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A short accomU of the hereticg who condemned or vU^Ud marriage 
ancietttly, under pretence qf greater jpnritg and perfection ; and ofemch 
alio 08 gave license to community of wives and fornication. 

Sect. I. Community of wives first taught by Simon Magus, i. — H. After- 
ward by Satumihis and the Nicolaitans, tui'd many others, 3. — Hi. 
Hence arose the calumny of the Gentile^ against the Christians in 
general, that they practised impurity in their religious assemblies, 4. — 
IV. These doctrines being fetched firom the very dregs of Gentilism, 
and scandalous in the eyes of sober Heathens, 6. — V. Marriage con- 
demned as unlawful by Tatian and the Encratites, 8.— VI. Also by the 
Apostolici or Apotactici, 9. — VII. By the Manichees, Severians, and 
Archontici, 9. — VIII. By the Hieradans and Eustathians, 10. — IX. Who 
were condemned in the Council of Gangra and those called the Aposto- 
lical Canon8, 11. — X. The error of the Montanists about second mar* 
riages ; and of the Novatians also, 13. 


Of the just impediments of marriage in particular eases, showing what per'^ 
sons might or might not be laufully joined together, and of the times and 
seasons when the celebration of marriage was forbidden, 

Sbgt. I. Christians not to marry with infidels, or Jews, or heretics, or 
any of a different religion, 15. — II. AH Christians obliged to acquaint 
the Church with their designs of marriage before they completed it, 22. 

a 2 


— III. Not to many with penonB of near alliance either by con- 
sanguinity or affinity, to avoid suspicion of incest, 34. — IV. Children 
under age not to marry without the consent of their parents or guardians 
or next relations, 26, — V. Slaves not to marry without consent of their 
masters, 28. — VI. Persons of superior rank not to marry slaves, 28. — 
VII. Judges of provinces not to marry any provincial woman during 
the year of their administration, 30. — VIII. Widows not to marry again 
till twelve months after their husband's death, 31. — IX. Women not to 
marry in the absence of their husbands, tiU they were certified of their 
death, 32. — X. Guardians not to marry orphans in their minority till 
their guardianship was ended, 33. — XI. When first the prohibition of 
spiritual relations marrying one with another came in, 34. — XII. Whe- 
ther a man might marry after a lawful divorce, 35. — XIII. Whether an 
adulterer might marry an adulteress, whom he had defiled, after the 
death of her husband, 42. — XIV. The celebration of marriage forbidden 
in Lent, 45. 


Of the tnanner qf making espousab preceding marriage in the 

ancient Church. 

Sect. I. How the sponsaUa or espousaU differed from marriage, 47. — II. 
Free consent of parties necessary in espousals, 48. — III. The contract of 
espousals usually testified by gifts, called arr€B, or donationes ^^onsahtia, 
which were sometimes mutually given and received both by the man 
and woman, 49. — IV. These donations to be entered into public acts, 
and set upon record, 50. — V. The contract further testified by giving 
and receiving of a ring, 51. — VI. And by a solemn kiss, and joining of 
hands, 54. — VII. And by settling of a dowry in writing, 55. — ^VIII. 
And by transacting the whole affair before a competent number of 
witnesses, 56. — IX. How far the obligation of espousals extended, 56. 
— X. Whether they were simply and absolutely necessary to precede a 
just and legal marriage, 59. 

Of the manner of celebrating marriage in the ancient Church, 

Sect. I. The solemnities of marriage between Christians usually cele- 
brated by the ministers of the Church from the beginning, 63. — II. In 
what cases it might happen to be otherwise, 69. — III. How the primi- 
tive practice was revived when it came to be neglected, 71. — IV. Other 
ceremonies used in marriage, as joining of hands and veiling, 73. — V. 
Untying the woman's hair, 73. — VI. Crowning the new-married couple 
with crowns or garlands, 75. — VII. Carrying the bride home to the 
bridegroom's house ; how far necessary in some cases of law, 75. — 
VIII. How far the marriage pomp was allowed or disallowed by the 
ancient fathers, 77. 


Of (Hvarces : how far they were allowed or disaUowed by the ancient 


Sect. I. The Ancients divided about the seDse of fornication. Some 
taking it only for carnal fornication, and making it the only just cause 
of divorce, 80. — II. Others took it to imply spiritual fornication, that 
is, idolatry and apostasy from God, and other crimes of the like nature, 
83. — III. This latter opinion from the time of Constantine much 
countenanced by the laws of the State. First, by Constantine himself, 
85. — IV. Then by Honorius, 88. — V. And Theodosius Junior, 89. — ^VI. 
And Valentinian iii, 91. — ^VII. And Anastasius, 91. — VIII. And Jus- 
tinian, 92. 




Of cemeteries, or burying places, with an inquiry how and when the custom 

of burying in churches first came in. 

Sect. I. A cemetery a common name for a burying place and a church. 
How this came to pass, 94. — II. No burying places in cities or churches 
for the first three hundred years, 95. — III. But either in monuments 
erected by the public ways, or in vaults and catacombs in the fields 
under ground, 99. — IV. Burying in cities and churches prohibited by 
Christian emperors for several ages after, 103. — V. The first step made 
toward burying in churches was the building of churches over the 
graves of the martyrs in the country, or else translating their relics into 
the city-churches, 107. — VI. The next was allowing kings and emperors 
to be buried in the atrium, or porch, and other outer buildings of the 
church, 107. — VII. Then the people in the sixth century began to be 
admitted into the church-yards, but not into the church, 109. — VIII. 
And in this period of time, kings, bishops, founders of churches, and 
other eminent persons were by some laws allowed to be buried in 
churches, iii. — IX. The matter at last left to the discretion of bishops 
and presbyters, who should or should not be buried in churches. 
Hereditary sepulchres not yet allowed in the ninth century, but brought 
in by the Popes* decretals, 112. 


Some other observations concerning the place, and manner, and time of 


Sect. I. Consecration of cemeteries not very ancient, 114. — II. The 
sacredness of them arising from another reason, and not from their 


formal consecration, 115. — III. The way of adorning graves different 
among Heathens and Christians, 116. — IV. They differed also in the 
manner of burying : the Heathens commonly burning the body, and 
putting the bones and ashes in urns : but the Christians buried the 
body whole in the earth, abhorring the Heathen custom, 1 19. — V. Em- 
balming of bodies much used by Christians : and why more by them 
than the Heathens, 122. — VI. Ihe Christians usually buried by day, 
the Heathens by night, 125. 


How they prepared the body for the funeral, and toith what religious 
ceremoniee and solemnities they interred it. 

Sect. I. Christians always careful to bury the dead, even with the hazard 
of their lives, 133. — II. How they prepared the body for burial. I^t, 
closing its eyes and mouth : a decent circumstance observed by all na- 
tions, 134. — III. Then washing the body in water, 135. — IV. Dressing 
it in funeral robes: and these sometimes rich and splendid, 136.-^ V. 
Watching and attending it in its coffin till the time of the funeral, 138. 
— VI. The exportation of the body performed by near relations, or per- 
sons of dignity, or any charitable persons, as the case and circumstances 
of the party required, 141. — VII. Particular orders of men appointed in 
some great Churches, under the names of copiata and parabolani, to 
take care of the sick, and perform all these offices for the dead, 142. — 
VIII. Psalmody the great ceremony used in all processions of funerals 
among Christians, in opposition to the Heathens* piping and funeral 
song, 142. — IX. Crowning the coffin with garlands not allowed among 
Christians, though they scrupled not to carry lights before them, 146. — 
X. Funeral orations made in the praise of eminent persons, 148. — XI. 
Together with psalmody and the usual service of the Church, 148. — 
XII. And sometimes the oblation of the eucharist, 150. — XIII. With 
particular prayers for the dead, 151. — XIV. A corrupt custom of giving 
the kiss of peace and the eucharist to the dead, corrected by the ancient 
canons, 154. — XV. Almsdeeds conmaonly added to prayers for the dead, 
156. — XVI. And repeated yearly upon the anniversary days of comme- 
moration of the dead, 156. — XVII. But this often degenerated into 
great excesses and abuses, which are complained of as no better than 
the parentalia of the Gentiles, 157. — XVIII. Decent expressions of mo- 
derate sorrow at funerals not disallowed ; but the Heathenish custom of 
hiring prafica, or mourning women, sharply reproved by the Ancients, 
158. — XIX. The novendial of the Heathen rejected as a superstitious 
practice, 161. — XX. The custom of strewing flowers upon the graves of 
the dead, retained without offence, 163. — XXI. As also wearing a mourn- 
ing habit for some time, 164. —XXII. Some other rites not allowed by 
the Ancients, 165. — XXIII. To what sort of persons the privilege of 
burying with this solemnity was denied, 167. 



An account of the laws made to secure the bodies and graves of the dead 
from the vioJence of robbers and sacrilegious invaders. 

Sect. I. The old Roman laws veiy aevere against robbers of graves, and 
all abuses and injuries done to the bodies of the dead, 171. — II. This 
severity continued for the most part under the Christian emperors, with 
some additional circumstances, 173. — III. No indulgence allowed to 
robbers of graves by the emperors at the Easter festival, 175. — IV. For 
this crime a woman was allowed by the laws to give a biU of divorce to 
her husband, 176. — V. One reason tempting men to commit this crime 
was the rich adorning of the Heathen sepulchres, 176. — VI. A more 
plausible pretence was taken up from the laws that ordered all Heathen 
altars and images to be demolished, 177. — VII. A third reason was, 
to get the relics of martyrs to sell and make gain of them, 178. — VIII. 
A peculiar custom in Egypt to keep the bodies embalmed and unburied 
in their houses above ground, 180. — IX. No religious worship allowed 
to be given to relics in the ancient Church till after the time of St. 
Austm, 181. 








A short dccoutU of the heretics who condemned or vilified 
marriage anciently^ under pretence of greater purity and 
perfection; and ofeuch also as gave license to community 
qf wives and fornication. 

1. JL>£FOR£ I enter upon the history of the Church's Conmnmity 
practice in relation to the holy office of matrimony, and the fe^^ht 
sereral rites and usages observed in the celebration thereof, it ^y Simon 
will not be amiss to give a short account of those heretics who, *"«^ 
immediately upon the first plantation of the Gospel, set them- 
selves to vilify and contemn marriage, either by openly con- 
demning it as a thing unlawful under the Gospel, upon pretence 
that the Gospel required greater purity and perfection ; or by 
granting license for community of wives and promiscuous for- 
nication. Though God had instituted marriage as an honour- 
able state in man's innocency, and our Saviour had allowed it 
as such, reducing it to its primitive institution ; and the Apostle 
had said, [Hebr. 13, 4.] « that marriage was honourable in all, 
and the bed undefiled :" yet, according to the Spirit's predic- 
tion, there presently arose some who departed from the faith, 
giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils, forbid- 
ding to marry ; and others, who taught men to commit forni- 


2 The heretics who XXII. i. 

cation with license and impunity. This latter doctrine waB 
immediately broached by Simon Magus, the arch-heretic against 
the faith. For, as St. Austin ^ informs us, he taught the de- 
testable impurity of the promiscuous use of women. Which is 
also signified by Epiphanius^ and Irenseus^, when they say, 
that Simon corrupted venerable marriage by his filthiness in 
following his own lusts with Helena, his strumpet. Theodoret* 
gives a more particular account of his impiety, telling us the 
ground of his doctrine, how he taught, ' that tiie old prophets 
were only the servants of the angels, who made the world : 
upon which account he encouraged his followers not to regard 
them, nor dread the threatenings of the Law, but to do, as free, 
whatever they listed ; because they were to be saved, not by 
good works, but by grace.' And upon the strength of this 
principle they who were of his sect gave themselves up boldly 
without restraint to all manner of lusts and intemperance, often 
practising magical enchantments and sorcery as divine myste- 
ries, to bring about their amorous designs. All which agrees 
very well with that short account which is given by Damascene, 
and by the author of the Predestinarian Heresy published by 
Sirmondus*, who say, that Simon taught the promiscuous 
use of women without distinction ; and that God regarded not 
chastity, forasmuch as the world was not made by him, but by 

' De Heeres. c. I . (t. 8. p. 6 a.) npo^^as rioy ayytkuv vmvpyovt 

Dooebat autem detestandam turpi- y€y€Pfj<rBai' row de tls aiir6v marev- 

tudinem indifferenter utendi foemi- ovras eVeXcvo-c fi^ irpwr€\(iw iKtivois, 

nis. F'fi^ (ppirreiv t&v v6yimv rhs airfCKhsi 

^ Haer. i. al. ai. SimoDian. n. 3. dkka nparrtiv &s Aev^cpovs ^ircp &v 

(t. I. p. 56 b, C.) TwoMca yap rtva iBtKria-ioaiv' ovyap dth vpafymv dya- 

4twT^evpdfJLeyosp€ufid^f*^€injvTo6-' &&p, dk\a dia x^ptros rev^taOai rrjt 

vofio, dtr6 ttjs Tvpuotf SpfuofjJvrjp, ^fye- cr^TTjpuK, Oi di; yaptv, ol rfjt tovtov 

rai, fj^ vtro(l)aiimv awdi(f>€tay €xtw avp^fioplas iraauv trSkfuov dtreXytiav, 

vphi TavTtjp' iv impafivarfp dc mo-- Ka\ payyav^iais ixP^^^^ naprodoTrais, 

XpdrtjTi avftirtpiir\tK6pxvos rf yxwaitA ipwrutd nva koli dy^yipM fujxoifdifuvoi, 

oydnt, ic. r. X. mi to. aXXa wra r^r yarjTMias tbui d>r 

^ L. I. c. 30. (p. 94. 30.) Hie Bua jUTi6vTe£ pvarrjpia, 
Helenam [al. Helenen] quandam, ^ DeHseres. p.g^d. (t.i. p.8i a.) 

quam ipse a Tyro civitate Pfaoenioes . . . 'Edidao-icey dc aicrxpon-otdv pi^iv 

qusestuariam cum redemisset, secum poXva-pov, . . . dbui(fiopiav ac^pdroav, 
circamducebat, &c. [This woman ^ Praedestin. 1. 1. de Hseres. c. i. 

is sometimes termed Selene, See (ap. Oper. Sirmond.t. i. p.465a. 3.) 

before, b. 13. ch. 3. s. 3. V. 4. p. 339. Prima haeresis a SimoDe sumpsit 

n. ^4. Ed.J exordium, qui dioebat castitatem ad 

* Haeret. Fabul. I. i. c. i. t. i. Deum Don pertinere, Deum mun- 

p. 193. (t. 4. part. I. p. 388.) Tov9 dc dum non fecisse. 

§1,2. condemtied inarriage, 3 

2. One of the chief of Simon's scholars was Saturnilus, or Afterwaid 
Saturninus, a Syrian, who confirmed Simon's impurity, ^i^j2^l 
St. Austin 7 says, and ' that upon the very same foundation, Nicoiaitans, 
yiz. ' that God did not regard the world, because it was made others. 
by certain angels without his knowledge, or against his will.' 
Others say, ' he condemned matrimony and procreation of 
children universally, and that he was the first that asserted 
openly that marriage was a doctrine and work of the Devil.' 
So LrenaDus^, Epiphanius^, Theodoret^^, and others after them. 
Perhaps he might maintain both opinions, equally injurious to 
lawful matrimony. For it has been no unusual thing with 
men that have stiffly opposed matrimony to be more favourable 
to real impurity and fornication. 

The ]!^icolaitans are said by all writers to have trod in the 
steps of Simon Magus, in teaching the liberty of fornication. 
And this is supposed to be the doctrine and deeds of the Nico- 
iaitans condemned in the Revelation. For it is certain there 
were some at that time who taught men to commit fornication, 
as appears from the reproof given to the Angel of the Church 
of Thyatira, (Rev. a, 20.) " Thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, 
who calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my 
servants to commit fornication." Which makes some learned 
men think that the doctrine of Jezebel was the same with that 
of the Nicoiaitans, and that they are but different names of the 
same persons. For all ecclesiastical writers agree that the 
Nicoiaitans held this doctrine. Irenseus^^, TertuUiani^, and 
Epiphanius^^, make Nicolaus, one of the seven deacons, to be 

^ De Haeres. c.3. (t.8. p. 6c.). . . i* L. i. c. 27. (p. 103. 4.^ Nico- 

Qui turpitudinem SimoniaDam in laitae autem magistrum quiaem ha- 

Sjrria coniirmasse perhibetur : qui bent Nicolaum, unum ez septem, qui 

etiam mundum solos anffelos se^ primi ad diaconium ab Apostolis 

tern praeter conscientiam Dei Patris ordinati sunt : qui indiscrete vivunt. 

fecisse dicebat. l^ De Prsescnpt. c. 46. (p. 220 a.) 

^ L. I. c. 22. (p. 97. 5.) Nubere Alter haereticus Nicolaus emersit : 

autem et generare a Satana dicunt hie de septem diaconis, qui in Actis 

esse. Anostolorum allecti sunt, fuit. 

* Heer. 23. Satumilian. n. 2. (t. i. ^^ Haer. 25. Nicolaitae. n. i. (t. i. 

p. 63 d.) Th yafUip dc xal t6 ytwav 6 p. 76 b, C.) Nt«c JXaof ycyovrv wis anb 

alrr6s ayvpnis €K tov Sarova vndpxtof tS>v lirra duuc6vc»v' . . . vtrr^pov dc rov- 

Xryvi, K. r. X. rov vnihv 6 Alo^oXos, koi ((rptdrria'tv 

*^ Haeret. Fabul. 1. I. c. 3. (t. 4. avrov ttjp Kopblav rj avrj nXdyu t&v 

part* I. p. 291.) T^ dc yofiov oSrot npo€ip¥jfupcaiV rrtiKaimv, KoraTpmOfjvai 

irp&Tot TOV /^mfiSkov oidatrKokiap fiti{6vmt virtp rovt vpiijv k. r. X. 

B 2 

4 The heretics who XXIL i. 

the author of it. But others excuse him, and say, it was a 
doctrine taken up by those who pretended to be his followers, 
grounded upon some mistaken words of his, which had no such 
meaning. So Clemens Alexandrinus^^ more than once apolo- 
gises for him; and, in hke manner, Eusebius^^ Theodoret'^ 
and St. Austin 17. But it is agreed on all hands, that either he 
or his disciples brought in such a doctrine, which is condemned 
as the doctrine and deeds of the Nicolaitans in the Revelation. 
Afterwards it was propagated by Prodicus, the author of the 
impure sect of the Adamites, and by the Carpocratians and 
Gnostics, of whose impurities I need not stand to make a par- 
ticular narration. 
Hencearose 3. I only observe, that from these vile practices of the sects 
of^t^'Sm- ^"^^^^ ^^® name of Christians^ arose that common charge of 
tiles agunst the Heathens against the Christians in general, that they 
tiuis in ge- pi's^'tised impurities in their religious assemblies. For some of 
neral^ that these sects not only made a common practice of fornication 

^^ Stromat. 3. (p. 490. 33*) Toiov- KVKkri<rii yw<UK6s' leat 17 €yKpdT€ui 

TOi d^ Ktii ol <t>da'KOPT€s iavTovs Nueo« r&p Trc/MonrovdaoTcov ffdov&v t6 napa" 

Xa^ tnttrBfUf dirofunjfi6vtvfid rt rdv- xplnaBcu, t§ aapKi ibib€urK€v. 
dp^f <f>€povr€s €K irapaTfxmrjf, t6 dcif '^ L. 3. c. 29. (v. i. p. 123. 18.) 

vapaxjprjtrBai rjj arapKi' aXX' 6 fuv *Em. tovtci>v f^a xal 17 Xryo/icvi; r&v 

'V€wcuos Ko\ov€iv dcty cd^Xov rds rt "SucoKmt&v atpccrtr, rirl afUKpdrarov 

^dovas, rds r€ €iriBvfiias, Koi r$ cut" owtarrj xpdvoV ^s d^ Koi ^ rov *Io»- 

Kijcrei ravTij KaTCLfu^>alv€iv rhs rijs dyvov ATroKoXv^if fu^fiopcvei. O^roi 

aapKhs Spfxds t€ koX tfriBeaeis, — Stro- fiixSKaov €va r&v dpjdA t6v l&T€<f>camv 

mat. 3. (p. 522. 19.) *Eir€fuma-BrjfjL€y buucdtwv irpbs rav Anoar^kw nrl 

df Ka\ T^ff Karh KapiroKpdrrjp aBtapuov rfj tS>v Mt&v Otpcarfiq. TtpoKtxtipta' 

ywaiK&» KOiwoviaSf irtpi re rrjs Nuco- fuhfonv ifiyow. *Oy€ /xi)v 'AXc^ov- 

\dov prffrtios buiK.€)(6€PTf9i ckcivo fra* bptvs KXi^/ii/s €v rpirtif ^rptoparei 

pakfiirofuv. 'Upaiay, ^ocrl, ywaiKa ravra ir€p\ avrov Korh. Xc^ty loropec' 

^x^v o^Tos, fura r^v dvdXfjyiv rfiv 'Qpcuaa^, <f>aa'l,yvyauca ?;(tt>v, x. r. X. 
rov Sotr^poff, vp6s r&v 'AirooT<$X»v ** Hseret. Fabul. I.3. c. t. (t. 4. 

ov€(d((r^eU foXonwtW, tU yAaov dya- part. i. p. 340.) 'H NtieoXarrcov otpe- 

^wv r^v ywauca, yrjfuu r^ /SovXofici^ (ris, ov p/&vov <£ dvoias, aK\a Koi c( 

rnerpr^v' OKdktnfSov yiip ctvcu <f>a(n. aKoXaaias (rvpt<rrn' aaAdarepov dc ra 

rijv irpa(iv ravrrjv mivji rfj <f>»v§, irtpi ravrm 6 KXjjprjs edidtz^^v, k.t.X. 
5ri irapaxprf<ra(rBM r^ <rapK\ dc? Ka\ '7 £)© Hseres. C. 5, (t. 8. p. 6 d.) 

dil, KaraKo\ov$^a€arr€£ rf ycyo/ieya> Nicolaitse a Nicolao nominati sunt, 

r^ re €iprjfuv^ cmk&s koI dfiaaxwi- uno, ut perhibetur, ex illis septem, 

aT<as, tKjropvtvovfriv dvalfirjv ol rfi» quos Apoetoli diaconos ordinaverunt. 

dtpeaiv avrov p€riovr€s, IIvpBdvonai lete cum de zelo pulcherrimee con- 

d' ?v(0V€ r6v "SiKoKaov firjdepi^ Mp^, jugis culparetur, velut purgandi se 

imp tv JryrjfJLw, k^xpv^^^ ywcuKi' causa permisisse fertur, ut ea, qui 

r&v r iK€wov riicvmv OrjKtms pAv vellet, uteretur. Quod ejus factum 

Korayripdaai irapOivav^, Si<b6opov hi in sectam turpissimam versum est, 

diafjLeivM r^i^ vl6v, *Qv ovr^s ixdv- qua placet usus^ ndifferens foemina- 

rmv, ttTTo/SoX^ ndSovs ^v €h pitrov r&v rum. 
'AwooToXwy ^ rrjt (rj\orvTrovp€VTis «- 

§ 3* condemned marriage. 5 

and uncleanness, but adopted them into the mysteries of their they pnc- 
religion. Clemens Alexandrinus ^^ particularly charges it upon purity u^ 
the Carpocratians, and Theodoret*^ upon the Adamites, the *^®""«^- 
followers of Prodicus, who was a disciple of Carpocrates. semblies. 
Epiphanius^o and St. Austin add to these the Gnostics ; con- 
cerning whom St. Austin 2* remarks, that, as they went by dif- 
ferent names in different parts of the world, ' some called them 
Borboritce^ Wallowers in the mire, because of their extreme 
impurity which they were said to exercise in their mysteries.' 
And of Carpocrates, the father of the Carpocratians, he re- 
marks ^*^, ' how he taught all manner of filthiness and invention 
of evil, saying, that this was the only way to escape and pass 
safe by the principalities and powers of the air, who were 
pleased therewith, that so men might come to the highest 
heaven.' Now these were doctrines of devils indeed, scarce 
heard of among the Gentiles, that a man should commit lewd- 
ness with his father's wife ; and that men should do evil that 
good might come, and that the best way to escape the power 
of devils was to become slaves to them, and do the things that 
pleased them. Wherefore the Heathens knowing that such 

10 Stromat. 3. p. 511. (p. 511. 20.) bafurav awtarrfa'aTO aip€aW o^os 

02 d< a7r6 KaprroKparovv Koi '£irc<^a- irpo<f>avS>s Xayvcvciv roit KapwoKpd' 

vovs dvay6fi€voi Koivas tlvai yvvaucas rovs frpoaTf$€iK€ b6yfuuri' Koipiis yhp 

6^toviriv' c( hv 7 fuyiarrj Kara rov cfvcu rhs yweuxas €pOftoO«rfjar€v' o^ 

lana. c. 7. p. 409 e.; rionani, sive ovfitvoi, ]jir€p av €Kaaros tTFtrvxf <rvP' 

Carpocratiani, cUcuntur . . . negan- c/itywro* oKXh d^ xal rrXcr^v t^v 

tes judicium atque resurrectioneiD, roiavrnv aKokaaiav virtiknditcrav fiva^ 

Chnstum natum de virgine non ere- riiti^v. 

denies, omnemque resurrectionem in ^ Hssr. 26, Gnostici. n. 3. (t. t. 

filiorum procreatione nefandi coetus p. 84 d.) Avr^v yiip rf^p avva(iv atf- 

|[al. coitus] sssttmantes consistere, ut t&v *v ala^&nyn iroKvfu^las ^vpov' 

m ecclesia sua post occasum solis lu- triv, k. r. X. [See also n. 4, through- 

cemis exstinctis misceri cum mulier- out. Ed.] 

cnlis non dubitaverint, legis pnecep- ^^ De Hssras. c. 6. (t. 8. p. 6 f.) 

turn implere putantes, Nascimini [al. NonnuUi eos etiam Borboritas vo- 

Oemmtnt] et muUiplicamini, Ju- cant, quasi coenosos, propter nimiam 

daismo potius et Paganitati parere turpitudinem, quam in suis mysteriis 

nefandse, quam Christians veritati exeroere dicuntur. 

acquiescere properantes, pecudum- ^ Ibid. c. 7. (p. 7 b.) Carpocra- 

que potius vitam et amentiam deti- tiani sunt a Carpocrate, qui docebat 

nentes, quos et Scriptura vitas pecu- omnem turpem operationem, om- 

dum comparavit. nemque adinventionem peccati : nee 

1^ Hteret. Fab. 1. i. e. 8. (t. 4. aliter evadi atque transiii principatus 

part. I. p. 295.) np^ixoff dc rovrov et potestates, quibus hsec placent, ut 

ocadcfdfifyof T^y rSnt KoKovfutrnp 'A- possit ad coelum superius perveniri. 


The heretics who 


things were taught and practised among heretics, who went 

under the name of Christian, made no distinction, but threw 

the charge upon all Christians in general ; and so " by 

reason of their pernicious ways (or, as some copies ^^ read it, 

their laacimoua ways) the way of truth was evil spoken of." 

(a Pet. 2, 2.) 

These doc- 4. And this was done so much the more plausibly, and with 

fete^^"** a better grace, because there were but few among the Heathen 

from the themselves that allowed such practices. The doctrines were 

ofGenti? fetched by heretics from the very dregs of Gentilism, and they 

ism, and -^q^q scandalous in the eyes of all wise and sober Heathens. 

scandalous ■ 

in the eyes Some of the more barbarous nations indeed allowed of com- 
H«^r^ munity of wives, and practised promiscuous adultery. Solinus 
Polyhistor^^ affirms it of the Ethiopians, called Garamantes; 
and Julius Csesar^^ gives the same account of the Britons : but 
in all the civilized part of the world, throughout the whole 
Roman empire, we meet with but one instance of it, in the 
Heliopoljtans of Phoenicia, among whom, by the law of their 
country, Socrates-^ says, all women were common; so that no 
child knew his own father, because no distinction was made 
between parents and children. They also gave their virgins 
to be defiled by all strangers that came among them. And 

^ [Kal 9roXAoi €(aKo\ov$rfatnfa'w 
aifT&v rats diroX€iais, k. r. X., is the 
reading of the textus receptus. 
The Vulgate has it thus : Et multi 
sequentur coram luxuriast Sfc. — See 
Nov. Test. Gr. Johan. Millii, Ed. 
Kuster. Lips. 1723, for numerous 
authorities for aa^kytifus rather than 
that of the textus receptus^ drrokciais. 
Of the former reading Millius says. 
Quae lectio Esdo longe probabihor 
videtur, non enim proprie, inquit, 
nee usitatae quis dicitw sequi alte- 
rius perditionem. Immo vero ilia 
ipsa ae causa mutatam suspicor lec- 
tionem, quam sequimur, in dcrek- 
y€lais. Dabant novam banc lectio- 
nem in margine et quidem ex capitis 
hijgus V. 18, seu potius 2 Pet. 2, 2, 
aliqui, quibus baud intellectum otto- 
Xc/aiff hoc loco idem esse quod a2pc- 
irro't TTJs caro\(ia£. Ed.] 

^ C. 33. (p. 162.) Garamantici 
iEthiopes matrimonia privatim nes- 

ciunt, sed omnibus ^nilgo in Vene- 
rem licet. Inde est, quod filios ma- 
tres tantum recognoscunt. 

25 De Bell. Gallic. 1. 5. c. 10. 
(p. ^8.) Uxores habent deni duo- 
denique inter se communes, &c. 

^ L. I. c. 18. (v. 2. p. 48. 29.) 
Koivas yap elvai irap' avrois re^r yv- 
vaiKas tyx^pios v6pos €K€\ev€' Koi 
Bih TovTO diM<t>tfio\a piv ^v nap* av- 
rois rii TLKrdp^pa* yovwv yap ical 
T€KVDi>p ovbepia dcojcpurif ^V ras dc 
irap6€vovt Tois vapiovai ^evois irap- 
ti)(ov iropvevtaOcu' Koi roOro cf dp' 
Xaiov Kparovv vap avrois \vcrai i- 
ajTovBaiTM [6 /SacriXcvs]* y6p4j^ yhp 
O'tpv^ rS>v alaxpSiv aveXcbv rh pwrog 
rh, yivri iavra ririyivaxricciv trap- 
faK€vaa'€v* tKKkrja-ias re Kriaas, Kal 
riri<rK€mov x^iporovTfBrjvtu irapttrictv- 
€UT«, Kal kKtjpop Up6v ovno rd. *HXt- 
owoXir&v Koxa furpiwrtpa airccpyd- 

§ 4- condemned marriage. 7 

this iniquity, established by a law, continued among them till 
Constantino abrogated it by a contrary law, and builded them 
churches, and settled a bishop and clergy among them, by 
which means they were converted to Christianity, and brought 
to the orderly course of the rest of mankind in this particular, 
which was always reckoned scandalous among the very Gen- 
tiles. For SoIinus^7, describing the lasciviousness of the Gara- 
mantes, which made that no child could know his own father, 
nor haye any reverence for him, says, ' that upon this account 
the Garamantes were reckoned a degenerate people among all 
nations; and that not without reason, because they had de- 
stroyed the discipline of chastity, and by that wicked custom 
lost all knowledge of succession among them.' It is true, in- 
deed, Plato is generally accused by the ancient writers of the 
Church for saying that a community of wives ought to be 
established in his commonwealth. The charge is brought 
against him by Theophilus^^, bishop of Antioch, first of all ; 
then by St. Jerom^^, Chrysostom^o, and Theodoret^^ But if 
what Clemens Alexandrinus pleads in his behalf be true, there 

^ C. 33. (p. 162. ult. lin.) Ea fuurrbs airr&p] ^tX<(o-o^off iyoyLoBi- 

propter Garamantici iEthiopes inter rrt, dovX^ «(«ivai iirjTM naidtpaarew, 

omnes populos degeneres habentur: firiT€ ^poXoK^tv* oir yhp tvapmv 

nee immerito, quia afBicta castitatis roO vpayfioros Uptos, jcal ^roXXAir 

disciplina, sucoessionis notitiam ritu txpvros n^r^v* ^ul tovto xal rir' oliof 

improbo perdiderunt. funos rior^icfio-ay d>caf«p&£ tovto 

*^ Ad Autolycum, 1. 3. p. 207. irotovyrrf, k, r. X. — Honi. 4. in Act. 

(ad calc. Just. Mart. p. laoa.) IIp«»- (t. 9. p. 38 e.) Kowal, ffnfoh, al vv- 

r6s y€ Jtkarwp, 6 doK&v €v avTois P€UKts ZarttKrav^ koX ycyv/iwoficMu 

vtfivoTWpop n€<piko<ro(fniK€vaif dcop- irap6tvM eir' H^ai r£y ipatrrSw fiti- 

p^dffp iv T§ irpJarji piffk<i^ T&p IIoXc- Xcucroxray, Koi xocyol irartptg foToi- 

T€t&p €niypaKtH>itifPif, rp($fraj> tipi poyuo- trap xal ol Tucr6u€Poi naUits. 

Bmw XS^^ ttpoA Koiphs anTcarrmp Tht '^ De Curand. Grnc. Affect. Serm. 

ywaiKatf xP^f'^^'^^ napa^iyuari r» [al. Disput.] 9. t. 4. p. 61 1, (t. 4. 

Atht, Kcu KpiriT&p pofioSeTjj, ofr»s dm part. 2. p. 930.) *0 ydp roi AvKovp- 

irpo^>aa'€»s muboiroid iroXX^ ylprpxu yos, t&p popoBer&v & dpurrov, &s 00- 

€K T&P TOtOVmP, Koi »£ d^^CV ToifS K€l TOl£ tSoV *EXXl7V<0y (TO^lS, dii^ytf- 

XufrovfAtvovs dih toiovto»p Sfukimp p€Virtp ip tois p6fioi9, &t ol r^v Aaicc- 

XP^v vopt^iv6tla'3ai, Baip^pluw vroXirciov (vyytypadf&ns 

^ £p. ad Ocean, advers. Jovin. <f>aalp, i^tipoi koI diipdtri km yv- 

1. 2. (t. 2. p. ^5 b.) Scotornm natio pai(lp, fjbri ^i^ofupois t6p tov ydpov 

uzores propnas non habet : et quasi Cvy6p, ralr p€v, t$ aXXo>y dvbp&p, 

Flatonis Politiam le^^rit, et CatoniB tois dc, cV ywaix&p Mpois apdpatri 

sectetur ezemplum, nulla apud eos (yptCtvyfUvwp, naldas irotfUrBai, ddc- 

coi^ux propria est : sed ut cuique w fuypvp.€Poit' Kaii .» ,, Hkdroip #eal 

libitum merit, pecudum more lasci- ri)y vir' axrrov duar\aa'$€i(ra» ir6ktp 

viunt. Kara tovtovs npoa-rra^t irokiTtvt' 

^ Horn. 5. in Tit. p. 1725. (t. 11. irdcu. 
p. 762 a.) Koi irap' avTois [id. 6 Bav^ 

8 The heretics who XXII. i. 

must be some mistake in the accusation. For he says^^, ' Plato 
did not teach the community of wives after they married, but 
only that the world was Uke a theatre, which is common to all 
spectators : so women, before they were married, were any 
man's right that could obtain them ; but after they were mar- 
ried, they were every man's property, and no longer common.' 
But be this matter as it will, it is certain the main current of 
the Heathen laws were against such practices ; and therefore 
it was the more abominable for heretics to introduce them into 
the purest of all religions, which was so much a friend to lawful 
marriage, and so great an enemy to all undeanness. 
Marriage 6. But these were not the only heretics that infested the 
as unlawful Christian Church upon this point. There were others who 
^^A^^ railed at marriage as simply unlawful under the Gospel, and 
Encntites. would have all men abstain from it as a matter of necessity, 
without which they could not be saved. This doctrine was first 
taught by Saturnilus [or Satuminus] and Marcion, as Iren«eus^^ 
informs us, but afterwards better known among the Encratites, 
a sect begun by Tatian, the scholar of Justin Martyr, who, 
after his master's death, divided from the Church upon this 
and some other points, asserting that marriage was no better 
than fornication, and therefore all men ought to abstain from 
it : 'thereby,' says our author 3*, * annulling the primitive work 
of God, and tacitly accusing him, who created man male and 
female, for the propagation of mankind.' Epiphanius^^, speak- 

«2 Stromat. 3. c. a. (p. 514. 25.) p. ipa. 31.) reciting the same words 

Aojccc de fUH KoX rov Ttkir^avos vapa- of trensBUB, and adding, Kal rovro 

KJiKO€vai, fV rj n<Atrrt9 <f>afjL€vcv, vw €$€vp40ri irap* avroU, Tartopov 

KOi.piLg c&oi rhs ywdtKag travnav' koi- tip6s irp^tmg ravufv tltr^viyKtwroi 

vhs fuv rht irpo rov ydfiov, rwf at' rifp fiXatnfnffAiaif tt 'lovortvov dcpo- 

TtlaOaL iu\k6imip, KoBcartp kclX r6 ar^r y€yw»s, €<f>6irov fUv owfjp <«ei- 

Biarpop Koiphp t&p Otwfxtpap, <f>&a'' iw>, o\^^ ^^4*11^ touwtoP' fitrh dc 

KOPTOS' Tov vpoKoraKafioPTOs d< cica- t^i^ tKfivov paprvpiop airoaras rijs 

tmip iicdaTov cZkic, koX ovk tfn Kounip ^KKkrfa-las, 0117/iart dcdcuricdXov imp' 

rhp Yeyauriptprip. [See the fifth book Btls koX rv^^ca^cU o>r duMpnp tS>p 

of the Republic, chapters 7 and 8. \oin&p,idiop xapaicnjpa baaaKoKeiov 

£n.J avpftrr^a'aTO, al&pds rtpas dopdrovs 

88 L. I. c. 30, (p. 105, ao.) 'Air6 6/JioUas ToU ojri OuaXcyrtyov pvBokO' 

^OTvpplvov Kol yiaoKUapoi ol {(.{lKov" yriaas' t6p ydfwp re <^op6p Kal vop" 

lupoi *Ey KpoTtU^ ayafxiav €icfipv(ap, ptLap, vapairXfforUis MapKwpt xal 2a- 

oBrrovpTts r^v dp\cuap ^rXactv rov rvppip^, apayopfwras. 
e€ov, Kal ripipa Konrfopovprti rov 86 ^^f, 47. n. I. (t. I. p. 400 a.) 

apptp Kal efikv eh ytpwtrip dpOpdnnap T6p ydfJLOP cnro/SaXXovcrt, rov 2arapa 

irwmvjKdros, ffid(rKOPT€s tovtop efpoi* r6p de ydfutp 

84 Ap. Euseb. 1. 4. c. 39. (v. i. cra^ rov Aui3Aov dpiCoprai, 

§ 5' ^^ 7* condemned marrictge. 9 

ing of these Encratites, says, ' that the j taught openly that 
marriage was the work of the Devil.' Theodoret^^ says the 
same, * that they obseryed celibacy, terming marriage fornica- 
tion, and the lawful joining of man and woman together the 
work of the Devil.' Which is also confirmed by St. Austin ^7, 
who adds, ' that upon this account they would admit no mar- 
ried person into their society, whether male or female.' 

6. Not unlike these was that other sect, who called them- AlBoby the 
selves Apostolici, from a vain pretence of being the only men orApouic- 
who lead their lives according to the example of the Apostles; '•**• 

and Apotactici, from a show of renouncing the world more 
than other men. St. Austin ^^ says, ' they arrogantly assumed 
these names, because they would not receive into their com- 
munion any who were married, or kept the possession of any 
thing in property to themselves; and that they allowed no 
hope of salvation to such as used either of those things which 
they renounced.' 

7. St. Austin')^ brings the same charge against the Mani- By the 
chees : he says, ' they condemned marriage, and prohibited it ^^^; 
as far as they could, forbidding men to beget children, for and Ar- 
which marriage was ordained.' The Severians and Archontics 

said, 'that woman was the work of the Devil, and therefore 
they that married fulfilled the work of the Devil,' as Epipha- 
nius^^ reports of them. And Clemens Alexandrinus^^ speak- 
ing of the same heretics, or some others like them, says, ' they 

M Hseret. Fabul. 1. 1. c. 30. (t. 4. ^ De Heres. c. 46. (t. 8. p. 16 e.) 

part. I. p. 313.) ... . Kat r^v ayofUay .... Nuptias sine dubitatione con- 

oc fAtriatn, iropp€ia» t6v ydfiov irpocr- demnant, et quantum in ipsis eat 

ovopcvovrer, kuI rfpf twoftov leociw- prohibent, quando generare prohi- 

Fioy biafioku^v dvofidCovns. Dent, propter quod conjugia copu- 

^ De Hsres. c. 25. (t. 8. p. 9 f.) landa sunt. 

Tatiani, a Tatiano quodam instituti, ^ Her. 45. Severian. n. 3. (t. i. 

qui et Encratitse appellati sunt, nup- p. 388 d.) <^d(rKovai dr kgI r^p yv- 

tias damnant, atque omnino pares Fatxa ilvai Zpyov rot) Soropa' KoBarrtp 

eas fomicationibus aliisque corrup- Koi ol ^ApxomKoi tovto tifHureaf' dca 

tionibua fadunt: nee recipiunt in tovto tovs yajui^ irXtfO'idCovTas tov 

Buorum numerum coigugio uten- ^rava t6 Zpyov nkfjpovv Xeyovarip, 

tern, nve marem sive foeminam. ^^ Stromat. 3. c. 9. (p. 540. i.) 

^ Ibid. c. 40. (p. 1 1 e.) Aposto- [Hsec ibi non exstant, nisi fortassis 

lici, qui se isto nomine arrogantis- auctor noster respexerit ad verba, 

sime vocaverunt, eo quod in suam quae ineunte pagina leguntur : — 

communionem non reciperent uten- ^curl yhp, on avros flntp 6 ^wrhp, 

tea coijugibus, et res proprias pos- *iaX0ov xoraXOo-at rh Zpya r^r ^- 

sidentes.. .NuUam spem putant eos XciW* BrjXtias fuv, Ttjg iviBvfiias' 

habere, qui utuntur nis rebus, qui- ^pva dc, yivttnv teal (p$opay, Gri^ 

bus ipsi carent. sckov,'] 

10 The heretics who ♦ XXII. i. 

taught that marriage was downright fornication, and that it 
was delivered by the Devil/ 
By the Hie- 8. After these arose up one Hierax, whose disciples are 
Bostethiams. ^^^^ Hieroctans, who taught with a Uttle more modesty, but 
no less erroneously, ' that marriage was a thing belonging only 
to the Old Testament, and since the coming of Christ it was 
no longer to have place ; neither could any one in the married 
state obtain the kingdom of heaven.' So Epiphanius^*^ repre- 
sents their doctrine. And upon this account St. Austin -^^ says, 
' they admitted none but monks and nuns, and suclr as were 
unmarried, into their communion.' The same tenets were 
stiffly maintained by one Eustathius, whom Socrates ^^ and 
Sozomen'*^ call bishop of Sebastia, [or Sebastea,] and Vale- 
sius^<^ defends them in so saying, though Baronius^^ labours to 

^ Hser. 67. Hierac. n. i. (t. i. p. stolam oonscriberet, scripsit autem 

710 b.) Kal avyK€x^pw^^ <Pff<n €v sub Valente, nondum oelebratum 

T^ IlaXai^ Aia$riK[j, r^ yafifp avvd- fuisse Gangrense Concilium, in quo 

vr€(r$€u' dn6 de rrjs Mrjfiiaf rov damnatus est Eustathius. Dicet 

Xpiarov firjKen r6v ydfiov irapad€' fortasse aliquis id, quod a Baronio 

XtcOai, fifiT€ bvvcurBoL avrov jcXi/po- dictum est, Eustathmm ilium, qui 

vofUiv ^aaCKtUtv ovpav&v. in Gang^rensi Synodo condemnatus 

^ De Haeres. c. 47. (t. 8. p. 17 f.) est, diversum esse ab Eustathio Se- 

Monachos tantum^ et monachas, et basteno. Venim hoc gratis dicitur, 

conjugia non habentes, in communi- nee iillius auctoris testimonio niti- 

onem recipiunt. tur. 

^ L. 2. c. 43. (v. 2. p. 158. 35.) ^ An. 361. n. 45. (t. 3. p. 842 b.) 

. . . *Em(rKoiro£ Sc/Saorctaf . . . yafulp At priusquam de his agamus, de 

. . . cVoXvc Koi fiptofAarmp carfx^a-dai Eustathio pravorum hujusmodi do- 

^SaypdnC€v, Koi dia rotrmv voWovs gmatum architecto disserendmn est. 

fuv Toifs ytyapjriKAras rov <rwoiKf<riov Uunc fuisse Eustathium ilium epi- 

€x^piCf' . . . cV oUois re yrvafifjKSTOiv scopum Sebastiee in minori Arme- 

9vxks (Ka>Xv€ y€V€a3ai' xai irpearfiv- nia, .... Socratis atque Sozomeni et 

T€pov yvpauca €xovtosj ^p vopuc^ Xat- aliorum reoentiorum^ qui hos sunt 

k6s &v Tyaycro, r^v evXoytov Koi rfiv secuti, historicorum assertione tra- 

KMv&viav, &s fivaos, €KK\ivew cW- ditur. Quod quidem mihi nulla 

\€V€. prorsus ratione probatur : cum e 

^ L. 4. c. 24. (ibid. p. 169. 34.) contrario plura sint, quae dictis auc- 

"Eirttra de [EvarrdBios], &S ov 0€ov toribus magnopere adversentur. Et 

dtdao-Koy re Ka\ irpdmav kclL <f>povS>p, in primis, quod S. Basilius duabus 

d<t>ffp€$rj T$( cVrt(rico9r$r Trapa rS>v €v eplstolis, cum diligenti soopa cunc- 

Tayypais avvtXrikvOoTcov, [Sozomen tas eiusdem Eustathii Sebasteni tur- 

does not ejcpressly term him bishop pitudines in unum oongerat, eas- 

of Sebastia, as Socrates does. Ed.] demque singulas spectandas palam 

^ In Socrat. 1. 2. c. 43. (ibid. p. ezponat, nuUam prorsus de hujus- 

159. n. 3.) . . . . Basilius in Epistola cemodi hseresibus, vel ejus damna- 

74., quam scripsit ad Occidentales tione facta in Gangrensi Condlio, 

contra Eustathium Sebastenum, mentionem habuit : quae quidem ad 

Gangrensis Concilii nullam mentio- totam ejus vitam sugillandam ante 

nem fadt.' Ex quo manifeste colli- omnia ponenda esse videbantur, &c. 
gitur, tunc, cum Basilius eam epi- 

§ 8, 9« cande>nned marriage. 11 

prove him to be another man. However, it is agreed on all 
hands that there was one of this name, who was so great an 
admirer of the monastic life, that, for the sake of it, he con- 
demned all marriage in general, and taught that no one that 
lived in a married state could have any hope in God. Upon 
which many wives forsook their husbands, and husbands their 
wives : many servants deserted their masters, to join with him 
in this new way of U ving ; and many withdrew from the public 
assembUes of the Church, and held private conventicles, upon 
pretence that they could not communicate with the ministers 
of the Church, because they were married persons : as the fa- 
thers of the Council of Gangra^® largely set forth his errors in 
their declaration against them. 

9. And to give some check to his errors, they used their who were 
authority in making several canons against them, having first ^^'J^g™'^^ 
deposed the author. In the first canon ^^ they say : * If any Council of 
accuses marriage, or blames or abhors a woman, who is other- ^nd* fhose 
wise faithful and pious, for sleeping with her husband, as if caUed the 
upon that account she could not enter into the kingdom o{ canont, 
God, let him be anathema.' The fourth canon ^^ is to the 
same purpose : ' K any one condemn or separate from a married 
presbyter, under pretence that it is unlawful to partake of the 
oblation when such an one ministers, let him be anathema.' 
The ninth *^ in like manner : * If any one retire from the 
world and live a virgin, or contain, as abominating marriage, 
and not for the excellency and holiness of a virgin life, let him 
be anathema' The fourteenths^: ' If any woman forsake her 

^ In Praefat. (t. a. p. 413 d.) Kal Koi €v\afirj, /SdcXvo-coiro, fj ix€fjtft>oiTo, 

yap €K Tov KaTafi€itxfte<rB€U aimvs fi>r Av fi^ ^vvafitinjv th /Sao'cXecav 

[tovs ir€p\ Evora^iov], t6v ydfiop Koi €la€\6tiv, ayoB^iia ?0T<o. 
vnoriBto'OaLi Sri ovbth t&p iv yafi^ ^ Ibid. c.4. (p. 419 a) E7 rif dca- 

HtfTeov iXnUia irapa Gc^ ?X^^' ^o^^<i^ Kpivovro naph irpto-Pmpov ycya/M/icd- 

yvyauccr vjrayHpoi, diraTTjatio'M tS>v tos, ios fi^ ;(p^vat, XtiTovpyrjcravTos 

iavT&v apdp&v, dvex^priaav, koi S»' ovtov, npo<p^pdi p4rdkap,fiaP€iv, 

dp€s r&v IbitDV yvvaucS)v Kal opdOtua forco. 

OovKoi dfowor&v apax<opovvT€s, koL ^^ Ibid. c. 9. (c.) £? ris irapBtvevoi^ 

ttit TOV ^ivov dfKf>uL<rfiaro9 KaTa<f>p6- ^ iyKpartvoiro, as h» ^bt\\nriav, rStv 

vrfO'tv Kara rS>y dccnrortty itoiovp.tvoi. ydputav dpa)(Oi>prf(ra£, koi p^ bi avrh t6 

Ibid. (p. 416 a.) Kalirpc(r/9vrcpa>vy<- Ka\6v Ka\ Syiov rrjs irapBtviaSf dvd" 

yapajK6r«»p \m'€p(l>povovvT€s, xal t&v Otpa taret. 

XtiTovpyt&p r&p vir avr&p yipoptp^p ^^ Ibid. c. 14. (e.) £? rcf *yvp4 

fi^ arrrofuvoi. KoraKipvapoi t6p aiipa, Kal ava- 

^ [Ibid. C.I. (p. 4i6d.)£7rts>rdv x»pti» MXoi, BbtKvrrop^vri rhpyd- 

ydpop fjJpAoiTo, Kal rffp KoBtvdovaop pop, dpdBtpa Z(rr», 
furh TOV eufbpbs ovttjs, o^o-op iriar^p 


The heretics who 

XXII. 1. 

husband, minding to turn recluse out of an abhorrence of 
marriage, let her be anathema* They add in the close of 
ijl 53 ; < yfQ write not these things to cut off any from the 
Church of God, who are minded to give themselves to an 
ascetic life according to the Scriptures, but only those who 
make such a life an occasion of pride, to lift themselves up 
above those who hve in a more plain and simple manner, 
introducing novelties against the Scriptures and the rules of 
the Church. We admire virginity, when accompanied with 
humility ; and applaud continency, when attended with gravity 
and piety; and allow of a retirement from worldly affairs, 
when it is done with humility ; but we also honour cohabita- 
tion in chaste marriage ; and in a word, desire that all things 
may be done in the Church according to the traditions de- 
livered to us in the Scripture and rules of the Apostles.' By 
the traditions of the Apostles these fathers might mean, either 
the rules about marriage delivered by the Apostles in Scrip- 
ture, or the rules given in those which are called the Aposto- 
lical Canons, which were at that time of common use in the 
Church. One of which ^^ r^jg in these terms : * If any bishop, 
presbyter, or deacon, or any other of the sacred roll, abstain 
from marriage, or flesh, or wine, not for exercise of an ascetic 
life, but out of abhorrence ; thereby blaspheming and calum- 
niating the workmanship of God, and forgetting that God 
created all things very good, and made man male and female : 
let him amend, or else be deposed and cast out of the Church. 
And BO let a layman be treated likewise.' 

By all this it is evident, that the Church had a mighty 

M Ibid. c. 31. (p. 424 C.) Tavra 
dc ypd(l>ofi€v, ovK €KK6nTcvr€ rovs iv 
4KKKriaiq, rot) Gcov Korh ras Tpaffths 
d<rK€'urBcu, fiovkofupovs' oKKa row 
'kttfifiapovras ri)y \m6B€(TW rrj^ aaxti" 
irf40s els vrrepTj^xiviay, Kar6. r&v a<^€- 
XcoTcpov fiujvvnov iirtupofUpovs re 
Koi ircipa rhs Tpaxf)as Ka\ rovs 6K- 
KknaiaoTucovs KcofSvat, Ka\ v«orrpio'- 
fiovs ttaayovras. *H/iCtff roiyapovv koI 
vapOtvlav fi€Td Tair€ivo(l}poavvrjs Bav- 
fidCofKV, Koi €yKp6r€uxv fiera (refiv6' 
ri7TOff«ical B€oar€0«iat ywoijJvrjv otto" 
^€\6ii*Ba' Ka\ d»axoi>prjaiv T&y ey- 
KOiTfumv fura Tcartwo<^>poavvr)s dno- 
d€x6fjL€6a* Ka\ ydfiov owoiKriariv ctfi' 
pijp rifi&fity' .... Koi ndvra awfkdv- 

ras cifrriy, ra itapaboOivra vrro r&v 
B€i<av TpaxfiSiV kolL tSov 'AfrooroXiJCMV 
napaddcrcflov iv r§ fKickfiariq. yi»€irBcu 
thvdiuBa, Grisckov,'] 

^ C. 51. al. 50. (Cotel. [c. 43.] 
V. I. p. 445*) £2' T^r hriaKtmoi, fj 
7rp€a'fivT€poSf fj diaKovoSy ^ SK»s rov 
KaraXdyov rov hpariKov, yc^tMv koi 
Kp€&v Kal otvov, ov bi atrtaja-iv, oKkd 
did fi^Xvpicuf durixtTcu, hrCKavBavd- 
fifvos, OTi irdvra icaXa \iav, Kal ori 
&pp€v KCLi G^\v inoirjirfv 6 Oeos r6tf 
avdpamov, dXkd ^aaxfnjfx&v dia/3dX- 
X«i 717^ bijfuovpyiav' ^ biop6ov<rBm, ^ 
KaB<up€iar6a}, Koi tijs iKKXrurias afro- 
/SoXXcV^a* &aavT€i>s dr Xaucds. 

§ 9> lo. 

condemned marriage. 


struggle with those ancient heretics, who inveighed bitterly 
against marriage under the Gospel state, and wrought upon 
many weak minds to commit great disorders, under pretence 
of a more refined way of hying and fanciful perfection, which 
the Gospel had no where enjoined as of necessity to mankind ; 
but only they, who were able to receive it, might receive it at 
their own liberty and discretion, provided they made their 
own Uberty no snare to other men's consciences, nor imposed a 
matter of free choice as a necessary obligation upon the rest of 

10. The Church had also another contest with the Monta- The error 
nists about second marriages. Theodoret** says, Montanus made 2[^!u**^" 
laws to dissolve marriage. And the same was objected to him about 
by Apollonius^ an ancient writer in Eusebius ^^, who opposed JJ^rfages, 
the new spirit of Montanus when he first began to appear in and of the 
the world 'This is the man that teaches the dissolution of ^^g^, 
marriages,^ says he, in this charge against him ; which some 
later writers by mistake understand of his prohibiting mar- 
riage in general, as the heretics of whom we have just been 
speaking : whereas Montanus did not deny the lawfulness of 
marriage, but only second marriages, as is evident from Ter- 
tuUian, who was the chief advocate of that heretic against the 
Church. His books, De Monogamia and De Exhortatione 
C(Z8titati8, were written purposely on this subject: in both 
which he declaims very heartily indeed against second mar- 
riages, as no better than adultery; but he never gives the 
least intimation that he or any other Montanist had the same 
opinion of the first. Nay, he begins his Book of Monogamy 
with these remarkable words ^7, * Heretics take away marriage, 
and the psychici, or carnal men (by whom he means the 
Cathohcs) repeat it : the one marry not so much as once, the 
other marry more than once. But neither is such continency 

^ Hseret. Fabul. 1. 3. c. 2. (t. 4. 
part. I. p. 341.) 0{rros Koi ydfwv 

^ L. 5. c. 18. (v. I. p. 333. 38.) 
OirSs coTty 6 dM^as Xvatis ydfuoy. 

^7 De Monogam. c. i. (p. 535 c.) 
Hseretier nuptias auferuDt, paycbici 

ingerunt Venim nemie con- 

tinentia ejusmodi laudanda, quia 
hvretica ost; neque lioentia deten- 

denda, quia psychica est. Ilia bias- 
phemat, ista luxuriat. Ilia destruit 
nuptiarum Deum, ista confundit. 
Penes nos autem, quos spiritales 
merito dici facit agnitio spiritalium 
charismatum, continentia tarn reli- 
giosa est, quam licentia verecunda, 
quandoquiaem amb« cum Creatore 
sunt. . . . Unum matrimonium novi- 
muB, sicut unum Deum. 

14 The heretics who XXII. i. 

to be praised, because it is heretical ; nor such liberty to be 
defended, because it is carnal. The one destroys the God of 
marriage, the other confounds him. The one blasphemes him, 
the other is luxurious against him. But among us, who are 
deservedly called spiritual from the acknowledgment of spi- 
ritual gifts, continency is religious, and our liberty observed 
with modesty and moderation, because they both stand with 
the Creator. We acknowledge one matrimony, as we do one 
Gbd.' So that it is plain that the Montanists ought not to be 
charged with denying the lawfulness of marriage in general, 
which they defended against other heretics, but only the 
liberty of second and third marriages, which they rejected 
upon the pretence of receiving some new revelations from the 
Holy Ghost. And therefore when the Ancients say they 
taught men to dissolve marriage, or forbid men to marry, 
they are always to be understood as speaking of second mar- 
riages and not of the first, as Epiphanius ^" well explains him- 
self when he writes against them. 

The fTovatians were in the same sentiments with the Mon- 
tanists, rejecting all from communion who were twice married. 
Which we learn not only from Epiphanius *9 and other private 
writers against them, but also from the rule made in the great 
Council of Nice ^ concerning them, * that when any of the 
Novatians returned to the Catholic Church, they should be 
obliged to make profession in writing, that they would submit 
to the decrees of the Catholic Church, particularly in this, that 
they would hvyiiMns Koivoii/elv, communicate with digamists, 
or those that were married a second tims.* Which shows us 

^ Hser. 48. PhrygaBt. a. Montan. fuaav tir»t <t>€p€(rBtu' dm^Kcxircr, Srt 

n. 9. (t. I. p. 410 d.) El dc rtr Kara del r6y eiricrKovrov dvefrikfffrroy ctyitUj 

d(ru€P(icaf €7rib€rf$tlTj, fierh ttjv tcXcif- fxtas yvpauchs avbpa, iyKparfj, k, r. X. 
rifv rrjs Ibias yoftcr^f, avpaxf>3rjvai ^ C. 8. (t. 2. p. 32 e.) Ilepi tSv 

d€%rr€pijf ydfie^, ovk Airayoptvti rovro 6vofia{6ifr€i>v flip iavrovs KaiSapovs 

6 Kav^v r^r akr^Bfla^, rovrcort rbv irort, irooa^pxofUwov de rg Ka^oXi#c^ 

fu) ^in'a Upia* 0^01 d^ Kto'Kvovo'i cKicXi/crt^, rdo^c t^ ayiq. Koi fxeydXtf 

Kord, [r^] tlpijfifvov, Koi>kv6vT€av ya- <n;i^d^, &aT€ ;(cipoafrov/i€vot;£ ai^ 

fUip' €K^dk\ovai yhp rhv bevrtpt^ rovt fUv^iv ovrox iv r^ ikrjptp' np6 

ydfi^ avvtKt>$€vra, KaX dtntyKaCovari iravrmv dc tovto Sfiokoyrjacu airrovs 

fi^ b€vr4pt^ ydfujf awdimaBai. eyypaffxos vpoaTjictif on avpOrfaopTtu 

^ Hser. 59. Cathar. s. Novatian. km aKokovarftrova-i rois rrjf KaBo~ 

n. 4. ^(t. I. p. 496 a.) T^ yhp tls Xtjc^r koI *AirooTo\uajs cxjcXj^o-uzr 

UpoHTvmjv napaboBhrra dto rh c^o;(<&- boyiiaaC rovr Zari, Kal ^lyofiois 

rarop r^r Upovpyias, th navras cwJ- Koipt^ptiv, k. t. X. 

§ I o. condemned marriage. 15 

both what was the opinion of the Novatians upon this point, and 
what was the general sense of the Catholic Church in oppo- 
sition to it. And if any private writers have spoken any thing 
harshly or indecently of second marriages, their opinion is not 
either to be defended or urged as the sentiment of the Church ; 
as I have had occasion to show in a former Book ^^ concerning 
the discipline of the Church, where this matter is more fully 

CHAP. 11. 

Of the yast impediments of marriage in particular cases, 
showing what persons might or might not be lawfully 
joined together ; and of the times and seasons when the ce- 
lebration of marriage was forbidden, 

1. Hayino thus given an account of the several opinions and Christians 
practices of heretics, derogatory either to marriage in general, ^^^p^^ ^^ 
or to the repetition of it after the decease of a former consort, infidels, or 
I now come to show what restraints the Church herself laid heretics, or 
upon some particular sorts of persons, by her rules prohibiting ^J o^» 
them to marry, either for some time, or at least not in such cir- rdigion. 
cumstances as were thought just impediments of marriage in 
certain particular cases. Of this nature was the rule forbidding 
Christians to marry with infidels or Heathens, because of the 
danger and scandal that would attend the being joined so un- 
equally with unbelievers. The Apostle leaves the woman, whose 
husband is dead, at liberty to marry to whom she will, only 
with this proviso, that it be "in the Lord;" (i Cor. 7, 39.) 
which the Ancients generally so understood, as to take it for a 
command that Christians should marry only Christians, and not 
infidels, or persons of a different reUgion. 

Cyprian, in his book of Testimonies out of Scripture ^^, 
brings this text and two others out of St. Paul's £pistles, to 
prove that Christians ought not to join in matrimony with the 
Gentiles. His other proofs are, (i Cor. 6, 15.) " Know ye not 
that your bodies are the members of Christ? Shall I then take 
the members of Christ and make them members of an harlot ? 
Gk)d forbid;" and {2 Cor. 6, 14.) "Be ye not unequally yoked 

•* B. 16. c. II. 8. 7. V. 6. p. 427. (p. 60.) Matriinoniiun cum gentilir 
^ Testimon. ad Quirin. 1. 3. c. 02. bus non jungendum. 

16 The impediments XXII. li. 

with unbelievers." And in his book De Lapsis^ he complains, 
' that among other causes why God sent that terrible persecu- 
tion upon Christians, one reason was, that many of them had 
joined themselyes in matrimony with infidels, and prostituted 
the members of Christ to the infidels.' In like manner Tertul- 
lian before him gives the same sense of the words of the Apo- 
stle. 'For certainly,* says he***, ' in prescribing that the woman 
should only marry in the Lord, lest any believer should con- 
tract matrimony with an Heathen, he defends the law of the 
Creator, which every where forbids marrying with those of an- 
other nation, or Heathens of another religion.' So again ^: 
' She, that was to marry, was only to marry in the Liord, that 
is, not to a Heathen, but to a brother: because the old law also 
forbade the marrying with strangers.' He pursues this argu- 
ment at large in his Second Book to his own Wife, where 
urging first the same text of the Apostle, he concludes ^^, ' that 
it is fornication and adultery for Christians to join in marriage 
with Heathens, i»id that they who do so ought to be cast out 
of the communion of the Church.' And in another place <*7 he 
says, ' Christians did not marry with Heathens, for fear they 
should draw them into idolatry, which was the first rite that 
was used in celebrating their marriages.' 

St. Jerom^^ urges the same authorities of the Apostle against 
such marriages : ' when the Apostle,' says he, ' adds only in the 

^ P. 123. (p. 88. ad calc.) . . . Jun- Hsec cum ita sint, fideles gentilium 

gere cum inndelibus vinculum ma- matrimonia eubeuntes stupri reos 

trimonii,pro8titueregentilibu8mem- esse constat, et aroendos ab omni 

bra Christi. communicatioDe fratemitatis, &c. 

^ Cent. Marcion. 1. 5. c. 7. (p. ^ De Cor. Mil. c. 13. (p. 109 a.) 

469 d.) Certe prsesciibens, tantum .... Idee non Dubamus etnnicis, ne 

in Domino esse nubendum, ne qui nos ad idololatriam usque deducant, 

fidelis etbnicum matrimonium con- a qua apud illos nuptise incipiunt. 
trabat, legem tuetur Creatoris, alio- ^ £p. 11. ad Gerontiam, [al. Ep. 

Ehylorum nuptias ubique probi- 123. ad Agerucbiam,] de Monogam. 

entis. (t. I. p. 897 b.) Quodque ad- 

® De Monogam. c. 7. (p. 529 a. aidit Apostolus, tantum in Domu 

Et ilia nuptura, in Domino babet no, amputat ethnicorum conjugia, 

nubere, id est, non etbnico, sed fra- de quibus in alio loco dixerat, Nb- 

tri : quia et vetus lex adimit conju- Ute jugum ducere cum infidelibus, 

gium allopbylorum. — Ibid. c. 11. p. Qimb enim participatio justitim cum 

532 c.) . . . . Fropterea adjecerit, tan- iniquitate ? Aut qum societas lucis 

turn in Domino, .... ne scilicet et- cum tenebris? Qua conventio Christi 

iam post fidem etbnico se nubere cum Belial? Aut qua pars fideli cum 

posse presumeret. inJideU ? Qui consensus templo Dei 

^ Ad Uxor. 1. 2. c. 3. (p. 168 b.) cum idoUsF 

§ I. of nuxrriaget S^c, 17 

Lcrdf he thereby cuts off all making marriages with the Hea- 
then. Concerning which sort of marriages he says in another 
place, [2 Cor. 6, 14 and 15.] " Be ye not unequally yoked with 
unbelievers : for what fellowship hath righteousness with un- 
righteousness ? And what communion hath light with dark- 
ness 1 And what concord hath Christ with Belial ? Or what 
part hath he that belieyeth with an infidel?" St. Jerom, in- 
deed, in another placed, laments the transgression* of these 
rules, and sharply reproves the transgressors. 'Now many 
women/ says he, ' despising the command of the Apostle, are 
married to Heathens, not considering that they become part of 
that body, whose ribs they are. The Apostle pardons those 
who were married to Heatfiens before they believed in Christ, 
but not those who, being Christians, afterward were married to 
Gentiles : to whom he thus speaks in another place, '' Be not 
unequally yoked with unbelievers/' &c. * I am sensible,' says 
St. Jerom, 'I shall anger and enrage many matrons, who as they 
have despised their Lord (in being married to Heathens), so 
they will rant at me, who am but a flea and the meanest of all 
Christians. Tet I will speak what I think, and say what the 

^ Cent. Jovinian. 1. 1. 0.5. [al. postolum, ilf»{t^, inquit, aZ/t$ra/a e^^ 

10.] (t. a. p. 351 e.) Nunc plene- legit gwxnto tempore vir efus vivit: 

<jue znulieres, contemnentes Apostoli quod n dormient vir efus, Uberata 

jusdonem, junguntur GentUibus, et eet : cm vult nubat, tantum in Do' 

templa Cbristi idolis proatituant : rnino, id est, Chzistiano. Qui secun- 

nec intelligunt se corporis ejus par- daa tertia8<}ue nuptiaa concedit in 

tern esse, cujos et costae sunt. Ig- Domino, pnmas cum Ethnico prohi- 

nosdt Apostolus infidelium con- bet. Unoe et Abn^uun adjurat ser- 

junctioni, quse babentes, maritos in vum in femore suo, boc est, in 

ChriBtmn postea crediderunt; non Christo, qui de ejus erat semine 

his, qu», quum Cbristianse essent, nascitonis, ut filio suo Isaac alieni- 

nupserunt Gentilibus, ad quas alibi genam non adducat uxorem. Et 

loquitur : Nolite jugum ducere cum Ezras offensam Dei hujuscemodi 

it^deWnut, ^c. . . Licet enim in me uxorum repudiatione compesdt. Et 

Bsevituras sciam plorimas matrona- MaLeushias Propbeta, Pr€Bvaric€Ltus 

rum ; licet eadem impudentia, qua est, inquit, JudaSy et abominationem 

Dominum contempeerunt, in me pu- fecit in Israel et in Jerusalem, PoU 

licem et Christianorum minimum Imt enim sanctum Domini, et dilemt 

debaccbaturas; tamen dicam quod et kalndtJUiam Dei alieni, Disper^ 

sentio, loquar quod me Apostolus dot Dominus virum qui fecerit hoc, 

docuit: non iUas justitiae esse, sed magistrum, et discipulum, de taber' 

iniquitatiB; non lucis, sed tenebra- nacuUs Jacob, et offerentem munera 

nun ; non Cbristi^ sed Belial ; non Domtno mrtutum, Hsec idciroo dizi, 

templa Dei viventis, sed Cema et idola u^ qui nuptias vbrginitati oomparant, 

mortuoram. Vis apertius discere, sdant saltem, tales nuptias digamia? 

Suod Christianse omnino non liceat et trigamisB subjidendas. 
ttbnico nubere ? Audi eundem A- 


18 The impedimenta XXII. ii. 

Apostle has taught me; that they are not on the side of 
righteousness, but unrighteousness ; not of light, but of dark- 
ness ; not of Christ, but of Belial ; not temples of the living 
God, but temples and idols of dead men. Would you have me 
speak more plainly, that a Christian woman ought not to be 
married to an Heathen ? Hear the same Apostle : '* The woman 
is bound," says he, [Rom. 7, 2.] " as long as her husband liveth : 
but if her husband be dead, she is at liberty to be married to 
whom she will, only in the Lord;" that is, to a Christian. He 
that allows second or third marriages in the Lord, forbids even 
a first marriage with an Heathen. I say this, that they, who 
compare marriage to virginity, may yet at least understand 
that digamy and trigamy, (second and thu^d marriages,) are far 
above such mai'riages with Heathens.' 

St. Ambrose is no less earnest in dissuading all Christians 
from engaging in such unequal marriages, not only with 
Heathens but heretics ; pathetically exhorting parents, who 
had the chief hand and authority in disposing of their chil- 
dren, to beware of such dangerous matches. * Beware,' says 
he '^, * O Christian, that thou give not thy daughter to a 
Gentile or a Jew : beware, I say, that thou take not a wife 
to thee who is a Gentile, or a Jew, or an alien, that is, an 
heretic, or any one that is a stranger to the faith.' And 
again 71, writing to one Vigilius some instructions about the 
execution of the ministerial office, he bids him teach the people 
carefully this one thing ; — * not to join in matrimony with 
strangers, but with Christian families : for though we read 
of many people destroyed with an heavy destruction for vio- 
lating the laws of hospitaUty, and of dreadful wars commenced 

"^^ De Abrahamo, 1. i. c. g, (t. i. vius (juam copulari alienigenae, ubi 

p. 309 c. n. 84.) Cave, Chnstiane, et libidinis et discordise inceDtiva, 

Gentili aut Judseo filiam tuam tra- et sacrilegii flagida conflantur. Nam 

dere. Cave, inquam, Gentilem aut cum ipsum conjugimn velamine sa- 

Judceam atque alienigenam, hoc est, cerdotali et benedictione sanctifi* 

hsereticam, et omnem alienam a fide can oporteat, quomodo potest con- 

tua uxorem accersias [al. arcessias] jugium dici, ubi non est fidei con- 

tibi. cordia ? Cum oratio conununis esse 

^^ £p. 70. [al. 19.1 ad Vigilium. debeat, quomodo inter dispares de- 
(t. 2. p. 844 a. nn. 0, 7.) Legimus votione potest esse conjugii com- 
peremptos gravi populos excidio munis caritas ? Ssepe plerique, capti 
propter violata jura hospitii. Pro- amore foeminarum, iidem suam pro- 
pter libidinem quoque commissa didenint; ut patrum populus in 
Delia atrocia. Sed prope nihil gra- Beelphegor. 


ofmarrictge, S^c. 


upon UDcIeanness ; yet there is scarce any thing more grievous 
than marrying with strange women ; which is both an incentive 
to lust and discord, and the forge of sacrilege. For when mar- 
riage ought to be sanctified with the sacerdotal veil and bene- 
diction, how can that be called a marriage, where there is no 
agreement in faith ? When their prayers ought to be in com- 
mon, how can there be any mutual conjugal love where there 
is such disparity in their devotion ? Many men by this means 
have frequently betrayed their faith, as the Israelites did in 
the wilderness, when by the seducement of the Midianitish 
women they joined themselves to Baal-Peor.' The author also 
of the short Notes upon the Epistles, under the name of St. 
Ambrose '^'^, gives the same interpretation of St. Paul's words, 
" Let the woman marry only in the Lord :" ' Let her marry 
without suspicion of uncleanness, and let her marry to a man 
of her own religion. This is to marry in the Lord.' In like 
manner Sedulius?^ and Theodoret^'^ upon the same place : ' Let 
her marry to one of the same faith, to a godly man, in sobriety, 
and according to the law.' 

Upon this account St. Austin, being solicited by one Rusticus 
an Heathen to give his consent that his son might marry a cer- 
tain woman that was a Christian, tells him 7^, ' that though it 
was absolutely in his power to give any virgin in marriage, yet 
he could not give a Christian to any but a Christian.' This 
St. Austin spake according to the known rules and practice of 
the Church. For though he himself in his own private opinion 
did not think such marriages so clearly and expressly forbidden 
in the New Testament as others did, yet he thought there were 
probable reasons to make it a very doubtful case : and that was 
enough to deter any 6ne from venturing on it, and also sufficient 
to oblige the ministers of the Church not to give any en- 

73 In I Cor. 7, 39. (ibid, append. 
p. 138 c.) Otft vuU wubatf tcmtwn in 
jDomino: hoc est, nt sine suspicione 
turpitudinis nubat, et religionis siue 
viro nubat. Hoc est in Domino 

78 In eund. loo. (ap. Bibl. Max. 
t. 6. p. 54J g.) Cvi voluerit nvbat : 
tantummodo Christiano, non Gen- 
tili ; tantym in Domino propter con- 

74 In eund. loc. (t. 3. part. i. 

p. 312.) M6vOP €V KvpUjf' rOVT€(TI»f 

7* Ep. 234. [al. 255.] (t. 2. p. 
882 b.) Certissime noveris, etiamsi 
nostrse absolutse sit potestatis quam- 
libet puellam in oonjugio tradere, 
tradi a nobis Christianam nisi Chris- 
tiano non posse. 

C % 


The impedimenta 

XXII. ii. 

couragement to it, either by consenting to such marriages^ 
or authorizing them in their ministration. Yet if the ques- 
tion were, whether such persons so offending against the 
rules of the Church were to be denied either baptism or 
communion, he reckons this to be a matter of some doubt, not 
so clearly to be resolved as the question about manifest forni- 
cators and adulterers. ' The manifest crimes of uncleanness,' 
says he 7^, ' do absolutely debar men from baptism, unless they 
be corrected by a change of will and repentance : and in 
doubtful cases, as marrying with Heathens, we are by all 
means to endeavour that such marriages be not contracted. 
For what need have any persons to run their heads into so 
great danger in doubtful matters ? But if such marriages be 
made, I am not sure that the parties concerned ought to be 
denied baptism in this case as in the former.' Indeed the 
punishment of such contracts was not always and every where 
the same in the Church, though it was agreed on all hands to 
prohibit and discourage them as dangerous and dubious, or 
manifestly sinful. 

Some canons barely forbid the thing, without assigning any 
ecclesiastical punishment to the commission of it. So in the 
Council of Laodicea, one canon ^^ says, ' that they who are of the 
Church ought not to give their children in marriage promiscu- 
ously to heretics.' And another 78, < that they ought not to marry 
with all heretics indifferently, nor give their sons or daughters 
to them, unless they will promise to become Christians.' The 
prohibition in the third Council of Carthage 79 extends only to 

7« De Fid. et Opcr. c. 19. (t. 6. 
p. 136 f.) Quae manifesta sunt im- 
pudidtifle crimina, omnimodo a bap- 
tismo prohibenda sunt, nisi muta- 
tione voluntatis et poenitentia corri- 
gantur : quae autem dubia, omni- 
modo conandum est, ne fiant tales 
conjunctiones. Quid enim opus est 
in tantum discnmen ambiguitatis 
caput immittere ? Si autem fact« 
fuerint, nescio utrum ii, qui fece- 
rint, similiter ad baptismum non 
debere videantur admitti. — Vid. 
Augustin. de Adulterin. Nupt. 1. 1. 
c. 35. (ibid. p. 402.) Non dnim in 
Evangdio vel ullis Apostolicis Lite- 
ris sine ambiguitate dedaratum esse 

recolo, utrum Dominus prohibu- 
erit fideles infidelibus jungi. 

77 C. 10. (t. I. p. 1497 d.) ITcpi 
roO, fiij dthf Tovs Ttjg cicicXi;^^ abia- 
<f>6pa>s irpos ydfiov Koumviav avytOT' 
reiv rh iavrSaf rrcubia alp€TiKoit. 

78 C. 31. (ibid. p. 1501 d.) ^Ort 
ov dct nphg iravTttg alptriKoifs cVi- 
yafiias itouTv, ^ biMval vtovs, $ duya- 
T€pag, aXX<k fuiKkop Xafi/3apciv, nyt 
hroYy^^oivTo Xpiuriavol yiptaOai, 

7v Carth. ^. c. la. (t. 3. p. 1169 c.) 

Ut filii vel filiae episcopormn, 

vel quorumlibet clerioorum, Gentili- 
bus |]<d. gentibus^ vel hseretids vel 
schismaticis matnmonio non jun- 

§ I. ofmarridgei Sec. 21 

the sons and daughters of bishops and the clergy, ' that they 
should not marry with Gentiles, heretics, or schismatics,' but 
particularly mentions no others. The Council of Agde ®® runs 
in the same words with the Council of Laodicea, ' that none 
shall marry with heretics, unless they will promise to become 
Catholic Christians.' And so the Council of Chalcedon®* for- 
bids the readers and singers among the inferior clergy ' to 
marry either Jew, Gentile, or heretic, unless they would pro- 
mise to embrace the orthodox faith :' and this is enjoined the 
clergy under pain of canonical censure. But the first Council 
of Aries goes a little further, with respect to the whole body of 
Christians, and orders ^a, ' that if any virgins, who are beUevers, 
be married to Gentiles, they shall for some time be separated 
from communion.' The Council of Eliberis not only forbids 
such marriages in one canon ^^, for fear of spiritual adultery, 
that is, apostasy from the faith ; though there was a pretence, 
* that young women were so numerous that they could not find 
Christian husbands enough for them :' but also in another ca- 
non®*, orders such parents as gave their daughters in marriage 
to Jews or heretics, * to be five years cast out of the com- 
munion of the Church.' And a third canon ^5 orders, ' that if 
any parents married their daughters to idol-priests they should 
not be received into communion even at their last hour.' The 
second Council of Orleans forbids®^ all Christians to marry 

80 C. 67. (t. 4. p. 1^94 b.) **•<• tumens in adulterio animse resol- 
Non oportet cum omnibus hsereticis vatur. 

miscere connubia, et vel filios vel ^ C. 16. (ibid, d.) ... Catholicas 

filias dare, sed potius accipere, si puellas neque Judseis neque haereti- 

tamen profitentur Christianos futu- cis dare placuit : eo quod nulla esse 

ros esse se et Catholicos. possit societas fideli cum infiddi. Si 

81 C. 14. (ibid. p. 762 e.) . . . M^ contra interdictum fecennt parentes, 
finv trwdTTTfiv trpos ydfiov alptriK^, abstineri per Quinquennium placet. 
J) lovdali^, tj^I^rfvi' €1 fi^ dpa tnay- 86 C. 17. (ibid, e.) Si ^ui forte 
vcXXoiro fjLtrarlBtaBat th rrfv opOiS" sacerdotibus idolorum filias euas 
ooiov ircWcy r6 avvcarr6iuvov irpSa-to^ junzerint, placuit, nee in fine eis 
iroy T^ 6p3od6(<jf' ci dc rtr rovrov t6v dandam esse communionem. 

Spop irapafiairi r^f aylas <rvy6bov, ^ C iS. [jbI. ig."] {t. 4, "p. I'jSl c) 

eiriTifiuf KOPovtK&g {moiuitrOio. Placuit ut nullus Christianus Ju- 

* 83 c. II. (t. I. p. 1428 c.) De dseam, neque Judseus Christianam 

pueUis fidelibus quae Gentilibus jun- in matrimonio ducat uzorem : (]uia 

guntur, placuit ut aliquanto temjmre inter higusmodi personas illiatas 

a communione separentur. nuptias esse censemus. Quod [al. 

88 C. 15. (ibid. p. 972 d.) Propter qui] si commoniti, a consortio noc 

copiam puellarumUentilibiu minune se separare distulerint, a commu- 

in matnmonimn dandse sunt virgi- nionis gratia sunt sine dubio sub- 

nes ChristianK; ne sptas in flore movenai. 


ilie impediments 

XXII. ii. 

Jews, ' because all such marriages were deemed unlawful :' and 
if any upon admonition refused to dissolve such marriages, 
they were to be denied all benefit of conununion. Thus stood 
the discipline of the Church at that time in reference to aU 
such marriages. 

Nor was the civil law wanting to confirm the ecclesiastical 
with its sanction. For by an edict published by Valentinian 
and Theodosius, which is twice repeated in the Theodosian 
Code^^ and stands still as law in the Justinian Code, if any 
Jew presumes to marry a Christian woman, or a Christian 
takes to wife a Jewish woman, their crime is put into the same 
class with adultery, that is, made a capital crime, and not 
only relations but any one has liberty to accuse and prosecute 
them upon such transgression. Constantius before this had 
made it a capital crime for a Jew to marry a Christian woman ®8, 
but laid no penalty upon the Christian marrying a Jew. But 
this being thought a defect by Theodosius, he supplied it by 
that new law, which more expressly made it capital for them 
both. And so all possible restraint was laid upon such mar- 
riages that the civil power could think of. 
AU Chris. 2, And to prevent the inconveniences attending such unequal 
tmM oblig- marriages, all Christians were obliged to acquaint the bishop 
quaint the of the Church beforehand with their design of marrying, that 
with^heir ^^ ^^Y ®^^^ obstacle appeared they might be dissuaded and 
dedg^is of diverted from it. Thus Ignatius, in his Epistle to Polycarp®^ : 
bcforethey 'It bocomes those that marry, and those that are given in 
completed marriage, to take upon them this yoke with the consent or 
direction of the bishop, that their marriage may be according 

87 L. 3. tit. 7. de Nuptiis, leg. 2, 
(t. I. p. 378.) Ne^uis Christianam 
mulierem in matnmonium Judaeus 
accipiat, neque Judaeam Christiamis 
oonjuffio sortiatur : nam si quis ali- 
quid nujusmodi admiserit, adulterii 
vicem oommissi higus crimen obti- 
net, libertate in accusandum publi- 
cis quoque vocibus relaxata. — L.^. 
tit 7. Legem Juliam de Adulteriis, 
leg. 5. (t. 3. p. 62.) — Conf. Cod. 
Justin. 1. 1, tit. 9. de Judaeia, leg. 6. 
(t. 4. p. 19^. ad calc. et p. 19S.] Ne 
quis Uhristianam mulierem in matri- 
monium Judseus accipiat, neque Ju - 
dsBse Christianus conjugium sortia- 

tur, &c. 

8S Cod. Theod. 1. 16. tit. 8. de 
Judaeis, leg. 6. (t. 6. p. 223.) Quod 
ad mulieres pertinent, quas Judaei 
in turpitudinis suae duxere consor- 
tium in gynecio nostro ante versatas, 
placet easdem restitui in gynecio: 
idque in reliquum observari, ne 
Christianas mulieres suis jungant 
flagitiis : vel, si hoc fecerint, capi- 
tali periculo subjugentur. 

89 N. 5. (Cotel. v. 2. p. 42.) npc- 
irci TOig ya/yiovcTi, Ka\ rats yafiovfUjmis, 
lura yvmiMg rov ivi(rK6irou riiv emomv 
iroieur3aif ipa 6 ydfios ^ kotq Othv Koi 

§ 2. ofmaTviagey S^c. 23 

to the will of God, and not their own lusts/ And this is evi- 
dent from several passages in Tertullian, who often speaks of 
taking advice and counsel beforehand about this matter from 
the Church.; for, speaking of some women who were married 
to Heathens, he says^, * he could not but wonder either at 
their own petulancy, or the prevarication and unfaithfulness of 
their counsellors :' intimating, that in this case they had taken 
counsel of others, and not of the Church, who would not have 
given them counsel and consent to have married Heathens. In 
another place?*, says he, * How shall I sufficiently set forth the 
happiness of that marriage which the Church brings about by 
her procurement, and the oblation confirms, and the angels re- 
port it when done, and the Father ratifies it/ Here, not to dis- 
pute at present the meaning of any words, the ClmrcKa bring- 
ing about the marriage must at least signify its being done by 
her advice and counsel, if not by her ministry and benediction; 
which some are unwilling to allow; but of this more by and by, 
[in the first section of the fourth chapter following.] 

To proceed : Tertullian, when he was turned Montanist, dis- 
suaded all widows from marrying a second time, and among 
other arguments he urges them with this^^ : * With what face 
canst thou request such a second marriage of those who are 
not allowed themselves to have what thou askest of them ; viz., 
of the bishop, who is but once married ; and of the presbyters 
and deacons, who are in the same state ; and of the widows, 
whose society thou hast refused V Here he plainly says that 
the whole Church was acquainted with any person's intention 
to marry, who as it were asked leave of every order of the 
Church, even the widows as well as the clergy, that if any one 

^ Ad Uxor. 1. 2. c. 2. (p. 167 b.) geli renuntiant], et Pater rate habet? 

Igitur cum ausedam istis diebus ^ DeMonogam. c. 11. (p. 531 c.) 

nuptiaa suas ae ecclesia tolleret, ac Qualis es id matrimonium postulans, 

[al. id est] Gentili conjungeretur ; quod eis, a quibus poBtulas, non licet 

idque ab aBis retro factum recorda- habere ; ab episoopo monogamo, a 

ier,miratuBautip8arumpetulantiam, presbyteris et diaconis erjusdem sa- 

aat oonsiliariorum prsevaricationemy cramenti ; a viduia, quarum sectam 

&c. in te recusasti ? Et illi plane sic da- 

^^ Ibid. c. o. (p. 171 c.) Unde bunt viros et ux6re8, quomodo buc- 

suffidamus [al. suifieiam] ad enar- cellas. Hoc enim eat apud illos : 

randam felicitatem ejus matrimonii, Omni petenti te dabia, et coiyungent 

quod eccleaia conciliat, et confirmat vos in ecclesia virgine, uniua Clmsti 

oblatio, et obaignat benedictio, an- unica sjmnsa; &c. 
geli renuntiant [al. obsignatum an- 


The impediments 

XXII. ii. 

had any just objection against them, as, that they were about 
to marry an Heathen, or Jew, or heretic, or one too nearly 
related, or without consent of parents, or any thing of the like 
nature, a timely intimation might be given of it, and such mar- 
riage be prevented, or at least not be authorized and ratified 
by the consent of the Church. This is plainly the meaning of 
petitioning the Church in the case of marriage : not that the 
Church assumed any arbitrary power of granting or refusing 
marriage to any persons, but only of disallowing those against 
whom there lay some just objection, as this in the first place, 
of any one's being about to join in matrimony with an Heathen ; 
which, though it might be effected in those times by other 
means, yet it was never to be done by the agnizing, or consent, 
or ministration of the Church ; as appears from tiie whole ac- 
count that has here been given of the Church's practice in 
relation to such marriages with Heathens. 
Not to 8. Another rule of the Church prohibiting certain persons 

^^Tof fr^™ joining together was, when they were too nearly related 
new alii- to each Other, either by consanguinity or affinity, which would 
byconsan- have made the marriage incestuous, by coming within the 
f^^ to ^^P*®®^ prohibited by God in Scripture. How far the Chris- 
ayoid was- tian morals exceeded the Heathen in this particular, (notwith- 
^^'^^ standing the false charge of the Heathens against them for 
committing incest in their religious assemblies,) I have fully 
shown in another place ^^, where I have also noted the penalties 
both ecclesiastical and civil, that according to the discipline of 
those times were put upon all incestuous persons. Here I shall 
only add a littie more particular account of such degrees as 
made marriage to be deemed incestuous, and a perfect nullitjr^ 
whenever it was so contracted. The Council of Agde^* gives 

^ B. i6. ch.ii. 8.3. V. 6. p.412. 

w C.61. (t.4. ^. 1393 b.) De in- 
cestis coDJunctionibus nihil prorsua 
venise reservamus, nisi cum adulte- 
num separatione sanaverint. Inces- 
t06 vero nullo ooi^ugii nomine de- 
putando8» quos etiam designaie fii- 
nestum est. Hos [enim] censemus 
esse: si quis relictam fratris, quae 
pene prius soror exstiterat, carniJi 
co^junctione polluerit: si quis frater 
germanam uzorem duxerit: si quis 

novercam duxerit: si quis conso- 
brinae suae se sodaverit : si quis re« 
lictae vel filias avunculi misoeatur, 
aut patnii filiae, vel privigoae suae: 
aut qui ex propria consanguinitate 
aliquam, aut ^uam consanguineut 
habuit, concubitu polluat [al. pollu- 
erit] aut duxerit uxorem. Quos 
omnes et olim, et sub hac constitu- 
tione incestas esse non dubitamus, 
et inter catechumenos . . . manere et 
orare pnecipimus. Quod ita prae- 

1 3. of marriage^ ^c. 25 

this accoant of them : * Concerning incestuous conjunctions/ 
say thejy ' we allow them no pardon, unless the offending par- 
ties cure the adultery by separation from each other. We 
reckon incestuous persons unworthy of any name of marriage, 
and dreadful to be mentioned. For they are such as these : 
if any one pollutes his brother's relict, who was almost his own 
sister, by carnal knowledge : if any one takes to wife hb own 
sister : if any one marries his step-mother or father's wife : if 
any one joins himself to his cousin-german : if a man marries 
any one nearly allied to him by consanguinity, or one whom 
his near kinsman had married before : if any one marries the 
relict or daughter of his uncle by the mother's side, or the 
daughter of his uncle by his &ther's side, or his daughter-in- 
law, that is, his wife's daughter by a former husband. All 
which both heretofore, and now under this constitution, we 
doubt not to be incestuous : and we enjoin them to abide and 
pray with the catechumens, till they make lawful satisfaction. 
But we prohibit these things in such manner for the present 
time, as not to dissolye or cancel any thing that has been done 
before. And they who are forbidden such unlawful conjunc- 
tions shall have liberty to marry more agreeably to the law.' 
This canon is repeated almost word for word in the Council of 
Epone, only the last clause is read negatively 9^, — they shall not 
have liberty to marry again. Which is plainly a corruption 
crept into the text by the negligence of some unskilful tran- 
scriber. For, in the second Council of Tours ^, this very 
canon of Epone is cited and read in the same manner as it is in 
the Council of Agde, and the Roman Correctors upon Gra- 
tian^7 observe, ' that it is so read in the Regbter of Gregory, 
and the Capitulars of Charles the Great.' 

sent! tempore prohibemuB, ut ea quae cestis. (t. i. p. 1841. n. fi,) Habe- 

sunt hactenas instituta non dissol- bunt. Sic in Agathensi et apud 

vamos. Sane quibus conjunctio il- Ivonem. In Epaunensi legjtur, non 

licita interdidtur, habebunt ineundi habebunt. Sed in Turonensi, in quo 

melioris coiju^ii libertatem. citatur Epaunense, hahebunt. Sic 

^ C. 30. [It is so according to etiam infra, qusest. 8. cap. Htec sain- 

Crabbe (t. i. p. 995.) Non habebunt briter, ex Gregorio. In Capitulari 

ineundi melioris conjugii libertatem. autem indicato plenius hasc senten- 

BatLabbe andCo88art(t.4. p. 1580 tia exponitur: Sed quUms illicita 

b.) omit the negative, and read more conjunctio interdidtur, nisi hi sunt, 

correctly, HabAunt, S^c. Ed.] ^uos sanctorum patrum decreta con- 

^ C. aa. [al. ai.] (t. 5. p. 87a c.) jugio a^ndari prohibent, hidtebunt 

Incestis, &c. ineundi meiioris eonjugii Ubertatem, 

^ Cans. 35. quiest. a. c. 8. de In- 

26 live impedtnients XXII. ii. 

I only observe further, that whereas the marriage of cousin- 

germans is reckoned incestuous in these canons, it was not so 

in the ancient laws of the Church, till Theodosius first made 

it so by the advice of St. Ambrose : which inhibition did not 

last long : for Arcadius revoked it, and Justinian revived the 

old law by inserting it into his Code. Of all which I have 

given a more ample account in a former Book^®. What is 

necessary to be added in this place is only this further remark : 

that whatever the Church at any time reckoned to be incest, 

that was always esteemed a just impediment of marriage, and 

accordingly urged as a lawful cause why persons so nearly 

allied should not come together in marriage : or if they did, it 

was a just reason to inflict the censures of the Church upon 

them, till they dissolved such pretended marriage by separating 

from each other. 

Children 4. Another reason of inhibition in this affair was when 

not to mar- children under age went about to marry without the consent 

ry without q{ their parents, or guardians, or next relations, who, in case 

of their pa- the parents were dead, had the paternal power and care of 

ro^^a ^^^^' T^® ^^v^ ^^ ^^ extremely severe in this case, not 
or next re- only against the raptors themselves who stole young virgins 
against their parents' consent, and all that aided and assisted 
them therein, who were either to be banished or burned 
alive ; but also against the virgins themselves, who conspired 
in such matches against the parents* will : as I have had occa- 
sion to show heretofore^ from several laws of Constantine, 
Constantius, Valentinian, and Gratian, mentioned in both the 

Now this being the case of the imperial laws, the Church 
was exceeding cautious not to transgress or incur any blame 
upon this score. TertuUian seems to testify for his own time, 
when he says 2, * that children could not rightly and lawfully 
marry without the consent of their earthly parents, as well as 
the approbation of their Father in heaven :' and ' that the 
Church allowed no clandestine marriages 3; for all such that 

^ B. 16. ch. 1 1. 8. 4. V. 6. p. 414. penes nos occultee quoque conjunc- 

1 See b. 16. ch. 9. b. 2. v. 6. p. 377. tiones, id est, non prius apud eccle- 

2 Ad Uxor. 1. 2. c. 9. (p. 17a a.) slam professse, juxta moechiam et 
Nam nee in terns filii sine consensu fomicationem judicari periclitantur. 
patrum rite et jure nubent. Nee inde consertae obtentu matri- 

3 De Pudicit. c. 4. (p. 557 b.) Ideo monii crimen eludant. 

§ 4- of marriage, Sfc. 27 

were not publicly beforehand professed or notified before the 
Church were in danger of being judged fornication and adul- 
tery : and they could not be excused from guilt under pretence 
of being real matrimony.' St. Austin in like manner asserts 
the power of parents in this case : for, speaking of a young 
irirgin^ who was a minor, under the protection of his Church, 
to keep her safe from all attempts of making her a prey to 
any raptor, he says'^ ' her age would not yet permit him to 
give, or so much as promise her to any one, though by her 
own consent; because she had an aunt, without conferring with 
whom he neither could nor ought to do any thing in the 
matter. Besides, though her mother did not then appear, yet 
perhaps hereafter she might appear, and then nature gave her 
will the preference before all others in disposing of her daugh- 
ter, unless she were arrived to that age which gives her a free 
liberty and right to dispose of herself.' St. Basil often speaks 
of such minors, stolen and married clandestinely without the 
parents' consent^ : but he says 'such pretended marriages were 
not matrimony, but fornication ; and of no validity, but null, 
unless the parents thought fit to ratify them afterwards by 
their consent : meanwhile the transgressors were to do the 
penance of harlots and fornicators in the church.' 

There was the more reason both for this antecedent caution, 
and subsequent severity, because not only the civil law under 
Christian emperors, but the old Roman law under Heathens, 
was very precise and strict in this matter of the necessity of 
consent of parents to a lawful marriage ; without which it was 
reckoned illegitimate, and the children spurious. Justinian 
has inserted some of the laws of the Heathen emperors, Seve- 
rus and Antoninus Caracalla, relating to this matter, into his 
Code^ : and it otherwise appears from Apuleius, who, alluding 

^ Ep. 233. [al. 254.] ad Benenat. ipsa quod velit. 

(t. 2, p. 881 a, e.) In ea vero setate ^ Ep. Canonic, c. 22. See before, 

est, at 81 voluntatem nubendi habe- b. 16. cb. 9. b. 2. v. 6. p. 379. n. 14. 

ret, nuUi adhuc dari vel promitti — Item c. 38. [ap. Oper. Basil. Ep. 

deberet Deinde habet materte- 199. Canonic. Secund.] (CC. t. 2. 

rain, ^c. . . Fortassis enim quae nunc p. 1741 d.) Al K6pcA al irapa yvrnfjajp 

non apparet, apparebit et mater, cu- irarpds aKoKovOrfa-aa'tu iropvtvovai. — 

jna voluntatem m tradenda Alia om- C. 42. See n. 7, following, 

nibus, ut arbitror, natiira prteponit : ^ L. 5. tit. 4. de Nuptiis. legg. i, 2. 

niai eadem puella in ea jam setate (t. 4. p. 1129.) 
fuerit, ut jure licentiore sibi eligat 


The impedimenta 

XXII. ii. 

SUyes not 
to many 
of their 

Persons of 
rank not 
to marry 

to several particulars which render a marriage null, as being 
against law, thus brings in Venus insulting Psyche for pretend- 
ing to be married to her son Cupid®: 'A marriage with so 
great disparity, huddled up privately in a village without wit- 
nesses, the father not consenting, cannot be thought a lawful 
marriage : and therefore thy son will be spurious or a bastard/ 
What therefore was thought so necessary to legitimate a mar- 
riage among the Heathens, was certainly much more so among 
the Christians. And there is no example, that I know of, to 
be found of the Church's allowing or approving any marriage 
to bo lawful where the consent of the parents, disposing of 
their children when under age, was not had first or last to the 
ratification of it. 

5. The same power and right which parents had over their 
children masters had over their slaves : and for this reason 
no slave could marry without the consent of his master ; or 
if any did. it wa« in the master's power whether he would 
ratify or rescind the marriage. *If slaves,' says St. Basils, 
* marry without the consent of their masters, or children with- 
out the consent of their parents, it is not matrimony, but for- 
nication, till they ratify it by their consent* And again ^, * If 
a slave marry without the consent of her master, she differs 
nothing from an harlot. For contracts, made without the con- 
sent of those under whose power they are, have no validity, 
but are null.' 

6. Another thing required to a lawful marriage was, that 
there should be some parity of condition between the contract- 
ing parties. Persons of a superior rank might not debase 
themselves to marry slaves. The Civil Law® requires that they 

<> De Asino Aiireo, 1. 6. p. 104. 
(p. 183. 3.) Impares nuptise, et prse- 
terea in villa sine testibus et patre 
non consentiente factss, legitimse 
non poBsunt videri : ac per hoc spu- 
rius ille nascetur. 

7 £p. Canonic, c. 42. [Oper. Ba- 
sil, ut supr.] (CC. t. 3. p. 1744 a.) 
02 &^v tS>v KpOTovvrav ydfMK, irop- 
vttal ftaiv' oOfrc o^ narp^g C&ptos, 
ofhe dtanr^Tov, ol avvi6vT€s avtvOvvol 
tlu-w, &£ ihv [al. licDff hv] iirwtwr^trtv 
oi Kvpioi rffv (TVPolKtfO'ar t6t€ [yip] 
kafi^apti rh rov ydfxov iSc/Sacoy. 

s C. 40. (CC. ibid. p. 1 74 1 e.) 
'H irap6. yv&yajv rov dcoirorov awbpX 

iavniv ciie[d(]dovora, €7r6pv€vu'€V' 

o2 ykp aw^Koi rap xnrt^ovai&v o^ 
dcV eyovo'i ^€^€uov, 

» Cod. Theod. 1.^. tit. 7. de Nupt. 
leg. I. (t. I. p. 270.). . . . Placet ad- 
modum .... habendo ezamini aucto- 
ritatem quoque judiciariae cognitio- 
nia adjungi, ut si pares sunt genere 
ac moribus petitores, is potior sesti- 
metur, quern sibi consmens mulier 

§ 5> ^' of marriage, 8^c. 29 

should be pares genere et moribtis, of equal rank and condi- 
tion. By which the law did not mean that they should be 
equal in fortune, but that there should be no such disparity in 
their condition as between a freeman and a slave; nor any 
such disparity in their morals, as between an actress and a 
senator, or any one of a Uberal and ingenuous education ; as 
the matter is accurately explained in one of the laws of Valen- 
tinian and Marcian ^^ upon thb head : ' We do not intend her 
to be judged of a low and abject condition, who though she be 
poor, yet is bom of liberal and ingenuous parents. And there- 
fore we declare it lawful for senators, or any others of the 
highest dignity, to marry women that are born of ingenuous 
parents, although they be poor, and that there shall be no dis- 
tinction in this case between ingenuous women and those that 
are rich by a great and opulent fortune. But we account these 
women only yile and abject persons, viz., a slave, or the 
daughter of a slave; a freed-woman, or the daughter of a 
freed-woman ; an actress, or the daughter of an actress ; an 
inn-keeper, or the daughter of an inn-keeper, or of a pander, 
or of a gladiator, (that is, one that was used to fight with men 
or wild beasts upon the stage,) or any who was wont to sell 
small wares publicly in the market. With such women as 
these it is just to forbid senators to join in marriage.' 

Constantino had made a law ^^ before to forbid all senators, 

1® L. 5. tit. 5. de Incestis et Inu- buisse nuptias Benatoribus harum 

tilibus Nuptiis^ 1^/7* (t.4< p.1150.) foeminarum, quas modo enumeravi- 

Humilem vel abjectam fceminam mus, aequum est. 

iniDiineeanijuclicamu8mtelligi,qii», ^^ Cod. Justin. 1. 5. tit. 25. de 

licet pauper, ab ingenuis tamen pa- Naturatibus Laberis, leg. i. (t. 4. 

rentibus nata sit: unde licere sta- p. 1263.) Senatores, seu pnefectos, 

tuimus senatoribus, et quibuscun- vel quos in civitatibus duumvirili- 

Que amplissimis dignitatibus prse- tas, vel sacerdotii, id est, Phcenici- 

ditis, ex ingenuis parentibus natas, arcbise vel Syriarcbiae omamenta 

q^uamvis pauperes, in matrimonium condecorant ; placet maculam sub- 

sibi accipere, nullamque inter in- ire infamise, et alienos a Romanis 

genuas et opulentiores ex divitiis et legibus fieri ; si ex ancilla vel an- 

opulentiore fortuna esse distantiam. ciUse filia, vel liberta vel libertae 

Huzniles vero abjectasque personas filia, vel scenica vel scenicte filia, 

eas tantummodo mulieres esse cen- vel tabemana vel tabemarise filia, 

semus : anciUam, andUse filiam ; li- vel hamili vel abjecta [persona], vel 

bertam, libertae filiam; scenicam, lenonis aut arenarii nlia, vel quae 

sceiucae filiam; tabemariam, taber- mercimoniis publice prsefuit, sus- 

narii vel lenonis aut arenarii filiam ; centos filios in numero legitimorum 

aut earn ouse mercimoniis publice haoere voluerint, &c. 
prsefuit. ideoque hujusmodi inhi- 

30 The impeditnents XXII. ii. 

and governors of provinces, and city magistrates, and high 
priests of provinces, to marry slaves, or freed-women, or 
actresses, &c., under pain of infamy and outlawry, and of 
having their children illegitimate and incapable of succeeding 
to any part of their father's substance or possessions. And 
the better to secure women of noble extract from the base 
attempts of vile and abject men, and those of infamous cha^ 
racter, the law provided with great caution that no one of an 
inferior condition should soUcit a woman of any noble family, 
or try to gain her by corrupting those that were about her by 
any clandestine arts, but that her relations should be con- 
sulted '^, and all things be transacted publicly in the presence 
of the nobles, who were not to be supposed incUnable to give 
way to any such fraud in bringing about any such unequal 
contract. Nay, the curiales, or common councilman of any 
city, were expressly forbidden by a law of Constantine '^ to 
marry a woman that was a slave, under pain of the woman's 
being condemned to the mines, and the man himself to per- 
petual banishment, with confiscation of all his moveable goods 
and city-slaves to the public, and all his lands and country- 
slaves to the city of which he was a member. And there is no 
doubt but that what was so severely punished in the civil 
State, was as duly regarded in the ecclesiastical, that they 
might not be accessary or aiding to any such illegal practices, 
which would have reflected great dishonour and scandal on the 
Church ; though I remember no ecclesiastical canons expressly 
made against them. 
Jud 68 of '^^ There were also some reasons of State why a judge of a 
provinces province should not marry any woman of that province during 
^ any pro- ^^ 7^^ ^^ ^ administration. Not because it was below his 
▼incial dignity, but because he might reasonably be supposed, by 
ring the " virtue of his power and superior influence over all about him, 
year of their iq overawe and terrify a woman into a compliance of marriage 
tion. against her real inclinations, and not leave her parents or 

guardians at free liberty to dispose of her at their own dis- 

12 Ibid. (p. ead.) Nuptias nobiles Si decurio fuerit alienae servse con- 
nemo redimat, nemo solicitet, sed junctus, et mulierem in metallum 
publice consnlatur af&nitas, adhibe- trudi sententia judicis jubemus, et 
atur frequentia procerum. ipsum decurionem in msulam de- 

** CJod. Theod. 1. 12. tit. i. de portari, &c. — Vid. Apuleium, 1. 6. 

Decurionibus, leg. 6. (t. 4. p. 350.) See before, s. 4. n. 6, preceding. 

§7>8. of marriage, S^c. 31 

cretion. To prevent which inconvenience and oppression, 
Theodosius made a law*^, * that if any judge of a province, who 
might be a terror to parents, or tutors and guardians, or to 
women that might contract marriage, should betroth a woman 
during the time of his administration ; if afterwards either the 
parent or the woman herself should change their mind, they 
should be free from the snai^ and punishment of the law, 
which appoints in that case a quadruple restitution to be made 
for breach of contract.' And this order extends not only to 
the judge himself, but to his children, grandchildren, kinsmen, 
counsellors, and all his domestics, who might be supposed to 
terrify women into marriage contracts by virtue of the judge's 
power. Yet if any woman, that was so betrothed, was minded 
to fulfil the contract, and make good her espousals after his 
administration was ended, she might lawfully do it. By which 
it is plain that this was only a restraint laid upon certain per- 
sons for a season, viz. upon provincial judges, not to marry any 
woman of their own province diu'ing the year of their admi- 
nistration. They were not debarred from marrying any others, 
but only those of their own province for the prudent reasons 
which the law assigns. 

8. The case was much the same with widows : they were Widows 
not restrained from marrying a second time, but yet they were ^ again" 
tied up and limited by law not to do this till a year after the ^^ twelve 
death of their former husband. This was the law of the old after their 


^^ Ibid. 1. 3. tit. 6. leg. i. (t. i. Impleri autem id postea matrimo- 

p. 373.) Si quis in potestate publica nium non vetamus, quod tempore 

positus, atque honore provinciarum potestatis ob eas personas, de qui- 

administrandarum, qui parentibus, dus loquuti sumus, arris fuerit ooli- 

aut tutoribus, aut curatoribus, aut gatum, si spoDsorum consensus ac- 

ipsis quae matrimonium contractures cedat. — Conf. ibid. tit. 11. leg. i. 

sunt, potest esse terribilis, sponsalia (p. 292.) Si quis ordinaria vel qua- 

dederit ; jubemus, ut deinceps sive libet prseditus potestate, circa nup- 

parentes, sive esedem mutaverint tias invitis ipsis vel parentibus con- 

voluntatem, non modo juris laqueis trahendas» (sive pupiliss, sive apud 

liberentur, poenseque expertes sint, patres virgines, sive viduse erunt, 

qusp quadruplum statuit, sed ex- sive et sui juris viduae, denique 

trinsecus data pignora lucrativa ha- cujuscunque sortis,) occasione potes- 

beant, si ea non putent esse red- tatis utatur, et minacem favorem 

denda. Quod ita iate patere volu- suum invitis iis, quorum utilitas 

mus, ut non solum circa adminis- agitur, exhibere aut exhibuisse de- 

trantes, sed et circa administrantium tegitur, hunc et mulctse librarum 

iilios, nepotes, propinquos, participes auri decern obnoxium statuimus, et, 

domesticosque censeamus, quibus cum honore abierit, peractam dig- 

tamen administrator operam dederit. nitatem usurpare pronibemus. 


The impediments 

XXII. ii, 

Romans, even from the time of their first founder Romulus. 
But the Roman year being then but ten months, the time of a 
widow's mourning was no longer at first ; nor was it enlarged 
for many ages after, though the year itself was quickly en- 
larged by Numa to twelve months ; yet still the widow's year 
was only according to the old computation. So that whenever 
we read of a widow's mourning a year after her husband's 
death, it is to be understood of the Romulean year of ten 
months only. 'And so the matter stood till the time of Theo- 
dosius, who added two months to the former term by an ex- 
press law **, which runs in these words : ' If any woman after 
the loss of her husband make haste to be married to another 
within the space of a year, (for we have added a httle time to 
the ten months, though we think it but a small term,) let her 
be branded with the marks of infamy, and deprived of the 
honour and privilege of a genteel and noble person ; and let 
her forfeit whatever goods she is possessed of, either by the 
right of espousals, or by the last will and testament of her de- 
ceased husband.' 
Women not 9. If any woman's husband went abroad, and continued 
the°8^nce absent from her, there was no time limited for her marrying 
of their again, but she must wait till she was certified of his death: 

nusbuidB , 

iiU they Otherwise she was reputed guilty of adultery. So St. Basil ^^ : 
fiS^ofSr * ^^^' whose husband is absent from home, if she cohabit with 
death. another man before she is satisfied of his death, commits adul- 
tery.' This was the case of a soldier's wife, marrying after the 
long absence of her husband, yet before she was certified of 
his death, as he determines in another canon '7: but he reckons 
her more pardonable than another woman, because it was 

>* Ibid. tit. 8. de Secund. Nupt. 
le^. I. (t. I. p. 281.) Si qua ex foe- 
minis, perdito marito, intra anni spa- 
tium alteri festinarit innubere, pa- 
rum enim temporis post decern 
menses servandum adjicimus, ta- 
metsi idipsum exiguum putemus, 
probosis inusta notis, honestioris 
nobilisque personse et decore et jure 
privetur ; atque omnia, quae de pri- 
ons mariti bonis, vel jure sponsa- 
liorum, vel judicio defuncti conjugis 
consecuta fuerat, amittat. 

^* Ep. Canonic, c.31. [Oper. Ba- 

sil, ut supra.] (CC. t. a. p. 1740 d.) 
*H, dva)(^oi>p^a'€arros rov a»dp6s koX 
d<f>cafovs ivTos, irp6 rov irturBijvai 
n€p\ Tov &€UfdTov avTOv, Mpf^ arvvot'- 
K^aaa-a, fjuoivarai. 

J7 C. 36. [Oper. Basil, ut supra.] 
(CC. ibid. p. 1741 b.) Srparc^ndcr, 
al rw cofbpSiv \a\rruiv\ d<l>av&p t&vrtnf 
yanffB(l(rai,r» avrm vir6K€ivTai\&y^9 
^€p [tti/] Kai al Ota rrfp dirobrifuap 
rSiv dvSp&v fi^ dvafuivaaai r^v ciray- 
odoi'* n\^v cWi Tipd ovyyvcufjojv t6 
irpdypa hnuvBa, bia t6 piiKKov vp6s 
66»aToy ciyox r^v virdvoiav. 

§ g,io. qfmarrififfe, ^c. 88 

more probable that he might be dead. In these cases, if the 
first husband appeared again, he might claim his wife, and the 
second marriage was null and of no effect, as is determined in 
the Council of Trullo ^^, where these canons of St. Basil are re- 
peated. But the Ciyil Law ^^ allowed a solcUer's wife to marry 
after four years' expectation. 

10. By the old Roman law a eniardian mieht not marry a GoardiMis 

'' ... . y not to mw- 

woman to whom he was guardian ; neither might he give her ry orphans 
in marriage to his own son. There are several laws of Severus, ^ ^^^' 
PhiUp, and Valerian, in the Justinian Code^^ to this purpose, thmrgaar- 
The only exception then was, when the guardian did it by the ^J^^^^ted, 
prince's license and particular rescript. But Constantine deter- 
mined this matter with another distinction^^ which was, ' that 
the guardian should not marry the orphan whilst she was a 
minor and under his care ; but when she was of age he might 
marry her, first proving that he had not defiled her in her mi- 

IB C. 93. (t. 6. p. ii8a b, c.) *H trimonio coUocavit; ad sententiam 

ajfax»pfi<raifTog, fc. r. X EZ dc yc amplissimi ordinis, qui hujusmodi 

6 ffToarumfs tmuftXBoi XP^^ irm, nuptiiB interdicendum putavit, per- 

o^ 17 ywfi dta Trjp iwinokv tKtivov tinere dubitaii non oportet. — Leg. 6. 

^6k€t^ivlrtpt^artnni<f>$r}dpdal,oZT09, (p. 1153.) Si patria tui pupiUam, 

c2 irpo<up€iT{u, n^y oiKcuiy avBig ava- nondum reddita tutelse ratione, vel 

Xfl/i/3ea^» yvpoiica, ovyYv&fjajs avrn post redditam nondum exacto quin- 

ciri TJ dyvol^ MofifurfSt kcu r^ rav^ to et vicesimo anno, necnon utili 

rrip tlaoiKurofUv^ KorA dtvrtpop yd" anno, uxorem duxisti : nee matri- 

fjLov avdpL monium cum ea habuisse, nee filium 

1^ Cod. Justin. I.5. tit. 17. leg. 7. ex hujusmodi coijunctione procre- 

(t. 4. p. 1340.) Uxor, quse, in mih- asse videri potes. — Leg. 7. (p.1154.) 

tiam profecto martto, post interven- Si tutor vel curator pupillam, vel 

tum annorum quatuor, nullum sos- adultam quondam suam sibi, vel 

pitatis ejus potuit habere indicium, filio suo, nuUo divino impetrato be- 

atque ideo de nuptiis aliis cogitavit, nefido, in matrimonio coUocaverit, 

nee tamen ante nupsit, quam libello manet infamia contra eum, veluti 

ducem super hoc suo voto convenit, confessum de tutela : quia hiuus- 

non videtur nuptias iniisse furtivas, modi conjunctione fraudem admi- 

nec dotis amissionem sustinere, nee nisirationis tegere laboravit, et dos 

camtali pcense esse obnoxia; &c, data per condictionem repeti potest. 

ao L. 5. tit. 6. De interdicto ma- 21 Cod. Theod. 1. 9. tit. 8. leg. i. 

trimonio inter pupiUam et tutorem (t. 3. p. 69.) Ubi puella ad annos 

sen curatorem, eorumque filios, leg. adultae setatis accesserit, et aspirare 

I. (t. 4. p. 1 151.) Senatus consulti ad nuptias coeperit, tutores necesse 

auctoritatem, quo inter pupillam et habent comprooare, quod puella sit 

tutoris filium connubium saluber- intemeraia virginitas, cujus conjunct 

rime sublatum est, drcumveniri tio postulatur. Quod ne latius por- 

nisticitatis et imperitise velamentis rigatur, hie solus debet tutorem 

non oportet. — L^^. 4. (p. 1152. ad nexus astringere, ut seipsiun pro- 

calc.) Libertinum, qui filio suo na- bet ab iijuria laesi pudoris immu- 

turali, quem in servitute susceperat, nem : quod ubi constiterit, omni 

postea manumisso pupillam suam, metu liber optata coi^unctione frui 

eandemque patroni sui filiam, in ma- debebit. 



77^ impediments 


When first 
the prohi- 
hition of 
one with 
came in. 

nority . But, if he had offered any injury to her before^ he was 
not only debarred from marrying her, but was also to be ban- 
ished, and all his goods to be confiscated to the public/ 

11. By some ndes, though not of the first and prime anti- 
quity, certain degrees of spiritual relations were prohibited 
from making marriages one with another. The thing was first 
thought of by Justinian, who made a law^ forbidding any man 
to marry a woman for whom he had been godfather in bap- 
tism ; because nothing induces a more paternal affection, or 
juster prohibition of marriage, than this tie, by which their 
souls are in a divine manner united together. The Council of 
Trullo^^ improves this matter a Uttle further, and forbids the 
godfather not only to marry the infant, but the mother of the 
infant, for whom he was surety ; ordering such as have done 
so, first to be separated, and then to do the penance of forni- 
cators. The Canon Law^^ afterward extended this relation to 
the baptizer and the baptized, and to the catechist and cate- 
chumen, and I know not what other degrees of spiritual kin- 
dred : and the Popes with the same reason might have used 
their authority to have prohibited all Christians from marrying 
one with another ; because by baptism and many other ties 
they are more undoubtedly spiritual brethren. But Estius^^ 
owns this too absurd to be maintained, ' because it would oblige 
all Christians either to abstain from marriage, or else to marry 
infidels :' and yet he gravely defends all the other extravagant 
prohibitions upon the infallible authority of the Church. 

^ Cod. 1. 5. tit. 4. de Nuptiis, 
leg. a6. See b. II. oh. 8. B. 12. v. 4. 
p. 154. n. 52. 

® C.^3. (t. 6. p. 1 167 a.) 'EirtUfjl 
ft€i(»v tf Korii TLvevfia oucti^rris rnr 

thf Tttri r6firois ru^s ck rov ayiov Koi 
irwrrfpimdovt /Soirr/crfUiToc iraidar d- 
vah€\oiUvcv£t Koi ficrck tovto raii 
iKtlvnav fufrpcun x^pcvoveroif ytifwchv 
ov»aXXda<rovTas trwoiKiatov' SpiCo^ 
luv, mrh rov irap6vro9 fLtfitif rouwrov 
vpaxBrfvat" ci dc tiv€s fitra t6v irop- 
6vTa Ka»6va 0a>pa^cicv rovro irocovv- 
Tts, 9rp«)iroTvira»ff ficy ol roiovroc a^- 
urrao-tfoNrov rov wapapofunf rovrov 
avyoiKf<rlov' hrnra dc Koi rots r&v 
iropv€v6ymv ^mnfiioit wroffkifBrfn^ 


34 Sext. Decretal. 1. 4. tit 3. de 
Cognatione Spiritual!, c. 2. (ap. 
Corp. Jur. Canon, t. 3. p. 605. 10.) 
Per catechiBmum, qui pneoedit bap- 
tismum, sacramentonim fundamen- 
tum et ianuam reli^uorum, cognatio 
BpiritualiB contrahitur : per quam 
oontnLhendum matrimonium impe- 

^ In Sentent. 1. 4. distinct. 42. 
8. I. (t. 4. p. 232 a.) Multo minus 
ea spiritualis fraternitas, ouse est in- 
ter omnes Christianos, deouit impna- 
dimentum matrimonii constitui ; 
turn quia ratio supradicta non habet 
in ea locum, tmn quia per qusdem 
lef^em Chriatiani non possent ma- 
tnmonia oontrahere, nisi cum infi- 
delibuB, quod foret abBurdiaaimum. 

§ii9i2. of marriage, S^e. 85 

12. But, to return to the ancient Church, many of the pri- Whether e 
mitiLYe writers were of opinion that the bond of matrimony was ^^^ after 
not dissolyable by any thing but death : and therefore they • ^'''^, 
not only condemned polygamy, or marrying a second wife '^* 
whilst the first was liTing, and marrying after an unlawful 
divorce, which was much the same thing with polygamy in real 
estimation ; but they reckoned it unlawful also to marry after 
a lawful diyorce ; because though there might be reason for a 
separation, yet they thought there was no dissolution of the 
marriage so long as both the parties were hying. I shall say 
nothing further here of the unlawfulness of polygamy, or of 
marrying again after an unlawful diyorce ; because I haye had 
occasion heretofore ^^ to speak fully of the laws and discipline 
of the Church against both these : but the prohibition ofmar^ 
rying again after a lawful divorce is what deserves a little 
further consideration. 

And here I observe that the Ancients were divided in their 
sentiments upon the point. Origen was against marrying after 
such a divorce, yet he says^^ there were some bishops in his 
time who permitted a woman to marry whilst her former hus- 
band was hying. Which was indeed against Scripture, which 
says, '' The woman is bound so long as her husband hveth :" 
and " She shall be called an adulteress, if, whilst her husband 
liveth, she be married to another man." [Rom. 7, 1 and 3.] 
Yet they did not permit this altogether without reason : for 
perhaps for the infirmity of such as could not contain, they 
tolenUied that which was evil to avoid that which is worse, 
though contrary to that which was written from the beginning. 
Here it is reasonable to suppose that those bishops who allowed 
men and women to marry after divorce, did not think it simply 
evil, though it was so in Origen's opinion. And the same is to 
be said of Constantino, who made a law^® that a man for three 

30 B. 16. eh. II. 88. 5 and 6. v. 6. muado tempore vioit tnr epuj item, 

p. 431. Vivente viro, aduUera vocabitur n 

27 Horn. 7. in Matth. t. 2. p. 67. facta fuerit aUeri viro, Non tamen 

fal. in Matth. t. 14. n. 23.] (juzt. oxoDino sinecauaa hoc pennisenint; 

Yet. Interpret, t. 3. ad calc. p. O47.) forsitan enim propter hujusmodi 

Scio quoBdam, qui praesunt eocle- infirmitatem inoontinentium homi- 

aiis, extra Scripturam perooisisse num, pqorum oomparatione quae 

aliquam nubere, viro priore vivente : mala sunt permiaerunt, adversus ea 

et contra Scripturam feoerunt qui- quae ab initio erant acripta. 

dem dicentem, MuUer Ugaia est ^ Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 16. de 

n 2 

S6 The impediments XXII. ii. 

crimes, adultery, sorcery, and pandery, might lawfolly put 
away his wife and marry another. For, as Gh)thofred^^ rightly 
ohseryes in saying, ' that unless she was guilty of one of those 
three crimes, he might not marry another,' it is plainly implied 
that, if he proved her guilty of any of the three, he had liberty 
to put her away and marry another. The author under the 
name of St. Ambrose was of the same opinion : for, expounding 
those words of the Apostle, " A brother or a sister in such a 
caae is not under bondage," he says^^, ' If Esdras cast out the 
infidels, and allowed the faithful to marry other wives ; how 
much rather, if an infidel departs of his own accord, shall the 
believing woman have liberty, if she pleases, to be married to 
a man of her own religion?' and he gives this reason for it : 
* Because an indignity offered to the Creator dissolves the obli- 
gation of matrimony with respect to him who is deserted, so 
tiiat he is excused, though he be joined to another, forasmuch 
as an infidel is injurious both to God and to matrimony itself 
by desertion.' 

Epiphanius^^ speaks not only his own sense, but the sense of 
the Church in his time. And he says plainly, ' that though 
the clergy were prohibited from marrying a second wife after 
the death of the first ; yet the people were not only allowed to 
marry again in such a case, but also in case of divorce, if a se- 

Repudiis, leg. i. ^t. i. p. 310.) In erit, nubere legis rate virol &c. — 

masculis etiam, si repudium mit- Ibid, antea. (c; Non est peccatum 

tant, htec tria crimina inquiri con- ei, qui dimittitur propter beum, si 

veniet, si moecham, vel medicamen- alii se junzerit. Uontumelia enim 

tariazD, vel oonciliatricem repudiare Creatons solvit jus matrimonii circa 

voluerit : nam si ab his criminibus eum, qui relinquitur, ne accusatur 

liberam cjeoerit, omnem dotem re- alii copulatus. Infidelis autem dis- 

stituere debet, et aliam non duoere. cedens, et in Deum' et in matrimo- 

^ [In loc. (ibid. p. 313. ool. si- nium peccare dkmoscitur. 
nistr.) Ex hac interim lege ibi, et 'i Haer. 59. Uatbar. s. Novatian. 

aUam non ducere, a contrario disci- n. 4. (t. i. p. 4p7 a.) 'O fuj dvn;tfc^ 

mus, juste repudiata uxore a marito, rj fu^ dpictaBrivai rvXcvn/o-cuni m- 

veluti ob admterium, alteram ei ux- Ktv tw6s irpo^(rc»r iropvtiat, ti fiot- 

orem duoere Ucuisse. GrischovJ] x^^^» 9 Jtax^ff alrias x^P^f^^ ytvo- 

^ In I Cor. 7, 15. (t. 2, append. fi€vov, trwaifiBhrra dcvrcp^ yvvauu 

p. 134 d.) Si EsdnuB dimitti fecit ovk atnaran 6 Btios \6yos, oMc aird 

uxores aut viros infideles, ut propi- rm cincXi^crtaff Koi rrjs C^njs airoieit- 

tins fieret Deus, nee iiatus esset, pvrrti, akXii dia/Scurrafct M rh d- 

si alias ex genere sue acdperent : aBtvtf olx ^ ^^ yupaUas hri t6 

non enim ila prssceptum his est, ut avT6 0x0$ ^^ ir€piov<nfs rrjs fuag, 

remissis istis alias minime duoerent: oXX* tori fuas ^aroax*Mg btvrip^ 

(juanto magis, si infidelis discesserit, c{ rv^occv, v6iuf aviKupSffvoi. 
hberum habebit arbitrium, si volu- 

paration was made upon the account of fornication or adultery, 
or any such criminal evil, and a man thereupon was joined to 
a second wife, or a woman to a second husband, the word of 
Gk)d did not condenm them nor exclude them from the Church 
nor eternal life, but tolerate them because of their infirmity ; 
not that a man should have two wives at the same time, but 
that, being divorced or separated from the first, he might law- 
fully be joined to a second.' Petavius^^ freely owns, that this 
is a full proof in fact of the Church's sentiments at that time : 
only he says, ' the matter was not then fully determined nor 
settled by any general Council.' Which is not very material to 
the present inquiry ; which is not about the determinations of 
the Councils of Florence or Trent, but about the sense and 
practice of the ancient Church. Now what Epiphanius observes 
concerning the toleration of such marriages in the Church 
without any check of ecclesiastical censure, is further con- 
firmed even from the Council of Aries and St. Austin, though 
they were of a different opinion from Epiphanius as to the 
sense of Scripture. They thought men were forbidden to 
marry again after divorce whilst the first wife was living : but 
they did not think this so clearly revealed as to make it an 
high crime and just matter of excommunication, like other 
plsdn cases of adultery. The Council orders 3^, that such men 
shall be dealt with and advised, as much as might be, not to 
marry a second wife, while the former, that was divorced for 
adultery, was living : but they say not a word of any ecclesi- 
astical censure to be passed upon them if they did otherwise. 

^ In loc. (p. 355.^ Ita qnidem non differently from all the printed 

Epipbanins. Sed ut fflis temporibus editions : for, whereas they read the 

nondum ea zee ab ec^esia definita beginning of it thus, De \%» md con- 

prorras fiierit, hodie tamen, prv- juges suas tfi aduUerio deprehendunt, 

sertimqne post editum a sacrosancta et iidem sunt adoUsctntes Jideles, et 

Tridentina synodo canonem, aliter j^hibentwr nubere, he contends theA 

sentire nefas, quam superstite priore it oiiffht certainly to be read, non 

ooi^juge, etiam post legitimum di- prokSefUur nubere : and then, as be 

vortinm, alteris oopnlari nuptiis says, it is* another evident proof that 

nnnquam lioere. innocent persons, after a lawful di- 

8* C. 10. (t. I. p. 1428 c.) • • • Pla- vorce, were not prohibited to marry 

cuit, nt in quantum potest, consi- in those days. Animadvers. in Epi- 

lium eis detor, ne, viventibus uzori- phan. Hser. 59. p. 255. See also 

bus suis, licet adulteris, alias acci- St. Basil's ninth canon to the same 

piant. purpose. — See nn. 3T, 32, preceding. 

Note, that Petavius reads this ca- and afterwards, ch. 5. s. i. n. 68. 

S8 The impediments XXII. iL 

And St. Austin^^ confesses ' there was a very great difference 
to be made between such as put away their wires for adultery 
and married again, and such as did so upon other reasons : for 
this question, Whether he, who without doubt has liberty to 
put away his wife for adultery, be to be reckoned an adulterer 
if he marries again ? is a matter so obscurely resolyed in Scrip- 
ture, that a man may be supposed to err venially about it.' 
And therefore he concludes, ' that all that the ministry has to 
do in this case is only to persuade men not to engage in such 
marriages: but if they will marry notwithstanding the contrary 
adyice that is given them, he will not venture to say that such 
men ought therefore to be kept out of the Church.' St. Austin 
was fully persuaded in his own mind that such marriages after 
divorce were unlawful. For he often repeats it^* in his works, 
and uses what arguments he could to dissuade men from them; 
not scrupling to declare his opinion of them as suspicious and 
doubtful marriages, that might stand charged with adultery. 
But then he no where intimates that the Church either did or 
ought to treat persons so marrying as she did other adulterers, 
whose adultery was more indisputable, either by dissolving the 
marriage, or bringing the persons under excommunication and 
public penance in the church : but rather declares the error of 
such persons to be venial, because it was not so expressly con- 
demned in Scripture. And thus much Estius^^ owns, only he 
says it was not then condenmed by any general Council. 

M De Fid. et Oper. c. 19. (t. 6. vers. Quaest. 83. quest, ult. (t. 6. p. 

p. 185 e.) Quisquis etiam uxorem 78 b.) 

m adulterio deprehensam dimiserit ^ In Sentent. 1. 4. distinct. 35. 

et aliam duxerit, non videtur sequan- s. 1 1. (t. 4. p. 160 e.) Sanctus Hie- 

dus eis, qui, exoepta causa admterii, ronymus in Epitaphio Fabioln ad 

dimittunt et ducunt. £t in ipsis di- Oceanum refert, quemadmodum 

vinis sententiis ita obscurum est, Fabiola, quse, dimisso viro, non so- 

utrum et iste, cui quidem sine dubio lum adultero, sed omnibus flagitiis 

adulteram licet dimittere, adulter ta- contaminato, alteri nupserat, post 

men habeatur, si alteram duxerit, ut, mortem secundi mariti publicam 

quantum exi8timo,venialiteribiquis- poenitentiam, ab episoopo Romano 

que fallatur. Quamobrem, &c. mipositam, similiter subierit; ejus- 

^ De Coijugiis Adulterinis, L 1. que factum non aliter excusat, quam 

c. I. (ibid. p. 387 a.)»Item, c. 34. quod Evangelii rigorem ignoraverit. 

(p. 402 b.) De Nuptiis et Concu- Hinc discimus, iUo tempore publi* 

piscentia, 1. 1. c. 10. (t. 10. p. 285 f.) cum crimen babitum fuisse m eo- 

De Bono Conjugii, c.j . (t.6. p. 323 e.) desia, si quis, vivente conju^, etiam 

De Serm. Dom. in \Ionte, 1. 1. c. 14. ob fomicationem dimissa, aliud oon- 

(t.3. part. 2. p. 181 c.) lib. de Di- jugium iniret, &c. 

{ I a. ofmarriagey ^c. 89 

There is one instance indeed, given by St. Jerom ^7, of a 
woman doing public penance in the church for marrying a 
second hnsband after she had divorced herself from the first 
npon the account of his adultery and his other intolerable 
practices. But this was a voluntary act of her own, and not 
done till after the death of her second husband : the Church 
did not impose this penance on her whilst her husband was 
living, nor yet when he was dead ; but she chose it of her 
own accord, and submitted to it without any compulsion. Had 
there been any general law then in the Church, either to dis- 
solve such marriages, or bring the parties to public penance, 
no doubt the bishop of Rome would have called upon them 
both, whilst the husband was living, to have complied with the 
rule and the discipline of the Church : but this not being done 
seems to be an argument, that then it was not the custom of 
the Roman Church to inflict any public censures upon such as 
married again after a lawful divorce, but only to use what 
arguments she could to dissuade men and women from such 
marriages till the former husband or wife were dead : or else, 
if they did engage in them, to exhort them to repent of such 
engagements, as crimes prohibited by the Apostie. Which St. 
Jerom 3^ himself does with no small vehemence, according to his 
manner^ telling a woman who had so married a second husband 
' that she was an adulteress for so doing, and that she ought not 
to receive the communion till she repented of her crime.' By 
which I suppose he means her obligations to private repent- 
ance, and not any solemn penance imposed by the public dis- 
cipline of the Church. 

Yet in the Spanish Church before this time there seems to 
have been something of public discipline exercised against such 
persons, especially women, joining in second marriages whilst 
the first husband was living. For in the Council of Eliberis 

^ Epitaph. Fabiolte. Ep. 30. [al. ^ Ep. 147. [al. 5^.] ad Aman- 

77.] rt. I. p. 455 d.) ad Ooeanam. dum. (ibid. p. 396 d.) lata soror. 

Quia DOC craderet, ut, post mortem qufle,ut dicit, vim pasaa est, ut alteri 

aecundi viri in aemetipsam reversa, jun^retur, si vmt corpus Christi 

aaccum indueret, ut errorem publice accipere et non adultera reputari, 

£Eitaetur, et, tota urbe tpectante Ro- agat pceniteutiam; ita duntaxat, ut 

mana, ante diem Paacnse, basilica secundo viro, qui non appellatur 

quondam Laterani staret in ordine vir sed adulter, a tempore poeni- 

poenitentium ? &c. tentiae non copidetur, &c. 

40 The impediments XXII. ii. 

there is a canon ^^ which orders, * that if a woman, who is a 
believer, put away an adulterous husband, who is also a be- 
liever, and go about to marry another, she shall first be disr- 
suaded from it : but if, notwithstanding that, she does marry, 
she shall not receive the communion till her first husband be 
dead, unless the necessity of sickness require it to be given 
her.'* But as this was but a canon of a private Council, so 
here are several exceptions and abatements in it. first, it 
only respects women and not men. Then again it only relates 
to women that were believers, and not catechumens, who by 
the next canon are allowed notwithstanding to be admitted to 
baptism, as St. Austin also determined. Thirdly, the husband 
also that was deserted must be a believer; for the case is 
otherwise if he was an Heathen. Lastly, she is allowed the 
communion at the point of death, though she never relin- 
quished the second husband. So that as yet the prohibition 
was not universal upon many accounts. Afterwards we find in 
one of the laws of Honorius *o, « that if a woman could prove 
her reason weighty and sufficient for a divorce, she might not 
only retain her dowry and the donations of her espousals, but 
also within five years have Uberty to marry agsdn. And a 
man, if he could prove his reasons for divorce weighty against 
his wife, might not only retain her dowry and gifts of espousal, 
but have liberty to marry another wife whenever he pleased. 
Or if they were only light faults, and not high crimes^ that he 
had to allege against his wife, he was to leave her her dowry, 
but might reclaim any espousal gifts, and have liberty to 

^ Co. (t. I. p. 971 d.) Item foe- ac mulieri grave crimen intulerit, 

mina fiiieliB, quae aaultermn man- persequatur legibus accusatam, im- 

tum reliquerit fidelem et alterum petrataque vindicta et dota potiatur, 

ducit, prohibeatur ne ducat ; si et suam recipiat larffitatem, et du- 

duxerit, non prius accipiat com- cendi moz alteram Tiberum sortia- 

munionem, nisi quem reliquerit tur arbitrium. Si vero morum est 

prius de sKculo ezierit, nisi forte culpa, non criminum, donationem 

necessitas infirmitatis dare compu- recipiat, et dotem relinquat, aliam 

lerit. post biennium ducturus uxoreok 

^ Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 16. de Quod si matrimonium solo malu- 

Repudiis, leg. 2. (t. i. p. 313.) . . . erit separare dissensu, nullisque vi- 

Si mves causas probaverit, quae tiis peccatisque gravetur exclusa, et 

recedit, dotis suae compos, sponsa- donationem vir perdat et dotem, ac 

lem quoque obtineat largitatem, at- perpetuo coelibatu insolentis divortii 

que a repudii die post quinquen- poenam de solitudinis moerore susti- 

nium nubendi recipiat potestatem. neat, mulieri post anni metas nup- 

Si divortium prior maritus objeoerit, tiarum potestate concessa. 

J I a. of fMirriage^ 8fc, 41 

marry another wife after two years. But if a man put away 
his wife for no reasons at all, but only his own moroseness, he 
was condemned to liye in perpetual celibacy for his insolent 
divorce, and the woman had liberty within a year to be mar- 
ried to another man. And there are several laws of Theo- 
dosius Junior, of Valentinian III., and of Anastasius, in the 
Justinian Code ^S which grant the same liberty of marrying 
after lawful divorces. 

But these laws are not altogether approved by the writers 
of the Church in those times. For as we have heard St. 
Austin and St Jerom express their dislike before 4^, so we 
may find the same in Chrysostom'*^, and Ambrose ^^ and Pope 
Innocent ^^, and other writers of that age, who reckon the 
laws of the State too loose and favourable to such as married 
after divorce. Which serves only to confirm the observation 
which I made at first, that the Ancients were divided upon 
this point, and treated it only as a problematical question, 
though the Council of Trent ^^ has since turned it into an 
article of faith, and damned all those that come not into her 
sentiments about it. And in her sentence, to note this by the 
by, she has also condemned some of her own Popes and Coun- 
cils of later ages, which Gratian has recorded. Pope Zachary ^^7 

^1 L. 5. tit. 17. de Repudiis, leg. 8. vel uxore vivente, quamvis dissocia- 

See afterwards, ch. 5. a. 5. of this turn videatur ease conjugium, ad 

Book, n. 93. — Leg. 9. See ibid. s. 7. aliam copulam festiDarunt, neque 

n. 05. possunt adalteri non videri, in tan- 

^ See nn. 34, 35, ^7, 38. turn at hte etiam personse, quibus 

^ Horn. i7< in Mattn. (t. 7. p. tales conjancti sunt, etiam ipsse a- 

226 e.) .... Erepoy dctxyvo'iv fniw dulterium commissisevideantur; se- 

fl-oXiy fioixfiaf ttdos, k. r. X. [De cundum illud quod legimus in Evan- 

divortiis quidem, sed non de 1^- gelio. Out dimiserit uxorem suam, 

bus imperialibus circa divortia nic 4*0. 

loquitur Chrysostomus. Grisckov,'] ^ Sess. 24. c. 7. (t. 14. p. 875 a.) 

^ De Abrabam. 1. 1. c. 4. (t. i. Si quis dixerit ecdesiam errare, cum 

p. 291 c. n. 25.) . . . Vos moneo, viri, docuit et docet, juxta evangelicam et 

maxime qui ad ^tiam Domini ten- apostolicam doctrinam, propter a- 

ditis, non commisceri adulterino cor- dtulterium alterius conjugum matri- 

pori : Qui enim se junoit meretrici, monii vinculum non posse dissolvi, 

ttittim corpus est : nee dare banc oc- et utrmnque, vel etiam innocentem, 

casionem divortii muHeribus. Nemo qui causam adulterio non dedit, non 

sibi blandiatar de legibus hominum. posse, altero conjuge vivente, aliud 

^ Ep. 3. ad Exuper. c. 6. (CC. matrimonium contrahere, moechari- 

t. 2. p. 12^6 c.) De bis etiam requi- one eum qui, dimissa adultera, aliam 

sivit dilectio tua, qui, interveniente aoxerit, et eam quae, dimisso adul- 

repudio, alii se matrimonio copula- tero, alii nupserit : anatbema sit. 

runt : quos in utraque parte aaulte« ^ Ap. Gratian. caus. 22. qusest. 

ros esse manifestum est. Qui vero 7. c. 23. (t. 1. p. 1642. 40.) doncu- 

42 The impediments XXII. iL 

allows a woman, whose husband had committed mcest with her 
sister, to put him away, and marry to whom she would in the 
Lord ; and Gregory III.^s aUows a man to put away his wife 
for infirmity, and marry another. The Council of Tribur^^ 
says, ' If a son commits incest with his mother-in-law, the 
Cekther may put her away, and marry another if he pleases.' 
And the Council of Vermerias (which in some copies of Gratian 
is fiedsely called the Council of EUberis) says ^, * K a woman 
take counsel with others to compass the death of her husband, 
he may dismiss her for the attempt, and marry another if he 
pleases.' So that the new legislators at Trent were as much 
at variance with their own Canon Law as they were with the 
ancient Fathers upon this subject. 
Whether 18. Nor are the Roman casuists better agreed with .the Ancients 
mi«h?min '^P^^ another question relating to the impediments of marriage; 
ry an adnl- yiz. Whether an adulterer may marry another man's wife after 
whom he ^^® death of her husband, having been guilty of adultery with 
had defiled, jjer whilst her former husband was Uving ? the modem ca- 
death of her uonists oommouly resolve this in the negative. The Council of 
hosbend. Tribur, in Germany, which was held in the year 895, under 
Pope Formosus, proposes a famous case, of a man who defiled 
another man's wife, and swore he would marry her after her 
husband's death: the Council peremptorily determines ^^ this 
to be unlawful : ' We anathematize such a marriage, and forbid 
it to all Christians. It is not lawful, therefore, nor agreeable to 

buisti cum Borore uzoris tuse? Si neuter ad conjuffimn potest per- 

fecisti, neutram habeas : et si ilia, venire : sed vir ejus potest, si vult, 

quee uxor tua fuerit, conscia sceleris aliam accipere, si se continere non 

non fait, si se continere non vult, potest. 

nubat in Domino, cui velit. Tu ^ Ap. Gratian. cans. 31. oiuest. 

autem et adultera sine spe conju^ i. c. 6. (ibid. p. 1581. 58.) oi qua 

permaneatiB : et, quamdiu vixeritis, mulier in mortem mariti sui cum 

juzta prfleceptum sacerdotis poeni- aliis consiliata sit, ipse vir potest 

tentiam agite. uzorem dimittere, et, si voluerit, 

^ Ibid. caus. 3a. quest. 7. c. 18. aliam ducere. [See in Labbe, c. 5, 

(ibid. p. 1640. 43.) Quod proposu- (t. i. p. 1657 e.) and in nearly the 

isti. Si mulier infirmitate correpta same terms. Ed.] 
non valuerit debitum viro reddere, ^^ C. Tribur. c. 40. (t. 9. p. 461 

<^uid faciat jugalis ? bonum esset, si c.) Tale igitur connubium anatne- 

sic permaneret, ut abstinentise vaca- matizamus, et Christianis omnibus 

ret : sed quia hoc magnum [al. obseramus. JNon licet ergo, nee 

mi^orum J est, ille, qui se non po- Christianse reli^oni oportet, ut ul- 

terit continere, nubat magis, &c. lus ea utatur m matrimonio, cum 

^ Ibid. c. 34. (p. 1642. 66.) Si aua prius pollutus erat [al. est] a- 

quis cum noverca sua dormierit, aulterio. 

