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<oxfikrb mm^tt €miM* 





T H E 





VOLUME '['Hi: ^ixrH. 


PtHi.lKHKti BV TALDOY^ AM* V^HEtUflli 



, fiat 

L^rrKiE onDuHftldc*! hitlory oTChiu ,.,.,.,,..,.,... 1 

- Review of tbs accDunt of the cooduct of the duCch^n vf Mulbonmgb . . » 4 

> of meiaun of the court dT Au^iutu* ,,..»..........,.. 9 

^_, -'— orfDurletleis from vr Iwftc Newlob.. .4,,..*.. .....,.i 16 

~- or a journal of ei^ht dayt* jourMy .<.>-* 30 

llepty to a paper in the Cuettur ..^ ,,>..... 33 

/Review of an esnyaa thewiiliogi aDdgeniu of Pope .,,,...>.. 87 

'-'' —^~-~ of a ffM enquify into the OBture Had origio of evil ............. 47^ 

-'.— ^ of (he hlalory of the Royal Sodtty of Londonr &G> ." 7fi 

'-'— of the general liistorj af Poljbiui 77 

y of miKelUuici on moral and reJigioui lubJACli -- 78 

AccDuDt of a book ealitled an hiitoiical and crilicaJ eoqaifj into the evi- 
dence produced by the earla of Morty and Moton agaioit Maiy 

queen of Scots, Ate ...,.-.,.>'.•-...-.>. -- --.,. - ..i 80 

V Uanaor Norfolcieosc ^ or, an essay dd an moient piophoiical inicHption 

in monliiah rhyme, lately diicovered near Lynn, in Norfolk ........ "89 

ObKivatioDB OEXihe Atate of affain Lex 1756 --.--,.,.,,.,,>-.,>>,•.>>< 118 

An introduction to the political itale of Great Britain .,,...... 123 

OburvatioDH oa the treaty between his Britannic majesty and bii impenal 

majesty of ill the Kussias, fee. - > 143 

iDtioductioD to the pToceedip^ of the committee appointed to mana^ the 

contribulIoDB for clothing French priunera of war 147 

On the bravery of the English common soLdiert ,.,.--- , 149 

Prefatory obtervatiou to political tracts >--.,.■■,.--.,---.--•.. ,i*-t> 163 

The False Alann, 1770 t&fi 

PrefaUHy obitrvktioTu on Filklatui'i iilands ,.,^... ................ . 179 

Thoughts DD the late trauacl^oni respecting Falkland's Lilands ib. 

^Taxation no tyranny ^ an answer to the reiolutioDi and address of the 

American congress. 1775 ^..p 334 


Father Paul Sarpi,,,,. 354 

. Boerhaave .... .....,t,... ..,..., ....t,,,,, ,...,.,. 370 

Blake 393 

■ Sir Francis Drake 3tO 

--Bairtiier ,,. , ......,.,.....,...,,,.„ 376 

jLdditional account of the life of Barretier in the Guit^eman'B MitgaiiDe^ 

1743 384 


\Mma 391 

filinnvi 397 

^Sfdenbam 405 

wOwjul.... 413 

^Caf«....; 42a 

^KingoFPmau ...-.,..>. ,,.,,>,.>'->.,.. ,,.,,. 435 

''BrovDe 475 

sAidiuii 503 



XII ERE are few natimi* in tbr worlil mna*. tnlk^H of, oi' 
ku hhowii. tlnxn ibo ChinoNo. Thr ronftiftcd and iiaper- 
fate ftccount vhich (rnv^llei-8 huti? pvon of thoir j-nui- 
4ear,lbMrMieDce», and tbeir policv, buvf*. hitherti), excited 
>dniiration» but bave no< beep siUtlciei^l to catUfjr eten a 
inpt*riifiiiil oim(»Mily. I. ibrriTfciti-. rrturti yon my thnnkH 
for hftviiti; iin<1frrtakeD. «t 6i> greint an <t:i[b<<(ise, li> convftv 
to Haf Tub rcaJera the most copious and Dccutatc account, 
y«t publiflhodH of Ihut u'molc nnd cnlcbmled peopk\ vrhont? 
aotiqnity. mnenilici^ncr, pc>n-i-r, wuidoni, prcatinr giiaIodisi, 
and ^xcclJiTnt corAtitution, imdoiibt^dlv df^sorro the atten- 
fiort nf iho piibKck, 

Ai lh« BaliEiOtaliun fouutl in rradiiig dmcripliuMH of dia* 
lant countries Ansurn rmm a c^crnipnriiioti which erery 
raailcr naturally make*, bctwrrn ihr idcu-i which he ns 
Mirc« from the roliilion, aiid ihoso which were famili;tr to 
him bpforp; or, ia o<b«r word^, between tlio countri«ft 
with vrhioh be ia acquainted, and that which the amhor 
displays to h'vt imM^nulion : to it vurirx .irrj>rding lu ihn 
Ub<*iirM or diMimilitudf: of the mnnrioni of the ivo na- 
ti«m«. Auj custom or low, tinh«ard and luilliout^t of be- 
ion, BtriL« uB with thai !iurpriM> which ia ihe cffnot of 
novelty t bat a proclioo conformnblc to our own plea^os 
lift, bocau»f^ it flftltor* our s(>lf'loT«>, by showing u> that 
our opiuionft are approved by the genv^ral caomtrrtmce of 
mankind, Of 1h«sa two pl^nftiires, tht!i lirKt ik inorr vi»- 
]*mU tlic oA&r taotr. laaliag; ihe firftt aeems to parlAkc 

*A(. *|, 


LKTTKft Orf 


mi^ro of instinct than re&»on> ond i» [lot onsilj to be e\- 
plftined, «r defined; tlic InttCTr Ims it^ founJatiop m good 
aioii!Lr und vofWtJoiu iuid t^videnlly d^poiidfl on thi; same 
prinriplrft with mot^l bumun pLuvioDv, 

All ultvnlUr rradc^r will rri'(|iit'Dl1v r«pf narh of these 
a^rtM>Able emolion^i m llic piTUNnl uf 1)ii Ffdde, Hr vkiti 
fiNil at ctfltii. pfmc-c^ful latbirdctiuxi, itbt?i> be rrudrv Ibc mnml 
|>rc'*-ppl» nnd wisr iiislrut'lioufl of the CbinMc nn^r* ; bo 
will tint! ihitt \irtiic U tii every ptuoe tho »Dmc; tind will 
look witli new cortlttrnpt ou ihoMt wild retuunen, wbu 
ikffirm, tliat RiDraIii> Is merelv ideal, and lliat the di^iiuo- 
lion!< b<'twei'ii ^<i(id aind ill lire wIkjII^ rliimeriaal, 

likil be will enjoy ull tbr pliMsim^ lliAt nntelly can 
ftfloid. AvbejL be becomes acquAJritrd witb tLe Cliliiese 
fjfoiemmeut ihucl coDstituiiOt; ; be vrili be uinazed lo And 
tbat (herd i« a country wbere nobilily nud knowled^< uro 
tbesaiue^ Hhere well iidvanee iri ni[]t ai iUey ikdv^inc-e in 
l«iiminf[> und prunioliuii i*^ llie elfeoi uf virttitnm indiistrv; 
nbrro do maix tbiuLt ipiorniiei' n murk of ^matliex^, or 
InEiiieM the privilege of hi^b bir^. 

HiH durpme will be still liei^titcncd by \he rclalions ho 
will ibert; mL*et ivilU, of boiieat miniHtera, nho, Uowever 
incredible? it niuy trvatt buve been fteen mute tbati once in 
(but morittrrhv. p»id bnvi' adventiirrd to mlmonish the 
emperouiH of any devialiori from the biw>i ivf ibeir cinietry, 
or ftny enour in ibdr cfruduct. Ibai bai cjiddiugercd eitber 
ihcir own srtfrty, or tbe biipi>iije3H of Ibvit people. He 
will rt'iid ofeiuperours, wlio, wbL*n ibey liave been add rewed 
in this mnniier, luiv« nt-iihcr ilorraed. nor tbte^jLtenud, nor 
kicked iheir innd«ti^r«. nor tboiight it mnjeslirk lo br- obvli- 
nair in ibc wron^ ; but iHve, wilb a greuinrM of inind 
vroHly of n Cbineap ciouareb, trou^bl ibeir nctiotis wJI- 
liiiprly ia tbe test of remon. law, uud moralit). und sionied 
to exert tiiirir puwor in deloiioe of tbat <Ahicb tbey oc»idd 
not support by urgnm^Dt. 

I mutt confer oiy wondrir iit tbo» reTiitionv «iu very 
greet, und bud bee^i nmrli i^'reuter, had I iiol. ol'tiii rolr;r<* 
lAincd my imaftiiuition witb an instance oftli^ like conduct 

DC flALDS's HIATORV 01* f;lllNA> 

in a priiwo of En;cl>^n^' on nn occo-tion tlint happcnciJ not 
(|tiitc m tMitary n^. und which 1 »jhall rdalr, th&t bo le* 
avknhloan«XAmpl(* nrBpiritfinil firniiietiA in a subject, tnit 
of ^TouvuTlioo and cwin[>liJifioP iu ;< prince. 111:13^ iiai be for- 
gotten. AimI I lii.h|w you toil! luuk n|Hiti ihiitlKCttT a* iiu 
iMidcil toilv buiicii^r lo my country* atid not I0 nTvo youi 
iatvrrfti br |>ri>nioLuiK: vaur ui]<UTlfkkii)£^. 

The pruicnt>t tho chrivtuninjf ni' his lir^t son, had ap- 
pointed a Dobic diikc to ttand (U proxy lor tho futhc^r of 
ibe priaeefs, wiihoiu rpgard fo fhe tluiui of u marqnb, 
(hrir uppjiri^at lu a bii^ber titlt?,) In wbr»m, nn lord of Ibilf 
bedcliiiriibtT, thru in w^jilmg, (bjif bononr propt^Hy be- 
longed. Tbe niArquJs win vibully uimciiuuinW with lUe 

olCur, till be bojud, u1 itiunor, tho duku'd It-alUi drutik, by 
the mnnv of ibo f>riui:e h^ wad thai vii*mii^ to rejircscnt. 
Tbik bo ttxik. uii u})j>oTiuuiiy. -i\\*^T dinner, cf iuquiruig iiw 
n*cKnin or, hihJ wlu iiirurrnc^d. by ibt? prinri*'K tr<'U«iirvr^ of 
Ilia bJg;hDOu'» intfintiim. Tho mariiniit iicimodi^iloly dv- 
cUred, ibal bo ihoughl his Tig:ht ijivadod, jmd hw bouoiu 
>DJ«ro«lk wliicb be could not beer withuul requirui|f satisfy- 
lioa frum llio usurper of bis privde^o«: nor would ho 
longer ftorro a pritico i«ho puid no rt-guxd to htn lawful 
prrti'ftnions- Tb4* trruMtrrr ronid imt drniy Ibi^l tbf^ mnr- 
tpi'iH'i t'luinn ft wt inconloMtiibbt, huA, by bis pmniKiiioiii uo- 
(fiuiiotcd tbe piiiaoe uilL bu rr<ii>lulion^ Tbo prmcc, thrro- 
iipoD, veuUioj; for ihi} imirquio, dt.^mihndod, with d ro^eulful 
Odd imperioQA ^1 bow b<- L-uuld dispnio bi^ commands^ 
and by what ujithority hv projtumod to cunrrol bmi Id the 
laaOf^nieiii i>f }ti« own family, nnd Iht? < h ri <ilrmijg of hijt 
ovn MW* Tb«^ fiiari|tti» Tu^tiwi'n.^], tbul bi.: dJd not eucroacb 
i^MNi lh(3 primw'a rigbl, bul ouly defcjjded Km own: that 
bo tboufcht hifi bonotir nonccrncid, anil, us he watt n youog 
Qum, would not optcr tho world with the \qs& of bis r^puta- 
IJoo. Tha prince, exa«por;itod to a very hi^h dog'ree, re- 
peated faia conunaodi^ ; Mil rbi> marrjiiis wilh ;i npirit and 
finnuuBt not to liti dejirt-^K^d or tduikiin, poffeittcd in hiv 
ilvtcrmiimtioii to uiacrt Iijk claim, and coadddeil with do- 
clarici^ that lio would do bimttoh' tho justice Ibat wati ilc- 



nicd htm; and that tiof the prince himsdr aliouM irampl« 
cm h\n (^hflrfirlcr. H« wtu tbi?ii ordered to vLlbdra^\. und 
the duke coming to him, iusur-nd him, thai ihf* honour wmx 
olTeiTed him iinaA^d : ttiaf when lie aeo^pied if, he wjks 
iiol iiirormiTd of ^»i» lc>rclj«hip"» cliiim, nod ihal now lie very 
wiJIhigly rr^ig^nod it. The niJirqiMH \ffrv giwefidly hc- 
kiiowlcd^d the civility of ihe duktf*A expressioiUt aud de- 
HAT^d himself »a1tati(iL with his prate's conduct; but 
thouf^ht it iu^oniifttt-nt with his bonc^iir 1o aoocpl the re- 
pn'Mv'ntutiori us a t'cuiioii of Ihft dnko, or on ;uiy other 
Irrrmi Ihmi da his own nrknowlpdgiid right, l^ho prinrc, 
la-ing ifirormod of ihe whtilf iroiiveniHlfuji, Hiid having, upon 
iii<{tiin\ fouud a\\ lh» prrceitt'oLH on the marquli'n side, 
tbuuf^hl ii briovr hjH diflfnity to pursi^t in an crrour. uad, rO' 
Klorifig^ tho mnrquijB 1o Wtn righl upon hrn own conditions, 
i^onlinurd him in hi« favour, b^li^^vjng thut hf might safely 
tnigl hifl nlTuir^ in the hnn^ of n man> who h»d so nion a 
ifrnrie of liofiour, end no much iipirtc lo a^MPrl il. 




Tub imiT^rAnl rcf^rd, wlricb ht paid by mnnkind to such 
Aooounhi of pablick tnin»tictiont ns havr boca wrillcn hy 
thfM^ who were eiijpijp'd in thrm, moj ho. with f^ot 
prohiibtlity, aMrrihpel to that nrdent love of Iruth, which 
natiin? bnx kiiidlE^ in the hreasi of lunri, and uhifh nrimiiiu 
€veii wliere every other Tmrdiihin pti>«ioTi \s rttingiii^hrd. 
We cannot but read aiirh norriitivrs with uncommon cu- 
rio9tty, bccao^ wo consider the wnt«f as iadubilably 
poaeiued of tho ability to ipve us ju«t ropredentationflt 

* Fran ih( bfOf l«r»>r't Mtnnfli-. tT4'i. 


lUiJ do put ulwuvH rri]ci:l> tbat, vrt}^ t>f)rij. propnttiQUutr to 
tbo opporluuilifA of knowing tbe tnitii^ ore tbo tompto- 
tiODa tQ dUguitc; it. 

