TTsraXov Zei^upw yfiXa. 
Avftov Se ra.% io~cixi$ KX a.iroXdfji^&Teu. 
Nuv & vXTpj Sorpuwv gatvflas T/e, 

s<(ro o c 

spun poouv ct 

ap', w <>/Xov ?rop, 


Haftenus de Oda2 Afiaticae forma & ftrudura. Sequitur ut de argu- 
mento ejus difleram. Nam de numeris in fecundo capite fatis, ut arbi- 
tror, didtum eft. Comple&itur autem hsc carminis fpecies vel vini ac 
deliciarum, vel TUV ipuriKuv, vel humans pulchritudinis, vel amcenitatum. 
ac rerum naturalium fuavem & floridam defcriptionem. 

Perfpicuum eft adeo. Odam ex jucundiflimis animl affedibus originem 
duxifle, Araore ac Lastitia. Ac de amatorio quidem carmine, alias ple- 



musf. Nunc vero de eo difleram, quod ab hilaritate & gaudio profec- 
tum efle initib videtur. Amat igitur imagines a naturae amoenitatibus 
derivatas ; quae omnium funt dulciffimaj, & cum omni poefi, turn praeci- 
pue Afiaticse incredibilem afferunt venuftatem, Ntmpe in Perfarum 
atque Arabum carminibus ubique defcribuntur verni temporis fuavitates, 
atque oblectamenta ; horti floribus pulcherrimis ornati, rods, parciflis, 
hyacinthis, violis : prata herbis veftita viridiflimis ; fontes gelidi, amnes 
perlucidi, pomaria fru&uum omnium varietate diftincta ; adde hue, 
avium delicatiflimas modulationes, & a mofchiferis hinnuleis afflatos 
.odores ; casteraque omnia, quas fenfus non delectant folum, fed etiam 
infatiabili voluptate perfundunt. Poflumus itaque hanc poematis fpe- 
ciem legitimam Naturae progeniem vocare : nam fi eflet, qui in fpelunca 
obfcura Temper habitaviflet, nee unquam afpexiffet vel divinam ccerulei 
tBtheris pulchritudinem, vel naturalium rerum fplendidifllmos ornatus ; 
deinde in Arabiae Felicis campos repente fuilTet afportatus, non puto fieri 
pofle quin, cum flores, herbas, fruges, arbores, & reliqua qua? modo per- 
cenfui, vidiflet, coelefti quodam inftinclu inflammaretur, & in can turn fe 
effunderet laetuna, vividum, audacem, exultantem : & vel ilia caneret, 

Ver novum, ver jam canorum, vere natus orbis eft. 

Vere concordant amores, vere nubunt alitesj. 

vel (fi ilium Arabico fermone uti fingamus) hos venufti poetze verfus 

* \L 

1,-m <V 
f Vide Caput de Poefi Amatoria. J Pervigil. Veneris. Abu 

VOL. ii, so ** Contemplator 


*' Contemplator terras hortos, & afpice 

Veftigia earum rerum, quas efFecit numen divinum ; 

" Oculos argenti (narciffbsj ubique fixos & apertos, 
Cum pupillis auro liquefadto fimilibus, 

" Super calamo finaragdino, teftantes 
Neminem efle Deo parem." 

Verifimile eft enim ilium eodem tempore, quo has naturae fuavitates lau- 
daviflet, & efle Deum, & Deum harum rerum effectorem, putaturum 
fuifle ; ubi carminum facrorum, quse Grseci ufo/vs vocant, videmus origi- 
nem. Sed de his alias f: jam illuc redeo, unde digreflus fum. 

Reftat itaque ut de Odse Afiaticae diftione loquar. Ea autem non 
abefle poteft quin fit dulciflima : nam venuftarum imaginum comes eft, 
& quafi foror venufta oratio ; & haud admodum facile eft, nifi dedita 
opera, de rebus jucundis injucunde dicere. Sed quoniam de Venuftate 
feparatimj, & fufius fcribere in animo eft, plura de eodem argumento 
hie diflerere non eft neceflarium. Expromam igitur ejufdem Lyrici 
carmen in .primis elegans, & in quod mirum eft quam fplendidz, quam 
hilares, quam novae inducantur imagines ; quam exquifiti verborum co- 
lores, quam nitida figurarum lumina. 

" Ver & rofa ketitiam excitant, & feedus violare faciunt ; 
Ob hilarem rofa? vultum, radicem triftitiae e corde evelle." 

" Venit zephyrus : rofss calyx ob levitatem 

Extra fe rapitur, & veftem, quse corpus velat, lacerat. 

1 f Vide Caput de LauJatione. j Vide Caput de Vcnu]late. 


*' Viam veritatis difce ab aqua perlucida, cor meum, 
^Equitatem & libertatem a cuprefiu horti quaere." 

" A Zephyri violento fpiritu circa rofam cincinnos vide ; 
Plexam hyacinth! caefariem fuper j a/mini facie afpice." 

*' Rofas calyx, tanquam fponfa, rifu fuo amabili ornatur, 
Corda & religionem eorum quos intuitur pulchra facie ftatim fur- 

" Lufcinix amore percitz modulatio, & ftrepitus carduelis auditor, 
Ob feftum diem rofa e triftitise domicilio exit." 


v<J C 

*' Narrationem de fortunse fabulis a poculo, Hafez, percent at or, 

Dum modulator fidicen, & fenex fcientia imbutus dofte refpondit." 


Hoc carmen, ob imagines poefeos Afiaticae proprias, Latinis verfibus 
commode reddi non potuit. 

Jam vero Odse Afiaticas leges fatis dilucide (fpero certe quidem) ex- 
pofui, & lectis .exemplis illuftravi : notandum eft tamen poetas leges 
hafce interdum negligere ; aequum.eft enim illos jure uti fuo, & regulas, 



quas ipfi fcilicet invenerint, fi collibeat, praetermittere. Itaque, tametfl 
hanc Odse fpeciem maxima ex parte diftinguat fuavitas, nonnunquam 
tamen elatiorum imaginum quafi temperationem admittit : velut in illo 
Ferdufii poetae admirabilis carmine, quod, etfi amatorium fit, grande eft 
tamen, & fonorum j licet, ut verum fateamur, nimis turgidum : 

" Si una nodle poflem in tuo gremio requiefcere, 
Excelfo capite coelum ipfum ferirem," 


" Calamum in Sagittarii manu frangerem,, 
Coronam de lunae capite diriperem :" 

" A nono coelo potenter tranfirem, 
Arrogantiae pede orbem terrarum calcitrarem, 

" Quod fi illic pulchritudinem tuam haberem, 
Si illic in tuo loco ftarem," 

" (Amatoribus) auxilio deftitutis eflem mifericors, 
Cura attritis benefacerem." 

Hie porro nomen fuum in ultimo verfu, quern Regium appellant, non 
induxit } eundemque fenfum per totum carmen continual ; & quanquam 



effrenis ilia evagandi licentia poetis Lyricis non conceditur folum, fed 
etiam in iis collaudatur, atque adeo poene neceffaria eft ; in nonnullis 
tamen carminibus, difticha arctiffimo nexu colligantur ; & fenfus per ju- 
cundam rerum varietatem leniter & aequabiliter profluens in acumen 
quoddam defmit. Utraque fane fpecies fuam habet pulchritudinem ; 
fed in diverfo tamen gerrere ; nempe ilia naturam & exultantis ingenii 
impetum prae fe fert, hsec artem : ilia copiofo fluvio fimilior eft, hsec per- 
lucido rivulo, qure multiplici lapfu errans, illuc revertitur, unde deflux- 
erat ; quamobrem ilia ad poefm AJlaticam videtur efle accommodatior, 
base ad European. Tametfi Hafizi carmina longe plurima ad priorem 
illam fpeciem referenda funt, quasdam tamen inter ea fecundas formas 
pulcherrima prjebent exempla j cujufmodi illud eft, 

" Amoris lufus, adolefcentia, vinum pyropo fimile, 
Convivium, &. fodalis unanimis, & meri potio," 


" Vini minifter ore facchareo prasditus, & cantor dulciloquus, 
Amicus beneficus, & compotor bonae exiftimationis." 


" Puella amata lenitate & moribus aquas immortalitatis fimilia, 
Cordis praedatrix forma & pulchritudine plenas lunse aemula," 

" Convivii locus, cor exhilarans, tanquam paradifi palatium, & in eo 
Rofetum undequaque horto domicilii pacis fimile^" 



" Series comitum benevolorum, & artifices ingeniofi, 
Amici arcanorum cuftodes, & focii dilecti," 

j JoJ J! 

" Vinum rofeum, acre, vividum, guftu dulce, & leve, 
Pars ex rubino ornato, pars ex poculo pyropino," 


" Obtutus oculorum puellas fagacis tanquam enfis ftridtus, 
Virginum formofarum cincinni, venandi caufa tanquam laquei ap- 

.^J Ajjj 

" Diftorum fagacium fciens, facete loquens, dulci voce tanquam 

Hafiz prseditus, 
Liberalitatem docens, orbem terrarum illuminans, tanquam Hagi 

*' Hs funt deliciae, quarum focietatem fi quis non cupit, illi corrupta 

eft fuavitas, 
Et quarum jucunditatem fi quis non petit, illi negatur immortalitas." 

Hanc poematis fpeciem haud multum excoiuifle videntur Arabes ; nam 
Elegias venuftatem & elegantiam fibi quafi fuo jure vendicantes, carminis 

f Vir eximie liberalis^ quern non minus faepe laudat HafiZj quam Maecenatem Horatius. 



amatorii laudem Perfis concedunt; quos Turcae, ut folent, imitantur. 
Subjiciara tamen carmen Arabicum a poeta mihi quidem ignoto fcrip- 
tum, fed ornatum fumma numerorum dulcedine, didtionis fuavitate, ima- 
ginum fplendore, tranflationum pulchritudine : & quod cum optimis 
Perfarum Odis audeo conferre. Complectitur formofae adolefcentulae de- 










Ay: 31 1 v yf. O l kj 

jjti B_AJI|,! 

" Juro per arcum fupercilii, & per medium corpus, 
" Perque fagittas, quibus fafcinum fuum vibrat ; 
" Et per laterum ejus mollitiem, & acutum afpec"lus enfem, 
** Et frontis fplendidi albedinem, & crinium nigrorem, 
" Perque fupercilium, quod fomnum ab oculo meo abigit, 
" Et in me, feu jubet feu vetat, injufte agit. 
" Per j~ fcorpiones qui a cincinnis ejus emittuntur, 
** Et veneno imbuuntur ad necandos amatores ob ejus deceffum, 
" Perque rdfas genje ejus, & myrtum lanuginis, 
" Et rubinum ridentis (labii) & -dentlum margaritas. 
*' Et per fuavem ejus -odorem, & aquam duke labentem 
** Ab ore, cum favis & vini guttulis. (vtrba fcilicet.) 
'" Per collum Jus, cum ftaturas ejus ramulo, 
*** Et mamillas in pedlore extantes tanquam mala Punica, 
** Tergumque dum movet, leviter vacillans, 
*' Et dum quiefcit, ac per medii corporis gracilitatem, 
*' Et per fericum tactus illius, & levitatem fpiritus, 
"** Ac per omnes pulchritudinis formas, quas compledlitur, 
" Perque benevolam ejus indolem, & linguae veritatem, 
" Per bonam ejus nativitatem, & potentias altitudinem, 
" Nullum efle mofcho odorem, fi ilium olfacimus, praeter odorem 


" Et auram ab ejus halitu, halitum fuum dulcem reddere, 

*' Solem porrb nitidum illi effe inferiorem, 

" Ac lunam (fi cum ilia comparatur) abjediflimam videri." 

f Eadem fimilitudine utuntur Grseci, cum plexos puerorum capillos 2xojwi; vocant. Vid. Schal. 




De poefeos Afiatka fguris y ac di&ione. 


De Imaginibtts Poeticis. 

JUVAT de imaginibus, quibus ornatur poefis Afiatica, pauca ante di- 
cere, quam ad figuras feparatim tractandas accedam. Sequor itaque 
libentifiime in imaginum poeticarum partitione virum ilium doftiffimum, 
qui, etfi a me faepe jam laudatus eft, laudandus eft tamen faepius f. Is 
quatuor ftatuit fontes, a quibus ese depromantur imagines ; nam vel ex 
natura^ vel ex vita communi, vel ex religlone^ vel ex hiftoria defumun- 
tur ; quibus fontibus libet quintum addere, quern ille, de veriffima Va- 
tum divinorum poefi diflerens, admittere non potuit : fabulas dico po- 
ericas, a quibus cum in aliarum gentium, turn prsecipue in Per/arum 
poefi crebrae imagines, eaeque pulcherrimae, manare folent. Atque hie 
repetendum eft id, quod antea dixi (& faspe profe&o dicendum eft) 
neminem idoneum efle poematum Afiattcorum ledtorem, nifi totius Afise 
hijlortam, ut vocant, naturalem accurate fciat, nifi mo. es earum gentium 
cognofcat, nifi ritus ac difciplinas animo percipiat, nifi hiftoriarum vari- 
etates memoria teneat, nifi porro variis poetarum figmentis optime fit 
inftrucT;us. HECC, inquam, omnia qui non mente complectatur, nae ilium 
AfiaticjE poefeos iniquiflimum judicem audeo dicere. Nam apertiores 

f De Sacra Poefi Pnieleft. vi. vii. viii. & is. 

TOL. n. 3 H iolummodo 


folummodo elegantias videbit, fed reconditiores & exquifitiores venu> 
tales perfpicere nullo modo poterit, &, ut ait in Agamemnone ./Efchylus, 

"Es~an SeSogxug vtoydfiv vv 
Fingamus enim, verbi causa, Arabem quendam qui Grteco fermone fatis 
perfede fit imbutus, fed qui prorsus ignoret, qui fuerint "Jupiter ; Apollo, 
Bacchus , alii; qui Hercules, Thefeus^ Argonautce; quis apud inferos 
Cerberus, quse prata Elyjia, quis Tantalus, quis Ixion, quae csetera poe- 
tarum portenta : demus huic homini, ut alios poetas omittam, Pindari 
carmina prope divinaj apertas illas amqenitatum defcriptiones & om- 
nium gentium communes, 



!_ i. . 

rat piv xepffojev, oat a- 


S" uXXct 


percipiet ille quidem, & dele&abitur : fed pergat aliquantulum, 


at isrotTyp e%et Kpovos eVot- 
JUOP avru sroipeSpov, 
arotrig o sruvruv 'Ptu$ 

^Durae Spavov. 
u'j Tt K, Ka<5jttof Iv Touriv aAs 

T tveiK, 
f XtraTe t 
"Off"ExTop' eo-^aXs Tpo/aj 

XtraTe tireare, jtiari;p, 

rn, K.UKVOV re I&VT sro'pev. 

Olytnp. II. 




ZfCt - 

Hos profe&o verfus pro facillimis, obfcurifllmos, pro dulcibus, hiantes, 
pro graviflimis, fubinfulfos efle autumabit : atque in cseteris ejufdem 
poetae carminibus, ne milleffimam quidem elegantiarum ac venuftatum 
partem intelliget. Similiter eum (ut ab imaginibus a rebus naturalibus 
depromtis ordiar) qui ad poema vel Arabicum vel Perjicum legendutn 
accedit, nifi regionis, in qua verfabatur poeta, fitum ac proprietates per- 
cipiat, fieri non poteft quin prsecipua lateat totius carminis pulchritude ; 
fie cum dicat Abu Ebadeb Albokhteri\^ 


* -. 

u Tanquam fubrideret (denies habens nitidiores), 
" Margaritis confertis, aut grandine aut anthemide : 
** Cincinnus ejus, tanquam nox, demiflus eft, 
** (Facies) ejus lucem auroras pudore afficit." 
& alius, 

-13^1 UUi' J&\j 
C s 


'* Dentium tuorum fplendore florem anthemidis pudore afficis, 
" O tu, cujus cincinni nofti fimiles funt, facies vero aurorae." 
fugiet eum maxima harum fimilitudinum fuavitas, nifi fciat, primum, 
anthemidem florem efle candidiflimum, de quo Nicander in fecundo 
Georgicorum libro, 

Ou$i plv 'AvSefttSuv KSVIIJ yiiputreTat aK.pij, 

& cui poeta? Arabic! puellarum dentes frequentiflime aflimilant ; deinde, 
Arabibus in tentoriis perpetuo degentibus aurorss exorientis imaginem 
efle notiflimam, qua utuntur faepiffime, cum albas genas jucundo rubore 
fuffufas defcribant. Pariter AmraHeis^ 

f Vide Haririum Mtkaiti. II, & Noftts Arallcai. 


AJU (.jJOii ,A 

" Porrigit ea quae dat, digitis teneris, non duris, tanquam vermibus In 

arena repentibus, aut ligno IJhil" 

Quis hunc verficulum poteft intelligere, nifi qui fciat p^y^V. vermem 
efle longum, candidum habentem corpus, & rubrum caput ; cum quo 
puellse digit! herba quadam purpurea tinti comparantur j & ligni 
albi efle genus, quo defricantur dentes ? Ad fummam, poematum Afia- 
ticorum ledtoribus notum efle debet, eorum auctores in regione amcenif- 
flma vitam egifle, florum, arborum, animalium, aliarumque rerum abun- 
dantiflima, quas in Europa non habemus : eas itaque imagi-nes qus illis 
dilucidas funt, nobis videri obfcuras, quas illis pervagatas, nobis abditas, 
illis fplendidas, nobis temerarias quae illis denique fublimes, leetae, 
, jucundas, nobis abruptas, nimias, tumidas, luxuriofas, diflblutas t 
fed ad alia pergamus . 

Longum eflet percenfere, quam variae ac venuftae imagines in poefi 
Arabum ac Perfarum deriventur vel a moribus, & vitae communis con- 
fuetudine, artibus, ludis ac difciplinis, vel a rebus facris, ut ab Alcorano, 
& templi Meccani sedifkio, vel ab hiftoriis regum, heroiim, ac bellorum 
memorabilium. Verum fi quis de his fingulis plene & copiose velit 
diflerere, volumen integrum contexat necefle eft. 

Nunc verb de ultimo imaginum fonte, jiftionibus fcilicet poeticis, 
pauca dicam. Sunt autem imagines a fabulis derivatse, ut rede judicat 
Hermogenes f, jucundiflimae. 

Nimium eft quanta cum voluptate & deletatione fabulas & recitatas 
audiamus, & fcriptas legamus. Hoc fenfit Plato ; ideoque illas de Bored 
& Orithyd, de Gige, & annulo illo mirifico, dulciflime orationi fuae in- 

f Di{ 'lJfw>, lib. ii. cap. Hi. engi 



texit. Notant contra dicendi magiftri unum tantummodo in horridi 
Thucydidis hiftoria locum efle jucundum, ubi fcilicet Terei Gf Philomela 
fabula inducitur f ! Eft fane fictio, poefeos (Hebrseam omnium verifli- 
mam excipio) quafi anima, fine qua nee naturam neque etiam nomen 
retinere pofllt. Ac mirum eft quantum omnium gentium poefi haec 
figmenta dulcedinem, & fuavitatem afferant. De Homero harum fictio- 
num, ut nonnulli putant, patre atque inventore, quern cum veteres turn 
recentiores poetae imitati funt, loqui non eft neceflarium. In veteri 
Gothorum poefi tranflationes prope omnes a fabulis fumuntur J : itaque 
in ea aurum vocatur Freya lacryma j poefis, Od'mi munus. Verfus 
quofdam Peruvianos, eofque antiquiflimos, citat Garcilaffus |j ; quorum 
fenfus hie eft : " Puella formofa, frater tuus pluviofus, urnulam tuam 
" nunc infringit ; cujus ictus tonat, fulget, fulgurat. Tu vero, puella, 
" jucundos imbres fundis ; interdum grandinem ac nivem mittis ; rerum 
" omnium efFedtor & procreator tibi hoc munus tribuit." Fingunt 
enim poetas Peruvian! puellam efle in ccelo formofiffiinam, quz ampho- 
ram aquae plenam manu tenet ; quam in terram identidem fundit ; fed 
hujus puellse fratrem, hominum generi inimiciflimum, hanc amphoram 
interdum frangere, unde tonitrua & fulgura proveniunt, Dicit itaque 
Garcilaffus, veterum Tncarum y feu regum, quendam, qui & poeta ad- 
mirabilis eflet, & philofophus infignis, hoc carmen contexuiffe ; additque 
hos verficuios inter nodos perveteres ac variis diftinclos coloribus fuiffe 
inventos. Notiflimum enim eft Peruvianos pro literis, nodis quibufdam 
ufos efle. Sed redeamus ad Afiaticos. Apud eos multse funt pervagatse 
fabula^, quse etiam in- ficlas Europzorum hiftorias tandem defluxerunt: 
nam Ariofti Hippogrifus nihil aliud effe videtur, praeter Perfarum Simorg 
avem, de qua mentio fit in Sadii libro 

j- Pag. IOO. Edit. Hudf. TJIJU" ^ TU njexDjy TV nJ;>o{ an' *AS>iw f%fm yvtauxa, 
{ iJi, sJi r5t aixjij faxnf iyim, & quae fequuntur. 

J Vid. Eddam & Mailed Hiftor. Danj || Hiftoria de Peru, lib. ii. cap. xxviii. 

Hiftoriat videlicet Romanenfes. 



c< Campum menfse liberalitatis ita late extendit, 
" Ut gryps (SimorgJ in monte Kaf cibi portionem accipiat." 
Eadem avis mirifica in magno Ferdufri poemate inducitur Ruftemo vul- 
nerato adminiftrans. Prseterea fingunt poetse Perfici duo efle animan- 
tium genera ex igne puro confefta, quorum unum benevolum & man- 
fuetum efle aiunt & afpedtu venuftiflimum, in urbe fplendidiflima. 
habitans, quam fkf* <^t*j Hilaritatem & Defiderium vocant j alterum, 
deforme, fasvum, truculentum, generique hominum infeftiflimum, in locis 
montuofis ac fylveftribus latens ; hoc autem genus Perfae *j<3, Arabes 
OoJt appellant, illud (j^j-J Peri, & ^j^. Gen nominant, quibus voci- 
bus etiam Europaei utuntur. Sed jucundiflima omnium eft ea de rofae & 
lufciniie amore fabula, quam frequenter attingunt poetas Perfici ; inde fit 
ut, cum in eorum carminibus de rofa mentio incidat, lufcinia? nomen 
plurimum fubfequatur ; velut in illo difticho, 

CX*N-V cxjjj &j (^Lsr (^**> 
cx*wA>J_ ^JoLLc ^ I .j I^Y^S. 

** Cantor, ubi es ? nam rofarum tempus eft j 
" Horti autem lufciniarum modulis pleni funt." 

fie Gelalo'ddin Ruzbehar in poemate_jl_s^*'Jl ui^l^' feu Fruttus ar- 
bor urn vocato, divinum numen al loquitur, 

y O^s^ IJ 

** Dum laudes tuas modulate canit lufcinia, 

*' Ex omni parte auris fum, tanquam rofas frutex." 

Poetam rofas folia cum auribus comparare inquit Herbelotus, a quo 
diflendo. " Totam aurem efle," nihil aliud fignificat, nifi attente audire : 
quam locutionem linguae etiam Europ3232 non afpernari videntur. 



Similiter quoque Sadi in libro Guliftan, 

" Non lufcinia folum rofis infidens laudes ejus canit, 
" Unaquazque enim fpina, ut eum laudet, lingua fit." 

Et Hafez pereleganter, 


Nunc cum in rofae manu vini puri calix fit, 
" Centum mille linguis lufcinia illius laudes canit." 

tibi occulta eft comparatio, eaque belliflima, rofae enim calyculum, jam fe 
explicantem, & purpureo colore fufFufum, ciim vini rubefcentis poculo 
venufte comparat. Idem alibi, 

y CX>**AJ* c^tiLyXc! tJJ^ ,_j 

** Cum in vultu tuo fubridet rofa, ne idcirco vana fpe decipiaris, O 

** Siquidem rofas nulla eft fiducia, licet totius orbis terrarum pulchri- 

tudinem compleclatur." 


UU**ij Jt 


^ cM 

Splendidum adolefcentiae tempus horto redit, 
Fauftum rofe nuncium fuaviloquse lufciniae afFertur. 


. Lsr^ JJ^cl 

* Modulatio 


" Modulatio lufciniae tibi, O roia, quo modo grata efle poteft, 

" Dum aurem atque intellectum avihus futilia loquentibus praebes ?" 

hoc eft, " Quo modo jucunda efle pofllmt poetse tui & amatoris car- 
" mina, formofa adolefcentula, dum improbis delatoribus fidem habes ?" 
Solent enim poets Perfici feipfos cum lufciniis, arnicas vero cum rofis 
fsepenumero comparare, velut in pulchro carmine elegantiffimus Hafez, 

/_W*MJ_J AJ 

" An arrogantia tua ob pulchritudinem te non fmit, O rofa, 
" Ut quippiam de lufcinia amore percita perconteris ?" 

Et alibi pari cum venuftate, 


" Rursus e procero cupreffi ramo lufcinia patiens 

" Modules iterat (dicens) Malus oculus a rofas facie procul abfitJ 

" O rofa, quod tu regina fis pulchritudinis, ne idcirco 

" Amatoribus tuis excordibus, mifgris, te inhumanam prsebeas." 

Ita porrb Idem, 

AJ cX^I (JJ^. Ai^. (J-^Ajj *&J& 

r-^i} *^f U^- (JTJr <J^ 
" Heri quanta mihi dulcedo a lufcinia venit, quae fuaviter modulata 

* Rofa aurem explicante a ramo fruticis !" 

Eadem imagine frequentiffime utuntur Turcae, qui Perfas, ut Latini 
Grscos, femper imitantur ; fie poeta in Humahm Ndmeh citatus, 


" Laeti perpetuo veniamus, tanquam rofae, 

" Modulate canentes & ftrepentes inftar lufciniae." 


Ita denique Perficorum poetarum princeps, omniumque forfan poft 
Homerum elatiflimus, in pulchro poemate de Ruftemi & Asfendiari 
prcelio, orditur, 



jJ 6 Lj &^& 




! . 

-2*. (^xj AJ *J 

AjywJ <3^ W ^5^ 

U^! eT^JI oJU 

^.^ LJ 
VOL. II. 3 I cX*Jl ) 



. / 

A/JU f\ Ojlk &J 

" Nunc eft vinum bibendum guftu dulce, 

" Odor enim mofchi a montibus afflatur. 

" Unufquifque hortus rofarum foliis tegitur, 

" Unufquifque collis tulipis & hyacinthis plenus eft. 

" In hortulo lufcinia modulate queritur, 
" Rofa ob queftum ejus expergifcitur. 
" Note tenebrofa fubridet lufcinia, 
" Rofa vento & pluvia arclie ligatur. 
" Equidem a nubibus venientes afpicio ventos & flatus, 
" Nefcio quam ob caufam lufcinia triftis fit. 
" Ridet enimvero lufcinia ex horti receffu, 
" Cum rofaz infidet, os aperit. 

" Quis fcit quid lufcinia loquatur, 
'* Quid fub rofa ilia odoratu inveftiget ? 
" Attende matutino tempore, ut exaudias 
" A lufcinia orationem Perficam. 

" Ob mortem Isfendiari gemit (dicens), 
" A me princeps Hie eripitur! 
" Jam vero lufciniae narrationem audio 
" Quae a veteribus recitari folebat." 

Nee eft fane difficile conjedhira confequi, unde commentitius hicce 
floris ac lufciniae amor originem habuerit ; narrant enim mercatores, 
lufcinias in Afid rofarum odoratu incredibiliter delectari, & perfepe 
inter eas ufque adeo volitare, donee odoris dulcedine, quas in illis re- 
gionibus eft acerrima, quafi ebris fadlse, pennas remittant ac decidantf : 
illud etiam addendum eft, eadem anni tempeftate cum rofas florere, turn 
aves etiam folitas efle inter arbufta modulari. 

t Vide Hyd. de Relig. Vet. Perf. 



Huic capiti Oden Hafezianam haud alienum erit fubjungere, quse 
varias omnium prope formarum imagines complefti videatur : 

" Nunc cum in hortum venit rofa a nihilo in vitam, 
" Viola fuper pedem ejus ponit caput, adorandi caufa." 

Voces Arabicae ,.tX & <^4^j inter fe contrarian funt, & faspe fibi invi- 
cem opponuntur. Innuit autem poeta rofam, fuo judicio, violae pra?- 
ftare, &, tanquam reginam flofculum ilium pedibus fubmittere. Bella 
eft florum inter fe nexorum defcriptio : eft prasterea ficla perfonse in- 
dudtio, eaque perelegans. Similiter de rofa & narciflb poeta venuftus 
Ebn Tamim, 


*' Ex narciffi excellentiis hsec eft, quod rofas imperio, cum domi- 

natur, cedit : 
Nonne vides rofam fedentem, ad cujus fervitium furgit narciflus ?" 

*' Bibe cyathum vini matutini ad modules cymbali & lyr^e, 
Ofculare cervices puellarum ad modules cymbali & fidium." 

t&* *fi* ^V 
^ aSjjiS 

" In horto recentem fac ritum religionis Zoroaflris t 
Nunc cum tulipa ardet igne Nimrodt" 



De religione Zerdufoti, & igne Nimrodi, vide Hydii de Pe'rfarum religione 
librum : defcribit poeta igneum florum iplendorem. 


Oyc\2s. (^J ^J* 

" A manu pocillatoris genam argenteam, & MeJJice halitum habentis, 
Vinum bibe, & miflam fac hiftoriam Adi &c 'Tbemudi" 

Meffiee halitus innuit mollem fpiritum ac jucundum, qui mortuos in 
vitam poffit revocare. Ad & Themud nomina funt tribuurn. antiquarum 
in Arabia degentium, quas monitis Vatis Saleb obtemperare recufantes, 
periifle dicit au&or Alcorani. 

Hue refpicit Atthar in Pendnameh, 

'<^ U^*T' A -^-'' 

" Qui mandatum potentise fuas dedit vento, 
Ut fupplicium meritum populo Adi daret." 

A -- 1 (j^jci A -- > <^AJ*K& 

<c Orbis terrarum tanquam cceleftis paradifus fit liliorum ac rofarum 

tempore : 
Sed quid juvat, cum in eo nequit efle asternitas ?" 

Pulchram vides annominationem inter cXXsk paradifum, & tiJLih ater- 

i A^jLu Ou|^ii c-^o 

" Cum rofa equitat in acre tanquam Salome, 
Mane avis venit cum concentu Davit/is." 

Fingunt Afiatici fuifle Salomon! tapeta mirificum, quo veclius in acre iter 



faceret. Multa autem de carminibus ac lyra Davidis loquuntur : velut 
poeta in praefatione ad libri Humaiun Ndmeb, 


" Sonus calami tui cum negotia difficilia expedias, 
" Similis eft modulis Davidis, cum Pfalmos caneret. 

ia.* cw* S 

Ouc\x-(^j xZ*J> (Ju _)j<^ j-y*-^ <xJ 

Tempore rofarum noli federe fine vino, & arnica, & cithara, 
Nam tanquam tempus durationis feptimanae, numeratur." 


" Pete cyathum ad oram plenum in memoriam Afafi hujus setatis, 

" Vizir i regis Soliman^ Emadeddin Mahmud." 

Afaf Salomonis fuit, fi Afiaticis fides fit habenda, minifter, idemque cujus 
nomen Pfalmo uni atque alteri praefigitur. Emadeddin vir erat quidam 
fummae dignitatis, quern laudare vult poeta. 


" Hilaritatis defiderium fit perpetuum, velut in ejus setate, O cor 

meum ! 
" Sit enim perpetuo umbra excelfa ejus extenfa." 

<3*>wX~c j^lc C-vwJ V ik. CX^a 

" AfFer vinum : nam Hafez illud femper petit a prseftantia & mifericordia 
" Domini benevoli, adorati." 

Quinque his imaginum pocticarum fontibus conftitutis, ad figuras dic- 

tionis, tanquam ad amoenos & luxuriantes rivulos, libet accedere. 




De Figuris DiSlionis, ac primum 


De franflatione. , 

F IGURAS Afiaticae didionis tractatums, miflas faciam Rhetorum de- 
finitiones & diftinctiones, quse fubtilitatis & acuminis habent plurimum, 
utilitatis vero parum : quis enim non illico videt, f Figurant ejfe vocis 
mutationem a primd fignificatione detortam & primum necejfltatis caufd 
u/urpafam, deinde venuflatis ? aut quis ignorare poteft Tranjlationem 
effe^ cum iierbum in quandam rem transfertur ex alia re, quod propter Jimi- 
litudinem reffe videtur poffe transferri? Ac primum de tranflatione lo- 
quar, qua prascipue utuntur poets Afiatici ornatus caufa & fuavitatis. 

Tranflatio autem duplex eft ; alteram Greed vocant MtTa<f>oi>civ, Arabes 
jjjl-.XAwgl quafi, Mutuationem ;- alteram, rhetores MWY*MW, Afiatici ZAAJ 
appellant ; quam ex Latinis alii Verborum Immutationem nominant, alii 
cum Ariftotele tranflationi fubjungunt. Figure hujus pulcherrimus ufus 
eft, quo rei cujufdam adjun&a vel Ft'/it y vel Frafres, & Sorores, vel 
Patres, vel denique Matres nominantur. Ditu difficile eft quantum 

f Figuram fie definit Tiberius Rhetor, 
*Ef Toitun ffypt" 1 ' T t"> xaT " fu'" t< *S> Ixlptpu, prih \v itStias, iM\ oftfitaut xai i%aMwjltu tvi Jiavota*, 

- ir, trXaan % Xf !l ' a J "'* 

J Ad Herenn. lib. iv. 



fplendoris & jucunditatis linguas Arabics haze figura afferat : cujus rei 
exempla quaedam feligam. 


Mohammedes vinum appellabat c^Usrl J feu, Matrem peccatorum ; 
cui fententke Hafez, Anacreon ille Perfarum^ minime afcribit fuam ; dicit 

.1 . . ... f _. Ji " . <^ . Ij T~ 

>U~a. (jii^jLosrl J /_j*,_*o A_J (jz*^ (^1 

* IIJsjJ! Lo v* X^.1, UJ 

" Acre illud (vinum) quod vir religiofus matrem peccatorum vocitat, 
" Optabilius nobis ac dulcius videtur, quam virginis fuavium." 
Pulcherrime Abulola columbas vocat Filias triftitice ; 


Heu, maerorls Jilife me infomnem reddunt." 
Nee minori elegantia, vinum uvarum flius appellatur, & aqua Nubium 
Jilia ; ut poeta in libro Hiliato'lcomeit, puellam triftiorem alloquens, 


uol U 

" Hie dies, laetitise dies eft ; nulla eft in eo calamitas ; 

" Ducit autem^//j nubiumJUiam uvarum ; 

" Non decet cyathus a manu (puellse) triftem vultum habentis, 

" Et cujus dentes renident fplendidius quam baccz margarita- 


In hoc genere venuftae funt ills figure, AxiJI 
(J^csrl cxo, ^^j^oJI CA_A_J, mantis, labiorum, mortis^ oculi, filta; 
quibus fignificantur Ec&o, Verba, Febris, Lacbryma; aliseque innu- 
merabiles. Melius tamen hoc genus JicJis perfonarum inductionibus 
nonnulli fubjungunt. 



Nee vero exiftimandum eft fobs Afiaticos hac figura uti ; nam in 
Graeca etiam lingua miram habet venuftatem. 

Ita f Cheer emon in I'd flores ipof reicvet jucundiflimc vocat, cum dicit, 

'Avdyfiis TfKvce, iot. 
Et in Centauro tetuvo; T&XVX. 

Ab eodem in Baccho hedera vocatur, 

Xoguv aTj? xiavos, evwvris Se waif. 
Et pari elegantia fuaviflimus idem poeta in Ufy/e rofas appellat, 

Sic etiam Pieman Rorem fatis pulchre " Aeris & Lunce JilianF 


\ Ota, inquit Ato; 

Ita Pindarus, Imbres nominal nr<Jaf vetpeAijf. 
Et Diem, SolisJHium, 

II C X-V / 


Et Vinum^ filium Vitis, 



am ae vu^d- 
ru (puzXaiiriv fiiarav 

Autumnum denique appellat Vitis matrem^ 

"}"|" OUTTW yEvuf QaJiivtv reptivuv 


f Tide ^/i. lib. xiii. + Ap. Plutarch. Sympof. III. Olymp. XI. 

|| Olymp. II. f Nem. XIX. 123. -j-f Nem. 5. 



Nee minus eleganter poeta a Suidd citatus vocat f lagsenam, 

Sed ad tranflationes Afiaticas veniamus ; quarum exempla hoc loco 
parcius proferam : unum tamen atque alterum feligam exemplum ; quo- 
rum primum fit vox (_<AJ quse Rorem notat, & per dulciflimam tran- 
flationem pro LiberaliPate fumitur. Sic ItXJ rore maduit^ & liberalis fuit. 
cXJ rofcidus & munificus \ & (jcX_j! liber alior. Eodem fere modo voci- 
bus <Joy* tor r ens, -_ia_,* f/uvia, Arabes utuntur; & Perfce^ voce (^ 
Sic Arabics &\=*. copiose cecidit p/uvia, & poftea liberalis fuit : hinc 
liberalitas. Notum eft IJebreeos hac imagine perfazpe' ufos fuifle: ita 
comparator apud | IJaiam divini Numinis infinita beneficentia & largitio 
terram irriganti, 

im otwn TP nt^io o 
1 ? nowi 

nx nvin 

, , , , 

1 on 1 ? 1 ) jnm jnt 

" Nam ficut imber & ros defcendit 

De coelo, neque illuc adeo redit 

Donee terram rigaverit, 

Fo2cundamque reddiderit, & germinare fecerit ; 

f Vide Suitl. in voce ^vnoq. Hoc epigramma (S>eo^io enim non eft, ut putavit Tollius) ai fex 
verfus debet diftingui. 

, ffvriru JIT{ 

J LV. 10, ii. 
VOL. II. 3 K Ut 


Ut femen det ferenti, & edenti panem, 
Talia erunt verba ex ore meo prodeuntia." 

Hue fpetat verfus in f carmine admirabili poets Abil KaJ/em, 


" Dixi equitum turmae, attendite roris cafum, 
At prjeterit equites citra te, cafus ille." 

Et Ebn Arabjhah, 

" Pluere fecit a dextra fua dona, & efFudit beneficentiam, tanquam 
imbrem a vento feptentrionali incitatum." 

Ad hoc etiam pertinet fcriptoris cujufdam Turcici praeceptum, 


" Auri atque argenti guttarum de fonte dextras defluentium fonitus, ad 
aures fmiftra? ne perveniat." 



Ut arbores, quae ripas juftitiae ejus inumbrant, imbribus largitionis & 
liberalitatis rigatas virefcant ; & flores rofeti imperil ejus guttis pluviae 
benevolentiae & facilitatis madeant." 

Sic etiam Hafez, 

f Ebn Kbalican. 

" A nu- 


" A nubibus asternitatis mifericordiam petiit, fed praeter oculum fuum 
lachrymis fcatentem, nemo illi rorem dedit." 

Hie nequeo omittere fimilitudinem pulcherrimam in libro Hamafa, 

AJ 4_JLs> ( 
Juljl Oou 

" Juvenis, qui poft mortem ob liberalitatem fuam vivit, 
Sicut pratum poft imbris efFufionem virefcit." 

Nee minorem habet elegantiam vox _JO quse inter ali&famatn ac bonam 
exijiimationem notat. Eft autem dulciffima tranflatio ; nam hujus vocis "f 
antiqua fignificatio fuit Odorfuavis ; fie vetus poeta, 

Odor & fuavis aura vidoria?. 
Et Hofeas pulcherrime |, 


*3 -nat 

" Ero tanquam ros IfraeK ; effulget 
" Velut lilium, & extendet radices fuos ficut Libanus ; 
" Explicabit ramulos fuos, & erit inftar olese 
" Pulchritudo ejus ; & odor illi tanquam Libano. 
* Qui fub umbra ejus habitant, tanquam frumentum revivifcent, 
M Succrefcent ficut vitis ; odor ejus, tanquam vinura Libani." 
etiam eruditiffimus auclor libri Sucardan, 

^O ol^b ^^1 U 
" Quam jucundus in (hominum) oribus, odor tuus." 

f Vid. Schultens in Hamafa, p, I XIV. <S 8. 



Adde fententiam pervagatam, 

oyo JOoJU ^Ju ^ liJjXU cXJcJ 
" Regum feliciflimus is eft, cujus odor (fama) ob juftitiam perpe- 

tub maneat." 

Hue fpe&ant ilia in "f Salomonis carmine, 

-]Dtt> -^f 

" Unguentum effufum, nomen tuum." 
Et verfus elegantiflimi poetse Perfici Jami in libro Yufef ve Zulikha, 

(j La 

* (J- (^o-AX. J 

*' Aperis mihi ciftam odoriferam natura;, 

*' Mofcho meo fragrantem redde mentis Kaf extremitates (a Kaf 

ad Kaf), 

" Carminibus meis calamum fac dulciloquum, 
" Odore meo (fama mea) librurn fac ambarum fpargere." 
. & ilia, 

Lix;Lrc 42a. J& 
1 1 . 

N-J ^UJ^o AS?Mj O^W 

* u Celata Virtus mofcho fimilis eft : tametfi enim occultus fit mofchus, 

tamen odor qui ex eo afflatur, eft jucundifllmus." 
& Ehn Arabjhab de precatione ufitata 

L-^XXlj I jjtXu3 /J Ji3^l IdCLil / ><Xi '-i 

44 Haec falutatio gratiffimum fpirat mofchi odorem in librorum 

t I. 3- 



& ilia elegantiffima f, 

twon hy man ptco 

PHN ipt ptn *?y TV 

nmin >3 ty TWP 

quern locum belle, ut multa, expreffit auttor libri de Sacra Poefi $, 
" Non aura nardifuavior occupat 
" Senfus, quje Aronis vertice de facro 
** Per ora, per barbam, per ipfas 

" Lenta fluens it odora veftes." 