{ 13- qfmartwge, Sfc. 43 

the Christian religion, that any one should use her in matri- 
monjj whom he had before defiled by adultery.' Peter Lom- 
bard ^^ and Gratian^^ cite other authorities of Pope Leo and 
the Council of AlthsBum to this purpose : and the modern Ca- 
nonists ^^ commonly stand to their determination, only making 
some nice distinctions to reconcile these canons to better au- 
thorities of the Ancients. For the Ancients in this matter were 
of another opinion. St. Austin ^^ resolves the question in the 

^ Sentent. 1. 4. distinct. 35. (p. lierem oognoverit, nisi in conjugio, 

413.) Solet etiam qtueri. An valeat et libidini sue obsecutus fuerit, peo- 

duci in conjugium, quae prius est cat. Constat autem ellipticum lo- 

poDuta per adulterium ? De hoc Leo quendi genus Hebnsis admodum 

rapa ait, NuUus ducat in mairimo' fuisse familiare, et hujus rei ezempla 

ntum, quam priu» poUuit aduUerio, plurima reperiri in Sacris Literis, 

Item: Rekttum est auribus sancto^ quale illua est, i Tim. 4. Proki' 

rum sacerdotnm, quendam aUeriw oentiumnubere,iUfstinereacibi$,^c,j 

uxorem stupro violasse et ituuper subauditur enim yocabulum oontra- 

maclue juramentum dedisse, quod rise significationis, nemue jubentium, 

post legitimi tnariH mortem, ri w- -^Ibid. (p. 130.) Apud Gratian. 32. 

perviveret, duceret earn in uxorem, qiuest. 7. [0.1 9. J (t. i. p. 1641. ^o.) 

quod et factum est. Tale ergo con^ ezstat canon cujusdam Concilii in 

tiu^tttm prohibemus et anathematiza- bsec verba: Quadam cumfratre viri 

mtit. His aliisque auctoribus vetan- sui dormwit. Decretum est, ut adul' 

tur in conjugium copulari, qui se teri nunquam conjugio copulentur; 

prius adulterio maculavenmt. iUi vero, cujus uxor stuprata est, /»- 

^ Cans. 31. qufest. i. c. i. (t. i. eita conjugia non negentur. Sed re- 

p. 1579. 54.) Nullus ducat in ma- spondetur, ut canoni detur auctori- 

trimonium, quam prius polluit a- tas, (qui tamen cujus Concilii fuerit 

dulterio. — Ibid. c. 2. e C. Alth. (p. ignoratur, quandoquidem neo hodie 

1580. 40.) lUud vero communi de- in ullo exstat Conalio,) sensum ejus 

creto secundum canonum instituta bunc esse, adulteros incestuosos, 

definimus et pnejudicamus, ut si (talis enim est casus in canone pro- 

quis cum uxore Pterins eo vivente positus,) nunquam posse conjugio 

iomicatus fuerit, moriente marito, copulari, ne quidem post mortem 

synodali judicio aditus ei claudetur oonjugum : at eorum coniuges non 

iUicitus, ne ulterius ei conjugatur prohiberi, quo minus, adulteris mor- 

matrimonio, quam prius polluit a- tuis, ad alia conjugia transeant. Qui 

dulterio. Nolumus enim, nee Chh- sensus canonis colligitur, turn ex- 

stianie religioni convenit, ut ullus antithesi partium, tum ex simili ca- 

ducat in conjugium, quam prius none Gregorii, qui habetur eadem 

polluit per adulterium. quaest. cap. Hi vero, Sfc, quem si- 

^ Vid. Estium in Sentent. 1. 4. militer de adultera inoestuosa ex- 
distinct. 35. s. 13. (t. 4. p. 162 e.) ponunt. In eo enim expresse post 
Quare altera ejusdem Augustini ex- mortem conjuf^s adulteri ooncedi- 
positio, quam et alii yeteres fere se- tur, quod in vita negatur ; et simi- 
quuntur, cseteris prseponenda vide- liter respondendum est ad duos alios 
tur, ut exoeptio ilia {nm ob fomico' canones, alterum Zachariie Papee et 
tionem) ad id, quod praecedit, tantum alterum Concilii Triburiensis, quos 
referatur, totaque oratio elHptica sit, ibidem Gratianus recitat. Hoc enim 
hoc pacto supplenda atque inteUi- duntaxat concedunt innocenti, quod 
genda, Quicumque dimiserit uxorem prohibetur nocenti, nempe aliud con- 
worn (quod non licet nisi ob fomi- jugium post mortem nrioris. 
caAonem)etaUamduxerit,machatur, ^ De Nuptiis et Concupisoentia, 
Simile est, si dicam, Quicunque mu- 1. 1 . c. 10. (t. 10. p. 286 b.) Denique, 


The impediments 

XXII. ii. 

aflSTmatiTe, uniyersallj and without distinction, 'that when a 
woman's husband was dead, to whom she was truly married, 
she might become the true and lawful wife of another, with 
whom before she had committed adultery/ And again ^^ ' It is 
manifest, that they, who at first join wickedly together in con- 
cubinage, may afterward by changing their wills make a just 
and honest marriage together.' And therefore the Council of 
Eliberis^7 determined, * that though a woman, who left her hus- 
band, and liyed adulterously with another, should not communi- 
cate so long as her husband was liying ; yet she might after his 
death, because then she became the lawful wife of him, with 
whom before she had only lived in adultery.' Albaspiny^^, in 
his Notes upon this canon, makes this candid remark: 'In 
those times you may obserye, that matrimony might stand firm 
and yalid between adulterers, who had to do with one another 
whilst the true and lawful husband was liying : which now is so 
prohibited, that a woman, eyen after the death of her husband, 
cannot make a true and lawful marriage with her adulterer, 
but only by the dispensation of the Pope.' Which is a plain 
and ingenuous confession of the difference between the ancient 
and modem way of resolying this question ; and perhaps ta- 
citly intimates the true reason of inyenting so many new impe- 
diments in the business of matrimony, tihat the Pope might 
haye it in his power to grant frequent dispensations. All that 
the ancient canons required in this particular case, was only 
that the criminals should perform a just and satisfactory pe- 
nance for their former adultery, but they never forbade them 
to marry, nor dissolved the marriage, if it was contracted re- 
gularly after the death of the former husband, without any 
other impediment to hinder or disannul it. As appears from 
another canon of the Council of Eliberis^^, which orders, 'that 

mortno viro cum quo verum connu- 
bium fuit, fieri verum oonnubium 
potest cum quo prius adulterium 

^ De Bono Conjugal], c. 14. (t. 6. 
p. 329 f.) Posse sane fieri nuptias ex 
male oonjunctis, honesto postea pla- 
cito consequente, manifestum est. 

^ C.9. See before, s. 12. n. 39, 

^ In Loc. (t. I. p. 991 e.) Illis 
temporibuB, ut vides, matrimonium 

poterat stare et validum esse inter 
adulteros, qui, vivente vero et legiti- 
me marito, rem simul habuerant. 
Quod hodie ita prohibitum est, ut 
ne quidem post mortem mariti mu- 
lier possit cum adultero nuptias fir- 
mas et legitimas facere, nisi summo 
dispensante pontifice. 

^ C. 72. (ibid. p. 978 a.) Si qua 
vidua fiierit moecbata, et eundem 
postea habuerit maritum, post quin- 
quennii tempus, acta legituna pceni- 

§ i3» 14- 

of foarricLgef ^c. 


if a widow commit adultery with a man, and afterward take 
him for her husband, she shall do five years' penance, and then 
be reconciled to the communion, or by the communion : but if 
she leaves him, and marries any other, she shall not have the 
communion even at her last hour.' Where it is observable, that 
the Council is so far from prohibiting or disannulling the mar- 
riage of an adulteress with her adulterer, that they oblige her 
to keep him for her husband, and take no other, under pain 
of being refused the communion even at the hour of death. 
Which is abundantly sufficient to show us the sense of the An- 
cients upon this point, that they never reckoned it needed a 
dispensation to bring adulterers into a lawful marriage, though 
this has been the current practice of the Roman court now for 
many ages. 

14. I have but one thing more to observe concerning the The cete- 
ancient prohibitions of marriage ; and that relates to the time marriage 
or season in which it might or might not be regularly cele- fo'Wdden 
brated. The most ancient prohibition that we meet with of 
this kind is that of the Council of Laodicea ^^, which forbids 
all marriages as well as birthdays to be celebrated in Lent. 
And this is the only prohibition in point of time that we meet 
with in any of the genuine records of those early ages. Peter 
Lombard ^ and Gratian ^^ cite a canon out of the Council of 
Lerida, anno 524. which forbids marriiiges not only in Lent, 
but three weeks before the festival of St. John Baptist, and 
from the beginning of Advent to Epiphany ; ordering likewise 
all marriages that are made in these intervals to be annulled. 
But there is no such canon now exstant in the tomes of the 
Councils, which makes it suspicious that it is some canon of a 
much later date than the Council that is pretended. Martin 
Bracarensis Hved some time after the Council of Lerida, and in 

tentia, placuit earn coxmnunione re- 
oonciliari. Si alium duxerit, relicto 
illo, nee in fine dandam esse ei com- 

*® C. sa. (ibid. p. 1505 c.) "Ori ot 

Xta ariTtXtuf, 

^ Sentent. 1. 4. distinct. 3a. (p. 
407.) Nee solum in opere camidi 
observanda sunt tempora, sed etiam 
in celebrandis nuptiis, secundum il- 

lud, Non oporiet a SeptuagewoM^Sfc. 
See the following note. 

^1 Cans. 33. qusest. 4. c. 10. ft. i. 
p. 1 8 18. 23.) Non oportet, a Sep- 
tuagesima usque in Octavas Paschse, 
et tribus hebdomadibus ante festi- 
vitatem Sancti Joannis Baptistae, et 
ab Adventu Domini usque post Epi- 
phaniam, nuptias celebrare. Quod 
si factum fuerit, separentur. 

46 The impediments of marriage, Sfc, XXII. ii. 

his Collection of Canons, which he published anno 572, in the 
Council of Lugo ^, he takes notice of the prohibition made at 
Laodicea, but not of the pretended one at Lerida, nor of any 
other. Which is a further argument that as yet there was no 
prohibition of marrying, but only in Lent, known in Spain, 
when the bishop of Braga made his Collection of Canons for 
the use of the Spanish Church. Pope Nicholas I. Uyed about 
the year 860 : and he also takes notice ^ of the prohibition of 
marriage in Lent, but mentions no other season. Yet Mr. Sel- 
den ^ says the Council of Aquisgranum, or Aix la Chapelle, 
held anno 836, under the Emperor Lewis I., forbids marriages 
to be celebrated on the Lord's-day by a new injunction : which 
I do not find ^^ in the place by him quoted. However, the 
Council of Salegunstade, anno 1022, under Benedict YIII. and 
the Emperor Henry II., made an order ^ ' that no Christians 
should marry from Advent to the Octaves of Epiphany, nor be- 
tween Septuagesima Sunday and the Octaves of Easter, nor in 
fourteen days before the festival of St. John Baptist, nor upon 
fast-days, nor the vigils of the solemn festivals.' And from 
that time, as Mr. Selden shows at large, these were prohibited 
times of marriage in most Churches. The learned reader who 
would see further into this matter, together with the practice 
of the French and English Churches in the following ages, 
may consult the elaborate discourse of that curious writer; 
for I must return to the ancient Church. 

^ C. 48. (t. 5. p. on c.} Neque sart. t. 7. p. 1735 b.) Jejumum die- 

nuptias liceat in Quaoragesuna cde- bus Dominicis et canonica interdidt 

brare. auctoritas et reBurrectionis Dominicie 

® Respona. ad Consult. Bulgar. tanta solemnitas. Et ideo placita il- 

(CC. t. 8. p. g^ b.) Unde nee uzo- lis diebus neque nuptias pro reve- 

rem ducere, nee convivia £Eu;ere in rentia tantse solemnitatis celebrari 

Quadragesimali tempore convenire visum est. Ed.] 
posse nullatenus arbitramur. ^ C. 3. (t. 9. p. 845 d.) De legi- 

^ Uxor Hebraica, 1. 2, c. 30. p. timis conjugiis ita visum est, quod 

313. ex Synodo Aquiman. part. 2. nullus Christianas uxorem ducere 

c. 17. ^t. I. V. a. p. 698.) Dominicis debeat ab Adventu Domini usque 

item diebus prohibentur nuptiae in in Octavas Epiphanise, et a Septua- 

Sjnodo Aquisgranensi sub Ludo- gesima usque in Octavas Pascbss, 

▼ICO primo imperatore, an. 834, ha- nee in supra notatis 14. diebus ante 

bita. festivitatem Sancti Joannis Baptistie, 

^ [Selden was correct in his state- neque in prsdictis jejuniorum die- 
ment, thouffh he gave the wrong bus, sive in omnium solemnium die- 
number of the canon. See C. Aouis- rum prsecedentibus noctibus. 
gran. 2. c. 18. (juxt. Labb. et Cos- 

§ 14- iii. I* 47 


Of the manner of making espousals preceding marriage in 

the ancient Church. 

1. Whbn persons, against whom there lay no lawful impedi- How the 
ment, were disposed to join in matrimony with each other, ^^nh^^ 
they were obliged to go through certain preliminaries appointed differed 
by custom or law before they could ordinarily complete theruge. 
marriage, or regularly come together. These went by the 
general name of spcnsalia, espousals, or betrothing. This 
differed from marriage, as an obhgation or contract antecedent 
to a future marriage may be supposed to differ from marriage 
actually solenmized and completed. And there were several 
distinct ceremonies proper and peculiar to each. For which 
reason, though they be by some writers confounded, I choose 
to speak separately of them here ; as the ancient law, which 
either appointed or confirmed them, always does, giving them 
distinct titles in both the Codes. For there we find one title ^7, 
De Sponsalihas et Donatianibus ante Nuptias, Of Espousals 
and CKfis before Marriage : and another ^^, De Nuptiis, Of 
Marriage itself. 

To give a summary account of the ceremonies observed in 
each of these, we may observe, first, of the espousals, that they 
consisted chiefly in a mutual contract or agreement between 
the parties concerning their future marriage, to be performed 
witUn a certain limited time: which contract was confirmed 
by certain gifts or donations, called arrce et arrabones, the 
earnests of marriage; as also by a ring, a kiss, a dowry, a 
writing or instrument of dowry, with a sufficient number of 
witnesses to attest it. After which there was no receding from 
the contract, or refusal to be made of marriage, without great 
penalties and forfeitures in law, and incurring many times the 
highest censures of the Church. These were the preparatory 
ceremonies, or harbingers and forerunners of the future mar- 
riage, which were generally observed by obligation of the 
Roman laws, though not all of equal necessity to all manner of 

«7 Cod. Thcod. 1. a. tit. 5. (t i. « Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 7. (t. i. 
p. a6i.) Cod. Justin. 1. 5. tit. I et 3. p. 376.) Cod. Justin. 1. 5. tit. 4. 
(t.4. pp. 1 109, 1 1 15.) (t. 4. p. 1 129.) 


The ma/rmer of 

XXIL iu. 

persons : for the law made some distinctioDs, and allowed of 
dispensations in some of these points to certain orders of men 
in some particular cases. As to the marriage itself, custom 
generally prevailed to hare it solemnized by the ministers of 
tiie Church ; though, as the state of the Roman empire then 
stood, this was not absolutely necessary by any law ; nor were 
those marriages annulled that were performed otherwise. But 
when it was done by the ministers, it was performed with a 
solenm benediction, together with the ceremonies of a veil, 
and a coronet, and some other rites ; of which more in their 
proper place. 
Free con- S. I begin with the ceremonies observed in espousals, where, 
^^neoM^' first of all, there was necessary a free consent of the parties 
nrj in ee- contracting. This wafl the old Roman law, called Lex Papia 
ponnis. ^ Julia, confirmed by Diocletian, and inserted by Justinian 
into his Code ^. The discipline of the laws does not permit 
that a son should be compelled to marry a wife against his 
will. And therefore, though parents had a right to dispose of 
their children in marriage, and children could not legally 
marry without their consent, as is expressed in the same law, 
as has been fully shown before 7o, yet children had an equal 
right to dispose of themselves, and ought not to be compelled 
by their parents to make any contract absolutely against their 
own inclinations. If a virgin was betrothed by the consent of 
a father 71, or a mother, or a guardian, before she was ten 
years old, in that case she might still refuse to complete the 

^ L. 5. tit. 4. de Nuptiis, le^. la. 
ft.4. p. 1133.) ^^ filium qmdem 
numlias invitum ad uxorem ducen- 
dam cogi, legum disciplina permittit. 
I^tur, sicut desideras, observatis ju- 
ris pneceptis, sociare conjugio tuo, 
quam volaeris, non impedieris : ita 
tamen ut contrahendis nuptiis patris 
till consensus accedat. 

7<> Ch. a. B. 4. p. a6, preceding. 

7» Vid. Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 5. 
de Sponsalibus, Ic^. 6. (t. i. p. 369.) 
Patn, matri, tutori, vel cuilibet, ante 
decimum puellse annum datis spon- 
salibus, <}uadrupli poenam remitti- 
mus, etsi nuptise non sequantur. 
Quod si decimo anno vel ultra, pater 
quisve alius, ad quern puellse ratio 

pertinet, ante duodecim annos, id 
est, usque in undedmi metas, sus- 
cepta credideiit pignora esse reti- 
nenda, deinceps, adventante temoore 
nuptiarum, a fide absistens, ^uaani- 
pli fiat obnoxiuB. . . . Duodecimo au- 
tem anno impleto, quisquis de nup- 
tiis paciscitur, si quidem pater, se- 
metipsum obliget; si mater, cura- 
torve, aut alii parentes, puella fiat 
obnoxia. Cui quidem contra ma- 
trem, tutorem, curatorem, eumve 
parentem, actio ex bono et ex sequo 
mtegra reservatur eorum pignorum, 
quae ex propriis iuxta pcenam juris 
UcultatibuB reddiderit, si ad con- 
sensum accipiendarum arrarum ab 
his se ostenderit fuisse coropulsam. 

§ 2, 3* making espousals. 49 

marriage without any quadruple forfeiture, (which the law re- 
quired for breach of contract in other cases,) either to be ex- 
acted of her or her parents ; because she was not yet of age to 
give any consent to an espousal : as Gothofred shows out of 
Dio and the ancient laws. If she was above ten, and not yet 
fiill twelve years old, when she was betrothed by her parents, 
and afterwards refused to complete the marriage, her parents 
might be amerced, but not the virgin; because she was not 
yet of age and ripeness of judgment to give her free consent 
to such a contract. If she was above twelve years old when 
she made the contract, she was liable to be amerced quadruple 
by law for not completing the marriage accordii^ to the 
espousal contract. But then she had a just action of recovery 
of whatever she forfeited, agunst a mother, or a tutor, or a 
guardian, if she could prove that she was compelled by force 
to give her assent to the acceptance of the arrce, or donations 
made to her upon the espousal. And for the same reason, as I 
have shown before 7^, any woman who entered into an espousal 
contract with a governor of a province during the year of his 
* administration, was at perfect liberty, when the year was 
ended, whether she would fulfil the contracts and marry him 
or not: because it was presumed that he, being in super- 
eminent authority and power, might overawe a woman, and 
terrify her into an espousal against her will and real inclina- 
tion. Such provident care did the ancient law take to secure 
the liberty of such as entered into espousal contracts, that 
nothing of this kind should stand firm but what was volunta- 
rily agreed upon by the free consent of each contracting party, 
without any force or violence of any kind intervening to com- 
pel them. 

3. When the contract was thus made, it was usual for the The con- 
man to bestow certain gifts on the woman, as tokens and egpooaaiB 
pledges of the espousal : and sometimes, but not so commonly, osuaUy tea* 

•» 1 1 1 tified by 

the woman made presents to the man upon the same account, pfts, called 
These are sometimes called sponsalia, espotisals, and some-"^**®'***" 
times sponsalituB donationes, espousal gifts, and arroR sjid sporuaiULB, 
pignora, earnests and pledges of future marriage : because the J^metimeT 
giving and receiving them was a confirmation of the contract, mntiuJly 
and an obligation on the parties to take each other for man S^>^ 

7^ Ch. a. 8. 7. p. 30, preceding. 

BDsraHAM, VOL. ym. b 


The manner qf 

XXII. liL 

both by the 
man snd 

These do- 
nations to 
be entered 
into public 
act8> and 
set upon 

and wife, unless some legal reason gave them liberty to do 
otherwise. These were commonly given by the men, as I said, 
and sometimes by the women, though but rarely, as is noted 
in one of the laws of Ccmstantine 73, which orders, ' that if the 
woman give any thing to the man upon the time of espousal, 
which is a thing that seldom happens, in case either the man 
or the woman chanced to die before the marriage was com* 
pleted, the whole dominion and property of whateyer she gave 
should return to her, if she suryiyed^ or else to her heirs and 
successors.' And the case was much the same with the donations 
made by the man to the woman, upon the death of either 
party before marriage : only with this difference, that if the 
man confirmed his donation by the interyention of a solenm kiss, 
of which ceremony more by and by, then, in case of death, the 
donation was to be divided between the suryiyor and the heirs 
of the deceased party : but if the ceremony of the kiss was 
not superadded, the whole donation was to be restored, in case 
either party died, either to the donor himself suryiymg, or to 
his heirs and successors. Though by a former law of Con- 
stantine74, the donations both of the man and woman were 
exactly upon the same foot, and both to be restored in case of 
death without any distinction. 

4. To make these donations more firm and sure, it was 
required that they should be entered into public acts, and set 
upon record, as well to ascertain them against the accidents of 
death, as against the falseness and perfidiousness of either 
party. This is expressly provided in one of the laws of Con- 
stantine?^, ' that no donation between man and woman in the 

7« Clod. Theod. 3. tit. 5. de Spon- 
Balibus, leg. 5. (t. i. p. 367.) ... Si 
sponsa . . . Bponsaliorum titulo, quod 
rare accidit, fuerit aliquid sponso 
largita, et ante nuptias hunc vel 
illam mori continent, omni dona- 
tione infirmata, ad donatricem spon- 
sam, give ejus succeBsores, donata- 
rum rerum dominium transferatur. 

74 Ibid. leg. a. p. 263.) Et 

quoniam fieri potest, ut moriatur 
alter adhuc incoluml voluntate, prius 
quam nuptise contrahantur, con- 
gruum duximus, eo, in quern fu- 
erat fecta donatio, ante matrimonii 

diem functo, quse sponsaliorum ti- 
tulo vel data, vel ullo genere donata 
sunt, ad eum, qui donaverat, revo- 
cari: eo etiam, qui donaverat, ante 
nuptias mortuo, moz infirmari do* 
nationem, et ad ejus hssredes sine 
aliqua difficultate deCrahi res dona- 

7^ Ibid. leg. I. (p. 261.) . . . Inter 
sponsos quoque ac sponsas, omnes- 
que personas, earn solam donatio- 
nem, ex promulgatae legis tempore, 
yalere sancimus, quam testificatio 
actorum secuta est 

§ 4» 5- making espousals. 51 

bufliness of espousals should be of any force, unless it was 
testified by a public act' But this afterward received some 
limitations : for Constantino himself, by another law ^^ made 
an exception in the case of minors : * that if any espousal gifts 
were given to women that contracted and married under age, 
they should not be revoked upon pretence that they were not 
entered into public acts/ And this was confirmed by another 
law of Theodosius Junior 77 referring to it ; who also added 
another exception, that if the donation did not exceed the sum 
of two hundred shillings, there should be no necessity to have 
it recorded to make it firm. Justinian extended this exception 
further to the sum of three hundred shillings 78, and at last to 
five hundred79, < to be ascertained to the woman, if given to her 
upon espousal, without any further insinuation,' as the law terms 
it, or entering into public acts and monuments, to make it se- 
cure in law from aQ reclaiming. 

5. Together with these espousal ^fts, or as a part of them. The oon. 
it was usual for the man to give the woman a ring as a further ^[|^^. 
token and testimony of the contract This was an innocent fied bj 
ceremony used by the Romans before the times of Chris- ^^^^^ of 
tianity 80, and in some measure admitted by the Jews : whence * ™9- 
it was adopted among the Christian rites of espousal without 
any opposition or contradiction : I say, the rites of espouscU : 
tfyr that it was used in the solemnity of marriage itself ori- 
ginally, does not so evidentiy appear : though some, who con- 

7V Ibid. leg. 3. (p. 364.) Si futurifl gere roonumentis, &c. 

conjugibus, tempore nuptiarum in- 79 Le^. ^5. (ibid. p. 2288.) C«te- 

tra eetatem constitutis, res fuerint ris etiam aonationibus, qu» gestis 

donatte et traditae; non ideo posse intervenientibus xninime sunt insi- 

eas revocari, quia actis consignare nuatse, sine aliqua distinctione us- 

donationem quondam maritus noluit. que ad quingentos solidos valituris : 

77 Ibid. leg. 8. (p. 37a.) IHa ma- hoc etemm tantummodo ad auffen- 

nente lege, quae minoribus eetate das hujusmodi donationes adden- 

foeminis, etiam actorum testifica- dum esse ex prsesenti lege decemi- 

tione omissa, si patris auxilio desti- mas, anteriore tempore nostra lege 

tatse sint, juste consulit, &c. — Item prsecedente moderando, qua usque 

in Interpret, (p. a^2.) In ilia dona- ad trecentos solidos factse dona- 

tione, quse in omnibus intra ducen- tiones, et sine insinuatione firmita- 

torom solidorum est quantitatem, tern obtinere jussse sunt. 

nee actorum confectio quserenda est. ^ Vid. Selden. Uxor. Hebraic. 

79 Cod. Justin. 1. 8. tit. 54. de 1. 3. c. 14. (t. i. of v. a. p. 631.) De 

Donationibus, leg. 34. (t.4. p. 2281.) annulo apud Ebrseos sponsahtio sea 

Sandmus omnem donatioaem pronubo. — Conf. c. 35. (ibid, p.665.) 

ante nuptias factam, usque ad tre- De ritibus nuptialibus, &c. : maxi- 

centos solidos cumulatam, non indi- me de annuli ac coronse usu, &c. 

B 2 

52 The manner of XXII. iii. 

found the rites of espousal with those of marriage, bring the 
eyidences of the former as proofs of the latter custom. That 
the ring was used in espousals, and not in the solemnity of 
marriage itself, in the time of Pope Nicholas, anno 860, seems 
pretty eyident from the distinct account which he gives of the 
ceremonies used in the Roman Church ^i, first in espousals, 
and then in the solemnity of marriage, which he plainly speaks 
of as distinct things. ' With us,' says he, * after the espousals, 
which are a promise of future marriage, the marriage covenants 
are celebrated, with the consent of those who have contracted, 
and of those in whose power they are.' Then he describes 
distinctly- the ceremonies peculiar to each. ' In the espousals 
the man first presents the woman whom he betroths with the 
arrce, or espousal gifts ; and among these he puts a ring upon 
her finger ; then he dehvers the dowry agreed upon by both 
parties in writing, before witnesses invited on both sides to 
attest the agreement.' Thus far the espousals. ' After this, 
either presently or in some convenient time following, that 
nothing might be done before the time appointed by law, they 
are both brought to the nuptial solemnity. Where, first of all, 
they are placed in the church to offer their oblations by the 
hands of the priest: and then they receive the benediction 
and the celestial veil : and after this, going out of the church, 
they wear crowns or garlands upon their heads, which are 
kept in the church for that purpose.' Here we have the 
ceremonies of espousals, and the ceremonies of marriage dis- 
tinctly described : and among the ceremonies of espousals we 
find the ring, but not mentioned again in the ceremonies of 
marriage : which makes it probable that it was then only a 

^^ Respons. ad ConBolt. Bulgar. tradiderit; aut mox, aut apto tem- 

c. 3. (CC. t. 8. p. 517 c.) et ap. pore, (do videlicet ante tempus lege 

Gratian. caus. 30. ausest. 5. c. 3. aefiDitum tale quid facere pnesu- 

(t. I. p. 1574O Apua nostrates post mant,) ambo ad nuptialia foedera 

eponssdia, ^use futurarum nuptianim perducuntur. Et primum in eccle- 

sunt promissio, foedera quseque con- siam Domini cum oblationibus, quas 

sensu eorum qui hsDC contranunt, et offerre debent Deo per sacerdotis 

eorum in quorum potestate sunt, manum, statuuntur : sicque demum 

celebrantur; etpostquam arris spon- benedictionem et velamen celeste 

sam sibi sponsus per digitum fidei suscipiunt. Post hsec autem de 

annulo insi^itum despondent j do- ecclesia egressi coronas in capitibus 

temque utrique placitam spK>n8us, gestant, quae semper in ecclesia ipsa 

ejus scripto pactum hoc continente, sunt solitse reservari. 
coram invitatis ab utraque parte 

§ 5« making espousals. 53 

ceremony of the former^ and not of the latter. And thus it 
was nsed among the ancient Christians in their espousal as an 
arra or earnest of their fixture marriage, but not in the so- 
lemnity of marriage itself, as far as we can learn from any 
accounts that are given of it. 

St. Ambrose speaks of it, but only amongst the rites of 
espousal, and not of marriage. For describing the behaviour 
of St. Agnes, the virgin, when the governor of Rome courting 
her offered her the espousal gifts, he brings her in thus reply- 
ing ®^, * Depart from me, thou solicitor to sin : .... for I am 
already prevented by another lover, who has bestowed upon 
me much better ornaments, and betrothed me with the ring of 
his faith, being far more noble both in birth and dignity:' 
meaning Christ, to whom she was espoused spiritually by the 
profession of virginity. And before him TertuUian^^ speaks of 
the armuliis proniibus, or ring of espousals before marriage; 
inveighing against the Heathens for having degenerated from 
the institutions of their ancestors, which taught women mo- 
desty and sobriety, when they knew no other use of gold but 
upon one of their fingers, which their spouse adorned with the 
ring of espousals. He does not expressly say that the ring 
was used by Christians, but he speaks of it as a laudable cere- 
mony that might be used by any, and was actually used by 
the Heathens in their espousals. And in another place ^^ he 
says, * It was innocently used in their espousals : and therefore 
a Christian might lawfully be present either at the espousals, 
or the marriages of the Heathens, as at any other private and 
common solemnity, of giving a youth the toga virilism the 
habit of a man, or giving a slave a new name at his manu- 

^ Ep. 34. [al. Append. £p. i.] pronubo annulo. 

(t. a. append, p. 479 d. n. 3.) Die- ^ De IdoloL c. 16. (p. 95 c.) 

cede a me fomes peccati, . . quia jam Circa o£Bcia privatarum et commu- 

ab alio amatore pneventa sum, qui nium solemuitatum, ut togse puree, 

mihi satis meliora obtulit oma- ut sponsalium, ut nuptialium, ut 

menta, et annulo fidei suse subar- nominalium, niillum putem pericu- 

ravit me, longe te nobiUor et genere lum observari de flatu idololatrise 

et dignitate. qu» intervenit. Causse enim sunt 

S9 Apol. c. 6. (p. 7 a.) Circa foe- considerandae, quibus prsestatur of- 

minas quidem etiam ilia maiorum ficium. Eas mundas esse opinor 

instituta ceciderunt, quse modestise, per eemetipsas : quia neque vestitus 

qu^e sobrietati patrodnabantur; cum virilis, neque annulus, aut conjunc- 

aurum nulla norat prseter unico di- tic maritans de alicujus idoli bonore 

gito, quern sponsus oppignorasset descendit. 

54 The manner of XXII. iii. 

mission : for all these things were pure and clean of their own 
nature ; and neither the ring in espousals, nor the joining of 
a man and woman in marriage, descended originall j from any 
honour of an idol/ Clemens Alexandrinus is cited by Mr. 
Selden himself ^^ as an eyidence of the antiquity of the use 
of the ring in espousals among Christiians. He says, * the ring 
is giyen her not as an ornament, but as a seal, to signify the 
woman's duty in preserving the goods of her husband, because 
the care of the house belongs to her.' 
And by a 6. Another ceremony used in espousals sometimes was the 
and'joiiiing ^^^1^1^ ^^i which the man gave to the woman in confirmation 
of handB. of the Contract. This was a known rite used among Christians 
in their sacred and religious offices, to testify their cordial love 
and union and friendship one with another^ of which I have 
liqpoken in another place ^^. Therefore Constantine in one of 
Us laws ^7 made it a ceremony of espousals, being as proper 
for this act as any other. And he laid some stress upon it. 
For, if a man betrothed a woman by the interyention of a kiss, 
then, if either party died before marriage, the heirs of the 
deceased party were entitled to half the donations, and the 
survivor to the other half: but if the contract was made with- 
out the intervention of the solemn kiss, then upon the death of 
dther party before marriage, the whole of the espousal gifts 
was to be restored to the donor or his heirs at law. And this 
was made a standing law by Justinian ^^, who inserted it into 
his Code. This ceremony was an ancient rite used by the 
Heathens, together with joining of hands, in their espousals : 
as we learn from Tertnllian ^^, who says, ' virgins came veiled 

^ Uxor. Hebraic. I. a. c. 25. p. ad superstiteni perdnere pnecipi- 

352. (t. I. v. 3. p. 666,) Quale item mus, aimidiam ad defuncti vel de- 

de annulo, &c. — Conf. Clement, functse haeredes Oaculo vero 

Pedagog. 1. ^. c. 11. (p. 287. 25.) non interveniente, aive aponsua aive 

AidoNTiy o2ir oMfraU daicrvXioy cic xpv- sponsa obierit, totam infirmari dona* 

aiav' ovdi rovrov €ls K6iruovy dXX' tionem, et donatori sponao sive he* 

tU rh €aroarfiMiv€<r6ai rh. qIkm (PvKa" redibus eim reatitui. 
lajs S^ta, dt^ rijp citi/mXciov rrjt oijcov ^ Cod. 1. 5. tit. 3. De donationi- 

pias, bus ante nuptiaa, leg. 16. (t. 4. p. 

^ B. 15. cb. 3. y. 5. p. 286. 1 121.) In the same terms aa the 

^ Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 5. de precedinff citation. 
Sponsalibus, Icff. 5. (t. i. p. 26^.) ^ De Virgin. Veland. c. 11. (p. 

Si ab sponso rebus sponsse donatis, 179 d.) ... . Apud Ethnicos velat» 

interveniente oaculo, ante nuptiaa aa virum ducuntur. Si autem ad 

hunc vel illam mori contigerit, di- deaponsationem vdantur, quia et 

midiam partem rerum donatarum corpore et spiiitu mascnlo mixtce 

§ 6, 7« making espousals. 55 

to the men when thej made their espousals bj a kiss and 
joining of their right hands together; which was the first 
resignation of their virgin bashftdness, when they joined both 
in body and spirit with a man.' Now these ceremonies, being 
innocent in themselves, seem to have been adopted by Chris- 
tians with other such customs into their espousals, who never 
scrupled anj innocent rites because they had been used by 
Heathens, except such as naturaUy tended to defile them with 
some unavoidable stain of idolatry and superstition. 

7. Another part of the espousals was tibe husband's settling And by 
a dowry upon the woman, to which she should be entitled J^d^JIJl ^^ 
after his death. There are several laws in both the Codes ^ wntiDg. 
relating to this matter, and containing abundance of law-cases, 
which are not proper to be inserted in this discourse. I only 
observe two things. First, that the stipulation or promise of 
a dowry was so usual, that one of the Councils of Aries, 
mentioned by Gratian^^ has a canon that orders that no 
marriage should be made without a dowry, but that there 
should be something more or less promised according to men's 
ability. Secondly, this stipulation was commonly made in 
writing, or pubHc instrument nnder hand and seal: whence 
the civil law so often speaks of the instruTnenta dotalia, the 
instruments of dowry ^ that were ordinarily required in mar- 
riage contracts. And in allusion to these, Asterius Amasenus^, 
dissuading men from divorce, asks them, ' How they would 
rescind and cancel their covenants of marriage ? What cove- 
nants do you think I mean? Those wherein the dowry is 
written, signed with your own hand, and sealed with your 
own seal? These are strong and firm enough indeed: but 
I carry my meaning a littie higher, to the words of Adam : 

mmt, per osoulum et dexteras, per Combefis. Auctar. Nov. t. i. p. 83 

2 use primum resignaruDt pudorem, c. 9.) n&s di dO^rria-tig rhs iyuoKoyiast 

EC. hs €n\ rf ydfuif KoriSmji Kai iroias 

^ Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 13. de oUi /u \eytip; 2pa rrjs irf>oiK6s rfjt 

DotibuB. (t. I. p. 300.) 1. 2, tit. 31. avyypaff>tlcris tvravBa, irt rj <rauToy 

de Inofficiosis Dotibus. (ibid. p. xfip\ art(njfiriv» t& i3c/9X/tt marppa- 

185.) Cod. Justin. 1.5. titt. 11 — 15. yiffiiuvot rh rtkovyutpa; laxypii flip . 

(t. 4. pp. I178, seqq.) Kwcttpa, xal 2jeayr)y r^y aaif)ak€iap 

p. 1575* 58.) Nmlum sine dote fiat roO *Ad^fi iyuavrov apa<l}€p»' Tovro 

coiqagi^^>™ ■ pi^cta possibilitatem fiat (rap( cV rw aapKmv fiovt koL darovp 

doe. €K r&p ooTfloir fMov' mmj icXij^acro/ 

^ Hom. in Matth. 19, 3. (ap. ^v yvpff. 


The manner of 

XXII. iii. 

'* This is flesh of mj flesh, and bone of my bone : she shall be 
called woman." ' This is a plain allusion to the then known 
custom of m airing instruments of dowry before marriage, and 
confirming them with their hand and seal to give them legal 
strength and obUgation. 
And bj 8. To make the whole business of espousals not only the 

^^""^l^"* more solemn, but also the more firm and sure, it was usual to 
affairbefore transact the whole affiiir publicly before a competent number 
tCT^'num- ^^ chosen witnesses, that is, the presence of the friends of each 
her of wit- party, to avoid chiefly clandestine contracts. I know not whe- 
ther the law specified any certain number, otherwise than call- 
ing it Jrequentia et fides amicorum^y the presence and testi- 
mony ofjriends : but custom seems to have determined it to 
the number of ten : as appears from a noted passage in St. 
Ambrose^, where, speaking to a virgin that had fallen from 
her virgin-state, he thus argues with her : * If any woman, who 
before ten witnesses has made espousals, and is joined in mar- 
riage with a mortal man, cannot without great danger commit 
adultery : how do you think it will be, when a spiritual mar- 
riage that is made before innumerable witnesses of the Church 
and before the angels, the heavenly host, is broken by adul- 
tery ?' This gives us evidently to understand, that then the 
common practice was to celebrate both espousals and marriage 
at least before ten witnesses to attest them. 
Howferthe 9. Now when the contract of future marriage was thus settled 
^eP^uniB ^y espousals, it was not lawful for either party to join in mar- 
extended, riage with any other, under very severe penalties, which both 
the civil and ecclesiastical law inflicted, unless the time of mar- 
riage was fraudulently protracted beyond two years, which was 
the time limited for the duration of espousals. Augustus Caesar^ 
by those famous laws called tJie Julian and Papian laws, had 
so restrained the time of espousals, as that if a man did not 

M Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 7. de 
NiiptiiB, leg. I. (t. I. p. 276.) Nup- 
tias nobiles nemo redimat, nemo 
solicitet : sed publice consulatur 
affinitaa, adhibeatur frequentia pro- 
cerum. — Leg. 3, (p. 379.) . . . Nulla 
lege impediente, fiat consortium, 
quod ipsoium oonsensu atque ami- 
oorum fide firmatur. 

^ Ad Virginem Lapsum, c. 5. 

(t. a. p. 310 a. n. 19.) Nam, si inter 
decern testes confectis sponsaliis^ 
nuptiis consummatis, quaevis viro 
foemina conjuncta mortali, non sine 
magno periculo perpetrat adulteri- 
um, quid putas fore, si [al. quid 
quod] inter innumerabiles testes 
ecclesise, coram angelis, ezercitibus 
oceli, facta copula spiritalis per adul- 
terium solvitur ? 


making espousals. 


oonsummate the marriage within two years, he could reap no 
benefit from his espousals. But whereas soldiers, who were 
absent upon public affairs, might seem to require a longer time, 
Constantine by one of his laws^^ limited them to two years 
also : so that if a woman, who was espoused to a soldier, had 
waited two years, and the marriage was not completed, she 
was then at liberty to marry to any other, because then it was 
not her fault, but the man's, who protracted the marriage be- 
yond the time which the law appointed. But ' if a father, or a 
mother, or a tutor, or a guardian, or any other relation, who 
had betrothed a yirgin to a soldier, should afterward, before 
the two years were expired, give her in marriage to any other, 
he should be liable to be banished, as guilty of a perfidious 
breach of contract/ By another law^ he also appointed, ' that 
if a man, who had espoused a woman, should afterward refuse 
to marry her, upon any frivolous pretence that he did not like 
her morals, or her pedigree, or started any other such trifling 
objection, the woman might retain whatever gifts he had made 
her upon espousal, and recover of him whatever more he had 
promised her upon the same score, though it was yet actually 
remaining in his own possession.' And, on the other hand, if 
the woman, who was espoused at full age, that is, when she 
was twelve years old, refused to make good her contract ; or 
her parents or guardians would not permit her to do it ; or if 
a widow, who was of age to make her own espousal contract, 
afterward fled from it ; then they were not only to forfeit all 
their espousal gift», but also to be amerced quadruple for their 
fedseness and breach of contract : as appears from several laws 

» CJod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 5. de 
Sponsftlibus, leg. 4. (t. i. p. 266.) 
Patri aut matri puellse, aut tutori, 
vel curatori, aut cuilibet ejus afiini 
noD liceat, cum prius militi puellam 
despondent, eandam alii in matri- 
monium tradero. Quod si intra In- 
ennium, ut perfidiae reus in insulam 
relegetur. Quod si pactis nuptiis 
transcurso biennio, qm puellam de- 
spondent, alteri eandem sociaverit, 
in culpam sponsi potius quam pu- 
ell« referatur, nee quicquam noceat 
ei, qui post biennium pueUam ma- 
rito alteri tradiderit. — ^Vid. Cod. Jus- 
tin. 1. 5. tit. I. de Sponsalibus, leg. 2. 

(t. 4. p. mo.) Si is, qui puellam 
suis nuptiis pactus est, intra bien- 
nium exsequi nuptias in eadem pro- 
vincia degens supersederit, ejusque 
spatii fine decurso, in alterius postea 
oonjunctionem puella pervenerit, ni- 
hil fraudis ei sit, qux nuptias matu- 
rando vota sua diutius eludi non 
passa est. 

M Ibid. leg. 2. (t. I. p. 262.) . . . 
Siquidem sponte vir sortiri noluerit 
uxorem, id quod ab eo donatum fu- 
erat, nee repetatur traditum ; et si- 
quid apud donatorem resedit, ad 
sponsam submotis ambagibus trans- 
feratur, &c. 

58 The manner of XXII. iiL 

of Theodosius and Honorius^?, which intimate also, that this 
was the old Julian and Papian law of the Roman empire firom 
the time of Augustus. And though Leo and Anthemius a little 
moderated this penalty, jet they did not quite take it away, 
but only reduced it from quadruple to double, and so Justi- 
nian^s left it as the standing law of the empire in his Code. 
The ecclesiastical law was no less seyere against all such perfi- 
diousness in espousal contracts. For the Council of Eliberis^- 
orders, ' that if any parents broke the fedth of espousals, they 
should for their crime be kept back three years from the com* 
munion.' And ' if either the man or the woman, who were 
espoused, were guilty of the same crime, they should undergo 
the same punishment.' 

It was further appointed by the Council of Ancyra \ ' that if 
any one stole a woman, that was espoused to another, she 
should be taken from him, and restored to the former, who 
had before espoused her, although the raptor had committed a 
rape and done violence to her.' And the Council of Trullo^ 
determines it to be downright adultery for a man to marry a 
woman that was betrothed to another, during the life of him 
who had espoused her. Siricius^ says, it was a sacrilegious 
act for a man to marry a woman that was before espoused to 
another : ^ because it was violating the benediction, which the 

^ Cod. Theod. I.3. tit. 5. de Spon- Si . . sponsus vel sponsa in lUoffravi 

salibus, leg. 6. See before, 8. 3. n. 7 1, crimine fiierint deprehensi . . . Supe- 

preceding. — Ibid. leg. 7 . (t. i . p. 2 ^ i . ) rior sententia servetur. 

Si pater pactum de nuptiifl fili» ini- 1 C. 1 1. (ibid. p. 1460 e.) TAc /iin;- 

erit, et humana sorte consumtuB ad <mvBfiaas fe<$pcv, xai usrh, rovra vir* 

vota non potuerit pervenire, id inter SKKvnf apjray€i<ras9 tfoo(€¥ oirodido- 

eponsoa nrmum ratumque perma- aOai rois npofunfirra>a-afi4vou, c2 Koi 

neat, quod a patre dooebitur defini- fiUuf vn avr&y iroBouv, 

turn : nihilque permittatur habere 3 Q. 98. (t. 6. p. 11 83 c.) 'O Mptf 

momenti, quod cum defensore, ad ftytioTtvOtla'ap yvpoUa, Iri rov fjonj- 

quern minoris commoda pertine- vrtva'afUpov {&ptos, irp6s ydftov icoc- 

bunt, dooebitur fuisse transactum, vrnviav ay6fuvos, rf rrjs funxtias viro* 

&c. — Conf. tit. 6. leg. i. (p. 373.) et MitrSa iyKkiifuxn, 

tit. ID. lea. I. (p. 287.) s Ep. I. ad Himerium, c 4. (CO. 

M Cod. 1. 5. tit. I. de Sponsali- t. a. ]>. 1019 a.) De conjugali autem 

bus, leg. 5. (t. 4. p. mi.) Mulier violatione requisisti, si desponsatam 

juris 8ui constituta, arrarum spon- alii pudlam alter in matrimonium 

salium nomine usque ad duplum possit aocipere. Hoc ne fiat omni- 

teneatur, &c. ous modis inhibemus : quia iUa be- 

^ C. 54. (t. I. p. 976 c.) Si qui nedictio, quam nuptur» sacerdos 

parentesf fidem fregerint sponsalio- imponit, apud fideles cujusdam sa- 

rum, triennii tempore abstmeant se crilegii instar est, si uUa transgies- 

[al. abstineanturj a communione. sione violetur. 

§ g, lo. making espcusdU. 59 

priest had giren to the woman espoused in order to her future 
marriage/ By which we are given fijrther to understand, that 
a ministerial benediction was sometimes used in espousals as 
well as marriage, though they were then separate acts from 
one another. But the obligation of espousals is not to be ex- 
tended further than the law required, which in several cases 
admitted of just limitations and exceptions ; as in case a parent 
disposed of a child in espousals before she was ten years old ; 
or at any other age ae^ainst her own free choice and consent ; 
or in cai a jadgTof a pro^oe made espouBals with a pro! 
vincial woman during the year of his administration ; or any 
other man protracted the time of marriage beyond the two 
years, which was limited by law for the duration of espousals. 
In all these cases espousals became void, and it was no crime 
not to fulfil them, because the laws themselves only made them 
obligatory with such provisions and restrictions. 

10. There remains one question more to be resolved con- Whether 
coming espousals ; that is, whether in whole or in part the gim^i^^a 
ceremony of espousals was simply and absolutely necessary to ahsointdy 
go before a marriage to make it just and legal? These are two to^^eoede 
very different questions. Whether it be necessary to observe an fj^* ^^ 
espousal contract ? and. Whether it be necessary to make such riage ? 
a contract at all before marriage, in order to make the mar- 
riage l^al ? And as in the &*st question the law made the 
obligation precisely necessary, except in cases otherwise by 
law determined : so in the second question it laid no general 
obligation upon men at all to make formal espousals before 
marriage, but only upon some certain orders of men, for the 
dignity and conveniency of their order. This appears plainly 
from a law of Theodosius Junior, wherein he allows the legality 
of marriage without any of the ceremonies of espousal pre- 
ceding ^ : ' If the instruments of donation, or the instruments 
of dowry be wanting, or the nuptial pomp, or other celebrities 
of marriage, let no one reckon upon that account that the mar- 

^ God. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 7. de Nup- tern ; vel ex eo natis liberie jura 

tiifl, leg. 3. (t. I. p. 379.) Si dona- posse legitimomm auferri; si inter 

tionum ante nuptias, yel dotis in- pares honestate personas, nulla lege 

strumenta defuerint, pompa etiam unpediente, fiat oonsortiuni, quod 

aliaque nuptiamm celebritas omit- ipsorum consensu atque amicorom 

tatur, nnllus sestimet ob id deesse nde firmatur. 
recte alias inito matrimonio firmita- 

60 The numner of XXII. iii. 

riage is not good, which is otherwise rightly made ; or that the 
children bom in such a marriage are not to be esteemed legi- 
timate; if the marriage be celebrated between persons of equal 
rank, without any legal impediment, with the consent of both 
parties, and the testimony and approbation of friends.' 

Here, as Gothofred* observes, four things are precisely re- 
quired to a legal marriage. First, equality of condition : a per- 
son of liberal fortune was not to marry a slave, or one of vile 
and infamous character. 2. No legal impediment must pro- 
hibit their uniting : a Christian must not marry an infidel or 
a Jew, nor one of his near kindred ; nor a provincial judge a 
woman of his own province in the time of his administration : 
because these were things prohibited by the law. 3. There 
must be free consent of both parties, without which no mar- 
riage was valid or firm. 4. There must be consent of parents, 
and a sufficient number of friends to attest the fact and prevent 
clandestine marriage. These things being observed, there was 
no necessity of a preceding espousal, or any of the ceremonies 
and formalities of it, to make the marriage good in law; all ne- 
cessaries being thus provided in the act of marriage itself, as it 
is now with us at this day, among whom the formality of espou- 
sals is in a great measure laid aside. 

And thus the matter continued from the time of Theodosius 
to Justinian, who thought it reasonable to make a little ex- 
ception to the former law. For in one of his Novels^, made 

4 [Id loc. (ibid. p. 280.). . . . Qua- domum, et fateatur sanctissimse il- 

tuor conditiones in nuptiis hac lege lius ecclesiae defensori. Die autem 

reqairit Theodosius Junior, &c. adhibens tree aut quatuor exinde 

En.l reverendissimorum clerioorum at- 

6 Novel. 74. c. 4. n. I. (t. 5. p. testationem, conficiat, declarantem^ 

355.) In majoribuB itaque dignitati- quia sub ilia indictione, illo mense, 

bus et qusecunque usque ad nos, et ilia die mensis, illo imperii nostri 

senatores, et magnificentissimos il- anno, consule illo, venerunt apud 

lustres, neque fieri bsec omnino pa- eum in illam orationis domum, iUe 

timur : sea sit omnino et dos et et ilia, et coiyuncti sunt alterutri : et 

antenuptialis donatio, et [ad] omnia bujusmodiprotestationem,siquidem 

2u» nonestiora decent nomina. acciperevohintaut amboconvenien- 

luantum vero in militiis honestiori- tes aut alteruter eorum, et hoc agant, 

bus, et neffotiis, et omnino profes- et subscribant ei, et sanctissimse ec- 

sionibus dignioribus est; si volu- clesise defensor, et reliqui tres, aut 

erit legitime uxor! oopulsori, et non quantoscunquevoluerint: nontamen 

£aoere nuptialia documenta : non sic minus tribus Uteris hoc significanti- 

auomodocunque, et sine cautela ef- bus. — N. a. (ibid.) Si vero etiam hoc 

fuse, et sine probatione, hoc agat : illi non egeiint, ille tamen talem 

sed veniat ad quandam orationis reponat chartam venerabilis illius 

§ lO. 

making espousals. 


after his Code, which has the former law of Theodoeiaa in the 
same terms, he afterward made a distinction betwixt the nobles 
and those of the inferior order : ' The greater dignities, and 
senators, and men in high stations, were not to marr j without 
first settling the dowry and ante-nuptial donation, and all other 
ceremonies, which became great names. But the better sort of 
military men, and tradesmen, and men of honourable profes- 
sion, might, if they pleased, marry without instruments of do- 
nation and dowry; yet not altogether without stipulation of 
dowry and evidence of their marriage. For they were to go 
to a church, and there before the defensor of the church make 
public profession of their marriage : and he, taking three or 
four of the most reverend of the clergy of the Church, shall 
draw a public attestation, sho?nng, that in such an indiction, 
and in such a month, on such a day of the month, in such a 
year of our reign, when such an one was consul, such a man 
and such a woman came before him in that church, and were 
joined together in matrimony. And if both of them, or either 
of them, are minded to carry away with them a copy of such 
attestation, the defensor of the church and the other three 
shall make one for them and subscribe it. And however that 
be, the defensor shall lay up the original attestation in the ar- 
chives of the church ; tJiat it may be a muniment to all ; and 
they shall not be reputed to have come together with nuptial 
affection, unless this be done, and the matter be so witnessed 
with letters testimonial When this is so done, both the mar- 
riage and the offspring shall be reputed legitimate.' This is 
the order to be observed, where there is no instrument of 
dowry or of ante-nuptial donation. For the testimony of bare 
witnesses without writing is suspicious. This was the order 
for persons of a middle rank and condition to avoid clandestine 

Then the law goes on^ for persons of the lowest rank and 

ecclesise defensor in ^usdem Banctis- 
flimse ecclesise archivis . . . pnedictas 
Bubscriptiones habentem, ut recon- 
ditum sit omnibus ex hoc munimen; 
et non aliter videatur nuptial! af- 
fectu eosdem convenisse, nisi tale 
aliquid agatur, et omnino ex Uteris 
causa testimonium habeat. His ita 
gestis, et nuptias, et ex eis sobolem 

esse leffitimam. Hoc autem didici- 
mus, m)i non dotis aut antenuptia- 
lis donationis sit documentum. Fi- 
dem enim in solis testibus suspec- 
tam habentes ad preesentem veni- 
mus dispositionem. 

^ ^' 3- (P* 35.^0 Quisquis autem 
in abjecta degit vita, parvse qui- 
dem substantia dominua consistens. 

6S Tks manner of XXII. iii. 

poorer condition, that is, husbandmen and common soldiers, 
who were occupied in tilling the land and war, and were sup- 
posed to be ignorant of dyil causes or the law ; their marriage 
is declared legitimate, though they came together only before 
witaesses without any instaunent in writing at alL Tea, if such 
an one took a woman for his wife upon oath^, touching the 
holj Gk>spels, whether in the church or out of the church, the 
marriage was legitimate, if the woman could make legal proof 
that she was so married to him ; and she might daim a fourth 
part of his substance, though she had no instrument of dowry 
to show for it. 

I have transcribed this long passage of Justinian, both be- 
cause it shows in general the different ways of marrying that 
were then allowed by the civil law, and also in particular that 
there was no absolute necessity of the preceding formality of 
ante^nuptial instruments of dowry or donation to make a mar- 
riage firm and valid in all cases. And by this we may fSurly 
imderstand and interpret that difficult canon ^ of the first 
Council of Toledo, which orders, ^ that a man who has not 
a wife, but only a concubine instead of a wife, shall not be 
rejected from the commuAion, provided he be content to be 
joined to one woman only, whether concubine or wife, as he 
pleases.' Before the matter was fully settied by these laws of 
Theodosius and Justinian, a woman that was married to a man 
without the ante-nuptial instruments of dowry and donation, 
and other formalities of the law, was not called a wife, but 
only a concubine in the language of the law : but in the ec- 

in novisaima vero vitse parte jacens, aut in orationis domibus, jurantea 
habeat etiam in his licentiam. Sed habituros se eaa legitimas tizores, . . 
neqae agricolas, aut milites armatoB, judicavimua etiam hoc oportere san- 
et quoB lex caligatos appeUat, hoc cire : ut si mulier ostendere potu- 
est viliores et obscuriores, non per- erit modis legitimis, quia secundum 
scrutamur, quibus civiHum causa- hanc figuram vir earn acceperit do- 
rum ignorantia est, et solius circa mi, ut eam uzorem legitimam habe- 
terram onerationis, . . . lioentia sit eis ret, et filiorum legitimorum matrem, 
et ex non scripto convenire, et ma- &c. — Conf. Novel. 117. oc. 4 et 5. 
trimonise celebrare inter utrosque: (pp. 503, 504.) 

sintque filii legitimi, &c. ^ C. 17. (t. 2. p. 1226 b.) 

7 Ibid. c. 5. (t. 5. p. 356.) Quo- Is qui non habet uxorem, et pro 

niam autem interpellationibns, que uxore concubinam habeat, a com- 

nobis fiunt, semper omnium assidue munione non repellatur, tantum ut 

mulieres audivimus ingemiscentes et unius mulieris, aut uxoris, aut con- 

dicentes, quia quidam earum concu- cubinse, ut ei placuerit, sit oon- 

piscentia detenti, ducant eas in do- junctione oontentus. 
mibus suis sacra tangentes eloquia. 

§ lo, iv. I. making eepowaU, 6S 

clesiastical sense she was reputed a true wife, because she 
bound herself by marriage contract to be just and true to 
one man, though they joined together without the preceding 
formaUties of ante>nuptial espousal, which the law then re- 
quired: and therefore the fiftthers at Toledo made no dis- 
tinction between a wife and a concubine, as to what concerned 
the discipline of the Church; proyided the woman, whom the 
law called a concubine, was in reality a wife by marriage con- 
tract ; though she wanted the formality of espousal, which was 
then required in the civil law, but afterwards relaxed in some 
cases by the edicts of Theodosius and Justinian, as I hare here 
shown, after the time of the Council of Toledo. 

And thus much for the laws and rules concerning espousak 
before marriage : I now come to the rites and ceremonies of 
marriage itself. 


Of the manner of celebrating marriage in the ancient 


1. Hbbb the first questions will be, By whom the ceremonies ilie solem- 
and solemnities of marriage were anciently performed ? And, ^|^![JL 
Whether the benediction of a minister was necessary, as in between 
after-ages, to make a marriage firm and good according to the nsnaUj 
laws of Church and State ? To answer these questions aright ^^^''^ 
we must premise some necessary distinctions : i. Between mar- mmistenof 
riages made among Christians one with another, and marriages ^,^^^^^ 
made between Christians and infidels, Jews, Heathens, and begmning. 
heretics. 2, Between marriages made according to the tenor 
and direction of the laws, and marriages made against them. 
3. Between disapproying of the undue manner of a marriage, 
and declaring it absolutely no marriage or utterly null and 

Now if the question be, first, concerning Christians marry- 
ing one with another. By whom the solemnity of marriage was 
peorformed ? By a minister of the Church, or by any other ? 
I answer, that it is most probable, that in fact for the first 
three hundred years, the solemnities of marriage were usually 
performed by the ministeifs of the Church. But, secondly, if 
Christians happened to marry with Jews, or Heathens, or 

64 2%6 mtxwMT of XXII. ir. 

heretics, as they sometimes did, then, as the Church did 
altogether discourage such marriages, so it is probable that 
the ministers of the Church never had any hand or concern 
in solemnizing them. But, thirdly, whilst the Roman laws 
allowed such marriages, it was not in the power of the Church 
to reverse or annul them, but only to punish the delinquents 
by her censures. Only in such cases as the laws prohibited, 
as all incestuous marriages, and children marrying against the 
consent of their parents, which the Roman laws not only pro- 
hibited, but many times annulled; I say, in such cases the 
Church could go a Uttie further, being warranted by the laws 
of 'the State as well as the laws of God to declare such 
marriages void. And, fourthly, though the Church disap- 
proved of any undue manner of marriage that the State for- 
bade ; as marrying without espousals and instruments of dowry, 
whilst the civil law was against it ; yet she did not proceed so 
far, as to declare such marriages absolutely no marriages or 
utterly null and void. 

Concerning the three last points there are no disputes worth 
mentioning among learned men. But concerning the first 
point a great dispute is raised by Mr. Selden : for he will by 
no means allow ^, that it was the general practice among 

' Uxor Hebraica, 1. 3. c. 29. p. Forcatulus, Alexander Sardus alii- 

305. (t. I. V. 3. p. 694.) In sanctio- que nonnulli. £t interdum sic fac- 

nibusimperatonis sen jure Csesareo, turn, pro arbitratu scilicet contra- 

non ab antistitibus sacris introducto, hentium communi, quorum essent 

<]uod scilicet de re nuptiali habetur in potestate, non dimtemur. Sed 

in Digestis et utroque Codice multi- de jure ejusmodi sseculis antiquiori- 

plex, sacri ministerii mentio bus ita recepto nullibi liquet. . . . Et 

sane est nulla. In Digestis quidem quod habetur in Theodori Prodromi, 
titulus est De JRt^tf ^TttoKarum, quern scriptoris inter Grsecos recentioris, 
e Paganismo illuc traduxit Triboni- Amaranto, de ridiculis Stratoclis 
anus, sacra Paganorum nuptialia senis plane capularis et Myrillse 
horumque appendices, jusque de ea pueUuke nuptiis ; ilium nempe, si- 
re pontificium primo innuentem. mulac tabulae nuptiales confectse 
Sed sacra ilia, (]ua sacra, prorsus erant lectseque, dixisse, Tt hi but- 
abolita Christianis. Immo llieodo- fUXXofiev tfri, xal ov np6s rov vccby 

sius etValentinianus Augusti vetuere Sniiuv ; statimque ad Isidis, 

in basilicis, id est seoibus sacris, velut ex receptissimo more, sponsos 

nuptias celebrari. Sed id sumi solet amicosque ivisse ; hoc inquam ex 

pro eo, quod est convivia, tripudia, ritu inter Christianos recentiores 

id ^enus nuptialia hilaritatis alia passim admisso, quo templa sponsi 

inibi haberi; non de ipso contractu adire solent, ibi natum, non ex more 

reliquoque ibi ritu sacro nuptiali, aliquo ejusmodi apud Pa^anos ve- 

guaiem ad aras deorum etiam in teres seu qui aevi erant illius, cui 

Paganismo, velut ex receptissimo fabulam suam affingit Theodoras 

more fieri solitum volunt Stephanus ille. 

§ I. celebrating marriage. 66 

Christians, when they made marriages one with another, to 
have the marriage solemnized by a minister of the Church. 
He owns it was sometimes so done by the choice of the con- 
tracting parties, or their parents inclining to it; but he asserts, 
they were under no obligation of law so to do, nor did any 
general custom prevail to give it so much as the title of a 
general practice. But Mr. Selden in this is contradicted by 
eminent men of his own profession. He himself owns ^^, that 
Dionysius Grothofred and Hotoman are against him in point of 
law: and Jacobus Oothofred, the famous commentator upon 
the Theodosian Code, is against him in point of practice. The 
former Gk>thofred^^ and Hotoman ^^ are of opinion, that the 
words vota nuptiarum in one of Justinian^s laws, mean ' the 
celebration of marriage by the clergy:' the other Gothofred 
thinks the passage hardly express enough to be a full proof of 
the matter : but then he is clear against Mr. Selden in point of 
practice. For he says ^^, the Ancient Church in general, and 
the African Church in particular, were ever wont to celebrate 

1^ Ibid. p. 306. (ad pag. im.) potest : primum ex TertuUiano, qui 

Jusdnianus quidem statuit, si nup- Lib.adUxorem ita scribit: Undesuf-^ 

tiarum tempus in pactum aliquod, ficiam,Sfc, Alterum testimonium est 

sen conditionem venisset, id de ipsa ex 1. i. Sancimus, 24. C. de Nupt., 

nuptiarum festivitate solum intelli- ubi imperator Justinianus statuit, 

gendum, quod explicat ipse de tem- ut ea demum rata sint matrimonia, 

pore, ex quo vota nuptiarum re ipsa in quibus nuptiarum accessit festi- 

processennt. Sunt, qui benedicti- vitas, &c. 

onem hie sacram volunt intelligi ; ^^ In Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 7. de 

alii rectius actum qualemcunque, Nuptiis, leg. 3. (t. i. p. 280. col. 

quo nuptise celebratae. dextr.) Sea quid de tiiKoyiq. seu 

11 Not. in Cod. Justin. 1. 5. tit. ItpdKoyiq. dicemus, quae hie non ex- 

4. de Nuptiis, leg. 24. [Juxt. Ed. primitur? De Paganico ritu, ubi 

Amstel. 1063. (p. 150.) Futa sacra sacrificium et auspices adhibitos 

benedictio. But in the edition of notum est, non qusero: verum de 

Justinian's Codex, which I have sacra benedictione in Christianorum 

used for verifying, (Gaildorph. Lug- nuptiis. Certe enim hoc Codice 

dun. 1627.) while I find the law, nulla mentio occurrit : neque Theo- 

(t. 4. p. 1 141.) I do not see the dosius Junior id hac lege requirit: 

comment. Ed.] neque Valens Imp. Lep. 6. inf. de 

13 Qua>st. Illustr. q. 25. [This Tironibus, Neque etiam uUus est 

dtation is indistinct. With Grischo- hac de re apud Justinianum locus 

vius I can discover no express men- expressus, etsi Leg. 24. Cod. hoc tit, 

tion of the vota nuptiarum. The nuptiarum festivitas et vota requi- 

Author probably alludes to the fol- rantur. Et veterem tamen ecclesiam 

lowing passage : (Oper. Hotoroann. et in his Africanam ea usam colli- 

t. I. part. I. P* 921 c. 9.) Vetustis- ^tur, non ex uno Tertulliani loco, 

simum autem Christianorum insti- Primus occurrit fine Lib. 2. ad Ux- 

tutum hoc esse, ut matrimonia pa- orem : Unde sufficiam, Sfc. See be- 

1am ecdesise et ministrorum preci- fore, ch. 2. s. 2. p. 23. n. 91. 
bus consecrentur, facile demonstrari 


66 The manner of XXII. yi. 

marriages by the Bolemn benediction of the clergy. And he 
gives very good proofs of his assertion. 

His first evidences are from Tertullian, who in one place has 
these remarkable words ^^ : * How can I sufficiently set forth 
the happiness of that marriage which the Churdi makes or 
conciliates, and the oblation confirms, and the benediction 
seals, and the angels report, and the Father ratifies.' In 
which words, Gothofred says i^, the Chmrch is «aid to eon- 
ciliate the marrioffe, because in those times men commonly 
asked wives of the ecclesiastics, and consulted them about their 
marriage, and the profession of marriage was made before 
them, and finally the ecclesiastics gave wives by their bene- 
diction. He adds, that Tertullian in this place alludes to the 
five rites of the Gentiles used in their marriages: i. The 
proxenetce, or conciliators of marriage. 2. The offering of 
the kiss and espousal donations. 3. The obsignation of the 
instruments. 4. The testimony and presence of witnesses and 
friends. 5. The consent of parents in the marriage of their 
children. To which Tertullian opposes as many things inter- 
vening in a Christian marriage, viz. i. The conciliation of the 
Church or the ecclesiastics. 2. The oblation of prayers. (I add, 
perhaps, also the oblation of the eucharist which commonly 
went together.) 3. The obligation made by the benediction 
of the ecclesiastics. 4. The renunciation, fSaith, and testimony 
of the angels. 5. The ratification or confirmation of our 
Father who is in heaven. A second passage alleged by 
Gothofred out of Tertullian is, where he speaks of clandestine 
marriages ^^, saying, 'Among us, secret marriages, that is. 

^* Ad Uxor. 1. 3. c. I. See be- arramm: Obsi^ationemtabulanim: 

fore, ch. 2. 8. 2. p. 33. n. 91. Amioorum testiumque fidem et pne- 

1^ Ubi supra, (ibid. p. 380.) Quo sentiam : Parentis denique consen- 

quidem loco ecclesia matrimonium sum, si de liberonim nuptiis agere- 

coDciliare dicitur, quia ab ec- tur: quibus TertuUianus totidem, 

clesiasticis ferme conjuges postula- quae in matrimonio Christiano in- 

bantur, supeique matrimonio hi terveniebant, opponit: Conciliatio- 

consulebantur, apud hos matrimonii nem ecclesise sen ecclesiasticorum ; 

professio fiebat ; benedictione deci- Oblationemprecum:Obsignationem 

que ecclesiastici conjuges dabant : quae fit benedictione ecclesiastico- 

et in summam illo loco TertuUianus rum : Renuntiationem, fidem, testi- 

alludit ad quinque ritus gentilitios, monium an^elorum: Ratihabitionem 

qui in nuptiis interveniebant : Con- Patris nostn ccelestis. 

ciliatores scilicet sen proxenetas *^ De Pudicit. c. 4. (p. 557 b.) 

nuptiarum: Oblationem osculi et Ideo penes nos occultse quoque 

§ 1* celebrating marriage. 67 

such aa are not publicly professed before the Church, are in 
danger of being condemned as fornication and adultery.' And 
in another place ^7^ speaking of second marriages and dis- 
suading all persons from them, he says, ' How canst thou 
ask such a marriage of those, who cannot themselves have 
what thou askest of them ? For the bishop, the presbyters, 
and the deacons, and the widows of the Church, whose society 
thou rejectest, are all monogamists, or but once married. Yet 
they will give husbands and wives as they do morsels, that is, 
to every one that asks, and join you together in the virgin 
Church, the only spouse of one Christ.' Mr. Selden '^ excepts 
against this passage, as making the widows have the same 
concern in the marriage as the ministers : but that is a plain 
mistake ; for the widows might be concerned in giving their 
consent and approbation, which TertuUian calls the conciUatian 
of marriage; but the ministers were concerned further in 
giving the benediction also. This benediction is spoken of 
likewise by St. Ambrose >9, as the custom of the Italic Churches 
in his time: * For,' says he, 'when marriage ought to be sancti- 
fied by the sacerdotal veil and benediction, how can that be 
called a marriage where there is no agreement in the faith V 
Oothofred thinks also that the same custom may be deduced 
out of those words of Ignatius ^^ : 'It becomes both men and 
women when they marry, to make the union ^crd yvdfxris rod 
iviaKihov, with the wiU and direction of the bishop, that the 
marriage may be according to the Lord, and not merely 

coDJunctiones, id est, non prius ^^ [Uxor Hebraica, 1. 3. c. aS. 

apud eccleaiain professee, juzta moe- (t. i. v. a. p. 689.) Dabant i^ritur 

cbiam et fornicationem judicari pe- epiacopi, presbyteri, diaconi, vidue 

riclitantur, &c. maritoB, qui ab ipsia petebantur. 

17 De Monogam. c. 1 1. ({). 531 c.) Sed neque ad ipsum nuptialem con- 

Ut igitur in Domino [al. in DeoJ tractum necesaariamve ejus celebra- 

nubas aecundum Legem et Aposto- tionem, a ministro sacro peragen- 

lum, si tamen vel hoc curas, quaJis dam, aut id ipsam simplicem bene- 

ea id matrimonium poatulana^ auod dictionem solemnem hsec attinent. 

eis, a quibua {MMtulaa, non licet Ita enim pariter et ad viduas spec- 

habere ? Ab epiacopo monogamo, taret simile officium. Gruchot>?\ 

a preabyteris et diaconia ejusdem '^ £0.70. [al. 19.] ad Vigil, (t.3. 

aacramentr, a viduia, quarum sectam p. 844 d. n. 7.) Nam cum ipsum 

in te recuaaati ? Et illi plane aic da- conju^um velamine sacerdotali et 

bunt viros et uzorea quomodo buc« benedictione aanctificari oporteat, 

cellaa : hoc enim eat apud Ulos, quomodo potest conjugium did ubi 

Omnipetenti te dabis, et conjungent non est fiaei concordia ? 

vos in eccleaia virgine, unius Cuisti ^ £p. ad Polycarp. See before, 

unica aponaa. cb. 2. a. a. p. aa. n. 89. 

P 2 

'68 The manner of XXII. iy. 

according to the iiistigation of their own lusts.' And farther, 
from what Gregory Nazianzen says of the marriage of Olym- 
pias^^, that a great number of bishops were present at the 
solemnity, and that he himself was present in heart and will, 
celebrating the festival, and joining the right hands of the 
young couple together, and both of them to the hand of Grod. 
Where joining of them to the hand of God is plainly but 
another expression for the benediction. This is further eyident 
from the fourth Council of Carthage, which orders ^^, * that 
both the man and the woman that are to be blessed by the 
priest should be presented by their parents, or by their paror- 
nymphiy bridemen, who stood in the stead of their parents.' 

Thus far the evidence produced by Gothofred. To which 
we may add that of St. Austin, who lived at the time of the 
Council of Carthage, where he tells us ^, it ' was in the 
bishop's power absolutely to give women in marriage, but they 
could not give them to men that were Heathens.' The bene- 
diction is not here expressly mentioned, but considering the 
whole affair was in the bishop's power, the benediction may 
easily be inferred from it. And Possidius in his Life makes 
express mention of it : for he says 2*, * it was St. Austin's 
opinion, which he learned from the Institutes of St. Ambrose, 
that a priest indeed ought not to be a solicitor of marriage in 
making matches between men and women: but when they 
themselves had agreed upon the matter, then at their joint re- 
quest he ought to be present, either to confirm their agree- 
ment, or give it the benediction.' In like manner St. Chry- 
sostom^-^, inveighing against the lascivious and diabohcal pomps 

3» Ep. 57. (t. I. p. 815 b.) sacerdotem, ut vel eorum jam pacta 

Kai iraprjv enia'Kdjrtov ofuko£' cVct r^ et placita firmarentur, vel benedice- 

yc Povkeo'dai xal iropcc/u, xal rentur. 

ovv€opTdC», Koi Tov v€&v TOf dcfiof ^ Hom. 48. Ill Geii. t. 3. p. 681. 

oXX^Xoiff T€ cfi/3aXXa> Koi dfKJxyripcLs (t. 4. p. 490 e.^ Tc ra <r€pva rod 

TJ Tov S€ov. ydfjMv (iarofiir«V€is fivartipta ; biov 

^ C. 13. (t. 2. p. 1 201 a.) Sponsus &iravra ravra mrtkauvtiv, Kai r^v aUiiii 

et sponsa, cum benedicendi sunt a ck vpooifiiav itmaibtvtiv rriv Kdprfv, 

sacerdote, a parentibus suia vel pa- km Upias koXcIv, Kai bC cv^ov koX 

ranymphis offerantur, &c. tVKoyiSiv rtjv 6p^pouw tov avvoiKe- 

^ Ep. 234. ad Rustic. See before, <riov fnMT<f>ivy^w, wa Ktii 6 v66os tov 

cb. 2. 8. 1, p. 19. n. 75. wpxfilov ad^ijTai, koI ttjs Koprfs ff o-tt- 

^ C. 27. Oper. Augustin. t. 10. <^po<rvin; arLTtiinfTcu, koI bih iravTOP 

append, p. 276 a.) Sed plane ad boc to Ttjs dpenjs ^pya €lo-€\€vaTjTai €ls 

Bibi jam illis consentientibus, peti- tt/v oticidv €K€ivrjp, Koi ircurcu tov Aia- 

tum interesse debere [affirmsibat] pdKov at prj^aycu €Knodoiv ccroavrcu. 

S I, 2. celebrcUing marrioffe. 69 

which some used at their marriages, says, ' they ought rather 
to teach the virgin modesty in the entrance upon marriage, 
and to call for the priest, and by prayer and benediction tie 
the knot of unity in marriage ; that the husband's love might 
increase, and the wife's chastity might be improved ; that the 
works of virtue might enter into the house by all that was 
then done, and the wiles and works of the Devil be cast out.' 
This is a plain account of what that father desired, and what 
was practised by the better sort of Christians in such solemni- 
ties. Siricius, bishop of Rome, lived about the same time with 
St. Chrysostom and St Austin, and he particularly mentions 
the benediction of the priest as used in marriage" giving it 
as a reason, why a woman that is espoused to a man ought 
not to be married to any other, ' because among Christians it 
was reckoned a sort of sacrilege to violate the benediction 
which was given by the priest to a woman upon her espousal.' 
And after him Pope Hormisdas, who lived about the year 520, 
a little before the time of Justinian, made a decree ^7, < that no 
one should make a clandestine marriage, but receirmg the 
benediction of the priest, should marry publicly in the Lord.' 

These evidences are abundantly sufficient to show what was 
the general practice of Christians in this matter from the very 
first ages. 

2. And as to any exceptions that may be alleged against In what 

C&B6S it 

such an universal practice, they are of little moment. Some might hap. 
marriages indeed, notwithstanding all the care and advice of P®"!**®.^® 
the Church, were made between Christians and Heathens: 
and in that case the ministers of the Church could have no 
hand in the marriage, nor give any benediction to it, because 
it was directly contrary to the rules of the Church that any 
Christian should marry an Heathen. Again, some canons dis- 
couraged, though they did not absolutely forbid second and 
third marriages after the death of a first wife or husband, and 

KOI aMi, fuff rfio^s r&y filov dtoytf- ^ £p. I. ad Himer. c. 4. See be- 

(Tiv [dfo^uo-ty. Savil.] Agreeably to fore, en. 3. s. 9. p. 58. n. 3. 

this St.ba8il calls marriage the bond ^ Decret. c. 6. (CO. t. 4. p. 1556 

or yoke that men take upon them by d.) NuUus fidelis, cujuscunque con- 

benediction, Horn. 7. in Hexaemer. ditionis sit, occulte nuptias faciat; 

t. I. p. 81. (t. I. part. I. p. 95 a.) sed, benedictione accepta a sacerdote 

'O Tfjs dfwrttas dto'fibsf 6 di^ tvkoylas publice nubat in Domino. 

70 The manner of XXII. iv. 

forbid any presbyter to be present at them. The Council of 
Neocaesarea has a canon ^^ to this purpose : * No presbyter 
shall be present at the marriage-feast of those that mairy 
twice: for a digamist requires penance. How then shall a 
presbyter by his presence at such feasts give consent to such 
marriages ? ' And if he might give no consent to them by his 
presence, much less might he authorize them by his solemn 
benediction. Peter Martyr ^^ and the Gloss upon Gratian^o 
understand this canon as forbidding the clergy to have any 
concern in the marriage of proper polygamists, or such as 
married a second wife whilst the first was liying ; which is no 
more than all the clergy are prohibited at this day : for poly- 
gamy may not now be authorized by sacerdotal benediction. 
But if we take the canon in the common sense of marrying a 
second wife aiter the first was dead, and suppose the clergy 
forbidden to give the benediction to such marriages : yet this 
was but a canon of a particular Council, which nerer much 
prevailed. For we are sure in fact that second marriages had 
generally sacerdotal benediction, as well as the first: and 
therefore whatever might happen upon the strength of that 
canon, could be no great exception to the general practice. 
But that which gave the greatest Uberty to marry without 
sacerdotal benediction, was the allowance which the laws of 
the empire granted to other ways of marrying besides that of 
solemnizing marriage by the benediction of the clergy. For 
though this had no great effect for the first three hundred 
years, whilst the laws continued Heathen, (for then the gene- 
rality of Christians were no more disposed to marry without the 
benediction of the bishop or some of the clergy, than they 

^^ C. 7. (t. I. p. 148 1 d.) upta-' fuDcto. 

PvTtpov wis ydnov£ diyoftovyrov fi^ ^ Cau8. 31. quseet. i. c. 8. (t. i. 

ifmcurOai' tird, fitrdvoiav alrovvros p. 1583. 13.) De his (}ui frequenter 

Tov biydfiov, Tis tarai 6 irp€<rffvT€pos, uxores ducunt, et de his qui ss^pius 

6 dca rrjs iarida-fas avyKaTari$€fitvos nubunt, tempus quidem poenitentis? 

Tois ydfiois ; his manifestum constitutum est; sed 

^ Loc. Commun. L i. class. 2. conversatio et fides eorum tempus 

c. 10. n. 59. p. 277. (p. 213 g.) Ca- abbreviat. Presbyterum veio con- 

nonem Concilii Neocaesariensis, qvto vivio secundarum nuptiarum inter- 

prohibentur ministri ecclesise vd in- esse non debere : maxime cum prse- 

teresse vel benedicere secundis nup- cipiatur secundis nuptdis pceniten- 

tiis, ego de istis novis nuptiis m tiam tribuere: ^uis erit presbyter, 

divortiis accipio, non de ilhs, quae qui propter convivium illis consen- 

repetuntur altero conjugum de- tiat nuptiis ? 

§ 2f 3. celebr€Ui$kg marriage, 71 

were inclined to end their dyil controyersies any other ways 
than by the bishop's arbitration and dedsion,) yet afterwards, 
when the laws became Christian, and no immediate provision 
was made to oblige men uniyersally to solemnize marriage by 
the benediction of the clergy, bat other ways were still allowed 
as sufficient to make a marriage good in law without it, men 
began to £aI1 off from the ancient practice, some for one reason 
and some for another, till by degrees the primitive way of 
marrying among Christians came to be much dishonoured and 

S. This made some of the more zealous emperors, who about How the 
the eighth and ninth centuries were a little inclined to correct J^^^* 
and reform some abuses which the corruption of the times had wasreyived, 
brought in upon the discipline of the Church, to look upon this came to be 
neglect of marrying without sacerdotal benediction as an abuse neglected, 
among the rest, and a deviation from the more ancient laud- 
able practice. Hereupon they set themselves to revive the 
primitive custom, and make some more effectual provision than 
had hitherto been done, by more express and general laws to 
establish and confirm it. Charles the Great enacted a law^^ 
in the West about the year 780, wherein he ordered, ' that no 
marriage should be celebrated any other way than by blessing 
with sacerdotal prayers and oblations: and whatever marriages 
were performed otherwise, should not be accounted true mar- 
riages, but adultery, concubinage, or fornication.' And about 
the year 900, Leo Sapiens ^3, in the Eastern empire, revived 
the same ancient practice, which ever since continued to be the 
practice of the Church. Mr. Selden^^, and Gothofred^^, both 

^ Capitular. 1. 7. c. 363. [463.] quit, Katfoircp in\ rtiamv €Unroi^a'€»s 

(Capitul. Reg. Franc. 1. 1. p. t I2p.) Icpair ciruX^aco-c n^y ei(nro(i7<rty irpo- 

Aliter legitimum .... non fit conju- piuvtiy dtopia-dft^da, ovrw Ka\ rh trw 

gimn .... nisi sponsa sao tempore oucta-ta t§ fuiprvpia ttjs itpas tvko' 

saoerdotaliter cum predbus et ob- ylas ^ppwrBai xcXfvoficv. Neque ali- 

lationibufi a saoerdote benedicatur, ter jure matrimonii, sive in Bodetate 

&C. vitse, sive in prole quenqoam gavi- 

^ Leo Novel. 89. (ad calc. Corp. surum. In banc rem, cjrusdem me- 

Jur. Civ. Amstel. 1663. t.2. p. 267.) morat constitutionera Harmenopu- 

Ilepl Tov rii fnnfoucfiria 3p«v rrjf Updt lu8, uti et aliam Alexii Comneni, 

€vkoytas fiij ippwrBai. ducentis aut circiter annis poetea 

M Uxor Hebraica, 1. 2. c. 20. p. Orientis Au^^ti. Sic item Joannes 

309. (t. 1. V. 2. p. 696.) Inde [lieo] episcopus Citrensis, alii. AtqueLeo- 

aanctionem edidit, ci:gu8 titulus nma b»c vim juris postea obtinuit, 

Ilcpi rov ra uwouUaia Softv r^f ut paucse aliquot cnusdem alise, nee 

Upas €v\oyia£ pij tppwrOai* ubi in- plures. Atque unde in Oriente jus 

72 The manner of XXII. iv. 

agree in this, tbat now the necessity of sacerdotal benediction 
was established by law : but they differ in one point, that 
Mr. Selden supposes this was the first beginning of the ge- 
neral practice of making marriages by sacerdotal benediction : 
whereas Gothofred thinks it was only a renying of a former 
ancient general practice, which for some ages had been much 
neglected And that the truth lies on Oothofred's side, the 
reader from what had been said will be able very easily to 
Other cere- 4. Haying thus resolved the main question concerning sacer- 
i^ mar. dotal benediction, I now go on with the lesser ceremonies used 
™«?» M in marriage. Among: which we find the ancient rite oi joining 

joining o*,.,,,^, . . <, T-» 

hands and the right hands of the espousing parties together. For so we 

veiling. jjg^y^ heard Gregory Nazianzen ahready representing the mar- 

riage of Olympias^^, * that it was done by joining the right 

in matrimoniis celebrandis sacerdo- Saxonicam jure Saxonico duxisset, 

tale, quatenus jus intuemur Csesa- earn non uxorem legitimam cense- 

reum, ortum habuerit, et quamdiu ret, quia non ducta jure seu ritu 

sine sacris rata satis ibi haberentur Francico, renitente interim Condlio 

conjugia, ex jam indicatis satis con- Triburiensi. Quod autem de bene- 

stat. Quod ad Occidentem attinet ; dictione sacra sic in imperium Oc- 

ex epistoke illius Evaristi Papse ver- cidentale est reoeptum, in alia r^na 

bis, saltern Evarlsto tributis, in Ca- Christiana, quse vicina fuere, aliter 

pitula Carol! et Ludovici Csesarum atque aliter postmodum difiiisum 

relatis ibique vim legis obtinentibus, est, &c. 

yidetur sane non solum benedictio- ^ In Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 7. de 
nis sacrse U8U8, adeoque ipsa contra- Nuptiis, leg. 3. (t. i. p. 381. col. 
hendi formula in coetu sacro, prse- dextr.) Ex his locis omnibus patet, 
eunte sacro ministro, inolevisse, sed professionem nuptiarum, apud epi- 
et matrimonium ipsum inde tantum scopos et presbyteros factam, inter- 
pro legitimo habitum esse. Id evenit venisse adeo in nuptiis ecclesiasticas 
sub annum Christi 820. EtpauUo personas, benedictionesque proinde 
post exemplum occurrit illustre be- ritum in nuptiis apud veteres Chri- 
nedictionis nuptialis, velut in mo- stianos usurpatum : nondum tamen 
rem recepte, cum conjungebantur sub facie ecclesiae totius, verum do- 
Ethelwolnis Anglorum rex et Ju- mi. Immo et hsec ipsa benedictio 
ditha Caroli Calvi (ilia. Alibi autem postea neglecta, quam ideo revexit, 
iidem imperatores, ut publicse fierent nuptiasque adeo huic benedictioni 
nuptise, statuere, ubi nihil de bene- praecise subjecit in Oriente, Leo 
dictione sacra. Etiam in legibus Imp. Novella 89. IIcpl rov ra trvvok- 
Wisigothorum, hisce antiquioribus, 'lecVta iytv r$£ Icpar cvXoytaf /A17 c/>- 
expressa in connubiis mentio per- pwrOaix Ejusdemque idem meminit 
missus comitis, dotis constitutionis. Novella 74., UtpX rov /i^ rtk^iaBai 
tabularumque dotalium, ut quae tes- rh^ cvXoymr, irpiv hv 6 p6fiifu)t rov 
timonii publici vicem obtinerent, ubi ydfiov avficfiidaij K(up6st et Novella 
nihil omnino de benedictione sacra Alexii Coroneni. — Vide etiam Scho- 
aut sacro ministro. Quod et de aliis liasten Harmenopuli, 1. 4. tit. 4. 
legibus veterum dicendum, ouse in ^ Ep. 57. See before, s. i. n. 3i» 
re nuptiali sub illud aevum aaeo di- preceding, 
yersse, ut Francus, verbi gratia, qui 


ceUbrdUng marrioffe. 


hands of the young couple together, and both their hands to 
the hand of God.' St. Ambrose ^^ also takes notice of the cus- 
tom of veiling i as a ceremony used in marriage, when he says, 
* the Christian marriage ought to be sanctified with the sacer- 
dotal veil and benediction.' Tertullian also mentions the cus- 
tom of veiling as used by the Heathens, which^^ he commends, 
together with the ceremony of the solemn kiss and joining of 
hands. But these he speaks of rather as ceremonies used in 
espousals before marriage : though we may suppose them to 
be used in both^ since the Latin name of marrioffe, nupticB, is 
obserred by the Roman antiquaries^^ to have its name from 
abnubere, which signifies to veil or cover, 

5. Optatus seems to allude to another ceremony, which I Untyingthe 
have not yet found expressly mentioned in any other author : ^^^^* 
that is, the woman's loosing or untying her hair in the so- 
lemnity of marriage. For, writing against the Donatists^^, 
who had re-consecrated the Catholic virgins, who before had 
espoused themselves to Christ, he says, ' Those virgins, to show 
that they had renounced all secular marriage, had untied their 
hair to a spiritual husband, they had already celebrated a ce- 
lestial marriage. Why therefore did ye compel them to untie 
the hair again V This seems to allude to some such custom in 
secular marriage : because he adds^^, ' that when women mar- 
ried a second time in the world, this was not used : which im- 
plies, that it was used the first time, though omitted in second 
marriages, as many other ceremonies of temporal festivity were, 

^ Ep. 70. See before, 8. i. n. 19, 

88 De Virgin. Veland. c. 11. See 
before, cb. 3. s. 6. p. 54. n. 89. 

^ Rosin. Antiquit. Rom. 1. 5. c. 

35* (P« 959 ^' 3 ®^ ^0 Velo obnubi 
solebat, cum ad virum duceretur. . . 
Unde nuptiarum nomen ductum 
est. Nubere enim et obnubere, 
priscis velare et operire significabat, 
tit Festus Pompems non uno loco. 
Nonius Maicelfus, et alii complures 
notant. [See Faociolati (Lond. 1826. 
v. I. p. 1283.) Nidfo, , , ,, to cover, 
veil, KoAvTrro), tego, operio, veto ; 
unde obnvbo, ColumeU. 10, 158. 
Tellus de positis cupiet se nubere 

plantis Quoniam vero sponsse 

apud veteres, cum viro tradebantur. 

flammeo nubere, id est, velare ca- 
pita solebant, factum est ut per me- 
tonymiam usurpetur pro in matrix 
moniwn coUocari : &c. Ed.] 

40 L. 6. g7. (p. 116.) Ut ssecula- 
ribus nuptiis se renuntiasse mon- 
strarent, spiritali sponso solverant 
crinem, jam cselestes celebraverant 
nuptias. Quid est quod eas iterum 
crines solvere coegistis ? 

41 Ibid. (p. 117.) Ut crines Iterum 
solverent imperastis. Hoc nee mn- 
lieres patiuntur, quae carnaliter nu- 
bunt : ex quibus si alicui maritum 
mutare contigerit, non repetitur ilia 
temporalis festivitas : non in altum 
tollitur : non populi frequentia pro- 


The maimer oj 


the new- 

yiz. gay dressing, and crowning, and, what naturally followed 
them, the great concourse aiid acclamations of the people/ 
But if any one thinks this was not an allusion to any ceremony 
used in secular marriages, but rather a ceremony actually used 
in spiritual marriages of virgins to Christ: because St. Jerom^^ 
speaks of Hheir cutting off their hair' in some places, when they 
renounced the world, and devoted themselves to Christ : I will 
not stand to contend about a matter both small and obscure, 
but go on to that which is more certain in secular marriages, 
which is our present subject. 

6. When the sacred office of benediction was over, and the 
married persons were ready to depart, it was usual to crown 
couple with flj^ bridefiToom and bride with crmima or qarlanda, the sym- 

crowns or «i7 ' - •f 

garlands, bols of victory. For now it was supposed they had hitherto 
striven virtuously against all manner of uncleanness, and there- 
fore were crowned as conquerors in their marriage. St. Chry- 
sostom^^ mentions the ceremony, and gives this account of it : 
' Crowns are therefore put upon their heads, as symbols of vic- 
tory; because, being invincible, they entered the bride-chamber 
without ever having been, subdued by any unlawful pleasure.' 
So that this ceremony was used as a mark of honour and note 
of distinction, to reward their virtue, and put a difference be- 
tween them and such as had before addicted themselves to for- 
nication and uncleanness. ' For to what purpose,' says Chry- 
sostom again ^^, 'should he wear a crown upon his head, who 
had given himself up to harlots, and been subdued by plea- 
sure V Which seems to imply, that fornicators were denied 
this honour, when they came to marry : that being a part of 
their punishment among other acts of discipline in the Church. 
And upon the same account this ceremony was seldom or never 
used in second and third marriages, because though they were 

^'^ Ep. 48. [al. 147.1 cent. Sabi- 
nian. (t. i. p. 1083 c.) Moris est in 
iE((ypti et Syrise monasteriis, ut tarn 
vir^o, quam vidua, quae se Deo vo- 
vennt, et sseculo renuntiantes om- 
nes delicias sseculi conculcarint, cri- 
nem monasteriorum matribus offe- 
rant desecaDdum, non intecto postea 
contra Apostoli voluntatem inces- 
surae capite, sed Hgato pariter ac 

^ Horn. 9. in i Tim. p. 1567. 

(t. II. p. 597 b.) Aia rovro aT€<f>avoi 
TOLLS «ec0aXaiff enriTiBfvrai, avfi^Xov 
rj)( vlKfjs, Sti dfimjTOi y€v6fAeuotf ov- 
T« vpotrtpxovrm rfj ev»^, on firj ko- 
Trjy&vLvBj^a-av vnh r^i i/doi^r. ct dc 
oKovs vn6 TTJs ribov^s ir6puais 4avr6v 

*Kd^, vivos €V€K€V XoifT^y [xai] OT6- 

<t>ahov tf)^€i [cirl] T^s K€<f>aKris Tm/- 

44 [Ibid. See the latter part of 
the preceding note. Ed.] 

§ 6. celebrating marriage, 75 

not absolutely condenmed as unlawful, yet they were not reck- 
oned so honourable as the first. 

As to the ceremony in general, Mr. Selden^^ says it is men- 
tioned by Gregory Nyssen, by Basil of Seleucia, and byPalladius. 
And it is more than once noted by Sidonius ApoUinaris, who, 
speaking of the marriage of Ricimer, and describing the pomp 
of it, says 46, 'Now the virgin was delivered into his hands, 
now the bridegroom was honoured with his crown.' And again 
in his Panegyric to Anthemius the emperor, speaking of the 
same marriage of Bicimer, who married the emperor's daugh- 
ter, he says to Ricimer in the poetical strsun^^, ^ This marriage 
was procured by your valour, and the laurel crown gave you 
the crown of myrtle,' alluding to the different customs of 
crowning warriors with laurel and bridegrooms with myrtle. 
This was indeed an old ceremony used in Heathen marriages ; 
as we learn from TertuUian^^, who reckons it an idolatrous 
rite as used by them, and therefore says Christians did not 
marry with Heathens, lest they should draw them to idolatry, 
from which their marriages took their beginning. But the 
ceremony was innocent in its own nature, and therefore the 
Christians never made any scruple to adopt it into the rites of 
marriage, which they made among themselves, because it was 
a significant ceremony declaring the innocency of the parties 
joined together. For which it is still retained among the 
Greeks, as we learn from Nicetas^^, bishop of Heraclea, a 
modem Greek writer, and Metrophanes Critopulus^^, and Dr. 

^ Uxor Hebraica, 1. 3. c. 24. p. ^ De Cor. Mil. c. 13. (p. 109 a.) 

245. (t. I. v. 2. p. 662.) Et de CO- Coronant et nuptise sponsos : et 

rona Orientalium nuptiali ex Gre- ideo non nubimus Etbnicis, ne nos 

gone NjTBseno, Basiho Seleucieusi, ad idololatriam uscpie deducant, a 

Palladii Historia Lausiaca, alia no- qua apud illos nuptise incipiunt. 

tarunt pndem viri docti. — Sberlogiis ^ Respons. (ap. Leundav. Jus 

in Cantic. veatigat. 27. n. 16. See Gr»c.' Rom. t. i. p. 310.) *H fup 

Selden ibid. (n. g.), wno cites him. oKpt^oi rovs biydfiovg ovk ol^ crre- 

^« L. I. Ep. 5. (p. 29.) Jam qui- Kfxufow' fi de «p tj tieyaXjj eiueXi^o-if 

dem virgo tradita est, jam corona trvvriOtui r& roiavTa ov irfgparrjpe'iTtu' 

sponsus .... honoratur. oXKcl koL roir btydfiois rovs Wfjipucovg 

^ Carm. 2. ad Anthem, (p* 35* crrc^dvovr ririn^tn, ic. r. X. 

503.) M Confess. Fidei, c. 12. de Con- 

Hos thalamos, Ricimer, virtus tibi jugio. (p. 115.) Ecr, ciXX^Xa>y rh% 

pronuba poscit, berths trwa^e, eirirlBfia-i rait fKti' 

Atque Dionseam dat Martia laurea vmv K€<f>dkaU artiftcvovs ff| deiBoKovt 

myrtum. <f)vTov. 

76 The manner of XXII. iv. 

Smith *^ in his Account of the Greek Church. It is also spoken 

of with approbation by Peter Martyr ^^ and other Protestant 

writers, who commend it as a laudable ceremony for the reason 

given by St. Chrysostom. And it is still retained among the 

Helvetians, as Mr. Werndley informs us in his Notes upon the 

Tigurine Liturgy *3. But I return to the ancient Church. 

CanTing 7. There was one custom more, which is not to be reckoned 

homeuT ^ much amoug the religious ceremonies, as to be put into the 

the bride- account of the pomp that attended marriage : and I should not 

^^e^; how have mentioned it in this place, but that it was required as ne- 

farneoeB- cessary in some cases of law. That is, the custom of the 

gary in * . 

some c&MB woman's being carried by the husband home to his own house; 

of law. whence the phrase ducere uxorem is so commonly used on the 
man's part for marrying a wife ; as nvbere is proper on the 
woman's part for being married^ on account of the veiling used 
in marriage, as has been noted before, [in the fourth section 
preceding.] But I mention it not barely upon this account, 
but because in some cases it was a condition precisely required 
in law, before a man could lay claim to some privileges belong- 
ing to marriage. As appears from one of the laws of the Em- 
peror Valens^* concerning the tirones, or soldiers newly listed 

^1 Account, &c. (p. 189.) Be the God, &c. [Kvpt«, 6 Ocor V«v, d<$^ 

persons of what quality or condition Koi rifij trr€<f)dv<oa-ov avrovs.] 

soever, crowns or garlands, made ^^ Loc. Commun. 1. s. class. 2, 

for the most part of olive-branches, c. 10. n. 22. (p. 200 e. 7.) Obiter 

stitched over with white silk, and annotabo, quid eo loco de nuptiali- 

interwoven with purple, are a ne- bus coronis tradat [Chrysostomus, 

cessary and essential part of the Horn. 9. in i Tim.] nam etiam turn 

nuptied solemnity, (hence aTf(f>a¥tofia coronis utebantiu: m nuptiis. Quid, 

is oftentimes used for marriage, and inquit, vidt corona? Vt ostendant se 

<rT€<l>apov<r6ai and yafitia-Bai signify conjuges, usque ad id tempus victores 

the same thing,) they being the fuisse cupiaiiatum. Quod si fuisti 

symbols, not to say the complement, adulter aut scortator, quomodo coro- 

of this mystical rite. The priest, co- nam gestas? 

vering the head of the bridegroom ^ (P. 152.) The Bride during the 
with one of these garlands, says, solemnization of the Marriage, &c. 
The servant of God, &c. r2re</)€Tai ^ Cod. Theod. 1. 7. tit. 13. de Ti- 
bovKos Tov Gfov, 6 btiva rrfv dovKrfv ronibus, leg. 6. (t. 2. p. 376.) Si ob- 
rov OcoO r^vdc, els to Svofia rov Ila- latus junior fuerit, qui censibus te- 
Tp6s, Koi TOV Yiov, Kal rov ayiov netur insertus, ex eo tempore, quo 
Up€vfjLaTosJ] Then he crowns the militiae sacramenta susceperit, pro- 
head of the bride with the other prii census caput excuset, ac si quin- 
garland, repeating the same words, (juennii tempus fida obsequii devo- 
with their aue alterations; and then, Uone compleverit, uxoriam quoque 
putting their hands across, he blesses capitationem merito laborum prse- 
tbem m this form thrice, O Lord stet immunem : ea scilicet servanda 


celebrating marriage. 


into military service. To encourage the speedier recruiting of 
the army, Valens made a law, ' that every new soldier from the 
time of his listing, or taking the military oath, should be free 
from the capitation-tax: and not only so, but if he served 
faithfully five years, his wife also should be free from the same 
tax, provided that after he had married her, he brought her to 
his own house, and did not leave her in her former habitation ; 
for if he did so, she could not be proved to be his wife, and 
therefore should be kept with the burden of the tax upon her.' 
Justinian^^ made a law of the same nature for other cases : ' that 
if any one made a bargain to give or to do any thing upon 
marriage, whether he called it the time of marriage, or named 
it marriage itself; the condition should not be interpreted to 
be fulfilled, till the festivity of marriage, which comprehended 
this ceremony of carrying the wife to the house of the hus- 
band, was completed.' So that it was necessary in these cases 
for certain en<£ and purposes, though otherwi the marriage 
was sufficiently perfected without it. Yet, it being an ancient 
custom, the pomp of the marriage was deemed imperfect, tiU 
this ceremony was used : as we may gather from that of Sido- 
nius^^, where he says, * the pomp of the marriage was not yet 
fully completed, because the new bride was not yet removed to 
the house of her husband.' 

8. This was an innocent part of marriage pomp, which was How far 
often attended with the concourse and acclamations of the2^i^m« 

nago pomp 

people. Neither was it reckoned any harm to have a decent ^"■•iio'^ed 

or fliffftl- 

epithalamium, or modest nuptial song, or a feast of joy suit- lowed by 
able to the occasion. But the fescennina, or immodest ribald- g^o »»cieiit 
ry, that was sometimes used under the notion of the marriage- 
pomp, and the scurrility and obscenity of actors and mimics 
fetched from the stage, together with the excessive revellings 
and dancings, that some called innocent nuptial mirth and di- 

ratione, ut quam sibi uxorem copu- 
laverat affectu, et in priore lare de- 
relictam memorarit, in probata Qe^. 
improbatam] census sarcina susti- 

^. Ck)d. 1. 5. tit. 4. de Nuptiis, 
leg. 34. (t. 4. p. 1 141.) Sancimus, si 
quis nuptiarum fecerit mentionem 
in quolicunque pacto quod ad dan- 
dam vel ad faciendum .... concipi- 

tur, et sive nuptiarum tempus dixe- 
rit, sive nuptius nominaverit: non 
aliter intelligi conditionem esse ad- 
implendaro,. . . . nisi ipsa nuptiarmn 
accedat festivitas. Sec. 

*• L. I. Ep. 5. (p. 29.) . . Nondum 
tamen cuncta thalamorum pompa 
defremuit, quia necdum ad mariti 
domum nova nupta migravit. 

78 The manner of XXII. iv. 

yersioQ, were looked upon as great aboBos ; and accordingly 
proscribed and condemned by some canons, and severely in- 
Ycighed against by the Fathers, as things utterly unbecoming 
the modesty and grayi(y of Christian marriages. 

The Council of Laodicea ^7 says, ' Christians ought not at 
marriages paXkCCeiv $ SpxturBoL, to use wanton balls or dan- 
cinffs, but dine or sup gravely, as becomes Christians.' Some 
by the word paXklCav understand playing on cymbals and 
dancing to them. So Suidas^^ and Zonaras^^ interpret it. 
But the word denotes something more, viz. tossing the hands 
in a wanton and lascivious manner^: and in that sense 
there might be good reason to forbid it : whereas bare music 
and dancing without any immodest or antic tricks seems hardly 
a crime worthy a canon to forbid it. And if we may judge by 
Chrysostom's sharp invective against this and other extrava- 
gances committed at marriage feasts, there must be something 
more extraordinary in them. For speaking of Isaac's marriage 
with Rebecca, ' Consider here,' says he ^^ ' how there was no 
Satanical pomp, no cymbals, and piping, and dancing, no Satani- 
cal feasting, no scurrilous buffoonery or filthy discourse, but 

*7 C. 53. (t. I. p. 1505 c.) ''Ori ov witness or encourage it. Ed.] 
del HpuTTuofovs €ts yofiovs cartpx^ '^ Horn. 48. in Gen. p. 680. (t. 4. 

fUvovg /SoXXt^civ 9 op)(€i(rB€U, aXXii p. 400 d.) *£i^rav^a aKHrti poi, dya- 

€r€py&s d€t7rvflv 1j apiar^v, ws vphrti vijTt, frAf . . . ovda/xov fro^fr^ Auifio^ 

Xpumapols. Xun), ovda/wv KVfJi$aXa Kal avKol jcal 

^ Voce, /SoXXi^civ. (t. I. p. 531 x^P*^*^> "^^^ ^^ ^OTcuwca cVciki crv^i- 

f. 3.) BaXXi^ccv, t6 Kvpfidka KrvTrfiv, ndata, Kal al Xoidoptdt, ai irdcn/ff 

Kal irp6s (Ktiytuf fx9^ opxtiaBai, dtrxfipoavv^g 'yc/iovcroi, oXX^ vaaa 

^'InC.Laodic. c.53.(ap.Bevereff. a-ffivinfs, waera o-o^ia, vwra hrui' 

Pand. 1. 1, p. 478 b.) BaXXcjffty ecrri, Ktui. Eccr^X^c dc, <f>rfO'iVy ^lamuc «h 

ro KVfiffaka Knmtip, ml vp6s rbv r^v oIkov r^r }Ufrp6i avrov, KOi tKa^ 

tKttvmv fx^" opycicr^ai. r^v 'Pffi^KKav, Kal ryivtro avr^ vwi^t 

^ [See Stepnani Thesaur. voce koI ^yainja'wv aMfv Kal nap^KkriBri 

fidKkt^tUf, (Lond. 1823. V. 4. col. 'Icro^ w€pl 2dppas ttjs fjafrp6t airrov, 

357^*) Tripudio, pedilnis pUxiwJh, tri- Tavnfv fUfAei(ro»<rav ai yvvaiKts' rov- 

pudiantiwn mare salto, Sfc, where rov (rlkovrtoa-av Mp€s' ovro riis 

the citation of a passage from Athe- pvpiif>as dyayio'Bcu. (nrovda^croxray. 

n«U8 (363) seems to prove that /3aX- T/vor yap cyeicev, fhr€ poi, €*£ apx$£ 

\iCeuf was nearly or quite equivalent Kal 4k irpooipmv KfjKibmv irkripwrai 

to Kio/idCcuf, and meant a wanton avyx^pui r^f K6pr)£ rht dicoar dtd 

and immodest way of dancing. From r»v attrxp^v atriMToitv, diii rns aKed- 

this Greek word we have the French pov ir6iMmjs mlvrfs ; ovk otaoOf oirox 

term ballet and our own ball. . The 17 vcon;p evKo\os irpos SkurBov ; ri rd 

principle of the Laodicean canon, a€fiva rov ydfuiv €K7rofiirev€is ftvor^- 

cited just before, would surely con- pta; hiov airoyra ravra oircXavyeiv, 

demn the dancing of the baUet'girl, kxu ttjv albSt ck irpooifutnv cKtrcudevtip 

and forbid a serious Christian to t^v K6prfv, 

§ 8. celebrating marriage. 79 

all was gravity^ wisdom, and modesty. Let husbands and 
wiyes now imitate these. For why should a husband from the 
very first suffer the ears of his young spouse to be filled with 
filth from lasciyious and obscene songs, and such unseasonable 
pomp t Sjiow you not that youth of itself is inclined to eyil ? 
Why do you bring the mysteries of venerable marriage upon 
the open stage ? You ought to drive away all this sort, and 
teach the young bride modesty from the beginning.' So 
again^, discoursing of the marriage of Jacob and Lieah, ' You see/ 
Bays he. 'with what gravity marriages were anciently cele- 
brated. Hear this, all ye that admire Satanical pomps, and 
disgrace the honour of marriage from the very beginning I 
Was there here any Satanical dancings ? Why do you bring 
such a plague into your house from the very first moment ? 
Why do you call the actors from the stage, and with unseason- 
able expense wound the virgin's chastity ? It is difficult enough 
without such fomenters to moderate the torrent of youthful 
affections: but when these things are added both by seeing 
and hearing to raise a greater flame, and make the furnace of 
the affections rage more violently, how is it possible that the 
youthful soul should not be destroyed V 

From all this it is plain that it was not a sober entertainment 
at a marriage feast, nor bare music and dancing, nor a modest 
nuptial song, that the Fathers so vehemently declaimed against 
as Satanical pomps : but it was the obscene and filthy songs, 
the ribaldry and lascivious actions of mimics and buffoons 
brought from the stage, joined with their immodest dancings 
and other the like vanities, tending to corrupt youthful minds 
both by seeing and hearing, which they justly inveighed 
against, as unbecoming the modesty and sobriety of ChristiaDS. 
Any other innocent pomp or mirth they freely allowed, deny- 

^ Horn. 56. in Gen. p. 743. (ibid, firra r^r oKcdpov bofiramis Koi r^y r^r 

p. 539 c.) E^^cr T^ iroKcuhv, fuS* K6fn\i \vfirivu frt^poarvvr^Vt kcX rhv 

wn)s (rtfip^ryiTos rovr ydfjunts circrc- vtop avaifrxuvT6T€pap €pydtrij; *Aya- 

Xow' oKowrctrt, ol ntpl ras Sarovucas' fnjr6v yh,py k<u Sv€v rovrav t&v uttcic- 

rrofifras iirrorjfUvoi, leal (§ avr&v rmf Koviwrtoy €K€lvriP rrjv ^Xiklgv dt/mi- 

irpooifii»v rh cfuva rov ydfiov ko- Brjvm rrp^w iptyictip rhv xt^i&pa r&v 

Tfutrxyvovrts' firprov avKoi ; fiifirov nad&v, "Orajf b« Koi rocravra jf ra dm 

KVfjL0aka ; fiiprov vop€'iat 2aTa»iKai ; r^s S^eas Kai dia t^s aKorjs da^iXccr- 

Tivos yap mKtv, ctfrc poi, rocrovn/y rtpap dpanrovra rriv mtpAv, Koi rrjv 

Xvfojp €v$€0)s €7rturdytis (iff r^v ol- Kcifupov t&v irad&v ^Xoya»dcoTCpay 

Ktap, Koi Tovf afr6 rrjs iricrivrjs Ka\ rrjs €pya(j&pMvay n&s ovxi viroPpvx^s v; 

6p)(rfae6»s [al. opxritrrpas] xoXctr ; (va rov vtov ^x4 y^omt ; 

80 The manner of celebrating marriage. XXII. y. 

ing only such as sayoured of lightness or lewdness, or intem- 
perance, which naturally tended, like evil communications, to 
corrupt good manners. 

And so I haye done with the rites and ceremonies obseryed 
in the contracting and celebrating of marriage among the 
ancient Christians. There remains only one thing behind re- 
lating to marriage, and that is to show how the bond of matri- 
mony might in some measure be broken and dissolyed by 
diyorce, and what were reputed just and legal causes of di- 
yorce : of which, because it is a matter of some moment, I will 
treat distinctly in a particular chapter. 


Of divorces : how far they were allowed or disallowed by 

the ancient Christians. 

The An- 1. Thb Ancients were not perfectiy agreed upon this ques- 
^ed about ^^^' The writers of the Church were diyided among them- 
tiieaensoofgelyes, and the laws of the State differed from both. Our 
Some business therefore must be to explain the differences of these 
*^™f ** opinions, and the seyeral practices that were founded upon 
carnal for- each of them. The ecclesiastical writers for the most part 
^making *gre©d in one thing, that there was no just cause of diyorce 
it the only aUowed by Christ but only fornication. But then they differed 
ofdi^^. ^'•bout the notion of fornication: some took it in the obyious 
and yulgar sense for carnal fornication only; whilst others 
extended its signification to include spiritual fornication, or 
idolatry and apostasy from God, which they thought a lawful 
cause of diyorce as well as the other. And some few thought 
all other sins that are equal to fornication were included in this 
notion of fornication, and so made them to be just causes of 
diyorce also. They who thought fornication or adultery was 
to be taken in the proper and literal sense, confined the busi- 
ness of lawful diyorce to this cause only. 

Clemens Alexandrinus ^^ speaks in general against diyorces, 
as they were allowed and commonly practised in his time by 

^*l Stromat. a. (p. 506. 31.) "Or* Xvo-ctr ywauca, irX^v «i fi^ «ri \6y^ 

hi ycLfi€itf ^ Tpcujiij oi/fi^ovXcvct, oldi iropytia^' fxoix^iav dc ^tircuj rA «rt- 

a^itrrcurSal iron r^r avCuyias cirt- y^fuu i&prog Oaripcv t&p K€x»pt- 

Tptmi, iimKpvs vofioBmV OIk dtro^ cfuvtiP. 

§8. T. I. Divorces, and how allowed or disallowed. 81 

the authority of the Uoman laws, which made it necessary in 
case of adultery, and warrantable at least in many other cases. 
But Tertullian ^ is more express, saying, * that the Creator 
allows no marriage to be dissolved but only for adultery.' So 
Ghrysostom in many places ^ : ' Christ has left but one cause 
of divorce, that is, adultery.' Again ^, ' Christ has taught us 
that all crimes are to be borne with in the wife besides adul- 
tery.' * The Apostles,' he says further®*, ' thought it hard and 
burdensome that a man should retain a woman full of all 
wickedness, and bear with a furious wild beast in his house : 
and yet he gave them this precept, (Matth. 19, 9.) " Whoso- 
ever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, com- 
mitteth adultery.'" And this he repeats in other places^. 
Lactantius seems to have been of the same mind: for he 
says ®7, < God commanded that the wife should never be put 

^ Cont. Marc. 1. 4. c. 34. (p. 450 thmi rov rris oUlas cJc/SaXctV 6 dc 

b.) Prseter ex causa adulteiii nee IlayXos koX rijv rot) chkciov <ro»fittTO£ 

Creator disjuDgit, quod scilicet ipse eiovcUa^ irapaipciroi, ircurav avrov 

conjunxit, &c. r^v ^PX^* ^ yvvauci irapadidoifs, koI 

^ Horn. 17* in Matth. p. i I7>(t. 7* apyvptovtjnv itSKKov vrrord^as ocjcc- 

p. 338 a.) Kai yap Kal rovr^ Kara- rov' roima fiiv yitp efcori rroXKmg 

XifiTToyei Tp6nov tva d^crt o>ff, tliro»v, koI ircurrtAovs tktvB^pias rv^^^i *l 

tIap€KT6s X6yov iropvfias. dvvrfStirj noT€ €vnopt\a-as dpyvpiov 

M Horn. I. De decern minium De- KaraStlvai rfjif rifi^v rf dttnr6T]j' 6 

bitore. t. 5. p. 8. (t. 3. p. 6 b.). . . de dvifp, k&v rrfv dirdyrcov dpyaktwn- 

Xpumv .... naaap icaxcay ywaiK6s pay tXH ywaiKa, OTcpyeiv ayayjcafcroi 

wapcuvovvTos <l>fp*Uf ttX^v woppfias rjj dovXci^ [al. rijv dovXetdv], xal Xv- 

fi6tms. (TIP ovdffiUuf ottdi du$obop ravnjt 

r6 ywauca irdtrrfs KOKias y€p^v(rav p. 720. (ibid. p. 604 d.) Et ti£ yap, 

^X*^» ical d»€)(fvBai dytfp^pov Brjpiov (jirja-tv, l)((c ywauca SniaTop, Kal avr^ 

dut navT^f €pdop (TvyKtKktia'fUpov, ovpfvdoKU oucety /act* avrov, firj d^i- 

^ De Virginit. c. 28. (t. I. p. 288 eVco avrrfp' 6» di ir6pprfp Kal fioi^a- 

d.) Ovde y^ €Kupoi irp6rtpop ipoprt" XLda, ov Koikverai €K0dKk€ip' *0r yap 

k6p €ipai Kai errax^ top ydpop M- ap, (prja-ip, dfroXvcre* r^p yvpauca av- 

fuaop' oXX* Sr€ {JKova'aif rov Kvpiov rov vaptKv^s \6yov iropptlas, frotcc 

€lg ravrqp avrovi KaraKKtiopros rr^p avr^v poiYfv&^pai' &art inl \6yov 

opayKrip, €h ^ Kal rovt ILopwBiovs iropptias ?^eoT(jf iaroKwp. ES^cr ^i- 

6 HavKot r6T€* rh yhp,^Os hv aTro- \a»Opwiria» Gcov Kal KrjbffJLOplap. *Ap 

Xvajj r^y yvpoiKa avrov, iraptKr^ 'EXX^ylf jj, <pit^iv, rj yvpfi, fiff tK^dk- 

X6yovnopPMias,7roi€iavTfjpfjLoixaa'dcu' \jfs' &» dc ir6ppfj, ov KeeiKvto rovro 

Kal ro, 'O Mip rov IJHiov a-atfiaros ovk noirja'ai* Ap els cfic, (p^aip, da^fi^ajf, 

t(otHrid{«t, prifiaa-i flip irepois, yv^PTI f^^ tKfiaXXfjs' itp dc els crc vfipicru, 

dc itprfrat rfj avr^, £i be rir wcpi" ovdels 6 KOtXwiP eKfiaXXeip. 

fiearepop KarapaBoi rh rov HavXov, ^ Epitom. Divin. Instit. c. 8. [al. 

paKKop intreipei rffp rvpapptda, Kal c. 66.'] (t. 2. p. 59.) Ideo [Deusl 

<f>opriKim-epop epya(ercu rrjp bovXeiap, prsecepit noD dimitti uzorem, nin 

*0 fup yhp Kvpios ovk d<f>lria-i Kvptop crimine adulterii revictam : et nun- 


82 Divorces, and haw XXII. r. 

away, but when she was overtaken in adultery : and the bond 
of the conjugal covenant can never be loosed, except it be 
when she breaks it; meaning by falseness to the marriage 
contract. St. Basil ^^ says the same, that our Lord forbids 
divorce equally both to man and woman, save only in the case 
of fornication. In like manner Asterius Amasenus^^ : ' " What 
God hath joined together, let not man put asunder." Hear 
this, ye hucksters, who change your wives as ye do your 
clothes ; who build new bride-chambers, as often and easily as 
ye do shops at fedrs ; who marry the portion and the goods, 
and make wives a mere gain and merchandize ; who for any 
little offence presently write a bill of divorce ; who leave many 
widows alive at once : know of a surety that marriage cannot 
be dissolved by any other cause but death only or adultery/ 
St. Jerom 7o understands the precept of Christ after the same 
manner : that the wife is not to be dismissed but only for for- 
nication. And this was also the opinion of St. Ambrose ^i. 

quam conjugalis foederis vinculum, Dominus uxorem non debere di- 

nisi quod pedidia ruperit, resolvatur. mitti, ezcepta causa fomicationiB : 

^ £p. Canonic, c. 9. [Oper. Ba- et si dimissa fuerit, manere innup- 

■il. £p. 188. Canonic. Prim. (CC. tarn. Quidquid viris jubetur, hoc 

t. 2. p. 1725 c.) 'H dc rot) Kvpiov consequenter redundat in foeminas. 

tar6<l>a<ris, Korii fiiv rrfv rrjs iwoias Neoue enim adultera uxor dimit- 

aKokovOicof, ef i<rov Koi av^f>d(n Koi tenaa est, et vir mcechus tenendus. 

ywai^w apfjLcitt, ntpi tov fiij €(fiv<u Si quis meretrici jungitur, unum cor^ 

yafiov i^iaravOai, irapticros \6yov pus fdcit : ergo et quae scortatori 

wopv€ias [al. /xoi;(cuif]. — Vid. Horn, impuroque sociatur, unum cum eo 

7. in Hexaem. (t. i. part. i. p. 95 b. corpus efficitur. Aliae sunt legea 

n. 5.) K&if rpaxvs fj, kAp Sypios r6 Csesarum, alise Christi: aliud Papi- 

^Bos 6 (TvvoiKos, diwyKti <^<p€iy rijv nianus, aliud Paulus noster prsecipit. 

ofjLo^vya, KOI cV fuydc/udr irpo<f>d<rttas Apud illos viris impudicitiss frena 

KoradmaOat tijv tvwriv duurrr^v. laxantur ; et, solo stupro atque adul- 

^ Horn. 5. (ap. Combefis Auctar. terio condemnato, passim per lupa- 

Nov. p. 82 a. 2.) *0 avv4itv(€v 6 nana et ancillulas libido permitti- 

B€6s,ap0pcimo£fi,ijx»p^{^T(a, 'EXc^^ tur; quasi culpam dignitas faciat, 

fiiv raOra rots ^apuralois rcSrc* a«cov- non voluntas. Apud nos, quod non 

aar€ di vvv, ol rovroDi/ KaTrrjkoif Koi licet foeminis, aeque non licet viris, 

ras yvvcuKas &s ifidria «^k6X»s /uic- et eadem servitus pari conditione 

T€pdv6fi€voi' ol rat iraarddas iroXXa- censetur. — In Mattn. 19. (t. 7. p. 

Kis Koi paduas irrfyvvvT€s, ons iravriyv' 1 45 c.) Sola fomicatio est, quae uxo* 

pfo»s ipyaxrnipia' ol rkt fvnopLas ris vincat affectum:. ... Ubicunque 

ycLpjovvTtif KcX ras ywaiicas ipnropev^ est iffitur fomicatio, et fomicationis 

6pjtvoi' ol fUKp6v irapo(w6fi€voi, jcal suspicio, libere uxor dimittitur. 

€v$vs r6 ^i^iov TTJs dimpcVecor ypd- 71 [Vide Comment, in i Cor. 7, 11. 

<l>ovTts' ol iroWeis x^poff (p t^ Cb^ Q^^- Supposititia, ad calc. t. 2. Ed. 

ere KQTcikifjarwovTtt' irtiirdrjTt, ^i Paris. 1690. append, p. 133 e.) Et 

ydfxos OauaTijp /lov^ xal fioi\ti^ dm- virwn uxorem dimittere: subaudita 

Kdirrtrai, autem excepta fornicationis causae 

70 Ep. 30. [al. 177.] EpiUphium &c. Ed.] 
Fabiolce. (t. i. p. 454 e.) Pnecepit 

§1,2. aUotved or disallowed. 88 

S. But St. Austin and some others were of opinion, that for- otben took 
nication or adultery, which our Saviour makes to be the only ** ^-^^^ 
just cause of divorce, was to be understood in a little more ex- fornication; 
tensive sense, so as to make it include not only carnal forni- i^Sl^^d 
cation, but spiritual fornication also; that is, idolatry and^^postasy 
apostasy from God, and all crimes of the like nature. The andother' 
fathers of the fourth Council of Toledo were certainly of this ?*"J? ^ 
opinion ; for they order 7'^, < that if any Jews were married to nature. 
Christian women, they shall be admonished by the bishop of 
the place, that if they desire to continue with them, they 
should become Christians. But if upon such admonition they 
refused^ they should be separated : because an infidel cannot 
continue in matrimonial conjunction with one that was a 
Christian. And St. Austin for some time was clear in this 
opinion; for in his exposition of the Sermon upon the 
Mounted he says, ' Idolatry, which the infidels follow, and all 
other noxious superstition, is fornication : and the Lord per- 
mitted the wife to be put away for the cause of fornication. 
Whence he argues further, that if infidelity be fornication, and 
idolatry be infidelity, and covetousness be idolatry, there is no 
doubt to be made but that covetousness is also fornication.' 
Whence he likewise concludes, 'that for unlawful lusts, not 
only such as are committed by carnal uncleanness with other 
men or women, but also for any other lusts, which make the 
soul by the ill use of the body go astray from the law of Ood, 
and perniciously and abominably corrupt it, a man may with- 
out crime put away his wife, and a wife her husband, because 

73 C. 63. [al. 63.^ (t. 5. p. 1730 c.) est dubitandum et avaritiam fomica- 

Judsei, qui Christianas mulieres in tionem esse. Quis ergo jam quam- 

conjugio habent, admoneantur ab . libet illicitam concupiscentiam potest 

episcopo civitatis ipsius, ut, si cum recte a fornicationis genere separare, 

eia permanere cupiunt, Christiaoi si avaritia fornicatio est? Ex ^uo 

efficiantur. Quod si admoniti nolu- intelligitur, quod propter illicitas 

erint, separentur : quia non potest coocupisoentias, non tantun quse in 

infidelis in cgus conjunctione per- stupris cum alienis viris aut fceminis 

manere, quse jam in Christianam committuntur,sedomninoqua8libet« 

translata est fidem. quse animam corpore male utentem 

7' L. I. c. 16. (t. 3. part. 3. p. 185 a lege Dei aberrare faciunt, et perni- 

a.) Quia scilicet idololatria, quam ciose turpiterque corrum^unt [al. 

seqnontur infiddes, et quselibet noxia comimpil, possit sine crimine et vir 

•uperstitio fornicatio est. Dominus uxorem dimittere, et uxor virum, 

autem permisit causa fornicationis quia exceptam facit Dominus cau- 

uxorem dimitti. . .Ibid, (c.) Porro si sam fornicationis : quam fomicatio- 

infidelitas fornicatio est, et idololatria nem generalem et universalem 

infidelitas, et avaritia idololatria, non intelligere cogimur. 

a 2 

84 Divorces, and how XXII. v. 

the Lord excepted the cause of fornication ; which fornication 
we are compelled to take in the most general and uniyersal 
sense.' St. Austin advances the same notion in manj other 
places 7^: yet in his Retractations 7^ he speaks a little more 
doubtfully of this matter, and says, ' It is a very dark and du- 
bious question, whether a man may put away his wife for this 
sort of spiritual fornication ; but for carnal fornication, that he 
may put her away, is beyond all question.' Hence it appears, 
that this was no very current doctrine in the Church : and yet 
there appear some footsteps of it before St. Austin. For Hermes 
Pastor has the same notion of fornication. 'Adultery,' says he^^, 

^4 De Conjugiis Aduhexinis, 1. 1. Perdidisti omnem, quifomicattir abs 

c. i8. (t. 6. p. ^p7 b.) Sic enim rece- te, in qua utique et ista est, (neque 
dere ab infidelibus uxoribus vel xna- enim non fornicatur a Domino, qui 
ritis iideles viri vel fceminse non toUens membra Chiisti, facit ea 

Erobibentur a Domino, ut neque ju- membra meretricis,) etiam atque e- 

eantur. Nam si dimittere tales con- tiam coffitandum est atque requiren- 

jnges juberentnr, nuUus esset locus dum. Nee volo in re tanta tamque 

consibo monentis Apostoli, ne boc ad dignoscendum difiicili putare lec- 

fieret, &c. — Ep. 89. ad Hilar, in Re- torem istam sibi nostram disputa- 

spons. ad Quaest. 4. [al. 157. .c. tionem debere sufficere; sed legat 

4.J] (t. 3. p. 5^5 f.) In lis, quae di- et alia, sive nostra quse postea scripta 

mittenda mandavit, etiam uxor com- sunt, sive aliorum melius conside- 

memorata est, quam nuUis bumanis rata atque tractata : vel ipse, si pot- 

legibus licet vendere, Chiisti autem est, ea, quae hie merito movere pos- 

legibus nee dimittere, excepta causa sunt, vigilantiore atque intelligen- 

fomicationis. Quid sibi ergo volunt tiore mente discutiat. Non quia 

ista prsecepta, (non enim possunt omne peccatum fomicatio est; ne- 

inter se esse contraria,) msi quia que enim omnem peccantem Deus 

occurrit aliquando necessitatis arti- perdit, ^ui quotidie sanctos suos ex- 

culuB, ubi aut uxor dimittatur aut audit dicentes, Dimitte noifis debita 

Christus? ut alia omittam, si ipsi nostra! cum perdat omnem, ^ui 

uxori maritus displicuerit Christi- fornicatur ab eo. Sed quatenus m- 

anus, eique proposuerit aut a se di- telli^enda atque limitanda sit haec 

vortium, aut a Christo. Hie ille formcatio, et utrum etiam propter 

quid eligat nisi Christum, et di- hanc liceat dimittere uxorem, late- 

mittat uxorem laudabiliter propter brosissima quaestio est. Licere ta- 

Christum. Ambobus quippeUhnsti- men propter istam, quae in stupris 

anis Dominus prascepit, ne quis- committitur, nulla qusestio est. Et 

quam dimittat uxorem, excepta causa ubi dixi, boc permissum esse ; non 

fornicationis, &c. — Vid. de Fid. jussum, non attendi aliam Scriptu- 

et Oper. c. 16. (ibid. p. 181. n. 28 ram dicentem, Qui tenet aduUerum^ 

d, e.) Quamobrem et illud, &c. stultus et impius est. 

7* Retractat. 1. 1. c. 19. (t. i. p. 30 76 l, 2, mandat. 4. (Cotel. v. i. p. 

c, d.) Item de praecepto, quo pro- 89.) Non solum moecbatio est illis, 

hibetur uxor dimitti, nisi propter qui camem suam coinquinant; sed 

fomicationem, hie quidem scrupu- et is, qui simulacrum facit, mcecha- 

losissime disputavi : sed ^am velit tur. Quod si in his factis perseve- 

Dominus intelligi fomicationem, rat, et pcenitentiam non agit, recede 

propter quam liceat dimittere uxo- ab ilia, et noli convivere cum ilia ; 

rem ; utrum eam, quae damnatur in alioquin et tu particeps eris peccati 

stupris, an illam, de qua didtur, ejus. 

§ 2, 3* allowed or disallowed. 85 

' is not only in those, who defile their own flesh ; but every 
one commits adultery that makes an idol. Therefore if 
a woman so commits adultery, and perseveres therein without, 
repentance, depart from her, and live no longer with her ; for 
otherwise thou wilt be partaker of her sin.' And Origen77 is 
generally reckoned by learned men^^ as an assertor of this 
opinion, that if a woman was guilty of other crimes equal to 
or greater than fornication; as, if she was a sorceress, or a 
murderer of her children, or the like ; that for such crimes she 
might be lawfully divorced. But these authorities are not suf- 
ficient to counterbalance the former, and therefore I reckon 
this but a private opinion in the Ghurch for the three first 

S. But .when Constantino came to the imperial throne, the This later 
laws of the State all turned this way, and were made in favour ^'I^^Jg 
of divorce upon other causes besides that of carnal fornication, time of 
Women indeed had not immediately in all respects the same muchcoan! 
privilege as men : but yet for three crimes, specified in one of tenancedby 
Constantine^s laws 79, each sort were at hberty to make di- the state. 

77 Horn. 7. [t. 14. n. 34.] in Matth. 78 Grotius in Mattb. 5, 33. (t. 2, 

[juxt. Vet. interpret.] (t. 3. ad calc. v. i. p. 53, 40.). . . . Notat Origenes, 

p. 648.) Quserendum est autem, si verba haec poni magis enuntiando 

propter solam causam fomicationis quam iubendo. — Selden, Ux. He- 

dimittere jubet uxorem, quid sit, si braic. 1.3. c. 31. p. 603. (t. i. v. 2. 

mulier non (^uidem fuerit fomicata, p. 850.) £t horum uterque 

eed aliud qnid gravius fecerit; ut [Origenes et Tertullianus] liberum 

puta venefica inveniatur, aut inter- divortioram jus sen extra causam 

fectrix communis infantis nati, aut mcecbise ant cauaam, ut sentire vi- 

in quocunque bomiddio, aut ex- detnr Origenes, non disparem im- 

portans domum et male dispergens puffnat. 

substantiam viri, aut furta viro fa- 79 Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 16. de 

dens; si juste bujusmodi mulier di- Repudiis, leg. i. (t. i. p. 310.) Pla- 

mittatur, cum Dominus excepta cet, mulieri Son licere propter suas 

causa fomicationis dimittere vetet ? pravas cupiditates marito repudium 

Ex utraque enim parte aliquid inbo- mittere, exquisita causa, velut ebrio- 

nestum videtur: nesdo autem, si so, aut aleatori, aut mulierculario : 

vere inhonestum. Talia enim mu- nee vero maritus per quascunque 

lieris sustinere peccata, ^use pejora occasiones uxores suas dimittere. 

sunt adulteriis et fomicationibus, ir- Sed in repudio mittendo a foemina 

rationabile esse videbitur. Item fa- beec sola crimina inquiri, si bomi- 

cere contra voluntatem doctrinse ddam, vel medicamentarium, vel 

Salvatoris, omnis confitebitur im- sepulcbronim dissolutorem mari- 

pium esse. Disputo ergo, quia non tum suum esse probaverit In 

pneceptive mandavit, ut nemo di- masculis etiam si repudium mittant, 

mittat uxorem excepta causa fomi- hsec tria crimina inquiri conveniety 

cationis, sed quasi exponens rem si mcecbam, vel medicamentariam 

dixit, Qus dimiserit uxorem, vel condliatricem repudiaie voluerit. 

86 Divorces, and haw XXII. v. 

Pi„t ^ vorces. The man was at liberty to give a bill of divorce to 
Constan- his wife, if she was either an adulteress, or a sorceress, or a 
B^f. ™" bawd : and the woman on the other hand might give a bill of 
divorce to her husband, if he was a murderer, or a sorcerer, 
or a robber of graves: but for being a drunkard, or a 
gamester, or a fornicator, she had no power against him. 
And here was the great inequality between the man and 
the woman, that the man had Uberty by this law to put 
away his wife for adultery ; but the woman had not the same 
privilege against an adulterous husband. And this is a thing 
frequently complained of by the ancient writers, who thought 
the man and the woman were upon the same foot and right 
by the law of God, and that a woman ought to have as much 
power to put away a fornicating husband, as an husband to 
put away a lewd wife. And, as Gothofred ^^ observes, there 
were some old Roman laws which made the privilege equal: 
as the rescript of Antonine, mentioned by St. Austin ^S and 
the judgment of Ulpian ^'^ in the Pandects. But notwithstand- 

^ Inloc. (ibid.p.3i3.col.8ini8tr.) suis non pnebuit castitatis ezem- 

Eflti veteri quoque aliquando jure plum, ita ut ambo damnentur, si 

banc a viris ouoque divertendi jus- ambos pariter impudicos conflictus 

tarn causam niisse, aliquot exemplis ipse convicerit. Nam supra dicti 

et documentis discimus, vel ex nac. imperatoris bsec verba sunt, que 

lege et exemplo, quod ex Apologia apud Gregorianum leguntur. Sane, 

Justini refert Eusebius, (1. 4. Hist, inquit, me€e litera nulla parte causm 

Eccles. c. 17.) et ex Antonini re- prtefudicabant, Neque enim si penes 

Bcripto, quod ex Codice Gregoriano te culpa fuit ut matrimonium solve* 

memorat Augustinus, 1. 2. ad Pol- rehir, et secundum legem Juliam Eu- 

lent, et Lib. ae Bono Conjugii. Eo- pasia uxor tua nuberet, propter hoc 

dem(jueadludit,quod Jurisconsultua rescHptum meum aduUerii damnata 

Bcribit, in 1. 13. 8. 5. flr. de Adul- erit, nisi constet esse commissum, 

teiiis. Habebunt autem ante ocuhs hoc m- 

^1 De Adulterinis Conjugiis, 1. 2, quirere, an cum tu pudice viveres, 

c. 8. (t. 6. p. 408 b.) . . . . Cavendum illi quoque bonos mores colendi auc- 

yiro Ulac ire vivendo, qua timet ne tor fuisti. Periniquum enim nUhi 

uxor seauatur imitando. Sed isti, videtur esse, ut pudicitiam vir ab 

quibus (usplicet, ut inter vinim et uxore exigat, quam ipse non exhibet: 

uxorem par pudicitise fonna serve- qua res potest et xnrum damnare, 

tur, et potius eligunt, maximeque non ob compensationem muiui crimi- 

in bac causa, mundi legibus subditi nis rem inter uirumque componere, 

esse (]uam Christi, quoniam jura vel causam facti toUere, 
forensia non eisdem quibus fcemi- ^ Digest. 1. 48. tit. 5. ad Leg. 

nas pudicitiae nexibus viros viden- Jul. de Adulter, leg. 13. n. 5. (ap. 

tur obstringere, legant quid Impe- Corp. Jur. Civ. t.3. p. 1450.) Judex 

rator Antoninus, non utique Chris- adulterii ante oculos habm debet et 

tianus, de bac re constituent ; ubi inquirere, an maritus^ pudice vivens, 

maritus uxorem de adulterii crimine mulieri quoque bonos mores colendi 

accusare non sinitur, cui moribus auctor fuerit ? &c. 

§ J. allowed or diaalhwed, 87 

ing these laws, custom preyailed on the men's side, to give 
them license to dismiss their wives for fornication, or even any 
slight cause, without allowing the same privilege to the woman. 
As Gothofred there evinces from the complaints made by Lao- 
tantius ^3, Gregory Nazianzen s*, Asterius Amasenus »*, Chry- 
sostom ^^, Jerom ^^^ and several others. 

Constantino was much inclined to correct these abuses and 
inequality of privileges in the matter of divorce between men 
and women: but in the first beginnings of reformation he 
could not do every thing as he piously intended ; and there- 
fore was in a manner constrained to make this law with some 
inequality to women, who might be put away for fornication, 
though tiiey might not for the same crime put away their 

85 InBtit. 1. 6. c, 23. (t. I. p. 500.) Kolrrjv dvdp6s fiMxarai, Ka\ vucpii 

Servanda igitur fides ab utroque €VT€vBtv r^ r£v v6fuov tirirlfua' dv^p 

alter! est; immo exemplo continen- t€ Karcc/ropvtvmf yvvaiK6s, avcv^yor; 

tiae docenda uxor, ut se caste gerat. ov b^xopen ravrrfp rnv vofMoBtciaw, 

Iniquum est enim, ut id exigas, ovk 4ntuw& r^v avvrfOtutv' Avdptt 

quod prsstare ipse non possis. Quae j^o-oy oi vofio&rrowrtv, duk rovro Korck 

iniquitas effecit profecto, ut essent ywauc&v ^ yofio^ftrieu Ilcor aii 

adulteria, foemims segre ferentibuSy a-t^poavvriv fi€v afroirflr, ovk dv- 

prsestare se fidem non exhibentibus rcur^cpcir dc; ir&s 6 fiij dida»r atrelf ; 

mutuam caritatem. Denique nulla n&s SfiArifAov <rS>iia hv, dtfiaeas pofio^ 

est tarn perditi pudoris adultera, OtrtU, 

quae non banc causam vitiis suis ^ Horn. 5. (ap. Combefis. Auctar. 

pretendat; injuriamsepeccandonon Nov. p. 91 e. 2.) O^ror rijs <rfa(f>p<h' 

zacere, sed referre. Quod optime avmjs 6 v6fju)g ov reus yvvai^l fi6poy 

Quintilianus expressit: Homo, in- vaph GcoO ^iorai, d\Ka teal roU 

quit, neque akeni matrimonii absH' dvdpdaw' ol de, tois tov ffiov rovrov 

nens, neque sui cuttos, ana inter se popoOercus npoa-ixovrts, dvtvBvpop 

natura connexa sunt. Nam neque KoraXcifrovo'i rrjs iropvtias rots av- 

maritus, circa corrumpendas alio- dpao-i rijp ((ovtriav, /3ap«iff ptp tta-ip 

rum oonjuges occupatus, potest va- Kptral Koi ^bdcKtiKoi Ttjt t&p ywcu- 

care domesticae sanctitati : et uxor, k&p a-tfip^rriTos' ol d* cV noWoU d- 

cum in tale incidit matrimonium, potbrjp iiripaLpopTts aonfuurip, "AXKmp 

exemplo ipso incitata, aut imitari larpoX, Korii rijp irapoifiiav, pvpioig 

se putat, aut vindicari. Cavendum ppvoprts SfXKea-iv, k, t. X. 

igitur, ne occasionem vitiis nostra ^ Horn. 19. in i Cor. (t. 10. p. 

intemperantia demus : sed assu- 158.) — Hom. 5. in i Thess. (t. 11. 

escant invicem mores duorum, et p. 462 a.) YiaBcmtp yap fipMit rat 

jugum panbus animis ferant. Nos yvpalKas xokdCopfp, orop rjpXp avp- 

ipsos in altero cogitemus. Nam oiKova-at Mpois iavras dwrip' otrr« 

fere in hoc iustitiae summa consistit, koI ^ptls KokaC6pf6a, kISlp prj vjr6 t&p 

ut non facias alteri, quidquid ipse p6p^p 'Pa>/uuW, dXX* vnh rov Gcov' 

ab altero pati nolis. xal yhp Koi rovro poixtia, fori* poi- 

^ Orat. 31. (t I. p. 499d.) Ilepl x"« 7^ ^ pdpop ry ir«p^ crw- 

^y 6p& row noWovs kok&s diajcec/ic- tC^vyp^prfP uoixaaBai, aXXii Koi r6 

povf, jcal r^y p6pop ctvr&p avia-op, Koi dtbttitpop avrbp yvptuKi. 

op^fxaKop' Ti dij iroTf yhp t6 pip Bijkv » Ep. 30. [al. 177.] Epitaph. Fa- 

^K6\aat, r6 dc Spptp circrpr^; Koi biolae. See before, s. i. p. 70, pre- 

ytim) flip KOKw Povk€v<rafjJptj mpl ceding. 

88 Divorces, and how XXII. y. 

husbands. But as he in some measure restrained the great 
Uberty of divorcing upon any occasion, which the Heathen 
laws before had allowed men, so he granted men liberty in 
more cases to put away their wives than had been generally 
thought consistent before with the strict interpretation of the 
law of Christ. For that, as I showed before [in the preceding 
section] , takes the exception of fornication or adultery in the 
strictest sense : but Constantino allowed divorce in cases that 
cannot be called fornication in the strict sense, but require 
a much larger interpretation. And whether he consulted the 
Christian bishops at that time before he made his law; or 
whether the bishops then had that extensive notion of for- 
nication including other great crimes, such as murder, sorcery, 
sacrilege, and the like, as Mr. Selden supposes they had, is 
what I will not venture to assert, because many in those times 
were of a different opinion. 
Then by 4. However, it \a certain that the following emperors trod 
in the same steps, still adding more causes of divorce to the 
first three which Constantino had allowed. For Honorius not 
only allowed of divorces both in men and women for great 
crimes, but also gave way to divorces for lesser faults, only 
imposing a slight penalty upon them. For by one of his 
laws^^, a man for great crimes might put away his wife, 
and recover both his espousal gifts and dowry, and marry 
again as soon as he pleased: and for lesser faults he might 
put her away without any other punishment than loss of 
the dowry, and confinement not to marry within two years. So 
that here was plainly permitted a greater liberty of divorce 
than had been allowed by the law of Constantino before. 
Which made Asterius Amasenus^^ complain, as we have heard 
before, * that husbands were mere hucksters in marriage ; 
changing their wives as they did their clothes ; building new 
bride-chambers as often and as easily as they did their shops 
at fairs; marrying the portion and the goods, and making 

^ Cod. Theod. 1. 3. tit. 16. de cendi mox alteram libenim sortiatur 

Repudiis, leg. 2. (t. i. p. 313.) Sane arbitriuin. Si vero morum est culpa, 

si aivortium prior maritus objecerit, non criminum, donationem recipiat, 

ac mulieri grave crimen intulerit, et dotem relinquat, aliam post bien- 

persequatur leffibus accusatam, im- nium ducturus uxorero. 

petrataqne vindicta, et dote potiatur, ^ Horn. 5. See before, 8. i. n. 69, 

et suam recipiat largitatem, et du- preceding. 


§ 4, 5. allowed or disallowed, 89 

wiyes a mere gain and merchandize; for any little offence 
presently writing a bill of divorce, and leaving many widows 
alive at once.' And Gothofred himself complains ^, ' that this 
was the great blemish of this age: for it had been more 
agreeable to the divine law not to have suffered such divorces 
at all, rather than to have allowed them only with such slight 
penalties put upon them.' 

5. But Theodosius Junior went yet a little further in the And Theo- 
former part of his reign. For he abrogated the two preceding ^^ ^^' 
laws of Constantino and Honorius, and reduced back again 
into use the old Roman laws about divorces, by a Novel, anno 
439, which runs in these terms ^' : ' We command that mar- 
riages be contracted by mutual consent; but when they are 
contracted, they shall not be dissolved otherwise than by 
giving a bill of divorce. But in giving a bill of divorce, 
and making inquiry into the causes or faults proper to be 
alleged for divorce, we think it hard to exceed the rules of 
the ancient laws. Therefore now abrogating those constitu- 
tions which command heavy penalties to be laid upon husbands 
or wives dissolving marriage, we by this constitution appoint, 
that divorces, and faults alleged as reasons for divorce, and 
the punishments of such faults, be reduced to the ancient laws 
and the answers of the prudent.' But this abrogation of those 
two former laws, as Mr. Selden ^ observes, was doubtiess db- 
pleasing to very many, a^ seeming to introduce again the 
licentiousness of old Paganism in the matter of divorces, and 
to permit them to be made for any fault or crime whatsoever. 
Therefore within a few years Theodosius himself revoked this 

^ In Honorii dictam l^em. (t. i. lierem matriznonio solute pnecipiunt 

p. 314. sub. fin. 8. 3.) Quae sane poenis gravissimis coerceri, hac con- 

magna hujus sevi labes fuit. Divino stitutione repudia, culpas culpanim- 

enim prsecepto convenientius non que coerctiones ad veteres leges 

ita dissocian conjugia quam poenas responsaque prudentum revocari 

imponi. cenaemus. 

*' N0vel.17.adcalc.C0d. Theod. ^ Uxor Hebraica, 1. 3. c. 28. 