Authors of iKw kind have, nt least, an inooatd^Ubla 6vp^ 
TiOTity over iboJte who«e |>aF(i(ioaif uny llie tow, uiid wbooM 
knowledge it Inst. It it t'viflent thut lliosif whu «rritr* iu 
thrir own tU^fVi^rc, ilUnivrr olVii mnri? ijnpnrlijility, and 
hn C0Dtcfn(>t of e^idcticcr, than the advocatcet which foc^ 
tion or iu1f<rv«it hav^i raided in their farour. 

It u^, bovf>vur, to be nrmemburud, tiiut the parunt of all 
memoirn. iii tbf> viubiliOTi of bi^n^ dinlinguuihcd from \ht 
hrrd firmAokiml. ^lul ihi.' fi>ur ofvithf-r infamv or oblivion* 
pAvnioot whiab tiiimnt hut havr *onn.i di^groe rtf i»flH<Tiice, 
ukd vbich may. ut leui. uflVut Om writ«r'a choice of faet4» 
ihoujfh ihtj muir o^t pre^uil upon hJio to udruuce kaowu 
fulat-boodn- IU' luiiv a^gruvatt? or ottonuutc purticulur 
wewMOncM, though ho proKc^rv^ tho ^on^frol triuiit- 
oetion; lu th« ^npml likctta-ni ntny bo prp^^rved in paint- 
Uig. though a bh-niiflh W hid or u l>«aiitv improved. 

£vcx> mun that is aolicitoii» Jibuot ihc esttwm nf ulhent, 
i«r 111 a gtnit dcgrrc, dniroai of Jiis own, and tnakr^H, by 
ooiMeqaeocc, hh lirftl opology tor h,\% condual to himself; 
aad wbeti li« hae of>C6 d^o^ived hk owu h«ari, which u, for 
tbe great^vl parT«!oo«aty a lAetk, \w propagates l^te deceit 
in the worlds wilhoiif (vlucTHrit'd or i^otifit^iuUHLtTHt of fal^'-^ 


But to what purpo«c, it may bt »ibt'd, ure aui^h icdtn:- 
taoitf^i o\ccpt to produce a ^ncrnl incttrdixlity, und to make 
hiitorj of uo uso r ThtT man who kitowA not tbo truth cnntiot, 
«ad ho who kuows it, will boi tall it; wbatt then remuini!, 
hut to disiruvi rvi^y Matluu, w\d live in perpetuul i>f*gli- 
f«scp«jf j>«k^t i'\vik<8: or. wiiut if^ «iill aiutc dUaf^reeoble, 
ia |»rrpetual lUApeiiae? 

That by «ucii rcmnrka aomc itii^rrdulily i», indeed, pro- 
duced, cjioaot br denied ; but distrust w a oecensorv <|iutU' 
ficatioo of a ntudoat m hutory- Diftlmtt 4^iii<.ko(j)i hU di^ 
ccTvcnrat of dilfereiiL ^ej^t^cA of probabitiij, aiiiRiat^s hix 
wtajch after rvidi^ricv, and, pc?rhupi, h«i^hti^ii?i bin pIcAAUn; 



at the discovery uf tnitlj; for Iruth. thougli not ulwim 
obviviia* 15 f^onorEillv fltFicoriTUblr ; nor iJ* It any whcrif moro 
likoly tc bb Ibund tbuu iti pnvHtf mnmorri, wLiub arc p^C' 
TixWy pu(ili*hcU uE n tirao whrn any Kfoai falafebood mny he 
delected by living «^ilnrAt<'fl, tit\d vL-hi<-h nlujivv CLOiit^tin a 
tlHJiisaiid iricldt-iitH, of hIiIHi iIi** wfiCrr <^ftiil(l not \in\e 
acquired A cisrtuiu kuowied^. ajiJ whicli he h^xs ni> it'o^un 
for di^gui^inf;- 

Such is thi^ accutjut bCely )>ubluhed by tho dulrhess of 
Marlborou^lt, of hf*r own condiR't. bv wltjcb iboie wlio art* 
Vflry Vilx\f rgnocrrnnl Bhaiif lb** ohnrnrror wbich it U prin- 
np^lly irrteii^h^l to [jre^^ene «t to n'lrit*ve, iiiiky W rnlrr* 
IninfTtl nnil iiiKlnirlcd, lly lb<? prnixul of thin ari'^uni, tJic 
inqmrrr into liiimnn nature mny nbtntn nii iTieimu1« ac- 
qnninUnoc witti cLo cburaciFTH of tboic wbosr- n«inK<Ei ha\« 
CTOwtied ih<> lflte*l bwloriM, and di^cov^?! ibo r^ibUion be* 
mttftn tbpir muictii and their ocliotu. Thp hitilaruiii muy 
trace (he proj^r^s* of jfreat frarsurlitms. iiTrd di^rovrr Ibc 
»c«^^^l cuuarn of Uiiportaiit c^vcnU. And. to ineuliun one 
uo moKT, tlio polite writer may learn un nnairetilud di|:nily 
of Atylo, nnd ail nrlfiil »i:nplfcily of nnrrfltion- 
Tho melbod of cotiliriciii]^ ber relahon, by JikH^rtingp ui 
l^gth. Ibe ]eti«ri thai ©very trimKucHoD oocajioiwd, haa 
iiot only BBt the greuteM pitrf of tin* vnrk nbo\r the drtiigirr 
of confuUilioti, but hu}inild<^d to tin? rnU^rtainirirnt of tb« 
rtin(Jcr> ^ht> had now the aaUa^ctioii of forutinp to bimsdf 
tbo cbnn><^tfrs of the aclon, ajid judginp bov ncwrly nKh, 
Rji hav(^ bith^rlo bi>«iii pruu <if Ihrni, ii;p'ou iiitUlboM* wbich 
thny now ifive of ibemnelvefl. 

Even of cbose Mhnvf* leircrv iroiild not hi' mactr* inditti^k. 
wc have a more vxavi knoulrdgf! Ihnn can bi! 4;\pr4;t(;d 
from (T^nerdl hifitoricA, bocaiuc ¥c lee thcni iu ibrir pri* 
vttUi apurtmonlA, in (hdr tJircWi boar*, and cbsi^rvc Ihoio 
actions iu vhich tbey iudulj^nl tbnir nvit Luclifiati^iis 
whhoul any regttrd to confute or applonwe. 

ThvA iL u, thai wp ntf made acqu^iint*^ «>th the d»pu. 
oitbti of kiiifjE Willjtiiik, of whom tc may f>e irnllrr-lcd, from 
various initanccA, thai he ww arbitrary, insolent, glootn\. 


mpad^m, and brutal ; Ihat he was, at all tiinov. duipo^cil to 
ftovtlit* tyrtDt; that he ho4, neither in ^caX thiti^, nor 
in auifti], 1b« luonnev^ t>f a geiitl^ican; that Ji« ^08 oapablv 
of gainii)^ luoriev by moan artiice%, and Ibul li« uuiy re- 
HEvnli'U lit* prrtiniie vnhrii it hii» Im iniPTiAst lo ki-cp ii- 

Thrrr are, dniibtlcKf., great nntnbi^nt wlin will In- i>frondnil 
villi tlta tlcrliuealiuu oC Cbe muid of tlic immorldl Wtlli&ui. 
but ifaey whow hom-sty or seuae ftnublta itvm lo consider 
joiparliully tbr cvt-nt» ol' hi& uij^, tciil aow bi? i;fiubl(<d to 
(liM!o«t-r thv uy^ioa of tliJ) frrqiiont cppofiiiionM which hn 
tfOFOQtili^Trd, nnd of (hr pr-nutrinl aJTroiits which he w»e> 
llDiiii*tiBirs forr^d (o rJidiint^ They "ill oh>tei>r. ihat it b 

it aIwuvs dufliciciit in do ri(clit, mid tliul It i.i ud^k-u tirces- 

Ic ndd KTUGcriiLncA» to virtue. Tbey iriU rtcoUeol 

mifi it la to orLdr^vour lo piin mrn by ^tctii qualities, 

[irhik cur curtorr bebniour is iiiBulent and ofltfouvc ; and 

kt thoko may he dl&gustod by littl« things, who oftn 
*ly \)tf p\t-ii%fi\ K'ilh f^rriit, 

Chnrim the utoauL by bjK ftSiihilily nnd politi;tic«a, 
lack hinuolf tlic idal of Ibc ufition, wtibh be betrayed cmd 
void. Williiim lh« tbJrd Wh«, for Liir* iDbolcuco nnd bra- 
tnltty^ hu(«d by tbat people, which bu protv<^t«d and en- 
ricbed : — had the bejLt part of lht>A« two cbaruciitfs be6D 
iniiiei] in one prince, lh«^ htniup of llotirboa bud Adltfii ht*- 
fore bim. 

It is Dot withoLit puiii. tbat the reader ob!icrv<.-a u »bude 
cnrrouchiiij; upon tiie li;;tkl t^ith uhiibllin memory uFqutieu 
Mary las been hitbtrto inveiti d the po|>iilar, th^ bcno- 
fermt, tbu piouCf tbo ctdodliuLqucwn Mary, from whose 
pri'te*i»n' in>nP vvnr wiihdri*w wilfimit an mldlliou to his 
hiippiiii>v M'hut irjtri he c-htir^cd uj»iju thiA dt^H^hl uf 
biimuti kiiid f NutbiiiK ^*^*^ Ibau that Wir: v«nfr<^ bawtUt 
and vAi iiiaok-ot >fitb bfrr powtr: Ibut »hc wu.-: refitutful, 
and pvrttlMCiouji iu hur Ti'st-iiUncal ; th;4l ^lii? dtTKC^iided lo 
mviiD «Pt» of ri?veagr!, wh^'ti bnnier vengemw « w*w mjl iu 
buf piiwer; tlut cbt* witA dontrout DrtbutndliiTg where siho 
bad uo milbority, uiid bt» iward to lur^ittj, u\^ti wbuu bhe 
bad no real Ji^Qry to compluiii of> 




Ttiu in a rliaracfcr »o tWffvtfni ftmn ull Ihutw lh«1 hiiva 
Imh-d, hifbiTlu, giv€?ii 4if tbiA cclrbrulL-d priiicrM. llmt i\ia 
raulcT stADiJ» in »iitpcnsc, till he conaider* the incoiubt* 
enci€8 irj Uuniuu cuuduct. remembers that no virtue it. 
vrllhout lU vt€aknes% uitd cunsiUors ihai qiiocn Mark's 
tiliaju(>t4>r has, hitherto, hud this great advantage, that it 
hftji onlj beefl compnred witli tho^e of kmgs. 

Tli« greutect nuniher of ihe leiiern inseri^ in ibis »c- 
CQUult yrvre wrillcn hy (]ueeri Aane. of wltlch it may be 
truly obKcrrcd. tLrfl (hrv will be cqanllv useful for tUr 
couf'nlBUoh of ihi>*c who Luvt cxsltcd or ricprcMtid bcr 
character Thoy ore writlcD vith ^cat piLrity and cor 
rectue^s, vitliout any forced «\prentioi]s, afToct«d |ibra»(^Hj 
or uniMturul simtitiu-nU ; and nhow iMicummori c-]fl»rtrrn'Ki* »f 
iindtTrxUinditi^. Irndrrtim oC nCCr-t^tUm. nnri rrvliliidi? uf 
ifitrntion; but dJAcoTrr* at tlic »amc limr. n tcmprr tininToii:i. 
iinxious, nnd jmpaiicnl of tni&t'orlunc ; ti Ivodciicy lo burst 
into complniutit, lu.Jpk<H;i dc-pczidanvo ou (bo affWitton of 
otb^n, uiid n hvuIc d<:)iire of moving conipUAkion. Tliero 
w, imlpi*d, nothing iuRoicnt or ovi^rbciiriti^; Iiiil tbrn ihcrtt 
!!( nothing greair or Ann, or rrgnl ; nothing thnt enforref oh^ 
4i^nL't> dud nrvpc^cl, ur Mhicli dm'a not mthtT iiivilH n}jpci- 
aition and pcUiIanot?^ Sbo mct-pu borti for frK^ndship, not 
for ^vrmmfMit; and (o b^ unnblp to rcgvlfttc the conduct 
of others othorwiAo tJion by hor uwn ox^mpb. 

That this i^banicUtr ii juit, upp^ur* from tho ocotirrcnceA 
ilk h^r rei^p in which ih* nuti*>n vrat ^V4.'rni>J, for many 
yearn, by a purly wlicnr prindpIrA iJii? drrtiuttTd. hut mboic 
induCDce she knew not how lo obviute* and to A*hoM; 
•ehtMnr*! fhc; wii» suba«rvi«ti( ugainal her iiiclioation, 

Thr chnrgo of tyrauiuAiuff over hvr, wkvh was m&d<*, by 
1nni«, Ai^aimt oaoh pftrty, provt^A that, in the opinion of 
both, ihe vrat «uii;ily to h<i goT«>mod ; nnd though it may 
bvi «n]]p04pd, ihat the leitere here pnblUhed were «H«^ri6il 
with some ivgard Ui rrbfieel niiil ceremony, it npppars. 
plftioly Chuugfa. from them* ih.-tl nhe wan whut i\ni hn.H hrrn 
rttppMented, hitle more tbtn the nkie of the MadbnrovKh 

f _ 

Ttie inferiour chaiacters, aa t^ttry nra of Urift iri|KrrtuiicCj 
itm lta« aci;iirnUrly tleltniruted ; the (ik^ture v( Hurley le, at 
kttlt. partial] J (Imnit: ull Iht.- ([«-rormitii'.i ur^.- ltt.MKUt(>i"'<l. 
Mkd Ibo bc«atirfl, for bcautio^ qI' miucl bv ccrltualy bud, 
ftre cBtirolv omittod. 





iImI ot' iIi»^u±tiDg Mill vritli iIkt ^udW^ tflnlly. Hi? vrf- 
di^avvur* to pcrauadc llic «oilJ, lh*il hcrt ath sijmp ui'w 
treumrfiiof bt«nilvrc »pra»d bdoro hia ^71*1; thut »utuc- 
Uuaj; ii ducovcrod, wluuh, to thin huf>|>y day, had bocu cou- 
ccil^rd in darkneiu; ttut, by hU diUgx^rcc, time Jjaj bvoii 
robbed nf^ooio valiiahk^ mcHiiinif'nt nhich he was on (ho 
pniot urdcTvuunng; aud liml uaiui.'H und fuel*, dooii»^d to 
ubUiJoD, arc iivw rL-:«(urcd Iv iWc. 