Omnes fere gentes hac tranflatione uti videntur : Sinenfes fignum quod- 
dam habent, quod Hiang vocant, & quo fignificatur primo Odor, de- 
inde, Fama, Virtus . 

Vocem tjit" irriga/vit, p&tum pr<zbuit t in permultas res jucundiffime 
transferunt Arabes ; fie fcriptor clariflimus, 

Ecce autem, mortis pocillator acceflit ad eos cum exitii cyatho ; 
Et trngavt't vitarum eorum hortulos poculo, quod omnes ad 
nihilum redegit." 

Exempla tranflationum a rigando & hauriendo, funt in omnium gen- 

^ Pfal. cxxxiii. 3. 

% Prael. xxv, 

Gallt aiunt, La memoire de celui qui agit fi noblement eft en bonne oikur aupres des gens <\'ef- 
prit. Germanice quoque geruch eft odor, & geriicht, vox hand admodum diffifnilis, quafi ruhm, fama : 
fie auftor libri elegantis de Aleli Marte, <f Bliihe empor, wie die jnnge blum' im friihling empor 
" blvihet; dein leben fy ein fiiffer geruch vor dem Herren." Et alibi, " Wie ein lieblicher frUhlings 
" ftraufs empor bliiheten und vereint lieblicbe gerucit der tisgeiu) zerftreiten." Nos quoque interdum 
eadem figura utimur : fie Clarendonius, " B)T her interceffion with the King, Ihe would lay a moft 
" feafonable and j>opular obligation upon the whole nation, and leave behind her a pleajant odour of 
" her grace and favour to the people." 



tium fermonibus fere innumera ; fufficiet hie duos verficulos chare a 
libello de Rodantbes & Do/tc/is amoribus, quos legend mihi primum 
valde arrififle memini : 

a%p/? elf 

Unum folummodo addam exemplum, quod tamen auribus Europasis 
durius efle videbitur. Vox v JJl nafiim fignificat : transfertur autem ad 
omnium rerum partem eminentiorem* Sic <J^o>. ^ Xjl nafus mantis^ pro- 
montorium ; ti-xJI < *Jl nafus frigoris, frigus intenfum ; <*Jij\ 
pocuhim illibatum ; uXi! '^o^j bortus novas Gf intattus, quern 
dxypxTov vocat Ibycus ; ,*jJiJI * < jl ^/J populi. Sic (.j-y-c fuperior 
naji pars, & (j^Jl,^ /><?/// principes. Ut Hofein El Afadi de morte 
Hberaliflimi herois loquens, 

" Nafus nobilitatis praeciditur." 

Eadem tranflatione utuntur Sinenfes, vox enim Pie, cum /j/i fignifi- 
cat, turn etiam families principem. Eodem fenfu ufurpant Hebrasi vocem 

, quae Arabica eft, *W^. -<2/? /^^ ^//wr, item, princeps populi. 
Itaque ilia "j", 

vertenda funt, Vocavit autem omnes primarios J&gypti viros t non prcefti- 
S) ut vulgo redduntur. 

Cum plures continuantur tranflationes, omnino permutatur oratio j 
hanc igitur figuram rede poflumus Permutationem appellare j cujufmodi 
eft ilia Hqfeziana, 


tX>l -J 

f Gen. xli. 8. 

" Cum 


" Cum Sol vini ex Oriente poculi prodeat, 
" In horto genae pocillatoris mille tulipas florent." 

Sed huic figurae immorari nihil neceffe eft, quippe cujus exempla in 
Afiaticorum libris omnibus fmt frequentiflima ; & fane permutatio haecce, 
feu 'AXXijyo^'a, genus illud dicendi, quod Afiaticum vacant, videtur ab 
Europaeorum didtione potiflimum diftinguere. 



De Comparatione, 


NFINITAM poetls praebet fimilitudinum fylvam univerfum hoc natura; 
templum. Ponant ante oculos coelum, terras, maria ; afpiciant in coelo, 
folem, lunam, ftellas ; in terra, arbores, flores, herbas, fegetes, animalia: 
in aquis, natantes belluas, conchas, pifces ; videant in acre pendentes 
nubes, videant aetheris placidam ferenitatem, & immenfa protinus ex- 
furget fimilium rerum varietas & copia, Sed hsec funt omnibus genti- 
bus communia ; at multae funt naturales imagines, Afiaticis magis quam 
reliquis familiares, velut orientis aurorae, & ftellarum, quarum curfus in 
tentoriis degentes Arabes commodiflime obfervare pofTunt ; aliae denique 
Afiaticorum propria?, ut herbarum, arborum, animalium, aliarumque re- 
rum, quas in Europa haud cognofcimus. Non eft igitur mirum, poe- 
tarum Afiaticorum fimilitudines noftris auribus nonnunquam duriores, 
nonnunquam etiam fubinfulfas videri. Ridemus fi poeta Perficus graci- 
lem puellam cum buxo comparat (qua tamen. comparatione faspiffime 



utuntur Afiatici),. proptcrea quod in Europa buxus humi ferpit, & abjec- 
tiffimus eflet frutex, nifi rplendida viriditate commendaretur ; in Afia 
vero in pulcherrimam atborem fuccrefcit, & ramulis ornatur gracillimis. 
Pr*terca obfervandum eft, ex duabus illis facultatibus comparandi, fcilicet, 
& dift'tnguendi, primam effe maxime inculti, & luxuriantis animi, fetvidi, 
exfultantis, poetici ; alteram politi, fubtilis, teretis, accurati ; hanc ad 
judicium, illam ad ingenium & affectus pertinere. 

Hinc tranflationibus & fimilitudinibus abundantior eft jljiaticorum 
quam Europ<zorum poefis. Hi enim (Homer urn & Graecos excipio) raro 
comparationem admittunt, nifi ufquequaque conveniat ; illi fimilitudi- 
nem, qua; occurrit, avide captant, parum folliciti fi quid in ea fit difcre- 
pantiae vitium. Sed nihil fere attinet, tinde originem ducat Afiaticarum 
comparationum venuftas & abundantia, dummodo ftatuatur omnem poe- 
fm, prascipuam ex iis fuavitatem ac pulchritudinem recipere ; ac longe 
venuftiores efle eas, quse a naturalibus rebus ducantur. 

Antequam de comparationibus Afiaticis feparatim loquar, necefle habeo 
de comparatione in genere breviter diflerere. Hujus itaque figurae tripli- 
cem ufum ftatuerunt rhetores : nam idcircb fumuntur comparationes vel 
ut ornent, vel ut illuftrent, vel ut amplificent fententiam. Ideoque eae 
quae ornatus caufa ufurpantur, dulces fmt oportet, jucundae, polite. Ve- 
nuftas autem fimilitudines depromuntur praecipue ex iis rebus, quae 
natura funt hilares ac fplendidae ; cujufmodi funt horti, flores, gemmse, 
prata, pulchra animalia, & reliqua, quse nitorem habent ac formofam 
fpeciem. Qus illuftrandi gratia adhibentur, propriaa efle debent, & 
claras : quse tandem amplificationis ergo fumuntur, omnino necefle eft 
altius atque magnificentius infurgant, ne rei comparatze minus ampla 
comparatione minuatur dignitas. Minime tamen neceflarium puto com- 
parationes ex omni parte congruere : etenim fi prima vel praecipua pars 
fit fimilis, caeterse deledationis ac varietatis caufa appofitse redundare 



Sic Apollonius ille Rhodius mulieres Lemnias cum apibus comparat, 
Argonautas cum floribus, urbem cum alveari, 


fed verborum ambitus non fatis eft rotundus ac numerofus ; idque aures 
ipfa? indicant. Ideoque addit, 

'Ep<nj'e/f ^ai/yTow, rail Se yXwaiv XX0T6 T 

Ubi rede obfervat doctiflimus Scholiaftes, vocem ydvuTau cum 
vai t quaz mox fubfequitur, minime confentire : tamen poft vocem 
CxjjliiJ'- finita eft comparatio, reliqua adduntur ut deledlationem pleniorem 
auribus afferant. Hoc femel monuifle fufficiet. Hasc autem obfervatio 
in omnibus {imilitudinibus locum habet. 

Interdum tamen ex ipfa cohaerentia & proprietate magnam capiunt ve- 
nuftatem, ut in nota ilia comparatione, 

ie T6 

\ >\ ^ \ . fp 
TO ot vtov tie XeGijn 

>__/ .^^ .<?* > *'^ \" 

He Tffts sv -yuvXu ne^areu y a evvct >^ tv 

Tiveia-feTUi ui<rtnsfot 

Et nunquam fane adduci potui (ne audoritate quidem Viri undequaque 
dodi :{:) ut crederem Virgilium hanc fimilitudinem vel elegantius vel 
politius, vel ad rem accommodatius reddidifle[|. Certe in aliis locis per- 


f Argonaut. 3. 7jj. J De Sacra Poefi, Prasleft. xii, ^Eneid. viii. 18. 

H Utrumque mea fententia fuperavit Camcenjlus. 
Vid. Lufiadas. viii. 87. 

Qua! o reflexo lurne do polido 
Efpelho d' 390 o de criftal fermofo, 
Che do rayo folar fendo ferido 
Vay ferir noutra parte luminofo : 

VOL. n. 3 L fendo 


multis, quae ex Apollonio fumfit Virgilius, nullus profefto video, cur 
elegantiae ac pulchritudinis palmam ab autore fuo fibi vindicet. Mul- 
tum fane illi debet : nam ut nihil dicam de Medeae fuaviffimo 'EirtHroStu, 
nihil de Amyci & Pollucis pugna, nihil de Harpyiis, nihil de fimilitudi- 
nibus & defcriptionibus, aliifque minutioribus elegantiis f quas e Rhodio 
poeta haufit ; illam mehercule fuavitatem numerorum, & rotundam illam 
verfuum concinnitatem, in qua regnat Virgilius, ab Apollonio didicit. 
Ac mirum videtur Longinum, Quintilianum, atque alios adeo temere 

O fendo da oziofa mao movido 
Pela cafa do mo^o curiofo, 
Anda pelas paredes e telhado, 
Tremulo aqui e alii deffoflegado. 
f Qualis eft pulchra ilia tranfitio : 

At non Dardaniae medicari cufpidis i&um 
Evaluit - 


a. J' a Qvyu 
Oil ya$ Ti{ 
Et ilia perfonarum mutatio, quam fumfit etiam Miltonus, 

- ut duros mille labores 
Pertulerit : tu nubigenas, iwvifle, &c. 


luyafa um QtiiGot avru 

ArfitifiSn, TU ni Je XT' afata "xra 

Multse funt profefto in Apollonii poemate minutiae, quae funt diligenter obfervandae : qualis eft 
vocum nonnullarum ufus quae videntur efle poetarum, qui fub Ptolemaeo floruerunt, propriae ; & 
quae loca quaedam obfcuriora Theocriti, Callimachi, Lycophronis & reliquorum illuftrant. Velut 
iw8{ pro Nepote, vox fortafle jEolica. Sic Apollonius, 

1 pnomeSe Ttol? woJi<r<7i> iToipa, 

k Callimachus, 

a 7f ipyarin tftyu 

T} MSffui, iif a K.ti<& t 'Yffixp i!J{. 

& Theocritus Idyll. XVII. 35. 

'A9aKXTi Ji xa^tvuTM toi tofoSif ytyaurtf, 
Immortales autem vocantur, ejus cum fint nepotes. 

Notum eft enim non efle in illo loco legendum, S( VoJi{, quod reddiderunt nonnulli, Dii Jtnt 



efle Ariftarchum fecutos, ut admirabilem hunc fcriptorem in mediocrium 
poetarum chorum detrudant. Mediocrifne funt poetse hi verfus numerofi 

& modulati ? 

*<-}'/>' ~ i / i r, ' 

Alf OT ()1][A(XIOI 7Zr7T/1JOTf tXTOVi WETplJS 

Xijpa^B airlyves Xtyeus jXaWj vto<r<ro\ t 
H OTE xctXtx, voiovreg In otypvtri HctxTuXo~a 
K.VKVOI Kivfaruiriv eov /*eXoj, dpQ 
Ejitgra;, srvrctfi.oto re 
at ITT* %<xv$-as Siptvoti Koviyrtv e5-/p 

Itettvov lyXepov udupovro. 
aut ilia defcriptio, 

avStu Se afyt 

NvpQai uftepyopevw tevxo'i's tvt TroaciXx xo 
Erfioptov. "srutrKf oe "srvoof u$ oipQtmv cu 
Tonv ctTro xpvirtuv Bviroivuv dftapvrtrtTO 
AxTe S" Iv GtySa.'hft.o'iq yXuxepoV TxroSov 

breviter & vivide Telamonis iram pingit ! 

\ j>\ * >i 
- TU oe 01 ogrire 


Quanta elegantia Homeri comparationem, 

amplificat ; 

O*j Se 

HE ^ ^ 

tois AIJTW< j Ifi ci 

dvTicurct sroXvKv'uro'is 

~ M'/ ' . " * /'V <,\> 

ti a aptx, vuptpai eTrovrat atfjiopnuoeg, oil ft C7T 
ti Tsufyyi; 'Ajt*vij(r/Jof, at oe oy 
j ffitomct; TsroXUTr/^axaj, a'^tfpt <Je 

<reuvittra> VTTO r^ofMovnq itsruv, 

'/ > > / t>' 

ouy ttrrsvovTO 01 



Quod fi minutiores illas poefeos exornationes fpeftemus, nullus efle poteft 
ad celeritatem exponendam accommodatior verfus, quam 

Aurij S" uicvrtpy apafvypaTOs ye fioXduv. 
aut ad avem placide labentem in acre defcribendam, quam 

'Ptiryv evxvjXoia-iv evtvStouv -Tfjtpvyetriri. 

Annon hi verfus fluctuum fcopulis allidentium quodammodo imitantur 
fonum ? 

'PUOVT' tv&ot x^ es^a oMeruoov KXhyXijtrw 

-_ \ \ / / fl < t * -\ M ~ 

Tyv ce srufi^Ofiiiv Koirlev poof, afiyii oe xvpct 

Sed hae venuftates, qusefitJe funt potius quam naturales ; & plus dili- 
gentiae oftendunt quam ingenii. At multa funt in Argonauticis loca, 
velut Syrtis, Phineae, Tali, & Jafonis laborum defcriptiones, quae elatif- 
fimis abundant imaginibus, & fumma cumulantur verborum dignitate. 
Neque illud vemm eft, quod Longinus affirmat, Apollonium nunquam 
cadere ; eft enim ubi alte cadit, ita tamen ut fervet quandam in cadendo 
majeftatem : fie draconis occifi defcriptio, 

otyif vQ' 'HpaxX^r da'ixBiis, &C. 

fublimis eft ilia quidem & magnifica, fed non fatis delicata, & a poefi 
heroica aliena. 

Sed ad Arabas & Perfas veniamus. Illi in poefi amatoria fimilitudi- 
nibus ex natura deduftis admodum deleftantur. Affimiknt f puellarum 
cincinnos hyacinthis, genas rofis, oculos, nunc ob colorem, violis, nunc 
ob amabilem ilium languorem, narciflis, denies margaritis, papillas mails 
Punicis, ofcula melli ac vino, labia pyropis, ftaturam proceris ramulis, 
faciem foli, crines noti, frontem aurorae, ipfas denique puellas capreolis, 
& hinnuleis. Has fimilitudines prope omnes comple&itur Arabs incer- 
tus in pulchro fabularum libro, 

I Vide Noweiri ^ Reifkio citatum. 


c^**^ <^l 

CxXisr <-XJ' 

JLf,_J v_ ixwJI tXsr u-ijL Jjl^ji 

v A,_ 

IJJj ^jLwj i^o ^jo ( 


xJu OuLc 

^W W -''-' 

" Fuit autem puella gratia, pulchritudine, venuflate, perfetione praedita ; 
*' egregiam habens & aequam ftaturam ; oculos vero nigros, fomni 
" plenos, fafcino Babylonio imbutos ; & fupercilia, tanquam arcus, 
*' vibrantes fagittas afpeftuum letales ; nafum, enfis mucroni fimilem ; 
" os vero, Salomonis figillo ; genas tanquam anemonas ; duo autem 
" labia erant duo pyropi (vel carneolje), & denies tanquam uniones in 
" corallio conferti ; frontem porro habuit novse lunae fimilem, & labia 
" favis dukiora & aqua pura magis frigida ; collum inftar Indicas 
" arundinis, pedus inftar fontis in altum falientis ; mamillas malis 
" Punicis confimiles, ventrem, inftar Serici plicas habentis fuper plicas, 
" & umbilicum unguento myrobalani irrigatum." 


Mire hxc defcriptio, ut multae in Afiaticorum carminibus, cum Salo- 
monis poemate convenit. Et profedo hoc diftichon, 

prope totidem verbis ex Hebneo reddi videtur, 

nna ynyv nnt 

" Favi 



" Favi ftillantes labia tua, 

" Mel & lac fub lingua tua ; 

" Odorque veftium tuarum, tanquam odor Libani." 

Ssepe vero poetae amatorii ex moribus depromunt imagines, velut Sadi 
in libro Gultftan puellae nigros cincinnos genis candidiflimis fuperimpen- 
dentes confert pulcherrime cum pilis ex ebeno fi&is, quas clava eburnea 
pellunt lufores : 

jlj' (C*>**jy j^z* 

" Gena amicse inter cincinnos plexos intermicans 
" Similis eft pilae eburnese in media, clava ebeni." 

Ssepe ex religiofis opinionibus ; fie Hafez recentem lanuginem circa 
labia adolefcentuli crefcentem comparat cum nymphis illis formofiflimis 
quas in ccelo efle dixit Mohammedes ; 

jJ T? Ctlaifc (ji&jj IAWJ 

^r^ t\Aj|l*2x rST^ 

" Recentes lanuginis herbae, qu labia tua veftiunt, 
" Similes funt Hourils circa fontem Salfabil fedentibus." 

In poefi heroica elatiffimas nonnunquam habent fimilitudines cum 
Arabes, turn Perfe. Quam fublimis, quam Homero fimilis, hasc eft 
comparatio ! 


" Tarn rapidi erant quam prreceps aquarum fluxus 

" Quern tenebrofa & violente irruens nubes ampliorem reddidit." 

& illse, 


& i\ 

u Multas enim noflfes tranfegifti infomnis, 

" Cum te properanter veherent equi nobiles notis infigniti : 

" Quaflabat exercitus circum te ambas fuas alas, 

" Velut aquila nigra pennas motitans." 

" Haftas ulfro citroque movimus in vulneribus, 
" Ut movetur urna flexilis in puteo aqua abundanti furgens." 
Quid poeta velit bene expofuit Ret/kius^ " Haftarum ftrepitum, quando 
" demittuntur in corpora, vel e confoffis corporibus vix revelluntur ac 
*' ne vix quidem, cum obfcuro confert illo murmure & muto fremitu, 
" quo vel irruens in profundum, vel exuberans fitula quaedam furfum 
" attradta male cedentem aquam contranitendo perrumpit." Qua ima- 
gine nihil aptius aut fublimius cogitari poteft.- 

In Ferdujli poemate admirabili multse funt comparationes vere mag- 
nifies : nam ut illas communes omittam ; 

" Venit Ruftem, tanquam torvus elephas, 

-A>*J *=^ 

" Tanquam leo qui in medium irruit armentum, 
quid nobilius aut excelfius efle poteft his imaginibus, 



l^xwjw) -j 



)l /-XJL> 

-iUj A. 

* Afpexit Barzu decem illos equites, 

' Tanquam leo furore plenus, praedam petens, 
' Strenue fe geffit, & tunicam radiantem induit, 

* Medium corpus illigavit aureo baltheo ; 

* Caffidem Graecam capiti impofuit, 

* Ex pharetra fagittas extraxit ; 

* Nunc fuper equi ftratum impendit, 

* Nunc tanquam mons movens (fe erexit) 

* Alta hafta (feriens) & enfe adamantine, 

* Nunc velut nubes imbrem fundens progreflus eft. 

* Diceres, " Coelumne eft, an dies, & fplendor, 
" An verno tempore aquarum fluxus ?" 

* Diceres, " Arbor eft ferro onufta ; 

" Duo brachia explicat, tanquam ramos platani." 



Sed nihil magis amant venuftiores Arabum poetas, quam floras & 
fructus defcribere, deprompta faepius imagine ex humana pulchritudine ; 
velut Ebn Rumt, 


*' Vidi in hortulo violam, 

" Cujus folia rore fplendebant ; 
** Similis erat flos illi (puellae) coeruleos habenti oculos, 

" Quorum cilia lacrymas ftillant." 


" Da mihi diledUffimum narciflum, 

" Pulchriorem, meo afpedu, rofa, 
" Velut fi albedo ejus deprompta fit 

" A gena illius (arnica?) pallor autem a mei (amantis) genis." 

quam fimilitudinem in alias res transferunt, ut poeta de vino, 


" Rubrum ante mifturam, poft earn flavum, 

" Habet duos colores narciffi fcilicet & anemones ; 

VOL. II. 3 M " (SeU 


" (Seu potius) refert genam amicae meracius, quod fi tempered 
" Cum ea aquam, induit colorem amantis." 

Et Abu Noivds de porno, 

xtX-^ 1 (?jJM*tM (^0 tV^J-AJ 4 

i4 Lgxvflj 



" Pomum, cujus una pars ex lilio formatur, 
" Ex flore mail Punici altera, & anemone, 

** Velut fi Amor junxiflet, poft difceflum, 
" Genx amatae puellx genam amatoris." 

Pulchra eft in hoc genere rofse defcriptio a poeta eleganti Ebnfl Motezz, 

\Ja t J (j 


" An profert terra ullum florem 

" (Cum ornatur, & pitam veftem induk) 

" Dulciorem & nitidiorem rofa, cui odor eft 

" Is, ut videatur mofchus in mediis ejus foliis fpargi, 

" Et quae refert arnicas meas colorem, cum me 

" In gremium recipit, femota iraqundia ?" 
Interdum e gemmis depromunt florum fimilitudines, velut poeta, 

IJ U[^ 


LgJ v^ixLJ CXolAj ( 

45 1 

" Annon vides rofae frutices fuccrefcentes, 
" A quorum vimine furgunt flores eximii, 

" Similes pulchris pyropis, in iis autem 

" Sunt fmaragdi, & in mediis floribus particulas auri ?" 

Et Ebno'l Motezz venufte, 



> gA Axo 

*' Irrigat hortum effufio nubium denfa, 

" Rofa autem ex eo a fomno excitata furgit, 

4 ' Similis eft ardenti pyropo fuper fmaragdum, 
" Cui imponitur auri ramulus," 

Similiter Sadi in libro Bujldn, 



Pofuit pyropos & finaragdos in duro lapide, 
u Rofam pyropinam fuper fmaragdinum ramum." 

Sic alius poeta, 




** Sodales mei, agite, dtcedit a vobis moeror, 
" Venite ideo ad hortum, & vini cyathum ; 

" Splendet 


" Splendet enim flos jafmini lucide 

" Tanqum inauris ex margarita cui imponitur carneola. 

& Rbn Tamim, 

** Venimus in hortos, cum ornarentur 
*' Et veftirentur roris gemmulis, 

" Et vidimus figilla florum, cum 
*' A digitis ramorum caderent." 

& Ebn Rumi, 

** Gaudium violae, nam cum earn 

" Viderim, bibi quantum volui j 
" Non flos eft, fed 

" Smaragdus gemmam purpuream ferens." 

Interdum vero e coelo & ftellis, ut 


** Velut fi jafminus florens, cum 

*' In eum in rnedio horto oculos meos flectam, 
Coelum eflet fmaragdinum, in quo afFulgent 
l< Nobis ftellse argenteae" 




J AKKK^J (^> ,^> 

" In - hortulo, qui ad nos afFert 

*' Odorem vini aqua gelida temperati, 
In unoquoque narciflb, qui in eo eft, 
Sol efFulget luna. circumdatus." 


& alms, 

w ., 


" Habemus narciflum fplendidum, 
** Qui recreat odore fuo animas, 
" Velut Ci cilia ejus eflent lunas, 
**, Velut fi oculi ejus eflent foles." 

Vel ex aliis rebus naturalibus, ut 



s ' **t> 

*' Annon eum (narciflum) vides, dum aura tranfiens eum fledit, 

*' Similem croco fuper camphoram ? 
" Cum efFulgeat varietate pulchritudinis, 

" Oftendit tibi, quomodo ignis cum luce jungatur." 





T 31 

" Surge, puer, & (vinum) efFunde gelidum, 

*' Nam horti variis floribus ornahtur, 
" Et recens narciflus fimilis eft 

" Candido puellas denti, cum malum Armeniacum mordeat." 

Addam duas comparationes quae fmt ob novitatem jucundiffimae: unam 
Ebni'l Motezz, 


" Viola collegit folia fua, fimilia 

" Collyrio nigro, quod bibit lachrymas die difceflTis, 
** Velut fi eflet fuper vafa in quibus fulgent 

" Primae ignis flammulae in fulphuris extremis partibus. 

alteram Ebni Tamtm, 


UJoJI o 

"*' O flos amygdali, tu prae caeteris omnibus 

'* Venifti ad nos florum princeps, 
w Etenim ufque adeo tibi favet fortuna 

** Ut referas, in ore terrarum orbis, rifum." 



Has comparationes lastiffimas ex Ebni Abi Hagelah delibavi, qui con- 
texuit etiam de bimilitudinibus librum, quern infcripfit 


Poetarum laudes in fimilitudinum pulchritudine. 

Criticus idem infignis, & p'oeta, omnes fere florum venuftates in bellif- 
fimo carmine complexus eft : 



_j ~i. /_j 

" Euge ! per fplendidum ver, & flores ejus nitidos, 

** Narciffum & parthenium fimiles oculis & dentibus, 

" Et jafminum tanquam colorem amatoris folitarii, 

" Et anemonem fimilem formofe puellas quse venit ferico (veftita) 

" Et odorem fuavem unguenti, violam pluvia irrigatam, 

" Myrtique florem fimilem lanugini in gena hinnuli fucco pleni, 
Et rofam cum exercitu (fpinis) venientem, cujus pulchritudo vic- 

trix eft." 




De reliquis Figuru. 

JLYESTAT ut alias poefeos Afiaticae figuras tractem. Sunt autem minu- 
tiores qusedam exornationes pcene innumerae ; quas omnes pluribus verbis 
percurrere, non eft neceflarium : juvat tamen injigniores quafdam prius 
proferre, quam de fidta. Perfonarum induflione loquar, quae tranflationis eft 
fpecies audaciflima, & omnium gentium, ac pracipue Afiaticorum, poefi 
incredibilem afFert fuavitatem. 

Ac primum verbi ejufdem Iteratio admodum elegans efle videtur ; ut 
in illo poetse Arabici f verfu, 

^jLv^lC Ov>JJlj ItXC OyJjl jicXiii UticX^ 

" Violent! fuimus inimkitia, tanquam leo, & leo iratus." 
nee eft in Graeco fermone invenufta, ut Theocritus^, 

Iv ugtrtv, 

ubi videarit harum minutiarum indagatores vocum C-^J, wb, & Xis, cum 
fono turn fenfu affinitatem. 

Nee minus lepida eft Agnominatio^ quam Grsci naQovopcuriav, Arabes 
/v^xxsH appellant : fit autem, cum ad res diflimiles fimilis vox in eodem 
verfu accommodatur. Hac figura ita deleclantur AJiatici^ nullam ut oc- 
cafionem amittant, qua earn commode uiurpent : fie Hafez, 

CXwJ Ajl^-AJ TKM U C-\j> l-^L-AJ M J\ 

j> 7' y j ~ 

" Ab amore religionis ad cyathi defiderium tranfit." 


f In libro Hamafia. J Theocr. Idyll, xiii. 



Nam Peiman religionem, Peimdne vero cyathum fignificat. Et in eodem 


~j o c ^ / ^<-> < ^ T? 
Dil her dilddri reff t gian bergiandne jhud. 
" Cor ad cordis raptricem, anima ad amicam difceflit." 

Idem alibi, 

V|^> t^-o It-r^ (j\fj <*iTj' 

Terki Turcani Khatha nebudfa-vab. ' . 
" Formofas Tartarian puellas relinquere, non decet." 

Ke ber tarfi chemenzarejh hemikerded cbeman abru. 
" Nam in f horti ejus extremitate delicate movet fupercilium ejus." 

etenim Cbemen hortus eft, & Chemdn kerden delicate incedere. 
Adde hue pulchram illam fententiam, 

*^j ^b Jl A^AjJ &j ! 

An held nebud ke ez bdla bud. 
" ^Erumna quas a fuperis venit, asrumna non eft." 

& illam Arabicam, 

L^lti v^LXJIj JoU JU! 

Elmdl mail <waeddheheb dhahib. 
*' Divitiae dilabuntur, & aurum fugit." 

Nee omittendi funt elegantes poetae Turcici verfus, 

" O Deus, ne me ad fepulchrum (fene) perducas, 

" Donee amicae gremium (fene fene) amplexu teneam." 

f Pulchram adolefcentulae faciem cum horto comparat poeta. 

VOL. II. 3 N Elegia 


Elegia Arabica in tertio caplte citata annominationibus uriice conftat, 
iifque lepidiffimis, ut 

j!J,l eXb' Jti ju ^jl,'* 

" jfcftivas Naoma manfiones : oh, fuaves (nam) manfiones !" 

*' An ftrepit (lala) in monte La/a nubes tonans & pluviofa ?" 

Haud fum nefcius hanc exornationem a plerifque contemni tanquam 
nimis concinnam & puerilem ; & profeclo in linguis Europ&is parce 
admodum fumenda eft : re&e ait auclor rhetoricorum ad Herenniumf, 
" Quas funt ampla & pulchra diu placere poflunt : quas lepida & con- 
" cinna, cito fatietate afficiunt aurium fenfum faftidioffimum. Quomodo 
" igitur, fi crebro his generibus utemur, puerili videbimur elocutione de- 
c< ledari : ita fi raro has interferemus exornationes, & in caufa tola 
" varie , difpergemus, commode luminibus diftindtis illuftrabimus ora- 
" tionem." 

Quae vero de oratione dicit, ad poemata transferri poflunt, ita tamen 
ut hae feftivitates ad leviora carminum genera quam ad elata & heroica, 
videantur efle accommodatiores. Nee eft tamen negandum quin Anno- 
minatio infignem afFerat Sermonibus Afiaticis pulchritudinem. Itaque 
ea etiam facros Vates Hebraeos deleftari invenimusj. 

Nunc vero ad npoo-wTroTroiaf, feu Perfonse indudionem, veniamus. Ea 
eft quaii animata Allegoria, quae tranflationum eft continuatio ; tranflatio 
autem occultam fimilitudinem femper compleftitur. Sic " gena tan- 
" quam rofa" fimilitudo eft, imagine a natura deprompta : " rofa gena- 
" rum ejus" eft tranflatio : <f genarum rofas oculorum pluvia irrigat" 
feft AHegoria; & duas complectitur tranflationes. Similiter, " Rofa 

f Lib. iv. + Micha. cap. i. ver. 10, & alibi centies. 

" horti 


" horti rofae genarum tuarum dixit. Ambse formofae fumus ; fed tu per- 
" petuo nites, ego celeriter defiorefco," fifta; perfonae eft inductio. 

Atque in hac audacifllma figura mirifica ilia & quafi magica poefeos 
vis unice elucet; & maxime apud poetas Afiaticos, qui earn frequen- 
tiffime ufurpant. Apud eos enim omnia vivunt, omnia animantur. 
Colloquuntur inter fe flores, aves, arbores : perfonam etiam induunt 
notiones illae abftra<t<c, pulchritude, juftitia, moeror, hilaritas ; rident 
prata, canunt fylvaj, latatur coelum ; rofa Zephyro dat mandata lufciniae 
perferenda ; lufcinia rofae pulchritudinem defcribit ; & cum laetiores illas 
imagines relinquant, gladius magni regis gemmis ornatus lunae ait ' Tu 
* corona mea es ; & vergiliis, Vos tanquam veftem induo.' Omnis de- 
nique naturae immenfitas tanquam theatrum eft, in quo nihil eft tarn a. 
vita ac fenfu remotum, quin perfona indutum in fcenam prodeat, & voce 
diftincta loquatur. 

Hujus figuras duo genera funt ; alterum, cum ficlis perfonis atque in- 
animis vox & oratio tribuitur ; alterum, cum poeta rem vita carentem 
tanquam animatam alloquitur: nam verx perfonae indudbio, vel potius 
in aliam perfonam tranfitus, inter figuras nefcio an rede numeretur: 
non eft certe tranflationis fpecies, Sed, ut ut fit, frequens eft ejus in poefi 
Afiatica ufus ; contineo me ab exemplis ; unum tantum proferam. In 
libri Buftan initio, Mohammedis laudes poeta percenfet, & tandem hos 
verfus efFundit vere magnificos : 

j i<*j** 

^j uxX-o j \ 5 ts>..j 
l-j '^Jji &?*> ^)^ ff 





V JLsr' 
V Jb C 



Qui una nodte nobiliter evedus fuper asthera afcendit 
Illuc, ubi angeli nequeunt pervenire : 
Qui in coelefti hoc itinere tarn longe progrefTus eft, 
Ut illic ubi confiftere cogitur Gabrielis, non conftiterit : 
Turn dixit illi Gabrieli dominus templi Meccani, 
O tu qui oracula portas, propius accede ; 

*' Quoniam amicitiam meam perfectam adeptus es, 

" Quare colloquii noftri frena laxas ?" 

* Refpondit : " Non eft ampliiis ubi veniam locus, 
** Illic conflfto, ubi pluma3 mex vi careant : 

*' Si vel minime altius evolem, 

" Jubar glorise tuae fplendentis alas meas liquefaciet." 

* Nemo peccatis immerfus diu manet 

* Qui talem Vatem ducem habeat !' 

Quse defcriptio quam nobilis eft, quam elata ! 

Sed illuc redeo, unde paullum dilapfa eft oratio. Primum itaqtte 
hujus figuras genus eft, cum fidhx perfonae datur vox & fenfus ; cujus 
generis exempla qu?edam infigniora fubjiciam. In amatoriis Perfarum 
carminibus faspe inducuntur loquentes lufcinias & rofse ; ut in illo Sadii 


" Scifne, quid mihi dicat lufcinia ilia matutina ? 
" Tu quifnam homo es, qui amoris fis ignarus ? 

Sic Hafez elegantiflime, 


" Pete vinum, fparge flores : quid a fortuna quaeris ?" 

Putamus primo afpedu hxc a poeta proferri, fed ftatim fubjungit, 
" Hasc mane dixit rofa," 

( deinde ad Lufciniam orationem fledtit, 

" Tu autem, lufcinia, quid ais ?" 

hoc eft, " an amicae tuse aflentiris ?" 
Similiter alio loco, 

a l^s^ /^c -l^. L-^Ua^e *S. ,^T^5 '^-^r^' 

*=. C^IT^ oU**jti <J-^ J^ <^**wl ^j-y 

" Gemfhidum (regem antiquum) & mirificum ejus poculum noli 

quasrere : poculum vini pete ; 
*' Ea enim vox eft lufcinia^ narratricis in horto regis." 

Et alibi, 

L) (M-jJ 

** Lufcinia rofae fuaviter coloratas folium in roftro habuit, 
" Et in illo folio dulces querelas & gemitus edidit : 

" Dixi 


" Dixi illi, In ipfo congrefiu quid vult ifta querimonia & lamen- 

tatio ? 
" Dixit : Nos ad hoc opus amici faftus redigit." 

Ejufdem generis eft lepidum hoc f viols & rofae colloquium, 
/^jlxj (jii^Lj CX-> <_}-~ U*"!_ 

" Her! fie rofam allocuta eft viola, & fuaviter fenfa fua explica- 

" Splendorem meum terris, cujufdam (formofse puella?) cincinnus 


Poflum innumera hujus figurae exempla e poetis Arabicis expromere ; 
fed unum atque alterum fufficiet. Ac primum fubjungam perelegantes 
verficulos principis illuftriflimi & venuftiffimi poetse Ebni'1 Fiadh |, 

* tSiuLj JW,c vxio xJ' ^ 



* Surge, & affer, dum fonant tibia & cithara, 

* (Neu gaudium certum incerto permutes) 

* Cyathum, cui, coetum congregatum afpiciens, 
' Dicit Hilaritas, " Surge non repulfus ; 

*' Nos teftes fumus, & lyrae moduli nobis annunciant, 
" Filium nubium racemi filiam ducere." 

Quam Isetus perfonarum conventus ! Vides animis & vita donata, po- 

f Vid. Cap. v. feu Ode, & Cap. x, de Imaginibus. J In libro Yatimato'ddehri. 



cula, laetitiam, muficam, aquam, vinum. Per nuptias enim Jilii nubium 
& uvarum filice pulchre innuitur vini cum aqua temperatio. Facile 
docto Arabi Taalebio j~ aflentior, qui hos verfus in fuo genere admira- 
biles putat : fed Arabice legantur necefle eft ; Latine enim ne adumbrari 
quidem poteft eorum pulchritudo ac lepos. Hue addatur mirificus in 
Timiin hiftoria locus (quam hiftoriam poema nobiliflimum audeo dicere) 
ubi Hyems cum invicto illo heroe inducitur colloquens : 



tj Ul JlJ * WJ -* J * < -^ ::> '' cx-o 

j t^o (_>_--e ejsr ^j^ul ^->^yj (j*^A-Jl U1>O-J 

..^^ . t-jsjj L t. ^o ucj,. 3 U 

TT^ ^y oj^i ^y 


* Circumibat autem illos Hyems cum ventis fuis vehementibus, & fpai'fit 

* inter eos flatus fuos glaream difpergentes; & in eos concitavit ventos 

* fuos frigidos, ex oppofito flantes ; & poteftatem in eos conceffit ge- 

* lidis fuis procellis: & in ejus (TimuriJ confeflum defcendit, & eum 

* inclamans, allocuta eft : " Lente, O infaufte, & leniter incede, O 
" tyranne injufte ! quoufque tandem hominum corda igne tuo com- 

f Vid. libram Yatlmah. Part. I. cap. iv. verba Tbdlciii funt, 

jj _Xj ^r 

&C. /^AJUjU J> 


" bures? 


" bures ? & jecinora seftu & ardore tuo inflammabis ? Quod fi una 

" es ex infernis animis, equidem animarum altera fum ; & nos fenes 

" fumus, qui continue occupamur in regionibus & fervis fubjugandis; 

" & ftellse maleficae (Mars & Saturnusj in conjunctione funt infau- 

" ftiffimx. Et fi animas occldis, & auras frigidas reddis, at auras 

" meae gelidse te funt frigidiores ; aut fi in tuis catervis (milites) fint 

" qui fideles fuppliciis vexent, impellant, percutiant : at in diebus 

" meis, Dei adjutu, eft id quod magis vexet & percutiat. Et per 

" Deum, tibi nihil remitto. Cape igitur id, quod ad te attuli ; & per 

" Deum, non te defendent, O fenex, a leti frigore, carbonum in foco 

" ardor, nee in menfe Decembri flamma." 

Nunc ad alterum hujus figurse genus veniamus : idque fit, cum rem 
vita ac ratione carentem poeta alloquitur ; velut in illo dulciffimo Am- 
ralkeifi carmine, 


" O longa nox, ne, obfecro, difcutiaris 

" Per auroram ; nee enim eflet aurora te praeftabilior." 

Sed nullum hujus generis exemplum mihi occurrit infignius, quam illud 
Hafezi carmen, quo adolefcentuli pulchritudinem, fub puellas fcilicet 
pcrfona, venuftiflime defcribit, verfa perpetub oratione ad auram, ad 
rofam, ad narciflum, ad herbas, ad cupreflum, &, quod audacius effe 
videbitur, ad intellectum : 

" O aura, amici habes odorem, 

** Inde munus fuave-olens (mofchatum) affers." 



' 5 

1 "' 


" Cave ; noli furari (ciowt^Jl^ci longam babens manum^ id eft, Fur) 
" Cum cincinno ejus ecquid babes negotii ?" 

" O rofa, ubi es, pras vultu ejus nitido ? 
" Ille mofchus eft ; tu autem fpinas habes. 

sLj Us/ y o Las^ 

** Herba odorifera, ubi es, prae recenti ejus lanugine ? 
" Ea floret, tu autem marcefcis." 

*J**2b4 IJSE j' 

" Narcifle, ubi es, prae ebrio ejus oculo ? 

" Ille temulentus eft, tu autem crapula afficeris. 

" O cuprefle, cum ftatura ejus procera, 
" In horto, quam habes affinitatein ?" 

" O intelleftus, cum amoris ejus exiftentia, 

" (Si) in poteftate tua (eflet) quam haberes eleftionem ? 

" Unum diem veni ad Hafezi congreflum, 
** Si quidem cunctandi poteftatem habes." 