(t. 6. append, p. 9.) Consensu licita p. 567. (t. i. v. 2. p. 8^2.) Sed 

matrimonia posse contrahi, contracta abro|nitio hsec procul dubio com- 

non nisi misso repudib dissolvi prse- pluribus admoaum displicuit, ut- 

cipimuB Sea in repudio culpa- note quae Paganismi in divortiis 

que divortii perquirenda, durum est libertatem reducere, aut omnimo- 

legum veterum moderamen ezce- dum ob crimen culpamve ea fieri 

dere. Ideo constitutionibus abro- pennittere visa est. 
gatis, quae nunc maritum nunc mu- 

90 Divorces, and haw XXII. y. 

constitution, making another law^, anno 449, wherein he 
specified more particularly the causes for which either man 
or woman might lawfully give a bill of divorce. * If any 
woman found her husband to be an adulterer, or a murderer, 
or a sorcerer, or attempting any thing against the government, 
or guilty of perjury ; or could prove him a robber of graves, 
or a robber of churches, or guilty of robbery upon the high- 
way, or a receiver or encourager of robbers, or guilty of 
pla^ry or man-stealing ; or that he associated openly in her 
fflght with lewd women ; or that he insidiously made attempt 
upon her life by poison or sword, or any other way ; or that 
he beat her witii stripes contrary to the dignity of free-bom 
women : in all these cases she had liberty to right herself by 
a bill of divorce, and make her separation good against him at 
the law.' In like manner, ^ if the husband could prove his wife 
to be an adulteress, or a sorceress, or a murderer, or a pla- 
giary, or a robber of graves, or a robber of churches, or an 
harbourer of robbers ; or that she feasted with strangers 
against his knowledge or his will; or that she lodged out 
all night without any just and probable cause against his 
consent; or that she frequented the games of the circus, or 

^ Cod. Justin. 1.5. tit. 17. de Re- rum dissolutricem, aut ex saciis 

pudiis, leg. 8. (t. 4. pp. 1243, 1243, sedibus aliauid subtrahentem, aut 

1244.) Si qua igitur maritum suum latronum fautricem, aut extrane- 

adulteruxn, aut homicidam, aut ve- orum virorum, se ignorante vel 

neficum, vel certe contra nostrum nolente, convivia appetentem; aut 

imperium aliquid inolientem^ vel ipso invito sine justa et probabili 

falsitatis crimine condemnatum in- causa foris scilicet pemoctantem, 

venerit ; si sepulchrorum dissoluto- vel circensibus vel theatralibus lu- 

rem, si sacris sedibus aliquid sub- dis, vel arenarum spectaculis in 

trahentem, si latronem vel latronum ipsis locis, in quibus haec assolent 

susceptorem, vel abactorem, aut celebrari, se pronibente, gaudentem; 

plagiarium, vel ad contemptum sui vel sibi veneno, vel ^ladio, aut alio 

Qomusve suae, ipsa inspiciente, cum simili modo insidiatncem ; vel con- 

impudicis mvJieribus, quod maxime tra nostrum imperium aUquid ma- 

etiam castas ezasperat, coetum ine- chinantibus consdam, seu falsitatis 

untem, si suae vitae veneno, aut gla- se crimini immiscentem invenerit, 

dio, aut alio simili modo insidiantem, aut manus audaces sibi probaverit 

si se verberibus, quae ingenuis aliena ingerentem : tunc enim necessario 

sunt, afficientem probaverit. . . . Vir ei discedendi permittimus faculta- 

quoque pari fine claudetur, nee li- tem, et causas dissidii legibus com- 

cebit ei sine causis apertius desig- probare Quod si praeter baec 

natis propriam repudfiare jujgalem. nupserit, erit ipsa quidem infamis : 

Nee ullo modo eiq)ellat, nisi adul- connubium vero illud nolumus nun- 

teram, vel veneficam, aut homici- cupari. 
dam, aut plagiariam, aut sepulchro- 

§ 5» 6, 7- 

allowed or disallowed. 


the theatre, or the place where the gladiators or fencers used 
to fight, against his prohibition; or that she made attempts 
upon his life by poison or sword, or any other way ; or was 
partaker with any that conspired against the goremment ; or 
guilty of any false witness or perjury ; or laid bold hands upon 
her husband: in all these cases the man had equal liberty 
to giye his wife a bill of divorce, and make his action good 
against her at the law. But if the woman diyorced herself 
without any of the foresaid reasons, she was to forfeit her 
dowry and espousal gifts, and to remain five years without 
marrying again. And if she pretended to marry within that 
time, she was to be reputed infamous, and her marriage to be 
reckoned as nothing. But if she rightly proved her cause, 
she was to recover her dowry and ante-nuptial gifts, and 
had liberty to marry again within a year. And if the man 
made good his action against the woman, he might retain the 
dowry and espousal gifts, and marry again aa soon as he 

6. Not long after Valentinian III. published a novel, wherein And Vaien- 
abolishing the old Roman practice of making divorces without xuid.^^ 
any other cause but mere consent of both parties, which, though 
forbidden by Constantine, had crept into use again, he reflects 

upon the first novel of Theodosius, which also permitted such 
divorces by mutual consent: and ordered ^^, 'that the decrees 
of Constantius (or rather Constantine, for so it should be read) 
concerning the dissolution of marriage should be observed,' per- 
mitting none to dissolve their marriage barely by mutual con- 

7. Yet, notwithstanding this, Anastasius about the year 497 And Ana- 
brought in that antiquated practice again. For though he**^'**' 
commended the last constitution of Theodosius Junior as an 
excellent law, yet he relaxed the force of it ia this one point ; 
ordering^, 'that if a divorce was made by mutual consent of 

*l Novel. 13. de Episcopal! Judi- 
cio, c. 7. ad calc. Coa. Theod. (t. 6. 
append, p. 37. col. sinistr.) In ipso- 
rum matrimoniorum reverentia et 
vinculo, ne paasim et temere dese- 
rantur, anti^uata novella lege, qua 
9olvi conjugta 9ola contraria votun" 
tate pemUserat, ea quae a divo patre 

noBtro Constantio [leg. Constantino] 
decreta sunt, intemerata serventur. 
9i Cod. Justin. 1. 5. tit. 17. de 
Repudiis, leg.^. (t. 4. p. 1245.) Si, 
constante matnmomo,cominuni con- 
sensu tarn viri quam mulieris repu- 
dium sit missum, quo nulla causa 
continetur, quae consultissime con- 


92 Divorces, and haw XXIL y. 

the man and woman, withont alleging any of those causes 
against each other that are mentioned in Theodosius's law, the 
divorce should be allowed ; and the woman should not be 
obliged to wait five years before she married, as some former 
laws directed, but after one year was expired, she should have 
free liberty to marry as she pleased a second time/ 
And Justi- 8. Thus stood the business of divorces in the civil law to the 
time of Justinian ^, anno 528, when by a new decree of his 
own he not only confirmed all the causes of divorce that had 
been declared legal by the long constitution of Theodosius, but 
added one more to them which had never been mentioned be- 
fore ; viz. the case of imbecility in the man, whom the wife 
after two years for this reason might put away by a bill of 
divorce. And this he again repeats in one of his Novels ^, 
only with this difference, that instead of two years there should 
be allowed three. In another law ^^ he adds to all the former 
causes of divorce these that follow, viz. ' K the wife industriously 
use means to cause abortion ; or be so lewd and luxurious as 
to go into a common bath with men ; or endeavour, when she 
is in matrimony, to be married to another man.' But he here- 
by cancelled and abolished all such ancient laws as allowed of 
divorce for light and trivial causes. He repeats the same 

stitutioni divse memoriae Theodosii pridem scriptam legem transcurrat 

et Valentiniani inserta est, licebit ex nuptiarum tempore, ille vero 

mulieri Don quinquennium expec- aula pro veiitate est vir non osten- 

tare, sed post annum ad secundas uat. Licebit enim mulieri aut ejus 

nuptias convolare. parentibus disjungere matrimonium, 

^ Cod. 1.5. leg. 10. (t.4. p. 124^.) et mittere repudium, vel si noluerit 

In causis jam dudum specialiter de- hoc maritus Hanc itaque legem 

finitis, ex quibus recta mittuntur coirigimus brevi (juadarn adjectione. 

repudia, illam addimus, ut, si mari- Non enim biennmm numerari so- 

tus uxori ab initio matrimonii usque lum ex ipso tempore copulationis : 

ad duos annos continuos compu- sed triennium volumus. Edocti 

tandos coire roinime propter natu- namque sumus, ex lis, quae ante 

ndem imbecillitatem valeat, possit hsec provenerunt, quosdam, amplius 

mulier vel ejus parentes sine peri- quam biennium non valentes, postea 

culo dotis amittendse repudiimi ma- potentes ostensos ministrare filiorum 

rito mittere : ita tamen, ut ante nup- procreationi. 

tias donatio eidem marito servetur. ^ Cod. leg. 11. (t. 4. p. 1247.) 

M Novel. 23. c. 6. (t. 5. p. 162.) Si forte uxor sua ope vel mdustria 

Per occasionem quoque necessariam, abortum fecerit, vel ita luxuriosa 

et non irrationabilem distrahitur ma- est, ut commune lavacrum cum vi- 

trimonium, quando aliquis impotens ris libidinis causa habere audeat ; 

fuerit coire mulieri, et a^ere quae a vel, dum est in matrimonio, alium 

natura viris data sunt : si biennium maritum sibi fieri conata fuerit, &c. 
quidem secundum de hoc a nobis 

§ 8. allowed or disallowed. 98 

causes of divorce in other novels, and adds to them some other 
cases : as, ' if a man or woman was minded to betake them- 
selves to a monastic life, thej might then give a bill of divorce, 
without alleging any other cause of ^separation :' which was a 
new law of Justinian's ^ ; for this was never allowed as a just 
cause of divorce before. He allowed also that a bill of divorce 
might be given in case either party was a long time detained 
in captivity : which sort of divorces were said to be made 
cum bona gratia ^, not for any crime, but, as it is called,,^ 
other reoLsonahle causes. Thus stood the matter of divorces in 
the time of Justinian, when the civil law was fully revived and 
settled in the Roman empire. What new laws or alterations 
were afterward made by other princes either in the East or 
West to the time of the Reformation, the reader that pleases 
may see in Mr. Selden ^^, who carries the history down to the 
last ages : but this is beyond the limits of the present discourse, 
which is designed only to account for the practice of Church 
or State in the primitive ages 9^. 

w Novel. 117. c. f 2. (t. 5. p. 509.) ^ Novel, aa. c. 14. (t. 5. p. 167. 

Pnedictio itaque causis prospezimus med.) Mitiores itaque nuptiarum 

etiam has uominatim adjicere, ex solutiones, tanauam generali qua- 

quibas matrimonia sine pcena licet dam ratione sud bona gratia factis 

transigere ; hoc est, de iis, qui non disjnnctionibus, sciendum est tales 

potuerunt ab initio nuptiarum mis- esse quodammodo. [Conf. c. 4. (p. 

ceri suis uzoribus, et quae per natu- 162.) Distrahuntur . . . matrimonia. 

ram viris concessa sunt agere. In- Alia quidem consentiente utraque 

super de iis viris, ac fceminis, qui parte. . . . Alia vero per occasionem 

consistente matrimonio sanctimoni- rationabilem, quae etiam bona gratia 

alem conversationem, et monasterii vocatur. Ed.] 

habitationem eligerint; et de iis per- ^ Uxor Hebraica, 1. 3. cc. 29, 30, 

sonis, quae in captivitate aliquanto &c. (t. i. v. 2. pp. 830, 8e<^q.) Jus 

tempore detinentm : in his enim Csesareum, quod post Justimani sae- 

tribus casibus, quae de eis prioribus culum, &c. 

nostris l^bus continentur, (irma ^ [^®. ^^^ of the ninth volume 
esse sancimus. — Conf. Cod. 1. i. of the original edition, first pub- 
tit. 3. de Episc. leg. 52. See b. 7. lished in 1722, when the Author 
ch. 3. 8. 3. v. 2. p. 356. n. 20. — No- was Rector of Havant, Hants. His 
vel. 134. c. II. (t. 5. p. 601.) Quia tenth volume, containing a long pre- 
vero aliqui nostram legem transcen- face, the twenty-third book, and 
dere student, in qua evidenter cau- the indices, was issued in the same 
sas enumeravimus, ex quibus solum year. That preface, however, which 
repudia possunt transmitti aut a of itself is truly valuable, I have 
viro aut a muliere, jubemus prseter placed with other prolegomena in 
illas causas nullo modo repudia the first volume of this new edi- 
fieri, &c. tion. Ed.] 

The end of the ninth volume of the original edition, 1722. 

94 Cf cemeteries XXm. i. 

BOOK xxm. 


CHAR 1. 

Of cemeteries, or burying places, with an inquiry how and 
when the custom of burying in churches first came in, 

A cemetery 1. Befobb we say any thing of the sacred rites and customs 
name for a observed in burying the dead, it will be necessary to give 
bjirying g^me account of the place where they were buried. That the 

place and a , , , *^ ^ , 

church. Christians had anciently some places peculiar to themselves for 
^1^ j!^ burying their dead, is evident from hence, that they often met 
pass. in times of persecution to celebrate divine service at the graves 

and monuments of their martyrs : which had not been proper 
places for such meetings, had they been common to them with 
the Heathens. These were called by a general name icoi/x?;- 
rfipm, coemeteria, dormitories or sleeping places, because they 
esteemed death but a sleep, and the bodies there deposed not 
properly dead, but only laid to sleep till the resurrection should 
awaken them. These were otherwise called areee sqpuUura- 
rum^, and cryptce^, because they were vaults often made under 
ground, where the Christians could meet with greater safety to 
hold religious assemblies in time of persecution. Upon which 
account, as I have noted elsewhere 3, all these were common 
names both of burying places and places of religious assem- 
blies. Whence the Heathens often, when they would forbid 

1 Ad Scapul. c. 3. (p. ^o a.) Sicut Dum essem Rome puer, et liberali- 

et sub Hilarione pnesiae, cum de bus studiis erudirer, solebam cum 

areis sepulturarum nostrarum ac- cseteris ejusdem setatis et propositi^ 

clamassent. Area rum sint ! ares diebus DominiciB sepulchra Aposto- 

ipsorum non fuerunt : messes enim lorum et Martyrum circuire ; ere- 

suas non egerunt. broque cryptas ingredi, &c. 

^ In Ezek. c. 40. (t. 5. p. 468 b.) ' B. 8. ch. i. s. 9. v. 3. p. 15. 

§ I, 2. 

or burying places. 


ChristiaDS to hold any assemblies for divine service, forbade 
them their arece; as in that place of Tertullian% Arecs non 
sint ! Let the Christians have none of their areoi to meet in 1 
and the like prohibitions we find in other places. So in like 
manner iEmilian, the Koman prefect, tells Dionysius, bishop 
of Alexandria^, ' that they should not have liberty to go into 
their cemeteries, as they called them, and there hold their 
assemblies for divine worship.' In all which places it is evident 
the words- are taken promiscuously both for burying places 
and places of assembling for religious worship. Which would 
incline a man almost to think, were there not otherwise insu- 
perable arguments against it, that it was the ancient custom of 
the most primitive Christians to bury in churches. 

2. But upon a nicer inquiry and more exact view, we are No burying 
sure there neither was nor could be any burying m churches, ^^'^ 
properly speaking, for the first three hundred years. Necessity churchee 
sometimes forced the Christians, during this interval, to hold three hun- 
their assemblies in the burying places of the martyrs, and so *^**** i®**- 
make a sort of extraordinary and temporary churches of them; 
as they might do of any cave or place of retirement in such 
circumstances : for, as Dionysius of Alexandria^ well words it, 
' Every place is instead of a temple in time of persecution, whe- 
ther it be a field, or a wilderness, or a ship, or an inn, or a 
prison.' But this occasional use, in an extraordinary case and 
extreme necessity, does not properly make them churches, that 
is, places set apart only for divine service. And therefore the 
occasional meetings of the primitive Christians in their ceme- 
teries, or at the graves and monuments of the martyrs, did not 
as yet turn them into churches : neither can it be said with 
any propriety upon this account, that they then buried in 
churches, but only that they made a sort of extraordinary 
churches or places of occasional assembly at the graves or 

4 Ad Scapul. c. 3. See n. i, pre- 
ceding. — Gest. Purgat. Csecilian. ad 
ealc. Optat. p. 272. (p. 95 b. col. 
sinistr.) Nam cives in area marty- 
rum faenint inclasi. — Ibid. p. 277. 
(p. 96 d. col. dextr.) Tollat aliquis 
de vestris in area, ubi orationem fa- 
citia, et iUie ponantur. — Pass. Cypri- 
an, p. 12. (p. 14.) See afterwards, 
8. 2. n. 22, following. 

^ Ap. Euseb. 1. 7. c. II. (v. i. p. 
335. 30.) Ovda/icar dc cfeoroi oiht 
vfiiv o(ir€ SXXois fj avtfd^ovs itomi- 
a-Oai, fj CIS rh Kakovfuva KOtfirjTripta 

^ Ap. Euseb. ibid. c. 22. (ibid. p. 
347. 10.) . . . Kal iroff 6 rrjs xaB* tiui' 
<rrov ffklyfrt^f r^trot, natnjyvpiKi^p ^fup 
ytyov€ x^P^o^' oyp6s, €fnifjUa, vavs, 
na»to)(tioPf dfCftorr^pioy. 

96 Of cemeteries XXIII. i. 

burying places of the dead. Their churches, which were their 
standing and proper churches, were chiefly then in cities, and 
in most places it may be in cities only : and the Roman laws 
all that time forbade all burying in cities to persons of every 
rank and quality whatsoever. Consequently, the Christians, 
who lived in a due obedience and subjection to the Roman 
laws in all things of an innocent and indifferent nature, no 
ways interfering with the necessary rules of their religion, 
were as ready to comply with this innocent law or custom 
as any others : and that is an undoubted argument that the 
Christians neither did nor could then bury in churches. 

The Heathens indeed themselves sometimes broke through 
the laws, and, in spite of prohibition and restraint, would pre- 
sume to bury in cities : but we no where find this accusation of 
transgressing the laws in this particular brought against the 
Christians; but rather the Christians objected the transgression 
of it to the Heathens : as Savaro, in his learned ^otes upon 
Sidonius Apollinaris^, shows out of several passages of Clemens 
Alexandrinus, Arnobius, Lactantius, Julius Firmicus, Pruden. 
tins, and others. It was one of the original laws of the Twelve 

7 L. ^. £p. 12. (p. ao7.) Veteres sepultaaolo. M.Tullius pro Roscio; 
in campis et affris cadavera sepelie- et T. Livius, 1. ii. ab Urbe Cond. ; 
bant, non in im)ibu8. . .qui mos cum Gregor. Turon. de Glor. Confessor, 
apud Grsecos, turn apud Latinos ob- c. 8o. Quod senatusconsultum, cum 
tinuit. Pol^bius, 1. 6. et 1. 8. Dio- penitus antiquatum esset, D. Hadri- 
genes Laertms in Pyrrbone Helien- anus restituit, 1. 3. §. D, Hadrian 
si, apud Latinos, ex. 12. In urbe ne nus, de Sepulch, Violato, Itemque 
sepeiito neve urito: quae lex cum ex- ejus successor Antoninus Pius, Capi- 
olevisset, et plerique intra urbem in- tolinus, intra urbes sepeliri mortuos 
bumarentur, et quot Romae templa, vetuit. Paulus L Sentent. titulo ul- 
tot sepulcra prius fuerant. Clemens timo, § 2. Corpus in civitatem ii^erri 
Alexandria, ad Gentes ; Arnobius, non licet, — Id. § 3. Sed cum leges 
1. 6. ; Lactantius, 1. 1. c. 11.; Plu- illae conculcarentur, ut omnes intra 
tarcb. Rerum Romanar. c. 79. ; Ju- ecclesias et urbes sepeliri vellent, id 
lius Firmicus de Errore Prof. Relig.; Christiani imperatores vetuerunt, 
Prudentius, 1. 1. cont. Symmachum; leg. 6. Cod. Theod. de Sepulch. Vi- 
Festus L in Argea loca. Id. III. in olato, et leg. 2. Cod. de Relig. et 
Cincia, Postea senatusconsulto cau- Sumpt. Funer. Leo Sapiens, No- 
torn est, ne quis in urbe sepeliretwr, vella 53., legem illam renxit, quam 
Servius, 1. 1 1 . ad haec, Urbique re- legem Galli religiose excoluerunt, 
ndtttmt, Meminit, inquit, antiqute Concilii Bracarensis primi cap. 36. : 
consuetudinis j nam ettam ante ho- Nam si Jirmissimum hoc privtlegium 
mines in civitate sepeliebantur, quod usque nunc retinent GaUia civitates, 
postea, DuelUo consule, senatus pro- ut nuUo modo intra ambitum muro- 
hibuit, et legavit ne quis in urbe se- rum civitatum cujusUbet defuncti 
peliretur, Unde mos invaluit, ut in corpus sit humatum, A-c. — Dall. de 
continentibus urbis humatio fieret. Object. Cult. Relig. 1. 4. c. 7. (p. 
Ovidiiis, Inque suburbano membra 620.) Clemens Alexandrinus, &c. 

§ iZ. or burying places, 97 

Tables ^9 * In urbe ne sepelito, neve urito : Let no one bury or 
bum in the city.' This was afterward confirmed, upon some 
transgression, by a decree of the senate, when Duellius was 
consid, as Sayaro shows Airther oat of Servius's observations 
upon Virgil 9. And then for some time the practice was to 
bury only in the suburbs, and not in the city, as the same au- 
thor^® shows out of Tully, livy, and Ovid. Afterward, upon 
some invasion made again upon the law, (for the Heathens 
were still ambitious of burying in the temples,) Hadrian pub- 
lished a new edict to forbid it'S laying a penalty of forty 
pieces of gold upon any one that should presume to bury in 
the city, and as much upon the judges that permitted it ; or- 
dering the place to be confiscated, and the body to be removed. 
And no municipal or private laws in this case, Ulpian says, 
were to be regarded against the general law of the prince. 
Antoninus Pius, successor to Hadrian, revived the same law, 
forbidding any to bury the dead within the cities, as Julius 
Capitolinus ^^, the writer of his Life, informs us. And Gotho- 
fred cites Paulus^^, the eminent lawyer, as concurring in the 
same judgment, and giving a good reason for it :' It is not 
lawful for any corpse to be buried in the city, that the sacred 
places of the city be not defiled.* Finally, Diocletian '^ men- 
tions and confirms these preceding laws by a law of his own, 
wherein he gives the same reason against burying in cities as 
Paulus did before. Hence it was that graves and monuments 
were commonly erected by the highways' side without the 
cities, as Yarro ^^, an ancient Roman writer, observes ; giving 

8 Cicero de Legibns, 1. a. n. 58. ralia sunt reecripta, et oportet impe- 

[al. 33.] (v. 14. p. 3379.) Hominem rialia statuta suam vim obtisere et 

mortuum, inquit lex m xii tabulis, in omni loco valere. 
in urbe ne sepeliio, neve urito, ^^ Vit. Antonini Pii, c. 13^. p. 60. 

^ See n. 7, preceding. ( int. Aug. Hist. Scriptor. p. 144.) 

'^ See the same. Intra urbes sepeliri mortuos vetuit. 

11 Ulpian. in Digest. 1. 47. tit. la. ^^ Sentent. 1. 1. c. ult. ap. Gotbo- 

de Sepulcbr.Violat. leg. 3. n.5. (ap. fred. in Cod.Theod. 1. 9. tit. 17. de 

C!orp. Jur. Civ. t. 3. p. 1391.) Divus Sepulcbr.Violat. leg. 6. (t. 3. p. 149. 

Haarianus rescripto poenam statuit col. sinistr.) 

(piadraginta anreonun in eos, qui in ^^ Ck)d. Justin. 1. 3. tit. 44. de 

civitate sepelinnt, . . . . et in magis- Reli^osis et Sumptibus Funerum, 

tiatus, eadem qui passi sunt; et Jo- leff. la. (t. 4. p. 763.) Mortuonim 

cum publican jussit^ et corpus trans- re&quias^ ne sanctum municipiorum 

ferri. Quid tamen, si lex municipalis jus poUuatur, intra civitatem oondi 

permittat in civitate sepeliri ? rost jampridem vetitum est. 
rescripta principalia an ab boc dis- ^^ De Lingua Latina, 1. 5. dted 

cessum sit, videbimus : quia gene- by Gotbofred. Vid. ubi supra, (t. 3. 


98 Of cemeteries XXIII. i. 

a further reason for it^ ' that passengers might be admonished 
that they ihemselyes were mortal as well as those that lay bu* 
ried there.* Aagustns and Tiberius'^ were buried in the Via 
Appia, and Domitian ^7 in the Via LaMna, And accordingly 
Juvenal ^^ speaks of the dead in general, as ' those that lay bu- 
ried in the Via Flaminia and LaUna* St. Peter upon this ac- 
count was buried in the Via Triumphalis beyond the Tiber, 
as St. Jerom^^ informs us: and St. Paul in the Via OetiensiSy 
three miles without the gate of the city, as the same author ^» 
and all others that speak of their deaths, assure us. ^ay, 
Sidonius ApolUnaris^^ assures us further, that the place where 
St. Peter was buried, though there was then a diurch built 
over it, was still in his time (anno 470) without the pomoeria, or 
gpace before the walls of Home. For, speaking of his journey 
to Rome, he says, * before ever he came at the pomceria of the 
city, he went and saluted the Church of the Apostles, which 
stood in the Via Triumphalis.* Which implies that his monu- 
ment and church was still without the walls. And so generally 
the graves and monuments of the martyrs are spoken of aa 
being without the cities : as St. Cyprian^^ in the Via Mappor- 
liensis; and Sixtus [the Second, anno 260] in the Cemetery 
of Calixtus'-^^ in the Via Appia, and his six deacons in the 

p. 148. col. deztr.) sive ap. Oper. Viam Triumphalem, totius orbis 

Varron. (p. ^. sub im.) Sic moni- [al. urbisl veneratione celebratur. 
menta, quae in sepulchris. £t ideo ^ Ibid. c. ^. (p. 823.) Neronis 

secundum viam sunt, quo preter- anno, eodem die, quo Petrus, Ronue 

euntes admoneant, et se fuisse, et pro Christo capite truncatur, sepul- 

illos esse mortales. tusque est in Via Ostiensi, anno 

1^ Vid. Senecas Apocolocynth. post passionem Domini tricesimo 

Claud. (Ed. Paris. 1607. p. 931.) septimo. 

AppisB Vise curator est, qua scis et ^^ L. i. Ep. 5. (p. 38.) Ubi pri- 

Divum Augustum et llberium Cse- usquam vel pomoeria contin^erem, 

sarem ad Deos isse, triumphalibus Apostolorum Smini- 

1^ Vid. Sueton. Vit. Domitian. bus ainusus, omnem protinus sensi 

c. 17. (p. 341.) Cadaver ^us, popu- membris male fortibus explosum 

lari sandapila per vespertiliones ex- esse lanffuorem, &c. 

Eortatum, Phyllis nutriz in subur- ^2 Vid. Passion. Cyprian, (p. 14.) 

ano suo Latina via funeravit. Ejus corpus propter Gentilium curi- 

^^ Sat. I. in fine (ap. Corp. Poet, ositatem in proximo positum est 

Lat. t. a. p. 1 144.) Quorum Flami- cum cereis et scolacibus, in areis 

nia tegitur cinis atque Latina. — Vid. Macrobii Candidi procuratoris, quae 

plura ap. Dempster, in Rosin. An- sunt in Via Mappaliensi juxta pisci- 

tiquit. 1. 5. c. ult. (p. 1006 d. 4,seqq.) nas, cum voto et triumpno ma|]p[io. 
Ut olim in puteis, &c. » Pontifical. Vit. Sixti. [Vid. 

1^ De Scriptor. Eccles. [al. De Anastas. Bibliotbecar. De Vit. JPon- 

Vir. lUustr.] c. i. (t. 2. p. 813.) Se- tif. s. 25. (Rom. 1718. p. 26.) Qui 

pultus Romse, in Vaticano, juxta vero sepultus est in Coemiterio Ca- 

§ 2, 3« o^ burying places. 99 

Cemetery of Frsdtextatus in the Via Appia; and St. Laurence in 
the crypta in the Via Tiburtina. And apon this account in after- 
ages, when they held assemblies at the monuments of the mar- 
tyrs, we always find them speaking of ' going out of the cities 
into the country, where the martyrs lay buried/ Thus Chry- 
sostom in one of his Homilies upon tiie Martyrs^^ says, ' As 
before, when the festival of the Maccabees was celebrated, all 
the country came thronging into the city : so now, when the 
festival of the martyrs, who lie buried in the country, is cele- 
brated, it was fit the whole city should remove thither.' In 
like manner, speaking of the festival of Drosis the martyr 3^, 
he says, ' though they had spiritual entertainment in the city, 
yet their going out to the saints in the country afforded them 
both great profit and pleasure.' 

From all which it is evident to a demonstration, that for the 
three first centuries the Christians neither did nor could bury 
in the cities or city-churches, because the Roman laws, with 
which they readily complied, were absolutely against it. If 

that is only to be understood of the relics of martyrs trans- 
lated into the city-churches, or of churches newly built in the 
country over the graves and monuments of the martyrs. Nei- 
ther of which has any relation at all to burying in churches ; 
because the one was only the translation of their ashes in an 
urn some ages after, and the other rather an erecting of new 
churches in the places where the martyrs lay buried some ages 
before, than any proper burial of the martyrs in churches. 
Though this gave the first occasion in ftiture times to the inno- 
vation that was made in this matter of burying in churches, as 
we shall see more hereafter. 

8. Meanwhile let it be observed, that the common way of But either 
burying, for this interval of three hundred years, was either in ^JntaT'*" 
graves with monuments set over them in the public roads, or erected by 
else in vaults and catacombs for greater safety made in the or^in Tauito 

cum alus multis martyribus, 4. iaxa . . . UXrffnft fuv yap, k, r. X. 
August!, &c. Ed.] 

H 2 


Of cemeteries 


and cata- 
combs in 
the fields 

fields and under ground. For that they had such Taults for 
this purpose, called cryptce and arenaria, from their being 
digged privately in the sand under ground, is evident both 
from the ancient and modem accounts of them. Baronius^® 
tells us there were about forty-three such in the suburbs of 
Rome : and Onuphrius^^ gives us a particular account of their 
names, tak^i from the names of their founders, or such cha- 
ritable persons as were at the pains or charge to build or re- 
pair them: and, what is chiefly remarkable, he tells us the 
places where they were ; viz. not in the city, but in the ways or 
roads without the walls, leading from Rome to other places, as 
the Via Appia, Aurelia, Ostiensis, Nomentana, Tiburtina, La- 
tina, Salaria, Flaminia, Portuensis, Ardeatina, Lavicana, &c. 

^ An. 226. n. 9, (t. 3. p. 345 b.) 
Preter coemeteria duo, Uallisti et 
Calepodii, quorum hie mentio est, 
illud fuit cum primis nobilissimum, 
positiun in Vaticano, in quo S. Petri 
et aliorum plurium siunmorum pon- 
tificum corpora condita sunt : aliud 
Ostianum, Via Salaria, in quo idem 
S. Petms dicitur baptizasse, cujus 
mentio est kn Actis liberii Papae : 
quintum Ad Nymphas dictum. Via 
Nimientana, in prsedio Severse, sep- 
timo ab urbe lapide : seztum Soteris 
nominatum, haud longe a coemeterio 
Callisti : juxta quod etiam septimum 
situm erat coemeterium Zephyrini: 
octavum Prsetextati, Via Appia : no- 
num Pontiani: Cyriacse Matrons 
decimum, in agro Verano : undeci- 
mum Lucinse, Via Aurelia : duode- 
cimum Aproniani, Via Latina : deci- 
mum tertium Felicis Papse, Via Au- 
relia, secundo ab urbe lapide : deci- 
mum quartum Priscillae, Via Salaria, 
tertio ab urbe lapide, juxta cryptam 
Sancti Crescentionis ; quintum deci- 
mum Timothei, Via Ostiensi, in loco, 
ubi nunc est basilica S. Paul! : deci- 
mum sextum Novelise dictum. Via 
Salaria: decimum septimum S. Bal- 
binse, inter Viam Appiam in Ardea- 
tinam, idemque nominatum Marci 
Papse: insuper coemeterium Julii, 
Via Flaminia : aliud ejusdem noml- 
nis. Via Aurelia : rursus aliud ejus- 
dem quoque nominis. Via Portuensi, 
quod numeratur vigesimimi: rur- 
sum coemeterium Damasi, inter Viam 

Ardeatinam et Appiam : vigesimum 
secimdum yero quod dicebatur Ana- 
stasii Papse, tempore pads intra ur- 
bem in Esquilino factum: vigesi- 
mum tertium Hermetis: aliud Ni- 
comedis, Via Ardeatina : viffesimum 
quintum Sanctse Agnetis, Via No- 
mentana: vigesimum sextum Sanctse 
Felicitatis, Via Sakria: vigesimum 
septimum dictum Jordanorum: vi- 
gesimum octavum Nerei: Sancto- 
rum Felicis et Adaucti undetri^esi- 
mum: trigesimum vero Tiburtii et 
Valerian!: trigesimum primum san- 
ctorum Petri et Marcemni, Via La- 
vicana: trigesimum secundum Mar- 
ci et Marcelliani : quod sequitur tri- 
fesimum tertiimi dictum Quarti et 
luinti : itemoue illud Sanctse A^« 
thse, Via Aurelia : trigesimum qmn- 
tum coemeterium Ursi: et aliud quod 
dictum est Cardianum : trigesimum 
vero septimimi dictum est. Inter 
Duas Lauros : trigesimum octavum 
ad clivum cucumeris. Via Salaria: 
coemeterium vero Thrasonis ad san- 
ctum Satiuninum ponitur trigesi- 
mum nonum : quadragesimum vero 
Cyriaci, Via Ostiensi: quadragesi- 
mum primumPetroniUae: quadrage- 
simum secundum Januarii : deni^ue 
qua(iragesimum tertium Simplicii et 
Serviliuii. Quorum omnium fit 
mentio in libro de Romanis Pontifi- 
cibus, et aliis in locis. 

27 De Ccemeter. c.ia.(p.3i — ^41.) 
where he gives the names and titles 
of forty-tmw. 

§ 3« w burying places, 101 

Which are the known roads leading to the neighbouring cities 
about Rome. And by this we may understand what St. Jerom 
means, when he says^^, 'it was his custom, when he was a boy 
at school in Some, on Sundays to go about and visit the sepul- 
chres of the Apostles and martyrs, and often to enter into the 
vaults, which were digged deep into the ground, and, on each 
side as one went in, had along by the walls the bodies of such 
as lay buried : and were so dark, that to enter in them was, in 
the Psalmist's language, ahnost like going down alive into 
hell: the light from above peeped in but here and there, a 
little to take off the horror of darkness, not so much by win- 
dows as Uttle holes and crannies, which still left a dark night 
within, and terrified the minds of such as had the curiosity to 
visit them, with silence and horror.' This is to be understood, 
not of any places within the city, but of those vaults which lay 
by the several ways round about Rome. And the description 
agrees very well with the account which Baronius^^ ^ves of 
one of them, called the Cemetery of Priscilla, discovered in his 
time, anno 1578, in the Via Salaria, about three miles from 
Rome. He says, 'at the entrance of it there was one principal 
way, which on either side opened into divers other ways, and 
those again divided into other lesser ways, like lanes in a city: 
there were also some void open places fitted for their holding 

^ In Eaek. c. 40. p. 636. (t. 5. p. ventum atque refossum Via Salaria, 
468 b.) Dum essem Bomse puer, et tertio ab urbe lapide ; quod nullo 
Hberalibas studiis erudirer, solebam, magis proprio vocabulo dixerimua 
cum cKteris ejusdem etatis et pro- pne ejus amplitudine, multisque at- 
positi, diebus Dominicis sepulchra que diversis ejusdem viis, quam 
Apostolonim et martyrum circuire : subterraneamcivitatemiquippequod 
crebroque ciyptas inffredi, quae in ipsius ingressu primaria via cseteris 
terrarum proninda demssse, ez utra- amplior pateat, quse hinc inde diver- 
que parte ingredientium, per pane- sas vias nabeat, easdemque frequen- 
tes nabent corpora sepultorum, et tes, quae rursus in diversos viculos 
ita obscura sunt omnia, ut prope- dividantur et ang^portus : rursus, ut 
modum illud propbeticum complea- in civitatibus, statis locis velut fora 
tur. Descendant ad ii^emum otoen- qusedam, ampliora sint spatia ad 
tes : et raro desnper lumen admis- conventus sacros affendos, eademque 
sum borrorem temperet tenebrarum, sanctorum imaginibus exomata; nee 
ut non tarn fenestram, quam fora- desint, licet nunc obstructa, ad lu- 
men demissi luminis putes: rursum- men recipiendum desuper ezcisa fo- 
que pedetentim acceditur, et caeca ramina. Obstupuit urbs, cum in 
nocte circumdatis illud Virgilianum suis suburbiis abditas se novit ba- 
proponitur, — Horror ubiqueanimos, bere civitates, Cbiistianorum tem- 
flimul ipsa silentia terrent. pore persecutionis olim colonias, 

^ An. 130. n. a. (t. a. p. 83 b.) modo autem sepulchris tantum re- 
Vidimus saepiusquelustravimusPris- fertas, &c. 
ciUas coemeterium, baud pridem in- 

102 Of cemeteries XXTTL i. 

of religious assemblies, which had in them the effigies and re- 
presentations of martyrs. And likewise there were holes at the 
top of it to let in light, bat these were long ago stopped up.' 

These catacombs of Home hare made the greatest noise in 
the world, but there were such belonging to many other cities. 
Bishop Burnet describes those of Naples^^, which, he says, are 
without the city, and much more noble and spacious than those 
of Rome. He supposes them to be made by the Heathens, and 
not by the Christians : which is not a dispute material in our 
present inquiry ; because, whether they were made by the one 
or the other, (probably some were made by each^*,) they were 
still without the walls of the cities; which is enough to our 
present purpose. And to this agrees the testimony of that 
ancient writer under the name of St. Chrysostom^^ who says 

^Travels, Letter 4. (p. aoi.) Bat end; and, whereas, in the Roman 

withoat the city, near the church catacombs there are not above three 

and hospital of St. Genarro, that is, or four rows of niches that are cut 

without the gates, are the noble out in the rock, one over another, 

catacombs; which, because they into which the dead bodies were 

were beyond an^ thing I saw in laid ; here there are generally six or 

Italy, and to which the catacombs seven rows of those niches, and they 

of Home are not to be compared, are both larger and higher. Some 

and since I do not find any account niches are for children's bodies ; 

of them in all the books that I have and in many places there are in the 

yet seen concerning Naples, I shall floors, as it were, great chests hewn 

describe them more particularly, out of the rock, to lay the bones 

They are vast and long galleries, cut of the dead, as they dned, in them, 

out of the rock: there are three &c. 

stories of them one above another. ^^ Christian catacombs are men- 

I was in two of them, but the rock tioned in a very ancient book, caUed 

is fallen in the bwest, so that one Depon^toJtfarfyncm, cited by Bishop 

cannot go into it; but I saw the Pearson, Annal. Cyprian, an. 258. 

passage to it. These galleries are p. 62. (p. 49.) Ratio, si recte capio, 

generally about twentv foot broad, in antiquissima Depositione Marty- 

and about fifteen foot ni^h ; so that rum continetur ; ubi heec le^ntur, 

thev are noble and spacious places, Tertio Kalendas JuUi, Petri tn cata- 

ana not little and narrow as the cumbas, et Pauli Ottietue, TWco et 

catacombs at Rome, which are only Basto Coss. 

three or four foot broad, and five or ^ Hom. 17. de Fide et Lege Na- 
siz foot high. I was made believe tur». t. 6. p. 184. (t. i. inter Spu- 
that these catacombs of Naples went ria, p. 829 a.) Ai^ iraa-a ir6kis, irSura 
into the rock nine mile long: but k^/lu; irp6 t&p mM^p racJHtvt ^yrt. 
for that I have it only by report : 'Evrecyerai rts tlatXBtiv €l£ ir6Xjv pa- 
yet if that be true, they may perhaps a-iktvova-apy xal KoiA&atof irXovry xal 
run towards Puzzolo, and so they dvyaorrt^, kcu rots SKkois d^i^fiaai' 
may have been the burial-places of K<ii irplv idfi t ^>ayTd(rrtu, ^Xcirct 
the towns on that bay : but of this np&rov t yiverai* raxjioi np6 rw 
I have no certainty. I walked in- irAcwy, ndoot irp6 tS>v ayp&v* 9rav- 
deed a great way, and found galle- TaxovT6bioairKaXiop'njsTcar€w^€us 
ries going off in all hands without ^fi&v np6Kttr€u, xai fraid€v6fitBa wpn^ 

§ 3» 4* ^ burying places. lOS 

in general, 'that erery city, nay, every yiUage had their 
graves or burying places before the entrances into them, that 
ihey who went in might first consider what they themselves 
were, before they set a foot into the dties flonrishing with 
riches, dignity, and power. There are graves before cities, 
and graves before fields : every where the school of humility 
lies before our eyes.' 

Now I think upop the whole we can hardly have better proof 
of any thing than we have of this, whether we consider law or 
fact, that for the first three hundred years under the Heathen 
emperors the general rule and custom was to bury without 
the walls of the cities, and consequently neither in cities nor 
city-churches, unless by some connivance or transgresuon. 
Hegesippus, indeed, and Eusebius^, and St. Jerom^^ after 
them, say, Hhat St. James, bishop of Jerusalem, was buried in 
the city, near the temple where he was skdn :' but St. Jerom^ 
owns * there were some who thought he was buried upon Mount 
Olivet :' which is much more probable, because it is certain 
from the Gospel that it was the custom of the Jews to bury 
without the city ^^ ; and Eusebius, speaking of the mausoleum 
or monument of Helena queen of Adiabene^^, says expressly ' it 
was iv vpocurrfCois, in the atUwrbs, of Jerusalem.' So that for 
any thing that appears to the contrary, it may be concluded to 
have been the general custom both of Christians, Jews, and 
Romans, to bury all theur dead without the cities for the first 
three hundred years. 

4. Let us next examine how this matter stood in the next Burying in 
period of time, when the emperors and laws were both become ^^h!^ 
Christian. Now here we find that the laws stood for many prohibited 
ages just as they were before, forbidding all burying in cities ; christian 
and some new laws were made, particularly prohibiting and S™'**"'^ 

ages after. 
rov tls tI Korakiffoiitv, Koti r&r€ 6jmv juxta templum,ubi etprsedpitatusfa- 
ra ?(r«» ^Hivrcuriuera. — ^Tertul. deTes- erat,(vid. paul. ant.) sepultus eBt.ED.] 
timonio Animee, c. 4. (p. 66,) Vocas ^ [Ibid. Quidam e nostris in 
porro secnros [defiinctos^, si quando Monte Oliveti eum putaverunt con- 
extra portam cum obsoniis et mat- ditum, sed falsa eonim opinio est. 
teis tioi potins parentans ad busta EnJ 
recedis, aut a bustis dilutior redis. ^[See Matth. 37, 60. Luke 7, 13. 

«* L. 2. c. 23. (v. I. p. 80. 15.). . . John II, 30. Ed.J 
Kai ZBfv^av oMp cV rf r^wt^, xai thi ^ Ubi supr. c. 12. (ibid. p. 61. 7.) 

avrov ri crr^Xi; fUvti vapa rf va£. Trjt ycrot *EXcyi;r . . . tUriri vvv crr^- 

^ \Y)e Scriptor. Eccles. 5. al. De X« bumfHwtii iv irpoaoretoir dcocyuK- 

Vir. iUuatr. c. 2. (t. a. p. 819.) . . . Et rai r^r vOy AlXuir. 


Of cemeteries 


restraining men from burying in churches. For when some 
persons in Constantinople began to make an invasion upon the 
laws, under pretence that there was no express prohibition of 
burying in churches made in them, Theodosius, by a new law ^7, 
equally forbade both burying in cities and burying in churches; 
and this whether it was only the ashes or relics of any bodies 
kept above ground in urns, or whole bodies laid in coffins: 
they were all to be carried and reposited without the city, for 
the same reasons that the old laws had assigned, viz. that they 
might be examples and memorials of mortality and the condi- 
tion of human nature to all passengers ; and also that they 
might not defile the habitation of the living, but leave it pure 
and clean to them. And if any presumed to transgress hence- 
forward the inhibition of this law, he was to forfeit the third 
part of his patrimony : and whatever officer was assisting in 
such a funeral was to be amerced in a fine of forty pound of 
gold. And that no little quirk or subtlety should elude the 
intention of this law, and leave men at liberty to think that 
this general prohibition of burying in the city did not exclude 
men from burying in the places where the ashes of the Apostles 
and martyrs were reposited, it was expressly provided that 
they should be secluded from these repositories, as well as any 
other places within the city. 

St. Chrysostom^s [evidently] takes notice of this law, ar- 
guing thus with sinners, whom he reckons no better than 
mere graves and sepulchres, when dead in trespasses and 
sins. 'Consider,' says he, 'that no grave is allowed to be 
made in the city : therefore neither canst thou appear in the 
dty that is above. For if this be forbidden in an earthly city, 
how much more in that which is heavenly V In like manner 

*7 Cod. 1. 9. tit. 17. de Sepul- 
chris Violatis, leg. 6. (t. 3. p. 147.) 
Omnia, quae supra terrain urnis 
dausa, vei sarcofagis corpora deti- 
nentur, extra urbem delata ponantur, 
ut et humanitatis instar exhibeant, 
et relinqaant incolarum domicUio 
sanctitatem. Quisquis autem hujos 
prsecepti neffliffens luerit, adque ali- 
quid taJe ab nujns intenninatione 
prsecepti ausus fuerit moliri, tertia 
m futurum patrimonii parte mulcte- 
tur : officimn quoque quod sibi paret, 
quinquaginta ubrarum auri affectum 

dispoliatione merebitur. Ac ne ali- 
cujus fallax et arguta solertia ab 
hujua se prsecepti intentione subdu- 
cat,atqueApo8tolorum vel martyrum 
sedem humandis corporibus aestimet 
esse concessam, ab nis quoque, ita 
ut a reliquo civitatis, noverint se at- 
que inteUigant esse submotos. 

^ Hom. 73. al. 74. in Mattb. p. 
^34- ('•?• p. 711 a.) 'Eyv6rf<rw art 
ovdclff ra!(l>os iv ir<{Xc( Karai(rKt%)6{ieraC 
ovKovv ovdc <rv eir rifif S»» fficanjvtu 
dvvnoTi n^iv €1 yiip tvravBa tovto 
ofTtipfirat, iroXXf iiaXKov eieci. 


or burying places. 


in another place^^ : ' If we bury dead bodies without the city, 
much more ought we to expel those who speak dead words 
offensive to others, and utter things they ought to conceal ; 
for such mouths are the common pest and plague of the city."* 
The author under the naine of St. Chrysostom^<>, probably 
Seyerianus of Gabala, one of his contemporaries, had his eye 
upon this law, and those that went before, when he said, ' every 
city and village had their burying places before their entrance 
into them.' This is not only an evidence of what went before, 
but also of the practice of his own times, pursuant to the law, 
about the year 400. 

Sidonius Apollinaris, a French bishop, lived almost a whole 
century after this, and he plainly intimates that it was still the 
custom in France to bury without the walls of the city in the 
open field. For speaking of the grave of his grandfather, he 
says^^ Mt was a field where he lay buried, filled with funeral 
afihes and the bodies of the dead, in the road and suburbs of 
the city Arveme.' And after this the Council of Braga*^^ 
<^Qiio 563, speaks of it again, as a privilege even then firmly 
. retained in the cities of France, ' that no corpse whatsoever 
was buried within the walls of any of their cities :' and they 
make me of this M an argument, why no one should be buried 
in any church in Spain. Of which more by and by. 

In the mean while, if we look into Africa in the time of St. 
Austin, anno 401, we find by an order made in the fifth Council 
of Carthage against the Donatists, that it was then the custom 
to bury still in the fields and highways. For the Donatists so 
buried the CircumceUions, their pretended martyrs, erecting 
them tombs in the fashion of altars to be their memorials. 

*• Expos. Ps. 5. t. 3. p.50. (t. g. 

p. 36 C.) "Rl yhp TO v€Kpii a-^^ftara H(» 
rfff frtfXfttff KoraBairTOfifV iroXXtt 
ftaKkoy rovs rii v€Kp6. pTiftaraj xai 
Tovff rh Totavra €Kfh«povTa£ kqI oddc 
ovaiadacu PavXofuvovtt ir6pp» irav 
KOTOiKidgw xph* 

^ Horn. 17. de Fide et Lege Na- 
ttiree. t. 6. p. 184. See s. 3. n. 32, 
preceding. — Vid. Macarium, Horn. 
30. (in Sodi, vol. atque Oper. Greg. 
Thaumatuig. Paris. 1632. p. 176 e.^ 
^Qamp 6 »€Kp6g dvpuos, kcu SK»s m 

XP^O'lfUVWV TOl£ OCCI f'oTi* bl6 KM 

tKKOfiiCova-tP cdnhv t(m Ttjt irSK€»s 
Kol KarariBtirrai' cvrms xai ^ V^X^i 
^ /i^ Kfytpovtra rifv eirovpopiov rod 
dtiKov <l>wr6s thciva, rrfv (^v rrjs 
ykvxist &<nr€p di6Kiftos xal iravrg 
tar^XriTOs rvyxdv^i, 

41 L. 3. £p. 13. (p. 306.) Campus 
autem ipse dudum refertus tarn bus- 
tualibus faviUis, quam cadaveribus, 
nullam jamdiu scrobem recipiebat, 

^ Bracar. i. c. 36. [al. Bracar. 3. 
c. 18.] See afterwards, s. 7, the 
latter part of n. 53, following. 

106 Of cemeteries XXHL L 

Upon which account that Council ordered *^, * that such altars 
that were so erected by the roads or in the fields^ as monu- 
ments of martyrs, in which it could not be proved that the 
bodies or relics of true martyrs were reposed, should be demo- 
lished, if it were possible, by the bishops of the respective sees 
in whose dioceses they were found/ Which was not so ordered 
because they were buried in the fields or highways, for that 
was agreeable to the law made by Theodosius not long before ; 
but because it was doubtful whether they were true martyrs or 
not. For neither the Catholics nor Donatists did then gene- 
rally pretend to bury either in cities or in churches ; but only 
some few of the CircumceUions, who were thQ fiercer and hotter 
part of them, in spite of all laws buried some of their pretended 
martyrs in the churches : but even these, as Optatus^ tells us, 
were taken up again and cast out, because it was not lawful to 
bury any corpse in the house of Grod. This is the first instance 
of any, that I remember, being buried in churches ; and then 
it was contradicted by the bishop of the place, by whose order 
they were cast out. No alteration as yet was made in the law 
against burying in churches. For Justinian, who cut off the 
former part of Theodosius's law against burying m cHies, re- 

it into his Code ^^ : * Let no one ihmk that the places of the 
Apostles and martyrs are allowed to bury human bodies in.' 
And long after this the prohibition continued to the time of 
Charles the Great, though with some exceptions in favour of 
some eminent persons, as we shall see in the sequel of the 
story, examining by what steps and degrees the contrary cus- 
tom came into the Church. 

^ C. 14. (t. 3. p. 1317 e.) Placuit, aliqui in basilicis sepelire coepissent, 

ut altaria, quae passim per agios aut Clarius [aJ. Clams] presbyter in loco 

vias, tanquam memorise martyrum Subbulensi ab episoopo sue coactus 

constituantur, in quibus nullum cor- est, ut insepultam faceret sepultu- 

pus aut reliquiss mart]^rum conditse ram. Unde proditum est mandatiun 

probantur, sib e^iscopLs qui eisdem fuisse fieri quod factum est, quando 

lods prsesunt, si fieri potest, ever- nee sepultura in domo Dei exhiberi 

tantur. concessa est. 

^ L. 3. p. 68. (p. 71.) In loco ^ Cod. 1. x. tit. 2, de Ecdesiis, 

Octavensi occisi sunt plurimi, de- leg. a. (t. 4. p. 33.) Nemo Aposto- 

truncati sunt multi ; quorum cor- lorum vel martyrum sedem bumanis 

pora usque in bodiemum per deal- [leg. humandis] corporibus existi- 

batas aras et mensaa poterunt nu- met esse concessam, &c. 
merari. £x quorum numero cum 

§ 4» 5' ^' ^ burying places. 107 

5. The first thing that gave occasion to any to think ofThefint 
burying in chnrcheSy was the particular honour that was done toiwd ^ 
to martyrs in the fourth century, when the grayes or monu- burying in 
ments where they lay buried, and where the Christians had wm the 
used to assemble in times of persecution formerly for the *V"i<**^ <>' 

* • , chnrcnefl 

worship of (rod, had now churches erected oyer them in the over the 
country : or else their ashes and remains were translated into ^^^5 
the city, and deposited in churches ; and many times new tyn in the 
churches were erected in the places where they were laid, ^^Jjia^ 
thence caUed Martyriay Propheteia, Apostoleia^^, from the'"*"**^*"' 

•M^ . -n y A T 1 • relics into 

Martyrs, Frop/iets, or Apostles^ whose remains were trans- the dty- 
lated into them. This was so much the known practice of the cb''«*««- 
fourth century, that I need not stand to giye any particular in- 
stances of it, but only remark in general, that it had so much 
the approbation of the Church in that age, as that no such 
kind of martyria or churches were to be builded, unless the 
remains of some approyed martyrs were reposited in them. 
Which appears from a canon of the fifth Coundl of Carthage^^, 
. forbidding any memorials of martyrs to be accepted as such, 
unless either the body or the relics of a martyr were certainly 
known to be deposited there. But then this was nothing to 
burying in churches, but only an honour paid to the ashes of 
the martyrs, who had been dead and buried, it may be, some 
hundreds of years before ; and cannot so properly be called 
a burying in churches, as a building of churches, and new 
erecting them in the ancient burying-places of the dead. But 
whateyer it was, it was a peculiar priyilege of the martyrs to 
haye their remains thus reposited in the body of the church : 
the laws forbade it still to all others, and the greatest persons 
had not this honour and fayour allowed them, to be interred 
in the same place where the remains of the martyrs were 

6. But kings and emperors had in this age a peculiar priyi- The nesrt 
lege aboye the rest of men, to be buried in the atrium, or JJJ^^J^' 

^ See before, b. 8. eh. t. 8. 8. under the altar, not kept aboye 

y. ^. P*i3* ground upon the altar; for Mabil- 

*^ C. 14. (t. a. p. 1 21 8 a.) ... . £t Ion says. No relics were set upon 

omnino nulla memoria martTnim the altar to the tenth century. De 

probabiliter acceptetur, nisi aut ibi Liturff. Galilean. 1. i. c. 9. n. 4. (p. 

corpus, aut aliquse certe leliquiie 83.) Nusquam super altare positte 

ein^ &c. — ^These relics were buried sunt reliqutie, &c. 

108 0/ cemeteries XXIIL L 

andempe- churehrpoTch, OT some other of the outer buildings of the 
h^M^ church. Eusebius^s says, Constantine had desired to be buried 
the a/num, near the Apostles, whose memorial he had honoured by build- 
MdothCT ^S * church called by their names. But this was not under- 
outer build- stood to be a desire to be buried in the church itself, but only 
chinch. in the porch before the church. And so far Constantius his 
son fulfilled his will, as Chrysostom ^^ more than once informs 
us. ' His son,' says he, ' thought he did his father Constantine 
a yery great honour to bury him in the fisherman's porch. 
And what porters are to the emperors in their own palaces, 
the same are the emperors to the fiishermen in their graves. 
The Apostles, as masters of the place, have their residence 
within ; but the emperors' ambition proceeds no further than 
as neighbours and attendants to take possession of the porch 
before the church.' Again, in another place ^, speaking of the 
same matter, ' At Constantinople they that wear the diadem 
take it for a £a.your to be buri^, not close by the Apostles, but 
in the porch without the church, and kings are the fishermen's 
doorkeepers.' Thus also Theodosius Senior, and Arcadius, and 
Theodosius Junior are said, by some historians ^i, to be buried : 
which is probable enough, though the ancient historians, So- 
crates, Sozomen and Theodoret, say nothing of it. 

Hitherto then for five hundred years, we see, the generality 
of Christians were still buried without the city, and only kings 
and emperors allowed to be buried within the city ; and yet 
this not in the church, but only in the atrium, or churchyard, 
or in the porch, or other outer buildings of the church. 

^ De Vit. Constant. 1. 4. c. 71. us, c. 8. t. 5. p. 839. (t. i. p. 570 d.) 

(y. I. p. 668. 7.) . . . . Kal T€i, (Tirov- Ka\ iv rj Ko»Virravrufmrtr6k€t dc, ovdc 

datrOtvra avrf aiw rj r&v *Airo<rnJ- irpbs rovs 'AiroordXow cyy^r, aXKh 

XcDV KaTTf^uwTo fivfifirf, K. r. X. irap avra t6. np6$vpa c^fi> dyaanp^v 

^ Horn. 26. in 2 Cor. p. 939. (t. thai Mfua-av ol ra diaorifULTa irepi- 

10. p. 625 c.) Kal yap Koi ivravOa Ktifuvoi ra cSpara avrStv KaTopvr^ 

KmuoTaynvoy t6p Meyav luyaku rifin rta-Oai, Koi ytyovaa-i Bvpmpol Xotirdy 

rtfi^ Miuatv 6 nals, ct rots vpoOv^ r&y aXt€tt»y ol /Soo'tXctf. 
poi£ KOToBwro rov c^Umg' Kal &ir€p ^' Nicephorus, 1. 14. c. 58. (t. 2, 

cicriy ol mfktitpol roU /SacrtXcvo-ty cv p. 581 b. i.) B€od6a'tos d' cf avrrjs 

rois ^curcXetbif, tovto iv r^ arjfiari €v rj trarp&q. OriKjn triBanrro, Kara rh 

ol fiaaiktU Toig akitvat* Koi ol phf, ht^ihv vrrtpmov rov r&v 'AiroorcSXcDy 

&<nrtp h€<nr6rai rov r6frov, ra Mop (tjjkov, iv \i&if 'Ftapm^, f bfjXaidrj 

Korixova-iv' ol de, its ndpoiicoi Ka\ vntp^ ru Tcr^ \iBtf Koi 6 irarrjp *Ap- 

-j^lTovts, rjyannja-av r^y a^Xctoy ovroif Kahws Kai r\ fiffnip Evbo^la, koL 6 

a4>opur6ijvm Ovpav. iramros avrov &€od6<rtos KarrrtOrftratf. 

^ Ap. libr. Quod Christus sit De- 

§ 6, 7« <3T hvrying ploicea, 109 

7. In the beginning of the sixth century the people also Then tbe 
seem to have been admitted to the same priyilege of being ^^^^ 
buried in the (Urium^ or churchyard before the church : but century be- 
still they were forbidden by laws both ecclesiastical and ciyil to fitted 
bury in the church. For Justinian in his new Code, dropping ^^^ ^^ 
the former part of Theodosius's law, which obUged all people yards, but 
to bury without the city, still retadns the latter clause **, which J?* ^^J^ 
forbids men to be buried in the seats of the martyrs and Apo- 
stles. And about the year 563, the first Council of Braga^^ in 
Spain allows men to be buried, if need require, in the church- 
yard under the walls of the church, but utterly forbids any to 
be buried within : giving this reason for it, ' that the cities of 
France still retained the ancient privilege firm, to suffer no 
dead body to be buried within the waQs of the city ; and there- 
fore it was much more reasonable that this respect should be 
paid to the venerable martyrs.' We may conclude hence, as 
we have done before, that at this time in France they were so 
far from allowing burials in the church, that as yet they did 
not suffer any corpse to be buried in the churchyard, no, nor 
any where within the walls of the city. But some time after, 
about the year 658, or 895, when the Council of Nantes was 
held, (chronologers are not exactly agreed about the time,) the 
people of France were also permitted to bury in the church- 
yard***, or in the porch, or in the exedrcR or cuter buildings of 
the church, but not within the church itself and near the altar 
where the body and blood of Christ is consecrated. This rule 
is again repeated in the Council of Aries **, and the Council of 

^3 Cod. 1. I. tit. 2. de Ecclesiis, CarDotens. libr. Decret. part. 3. c. 

leg. 2. See before, 8. 4. n. 45, pre- 22.) Prohibendum est etiam secun- 

CMing. dam nu^orum instituta, ut in eccle- 

^ firacar. i. c. 36. [al. Bracar. 2. sia nuUatenua sepeliantur, sed m 

e. 18.] (t. 5. p. 842 a.) Corpora de- atrio aut in porticu, aut in exedris 

functoram nullo modo intra basili- ecclesis. Intra eccleaiam vero et 

cam sanctorum sepeliantur, sed, si prope altare, ubi corpus et sanguis 

necesse est, defons circa murum Domini oonficitur, nuUatenus sepe- 

basilicse us^ue adeo non abhorret. liantur. [In Labbe and Cossart (t. 

Nam si firmissimum hoc privilegium 9. p. 470 a.) extra ecclesiam is' the 

usque nunc manet [al. retinent] ci- reading instead of in exedris, and 

vitates [GaUiae], ut nuUo modo intra the last clause is thus, nuUatenus 

ambitum murorum cujus libet de- habeat licentiam sepeUendi. £d.] 
fimcti corpus humetur [al. sit hu- ^ Arelatens. 6. c. 21. (t. ^. p. 

m^tum], quanto magis hoc venera- 1238 c.) De sepeliendis mortuis m 

bilium martyrum debet reverentia baffl]icisillaconstitutioservetur,qu» 

obtinere ? ab antiquis patribus constituta est. 

M C. Namnetens. c.6. (juzt. Ivon. 

110 Of cemeteries XXIII. L 

Mentz ^^ held anno 813, in the time of Charles the Great, out 
of which that emperor made a rule in his Capitulars ^7 to the 
same purpose. Not to insist upon the uncertain canon of the 
Concilium Varenae, [or Vasense,'] as it is called in Gratian ^^, 
which is a repetition of the canon of Nantes, we may add to 
these the rule made in the Council of Tribur ^^, another synod 
in the time of Charles the Great : ' LfOt no layman for the 
future be buried in the church : yet such bodies as are already 
buried there may not be cast out, but the pavement shall be so 
made over the graves, that no footstep of a grave shall appear. 
And if this cannot without great difficulty be done for the 
multitude of corpses lately buried there, let the place be turned 
into a polyandrium or a cemetery, and let the altar be re- 
moved thence, and set in some other place, where the sacrifice 
may be religiously offered to God.' 

While these laws were thus made in the West, giving men 
liberty to bury in cities and churchyards, but still restraining 
them in a great measure from burying in churches, Leo 
Sapiens in the East, about the year 900, abrogated all the 
old laws against burying in cities, and left men at liberty to 
bury ^ within the walls or without the walls of any city, but 
still says nothing of any license to bury in churches. So 
that it is evident beyond all contradiction, that hitherto there 
was no general license granted by any laws in any part of the 
world authorizing all sorts of persons to bury in churches with- 

M C. 52. See 8. 8. n. 61, fol- auam projiciantur, sed, pavimento 

lowinff . aesuper facto, nullo tumulorum ves- 

^^ L. I. c. 159. ap. Lmdebrog. tigio apparente, eoclesise reverentia 

Leg. Antiq. (p.854.) Utnullus dein- conservetur. Ubi vero hoc pne 

ceps in eccleaia moituum sepeliat. multitudine cadaverum difficile sit 

^ Cau8. 13. qu»8t. 3. c. 15. (t. i. facere, locus ille cosmeterium et po- 

p. 1037. 13.) Prohibendum est, &c. lyandrium habeatur, ablate inde al- 

see n. 54, preceding. [Ap. Gratian. tari et constituto ubi religiose sacri- 

in 1. c. . . . Kepetitum in aliqao Va- ficium Deo valeat offerri. 

rensi seu Vasensi In Epitome ^ Novel. 53. (Latine, ad calc. 

quidem Concilionim est in Vasensi, Corp. Jur. Civ. Amstel. 1663. t. 2. 

c. 3. The first Coundl of Vaison p. 258.) Ne iffitur uUo modo inter 

was held anno 442, the second anno dviles leges nsec lex recenseatur, 

520, according to Cave, both ante- sancimus ; quin potius, ut a con- 

cedent to the Council of Nantes, suetudine recte contemnitur, sic 

anno 658. Ed.] etiam decreto nostro prorsus re- 

^ C. 17. {%. 9. p. 450 a.) Prseci- probator. Quicunqae autem sive 

pimus, ut deinceps ni^us laicus in extra muros, sive mtra civitatem, 

ecclesia sepeliatur. . . . Corpora anti- sepelire mortuos volet, perfidende 

quitus in ecdesia sepulta nequa- voluntatis facultatem habeto. 

§ 7* 8. iyr burying places. Ill 

out distmctioii, but many of the laws in this interval run per- 
emptorily and miiyersally against it. 

8. Yet some laws within this period of time were made with And in this 
some limitations and exceptions in the case of great and emi- time,kingsy 
nent persons, such as kings, and bishops, and founders of^i^^'P"' . 

It \ 1 \ 1 i. f 1 . . founders of 

churches, and presbyters, and such of the laity as were sm- chnrohes, 
golarly conspicuous and honourable for their exemplary sane- J^^*"' 
tity and virtue. The Council of Mentz ^^ mentioned before, persons, 
quahfies the general prohibition, with this exception, saying, ^^e Uws 
' None shall be buried in the church, except bishops, and ^owed to 
abbots, and worthy presbyters, and faithful laymen.' And the churches. 
Council of Tribur ®^, only forbidding laymen to be buried in 
the church, may be supposed to allow it to the clergy, And 
this honour was paid to bishops and emperors some time 
before : for Socrates ^'^ says, Proclus removed the body of 
St. Chrysostom from Comana to Constantinople, and laid it 
in the Church of the Apostles. And Evagrius ^^ speaks of it 
as customary to bury the emperors and clergy in the Church 
of the Apostles built by Justinian at Constantinople. This 
honour likewise was paid to founders of churches : they were 
allowed to be interred in their own structures. As Sozomen^^ 
says, ' the wife of one CsBsarius was buried in the church near 
the ambony or reading-desk^ because her husband had been 
the founder of it.' And Yalesius^ thinks that Constantino 
was therefore buried in the Church of the Apostles, because 

^1 C. 53. (t. 7. p. 1352 b.) Nulliis fua-fupTft raxfirjs Tvyxayov<n. 

mortuus infra [al. intra] ecdesiam ^ L. 9. c. 3. (v. 2. p. 367. 35.) 

8epeliatur, nisi episcopi, aut abba- Mifunifuu yhp iraparvx^v rj rtHJij 

tee, aat digni presbyteri, aut fiddes rrjt Kcuo-apiov yafxtrrjs' Koi, dvako' 

laid. yiC6fi€Vos tK rrjs ntkeu wapfuuifi€v>i9 

^ C. 17. lit supra. See 8. 7. n. 59, Atfa<l>6pov, tUdCn aMjv Kti<rOai irtpi 

preceding. r6v ifjL^va' pfjfia dc rovro t&v opa- 

•* L. 7. c. 45. (v. 2. p. 393. 33.) yvwTT&v, 

Th o-&fjM Iwawov iv Kofiavois tc^o/li- ^ [EosebiuB in his Life of Con- 

fuvov, PaaiKea ndo'as, rpiaKtHrrS stantine, ch. 58, (Ed. Cantabr. 1730. 

nifumf Ifrti furit r^v KoBalptviv, tU p. 650.) describes the building of 

r^y KttvoTOKrtvov irdXty fA€r«K6fuo'€' the Church of the Apostles at Con- 

Koi furh iroWrjt rtfirjs, Hrjfioaiq, noft' stantinople by the emperor. At ch. 

wtwras avr6, tls Trjv €ir»wfiov r&v 60, (pp. 650, 660.) he mentions the 

*A9ro<m$Xa»v iKKktiviav dtrtOtro, tomb whicn Constantine prepared 

^ L. 4. c. 31. (v. 3. p. 413. 13.) for himself within the church; and 

Elpyaaro 6^ avr^ ical 6 t&v B^tnrt' afterwards, at ch. 61, his burial 

o-iW *A9roaT($Xa>v vtihs, ovk iOiktw therdn. See also Valesius's notes, 

irtp<» ra irpaortta tMvai* iv f olrt viz. n. I. p. 660, and n. a. p. 668. 

fiaaiktls, tSrt Upwfuvot, rrjg vcvo- Ed.J 

112 Of cemeteries XXIH. L 

it was built by him. So he had a double title to this privilege 
both as emperor and founder. But we may observe a differ- 
ence between Constantino's age and this. In Constantine's 
time an emperor and a founder was buried only in the porch : 
but in the time of Sozomen any ordinary founder might be 
buried in the middle of the church. 
The matter 9. Thus the thing went on from one degree to another, 
tothedUs- taMng various steps and motions, partly by permission and 
cration of relaxation of the laws, and partly by transgression of the laws 
presbyters, and oonnivance in those who had the execution of them. And 
OT*riic«a?*^ the matter at last was left in a great measure to the discretion 
not be of bishops and presbyters to determine who should or should 
cbmches. ^'^^ ^^ buried in churches, according to the merit and desert 
Hereditary of the persons who desired it. 

not yet al- I^ the ninth century, in France, some families began to set 
thT^' *th '^P * claim to hereditary sepulchres in the church. But this 
century, was Opposed, and the Council of Meaux, anno 845, made an 
in bythe * Order ^7, ' that no one should pretend to bury any corpse in 
Pope's de- the church upon hereditary right, but the bishops and presby- 
ters should judge who were worthy of this favour according to 
the quality of their life and conversation.' And after this we 
find some laws made in general against burying in churches. 
As that of the Council of Winchester ^ under I^nfranc, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, anno 1076 : ' Let no bodies of the dead 
be buried in churches.' But so many exceptions had been 
made to the old laws, that it was no hard matter for any one, 
who had ambition or superstition enough to think that he 
should be much benefited in his death by being buried in the 
church, to obtain this privilege. And these two reasons opened 
the way to greater liberties by far than the ancient canons had 
allowed. For an opinion that it was of great service to men's 
souls to be buried in the church made men more eager than 
ever to obtain this privilege at their death : and Pope Leo III. 
had made a decree, which Gregory IX. inserted into his Decre- 
tals ^, giving a sort of hereditary right to all persons to be 

•7 C. 73. (t. 7. p. 1841 b.) Ut num duzeiit, sepelire prsesumat. 
nemo quemlibet mortuum in eccle- ^ C. 9. (t. 10. p. 352 a.) Ut in 

sia, quasi hsereditario jure, nisi quern ecclesiis corpora oefunctonim non 

episcopus et [al. autj presbjrter pro sepeliantur. 
qualitate conversatioms et vitae dig- «» L. 3. tit. 28. de Sepulturis; 

§ 9- <w burying places. 118 

buried in the sepulchres of their ancestors, according to the 
example, as it is said, of the ancient patriarchs. This was 
about the year 1230. Not long after which Boniface VIII. 
speaks of it ^^ as a customary thing for men to be buried in 
the church in the sepulchres of their ancestors. So that from 
these decretals, I think, may be dated the ruin of the old 
laws. For they took away that little power that wafi left in 
the hands of bishops to let people bury in the church, or not 
bury, as they should judge proper in their discretion, and put 
the right and possession of burying-places in the church into 
the hands of private families. And others, who had no such 
right, being led by their ambition or superstition, could then 
easily purchase a right to be buried in the church, which was 
a thing that emperors themselves did not pretend to ask in 
former ages. 

I have been the more curious in deducing the history of this 
matter from first to last, because the innovation has been 
thought a grievance by some very learned and judicious men, 
and what they could have wished to have seen rectified at or 
since the Reformation. * This custom,' says the learned Rivet 7 1, 
' which covetousness and superstition first brought in, I wish it 
were abolished with other relics of superstition among us ; and 
that the ancient custom was revived, to have public burying 
places in the free and open fields without the gates of cities. 
This would be more convenient for civil uses also : because in 
close places the air cannot but be affected with the nauseous 
smell of dead bodies : there is no good done by it to the dead, 

c. I. (ap. Corp. Jur. Canon, t. 3. civitatum portas, constituerentur. Id 

p. I ip9. 36.) Statuimus unumquen- etiam convenientUsimum esset usi- 

que m majormn suonim sepuIchriB bus dvilibus, quia in locis reclusis 

jacere, ut patriarcharum exitus do- non potest aer non afiici tetro cada- 

cet. verum odore, ita ut nee mortuis hac 

^0 Sext. Decretal. 1. 3. tit. I3. de ratione oonsulatur; nee viyentium 

Sepulturis, c. a. (ibid. t. ^. p. 533. pericula caveantui ; pnesertiQi mor- 

30.) Cum quis, cujus majores sunt borom contagiosonim tempore, quo 

soliti ab antiquo m aliqua ecclesia promiscue cadavera pestiiera con* 

sepeliri, &c. duntur templis, in quibus quotidie 

' ^1 In Gen. 4^. Ezercit. 172. p. convenitur. Quod sane horrendum 

843. (t. I. p. 6^0. col. dextr.) Hunc mihi et diis multis merito visum est. 

morem, quem invexit avaritia et su- — Grotius on Luke 7, 13, makes a 

perstitio, valde vellem apud nos, like complaint, (t. 3. v. i. p.384. 46.) 

cmn aliis superstitionum reliquiis. Quod in memoriam martyrum olim 

esse abolitum, et pristinam consue- inductum, nescio an satis sapienter 

tudinem revocari, ut sepulturse pub' retineatur. 
licse in campo libero et aperto, extra 

BmaHAH, VOL. vni. i 


77i« place, manner. 

XXIIL ii. 

tion of ce- 
not very 

and the liring are in manifest danger by it, especially in the 
time of contagious distempers, when infected bodies are pro- 
miscuously buried in churches, wherein men daily meet and 
assemble together. A thing,' says he, 'which not without 
reason has ever appeared horrible to me and many others 73/ 
The like complaint is made by some among the Romanists, 
particularly by Durantus^^, who was an eminent lawy^ and 
president of the parliament of Toulouse. He commends the 
piety of the Ancients for not allowing the dead to be buried in 
the church, and Charles the Great for reyiving and restoring 
the primitive institution, when it had been in some measure 
neglected: and withal, speaks it with great regret, 'that 
whereas heretofore emperors were buried only in the church 
porch, now the custom is to let the meanest of the people com- 
monly be buried in the church itself, against the laws and insti- 
tutions of the ancient Christians.' To which, after this digres- 
sion, I must now return again. 


Some other observations concerning the place, and nuxAner, 

and time of burying. 

I. Hayino thus far considered in general the {dace of bury- 
ing, I now proceed to some more particular obseryations con- 
cerning the place, and manner, and time of burying among 
Christians. And here the first question may be, Whether they 
used any formal consecration of their cemeteries as they did of 
their churches ? Now concerning this in the first ages there is 

73 [Philip Verhcyen, Regius Pro- 
fessor of Pnysic in the University of 
Lovain, who died lyio, a man of 
great piety and humihty, gaye orders 
that his body should not be buried 
in the church, but in the church- 
yard; leaving this epitaph, which 
was ifound after his death, written 
with bis own hand : Philippus Ver- 
heyen, medicinse doctor et professor, 
partem sui materialem hie in coemi- 
terio condi voluit, ne templum de- 
honestaret, aut nocivis halitibus in- 
ficeret. Requiescat in pace. — See 
Roche's Memoirs of Literature, Lond. 
1722. 8vo. (v. I. p. 238.) The same 
author (p. 328.) oDserves out of Bac- 
chinius' Notes upon Agnellus, that 

in the tenth century none were 
buried in churches, but only in 
churclwards, or in little chapels 
built for that purpose. — From a 
manuscript note in the Author's 
handwriting, inserted opposite p. 28. 
of his private copy of the onginal 
edition of vol. 10, which first ap* 
peared in 1722. Ed.] 

7^ De Ritibus, 1. 1. c. 23. nn. 4, 5. 
(p. 74.). . .Cautumque nein ecclesiis, 
humana cadavera tumulo manda- 
rentur. £a enim erat veterum pa- 
trum religio, cayere diligenter, ne 
intra ecclesiain defunctorum corpora 
sepelirentur . . . Haec pia majorum 
institutio a Carolo Magno renovata 
et instaurata fuit. 

§ ii 3. and time of burying. 115 

a perfect silence. No writer before Gregory of Tours, who 
liyed about the year 570, makes any mention of it : but he 
says 7^, ' the burying places in his time were used to be conse- 
crated by sacerdotal benediction/ Durantus^^ can trace the 
custom no higher ; and therefore we may conclude that about 
this time, and not before, it became the practice of the Church. 
For the sacredness of sepulchres, that we so often read of 
before this, was from another reason, and not from their formal 

S. For the Heathens themselves were used to reckon these The sacred- 
places sacred, and the violation of them a sort of sacrilege and ^^^[^ 
violation of religion : as appears from the edicts of two Hea- riring from 
then emperors, Gordian and Julian, which are still i*etained g^,^ ,^^^0^ 
among the Christian laws. Gordian 76 calls them * things fro«* t^wuf 
destined for religion, and things made a part of religion :' and secration. 
therefore orders, ' that all robbers of graves should be prose- 
cuted as criminals guilty of an injury done to religion.' In 
like manner Julian 77 says, ' The graves of the dead are conse- 
crated hills ; and to move a stone hence, or disturb the ground, 
or break a turf, has always been accounted next to sacrilege 
by our forefathers: to steal away the ornaments from the 
tablets or porticoes of graves is a piacular crime and violation 
of religion, to be punished as doing injury to the dead.' Jus- 

74 De Gloria Confessor, c. 106. dictione consecrata fuisse. 

(p. 986 b. 9.) • • • £t quid faciemus, 76 Cod. Justin. 1. 9. tit. 19. de Se- 

81 episcopus urbis non advenerit? pulchroViolato, leg. i.(t.4.p.2375.) 

Quia locus ille, quo sepeliri debet Res religioni destinatas, <juin immo 

[Beata Radep^dis] non est sacerdo- jam reli^onis effectas, scientes qui 

talibenedictione consecratus? Tunc contiffennt, et emere et distrahere 

cives et reliqui viri honorati, qui ad non dubitaverint ; tametsi jure ven- 

exsequias beatse regime convenerant, ditio non subsistat, laesse tamen re- 

imperant parvitati mece, dicentes : ligionis inciderunt in crimen. 

Preesume de caritate fratris tui, et 77 Cod. Theod. 1. 9. tit. 17. de 

benecUc aUareillud, Confidimus enim Sepulchris Violatis, leg. 5. (t.3. p. 

de efus benevolentia, quod molestum 144.) Pergit audacia ad busta diem 

non ferat, si feceris, $ed tnagis gra- functorum et aggeres consecratos : 

tiam referat, Prtegwne, precamur, cum et lapidem hinc movere, terram 

ut earo tancta sepuUung reddatur, solicitare et cespitem vellere, proxi- 

£t sic ab illis injunctus altare in eel- mum sacril^o migores semper ha« 

lula ipsa sacravi. buerint : sea omamenta quidam tri- 

76 De Ritibus, 1. 1. c.23. n. 9. cliniis aut porticibus auferunt de 

(p.75.)OmniaautemcGemeteriacon- sepulchris. Quibus primis consu- 

secrabantur, ab bisque potestas sse- lentes, ne in piaculum incidant, con- 

cularis excludebatur. Ivo Camo- taminatareligionebustorum hoc fieri 

tensis, £p. 329. Gregorio Turonensi prohibemus, poena manium vindice 

de Gloria Confessor, c. 106., testatur cohibentes. 
sepulchrorum loca sacerdotali bene- 

I 2 


2%6 pla>ce, manner, 

XXm. ii, 

tinian in repeating this law of Julian in his Code 7^, instead of 
pcBTia manium, reads it pcena sacriUgii cohibentes, inflicting 
both the name and punishment of sacrilege expressly upon this 
crime. And so the ancient poet 7 ^ does in that distich : 

Res ea solera, miser; noli mea tangerefata : 
8aeriteg<B bustU ahatinu^e fnamis. 

Touch not my monument, thou wretch : it is a sacred thing : 
even sacrilegious hands commonly abstain Jrom offering vio- 
lence to the habitations of the dead. 

All which shows that graves and burying places were 

reckoned sacred things, both by Heathens and Christians, 

' without any formal consecration : and the Romans accounted 

it a piece of impiety in any case to disturb or yiolate the ashes 

of the dead, except it were those of their pubhc enemies, whose 

graves were not reckoned sacred, as Faulus®^, the great 

lawyer, determined : and therefore it was lawful for any one 

to take the stones of such graves and turn them to any other 

use, and no action of violating sepulchres could be brought 

against them. 

The w»y of 3. But in all other cases the graves of the dead were places 

mves^- ^^ great sacredness ; and consequently places of great security : 

ferent a. insomuch that they were reckoned safe repositories not only 

l^enf an?^ ^^r the dead, to secure them from violence, but also for any 

ChristiaiiB. ornaments that were set about them, or riches, that, together 

with the dead, were often buried with them. For the Romans 

often adorned their monuments with rich pillars of marble, and 

fine statues and images set about them. As appears from 

several laws in the Theodosian Code^^ which are made to 

78 ubi supra, leg. 5. (p. 2377.) In 
the same words as the preceding 

79 [See Gothofred's Cammentary 
on the place, Ita vetus poeta .- Res 
ea, Sfc, But he does not give the 
name of the author, which hitherto 
I have failed to discover. £d.] 

^ Digest. 1.47. tit. 12. de Sepul- 
chro Violato, leg. 4. (ap. Corp. Juris. 
Civ. t. ^. p. 1393.) Sepulchra hos- 
tium reluriosa nobis non sunt; ideo- 
que lapides inde sublatos, in quem- 
hbet usum convertere possumus: 
Don sepulchri violati actio competit. 

^ L. 9. tit. 17. de Sepulchris Vio- 
latis, leff. 2. (t. 3. p. 138.) Universi 
. . . qui ae monumentis columnas vel 
marmora abstulerunt, vel coquendse 
calcis gratia lapides dejecerunt, . . . 
singuU^ libras auri per singula se- 
pulchra fisci rationibus inferant. . . . 
Eadem etiam poena, qui dissiparunt, 
vel ornatum minuerunt, teneantur, 
&c. — Leg. 4. (p. 143.) Qui ffidificia 
Manium violant, dimus, ut ita dixe* 
rim, c^^ttftc/orum, geminum videntur 
facinus perpetrare : nam et sepultos 
spoliant destruendo, et vivos pol* 
luunt fabricando. Si quis igitur de 

§ 3* ^^ ^'"^ 9f burying, 117 

restrain the pillagers of them : and also from a great yarietj 
of Roman writers, which Qothofred mentions and alleges in his 
comment upon one of those laws ^^, as Pliny, Cicero, Aggenus, 
Propertius, Servius, and Eutropius who gives a particular 
account of Trajan's pillar, which was one hundred and forty 
feet high. The two Antonines indeed laid some restraint upon 
the excessive vanity and profiiseness of the Romans in this 
matter, making severe laws against extravagance in burying, 
and building of sepulchres, as Julius Capitolinus^^ informs us. 
But this did not hinder men from adorning their monuments 
with marble statues and pillars, and such like common orna- 
ments, as we afterwards find allowed in one of the laws of 
Gordian in the Justinian Code^^. So that these monuments of 
the Heathen were often very pompous and magnificent, both 
in building and ornament; which frequently made them be- 
come a prey and spoil to rapacious invaders. But we can 
hardly suppose this of any Christian sepulchres for the first 
three hundred years. 

Caius, an ancient writer and presbyter of the Church of 
Rome about the year 210, speaks ^^ of the trophies and monu- 
ments of St. Peter and St. Paul which were then to be seen, 
the one in the Vatican, in the Via Triumphalis, and the other 
in the Via Ostiensis : but these trophies were not so magnifi- 

8q>i]lchTQ abstulerit saxa, vel mar- whom sugfests ut, si miis succedere 

mora, vel columnas, aliamve quam- vellet,fabncaret septUckrum, for rea- 

canque materiam, fabricse ffratia, sons assigned on account of the pes- 

sive id fecerit venditurus, decem tilence raging at Rome, when the 

pNondo auri co^tur inferre fisco ; law was made : the latter, on other 

flive quis propria sepulchra defen- grounds, proposes ne qids beUe 

dens, hanc in judicium querelam Tpirrmtuosejfaoricaretursemilchrum. 

detulerit, sive qmcunque alius ac- See mid. n. i. ad calc. p. 182. Ed.] 

cusaverit, vel omcium nuntiaverit. ^ L. 3. tit. 44. De religiosis et 

^ In leg. 2. (ibid. p. 141. ad calc. sumptibus funerum, leg. 7. (t. 4. p. 

col. sinistr.) Interpretatione legis 762.) Statuas sepulchro superimpo- 

functi nunc illustremus, &c. nere, vel monumento . . . omamenta, 

^ Vit. Marc. Antonin. c. 13. p. (^useputas,superadderenonprohibe- 

78. (int. Aug. Hist. Scriptor. p. 181.) ns: cum jure suo eorum, quae minus 

Tunc autem Antonini leges sepeli- prohibita sunt, unicuique facultas 

endi sepuichrorumque asperrimas libera non denegetur. 

sanxerunt: quandoquidem caverunt, ^ Ap. Euseb. 1. 2. c. 25. (v. i. 

ne, uti quis vellet, tabricaret sepul- p. 84. 5.) 'Evw dc rh rp6iraui t&w 

chrum : quod hodieque servatur. Aytoot^odv #x® dcl^cu* ia» yap dc- 

rrhis reading, ne, vH qiUs vellet, \rf<rjj£ a!r«\0«uf evrl rov BariKoifop, fj 

jabricaret s^ulchrum, that a man M n)v 6b6v rfjv ^Qariav, €vpj(r€ig ra 

should not construct a tomb just as rp6nata t&v Tavnjv Uipvaafifvnv r^w 

he pleased, is controverted by Ca- iKxkfiaUw. 
saubon and Saumaise, the former of 

118 The place, manner, XXIII, ii. 

cent, whatsoever they were, but that afterwards, about the 
year 458, they were translated by Pope Xystus ^^ into the 
catacombs, for fear of some indignity that might be offered 
to them in the heat of persecution. The most that we can 
suppose is, that they were grave-stones with an inscription, 
declaring their names and character, and the time and manner 
of their death. And some of them we are sure were not 
so much as this : for sometimes great multitudes of martyrs 
were buried in one common grave, and then the inscription 
contained only the number, and not the names or any parti- 
cular account of them. Prudentius ^7 says, * he had observed 
one such grave, wherein sixty martyrs were buried together.' 
St. James's monument at Jerusalem ^^ was no more than a 
pillar, or grave-stone, with an inscription. And in after-ages, 
the Christians were not very fond of erecting stately monu- 
ments before they came to bury in churches. For they had 
observed what spoil and ravagement had been made of the 
Heathen monuments : and how many laws the emperors were 
forced to make against the violation of sepulchres : which made 
many pious Christians think how much better and safer it was 
to build themselves monuments in their lifetime by liberality 
to the poor, than to build stately and costly monuments for 
thieves and robbers to plunder at their pleasure. Thus St. 
Jerom says of Paula ^9, * that she gave all her substance to the 
poor, and wished not to have any thing at her death, but that 
she might be beholden for a winding-sheet to the charity of 
others.' And Ephrem Syrus left it upon his will, ' that nothing 

^ Depositio Martyrum, ap. Pear- Sezaginta iDic, defossas mole sub 

son. Annal. Cyprian, p. 62. See una, 

before, ch. I. 8.3. p. 102. n. 31. Reliouias memini me didicisse 

^ Peristeph. Hymn. 11. de Hip- nominum. 

polyt. (w. 7 — 14. (v. I. p. 387.) ^ Eueebius, 1. 2. c. 23. (v. i. p. 

rlurima literulis signata sepulchra 80. 16.) calls it, or^Xi; . . ."En avrov 

loquuntur ^ orriXij /umVci napa rf va^, k, r. X. 

Martyns aut nomen, aut epigram- and St. Jerome, ae Scriptor. Eccles. 

ma aliquod. c. 2. (t. 2. p. 819.) terms it titukts. 

Sunt et muta tamen, tacitas clau- .... Juxta temphun, ubi prsecipita- 

dentia tumbas, tus fuerat, sepultus est, titiilum 

Marmora, quae solum significant usque ad obsidionem Titi et ulti- 

numerum. mam Hadriani notissimum habuit. 

Quanta virum jaceant congestis cor- ^ [Ep. 27. [al. 108. c. 5.] Epita- 

pora acenris phium raulse. (t. i. p. 687 b.) Quid 

Noflse licet, quorum nomina nulla ego referam . . . omnes psene divittas 

legas. in pauperes erogatas, &c. Ed.] 


and time of burying. 



shonld be expended npon his funeral ; but whatever should be 
appointed for that should be ^yen to the poor/ as Gregory 
Nyssen reports ^ in the Life of that great saint and luminary 
of the Eastern Church. And St. Basil ^^ exhorts rich men in 
general ' rather to expend their superfluities in works of piety, 
than to build themselves costly sepulchres.' ' For what need 
have you of a sumptuous monument, or a costly entombing ? 
What advantage is there in a firuitless expense ? Prepare your 
own funeral whilst you live. Works of charity and mercy are 
the funeral obsequies you can bestow upon yourself.' 

4. Another difference between Heathens and Christians was They dif- 
in the manner of burying. For the Heathen for the n^ostf®'^^*^ 
part burned the bodies of the dead in funeral piles, and then nerofbury- 
gathered up the bones and ashes, and put them in an um^filtheQg 
above ground : but the Christians abhorred this way of bury- oommoniy 
ing ; and therefore never used it, but put the body whole into body, and 
the ground; or if there was occasion for any other way ^^50*^°!,^^® 
burying, they embalmed the body to lay it in a catacomb, that ashes in 
it might not be offensive to them in such places where they 2b[^ cbris- 
were sometimes forced to hold their religious assembhes. That tUns buried 
the Christians used the plain and simple way of inhumation, ^hoie in 
and not burning, is evident from the objection of the Heathen the earth, 
in Minucius ^ : ' They abhor funeral piles, and condemn burn- the Hea- 
ing by fire, for fear it should hinder their resurrection.' To ^^^ *^' 
which the Christian answers ^ : ' We do not, as ye suppose. 


•® Vit. Ephrem. (t. 3. p. 613 c.) 
McXX«»v 6 0toff>6pos oZtos aw^p carcu' 
p€Uf irphf rd ovpavta, rot; irapowri 
iraprjyyvaTo, w ovk i^hv axrrois cV- 
^jfTi TroXvrcXct rh roxrrov cStfAa cV- 
raffHaacu' 4I de jcal rtr ^iXofrdrop 
^v ToiovT6y n 7rpov€v6rjKev, fj naprj-' 
TOifiaa€, firjdatiS»i wis €pyov rfiv /3ov- 
X^i' dyaytiv' aXX* avrd fVcii^, r6 
6pUr3«V tig T^V €K€lVOV Tct^^y, do3^' 
wot WTfOX^^^' 

91 Horn, in Divites. (t. 2. part. i. 
p. 86 d. n. 9.) Ti dc funjfiaros rirur^- 
fiov Koii ra^jjff froXvrcXoOr, Koi dcard' 
vfis oKtpihvs 8^t\os ; . . . . KaXov cV- 
rd/fHOP ^ evtrt^tia' irdvra ircpcjSoX- 
\6fuvos aircXBt' oZ/cciov xda-fiov top 
nkovTOP iroirja-ai' ?;(C airr^p fitrii 

W Octftv. p. 32. (c. II. p. 64.) 
Anoepe malum, et gemina demen- 

tia 1 Ccelo et astris, quae sic relin- 
quimus ut invenimus, interitmn de- 
nontiare ; sibi mortuis extinctis, qui 
sicut nascimur et interimus, aeterni- 
tatem repromittere I Inde videlicet 
et ezaecrantur rogos, et damnant 
ignimn sepultnraa : quasi non omne 
corpus, etsi flammis subtrahatur, 
annis tamen et statibus in terram 
resolvatur, &c. 

M Ibid. p. loi. (c. 34. p. 170.) 
Corpus omne, sive arescit m pul- 
verem, sive in humorem Bolvitur, 
vel in cinerem comprimitur, vel in 
nidorem tenuatur, subducitur no- 
bis : sed Deo elementorum custodia 
reservatur. Nee, ut creditis, uUum 
damnum sepultune timemus, sed 
veterem et meliorem consuetudinem 
humandi frequentamus. 

120 The place, manner , XXIII. ii. 

fear any detriment from burying by fire, but we retain the 
ancient custom of inhumation as more eligible and com- 
modious.' The same is eyident from Tertullian 9^, who says, 
' some of the Heathen abstained from burning upon a super- 
stitious notion, that the soul hoyered over the body after 
death: and therefore they would not bum the body out of 
a needless compassion to the soul.' * But,' says he, ' our reason 
is piety and humanity to the body, not flattering it as relics of 
the soul, but abhorring cruelty in respect to the body itself, 
forasmuch as no man deseryes to be destroyed by a penal 
death.' In another place ^^, he derides the Heathens for their 
contradictory customs, first in burning the body with great 
barbarity, and then making feasts and sacrifices at their grayes 
by way of parentation, as they called it : which was * to make 
the same fires both oblige them and offend them; to show 
themselyes cruel under the pretence of piety, and insult them 
by making feasts in behalf of those whom they had burnt 
before.' The critics are not agreed when or by what means 
this custom of burning was laid aside by the Romans. Some 
think it was forbidden by the two Antonines in their seyere 
laws about funerals, mentioned before ^ : but Gothofred and 
others, not without reason, think this a mistake ; because not 
only Tertullian derides it as still customary among the Hea- 
then, but also because there is some intimation giyen in one of 
Theodosius's laws ^7, that there was some remains of it eyen' 
in his time : for he speaks of both customs, that is, of burying 
not only whole bo(Ues in coffins under ground, but also of 
burying in urns aboye ground ; which supposes the body to 
be burnt before, and the remains only, the bones and the 
ashes, to be put in an urn and kept aboye ground. Howeyer, 

M pe Anima. c. 51. (p. 301 c.) q[uoque cum ipsos defunctos atro- 

£t hoc enim in opinione quorun- cissiine ezurit, quos postmodam 

dam est : propterea nee ignibus fu- gulosissime nutrit, iisdem ignibua 

nerandum aimit, parcentes super- et promerens et offendens. O pie- 

fluo anim». Alia est autem ratio tatem de crudeHtate ludentem ! 

pietatis istius, non reli^uiis animse ^ See 8.3. n. 83, preceding, 

adulatrix, sed crudelitatis etiam cor- ^ Cod. Theod. 1. 9. tit. 17. de 

poris nomine aversatrix, quod et ip- Sepulchris Violatis, leg. 6. (t. 3. p. 

sum homo non utique mereatur 147.) Omnia, quae supra terram 

pcenali exitu impendi. umis dausa, yel sarcophagis corpora 

^ De Resurrect, c. i. (p. 335 a.) detinentur, extra urbem delata po- 

At ego magis ridebo yulgus, tunc nantur, &c. 

§4* and time of burying. 121 

it is certain that this custom was quite worn out even among 
the Heathen within the space of forty years after. For Macro- 
bius, who liyed in the time of the younger Theodosius about 
the year 420, says expressly 9^, ' that the use or custom of 
burning the bodies of the dead was quite left off in that age, 
and all that he knew of it was only from ancient reading.' It 
is most probable, that the Heathen custom altered by degrees 
from the time of Commodus the Emperor; for Commodus 
himself and many of his friends were buried by inhumation, 
and not by burning, as a learned person^ obserres out of 
Xiphilin : and from that time the custom of burning might 
decrease, till at last under the Christian emperors, though 
without any law to forbid it, the contrary custom entirely pre- 
vailed, and this quite dwindled into nothing. 

But the Christians were always very tenacious of the plain 
way of burying by inhumation, and never would consent to 
use any other ; reckoning it a great piece of barbarity in their 
persecutors whenever they denied them this decent interment 
after death, as they sometimes did, either by exposing their 
bodies to the fury of wild beasts and birds of prey, or burning 
them in scorn and derision of their doctrine of a future resur- 
rection. Thus, Eusebius says out of the Epistle of the Church 
of Smyrna S they treated Poly carp at the instigation of the 
Jews, burning his body, according to their own custom ; after 
which the Christians were content to gather up his bones and 
bury them. And so they treated the martyrs of Lyons and 
Yienne in France, to the great grief of the Christians, whom 

^ Satumal. 1. 7. c. 7. (p. 602. to be put to death, had dug up their 

8umm.) .... Licet urendi corpora bodies, &c. The same author tells 

defunctorum usus nostro seculo us, that Pertinaz buried Commo- 

nullus sit, lectio tamen docet eo due's body, and so saved it from 

tempore, quo igni dari honor mor- the ra^ of the people ; and here is 

tuis hahebatur, si quando usu ve- a positive evidence that burying was 

nisset, ut plora corpora simul in- the common practice of that time, 
cenderentur, solitos fuisse fimenun ^ L. 4. c. 15. (v. i. p. 171. 13.) 

ministros denis virorum corporibus 'Id»v cZv 6 iKorovrdpxfi^ ri)v r&v 

adjicere singula muliebria, &c. 'loitdaiav ytvofUmiv ^iXowuc^av, 0€\g 

^ Burnet's Travels, Letter 4. (p. avr^v iv /xccr^, a»r ^Bo£ avrois, €Kav 

a 10.) Gronovius made it ap- atv. Ovrtts r« ^fuls, vorcpov a»€\6~ 

parent to me that burying was com- fuvoi rh rifu^rtpa XiBwv irokvrtk&v 

monly practised in Commodus's jtal honii&T^pa vir€p xp^^^^ 6ara 

time, for Xiphilinus tells us, that avrov, an€Offu$a &irov Kal oK^kov^v 

in Pertinax's time, the friends of Ijv, 
those, whom Commodus had ordered 

122 The phwcy manner, XXIII. iL 

they would not allow to bury them, but for six days together 
kept them above ground, and then burned their bodies, and 
cast their ashes into the river Rhone, in despite to their beUef 
of a resurrection ; crying out, * Now let us see whether they 
will rise again, and whether their God is able to deliver them 
out of our hands r as the same Ensebius^ relates the story 
out of the Acts and Monuments of their Passions. Thus Maxi- 
mus the president threatened Tharacus the martyr 3, 'that 
though he raised himself upon the confidence that his body 
after death should be embalmed and buried, he would defeat 
his hopes by causing his body to be burnt, and sprinkling his 
ashes before the wind.' And it were easy to give other ex- 
amples of the like usage of them upon such occasions, some of 
which are related by the Heathen historian himself^, not with- 
out some resentment and reflection upon the unnatural cruelty 
and inhumanity of such proceedings. 
EmbaimlDg 5. From the last instance of the president's threatening the 
much md ^^^^ Tharacus, that he should not be embalmed, it were 
by Christ- easy to infer, that the custom of Christians was to bestow the 

why more honouT and charge of embalming conmionly upon their mar- 
by them 
than the 

Heathens. 2 L. g. 0, j, (ibid. p. 210. 24.) Tct c. ii. p. 241. (p. 326.) Quo non con- 

Bi KoB* rffULs iv fuydkf KaOcitrniKfi tenta multitudo immanis, dilaniata 

irevBei, dia t6 fi^ bwaaOat rh tr&iuvra cadavera peremptorum camelis im- 

Kpwfmi Tjj yrf. , , ,Th aZv aSfioTa r&v poBita vexit ad littus : iisdemque 

fjMfyrvp^v iravroiias ntipadriyfuzrto^ Bubdito igne crematis, cineres pro- 

6€VTa KCLi ai6pia(rB€VTa eirl rifUpas jecit in mare, id metuens ut clama- 

If , furmira Kaivra ical aWdX<a3tvTa bat, ne coUectis supremis, sedes iUis 

vnh Tw dy6ficay Koreaup^^ tU rhv ez8traerenturutreiiqui8,qui,deviare 

'Podai^v irorapov ir\rj<riov napappe- a religione compulsi, pertulere cm- 

ovra, ovrwff fx^ Hi Xei^^ravov avr&v ciabiles poeaas, adusque gloriosam 

^ivrfrai en-l Ttj£ yrjg erC Ka\ rour mortem mtemerata fide progressi, et 

tirparroy, »s dvvafi€Poi vunjcreu t6v nunc martyres appellantur. — [See 

Gc^v, KOI d^\€a-B<u avT&v r^v na- EusebiuB,!. 8. c. d.(v. i. p. 382.45.) 

Xiyytv^triav Nvv ld<»fi€v €l dtfa- where, after describing the martyr- 

OTTfirovTat, Koi cc dvparm ^or)6ij<rai dom of Petrus, Dorotheas, Gorgo- 

avToii 6 6c6r avr&v, kolL i^XioBcn nius, and others, together with a 

€K r&v x^(po>v rip^v, multitude of Christian people, he 

^ Ap. Baron, an. 290. n. 21. [al. adds, Tovr dc ye /SacriXcxcovf fitrh Bd- 

23.3 (t. 2. p. 670 c.) Prseses dixit, varov ndidas, yj p^ra rrfs wpoorptov^ 

Nonne sic te perdam, et sicut antea tn^r lajduas irapaMevras, avOis c( 

praedixi, et reliquias tuas ; ne muli- vTrapxrjs dvopv^cants €vcaTopi<^ai Ba- 

erculae in linteamine corpus tuum Xdo-cr;; leal ahrovs ^ovto dtlv oi vtvo' 

involvant, et unguentis et odoribus /uo-fieyoi dcinrdrot' 6>f &v prf iv /ivi^- 

adoment ? Sed, sceleste, jubebo te paauf mroKtiptvovs irpooKvvouv tiv€s, 

comburi, et cineres taos in ventum Ocovr avrovs, &s ye foyro, XoyiC<$fic- 

dispergam. voi, «. r. X. £d.] 
* Ammianus Marcellinus, 1. 22. 

§5* cmd time of burying, 123 

tyrs at least, if not upon others. But the custom seems to have 
been more general : for the Heathen in Minucius^ makes it a 
matter of reproach to Christians uniyersaUy, ' that thej would 
make use of no odours for their bodies whilst they lived, but 
reserved all costly ointments for their funerals/ And Tertullian 
seems to intimate that the preparation of the body for its 
funeral with odoriferous spices was the general practice of 
Christians. ' It is true/ says he^ ' we buy no frankincense : 
but if Arabia complains of this, let the Sabeans know, that 
more of their costly wares is spent in burying of Christians, 
than the Heathens spend in their temples in offering incense 
to their gods.' 

One of the chief ingredients in this unction of the body or 
embalming was myrrh: whence Prudentius^, alluding to the 
custom, says, ' The Sabean myrrh, anointing the body, by its 
medicinal virtue preserves it from corruption.' This was the 
particular use and virtue of myrrh, as Grotius^ observes out of 
Pliny. And therefore he tells us further out of Herodotus^ 
also, 'that the Eastern nations were wont to make use of 
myrrh to embalm the bodies of the dead.' And that the Jews 
used an unction as a preparation for burial, is infallibly certain 
in general both from the testimony of our Saviour given to the 
woman who anointed his body to the burial, and also from 
what St. John says in particular of Joseph of Arimathea, and 

^ Octav. p. ^. (c. 12. p. 69.) Non ^ Cathemerin. Hymn, de Exe* 

floribus caput nectitis^ non corpus quiis Defunct, vv- 51, 5a. (v. i. p. 

odoribus honeBtatis ; reservatis un- 136.) 

guenta funeribus. Aspersaque myrrha Sab«o 

« Apol. c. 43. (p. .34 h.) Tura Corpus medicamine servat. 
plane non emunus. Si Arabis que- 

runtur, sdent Sabaei, pluris et can- ^ In Matth. a, 11. (t. a.v. i. p. 19.) 

oris suae merces Clmstianis sepeli- Myrrhs vix alius usus est, quam ut 

endis TOrofligari, quam diis f umigan- corpora inoorrupta conservet. [Conf. 

dis. — ue Idolol. c. II. (p. <^i c.) Grot, in Joan. 10, 39. (ibid. p. 568.) 

Sane [al. an] non ilia principalis Quae aromata aa hunc usiun optima 

idololatria ? Viderint, si esedem habebantur. — But I do not see that 

merces, tura dico et caetera peregii- Grotius makes any allusion to He- 

nitatis ad sacrificium idolorum etiam rodotus. Ed.] 

hominibus ad pigmenta medicinalia, * L. a. c. $6. (juxt. Ed. Steph. 

nobis quoque msuper ad solatia se- 159a. c. 76.) The whole chapter, and 

pultune Usui sunt. — ^Acta Euphi, ap. particularly the following words ; — 

Baron, an. 303. n. 149. (t. a. p. 768 e.) Eircira n)v in)b^v a^vpyrit wajpdrov 

Sublatum est postea corpus ejus a rtrpififionfs, kclL icacriiyf, koX t&p SK- 

Cbristianis, et oonditum aromatibos \»v Bv^fiaraif, irkfjv Xtfitawrov, irXi}- 

sepoltum est. tnams, avppaimviri owiarn. 


The placey manner^ 

XXm. ii. 

Nicodemus, that they ''brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, 
about an hundred pound weight, and took the body of Jesus, 
and wound it in the linen clothes, with the spices, as the man- 
ner of the Jews is to bury." (John 19, 39.) From hence most 
probably the Christians took their intimation of paying the 
same respect to the bodies of the dead. 

The Ancients also were of opinion that there was something 
mystically denoted in the presents made by the wise men to 
our Saviour at his birth, when they presented him with gifts, 
gold, frankincense, and myrrh : gold, as to a king ; frankin- 
cense, as to God ; and myrrh, as to a man that must die and 
be buried. For though they might intend none of these things, 
yet the Holy Ghost might direct these presents to be such as 
might signify all these things without their knowledge ; as he 
directed Mary's anointing of Christ to his burial ; for so our 
Lord himself was pleased to interpret and accept it, though 
perhaps that was not particularly in her intention. It is cer- 
tain this was the general notion of the Ancients concerning the 
myrrh presented to our Saviour: as Maldonat^^, from Irenseus, 
Cyprian, Origen, Basil, Gregory Nyssen, Chrysostom, Ambrose, 
Austin, Jerom, Juvencus, and Seduhus. And the opinion seems 
to have taken its original from the practice of the Eastern 
countries in using myrrh in the preparation of dead bodies for 
their burial. And this, concurring exactly with the Jewish 
custom and our Saviour's manner of burial, might probably 
the more incline the Ancients to be curious in using the same 
preparation of dead bodies for their funeral But they had 
also a further reason for it : for they were often obliged to 

^^ In Matth. 3, 11. (p. 53 e.) 
ObtvienaU ei munera, aurum, thus, 
myrrham: quibus Orientales abun- 
dant, quanquam nolim mysterium 
ezdudere, quod omnes hie veteres 
auctores tanto consensu cognove- 
runt, ut regi aunim, Deo thus, ho- 
mini myrrha data sint. Minus enim 
mysterii esse videbatur, quod mulier 
ilia un^ento Christum perfudisset, 
quod nihilominus erat apud Orien- 
tales usitatum, tamen Christus ad 
significandam suam sepulturam, de 
Qua nihil fortasse mulier cogitabat, 
factum dixit, Matth. 36, 13. Hujus 

autem mvsterii etsi non Christum, 
quia nihil eum de magis locutum 
legimus, tamen omnes veteres auc- 
tores interpretes habemus, Irenseum, 
1. 3. c. 10.; Cypr. Serm. de Stella et 
Ma^s; Orig. 1. i. cont. Celsum; 
Basil. Horn, de Humana Christi 
Generatione; Gre^. Nyssen. Hom. 
de Christi Nativitate ; Chr^ost. 
Hom. I. in Varios Evangehstas ; 
Ambios. 1. T. de Fide^ c. 3. ; Au- 
gustin. Serm. i. deEpiph., et Serm. 
37. ; Hieron. Conunent. ; Juven- 
cum et Sedulium, quorum nota 
sunt carmina. 

§ 5i 6. and time of burying, 1^ 

bury their dead in those places where they were to assemble 
for diyine service : and in that case it was necessary that they 
should use embalming to preserve the bodies from corruption, 
and make those places to be the less offensive : as I find a late 
ingenious writer ^^ is also incUned to think in his reflections on 
this subject. Now, the Heathens having g^ierally another way 
of burying, this custom was of no use among them : for it was 
incongruous to use methods to preserve the body from corrup- 
tion, which they intended inmiediately to destroy by fire and 
reduce to ashes in a funeral pile. These things were plainly 
contradictory to one another: and therefore as the Roman 
Heathens made no use of embalming, so we may reckon this 
another difference between the Christian fimerab and those of 
the Heathens. 

6. There was one difference more in point of time : for The Christ- 
the Heathens commonly performed their funeral obsequies by ^^^ 
night : but the Christians, when they had Uberty, and could day, the 
do it with safety, always chose the day. In times of persecu- y^j ^^ig^t. 
tion, indeed, it is reasonable to suppose they might often be 
forced to celebrate their funeral offices, as they did others, in 
the security and silence of the night, to avoid the rage of their 
enemies. As we find an example in the Passion of Cyprian ^^, 
whose body, because of the curiosity of the Gentiles, is said to 
have been buried secretly in the night with lamps and torches. 
And yet even this was not always the case in those difficult 
times : for the judges were often better natured than to deny 
them the common right and civiUty of burying, which they 
themselves thought was a debt due to human nature in general : 
and therefore, whatever other cruelties they exercised toward 
Christians, they ordinarily gratified them in suffering them to 
bury the martyrs, whom they had slain ; as is evident from 
several of their Acts or Histories of their Passions ^^ : in which 
case there was no need to fly to the favour and security of the 

11 Reeve's Apologies, Note on those places the less offensive, &c. 
Minucius. (p. 70, in the note.) Now 12 Pass. Cypr. p. 14. See before, 

these crypts, &c. And the Christ- ch. i. s. 2. p. 98. n. 22. 
ians in times of persecution being is Passio Maximiliani, ad caloem 

forced to hide, and hold their re- Lactantii de Mortibus Persecuto- 

ligious assemblies in these subter- mm. (pp. 45, 46.) . . . . Pompeiana 

raneous vaults, they might perhaps Matrona corpus ejus de judice me- 

be the more inclined to be at greater ruit et imposuit dormitorio suo, 

expenses about embalming, to make &c. 


The placey manner. 


night, but they might bury, as they often did, in the open day. 
Thus, when Polycarp was burnt, the disciples afterward were 
permitted ^^ quietly to gather up his bones and relics, and bury 
them as they pleased. And Asturius ^^, a Roman senator^ is 
famed for carrying Marinus on his own shoulders from the 
place of his martyrdom to his grave. 

But howeyer this matter stood in times of persecution, it is 
certain that as soon as Constantino came to the throne Chris- 
tians chose to perform their funeral rites openly in the day : 
which they did all the time of Constantino and Constantius ; 
at which Julian the Apostate was so highly offended, that he 
set forth an edict on purpose to forbid it, which is a certain 
evidence in the case. ' We understand,' says he i^, * that the 
bodies of the dead are carried to their graves with great coa- 
course of people, and multitudes to attend them : which is an 
ominous sight and a defilement to the eyes of men. For how 
can the day be auspicious that sees a funeral ? Or how can 
men go thence to the gods and to the temples 1 Therefore be- 
cause grief in funeral obsequies rather chooses secresy, and it 
is all one to the dead whether they be carried forth by night 
or by day, it is fit that such spectacles should not fall under 
the view of all the people, that true grief, and not the pomp 
and ostentation of obsequies, should appear in funerab.' This 
is a plain reflection on the practice of the Christians in the two 
foregoing reigns. It grieved Julian to see the Christians cele- 
brate their funerals so openly by day, and with indications of 
joy rather than grief, especially in their translations of mar- 
tyrs, which was of the same nature with funerals, and was per- 

^* Vid. Euseb. 1. 4. c. 15. See be- 
fore, 8. 4. p. lai. n. I. 

>* Vid. ibid. 1. 7. c. 16. (v. i. p. 
342. 3.) "EvOa Koi 'AoTvpioff eirl rg 
vco^cXci irappTiciq, funiftov€VfT<u' ay^p 
T©v cVi 'Pw/iijff avyKkrjriKmv ycwJfif- 
vos, 0acnX«v<rc r€ irpo<r0tX^f, Koi 
fratn yv^piftog cvycycW re &f lea ical 
ir€piovaias' bt iropcbv i^vcicadc rcXet- 
ovfuv^ T^ ftdpTvpi, t6v &fiov viro$€lf, 
€irl Xap.irpa£ Koi iroKvrtXovs €<rBrJT09 
apag t6 iriajvot cirt^pcrcu* irrpurrci- 
Xag re c^ fidka frXovcritff , t§ irpo<ni' 
KovuTf Ta<bj irapodtdoKri. 

K' Cod. Theod. 1. 9. tit. 17. de 
Violandis Sepulchris, leg. 5. (t. 3. 

p. 144.) Efferri cognovimus cada- 
vera mortuorum per confertam po- 
puli fre(}uentiam, et per maximam 
msistentium densitatem : quod qui- 
dem oculos hominem infaustis in- 
cestat aspectibus. Qui enim dies 
eat bene auspicatus a fiinere ? Aut 
quomodo ad deoa et templa venie- 
tur ? Ideoque quoniam et dolor in 
ezaequiis secietum amat, et diem 
functia nihil interest, utrum per 
noctes an per dies efferantur, liberari 
convenit populi totius aspectus, ut 
dolor esse in funeribus, non pompa 
ezsequiarom, nee oatentatio viae- 

§ 6. and time of burying. 127 

formed with great magnificence and expressions of joy, with 
psahnody and hymns to God, in a general assembly and con- 
course of the people. As it was particularly in the translation 
of Babylas from Daphne to Antioch, which happened in his 
time, and was one of the great grieyanoes in his reign, for, as 
the historians ^7 tell us, ' all the Christians of Antioch, men and 
women, young men and virgins, old men and children, accom- 
panied the coffin aU the way, haying their precentors to sing 
psalms, at the end of every one of which the whole multitude 
joined by way of antiphonal response, with this versicle, " Con- 
founded be all they that worship carved images, and that boast 
themselves in idob or vain gods !" This they did for the space 
of six thousand paces or forty furlongs, even in the hearing of 
Julian himself; which so enraged him, that the next day he 

17 Socrat. 1. 3. c. 18. (v. 3. p. 194. versa conveniens, matres et viri, vir- 

30.) Ta vio Karh r^v 'Ayrc4$x«ay ^p^ gines juvenes^ue, immensa exulta- 

r»y 'EXXiyycov avoiyijvai lerXcvoraf, tione succincti, trahebant longo ag- 

YprfiTfJiAv Xcfitiy iraph rov cV ^<l>vg mine arcam martyris, psallentes, &c. 

Aw6XX»wot ^tnrtvbtv' »9 d^ 6 ami- — ^Theodoret. 1. 3. c. 10. (t. 3. p. 146. 

K»p T^ Up^ daifuiip rhv ytiropa dc- col. dextr.) Quibus concinit Dona- 

doiK&g, \€y<o dfj Bafivkav t6p fuiprv tus in Andriam Terentii : Noctu, 

pa, ovK mrtKpwaro' irXtjo-iop yi^p ^v inquit, efferebantur propter sacro» 

11 aophsf 17 t6 v&pu rov ftaprvpos rum celebrationem mumum, — Ser- 

Kptmrovaa* yvovs ri^v airuiy 6 iSacn- vius, 1. II. iEneid. ad verba ilia, 

\fifSj TTiv (rop6v rdxos jccXcvct fitroi- Rapuere faces. Quia, inquit, in re- 

KiCtaBai, TovTo pa66rr€t o2 Korh rrfv Upiosa civitate cavebant, ne aut ma^ 

*Airn6x«uiv XpiaruufoX, Sfia ywa^X gistratibus occurrerent, aut sacerdo- 

Koi viq. fjkiKii^y x^^P^^*^ '^^^ yaXfi^- tibus, quorum oculos nolebant alieno 

dowT€s, air6 Trjt ^a4>vris M r^v ir^- funere violari. Eaque ipsa ratione 

Xof fA€T€<l}tpop rrfv vopiv' al dc ^aX- vel certe simili Paulus, Sent. i. tit. 

fu^iai tjiftovto r«v '"EWrjviK&v dt&v, de Sepulchris et Lugendis, corpus 

jcai r&p nrmar€VK6T»p avrols re xaX in civitatem inferre non licere scrip- 

ToU ffid«Xoiff avT&p, — Sozom. 1. 5. sit, Ne funestentur, inquit, sacra 

c. 19. (ibid. p. 3IO. 37.) ^au\ d( t6t€ civitatis. Et tamen refert Gellius, 

Mpas Ka\ ywaucas, Koi ptovs Koi 1. lo. c. 15. ex Fabii Pictoris, 1. I. 

napB^pQvSt ytpoyrds rt KaVvtudas, o2 Etsi fos non esset pontifici vel fla^ 

T^v aophp riXieov, fra/MncrXfvo/xcvovf mini Diali mortuum intueri, (quod 

aXX^Xoif, irapa natrap rr^p 6^p dia- etiam Seneca, Consol. ad Mart. c. I5<9 

rrXfo-oi ^roXXovroff* np^^xurip p^p TJj et Tacitus, i. Annal. agnoscunt, id 

wbij Toite Idpoarat rinKov(f>iCovTat' rh perperam negat Dio, 1. 4.) et feralia 

Jt akriBtt, imb Crjkov Koi npoBvpias tangere, funus tamen exsequi ne 

Ktpovfjitpovt, rf fA^ T^ aMfp ypt^prjp quidem pontifici religioni fuisse. 

?;(«u^ avroXt top Kparovpra vtpl r^ Neque tamen haec sunt contraria. 

dctoi/* f&pxov de T&p yItaXfi&p rots Non fuit religioni pontifici funus 

aXXois, ol TtfVTovf dx/N/SouiTCff, Kal exsequi de nocte, quo tempore sacra 

fvvcTT^X'* ^ vkijBog €P wp4>iapUf non celebrabantur : religioni fuisset 

Koi ravrrjp rrfp prjirip cV^dev* i/o-^w- de die, ut in indictivo funere. Vide 

Otfaav vavr§s ol vpoa-KVPovpTts roit exemplum in Tiberio apud Dionem, 

yXtnrroIff, ol fyKavxo>utPoi roig ci- 1. 55«j in funere Csesaris Au^^sti, 

dcbXoif. — Ruffin. 1. 1. [al. 10.] c. 3^. quo tempore sacrorum celebratio di- 

(p. 339 a. 18.) Igitur ecdesia uni- uma, ut loquitur Donatus, fiebat. 

128 The place, manner, XXIII. ii. 

put many of them into prison, and some to extreme tortm*e 
and death.' And this, no doubt, was the secret reason of his 
enacting that law against the manner of celebrating Christian 
funerals ; though the law itself pretends other reasons, taken 
from the superstitious principles of his profound philosophy 
and religion. 

His first reason is, ' that the very sight of a funeral by day, 
and much more their attendance upon it, pollutes men so that 
they are not fit all that day to attend upon the service of the 
gods.' And therefore a priest or a magistrate, by the rules of 
the Roman superstition, was not allowed to attend upon any 
funeral by day, but only by night; as Gothofred^^^ out of 
the best Roman writers, Seryius, Donatus, Aulus Gellius, 
Seneca, Tacitus, and Dio, shows at large in his exposition of 
that law. This is a reason taken from the principles of his 
own superstition in religion. Another is taken from the prin- 
ciples of his philosophy, of which he pretended to be a great 
master ; namely this, ' that the secresy and silence of the night 
was fitter for sorrow than the pomp and ostentation of the day,' 
as he called it. A third reason was, ' that it was all one to the 
dead whether they were buried by night or by day : and 
therefore it was more commodious to bury by night for the 
sake of the living, who by nocturnal funerals could not be pol- 
luted or offended.' 

But the Christians despised these reasons, both as unphilo- 
sophical, and ridiculous, and irrehgious. As to the first, they 
knew no pollution arising from the attendance of a dead body 
or a funeral. The bodies of Christians were the members of 
Christ, both aUve and dead ; and they owned no defilement in 
accompanying such to their graves, who were there only laid 
asleep and at rest^ as candidates of the resurrection. What- 
ever the Gentile theology might teach, they were fiiUy per- 
suaded that the dead were in the communion of saints still, 
and as such might be communicated with and attended without 
any moral defilement or pollution. And for his second reason 
from philosophy, ' that the night is more convenient for sorrow, 
while the day only serves for pomp and ostentation,' this was 
no argument to them, who were taught not to give way to 
excessive sorrow for the dead, nor to sorrow as others without 

18 In diet. leg. Juliani. 


aind time of burying. 


hope for them that were only fallen asleep : for Christian 
mournings had also a mixture of joy and comfort in them : 
their funeral pomp was chiefly psahnody and praises, with 
which they conducted the deceased party to the grave : and 
such a pomp as that had nothing of ostentation in it : it served 
only to provoke the living to holiness and virtue, to be mindful 
of death, and to make a good preparation for it: and there- 
fore was proper to be exhibited in open view, in the eyes of 
all the people, in the most pubUc manner, among crowds of 
spectators and a general concourse. For all which the day 
was far more convenient than the night, the design of their 
funerals being to be seen of all the people. And therefore 
since it was an indifferent thing to the dead whether they were 
buried by day or by night, which was his third reason, the 
Christians chose the day for such solemnities, as being much 
more proper for the living, whose advantage herein was chiefly 

And upon these reasons the Christians continued to perform 
their funeral obsequies by day, notwithstanding Juhan's inhi- 
bition or reasons to the contrary. Gothofred thinks that from 
this time there is no instance of their burying by night : 
agunst which he says there is nothing to be alleged but one 
passage in St. Ambrose ^^, which seems to speak still of funerals 
by night : for writing to widows, he bids them con^der 
whether marrying again, and 'being conducted home with 
torches in the night, would not look as much hke a funeral as 
a marriage?' But Oothofred^^ says this is not any account of 
fact, or what was then practised, but only an allusion to the 
ancient custom of using torches both at marriages and funerals, 
according to that of the poet ^^, 

Vivite/elices inter utramque facem ! 
which was the common acclamation of the people to the new 

1^ De Viduis. c. 15. (t. 2, p. 210 a. 
n. 87.) . . . . Cum accensiB funalibus 
noz ducitur, nonne pompse funeris 
ezsequias magis putat quam thala- 
mum prspparah ? 

30 [iJbi supr. n. 18. (t. 3. p. 146.) 
Verum non vult eo loco Amorosius 
ad noctem exsequias celebrari, sed 
ritum nuptiarum cum ritu fuDeris 
componit. Ut in funere, ita in nup- 
tiis, faces usitatse. Hinc illud ad 


matrimonio recens junctos ; 
Vivite felices inter utramque facem. 
£t sub noctem, accensis facibus, 
nova nupta in domum mariti dedu- 
cebatur. Ait igitur Ambrosius, ip- 
so nuptiarum die funaUa ilia accensa 
non minus ezsequiarum ritum prse 
se ferre quam nuptialem deductio- 
nem, non quod tempus tempori re- 
spondere contendat. Grischov,'] 
31 [Conf. Propertium, 1. 4. eleg. a. 

130 The place, manner, XXIII. ii. 

married couple, Live happy all your lives between your mar* 
riage torch and your funeral torch I Bat I am not sure that 
this is a good answer, because there are other undeniable evi- 
dences, in fact, of Christians' burying with lamps and torches 
attending the funeral. And therefore some other account 
seems necessary to be given of it : and it may be this : that 
the Christians, even when they buried by day, used sometimes 
to carry lighted torches in the procession of the funeral, as a 
demonstration of joy : which they also did upon some other 
occasions. For St. Jerom ^^ says, ' in all the churches of the 
East, when the Gospel was to be read, they lighted candles in 
the day-time, not to drive away the darkness, but to give a 
demonstration and testimony of their joy for the good news 
which the Gospel brought, and by a corporeal symbol to repre- 
sent that Ught of which the Psalmist speaks, '' Thy word is a 
lamp to my feet, and a light unto my paths." And therefore it 
is not improbable but that they might use the same ceremony 
in their funerals by day, and for the same reason, to demon- 
strate their joy, rather than sorrow like the Heathens. 

In fact, it is evident beyond dispute that they did use 
lighted torches at their funerals; and yet no intimation is 
given that their funerals were by night. Nazianzen ^^, speak- 

V. 46. (Lend. i8aa. t. 3. p. 739.) ubi Domine, et lumen semitis meis, 

verba sunt, — 2S Orat. 10. (t. i. p. 167 [corrige, 

Viximus insignes inter utramquefa- 169] c.) Kai vvv vfxiv 6 noXift Koc- 

cem, aapios mroa-iiraHrrai, K6vig rifxia, yc- 

Vid. ibid. n. ad calc. pag. Scilicet Kp6s €wat»ovfA€vos, vfipois (f vfip»v 

inter facem nuptialem et sepulchra- Traf>a7rtfin6fiLfvos, fUlpTvpcav firifuuri 

lem, i. e. toto nostri connubii tern- voformfuvos, yov€»v x^P^'^*'^ Striaiw 

pore. In nuptiis enim tsedas sicut rifUDfitvos, firjrp6s \afAirpo<l>opUf r^ 

et in funeribus adhibere solebant rroBei t^v evat^tav dvrturayavarff. 

veteres. Ut etiam testatur Ovidius, [My Ancestor appears to have read 

Fast. 3. [w. 561, 563.] the passage according to the Latin 

Conde tuas, Hymense, faces, et ab version ofBillius, matema cereorvm 

ignibus atris gestatione SfC, and he in translating 

Aufer; habent alias moesta sepul- seems to have taken \afinpo(f>opia, 

chra faces. £d.] which means the weariM of iohite 

22 Cont. Vi^lant. c. 3. [al. 8.] (t. and shining aarments, ror Xa/iira- 

3. p. 394 d.) Per totas Onentis ec- ^ri<^op'u^, torch-hearing, (see before, 

desias, quando legendum est Evan- b. 13. ch. 4. s. i. v. 4. p. 335. n. 40.) 

gelium, accenduntur luminaria jam but for which latter term there is no 

sole rutilante, non utique ad fugan- authority of MSS. Hence the Edi- 

das tenebras, sed ad signum Isetitiae tor of the Benedictine copy, (Paris, 

demonstrandum, . . .ut sub t3rpo lu- 1778. t. i. p. 308. Orat. 7. n. 16.) 

minis corporalis ilia lux ostendatur, has retained Xafmpotfwpiq^ and trans- 

de qua in Psalterio legimus: Lu- lated it thus,— ma^re Candida veste 

cema pedibus meis verbum tuum, induta pietatem mcerori subrogante. 

§ 6. and time ofh/arying. 181 

ing of the obsequies of his brother Csesarius, says expressly, 
' that his mother carried a torch in her hand before his body 
at his funeral/ St. Jerom '^^ says, the bishops of Palestine did 
the like at the funeral of the famous lady Paula : ' some of 
them in honour to her carried her body to the grave, and 
others went before the corpse with lamps and torches in their 
hands.' Gregory Nyssen'^^ gives the same account of the 
funeral of his sister Macrina, ' that the clergy went before the 
corpse, carrying lighted torches in their hands.' And Theo- 
doret ^^ speaking of the translation of Chrysostom's body from 
Comana to Constantinople, says, ' there was such a multitude 
of people met him in ships in his passage over the Bosphorus, 
that the sea was even covered with lamps.' St. Chrysostom ^7 
himself speaks also of the use of lamps in their funerals. And 
in one of Justinian's Novels ^^ the acolythists are forbidden to 
exact any thing for their torches, because at Constantinople 
they were allowed for funerals out of a public fund, which was 
there provided for the interment of the dead. These are not 
bare allusions to an ancient custom, but plain accounts of fact, 
which either prove that Christians celebrated some of their 
funerals by night, or else that they used lighted torches by 
day ; afl some of the testimonies seem to intimate : for Chry- 
sostom says they used their Ughts before the dead to signify 

— observing in the note, (f. ad calc. liKrfio^^ fjroiyyfihv rov aiajpc^fuiTog 

p.) VesHum candor oh spem resur- n-povro/iAirct/ov, r^g r«c Ktjpov \afinadas 

rectionis hie certe potius debet in- txowrts rrdvT€s, 
ielligi, quam unius cerei ttedaque ^ L. 5. c. 36. (v. 3. p. 236. 5.) 

gestatio, idque vox ipse sonat. Gri- Xpdv^ fuvroi var^pov km avrci rov 

schovins without authority has sub- bibacrKokov rh \€lylraya tls lijv ^a-i- 

stituted \afino<l}opuf, ; but there is no \€vov<ray fitT€K6fU€rcaf n6\w Koi nd- 

such word in the lexicons, though \iu 6 nurrbg Bfukog, &g ffTrtip^ r^ 

truly Adfiiros was the name of one neXdyei di^ tS>v irop$fiti<ov xPV^^h*' 

of tne horses of Eos. Ed.] vot, rov Bo<nr6pov to vp6s rj IIpo- 

^ £p. 37. [al. 108.] ad Eustoch. irovrtdi <rr6fia rats Xa/xfrao-i Kan- 

Epitaph. Paul. (t. i. p. 716 d.]) . . . 'cpv^«< 

Translataque episcoporum manibus, ^ Horn. 4. in Hebr. p. 1784. (t. 13. 

et cervicem feretro subjicientibus, p. 46 c.) Eltri ydp fioi, rl ^vKovrcu. 

cum alii pontifices lampadas cereos- ai Xofindi^ts al ^cudpai ; ov^ &s dffktf- 

que praeferrent. ras ovrovr irpoTrtftnofitp ; ri ht vfi- 

^ Vit. Macrinse. (t. 2, p. 301 a.) voi ; ovx^ rhv Bthv ^o^dCofitv, koI 

Tov Xaov ircpi rqv Kkiin^v ireTrwicjw- f v;(api(rroi)/i<v, ^r* \oinhp f OTc^>ay«f>- 

fuvov, Koi irdvrav anX^aras i^dwiap ere tov airtkOdvra ; 
TOV lepov iKtipov BedfJMTos, ovk Jjv im ^ Novel. 59<c.5* tot. (t.5* p. 302.) 

€VKo\ia rqp nopticaf tiplv hiavv^irOai' .... Nihil ex hoc acolythis penitus 

npofqytiTo dc Kaff iKartpov fitpov dca- recipientibus, &c. 
tcAvaop dc Koi v7n)p€TS>v ovk oKiyov 

132 Ths place, manner, and time of burying, XXIII. ii. 

that they were ' champions or conqaerors, and as such con- 
ducted in' triumph to their graves.' And thus far Gothofred's 
opinion may be admitted, that the Christians generallj cele- 
brated their funerals by day : but then this must be added to 
it, that they used lamps and torches lighted in the day, to 
express their joy, and signify their respect and honour to the 
deceased as a victorious combatant, who had conquered this 
world here below, and was now gone to take possession of a 
better world above. 

If any weight could be laid upon the uncertain authority of 
the writer of the life of St. German, bishop of Auxerre, in 
Surius 3^, it would put the matter out of dispute : for he says, 
' the multitude of lights used at his funeral seemed to outdo 
the sun, and beat back its rays at noon-day.' But without this 
uncertain testimony, enough has been said to show the differ- 
ence between the custom of the Heathens burying by night 
and the Christians burying by day, which is the principal thing 
I intended in this part of my discourse. I only add one thing 
by way of confirmation, that the Christians in this age gene- 
rally celebrated the eucharist at their funerals, which is a ser- 
vice belonging to the day, and not the night; and to the 
morning part of the day, and not the afternoon. Whence in 
one of the Councils of Carthage ^^ we find an order, 'that if any 
commendation of the dead was to be made in the afternoon it 
should be performed only with prayers and not the celebration 
of the eucharist:' which is a certain argument that their 
funerals were then generally by day, since the funeral office 
was in a manner appropriated to the eucharistical or morning 
service : but of this more hereafter in its proper place. 

^ Jul. 30. ap. Durant. De Riti- non nisi a jejunis hominibus cele- 

bus, 1. 1, c. 23. n. 14. [al. 15. (p. 78.) brentur, ezcepto uno die anniversa- 

Constantius presbyter in Vita S. rio, quo coena Domini celebratur. 

Germani . . . apud Surium testatur Nam si aliquorum, pomeridiaDo tem- 

. . . GaUos fuDus ejus honorifice cu- pore, defunctorum, sive episcopo- 

rasse, et multitudinem hominum, rum, sive cseterorum, commendatio 

splendorem sibi etiam per diem vin- facienda est, soils orationibus fiat» 

dicantem, repercusso solis radio, le- si illi, qui faciunt, jam pransi inve- 

fulsisse. niantur. — Conf. Labb. et Cossart. 

^ [Carth.3. c. 39. juzt. Ed. Crabb. t. 3. p. 1 1 7 1 c. £d.] 
(t. I . p. 428.) Ut sacramenta altaris 

§ 5. iii. I. Ceremonies and solemnities of the interment. 18S 


How they prepared the body for the funeral, and with what 
religious ceremonies and solemnities they interred it 

1. Comb we now to the ceremonies used in preparing the Christians 
body for the funeral, and the solemnity of interring it. No fiii to bury 
act of charity is more magnified by the Ancients than this of ^g^^^^ 
burying the dead : and therefore they many times yentured the huard 
upon it even with the hazard of their liyes. In times of per- lives'' 
secution, and in times of pestilential diseases, this could not be 
done without great danger ; and yet they never scrupled it in 
either case. Asturius, a Roman senator^^, took the body of 
Marinus the martyr from the place of execution, and carried it 
on his own shoulders to the grave. And Eutychianus is cele- 
brated in the Roman Martyrology and the Pontifical ^^ for 
having buried three hundred and forty-two martyrs in several 
places with his own hands. Sometimes they ventured to steal 
away the bodies of the martyrs in the night, when they 
could not otherwise either by money or entreaties get liberty 
to bury them. As we learn from the EpisUe of the Church of 
Lyons and Vienna in Eusebius^^, where the brethren express 
their profoundest sorrow and grief because their enemies would 
not suffer them to bury the bodies of their martyrs. For they 
kept such a strict guard upon them that they could not come 
at them by night to take them away, neither would money 
prevail, nor any solicitations move the keepers to deliver the 
bodies up to be buried, but they kept them six days exposed 
in the open air, and then burned them, and scattered their 
ashes in the river, that there might be no relics of them re- 
maining upon the earth. The brethren here ventured their 
lives by night to have got the bodies, if it had been possible, 
to have given them a decent funeral. And there want not in- 
stances in the ancient Martyrologies of some who became mar- 
tyrs themselves upon this account for their excessive charity to 
their brethren. The other difficult case in which they ex- 

'1 Ap. Euseb. 1. 7. c. 16. See be- diversa 343 martyres manibus suis 

fore, en. 2, 8. 6. n. 15, preceding. sepelivit. Sec, 

^ Vita Eutychiani. (CO. 1. 1. p. ^ L.5. c. i. See before, ch. 3. 

913 a.) Hie temporibus suis per loca a. 4. n. 2, preceding. 

134 Ceremonies and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

pressed an equal charity and concern, was the time when 
pestilential diseases raged in the world. Even in this case 
they would neyer desert their brethren while alive, nor leave 
them unburied after death. Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, 
gives us a remarkable instance ^'^ of this care^ in that terrible 
plague that happened in Egypt in his time. He says, 'the 
Christians not only attended their brethren when they were 
sick, but also took care of them when they were dead, closing 
their eyes and mouths, laying them forth, watching with 
them, washing their bodies, dressing them and clothing them 
in garments proper for their burial, and then carrying them 
out on their own shoulders to their graves: in doing which 
they often ventured so far that in a short time it was their 
own lot to have the same good offices done to themselves by 
How ihej 2. This passage of Dionysius shows us not only the great 
the^yfor charity of the ancient Christians in burying the dead, but also 
burial. some of the lesser circumstances and ceremonies then usually 

First Clos- • . 

ing its eyes observed in preparing and decently composing the body for its 

ai^ moiith: burial. First, he says, they were used to close its eyes and 

dream- mouth as soon as it was dead. Which was a custom of decency 

s^S by* observed by all nations, and taught them as a comely thing by 

aU nations, nature itself. Only the Romans added another ceremony to 

it, which had nothing of nature, but superstition in it : which 

was, as Pliny 3^ describes it, * to open their eyes again at the 

funeral pile, and show them to heaven :' which, according to 

*^ Ap. Euseb. 1. 7. c. 23. (v. I. p. rov rhp rp6irov t^tx^Pl^**^ ^^ /3iov, 

347. 39.) Oi yovv irktiuToi r&v ddtk^ vparPvTfpoi re rtvrr kqI duucovoi, km 

^a>v i)iJL&v di \nr€pPaX\ova'a¥ ayamjv tS>v mr6 rov \aov \iav iircuvovfitfHM,' 

KOi <bikadt\<l>ia» d<li€tdovvT«s iavr&p o>f kol rov Bavdrov rovro t6 tldog, dUt 

Koi aXX^Xov c^oficvoi, fTri<rKoirovvT€f noWffp ivtrtfieiav koi mfrrw laxypiof 

a^vXaicrcor rovs poaovvras, \iirap&s yivdfifvov, firjdiv arrodfiv ftofyrvplov 

vjrrjp€TovfjL€voi, Btpairevovrts iv Xpi- ooicrtv. Kal ra tr&fiara dc tS>v ayitav 

OTW, (TvvcarrjKKarrovTO mivois da'fU' virriais X^P^^ "^^^ koKitois vndXafjfid' 

vftrrara' rov vap ireptov dvofrifJiirKd^ voprcff, KaBaipwvT€s r€ rwg o^BdK" 

fuvoi wdBovs, Koi TTiv vdcFov (<t>* iav' fjLws, Koi ardpara ovyjcXctovTcr, o/iio- 

Tovs €\kovt€£ dir6 Twv n\ij(riov, Koi (f>opovirr€gT€Ka\9iaTio€VT«£,vpoa'Ko\- 

tKdvTts d»apxiir<r6pevoi rds dXyrjddvas. \dtp.evoi, avp7rK€K6fiMVOi, \ovrpOL£ re 

Koi TToXXol, vo<roKop.ri<r€arrts Koi pdt^ Koi ircpiaroXaig KaroKoapovvres, peril 

aapres irtpovg, ercXcvrjjcroi' avrol, r6v piKphv €rvy\avov r&v l(rci>v* dt\ r&p 

iKeivfov Bdparov (h cavrovf percurrxf \nro\€iirop€vmy €<f>€iropev€ap roig vp6 

crdpepoi* koi r6 drjpM^eg P^p^ p6prjs avr&v, 

df\ doKovp <l}iXo(l>poovvrfs ^ca^ai, ^ Nat. Hist. 1. II. C.37. (p. 204. 

tfpyfj^ 6^ rdre ir\rjpovpr€s, amdprts 23.) Morientibus illos [ociiloej opc- 

avr&p irdpmp rrtpl^pa, Oi yovp rire, rursusque in rogo patetacere, 

Apitrroi r&p irap* ^ptp ddcX^cbv rov- Quiritium magno ritu sacrum est. 

§ 2, 3* of the interment. 135 

the Roman superstition, was as necessary to be done as it was 
necessary at first to close their eyes against the sight of men. 
The ground of this superstition I will not stand to inquire 
into, but only obserye, that as the Christians rejected this 
ceremony because it was a mere superstition, so they retained 
the other as agreeable to that decency which is taught by 

S. The next circumstance mentioned by Dionysius was lay- Then^wash. 
ing the body out, and washing it with water. This was a^^^^?^^ 
ceremony used not only by the Greeks and Romans, but by 
the Hebrews also : from whom it was taken and continued by 
the Christians, as it is now by the Jews, though for more 
superstitious reasons than formerly, as Buxtorf ^^ acquaints us, 
at this day. That it was a very early rite derived from the 
Jews to the Christians we learn from the account which is 
given of Tabitha, Acts 9, 37, where it is said, that when she 
was dead ' they washed her, and laid her in an upper chamber.' 
And some^^ wiH have this to be the meaning of the Apostle, 
I Cor. 15, 29, where he speaks of ' being baptized or washed 
for the dead :' which is not so certain. However, the custom 
is mentioned as usual among Christians, not only by Dionysius, 
but by Tertullian^B, who says, ' the Christians used bathing as 

Ita more condito, ut neque ab ho- p. 149.) [But do remark of the kind 

mine supremum eos spectari fjas sit, occiurs either there or in the long 

et coelo non ostendi nefas. note on i Cor. 15, 29. q. v. (ibid. p. 

^ Synagog. Judaic, c.35. p. 501. 320.) Qui baptizantur pro mortuu, 

Ed. Hanov. 1623. (c. 49. p. 699. Ed. Sfc, according to the Geneva edi- 

Basil. 1 66 1.) Aqua caliaa, cui ad- tions of 1556 and 1583 ; but in the 

dunt flores chamaemeli et rosas sic- Cambridge edition of 1643 (p. 335.) 

cas, studiose abluitur mqrtuus, ut I find the following words in the 

puros et mundus sit, quum pecca- note on Act 9, 37 : H€bc ablutio inter 

torum ratio reddenda erit. Ovum sanctos fiat fiUurtB resurrectionis 

insuper acceptum cum vino agi- pignus et tessera superstitihus, quo 

tantes permiscent, et capiti illius respexit Apostolus, i Cor» 15, 39. 

illinunt Ablutio et inunctio hsec a Sed kunc morem postea vertit Satan 

quibusdam fit domi, antequam effe- ttt vanissimam superstitionem, turn 

ratur; in nonnullis locis, prsesertim apud Gracos, quam passim ridet hu' 

ubi Judieorum est magna copia, in ctanusy turn apud Latinos, vnde Hhtd 

ccemeteriis, quie D^'n n>a beth cha- Ennianum, 

jim, locum viventium vocant, tabulsB, Tarquinii corpus bona foemina lavit 
(^uam niDO mittak, ledum vocant, et unxit. Ed.] 
impositum in cGemeterium deferunt, 88 Apol: c. 43. (p. 34 a.) Attamen 

in quo oertam quandam sediculam lavo et debita [al.lavor honesta] hora 

habent, in qua eum abluunt, et post et salubri, qu» mihi et calorem et 

ablutionemloculoindudunt. Hujus sanguinem servet: rigere et pallere 

litus fit mentio. Act. 9, 37. post lavacrum mortuus possum. 

^ Vid. Bezam in Act. 9, 37. (t. 3. 

136 Ceremonies and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

well as the Heathens, at proper times for health, to preserye 
their vital heat and blood: for it wac» time enough to grow 
pale and cold when they came to be washed after death.' This 
was also an innocent and decent ceremony, and therefore the 
Christians retained it, not for any mystical signification, that 
any of them mention, but as a civil rite and comdy preparation 
of the body for its burial. How long it continued in practice 
I know not exactly : but Durantus^^ gives later instances of 
its use out of Gregory the Great, and Gregory of Tours, and 
Bede's Life of St. Cuthbert, and Eginhardus's Life of Charles 
the Great. 
pre«8ing it 4. The next circumstance noted by Dionysius is the dressinir 
robes : and ^^^ adorning the body in robes proper for its funeral. He 
^86 some- takes no notice of anointing the body with precious ointment, 
and splen- nor of the use of any embalming, which was proper to be men- 
^^' tioned between washing and clothing ; because this was not sa 

generally used, as being a more chargeable thing, and not 
so proper therefore to the deplorable case he was speaking 
of. But we have had occasion to speak enough of this before. 
The present circumstance of dressing and adorning the body 
in some robes or yestments proper for its burial^ is mentioned 
by several other writers, who speak of these robes as differing 
much, either according to the dignity and quality of the 
deceased, or the quality of those who prepared them. Eusebius ^^ 
says, • Asturius, being a rich and noble Roman senator, wound 
up the body of Marinus the martyr, cS fjuiXa irkovirCm, in a 
very rich garm^ent, and so carried him to his grave.' And 
Constantine, according to the dignity of an emperor, was 
buried in a purple robe with other magnificence proper to 

^ De Ritibus, &c., 1. 1. c.33. n. lavatum, &c. — Eum morem Gallos 

i^. [al. 14.1 (p. 76.) S. GregoriuSj prsecipue retinuisse testatur Greg. 

Horn. 39. ae sorore sua defuncta Turon. 1. de Glor. Confess, c. 104., 

loquen9, ait : Cmnque corpus ejus, ex ubi ait, Pela^m, vita functam, ablu- 

more mortuorum, ad lavandum esset tarn fiiisse ^uxta morem, ac deinde 

nudatum, — Idem Gregorius, 1. 3. collocatam m feretro. — Idem Grego- 

Dialog. c. ly. : Quern ex more lotum rius, in Vitis Patrum, (cc. 9, 10, 

et vestimcHtts indutum, ^c. Et 1. 4. 13, 20.) Sanctos Patroclum, Ferian- 

c. 16. : Cumque corpus efus ex more dum, LupicinwD,et Leopardmn,po8t 

mortuorum ad lavandum esset nuda- obitum ablutos fuisse commemorat. 

turn. Quibus etiam verbis utitur, — Eginartus, in Vita Caroli Magni, 

eodem libro, c. 37. — Beda, de Exse- corpus Caroli Magni solemnl more 

quiis S. Guthberti, testatur Guth- lotum scribit. 

bertum vita functum, a navigantibus ^ L. 7. c. 16. See before, ch. 3. 

in insulam delatum, toto corpore s. 6. n. 15, preceding. 