Uow miut the uiilrarnrci render f>c SLirpri«cd. wlicu be 
ahill bo told Ui:At Mr. Bki kwi^ll hnn ii^itdcir diffgcd iu Uio 
mlM or any drmoiibhi'd lilv, nor tbund out tb« wa> lu iht' 
lilmrj of F^«; nor hud u lirif^le book iii liiiltaudu, thai \uw 
JHJl b^'pii ill t\ir. pouf'Kttion nf i*vi*r^ mnn that whh inclined 
Iti rv*d it, for jcNra iiud agen , mid lli<it Iua book rpilulvH to 
a people^ w]ii>> oLoveall ol!irr>, luivc fumiaticd c.-iJipliiymi;^il 
to the stndioQi, and nrnmcmcnU lo tht^ idio; who have 
fcftncoty JqO hobind tbom n eoiii or a atones, wbJoh Ueu tiol 
bvvB exwninod and ox|>JaLiiM albousAnd tirnvs; uod whoMc 
dreM. and food, and bouKvhold iluir it b^s been tbe pridr 

A iDAi] ijcrd liot frar to inrur tbc iinpubition of \JciuUA 


'difiidcncD or nflcRtcd humility, who sbould hnvc^ forhomc to 
promiflD in&nT novnitic'w, whf^ii bo prrc<-ivcil »uolj mutli- 
tudos of unlert |]oi^>^»i>d of th<r ssimF* maleriihls. und 
uit^Ql upckR \\:e vsiine |)iirp04<^. Mr. Blaokwc^U kiiowt «-i?tl 
Ihc o|nni(iii a\' Hor.ite. concerning tliovp ibiiE a\»-n fhnir 
UDilorliiltJgfi wilK nikigriifrcf-Jit [iniiuijifc'« ; and hi' kriuwH, 
likewJac, tlic dictatrn of conimon st^riK- anJ (umjiion bo- 
neoty. uunic* oC grcolrr aiitboritv ihari tlmt of Horace, 
who diroi-f, thut uo man should projuJHe what ha OQEiuot 

I do not iii<*un to d<*d;irt*, ibtit ihiK vulniiif; hiAn notbitig 
new, or ibnt liir Ukmrh (pf tbosr who li»vt> f;orie hefort- 
our itutlior, Imir m^dt? JiJa pc^rfoniiauce mt aaelrAA iiddition 
to Ujc bunU^n of lilcralurr. New work^ may be con- 
HtfuctcLl with old oiJitcnttb; llir diFjkOMlJon of l!to parti 
may lihuw coiitj^ivaiico; the ornamenU uiteri^persed nuiy 
discover el(>giiiico> 

It U not blvriVN withoui ^xid Hfeii. ibut nit'n, nf propi-r 
(jUHlHiottig[]K,tvritr,i]t aiitcra^iou, cjfi the- A.untT^iibjccT, rvcn 
wh«ii the l«t1<Y ttdd nolhing to the iiifoTmotion giyto bjr 
thr? former; for the untnc- idons m&y ho dt'lliered more 
[Dl<;Ui^Lb!\ or more delightfully ty one thaii by utiothL-r, or 
with utirdt^fions that may lure ixiuidH t>f « difTerf^m foriu. 
Nn wriirr ph'a*p< jIK fl»d rv<»ry vnlrr m»y piriti** Mimci. 

Bui, afUT idl. ti> ifihi-ril i» qoI to itv<\mi*' ; to ttrirorHtc* Ik 
not to njui«; und ibr man* who bud nothuif^ to do hut to 
rirad tlit- ancient niitlicrri, who mrutlon the H^mun aJTaini, 
EUkd Ti'duco tbf'm to ootnmoM plACM^ oD^ht not lo boiul 
hlmuflf lu n ^T^at b»iit?ra<-'ti>r To tb<* vtiidiriiK ivorld, 

Aftrr ii prefiioe uf ho-jvt. und m leUcr of ITuttery, m 
wild] bii itrrmn l'> iiuitutt^ Uir address of Iforuci:. iii bin 
" vde |>olAbi« laodk^iJi Sfd^iutou" — he opvttt iij« l>ook wtlb 
IrUine i(s, that tho " Roman rcptibUc, af>cr the horrible 
proiii'riplii^itjr wtu^ no more al btfiftiin«f Romt^ The regal 
povor of her conmlft, ibc autliority of her iwnatep and the 
iDnjesty of hor peopl<>^ were fiow immplf^d inidcf fuot; 
t\ies*f [for ifiDHi^J divme fuw» aitd b^dlonrd cuAConin, ibiit 
had been iJic en^eriKe of her con«1iliitioi) — were s^x m 

TUB COVFT or iitT|?usTU!«. 


nwifilU. and hef fceat friends were lying oxposod iu thoir 

Tlwnt» wt'Tv «ureiy torv di>m4d time* lo ihonr who nuf- 
r«r«d ; hilt I know nnl, whv arir on^ hiil si srhoolbny, in 
hU derlamaliou, shonid wliitie ovtr iJie r:oinmor>wr*;iilh of 
Kunir, whii--li iti"f^w Rrpat ontv b_v tbi? nii-irry of ihp rr»t [»f 
mnokiiid. *riic ItomariA, like rtLrr», ah ^tntn oa tlicj srcv 
ricb, ^TTw oorrupt, unrl, in their corTii(>tioD, «oId tho livra 
and rroed<]ms of Ilie(ti6c:ilvv«, and of ono uiiolbi'r 

■' Al>ouc riiiif liniir. Hrutits had bin |)a1i[)ncr< ptil lo lb« 
kiffkfxt trbl- be Hnd Wm mnmed to Clodin; bin wbeih^r 
fbr rMrnJlv did rini |ib'ii«e bini. or wbeilitr li^ tta» diHHAlH- 
ficd with tlitf Udy'3 bi^buviour iIunnK biet uW»c<-, lie Miun 
eoU^rlmin^ ihoutfblH ofn Hi>par^tioDH This raiatd a gond 
dfmi of talk, tiitd tliu wouit-^ri of ihu Clodian fjuuily in- 
▼vighod bittortv Ligninst BrutuE^but Uv marri^rl Portin^ 
wbo irns woflh^ of nnt-b n father sv M. Cnto, and sncli a 
lin^bfind tt* M. ItrKlTtN. Slie Ii;it1 u '<tm\ capable tif lui 
eJCtUiffd jxiuiifn. aad fouod u prnprr ohjrot to nd»P fuid 
fi>« itavnnction; sbo did nut oiik lov» but adored her 
liufbnoci; hlfl vorth, bis tiutb. hh <'rcry HhiJiin^ und heroic 
cinarity, tn&dc hi-r piav on bini like n ^od, while tht* en- 
dedrinff nrlttniH of <>iittQm atid trndprnc-«H tt^Mt met with, 
brought bfY jof. brr pride, bwr 4»T0ry winh to cemr* in her 
bfloTrd Bnilw*/' 

Wbeti the reader bus be«-n awakirn^rd by Hub raptuniu* 
prepanitii>o« hr bc^m the vrhohy aturj of l*oHia in Iho s^tme 
tvivmnt «tvlc, till fU*' brralhrd ont her biHt, n littin buforo 
the Woorfy prtacripthn, and " Bnita» cotnplainnd hflnvily 
of hiH frieridi ai Rome* »n noi baiLii^ paid due atteotion to 
bii fui/y til thf dedinin^ vlalt* nf hrT brulrh" 

Be va grt-ul JDVifr of modi'ni tennB. ffin hpiinlont jtiid 
thrir wito are tfetUlrttita itud (iidUs. Iu llu* tovipw of 
ilnitiM'A armVi i*ho iroj n»c/'f7' /Aif ctn/rrnrnul of ffoHunl 
nai bravar f^ictr* fftan iruc pa(ri&t»t be telb ii«, 
" (but Sexlui^ tliv rfiiv^tor, wuji pfitfujosur, atcrrlartf ai 
mr. ivnjf cnmiajcfriri^ ^piwml ; nml tliut ibc saertd ditci- 
/j/jjwoflLe Roninn« reijuired the closeftl coniiexioHj like 



that of fftliiCT and «on, to iubsl^t botwoen the |!;onoraJ vf 
uu an»_\' jnd bia <|aeHtor. Cicoro vas iffaerai of the 
cavairt/n "ad the lu-xi gtiierat ttffiter wa* Fbviun, matter of 
tJut ariiilrry ; lh<< rUIrr LEniliiluK w^th admiral, iX%\A ihtr 
youugiT ro^ in thr band of mlttnlrvix , iiEuUrr tJkriur thp 
tribuiit??!. ui'M M«/(j t>fAfra. /(* Udionji tv tKime" Leiiliilutf. 
howcTcr, \r;Ui but a sub oriliii tile oOiuiT; for wo am iti- 
rormc^ nArrw^rdfl, thiit thv KomiuiN hud titudc 8ex(uit 
Pofflpeiu4 tord fi>;fh admiral in nil ifw was of !h«ir dowi- 

Amuii^ olher uflWrtittiiiriH uf thtii wrilcr. u u ruiimix und 
Lttion^rrsi^iy 3U?al for liberty : ar tatlier. fur one? form ol' go- 
vcnimi^iit 03 prrfc^rablc to Another. Thia, indeed, mi^lit be 
xut!(:rod> bovause political iaatitulion is a fiubjocl id wbioh 
moil huvtr ii|wuy>( Otirrrcd, «nd, if tb<?_v coutiiiui^ to obey 
thrir lu^-ful ^ivvc mount, mid ultvuiffi iioi to make ituiova- 
tiont, for lh<; lakt^ of thvir fnvourlti' icliffinr*, thry mtty 
dilTer for tvrr. witboiii ntiy just rrproHt'h from one tujolber. 
Hut wbo i^nu biMr tht hardy cbampiou, who vciiluru iio- 
tbiii^.' who, in full aecorily. undcrlnkiTA the dofcaco of 
the aasnittiiiation of Cn^nr, liad dcclaroa his rcsoltitioii ttt 
tperti phitt ! Yet Irt ooi just fl«iiTifn€in1« bo o\ertooke<li 
ltf< hLiK juvtiy ohiierved. ttiat iho f^reater part of manluiid 
Kill bp iiulurdlly pr<<judi(-ed u<^iiiiit Bnitiu. for ull fccJ 
ihf? bv^m-fiT» of privalt? rnmdrihip; but few c«n dixccrii tJw 
ddvtiiita^iof o wd]-ccu3titu(od gOYC^al]tQllt^ 

Vie know not wht^tUr^r sitme upobf^' ipa> not he Dccc^ 
&ury fur ihv dtstuiice botwcc^n tJio linit account of this 
book and iU continiiaiioTi. Tb'* tmth is ihiii ihU work, 
mit bi<bijL; furred ii^iti our HUt-iilJon by much publicL ;ip. 
pljitiki* or rrDiturt'. W4h «(jpit?tm)ch rn'gWtrd* and Tionir' 
time* for^tt«-u; cor would it, porh«p#> httvc been now re- 
iOi&c<l, but \hiii yrc mi^Ui avoid (o diaiippoiiit our rcadcn 
by 4U1 (khrupt dcjoruoo of uoy Aubj«<i;(. 

Itu not our dosiga to criiici«o tlie fuciA oJ^thi« lii«lury, 

* IIlc tm pail of ihA rtvlttf cUkU Itni. >^'hti MJwi diJ nni tppmr 



tint the atiple; nol ih^ veracityr but tli^ aditreAit of iho 
writer; Air, mi ucTuuiit of llv- uiii^ictnt RmnuiLt, lu it cfin- 
no( r>rartv infrmt arty prr<(r^nt rcfudi-r, aiul inn^l he drawn 
frotn wnltn^ tbat have been lanjr kTiowtt, can ovu lU 
Talu« onlf t» tbe laDf^aaf^ in vtiioh it U delirereU, and 
U»' fpflroiionn Willi wliic?h it i* ntrompuuied. I3r Bbt^L- 

Id h? iiliirli MfTi-rli'i^ witli pvfrry mrnt^ nnil to ttrJipv** llml 
lie rail ufFert olli^rv KnlliuMJisin lA. itiiXvvdt nuHicitiill^ 
coato^oun; but T nt^vrr fotinU nny o( Im ri.'£i<lrrs much 
cdttmonrod of thi; ^loiHotLt P<imjH!tf, thf patriot approv'd, 
or miirh int^ensc^d nf^^iinnt the iav^lp^f V^nar. whom ihis 
timW, jirohabW. i^taba ever^ d»y and nighi in hU »il«eping 
or Wjtkiii^ itrvHDiH. 

H*' is rnmi? I«n liif*' inio the world uitli hi* tury for 
frwiioiu. with hw tinilUK and Cu5MU3i, Wc hravt' nil, oii 
(111* AJilo of tho 'iVood, long «incc settlod our opituona; 
li» seal for ftomari Lihertv oud dec lain tktioiu ai^in-it th«7 
viobiton of tbQ repvbtiuun cumtilution, only atuid nuw in 
ihit nMi(l<*r'x wny. who wiihoH to prooM*«i in thn narmdv4» 
williont ihi- intrmiplion of p]>i<hf>lN ;ind rtdamnriDniiH Tt 
is not ctLtj to fitibt^ar luvgbtrr at a mtin so btjIJ iii fighting 
lindowv, §0 biuT ia & dnpufe two ihouaarid y^^uni pOAt, 
and so indovt for the hooour of n p<Mfit<.\ who, whdo thc*y 
voro poor, robtkOil raitTikitid, urVilH at aooci uk Ihoy Iwcumo 
ridi, robtwd one Miotbor. 4>f ih<*Bo rnhbrrin; onr «uihor 
wemv to har^ no ywy qtiick ■rnftc. rxnrpl vrhrn th»^' nrn 
ctimrniUt^d hy Cii-Mttr'x |i»rl\. for every act ja saiictlTied by 
tbc r AiQe of n patriot. 

If thij author's skill in nncient titcmtiirc were Icaa p[c- 
nerally ochnovled^di uno tntclit aonit.' timers ituMpfKit, that 
h« hsid loo fr4>i|u4^Eilly coofultvd (lio Fr<jnoU wrilt-p*. Ho 
leU« lu, tbat Archdaufin the Rhndian, mode a ip^^^ch to 
CnannCr 9iv\, in to tayin//^ drnpt Ri>mp irurfi; Hnd that 
Cdsnus, Aftef (bo iedu<:liiiri of Rliudea, waa cotrreci u^i'/A 
florif~ — Dcioiiinis waa a kctn and hafipy spirit — the in* 
frale Cwitor krpt lu* coort. 