Quam pulchrse imagines ! Comparatur odor cincinnorum fuavifllmus 
VOL. ii. 30 cum 


cum zephyro mofchum afflante ; facies formofa cum rofa, ita tamen ut 
longe nitidior efle videatur ; lanugo in genis fuccrefcens, cum herbis 
recentibus : oculi languid! & quafi ebrioli cum teneris narciffi floribus ; 
ftatura cum cuprefli ramulo ; qu;i comparatione etiam Grjeci utuntur ; 
ut Alcceus, 


quibus fimilitudinibus (eft enim perfonse indudHo, ut antea dixi, tranfla- 
tionis fpecies, tranflatio autem fimilitudo brevis) quid delicatius efle po- 
teft, quid venuftius ? Mirum eft fane quantas iuavitates in tam breve 
carmen poeta incluferit. Hanc odam (utpote quae ad Anacreontic laudem 
prope accedat) verfibus Anacreonteis Grsce reddidi : 



Mvpov ex. rfepuv T^sxK 
up \v xopaurt 

Aye dij. rt Syr' e 


PoSov civSt 

e<r(t' o 

ff $' 

Zu oy, -j- Xe/pjoi;, T 
f Attici florc'm narciffi Xii f io vocabant. Suid. 


ct oupx Trades a 
Li) 01; xettrext voyuSef. 
K.V7Tuprtre, py n 
'Pa&voTf Ivl JcAa<5/(nto<?, 
PoLOtvurepov yap eflv 

<rufjt,oci voci^of. 
ijTop, aVr' tpuro; 

m' * 'O. " 

Ti XEV ^pe-JW ee 

yap QotvevTos, u 



JD? arcana Poematum Significatione, 

figuris Afuticae didtionis fatis, ut arbitror, diflerui ; & fatis fus 
oftendi nullas in Arabum ac Perfarum poefi vel verborum vel fenten- 
tiarum exornationes defiderari. Attamen, nequis nobis locus intatu$ 
relinquatur, de occulto illofenfu, quern in poematibus Afuticorum ama- 
toriis latere nonnulli exiftimant, paucis difputabo : & quoniam nihil efle 



puto veritatis inveftigationi inimicius aut magis peftiferum-, quam fen- 
tentias fimulationem, dicam aperte quid fentiam, nee argumenta celans 
quibus opinionem meam confirmem, nee aliorum fententias repudians, fi 
quis in illis veritatis color eluceat. 

Sunt igitur in linguis Afiaticis, ac praecipue Perfica, carmina poene in- 
numerabilia, quorum idem eft argumentum unufque fere perpetuus tenor. 
Nempe in iis continua ferie laudantur amores ac deliciae, voluptates, vina, 
odores, ludi, convivia ; & reliqua quae fenfibus blandiuntur: accedunt 
humanaz pulchritudinis laetae admodum defcriptiones ; intexuntur loci 
illi communes, de fortunae temeritate, de honorum ac falfae religionis con- 
temtione ; incertos efle rerum humanarum eventus, &c brevem lucis ac 
vitas ufuram ; amoris autem fuavitates celeriter deflorefcere ; oportere 
igitur voluptates, dum licet, rapere, & 

ironfv TI 01 f yovv ^Xwpev"f". 

nihil enim efle amore fuavius, nihil quod magis hominem deceat. Ex- 
ponuntur etiam es quae in amore infunt variae perturbationes, dolor, 
aegritudo, defiderium, fpes, laetitia; nunc amator abfens languet, dolet, 
illachrymat, nunc ob amicae confortium vehementer exultat & triumphat. 
Haec autem omnia defcribuntur mira fententiarum varietate, verborum 
elegantia, imaginum fplendore, & tranflationum pulcherrimarum copia. 

Poets, qui horum carminum laude floruerunt, funt innumeri ; quorum 
tamen facile principatum obtinet ille, de quo jam didlum eft J Hafez ; 
cujus politiflimum carmen, cum adumbratione Latina, idcirco hie ap- 
ponam, ut horum carminum, de quibus fum proxime locutus, percipiatur 

natura : 

jLu i '!_>ii .iLtj LoLw 

_ / ... T T .. 

^>Lo u^U ^Gw ,cLw jtxXj 

Puer, vini cyathum affer, 

Unum atque alterum vini puri cyathum affer. 

t Theocr. Idyll. XIV. J Vide Cap. V. &c. 




Remedium amoris segritudinis, hoc eft, vinum, 
(Illud enim feaum & juvenum medicina eft) afFer. 

Sol & luna funt vinum & cyathus, 
In mediil luna folem afFer. 

Illide ignem ilium nobis liquidum, 

Hoc eft, ignem ilium aquae fimilem afFer. 

Si rofa tranfit, die, vultu hilari 

Vinum purum tanquam aquam rofarum, afFer. 

Strepitus lufciniz fi non manet, oportet 
Strepitum poculorum afFeras. 

Ob temporum mutationes ne fis triftis, fed identidem 
Concentum citharas & fidium afFer. 



Congreflum illius, nifi in fomno, videre nequeo, 
Medicinam (vinum), qua? fomni origo fit, affer. 

_H3 f,(^* 8^1=?. A2a *AJ*KX &^j-> 

Quod fi ebrius fum, ecquid eft remedii 1 alium calicem 
Ut prorfus fenfibus deftituar, afFer. 


Unum atque alterum cyathum Hafezo da, 
Seu peccatum fit, feu fa&um laudabile, afFer. 

Quam odam ita reddldi : 

AfFer fcyphos, & dulce ridentis men 

Purpureos latices 
EfFunde largius, puer. 
Nam vinum amores lenit adolefcentium 

Difficilefque fenum 
Emollit segritudines. 
Solem merum aemulatur, & lunam calix ; 

Neftareis foveat 
Pic luna folem amplexibus. 
Flammas nitentes fparge : vini fcilicet 

Fervidioris aquam 
Flammae nitentis aemulam. 
Quod fi rofarum fragilis avolat decor, 

Sparge, puer, liquidas 
Vini rubefcentis rofas. 
Si devium Philomela deferit nemus, 

Pocula laeta canant 
Non elaboratuin melos. 



Injuriofae fperne fortunae minas ; 

Laataque mceftkiam 
Depellat informem chelys. 
Somnus beatos, fomnus amplexus dabit ; 

Da mihi dulce merum 
Somnum quod alliciat levem. 
Dulce eft madere vino. Da calices novos, 

Ut placida madidus 
Oblivione perfruar. 
Scyphum. affer alterum puer, deinde alterum ; 

Seu vetitum fuerit, 
Amice, feu licitum, bibam. 

Huic carmini aliud fubjiciam, idque in amatorio genere pulcherri- 
mum, & venuftis imaginibus unice conftans : 

Ah ! tota forma tua delicate fingitur, unufquifque locus ubi tu es, 

dulcis eft, 
Cor meum a dulci tua & mellea lafcivia hilare eft. 


Tanquam rofas folium recens, natura tua lenis eft, 
Tanquam horti iicternitatis cupreffus, ex omni parte fuavis es. 

Diffimulatio & petulantia tua dulcis eft, prima lanugo & nazvus in 

gena tua pulcher, 
Oculus & fupercilium nitida funt, ftatura tua & proceritas amabilis. 




J^ *-JO ^l*- *$ 

Virus mei rofetum a te picturis & ornamentis plenum, cordis mei odor a 
cincinno tuo jafmineum habente odorem dulcis eft. 


In amoris via a doloris torrente non eft perfugium, 
At ftatum meum ob tuam amicitiam jucundum reddidi. 

Ante oculos tuos morior ; at in ilia asgritudine 
Ob genam tuam fplendidam dolor meus dulcis fit. 

i -Irs. VM J^J X2fc.-> L 

In deferto indagandi te tametfi undequaque periculum eft, 
Tamen Hafez corde deftitutus, dum tuum adventum petit, tran- 
quille procedit. 

De vera horum carminum fignificatione magna eft opinionum diver- 
fitas. Alii proprium tantummodo fenfum agnofcunt, alii reconditius 
quiddam in iis ac divinius cenfent delitefcere. Audiamus itaque utriuf- 
que fententise defenfores. Aiunt quidam animos humanos, in corporum 
vinculis & compagibus inclufos, eodem fere modo (fed longe vehemen- 
tius) in divinum omnium rerum procreatorem affici, quo in arnicas 
amatores ; nam ut amantes amicarum recordantur, fi qua res eorum 
oculis obverfetur, qua? aliquam habeat cum amato corpore cognationem, 
fie animas noftras vitse fuperioris recordatione & defiderio languefcere, 
fi quando divinae pulchritudinis adumbratam quandam effigiem videa- 
mus. Hunc autem amorem ita efle ardentem, ut ad infaniam quandam, 

& quafi 


Sc quafi iKfua-tv accedat : & quoniam ea eft mentium humanarum im- 
becillitas, ea fermonum, quibus utuntur homines, inopia, ut verbis ad 
hunc ardorem rite exponendum accommodatis careant, necefle eft poetae, 
coelefti illo furore & divina permotione incitati, iis utantur imaginibus 
& verbis, quae maximam habeant cum fuis conceptibus affinitatem. 
Cum autem ii, qui divino amore inflammentur, tanquam ebrii, a mentis 
fenfu abftrahantur, nihil aptius efle poteft, quam ebrietatis imaginem ad 
hunc diviniorem rationis amiffionem transferre. Hinc ofculorum, hinc 
amplexationum, hinc deliciarum, atque amcenitatum omnium in Perfa- 
rum carminibus defcriptiones ortum habuerunt, quae ad proprium fen- 
fum reftringi nullo modo debent. Atque hoc ipfi poetae fatis aperte 
declarant ; fie Hafez, 


Ebrius eft folummodo aeterni fcederis amore, 
Is qui, more Hafezi, vinum purum bibat. 

Jucundum cor fit illi, qui Hafezo fimilis 
Poculum vini seterni fcederis capiat. 
& alibi, 

4} UM _j& 

J &3 

Amoris ebrietas capiti tuo non ineft ; 
Abi : tu enim fucco uvarum ebrius es. 
& Sadi, 

tXo O 

VOL. ii. 3 p 



Forfan unus amoris odor te inebriabit, 
Et faciet te fcedus divinum quserere. 

Sic etiam poeta Turcicus Ruhi Bagdadi^ 

lj| O-v>*Jl CAM** / ^ Ul>L>l-cL /Jjbf 1J 

jr S^ -7^ ^ > 

Noli putare nos uvae fucco ebrios efle, 

Nos eas tabernas colimus, ubi divini fcederis vino inebrieinur. 

Hasc illi. Nunc prodeant ii qui huic fententias adverfantur. Damus, 
inquiunt, hsec, fi de tranflatione vel fimplici vel etiam continuata loqua- 
mini ; fed hxc tranflatio per longum poema perpetua ferie deduci nullo 
pafto poteft. Licet poetse religiofo dicere, fe ad divinum numen acce- 
dere non minus ardenter cupere, quam amator amicam videre ; fed non 
utique licet propriam notionem penitus dimittere, & imaginibus ab 
amore humano petitis per longiffimum opus perpetuo uti. Id qui fa- 
ciunt, aenigmata non verfus fcribere cenfendi funt. 

Permuta enim imaginem : dulciflime certe & tenerrime inquit vates 

by :nyn "?^3 
\ riyn WM p 

Velut cervus rivos aquarum ardenter defiderat, 
Sic tui defiderio, Deus, anima mea flagrat. 

Cuiquamne vero concederemus, ut continuo carmina perlonga contex- 
eret, in quibus de rivulis, de cervis, de fitis aegritudine, de herbarum 
amcenitate, de fylvis ac pratis folummodo loqueretur ? Quae autem nar- 
rant de anima noftra in corporis catenis inclusa, vitaeque divinioris defi- 
derio flagrante, & quse fequuntur, ea fere funt Platonica. At quidnam 
efle caufae putemus, cur Platonis viri graviffimi verficulos de Agathone, 
de Aftere, de Dione, de Archianafsa, nemo unquam extiterit, qui ad 



fenfum reconditiorern interpretaretur ; quse vero poetae Afiatici, homines, 
ut fcimus, admodum voluptuarii, de amoribus ac deliciis fcribunt, ea 
divina, ea pietatis plena, ea pvrypiov quoddam continere dicamus ? Multa 
mt a Grsecis poetis, ac prsefertim a Lyricis, & cogitata & fcripta venuf- 
tiflime ; quae] tamen nemo eft nifi fimpliciter & proprie interpretatus. 
Quid ? fex illos elegantes verficulos, qui cum poefi Perfica mirifice con- 

KJ yXyvut Xourni<nv uw ofyutnv 

rTrXa/^i/wv ypttiQuv SIKTVK, j^ 
Koci petrol yXuyoivTS?, ev^wytf, iptego 

ad proprium fenfum reftringendos, nemo eft qui non cenfeat : illos vero 
Hafezi verfus, 

yt*J (j[)l !^X(**^e C^V/ l^hV^ **^ A^9j-> 

I'l l*f\l 

o ljl O I^C;I Jl 
Capit vefica Sinenfis odorem mofchi ab illis crinibus, 
Crines autem talem odorem ab ilia gena recipiunt : 
In terram demittitur cupreflus lafciya ob illam ftaturam, 
Pudore afFefta fedet rofa horti ob illam genam : 
Verecundans abit flos jafmini ob illud corpus, 
Sanguinem ftillat color floris purpurei {Argovan) ob -illam genam. 

Hos, inquam, verfus ad divinum nefcio quid pertinere exiftimant, 
Quid ? cum fcribat Mimnermus, belle, ut folet, 


T)f 3y Qios, r} Jij Ttpmiov a.n\i 

TeSmlyv, art pot fapten ravTot jweXo*, 

quifquamne arbitratur poetam per auream illam Venerem per dulcia amoris 
dona, per furtivos illos complexes, pietatem & divinum amorem intelli- 
gere ? Cur ideo putemus Mefihium, poetam Turcicum, cum dicat ele- 

Ax>M Lj AS-^ 

Ne me, Deus, in fepulchrum perducas, 
Donee amicae meae gremium amplexu teneam, 

quippiam reconditum aut coelefte innuifle ? Quid ? verfus illos Hafe- 

i b' ~t ( 

Pulvinar in rofarium affer, ut pulchri pueri & ancillse 

Labia premas, genas ofculeris, & vinum bibas rofas odore prasditum. 

& illos, 

A gena puella3, nymphas fimilem habentis vultum, 
Tanquam Hafez, merum hauri. 

f In alio codice legitur : 


Quid dulcius eft quam in horto amicae & amici 

Labia premere, & genas fuaviari, vinura bibere, & rofas olfacere ? 

& ilium 


& ilium ardenti affedu plenum, 

F*ty!"* O^> U^^J (^^ (.' AJ V^ f. fd 
Labium fuper labium pone, 6 vini miniftra, & dulcem meam animam 

annon ad terrenes amores fpe&are cenfendum eft ? 

Quod fi plura argumenta ex ipfis poetarum Afiaticorum carminibus 
depromenda fmt, permulta proferre poflimus exempla, quibus perfpicuum 
fit Hafezo atque aliis, Mohammedem & ipfam religionem ludibrio fuifle j 
velut cum dicat, 

Acre illud (vinum) quod vir religiofus (Mohammedes) matrem pec- 

catorum vocitat, 

Optabilius nobis ac dulcius videtur quam virginis fuavium. 

jrAJUXC <~-j(j 4->fj*l Ov>M*o U) 
(*jLT (J^XXMjAwg XJ <JLAj*J>' <5U 

Nos vino puro amoris inebriamur, 

Fontes autem coeleftes (Salfebil & Cafur) non fitimus. 

Et alibi plus millies. 

Ac profeclo fatis intelligere nequimus, cur poetas credamus hujufmodi 
involucris ac tegumentis velle celare eas virtutes, quibus nihil laudabilius 
efle poteft, pietatem ac Dei cultum ; amores vero impudicos, & qui 
maxime humano generi dedecori fint, aperte profiteri. Multo certe veri- 
fimilius eft, poetas illos, utcunque fenfum quendam occultum innuere 
videantur, eo folum prastextu uti, ut cives fuos credulos & religiofos de- 
cipiant, & voluptatibus liberius indulgeant. Ac ne ipfis quidem Perfis, 
(doctioribus fcilicet) Hafezi carmina arcanam habere fignificationem vifa 



funt : nam Sadius, omnium eruditiflimus interpretum, proprium tantum 
verborum fenfum in illius verfibus explicat. Prseterea memoriae prodi- 
tum eft (illo poeta mortuo), primaries urbis Shirazi viros, fepulturam ei 
ob carminum impudicitiam concedere noluifle ; cum verb magna eflet 
inter eos concertatio, aliis ut fepeliretur fuadentibus, aliis vehementer de- 
hortantibus, ad fortes fe contulifle, & ipfius poetae librum divinationis 
caufa .aperuifle ; cum autem primus, qui fefe illis obtulit verfus, eflet, 

* j\ j\(^c ?J& f<^> t 

w*^Lo v_5^i A^. S\ 

Greflum noli retorquere ab Hafezi exequiis, 
Tametfi enim peccatis demerfus fit, in coelum intrabit. 

facerdotes illicb confenfifle, & poetam humaviffe in illo loco, Mofella 
dido, quern ipfe in carminibus celebraviflet. Ita difputant utriufque fen- 
tentias propugnatores : equidem veterum Academicorum morem, nihil ut 
affirmem, ftrenue tenebo j ita tamen ut non negem, quin mihi difputatio 
fecunda ad veritatem propenfior efle videatur. 

f Ultimus verfus eft pulcherrimi carminis, cujus inidum; 

Ovix-J >*?**J (^) L^N^J _^ I tX^ccXye &S*Ji+S 

Nunc cum ex horto aura paradifi veniat, 

Ego & vinum Isetltiam praebens,- & fodalis cujus forma nymphae coelefti fimilis eft (con- 




, . 
De Elato dicendi genere. 

.L/AUDARE Afiatlcam poefin, & quanti flint in ea venuftatis atque ele- 
gantiarum floras, exponere, non ut philofophus, fed ut narrator, inftitui. 
Itaque de Elatione dicendi quam breviffime potero, difleram; eamque 
primo definiam. Id eft igitur Elatum, quod fit incertum, horridum, ob- 
fcurum, periculofum, vaftum, difficile, turbulentum ; & quod eos qui 
legunt ufque adeo percellat, ut admirentur, vereantur, tumultuentur, ex- 
horsefcant, doleant, ftupeant. Sunt autem Elationis prascipui fontes, 
terror, magnificentia, potentia, & in ea defcribenda brevitas. Alii funt 
quafi fonticuli, fed qui omnes terror! fubjunguntur, ut folitudo, filentium, 
caligo ; intermiflio, eaque vel fonorum, ut luporum ululatus in fylva 
noctu auditus, vel lucis : ad fummam quodcunque fenfibus eft maxime 
injucundum, id cum defcribatur, Elatam reddit poefin. 

Ac primum de Terrore loquar ; ad quern excitandum aptiffimae funt 
tempeftatum ac tonitrus imagines. Nam 

- cui non animus formidine Divum 
Contrahitur ? cui non correpunt membra pavore, 
Fulminis horribili cum plaga torrida tellus 
Contremit, & magnum percurrunt murmura coelum ! 

Sic in Jobi poematef, 

ftp tani yiatf iyn^ 
: rc^ VSD n^m 
^D^n *?D nnn 
mM3 by vwi 

f Cap. xxxvii. 24. 



Vipn. DJTV 
Audite attente ftrepitum vocis ejus, 
Et fremitum (qui) ex ore ejus egreditur, 

Sub totum coelum eum dirigit, 
Et lucem ejus in alas terrae, 
Poft eum tonat vox, 
Rugit voce dignitatis fuse. 

Sic etiam omnium poetarum poft Afiaticos altifllmus, f .^fchylus, 


Jjf, spates 8" Bx^ctf 

iruQOi, -$opoi Si] KOVIV 
i. 2x<pToT S" dvtf 

8" CtlSyp TirOVTU. 

Et ilia nota, 

Tenebrae conduplicantur, nodifque & nimbum occsecat nigror, 
Flamma inter nubes corufcat, coelum tohitru contremit ; 
Grando mifta imbri largifluo fubita praecipitans cadit j 
Undique omnes venti erumpunt, fsevi exiftunt turbines. 

Sic rursus in Jobi libroj, 


: b3 1D3 yarn 

In terram caliginis, & tenebrarum, 
Terrain craflam, inftar caliginis, 
Tenebras, ordine carentes, 
Et lucis radios tanquam caliginem. 

f Prometh. Awfuir. ver. 1080. J Cap. x. ai, aa. 



Porro voces ill* Djn nriD Tonitrus latebra; mrr *^o Angelus Dei; 
mote N^ /-W//V tenebrarum ; mir ^ip Z) i;<w ; /WN13 in principle, 
idcirco funt altiflimae, quod imagines praebeant incertas, terribiles, mag- 
nificas, infinitas, & quas humanse mentis anguftiae nullo modo poffint 

Prseterea conceptus tenebrarum ad Elationem funt accommodati ; quam 
rem fenfit nimirum Euripides, cum diceret 

Hinc oritur verfuum in Apollonii Argonauticis fublimitas, 

-- UTrep jweya Xa~Tjt*a SeovTcts 
Ni)| ttpo&tt, ryv Trcp re KT8\aJa KiKXy 
NUKT' oXoiji/, m oifpot $t't$%/xviv, v 
Myvys. OvgctvoSev <Je ftAa/%poof, ^6 rig 
'fl(>u(>ei (TKOT/ij fx.wxfi.Tuv i/(S(ra QegeSpcav. 

Sed praecipue excelfa efle videtur caliginis imago, cum infinitate & terrore 
conjundtae, ut in illis verficulis, 

' EvQsv rov xTretftov IqevyovTat <TKOTOV 


quibus vix quidquam dici poteft fublimius. 

Hanc ob caufam valde e'xcelfa eft fabula in Afia decantata de regione 
tenebrarum, & oceano caliginis, de quibus multa narrant Arabes. Sic 
Mohammedes in Alcorani capite quarto & vicefimo, five i>J! 5 

" At infidelium opera caligini funt fimilia in oceano profundo, quem 
fluclus fuper fludus tegunt, & fuper eos, nubes ; caligini fuper aliam 

Porro autem quodcunque incertum eft terrorem quendam fecum affert ; 

ideoque ad Elationem accommodatur : cujus rei non eft infignius exem- 
VOL. ii. 3 ct plum, 


plum, quam illud quod ex f Jobi poemate citat in | libro Anglko vir 
difertiffimus, Edmundus Bourke, 

nw?riD D'sytio 
by rrcmn "7333 
rnjrn \np ins 
:Tns>n rniDsy m 
03 ^>y mm 


In cogitationibus a vifionibus noilis, 

Cum cadat fopor in homines, 

Metus me invafit ac terror, 

Et omnia ofla mea tremefecit, 

Et fpiritus ante faciem meam tranfivit, 

Eree fleterunt carnis mese pili, 

Subftitit, fed eum intueri non potui, 

Simulachrum fuit ante oculos, 

Silentium fuit, & vocem audivi, 

" An homo Deo juftior ? 

" An creatore fuo purior mortalis?" 

t Cap. iv. 1317. J De Elatione & Venuftate, Par. II. Cap. iv. 

Infigne hujus rei exemplum ft in Xenophontis Ephefiaci libro jucundiffimo de Anthia & Habro- 

Tu $t 'Afjoxo^ii) I^ij-aTctt yviy> o^Sijirai Qtntfa., To (xsysS- inrtf ciiSfUimi, ia^a, "iypan Ifontxr.f. imrZffiiSf ri 
raSt tlUn xainn, *tu T< f W* iro?iAiio-9ai, auroir Ji nrra ri){ ASia AajwiffSa*. Tavra ; lute? iijir, IT- 
tX$" xa "'{oeriJ'cxa 7^ iW>ei> Ix ?S 4etfaTii. Ka! TO $iul> tyinnt. Quo in loco admodum fublimes funt, 
cum crebrae terroris imagines, turn praecipufe ilia fententia Ka* TO Sunn ly'wrn. 

Eft porro excelfum, quodcunquc fubitum eft & minime expeftatum. Sic apud Callimachum 
vetulae perfonam Ceres induit, ut Erifichthonem a fylva fibi facrata csedenda dehortaretur, cum vero 
nihil perfeciflet, ira incenfa eft, 

"lo-9(tT fat Xffaif 
a quo loco fumpta funt ilia Virgiliana. 


Prasterea imaginum fplendidarum congeries quasdam & coagmentatio 
magnificam reddit orationem, adeoque excelfam : nam elationis praecipuus 
fons eft magnificentia. Ob hanc caufam admirabilis eft in f Sirachidis 
fapientia Simonis Onice filii defcriptio, 

'fi; l$o%a.<rQy ev 

Iv efcoSta K 

US <rXiji/jf srXijijf ev 

* * \ * i > 


wf TO^OI/ (f)UTt%ov sv vttye 

y- "/I 't> ' 

l? av9of podwi/ y ypepxts 

e / >>>/ /tt 

j x^i/a 7T efcoouv vourof, 

'flf EXa/as KvaQaXXvcra, 

) tag KVirctgHTtros vfytspu 

'Ev TU avctXctp&uveiv auroV $>oX^v ^o 

K, ev$i$u<rKea-3- ocvrov <rviiTf\eio 

'i/ dvafieirti Sua-ias^^v etyits 


taooure arfp 
'Ev $s TU Se 

\ t 

jv ot, 

au'rS g-t 

Uf /SXajg-'^a XEdf'rf EV TW Ai&civu, 

ity eKVKhutrav KVTOV uf S'tXey^ tyoivmuv. 

Hunc locum fane mirificum Hebraice ad verbum redditum dabo; 
quemadmodum audor fiiit in libro de Sacra Poefi ^ fcriptor admira- 
bilis, quern libenter fequor. 

f- Cap. 1. 5 13. Vide etiam de Sublimi & Venufto, Par. II. cap. xiii. 

} PraeJ. xxiv. 8vo, pag. 321. HO 


-rasa na 

"lim inty p 
nniotoa rrvai 

nan 1 ? 

naa"?i two 
pnnnn ant ^31 

ins nnsD rn 
^ntyb ny rinsa 
n !?iyDn v^jr 
:-nm nirr 

unpn nntDb n'jjrna 

H-D p^nn np^ 


Hujufmodi defcriptionibus abundantiffima funtFerdufii poemata; qua- 
rum unam, quse fe prima offert, proferam, magnificam fcilicet regis Fe- 
ridun defcriptionem, 


-U . 




Legatus dixit : " Nitidum ver 

Talem regem nunquam afpexit, aut afpiciet : 

Ver eft jucundum in eo paradifo, 

Cujus terra ambarum olet, & cujus lapides aurei funt, 

Coelum excelfum palatium ejus eft, & aula, 

Paradifus terrarum vultus ejus.fubridens eft: 

Altior aula ejus nullus eft collis, 

Latior regia nullus eft hortus. 

Cum ad elatam illam regiam acceffi, 

Caput ejus cum ftellis arcana iniit confilia. 

Ad unam manum ftetit elephas, ad alteram leo j 

Orbem terrarum, tanquam folium, fibi fubmifit. 

Super elephantis tergo folium fuit aureum, 

Et fingula leonum monilia erant gemmea j 



Lsetus acceffi ad fublimem ilium regem, 

Et afpexi folium e gemmis coeruleis fiftum, 

Regem autem lunse fimilem in eo fedentem, 

Pyropis fulgentem, & capite gerentem diadema ; 

Crines camphorae fimiles habentem, & faciem tanquam rofae fo- 

Cor sequitatis amans, & linguam dulciloquam (adipato loquentem 


Ad altitudinem etiam orationis conferunt vifiones, quas Grseci 
vocant, per quas ante oculos lectoris imagines rerum abfentium clare po- 
nuntur. Hse autem quam faepiffime a tragicis in infanias defcriptioni- 
bus ufurpantur. Exemplo fit ex ./Efchyli Choephoris locus elatilfimus. 
Oreftes, cum matrem interfeciflet, chorum alloquitur, & primum, leni 
quodam orationis tra&u : mox furore correptus, erumpit, 

* A ' * 

A , 

eg ul'Se <ytpyovuv 

(5jpaxsf<r<v. OVK er ecv piivaup tyta. 

Chorus ilium permulcere cupit, & ad lenitatem revocare, 

T/vej <re dofccti, (^iXrotr avfyu-rruv nrarp), 
STpo5<r(i' ; if%e- py $>ov, VIKUV 


OVK (0-< $o%txt ruv Se wtifAeiruv 

Eatyuf yap K'$S fM]Tpi>f tyKOT 
Turn Chorus, imprudentius, 

lloraiviov yccp cutset cot %epoiv en, 

'Ex ruv Si rot TpotyfAo$ is fyiv&s 
Ille, voce utfjt.oi inflammatus, & manum, fortafle fuam, materno fanguine 
tindam. refpiciens, ardentius furit, 

& cum 


& cum fceminse ilium confolari velint, ille decedens exclamat, 

\t~ / t \ M 

ftev UK ooetre rctg a . tyu o oga t 

\ i " >\ / / 

ay xbK IT ctv peu/aip tyu. 

Mire haec conveniunt cum f Shakefpeari noftri praeclara tragcedia, qua 
nee Graecos poetas nee Latinos quidquam habuifle puto excelfius, aut 

Reliquum eft ut pauca apponam loca, in quibus exponitur ea (qua 
nihil majus cogitari poteft), Divini numinis potentia : has autem expofi- 
tiones natura elatiflimas commendat brevitas. Quicquid in hoc genere 
habent Arabes, ab admirabili in Sacra Hiftoria loco fumi videtur, cujus 
vim & magnificentiam omnes collaudant, 

Dixit Deus, Fiat lux, & lux facta eft. 
& , 


Ille dixit, & fuit. 
Hinc illud Mohammedicum, 

Dixit, Efto, & fuit. 
quod fie amplificat poeta Arabicus, quern citat Ebn Arabihah, 



" Ne trifteris ; nam quod decrevit Deus, fiet : 
Et res commifla voci, Efto, erit : 
Dum oculum movere potes, & motum fedare, 
Status mutatur, & vir potens demittitur." 

f Macbeth. } Gen. i. 3. Pfal. xxxiii. 9. 



His addam locum vere magnificum, ex Alcorani capita undecimo, ubi 
Noae diluvium defcribit Arabum legiflator : 

r* L 

" Ea vero (area) cum illis labitur inter fluclus, tanquam montes : & 
" clamat Noa filio fuo, ille autem (natat) feparatim, " O fill, naviga 
" nobifcum, & cave fis cum infidelibus." Inquit, Afcendam mon- 
tem ; qui ex aqua me liberabit ; inquit (Noa), Non (eft) liberatio 
hodie a Dei decreto, nifi (illius) favor. Turn inter eos venit fluctus ; 
& fuit inter immerfos. Et dictum eft (vox audita eft quae diceret), 
" O terra, aquam tuam imbibe, & : O ccelum, tuam coerce ;" & inhi- 
bita eft aqua, & pera&um eft mandatum, & reftitit (area) fuper Al 
Judi (montem) & dictum eft (vox divina dixit) Apage, impios !" 

Locum hoc fublimiorem (Mofaicum ilium excipio) nunquam legi : 
ejufdem generis eft, fed longe humilior, Apuleii fententia, qui cum prae- 
donum focietatem fere invictam defcripferit, fubjungit, " Noluit efle 
*' Caefar Haemi latronis collegium, & confeftim interiit." Quantum 
illis locis qua? expofui, addit pietas ae veritas, tantum ab hoc detrahit 
infulfa regis adulatio. Videmus tamen quantam dictioni Elationem 
addat brevitas ; cujus rei alio in genere exemplum fubjiciam. Narrat 
Ebn Arabfhah in libro, qui Facahato Ikholofa infcribitur, Perfam quen- 
dam ex Bokhara incendio falvum evafifle, & cum eflet a quodam inter- 
rogatus, quid in ea urbe egerint Genghizi milites, reipondiffe, 

c __ <_ 
Irruperunt, diruerunt, combuflerunt, necaverunt, diripuerunt, difceflerunt. 



Non dubito affirmare his fex vocibus animum auditoris magis fuifle 
permotum, quam longiffima hujus caedis narratione, licet graviffimis fuerit 
inftru&a verbis, & fententiis ornata fplendidiffimis. Cum enim animus 
variarum rerum ferie ac verborum cumulo quafi obruatur, f perfectam 
imaginem formare nequit ; fed alia aliam trudit ; itaque omnia funt ob- 
fcura, omnia confufa, omnia incerta ; omnia denique fublimia. Certiffi- 
mum eft enim, dum has fex voces proferuntur, imagines exercitus irru- 
entis, occidentium & occiforum, incendii, ruins, praedationis, & victorum 
recedentium, aliarumque rerum, quae iis neceflario fubjunguntur, animo 
comprehend! neutiquam pofle. 



De Venuftate. 

per Venuftatem intelligam, compleclar brevi : Ea mihi videtur 
venufta efle poefis, cujus imagines fmt hilares, nitidas, ridentes, laetae, 
compofitio mollis & dilucida, quae denique le&oris animum permulceat, 
alliciat, obledtet, exhilaret, relaxet, & fuaviffima quadam voluptate per- 
fundat. Quibus autem modis earn in animo excitet voluptatem, non in- 
ftitui hoc loco diflerere ; fed ftatuam cum Hermogene $ quxcunque aut 

f Vide librum Anglicum De Sublimi W renufto, Part V. feft. v. 

} Hermog. triji 'I^. Lib. II. cap. iv. OTIJI TtoxiWo?. nT laa. Tr { a.\avma i(*5 ifi> iJ/, ^ 
& ~.r, a^tt, rt yivfii, y rm aM>i oato^aiiiffu, tavra, xai teyoptia. iSbi> woiu. A^ at (> tiffin euff^faa tut xaT 
iirotew iJow, ai f a ToiaSrai. Kai Ts f ax ai7Xf? * 
xat p/f*aT woixiAias xai ra ToiavTa. 

VOL. II. 3 R 


vifu, aut tactu, aut guftu, aut auditu, aut odoratu denique -fuavia funt, 
ea, cum aptis defer ibantur verfibus, magnam afFerre jucunditatem. Cu- 
jufmodi funt locorum amoenitates, horti, floras, nymphse, fontes, amores, 
delicisc, nuptiae, rivuli, lufcinise cantus, odores, zephyri, humana pulchri- 
tudo, & reliquse imagines ex natura depromptae, quas recte venuftatis 
fontes efle ait j~ Demetrius Phalereus. 

Ob hanc rem pulchri funt verfus, quos in Sympofio Platonis recitat 
Agatho, cum amorem dicat afferre, 

( ev dv9pu7roi$ } TreXays/ <J^ 

vipois, KQITVJV UTTVOVT tvi 
Hae autem imagines funt jucundiffimas : quid enim tarn jucundum, quam 
pax civitati, maris tranquillitas navigantibus, venti lenitas viatoribus, 
lectus & fomnus mcerentibus ? Nee minus lastse funt imagines in Sapphus 
verficulis, quos in libro fecundo de Forms citat Hermogenes, qui multa 
ibidem de fuavitate, ipfe quoque fuaviter, fcripfit : 

v$up ipu^peV xeXetSeT SI otrduv 

Nihil enim fere excogitari poteft dulcius, quam imago " Aquas gelidas 
" per malorum ramos murmurantis, & fomni, trementibus foliis, leniter 
" defluentis," 

Vellem profe<Stb non intercidiflent tot & tarn divina Sapphus carmina. 
Qua? fuperfunt (ut ipfius poetrise utar verbis) funt | " auro ipfo magis 
" aurea." Et tiotabile eft Demetrium, Hermogenem, Dionyfium Ha- 
licarnafleum, & reliquos artis oratoria3 magiftros, illam perpetuo citare, 
cum de venufto dicendi genere loquantur. Carmen autem in Atthida, 

at fat t TO; 
J XfwrS ^ft/aoTtja. Sapph. apud Demetr. Phal. 
Longin. wijl'T^as, Cap. x. 



tanquam elati generis exemplum profert Longinus ; a quo valde dif- 
fentio. Quam enim habent cum Elatione affinitatem Icetijfimce illaj ima- 
gines, puella fuaviter loquens, & fuaviter fubridens ? Prseterea nihil terri- 
bile aut horridum in hac Oda defcribit puella Lefbia, fed jucunduTimum 
animi motum, Amorem ; &, ab ilia ortam, totius corporis relaxationem ; 
qua? imago ab Elato dicendi genere eft alienifllma : nam corpus permul- 
cere & relaxare prascipua eft dele&ationis & voluptatis proprietas. Hinc 
Amor apud poetas Graces tafnjtwXijf, membra diffbhens, fsepiffime vocatur, 
ut Sappho, 

ijs SovtT. 

Hanc ob rem Bacchum appellari Avatov nonnulli putant ; iidemque 
vinum f %a^<v ideb nominari aiunt, qubdjb/vat & re/axef. Sed ob de- 
perdita cum Sapphus, turn etiam Erinnse,, Alcmanis, Alcsei, & Diphili, 
Apollodori, Philemonis, Alexidis, aliorumque poetarum, opera, prseclaris 
illis Grxcis iacerdotibus plurimam fcilicet debemus gratiam ! Illos enim 
eb delirationis provexit anilis fuperftitio, u complura veterum Grascorum 
poemata, eaque venuftiffima, combuflerint ; nimirum quod in illis aman- 
tium nequitiz, ut vocant, eflent defcriptac. 

Imaginum venuftatem ditionis & verborum pulchritudo fubfequitur. 
NecefTe eft enim poeta, de his Isetiffimis rebus fcribens, verboruin utatur 
^plendore & dulcedine : de qua re videndus eft Demetrius |. 

f Sic Hipponaxj 

& Archilochus apud Athenaeum, 

Ilo?^o HI ID'HOI xai ^a?.ipiT> wtfc. 

+ Aio xai pl> ri ^afittfa crtf i fxi xoXX( afivoa, xttMicn'iS; s'rt, xai ioiia, xeu tsifl iftrrui $t Hal tttfOf xal tllfi 
u^ntioiot, xai a.ita,i iutX> omfut uv<pa>Tcu alnrn ttf vitiwct. 
Et alibi, 

f OTI IIa>Jffe x 

if >> iraiunoio. 

irif TB wowa Wi* In. 



Quinetiam, ut ait Hermogenes, illae voluptates, quas Amor fecum 
affert, dele&ationem quandam praebent cum defcribantur ; fed aliis lec- 
toribus aliam ; nam lector pudicus defcriptione modefta & quafi velata 
delectatur, quails eft, 

H pa Xj a/xaj E^apTrre Kpci/K TTOUS yv zrapcix.oiTiv . 

lafcivus vero apertius quiddam poftulat, .& magis voluptuofum ; cujuf- 
modi eft ilia defcriptio, 

j" To<V; VTTO X$uv Siot (f)uev veoSyXtct -srotijv, 
AUTOV &' Iptryevra, Jg xpoxov, ffi uoixivBov 
Jlvjivov ^ petXaxov, os d-rro ^ovog JiJ/oV esp/e. 

w Ivi XedorSiiv, ITT* 

/ , \ ' <> \j\_. / w 

lilf o jui/ arpgjWaf eude TsruTyp ctvot I ap^apw a^p 


Notiffimae funt in fimili argumento Lucretii, Virgilii, Miltoni, & ali- 
orum, defcriptiones. 

Venuftarum imaginum pleniffimum eft Salomonis carmen ; quod in- 
tegrum eflet citandum, fi vellem omnes, quibus abundat, fuavitates & 
elegantias exponere. 

Ad Arabes igitur noftros ac Perfas tranfeamus ; quorum carmina prae- 
cipue commendat venuftas. 

Quam lepida hxc eft Veris defcriptio in Abi'lola carmine , 

U Jouu ^UjJl tiTtjl O6 

* JA^iU,! (C-TcXAC (JjtS y**li' 

t Iliad, g. 347. J Odyff. A, Sekto'zzind. Carm. iv. Vid. Reiikii Moall. p. 53. 




* *<yaS 

" Venit ad te Ver, ut mandata tua exequatur, tanquam fervus, 

" Terram autem tibi obediens, O tu qui ejus dominus es, prz cseteris 

regibus, viridi veftit chlamyde : 

" Ea vero fmaragdis ornatur, qui margaritis fparfis diftinguuntur ; 
" Et unufquifque collis faltare cupit, veftem indutus ex herbis fuc- 



Dulciffimum enim eft nomen Veris ; omnefque ejus defcriptiones pul- 
cherrim^. Addam carmen perelegans, quod defcriptioni epularum ob 
nuptias principum Samarcandias intexit Ebn Arabjhah^, 


_.__ _ 


Vere accedente, ciim perfedtum habet corpus hinnuleus fugax, 

Et venit laetus zephyri flatus hortis rofarum adventum annuncians, 

Murmurant rivi, & rami adorationis causa fe flectunt, 

Et convenimus in hortulis, quorum pulchritude naturam amore rapit, 

Nubes autem fuper eos elevatas in omni parte copiofos fundunt imbres. 

f Hift. Tim. p. 234. 


J^jLJI^jjb jJw UJLcJoJl Ju 
^la*. CJ*J>LJLj AAJ 


Spargit fuper eos margaritas nubium chryftallum, 
Super planitiem fericam, in qua pocula funt pyropina, 
-Dentefque funt ex jafpide, quos rifus gratia decorat, 
Oculique ex argento, blande intuentes, qui non dormiunt, 
Et fylvae rami variis nummis (roris guttis) nos afpergunt. 

^Llaj IcS^C Xs ^1 Uc A.O 
_jLc AJL- U l^Cw^l Axi cLo 
xXc /_MJ>^! 

Aves ejus (fylvae) canunt, cum in ramum afcendunt & volitant, 

Et ab odore ejus afflatur mofchus, cum ex eo defcendunt, 

Et aura fit languida, cum per colles ejus tranfeat ; 

Hortus, paradift eft, in quo eft facies lunas meas (amicse) cum fplen- 

Pit Edeni hortulus, in quo deledatur seternitas. 

Ji J 

Oh ! qualis eft in illo hilaritas, quz affert varias voluptates ! 
Nihil eft in eo praeter ofcula, & bafiationem, & blanditias, 



Et pocula rorantia, & cantionem, & quietem ; 

Si eum vidiflet vir folitarius, ab odore ejus eflet mutatus, 

Nihilque ei reftaret in eo a piis votis, praeter egeftatem. 