§4* of the interment. 137 

the dignity of his person, as the same Eusebius ^^ informs us* 
And St. Jerom ^^ signifies this to have been the custom of the 
rich, though according to his usual manner he somewhat satiri- 
callj inveighs against it : ' Spare, I pray, yourselves ; spare at 
least your riches which ye love. Why do you wind up your 
dead in clothes of gold ? Why does not your ambition cease in 
the midst of mourning and tears ? Cannot the bodies of the 
rich find a way to rot any otherwise than in silk V Thus he 
at once gives us the custom, and his own tart reflection on it ; 
showing himself a friend rather to the plain and common way 
of dressing the dead for their funeral : which was to wrap them 
up in clean linen clothes after the example of Christ's body, as 
the manner of the Jews was to bury. So St. Jerom says in 
another place ^3, speaking of the woman that was seven times 
smitten, ' the clergy, who&e office it was, wound up her bloody 
body in linen clothes.' And so Prudentius, in his Hymn upon 
the Obsequies of the Dead ^^, represents it as the most usual 
funeral dress. And Athanasius ^^ says, ' it was the custom of 
the Egyptians to use linen, not only for the meaner sort of 
people, but for the nobles also and the martyrs.' However, 
some adorning or other was always used : and therefore Sido- 
nius ApoUinaris''^ represents it ' as a thing contrary to the 
common way of burying in the Goths, that being forced to 
inter their slain in a tumultuous manner, they could neither 
wash them nor clothe them for the grave, but threw whole 
loads of them naked and dropping with blood into the earth ;' 

41 De Vit. Constant. 1. 4. c. 66. obvolvenint. 

(v. I. p. 665. 2o.)*Evdoy yap roi €v ^ Cathemer. in Hymn, ad Ezse- 

avr^ nakaruo Korii t6 fuauiTorov quias Defiinctorum, vv. 49, 50. (v. I . 

T&v /SaiTAXc/coy, €0* v^i^Xnr Ktifievov p. 1 36.) 
Xpvaijs \dpv€uco£ ro /SacrtXccsr o'lajvot, Candore nitentia claro 

^aaiXiKois re K6a'fiots, nopfjtvpoi rt Prsetendere lintea mos est. 

KOi dtadrfftari r€Tifuifi€pov, nktiaroi ^ Vit. Antonii. (t. I. part. 2. p. 

v^puTToixurayLtvoi, ivaypvmnos di 17- 689 C. n. 90.) 02 Alyvjmot ra r&v 

fupat Kal WKrhs f<l>povp€vv, rtXrvr^vrmv (nrovdaloiv a^futra, koI 

42 Vit. Pauli. (t. a. p. la d.) Par- /idXiora r£y av^v fiaf>rvptf>y, ^iXovcrt 
cite, quseso, vos : parcite saltern di- fiiv Oanmv koL irtpuMtrcrfiv oBoviotf, 
vitiis, quas amatis. Cur et mortuos 46 l. ^^ Ep. ^. (p. 187.) ... . Nee 
vestros auratis obvolvitia vestibus? ossa tumultuarii cespitis mole tu- 
Cur ambitio inter luctuslacrymasque mulabant: qnibus nee elutis vesti- 
non cessat? An cadavera divitum menta, nee vestitis sepulchra tri- 
nisi in serico putrescere nesciunt ? buebant, juste sic mortms talia justa 

48 £p. 40. [al. I.J ad Innocent, solventes. Jacebant corpora undi- 
(t. I. p. 6 d.) Cleria, quibus id of- que locorum plaustris convecta ro- 
fidi erat^ cruentum linteo cadaver rantibus, &c. 


Ceremonies and solemnities 


which is usual enough in burying the slain of an army in the 
field, but no way agreeable to the manner of burying in time 
of peace. 

He that would see more of this custom may consult the 
learned Savaro's notes upon Sidonius ^7, who gives other in- 
stances out of AmobiuSy and Lactantius, and Corippus, and 
Gregory of Tours, and Constantius's life of Germanus, which 
I will not stand to repeat in this place. I only add that of 
St. Jerom ^^, where he commends the lady Paula for her great 
charity to the poor, ' in that she never suffered any of their 
bodies to go without a funeral garment to their graves ; and 
out of her immense propensity to the practice of this virtue, 
wished that she herself might die poor, and be beholden to the 
charity of some other to give her a piece of linen to wrap up 
her body for its funeral :' and to this I subjoin that passage of 
St.Chrysostom^9, where he makes this funeral clothing to have 
something of signification in it, saying, ' We clothe the dead in 
new garments, to signify or represent beforehand their putting 
on the new clothing of incorruption.' 
Watchmg 5. The next circumstance mentioned in the short account of 
ing it inito I^ionysius is the decent composing them in their coffin, and 
coffin tm watching and attending them till the time of their funeral. It 

tiio timo Of . All* fill 1* 

the ftmeraL was the custom of all nations to let the dead corpse lie some 
time unburied, lest there should chance to be some vital spirit 
or remains of life in them that might be quite destroyed by 
too hasty a funeral. For this reason the Romans let their 
body lie seven days ; meanwhile using their ablution in warm 
water, and their several conclamations, as they called them, to 

^ [In loc. (p. 191.) Postquam 
duta erant cadavera, vestiebantur. 
Paulus, 1. 19. De in rem verso. — 
Ulpianus, 1. 14. §. Idemque et si, 
De Religios. et Sumpt. Funer. — 
L. 113. §. ult. de Legat. i. 1. 15. 
§. Proinde de Usufructu. — Con- 
stantius de S. Germane, 1. 3. c. 22. 
Regina vestivit. — Prseter Amobium, 
1. 5., et Lactantium de Orig. Error, 
c. 4., Quintilian. Declamat. 373*, 
Corippus, 1. 1., Purpureaque in veste 
jacens requiescere $omno, A-c, — Gre- 
gor. Turon. 1. 4. c. ult. — Idem, 1. 6. 
c. 9. Hist, et de Vita Patrum, c. 3., 
Ewmde vestitus atqueabUUus in ec- 

clesiam defertur, — C. 7., Affuit qtut- 
dam matrona, qua abltiam aignis ves* 
Hit vestimentts. Et c. 12., Abluius 
ac vestimentis dignis indutus, Et c. 
8. in fine. — Idem, 1. 4. Hist. c. i.; 
1. 6. c. ultim.; I. 7. c. i.; et de Glo- 
ria Confess, c. 81, &c. Grischav,'] 

^ Ep. 27. [al. 108.] ad Eustoch. 
Epitaph. Pauke. (t. i. p. 687 c.) . . . 
Quis inopum moriens non iluus ves- 
timentis obvolutus est ? 

^9 Horn. 116. t. 6. Ed. Savil. p. 
944. 38. (t. 9, int. spuria, p. 808 d.) 
Kal KatPOi£ Ifxariotg roirs r«Sif€&Tas 
diJuif>i€(ofitp, t6 Katv6v ^v^vfia r^ff 
^apfrias ^fi&w irpofiqvvovT€s, 

§ 5« of the interment 139 

try if there was any spirit left in them which might be awaked 
and recovered to life again. If after the last conclamation no 
signs of life appeared, then conclamatum est, there was no 
remedy, after this cry they carried them forth to their funeral 
pile. The Roman antiquaries note further, that the rich were 
commonly laid in beds, and the poorer sort in coffins, in the 
porch or entrance of their houses close by their gate. 

The Christians' ceremonies were in some things the same, 
and in some things a little refinement upon these. The com- 
mon sort of people were laid in coffins of plain wood, as 
St. Ambrose and others ^^ inform us. For in this the Chris- 
tians chose rather to follow the Heathens than the Jews ; the 
Jews using no coffins, but only grave-clothes to wrap up the 
body, and biers to carry it to the grave. Others had their 
coffins adorned with more costly materials. Constantino was 
put €1/ XP^^ kipvoKi, in a coffin overlaid with gold, as both 
Eusebius ^^ and Socrates ^^ word it, and that was covered also 
with a purple pall. St. Jerom ^'^ says likewise, that Blesilla, 
the daughter of Paula, a rich lady in Rome, ' had her coffin 
covered with a cloth of gold :' but St. Jerom himself did not 
like it ; for he says immediately upon it, ' it seemed to him as 
if he then heard Christ crying from heaven, I own not this 
garment : this clothing is none of mine ; this ornament \a the 
ornament of strangers.' From whence we may conclude, that 
this way of adorning coffins so pompously was not very com- 
mon among Christians. Neither did they imitate the Heathens 
in their collocation in the porches or entrance of their houses : 
though Durantus ^^ says, this old Roman custom is still con- 

^ See Durantus, De Ritibus, &c. velamen obtendittir. Videbatur mihi 

1. 1, c. 23. p. 1 1 2., citing Ambrose on tunc clamare de ccelo, Non agnosco 

Luc. 2. (p. 77. summ.) Feretnun vestes : amictus iste non est meus : 

ligneum est, ait Ambrosius (in c. 2. hie omatus alienus est. 
Lucse), propter spem resurgendi. ^ De Ritibus, 1. i. c. 23. n. 13. 

Lignum enim, ait ille, etsi antea [al. 14.] (p. 77.)VerumLuteti8e,ubi 

non proderat, posteaquam taroen quis extremum vitse spiritum edidit, 

Jesus id tetigit, proficere ccepit ad cadaver in vestibulo sdium, ad ja- 

vitam. nuam ipsam, vulgo coUocari solet : 

61 De Vit. Constant. 1. 4. c. 66. quod non nulli ad consuetudinem 

See the first line of n. 55, following, ethnicorum refenint. Moris enim 

^ L. I. c. 40. (v. 2. p. 76. 4.) Ti erat et apud Grsecos et anud Ro* 

df (Tttfia TQv fiatrCKiois o2 cTTir^occoi manos, cadaver ad januam deponere, 

Xpv<r^ Mifuvoi XdpvaKt, x. r. X. Sec [Pelagia, apud Gregor. 

^ Ep. 25. [al. 39.] ad Paulam. Turon. de Gloria Confess, c. 104., 

(t. I. p. 1 75 d.) ... . Auieum feretro postulabat a filio, ne earn ante diem 

140 Ceremoniea and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

tinued at Paris : but they set their coffins either in some inner 
room of their house or an upper room, as we read of Tabitha, 
(Acts 9, 37,) or carried them to the church, where they watched 
with the body to the time of its funeral. Eusebius^^ says, Gon- 
stantine's body ' was laid in his golden coffin covered with 
purple in one of the chief rooms of the palace, where lights 
were hanged round about it in golden candlesticks ; and the 
body so adorned with the purple robe and royal diadem, 
was attended by the watchers for several days and nights 
together : such a splendid sight as was never seen from the 
foundation of the world before.' Others chose immediately 
after death to be laid in the church, where the watchers also 
attended them till they were carried forth to their funeral. 
Thus Paulinus ^^ tells us, ' the body of St. Ambrose as soon as 
it was dead was carried into the church, and there they 
watched with him the night before Easter.' And here, in- 
stead of the Roman conclamation, they were wont to make 
the church echo with psalmody, and hymns, and praises to 
God, which was a noble refinement upon the old ceremony of 
conclamation. Thus Gregory Nyssen ^7 represents the watch- 
ing that was kept with the body of his sister Macrina : ' they 
watched and sung psalms all night, as they were used to do 

quartum sepeliret, ut videntes fa- alavos avtrrdo'ins cirl y^s &(bBri' tp^ 

muli et famuke viderent: additque dov ydp rot €v airr^ iraXarioi, icor^ 

Gregorius earn defunctam ablutam rb fua-airaTov t£>v /ScuriXcitfy, €<^* 

fuisse, et locatam in feretro, atque v^X^r Kti/ievov XP^^^ \dpvcucos r& 

in ecclesiam deportatam. Feretrum 0ao-iXeo>f (najvos, fiatrtKiKois re ic6a^ 

vero ligneum est, ait Ambros. in fiois, irop^vpq. re xal dcad^/xari reri- 

c. 2. Lucie, propter spem resurgendi. fitffjjpov, irXecoTOi 'irtpurroixjurafuvoi. 

Lignum enim, ait ille, etsi antea hrayp\mv»i di ^fjJpas Koi wkt6s 

non proderat, posteaquam tamen (<j>povpwv, 

Jesus id tetigit, proficere coepit ad ^ Vit. Ambros. (t. 2. prseiiz. ap* 

vitara. In nobilibus aoreum vela- pend. p. 13 a. n. 48.) Aa ecclesiam 

men turn super feretrum, &c. Ed.] majorem antelucana hora, qua de- 

^ De Vit. Constant. 1. 4. c. 66. functus est, corpus ipsius portatum 

(v. I. p. 665. 12.) "KpavTfs de oi est; ibique eadem niit nocte, qua 

oTparta»riJcol rh a-icrjvos xpvvfj Kort- vigilavimus in Pascha. — ^Vid. Greff. 

ridtvTo XdppaKC ravrrjv 9 aKovpyiicj Turon. de Glor. Confess, c. 14., de 

akovpy idi irepufidXXov, €K6fuC6v r ecr Pelagia Lemovicina. (p. 983 c. 4.) 

rffv /3ao-iXco>f or^wfAov irokiv' xan-eir £t hsec dicens emisit spiritum ; ab- 

eV avT& rf vairmv vpo^poim r&v luta juxta morem coUocatur in fere- 

paa-iXtiiov oUtov pd$pc»v e*<^* vyjnjk&v tro, atque in ecclesiam deportatur. 

KarrrLOtvro' ffy&raT €<l>dylrairrts kvkK^ ^^ Vit. Macrins. (t. 2. p. 200 b.) 

eV( vKfv&v xpvo'Siv Oavjuurrhv Ofopja T^f oZv ncannjx^ot nepi avr^v iv 

rols 6pSi<ri frapel^ov, oiov or oi^dev^r vfivipdUut, KaOojrtp crrt fiaprvp»p irav' 

nonroT €<f>* riklov avyaU (k irp4arTjt Tfyvp€»s, rtXtBtiaris, «c. r. X. 


of the interment 


on the vigils or pernoctations preceding the festivals of the 
martyrs.' And something of this kind is that which St. 
Austin ^^ says was done in his mother's house some time 
after she was dead : ' Euodius took the psalter and began 
to sing a psahn, and the whole family answered alternately, 
" I will sing of mercy and judgment : unto thee, O Lord, will 
I sing."' [Ps. loi, I.] 

6. The last circumstance mentioned by Dionysius is the The ezpor: 
exportation of the body to the grave : which in the particular Jje tody 
case he speaks of, being the time of a raging plague and pesti- p^onned 
lence, was done by such charitable persons as were willing to latio^oT 
venture their own lives to discharge these last pious offices to P?"?^ ^ 

digmty, or 

then* dying brethren. And there were many occasions for this any chant- 
sort of charity in the three first ages, not only upon the ac- jj*^^ 
count of infectious diseases, but for the multitude of martyrs, the cue 
and numbers of the poor, who had nothing to depend upon but BUn^^' 
the kindness of such charitable persons in the Church. Some- ^^^ v^ 
times this office was performed by the next relations, and some- 
times by persons of rank and quaUty, when they designed to 
do a particular honour to the party deceased in regard to his 
merit and virtue. I have noted before out of Eusebius ^^, how 
Asturius, a noble Roman senator, carried Marinus the martyr ' 
on his own shoulders to his grave : and how Eutychian^, 
bishop of Rome, is said to have buried above three hundred 
martyrs with his own hands. St. Jerom^' also tells us, that the 
bishops of Palestine paid this particular respect to the famous 
lady Paula, ' that they carried her forth with their own hands^ 
and put their own necks under her coffin.' So Gregory Nys- 
sen^ says, that he and some others of the most eminent clergy 
carried his sister Macrina to her grave. I^azianzen^^ also tells 

^ Confess. 1. 9. c. 12. (t. i. p. 
133 a.) Psalterium arripuit Euodius, 
et cantare coepit psalmum : cui re- 
spondebamus omnis domus, Mise- 
ricordiam et judicium cantabo /t6t, 

^' L. 7. c. 16. See before, ch. 2. 
8. 6. n. 15, preceding. 

^ [Ap. Anastas. Bibliothecar. de 
Vit. rontif. s. 28. (Rom. 1718. p. 
38.) Hie temporibus suis per di- 
versa loca 342 martyres manu sua 
sepelivit. Ed.] 

«» Ep. 27. [al. 108.] Epitaph. 

Pauls. See before, ch. 2. s. 6. n. 24, 

^^ Vit. Macrinse. (t. 2. p. 201 a.) 
'EttcI dc TovTO ididoKTO, Koi (V xtpaXv 

KdK€ivov ciri r^ mpov fjJpos 9rpoo-Ka- 
Xecroficvoff* SXXiop re dvo t&v iv r» 

kKivtis fiepos vTroXo/Sdvrtfv, tlrjv rod 
frp<$<ro> ix6fJtfvo£ paibrjv, »s €Ik6^, koI 
Kar okiyov ruiiv ytvofUin]s rfjs tuvfi" 

^ Orat. 20. in Laud. Basil, (t. i. 
p. 371 c). . .UpofKOfiiCero fih 6 Syiog 


Ceremonies and solemnities 



UB, that St. Basil was carried x'^P<^^ iLy(a>v, by the hands of the 
clergy, in honour to his person. 
Particnlv 7^ jj^ ^jj^ gj.g|j 3^^^ ^j^g p^^j, ^gp^ buried at the common 

orders of . ° * 

men ap- charge and charity of the Church, as we learn from Tertullian's 
wme*^t Apology ^. But afterward, in some of the greater Churches, 
Churches, where there were multitudes of poor, in the beginning of the 
nam^ ot fourth Century we find two orders of men set up in the Church, 
copiata and ^th a sort of clerical character, whose particular business was 
to take care to attend the sick, especially in infectious diseases, and to do 
of the sick, gji offices that were necessary to be done in order to give the 

M i^ per- •' ° 

form aU poor a decent funeral. The one were called parabolani, from 
forthe**** venturing their lives among the sick in contagious distempers ; 
and the other capiatce, laborantes, lecticarii, foasarii, sandd- 
pilarii, and decani, answerable to the old Roman names libi'_ 
tinarii and vespiUonea, whose office was to labour in digging 
of graves for the poor, and carrying the coffin or bier, and 
depositing them in the ground, as most of the names signify : 
which it is sufficient only to hint here in this place, because I 
have given a full account of these orders of men in two distinct 
chapters ^^ in a former Book. 

8. Now to proceed : whereas the Heathens had their noenia 
or Juneral aong^, together with their pipers, and sometimes 
used in aU trumpeters, to play before them : instead of this, the Christians 
of^^aU^ chose to carry forth their dead in a more solemn manner with 
among psalmody to the grave. We cannot expect to find much of this 
in opposi-' in the three first ages : while they were in a state of persecu- 

H°'*th *^^ ^^^ ' ^^^ ^ ®^^^ ^ ^Qir peaceable times were come, we find 
piping and it in every writer. The author of the Apostolical Constitu- 
tions ^7 gives this direction, * that they should carry forth their 

the great 


Xfp<r\v aywv v^ov/xcvor. [Or, by the 
hands of the saints. The original 
does not seem to speak of the clergy 
exclusively. The context does not 
justify so precise a rendering of the 
word ayiav, neither does the Latin 
version, which reads thus : Effere- 
batur vir sanctus, saiictorum mromm 
manUfus elatus. £d.] 

** [Tertul. Apol. c. 39. (p. 31 b.) 
Modicam unusquisque stipem men- 
strua die, vel cum velit, et si modo 
velit, et si modo possit, apponit, . . . 
Inde non epulis, nee potaculis, uec 
ingratis voratrinis dispensatur, sed 

egenis alendis humandisque, &c. — 
^ B. 3. ch. 8. and 9. v. i. pp. 

^ Via. Rosin. Antiquit. Roman. 

!• 5* c* 39* (P< 991 ^* !<>•) Idem etiam 
[Servius] in 5. iEneid. scribit, mo- 
ris fuisse, ut majoris statis funera 
ad tubam proferrentur : minoris ve- 
ro, ad tibiae, &c. 

67 L. 6. c. 30. (^Cotel. v.i. p. 358.) 
.... Kat, iv raif €^dotf rSaiy K€Kotfiii' 
fUvav, yfrdkXovres irpoirefijrcrf avrovr, 
iav Sxri fri<rro( cV Kvpi^' Tifuos yhp 
fyavTiov Kvpiov 6 Odvaros tS>v 6ai&v 


of the interment. 


dead with singing, if they were faithful : " for precious in the 
sight of the Lord is the death of his saints." And again it is 
said, " Return to thy rest, O my soul, for the Lord hath re- 
warded thee." And " The memory of the just shall be blessed:" 
and '* The souls of the just are in the hand of the Lord." ' 
These probably were some of those versicles, [from Ps. ii6, 
15 and 7. Prov. 10, 7. and Ps. 97, 10.] which made up their 
psabnody upon such occasions. 

For Chrysostom^^, speaking of this matter, not only tells us 
the reason of their psalmody, but also what particular psalms 
or portions of them they made use of as proper for this solem- 
nity. * What mean our hymns,' says he, * do we not glorify 
God, and give him thanks, that he hath crowned him that is 
departed, that he hath delivered him from trouble, that he 
hath set him free from all fear ? Consider what thou singest 
at that time : " Turn again unto thy rest, O my soul, for the 
Lord hath rewarded thee." [Ps. 16, 7.] And again, " I will 
fear no evil, because thou art with me." [Ps. 23, 4.] And 
again, *< Thou art my refuge from the affliction which compass- 
eth me about." [Ps. 59, 16.] Consider what these Psalms 
mean. If thou beUevest the things which thou sayest to be 
true, why dost thou weep and lament, and make a mere pa- 
geantry and mock of thy singing ? If thou beUeyest them not 
to be true, why dost thou play the hypocrite so much as to 
sing ? He speaks this against those who used excessive mourn- 
ing at funerals, showing them the incongruity of that with this 
psalmody of the Church. And he uses the same argument fre- 
quently upon this occasion, dissuading men not from moderate, 
but excessive sorrow, as inconsistent with the usual psalmody 
of the Church, and exposing them at the same time to the ridi- 

avrov. Ka2 iraXiv* '"E^iarpt^ov, ^ 

^X^ f^^^9 '^^ ^^ avcaravuiv trov, on 
Kvpiof €vrfpy«Tfj(r€ trt, Kal ev SKKoit' 
Mpfifiri ducamv fur ryucoA/itW* koI, 
AiKaimv ^^^1 €v Yctpl B«ov. 

^ Horn. 4. in Hebr. p. 1784 et 5. 
(t. 13. p. 46 c, a. p. 47 b.) EiTTc yap 
fioi, ri PavkovTOt . . ol vfjvoi ; ov;(l t6v 
Bc^y do^dCofitVf Koi rv;(ap((rroG/icif,ori 
\oin6v i(Trtihcaf<iMrt t6v d7r€\66vTa; on 
T&v v6vi»v ampCkafyv; on ttjs dciXiaf 
^Kfidkmf Sfxfi irap tavr^; ov d(^ rovro 
vfipoi; ol dickroOro yfraXfi^iai; . .'Ey- 

vAtftrop, tI ^dk\€is Korh r6v Koiphv cV- 
ctwK* 'EfTtorpf^foy, '^X'l H^^f *^^ ^* 
aifdiraviriv aov, on Kvpios tinipyenia't 
(Tc* KCii nakw Ov (fHt^rfSria-ofuu Koxii, 
on <rv lUT €fiov el' Koi irdXty* Sv fiov 
ft icara^vy^ oirA ^t^ftfr, rfjs ittpu' 
Xovaifs fit, *'Eyv6rivov, ri ^vkovrcu 
o^roi ol ^raXfioi' . . . ct fuv yhp 6ifTȣ 
nurrntfis ols Xeyctr, irfpirr&s vevBtis' 
tl dc naiCtts koi xnroKpivQ Koi fivBovs 
mrh «Zrai yo/u^cir, ri Kal ^dXXctr; 
ri Kal avixfl tS>v trapaytvofUvtov ; deck 
ri p,^ antkavveis roifs ydXXovraf ; 

] 44 Ceremonies and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

cule of the Grentiles : ' For what^ said they, are these the men 
that talk so finely and philosophically about the resurrection ? 
Yes, indeed ! But their actions do not agree with their doc- 
trine. For whilst they profess in words the belief of a resur- 
rection, in their deeds they act more like men that despair of 
it. If they were really persuaded that their dead were gone 
to a better life, they would not so lament.' * Therefore,' says 
Chrysostom^, * let us be ashamed to carry out our dead after 
this manner. For our psalmody, and prayers, and solemn meet- 
ing of fathers, and such a multitude of brethren, is not that 
thou shouldest weep and lament, and be angry at God ; but 
give him thanks for taking a deceased brother to himself.' 

St. Jerom also frequently speaks of this psalmody, as one of 
the chief parts of their funeral pomp. He says^o, at the fune- 
ral of the lady Paula at Bethlehem, which was attended with a 
very great concourse of the bishops, and clergy and people of 
Palestine, ' there was no howling or lamenting, as used to be 
among the men of this world, but singing of psalms in Greek, 
and Latin, and Syriac, (because there were people of different 
languages present,) at the procession of her body to the gra^e.' 
And speaking of St. Anthony's burying Paul the Hermit ^^ he 
says, * he wound him up, and carried him forth, singing hymns 
and psalms, according to the manner of Christian burial.' Gre- 
gory Nyssen gives the sam« account of the funeral of his sister 

^ Horn. 29. de Dormientibus. p. 631 e.) . . . . Mc^* vfjuw^v vptmiyL^ 

avK €povaiv tKtipoi; ri dc ov ^ty- Horn, de S. Bernic. (t. 2. p. 638 e.) 

iovTOi ir€p\ fjfimv ; offroi €ltny ol ir€p\ A(^ tovto irapa fiiv Ttjv apx^fv M 

ava<rrdafci>s ^tXccro^Ovrer; Ilajaryc* rois veKpois K07r€Tol rivts iyiyvovro 

ov yap avfjfiaiv€t rotr doyfxaai ra yi- jcai Bprjtfoi' vvv dc ^tiXfioc Ka\ vfiv^- 

v6fjktva' tvprffuurirh nepl avdirrdcrttis diai, — Conf. etiam Horn. 6. de Poe- 

^iXo<ro^v<ri, koI iv rots trpayfuurt nitent. (ap. Ed. Latin. Basil. 1547. 

rh T&tf careYViOK&niv noiov<np' t. 5. p. 870 d.) Si pompse in funera- 

CI fr€n€iK6T(s ^a-av iavroits, Sn trpbs libus defunctorum, et primua, et 

fitXrlova \^(iv d7njk$€v o^s, ovk hv medius, et Dovissimus est [David]. 

tdpfiypaav Ala-xvyBriTi t6 (tv^/lui 70 Ep, 27. [al. 1 08.] ad Eustocn. 

TTJs €K<t>oj}as' yfraXp^biM, jcal eixcu. Epitaph. Pauls?, (t. i. p. 7i6d.) ... 

Kcu waT€p»v avXXoyos, Koi trkrfdos Non ululatus, non planctus, ut inter 

adcX<^o»y ToaovTop, ovx tva ickairfs sseculi homines fieri solet, sed psal- 

Koi odvp27 teal d7rodv<m€TJt, aXX* ipa morum linguis diversis examina 

tvxapurrfjt r^ \afi6vn. — Cf. Horn, concrepabant. 

61. [Bened. 62, al. 61.] in loan. 7i Vit. Pauli. (t.2. p. iib.) Ig^- 

(t. 8. p. 374 e.) 'H yap Tififf rf rt- tur obvoluto et prolato foras cor- 

rcXcvn/ietfri, ov Oprjvoi Ka\ olfiwyM' pore, hymnos (|uoque et psalmos de 

oXX' v/ipoi Koi yfx»Xfi€^diai koi fiiot Christiana traditione decantans, &c. 
apurros, — Horn. 14. in i Tim. (t. 11. 

§8. of the interment. 145 

Macrina^^, and Nazianzen^a of the funeral of his brother Cae- 
sarias. And the practice was so universal, that Socrates 7* 
takes notice of it among the Novatians, telling us how they 
carried the body of Paulus their bishop at Constantinople with 
psalmody to his grave. And it being so general and decent a 
practice, it was a grievance to any one to be denied the privi- 
lege of it. Victor Uticensis^*, upon this account, complains of 
the inhuman cruelty of one of the kings of the Vandals. * Who 
can bear,' says he, ' to think of it without tears, when he calls 
to mind, how he commanded the bodies of our dead to be car- 
ried in silence, without the solemnity of the usual hymns, to the 
grave?' For none were wont to be denied this privilege, save 
only such as either laid violent hands upon themselves 7^, or 
were publicly executed for their crimes, or died in a wilful 
neglect of baptism. Such were not allowed this solemnity of 
psalmody at their funeral ; being in the same rank with excom- 
municated persons, who had no title to be partakers in any 
offices peculiarly appropriated to communicants in the Church. 
But ' such as were called away out of the world in the voca^ 
tion of God,' as one of the Councils of Toledo 77 words it, that 

72 Vit. Macrin. (t. 2. p. aoi b.) tate hymnorum, cum silentio, ad se- 

Kal ffv Tit fiwrruefj fro/iin^ t6 yiv6fjL€- pulturam perduci ? 

POP, 6fjLo<bap»s T7J9 ^akfuj^ias air 76 Vid. C. Bracar. i. cc. 34. 35. 

Sxpiap cir €(rxaT€vs, Ka&anttp h t§ [al. Bracar. 2. cc. 16. 17.] (t. 5. p. 

T&pTpi&yllaihwf'Xfuwdl^, fitX^pdov- 841 b.) Placuit, ut hi, qui sibi ipsis 

fuprig. aut per fenrum, aut per venenum, 

7^ Orat. 10. (t. I. p. 167 c.) ¥ial aut per prspcipitium aut suspen- 

pvp Tifup 6 wokvs Katadpios diro- dium, vel quolibet roodo violentam 

(rtawrrai, k6pis rifxia, ptKpos nrai- inferunt mortem, nulla pro iUis in 

povfitpos, vfipois ef vuviop irapair€fi'' oblatione commemoratio fiat, neque 

n6fi€Pot, yLaprvp»p firjfuun iro/iir€v6-' cum psalmis ad sepulturam eorum 

IKp€»%, .... ^^okiAt^iait Koifu^ovcroir cadavera deducantur. . . . Similiter et 

rovs Bpripovs. de his placuit, qui pro suis sceleribus 

7* L. 7. c. 46. (v. 2. p. 394. 8.)* Of puniantur. — Item placuit, ut cate- 

TJ imrrov €KKOfitlij, iratras ras dta- chumenis, sine rederoptione bap- 

ifSpovg alptatig rpiirop rtya fiiav ck- tismi defunctis, simili modo neque 

kXtjcUip elpydaaro' ndaai yap avroO oblationis commemoratio, neque psal- 

r6 tr&fAa &xP^ ^^ fip^fiarot vvp ^ak' lendi impendatur ofllicium. 

fuodiais vapetrtparoPi eirtmp Koi C&p "^ C. 22. (ibid. p. ioi4d.) Religio- 

hta /Siov 6p66rijTa irdtrcus intpaajos sorum omnium corpora, qui divina 

fjp. vocatione ab hac vita recedunt, cum 

7ft De Persecut Vandal. 1. 1. ap. psalmis tantummodo [et] psallen- 

Bibl. Patr. t. 7. p. 589. (ap. Bibl. tium vpcibus debere ad sepulchra 

Max. t.8. p. 67^ a. i.) Quis susti- deferri. Nam funebre carmen, quod 

neat, s^ue possit sine lacrymis re- vulgo defunctis cantari solet, vel 

cordari, dum pr»ciperet nostrorum pectoribus se prozimos aut faroilias 

corpora defiinctorum sine solemni- ciedere, omnino prohibemus. Suffi- 



Ceremonies and aolemnities 

XXIII. iii. 

tiie coffin 
with gar- 
lands not 

is, the bodies of all pious and religious Christians, were allowed 
this honour of being carried to their graves with singing : but 
then that singing must not be ' those funeral-songs which were 
commonly used among the (jentiles, accompanied with antic 
beating of their breasts/ and the like : ' for it was sufficient for 
Christians, whose bodies were buried in hopes of a resurrec* 
tion, to have the service of divine songs, or psahnody, bestowed 
upon them.' 

This shows us another difference between the Heathen and 
the Christian way of burial. The Heathens were used to have 
their prceficce^^, or women hired on purpose to make lamenta- 
tion at their funerals: which even Lucian himself 79 derides, 
bringing in a dead man, by way of prosopopceia, asking this 
question, ' What does your lamentation signify to me, or your 
beating of the breast at the sound of the pipe?' And Chry- 
sostom^^, in a more serious manner^ reproves some, who in 
his time were still fond of this heathenish custom, whom he 
threatens, unless they amended, to prosecute them with the ut- 
most severity of excommunication. 

9. The Heathens were used in their funeral-pomp to crown 
their corpse with garlands, in token of victory, as Clement 
Alexandrinus^i interprets it, drawing thence an argument to 
prove that their idol-gods were only dead men. Tertullian ®^ 

ciat autem, ^uod, in spe resurrec- 
tionis, Christianorum corporibus fk- 
mulatus divinorum impenditur can- 

78 See afterwards, s. i8. n. 25, fol- 

7» [De Luctu, c. 18. f Ed. Dindorf. 
Paris. 1840. p. 569.) Ti dc /M 6 ica>- 
Kvrbs vfi&v wivrio'i, Koi 17 7rp6t t6v 
aiiK6v avni <rr€pvoTVfFia, Koi ^ r&v 
yuiKUK&v ir€j>\ riv Optjvw dfitrpiai 
jc.r.X. £d.J 

M Horn. 4. in Hebr. p. 1786. (t. 
13. p. 48 a.) ... Et Ttv€s riit upnvov^ 
iras Tovrat fuaOwraivro, Triartva'aTt 
fjLoi Xcyovri* ovjc SKktos y^p €pS>, dXX* 
cbff IfX^' ^ 0ov\6iievos dpyiCicrBm' iro- 
\{fv avT^v ;i^pcSvov rnr tKKKffO-ias oirf/p- 
(ouitv [al. enrctp^J, o>f t6v €2d«»Xo- 

81 Ptedagog. 1. 2. c. 8. (p. 213. 
17.) *AoyXi^rov dc dfupifufias 6 orc- 
ifiavos avfifio\o¥' toOtij Kal roi/s yf- 

Kpcvs KaTwrT€<l)apovaW f X&y^ Kal 
rit €i^\i, ^pyv npoafuiprvpovims 
avrols t6 €&ac v€Kpois* 

82 De Cor. Mil. c. 10. (p. 106 b.) 
Quid enim tarn indignum Deo, quam 
quod dignum idolo? Quid autem 
tarn dignum idolo, quam quod et 
mortuo ? Nam et mortuorum est ita 
coronari : quoniam et ipsi idola sta- 
tim fiunt et habitu et cidtu conse- 
crationis, quae apud nos secunda 
idololatria est. [See Virgil, (^n. 
5, 79.) describing the ceremonials, 
which i£neas observed at the tomb 
of Anchises at Drepanum, on the 
anniversary of his death : 

Purnureosquejacitjlcres, ^c. 
Also tnose beautiful hnes relative to 
the obsequies of the youthful Mar- 
cellus, which the poet puts into the 
mouth of Anchises in Elysium if 
(iEn. 6, 884.) 

Manibtu date liUa pletUs: 

§9- ofth/^ interment. 147 

also expressly mentions their funeral-cro¥n[is, but he condemns ChiUtuuiB, 
them among all the rest that he writes against in his Book of ^^^Km- 
the Soldier's Crown, where he reckons them all idolatrous, as pled not 
used by the Heathens. We do not find this custom used by ^g^J^. 
Christians in their funeral rites. The Heathen, in Minucius^a, fore them, 
makes it one topic of accusation against them, * that they did 
not crown their sepulchres;' and Minucius in his answer ^^ 
owns the charge : * We do not crown the dead : and I wonder 
more at you, that ye give either torches or crowns to a dead 
man, who has no sense of them ; when, if he be happy, he 
needs no flowers ; and if he be miserable, he takes no pleasure in 
them. We adorn our funeral obsequies with the same tranquil- 
lity that we Uve with : not making fading crowns to ourselves, but 
expecting a crown of everlasting flowers from Grod.' It is plain 
from this that the Christians did not crown their dead. Nei- 
ther, according to this reading of Minucius, could they use 
torches at their funerals. But this seems strange, when it is 
certain that in the time of Minucius they were often forced to 
bury in the night. Therefore it is probable the word /(icem 
has crept into the text^^; for the sense and scope of the argu- 
ment requires it not. However, in afiter-ages the Christians 
EK^rupled not to carry lights and torches by day before their 
dead, as an emblem of victory and joy, as we heard St. Chry- 
sostom himself before ^^ explaining the reason of it. So that 
either the Christians did never scruple this ceremony, or else 
it must be said, they thought fit to adopt it into their rites in 

Pwrpureoa spargam floreSf ammam" a Deo setemis floribus viridem sus- 

que nepotts tinemus, quieti, xnodesti, &c. 

His saltern accmmdem donis, et fvn- ^ [See the Notes of Heraldus, 

gar inani Sahnasius, Cellarius, and Dr. Da- 

MwMTs, Ed.] vies himself, (Cantabr. 1 7 13. p. 184.) 

® Octav. p. 35. (c. 12. p. 69.) ... all retaining /acm, but altering the 

Coronas etiam sepulchris denegatis. particles and varying the punctua- 

** Ibid. p. 109. (c. 38. p. 183 ult. tion. Dr. Davies proposes, Quemad" 
verb, et p. 184.) Nee mortuos coro- modum tribuatis exanimi, out non 
namus. Ergo [aL ego] vos in hoc sentienti,facem, (fax enim non nisi 
magis miror, qnemadmodum tribua- videntium commodis inservit,) aut 
tis ezanimi aut non sentienti fa- sentienti coronam, Rationem sub- 
cem, aut non sentienti ooronam : jicit ipse Minucius, Cum et beatus 
cum et beatus non eseat, et mi- non egeat^ et miser turn gaudeat flo- 
ur non gaudeat floribus. At e- rUms, Ed.] 
nim no8 exsequias adomamus ea- ^ Horn. 4. in Hebr., cited before, 
dem tranquiUitate qua vivimus , nee ch. a. s. 6. n. 37, preceding, 
annectimus arescentem coronam,8ed 


148 Cerem/onieB and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

Funeral 10. When they had thus conducted the corpse to the place 

made^hi the ^^ burial, it was usual to make a funeral oration in the praise 
praise of and commendation of the party deceased, if there was any 
persong, thing singular and eminent in him fit to be recommended as 
an example and pattern of virtue to others, or worthy to be 
related as a just memorial and monument of his own merits 
and glory. We have seyeral orations of this kind still re^ 
maining : as that of Eusebius at the funeral of Constantino ; 
and those of St. Ambrose at the funerals of Theodosius and 
Valentinian, and his own brother Satyrus ; and those of Gre^ 
gory Nazianzen upon his father, and his brother CsBsarius, and 
his great friend St. Basil, and his sister Gorgonia ; and that of 
Gregory Nyssen upon the death of Melitus, [more correctly 
Melitius, or rather Meletius,] bishop of Antioch, [anno 360,] 
which Socrates in one place ^^ calls iTsiKi/il€iov \6yov, his^ne- 
ral oration, and in another place ^^ i'irLT<luf)iov, his epitaph. 
But St. Jerom's epitaphs upon Nepotian, Fabiola, and Paula, 
are of another sort, being only private characters composed by 
him to perpetuate their memory, but not delivered in public as 
funeral orations ^^. 
Together 11. But whether there was a funeral oration or not, the 
^^''P^^ other service of the Church was usually performed at the in- 
uraal ser- torment of the dead ; the whole service, if the biurial was in 
cSiroh. *b® mommg, when the oblation of the eucharist might be cele- 
brated ; or else only the psalmody and prayers, if the funeral 
was in the afternoon. The psalmody and prayers are largely 
described by the author under the name of Dionysius the 
Areopagite ^9, who speaks first of their singing hymns of 
thanksgiving to God for the party deceased, and his making 

^ L. 5. c. 9. (v. a. p. 271. 35.) machium. £p. 75. Lucinii ad Theo- 

T($rc d^ KctL McXirtof, 6 r^r *Ayrio- doram. Ep. 127. Marcelle adPHnci- 

vctar iwlfTKonrott appwariq irtpartaciv piam. Ed.] 

crvXctm;o-fv* St€ Koi t6v etnicrfitiov ^ Eccles. Hierarch. c. 7* part. I. 

cir* avrf \6yov 6 adt\<l>6s Ba<rtXccov n. 3- P« 408. (t. I. p. 265. a.). . . Av« 

Tprfy6piO£ tnt^XBtv, t6v rt , , ., fjMKapiCova-i irpbs t6 vticff- 

^ ii. 4. c. 36. (ibid. p. 248. 27.) <f)6pov €VKTai»f aK^iKSpjtvov rtkos, koi 

.... Kal iviToAiov tls McXmov, t6u rf r^r vltajt airi^ ^^^^'^P^v ^^ff 

'Avr(o;(f lar tTriaKonov, cV rjj Koav- aycorcfAirovo'i, irpo<r€Ti kol avrotft oKJH* 

OTtwrivov ir<$X«t dte^X^c. KitrBai np6f rijy 6poiav cvvi^ficMM 

^ [Juxt. Ed. Vallarsii, Veronae \rj$tv, k, r. X. [The real auuior of 

1734, Epp. 60, 77, 108. Conf. Ep. this work is supposed to have flou* 

23. Epitaphium Lese ad Marcellam. rished about the year 362. See Cave, 

Ep. 24. AseUse ad Eandem. Ep. 33. Hist. Liter. Basil. 1741. 1. 1. p. 225. 

Blesillie ad Eandem. Ep.39. Ejosdem Ed.] 
ad Paulam. Ep. 66, Paulme ad Pam- 

§ lo, II. of the intermefU. 149 

a yictorious end, and desiring that they may come to the same 
rest with him. Then the bishop »9 makes a prayer of thanks- 
giving also to God for making the party persevere in the 
knowledge of (jod and his Christian warfare unto death. 
Then the deacon reads such portions of Scripture as contain 
the promises of a resurrection, and the hymn appertaining to 
the same purpose. Thus far was the service of the catechu- 
mens in this office of burial. After their dismission, the chief 
deacon makes a commemoration of all saints departed, and 
proclaims them conquerors, giving the same eulogium to him 
that was now to be interred, and exhorting all to follow his 
example, and beg of Christ an happy end. Then the bishop 
prays after this for him that was deceased, that God would 
forgive him all his sins contracted by human infirmity, and 
translate him into the place of light and the regions of the 
living, and give him a mansion in the bosom of Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob, whence all grief, and sorrow, and mourning 
are fled away. Then he gives him the kiss of peace ^, and 
anoints him with the holy oil, and so commits him to the earth. 
Here is no mention of the eucharist being celebrated in this 
office, but we find it in others : and the two last ceremonies of 
giving the kiss qfpe<zce, and anointing with oil, are in a man- 
ner peculiar to this author, and the former of them expressly 
forbidden in some other rules of burial, [as we shall see after- 
wards in the fourteenth section of this chapter.] But the 
hymns and psalmody, and proper portions of Scripture and 
prayers, made a part of the burial office in all Churches. 
St. Jerom thus describes the funeral of Fabiola^^ : ^ The psalms 
were sung aloud, and the echo of the hallelujahs shook the 
golden roof of the church.' So again, at the funeral of Paula**, 
he speaks not only of their singing in the procession, but in 
the middle of the church also. The African Councils ^^ speak 
likewise of prayers used at the funerals of the dead : which 
prayers were particularly termed irapadicrtis and commencUi- 

^ Ibid. part. 2. (b, c.) Elra rt- tiebat Alleluia. 

X€i,ir.r.X. 92 Ep. 27. Epitaph. Pauls?, [al. 

^ Ibid. part. 2. See afterwards, £p. 108. c. 29.] (ibid. p. 716 d.). . . 

8. 14. n. 7, following. Alii choros psaUentium ducerent in 

^1 £p. 30. Epitaph. FabioL c. 4. media ecclesia, &o. 

[al. Ep. 77. c. II.] (t. I. p. 462 c.) ** Vid. Milevit. c. 12. (t. 2. p. 

Sonabant paalmi, et aurata templo- 1540 e.) Placuit . . . . ut preces, vel 

nun tecta reboans in sublime qua- orationes seu missse, quse probata 


Ceremonies and solemnities 

XXIII. iii. 

And 0ome- 

tianeSf commendatory prayers, being such as they used 
when they committed the bodies to the ground : and these are 
appointed to be such only as were approved in synod, that no 
corruption of faith through ignorance might creep into the 
offices of the Church. This is abundant proof that psahnody and 
prayers were always a part of the funeral service in the Church. 
IS. And whenever it was a proper season, the communion 
obl^o^n of ^^ added to these also : that is, when the funeral or com- 
the eacha- mendation of any person deceased was in the morning, which 
™ was the only proper time for the communion, because it was to 

be received by all fasting. This distinction is made in the 
third Council of Carthage ^^, which orders, first, ' that all men 
shall receive the communion fasting :' and then adds, ' that if 
any commendation, or funeral of a bishop or any other, be to 
be celebrated in the afternoon, it should be done with prayers 
only, and not with the celebration of the eucharist, if they that 
assisted at the funeral office had dined before.' This is a mani- 
fest evidence that the communion was generally celebrated at 
funerals in this age, at least in the Afirican Church, unless 
some intervening circumstance of time made it otherwise. 
Accordingly Possidius^^ tells us St. Austin was buried with the 
oblation of the sacrifice to God for the commendation of his 
body to the ground. And so St. Austin ^ himself tells us his 
mother Monicha^? was buried with the offering of the sacrifice of 
our redemption, according to custom, before her body was laid 
in the ground. This made Victor Uticensis^® bring in the 
people of Afric thus complaining, when all their clergy were 
driven away in the barbarous desolation of the Vandals, * Who 

fuerint in concilio, sive pnefatioDes, 
rive commendatioDes, sen manus 
impositioDes, ab omnibus celebren- 
tur. Nee alue omnino dicantur in 
ecderia, nisi qu« a prudendoribus 
tractate, vel comprobatse in synodo 
fuerint, ne forte aliquid contra fi- 
dem, vel per ignorantiam, vel per 
minus studium, sit oompositum. — 
Conf. Cod. Can. Ecdes. Afric. c. io6. 
[id. c. 103.] (ibid. p.iiiSd.). . /Ikc- 
trlas, ttn irpooifuoy rZrc frofioBmig, 

JC. T. X. 

•4 C. 39. (ibid. p. 1 171 c.) See 
before, ch. 3. s. 6. p. . n. 30. 
^ Vit. Augustin. c.31. (t. 10. ap- 

pend, p. 380 a.) . . . . Pro ^us com- 
mendanda corporis depositione sa- 
crificium Deo oblatum est, et sepul- 
tus est. 

^ Confess. Lo. c. 13. (t. i. p. 168 
f.) . . . . Cum offoretur pro ea sacri- 
ficium pretii nostri, jam juxta se- 
ptdchrum posito cadavere, prius- 
quam deponeretur, sicut illic fieri 
solet, &c. 

^ Or, more correctly, Monnica. 

M De Persecut. Vandal. 1. 3. ap. 
Bibl. Patr. t. 7. p. 600. (ap. Bibl. 
Max. t. 8. p. 682 b. 4.) Qui nos so- 
lemnibus orationibus sepulturi sunt 


of the interment. 


shall now bury us, when we are dead, with the solemn 
prayers V And that we may not think this was a custom pecu- 
har to Afric, Paulinus^^ tells us St. Ambrose was so buried* on 
Easter-day in the morning, after the divine sacrament had 
been administered. In like manner Eusebius ^ describes the 
funeral of Constantino. He says, ' the clergy performed the 
divine service with prayers :' and lest we should take this for 
prayers only, he adds, ' they honoured him with the mystical 
liturgy, (or service of the eucharist,) and the communion of the 
holy prayers.' So St. Ambrose gives us to understand it was 
in the funeral of Yalentinian, by those words in his Oration 
upon his death * : ' Bring me the holy mysteries, let us pray 
for his rest with a pious affection.^ And so Euodius ^ says he 
buried his pious notary, ' singing hymns to God at his grave 
three days together, and on the third day offering the sacra- 
ments of redemption.' 

13. Now this was the rather done, because in the communion With par- 
service, according to the custom of those times, a solemn com- ^™, fo, 
memoration was made of the dead in general, and prayers the dead, 
offered to God for them ; some eucharistical, by way of thanks- 
giving for their deliverance out of this world's afflictions ; and 
others by way of intercession, that God would receive their 
souls to the place of rest and happiness ; that he would pardon 
their human failures, and not impute to them the sins of daily 
incursion, which in the best men are remainders of natural 
frailty and corruption ; that he would increase their happiness, 
and finally bring them to a perfect consummation with all his 
saints by a glorious resurrection. 

All which prayers, as I have fully demonstrated in another 
place 3, could have no relation to the modern groimdless fancy 

w Vit. AmbroB. (t. a. prefix, ap- 

S»nd. p. 13 a. n. 48.) Illucescente 
e Dominico, cum corpus illius, 
peractis sacramentis divinis, de ec- 
cleaia levaretur portandum ad baai- 
licam AmbrosiaDam, &c. 

^ De Vit. Constant. 1. 4. c. 71. 
(v. I. p. 667. 34.) . . . . Ta T» T^ff iv- 
B4qv Xarptiag ot nx&v dveirknpow, 
• . . Mvariiajs XtiTovpyias d^iovfuvov 
Koi Kounavias 6<riav carokavov tvxm¥, 
1 De Obit. Valentin, p. 12. (t. 2. 

p. 1 1 89 a. n. 56.) Date manibua 
sancta mysteria. Pio requiem ejus 
poscamus affectu. 

3 Ep. ad Aiu^stin. int. Epp. Au- 
gU8tin.258. [J; 158.] (t.2. p.56of.) 
Exsequias prsebuimus satis honora- 
biles et dignas tantse animse: nam 
per triduum hymnis Dominum col- 
Mudavimus super sepulchrum ipsius 
et redemptioms. sacramenta tertio 
die obtulimus.' 

« B. 15. ch. 3. s. 16. v. 5. p. 309. 

152 Cei*emonie8 and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

of purgatory, but went upon other principles that perfectly 
overthrow it : but being agreeable to the sense and opinions of 
those times, they chose the rather to use the communion ser- 
vice at burials, because of these prayers that were constantly 
made therein to God for all holy men and women departed, 
among whom they reckoned the soul of him in particular, 
whom they were then about to commit to his grave. But 
whether they had a communion or not at the funeral, they 
had always prayers, as is evident from the last mentioned 
canons of the Councils of Carthage and Milevis ^, which give 
directions about the use of them. And in these prayers, when 
there was no communion, they particularly commended the 
soul of the deceased to God, whence probably these prayers 
more especially had the distinguishing name of commendations* 
Besides these, it was usual to pray for them by private or sud- 
den ejaculations ^, as we find examples in St. Ambrose'^s several 
Orations upon the Emperors Theodosius, and Valentinian and 
Gratian, and his own brother Satyrus, and Gregory Nazianzen's 
Funeral Speech upon his brother Csssarius, and St. Austin's 
private prayers for his mother Monicha : not to mention the 
prayers made for them annually upon their anniversary days 
of commemoration. 

One of these forms of prayer used at funerals is still re* 
maining in the Constitutions, which I the rather choose to 
repeat here, because it fully shows there was no relation to 
purgatory in those prayers, but quite the contrary, viz. a sup- 
position that the soul of the deceased was going to a place of 

4 See nn, 03 and 94, preceding, requiem perfecto servo tuo Theo- 

^ [Examples of such ejaculatory dosio; requiem illam, quam prae- 

Srayers for the departed. — Ambros. paraati Sanctis tuis. lUo conver- 

e Obit. S. Satyri, s. 80. (t. i. p. tatur anima ejus, unde descendit: 

1 1 35 &•) "^bi mmc, Omnipotens &c. — Greg. Nazianzen. Orat. 10. in 

Peus, innoziam oommendo animam. Obit. Caesarii. (t. i. p. 168 b, c.) 

tibi hostiam meam offeio.-^-Id. de 2v dc fffiiv ovpapoif£ c/i/3ar«uoir, i 

Obit. Valentin, et Gratian. s. 80. $€la koX If pa «c€<^aX^, koi «V KoXiroig 

(ibid. p. 1 196.) Te quseso, summe 'Aj9pa^/i 01 tip€s d^ o^rrol €l<rw, dva- 

Deus, ut carissimos juvenes matura iravo-oio, «. r. X. — ^Augustin. Confess, 

resurrectione suscites, et resuscites, 1. 9. c. 13. (t. i. pp. 160, 170.) Ego 

&c. — It. s. 52. (ibid. p. 1 1 88 c.) autem jam sancto coroe, &c. — See 

Solve, igitur, Pater Sancte, &c, — before also, b. 15. ch. 3. 8.17. v. 5. 

It. 8.54. (ibid, e.) Neoueo eum, p. 318. nn. 5, 6, 8, and ibid. p. 319. 

Domine, &c. — Id. de Obit. Theo- n. 10, and p. 323. n. 17. Ed.J 
dosii, 8. 36. (ibid. p. 1207 d.) Da 

§13- of the interment, 15S 

rest and happiness in Abraham's bosom. The form^ runs after 
this manner : — 

First, the deacon says, ' Let us pray for our brethren, who 
are at rest in Christ ; that the merciful God, who hath taken 
the soul of this our brother, would forgive him all his sin, 
Yoluntary and involuntary, and of his great mercy and good- 
will place him in the regions of the just, that are at rest in the 
bosom of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, with all those who have 
pleased God, and done his will from the beginning of the 
world, in the place whence sorrow, and grief, and mourning 
are fled away.' 

After this the bishop makes another prayer in these words : 
* O Thou immortal and everlasting God, from whom every 
thing, whether mortal or immortal, haa its being; who hast 
made man a rational creature and inhabitant of the world, 
mortal in his constitution, but hast promised him a resurrection 
from the dead; who didst preserve Enoch and Elias from 
tasting death. O God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of 

Constit. ApOBt. 1. 8. c. 41. (Co- frpo<rcXa/3ov tls MpavXti^uf, Ka\ <nry' 

tel. V. I. p. 418.) 'Yfrtp oKnravo'afw-' y»m<rov avrf, H rt ixinf fj Sucwf 

r»y or XpioT^ id€\<f>&v ^fjL&p dciyte- t^fffjMpTt, Kot ayycXovs ti^fieimg ira* 

fitv' ^a>ff 6 (^tX<Mp«nro£ Bcdir, 6 piarrfa'aif avr^, Koi KcerAra^op avr^p 

irpoa'li€(dfitvos avrov r^v ^XV^ ^^'' ^ ^V icoXir^ t&p narpuipxjSnf, iral r&v 

pti^ avrf nap afxdprrjfjia iKowriop npoqnjr&p, Ka\ r&p dsroardkt^p, ml 

Koi oKOwriop' K€Li (Xco>ff Koi €Vfifv^f irdpTup T&p oiT* al&p6£ croi fvapeon;- 

ytp6fjLtpos KOTOTafy €lt x^P^'^ €wrt'- <r6pre»p' imv ovk tfpt Xvm;, 6dvprf, 

fii»p, a»€ifup»p €ls kSKitov 'Afipaofi koi <rTfpayfi69t aKkh x6po£ eva-tfi&p 

Koi *la'aiuc, xal *Iaiccb/3, fAcrck 7rdpT<»p avrffAtpos, Koi yij t{f$€i6ip avpcanjfupTj, 

rwf aar al&pog twiptirniaavTUP, Koi Koi r«y <V avrj Sp&prtiP r^v d<$(ay 

jTottfirdpTWP t6 SiXrfua atrov* tfp$a rot) Xpitrrov crov* dt* oZ ot>t d6(a, 

dircdpa idvpij, Ka\ Xvm;, Ka\ OTtvay^ rt/ii^ ical trtfiaSf fvxc^ntrrla, npoaKv^ 

l»As» . . . Kal 6 arliTKonos \€y€Tw' O prjats tp'Ayi^ Upevfurri, tls rovs alA^ 

TJ <^v<rct dBavaros jcai drfXcvn^r, pas, *A/A^y. . . . Km 6 arioKtmos evva- 

irap* od wav dBdvarop koi Bvfjr^p yc« purrtinio vnkp ovt&p, XryoDV rotmit' 

yopof 6 t6 \oytK6v (mov, t6p ca^p»- Scmtov, Kvikc, rhp 'ka6p aov, Ka\ cv- 

inw, r6v xoo'fumoKinjp, Bvnrhp iv Ka- \6yrfaop r^y ickrfpopofiUuf crov, fjv ir«-> 

raaK€v§ iroi^crar, Ka\ avaarairiap punoirfO'ti r^ rifiup cufurri rov XpuT" 

inayytiXdfitvos' 6 t6p 'Eyflb;^ Koi t6p rov aw' voifuufov a^row vnh r^v 

'HX/ay dapoTov n^lpav fi^ tda-as Xa- dt^utp trov' Ka\ (rKtwatrop aifTovs vtrh 

fitlp, 6 Qt6t *Aj9paa/i, 6 Qt6f 'Icaaic, rhs irrtpvyds cov* koi b6g avroit r6p 

Koi 6 &€6f 'lcuctt/9, ovy &g pfKpStp, dy&pa ayci>pia'aa'0ai koXop' t6p bpdpop 

dXX* &9 CdtPTWP Oeiff CI* ^ri 9rayr»y rtXecrai' TrlPirioTiPTTipfj(raidrp€nT»£, 

al ^^vxal irapd oy>a foo-** '^'^^ "f"^^ dfiipirrcis, dptyKXr/rtot, bta rov Kvptov 

hixaUav rh nvwfunu ip rj X"'P^ ^'^'^ ^fi&p 'liyerov Xpiorov, rov <Syain7rov 

tUrhf, &p ov p^ Si^^ffTai /Sacravof* ndp^ aov Tlaidds' peff oJi a-ot ddta, rip^, 

Tt£ yhp ^laapicpoi viri rht ycZpar Ka\ aipat, koi rf 'Ayc^ Ilycv^iari, tts 

mv ^la'or avT6g Kai pvp ShrtSt cirl rovf al&pas, *Aprfp. 
r&y Mkdp aov rMt, 6p c^Xc(«, koI 

154 Ceremonies and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

Jacob, who art not the God of the dead, but of the living, 
because the souls of all lire to thee, and the spirits of just men 
are in thy hand, whom torment cannot touch, look down now 
upon this thy servant whom thou hast chosen, and received 
to another state ; pardon him whatsoever he has willingly or 
unwillingly sinned against thee ; grant him favourable angels, 
and place him in the bosom of patriarchs, prophets, apostles, 
and all those who have pleased thee from the beginning of the 
world, where there is no sorrow, grief, or trouble, but a place 
of rest for the godly, a land of quietness for the upright, and 
all those who therein see the glory of thy Christ : by whom all 
glory, honour, adoration, thanksgiving, and worship be to thee, 
through the Holy Ghost, for ever. Amen.' 

Then the bishop prays again for the people there present : 
' Lord, save thy people, and bless thine inheritance, whom thou 
hast purchased vrith the precious blood of thy Christ; feed 
them under thy right hand, protect them under thy wings, 
grant that they may fight the good fight, and may finish their 
course, and keep the faith, immutable, unblameable, unreprove- 
able, through our Lord Jesus Christ, thy beloved Son: to 
whom with thee and the Holy Spirit be all glory, honour, and 
adoration, world without end. Amen.' 

These prayers for the dead are not made upon the Romish 
supposition of the soul's being in purgatory or any place of 
torment, but plainly upon a quite contrary supposition of their 
being conducted by the holy angels to a place of rest, to the 
bosom of patriarchs, apostles, and prophets : which is an in- 
fallible demonstration that the Church then knew nothing of a 
purgatory fire to torment the dead for many ages after death ; 
but all her prayers went upon another supposition, which over- 
throws the belief of a purgatorial fire, by placing the souls of 
the dead in a state of immediate rest and happiness. 
A oorrupt ] 4. Whilst we are speaking of prayers for the dead, and the 
ffivinff the administration of the eucharist at funerals, we must not forget 
^^ .0„«>U...»r™,.c».,n>, which tb™^hi«..™.»,r™p». 
the •ncha- stition crept into some places, but was strictly forbidden by the 
JJJ5**^® canons. That was the custom of giving the kiss of peace and 
rected bj the communion to the dead. This had a semblance of piety in 
canons?^*^ it, and doubtless arose from the laudable custom of celebrating 
the communion at funerals, of which it serves for a further 

§ I4« of the interment. 165 

testimony : bat it was the effect of a blind superstition only. 
And therefore though the feigned author, under the name of 
Dionysius the Areopagite^, speaks with approbation of the 
ceremony of giving the kiss of peace to the dead ; yet when 
this custom, together with that of giving the eucharist to the 
dead, began to creep into France about the year 578, the 
Council of Auxerre made a peremptory canon ^ agsdnst them 
both : ' It is not lawful to give either the eucharist or the kiss 
of peace to the dead/ The corruption of giving the eucharist 
to the dead had been moving in Afric some ages before in the 
time of St. Austin : but he and the rest of the fathers who met 
in the third Council of Carthage gave check to it, forbidding ^ 
such ignorant and weak presbyters, by whose folly the practice 
had been encouraged, to give way any longer to it, or misguide 
the people in such an erroneous opinion, as to make them think 
the eucharist was to be given to the dead : ^ whereas our Lord 
said. Take, and eat: but dead bodies can neither take, nor 
eat it.' The same persons thought, that dead bodies might 
abo receive the other sacrament of baptism ; as if there had 
been some peculiar virtue and efficacy in the outward elements 
of the sacraments themselves, without any sense or concurrence 
of faith in the receiver. Both which errors are censured also 
by St. Chrysostom ^^ ; and that of giving the eucharist to the 
dead more particularly by the Council of TruUo ^^ All which 
shows that this was an error, which many superstitious people 
were very fond of; but it was never allowed or encouraged 
publicly by any authority in the Church. 

The custom of burying the eucharist in the coffin with the 
dead, which has so much prevailed in the Romish Church, is a 
novelty of later ages only, begun by Benedict the monk, [about 
the year 814,] but without any precedent or example in any of 

7 Ecdes. Hierarch. c. 7. part. a. ' C. 6. (t. 2. p. 1168 a.) Placuit 

(t I. p. 26$ c.) Efra irpoo-cX^^y 6 ut corporibus defunctorum eucha- 

&tiog ttpapxrif, ^XV^ Upwrarriv cnr' ristia non detur. Dictum est enim 

a^ry frouirtu, ml /icrck lijv cv^^i^, a Domino, Aocipite et edite: cada- 

aMt re 6 Updpxns dtnrdCrrtu t6v vera autem nee aocipere pounnt, 

tsMKouuiiUvov, Koi fUT olriv ol nap&ih- nee edere, &c. 

rtiiaviVTts. ^^ Hom. 40. in i Cor. p. 688. 

^ C. la. (t. 5. p. j^58 e.) Non licet See before, b. 15. ch. 4. a. 19. v. 5. 

mortuis nee euchanstiam neo oscu- p. 400. n. la. 

lum tradi, nee velovel pallia corpora ^^ C. 83. See before, ibid. n. 

eonnn involvi. 13. 


Ceremonies and solemnities 

XXIII. iii. 

the ancient monuments of the Church, as I have had occasion 

to show more fully in a former Book ^^. Let us therefore now 

pass on from these corruptions to the more approyed practices 

of the Church. 

Aimidaeds 15. Almsdeeds, as a proper concomitant of prayers at all 

•dd^^^ times, was now thought as seasonable as ever to be given by 

pnjen for the living for the dead. ' Would you honour the dead ? Give 

alms,' says St. Chrysostom in one of his Homilies ^^ ; and in 

another ^*, * Why do you call the poor after the death of any 

relation ? Why do you desire the presbyters to pray for him ? 

I know you will answer, That he may go into rest, that he may 

find a merciful Judge.' He commends this practice a little 

after ^^ and thus presses rich men to it that bury their heirs: 

' If many barbarous nations burn their goods together with 

their dead, how much more reasonable is it for you to give 

your child his goods when he is dead ? Not to reduce them to 

ashes, but to make them the more glorious : if he be a sinner, 

to procure him pardon ; if righteous, to add to his reward and 

retribution.' St. Jerom ^^ commends Pammachius upon this 

account : * Whilst other husbands throw violets, and roses, and 

lilies, and purple flowers upon the graves of their wives, our 

Pammachius waters the holy ashes and bones of his wife with 

the balsam of alms.' 

Andrepeat- 16. Some repeated these alms yearly upon the anniversary 

u* ^the ^y ^^ commemorating the dead. At these times they were 

anniyenary used to make a common feast or entertainment, inviting both 

yso com- ^j^^ clergy and the people, but especially the poor and needy. 

^2 B. 15. ch. 4. 8. 30. y. 5. p. 401. 

>> Horn. 61. [Bened. 6a. al. 61.] 
in loan. (t. 8. p. 374 e.) BovXci rcfi^- 
trai t6v djr*X66vra ; irtp^t rifiriaw, 

1^ Horn. 3a. [Bened. 31. al. 33.] 
in Matth. p. 307. (t. 7. p. 361 e.) 
MoXXoy de rt fitrii ravra vfvtjTai 
KoXcTr; Koi napoKoktU It peas tif^' 
trBai ; iva els avawauo'Uf carekBif, ^- 
<rly, 6 T€Te\tvnjKws, tya iXf«> axS 
t6p Aucaarnp, 

1* Ibid. (p. 36a c.) Ei yip Ileal] 
fiapfiapoi ovYKaTOKcuava-i rots aircX- 
3ov<n tA. 6vra, iroXX» fiSKk6p o-c avp^ 
dirooTfiXai rf r<r<Xcvn;jn$ri ducatov 
nk airrov' ovx uw rifftpa yevrfrat ica- 
Bdanp cxcimi, aXX' wa wkelopa tovt^ 

frepiPaku d6(a»' Ka\ el fUv afiaprn* 
\6£ dw^Oev, iva rh afiapTrftiara Xv- 
ajf' el be diKotos, tva irpoaBrftai yemf 
rai rov piaBov Koi carrMaeas. 

1^ Uieron. £p. 26, [al. 66.] ad 
Pammach. de Obit. Uxor. (t. i. p. 
394 d.) Cseteri mariti super tumuloB 
conjugum spargunt violas, rosas, 
lilia, florea^ue purpureos; et dolo- 
rem pectons his officiis consolantur. 
PammacluuB noster sanctam favil- 
1am ossaque veneranda eleemosynse 
balsarois rigat. [See before, s. 9. 
p. 146, the addition to n. 83. — See 
also Anacreon's 53rd Ode, Els 'P<$- 
dw, (w. 34, 35.) 

Todc Kal voaowrw doKei, 
Tdde Koi veKpoU dfiwei, Ed.] 

§ 15, 1(5, i;. 

of the interment. 


the widows and orphans, that it might not only be a memorial memon- 
of rest to the dead, but ' an odour of sweet smell to themselves ^^^ ^ 
in the sight of Ood^' as the author under the name of Origen^^ 
words it. St. Chrysostom *« says they were more tenacious of 
this custom than they were of some others of greater import- 
ance. ' If they were to commemorate a child or a brother 
that was dead, they were pricked in conscience if they did not 
fulfil the custom and call the poor, but at other times, even 
when they were to commemorate the death of Christ, they 
could overlook them.' 

17. But this often degenerated into great abuses. For some. Bat thla 
instead of feeding the poor, only made this an occasion of in- generated 
dulging themselves in ^eat excesses : which was the fault that ^^ gn»^t 
Tertullian '^ so smartly reproves in the parentations of the and abnM8« 
Gentiles, when he objects to them their holdins: feasts at the ^Wchare 

, • ° oompiained 

graves of their parents, and junketing to excess, so as to re- of as no 
turn drunk from thence, and beside their senses ; feeding vo- ^^^^ 
raciously at the graves of those whom in a mock piety, but <a^ of the 
real cruelty, they had burnt before. In the three first ages ^ ^* 
no Heathen could retort this back again upon the Christians : 
but in the fourth age such excesses ^ere committed by some, 
that the Manichees in St. Austin's time objected it to the Ca- 
tholics, and the matter was so flagrant that St. Austin *^ was 
forced to own it, confessing ' that he knew many who drank 
luxuriously over the dead, and when they made a feast for the 
deceased, buried themselves over the dead, and placed their 
gluttony and drunkenness to the account of religion.' But he 
says the Church condemned them, and daily laboured to cor- 
rect them as wicked cliildren. He complains of the same mat- 
ter again in one of his Epistles to Aurelius, bishop of Car- 

17 In Job. 1. 3. p. 437. (t. a. p. 
903 b.) .... In odorem suavitatis in 
conapectu spterni Dei, &c. 

** Horn. 37. in i Cor. p. 565. (t. 
10. p. 346 e.) . . . *A»dfuni(ruf rov Xpi- 
crroO noUit, Koi iriinfras vapop^s ; 
Koi tfh <Ppimts; dXX* tl fuv viov fj 
adfX^ot; rtT€\rvnjK6Tos cwdfunfaiv 
hroUigy iirXrfyTft hv vtr6 rov <rvvfid<$- 
rop, €l firj t6 tf3os eirkrfpao'as, leal 

1^ De Teatimon. Animae, c. 4. (p. 
66 c). . . Quando extra portam com 

obsoniiB et matteia tibi potiaa pa- 
rentans ad buata recedis, aut a buatis 
dilutior redis. — De Resurrect. Car- 
nis, c. I. (p. 335 a.) . . . . Ipaoa de- 
functos atrocissime ezurit,quo8 post- 
modum gulosissime nutrit. 

*> De Morib. Ecclea. c. 34. (t. i. 
p- 719 ^0 ^ovi multOB ease, qui 
iuzunosbsime super mortuos bi- 
bant, et, epulas cadaveribus exfai- 
bentes, super sepultos seipsos sepe- 
liant, et voracitates ebnetatesque 
SUM deputent religioni. 

158 Ceremoniea and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

thage^S where he desires these oblations for the dead might 
be so regulated, ' that they might not run into any sumptuous- 
ness or shameful excess : and if any thing was given in money 
upon that account, it should be distributed immediately among 
the poor, according to the primitive design and intent of such 
oblations.' For such oblations the Church always willingly re- 
ceived ^^, but never encouraged any other. 

The author of the book De Duplici Martyrio under the 
name of Cyprian ^^, who wrote long after the time of St. Austin, 
has a like severe reflection upon the intemperance of the Afri- 
can people. ' Drunkenness,' says he, ' is so common in our 
Africa, that it is scarce reckoned any crime. Christians are 
compelled by Christians to be drunk even at the memorials of 
the martyrs : which is no less a crime than offering a goat to 
Bacchus.' But of this I have spoken largely in a former 
Book ^^, where I had occasion to reflect on the same excesses 
committed by some at the monuments of the martyrs on their 
anniversary festivals or commemorations. I now return to the 
funerals of the ancient Church. 
Decent ex- 18. Moderate sorrow, when expressed in a decent manner 

pretrions of 

2» Ep. 64. [al. 32.] ad Auwl. (t. i. « Vid. C. Carth. 4. c. 95. (t. a. 

p. ap a.) Sea quoniam istae in coe- p. 1307 b.) Qui oblationes deAinc- 

meteriis ebrietates et luxuriosa con- torum aut negant eccleeiis, aut cum 

vivia non solum honores martyrum difficultate reddunt, tanquam egen- 

a camali et imperita plebe creoi so- tium necatores excommunicentur. — 

lent, sed etiam solatia mortuorum ; C. Vasens. a. c. 4. (t. 3. p. 1457 d.) 

mihi videtur facilius illic dissuaderi Qui oblationes defunctorum fide- 

Sosse istam foeditatem ac turpitu- lium detinent, et ecclesiis tradere 

inem, si et de Scripturis prohibea- demorantur, ut infideles sunt ab ec- 

tur, et oblationes pro spiritibus dor^ clesia abjiciendi : quia usque ad ez- 

mientium, quas vere aliquid adju- inanitionem fidei pervenire certum 

vare credendum est, super ipsas est banc divinse pietatis exacerba- 

memorias non sint sumptuosae, at- tionem : qua et ndeles de coxpore 

que omnibus petentibus sine typho, recedentes votorum suorum pieni- 

et cum alacritate prsebeantur: neque tudine, et pauperes collatu alimonise 

vendantur, sed si quis pro reli^one et necessaria sustentatione fraudan- 

aliquid pecuniae offerre voluent, in tur. Hi enim tales, quasi egentium 

Srsesenti pauperibus eroget. Ita nee necatores, nee credences judicium 

eserere videountur memorias suo- Dei habendi sunt, &c. 

rum, quod potest c[iffnere non levem 28 P. 4a. (inter Spuria, p. 83.). . . 

oonlis dolorem, et ia celebrabitur in Temulentia adeo communis est Afri- 

ecdesia, auod pie et honeste cele- cae nostras, ut propemodum non ha- 

bratur. — Hom. loi. de Divers, [al. beant pro crimine. Annon videmus 

Serm. 373.] (t. 5. p. 1108 e.) Ode- ad martyrum memorias Christia- 

nmt martyris lagenas vestras, &c. num a Christiano cogi ad ebrieta- 

— See afterwards, ch. 4. s. 9. n. 9a, tern ? &c. 

following. 24 B. 20. ch. 7. s. 10. v. 7. p. 353. 

{ 1 8. of the interment. 159 

for the loss of friends, is a thing so natural in itself, and so moderate 
consistent even with the joy and faith of a Christian, that the Amenisnot 
Ancients never said any thing against any one expressing such disallowed ; 
sorrow at a funeral. But two things they extremely disliked heathenish 
and sharply reproved ; first, immoderate grief, as unbecoming f??°™ ^^ 
the character and profession of a Christian, whose conversation ./s<», or 
is in heaven already, and his hope and expectation no less than ^^^^ 
a crown and kingdom after death ; who therefore ought not to sharply re- 
grieve or sorrow above measure, but with a mixture of joy, the^n- ^ 
that any friend is gone to heaven before him to take an earlier cients. 
possession of it. The other thing they disliked was the 
heathenish custom of having women hired on purpose to lament 
and make an hideous crying and howling before the dead, with 
tearing their hair also, and many other ridiculous signs of 
mourning. The chief of these the Romans called prcefic<B, 
[firom prcefido,"] from being set over the rest to guide and 
direct them in their funeral songs and lamentations, as Rosi- 
nus^^ describes them out of Yarro, and Lucilius, and Sextus 
Pompeius, and Nonius Marcellus, and other Roman authors. 
Now this the Ancients extremely disliked and severely in- 
veighed against as a mere heathenish custom. ' Why do you 
beat yourself and lament,' says Chrysostom ^^, ' and accuse the 

2* Antimiit. 1. 3. c. ji. (p. 506 a.) fecta. Nonius Maroellus : Prafi- 

Prmfica, Terentius Varro, I. 6. de e«, inquit, dieehanivr apud veteres. 

Lingua Latina : Prtefica, tU Aurc' qtut adkiberi solent funeri mercede 

Uui scribii, muUer ab luctu, qua conducts, ut etfierent etfortia facta 

condueeretur, qua ante dotnum mor^ laudarent, Lucilius, 32 : 

hd laudes efu$ caneret. Hoc facti- Mercede qtue 

tatum Aristoteles scribit in libro, Conducts flent aUeno infimereprtB- 

qui inscribitur NcSfUfio Bap^puch, Jicm, 

quiboB testimonium est, quod Pre- MuUo et Camillas scindunt et clamant 

tum est Naevii : magis, 

Hmc quidem hercle, opinor, prafica — Ibid. 1. 5. c. 39. (p. 993 d.) Adhi- 

eit : bebantur etiam praeficse, quas Sext. 

Nam mortuos coUaudat, Pompeius ait mulieres liiisse, ad 

Claudius scribit, ea quae prseficere- lamentandum mortuum conductas, 

tur ancillis, quemadmodnm lamen- qu» darent cseteris modum plan- 

tarentur, prtifica est dicta ; utrum- gendi ; unde etiam nomen hal^eant. 

Que ostendit, a praefectione prseficam quasi quae huic rei sint pnefectae, 

dictam. Plautus in Truculento : &c. 

Sine ffirtute argutum cwem miM hO' ^ Hom. 33. [Bened.3i. al.33.] in 

beam pro pre^fica, Matth. p. 306. (t. 7. pp. 360 lin. ult. 

Sezt. Pompeius : Prafica dicuniur et p. 361 a.) Mrjd^U rolvvv K<mTt<r6» 

muUeres aa lamentandum mortuum Xoiir6y, fUfSi Oprf»€iT», fufd^ t6 ica- 

conducta, qu4B dant caterie modum T6o6miia rov Xpcorov d<a/3aXXcra»* 

plangendif quasi in hoc ^fsum pra* «ai yhp tpiiaiirt rov Oayarw, Tt ro/- 

160 Ceremonies and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

institution of Christ, who has overcome death, and made it 
only a sleep ? If an Heathen does this, he is worthy to be 
laughed to scorn : but if a Christian does it still, after he is 
assured of a resurrection, what apology or excuse can be made 
for him ? And yet you aggravate your crime by calling in 
Heathen women to be your mourners and to inflame your sor- 
row, not regarding what St. Paul says, " What concord hath 
Christ with Belial ? and what part hath he that believeth with 
an infidel ?'" He then goes on to show the monstrous folly and 
vanity of this practice by a great variety of arguments, and 
curiously answers all the little pleas which such Christians 
made in behalf of themselves to excuse this unchristian deport- 
ment. In another placed* he treats them more sharply, telling 
them, *' he was not only grieved but utterly ashamed to think 
how Christians debased and disgraced themselves in the eyes 
of the Heathen, and Jews, and heretics by their weeping and 
wailing, and bowlings, and lamentations, and other indecent 
practices in the open streets, for which the Gentiles derided 
them. For they were ready to say, how can any of these 
men despise death themselves, who cannot so much as bear the 
death of another ? They are fine things indeed that are spoken 
by Paul, when he says God " delivered them who through fear 
of death were all their life-time held in bondage :" these are 
heavenly words truly, and very worthy and becoming the 
great kindness and love of God to men : but ye will not suffer 
us to believe these things, for ye contradict them by your own 
actions. Show me your philosophy by your patience in bearing 
cheerfully the death of others, and then I will believe the resur- 
rection.' Thus he makes the Heathen speak by a TLGaXproso- 
popoeia, to shame such Christians, if it might be, into a more 
manly deportment. He adds withal, ' that such indecent beha- 

pvu frrptTT^ Bpriifus } virvop rh vpary koiupov di€y»oc»y, jcat ovk okovccp 

fui ytyovi' ri odvpf; Koi ickaUit ; rov- rov HavXov Xfyovros' Tis aviK^vn^ 

TO yhp tl Koi "EXXi/vcf ciroiovy, icara- ait XpurrS frp6s BrXiap ; ^ ris fupis 

ytXav dci* Stop dc 6 frurr6s iv rovroit frurrA ucra dnioTov ; 
atrxripovj, irota mrokoyia ; rU €arai ^ Horn. 4. in Hebr. p. 1784. (t. 

trvyyvJ^fjof rotavra cofotfralvovo'i, xal 13. p. 46 a.1 ^Oroy v^ ioo» rovs ko^ 

ravra p^rk xp^vov rofrovrov Koi <ra^$ frcrovr,. . . rat olpoiyas,, . . riis oXoXu- 

r^ff avaarcurwns dn6d4i^i» ; 2v hi, y^, ras dtrxtpoirvvas rht SXXas, alcr- 

&nrfo av^trai ro eyKkijiia cnrcvdow, j(yvoptu rovs *£XXi;vas Koi 'lovdocowy 

Koi oprjv^^w ^piv Sytis 'YXkrfvidas jcal alptriicoifs roifs Sp&vrat, k,t.\; 
yvtfaucas, t^^arrnv r6 n6Bos, koi rrpf 

§ i8, 19. of the interment. 161 

viour of men and women, tearing their hair and making such 
hideous lamentation, was a crime for which, if they had their 
desert, they ought to be cast out of the Church, as in effect 
denying the resurrection.' In short, he tells them with the 
authority of a bishop, ^ that if they persisted in that vile abuse 
of hiring Heathen women to be their mourners, he would ex- 
communicate them as idolaters. For if St. Paul calls the 
covetous man an idolater, much more may he be called so who 
brings the practice of idolaters among Christians.' From 
thenceforth he peremptorily forbids them to make use of any 
such Heathen mourners under the penalty of the highest eccle- 
siastical censure. By which, not to insist upon what he urges 
in other places ^®, nor what is said by other writers, we may 
easily judge how great an abuse this way of indecent mourning 
was reckoned in the Church. 

19. The Heathens had another custom of repeating their The nwen- 
mourning on the third, and seventh, and ninth day, which g^^^j^*^® 
was particularly called the navendiale : and some added the rejected as 
twentieth, and thirtieth, and fortieth, not without a super- gtft^o^' 
stitious opinion of those particular days, wherein they used P^^ctice. 
to sacrifice to their manes with milk, and wine, and garlands, 
and flowers, as the Roman antiquaries^^ inform us. Some- 
thing of this superstition, abating the sacrifice, was still re- 
maining among some ignorant Christians in St. Austin's time ; 
for he speaks ^ of some who observed a navendial in relation 

^ Horn. 6. in I Thess. (t. 11. p. timum, nonum, et quidam vicesi- 

468 b, seqq.) ^Oray oZv nMa dn-o- mum, tricesimum, et quadragesi- 

XccTj/ff tv a&ptf riKiKiq, k, r.X. — Horn, mum, non sine quadam numerorum 

39. de Donnient. t. 5. p. 423. (t. i. reli^one, dies defnnctorum manibus 

p. 764 e.) Ovdc rhf dffvfiUuff dXX^ et memorise statuebant : nnde pa- 

T^v rrriratriv rrjt dBvfuas avaip&' t6 rentationes, feralia, novendialia, de- 

fxhf yhp a&viuiv, r^f ^xxTtms' to hk cennalia, vicennalia, tricennalia, &c., 

irtpa rov yArpov rovro nouip, fuaias originem traxerunt ; qnse omnia turn 

Kal irapaippoavtnjs Koi y%fvatK»dovs lacte et vino, tum sertis et floribus, 

ylnj)ms. "AXyiaov, dwcpv&ov, akka tum aliis rebus ab antiquis celebra- 

fjjf wro^van tT t ja g t, /xi) bvo'xtpavni, bantur. [Conf. Virgil. i£n. 5* vv. 

p^l dyapwcr^aTjs, . . . AdKpv<rov, ens 6 'jjSo, 

Attnr6Trfs trov €haKpva'€ t6p AdCapov, Hie duo rite mero libans carchesia 
firrpa riBtls fffiiv koi Ka»6vas Koi opout Baccho 

dOvfiias, ols vntp^aivtiv oh dci. Fundit humi, duo lacte novo, duo 

^ Rodn. Antiquit. 1. 5. c. 39. sanguine sacro ; 

(p. 998 e. 6.) Cffterum cum non- Purpureosque jacit flores, &c. 

nuDi essent, qui suorum vel propin- — See also before, s. 9, p. 146, the 

auorum vel amicorum minus aesi- second part of n. 82. Ed.J 
aerium ferre possent, tertium, sep- ^ Qusest. 173. in Gen. t. 4. (t. 3. 


168 Ceremomes and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

to their dead, which he thinks they ought to be forbidden, 
because it was only an Heathen custom. He does not seem to 
intimate that they kept it exactly as the Heathen did; but 
rather that they were superstitious in their observation of nine 
days of mourning, which was without example in Scripture. 

There was another way of continuing the funeral offices for 
three days together, which was allowed among Christians, 
because it had nothing in it but the same worship of God 
repeated. Thus Euodius writing to St. Austin ^S and giving 
him an account of the funeral of a very pious young man, who 
had been his notary, says, ' he had given him honourable obse- 
quies worthy so great a soul : for he continued to sing hymns 
to God for three days together at his grave, and on the third 
day offered the sacraments of redemption.* The author of the 
C^onstitutions 3'^ takes notice of this repetition of the funeral 
office on the third day, and the ninth day, and the fortieth 
day, giving peculiar reasons for each of them : * Let the third 
day be observed for the dead with psalms, and lessons, and 
prayers, because Christ on the third day rose agsdn from the 
dead; and let the ninth day be observed in remembrance of 
the living and the dead ; and also the fortieth day, according 
to the ancient manner of the Israelites^ mourning for Moses 
forty days ; and finally, let the anniversary day be observed in 
commemoration of the deceased.' Cotelerius in his Notes upon 
this place 33 has observed several other ancient writers who 
take notice of some of these days. 

Palladius in his Historia LatiMoca^*, mentions the third 
and the fortieth. Justinian in one of his Novels '-^^ speakB of 

part. I. p. 431 e.) Nescio utrum in- vfr6fiinf<nv r&y frtpi6vr»p km t&p M' 

veniatur alicui saDCtorum in Scrip- Koifirjfitiwv' koi rta-a-apaKoa-Tii, Kara 

turis celebratum ease luctum novem rhv irakai6v rvnov' Mokt^p yhp ovms 

dies, quod apud Latinos novendiale 6 'Kahs circi^o'c' Koi hnawrta^ virip 

appellant. Unde mihi videntur ab fiytias avrov, 

hac consuetudine prohibendi, si qui ^ [In I. c. (v. i. p. 4T9. n. 25.) 

Cbristianorum isturo in mortnis 8uis loitur consulat, qui volet, Palladii 

numerum servant, qui magis est in Historiam Lausiacam, c. 36. sub 

Gentilium consuetudine. finem, Isidorum Pelusiotam, 1. 1. 

^1 See before, s. 13. n. 3, pre- Ep. 114. &c. £d.] 

cedinff. 34 0. 36. (ap. t. 3. Bibl. Patr. Gr. 

^ L. 8. c. 43. (Cotel. V. I. p. 419.) Lat. Paris. 1634.) 

'EirirvXf (<r^tt di rplra t&v jccjcoifu;- ^ Novel. 133, C. 3. (t. 5. p. 592.) 

fjMvuiv, iv yltoKfioU, koi dvayvwrt<n, Sed neque aliquam exco^tent oc- 

Koi npoo-tvxals, di^ rhv dia rpt&p casionem aut viri ad muliebria mo- 

^fAtp&v eytpBevra* koX hnfora, tU nasteria ingrediendo aut mulieres 

§19, 20. 

of the interment 


the third, the ninth, the fortieth, and the anniversary day of 
commemorations ; forbidding women who professed the mo- 
nastic Ufe to go into the monasteries of the men under pre- 
tence of any of these solemn commemorations of the dead. To 
these he adds, St. Ambrose in his Funeral Oration upon Tbeo^ 
dosius, and Isidore of Pelusium, (Lib. i. Ep. 1 14O ^uid Eustra- 
tius Constantinopolitanus, mentioned by Photius^^; to omit 
Damascen, [anno 730,] Nicon [Armenus, anno 961,] Philippus 
Solitarius, [anno 1095 J Hincmai* [of Rheims, anno 845,] Theo- 
dore of Canterbury, [anno 688,] or any later writers. Suicerus^^ 
and Meursius ^^ take notice of the same custom in the word 
rpiT^vviraL, which signifies the third and ninth day of com- 
memorating the dead, which they say was the custom of the 
Ancients. So that when St. Austin speaks against observing 
the ninth day, it was not what Cotelerius supposes, because he 
was ignorant of this practice, with St. Ambrose and many other 
of the Latins, (wherein Cotelerius contradicts himself, having 
alleged St. Ambrose before as one that approved the practice ;) 
but it was because St. Austin had observed something amiss in 
the practice of some superstitious Christians, who kept the 
ninth day with some abuse, most probably rioting and excess, 
resembling the novendiale of the Heathens ; as we have heard 
him complain before, [in the seventeenth section preceding,] 
of the feasts which such Christians made at the graves of the 
dead, too much resembling the parentalia of the Gentiles. 

SO. The custom of strewing flowers upon the graves of the The custom 
dead was reckoned innocent, and therefore was retained by flowera'*"* 

viris deputata, occasione horum, 
qiUB circa fiinua aguntur, quas uti- 
que memorias vocant, in tertiam, et 
nonam convenientes diem, aut dum 
quadraginta compleantur, aut etiam 
annus : &c. 
^ Biblioth. cod. i^fi. (p. 384.) 
^ [Thes. Eccles. (t. 2. p. 1315.) 
Memorise roortuorum, quae cele- 
brantur tertio et none die. In ve- 
teri ecclesia memorise defiinctorum 
fidelinm celebrantur die tertio, nono, 
quadragesimo, et annivereario. Jo- 
annes Damascenus, Iltpl tS>v iv 
ntar€i KtKoifUffitvtov, p. 423. Ov yap 
ib fffuv aill>opfi^9 c'dcdtticft t6 funjfiriv 
in\ TTJf mwufioKTov Bvarias irouiaBtu 

r&v irpoXaPotfTtaVf Koi waKiu rptra, 
Ka\ Zuvara, nai T€(ra'apaKoaTa, jcai 
ras eTfjiriovs fivrjfias, Koi rcXfrdr. — 
See more in Suicer on the word 
Taif>n, n. 2. s. 2, let. T. (ibid. p. 
1346.) Oratumes non solum in fu- 
neratione, Sfc, — ^llie following is the 
title of the 30th chapter of the 
Typicum Sabee, mentioned also by 
Suicer as above on the word Tpc- 
Ttwdrai (p. 1 3 15') A.! vfTcp r&v 
vtKpStv XtiTovpyiai, vpvt^uu T€, koi 
^roX/x^diac, T^a'trapoKoara, cvv rpi- 
r€VPaT€Uf. Ed.] 

^ [Glossar. (p. 581.) In the same 
words, Suicer having taken his ex- 
planation out of Meursius. £0.] 

M 2 


Ceremonies and aoUmnities 


upon the 
graves of 
the dead, 

As also 
wearing a 
habit for 
some time. 

some Christians without any rebuke. St. Ambrose and St. 
Jerom both mention it without any censui*e : only they Eeem 
to speak of it as chiefly the practice of the vulgar : for the 
more intelligent sort of Christians despised it as a trifle, and 
showed their respect to the dead in acts that were more sub- 
stantial. Thus St. Ambrose in praise of Valentinian ^9 says, 
* I will not scatter flowers upon liis grave, but perfume his 
spirit with the odour of Christ. Let others strew their baskets 
of flowers upon him : my Uly is Christ, [see Canticles 2, i,] and 
with this flower only will I consecrate his remains.' In like 
manner St. Jerom ^^ commends his friend Pammachius for this, 
' that whilst other husbands scattered violets, and roses, and 
lilies, and purple flowers upon the graves of their deceased 
wives, and with such little ofllces assuaged the grief of their 
breasts ; Pammachius watered the holy ashes and bones of his 
wife with the balsam of almsdeeds and charity to the poor. 
With these perfumes and odours he solaced the ashes of the 
dead that lay at rest, knowing that it was written •*S "As 
water will quench a flaming fire, so alms maketh an atonement 
for sins."' 

21. They had the same notion of going into a mourning 
habit for the dead : they did not condemn it, nor yet much 
approve of it, but left it to all men's liberty as an indifferent 
thing ; rather commending those that cither omitted it wholly, 
or in a short time laid it aside again, as acting more according 
to the bravery and philosophy of a Christian. Thus St. 
Jerom ^^ commends one Julian, a rich man in his time, because 

^ De Obit. Valentin, p. 12. (t. i. 
p. 1189 b. n. 56.) Neo ego floribus 
tumulum ejus aspergam, sed spiri- 
tum ejus Cnristi odore perfunaam. 
Spargant alii plenis lilia calathis : 
nobis lilium est Christus : hoc reli- 
quias ejus sacrabo. 

*> Ep. 36. [al. 66."] ad Pammach. 
de Obit. Uxor. See before, s. 15, 
p. 156, n. 16, and add, His pig- 
mentis atque odoribus fovet cineres 
quiescentes, sicut scriptum : Sicut 
aqua ex8tinguit ignem, ita eleetno' 
syna peccatum, 

^1 [Ecclesiasticus 3, 30. The 
Septuagint (Ed. Lambert. Bos. Fra- 

nequer. 1709.) reads, Kat cXc- 

fjfuxrvpfj c^iXdacTai afiafnias. The 

Vulgate (ap. Jacob. Naudssum, Co- 
lon. 1679.) reads, [v. 33.] Et 

eleemosyna resistit peccatis, Mon- 
tanus thus : Et peccatum eacpiat 
misericors benignitas. Ed. Comme- 
lin. 1509. t. 2. p. 46. Ed.] 

^ Ep. 34. [al. 118.] ad Julian, 
(t. I . p. 788 c.) Laudent ergo te alii, 
et tuas contra Diabolum victorias 
panegyricis prosequantur: quod l»to 
vultu mortes tuleris filiarum, quod 
in quadragesimo die dormitionis ea- 
rum lu^brem vestem mutaveris, et 
dedicatio ossium martyris Candida 
tibi vesdmenta reddiderit: ut non 
sentires dolorem orbitatis tuse, auem 
civitas universa sentiret, sed aa tri- 
umphuin martyris exsultares : quod 

§ 121, 22. of the interment. 166 

having lost his wife and two daughters, that is, his whole 
family in a very few days, one after another, ' he wore the 
mourning habit but forty days after their death, and then 
resumed his usual habit again f and because he accompanied 
his wife to the grave, not as one that was dead, but as going 
to her rest.' Cyprian indeed seems to carry the matter a 
little further : he says 4^, * he was ordered by divine revelation 
to preach to the people publicly and constantly, that they 
should not lament their brethren that were delivered from the 
world by divine vocation ; as being assured that they were not 
lost, but only sent before them ; that their death was only a 
receding from the world, and a speedier call to heaven ; that 
we ought to long after them, and not lament them ; nor wear 
any mourning habit, seeing they were gone to put on their 
white garments in heaven. No occasion should be given to 
the Gentiles justly to accuse and reprehend us for lamenting 
those as lost and extinct whom we affirm still to live with God ; 
and that we do not prove that faith, which we profess in words, 
by the inward testimony of our hearts and souls.' Cyprian 
thought no sorrow at all was to be expressed for the death of 
a Christian ; nor consequently any signs of sorrow, such as the 
mourning habit ; because the death of a Christian was only a 
translation of him to heaven. But others did not carry the 
thing so high, but thought a moderate sorrow might be allowed 
to nature, and therefore did not so peremptorily condemn the 
mourning habit, as being only a decent expression of such a 
moderate sorrow, though they liked it better if men could have 
the bravery to refuse it. 

22. We find some other funeral rites mentioned by the spu- Some other 
rious writers under the names of Dionysius the Areopagite 2J^^\- 
and Athanasius. As the priest's anointing the body with oil the an- 
before it was put into the grave, for which the pretended Dio- ^^^^ 

sanctissimam conjugem tuam non non plangi: nee accipiendas esse 

quasi mortaam, sed quasi proficis- hie atras veetes, quando illi ibi indu- 

centem deduxeris. menta alba jam sumpserint: occasio- 

^ De Mortalit. p. 164. (p. 115.) nem dandam non esse Gentilibus, ut 

. . . Fratres nostros non esse lugen- dos merito ac jure reprebendaut, 

dos, accersitione Dominica de saeculo quod quos vivere apud Deum dici- 

liberatos ; quum sciamus non eos mus, ut exstinctos et perditos lugea- 

amitti, sed prsemitti, recedentes prse- mus ; et fidem quam sermone et 

cedere, ut proficiscentes, ut navi- voce depromimus, cordis et pectoris 

gantes solent : desiderari eos debere, testimonio non probemus ? 

166 Ceremonies and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

nysius ^^ gives this reason, ' that as in the ministration of bap- 
tism, after the person had put off his old garments, he was 
anointed with oil : so in the end of all things oil was poured 
upon the dead. The first unction called the baptized person 
to his holy fight and combat ; the second unction declared that 
he had fought his fight and finished all his labour, and was 
now consummated and made perfect/ This was quite different 
unction from the anointing or embalming of the body to its 
burial, of which we have spoken before, [in the fifth section of 
the pi'eceding chapter ;] and as other writers say nothing of it, I 
let it pass as a thing uncertain, the bare testimony of tlus writer 
not being sufficient to establish an ancient ecclesiastical custom. 
We may say the same of another rite mentioned by the pre- 
tended Athanasius '*•'*, who speaks of lighting a mixture of oil 
and wax at the grave of the dead, as a sacrifice of burnt- 
offering to God. But besides the silence of others, there are 
two further prejudices against this: first, that it looks more 
like a piece of Jewish superstition than a Christian rite ; and, 
secondly, that the Council of Eliberis has an express canon ^®, 
forbidding a ceremony not very different firom this, viz. ' burn- 
ing of wax tapers by day in the cemeteries of the dead, lest 
the spirits of the saints should be molested.' And if any 
despised this order, they were liable to be cast out of commu- 
nion for their contempt of it. I will not pretend to explain to 
the reader the reason of this inhibition nor say that it forbids 
expressly the rite before mentioned : but there is some analogy 
and similitude between the two ceremonies, and therefore it is 
hence very probable that neither of them were accepted or 
any ways approved by the Church. 

^ Ecclea. Hierarchy c. 7. part. 3. ^ Serm. de Dormientibus, cited 

n. 8, (t. I. {). 270 a,) M€fivfi<ro de, by Durant. de Ritibus, 1. 1. c. 23, 

6ti Korci rrfu Upav Btoyti^a-iav np6 n. 14. [al. 15.] p. 235. (p. 81.) Si 

Tov dtuoTOTov j^ajrria'fiaTos, npcmtj quis diem obierit ne omiseris 

fAiOt^is Itpov avfjL^okov d^p^lrat rf oleum, et ceram, invocato Christo 

Tf\ovfjL€v^j ficTo TTjv 6\iK^v rjjs ftpo' Deo,ad sepulcbrum acoendere. — . . . 

ripai faOiJTog diraficpiatriv, t6 rrjs Oleum enim et oera bolocaustum 

Xpt<r«as TKatov. *Ev rcXet dc vvv mrdih- est ; incruentae autem hostise oblatio 

T(av €iri ru KtKoinrffifiHp rh ^Xaiov propitiatio est. 

eVt;(«cinai. Kai rort fitv ^ row Aaiov ^ ^•34* (t. !• P'974 ^0 Cereos 

Xptcis rn-t Tov^ Itpoi^g ayS>va£ cKoXct per diem placuit in coemeterio non 

TOV T€\ovfitvov' vvv dc TO €inx^6ptvov mcendi : mquietandi enim spiritus 

€\aiov ffiiPalvfi, Karh roift avrovs tc- sanctorum non sunt. Qui hiec non 

povs ayS>vas affkfjfTiarra Ka\ rcXctca- obeervaverint, arceantur ab ecclesi^e 

0lvTa t6v K€Koifi7ffjk€vov, communioue. 

§Z2,2^, of the interment 167 

23. We have now seen the whole manner of Christian burial To what 
among the Ancients, with all the rites, both sacred and civil, ^^^^ the 
accompanying and attending it. I have only one thing more privilege of 
to observe concerning the whole in general: which is, that with this 
Christian burial with these solemnities was ever esteemed a'^^®^*^ 
privilege, and such as good men always desu*ed when they 
could have it, and bad men were punished for their crimes 
with the denial and refusal of it by the Church, who laid it as 
a mark of censure and displeasure upon them, not to allow 
them the honour and privilege of that solemn interment which 
was customary in the practice of the Church. Good men in- 
deed were not above measure concerned for their bodies, so as 
to think it any real detriment or loss to them if either the bar- 
barity of their enemies or any other accident denied them this 
privilege. For in this case, as St. Austin largely discourses ^7^ 

^ De Civit. Dei, 1. 1. c. I3. (t. 7. mortalia servorum tuontm escas «o- 
p. 13 g.) At enim in tanta strage latUibus cali, cames sanctorum ftio- 
cadaverum nee sepeliri ]>otuerunt? rum bestiis terr^B : effuderunt sanguu 
Neque istud pia fides nimium refor- nem eorum sicut aqtuim in circumitu 
midat, tenens prsedictum, nee absu- Hierusalem, et non erat qui sepeUret: 
mentes bestias resurrecturis corpori- sed magis ad exa^gerandam eonun 
bus obfuturas, quorum capillus ca- cnidelitatem qui ista fecerunt, non 
pitis non peribit. Nullo mode dice- ad eorum infdicitatem qui ista per- 
ret Veritas, Nolite timere eos, qui pessi sunt. Quamvis enim hsdc in 
corpus occidunt, animam autem non conspectu bominiun dura et dira 
possunt occidere, si quidqi^am obes- videantur: aed Pretiosa in^ conspectu 
set futurse vitee quidquid inimici de Dommi mors sanctorum efus, Pro^ 
corporibus occisorum facere voluis- inde omnia ista, id est, curatio fa- 
sent. Nisi forte quispiam sic ab- neris, conditio sepulturse, pompa ez- 
surdus est, ut contendat eos, qui secjuiarum, magis sunt vivonim so- 
corpus occidunt, non debere timeri latia, auam subsidia mortuorum. Si 
ante mortem, ne corpus occidant, et aliquia prodest impio sepultura pre- 
timeri debere post mortem, ne corpus tiosa, oberit pio vilis aut nulla, 
occisorum sepeliri non sinant. Fal- Prseclaras exsequias in conspectu 
sum est ergo, quod ait Christus, hominum exhibuit purpurato illi di- 
Qui corpus occidunt, et postea non viti turba famulorum : sed multo 
habent quidfaciant : si babent tanta, clariores in conspectu Domini ulce- 
quse de cadaveribus faciant ? Absit, roso illi pauperi ministerium prsebuit 
ut falsum sit quod Veritas dixit, angelorum, qui eum non extulerunt 
Dictum est enim aliquid eos facere, in marmoreum tumulum, sed in 

cum occidunt, aula in corpore sen- Abrabae gremium sustulerunt 

sus est occidendo : postea vero nihil Sepulturae curam eorum etiam pbi- 

babere quod faciant, quia nullus losopbicontempserunt: etssepeuni- 

sensus est in corpore ocaso. Multa versi exercitus, dum pro terrena 

itaque corpora Cbristiauorum terra patria morerentur, ubi postea jace- 

non texit : sed nullum eorum quis- rent, vel quibus bestiis esca fierent, 

quam a coelo et terra separavit, quam non curarunt : licuitque de hac re 

totam implet prsesentia sui, (^ui novit poetis plausibiliter dicere, 
unde resuscitet, quod creavit. Di- Cah tegHur^ qui non habet umam. 

citur quidem in Psalmo : Posuerunt Quanto minus debent de corporibua 

168 Ceremonies and solemnities XXIII. iii. 

' the faith of a Christian set him above any fear that might 
arise from the want of a burial : the consumption of wild beasts 
would be no prejudice to those bodies which must rise agsdn, 
and an hair of whose head could not perish. The Psahnist 
indeed [79, a,] says, and that with some concern, " They have 
given the dead bodies of thy servants to be meat to the fowls 
of the air, and the flesh of thy saints to the beasts of the land : 
their blood have they shed on every side of Jerusalem, and 
there was no man to bury them." But this,' says St. Austin, 
' is said more to exaggerate the cruelty of those who did it, 
than the infeUcity of those who suffered it. For though these 
things may seem hard and direful in the eyes of men, yet 
" precious in the eyes of the Lord is the death of his saints." 
Therefore all these things, namely, the care of a funeral, the 
building of a sepulchre, the pomp of funeral obsequies, are 
rather for the consolation of the living, than for any benefit of 
the dead. If a sumptuous funeral be any advantage to the 
wicked, then a poor one or none at all may be some detriment 
to the just. The rich man that was clad in purple had a 
splendid funeral, by the ministry of his servants, in the sight 
of men; but the poor man full of sores had a much more 
splendid one in the sight of God, by the ministry of the angels, 
who did not carry him forth into a marble tomb, but translated 
him into Abraham's bosom. Some philosophers have despised 
the care of a funeral; and whole armies, whilst they were 
fighting for an earthly country, have been as regardless where 
they should lie, or to what beasts they should- become a prey. 
And the poets have said plausibly enough upon this subject, 
Coelo tegitur, qui non habet umam : Se, that has no urn, has 
yet the heaven /or a covering. Therefore let not the Heathen 
insult over the bodies of Christians that lie unburied, who have 
a promise that their flesh and all their members shall be 
reformed, not only out of tho earth, but out of the most secret 
recesses of every other element, and in a moment of time 
be perfectly restored to their pristine and primitive state 
again.' This was the Christian's consolation, whenever malice 

insepuUis insxiltare Christianis; qui- roentonim secretissimo sinu, quo 

bu8 et ipsius carnis et membrorum dilapsa cadavera recesserunt, in tem- 

omnium reformatio noa solam ez pons puncto reddenda et redinte- 

terra, verum etiam ex aliorum ele- granda promittitur ? 

§23. of the interment. 169 

or the necessity of their fate and condition denied them a 

In other cases'*® they were very desirous to be decently in- 
terred among their brethren; and 'the living thought it a 
piece of justice to the dead to treat them handsomely after 
death, seeing their bodies had been the organs and vessels of 
the Holy Ghost to every good work ; and were not only like a 
ring or a garment, mere external ornaments to the nature of 
man, but more intimately and nearly belonging to him, as part 
of his very essence and constitution. Upon this account good 
men were equally careful both to pay this just debt to theii* 
holy brethren, and to make provision that the same good offices 
should be done to themselves.' And this made it an honour- 
able and desirable privilege to be buried after the manner of 
the faithful. 

But then it was a privilege which belonged to none but such. 
All catechumens, that died in a voluntary neglect of baptism, 
were excluded from the benefit of it, as we find by an order of 
the first Council of Braga*^, and many passages of St. Chry- 
sostom^o to this purpose, which direct men to ' offer private 

^ Ibid. c. 13. (p. 13 f.) Nee idee viri r&v *AiroarSk»Vf to «rl t&v <^pi- 

tamen contemnenda et abjicienda kt&v uv<mfpl»v funjfirjv ywtaBoL top 

sunt corpora defunctorum, maxixne- air€Ko6vTww' Xaafriv ahrois voKv Kip" 

que justorum atque fidelium, quibua has yiv6fi€votf, iroXkrjp rrfv fl0<^<Xciay. 

tanquam organis et vasis ad omnia ''OravyapcI<m7«e<iXa6f6XoKXi7pofx«i- 

boua opera Sanctus usus est Spiri- pas ayarcivoyrc r, n\fipci>/jLa Uparuchv, 

tUB. Si enim patemo vestia et an- koc vp6K9iran 17 ^piKrr) Bvaia, ir&9 ov 

nulus, ac si quid hujusmodi, tanto bvaoynfifToyAw imip rovrmv rov 6r6p 

carina est posteris, quanto erga pa- napcucaXovvrts ; aXXck tovto fxtv n-rpl 

rentes magor affectus ; nuUo mode r&v iv vitrrti napt\06vT»v' oi di xa- 

ipsa spernenda sunt corpora, quse rqxovfitvoi ovdi ravnjs d^iovvrcu rrjs 

utique multo familiarius atque con- vapapvBias, okXa atrfoTiprivTai nd' 

junctius, quam quaelibet indumenta, tnjs rrjs roiavrr^r fiorj0€ias, n\rfp fuas 

gestamus. Hsec enim non ad oma- riyor' wolas dc ravnjs; Hvtari irtinja-tv 

mentum vel adjutorium, quod adhi- vnip aifr&v bid6vai, koi woul riva av- 

betur extrinsecus, sed ad ipsam na- rotr vapa^xh* ^^ irpaypa, — Horn, 

turam hominis pertinent. Unde et 34. in loan. p. 159. [Bened. 25. al. 

antiquorum justorum funera oflBciosa 24.] (t. 8. p. 147 a.) 'AXXorpior yap 6 

Jiietate curata sunt, et exsequiae oe- KaTrjxovp^vog rov ttiotov. — Horn. i. 

ebratse, et sepultura provisa : ipsi- in Act. p. 14. [Tbis citation is in- 

que dum vivereot, de sepeliendis vel distinct; tbe auwor probably alludes 

etiam transferendis suis corporibus to the addresses made to such per- 

iiliis mandaverunt. sons as deferred baptism, which oc- 

49 C. 35. [al. Bracar. 2. c. 17.] cur towards the close of this Ho- 

See before, s. 8, p. 145, the second mily. (t. 9. p. 11 c, and p. 13 d.) 

part of n. 76. 'r<>X^ iroXXovr, k. r* X., and II»r, oX' 

M Horn. 3. in Phil. p. 1224. (t.ii. co-^c, odvp&fuu, k. r. X. Ed.] 
p. 217 e.) Ov«e ilKQ Tovra ivopLoBirrfifi 


Ckremcmies and solemnities 

XXm. iiL 

alms and private prayers for them^ but assure us they had no 
place in the public offices of the Church.' The case was other- 
wise when men died without baptism, not through any neglect 
or contempt of it, but by some unavoidable necessity, which 
happened and could not be foreseen or prevented, whilst they 
were piously and studiously preparing for baptism. In this 
case, either martyrdom or a man's own faith was thought suffi- 
cient to supply the want of baptism, as I have largely shown 
in another place ^^ : and then they were buried with the same 
solemnity as other believers, being all one with them in the 
estimation of the Church. 

Another sort of persons to whom the Church denied the 
usual solemnity of burial were the Mathanati^'^, that is, such 
us laid violent hands upon themselves, being plainly guilty of 
murder, and that without repentance, by calling death upon 
themselves. And they put into the same class all those that 
were publicly executed for their crimes ; because these were 
virtually and indirectly guilty of self-murder, in doing those 
things, which in the course of justice brought them to an un- 
timely end ; or at least such things as deserved a spiritual cen- 
sure, as well as a temporal punishment. Upon this account the 
Council of Braga orders ^^, 'that both these sorts of men shall 
be denied the honour of being carried with the usual solemnity 
of psalmody to the grave.' The Council of Auxerre orders**, 
• that the oblations of such as voluntarily hanged or drowned 
themselves, or killed themselves with the sword, or cast them- 
selyes from a precipice, or were any other ways guilty of a vo- 
luntary death, should not be received in the church.' And 
this was a punishment of the same nature as denying them a 
solemn burial. There is a like order in the second Council of 
Orleans**, to refuse the oblations of such as lay violent hands 

^1 B. 10. ch. 3. 88.20 and 21. v. 3. 

pp. 47^483- 

*2 [See b. I. ch. 3. s. 8. v. i. p. 18, 
and n.4, on p. 19, in favour of the 
more correct term fiiaio6avaTO£, &c. 

*3 Ut supr. c. 34. See before, s. 8. 
p. 145, the first part of n. 76. 

M C. 17. (t.5. p. 959 b.) Quicun- 
(]ue se propria voluntate in aquam 
jactavent, aut collum ligaverit, aut 

de arbore prcecipitaverit, aut ferro 
percusserit, aut qualibet occasione 
voluntarise se morti tradiderit, isto- 
rum oblatio non recipiatur. 

w c. 14. (t. 4. p. 1782 a.) Obla- 
lionea defunctorum, qui in aliquo 
crimine fuerint interempti, redpi 
debere censemus, si tamen non ipsi 
sibi mortem probentur propnis ma- 
nibus intulisse. 

§ 23. iv. I. of the interment 171 

upon themselves ; but they except such as were killed for their 
crimes ; I suppose upon a supposition, that such persons re- 
pented of their crimes before their execution. But if any one 
laid violent hands upon himself, or was actually killed in his 
crimes, there was no exception ever made in his favour. Op- 
tatus^* says, even one of the Donatist bishops denied the Cir- 
cumcellions solemn burial, because they were slain in rebellion 
against the civil magistrate : which shows that this was a rule 
inviolably observed in the Church. 

Another sort of persons, to whom the Church denied the 
privilege of solemn burial, were all excommunicated persons^ 
who continued obstinate and impenitent in a manifest con- 
tempt of the Church's discipline and censures. Under which 
denomination all heretics and schismatics, that were actually 
denounced such by the censures of the Church, were included. 
For the office of burial belonged only to the fideles, or com^ 
municants, that is, such as died either in the full communion 
of the Church, or else, if they were excommunicate, were yet 
in a disposition to communicate by accepting and submitting to 
the rules of penance and disciphne in the Church. In which 
case their desire of communion was accepted, as the catechu- 
mens' desire of baptism, and they were treated as communi- 
cants^ though they happened to die without a formal reconcilia- 
tion in the Church : the Church in this case relaxed her cen- 
sures, and received them into communion, and treated them as 
other communicants after death : of which I have given a more 
ample account, in speaking of the discipline of the Churchy 
in a former Book ^7, 


An account of the laws made to secure the bodies and graves 
oftlie dead from the violence of robbers and sacrilegious 

1. Though it does not strictly belong to the business of The old 
funeral rites to speak any thing of robbers of graves, and the i^wb very 

^ L. 3. p. 68. (p. 71.) In loco Oc- basilicis sepelire ccepissent, Clarus 

tavensi occisi sunt plurimi, detrun- fa]. Clariusj presbyter in loco Sub- 

cati sunt multi : quorum corpora bulensi ab episcopo suo coactus est, 

U8que in hodiemum per dealbatas ut insepultam faceret sepulturam. 

aras aut mensas poterunt numerari. ^^ B. 19. ch. 2. s. 11. v. 7. p. 209. 
£x quorum numero cum aliqui in 

172 Laws for protectvig XXIII. iv. 

seyere &- laws made against them, yet because these have some relation 
b«^*of^ ^ *^® dead, and some things also remarkable in them, I will 
graves and add something upon this subject for the close of this whole dis- 
and injuries course. I have hinted before ^^, that the old Roman laws were 
done to the y^^j severe against all injuries and abuses offered either to the 
the dead, bodies or the monuments and sepulchres of the dead. They 
were reckoned, sacred things ; and therefore * if any violated 
a sepulchre, so as to draw out the body or the bones, it was a 
capital crime to be punished with death in persons of a meaner 
rank ; and others of an higher fortune were either to be trans- 
ported into some island, or otherwise banished or condenmed 
to the mines,' as appears from the answer of Paulus in the 
Pandects ^9^ and those laws of the Christian emperors^, which 

^ Ch. 2. 8. a. p. 1 15. ficare debuerunt. Quod ei aliquis 

59 Digest. 1. 47. tit. 12. de Sepul- mulctam metuens, sepulchri ruinaa' 

chroViolato, leg. II. (ap. Corp. Jur. terrse congestione celaverit, et nob 

Civ. t. 3. p. 1394.) Reisepulchrorum intra statutum ab excellentia tua 

violatorum, si corpora ipsa extraxe- tempus confessus sit, ab alio prodi- 

rint, vel ossa eruerint, humilioris tus duas auri libras cogatur inferre. 

quidem fortunse summo supplicio Qui vero libellis datis a pontificibus 

afficiuntur: honestiores in insulam impetrarunt, ut reparationis gratia 

deportantur: alias autemrelegantur, labentia sepulchra deponerent, si 

aut in metallum damnantur. vera docuenint, ab illatione mulctce 

^ Cod. Theod. 1. 9. tit. 17. de Se- separentur : at si in usum alium de- 

pulcbris Violatis, leg. 2. (t. 3.p.[38.) positis abusi sunt, teneantur poena 

Factum, solitum sanguine vindicari, prsescripta. Hoc in posterum ob- 

mulctae inflictione corrigimus: atque servanto, ut in provinciis, locorum 

ita supplicium statuimus in futurum, judices. In urbe Roma cum ponti- 

ut nee ille absit a poena, qui ante ficibus tua celsitudo inspidat, si per 

commisit. Universi itaque, qui de sarturas succurrendum sit alicui 

monumentis columnas vel marmora monumento : ut ita demum, data 

abstulerunt, vel coquendae calcis licentia, tempus etiam consumman- 

gratia lapides dejecerunt, ex consu- do open statuatur. Quod si aliquis 

tu scilicet Dalmatii et Zenophili, contra sanctionem clementiae nos- 

singulas libras auri per singula se- trse sepulchrum Isesurus attigerit, 

pulcbra fisci rationibus inferant, in- viginti libras auri largitionibus nos- 

vestigati per prudentiae tuse iudici- tris cogatur inferre. Locorum au- 

um. Eaaem etiam poena, qui dissi- tern judices si bsec observare neg- 

parunt, vel omatum minuerunt, te- lexerint, non minus nota quam sta- 

neantur : et qui posita in agris suis tata in sepulchrorum violatores poe- 

monumenta calcis coctoribus vendi- na grassetur. — Ibid. leg. 3. (p. 142.) 

derunt : una cum bis, qui ausi sunt Quosdam comperimus, lucn nimi- 

comparare : quidquid enim attingi um cupidos, sepulcbra subvertere, 

nefas est, non sine piaculo compa- et substantiam fabricandi ad pro- 

ratur : sed ita, ut ab utroque una prias aedes transferre : hi, detecto 

libra postuletur. Sed si et prsecepto scelere, animadversionem priscis le- 

judicum monumenta dejecta sunt, gibus deiinitam subire debebunt. — 

ne sub specie publicae fabricationis Valent. Novel. 5. de Sepulcbris, ad 

poena vitetur, eosdem judices jube- calc. Cod. Theodos. (t. 6. append, 

rous banc mulctam agnoscere : nam p. 22.) Diligenter quidem legum 

ex vectigalibus, vel aliis titulis sedi- veterum conditores prospexerunt 

§ 1,2. 

the bodies of the dead. 


speak of the old laws punishing this crime with death. They 
made a distinction between the bodies and the sepulchres : he 
that violated the sepulchre only, but offered no injury to the 
body, was not punishable with death, but either confiscation, 
or infamy, or banishment, or digging in the mines ; but if he 
offered any indignity to the body itself, his crime was capital, 
and his blood was required to expiate the offence ; unless the 
dignity of his condition happened to be such as the law allowed 
to secure his life, and change the punishment of death into a 
penalty of some other nature. 

2. This law continued all the time of Constantine : but Con- TMb w- 
stans his son made a little alteration in the penalty; which ^^"^i^" 
lasted not very long ; for it was presently after revoked by the most 
Constantius, and the old penalty revived again. the Chrirt- 

Constans, in a first law^^ about demolishing sepulchres, »*«» *™P«- 
making no mention of violating the bodies themselves, left some addi- 
the matter pretty much as he found it ; ordering * all such as **^*^ °^' 
were concerned in demoUshing of sepulchres to be sent to the 
mines, if they were of a servile condition, and did it without 
the knowledge of their lord : but if they did it barely at his 
instance^ by his authority and command, they were only to be 
exiled by a common banishment : and if the lord was found to 
have received any thing into his own house or farm that was 
taken from a sepulchre, his house or farm, or whatever edifice 
it was, was to be confiscated to the public' But, in a second 
law^^, he took away the punishment of death, which the old 
laws appointed, and instead of it laid a mulct or fine of twenty 
pounds of gold upon all that should be found guilty in any 
thing of this nature. 

Constantius did not approve of this reduction or abatement 
of the ancient penalty, and therefore he revoked the in- 
dulgence of his brother Constans, and by two new laws of 
his own brought the ancient punishment of death into force 


miseris et post fata mortalibus, eo- 
mm, qui sepulchra violassent, capita 
penequendo. Sed quoniam noxiae 
mentes cseco semper in facinus fu- 
rore rapiuntur, et se ad poenas du- 
dum statutas existimant non teneri, 
necesse est severitatem novari, quam 
videmus hactenus impune contemp- 
tam, &c. 

*l Ibid. leg. I. (p. 137.) Si quis in 
demoliendis sepulchris fuerit appre- 
hensus, si id sine domini conscientia 
feciat, metallo adjadicetur: si vero 
domini auctoritate vel jussione ur- 
geatur, relegatione plectatur, &c. 

« Ibid. leg. 2. (p. 138.) Factum 
solitum sanguine vindicari mulct^e 
inflictione corrigimus, &c. 


Laws for protecting 

XXIII. iv. 

again, with some additional punishment by way of fine also. 
His first law ^ runs in these terms : * We understand there 
are some who out of a greedy desire of gain pull down and 
demolish sepulchres, transferring the materials of the building 
to their own houses ; now such, when their wickedness is de-> 
tected, shall be subject to the punishment appointed by the 
ancient laws.' In his other law ^, he first imposes a penalty 
of ' ten pounds of gold upon any one that steals from a monu« 
ment either stones, or marble, or pillars, or any other material, 
whether to use in any building, or to sell them :' and then he 
subjoins ^^, ' that this punishment is intended as an addition 
over and above to the ancient severity : for he would not dero- 
gate any thing from that punishment which was before im- 
posed upon those who oflfered violence to the graves of the 
dead ; because, as he says in the beginning of his law, it was 
a double crime equally injurious both to the dead and the 
living ; to the dead, by destroying and spoiling their habita- 
tions ; and to the living, by polluting them in the use of such 
materials in building.' And he adds in the close, ' that his 
intention was to include within these penalties all such as 
meddled with the bodies and relics of the dead, as well as 
those who defaced their sepulchres.' 

There is also a law of Julian's in the Theodosian Code, 
wherein he first complains of the audaciousness of men in 
demolishing sepulchres and stealing away the ornaments of 
them ; and then orders ^ such to be prosecuted with the seve- 
rity of the former laws made against them. 

Finally, Theodosius Junior and Valentinian III. made a most 

^ Ibid^leg. 3. (p. 142.) Quosdam 
comperimus, &c. See the second 
part of n. 60, preceding. 

^ Ibid. leg. 4. (p. 149.) Qui sedi- 
ficia manium violant, aomus, ut ita 
dixerim, deftmctorum, geminum vi- 
dentur facinus perpetrare: nam et 
sepoltos spoliant, destniendo, et vi- 
vos poUuunt, fabricando. Si quis 
igitur de sepulchro abstulerit saxa, 
vel martnora, vel columnas, aliamve 
quamcunone materiam, fBibricfle gra- 
tia, sive ia fecerit venditurus, decern 
pondo aun cogatur inferre fisco; 
sive quis propria sepulchra de- 

fendens, banc in judicium quere- 
1am detulerit, sive quicunque alius 
accusaverit, vel officium nuntiave- 
rit. Quae poena priscas severitati ac- 
cedit ; nihil enim derogatum est illi 
supplicio, quod sepulchra violanti- 
bus videtur impositum. Huic au- 
tem poense subjacebunt, et qui cor- 
pora sepulta, aut reliquias contrac- 

^ See the last part of the pre- 
ceding note. 

** Ibid. leg. 5. (p. 144.) . . . Hoc 
fieri prohibemus, poena manium vin- 
dice cohibentes. 


the bodies of the dead. 


severe law ^^ against all such invaders of what quality soever, 
appointing their punishment according to the dignity of the 
persons concerned. ' If a slave or a countryman was appre- 
hended in this crime, he was immediately to be put to the 
rack: and if he confessed that it was his own act, and his 
master was not concerned in it, he was to be put to death. If 
his master was concerned in it, he was punished in like man- 
ner. If a freeman was found guilty, who was but a plebeian 
and had no estate, he was also to suffer death. If he had an 
estate, or was in any dignity, he was to be amerced in half his 
estate, and for ever after to be made infamous in law. If a 
clergyman was found guilty of this crime, whether bishop or 
inferior, he was immediately to be degraded and lose the name 
of a clerk, and to be sent into banishment without redemption. 
And all judges are strictly charged to see this law duly put 
in execution. Peace be to the dead !' 

3. To give these laws the greater force and terror, it was No indulg- 
usual with the emperors when they granted their indulgence ^S^to^^tT" 
to several criminals according to custom at the Easter festival, bera of 
still to except robbers of graves, with other great criminals, ^^empe- 
whom they thought unworthy of any such pardon or in- ro" at the 
dulgence ; such as men guilty of sacrilege, incest, ravishment, festiTaL 
adultery, sorcery, necromancy, counterfeiting or adulterating 
the public coin, together with murder and treason : as we find 
the exceptions made in several laws of Valentinian, and Gra- 
tian, and Theodosius Senior, and Theodosius Junior, and Ya- 

^ Novel. 5. de Sepulchris, ad 
calc. Cod. Theod. (t. 6. append, p. 
22, col. deztr.) Servos oolonosve, in 
hoc facinore deprehensos, duci pro- 
tinus ad tormenta convenit. Si de 
sua tantum fuerint temeritate con- 
fessi, luant commissa sanguine bug. 
Si dominos inter supplicia nullo in- 
terrogante neznerint, pariter puni- 
antur. In^^nui quoque, quos similis 
pnesumptio reos fecerit, si fortasse 
plebeii et nullarum fiierint focul- 
tatum, poenas morte persolvant. 
Splendidiores autem, vel dignita- 
tious noti, bonorum suorum medie- 
tate mulctoti, perpetua notentur in- 
famia. Clericos vero, quos tarn diri 

operis oonstiterit auctores, dignos 
credimus majore supplicio: vehe- 
mentius enim coercendus est, quem 
peccasse mireris . . . Quisquis igitur 
ez hoc numero sepulchrorum vio- 
lator exstiterit, iUico clerici nomen 
anuttat, et sic, stylo proscriptionis ad- 
dictus, perpetua deportatione plecta- 

tur Sed quoniam plerumque 

statutis salubrious dissimulatione 
venalium iudicum negatur effectus, 
preesenti jubemus edicto, ut pro- 
incise moderator, adminiculo mu- 
nicipium fiiltus, censuram nostrse 
legis exerceat. . . . Criminosis poena 
reddatur. . . . Pax sepultisl 


Laws for protecting 

XXIII. iv 

lentinian III, put together in one title in the Theodosian 

Code ^^, besides this famous law of Yalentinian now recited. 

For this 4. And it is remarkable also, that Constantino, who allowed a 

woman was wo™an liberty to put away her husband for three crimes, made 

allowed by this one of the three ^^\ * if he waa a murderer, or a sorcerer, 

uiA laws to — 

give a bill ^^ ^ robber of graves.' And Theodosius Junior also puts the 
ctf^vopce same crime among the legal causes of divorce, both in men 
husband, and women, in one of his laws, which Justinian not only put 
into his new Code 7o, but confirmed by several laws and novels 
of his own composing, as has been already shown more at 
large in handling the matter of divorces ^^ in the last Book. 
Neither were the ecclesiastical laws wanting in the punishment 
of this crime, which was reputed the most barbarous and in- 
human sort of robbery of any other ; concerning which I have 
spoken fully under the head of ecclesiastical discipline 73, and 
therefore need say no more of it in this place. 
One reason 5. Now if it be inquired, what made men professing Chris- 
mwi'to*^ tianity to be so much addicted to this vice, that there should 
commit be need of so many laws against it? I answer, there were 
wastheridi ^^^^ motives or temptations to this kind of robbery; two 
adorning of of which had something plausible in them ; but the first had 

theHeathen ,., , --l •• » * n t-^ 

sepulchres, nothing but downright covetousness m it, arismg from the rich 
ornaments and splendid furniture of many of the Heathen 
monuments built over their graves; which some wicked Chris- 
tians, as well as others, looking upon not so much with an 
envious as a covetous and rapacious eye, took occasion either 
publicly or privately to make a spoil and plunder of them. 
This is evident from the complaints made in the several laws, 
of such robbers carrying off marble stones and pillars, and 
other rich furniture, either to adorn their own houses there- 
with, or make a gain of them by selling to others. Some were 
so base and sordid as to pull down monuments to make lime 

^ L. 9. tit. 38. de Indulgentiis 
Crimioum, legg. 3, 4, 6, 7, 8. See 
b. 30. ch.5. 8.6. V. 7. p. 318. nn. 60, 
61, 62. 

«» Cod. Theod. lib. 3. tit. 16. de 

Repudiis, leg. i. (t. i. p. 310.) 

In repudio mittendo a fcemina, bsec 
sola crimina inquiri placet, si homi- 
cidam, vel medicamentarium, vel 

sepulchrorum dissolutorem, mari- 
tum suum esse probaverit. 

^^ Cod. 1. 5. tit. 17. de Repudiis, 
leg. 8. (t. 4. p. 1342.) .... Si qua 
.... maritum suum .... sepulchro- 
rum dissolutorem .... probaverit. 

71 B. 22. cb. 5. 88. 5 and 8. pp. 89 
and 92. 

72 B. 16. ch. 6. B. 34. V. 6. p. 310. 

§ 4fS> ^' ^^ bodies of the dead. 177 

with, or Bell them to others for that purpose, eoquendce ealcia 
ffratiaj as one of the laws 7^ words it. 

6. But this rapacious humour was something covered with A more 
a plausible pretence of piety and zeal for the Christian reli- pretenoe 
gion. For Constantine, anno 333, had ordered all altars and ^'^ *J^®'! 
images as well as temples to be destroyed : and the Heathen laws, that 
monuments and sepulchres were often adorned with such^^^!?^*" 
images; which gave occasion, beyond the meaning of theaitanand 
law, to bad men to demolish the Heathen monuments, under ^^|^o^ 
the notion of destroying images, and rooting out idolatry, and lished. 
all the remains and footsteps of it. Had they kept within the 
intent of the law, only destroying images and altars, and not 
the graves themselves, there had been no just reason of com- 
plaint : but when under this pretence they destroyed not only 
the images, but the whole edifice of the monuments, erasing 
the titles, and disturbing the bodies or ashes of the dead, and 
carrying off marble stones and pillars, and whatever was orna- 
mental or valuable about them, this was thought intolerable 
by the succeeding emperors, and therefore so many good laws 
were made against the hypocritical rapaciousness of such illegal 
pretenders to reformation. The law was good, had they used 
it lawfully : but they, through covetousness and rapine, went 
beyond its bounds : and therefore Constans^ the son of Con- 
stantino, anno 349, ordered 7^ all these creatures to be called 
to an account who had so abused the law of his father ; and 
under pretence of destroying images, ' had the marble orna- 
ments and pillars taken away, and the stones thrown down to 
bum into lime. Whosoever of this sort could be discovered, 
from the time that Dahnatius and Zenophilus were consuls, 
(that is, from the year 333, when Constantino first published 
his edict which they fraudulently took the advantage of,) they 
should forfeit to the emperor''s coffer a pound of gold for every 
monument so defaced. And whoever for the future was found 
guilty of such rapine should be amerced twenty pounds of gold 
to the use of the exchequer likewise.' So that this pretence of 
demolishing Heathen monuments under the notion of destroying 

7i Cod. Theod. 1. 9. tit. 17. leg. 2. Quod ri aliqais> &c. See the second 

See before, 8. 2, in the second sen- and fifth paragraphs of the same 

tence of n. 60, preceding. note, preceding. 

7^ Ibid. Universi itaque, &e 

BmoHAM, VOL. vm. N 


Laws for protecting 

XXni. ir. 

idolatr j» vf as a mere hypocritical act of coyetousness, yamished 
oyer with a face of religion. 
AtbiTdz<B»- 7. There was also a third temptation of the same nature, 
get ^TO- which seems to have prevailed even among some of the more 
£caof mar- gensoless and covetous clergy, which was the gainful trade of 
and make getting and Selling the relics of martyrs. This made them for 
^^^ the sake of filthy lucre rob graves, and steal away the bones of 
martyrs or any others, that they might have a sufficient stock 
of reUcs, (true or false, it mattered not which,) to feed the foolish 
superstition of such as were willing to let them make a gain of 
them. This kind of superstition, calculated to encourage covet- 
ousness and religious cheats, was stirring among some in the 
Church betimes. For though the Church for above five hun- 
dred years made no other use of the relics of martyrs but only 
decently to inter them ; yet some superstitious persons privately 
made another use of them. Optatus^^ says, Lucilla, the rich 
foundress, as one may call her, of the Donatist schism, was 
used, before she received the eucharist, to kiss the mouth of a 
certain martyr, which, whether true or false, she had procured, 
and kept by her for that purpose. For this she was gravely 
reproved by Csecilian, then archdeacon of Carthage: which 
she so resented and remembered, that when he came to be 
bishop, she, being a rich, potent, factious woman, by her in- 
terest procured some others to be set up against him : which 
was the first beginning of the schism of the Donatists, 
founded upon the pride of an imperious woman, who was in- 
corrigibly bent upon the superstitious veneration of the relic of 
a martyr. 

St. Austin ^"^ likewise tells us, there were in his time ' a great 

7^ L. I. p. 40. (pp. 18, 19.) Hoc 
apud Carthajcinem post ordinatio- 
nem Ceeciliani factum esse, nemo 
est qui nesciat : per Lucillam scili- 
cet, nescio quam foeminsm factio- 
aam, quae ante concussam persecu- 
tionis turbinibus pacem, dum adhuc 
in tranquillo esset ecclesia, cum cor- 
reptionem archidiaconi Caeciliani fer- 
re non posset, quie ante spiritalem 
cibum et potum* os nescio cujus 
martyris, si tamen martyris, libare 
dicebatur; et cum praeponeret ca- 
lici salutari os nescio cujus hominis 

mortui, et si martyris, sed nee dum 
vindicati, oorrepta, cum confusione 
irata discessit. . . . Lucilla, (juae jam 
dudum ferre non potuit disciplinam, 
cum omnibus suis potens et factiosa 
foemina, communioni misceri noluit. 
. . . Schisma i^itur illo tempore con- 
fhsae mulieris iracundia neperit, am- 
bitus nutrivit, avaritia roDoravit, &c. 
"^^ De Opere Monacborum, c. 28. 

(t. 6* p. 498 f.) rCallidissi- 

mus bostis] tarn muhoa nypocritas 
sub habitu monacborum usquequa- 
que dispersit, circumeantes provin- 


the bodies of the dead. 


many wandering idle monks, hypocritical men, who by the in- 
stigation of Satan went about the worid, selling relics of mar- 
tyrs, which it was very doubtful whether they were the relics 
of true martyrs or not.' However, they made a gainful trade 
of it ; and no doubt were tempted upon that account to rob the 
graves of the martyrs, or some others, which would as well 
serve their purpose. In opposition to this sort of men, Theo- 
dosius the Great made an express law77, ' that no one should 
remove any dead body, that was buried, from one place to 
another ; that no one should sell or buy the relics of martyrs : 
but if any one was minded to build over the grave, where a 
martyr was buried^ a church to be called a m/artyrium^ in re- 
spect to him, he should have liberty to do it.' 

This was then the honour that was psdd to martyrs, to let 
them lie quietly in their graves, and build churches over them, 
which were dedicated to God and his service, not to any reli- 
gious worship of the martyr ; only in honour to him the church 
might be called a martyrium after his name : but beyond this 
no honour was to be given to him under any pretence of vene- 
ration: and to take up his body and make merchandise of his 
bones, was so far from veneration, that it was reckoned a dis- 
turbing of his ashes and a robbing of graves, which was mere 
covetousness hypocritically covered under the name of religion. 
I question not but the law of Valentinian III, which speaks of 
bishops and others of the clergy who were concerned in rob- 
bing of graves, was levelled against this sort of men, who 
digged up the bones of martyrs, and sold them as holy relics, 
to gratify their own lucre at the expense of superstitious people, 
who thought it an honour to a martyr to keep his bones above 
ground; whereas all the laws of Church and State then 
reckoned it a sacrilegious robbing of graves, and disturbance 
of those holy relics, which ought to have lain quiet and undis- 
turbed to the resurrection. 

cias, nusquam missos, nusquam fix- 
es, nusquam stantes, nusquam se- 
dentes: alii membra martjrrum, si 
tamen martvrum, veuditant : alii 
fimbrias et pnylacteria sua magnifi- 
cant, &c. 

77 Ck)d. Tbeod. 1. 9. tit. 7. de Se- 
pulchris Violatis, leg. 7. (t. 3. p. 152.) 

Humatum corpus nemo ad alium 
locum transferat; nemo martvrem 
distrahat, nemo mercetur: habeant 
vero in poteetate, si quolibet in loco 
sanctorum est diquis conditus, pro 
ejus veneratione, auod martyrium 
vocandum sit; adoant quod volue- 
rint fabricarum. 

N 2 

180 Laws for protecting XXIII. iv. 

A peculiar 8. There was a peculiar custom in Egypt which might hare 
Egypt to given great encouragement to this wicked practice ; though we 
keep the Jq ^^^ fijj^j ^,gjj made that ill use of it ; however it was disap- 

bodies em- *■ 

baimed and proved upon another account. For the custom of Egypt 

thdrhonsei ^*^ ^ ^ emhalm the dead as to keep them either in their 

above houses, or in monuments or Mausoleums, aboye ground ; the 

^^^^ ' body so ordered was by the ancient Greek writers called 

ripixos ; the Egyptians called it gabhara; and modern writers 

mummia, as Gataker^^ observes, from the Arabic word mum, 

which denotes wclx, used chiefly in this embalming. Most 

ancient writers speak of this Egyptian way of embalming : 

and Tully79 more particularly takes notice of their keeping 

the bodies so embalmed in their own houses, without any other 


This custom, it seems, was also retained among the Chris- 
tians of Egypt, many of whom (it is certain not all) were wont 
not to bury their dead under ground, but, when they had em- 
balmed them, to keep them still in their houses laid in beds, 
out of reverence and honour for their persons. Athanasius^^ 
says, St. Anthony, the famous Egyptian hermit, was very much 
offended at this custom, and therefore he was used with a great 
deal of freedom to tell the bishops of Egypt, ' that they ought 
to teach the people better, and endeavour to break the cus- 
tom : for the bodies of the patriarchs and prophets were kept 
in their sepulchres unto this day ; and the body of our Lord 
waslaidinagravetothetimeofhiBr^urrection.' By which 
arguments he showed, that it was a sin for any man not to 
bury the bodies of his dead under the earth, although they 

7^ Not. in Marc. Antonin. 1. 4. dc koi XaiKo^r cverpcirc, koi yvpatAlv 

n. 48. (p* 175* '7') 1^ apud illos eireTrXi/TTcv* Xcywy, fi^rv wS/xtftov, ^lyrc 

cadaver (it rdpixos, id est, salsura, oXa>r otrtov €iv(u rouro* koI yap ra 

sive mummia, uti appellant recentio- t&v irarptapx&p Koi r&v irpo^i)TSiV 

res medicorum filii, ab Arabico mum, trSfMra n^xp'' ^^ o'^Ctrai rif fivff" 

id est, cera ; quia ceromate etiam in ftara' koi avrb de t6 tov Kvpiov tr&fjut 

eo negotio utebantur ; apud istos th funjfitioy MSrf \iOos rt en-trc^clr 

T«<bpa, id eitf faviUa vel cinis, txpuy^tv avrh, tas aviimi Tpirfficpov, 

*^ Qu8S8tion. Tusculan. 1. 1. n. Kal ravra \4ytiv, tb^ucpvt irapavoftelv 

108. [al. 45.] (v. 13. p. 2634.) Con- TOV fterh 66»arov ftrf Kpturrovra rh 

diunt iEgyptii mortuos, et eos domi acifioTa t&¥ rfXcvr<&vr«»y, k&v &yta 

servant. rvyxopif* rl yhp fict^ov J) ayi&rtpov 

^ Vit. Anton, t. 3. p. 50a. (t. i. roO Kv^tomn; tr^tfjutros; IIoXXol o^ 

part. I. p. 690 a. n. 90.) O *Ajrr&vtos oKovaavrts, eKpvy(t€t» vvr6 yrjv \oi,ir6v, 

iroXXojccr irrpl rovrov Koi ^tcKdirovg «eal ijvxaploTovv rf Kvptijf, KoK&t 

fj^iov Yrapoyyc XXfiP Toig Xaolr 6fAoi»9 didax^^vrws* 

§ 8y 9. ths bodies of the dead. 181 

were holj. For what can be greater or more holy than the 
body of the Lord? Upon this many people changed their 
custom, and buried the bodies of the dead under ground, 
giving Qod thanks that they were better instructed. It is 
added a little after, * that St. Anthony gave orders that his own 
body should so be buried,' which was accordingly done, in a 
place that no one knew of beside the two persons that took 
care of his funeral But it was not easy to break an inveterate 
custom, and therefore though many left off this way, yet many 
continued it still : for St. Austin ^^ speaks of it as a thing in use 
among the Egyptians in his time, at least to dry the bodies of 
the dead by their curious way of embahning, which made them 
almost as hard as brass, and kept them from corruption. 
These in their language they caUed by a pecuUar name, gab^ 
baroi^'^ ; which, I think, we may English, Egyptian mummies. 
He does not expressly say they still kept them above ground, 
but he seems to intimate as much, in saying, 'they intended by 
their embalming to harden them like brass, and preserve them 
from corruption.' 

9. We may hence draw several arguments, as Mr. Daille has Nordigiou 
done in a very curious and learned book®^, to prove that there J^'JJ^J^^ be 
was no religious worship given to the relics of saints and g:iven to 
martyrs for several of the first-ages in the Church. For their |[^<^n^ 
great care then was to bury them under ground, (and not set Chnrch tiU 
tiiem upon the altar as in after-ages ^^ :) this was the greatest time of St. 
respect they thought they could pay to them. St. Anthony ^«stin. 
thought it was a great disrespect to keep them above ground 
unburied : the laws made it sacrilege to rob a grave for the 
sake of them, and absolutely forbad any one to buy or sell 
the relics of a martyr : LuciUa^^ was reproved for paying an 

®l Serm. 120. de Diversis. fal. note. Ed.I 

Serin. 361.] c. 12. (t.5. p. 141 1 a,) ® De Objectu Cultua Religioei, 

iEgyptii . . . diligenter curant cada- 1. 4. (pp. 582. seqq.) 'Ht. Liber ouar- 

vera mortuorum ; morem enim ha- tus continet ar^menta contra Lati- 

bent siccare corpora et quasi senea nam de Reliquiarum Cultu traditio- 

reddere ; oabbartu ea vocant. nem propria. 

82 \^GaLbariB vel Gabbares, cada^- ^ Mabillon, De liturg. Gal* 

vera apud iEgyptios pollinctorum Ucan. 1. 1. c. 9. n.4. (p. 83.) owns 

arte ddibuta, arefacta, et a corrup- there were no relics set upon the 

tione immunis. . . . Sed vox exotica altar even to the tenth century, 

est et minime Latins: et pneterea ^ See before, s. 7, n. 75, pre- 

in MSS. in Augustini eo loco de- ceding, 
est. See as cited in the preceding 


Laws for protecting 

XXm. iv. 

undue respect to tbem: St. Austin ^^ inveighs against the 
monks that went about the world selling the relics of martyrs : 
and he condemns those who worshipped graves and pictures 
under pretence of honouring the dead, whom he puts into 
the same class with those who made themselves drunk at the 
monuments of the martyrs, and placed their intemperance 
to the account of religion. 'All such/ he says, 'were a scandal 
to the Church, whom she condemned as ignorant and super- 
stitious meuj and daily laboured to correct them aa wicked 

There is one instance in the third century of some well- 
meaning Christians^ who, after the martyrs Fructuosus and 
Eulogius were burnt, gathered up their remains, aud would 
have kept them by them only out of respect and love, not for 
any rehgious worship : but Fructuosus ^7 after his passion ap- 
peared to them, and admonished them to restore immediately 
whatever part of the ashes any one out of love had taken to 
himself, and that putting them all together they should bury 
them in one common grave. The great care of the Church, 
and of the martyrs themselves in those days, was not to have 
their relics kept above ground for worship, but to be decently 
buried under the earth. And therefore when the Heathen 
judge asked Eulogius the deacon, who suffered with Fructuo- 
sus his bishop, 'Whether he would not worship Fructuosus as a 
martyr after death?' he plainly repUed, 'I do not worship 
Fructuosus ^^, but him only whom Fructuosus worships.' The 
like answer was given by the brethren of the Church of Smyrna 
to the suggestion of the Jews, when at the martyrdom of 
Polycarp the Jews desired the Heathen judge ' that he would 
not permit the Christians to carry off the body of Polycarp, 
lest they should leave their Cracified Master and begin to 
worship this man in his stead:' 'This suggestion,' says the 
answered, 'proceeded purely from ignorance and a fiEJse pre- 

^ De Morib. Ecdes. Cath. c.34. 
(t. I. p*7i3e.) See before, ch. 3. 
0. 17. p. 157. n. 30. 

^ Acta Fructuoai, ap. Baron, an. 
363. n. 68. (t. 3. p. 576 e.) Igitnr 
poet passionem [Fructuosus] appa- 
ruit ntribufl, et monuit, ut quod 
unusquisque per caritatem de cine- 

ribus uaurpaverat, restituerent sine 
mora, unoque in loco simul conden- 
do8 curarent. 

88 Ibid. n. 63. (p. 575 c.) Ego 
Fructuosum non colo, sed ipsum 
colo quern et Fnictuoeua. 

80 Act. Polycarp. ap. Euseb. 1. 4. 
c. 15. (v. I. p. 170. 30.) 'YirciSaXoy 

§ 9* ^^ bodies of the dead. IBS 

sumption, that we could either forsake Christ or worship any 
other. For we worship Christ as being the Son of Ood : but 
the martyrs, as the disciples and followers of the Lord, we 
lore with a due affection for their great love of their own King 
and Master ; with whom we desire to be partners and fellow- 
disciples/ They add, ' that when his body was burnt, they 
gathered up the bones, more precious and valuable than 
any gold or precious stones, and buried them in a conYenient 
place, where by God's permission they intended to meet and 
celebrate his birthday with joy and gladness, as well for the 
memorial of those who have bravely suffered and fought as 
champions before, as for the exercise and preparation of those 
that come after.' 