Hi* in^'i^ dcliflhl i« to ghow bis universal m-(|iiain(anoo 



with tcricB of art, wjth wonld iknt every olJior polite writer 
biu avoided nnd duapititifi. When Poinpvy ooncjuiTt-'tl ih^ 
pLrflleiJ, ho d^^KiToycd lil^t'«'n huiidn^d Kiii]M of ihr Iiuq.^ 
The Xflnrliiari pMrn]>i*-t,ii wim' ton* down. — Umtiifi, *nfi- 
pactiii;^ [hat Wm trrKJp» vuTt-- pLmd^-nng. commaniJf-d ihe 
InjmprU lt> ^ouud to their cotourH. — Motl people tiiidpr- 
atood ihc ncl o1' «iltaiuclcr poj^scd by thr5cnale, — Thi-^ Nn- 
midian Iroopcra mtt« Hnhk<?tv in llicir np|>earance, — The 
Numtdiuiis boat up one quarter after auoOier. — SnUiciJe- 
Qtu rpiuivi'd to piui hui men o\4^r, in buatu ol' leailier. uiid 
ho gavf ordi^rs fur H|Liippnijf n HuPU'li^rii miniher of llmt 
A<irl of small cmn.- — 'Pompi-y hud h^ht, u)^'\\v fri^nlrfi. niul 
fought ill a utmit, vbcrc IIlc current aud cavcrD» oix^aaiou 
swirlsi end a roll — A sharp outlook wa» kept by Ibo ad- 
Tiiiriil- — It i:i [^ mil of uhoul fifty Koinuu iiiilr*, BrulU5 
broke LipL^llu Lu tlie ■ighi ul" ihe iirmj. — Mjrk Antony 
^sirl>lfid ihf. M'tintr. Hi^ v>jia n brave iuhii, w«f1l <]iin1it1r(l 
for £ <:oinmiH[ore, 

111 hu i.iioic« of phroAca he frequently u-tGn words with 
Iprecbt Joltinijuty, which erery other mouth ami po» hn» af^' 
propriat«d to jooulurity and lovity! The Uhodlfln*^ ^nvn 
Qp thft contest, and, in poor plight, fled back to Rhodes. 
— Boy« atid ^rls were easily kidu^ipped. — Deiotarun wtu 
H intghfy Iwlievt-r itf aiii^ury^— Dr'toiiiruA d^Ktrovrd hin im- 
graiiioiiA prok^tny, — The ri^gularity vi' tile ltot»Hiis was 
their mortiil averaion. — They desired the ircjiiMila lu curb 
*ui^h |]<?tiiou> dLiiiigs. — He had siutU « ihrrnd invtrtilion, 
that no vidv of a que^ticn camr? umiiiB to him. — Hrutus 
fdund hiH mNtreHft a eoqtiottijih creature. 

Hf* Aomc'lLinfi^, wiih moi\i naluckv d4^!cieritv> mix^s th« 
grand niid lUr liurleM^utr (oj|»:t-thirr ; iJt* violatum uf/tiith, 
sir, %iiy% Ca«aim, he^ ttt the Joar oftAf WtodittM £^ rtite^ 
rattd (kU tj/' jwr/rfy.— TIk- ir^^n gmlc fell down, t^mshtd 
UiOlt under il to dculh, aud ciilchcd the re»t as tu a trap. 
— Whoa the Xunthiuiid heard the military shout, an<l saw 
th« fliime mount, ihey vouuludi^d thtrn.- wutild be no la^^rey. 
Tt wav now nbout Runfl(»t, und thr^ Imd hevti at hot wotL 
•ince noon. 

T1IR OOrRT or Ai:<;V8TtIH. 


Hrfaiui. oHrn, WMd*,ftri>hra«'», wi(h whicKourlAogiioge 
hm hilhcTto hnd no knowlrdg^. - One wm a hcaTt-IHeatl 
lo ibo ifpobUc — A <l^fld woi ovp^H^tl. — The Numidiiuiy 
beguD 10 Tee], aufl wore in hnzard of fiilliu^ into coDfuftiou- 
— Tbe tnUir emWiittsl his |iuj>il dost in bb urmii.— Four 
hundred vojui'm n-t-re (dx«il. who huvc, Dotloiibl. bi>[-n thr 
vifffA of lhf> best Roinun mliKcii*. — Men not bora lo 
action arc inconfipqEipiitin] in ^ov€rBmetiI. — ^Colleutiliou* 
CroopA.-*The foot, bv their vi<tl«at attuok. b«<^t) tlic J'aLul 
break in the Thar^iac field — He und kis bruthi^r, with n 
potitir, rotninon lEiulhemmntrin, h^id taknn opposite t'idvn^ 
Hi* rpilhrU arr fjl" ihr gaii<},i or Inpi^rholic'ril klttrt. Th*^ 
iojiotti u^tws — ciigcr ho|>c* and dJbiiiul fear* — hWditig 
tviao lama and hulloved cu»toDi8 — maroiledd v&r 
— inlenie anKiet). 

Soiutiimvi ibv r«iidL'r i% ludUeiily rOTinhod with a lonor- 
oiic Ki'tilrn^'-^. of whirh, when thr uuikt- ii piial* tlir mean- 
ing doi^ not lofig remain. When Hnitu^ 4^1 hi>< iegumn 
lo JUI a iiiituU inslead of beaiv Jrug^uift: m\d Muw toil, 
tbcy 3tct nhout it with huzxun and rncmic. m if Ihry lind 
lMN:r» iilriving ot the Olympic giinicfl. Th*i_v hurlrd impo- 
tiioiit dovri the hiif^e trees and »ti}iiefi, and, with «hout§, 
tibrced them Uto ibe water; «o ibaf the work^ expected 
lo rominitc* hiilf Thft e^inpui^ii, wm<. with rjijiid toil, corn- 
plrlrd in a fi-w Anv*,. llnttimH loldiiTDi M\ lo ibr gatv 
vith re*iiMtle«a fan*; it iE^vc way, at U^l. wilh bi4ii.-oi>3icraKh. 
,: — Thb ffTcul mid ^vod uan, doing hi» duty to his. rountry, 
yi-Gci>cd ■ moHiil noiind* and KloriuuH fell in the cause of 
Bonr: may ti* mtniorj be ever dt-ar to all Iuv»-k of 
libariTr b'urtiing^. ^uid hiini4i>iLy I Th» proroiAi! ought uvcr 
lo tfmbalm his meaiury. — The c|ueen of nations vha WW bjr 
no forci^ jaradpr. — Romt ftli u ftutrifKe lu btr owu »oi]», 
and WA4 raiajfod by hur lutnalurul ollipriaj^: ull the ^reat 
■leo of tbo tttat(\ all the g[ood, nil the? holy, iruro openly 
■]ilfd<*Ti(N| by tho wickedest nnd w<irAf. — l.itllt.- ialaiidt 
c«r«r ihi* hnrhoiir of tirindiii, and form ih*? n^xrnw ontliH 
Item ihe numerous craekit ibat t^ompoae \H tapadoim pert. 


KKVtim l>f FOUR |.KTTKR!( 


— At llie jippearanc? of Brains and Cas!(iiu> ^ »hoiit of jo)* 
rtTTil tbe ht--ij\tfii» fron tbe iiHTrouitdiiif; muilihulcs. 

Such nrc tho llowfri which nniy bo Efuihered^ by overy 
hniid. in «>v<>ry pnrt ct ihisi i^nrdeik of cloqiicnoc*- But 
!k(i\inj? IIhii fr^ply moniioneil our auihnr"* fmilta, it riimmm 
tli^lwe lU'liiiowlfclg^ \iiH merit; am) oonfess. ihjit iMx hnok 
IK th(f work uf A maiioricrURr^, (but it » full i>roveiil»<li«- 
(iLiy^'d vilh Aircurncy, and rrlntril witli viTAcity; an<l thoufi:h 
it i» aufficicntly Jc-tcotivr to cninh the tutitly of its nuthor, 
it b AiiQlci«ntly cnlominiTi^ to invito reod^n. 




C«iiituup|t tome ariruittciiti ia proof flf a Dcily*. 

It will certninW bo rpi^uired, tlijit notico »honld t^ uken 
of a book, hoveior vinall, written on kuch a subject, by 
HHrb an imlhor Vr»t I kn^nr noi whc»fher Ihii-Jie Ull«r« 
will be vrry sntwfw:(ory ; fi>r tHry *irp miswtir* lo incjiiirie« 
not inibliskcfil ; and, therefore, Uiouj-L tbey coitUin many 
poKitif^nsof f;T<>ut importance, art?, lu somo partu, imperfect 
iind ohiwtirv, by tbeir retoronoe to Dr. Bcntley n letlcrf. 
Sir Itano dcirtaret, that whut bo hu doii« Is dud to o 
ihin^ but it^diiKtrr luid pittitMit ihotight ; nnd. Indeed, lon^ 
(oiHid':rJiEi<>n U so nocimsary in tiiitrb nbttniM* incjtiirSi.% 
thai it it olwnyfl daa^ferouH to puMlnIi tbi- prodiictinnc of 
^Tcat men, wiiich are not knonn lo b>ivr been d^igaed 
tor tiio pre«K, and of wbich it is oijcerlnin, whcthctr mtK"h 
pitiooce R&ii thongbt have been be&toved upon lh«m. 
Tbo principal i^iiejtion of l1]«c« leilevs ffive» ot-ouuon to 

' UteruT Mofutae, vqI- i. p- 30. 17AG. 


oboRcrTfi, liow <rv«a t\w iiimd uf N^wtuii gv^mt ^oQnd, grn- 
daftJly, upon darkoeaa- 

" Ai lo your fir»t qiterT.'' saja he. " it ««cm« to me, 
tbftt if tlio QUttor of our *un nod plnncti, and nil the imittoT 
of 1^ iiiiiTer«>, v-'r»rtf *>vei>W ncaltcred, fhfojgh<>iit »il tho 
be*v«iu, sftd-^TPry poirticli^ had an mn»t«? gravitj towardft 
«U the rent, and Uir «hol«f spac<f, Ihroop^ioul mliich ihk 
nittllcr v«« iC'altcrrd, wat bill fLiii(i.\ the metier on tlie oiil- 
Btiip <>!' thi« <pecc wonM, by tU gmiily. lend l<iih«rd« all 
lh« nutlet on the inKid^^, tind, by coiuoqiieiioo, foU dovd 
inlo dw niddk of the whole ipsc^n nnd ih^-n^ conpoAO one 
giwt npherit-al niu^ft. Bat if lh<< mallrr ro crflidj du' 
poud (JiTOUjchout an inGmtn ^acr, it L'culd nom convene 
tnto one maKi. but ^rac of it would uinvm^ intoonci hijlm, 
and 50(nD uiEo unothcTr so oit to make an inAoilv ounibt^r 
of p«ftt BtaMu. fcait!<-Trd, ul gr^al dUlanc^*, irom onm to 
aDOtbrr. throaghaiil all that infinitr njiafe. And that 
mi^ht iIh^ Mtn and fixed ulai-s h^^ forakcd, rappositiff (Jm 
natter v^re of « lucid oaCarc, Uqt hor the innttvT vbovU 
divide itaelf tnto tvo *ari», and that part of U, vhich i« At 
to confMM a ahiiuni^ body, ahould fall dova mio oxk- m«it 
And piake a mn. and th« r«<i, vhirh U fit to compOH* aa 
ofi»qii« horljr, Khntihl coalt-scw. not into oae |;Tcat body, like 
the ihiikin^ maltrr, but into mttnj little ones; or. d' ifae 
nun. at fii*l, ner« an «^»4qi]<? i>w\x. like ibeplaBeia, Of lb* 
)>huieU Joeid bodn^a, like lh« son. ho* h« dlooe sbo«M b« 
ehaagMl Into a Matitn body, wbibt alt ihr^y contonw 
o^a<|iu>. or all fliey he ohau^^^ i^ito "TM<9»b maem, «Ull 
bo nni^uiv umbangrd, I d« «*ol think nMM aspliiible by 
IMCT« natutal eauact*, but am foroed to accnbo it la ^ 
couomI and cooCriTanee of a voloalvv ageal-' 

Thfr bypolfaeiU of aaattor etwnHy dijpoi«d tfanxifh ia£xul« 
apace, aeen* to labour wiib «icb diffic«ltaea, ai v^ao it 
■fattoat a roolradiciDry sup{H»ittuo. or a sappootion doatrvi 
dve of iUclT. 

•■ Halter ctcoly d«po**<d ibroofb faini** ■f^o*-" ■• 
Hther ereated or aUntal; if If »» rtca4^, it ialcTi m 




creator; if i1 won <iterual, it hml bocu from rt<^rnity 
" vvotily 9q>read tbroiij^h iufliiito Hpace;' or It }w<\ bpcn 
onco conlcfcod in mwt*M(, uml. aflfruiird*. heen difTiisprl, 
Wh&t«Trr tiloiv wjih fir^t mimt Jiavr lifi-ti fnim v-leruilv. 
lipd wkai Ijiitl \te^n from vUvmil^ roiiUi not be cluui^d. 
hut hth cuu^e beginning tci oit, a» it hnd iirvcr D;:t<-cl bo- 
forr, Ihnt is. by the volunliir> act of somcr ©xtcriml powpr. 
If mallor, inlimlelT aud rvt-iily diU'iiHod* wah a momont 
wiEh«>iit roBlilicin. it could Jie\er <'oa1o«o^ at a\\ hy \u nwn 
p»wrr, ir mjillfr ort^mullv It-ruled tu cutilejiu^, it could 
iifV€r hn cvrnJy dilfQut'd ihrougb infinite apiict?- Mutter 
being Rtipjioscd otrrnnl, there navcr wua a lime, wUoti it 
could ho drffn^cd before itt conglotintion, or conglobalcd 
befori* ilK diflTitsion. 