*jJlj ij 


Surge, fodalis, da mihi (tempus enim non admittit mcerorem) 
Poculum hilaritatis ; a cujus temperatione deleatur fortune mutatio ; 
Suave vinum, & aqua, & viriditas, & pulchra facies ! 
Ne obtemperes de his rebus reprehenfori ; eft enim feductor, tan- 

quam is 
In cujus prsecordiis eft turpis faftus ; nihil itaque dicas quod amici- 

tiam corrumpat. 


Capiti huic de Venuftate nequeo non fubjicere poetae Turcici carmen, 
quod in fuo genere perfedum vocari poteft. Poematis illius, quod Ve- 
neris Pervigilium nominatur, haud eft abflmile ; placuit igitur verfionem 
poeticam numeris Trocbaicis contextam addere : 


,.LX>J> A^cUdi> ocXib j J> 
lI Ul" 


" Audis lufcinise eantum dicentis, Ver adeft : inftruitur verno tempore in 
" omni horto conopeum: argentum fpargunt flores amygdalae. Sis 
" lastus & hilaris ; nam avolat, haud manet verna tempeftas." 

cl eb 


" Rursus variis floribus ornantur horti & prata : laetitiae causa inftruitur 
" in rofario floreum tabernaculum. Quis fcit an, dum Ver manebit, 
" quifquam fit inter nos vita fruiturus ? Sis laetus, &c. 


" Extrema pars rofeti luce Ahmedis plena eft ; inter flores, tulipas funt 
" illius fociis flmiles. Agite, Mohammedani, laetitise tempus hoc eft. 
" Sis Isetus, &c, 

|^ C^^jJl r 1 

/Jij AXwjl (_5^J I^J tW^2X9 <^>**^J LwjlyJ' -J> 

" Fadtus eft ros iterum in mucrone lilii fplendor. Roris guttas per 
'* aerem in rofarium defcendunt : fi voluptatem quasris, me, me audi. 
" Sis laetus, &c. 


Aj-Xa J^JJ *-> 


" Genae puellarum formofarum funt cum rofis lilia, quanim auribus 
" variae roris gemmae appendent. Noli te decipere, neu fperes has 
" venuftates efle permanfuras. Si lastus, 6cc. 


*' In rofario apparent tulipae, rofse, anemonas ; horto fanguinem emit- 
" tunt foils & imbrium fcalpella ; viri fagacis inftar, hunc diem cum 
" amicis hilariter tranflge. Sis Itetus, &c. 

ojj^M L.jj._Jl 3L> _Lci 
otXyu c 

j ci 

^i. ^ r U y. ^\3 
" Prseteriit tempus quo aegrots jacebant herbas ; quo rofas calyx caput in 
" fmum depofuit : adeft tempus illud, quo colles & faxa floribus or- 
** nantur. Sis laetus, &c. 

i^ ' 

UlJ AiU ' 

*' Nubes fuper rofarium matutino tempore Temper gemmas pluunt ; ha- 
" litus aurae recentis plenus eft mofcho Tartarico. Ne fis negligens, 
'* neu amore hujus vitas tenearis. Sis Isetus, &c. 

Odor rofeti ufque eo aerem dulcem reddidit, ut guttas roris, prius 

" quam in terram defcendunt, fiant aqua rofacea. .(Ether fuper hor- 

" tulum nubila, tanquam umbracultim, tendit. Sis tetus, &c. 

VOL. n. 3 s 



oU, AxJ 

J/ JoiiU 

^ V r 1 

** Rofetum (quifquls es, audij invaferat malus Auturani ventus ; fed 
** rursus apparuit Rex terrarum, juftitiam omnibus adminiftrans ; illo 
** regnante, pocillator fortunatus vino optato potitus eft. Sis Istus, 
* &c. 

Speravi equidem hoc carmine vallem hanc illuftrem reddere ; fiat illius- 
" incolis hujus convivii & harum formofarum pvypoa-vvov \ Tu lufcinia 
" es, O Me/ibi, dum incedis inter puellas rofeis genis praeditas. Sis 
" Isetus, hilaris ; nam avolat, baud manet verna tempeftas." 


Alites audis loquaces per nemora, per arbutos, 

Veris adventum canentes tinnulo modulamine ; 

Dulce luget per virentes mollis aura amygdalas : 

Nunc aman4um eft, nunc bibendum ; floreurn Ver fugit, abit I 

Ecce jam flores refulgent gemmeis honoribus, 

Quique prata, quique faltus, quique fylvulas amant : 

Quis fcit an nox una nobis dormienda asterna fit ? 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum ; floreum Ver fugit, abit ! 



Quantus eft nitor rofarum ! quantus hyacinth! decor ! 

Non ocellus, cum renidet, eft puellse laetior: 

Hie levi dies Amori eft, hie Voluptati facer. 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum ; floreum Ver fugit, abit ! 

Ecce baccatse recentis guttulss roris micant, 

Per genam rofae cadentes, perque mite lilium : 

Auribus gratum, puellse, fit meum veftris melos. 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum ; floreum Ver fugit, abit ! 

Ut rofa in prato refulget, Gic teres virgo nitet, 

Haec onufta margaritis, ilia roris gemmulis : 

Ne perenne vel puellse vel rofae fperes decus. 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum ; floreum Ver fugit, abit ! 

Afpice, ut rofeta amidu difcolori fplendeant, 

Prata dum foecundat aether Iseta gratis imbribus, 

Fervidos inter fodales da voluptati diem. 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum ; floreum Ver fugit, abit ! 

Jam fitu deformis aegro non jacet rofas calyx ; 

Ver adeft, ver pingit hortos purpurantes floribus, 

Perque faxa, perque colles, perque lucos emicat. 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum j floreum Ver fugit, nbh ! 

Ecce, per rofae papillas fuave rident guttulse, 

Quas odorifer refolvit lenis auras fpiritus ; 

Has pyropis, has fmaragdis cariores Indicis. 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum ; floreum Ver fugit, abit ! 

Is tenellis per vireta fpirat e rofis odor, 

Ut novum ftillans amomum ros in herbas decidat, 



Suave olentibus coronans lacrymis conopeum. 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum ; floreum Ver fugit, abit ? 

Acris olim cum malignis fseviit vends hyems ; 

Sed rofeto, foils inftar, Regis affulfit nitor ; 

Floruit nemus repente, dulce manavit merum. 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum ; floreum Ver fugit, abit ! 

His iners modis, Mefihi, melleam aptabas chelyn : 

Veris ales eft poeta ; verna cantat gaudia, 

Et rofas carpit tepentes e puellarum genis. 

Nunc amandum eft, nunc bibendum ; floreum Ver fugit, abit ! 



* ( 


De Poematum Afiatkorum Arguments. 



De Poefi Herolca. 

t^EPTEM efle ftatui poefeos Afiaticae fpecies, quarum fingulre, ut fuse 
ac plene exponantur, feparata capita requirunt. 

Nam aut res geftas ac bella narrat poeta, aut mortuos deflet, aut lee- 
tores monet, aut amores ac delicias pingit, aut proborum hominum & cla- 
rorum virtutes collaudat^ aut improborum vitia reprehendit^ aut denique 
naturse proprietates defcribit. Ad has fpecies omnis fere poefis redigi 
poteft. Exponam autem, quibus in argumentis praecipue floreant Afi- 
atici ; & exempla quaedam illuftriora feligam, cum ad argument! expla- 
nationem comparata, turn ad fermonis varietatem, quarum hanc jucun- 
dam efle puto, illam neceflariam. De poefi bellica primum difleram ; de 
csteris deinceps loquar. 

Veterum igitur Arabum campeftris vita atque inculta neminem fere 
latet. Erant, ut notum eft, valde feroces, vindidae & glorise cupidiffimi, 



pugnatores tandem ita acres, ut ipfa mors (perantiqui poetas utor verbis) 

illis melle dulcior efle videretur f. 

Cum adeb tributim feparati ac diftincYi viverent, fingulae tribus bellum 
cum vicinis geflerunt fere perpetuum : & quoniam illis incitatiffimi erant 
afFectus, quot inter eos heroes, tot pcene poetae admirabiles extiterunt ; 
iidemque fuerunt fsepe vicTiores & vidorias praecones. Hos adeo veros 
fuifle poetas exiftimo, & tarn elato perdignos nomine, quorum fola fuerit 
magiftra vehemens animi incitatio, & unica praeceptrix, Natura. Nee 
enim abefle poteft, quin valde fublimis fit & horrida in prteliis defcriben- 
dis gentis pugnaciffimae poefis. Credibile eft, jEfchylum e Marathonis, 
Salaminis, & Plata? prseliis, animum horridiorem & quafi bellicum ad 
tragoedias fcribendas attulifle. Hinc Alciieus, aureo pledtro, ut Quintilia- 
nus ait, donandus, militare quiddam in levioribus etiam carminibus 
cecinit : ab hoc fonte derivata eft Archilochi vis & majeftas, quem de 
feipfo dixifle memoria proditum eft, 

\ M \ ft / -CV ) . f *l 1 

;JM.( o tyu jepcnruv p. EVVCIMOIO U.VOM\O$ 

tr ^ \r ' ' V t>~ ' ' 

Ka mxtriuv sfurov otapov 

Homerum etiam, fontem ilium TV vfyxs, & poefeos heroicse patrem, 
multis praeliis interfuifle, eft verifimillimum. 

Hinc originem duxerunt illae altiflimse tranflationes, quibus utuntur in 
hoc poefeos genere antiqui Arabes ; hinc ilia nfoo-uiroirotx admirabilis in 
carmine veteri, ubi Tdbat Sherra, heros idem & poeta, de fado quodam 
audaciffimo loquens, ait, 

Vidit Mors, & erubuit. 





Terga Exitit nudus inequitavit. 


Ciim ilium (enfem) in hoftis offibusr motitet, emicant 
Denies ex ore Mortis dire cachinnantes. 
Hinc ilia? imagines magnifies, 

Equites, quos mors ipfa taedio non afficit, 
Dum belli contumacis rota volvitur. 

& ilia Antarce in Moallaka, 

In mortis aeftu, cujus gurgites non reformidant heroes^ nee timide 

Et ilia, qua idem poema fuum clautiit, grandis exultatio, 

J J 

# Ji**i' 

" At verebar, ne quid mihi 'accideret, & ne bellum fuper duos filios 
Demdemi non eflet converfum ; 

" Illos 



" Illos dico, qui famam meam Isferunt, me non laceflente, & vove- 
runt, nifi illis fanguinem meum concederem, 

" Se failures At enim reliqui illorum patres leonibus & aquilis 
rapacibus pabulum." 

Notum eft, antiques Arabum heroas per vaftas folitudines ac rupes 
folitos efle vagari, vel ut labores fibi familiares redderent, vel ut hoftium 
propulfarent injurias. Hinc in libro Hamafa laudatur heros, quia 

Cum Vaftitate arftiJIimam init focietatem, eoque progreditur, quo 
ducit ftellarum dense confertarum mater. 

" Stellarum matron" coelum vocat poeta : eftque pulcherrima Meto- 

Sed omnino elatiffimi funt, ob frequentes terroris & obfcuritatis ima- 
gines, illi verfus, quos in notis ad Thar af ah citat Reizkius: 

* J>^1 I J e>?= ' S-^Cj ^L* 


*^>. *>JL) 

" Pervado 


" Pervado hiatus rupium abruptos, in quibus habitat Struthhcamelus^ 

& fibilant genii ac lemures ; 
" No&emque caliginofam, craffis tenebris obdu&am, tanquam umbras 

Sijani nigras, rigidas, difficiles, 
" Tranfeo, dum comites fomno gravati, velut fruticis Khiru pen- 

dentes ramuli, inclinati jacent ; 
" Etiamfi occurrant tenebras, tanquam mare obfcurum, & folitudo 

vafta, formidanda, terribilis ; 
" In qua errat vise dux, higubre canit noctua, & viator attonitus 


Sunt in linguis Europseis hujufmodi carmina. Extant Runicse poefeos 
pulcherrimas relliquias, quas in lucem protulerunt Refenius, Olai, Wor- 
mius, & Verelius, & reliqui veteris Danorum literature indagatores: fed 
de illis hoc loco non difleram ; feparatum enim aliud volumen requirunt. 
Nee dubitari poteft, quin ilia carmina, quae hodie a Scotis memoriter 
citari folent, veterum Celtarum mores atque ingenium pulcherrimis pin- 
gant coloribus. . In linguis recentioribus legimus Hifpanum ilium Alon- 
fum^ de fuis rebus geftis non fine dignitate, & dictionis altitudine canen- 
tem; & Camoenfium Lujitanum, cujus poefis adeo venufta eft, adeo polita, 
ut nihil efle poffit jucundius ; interdum vero, adeo elata, grandiloqua, ac 
fonora, ut nihil fingi poffit magnificentius. 

Quod ad Grcecos attinet ; Tyrtsei relliquias habemus vere magnificas, 
& pervelim Alccel carmina, cum aliis Lyricis, facerdotes illi prave reli- 
giofi non combuffiflent ; nam paucae illius poetse admirabilis & civis 
optimi funt relliquise, eaeque plurimum amatoriae, fed valde fublimes. 
Quod fi de amoribus ac deliciis loquens, tam fit grandis & excelfus, 
quants tandem fublimitatis artifex efle potuit, cum cecinit 

" Pugnas, & exactos tyrannos." 

VOL. II. 3 T In 


In verfibus illis, quos citat Athenceus^ bellica inftrumenta commemo- 
rat : 



oi xuQumpQev I 

SI srouro'tixoig 


g Se 
Ilctg Se up,otTct TsroXXct ^ 

Tuv K 

spyw ss-otftai 

quos verfias ex opere quodam longiori depromptos effe arbitror. 

Prasterea magnlficum habemus Hybrice Cretenjis <nto\tov t quod ideo 
citabo, quia veterum Arabum poefi fit perfimile, 

Ka* /ip-, 3^ TO xXoV houtrytov, 
%puTos. TUTU yap opal, 

BTW Segi^ca, TVTU vruTtca 

_, \ \ > i > r 

Tov aoi/i/ o;iw a?r afvrreXav, 
Tvtrta SemroTu; [tvotuf Ki 

^r, \ \,\ \ ~ >/ n/ 

Tot 06 j^TJ TOXjltWVTEf ^<I/ OOflU, 

Kat ^o?, J^ TO KXoV Xa/o-ijroy, 



f Vide Athenaeum, Lib. xv. 



Sic poeta antiquus in f Hamafa, 


** Non funt mihi opes praster loricam & caflidem, 

** Et enfem album, ferreum, politum, 

" Haftamque fufcam, Indicam, rigidam, 

" Lsevemque gladium, nudam habentem aciem, procerum." 

Sed ad Afiaticos redeamus; & de majoribus eorum operibus loquamur, 
quse res bellicas atque heroiim fa&a defcribunt. Equidem inter poemata 
heroica 'Timuri hijioriam, quam compofuit fcriptor admirabilis Ebn Afab- 
fhah, non vereor recenfere : ita pulchris enim abundat imaginibus, ita 
jucundis narrationibus, & defcriptionibus naturse, morum, afFedtuum ; 
ita magnificis illuminatur figuris, tarn dulci numerorum varietate, tanta 
elegantiarum copia confpergitur, ut nihil cogitari poflit accommodatius 
ad leftorem vel dele&andum, vel docendum, vel etiam permovendum. 
Duas hie liber partes compleditur, alteram, de Timuri rebus geftis ; al- 
teram, de illius nepote, Khalil So/fan vocato, juvene amabiliflimo, fed, 
ob infinitam liberalitatem & formofae mulieris amorem, de iummo glorias 
faftigio in terram dejedlo. Hanc partem, fi in adtus eflet dedudla, tra- 
goediam vocarem, eamque pulcherrimam ; illam, poema epicum, & fane 
nobiliffimum, audeo dicere. Poft exordium elaboratum, in quo divinum 
numen elatiflimis fententiis collaudat, argumentum proponit, cujus utili- 
tatem demonftrat : oftendit deinceps quibus gradibus ad incredibilem po- 
teftatem afcenderit Timurus ; Perfidem, Indiam, Syriam, Arabiam, copiis 
Tartarorum invidis vaftatas defcribit ; deinde, cum ita alte heroa eleva- 
rit, ut modo non coelum ipfum attingere videatur, ad tumultfm proper- 
antem, & in terra depreflum pingit. Hasc autem omnia non frigide, 

f Vide Schultens. Not, ad Isfahan. 



non ficce denarrat, fed librum confpergit jucundiflima rerum varietatc, 
defcriptionum copia, & fuaviflimis poefeos Afiatica? luminibus. Multas 
porro intexit narrationes, quas Graeci 'E7rei<ro$ia, vocant, eafque mufa Ho- 
merica non indignas. At dicet fortaffe aliquis ; Quale eft hoc poema, 
aut quomodo epicum appellari poteft, cum nee jufta fabula fit, nee una 
atio, nee intra debitam temporis circumfcriptienem diftricta ? Quid de 
legibus poeticis fentiam, quibufque caufis addudtus eas pro nihilo putem, 
commodiorem inveniam exponendi locum. Hie fufficiet cum Luciano, 
fcriptore doctiflimo, decernere, Unicam effe poetiaz legem voluntatem 
poetce : f caeteras Gallorum genti politiffimas relinquamus ; 

Gal/is has, Philodemus ait. 

At cujufmodi, inquies, eft hoc poema, cum verfibus non fit confcriptum ? 
Certe fi cum Idylliis atque Odis Arabum conferatur, fermo eft merus ; fin 
cum Europceis carminibus comparetur (de recentioribus loquor) perfecla 
eft poefis : nam, ut tranflationum atque imaginum quafi ftellas omittam, 
quibus hoc opus diftinguitur ; fententiarum claufulas perpetuo fimiliter 
defmunt, & numerose cadunt ; quas fi diftinxeris, verfus efFeceris dulcif- 
fime modulates, inasquales illos quidem, fed Pindari aliorumque Lyrico- 
rum verfibus aequaliores. Ergo modulatum hoc dicendi genus, quod 
Arabes X-zs** 1 vocant, & quod cum margaritis inter fe nexis belle com- 
parant, ierito poefis dici poteft, -Quifquamne, prseter poetam, herois 
exercitum tarn Isete & fplendide defcriberet, & cum Vere compararet ? 

-^' -'' OUA 

^ Axj 14 ^rl 

A^Loj iJuUaitj* 

JjJ! 33j\yt ^j:)\ Vj{&j\-> 


To Jo^ tu 



._ A >*o Jl 3 - 

.ST I rfXJCX-J ;-MjlL*0 tXO-^J! Cj Uj I 


* " 

jx* .xMj* 

" Agitati funt jaculorum & pugionum mucrones, & prodierunt ramulo- 
** rum extremitates ; explicata funt cohortum vexilla, & fparfi flores 
" fplendidiffimi fuper collium juga. Ad fummam, produxit Ver ful- 
" gura enfibus exercitus nitidis fimilia, & tonitrua militum clamori- 
" bus ; hortulos autem & colliculos (imiles eorum ephippiis & pulvi- 
'* .naribus ornatis ; denfas porro nubes pulveri, anemonas vexillis j 
" arbores floreas tentoriis, ramos fpiculis confimiles ; & smulatum eft 
(Ver) ventis fuis vehementibus raandata ejus (Timuri) & prohibi- 
tiones ; & cohortes ejus nigras virefcentibus fuis foliis, & floribus 
" fuis cseruleis crateras ejus fplendidos, & confluenlibus fuis rivis pro- 
" gredientem ejus exercitum, & agitatum mare legionum ejus motu 
" flutuanti hortorum fuorum, dum auras vefpertinse fpirabant. Sic 
" inter herbas fragrantes (bu.phthalmum) & myrtos tranfiit Timurus, 
*' ad Samarcandam feliciter iter faciens ; fuit autem ei hilaritas fodalis, 
" & Iztitia ancilla, & gaudium comes affiduus, & voluptas pediflequa." 

Unum tamen eft, fateor, quod eft in epieo poernate rariflimum ; nempe 
eo tendere videtur poeta Arabs, ut Timurum ledori quam infeftiflimum 
reddat ; ponit enim crudelem, impium, inhumanum : fed interdum aliqua 
veritatis fcintillula elucet, & multa narrat de illius magnificentia, de 
patientia, de fortitudine, de placabilitate. At ne hoc quidem adduci 
.poflum, ut Ebn Arabjhah ex epicorum poetarum choro ejiciam: nam 
cum finis fit poetce, ut ledtorem erudiat, nihil intereft, virumne defcribat 
amabilem, & virtutibus cumulatum, quern imitari conemur, an vitiis de- 
formem, cujus a nobis amoveamus exemplum. Sed de Arabibus fatis 



Perfis poetam tulit in hoc genere fine controverfia admirabllem, Ferdu- 
fium. Is varia fcripfit poemata de heroiim ac regum Perficorum rebus 
geftis, quas in unum colliguntur volumen, quod &^(j gLi* Shah nama in- 
fcribitur. Haec poemata fervatis temporum ordinibus difponuntur. No- 
biliffimum inter ea, & longiffimum (voluminis enim permagni prope 
dimidiam partem conftituit) eft fine ulla dubitatione vere epicum ; & 
profecto nullum eft ab Europaeis fcriptum poema, quod ad Homeri dig- 
nitatem & quafi coeleftem ardorem propius accedat. Compleditur anti- 
quum illud bellum ac Perfis memorabile inter Afrafiab Tartariae Tranfoxi- 
anse regem, & tres illos Perfarum reges Caicobad, Caicaus, Caikhofru, 
quorum ultimus (Grjecorum Cyrus) Afrafiabum fua manu interfecit. 
Poematis heros, ut vocatur, eft notifiimus ille Perfarum Hercules, qui 
Rujiem nominatur : funt tamen alii heroes fatis multi, quibus fua etiam 
tribuitur gloria. Sed de hoc poemate feparatim atque alio volumine, fi 
tempus atque otium fuppetit, copiose difleram; ac fortafle etiam totum 
opus in lucem proferam. Nunc fufficiet primum, qui occurrit, locum, 
tanquam exemplum, apponere. 






<!u> / -&Lsj*i 



wsP r 

Ooio Uc ( 

s..j A^. 




I * 

XJ(* U l9Ce AA=>4 

n ^Oy> &X3 

X.AJ ( > _ 

/ x\2>. 



^ .j 


, . 
.r, ; 

\u - i 

J 1 Uw Lu 

.j CXs-j 

J f 

* Cum rex, terrarum dominus, vultum oftendiflet, 

* Terram ofculatus eft (Samus) & ad eum acceflit. 

v ' ) 

' Manucheherus e folio eburneo furrexit, 

* Pyropis & caeruleis gemmis ornato ; & in capite (fulfil) corona. 

* Multa eum rogitabat, & comem fe ei praebuit, 

* Secum in folio eum federe fecit. 

' (Rogabat) autem de lupis prselii ac bellatoribus, 

* Et gigantibus maleyolis Mazenderantf. 

* Multa rogitavit, & follicitus fuit, 

* Heros autem fmgulis quaeftlonibus diftincle refpondlt, 

VOL. ii. 3 u ' Dicens, 


* Dicens, " Laetus, O rex, perpetuo vivas, 

" Ab anima tua procul fint malevolorum hominum propofita ! 

" In urbem illam gigantum veni ; 

" At quorum gigantum ? leonum fcilicet minacium. 

" Equis Arabicis funt velociores ; 

" Heroibus Perficis magis intrepidi. 

" Exercitus eorum, quos Secfdr vocant, 

" Tigridas belli efle putes. 

" Cum de meo adventu nuncium accepiflent, 

" Ob rumorem meum capita amentia fuerunt. 

" In urbe clamorem excitabant, 

" Et deinde per totam urbem tranfibant. 

w Agitata eft acies, & obfcuratum diei lumen, 

" Alii in collibus congregati funt, alii in vallibus. 

" Turn militibus meis timor incidit ; 

" Non abeffe potuit, quin ob hanc rem follicitus eflem ; 

" Quamvis feptingentos clavas meae ictus infligerem, 

" Non poflem aciem in illam regionem ducere ; 

*' Veni tandem, & capita eorum contundebam, 

" Vultus eorum pulchros deformes reddidi. 

" Nepos magni imperatoris Salmi 

" Incedebat ante aciem lupo fimilis, 

" Huic heroi nomen erat Kerkavi, 

" Heros fuit cujus ftatura cupreflum rettulit. 

" Mater ejus a Zohako prognata fuit, 

*' Principes fortium militum prx illo pulvis erant. 

> - * ,' : 

" Cum ex acie oriebatur pulvis, 

" Gena militum noftrorum pallore tinclia eft ; 

" Equidem uno clavae meae ictu 

" Inter medias hoftium turmas viam aperui, 

" Ita violente irruit equus meus, ficut elephas, 

** Ut tota terra, tanquam Nili fludtus, agitata fit ; 

M Tune 



" Tune aciei redibat animus, 

*' Unanime autem in prgelium ruebant ; 

" Cum vocem meam Kerkavi audiviflet, 

" Et ftrepitum clavse meae, capita findentis, 

" Ad me prxlii cupidus venit, 

" Inftar torvi elephantis, cum longo laqueo, 

" Tortum in me laqueum paravit, 

" Ego verb, cum eum vidiflem, periculum novi appropinquate, 

" Arcum f regium manu cepi 

" Cum fagitta populea cufpidem habente ferream ; 

" Alas fagittarum, tanquam aquilas, volare feci, 

" Sagittas, flammis fimiles, in ilium effudi. 

" Putavi me tandem ut fuper incude capitis ejus 

" Prope cerebro ejus caflidem infixifle 

" Vidi tandem ex pulvere eum, ficut elephantem ebrium, 

" Irruere, gladium Indicum dextra vibrantem. 

** Putabam, magne rex, eum ita efle violentum, 

" Ut etiam montes ob ejus impetum flbi metuerent. 

" Ille itaque feftinabat ; equidem eun^tabar ;. 

" Expelabam enim ufque adeo donee propius accederet % 

" Cum verb accefiiflet magnanimus bellator, 

" Ex equo meo manus extendi. 

" Cepi manu mea viri fortis balteum, 

*' Illumque ex ephippiis evulfi, leoni fimilis, 

" In terram eum dejeci, ficut furens elephas, 

" Gladio meo Indico medium ejus corpus effodu 

" Cum rex eorum hoc modo interfectus eflet, 

" Exercitus e belli campo terga dabant. 


" Valles, & coHes, & deferta, & montes 
" Cohortes (fugientes) undique receperunt. 
" Equites ac pedites duodecim mille 

f De arcu Caiano vide Herbel. p. 235. 

" In 


" In campo proftrati jacebant. 

" Cum rege inclyto, equite, bellatore ; 

*' Fuerant autem primo trecenti mille ; 

" Quid valet malevolentia, ad fortunam tuam minuendam, 

" Contra eos qui funt folii tui cultores ?" 

* Cum herois verba rex audiviflet, 

* Coronam fuam fortunatam ufque ad lunam crexit. 

* Vinum & convivium parari juflit, hilaris fmt, 

* Et orbem terrarum rnalevolis viris vacuum aipexit.' 

Liceat mihi, quamvis verear ut crimen temeritatis effugiam, experiri, 
an haec bellatoris Per/id oratio metro Virgiliano accommodari poffit. 
Samus, ut aurato cindum diademate Regem 
Vidit ovans, excelfa ferebat ad atria greflum ; 
Quem. rex ad meritos facilis provexit honores, 
Et fecum in folio juflit confidere eburneo, 
Caelato rutilanti auro, infertifque pyropis. 
Magnanimum affatus turn blanda heroa loquela, 
Multa fuper fociis, fuper armis multa rogabat, 
Jam, quantos aleret tellus Uyrcana gigantes, 
Jam, qua parta manu nova fit vidtoria Per/is : 
Cui dux hac memori parens eft vdce locutus. 
Venimus ad caftra hoftilis, reVmaxime, gentis: 
Gens eft dura, ferox ; non afpera fevior errat 
Per dumeta leo, non fylva tigris in atra ; 
Non equus in laetis Arabum it velocior agris. 
Cum fubito trepidam pervenit rumor in urbeM 
Adventare aciem, queruli per tedta, per arces, 
Auditi gemitus, & non lastabile murmur. 
Ilicet aerata fulgentes caflide turmas 
Eduxere viri ; pars vaftos fufa per agros, 
Pars monte in rigido, aut deprefsa valle fedebat : 



Horruit sere acies, tantseque a pulvere nubes 

Exerts, ut pulchrum tegeret jubar xtherius fol. 

Quale in arenofo nigrarum colle laborat 

Formicarum agmen, corigeftaque farra reponit ; 

Aut qualis culicum leviter ftridentibus alis 

Turba volans, tenues ciet importuna fufurros ; 

Tales profiluere. Nepos ante agmina Salmi 

Cercius emicuit, quo non fuit ardua pinus 

Altior, aut vernans riguo cypariflus in horto. 

At P erf arum artus gelida formidine folvi 

Arguit & tremor, & laxato fn corpore pallor : 

Hoc vidi, &, valido torquens haftile lacerto, 

Per medias jufli, duce me, penetrare phalangas ; 

Irruit alatus fonipes, ceu torvus in arvis 

Mthiopum latis elephas, neque fenfit habenam : 

Militibus vires rediere, & priftiha rirtiis. 

Ac velut, undantis cum furgant flumina NiK, 

Et refluant, avidis baud injucunda cofonisj 

Pinguia frugiferis implentur flutibus arva ; 

Sic terra innumeris agitata eft ilia catervis : 

Cum ftrepitum audierit noftrum, ingentemque fragorem 

Findentis galeas & ferrea fcuta bipennis, 

Cercius, horrifico complens loca vafta boatu, 

In me flexit equum, me, crudeli enfe, petebat, 

Captiyumque arclo voluit conftringere nodo ; 

Fruftra ; nam, lunans habilem nee fegniter arcum, 

Populeas mifi duro mucrone fagittas, 

Flammarum ritu, aut per nubila fulminis ac~H. 


Ille tamen celeri ruit impete, nofque morantes 
Increpitat, letum minitans, rigidafve catenas : 
Ut vero acceffit violenti turbinis inftar, 
Pulfus ut & clypeus clypeo eft, & caffide caifis, 



Ilium infurgentem, dirumque infligere vulnus 
Conantem, arripui, qua difcolor ilia cinxit 
Balteus, & rutilis fubnexa eft fibula baccis. 
Strenua turn valido molimine brachia verfans, 
E ftratis evulfi equitem, qui pronus, inermis, 
Decidit, & rabido frendens campum ore momordit ; 
Pectora cui nivea, & ferrata cufpide coftas 
Transfodi, madidam defluxit fanguis in herbam 
Purpureus, triftifque elapfa eft vita fub umbras* . 
Haud mora, diffugiunt hoftes, dudtore perempto, 
Saxa per, & colles ; noftris victoria turmis 
Affulfit, caefofque doles, Hyrcania^ natos. 
Sic pereant, quicunque tuo, rex optime, fceptro> 
Qui premis imperio ftellas, parere recufent ! 
Dixit ; & heroas Perfarum rector ovantes 
Laudibus in ccelum tollit ; jubet inde beatas 
Inftaurari epulas, & pocula dulcia poni : 
Conventum eft, textoque fuper difcumbitur auro. 



De Poefi Funebri. 

JjE Poefi lu&uofa ac funebri longo fermone diflerere, nee initio pro- 
pofui, nee neceflarium puto. Hujus autem poefeos duo funt genera ; al- 
terum, incitatum, breve, querulum ; cujufraodi funt illi Alcmanis verfus, 


t us 

alterum, moeftum quidem, fed paullo fedatius, & laudation! finitimum. 
Hoc genus 'ETTM^SIOV alii vocant, alii 'EteytTev, illud "laXe^ov, quod Latini 
Neeniam feu Leffum appellant. Arabes utrumque nominant zsLL*, nam 
vox A>Lo, qua Hebrsei Lamentationem fignificant, apud illos Cantricem 

Utriufque generis praclara exempla comple&itur libri Hamafa pars 
fecunda j quac tertio 'Av9oXoy/af libro refpondet : fed in hoc loco de 
Meleagri, poetse admodum venufti, atque aliorum carminibus in hoc 
genere laudatiffimis, nihil necefle eft multa loqui. Atqui non omitten- 
dum efle puto \ Eratofthenis elegans epigramma de Anajlafiee cujufdam 
obitu : 

4>t), (ptv, ctptTpyTuv xaplruv tag fju [ 

<roi uAouyuv Xf~<* TO 

Tltfiirlov f(f>' IvkitoiTea TTM^OV ctyytruv 
$( Tfotriv ytvtTvp re xaKet,^ d\eiu<re 

Pulcherrima funt hoc in genere Meleagri in Heliodoram, || Platonis 
in Dionem, H Callimachi in Heraclitum, epigrammata flebilia ; nee 
minus perfeclse Bionis in Adonidem, Mofchi in Bionem, Ovidii in Ti- 
bullum, elegise: & plena fuavitatis Horatii de morte Quintilii Ode. 
Sed hsec omnia funt notiflima : ad Afiaticos igitur veniamus ; qui cum 

f Hos verffis Hephaeftion Antifpafticos vocat. Mihi videntur iis pedibus, vel potius numeris, 
conftare, qui appellant 'Umiwt ir i\aaaa><&, ut Horatiana i lla, 

Miferarum eft neque amori, 
& quae fequuntur. 

.+ Antholog. lib. iii. Antholog. lib. iii. || Diog. Laert. in Platonis Vita. 

5[ Apud eundem in Vita Heracliti. 



in reliquis poematum generibus, turn in hoc potiffimum eminent ; 
quam rem exempla quaedam illuftriorem reddent. 

Sunt autem belliffimi, & cum tranflatione venufta, turn jucunda bre- 
vitate infignes, illi verfus, quos de obitu Nozdmi'l Molki compofuit poeta 
t Shabl o'ddoulah, 

^J\ ^ g^c _ y 

" Fuit Vizir Nozamo'l Mole margarita pretiofa, quam numen divinum 

ex ipfa nobilitate formaverat. 
" Effulfit : at pretium ejus ignorabat aetas ; idcircb invidit earn DCUR 

hominibus, & in concham leniter repofuit." 

Quatuor hofce verficulos totidem hendecafyllabis converti : 
Illuftris fait Ille margarita, 
Pura luce nitens, colore puro ; 
Quam, gemmae pretium latere queftus, 
Conchae reftituit Deus parent!. 

Pervelim mihi contingat Ibni Zaiati eiegiam videre, fane flebiliter 
fcriptam de morte puellae formofiffimae, quam perdite amaverat : hujus 
poematis unum diftichon citat Herbelotius, idque plenum tenerrimi 

4 * Dicebant mihi fodales, fi fepulchrum amicae vifitarem (curas meas 

aliquantulum fore levatas), 
w Dixi autem, An ideo aliud praster hoc pectus habet fepulchrum ?" 

f Abu'l Ferege, pag. 363. 




Interdum tamen elatiiis fcribunt, quam elegiae fimplicitas pati videatur. 
Quam animose erumpit Amarah Al Yemani ! 




O Fortuna, manum glorise exarefcere fecifti, 
" Et collum ejus, poft ornamentorum pulchritudinem, monilibus 

Ecce autem poetam Perjicum, qui totam naturam lu&uofam pingit ob 
regis cujufdam magnifici interitum, 

o^jli- Jci 

* ^^4^ f. O 
" Hodie, O rex, totius naturae pedtus contrahitur j 
" Et 32theris gemma casrulea identidem colorem mutat." 

: Quam fententiam in fimili argumento elatiffime amplificat Abu Beer Al 
Dani f, 

j JJI 



J ( 


t ApudEbn'Khalican. 
3 X 

" At 


" At poft te in domicilio luna plena non requiefcit, 

" Nee fplendide ridet fol meridianus, 

" Jam verb pluvia & ventus veftes fuas lacerant, 

" Ob tui d'efiderium, & vocat tonitru nomen tuum notum, 

" Et fcindit veftem fulgur, & induit meridies 

" Ferrum, & ftellae cceli conventum ludtuofum conftituunt. 

" Refpondent fibi raucse noftuaj flebiliter, 

" Cum refpondent pr$fica2 veloces, ftrepentes, 

. " Velut fi non eflet ei fodalis, nee convenirent 

" In ea turba congregata, & cohors numerofa." 

Sed omnino dulciflimum eft carmen in capite fecundo libri Hamafa, 
de morte viri fortiflimi ac perliberalis Maani, 

J- *J 

iL*2fc. Jjl Ou'l (^Jc< -o Lo 




. * UtX^I 

" Accedite, duo mei fodales, ad Maanum, & fepulchro ejus dicite : 
" Irrigent te nubes matutinae imbribus poft imbres. 
" At O Maani fepulchrum, tu, qui primo fovea fuifti 
** In terra, mine fterneris beneficendx cubile : 




" Et O Maani fepulchrum, ut recepifti liberalitatem, 
*' Qua terras ac maria fuerunt plena ! 
" Imb, accepifti liberalitatem, at mortuam, 
" Nam profecto fi viva eflet, ita anguftum efles, ut difrumperes. 
*' Juvenis erat, qui, ob largitionem, poft interitum vivit, 
" Velut pratum, per quod defluxit rivus, jucundius virefcit : 
" At mortuo Maano, mortua eft Hberalitas, ac deceflit, 
Et nobilitatis faftigium refeclum eft." . 


In poemate eleganri quod Ebn Arabftiah, tanquanj faftigium quoddam 
fplendidiffimum hiftoriae Timuri fubjungit, fere triginta funt verfus, 
qui, fi feparatim eflent compofiti, inter elegias recenferi poflent; hos 
adeo propter elegantiam eximiam placet apponere. 


c\J _ 

ItXc ( 


, ^ 

LllXc Ix-Cw (til IJU 


tile! ls*JiJ> *.J' 

* j* 

* ijjjj! aOcsr*. LTILiJI AXUJ 

_Ajo C 


* 2S~ wu3 

" Ubi funt ii, quorum /acies tanquam fan&us liber fplendebant, 
" Juvenes fortunati, & fapientes, dominatum habentes ac dignitatem, 
" Qui lunam coeli extinxerunt, & marium effufionem pudore effece- 
runt ? 

" At difperfit eos exitii ventus, ut arenam difpergit Zephyrus. 

" Ubi funt adolefcentuli, & ii qui fuerunt cordibus laetitia ac lumen ? 

" Ab illis, cum ablatum eflet velum, & remota ab iis aulaea, 

" Terrarum orbis emicuit, tanquam e velamine occulto prodiens ; 

" Omnes hinnuli pulchris prsediti oculis, aut capreolae contemptas red- 

dentes nymphas cceleftes : 

" Veftiit eos pulchritude chlamyde deliciarum ac Istitiz ; 
*' Eofque redemit hominum fpiritus a malis adverfe fortunae. 
" Cum locum quemvis habitarent, eum hilaritate moverunt : 

" Fuerunt 


" Fuerunt in terra facie oculi, & oculis lumen j 

M Et hortuli in pratis, & in hortulis flores.- 

" Cum adhuc eflent ebrii, cum fe extulit fallax eorum & grata pro- 


" Dum aetas vigebat, & fortuna iis rerum dominatum concedebat, 
Ecce, venit mortis pocillator, & ad eos exitii cyathos attulit, 
** Et irrigavit vitarum eorum hortulos fcypho, qui omnes ad nihilum 


*' Reliquerunt ampla palatia, in fepulchra angufta compulfi ; 
" Et pocula difceflus eorum prxbuit apfmthium unicuique amico do- 

lore affedo, 
" Qui ob triflitiam fmum lacerat, & ob eorum defiderium percutit 


*" Si litilia eflent dona, aut fl valerent vota, 
" Certe illos redimerent ac fervarent & ftudiofa cura cuftodirent. 
" Jam verb terram incolunt ; perierunt ilia? fuavitates ac fcientias ; 
" Vefcitur iis exitii vermis, & fcindit eos ut madanda pecora : 
'* Attriti jacent fub terra, ubi manebunt ufque ad judicii ultimi diem. 
*' Venit amicus eorum, ut eos alloquatur, & fepulchrum jugiter 

vifitat ; 
" .Gemit, ac plorat querule, juxta fepulchrum, quod invadit oblivio ; 

" Et genas pulvere inquinant, quse antea fuerant margaritis fi miles : 
" Vocant, at nibil iis refpondet, nifi rauca montium echo." 

Belliflimum eft in hoc genere poema in vicefima Haririi Mekdma, 
quod integrum fubjiciam : 


* U-U-AJ J* Iw 




^! ' U 

y ^, 



UJ ^)UUf AJ 


* v^uJ' 3u^, (U 

J U 


" Habeo, 


" Habeo, amici, miram narrationem, a qua exemplum fibi fumat au- 
ditor peritus & intelligens. 

" Vidi in flore xtatis meas juvenem fortiflimum, eladio armatum acuto 
oft;! .,. 

& gracih. 

" In certamen irruit, perinde ac fi certus eflet aliquid audendi, & non 

" His prasliis ufque eo anguftias dilatavit, ut id, quod obftructum 

fuerat, pateret. 
" Ubi provocavit adverfarios, nunquam rediit a pugnse contentione 

fine fpiculo fanguine imbuto ; 
" Nee unquam inftituit arcem oppugnare arduam, occlufam, formida- 

bilem, excelfam, 
" Quin clamatum fit, cum id inftituiflet, 

* ^^" 

" Victoria a coelo & prsefidium appropinquat !" 

" Praeterea quot nodles egit veftibus adolefcenti^ te&us nitidis ! ' 

*' Molles puellas & dabant ei & receperunt ab eo ofcula, & ille ubique 

gratus fuit ac jucundus. 

" Sed fortuna non defiit fortitudinem illius ac vires eripere, 
" Donee tempora ita eum afflixerint, ut ab illo conjunftiflimi amici 

" Debilis fuit magus, nee morbum ejus fanare potuit, & tumultuatus 

eft medicus. 
" Enfes autem candidi ilium vulnerabant, poftea quam & ab hofte 

refponfum accepiflet, eique viciffim refpondiflet. 
" Nunc autem jacet tanquam fera in latibulo ; nam quicunque vivit, 

miferiis temporis eft obnoxius. 
" Ecce ilium hodie vefte funebri involutum ! Et quis mortui peregrini 

curat exequias ?" 