I will only add one testimony more out of St Austin, where 
he makes some pious reflections upon the passions of the fore- 
said Fructuosus and Eulogius. He mentions the same answer 
of Eulogius to the judge, that the Acts speak of; when the 
judge asked him, ' Whether he would worship Fructuosus?' he 
replied, ' I do not worship Fructuosus : but I worship him 
whom Fructuosus also worships.' Up<)n which St. Austin 
makes this remark^, 'that hereby we are taught to honour 

ywv TiV€S HucrfTrfp, t6v tov *W^Mov koL oictSXou^or ^W Ma &g ihpaT6p 

franpa, M\d)6v h€ AaKiofs, cvrvx«y i^/mv avtfayofi€Poig hf cSyoXXuSircft «eai 

r^ Tyc/i^vi, tfOTc /i^ dovyoi avrov r^ X^'P? frapt^fi 6 KvfHos imrtX^ly r^v 

<r&fia' firj, ^criy, a^WTfg rhv ivrath- tov /Mprvpiov avrov ifupav ycveidXioy, 

p»fi€Vov, TovToif Sp(»vT€U. vi^w, Kol €iff Tf T&v npotfikifKirmf fun^fufv koX 

rmra ftrrotf, v>roj3aX<$yr<»y koi eVioxv* t&v ftcXXdyrwr Sa^taftrip re Kai croi* 

crarmy rw *lovdauiv, ol Ka\ trrfprfo-ap, patrlap. 

rhv vjtip r$ff tov wturrbs K6vpov t&p nuit, ut martvres honoremus, et cum 

v»{ofUpt»p irwnfplag iraB6pTa, oOrt martyribas Deum colamus. Neoue 

mp6p TUfa (rc/Sciy. Tovrop /up yap enim tales esse debemus, quales 

Yiip Upra tov 6cov frpoa-KvpovfitP' Paganos dolemus. Et quidem iUi 

Totfs di uapTvpas its uadtfrits tw Kv- mortuos homines colunt. IUi quippe 

pLov Kai luftfjrits ayatrSkfup a^ims, oiimes, quorum nomina auditis, qui- 

&ffjca tirpoias awviNpffkr/Tov Trjv fls bus templa constnicta sunt, hommes 

T^y Vkop Paa-iKta Kai bMnrKokop' hp fuerunt ; et in rebus humanis habu- 

ytpoiTo Ka\ rjpas ovyKotPwpovs t€ koI erunt plerique eorum et pene omnes 

ovp^taBtfrhs y^<rBai, *\h^p o^ 6 regiam potestatem. Auditis Jovem, 

iKaToprdpxfs t^jp t&p *IovdcuW ytpo- auditis Herculem, auditis Neptu- 

fAiiptiP ^tAoyvi/cioy, BtU oMp «p fuo^, num, auditis Plutonem, Mercnnum, 

»s 76os aifToU, iiticMrtp, Ovrnt Tt Liberum et cseteros; homines fue- 

^/iccff, varrpoy^aycXdfwyoi T^ ri/u^cpa runt. Non ista solum in iabulis 

\iBmp nokmk&p Kai boKipartoa vnip poetarum, sed etiam in historia gen- 

Xpva-iop 6<rra avTov, dirtotp^ia 6irov tium declarantur. Quilegerunt, no- 

184 Laws for protecting XXIII. iv. 

the martyrsi but not to worship them, but only to worship that 
Gkxl whom the martyrs worship. For we ought not to be such 
as the Pagans are, whom we liunent upon that very account be- 
cause they worship dead men. For all those, whose names 
you hear, to whom temples are built, were men, and all or most 
of them kings among men : as you haye heard of Jupiter, 
Hercules, Neptune, Pluto, Mercury, Bacchus, and the rest; 
whom not only the fictions of the poets, but the histories of all 
nations declare and evidence to have been men, who having 
obliged the world with some temporal kindnesses were after 
death worshipped by vain men, who called and esteemed them 
gods, and built temples to them as gods, and prayed to them 
as gods, and erected altars to them as gods, and ordained 
priests for them as gods, and offered sacrifices to them as gods : 
whereas the true God alone ought to have temples, and sacri- 
fices ought to be offered to the true God alone.' As for the 
martyrs, he says^^ ' they did neither take them for gods, nor 
worship them as gods. We give them no temples, nor altars, 
nor sacrifices ; neither do the priests offer to them. God for- 
bid I these things are only done to God, and offered to him, 
from whom alone we obtain all good things, at the memorials 
of the martyrs. Therefore if any one asks thee. Whether thou 
worship Peter ? answer as Eulogius did concerning Fructuosus, 
I do not worship Peter, but 1 worship him whom Peter also 
worships.' Then he brings in the example of Paul and Barna- 
bas refusing to be worshipped by the Lycaonians^ and the 
example of the angel refusing to be wordiipped by St. John, 

verunt : qui non legerunt, credant ria, non sacrificia exhibemus. Non 
eis qui legerunt. \m ergo homines eis sacerdoteii offerunt: absit: Deo 
beneficiis quibusdam temporalibus praestantur. Immo Deo ista offe- 
ree humanas sibi conciliaverunt, et runtur, a quo nobis ciincta prsestan- 
ab hominibus vanis et vana sectan- tur. Etiam apud memorias sane* 
tibus ita coli coepenint^ ut dii voca- torum martyrum, cum offerimus, 
rentur, dii haberentur, tanquam diis nonne Deo offerimos ? . . . Quaodo 
templa eedificarentur, tanquam diis audistis dici apud memoriam sancti 
supplicaretor, tanquam diis arae con- Theogenis, a me vel ab aliquo fratre 
stituerentur, tanquam diis sacerdotes et colle|ja meo, vel aliquo presbytero 
ordinarentur, tanquam diis viclimse Offero tibi, Sancte Theogenes ? aut, 
immolarentur. Templum autem so- Offero tibi, Petre ? aut, Offero tibi, 
lus Deus verus habere debet, sacri- Paule ? Nunquam audistis. Non 
fidum soli Deo vero offerri debet. fit : non licet. Et si dicatur tibi, 
*i Ibid. c. 7. (p. 1 107 g.). . . Nos Nunquid tu Petrum colis ? responde 
martyres nostros . . . pro diis non quod de Fructuoso respondit Eulo* 
habemus, non tanquam deos coli- gius: Ego Petrum non colo, sed 
mus. Non eis templa, non eis alta- Dewn coh, quern coUt et Petrus, 

§ 9- ^f^ bodies of the dead, 185 

and bidding him to worship God alone. After which he adds 
these remarkable words in the close, both against those who 
kept feasts at the graves of the martyrs, and those who wor- 
shipped them^'^ : ' The martyrs hate yom* flagons of wine, the 
martyrs hate your fryingpans, the martyrs hate your drunken 
revellings at their graves ; I speak not these things to injure 
or reproach any who are not such : let them who do such 
things take it to themselves/ ' The martyrs,' I say, ' hate these 
things, and love not those that do them : but they much more 
hate and abhor any worship that is offered to them.' These 
are plain evidences that no religious worship was given to the 
martyrs, much less to their relics, by the Church in the time . 
of St. Austin : but some ignorant and superstitious persons 
were carried away with a blind zeal to reckon those things to 
be an honour to the martyrs which were a real reproach both 
to themselves and the Church, and displeasing both to God 
and the martyrs ; to whom the greatest honour they could do 
was to lay their relics quietly in the grave, and meet at their 
tombs to praise Grod for their glorious achiev^nents and victo- 
ries over the terrors of death, and to excito themselves to 
piety and constancy in the faith, by the provocation of their 
examples. Other honours to the dead the ancient Church 
knew none ; at least approved or encouraged none ; but la- 
boured to correct and repress them wherever they appeared, 
as resembling too near, and savouring too much of the follies 
and superstitions of the Gentiles^ whose gods were only dead 
men, deified by their own consecration and worship, without 
any real foundation in nature : for by nature they were no 
gods : and this is the great irrefragable arguinent the Ancients 
sJways made use of against them ; of which I have said enough 
both here and elsewhere ^, and so I put an end to this dis- 
course concerning the manner of treating the dead in the 
ancient Church. 

I have now gone through the whole state of the primitive 
Church, and given an account of the several parts of her pub- 

*2 Ibid. p. 5?2. (p. I f 08 e.) Ode- non sunt; illi ad se refenmt, qui talia 

runt martyres lagenas vestras, ode- faciunt : oderunt ista martyres, non 

runt martyres sartagines vestras, amant talia facientes. Sed multo 

odenint martyres ebrietates vestras, plus oderunt, si colantur. 

sine injuria eorum dico, qui tales ^ B. 13. ch. 3. v. 4. p. 334. 

186 Law8 for protecting the bodies of the dead. XXIII. iv. 

lie worship and offices of divine service : which in a great 
measure answers the design I at first proposed to myself when 
I began this work. Another book more of Miscellaneous 
Rites might be added : but having laboured in this work for 
twenty years with frequent returns of bodily infirmities, which 
make hard study now less agreeable to a weakly constitution ; 
and the things themselves being of no great moment ; I rather 
choose to give the reader a complete and finished work, with 
an index to the whole, than by grasping at too much to be 
forced to leave it imperfect, neither to my own nor the world's 
satisfaction. I bless God for enabling me to go through the 
work with comfort and pleasure ; I thank the world for their 
patience and approbation; and I thank my particular bene- 
factors more, as I think I am obliged to do, for their suitable 
encouragement to a work of such a nature. I blame none for 
want of encouragement, nor any that dislike the whole, or any 
part of it : they may have reasons perhaps which I know not 
of, and shall never inquire into. I hope, however, that it may 
prove an useful work in some measure both to the present and 
future generations, as a learned prelate was once pleased to 
say to me, by way of approbation and encouragement, Seria 
arborea alieri scectdo profiUuras, If so, I shall have my end : 
let the Church receive benefit, and God the glory of all I 

Laus Dbo. 

Date 0/ the finish of the original edition^ 1722. 









And at the End of this Volnmo 




Chiefly thronghoat the Notes to the Boolu of the Antiqidtiee. 




Thb first date indicstes the edition of the respectiTe Work which the Anther 
himielf originaUy consulted. The date enclosed within Innar brackets^ oor- 
respondently with the references in the Notes, marks the particular edition 
used -for the purposes of verifioation throughout the present volumes. A date 
marked thus f designates the edition employed by Orischorius, the translator 
of Bingham's Works into Latin, and who first gave all the citations in ejttenso, 
A single date between lunars will imply that Author and Editors hare had 
recourse to the same book. In the more important works the dates of several 
editions are occasionally noticed. 

Authors dted rarely, now and then, many times, or some hundreds of times^ are 
marked semeU ^> tor, gubinde, uspe^ t^tpiuSf taftistimet or paxMim. 

1 Abdonis et Seniles Acta. (ap. Suiceri Thesaur. Ecdesiatt. Tooe, 350 

napafiokavoL) Vid. infr. No. 736. semeL 

2 Akrodius*, [AyraultJ Petrus. De Patrio Jure cum Pandectie. 1567 

Paris. 1615. fol. (Genev. 1677. fol.) 9emel, 

3 Agapbs et Sociamm Acta. (ap. Boronnmi, ad annmn 304.) Vid. 304 

infr. No. 78. gemel, 

4 Agathias, [al. Agathius,] Scholasticns. De Rebns Gestis Justi- 570 

niani Libri Quinqne, Gr. et Lat. (Paris. 1660. fol.) Item ap. t. 3. 
Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. 1729. ex Interpretatione et cum 
Notis Bonayenturse Volcanii. semel, 

5 Agrippa, Castor, (ap. Eusebii Hist. Ecdes. I. 4. c. 7. Cantabr. 13a 

1720. fol.) semel. 

6 Agrippa*), Henricus Cornelius. De Vanitate Scientiarum. Hag», T530 

1622. 8vo. (ap. Morrun Mysterium Iniquitatis. Salmuriaey 161 1. 
fol.) Item ap. y. 2. Operum, Lugdun. s. a. 2 yol. 8yo. bis. 

a Bom at Angers 1536. Studied at 
Bourges under Duarenus, Cujas, and 
Donean. The roost celebrated of all 
his works, De Pairio Jure, as above, 
Oa the Right of Fathere^ written ori- 
ginaUy in French and Latin, was occa- 
sioned by the seduction and alienation 
of his son by the Jesuits, firom whose 
snares Ayrault could never recover him^ 
though he even prevailed on the King 

of France and on the Pope to take his 
part. See Chalmers, Biograph. Diet. 
Loud. 181a. V. 3. p. 319. 

b Bom at Cologne in i486. His 
work, D3 Vanitate Soientiarumj was 
first published in 1530, and greatly en- 
raged his enemies: but for full parti- 
culars of the life of this eccentric man 
see Chalmers, as above, v. i. pp. tS7f 

190 Index ofAuth/yrSj 

1 A1MOINU89 [Aimoin,] AquitaQUB^ Monachus Floriacensii. De 990 
Gestifl Franconun, ahre Histoiia Franconim. Paris. 1603. fol. 
(ap. t. 3. Hiatorue Francoram Scnptorum, Ed. Du Chesne, 
Paris. 1636-49. 5 torn, fol.) Item^ Ed. Bouquet, Paris. 1751. 
5 torn. fol. Bemel. 

8 Albaspin AU8 ^ [De L'Aubespine J Gabriel. 1604 

1. Obsenrationes de Veteribus Ecclesise Ritibus. Paris. 163T. fol. 

Hdmstad. 1673. 4to. (ap. Opera Varia ad calcem OptaH, 
Paris. 1679. foL) Vid. infr. No. 559. stepe, 

2. Poliee de I'Ancienne Eglise sur 1' Administration de l'Eucha« 

ristie (ibid, ad calcem Optati ut supra.) bis, 

3. NotsD in Concilia, Ancyranum, Arelatense i, Carthaginense 3, 

Eliberitanum, dye Dliberitanum, Nicsenum, etToletanum i. 
(ap. tomos Conciliorum, Ed. Labb. et Cossart. Lutetise Pari- 
siorum, 167 1.) sape. 

4. NotSB in Tertullianum. (ap. Observationum libr. 2, c. 15. ad 

calcem Optati, ut supra.) semel, 

5. NotSB in Optatum. (ap. Opera Optati ut supra.) $ape, 

9 Albkrtinu8» [AubertinJ Edmundus. De Eucharistiae sive Coense 1631 

Dominicse Sacramento libri Tres<^. (Daventrise, 1654. fol) 

10 Alcuinus, [AlcuinJ Albinus, sive Albinus Flaccus. De Divi- 780 

nis Officiis«: ap. t. 10, Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. Opera, 
Lutet. Paris. 161 7. fol.) subinde, 

11 Alcimus. Vid. infr. Avittu, No. 68. 

13 Albm ANNUS sive Alemannius, [Alemanni^] Nicolaus. De 1600 
Parietinis Lateranensibus. Rom», 1635. fol. Item, ap. Grsevii 
Thesaurum, t. 8. (ap. Bonam, Rerum Laturgicarum 1. i. c. 9. 
q. Y.) Vid. infr. No. no. semel. 

13 Albxandbb, Alexandrinus Episcopus. Epistole. 313 

I. (ap. Socratis Hist. Ecdes. 1. 1. c.6.) Vid. infr. No. 716. ter, 
3. (ap. T%eodoreti Hist. Ecdes. 1. 1. c. 4.) Vid. infr. No. 754. bis. 

14 Albxandrinum Chronicon. See Chronicon Alezandrinum. 

15 Albxius Aristenus. [Nomophylaz et Magnas Ecclesise Con- 1 166 

stantinopolitanse (Economus.] Synopsis Canonum : apnd 
Justellum, Biblioth. Jur. Canon, t. 3. (ap. Bevereffimm, Pan- 
dect. 1. 1.) Vid. infr. No. 94, bis, 

c Bishop of Orleans in 1604. Died the Bibliotheca Patnun, Colon. Agripp. 

at Grenoble in 1630, at the age of 5 J. 15 18, or in the Paris Edition of 1654, 

d Amauld and other dirines, in the or in the Bibliotheca Maxima, Lngdun. 

work entitled La PerpetuUi d$ la Foiy 1677. The best Edition of Alcnin's 

endeaTonred to oonftite this invaluable Works is that of Qnerdtanus, emendaia 

book, whidi was originally written in tt opuacuUt phirimum auda, jfe., studio 

French in 1626, reproduced with a new FrobenH Abbatit, 1 torn, in 5. fol. 1777* 

title in 1633, ^^ finally translated There this Tract is placed in the second 

into Latin by Darid Blondel, dated as part of torn. 2, among the Suppon&tia. 
abore. Mr. Anbertin died, as he had ' At one period &cretary to Cardi- 

liyed, in the Reformed Religion at nal Boighese, and afterwards Librarian 

Paris in 1652. at the Vatican. Died in July, i626. 

• This IVact is not found either in 

alphabetically arranged, 191 

i6 Alokrus, [Alger,] sive Adalgerasy cognomine Scholasticus. De 1130 
Euchariitia. Pyuria. 16 10. (De Sacramento Corporis et San- 
gninifl Domini : ap. t. 6. Biblioth. Patr. Ed. De la Bigne, 
Paris. 1634.) Vid. infr. No. 96. n. f. serneh 
1*1 Allatius, [Allacci,] Leo. Bibliothecarias Vaticanus. 1640 

I. De Ecdeais Occidentalis et Orientalis Perpetua ConaenBione 

libri Tree v. (Colon. Agripp. 1648. 4to.) temeh 
a. Diseertatio de Dominicis et Hebdomadibua Graecorun. 
(ibidem.) ter. 

3. Dieaertatio de MissaB Prsesanctificatomm, [cum Bartoldi 

Nihusii ad banc Annotationibus de Communione Orien- 
talium sub Specie Uoica. (ibid, ad calcem.) subinde, 

4. De libris Ecdesiaatids Grsecormn. (Paris. 1645. 4to.) iemel, 

5. De Narthece Veteris Ecdesise et TempHs Recentiorum One* 

corum. (Paris. 1646. 4to.) ter, 

18 Allix>^, Peter. Dissertatio deTrisagii Origine, Authore Petro, 1680 

A.U. D. M. (Rothomagi, 1674. 8to. *) Item, ad calcem Donghtei 
de Calicibns Eacharisticis, &c. Bremsp, 1694. 8vo. semel, 

19 [Alphonsus a Castro. Adversus Hsreses Libri. Colon. 1539. 1530 

fol. (Venet. 1546. fol.) See Antiquities, b. 18. ch. 4. s. 10. v. 7. 
p. 164. n. 30.] 

30 Alstsdius^, Jobannes Henricns. Supplementum ad Cbamieri 1630 

Panstratiam, &c. (ad calc. t. 4. Chamier, Gener. 1636. fol.) 
Vid. infr. No. 161. $emeL 

31 Amalarius, Sympboeius. DeOffidis Ecclesiasticis ^ : ap. 1. 10. 810 

Bibliotb. Patr. Paris. 1654. Sive, De Divinis Officiis : (ap. 1. 14. 
Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677.) subinde. 

I At tbe very threshold of this Book the prindpal church of the French 

he shows his derotion to the Court of Protestants. He was driven from 

Rome, having preyionsly renounced the France in 1685, at the time of the 

tenets of the Greek for those of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 

Latin Church, by writing thus in favour when he came to England. Received 

of the Pope : ' The Roman Pontiff ia the degree of D.D. at Cambridge in 

quite independent, and judges the world 1690. Bishop Uorsley, in his Letters 

without being liable to be judged. We to Dr. Priestley, speaks highly of a 

are bound to obey his oommandfl even Treatise in Defence of the Trinity, 

when he governs unjustly. He gives which Dr. Allix wrote in 1699. He 

laws without recetring any; he changes died in Londen, 1 71 7. 

them as he thinks fit^ appoints magis- i Maimbourg erroneously ascribes 

trates, deddes all questions as to mat- this work to another person, 

ters of faith, and orders all affairs of k A German Protestant divine, and 

importance in the Church as seems to a voluminous writer. For some time 

him good. He cannot err, bdng out Professor of Philosophy and Divinity 

of the power of all heresy and illusion ; at Herbom in Nassau, afterwards at 

and, as he is armed with the authority Alba Julia in Transylvania, where he 

of Christ, not even an angel from hea- died in 1638. 

ven could make him alter his opinion.' 1 This work was first written in Sao, 

De Consens. L i. c. a. s. 6. (od. la) and in 837 rewritten, with improve- 

Quare Romanus Pontifex, &c. ments and additions, in consequence of 

h Bom at Alen9on in 1641. Minister a visit to Rome for the purpose of 

of the Reformed Church at Rouen, becoming better acquainted with the 

afterwards of Charenton, at that time ritual of that Church. 

192 Index ofAuthorSy 

33Amama°^, Sixtinus. Oratio de Barbarie Moram, in Pnelimi- 16x3 

nar. Anti-Barbari Biblici. (Franequerze, 1656. 4to.) semeL 
213 Ambrosius, Sanctua Mediolanensis Episcopus. Opera Omnia. 373 
Basil. 1567. 3 torn. fol. Item^ t Paris. 1643. 5 torn, in 3 vo^ 
(Editio Benedictina, Paris. 1686-90. 2 torn, fol.) Item^ £d. 
recenSy Paris. 1836. 4 vol. 8to. p<usim» 
I. De Cain et Abel. (t. i. p. 183.) 
a. De Abrahamo Patriarcha. (ibid. p. 381.) 

3. De Apologia David, &c. (ibid. p. 675.) 

4. Oratio de Basilicis non tradendis, contra Auzentinm. (inter 

Epp. Class. I. ad calc. Ep. 31. t. 3. p. 863.) 

5. De Elia et Jejunio. (t. i. p. 535.) 

6. Ep. 5. [ 4.] ad Felicem, Episcopum Comensem. (t. a. p. 763.) 

7. Ep. 8. [39.] ad Faustinnm. (ibid. p. 944.) 

8. Ep. 17. [81.] ad Clericos. Qbid. p. 1097.) 

9. Ep. 34. [83.] ad Marcellum. (ibid. p. iioo.) 

10. Ep. 38. [51.] ad Theodosium. (ibid. p. 814.) 

11. Ep. 39. [40.] ad Theodosium. (ibid. p. 946.) 
13. Ep. 30. [17.] ad ValentinianiuD. (ibid. p. 834.) 

13. Ep. 31. [18.] ad'Eundem. (ibid. p. 833.) 

14. Ep. 33. [31.] ad Eundem. (ibid. p. 860.) 

15. Ep. 33. [30.] ad Marcellinam. (ibid. p. 853.) 

16. Ep. 34. [i. append.] de Virginibus Sacris. (ibid, append. 

P- 479O 

17. Ep. 36. [58.] ad Sabinum. (ibid. p. 1013.) 

18. Ep. 54. 

19. Ep. 60. 


ad Syricium. (ibid. p. 1 105.) 

]i6.] ad Anysium. (ibid. p. 833.) 

30. Ep. 66. [60.] ad Patemimi. (ibid. p. 1017.) 

3i.Ep. 70. 
33. Ep. 79. 

'19.] ad Vigitium. (ibid. p. 843.) 
[56.] ad Theopbilum. (ibid. p. 1006.) 

33. Ep. 83. [63.] ad Ecclesiam Vercellensem. (ibid. p. I033.) 

34. Ep. 83. [33.] de Paschse Celebrandi Ratione. (ibid. p. 880.) 

35. Ep. 85. [33.] ad Marcellinam. (ibid. p. 874.) 

36. De Fide ad Gratianum Libri Quinque. (ibid. p. 443.) 

37. De Fide Resurrectionis, s. liber Secundus de Ezcessu Fra- 

tris sui Satjrri. (ibid. p. 1135.) 

BA Professor of Hebrew at the Uni- his death, in 1656, as above, with a 

versity of Franeker. He commenced fourth book containing the Criticisms 

< a Censure of the Vulgate Translation,' of the Vnlgate upon Isaiah and Jere- 

which the Council of Trent had de* miah. Anthony Wood informs us, in 

dared to be authentic. His answer to his Athense Oxonienses, that Amama 

Mersennus, who attacked his Critidsms came to England in 1613, and resided 

on the first six chapters of Genesis, for some few years in Exeter CoUege, 

forms one of the pieces in the AnH- Oxford, nnder the patronage of Dr. 

Barbarut BUUiotu, which he first pub- Prideanx, Rector of that College at 

lished in 162S. This work, however, the time, and afterwards Bishop of 

he left incomplete, having lived to Worcester. The Treatise is printed 

finish the first part only, containing among the CrUUsi Sacri, vol. i. part 7. 

three books. It was reprinted, after p. 311. Ed. Amstel. 1698. 

alpfhobeticaUy arranged. 193 

38. Hezaemeron, 8. De Operibus Sex Dierum. (t i. p. i.) 

39. De Imtiandis, 8. De MysteruB, Liber Unas. (t. 2, p. 335.) 

30. De Mysterio Paschie, Serm. 35. (t. 3. append, p. 437.) 

31. De Obitu Fratris soi Satyri. (t. 3. p. 11 13.) 
33. De Obitu Theodosii. (ibid. p. 1 197.) 

33. De Obita ValentiDiani. (ibid. p. 11 73.) 

34. De Offioiis Ministroruin Libri Tres. (ibid. p. i.) 

35. Oratio ad Theodosium, ap. Theodoreti Hist. Ecdes. 1. 5. 

c. 18. (Cantabr. 1730.) Vid. infr. No. 754. 

36. De Poenitentia, contra Noyatianum, libri Duo. (ibid. p. 389.) 

37. De Sacerdotii Dignitate. (ibid, append, p- 357* j 

38. De Sacramentis Libri Sex. (ibid. p. 349.) 

39. Prse&tio in Psalmos. (t. i. p. 737.) 

40. Enarratio in Psalm, i. (ibid. p. 743.) 

41 36. (ibid. p. 778.) 

43 1 18. (ibid. p. 973.) 

43. Serm. 7. De Clerids. [Serm. 66, juxt. £d. Colon. 1616 : 

sed in Ed. Bened. deest. Vid. int. Oper. Augtutini, ubi est 
Serm. 83. appendicis.] Vid. infr. No. 64. 

44. Serm. 17. [7.] De Calendis Januariis. (t. 3. append, p. 399.) 

45. Serm. 30. In Festo Michael Angeli. (juxt. Ed. Paris. 1643. 

^* 5* P- 153O [Serm. 10. juxt. Ed. Basil. 1567. In Ed. 
Bened. deest. Vid. int. Oper. Augurtini, Serm. 88. ap- 
pendicis.] Vid. infr. No. 64. 

46. Serm. 41. 

47. Serm. 70. 


De Gratia Baptism!, (t. 3. append, p. 441.) 
[57.] De Depositione S. Eusebii. (ibid. p. 469.) 

48. Serm. 89. [63.] In Festo Dedicationis Ecdesis. (ibid. p. 476.) 

49. Serm. 90. In S. Agnen. [int. Epp. Segregat. Ep. i. (ibid. 

P- 479-) 

50. De Spiritu Sancto Libri Tree. (t. 3. p. 599.) 

51. Contra Symmachum. [Ep. 18.] (ibid. p. 833.) 
53. De Tobia. (t. i. p. 591.) 

53. De Viduis. (t. 3. p. 185.) 

54. De Virginibus, ad Maroellinam Sororem, libri Tres ^, (ibid. 

P- M6-) 

55. Ad Virginem Lapsam. (ibid. p. 305.) 

56. Hortatio ad Viiginitatem, s. Exhortatio Virginitatis. (ibid. 

P- 2770 

57. De Vocatione Gentium. [In Ed. Bened. deest. Vide inter 

Opera LeonU Magni Ed. Ballerin. 1753-57. t. 3. p. 167.] 

58. Expositio in Lucam. (t. i. p. 1363.) 

59. Commentarius in S. Paul. Ep. ad Rom. (t. 3. append, p. 36.) 
60. Ep. I. ad Corinth, (ibid. p. iii.) 

61. Ep. 3. ad Corinth, (ibid. p. 169.) 

63. Ep. ad Galat. (ibid. p. 309.) 

n The last portions of the thii^d book Unus of the Benedictine edition, (t. 1. 
form the tnct De Virgwiiate Liber p. 213.) 


194 Index of Authors, 

63. — — Bp. ad Ephes. (ibid. p. 231.) 

64. £p. I. ad Tim. (ibid. p. 389.) 

65. ■ Ep. ad Tit. pnefet. (ibid, p. 313.) 

(^5. ■ Ep. ad Hebraeos. [In Ed. Bened. deest. Vide 

Editoram in Gommentaria Epistolarum Tredecim Admo- 
nitionem. (t. a. append, p. 36. Admonendnm, he Quere 
inter Opera Rahani Mauri, Vid. infr. No. 648. 

34 Ammianus Marcellinus. Historia cum Notia LindenbrogiL 380 

Hamburg. 1609. 4to« t Cum Notia Variorum. Lugdun. 1693. 
4to. (Ed. Valeaii, Paris. 168 1. fbl.) smpe, 

35 Ampklii Acta. (ap. Baronsimi ad annum 303.) Vid. infir. No. 78. 303 

26 Amphilochius ^, looniensia Episcopus. Opera omnia, juxt. 370 
Ed. Combefis. (Paris. 1644. fol.P) Ezstant etiam ap. Gallan- 
dium, t. 6. p. 463. 
I. De Pcenitentia Homilia [s. Oratio]. semel, 
3. 'V^ta S. Basilii. 

37 Anastasius Bibliothecarius^. Historia Ecdesiastica et DeVitis 870 

Pontificum Romanorum,&c. Paris. 1649. fol.(Romie', 1718-37. 
4 tom. fol.) semel. 
I. Vita Adrian], s. Hadriani, Papse. 

3. Historia Synodi Octavse, s. Concilii Constantinopolitani 
Quarti. (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 8. pp. 961, seqq.) Cited by 
Pearson, Vindic, Ignatian, part, 2, c, i3. See afterwards. 
No. 594. 

38 ANA8TA8IU8 Sinaita ", Antiocb. Patriarch. 561 

I. Qutestiones et Responsiones. (Ingolstad. 161 7, 4to.) (Latine, 
ap. t. 9. Bibliotb. Max. Lugdun. 1677.) semel. Item, 1^. 
Albertimim De Eucbaristia. Vid. supr. No. 9. bis, 

3. Sermo de Synaxi, citante Albertino, ibid, semel, 

39 Anatoli us Alexandzinus ^ Canon Paschalis; ap. £«cAmiiffi. 369 

(ap. Ctallandiwn, t. 3. p. 545.) semel, Vid. infr. No. it 7. 

30 Andreas Csesariensis^. Commentarius in Apocalypsim: ad calc. 560 

Oper. Chrysostom. juxt. Ed. Commelin. Paris. 1593. fol. (Latine, 
ap. t. 5. p. 509. Bibliotb. Max. Vid. infr. No. 96. setnel. 

31 Andrews, Lancelot, Bishop of Winchester. 1600 

o The most intimate friend of St. learned men of hia era. His Liber Pon^ 

Gregory Nasianzen and of St. Basil, t^ficalu, or History qf Popesy a work 

He instigated Theododus in publishing compiled from the ancient Catalogues 

his serere laws of pains and penalties of the Bishops and the Acts of Martyrs, 

against the Arians. He died about the was first printed at Mentz in 1602. 4to. 

year 394. ^ This edition does not contain the 

P This book is said to contain many Hist. Ecdes. 

pieces of very questionable authority. s So called from the monastic life he 

4 So called because he was Librarian led on Mount Sinai. 

tit the Churoh itfRome^ and perhaps the t Born at Alexandria. Bishop of 

first who held that office distinctly at Laodicea in Syria in 269. 

the Vatican. He was al^ Abbot of ^ Some authorities place his era as 

S. Maria trans Tiberim, and is deser- early as the end of the fifth century; 

▼adly considered as one of the most others put it in the middle of the nintiL 

alphabetically arranged. 195 

1. De DedxniB. (int. Opuscula, Lond. 1629. 4to.) iemel, 

2. Tortora Torti : sive. Ad Mattluei Torti Labrum Responsio, 

qui nuper editus contra Apologiam Serenissimi Potentissi- 
mique Prindpis Jaoobi, &c.' Lond. 1609. 4to. Incidentally 
mentioned once, bnt nowhere directly cited, 

3. Responsio ad Apologiam Bellarmini. (Lond. 1610. 4to.) semeL 

32 AndbOnici Acta. (ap. Baronmn, ad annum 240.) Vid. infr. 240 

No. 78. semeL 

33 [Anianust, 8. Annianns^ Celedensis. His Latin Translation of 415 

St. Chrysostome, which ia the version employed in the edition 
of Pronto Ducseus. See afterwards, Chrysostomus, No. 167, at 
the end. semel vel bie,^ 

34 [Annales Metenses : ap. 1 3. p. 262. Historise Francorum Scrip- 

toram, juzt. Edit. Francisci Du Cbesne. Lutet. Paris. 1636-49. 
5 torn. fol. semel,'] 

35 Anonymus. De Baptismo Haereticoromy ad calcem Cypriani. 250 

(Amstel. 1700. fol.) sMnde. 
316 [Anonymus. Breviarium Fidei. Apud Sirmond. Oper. Varia, ? 
Paris. 1696. Venet. 1728. fol. (Opuscul. Var., Paris. 1675. 1. 1. 
p. 73.) semet.'] 

37 Anonymus. De Hseresi Praedestinatorum : juxt. Ed. Sirmond. ? 

cum Censura AurseL Paris. 1645. 8yo. (OpuscuL Var., Paris. 
1625. t. 3. p. 21.) MemeL 

38 Anonymus. De Francis, (ap. Combefis. Not. ad Invect. Isaac, i 

Armen. Cathol. Vide ap. Hist Monothehtarvm, Biblioth. Patr.Gr. 
Lat. Auctar. Nov. t.2. Paris. 1648. fol.) Vid. infr. No. c88. bis. 

39 Ansksious, Abbas '. Capitukria, sen Edita Caroli Magni, et 827 

Ludovici Pii, Imperatoris. Paris. 1640. 8vo. Vid. infr. Carohu 
Magnus, No. 144. • 

z King James having, in his D^eruse pion of his master's heresy. See Cave, 

0/ the RighU 0/ Kinga, taserted the WBL' Hist. Liter. Basil. 1741. t. i. p. 393, 

thority of Christian princes over causes mentioning the chief arguments of Glar- 

and persons ecclesiastical^ Cardinal Bel- nerius for identifying this author with 

larmine, under the name of Matthew the original translator of St. ChrysO" 

Tortus, attacked him with great vehe- stome's works into Latin, 

menoe. The King requested Bishop ^ Abbot of Lobies, an old Benedic> 

Andrews to reply, which he did with tine monastery on the Sambre, in the 

great spirit and judgment, in the tract, diocese of Cambray. His collection of 

as above, Tortura Tariif ^c. The sub- the Capitularies of Charlemagne and of 

stance of it is, that kings have power Louis his son, which he made in 827, 

both to call synods and confirm them ; has been frequently edited : for exam- 

and to do all other things which the em- pie, by Pithoeus in 1588, with Notes 

perors heretofore diligently performed, and Additions, and again at Mentz in 

and which the bishops of those times 1602. Again by Sirmonde at Paris, 

willingly acknowledged as belonging to 1640, as above, to which he added the 

them. Casaubon praises the piece as Capitularies of Charies the Bald. Lastly, 

being written with great accuracy and in 1676 Baluze brought out a new edi- 

research. See Clialmers, as before, v.i. tion of all these ancient Capitularies. 

pp. a 18, 219. See afterwards, under Carolua Magnus^ 

J A native of Campania, the amanu- No. 144. But his reproduction differs 

ensis of Pelagiua, and an earnest cham- considerably from his originals ; for, 

O 2 

196 Index ofAvthorSy 

40 Antiochus*, Monachns S. Sabe. Homilis : (ap. 1. 1. Biblioth. 614 

Patr. Gr. Lat. sive Auctarium Ducaeaniimy Paris. 1624. fol.) 
Horn. 7. De Jejunio. semeL 
Horn. 19. De Foniicatione. 9emeL 

41 Antonini Itinerarium Britannianun cum Notia Thorns (vale.) ? 

Lond. 1709. 4to.) his terve. 

42 Antonini Florentini Chronicon. (Lugdun. 1586. 3 torn, fol.) 1446 

dtante Duranto, De Ritibus^ &c. semeL 

43 Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, cognomine Philoeophus, Impera- 160 

tor. Opera, cum Commentariis Gratakeri, Gr. Lai. (Cantabr. 
1652. 4to.) Traject. ad Rhenum, 1697. foL iemel. 

44 Antonini Placentini siye Martyris Itinerarium, ap. PapebrO' 

chhm, in Actis Sanctorum Maii. Vid. infr. No. 581. semel, 

45 [An u LIN I Epistola ad Constantinum. Vid. int. Epp. Auffustim, 399 

Ep. 68. semeL'] Vid. infr. No. 64. 

46 [Apollonius contra Montanistas. Apud Etuebium, Hist. £c- 

cles. 1. 5. c. 18. bis,"] Vid. infr. No. 275. 

47 Apulbius. Opera, Lugdun. Batav. 1623. i2mo. Lugdun. 1596. 125? 

i2mo. (Ed. Delph. Paris. 1688. 4to.) De Asino Auieo. bis. 

48 AauiNAS, S.Thomas, cognomine Doctor Angelicus. 1250 

1. SuDDunaTheologise*', Colon. 1603. fol. Paris. 1622. fol. (Opera, 

Veuet. 1787. t 26. 4to.) ter, 

2. Opuscula, Venet. 1596. et 1490. 4to. (ut supra.) semel. 

49 Arator, Ecclesise Romanse Subdiaconus. Historia Apostolica 544 

Carmine^' : ap. t. 8. Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. Item ap. 1. 10. al. 
Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. (ap. GaUandium, 1. 12.) ? 551 

50 Archslaus, Chascorum in Mesopotamia Episoopus. Disputatio 278 

et Epistola contra Manichieum, Bp.Valesitim in Append, ad So- 
cratis et Sozomeni Hist. Eccles. Paris. 1659. fol. (Cantabr. 
1720. fol.) semel. 

besides nnmeroas varia leetionet^ several salem by Chosroes^ king of Persia, and 

chapters of the first book are wanting ; of the cruelties practised on the monks : 

the 89th and 90th chapters of the third he also deplores the loss of the true 

book are added, as well as the 76th and cross, which he sinrs the enemy carried 

77th of the fourth, which notwith- away, &c See Chalmers, as before, 

standing are the same as the 39th and v. 2. p. 3 1 7> 

34th chapters. There are also not a ^ Some writers have doubted whether 

few discrepancies in the Appendices. Aquinas was really the author of The 

See more in Chalmers, Biograph. Diet, Head* of Theology ; but Casimir Oa- 

as before, p. 280. din. in his CommerUarius de Scriptori' 

A He was the author of a Pandects btu Eocienar oniiqtM eorumque ScripUt^ 

Divinte Scripturtp, teu Compendium to- decides the question against them after 

tius Retiyumis Chriatiana et SS. Scrip- an accurate examination of all the ob- 

turarum Doctrinm^ Homiliie 190. com- jections. 

fneheuaum^ preceded by a Piafitio et c The Acts of the Apostles in Latin 

Epintola Nancupaitiria ati Enjtiathium. verse, which the author presented to 

They were first published by Tilman in Pope Vigilius in the year 544, who was 

his niblioth. Patr. Paris. 157.;, and again so much pleased with it that he ordered 

with the Greek text by Ducseus. as it to be read in the church of St. Peter 

above. See Cave, Hist. liter. Basil, ad Vincula. It contains many of the 

1741. t. r. p. 575. In his Preface An- allegories which Bede introduced into 

tiochus speaks of the capture of Jem- his Commentary on the Acta. 

alphabetically arranged, 197 

51 Arcudius ^, [Arendio,] Petnu. De Concordia Ecdense Orien- 1600 
talis et Occidentalis. Paris. 1640. fol. (Lntet. Paris. 1626. fol.) 
Ed. Prinoeps, Paris. 1616. fol. ietnel. 

5a Aristknus. Vide sapra, Alesku, No. 15. 

53 Arius, Hseresiarcha. Epistola ap. 1%eodoreti Hist. Ecdes. 1. 1. 315 

c. 5. (Cantabr. 1730. fol.) semel. 

54 Arnobius, Afer, T%e 4flriean. Opera, cum Notis Elmenhorstii. 303 

Hanov. 1603. 8vo. Hamburg. 1610. fol. (Lugdun. Batav. ex 
Officina Johannis Maire, 1651. 4to.®) Item ap. Gallandium, t. 4. 
p. 133. sape. 

55 Arnobius Junior^. Disputatio cum Serapione : (ad calcem Irenmi, 460 

Oxon. 1709. fol.) semel. 

56 AsTSRius Amasenus, Biehop of Amaeea in Ponhts, HomiHse : 401 

(ap. Combefim Auctarium Novum, Paris. 1648. fol.) [al. Homilite 
Duodecim cum Fragmentis aliorum ejusdem Operum; ap. 
Bibliotb. Max. Lugdun. 1677. t.5. p. 807.] subinde, 

T. Horn. 4. De Festo Calendario. 

3. Horn. 5. In iUud Matthaei, An lioeat homini dimittere 

3. De Filio Prodigo, ap. PhotU Biblioihecam, cod. 371. 

4. De Precatione, ap. Phoiium, ibid. 

57 Athanasius Sanctus, Archieinscopus Alexandrinus. Opera om- 330 

nia, Gr. et Lat. Paris. 1637. 3 torn. fol. t Paris. 1698. 3 torn. fol.v 
(Opera Omnia quae exstant ac. . . . novissimis nunc curis emen- 
datiora et quarto yolumine aucta. Patavii, 1 777. 3 torn, in 4. foL^ 

Tom. I. juxt. Ed. Pbris. 1637. 
I . Disputatio contra Arium. (t. 3. p. 158.) 
3. Epistola ad Serapionem contra eos, qui dicnnt Spiritum 
Sanctum esse creaturam. [Ep. i. ad Serapion.] (t. i. part. a. 

P- 51 70 

3. De Naturali Communione similis Essentifie inter Patrem, 

Filium, et Spiritum Sanctum, (t. 3« p. 3.) 

4. Epistola de Fide ad Joyianum. (t. i. part. 3. p. 633.) 

^ He was a Greek ecclesiastic of the spurious. See Walchii Bibliotheca Ps- 

lale of Corcyra, Corfu ; studied at tristica, ch. 9. s. 15. Jenae, 1834. pp. 

Rome, and was sent by Clement VIII. iai-3. 

to Russia to settle some disputes about 1^ Nic. Ant. Guistiniani, [Episoopus 

religion. Died at Rome about the year PataTinus,] was the curator of this edi- 

1635. ^^^ <>f Athanasius, which is upon the 

e This is an accurate and excellent whole the best. Mont&uoon's is mora 

edition. elegant, but it is incomplete without 

' A Gaul by birth: a semi-Pelagian his CoUeetio Nowx^ Patia. 1707. a torn, 

in religious opmions. /•/., the first part of the second Tolume 

ff ThoB is the original Benedictine whereof contains the Optueuia and 

edition by Montfiuicon, the two first Fragmenta of Athanasius, which fbnn 

tomes of which contain the genuine the fourth tome of Guistiniam's edi- 

works, and the third those writings tion. 
whicb are doubtful or considered to be 

198 Index of Authors, 

5. Orationes contra Arianoe : 

Prima. [£p. ad Episcopos i^gypti et libyae contra Arianos.] 

(t. I. part. I. p. 312.) 
Secunda. [Prima.] (ibid. p. 319.) 
Tertia. [Secunda.] (ibid. p. 369.) 
Quarta. [Tertia.] (ibid. p. 435.) 
Quinta. [Quarta.] (ibid. p. 489.) 

6. Epistola de Sententia Dionysii Alezandrini. (ibid. p. 191.) 

7. Epistola ad Antiocbenses, 8. Tomus ad Antiocbenoe. (ibid. 

part. 3. p. 615.) 

8. Epistola ad Serapionem de Morte Arii. (ibid. part. i. p. 269.) 

9. Apologia ad Imperatorem Constantinum. (ibid. p. 334.) 

10. Apologia Prima de Fuga sua. (ibid. p. 353.) 

11. Apologia Secunda de eadem, s. Apologia contra Arianos. 

(ibid. p. 97.) 
13. Epistola ad Omnes ubique Solitariam Vitam agentes, s. Ep. 
ad Monacbos. (ibid. p. 271.) 

13. Epistola de Synodis Arimini et Seleucift. (ibid. part. 3. 

p. 573) 

14. Epistola ad Africanos, s. ad Afros Episcopos contra Aria- 

nos. (ibid. p. 713.) 

15. Epistola ad Omnes ubique Ortbodozos, s. Ep. Encyclica 

ad Episcopos. (ibid. part. i. p. 87.) 

16. Epistola ad Dracontium. (ibid. p. 307.) 

17. Epistola ad Marcellinum de Interpretatione Psalmorum. 

(ibid. part. s. p. 784.) 

18. In illud, Quicunque dizerit verbum contra Filium Hominis. 

[Pars EpistoUe Quarts ad Serapionem de Spiritu Sancto, 
n. 8.] (ibid. p. 560 e.) 

19. De Sanctissima Deipara Vtrgine. (t. 3. p. 334, inter Spuria.) 

30. De Virginitate. (ibid. p. 84, inter Dubia.) 

31. Homilia de Semente. (ibid. p. 45.) 
Tom. 3. juzt. Ed. Paris. 1637. 

I. Epistola ad Amunem Monacbum, citante Bereregio. (t. i. 

part. 3. p. 765.) 
3. Fragmentum Epistolse 39. Festalis^ s. Bp. ad Amunem. 


3. Epistola ad Rufinianum. (ibid. p. 768.) 

4. Synopsis Sacrs Scripturse. (t. 3. p. 96, inter Dubia.) 

5. Dialogi Quinque de Trinitate. (ibid. p. 407^ inter Spuria.) 

6. Homilia adversus eos, qui Humanae in Cbristo Domino 

Naturae Gonfessores spem suam in Homine dicunt defi- 
gere. (ibid. p. 498, inter Spuria.) 
7* Qusestiones ad Antiochum. (ibid. p. 317.) 

8. Dicta et Interpretationes Parabolarum Sancti Eyangelii, 

s. Qusestiones in Sacram Scripturam. (ibid. p. 358.) 

9. Vita Sancti Antonii. (t. i. part. 3. p. 631.) 

alphabetically arranged. 199 

10. Scriptum, ap. SocroHt Hist. Ecdes. 1. 4. c. 33. (Cantabr. 
1730. fol.) 

58 Athbnaooras. Apologia, 8. Legatio pro Christianis ad Impe- 177 

ratores Antoninum et Commodum, Gr. et Lat. : (ad calcem /t»- 
tmi Martyris, Colon. 1688. fol.) Ifem, Paris. 1636. fol. Ed. 
Benedict. Paris. 1743. foL Separatim, Gr. et Lat. cam Notis 
P. Nannii et Hen. Stephani, Paris. 1557-8. folio. Editio Op- 
tima, nempe Edvardi Dechair, e Tbeatro Sheldoniano, Ozon. 
1706-8^. Item, ap. Gallandium, t 3. p. 3. Mp«. 

59 Athbnogbnbs. Hymnus in Gloriam Spiritus Sancti: (ap. Basi' 196 

Uumy De Spiritu Sancto. Vid. Oper. t.3. part. i. Ed. Benedict 
Paris. 1839. 4to.) ter. 

60 AucTARiA Combefisii Novum et Novissimum. Vid. infr. Com' 

bffiwu. No. 188. 

61 AucTARiUM Ducseanam. Vid. infr. BibUotheca Patrmm Grmco- 

Latina, per Fronton. Duceemn, Paris. 1634. 2 torn. fol. No. 98. 

62 [AvQVBTM Historic Scriptores, cmn Notis Isaac Casaubon., &c. 

Paris. 1630. fol. (Lugdun. Batay. 1661. 8vo.) submde, Vid. 
infr. dgntoUnus, No. 141. LampridmB, No. 445. SpartianuSy 
No. 734. Fopisow, No. 808.] 

63 AuousTiNUS Antonius, s. Antonius de Augustinis. Archiepisc. 1574 

I. De Emendatione Gratiani, cum Additionibus Baluxii. (Paris. 

1673. 8yo.) t Duisburg. 1677. 8vo. subinde. 
3. Epitome Juris Pontifidi. (Paris. 1641. 3 torn, fol.) Memel, 

64 AuousTiNUS, Sanctus Aurelius, Hipponensis Episcopus. Opera 389 

Omnia, Paris. 1637. lotom. fol. t Basil. 1539.^ et imprimis 
Basil. 1569. 10 tom. fol. (Opera, post Lovaniensium Theologo- 
rum recensionem castigata denuo ad manuscriptos codices Gal- 
licanos, Vaticanos, Anglicanos, &c. : opera et studio Monacho- 
ram Ordinis S. Benedicti e Gongregatione S. Mauri. Paris. 
1679-1700. II tom. foU) poMtm. 

< Editio dan et nitids. Consuluit was frequently reproduced. The edi- 

[Dediair] oodioee manuscriptos, Ter- tion of 1637, consulted by my Ancestor, 

nones emendavit, Variorum notas ac is one of the reprints of the Louyain, 

prster has suos oommentarios 8ub- which was eventually superseded by 

junzit, una cum illis, quse Baronius, that of the Benedictines, Paris. 1679- 

HaUoizius, Dodwellus, BuUus, dissem- 1700. 

enmt. Welch. Biblioth. Patrist. c a. l Thomas Blampin was the chief en* 

s. 17. Jenae, 1834. p. 15s. rator of this edition, which was repro- 

k This is the origioal edition of F^- duoed at Antwerp, 1 708, thirteen to- 

benius, BasiL 1538-9. Ad quam edU- lumes in nine, widi an AppendUt Au-- 

/iofwm, says Wakh, (Biblioth. Patrist. gus^niana^ whidi forms vol. is. in 

ch. 1, s. 13. Jena,i834. p. 1 1 3.) Eragmut some sets. 

Roitrod. itidem opem aUuUi eigne Am- The edition of Blampin and his co- 

dem aique eatieHmaiUmem acneUiafni, adjutors met with many opponents, 

The other edition, which Grischovius who disputed its excelle n ce. Among 

used, is a reprint of this. Hie original the chidf adversaries was the Jesuit 

edition per Patree Lwanieruee was Emeric L'Anglois. Nee cmUtendue eet 

first printed at Anvers in 1577, and Rich. Simony qui Mmuuhot et ab iUi$ 


Index of Authors, 

Tk€ Authot^s eUaiions arranged according to the Paris edition 
qf 16^*1 ^^cUated with the Benedictine. 

Tom. L 

I. Retnictationum libri Duo (t. i.) 
3. Confesfiionum libri Tredecim (ibid.) 

3. De Libero Arbitrio Libri Tres (ibid.) 

5. De Vera Religione (ibid.) 

4. De Moribus Eeclesiss Catholics, &c. (ibid.) 

6. De Origine Animse [contr. Vincentium Victorem] libri . 

Quatuor. (t. 10. p. 338.) 

Tom. II. Epistoljb, s. Epistolarum Farrago. 

oido Novu.. (I*cn* »P- *• 3- Ed. BeDcd.) ' oido VttinL 

10. ad HieroDymum 71 

16. ad Praesidium. 74 

19. ad Hieronymum 8a 

33. ad Bonifadum 98 

36. Hieronymi ad Augustinum 133 

38. ad Hieronymum 166 

34. ad Paulinum et Therasiam • 31 

35. Paulini ad Alypium 34 

43. ad Fratres Madaurenses 33a 

45. ad Armentarimn et Paufinam 137 

48. ad Vincentium • 93 

50. ad Bonifadum 185 

54. ad Macedonium 153 

57. ad Dardanum 387 

59. ad Paulinum 149 

edita Aufftulini Opera acerrime per- 
striiiffii, iitdemqiie imperiHam arth oru 
ticOj erataam ^rutranliafn^ atque alia 
viHa gramora e*prohat. The chief ob- 
jections were, thkt the Benedictine edi- 
tors evinced a bias in favour of the doc- 
trines of Sansenios, and had adopted 
mannscripts which had been tampered 
with by the purtixans of Grotteschalcns 
and Ratramnus. See Walch as before, 
ch. 3. B. 15. pp. 1 19-121. Neverthe- 
less the Benedictine edition continues 
to be the standard one: though now 
the modem edition, Bassani, 1807, 18 
vol. 4to., is the most complete of all. 

Walch further observes (p. isi.) that 
the Paris edition of 1679- 1700 ^"^ 
afterwards reprinted mm AniwerpUtt ui 
libri tUfdua iiMnft/ur, »ed Amstelodami 
1 700-5. II torn. fol. minari typorttm 
eharacleri ; of which reproduction Jo- 
hannes Fhereponus, L e. Johannes Cleri- 

cus, was the curator, when the twelfth 
volume, alluded to just before, was 
added under the title oi Appendix Ant^ 
werpiana. For the contents of it see 
Walchiuji, ibid., where he also speaks 
of the many fkults, the bad qualities^ 
and the typographical errors of that 

The next reprint ad exemplum Pari^ 
«^n«e, Venice, 17^9-351 in ii torn, fol., 
is very good, and far preferable to its 
successor, also at Venice, 1756-69, 
which appeared again at Augsburg under 
the same date : toatet enm hepo mendU 
tffpographicisy says Walch, et charaote- 
rum eiiliias Itedit ocuht. He might 
have added, that for the first reason it 
was unsuitable for young students, and 
for elderly gentlemen for the other. I 
have had abundant reason for selecting 
the Paris Benedictine for the pnrpoflea 
of verification. 

alphahetically arranged, 201 

Ordo Vatiu. Onto NoTut. 

6i. ad Dulcitium 204 

64. ad Aurelitim/. 33 

68. ad Januaritim • 88 

69. ad Restitutum 349 

74. ad Deuterium 336 

75. ad Auxilium • 350 

76. ad Aurelium •.....• 60 

81. ad Eudozium. 48 

83. ad Chrysinum • 344 

86. ad Casulanum 36 

89. ad Hilarium 157 

93. ad lunooentium 176 

94. ad Hilarium 178 

[06. ad Bonifacium • 186 

[07. ad Vitalem 317 

[08. ad Seleucianam 365 

10. Acta ezcepta a Notariis in designando Eradio [Eraclio] 
presbjrtero 313 

18. ad Januarium • 54 

19. ad Januarium • 55 

[31. ad Probam 130 

137. ad Donatum 100 

^35* ad Severum no 

[37. ad Clerum Hipponensem • • 78 

[47. ad Proculeianum • 33 

[49. ad Profuturum 38 

[53. ad Donatistas 141 

[54. ad Publicokm 47 

[56. ad Probam 131 

[58. ad Marcellinum 139 

[59. ad MarceUinum • 133 

[60. ad Apringium 134 

[63. ad Glorium, Eleuraum, et cseteros 43 

[63. ad Eleusium 44 

[64. ad Emeritum Donatistam 87 

[65. ad Generosnm 53 

[66, ad Donatistas 105 

[67. ad Festum 89 

[68. ad Eusebium 34 

[69. ad Eusebium 35 

70. ad Severinum 53 

71. ad Donatistas 76 

[73. ad Crispinum 66 

178. Contra Pascentium Arianum, s. Altercatio cum Pascensio 30 App. 

:8o. ad Honoratum 338 

[87. ad Bonifacium 6 

[99.'ad Ecdidam 363 

SOS Index of Authors, 

Ordo Yetus. Ordo Notiu. 

303. ad Nectarium 91 

303. ad Maxiniinum 33 

304. ad Donatum 173 

313. ad Pancarinm 351 

315. ad P]ebem cum Ministro 368 

317. ad Victorinum 59 

335. ad Albinam 136 

333. ad BeneDatum 354 

334. ad Rusticum 355 

335. ad QuiDtianum 64 

336. ad Xantippum 65 

340. ad Seyerum 63 

341. ad Sevenim 62 

355. ad Macrobium Donatistam 108 

358. Euodii ad Augustinum 143 

361. ad Coelestinuin 309 

Tom. hi. 

I . De Doctrina Christiana Ijibri Quatuor. (t. 3. part, i .) S€BpiHS, 
3. De Fide et Symbolo Liber Unus. (t. 6,) bis terve, 

3. Enchiridion ad Laurentium, de Fide, Spe, et Caritate. (ibid.) 


4. Quaeatiunculse de Trinitate. (t. 8. append, p. 49.) subinde. 

5. De Genesi Literarum, s. ad literam. (t.3. part, i.) aemeL 

6. De Opere Monachorum Liber Unus. (t. 6.) subinde, 

7. De Spiiitu et litera, c. 11. (t. 10. p. 86.) semeL 

Tom. IV. 

I. Contra Mendacium ad Consentium Liber Unus. (t. 6. p. 

447.) semel, 
3. De Fide et Operibus Liber Unus. (ibid. p. 165.) subinde, 

3. Quflsstionum in Heptateuchum Libri Septem. Super Grene- 

sim, c. 173. Leviticum, cc. 57, 84. (t. 3. part, i.) ier, 

4. De Consensu Evangelistaium Libri Quatuor. L.i. cc.9,10. 

(t. 3. part. 3.) subinde, 

5. Octoginta Trium Qusstionum, s. De diversis QuaestionibuBy 

Liber Unus : qusest. 63. (t. 6. p. 1.) semel, 

6. Quaestiones in Vetus et Noyum Testamentum. (t.3. append. 

p. 41.) subinde, 

7. De Cura pro Mortuis gerenda, ad Paulinum, liber Unus. 

(t-3P-5i50 *«• 

8. De Catechizandis Rudibus Liber Unus. (t.6. p. 363.) subinde, 

9. De Bono Viduitatis. (t. 6. p. 369.) subinde. 

10. De Vera et Falsa Poenitentia. (ibid, append, p. 33T.) 

11. De Sermone Domini in Monte libri Duo. (t. 3. part. 3.) 

13. Ezpositio Epistolse ad Romanos Inchoata. (ibid. p. 935.) 

alphabetically arranged. SOS 

Tom. V. tot. 
De Civitate Dei ad MaroeUinum Libri "^^giDti Duo. (t.7. tot.) 

Tom. VI. 

1. De Hflerenbiu ad Quodvultdenm. (t.8. p. i.) §€qn88kne» 

2. Contra Faustum Manichaeum. (ibid. p. 183.) s^epe. 

3. Contra Maziminnm Arianorom Episoopum, a. CoUatio cum 

Maximino. (ibid. p. 649.) ter, 

4. De Bono Conjugali contra Jovinianum. (t.6. p*3i9*) iubinde, 

5. De Adulterinis Conjugiis ad Pollentium Libri Duo. (ibid. 

p. 387.) ««pe. 

Tom. VII. 

1. Psalmus contra Partem Donati. (t 9. p. i.) 9emel 

2. Contra Epistolam Parmeniani. (ibid. p. 11.) Mp«. 

3. Contra Literas Petiliani, Donatistse, Cirtensis Episcopi, libri 

Tree. (ibid. p. 305.) 8€Bpnu, 

4. Contra Cresconium Granmiaticttm> Donatistam, libri Qua- 

tuor. (ibid. p. 389.) gapius. 

5. Contra Gaudentium, Donatistam Epiacopum, libri Duo. 

(ibid. p. 635.) Mbinde. 

6. De BaptismOj contra DonatiataSy Libri Septem. (ibid. p. 79.) 

7. De Unico Baptismo contra Petilianum. (ibid. p. 537.) bis 

8. De Unitate Ecclesifle Liber Unus, a. Epiatola ad Catholicoa 

contra Donatistas. (ibid. p. 337 bis. 

9. BreviculuB CoUationis cum Donatistas. (t. 9. p. 547.) stspe, 

10. Post Collationem ad Donatistas liber Unus. (ibid. p. 581.) 


1 1. De Gestis cum Emerito Donatistarum Episcopo Liber Unus. 

(ibid. p. 625.) aemel, 
13. Contra Fulgentium Donatistam. (ibid, append, p. 3.) h%$ 

13. De Peocatomm Meritis et Remissione, et de Baptismo Par- 

Yulorum ad Marcellinum Libri Tres. (t. 10. p. i.) S4Bpe, 

14. De Nuptiis et Concupiscentia ad Valerium Libri Duo. (ibid. 

p. 379.) 

15. Contra Duas Epistolas Pelagianorum Libri ad BoniiiBcium 

Quatuor. (ibid. p. 411.) aubmde, 

16. Contra Julianum Pelagianum, s. Hseresis Pelagians Defen- 

sorem, Libri Sex. (ibid. p. 411.) submde. 

17. De Prsedestinatione Sanctorum, ad Prosperum et Hilarium 

Liber, (ibid. p. 790.) bu terve. 

18. De Bono [al. Dono] Perseverantise [ad eosdem] liber, (ibid. 

p. 833.) SiBpe, 

19. De Gratia et libero Arbitrio, ad Valentinum et cum iUo 

Monacbos Adrumentinos Liber Unus. (ibid. p. 718.) semel. 

S04 Index of AnthorSj 

30. De Coneptioiie et Gratia, [ad eoadem] liber Unus. (ibid. 

ai. Contra Pelagianoa Hypognostioon, a. Hyponmeaticon. (ibid. 

append, part. i. p. 6.) bis terve, 

Tom. VIII. tot. 
Enarrationea in Paalmos. (t. 4. tot.) sopttmiM. 

Tom. IX. 

I. In Eyangelium Jobannia Ezpositio, sive Tractatua 134. (t 3. 

part. a. p. 389.) S4Bpius, 
3. In Epiatolam Jobannia ad Parthoa Tractatua 10. (ibid. 

p. 835.) subinde. 

3. De Decern Cbordis, c. 3. [inter Sermonea, Sermo Nonas.] 

(t. 5. p. 48.) semeL 

4. De Cantico Novo, c. 3. (t. 6. p. 590.) semeL 

5. De Quarta Feria, aive Cultura Agri Domini, Sermo. (ibid. 

p. 597.) semel, 

6. De Symbolo Rdei ad Catecbumenoa. (ibid. p. 547.) sulrinde. 

Tom. X. tot. Sbrmonbs bt Homili^b. (t. 5. tot. et t. 6.) 
I. De Verbis Domini : 

Ord. ^ tl. Ord. Bd. Boned. Did. Y«t. Ofd. Ed. Benad. 
5 61. 33 III. 

7 loo- 33 I". 

" 71- 35 "3- 

16. . .Ap.Gratian. 83. 44 98. 

33 93* 46 132. 

38 84. append. 48 134. 

30 106. 

3. De Verbis Apostoli : 

a 131. 17 159. 

8 174. 19 178. 

10 176. 33 164. 

14 294. 34 167. 

15 169. 39. 181. 

3. Quinqnaginta Homiliae : 

13 353. append. 37 353. 

16 353. append. 38 17. 

19 38^- 33 54- append- 

»4 383- 41 393- 

25 339- 4a 68- 

36 300. append. 50 351. 

4. Homilise de Tempore : 

39 136. append. 46 106. append. 

43* • • 103. append. 54 4. append. 

44 iia. append. 56 141. append. 

45 151- 71 6. append. 

alphabetically arranged. 90B 

(MLYtt Ord. Rd. B«Dad. (ML Y tt Ord. Ed. Bened. 

loi 33. append. 160 376. 

115 341. append. i6a 171. append. 

116 367. append. 163 168. append. 

119 313. 164 334. 

139 340. 173 174. append. 

143 341. 315 365. append. 

144 333. 337 49. 

151 354. 351 380. append. 

155 345* 353 339* ftpP^^- 

5. Homiliae de Sanctis : 

1 315. append. I3 376. 

6. HomOise de Divenis : 

10 148. 83 336. 

II 360. 83 337. 

13 361. 86 333. 

17 ^- 94 3>^« 

45 37- loi 373- 

48 56. 109 300. 

49 355- "o 301- 

50 35<>. "3 310- 

63 51. 130 361. 

74 310. 131 363. 

75 313. 133 33. 

Sermonea Quadraginta a Sinnondo editi, cum Notia. Paris. 
1631. 8yo. 

I S. 3<5 358. 

18 356. 37 359. 

19 359- 39 340. 

26 305. 

In Appendioe ad Sermones Quadraginta : ad Neophytos Sermo 

3. (t. 6. append. Serin. 387.) 

Secundum Editionem Benedictinorum : 

Serm. 337. (t. 5. p. 973.) 

300. (ibid. p. 1 3 18.) 

301. (ibid. p. I33I.) 

65 AuRBLiANi Regnla: (ap. Historiam Flagellantium^ Pans. 1700. 

8yo.) semeh 

66 AusoNiuSy Decimua Magnus. Gradarum Actio pro Gonaulatu. 380 

(int. Opera, Ed. Delph. Paria. 1730. 410.) aemel, 

67 AuxiLiua, Presbyter. De Ordinationibus Formosi : ad caloem 890 

Morini, De Ordinationibus. Paris. 1655. fol. (Antwerp. 1695. 
fol.) Item, ap. 1. 17. Biblioth. Max. atque Mabillon. Analect. 
Vet. 38. &c. semel, 

68 AviTus, Alcimusy Viennensis Archiepisoopus. Opuscula : ap. t. 8. 490 

Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. Item, Velprinwrn edita vel install 
rata studio Jac. Sirtnondi, ctifitf Nota etiam addita smtt, ap. 

806 Index of Authors^ 

t. 9. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. (ap. QaUandium, t. 10. 
pp. 70 1 9 seqq.) bis. 

69 AzoRius, Johannes, e Soc, Jes. Institationes Morales. (Lugdun. 1600 

1632. 3 torn. fol. ^) semel, 


70 Bacchiarius, Monachus. De Recipiendis Lapsis : ap. t. 3. 440 

Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. ap. t. 6. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 
1677. (ap. Gatta$idium, [De Reparatione Lapsi,] t. 9. p. 188.) 

71 [Baccuinius in Agnellum. See afterwards, Roche's Memoirs 

qf Literature, Sfc, No. 664.] 
73 Bal^busi^, 8. Baleus, [Bale,'] Johannes. De Sciiptoribus Britan- 1553 

nicis. 1548. 4to.o 
73 Balsamon, Theodoras, Patriarcha Constantinopolitanus. (Ga- 11 80 
nones SS. Apostolorum, Condliorum Generalium et Provincia- 
lium. Sanctorum Patrum Epistolae Ganoniess, quibus prsefixus 
est Photii Nomocanon, id est, Canonum Conciliatio, cum com- 
mentariis amplissimis Gr. et Lat. Gentiani Herveti. Paris. 1630. 
fol.P) S4epius» 

I. Commentarius in CSanones Apostolorum et Conciliorum. (ap. 
Beyeregii Pandect. 1. 1. Oxon. 1673. fol.) 

In Can. Apost. 59. (Oper. Bals. p. 363.) 

Basil. 7. (p. 938) 

In C. Antioch. c. 10. (p. 816.) 

Carthag. c. 18. (p. 549.) 

Chalcedon. (p. 334.) 

Constantinopolitan. c. 3. (p. 301.) 

^— Laodic. cc. 31, 39. (pp. 834, seqq.) 

Neocsesar. c. 5. (p. 786.) 

m The first Edition of this book was oontaining only Jive centuries of writ- 

pablished at Rome in 1600. It has ers. Bat to these Bale afterwards 

been often reprinted, at Leyden, Lyons, added four more centuriett with many 

Venice, Cologne, and some other pUoes. improvements on the first Edition. 

^ Bom at CoTe, near Dunwich in This second and enlarged work was 

Suffolk, in 1495. Educated among the printed by Oporinns, Basil. 1559. fol. 

Carmelites of Norwich, and at Jesus I have not seen a copy of either edi- 

CoUege, Cambridge. Became a Pro- tion. The work itself is incidentally 

testant at the instigation of Went- referred to only once or twice in the 

worth. Protected against the Romish text of the Antiquities, but not cited 

clergy by Cromwell, the favourite of in the notes. 

Henry VIII. Made Bishop of Ossory p The Author dtes Balsamon for the 

in 1552, by Edward VI. Died^ 1563. most part through Beveridge, (Pan- 

o This is the date, without plaoe^ dectae^ t. i.) or Jusiellus, (Bibliotheca 

as it stands in my Ancestor's original Juris Canonici, t. 2.) or Leunelatmis^ 

Index; but Chalmers (Biograph. Diet. (Jus Gneco-Romanum, t. i, z.) but I 

V. 3. p. 368.) says, the Book was first have verified chiefly firom the sepa- 

pabli^ed at Ipswieh in 1549, 4to., rate Edition of Balsamon as above, 

under the title of lUuttrium Majorit sometimes however making use of 

Britannia Scriptorum, hoe estj Anglia, Beveridge. 
Cambria, et Sooiia, Summarium, and 

alphabetically arranged. ^7 

In C. NicsBn. cc. 6, 9, 16. (pp. 385, 8eqq.) 
— Nicsen. 2. al. Univers. 7. (p. 494.) 

Tnillan. cc. 61, 83, 97. (pp. 355, seqq.) 

In Tempi. Soph. c. 3. (p. 583.) 

3. CoUectio EcclesiasticanuD Gonstitutionum, Gr. et Lat., cum 
Notis Leundavii et Fabroti. (ap. JusteUum in Biblioth. Jur. 
Canon. Paris. 1661. fol.) 

3. Responaa ad Varias Qusestiones Juris Canonici. (ap. Leun- 

clavium, in Jur. Gr. Rom. passim per U. 3, 5, 7. Franoofurt. 
1594. 3 tom. fol.) 

4. Commentarius in Photii Nomocanon. (ap.JuiteUum, ut supra.) 

74 Baluzius % [BaJuze,'] Stephanus. 1680 

I. NotflB ad Gratianum et Antonium Augustinum de Emenda- 
tione Gratiani. Paris. 1673. 8yo. Vid. supr. sub Ant. 
Augustin. (ap. t. 3. Operum, Lucse, 1767. fol.) aubinde, 

3. Notse ad Rheginonem, cum Appendice Auctorum Veterum. 
(Paris. 1671. 8vo.) bis terve, 

3. Ad Hom. I. Csesarii Arelatensis. (ap. t. 37. Biblioth. Max. 

Lugdun. 1677.) semel, 

4. Concilia GaUise Narbonensis. (Paris. 1668. fol.) aemel, 

5. Nova CoUectio Conciliorum '. (Paris. 1683. fol.) semeL 

6. Notse ad Tres Dissertationes Petri de Marca de Primatibus, 

&c. (Paris. 1669. 8vo.) Vid. infr. No. 495. subinde. 

7. Miscellanea, sive CoUectio Veterum Monumentorum. Paris. 

1683. 4 vol. 8yo. (Miscellaneorum Libri Septem, h.e., Col- 
lectio Veterum Monumentorum, quse hactenus latuerunt in 
Variis Codicibus ac BibUothecis. Paris. 1678 — 17 15. 7 vol. 
8vo. ■) bis terve. 

75 Bardbsanbs, Syrus. De Fato : ap. Etuebium PampkUum, De 173 

Pneparatione EvangeUca. (Colon. 1688. fol.) Vid. infr. 
No. 375. semel. 
16 Barlow, Thomas, D.D. Bishop of Lincoln. 

I. Genuine Remains \ containing Divers Discourses, theolo- 
gical, philosophical, historical, &c. (London, 1693. 8vo.) 

4 Qoi laudabilem operam yariis scrip- ■ My Ancestor eeemfl to haye been 

tis ecdesiasticis reoenaendia atqoe U- acquainted only with the first four 

Instrendis oonsecravit. Walch. Bibl. volumes of this Edition. A third 

Fatrist. ut supr. His most esteemed Edition was published at Luca, 1761, 

works are his Miscellanea in 4 tom. in four tomes, folio, of which Walchius 

fohy taid his CaffUularia Reffum Fran- (Biblioth. Fatrist. ut supr. p. 210) 

eonun in a tom. fol. Bom at SuUe, says, N'ovo ardme digetia et non paucis 

1 63 1. Died, 1718. numumeniiit inediiis aueta prodieruni 

' This work, not exceeding one vo- h4ee Miseellanea opere et ttwHo Jo, 

lume, contains such pieces as are want- Dom. Mansi. 

ing or imperfect in the edition of the ^ Bishop Barlow's Cate$ ofConacienee 

Coundls by Labbe and Cossart. Ba- and his Genuine Remains were pub- 

luxe died in 1 7 18, when engaged, though liahed posthumously from his original 

more than eighty years old, in preparing papers by Sir Peter Pett, but in oon- 

that edition of Cyprian, which was after- trsuliction to his own desire as expressed 

waids published by Maran, Paris, 1 726. in his wilL 

S08 Index of Authors^ 

2, Letter to Bishop Usher. See in Usher's life and Letters, 
(Lond. 1686. fol.) Letter 2221 or Letter 244, according to 
Dr. Elrington's edition of Usher's Whole Works, (v. 16. 
Dublin, 1847.) 9enuil, 

77 Barnabas, Sanctus. Epistola, Gr. et Lat. (ap. Cotelern Patres 34 

Apostolicos, t. I. Antwerp. 1698. fol.) ap. Gallandium, t. i. 

78 Baronius, Soranus Caesar, e Congregat. Oratorii Sanctse Ro- 1570 

man» Ecclesiae, Presbyterus Cardinahs. Annales Ecdesiastici, 
&c. (Antwerp. 1612 — 1629. 13 torn, fol.) f Antwerp. 1670. 
12 torn. fol. Ed. Opt., Annales Ecclesiastici, una cum Critica 
Historico-Chronologica P. Ant. Pagii, in qua Rerum Narratio 
defenditur, illustratur, suppletur, Ordo Temporum corrigitur, 
et Periodo Giseco-Romana munitur, cum Continuatione Ray- 
naldi, Notis Mansi, &c. Lucse, 1738-57. 38 torn. fol. passim. 
79 Baronii Note ad Martyrologium Romanum. Colon. 1603. 
4to. (Paris. 1607. fol.) Vid. infr. Martyrologium Romanum, 
No. 507. 

80 Barrow u, Isaac, D.D. 1663 

I. A Treatise on the Pope's Supremacy, (in vol. i. of Works, 
Lond. 1687. fol. ') See also in vol. 7. of the 8vo. Edition, 
by Rev. T. S. Hughes, Lond. i83i.y) bis. 

81 [Basibr, or Basire, Isaac, D.D. Diatribe de Antiqua Ecclesi» 

Britannicse Libertate. (London, 1687. 8vo.) First printed at 
Bruges in 1659. 8vo. See afterwards, Richard Watson, No. 
817. semel.'] 

82 Basilius, Magnus sive Sanctus, Csesarese Cappadocise Episco- 370 

pus. Opera Omnia, Gr. et Lat. t Paris* 1638. fol. Item, 
Editio Juliani Gamieri' ad Msptos Codices Gallicanos, Vati- 
canos, Florentinos, et Anglicos, nee non ad Antiquiores Edi- 
tiones castigata, multis aucta, Notis, Variis Lectionibus il- 
lustrata, &c. Paris. 1721-30. 3tom. fol. (Item, Editio Parisina 
altera, emendata et Aucta, 1839. 3 tom. in 6 voL 4to.) passim, 

Tom. I. juzt. Ed. Paris. 1638. 

1. Homiliae in Hezaemeron Novem. (t. i. part. i. p. i.) 

2. Homiliae in Quosdam Psalmos. (ibid.) 

Prooem. in Psalmos. (p. 127.) 
Horn, in Ps. 14. (p. 151.) 
28. (p. 161.) 

n The immediate predecessor of Sir ^ This is the Editio Optima of St. 

Isaac Newton as Lacaaiaii Lecturer in Basil's Works, of which the Paris £di- 

Mathematics at Cambridge in 1663, tion of 1839 i^ ^ reprint. This latter 

and Master of Trinity College in 1677. I have used for the purpose of verify- 

' Edited by Archbp. Tillotson. ing citations, being unable to procure 

7 This edition in 7 vols. Sto. is bad ; any other copy of Basil just when I was 

for in it most of Barrow's learned quo- at work on the numerous references to 

tations are unaccountably omitted. The that Author. The original edition in 

best is the copy which issued from the Greek only, with a preface by Erasmus, 

Chibrd University Press in 1830, in 8 was printed by Frobenius, Basil. 1533. 

vols. 8to. fol. 

alphabetically arranged, 209 

Horn, in Ps. 37. (append. 1. 1. part. 2. p. 513.) 

45. (t. I. part, I. p. 242.) 

— — — 48. (ibid. p. 353.) 

59. (p. 268.) 

115. (append. 1. 1. part. 2. p. 525.) 

3. De Jejunio Homiliae Don. (t. 2. part. i. pp. i, 14.) 

4. Homilise 7. In Ditiscentes [Divites]. (ibid. p. 71.) 

5. Homilia 16. Ezhortatio [Horn. Ezbortatoria] ad Baptismum. 

(ibid. p. 158.) 

6. Homilia 18. In Barlaam Mart. (ibid. p. 194.) 

7. Homilia 21. In aliquot Scriptune locos, dicta in Lacizis. 

(t. 3. part. 2. p. 836.) 
8« libri Quinqne advenus Eunomium Hsereticmn. (t. i. part. i. 
p. 292. 

Tom. 2. ynxt. Ed. Paris. 1638. 

1. Liber de Spiritu Sancto. (t. 3. part. i. p. i.) 

2. Morales Regube Septuaginta, c. 36. (t. 2. part. i. p. 357.) 

3. De Institutione Monachorum, al. Sermo Asceticus. (int. Mo- 

ralia. t. 2. part. i. p. 445.) 

4. De BapCismo Libri Duo. (append, t. 2. part. 2. p. 885.) 

5. Reguls Majoresy fusius tractatse. (int. Ascetica. t. 2. part. i. 

P- 457-) 

6. R^fulse Breviores, breviua tractatse. (ibid. part. 2. p. 581.) 

7. Gonstitutionum Monasticarum caput 22. (ibid. p. 814.J 

Tom. 3. juzt. Ed. Paris. 1638. 

I. Epistola Canonica ad Ampbilocbium. Vide apud tom. 2. 
Conciliomm, ex Editione Labb. et Gossart., Lutet. Paris. 

1. Canones i — 14. (ap. Oper. Basil, int Epistolas Secunds 

ClassiSy Ep. 1889 Canonica Prima.) 

2. Canones 17 — 49. (ibid. Ep. 199, Canonica Secunda.) 

3. Canones 51 — 80. (ibid. Ep. 217, Canonica Tertia.) 
a. Epistolae Varise. (t. 3. part, i et 2.) 

10. ad Eusebinm. [239.] 
47. ad Athanasium. [61.] 
52. ad Eundem. [69.] 
61. ad Ocddentales. [90.] 
63. ad Neocsesarienses. [207.] 
68. ad Senatum Tyanorum. [97.] 

73. ad Monachos suos. [226.] 

74. ad Ocddentales. [263.] 

75. ad Episcopos suos. (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 2.) 
82. ad Pfttropbilum. [244.] 

181. ad Chorepiscopos. [54.] 

185. ad Ecdesiam Pemasensem. [62.] 


810 Index ofAiUh4>r9j 

1 86. ad Conjugem Arinthan Pnetoris. [369.] 
197. ad Diodonim. [160.] 
341. Sine Inscriptioiie. [155*] 

342 [313] 

343 [88.] 

^44 [370.] 

364. ad Euaebtum Samoeatenaem. [95.] 

379. ad Modeatum Pnefectum. [104.] 
389. ad Cnsariam Patriciam. [93.] 
393. ad Eulogium et cseteros. [365.] 
403. ad AmphOochium. [318.] 
413. ad Gregorium. [169.] 
3. LJturgia. (t. 3. part. 3. p. 956.) Item, apud t. 3. Biblioth* 
Patr. Gr. Lat. siye Auctar. Ducsean. Paris. 1634. foL 

83 Basilius, Seleads Episcopus, s. Seleucieosia. Opera, Paris. 448 

1633. fol.* Citat. ap. C. Chaloedon. Act. i. (ap. Gondliomm 
t.4. p. 351.) semel, 

84 [Basilius **, Cilizy Antiochenns Ptesbyter. Contra Jobannem 497 

Scytopolitam Libri Sexdecim: ap. Thotn Bibliotb. ood. T07. 
Vid. infr. No. 607. semel,'] 

85 Basnaob, [die FlottemanmUe^ Samuel. De Sacris et Eccdesias- 1680 

ticis Exercitationes Historico-Criticee, in quibus Gardinalis Ba- 
ronii Annales ab Anno 35, in quo Casaubonus desut, ezpen- 
duntur: turn et multa adversus Bellarminum, Ligbtfootnm, 
Pagium, et alios, discutiuntur. (Ultraject. 1693. 4to.) semel 

86 Baud RAND, Antbony. Additiones ad Ferrarii Lexicon Geo- 

grapbicum. Vid. infr. Ferrarms, No. 394. (Paris. 1670. fol.) 

87 Baylb, M. Pens^ sur le Comete. [Miscellaneous Reflexions 

occasioned by a Comet.] (Rotterdam, 1705. 2 vol. i3mo.) 

88 Beda, Venerabilie. Opera, Colon. 161 3. 4 torn. fol. (Opera 701 

hac postrema Editione diligenter recognita et sedulo correcta. 
Colon. Agripp. 1688. 8 torn, fol.) subinde, 
I. De iEquinoctio Vemali. (t. i. p. 331.) 
3. De Tabemaculo. (t. 4. p. 837.) 

3. De Ratione Temporum. (t. 3. p. 43.) 

4. In T Corintb. 10. (t. 6.) 

5. Gentis Anglorum Ecdesiastica Historia, Libri Quinque. Ap. 

t. 3. Ed. Colon. 1688. (Seorsim, cura Jobannis Smith, 
S. T. P. Cantabr. 1733. fol.) Also in the second volume of 
The Complets Works in Latin and English, by the Rey. J. 
A. Giles, D.C.L. London, 1843. 13 yols. 8vo. siepius, 

ft The same volume contains the Emperor of Constantinople, and the 
Worics of Gregory Thuunatargns. Pope of the same name. 

^ Contemporary with AnastaiiiiB, 

alphabeticaUy arranged. 211 

89 BxLLARMiKvs, RobertuB, Ecdes. Rom. CardiiMdis. Disputa- 1590 

tkmefl de Controreraiis Christiaiue Fidei advenua htgm temporis 
Hseredcoe. Acoessit Judicium de Libro Concordia Luthenmo- 
rmn. Ingoktad. 1590. et PariB. 1620. 3 tom. foL f Colon. 1615. 
4 tom. fol. (Opera Omnia, nunc postremo ab ipso Authore 
recognita, cum IndidbuSy &c. Cdon. Agripp. 1617-30. 8 tom. 
in 4 yol. lb).) 9ttp9. 
I. De Verbo Dei non Scripto. (t. i. p. 165.) 
^ a. De Conciliis et Ecclesia. (t. 3. p. 1.) 

3. De dericiB et Saoerdotibua. (ibid. p. 339.) 

4. De Monacbis et Religioeis cteteria. (ibid. p. 347.) 

5. De Beatitttdine et Cuitu Sanctorum, (ibid. p. 689.) 

6. De eorum Reliquiis et Imaginibvs. (ibid. p. 763.) 

7. De Eucharistia. (t. 3. p. 387.) 

8. De Sacrificio Misne. (ibid. p. 779.) 

9. De Poenitentia. (ibid. p. 974.) 

10. De Matrimonio. (ibid. p. 1391.) 

11. De Bonis Operibua. (t. 4. p. 1134.) 

13. De Scriptoribua Ecdesiaaticis. In tom. 7. Ed. Colon. Agripp. 
1617-30. Separatim, Colon. 163 1. 8vo. (Colon. 1684. 
8vo.) iMnde, 

90 [Benbdicti Regula Monacborum : (ap. Historiam Flagellantium. 801 

Paria. 1700. 8yo.) Item ap. GaUandium, 1. 11. p. 398. semeh'] 

91 Bbrnardus, Sanctus, Abbas Primus Claraeyallensis. [De Ctoir- 11 15 

iMwaf.] Opera, tP&ns. 164a fol. Opera, post Horstium denuo 
recognita, aucta, et in meliorem digesta Ordinem, &c. a Jo. Ma- 
billonio, Mon. Benedict Paris. 1667. 3 tom. fol. et 9^0!. 8vo. 
(£d. Nov. Paris. 1839. 4to. 6 vol. in 4.) 

I. De Consideratione, 1. 3. c. 13. semd, 

3. Vita Malachi, c. 5. bis. 
93 Bbrnoldus. De Opere Romano : (ap. Cassandrum in liturgi- 1066 
cis. Paris. 1636. fol.) Vid. infr. No. 146. nmel, 

93 Bbrtramus, s. Ratramnus, Corbeiensis Mon. et Presb. De Cor- 840 

pore et Sanguine Domini Liber, ab omni Novitatis aut Hseresis 
Calviniaiue Inventione aut Suspicione Vindicatus, Autbore 
Jaoobo Boileau^'. Paris. 17 13. i3roo. (ap. Flacium, in Catalogo 
Testium Veritatis. Genev. 1608. 8vo.) bis terve, 

94 Bbybridob^, William, D.D. Bisbop of St. Asapb. 2YN0AI- 1704 

KON, sive Pandects Canonum SS. Apostolorum et Conciliorum 

c Who translated the tract into ]eaa*8 Tersion and not^s^ and detections 

Wench before the year 1688^ when it of his unftir dealings in both. Mj 

was republished at London in Latin, Ancestor cites Bertram, through Fla- 

with an English version by Mr. William cius, al. Illyricus. 

Hopkins, accompanied also by an His- d Bom at Barrow in Leicestershire, 

torical Dissertation touching the author 1636. Wrote his book De Linguarum 

and hu work by Dr. Peter Allix. Sec OrientaHum Neeetsitate at eighteen 

Bd. Lend. 1688. 8yo. The Appendix years of age, two years after his admis- 

contains many strictures on Mr. Boi- sion to St. John's College, Cambridge. 

P 2 

212 Index of Authors^ 

ab Ecdesia Grseca receptorom ; necnon Ganonicarum SS. Pa- 
tnim Epistolarom, Gr. et Lat.» una cum Scholiis Antiquorum 
singulis eorum annezis et Scriptis aliis hue spectantibus ; 9tc> 
(Oxon. 1673-^3. 2 torn, fol.) 8€Bpiu8, 

I. Pandects. See the citations referred to under Petnu Alex- 
andrinus, Balsamon, Zonaras, and others. 

3. Annotationes in Ganones Apostolos, i, 7, 10, 149 83. 

3. Annotationes in Goncilia, 

Ancyranum, cc. 2, 13, 15. 
Antiochenum, c. 3. 
Ghalcedonense, cc. 3, 6, 33. 
Gonstantinopolitanumy c. 3. 
Nicsenum, cc. 8, 1 1, 14. 
Trullanum, cc. 36, 74. 

4. Godex Ganonum Vindicatus. (ap. Appendicem Cotelern ad 

Patres Apostolicos. Antwerp. 1698. fol.) 9ubi$ide, 

95 Bbza ^ Theodorus. 1563 

I. Annotationes in Novum Testamentum. Geney. 1583. 3 tom. 

fol. (Ed. R. Stephani, Geney. 1556. 3 tom. fol.) Item, Gan- 

tabr. 1664. fol. subinde. 
3. Epistolae Theologicae. (Geney. 1573. 8yo.) £p. 3. ad Thorn. 

Tlllium. semel, 

96 BiBLioTHECA Patrum Latina : [sive. Magna Bibliotheca Vete- 

rum Patrum, et Antiquorum Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum, 
primo quidem a Margarino De la Eigne'; ex alma Sorbonie 

Yicar of Baling, Middlesex, about 1660, it receiyed the name of Magna BibUo- 

Rector of St Petei^8> Comhill, in 1672. theea. It was still ftirther augmented 

Consecrated to St. Asaph in 1704. Died and published under the same title in 

in 1 708. Tlie great reviver and rtf- Latin only at Paris, in seventeen tomes, 

itorer of primitive piety. 1644, and reprinted there in 1654, 

« Bom at Yezelay, 1519. Abjured which edition was my Ancestor's book, 

Popery in 1548. Theologiod Professor and is termed by him Bibliotheca Pa- 

at Genera, 1559* Suc^eded to the trum Latina, Still greater additions 

offices and influence of Calvin in 1565. raised this Bibliotheca to twenty- seven 

Died in 1605. volumes, when it was dignified with the 

f The first Bibliotheca by De la title of Maximaj being published at 

Bigne, containing above two hundred Lyons in 1677, and continued the 

authors, was published at Paris in 1 575, standard work of the time, till eclipsed 

in eight volumes, folio. An Appendix by the Bibliotheca o/GaUnndiMt, which 

followed in 1579, making a ninth vo- was published at Venice, between 1765 

lume. These were reprinted for a and 1788, in fourteen volumes. This 

second edition in nine volumes again at is generally regarded as the most aocn- 

Paris, 1589. A third edition came out raie of the BibUothec€ePatntm, 

in 16 10, with 9,n Auctarium making a Greek or Latin; and, although many 

tenth volume. It was once more re- optucula which are to be found in the 

produced, in 1624, with an Auctarium ifaxima are rejected by Gallandiut, 

in two volumes, by Fronto Ducaeus, he has given one hundred and eighty 

which is also tmned Bibliotheca Pa- authors which do not appear in that 

trum Grmco-Latinoy as described be- more voluminous collection. GaUan" 

low. All these BibUathecee were in </iti4 comprises three hundred and eighty 

Greek and Latin. The work was after- pieces. The work is accurately and ele- 

wards raised to fourteen volumes, and gantly printed : but the date of this 

published at Cologne, anno 1622, when Bibliotheca being posterior to my An- 

alphabetically arranged. SIS 

Bchola, oeleberrimo Theologo^ Doctore PBrisiensi, composita; 
postea studio doctissimoniin Coloniensium Theologonim ac 
Profeesornm aucta; noDc vero additione CC. cirdter Auctorom, 
tarn Grtecorum» qui in Editione Colonienn, quam Latiuorum, 
qui in Panaiensibus deaiderabantur, locupletatai, accuratiasime 
emendata, et In 17 tomoa dietributa, &c.) Paris. 1654. 17 torn, 

Thi$ BtbUotheea is rtferred to hy Joseph Bingham for the 
Authors, whose names follow : 

Albinus Flaccus^ seu AlcuinuSy Laurentius, t. 3. 

1. 10. Leontius, t. 4. pt. 2. 

Alcimus AvituSy t. 8. Microlo£^9 1. 10. 

Amalarius, 1. 10. Ordo Romanus, 1 10. 

Arator, t. 8. Pachomius^ 1. 15. 

Bacchiarius, t. 3. Padanus, t. 3, 

Ca»arius^ t. a. Philastrius, t. 4. 

DidymuSy t. 9. Primasius, 1. 1. 

Eligius, t. 2, Rabanus Maurus, 1. 10. 

EnnodiuSy 1. 15. Radulpbua de Rivo, 1. 10. 

Fulbeitus, t. 3. SeduHus, t. 8. 

Gaudentius, t. a. Strabo, Walafridus, 1. 10. 

Gelasius, t. 4. Theophilus Alezandrinus, t. 3. 

GildaSy t. 5. Victor Antiochenns, 1. 1. 

Honorius, t. 9. Victor Uticenab, t. 7. 

Idadus, t. 4. Victorinus Petavionensis, 1. 1. 

Junilius Afer, 1. 1. Zeno Veronensis, t. 2. 

96* [BiBLiOTHBCA Maxima Veterum Patrum et antiquorum Scrip- 
torum Ecdesiasticorum, primo quidem e Margarino De la 
Bigne in lucem, edita, &c. . . . bac tandem Editione Lugdu- 
nensi . . . novis supra centum Auctoribus et Opusculis haotenus 
desideretis locupletata. (Lugdun. 1677. 27 torn. fol. 

This BibUotheca was consulted hy Qrischomus, and has also 
been used for the purpose qf this new edition of Bingham's 
works, for verifying citations from the Authors, whose 
names follow J except where reference is made expressly to 
QaUandius, as below. 

Alcimus Avitus, t. 9. (G. 1. 10.) Bacchiarius, 1 6. (G. t. 9.) 
Amalarius, 1. 14. ^ Ceesarius Arelatensis, t. 8. (G. 

Andreas Ceesariensis, t. 5. 1. 11.) 

oestor*s era, I fbimd it adrisable to The edition of 1644 I beliere is very 

yeriiy chiefly finom the Maxima, I nre. Ittigius himaelf says he had never 

never could meet with a copy of the seen a copy : De BiblioUiedB, c. 3. s. 9. 

Magna of 16541 except once at Cheat- p. 106. See also Ittigii Index, c. 5. 

ham'8 library at Manchester, and again p. 134., c 4. p. 143., c 5. p. 145. 
at Queen's College library in Oxford. 


Index qf Authors, 

Csesaritts Nasiansenus, t. 5. 
Casfliodorusy 1. 11. (Oper. Venet* 

DidymuSy t. 4. (G. t. 6.) 
EligiuSy t ij. 
EnnodiuB, t. 9. (G. 1. 11.) 
Eusebius Emisenus, t. 6. 
Euthymius, 1. 19. (G. 1. 14.) 
Facundiu HermianensiB, 1. 10. 
FulbertuB Carnotensb, t. 18. (G. 

1. 14.) 
FulgeDtii Vita, t. 9. 
Gaudentius BrixiensiBy t. 5. 
Gelaaius Papa, t. 8. 
Germanus, 1. 13. 
JuniliuB Afer, 1. 10. (G. t. la.) 
Juyencufl, t. 4. (G. t. 4.) 
LaurentiaB, t. 9. 

Leo Magnus, t. 7. 
LeontiuB, t. 9. 
Mazimua TauriBenBia, t.6. 
MkrologuB, 1. 18. 
Ordo RomanuB, t. 9. 
OroBitiB, t. 6. (G. t. 9.) 
PachomiuB, t. 4. (G. t. 4.) 
PadanuB, t« 4. (G. t. 7.) 
PaulinuB, t. 6. 
PhilafitriuB, t. 5. (G. t. 7.) 
PrimaBiuB, 1. 10. 
RadulphuB de RIyo, t. 26. 
Strabo, WalaMdos, 1. 15. 
TheopbiluB AlezandxinuB, t. 5. 

(G. t. 7.) 
Victor AntiochenuB, t. 4. 
Victor UticenBiB, b. VitenslB, t.8. 
Zeno VeronenBiB, t. 3. (G. t. 5.)] 

97 [BiBLiOTHBCA Veterum Patnim, &c., postrema Lngdunensi 
longe locupletior atque accuratior, cura et Btudio Andr. Gral- 
landiif, Presb. Congreg. Oratorii. (Venet. 1765-88. 14 torn, fol.) 

I^ii Bibliotheca has been used for verifying citations qf the 
Authors, whose names follow, in addition to those marked 
by the hmar brackets just above : 

AmpbilocbiuB, t. 6. Macarius iEgyptiuB, t. 7. 

AnastasiuB Bibliotbecariua, 1. 13. Mamertus Claudianus, 1. 10. 
AnaBtasiua Sinaita, t. la. 

Arator, t. la. 
Athenagoras, t. a. 
CommodianuB, C. 3. 
EulogiuB, t. la. 
FauBtinuB et MarcellinuB, t. 7. 
FlrmicuB MatemuB, t. 5. 
Gildaa Sapiena, t. la. 
HippolytuB, t. a. 

Marceilini Chronicon, 1. 10. 
PamphiluB Martyr, t. 4. 
Proclus CoDBtantinopolitanttB, 

t. 9. 
SedoliuB, t. 9. 
ValerianuB, 1. 10. 
Victor TiinunenBiB, Chronicoii, 

t. la. 
VictorinuB PetavionenBia, t. 4. 

98 BiBLioTHBCA PatmiD Greeco-Latina per Fronton. Duc»iim>^, 
[aive Auctarium Ducseanum, under whicb name tbe Autbor 
Bometimes refera to it,] (Paria. 1634. a torn, fol.) subinde. 

f See the latter part of the pre- 
ceding note. 

h This book, copies of which I have 
■een and handled at the Bodleian, Sion 
College, and Cheatham'i Library at 
Manchester, is dedicated to Pope Ur- 
ban VIII. by the Bibliopol^r sub Navit 
IntigfU, (see the figure of an ancient 
ship in the title-page,) Consorlea Son^ 

nU Fratres et Ifieronymus Dr&uardus, 
appearing at Paris in 1624, at the same 
time with a fourth edition of De la 
Bigne's Bibliotheca in ten Tolames, and 
was intended as an Auetarium or Sup* 
pkment to it, with which, in soma 
Catalogues, it seems to be confounded. 
It contains, at the end of ▼ol. %, sobu 
Nota Variorum by DncKus htauelf. 

alphabetically arranged. 215 

7M 'B\bViok\tca has been used for the cUatitmsfrom thefoUowing. 
Antiocbus Abbas, 1. 1. Hippolytus, t. a. 

Cabasilas, t. a. Jacobi litnrgia, t. a. 

Cbrysofltomi Litiirgia, t. a. LeontiuB Bysantinus, 1. 1. 

Germanus^t. a. Marci liturgia, t. a. 

GregentiuB, 1. 1. MoacbuSy t. a. 

Harmenopulas, 1. 1. Palladii Hist. Lausiac., t. a.] 

99 BiBLioTHBCA Juiis Canonici. Vid. infr. JusteUus, No. 431. 
xoo BiBLioTHBCA PatTum Auctaria Novum et Noyissimum. Vid. 

infr. Combefisius, No. 188. 
loi BiBLy Gabriel. Ezpositio Canonis Missn. (Lugdiin. 154a.) 1480 

loa B1LLIU8, Jacobus. Scbolia in Opera QrefforU Nagianseni, q. v. 
infr. No. 346. semeL 

103 BiNOHAM, Josepb, MA. The Author of this work. 1715 

I. The French Church's Apology for the Church of England. 
London, 1706. 8yo. (In the tenth volume of this new edi- 
tion of Bingham's Whole Works.) svbmde, 

a. A Scholastical History of the Practice of the Church, in re- 
ference to the Administration of Baptism by Laymen, &o. 
Lond. 171a. 8yo. The Second Part, Lond. 1714. 8vo. 
(In the ninth volume of this new edition of Bingham's 
Whole Works.) submde. 

104 BiNius, [Btfit,] Severinus. Concilia Genendia, &c. cum Notis, 1606 

&c. ^ Colon. 1 6 18. 4to. (Lutet. Paris. 1636. 4to.) bis. 

105 Blastarius, s. Blastares, Matth»us. Syntagma Canonum, Gr. 1330 

et Lat., ap. Beveregium, in Pandectis. (ap. StUcerum, in The- 
sauro Ecdesiastico, t. a. p. 7a. Amstel. i68a.) semel vel bis. 

106 Blondbllub^, [Blondel,'] David. Apologia pro Sententia 1619 

Hieronymi de Episcopis et Presbyteiis, &o. (Amstel. 1646. 
4to.) Amstel. iterum, 1647. S€epe. 

107 BocHART, Samuel, Minister of Caen. 1630 

I. Hieroioioon, sive Historia Animalium Sanctie ScriptursB. 
(Lond. 1663. a vol. fol.) semel. 
a. Geographia Sacra. Paris. 165 1. fol. (Lugdun. Batav. 1707. 
fol.) semel. 

Another Supplement to De la Bigne 4 toIb. 4to. ; the Beoond at the tame 

also came out at Paris in 1639, ^^ pUce in 16 18, 9 vols. 4to.; and the 

two Tolumes, folio. It must be ob- third at Paris in 1636, 10 toIs. 4to. 

served, that the Atteiarium Ducmanum Archbp. Usher calls faim CorUaminator 

contains some works which are omitted CcnoiHorum, for he has taken so many 

in the larger SibUotheete which followed, liberties, and made so many alterations 

such as Palladii Hiatotia Laiuiaca, and upon his own responsibility, that his 

the LiiuTffiet qf Si. Jamei, Si. Satilj editions are of no real value. 

and 8L Chrytottome. ^ Bom at Chalons in 1501. Pub- 

' Bin! was Professor of Divinity at lished bis first treatise in defence of 

Cologne, where he died in 1641. The Protestantism in 1619. Appointed an 

first edition of bis Collection of Coun- honorary Professor by the Synod of 

dls was published at Cologne in 1606, Charenton in 1645. Died in 1655. 

216 Index of Authorsj 

io8 BoBMBR, Justus Helming. Jus Parochiale. HaLe Magdebur- 1730 

gice, 1721. 4to. (Ibid. 1730. 4to.^) stmel. 
109 BoLLANDUSy Johannes. Acta Sanctorum. Antwerp. 1668. 1640 
[Acta Sanctorum, quotquot toto Orbe coluntur yel a Catbo- 
Ucis Scriptoribus celebrantur, &c. Antwerp. 1643 — 1845. 55 
tom. foL] 

Vide Acta Sanctorum Maii. (ap. Papfbrockiiiim^, Venet. 
1738-39. infr. No. 581.) mibinde, 
no Bona, Jobannes, Ecclesin Romanse Cardinalis. 1651 

I. De Rebus Liturgicis, &c. Colon. 1674. 8vo. fPuis. i67a> 
4to. Inter Opera Omnia. Antwerp. 1677. 4to. (Venet. 
1764. fol.'^) S€episnme, 
3. De Diyina Psalmodia. Paris. 1663. 4to. (Inter Opera ut supr. 
Venet. 1764. Tractat. 7. pp. 347, seqq.) f Ii^t. Oper. Ant- 
werp. 1733. submde. 
Ill [BoRROMAUs, Carolus, Cardinalis. Acta Ecdesifle Mediolanen- 1561 
sis, a Carolo Cardinali, S. Prazedis Arcbiepiscopo, condita: 
Frederid Cardinalis Borronuei jussu. (Mediolan. 1599. fol.) 

iia Brbrbwood, Edward. Professor of Astronomy in Gresbam 1596 


I. Patriarcbal Government of tbe Ancient Churcb. London, 
1687. 8yo. (The fifth tract of Certun Brief Treatises, &c. ; 
wherein tbe Primitive Institution of Episcopacy is main- 
tained, &c. Oxford, 1 641. 4to.) N.B. Ezstat Latine cum 
Usserii Opusculis duobus,&c. BremsB, 1701. lamo. tubmde, 

3. Enquiries touching tbe Diversity of Languages, &o. Lond. 
1^35* 4to. (London, 1674. 8vo.) subinde, 

3. De Ponderibus et Pretiis Nummorumo: ap. Walton. Pro- 
legomena ad Biblia Polyglotta. Vid. infr. WaUcn^ No. 816. 

113 [Brbviarium Fidei adversus Arianos. Apud Opera Sirmondi, 

1. 1, sive apud Opuscula, t.i. Vid. infr. Sirmondus, N0.708. bisJ] 

114 Brbviarium Romanum. Paris. 1509. 8vo. f Colon. 1638. 8vo. 

(Colon. Agripp. 1664. 4to.) wMnde, 

115 Brisboniubp, Barnabas. 1550 

1 Forming the sixth yolnme of time, and therefore it has not been 

Boehmer's whole works, of which the used. 

Jut EccUsiasHcum ProtesianHum, ^e, o This Work as well as the Enqvi- 

Ual«, 1710-36, occapies the first five, ries, &c. were first published by Robert 

m See also Surius, No. 739, follow- Brerewood of Chester, the Author^s 

ing. nephew, in 161 4. The full title of 

^ There is a handsome and fuller the former, thus: De Ponderihut et 

edition of the Cardinalis Rerum lAiW" Pretiis Veterum Nummorum, eorum' 

fficarum Libri by Sala, in four volumes, que cum Receniioribut CoUatione, It 

folio.. Turin, 1747. But it was not was reprinted among the Critid Sacri. 

suitable for the purposes of verifying, Ed. Amstel. 1698. t. 5. p. 149. 

being 25 years later than my Ancestor's P President of the Parliament of 

alphabetically arranged. 217 

1. De Formulis et SolemnibuB Verbis Popoli Romani. Paris. 

1658. 4to. (Francofurt. 1593. 4to.) ter. 

2. CommentariuB in L. Dominico de Spectacolis in Codice 

Theodosiano. Paris. 1606. 4to. ? 

3. De Rita Nuptianim. Paris. 1606. 4to. ? 

116 [Brockmand, Caspar Erasmus. Systema Universae Theologian. 1625 

(Hafh. 1633. 2 vol. 4to.) semel^ . 

117 BucHBRiu8> ^gidius. De DoctrinaTemporum, Commentarius 

in Victorii Canonem Paschalem. (Antwerp. 1634%. fol.) ter, 

118 BucKBRiDOB, John, [al. Johannes Roffensis,] D.D. Bishop of 

Rochester ^ De Potestate Papae in Rebus Temporalibus. 161 1 
(Lond. 1614. 4to.) nbinde. 

119 Bull, George^ D.D. Bishop of St. David's. 1705 

X. Defensio Fidei Nicaenae ez Scriptis, quae ezstant, Catholico- 
rum Doctorum, qui intra tria prima Ecdesiae Christianae 
Saecula floruerunt, in qua obiter quoque Constantino- 
politana Confessio de Spiritu Sancto Antiquiorum Testi- 
moniis astruitur. Ozon. 1685. 4to. (ap. Opera Omnia cum 
Annotationibus Johannis Emesti Grabi. Lond. 1703. fol.*) 

a. Judicium Ecdesiae Catholicse trium primorum Saeculorum 
de Necessitate credendi, quod D. N. Jesus Christus sit 
Verus Deus, assertum contra s. Episcopium. (ap. Opera, 
ut supr.) his terve, 

1 30 Burchardus, Wormatiensis. Decretorum libri Viginti, &c. 996 

(Colon. 1548. fol.) bis terve, 

131 BuRCHARDus, [al. Brocsrdus,] Bouaveutura. Descriptio Terras 1360 

Sanctae. (Colon. 1634. 8vo.) F 
133 BuRNBT^ Gilbert, D.D. Bishop of Sarum, or Salisbury. 1689 

1. The History of the Reformation of the Church of England, 

&c. London, 168 1. 2 vols. fol. (London, 17 15. 3 vols, 
fol.) bis. 

2. A Discourse of the Pastoral Care, &c. 4to. London, 17 13. 

8vo. (Lond. 1693. 8vo.) bis. 

Paris, and Ambassador to Eng^d in tion of Origen's Wofka. Paris, 1759. 

the time of Henry III. of France. He pp. 339, seqq. Also in the fifth Tolnme 

was hung at Paris in 1591, by the of Burton's Edition of Bull's Works, 

Leaguers, for being favourably dis- and the other Treatise in the sixth, 

posed to the King of Navarre, Henry Oxford University Press, 1817. 7 vols. 

IV. of France. 8vo. 

Q This is the date of the original ' Bom at Edinburgh, 1643. Edu- 

edition as given by Cave, Hist, liter, cated at Aberdeen. Studied Hebrew 

Basil. 1 741. 1. 1, p. 445., but the copy in Holland, 1663. Professor of Divi- 

1 examined at the Bodleian is dated nity at Glasgow, 1669. Attended Lord 

1 63 3. Russell at his execution, and afterwards 

r Translated to Ely in 1626. Died deprived of his preferments. Returned 

in 1631. from the Continent with the Prince of 

8 This Treatise is also to be found Orange in 1688. Consecrated to Salis- 

in its original Latin at the end of the bury the next yesr, and died in 1714 

Iburtti volume of the Benedictine Edi- or 15. 

218 Index of Authorsy 

3. AVindicatioii of the Ordinations of the Church of England : 

in which it is demonstrated that all the Essentials of Ordi- 
nation, according to the practice of the Primitive and Greek 
Churchesy are still retained in our Church. (Lond. 1677. 
8yo.) tMnde, 

4. Some Letters containing an Account of what seemed most 

remarkahle in travelling through Switzerland, Italy, and 
some parts of Germany, &c. in the years 1685 and 1686, 
&o. (S. L. 1708. 8vo.) t Rotterdam, 1686. 8vo. tubmde. 

5. The life of Bishop Bedell, [and Letters which have passed 

between Spain and England in Matters of Religion, con- 
cerning the General Motives to Roman Obedience, be- 
tween Mr. James Waddesworth, a late Pensioner of the 
Holy Inquisition in Seville, and W. Bedell.] (Lond. 1685. 
8vo.) 9emel vel bU, 

123 BuxTOBFiuB, Johannes [Senior]. Synagoga Judaica: de Ju- 1604 

dseorum Fide, Ritibus, Caeremoniis, tam Publicis et Sacria, 
quam Privatis, &c. Hanov. 1622. 8vo. (Basil. 1661. 8vo.) bU. 

124 Byzantinjs Histoiise Scriptores^. Paris. 1648. 17 tom. fol. 

(al. Corpus Byzantinie Historise. Venet. 1729. 20 tom. fol.') 


125 Cabasilas, Nicolaus. Expositio liturgise. (ap. t. 2. Biblioth. 1350 

Patr. Gr. Lat. sive Auctar. Ducsean. Paris. 1624. fol.) semeL 

126 Cabassutiub, [Cabassut,] Johannes. Notitia Ecdesiastica 1645 

Conciliorum et Canonum, Sec, Lugdun. 1670. 8vo. (Lugdun. 
1685. fol.) Venet. 1703. 8vo. semel vel bi$. 

127 Casar, Julius. De BeUo Gallico. (Lond. typis Jacob. Tonson, 

1720. 8vo.) $emeL 

128 Cjisabius, Arelatensis. 500 

I. Homilise, ap. t. 2. Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. ap. t. 8. 
Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. (Item, ap. GaUandium, 1. 11.) 
Hom. 6. De Pascha. semel. 

n ' The Historians of the Eastern commenced at Rome in i8a8, and^ is 

Empire from the foandation of Con- still in course of publication, of which 

itantinople, AD. 330, until the taking some fifty volumes have been issued, 

of that city by the Turks, 1453. They An Article on these Historians will be 

contain a prodigious collection of cu- found in the Edinburgh Review, 50. 85.' 

rious facts and innumerable illnstra- See Darling's CyclopKdia Bibliogra- 

tions of manners and usages, with much phica ; London, 1 854. 

valuable iofbrmation respecting the < Used for verifying citations finom 

commerce and statistics of the middle Codinus, Gretser in Codtnt<m,No.i83, 

ages. They were originally published Goar't NotUUe EccUtite, No. 336, 

at various dates during the seventeenth Chranicon Alexandrinum, sive Pas' 

century in large folio volumes, beauti- chalet No. 165, Cinnamvs cum Noiis 

iUly printed. The Venice Edition of Du Fresno, "So, 1 70, Cedrenus, No. 156, 

1719-33 is a reprint of the greater and some others, as noted afterwards 

part of them in folios of a more com- under their respective numbers, 
modious form. An Edition in 8vo. was 

alphabetically arranged. 219 

Horn. 8. In verba, Ci]gu8 opus manaerit, &c. §em^ 
Horn. 35. De Sermonibua Otiosia. $emel, 
Horn. 34. De Genibtia Flectendia. bis. 

2, De Don recedendo ab Eccleaia. (ap. Mabillon. de litai^ 

Gallicana, 1. 1. c. 4. n. 4.) Vid. infr. No. 485. semeL 

3. Vita Cieearii: (ap. Suiium, Aug. 37. t.4.) Vid. infr. No. 739. 

Item, ap. Mabillon. de Guran Gallicano. Vide etiam Vit. 
Gseaar : per Cyprianum Galium^ aive Tolonenaeni) Lngdun. 
1613. 4to. bis, 
139 [C^BARiuB, NaaiaosenuB. Dialogi. (ap. t. 5. Biblioth. Patr. 363 
Max. Lugdun. 1677.)] semeh 

130 Cajbtanub, [^CofetanJ,'] Thomaa, Gardinalia. 1517 

I. Commentarius in libioa Hiatoricoa Veteria Teatamenti, kt, 

(Lngdun. 1639. fol.) semeL 
3. In Thomse Aquinatis Sununulam. (Lngdun. 1588. fol.) 

131 [Caius, RomanuB, PkieabTter; adveraua Proclom patronum 3io 

aectee Catapbrygarum : (ap. Eusebimm, Hiat. Ecdea. 1. 3. c. 35.) 
acaicr. I 
133 Calvin UB, [Calvin*,] Johannea. Opera. (Amstd. 1667. 9 torn. 1536 
£6L) Genevse, 1595. 15 torn. fol. 
I. Inatitutionea Chrietianse Religionia. (ap. Oper. t. 9.) Ed. 

Genev. 1. 13. semel. 
3. EpiBtola de qnibusdam Ecdeeue Ritibaa. (ap. Oper. t. 9.) 
Ed. Genev. 1. 14. semel. 

133 Calvinub, [Kahl^,'] Johannea. Lexicon Juridicum. (Genev. 1598 

1665. fol.) ter. 

134 Camdkn, William, Eaq. Clarendenz King-of-Arms. Britannia: 1597 

aive, Florentiaaimorum Rgnorum Angiie, Scotiae, Hibemis, 
Sec, Cborograpbica Deacriptio, &c. (Lond. 1607. ^^^') kernel. 

135 Canibiub, Petrua. Catechiamua : [al. Opua Catecbiaticum, 1555 

aive Somma Doctrinse Chriatiann, Divinse Scripturse Teatimo- 
niia aolidiaqne SS. Patrom Sententiis, ut nunquam antea, ae- 
dulo illustrata, &c. (Colon. 1606. fol.) semel. 

136 [Canibiub, Henricua^. Lectionea Antiquse, &c. Ingoletad. 1590 

7 80 called, because bom at CaUta, de fo jmi^fnrudence doni il denne des 

in the IdDgdom of Naples, in 1469. He di/tniiiofu trh cUuret ei irh exaciet. 

was made Arehbiahop of Palenno in See the Bibliographie Univenelle. 
15 1 7, and Cardinal soon afterwards by h Professor of Canon Law at Ingol- 

Pope Leo X. Died in 1 534. stad. His book comprisea several pieces 

s Bom at Noyon, in Picardy, 1509. of great importance to the history of 

Died 1564. Minister at Geneva and the middle ages. He died in 1610, be- 

Fjrofessor of Divinity in 1536. The fore the printing of his work was quite 

best edition of his Latin works is that completed, as James Basnage de Beau- 

of Amsterdam, 1671, in 9 vols. fol. val informs ns, who himself reproduced 

» He was a professor of Civil Law at it before his death in 1710, in seven 

Heidelberg, of whose work, first pub- parts, usually met with in four volumes, 

lished in 1600, in 4to., and often re- under the title of T^saunu MonU' 

printed with improvements in 1730, meniorum EeelesiasHcorum ei Histo^ 

34, 59, Bmnet tnus speaks: UtiU et ricerumy ^c. Antwerp. 1725. Bd. Sec 
esiimL II comprend touiee Um parties 

220 Index o/Aut/iars, 

1601, Beqq. 6 torn. fol. (Al. Thesaurus Monumentorum Ecde- 
siasticomm et Historicorum, sive Lectiones Antiquie, ad Sse- 
cnlorum Ordinem digestae, &c. . . . Notas in singulos Auctores 
adjecit Jacobus Baanage^&c. Antwerp. 1725. 4 torn. fol. in 5.) 
9emel vel bisJ] 

137 Canonbs Apo8tolici> ap. Bevereg. Pandect, et in Tomis Con- 

ciliorum. (ap. t. i. CotelerU, Antwerp. 1698.) Item ap. t. i. 
Conciliorum, ex Edit Labb. et Cossart. Lutet. Paris. 1671. 
Canones i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, la, 13, 14, 15, 16, ao, ai, 2^ 
24, a7, a8, ap, 30, 31, 3a, 33, 34, 35, 36,37, 39,40, 41, 4a, 43, 45, 
47f 48, 49» 5P» 6i» 6«> S3» S^. 60, 61, 6a, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 
70, 71* 7«» 73* 74. 75* 7^* 80, 83, 85, 86, 87 «. poMtm. 

138 Cantor, Petrus. [Pt«Tc he CAufrfrc*.] 1310 

I. De Verbo Mirifico : (ap. Menardum in Sacramentazio Gre- 

gorii Magni. Vid. infr. No. 515. semeh 
a. Verbum Abbreviatum : (ap. Bonam, Rer. lituig. 1. 1. c. 15. 

n. 6.) Vid. supr. No. no. ter, 

139 Canus, Melchior, \Cano, Bishop qfthe Canaries.'] Loci Theo- 155a 

logici et De Sacramentis. Colon. 1685. 8yo. (Opera, dare 
divisa, &c., a P. Hyacintho Serry, Doct. Sorbon. Editio no- 
vissima, &c. Bassani, 1776. 4to.) subinde, 

X40 Capbllub, s. Cappellus, Ludovicus. Commentarii et Notae in 
Novum Testamentum, &c. Amstel. 1657. fol. (Amstel. 1689. 
fol.) Item una cum Myrothecio Evangelioo Cameronis : q. ▼. 
inter Criticos Sacros, Ed. Amstel. 1698, seqq. Vid. infr. No. 
a 13. semelintextu, 

141 [Capitolinus, Julius. Vita Antonini Philoaophi: (int. Au- 
gusts Historise Sciiptores. Lugdun. Batav. 1668. 8vo.) his, 

14a Caranza, [sive Carranza,] Bartholomsus, Arcbiepiscopus To- 1557 
letanus. Summa Condliorum dudum coUecta : Additionibus 
Fr. Sylvii quondam illustrata, &c. (Lovan. 1681. 410.) Paris. 
i6a4. 8vo. semel vel bis. 

143 CarletonS George, D. D. Bisbop of Chicbester. Titbes eza- 1619 
mined and proved to belong to the Clergy by a Divine Right. 
(Lond. 1606, 4to.) subinde. 

144.CAROLUB Magnus, [^Charlemagne,'] Capitukria. Ap. Lindin- 768 
brogium in Codice Legum Antiquarum Burgundionum, Ala- 
mannorum, &c. (Franoofurt. 16 13. fol.) q.v. Item ap. Ansegi- 
sum Abbatem, Paris. 1640. 8vo. Vid. supr. No. 39. (Capitu- 

c These are the numbers given by according to whom he flourished at 

the Author according to older editions : Paris in the thirteenth century. Bona, 

they often differ both in Cotelerius and as cited by the Author, ^Antiquit. b. 15. 

in Labbe and Cossart, where they are ch. 4. b. 5. v. 5. pp. 303-365. n. 61.) 

variously numbered, as noted in the places his era in 1300. 
places where they are respectively cited. « One of the divines sent to the Syn- 

d See Du Pin's Biblioth^ue, cent, od of Dordt in 1618, when Bishop of 

13, (Fsris. 1 701. 8vo. V. 10. p. 301.) TJandaff. 

alphabetically arranged. 221 

laria Regum Franoonuxij ex Edit. Steph. Baluzii. Paris. 1677. 

2 torn, fol.^) subinde, 

145 Casaubon, Isaac. 1600 

I. De Rebus Sacris et Ecclesiasticis Exercitationes Sezdedm 
ad Cardinal. Baronii Prolegomena in Annales et Primam 
eorum Partem, &c. Genev. 1654. 4to. London, 16x4.' 
4to. (Francofurt. 1615. 4to.) sape, 

a. Not» ad Augostae Historic Scriptores. Paris. 1630. fol. 
(Lugdun. Batav. i66z. 8vo.) bis tetve. 

3. Not» in Straboms Geographiam. Paris. 1620, (Amstel. 
2 tom. fol.) semeL 

146 Cassandbr^, Georgius. Opera, que reperiri potuerant, om- 1550 

nia. (Paris. 1616. fol.) 
I. liturgica. De Ritu et Ordine Dominicse Coense Cele- 

brandsB, quam Celebrationem Gr»ci lAtwrgiam^ Latini 

Missam appellamnt. semeL 
a. De Articulis Religionis inter Catholicos et Protestantea 

oontroversis Consultatio. Seorsim, cum Grotii Anno- 

tatis. Helmstad. ? 1642.8^0. subinde. 
3. De Sacra Communione Christiani Populi in utraque Panis 

et Vini Specie Consultatio. Seorsim, Helmstad. 1643. 

4to. bis. 

147 Cassianus, Sanctus Johannes. Opera Omnia. Basil. 1575. fol. 434 

Item cum Commentario ab eo ipso Scripto. Duad, 1616. 

3 vol. Svo. Item Atrebati, [Arras,'] 1638. Item Francofurt 
8. lips. 1733. fol. (Item, Opera Omnia cum Commentaiiis 
D. A. Gazsei^, Ordinis S. Benedicti; ab eodem denuo recog- 
nita, &c. Lips. 1733. fol.) 

I. De Institutis Renuntiantium, sive Coenobiorum, Libri Duo- 

dedm. stepissime. 
3. Collationes Patrum Viginti Quatuor. stepissime. 
3. De Christi Incamatione libri Septem. semel vel bis. 

148 Cass I us, Dio, s. Dion. Historia Romana, Gr. et Lat. Franco- aa8 

furt. 1593. Svo. (Hanovise, 1606. fol.) bis terve, 

149 Cassiodorub, Marcus [Magnus] Aurelius, Senator. 5T4 

I. Historia Tripartita ex Socrate, Sozomeno, et Theodoreto. 
Francofurt. 1588. fol. Item, Basil. 1533. fol. (ap. Opera 
Omnia, &c., opera et studio J. Garetii, Ordinis S. Bene- 
dict, e Congregat. S. Mauri. Venet. 1739. 3 tom. fol.) 

^ See before, n. *, on Ansegitutf formed a unioa between Roman Cm- 

No. 39. tholic and Protestant Churches, — an 

f llie year in which he died. After imposabiUtj. 

the murder of Henrj IV. of France he h Bom at Bmges 15 15. Died 1855. 

came into England, and was made a i The edition of Gaaeus is not com- 

Prebendaryof Westminster and of Can- plete, having in some instances been 

terbnry by James I. He was one of subjected to castration in obedience to 

those learned men who wished to have the Index Purgatorius. See my re- 

S2S Index of Authors, 

2, [Chronicon, &c. (Inter Historiie Romans Scriptores. Fran- 

oofiirt. T588. Qrischov,'] iemel, 

3. Commentarius in Psalmos. Paris. 1519* [In Pa. 44. et in 

Cantioa.] (ap. Opemm ut supra, t. 3.) bis. 
4.Variamm Epistolarum libri Duodecim. Lugdun. 1595. 
8vo. Item ap. 1. 11. Lngdim. 1677. fol. (ap. C)perum> ut 
supra, 1. 1.) ter, 

150 Castro, Alpbonso k, siye de. Adversus Omnes Hsereses libri 1540? 

Quatuordecim. Lugdun. 1546. 8vo. (Venetiis, 1546, ad Signum 
Spei. 8vo.) semel,"] 

151 [Catalogus Komanorum Pontificum. (Ciacoiui Vitae Pontiil- 

cum Romanorum et Cardinalium, &c. Roms, 1677. 4 torn, 
fol.) semeLI 
15a Catena Griecorum Pktrum in Beatum Job. (Lond. 1637. fol.) 510 
Vid. infr. JvUanus, No. 425. his terve. 

153 [Catena in Sanctum Jobannem a Bartbol. Corderio Antwerpi- 513 

ano, &c. (Antwerp. 1630. fol.) Vid. etiam infr. Severus, 
No. 693. Ed. semeL"] 

154 Cave, William, D.D. Canon of IT^dsor. 1685 

I. Scriptorum Eodesiasticorum Historia literaria, a Cbristo 
nato usque ad Snculum Quatuordecimum, &c. (Lond. 
1688 et 1698. 2 vol. fol.) Auctior et melior : Accedunt 
Scriptores Gentiles, Cbristianse Religionis Oppugnatores, 
Conciliorum Notitia, Appendices ad Annum usque 15T7, 
&c. Editio noyissima, ab Autore ipso ante Obitum recog- 
nita et auctior facta. Basil. 1741-45^. 2 tom. foL M^ptm. 

a. Primitiye Christianity, or tbe Religion of tbe Primitive 
Christians in the First Ages of tbe Gospel. In Tbiee 
Parts. London, 1676. 8vo. Also 1683. 8vo. (Oxford, 
1840. 8vo.) siBpe. 

3. The Lives of tbe Fathers, [which is tbe Third Part of tbe 

above.] (Oxford, T840. 8vo.) subinde. 

4. A Dissertation concerning tbe Government of tbe Ancient 

Church by Bishops, Metropolitans, and Patriarchs. Lond. 
1683. 8vo. (At the end of the Oxford Edition of tbe Pri- 
mitive Christianity, as above, 1840.) temel vel bis. 

marks on the absence from this edition Dr. Wateriand, and containing the 

of the nth and lath chiq;>ter8 of the Fourteenth Century by Henry Mliar- 

first book, De imtitutis, ^c, Antiqui- ton, and the Fifteenth by Robert Geerv. 

ties, b. 7. ch. 3. 8. 6. v. 3. p. 360. n. 37. It was needfnl to verily my Anoestori 

The Basle edition of 1575, fol., is en- dtations generally from hk own copy 

tire. The Douay, in 3 vols. 8vo., I have of 1688 and 1698: but occasionally I 

not seen. have referred to tbe Basle edition, and 

k This edition^ of whidi I have made sometimes to that of Oxford ; and, 

use for the purposes of the present In- wherever I have done so, the edition is 

dez, is the repnnt of the Editio Optima expressly mentioned by its place and 

of Gave, ris. Oxon. 1 740-45. 2 tom. foL, date, 
which was carefolly superintended by 

alphabetieally arranged. ftStS 

155 Cawdbby, Zachariah. Rector of Barthomley, Chester. A Dia- 1670 

course of Patronage; being a Modest Enquiry into the Ori- 
ginal of it, and a farther prosecution of the History of it ; with 
a True Account of the Original of Vicarges. Also some Ex- 
pedients whereby the Just Rights of Patrons are secured, and 
the People's Liberty of Election indulged. (Lond. 1675. 4to.) 

156 Cbdbbnus, Georgius. Annales Grseco-Latini cum Notis .Xy- 1057 

landri. Basil. 1566. fol. (ap. torn. 8 et 9. Bysanting HistoiiflB 
Scriptorum. Venet. 17219. fol.) nUnnde. 

157 Cblbbinub, Papa. Epistola ad Cyprianum. Vid. infr. C^pru 350 

anus. No. 317. 

158 [Celbstinus i, PiqiNU Epistolse Decretales, ap. JusteUi Biblioth. 433 

Jur. Canonic. Vid. No. 431. Item in tomis Condliorum. (ap. 
Lal^, et Cossart, ConclL. t. a.) subindeJ] 

159 Cbllotius, Ludovicus, Jesuits. Not» in Capitula Gualteri 
Aurelianensis. (ap. p. 649. t. 8. Concil. juxt. Ed. Labb. et Cos- 

sart.) Vid. infr. No. 441. iemel vel bU, 

160 Cbnturia Magdeburgenses<u. (Basil. 1624. 3vol.fol.) bisterve, 

161 Chamibbi^, Daniel. Panstratise Catholicse, sive Controversiarum 1612 

de Religione adversus Pontificios Corpus. Gcnev. 1636. 4tom. 

I. De Canone, &c. (ap. 1. 1.) semel, 

a. De Jquniis. (ap. t. 3.) semeL 

3. De Euchanstia. (ap. t. 4. De Sacramentis.) stq>e. 

162 Charisius, Grammatious. In corpore Auctorum lingue 

Latinse. (Genev. 163a. 4to.) 

163 Chbmnitiuso, IChemnitg,'] Martinus, D.D. Ezamen Condlii 155a 

Tridentini. (Genev. 1614. fol.) semel, 

164 [Christophobson, John. His Liatin Version of the Eod^ 

siastical History of TheodoretP. (Colon. Agripp. 1570. fol.) 
See Antiquities, b« 9. ch. 3. s. i. v. 3. p. 30a. n. 43.] 

1 Variously written, Codestinas, C«- o An eminent Lntheran Dirine, and 

leBtmufl, and Olestinus. one of the leading Reformers in Ger- 

m Of this book Walch says, (Biblioth. many. Bom at Britien, 152a. Died, 

Patristic, c. 9. 8. 91. JensB, 1854. p. 530.) 158a 

hk opere hoc quae de P^tribusj eorum- P The first Edition of the Eodeslas- 
que dogmatibus habentur, ea non om- tical Historians in Latin only, by Ro- 
ma tnto sequi possumus ; quum varia bert Stephanus was published at Basle 
scripta, qusB adulterina sunt, veris et in 1539, by Frobenius and Episcopius. 
genuinis monumentis Patmm annnme- Again in 1549, and repeated in 1558 
rantur. by Musculus, who himself translated 

^ Bayle speaks of him as one of the the other writers, but employed the 

brightest ornaments of Protestantism, version of Camerarius for Theodoret. 

According to Yarillas he had a great Christophorson, following Musculns^ 

share in drawing up the Edict of Nantes, published a new translation of the 

He became Professor of Theology at whole by his own hand, which has 

Montauban in 1613, where he was been often reprinted. The Cologne 

killed by a cannon-ball during the siege Edition of 1581 is Tery good. Bee 

of that town by Louis XHI. in 1621. Walch, ch. 3. s. 34. n. 7. p. 236. 

224 Index of Authors, 

165 Chbonicon Alexandrinum, alias Paachale. Gr. et Lat. Mona- 6^ 
chii, 1615. 4to. Item ap. Byzantinse Historiae Scriptores. Paris. 
z688. fol. (ap. t.4. Ed. Venet. 1729. fol.) ninnde. 
Chronicon Antonini Florentini. Vid. supr. AntonmiUt No. 43. 
■ Eusebianum. Vid. infr. Euiehiua, No. 375. 

-^— — ^ Geirasiiy ap. Tmysdm, int. Historiae Anglicaiue Scrip- 
tores. Vid. infr. No. 777. 

Malaise. Vid. infr. No. 493. 

— -^*— Marcellini cum Chronioo Eusebiano. Vid. infr. Eur- 

sdnnu. No. 375. Item, ap. t. 9. Bibliothecse Maxinue. 

Martini Poloni. Vid. infr. MartimUy No. 505. 

■ Othonis Frisingensis. Vid. infr. Otho, No. 566. 
Prosperi. In Append, ad Chronic. Euaeb. q. v. ut 

sapr. Vid. etiam infr. Prosper , No. 640. 

Sazonicum. Oxon. 1693. 4to. (Ed. Edm. Gibson, 694 

e Theatro Sheldoniano, Ozon. 1693.) Item, ap. Spelman. 
Concilia Britannica, q. y. infr. No. 735. temel. 
• Siffiidi Presbyteri. Vid. SiffriduSy No. 699. 

Sigeberti Gemblaoensis. Vid. Sigebertus, No. 700. 

Victoria Tununensis. In Append, ad Chronic. Euse- 

bian. Vid. infr. Euaebnu, No. 375. Victor, No. 797. 

166 Chrysolooub, Sanctus Petrus, Archiepiscopus Ravennatis. 430 

Opera, Lugdun. 1673. fol. Item, Ed. Sebast. Pauli, Venet. 
1750. fol. (Sermones : Editio omnium oastigatissima et locu- 
pletata &c. S. Pauli prse&tus est, Notasque a^jecit, &c. 
Augustae Vindehcorum, 1758. fol.) Meptut. 
Sermones 8, 11, 35, 53, 57, 62, 66, 105, 118, 139, 15s, I57i 

167 Chbysostomus, Sanctus Johannes, Archiepiscopus Constanti- 35^ 

nopolitanus. Opera omnia, passim. 
I. Opera, Grr. et Lat. Paris. 1616. et apud Commelin. 1617. 
10 tom. fol. [or, as the Author gives the dates in Antiqui- 
ties, b. 13. ch.6. s. I. (vol. 4. p. 440.) 'the Paris Edition, 
1609, and that of Commelin, 161 7 p.'] 

P There is no little difficulty in ac- 13. Jense, 1834. p. 105.) Again, in 

cnmtely describing the early editions of Latin only, by FrobenioB, in five tomes, 

the Works of Saint Chrysoatome, espe- folio, at Basle, 1 530^33 : as wdl as in 

dally with respect to the Editio Du' Latin once more by Fronto Ducaras, 

CMSOfui, which my Ancestor chiefly con- Paris, 1613, in six volumea. (See 

anlted, and which he sets down here Walch, ibid. ss. 13 and 16. pp. 114 

and refers to in the body of his Book and 134.) 

under somewhat different dates. But Duccus also commenced an 

The first edition of St. Chrysostome's Edition of the Whole Works in Greek 

Works was published in Latin only by and Latin at Paris in 1609, one of my 

Aldus at Venice in two tomes, folio, in Ancestor's dates, which edition waa 

1 503 ; and waa reprinted at Basle the brought on to the conclusion of the 

following year, which Ductens and Du sixth tome by the end of 1694, indnsive 

Pin considered to be the most ancient, consequently of 1617, which is another 

(See Welch, Biblioth. Patrist. c. 1. s. of my Ancestor's datea. (See Welch, 

alphabetically arranged, SS5 

IL Opera, Gnpce tantum. Eton®, 1613. 8 torn. fol. [Referred 
to occuionally by the Author, and used accordingly for 
verifications in some notes and places of this new Edition 
of the Whole Works.] 
III. Opera Omnia, quae exstant, vel quae ejus nomine circum- 
ferontur ; ad Manuscriptos Codices Gallicanos, Vaticanos, 
Anglicanos> Gennanosque, necnon ad Savilianam et Fron- 
tonianam Editiones castigata; innumeris aucta; Nova 
Interpretatione ubi opus erat, Prsefationibus, Monitis, 
NotiSy Variis Lectionibus iUustrata ; Nova S. Doctoris 
Vita, Appendicibus, Onomastico, et copiosissimis Indi- 
cibus locupletata. Cura et Studio D. fiemardi de Mont- 
faucon. M.B. (Paris. 1718-38. 13 torn, fol.) Item,Venet. 
1780. 14 torn. 4to. Item, Paris. 1837. 13 vol. imp. 8vo. 

The several Works of St. Chrysostome, as cited, arranged 
seriatim according to the volumes of the Benedictine Edi" 
tion, collated toith their respective order in the volumes of 
the Edition of SavU, 

Tom. L 

I. Ad Theodorum lapsam. Sav. t. 6. p. 55. 

3. Adversus Oppugnatores Vitse Monasticse. Ibid. p. t6i. 

3. Comparatio Regis et Monachi. Sav. t. 7. p. 230. 

4. Ad Demetrium de Compunctione Cordis. Sav. t. 6. p. 138. 

5. Ad Stagyrum a Dsemone vezatum. Ibid. p. 84. 

6. Contra eos, qui Subintroductas habent. Ibid. p. 214. 

ibid. p. 134.) But previously four vo- folio, and in 1636, adding seven more, 

lumes certainly, if not more, had is- he brought out the entire works of this 

sued e prmlo Commeliniano between great Father in thirteen volumes, of 

the years 1593 and 1597; and these which I have also seen a copy, the 

being put together made up the old thirteen being bound in twelve. Morell 

sets of ten volumes. employed the Greek text of Savil, Eton 

I have myself seen a set so com- 1613, and retained the old Latin version 

pounded, and I have examined another of Anianus, which had previously been 

in the Library of Sion College, the employed by Duoeus, and by his pre- 

component volumes of which are dated decessors. See the second section of 

as follows : the first five volumes, Paris, the Preface of Montfaucon and the 

1621; vol. 6, Paris, 1624* which seems Benedictines to their new edition, Paris, 

to agree partly with the statement of 1718-38. 

Walch ; the seventh volume, Paris, Grischovius, the translator of my 

161 7, which again is one of my An- Ancestor's works into Latin, employed 

oestor's dates; while tomes 8, 9, and the Frankfort reprint of Morell's edi- 

TO, are dated Paris 1603, probably a tion, 1 697-8, for the purpose of giving, 

reprint e inbliopolio, or e pralo^ Com' as he nrst did, the citations of this 

mekniano. See my remarks, Antiqui- Father in extcTuo. I have verified 

ties, b. 13. ch. 6. s. i. v. 4. p. 440. n. i. and enlarged and added according to 

and b. ID. ch. 7. s. 3. v. 6. p. 337. n.6o. the Benedictine, retaining my Ances- 

If we pass on to the seventeenth tor*s references to the volumes and 

century, we find that in the year 1663, pages of Ducfeus, and sometimes to 

Claude Morell reprinted at Paris the those of Savil, when needful for the 

Commelin Edition of the Commentaries sake of perspicuity or corroboration to 

on the New Testament in six volumes, do so. 

BiNOHAM, VOL. ym. Q 

226 Index of Authors^ 

7. Quod Regulares Foeminae Virii cohabitaie non debeant. 

Ibid. p. a^. 

8. liber de Virgimtate, c. 28. Ibid. p. 344. 

9. Ad Vidtuun Jimiorem. Ibid. p. 295. 

10. De Sacerdotio, Libri Sex. Ibid. pp. x-55. 

11. Cum Presbyter fuit ordinatus Hoxnilia. Ibid. p. 443. 
I a. Contra Anomceos. Ibid. p. 443. 

I. De Incomprebensibili Dei Natora, Homilis Quiuque. 

Ibid. pp. 389, aeqq. 
a. De Sancto Philogonio. Sav. t. 5. p. 505. 

3. De Consttbetantiali. Say. t.6. p. 425. 

4. De Petitione Filiorum Zebedsei. Sar. t. 5. p. ao6. 

5. In Quadriduanum Laxarumy &c. Ibid. p. 271. 
<>. De Chriati Precibus. Say. t. 6. p. 714. 

7. Contra Anomceos ConstantinopolL Ibid. p. 434. 

8. In Paraljticum. Say. t. 5. p. 264. 

13. Contra Judseoa et Gentile8> quod Cbristua ait Deus. Say. 

t. 6. p. 622. 

14. Adyeraua Judssos, Homili« Octo. 

I. Ibid. p. 366. 5. Ibid. p. 320. 
a p. 388. 6 p* 336. 

3.«....p-377- 7 p.346- 

4 P-3"- 8.»....p. 354. 

15. De non anathematisandis Viyia et Defunctia. Ibid. p. 439. 
x6. In Kalendaa HomilisB. Say. t. 5. p. 355. 

17. In Laaarum, Homilise Septem. 

1. Honun. i, a, 3, 4. Ibid. pp. 220, aeqq. 

2. De Dormientibu8y Horn. 5. Ibid. p. 418. 

3. In Laaarum, Horn. 6. Say. t. 6. p. 670. 

4. De Lazaro in iUud, Intrateper angustam^Sfc, Horn. 7. 

Say. 1 5. p. 175. 

Inter Spuria, Tom. i. 
De Fide et Lege Naturae. Say. t. 6. p. 837. 

Tom. II. 

1. Homilise Viginti Una ad Populum Antiochenum de Statuis. 

Say. t. 6. pp. 447, aeqq. 

2. Catechesia ad lUuminandoa. 

!.• Say. ibid. p. 851. 2. Ibid. p. 604. 

3. Dsemonea non gubemare Mundum, et de Diabolo Tentatore, 

Homilise Tree. Ibid. pp. 680, 690, 644. 

4. De Poenitentia, Homilis Noyem. Horn. i. Ibid. p. 763. 

Horn. 5. juzt. Say. Horn. i. de Jejunio. Ibid. p. 824. 

4 Sive, In eo8> qui Pascha jejanant. to the Editio Ductpona, 
r This Ib Horn. 5, according to Sanl, • This is Horn. 60, in the Edituf 
and Horn. 6, contra Judseos, according Ducteana, 1. 1. p. 796. 

alphabetically arranged. 2S7 

Horn. 8. juxt. Sav. Horn. a. de Jejunio. Ibid. p. 830. 

Horn. 9 5 p. 790. 

5. Homilue Panegyricse in Solemnltates. 

I. In Diem Natalem Christi. Sav. t. 5. p. 511. 
a. De Baptismo Christi. Ibid. p. 533. 

3. In Proditionem Jud»y Homilis Duse. Ibid, p 547. 

4. De Ccemeterio et Cruce. Ibid. p. 563. 

5. De Cruce et Latrone, Homilise Duse. Ibid. p. 567. 

6. De Resnrrectione. Sav. t. 6. p. 703. 

7. Contra Ebriosos et de Resnrrectione. Sav. t. 5. p. 581. 

8. De Ascensione Domini. Ibid. p. 595. 

9. De Pentecoete, HomilisB Due. Ibid. pp. 60a, 610. 

xo. De LaudibuB Pauli Apoatoli, Homiliie Septem. Sav. 

^ 8. pp. 33, seqq. 
XI. In Sanctum Mcdetium. Sav. t. 5. p. 537. 
xa. In Sanctum Lucianum. Ibid. p. 539. 

13. In Sanctum Babylam. Ibid. p. 438. 

14. liber in S. Babylam et contra Gentes. Ibid. p. 44a. 

15. In Sanctos Maityres Juventinum et Maximinum. Ibid. 

P- 563- 
x6. In Sanctam Pelagiam, Homilise Due. Ibid. p. 48a. 

17. In Sanctum Igpoatium Martjrrem. Ibid. p. 498. 

18. In Sanctum Eustatbium, Episcopum Antiocbentun. 

Ibid. p. 6a8: 

19. In^Sanctum Romanum Martyrem, Homilise Duse. Ibid. 

pp. 488, 84a. 
ao. In Maccabsos Homilise Tree. Ibid. p. 633. 
ax. In Sanctaa Bernicen et Prosdocen, &c. Ibid. p. 473. 
aa. De Sanctis Martyribus. Abest ab Edit. Sav. 

33. Non esse ad gratiam condonandum. Sav. t. 8. p. 93. 

34. In Mart]rres. Sav. t. 5. p. 6x8. 

35. In Sanctum Martyrem Julianum. Ibid. p.6ai. 
26, Laudatio Sancti Barlaam. Ibid. p. 493. 

37. -^-— Sanctae Drosidis. Ap. Sav. deest, 

a8. Martyrum iEgyptiorum. Ibid, p* 519. 

39. In Sanctum Pbocam Martyrem. Ibid. p. 8a6. 
30. In Omnes Martyres totius Orbis. Ibid. p. 614. 

Inter Dubia et Spuria, Tom. II. 
X. De Fato et Providentia, Horn, ada e Sex. Sav. t. 6. p. 866. 
3. In Occursum Cbristi. Sav. t. 5. p. 873. 

Tom. III. 
Homilise in qusedam loca Novi TestamentL 
X. In Parabolam Debitoiis, &c. Sav. t.5. p. 196. 
3. In illud. Pater si possibile est, &c. Ibid. p. 3x3. 
3. In iUud, Angusta est porta, &c. Ibid. p. 137. 

Q 2 

nuts Index of Authors, 

4. In Paralyticum per tectum demissmn, &c. Ap. Sav. deest. 

5. In Inscriptionem Altaris et in Principittm Actoram» Homilie 

Quatuor : 
I. In Inscript. &c. Sav. t. 6. p. 7aa. 
a. In Princ. Act. &c. Sav. t. 5. p. 274. 

3. De Utilitate, &c. Sav. t.8. p. iii. 

4. Cur in Pentecoste Acta legantur. Deest in Sav. 

6. De Mutatione Nominum, Homiliae Quatuor. 

X. Saulus adhuc spirans, &c. Sav. t. 8. p. 60. 

a. De Ferendis Reprehenaionibus, &c. Sav. t. 5. p. 289. 

7. In illud. Si esurient, &c. Ibid. p. 304. 

8. — Salutate Priscillam, &c., Homiliae Dus. Horn. i. 

Sav. ibid. p. 314. Hom. 2. ibid. p. 321. 

9. — ^ Propter fomicationes, &c. Ibid. p. 330. 
zo. — * Mulier alligata est, &c. Ibid. p. 937. 

II. Habentes eundem Spiritum, &C.4 Homiliae Tres. 

Hom. I. ibid. p. 368. Hom. a. p. 375. Hom. 3. p. 38a. 
I a. In Heliam et Viduam. Sav. t.8. p. a6. 

13. De non evulgandis Fratnim peccatb. Sav. t. 6. p. 695. 

14. Non esse desperandum, &c. Sav. t. 8. p. 75. 

15. In Eutropium, Homiliae Duae. Hom. i. Sav. t.8. p. 67. 

Hom. a. Sav. t. 5. p. 100. 

16. Opuscula de Motibus Constantinopolitanis, deque iis, quae 

ad utrumque ejus ezsilium spectant. 
I. Sermo antequam iret in Exsilium. Sav. t. 8. p. a59. 
a. Sermo post Reditum. Ibid. p. a63. 

3. Quod nemo laeditur nisi a se ipso. Sav. t. 7. p. 36. 

4. In eo8» qtii scandalixati, &c. Ibid. p. i. 

17. Ex Epistolis: 

I. Ad Innocentium Papam. Ibid. p. 154. 
a. Ad Olymjnadem, &c. Ibid. p. 51. 

Tom. IV. 

I. In Genesim Homiliae Sexaginta Septem : Homm. i, 4, 6, 7, 
8, 10, II, a;, 30, 33, 48, 54> 6^- Sav. 1. 1. pp. i, seqq. 

a. In Genesim Sermones Octo. Sav. t. 5. pp. i, seqq. Serm. i. 
Serm. 4* 

3. De Anna, Sermones Quinque. Ibid. pp. 50, seqq. Serm. a. 

Serm. 4. 

4. De Davide et Saule, Homiliae Tres. Hom. i. Sav. t. 8. 

p. lo. Hom. a. Sav. t.5. p. 83. Hom. 3. ibid. 

Tom. V. 