Thiv nir JjtiXiii: itrf^m*, by degrees, to bu\e itnderslond ; 
Air br wiyi;, in his »i*<'niid Icilitr: "The n*uori why niuiter. 
i7vriity »i:jitlirfcd ibrciif^h a ^nilr «[iiicCp woitb) nauvcnc in 
tho midst, yon ct>Dccivc Ihc 9amc wltb me ; buU ibnt ibcm 
should be a contml pnrticle, Ho&ccurutolv pluci-ilin the mid- 
dle, UK to be iilu-ayx equLilly utfrxidrd on liLI ttid^H. and* 
thereby, contains- ^ilbuut motion, flct>mi 1o me n fuppoci* 
lion fitily HK bnrd iin to makt^ thp tihnrpr«l nt'cdir itiiJid 
npri^bt ii].ii»u its piiijit cm ii louLiiijC'^biHs. For, if ibc very 
malhiVJidtu^ol ceotri; of tlie crnlrul particle be not accu- 
rately in tho very mathi<matici&l centre of the tittractive 
pover of the whulc^ ntust, lh(* ptirticle will nut lie :i1lr[ii.'<ted 
Ftjtmlly on nit jttdfia. And iniuh hardt^r U ii to fiupposp nil 
thi* pnrliilpR, in nn infinilf* npncr*, ihould bi* i^o nocumtrfy 
polled, one flniong noolher. u^ iv ^Lnjd still In a perft-Tl 
equilibrium. For I reckon ihia as hard un lt> make not one 
needle ooly. but on inlhiite number of them, (so many lu 
th^re Wt9 pftrticW in un infiuito lipncr.) Ktmid iirTL^nriilely 
pobei upon their pciinE*:- V<ti I gmni it pofttiblT*. nt 
leant, by a ilivtm* |K)wer; nnd. if they v/nm tm^-r- to be 
plnrrd. I ngrer with you, tbal ibej woidd coutiiiue in tbnl 
pontiirc without motion, for «iver, unleAs put into ncv nio< 
tioB by the same power, Wht-n, Iherefnre, I *ftid^ Ihnt 

rRou s^im istwc nrwtdn. 



evojil^' ipraud through aU itpucr, would convc^ne, hj 

gnvitT. latu ofir nr morr grfM mttMrft, f iindprntamt] li 

niAtlcr not rcaliti^ in au nccuiute poiM5." 

Lfot iiol U be tfioug^it irreverence to Ihia gproat nunie.if 1 

fTO, ihat by " mflller o*«*ilj eprood' Ihroiif^h infiaite 

Met, be now llod^ it necessary Co mean " nuittt^r not 

enly f^reuft." Miilti^r Ufit evenly Hpri>ail will, iri^Ieeil, 

ttTcoe, btit U wilJ curncne v Buou nii it oxii>b< And, in 

y opiDioD, tbU puzdinh' (jul'.iUod about mutter, is only, 

V Ihut could ti* tiuLt tic^vur ooiild hove bot^n, nr vUnt n 

tbiiika on wh^o ht* tbifik* on tiotbin^. 
Turn malior on all «idr-B, mnlo ii <ftemnl, or of litt^ prv>- 
ducliuft, liniln (jr inlinitr, tlipr4' ciiii lut no rrgulftr syntcm 
dacod, bill by n volunlory aod moaning agout, Tlii» 
tbc ^cat Ncwtoct ulwayti fiascrtcil, ftnd this be (UAcrt« in 
the third loiter ; but proves, in anolber maoncr, in a mon- 
nvT, perhap*, more hAp]iy »ind conHnaiTe. 

Tb«» hypfiOkWH ordt-rivBiig ibo Tnuiie of the worlds \>y 
ecbniiical pri(uiEilf\4> fnnit matli-r evrnly s^ircrud through 
tbc hroTCn^, being incontislcnt with my *jMcm, I hml con- 
«tdcrc<l it very Uitlc, before yoiir Icttor put rnc upon it, 
and, tbvri'fore, trouble you wiiJi a line or two more about 
it. if lliis comei not too lnt«» for your ase. 

" III my former, I reprfKL'nied, thril ifie dinrnitl roiaTiot^ji 
of tbc? pUni'lH cniild n<>t h<^ derivrd iViim gravity, but re* 
ir«J a divine orm tu impress them- And though pTuvity 
ifht give the planets a motion of descent towards tbt^ 
D, tttb^r directly, or «ith Aome little ohliqmiy, yet tbe 
i-er»^ motions, by «hich they revolvo in rhrir Hpvrnd 
t rvr|uiTHl tlie ilivtae urui to iiupreMt them, nni^tirding 
to tbe tangrntv of tlicir orhH. I would uow ndd, timt the 
bypothens of matter'^ bcin;c. tit fir^t, rvddy sprcttd thron^h 
die besvoo^, U, in my opinion^ inconflisiont with tho bypc^ 
efU of innaCo gni^ity, without a iiupc'rn;LiuTAl powpr to 
ncilf* 1h«iin; ntjct. therefor**. It infrr' " deilj. For, if 
» be lAnnlr ^rr^tttv, it L<k iiuptM^iLbk nnv fnr tho matter 
tbe c«rtb, aud all tht plauctii tukd Mar^, to fly up from 
Ibom, and be^me cT«o1y npr^-nd t|Lrou|;boul nil tho bra- 




tthHi run n<?Tor beliervurUT.wilbuutaatjperualuralpower, 
cQ\jf\d never be licrel»forCi vithont (be satnc power." 



Trta FofLslnmilh lo KinpiiLon upon Utanin, lliFi>ij|;fa SvulhftinpLdii, WiltiSirc, 

addrpwp'l ui twa IhSIpi tif tlir piniis To vhir'i m alM?iJ. ih V^vtay on 
T*a. (VimiJtreit » pafcicinuk to IiaoHhj obnlnicling ladind-ty. tml impovatub- 
in( (hi! nnticn i wiih nn account *f iu itOii*i1»h anJ (real rDruunptian in 
fbcK kimcJuuiB; wilti Wciul |Mflit4'dl (vlLt4.'Liuti> , 4iui ihuu^UiA uii publJik 
torn In tlunr'ttto hiipfi u> ivo lidin* hy Mt.JI ***•«, 

(Fran Ih* Ijunrj MtfinD*, ^- ii' ^- nil. 1T6T.J 

OVR reaitera may* purhspa, r^membt^r, Ibot vo ^avc them 
A jibort flccoutit of ibifl book. *Uh a letter^ extracted from 
i*, in Novcrabcr, 175(J» Th<? dufbor then dent us an in- 
jtinc'tioti^ to (brbctfr biii work, lUI a »«co»d <<dition ibouM 
npppiir^ thin prnbihilion w*ui mlb(*r too Tiuijj^itti'rial ; for 
an Qulbcr ij* nn [ongi^r ibc noli^ miuttiT of u biKtk, wliich b<s 
has |fiv«n to Ibe pubUch ; jrel h(^ faa« bceo pnnrtually 
obo}«d ; vc had no dctiire lo ufiVnd bim ; and, if hin nhu- 
nuit^r may be eetliinut^d by bin book, be tv a man whose 
fntlio^ mny well be pardoiic^d for bii: viriueii- 

Tbrf M-i.'otid i-dilioii 1% now iitnl iolo (he iH-DtM* L'i>rr«?i:t«d 
BDd eoltirj^rd. and yirldrd up, b; tbi^ authorr io tbe at* 
tui^kn ofcriltoJBfii, But be sh^ll find in as, no nia1ii{a>>y ^ 
c^itfure, Wv wiiih, ind<^eil. Ihut, nmong ctber corfuctions, 
he hud Hubmitted bi« pugv^ to tlie iaiepection of a gram- 
miirinr!, ihnt fh(> i^lrg^riri'^ii of one line itligbl n^l biivn 
been diagniued by tbe ujiproprif^EieH uf «uoUier ; ^ut, willi 
HI, to nif!vaii it^cU b u dt-jcrpo vf mvnt. wbich oicrbalancea 
much greuttT emxtn than iuipurhy of ityle. 



Wo hftve nlready gJv^Q, ic our ooli«ctioiii, otie of tha 
tetters, in wfatch Mr Hauv-jy eodeavourst to ibow, thai 
Uie eonnu tup lion u( U-n 1% injtinouH Ui 1hi^ iiitrn^xt of our 
coantry. \Vc shall uotv cnilcaTODr to follow him. rcgu- 
Urly. through nB lua observations on Uih niodcrn losiiuy; 
but, il cnn «rarcol^ 1h» caudid DOl to moko a proxioua de- 
dsmion, that be is to expect Utile jii4ltfe from th^ iiuliior 
nf this mtract.u lidideutil mid Hhjmi?!^^ («4i-4ritib«r, who 
Ihs, for tweiTh jeur«, diluti-d hix mrid^i wilh unly ihr? in- 
fiuioii of tliin fa«ciiialiiig plant ; whoso kcttlo ha* scarcely 
ticDO to oool; vho with tea «musc« tho t^rcning, with too 
■oUoof Iho midaighl, and, with lea, wokom«s tho mom- 


He iM^gina hy refuliiig a popular tiolion, th^it boliea auJ 
gfeen tvA am: Xvawti ui' tiit.^ Hduiir Btinib, gAthcriii ut dilTw- 
OUl tiAtci pT the year 111! iM of opujloD, that tlioy wu 
imdMed hy diffui^nt shrubcn Thu leaves of i\M arc fc&« 
lliered ht dry »taltior ; thun dried ajid tniled oror Iho 
lir^, in r«ppL>r patnf^ Th^ ChitK^Kt; tiM? liftle ^reen U^u, 
iflQifiBUig, ihnl it htndrrA dijjCcntioiL and <7XcUc?i ft^vcra. 
Bow it should bdvc citbcr rITcct, \r< ual easily discoTerod; 
,Mtidj if Tc consider thu mni^mcndilt? prejudice's, ^hich pro- 
LVail cotK^ming oor own pinnu, w«i fhail very little regard 
o|HDiona of the CbineMr vulgar, which expericnco 
iiot conflm. 
Whvn tlie Clviuese driiik ten. ihey infa^sc il alijchtly, 
id extract ooly ike more volatile parU; but Ihough this 
^Keni4 to roquuv Rreot quantities &t n timr, yet the author 
-., perhup». only becauHt; hi* has an inelioation to 
fv il, thill th<T EiigUiih mid Duti-h use nioiti thaji tdl 
tllo inhAhitaiits of tbal exiciMivc; roipirc. The CbtiHrM 
it, sometimes, with actci*, seldom with sugar; aud 
|moiic« OUT author, who bas do intention to liud any- 
right at home, recummi^nds to bin countryinva^ 
The history of the ri»e and progre*? of trn-drinVinK; i* 
Iruty ctlri(JU^. Tni wax fir»l imported, fivai Holland, by 
ApB earls of Arlington ujkI Oi»ary. in l(!04!; from their 
lidie^ tho woQie^ii of qwdit; learned it« vtte. Its prifi« 



jvii then ttir^w pauniTM n imiiml. ftnd cnntiniif^l iIh" ^m*^ t» 
1797i In I715h wo biT^nu 1o use i^Tet'ii t«d, uud Ibt^ jinir- 
ticc oftlrmkiD^ Jt (Ic3c<;uclcd li> iLc lower ddi!ia of the people. 
In i790i Uie Freiicb bejfun tit svtid il hither l»y a oUndos- 
tine oomnKTrire. From 1717 lo 173C, we imporU'd, an- 
iiuuTlv, *«ven hunilre*! thuu:iJiN[| poiinrlTC. From ITU^i lo 
1742, a niillii>it und cwti bHiiclrtn) iLuija^ukI puiiniU urrin 
«TDry ycju brought tt) Loudon, m .lornf: vrarit aUrrwards 
Ibri^c millians; and in 1750> near four mLllionfi oY pounds, 
or two thou-iunU i^tn^, in whicli we fir« not ti> reobou (liaC 
wbioh in fiurr«>ptiiioii8ly introduced, wliicli, fierbapti* ii 
iieiirly us inurh, Siirli ijuuurtltrv itfv. indeed, surTrctetif fo 
ulurm lui; it U. al IvaAi. i*ortli iiiquiij. lu know vrlmt arc 
tb« quuLi1te« of mob a plant, uud wbal tb(» ccirib<i4ueuo<^« 
ofsticb n tmd<-. 

Hf then proc^dn tn enumorult* ihi? miechj^f? of toa, 
und sirrmfl willing to charge npon it every mUchief that 
be etin find. He be^inn, however, by qiieKtloTiing the 
vblueii uacribfd Iq U, und draivx that the trtr^a v( tlie 
ChiQCM^ nhip» arc pn^Mrrvcd, in their Toyo^ humewurd!!, 
from tbe scurvy by tea. Atoul thin niport I \mvo tnude 
■ODie inquiry, and lliough 1 cannot find ihut tli««n orew> 
am wbolly exempt from seorbliii«k inaladifM, fiti^ nr^m 
III KufliT flifm leHv rhuri other niunner«, i» anv c.onnw of 
e(|Mal leugtb. This 1 tucrUir (u ibe tea. not us poa»easii]gf 
«oy medicinal qualities, but on temptin;? thuni to dnnk 
Ukore water, to dilute their nnlt food mot\? copioudty, oud, 
perbapA, to forbrur puncb, or oih^^r ctrcmg Iiijucitk- 

Hh then prarrpdH, in fhe jutlhctink Klruin, to (i«U thn 
bdiaH h(iw» by drinking te», ilK^y injure tb^ir bcultlir and. 
whut h y«t more dear, thwr boauly. 

** To what cnu we oMiibe tbo natneroutf vomploitita 
wbicb prevail f How mauy iGiicct oreaturen o1\vonr itex 
lADgviih with u vrcik digeiiiion, low KptritK. U^jitudet, 
inetanidinly, und Iwrnly diAordrm, which, in «(>itr uf iht? 
tooulty, hnvo yet no n-iineh, e\eepC ibe gr^nrrul ont; of 
ncrrou* ccutpluintjf f Lot titem chtio^c iheir diet, ajid, 
omonfT other articles, leavo ofT drinking ten, it ej> more than 

op BIOHT 0AV8 JomNllV 


probable, tfao groaictt ptirt of Uiem wiU be reitored (o 

H"t wiitirr i!* al?"(i vory huMful to th»* trt^lh. TJir 
Chinese *lo not <lrirjk ibfir tea so Lot a» wc do, ULtl jcl 
^hvy barr hud tenth. Thi» cannot be aicribod ODfiruly to 
ftiijEur for tbcy tiso v«ry litllo, an already obflcrvod; but 
1*4* nil LtkovL', Ihat hot or cold (biai^p vhich paiD the teetb, 
di^lruy ihviu ul«o. If we drmlt Wk U-a, nnd uwed geall« 
BciUb for iJit* jpiina mid ti-cili. p0rtic[ibirly ^oitr orun^t^i. 
ihoQEb we had u Ic" miiubcr of Fr^iic h dcntiitfl, 1 fancy tbin 
tuil purl of beauty would bo int»cb bettor pptscrvcd. 

" Tbo womni in Ibo Uui(oii ProvmcoSf who sip It^ft 
from morning till night, ;ire aUo a> rv^muTLahl^ for had 
teeth- They alwj Took pjillid. und mnny bin- troiildod wiih 
•ertuD roQkituutT diiunlrjB, uriviii^^ froni n rubxi-d lubti. 
Portugaon ludicx, on the other liaad, t^i^tcrthiu with 
^Jw^ettBCttt*, und yet thr^y bnvc ^<}fy gxiod Icctfr; but their 
ibodp in f^oiiorol, ii: more of a rnrinncooiifl und vo^4ftublo 
ktnti Ibiin r>»n. They oUo drink cold wilU t. jiijcu>nd of 
■ippin^ W, Hnd iietf-r idnlt? any fenuortiid lii|uorK; for 
iIk'm; rruHoiiH. tJit- uiio of lUifttr doeH uot §trcrji lo be fit utl 
|K'rmciuu!( to them." 