Hcec elegia non admodum diffimilis efle videtur pulcherrimi. illius f 
carminis de Sauli & Jonathani obitu ; atque ade6 verfus ifte 

t ^ Sam. I. 

' I 


x;! ill llb u 

" Ubi provocavit adverfarios nunquam rediit a pugnae contentione fine 
fpiculo fanguine imbuto." 

ex Hebraeo reddi videtur, 

nnm ibnQ o^n aia 
: -iin jntw N"? vnaw nrcp 

" A fanguine occiforum, a fortium virorum adipe, 
" Arcus Jonathan! non rediit irritus." 

Cum illius poematis omnium fermone celebrantur venuftas & pulchritu- 
do, volui integram elegiam huic loco fubjungere in verficulos diftin&am: 

in 1 ? nyp t 



f Infcribitur etiam hoc poema nU?p five Arcus; more Afiaticorum, qul ea carmina, quibus przci- 
pue deleftantur, infcriptione brevi, & de verfu quodam infigniori defumpta, notare folent. Sic per- 
celebratum carmen poetae Cab Ben Zoheir vocitatur modo (^ Uc -* I five Securitas, modo Banat Soad, 
proptere^ quod hoc habeat initium, 

" Abiit arnica mea Soada, & cor meum hodie moerore conficitur." 
Sic Alcorani Capita infcribuntur 

Interdum etiam pervagata carmina, quae memoriter identidem recitari folent, nomine ad argu- 
mentum accommodate infcribunt. Velut ilia in hiftoria Antarae & Ablas, quibus mater occifum 
filium deflat, & cives fuos Ben! Badr ad pugnandum impellit, infcripta funt ab Arabibus Dolorum 
Solatia, ut ait libri auaor 

Nota eft autem fignificatio 


: mown 
oniaa pa 
a^na n^rr 

: Dpn aw/i N"? to. mm 


am n 
onaj I^BJ -p 

Elegix hujus wafdfyctfftv quandam Gracam, quam, cum effem per- 
adolefcens, cpntexui, liceat hoc loco apponere: 

syu, Sotviriiv ceg ev vgeo-i 


veri^v tv ope<r<riv clxyfee. trvv T eifot x 
Et xoeAov, ei ripytv er, d-yXaov ei rt wtyuitev, 
KurQoa>tv, ii Xupirpov %ap/T<r(T/v. ndrdctve xwoiv 

re <P$*&ltJk <rvv T 

AvQea, a-uv T a'pETij ^ T^IJ. Mij j/w TO*, ifoer, 


e xev xottpotw ev uXretrw, v$e 
VOL. II. 3 y 


T Euijyopj'a, (ruv r' E%(JoJWo~? a'XaXa/jtto~, 


MIJKET/ vw s~i\ot xev civ evTTtrotXov vct 

i JpcVo? apT/upe', j^ijS' tlypoi/ I'atrt 


xsv a 

TerpenroSuv KB TsrXtov reXtSot ytv&> t ^ KEV a 

civ eltxpivov 


Ou'J' apa xsi/ ^<ji*apo/ y* eTrijti^XaiJfif, osXX* a 
Oi'j, aXX* KKvQot K ua~iv, Kefvcti yap 


SauXow pn^da-nnSa, us rivet py 
ptvov @ourtXyct vvs potdoipiyfciv eXa/if. 
u (jtev JtaXw 

/'? w/ 

o , UT otveopafAov eu 

A/erw, ^ 
"H Tf a/ 

Ea-srtvrsv fAcatpot~$ Ivi xep[4,oi<riv, $' apx xsivea 

vvptpcu XeipuvuxSes, tcSf 


o^Ef, 8 p 

wp<7rXexTo/f ctyctvus nroo'lv, aXXa 
Avert Tsroptyvptuv ar^ova.g^ K, cipv<ro~tre 

'f, ^iJ" pa 

An/' o*Xo(pup0 ( xa<, ^ yap i/uv 


Zwwa, >^ ra arE^/Xa, rar' tvrect, rdg r apa 


"Of <5" vpTv SvotvTi KfOKta srce,(>a,$uKev fdetpa; 
QaiSpvveiv, pvprois re K, tvuSurcriv emulate. 

'luvdQtzve, Qgeirt pot <rv pev tVxe? epxvvos 


IlaXu TI x TB-ei TUV STf 

Vy ffto Sij 

Auoi?, ) 
Ouauri Kf 


reov oirov, 





'HiJea Ji} 

V > 

flip ET 

, 6?ri tree, fyi\Tuff, a 

/. W I V / 

XiV oyerov, oijttoj, traipu, 

y~\rfk/1 s ^ * V^ ' 

Oipf/aXjttw Xao<o, ou 


'' e' 


Pog/? Mordli. 

JL OESEOS, cujus finis eft ledorem docere, duo videntur efle genera; 
alterum propofitum finem diffimulat, ut epos & tragoedia; alterum 
aperte monet, velut ilia poefis quam nunc tradtare aggredior. 

Perantiqua fuit & omnibus fere gentibus ufitatiflima confuetudo, fa- 
pientiam & vitse officia per elegantes, breves, & modulatas fententias 



docendi. Notiffima funt in hoc genere Phocylidis praecepta, & elegan- 
tiffimae Theognidis fententiae, iique verfus, qui, a Pythagoreo quodam 
fcripti, Pythagoras ipfi falso afcribuntur. His addi pofiunt Ariftotelis 
atque aliorum graviflima 2ioX, quae inter epulas & pocula rorantia 
cantari folebant. Superfunt etiam f Odini praecepta antiquiffima, in 
Runica lingua fcripta, quae miram habent in fuo genere pulchritudi- 

Veteres Arabum fententiae funt innumeraz ; & permulta funt volumlna, 
quas JbtJ, five Sententias, compledtuntur. Praeterea etiam nunc (ut ab 
homine Syro audivi) jdrabes memoriter recitare folent proverbia fapien- 
tiae pleniffima, cujufmodi funt, 

" Rifus ineptus rufticitatis eft indicium. 


" Verbum lacli fimile eft, reverti nequit ; 

*' Quomodo enim is, qui mulxit, lac poteft reddere ?" 

Et illud Perficum de Fortunae inconftantia, 


" Res humanae vitri horarii funt flmiles, 

" Quod una hora inferius eft, & altera fuperius. 

& tetraftichon illud, 

^s. js? Jlt 

Vid. Haavamaal * Refenio editum. 


" Hujus vitae curfus fimilis eft man profundo crocodilorum pleno : 
" Quam tranquilli funt fapientes viri, qui littus occupant ! 
** Hsec vita non tanti aeftimanda eft, ut cor tuum (ejus caufa) turbes ; 
" Cave r ne malefacias ; fapientis enim non eft." 

gJu* ^1 

* UJ^L^ JU-j CXJb^ ly IJJ 

" Vita humana nihil aliud eft nifi ebrietas ; cujus dulcedo protinus evo- 
lat ; fed reftat crapula." 

* *'i_r"\ 

At cum deducliora flnt, non tarn proverbia appellari debent, quaiii 
prsecepta, feu verfus morales, quales funt illi de taciturnitate : 

** Silentio opus eft ; ne ideo fine caufa loquaris ; 

" Nam auditor multarum vocum fatigari folet. 

'* Quod fi locutionem argenteam efle autumes, 

" Hoc fcito, filentium effe aureum." 


0^1! Jx-J 

* Igno- 


" Ignorantia affert ignaris ante mortem, mortem ; 

" Et corpora illorum funt, fine fepulchris, fepulchra : 

" Quod fi quis doctrina cor fuurn non reficiat, 

" Non erit illi ante refurredionem, refurrectio." 

& ilia de humanarum rerum contemtione, 


A^ .J 


" Cor meum, ab hac vita serumnofa recede, 

" Et ab anguftiis coeli convertentis recede : 

" Hujus vitae negotia viros perfpicaces haud decent; 

" Oculum aperi ; ab omni moleftia recede : 

" In triftitias mare avaritix caufa, ut urinator madidos habens 

" Ne te immergas ; a gemma regia recede." 

His addam verfus elegantiffimos, qui Principi perilluftri Shemfelmaali 
afcribuntur : 

-* Jo^ 




" Tempus e binis conftat diebus, hoc puro, illo terribili, 
" Et vita e binis ordinibus, hoc fecuro, illo formidabili. 
" Die ei, qui nos ob temporum mutationes vituperat, 
* " An premit fortuna quenquam nifi cui fit prasftantia ? 
" Annon vides mare in cujus fuperficie feruntur cadavera, 
" At refident extreme in fundo margaritse ? 
" Annon vides, ut venti fpirent vehementes ^ 
** Sed nullas frangunt praster altas arbores. 
" Quot funt in terra arbores cum virides turn aridae ? 
" At lapidibus nullae petuntur, nifi eae quse frudtus afFerant. 
*' In coelo autem fydera funt innumera ; 
" Sed defeclum non patiuntur praeter folem ac lunam. 
" Praeclare de fortuna fenfifti, cum benigna effet ; 
" Et nihil timuifti, nifi quod cum potentia aliqua veniret : 
" Pacem tecum coluit fortuna, fed ab ilia deceptus es : 
" Nam fplendidas nodes fubfequuntur obfcurz." 

Et iflos de peregrinationis laudibus, 



G! U 

-MflJ' J (J^iJl ( 'US 

a ULL 


" Peregrinator : invenies amicum pro illo quern reliquifti ; 

" Et locum muta, nam in loci mutatione conftat vitae fuavitas. 

" Nihil video magis eximium ac praeclarum 

'* Peregrinatione ; relinque ideo patriam, ac peregrinator. 

" Video aquam ftagnantem putrefcere, 

" Si fluit, dulcis eft, fi non fluit, non item. 

" Quod fi perpetuo fol in coelo reftaret, 

" Cum Perfae turn Arabes eum faftidirent. 

*' Et fi nunquam occideret luna, nihil viderem ab eh praeter mo- 

leftiam proficifci. 

** Si leo fylvam non relinqueret, prsedam non difcerperet, 

" Si fagittae arcum non relinquerent, fcopum non attingerent : 

" Aurum denique in fodina tanquam ftramen projicitur, 

" Et lignum aloes pretiofum, in terra ubi crefcit, lignum eft com- 


Quorum fimiles funt illi Perfici, 

8 tX>tXij*ij t\Ju Ju*) Ju5 IJH^ > 


" Quicunque peregrinatur, jucundus eft, 

" Et ab oculo perfectionis lux fit omnium oculorum ; 

" Nihil eft aqua nitidius, 

" At li diii ftagnat, fit putida." 

Et illi, 

/L>U CXj*ilsr ^ 

JL^ Olxsw! ti!<3 c^wJLo AJl^i. JUM 

_> (s*. <sj4 

" Terrse globum & ccelum intuearis necefle eft : 

** Ubi eft ilia ob quietem, ubi hoc ob motum ? 

*' Pcregrinatio viri adjutrix eft, & nutrix dignitatis, 

" Peregrinatio opum thefaurus eft, honorem emit : 

" Arbor, fi de loco in locum movere poflet, 

" Acutam ferram non fentiret, nee duram bipennem. 

Inter iententias Turcicas nullas fere legi his pulchriores : 


JaJ ..(jJj' y^Vw 


" -^ "W*' J 

VOL. ii. 3 z " Eftne 

. ,U J.:1 ? ; 


" Eftne ullus flatus, ubi non fit horrida triftitia ? 

" Cujufquamne in genis fanguis moerore non obfcuratur ? 

" Hoc rofetum hujus vitae ufquequaque fum contemplatus, 

" Et nullam vidi rofam, ubi non eflet fpina animam ipfam vulnerans. 

" Quot annos has tabernas ambiyi ! 

" Et vinum nunquam haufi, quod non fecuta fit crapula." 

Quam fententiam foluta oratione expreffit, nee ineleganter, Ali Chelebi, 
J-^jixXwJ \jj Cj^ 1x2*^1^. f^^t (^& JLc (ji* 

** In hujus vitae rofeto fine fpina malignitatis auram fidei odoratu fentire 
" non licet ; nee magnis nee parvis a manu pocillatoris fortunae fine 
" crapula dulce vinum bibere conceditur !" 


Non minus elegantes funt has fententise Perfacz : 


*' In hoftili peftore amicitia haud nafcitur ; 

" Sed acacia nihil praster fpinas afFert : 

" Ab inimico fapiens fidem non expectat, 

" Nam a colocynthidis femine herba odorata non crefcit : 

" Ab arundine ftoreis apta nemo faccharum vidit, 

" Nam uniufcujufque rei naturam nullus labor mutare poteft : 

" Quicunque 


" Quicunque indolem habet pravam, 
" Nullos afferet fru&us prseter fraudem ac perfidiam." 
Et ills Haririi in Mekdma decima nona : 


" In rebus afperis ne defperes Ixtitiam videre quse curas depellat ; 

" Quot enim venti venenati flare cceperunt, & raox jucundis auris ce- 

dentes difceflerunt 1 

Et quot nubes formidandse difperfas funt, priufquam imbres efFuderint? 
A fumo autem, a quo timemus, (ignem) non orta eft flamma. 
Sis ergo patiens dum adverfa eft fortuna, nam tempus miraculorum 

pater eft; ^ , 

Et a Dei fpiritu bona fpera ; qua; numerari nequeunt." 

Multa poemata habent Arabes ac Perfce de officiis ac virtudbus. Sadii . 

poefis fere tota eft moralis ; nee minus in Afia celebratur libellus, quern 
contexuit poeta Perficus Sheikh Attar ^ & &*UiXJu, Pendnama^ infcripfit: 
hujus libri caput apponam, de avaritid dijlinguendd. 





" Tria figna avarum diftinguunt, 

" Quje nunc tibi exponam ; ea vero, amice, memoria tene. 

" Primo, mendicantes timet, 

" Et fame attritus totus tremit ; 

" Cum in via fodali cuipiam & amico it obviam, 

** Prseterit venti fimilis, &, Salve, ait. 

" Nulla eft cuiquam a menfa ejus utilitas ; 

" Non a menfa ejus ad quenquam mittitur cibus. 

** Negotium tuum a viro deformem vultum habente ne petas, 

" Si quis vultum habeat hilarem, ab illo pete." 

Perfpiciet lector libellum hunc Perficum aureolo Theophrafti -sre^i 
Ityuv opufculo efle perfimilem. 

Alia eft ratio docendi per Fabulas, quas Grseci Atvtsf vocabant, vel 
vQvs', cujufmodi eft ilia Archilochi, 
f" 'JLptu TIV v^w uTvov, u 

yet Syptuv 

a i> 

Tw a* p*y* aXwTnj^ xepiJaA^ <rvvrp/TtTU> 

TIvxvov fp<rct voov 

reliqua interciderunt. 

Pulcherrimam fabellam Perficam de Mode/ii<x laudibus citat J Chardi- 

} Vide Ammonium n{i imefiifu, Af{i>. { Vide Cbardin. Itin. Perf. vol. iii. p. 189, 4*0. Amft. 



nus, "quam exercitationis gratia Arabice convert!, eo genere dicendi ufus 
quod 3=** J vocatur : 

/Csi. CXXwixAj UU-A2*. _vg iO^c> /- CXcXa*3 t ^ 



Lgj! lj A>U vy^l 

** Dixit quidam ex fapientibus & doftis viris, Guttulam aquas e nubibus 
" pluviofis in marls seftuantis gurgites cecidifle : cum autem fludtus 
M vidiflet in vafto vortice furentes, attonita hjefit, & aliquantulum prx 
" pudore tacuit, turn flebiliter fufpirans, " Hei mihi, inquit ; O diem 
" infauftum ; in quo facta fum dacTiyli cuticula abjedtior : & quan- 
" quam heri inter nubes emicui, hodie ad nihilum me redaclam fen- 
" tio." Dum hsec verecundans efFudit, facia eft fubito fplendidiffima ; 
" nam divinum numen, modeftiam illius laudans, vefte nobilitatis earn 
** velavit, & in concham depofuit, ubi in margaritam pretiofiflimam 
" verfa eft, & nunc in regis corona fplendet. Ha?c autem fabula 
" prsceptorum flos eft & medulla ; hinc tibi exemplum fume, O 
** amice, & ut quam verecundiffimus fias, elabora." 

Scripferam prius hoc de poefi morali caput, quam fcirem unde fabulam 
hanc, quae ab Addifono noftro etiam citatur, fumfiflet Chardinus ; fed legi 
earn nuperrime in Sadii opere perfedifllmo, quod Buftan feu Hortus in- 
fcribitur, & a Sadio ipfo, poeta, fi quis alius, ingeniofo, inventam puto : 
ipfms itaque verfus elegantes citabo, cum mea, qualifcunque fit, verfione 


"tr C^* <-^>"^<^ AJ (^Uv <JL> 

jX>MjJ (.J~0 US Ui^. CXlsM.^ *t -> 


(j CXJ^J /JOwju 
hoc eft, fi verbum fere de verbo reddatur ; 

" Gutta pluviae a. nube cecidit ; 

" Pudore affeda eft, cum aequor maris videret. 

" Quis locus ? inquit, quid sequor ? quidnam ego fum ? 

" Si illud exiftat, certum eft me non exiftere. 

" Dum feipfam oculo contemptus intuebatur, 

" Concha in gremium fuum earn recipiens aluit : 

" Fortuna ufque adeo ftatum ejus promovit, 

" Ut faclia fit margarita illuftris, regia. 

" Elationem ex eo invenit, quod humilis fuerat, 

*' In obfcuritate deprefla eft, donee in lucem pervenerit." 


Rigante molles imbre campos Perfidis^ 
E nube in sequor lapfa pluviae guttula eft, 
Quz, cum modeftus eloqui fmeret pudor, 
** Quid hoc loci, inquit, quid rei mifella fum ? 
" Quo me repente, ah ! quo redaftam fentio ?" 
Cum fe verecundanti animula fperneret, 



Illam recepit gemmeo concha in fmu ; 
Tandemque tenuis aquula fada eft unio : 
Nunc in corona laeta Regis emicat, 
Docens, fit humili quanta laus modeftiae. 



De Poeji Amatoria. 

JNI ECESSE eft omnino jucundiffima poefis fit ea, cujus materia fuavifli- 
mus fit animi motus, & omnium mortalium communis, Amor : quo, fi 
ex pulchritudinis fpecie & admiratione oritur, nihil jucundius ; fi ex 
benigna voluntate puraque amicitia, nihil aut utilius aut honeftius : nam 
de Platonicis non loquor, qui amorem ex divina? perfectionis, in fuperi- 
ore vita fpedtatae, recordatione oriri autumabant. 

Ac neminem extitifle opinor, quern pulchritudinis fplendor non per- 
moverit & accenderit ; nee ulla unquam fuit gens tarn fera, quin poe- 
matis genus habuerit ad amoris affectus exponendos idoneum : ipfi Peru- 
viani cantilenas habent non amatorias folum, fed etiam dulciffimas, fi 
Garci/affb, fcriptori graviflimo, & patrix fuse confuetudinum peritiffimo, 
fides habenda fit. 



Pervulgata funt carmina Lapponica, quae citat Scheff'erus, eaque plena 
tenerrimi afFedus. Proditum eft etiam memorise, f Odinum ilium, non 
heroa folum, fed (ut veteres Dani putabant) Dt'vum, verfus quofdam 
amatorios fcripfifle, eofque cum Amri'lkeifi Moallaka valde congru- 

Sed abfurde faciam, fi de omnibus Europas gentibus, quse hoe poefeos 
genus coluerunt, diflerere velim ; nam Italorum, qui in hoc genere reg- 
nant, & aliorum, poefis eft notiflima : atqui a propofito non erit alie- 
num, pauca Greece poefeos exempla, eaque minus vulgata, proferre. 

Memorise proditum eft Alcmana Sardianum amatorise poefeos princi- 
pem fuifle ac ducem, & hos verfus contexuifle, 
!J1 "Ef uf jtt J' ours Ku7rf>i$<&> exccn 


quibus nihil efle poteft elegantius. 

Ac non mirum eft Ciceronem dixifle Rheginum Ibycum maxime om- 
nium amore flagrafle, cum ita elate & magnified de fe loquatur : 

EV oil T 

pouv EX TSTOTU[AUV, I'vx 



tvatois $aXt8x<nv. 'Epai 3" 


aaf uttrruv 

Tltx ^oi K.V 

vo-si IfAoig <>pevx$. 

f Vide libellum Haavamaal a Refenio editum. Hafniae 1665. 
t Vide Athenaeum lib. xiii. 




Quid de Amore graviflimi fenferint Philofophi, ex his Euripidis anapaeftis 
videre poflumus : 

HeuSevpot $ "Egwff tro 

fc / 

o oat 

of t(fiu 

I 'I 

o oatftuv WUVTUV va 
KJ yap 



TUV TKS wcvuv 


To <5" Igav ErpoXeyw TO~(T< veourtv 
MIJTTOTS (peuytiv, 


Libet hie fubjicere Pindari carmen de Tbeoxeno vere magnificum 
j" Xp^v jtte xara 


Ta? ^e Qeofctvx <xxT~v 

HpO<rU7TiS (tKppUgtfyl 

'Of pj wo'fiw KVfiotmrcUy 

__ v t* / 

E a 


/wf, ^ yvvctMtit? 5pa<T6/ 
y <pooiTTUi "srciffav oS 
tav. 'AXX* lyw y' 

Vide Athenaeum ibidem. 



_ / V A "R 


TluiSuv veoyiov ej 5jav. 

Sed de G/vmV nimis fortafle multa. De Anacreontis ac reliquorum 
carminibus nihil dico, utpote qua: fmt fatis nota, & venujliorum bominum, 
ut ait Catullus, memoria dignentur. Ad Afiaticos igitur veniam. 

Non exiftimari poteft antiquis illis Arabibus, de quibus fupra dixi, 
fpicula folum & gladios cordi fuifle : iidem enim fepe fuerunt bellatores 
acerrimi, iidein amatores, & poetae optimi. In medio faepe praeliorum 
difcrimine amicarum recordati funt, & verfus effuderunt pulcherrimos. 
Sic Alt? I Ala Es'Jlndi amicam alloquitur, 

UJLo Jo3=? J^'j eJoy^ 

* Jy>*JI AAJUj.1 UU ^^.J ^Jl 

hoc eft, 

" Tui recordabar, cum fpicula inter nos vibrarentur, 
" Et fufci jaculi fanguinem noftrum bibereut." 

& Antarah nobiliflime, 

* ww-y idsu 

" Et profecto tui memor eram, cum haftae ex meo corpore 

" Potutn haurirent, enfefque Indici in fanguine meo fe lavarent ; 

" Ardenter autem cupiebam gladios ofculari, utpote qui 

" Splenderent, inftar dentium tuorum, dum fubrides, fulguranttum." 

Proinde antiquis Arabum poetis mos erat, carmina omnia, five de rebus 
bellicis, five de viri illuftris laudatione, ab amicae defcriptione ordiri. 
Sic Zobeir in Moallakge fuas initio, 


" Inter eas vero fuit qusedam delicate ludens, vultu 
' Splendido prxdita, oculo fpedatoris jucunda, foliis etiam glafti 
caeruleis tindta." 

Elegiae autem f Amrfolkeifi & Lebidi totaj fere funt amatoris. Nee 
omittendum eft Caab Ebni Zoheir carmen, cujus hoc eft initium admi- 
rabile : 




" Abiit (arnica mea) Soddd^ & cor meum hodie dolore percitum 

" Amore confedtum, & vinculis conftricT:um, a quibus nulla eft re- 


*' Soada autem, mane quo difceflit, & abiit (tribus), 
" Nihil aliud erat, niii hinnulus ftridulam habens vocem, demiflb 

vultu, oculis nigris prasditus : 
Nudabat dentes fplendidiffimos cum fubrideret, veluti vas effet 

aquarium, idque vino temperatum, 

\ Vid. Cap. iii. 




" Quod (vinum) aqua mifcetur gelida, ex recondite fonte, 
*' Clara, in valle, limpida, vento denique afflata, 
" Cujus fordes aura? diffipaverunt, & fuper quam effulgent 
" Imbribus nodte efFufis bullse candidhTimae." 

Amatoriis carminibus conftat caput quartum libri Hatnafa (cui refpon- 
det 'Ai/(3oXey'a? Grxcx pars feptima), & magna pars libri Tatima. 

Hujus poefeos idem fere eft argumentum, & idem tenor. Amator 
languet, queritur, moeret ; deinde laetatur & exultat : abfentem amicam 
quaerit ; mox praefentem duritiaa infnnulat : deinde cupit, angitur, timet, 
irafcitur : denique naturam fibi parere autumat, & ad defiderium fuum 
levandum converfam iri fperat ; proinde ita contrariis animi motibus 
agitatur, ut veriflimi efle videantur Crantoris verfus in Amorem a Laer- 
tio citati : 

'EVOOM [tot SV/ACS, '6 rot 

H <rt tuv T is-puTov eutyutuv, epo?, 
Tuv 'o<r<rts$ EpeEoj re -waXcu /3a<r/X6;a re 
Teivaro vv%, &tXei i year<nv VTT evgeo 
*H. <rs ye Kv7rpi$&> vToe, sregtypovos, ye (re 

TO <reo 

Ita queritur princeps idem & poeta illuftris Ebn Feras, 

y^Ji^ b 
* vO=- cxo 
%, i- 

" O ami- 


" O amicorum coetus, ecquid mihi eft ab aegritudine refugium ? 
" Splendor hinnuli illius late pleni cor meum vulnerat, 
'* Et nodtis fpatium longum reddit, fomni verb breve." 

& alius, 

; ... ' cuz^j! J^AJI 

* UkLcJI A$2*J ^js 

" Gracilis ac delicata puella cor meum vultus pulchritudine vehementer 
" perturbat." 

Nunc laetitia exultat, ut Seifo'ddoula, princeps etiam praeclarus, 

IcXjl Lg^Ala i^**^'' >^>+d xLJ b 

* u* 

* ^l^ cP O 

'* O nox, cujus dulcedinis nunquam oblivifcar, 

" Quippe in ea omne lastitiae genus aderat ; 

" Recubuit (puella), ego quoque recubui, & tertius recubuit amor, 

" Ufque eo donee aurora nos falutaret, ego autem illi vale dicerem." 

Nunc autem imprudentius in arnicas invehunt poetae, eafque vehementer 
accufant, ut 

Cioc>wu3 Lgjl ^J AJci. LgJ * 
* JjXJL, *^\ CjljJ jl 


' Ah ! quam dulcis eflet amor ejus, fi fidem fervaret, aut fi amici- 

tiam finceram acciperet. 
" Sed amoris ejus fanguine mifcentur Egritudo ac dolor, perfidia & 




Omnibus porro poetis, fed prsecipue Afiaticis, ufitatum eft Zephyrum 
frequenter alloqui, & vel de arnica percontari, vel earn falutatum mit- 

tere; fie 

LywaJI *A**J 


" Per deum te oro, aurae maturing odor, 

" Salutationem meam iftius vallis incolis transfer." 

Sic ipfe Zephyrus in libro Cajhfolafrar indudus de feipfo loquitur, 



" Per me maturefcunt fructus, per me fplendent flores, placide labuntur 
*' rivuli, floribus ornantur arbores, & fpirantur amatorum arcana. 
" Mane amici adventum annuncio. Ego autem legatus fum ama- 
" torum ad amicos, & depreflbs asgritudine ad dulcedinem perduco." 

Hac imagine frequentiffime utitur Hafez, cujus pulcherrimam Oden hoc 
in loco exponam : 


j<3 r*-*--< 

" Zephyre, fi per amicae meae manfionem tranfire tibi contingat, 
" AfFer odorem ex illius cincinnis fragrantibus (ambareis). 

> jt ^^. j\ 

" Per vitam ejus animam meam dulcedine afpergam, 
" Si ad me nuncium a gremio amicae pertuleris." 

ij sac 



" Quod fi tibi numen baud tantopere faveat, 

" Affer faltem ad oculos meos pulverem ab amicse domicilio." 

A j 

daJ~ tjtp*. >^J AJ *>x2c-? Is 

" Equidem mifer fum, & adventum ejus peto : ah ! ubinam 
" Oculo meo videbo vultus amici fimulachrum ?" 

" Cor meum excelfum, tanquam falix, tremit, 

" Ob defiderium arnicas, forma & ftatura pino fimilis. 

" Tametfi arnica nos nihili aeftimat, tamen 

" Qrbem t^rarum non permutemus crine illius capitis." 

cx>*jti rvj irz- o^*" (J*!?^ L> cxw*d& 4=*. 
" Quid juvat, cor habere a curarum vinculis liberum, 
" Si Hafez dulciloquus arnicas fervus et minifter efle cogatur ? 

In hoc amatorio genere regnum prope fibi vindicant Perfce : fed 
Arabibus tamen, ut fupra dixi, fuus conceditur locus; nee recentioribus 
tantum, verum etiam antiquis illis Arabias cultoribus, qui nondum feri- 
tatem exuiflent. In libro Hamafa carmen eft laetarum imaginum ple- 
niffimum, quod, quoniam ad Graecorum laudem videtur proxime acce- 
dere, huic capiti apponam : 


) L_ 


M Epulae nimirum, & ebrietas, & faltus (camelas) adultse, firme in- 

" Cui laboriose incumbit herus, amore percitus, per fpatium depreflae 

vallis ; 
" Et puellse candidulx, delicate incedentes, tanquam ftatuae eburnesc, 


" Sericis auro intertextis velatse, ftudiose cuftoditae ; 
" Et ubertas, & fecura tranquillitas, & nervi fidium querularum : 
" Hx funt vitae fuavitates. Homo enim fortunas fervit : & fortuna 

eft mutabilis. 
" Adverfaj res & fecundse, abundantia & egeftas pares funt : & qui- 

cunqae vivk, morti debetur." 

Oden hanc verti, vel potius imitatus fum, verbis atque imaginibus ad 
noftram confuetudinem aptatis : 

Dulci triftitiam vino lavere, aut, nitente Luna, 

Multa reclines in rofa 
Urgere blandis ofculis puellas : 
Aut, dum prata levi pulfat pede delicata virgo 

Comam renodans auream 
Molli Cupidinis tepere flamma : 
Aut, dum blanda aures recreat lyra, floreo fub antro, 

Ad fuave Zephyrorum melos 
Rore advocati fpargier foporis : 
Hzc ver purpureum dat gaudia, comis & juventas ; 

His, mite dum tempus favet, 
Decet vacare, dumque ridet annus. 



Qulcunque aut rerum domini fumus, aut graves coa&i 

Curas egeftatis pati, 
Debemur afperae, Fabulle, morti. 



De Laudatione. 

\. RIA habent Afiatici laudationum poeticarum genera ; quibus majora 
poemata fere Temper ordiri folent : nam, priufquam ad argumentum ac- 
cedant, divini numinis collaudant benignitatem, mifericordiam, poten- 
tiam ; turn vatem fuum, ut vocatur, & illius cognates in coelum laudi- 
bus efFerunt; ac deinceps regis atque optimatum virtutes, feu veras, five 
adulationis caufa fi&as, immortalitati commendant. De fmgulis his ge- 
neribus difleram oportet : ac de primo quidem parcius, propterea quod 
humani ingenii non fit omnium rerum eflfe<torem & procreatorem, ut 
decet, laudare, Perantiqua fane fuit confuetudo & omnibus ufitata gen- 
tibus, optimi & maximi numinis laudes carminibus jucunde modulatis, 
vibrantibus atque incitatis fententiis, verbis illuftribus ac fplendidis, & 
numeris exultantibus celebrare : & profecto omnis poefeos quafi fons eft 
ac principium divinx beneficentias ac poteftatis laudatio, quas cum ipfa 
humana natura ortum conjunctum habuit. PofTumufne nobis perfuadere, 
quin homo, coeli ac terrarum digniffimus contemplator, cum primo hoc 
ornatiffimum naturse templum vidiflet, cum hunc folem dierum ac tem- 
VOL, ir. 4 B peflatum 


peftatum moderatorem, hanc caerulei EEtheris placidiffimam- ferenitatem, 
hanc denique terram univerfam, florum, herbarum, atqiie arborum vari- 
ctate diftin&am, afpexiflet, inftin<3:u quodam poetico incenderetur, & in 
cantum incitatiflimum prorumperet, quo horum omnium archite&um & 
redtorem laudaret ? Id ufu venit poetae Arabi, qui, poft elegantem verni 
temporis defcriptionem, fex liabet verficulos pietatis & facri ardoris ple- 

niflimos : 

*A*MJ <^ly ^Jl 


OoUJl JoiJu 

' V 
U 1 

iiCy^, <JCLp< JJj 
b ^Jouu <!uo U 

^ AJ JC 

** Nonne fentis dulcem auram, a cujus halitu odor afflatur ; 

" Et nunc gemit, nunc odorem exhalat, ut cerva hinnulum perditum 

inveniens ? 
*' Fundunt pluviam nubes, & plorat turtur, dum queritur agitatus 




" Splendet autem lux aurorae, & flores anthemidis, quos nubes fulgurans 

& tonans difcutit ; 

" Et venit Ver cum fenfu mirifico, quern interpretatur rofa adveniens : 
*' Ha*c adeo omnia excitantur tui gratia & in tua commoda, incredule, 
" Omnia autem Dei recordanrur, illi ferviunt, ilium laudant, illi gratias 

agunt ; 
*' In unaquaque enim re fignum eft, oftendens ilium Unum efle." 

Ex hoc itaque animi affectu, qui Admiratio dicitur, non, ut poeta ait, 
ex timore, natae funt pulcherrimae atque amabiliflimaz forores, poefis ac 
pietas ; quae apud omnes fere gentes, non eas folum qua? paullo funt hu- 
maniores, fed etiam incultas. ac rudes, fibi irtvicem adnuniftrare folent. 
Ac; miror afikmare j" Polybium, confuetudinem efle Arcajdum fere pro- 
priam, hymnis & carminibus ufque a pueritia patrios decs atque heroas 
laudare : certe ab omnibus prope fcriptoribus hoc poefeos genus antiquif- 
fimum fuifle dicitur. Atque in hoc loco de Callimachi hymnis politifli- 
mis, de iis qui Homero atque Orphei afcribuntur, de nonnullis Theocriti 
IdyHiis, & atque altero Pindari carmine, non eft neceffarrum dif- 
ferere. Lubet tamen fubjicere carmen in hoc genere perpulchrum, quod 
licet ab Athenaso \ in quatuor Ilaiava? feu SxoX/a diftinguatur, mihi ta- 
men unus efle videtur hymnus in Minervam ac Jovem, Cererem & Pro- 
ferpinam, ApolKnem & Dianam, ac Panem ; quam fententiam confirmat 
quodammodo ejufdem metri in fingulis ftrophis continuatio : 

aj TptToyevet', ctvcurtr 'J 
reives woXiv rt > 

et^.ysuv re 
Ka* Savdruv ttupuv. Zu re 

if' *DXll/*7raj flCEl Jtt 

ri<pani(f}o(>oi$ jv ugottf. 
f Polyb. lib. iii. 

J Lib. xv. 


liar A;o; , 

Eu ^ TavJ' d^ltrtrov -sroXw. 

'El> AljXw TZrOT* TCT TtXVU 


'la Ilaj', ITT' 

Ta~; J" eee 


De Perfarum vero ac Turcarum hymnis inutile erit pluribus verbis 
dicere ; tot enim apud eos funt fupremi numinis laudationes, quot libri, 
ob morem Afiaticorum, qui Pindari fententiaj, 

Xpij Si 

accedentes, femper hymnum le&iflimis elegantiarum floribus ornatum 
operibus praeponunt. 

Poemata, in quibus ipfe Mohammedes laudatur, funt quamplurima. 
Venuftifllmum tamen, mea quidem fententia, eft a Caab Ben Zoheir 
fcriptum ; cujus verfus quidam dignijQTimi funt, qui hoc loco ob eximiam 
pulchritudinem apponantur. Quam magnifica hzec eft leonis defcriptio, 
quern fe minus timere ait quam Mohammedem '. Nam Arabum legifla- 
tor, delatorum fermonibus incitatus, hujus poetas meditabatur interitum : 



,}UjU 4^ y\ Or*-" ^r^. o' 



(Magis ilium timeo) " Quam leonem leonum, qui habitat 

" In valle Attbari, ubi fylva eft fylvse impofita j 

" Mane egreditur, & duos catulos nutrit, qui vefcuntur 

" Game hominum, in pulvere volutata & confcifla : 

" Cum in hoftem infiliat, non licet ei 

" Hoftem relinquere, nifi prius vinciatur. 

" Ob ilium leones folitudinis manent taeiti, 

*' Neque in valle illius pedites ambulant. 

" At perpetuo in valle ejus (frater confidential) heros confidentiffimus 

" Projedtis & armis & veftibus devoratur." 

Deinde ad Mohammedem tranfit, elatiffima ufus figura, 

" Vates fcilicet enfis eft, a quo lux oritur, 
" Indicus, ex enfibus Dei, nudatus." 

Sed ad heroum laudes veniamus. Celebrare igitur res praeclare geftas, 
ac virorum fortium virtutes, antiqua fuit Arabibus confuetudo. Neque 
eft ullum poefeos genus utilius : nihil eft enim prasftabilius quam animura 
ad virtutes impeHere atque incendere ; nihil porro ad eum finem confe- 
quendum efficacius, quam ea proferre exempla, quas lector admiretur, 
& fibi imitanda proponat. Hujufmodi carminibus conftat libri Hamafa 
caput fextum ; aliaque innumera funt laudationum exempla. Et quis 



non miro virtutis amore incenditur, cum earn ab Ibn One'm ita fuaviter 
laudatam videat : 

lUI ^ U J^UI 
^- A^. 
5 !OJ JLJ 


" : " 

**' Inter reges alios omnes, atque ilium (Almelec Al Adi!) 

" In excellentia, tantum intereft, quantum inter Heiadas & terrain. 

" In omni terrae parte floret ejus juftitia 

" Pura, & fluit ros ejus in ea (liberalitas) modo fluvii cceleftis Cu~ 


" Juftitia, a qua manfuetus fit lupus fame aftri&us, 
" Efuriens, licet hinnuleum candidum videat. 
" Ignofcit culpis graviffimis benevole, 
** At a verbis turpibus cum indignatione fe avertit. 
*' Narrationem de rege praeter eum ne audias, 
** Omnis enim prxda eft in ventre onagri." 

hoe eft, omnes virfutes illefolus cotnpletfitur. 

Similiter Ferdufi de rege Perfarum, priufquam ab illo laceflitus eflet 
injuriis : 


AW. .. 

(j*f* <***> oL 

vyi ji 


*> ..1* AJ tXOJl .jl 

*> .. AJ tXjO .j 


" Rerum dominus, Mahmud> rex potens, 

" Ad cujus aquam potum veniunt fimul agnus & lupus : 

" A Cafhmira ufque ad Sinenfem oceanum 

" Reges illius laudes iterant. 

** Cum infans labium matris ladle lavat 

U T TtJT L J' MI- - f 

1 In cunis, nomen Mabmudi ilhco profert. 

*' In convivio coelum eft liberalitatis, 

** In praelio, belli leo eft, imo draco : 

" Ab ejus magnificentia orbis lerrarum verno horto fimilis eft, 

" Aer pluvia plenus eft, & terra ornamentis plena : 

" A nubibus debito tempore cadit ros, 

^* Et terras orbis Irenti hortulos refert." 

Idem poeta Ebn Onein regis Alddel filios pari venuftate laudat ; 



s: ^.^AAST I ""L^j (J^> (j 


''! J! 161 x. , 

" Sunt ei filii, ex quibus in unaquaque regione 

" Rex eft, qui in hoftes exercitum ducat ; 

" Ex omnibus (adolefcentibus) frontes habentibus nitidas, ilium eflc 

putares lunam, 

" At cum in praelium irruit, turn fcilicet leonem : 

" Homines ingenuum habentes ortum, egregiam indolem, 

" Copiose fluentem liberalitatem, & formofos vultus. 

" Irruunt, cum eluceat aliqua utilitas 

" Ex enfibus, fed a facris rebus rapiendis abftinent. 

" Faftidiunt equi eorum aqua? potum, 

** . A. f . 

' Quae hoftium ianguine non tmgatur. 

" Extinguunt belli ignem, ingenti ejus amore capti, 


Sed longe abeft, ut hofpitalitatis ignem extinguant.' 

Nobiliffima funt in hoc genere Abfl Ola carmina, cujus exultans &: 
quafi vibrans ingenium videtur Pindari fuifle fimillimum. Primum 
illius in laudem principis Said carmen harum literarum cultoribus non 
minorem aflfert deledtationem, quam Graecae poefeos amatoribus primum 
& quartum Pythium. Hujus elatiffimi poematis illuftriores quafdam 



virtutes exponam. Seipfum initio alloqui videtur, & fententiarum fe- 
riem de vanis animae humanse cogitationibus fundit. Mox de fua pere- 
grinatione loquitur ; mulieres quafdam inducit de caufa itineris percon- 
tantes : " Refpondimus, inquit, Saidum petimus ; & fuit illis nomen 
" principis faufto omini j" 

Said emmfortunatum fignificat. 

Turn, ad principis laudationem facili aperto aditu, in elatam animi exul 

tantiam erumpit, & in hos magnificos verfus fefe efFundit : 


** Impellit equituni turmas ad hoftium venationem, 

" Et, tanquam fylvam, haftas proceras erigit. 

" Parum abeft, quin arcus ejus nondum flexi 

" In illorum cordibus fagittas figant. 

** Parum abeft, quin enfes ejus non diftridi 

*' Ad illorum colla properanter accedant. 

** Parum abeft, quin equi celeres fine regimine, 

" Quo fe reprimant, aut effundant, ilium vehant." 