I. Expositio in Psalmos. Sav. 1. 1. pp. i, seqq. Ps. 5, 9, 44, 
49, iia, 114, 115, 117, 119, ia7, 133, 137, 140, 144, 149. 

alphabetically arranged. 5)29 

2. Opuscula dubia et spuria in Psalmos. 

1. In locum P8.48. Ne timueris quum dires factus, &e. 

Say. t.5. p. 113. 

2. In locum P8. 145. Lauda» anima mea, Dominum. 

Ibid. p. 54a 

Tom. VI. 

1. Interpretatio in Isaiam Prophetam : cc. 1-8. Say. t. i. 

p. 1016. 

2. Homiliae Sex in locum Isaiae, c. 6. Vidi Dominum seden- 

tem, &c. Say. t. 5. pp. 137, seqq. 

3. De Prophetiaram Obscuritate, Homilias Duae. Say. t.6. 

pp. 649, 658. 

Inter Spuria. 
Opus imperfectum in Matthaeum. Ap. Say. deest. Homm. 2, 
38, 44, 48. 

Tom. VII. 
Homiliae in Matthseum. Say. t. 2. pp. i, eeqq. Homm. i, 6, 
7, 9, II, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 26, 29, 32, 33, 37, 41, 42, 47, 
49» 51* 5a, 54. 55. 5^. ^S» ^7* <^8, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 82, 83. 

Tom. VIII. 
Homiliie in S. Johannem Eyangelistam Octoginta Octo. Say. 
ibid. pp. 555, seqq. Homm. i, 10, 24, 25, 44, 61, 72, 77. 

Inter Spuria. 

1. In illud, Simile est Regnmn Coelorum, &c. Ben. Append. 

p. 104. Say. t. 5. p. 708. 

2, —..--. Attendite ne Eleemosynam yestram, &c. Ben. Ap- 

pend, p. 93. Say. t. 7. p. 486. 

Tom. IX. 

1. Homiliae in Acta Apostolorum Quinquaginta Quinque. Say. 

t. 4. Homm. 4, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 30, 37. 

2. Homiliae in Epistolam ad Romanos Triginta dnae. Say. t. 3. 

pp. I, seqq. Homm. 7, 14, 16, 24, 29. 

Tom. X. 

1. Homiliae in Epist. ad Corinthios Quadraginta Quatuor. 

Say. t. 3. pp. 243, seqq. Homm. 2, 3^ 14, 15, 24, 26, 27, 
a8, 30, 35, 36, 38, 40, 41. 44. 

2. Homiliae in 2 Epist. ad Corinthios Triginta. Say. ibid. 

pp. 541, seqq. Homm. 2, 3, 5, 14, 15, 18, 20, 26, 29. 

3. Commentarius in Epistolam ad Galatas. Say. ibid. p. 709. 

In c. I. 

Tom. XL 
I. Homiliae in Epist. ad Ephesios Viginti Quatuor. Say. t.3. 
pp. 763, seqq. Homm. i, 3, 4, 5, ii, 13, 14, a3« 

230 Index of Author Sy 

a. Homilise in Epist. ad Philxppenses Qumdedm. Sav. t.4« 

pp. I, eeqq. Homm. i, 3, 15. 
3. Homilise in Epist. ad Colossensea Duodecim. Sav. ibid 

pp, 89, eeqq. 
4.Homili» in i Epist. ad Thessalonicenseo Undedm. Sav 

ibid. pp. 161, seqq. Homm. 5, 6, 10, 11. 

5. Homiliae in 2 Epist. ad Thessalonicenses Qoinque. Say 

ibid. pp. aai, seqq. Horn. 3. 

6. Homilise in i Epist. ad llmothenm Octodecim. Sav. ibid 

pp. 249, seqq. Homm. 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15. 

7. Homilise in 2 Epist. ad 'Hmotheam Decem. Sav. ibid, pp 

329, seqq. Homm. i, 2, 10. 

8. Homilise in Epist. ad Titum Sex. Sav. ibid. pp. 381, seqq 

Homm. I, 2y 3, 5* 

Tom. Xn. 

1. Homilise in Epist. ad Hebrseos Triginta Quatuor. Sav. t. 4. 

pp. 427, seqq. Homm. 4, 13, 14, 15, 17, 22, 31. 

2. Liturgia S. Chrysostomi. Sav. t. 6. p. 983. Item ap. t. 2. 
Biblioth. Pair. Gr. Lat. per Fronton. Ducseum. Paris. 
1624. q. V. 

Tom. Xni.t 

Ftelladii Dialogus de Vita Chrysostomi. Ap. Sav. deest. 

[The passages^ which the Author has in some few instances 
cited expressly from Sir H. Savil's edition, have been verified 
also from the Benedictine, and the reference given accord- 

IV. Opera Latine tantum. Paris. 1613.^ 6 tom. fol. (Basil. 
1558. 5 tom. fol.) sMnde. 

1. Hom. 5. de Resurrectione. 

2. Hom. 6. de Pcenitentia. 

3. In illud, Attendite ne Eleemosynam faciatis &c. Apud 

Albertmwn De Eucharistia, q. v. 

4. Homilia de Laudibus Evangelii. Apud Habertum in 

Archieratico, p. 79. q. v. 

5. Hom. 26. in Matth. (ap. 1. 1. Ed. Paris. 1588.) 

t This volame also oontaina a Cata- while engaged in publishing six vo- 

logae of the works in the order accord- lumes of Chrysostome's Works in Greek 

ing to the edition of Morell, Frankfort, and Latin at Paris, between 1609 and 

1697-98. 12 torn, fol., and another se- 1614. See Walch, ibid. The former 

riatim according to that of Sir H. Stml, editions alluded to by Walch, as above, 

as above. were printed at Basle, i53<;, 1530, and 

^ Quam editionem nonnulU multum 1558, in five tomes, folio. The last date 

lauifani ac prioribut hnge praferunt. indicates the edition of Frobenius. The 

Walch. Biblioth. Patrist. c. 3. s. 16. next editions were printed at Paris, 

Jens, 1834. p. 134. This edition* which 1588, and again 161 3, as above; and 

my Ancestor sometimes refers to, call- this is the Latin text of Ducseus*8 

ing it the old iransUttion of Anianusy Clirysostome in Greek and Latin, 
was brought out by Pronto Ducieus, 

alphabetically arranged. S81 

6. Epistola ad Ceesarium. Apud Albertmum ut supr. p. 
53a. q. v. Item apud Le Moyne, Varia Sacra. 

168 CHYTRiBus', David. De Statu Eocleaiarum in Gnecia, Agia, 1558 

Scc.y (Francofurt. 1583. i2mo.) semeL 

169 CicERO> Marcus Tullius. Opera. Genev. 1646. 4to. Lugdun. 

Batav« 1693. (Ed. Wetsten. Amstel. 1734. 16 vol. lamo.) ««6- 

I. Pro Sexto Roscio Amerino. 

a. In Verrem. 

3. In Catilinam. 

4. Quseationea Tusculanae. 

5. De Legibos. 

6. De Offidis. 

170 CiNNAMus, Johannes, cognomine Grammaticus. Historiarum 1160 

libri Sex, Gr. Lat., cum Notis Jacob! Du Fresne. Paris. 1670. 
foL (ap. BycantinK Historic Scriptores. Venet. 1733. torn. 13.') 

171 Clagbtt, Wiiiiam, D.D. Preacher to Gray's Inn. Of the Unity 1683 

of the Church. (Lond. 1693. 8vo.) semeL 
173 Clemens Romanus, Sanctus. (ap. Cotelerii Patres Apost 1. 1. 163 
Antwerp. 1698.) Item, ap. Gallandium, 1. 1. AsptM. 
I. Epist. 1. ad Corinthios : ss. 17, 3i, 40, 43 48, 49. 
3. Recognitiones : 1. 3. c. 9. 1. 3. cc 57, 67. 1. 4. c, 33. 1. 5. 
c. 16. 1. 6. cc. 9, 15. 1. 10. c. 71. 

3. Epist. ad Jaoobum. 

4. Homilia Nona. 

173 Clemens, Alexandrinus. Opera, Gr. et Lat. P&ris. 1641. fol.^ 193 
(Recognita et illustrata per Johannem Potter, Episc. Oxon. 
E Theatro Sheldoniano, Oxon. 17 15. 3 torn, fol.^) Item» 
Venet, 1757. 2 torn. fol. sapUu. 

X HiB fitmlly name was Kochhafe or est editio hmc^ aays Walch, Biblioth. 

Rochha/e. He was an able Lutheran, Patrist. ch. a. s. 17. (Jens, 1836. p. 

and a lealoos promoter of the Reform- 1 53-) ' ^^ hand qnidqnam esse Tideatur, 

ation. Educated between the Univer- quo omatos illius augeri posait. Con* 

eities of Wittemb^ig, Heidelberg, and suloit Pottenu diligenter non solum 

Tubingen, and eventually one of the codices Clementis impresses, quotquot 

Professors at Rostock. Died in 1600. reperiri potuerunt, sed etiam manu 

7 A Tery rare book. Consult also ezaratos ; interpretationem l A tJnam 

Darling's Cydopttdia Bibliogrsphioa, partim ipse composuit, partim emen- 

Lond. 1854. under SckHtzitu, davit ; prsetefeaque Variorum Notes 

2 According to the arrangement in una cum suis ac^ecit.' — Dr. Potter, ori- 

Dariing's Cydoptedia as iUmvo. It is ginally a ooUege-pupil of the learned 

considered the best written of all the Joseph Bingham, while FeQow of Uni- 

Byxantine Histories. versity College, was a very young man, 

A This book, by Daniel Heins, is the when he brought out this excellent 

improved reprint of the edition of Syl- edition of Clement. See the Life of 

burgius at Heidelberg, by Commelin, the Author, prefixed to the first voluma 

1 5Q3. foL of this edition of his Works. 

^ * Tam praestans tamque splendida 

23S Index of Author b^ 

Citations according to the order of the Editions qf 1715 and 1757. 

Tom. I. 
I . Cohortatio ad Gentes. 
a. PiedagoguSj libri tres. 
3. Stromata, Libri i — 4. 

Tom. II. . 

1. Stromata, libri 5 — 8. 

2. Quia Dives salvetur, cum Notis Combefiaii. [Ezstat etiam 

apud Combefisii Auctarium Novissimum, Paris. 167a. Item 
in Eusebii Hist. Eccles. 1. 3. c. 33. q. v.] 

3. Ex Scripturis Propheticis Eclogse. [Exstat etiam ap. Com- 

befis. ibid.] 

HTpotyposeos Liber Quintus; ap. Moschi Pratum Spiri- 

— — — Liber Sextus; ap. Eusebii Hist. Eccles. 1. a. c. i. 

174 Clemens V.c Papa. ClementiDarum, 1. 3. tit. 10. c. i. (ap. 1305 

Corp. Jur. Canon, t. 3. p. an. juxt. Ed. Lugdun. 167 1.) 

175 Climacus ^, Sanctus Johannes. Opera Omniai Gr. et Lat., In- 564 

terprete Matthaeo Radero. Soc. Jes. Sacerd. (Paris. 1633. fol.) 
Item ap. torn. 10. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. subinde, 

176 Cluvbrius, [Chmer,'\ Philippua. Italia Vetus. Lugdun. Batav. 1609 

163a. (Itidem, 1634. a torn, fol.) 

177 CoDsx Canonum Ecdesise Universse. Vid. infr. JusteUus, No. 


178 ' Ecclesise Africans. Vid. a.p,Justelhtm,ye\ ap. 

Concilia ex Edit, Labb, et Couart,^ t. a. No. 441. 

179 — — — — Ecclesise Grsecse. Vid. infr. Ehinger, No. 356. 

180 ■ Ecclesis Romanse. Vid. infr. JusteUus, No. 

181 Theodosianus. Vid. infr. Theodosius, No. 756. 

183 ■■ Justinian us. Vid. infr. Justinianus, No. 433. 

183 CoDiNUS, Georgius^ Curopalata'. T460 

i.De Originibus, [s. Antiquitatibus] Constantinopolitanis. 

c Bertrand de Gouth. He appro- tually became Abbot of the Monasteiy 

priated to his own use, as Pope, the of Mount Sinai in the year 600. He 

first year's revenue of all the English died in 605. 

benefices. Hence the payment of Jirst- e Which has been used in this edi- 

fruits, eventually forming the fand tion for the purpose of verifying the 

called Queen Anne's Bounty. He citations from that Codex, 

also abolished the. Order of the Tern- f He held the office of Comptroller 

plars. of the household at the Court of the 

d He was a celebrated ascetic ; a last Emperor of Constantinople, and is 

pupil of St. Gregory Nazianzen. He supposed to have survived the capture 

renounced the world at the age of six- of the city by the Turks, 
teenj and, retiring to the desert, even- 

alphabetically arranged, 233 

(ap. torn. i8. Bysantin. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. 1729. fol.) 
2. De OfficiiB Ecclesise Constantinopolitaiue, Gr. et Lat., cum 
Notis Jacob! Gretseri. Paris. 1648. fol. (ap. torn. 20. 
Byzantin. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. 1739. fol.) bis, 

184 CoLLATio inter Catbolicos et Donatistas : (ad calcem Optati. 41 1 

Paris. 1679. foL) Item inter Concilia in ordine suo. (ap. 
Labb. t. 3.) stepe, 

185 CoLLATio inter Catbolicos et Arianos : (ap. MabiUotUum De 

Cursu Gallicano.) Vid. infr. No. 485. semel. 

186 CoLLECTio Canonum. Wittebergse, 1614. 4to. Vid. infr. Osi- 
ander. No. 563. 

187 Constitutionmn Ecdesiasticarmn. Vid. ap. Juatel- 

hunj infr. No. 431. 

188 Combs Fisi us ff, Franciscus. 1650 

I. Greeco-Latinae Patrum Bibliotbecse Novum Auctarium. 
Tomus Duplex, alter Ezegeticus, alter Historicus et Dog- 
maticus. (Paris. 1648. fol.) tMnde, 

Tom. I. 

I. Asterii Amasese Episcopi Homilise. p. i. 

3. Cbrysostomi Hom. in Annuntiadonem S. Mariae. p. 601. 

3. Anastasii Sinaitee Oratio de Sacra Synaad. p. 849. 

Tom. II. 
Historia Monotbelitarum cum Variis Monumentis Patrum. 

II. Bibliotbecae Grsecorum Patrum Auctarium Novissimum, in 

quo varia Scriptorum ecdesiasticorum, antiquioris, medii, 

et virgentis sevi Opuscula, Gr. et Lat., cum Notis. (Paris. 

1673. fol.) subinde. 

I. S. Hyppoliti, episeopi et Martyris, Demonstratio de Cbristo 

et Anticbristo. part. i. p. 36. 
3. Clemens Alexandrinus : Quis Dives salvetur, [s. salutem 
consequi possit]. ibid. p. 163. 

3. Idem : Ex Scripturis Propbetarum electa, ibid. p. 197/ 

4. Severiani, Gabalorum episcopi, de Mundi Creatione Ora- 
tiones Sex. ibid. p. 311. 

5. Pbotii, Patriarcbse CP., ad Episcopum Aquileiensem Epi- 
stola. ibid. p. 539. 

189 CoMBBR, Tbomas, D.D. Dean of Durham in 1691. >>. 1680 

t A Dominican. It is said that in Novum had appeared previously : the 

1655 the French Clergy allowed him a Auctarivm Novixsimum was of later 

pension in order to enable him to pub- date. His Latin versions are some- 

lish his Bibliotheca Patrum Conciona- times obscure. 

toria, hoc esi^ Jnni iotius Evangelia, ^ Died eight years afterward in 1699, 

which first came out at Paris in 1662 before he had completed the fifty-fifth 

in eight tomes, folio. The Auctarium year of his age. 

S84 Index ofAuthors^ 

1. Of Liturgies, in Two Parts. (Lond. 1690. 8yo) suhinde. 

2. Companion to the Temple ; or, A Help to Devotion in the 

Use of the Common Prayer, in Two Parts* (Lond. 1679. 
8vo.) semel, 
[The first of these, under the title of A scholastic History qf 
the primitioe and general Use of Liturgies, is found in the 
fifth volume of the last edition of Comber's Companion to 
the Temple, &c. Oxford, 1841. 7 vol. 8vo.] 

3. Roman Forgeries in the Councils during the First Four 

Centuries, together with an Appendix concerning the For- 
geries and Errors in the Annals of Baronius. Lond. 1689. 
4to.] semel. 

190 C0MMODIANU8 [al. Gazeus]. Instructiones adversus Paganos, 336 

ad calcem Cypriani ex Edit. Rigaltii, Paris. 1661. — ^Alias : In- 
structiones adversus Gentium Deos tempore Constantini com- 
positee, nunc primum typis mandatae. TuUi Leuc. 1650. 4to. 
— Item ap. Biblioth. Max. t. 37. p. 12. (ap. CroUandiiim, t. 3. 
p. 631.] semel vel bis. 

191 [Concilia Sacrosancta. Vid. infr. Crabbeus, No. 307, et Lab- 

beus. No. 441.] passim. 

192 C0N8TANTINU8 Magnus. 325 

1. Epistolae Variee : ap. Eusebii Hist. Eccles. q. v. Item> ap. 

SocraOs Hist. Eccles. q. v. 

2. Oratio ad Sanctos : ap. Eusebium ubi supra, q. v. 

193 CoNSTiTUTiONUM ApostolicajTum Libri Octo. Apud Cotelerii 

Patres Apostolicos, 1. 1. (Antwerp. 1698. 2 tom. fol.) Item 
ap. 1. 1. ConcilJorum, juxt. Ed. Labb. Lutet. Paris. 1671. Item 
ap. Gallandium, t. 3. passim. 

194 C0N8TITUT10NES Eccleeise Alexandrinse^ Vid. ap. Bevere- 

gium. (Pandect, t. 2.) Canones Dionysii Alexandrini, p. i. Petri 
Alexandrini, p. 8. Responsa Canonica Timothei Alexandrini 
Episcopi, p. 163. Canones Theophili Alexandrini, p. 170. 
Epist. Canonic. CyriUi Alexandrini, p. 175. sapius, 

195 [C0NTIU8. Annotationes in Institutiones Justiniani : ap. Corp. 

Jur. Civil. Vid. infr. Justinianus, No. 433. semel vel bis."] 

196 [CoRioLANUS. Summa Condliorum Omnium, &c. Antwerp. 

1623. fol. Paris. 1645. fol. See Antiquities, b.ii. ch.5. 8.10. 
V.4. p. 92. n. 66.] 

197 Cornelius, Episcopus Romanus. Epistolae. 251 

1. Aliae apud Cgprianum, q. v. subinde. 

2. Aliae in Eusebii Hist. Eccles., q. v. subinde. 

198 [Corpus et Syntagma Confessionum Fidei, quae in diversis 

regnis et nationibus Ecclesiarum nomine fuerunt authentice 
editae. (Genev. 161 2. 4to.) Item Aureliae Allobrogum, 161 2. 
4to. semel.'] * 

199 [Corpus Auctorum Linguae Latinae. Genev. 1622. 4to. semel 
vel bis.] 

alphabetically arranged. 2d5 

200 [Corpus Poetarum Latinorum. Lugdun. Batav. 1603. 4to. 

(Lond. 1713. a torn, fol.) Item Lond. 1848. 8vo. subinde.'] 

201 Corpus Juris Civilis, &c. Vid. infr. Justinianus, No. 433. 

202 Corpus Juris Canonici. Romae, 1582. 4 torn. fol. Item Colon. 

1 71 7. 2 torn. 4to. (In tres partes distinctum, Glossis Diverso- 
rum illustratum, Gregorii Papee XIII. jussu editum ; com- 
plectens Decretum Gratiani^ Decretales^^ Gregorii IX., Sex- 
tum Decretalium Bonifacii VIII.^ Clementinas^ Extravagantes 
Johannis XXII., Extravagantes communes, &c. Accesserunt 
Constitutiones novee summorum Pontificum hactenus deside- 
rata?, quae Septimi Decretalium loco esse possint; necnon 
Annotationes Antonii Naldi, &c. Editio novis8ima°^, cum 
priscis castigatissimiaque Editionibus ad amussim collata et 
innumeris expurgata mendis, &c. Lugdun. 1671. 3 tom. foL) 

I . Decreti Pars Prima : Distinctiones, &c. 

2 Secunda : Causae et Quasstiones, &c. 

3. De Poenitentia : DisUnct. 2. c. 2. 

4. Decreti Pars Tertia, sive De Consecratione : Distincti- 

ones, &c. 

5. Decretales Gregorii IX. : libri et Tituli, &c. 

203 C08IN, John, D.D. Bishop of Durham i^. 1640 

I. The History of Popish Transubstantiation ; to which is 
prefixed and opposed the Catholic Doctrine of the H0I7 
Scripture, the Ancient Fathers, and the Reformed 
Churches, about the Sacred Elements and Presence of 
Christ in the Blessed Sacrament of the Eucharist. (Lond. 
1676. 8vo.) semel vel bis. 

i First collected by Ito Camotensia, with that of Lyonsj 16'jt, which I have 

(Bishop of Chartres in France,) about naed for Terifying; but I have not been 

the fourteenth year of Henry I. of able to meet with a copy of the book 

England, and aftOTwards corrected, anno under the former date. The Lyons 

I '50, by Gratian a Benedictine monk, edition is said to have all the Glosses 

who is said to have spent nearly twenty- complete • : but I believe that some of 

four years, while resident at a monas- them have been omitted^ or adapted by 

tery in Bologna, in the composition of apparently slight alterations to the re- 

his great work, which forms so piin- quirements of the Index EsjntrgatO' 

cipal a part of the Canon Law. rius, or in such a way as to coincide 

k Collected from the authoritatiye with the dogmas of Rome at the date 

Epistles of the Popes by order of Ore- of the edition, however such changes 

gory IX., in five books ; to which Boni- were at variance with the doctrines or 

face VIII. added a sixth firom similar practices of Antiquity. This is not 

sources. wonderfol, considering how many in- 

1 Which are the Decrees of Pope stances we meet with of a similar kind 

Clement V. See No. 1 74, preceding. in other works, especially in some which 

<B And perhaps the best of the nu- have been re-edited since certain pas- 

merous reprints some with and some sages in the original editions were found 

without the Glosses. I have much to make against the Papacy and for the 

wished to collate the Roman edition of points of the Reformation. 
1582, to which my Ancestor refers, n To which office he was raised from 

• See 'Mr. Darling*s Cyclopaedia Bibliographica, Lond. 1854. ool. 780. 

236 Index of Authors y 

a. A ScbokBtical History of the Canon of the Holy Scrip- 
ture, or the Certain and Indubitable Books thereof. 
(Lond. 1683. 4to.) tMnde, 
304 CoTBLBRius, [CotelierJ Johannes Baptista, Societatis Sorbo- 1660 
nicse Theologus. 

I. SS. Patrum, qui Temporibus Apostolicis floruemnt Opera. 
Recensuit et Notulas aliquot aspersit Johannes Clericus. 
Adduntur in Appendice Beveregii Codex Canonum Vin- 
dicatus, Usserii Dissertationes Ignatianse, et Pearsonii 
Vindicise Epistolarum IgnatiL Antwerp. 1698. a torn, fol.) 
Item Amstelodami, 1734. a torn, fol.^ siepissme, 

Tom. I. 
I. Hermes Pastor, 
a. Constitutiones Apostolicae. 

3. Canones Apostolici. 

4. Epistola Clementis ad Jacobum. 

Tom. II. 

5. Epistola Ignatii ad Magnesianos. 
6 Smymenses. 

7 Philadelphianos. 

8. Epistola Pseudo-Ignatii ad Magnesianos. 

9. Ignatii Martyrium. 

10. Polycarpi Martyrium. 

In Append. Tom. II. 

1 1 . Beveregii Codex Canonum Ecdesise Universalis Vin- 

I a. Usserii Dissertationes de Epistolis SS. Ignatii et 

13. Pearsonii Vindiciae Epistolarum Ignatii. 
[II. Ecclesise Grspcse Monuments, e MSS. Codicibus, Gr. et 
Lat., cum Notis, &c. Paris. 1677. 3 tom. 4to. semel.'\ 

the Deanery of Peterborough, from i . De Constitutionibus Apostoloruni. 

which he had been preyiously ejected a. De Epistolis Ignatianis. 

during the Commonwealth, soon after Also the Epistle of Ignatius to the 

the Restoration. He died in 1672. Romans is substituted from the Colber- 

o This is regarded as the Editio Op- tine MSS., and the Martyrdom of Igna- 

tima, containing as it does, in addition tins according to the Colbertine is 

to what the former repiesents, the foU added. See Darling's Cydopsedia, &a 

lowing items: But, this edition of Cotelerius not 

T. Brunonis Judicium de Auctore having appeared till the year after my 

Canonum et Constitutionum Apo- Anoestoi^s death, I have thought it 

stolicarum. best to verify references according to 

Isaac Vosdus et Dav. Blondellus de the copy witii which he was himself 

Ignatio. so well acquainted. I have used it not 

H. Burtoni, J. Boisii, et J. Darisii only for the Epistles, 8cc, and for the 

Animadversiones in Epistolas Cle- notes of Cotelerius thereon, but also 

mentis, aspersis notulis J. Clerid. for the Apostolical Canons and Con- 

J. Clerici Dissertationes Duse : stitntions. 

alphabetically arranged, 237 

305 C0TOVICU8, Johannes. Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum. (Ant- 1600 

werp. 1619. 4to.) tubinde. 
206 [CovARRUViAB, Episcopiu SegobiensiB. Opera omnia. Fran- 

cofort. 1593. 2 torn. fol. (Cnm Notis Johannis Uffelii, Ant- 

werp. 1638. 2 torn, fol.) semel,'] 

307 Grabbbus^ [Crabbe, or more correctly Crabb^J Petrus. Con- 1550 

cilia Generalia et ProvincialiaP. (Colon. 155 1. 3 torn, fol.) sape, 

308 [Crakanthorp, Richard, D.D. Chaplain to King Charles I. 1600 

Defensio Ecclesise Anglicanee contra Mard Antonii de Doroi- 
nis [Dominicy], D. Archiepiscopi Spalatensis, injurias. (Lon- 
dini, 1635. 4to.) Also in the Library of Anglo-Catholic 
Theology, Oxf. 1847. 8vo. semel.'] 

309 [Crantzius, Albertus. Metropolis : sive, Historia Saxonise. 

Francofurt. 1590. fol. (Basil. 1568. fol.) Colon. 1574. 8vo. 

3 10 [Crbccblius. Collectanea de Origine et Fundatione Ordinis 

Monastici. (Francofurt. 1614. 4to.) semel. 

311 Crbsconius Afer. Breriatio Canonum: &p,Justellum inBibli- 590 

otheca Juris Canonici. Vid. infr. No. 431. semeL 
313 Critical History of the Creed. [The History of the Apostles' 
Creed, with Critical Observations on its Several Articles. 
Anonymous 4, Lond. 1703. 8vo.) bis terve. 

313 Critic I Sacri: s. Annotata Doctissimorum Virorum [S. Mun- 

steri et aliorum] in Vet. et Nov. Test., &c. (Amstel. 1698- 
1733. 13 tom.' fol.) semel, [Yet in truth it is not this 
book which the Author cites, (Antiq. b. 8. ch. 6. s. 16. v. 3. 
p. 98. n. 51.) but PoK Synopsis Criticorum, t. 5. p. 1895, ^^~ 
cording to the London edition of 1660 in 9 vols. fol. See 
afterwards under Poole,'] 

314 Critopulus, s. Critopylns, Metrophanes ". Confessio Fldei 1633 

Ecclesise Orientalis; Gr. et Lat. (Helmstad. 1661. 4to.) semel. 

P The citations of the Councils are entitled, ' An Enquiry into the Consti- 

frequently made by my Ancestor ac- tution, Discipline, Unity, and Worship 

cording to the text of Crabbe, but of the Primitive Church, that flourished 

more generally according to the edition within the first three hundred yean 

of Labbe and Cossart, which 1 have after Christ. Faithfully translated out 

almost entirely used, except in special of extant Writings of those ages. By 

cases, where the difference of the read- an impculial hand.' This book is ^ 

ing materially affects the sense, or vourable to the Presbyterian polity: 

clauses are omitted which appear in the it was effectually answered by Dr. Wil- 

older text. liam Sclater, the third of that name 

4 Peter King, Recorder of London, and title, in his Original Draug^hi of 

and knighted in 1708; Lord Chief the Primitive Church, S^c. Lond. i'i%'j. 

Justice of the Court of Common Pleas Svo. third edit. 

at the accession of George 1. ; created ' That is, together with the four 

a Peer by the title of Lord King, Baron pai-ts of the Thesawtu Theologicus, 

of Ockham, and made Lord Chancellor See Darling^s Cyclopsed. Bibliograph. 

in 1725. There is another work of his, Lond. 1854. 

also published anonymously in 1712, > Patriarch of Alexandria in 1623. 

SS8 Index ofAutliors, 

315 Crucius, 8. rectius, Crusius [Kraus] Martinus. Turco-GnecuB 1559 
libri Octo, utraque Lingua editi; quibus Gneconim status 
sub imperio Turcico, in Politia et Ecdesia, CEconomia et 
Scholia, jam inde ab amissa. Constantinopoli ad haec usque 
tempora, luculenter describitur. (Helmstad. i66i.4to.t) semel. 

216 CuRCELLJius, [CowrceUes^^ Steph. 1526 

Diatriba de Esu Sanguinis inter Christianos: (inter Opera 1640 
Theologica, Amstel. 1675. fol. p. 943.) temel vel bis. 

217 Cyprianus, Caedlianus. Episcopus Carthaginiensis et Martjrr. 250 

Opera Omnia cum Notis Rigaltii: Paris. 1684.^ fol. Item, 
Opera Omnia, recognita et illustrata per Johannem Oxoniensem 
Episcopum. Accedunt Annales Cyprianici, &c. Oxon. 1682. t 
fol. (Cum Notis Felli: Amstelodami, 1700. fol.) Item, Opera 
ad MSS. Codices recognita et illustrata studio et labore Steph. 
Baluzii. Absolvit post Baluzium, &c. unus ex Monachis Con- 
greg. S. Mauri, [Prudent. Maranus,] Paris. 1726. fol. Item, 
Venet. 1728. fol. 

Citations according to the arrangement of FdPs Edition, 
I. Tractatus: siepissime, 

1. Ad Donatum liber, De Gratia Dei. * 

2. De Disciplina et Habitu Virginum. 

3. De Lapsis. 

4. De Unitate Ecclesiae CathoUce : yulgo, De Simplicitate 


5. De Oratione Dominica. 

6. Ad Demetrianum liber. 

7. De Idolorum Vanitate. 

In the time of Archbishop Abbot he Annotations. See afterwards Prior, 

Raided for a season at Balliol College, No. 636. 

Oxford, having been sent into EngUmd y This is the original edition of Cy- 
by Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constan- prian by Dr. Fell, to which my An- 
tinople, for the purpose of being in- oestor chiefly refers. Circumstances 
structed in the doctrine and discipline led me in a very early stage of my 
of our Church. He quitted this country editorial labours to verify from the 
again in 1622. Saxius says he was Amsterdam reprint of Fell's text, which 
aUve in 1640, but when and where he is a very good book. (See afterwards 
died is not known. His Con/estio, ^c, under FeU.) The Epistles are differ- 
as above, which he drew up while in ently numbered in the Benedictine, 
Germany on his way back to the East, agreeing with the arrangement neither 
inclines very much to Protestant doc- of Famous nor of Fell. My references 
trines. can of course be found only according 

t The first Ed. BasiL 1584. fol. Kraus to the Amsterdam ; but, the number «/ 
was Professor of Moral Philosophy and each Epistle accordingr to Fell being 
of Greek at Tubingen in 1559. Died given in the notes where citations re- 
in 1607 at the age of 81. spectively occur, and the Benedictine 

a He succeed^ to Episcopius in the numbers being also noted here, the 

divinity professorship at Amsterdam, reader will have little difficulty in veri- 

Died in 1658. tying for himself, whatever edition he 

' Prior^s edition of Cyprian by Ri- may happen to possess, 

galtius, (Paris. 1666. fol.) is sometimes c This is Ep. 2. of Pamelius*8 edi- 

referred to by my Ancestor for a few tion, and Ep. i. of the Benedictine. 

alphabetically arranged. ftSQ 

8. De Mortalitate. 

9. De Opere et Eleemosjrnis. 

10. Da Bono Patientiee. 

11. De Zelo et livore. 

13. Ad Fortunatum de Exhortatione Martyrii. 

13. Ad Quiiinum, Testimonium contra Judseos^ labri Trea.' 

14. Concilimn Carthaginiense de Baptizandis Haereticis *. 
In the Appendix, according to Fellas Edition, among the 

Opuscula vulgo adscripta C^Kiliano Cypriano, 

15. De Spectaculia : Epistola Ignoti Auctoris. 

16. De Disdplina et Bono Pudicitise : Epistola Ignoti Auc- 


17. De Laode MaitTrii : Ad Moysen et Mazimnm yulgo in- 

scripta oratio. 

18. De Baptiamo Hsereticorum : Tractatus Ignoti Auctoris, 

a Rigaltio, in Notia ad Cyprianum primum editas ; in 
quo suadetur non debere denuo baptizari, qui eemel in 
Nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi sint tincti. 
At the end qf FeWs Ediium. 

19. Expoflitio in Symbolum Apostolorum, Ruffino Torano, 

Aquileiensis Eodesise Freabytero, Auctore. 

20. De Duplid Martyrio, ad Fortunatum incerto Auctore. 
II. Epistolse : pasrim, 

[The first figure indicates the number of the Epistle ac- 
cording to Pamelius, the second according to Fell, the 
third means the page of the Benedictine Edition, where 
also the number again differs.] 
Epistoke t» Secessu Cypriani toto hiennio conscripts. 

3. al. 8. Cler. Rom. ad Cler. Carthag. de Secessu Cy- 
priano. 26. 

4. al. 9. Cypr. ad Cler. Rom. de Dormitione Episcopi 
Urbid. 30. 

6. al. 14. Ad Qerum suum de Cura Pauperum et Quiete 

Plebis. 34. 

7. al. 13. Ad Rogatianum et cseteros Confessores de Ob- 

senranda Disciplina. 35. 

8. al. II. Ad Clerum de precando Deo pro Peccatis. 39. 

9. al. 10. Ad Martyres et Confessores de Mappalioo. 43. 

A In the Amsterdam edition of 1700, places the Epistles first, and has some 
the Treatises are somewhat differently pieces, such as the Con/rssio Cypriani, 
anrang^. The contents of the Ap- in the Appendix, which are not found 
pendiz also are not quite the same. It elsewhere. It rejects also some doubt- 
also has Dodwell's Dissertationes Cy- ful things, which are found in the edi- 
prianicm as well as the Annales Cy- tions of Oxford and Amsterdam, though 
prianici, the former of which does not even they do not wholly agree in oon- 
of course appear in Fell, while both are tents or arrangement, 
absent firom the Benedictine; which 

240 Index of Authors, 

10. al. 1 6. Ad Clerum de Presbyteris, qui temere pacem 
Lapsis dederant^ necdum sedate penecatione et citra 
conscientiam Episcoporum. 47. 

11. al. 15. Ad Martyres et Confessores, qui petierunt pacem 

Lapsis dari. 51. 
13. al. 17. Ad Plebem de Rescripto Martyrum ac iis, qui 
pacem petebaut. 54. 

13. al. 18. Ad Clerum de Lapsis Catechumenia^ ne vacui 

communione exeant. 55. 

14. al. 19. Ad eundem de iis, qui ad pacem festinabant. 58. 

15. al. 30. Ad Cler. Rom. de pnecedentium Epistolarum 
exemplis e suo secessu Romam missis. 58. 

17. al. 33. Confessorum Universorum ad C3rprianum de pace 
Lapsis date. 63. 

30. al. 35. Cyprian! ad Caldonium responsum. 7a 

31. al. 31. Celerini ad Lncianum de Numeria et Candida. 70. 

33. al. 37. Ad Cler. Rom. de sex Epistolis prsecedentibns et 

de Luciani inverecundia. 75. 

34. al. 39. Ad Clerum suum de Literis prsecedentibus Ro- 

mam missis et Saturo Lectore et Opteto bypodiacono 
factis. 79. 

36. al. 31. Moysis et Maximi et cseterorum ad Cypiianum 

rescriptum. 83. 

37. al. 33. Ad Lapso8> qui Cypriano de usurpate pace per 

Paulum martyrem date scripserant. 90. 

38. al. 34. Ad Clerum de Gaio Deddensi ac aliis, qui Lapsis 

communicabant. 91. 

30. al. 36. Ad Cyprianum Cleri Romani Responsum. 94. 

31. al. 30. Cleri Romani aliud eadem de re Rescriptum. 98. 

33. al. 38. Ad Clerum et Plebem de Aurelio doctore ordi- 

nato. 106. 

34. al. 39. Ad eosdem de Celerino lectore ordinato. 107. 

35. al. 40. Ad eosdem de Numidico presbytero. iii. 

36. al. 7. Ad Clerum de cura Paupemm et Peregrinorum. 


37. al. 13. Ad eundem ut Confessioribus in caicere consti- 

tutis omnia bumanitas prsebeatur. 114. 

38. al. 41. Ad Caldonium et cseteros de abstento Felicissimo. 


39. al. 43. Caldonii et caeterorum ad Cler. Cartbag. de ab- 

stento Felicissimo cum suis. 118. 

40. al. 43. Ad Plebem de Quinque Presbyteris de factionis 

Felicissimi. 119. 
EpistoUe scripta sub Pont^catu Comelii et Ludam, 
43. al. 45. Ad Comelium de Ordinatione ejus a se non com- 
probata et de Felicissimo. 137. 

alphabetically arranged, 241 

44. al. 46. Ad Confess. Roman, ut ad unitatem redeant. 131. 

45. al. 48. Ad Coraelium de Polycarpo Hadnimetino. 134. 

46. aL 49. Coroelii ad Cyprianum de Confessoribus ad uni- 

tatem reversis. 135. 

48. al. 50. Ejusdem ad eundem de factione Novatiani cum 

suis. 139. 

49. al. 5a. Ad Comelium de Novati sceleribus Responsum. 

5a. al. 55. Ad Antonianum de Concilio et Novatiano. 147. 

54. al. 57. Synodi Airicanse ad Comelium de pace Lapsis 

danda. 171. 

55. al. 59. Ad Comelium de Fortunato et Felicissimo. 175. 

56. al. 58. Ad Thibaritanos, exboitatoria ad Martyrium. 195. 

57. al. 60. Ad Comelium in exsilio de ejus Confeseione. 203. 

58. al. 61. Ad Lucium reversum ab exsilio. 207. 
EpistoUe misceUanea in pace Ecclente, varUs temporUnu 


59. al. 64. Ad Fidum de Infantibus baptizandis. an. 

60. al. 62, Ad Episcopos Numidas de redemptione fratrum 

ex captivitate Barbaromm. 214. 

61. al. 2. Ad Euchratium de Histrione. 218. 

62. al. 4. Ad Pomponium de Virginibus. 219. 

63. al. 63. Ad Csecilium de Sacramento Dominici Calicis. 


64. al. 65. Ad Epistolam et Plebem Assuritanomm de For- 

tunatio quondam eorum episcopo. 239. 

65. al. 3. Ad Rogatianum episcopum de superbo diacono. 243. 

66. al. I. Ad Cierum et Plebem Fumitanoram de Victore, 

qui Faustinum tutorem nominavit. 246. 
Epistoke Scripta sub powtificatu Stephani de baptizandis 

67. al. 68. Ad Stephanum Papam de Martiano Arelateusi, 

qui Novatiano oonsensit. 247. 

68. al. 67. Ad Cierum et Plebem Hispaniarum de Basilide 

et Maitiali. 254. 

69. al. 66. Ad Florentium Papianum de Obtrectatoribus. 262. 

70. al. 70. Ad Januarium et cseteros Episcopos Numidas de 

baptizandis Haereticis. 267. 

71. al. 71. Ad Quintum de baptizandis HsereticiB. 271. 

72. al. 72. Cypriani et CoUegamm ad Stepbanum de Con- 

cilio. 275. 

73. al. 73. Ad Jubaianum de baptizandis Haereticis. 278. 

74. al. 74. Ad Pomp6iam contra Epistolam Stephani. 294. 

75. al. 75. Firmiliani ad Cyprianum contra eandem Episto- 

lam. 302. 

76. al. 69. Ad Magnum de baptizandis Novatianis, et de ns, 

qui in lecto gratiam consequuntur. 315. 


S4S Index of Authors, 

Epistoke in ExiiUo scr%pt<B nibfinem Vita. 
8i. al. 6. Ad Rogatianum Juniorem et caeteros ConfesBores 

in carcere constitutos. 335. 
83. aL 81. Ad Qerum de suo sub finem vitse seoesau. 343. 
218 Cypriani Paasio, per Pontium Diaconum : pnefix. Editt.Oson. 
et Amstelod. Apud Edit. Benedict. Prolegom. p. 103. Vid. 
infr. Pontius, No. 634. 
319 Cyrillus, Sanctiu, Alexandrinua Epiecopus. Opera, Gr. et 412 
Lat, cura et studio Jobannis Auberti. (Lutet. Paris. 1638. 
6 torn, in 7. fol.) sapius. 
I. De Adoratione et Cultu in Spiritu et Veritate. t. i. 
a. Glapbyra, sive Scita et Elegantia Commentaria in libros 
Mosis. t. I. 

3. Coromentarii in Esaiam. t. 3. 

4. — ^ in Duodecim Prophetas Minores. t. 3. 
g. __.... [q Jobannis Evangelium. t. 4. 
6.Tbesauru8 de Sancta et Consubstantiali Trinitate. t. 5. 

part. 1. 

7. Homiliee de Festis Pascbalibus. t. 5. part. 3. 

8. Epistoke. ibid. (Vide etiam apud Bucberium. Item apud 

Beveregii Pandect, t. a. pp. 175, seqq.) 

9. Contra Julianum Apostatam. t. 6. 

10. Epist. ad Calosyrium. Inter scripts contra Antbiopomor- 
pbitas. ibid. 

Opuscula efusdem alibi. 
li.Epistola Canonica ad Episcopos libyee et Pentapoleos: 

(ap. Bevereg. Pandect, t. 3. pp. 175, seqq.) 
13. Epistola ad Monacbos : in Concilii Epbesini parte i. cap. 
38. (ap. Labb. et Cossart. Concilia, t. 3. pp. 433, seqq.) 
13. Epistola Paschalis. (ap. Bucberium, De Doctrina Tempo- 
rum. Antwerp. 1633. fol.) 
330 Cyrillus, Sanctus^ Hierosolymitanus Episcopus. Opera, Gr. 350 
et Lat. Ozon. 1703. fol. Item : Opera, qus ezstant omnia, et 
ejus nomine drcumferuntur, Gr. et Lat. ad MSS. Codices, 
necnon ad superiores Editiones castigata, &c. ; cura et studio 
Ant. August. Toutt^e, Presb. et Mon. Benedict. Paris. 1730. 
fol. ^ (Eadem recusa Venetiis, 1 763. fol.) seepias. 

b This edition is generally regarded triBt c. 2. b. 15. Jens, 1834. PP' ^^9i 

as the best ; but, while Walch odls it 1 30. If Walch be as correct in these 

intignit aique inter reliqua^ ojnnes remarks as I believe him to be, the 

prmsiantia et splendore otnnino priti' circumstance is another reason for re- 

ceps^ and speaks highly of Toutt^'s oeiving the Benedictine Editions with a 

diligence, he abo complains of his not little more reserve and caution than is 

stating i^rly and ftdly the whole Hoc- usual. I have generally observed that 

trine of Cyril, and adds, pervertit the older copies of Patristic writings 

muita capUoy trahitgue ad dogmata are the most favourable to the argu- 

Ecelesiof Romarnt de TS-aditione^ de ments of Protestants. 
Transubttantione, ^c, Biblioth. Pa- 

alphabetically arranged, 243 

I. Pnefatio Catecfaeseon, s. Procatecbesis. 

3. Catecheses Octodecim. 

3. Catecheaes Mystagogicae Quinque. 
331 [Cyrillus Scythopolitanus. Vita Johannis Silentiarii : ap. 555 
Papebrochium in Actis Sanctorum Maii. Vid. infr. No. 581. 

333 Dachbrius, [D'Achery] Lucas. Veterum aliquot Scriptorum 1660 
in GaUis Bibliothecis, maxime Benedictinorum^ latuerant, Spi-. 
cilegium. Paris. 1655-77. 13 torn. 4to. (Nova editio, priori 
accuratior et mfinitis prope mendis ad fidem manuscriptorum 
Codicum, quorum Varias Lectiones Stepb. Baluzius ac Ed- 
mund. Martene collegenmt, expurgata, per Ludovic. Franc. 
Jos. De la Barre<^. Tomacens. Paris. 1733. 3 tom. fol.) sub- 
233 Dallaus [Daill6]<i, Johannes. 1636 

i.De Objecto Cultus Religiosi adversus Latinorum Tradi- 

tionem. (Genev. 1664. 410.) sapius. 
3. De Confessione Auriculari. (Genev. 1661. 4to.) sape, 

3. De Confirmatione et Extrema Unctione. (Genev. 1659. 4to.) 


4. De Jejunio et Quadragesima. (Daventrise, 1654. 8vo.) 


5. De Imaginibus. (Lugdun. Batav. 1643. 8vo.) semel, 

6. De Poenis et Satisfactionibus. (Amstel. 1649. 4to.) semeL 

7. De Scriptis Ignatii. (Genev. 1666. 4to.) semeL 

[There is also his excellent work De Usu Patrum, (Genev. 
1686. 4to. third edit.) This book has never yet been well 
translated or properly edited in English.] 
334 Damabcenus, Johannes, [St. John of Damascus,] Sanctus 730 
Pater, Monachus Hierosolymitanus. Opera Gr. et Lat. Basil. 
1575. fol. Item : Opera Omnia, qua; exstant et ejus nomine 
circumferuntur, &c. Gr. et Lat. studio P. M. Le Quien : Paris. 
17 13. 3 tom. fol. (Editio novissima, longe aliis accuratior. 
Venet. 1748. 2 tom. fol.) sttpe. 
I. De Haeresibus. 1. 1. p. 74. 

c This also is called the best edition ca, Lond. 1854. 
of D'Achery ; but I have met with in- ^ Originally tutor in the family of 

stances whera citations by my Ancestor, that truly admirable man Du Plessis 

correct enough according to the earlier Momay, so long the friend and coun- 

copies, cannot be found in De la Barre. sellor of Henry IV. of France. Daill^ 

Again I confess I have been led to pre- was an excellent preacher, and still 

fer the older editions. It should be more remarkable for his invaluable 

borne in mind, that Mabillon's Vetera writings on the side of the Reforma- 

Analeeta forms an indispensable ad- tion. A new and uniform edition of 

dition to IVAchery's Spicilegium, For the Whole Works of this truly Pro- 

the most ample detail of its contents, testant divine is still a desideratum. 
see Darling's Cydopsedia Bibliographi- 

B 2 

244 Ind^^v of Authors, 

2, De Fide Orthodoxa. ibid. p. ii8. 

3. Pro Sacris Imaginibus Orationea Ties. ibid. p. 305. 

22s [DAMA.8U8. Ldber Pontificalis, sive Vitae Veteram Epiacopo- 366 
rum Romanorum. (Vid. ap. Conciliorum tomos. Item in 
1. 1. Anastaaii Bibliotbecarii de Vitia Pontificum. Rom. 1718.) 
Vid. aupr. No. 37. 

I . Decreta Damaai. 

3. Vit« Episcoporum, s. Paparum. subinde,"] 

336 [Dativi Acta : (ap. Baronium, ad annum 303.) semel.^ 

337 Delrio, Martinua. Disquiaitiones Magicae. Lovan. 1599. 4^* '3^^ 

(Colon. Agripp. 1637. 4to.) semel vel his. 

338 Demonstration that the Church of Rome haa erred, &c. 

Lond. 1686. 4to. See aflerwarda, Whitby, No. 825. 

339 Dempster, Thomas. Additionea ad Rosini Antiquitatea Ro- 1613 

manaa. Colon. 1630. 4to. Ibid. 1663. 4to. (Alias : Antiqui- 
tatum Romanarum Corpus absolutissimum, in quo pr»ter ea, 
quse Johannes Rosinus delineaverat, infinita supplentur, mu- 
tantur, adduntur: studio Andr. Schotti, Soc. Jea. Colon. 
1645. 4to.) subinde. 

330 Dbpositio Martynim. (Vid. ap. Pearsonii Annates Cypriani- 

008 : ad calc. Oper. Cyprian. Ed. Arostel. 1700. fol.) semel. 

331 DiDYMUS, Alexandrinus. De Spiritu Sancto : inter Opera, ap. 370 

t. 9. Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. Item ap. t. 4. Bibliotb. 
Max. Lugdun. 1677. (ap. GaUandium, 1,6,^.264,) semel. 
333 [DiEU®, Ludovicua de. Animadversiones in Epistolas D. Pauli. 1619 
(Lugdun. Batav. 1646. 4to.) semel. 

333 Dig Cassius. Vid. supr. Cassius, No. 148. 

334 DiooBNES Laertius. De Vitis Philosophorum, Gr. et Lat., 130 

cum Heaychio, Milesio, et Eunapio de iisdem : cum Notis 
Isaac Casauboni. Colon. Allobrog. 1616. 8vo. Item, Amatel. 
1693. 4to. (Londini, 1764. fol.) bis. 
I. Vita Platonis. 2. Vita Polemonis. 

335 D10NY8IU8, Sanctus, Alexandrinus ^ 354 

i.Epistolae Varise; apud Eusebii Hist. Eccles. q.v. subinde. 
3. Epistola Canonica : apud Beveregium in Pandect, t. 3. 

336 Dion Y8 1 us Areopagita?. Opera sub ipsius Nomine. Gr. et 

Lat., cum Scholiis Pachymerse et Maximi. Paris. 1644 2 tom. 

« An able minister of the Walloon ting out a fleet against England. Louis 

Church in Holland, and teacher at Ley- died in 1643. 

den. He was the son of Daniel de f The best edition of his whole works 

Dieu, who was sent in 1588 by the is the Roman, 1796. i torn. fol. 

Churches of the Netherlands to give to S He is supposed to have been the 

Queen Elizabeth notice of the designs first bishop of Corinth, about the year 

of the Duke of Parma, who was pre- 50. The date in the column merely 

tending to make proposals of peace, indicates the era of the author or 

while Philip of Spain was secretly fit- authors of the writings that bear the 

alphabetically at*ranged. 246 

4to. Item, Antwerp. 1634. a torn. 4to. (Opera et studio Geo. 
Constantini, Gr. et Lat., cum Paraphrasi Pachymene et An- 
notationibus Balth. Corderii ; a mendis repurgata, ac Disser- 
tatione pnevia [per J. Fr. Berah. de Rubeis] ; Variantibus 
Lectionibua, &c. aucta, &c. Venet. 1755-^. 2 tom. fol.) 
Hierarchic Ecclesiasticae, capp. 2-7. sape. 

337 D10NY8IU8 Corinthius: (ap. Eusebiumy Hist. Eccles. 1. 1. c. 7.) 170 

Vid. infr. No. 275. semel. 

338 D10NY8IU8 Eziguus. Codex Canonum Ecclesiae Romanse. 533 

[al. Collectio Decretorum Pontificum Romanorum, a Siricio 
ad Anaatasium Secundum.] Vid. ap. JustelU Biblioth. Jur. 
Canon. Item in tomis Conciliorum : (juxt. Ed. Labb. Paris. 
1671^.) subinde. 

339 [Discipline, La, des Eglises lUform^es en France. Salmur. 

1669. i3mo. semelJ] 

340 [Discourse of the Patriarchal Discipline of the Primitive 

Church. Lond. 16 14. 8vo. semel,'] 

341 DoDWELL, Henry. [A learned Nonjuror.] 1674 

1. Dissertationes Cyprianicse. Oxon. 1683? fol.^ (ad calc. 

Oper. Cyprian. Amstel. 1700. fol.) subinde, 

2. De Jure Laicorum Sacerdotali contra Grotium. (Lond. 

1685. 8vo.) semel. 

3. Dissertationes in Irenieum, &c. (Oxon. 1689. 8vo.) semeL 
343 [Domesday Book : seUj.CTiber Censualis Willelmi Primi, &c. : 

Jubente Reg. Augustiss. Georg. Tert. pnelo mandatus. Lond. 
1783. 3 vol. foL semel.'] 
343 D0MINI8, Marcus Antonius de, [Dominicy,] sive Spalatensis^. 1600 
I. De Republica Ecclesiastica libri Decern. Lond. 1686. 
3 tom. fol. (Lugdun. 161 7. 3 tom. fol.) 

Areopagite*B name ; though more pro- oaths to the new govemment. 
bably they were not written till the ^ A man of great abilities and ex- 
middle of the fifth, or the early part of tensive learning, but fickle in religion, 
the sixth century. See Du Pin, Bibli- Bom at Arba 1561. He was first 
oth. cent. i. v. i. p. 37. Paris. 1693. among the Jesuits, but leaving them 

l^ Dionysitts's Laiin Version of the became bishop of Segni, and afterwards 
Canonsy as given both in Crabbe and archbishop of Spalato in Dalmatia. Be- 
in Labbe, is sometimes specially re- coming disaffected to the Church of 
ferred to. Rome, he wrote his famous book De 

i This date is doubtful, the book it- Republica, S[c.y in which he aimed fear- 
self being without place or date. The ful blows at the Papal power. Then 
year 1682 is the date of Dr. Fell's Ox- coming to £ngland he joined her 
ford edition of Cyprian, and my An- Church, obtaining the Deanery of 
cestor seems to think that the era of Windsor, the Mastership of the Savoy, 
Dodwell's book was the same. Walch and the Rectory of West Ilsley, Berks, 
gives the date Oxon. 1684-8, while the But in 1622 he forsook Protestantum, 
author was still Camden's F^fiessor of and returning to Rome gave in his re- 
History in that University ; a post cantation : which, however, did not save 
which he lost at the Revolution in him from the dungeons of the Inquisi- 
oonsequence of refusing to take the tion, where he died in 1625. 

246 Iiidex of Author 8 y 

3. Ad Canonem secundum et quintum Concilii Agathensis, 
et ultimum Ilerdensis ; sive, De Communione Peregnna. 
(Paris. 1645. 4to.) 
244 Drbxblius, Jeremias, Soc. Jes. TrismegistuB Christianus; 161 5 
give, De Triplici Cultu Coascientiae, Coelitum, Corporis. Co- 
lon. 1631. lamo. (Monachii, 1638. i8mo.) semel. 
345 DuARENUS, Franciscus. De Sacris Ecclesiae Ministeriis ac 1540 

Beneficiis. (Paris. 1551. 4to.) Francofurt 1598. fol. tubinde. 
246 DucjBUS. Vid. infr. Fronto Ducaus, No. 308. 

347 Du Cangb. See afterwards, Du Fresne, No. 306. 

348 DuGDALB, Sir William, Knt. M.A. Monasticon Anglicanum, 1650 

&c. Loud. 1655. 3 vol. fol. (Lond. 1682. 3 vol. fol.) semel. 

349 Du Pin. See afterwards. No. 608. 

350 DuRANTBS^ sive Durandus, [Durand,] Gulielmus. Rationale 1387 

Divinorum Officiorum. Lugdun. 1584. 8vo. (Item, cum Jo- 
han. Belethi Rationali. Antwerp. 1614. 8vo.) ter quaterve, 

351 DuRANTUS °^, Johannes Stephanus. [Jean Etienne Durante.] 1580 

De Ritibus Ecclesise Catholicse Labri Tres, &c. Paris. 1631. 
8vo. Lugdun. 1675. 4to. (Romse, 1591. fol.) sapius, 


353 Eadmbrus, Monachus Cantuariensis. ii30 

I. Historia Novorum, sive sui Saeculi, cum Notis Johannia 
Selden. Lond. 1633. fol. (ad calc. Oper. Anselmi, studio 
D. Gabr. Gerberon. Venet. 1744. fol.) semel, 
3. Vita Wilfredi. (ap. MabiUonium, Act. Sanctor. Ord. Bene- 
dict. Paris. 1673. Ssecul. 3. part. i. pp. 196, seqq.) semel, 

353 EccHBLLBNSisi^, Abraham. Concilii Nicseni Canones Ara- 1650 

bid, cum Notis : (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 3.) semel, 

354 EcKius. Johannes. 1530 

I. Enchiridion [Locorum Communium adversus Lutherum, 
8. Lutteranos.] Lugdun. 1549. 8vo. (Ingolstadii, 1537. 
i3mo.) bis, 

3. Homilia Tricesima Tertia, int. Homilias de Sacramentia : 
(ap. Homiliar. v. 4. Paris. 1574-5. 4 vol. 8vo.) semel. 

355 Ecclesiastical Historians. See under Eus^fius, No. 375. 

Socrates, No. 716. Sozomenus, No. 730. Theodoretus, No. 754. 
Evagrius, No. 379. PkUostorgius, No. 605. Rufinus, No. 667. 
Nieephorus, No. 541. 

356 Ehingerus, Elias. Codex Canonum Ecclesise Orientalis, Gr. 

1 This learned Ritualist, whose Latin the wars of the League, for his loyalty 

name is either Durantet or Durandus, and attachment to Henry III. of France. 

was a great &vourite of Popes Clement ^ Of Eikel. He was a Maronite, a 

TV. and Gregory X. He was bishop man of considerable learning. Assisted 

of Mende in 1387, and died in 1296. Le Jay in his Polyglot Bible. He died 

m He suflfered death, anno 1589, in at Rome in 1664. 

alphahetically arranged. S47 

et Lat. Wittebeigse, 1615. 4to. (Apostolorum et Sanctorum 
Conciliorum Decreta. Wittebergse, 16 14. 4to.°) bis, 

357 Eligiub [Eloi] Lemovicensis, sive Noviomensis. Homiliae ei 640 

ascriptfie Sexdecim : ap. t. 2, Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. 
1. 13. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677.) 

Horn. 8. De Poenitentia. semel. 

Horn. II. De CoBna Domini, semel, 

358 Emeriti Acta: (ap. fiaronnm ad annun 303.) Vid. supr. 

No. 78. semel. 

359 Emebenus, 8. Emisenos. Vid. infr. Pa«to EmisemUf No. 593. 

360 Ennodiub, Tlcinensis Episcopus. 511 

I. Vita Epiphanii Tlcinens. Episc. : ap. 1. 15. Biblioth. Patr. 
Paris. 1654. (ap. t. 9. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677.) 
Item ap. Gallandium, 1. 11. Vid. etiam int. Opera, cum 
Notis Sirmond. Paris. 161 1. 8vo. semel. 
.3. Epistolse. In Monument. Patr. Orthodoxograph. (Biblioth. 
Max. ibid.) semel. 

361 Ephrem, s. Ephraem Syrus, Sanctus. 370 

I. Opera, per Vossium Tungrensem Latine. Antwerp. 1619. 
fol. t Colon. 1547. 8vo. Romse, 1589-93. 3tom. foL Co- 
lon. 1603. 
3. Opera, Greece e Codicibus Manuscriptis Bodleianis, per 

Edvard. Thwaites. Oxon. e Theatr. Sheldon. 1709. 
3. Opera Omnia, quae exstant, Greece, Syriace, et Latine, in 
sex tomos distributa, ad MSS. Codices Vaticanos alios- 
que castigata, &c. ; nunc primum sub auspiciis S. P. 
Clementis XII. P. M. e Bibliotheca Vaticana prodeunt : 
studio J. S. Assemanni. Romae, 1733-46. 6 torn. fol.P) 
I. Horn. 93. De Secundo Adventu. 
3. De Poenitentia. 
3. De Abrenun^atione Baptismi. 

o My Ancestor has cited Ehinger were originally published by Tilius, in 

fcwioe (see AntiqnitieS) b. 3. ch. 5. s. 7. Greek oidy, at Paris, 1540. 4to. :' and 

V. 1. p. 80. n. 17., and b. 3. ch. 11. b. 5. Fabrictus (Biblioth. Orsc. Hamburg. 

▼• !• p«354* n. 40*) and under a some- 1809. 4to. t. 12. p. 197.) mentions the 

what different title, and with the dif- Greek edition of Tilius as reprinted 

ferenoe of a year's date, to the only with a Latin version by Ehinger, at 

copy I have seen, as designated between Witteberg, in 1614, 4to., but is silent . 

the lunar brackets. That book I have as to any edition of the work in 1615. 

handled at the Bodleian, and I think it This fact seems to justify the remark I 

must be the identical edition my An- have made in the last clause of the 

cestor intended to name, unless haply preceding paragraph of this note, 
his copy was a reprint at Wittenberg p The first three volumes are in 

the next year, with a varied title, which Greek and Latin, the other three in 

is possible. Syriac and Latin. Walch, who gives 

A manuscript note on the title-page a full account of this beautiful edition 

of the Bodleian copy by Dr. T. Bsrlow, of Ephrem Syrus, terms it Opus plane 

to whom the book once belonged, and tnsigne atque egregium. Biblioth. Pa- 

who himself was Keeper of that Library trist. r. 2. s. 18. Jense, 1834. pp. 158, 9. 
in 1652, tells us 'that these canons 

248 Index of Authors, 

262 Ephrbmius Antiochenus. Pro Eoclesiasticis Dogmatibus et 526 

Synodo Chalcedonensi : (ap. Photii Bibliothecam, codd. 228. 
et 229.) Vid. infr. No. 607. bis. 

263 Epiphanius. SanctuB Pater, Constantiae s. Salaminis in Cypro 368 

EpUcopua. Opera Omnia, Gr. et Lat., cum Notis Petavii. 
Paris. 1622. 2 torn. fol. (Editio nova juxta Parisinam, anni 
1622, adomata: cui accessit Vita Dionjrsii Petavii ab Henrico 
Valeaio oratione descripta, et Appendices Geminse, &c. Colon. 
1682. 2 torn, fol.) stgpissime. 

Ex TOM. I. 

1. Adversus Hsereses Octoginta Opus, quod PanarUtm, sive 

Arcula, inscribitur. 

15. ScribK. 51. Alogi. 

21. Simoniani. 52. Adamiani. 

22. Menandriani. 57. Noetiani. 

23. Saturmliani. 59. Novatiani, s. CSa* 

25. Nicolai'tie. tbari. 

26. Gnostici. 61. Apostolid. 

27. Carpocratiani. 64. Origeniani. 

28. Cerintbiani. 66. Manicbsei. 

29. Nazarsei. 67. Hieradtse. 

30. Ebionaei. 68. Mdetiani. 
34. Marcosii. 69. Ariani. 
40. Archontid. 70. Audiani. 
42. Mardonistie. 72. Marcelliani. 

45. Severiani. 73. Semiariani. 

46. Tatiani. 74. Pneumatomacbi. 

47. Encratit». 75. Aerius, a. Aeriani. 

48. Montani8t8e,8.Pbry< 76. Anomoei. 

g&fitae. 78. AntidicomarianitK, 

49. Pepuziani. 79. CoUyridiani. 

50. Quartadedmaniy s. 80. Massaliani. 

2. Ezpodtio Fidd Catholicse et Apostolicae. 

Ex TOM. II. 

1. Ancoratufi. 

2. Epitome Panarii, sive Anacepbalaeosis. 

3. De Mensuris et Ponderibus. 

4. Epistola ad Jobannem Hierosolymitanum. 

5. Vita Epipbanii. 

264 Epi8GOpius4, Simon. Institutiones Theologies. Amstd. 1665- 161 2 

71. (Opera Tbeologica. Editio secunda cum Autograpbo ac- 
curatissime coUata, &o. Lond. 1678. 2 tom. fol.) semel. 

q He WEB an Arminian divine ofun- learning. He was expelled from his 
common abilities, and vast theological divinity-professorship at Leyden by the 

alphabetically arranged. S49 

265 Erasmus r, Desideriiu. Encomium Morise, a. Stuldtiie Laus. 1514 

Inter Gpera. Paris. 1638. 9 tom. fol. (ap. t. 4. Operum Om- 
nium. Lugdun. Batav. 1703. 10 tom. fol. in 11.) semel. 

266 Ebtius *, Gulielmus. SS. Theologise Doctor. 1585 

1. In Quatuor libros Sententiarum Commentaria; quibus 

pariter S. Thomse Summse Theologicie partes omnes 
mirifice illustrantur. (Paris. 1638. 4 vol. in i tom. fol.) 

2. Conunentarius in Epistolas Pauli. Paris. 1668. fol. (Colon. 

AUobrog. 1631. 3 vol. in i tom. fol.) sape. 

267 EucHBRius, Episcopus Lugdunensis. Homilise^. Antwerp. 434 

i6oa. 8vo. (ap. part. i. tom. 5. Biblioth. Patr. per De la 
Bigne : Colon. Agripp. 1618. sub nomine Eusehii ChiUicani.) 
ter quaterve. 
a68 EucuoLOGiUM Grseconim: (cum Notis Jaoobi Goar. Paris. 
1647. fol.) subinde, 

269 [Euoippius, s. Eugyppius. Thesaurus ^ ex Sancti Augustini 511 

Operibus, a Johanne Heraldo. (Basil. 1542. 2 tom. fol.) semeL 

270 EuLOGius, Patriarcha Alexandrinus. (Vid. ap. Phoiii Biblioth. 581 

ood. 280.) Item ap. tom. 12. Gallandii. ter, 

271 EuNAPius^^ Sardianus. De Vitis Philosophorum, Gr. et Lat. 380 

(Colon. Allobrog. 1616. 8vo.) Item, Antwerp. 1568. 8vo. 

Synod of Dort in 16 18, but became tains whatever the Author^ who ia aup- 

Rector of the Remonstrant College at poaed to have been Abbot of a Monas- 

Amsterdam in 1634. He died in 1643. tery near Naples, considered most va- 

' Bom at Rotterdam, 1467. Edu- Inable in the writings of St. Austin, 

cated at Daventer. Ordained a priest, See Watt, Biblioth. Britann. v. 1. p. 

1492. First visited England in 1497- 345* x. See also Bellarmin. de Scrip- 

At Louvain, Padua, and Rome, from tor. Eccles. (Colon. 1684. p. 129.) 

1501 to 1510. Then came again to where at the end of his short account 

England, and was made Margaret Pro- of Eugippius, whom he terms an Afri- 

feasor of Dirinity and Lecturer in can Abbot in the time of Fulgentiua, 

Greek at Cambridge. Retired in 1514 he says, after describing the contents 

to Basle, where he edited the Greek of the two volumes, Editum est hoc 

Testament, the Works of St. Jerome, opus Basilete anno Domini 1543. et 

and many other publications. He died Venetiis anno 1543. Sed cavend^ tuni 

in 1536. uuidw htBreticoruniy qui hoc opus in 

• Lecturer of Divinity, and after- lucem emiserunti How much more 

wards Chancellor of the University at reason have we to be very cautious in 

Douay. He died in 1613. trusting Romish Editors. See, for ez- 

t Vid. Andr. Schottum, De hamm amples, Daill^'s De Usu Patrum, b. i. 

HomUiarum Auctore, an Eusebii Emi- ch. 4. (Genev. 1686. pp. 60, seqq.) and 

seni, vel Eucherii? (ibid, ut supr. p. Comber's Roman Forgeries in the 

543 d. 6.) Ezierunt olim Homilise Councils during the first four oentu- 

quinquaginta, &c. The Opuscula of ries ; with an Appendix containing the 

Eucherius are also ezstant in the sixth forgeries and errors in the Annals of 

tome of the Bibliotheca Maxima, but Baronius. (Lond. 1689. 4to.) 
these Homilies do not appear there ' A physician by profession : in 

under his name, but under that of principles a bitter enemy of Chris- 

JBusebius EmisenuM, q. v. No. 374. tianity. 

n A work of great scarcity. It con- 

260 Index of Authors, 

372 EuoDii Epistoke : (int. Epp. Attgustini.) Vid. supr. No. 64. 430 


373 EuPLii Acta. (ap. Baranium ad annum 303.) Vid. supr. No. 

78. bis. 

374 EusBBius EmisenuB, Episc. Gallicanus. Homiliae, sed tamen 340 

dubias7. Antwerp. 1630. 8vo. (ap. t. 6. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 
1677.) ter quaterve, 

I. Horn, de Pentecoste. 

3. — ^ de Natali S. Genesti. 

3. de Maccabaeis. 

375 EusBBius Pamphilus, Csesares Palsstinse Episcopus. 315 

I. Demonstratio EvangeJica : Gr. et Lat. Paris. 1638. foL 

(Colon. 1688. fol.>) bis. 
3. Prseparatio Evangelica, Gr. et Lat., cum Notis Vigeri : 

Paris. 1638. fol. (Colon. 1688. foL) bis. 

3. Chronicon, cum Animadversionibus Scaligeri. (Amstel. 

1658. fol.*) Conf. etiam ap. Opera HteronprU, Ed. Val- 
lars. t. 8. pp. 9I9 seqq. bis. 

4. Epistola ad Ceesarienses de Fide Nicsena. (ap. Saeratis 

Hist. Eccles. 1. 1. c. 8. et ap. Theodoreti Hist. Eccles. 1. 1. 
c. 13.) ter quaterve. 

5. Historia Ecclesiastica. Grseoe, juxt. Ed. Rob. Stepliani *>. 

Paris. 1544. fol. Item, Gr. et Lat. juxt. Ed. Hen.Valesii. 
Paris. 1673. <2 fol. Item, Amstel. 1695. fol. (Reading, 
Cantabr. 1730. fol.) passim. 

6. De Martyribus PakestinK : ad calc. 1. 8. Hist. Eccl. (Ut 

supr. Cantabr. 1730.) subinde. 

7. De Vita Imperatoris Constantini : ad calc. Hist. Ecdes. 

(ut supr.) s€epius. 

8. Constantini Oratio ad Sanctorum Ccetum : ibid, (ut supr.) 

semel vel bis. 

9. Oratio de Laudibus Constantini : ibid, (ut supr.) sMnde. 

376 EusTATHiuB Antiochenus. De Engastrimjrtho adversus Ori- 335 

genem, cum Notis Allatii. Lugdun. 1639-40. Item ap. t. 3. 
Criticor. Sacror. Amstel. 1698. (ap. QaUandHumy t. 4. p. 541.) 

7 See the preceding note on EU' b Specially referred to by the Author 

cheriutt above. once or twice on account of some pecu- 

' Modem edition. EyangelicK De- liar reading in the Greek Text. 

monstrationiB Libri Quindedm, Gr. ad c Walch does not mention this date, 

Codd. MSS. recensuit Thomas Gais- but gives Paris, 1650; Paris, 16673 and 

ford, S.T.P. Oxon. 1843. 4 ^ol. Svo. Mentz or Frankfort, 1671. See after- 

a Modem edition : Chronicon Bi- wards under Fittietius, No. 786. It 

partitum [Grsco-Armeno-Latinum] will be borne in mind, that the His- 

nunc primum ex Armeniaco Textu in torical works of Eusebius form the first 

lAtinum conyersum, Adnotationibus volume of the three tomes of the Ec- 

anctum, &c. Opera P. J. Bapt. Au- deeiastical Series by Valois, and after- 

cher Ancyrani, &c. Venet 1811. 4to. wards by Reading, Cambridge 1730, 

alphabetically ai^anged. S5 1 

377 EuTHYiiius ZigabenuB. Panoplia Orthodozse Fidei adveraus 11 16 

Omnes Hsereses. Venet. 1555 • fol. (ap. 1. 19. Biblioth. Max. al. 
LugduD. 1677.) Item ap. Gallandium, 1. 14. sub tit., Monu- 1090 
menta Varia, 

378 EuTYCHfANUB, Episc. Rom. Decreta : ap. Crabb. Concilia, t.i. 375 

(ap. Labb. 1. 1.) semel. 

379 EvAORius, Scbolasticus. Historia Ecclesiastica, Gr. et Lat., 594 

cum Notis Valeeii. Paria. 1673. fol.<^ Amstel. 1695. fol. 
(Reading, Cantabr. 1730. fol.) sapnu. 


380 Fab SB, Johannes, Episc. Viennensis. Declamatio de Hmnanse 15 10 

Vitae Miseria: ap. Hottinger, Hist. Eccles. ssscul. 16. part. 4. 
q. y.) semel. 

381 FabriciusS Johannes Albertus, D.O. Bibliographia And- 1699 

quana : sive, Introductio in Notitiam Scriptorum, qui Anti- 
quitates Hebraicas, Gnecas, Romanas, et Christianas scriptis 
illustraverunt. (Hamburg. 1713. 4to.) Ed. tert. Hamburg. 
1760. 3 tom. 4to. semel, 
383 Fabrotus [Fabroti], Carolus Annibal. 1630 

I. NotSB ad Balsamonis Collectionem Constitutionum Ecde- 
siasticarum. (ap. Justell. Biblioth. Jur. Canon, t. 3. q. v.) 
3. Basilicon Libri LX.' (Paris. 1647. 7 tom. fol.) semel, 

383 FACUNDUSi^ Hermianensis. Ph> DefensioneTrium Capitulorum 540 

Concilii Chalcedonensis Libri Duodecim. Inter Opera, cum 
Notis Sirmondi. Paris. 1675. fol. (ap. t. 10. Biblioth. Max. 
Lugdun. 1677.) Item ap. Sirmondi Opera Varia, t. 3. et ap. 
Dacherii Spicilegium, t. 3. Paris. 1733. fol. bis, 

384 Fasciculus Rerum Expetendarum et Fugiendarum. (Lond. 

1690. 3 vol. fol.) semel, 

385 Fasti Siculi. Vid. supr. Chronicon Alexandrinum, No. 165. 

386 Faulkner [or Falkner], William, D.D. 1670 

I. libertas Ecdesiastica : or, A Discourse vindicating the 
Lawfulness of those things chiefly excepted against in the 
Church of England. (Lond. 1677. 8vo.) Lond. 1684. 8vo. 

and reprinted in 1743. There is also most voluminoas, and perhaps the 

a more recent edition of the Ecde- most instructive and ueeful of all 

siastical History of Ensebiiu only by bibliographers. 

the Ute Dr. Edward Burton, Regius ' For this work, which contains the 

Professor of Divinity at Oxibrd : Oxon. Basilica or Constitutions of the Eastern 

e l^pograph. Aotdem. 1838 : and Empire in Greek with a Latin version 

1845. 2 vol. 8vo. Also by Heinicfaen, by Fabroti, he received a pension of 

Lips. 1817-40. 5 vol. 8vo. 2000 litres per annum. He died in 

d In the third volume of the Ecde- 1659. 

siastical Series according to the editions 9 Bishop of Hermianum in Asia. 

of Vslois and Reading. He is celebrated for his defence before 

• The most learned, as well as the the Council of Constantinople, anno 

26£ Index of Authors , 

a. A Vindication of Liturgies, shewing the Lawfulness, Use- 
fulness, and Antiquity of Set Fonns of Prayer. (Lond. 
1680. 8vo.) semel. 

387 [Faustinus et Marcellinus. Libellus Precum ad Theodosium 384 

Imperatorem. Oxon. 1678. 8vo. Ap. t. 5. Biblioth. Max. 
Lugdun. 1677. (ap. GaUandium, t. 7. p. 463.) semel."] 

388 Felicis Acta. (Ap. fiarontttm, ad annum 302.) Vid. supr. 

No. 78. semel. 

389 Fb LICIT ATI 8 Acta. Vid. infr. Perpetua, No. 597. 

390 Felix III. Papa. Epistola Decretalis Prima: (ap. Labb. Con- 483 

cil. t. 4.) Item ap. Justell. Biblioth. Juris. Canon. 

391 Fell, John, D.D. Bishop of Oxford. Notae in Cyprianum : 1676 

ap. £d. Oper. Cyprian. Oxon. 1683. fol. (ap. Cypriani Opera, 
recognita, et iUustrata, quae cum Felli Notis et Johannis Cestri- 
ensis, i. e. Johannis Pearsonii, Episc. Cestr. Annalibus Cypri- 
anicis prodierunt, Oxon. 1683. fol.; Brem. 1690. foL, sub- 
junctis H. Dodwelli Dissertationibus Cyprianicis, quae Oxon. 
1684-88. in lucem exierunt; et Amstelodami, 1700. fol.) s€Bpe, 

I. In Tractat. de Lapsis. 

3. de Oratione Dominica. 

3. de Opere et Eleemosyna. 

4. In Epistolas, 4, 7, 13, 17, 18, 49, 52, 55, 63, 66. 

5. In Vitam Cypriani. 

393 Fbrrandus, cognomine Fulgentius. 533 

T. Breviarium, sive Breviatio Canonum : ap. Justell. Bi- 
blioth. Jur. Canon. 1. 1. (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 3.) subinde, 
3. Epistola ad Sanctum Fulgentium deCatechizando ^thiope; 
inter Opera Fulgentii. (ap. t. 9. Biblioth. Max.) ap. Gal- 
landium, t. II. ter, 

393 Ferrari us, [Ferrari,] Franciscus. De Ritu Sacrarum Eccle- 16 13 

sise Catholicse Concionum Libri Tres. Mediolan. 1630. 4to. 
(Paris. 1664. 8vo.) Ed. Princeps, Mediolan. 1613. sape. 

394 Ferrari us, Philippus. Lexicon Geographicum, cum Addi- 

tionibus Baudrandi. (Paris. 1670. 2 vol. in i. fol.) stspissinte, 

395 Field, Richard, D.D. Dean of Gloucester. Of the Church. 1594 

Oxford, 1638. fol. Second Edition^. (Again, Oxford, 1635. 
fol.) semet, 

396 Files ACU8,[Filesacque,] Johannes. Commentarius in Vincen- 16 10 

tium Lirinensem*. (Paris. 1619. 4to.) semel. 

397 FiRMicus, Julius Maternus. 340. al. 344 

547, of the writings termed the Tria of Nestorius. 

Capitula, which the Council of Chal- h Xhe first edition was in 1609, the 

oedon, anno 451, had declared to be second, with the addition of a fifth 

orthodox : viz. the writings of Theo- book, in 1610. 

dore of Mopsuestia, the books of Theo- i A very scarce book. I have seen a 

doret of Gyrus, and the Letter of Ibas copy in the Library of All Souls Col- 

of Edessa concerning the condemnation lege, Oxford, m. m. la. 23. 

alphabetically arranged. 253 

I . De Errore ProfaDarum Religionum, cum Notis Johannis k 
Wower. Ozon. 1678. 8vo. ap. t. 4. Biblioth. Max. (ap. 
GaUandium, t. 5.) semel. 

3. AstroDomia : sive, De Matheai. Basil. 1591. (Astronotnicon 
Libri Octo. Basil. 1533. fol.) semel, 

398 F1RMILIANU8, SanctuB. Episc. Cssareae Cappadocum. Epistola 250 

ad CjrpriaDum ^. Int. Epp. Cyprian. Ep. 75. juxt. Ed. Fell, al. 
Oxon. 1683. fol. (Amstel. 1700. fol.) semel vel bis. 333 

399 Fisher, John, D.D. Bishop of Rochester, al. Roffenais. Liber 1504 

contra Luthenim. Paris. 1563. 8vo. (ap. Opera, Werceburg. 
1597. fol.) semel. 

300 Flaccus, Albinus. Vid. supr. Alctdnus^ No. 10. semel. 

301 Flacius, Matthias, [Francowitz °^,] s. Flaccus Illjrricus". 1557 

I . Catalogus Testium Veritatis, qui ante nostram »tatem 
Pontifici Romano ejusque Erroribus reclamarunt ; jam 
denuo longe quam antea, et emendatior et auctior editus : 
&c. (Genev. 1608. fol.) Ibid. 1638. fol. Ed. Princeps, 
Argent. 1563. fol. semel. 

3. De Sectis Papisticis. (Basil. 1565. 4to.) bis. 

3. [Missa Latina, qute olim ante Romanam, circa 700 Domini 
annum in usu fuit, bona fide ex vetusto codice descripta. 
Item quaedam de yetustatibus Missse scitu valde digna. 
Adjuncts est Beati Rhenani Prsefatio in Missam Chryso- 
stomi a Leone Tusco, anno Domini 1070 versam. Ar- 
gentine, Mylius, 1557. 8vo. A very rare book. See 
Brunet's Manual du Libraire. Paris. 1843. v. 3. p. 385. 
303 Flaobllantium Historia. (Paris. 1700. 8vo.) ter quaterve. 
303 FoRBESius k Corse, Johannes. [John Forbes of Corse <>.] 1619 
Opera Omnia. Amstel. 1703. 3 torn. fol. subinde. 

I. Irenicum Amatoribus Veritatis et Pacis in Ecclesia Sco- 
tiana. (ap. Oper. t. i.) (Seorsim, Aberdeen. 1636^ 4to.P) 

3. Instructiones Theologicse. (ap. Oper. t. 3.) (Seorsim, 
Amstel. 1645.) 

k In this Epistle he urges the neces- ^ So he Latinized hia own name, as 

iity of rebaptizing those who had been being a native of Albona, or Albana, in 

baptized by heretics. Illyria, where he was bom in 1530. 

i He was Chaplain and Confessor to He died at Francfort in 1576. 

Queen Margaret, Countess of Rich- o Professor of Divinity and Eccled- 

mond, and her first Divinity I^rofessor astical History at King's College, Aber- 

at Cambridge. He was a zealous op- deen, in 1619, from which he was 

ponent of Luther, and resisted the di- ejected in 1640, eight years before his 

vorcement of Queen Catherine, which death, for having subscribed the Arti- 

led to his decapitation in 1535. cles of Perth, and having refused to 

m An eminent Lutheran divine. IVo- sign the Solemn League and Covenant, 

fessor of Hebrew and Divinity at Jena P Some passages which are exstant 

in 1557. He was one of the Centu- in the Aberdeen edition cannot be 

riators, or writers of the Magdeburg found in the folio copy published at 

Centuries or Ecclesiastical History. Amsterdam in 1703. 

254 Index of Authors, 

304 F0RTUNATU8, Venantius. 560 

I. Poemata: ap. t. a. Corp. Poet. Latin. Lugdun. 1603. 4to. 

(Lpnd. 1 7 13. fol.) his, 
a. Vita Radegundia : (ap. iSiirticm, 13 Aug. t. 4.) Vid. infr. 

No. 739. ? 

305 FjiANCiBCUS Venetus. Vid. infr. Georgius F. V, No. 3a6. 

306 Frbsnb, Carolus Du, Dominus Du Cange<i. 1650 

I. Glosaarium Gneco-Barbarum, sive Glossarium ad Scripto- 

res MediK et Infimae Graecitatis '; &c. (Lugdun. 1688. 

a torn, fol.) bis terve. 
a. [Glossarium ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis; &c. 

Francofurt. i68a. a torn. fol. (Paris. 1733. 6tom. fol.") 


3. Notse in Paulum Silentiarium. Paris. 1670. fol. (ap. 1. 13. 

Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. I7a9. fol.) S€^. 

4. [Notse in Cinnamum. Paris. 1670. fol. (Venet. I7a9. ut 

supr. cum Oper. Paul. Silentiar.) semeL^ 

307 Pronto Ducseus, [fVon/on, Le Due,"] Soc. Jesu. Not« in 1587 

Chrysostomi Opera^. Paris. 1609. fol. (ap. append, t. 9. Oper. 
Chrysostom. Francofurt. 1699.) bis, 

308 Fronto, [^Fronteau,'] Johannes. Epistola, ad Caesarem Lan- 1654 

duni Clavati Episcopum, de Canonicis Cardinalibus, cum aliis 
Opusculis. (Paris. 1661. 4to.) setAel, 

309 Fructuosi Acta. (ap. Baronium, ad annum 36a.) Vid. supr. 

No. 78. quinquies. 

310 FuLBBRTUs Camotensis. Opera. Paris. 1608. (ap. t. 18. 1007 

Biblioth. Max.) Item ap. Gallandium, 1. 14. bis. al. 1016 

311 FuLOEKTius, Ruspensis Episoopus. Opera. Lugdun. 165a. 507 

4to. t Basil. i6ai. 8vo. Paris. 1684. 4to. (ap. t.9. Biblioth. 
Max.) S€Bpe, 

I. Vita: praefixa Operibus, et ap. Surium, Mens. Januar. 
Vid. infr. No. 739. 

a. De Incamationis Mysterio. 

3. De Baptismo iEthiopis. 

4. Ad Monimum. 

5. De Epiphania, Homiliae Quatuor. 

7. De Fide ad Petrum. Inter Opera Augustini; t. 3. Ed. 
Basil. (Ed. Benedict, t. 6. Append, pp. 19, seqq.) 

q By which name, Du Cange, he is was afterwards added. Both have been 

now more commonly called. Bom at since consolidated with abridgments 

Amiens in 1610. Advocate to the Par- and improvements, and published at 

liament of Paris in 1631. Encouraged Halle, 1773-84, in 6 vols. Svo. 

at one time by Colbert Died in 1688. ^ For explanations relative to the 

' Many curionB passages and nume- JEditio Ducaana of Chrysostome's 

rons remarks in this book are drawn works, see before under ChrytastomuSy 

ftom manoscripts very little known. No. 167, in connection with the local 

s This is Charpentier^s edition, to note, p. 330. 
which a supplement in 4 volumes more 

alphabetically arranged, S55 

31a FuRius, Fredericus, cognomine Coeriolanus. Bononia : sive, 1555 
Oe Libris Sacris in Vernaculam Linguam convertendis. 
(Basil. 1555-6. 8vo.) liber prohibitus in Indice Sotomajo- 
ria ". temeL 


313, Thomas, D.D. Not» in Antonini Itinerarium Britan- 1666 

niarum. (Lond. 1709. 4to.) semeL 

314 Galenus, Matthaeus. Catechismus : apud Dallseum, (De Gon- 

finnatione. Geney. 1659. 4to.) bis. 

315 Gabnerius, [Garnier,] Johannes, Soc. Jesu. Liber Diuraus 1643 

Romanorutn Pontificum'. (Paris. 1680. 4to.) semel, 

316 Gataker, Thomas, B.D. Rector of Rotherhithe. Note ad 161 1 

Libros Antonini. (Cantabr. 1642. 4to.) semel. 

317 Gaudentius, Brixiensis Episcopus. 

Opera : ap. t. 2. Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. t.5. Biblioth. 
Max. Lugdun. 1677.) sMnde, 

1. Pnefat. ad Benevolum. 

2. Tractatus : 3. Ad Neophytos : 4. De Lectione Exodi : 

15. De Maccabseis: 16. De Ordinatione ipsius: 17. De 
Dedicatione Basilicse. 

318 Geddes, Michael, LL.D. Chancellor of Sarum. The Church 1688 

History of ^Ethiopia, wherein among other things the Two 
Splendid Roman Missions into that Empire are placed in 
their true light. To which are added, An Epitome of the 
Dominican History of that Church, and An Account of the 
Practices and Conviction of Maria of the Annunciation, the 
Famous Nun of Lisbon. (Lond. 1696. 8vo.) semel vel his. 

319 Gelasius, Papa. 493 

i.Epistolse Decretales: (ap. Labb. Concil. t.4.) suhinde. 
3. Ep. ad Ruffinum : (ap. Gratianum, Corp. Jur. Canon. 1. 1. 
Distinct. 55. c. 13. q. v.) Vid. infr. No. 343. semel. 

3. Decreta: ap. Crabb. 1. 1. (ap. Labb. in C. Rom. i. t. 4.) 

ter quaterve. 

4. De Duabus Naturis Christi : ap. t. 4. Biblioth. Patr. 

Paris. 1654. (ap. t. 8. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677.) 

330 Gellius, Aulus. Noctes Atticae : inter Opera. Aurel. Allo- 

brog. 1609. 8vo. (Cum Notis Gronovii, Lugdun. Batav. 
1706. 4to.) ter. 

331 Genebrardus, Gilbertus, Archiepisc. Aquensis. De Liturgia 1593 

Apostolica, c. 30. (ap. Bonam, Rer. Liturg. 1. i. c. 15. n. 6.) 
Vid. supr. No. no. semel. 

a This book would probably have ' A Journal of the Popes, with 

brought him into greater trouble but historical notes and very curious dis- 

for the timely protection of the Em- scrtations. He was bom at Paris in 

peror Charles V. 161 2, and died at Bologna in 1681. 

266 Index of Authors, 

332 Gbnnadius, Massiliensis Presbyter. 495 

1. De Scriptoribua EcclesiasticlB : (ad calc. t. 3. Oper. Hiero' 

nymi: Ed. Vallars. Veron. 1734.) bia terve, 

2. De Dogmatibus Ecclesiasticia : ad calc. t. 3. Oper. Am^ 

ffustini, juxt. Ed. Basil. (Ed. Bened. t. 8. Append, pp. 75, 
seqq.) tape, 

333 Gentilbtus, [Gentillet,] Innocentius. Examen Concilii Tri- 1576 

dendniT. Gorinchemi, 1678. 8vo. (Genev. 1586. 8vo.) bU. 

334 Georoius, Alexandrinus. Vita S. Cfarysostomi ' : (ap. t. 8. 630 

Oper. Chrysostom. Graece. Eton. 161 3.) semel, 

335 Georoius, Ambianus [of Amiens'], Commentarius inTertul- 

lianum. 3 torn. fol. ? (ap. Tertullianum Redivivum. Paris. 
1646. fol.) semeL 

336 Gborgius, Franciscus Venetus. Problemata in Scripturam 1501 

Sanctam. Venet. 1536. 4to. (Lutetiss, 1633. 4to.) semel, 

337 Georgius, Pisides, vulgo dictus Auctor Fastorum Siculorum 630 

sive ChFonici: (ap. t.4. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. 1739.) aL 
semeL 640 

338 Gb RM AN u 8 % Patriarcha Constantinopolitanus. 7 1 7 

I. Theoria: s. Expositio in liturgiam Grseco-Latina. (ap. t. al. 
Biblioth. Patr. Gr. Lat. sive Auctar. Ducsean. Paris. 1634.) 715 
It. ap. 1. 13. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. ter, 

3. Epistolse ad Johannem Synadensem, et ad Thomam Clau- 

diopolitanum : ap. Act. 4. C. Nicsen. 2. (ap. Labb. Concil. 
t. 7.) bis. 

339 Gbrson \ Johannes. liber de Vita Spirituali Animse : (ap. Mo- 1404 

ralia, in t. 3. Operum. Antwerp. 1706. 5 torn, fol.) bis. 

7 The object of this work, published rius, Vit. Sanctor. die 27. Januar. 

also in French, Genev. 1586, 8vo., ^^ There was another Patriarch of 

under the title of Le Bureau du Con- Constantinople of this name, who flou- 

rile de Trente, was to show that this rished in 11 30. According to Dr. Cave, 

Council was contrary both to the an- the latter was the Author of the 7*A«ona 

dent canons as well as to the royal as well as many other works under the 

authority. We have no account of the name of Germanus : while the former, 

time or place of the birth or death of of the era of 715 or 717, was the 

this eminent Protestant lawyer, but his Author only of the Epistles in the 

first work, Zi*^^«/i-Afac/tu/(W, was pub- seventh volume of the Councils, and 

lished at Leyden in 1547, and he was another work entitled Lihellus de Sex 

President of the Chamber of the Edict SynodU (Ecumenicis, See Gallandius, 

at Grenoble in 1576. His ^fi/t-iSortiit» torn.. 13. 

is dated at Leyden in 1 619. ^ Often styled Doctor Christianise 

2 * Ex qua, quamvis fisbulis con- simus. He particularly distiufj^uished 

taminata ac iidem nullam merenti, qui himself at the CouncU of Constance, 

in Chrysostomi rebus enarrandis versati anno 141 5, where he was present as 

sunt, pleraque hauserunt: e. g. Leo ambassador from France, by many 

Imp., Anonymus Savilianus, Meta- speeches, and particularly by that one 

phnstes, et alii.' * Walch, Biblioth. in which he maintained the superiority 

Fatrist CI. B. 7. JeuB, 1834. p. 64. of the Council over the authority of the 

Godfrey Tilman translated the same Pope, 
into Latin, Paris, 1557-8. See in Su- 

alphabetically arranged. 257 

330 Gbsta Purgationia C»ciliani, Episc. Garthag. ad calc. Optati. 314 

PttriB. 1631. (Paris. 1679.) Item, ap. Labb. Concil. t. i. 

331 Gild AS, Sapiens. De Excidio Britannke Gonquestus et Eccle- 581 

siastici Ordinis Acris Correptio. (ap. t. 5. Biblotb. Patr. Paris. 
1634.) Item ap. t. 8. Biblioth. Max. Item ap. Gallandimn, 
t. la. bis. 
333 GiBALDius, Cambiensis. Itmerarium Cambriie, seu Accurata aoo 
Descriptio, cum Annotationibus Dav. Poveli [Potoel]. (Lond. 
1585. 8vo.) 

333 Globsjb in Extnivagantes et in Gradanum : (ap. Corp. Jar. 

Canon.) Vid. infr. No. 343. bis. 

334 Glycerii Acta. (ap. Baronium, ad annum. 301.) Vid. supr. 

No. 78. semel, 

335 Glycas, Michael, Siculus. Annales a Mundi Ezordio usque ad ? ^ 

obitum Alexii Comneni : Gr. et Lat. Paris. 1660. fol. (ap. 1. 11. 
Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. 1729. fol.) P 

336 GoAB, Jacobus. Ord. S. Dominic. Monachue. 1630 

1. Ev^oXoycoy, sive Rituale Gneoorum, complectens Ritus et 

Ordines Divinse Liturgise, Officiorum, Sacramentorum, 
Consecrationum, Benedictionum, Funerum, Orationum, 
&c,, cuilibet Personae, Statui, vel Tempori congruoe, juxta 
Usum Orientalis Ecclesiie: Gr. et Lat., cum Observa- 
tionibus, &c. (Paris. 1647. fol.) Item, Venet. 1730. fol. 

2, Notitia. Vid. ad calc. Bevereg. Pandect, t. a. et ap. Schel- 

strat. aubinde. 

337 GoDWYN, Thomas, DJD, Head Master of the Free School at i6ao 

Abingdon, and Rector of Brightwell. Moses and Aaron: 
Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites used by the Ancient Hebrews, 
&c. Lond. 1667. 4to. (Lond. 16S5. 410. lath edit.) his terve. 

338 GoFFRiDUs, s. Gofridus, Vindocinensis Abbas. Opera, cum 11 10 

Notis Sirmondi. Paris. 1639. (ap. Dallieum, De Confirmatione : 
Genev. 1661. 4to.) semel, 

339 GoLDA8TU8<^, Melchior. ConstitutionesImperiales,&c.(Hanov. i6oa 

1609, et Offenbach, 1610. 3 tom. fol.®) semel, 

340 GoTHOFBBDUS, Diouysius. [Denys Godrfroi,'\ Note in Codi- L590 

cem Justinianum. Colon. 1534. (Amstel. 1663.' a tom. fol.) 
Vid. infr. Justinianus, No. 433. semel, 

c Biographen are not agreed as to t. 36. p. 33, 

the period when Glycas lived. Some ^ He was a laborious writer in Ciril 

pat him as early as the twelfth, some Law and History, but a man of most 

as late as the fifteenth century. No migratory habits. See Chalmers, as 

ancient record or writer has mentioned before, v. 16. p. 66. 

his name, and all that we can know of c The first two vols, at Hanover, and 

him must be gleaned from his works, the third at Offenbach. See the colo- 

See Watch's Gottingen Transactions, phon at the end of vol. 2, and voL 3. 

and Chalmers' Biographical Dictionary, ^ The best editions of Oodefirors Cov' 


258 Index of Authors, 

341 G0THOFRBDU8 Jacobus. [Jaifiet God^^hn.] Commentariiu in 1625 
Codicem Theodosianum. (Lugdun. 1635. 6 torn, fol.) Vid. 
TheodotUu, No. 756. s^tpisnme, 

34a Grabe, John Erneaty D.D. 1690 

1. Spicilegium SS. Patnim, ut et Hiereticonim Sseculi post 

Christum Datum I. II. et III. &c. Oxon. 1698. 3 vol. 8yo.' 
(Editio altera et auctior, e Theatr. Sheldon. Oxon. 17 14. 
a vol. 8vo.) subinde, 

2. Annotationes in Irenieum. (Oxon. 170a. fol.) semel, 

3. Annotationes in Bulli Judicium Ecdesis Catholicse : (ap. 
Bull; Oper. Lond. 1703. fol.) Lond. 1721. fol. semel, 

343 Gratianus. Decretum, sive Concordantia discordantium Ca- 1130 

nonum. Vide Cknp. Jur. Canon. (Lugdun. 167 1. 3 torn, fol.) 

344 Gregbntiuh, Tephrensis. Disputatio cum Herbano Judno. 470 

(ap. t. a. Biblioth. Patr. Gr. Lat. s. Auctar. Ducsean. Paris. 
1634.) his terve. 

345 Grboorius, Neocesariensis, al. Thaumaturgus. Opera, Gr. et 354 

Lat., cum Notis Gerardi Vossii. (Paris. i6aa. fol.^) Mogunt. 
1604. fol. subinde, 
I . Expositio Fidei. 

a. Epistola, Canonica. (ap. Labb. Concil. t. i.) Item, ap. 
Justell. Biblioth. Jur. Canon., et Bevereg. Pandect, t. a. 
part. I. q. V. 

346 Greoorius, Nazianzenus Sanctus, Archiepisc. Constantinop. 370 

Opera Omnia, Gr. et Lat., cum Notis Prunsei, Morelli, et 
aliorum : &c. (Paris. 1630. a tom. fol.) Item, O. O. opera et 
studio Monachor. Ord. S. Benedict. &c. Paris, t. i. 1778. et 
t. a. 1840. fol. * S€Bpissime, 

Tom. I. Paris. 1630. 
I. Orationes : 

I. De Fuga. 

3. In Julianum Imp. Invectiva. i. 

4 2- 

pus Juris Civilis are said to be that by cording to his own creed, he took holy 
Vitr^ in 1628, and the Elserir of 1683, orders in England and joined the Non- 
2 tom. fol. Denys the father, and jorors. He died in 1713. 
James the son, were bom, the former h Together with the works of Ma- 
st Paris in 1549, the latter at Geneva carios and Basil of Seleuda, at the 
1587. and cUed 163a and 1652 re- end. 

spectively. Both were eminent lawyers. ^ The progress of this splendid edi- 

w The Third Century, thongh men- tion was much hindered by the pre* 

tioned in the title-page^ waa nerer mature deaths of three successiTe edi- 

publidied, and consequently there itf tors, (see Walch, Biblioth. Patrist. ch. 

no third volume of this work. Dr. 3. s. 13. Jense, 1834. p. 132.) and 

Grabe was bom at Konigsburg in finally stopped by the French Revo- 

Pniseia in 1666. Becoming disgusted lution of 1793. This drcumstance ac- 

with the Lutheran Church, after having counts for the non-appearance of the 

studied for its ministry, on account of second volume till so late as 1840. 
its want of Apostolical Succession ac- 

alphabetically arranged. 259 

5. Post Reditum ez Fuga. 

8. Ad Patrem, quum ei curam Ecdesise Nasianzeiue 

10. De Funere Ccesarii. 

II. Goigonue. 

16. De Amore Pauperum. 

18. In Laudem Cypriani. 

19. De Funere Patris. 
ao. In Laudem Baailii. 
ai. ■ Athanaaii. 

33. In Maccabseorum. 

34. In Adventum iEgyptiorum. 

31 . In lUud, Quum consummaaset Jesua hos aermonesy&c. 
33. In pneaentia centum et quinquaginta Episcopcnrum. 

38. In Nativitatem Chriati. 

39. In Sancta Lumina. 

40. In Sanctum Baptiama. 

41. In Paacba. i. 
43 3. 

43. In Novam Dominicam. 

44. In Sanctam Pentecoaten. 
51. In ApoUinarium. 

II. Epiatobe : 

43. Ad Gregorium Nyaaenum. 

49. Ad Olympium. 

57. Ad Prooopium. 

71. Ad Celeurium. al. 74. 

80. Ad Aerium et Alypium. 

88. Ad Theodorum lyanenaem. 
159. Ad Amphilochium. 
319. Ad Theodorum. 
340. Ad Amphilochium. 

Tom. II. Paris. 1630. 

III. Carmina de Vita sua : 38, 33, 35, 64. 

IV. Alia Carmina. 

9. In Somnium Anastaaie. 

10. De Diversia Vitse Generibas. 
13. De Omatu Mulieria. 
18. De Virtute. 
33. De Seipao. 
V. Carmen Cygneum : de Epiacopis et Hominum Ingratitu- 
dine Querela. • 

347 Grsooriub NjraaenuB [fip. of Nysaa] Sanctua. Opera, Gr. et 373 
Lat. (Paria. 1638. 3 tom. fol. ^) 

^ This Ib in fact the third edition of the second, two years afterwurds, in 
a series, the first of which was in Latin Greek and Latin, Paris, 1615; and 
only, by Fronto Ducteusi Psris, 1603; lastly in 1658. This edition b more 

8 % 

260 Index of Authors, 

Tom. I. 
I. Homititt Qainque de Ontione Dominica. 

Tom. II. 
3. Oratio in Ordinationem suam. 

3. Epistola Canonica ad Letoium, Epitc. Melitines. Vid. 

etiam ap. Beveng. Pandect, t. a. part. i. 

4. In eoe, qui differont Baptiama. 

5. Oratio de Poenitentia. 

6. Vita S. Macrine Virginie, Baailii M. Sororia. 

7. Contra Eunomium, Oratio Secunda ex Duodeoim. 

Tom. III. 

8. Catecbetica Magna Oratio. 

9. Adversus Apoltinarem. 

10. De Scopo Christiani. [al. De Professione Christiana.] 

11. De Baptismo Christi. [al. De Sancto Christi Baptismate.] 
13. De Resurrectlone Christi [al. Domini]. 

13. De Vita S. Gr^gorii Thaumaturgi. 

14. De Funere Meletii. [al. De Magno Meletio.] 

15. Vita S. Ephraim. 

16. De mortuis Oratio. 

348 Grbooriub Taronensis, a. Sanctus Georgius Florentius.. 573 

(Opera Omnia : necnon Fredegarii Scholastici Epitome et 
Chronicon, cum suis Continuatoribus et aliia Aniiquis Monu- 
mentis : &c. Opera et Studio Dom. Theodoric. Ruinart, 
Mon. Benedict. Paris. 1699. fol.) stepius, 

I. Historia Francorum. Paris. 1610. 8vo. Item> ap. 1. 11. 
Bibliotb. Max. Lugdun. 1677. (^P* ^P^- Paris. 1699. 
fol.) Item, in 1. 1. Hist. Franc. Scriptorum. Paris. 1636. 
6 tom. fol. 
3. De Gloria Martjrrum. Colon. 1583. 8vo. 

3. — ^— — Confessorum. ibid. 

4. De Vitis Patrum. ibid. 

349 Grsooriub Magnus Sanctus. Opera Omnia^ &c. Antwerp. 590 

1615. 4 tom. fol. (Studio et labore Monachor. Ord. S. Bene* 
diet, nempe Dionysii Sammarthani et Gulielmi Bessini, ad 
MSS. Codices, Sec. emendata, aucta, et illustrata Notis, &c. 
Paris. 1705. 4 tom. fol.) Recusa Venet. 1768-75. 17 tom. 4to. 
cmn AccessionibuB, &c. st^us. 

Tom. I. Paris. 1705. 

I. Prsefatio in Job, ante Moralia. 
3. Moralia in Job. 

complete than that of 1615, and auc- published by itself in 1618. SeeWaldi, 
mented by the addition of QretaePn ch. 2, s. 16, as before, p. 134. 
Snpplement, which had been previonsly 

alphabetically arranged. S6l 

3. Pnefatio in Etechielem. 

4. Homilis in Ezechielem. 

5. Homilise in Evangelia Quadraginta. Homm. 2, 15, 16, 26. 

Tom. II. Paris. 1705. 
I. Dialogoram libri Quatuor de Vita et Miraculia Patrum 

Italioorom, et de iEt^mitate Animarum : Gr. et Lat. 
a. Epifltolte, a. Regiatrum Epistolarum. (ap. Leibh. Concil. 
t. 5. q. V.) 
L. I. Ep. 41. L. 3. Epp. 30, 26» 34. L. 3. Epp. 9, 11. 
L. 7. Epp. 8, 34, 63, 64, no. 

Tom. III. Part. I. Paris. 1705. 
i.E Sacramentario : De Baptiamo Infantium, et De Ofllicio 
Sabbati Sancti. 

Tom. III. Part. II. Paris. 1705. 
3. Ezpositioiies in Librum i. Regum, qui et Samuelis dicitur. 

Tom. IV. Part. I. Paris. 1705. 
Vita S. Gregorii, auctore Paulo Diacono. 

RespoDsio ad Quaestiones Augustini Monachi: (ap. Bed^d 
Hist. Gent. Anglor. q. v.) semel, 

350 Grboorius II. Papa. Epistolse dam ad Leontium Isaurien- 716 

sem. (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 7.) bis. 

351 Gregorius VII. Papa. [HUdebrand.] L. i. Ep. 81. ad Udo- 1073 

nem Trevirensem. (ap. Labb. Concil. 1. 10.) bis. 
353 Gregorius IX. Papa. Decretalium Libri Quinque, una cum 1337 
Gratiano. Rom. 1583. fol. (ap. t. 3. Corp. Jur. Canon. Lug- 
dun. 1671. fol.) sMnde. 

353 Gregorius Tholosanus. [Gregory of Toulouse.] De Republics. 1600 

Francofurt. 1643. (Lugdun. 1609. fol.) semel. 

354 Gregorib ^, John, M.A. Observations on Scripture and 164 1 

Posthumous Works. Lond. 1684. 4to. fourth edit.) bis. 

355 Gretserus, Jacobus. 1598 

1. Note in Codinum. (Paris. 1648. fol.) Item ap. t. 30. By- 

zant. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. 1739. fol. bis. 

2. De Sancta Cruce, &c. 1. 3. c. 13. (ap. 1. 1. Oper. Omn. 

Radsbon. 1734. 17 torn, fol.) semel. 

356 Gruterus, Janus. Thesaurus: Inscriptiones Antique. (Heidel- 1600 

berg. 1616. fol. e Bibliopolio Commeliniano.) bis. 

357 Grotius, Hugo. Opera Theologica. AmsteLodami, 1685. 1635 

4 tom. fol. (Lond. 1679. 4 torn, fol.) 
I. Annotationes in Quatuor Eyangelia et Actus Apostolo- 
rum. (ap. Oper. t. 3. v. i.) subimde. 

I He wu deprived at the Rebellion of his prebendal stall at Sslisbory. 

262 Index ofAutliors, 

2. Annotationes in Epistolas et Apocalypsin. (ap. Oper. t. 2. 

V. a.) raMuIe. 

3. De Coene Administratioxie ubi pastores non sunt. Lond. 

1685. Svo. (ap. Oper. t. 3.) semeh 

4. De Jure Belli et Pads, in quibus jus Nature et Geutium» 

item Juris Publici prsecipua ezplicantur, &c. Amstel. 
1670. 8vo. et 1689. 8vo. (Cum Notis J. F. Gronoyii et 
J. Barbeyrac. Amstel. 1720. 2 vol. 8yo.) aemel, 

358 GuiDO de Monte Rocherii. Manipulus Curatorum. Lovan. 1^33 

1552. 8vo. \JSA, princeps. Liber, qui Manipulus Curatorum 
inscribitur, in quo pemeoessaria offida eorum, quibus Anima* 
rum Cura conunissa est breviter pertractantur. Paris. 1478. 
4to.] (ap. Bonam, Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 15. n. 6. q. v.) semel, 

359 GuNNiNO>)^, Peter, D.D. Bisbop of Ely. A Discourse of Lent. 1670 

Lond. 1 66a. 4to. (The Paschal or Lent Fast, apostolical and 
perpetual : at first ddivered in a Sermon preached before his 
Majesty [King Charles L] in Lent, and since enlaiged: 
wherein the Judgment of Antiquity is laid down, &c. Oxford, 
1845. 8vo. New Edit, for Anglo- Catholic Library.) aemel. 


360 Habkrtus, Isaac. Doct. Sorbonn. Episc. Vabrens. Archierati- 1645 

con : sive. Liber Pontificalia Ecdesiae Grsecse. (Paris. 1643. 
fol.) Paris. 1676. foL 89pius, 

361 [Hadriani Imp. Epistola. Apud Vopiscum in Vita Satumini. 117 

(int. August. Hist. Scriptores. Lugdun. Batav. 1661. 8vo.) 

362 [Haimo, s. Haymo et Aimo ^. In c. 6. Ep. ad Hebr. (ap. 841 

Dattmum, De Confirmatione et Extrema Unctione. Genev. 
1659. 4to.) semeL"] 

363 [Halksius, s. Alexander de Hales®. Summa Universe Theo- 1230 

logise, &c. Norimberg. 1482. Basil. 1502. Colon. 1622. Mme/.] 

364 Hallibr, FrandscusP. De HieFsrchia Ecclesiastica Libri 1656 

Quatuor, contra Cellotium Jesuitam. (Lutet. Paris. 1646. fol. 
sumptibus J. Quesnel.) ter quaterve. 

m DepriiFed of his fbllowsbip at Clare was termed Doctor irre/ragttbUit on 

Hall, Cambridge, for refusing to take aooonnt of his wonderfal profidency in 

the oo'venant. Restored in 1660. Be*- sdiolastic theology and canon law. See 

came Master of Corpus Cbristi College Cave, Hist. liter. Basil. 1741-5. t. a. 

there, and Regius Professor of Divinity, p. 393. 

&c. Bishop of Chichester 1670: Ely P Bishop of Cavaillon in 1656. A 

1674. Died 1684. doctor of tiie Sorbonne and a strenuous 

n The pupil of Alcuin, and 00m- opposer of the Jansenists. His Dtf- 

panion of Rahanus Maurus. Monk of fens'w Hierarchim is more easUy met 

Fulda, Abbot of Herrfeld, and Bishop with, but only at Bp. Morley's Library 

of Halberstad. Died in 853. at Winchester Cathedral have I been 

o A native of Gloucester educated able to see a copy of the Hirrarchia 

at Paris, where he died in 1 245. He itself. 

alphabetically arranged, 263 

^5 [Halloix, Peter, Jesuita. Vitse illiutrium Ecclesise Orientalis 1635 
Scriptonun, qui eanctitate juzta et eruditione primo Christi 
saeculo fioruemnt et Apostolis convizenint. (Duaci, 1633. 
fol.) 9emeL'\ 

366 Hammond, Henry, D.D. Works. (Lond. 1684. 4 vol. fol.) 1645 

Also, Lond. 1784. 4 vol. fol. 

1. Reply to Blondell. [Dissertationee Quatuor, quibus epi- 

Boopatus jura ex S. Scriptura et primaeTa Antiquitate ad- 
atruuntur, contra sententiam D. Blondelli, et aliorum,&c.] 
(Worksy v. 4.) Also in Append, v. 2, Ed. Lond. 1774. 

2. Defence of Infant- Baptism, &c. (Works, v. i.) Or in the 

edition of 1774. v. i. p*47o. Of the Baptism of In&nts, 
being the Fourth Part of the Letter of Resolution to Six 
Queries. semeL 

3. Paraphrase and Annotations on the New Testament. Am- 

sterdam. 1699. fol. (Works, V. 3.) subinde, 

367 [Hamartolub, Georgius. (MS. apud Allatium de Hebdoma- 84a 

dibus Grsecorum.) Vid. supr. No. 17. semel,'] 

368 Hankius^i, Martinus. De Byzantinarum Rerum Scriptoribus 1680 

Graeds. (Lipsise, 1677. 4to.) semel, 

369 Harding, lliomas, D.D. ^ An Answer to Master Jewel's 154a 

Challenge. Antwerp. 1565. 8vo. (Louvain. 1564. 4to.) semel. 

370 Harmenopulus, Constantinus. 11 50 

I. Epitome Juris Canonici, Gr. et Lat. (ap. Jjeunc^avium in 

Jure Gr»co- Romano, 1. 1.) bis, Vid. infr. Leunclavius, 

No. 46a. 
a. De Sectis Haereticis, s. De Opinionibus Haereticorum. 

(ap. Leunclavmm, ibid.) Ap. 1. 1 . Biblioth. Patr. Gr. Lat. 

sive Auctar. Duoean. Paris. i6a4. Item in Biblioth. 

Max. t^ 19. bis, 

371 [Hbddius, Stephanus. De Vita Wilfredi, c. la. (Venet. T734. 

fol.) semel,'] 

37a Heobsippus. Commentarius Actorum Ecdesiasticorum : 170 
Fragmenta. (ap. Eusebii Hist. Ecdes.) Vid. supr. No. a 75. 
Ap. GaUandium, t. a. Item ap. Grabe, Spicileg. t. a. subinde, 

373 Hbnao, Gabriel de, Jesuita. De Sacrificio Missae. Lond. 1655 1651 
fol. (Vid. ap. Sotuelli ^SouthweU] Continuat. Biblioth. Scrip- 
torum Societatis Jesu Petri du Ribadeneyra : Opus inchoatum 
a PP., continuatum a Ph. Alegambe usque ad annum 164a, 
recognitum et productum ad annum 1675. Rom. 1676. fol.) 

<1 He was Teacher and Inspector of in 1536. Hebrew Professor in 1542. 

all the Schools of the Augsburg Con- Became a Protestant^ but on the ac- 

fession at Breslaw and throughout Si- cession of Queen Mary he returned to 

lesiain 1688. Died 1709. the Ronuui Catholic communion, and 

r Fellow of New College, Oxford, was rewarded with a prebendal stall at 

264 Index of AutlwrSj 

374 Hbraclius, Imp. Novelise. {w^.Lmnclavium in Jure Gneco- 6io 

Romano, 1. 1. q. v.) semel. 

375 Hbrmbb, 8. Hennas, Pastor, (ap. Coteleru P^tr. Apost. t. i.) 6$ 

Vid. supr. No. 204. Item ap. Gallandium, 1. 1. qumqmes, 

376 Hbrodoti Historia. Gr. et Lat. juzt. Ed. Hen. Stephani. 

? 1593. fol. (Amstel. 1773. fol.) semel. 

377 Hbbychii Lexicon Greece. (Ha^en. 153 1. et Pars Secund. ?■ 

Basil. 1531. fol.) Roterodam. 1668. 4to. 

378 Hkbtchiua, Patriarcha Hierosolymitanus. Ezplanatio in Le- 601 

viticum. (Basil. 1537. fol.) Item ap. AlberHmum de Eacha- 
ristia, p. 85 1 . Vid. snpr. No. 9. semeL 

379 Hbylin, Peter, D. D. Cosmography, in Four Books ; con- 1631 

taining the Cfaorography and History of the Whole World, &c. 
(Lond. 1669. fol.) Lond. 1674. fol. semeL 

380 HiCKBS^ George, D.D. 1683 

1 . Jovian : or. An Answer to [S.Johnson's] Julian the Apostate. 

By a Minister of London. (Lond. 16S3. 8vo.) ter, 

2. Two Treatises of the Christian Priesthood, and on the 

Dignity of the Episcopal Order ; with a IVefatory Dis- 
course in answer to a Book entitled The Right of the 
Christian Church, &c. (Lond. 1707. second Ed.) Re- 
printed for the Anglo-Catholic Lihrary, Oxford, 1847. 
fourth Ed. ter quaterve, 

381 HiBRONTMUB, Sanctus Eusebius, Stridonensis Episoopus. 378 

Opera, &c. Basil. 1565. 4tom. fol.^ Item, juxt. Ed. Benedict, 
cura Martianei. Paris. 1 693-1 706. 5 tom. fol.< (Ed. Dominici 
Vallarsii, Veronensis Presbyteri, opem ferente March. Sdp. 
Maffei. Veronse, 1734-43. 11 tom. fol.7) Item Venet. 1766-73. 
34 tom. 4to. in II. poitim. 

Winchester. Deprived on the aooession not taking the oaths. He was after- 

of Queen Elisabeth, and died after- wards consecrated Bishop of Thetford 

wards at Lonvain in 1572. by the Nonjurors in io94. Died in 

■ The era of this Hesychius is en- 1715, having previously taken part with 

tirely unknown. Some say he was a Mr. Lawrence in the Lay-Baptism con* 

disciple of Gregory Nazianzen in or troversy. See the second edition of 

about 370, and Sextus Senensis puts Lawrence's First Part, &c. 
him down for the close of the fourth u This is one of the reprints of the 

century. The first edition of his Lexi- Opera Omnia ex Emendatione et cum 

eon, which Isaac Casanbon has termed Argumentis et Schdiis Desiderii Etm- 

the mast learned and instructive for mi: ezOffidnaFrobeniana. BasiL 1516. 

aU thorough atudenU of Greek, was 8 tom. fol. 

first publi^ied by Aldus at Venice in ' For a full account of the Benedio- 

1513. The edition in two vols, fol., tine edition, and the opposition it met 

the first by Alberti at Leyden in 1746, with from Simon and Le Clerc, see 

and the second by Ruhnken in 1766, Walch's BibHoth. Fatrist ch. 1. s. 13. 

was the best till the comparatively re- Jena, 1834. pp. 124-6. 
cent edition by Dean Gaisford, Oxford, 7 This is the Bditio Optima of Je- 

1844. rome, being hr less oomplei.also in 

t A Nonjuror, a divine of uncommon its airsngement than the Benedictine, 

abilities and universal learning. He as well as more elegantly printed. In 

became Dean of Worcester in 1683, some catalogues it is prised as high as 

but was deprived at the Revolution for sixteen guineas. 

alphaheticaUy arranged. 265 

Citations according to the order and arrangement of Vat- 


Tom. I. 

Ordo V«tai. Epistols. Ordo Bd. VaUart. 

1. ad Heliodorum 14 

2. ad Nepotianum 5a 

3. ad Heliodoram 60 

4. ad Rusdcum 125 

7. ad Letam 107 

8. ad Demetriadem 130 

10. ad Furiam 54 

11. ad Ageruchiam 123 

12. ad (jaudentinzn 128 

13. ad PauliDum 58 

14. ad Cdantiam 148 

15. ad Marcellam 24 

16. ad Principiain, b. Epitaph. MarceUs 27 

18. ad Marcellam 43 

22. ad Eustochium 22 

23. ad Marcellam 38 

26. ad Pammacbium 66 

27. ad Eoatochiom 108 

28. ad Lueinium 71 

29. ad Theodoram 75 

30. ad Oceanum 77 

33. ad Castrutium 68 

35. ad Ezaperantium 145 

46. ad Ruaticum 122 

48. ad Sabinianum 147 

49. ad Innoceotium i 

50. ad Pammacbium 48 

53. ad Riparium adv. Vigilantium 109 

54. ad Marcellam 41 

55. ad Riparium 138 

57. ad Damasum 15 

58. ad Eundem 16 

61. ad Pammacbium. . . Lib. c. Joannem Hieroaol. ap. t. 2. 

62. ad Tbeopbilum 82 

75. ad Vigilantium 61 

77. ad Marcum Celedensem 17 

78. ad Pammacbium et Marcellam 97 

80. ad Magnum 141 

83. ad Oceanum 69 

85. ad Euagrium, al. Evagrium 146 

99. ad AiMllam 45 

113. ad PrsB&t. in Job. ap. Ed. VaUan. t. 9. 

127. ad Fabiolam de 42 Manaionibus r 78 

S66 Index of Autlwrs, 

Ordo Vetus. Epistolce. ^^^^ ^- VaUan. 

ia8. ad Eandem 64 

129. ad Dardanum 129 

i^. ad Sophroniam. . Pnef. in libr. Psalm. Ed.Vallars. t.9. 

137. ad MarceUam a6 

14 1, ad Eandem 34 

146. ad Damaaum ai 

147. ad Amandum 55 

ad Theophilum 114 

Epiat. Spur, ad Damaaum. — De Psalmorum Emenda- 
tione. Ed. Vallan. 1. 11. 

Tom. II. 

1. Vita S. Pauli, primi Eremitae. 

2. Vita S. Hilarii, s. Hilarionia Eremitse. 

3. Regula S. Pachomii. 

4. Altercatio Ludferiani et Orthodox! ; sive, liber, aeu 

Dialogua contra Ludferianoa. 

5. Liber adveraua Jovinianum. 

6. Contra Vigilantium. 

7. Apologetici adveraua Ruffinum. 

8. Dialogi. contra Pelagianos. 

9. Liber de Viria Illuatribus ; sive Catalogus Scriptorum 


Tom. III. 

1. De Situ et Nominibua Locorum Hebraicorum. 

2. liber Quasationum Hebralcarum in Geneaim. 

Tom. IV. 

1. Commentarii in Isaiam, al« Eaaiam. 

2. Commentarii in Jeremiam. 

Tom. V. 

1. Commentarii in Esecbidem, al. Esekielem. 

2. Eicplanatio in Danielem. 

Tom. VI. 

Commentarii in Prophetas Minorca XII. 

1 . In Hoaseam, Prooemium, 6. In Habaccuc, c. 3. 

et c. 6. 7. . . Zepbaniam, c. 3. 

2. . . Joel^ c. 2. 8. . . Haggai, c. i. 

3. . . AmoB, c. 6. 9. . . Zacbariam, cc. 8 et 

4. . . Jonah, oc. 1 et 3. 14. 

5. . . Micah, c. 7. 10. . . Malachi, c. 3. 

Tom. VII. 

Commentarii in libros Novi Teatamenti. 
I. Prsefatio in Evangelia. 

alphabetically arranged. S67 

3. In Mattbeum, cc. 5, 9, 16, 19, 31, 35. 

3. . . Marcum, c. 14. 

4. . • Ep. ad Roman.> cc. 6, 16. 

5. . . Ep. I. ad Corinth.^ cc. 5, 11. 
6. . . Ep. ad Galat.^ cc. i, 4, 5, 6. 

7. . . Ep. ad Ephes., cc. 4, 5. 

8. . . Ep. I. ad Timoth., cc. 3, 6. 

9. . . Ep. ad Titum, cc. i, 3. 

10. Liber in Expositione Psalmorum. 

Tom. VIII. 

Eusebii Cbronicon, LAtine redditum, auctum, et ad sua 
usque tempore perductum, &c. 

ToMM. IX et X. 

Bibliotbeca Divina. 

Tom. XI. 
Spuria, &c. 

383 HiLARius, Sanctus, Pictaviensis Episcopus. [St. Hilary of 354 

PoictiersJ] Opera. Colon. 1617. foL* Paris. 1693. fol.» (Ve- 

ronte, 1730. 2 torn, fol.^) Venet. 1749. 3 torn. fol. Witteberg. 

1785-^8. 4 torn. fol. Paris. 1836. 4 vol. 8vo. 

Citatums according to the Ed. Veron. 1730. 

Tom. I. 
I. Commentarii in Psahnos. 
3. Commentarius in Matthseum. 

Tom. II. 

I. De Synodis, seu De Fide Orientalium. 
3. Epistola ad Abram. 

3. Liber contra Constantium. 

4. Fragmenta. 

383 HiLARius, Sanctus, Aielatensis Episcopus. [St. Hilary of 430 

ArleM."]^ EpistoUe, inter Epistolas Awputini. Vid. supr. 
No. 64. Mffiei. 

384 H1LARIU8, Papa. Epistolae Decretales. (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 4.) 461 

Vid. infr. 441. subinde. 

z This is a reprint of the Edilio tion by Petnis Constantins. 

Eratmiana ex Ojficina Frobeniana : ^ The second Benedictine and the 

BatU. 1533-25. The Preface of this best of all, by Sdpio Maffii, Lihris de 

edition inclined the Roman censure Truntate et Commentariu in Psalmos 

and the hostility of the Parisian theo- ad binos CapituU Ferwientit Codices, 

logians, quoniam senientias pravas ac j^r., diltgenter esactis, ^r. 

malevoUts de Hilario, ejus doctrina, c For an account of Editions see 

moribus, rebus gestis compieciatur. Walch, as before, ch. 1. s. 18. p. 157. 

See Wadch, as before, ch. 2. s. 13. He speaks well of the Editio Silante, 

p. 112. Rom, 1 701. %vo. 

* This is the first Benedictine Edi- 

868 Index of Authors, 

I. Ad ABcanium Tamconeotem. 
a. Ad TaiTBcoiieiues. 

3. Ad Episcopos Gallue. 

4. Ad Leontiuni. (ap. Baron it m, ad annum^ 462.) Vid. lupr. 

No. 78. 

385 HiNCMARUB RhemenBiB. [Bp. of lUetmt.] Opera. (Latet. 845 

Paris. 1645. 2 torn, fol.) sMitde. 
I. De Predeatinatione. 
3. Capitola Archidiaoono-Preabytero data. 

3. Opuacola 55 Capitolarium, c. 48. 

4. Epiatola ad Hildeboldo. 

5. Vita BemigiL (ap. Bartmimm, ad annam 47.) Vid. supr. 

No. 78. 

386 HippoLTTua^ SanctuB^ Portuensis. Episc. et Mart. Opera, 220 

Gr. et Lat., curante Joban. Albert. Fabricio. Hamb. 17 16. al. 
2 torn, in T. fol. submde. 226 

1. Liber, sive Demonatratio de Anticbristo. Gr. et Lat. Ck>m- 

befia. Auctar. Novis. Paris. 1672. et ap. 1. 1. Openim. 
(ap. GaUandwm, t. 2. p. 417.) 

2. Canon Paacbalia. ap. Cave, Hist. liter. 1. 1. Eum etiam 

exbibent Scaliger, iEgidius, Bucberiua, et Gniterus. Item 
ap. 1. 1. Operum. (ap. GaUandiiiim, ibid. p. 516.) 

3. Liber ei aacriptua de Consummatione Mundi, Gr. et Lat. 

(ap. t. a. Bibliotb. Pbtr. Grseco-Latin. b. Auctar. Ducaean. 
PariB. 1624.) Item ap. t. i. Operum. Ap. Gallandium 

387 HoLBTENiUB [HolBtem] Lucas. 1630 

1. Annotationes in Geograpbiam Caroli a Sancto Paulo, in 

Italiam Antiquam Clnverii, et Thesaurum Geograpbicom 
Ortelii. (Rom. 1666. 8yo.) s^epius, 

2. GloBsarium et Not« ad Benedicti Codicem Regularem. 

(Paris. 1663. 4to.) temel. 

3. Dissertatio de Synesio : ap. Valesii Notas in Tbeodoret. 

Hist. Ecdes. q. v. semel, 

388 HoMBRiTABUM MartyTum Acta. (ap. Boroiutfm, ad annum 

522.) Vid. supr. No. 78. semel, 

389 HoNORiUB Augustodunensis. Gemma Anime : ap. t. 9. Bi- 1 130 

bliotb. Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. Boiuim, Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 23.) 
Vid. supr. No. 1 10. jonei. 

390 HoNORius, Imperator. Rescriptum ad Bonifadum. ap. Crabb. 395 

Concil. 1. 1, (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 2.) semeL 

391 HooPKR, George, D.D. Bisbop of Batb and Wells. A Dis- 1703 

course concerning Lent. (Lond. 1695. 8vo.) sMnde. 

392 H0RATIU8 Flaccus, Poeta. (ap. 1. 1. Corp. Poet. Lat. Lond. 

1 7 13. fol.) 6m. 

393 H0RMI8DA8, Papa. Epistolae Decretales. (ap. Labb. Concil. 514 

t. 4.) bit terve. 

alphabeticaUy arranged. S69 

394 HoBPiNiANUB, Rodolphus^ Tigurinus. {Ralph Hoipmian of 157 1 


I. De Templis, hoc est, De Origine, Progressu, Usu, et 
AbuBU Tempbmm et Remm ad Templa pertinentium : 
&c. Tigur. 1587. fol. (Genev. 1673. fol.) Mpe. 

3. De Festis Judieomm et Ethnioorom, hoc est, De Origine, 
Progressu, Ceremoniis, et Ritibos Festorom apud Judseoe, 
Gnecos, Romanos, Tuicaa, et Indianoe: &c. (Genev. 1674. 
fol.) bis. 

3. De Festis Christianorom, hoc est, De Oiigine, Progressu, 

&c. Tigur. 1593. fol. (Genev. 1674. fol.) sape. 

4. De Origine Monachatus libri Quataor, &c. Tigur. 1588. 

fol. (Tigur. i(k>9. fol.) Genev. 1699. ^^^* 9mpe. 

5. Historia Sacramentaria. (Tigur. 1598. fol.) Genev. 1681. 

fol. subinde. 

395 HoTTiNOBRUS, Johauues Henricus, llgurinus. 1643 

1. Historia Ecclesiastica. Hanov. 1655. 9 vol. 8vo. Tigur. 

1651. 5 vol. 8vo. (Hanov. et 'Hgur. 1655-67. 10 vol. 8vo.) 

2. De Translatione BibHorum : apud Dissertationum Fasci- 

culum. (Heildelberg. 1660. 4to.) semel. 

396 H0TOMANNU8 <^, [Hotman,] Franciscus. 1561 

1. DeCastis Incestisque Nuptiis, 8rc. (Francofurt. 1619. 8vo.) 


2. QuKstiones lUustres Juris. ? 1591. 8vo. (ap. 1. 1. Oper. 

Lugdun. 1599-1600. 3 torn, fol.) semel. 

397 [HovBDEN, Roger. Ed. Savil. Lond. 1596. See afterwards 

under Tvoysden, No. 777. semel.] 

398 HuBTius, [Huet,] Petr. Dan. [Bp. of Avranches.] 1664 

1. Origeniana^ h. e. Commentaria, sive Opera Origenis Exe- 

geticaS &c. (Rothomag. 1668. 2 torn, fol.) Item, ad 
calc. Oper. Origen. juzt. Ed. Bened. Paris. 1733. q. v. 

2. Demonstratio Evangelica. (Amstel. 1680. 2 vol. 8vo.) 

Lips. 1694. 4to. semel. 

399 Hugo de Sancto Victore. Opera. Venet. 1583. 3 torn. fol. (ap. 11 20 

Bofiam, Rer. Ldturg. 1. 2. c. 19.) Vid. supr. No. no. semel. 
(ap. DaUawm, De Cult. Relig. 1. 2. Vid. supr. No. 223. semel. 

400 HuMBBRTUs, al. Hubertus, de Sylva Candida. Liber de Azy- 1050 

mo et Jejunio Sabbatorum, contra Michaelem Cerularium et 
Leonem Achridanum : ap. Baronium in Appendice. See as 
cited by Gerard Vossius, Disput. 13. Thes. 8. (ap. t. 5. Oper. 
G. Vossii: Amstel. 1701.) semel. 

^ An eminent French civilian. Born ® In this work every thing that An- 
at Paris in 1524. Died at Basle in tiquity relates concerning Origen is ool- 
1590. lected and set forth. 

270 Index of Authors, 

401 Idacius contra Varimundum Aiianum : ap. t. 4. Biblioth. 385 
Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. t. 5. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677.) 
apud Gallandiuxn deest. bit, ■ 
403 Ignatius, Sanctua, Mart3rr. Epiatolie, Gr. et Lat. (ap. Cote^ loi 
lerii Patr. Apost.) Vid. aupr. No. 204. sespe, 
I. Ep. ad Ephesienaea. 

2 MagnesianoB. 

3 Trallianoa. 

4 Smymenaea. 

5 Polycarpum. 

6. Pseudo-Ignatius. 

Ep. ad Philadelphianoa. 



403 loNATii Acta. (ap. Grahium, Spicileg. t. 2.) Vid. supr. No. 

342. semel. 

404 Illtricub. Vid. supr. JFTactitf, s. Flaccut, No. 301. 

405 Injb Leges, (ap. Spelman. Concilia : Lond. 1639. fol.) semel, 

406 Index Librorum Ezpurgandorum. Vid. infr. Qmrorga, No. 


407 Indsx librorum Prohibitorum. Vid. infr. Sotomajor, No. 


408 Innocbntius I. Pbpa. Epistole et Decreta. (ap. Labb. Con- 

cil. t. 2.) Vid. infr. No. 441. 9€Bpiu9. 
Ep. I. ad Decentium. 
Ep. 2. ad Victricium. 
Ep. 3. ad Exuperium. 
Ep. 4. ad FUium Nucerianum. 
Ep. 6. ad Episoopos Apuliee. 
Ep. 8. ad Florentium. 
Ep. II. ad Aurdium. 
Ep. 14. ad Bonifacium. 
Ep. 18. ad Alexandrum. 
Ep. 22. ad Episoopos Macedonia. 
Ep. 23. ad Synodum Toletanam. 
Ep. 93. Inter Epistolas Augustini : q. v. 

409 Innocsntiub III. Papa. De Mysteriis Missse. Antwerp. 1540. 1198 

(ap. 1. 1. Operum, Colon. 1575. 2 torn, fol.) semel. 

410 Irbnjbus, Sanctus, Episcopus Lugdunensis et Mart3rr. 167 

I. Opera, cum Notis Joan. Ernest. Grabii. Lond. 1702. fol. 
(S. T. Episc. Lugdun. contra Omnes Haereses Libri 
Quinque. Textus Gned partem baud exiguum restituit, 
Latinam Versionem antiquissimam e Quatuor Mscriptis 
Codicibus emendavit, Fragmenta aliorum Tractatuum de- 
perditorum subjunxit, omnia Notis Variorum et suis illus- 

cdphabeticoMy arranged, S71 

travit, Joan. Ern. Grabe. Ozon. e Theatro Sheldoniano, 
170a. foLO sapisnme. 
2. Epiatola ad Victorem. (ap. Eusehium, Hiet. Eccles. 1. 5. 
c. 34.) Vid. aupr. No. 275. sMnde. 
411 Ibidorus, Sanctus, Hispalensis Epiaoopua. [St Isidore qf 

1. De Divinia Officiia. Ap. 1. 10. Biblioth. Patr. Paria. 1654. 


2. Origenea, aive Etymologise. In Corpore Auctonim lingiue 

Latins. Genev. 1633. 4to. subMe. 
[Vide apud Openun Omnium editionea : 
I. Ed. Griali. Madrit. 1599. fol. asepiua repetita; denuo cor- 
recta atque aucta, Madrit. 1778. 3 tom. fol. 

3. Altera : (cum Notia Jacobi Du Breul. Colon. Agripp. 

1617. fol.) 
3. Ed. Aurevali, denuo correcta et aucta, &c. Rom. 1797- 
1803. 7 ^°^* 4^' 

Citations according to Du BreuTs edition, 
I. Originum, aive Etymologianim libri Viginti. 
3. Commentariua in Ezodum, c. 19. 

3. De Officiia Eccleaiaaticis, aive Divinia libri Duo. 

4. Epiatola ad Ludifredum. 

5. Regula Monachorum, c. 17.] 

413 laiDORus Mercatorff. Ejua Veraio Conciliorum et Epiatolarum 830 
Papalium. (ap. Liabb. in Conciliorum tomis.) bis terve. 

413 laiDORus, Sanctufl, Pelusiota. \^St,IsidoreofPelusiiim.'] Opera, 413 

Gr. et Lat., cum Notia Prunsei, Ritterahuaii, et Schotti. (Paria. 
1638. fol.) smpius. 

Lib. I. Epp. I, 39, 90, 114. 133, 136. Lib. 3. Epp. 137, 346. 
Lib. 3. Epp. 359, 343, 383. Lib. 4. Epp. 143, 163. 

414 [lao, Monachua Sangallensis, s. Sanctigallena. De Miraculia 860 

Beati Othmari Abbatia, c.3. (ap. Surium, Colon. Agripp. 1581. 
t. 6. p. 393.) bis. 

415 Ivo, a. Yvo, Camotenaia. Epiacopua. 1093 

I. Liber Decretonim. (Lovan. 1561. fol.) subinde, 
3. Epiatola de Sacramento Miass. (ap. Dalkeum, De Cult. 
Relig. 1. 3.) Vid. aupr. No. 333. semel. 

f The ongiraA Edilio Erasmiana per reprinted at Venice, 1734* with a se- 

Frobenium was dated Basil. 1516. foL: lection of the Fragments of LrenBus^ 

of which Massnet the Benedictine ob- and is generally considered the Ed. Opt. 

serves, in the Preface to his own edi- This, however, I question : for, as I 

tion at Paris, 1710. fol., toi mmdiSy have observed before, the Benedictine 

lacuniSf mutilisque ac depravatis pe- copies are not always the best. But 

riodiM tcatetf ui Irentnu s€tpe in ipso they have a great name. 
Iretupo quteraiur, ifc. See WaJch, K His version is specially referred to 

Biblioth. Patrist. ch. a. s. 13. Jenn, once or twice by the learned author; 

1834. p. 1 13. Massuefs edition was but at b. 5. ch. 2. s. 3. 'v. 2. p. 1 16. of 

272 Index of Authors, 


416 Jacobus, Saoetus. liturgia ei ascripta^^^ Gr. et Lat. (ap. t. a. 31 

Biblioth. Pair. Gneco-Latin. rive Auctar. Dac8»n. Paris. 
1624.) subinde, 

417 Jbssb, Ambianensts Einscopas, [Bishop of Amiens.] De Or- 790 

dine Bapttsmi ; ap. Baluzium in Notis ad Rheginon. l.i. c.6g. 
bis feme. Vid. sapr. Bahiekts^ No. 74. 

418 JoBiU8» MonacbuB. (ap. Photii Bibliotbecam, cod. aaa.) bis 530 

terve. Vid. infr. PhoHus, No. 607. 

419 J0HANNB8, Abbas. De Translatione Reliqaiaram Sancte Glo- 

desindis : (ap. Valesium in Not. ad Theodoret. Hist. Eccles. 
1.1. c. 36.) semel. 

430 [JoHANNBS Diaconus. Pnefatio ad Vitam Gregorii Magni, et 

Vita ejusdem. (ap. t. 4. Operum G. M. Paris. 1705. fol.) ter 
vel quater.'] 

431 JoBBPHus, Flavins. Opera Omnia, cum Nova Versione et 67 

Notts Johannis Hudson. (Ozon. e Theatr. Sheldon. 1730. 
3 torn, fol.) Ed. Opt. cum Notis Bemardi, Gronovii, Combe- 
fisii et aliorum, &c. Omnia coUegit, &c., Sigebertus Haver- 
campus: Amstel. 1736. 3 torn. fol. sape, 

Tom. I. Antiquitates Judaicse. 

Tom. 3. De Bello Judaico. 

433 JuBL, or Jewel, John, D. D. Bishop of Salisbury. Apologia 1560 

Ecdesise Anglicans. Lond. 1606. i3mo. (See in the Works, 
Lond. 161 1, fol.) bis terve. 
423 JuLiANUs, Imperator. Opera, Gr. et Lat., cum Notis Petavii. 361 
Paris. 1630. 4to.) Item lipriae, 1696. fol. sape. 
I. Vita per Morentinum Operibus prsefixa. 
3. Oratio Septima. 

3. Fragmenta Epistolarum. 

4. Epistola ad Arsacium. (ap. Soxamenum, Hist. Eccles. 1. 5. 

c. 16. Vid. infr. No. 730. 

434 JuLiANus Pomerius. De Vita Contemplativa : inter Opera 498 

Prosperi, cui vulgo tribuitur. Colon. 1540. 8vo. (Paris. 171 1. 
fol.) subinde. 

435 JuLiANUS Halicamassensis. Fragments Commentarii in Job. 510 

(ap. Catenam Grsecorum Patram in Job. Lond. 1637. fol.) 

436 [JuLiuB Clarus. Opera. (Genev. 1664. fol.) semel.'] 

437 Julius Flrmicus Matemus'. Vid. supr. Firmicus, No. 397. 

this new edition), he speaks of Merca- h Certainly not the work of St. 

tor as having forged the Decretal Epi- James. Gave ascribes it to the era of 

sties of the ancient bishops of Rome, the Council in TruUo, the third Con- 

whidi consequently are only of value stantinopolitan, anno 680. Hist. Uter., 

as a testimony to the Papal animus at as before, v. i . p. 30. 
the era of Mercator. 

alphabetically arranged. S78 

438 JuLiuBy Papa. 337 

I. Epiatola ad Orientales. (ap. S, Athana$U Apologiam Se- 
cundam. Oper. 1. 1. part. i. p. 11 7*) 9emel, Vid. Bupr. 
No. 57. 

a. EpiBtola apud Gratiamini^ De Coiuecrat. distinct. 2. 0. 7. 
(ap. 1. 1. Corp. Jur. Canon. Luffdun. 167 1.) bis, 

439 JuNiLiUB Afer. De Partibus Divinse Legis : ap. 1. 10. Biblioth. 550 

Max. Lugdun. 1677. (ap. Crallandium, 1. 12. p. 77.) semel. 

430 Junius, Fhrndscus, [Franda Du Jon.] Opera Tbeologica. 1580 

Franequerse, 1597. fol. (Genev. 1613. 2 torn, fol.) 

1. Sacrorum ParaUelonim Libri Tre8> &c. semel, 

2, Note in Tertullianum : De Corona Militia, et De Idolo- 

latria : (ap. Oper. Tertullian. Franequer. 1597. fol.) bis. 

431 JusTXLLUB, HenricuB. Bibliotheca Juria Canonusi. (Paris. 

1661. 2 torn, fol.) ter, 
I. Notce in Concil. Laodicenum, can. i. 

2 Nicsenum, can. 19. 

3 Chalcedonense, can. 6. * 

[Auctores apud Justellom : Alexius Aristenus, Balsamon, 
CelestinuB Papa, Collectio ConBlitutionum Ecdeaie, Cres- 
conitts Afer, FabrotuB, Ferrandus, Photii Nomocanon, et, 
inter Concilia, Romanum atque Antiochenum : q. v.] 
43a JuBTiNUB, Sanctus, Philosophua et Martyr, [commonly called 140 
Justin Martyr.] Opera Omnia, Gr. et Lat. (Colon. 1686. 
fol.') siBpius. 
[Operum Editiones : ^ 

1. Prima: Robert. Stephani, Paris. 155 1. fol. 

2. Commeliniana : Fred. Sylburgii, cum Notis Aroerii, Hoe- 

Bchelii, Wolfii, Penonii, et Billii: Heidelberg. 1593. fol., 
recusa Paris. 161 5 et 1636. fol 

3. Oxoniensis : Henrici Hutchin, cum Latina Johan. Langi 

Versione, quamplurimis in locis conecta,&c.; cum Notis 
R. et H. Stepbanorum, Grabii, Potteri, &c. Oxon. e 
Theatr. Sheldon. 1703. 8vo. 

4. Benedictina^ : Opera, quie exstant Omnia. Necnon Ta« 

tiani adv. GrascoB Oratio ; Athenagorae Philosopbi Athe- 
niensiB Legatio pro Cbristianis ; S. Theophili Antiocbeni 
Tres ad Autolycum libri. Item in Appendice supposita 
JuBtino Opera cmn Actis illius Martyrii et Excerptia 

i This Ib a reprint of the Editio Biblioth. Pktrist. as before, p. 154. 
CommfilmiMia, Paris. 1615 et 1636. ^ In this instance the Benedictine 

k Speaking of Styan Thirlby's edi- is decidedly the best edition of Justin 

tion of the Apologies and Dialogue Martyr: but the era of it being 10 

with Trypho, Lond. 1733, Walch terms years later than that of my Ancestor, 

it splendtda et elegans^ at erudifit pa^ and the arrangement being very differ* 

rum commendata : n(m mediocrem ent, I have not used it for the purposes 

€nim negHgentiam atque ignorantiam of verification. There are also editions 

tfi omanda iUa nirUfius prodidit, of the Apologies ex Recensione OrO' 


S74 Index of Author Sy 

Openim deperditorum ejusdem Justini et Tatiani et 
Tbeopluli, cnm MSS. Codd. coUata, et novia Interpre- 
tationibus, Notis, &c., studio Pradentii Marani, unius ex 
Monachia Ck)ngr. S. Mauri. Paris. 1742. fol. Recusa 
Yenet. 1747, Werceberg. 1777, Bodd. 1830, Jene, 1843.] 

I. Apologia Prima. 

3. Apologia Secunda. 

3. Dialogus cum Tryphone. 

4. Queestiones et Responsiones ad Orthodozot. 

433 JuBTiNTANUfl, Imperator. Corpus Juris Civilis. Lugdun. T589. 537 
3 vol. 8to. Amstel. 1663. 3 tom. fol. (Cum Commentariis Ac- 
cursii, Scholus Contii, et D. Gotbofredi>>^ Lucubrationibus ad 
Accunium, &c. Editio supra omnem aliarum curam fida, &c. 
Studio et opera Jobannis Fehii Gaildorpbeusis, J. C. Lugdun. 
1637. 6 tom. fol. A) passim. 

According to the order of the Amsterdam editum, 
I. Institutiones : 

L. I. tit. 10. De Nuptiia. 

L. 4. tit. 18. De Publicis Judiciis. 
II. Digesta seu Pandectae : 

L. I. tit. 13. De Officiis Pisefecti Urbis. 

L. 3. tit. 13. De Feriis. 

L. II. tit. 5. De Aleatoribus. 

L. 13. tit. 7. De Pignoritia Actione. 

L. 33. tit. 5. De Testibus. 

L.43. tit. 10. Ad Legem Comeliam de Falso. 