" Mon mycm lo hnvo ]obi thrir nlnturo and comolinu^, 
Md vomcn their bt^noly' I om not \oiin^> but, mir'tlkinkic, 
th4iri^ ta iiol r|Liilo «o mocb beuiily in this Und lU Ibcrr ita.^. 
Your *«ry cliarubt-rriiHidv Jinvr loht llii-ir blooiri* 1 aup- 
p(»ep hy nijfpiii^ tvd- Kvi*ii ibt.- ogitiit[oD» of tho piUHona 
at cards arc dol m ^rent t?»t»mios to f&malo charuix. W bat 
£liakotpi*urtr u.scril>i>a to ihv t o[iLvalm<>nt of love, is, iu llji« 
ngdr moro frc<nj«nlly ournHiontd hy the uid of lea." 

To rajM' Ihr frigf»t uttli highi'-r, h" qu«lf« hii rtccouiit uf 
a |)ig*s laiL «c^ld<:d ^ttb toa, ou whirb, however, be doe» 
i>ot uttcb ittbbc. 

Of ihcEio dreadful riTcctii. jtomc aro, perhaps, iRiik^ury« 
■ad some muy lu»vc unothc^r cinjso. That ilmro in \e*» 
beauty in the prj^s^nl race of fonudel. thau in ihoKr. who 
ifniorftd Iho wfirld with ui, all of u< nm incUaed to think, 
nt] whom b^iity hatt ct^ascd to nraile; but our fatberi and 



KliVIKW ur A JOUK>Af' 


grandrAtLcrM mode the same toiapUint bd'orc u»; ojii 
our postcnTy will «iil] tind be^iutiea irresbtibly powtirfuh 

That the dU^aseft, commonly cnlled nervous, (retnours, 
Atff, b&bima] depression, aad all the iua1ac1ie« which pro- 
ceed frurn lazily and debility, Hre mora freqiivnT ihuu m 
uay ftirmcr tioiCt is* I bclinvi-, triir, howrvrr drplcimhtc. 
But Ihui new race ofevLU will not be expelled by the pro- 
hibtlion <jf lea- Thia gcocml Lnn^iior h the effect of g^cnc- 
rnl laxary, of genera) idleness. If it be mo^t to be fouud 
fiinnng t^^a -drinkers, (be reti&on is, (but (ea ii one of the 
staled diiLuvetneiiti of (hv idle mid luxtinouh- The whulff 
mode c^ \\(f. is irhun^rrd ; cvcty kiiiil of voluntary luliour, 
every cxcrcbe tbnt «1rcn^tbencd the iLcrvciv, uitd burdened 
tbo muftcLos, is fikiloD into disuse. Tbe inbubilntitx ato 
erov^dod to^t^ter in populous ritlefi^ ho Ibat an occnRion of 
life rei]uire8 much motJoo; every one is near to all thai 
be wnxjtB: and ihs m-b tmil dt^licale seldom [mas IVom one 
ftireet to unother. but in carr!ii^» urpleaM^ie. Yet we^at 
und drink, or strive to cat nnd diink> like Ibc huDtcra and 
buntresMSt tho fanneri and the houaevivoa, of the former 
^enoralion ; and they that pn>m leu boii/K in bed, nnit ni^bt 
at cards "id the greatt-r part of the oiher si^ af (be (ahle^ 
ora taught li> ijupule to tra nil llie dueasea wbii:li a life, 
uiinaturnl in alt tta jiarla. inuy cbaoce to bring upon 

Tqa, junong tho ^|;renlcr part oftfaoftc who ute it moil, 
ifdruitk in no groalqucuitity^ Ai it neither rxbi1anLteKib« 
litnirt, nor Mimutalm (hi- pidutr, il in cunimorily iin (?ntj<r- 
toiouicnt mrrely nominnL u prctt-ace for uMcmblmg (d 
prattle, for uilemipfin^ busiocff^ or divrrfifjiDg idleness, 
Thoy, vho drink one eup, and, who drink twenty, are 
erjnally punctTt»l iu preparing or partaking; it ; uud. indeed, 
ihere wre ft^w but discoviT* by (bvir indiflt*^l^uee ^bout il, 
ihut they ure hrongbl logelltrr not by Ihfr tea, hnt tin- li^»- 
tAblr. Three rups mnVe the euiutnini ijunutJ^, »o slightly 
impTT^unled, thai* porhAprt, they mi|;bt he tiug^ed with tbo 
Atbrnian cieuta, a(id pfodu^e li!» edccls than ihe*^ kilterii 
I'bnrge njiou tea. 



Our ttutbor proceedfl to thov jet othtrr bad quaJitiet of 

*' Green tea. when ratul« »lroi:^» crtu by iofu»it>ni » aa 
cmctick; nu;^'. 1 urn told^tt is uwdtia tfoch joCkina; adc- 
eodion of it cvrtainly pcrrorm* Ihb oponUinQ ; yvi, by loii^ 
W9, 11 1# drunk hv mutiy witluiut >tiirh un rfTrcl, The in- 
fofioa al*o» wli«n it ii» mudff Htrang, ttni\ f^tunilj!! U»o^ ta 
tUnvf lli« groMcr pftrdclca, will codvii1»c ihc loveli : even 
im ilie raaniKT co[iut>i>flt7 uaccl, h bos tbu oRect oa p»omo 
euQfttilulioiia. ;j!i I bav^ idroadj? remarked Co you from luy 
ovn CTpeiienro, ' 

" You M^fr T «0Qri<Nft my woultneiBi wUhoul r(^«prve; but 
tho^ wbn ari*i wry rumi of tr», if (brir digi^fklion in wi\tk, 
ftitd Usej find tlicoudvoA disorUcrcd^ tbcy gcucmlly aacrtbo 
4irr catiM.\ except the Iruc ouc. I am aiA-arc tliat the 
fl^ joiputi^d toUie liot w^ler ; let it be 
t, Atid my ur^mi^nt is itill ^ood: bat vbu prvlendi to 
ny, it is not pnrtiy owirjg to purtirulAr kitid» of ton ''. per- 
liB|)8, Mich aflparUtke of ci>ppcru«, wliich, tlivroiit GHu«e l» 
■fffirdiond, » lometimcH tbe caae : tf wo jutl^e frum ibe 
■lanitifT in wLkh it is aaid to be cured, tcj^ethi^r witb lU 
ordinary dfect*. ihcru ia «omo foundation for tJii« opinion. 
Put u drop of fitrong ivix, oitbor ^reen or bobea, but chiefly 
ihfi fcinn4ir, on ihr blade of » knife, tbou^b it ii not f^or- 
ro«i«e> ill ibe SAono reiatirier tia vitriol, yet tbt^rc ttppoar4 lu 
'bo • torroMvfi quulily in il. very dlflcretit fiom that ^ 
fniitt ivbicb sVua^ ihf. knifr/' 

He nnerwardi cjuoloa l^tulli, to pro^e. tltut U^a i# a *' do- 
itivo, wid ought ant to hi* ujK-d afloT thofoitiotli yoar" 
%st«, then, long- exet^eded tfio limits of permission, but I 
confoTt inj»e1f. ihut all the riiernie!i of t«a <ruiinui be ia 
tbo rigfcU If leu be a deaiccdlite. uccordiuK to Puulli, it 
oamiot makcn the fibres, ^b €ur aatbor iran^nr:* ; if it be 
eiiH»ticl:> it muftt eonttriiigc tbo atotnaoh, ivthcr Ibuu ro- 
bx iL 

Tbp fonnidihlile quaUty of lini^ii};^ ibe knife, it W in 
coranhou with ututmoi, thr bark» and IruvL-ji of oak, n»d 
OTOry tt*triiig»Dl bark or kaf: rbo <-op|)CTW4, wLieb n ^ivon 


to tko lea, i> really in llu^ knift*. Tnk mny 1>^ mn^fl nf 
«n7 feom^lnntiA muUcr, utid aslringcnt vu^tjlziLlf. nx it ik 

From toa, Iho wHlor <]iprcn*<»B lo apinlfiDnn li^tioK, 
Rb4}iil vbkh h(» will luiV4^ no <^onfrover!iy uiili the Iir4<rarv 
Muf^/ine; ui.^!(h]ilf, [liereluri^jiiAerttilmnAt hUwholp t^tt^r, 
mid udcl to il otifl tHtimimy. Ihul tlir irim hirfit Aming:, on 
rvrry sidr, from (his Gtimpcndiou* m'tdc uf ilriiubfiiiit-as, 
nrc cnofmoui ^nd insiip]>nTtiihlr ; (^qunlly to he found among 
iho ^4T!il ;«nd thr mr^tn ; lilling palucoK willi diK<fui^I, nnd 
difitraclioTi, hurdrr lo bi* bnrin', de U rnnnoi hv meniloued; 
mid OTO-nvMmiug mullitudiiH ^Jtfi jiicurHblv diAe»i(e«H and 
unpiti^ potcrty- 

" Thoui^b (eu and pri huvc nproud ihcir bAucful influ- 
ence otcr Uiiji iitiiiid« find bin mujcsty'ct olbcr dntninioii»| 
T€t, you muy bn wvU uuuri^d, tbui tho gnvrrnon of Ihe 
Ftinridlin^ HoK[iitjiJ uiti rtrri Umir iilmoKt still nn<l vi^ifl- 
Jmific, I'l prrvcnt ll»« ('biblri'ii» uudf r tbi.'ir can% fnim betii^ 
pOJ»OJieJ, or cucrvatLnl by ouc or Ibo other. This, Uuwpvct, 
M not the mae of worhbousos: it iB vdl Lnown, to Uie 
.ibnmo of thovc «bo nri' t'liurM^i'd with tbt* onrc of thc*m, thiit 
gjn hvtt bMD too ofti-n fwrmitli-d lo 4.'att.T llirir g-iitpn ; und 
lhr dr*bjmcbL*d itppeliU'S oflbr pmipb-, wbo inbtibil ibmift 
hoiiWH, b;i^ hiTit nrginl vi n rrjiKon for \L 

" Dci^prrulr di«on^c» require dr^^pcrnt*: renit^dJo: if 
Uiw» aro ri|-Tdl_v osccutcd ot^ninsl murdertrtt m thv lii^bway, 
tbo^o wbo provider u draugbt of^-iu, tthioh uo s4.-v m taur- 
derot^fc, otjgbi not lo Wroii[ilejiniic«'d. I am now informed, 
that ui rt-vbiiii bonpilult, ulicrc ihr numbiir of tlin «ick 
lurd to be abuut 0600 iii 14 yrant, 

Fnnn 1704 u 171^ tliey incmuvd la ltl&!f ; 
Frwn I7I8U l/^H.Htill iiii>:inci)lci] to 1:^,710: 
And Am 17^1 tri i;-li>. ntultliaw tL>3HJ47- 

" \Vlmt n rlrrmlful iptwtrv doi?» lliU exhibit! nor must 
»e «voM<tiir, when Mitwfactory evidtuuc itufEi^cn, boloro 
lh» ^rcat couDcU of the ntitioD^ tbut near oi^ht miiUonit of 



galludft of (IJHlilU-d spirits, hi llie stonilurrl tl j?i cummonl^r 
it-duocNl l<i (vi dnukiuK. was dctuuElv i^utLjsiuniril iuifju4M3r 
ii> dranu ! Ibc ihockiui,' diflV-riMicc in xko oumbi-rH oftlu? 
mek, end, wc may ptvsumo, ai' tlm dend a\so, van nujipnncd 
lo koop pAco «i1h ^n; luid the moat iiif(i^niouii mid tm- 
prfrjudiefrd ph^iciani^ nsrHlic^d il Id lhi« i-aiiiiii. WKat u 
to be done iindf^v tbi^»i^ nkHfUH^ftoly circtimsturic-f^s ^ sliati 
vo Alill countotiQDco the didfjilerjr. for iho take of the 
rcTcnae ; out ol' tcudoriK-s^ to the fi:w, u-hu will ?ii]fiVr by 
iU being Hboljflhed ; fur tVar €f thtv oiailEie^et of the puupic ; 
or tbiM far«iguerA vlll ntn il ■!> upon ui f Th«re con be 
oo oTJl *o gr^ai a« ihui we now viiftvT, exc*^pi iIia muking 
Ihp fsmp roDJinnjplioii. iitmI pnving for it to furcigJiriH 
In iDDuery, wb!tli 1 Wpr ocvcr vill bo the ra«G. 

" Aa lo ibe rovLHiic, U ccrtninly may he rcplnccd by 
lOK^e apon the Qece«enrioH of lifo, e\cn upon liio broad 
ve«at. or, iit other word<t, ii))r>n the land, whicb i^ the ^r^ai 
■Dctrcv of ktipplv to lilt* ptihlic, imd to itidJvtdiJuU. ^«or 
can 1 pLTMiodi: m^Ki?]f, but lliol ihr poo|)1o may Ikt wrunrfl 
fro« tlw lubit of poMoniD^ th(:m»DfTr«. The diflioully of 
Mmr^ling a bnlky h^oid, ^oinf^d to the sctority whioh 
OUf^l to he oxercisc-d lownr<I$ smitg'f^tnr^, wttoso illogj^l 
COnmieroe is of soinfeniAl n notori^ miiqljii time, prodofre 
|]ie ett^ci desEi^d. Spirhuonh livjiion being nlmlulipd, 
ijulv^ of harinif the moat uiidtBcipUn<H] And uTiundoned 
poor, mti mitcht won homl a roc<3 of mi.m, li-n^pc-nitu, re- 
ligions, and ioduAtrioQs, oven lo a provorb. Wo shixild 
aooB 0ed tho pouderotis burden of tL« poor's rato decreiuej 
Mid the beaiily end xmnf^li of the land rejuver>aiL'. 
Scbuuls, workhuuaek, tiod fjuspilaiU. mighl (.beu ho suf. 
IScimt to clear our »ltveb of dleiUow and aiutcry, which 
ncv^T will he the fjun?. wliilrit the lore of poison i^rcvrtiU, 
mad the inearifi of niin ik nold i» abovo ono Ih^^uAtiiid housi>s 
IB tii4f aity of London, in two thoLi^nnd two hnndnvl in W««t- 
miniirr, nnd ofip ihniisand nljio hundied nnd thirty In 
HuJburiJ tuid St- GiteVft. 

*' But if other um-« f>lill demand liqviil ftre, I would 
realty propose, th&it it slioiild bo fold only in quart bottles, 


Apaird up, witli Ui« kiJi^'n leaV with a v«ry high diily, and 
nniH* HoM ffithoni ht-.tag oiixed wilh ii Hlruti^ rmi^lJr. 