Deinde bella principis, tanquam venatoris potentiflimi, defcribit. Hinc 

ad amores fuos, more Arabico^ tranfit j & amicam fub juvencz imagine 

VOL. n. 4 c adumbrat. 


adumbrat. Tempeftatem defcribit ac fulgura : morales quafdam fenten- 
tias, ut Pindarus folet, intexit. Hinc occafionem fumit in tribum Badia 
invehendi, quos inhofpitalitatis infimulat ; iifque Saidi liberalitatem tan- 
quam exemplum proponit : cujus fortitudinem ac potentiam mirificis 
coloribus pingit. Mox equum principis ob celeritatem ac nobilitatem, 
Greecorum more, collaudat, & poft nobilem gladii Profopopceiam, variafque 
laudationes, poema claudit. Quam fublimis eft hasc enfis defcriptio, 
quam audax, quam magnifica ! 

-1(12(3 iumtB in 

Ji (^f 


> yyc y^J 


U Oou 

* Ornatur vagina, quam veftitam putes 

" Aftris noturnis, & calceatam luna : 

" Facies ere&a mucronis, meo afpeftu, difcrepantiam quandam habet, 

" Ita tamen ut in ilia qujedam fit fimilitudo ; 

" Fulget enim fuper ea aquse fplendor, 
At vides in eadem ignis fcintillas. 
Duas ejus acies dux funt linguae in Mofhref politae, 
Quae terribilem Mortis orationem fundunt ex tempore. 

" Cum 



" Cum circumfpiciat princeps, eumque enfem educat 
" In altum aera, putat in eo fplendore aquae nitorem ; 
" Et repunt fuper illo purpureae mortes, 
" Pofteaquam in formicas mutatae fuerint." 

Sanguinis guttulas lento motu per gladium defluentes cum formicis 
comparat. Ilia autem figura, " repunt fuper illo purpurees mortes" 
nihil efle poteft conceptu difficilius, nihil incertius aut magis terribile, & 
ob earn ipfam caufam, ut antea ftatuimus, nihil elatius. 


3 Bf!n&*ii9)a:A 


De Vituperatwnt. 



Ae'S*' -viJ->V. *ZZ<~'-Z, i . , ,. ,. 

D earn poefeos Ipeciem vemmus, cui onginem dedit odium atquc 

ofFenfio : earn fcilicet, quam ret'entiores fifl^/VAtforocant, veteres lambos ; 
propterea quod illo n^etro ufus eft, vituperator acerrimus, Archilochus, 

quern imitatus eft in hendecafyllabis Catullus, 

Quaenam te mala mens, mifelle Ruvide, 

Agit prsecipitem in meos iambos ? 

& in epodis Horatius ; qui ipfam libri infcrip'tionem ab Archilocho 
fumpfit: nam Hephasftion, de verfu dadylico teframetro loquens, addit 
2 Brpwr- expjraro 'Apx/Afl^* " 'Effw^V. lambis etiam ufus eft Hippo- 



pax, fed ut pondus quoddam iis accederet, primo epitrito trimetrum 
claufit, ut 

'1$ ol fjcev yi<~ BaTraAo; KXT^UVTO. 

Atqui, ut aperte dicam quod fentio, valde invitus in poetarum chorum 
Satyricos, ut vocantur, afcribo. Nolo manfuetiorum Mufarum defiderari 
benevolentiam, Quod fi fcriptor iamborum fine ofFenfione, fine iracun- 
dia, fine amaritudine fcribat, & eo folum tendat, ut lecTrorem caftigando 
erudiat, non erit omnino reprehendendus. Sed tamen lenior qusedam, 
ut arbitror, inveniri poteft ac mitior caftigatio. Nimiam enim feveri- 
tatem fugit animus ac repudiat ; fed lenocinio quodam ac manfuetudine 
allicitur & fledtitur. Duci ad virtutem debent animi, non trahi ; fua- 
deri, non cogi ; allici, non impelli. Cxterum, utut fe habeat res, non 
minus in hac poefi quam in reliquis florent Afiatici. Sunt vehementes, 
afperse, & amara^ Arabum, quas vidi, vituperationes ; fed cum quadam 
etiam fententiarum elatione. Velut in libro de Antarse & Ablre amo- 
ribus ; ubi base timidi cujufdam legitur & fugacis militis vituperatio : 

UfcU _, ^y^^l ^1. LgJ 





" Eradicet te Deus, ignave miles ; 

" Nunquam te irrigent maturing nubis guttae ! 

" Neu fundat pluviam nubes fuper domicilia tribus, 

** Ubi tu commoraris, neu virefcant eorum colles ! 

" Induifti, O fili Bader, ignominias 

" Pallium, nee te deferent illam fecuturse miferiae." 



Hujus libri quartumdecimum folummodo volumen mihi videre con- 
tigit. Nihil eft elegans, nihil magnificum, quod huic operi deefle putem. 
Ita fane excelfum eft in eo dicendi genus, ita varium, ita periculofum, ut 
non verear cum inter poemata perfeftiflima recenfere. Heros eximius, 
qui in eo laudatur, idem eft ille Antara, qui carminum Moallakat, ut 
appellantur, quintum compofuit f ; fuit autem Abla regis filia formo- 
fiffima, quam perdite amavifle dicitur. In iftius voluminis, quod legi, 
primo folio, fatyra eft admirabilis, quam cecinuTe dicuntur Ablse ancillce 
in vituperium Amari, qui etiana illam amavit. Carmen integrum ap- 
ponam : 


ju v~OCy J 


Jl J^2J' U 


' UJ 

Vide Caput Tertium, pag. 593. 








" Amdrah^ 


" Amarah) mitte amorem puellarum mollium, 

" Define autem te formofis virginibus objicere ; 

" Non enim repellis hoftium manus, 

" Nee fortis es eques die certaminis : 

" Neu cupias Ablam intueri ; 

" Videbis potius terrores a leone vallis, 

" Neque enim ad earn accedent candidi enfes, 

" Cum impetum faciunt, nee haftse fufcae ; 

" Abla vero eft capreola, quse leonem venatur 

" (Ciliis) oculis languidis, fed integris. 

" At tu amori ejus ftrenue incumbis, 

" Et imples omnia loca querelis. 

" Define ideo illam importune petere, fin minus, 

" Irrigat te Antara mortis poculo. 

" At non cefsafti earn petere, donee 

" Texifti veftes tuas nitidas armis. 
.-.&. Te vero irrident puellse certatim, 

" Ut in colliculis & vallibus Echo refpondeat ; 

" Et fadus es unicuique aufcultanti fabula, 

u Et ludibrium cum mane turn vefperi. 

" Venis ad nos chlamyde veftitus, fed 
i-ft.Illaj te irrident, & lufus augent. 

" Et cum accefleris iterum, veniet ad te leo, 

" Quern timent leones in vallibus : 
-.rrf* -Hie nihil tibi relinquet, prseter odium, 
; , " Pro poteftate tua, cum redibis contemptus. 

*' Videbit te pulchra Abla, projectum, humilem, 

" Et quas erunt cum ilia puellse venufta?, 

" Antara enim, heros heroum, leo eft fylvz, 

" Dum furit, at liberalitate mare fuperat. 

" Nos autem pulchris floribus fumus fimiles, 

" Odorem habentes violarum & parthenii ; 

." Et 


" Et Abla inter nos, tanquam myrobalani ramulus, 

" Quern coronat luna, aut fol matutinus. 

" Tu verb abjeftiflimus es omnium qui equos afcendunt, 

" Et inter avaros longe avarifiimus : 

" Cupis ad earn injufte & impudenter accedere, 

" Tu, qui vilior es cane latranti, 

" Morere igitur ob triftitiam : fin minus, vive abjectus ; 

" Atqui nemo eft, qui vituperationis meas voces delebit." 

Hujufmodi carminibus, iifque amariflimis, conftant tria libri Hamafa 
capita, quorum unum igncrjitz ac pigritice, alterum mulierum quarundam, 
tertium variorum hominum vituperationes complectitur. Magnam habet 
in hoc genere vim & acerbitatem Gezirus ; fed, ut Plautinis utar verbis, 

-- felle eft foecundiffimus, 

Guftu dat dulce, amarum ad fatietatem ufque aggerit. 
Sunt autem Turcico fermone fcriptje, poetae elegantis Ruhi Bagdadi, fa- 
tyras, ut a. viro harum literarum peritiffimo accepi ; nam eas nondum 
videre potui. Nullum vidi librum Perficum, qui his carminibus unice 
conftaret, fed in Ferdufii vita citatur poema, quod in regem Perfarum 
Mahmud, filium Sebettighin, compofuit. Ilium enim rex juflerat poema 
heroicum fcribere, munera pollicitus uberrima. Triginta igitur annos 
laboravit poeta, opufque perlongum, & in omni genere perfectiflimum, 
contexuit ; quod cum perfeciffet, ad regem mifit, non fine ampliffimi 
muneris expeftatione. Rex vero, delatorum quorundam obtredliationibus 
deceptus, fidem fervare nol-ait. Cum igitur poeta aliquantulum expec- 
taviflet, neque ullum accepiflet laboris frutum, in eo templi loco, quo 
regem feflurum cognoverit, hoc epigramma exaravit : 


*& * 
CXi*JLs> CX^s^ gUO 

" Felix 


" Felix, cui Mahmud Zabeli mare eft liberalitatis, ufque adeb ut nullum 
" in eo littus appareat ! utcunque verb in eo fun immerfus, marga- 
" ritam non vidi ; fed fortune meae culpa eft, non maris." 

Hoc perlecto, rex exiguum quoddam & vile munus, potius contemtionis 
caufa quam beneficentiae, ad poetam mifrt - T qua injuria laceflitus Ferduft 
iracundiam' compefcere non potuit. Scripfit ideo acerbiffimum poema, 
quod regis fervulo cuidam tradidit obfignatum, obnixe rogans, ut illud, 
fi quando regem viderit mceftiorem, daret ei legendum. Quo facto, ex 
urbe effugit, ad Eagdadum iter facturus. Interea rex libellum defignat, 
& legit vehementiflunum fill vituperium, cujus loca quaedam infigniora 
hoc in capite proferam. 


^^ vrf 



tJ (^f^ tJ *^'<^ 
[jC^sf 9 sLi v* 




.. *^* 


^U_ji _^Oo cXwjU cXok. 

^^ 1 -' _/** 


/^ ^- 

X> *> CJ^ 

y ^ ^yUJ jti (>/ 

VOL, II. 4 j-> 


> J' 




jZ_^L> i^oOy" ^ht^XJ *iO-W 

cxolc o^L 

bs. AST? Jj 


tX<O (^. 

j sjAa*. tX^<3 &J~^" 



5 o(j viTUU 

-U (^JC*wi AJ 



" Liberalitatem vide regis iftius indigi ! 

" Eloquitor ; & a verbis veritatis munus debitum pete. 

" Non probum eft veritatem celare, 

" Et fidem abjedtis fordibus fpargere. 

" Res quaevis viliffima melior eft tali rege, 

" Qui nee pietatem, nee mores, nee religionem habeat. 

" IntelleAus non eft regi Mahmud, 

" Video enim animam ejus a beneficentia averfam. 

" Servi 




* f Servi filius ad opus ingeuuum acquit perduci, 

Licet pater fit multorum prindpum ; 

Caput improborum hominum efferre, 
" Perinde eft -ac pulvere eculos alpergere ; 
*' Aut fuum lum incarvare, 
" Aut colubrum in fiau alere. 
" Arborem, quae eft natura amara, 
" Si in hortum paradiil transferas ; 
" Si a ripa aeternitatis, aquationis tempore, 
" Radicem eju meWe ipaigas, & puris favis 
** Naturam fuara poftremo oftendet, 
" Et frudlus omnino afFeret acerbos. 
" Quod fi ovum cornicis, ex tenebris formatas, 
** Ponas fub pavone horti codeftis, 
" Et tune, cum ex ovo prodeat pullus, 
" Si praebeas illi grana ficus divinae, 
" Si des illi aquam ex fonte Salfebil, 
** Si demum ovum halitu fuo afflet Gabriel, 
" Tamen cornicis ovum cornicem proferet, 
" Et irritum faciet pavonis coeleftis laborem. 
" Quod fi viperam de via capias, 
" Et inter rofas earn facias requiefcere, 
" Si agas quodcunque animse ejus placeat, 
u Si potum ei ex immortalitatis fonte praebeas, 
" Non erit propter hanc curam arnica tibi, 
" Sed veneno te tandem afflabit. 
" Quod fi nodtuae pullum capiat horti cuftos, 
" Et a folitudine in hortum ferat, 
" Sedemque ejus notu faciat rofae fruticem, 
** Et mane torum ejus reddat hyacinthum, 

f Puit Sebeftighin, Mahmudi pater, fervus dlpttgbini, ijui, fub regno Nuki Samani, exercitul 
Perfico prxfuit. 

" Simul 


" Simul ac dies pennas fuas explicaverit, 

" In folitudinis angulum avolabit. 

" Non inane redditur Vatis noftri di&um, 

" Unamquamque red ad fuam naturam redire. 

" Si per officinam ambari venditorum tranfeas, 

" Ambari odorem veftis tua retinebit. 

" Si tranfeas per fabriferrarii officinam, 

" Praeter nigrorem nihil reperies. 

" Mirum non eft, a pravis ingeniis prodire pravitatem : 

" Noctis nigredinem non licet exfecare. 

" A viri improbi filio nihil probi fperate, 

** Nam ^thiops lavatu non fit candidior. 

" O rerum omnium dominator> fi punl luifles indole, 

" In ilia dodtrinse via efles liberalis, 

*' Audires ejufmodi efle poefeos dignitatem, 

" Secundum regum mores, veterefque confuetudmes ; 

" Non ita fortunas meas corrumperes, 

" Alio modo opus meum afpiceres* 

" O, rex Mahmud, arcium expugnator, 

" Si me non timeas, at Deum time. 

'* Quare acre meum ingenium excitafti ? 

" Annon gladium meum fanguineum metuis ?" 





De Defcriptionibus. 

XvELIQUUM eft, ut de nature defcriptionibus loquar ; quo in genere, 
cum omnes venuftiores poetse, turn pracipue florent Afiatici. Picturam 
ac poefm quafi forores efle perfpicuum eft ; & mirum eft quantum fe 
rautuo juvent atque illuftrent. 

Notum eft Timanthem, cum Iphigenia immolationem pingeret, & 
Graces aftantes moeftiffimos feciflet, Agamemnonis faciem pallio obvol- 
vifle ; propterea quod incredibilem patris dolorem nullis coloribus poflet 
imitari. Quod infigne artificium ex verfibus illis Euripideis videtur 

- uq o e<rt$tv ' 

Aorxpua Trpojj^ej', oppoiTuv srtTrhov 
Cujus rei alia funt exempla quamplurima. 

Sed in reliquis poematum generibus modica eft inter pi&ores ac poetas 
cognatio, in hac, de qua nunc loquor, funt valde finitimi ; nam poeta, 
cum naturae proprietates defcribat, leftiffimam quafi pifturam ante oculos 
lectoris ponit : cujus rei exempla quaedam fubjiciam. Quod fi omnes 
rerum naturalium defcriptiones, quarum ex variis poetis iatis amplam 
comparavi fupelled;ilem, hoc loco velim exponere, abfurde fane faciam, 

& contra 


& contra inftituti mei rationem. Sed nequeo a me impetrare, quin 
unam atque alteram ex Graecis quibufdam fcriptoribus defcriptionem 
apponam ; eoque. libentius quod rariores fmt, & admodum pulchra*. 

Quam jucunda eft pi&ura, qua nympharum lufus in Oeneo defcribit f 
Charemon, tragicorum longe venuftiflimus ! 

yap y> pev Xemov elf <rt\vpoq 

au o'^s<a \atyovcx TYJV cc 



ASVKOV jttsXavaj tpyov ui/rctvyei <nctxs' 



',, t / / t \ / 

H o tKfeiytvTuv -xXctviouv VTTO 7r/* 

a vn^ov eXsviuv 7r<, 
"lav rt jMsXayo<puXXa rvfttXarcu iflegu, 
Kfoxov & os ijX/wiJef tig 
^ TIeTrXuv Itif e^wXcv 

Quos verfus eleganter, ut Temper, convertit Grotius, earn fibi vindicans 
in trimetris licentiam, quam Naevius, Accius, & veteres tragic! fump- 
ferunt : 

Alia jacebat Candidas papillulas 

Oftendens lun*, retrojedo pallio : 

f Vide Athenaeum, Lib. xiii. 

$ Duo, qui fequuntur, verfus, 

TliftnK Hi So^tf turf *9< a.jxajax- 

Anfuairt natotxot'f f|iTii>ir av^iist, 

ad hanc Nympharum defcriptionem pertinere non arbitror ; fed ad illam, de qua loquitur Athenaeus, 
turn dicit Cbteremma in defcribendis floribus multum efle & copiofum. 



Alii chorea lazvum, nudarat latus, 
Nudum fideribus exhibens fpectaculum, 
Viventem effigiem. Lacteus vifu color 
Contra certabat umbris nigricantibus : 
Monftrabat ulnas alia, & formofas manus : 
Alia obtegebat tenera colli volumina : 
Alia difrupto tenuis interulas firm 
Femur oftendebat ; arridente gratia 
Mihi fe imprimebat, fpem non adducens, Amor. 
Et jam volvuntur lapfabundse per inulas, 
Jam nigricolores violas populantes legunt, 
Crocique florem, qui purpureis fupparis 
Inje&us rutilum foils imitatur jubar. 

Idem in Alphefibcea humanam pulchritudinem defcribit pulcherrime : 
Ka) (rufJi.ot,TO$ ( tytf e| 

$' l 
Kc'jti< Se 

Nee amittendi funt hoc loco verfus, quibus Venerem & Nympha 
defcribit audtor poematis, quod KuVp< infcribitur, five Stofimus^ five, ut 
Tzetzes putat, ipfe Homerus : . 
*H Se <ruv 

tOevro Becti 
J XupTS$, a.p,ot Se %fv<rii ' 

Nec verfus illi de Cupidine dormiente (ex longiori, forfan, poemate 
libati) qui Platoni afcritmntur : 


pfaourtv ioiKorct, 

Oo S" 'i'Xfv loSoMv <pctptTpyv t JtajwruXa TO, 
'AXXa TCC pev $tv$pe<r<rw JTT* tvTrtTctXouri Kptf 

S" Iv xaXwi(T<r podtav, wevtSiii^evof wivta, 
vQa,l $' eQv-ffepds fi&urffut 
Xyapo~f ITTJ ^ctXetn jQwrfOf. 

Nihil efTe poteft his verfibus jucundius aut modulatius ; & vellem pro- 
fe<3to plura fupereflent Platonis carmina. Certe valde poeticum illi 
fuifle ingenium paucae, quae fuperfunt, relliquiae teftantur ; & Socrati 
fubirafcor, qui difcipulum fuaderet a manfuetioribus Mufis ad philo- 
fophiae fpatia declinare. Sed omnes defcriptionum venuftates complec- 
titur ei$v\Xiov in primo Anthologiae libro, quo vix quidquam inveniri 
poteft luculentius : 

^i/EjwoEi/r ci-sr at^Eg 
peiSiife (pigmS'tos s*ct(> 
Tcuot $t xvavtri %\oepijv efe^etro Ttrotitv, 
KaJ tyvrci ^ij^foivTK vtois exopiave wsTijXoff. 
Ot S' owraXijv TffivovTiq cttfcityuTts fyoirov yxs 

f, yeXoutriv avetyof*tvoK> poooio. 
/g' ^ ffugipyi vopevf Iv opeaw \iyaivuv, 
K* woXws eots tTrrftireTai ai7roA ouyuv. 

srXuxo'iv ITT tuoeec KUf^ecTX vctvrcu, 

iy airijfti/Tu etyvftv xmoc 
(5" tvoiu<rt ^opEj-alpuXu Aiovvtru 

"Av3 ti jQorpOOSl/To fpt^K 

"Epyot, Jfi T%i/ij6)/Ta Qoyyeveeiw 

^eX<, x) <r/jttXw etyvifAivou epyccfyvrai 
zroXuTpi;To<o vioplvTot. xaXXea xij8. 
avTr J" ofviduv yevey Xiyvtfiuvot; cufSei, 
"AXxuew; BTJ^i *tJjtt, ^eX 

VOL, II. 4 E 


ITT' oj^etariv isroToi^, > UTT' aX<roj 
Ei <5s QUTUV %/8ir< icofiai, x^ yat.'ta. 
u/is< Se vo/AEUf, x^ refTTBron evxoKa 


v\iy\ . .\ 


Amant potiflimum Afiatici hortorum, amoenitatum, ac florum, defcrip- 
tiones, quas jucundiflimis pingunt verborum coloribus. Velut in tn- 

cefiraa Haririi declamatione : 

- ' 

* j*cl CXL> (yj ^J/* U*y kiuM^ 
* _ jj (^5^ cJ-^ 3 ' '-^^ ScX ^ 

. - * 

* tid\ (s^ ^ 

* j ^5 

w Natale folum eft Seruge, in quo hue & illuc erravi^ ,. 
" Regio, in qua bmnia reperiuntur & redundant. 
** Vada ejus fontes coeleftes funt, & campi jucunda prata, 
" ^dificia & manfiones ejus funt ftellas & zodiaci figna, 
" Amamus odoris ejus auram & confpeftum fplendidum, 
*' Et flores collium ejus, cum abierint nives ; 

" Quicunque hanc regionem videt, ait, Seruge paradifi terreftris 
locus eft.' r 

Et Abu Dhaher Ben Al Khiruzi, 

ii C^cAjJl \-y*>\ 






** Hortus, queiri ornat ros, & in quo 
** Splendent flores, tanquam ftells lucidx, 
" Induit eum Veris manus 
" Ornatam veftem, roris guttulis perfperfam ; 
r i 55 . Anemonae ejus partim fimiles funt, 
" Super colles ejus, tunicis viridibus, 
" Partim proveniunt fimiles oculis, 
Quorum cilia flendo rubent. 


M ?'1l^"ifl v 'jY 

Et Mohammed Abdalla Al Dawi, 

ima oh 9 bD 9 5 



" Annon te exhilarat Deftigerdi hortulus, 

" Similis aut monili gemmeo, aut ferico, aut piftae chlamydi ? 

" Volitant ift eo papiliones candidi & rubri, 

" Ceu rofarum folia, quse ventus diipergk." 

\. \* { 

Et Abu I Ha/Jan Ali Eino'l Huffein de valle amdeaiflima, ipfe quoque in 
primis venuftus ; 



^ Cr-' ^-^***M vXXi*i 
# < \ w* 




* (. 

" Si quando mentio fiat de paradifi amcenitatibus, heus tu, age ! ad val- 

" lem Mawafhdn accede. 
" Reperies vallem, qua? omnes moleftias difperget, receflum, qui ab 

" omni negotio te liberabit ; 
" Cum horto fplendido, cum fontium murmure, dulciori lyrae and tibiae 

" notis ; 
** Ubi aviculae modulantur inter fruftus, quos videbis pyropis & marga- 

" ritis fimiles. - 
" O quam dulcis eflet hie receflus, nifi me defiderio afficerent amiculi 

*' abfentes in Darbizafrdn !" 

Et poeta Turcicus, 

cxa^ u 

" Unufquifque fons aqus immortalitatis fimilis manavit, 
u Tulipse lampas unumquodque latus illuminavit, 

' Aura 


" Aura matutina laceravit rote fmum, 
" Zephyrus narciffi oculos reddidit madidos, 
" Arbores leviter ac celeriter faltant, 
" Et fuper flores nummos argenteos (rorem) fpargunt." 
Et alius, 

-kwl-AN (^'Ic Jl*2^ 


fr i^AXJ^ 


" Hujus loci ambitus ufquequaque rofetum eft, 

" Rofetum, in quo ubique vitae fontes manant, 

" Herbas odoriferas fe invicem manibus amplexantur, 

" Tulipas languidae curvatas gerunt coronas, 

" Narciffi niger oculus effulget, 

" Qui vos intuetur ebriolo afpeftu." 

Et Dhafer Elhadddd, 


M In hoc loco vita erit oculis tuis jucunda, 

" Venit ibi fenfim in pedus tuum lanitia, 

" Hortus eft viridi facie ornatus, & rivulis diftindus, 

" Super quern gelidus ventus variam picluram induxit, 

" Ac 


" Ac palmae ceu puellse, teneras habentes cervices, ornantur, 
" Et frutuum fuorum induunt raonilia." 

Ssepiflime etiam turtures gementes defcribunt ; ut Abi'lola, 

^ ^) ^V^tJ! Jbu 

" Columba nigram habeas torquem, cujus os ita anguftum eft, ut defi- 
" derkim, quod in pecT:ore habet, enuntiare nequeat ; 

" Provocat fpiritu alte duto, collum pulfans, violentum amorem, ufque 
" eo donee torques dolore fubito rumpatur." 

& poetae quidem Eagdadenjls, 

" Turtures fylvarum arboribus Erac confitarum, nihil eft vobis, dum 
" plangitis, O columbse, praeter meram follicitudinem : 

" Prseterea pares eftis, quod fi fuifletis, ficut ego fum, folitariae, profedto 
" non viveretis ?" 

Et alius, 


" Vidi fuper arborem Erac turturem, 

" Qui varias querelas inter ramulos integrabat ; 

" Squalls 


" Squalls ei dolore fui, & ille mihi ; 

" Uterque noftri de myrobalani ramis plorabat." 

Et Al Serage Al Warak dulciffime, 

** Turtur, cujus querels me infomnem reddunt, 

" Habet pedus, ficut ego habeo, dolore affedum ; 

** Queritur ; at arcanum meum celo, fed 

" Lacrymae ob arcanum recentes fluunt -, 

" Velut fl amorem divideremus, 

" Et illi eflet plandus, mihi vero lacrymas." 

Et alter, 

i^ <Joij 

* (^ 

M Turtures Eraci fylvae, amabo, nobis dicite 
** Quern defleatis, & ob quern ploretis ? 
" Sane nos quoque corda dolore fcindimus, 
" Et oculi noftri ob mceftitiam lacrymas fundunt. 

" Deus 


" Deus iniqukatem curls puniit, 

" Et ploramus ob amicorum difceflum. 

" Vobis autem faufta precamur, vos hem nobis faufta precari 

" Unufquifque enim moeftus moeftum folatur." 

Sed maximam poefi Afiaticae, ac praefertim amatoriae, afferunt hu- 
manse pulchritudinis (qua nihil eft a natura formatum pulchrius), de- 
fcriptiones. Abunde nobis ex Hafezi carminibus exemplorum fuppetit : 
fed unam tantum hoc loco apponam, de formofe adolefcentulas gena, 
Oden omnibus numeris abfolutam. 


>\- A-' 

" Veni ; fentio enim ex ilia gena odoris halitum (vel fpem animae), 
" Inveni etiam notam cordi meo impreflam ab ilia gena. 


" Significationem, quas nymphis cceleftibus ab interpretibus tribuitur, 
" A dulci pulchritudine illius genx percontator." 


\ ^Sji^o C^J CJ-Vr?- **(j Ao_> 



** Capit vefica hinnuli Sinenfis mofchi odorem ab illis crinibus, 
" Aqua rofacea talem odorem ab ilia gena recipit." 


" In terram demittitur cupreflus lafciva ob illam ftaturam, 
*' Pudore afFeda fedet rofa horti ob. illam genam. 



" Verecundans abit flos jafmini ob illud corpus, 

" Sanguinem flillat cor floris purpurei (Argovan) ob illam genam." 


" Ob fplendorem vultias tui fol verecundise rore immergitur, 
" Stat immota ob illam genam in coelo luna." 

" A dulcibus Hafezi numeris ftillat immortalitatis aqua, 

" Quemadmodum ob illam genam fanguinem ftillant ejus prascordia." 

Caput libri Hamafa, quod *oUuaJ( i~>U vocatur, tres continet defcrip- 
tiones ; primam, carnelorum ; quse tamen ex epithetis prope conftat ; 
alteram, ferpentis ; tertiam, nubium atque imbris ; quarum ultimam, ut- 
pote quae fit pernobilis, haud erit fortafle ineptum hie fubjicere. 


Ju OJu' J U, 

VOL. n. 



Dixit Meliha Aljarammi: 
*' Infomnis fui, cum protrad:a eflet nox, ob nubem fulgurantem, fplen- 

didam j quse tranfverse profeda eft de regione in regionem nigricans ; 
Ob her nofturnum ebria, obfcura nubes, quae terrae fterili id attulit (uber- 

tatem fcilicet) quod alias non eflet confecuta : 
Murmurabant nubium feries, dum per defertum tranfibant, ut murmurant 

invicem cameli ; 
Velut fi pars altior albas nubeculas vertex eflet Libani (cui), & longitu- 

dine & latitudine (fimilis erat :) 
Hasc nubila, venti ex Hadramut venientes difperferunt, cum pluviam 

tenuem, flillantem efFuderint ; 
Reliquerunt poft fe aquam, quae ita pura fuit, ut ex lacte mero formata 

Irrigabant radices, arefa&as ficcitate temporis, fpinofas uniufcujufque & 

falfas plantas, quas prope evanuerat ; 
Sic nubes atra progredi perfeveravit, ut (camelus) fub onere curvatus, 

labore confeftus, in loco arenofo difEcile incedit." 




De variis Arabum^ Perfarum y ac Turcarum Poetis. 

ID quod de poetis, qui Av/>ncoi a Graxis vocantur, dixit f Cicero, ve- 
rius in Afiaticos transferri poteft : " Si mihi vitae fpatium duplicetur in 
** iis tantummodo percurrendis, non efle fuffecturum." Hoc veriflimum 
efle fentiet is, qui viderit apud Herbelotum prope triginta auftorum no- 
mina, qui de poetarum Arabicorum vitis & carminibus fcripferunt; inter 
quos recenfentur princeps illuftris Ebn Al Motezz Al AbaJJi, & Alman- 
fur^ rex Hama?, cujus opus decem volumina compledi dicitur; & fcrip- 
tor illuftris Omadeddin Al Isfahani, qui hiftoriam Saladini elatiffimo di- 
cendi genere compofuit, librumque abfolutiflimum de poetis Arabicis 
contexuit, Kherida JfJo-^. feu tnargarita, infcriptum. His addi poflunt 
Ebn Khacan, qui copiose de Arabum poetis fcripfit, dicendi genere ufus. 
politiflimo, & cujus opus vocatur, 

Monilia aurea de excellent ium poetarum Juavitatibus : & fTbaalebi, cujus 
liber A^AXJ Tatima quidquid venufti, quidquid elegantis, quidquid politi, 
quidquid etiam elati habeat poefis Arabica, compleditur : volumina con- 
tinet quatuor, capita autem quadraginta ; in quibus eopiofiffime diflerit 
de vitis & operibus poetarum illuftriorum, qui in Syria, jEgypto, Mefo- 

Frag, apud Senecam in F.pift 



potamia, Chaldsea, Perfide, Arabia, Tartaria, & regionibus Tranfoxanis 
floruerunt. Pulchre hunc librum laudabat poeta imprimis elegans Ebn 


K Verfus horum carminum in Yatima 

'* Virgines erant, cogitationes antiquae : 

" Mortui funt poets, & vivunt poft eos carmina, 

" Et ob hanc rem vocatur liber Tatima" 

Etenim voce ^jJu cum pupillus, turn etiam unio fignificatur. 

Nee minus jucundum opus eft Oo^Jj! cxjj=*. feu iimi dulcedo ; auc- 
tore Shehabeddin El Nawagi. Eft hie liber Athenaei As<7rvoiro^r~f fimil- 
limus, fed mea quidem fententia jucundior, ornatior, copiofior. Viginti 
quinque partes completitur, de vino, de floribus, ,de amore, de pulcbri- 
tudine, de arnoenitatibus -(Egyptiis : quae omnia variis ac venuftiffimis 
carminibus cum veterum turn recentiorum Arabum defcribuntur. Scrip- 
fit aliud opus, quod infcribitur ^^ixJI AJ'j^ five Praia binnulorum, & 
carmina complecTitur amatoria e variis poetis libata. Idemque contexuit 
duo alia volumina, plena carminum venuftiorum. De Anthologiis Hu- 
deilitarum, Bokhteri, & Abi Temam, utpote notiffimis, nihil necefle eft 
hoc loco dicere. 

Librum (;tyLd Sefwat, quern cum Hamafa comparat Herbelotus, 
nee ullibi citatum legi, nee in uM bibliotheca vidi. Multa prasterea de 
Arabum poetis continet opus permagnum Hagi Khalfeh feu Catib Chekbl^ 
quod (M^JoJ I *, tjijj appellatur, & in quo de Afiaticorum libris omnibus 
praeclare traclatum eft; & liber admirabilis L_><3^! (jj*ij Vj 3 ^' cy 'r p .W J * 



five, De Arabum eruditione, cujus auctor fuit Sbehabo" ddln Al Noweiri. 
Horum operum alia Parifiis, alia Leydse, alia Oxonii, alia in reliquis 
Europse bibliothecis fervantur. 

Porro fcriptoris polidffimi Ebni Kb oilcan opus hiftoricum non magis 
verborum elegantia & ubertate commendatur, quam illuftriorum poeta- 
rum verfibus, quibus confpergitur. Ac nefcio an hie omnibus vitarum 
fcriptoribus fit anteponendus. Eft certe copiofior Nepote, elegantior 
Plutarcho, Laertio jucundior : & dignus eft profecto liber, qufin omnes 
Europse linguas converfus prodeat. Atqui Arabicorum poetarum infini- 
tam multitudinem abunde probant duo ilia opera, quorum unum ab 
Hegtazio, alterum a Safadio eft compofitum, & quorum hoc triginta 
volumina, illud quinquaginta compleditur. 

Permulti funt de poetis Perficis libri uberrimi, fed omnibus prseftare 
videtur opus 8 l>i O<J0> Dou/et Shah Samarcandi, quod fsepiflime citat 
Herbelotus. Qu\m feliciter autem Turcte poeticam coluerint, intelligi 
poteft cum ex Lutujii & reliquorum libris, turn ex opere illo ampliifimo 
jlx^l <Aj_j infcripto, quod novem poetarum Turcarum carmina com- 
pleditur, atque aliorum DXL continet flores diligentiflime & magno 
cum judicio delibatos. 

Inter antiques Arabum poetas celebriores fuerunt, iwJI *6 Dhti'l 
Remma, AjuU Nabega, JyL^, Mohalbal, (j^^i^ Motalammes, ^_V^x)l 
Ferazdak, aliique, & in primis audlores feptem Idylliorum, qua Moal- 
lakat vocitantur : ac de his quidem alias diftum eft ; illorum autem car- 
minibus, qua? mihi videre contigit, vix quidquam fingi poteft delicatius, 
venuftius, exquifitius ? Inter recentiores imprimis elegans eft Abu 1 1 Caf- 
fem t cujus liber vocatur v-^JJI^JW; Auri particula: \ neque immerito: 
nihil enim eo aut jucundius effe poteft, aut politius. Defcriptionibus 
abundat lepidis & venuftis, & dignus eft fane de quo dicatur, id quod de 
fluvio Teleboa fcripfit Xenophon, 


, m r \ / . V J' 

Msyaj ptv a, xaXcj de. 
Quam eleganter hortum defcribit : 

" Ilortus autem fuit variis ornamentis diftindtus, 

" In quo tanquam ferpentes currebant rivi, 

" Et flores parthenii ficut nitidi puellarum dentes, 

" Aliique flores fplendebant tanquam pit?s veftes & aurum. 

& imbrem : 

" Cum renidet ex nigris nubibus (nubes) fulgurans, 

" Flet imber, a campo beneficentiae continue ftillans 

" Lacrymas, velut fi ventus margaritas fpargeret 

" Super genam hortuli pida chlamyde veftiti." 

Non minorem habet venuftatem, & vim majorem, 
Ibntfl Faredh, elegans ac floridus poeta, & cum antiquioribus confe 
rendus. Miram habet plerumque in carminum initiis gratiam ac pul 
chritudinem : 



sUk^l *yjL 

" Odor Zephyri ex Alzaura provenit, 
" Mane, in vitam autem mortuos revocat : 
" Profert nobis auras ; halitus ejus diffunditur, 
" Et aer ab eo ambari odorem recipit." 

Sed hujus poetaj, quern cum Ovidio conferre folemus, elegiani in tertio 
capite citavimus. 

Si quis aliorum poetarum Arabum nomina videre cupiat, legat Herbe- 
/<?//', imperfetum quidem, fed jucundiffimum atque eruditiflimum opus. 
De Perfis tamen pauca difleram : nam Turcicorum earminum duos tan- 
tummodo vidi libros. Alterum, opus perparvum variorum poetarum 
Odas amatorias continens : alterum, codicem belliffime exaratum, & 
Mefihii carmina complexum. Centum & feptuaginta o&o Odis conftat, 
iifque politiflimis. 

Perficorum itaque poetarum poft Ferdnfium, Hafezum, & Sadium cele- 
berrimus eft Gelaleddin Balkhi, cujus perlongum opus, (C^ijLo Mefnavi 
nominatum, mirifica ornatur dod;rina copia ac varietate ; verbia illu- 
minatur elegantiflimis ; hiftoriis porro abundat lepidis, fuavibus, venuftis. 
Quam vivida haec eft Amoris laudatio, & ob arnicas difceffum querela ! 





..^JoLsfc. ~5 ti^L_^ 

^ ' 



tu3 t< ^-J> 




*' Salve, Amor ; tu, qui nos fuaviter incendis, 
" O tu, qui omnes noftros morbos fanas ; 
" O remedium, auxilium, & prazfidium noftrum, 
" O tu Plato nofter es, tu Galenus. 
" Oculus terreftris propter amorem in coelo eft, 
*' (Ob amorem) colles faltantes veniunt, & celeriter incedunt. 
" Labio arnicas meas fi adhaerere poflem, 
" Inftar argutse arundinis voces ederem. 
*' Quicunque a fodali fuo decedit, 
" Is elinguis eft, licet centum habeat voces. 
" Cum abiit rofa, & defloruit rofetum, 
u Non amplius lulcinice narrationem audis : 
" Equidem pariter quomodo prudentiam ufquequaque habeam, 
" Dum lux amicae ufquequaque non effulget. 
" Quod fi amatori non fit videndi amicam poteftas, 
" Avi fimilis eft, quae libertate caret." 

Nee verb his folis inter poetas locus eft : fua enim laus tribuitur aliis 
innumeris, qui in variis generibus floruerunt. Celebriores funt 
Feleki, (S^i^J R e ftM*> (^^JJ Rll ^ l \ 



Kermani, ^V^ Catebi, & ^JtibL. Khakani, qui Abilolce fuit, fi Her- 
beloto fides',' difcipulus, & magnificam prseceptoris fui poefm eft feliciter 
imitatus. Recentiorum tamen poetarum, quos tulit Perfis, elegantiffimus 
merito habetur Jami, cujus opera faepenumero, cum in Lingua Perjicce 
Commentariolc, & in Grammaticd, turn etiam in Hijloriis noftris, lauda- 

Sed de poetis hadenus : fufius de iis & copiofms diflerere, ab inftituto 
eflet alienum ; magna enim fylva eft, & integrum volumen requirit : & 
profedo imprimis defideratur liber De poetarum ^Jiaticorum Vitis ; cujuf- 
modi opus cum utiliffimum, turn etiam ob novitatem jucundiflimum fore 
puto. Et laudandum foret prop.ofitum, tot eximios viros ac miris in- 
geniis prasditos in novam lucem, & quafi vitze integrationem revocare. 
Plurimum fane his literis obeft librorum excuforum paucitas : egregium 
eflet itaque ac rege aliquo dignum opus, libros Afiaticorum elegantiores 
in lucem proferre, fed fine interpretatione ; ita enim prope duplicaretur 
& fumptus & labor. Illi autem qui otio fruerentur erudito, utcunque a 
bibliothecia remoti, poflent eos, gradatim ac pedetentim, accurate inter- 
pretari, emendare fagaciter, & do&e illuftrare. Ita fieret ut Arabum ac 
Perfarum poemata in manibus & in ore haberemus, nee minus effet ufi- 
tatum Ferdufii, Amralkeifi & Abi'lolas verfus in quotidianis fermonibug 
recitare, quam nunc Homeri, Anacreontis, aut Pindari. 




De Afiatkd DiElione. 