L. 47. tit. 3. De Furtia. 

........ 1 1. De Eztraordinariis Criminibus. 

13. De Sepulcbro Violato. 

30. De Stellionatu. 

L. 48. tit. 5. Ad Legem Juliam de Adulterio. 

8. Ad Legem Comeliam de Sicariis. 

ID. De Lege Cornelia de Falso. 

...•••.. 16. Ad Senatus-Consultum Turpilianum. 

........ 19. De Poenis. 

L. 49. tit. 4. Quando appellandum sit. 

L.50. tit. 13. De Extraordinaris Cognitionibus, 

13* De Censibus. 

in. Codex : 

L. I. tit. I. De Summa Trinitate. 

6m, by nialemann, Leiprig, 1 755. 8to., ^ The first three tomes contain the 

and by Mr. Ashton, Oftmbr. 1768. Dig-etta and the Syliabut of Remis^ 

8vo., as well as of the Dialogue with sionsy the fourth tome consists of the 

Trypho by Samuel Jebb. Lond. 17 19. Codex, the fifth has the Institutions 

8to. and Novels, while the last is made up 

la See before. Note f. on No. 340, by the Index Juris CivUis of Stephen 

p. 157. Davys of Pampluna. 

alphabetically arranged. 375 

L. I. tit. 3. De Sancrosanctis Ecclesiit. 

3. De Episcopis et Clericis. 

4. De Episcopal] Audientia. 

5. De HaereticiB. 

7. De Apoetatis. 

9. De Judaeis. 

...... II. De Pagania. 

la. De his, qui ad Eccleaias confugiunt. 

L. 2. tit. 6. De Postulando. 

59* De Jurejurando propter Calumniam. 

L. 3. tit. 1 3. De Feriia. 

...... 43. De Aleatoribus. 

44- De Religions et Sumptibiia Fnneriis. 

L.4.tit.3o. De Festibus. 

3a. De Usiiiis. 

...... 59. De Monopoliis. 

L. 5. tit. I. De Sponsalibus. 

3* De Donationibos ante Naptias. 

4. De Nnptiis. 

5* De Incestis Nuptiis. 

6. De Interdicto Matrimonio, &e. 

17. De Repudiis. 

35. De Naturalibus liberis. 

L.8.tit47. De Patria Potestate. 

54. De Donationibus. 

L. 9. tit. 4. De Custodia Reorum. 

17. De his, qui Parentes vel liberos ooeidunt. 

18. De Maleficis et MathematiciB, 

19. De Sepulofaro violato. 

...... 30. Ad Legem Fabiam de Fla^^ariis. 

39. De Crimine SacrilegiL 

39. De his, qui Latrones occultarint. 

46. De Calumniatoribus. 

L. 10. tit. 13. De his, qui se deferunt. 

L. 1 1 . tit. 1 7. De Collegiatis. 

...... 35. De Mendicantibus Validis. 

40. De Speotaculis, &c. 

L.i3.tit.4i. De Metatis. 

5T. De Cursu Publico. 

IV. NoveflsB, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, 33, 38, 31, 40, 43, 43, 

45» 57» 58, 59* 67, 74, 11, I9f 83, 86, 117, 133, 134, 138, 

131* i33» 134. i37» J44» 146. 
V. Sanctio Pragmatica: (iuter Aliquot Constitutiones, Sec, 

ad calcem NoveUarum : juzt. Ed. AmsteL 1663. t, 3. 
p. 336.) nrnel, 
VI. Edictum de Fide Orthodoxa: ap. Leundavii, Jus Gneco- 
Romanum, 1. 1. (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 5.) semel, 

T 2 

276 Index of Authors, 

434 JuvKNALis Poeta. (ap. t. 2. Corp. Poet. Latin. Load. 17 13. 

fol.) tubinde. 
Satyrs 1, 2, 5, 6, S, 12. 

435 JuvBNCUB. Historia Evangelica Carmine Heroico : ap. t. 2. 330 

Corp. Poet. Lugdun. 1603. 4(0. Item, ap. t. 4. Biblioth. Max. 
Lugdun. 1677. (ap. Gallandiom, t.4. p. 601.) temeh 


436 Kbmpiub, Martinus. De Osculo. (Lips. 1665. i2mo.) $emel, 1660? 

437 KsNNBT, White, D.D. Bishop of Peterborough. The Case of 1718 

of Impropriations, and of Augmentations of Vicarages, from 
the first Usurpation of Popes and Monks, &c. (Lond. 1704. 
8vo.) bis, 

438 [King, Sir Peter. See before. The Criiieal Hutwry of the 

Creed, No. 212.] 

439 KoBTHOLT, Christianus. S. Theol. Profess. Kilon.^ 1664 

1. Tractatus de Calumniis Paganorum in Veteres Christianos 

sparsis. (Kilon. 1668. 4to.) bis, 

2. Liber de Vita et Moribus Veterum Christianorum. (Kilon. 

1683. 4to.) semeL 
[Aliter. Paganus Obtrectator : sive, De Calumniis Gentilium 
in Veteres Christianos libri Tres. Kilon. 1698. 4to.] 

3. De Variis Scripturse Editionibus. (Kilon. 1686. 4to.) F 

440 Krantius, [Krantz, or Crantz], Albertus. Ecclesiastica Historia : 1580 

rive, Metropohs de Initiis Christianse Religionis, &c. (Franco* 
furt. 1590. fol.) ^ 


441 Labbbus, [Labbe, or more correctly Labb^,] R. P. Philippos, 1647 


1. Collectio Conciliorum. Paris. 167 1-2. i7tom.fol.P)paMtm. 
[For the Councils, as respectively cited, see the next Index.] 

2. Historica Synopsis Conciliorum. (Paris. 1661 » 4to.) ? 

3. DeScriptoribus Ecclesiastids.*! (Paris. 1660. 2 vol. 8vo.) bis, 

442 Lactantiub, Lucius Csedlius. Opera. Lugdun. 1594. 8vo. 303 

Lipsiae, 17 15. 8vo. 
[Operum Editiones : 
I. Princeps: Romse, 1465. x2mo.' 

o At Kiel in Denmark, where he referred to it, I have found it mora 

died in 1694. suitable for the purposes of the present 

P An x8th Tolmne containing Jaco- work than the edition of Colet, with 

batiiu on the Councils was afterwards the Additions of Baluze and Hsdrduin. 

added and termed Apparaius Alter, Venet. 1738. 23 torn, fol., or with the 

because the 1 7th volume was called Supplement of Mansi in 6 vols. Lucse, 

Apparatut, The Collection was finish- 1748-52. 29 vols in all. 

ed by Father Gabriel Cossart, a brother 4 This book contains a dissertation 

Jesuit, but a better and more judicious against the story of Pope Joan, 

critic than Labb^ himself. The edition r Frequently reprinted. The Aldine, 

is much esteemed, though not clear of Venice 1515, iimo., followed this text 

some serious defects. But my Ancestor as did the Lyonese, 1556. 8to. 
and others before him having frequently 

alphahetically arranged. 9171 

3. Oxoniensis : Cum Th. Sparkii, una cum H. DodweUi Dis- 
sertatione de Ripa Striga. Ozod. e Theatr. Sheldon. 1684. 

3. Parisiana et Optima : Cnra J. B. Le Brun et N. L. Du 

Fresnoy, &c. Editio Novissima, quae omnium instar 
esse potest, &c. (Paris. 1748. 2 vol. 4to.) Editio ipsa est 
presstantissima ac compUcHtur non whan discrepantes 
Scripturas dUigenter cottectas, sed etiam Variontm Notas, 
§fc. See Walch, Biblioth. Patrist. cli.3. 8. 16. Jense, 1834. 
p. 146. 

4. Brunemann : Lips. 1739. a vol. 8vo. 

5. Oberthur : Werceberg. 1783. 2 vol. 8vo. 

6. Bipont : 1786. a vol. 8vo. 
Ap. Gallandium, t. 4. p. 339.] 

Citations according to Le Brun, 
Vol. I. Divinse Inatitutiones. sapius. 
Vol. 3. Epitome Divinarum Institutionum. semel. 

De MortibuB Persecutorum *. Item seorsim, Ozon. 

1680. i3mo. bis terve, 
Cannen de Resurrectione Domini, [al. Carmen de 
Pascha, Fortunato ascriptum.] semel, 

443 Lambbcius^ Petrus, Ij.L.D. De Bibliotheca Vindobonensi^. 1663 

Vindobon. 1673. (Ed. Princeps, 1665. 8 tom. foL) Ap. Pagi 
in Baronium, ad annum 334. q. v. semeL 

444 Lambbrtus, Gulielmus. *Apxaiopofua ; sive, De Priscis L^«- 

bus Anglorum, &c. (Cantabr. 1644. fol.) semel. 

445 Lampridius, iElius, s. Actius. Int. August. Hist. Scriptor. 303 

Lugdun. Batav. 1633. (Lugdun. Batav. 1661. 8vo.) subinde. 
I. Vita Commodi. 
3. Vita Heliogabali. 
3. Vita Alezandri Seven. 

446 Landulphus Sagaz. C!ontinuatio Pauli Diaconi. Hamburg. 900 

161 1. 4to. (BasiL 1569. 8vo.) semel. Vid. infir. Paulus Diaconns, 
No. 593. 

447 Latinus LAtiniufl'. Epistola ad Antonium Augustinum de 1573; 

Usu Fermenti in Eucharistia. Romee, 1659. 4to. (ap. Bonam, 
Rer. liturg. 1. 1. c. 33. n. 8. al. 16.) Vid. supn No. i iq. bis^. 

• Joseph Bingham calU this piece <a while he was Keeper of the Imperial: 

little golden tract.' See Antiquities, Library at.Vienna. A second edition. 

b. 13, ch. 5, s. 7, T. 4, p. 402, and of this great work was published by 

n. 35, in connection with the remark. Kollar between 1766 and 1782, and 

t The relative and prot^g^ of the afterwards a ninth supplemental volume 

celebrated Luke Holstem. in 1 790. 

a The ftdl title of this book is. Com" ^ Bom at Viterbo in. 1513. Chosen 

mentariorum de Augtutitsima BibUo- as one of the Correctors of Gratian in 

theca C^Fsarea f^indobonensi Libri 1573. Died in 1593. 
Octo^ in 8 tom. fol. 1665-79, compiled 

378 Index ofAutJuirSy 

448 Laudmbtbbus, [rectiua Luidmetanis, handtmeter^ Laaren* 

tias. De Veteri Qerico et Monacho : [sive, De Veteri Clerici 
et Monachi Instituto.] (Lovan. 1626. 8to.) Item ap. Bonam, 
Rer. litarg. 1. 1. c. 15. n. 6. et ap. Leon. AUatium, De Muea 
Pnesanctificatoruin, s. 10. q. y. his, 

449 Launoiub^ Johannes, [John de Launoi 7,] D.D. De recta In- 16^ 

terpretatione Sexti Canonis Nicieni, &c. Paris. 1663. Svo. (ap. 
t. 4. Operum, Colon. Allobiog. 1731. fol.) «eme/. 

450 [Laursntius, Bernard. Casus, quibus Judex Secularis potest 

maniu injicere in Personas Ecclenasticas. Item de Prhrilegns 
Clericorum. Paris. 151 7. Svo. temel.'] 

451 Laursntius, Novariensis. Homiliae : (ap. t. 2. Bibliotb. PSatr. 507 

per Marguerit. De la Bigne, Paris. 1624.) Item ap. t. 9. 
Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. hi$, 

452 Lbctionarium Gallicanum. (ap. MabiRon, De Cursu Galli- 

cano, Paris. 1685. 4to. q. v.) sMnde, 

453 [L*o> Johannes, cognomine Aincanus. Descriptio Afiricae. 1500 

Antwerp. 1556. 8vo.] ? 

454 Led, GrammaticoB. Chronographia, cum Notts CombefisiL 1013 

(Paris. 1655. fol.) $emel, 

455 Lbo, Imperator, et Anthemius. Novella 11. (ad calc. t. 2. 458 

Corp. Jur. Civil. Ed. Amstel. 1663.) temel. 

456 Lbo et Majorianus, Imperatores. Novella 8. (ad calc. t. 6. Cod. 

Theodosian. Lugdun. 1665.) hi$, 

457 Lbo Magnus, Papa. Opera. Lugdun. 1672. fol. sopif- 440 


[i. Editio Quesnelliana : Opera Omnia, nunc primum Epi- 
stolis Triginta, tribusque de Gratia Christi Opusculis 
auctiora, secundum exactam annorum seriem accurate 
ordinata, &c. Paris. 1675. 2 torn. 4to. Recusa Venet. 
1700. fol.« 

2. Editio Balleriniana : O. O. &c. post P. Quesnelli recensio- 
nem ad complures et preestantissimos Mscriptos Codd. 
ab illo non consultos exacta, &c., illustrarunt Pet. et 
Hieron. Fratres Ballerinii, Presbyteri Yeronenses. (Venet. 

1753-57' 3 torn- fol-*) 

7 The intimate friend of Leo Alkcd rum rekUa ai, gutmiam Quemefiusp 

and Holstein, with whom he became gtatm de Hikuio ^reUitenti diuerit, 

acquainted at Rome in 1636. The Judicia de causit pairiarcharttm in his* 

great opponent of legendary saints, taria ecdeiiastica relata^ non ad legi* 

Died 1678. timas appeUationet reddita finue^ wed 

K Walch, Biblioth. Patrist. ch.3.8.16. ab ultra eleeio epartibut arbiire pro* 

p. 145, gives an ample account of this fo/a, dispufai, jr. 

edition, and adds the following reason * This is undoubtedly the very best 

why it was prohibited : jjute editio in edition of these works. See Welch, ibid. 
Jndicem quidem Librorum Prokibito* 

alphabetically arranged. X79 

Citatumt according to the order qf the Ed, Ballerin, 

Tom. I. 

1. In Aaniveraario Die Assumpiiomi suae ad PoDtificatum. 

2. De Jcjunio Decimi Mensis. 

3. In Solemnitatem Nativitatis D.N. Jeau Christi Serm. i. 

[al. 21.] et Serm. 4. [al. 34.] 

4. In solemnitatem Epiphanis D. N. Jeau Chriati Senn. 3. 

[al.-33.] et Serm. 7. [al. 37.] 

5. De Quadragesima Serm. 4. [al.43.] 6. [al.44.] 9. [al.47.] 

6. De Passione Domini Serm. 14. [al. 63.] 

7. De Jejanio Pentecostes Serm. 2. [al. 79.] et 3. [al. 80.] 

8. Sermo in Nativitatem Sanctorum Septem Fratrum Macca- 


9. De Jejunio Septimi Mensis Serm. 7. [aL 18.] et 9. [al.94.] 

Tom. IL 

Epistolse Decretales. (ap. Labb. Condi, t. 3.) 

3. Ad Julianum. 

4. Ad Episcopos Siculos. 
37. Ad Leonem Ravennensem. 
62, Ad Maximum Antiochenum. 

64. Ad Marcianum. 

65. Ad Eudociam Auguatam. 

70. Ad Marcianum Augustum. al. 73. 

79. Ad Nicetam. 

80. Ad Episcopos Campaniae. 

81. Ad Dioscorum. 

84. Ad Anastaaium Thessalonicensem. 

88. Ad Gallos. 

89. Ad Episcopos Yiennensea. 

91. Ad Theodomm Forojuliensem. al. 89. 
93. Ad Rusticum. al. 90. 

93. Ad Turribium, al. Turibium. 

94. Ad Gallos et Hispanoa. 

458 Leo Sapiens, Imperator. 886 

1. NoUtiaEoclesise, Or. et Lat.: (ap. Leunclam Jus Or. Rom. 

1 1, p. 88.) Vid. infr. No. 463. $€Bpe» See Antiquities, 
b. 9, throughout. 

2. NovellaB 53, 54, 73, 77, 89 : apud Leundav. ibid. p. 78. 

(ad calc. t. 3. Ck>rp. Jur. Civil. Amstel. 1663.) s€Bpe, 

3. Tactica. (In Usher's Religion of the Ancient Irish : Works, 

vol. 4. Dublin. 1847. 8vo.) eemel. 

459 Lbontius Bysantinus. 590 

I. De Sectis, Gr. et Lat. : (ap. 1. 1. Biblioth. Patr. Gr. Lat. 
sive Auctar. Duceean. Paris. 1634.) semeL 

280 Index of Authors, 

3. Contra Eutychianos et Nestorianot : ap. t. 4. Biblioth. Patr. 
Paris. 1654. (ap. t. 9. Biblioth. Max. Lugdan. 1677.) 

460 Lsssius, Leonardua. De Jure et Jiutitia. Antwerp. x6a6. fol. 

tLovan. 1605. fol. (Paris. 1606. fol.) ter, 

461 L'EsTRANOE^ Hamon, [or sometime Hamond,] Esq. 1640 

1. A Remonstrance in the Defence of the Liturgy. (Lond. 

1643. 4to.) semel, 

2. Smectymnuo-Mastixy or A Defence of the Remonstrance. 

(Lond. 1 65 1. 8vo.) 

3. The Alliance of Divine Offices, exhibiting all the liturgies 

of the Church of England, as also the late Scotch Service 
Book, with all their respective Variations, &c. Lond. 
1690. fol. fLond. 1659. fol. (Reprint for the Anglo- 
Catholic library, Oxford, 1846. Svo.) sape, 

462 Lbunclavius, Johannes. Jus Gneco-Romanum, Gr. et Lat. 1570 

Francofurt. 1594. 2 torn. fol. (Itidem, 1596. 2 tom. foL in i.) 
[Auctores apud Leunclavium : 

Balsamon, Harmenopulus, Heraclius Imp., Justinianus 
Imp., Leo Sapiens, Nicetas.] 

463 Lexicon Juridicum. Per Anonymum^, Genev. 1615. Svo. 

(Colon. Allobrog. 161 5. Svo.) semel, 

464 L1BANIU8 Sophista. Opera, Gr. et Lat. Paris. 1606. 2 tom. fol. 360 

(Lutetise, 1637. 2 torn, fol.) tubinde, 
I. Oratio Apologetica. (Oper. t. 2.) 

2 contra Florentium. (ibid.) 

3 in Tisamenum. Ibid. (ap. Cotelerium, Antwerp. 

1698. 1. 1, p. 287.) 
4 De Vinctis. (ap. Coteler. ibid. juxt. Ed. Jacob. 

5 De Agricolis. (ap. Cod. Theodosian. cum Notis 

Gothofred. 1. 1. p. 288. q. v.) 

465 [LiBSLLUS Precum, &c. Yid. supr. FausHmts, No. 287.] 

466 LiBBBATUS, Archidiaconus Ecclesise Carthaginiensis. Brevia- 553 

rium, sive Historia Causae Nestoriause et Eotychianse, cum 
Appendice. Ap. t. 2. Crabb. Concil. Colon. 1551. Seorsim 
cum Notis Gamerii. Paris. 1675. Svo. (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 5. 
pp. 740, seqq.) Item ap. Gallandium, 1. 12. m^mm. 

467 LioHTPOOT, John, D.D.<1 1652 

I. The Temple-Service and the Temple. Lond. 1650. 4to. ter, 

^ 1 have failed to discover the name banius among his own Opuscola, Gene- 

of the anther of this book; but it is va, 1631, and reprinted in 1644, 4to. 

not identical with the work mentioned See Brunei's BibliogTiq>hieUiiiver8eUe^ 

before. No. 153, under the same title, Paris. 18 16. vol. 17. 

by Calrin or Kahl. ^ Master of Catherine Hall, Cam- 

c He published five Orations of Li- bridge, in 1643. Died in 1661. 

alphabetically arranged, 281 

3. Hone Hebraicse in Matthseam et Marcum cum Disquisi- 

tione Chorographica. Cantabr. a vol. 4to. Item ap. 

Opera : Franequer. 1699. 2 torn. fol. 
[The Whole Works by the Rev. J. R. Pitman, M.A. (Lond. 

1834. 13 vol. 8vo.) 
In V. 5. The Harmony of the Fom* Evangelists. semeL 
.... 8. The Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles, ch. i. 

V. 31. semel. 
.... 9. The Temple-Service as it stood in the Days of our 

Saviour, ter, 
.... II. Hone Hebraicse, or Hebrew and Talmudical Exerci- 

tations upon St. Matthew and St. Mark, semel, 
.... 13. Do. on St. Luke, St. John, Romans, and Corinthians. 

(i Cor. 6, 4.) aemel, 
468[LiMBOBCHiusS Philippus. Theologia Christiana. (Amstel. 1660 
1686. 5to.) semel,'] 

469 LiNDANUS, Gulielmus. Panoplia Evangelica contra Hsereses. 1563 

Colon. 1575. fol. (Colon. Agripp. 1563. fol.) ter, 

470 LiNDKNBROOius, seu Liudinbrogius, Fridericns. Codex Legum 

Antiquarum Wisigothorum, Burgundionum, Alemannorum, 
et aliorum. (Francofurt. 1613. fol.) $emel. 

471 LiNwooD, [or rather Lyndwood,] William. Provinciale, editum 1433 

per Sharrock : Oxon. 1664. 8vo. (Oxon. 1679. fol.) semel, 
473 L1P8IUS, Justus. 1580 

1. De Magnitudine Romana, libri Quatuor. Antwerp. 1598. 

fol. Item, 1 1^37* fol* (ap. t. 3. Operum, Vesalise, 1675. 
8vo.) his, 

2. [Notae in Senecae Opera: Antwerp. 1615. fol. semel,'] 

473 [LiTURGiA Mosarabica, sive Missa Mosarabum. Vid. infr. 

MahiUoniuSy De Liturg. Gallican. No. 485.] 

474 [LiTUBOicARUM Autiquarum Arcana, &c. : ap. Bonamy Rer. 

Liturg. 1. 3. c. 4. n. 3. seinel, Vid. infr. Vanderhaer, No. 787.] 

475 Lloyd, William, D.D. Bishop of St. Asaph ^ An Historical 1680 

Account of Church-Government as it was in Great Britain 
and Ireland, when they first received the Christian Religion. 
(Lond. 1684. 8vo.) semeU 

476 L0AI8A, seu Loaysa, Garsias seu Garcia. Collectio Concilio- 

rum Hispanise, cum Notis. Madrit. 1593. fol. 
I. In C. Bracarensis i. c. 3i. [al. Bracarensis 3. c. 3.] (ap. 
Labb. Concil. t. 5.) sem^l, 

3. In C. Eliberitani c. 35. (ibid. 1. 1«) semel, 
3. In C. Toletani i. c. 14. (ibid. t. 3.) his, 

« Minister of Amsterdam in 1667. the Tower in 1688. Translated to 

He inherited the principles as well as Lichfield and Coventry, and thence to 

the papers of Episcopius, lus great Woroeeter, in 1699. Died in 1717 at 

node on the mother*s side. the age of 91. 

' One of the seven bishops sent to 

^S Index of Authors^ 

477 LoMBABDUs, Petrusv, Episoopus Parisiensis. liber Senten- fi6o 

tianim. Lugdun. 1594. 8to. fCracov. 1519. 4to. (Colon. 
Agripp. 1566. lamo.) Mubinde, 

478 L0MBIBRU8, Johannes. De BibliothedB liber Singularis. 

(Zutphan. 1669. 8to.) Ultraject. ad Rhen. 1660. 8vo. nmeh 

479 LuciANUS, Athens. Opera, Gr. et Lat. Salmur. 1619. lamo. 170 

(Bipont. 1789-93. 10 vol. 8vo.) subinde, 
Philopatris. De Morte Pereghni. Nigrinus. 

480 LuGiANUS, Confessor. 353 

I. Epistolse : inter Cyprianicas Ep. 17. [al. 23.] semel, 

[al. aa.] semel, (ap. Cyprian. Oper. Amstel. 1700. fol.) 
a. Acta : ap. Metaphrastem. (ap. Surium, 7 Januar. 1. 1.) Vid. 

infr. No. 739. semel, 

481 LuciANUS, Martyr. Symbolum : ap. Athanasium de Symbolia 394 

Arimini et Seleucis. (ap. Socrate/n, Hist. Ecdes. 1. x. c. 10.) 
semel, Yid. infr. No. 716. 
48a Lupus, \_Woff,'] Christianas. Scholia in Canones Condlio- 1655 
rum. Bruzel. 1678.^ 5 torn. 4to. (Yenet. 1734. la torn, in 
6 vol. fol.) subinde, 

483 Lyranus, Nicolaus. [Nicholas De Lyra.] Glossa in Biblia. 1330 

Lugdun. 1589. (Antwerp. 1634. 6 torn, fol.) bis. 

484 [Lyssr, John. See afterwards, Pofygamia TYUmphatrix, No. 



485 Mabillomus, Johannes^. Ord. Benedict. 1670 

I. De Lituigia Gallicana LibriTres, in quibus Yeteris Missse, 
quae ante annos mille apud Gallos in usu erat, Foima 
Ritusque eniuntur ex Antiquis Monumentis, LecUonaiio 
Gallicano hactenus inedito, et tribus Missalibus Thoma- 
sianis, quae integra referuntur, Missale Gothicum, Missale 
Francorum, Missale Gallicanum vetus. Accedit Disqui- 
sitio de Cursu Gallicano, seu de Divinorum Officiorum 
Origine et Progressu in Ecclesiis Gallicanis. (Lutet. Paris. 
1685. 4to.) sape, 

3. De Cursu Gallicano. (ad calc. Liturg. Gallican. ut supr.) 

3. Musseum Italicum, seu Collectio Yeterum Scriptorum ex 

Bibliothecis Italicis, Sec, : [inter quos Liber Sacramento- 
rum Ecclesiie Gallicanse,] &c. (Paris. 1687. 4to.) semel, 

4. Analecta Yeterum, sive Collectio Yeterum aliquot Operum 

et Opusculorum omnis generis, Carminum, Epistolarum, 

t Peter of Lombardy, well known cfps of his great work is dated at Ye- 

by the title of Afaster of the Sentences, nice, 1477, foL, on which numerous 

The pupil of St. Bernard. Termed commentaries haye been written. 

PariaientU from becomingj first, a cele- ^ First edition was published in 1665. 

brated professor of the UniTersity of ^ Bom at Pierre-Mont on the bordm 

Paris, and, afterwards, archbishop of of Champagne, 1639. Died at the 

that diocese in 1 160, The editio yrm- Abbey of St. Germain des Fr^ in 1707. 

alphabetically arranged, S8S 

Diplomatum, Epitapbiorum, &c. Paris. 1675. 4 vol. 8vo. 
(ap. t. 4. Dacherii Spicileg. Paris. 1733. 4 torn. fol. Vid. 
supr. Dacheriiu^ No. 322. semel vel bis, 

486 Macarius, Sanctus> iE^ptius ^. 373 

I. Homilue : (ad calc. Oper. Greg. Thaumaturg. Paris. 1623. 
fol.) Item, ez edit. PritiL Lips. 1698. 8vo. Iteruin, 
17 14. i3mo. Ap. Gallandium, t. 7. pp. 3, seqq. semel, 

3. Regular c. 15 : (ap. Hist. Flagellant. Paris. 1700. 8vo.) 
Ap. GaUand. ibid. p. 345. 

487 Macrobiub. Saturnalia : libri Septem. Paris. 1585. 8vo. 380 

(Lugdun. Batay. 1670. 8vo.) semel. 

488 Magdbburoknsbb Centurise. Yid. supr. Centuria Magde^ 

hurgenses. No. t6o. 

489 Maimonidbs ^ Moses, [Moses tbe son of Maimon.] Liber 11 70 

More Nevocbim, boc est. Doctor Perplezorum ad dubia et 
obscuriora Scripturse loca rite intelligenda : Latine translatus 
J. Buztorfii Filio. (Basil. 1639. 4to.) semel, 

490 [Majorinus, Imp. Novelle: (ad calc. Cod. Theodosian. 457 

Lugdun. 1665.) ter vel quater,'] 

491 Maldonatus, Johannes, e Soc. Jes. 1570 

I. Commentarius in Quatuor Evangelistas "^^ : cum Quatuor 
Indicibus, &c. (Mogunt. 1624. fol.) Lugdun. 1615. fol. 
his terve, 
3. Disputationum ac Controversiarum Decisarum, et circa 
Septem Ecclesiae Romanse Sacramenta, &c., Tomi Duo. 
(Lugdun. 1614. 4to.) subinde, 
493 Malbla, s. Malelas vel Malalas, Johannes, Antiocbenus. [John 601 
ofAntioch.'] Chronicon, Gr. et Lat. (Oxon. 1691. 8vo.) F 

493 Malmsburibnsis, Gulielmus, [William <(f Malmsbury.'] De 1130 

Rebus Gestis Regum Anglorum. Franoofurt. 1601. fol. (ap. 
Scriptores post Bedam. Lond. 1596. fol.) semel, 

494 Mambrtus, al. Mamercus, Claudianus, Presbyter Viennensis. 470 

De Statu Aninup^ ad Sidonium ApoUinarem libri Tres : cum 
Notis Barthii. Cygn. 1655. 8yo. (Int. Opera quae ezstant; ap. 
Gallandium, 1. 10. pp. 417, seqq.) semel, 

k Commonly called 7^ Eider, as He was at one time phy rician to Saladin 

St. MacariuB of Alexandria, a little later the Oreat. He died in 1 205. 

in the same oentnry, a famous monk m This work bears a high character; 

and friend of the former, was termed for few commentators have so happily 

The Younger, The elder Macarins explained the literal sense of the four 

was bom in 301, and died 391. He Gospels as this learned Jesuit has done« 

was a disdple of the celebrated ascetic He never allows a difficulty to pass 

St. Anthony. without examining it thoroughly. 

> The most celebrated of the Rabbins, n This treatise is directed against 

of whom the Jews have a saying/ From the errors of Faustus Rhegiensis, who 

Moses to Moses there was none like had put forth doctrines of an anthropo* 

Moses ! ' He was bom of a noble morphist character, 
family at Cordova, in Spain, anno 1 135. 

284 Index ofAuthorSy 

495 Marca, PetruB de, Archiepiac. Pftrisiensis. 1640 

i.DlssertatioDum de Concordia Sacerdotii et Imperii, seu 
De libertatibut Ecclesiae Gallicanse, Libri Octo ^, Paris. 
1663. fol. (Francofart. 1708. fol.) sape, 

2. Commentarius in cap. Clericus : ad calc. AntotnU Augustim 

de Emendatione Gratiani. Vid. supr. No. 63. (ap. t. 4. 
Oper. Bemberg. 1738-39. t.6. 4to. ad calc. Ttactat. de 
Veteribus CkiUectionibua Canonom.) ter quaterve. 

3. Dissertationes d9 Primatibus, &c. Paris. 1669. Svo. (ap. 

Part. Secund. Oper. ut supr. Francofiirt. 1708. fol.) 

4. Opera Posthnma de Institutione Patriarcbse Constantino- 

politani. Paris. 1669. Svo. (ap. Part. Secund. Oper. ut 
supr. p. 155.) F 

5. Not8e ad Concilium Claromontanum. (ibid. p. 355.) bis 

496 Mabcbllinus, Comes p. Cbronicon, cum Eusebii Cbronico : 534 

q. v. supr. No. 275. (ap. Grallandium, 1. 10. pp. 343, seqq.) bis^ 

497 Marcsllinus. Yid. supr. FaustinMs, No. 387. 

498 Marcus, Sanctus, Evangelista. 40 

I. Liturgia, ipsi ascripta^, Gr. et Lat (ap. t. a. Biblioth. Patr. 

Grssco-Latin. s. Auctar. Ducsean. Paris. 1634.) subinde, 
3. [Passio. (ap. VdUskan in Euseb. Hist. Ecdes. I.5. c. 34. 

juzt. Ed. Cantabr. 1730.) semeL 

499 Marcus, Diaconus Gasensis. Vita Sancti Porphyrii : (ap. 403 

fiaronttfffi, ad anniun 401.) Yid. supr. No. 78. Item ap. al. 
Gallandium, t. 9. p. 359. bis, 433 

500 Marshall, Nathaniel, D.D. Canon of Windsor. The Peni- 1720 

tential DiscipUne of the Primitive Church for the first four 
hundred years after Christ, together with its Declension from 
the fifth century downwards to its present State impartially 
represented. By a Presbyter of the Church of England. 
(Lond. 1 714. 8vo.)' 

501 Matbrnus. Yid. supr. Ftrmicus, No. 397. 

503 Martialis, Poeta. Epigram. 6. De Spectaculis. (ap. t. 3. 
Corp. Poet. Latin. Lond. 17 13.) semel. 

o Be Marca was a man of great 1854. col. 1959. 

talent and profound learning, but of 4 First published at Paris in 1583. 

varying principles according to his in- It carries with it many internal eri- 

terest. He wrote this work in defence denoes of an era long after the time of 

of the liberties of the Church of France the Apostles. See Cave, Hist. Liter, 

at the instance of Cardinal Richelieu. BasiL 1741. 1. 1. p. 34. 

P Count of lUyricum under the Em« ^ Published anonymously as above, 

peror Justinian. His Chronicle is a but erroneously atl^buted to Bishop 

continuation of Jerome's, beginning Pearson in my Ancestor's original In- 

A.D. 379, and ending 534. See Dar- dez Auctorum. 
ling^s Cydopsed. Bibliograph. Lond. 

alphabetically arranged, 985 

503 [Martianus, Imp. Novelke: (ad calc. Cod. Theodosian. 450 

Lugdnn. 1665.) bis J] 

504 Mabtinus, Bncarensis *, [Martin of Braga in Spain.] Col- 560 

lectio Canonum. (Vid. post Condi. Bracar. 3. ap. Labb. al. 

Condi, t. 5.) Item ap. Justell. Biblioth. Jur. Canon, append. 570 
t. I. tubmde, 

505 Mabtinus^ Polonua, Ord. Prsedicat. Archiepisc. Gneanends. 1277 

Chronicon. (Col. Agripp. 1616. fol.) semeL 

506 Martyr, Petrus t. Lod Communes ex variis ipsius Auctoris 1550 

scriptis. (Genev. 1634. fol.) tubmde, 

507 Martyrolooium Romanum ; cum Notis Baronii. Colon. 

1616. 4to. Item, Ad Novi Kalendarii Rationem et Eccle- 
masticse Historis Veriffeitem restitutum : Gregorii XIII. jussu 
editum. Antwerp. 1608. Svo. (Paris. 1607. fol.) semel, 

508 Mabius, Andreas ". Commentarius [dve Annotationes] in 1556 

Josbua. (Antwerp. 1574. fol.) semel. 

509 Mason, Francis, B.D. Ozon. Arcbdeacon of Norfolk and 1619 

Cbaplain to King James I. 

1. Of tbe Consecration of tbe Bisbops of tbe Cburcb of 

England, witb tbeir Succession, &c. (Lond. 1630. fol.*) 
semel vel his, 

2. Ecdesiae Anglicanse Vindiciae : siye, De Legitimo'ejusdem 

Ministerio, id est, De Episcoporum Successione, Con- 
secratione, Ekctione, et Comfinnatione : item de Presby- 
terorum et Diaconorum Ordinatione: libri Quinque. 
Lond. 1625. fol. (Ed. Secund. priore AngUcana longe 
auctior et emendatior. Lond. 1638. fol.) semel vel bis. 

3. A Defence of tbe Ordination of Ministers in tbe Reformed 

Cburcbes. (Oxford, 1641. fol.) F 

510 Maurice, Henry, D.D. Cbaplain to tbe Archbp. of Canter- 1688 


* Sometiinefl termed Dumiensisy from > This ia tbe original work in English, 

having been abbot of Dnmes before he which my Ancestor dtes in his Index 

became bishop of Braga. Auctomm, but which is now little 

t He was bom at Florence in 1500. known; having been superseded by the 
Originally an Augustine monk, but, em- same work under the Author's hand in 
bracing the prindples of the Reforma- Latin, much enlarged and improved, 
txon, he eventually was invited to Eng- and entitled VindicuB Eeeleri^ Angli' 
land, and became Professor of Divinity carta, ^r. Ijmd. 1625. foL To the first 
at Oxford, 1549, and Ouion of Christ edition in English the Author himself 
Church next year. Retiring from Eng- alludes by that expression in the title- 
land on the accession of Queen Mary, page of the Latin, priore AngUcana 
he occupied the Divinity Chair at Zu- longe atictior et emendatior. The date 
rich till his death in 1563. between the lunar brackets, Lond. 1658, 

a He was bom at Brussela in 1516, indicates the reprint of the Latin work ; 

and eventually became Counsellor to which in 1738 was retranslated into 

William Duke of Cleves, being one of English and further enlarged by a Mr. 

the best scholars of the century, par- John Lindsay, 
ticularly in the Oriental languages. 

£86 Index of Authors, 

1. A Defence of Diocesan Episcopacy, in answer to a Book 

by Mr. David Clarkson, lately published, entituled Primi- 
tive Episcopacy. (Lond. 1700. 8vo. sec. ed.) sape. 

2. A Vindication of the Primitive Church against Mr. Bax- 

ter's Church History. (Lond. i68a. 8vo.) his, 

511 Maximiliani Passio: (ad calc. Lactantii de Mortibus Per- 195 

secutorum.) Vld. supr. hactantiw, No. 443. semeL 

512 Maximus, Monachus. Scholia in Opera Dionysii Areopagitse: 645 

Gr. et Lat. Paris. 1644. Antwerp. 1634. (Venet. 1755. 2 torn, 
fol.) bis, 

513 Maxim us, Taurinensis. Homilis; cum Operibus Leonis et 423 

Fulgentii. Lugdun. 1652. fol. (ap. t. 6. Biblioth. Max. Lug- 
dun. 1677.) subinde, 
I . De Epiphania, Hom. 4. 

3. De Poenitentia Petri, Hom. 3. 

3. De Natali Petri et Pauli, Hom. 5. 

4. De Diversis : primo, De Expoeitione Symboli. 

514 Mbdk, Joseph, B.D. [The pious and profoundly learned.] 1625 

Works. (Lond. 1677. fol.) Also, 1664. 2 vol. fol.T 

In Book II. 

1. The Christian Sacrifice : in Nine Chapters on Mai. i, 11. 


2. Discourses and Treatises of Churches and the Worship of 

God therein, subinde, 

3. The Name Altar, or Qvvuurriipiov, anciently given to the 

Holy Table. [Separately, Lond. 1637. sm. 4to.] semel, 

4. On Psalm 132, v. 7. semel. 

In Book III. 

5. Commentarius in Apocal3rpsin. semel. 

In Book IV. 

6. Epistle 66. ier, 

515 Mbnardus, Hugo. INieholas Hugues.'] Mon. Benedict. Congr. 1630 

S. Maur. Notse in Sacramentarium Gregorii. Paris. 164 1-2. 
4to. (ap. part. i. t. 3. Oper. Greg. M. Paris. 1705. fol.) 

516 Mbndoza, Femandus, sive Ferdinandus de. Commentarius 

in Canones Concilii Eliberitani, al. Illiberritani. (ap. Labb. 
Concil. 1. 1.) In canones 36 et 39. bis. 

y This is the second edition of the considered to be an improvement upon 

original, to which many additions were the copy of 1664. The arrangement of 

made from the Authoi^s manuBcriptB tome of the pieces is a little different, 

by Dr. Worthington. The edition of See Darling^s Cydopnd. Bibliograph. 

1677 is a reprint of 1673, which is Lond. 1854. col. 2028. 

alphabetically arranged. 287 

517 Mkrcator, Marius. Opera; cum Notis Garaeru. Paris. 1673. 418 

fol. Item, cum Notn Baluzii. Paris. 1684. 8vo. Item, ap. 
Gallandium, t. 8. p. 613. (Hypognostica ^ : inter Oper. Augus- 
tini. Ed. Bened. ut supr. 1. 10. Append, part.i. p. 40.) semel. 

518 MsRCURiALis, Hieronymus, M.D. De Arte Gymnastica libri 1555 

Sex. (Amstel. 1672. 4to.*) semeL 

519 Mbursius, Johannes. Glossariiun Grseco-Barbarum. (Lug- 1635 

dun. 1614. 4to.) Item ap. t. 4. p. 133. Operum, Florentise, 
1 741. 12 tom. fol. semel, 

520 MiGROLOGUS^. De Observationibus Ecclesiasticis : ap. 1. 10. xo8o 

Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. 1. 18. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 
1677. j bis, 

521 [MiLLETOT, Benignus. De Legitima Judicum Ssecularium Po- 

testate in Personas Ecclesiasticas. (ap. Goldasti Monarchiam, 
t. 3. Francofurt. 16 13. fol. ^) semel."] 

522 M1LLIU8. [John MUles, or, more correctly, MiU, D.D.] Pro- 1681 

legomena in Novum Testamentum Gr»cum<^. Oxon. 1707. ? 
(Ldpsise, 1723. repetit. Amstel. 1746. fol.) semel vel bis. 

523 M1NUGIU8 Felix. Octavius : cum Notis Rigaltii. Oxon. 1678. 220 

8vo. (Ex iterata recensione Johannis Davisii, &c. Cantabr. 
Typ. Academ. 171 2. 8vo.) Ap. Gallandium, t. 2. stepe. 

524 MissA, sive Liturgia, Mosarabum. Tolet. 1500. In Nativitate 

Christi. [al. in Natali Domini.] (ap. MabiUoniwn, ubi supr.) 
semel. (ap. Bonam, Rer. Ldturg. 1. 1. c. 13. n.5.) Vid. supr. 
No. no. semel. 

525 Missals Gothicum. Rome, 1680. (ap.ilfa^22oiitiim,DeLiturg. 

Gallican. Par. 1685. 4to.) Vid. supr. No. 485. semel. 

526 Missals Romanum. Antwerp. 1584. 4to. t Ck>lon. 1644. fol. 

(Paris. 1739. 8vo.) subinde. 

527 Montagu [Montacutius], Richard, D.D. Bishop of Norwich. • 

Diatribie on the first part of the late History of Tithes. [By 1638 
Mr. Selden.] (Lond. 1621. 4to) semel. 

z See Antiquities, b. 10. ch. 2. s. 24. legiato : vel, De Legitima Judicam 8k- 

V. 3. p. 491. * And the Author of the cularium Potestste in Personas Eode- 

Hypognostics under the name of St. siasticas. Per Benignum Milletotum. 

Austin, supposed by learned men to [sine loco.] 1612. fol. See Notes and 

be either Marius Mercator^ or Sixtus, Queries, Oct. 2, 1852. y. 6. p. 327. 
bishop of Rome, &c.' d Of this edition of the N. T. Gr. 

a First published at Venice in 1569, Michaelis remarked, 'that the infancy 

4to. of criticdsm ends with the edition of 

b It is not known who or what he Gregory, and the age of manhood com- 

was. Cave thinks he must have written mences with that of Mill.* It is a most 

his book after the death of Gregory able and magnificent work, and ranks 

VII. in 1085. See, as before, ▼. 2. next to that of Wetstein in importance 

p. 155. and utility. 

c Milletot's work is rarely to be met e A strong advocate of Arminian 

with. There is, however, a copy of it in doctrine. Educated at Eton and King's 

the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, College, Cambridge. Fellow of Eton in 

under this title, as follows: Tractatus 1613. Archdeacon of Hereford in 161 7. 

de Delicto Communi et Casu Privi- Canon of Windsor in 1620. Bishop of 

288 Index of Authors, 

538 MoRiNUS ', Johannes. 1640 

1. Commentarius de Sacris Eoclesise Ordinationibus, secun* 

dum Antiquos et Recentiores Latinos, Gnecos, Sjrros, et 
Babylonios. Paris. 1655. fol. (Antwerp. 1695. fol.) s^Bpe. 

2. Commentarius Historicus de Disciplina in Administratione 

Sacramenti Poenitentise tredecim primis Saeculis in Ecde- 
sia Occidentali et hue usque in Orientali observata : &c. 
Ad libri coronidem complures Libelli Poenitentiales, &c., 
Gr. Lat. Hebr. nunc primum in lucem prodeunt. (Ant- 
werp. 1682. fol.) subinde. 

539 Morn jsus f, Philippus. Mysterium Iniquitatis, sive Historia 1577 

Papatus, &c. Salmur. 161 3. 8vo. (Antea, 161 1. fol.) semel, 

530 Morton, Thomas, D.D. Bishop of Durham. 1633 

I. The Grand Imposture of the Church of Rome. (Lond. 
1638. 4to.) semeL 

3. A Cathohc Appeal for Protestants out of the Confessions 

of the Roman Doctors. (Lond. 1610. fol.) semeL 
3. Apologise Catholicae de Notis Ecclesis : Pars Prima. 
(Lond. 1605. 8vo.) F 

• Pars Secunda. (Lond. 1606. 4to.) semel, 

531 M08CHU8 \ Johannes. Pratum Spirituale : (ap. t. 3. Biblioth. 630 

Patr. Gr. et Lat. sive Auctar. Ducsean. Paris. 1634.) Item ap. 
t. 7. Biblioth. Patr. Edit. Secund. per De la Bigne: Paris. 
1589. t. 9. fol. Item ap. Cotderii Monumenta, t. 3. pp. 341, 
seqq. sitpe. 
533 Moulin* [Molinseus], Peter Du, D.D. 1630 

Chichester in 1628. Translated to Nor- that time in the suite of his master at 

wich in 1638. Died in 164 1. He as- Paris. In 1600 he maintained a public 

sisted Sir Henry Savil in his edition of discussion against Du Perron, then 

Chrysostome in 1613, and he himself bishop of Evreuz, on the principal 

edited Gregory Nazian2en's in Julia' differences between Protestants and 

num Invectii'a Dua, as well as the Romanists. He died in 1623. 
Epistles of Photius and the Demon- ^ Al. Eriratus. He was an eminent 

ttratio Evangetiea of Eusebius. Monk of the seventh century. He 

f He was originally a Protestant, but visited all the chief monastic establish- 

entered the Oratory in 161 8, and even* ments of the East. His Pratum Spi- 

tually became celebrated for his pro- rituale contains the result of his r^ 

found erudition and most intimate ac- marks and observations. Bellarmine 

quaintanoe with the Fathers and Coun- calls it liber magna ex parte utiiis, 

cils. He was consulted by Pope Urban and commends it as cited by the Seventh 

VIIL on his favourite project of an General Council. De Scriptor. Ecdes. 

union between the Western and Eastern Colon. 1684. p. 137. 
Churches; and reasonably so, as the 1 He was one of the boldest and 

characteristics of his works (Ustinctly most uncompromising opponents of the 

evince. Church of Rome. He studied originally 

S Philip de Momay, Lord of Plessis at Sedan and afterwards at Cambridge, 

Marley. A Protestant statesman, and and became successively Professor of 

one of the best friends and most faith- Philosophy at Leyden in 1592, Pastor 

ful advisers of Henry of Navarre, the of the Church at Charenton, near Paris, 

Fourth of France. He had a narrow in 1599, "^^ Professor of Divinity at 

escape on St. Bartholomew's day, when Sedan, where he died in 1658. He 

comparatively a young man, being at was a great favourite of King James I. 

alphabetically arranged. S89 

1. The Novelty of Popery i against Perron, &c. Lond. 1644. 

fol. (Lond. 1662. fol.) iMnde, 

2. The Buckler of Faith ; or, A Defence of the Confession of 

Faith of the Reformed Churchea in France, against Mr. 
Amonz, the Jesuit: wherein all the Principal Contro- 
versies between the Reformed Churches and the Church 
of Rome are decided. Written in French and translated. 
(Third Ed. Ixmd. 1631. 4to.) ntbmde. 

3. Vates; sen, De Prsecognitione fhturomm et de bonis ma- 

lisque Prophetis libri Quinque: in quibus ezplicantur 
diffidliores nonnullse Veteris et Novi Testamenti Prophe- 
tise. (Lugdun. Batav. 1640. 8vo.) Item« Gorinchem. 
1672. 8vo. hii tense, 

533 MoYNB, s. Moine, Stephen Le. Varia Sacra, sive Sylloge Va- 1664 

riorum Opusculorum Grecorum ad Rem Ecclesiasticam spec- 
tantium: Gr. et Lat. : Notis et Obsenrationibus iUustrata. 
(Lugdun. Batav. 1685. 2 torn. 4to.) Item, 1694. semel, 

534 MuLLBRus, Petrus. De Osculo Sancto. (Jense, 1675. 4to.) 


535 [MusAUB Presbyter Massiliensis. Lectionarium. See Anti- 450 

quities, b. 14. ch. i. s. 4. See also Du Pin's Bibliodi. Eocles. 
cent. 5. Paris. 1683. t. 4. p. 223. eemeh'] 

536 [MuscuLus, Wolfgang. AuctoresVeterisHistoriseEcclesiasticse 1550 

Latins tantum^. (Basil. 1549. fol. Item cum Scholiis Grse- 
neei, Basil. 1570. fol.) Item, Basil. 161 1. fol. See Antiqui- 
ties, b. 8. ch. 7. s. 13. V. 3. p. 136. n. 14. semel vel his.'] 


537 Nan Gi AGO, Gulielmus de, IWilliam ofNangisKI Vita Sancti 1301 

Ludovici: (ap. Bonam, Rer. Liturg. 1. i. c. 15.) Vid. supr. 
No. no. semel. 

538 [Naogborg us, s. Kirchmaer°^, Thomas. De Regno Ponti- 1551 

fido : (ap. Hospinianum, de Festis Christianis.) See Antiqui- 
ties, b. 20. ch. 6. s. 5. V. 7. p. 337. n. 38. semel,"] 

Grotios was among his pupils. For a siastical Historians was first done by 
list ofhis numerous works, see Aymon's Robert Stephsnus, and published in 
Synodes de France, v. 7. p. 273. His folio, Basii. 1539, per H, Frobenium 
son, also named Peter, removed from et N. Episcopium, Stephanus after- 
France to England in the early part of wards edited the same in Greek only 
the seventeenth century, and became at Paris, I544> fol. Musculus brought 
Canon of Christ Churdi, Canterbury, out a new Latin version, based upon 
where he died in 1684. that of Stephanus, at Basle in 1549, 

J Originally written in French, and which was reprinted there in 1558. foL, 

entitled, Nouveaut^ du Papisme, op- employing for Theodoret the earlier 

pos^ k TAntiquit^ du Christianisme. translation by Camerarius. See before, 

Sedan, 1627. fol. The English transla- ChrUiophortonj No. 164. 

tion, as above, was the work of his son, ^ A Benedictine monk of the abbey 

when resident at Canterbury. of St. Denys. 

k This Latin Version of the Eccle- °^ He was a Protestant divine of 


290 Index of Awthors, 

539 Navarrus, [Martin Azpilcueta^.'] Miscellanea. De Oratione, 1540 

inter Opera. Venet. 1602. 6 torn. fol. (Lugdun. 1597. 3 torn, 
fol.) semel. 

540 Nazianzbnus. Vid. BUpr. Gregoruu Nat. No. 346. 

541 N1CBPHORU8, Patriarcha Constandnop. Antirrhetica. Ap. t.a. 806 

Combefisii Auctar. Not. Paris. 1648. fol. q. v. ? (ap. Constit. 
Apost. 1. 5. c. 15. Vid. Cyoteler. t. i. p. 319. n. 47. Ed. Ant- 
werp. 1698.) See Antiquities, b. ao. ch. 3. s. 5. v. 7. p. 373, 
and p. 274. n. 3. temeL 

542 NiCBPHORUS, Calistus, s. Callistus. Historise EcdesiuBticse 1333 

Libri Octodecim, Gr. et Lat. in duos tomos distincti, ac GiBece 
nunc primum editi. Adjecta est Latina Interpretatio Johannis 
Langi, a R. P. Frontone I>uc»o» Soc. Jes. Theolog. &c. (Paris. 
1630. 2 torn, fol.) SiBpe, 

543 NiCBTA8> Choniates, [al. Achominates.] Thesaurus Ortho- 120 

doxse Fidei^. (Genev. 1592. 8vo.) semeL 

544 NicBTAS, David, Paphago. Vita Ignatii Patriarchs Cpolitani. 880 

i.(Ap. Baronttim, ad annum 869. n. 47. 1. 10. p. 416. Ed. 

Antwerp. 1612-29.) semeL 
2. (Ap. Ldbb, Cyoncil. t. 8. p. 1200.) setnel. 

545 NiCETAS, Heracliensis. Responsa. (ap. I/«ttfic/aoitim, BibUoth. 1077 

Jur. Canon. 1. 1. p. 310. sefnel. 

546 NiCBTius, Trevirensis. Auctor Hymni, cui titulus Te Bewn. 535 

(Stillingfleet's Origines Britannicae, ch. 4.) See Antiquities, 
b. 14. ch. 2. 8. 9. v. 5. p. 45. n. 79. semel. 

547 NicoLAUS I. Papa. 858 

1. Responsa et Consulta Bulgarorum. (ap. Labh, Concil. 

t. 8.) bit. 

2. EpistolsB. (ap. Baronttftn, ad annum 967. ut supr.) eemel. 

548 NiLUS Doxopatrius. Notitia Patriarchatuum : (ap. Le Jfoyne, 1048 

Var. Sacr. 1. 1.) Vid. supr. No. 533. semel, 

549 Notitia Africe. Ap. Sirmondi Miscellanea, (ap. 1. 1. Oper. 

Paris. 1696.) semel. 

550 Notitia Ecclesiae. Vid. supr. Leo Sapiens, No. 458. 

551 Notitia Imperii. Vid. infr. PanciroUus, No. 576. 

Bavaria, and acquired some celebrity cess, where he afterwards died in 1586. 

for his satiricsl verses in Latin against He was greatiy esteemed by his oon- 

several customs of Romanism. temporaries Popes Pius V. and Gre- 

n Bom near Funpeluna, in Navarre, gory XIII. 

in T491. Became a great proficient in o Only five out of twenty-seven books 

the Canon Law, of which he was and a fragment of the twentieth book 

teacher at Salamanca for many years, of this work are exstant. His Historia 

He was afterwards appointed by John and Chronographia and Narratio de 

III. of Portugal to the Iiaw-Chair at Statuis are to be found in the loth, 

his newly founded University of Coim- 5tb, and 22nd volimies of the Byzan- 

bra. In his eightieth year he pleaded tine Historians respectively. See Dar- 

the cause of Bartholomew de Caranza, ling's Cyclopaed. Bibliograph. Lond. 

Archbishop of* Toledo, before the In- 1854. 
quisition at Rome, though without sue- 

alphabetically arranged. 291 

552 NovATiANUB, sive Novatus, Rom. Eccles. Presb. De TriDitate 252 

Ldber. Ad calc. TertuUiani, cum Notis Pamelii. Paris. 1653. 
fol. (ap. Oallandium, t. 3. p. 287.) Inter Opera Omnia, cum 
Notis E. Welchman. Ozon. 1724. 8vo. subinde. 

553 Nyssbnus. Vid. supr. Gregoriut Nyss, No. 347. 


5^ Odd, Parisiensis. Statnta Synodalia. Ap. t. 6. Biblioth. Patr. 11 75 
Paris. 1654. (ap. Bonam, Rer. Liturg. L 2. c. 19. n. 2.) Vid. 
supr. No. no. bis. 

555 [Odo Camaracenais : (ap.Boiiam, Rer. litorg. L i. c. 13. n. 2.) 1105 

Vid. supr. No. no. semel,'] 

556 (EcuM BNIU8. Opera Gommentaria in hosce Nov. Test. Tracta- 990 

tus: in Acta Apostolorum^ in omnes Pauli Epistolas, in 
Epistolas Catholicas omnes. Accesserunt Aredue Ccesar. 
Cappadoc. Episc. Ezplanationes in Apocalypsin. Opus nunc 
primum Gr. et Lat. editum, &c. Interprete Joan. Hentenio, 
emendatore &c. Fred. Morello^ &c. (Paris. 1630-31. 2 tom. 

1. In I Cor. II. (ap. Bonam, Rer. Liturg. 1. i. c. i. n. 4. 

p. 175.) semel. 

2. In Ep. I. Petri, c. 3. (ap. Oper. ut supr. t. 2.) semeL 

557 Olympii Acta. (ap. Baronium, ad annum 259. Vid. supr. 

No. 78. 9emel. 

558 Onuphrius, sive Panvinus, Veronensis. 1550 

1. De Ritu Sepeliendi apud Christianos et eorundem Cceme- 

teriis. Colon. 1574. fol. fAntea, 1568. fol. (Francofurt. 
et lips. 1 71 7. 4to.) bis. 

2. Interpretationes Vocum Ecdesiasticarum. Ibid, ad calc. 

(ad calc. Platiiue: Colon. Agripp. 1626. 4to.) bis. 

3. Vit8B Pontificum : ad calc. Platinse, ut supr. [Annotatio ad 

Platinae Vitam Gelasii I. (ap. Platinse Histor. cum Onu- 
phrii Continuations et Opusculis. Lovanii, 1572. fol. Vid. 
infr. FlaHna, No. 612. semelJ] 

4. [De Ecdesiis Urbis Romanae. (Romee, i57o* 8vo.) semel.'] 

559 Oftatus, Afer, Milevitanus Episcopus. Opera : cum Notis 368 

Gabr. Albaspinsei. Paris. 1631. fol. (Itidem, i^79* ^o^O [B<^< 
Opt., S. Optati Afr. M. E. De Schismate Donatistarum Libri 
Septem, ad MSS. Codd. et Vett. Edd. collati, &c. : oper. 
et stud. Ludovic. Ell. Du Pin; cum ejusdem Notis, ut et 
G. Albaspinaei, et aliorum, &c. Paris. 1700. fol. Itidem Ant- 
werp, seu potius Amstel. 1*102.^ fol.] s^epius. 

o So stated by Walch ; who, finding the foot of each page. See Biblioth. 

hvlt with the Paris edition of 1631, Patrist. ch. 2. s. 16. Jens, 1834. pp. 

speaks highly of this edition of 1703, I44f i45- Mr. Darling, however, in 

and prefers it, as having the notes of his Cydopaedia Bibliographica, Lond. 

Anboipine and Casaubon and others at 1854, gives the date as at Paris^ 1704. 

n 2 

292 Index of Authors, 

$60 Ordo Romanus. De Divinis Ecdesise Catholicse Officiis. 730 
Ap. 1. 10. Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. 1. 13. Biblioth. Max. 
Lugdun. 1677 P.) sepe, 
561 Obiobnbs, Adamantiufl. 330 

I. Opera, Latine, Basil. 157 1. 9 torn. fol. Itidem, t Paris. 

1604. a torn. fol. submde. 
a. Contra Celsum, Gr. et Lat. Cantabr. 1677. 4to. neputf. 

3. Philocalia: ad calc. Labr. c. Celsum, ut supra, nbmde, 

4. De Oratione, al. UtpX Bvjfis, Gr. et Lat. Ozon. 8yo. ««pe. 

5. Opera Commentaria, sive Ezegetica, Gr. et Lat. per Hue- 

tium. Rothomag. 1668. atom. fol. Itidem, t Colon. 1685. 
2 torn. fol. 8<Bpissime. 
[Opera Omnia, quae Grseoe vel Latine tantum ezstant, et 
ejus nomine circumfenintur, ex variis Editionibus et 
Codicibus manu ezaratis, Gallicanis, Vaticanis, &c., col- 
lecta, &c., Latine versa atque Annotationibus illustrata; 
cum copiosis Indidbus, Vita Auctoris, &o. Op. et stud. 
Dom. Car. Delarue, Presb. et Mon. Benedict. &c. (Paris. 
1733-59- 4 tom. fol. <i) 

Tom. L 
I. De Principiis, al. Ilepl ^Apx&if, 
a. De Oratione, al. Ilepl Ev^^r. 

3. Libri contra Celsum. 

Tom. IL 

4. Commentaria in — 

I. Exod. Homm. 7, 13. 

a. Levit. Homm. i, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 15. 

3. Num. Homm. 2, 10, 11. 

4. Josh. Hom. 10, ai. 

5. Job. Libb. I, 3. 

6. Psalm. 36. Hom. 3. 

7. Psalm. 37. Hom. a. 

Tom. in. 

5. Commentaria in, — 

8. Cant. Hom. a. 

9. Isai. Homm. 3, 6. 

10. Jerem. Hom. 11. 

11. Ezek. Homm. 3, 5. 

I a. Matth. cap. 15. Tractatt. 6, 7, 12, 26, 35. 
13. Luc. Homm. 6, 13, 14, 15, 17, 36. 

Perhaps the book appeared in that year 4 Ad banc editionem recnaa sunt 

simultaneously at Antwerp, Amster- Grig. Opp. cura Fr. Gberthnr. Wiroeb. 

dam, and Paris. 1780-94. 15 vol. 8to., et denuo reoen- 

P Item ap. Mabillonii Musseum Ita- sita, &c. a G. H.Lommats. Berol. 1831. 

licum, t. 3. Hittorpium, t. 7, Murato- seqq. Vid. Walch, B. P. c. s. s. 15. 

rii liturgiam, t. 2. p. 973. See Darling's at supr. p. 1 31 . 
Cyclops&d. Bibliograph. Lond. 1854. 

alphabetically arranged, 293 

Tom. IV. 
6. Gommentaria in, — 

14. Johannem, tomm. 6, 33. 

15. Ep. ad Rom. cc. i, 6, 10, la.] 

Ap. t. a. Operam Latine. Basil, et Paria. ut supra, (juzt. Ed. 
Ascensian. 1523. 4 torn. fol. in vol. 3.) submde. 
I. In Divers. Homm. 3, 5, 8. 

3. Dialog. I. contra Marcionistas. (ap. Ed. Bened. ut 
supr. t. 1. pp. 803, seqq. sub tit. De Recta in Deum 
3. Utp\ Evx^£. (ap. 1. 1. Ed. Bened. ut supr.) 
[Seorsim. Philocalia de obscuiis S. ScripturaB lods a SS. 
PP. Basilio Magno et Gregorio Theologo ex variis Ori- 
genis Commentariis ezcerpta, et celebres Opiniones de 
Animay Sec, Gr. et Lat. cum Notis Tarini, &c. (Paris. 
1 6 19. 4to.) Sive, juzt. Walcb. Bibliotb. Patiist. Paris. 
1618. 4to. semel,'] 
56a Orgs I us, Paulus. Histoiia Ecdesiastica. Colon. 1588. 8vo. 416 
Item ap. t. 6. Bibliotb. Max. Lugdun. 1677. (ap. Qalkmdiwn, 
t. 9. pp. 63, seqq.) ter quateroe, 

563 [OsiANDBR, Lucas. In Quartum Canonem Goncilii Neocsesa- 1680 

riensis: ap. CoUectionem Canonum. fWittebergse, 1614. (ap. 
Epitomen Hist. Ecdes. Centur. 15. [ex Historia Magdebur- 
gica.] Tubings, 1607. 3 torn. 4to.) bis, 

564 OsTBRVALD, Johu Fred. The Causes of the Corruption of 1700 

Christians and the Remedies thereof. (Lond. 1703. 8vo.O bis. 

565 Otho >, Johannes Henricus. Lexicon Rabbinicum Philologi- 1655 

cum. (Genev. 1675. 8vo.) ter, 

566 Otho, s. Otto, Frisingensis Episcopus. Chronicon. (Basil. 1144 

1569. fol.) Item, t Francoiurt. 1670. fol. subinde. 


567 Pachomii Acta : (ap. Ptqfebrochium, die Mail 14. t. 3. p. 336.) 318 

Vid. infr. No. 581. semel, 

568 Pachomius, Tabennensis, s. Tabbenensis, Abbas ^ Regula 340 

Monachorum : ap. 1. 15. Bibliotb. Patr. Paris. 1654. Item 
ap. t.4. Bibliotb. Max. Lugdun. 1677. (ap. GaUandium, t. 4. 
PP- 7i5» aeqq.) bis. 

569 Pachymbrbs, Georgius. Paraphrasis in Dionysium Areopa- 1380 

gitam: ap. t. 1. Oper. Dionys. Paris. 1664. vel t Antwerp. 
1634. fol. (ap. 1 1. Ed. Venet. 1755.) semel vel bis, 

r This isMr. Mutel's translation of in 165 1, of Hebrew in 1655, and of 

the original French. Lond. 1700. 8yo. Ecclesiastical History in 1668. 

(Amsterdam, 1 709. 2 vol. 8vo.) Also ^ The founder of the monastery of 

A la Haye, 1731. Tabenna, or Tabbena, in Thebais, on 

B Ott. He was a learned Swiss di- the banks of the Nile, where he had 

vine. Professor of Eloquence at Zurich five thousand monks under his care. 

294 Index of Authors, 

570 Pacianus, S. BarcilonensiB Episcopus. 370 

1. EpistoUe ad Sempronianum contra Novatianos de Catho- 

lico Nomine, &c. : ap. t. 3. Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. ap. 
t. 4. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. (ap. Gallandium, t. 7. 
pp. 257, seqq.) tubinde, 
Epp. I, 2, 3. 

2. Sermo de Baptismate. (ibid.) bit. 

3. Paraeneais ad Pcenitentiam. temel. 

571 Paoiub, Antonius. Critica in Baronii Anoalea. Paris. 1689. 1665 

4 torn. fol. (Antwerp. 1705. 4 torn, fol.) Item, Colon. 
Allobrog. 1705. 4 torn. foL° stepimme. 

572 Palladius, Helenopolitanus Episcopus. 401 

1. Historia Lausiaca ; sire, De SS. Patrum Vitis ad Lausum, al. 

Cubiculi Prspfectum, &c. < (ap. t. 2. Biblioth. Patr. sive 409 
Auctar. Ducsean. Paris. 1624.) Seorsim, just. Ed. 
Meursii. (Lugdun. Batav. 1616. 4to.7) Item ap. t. 8. 
Oper. Meursii, Florent. 1741. 12 tom. fol. ««ptttf. 

2. Vita Chrysostomi : ap. t. 2. Oper. Chrysost. juxt. Ed. 

Ducsean. fSeorsim, Paris. 1680. 4to. (ap. 1. 13. Oper. 
Chrysost. juxt. Ed. Bened. ut supr. No. 167.) Item, ap. 
Gallandium, t. 8. pp. 259, seqq. S4gpe, 

3. De Gentibus Indise^. (Lond. 1665. fol.) semel. 

573 Palud AN us, [sive Petrus de Palude.] Commentarius in Libnim 1330 

si^e Scriptum Sententiarum Quartum. Sine loco et anno*. 

574 Pamelius^, Jacobus, Episcopus Audamaropolitanus. 1570 

I. Liturgica Latinorum. Colon. 157 1. 2 vol. 4to. ^ ? iemel, 

o And page for page the same. The which I hayc met is at the Bodleian ; 

edition appears to have been brought and, wanting as it does both title-page 

out in both places at the same time, and colophon, I cannot ascertain the 

the title-pages being dated accordingly, place where and the date when it waa 

This justifies a remark I have pre- printed. Being in black letter and 

yiously made on simultaneous editions with abbreriations it is evidently very 

of Optatus at Antwerp, Amsterdam, old, and corresponding as it exactly does 

and Paris. See note o, preceding. with a perfect copy of the Commen- 

< Una cum variorum vitis Singulari* tary in Scriptum Sententiarum Ter^ 

bus, interque hos 8. Mardni, de ciqus tium^ which is dated PttrhisitM 15 17, tm- 

vita Sulpicius Sevems Itbrum reliquit, pemia Claudii Ckevallon^ I apprehend 

ac quam Paulinus Petricorius omissis that the copy of the Scriptum Quar^ 

quibusdam, ligata oratione, minus au- film is by the same printer and about 

tem eleganter expressit. Vid. Walch. the same date, prol»bly before 1540. 

Biblioth. Patrist. c. 7. s. 71. Jens, See Antiquities, b. 5. ch. 4. s. 15. v. 5. 

1834. pp. 438, 419. p. 396. n. 96. 

y This is rather a difficult book to h Bom at Bruges in 1536, and edu- 
meet with: I have had recourse to it cated at Louvain. Eventually he be- 
in one instance, where Meursius reads came Bishop of Sl Omer, where he 
yoyU instead of 7paGf, which somewhat died in 1587. His lAturgica is a 
affects the argument. See Antiquities, scarce book : but some copies of it 
b. 7. ch.4. s. 8. V. i. p. 408. n. 37. were issued in 16x0 under the title of 

X Cited by Pearson, Vindic. Igna- Miasale SS. Pafrum Latinorum. 

,tian. part. I. c. 11. See Antiquities, c See Antiquities, b. 15. ch. i. s. 2. 

b. 9 ch. a. s. 20. V. 3. p. 209. n. 3s. v. 5. p. iio. n. 13., where my learned 

• The only copy of this book with Ancestor erroneously alludes to a third 

alphabetically arranged, 295 

a. Notae in Cyprianum : juzt. Ed. Antwerp. 1568. fol. (ap. 

Fell, Oper. Cyprian. Ozon. 1682.) semeL 
3. Notse in Tertullianum. (juzt. Ed. Mercer., Colon. Agripp. 

161 7. fol.) 

575 Pamphilus ^, S. Presbyter et Martyr. Apologia pro Origene. 303 

I. Ap. Phoiii Bibliotb. cod. 118. Vid. infr. No. 607. semel. 
a. Int. Oper. Origen. Latine, Basil. 157 1. 2 torn. fol. (ap. 
CraUandium, t. 4. p. 8.) semel. 

576 Pancirollus, 8. Pancirolus, Gaido [Crtiy]. Commentarius in 1554 

Notitiam Dignitatum Imperii Romani Orienialis et Occiden- 
talis. Venet. 1593. fol. fGenev- 1633. foL (Lugdun. 1608. 
fol.) bis» 

577 Pandbcta Canonum. Vid supr. Beveridge, No. 94. 

578 PANDBCTiB sive Digesta in Corpore Juris Civilis. Vid. supr. 

JusHnianus, No. 433. 

579 Panormitanus. Vid. infr. Tudeschis, No. 774. 

580 Panvinus. Vid. supr. Onuphrius, No. 558. 

581 Papbbrochiub, Daniel. 1670 

1. Conatus Cbronico-HiBtoricus ad Catalogum Pontificum 

Romanonim. (Antwerp. 1685. fol.) bis. 

2. Acta Sanctorum Maii. Antwerp. 1680. 5 tom. fol. (Venet. 

1738-9. t. 6. fol.) subinde. Vide etiam supra, BoUandus, 
No. 109. 

582 [Pappus. Synodicon Graecum ab eo editum. Argentinse, 162 1. 

4to. (ap. Labb. Concil. 1. 1.) semel,"] 

583 Parbus^ s. Parseus, David. Notae ad Symbolum Athanasii : 1592 

ad calc. Catecbismi Ursini. Hanov. 1651. 8vo.« (Seorsim, 
Heidelberg. 1619. 4to.) semel. 

584 Paris, Mattbew. Historia Rerum Anglicanarum': (Paris. 1240 

1644. fol.) semel. 

volume of Pamelius'B Liturgies, dtiDg « I have not been suocessful in meet- 
Cardinal Bona, who was referring, not ing with a copy of this book, which my 
to Bamelins, but to the Anonymous Ancestor does not specify afterwards 
Work of Vanderhaer, entitled iMurgim under the name of Ursinus its author. 
earum AntiquUatum Arcana^ 8fc, See The work, however, under the title of 
afterwards, No. 787. Catechetis Minor sive Brevior is found 
^ The intimate friend and patron of at p. 34, of vol. i. of the Whole Works 
Susebius the ecclesiastical historian, of Zacharias Ursinus, Heidelberg, 1612. 
who took the surname of Pamphilus 3 tom. fol. The Corpus Doctrine Or- 
in consequence. He is deservedly re- ihodox^s, sive Caieehelicarum Expli' 
garded as one of the best men at the cationum : Opus absolutum P. D. Pa- 
dose of the third, and early years of rti^^Cy opera D.Parei: Heidelbergtey 
the fourth, century, for learning, and 16 16. 8vo., and which has been oc- 
benevolence, and piety. He spent his casionally handed to me, when asking 
Ufe in acts of the most disinterested for the Catechismus Ursim cum Notts 
kindness, and not the least of his good Parei, is a different book. See under 
works was the formation at Ccesarea of Ursinus in Darling's Cydoped. Biblio- 
a library of 30,000 volumes, which he graph. liond. 1854. col. 3033. 
was in the habit of lending out to > The correct title of this book is 
religiously disposed and studious per- Hisioria M<tfor,juxta Exemplar Lon- 
sons. He suffered martyrdom in the dinense, i57i» verbatim recusa et cum 
year 309. Rogeri ff^endoveri, ffllhelmi Risham' 

296 Index ofAutJiors, 

585 Park BR, Matthew. Archbp. of Canterbury. Concio in Obi- 

tum Buceri. 
[^Concio D. Mattluti Parkeri, 8, neotogim ProfetsorU^ ibidem 
in funere Bticeri habita atque ex AngUco in Latinwn versa. 
It forms the Fourth Article of the Historia Vera de frita, 
obitu, sepultura, accutatione kmreseos, condemnatione, ex- 
hwnatione, combusHone, honor^caque tandem restittUione 
beatorwn atque doctisg. theologorum D. Martini Bwceri et 
Fault FagU, qwt intra annos XIL in Anglic regno accidit : 
^c. 1563. /o/. 53, '^990 ^ semel. 

586 [PA8CHALI8 IL Papa. Epistola Tricesima Secunda, ad Pon- mo 

tium. (ap. liabb. Concil. 1. 10.) semel.'] 

587 Patrick, Symon, D.D. Bishop of Ely. 1691 

1. A Discourse concerning Prayer ; especially of frequenting 

Daily Public Prayers. (Lond. 1705. lamo.) semel, 

2. A Treatise of Repentance, and of Fasting, especially of the 

Lent Fast. London, 1686. lamo.'^. (Oxford, 1840. lamo.) 

3. Aqua Genitalis : A Discourse concerning Baptism, [on 

Acts 16, 33.] first delivered in a Sermon at Alhallows, 
Lombard Street, Oct. 4. 1658. ^ and now a little enlarged, 
&c. (Lond. 1670. 8to.) Also, Sixth Edition, corrected. 
Lond. 1703. 8vo. semel. 

588 Patrick, John, D.D. ({Brother of Bp. Patrick, and Preacher 

at the Charter House.] Reflexions upon the Devotions of the 
Roman Church, with the Prayers, Hymns, and Lessons them- 

gniy Auihoritque Majori Minorique his most gratious privilege, and If* 

Hiitorus Chronicitque MSS. in Bi- censed according unto the meunyng 

bliotheca Regin, CoUegii Corporis of the late Proclamation. 8to. This 

Chritii Cantabriguty Cotioniaque Jide- is the title of the Sermon in English, 

liter coUecta : Sfc. Editore friUielmo of which I never saw more copies than 

Wats, S. T. D. 8fc. Paris. 1644. /oL one, that at Benet GoU. inter MSS. 

See Darling's Cydopsed. Bibliograph. It is bound up with a MS. not lent 

as before, col. 2013. out, otherwise I would have taken a 

g This book, which I found at the copy. It is the only sermon I have 

Bodleian, appears to have originally met vrith with an Apocryphall Text, 

belonged to * Thomas Baker, Coll. Jo. [Wisdom, ch. 4. w. 7, 10, 14-19.] The 

Sodus ejectus,' as he signs himself, modus orandi is worth taking notioe 

On the fly-leaf he has thus written: of.* See Antiquities, b. 15. du i. s. i. 

' Most or all of these pieces were sent v. e. p. 217. n. 10. 
to the publisher Hubert by Grindall. " Published originally without name. 
See Life of Abp. Grindall, Lib. 2. cap. 5.* i In this year he obtained the Living 

On the same leaf, verso, he gives the of Battersea, but became Rector of St. 

title of the original Sermon referred to, Paul's Covent Garden in 1662, where 

How WB OUGHT TO TAKB THB Dbath he remained fearlessly and faithfully 

or the Godly, A Sej-mon made in among his parishioners during the 

Cambridge, at the Burial of the Noble plague. He became Prebenduy of 

Cterck, D. M. Bueer, by Mattrbw Westminster in 1672, Dean of Peter- 

PxBKBa, D. OF DiYiNiTT. Imprinted borough in 1679, Bishop of Chidiester 

at London bg Rycharde Jugge, dwell' in 16^, and was translated to Ely in 

ing in Pauls Churche Yarde, at the 1691, where he died in 1707. 
Synge of the Byble : with the Kynge 

alphabeticallif arranged. 297 

selves, taken out of the Authentic Books. In Three Parts : 
the First Part containing the Devotions to Saints and Angels 
[all ever published]: with Two Digressions concerning the 
Relics and Miracles in Mr. Creasy's late History. (Lond. 
1674. 8vo.^) semel, 

589 Pa u LIN us Mediolanensis. Vita Ambrosii, Operibus Ambrosii 420 

prsefixa. (Ed. Bened. 1686-90. t. 2. pnefix. Append.) ««ptf. 

590 Paulinus Nolanus. Opera, cum Notis Ducsei et Rosweydi. 390 

(Antwerp. 1622. 8vo.) t Colon. 1560. 8vo. Item per Le 
Brun Desmarets, Paris. 1685. 2 vol. in i. 4to. Itideni, per 
Muratorium, Veron. 1736. fol. sapius, 

I. Epistolee ad Severum, i. 6. 12. 

2 Delphinum, 16. 19. 

3. Epistola ad Alypium, 45. 

4. Carmen 13, ad Cytherium. 

5 18. Nat. 3. S. Felic. 

6 19 4 

7 21 6 

8 24 9 

10. Int. Epp. Augustini. (ap. Ed. Bened. t. 2.) Ep. 31, et 

Ep- 35- 

11. Int. Epp. Hieronymi. (ap. Ed. Vallars. 1. 1.) Ep. 14. 

591 Paulo, Carolus a Sancto. Geographia Sacra, &c. : cum Notis 

et Animadversionibus Lucse Holstenii. Amstel. 1703. fol. 
(Iterum, 1704. fol.) Sigpissime. See Antiquities, b. 9. v. 3. 
pp. 218-409. 

592 Paulub^ Diaconus. Historia Miscellanea, Hamburg. i6ii.4to. 774 

(Historic MisceUs a P. D. coUectee, post etiam a Landulpho 
Sagaci auctse. Basil. 1569. 8vo.) Item, apud Muratorium, 
Rer. Italicar. 1. 1. Mediolan. 1723. fol. ter quaierve, 

593 Paulus Emisenus. Homilise : in Actis C. Ephesini, part. 3. 430 

c. 31. (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 3. p. 1096.) semel, al. 431 

594 Pearson, John, D.D. Bishop of Chester. 1673 

1. An Exposition of the Creed. London, 1669. fol. (Lond. 

1 74 1, fol.) semel. 

2. [Editio Latina. (juxt. Ed. Anglican, quint, per Paul. Em. 

Jablonski: Francofurt. ad Viadrum, 1741. 4to.) semeL^ 

3. Annales Cyprianici. Oxon. 1682. fol. (ad calc. Oper. 

Cyprian, juxt. Ed. Amstel. 1700. fol.) subinde. 

^ This work was originally pablished 1 So called from having been or- 

anonymously. Hence my Ancestor dained Deacon of Aquileia in the time 

gives it in his Index of Authors under of Rachis, his patron, King of the 

Palriek, bat without the Christian Lombards. He is sometimes termed 

name. My Father's edition of 1 829, Winifred or M^arnefrid, and may be 

and Mr. Pitman's of 1845, have con- regarded as the best historian of his 

founded it with the work of Symon era. 

298 Index of Authors, 

4. Vindicise Epistolarom Ignatii. (ap. Append, ad Cotelerii 

Patr. Apost. Antwerp. 1698.) sapiM$, 

5. Inter Opera Posthuma. Lond. 1688. 8vo. (Oxford, 1844. 

2 vol. 8vo.) wMnde, 
I . Annales Paulini. 
a. Lectionea in Acta Apoatolorum. 
3. De Serie et Successione Primomm Ronue Epiico- 

595 Pbnitbntial Discipline of the Primitive Chiirclii>^. By a 

Presbyter of the Church of Enghind. (Lond. 17 14. 8vo.) Memel. 
See before, Marshall, No. 500. 

596 Perkins, William, Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. 1583 

Demonstratio Problematis de Romanse Fldei ementito Catholi- 
cismo. (Cantabr. 1604. 4to.) Item int. Oper. Theolog. Genev. 
1611. fol. semel, 

597 Pbrpbtua et Felicitatis Acta: in Append, ad Lactantii de ^i^^ 

Mortibus Persecutorum. (Ozon. e Theatr. Sheldon. 1680. 
lamo.o) subinde. 

598 [Perron, Cardinal Du^^. Opera Omnia, Paris. 1620-22. 3 torn. 1600 

fol. Not expressly cited any where in the Antiquities, but 
occasionally mentioned, either with respect to his work vpon the 
Eucharist, or against Momay and Mr, DailU's allusions to 
the sameJ] 

599 Pbtavius Dionysius, [Denis Petau,] Soc. Jes. Theol. Prof. 1621 


1. Dogmata Theologica. Antwerp. 1700. 3 tom. fol. Item, 

Paris. 1644-50. 4 tom. fol. subinde, 

1. De Ecclesiastica Hierarchia. 

2. De Episoopis, &c. Dissertationes Duk. 

3. De Poenitentia Pablica et Praeparatione ad Commu- 


2. De Potestate consecrandi Sacerdotibus a Deo concessa. 

Lond. 1685. 8vo. (ap. part. i. tom. 2. Operis de Theolo- 
gicis Dogmatibus, &c. Venet. 1757. fol.) 

1. De Trinitate, 1. 2. c. 14. Ap. tom. 6. ut supra. 

2. De Potestate consecrandi, &c. 

3. De Episcoporum dignitate, &c. 

4. De Ecdes. Hierarch. &c. 

5. De Pcenitent. Public. &c. 

B Tn my Ancestor's Index of Authors Perpetna and Felicitas into the end of 

this treatise stands under Bp. Pearson's the second century instead of the early 

name, and all previous editors have left part of the fourtii. See Hist. Later, 

it as they found it. Without doubt it Basil. 1741. t. i. p. 99. 

was attributed in my Ancestor's day to o See note >, on Lactantius, No. 44s. 

Pearson. P He was bom of Protestant parents, 

n According to Caye the anonymous after their removal firom Lower Nor- 

author of these j4cla flourished about mandy to the Canton of Berne, in 1556, 

the year 333, which throws the era of but he became a stanch Papist, writing, 

alphabetically arranged. ^99 

3. DeDoctrinaTemponmu Paris. 1627. 3 torn. fol. Antwerp. 

1703. 3 torn. fol. ? 

4. Animadveniones in Epiphanium : (ad calc. t. a. Oper. 

Epiph. Colon. i68a.) Vid. supr. EpiphctnittSy No. 363. 

5. Notae in Synesium: (ap. Oper. Synes., Lutet. Paris. 1640. 

fol.) Vid. infr. Synesius, No. 744. bis terve. 

600 PsTiTUB, SamueH. Variorum Lectionum in S. Scripturam 1634 

Libri Octo. (Paris. 1633.) semeL 

601 PsTBUB Alexandrinus. Canones Gr. et Lat : ap. Bevereg. 301 

Pandect, t. 3. (ap. Labb. Cyondl. 1. 1. p. 955.) Item ap. Gd- 
landium> t. 4. p. 91. subinde. 

602 Philastrius, Sanctus, Briziensis Episc. Liber de Hseresi- 380 

bus : ap. t. 4. Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. Item ap. t. 5. 
Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. (ap. Gallandium, t. 7. pp. 48O9 
seqq.) subinde. 

603 Phi Lo, Carpathius. [rectius, Carpasius^.] Cyommentarius in 360 

Cantica. [al. In Cantico Canticorum Interpretatio.] (ap. t. 5. al. 

Biblioth. Max. ut supr.) Item ap. Gallandium, append, t.9. 400 
p. 713. semel, 

604 Philo Judteus. De Vita Contemplativa : ap. t. 3. Operum, 40 

Gr. et Lat.9 Paris. 1640. fol. (Cum Notis et Observationibus 
Thomee Mangey. Lond. 1743. 3 torn, fol.) bis, 

605 Philostorgius". Historia Ecclesiastica. Gr. et Lat. juxt. 435 

Ed. Valesii, Paris. 1673. Item, Amstel. 1695. fol. (Ed. 
Reading, Cantabr. 1730. fol. Forming the third volume of the 
series of the Ecclesiastical Historians.) sape. 

606 Ph OCAS, Johannes, Monachus. Descriptio Locorum Sancto- 1185 

rum PaleestinsB : (ap. Papebrochium in Actis Sanctorum Maii, 
t. 3. p. I.) Vid. supr. No. 581. P 

607 Photiub, Patriarcha Constantinopolitanus. 858 

I. Bibliotheca, Gr. et Lat Paris. 1613. fol. (Myriobiblon; 
sive, Bibliotheca Librorum, quos legit et censuit. Gr. et 

preaching, and disputing against the r Bishop of Carpasia, or Carpasis, in 

Reformation and the Reformers, parti- Cypros. It is a vulgar error to term 

cularly against that able and excellent him Carpathius, as if he had been 

man Dn Plessis Momay. For a full bishop of the Island of Carpathtu. 

account of Du Perron and his works See Antiquities, b. 9, ch. 3, at the end 

see Chalmers' Biographical Dictionary, of s. 9, y. 3, p. 283, and nn. 66 and 67, 

Lond. 1815, or Brunet's Bibliographie citing Holst^ and Cave in proof. 
Universelle. > He is the only Arian writer of Ec- 

4 Samuel Petit was bom at Nismes desiastical History now exstant, and 

in 1594, and studied at Geneva with out of his twelve books, commendng 

such marvellous success, that he was about the year 300, and reaching to 

admitted to holy orders at seventeen 425, only fragments remain. James 

years of age. He was still a very young Gothofired first published the Libri jpii. 

man when raised to the Professorship a PhoHi in Epitomen redacH Gr, el 

of Theology, Greek, and Hebrew in Lai. cum Suppiementis, j;c., at Lyons^ 

that Univeraty. in 1643, ^ ^<>1* 4^* 

300 Index of Authors, 

Lat. NotiB illuBtnvit D. Hoeschelius et A. Schottus. Ro- 
thomag. 1653. fol.^) ««pe. 

a. Nomocanon, Gr. et Lat. (ap. JutteUum, in t. a. Biblioth. 
Jur. Canon.) Vid. supr. No. 431. semel vel bis. 

3. EpUtolae, Gr. et Lat., cum Notia Montacutii. [Bp. Mon- 
tagu.] (Lond. 1651. fol.) 9emel, 
60S Pin, Ludovicus Ellies Du, Doct. Sorbonn. 1687 

I. De Antiqua Ecdeaiae diaciplina Ditsertationes Historical. 
(Paris. 1686. 4to.) bis, 

a. Nonvelle Bibliothdque des Auteura Ecd^aiaatiquea, oon- 
tenant rHistoire de k Vie, le Catalogue, la Critique, et 
la Chronologie des leurs Ouvrages ; le Sommaire de ce 
qn'ils contiennent; un Jugement sur leur Stile et sur 
leur Doctrine ; et le d^nombrement des diffi^rentes Edi- 
tions. Lond. 169a. fol. (Paris. 1693. 9 vol. 4to.) Also, 
Paris. 1688. 45 vol. 8vo. subinde. 

609 PiONii Acta : (ap. Baromwn^ ad annum a54.) Vid. supr. No. 78. 

Item, ap. Gallandium, t. 3. p. 3a4. semeL 

610 PiTHoeus, [Pithou,] Petnis ^. Notse in Fragmenta Veterum 1570 

Jurisconsultorum cum Legibus Mosaicis collata. Paris. 1573. 
4to. Inter Opera Sacra, Juridica» Histories, &c. Paris. 1609. 
4to.) Item ap. 1. 1. part. a. p. 193. Criticor. Sacror. Amstel. 
1 698-1 733. 13 torn. fol. semeL 

611 PiuB I. Papa. Epistolae : (ap. Labb. Concil. t. a.) subinde, 158 

Ep. I. Universis Christi Fidelibus. 

Ep. a. Justo Viennensi. 

Ep. 3. Eidem. 
613 [Platina, Bartolomeo, [D« SacchiJ] Historia de Vitis Pon- 1460 
tificum Romanomm, cum Annotationibus, Supplemento, &c., 
Onuphrii Panvini. Colon. Agripp. 161 1. 4to. (Itidem, i6a6. 
4to.) setnel vel bis. Vid. supr. Onuphrius, No. 558.] 

613 Plinius, Caius Secundus. Historia NaturaUs^. Basil. 1535. 65 

fol. Lugdun. Batav. 1668. 3 vol. 8vo. (Paris. 1543. fol.) stepe. 

614 Plinius, Ccecilianus Secundus, sive Junior. Epistolae et Pane- 100 

gjrricus. Oxon. ?8vo. Item, cum Notis Cellarii, Lips. 1700. 
lamo. (Lond. 1741. lamo. Ed. Tonson.) 

I. lib. 10. Ep. 97. ad Trajan. Imp. S(epius, 

a. Panegyricus Trajano dictus. semel, 

t Fabridus calls this work, which 886, died in exile, 

contains the argaments or abstract of « Peter Pithoa was a Protestant 

a8o volumes {codiccB,) not a hooky but barrister of much celebrity. He had a 

an iiiusiriouM treasure I Photius was very narrow escape on St. Bartholo- 

nominated to the patriarchate while mew*s day, but afterwards lapsed into 

yet a layman, and is said to have quali- Romanism. He died in 1596. 

fied himself for the technicalities of the ^ Cited only, and that for its geo- 

offioe within a week. He was driven graphical testimonies, in the ninth Book 

from the patriarchate in 867, restored of the Antiquities, 
in 878, and, being banished again in 

alphabetically arranged. 301 

615 Plutarch us Clueronensis. Vita Antonini, int. Opera: Fran- 98 

cofurt. 1630. 2 torn. fol. (Lutet. Paris. 1624. 2 torn, fol.) temel. 

616 P0LYCARPU8, Sanctufl, Smymeomm EpiBcopos. 108 

z. Epistola ad Philippensea, Gr. et Lat. (ap. Cotelerium, Patr. 

Apost. t. 2. Antwerp. 1698.) Item, ap. Gallandiam, 1. 1. 

p. 305. bis terve, 
2. Martyrium. (ap. Cotelerium, ibid.) quater. 

617 P0LYCRATB8, Epheainus Epiac. Fragmenta: (s^p, EtuebU Hist. 

Ecdes. Vid. anpr. No. 275. Item ap. Gallandium, t. 2. 196 
p. 160, Item ap. Routh, Reliquiae, v. 2. p. 9. ter, 

618 P0LYDORU8 Vergiliua. Vid. infr. Verpilius, No. 792. 

619 [PoLYGAMiA Triumphatriz7, id est, Discursus Politicns de 

Polygamia, Auctore Theophilo Alethio cum Notis Athanaaii 
Vincentii, &c. Londini Scanorum, 1682. 4to. semel,'] 

620 PoLYGRANUS, FrauciflcuB. Assertionea quorundam Eccleais 

Dogmatum. (Colon. 157 1.) liber probibitua in Indice Soto- 
majoris, Madrit. 1667. fol. semel. 

621 PoMBRius. Vid. 8upr. Julianus, No. 424. 

622 PoNTiPicALB Romanum. Paris. 1648. fol. (Rom. 1738. 3 torn. 

fol.) Cap. De Ordinatione Lectorum, in 1. 1. semel, 

623 P0NTIPICALI8 liber. Vid. supr. Damasus, No. 225. 

624 Pontius, [Diaconus Cypriani, ejusque perpetuus Comes.] Vita 250 

S. Cypriani, ejus Operibus prsefiza. Juxta Ed. Fell. Oxon. 
1682. fol. (Ed. Amstel. 1700.) Vid. supr. Cyprianw, No. 21 7. 
semel vel his, 

625 Pools, Mattbew. Synopsis Criticorum aliorumque S. Scrip- 1648 

turse Interpretum. (Lond. 1669-76. 4 tom. fol. in 5 vol.) ter 
qwUerve, See also before, Critici Sacrij No. 213. 

626 [PoRCHBRON, Placidius, sive RaTennas. Geographise libn 

Quinque, cum Notis, See, Paris. t688. 8vo. Leyden, 1696. 
Itidem, 1722. 8yo. Cited by Oak on Antoninu^s Itinerary, 
See Antiquities, b. 9. cA. 6. s. 20. v. 3. p, 382. See there the 
latter part qfn, 36.] 

627 P088IDIU8, al. Possidonius, Calamensis Episcopus. Vita S. 430 

Augustini, ejus Operibus prsefixa, juxta Ed. Paris. 1637. q. v. 
(Suffixa, ad calc. t. 10. Operum juxt. Ed. Benedict. Paris. 
1689-1700.) Item seorsim, studio Johan. Salinas. Romse, 
1 731. 8vo. s^epe, 

628 PoTHO Pnimiensis, [a Monk ofProme,'] De Statu Domus 1152 

Dei. Hagen. 1532. 8vo. Item, ap. Hospinianum, De Festis 
Christianis, &c. (ap. t. 21. p. 489. Bibliotb. Max. Lugdun. 
1677.) semel, 

f The real author of this curious fortune in endeavouring to maintain 

book was John Lyser, a native of Saxony, the doctrine of hia strange work as 

and a Lutheran dirine in the seven- above. See Chalmers, Biograph. Diet, 

teenth century. He spent his life and v. 21. p. 19. 

302 Index of Authors, 

629 PoTTBR> Christopher, D.D. Dean of Windsor. An Answer to 1635 

Charity Mistaken. (London, 1634. Svo.') semel, 

630 PoTTBR, Francis, B.D. An Interpretation of the Number, Sue 1639 

Hundred and Sixty Six. Oxf. 1643. 4to. ( Vid. ap. Poli Synops. 
Criticor. in Apocalyps. 13, 18., in t. 5. p. 1895. Ut supr.) See 
AtUiquiHes, b. 8. ch, 6. s, 16. v, 3. p, 98. n. 51. 

631 Potter, John, D.D. Archbp. of Canterbury. A Discourse of 1737 

Church Government. Lond. 1697. ? or, 1707.* 8to. (Vol. 2. 
of his Works, Oxf. 1753. 3 vol. 8vo.) Seventh Edition care- 
fully revised and corrected, &c. by Rev. J. Crosthwaite. Lond. 

1839. ^^^* ^^^ 1853* i2mo. 

632 PowEL [Povelus], David, D.D. Annotationes inGinJdi Itine- 1580 

rarium. Vid. supr. Giraldus, No. 333. 

633 Prateolus [Dn Preau], Gabriel. Elenchus Hssreticoram Om- 1561 

nium ab Orbe Condito ad nostra usque Tempora. (Colon. 1605. 
4to.) Item, Colon. 1519.^ 1^19*] fol- temel, 

634 Pride Aux, Humphrey, D.D. Dean of Norwich. The Old and 1702 

New Testament connected in the History of the Jews and 
Neighbouring Nations from the declension of the Kingdom of 
Israel and Judah to the time of Christ : in Two Parts. Lond. 
1 7 18. 2 vol. 8vo. (Lond. 1749. 4 vol. Eleventh Ed.) semel vel 

635 Primasius, Adrumeti in Africa Episcopus. In Ep. i. ad Tim. 550 

c. 6. apud Commentarium in Epistolas S. Pauli. Ap. 1. 1. Bi- al. 
blioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. 1. 10. Biblioth. Max. Lugdnn. 545 
1677.) semel. 

636 Priori us, Philippus. [PhiUppe Le Prieur.'] 

1. De literis Canonids. (Paris. 1675. 8vo.) semel. 

2, Annotationes in Tertullianum, cum Variorum Commen- 

tariis. (Paris. 1664. fol.) semel vel bis. 

637 Proclus, Archiepisc. Constantinop. Tractatus de Traditione 434 

s He also published at Oxford, in nity at Oxford. I therefore infer that 

1633, a tract entitled, * Want of Chiuity the erroneous date, 1607, should be 

justly charged on all such Romanists replaced by 1707, the year in which 

as dare, without Truth or Modesty, my Ancestor brought out the first vo- 

affirm that Protestancy destroyeth Sal- lume of his own Origines. Dr. Potter 

vation.* This was reprinted in 1634, became Bishop of Oxford in 17 15, and 

but with some omissions, which Prynne was promoted to Canterbury in 1737. 
says were insisted on by Archbishop b This date, which is given by Gri- 

Laud. schorius as marking the edition which 

A In my Ancestor's original Index of he consulted, must be erroneous : for 

Authors to the Antiquities the date is Prateolus was bom in 151 1, and died 

given 1607, which must be a typogra- 1588. My Anoestoi^s copy was evi- 

phical error, for Potter, his own pro- dently a posthumous one, and I appre- 

t^g^ and pupil at Uniyersity College in hend the correct date of the first pub- 

1688, was not bom till 1674. This lication, which was Grischovius' copy, 

error all other editors have left un- to be 1549, when the author was 38 

corrected. But there is an edition of years of age and Professor of Theology 

this book in 1707, the year before Pot- at Navarre, 
ter became Regius Professor of Divi- 

alphabetically arranged. SOS 

Dmn» Missse; inter opera cum Notis Vincentii Riccardi. 
Rom. 1630. <^ Item ap. t. 6. Bibloth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. 
(ap. GaUandium, t. 9. p. 603.) semeh 

638 Procopii Acta : (ap. VaUsiuin in Eiuebium de Martyribus 

Pal«8tin».) Vid. infr. No. 786. Hi. 

639 PROCOPIUB, Cflesariensis. Opera Historica, Gr. et Lat. (Paris. 527 

1663. fol.) Bubinde. 
I. De Bello Vandalico, ap. Tetrad. Prim. Histor. Temp. sni. 

Item ap. 1. 1. Byzantin. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. 1739. fol. 
3. De Bello Gothico, ap. Tetrad. Alter. &c. Item, ap. t. 3. 
B. H. S. ut supr. 

3. Historia Arcana, qni est Historiarom Liber Nomis. Vide 


4. De iCdificiis Dom. Justiniani, libri Sex. Vide etiam ibid. 

640 Prosper, Sanctus, Aquitanus, S. Augustini Disdpulus. Opera 444 

Omnia, Colon. 1540. 8vo. t Colon. 1599. 8vo. (Ed. Opt. O. O. 
ad MSS. Codices, &c., emendata, nunc primum secundum or- 
dinem temporum disposita, et Chronico ejusdem integro, &c., 
locupletata. Paris. 1711. fol.) S€cpe, 
I. De PromisBionibus et Prsedictionibus Dei [incerti Aucto« 

ris] liber, (ap. Append. Ed. Paris. 171 1. pp. 91, seqq. 
3. Sententiarum ex Operibus S. Augustini Liber Unas. (ap. 
£d. Paris. 171 1. pp. 543, seqq.) 

3. Epigramma 87 in libro Epigrammatum ex Sententiis S. 

Augustini. (ibid. pp. 616, seqq.) 

4. Cbronicon. Ibid. pp. 685, seqq. (ap. Pagiwn in Baronium, 

anno 387.) Vid. supr. No. 571. 

5. De Vocatione Omnium Gentium ignoti Auctoris, &c. (ap. 

Ed. Paris. 1711. pp. 847, seqq.) 

6. Julian! Pomerii de Vita Contemplativa Libri Tree. (ap. 

Append. Ed. Paris. 17 11. pp. i, seqq. (Vid. supr. Jvha' 
nus. No. 424.) 
Prudbntius, Aurelius Clemens. Poemata: ap. Corp. Poetar. 405 
Lugdun. 1603. 3 torn. fol. Item, ap. Gallandium, t. 8. pp. 
435» B^q* (Opera, juxt. Ed. Valpian. cum Notis Variorum. 
Lond. 1834. 3 vol. 8vo.) smpe, 
I. Cathemerinon Hymni, 
3. Matutinus. 
5. Ad Incensum Lucemse. 
8. Post Jejunium. 
10. De Exsequiis Defunctonim. 
13. De Epiphania. 
II. Peristephanon Hymni, 

3. De S. Laurentio, sive Passio. 
5. De S. Vincentio, sive Passio. 

c This U a very excellent edition of the Works of Proclus. See Cave, Hist. 
Liter. Basil. 1741. 1. 1, p. 413. 

304 Index of Authors, 

6. De S. Fructuoso : sive. In honorem Martyrum Fruc- 
tuosi Episcopi Tarraconensis^ et Augurii et Eulogii 

10. De S. Romano^ rive Paaaio. 

11. De S. Hippolyto, sive Paasio Hippol. Mart, ad Vale- 

rianum Episcopum. 

III. Apotheosis, contra Hseresin, quae Patrem passum affirmat. 

IV. Contra Symmachum Libri Duo. 

64a Prynne, William, Barister at Law of Lincoln's Inn. Histrio- 1633 
mastix^i. The Player's Scourge, or Actor's Tragedy; wherein 
is largely evinced that popular Stage- Plays are sinful, hea- 
thenish, &c. (Lond. 1633. 4to.) semel, 

643 [Ptolbmjsus, Claudius. Geographise Libri Octo. Gr. et Lat. 100 

(Francofurt. 1605. fol.) semel.'] 


644 QuBBNBL, Pasquier. Dissertationes et Notoe in Opera Leonis 1670 

Magni®. Paris. 1675-6. 2 torn. 4to. (ap. t. a. Operum L. M. 
Lugdun. 1700. torn. a. in i. fol.) mtbmde, Vid. supr. Leo 
Magnus, No. 457. 

645 [Qui EN ^ Michael Le. Oriens Christianus, in Quatuor Patri- 1700 

archatus digestus ; quo ezhibentur Ecdesie, Patriarchs, csete- 
rique Prsesules totius Orientis. Opus posthumum. Paris. 
1740. 3 torn, fol.] 

646 QuiNTiLiANUs, Marcus Fabius. Opera; rive, Institutionum 80 

Oratoriarum Libri Duodecim. Francofurt. 1629. 8vo. (Paris. 
1735. fol.) semel vel bis, 

647 QuiROROA, Caspar. Index librorum Expurgatorum. (Sal- 1600 

mur. i6or. 4to.) semel, 

d Prynne was immediately proae- Congregation of the Index. When 

cuted in the Star Chamber for writing exiled from France in 168 1, he joined 

this book, and on conviction was fined Amaold and other Jansenists at Bms- 

£5000, expelled from the University sels. Uis celebrated work on the New 

of Oxford and from Lincoln's Inn, lost Testament gave rise to the notorious 

his ears also in the pillory, and im- Bull Unigenitus, in which no less than 

prisoned! He was again punished in one hundred and one proporitions 

the same way in 1637, but being re- extracted from his Comments were 

leased from prison by the Long Par- formally condemned. Ue died in the 

liament he became the principal ma- year 1719. He is justly admired even 

nager in the prosecution of Archbp. by Protestants for his solid learning 

Laud in 1645. F^^^ years afterwards, and fervent piety, 

in 1649, he recant and published a ^ He was a loumed Dominican, espe* 

Defence of Stage-Plays, in which he dally in Hebrew, Arabic, and Ecde- 

retracted his former statements. He siastical History. The junior student 

was opposed to Cromwell, and finally of the Antiquities of the Christian 

became instrumental in the Restoration Church will be much assisted by an 

of Charles II., when he was appointed occasional reference to his valuable 

Keeper of the Records. He died in 1669. work, which was first published some 

« In these writings he defended the seventeen years after my Ancestor's 

Gallican Church against the usurpations death. For a full account of its oon- 

of the Court of Rome, for which his tents, see Mr. Darling's Cyclopedia Bi- 

edition of Leo was condemned by the bliographica, Lond. 1854. 

alphahetically arranged. 305 


648 Rabanus, rive Rhabanus^ Maurus. De Institutione Clerico- 847 

rum et C»remonii8 Ecdesifle, Libri Tres : ap. 1. 10. Biblioth, 
Patr. Paris. 1654. (Seonim, Coconise, 153a. 8vo.) Item ap. 
Hittorpiuniy De Diyinis Ecclesie Officiis, &c. Paris. 1624. fol. 
Itidem^ inter Opera, Colon. 1637. 3 torn. fol. ' bis, 

649 Radulphub Ardens. Sermones de Tempore et de Sanctis, &c. iioi 

Antwerp. 1576. 8vo. ^ 

650 Radulphub de Rivo, [Decanus Tongrensia.] De Obsenrantia 1390 

Canonnm liber: ap. t. 10. Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1655. (ap. 
t. 26. Biblioth. Max. Lugdon. 1677.) semel, 

651 Rainoldub ^ [rive Raynoldus, Rainolds,'] Johannes, D. D. 1593 

Apologia Therimn de Scriptura et Ecdesia, &c. Hanov. 1603. 

8yo. (Lond. i6oa. 8yo.) semel. 
65a Ranchin, GuiUaume Du. A Review of the Council of Trent: 1600 

wherein are contained the several Nullities thereof, with the 

many Grievances and Prejudices done by it to Christian Kings 

and Princes, &c. Now translated into English^ by G. L. 

[Geoige Langhaint.] (Oxford, 1638. fol.) semel, 
65a*RATRAMNU8. Vid. supr. Bertramus, No. 93. 
653 [Ravennab, cited by Grale in Note on Antonine's Itinerary. 

See before, Poreheron, No. 6a6.] 

V This edition of the works of the Antverpi^y 1570. Svo, Bat this work 

Abbot of Fulda in Baa, and ^hop of is totally a different thing, and oon- 

Mentx in 847, is not complete. A piece tains Sermons upon the Apostles and 

attribnted to this Author in my Anoes- Virgin Mary : neither does it contain 

tor's Index, imder the title of De PrO' any passage of the kind alluded to 

priekUe Sermonis, I have never been above. 

able to discover, or find any where an I apprehend therefore that my An- 

account of it. cestor, like myself, had never seen 

h 1 have never been able to discover either of those books with his own 

or get any account of the work under eyes, or ever handled them, but that 

that title or date. But through the he dtes the passage in question through 

kindness of a literary friend resident some other author, whom he does not 

at Stockholm in 1854, I find theif is a name, and who gave the words exactly, 

copy of such a book in the Library at but Uie title of the book, whence he 

Upsala, with title and date as follows : dtfived them, in a general way, par- 

D, Radu^hi Ardeniiiy Pietavi Doc tially confounding one work with the 

torit Theologi, j;c., in EpistoUu et other, and that too without reference 

Evangelia DaminieaUa Homiluf Ec* to page or folio, which through the 

clenoMiieit ommbut phirime necettU' assistance of my correspondent I have 

rttf, ^r. AniverpUtf 1567. 8vo. : and been enabled to supply in its proper 

at foUo lai verso of that book the place. See Antiquities, 15, 4, 7, as 

passage which my learned Ancestor above. 

cites is to be found word for word. i Dean of Lincoln in 1503, and Pre- 

See Antiquitiea, b. 1 5. ch. 4. s. 7. v. 5. sident of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 

P* 375* ^' 95* ii^ 1598. One of the translators of the 

In the same Library of Upsala there Bible, and a strenuous opponent of 

is another work by Radulphus, and Popery. He sided with the Poritsns 

entitled. In EpistoUu et EvangeUa, at the Hampton Court Conference. 
ut vocant. Sanctorum HomUim Ec' k The original in French was first 

cUikuticii omnibus animarum curam published, no place mentioned, in 1600. 

gerentibus plurimum necessarUr, ^c, 8vo. sm. 


806 Index of Authors, 

654 [Rbadino, William, M.A. Libnuian of Sion College, London 17^0 

Wall. Editor of the Ecclesiastical Historians^ Cantabr. 1730. 
3 torn. fol. Reprinted, 1746. See before, Eusebms, No. 375. 
semel vel bis, 

655 Rbsves, William, M.A. Rector of Cranford, Middlesex, and 1694 

afterwards Vicar of St. Mary's, Reading. The Apologies of 
Justin Martyr, Tertallian, and Minucius Felix in Defence of 
the Christian Religion, with the Commonitory of Vincentios 
lirinensis concerning the Primitive Rule of Faith, translated ; 
with Notes and a Preliminary Discourse upon each Author. 
(Lond. 1709. 3 vol. 8yo.) semel vel bis. 

656 [Rbinbsiub 1, Thomas, M. D. Variarum Lectionum libri 1637 

Tres. (Altenburgi, 1637. 4to.) See Antiquities, b. 16. ch. 4. 
s. 17. V.6. p. 331. n. 7.] 

657 Renaudotius [Renaudot] Eusebius. Latigiarum Orientalium 1690 

CoUectio. (Paris. 17 16. a vol. 4to.) semel, 

658 Rhboino, al. Regino, Prumiensis [Abbot qfProme'], De Dis- 892 

ciplinis Ecclesiasticis et Religpone Christiana, cum Notis Ba- 
luzii. (Paris. 1671. 8yo.) bis, 

659 R1CCARDU8, Vincentius. Commentarius in Produm de Tra- 1630 

ditione Missse, &c. (Rom. 1630. 4to.) Vid. supr. No. 637. 

660 R1CHBRIU8 »<^, [Richer,] Edmundus, D.D. 1590 

I. Historia Conciliorum Generalium in Quatuor libros dis- 
tributa,, cum libro de Potestate Ecclesiastica et Politioa'^. 
Item, Vindicise Doctrinae Majorum SchoUe Parisiensis. 
(Colon. 1683. 3 vol. 4to.) sMnde, 

3. De Potestate Papse in Rebus Temporahbus. (Colon. 1691. 


661 RiOALTius, [Rigaut,] Nicolaus, Jesuita. 1610 

T.NotsB in Cyprianum: juxt. Ed. Paris. 1684. fol. (Ed. 

Prior. Paris. 1666. fol.) smpe, 
3. Note in Minucium Felicem : jgxt. Ed. Oxon. 1678. 8vo. 

(Ed. Davis. Cantabr. 17 13. 8vo.) semel, 
3. Not8B in Tertullianum : juxt. Ed. Paris. 1634. foL (Lutet 

Paris. 1675. fol.) semel, 
(»63 R1TTBR8HUTIU8, Georgius ^. Tractatus de Jure Asybrum : 1614 

^ Bom at Gotha in Thuringia, 1587. of a Dominican who asserted the Pope's 

Died at Letpsic, 1667. infallibility, and his superiority over 

>n In early life he was drawn into the General Councils. He died in Novem- 

sentiments and party of the Ijeaguers, ber^ 1631, and was buried at the Sor- 

whom he afterwards forsook ax^ ac- bonne. 

knowledged his lawful sovereign on n pint published at Cologne in 161 1. 

taking his D.D. degree in 1590. He 4to. In this tract the writer maintains 

afterwards became Grand Master of the the authority of General Councils over 

College of Le Moine, and Syndic of the the Pope. 

Faculty of Divinity at Paris, when he o One of the sons of the celebrated 

strenuously opposed in 161 1 the thesis Conrad Rittershutiiis, who died in 1613. 

alphahetically arranged. 807 

»p, Griticos Londinenset, al. Criticoi Saciofl^ jiizt. Ed. Prindip. 
Loud. 1660. t. 8. Item, ap. t. i. part. a. pp. 3491 aeqq. Ed. 
Amatal. 1698*1739. (6eoraim> Aigentorati, 1634. 8yo.) ln$ 

663 R1VBTU8, [Rivet,] Andreas, D.D. Oxon. 1633 

I. Opera, 3 torn. fol. nempe Ex^etica, 1. 1. in 1651. Exe- 

getica et Didactica, t. 3. in 1653. Polemica, 1 3. in 1660. 
In Gen. 14. Exerdt. 80. wmel. 
In Gen. 47. Exercit. 173. temeL 
3. Criticus Sacer : [de Patram Auctoritate et de Libris Aucto- 

rilnu 1-6. Sseculi suppositia.] Genev. 1636. 8yo. (ap. t. a. 

Oper. ut supr.) bis, 
3. Disputationes TheologicK 11, in Synopai Purioris Theo- 

logiie Profesaomm Leydensium. Lugdnn. Batav. 1633. 

8yo. (Itidem, 1643. i3mo.) Item ap. Oper. t. 3. pp. 

745, aeqq. bis. 

664 [Rochk's Memoirs of literature, citing Bacchinins in Agnel- 

lum. (Lond. 1733. 8 vol. 8to.) See Antiquities, b. 33. ch. i. 
s. 9. V. 8. p. 114.] 

665 RoFPBNSis, Johannes. [John Bishop of Rochester.] See be- 

fore, Buekeridge, No. 118, and Fisher, No. 399, who are each 
respectively termed Roffensis. 

666 Rosinus, Johannes. Antiquitates Romans cum Paralipomenis 1579 

Dempsteri. Colon. 1630. 4to. (Itidem, 1645. 4to.) "^id. supr. 
Dempster, No. 339. sulrinde. 

667 RuFFiNUB, al. Rufinus, Aquileiensis. 390 

I. Histozia Ecclesiastics, libri ii.p Basil. 1549. fol. (Basil. 
1535. fol.) Item, ap. Opera, fPvis. T580. foL 

lib. I. al. 10. lib. 3. al. 11., juxt. Ed. Basil. 1535. 



3. Commentarius in Hoses cap. 3. Int. Oper. ut supr. (ap. 
Oper. juxt. Ed. Migne, Patrolog. t. 31. Lutet. Paris. 
1849. 4to.) semel. 

3. Expositio Symbol], inter Opera Gypriani: ad ealc. Ed. 

Oxon. 1683. fol. (Ed. Amstel. 1700. fol.) subinde. 

4. Versio Hist. Eccles. Eusebii. (Basil, ut supr.) bis terve. 

5. Ruffinus apud Hieronymi Apol. 3 : (ap. Oper. Hieron. 

juxt. Ed. Vallars. t. 3.) semel. 

6. Ru£Sni Invectiva Secunda contra Hieronymum : (ap. Va- 

lesium in Euseb. H. £. 1. 6. c. 34.) semel. 

7. [Decern Orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni Latine redditev. 

Aigentuue, 1508. 4to. semel."] 

668 RuPKBTua Tuitiensis Abbas. [Abbot qfDuyta on the Khine.l 11 11 

P That is his Lstio venion of the 4 An extremely rare book. See An- 
nine books of £uaebiua, and two books tiquities, b. 90. ch. 4. s. 7. ▼. 7. p. S95. 
by his own hand by way of supplement, n. 86.* 


808 Index oj AtUhars, 

De Divinis Officiis libri Duodedm. Inter Scriptores de 
Divinis Officiis : Paris. 1610. (Paris. 1638. 2 torn, fol.) semeL 
66g RuRicius Limovicensis. [Bishop of IAmog€$ in France.'] 470 
Epistoke : ap. Canisii Lectiones Antiquas, t. 5. q. v. supr. 
No. 136. Item ap. t. 8. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. 
Citante Balazio, not. ad Ant. Augustin. de Emendal. Gratian. 
(ap. t.3. Oper. Baluz. Luc8e, 1767. fol.) $emel. 


670 Sacbrdotalis liber. Vid. supr. NavanruB, No. £^39. 

671 Sallustius, Caius Crispinus. De Bello Jugurthino. (Lugdun. 

Batav. et Roterod. 1665. 8vo.) semel. 
67a Salmasics, Claudius ^ al. Walo Messalinus. 1631 

I. De Episcopis et Preebytens contra Dionys. Petavium 
Loyolitam Dissertatio Prima. (Lugdun. Batav. 1641. 
lamo.) ? 
a. De Primatu. (Lugdun. Batav. 1645. 4to.) subinde, 

3. Notte in Augustte Historise Scriptores. (Lugdun. Batav. 

1661. 8vo.) Item, Paris. i6ao. fol. semel. 

4. De Foenore Trapezetico : (ap. Zieglerum in Grotium de 

Jure Belli et Pads.) Vid. infr. No. 83a. semel. 

5. De Eucbaristia Infantibus danda : (ap. Suicer. Thesaur. 

Ecdes. t. a. p. 1136.) Vid. infr. No. 736. semeL 

673 Salm BRON, Alphonsusj Jesuita ". Tractatus in Acta Aposto- 1550 

lorum : (ap. Chamierum, De Eucharist. 1. 7. c. 11.) Vid. supr. 
No. 161. semel. 

674 SalvianuBj Massiliensis Presbyter. Opera, Ozon. 1633. 8vo. 440 

(Curante Steph. Baluzio, Pedepont. 174a. 4to. Ed. Quart.) 
Item, studio Conrad. Rittersbusii, qui et Librum Conunen- 
tarium adjedt. Althorp. 161 1. 8vo. Itidem, Norimb. 1633. 
8vo. Ap. Biblioth. Max. t. 8. p. 339. Ap. Galland. t. 10. 

I. De Gubematione Dei et justo pnesentique ejus Judido, 

libri Octo. subinde. 

a. Ad Eodesiam Catholicam, sive Ad versus Avaritiam, libri 

Quatuor. bis. 

675 [Sandius S Christopher. Nucleus Historise Ecclesiastical, ex- 1670 

hibitus in Historia Arianorum, Tribus libris comprehensa, 
&c. Amstd. 1669. a vol. 8vo. (Colon. 1676. 4to.) semel."] 

t Claude Samnaiae, bom in Bur- works, CommefUarii in EvangeUeam 

§^ndy about the year 1593, was ori- HUioriam et in Acta Apostolorumy in 

gtnally a Romanist, bat became a con- Omnes EpistoUu et in Apocafypnm^ 

Tert to the reformed fiiith early in life, were first published at Cologne in 1613, 

He held an honorary professorship at and extended to sixteen volumes folio. 
Leyden, but devoted his entire time to ^ Or Fan Den Sand, a Sodnian 

literature. He died in 1653. writer bom at Konigsburg in 1644. 

> One of the eariiest and most zealous Died at the age of 36 in 1680. 
of the disdples of Ignatius Loydla. His 

alphabetically arranged. 309 

676 Sarpus Petrus. De Jure Asylorum, &c. (Lugdun. Batav. 

1622. 4to.) semel, 

677 Saturnini Acta : (ap. BaronitMi, ad annum 303.) Vid. supr. 

No. 78. semel, 

678 Savaro, [Savaron,] Johannes, Claromontanus. Commenta- 16 14 

riua in Sidonium Apollinarem. (Paris. 1609. 4to.) Vid. infr. 
Sidonitu, No. 698. stepe. 

679 Saxonicum Chronicon. Vid. eupr. Chron, Sax<m, No. 165. 

680 ScALiGBR, Josephus Juatua. 1580 

i.De Emendatione Temporum. (Genev. 1639. fol.) Lutet 

Paris. 1583. fol. wbinde. 
2. Castigationes in Eusebii Chronicon cum Canonibus Isago- 

gidsy &c. (Amstel. 1568. fol.) ? 

681 SCHBL8TRATE5 Emanuel k^. 1679 

1. Sacrum Concilium Antiochenum Restitutum. (Antwerp. 

1681. 4to.) $€qnus. 

2. De Disciplina Arcani. (Ronue, 1685. 4to.) subinde, 

3. Ecdesia Afncana. (Paris. 1679. 4to.) semel. 

4. A Dissertation of Patriarchal and Metropolitical Power, 

against Stillingfleet. (Lond. 1688. 4to.) ter. 

[This is the first edition in English of the original Latin, 
entitled thus : De Auctoritate Patriarchali et Metropoli- 
tica adyersus ea, quae scripsit E. Stillingfleet. RomsB ? 
1687. 4to.] 
683 ScuLTETus, Abraham. [Pastor at Heidelberg.] 1598 

I. Medulla Theologise Patrum, qui a temporibus Apostolorum 
ad Concilium usque Nicsenum floruerunt, &c. Pars Prima. 
(Amberg. 1603. 4to.) 

3. Ejusdem Pars Secunda. (Amberg. 1606. 4to.) 

[Both these in one volume : and again as a second edition of 
the whole work, Amberg. 1613. 4to., which is the book 
my Ancestor refers to under that date in his original 
Index of Authors.] semel vel bis. 

3. [Annales. (Heidelberg. 1618. 8vo.) Cited for one of Lu- 
ther's Epistles in the First Decad of the Annals, 1534. 
See Antiquities, b. 16. ch. i. s. 15. y. 6. p. 54. n. 13.] 

683 [ScYLLiTANORUM Martyrum Acta : (ap. Baronium ad annum 

303. Vid. supr. No. 78. semel. 

684 Sbdulius Ccelius^. 434 

T. Mirabilium Divinorum sive Operis Pasohalis Libri : et 
Hymni. [al. M. D. Libri Paschale Carmen Dicti.] Ap. t.8. 
Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 1677. 
t. 6. (ap. Gallandium, t. 9. pp. 535, seqq.) semel vel bis. 

a Or Schelstraate. A learned and a disciple of Hildebert, the ancient 

sealouB advocate of the Roman See. Scotch archbishop. After tmyelling in 

Keeper of the Vatican Library. France, Italy, and parts of Aria, he 

> He was a natiye of Scotland, and finally settled down at Rome. 

810 Index of Authors, 

a. In I Cor. 7, 39^ int. Commentar. in Omnes S. Paul! Epi- 
atolaa. Ap. Biblioth. ut aupr. (ap. Qalkmdiiim, ilnd.) 

685 Sbldbn, John, Keeper of the Records in the Tower, 1643. 1633 

I. Uxor Hebraica: sea, De Nuptiis, et Divordis ex Jure 
Civili, id' eat, Divino et Talmudioo, Veterom HebraBoraniy 
libriTrea. Lond. 1646. 4to. (ap. vol. a. torn. i. Openim, 
Lond. 1736. 6 vol. fol. in 3 torn.) $«Bp€, 

a. De Synedriia et Prsefectoiis Juridicia Veterom Hebnaorum. 
Lond. 1650. 4to. (ap. vol. i. torn. i. Oper. ut aupr.) 

3. De Diia Sjrria Syntagmata Duo, cum Additamentis Bexeri. 

lipa. 1668. 8vo. Lugdun. Batav. 1639. 8to. (ap. vol. a. 
torn. I. Oper. ut aupr.) semel, 

4. Hiatory of Tithes. Lond. 1688. 4to. (ap. vol. 3. tom. a. 

Oper. ut aupr.) stUfinde, 

686 [Seller, Abednego. Remarquea relating to the State of the 1688 

Church of the Three First Coituries, &c. (Lond. i68a 8yo.7) 
ier quaterve,'] 

687 [Sembca, Johannes, cognomine Teutonioua. Scholia sive 

Glossse in Gratiani Decretum, ap. Corp. Jur. Canon. Romse, 
158a. fol. (Lugdun. 1 67 1. 3 tom. fol.) bis. See Antiquities, 
b.15. ch. 4. S.7. ch. 5. S.4. y.5. p. 376. n.99. et p.437. n.a3.] 

688 Seneca, Lucius Annseus. Apocolocyntosis : int. Opera, lips. 40 

170a. 8vo. (Paria. 1607. fol.) semel, 

689 Sennes et Abdonis Acta : (ap. Suioeri Thesaur. Eoclea. voce 

UapafiokavoL) Vid. infr. No. 736. semel. 

690 [Servatii, s. Servati, Tungrenais Acta : (ap. Crabby Condi. 1. 1 .) 

Conf. ap. Labb. t. a. p. 615.] semel. 
6gi Servius Maurus Honoratua, Notee in Virgilii Mn. 9. (Oper. 350 ? 

Virgil. Colon. AUobrog. i6ao. 4to.) semel. 
69a Sbverianus, Gabalensis. IBishop ofGdbala, in Spam*.'] Ho- 401 
miliae, ap. Oper. Chrysostom. t. 6. pp. 375, seqq. jtixt. Ed. 
Duciean. Ed. Savil. t. 7. (juxt. Ed. Bened. t. 6. q. v. aupr. 
No. 167.) Item ap. Combeiis. Auctar. Noviss. Paris. 167a. 
fol. sMnde, 

I. Hom. I. in Genesim. 

a 17. De Fide : ex Codice Romano. 

3 37. De Filio Prodigo. 

T This book wu published anony- reprinted under the title of The H^eeVs 

mouflly, while Seller was yet minister Preparation for the Sacrament of the 

of Combeinthie Head, Devon, of which LortPt Supper. 

benefice, as well as of another in Lon- ' He was appointed by Chrysostome 

don, he was deprived at the Revolution to preach at Constantinople during his 

for nor^uring. He also wrote some own absence : hence his Homilies are 

tracts against Romanism, and was the found among the works of that father, 

author of a book which has often been and were sometimes attributed to him. 

alphabetieally arranged, 311 

693 Setbrus Antiocbenus *. Catena Patnim GrKooram in Sane- 513 

turn Johannem, &c. (Antwerp. 1630. fol.) semeL 

694 Sevbrus, Sulpicius. Opera : Amstel. 1656. 8yo. (Lugdun* 401 

Batav. 1647. 8yo.) Item, cum Notis Vorstii et Clerid, Lipe. 
1709. 8vo. Apud Gallandium, t. 8. p. 355. Biblioth. Max. 
t. 6. p. 324. 

I. Histoiia Sacra. «iepe. 

a. De Beati Martini Vita, &c. tubkide. 

3. Dialogi. ««pe. 

695 [Sbxti Decretalia, 1. 4. tit. 3. DeGognatione8piritmi]i,c.3. (ap. 

Corp. Jur. Canon, t. 3.) Vid. anpr. No. 303.] semel. 

696 Sherlock, William^, D.D. Dean of St. Paul's. A Discourse 1691 

about Chureb-Unitjr : being a Defence of Dr. Stillingfleet's 
Unreasonableness of Separation. In answer to several late 
Pampblets, but principally to Dr. Owen and Mr. Baxter. 
[Anonymous.] (Lond. 1681. 8Vo.) semeL 

697 Sherloous, Paulus. Comm^ntarius in Cantioa. (Lugdun. 

1637. 3 torn. (ap. Selden in Uxor. Hebraic.) Vld. supr. No. 
685. semeL See Antiquities, b. 23. cb. 4. s. 6. ▼. 8. p. 75. 

698 SiDONius, Caius Sollius Apollinaris Modestus, Arvemensis 476 

Episc. [Bishop qf Ckmumt, in OatU,'] Opera, cum Notis al. 
Savaronis. (Paris, ex Officina Plantiniana, 1609. 4to.) Item 472 
ap. Biblioth. Max. t. 6. ap. GaUandium, 1. 10. siepigsime, 

1. Epistolie : 

L. I. Ep. 2. Agricolse. L. 5. £p. 7. Tbaumasto. 

5. Heronio. 14. Afro. 

8. Candidiano. 17. Eriplio. 

L.2. Hesperio. L. 6. Ep. i. Lupo. 

L. 3. Ep. 3. Hudicio. 3. Leontio. 

12. Secundo. • 8. Graeco. 

L. 4. Ep. 3. Claudiano. L. 7. Ep. i. Mamerco. 

II. Petriaco. 5< Agroelio. 

15. Elapbio. 9. Perpetuo. 

22. Leoni. L. 8. Ep. 11. Lupo. 

25. Domnulo. L. 9. Ep. 3. Fausto. 

L. 5. Ep. 3. Apollinari. 16. Firmino. 

2. Carmina. 

2. Ad Atbenium. 16. Ad Faustum. 

13. Ad Majorianum. 

A The leader of the Monophysites. wards fled to Alexandria, and thence 

He is said to have been addicted to to Constantinople, whence he was pre- 

magic when a Heathen. On the ex- sently driven. 

ptilsion of Flarian from the see of An- b The fathcfr of Dr. Thomas Sher- 

tioch for orthodoxy, Severus got pos- lock, who was Bishop of London in 

session of the episcopal chair, but after- 1 748. 

312 Index of Authors, 

699 SiPFRiDUS, 8. Sigefridufl, Presbyter Misnensia. Chronioon. i^ 

Franoofart. 1583. fol. (ap. t. i. Germanicar. Rer. Scriptor. 
a Pistorio, &c. Ratisbon. 1736. 3 torn, fol.) iemel, 

700 SiOEBERTUS Gemblacensis. IMonkqfGembUmrs^.'] Chronicon. iioi 

Francofurt. 1583. fol. (ap. 1. 1. Grermanicar. Rer. Scriptor. &c. al. 
ut supra.) bis, ma 

701 S1GONIU8, Carolu8<^. i5<So 

I. De Republica HebrBeonim libri Septem. (Hanov. 1608. 

8vo.) semel, 
a, De Antiqtto Jure Italise et Provinciarum, [al. Populi Ro- 
mania aeu Civium Romanorum.] Venet. 1560. 2 torn. 
4to. (Paris. 1573. fol.) semeh [As cited by Vicecomes, 
De Ritibus Baptismi, 1. 3. c. ao. See Antiquities, b. 11. 
ch. 7. s. 5. V. 4. p. 126. n. 69.] 
70a S1LKNTIARIU8, Paulus. Descriptio Tempi! S. Sophifle, Gr. et 558 
Lat.j cum Nods Carol! Du FVesne. Paris. 1670. fol. (ap. t. 3. 
Bysant. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. 1729. fol.) subinde. 

703 [Sim SON, Duneknensis, Monk qf Durham. Historia Ecdesise 

Dunelmensis. Lond. 1732. 8vo. See in Twysden's Histo- 
nee Anglicanse Scriptores, vol. i. seme/.] 

704 [Simeon Metaphrastes®. Acta, sive Vita, Ludani Confessoris 960 

ap. Surium, Januar. 7. in torn. i. (ap. Labb. Concil. t.4.) q.v. 
semel vel bisJ] Vid. infr. No. 739. 

705 Simeon, Thessalonicensis Arobiepiscopus. 1410 

I. Commentarius de Templo et Mimstris et Sacra Mystago- 
gia, Gr. et Lat. : (ap. Goar in Eucbologio Grsecorum. 
Pftris. 1647. fol.) Vid. supr. No. 336. semel, 

1. Dialogus adversus omnes Hsereses : sive, Responsa ad 
Octoginta Quinque Qusestiones Gabrielis Pentapolitani : 
(ap. Leon, AUatium, De Missa Prsesanctificatorum, &c.) 
Vid. supr. No. 17. semel, 

706 S1MPLICIU8, Pftpa. EpistoUe: (ap. Labb. Concil. t.4.) 467 

I. ad Johannem Ravennatem. 
a. ad Florentinum. 

707 S1BICIU8, Papa. EpistoUe : (ap. Labb. ibid. t. a.) s«pe. 385 

I. ad Himerium Tarraconensem. 
a. ad Ecclesiam Mediolanensem. 
3. ad Episcopos Africanos. 

c He was a strenuous defender of ^ A learned Italian, bom at Modena 

the rights of the Emperors against the in 1524. Died 1585. 

claims of the Popes. Hence Bellar- 80 celled because he wrote the 

mine says of him : Porro Sigehertus in Liyes of some 1 20 saints, not strictly 

sua Chrtmologia iniquior/uU Gregorio according to fi^ts, but per mek^hrtu 

Septimo ob ttudium erga ImperatO' nm, or paraphrasing them agreeetbfy 

rem; qua de rauta non pauca men- with his own faneiet <md predilections, 

Hhu est et pr^serHm cum narrat ohi" He held high offices of trust at Con- 

tum ipsius Gregerii, De Scriptor. Ec- stantinople during the reigns of Leo 

des. Colon. 1684. p. 173. the PhUosopher and of Constantine 

alphabetically arranged, 813 

708 S1BMONDU8, JacobuB^ Jesnita^. 1637 

I. Censura Anonymi de Suburbicaiiia Regionibus et Eccle- 

siiB. Paris. 161 8. 
a. Hinoria Poenitentise. 

3. Notte in Augaatinum, Ennodium, &c. 

4. Diaaeitatio de Usu Fermenti in Encharistla. 

[i. Opuacula Varia. (Paris. 1675. 3 vol. Byo.) Rrferred to 

MpedaXly on three or four occasiotu. 
3. Opera Omnia, sive Varia, nunc primmn collecta, Sec, (Paris. 

1696. 5 torn, fol.) Venet. 1728. 5 torn. fol. f«pe. 

Tom. I. 
I. Breviarium ¥idei adversns Arianos. 
a.Notitia Provindarum et Civitatum Afrioe, Nomina 
Episooponim, &c. 

3. PnedestinatiiB, sive Pnedestinatonim Hseresis, &c. 

4. Sidonii ApoUinaris Opera et Not», &c. 

5. Ennodi Opera et Notse, &c. 

Tom. IV. 

6. De Sttburbicariis, et Regionibus, &c. 

7. Historia Publics Pcenitentise. 

8. Disquisitio de Azymo : sive, De Usu Firmenti, &c., 

ut supra. 

3. Note in Augustini Sermones Quadraginta a Sirmondo 

editos. (Paris. 1631. 8vo.) stUnnde, 

4. Concilia Antiqua Gallise, &c. Paris. 1627. 3 tom. fol. 

As rrferred to by Valesius on Socrates, H, E. I, 6. e. 5. 
See Antiquities, b. 8. ^l 5. s. 4. v. 3. p. 68. n. 98.] 

709 SiXTUB, Papa. Epistola 3. ad Johannem Antiochenum. (ap. 433 

Labb. Concil. t. 3.) semel, 

710 SixTUB Senensis. Bibliotheca Sancta ez prsecipuis Catholicae 1550 

Auctoribus Gollecta. Colon. 1586. fltidem 1636. fol. (Venet. 
i575-4to.«) ter. 

711 Sleidanub, Johannes^. De Statu Religionis et Reipublicse, 1543 

Carolo V. Cesare, Commentariorum Libri Viginti Sex, cum 
Apologia et Indice. Argent. 1566. 8vo. (Francofiirt. 1610. 
8vo.) bis, 

Porphyrogenitiu. The Liyes are to be date therefore of 1575, which is subse- 

found in the Latin translation accord- quent to his death in 1569, is probably 

ing to Surius, the original Greek not &at of the second edition of tiie Bibli- 

bong ezstant. otheca. It is a work of mnch ability 

t Confessor to Lonis XIII. in 1657. *^ learning, and the best of the kind 

He lived to the age of 92, and died in that had then appesred. The last edi- 

1651. tion was that by Milante, with much 

9 It is said of Sixtos Senensis, on- supplemental matter, at Naples, in two 

ginaUy a Franciscan, bat after his re- volumes folio, 1 742. 
lease from the dungeons of the Inqui- ^ John of Sleidan, a small town in 

sition a Dominican, that he destroyed all the Electorate of Cologne. A lawyer 

his manuscripts in his last illness. This by profession. Much employed by Car- 

814 Index of Authors, 

ti2 8iffBCTYMNUu8 K An Answer to a Book eotitukd. An HwMe 164I 
Remtmstranee, In which the original of latargj and Epi- 
scopacy is discussed, and Qoeries propounded concerning 
both. The parity of Bishops and Presbyters in Scripture 
demonstrated. The occasion of their imparity in Antiquity 
discovered. The disparity of the ancient and our modem 
Bishops nmnifested. The antiquity of Ruling Elders in the 
Church vindicated. The prektical Church bounded. (Lond. 
1641. 4to.) semel. 

713 Smith, Thomas, B.D.i^ An Account of the Greek Church, 167 1 

as to its Doctrine and Rites of Worship. To which is added 
an Account of the state of the Greek Church under Cyrillus 
Lucaris, Patriarch of Constantinople, with a relation of his 
sufferings and death. (Lond. 1680. 8vo.) ««pe. 

714 [Smyrnbnsis Ecclesise Epistola Encydica sive Circularis ad 

Reliquas Ecclesias. (ap. Eusebium, H. E. 1. 4. c. 15. Item ap. 
Cotelerium, Patr. Apost. t. 2.) See Antiquities, b. 13. ch. 2. 
8. 2. V. 4. p. 291. n. 3. p. 292. n. 2.] 

715 [S0COLAVIU8, Stanislaus. Censura Ecclesise Orientalis. Cra- 

cov. 1582. fol. ?] 

716 Socrates Scholasticus. Historia Eccleeiastica : cum Notis 439 

Valesii. Paris. 1668. fol. (Cantabr. 1720. fol.) Amstel. 1695. 
fol. [Forming the first part of the second volume of the 
series. See before, EusMtis, No. 275, and afterwards, Vak' 
9ms, No. 786.] passim, 

717 S0LINU81 Caius Julius. Polyhistor, cum Pomponio Mela et 250? 

iEthico Cosmographo, a Maitino Delrio emendatus. (Ant- 
werp. 1572. 8vo.^) bis, 

dinal Da Bellay in 1535. Joined the 1641. Milton also wrote An Apology 
Reformers in 1543. Deputation to the for Smectymnuus.' Darling^s Cyclops^. 
King of England in 1545, and after- Bibliograph. Lond. 1854. ooL 1766. 
wards one of the Protestant enyoys to ^ Chaplain to the English Bmbaaay 
the Council of Trent. Died in 1556. at Constantinople in 1668, and in 1671 
His work, as aboTO, contains the history a Prebendary of Salisbury. He refused 
of his own times. to take the oaths at the Revohitkni, 
i ' The pseudonyme of a celebrated and was depriyed accordingly. He pub- 
tract, in answer to Bp. Hall. The word lished in 1678 ' Remarks upon the 
is made up of the initial letters of the Manners, Religion and Government of 
names of the authors, who were Stephen the Turks. Together with a Survey of 
Marshall, Edmund Calamy, Thomas the Seven Churches of Asia as they 
Young, Matthew Newcomen, and Wil- now lie in their ruins, &c ;' and in the 
liam Spurstowe. It is written with same year the second edition of ' De 
great fierceness of spirit an! asperitj of Qnecte Bcclesitt hodiemo statu Epistola 
language, yet in a style superior to that . . . auctior et emendatior, whidi I pro- 
of tiie Puritans in general ; and it was sume was the basis of the book in Eng- 
a production of no small importance in lish as above. His first work was also 
its day. Bp. Hall answered it in his in Latin, riz. * Epistolse Quatuor : De 
Defence of the Humble Remonstrance, Moribus ac Institutis Turcamm. No- 
1641 ; to which Smectymnuus replied tttia Septem Asios Eocleeiarum et Con- 
in A Vindication of the Answer, 1641. stsntinopoleos. Qxon. 1^4. 8vo.' 
Bp. Hall rejoined in A Short Answer to > * The excellent and pleasant work 
thisTedious Vindication of Smectymnuus, of C. J. Solinus, Polyhistor, contain- 

olphabeHcally arranged. 316 

718 SoTOMAJOR, Antoninus k. Index Libroram Pn>bibitonini et 1667 

Ezpurgandorum Hispanicus. (Madrit. 1667.) semeh 

719 [SoTUELLUS, SotweU, and more correctly SoutkweU, Nathaniel, 1676 

Jesuita. Continuatio BibliothecsB Scriptorum Sodetatia Jeau 
Petri de Ribadeneyra : Opus inchoatum a P.P., continuatom 
a Ph. Alegambe usque ad annum 164a, recognitum et pro- 
ductum ad annum 1675, a N. Solnello. Ronue, 1676. fol. 
See Antiquities, b. 17. cb. 3. s. 5. v. 7. p. 14. n. 73.] 

730 SoKOMBNUB, Hermiaa. Historia Ecclesiastica, cum Notis Ve- 440 

lesii. Paris. 1668. fol. (Cantabr. 1730. fol.) Amstel. 1695. fol. 
Phmoofnrt. 1673. fol. [Forming the second part of the 
second rolume of the series. See before. No. 716. and aftef* 
wards, Valeskts, No. 786.] pasrim, 

731 Spalatsnbis. Vid. supr. Marc. Ant. De Dommis, No. 343. 

733 Spakhbmius ^, Fredericus, S.T.P. 1670 

I. Historia Imaginum. Lugdun. fiatav. 1686. 8yo. (ap. t. 3. 
p.709.0penmi,Lugdun.BataT.i7oi-3. 3tom.fol.) [Where 
it forms the Sixth Book of the Miscellanea ad sacramAn' 
tiquitaiem et Bccletim Higtoriam pertinentium, in Ten 
Books, p. 707, under the title of Restitvta Historia 
/mo^tntim.] bis. 
3. Summa Historiae Ecdesiasticse ad Sseculum XVI. (Lug- 
dun. Batay. 1689. 3 vol. 8yo.) ? 

733 Sparrow, Anthony. [Bishop of Exeter in 1667, and of Nor- 1667 

wich in 1678.] A Rationale upon the Book of Common 
Prayer of the Church of England. (Lond. 1^84. i3mo.) 
Oxford, 1839. i3mo. semel. 

734 Spartiancs, iGUus. Inter Augusts Historiie Scriptores. 

(Lugdun. Batav. t66i. 8yo.) Vid. supr. No. 63. 
I. Vita Caracalke. bis. 
3. Vita Hadriani. semel. 

735 Spklman, Sir Henry, Knt. 1613 

I. Concilia Britannica. Lond. 1664. 3 tom. fol. (Lond. 1639. 

3 tom. fol.) sMnde. 
a. Glossaiium Archaiologicum. Lond. 1683. fol. (Lond. 1687. 

fol.) semel. 

736 Spbncbr, John, D.D. Dean of Ely. De Legibus Hebneorum 1677 

Ritualibus, earumque Rationibus, libri Quatuor>^ : &c. Hag», 
1686. 4to. (Cum C. M. PfiEiffii Dissertatione, &c. Tubinge, 
1733. 3 tom. fol.) bis. 

ing the noble actions of human crea- work, De Legibwt Hebrerorum, was to 

tores, &C.' Transbted by Arthnr Gold- prove in detail, that the rites and oere- 

ing: 1587. monies of the Jewish religion were 

m Professor of DiTinity at Heidel- instituted in direct opposition to the 

berg in 1655, and at Leyden in 1670, practices of the surrounding idolatrous 

where he was four times Rector of the nations, and in order to establish the 

University. strongest distinction between the Jews 

n < The chief object of this learned and them. Yet it has been affirmed 

31 6 Index of AtUhars, 

737 Spond ANU8 S [De Sponda,'] Henricus. 1636 

I. Annales Ecdedastici ez Duodecim Tomie Ctn. Baronii in 

Epitomen redact!, Paris. 1660. 2 torn. fol. fLugdun. 

1678. 3 torn. fol. (Lutet. Paris. 1639. Ed. Princeps.) 

3. Annalium Baronii Continuatio ab Anno 1197* quo is 

desiit, ad finem 1646. 2 torn. fol. Lugdun. 1678. 2 torn. 

fol. (Paris. 1647. 2 torn, fol.) bis. 

738 St ATI us PubliuB Papinius. Silvarum liber OctavuSj int. Open. 85 

(Lugdun. Batav. 1616. 8vo.) semel, 

739 [Stbphani, Henrici, Jun. Thesaurus, vocibus 'Yfn;x«tt> et 1570 

'Ajcovm. See Antiquities, b. 14. ch. i. s. 13. v. 5. p. 16. 
n. 68.] 

730 [Stbphanus, Stienne, Robertus. Auctores Veteres Historise 1539 

Ecdesiasticae LAtine tantum. Basil. 1^39. per Hieron. Fro- 
benium. Itidem Basil. 1549. &c. Vid. Walcb. Biblioth. 
Patrist. c. 3. s. 34. JensB, 1836. p. 336. Vid. supr. ChriitO' 
phorsoniu. No. 164. Museukis, No. 536.] 

731 Stillinoplxet, Edward, D.D. Bishop of Worcester .p Works. 1678 

(Lond. 1709-10. 6 vol. fol.) 

I. Origines Britannicse; or. The Antiquities of the British 
Churches, &c, Lond. 1685. fol. (Works, as above, v. 3. 
p. I.) submde, 

3. The Unreasonableness of Separation : or. An impartial 
Account of the History, Nature, and Pleas of the present 
Separation from the Communion of the Church of Eng- 
land. Lond. 1683. 4to. (Works, V. 3. p. 439.) tubinde, 

3. Irenicum, A Weapon-Salve for the Church's Wounds : or. 

The Divine Right of particular forms of Church-Govern- 
ment discussed and examined. Lond. 1663. 4to. (Works, 
V. 3. p. 147.) ter. 

4. A Discourse concerning the Idolatry practised in the 

Church of Rome, and the hasard of Salvation in it; 
wherein a particular account is given of the Fanaticisms 
and Division of that Church. London, 1673. 8vo. (Works, 
V. 5. p. I.) semel, 

by Onne and others, that the object of when Prince of Beam. Thiongh read- 

the work was to show that the Hebrew ing the oontroyersial work of BeUar- 

Ritnal was almost entirely borrowed mine and.Perron he became a Romanist 

from the Egyptians, and accommodated in 1595. In i6a6 he was made Biahop 

to the tastes and prejudices which the of Pamiers by Loois XIII. Died 1^ 

Jews had acquired among that people. Toulouse in 1643. His abridgment of 

Witaius in his JRgyptiaoa writes in op- the Annals of Baronius was made with 

position to Spencer.' Darlings Cydo- the Cardinal*8 consent, 
pwd. Bibliogra^h. Lond. 1854. col. P Archdeacon of London in 1677. 

aSii. Dean of St. Paul's, 1678. Bishop of 

o Bom in 1568, and educated in the Worcester, 1689. Died in Westminster, 

College of the Reformed at Ortes. 1699. 
Much noticed by Henry IV. of France, 

alphabetically arranged, SI 7 

5. A Defence of the Discourse concerning the Idolatry, &c. 

Lond. 1676. 8yo. (Works, v. 5. p. 363.) bis. 