" Mfliijf bccorac <>bjccU of chtirity hy their iulviuper- 
fincc. and tbu c^icludcH othrrs^ vbo nre huoh by llm lui- 
a«roi<lab]<> occidoiita of life, or wbo cauROl, bj any mt'iiij*. 
support th^Biselves. Honof* U uppenrs, that tht< Jntri>- 
iluL'itiif Tifw iiubitt of life, jh th» most HitljsljLJiItdl churitv; 
uuci th-tt thf? tr^^ulalum of chAritj-nchuuls. hu:(p]liiK, und 
wiiMmn^c\ npt the au^niml^tti^m of their nkimhrr. can 
iDiikc ttieui iiQswcr tbu vrioc ondi, for which tlicy wcro ui- 

" The chUdr^ of htn^gnTt. KbouM ho also taken from 
diem, and bred »[> 1o hihoiir. hk cliildren of the putdit;. 
TbiiK llicT di!<trci»>eil might bo rclicTcd. at a sixth part of 
tJir i>rc»cMit cxpcn.ic; tho idlu be uompulk-d to work or 
fltLTvc^ Qud thr mad be »tint to Budtum. \Vc niiould not 
^ee hiinuin nuttirc <lisgrui!«d by tfie aged, the maimed, 
the nickly, and young children, begging; Ihoir bre;^d ; nor 
voiiUl <.-om|jUAMoit he abused by ibusi?, whu biive reducL^d 
it to tin art tu culch the uuwaiy. Nothiug U wuiiting but 
common $oi»e and buncjity m the execution of \awi. 

" To prrTcnt 8Uch abuf« in (he streets^ fleeing more 
praclicabk thun to abctuh ba^ habits wltbirj di>or»» 
j^eater unmber» |>omh. Wi^ see> in many ruinilmr iu- 
st»Jiti*s, ihr* fuful HTtctM of exain|i]e. Tbtr oitrelrKK cp(*nd- 
ing <jf tiinr nn^Hig MtrtniiU, wbu art- diurgcd wilb the chk 
of infanCA, n often fatal : the nurse freijuently de^lruyii 
the cluld! Iho j>oor infant, being left Doglecled, cxpjreo 
whiiet she U nipping her tea \ This may appear to yon us 
nuik prejndke, or Jest; hut, t am lujiurod, from tlie woaX 
lodtMtabla evidence^ ihut mttny very t^xtraurdinnty eEisi'i 
of i\nt kind havr rt-iillir hsipjitrned, iimong iluifc whohe duly 
doed Bi>t permit of fluch kiud of linbits. 

" It ia partly from such cnuaeti, thnt nurses uf the cliil- 
dren of llie public i>r(eu fr>ri^t Ihemselves, and beeome 
impatjeut when infuntu cry ; lh<» next step to ihia U using 
extraordmury moiiiu fr> f|ulet tliein. T iutve ulrondy mi?n- 
lionod ihtT timii killing nurfe, lu known ha ^vmr uork- 



bomiM: Veutro treadc. |)oppy vali^r, and G^rdlVcv'ft cor- 
dial, baro been iho kind instmfiurntt of lulling the chUd to 
ifci> cvorlaaUng ri«4T. If ihcM* piotK wom^c cotild bvnil up 
rJuiTulAlinii, vhvu tiir rhild rxpirrd, nil wai well, and no 
a*»ked by tb^ Hupvrioni, An iii^eiiiuijjt friend 
nine tnfcrm^i qi«*, that this hua Wun ski often ihf <ijijirt 
•ome workbouse*. UmI Venice trcnrJc hat Acjiurcd the 
ippcilution of ' (hfT Lord have mcrcv apon me,' in lilZiukJDn 
to Ihp nun^jt' hackneyed oxpr^fi^ion of pr«te<iided criof, 
»lipn in(anr« ^xpln?I Fsrewell." 

I know not nputi vfi^it uliM-rTnlion Mr. Ilimway foiindu 

c<iafidi!iic<T Inllir KOTnrnoijrnof llir Foundliii^ lloRpitnl, 

jjncD of wbooi I burr not uny knowlcdi^r*, but wbom 1 eci- 

toval U> con«idcf a lillJt? tbc mindi^.Ai w«U nn bodies, of ihc 

idiildroo. I am >nclin<>d to bvllovv iiT4*ligt:>n r<|i](dly per- 

li<?iom with gin and Iph. und, ihrrrfrirr, ihlnk il not uu- 

HeaiM^nablir tu jneutiuu, that, w beu* a few lUffiilb-i ji^'cr. [ uruti- 

dcred lUrough Uir hoipital 1 found t^ot a i^lizld (hat terraced 

[to kftTG board of hia tirvcd> or tb(.< oommimdmciilA. To 

fcrocd up cbdilrci] in 1bi« monnort U to rofcifo tbom from 

ui rork grave, thut tbcy m.iy tind omplovniifnt for ibe 

gihhrl; fnjm d^ing in iniicMM^nr-r, ibnt ibry mny p^rUh by 


Having consid^rfed Ui« efli^cta uf lea upon the lic«tltb of 

jtbc drinker, irhich, I liiiiik. ho baa agirru\iLled in Uu^ vobc- 

FiBie^c^ of hid xaaif nnd wbicb, after kclEcitin^ ibvnt by ihis^ 

T**l*^'7 ioxur*. yrnr atU-r yetir, I buto not jt'i ft^lt, bo 

td« In rxiuniniT. bnv it xtiny he nhown fo aHl^ct OUT 

ttti find firat calcuUtoe the itntiiinal lu^is, by tlic liuK* 

iu drinking ti-Up 1 bu^c no dt^aira lo Ufiprur cup' 

rti<»U!i, ond nbalb tliert^foiY-, readily odiniC* tbul li;4 id a liquor 

proper for Ibv Iowlt ciujut^jn of tbt? pc^upW, ac it Bup' 

liM so tlTcn^b to lidkoiir, or rdit^f to diuriur, but ^iili- 

m i!m? tAtt4\ vithonl nonriAhin^ [hp body- Tt in u burn-n 

srluilyi to vrbicb tbiMu wliu c&a bardly proctrrc iiUaX 

itur<r roqiiirct). cnnnot prudently hnbituntc IIicmjiclTCji- 

fu proper an) i« to amuse tbo idle, and relax tbc fltndiona, 

8Dd dilate ibe fdl in«aUof iho«e whocannoluieexorcU^*, 



and vilt not hm abitliti^iipe. Thui time ir Jortt in tfai* in- 
sipid ci»U-rl mom 1*11 1 eaiiiioi bv deiiMdt, muny iriflo nwni^, 
at the* Irw-lvblr, fhimr innnK'iili wliirh voiiid bfi hf>11er 
apenl ; bitt tbnt ud/ iintiont;! ^i.HrItiic-iil can br ijir^nerl 
rroni thi« waste ortimo.docA itot evideDtly apptrar. because 
I know not tbnl oiiy work romatii» tiniloFir. for wnnt nf 
hands. Our maiiufaciurcf; seem lo be lim>i(?d, ntit by Uio 
pOMibility of work, bill by ibe possibility of idle, 

flU rirxt iirj^i]m<<itl i^ more tlenr- lie flffipmii, ihnt onp» 
bundrcit nnd tifly iWj^^aid poiiniU, in Mlvcr, &ic paid to 
tbo ChincAo, fltiDaally, for llircc millions of pouadA of lea. 
and. lliat for two miLliOHA mor^, brciixht clandestinoly from 
Abni.'i}fbbouriu/f cosAtN. w^ pay, sil fwenfy-peDce a pouDcl. 
nnp btinJri'd Kixty-iii^ ibou^Hnd %iv bitiiilrijcl mid tiixfy'iiiv 
poiiniti;^ Tfif^ utilbur jUHtU uiiiL<:i*l\eh, llml tlm i-»nipiilu* 
lioa will wnKcn n^ . for. Hays he . '* tbr \om of hcaltb* lhi> 
loM of linkc, tlic injury of moraU, arc nM very seruibly 
folt by somo, vho uro alarmod when you talk of ibrr toss of 
moaej." Bui he «iKCu»efl (be Eii»l India coai|>any, as m«it 
not obliged h> be political arithinelioiuns, or to inquire so 
miicb, »]iai tbe imliun tostfii. as hnw Ilifm^elvt^K may grov 
richn It in i-crtuin. iLiit tbcy, wbo drink tcu, bnrt? no n^cbt 
to oompluin of thoi^c thitt impori it; but if Mr. iliinway'4 
computation bo jiiAt, the import Ji lion, nnd ibo luc of it, 
oiigbti at once, lo bo stopped by u pomd Inw. 

Tbt* Aiillior AilluwN one ftli^hf ktrpum^nt in favour of tea, 
which, bi my npininn, mi^bt be, Mith fwr ^eater justibe. 
urgird botb agiunht tbnt and mnriy other pnrU of our natal 
tmdo. •' The tcn-tmde employ*,"" he t«l!» as, " six ships, 
and Ifvo or «i?i hiitnirod s^wnt^n, so/ii annually to China* 
It, l]k<-wise, hrin^ in n revemit^ of ihrre httndn^l Einit 
<iitly ihoii'^atKl poiiadK, which, an a Ia\ on bixary. may be 
iMnmidcn^d a» of grtal utility to ihr sUte/' Tbe utility of 
thU tux I cannot tmd: m tax on Inxnry 19 no bolter than 
anotiii^r tax. mitcfls it binduri luxnry, wbii-'h (^lidiloI be 
EJiid of tbo impiMt upoD tea, whilo it U tbu* awed by tbe 
great and tbo meao, the rich and the poor. The truth i>, 
that, by the 1oa« of oae bandred aail fl^y tboiiAaiid pouudH, 



wc pracvtr. llii- mentis vf sljifcing llirf^i.- bumlrcrl und «Ul^, onljfrom on& liuid trt atiottioi; but,per- 
lmf>4. somrCimi^K into hnrdi hy^vhich it h not \rrv tjoricillv 
ein|i1o^i><J- Of i\w Jivo or tix hundrtrd f]r^ini<>n, s^tit lo 
<^na. 1 am told. ili»I someiiTn^^ hnlf, ctimmonly n tblrd 
pArt, (H^mli in tTif voxii^e; tui llitil. iiiAtruil '>r Mff f in&c flii-t 
■avt^iition ngLuiul (hr intoiivrniriiclt^A already itllitj^cil. W4- 
VAT odd to tlunn, tho yearly loim ofttro hundtrd men, in 
iht priuko uf life ; nml reckon, (hnt Ihi^ trsdn nfChinA hns 
trovod Ivii tboueand men. ftirice Iho beginrtiTt^ of thU 

If Ira b^ (hii*( pemiciniiM, if il imfiOTerikbfW i>nr cOTinfry. 
tf it tm»c% trnipruEiuii. and f^ivt^ii uppcirtuiiitv Id JUIc'it Dtiui- 
nt«rcr, vIll<]i I hure atway? looked on, ua oiut of the 
ttrodfc^sit ovidrnccs ol' tb*? ineflicaoy of our law, thv weak- 
now of our gowrnmrnl, mid lhi3 t'lirriipljori of our poopio. 
In ns a1 oner, mokr lo |irohlbi<. if for rvrr. 

" If t\tf* ijiic^tiim wu«. hijw l» promote induRlry moNl 
ttidvaaU^TOuily. \n lieu of our loo-trndc^ HUitpcflinic: rvt^ry 
brunch of our commerce to br nirendy fatly sjpplJed with 
taud a<id money f Tf a cjudrter the sum, nov ftpeat in tta, 
vtere laid out, animsklly, in plaii!Aili>UA, in inakia;jt' jiabla^ 
gBrd<<£i*p an paviiL}( and wideidii^ ulrt'eU. in making' rtrnd^, 
tn rcDdorin^ riven* na^ ii;ubk-, ervclitig^ palaues. building 
bridffc*, or doiit mid coavonicut hou^a, wbrro two now 
only buU; dnuiiin(( lanibi, or Tuadt-riiif; llto^^e* wbich oro 
pow barren, of «omo u»t ; ilmuld we not bo guiiienj, and 
pravkli? mor« for brallh, pliTfuoirr, and long lifn^ r^ompRTrd 
wiiL lUc coDAequcai'CA of thr (ra'lriidc .'" 

Uur riches would br tmich bi^tti-r «-aip]oyod to tbete 
purpO»e*4 but if Uiiii projoct do^a not plcu-nf.\ k1 us Rn\ 
r^«oK«* to save oar uiont^y. and we ftball, ai^orwardf, f^rry 
t^Ahily find wuvs lu ^jK-itd it- 



OP aUY 30» 1757*- 

(t Ia obfiitrvrtl. in T^ Sai^«'H Oil BUs, that on exasperated 
aotlior la nut ciuiily pucilUd. 1 Imvu, tjitii^fore, \«f-v tiUU} 
hop« of jiinkiu^ my poaci> with Iho writer of (he Ei[;ti1 
lla\A' Jouruoy ; indeed lo liulcr, tliut I Imvij lori^ dcli- 
ber^U-d, i«1j«fhpr I xhoiild m^l rnlhi^r kiI liilr'ntl^ down, 
iindnr h'm di.ipleLuurt', tbaa aggrav^tff mv misfortune, by m 
ddVnrr, ofwhivb nij Leart forbod^s ibo ill succc^. Dc* 
UbeTDlioD u often u.i(.'lcji!i. 1 am ofrdd, tliftt I have, ul 
]a£U made tito wronj; oh<ii(*c<, and that I mif^Ui better bavo 
re«if;ned my cnuw. wiUiout u vtruLffcEe. to liiae Mid i'arlnnQt 
Aioce I ahnil nin ibi^ W/urd of a tiew oiTMLiTi-, liy tli^ ntv 
ces<iily of dftkiug liim. wh) br ]« angry. 

DivUesfl and Icrrour ol'tcn dLscovcr to us tbt^te faults, 
ttitli which wo dboiild never h&vo reproached ourttolves in 
A h»ippy i^Uiie. V«l, dejected ah I am. wbeti I revjuw th« 
trun«ui.*tJ0H b^tueeu lue and this uriter. I cajinol lirid, tiiQl 
1 huvii lifM^Q dr^lirirnt in revpritni^r?. Whrii liii hook WM 
frrAt pHiiIcd. be biiit«. ihnt 1 promrnd n flight of U bi^Corv 
it wa» piiblUbed, lic^w tbc si^bt of it wu procuved. 1 do 
not liow very exactly remember; but, it' my curJoiily was 
j(reait.<r iJjuu my prndeooe, if 1 biid rj^h hnmli on llie fatal 
voluntc, 1 buvc siu"*?ly iBiiflVrod, lite biin who btir^l the 
box, from wbirb nvi! nubrd into tJin witrld. 