1J.ABENT Afiatlci oratiouis genus, non id quidem omnino numeris 
aftridum, ut poema, nee tamen ita fluens ac diflblutum, ut ferrao vul- 
garis. Placet libros hoc modb numerose compofitos inter poemata re- 
cenfere ; nam orationem, cujus fentcntise modulate cadunt, leniter pro- 
fluunt, fimiliter defmunt, quae verbis dulcibus & hilarioribus, iifque 
jucunde tralatis ornatur, in qua denique paria adjunguntur paribus, 
& contraria contrariis referuntur, parum a verfu abefle puto : quod 
video de Platonica & Democritea locutione fenfuTe veteresf. Atque 
in hoc loco de Afiaticorum libris modulatis diflerere, nee erit inutile, 
nee a propofito alienum. Notum eft, apud omnes gentes poeticae ftu- 
dium fuifle folutEe orationis cura antiquius. Apud Graecos orationera 
princeps contexuifle dicitur Pherecydes Syrus : Ciceronis temporibus 
gravifiima extabat Appii Claudii oratio, quam primus Romanorum in 
luceni protulit, cum fenatum a foedere cum Pyrrho faciendo difluaderet. 
Primus apud Arabas orationem compofuit vel Mohammedes, vel, fi quis 
fuerit, Mohammedis adjutor. Fuit certe quifquis Alcoranum contexuit, 
cum admirabili praeditus ingenio, turn acutilfimus 6c dicendi & perfua- 

t Cic. Orator. 



dendi artifex, Ac nequeo fatis prudentiam illius admirari, qui orationem 
potuerit incultae multitudinis turn auribus turn animis adeo fcite accom- 
modare. Nee enim illi in eruditorum hominum conventu erat habenda 
oratio, fed cum agreftibus rem habuit, impolitis, truculentis, ftellarum 
imaginumque cultoribus ; poeticse tamen impenfius deditis. Itaque 
fagax ille morum obfervator, & legiflator fubtilis, dicendi genus fump- 
fit argutum,. venuftum, floridum, concinnum, numerofum, incitatum ; 
fplendidiflimis colluftratum verborum luminibus, & cum ad perfua- 
dendos animos, turn ad commovendos affe&us accommodatiflimum. 
Non ille ad fedatum judiciorum difcrimen librum fuum comparabat, 
fed ad aurium deledtationem, & voluptatem fenfuum. Ideoque infti- 
tuit ut divini, quemadmodum vocatur, libri lectores canons quibufdam 
vocis flexionibus fententias sequaliter demenfas & fimilibus fonis ternii- 
natas modularentur. j- Velut in illo capite, quod eft J>c>J I feu Tempus 
nominatum : 

Lg-0 ^AA 

" Defendit eos Deus a diei iftius calamitate, praebetque illis fplendorem 

ac lastitiam, 

4t Et remunerat eos ob patientiam hortulo, & veftibus fericis : 
" In eo horto pulvinaribus incumbunt, nee calorem intenfum nee frigus 

" Verfantur autem inter eos pueruli femper formofi, quos cum afpexeris, 

difperfas efle putaveris margaritas." 

Sed qui omnes elegantias & venuftates in unum locum acervatim 
f X'J liJ' J^'J Ale. 



cumulatus videre cupit, perlegat is caput, quod ^j^^Jl feu Mifericors 
infcribitur, & inter carmina pulcherrima recenferi debet. Hunc igitur 
librum icriptores Afiatici tanquam elegantis locutionis normam fibi pro- 
ponunt ; & quanquam eum aut aperte imitari non audent, aut imita- 
tionem diflimulant, id tamen dicendi genus perfectiflimum putant, quod 
fit huic libro fimillimum ; ideoque fententias ex illo depromptas fermo- 
nibus fuis frequentiffime intexunt. Velut in libro Fdcabatd'lkbolafa^ ^ 
in elaborata ilia imbris defcripdone, 


" Accedebant torrentium fludus prsevertentes, 

" Currebant tanquam equi in loco paftus, 

** Et obvolutum eft nubibus 

*' Coelum, ut fponias facies velo, 

" Et imbres efFuderunt nubes copiose pluentes, 

" Et fata eft terra hortorum fimilis, in quibus fluunt rivuli." 

Ubi ifta locutio^l^J^I LgAsr' <^ C^y?^ ^jUak Horti fub quibus fluunt 
rwuli, in Alcorano creberrirae occurrit. 

Expofui, ut puto, caufam cur numerofum hoc dicendi genus tarn ftu- 
diose Afiatici confeclentur. Nunc de- libris eorum elegantioribus diag- 
ram. li funt vel rhetorici, vel philofophici, vel hiftorici. Primum 
apud Afiaticos videtur rhetoricse ftudium floruiffe. Philofophiam ferius 
receperunt Arabes, eamque plurimum a Graecis ductam. Nullam autem 
vidi hiftoriam Arabicam aut Perficam, foluta oratione fcriptam, quas eflet 

f Cap. I. 



valde antiqua. Itaque de rhetoribus primum loquar, de reliquis, dein- 
ceps. Amant Arabes compofitionis fpeciem, quam A*oUuc Mekdma vo- 
cant, & quse noftrae declamationi videtur efle fimilis. Hujufmodi 
declamationes primus edidit Hamadani, qui eft ob eloquentiam admi- 
rab:lem (^L*J! JtX Mtatis miraculum, vocitatus. Hunc imitati funt 
magnus rhetorum grex, inter quos palma facile deferenda eft Haririo. 
Nihil hujus fcriptoris fermone jucundius excogitari poteft. Incredibilis 
in illo rerum eft varietas & copia, mirificum eloquentiaz flumen ; adeo 
ut non tarn mea commendatione quam fuis niti elegantiis poflit. De- 
clamationes compofuit quinquaginta, de mutationibus fortune. Earum 
fex primas in lucem protulit & notis illuftravit eruditis, literaturae Ara- 
bicse feliciffimus indagator, Schultenfius. 

Inter opera rhetorica numerari poteft libellus, qui appellatur v_*.,ix/" 
\& pit* iAlaJI >-=* ^O'T**^' aoc e ^ -Arcanorum patefaSlio de avium 

& Jiorurn proprietatibus" Audor fuit Ezzo'ddin, qui cognomen 
five Oratoris, adeptus eft. Argumentum perfimile eft Gouleii libro, 
quern Sylvas nominal ; fed non flores folum atque herbs', verum aves- 
etkm, prjeterea apis, aranea, bombyx, & Zephyrus etiam, in hoc opuf- 
culo loquentes inducuntur, ac de fuis virtutibus venuftiffime differentes. 
Eft profed;6 libellus cum pulcherrimarum imaginum copia, turn orationis 
nitore ac venuftate abfolutiflimus. 

Ad philofophos veniamus. Illi modulatum hoc & elaboratum dicendi 
genus haud multum confe<aantur, rebus fcilicet & argumeotis quam 
ejufmodi venuftatibus attentiores : nifi inter libros philoibphicos recen- 
fendse fmt fabulse de officiis ac moribus, quibus incredibile eft quantum 
deledentur Afiatici. Tres funt in hoc genere libri politiffimi ; Arabicus, 
a fcriptore admirabili Ahmed Ebn Arabfhah ^ompoiitus, vocatur, 



feu, " Delias regum & lepidvrum bominum facetiae ; & carifortium virff- 
rum excellentiutn, & argutonimfocietas.'" 

Plenum eft profeclo hoc opus elegantiarum, plenum venuftatis ; fenten- 
tiis cumulatum graviffimis, verbis dulciflimis illuminatum ; poetis, ora- 
toribus, philofophis utile fimul, & jucundum ; fabulis perbellis, hiftoriis 
infignibus diftin&um ; ornatum jocis, leporibus, facetiis, & dignum fane 
de quo dicat poeta 

" Quod fi in fcientias mese te immergas flu&us, duceris exinde ad 

" margaritas, quas intelledtus oculos nobili fplendore illuminabunt." 
Partes compledtitur decem : 

De rege Arabum, qui hujus libri componendi audor fuit atque infti- 



De praeceptis regis Perfarum, qui reges fuas setatis fapientia, virtute, & 
nobilitate fuperavit. 

De judicio regis Turcarum, cum genero fuo folitario, fene religiofo. 


Difputatlo viri docYi cum angelo malevolo & genio. 

De excellentiis regis leonum cum fodalibus ejus vulpium prindpe, & 
hyaenarum duce. 


De praeclaris dilis hirci Afiatici, & canis African!. 

De praeliis inter Abi'l Abtal & Abi Dagfal elephantum regem. 

De fapientia leonis folitarii, & proverbiis cameli fugientis 


De avium rege aquila & duabus perdicibus, quas a calamitate auxilium 


AJj V^S^^I^ JcXC^t A 

VUXH vl^f! 
-De amicls atque inimicis diftinguendis. Et haec pars eft ultima. 

Alter fabularum liber is eft, quem in omnes fere Afias & Europce lin- 
guas converfum habemus, & cujus in tota Afia merito celebratur pul- 
chritudo ; fabulas dico philofophi iflius Indici (^Lj<_Xxj Bidpai nominati, 
quas olim compofuit, ut Indorum regem ^/Jji^jlci Dabfoelim de officiis 
ac virtutibus regum erudiret. Haec, dc qua loquor, interpretatio Perfice 
fcribitur, & /^Lc-Nw ^Ujl feu Canopi lumina appellatur. Tertius liber 
idem eft, de quo modo dixi, in fermonem Turcicum venuftiflime con- 
verfus, & A^U (-j^A^> feu Liber auguftus, dicitur. Uterque fplendidis 
verbis, magnificis fententiis, elatis tranflationibus ornatur. 

Reftat, ut de hiftoriis numerofis, quas inter poemata heroica recenfeo, 
pauca dicam. Tres prscipiieB funt in linguis Afiaticis fcriptse hiftorise ; 
quas cum maxime fint inter fe difpares, laus tamen poene confimilis uni- 
cuique tribuitur. Arabica quidem infcribitur 4-oLJ ,j j.cXxJ.1 ^J^sF 
xjp' feu Providentice miracula in Timuri fortunis perfpicua ; Turcica, 
r:(j five Annalium corona, & Turcarum hiftoriam ufque ad 
regem Selimum compledlitur ; Perfica verb A^U Jds feu Liber victories 
nominatur, & Timuri vitam ac res geftas continet. 


Auctores funt, prims Ahmed Ebn Arabfhah, fecund^ Saadeddin, ter- 
tiiE Ali Yezdi. Ac de fecunda equidem parcius loquar, utpote qui li- 
brum integrum nondum viderim ; fed ut ex umbrarum ratione, qux fit 
turrium atque arborum altitude dignofcimus, ita ex Italica hujus libri 
interpretatione facile eft intelledu, admirabilem ejus efle elegantiam ac 

if 9 



Hiftoriis Ebn Arabjhah & All Yezdi nihil dimmilius efTe poteft : ha-c 
enim Timurum pingit invidum, pium, temperantem, dodum, ama- 
bilem ; ilia impigrum quidem & indefeflum, fed improbum, inhuma- 
num, temulentum, vilem, impium ; hsec regem aequiflimum, ilia igno- 
bilem & efferum raptorem. Utri credamus ? Ambo enim fcriptores 
huic regi astate fuppares fuerunt. Tutius eft certe utrique diffidere ; & 
imperatorem ilium fingere nee magnis vitiis infedum, nee valde illuftri- 
bus ornatum virtutibus. Quod ad dicendi genus attinet, utriufque hifto- 
rici oratio eft grandis, culta, canora, magnifica; & incredibili perfperfa 
varietate ac lepore. Porro ita aequaliter animum deledant, ut earn hif- 
toriam quam recentius legas, jucundiorem efle putes. Vim tamen ac 
dignitatem majorem Arabs, lene quiddam habere Perfa videtur ac pro- 
fluens : hie puro amni, ille copiofo mari fimilis ; hie denique cum Xe- 
nophonte, ille cum Thucydide comparandus. Quod fi ilk nonnullis in 
locis fit obfcurior, ilia, quantacunque eft, difficultas venuftate & elo- 
quentiae amplitudine abunde compenfatur. Sed de hiftoria hac Arabica, 
in capite decimofecundo, copiose difleruimus. 

Reliquum eft, ut de dicendi generibus, quibus utuntur Afiatici, dica- 
tur. Ea omnino tria funt, Elatum, Venuftum, Tenue. Mifceri quidem 
poteft elatio cum venuftate ; & cum tenuitate venuftas : elatum autem 
genus cum tenui nullo modo mifcetur. Orationis altitude & venuftas 
vel in conceptu funt, vel in didione. De conceptu alio f loco diximus: 
nunc de compofitione diflerendum eft. Magnam igitur affert orationi * 
altitudinem, verborum ampla & longe deduda comprehenfio ; velut hif- 
toriiE Timuri magnificum illud exordium, 

VOL. II. 4 H 

Cap. X. & XI. 

" Laus 


" Laus Deo, qui in textorio voluntatis & fapientise fax telam humana- 
" rum rerum texit, & e fonte providentias fuae in poteftatis fux ocea- 
" num fludus aetatum ac temporum fecit defluere." 

Hoc fenferunt Grseci ; & rete ait Demetrius Phalereus ex fententiarum 

longitudine plurimum oriri Thucydide^e locutionis majeftatem: cujus rei 

praeclarum profert exemplum, 

'O yctf 'A%sXaoj TiroTci^og peuv K TlivSv opss &K AoXo7T<? sc, 'A 

v, K) Six TV 'Axapwawxa -srsStn civuSev -araga ^r^drov TS-oXiv es 

Xatrruv hefciiis -zsrap' OmaJa?, ^ rrjv -sr'o^v avroTs srift^t^vtx.^uv, UTTO^OV isroitT 

ova TV iSctTo; ev 

Qux. fi incifim proferas, perit utique orationis elatio. Ob hanc rem 
fcriptores Turcici magnam habent in elato dicendi genere dignitatem, 
quia participiis V^j' & Vj^V.' frequentiffime utuntur, ideoque verbo- 
rum ambitus in miram longitudinem deducunt. 

Sequitur, ut de venufta fententiarum ftruftura loquar. Ea igitur mihi 
venuftior videtur comprehenfio, quas tria habeat membra, duo breviora, 
unum longius ; quemadmodum, 


"" Rex autem frater ejus inventis ejus dele&atus eft, 
" Eumque optimatibus & exercitui prsefecit, 

, " Et hortum fpei ejus aqua pura liberalitatis & beneficentise irrigavit." 
Hoc genus comprehenfionum rhetores triangulo 'l<ro<rxe\e7 defignant. 

Saepe etiam quinque aut plura incifa prope ^qualia, & eundem ha- 
bentia in cadendo fonum, afFerunt pulchritudinem ; ut 



*' Amnes in ea (infula) fluere fecerunt, 

" Et pofuerunt in ea arbores, 

" In quas volabant aves, 

" Et in quibus lufcinia & carduelis cecinerunt, 

" Cum variis laudationum & precum modis, 

" Evafit autem locorum pulcherrimus." 

In narrationibus pulchra funt incifa minuta, & quafi gemina ; fie Ebn 
Arabjhah f, 

" Fuit in fylva quadam leo manfuetus, magno corpora, vita liberali, 
" familia copiofa, animo excelfo, multis nominibus ac titulis infigni- 
" tus, numerofa fervorum ac fodalium corona cinctus." 

Et Hariri |, ut folet, dulciffime, 
u^Ji^ 16! A 




f In libro Facahato'lkholafa. 

J Vide Mekamah 18, feu AJ j ^ 

" Fuit 


" Fuit apud me puella, cui nulla erat pulchritudine squalls ; ubi eni- 
** tuit, duo ignes (fol & luna) pudore affe&i funt, & corda hominum 
" ignibus amoris incendebantur ; ubi fubrifit, margaritas contemptas 
" fecit,. & gemmulae vili venierunt ; ubi modulate cecinit, lufcinias 
" provocavit, & Babylonis fafcinum verum efle probavit ; ubi denique 
" locuta eft, cor fapientis viri furripuit, & ab arce praefklium fecit 
" defcendere." 

Et All Chelebi in Humaiun Name/j, 

Ooa J (__t^ A^UxJ J 

" Haud procul a /r^ fuit infula auris fuaviflimis afflata ; & in hac 
" infula fuit fylva, pulchritudine atque amoenitatibus plena. Dulces 
" fonticuli in omni parte fluxerunt, & Zephyri vitam praebentes in 
*' omni loco rnodulabantur -, coloribus florum unumquodque latus 
pidum eft ; & variis arboribus unufquifque angulus diftindtus." 


Adeo elaborata haee eft compofitio, ut jure quasri poffit, quid inter earn 
& poefm interfit : nam fi in verficulos hunc locum diftinxeris, fex feceris 
verfus, eofque pulcherrimos. 

Similiter etiam Sadi in libro .Guli/ian, 


" In primo adolefcentise flore, ut faspe evenire folet, quemadmodum fcis, 
; cum dulci puellula fecreta inii confilia, propterea quod lenem habuit 
' indolem, & formam lunas nitenti fimilem." 



Ac nequeo hoc loco a me impetrare, quin admirabilem Veris defcrip- 
tionem ex libro Ajaibolmakdur fubjiciam, 

" Tune autem deceflerat hyemis tempeftas, venrit ornatum Ver ; horto- 
" rum facies digitis Providentise, tanquam a tindore, colorata eft, & 
" fponfa hortuli a divina fapientia, tanquam ab aurifabro, ornamenta 
" cepit, & pulchre eft veftita. Aves inter flores canebant, centum 
" lufcinis & cardueles mille auditum lacerabant, & aures hominum 
" attentas fecerunt, & propenfam reddiderunt naturam voce modu- 
" lata ; & veftigia divinx mifericordiae terram poft mortem ejua in 
'* vitam revocarunt." 

Locutio oJuJlj t^j^J u^^A^.1 & ilia, 
ex Alcorano depromitur, ex quo (ut fupra dixi) plurimas fuis iibris'illi- 
gant fententias elegantiarum ftudiofi fcriptores. 

Inter ornatam Per/arum atque Arabum diclionem, plurimum intereft : 
hi plerumque breves funt, & prefli ; atque adeo (quod mirum videri 
poteft) fervant quandam fimplicitatem cum fumma fententiarum altitu- 
dine & verborum concinnitate conjunclam. Earn adhibent vocularum 
collocationem, quam docere videtur natura ; adeo ut, qui vocum fignifi- 
cationes haud ignorat, facillime intelligat,, quid auftor velit ; etenim 
prope unica lingiue Arabicas difficultas ex verborum incredibili "copia 
oritur ; in qua re Greece? eft perfimilis. Perfa vero (quos Turcici fcrip- 
tores imitantur) cum ornate" & fplendide fcribere inftituant, longiflimis 



utuntur comprehenfionibus ; verba elaborate dimetiuntur, intexunt ver- 
fus ; omnes prssterea cumulant flores leporum & elegantiorum colores. 
Infigne eft hujus rei exemplum in libro Anvdr Soheili. Voluit dicere 
audtor Perficus, " Adolefcentem formofum puella pulcherrima perdite 
" amabat." Vix credi poteft, quot verbis ad hanc fententiam exponen- 
dam utatur. 

(__^tilti cj-^ l^ 1 -^"*^ o^VJr 2 (J^W^* ^5^ <*-* lJL**j! j>\ i^j. 
-jix2x /gA-s.j KM cjjxc (j*^' W V^'- ^IXil (ji^lJvs 

T^ 1 <V 


" Una 


" Una ex illis puellis, cujus pulchritudinis pars extrema paradifi fponfis 
*' fplendorem daret, & a cujus genae nitore fol terrarum orbem illu- 
" minans igne invidiae incenderetur, cujus ebrius ocellus fagitta unius 
" obtutus fcopum pedoris, tanquam pectus fcopi, percuteret ; cujus 
" labium vitam prsebens, tanquam faccharum, dulcedinem cordibus 
" daret; 


" Delicate incedens, tanquam cupreflus procera, 

** Catenates habens duos cincinnos, tanquam laqueum mofchatum, 

" A mento argenteo globum habens extenfum, 

" Sub quo torques a collo pendet. 

" Super quem torquem & fphaeram templum eft illud amabile, 

" Quod ubique palmam pulchritudinis a fole rapit. 

** Cum adolefcentulo nitidum habente vultum, crines odoriferos, ftaturam 
" cupreflb fimilem, faciem inftar lunae, linguam dulcem, corpus gra- 
** cile, a. cujus cincinnulis formofi Tartariae pueri deflexi erant & illu- 
" minati, & a cujus dulcedinis amorem excitantis defiderio juvenes 
*' Samarcandii fuavia habentes labia, tanquam amatorum corda, tu- 
" multuabantur, 


" Facies ! at qualis facies ? facies foli fimilis : 

" Cincinnus ! at qualis cincinnus I in unoquoque annulo plexus & 

" Amoris vinculo colligata eft." 

Hie inter nomen & verbum, o&o verficuli imprimis elegantes, & duo- 
decim aut plura incifa intercedunt. 

Atqui de venufto dicendi genere fatis arbitror didum. Supereft, ut de 

tenui loquar. Hoc autem genus cum inornata mulieris pulchritudine 
comparari poteft, quam, demtis margaritis & pretiofis veftibus, ipfa 

commendat fimplicitas. Etenim, 



Submiffa placide blandiloquens or at to -|~. 


aut nullis aut perpaucis ornatur tranflationibus, fed propriis utitur verbls, 
& ad fermonem quotidianunv prope accedit. Debet autem & lenis efle 
& dilucida, ideoque venufto generi fubjungitur. In narrationibus exi- 
miam habet pulchritudinem : cujus rei exemplum ex libro Zafar Ndmeb 

Ex imperatore audivi cum diceret, " In itinere quodam Perfam atque 
" Arabem fuifle comites ; per locum autem defertum iter facientes 
" miferia (ob fitim & calorem) mirum in modum efle affliclos. Cum 
" adeo Arabi aquae perpaullulum reftaret, dixifle illi Perfam, Celebris 
" eft ac pervu/gata gentis tuce liberalitas & benevolentia ; quanta illifiet 
*' accej/io,ji aquce baujiulum mlbi concedens, fodalem tuum ab mteritu II- 
'* ber.averis ? Turn, poft aliquam deliberationem, Arabem refpondifle, 
" CertbfciQ, ft tibi aquam covce/ero, dulcem mibi anlmam objitim inten- 
*' fam in auras pervolaturam, Sed tamen indignum ejje cenfeo, bane 

f Laberius. 

" gentis 


n gent is mete excellentiam in nibilum redigi. Famam ideo jucundam vita 
" f ra &ti anteponemy & animd med redimens tuam, aquam tibi pr&beo ; 
" ut hcec hiftoria beneficenticz Arabum Jit monumentum. Aquam adeo 
** Perfae dedifle, qui ejus hauftu a morte liberatus eft, & ex hac foli- 
" tudine incolumis evafit. Hujus facti Temper vivit & vivet recor- 

' r '"' 

De tribus dicendi generibus hactenus. Singulas eorum virtutes com- 

plectitur liber jucundifiimus ^Iti-Xiii Shekardan^ cujus exemplar haud 
invenufte exaratum, comiter, ut folebat, mihi copiam fecerat Vir Afiati- 
carum rerum, dum vixit, imprimis peritus, Alexander Ruflel, cujus fin- 
gularem in me facilitatem ac benevolentiam mirandum in modum per- 
fpexeram : opus eft Ebn Abi Hagelab, venuftifllmi cum rhetoris turn 
poetae, cujus elegantes verfus in libro Hiliato 1 Icomeit citatos vidi.. Varia 
eft in eo libro ac multiplex eruditio. Permulta habet lepida, faceta, ele- 
gantia; multa tamen (non eft enim negandum) ridicula, multa fubin- 
fulfa, multa inepte religiofa, & fabellis anilibus referta. Sed haec abunde 
compenfat dicendi genus ad varia argumenta fcienter accommodatum, 
nunc facile & aequabile, nunc elatum ac vehemens, nunc pictum, ve- 
nuftum, floridum. Denique non minus utilis eft hie liber ob hiftorias & 
antiquitates ^Egyptias, quibus abundat ; quam jucundus ob elegantiflimas, 
quas citat, florum, amcenitatum, aliarumque rerum defcriptiones ex variis 
poetis delibatas. Ac non fum nefcius efle aliquos, quibus Afiaticae dic- 
tionis quasfitas illae venuftates potius ineptise videntur pueriles, quam 
veras elegantise. Sed cum Arabes ac Perfas reprehendant, f Platonem, 


J- Plato Zufwr. in Agathonis Oratione. 


fvttitta, t> fOfTiUf, Xf^' " Swii{, yiyraptiX- riytput, QifUOTriTa fun wojifkir, iypioTdT* J" i 


VOL. ii. 4 ' 

, if Voia, a f o?w, 



f Ifocratem, | Ariftotelem, atque etiam Demofthenem, fe reprehendere 
non vident ; ut nihil dicam de Maximo Tyrio, de Alciphrone, de Phi- 
loftratis, de Xenophonte Ephefiaco, & feliquis, qui a-oQis-cti nominan- 
tur ; quorum locutio ad aurium voluptatem comparata plerumque nu- 
merose & fuaviter cadit. Nam de Marco Tullio non loquor, qui 

Idem in Phaedro : 

Nq TH Hja xaX4yi i xzrxyuyy. "H TI yap j?>ara&- JJM^O. o.p.lf&a.Qr^ TI xai CiJ/jjXj;, 7a TI iyta TO 
xai To ovmvn wayxaXov, xai ; axf lyn T?S aiSiu, { * tvvSir&roi wagtail tit tovoi. jjyt aw e>jy>i 
two T>5{ fcXaTaiu |Jir jxa?ia ^"XP^ 2JaT-, uiryi rtf wool Ttx^fOo-Oai.. tvplpui TI Ttw xai 'Aj^i^B fo ajro Tw 
TI xai afafyxaT foutir >?KCI. Ei J i 0uX TO ivmut tS Tort), ai; uyairyroi rt xai a^oJfa iJs. Si(o> TI 

TO r; oroa; OTI 

( Ifocrates in 'A 



Idem in alio loco, 

{ f> if)Ta; Tu uvopuv teu( ivifyttriaif xai Ta~{ oraa Twv ipoTa>p v^iXitai;* TB{ Jf >turspl$ rut 
TriT^ia'fiaai, xai rout avTui iirifxiXiiai;. T; *! <aoXmv9/xa; r5 j?vfof|i5 T~{ Tiftwjiaij, xai ta 
fai Xa>9ain> TB; aJinSrra;. ra; JE s>fiy^vriftl( tat ^a^vjttun Tai; Tifxai; Ta^ fvoXiTwai';, xai TuV roar^i T> HWTc^tfr 

Idemque (fi modo iftius.fermonis au&or fuerit) in libello pulcherrimo ad Demonicum, 
Oiroi fai u> 4ppo; ra; lavrwr piXs; TK; cpoTpiWltxy; Xoyti; pvyyfcttysfft, xaXor ^ "fyov Iwi^tijSo-i, f/i at i yt 
T xpaTiro T?! ^iXoffo^ia; e^arf >&>?. oVo Jf TOK >fTsjoi{ iio-uyStrai pA if ut itit JoT>iTa -mi ii To<! Xoyonairx)!- 

01 fx ini Xoyor poron O7paxaXS<7ii' ) 01 xai Tor rfoirai avran (irtinf&Sffi. howif ^(XSK, era^axX)g?ii> tiferrt:, 
Grafamaiy ypa^am;, fuXXofXU troi ert^tiXeuiir u j/fi Tti; WUT/^U( oeiytadai, xai Tt> ipyuv aTr^iaflai, xai woioi 
Twin ar${wirot{ o/xiXtrr, xai ww{ To iavrwi fiio !xoo(*ir>. e>W yap T |3i8 TI!T>I TH oo*o i3-o{etSwa, STOI fwroi Tn 


Taf xaxa; iZ rooiwir o'poia roiiffi) Toij Tat aXXoTpia? xiliaj yaifyaa. 'Exiimt TI yaf TS{ Monctf atnrif TBJ 
ir. OI'TI xaxoi TU( if iXSTa; ujKtf TU; fiha-irlonas a^ixSirir. 


ia. tot pHya.*. lx Zrayiigtfr ii{ *A9?a{ Jia Tor j<;iif*wa TO 



Ti TI tooXi ^orj9i~> cfiTai lut, xai Ji'xu* n)p atTa XaSe~v, TBTO xayw WEipao-Oftai rocitir. Hsec tamen, potiuS 
temere quam confulto, numerose cadere opinor ; multum enim abhorret ab his venuftatibus vibrans 
ilia Demofthenis & elata locutio. 



prsecepta numerofse orationis dat paflim, exemplum vero in Miloniana : 
*' Eft igitur hssc, judices, non fcripta, fed nata lex; quam non didici- 

" mus, accepimus, legimus, verum ex natura ipfa arripuimus, haufimus, 
" expreflimus ; ad quam non dodti, fed fa&i ; non inftituti, fed imbuti 
" fumus." 


- , 

Hzec habui, de poefi Afiatica quas dicerem. Aperui rivos, mea qui- 
dem fententia, fatis amplos, & fontem patefeci diutifllme obftrudum. 
Poterit hoc opufculum (quod fentio quantum abfit a perfedione) harum 
literarum rudes ad eas condifcendas excitare ; hofpites verb in iis ac 
modice tantum. inftruftos impellere atque incendere ; quod fi quern meo 
hortatu ad hoc argumentum uberius ac limatius tractandum acceflifle in- 
tellexero, fatis magnum laboris rnei frutnm videbor percepifle. 








R,EX Indue, Dabflielim vocatus, fomnio quodam admoneri Jingitur, ut 
ortum verfus Her facial, thefaurum inventurus, experreStus confcendit 
equum ; proficifcitur : occurrit fenex, qui thefaurum ait fub fpeluncd 
quddam effe defoflum; fodiunt Jervi ; argentum, aurum, gemmas eruunt: 
prceterea irweniunt arcam, eamque circumdatam gemmis. Illam rex re~ 
ferari jubet, ac membranam indufam videt, pereleganter literis ignotis 
exaratam. Accerfitur interpres: perlegit tacite, max, " Thefaurum, ait, 

" invenifti auro & margaritis pretiofiorem," turn jujju regis, legit qua 




GO, Hujhenk, omnium gentium moderator ac dominus, lautam hanc 
nummorum copiam, gemmafque innumerabiles, ad ufum regis India? 
perilluftris, & imperatoris eximii Dafybelim, hoc in loco depofui : quippe 
quod prasfagitione quadam divina thefaurum hunc occultum ab illo 
inventum iri fciam. Prseterea cum auro & gemmis hoc teftamentum 
idcircb collocavi, ut cum hos thefauros intueator, quos erit fine follici- 
tudine adeptus, expergifcatur, & compertum habeat, non efle fapientis 
animi, gemmarum fulgoribus capi ac deliniri, fed hujus vitae blanditias 
atque amoenitates impenfius amare, fummas efle ftultitiae: prsfertim 
cum opes ac pofleffiones copiofiflimae fimiles fint mutuatas fupellectili, 
quae diverforum hominum identidem attrita manibus, & deterior fadla, 
tandem corrumpitur : imo, improba? pellicis gerant fimilitudinem, quas 
fingulis nodtibus varia perambulat cubicula, & varios amplexus fuftinet : 
quemadmodum ait poeta, >uts hujus vitce incertos honores appetit? cut 
unquam fidem Jervavif for tuna, ut nobis fervet ? nucleus Jidei in hac nuce 
non eft, ex hoc terree cumulo fidei odor non afflatur. Verum enimvero 
hie praeceptorum libellus quafi fundamentum efle debet, quo nitatur 
omnis dominatus atque imperil aedificium ; 6c tanquam norma, ad quam 
omnia regni dirigantur confilia. Quod fi rex ille fapientifllmus hac 
admonitionum formula, tanquam pracceptrice & moderatrice confiliorum 
VOL. ii. 4 K omnium 


omnium ac fadlorum, utatur, ufque ad totius naturae diflblutionem, & 
finem temporum, augebitur illius & cumulabitur infinita dignitas. 

Hcec Hujhenki prcecepta, tanquam donum, teneas, 
Sic perfuadere tibi potes imperlum tuum ceternumfore. 

Feliciffimus regum is eft, cujus fama ob juftitiam perpetuo maneat, 
& cujus exemplum pofleri fibi imitandum certatim proponant : & 
unufquifque rex, qui ad hujus libelli (qui praecepta quatuordecim com- 
ple&itur) regulam, totius vitas fuae curium non dirigit, nimirum illius 
profperitatis aedificium adverfo fortune flatu labefadatum decidet; 
adeoque ex fumma amplitudinis ac poteftatis faftigio gradatim ac pe- 
detentim defcendet, & fecunda fortuna* tanquam verecunda fponfa, vul- 
tum ab illo avertet. 


Primum itaque praeceptum hoc eft. Ubi cum aliquo primario civi- 
tatis viro familiariter ac libere vivit, variis calumniis ac falfis crimina- 
tionibus, quas in ilium fingent obtredlatores, minime credat. Neque 
enim abefle poteft, quin fodalium invidiam atque offenfionern excitet is, 
qui regis neeeffitudine fruatur : nam fimulac felicitate ftabili eum frut 
afpiciunt, non deerunt ii, qui florenti ejus fortunae invidentes, regice be- 
nignitatis prsefidium & propugnacula dolis atque infidiis perfringere ac 
labefadlare conabuntur. Ilium igitur nihil fufpicantem mordere & 
clam accufare incipient, ut regis voluntatem ab illo abalienare poffint ; 
imo, caufas inferendi crimen fingere, & gemmas benefaftorum filo 
malevolentia3 contexere ufque adeo perfeverabunt, donee ad propofitum 
fibi finem iniquitatis pervenerint : ut poeta ait, Cave uniufcujufque vocem. 
exaudias, meam verb audi\ nam malevolorum voces in unaqnaque porta 

II. Calum- 



Calumniatores atque invidos procul a fe amoveat. Propterea quod 
nihil illis fit moleftius, nihil odiofius, nihil denique nocentius. Si quern 
igitur hac nota infignitum videat, illico feritatem illius, tanquam in- 
cendium aliquod, reftinguat necefle eft * : & vitam nequiffimi hominis 
tanquanx ligna aut farmenta comburat j ne fpiritus tarn efferus prftrin- 
guat hominum oculos, & orbem terrarum deformet ! Ignis, inquit poeta, 
c ujus ardore homines urantur, niji continuo rejlinguatur, refrigerari nequit. 


Optimates ac primaries regni viros ardtiffimo familiaritatis vinculo 
conjungere ftudeat, ut, fumma officiorum viciflitudine & confenfione 
voluntatum, nodos negotiorum difficiles expediant, & ad civitatem con- 
fervandam confpirent : Entmverb amicitia & concordia tot us terrarum 
or bis vinci potejl ; vicJoria & concordia quaft gemince funt forore s. 


Dolofis veteratorum blanditiis ne fe decipi finat ; neu inimicorum 
adulationi fidem habeat ; fed quo leniores ac manfuetiores efle fimulant, 
eo diligentius confideret, ne quid occulte moliantur : nam inimicos 
vere beneficos reddi non magis eft verifimile, quam gryphas in Caucafo 
nafci, aut argentum pofle in aurum commutari. Homo autem natura 
maleficus & inhumanus nullo padlo benevolus poteft fieri, neque ab 
illo vera benignitas unquam proficifcitur : Cave Jis ab intmico vultum 
habente aridum, ntpote qui, ligno Jicco Jimilis, celerrimt infiammctur ; res 
emmfenas G? graves non agit; fub fpecie comitatis plagas tendit nef arias. 


Ubi magno labore magnifque periculis aliquid eft commodi adeptus, 
ne id e manibus elabi finat, ftudiofe cavendum eft. Etenim fi ita 

* HEE fententiae in fermonibus Turcico ac Periico funt belliffimae, fed Latine ad verbum reddi 
neutiquani poffunt. Idem de permultis hujus libelli locis dicendum eft. 



remifse & ofcitanter agit, ut felicitatem, quam affecutus fit, fluere atque 
avolare patiatur, earn femel elapfam recuperare nullo modo poterit, & 
nihil adeo ei reftabit, praeter inane defiderium ac ludtum inutilem : ficut 
poeta monet, 

Sagitta ex arcu femel einiffa nunquam revertifur, 
Etiam/i ob dolorem manum mordicus teneas. 


Vitanda eft in rebus gerendis nimia celeritas ac feftinatio. Cautc 
itaque ac pedetentim ad eas accedat. Haud enim fcio plurefne fint a 
deliberatione & patientia utilitates, an a properationis temeritate de- 
dudtae miferia; Negotium ne geras nimium fejlinanter : a via confultationis 
jrcena ne averfas : quod nondum egeris, idfaStu erit facile, ubi femel feceris, 
quejius quid proderit ? 


Prudentiae frssna nunquam e manibus elabi finat. Verum ubi con- 
fociati hoftes illius meditantur exitium, fi quid live occultum, five aper- 
tum ex hac fovea perfugium videat, illud confeftim rapiat neceffe eft. 
Prasterea illorum malitiofas voluntates prudenti confilio & fimulatione, 
tanquam fagitta aliqua, refcindat atque irritas faciat, nam, ut dicitur, 
Bellum per ddos ac fallacias fere geritur. Et aiunt fapientes viri, ut 
ferrum alio ferro extenuatur ac mollitur, fa dalis atque infidm ex hominum 
verfutorum laqueis te eripere potes* 


Nunquam fe putet ab inlidiis efle tutum, quas obtredlatores atque 
invidi moliuntur. Porro autem blanditiis ac malitiofis affentationibus ne 
fe infmuent fedulo caveat. Quippe, cum arbor odii atque invidiae in 
humane peftore altis fit defixa radicibus, quos fruftus arFerre poterit, nifi 
acerbiffimos ? Cave verfutis inimicis Jidem habeas, qui latenter perni- 



ciofas tendunt infidias ; pedlus, in quo odium radices babeat, malevo- 
lently & atrocitatis erit plenijjimum : te afyicit, 3 quafi adipato fermone 
utitur, fed propofitum Jiium tegit. 


Placabilitatetn atque clementiam tanquam veftem aliquam & amicu- 
lum induat. Miniftros porro imperil ac fatellites ob delidta mediocria, 
ne temere puniat. (Turc. fagittis poenarum ac doloris fcopum ne 
faciat). Nam fapientis eft atque excelfi animi, in fubjedtorum hominum 
culpis atque erroribus quafi connivere, & nimiam acerbitatem manfue- 
tudine quadam ac lenitate mitigare. 

Jam inde ab Adami temporibus, ad bane nojlram eetatem, viri ignobiles 
atque inglorii deliquerunt, generqfi ac prajlantes fe exorari fwerunt ac 

Quamobrem magni regis eft nocentes, fed humiles, reos molli 
brachio erigere, & quafi potu benignitatis & dementias recreate, ne, 
cum fe ab omni fpe derelidtos efle fentiant, defperatione afflicl:i tanquam 
in aliquam defertiflimam folitudinem recedant. 

Ilium, quern blandd manu ad gloriam extuleris, cave per injuftum animi 
impetum in terram deprimas. 


Ab omni maleficentia diligenter declinet ; ne fua fibi maleficia majori 
reddantur menfura : ea enim frudtus afferent amariflimos. Idcirco vir 
maleficus fedato &c fecuro animo efle non debet, fed fortunam pertimefcat 
adverfam. Ita enim natura comparatum eft, ut unumquodque faftum 
pari munere compenfetur. Vita^ igitur humance hortuium lenioribus 
beneficently ac benignitatis auris temperare oportet, ut in eo rofa pro- 



fperitatis, & voluntatum noftrarum flos eniteat. Si beneficijitis, vobifmet 

Quod fi benignus fis, larga benevolentia? viciflitudine compenfabere, 
fin minus, acerbiores habebis male vole ntiae tux fru&us ; quos tametfi 
hodiernus dies non afFeret, at veniet tamen dies, in quo graviflima pa- 
rabitur maleficis poena, beneficis vero ampliffima rernuneratio. 


Negotia perfonae quam fuftinet non convenientia minime gerat : per 
enim multi homines, cum fe in res minus decoras & congruentes im- 
merferint, non modo ad finem propofitum non perveniuntj fed ubi ad 
fua revertunt negotia, hofpites funt in iis ac peregrini. Comix greffiim 
predicts delicatiorem imitari jiudens, ilium quidem non potuit difcere, at 
dedidiclt fuum. 


Lenitate ac manfuetudine, tanquam vefte aliqua pretiofd, fe ornare 
debet. Incredibile eft, quanta fit in lenitate vis 6c quafi eloquentia. 
Vir manfuetus parum abeft (ut vere dicitur) quin votes Jit : atque adeo 
mucrone fubtilijjimo lenitas ejt acutior, & facilius viffioriam ab hojllbus 
reportat) quam centum exercitus. 


Cum principes in civitate viri conftanter fe gerunt ac fortiter, homines 
verfutos ac veteratores procul a fe rex dimoveat : quamdiu enim mini- 
ftros imperil fui habet fidelitatis figno impreflbs atque inuftos, tamdiu 
fecreta regni confilia contra improborum hominum perfidiam erunt 
munita, 6c cives a periculorum fcintillis incolumes aetatem agent. 
Sin (quod Deus omen avertat) facies rerum dolofis 6c callidis homi- 
nibus, tanquam naevo aliquo, obfcuretur, & ficlios eorum fermones 



rex exaudiat, fieri vix poteft, quin fummae integritatis & innocently 
viri fa:piflime male multentur. Quod fi ita evenerit, in regem ilium 
iniquum, cum in hujus vitge curriculo, turn in futuras reftauratione, 
redundabit exaggerata calamitas. Miniftri regis fidi fint & conftantes 
oportet, ut confiliis eorum excolatur regnum ac fplendefcat. Quod fi 
malitiofi fint & verfuti, vaftatur fubito imperium ac dilabitur. 


Inconftantis eft animi & infirmi, temporum varietatibus &c commuta- 
tionibus fortunae perturbari. Itaque in rebus afperis turpe eft defpera- 
tione r tanquam pulvere, vultum deformare, & poculum cogitationis 
nimia aegritudine ac moeftitia, velut coeno, obfcurare. Curis attritos & 
laboribus fapientes viros videmus, infani ac dementes voluptatibus ae 
deliciis perfundi folent. Prasclare itaque poeta, Leoms, inquit, collum, 
uinculis conftringitur, dum vulpes Jingulis. noEiibus inter ruinofas domos in 
fcedijjimas fe effundit libidines. Sic vir fortis & conftans pedetn a trijlitice 
domicilio non dimovet ; Jlultus verb & luxuriofur inter voluptates tanquam 
in horto vagatur. Ac tibi penitus perfuade, te ad propofitum finem 
felicitatis non perventurum, fine divini numinis liberalitate inexhaufta^ 
& infinita benevolentia ; & fine aqua divina? benignitatis, praeftantifii- 
mas virtutes non efle frudtfts expeftatos allaturas. Neque enim poteftas 
ac dominatio neceflarib prteftantiam fequitur, Jed a providentice divince 
nutu pendet. 