6. An Answer to Mr. Cressy's Epistle Apologetical to a Per* 

son of Honour, touching the ^^dication of Dr. Stilling- 
fleet. Lond. 1675. 8vo. (Works, v. 5. p. 577.) bis. 

7. Ecclesiastical Cases relating to the Duties and Rights of the 

Parochial Clergy, &c. Lond. 1698. 8vo. (Works, v. 3.) f 
733 Strabo. Geographia, Gr. et Lat. cum Notis Casauhoni. Paris. 5 
1620. fol. (Amstel. 1707. 2 torn, fol.) subinde. Only in the 
Ninth Book of the Antiquities. 

733 Strabo 4, Walafndus. De Rebus Ecdesiasticis. [al. De Ex- 84a 

ordiis et Incrementis Rerum Ecdesiasticarum.] Ap. t. 10. 
Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. 1. 15. Biblioth. Max. Lugdun. 
1677.) s€Bpe, 

734 Stuckiub, Johan. Guliehn. Tigurinus [of Zurich'}, Antiquita- 1680 

turn Convivialium Libri Tres : sive, Hebrseorum, Graeoorum 
aliarumque Nationum, Conviviorum Genera, Mores, Consue- 
tudines, Ritus, Ceremoniasque Conviviales, atque etiam alia 
explidta, cumque iis, qu» apud Christianos et alias Gentas in 
usu sunt vel fuerunt, oollata. (ap. t. i. Operum, Lugdun. 
Batav. 1695. 3 torn. fol. ') semel, 

735 Suetonius, Caius Tranquillus. Duodedm Csesares, et alia 100 

qu» ezstant. (Oxon. 1661. ismo.) sMnde, 

736 SuiCBRUS, Johannes Caspar, Professor Tigurinus. Thesaurus 1660 

Ecdesiasticus e Patribus Gr»ds ordine fldphabetico exhibens 
qusecunque Phrases, Ritus, Dogmata, Hsereses, et hujusmodi 
aha spectant. (Amstel. 1683. 3 tom. fol.) Itidem 1738. Item, 
Traject. ad Rhen. 1746.* itepissime, 

737 SuiDiB. Lexicon, cum Notis iEmilii Porti. Genev. 1619. 2 tom. 

fol. (Colon. AUobrog. 1619. 3 tom. fol.) t Item, cura Lu- 
dolphi Kusteri, Cantabr. 1705. 3 tom. fol. Ed. Gaisford, Oxon. 
e IVelo Academ. 1834. subinde, 

738 SuLPiciUB Severus. See before, Sevenu, No. 694. 

739 SuRius, Laurentius, Carthusianus. 1540 

I. De probatis Sanctorum Historiis, partim ex Tomis A. Li- 
pomani, partim etiam ex egregiis MSS. Codicibus, nunc 
reoens recognitis, &c. (Colon. Agripp. 1576. 7 tom. fol.) 

3. De Rebus in toto orbe gestis ab anno 1500. ad 1574- ^ 
(Colon. 1574. fol.) bis terve. 

4 The papil of Rabaniu Mftonu at ■ This is the same book as the 

Fttlda, Dean of St. Gallen, and eren- edition of 1728 at Amsterdam, with 

toally, in 84a, Abbot of Reichenan, in a new title-page. This work is in- 

the Aocese of Constance. He died in dispensable to the study of the Greek 

849. Fathers. An English Version with the 

' The second volame contains an original relerenoes yerified and cor- 

Acoonnt of the ncred Rites, Sacrifices, re(^ed is a great dedderatiun. 
and Saperstitions Ceremonies of the t Sarins died in 1578. 

818 Index of Authors, 

740 SuTLip, [more eamdHj Suteliffe or Soutliffb, and SutUnku or 1588 

Suiclwimi in the Tiitiniiiftd name,] Matthew, D.D. Dean of 
Exeter. De Monachorum Inatitutione et Moribua. (Lond. 
1600. 4to. bis, 

741 Sylvius, [Duboii or Deleboe,'] Franciscua k Brana, Cornea. S. 1530 

Th. Plrofeas. in Academ. Doacena. Additionea ad Carantiii 
[sive Caranite] Summam Condlionun. Colon. 1701. 8yo. 
(Loran. 1681. 4to.) Item, Genev. 1600. 8vo. bis. 
743 Symmachus, Q. Aurelina. Bpistola et ReUtio ad Tbeodosimn 384 
pro Ara Victoriie. (Paris. 1604. 4to.) semeh 

743 Sym¥achu8 Papa. Bpistola 5. ad Caraarium. Item, Bpistola 498 

6. contra Anaataaium. (ap. Labb. Condi, t. 4.) ter, 

744 Stnbbius, Bpisc. CyrensBus. 410 

I. EpistolsB: int. Opera, Gr. et Lat., Paris. 1605. (Com 

Notis Petavii, Paris. 164a fol.^) smpiui. 
3. Catastasis. (ibid.) ter quatente. 

745 Synodicon Grsecum. Vid. aupr. Pig9pu$, No. 58a. 

746 Synodicon in Gallia Refonnata : or. The Acta, Decieiona, 

Decrees, &c. By John Quick. (Lond. 1692. a vol. fol.) 
semel, [See the foil title in the first note on the Preface to the 
French Church's Apology, in the tenth volume of this new 
edition of the Whole Works.] 


747 Tacitus, C. Cornelius. Opera. Amatel. 1664. 8vo. (lipeise, 86 

1773. 2 Yol. 8vo.) 6tf. 
I. Annalinm 1. 2, c. aa. 
a. Historiarum 1. a. c. 31. 

748 Tatianus, Syrus, Justini Martyris diacipulus et Sophista. 17a 

Oratio adv. Gmbcos, Gr. et Lat.: (ad calc. Operum Just. 
Mart. Colon. 1686. fol.) Item ap. part. a. t. a. Biblioth. Max. 
Ap. Grallandium, t. i. Seorsim, ez Edit. Gulielm. Worth, ex 
vetustis exemplaribus et cum annotationibus integris Gesneri, 
Duc»i, Kortholti, &c. Ozon. 1700. 8vo. mum/. 

749 Taylor, Jeremy, D. D. Bishop of Down, Connor and Dro- 1660 


I. Dttctor Dubitantium : or. The Rule of Conacience, Lond. 
1676. fol. (In vols. 11-14. of the Whole Works, Lond. 
1839. 15 vol. 8yo.) sape. 

a. The Worthy Communicant ; or, A Discourse of the Na- 
ture, Effects, and Blessings consequent to the worthy 

n QoK editio aecnnda aocurador et I. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 

ttberior appellatur. See Walch, Bi- in 1636. Rectorof Uppingham in 1638. 

blioth. Patriflt. Jene, 1834. p. 137. Seqnestered by the Parliuient in 1642. 

z Sizar at Cains College, Cambridge, Kept a school in retirement in Wales 

in 1626. Aftcvwards Chaplahi to Arch- in 1645. Raised to the episcopal bench 

bishop Laud, and also to King Chailes in 1660^ and died in 1667. 

alphoii)etically arranged. 319 

reception of the Lord's Supper. Lond. 1660. Svo. (In 
vol. 15 of the Works.) submde, 
750 Tbrtullianus> Quintus Septimus Fbrus. Opera, cum Notis 192 

Fr. Junii. Franequerte, 1597. fol. Item, cum Notis Bigaltii. 

Pans. 1634. folio, pauim. 
[i. Editio princeps : Beati RheBaiUj cum Scholiis. Basil. 
1521. fol. Reprinted there, 1525, 1528, 1536, and Awstior 
in 1539. This edition omits the Books De TrimtaU, De 
Testimomo Atunue, De Anima, De SpectacuUSf De Bap' 
tismo, and some others 7, and is consequently very in- 

2. Ludov. De la Cerds : Opera, An^umentis et Notis illus- 

trata. Paris. 1624-30. 2 vol. fol. 

3. Nic. Rigaltii, RigauU, Opera, ad vetustissimorum Ez- 

emplarium fidem, Observationibus ac Notis illustrata. 
Paris. 1634. Itidem, 1641, cum Indice et Glossario styli 
Africani. (Item, Lutet. Paris. 1675. fol.) 

4. Phil. Priorii, Le Prieur t Opera, cum Variorum Commen- 

tariis. Paris. 1664. fol. > 

5. Pamelii : Opera, cum Annotationibus, &c., Rigaltii et 

Priorii. Accedunt Novatiani Tractatus de Trinitate et 
Cibis Judaicis, cum Notis Pamelii. Paris. 1695. fol. 

There is also an edition by Mercer, cum Notis Pamelii, &c., 
(Colon. Agripp. 1 61 7. fol.) to which I have had occasion 
to refer once or twice. There is likewise a good Venice 
edition with the Apolofu^ cum Notia Haoercampi, 1744. 
ibl. The more recent editions are by Semler and Schutz, 
Halse, 1770-75. 6 vols, in 3. Svo. Oberthur, Wircebergse, 
1780. 2 vol. 8vo. Leopold. lipsiss, 1839. 4 parts in 2 vol. 
Svo., and Oehler, Lips. 1853. 3 vol. Svo., to which last I 
have sometimes referred, as also to Semler in additional 

A Catalogue of the Treatises cited according to the order m 
which they stand m the Editio PameUana of Paris, 1695. 
I. Apologeticus adversus Gentes. 
9. Ad Nationes. 

3. De Testimonio Aninue adversus Idololatriam. 

4. Ad Scapulam. 

5. De Spectaculis. 

6. Idololatria. 

7. De Corona Militis. 

8. De Oratione. 

9. De Patientia. 

7 See Walch, BibUoth. Patrist. ch. 4. iriimtione Notttrum, turn chartarum 

B. 30., as before^ p. 169. et typorum nitore omnmm LAtera" 

« Spoken highly of by Walch, who forum piautum meruit, Biblioth. Fa- 

says of it: Qwe turn ordme et dig- trist cfa. 3. 8. 16., as befoie, p. 138. 

820 Index of Authors, 

10. Ad Uxorem. 

11. De VirgimbuB Velandis. 
13. Advenus Judaeos. « 

13. De Pnescriptiane Hsereticorum. 

14. De Baptismo advenus QuintiUam. 

15. Advenus Hermogenem. 

16. Adversua Valentiiiianos. 

' 17. De Anima adversoa Hseretioos et Philoaophos. 

18. De Resurrectione Caniis. 

19. Adversus Marcionem. 

20. Soorpiace : sive, Scorpiacum adreniis Gnoaticoe. 
31. Adversus Praxeam. 

33. De Ezhortatione Caathatis. 

33. De Monogamia. 

34. De Fuga in Persecutione. 

35. De Jejuniis advenus Psychicos. 
26. De Pudidtia. 

Being the whole of the Works, except the Tracts De Pallio, 
Ad Martyres, De CuUu Foeminarum, De Came Christi, 
and the Carmen de Jona et Ninioe, which are not cited 
in the Antiquities. 
751 Thbcljb Acta: (ap. ChrabU, Spidleg. 1. 1.) Vid. supr. No. 343. 67 

753 Thblic JB Acta : (ap. BarotUum, ad anniun 303.) Vid. supr. 
No. 78. semel, 

753 Thbocritus, Poeta. Idyllium 14. [al. 13.] De Hyla, inter 

Opera. (Ed. Wharton. Oxon. 1770. 3 torn. 4to.) semel, 

754 Theodorbtus, sive Theodoritus, Cyri in Syria Episcopus. 433 

Opera Omnia, quorum plurima Grsece, quiedam etiam Latine, al. 
dec, curante Jac. Sirmondo, sene 83 ann., et Frontonis Ducaei 430 
adjuto laboribus. Paris. 1643. 4 torn. fol. * (Ex recendone 
Jac. Sirmondi denuo edidit, Grseca e Codd. locupletavit, &c. 
Versionem Tiatinam recognovit, &c. J. L. Schulae, Halae, 
1769-74. 5 vol. in 10. 8vo.^ 

CUationa according to the order of SckuUe, 

I. Qusestiones in Gen., Exod., Levit., Num., &c. (vol. i. 
part. I.) subinde. 

3. Commentarii in Psalmos. (ibid. part. 3.) bis, 

3. Explanatio in Canticum. (vol. 3. part, i.) semel. 

4. Interpretatio in Esaiam, &c. (ibid.) semel. 

5. Interpretatio in Ezek., Dan., et in Duodeoim Proph. 

Minor, (vol. 3. part. 2.) bis, 

6. Commentarii in Omnes Pauli Epistolas. (vol. 3. part, i.) 


* A Supplementarium by Garnier was pletion of this set of Tbeodorafs Works, 
afterwardfl published by Hardun, Ftois, ^ This is an accurate reprint of the 
1684, whidi IB necessary to the com- edition by Sirmond. 

alphabetically arranged, SSI 

7. Historia Ecclesiaatica : ibid. part. 3. Item ex Edit. Valfi- 

sii, Paris, 1673. fol. (Ed. Reading, Cantabr. 1720. fol. 
Tke first part of the third volume of the series of the 
Ecclesiastical Historians.) Item tAmstel. 1695. fol. 

8. Philotbeua : seu, Hiatoria Religiosa. (vol. 3. part. 2.) 


Cap. 2. De Vita Juliani. 

.... 4 Eusebii. 

.... 6 Simeonis. 

.... 13 Macedonii. 

9. Eranistea : seu, Polymorphus : Dialogi Tres. (vol. 4. 

pait. I.) semeL 

10. Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium, (ibid.) stepe, 

11. Adversus Gentiles, [al. De Curandis Grsecorum Affecti- 

bus,] Libri XII. (ibid.) subinde. 
Lib. 5. De Natora Hominis. 
. . . . 8. De Martyribus. 
. . . . 9. De Legibus. 

12. Epistolae, 42, 47, 77, 78, 81, 86, no, 113, 119, 145, 146. 

(vol. 4. part. 2.) stepe. 

755 Thsodorus Lector. Historia Ecclesiastica, cum Notis Vale- 518 

sii. Paris. 1673. fol. (Ed. Reading, Cantabr. 1720. fol. Form^ 
ing the latter part of the third volume of the series of 
the Ecclesiastical Historians,) fAmstel. 1695. fol. sub' 


756 Thbodosius II. Imperator. Codex <^, cum Coromentariis Ja- 438 

cobi Gothofredi : &c. (Lugdun. 1665. 6 tom. in 3. fol.) passim. 

In Tom. I. 
L. I. tit. 3. De Paganis. 

12. De Assessoribus Domestids et Cancellariis. 

L. 2. lit. I. De Jurisdictione. 

8. De Feriis. 

9. De Pactis. 

10. De Postulando. 

21. De Inofficiosis Dotalibus. 

33- De Usuris. 

L. 3. tit. 3. De Patribus, qui Filios detraxerunt. 

• 5- De Sponsalibus, &c. 

6. Si Provinciae Rector, &c. 

7. De Nuptiis. ^ 

8. De Secundis Nuptiis. 

c CompUed by the celebrated lawyers the best, having some improvements 

Antiochns, Maximus, and Martyrius. and a few additions as well as Sirmond's 

Ritter's edition, Lipsise, 1736, in 6 Appendix, 
volames, is now generally considered 


SKt Lulex ofAutIu>r$j 

L. 3. tit. 10. Si Nuptise ex Rescripto petantur. 

1 1 . Si quia Nuptias invitae petat. 

12. De Incestis Nuptiis. 

13* De Dotibus. 

16. De Repudiis. 

L. 5. tit. 3. De Bonis Clericoram. 

7. De Expositis. 

. « 8. De his, qui sanguinolentos emptos vel nutriendos 


In Tom. II. 
L. 6. tit. 3. De Episcopis. 

4. De Pnetoribus. 

5* Ut Dignitatum Ordo servetur. 

33. De Decurionibus, &c. 

34. De Domesticis. 

26. De Prozimis Comitibus, &c. 

....... 33. De Decanis. 

35. De Privilegiis Militum Palatinoruxn. 

L. 7. tit. 8. De Metatis. 

13* De Tironibus. 

30. De Veteranis. 

L. 8. tit. 5. De Cursu Publico, Angariis, et Parangariis. 

8. De Ezecutoribus. 

10. De CoDcussionibus Advocatorum. 

In Tom. III. 

L.9. tit. I. De Accusationibus et Inscriptionibus. 

3> De Custodia Reorum. 

4. Si quis Imperatori maledixerit. 

5* Ad Legem Juliam Majestatis. 

........ 6. Ne prseter crimen Majestatis, &c. 

7. Ad Legem Juliam de adulteriis. 

8. Si quis earn, cujus tutor fueiit, corruperit. 

13. De Emendatione Servorum. 

....... 14. Ad Legem Comeliam de Sicanis. 

15. De Parricidio. 

16. De Maleficis et Mathematicis. 

17. De Sepulcbris violatis. 

18. Ad Legem Fabiam, hoc est. Qui filios involant 

19. Ad Legem Comeliam de Falso. 
31. De Falsa Moneta. 
33. Si quis Solidi circulum exteriorem inciderit, Sec, 

33. Si quis Pecunias conflaverit, &c. 

34. De raptu Virginum Vel Viduarum. 

35. De raptu Sanctimonialium. 

. . * . •-. . 

* *. 

alphabetically arranged. 888 

L.9. tit. 27. Ad Legem Juliam Repetundarum. 

28. De Crimine Peculatus. 

29. De his, qui Latrones, &c., occultavcrint. 

33' De his, qui audent plebem contra publicam col- 

ligere disciplinam. 
....... 34. De Famosis Libellis. 

35* Dc Qusestionibus. 

38. De Indulgentiis Criminum. 

39. De Calumniatoribus. 

40. De Poenis. 

44. De his, qui ad Statuas oonfugiunt. 

45. De his, qui ad Ecdesias confugiuot. 

L. 10. tit. 19. De Metallis et Metallaiiis. 

In Tom. IV, 

L. II. tit. I. De Annona et Tributis. 

6. De Superindicto, 

7. De Exactionibus. 

........ 8. De Superexactionibus. 

16. De Extraordinariis seu Sordidis Muneribus. 

17. De Equorum CoUatione. 

20. De CoUatione Donatarum, &c, 

24. De Patrociniis Vicorum. 

26. De Discussoribus. 

....... 27. De Alimentis. 

30. De Appellationibus et Consiiltatiombus. 

36. Quorum appellationes non recipiendse. 

39* De Fide Testium. 

L. 12. tit. I. De Decurionibua. 

6. De Susceptoribus Proposids et Areariis. 

7. De Ponderatoribus. 

In Tom. V. 

L. 13. tit. I. De Lustrali CoUatione. 

4. De Excusationibus Artificum. 

5* De Naviculariis. 

6. De Pnediis Naviculariorum. 

9. De Naufragiis. 

10. De Censu sive Ascriptione. 

II. De Censitoribus, &c. 

L. 14. tit. 3. De Pistoribus. 

4. De Suariis. 

7. De CoUegiatis. 

10. De Habitu, quo uti oportet intra Urbem. 

13. De Jure ItaUoo Urbis ConstantinopoUtane. 

14. De Canone Frumentario Urbis Roxnae. 

16. De Frumento Urbis ConstantinopolitansB. 

T a 

824 Index of Authors, 

L. 14. tit. 18. De Mendicantibus non invalidis. 
L. 15. tit. 3. De Itinere Muniendo. 

4. De Imaginibus ImperialibuB. 

5* De Spectaculis. 

6. De Maiuma. 

7. De Scenicis. 

13. De Gladiatoribus. 

14. De infinnandis hia, quae aub Tyrannia aut Bar- 

baria gesta aunt. 

In Tom. VI. 
L. 16. tit. I. De Fide Catholica. 

2. De Episcopia, Eccleatia, et Ckrieia. 

3* De Monacbia. 

4. De his, qui auper religione contendunt. 

5. De Hiereticia. 

6. Ne Sanctum Baptiama iteretur. 

7. De Apoatatia. 

8. De Judieia, CoelicoUa, et Samantania. 

9. Ne Chriatianum mancipium Judseua habeat. 

10. De Pagania, Sacrificiia, et Templia. 

II. De Religione. 

12. De Episcopali Judicio. 

Novellae ipaiua et Valentiniani, ad calcem Codicia : 
Tit. 7. De Repudiia. 

21. Neque Donum Divinuin, &c. 

94. De Episcoporum Ordinatione. 

25. De Pretio Solidi. 

26. De Corporatia Urbia Rorose. 
. . 38. De Succeaaione Curialium. 

Novellae aub nomine Valentiniani. 
Tit. 5. De Sepulcbris. 
. . 12. De Epiacopali Judicio. 

757 Theophilub, Alexandrinua Patriarclia. 385 

1. Epiatolse Heortaaticse : ap. t. 3. Biblioth. Patr. Paria. 1654. 

Item ap. t. 5. Biblioth. Max. (ap. Gallandium, t. 7. pp. 
616, aeqq.) subinde, 

2. Canonica Edicta, cc. 7, 9. (ap. Beoeregiumf Pandect, t. 2.) his, 

758 Theophilub, Antiochenus. Libri ad Autolycum <^ : ex Ed. 168 

Johan. Fell, Episc. Oxon. Oxon. 1684. i2mo. (ad calc. Just, al. 
Mart. juxt. Ed. Benedict. 1742.) Vid. supr. No. 432. Item 183 
ap. Gallandium, t. 2. p. 77. ^ti^mc^^. 

759 Theophylactub, Bulgaria Archiepiacopus. I077 

I. Commentaria in Quatuor Evangelia, Gr. et Lat. Paria. 
1631. fol. subinde, 

^ AutolycQB, his intimate friend, was s learned Heathen, who had written m 
defence of his own religion. 

• • 

• • 

. . 

alphabetically arranged. 325 

a. Commentaria in Epistolas S. Pauli. Lond. 1636. fol. bis 


(Inter Opera Omnia, Gr. et Lat., curantibus J. F. Bernardo 
de Rubeis et Bonifac. Finetti. Venet. 1754-^3. 4 to°>* 

760 Thbraci Acta : (ap. Baronium, ad annum 303.) Vid. supr. 

No. 78. Bemel, 

761 [Thibr, or more correctly Thiers, Jean Baptiste. Traits des 1666 

Superstitions, &c. Paris. 1679. i3mo. See Antiquities, b. 16. 
ch. 5. 8. 8. V. 6. p. 370. n. 33., where reference is made to b. 4. 
ch.3. of vol. I. of an enlarged edition printed at Avignon, 
1777. 4 vol. i3mo^] 
763 Thomas Aquinas. Vid. supr. Aquinas, No. 48. 

763 Thomasius, [Thomasi,] Josephus Maria, Cardinalis. Liber 1713 

Sacramentorum'. (Romse, •1680. 4to.) ? 

764 Thorndikb r, Herbert, Prebendary of Westminster. 1643 

I. Of Religious Assemblies and the Public Service of God : 
a Discourse according to Apostolical Rule and Practice. 
Cambridge, 1643. 8vo. (Reprint for the Anglo-Catholic 
Library, Oxford, 1844. v. i. part, i.) semeL 

3. Just Weights and Measures, that is. The present state of 
Religion weighed in the Balance and measured by the 
Standard of the Sanctuary. (Lond. 1663. 4to.) semeL 

765 TiouRiNB Liturgy. See afterwards, Wemdly, No. 818. 

766 TiLLBSLBY, Richard. Animadversions on Selden's History of 16 19 

Tithes, &c. (Lond. 1619. 4to.) semel. 
161 TiMOTHBi Passio : (ap. Fhotii Bibliothecam, cod. 354.) Vid. 
supr. No. 607. semel, 

768 TiMOTHBus, Alexandrinus Episcopus. Canones, [sive Re- 380 

sponsa Canonica.] (ap. Bewregium, Pandect, t. 3.) Vid. supr. 
No. 94. Item, ap. Labb. Concil. t. 3. append, p. 1791. s€tpe. 

769 TiMOTHBus, Constantinopolitanus Presbyter. De iis, qui ad 511 

Fidem Catholicam accedunt : ap. Combefisium in t. 3. Auctar. 
Nov. Paris. 1648. fol. (ap. Cotelerium, Constit. Apost. 1. 5. 
c. 15. 1. 1, p. 319. n. 47. Ed. Antwerp. 1698.) semeL 

« The original work of Thiers on some alterations and changes of the 

Popular Snperstitions was brought out arrangement of articles, 
in one small volume at Paris, 1679. ' See in the sixth volume of his Whole 

In 1704 his TraiU des Superstitiorm, Works, Romae, 1747-54. 7 torn, fol., 

qui regcardrnt let Sacramens, jr., was under the title of Tres Libri Sacra* 

published at Paris also in 3 volumes, mentorum Romanat Ecclesiop. Thomasi 

lamo. See Richard's Dictionnaire Uni- is one of the chief expounders of the 

versel, 1762, t. 5. p. 304., where that Liturgies and Ceremonies, 
bibliographer describes tJiese works. K Ejected by the Parliament from 

The Avignon edition of 1777, to which the Rectory of Barley, Hertfordshire, 

I have referred, appears to be a oombi- but he retained the Mastership of Sid- 

nation of the single volume of 1679, ney-Sussex College, Cambridge, and 

which my Ancestor cites in an addi- became a Prebendary of Westminster 

tional marginal note, and of the three at the Restoration. He died hi i67i> 
other volumes of the year 1704, with 

S26 Index of Authors, 

770 T0LBTU8, FrandBCus, CardiDsdis K Samma Casuum Conaci- 1560 

entie, sive Inatructio Sacerdotum. Duaci> 1633. 8vo. (Colon. 
Agripp. 1610. Bvo.) ter. 

771 Trent, Review of the Council of. See before, Ranckm, 

No. 653. 
773 Tridentinum Concilium. 

1. Decreta et Canones, cum Declarationibua Cardinalium et 

Remissionibus Barboaie. Colon. 1621. (ap. Labb. Concil. 
t. 14.) semel, 

2, Catechiamufi ad Parocho8,&c. (Paris. 167 1. lamo.) semel, 

773 Trithbmius, Johannes, Ord. S. Benedict. De Scriptohbus 1483 

Ecclesiaaticis ^ Colon. 1531. 4to. (ap. Biblioth. Ecdesiast. 
Albert. Fabricii. Hamburgi. 17 18. fol.) bis. 

774 TuDsacHis, Nicolaus de, vulgo Panormitanua. Commenta- 1438 

rius in Quinque Ldbros Decretalium. Lugdon. 1586. fol. 

(Nurembergae, i486, sine titulo et paginatione.) See Anti- 
quities, b. 8. ch. IT. s. 6. v. 3. p. 210. n. 63. 

775 TuRRBTiNUS, Franciscus, S. Th. Profess. Genev. Institntio 1653 

Theologise Elencticee, in qua Status Controversise perspicue 
exponitur, Praecipua Orthodozonim Argumenta proponuntur 
et vindicantur, et Pontes Solutionum aperiuntur. (ap. vol. i. 
Operum, Genevae, 1688. 4 vol. 4to.) semel, 

776 TuRRiANUS. Notse in Canones Arabicos ConcUii Nicseni : (ap. 

Labb. Concil. t. 2.) semel, 

777 [TwYSDEN, Sir Roger, an Antiquary. Historian Anglicanae 1640 

Scriptores Decem, ex vetustis MSS. nunc primum in lucem 
editi, &c. (Lond. 1652. fol.) See Antiquities, b. 9. ch. 6. s. 19. 
▼• 3« P- 375- nn. 30 and 31.] 

778 [Typicum Saba^. The Ritual of the Monastery of St. Sabas. 484 

See Antiquities, b. 20. ch. 4. s. 9. ▼. 7. p. 297. n. 89.] 


779 Ulpianus. Passim in Pandectis sive Digestis Juris Civilis. 200 

(ap. Corp. Jur. Civ. q. v.) Vid. supr. Justinianus, No. 433. 
See Antiquities, b. 3. ch. 4. s. 3. v. i. p. 318. n. 80. 

780 Uranius. Vita Paulini, Operibua praefixa. (Antwerp. 1623. 431 

8vo.) Vid, supr. No. 590. ter, 

781 [Ursula Vindicata : sive. Vita et Martyrium Sociarum 1647 

1 1,000 Virginum : per Hermann. Crombach, sive Crombak. 
(Colon. 1647. fol.) See Antiquities, b. 20. ch. 7. s. 5. v. 7. 

p. 345- n- 73.] 

b Elevated to that rank at Rome in i In this work he gives an acoonnt 

15^3, died 1596. He was by birth of of 870 authors, the greater part of 

Cordova in Spain, and in early life whose writings he had probably read 

Professor of Philosophy at Salanumca. or examined, inasmuch as he gives the 

Later in life he was among the revisers initial wording of most of them, 
of the Siztine edition of the Vulgate. 

alphabetically arranged. SS7 

783 UsHBR or Ussher, [UsBerius,] James, D.D. Archbp. of Ar- 1634 
magh. (The whole Works by Dr. C. R. Elrington, Dublin, 
1847. i^ ^ol* 8vo.) stepius, 

ne order of the Treatises rrferred to according to the Original 

Index of Authors, 

1. Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates ; quibos inserta 

est pestiferse adrersus Dei Gratiam a Pelagio Britanno in 
Ecclesiam inductae Hsereseos Historia. Lond. 1687. fol. 
(Works, as above, vols. 5 and 6.) subinde, 

2. De Christianarum Ecclesiarum Sucoessione et Statu His- 

torica Explicatio : ad calc. Brit. Eccles. Antiq. ut supr. 
Lond. 16S7. fol. (Works, vol. 2.) semel. 

3. Answer to a Challenge made by a Jesuit in Ireland, 

wherein the Judgment of Antiquity in the Points Ques- 
tioned is truly delivered, and the Novelty of the now 
Romish Doctrine plainly discovered. Lond. 1686.^ 4to. 
(Works, vol. 3.) subinde, 

4. The Religion of the Ancient Irish: with the Answer to 
the Jesuit's Challenge, &c. Lond. 1686. 4to. (Works, vol. 
4.) ter, 

5. Historia Dogmatica Controversise inter Orthodoxos et 

Pontificios de Scripturis et Sacris Vemaculis. Lond. 
1690. 4to. (Works, vol. 13.) ter. 

6. De Macedonum et Asianorum Anno Solari Dissertatio, &c. 

Lond. 1648. 8vo. (Works, vol. 7.) semel. 

7. Chronologia Sacra, cum Dissertatione de Symbolo Apo- 

stolico Romans Ecclesiae. Ozon. 1660. 4to. (Works, last 
part of vol. II, and first part of vol. 13, for the Chrono- 
logia Sacra, and vol. 7, for the rest under the following 
title : De Romana Ecclesia Symbolo Apostolico Veteri, 
aliisque Fidei Formulis, turn ab Occidentalibus turn ab 
Orientalibus, in prima Catechesi et Baptismo proponi soU- 
tis: ^c.) sape, 

8. Dissertationes Ignatiame : (in Append, ad Coteleni Patr. 

Apost. juxt. Ed. Antwerp. 1698.) In the Works, vol. 7, 
under the following title: Dissertatio non de Jgnatii 
solum et Polycarpi Scriptis, sed etiam de Apoetolicis Con- 
stitutionibus et Canonibus Clementi Romano tributis. Ed. 
Princeps, 1644. subinde. 

9. Life and Letters. London, 1685. fol. (Works, vol. i, for 

the Life, not cited in the Antiquities ; and vols. 15 and 
16, for the Letters, two only of which are cited.) bis. 
10. Bibliotheca Theologica: (ap. Cave, Hist. Liter, t.i. q. v.) 

^ First published in 1625. 

8S8 Index of Authors, 

1 1 . De Episcoporum et Metropolitanaram Origine. Lond. 1687. 
8vo. (Works, vol. 7, in English, in which it was originally 
written and first published in 1641, under this title: 7^ 
Original qf Bishops and Metropolitans hriefy laid down.) 

13. De Asia Lydiana sire Proconsulari. Ibid. (Works, vol. 7, 
also in English, in which the tract was first written and 
published in 1641, and with this title: A geographical 
and historical Disquisition touching the Asia properly so 
called, the hydian Asia, which is the Asia so often men-' 
tioned in the New Testament, the Proconsular Asia, and 
the Asian Diocese.) semel. 

13. Judgment of Several Subjects, with the Reduction of 
Episcopacy, &c. Lond. 1658. 8vo. (Works, vol. 12, under 
the following descriptive title : The Reduction qf Episco- 
pacy unto the Form of Synodical Government received in 
the Ancient Church, proposed in the year 1641, as an Ex- 
pedient for those Troubles, which afterwards did arise 
about the matter of Church-Oovemment : pp. 537, seqq. 
Then follow the Judgments upon several subjects at 
pp. 548, seqq.) semel vel bis. 


783 [Valentinianub Iir. Imp. Novella: (ad calc. Cod. Theodo- 370 

sian.) Vid. supr. Theodosius, No. 756. semel. 

784 Valerianus S. Cemeliensis Episcopus. [Bp. of Cemele in the 439 

Maritime Alps.] Homiliae Viginti, et Epistola ad Monachoa 
de Virtutibus et Ordine Doctrinse Apostolicse : ad calc. Oper. 
Leon. M. Lugdun. 1673. fol. (ap. Galkmdium, 1. 10. pp. 125, 
seqq.) semel, 

785 Valerius Maximus. Dictorum Factorumque Memorabilium 30 

libri Novem. (Antwerp. 1631. lamo.) subinde. 

786 Valebius, {^Henry de Vahis,"] Jesuita. Annotationes in His- 1660 

torias Ecclesiasticas Eusebii, Socratis, et ceterorum. Paris. 
1659. Itidem, 167a. Amstel. 1695. (Ed. Reading. Cantabr. 
1730. The whole series forming three volumes, folio.) 

I. In Eusebii Hist. Eccles. (t. i.) sapius. 

a. In Eusebii Hist, de Martyribus Palaestinse. (ibid.) ter. 

3. Libros Quatuor de Vita Imp. Constantini. (ibid.) sub' 


4. In Socratis Hist. Eccles. (t. 3. part, i.) S€epius. 

5. In Sozomeni Hist. Eccles. (ibid. part. 3.) sapius. 

6. In Theodoreti Hist. Eccles. (t. 3. part, i.) strpe. 

7. In Evagrii Hbt. Eccles. (ibid. part. 3.) bis. 

8. In Philostorgii Hist. Eccles. (ibid. part. 3.) semel. 

9. In Theodori Lectoris Hist. Eccles. (ibid. part. 4.) bis. 

alphabetically arranged, 3S9 

10. Epistola de Anastasi et Martjnio Hierosoljrmitano : (&d 

calc. Eusebii, ut supra, Cantabr. 1720. p. 786.) semel, 

11. Dissertatio de Martyrologio Romano, quod edidit Roswey- 

du8. (ad calc. ibid. p. 792.) semeL ^ 

787 [Vandbrhaer. Liturgicarum Antiquitatum Arcana, &c. 1600 

(Duaci, ex Typographia Baltasar Belleri, 1605. 3 vol. 8vo.) 
See Antiquities, b. 15. cb. i. s. 2. v. 5. p. 220. n. 13.] 

788 Varro, M. Terentius. De Lingua Latina, cum Notis Scaligeri. 

(Paris. 1585. 8vo.) semel. 

789 Vkdblius, Nicolaus, S. Th. Profess. Daventriae. 1620 

1. Exercitationes in Ignatium. (Genev. 1623. 4to.) semel, 

2. De Prudentia Veteris Ecclesise. (Amstel. 1633. 8yo.) semel, 

790 Vegetius, Flavins Renatus. De Re Militari. Lugdun. Batav. 330? 

1592. 8vo. (Rapbelengii, ex Officin. Plantin. 1607. 410.) 

791 Venantius Fortunatus. Vid. supr. Fortvnaius, No. 304. 

792 Vbroilius, Polydoms. \Folydore Vergil^.'] De Inventoribus 1513 

Rerum Libri Octo: &c. Basil. 1540. 8vo. (Itidem, 1570. 
i2mo.) Amstel. Elzev. 167 1. i2mo. Laber probibitus in In- 
dioe Sotomajor. ter, 

793 VicECOMES, [Visconti,] Josephus. 1600 

I. Observationes Ecclesiastics^. In quo de Antiquis Bap- 
tismi Ritibus ac Ceeremoniis agitur. Opus sacra eru- 
ditione refertum, Vetemmque Patrum lectioni lumen al- 
laturum. (Paris. 1 618. 8vo.>°) sape, 

794 Victor, Sextus Aurelius. Vita Caracallse, ap. Epitomen tlis- 360 

torise Romanie. (Antwerp. 1579. 8vo.) semel, 

795 Victor, Antiocbenus, Presbyter. Commentarius in S. Evan- 401 

gelium secundum Marcum: ap. t. i. Bibliotb. Patr. Paris. 
1654. (ap. t. 4. Bibliotb. Max. Lugdun. 1677.) ter, 

796 Victor, Uticensis, sive Vitensis, Episcopus. De Persecutione 484 

Africana sub Geiserioo et Hunerico, Arianis Vandalorum 
Regibus Historise : ap. t. 7. Bibliotb. Patr. Paris. 1654. (ap. 
t. 8. Bibliothec. Max. Lugdun. 1677.) Item ap. Grynsei 
Monumenta S. Patrum Ortbodoxograpba, 1. 1. p. 799. Basil. 
1569. 8 tom. in 2 vol. fol. seepe. 

1 He was bom at Urbino in Italy, tismo et Confirmatinne: De Antiquit 

Having been sent into England by Mititt Ritibus, S[c,'b/LeA\o\asi. 161^-26. 

Pope Alexander VL to collect the 4 vol. 4to., the third volume of which 

Papal tribute he remained there, and my Ancestor seem? to notice in his 

became Rector of Church Langton and original Index of Authors under the 

Prebendary of Hereford and Lincoln title of De Ritibus EucKaristiof, Me- 

in 1507, and Prebendary of St. Paul's diolan. 1618. 4to. The work itself is 

in 15 13. After many years he again very rare. The first volume of the four 

left this country and died at Urbino treats of Baptism, the second of (>on- 

in 1555. firmation, the third of the Ritual of the 

m This is a reprint of the first Mass, and the fourth of the Vessels and 

volume of the entire set of Visconti's Ornaments used in the Celebration. 
Obtervationes Ecclesiastical : De Bap' 

S80 Index ofAuthxyrs, 

797 Victor Tunonensis. [Tunonae in Africa Episcopus.] Chroni- 555 

con, in Appendice Chronici Euaebiani. Amstel. 1658. Vid. 
Bupr. No. 275. Item ap. Gallandiiun, 1. 13. ? 

798 V1CTORINU8, S.y PetavionensiSy [Bishop of Petau in Germany,'] 200 

EpiscopoB et Martyr. 

1. Tractatus de Fabrica Mundi: ap. Cay. Hist. liter. 1. 1. 

p. 103. Lond. 1688. bis terve. 

2. Coramentarius, sive Scholia, in Apocalypsim : ap. t. i. 

Biblioth. Patr. Paris. 1654. Biblioth. Max. t.3. (ap. Gal- 
landium, t. 4. p. 52.) ? 

799 ViCTORiNus, aL Victor et Victorius, Aquitanus sire Aquitani- 457 

cus. Canon Paschalis, cum Notis Bucherii. (Antwerp. 1634. 
fol.) Vid. Bupr. Bucherium, No. 117. setnel vel bis. 

800 VioiLiUB I. Papa. Epistolse : (ap. Labb. Concil. t. 5.) subinde. 540 

£p. 2. ad Eutherium. Ep. 4. ad Justinianum. Ep. ad Rus- 

801 ViGiLius Tapsensis. Opera, [contra Arianos,] per Chifletium : 484 

Dirione, 1664. 4to. semel. 

802 ViNCENTiUB Bellovacensis [Vincent qf Beauvais'], Speculum 1244 

Historise. Mogunt. 1474. (Venet. 1494. foL^^) semeL See 
Antiquities, b. i. ch. i. s. 4. v. i. p. 5. n. 17. 

803 V1NCENTIU8 Lirinensis, Monachus. Commonitorium adversus 434 

Hsereses, cum Notis Filesaci. Paris. 161 9. 4to. Vid. supr. 
Filesacus, No. 296. (Juxt. Ed. Baluzii cum S. Salviani Ope- 
ribus. Pedepont. 1742. 4to.) Item ap. Crollandium, 1. 10. pp. 
103, seqq. 

804 V1RGILIU8, Poeta. Georgic. 1. 4. v. 291. See Antiquities, b. 9. 

ch. 2. s. 20. v. 3. p. 298. n. 28. 

805 ViTRuvius, Marcus PoUio. De Architectura Libri Decem; 10? 

cum Annotationibus Gulielmi Philandri Castalionii. (Lugdun. 
1586. 4to.) semel, 

806 ViVEs, Johannes Ludovicus. Libri Duodecim de Disciplinis. 1522 

Hi de Corruptis Artibus, &c. Illi de Tradendis Disciplinis, &c. 
(Oxon. 1612. 8vo.o) semel, 

807 [VisiooTHORUM Leges : (ap. Gothofredum ad Cod. Theodo- 

sian. 1. 2. tit. 8. leg. 2.) Vid. supr. Theodosius, No. 756. bis.] 

n In black letter. See the Supple- * Fauste, nunc annotatur, Sf^e., occa' 
mentary or Carbonic Catalogue at the sionem pretbuU Jofutnnem Fauatum 
Britism Museum, 1853. According to tubomandi, Sfc. 
Maittaire (Annal. Typograph. t. 4. p. «> Louis Vives, who was bom at Va- 
343. Amstel. 1733.) the ediiio princeps lencia in Spain in 1492, and afterwards 
of this rare book was printed by Faust ; studied both at Paris and Louvain, read 
which statement is refuted by Panzer, lectures at Oxford on Law and the 
(t. I. pp. 104, 105.) who contends that Classics in the early part of the six- 
it first appealed Augusta Findelieorum teenth century. He had been invited 
et quidem in Monasterio SS. Ulrici et to England in 152a to undertake the 
Africm^ and adds, Maitt., p, 342, post instruction of the Princess Mary. He 
Saubertuntf ;?. 1 25, cut pentameter iUe, died at the early age of forty-eight. 

alphabetically arranged. 831 

808 V0PI8CU8, Flavius, Syracuflius : (inter August. Hist. Scriptor. 

LugduD. Batav. 166 1. Svo.) Vid. supr. No. 62. 
I. Vita Aureliani. his, 
3. Vita Satumini. semel, 

809 VosBius, Gerardus Johannes, L.L.D. Ozon.P 1629 

1. Theses Theologicse et Historicae de Variis Doctrinae 

Christianse Capitihus, quas olim disputandas proposuit 
in Academia Leidensi. Bellositi Duhunorum, 1638. 4to. 
tHag. Comit. 1658. 4to. (ap. t.^. n.5. Operum, Amstel. 
1 685-1 701 . 6 torn, fol.) fubinde, 

2. De Baptismo Disputationes Viginti, et Una de Sacramen- 

torum Vi et Efficacia. Amstel. 1648. 4to. (ap. t. 6. n. 6. 
Operum, ut supr.) stspe, 

3. Dissertationes TVes de Trihus Symholis, Apostolico, Atha- 

nasiano, et Constantinopolitano. Amstel. 1642. 4to. (ap. 
t. 6. Operum, ut supr.) bis. 

4. In Epistolam Plinii de Christianis, et in EdicU Csesarum 

Bomanorum adversus Christianos, Commentarius. (ap. 
t. 4. Operum, ut supr., inter Opuscula Varii Argumenti.) 

810 V088IU6, Isaac, D.C.L. Oxon.4 Not« in Ignatium: (ap. Cote- 1670 

lerium, Patr. Apost. t. 2. p. 8. Ed. Antwerp. 1698.) semel, 


811 Wake, William, D.D. Archbishop of Canterbury. Defence of 1716 

the Exposition of the Doctrine of the Church of England 
against Mr. De Meaux. Lond. 1688. 4to. (In the 12th vol. 
of Gibson's Preservative, &c. Lond. 1848. 18 vol. 8vo.) semel. 

812 Walker, William r, M.A. A modest Plea for Infants' Bap- 1670 

tism, wherein the Lawfulness of the baptizing of Infants is 
defended. (Cambridge, 1677. i3mo.) semel. 

813 Wall, William, D.D. Vicar of Shoreham, near Seven Oaks, in 1676 

Kent. A History of Infant- Baptism, &c. Lond. 1705. 2 vol. 
8vo. (Oxford, 1836. 4 vol. 8vo. ■) bis. 

P Archbishop Laud, whose great ob- died in 1688. He has been charged 

ject was to encourage Anmnianism, so with scepticism, 
much admired the works of Gerard ^ Of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Vossins, that while he resided at Ley- Afterwards Master of the Grammar 

den he bestowed on him a prebendal School at Louth in Ijincolnshire, Rec- 

stali at Canterbury. Hence it was that tor of Colsterworth in the same county, 

he came over from Holland in 1629, and finally Master of the Public School 

and took a Doctor of Civil Law's de- at Grantham. Died 1 684. He assisted 

gree at Oxford in order to be installed, in the education of Sir Isaac Newton. 
He died at Amsterdam in 1649. > In this edition by Mr. Cotton the 

Q He was the son of Grervd John quotations have been verified, and the 

by his second wife, and was bom at answer of Mr. John €rale, entitled Re- 

I^den in i6j8, but removed to Eng- flectiont on Mr. ff^aWt Nistorp 0/ In^ 

Und in 1670, and was created D.C.L. font- Baptism, has been added. The 

at Oxford. He afterwards became first edition of Mr. Wall's book was in 

Canon of Windsor in 1678, where he 1705, in a volumes, 8vo., as above; 

33S Index of Authors, 

814 Walo Messalinus, al. Salnuuius, Vid. supr. No. 673. 9emeL 

815 Walterus Aurdianensis. CSapitula, cum Notis Cc^otii: (ap. i 

Labb. CoDcil. t. 8.) semel, 

816 Walton, Brian, D.D. Bisbop of Chester^ Prolegomena, aeu 1639 

Apparatus ad Biblia Polyglotta. Tiguri, 1673. fol. (Lond. 
1657. fol.) Item, Ed. Francisci Wrangham, Clevelandis 
Arcbidiac. Cantabr. 1828. 2 vol. 8vo. bU. 

817 Watson, Ricbard. De Antiqua Ldbertate Ecclesise Britannicas. 1660 

Lond. 1687. 8yo. [Tbe Ancient Liberty of tbe Britannic 
Churcb and tbe LegitimateExemption tbereof from tbe Roman 
Patriarcbate, &c. By Isaac Baaier, D. D., and Cbaplain in 
ordinary to bis late Majesty of Great Britain, Cbarles tbe 
First. Translated and pubUsbed for Vulgar Instruction by 
Ri. Watson. ( Lond. 1 66 1 . 1 2mo . ^) See Antiquities, b. 9. cb. i . 
8. 1 1 . V. 3. p. 243. n. 51 .] 

818 Wbrndly, Jobn Conrad. Notes on tbe Tigurine liturgy^. 

(Lond. 1693. 8ro.) semeL 

819 Wbsselus, Jobannes. Groningensis. De Indulgentiis Papali- 1449 

bus. (ap. lUyricum in CSatalog. Test. Veritat., et ap. Momman 
in Myst. Iniquit. Papat.) Vid. supr. No. 301, et No. 529. semel. 

820 [Wetstein, Jobn Rodolpb. Notee ad Origenis Dialogum con- 1677 

tra Marcionitas, &c. (BasU. 1678. 4to.) semelJ] 

821 Wbttbnhall, or Wetenball, or Wbetenball, Edward, D.D. 1678 

Bisbop of Cork and Ross. Of Gifts and Offices in tbe Public 
Worsbip of God. (Dublin. 1679. 8vo.) 

1. Tbe Gift of Prayer, semel, 

2. Tbe Gift of Singing, ter. 

3. Tbe Duty of Preacbing. bis, 

822 Wharton, Henry, M.A. 1688 

I. Appendix ad Cavei Historiam Dogmaticam'. Lond. 1689. 
fol. (Ed. Basil. 1741-45. 2 tom. fol. ap. Append, t. 2.) 
semel vel bis, 

the second, with large additions, fol- of Dr. Easier, though not under hu 

lowed in 1707; then another in 1710, name, at Bruges, 1659, 8 vo. My learned 

when a third volume was given con- Ancestor seems to have been acquainted 

taining the Defence of the History, with a reprint of the original still with- 

The three wer^ badly reprinted in 1819. out the name of Busier^ and probably 

Mr. Wall received the thanks of Con- under that of Watson, Lond. 1687. 

vocation for writing *■*■ his learned and 8vo., as above. The Book is now diffi- 

excellent book/' while the University cult to be met with, either in Latin or 

of Oxford conferred on him the degree in English ; but I have seen a copy of 

of D. D. the Translation, viz . Lond. 1 66 1 . 1 2mo. , 

^ Prebendary of St. Paul's in 1639, ^ ^^ Archbishop's Library at Lam- 

and made Bishop of Chester at the beth. Copies of the edition of that 

Restoration, 1660. He died the year year and of 1659 ^^^ ^'^ ^ ^^ found 

afterwards. in the Bodleian at Oxford. 

u From the first few lines of the ▼ For the full title of this book, see 

Epistle Dedicatory to Sir Richard the Index of Authors to the French 

Brown, prefixed to this translation, it Church's Apology, Sermons, &c., v. to, 

appears that Watson had previously under IMurgia Tigvrina, 
published the original Latin Diatribe > Mr. Wharton was prepared for this 

alphabetically arranged. 83JS 

2. Auctarium Historiae Dogmaticse Usserii. (Lond. 1690. 

4to.) ter, 

3. A DefeDoe of Pluralities or Holding two Benefices with 

Cure of Souls, as now practised in the Church of Eng- 
land. Second Edition, with material Additions and Au- 
thorities by the Author's own hand, &c. (Lond. 1703. 
4to.3^) semel, 

833 Wheklocke, Abraham. Not« in Beds? Gent. Anglor. Eccle- 1635 

siast. Hist. (Cantabr. 1643. fol.j semel, 

834 Whitakbr, WiUiam, D. D. Regius Professor of Divinity at 1579 

Cambridge '. De Conciliis. Herbom. 1601. 8vo. (Cantabr. 
i6oo« 8vo.) semel, 

835 Whitby, Daniel, D. D. Prebendary and Precentor of Sarum. 1673 

I. The Absurdity and Idolatry of Host- Worship : proved by 
showing how it answers what is said in Scripture and the 
Writings of the Fathers, to show the FoUy and Idolatry 
committed in the Worship of the Heathen Deities : and 
an Appendix against Transubstantiation. (Lond. 1679. 
8vo.) bis. 

3. The Protestant Reconciler, humbly pleading for condescen- 
sion to Dissenting Brethren in things indifferent. (Lond. 
1683. 8vo. Sec. £d.^) semel, 

3. A Demonstration that the Church of Rome and her Coun- 
cils have erred; by shewing that the Councils of Con- 
stance, Basil, and Trent have in all their Decrees touching 
Communion in One Kind contradicted the Received Doc- 
trine of the Chiux^h of Christ, Sec, Lond. 1686. 4to. 
(Lond. 1688. 4to.^) semel, 

836 WhitoiftS John, D.D. Archbishop of Canterbury. Works, 1583 

(Lond. 1674. fol.) The Defence of the Answer to the Admoni- 
tion against the reply of Thomas Cartwright, Tractates 9. semel. 

work by having acted as amannenris to who was always an Arminian, became 

Dr. Cave while he was compiling his an Arian towards the dose of life, and 

Historia IMeraria, He was Chaplain wrote his sentiments accordingly in his 

to Archbifihop Sancroft in 1688. He *'T(rrtpeu ^poyrlHtSy or Lati Thoughts^ 

died in 1695. containing his correction of tcveral 

7 Originally published anonymously, passages in his Commentary on the 

z He was bom at Holme, in Lanca- A^ew Testament, ^c, Lond. 1727. 8vo. 
shire, in 1547. Educated at St. Paul's ^ This book liAving an Appendix, 

School, and at Trinity College, Cam* and being two years later than the date 

bridge. Became Master of St. John*s given in the original Index of Authors, 

College in 1580. Died 1595. He was was probably the second edition of the 

a Calvinistio divine of profound learn- tract. Probably in my Ancestor's day 

ing and unwearied diligence and appli- it was not known to have come from 

cation. the pen of Dr. Whitby. 

ft Published anonymously, as also in c Lady Margaret Professor of Divi- 

the same year * The Protestant Recon- nity at Cambridge in 1563. Regius 

dler, Part the Second, earnestly per- Professor of Dirinity and Master of 

suading the Dissenting Laity to join in Trinity in 1568. Bidiop of Worcester 

full communion with the Church of in 1577. Archbishop of Canterbury in 
England.' Lond. 1683. 8vo. Whitby, 1583. Died in 1603. 

S34 Index of Authors. 

837 [WoLFius, Johannes. Lectiones Memorabiles et Recondit» : 1567 
Liber Rarus ex S. Scriptune Venerandse AntiquitatiB ArcaniB 
ezarattts. Francofart. 167a. a torn. fol. semeL'] 


828 Xylandkr, Gulielmus. Notse in Cedrenum : (ap. t. 9. By- 1557 

zant. Hist. Scriptor. Venet. 1729.) Vid. supr. Cedremus, 
No. 156. 


829 [Zaoa Zabo's Account of the Habassin Religion, in Dr. Michael ? 

Geddes' Church History of Ethiopia, (Lond. 1696. 8vo.), and 
in Damianus a Goes. See Antiquities, b. 8. ch. 10. s. 6. ▼. 3. 
p. 195. n. 3.] 

830 Zbno, Veronensis Episcopus. Sermones : ap. t. 3. Biblioth. 366 

Patr. Paris. 1654. ap. Biblioth. Max. t. 8. (ap. Gailandium, 
t. 5. pp. 149, seqq.) his. 

831 ZsppERUs, Gulielmus. Legum Mosaicarum Forensium Ex- 1604 

planatio. (Herbomse Nassoviorum, 1604. 8vo.) bis. 
83a ZiBGLBR ^, Gaspar. Animadversiones in Grotium de Jure 1661 
Belli et Pacis. (Wittebergse, 1676. 8vo.) Vid. supr. GroHuSt 
No. 357. semel. 

833 ZoNARAS, Johannes. Commentarius in Canones Ck)nciliorum, iiao 

Gr. et Lat. : (ap. Bevereffium in Pandect. Oxon. 167a. a torn, 
fol.) Vid. supr. No. 94. seepe. 

834 Z08IMUS, Comes. Historia, Gr. et Lat. Jeme, 17 13. 8vo. 400 

(Oxon. e Theatr. Sheldon. 1679. 8ro.) Item, cum Notis et 
Commentario Jo. Fred. Reitemeier, &c. Lips. 1784. 8vo. ter 

835 Z08IMU8 L Papa. £p. i. int. Epistolas et Decreta: (ap. Labb. 417 

Concil. t. a.) Item ap. Gallandium, t. 9. semel. 

836 ZuiNOLius, [Ztr»n^/t,] Ulricus. Explanatio Articuli XVIII. 1516 

(ap. 1. 1. Operum, 'Hgur. 1581. 4 tom. fol.) semel. 

837 Zygomalas, ap. Crusium in Turco-Graecia. (Basil. 1584. fol.) 

Vid. supr. No. 315. semel. 

838 [ZiBDLER, Melchior. De Polygamia, p. 117. (Cited by Fabri- 

cius, Bibliograph. Antiquar. c. ao. De Polygam. s. 11.) See 
Antiquities, b. 16. ch. 1 1. s. 5. ▼. 6. p. 419, at the end of n. 78.] 

d He was an eounent jarist, and Professor of Ciyil Law at Wittemberg, where 
he died in 1690. 





A. Anno 

1 Agathense, [Agde,"] in Gallia Narbonensi a 35 episcopis, 506 

3. Idu8 Septembr., vd, ut alii, 5. Cal. Septembr., ad discipli- 
nam pristino vigori restituendam, habitum. Canones 48, qui- 
bu8 35 alii poBtea accesserunt. (CC. t. 4. p. 138 1.) siepissime, 

2 Agrippinensb, al. Coloniense : in quo Euphratas, Ck)loni8e 349 

Agrippinse Episcopus, ob negatam Chriati Deitatem damnatus al. 
atque ezauctoratus eat. (CC. t. a. p.615.*) semel. 346 

3 Alexandrinum, ab Athanasio, jam ab exsilio reverso, una cum 339 

episcopis auis numero fere 100, auno 339, babitum. In quo 
causa Atbanasii sub examen revocatur, ejusque innocentia, ad- 
versufl turn veteres, turn novas adversariorum calumnias, plenis- 
sime vindicatur. (Vid. ap. Socrat. Hist. Ecdes. 1. 1. c. 6.) 
Exstat etiam ap. CC. t. a. p. 533. 

4 Alexandrinum, ab Athanasio et episcopis suis babitum, in 36a 

quo Fidem Catbolicam Joviano Imperatori accurate ezponunt. al. 
(CC. t. 3. p. 823.) bis. 363 

5 Ancyranum, Ancyrae in Galatia ab 18 episcopis ex Asia Minori 314 

vicinisque provinciis congregatis habitum, ut disciplina ecde- al. 

siastica resarciretur et lapsi ad pcenitentiam rectius admitterentur . 315 
Canones 34. al. 36. (CC. 1. 1. p. 1455.) stspius. 

6 Antiochbnum, innumerabilium fere episcoporum ex omnibus 370 

Orientis provinciis undique collectorum, contra Paulum Samo- 
satenum iterum coactmn. (CC. 1. 1. p. 843.) sapius, 

^ Bat Cave tells us, that the Acts of the very next year among the orthodox 

this Council are considered to be spa- bishops at the Conndl of Sardica. Hist, 

rioas, inasmnch as Enphratas, who is Liter. Basil. 1741. t. x. p. 356. 
therein condemned as a heretic, is fonnd 

336 Index of Councils j 

7 Antiochbnum in Encseniis, s. occasione Encaeniorum Magiue 341 

EcdeBise Constantii Imp. jussu ibidem celebratorum, coactum^. 
Aderant sub ductu Eusebii Nicomediensis episcopi, teste Atfaa- 
naBio, 90, Sozomeno^ 97^ ex Coelo-Syria, Phoenicia, Palsstina, 
&c. Canones 25. (CC. t. 3. p. 559. et p. 590.) Item ap. Justel- 
Inm, Biblioth. Jur. Canon, aemel vel his, 

8 Antissiodorbnbb, al. Autissiodorense S \^Auxerre^ in Gallia, 578 

ab Aunacbario epiacopo, una cum pluhbus dioceseos suie abba- 
tibus et pre8b3rteri8, celebratum. Canonea 45. (CC. t. a. p. 308. 
cum Notis Cointii. Ibid. p. 956. cum Notia Siimondi et Binii.) 

9 AquilbiensBi adversuB Palladium Arianorum anteaignanum a 381 

32 episcopis, Italia \ Gallia, &c., babitum. (CC. t. 2. p. 978.) 

10 Aquisgranensb ^ [Aix la ChapeUe,] sub Carolo M. in Palatio 788 

Regio babitum. Canonea 82, de disciplina et regimine ecdeaise. al. 
(CC. t. 7. p. 966. Capitularia Aquisgranensia.) semeL 789 

11 Abausicum Primum, [^Orange,^ in Gallia Narbonensi a 17. 441 

episcopis coactum : quo plurima ad jura et diaciplinam ecde- 
aiasticam pertinentia sancita aunt. Canonea 30. (CC. t. 3. 
p. 1446.) sape, 
I a Arausicuu Secundum, a 13 episcopia celebratum. Capitula 25, 529 
de Gratia et Ldbero Arbitrio. (CC. t. 4. p. 1666.) semel vel bis, 

13 Arblatbnsb Primum, [Aries,'] in Gallia Conatantini M. juasu 314 

a 300 episcopia celebratum contra Donatistas. Canones 32, ad 
eccleaise morea et disciplinam apectantes. (CC. 1. 1. p. 1421.) 

14 Arelatbnbe Secundum. Canones 56, de diversis legibus et 451 

consuetndinibus ecdeaiasticis ex antecedentium Condliorum, al. 
ut plurimum, desumpti. (CC. t.4. p. loio.) S€Bpiu8. 45a 

15 Arblatbnsb vulgo Sextum, jubente Carolo M. in Basilica 813 

S. Stepbani congregatum. Canones 26, ad reatituendam col- 
lapsam ecclesise disciplinam. (CC. t. 7. p. 1231.) bis. Item 
ap. Gratianum in Corp. Jur. Canon, citantem. c. 6. semeL 

16 Ariminense ' in Italia, quo Constantii Uteris convocati convene- 359 

runt ex omni Orbe Romano episcopi plus quam 400. (CC. t. 2. 
p. 793.) semel. 

^ In the four formula of the faith part in this proTinda] Cotmcil, in whidi 

framed and recited at this Council, the Palladius, Secandianus, and Attahu the 

term 6fjMo6au>s, ctnuubstatitialis, is nevCT Presbjrter, were condemned, 

met with. See Cave, BasiL 1741. t. i. « Others put down the date of 8x6, 

p. 355., and compare (ibid. p. 362.) the others 830, and again others 836. 

record of the C. Antiochense in Caria, Compare the context and notes where 

anno 368. cited, viz. Antiquities, b. 15. ch. 9. a. 5. 

c Cointius dates this Council in 586, t. 5. p. 51; a. n. 29. 
others in 590, and others stiU more t In this Council they at first con- 
erroneously place it in 614. See Cave, firmed the Nicene Creed, distinctly 
as above, p. 564. condemned all the dog[mas of Arianism, 

d St. Ambrose bore a conspicaons and deposed UrsadosValens and others. 

alphubetically arranged, S37 

17 Abvbrnbnsb Primam, IClermont,'] in Gallia apud Aquitanos a 535 

15 epiacopis coactum. Canones 16, de variia rebus et con- 
Buetudinibus. (CC. t. 4. p. 1803.) semel, 

18 Arvbbnbnbb Secundum a 10 epiacopia celebratum. Canonea 549 

16. (CC. t. 5. p. 401.) semeL 

19 AuousTODUNBNSB, lAutun,"] in Gallia, in Ducatu Burgundienai 670 

sub S. Leodegario Auguatodun. Episc. congregatum. Cano- al. 
nei 15, de disciplina monaatica; aUum de clericia addidit Sir- 663 
mondua. (CC. t. 6. p. 535.) semel, 
30 AuRBLiANBNSB Primum, [Orleans,'] in Gallia, preaentibua 511 
epiacopia 3a, a Clodovseo Rege convocatmn. Canonea 31, ad 
mores, ritus, et consuetudines ecdesi® utiles. (CC. t.4. p. 1403.) 

21 AuRBLiANBNSB Sccuudum, a 26 episcopis et presbyteris aliquot 533 

jussu Cfaildeberti Regis celebratum. Canones 21, ad morea et 
ecclesise disciplinam spectantes. (CC. t. 4. p. 1779.) subinde. 

22 AuRBLiANBNSB Tertium, a 36 episcopis faabitum. Canones 33, 538 

ad reformandam ecclesite disciplinam. (CC. t. 5. p. 294.) sub' 

23 AURBLIANBNSB Quartum, a 50 episcopis vel per se vel per vi« 541 

carios presentibus, celebratum. Canones 38, de ritibus et 
negotiis ecclesiasticis. (CC. t. 5. p. 380.) ter quaterve, 

24 AURBLIANBNSB Qulutum, a 50 episcopis et 21 vicariis celebra- 549 

tum. Canones 24, quorum primo damnatis Nestorii et Euty- 
chetis dogmatibus, reliqui ad ecdesife disciplinam spectant. 
(CC. t. 5. p. 390.) subinde, 


25 Barcinonbnbb, [Barcelona,'] in Hispania, a 7 episcopis sub Ser- 540 

gio Metropolitano babitum. Canonea 10, de disciplina eccle- 
siastica. (t. 5. p. 378.) bis terve, 

26 Babilibnbb CEcumenicum ex Decreto C. Constantiensis, &c., 1431 

sub Martino V. et post ejus obitum Eugenio IV. PP. (CC. 
1. 12. p. 459.) semel, 

27 Bracarbnbb Primum, al. Secundum t, [Braga,] in Hispania 563 

Tarraconensi ab 8 episcopis babitum. Capitula 17 adv. Hsere- al. 
aim PrisciUianam, et Canones 22, de disciplina ecclesiastics. 561 
(CC. t. 5. p. 836.) stepitts. 

bnt eventually oTeroome, partly by the r The first Coancil of Brsga, ac- 

intrignea of some, and partly by the cording to Labbe and Cossart's edi- 

entreatiei and threats of Tannis, the tion, termed ^rararmf^ only in Crabbe, 

Prefect of the dty, and wearied by is extant in t. 3. p. 1507. Cave speaks 

their long detention there, in gene^ of it as held in the year 41 1, bat ques- 

ralem quondam Fidei formulam ab tions the authenticity of its Acts and 

Ariania comcriptam, mnino penUua Articles. Bat hence what my Ancestor 

SUB8TANTIJB vocabtdo^ nolentea volen- terms with Caye Bracaren$e i will be 

tea conaenserunt. See Cave, as before, according to Labbe 3, and 2 will be 3, 

▼• I. p< 359. and 3 will be 4. 


SS8 Index of Councils, 

28 Bracarsnsb Secundum, al. Tertium, sub Merone Suevonim 57a 

Rege a la episcopia, prsesidente Martino Dumienai Archiep. 

Bracarens., faabitum. Capitula 10, al. 17, de diadplina ecde- 

aiastica. (CC. t. 5. p. 894.) sape. 
ap [Bracarbnbe Tertium, al. Quartum, cui pnefuit Leocidisiua 675 

metropolitanus, ab 8 episcopis habitum. Capitula 9, al. 10. de 

fide et disciplina. (CC. t. 6. p. 601.) ter,"] 


^ Cabilonbnss, al. CabUlonenBe, Primuxn, juxta Cave, q. v., Se- 650 
cundum, [^Chakms,'] in Gallia a 38 episcopis et 80 yicariis habi- 
tum. Canones ao, de moribus et disciplina. (CC. t. 6. p. 387.) 
ter quaterve. 

31 Cabilonbnbb Secundum, juzta Cave, q. v., Tertium, sive Pri- 813 
mum in Sieculo Photiano, Caroli M. jusso celebratum. In 
quo inter alia decretum est, ut juxta Caroli mandatum in 
majoribus monasteriis et episoopiis scholae publicsB'' instituan- 
tur, in quibus ingenuorum filii aitis Uberales edocerentur. 
Canones 66. CC. t. 7. p. 1370.) ter quaterve, 

3a CiBSARAUousTANUM, ISaraffossa,'] in Hispania, contra Priscil- 381 
lianistas a la episcopis celebratum. Canones 8, de disciplina al. 
ecdesiastica. (CC. t. a. p. 1009.) subinde. 380 

33 Calchuthense apud Anglos in regno Merciorum, a Gregorio 787 

Ostiensi et Theopbylacto Tudertino, Hadriani Paps legatis, 
babitum. Capitula ao, de Fide Nicsena retinenda variisque 
n^otiis ecclesiasticis. (Spelman. Concil. Britann. c. i. p. a9i. 
Labb. et Cossart. CC. t. 6. p. 1861.) bis, 

34 Cabthaoinbnse sub Cypriano, h. e., Septimum Sseculi Nova- a56 

tiani, sive Seztum Cypiiani, (juxta Cave, q. v.) qui synodum 
71 episcoporum ex Provinda Africse et Numidia convocavit, qui 
sententiam antea latam de hsereticis rebaptizandis decreto suo 
confirmamnt. (CC. 1. 1. p. 740.) 

35 Carthaoinbnsb Primum, juxta Cave Sieculi Ariani Quartum, 348 

a Grato plurimisque Africse episcopis, occasions turbarum, 
quas Circiuncelliones Donatistse excitaverant, babitum. Ca- 
nones 14, circa varias ecclesiie consuetudines. (CC. t. a. p. 713. 
Ibid, ab Holstenio emendat. Append, p. i8ai.) sape, 

36 Carthaoinense Secundum sub Genethlio, juxta Cave, ejusdem 390 

saeculi Quintum, ad instaurandos ecdesis mores coactum. 
Canones nve Capitula 13. (CC. t. a. p. 1158.) sape, 

37 Carthaoinbnsb Tertium, juxta Cave ejusdem sseculi Sextum, 397 

in secretario BasilicsB Restitute, sub Aurelio babitum. Canones 
sive capitula 50, qun ad disciplinam et regimen ecdesise pne- 
cipue spectant. (CC. t. a. p. 1165.) $€Bpis9ime. 

^ Thu fact of the institution of men is a striking feature of the era of 
public schools for the sons of gentle- this Council. See more in Cave. 

alphabetically arranged, 389 

38 Carthaginbnsk Quartum, jazta Cave ejusdem saeculi Septi- 399 

mum, frequent! eatis epiacoporum numero, prseaide Aurelio, 
habitum. Capitula 104, quasdam jam oondita, reliqua olim 
tradita et nunc collecta, ut disciplina ecdesiastica foede collapaa 
in integrum reatitueretur. (CG. t. a. p. 1196.) passim. 

39 Garth AGINBN8B Quintum sub Aurelio, juxta Gave Sasculi 401 

Neatoriani Primum aive Africanum Secundum vulgo dictum ; 
quo, expositia eccleais Africans necessitatibus, pnecipue cleri- 
corum inopia ad impetrandum ab Italiie episcopia auzilium, 
decreta est ad Anastasium Romanum et Venerium Mediolanen- 
aem legatio. Ganonea 15, aive, juxta Gave, ecdesiaatice diaci- 
plinas oapitula 3a, quae quidem non aunt omnia bujua Synodi, 
aed Goncilii Garthag. Tert. anno 397, in bac demum Synodo 
repetita et confinnata. (GG. t. 3. p. 1067.) Exatant Or. et Lat. 
in God. Gan. ficclea. Afric. a can. 34 uaque ad 65, inclusive. 

40 Garthaoinbnsb Septimum ^ sub Aurelio, juxta Gave Saeculi 419 

Neatoriani Garthaginense Quintodedmum vulgo dictum Sex- al. 

tum, ab omnium Africae provinciarum episcopis babitum. (GG. 418 
t. 3. p. 1589. Ibid. pp. 1603-70.) semel, 

41 Garthaoinbnsis Gollatio inter Gatbolicos et Donatiatas, .... 411 

quae triplici congreasu vel tribus dlebus abeolvitur. {CC t. 3. 

P- 1335O *«P«' 
4 3 Gh A Lc E DOM BN B B Secuudum Saeculi Neatoriani, quod eat. Gene- 45 1 

rale aive CEcumenicum Quartum, Marciani Imp. Uteris in 

Eccleaia S. Eupbemiae martyria contra Eutycbem convocatum. 

Aderant antistites 600. Aderat et amplissimus senatua et pa- 

latii procerea, judices, et moderatores ab imperatore constituti. 

Actiones 16. Item Ganones 30^, ad jura et disciplinam ecde- 

siaaticam pertinentes, ad epiacoporum vero ambitionem et ava- 

ritiam coercendam, ad dericorum prsedpue monachorum auda- 

ciam, ferociam, irokvirpayiio<rwriv retundendam, apprime utiles. 

(GG. t. 4. p. 755.) stqnssime. 

43 GoNSTANTiNOPOLiTANUM Primum, Geuenle aive QScumeni- 381 

cum Secundum, juxta Gave Saeculi Ariani Gonstantinop. Quar- et 

tum, mense Maio Theodoaii Magni Uteris congregatum. Ade- 383 

rant ex GatboUds episcopi 150, ex Macedoniania 36, qui cum 

aententiam de 'Ofunovo-i^ deponere nollent urbe discesaerunt. 

i My Ancestor terms this the Seventh sub nomine ConcUU Africanif teu Col- 

Couneii of Carthage, (See Antiquities, lectionit yariorum Comonum, habetur 

b. 16. di. 3. s. 10. y. o. p. 169. n. 6.) Conciiiorum tomo a. p, 1638. Et Ua 

Compare Cave, (BaaiL 1741. 1. 1. pp. tandem eeleberrimum hoc OmcUium 

473-3.) who, after giving a Ml aoooimt Garthaginense, sou 5, 6, vel 7, demum 

of its oocasion and object, aays, — Notet vocandum sit, tribus circiter conventi- 

hoe loco prudens lector, multi fuisse bus absohitum, expedivimus.- 

decreta, in variis Africanis ConeUOs ^ These Canons sre published in the 

condita, qute eompUaior guidam baud fifteenth and sixteenth Acts of the 

satis doctus in unum corpus ex 105 CoandL 
capitibus conftatum compegit, guodque 

z a 

S40 Index of Oauncils, 

Duo conventus fuere : prior anno 381, et posterior anno ae- 
quenti. Canones, praefixa ad Theodosium pnefatione, habentur 
numero 7, ab Ecdesia Catholica semper recepti et in Codicem 
Canonum Ecclesise Universse relati. (CC. t. a. p. 945.^ Bevereg. 
Pandect, t. 2. p. 89.) tMnde. 

44 CoNSTANTiNOP. sub Gennadio Patriarcha, juzta Cave Sseculi 459 

Nestoriani Constantinop. Quintum, ab 81 episcopis ad versus 
Simoniacos celebratum. Epistola Synodica Circularis. (CC. 
t. 4. p. 1025.) semel. 

45 CoNSTAMTrNOP. sub Menua Patriarcha, juzta Cave Sseculi £u- 536 

tychiani Constantinop. Quartum, adversus Anthimum, Seve- 
rum, aliosque Acephalorum principes a plus quam 50 episcopis 
celebratum. Acta sive Sessiones 5, Canones 14. (CC. t. 5. 
p. I.) subinde. 

46 ComiTANTiNOP. Secundum, quod est Generale sive (Ecumeni- 553 

cum Quintum, Justinian! Imp. jussu congregatum, a 165 epi- 
scopis sub Eutychio Patriarcha ad discutiendam Trium Capitu- 
lorumo^ causam, toties nuper tantoque studio exagitatam, cele- 
bratum. (CC. t.5. p. 416.) st^nde, 

47 Constantinop. Tertium, Generale sive CEcumenicum Sextum, 680 

juxta Cave Sseculi Monotheletici Constantinop. Tertium, Con- 
stantini Pogonati jussu in palatii secretario TVullo dicto congre- 
gatum. Actiones 18. (CC. t. 6. p. 593.) subinde. 

48 Constantinop. vulgo dictum 7V»2/afi«fii, juxta Cave Sieculi 693 

Monothel. Constantinop. Quartum, (Ecumenicum revera Sep- al. 
timum, Justiniani cognomento Rhinotmete mandato, anno 69 1, 691 
saltem 69a, convocatum, in secretario imperial!, quod TruUus 
appellatur habitum, inde TnUlanum dictum. Quinisextum etiam 
vocatum, eo quod Quinta Sextaque Synodi, quasi appendix et 
supplementum fuerit. Conciliis (Ecumenicis solenne erit non 
modo diBSciliora fide! capita explicare, heereses excutere, con- 
troversias definire, sed et canones ad vitam moresque rectius 
ordinandos, componere. Quod cum Quinta Sextaque Synodo 

I For the Symbolvm of this Cotmcil this accoant the AcephaU^ who were of 

and the Epistola Synodiea ad Occi- the Eutychian party, rejected the Coun- 

dentales, see also Theodoret, Hist. Ec- cil of Chalcedon, and many and long 

das. 1.5. C.9. See the Index of Authors disputes had prerailed even among the 

preceding. No. 754. Catholics, some wishing to have these 

m The Tria Capitvla, or Three writings condemned and their authors 
Heads or Articles of Dispute ^ related censured, while others opposed the con- 
to the works of Theodosius of Mopsu- demnation, lest they should thus also 
estia, the writings of Theodoret, bishop seem to impeach the Council that had 
of Cyrus, against Cyril of Alexandria, exempted them from anathema. Hence 
and the L^tor of Ibas of Edessa to the strife ; which was appeased, at least 
Maris the Persian, which all seemed to in the East, by the result of the present 
fitYOur Nestorianism ; but the Great Council, which finally condemned and 
Council of Chaloedon in 4,^ i had ex- anathematized the writings in question 
empted from censure, if not justified as heretical. See Cave, as before, p. 
them, by declaring the writers CathoHci, 560. 
(See Cave, as before, 1. 1. p. 482.} On 

alphabetically arranged, 341 

factum non sit, sui id officii esse hujus Concilii Patres censue- 

runt, canones I03 de moribus episcoporum, clericorum, laico- 

rum^ et de ritibus et de disciplina ecclesis sancire ; adeoque 

quae in duobuB pnecedentibua synodis desiderata sunt supplere, ^ 

ut in Sermone Prosphonetico ad Imperatorem ipsimet testan- 

tur; unde et Sext€i Synadi nomine non raro citari solent. (CC. 

t.6. p. 1123.) sapusime. 1 


49 Eli B BRIT ANUM, sive Illiberritanum, in Boetica Hispaniss, ad 305 

restaurandam collapsam ecclesise disciplinam, moresque Cfaristi- 

anorum reformandos, fervente jam persecutione, congregatum. 

Aderant episcopi 19, juxta alios codices 43, et in his Osius Cor- ' 

dubensis, presbyter 26, juxta alios, 36, astantibus diaoonis om- ^ 

nique plebe. Canones 86, severioris disciplinae et antiquse vir- 

tutis ac pietatis indices. (CC. 1. 1. p. 967.) passim, \ 

50 Epaonsnsk, sive Epaunense, [jEponeJ in Gallise Narbonensis 

proyincia Viennensi, a 2$ episcopis celebratum. Canones 40, 
ad restituendam disciplinam ecclesiasticam. (CC. t. 4. p. 1573.) 

51 Ephbsinum Primum, Generale sive (Ecumenicum Tertium, 431 

Theodosii Imp. jussu a aoo circiter episcopis, sub Cyrillo Alex- 

andr. Patriarch, contra Nestorium Constantinop. Patriar., here- I 

siarch., celebratum. Actiones 7. Canones 8. (CC. t.3.) seepe, 
5a Ephesinum Latrocinale dictum, juxta Cave, Sseculi Nestoriani 449 
Ephes. Tert. a 128 episcopis, praesidente vel tyrannicam potius 

vim exercente Dioscoro Alexandrino in Basilica B. Manse con- I 

giegatum ; quo, absoluto Eutychete et heeresi ejus confirmata, j 

Flavianus aliique episcopi Catholici damnantur, &c. (Acta ex- j 

stant ap. Act. i. C. Chalced. CC. t.4. p. 115.) semel, 


53 Florentinum, sive Ferrariensei [PTorence otFerrara,'] sub Eu- 1438 

genio IV. Papa : quo Patrum Basileensium conatus pessunda- 
ret et Grsecos spe suppetiarum a Latinis fascinates in partes 
suas attraheret, Ferrarise congregatum, Forentise postea trans- 
ferendum. (Vid. ap. CC. 1. 13.) semel, 

54 Francofordibnse, [Frankfort,'] quod totius Occidentis Uni- 794 

versale dici potest contra Iroaginum Adoratores coram Carolo 
Magno, prsesentibus Theophylacto et Stephano Hadriani Papee 
legatis, a 300 circiter episcopis celebratum. Canones 56, ad 
mores et disciplinam pertinentes. (CC. t. 7. p. 1056.) semel, 


55 Ganorbnse IGangrd] in Paphlagonia contra Eustathium, Se- 324 

bastenum an alteram non liquet, habitum. Canones 20, al. 31. al. 
(CC. t. 2. p. 413.) s^qrius, 340 

342 Index of Councils^ 

56 Gbrundbnsk, [Qirone,'] in Catalonia Hispaniae, a 7 epiacopis 517 

habitum. Capitula sive Canones 10, ad disciplinam ecclesiaBti- 
cam et litaniamm celebrationem. (CC. t. 4. p. 1567.) mMmde, 


57 Hbruopordibnsb, [Hereford^ in Britannia apud Angloa Sazo- 673 

nes, sab Theodoso Arcbiepisc, celebratum; in quo aancitum 
est Canonica SS.Patrum Decreta ab Anglis esse observanda. 
Acta quaedam et Capitula sive Canones 10. (Ap. Bedse Hist. 
Eccles. 1. 4. c. 5. . Item ap. Spelman. Condi. Britann. t. i. 
p. 153.) W#. 

58 H1PPONBN8E, a quamplttiimis Afiicse episcopis ad oorrigendam 393 

disciplinam habitum. In hoc Condlio Augustinus, adhuc pres- 
byter, de Fide et Symbolo strenue disputavit, teste Possidio 
in gus Vit. c. 7. Huic Synodo ascripti sunt Canones 40, in 
C. Carthag. Tert. repetiti varieque aucti. Sed ex hujus Con- 
cilii canonibus et Concilionim sequentium conflatus est, anno 
419, Codex Ecclesia Afriea$uB, qui continet Canones 135. (CC. 
t. 3. et ap. Justelli Biblioth. Juris Canon.) MBpisdme. 

59 H18PALBN8B Primum, [Seville,'] in Hispania ab 8 episcopis, pre- 590 

side Leandro Arcbiepisc, habitum. De disciplina Capitula sive 
Canones 3. (CC. t. 5. p. 1588.) bis, 

60 H18PALBNBB Secundum, sub Isidoro Metropol. aliisque 7 epi- 619 

soopis congregatum. Canones de negotiis ecdesiaBticiB et adv. al. 
Acephalorum bnresim 13. (CC. t.5. p. 1663.) semel. 617 


61 Ilbbdbnsb, [Lerida,'] in Hispania Tarraconensi ab 8 episcopia 524 

habitum. De disdplina ecdesiastica Canones 16. (CC. t. 4. 
p. 1610.) subinde, 

62 Illibbrritanum. Vid. supr. Eliberiianum, No. 49. 

63 Illtricum, sive lUyricianumi^, Valentiniani mandato habitum. 365 

Vid. £p. Synodal, de Fide ad Orientales, ima cum Imperatoris al. 
de hac re literis, ap. Theodoret. Hist. Ecdes. 1. 4. c. 9. (Item, 367 
CC. t. 2. p. 831.) semel 


64 Laodicbn um <> a Phrygise Pacatianse vicinarumque provinciarum 361 

episcopis celebratum. De variis disdpline ecclesiastical caf^ti- al. 
bus Canones 60. (CC. 1. 1. p. 1495.) ^^^°^ ^P* Beveregium, 367 
Pandect. 1. 1. p. 553. saqnssime. 

n Cave oonteDdfl that this Coandl, dates the Conndl as late as 371. 

whidi Baroniitfl places in 363, ooald o Aooarding to Beveridge and Cave 

not have been held before 367, inas- the date of this Council must be rega- 

mnch as the name of Gratianus with lated by that of the Council of Illyri- 

the title of Augustus, which he received cum, which it seems to have followed 

only in that year, occurs in the inscrip. in the same year, whether 365 according 

tion of the Imperial Letter. Fagi, in to the former, or 367 as the latter con- 

his Critica in Baronium ad annum 365, tends. 

alphabetically arranged. 848 

65 LatbbansnsbP QuartuiDy Grenerale, sub Innocentio III. Papa, 13 15 

celebratum. Canones 70. (CC. 1. 11. part. i. p. 117.) semel. 

66 LoNDiNSNSK, Secundum Seculi Hildebrandiui, a Lanfranco J078 

Cantuarenai habitum. (Spelman. Ck)ncil. Britaun. t. 3.) semel, 

67 LucsNBB Primum, [Lugo,'] in GaUtecia Hispanise a Theodomiro 569 

Rege congregatum. Acta. (CC. t. 5. p. 874.) eemel, 

68 LucBNSB Secundum. Quid geatum sit non constat, sed misaa 573 

est ad banc Synodum Martini Bracarensia CoUectio Canonum. 
(CC. ibid. p. 903.) semel. 


69 Mati8conbn8B» [Mascon,'] in Burgundia Gallic, praeaentibus 581 

31 episcopisy Guntramni Regis jussu congregatum. Canones 
19, ad reformandos mores et refrsenandos Judseos. (CC. ibid, 
p. 966.) s€q>e. 

70 Maldbnsb, IMeaux,"] in Gallia. Canones 66, al. 80, partun col- 845 

lecti, partim conditL (CC. t. 7. p. 18 13.) semel vel bis. 

71 MiLBViTANUM Pilmum in Numidia AjEricse. Acta et Constituta 403 

apud Cod. Can. Eccles. Afric. a num. 85 ad 90 inclusive. (CC. 
t. 3. p. 1099.) Item ibid. Latine, p. 1654.) scepe. 
73 MiLBViTANUM Secuudum, a 60 aut pluribus episoopis contra 416 
Pelagium et Coelestium> celebratum. Canones 37. (CC. ibid, 
p. 1537.) suhmde. 

73 MoouNTiACUM, sive Moguntinum, [Mayence or Mentz,'] aub 813 

Carolo M. celebratum. Canones 56; de fide, spe, et caritate; 
de vita derioorum et monachorum ; de litaniis et quatuor tem- 
poribus observandis, &c. (CC. t. 7. p. 1339.) subinde. 


74 Namnbtbnsb, sive Nannetense, \NaiUes,'] ad Ligerim fluvium 658 

in Gallia. (CC. t. 6. p. 486.) bis. Item ap. Ivonem. 

75 Narbonbnsb, in Gallia, ab 8 episcopis celebratum. Canones 589 

de disciplina ecclesise 15. (CC. t. 5. p. 1037.) semel. 

76 NBOciBSARiENSB, in Pouto Polemouiaco sive juxta alios in Cap- 314 

padocia, a variis episcopis, quorum 19 nomina hodie subscripta 
reperiuntur, babitum. Canones 15. (CC. 1. 1. p. 1479.) steps. 

77 NiciBNUM Primum, idemque Generale sive (Ecumenicum Pri- 335 

mum, mandato Constantini M. episcopis^ ex omni Orbe Ro- 
mano ad ventilandam Arii causam convocatis. Canones 30. 
(CC. t. 3. p. 37.) S€epissime. 

P Besides a great number of ambas- Enaebins, (de Vit. Constant. 1. 3. cc. 

sadors and a host of delegates from 7-9.,) says 350, and that they came 

absent parties, there were present at from all the provinces of Europe, Asia, 

this papal Council 413 bishops, and and Africa. Eustathius of Antioch, 

among them the Latin Patriarchs of who was himself present, (ap. Theodo- 

Constantinople and Jerusalem, 71 me- ret. H. E. 1. 1. c. 18.,) speaks of nearly 

tropolitans, and upwards of 800 abbots 270, and Sozomen (H. E. 1. 1. c 17.) 

and priors. says about 320. See more in Cave, as 

4 The number is variously stated, before, Hist. Liter. 1. 1. p.351. 

344 hidex of Councils, 

78 NiCiBNUM Secundum^ Griecis ut plurimum et Romanis (Ecume- 787 

nicum Septimum : sed si pro CEcumenico sit habendum, recent 
Nonuxn, CoDStantini adhuc pueri et Irenes matris mandato, 
suadente hinc Tarasio, ex laico nnper Patriarcha facto, illinc 
instigante Hadriano Papa, congregatum. Actiones 8 et Con- 
stitutiones quaedam pro adoratione imaginum. Canones 22. 
(CC. t.7.) iMnde. 


79 OxoNiBNSE, a Stephano Cantuarensi pro reformanda Ecdesia laaa 

Anglicana congregatum. Capitula 49. (Spelman. Concil. Bri- 
tann. t.3. Labb. CC. 1. 11. part. i. p. 271.) Mine/. 


80 Parisibnss, Secundum 8«culi Photiani, ex omnibus provindis 829 

Belgicee Secundie, Lugdunensis, Secundie, Tertie, et Quarts 
episcopis, ad corrigendos Christianorum mores oelebratum. 
Actorum libri tres. Capitula 54> i3» 27. (CC. t. 7. p. 1590.) his, 

61 Rbisnse, al. Regense, sive Rhegiense, [Biez,'] in Gallia, a 12 439 
epbcopis habitum ; in quo, abrogata Armentarii Ebredunensis 
episcopi ordinatione, utpote a duobus tantum episcopis facta, 
Canones 8 statuta sunt. (CC. t. 3. p. 1284.) ter quaterve, 

82 Rhembnse, [JRA«t/?»,] Primum sseculi Photiani juzta Cave, sub 813 

Carolo M. habitum. Canones 44, de Fidei ratione, de Oratione 
Dominica ab unoquoque addiscenda, de septem principalibus 
vitiis, &c. (CC. t. 7. p. 1253.) semel, 

83 Romanum, Sextum Sseculi Nestoriani, sub Hilario Papa, de ordi- 461 

nationibus episcoporum. Canones 5 et Epistoke 2. (CC. t. 4. aL 
p. 1060.) $emel, 465 

84 Romanum, Octavum Saeculi ejusdem, sub Felice Papa cum 38 487 

episcopis celebratum ; in quo de redpiendis poenitentibus, qui 
sub nupera persecutione Africana lapsi vel baptizati fuerant, 
actum est. (CC. ibid. p. 1149.) ter quaterve, 

85 Romanum, Undedmum sseculi ejusdem, sub Symmacho Papa, 499 

a 72 episcopis habitum. Exorti gravi schismate in ordinatione 
Symmachi et jam sedato, de tollendo ambitu in oomitiis ponti- 
ficiis Bjmodus oongregata est. Capitula 5. (CC. ibid. p. 1312.) 

86 Romanum, Secundum juxta Cave Seculi Eioonoclastici, sub 715 

Gregorio II. a 32 episcopis, adversus illidta conjugia habitum. al. 
Acta et capitula de hac re 17. (CC. t. 6. p. 1454.) bis, 721 


87 Salbounbtadibnsb ad MoBuum non longe a Francofurto cele- 1022 

bratum. De moribus et disdplina Capitula sive Canones 20. 
(CC. t. 9. p. 844.) bis terve. 

alphabetically arranged. 845 

88 Sanoariknsk, al. Angariense in Bithynia juxta Helenopolim 391 

a Novatianis habitum ; in quo Sabbatius pre8b3rter« ex Judaeo 
Cbristianus, ob dogma de Paschate more Judeeorum cdebrando 
damnatur. (Vid. ap. Socratem, H. E. 1. 5. c. 2r.) semel, 

89 Sardicbnsb, Sardicn in Illyrioo' a 100" circiter Occidentis 347 

episcopis, praeside Osio CoTdnbensi, coUectum, 76 ez Oriente 
episoopis cmn cseteris ooire recusantibuB. Eodesiaatici regimi- 
nis Cimones 20. (CC. t. a. p. 660.) ««pe. 

90 SiMUBSSANUM Fictitium. Not noticed by Cave. See in 303 

Crabbe's Collection, 1. 1., and in Labbe and Cossarty 1. 1., and 
wbere cited in tbe Antiquities, b. 3. cb. 14. 8. 15. v. i. p. 169. 

91 Si RM I EN SB Primum a pluribus Occidentis episcopis adversua 349 

Pbotinum biereticum, Sirmii episcopum, in Synodo turn Me- 
diolanensi, turn Sardicensi antea damnatum, babitum : ubi 
Photinus deponitur, verum, reclamante plebe, sede sua jam 
deturbaii non potuit. (Ap. Hilar. Pictav. in Fragmentis. Vid. 
t. 2. Oper. Ed. Bened. Veron. 1730.) semel, 

93 Tarraconensb, [^Tarragona,'] in Hispania, a 10 episcopis ha- 516 
bitum. De ecdesiastica disciplina Capitula sive Canones 13. 
(CC. t. 4. p. 1563.) subinde, 

93 Taurinbnsb, [Turin,'] in Pedemontio vel Sub-AJpinis, Tauii- 400 

num quippe caput est Principatus Pedemontani, rogantibus 
Galliae episcopis congregatum. Canones 8. (CC. t. 3. p. 1155.) 

94 ToLBTANUM, [Tolcdo,'] vulgo dictum Primum in Hispania apud 400 

Carpetanos, praesidente Patrono, ad mores prsecipue in clero 
reformandos, babitum. Capitula sive Canones 31. (CC. t. 3. 
p. 1333.) S€epiiu. 

95 ToLETANUM Secttudum, al. Primum Sseculi Eutychiani, ab 8 431 
' episcopis babitum. Capitula ecclesiasticse disdplinse sive Ca- 
nones 5. (CC. t. 4. p. 1734-) 9emel vel bis. 

r In my Ancestoi^f Index of Conndls Athanasiiim ez Apologia Secanda pro 

he says, in TTiracia sive MiBtia^ bat in se testem addncunt. In his nomerantar 

the Antiquitiefl (b. 9. oh. 4. s. 14. ▼.3. Britanniarum episcopi : tuide pro certo 

p. 330.) he cites Holsteniiu as pladng habent viri quidam in antiquitate ec- 

this dty in Dada Mediterranea. desiastica versatissimi, Britannos nos- 

■ The following passage, which I give tros una com aliis episcopis huic con- 
tit extento from Cave, (Hist. Liter, as dlio interfuisse. Et ita quidem habet 
before, t. i. p. 356.,) is valuable and Athanasii Versio Latina. Verum id 
interesting to ourselves, as helping to non didt ipse Athanadns, neqne aliud 
illustrate the antiquity of the British scribit, quam, facto in Athanasii gra- 
Church : * Convenisse ad banc synodum tiam synodi decreto, episcopos plus- 
ex Ooddentis quidem partibus episoo- quam 300, ez variis quas ibi recenset 
pos drdter 300, diserte affirmat So- provindis, illnd calculo suo postea vin- 
crates, TH. £. 1. 3. c. 10.,) Sozomenus, dicasse.' The implication, mtrefyy is in 
(H. E. 1. 3. c. 12.,) aliique omnes, qui favour of the fad that British Hshops 
eorum rationes secuti sunt ; et ipsum were there. 

346 Index of Councils^ 

96 ToLKTANUM Tertium, al. Secundum ejusdem sseculi, a 78 589 

episcopis ex onmi Hispanise parte convocatis, celebratum ; in 
quo Gothi in Hispania, abjurata hseresi Ariani, fidem Ortho- 
doxam profitentur. Canonee de Rde Cathobca 23, et diad- 
plinse ecdesiaBticse Capitula 33. (CC. t. 5. p. 997.) tMnde. 

97 ToLSTANUM Quartum, al. Secundum eaecuU Monotheletici» 633 

a 63 episcopia Hispanise et Galliae, pneddente leidoro Hispa* 
lensi, celebratum. Gesta, et Capitula sive Canonee 75. (CC. 
ibid. p. 1700.) 9€tpi$$me, 

98 ToLKTANUM Quiutum, al. Tertium ejusdem ssbcuU, a 30 epi- 636 

soopis sub Eugenio Toletano habitum. Capitula sive Canones 
9 de rebus ecdesiastids. (CC. ibid. p. 1735O tubinde, 

99 ToLBTANUM Sextum, aL Quartum sseculi gusdem, a 51 vel, ut 638 

alii, 48 episcopis habitum. Capitula sive Canones 19. (CC. 

ibid. p. 1740.) ter quaterve. 
lOoToLETANUM Scptimum, al. Quintum ejusdem seculi, a a8 646 

episcopis et 11 vicariis habitum. Acta et disdplinn ecclesias- 

ticae Capitula sive Canones 6. (CC. ibid. p. 1836.) semel 

loi ToLBTANUM Octavum, al. Sextum ejusdem steculii a 5a epi- 653 

scopis, pnesente Rege Recoesvintho, coactum. Capitula sive 

Canones 13, al. 13. (CC. t6. p. 394.) ter quaterve. 
loa ToLBTANUM Nonum» al. Septimum ejusdem sseculi a 16 epi- 655 

scopis, sub Eugenio archiepisc, celebratum. Capitula sive 

Canones 17. (CC. ibid. p. 451.) semel vel bis, 

103 ToLETANUM Dsdmum, al. Octavum ejusdem seculi, a ao 656 

episcopis et 5 vicariis sub prsesidio Eugenii coUectum. Capi- 
tula sive Canones 7. (CC. ibid. p. 459.) bis. 

104 ToLBTANUM Undcclmum, al. Nonum ejusdem sieculi, a 19 675 

episcopis et a vicariis et abbatibus aliquot celebratum. Acta, 
et Capitula sive Canones 10, al. 16. (CC. ibid. p. 601.) 

105 ToLBTANUM Duodecimum, al. Decimum ejusdem sseculi, a 681 

35 episcopis, 3 vicariis, 4 abbatibus, plurimisque viris illustri- 
bus Palatinis, habitum. Acta, et ecdesiasticae disciplinee Capi- 
tula sive Canones 13. (CC. ibid. p. laai.) bis terve. 

106 ToLBTANUM Sextodccimum, al. Quartodedmum ejusdem ssp- 693 

culi, a 59 episcopis, &c., cdebratum. Capitula sive Canones 
13. (CC. ibid. p. 1337.) semel. 

107 ToLBTANUM Scptcmdccimum, al. Quintodedmum ejusdem 694 

ssBculi. Capitula dve Canones 8. (CC. ibid. p. 136 1.) bis 

108 Trbvirbnsb, [JVeves,'] in Bd^ca Prima, pnesente Martino 386 

Turonend, habitum; in quo Ithadus ob animum ssevimi et 
sanguinolentum a Catholids depodtus absolvitur, et Felix 
Trevironum episcopus ordinatur. (Vid. ap. Sulpidum Seve- 
rum. Dialog. 3. c. 15.) semel. 

alpluibetically ai^ranged. S47 

I09Triburibn8bS in villa regia super Rhenam, non longe a 8ii 

Mof(untia, [Mtntz^ a 36 drciter epiacopis habitum. Capitula, al. 

sive Canones 58. (CC. t. 9. p. 348.) quater. 895 

no Tbidsntimum [Trent] oontinuaioin. Citantur, 1545 

Seas. ai. cap. 4. Seas. 24, cap. a. De refor- ad 

33. cap. 2. xnatione matrimonii. 1563 

34. cap. 8. 24. cap. la. De Re- 

— 24. cap. 9. formatione. 

III Trullanum, nve Quiniaextum. Vid. aupr. No. 48. 
iiaTuLLBNSS Primum apud Saponariaa, [Tonl or Savonierei,'] 859 
prseaentibua Carolo Calvo ej usque nepotibua Lothario et Garolo 
regibu8| a 12 provinciarum episcopis celebratum. Canonea 13. 
(CC. t. 8. p. 674.) See Antiquities, b. 13. ch. 4. s. 9. v. 4. 
p. 366. n. 19. 
113TURONEN8B Primum, [Tours,'] in Gallia Lugdunenai Tertia, 461 
a 10 episcopis coactum. Canones 13, ad refarciendam eccle- 
sise disciplinam, quam Barbaiorum incursiones labefactarant. 
(CC. t. 4. p. 1049.) 9*Mi'^* 

114 TuRONBNSB Secundum, a 9 episcopis ob eandem rem celebra- 567 

tum. Canones 27. (CC. t. 5. p. 85 1.) subinde, 

115 TuRONBNSB Tertium jussu Caroli M. coactum. Canones 51, 813 

de moribus et disciplina. (CC. t. 7. p. 257.) subinde, 

1 16 Tybium, in causa Ibae, episcopi Edisseni, hseresis NestoriansB 448 

accusati, babitum : ap. C. Chalcedon. Act. 9. (CC. 1 4. p. 266.) 


117 Valbntinum, [Valence,] in Gallia Narbonnensi. Canones 4, 374 

de moechis et digamis prsedpue. (CC. t. a. p. 904.) quater. 
f 18 Valbntinum, [Valencia,] in Hispania Carthaginensi, a 6 epi- 534^ 

Bcopis coactum. Canones 6. (CC. t. 4. p. 161 7.) subinde. 
119 Vasrnsb, al. Vasconense, [Vaison,] Primum, in Gallia Nar- 44a 

bonensi babitum. Canones 10. (CC. t.3. p. 1456.) subinde, 
laoVABBNSB Secundum, ab 11 episcopis habitum. Ecdesiastica- 539 

rum regularum Canones 5. (CC. t. 4. p. 1679.) subinde, 

t My Ancestor pats the Council of from the Council of Tribur, but more 

Tribur in ciose connection with that of probably from that of Nantes, of which 

Alents in 813, and, da^uig it in 811 my Ancestor also speaks (ihidem) in 

after Crabbe, speaks of it as ' another the context, and of which he makes 

Synod in the time of Charles the Great, 658 the era, and which is to be dis- 

out of which the emperor made a rule tingnished from another Council of 

in his Capitulars :' (see Antiquities, b. Nantes towards the close of the seventh 

23. ch. 1. 8. 7. ▼.8. p. no.) hut Cave century, and placed by some collectors 

takes no notice of it till 895. and in also hi 859 just after that of Tribur. 

Labbe and Cossart we do not find it See Cave, Hist Liter. Basil. 1741. t. a. 

till the ninth volume of their Col> p. 68. 

lection, whereas the era of Charle- " Verum cum habitum sit >era His- 

magne is included in their serenth. panica 584, rectius ad annum Christi 

Hence the rule inserted in the Capi- 546 erit referendum. Cave, Hist. Liter, 

tulars, aa referred to, cannot hsTe come Basil. 1741. 1. 1. p. 554. 

S48 Index of Councils, alptiabetically arranged. 

121 Vbnbticum in LugdunensiTertia, al. Armoricay sive Britannia 465 

Minore» [Venues of Bretagne tn France,"] Ganones 16. (CC. 

ibid. p. 1054.) tape, 
laa Vbrmeribnse in GaUia, pnesente Pipino Rege habitum, in 75a 

quo de incestu, fornicatione, et adulterio praecipue actum. 

Canonefi ai. (CC. t.6. p. 1656.) Item> ap. Gratianum, Cans. 

3a. Qu»8t. 7. c. a3. q. v. semeL 
ia3 Vbrnensb ad Senam fluvium in palatio Pipini Regis coactum. 755 

Canones 25. (CC. ibid. p. 1664.) semel. 


124 Wbstmonastbribmbb^ IWestmuuter,'] al. Londinense, [Lon- 1175 
don,"] quod est juxta Cave Londinenae Duodecimum sseculi 
Waldensis, coram Henrico II. ab episcopiB et abbatibua pro- 
vincise Cantuarensis, pnesidente Ricbardo archiepiscopo, col- 
lectum. Canones 18, al. 19. (Hoveden. Annal. part. a. 
Spelman. t a. CC. 1. 10. p. 1461.) semel. 

ia5 WoRMATEBNSB, [Wormes,'] juxta Cave Tertium sseculi Pbo- 868 
tiani. Canonea 80, qui quidem in Codd. MSS. non panim 
variant, &c. (CC. t.8. p. 941.) Citatur c. 15 ap. Gntianum, 
CauB. a. Qu8B8t. 5. c. 23. semeL 


ia6 Zbllbnsb in Africa, ap. Ferrandum. Ap. Cave : Teleptense, 418 
rectius Telense, in provincia Byzacena congregatum. Sed quid 
in hac Synodo geatum sit nos fere latet, nisi quod Siricii Papae 
ad Episcopos Africanos literse in ea recitats sunt et pauci qui- 
dem Caiiones sub bigus Sjmodi nomine in Ferrandi coUectione 
babentur. (CC. t. 2. p. 1577.) Hist. Liter, ut supr. t.i. p. 47a. 




Before Cfhrist. 

Some occasional references to Homer, Herodotas, Sophpdes, Theocritus, 
Julius Caesar, Cicero, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and others, but all com- 
parativdy speaking of less importance. 

The First Century — Sceculum Apoatolicum. 



5 Strabo the Geographer, 733. 

10 Vitruyius the Architect, 805. 

30 Valerius Mazimus, 785. 

31 St. James the Apostle, 416. 
34 St. Barnabas, 77. 

40 St. Mark the Evangelist, 498. 

40 Philo Judseus, 604. 

40 Seneca the Philosopher, 688. 

50 Dionysius the Areopagite, 236. 

65 Clement of Rome, 173. 


65 Hermes Pastor, 375. 

67 Josephus the Historian, 421. 

67 Theclae Acta, 751. 

80 Pliny the Naturalist, 613. 

80 Quintilian the Rhetorician, 

85 Stathis the Poet, 738. 

96 Tacitus the Historian, 747. 

100 Pliny the Younger, 614. 

100 Ptolemy the Geographer, 643. 

The Second Century — Sceculum Onosticum. 


loi Ignatius, 40a. 
108 Polycarp, 616. 
119 Suetonius, the Biographer of 

the Caesars, 735. 
115 The Anonymous Author of 

the Testamentum Duodeeim 


117 Hadrian the Emperor, 361 . 

1 18 Celsus the Infidel. 

I30 Nicetas Choniates, 543. 

135 ApuleiuB the Magician, 47. 

130 Diogenes Laertius, 334. 

133 Agrippa Castor, 5. 

140 Antoninus Pius, Imp., 43. 

140 Justin Martyr, 433. 
158* Pope Pius I., 611. 

167 Irenseus, 410. 

168 Theophilus of Antioch, 758. 

<i So, according to Bellarmine and Baronius ; according to Labb^ and CoBsart, 
156: but Pearson and Dodwell put the era from 127 to 142. See Cave, as be- 
fore, (t. I. p. 65.) Pius, patria Aqnileiensis, 8cc. 


Authors and Councils, 


170 Dion]r8iu8 of Corinth, 237. 

170 Hegenppus, 372. 

172 Montaniu, the Heresiarch, 

172 Bardeaanes, 75. 
172 Tatian, 748. 


176 Lucian the Atheisty 479. 

T77 AthenagoraSy 58. 

192 Clement of Alexandria, 173. 

192 Tertullian, 750. 

196 Athenogenes, 59. 

196 Polycrates of Ephesns, 617. 

The Third Century — Saseulum Novatianum, 

202 The Anonymous Author of 252 Novatian, 552. 

the Acts of Felicitas and 

Perpetua, 597. 
202 Scyllitanorum Martyrum Acta, 


210 Caius Romanus, 131. 

220 Ulpian the Lawyer, 779. 

220 Minudus Felix, 523. 

220 Hippolytus Portuensis, 386. 

228 Dio CassiuB, 148. 

230 Origen, 561. 

233 Tryphon the Jew. 

240 Andronici Acta, 32. 

250 The Apostolical Canons, 137. 

250^ Firmilian, 298. 

250® St. Cyprian, 217. 

250 Pope Celerinus, 17. 

250 Ronii Acta, 609. 

250 Solinus Polyhistor, 717. 

251 Cometius of Rome, 197. 
251 Pontius the Deacon, 624. 


256 Carthaginense, sub Cypriano, 270 Antiochenum, contra Paulum 
de Rebaptizandis Hsereticis. Samosatenum. 

Ths Fourth Century — Sceculum Arianum, 


303 Thelice Acta, 752. 
303 Therad Acta, 760. 
303 Amobius Afer, 54. 

253 The Anonymous Author of 
the Tract, De B(qiti8mo non 
iterando, 35. 

^B3 ^ope Stephanus. 

253 Lucian the Confessor, 480. 

254 <^ Dionysius of Alexandria, 235. 
254 Gregory Thaumaturgus, 345. 

258 Pope Xystus. 

259 Olympii Acta, 557. 

260 Pope Sixtus IL 
262 Fructuoei Acta, 309. 

269 Anatolius of Alexandria, 29. 

270 Commodianus, 190. 
^75 Pop® Eutychian, 278. 
276 Porphyry the Infidel. 
278 Archelaus, Chascor. Episo. 50. 
290 Victorinus the Martyr, 798. 

294 Lucian the Martyr, 481. 

295 Maximiliani Passio, 511. 

301 Glycerii Acta, 334. 

301 Peter of Alexandria, 601 

302 Emeriti Acta, 258. 

302 Felicia Acta, 288. 

303 Ampelii Acta, 25. 
303 Euplii Acta, 273. 
303 Saturnini Acta, 677. 

b Aocording to Cave, 133. 

303 Lactantius, 442. 

303 Pamphilus Martyr, 575. 

304 Agapes et Sodar. Acta, 3. 
313 Alexander of Alexandria, 13. 

c CsTe, 248. 

d Caye, 347. 

chronologically arranged. 



313 Perpetuae et Felicitatis Acta, 


314 Gest. Purgat. Ccecilian. 330. 

315 Anus the Hereriarch, 53. 

315 Eusebius Pamphilui, 375. 

316 HoeiuB of Corduba. 
318 Pachomii Acta, 567. 
330 Lampridius, 445. 

335 « Constantine the Great, 193. 

335 Eustathius of Antioch, 376. 

336' CJommodianiu, 190. 

330' St. Athanasius, 57. 

330 Juvencua, 435. 

330 Vegetius, 790. 

337 Pope Julius, 438. 

340 EusebiuB Emiaenus, 374. 

340^ FirmicuB, 397. 

340 Pachomius of Tabenna, 568. 

347 SerapioD. 

350 Cyril of Jerusalem, 330. 

350 Servius Maurus, 691. 

354 Hilary of Poictiers, 383. 

360 libanius the Sophist, 464. 

360 Aurelius Victor, 794. 

361 Julian the Emperor, 433. 
363 Opera sub nomine Dionysii 

Areopagitse, 336. 

365 Ulphila8,orUrphilas,theGoth. 

366 Pope Damasus, 335. 
366^ Zeno of Verona, 830. 
366^ Philo of Carpasia, 603. 
368 Epiphanius, 363. 

368 Optatus, 559. 

370 Paphnutius the Hermit. 


370 Pacianus, 570. 

370 Ephrem Syrus, 361. 

370 St. Basil, 83. 

370 Gregory Nyssen, 347. 

370 Caesarius, his brother. 

370 Amphilochius of Cappadocia. 

370 Valentinian the Emperor, 783. 

370 Amphilochius of Iconium, 36. 

370 Gregory Nazianzen, 346. 

370 Didymus of Alexandria, 331. 

373 St. Ambrose, 33. « 

373 Macarius of Egypt, 486. 

378 St. Jerome, 381. 

380 Ammianus Marcellinus, 34. 

380 Ausonius, 66, 

380 Eunapius* 371. 

380 Macrobius, 487. 

380 Philastrius, 603. 

380 Timothy of Alexandria, 768. 

384 MarceUini et Faustini libellus 
Precum, 387. 

384 Symmachus the Consul, 743. 

385 Idacius, 401. 

385 Pope Siridus, 707. 

387 1 Theophilus of Alexandria, 757. 

387 Gaudentius, 317. 

390 Paulinus of Nola, 590. 

390 Ruffin, 667. 

395 Honorius the Emperor, 390. 

398 St. Augustine, 64. 

398 St. Chrysostome, 167. 

398 Pope Anastasius. 

399 Anulinus, 45. 

400 Zosimus, 834. 

303 Sinuessanum Fictitium. 314 Neocsesariense in Ponto. 

305 Eliberitanum. 315 Alexandrinum contra Arium. 

314 Ancyranum. 334 Gangrense contra Eustathium. 

314 Aielatense Primum. 335 Nicsnmn Primum, Gen. i. 

« According to Cave 316, who dates the time of his conyersion in 312, six 
years after he became Emperor in 306. Anno 316 dtcennaUa celebravU^ caino 
39.1; vicennaUa. In that year,335, he had overcome aU his enemies, was master both 
of West and East, and began to attend to the affairs of the Church, as Entebiiis 
iays, old rit Koufhs iwUrKoros ix dcov Ka$€<nfifjUvo%, 

' Cave, 370. See before, in the third century. % Cave, 326. 

h Cave, 337. i Cave, 360. ^ Cave's date is 401. 1 Cave, 385. 




Authors and CkmnciU, 

J41 Antiochenum in Encaeniis. 

347 Sardicense. 

^8 Carthaginenai sub Grato. 

349 Agrippinense a. Colonienae. 

351 SirxDiense contra Photinum. 

359 Ariminense. 

361 Laodicenum. 

362 Alezandrinum sub Alexandre. 
374 Valentdnum Galliae. 

381 C»8araugU8tanum Hispanie. 

381 Con8tantinop.Primum,Gen.3. 


386 Trerirenae. 

390 Carthaginenae Secundum aub 


391 Sangariense in Bithynia 

393 Hipponenae in Africa. 

394 CabarsuBitanum in Africa. 
397 Cartbaginenae Tertium aub 


399 Carthaginenae Quartum. 

400 Taurinenae. 

400 Toletanum Primum. 

The Fifth Century. — Sceculum Nestorianum. 


401 Aateriua of Amaaa, 56. 

401 Palladiua Helenop., 572. 

401 Severianua of Gabala, 693. 

401 Sulpiciua Severus, 694. 

401 Victor of Antioch, 795. 

403 Pope Innocent I., 408. 

403 Mark, Deacon of Gaza, 499. 

405 PrudentiuB, 641. 

405 Pelagiua the Hereaiaich. 

406 Vigilantiua. 

406 Atticua Sebaatenua. 

410 SynesiuB, 744. 

413 Cyril of Alexandria, 319. 

413 Isidore of Peluaium, 413. 

415 Anianua, 33. 

416 Oroaiua, 563. 

417 Pope Zosimua, 835. 

418 Pope Boniface I. 
418 Mercator, 517. 
430 Euodiua, 373. 
430 Macrobius. 

430 PauUnua of Milan, 589. 

433 Maximus Taurinenaia, 513. 

433 Pope Celeatine, 158. 

433 Theodoret, 754. 

434 Caasian, 147. 

435 PhiloatorgiuB, 605. 

438 Nestoriua the Heresiarch. 

430 Chrysologus, 166. 

430 Hilary of Arlea, 383. 

430 Paulua Emiaenua, 593. 

430 Posaidius, 637. 

431 Uraniua, 780. 

433 Pope SixtUB III., 709. 

434 Eucherius, 367. 
434 SeduliuB, 684. 

434 Vincent of lirina, 803. 

434 ProcluBofCon8tantinople,637. 

436 Ibaa Edeaaenua. 

438 Theodosian Code, 756. 

439 Socrates Scholasticua, 716. 

439 Valerianua Cemeliensia, 784. 

440 Baochiarius, 70. 

440 Pope Ijeo the Great, 457. 

440 Salvian, 674. 

440 Sozomen, 730. 

444 Prosper of Aquitania, 640. 

447 Turibius of Asturia in Spain. 

448 Eutyches the Heresiarch. 
448 Basil of Seleucia, 83. 
45001 Musseus Massiliensis, 535. 
450 Martian the Emperor, 503. 
457 Majorian the Emperor, 490. 

457 Victor of Aquitania, 799. 

458 Leo the Emperor, 455. 

460 Amobiua Junior, 55. 

461 Pope Hilary, 384. 
467 Pope Simpliciua, 706. 
470 Gregentius, 344. 
470 Mamertus, 494. 

m Care, 458. 

chronologically arranged. 



470 RurictUB Lemovicensis, 669. 

470 Sidoniui ApoUinaris, 698. 

483 Pope Felix III., 390. 
484i> Typicom S. Sab», 778. 

484 Victor Uticensis, 796. 
484 Vigilius TapeensiB, 801. 
490 Alcimua Avitus, 68. 


492 Pope Gelaaiua, 319. 

495 Gennadiua, 332. 

496 Pope Anastasius II. 

497 Basil the Cilician, 84. 

498 JulianuB Pomerius, 434. 
498 Pope Symmachus. 

500 o Csesarius of Aries, ia8. 


401 Carthaginense Quintum sub 

311 Carthaginensis Collatio cum 

416 Milevitanum. 

418 Zellense, al. Teleptense. 

419 Carthaginense Sextum sub 

419 Carthaginense Septimum sub 

434 Ephesinum, Gen. 3. 
439 Reiense, sive Rhegiense. 

441 Arausicanum Primum. 

44a Vasense Primum. 

448 Tyrium. 

451 Arelatense Secundum. 

451 Chalcedonense, Gen. 4. 

461 Turonense Primum. 

463 Bracarense Primum. 

465 Romanum sub Hilario. 

465 Veneticum. 

494 Romanum sub Gelasio. 

499 Ephesinum Latrocinale. 

499 Romanum sub Symmacho. 

The Sijcth Century. — Sceculum Eutychianum. 


507 Fulgentius,3ii. 533 

507 Laurentius Novariensis, 451. 533 

510 Julianus Halicarnass., 435. ^4 

511 Ennodius, 360. 535 
511 Timothy of Constantinople, 

769. 540 

513 Severus of Antioch, 693. 

514 Cassiodore, 149. 540 
514 Pope Hormisdas, 393. 544 
518 Theodoras Lector, 755. 546 
533 Homeritaram Acta, 388. 550 

536 Ephraem of Antioch, 363. 550 

537 Simeon Stylites. 553 
537 Justinian the Emperor, 433. 553 
537 Procopius, 639. 555 
530 Pope Boniface II. 555 
530 Jobius Monachus, 418. 558P 
530 St. Benedict, the Monk. 560 
533 Dionysius Exiguus, 338. 

° So Cave ; otheni; 454. 

Fulgentius Ferrandus, 393. 
Nicetius, 546. 
Marcellinus Comes, 496. 
Tribonianus and the Justinian 

Code, 433. 
Facundus of Hermianum, 

Pope Vigitius I., 800. 
Arator the Sub-deacon, 49. 
Cyprianus GaUus. 
Junilius Afer, 439. 
Primasius, 635. 
Eug^ppius Abbas, 369. 
Ldberatus, 466. 
Cyril of Scythopolis, 331. 
Victor Tununensis, 797. 
Paulus Silentiarius, 703. 
Columba, the Founder of the 

Monastery of Durmach. 

o Cave, 502. 
A a 

P Cave, 555. 


Autfiors and Oouncils, 


560^1 Andreas Csesariensis, 30. 
560 Foitunatus, 304. 

560 Martimu Bracarensis, 504. 

561 Anastasius Sinaita, 38. 
564 ClimacuB, 175. 

570 Agathias, 4. 

573 Gregory of Tours, 348. 

581 Eulog^ua, 270. 


581 Gildas Sapiens, 331. 

589 Columbanas^ 

590 Cresconius Afer, 211. 
590 Gregory the Great, 349. 
590 Leontios of Byxantium, 459. 

594 Evagrius Scholasticus, 279. 

595 Isidore of Seville, 411. 

596 Augustine, the Monk. 





pitulis, Gren. 5. 


Aurelianense Primum. 


Bracarense Primum, al. Se- 











Lucense Primum. 




Bracarense Secundum, al.Ter 


Valentinum Hispaniae. 



Arausicanum Secundum. 


Lucense Secundum. 


Vasense Secundum. 




Toletanum Secundum. 




Aurelj^ense Secundum. 


Matisconense Primum. 




Matisconense Secundum. 


Constantinop. sub Menna. 




Aurelianense Tertium. 


Toletanum Tertium. 






Constantinop. De Tribus Ca- 

The Seventh Century, — Sceculum MonotheUticum. 

601 John Malala, 492. 

601 Hesychius, Patr. of Jerusalem, 

610 Heraclius the Emperor, 374. 

614 Antiochus of the Monastery 

of St. Sabas, 40. 
620 George of Alexandria, 324. 
620* George of Pisidia, 327. 


620 Nennius, orNinias, the Briton. 

630 ChroniconAlezandrinum,i65. 

630 Johannes Moschus, 531. 

640 Eligius Lemovicensis, 257. 

645 Mazimus the Monk, 512. 

655 Anastasius Apocrisiarius. 

694 Chronicon Sazonicum. 


619 Hispalense Secundum. 638 Toletanum Sextum. 

633 Toletaniun Quartum. 646 Toletaniun Septimum. 

636 Toletanum Quintum. 650 CabiUonense Primum. 

4 Cave puts him back as fiur as 500. 

' According to Cave he was the disciple of Congallus, Abbot of Beanchor in 
the East of Ireland, not of Banochor, or Bangor, in Britain. 
> According to Cave, 640. 

chronologically arranged. 



653 Toletanum Octavum. 

655 Toletanum Nonum. 

656 Toletanum Decimum. 
658 Namnetense. 

670 Augustodunense. 

673 Heradfordenae. 


675 Toletanum Undecimum. 

680 Conatantinop., Gen. 6. 

681 Toletanum Duodecimum. 
69a Constantinop., vulgo dictum 

Trullanum sive Quinisex- 

The Eighth Century. — ScRculum Eicofwclasticum. 

701 Venerable Bede, 88. 

701 LuitpranduB, the i8th King 
of the Lombards in Italy. 

715 liber Diumus Pontificam Ro- 

715 Pope Gregory II., 350. 

717^ Germanus, Patr. of Constan- 
tinople, 338. 

730 John of Damascus, 324. 


30 The Ordo Romanus, 560. 

731 Pope Gregory III. 

744 Hildebrandus, the 19th King 

of the Lombards in Italy. 
768 Charlemagne, 144. 
774 Paul the Deacon, 59a. 
780 Alcuin, 10. 
790' Jesse of Amiens, 417. 

747 Clovishoviense. 
753 Vermeriense. 
787 Chalchuthense. 


787 Niceenum Secundum. 

788 Aquisgranense. 
794 Francofordiense. 

The Ninth Century. — Saeculum Photianum. 


801 Benedict, the Author of the 84a 

Refftda Monachorumf 90. 845 

801 Nicephorus Chartophylaz. 847 

806 Nicephorus, Patriarch of Con- 858 

stantinople, 541. 858 
810^^ Amalarius Metensis, Diaco- 

nus, 31. 860 

837 Ansegisus, or Ansegius, Ab- 870 

has, 39. 880 

830 Isidore Mercator, 412. 886 

840 Bertramus, or Ratramnus, 93. 890* 

841 Haimo, or Haymo, 363. 893 
843 Harmartolus, 367. 900 

Walafridus Strabo, 733. 
Hincmar, 385. 
Rabanus Maurus, 648. 
Pope Nicholas I., 547. 
Photius, Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, 607. 
Iso the Monk, 414. 
Anastasius Bibliothecarius, 3 7 . 
Nicetas of Paphlagonia, 544. 
Leo Sapiens, the £mperor,458. 
Auzilius, 67. 
Rhegino, 658. 
Landulphus Sagax, 446. 

t See Gave, t. i. p. 621. « Cave, 715. » Cave, 790. 

7 Cave, 813, distingmshing him from AmalariuB Fortunatus, Archbp. of 
Treves, whose date is 810, but he was not the Author of the Ecclesiastical 
Offices, which Cave ascribes to the deacon of the name. 

*■ Cave, 894. 

A a 2 


Authors and Oouncils, 



8ii IVibariense. 

813 Ardatense sub Carolo M. 

813 CabUlonenBe sub eodem. 

813 MoguntiacuiD. 

813 RhemenBe sub Carolo M. 


813 Ttuonense sub eodem. 

845 Meldense. 

847 Parisiense. 

868 WormatieiiM. 

The Tenth Century, — Sceculum Obscurum. 

901 Simeon Metapbrastes, 704. 994 Odilo Arvemus. 

990* Aimoinus Floiiacensis, 7. 
990 (Ecumenius, 556. 

996 Burcbardt of Wormes, 120. 





The Eleventh Century. — StECulum Hildebrandinum. 


Fulbertus Camotensis, 310. 1066 Jobn Xiphilin. 

Leo Grammaticus, 454. 
Micbael Cerularius. 
Nilus Dozopatrius, 548. 
Michael Psellus. 
Humbertus or Hubertus, 400. 
Cedrenus, 156. 

1066 Bemoldus, 93. 

1073 Pope Gregory VIL, 35 1 . 

1077 Nicetas of Heraclia, 545. 

1077 Theophylact, 759. 

1080 Micrologus, 590. 

1092 Ivo Camotensis^ 415. 


1022 Salegunstadiense. 1078 Westmonasteriense, al. 

1076 Wintoniense sub Lanfranco Londinense. 

Hie Twelfth Century, — Sceculum Waldense, 


loi Radulphus Ardens, 649. 1121 

loi Sigebertus, 700. 1130 

105 Odo Camaracensis, 555. 1130 

no Goffridus,B.Godefridus,338. 1130 

1 10^ Pope Paschal II., 586. 1131 

iio<^ Simeon of Durham, 703. 1141 

III Rupertus Tuitiensis, 668. 1 1 44 

115 St. Bernard, 91. 1150 

116 Euthymius, 277. 1152 
120 Michael Glycas, 335. 11 60 
120 Zonaras, 833. 1160 
1 20 Hugo de Sancto Victore, 399 . 1 1 66 

Eadmer, 252. 
Algerus Scholasticus, 16. 
Honorius Augustodun., 389. 
William of Malmsbury, 493. 
Gratian the Monk, 343. 
Petrus Lombardus, 477. 
Otho Frisingensis, 566. 
Harmenopulus, 370. 
Potho Prumiensis. 
Gervasius Cicestriensis. 
Cinnamus, 170. 
Alexius Aristenus, 15. 

a Cave, looi. 

i> Cave, 1099. 

c Cave, 1 1 30. 

chronologically arranged. 867 

A.D. A.D. 

1 1 70 Maimonides, 489. 11 98 Pope Innocent III., 409. 

1 180 Balsamon, 73. 1198 Hoveden, 397. 

1 185 Phocas, 606. 1 198 Giraldus Cambrensis, 33a. 

1 1 75 WestmonaaterienBe, al. Londinenae. 

The Thirteenth Century, — 8ceculum Scholaeticum, 


1327 Pope Gregory IX., 352. 1250 John Semeca, 687. 

1230 Alexander de Halea, 363. 1260 Burchardua, or Brocardua, 

1 240 ^ Matthew of Paris, 584. Bonaventura, 121. 

1244 Vincentiua Bellovacenaia, 1277 Martinaa Polonua, 505. 

802. 1280 George Pachymer, 569. 

1250* Thomas Aquinas, 48. 1287 Durantes, or Durandus, 250. 


1 2 15 Lateranense Quartum. 1222 Oxoniense. 

The Fourteenth Century. — Sceculum Wicklevianum. 


1301 GuUehnus de Nang^o, 537. Lyra, 483. 

1305 Pope Clement v., 174. 1330 Matthew Blaatar, 105. 

1307 Siffridus, 699. 1330 Paludanus, 573. 

1310 Petrus Cantor, 138. 1333 Nicephorus Callistos, 542. 

1312 Marinus Sanutus. 1350 Nicholas Cabasilas, 125. 

X320 Martin Delrio, 227. 1360 John Wickliffe. 

1320 Lyranus, or Nicholas de 1390 Radulphus de Rivo, 650. 

The Fijieeenth Century. — Scecudum 8ynodale. 


1401 John Huss. 1446 Antonini Chronicon, 42. 

1404 John Gerson, 329. 1449 Wessel of Groningen, 819. 

1406 Pope Gregory XII. 1460 Codinus, 183. 

1 4 10 Simeon of Thessalonica, 705. 1474 Platina, 612. 

1422 William lindwood, 471. 1480 Gabriel Biel, loi. 

1428 Nicholas de Tudeschis, al. 1483 Trithemiua, 773. 

Panormitanus, 774. 'Soo Leo Africanus, 453- 


14 15 Constantiense. 1438 Florentinum. 

1 431 Basileense. 

d Archbp. of Paris, according to Cave, in 1^88. c Cave, 1255. 

S58 Authors and Councils, 

The Sixteenth Century, — Sceculum Reformatum, 





Franciscus Venetus, 336. i 


Xylander, 828. 


Albertas Crantzius, 309. i 


Chytrseus, 168. 


Fisher^ Bp. of Rochester, 399. i 


Martin Crusius, 315. 


John Faber, 380. i 


Matthew Parker, 585. 


Pope Leo X. i 


Bp. Juel, 433. 


Polydore Vergil, 793. ] 


Sigonius, 701. 


Erasmus, 365. i 


Cardinal Tolet, 770. 


Zmngtiiu, 836. J 


Card. Chs. Borromeo, iii. 


Martin Luther. 1 


Hotomannus, 396. 


Cardinal Cajetan, 130. 1 


Prateolus, 633. 


LudovicuB Vives, 806. i 


Lindanus, 469. 


Curcelkeus, 316. i 


Theodore Beza, 95. 


Ck>meliuB Agrippa, 6. ] 


Wolff, 837. 


Alphonsus a Castro, 19. ] 


Aerodius, 3. 


Leunclavius. ] 


Cardinal Baroniua, 78. 


Guido a Monte Rocherii, 358 . ] 


Maldonatus, 491. 


John Calvin, 133. i 


Leunclavius, 463. 


Robert Stephanus, 730. i 


Pamelius, 574. 


Duarenus, 345. ] 


Peter Pithoeus, 610. 


Navarrus, or Azpilcueta,539 . ] 


Hospinian, 394. 


Surius, 739. ] 


Latinius Latinus, 447. 


Or. Thos. Harding, 369. ] 


Anthony Augustine, 63. 


Sleidanus, 711. 1 


Gentiletus, 333. 


Brissonius, 115. ] 


Philip Momay, 539. 


Cassander, 146, j 


Rosinus, 666, 


Crabb^, 307. ] 


Dr. W. Whittaker, 834. 


Peter Martyr, 506. ] 


Durantus, 351. 


Musculus, 536. ] 


Albert Krantz, 440. 


Onuphrius Panvinus, 558. i 


Lipsius, 473. 


Salmero, 673. J 


David Powel, 633. 


Sixtus Senensis, 710. 


Joseph Scaliger, 680. 


Naogeorgus, 538. ] 


Junius, 430. 


John Bale, 73. i 


William Perkins, 596. 


Melchior Canus, 139. j 


Archbishop T^'hitgift, 836. 


Chemnitius, 163. ] 


Estius, 366. 


Pancirollus, 576. ] 


Fronto Ductus, 307. 


Peter Canisius, 135. ] 


Sutcliffe, or Sutlif, 740. 


Furius Cseriolanus, 313. 


Cardinal Bellarmine, 89. 


Mercurialis, 518. : 


Henry Canisius, 136. 


Andrew Masius, 508. i 


Denys Gothofred, 340. 


Caranza, 143. j 


Richerius, 660. 


lUyricuB, 301. : 


Dand Paneus, 583. 

t Wharton; 

> Booi 


chronologically arranged. 




Genebrard, 331. 



Isaac Casaubon, 145. 


Rainoldus, 651. 


Cotovicus, 305. 


Richard Field, 395. 


Dr. Crakanthorpe, 3o8. 


Edward Brerewood, 113. 


M. A. de Oominis, 343. 


William Camden, 134. 


Ehinger, 356. 


James Gretser, 355. 


Gregory of Toulouse, 353. 


Scultetus, 683. 


Gruter, 356. 


Alemannus, 13. 


Cardinal Du Perron, 598. 


Bp. Andrews, 31. 


Quirorga, 647. 


Arcudius, 51. 


Ranchin, 653. 


Azorius the Canonist, 69. 


Vioecomes, 793. 

1545 Tridentinum, Trent, to the year 1563. 

The Seventeenth Oentuty. 



Goldastus, 339. 


Vedelius, 789. 


Albaspinseus, 8. 


Vincentius Riccardus, 659. 


John Buxtorf, 133. 


Petavius, 599. 


Zepper, 831. 


Critopulus, 314. 


Binius, 104. 


John Selden, 685. 


Cluver, 176. 


Samuel Petit, 600. 


Fllesacus, 396. 


Archbishop Usher, 783. 


Rigaltius, 661. 


James Gothofred, 341. 


Bp. Buckeridge, 118. 


Peter Halloiz, 365. 

161 1 

Or. Qataker, 316. 


Joseph Mede, 514. 


Chamier, 161. 


Meursius, 519. 


Episcopius, 364. ] 


Daill^, 333. 


Sir H. Spelman, 735. : 


Spondanus, 737. 


SiztinuB Amama, 33. ] 


Reinesius, 656. 


Dempster, 339. : 


Gerard Vossius, 809. 


Ferrarius, 394. : 


Bochart, 107. 


Savaron, 678. ] 


Brockmand, 116. 


Rittershutius, 663. ] 


Bucherius, 117. 


Drexelius, 344. ] 


Goar, 336. 


Blondel, 106. ] 


Luke Holstein, 387. 


Bp. Carleton, 143. ] 


Hugh Menard, 515. 


Louis De Dieu, 333. ] 


Peter Du Moulin, 533. 


John Forbes of Corse, 303. i 


Albertinus, 9. 


Archdeacon Mason, 509. i 


Dr. Heylin, 379. 


Tillcsley, 766. ] 


Salmasius, 673. 


Alstedius, 30. i 


Bp. Morton, 530. 


Fabrotus, 383. i 


Rivetus, 663. 


Dr. Godwyn, 337. 1 


William Prynne, 643* 


Authors and CounciU, 


1635 Grotiiw, 357. 

1635 ChristiaDus Lapua, 482. 

1635 Or. Christopher Potter, 639. 

1636 Launoias, 449. 

1637 SinnonduB, 708. 

1 638 Bp. Montagu, 537. 

1639 I^fsncis Potter, 630. 

1639 Bp. Walton, 816. 

1640 Leo AllatiuB, 17. 
1640 Bollandua, 109. 
1640 Bp. Coain, 303. 

1640 Hamon L' Estrange, 461. 

1640 De Marca, 495. 

1640 Morinus, 538. 

1 64 1 John Gregorie, 354. 
1641 Smectymnuus, 713. 
1643 Gamerius, 315. 
1643 Hottinger, 395. 
1643 Thomdike, 764. 
1645 Cahassuthis, 136. 
1645 Capellus, 140. 
1645 HabertuB, 360. 
1645 Dr. Hammond, 366. 

1647 Labb^, 441. 

1648 Matthew Poole, 635. 
1650 Sir W. Dugdale, 348. 
1650 Combefisius, 188. 

1650 Abraham Echellensis, 353. 

1650 Du Fresne, 306. 

1 65 1 Cardinal Bona, no. 
165 1 Gabriel Henao, 373. 
1653 Dr. Ljghtfoot, 467. 

1653 Turretin, 775. 

1654 John Fronteau, 308. 
1656 Hallier, 364. 

1660 Cotelerius, 304. 

1660 D'Achery, 333. 

1660 limborch, 468. 

1660 Suicer, 736. 

1660 Jeremy Taylor, 749. 

1660 Valeeius, 786. 

1663 Lambecius, 443. 

1663 Dr. Barrow, 80. 

1664 Huetius, 398. 
1664 Kortholt, 439. 
1664 LeMoyne, 533. 


665 Pagi, 571. 

666 Dr. Gale, 313. 

667 Sotomajor, 718. 
667 Bp. Sparrow, 733. 
670 Zach. Cawdrey, 155. 
670 Dr. W. Faulkner, 386. 
670 Bp. Gunning, 359. 
670 Mabillon, 485. 

670 PapebrochiuB, 581. 

670 Queanel, 644. 

670 Sandius, 675. 

670 Spanheim, 733. 

670 Isaac VossiuB, 810. 

670 William Walker, 8i3. 

671 Thomas Smith, 713. 
673 Dr. Whitby, 835. 

673 Bp. Pearson, 594. 

674 Dodwell, 341. 
^75 ^P* Barlow, 76. 
676 Bp. Fell, 391. 

676 Nath. Southwell, 719. 

676 Dr. Wall, 813. 

677 Dr. Spencer, 736. 

678 Bp.Stillingfleet, 731. 

678 Bp.WettenhaU, 831. 

679 Schelstrate, 681. 

680 Peter Allix, 18. 
680 Baluzius, 74. 
680 Basnage, 85. 
680 HankiuB, 368. 
680 Bp. Lloyd, 475. 
680 John Lyser, 484. 
680 Osiander, 563. 

680 Stuckius, 734. 

681 John Mill, 533. 
683 Dr.Clagett, 171. 
683 Dr. Hickes, 380. 
685 Dr. Cave, 154. 

687 Du Pin, 608. 

688 Dr.Geddes, 318. 
688 Dr. Maurice, 510. 
688 Seller, 686. 

688 Henry Wharton, 833. 

690 Dr.Grabe, 343. 

690 RenaudotiuB, 657. 

691 Dr. Comber, 189. 

chronologically arranged. S6l 

A.D. A.D. 

1 69 1 Bp. Patrick, 587. 1698 Bp. Buraett, laa. 

1691 Dr. John Patrick, 588. 1699 Fabricius, 281. 

169 1 Or. W. Sherlock, 696. 1700 Le Quien, 645. 

1694 Mr. Reeves, 655. 1700 Ostervald, 564. 

The Early Part of the Eighteenth Century, 

1702 Dr. Prideaux, 634. 1716 Archbishop Wake, 811. 

1703 Bp. Hooper, 391. 1718 Bp. Kennet, 437. 

1704 Bp. Beveridge, 94. 1720 Dr. Maiahall, 500. 

1705 Bp. Bull, 119. 1720 Wm. Readmg, 654. 

1 7 12 Thomariua, 763. 1737 Archbishop Potter, 631. 

Omitted in the Index of Authors between No. 218 and 
No, 219, p, 242. 

Cyprian US', Gallus, sive Tolonensis. Vita C»sarii Arelatensis. Lug- 
dun. 1613. 4to. (Item ap. Surium, t. 4. Aug. 27. Colon. Agripp. 
1576. 7 torn, fol.) Vid. supr. No. 739. ter, 

ff He was the difldple of CBsarios, Virtues. This was published in the 

and flourished in 546. At the request first edition of Surius in 1576. But 

of Csesaria, the sister of bis master, he in 1613 Vincentius Barralis edited both 

wrote The L{fe and DtAnge qf Cip- books at Lyons in his Chronologia 

»ainu» up to iJie year 530, whidi date lArmentit : and thb is the work to 

is twelve years prior to the demise of which my Ancestor refers in his ori- 

the Saint in 54a. Messianus the pres- ginal Index of Authors, though he does 

byter and Stephanas the deacon, also not expressly name it. The two books 

disciples of CBsarius, added a second are also reproduced in the second edi- 

book recounting his Miraelee and tion of Surius of a later date. 







Tike rnpectioe dates are given according to Labb^ and Cossart for the two 
former, and according to he Qmenfor the latter. 


First Century. 

67 Linus. 91 ClemeDS I. 
78 Cletus. 

The Second Century. 

101 Anadetus. 156 Piu8 I. 

no Evaristus. 165 Anicetus. 

119 Alexander I. 173 Soter 

130 Siztus I. 177 Eleutherus. 

140 TelesphoruB. 193 Victor L 
153 Hyg^nai. 

The Third Century. 

30I Zephyiinue. 355 Stephanus I. 

319 CaUistus I. 357 Siztus II. 

334 Urbanus I. 358 Dionysius. 
331 Pontianus. 370 Felix I. 

335 Anterus. 375 Eutychianus. 

336 Fabianus. 383 Caius. 

351 Cornelius. 396 Marcellinus. 
353 Lucius I. 

The Fourth Century. 

304 Marcellus I. 353 Ldberius. 

309 Eusebius. 366 Felix II. 

31 1 Melchiades. 367 Damasus I. 

314 Silvester I. 385 Siricius. 

336 Marcus. 398 Anastasius I. 
336 Julius. 

Eras of the Popes. 868 

The Fifth Century. 

A.D. A.D. 

403 InnocentiuB I. 461 HilaruB, al. Hilarius. 

417 Zosimus. 467 Simplicius. 

418 Bonifacius I. 483 Felix II. al. III. 
423 CelestiiiUB I. 49a Gelasius I. 

432 Sixtus III. 496 AnastasiuB II. 

440 Leo I. M. 498 Symmachus. 

The Sixth Century. 

514 Hormisdaa. 540 Vigiliua. 

523 Johannes I. 555 Pelagius I. 

527 Felix III. al. IV. 559 Johannes III. 

530 Bonifacius II. 573 Benedictus I. 

532 Johannes II. 577 Pelagius II. 

535 Agapetus I. 590 Gregorius I. M. 

536 Silverius. 

The Seventh Century. 

604 Sabinianus. 655 Eugenius I. 

606 Bonifacius III. 655 Vitalianus. 

607 Bonifacius IV. 669 Adeodatus. 
614 Deusdedit. 676 Donus 1. 
617 Bonifacius V. 678 Agatho. 
626 Honorius I. 683 Leo II. 

639 Severinus. 684 Benedictus II. 

639 Johannes IV. 685 Johannes V. 

641 Theodorus. 686 Cono. 

649 Martinus I. 687 Sergius I. 

The Eighth Century. 

701 Johannes VI. 752 Stephanus II.* 

705 Johannes VII. 752 Stephanus II. al. III. 

708 Sisinnius. 757 Paulus I. 

708 Constantinus. 768 Stephanus III. 

714 (jiegorius 11. 772 Hadrianus I. 

731 Gregorius III. 795 Leo III. 
741 Zachaiias. 

The Ninth Century. 

816 Stephanus IV. 858 Nicolaus I. M. 

817 Pascalis I. 867 Hadrianus II. 
824 Eugenius II. 872 Johannes VIII. 

827 Valentinus. 882 Marinus 1. sen Martinus 11. 

827 Gregorius IV. 884 Hadrianus III. 

844 Sergius II. 885 Stephanus V. 

847 Leo IV. 890 Formosus. 

855 Benedictus III. 896 Stephanus VI. 

* Only 4 days. 


Eras of the Popes 

The Tenth 




901 Theodorus II. 

939 Stephanus VIII. 

901 Johannes IX. 

943 MaiinusII.seuMartinusIII. 

905 Benedictos VI. 

946 Agapetus II. 

906 Leo V. 

955 Johannes XII. 

906 CbriBtophorus. 

964 Benedictus V. 

907 Sergiua III. 

965 Johannes XIII. 

973 Donus II. 

913 Lando. 

973 Benedictus VI. 

913 Johannes X. 

975 Benedictus VII. 

938 Leo VI. 

984 Johannes XIV. 

939 Stepfaanus VII. 

985 Johannes XV. 

931 Johannes XI. 

996 Gregorius V. 

936 Leo VII. 

999 Silvester II. 

The Eleventh Century. 

1003 Johannes XVII. 

1049 I^^ I^* 

1003 Johannes XVIII. 

1054 Victor II. 

1009 Sergius IV. 

1057 Stephanus IX. 

IOI3 Benedictus VIII. 

1059 Nicolaus II. 

1034 Johannes XIX. 

1 061 Alexander II. 

1034 Benedictus IX. 

1073 Gregorius VII. 

1044 Gregorius VI. 

1086 Victor III. 

1046 Clemens II. 

1087 Urbanus II. 

1048 Damasus II. 

1099 Paschalis II. 

The Twelfth Century. 

1 1 18 Gelasius II. 

1 154 Hadrianus IV. 

1 1 19 'Callistus II. 

1 159 Alexander III. 

1 1 34 Honorius II. 

1 181 Lucius III. 

1 130 Innocentius II. 

1 185 Urbanus III. 

1 143 Celestinas II. 

1 187 Gregorius VIII. 

1 144 Lucius II. 

iiC|3 Clemens III. 

1 145 Eugenius IIL 

T191 Celestinus III. 

1 1 53 Anastasius IV. 

1 1 99 Innocentius III. 

The Thirteenth Century. 

1 3 16 Honorius III. 

1376 Hadrianus V. 

1337 Gregorius IX. 

1376 Johannes XXI. 

1 341 Celestinus FV. 

1377 Nicolaus III. 

1343 Innocentius IV. 

1 38 1 MartinuB IV. 

1354 Alexander IV. 

1385 Honorius IV. 

1 36 1 Urbanus IV. 

1387 Nicolaus IV. 

1365 Clemens IV. 

1394 Celestinus V. 

1 371 Gregorius X. 

1394 Bonifacius VIII. 

1376 Innocentius V. 

and Emperors. 365 

The Fourteenth Century. 

1303 Benedictus XL 1353 Innocentius VI. 

1305 Clemens V. 1363 Urbanus V. 

1316 Johannes XXII. 137 1 Gregorius XL 

1334 Benedictus XII. 1378 Urbanus VI. 

1343 Clemens VI. 1389 Bonifacius IX. 

The Fifteenth Century. 

1404 Innooentius VIII. 1455 Callistus III. 

1406 Gregorius XII. 1458 Pius II. 

1409 Alexander V. 1464 Paulus II. 

1410 Johannes XXIII. 147 1 Seztus IV. 

1417 Martinus V. 1484 Innocentius VIII. 

143T Bugenius IV. 1493 Alexander VI. 

1447 Nicolaus V. 

The Sixteenth Century. 

1503 Pius III. 1559 Pius IV. 

1503 Julius II. 1566 Pius V. 

1513 Leo X. 1573 Gregorius XIJL 

1533 Hadrianus VI. 1585 Sixtus V. 

1533 Clemens VII. 1590 Urbanus VIII. 

1534 Paulus III. 1590 Gregorius XIV. 
1^0 Julius III. 1591 Innocentius IX. 
1555 Marcellus II. 1593 Clemens VIII. 
1555 Paulus IV. 

Ths Seventeenth Century. 

T605 Leo XL 1633 Urbanus VIII. 

1605 Paulus V. 1644 Innocentius X. 

1631 Gregorius XV. 1655 Alexander VII. 


The First Century. 

Augustus Csesar, ciyus anno 43. natus est Christus. 

14 Tiberius. 69 VitcUius. 

37 Caligula. 69 Vespasianus. 

41 Claudius. 79 Titus. 

54 Nero. 81 Domitianus. 

68 Galba. 9^ Nerva.