Singulis hifce praeceptis fingufe annedluntur fabulae^ non minus ad 
utilitatem quam ad deledtationem comparatae. Quod fi rex ille peril- 
luftris hos apologos plene & copiose narrates audire velit, ad montem, 
qui Serendib vocatur, proficifci debet, in quem hominum patrem ex- 
ulem defcendiffe memoriae proditum eft. ' Ibi hie nodus expediatur, 
& in illo horto rofa exoptata floreat necefTe eft. 





\J T pateret, quam inepte de gentium exterarum poefi judicent ii, 
qui fidas tantum verfiones confulant, colloquium, quod fequitur, olim 
coritexui. Finxi enim Arabem quendam, qui fermonem Latinum Con- 
ftantinopoli didicerat, cum Britanno quodam mercatore, homine literate, 
familiariter vixifle, & cum eo de variis Europae Afiseque artibus folitum 
efle colloqui. Cum igitur die quodam ad portum una defcenderent, & 
Britannus fax gentis poetas in ccelum laudibus efFerret, rifum Arabs vix 
potuit compefcere, &, Mirum eft, inquit, quod narras, ac portenti fimile : 
cum credidero urbem hanc amoeniffimam a maris hujus pifcibus ex- 
trudlam fuifle, turn demum poetas, ut tu ais, venuftos in Anglid cre- 
dam floruifle. Hem ! in paftu pecudum regnent Angli, agros optimal 
colant, lanam egregie tingant ; fed eos a poefi alieniffimos efTe perfua- 
fum habeo. Sermonem Latinum, tuo hortatu, teque ufus adjutore, 
didicij fpem enim dedifti poetas complures elegantiflimos legendi, fed 
nihil adhuc vidi, prater unum atque alterum Horatii carmen, Qvi&bnas 
quafdam elegias, 6c Virgilii nobiliflimum poema, quod, meo judicio, 
poefis dici mereatur. Via' tu credam, in illo, quo tu natus es, terra- 
rum angulo, poetas meliores quam in urbe Roma ortos fuifle ? Turn 
Uritannus, Ipfe, inquit, j udicabis ; recitabo enim veriiculos quofdam 
ex elegantioribus Anghrum poetis libatos, quos, ut pulchre intelligas, 
Latine reddam. Per mihi gratum feceris, inquit Arabs j fed cave 



quidquam iis ornament! adjungas : verbum verbo redde. Turn mer- 
catorj Incipiam igitur apoetis heroicis: Sane, fi placet, inquit alter; fed 
ullumne habes poetam, quern cum Ferdujio compares ? Unum, inquit, 
atque alterum; fed palma Miltono facile deferenda eftj cujus poema 
epicum, quod infcribitur Paradifus Amijfusy ab omnibus merito cele- 
bratur \ iftius poematis recitabo exordium : 

" De hominis prima inobedientia, & fruftu 

Illius vetitae arboris, cujus mortalis guftus 

Attulit mortem in mundum, omnefque noftras miferias, 

Cum amiffione Edeni, donee unus major vir 

Redimat nos, & recuperet amcenam fedem, 

Cane, coeleftis mufa." 

Turn Arabs irridens, Parce, precor, inquit, nunquam enim verfus 
audivi magis infipidos. Verfus autem ? imo, ne fermo quidem merus 
mihi videtur. Perge porr6 ad Lyricos. Ecquem proferre potes cum 
Hafezo, meis tuifque deliciis, comparandum? Multos, refpondet ille; 
Surrium, Couleium, Spencerum, alios ; & in' primis ilium, quern paullo 
ante citavi, Miltonum : is duo fcripfit poemata, omni numero abfoluta, 
quorum unum L#tum infcripfit, alterum Triftem. Quam dulcis hasc 
eft, in primo carmine, matutinae deleclationis defcriptio ! 

" Audire alaudam incipere volatum fuum, 

Et canentem tremefacere ftupidam nodlem, 

A fpecula fua in asthere, 

Donee maculatum diluculum oriatur j 

Et turn venire, invita triftitia, 

Et ad meam feneflram dicere, Salve ! 

Per cynofbaton, aut vitem, 

Aut plexam rofam caninam ; 

iv. 4 1 Dum 


Dum gallus vivaci ftrepitu 
Spargit poftremam aciem caliginis tenuis, 
Et ad foenile, aut horrei portam, 
Magnanime vacillat, dominas praecedens." 

Cum Arabs adhuc impenfius rideret, & prope fe incachinnum effun- 
deret, Age verb, -inquit vir Britannus, iambos quofdam citabo Popii 
noftri, poetarum Anglorum, fi artem ac fuavitatem fpedles, facile fum- 
mus, fi ingenium & copiam, paucis fecundus ; placebunt tibi hi verfi- 
culi, certo fcio : 

" Tremat Sporus Quid ? res ilia ferica, 

Sporus, merum illud coagulum ladtis afinini \ 

Vituperium aut judiciutn, eheu ! poteft Sporus fentire ? 

Quis difrumpit papilionem in equuleo ? 

Attamen, liceat mihi percutere cimicem hune, auratas habentem 

Hunc pi&um filium luti, qui foetet & pungit." 

Ohc, inquit Arabs, define, fi me amas : haeccine poefis dici poteft ? 
Praeterea. ad portum venimus, ubi frequens erit hodie mercatus. Hasc 
cum dixiflet, videretque graviter ferentem & ftomachantem Bntannum-, 
pollicitus eft, fe ad linguam Anglican condifcendam aliquot menfes im- 
penfurum, ut poetas, quos ille laudaret, fcrmone proprio loquentes poflet 









UOLENDUM eft, intercidifle M. Tullii opus poeticum, quod Limon 
infcriptum eft, & quod, cum effet adolefcentulus, in lucem protulit. 
Quatuor tantiim ex hoc opere verfus, quibus fabularum ferentianarum 
fuavitatem atque elegantias collaudat, a Donate ciantur. Hujus libri 
titulus, ut a Middletono noftro, fcriptorum Anglicorum principe, obfer- 
vatum eft, nihil aliud erat fortafle, quam vox Graca Anpuv, feu Pratum 
fSyham vocant Latini), quo nomine Pamphilus etiam grammaticus 
Mifcellanea fua infcripfit. . Ciceronem & veteres imitatus, opufculum 
hoc meum, utpote magna rerum varietate refertum, Limona nominavi ; 
conftat autem e poematiis quibufdam partim a me fcriptis, partim e 
Latino & Anglico fermone converfis, quorum pleraque omnia ante 
annum aetatis me* vicelimum funt compofita. Hasc in brevia capita 
difpertire malui, quam, ut mos eft, confuse atque indiftinfte edere. 
Ledtor autem, ut hos vel adolqfcentis vel poene pueri labores benevo- 
lentia profequatur, omnino eft rogandus. In animo erat, plura. capita, 
viginti minimum, edidifle, fed ftudiis aliis fum impeditus. 




De Gratis Tragcediarumfcriptoribus. 

RES erant prjecipui Greece tragcediae fcriptores, flLfchylus, Sophocles, 
Euripides, laude quidem ii prope aequales & gloria, fed in difpari ge- 
nere. Cum poetarum horum proprietates exemplis dilucidius, quam dif- 
putatione longiflima, explicari poffint, lubet tres e poetis duobus Angli- 
cis povoXoytKe Graece converfas proferre, quarum primam ac tertiam e 
Sbakefpearo, fecundam ex Addifono, deprompfi : prima a rege Anglorum, 
Henrico quarto, dici fingitur, cum nodte quadam ob curas 6c mcefti- 
tiam eflet infomnis ; fecunda, a M. Catone, cum, poft opprefiam a Cae- 
fare libertatem, ledio Platonis Phadone, fua fe manu interfedurus eflet ; 
tertia denique, ab Hamkto, Danise principe, cum, poft vifum a fe patris 
fui fpedtrum, de humana vita ac morte meditaretur. In prima autem 
cothurni l&fchylei fonitum, in altera, Sapbocleam gravitatem, in tertia, 
fimplicitatem Euripideam, imitari fum conatus. 

Hog-on tffiv^Tuv p,vptK$e?. VTTIIKOUV 

&v<rtus riSyve, TTUS TTOT l^7rXij?a tre j 
''Or ax we~f stoivuv GXtdotf T< 

TITT) au "srevyruv tv 
MaXXoi/ v<ro<rfAois 
'Elf ofcvQuvuv IfVTrtSuv Ksl'crxi 
*H srteg-iuv pepVfiHritevsus Iv 



TT apyvpoQuviss vop^vpog-pUTti Xe^jfj 
E*V evpox <f)6(>[4iyr* lpt(>ryv owcc; 
1 vni-sriofyov, T/TT?' p' tv arivu&ft 
Na/e/f Guvuviruv g-iGurt, x} Xstwet; &(>ovo* 

CtKCtf^XTOV dllfyof OflfMt VCWTMV, 

ciywn oivepoi 

Kat Gorpv%floev etrsrerov ortpfyliscr' aXa, 
ActKig-ct paT/o!/]f a^w Xa/i^ea, 

*A"^^ ^V ^\ n \ i / to / 

Atdyv o ap au/cy de/j/op uveyeiget GfOf 
Avvaio Syr', u Sx^ovuv u&xurotTt, 
ToixF ev ufu T$B SsXynv 
Err' suyaX^yg yu^of ev 

C A T O, 


oivciyKH rooro <rS 
eiwoc;, ufy'u 

/XlJV T* CtStMV, XKVoiXll^HV TV C/tf, 

v StoQev 


"Epfyettv tUvuGouffot py 'xXt-oreTv iov. 
*AXXf re PIJTIG fixottrti'v civ WOT* 




. aV7Tt. iroitse In 

y, owdi 

Upotrta ye tfuvra. juTr' ie<rSou ^u'^ETpa, 
AXX* E7ravXjjJov g- eyuvtz x^ Tzrep^e 

E to \ r/ 

i <7 g-<I/ Of<f TUV 

AXX' ovru "ye fcvfATTaurot <ri}[taivet (f>ua-i; t 

eTTei juw aJr- Jf TOV 6vtreij Gporuv, 

V * ' a* A ' V* ~ 

o ov auTo a? xexijo , EU^ttepo/. 
JIo" yv TOBT^ ; ^ zrwf j o Ka~trap 
Ta fl-xijTsrrpa icpwvei, ^ povapxei' TV) 
'AXX' dfureov roy. \$e Stupo pot, 

'/r*. * P /'"' MV \ 

(u 8 G;wr, e (>TU o ctptrpov KKKOV. 

TvS" avSfOf IXTTJ?. Siyrdvu y o(*.v $vo~v. 

m ' * H f\/t>\/ / 

To i*ev ccv TOV avopa rovde diet T<x.%ps KTXVOI, 
TlixXiv TOO uu3is av tx Soiif Tpotyxs. 
il &UVUTI, ScivotTe, <rv rt pot f&fXov 
Ativov roy' vyy Stivov, el ya,(> ctv $e/ 
Qctvi), JMVU ye ^-sror av 
y Se (pdtryizvov yeXuT* o 

uXXoi irxXijpa 7<rp- KUXOI'; HOCKX, 
Aicurxtoci TE -srdvS-' o 

Te GXureintfetv, uvSo; u$, Xa^if/E/v T< "j". 

To < t TO t^ v. fiutt-. Ii/Jo< 

Ev 1/171 kUjuarozrX)?!; aeXXa/^i 

f Anno ^Etat. 16. 





g ff 'd 

o<r' er> 


yt rxioetoeiri Spore"? 
il -sroXw&oSriTOv reppa xj (Pf 
*O ^afaTOf' vwvof 1-rrvo? j 



TO arijX 

evurot TO -srca; ov 



tf aXXor* aXXaj aXye 
lupev. a vTig uv 


vovyg Se 

v uypaf 

$>8ovsf.uv oSovff, vwef^civuv 
TOT ov xevTfov 
Ta Js<vfie srevtotf, dfiv *Ap5f, Je^ 

* / \ V. ./ \ 

Aipx, votruv, X) rctXX, ctr r'v> 
"A zrepttytuysv dptOftov, S Tig civ ^e 

/ t / * 

wi/ oio; TE 





ifwor", ai/ Tsrapslr/ 

TCI en. 

OVTU yt (ppovT*^ (JeX<aVft raj 
OU'TW ys >t apiffu'jrov civSpetus 
A<a QpovTiS w'^pcv ytveTOU, Stct 




De Epigrammate Grcecorum. 

JJELLISSIMUM erat apud Gracos poematis genus, quod 
vocitatur, non illud recentiorum poetarum, e facetiis unice" conftans, fed 
potius ad lyrici carminis aut brevioris elegise naturam accedens. Ex 
hujufmodi poematiis conftat magna pars 'AvSoXoyius : multa etiam a La- 
ertio, AthenceO) atque aliis, citantur, eaque venuftatis plenifiima. Hujus 
videtur efle generis Platonis diftichon 4e Agathonis ofculo, quod apud 
A. Gellium prolixe admodum Lutinis xiimetris convertitur j nos ejufdem 
fuaviffimam brevitatem quatuor Hendecafyllabis exponere voluimus : 

Cum fervens tua, Phylli, fuaviarer, 
Dulci neftare dulciora labra, 
Tranfcurrens anima ufque ad os avebat 
Labi in virgineum (ah mifella !) petus. 

Brevius etiam hoc modo reddi poteft, 

Cum .dulci teneam morfu tua labra, Lycori, 
Spiritus e labiis (ah mifer !) ire cupit, 

Flagitantibus quibufdam amicis, ut plura Anglorum poematia, quae Graj- 
corum eTTiyfci^ftua-i flmilia viderentur, Graece redderem, non potui non 
morem gerere. Verficuli, quorum initium Affotftut xXV 'AftagvXkfla, a 
carmine non edito, quod compofuit fummi ingenii vir mihique perami- 
cus, ipfius rogatu funt converfi. 


6 rep-ereo [4,v"cc, 


orpvuv TOV ptuplov OTTOV. 
up ifypriveug X.$,Ki,&o- t OupSr leuvttv, 

atfc; opus ^ rv 
Kai yu.^ I; ij>co*}< TrapXxofJMs 

Ev Sep* dvQpwruv, it wXeov, eg"} QfQ 
ereuv ratu sraue /yXij, 

Eit(f>ev<yet S" 'faf uvStpov, u<rwtp ovotp. 




evj>u6d[ti'yl&* ex. xuTreXXs. 
Qwov $-i a-ot ufatt&us 07reiu, 
E Eroura.v pvw enofatv Svvaio. 

TO <rov 

Ev <roi pev ^gp, eflv t tv $ 


El xev JJf rpixxovj 
*lv qGotiov eTtijv dptfye)' 
' tv (AKKporepoy Sep* 


t xaXay 'A^apuXX/Ja. pjttw, ireXaW, 
MtfAve St* dpyvpeuv d$v$Kij{ vtfyibuv. 
Oo <T, figa, xctkiu, 

OoT V J/UXT<XOO voy 

&ai'ov ev 
VOLt 4 M Kataro 




Ou<T 7T* KXfpftct &&>. yXuxu 



'Hw<r, cVav doaipvuv rey/E/f pctvtfeawi 
?, FAwepij, ITO.VT 

VT o 

.uv iet rvjv TzroXo^piji/oi/ owa. 
t^sp/ Kvctvtav vefehuv ITTM^VOLTOU d^XoV> 

So^fzraTayer o opSfuv 7ro;x/Xo^pKf xeX J^* 
At xp'iji/a< QpyvtHri, ycj ttCauevov KeXetpijet 
'PuydSog esc Trerpiy? ^axpuosi* if's^poy. 
O* xpo/ a"XjQsiri ify l Ktipcti fo^owfixfis 

t)i/ JE/I/^I jLtaXa^/iV T^V -sTXcxx^aa, you. 
*A FXuxepij yXuxoeinra, (re TST&/J yXyuvev ctvfif, 

Aaxpua wai'J'a'xpUTa, ri wa'i/Ta SwourSe \eutveiv t 

epp devdpevov fyixdSi ; 


Ayai/oCX6<paps wupS-ev, IJTIS I'ftepov yXvxvv rp 

;, v\ (fiepets tgurcis, y (pegei; evSvpttx 

-X/o/o-/ reptl/^, 1? KoatoTf 
f, /jttepif TiByvij, <5iJaXOT^'a jcaXwi/, 
*H$tus (pevcacto-ctiTK ruv tgupevuv fyev 

* Sappho. 
pi?us t xat S\t(fa.f 
f Anno^Etat. 17. 


f y^weToc. ndfiev, *<? 
<5eupo petStdrow', iv S" ovet 
|tt xoupv, M s p 'ipurw, Sag pe 3%f su 

De Idyllio. 

iiOC, quod fequitur, E<JuXX/ov, cum eflem olim Oxonii, ludens com- 
pofui ; Theocritum quidem imitatus, fed dialecto ufus lonica : non enim 
paftores, fed ingenui adolefcentes, in hoc poemate loquentes inducuntur. 

xva.vo(f}pvs vwo 

/v('ij, KBITO Se KuXof ev dj>Koivri<riv 'Ajttwraf, 

r Kyavn (p/XoTi}7< J^ i[&epTo~$ odpoin. 

Tl fM\ BTVBVa'OV. TIVU Kill T/fa [tuSdV /J?f } 

o ae Xeytoev n 

rprrov oyp 

vta iAfo(>uva dxxetv, 

EupuaAs ^ap/evT^-, a^va, ' fca <rs, Kw7rp<, 


A oca a v xxXXioovufc ^otpoTtrurtpov tTSev 
Acioav, off usTi-srHr&e xopa<ff %^;s-l. t 

5 / ^\ / ', F ft * 

AXXijXsf o ^Xij<rV, Epwf o o 

Tlvevtrev ew ctfjifyoTefois OjttaX^i/ <p<Xor5jr^ 


Tiers?] otivuv p'rtouv eontoT e(>eii6o[x,evotiv 
xopi? ToV sraiiJa srBpiyXyvup.tvi) CC&OQV 
TIJV wXoKetftt'Sa (f)t(>ov6 

Ka< %6/ 

yvafA-sfjct <nXnu. -zrepj 

*J/*psf, of x 

Ovoe Toarov Dai^/jj xnpov KJPU^KO ^/ 
Toy lodoTffvijQiv "A&UVIV sv 'ifiaXi 
''Offtrov y EJptiaX*, Xpucr), av 

rw Zauff Trxero ev 



"Ho*u Jis T^V WITVOS XETJTT i|/^uf/o-jt*ad* ltt< 
'Ev ^oSeois ctvTpv TO [tetniftGpivov civQetri ir<r9 i i, 
*Ho*i) o'e ^ QiXeeiv TIJV oi$ rqv rp^o^aXXoi', 

H<?u (pctyeiv [ttXixiipov. Ixivtro $' is (fipevct msp 

pa TIJI> w/TUff XeTsrros 
'Ev (toStoif avrpis TO [Attrii 

n'V* * \<' \WV> \ 

Oud pa >t; (piMeiv Tvp/ snaet. rriv 

u'^s (ficiytiv [AtXiKiipov, $' S 

OuSt 01 rJ\a.Ka,Tt[ (fipevois eua&v, J xaeXadjtrxoff, 
uT i'spov xspxtff <pXp/0 o^wpov 'A^v^f, 

re arupQeviKctt's oixu(pe\ft<rcrt [Jis^ijXev, 



Totyxp Xfva-edtfus /**** fuv nfuo-fgtn W 
'ig-ov or is MVO.TO xpex'eptv. % S^OTH; W, 
"H r WvXaieaT. rXwwp*, ^ Aopr ff 



XX<~ ij TXtwi/ ; ;* 

Na*, mi,. Xpwrt&n yXiwcpoV ieo ff> o^' e ^evu" <rs. 

o-' Xwfi<y ^so-o-ifv aV 

apa vencetita-tv apotGaft;. j Jj 

On) BOV Xi^upr jt*oX-zsry xy(f>i^ev tptaru. 

ey (f)c<>vy TOIUVTX [teXigev. 

Eu'puaXs, yXauxwv Xetplruv 

pov*, % tre 
xpxi /wjXowpe 
Ev TS ^ooo<f ^pt|/ai', j^ dpecfcixu, ev re xpwoianv. 


Kcil ore xs (rvpwXtguipt ya/ttijX/y EV (ft^or^n. 
*A JiuA^. T* xs raura X<X/ea< ; a JAaf ye 
Mi? TO'J" sff. Z6(^>o s o5; (popeoiev 1$ vetTct 

H fiij ) -sfleXexi xe reov XctXeotev epuret. 
'AXXa T/ xi/ ^6<5i ; woV vojctof Jj-^ 
Kott TJ y' Jya xsv ctvvpQ^ epijfttu; u$e Xiwoi 
Xpij ^4 p wotpSivtas poSov d%pcixvTov 


Xe/pjc?<r<ra, >^ spisrs* y^paf upoptyov, 
Fijpa? twrrXex)is Gorpvv Xevxcctvov eSeipctf- 
As? p apet Suftov tpug-iv foiW4w fAX\axoi<rt. 

' T/ijv, 'Ypevuie. trvS", "Aprepi, py vtpeya poi, 



J trv, 5sa, (fliXo-srau;. <re Se GisxoXta 


*AXXa $o$ u 


*H Quvetiv. KjjpEj JE K" e/^ov reftvoiev cir^axrov, 
ITpfv creo, wapS'ey/i;, v/jttoi/ uyvoTUTOv 


l, TKTO, Bex, T&e<r<zi{ti vorifta. 

H p.v KeTvov EwsXXs zsrajujib'i*' )c dot civ r 0.11; 

TOV woretftov, xj JM,^ (ppEva Jijpov Ixiveiv. 

of, gap 5' opouv, ^ Iv vSutrt yvpvog a'^upsy. 
*H J's xopij -sTKTirTativs Sioi -arXaraW a5ipi; 
Atoofttvvi yXyvyiri pooo^poa xoX'aroj/ <pi?fe. 



ITocpij 7!rp|i*jM.Xa)X6 x^ -apyaXE 
yap jitya 



tX<r<rea<, a'E (r opqyov 
^vijT^f, aXXa yap, a* 
*Ef fiu^ov ypmrtf uypov ai/aXu^w ^fXaf uoiwp. 

dfi <5e 



V ^ '^^^/ /x> \f\ 

di E^E oiXa<5jf, ro^a^r. , aTsro OE 
Aa^pua i^ufof-iB' oiv dfpjua XUE 
T<XXE oe rzff srXojcajUKf. oXo<pJpTO o IJUT' onpuv 

'ov*, y <5 v <pu 





AXXero S" Is arolotpov. roS" uSuoor' up.Moi 

*AXX' Ipy 


Ev TS 

i)puaXw, 6e oi/r< 
AUTU, ^ MeX/T7 (>o$o%pu$, ^ 




psij/ai/ ezir' ap^upsw xXTju&> poofoi; EV cturotg, 
Xs/X0"< iWTapeaff QuQti 
"jLvda, yapta Xpu<r? 


Kufu\iScay vvpQtav yXu ii/j opwj ' 


xara Cxeipapwv OTJ KUfict ret,Tu^t 




C A P U T IV. 

De Comaedicz Grcecte fcriptoribus. 

vellem fupereflent Menandri comoedise ! Faucis ejus, qui re- 
ftant, iambis non erant Athene ipfae magis Attics : ut de illo dici poflint, 
quos de Lefbia poetria citat Addifonus nofter, e Phaedri fabella verfi- 
culi : 

OJuavis anima ! qualem te die am bonam 

Antebac fuiffe, tales ciimjint relliquice % 

Ariftophanis, quae fuperfunt, comoediae funt fane omnium elegantiarum 
plenae, & Graecarum literarum ftudiofis apprime utiles, fed eas ad Me- 
nandri verecundiorem fuavitatem acceffifle non puto. Equidem, exerci- 
tationis caufa, fcenam quandam ex Adelphis Terentii, qui maxime Me- 
nandrum imitatus eft, Grascis trimetris converti, quam huic capiti ap- 
ponam, cum feftiva vitae humanse defcriptione, e Shakefpearo fumpta, 
qui nonnullis in locis Ariftophani fimilior mihi vifus eft. 



jWIJOfV. Sf yotg OlOK 1 3T8 

s~iv, a'lJe & rex* Trove? 

Tu\iy uv ccvrexvotr, 
OUK ctoQ' etvKi TVTOV tiijicus ttvps?. 

Mij a TOCVT' 

KTJJ. liar, r*ji*J, 3rr. L. T (ffis KT. T* Sxi fyrei 
u. K* KciTU <rt ys. KT. rt Jat ; <. I,, 


Atyt. Hug av roS" HI ; fyXovoTiy KJ 

E/*s war Taparfa, voivrot 

'E.yuoot woivTot, way /*ovg ^spw Ca 

tY yepovru 

*tr\ ft\ ?\ //**. \ ^ 
Of y tsoev ertus ig-uvQ e ^<riv udtvou. 

Ai;/. ZHTUV dhxtyov aur- uS" ehfavQci. 

K.TIJ. nr, zra?'. . 

. Kcfyu ^upav. loi-flotrou JiiA- Tsrapa. 

2.' tr x * \ * A / \ / 

u^. Kat ^v |a TIJI/ A^ijTpa, xav K 

TaXa/Trwpo/r' ay, tof eywye 

HOT ST}* ; Xjjper wapra X?pov 8To<r/, / 

'AT* *> /< >v>.^.\"t ->* 
AT/ Hires, u yun ; ce.f KoeX<f>og evdov ; . a. 

V mtuvrt p. u ya.& ; a'r^araj. A. KKKUS y t%tos 5 
oys > 


v ; v (4,xvoa yt ; 
/'^. OU'K ai/ xe7ro/ijj a; Tirav^p^o? Krotrt 

of 7T~f yg j^ 'fceicofye rta yvc&u Suu ; 
. T; 70;^ ; Z. wj tfusyt TKUTU Jpay ffe{<ruvT&>. A. tf 
Zu y' ap-n va/e<v aurov 
NJ, 8ia"&OT, aXXa Sot 
Tov dypioTroiov xo / tt7ro^>axfXo^ijjttoi'. 
. Eu, ysvvdSus. Z. 7?} A. ituq yoi% 

ye ov Trarf* ; 

. *AXX' aV <r<yv jt*a^o<, o-a^' 0^". A. eu, 
. rXo<oi/. of 
Mo'X/f dvTiXtyeiv ow re, [tuy $TO$ xaXoV ; 

o^. 'Eyudu. KVK oi.v itv TO-STX mpt? <ppx<ru. 
VOL. II. 4 N 


. Ti <5a< ; 

av yva^ov <rx 

. '^E t e e e t. TOTTOV (ppacrw, x -rvvopot.. 

wf ; A. TOTTOV ^ eJ^Of Aye. 

t'uropuv oiv avrmpu? 
KSro-e. A TToT Syr KV Tpctirotpi p ; S. 
6<5oi/ Trpo^ijxfif^ fi 
ji/ Sellout X7ro<f 

Oux o^a. . pv"(>ivuva, TTIXVV Trap' 
j. "Avo^* yag. ura. iru<; Trepan uHyo-o pott ; 
up. Nat, vat. rV ai/ jttwpoV jtt' aV B'X e<7TO( xXuwv. 


Ap' ow-^a TcivSfOf EuxpaTa ye ; A. TTW? 

up. TKTOV pa TrapaCosf 6'f ap<g~pa 

ij woXijv ^' ij<v Trapa xpijviji' 
jUy apTOTTwX/ov, ra J' a 

; E. apa ^t^ 

a?roXe/jitijv aV E< jttij ^w? JHM 
T/ TTOI^TU ; T ya^ e'acoTOf 
"Aires~w Ar%<vo* TO 

icotUiv. % rpaTTE^' erypero. 
'O Knjff'/fwj/ * 



' pot Sa^itXug. K oTvov po 

*"H ( ap iraptXfcu Toys yXvx,VTctTov 
Anno ^Etat. 16. 


Kadcfsreg feoroj sratni/ Syirts roif ccv6f>u&-oi$ 

x^ xupuhi tfoi/; rig KupuStxv dv^. 

yoe,^ uf TO j'exr^ov iffct^axv TT^UTOV TO 

Kat it a.- 

Kara. %eXcavv SypotTt iraiStov ut; 

)ojtov } K qua $-/xof igtvdei. 

'AXAa xwg<fy*si' TOT euf^, K oixts 

K' auTriv ifAKTuav JUTTIUBI oa.'&u.voua'w BroMiXofAOPtpuv, 
MijTTwy ou&guv, /*JT' a v %tov@*, [&&' uv *UJCTJ [AtXeTuy. 
Aourwsruyuv plv "iir^Ta. Xo%cty* ptya TI g-gxTiov T eiriogJCtT, 
Ka* SofcoXoyeT -sroXXa j!*ei tv yy TroXXa F t(f)' vyga wnuXtv<ra t 
Alei Su<rxoX&' t edev oiy(>OM&>, K ale] TK ffwXoiyxp eiyavaxTuv t 

^ ' 

fyruv tin TV %n 
TIoTvfu <J" a^a "srayuvi SIKK$-^S y<xs~^u^g ^ zra^uxj'^^, 

', TUV r Xaywai', 

^ Tfl yXUTJy BTOXSjt4^6<. 

XJJ/*MI/ TE yeficvTiOV 'tn 

Anno ^Etat. 10. 



De Carmine Latino. 

ULLA in re felicius Grpecos imitati funt Romani, quam in carmi- 
nibus ; non ilia dico Pindarica, tubae quam lyrae aptiora, fed Alcaica, 
Anacreontea, Sapphica, quorum & numeros & venuftates, melius quam 
dici poteft, effinxit Horatius. Hoc poematis genus adeo mihi quondam 
placuit, ut inciperem juftum carminum volumen contexere, quorum 
alia e veterum Lyricorum relliquiis, alia e poetis Afiaticis, alia e re- 
centioribus, libare ftatueram, alia denique a meo, quantulumcunque 
effet, ingenio depromere; fed eadem fere majora ftudia, quae me im- 
pedierunt, quo minus Limona hunc, ut vellem, perficerem, lyrae ac 
Mufis vacare non permiferunt. Quatuor folum carmina huic libello 
fubjungere volui, fub fidlo A. Licinii nomine, qui Ciceronis in re poe- 
tica magifter fuit : in horum fecundo Sappbus in Venerem notiffimum 
carmen fum imitatus ; in tertio, Oden eandem converti, quam, in 
capite de Epigrammate Grtzcorum, Graece redditam expofui: id vero, 
quod ad Leelium infcribitur, miffum eft, prope decem abhinc annis, ad 
amicum quendam mihi in primis carum, cujus fororibus latrunculos 
luforios ex ebore atque ebeno tornatos dederam. 


Oro te teneri blanda Cupidinis 
Mater, caeruleis edita flu&ibus, 
Quae grati fruticeta accolis Idali, 
Herbofamque Amathunta, & viridem Guidon, 



Oro, Pyrrha meis cedat amoribus, 
Quas nunc, Tamaria immitior ajfculo, 
Moerentis Licini follicitum melos 
Ridet. Non liquidae carmine tibize, 
Non illam ^Eoliis illacrymabilem 
Ple&ris dimoveat, leuis ut arduam 
Cervicem tepidum fledtat ad ofculum. 
Quantum eft & vacuis neftar in ofculis ! 
Quod fi carminibus mitior applicet 
Aures ilia meis, fi (rigidum gelu 
Te folvente) pari me tepeat face, 
Te propter liquidum fonticuli vitrum, 
Ponam confpicuo marmore lucidam, 
Te cantans Paphiam, teque Amethufiam 
Pellam gramineum ter pede cefpitem, 
Turn nigranti hedera & tempora laurea 
Cingam, tune hilares eliciam modos : 
At nunc me juvenum pxsetereuntium, 
Me ridet comitum coetus aniabilis ; 
Et ludens puerorum in plateis cohqrs 
Oftendit digitis me, quia Jangueo 
Demiflis oculis, me, quia fomnia 
Abrupta baud facili virgine -faucium 
Monftrant, & viold pallidior gena. 


Perfido ridens Erycina vultu, 
Seu Joci mater, tenerique Amoris, 
Seu Paphi regina potens, Cyprique 
Laetior audis, 



JLinque jucundam Cnidon, & corufcum 
Dirigens currum, levis hue vocanti, 
Hue veni, & tecum properet foluto 

Crine Thalia. 

Jam venis ! nubes placidi ferenas 
Pafleres findunt, fuper albicantes 
Dum volant fylvas, celerefque verfant 

Leniter alas. 

Rurfus ad coelum fugiunt. Sed alma 
Dulce fubridens facie, loquelam 
Melle conditam liquido, jacentis 

Fundis in aurem. 

" Qua tepes, inquis, Liciiii, puella, 
" Lucidis venanti oculis amantes ? 
" Cur doces moeftas refonare lucum, 

" Care, querelas ? 
" Dona fi ridet tua, dona mittet ; 
*' Sive te molli rofeos per hortos 
" Hinnulo vital levior, fequetur 

" Ipfa fugacem." 
Per tuos oro, Dea mitis, ignes, 
Pe&us ingratae rigidum Corinnae 
Lenias. Et te, Venus alma, amore 

Torfit Adonis. 


Veftimenta tuis grata fororibus, 
Et donem lapides, quos vel alit Tagi 
Fludus, vel celer undl 
Ganges aurifera lavit, 


Laeli, fi mea fit dives opum domus. 
Quid mittam ufque adeo ? Scilicet haud mea 
Servo carmina blandis 

Nympharum auribus infolens, 
Quarum tu potior peclora candidis 
Mulces alloquiis, te potiorem amat 
Mufa, utcunque puellae 

Pulfas JEol'ix fides. 
Quin illis acies mittere commodus 
Tornatas meditor, quas bicoloribus 
Armis confpiciendae 

Bella innoxia deftinant, 
Qualis propter aquas aut Lacedaemoni 
Eurotae gelidas, aut Tiberis vada, 
Cornicum manus albis 

Nigrans certat oloribus. 
Cur non Cub viridi ludimus ilicis 
Umbra fuppofiti ? Die veniat genis 
Ridens Lydia pulchris, 

Et faltare decens Chloe : 
Die reddant mihi me. Ludite, virgines ; 
Me teftudineis aut Venerem modis 
Dicente, aut juvenilis 
Telum dulce Cupidinis. 


Coeli dulce nitens decus, 
Lenta lora manu, Cynthia, corripe : 

Pulchrae tecla peto Chloes, 



Et labrum rofeo ne6tare fuavius, 

Non praedator ut improbus, 
Per fylvas propero, te duce, devias, 

Nee, dum lux radial tua, 
Ultricem meditor figere cufpidem. 

Quern tu, mitis Amor, femel 
Placatum tepida lenieris face, 

Ilium deferuit furor, 
Et telum facili decidit e manu. 

Nee deli&a per & nefas 
Furtiva immeritus gaudia perfequor ; 

Blanda vicla Chloe prece 
Peplum rejiciet purpureum libens. 


-llrfLEGANTEM Callimachi vpvov, qui infcribitur ad lavacra Palladis, 
verfibus elegiacis Latine reddidit Politianus, numeros & exemplum Ca- 
tulli imitatus, qui ejufdem poetse de coma Berenices ironipuTiov verterat. 
Nos autem, anno aetatis decimofeptimo, priulquam Politiani Mifcellanea 
legeramus, eundem Callimachi hymnum verfibus Glyconicis adumbra- 
vimus, Catullianum dicendi genus, quo ufus eft in Epithalamio, imi- 

Saltuum viridantium 

Filiae, genus Inachi, 

Virginum chorus adfit hue, 

Hue adfit, tenerum albulo 

Cefpitem pede pellens. 

Audion' ? 


Audion' ? an amabili 
Duke ludor imagine ? 
Audio, nemus avium 
Funditus fremit, & bona 
Prodit alite Pallas. 

Quare age, hue aditum refer, 
Et falire paratum habe, 
Turba, Palladia in fide. 
Eja, flexile tinnula 
Voce concine carmen ! 

Non Minerva prius lavit 
Quam fua rofea manu 
Mollicella latulcula 
(Perfundens gelida jubas) 
Defpumarit equarum ; 

Et perterferit aurea : 
Colla, myrteolum gerens 
Gaufepe,. ac ter & amplius 
Moverit teneram manum 
Subter ora, fub armos. 

Huc'adefte, puellula:: 
(Jam videutur) at baud onyx, 
Haud amaracinum (melos 
Dulce tibia fuccinit) 
Haud amaracinum adfit : 

VOL. II. * dit 


Odit Pallas amaracum ; 
Haud adfit Ipeculi nitor, 
Pallas baud fpeculi indiget. 
Nempe ubi ad Phrygium Idali 
Arbitrum Dea venit, 


Ilia non placidum mare, 
Nee pellucidulos lacus 
Finxit infpiciens comas ; 
Nee decora politulum 
Confuluit orichalcum. 

At cincinnuli identidem 
Unam bellula fimbriam 
Tranfmovit Cytherei'a, 
Ad glabrum fpeculi vitrum 
Ufquequaque renidens. 

Pallas baud ita : fcilicet 
(Quales per cava Taenari 
Gemellae juga flellulae) 
Gramina, & pede pervolat 
Intaftas levi ariflas. 

' **i ' 

Quin abhinc aditum refert, 
Dum, velut lyliias comae, 
Criips luxurians fluit 
Hie & hie bene-olentibus 
Unguentatus olivis. 



Tune ah ! tune dea, virgines, 
Ora floridula & genas 
Haud minus rubet, ac rofae 
Vel flos purpureae teres, 
Vel ridens melimelum. 

Prodeas, dea cafta, fid ; 
Audin' audin' ut integrae 
Succinant tibi virgines, 
Ne lavatum aliorfum. eas ? 
Prodeas, dea cafta. 

Prodeas, dea cafta, fis ; 
Pedes, innuba, transfer hue : 
Hue veni : hue refer aegida : 
Et ferrugineam arduaj 
Caflidis quate criftam. 

At cave, upilio, bibas 
Has aquas hodie ; cave, 
Vacca, tute fitim leves : 
Urnulam fer, aquarie, 
Fontes ad Phyfadea?. 

Nempe defilit e jugis ::0 vi 

Mufcofis hodie Inachus j iljujj; 
Flofculos, viden', irrigans 
Defluit liquido pede, 
Amne lucidus aureo. 



Jam lavis, dea, jam lavis ; 
Paftor, tu quoque nudulam 
Decernas cave Pallada. 
Ecquifnam, (mifer ah mifer !) 
Te cernet, dea, nudam ? 

Pandite oftia,; januae : 
Interim organicis modis 

Suave nefcio quid lubet 
Inter ludere virgines. 
Pandite oftia, valvae. 

Olim nympha, puellulre, 
Cafte perplacuit dea? ; 
Mater Tirefiae, integrae 
Mentis, & viridiffimo 

Quacum ludere, quarh tenere 
In molli gremio fbvens; 
Quam curru vehere arduo, 
Quoi verba edere blandiens 
Dulciora folebat. 

Non chorus, neque erat dea; 
Matutina locutio, 
Nee fragrans olese nemus, 
Nee fol vefperi amoenior 
Cars voce Chariclus. 

Fruftra ! 



Fruftra ! nam dea mollia 
Surge tegmina cereas 
Tollens, lavit in undulis, 
Frigerans ubi temperat 
Sylvulas Aganippe. 

Jam turn tempora Sirii 
Peftilentia retulit 
^Eftas polverulentior : 
Et filentium amabile 
Montis denfa tenebat 

Forte turn Chariclus puer 
Multo cum cane, non line 
Centeno hasduleo, genas 
Vix lanugine veftiens 
Nigriore glabellas, 

Sub dio vagus hue & huc> 
Ac toflus iite guttura, 
Ad facrum laticis caput 
Proh pudor ! tulit haud bonum 
Haud bona alite grefTum. 

At pudoricolor dea 
" Ecqua te mala mens, ait, 
' O mifelle puer, rapit?" 
Dixit ; ille adeo tremens 
Mesfta voce receflit. 



Caligare oculi ftatim ; 
Genua fuccidere : artubus 
Senfim obrepere flammula : 
Et traftim auriculas fono 
Tintinare fuopte. 


Turn puella, " Quid inquiit, 
" Quid facis, dea, quid geris ? 
" (Me fugit ratio mea) 
" Ecquid commerui ? mihi 
" Filium male perdis. 

" O fontes, nemora, & lacus 
" Puri, O mons Heliconeus 
" Non amabilis amplius. 
" Occidunt puer, ah puer, 
" Candidi tibi foles. 

" Ah femel, femel occidit 
" Lux tibi : & cadis immerens, 
" Immerens cadis, ultimi 
" Flofculus velut hortuli 
*' Suppernatus aratro." 

Talis per falicis comas 
Infolabiliter melos 
Integrans lacrymabile, 
Abfumptos Ityli dies 
Daulias gemit ales. 



At fubrifit amceniter 
Compellans dea virginem, 
Flere define ; quid gemis ? 
Tandem mollicularum, age, 
Sifle lacrymularum. 

Define : ecquod enim feras 
Commodi baud bene nofcitas j 
Quid fles, nympha ? licet tibi 
Dulci amaritie tuos 
Temperare dolores. 

Filio fed enim dabo 
Longum arufpicium tuo, 
Unde quern fibi, quern tibi 
Sortem dii dederint fciat 
Augurarier audens. 

Hoc ut dixerat, annuit ; 
Approbantior annuit 
Alma progenies Jovis. 
Jam redis, dea, jam redis : 
Claudite oftia, valvse. 

Claudite oftia, januas ; 
Serta fpargite, virgines : 
Proin tu cafta domos, dea, 
Argoas ope fofpitans 
Bonis omnibus opple. 


( 650 ) 



VALE, Camena, blanda cultrix ingent 
Virtutis altrix, mater eloquently, 
Linquenda alumno eft laurus & chelys tuo. 

At, O Dearum dulcium dulciflima, 
Seu Suada mavis five Pitho dicier, 
A te receptus in tua vivam fide : 
Mihi fit, oro, new inutilis toga, 
Nee indiferta lingua, nee turpis manus ! 







Jones, (Sir] Willia 



! ; l;l 


i si Mtnt^H ''