I look il. bowcTcr, and inspoclcd li« on tlic work of aa 
author not bij^hrr than tnyfldf; and troA contirmcd in my 
Ofrinion, when 1 found, thul thesv letters vere noi iixnite» 
io h% prinlftf, I corK<ludi*d. hovirvrr* lliul, tbouf^b not 
uviften to be prinlnf, tbry wrrt* prinlrd lo br» r<wrf, nn4 
lUMi^itMl i>nFf of ibr^m in ihif in>T1rclinn of Navrmbpr last. 
Not m«ny dnys nftcr. J rt^ccivcd a note, infonniug: me. that 
1 ou^ht to have wailed for a more correct edition. ThU 
injunction wa» obeyed. The edition appeared, and 1 sup- 




po«C(] ntyncir Rt Jibcrljr to (elt my thougli1» iipou i1, aa 
upon Any othor book, upon a roynJ miknirvBto, or an act of 
part»ni^iit. But see the fale of ipiorU[it tem^ritj 1 I 
flow nnd. bill find Ion late, rliat, inflfead uf n «niAr> wha«e 
itnlj patrrr b in hi* [Mii, I liav« irnintrd mi im|KirUnt 
nMTm^f of Nil imporUmt iv>r|i(irati<iii ; u iimii, wlio, aii he 
tclU Oi in hij letter*, put* tjor»c» ia hi« charioli 

It wiu Allowed to IIju diflpnlfint <if old 1o yield tt|> tho 
coiilro¥«m'. tvitb Jiftk* rititistaDi'e, to (bo muntur of forty 
legBOM, Tlioce who know how wrkkly nakt^X trulli can 
lif^frml ht-r mlfnruIrK, w;)ijM fmrgivr mr, if I KhiniH pHy 
ihc Mune reff[]iH-l tii a governtJiir of IfuT ri>jiiiitlm^> Yc(, 
the coiuciouAiitfM of my owji rectitude of mtcution irKit<?» 
me to aib ouccr ui^f^m, how 1 buro ul1Vlldt^d. 

Hiert- uru oiilv thrt'ts -lubjcciii upun wtiioli my (inlviclcy 
pe« hat Impp^neJ tovonttiro: tea; the uuihorof Ihejoiir- 
nul: ttm\ ibn foumllin^ hnApitnl, 

Ortr<a, wUil Imi\p I -ttiid ^ Tfml I U»\e iltvnk il twfiily 
years, wttliont hurt, &nd, lln^rrfuiu^ bt-lk'vi) it not to he 
pciaoo ; Ibtti, if it drioa 1bi< libre.i. it cumiiot Hoften theai ; 
llial, if il eonsiTitxs*'ti, it ^annol rclu^. I buvu modestly 
iluiibt«?d, wliolhfir it has dimiiiTstied tJio Rtrirnj^th of our 
meii. or fhe lieaiity of our women: and whether il miirh 
himhr-i i\w pru^n-w of our wuiilleo or Iron ftidiitifa4;(urev ; 
biit Inllowc^ditlnhnnburrrn sii|)i-d1uity. nFEllirr medicinal 
nor nnt/iliQiis, (hat neither ^npplii^d vtrcni;th iiar olieurful- 
tttm, ii#ilfaer relieved wearioest, tior i^xhiliimted «orrow: 
I iiiMrrled, without churj^ti or HiJspi<;ion of fabchood, the 
aant exported to piircbu^e it ; and propound n Inw tc pro* 
lithit it fiir rvrr. 

Of the iinthor 1 iinfortuimtely nnid, tlml h'\H iiijunrtimi 
*■* KUnewhat too mainaleriul. Tbift I «id, before 1 know 
that h« wsH a p^reniour of (be foi^ndlinjfi ; but ho seem* 
inclined fo punish thia fuitnrr of rc-nprct, ii* the cwir of 
HllflCOTy mad<T war upon Sweden, hccmine lie was oot 
Uwdtd with uittlrtent honcitir^i, when hr piiK^ed throii(ch tb« 
toantry in dii^gutM-. Yel, w.w ttol this irrcvermi^r without 
exteous^n. Somi-thinK Wii> mid of llie merit of mraniM^ 

voi. n. 



uxH, imd Ui(? JQurnuliat woBt Acciastd to b<? a man. wAowr 
faiUn^n Tuight vjeli be pardonrd far hia vlrtuu, Tbid is the 
bi^^brnt prnisr vhinU human in'^*i^''<i<^ *'^^^ confi^r Q|Jon ha- 
mnn m<iht; jtrniHo that voiild hnv4> morn (lull) nntintw^ 
TiliiB or Augualiift* btii which T loust own to he inndcqiiatv 
and peiiTiriuiiK* when offered 1u the memlier of an import- 
mit curpuraliuri. 

1 OJA ukod, whotber 1 meant to Hatirizo tbc man^ or 
oritioiAc the writer, vheu I du,Vi tliat "he bcUe^^s, only, 
pvtrhnps, becnufi^ he hus incluiation lo beljev« ll, llml tbe 
EngLsh ani^ Dutcb roatum«^ more tea ihim ibr vjikI rhi- 
pirf^ of China/' Bcfweei) the writer aiul 1W man> T did 
not. nt that time, L-i>uHlder Ibe dittltaotJonH The writer I 
f^Lind not of inorc than mortal mi^^ht, and I did not imnie- 
dinloly rccolkcti ttiat Ihc tnun put horat^ti lo hiii chariot. 
But I did not write wholly witboul c^oDt^ideration^ 1 kuijw 
bui two r.aiii4»?ii of hfilifff, rvidf npi* iind iitrlimilion. Wluil 
rvidirnce X\w Jonni.iltMt could havr of the Cbiiipnr coii- 
tPUJDpdon of («a, 1 was not able to ilirtuovcri The oBiccra 
of iht^ Eatii Itidiu corDpEui\ aru excluded, thoy Ik^^I know 
why, from the lown^ and the country of Chinu ; they ore 
titKiti^d, ua we ln^ut gipiEJi^H and va^nU, und obliged to 
rvtinv a-verv ni^hl. To f heJr own hov^l. Whtit inlftlli^nc^ 
Huch Intveller^i luuy brings i» of no p-**M inipcrianct*. Anil, 
diougb ihe nils«ioniinc> bojUit of hating once? pructnit«d 
fuithcr. I ihiiik, thry havt^ never fii1cnlat<<d Ihv tta dmnlc 
by the Chinci^o. Thern bcin^ thu« no cTklcaci* for hi* 
opinion, (o what could [ ascribe it bnt iDclimilion. 

I urn yt-X chtirgrH. ninr^ benviU, for haviitf^ snid, thai *'he 
has no intrnltuti Ui find Mty ibin^ right at liuino," I be- 
Ikfo every reader r«t«tra]u«d thi» imputation lo tho »ub- 
j<*c( which pToducod il, and nuppcnod mc to inninuuk^ only, 
ttnl hv mvnni t<t ipuro no part of the tea-tiLbtf, whether 
ei;*vnci^ or ciivunutt-incv. Bat ihh lino ho li^u «vlocitd, a>t 
nn iiistflnw^ofviTul^-iice and acrimony, ^nd eonfutci it by a 
Lufu uud ■pErniUd ^Kair^^rick on liinivelH He ifibarrtc. that 
ho find* many lluji^ right at Jiome, and tfaut bt' 1ovc» hi^ 
couolnr ulmoil to eii1buMa»ai< 



I bud not Ibc least doubt, tliAt he fount], in hm cuuutrjr. 
amy tilings tv pkoM hiia ; bur did i suppuac, tJiul ho de- 
sired the same iDveraioii of ovL<ry port of lif r, ui of tbc u*o 
of lea. The propo«a] of drinkiD^ l«a >oitr *bow«d, m- 
df^d, Huili H dijtpuiilioii 111 pructinil pHmdotpji, Umt thrrr 
w»i rriuDU to fror, Irat Komn Kuc^ix^cding Ifllcr HUniild re^ 
eonBoioikd tlir diTtfjv of the I^ictf, or ihe cookt^ry of llic 
Hnkimanx. Hov^vc^r, I mol willi no o1[ii>r iiinoTations, 
and, therefore, vm williag to hope, tbut ho ionnd »omo- 
thini; right 8C home. 

But hi> lote lifhui counU> sDumrd ttnt la risp: i|iiitA to 
•otlnuiaHn. vbro, luniibl lus rnge a^diiiht Ci^m^ Im iirLidv: a 
4K)Ooth Dpoto^ for the East India company, as uicd y/ho 
might tkot think thr^iDMntves obligt^d ici bo political arilhnio- 
tkiaM. I hold, though oo ^iillmKidsuck palrioC, thut every 
man, who lire* and trades iindt^r the prolectioa of a com* 
mupuly, ta ahltgtul to cuu^der, whi'lber Ih? hurlx iir br.rirtiti 
thoK- who protect him ; uiid tbiil the moM whiob cnn be 
iDdol^rod to privuiv ixiter«j»t| in ti neutrul trulHok, if oei> 
ancb can be, by vrhiob our couotry U atA iajurcd, though 
tt may not b« b«D(^fiti?d. 

But he Dov rvnfVK hU dt^elamnx'mn agtilnst tea, nol< 
nithslaitding the Kte*il'i<'*A **f yowvt uf (Jiu<m ibdl bitvtf in* 
tcrett or iocltndlioti to liuppurt it- I kutiv not of what 
power or greatness he mar drcmn. The importcni only 
karo OD intorost ia dofcndijig iL 1 am «uro, thoy are not 
|r«M, mmL I hope, lL«y ore [lot pow^^rfuK Tho«e> wboae 
inelinution IvttiU ih^m lo oontinue ibm prsclice, are too 
aunir-rtnix; hyt, I 1i«lir-vi! Ibrirpowrr U %ach. nit Ibcf jour- 
naiiflt may defy, without eDthiJ«ia4in- The love of our 
ooantiy* when it rMea to entkuflioADj* is an ombiguoufl 
ufleertain virtue; vrbeii a man ia eulhuMuatick, ho 
to be reasoDAhle^ Rod, whoa he oiice departs from 
rMMt), whflt Kill \iv do, but ttriuk sour lua '. A« the jonr- 
VHliivt, tliongb rnlhuM^utu'-ally v^ruUmn for Uim country, ha*, 
with rcgurd to »uudLer duugit. the placid happuu?a« of phi- 
loiophical uidinerencr, 1 estxi ^itr bim no di-tlurbonce, by 
idvuiBS him to rc^lmiii, even tijc love ofhia counlry, wUhio 




<liie lliiiJI.«, \vM it «bmi]<J. fiomclinirf^, hwcU ion Jiigh. fill 
(|je wluli? cdjiaully ofbi* luul. and lcaT€ IcAt loom for tin, 
\tnr. of truth. 

nothing ttow remxiintt, but (hut I roviuw jn j pOKitian* 
eoncormjxfc thtr roundlinR h'>!ipita]- Whut I declared 
tn>l month, f drwUn- tmw, oTjee mfrre, flinl 1 f«"t»J nono 
(if lli<T cliiMrt'i lliut ^i|>|H-urcd to haw hranl ti( iUi' cute*' 
i^liittrup It U ixu|uired. how I vandcr<-d, and Low ! ex- 
amined. There is, doubtless, stibtlefy Ju tho C|u<.-3tion; 1 
know not wrii how t<> attviwer it- Happily, I did not wiw- 
d«r alone; I atlendml Kome Iudi4?]i. with uncitht^r f^ontlA- 
mBU, who all he;ir<t and nsiilaiird the jn^nirTr trilh vt^oHi 
^-rirf ;irul jiidi|fiLatttiu. I tVn] licit coric^^iil ni}' nli^ervations- 
Nolicc wuM givvn of i\iii Almmeftil defect aoun nflrr, at 
tnj rtHjiimt, to our. tit the hi|chr*nt jmmi^s of l]i<i .tociotj. 
Thrt« 1 am now told, it inori?diMr ; but, iiticc it in truct 
nnJ (hif ptut U oct of liumun powor, tho moti unportnril 
corpomtion i^nrinot mnkr? it HiUp. Hut, vr]ty \n it iucre- 
flible ? BrcnuM-, in tht^ niN-» of the ho^iirtHf. lift* cLildn^n 
iMV ordered (o Icaro the rudimenlii of rc^li^on. Orditrs 
iije vi»ia\y mado, but they do not csirculc th<rm»v]ve«. 
'JlM^y any thciir 4riJtc?cbiHm, at stalled times "ndcr an ubl« 
mnilrr. But tbit »h\v mutor won, I liiiok, not el«ii?t4*il 
beforo Inst February ; and my visit happened, if f mi>(tukv 
nor, in Ni>vei»Li4-r. Tbt* children were «bv. wht'ii inti^rro. 
){iitrd hy ;t 9-tnmgiM. ThU mny br? true, but the winte 
ihincsA 1 do not rrmrmbcT to hnvf: hindcrrd Ibi^m fft>in 
nnawcriiijf other qucilioti^; and I wonder, why chfldrvn, 
■0 mucb u«cuutomod to niiw ipectatorsi should be eroi- 
nontly thy. 

My opponent, in ihi* finl pnrngTdph. 4-;i]U Ihi^ infm'encii 
thut I n^dc from lhi;t m^glij^i-trce. it hLi^ity conclusion r to 
the dccrucy of ihift triiprrAnioii 1 bad tiuthiii^ (o objef,!; 
but, &s bo gtcw bot in bin currcr, bin rnlhuAiiL^m bc|;mi 
Co sparkle i and, in iJir Fi'bcmcAco of bi« poitscHpt, bo 
rharjfe* niy uxtf^rtionfi. and my renAon« for wlTundng 
Ihem, with Cttfly and miiltco. HU argumentation, b(*ing 
^omrwbiit rntbuhiHstiad. ] rAiinot fully roMiprcbend, but 



to riand thua: my inAinantJcrns nro footiAh ctr cm- 
niLC* T liDow not one i>f tht* j^ovornourA of tho 
kiMpilal; for^ he thai knowi not the ffuvemoura of ihe 
ki»]ii(ul. mu?t( Ire irrf ri:iir]i<(h ur nuiliirionii. 

ll<^ Ltu, hifwort, u> mui:b kiiidnrfti for mr. llinl }]r ml- 
▼it» DC lo connnlt my Knfrty, when I tnlk of coq>ortt[Oiu. 
f Ln^w not vliQl thr mctEt important corpoffttion can (!<»» 
Iwc^miii^ tnunhood, bv which my Hafefv in endangiinfd. 
My fd^piJtittioD in Rnfp, fnr I cnn provr Ihr fM<^l ; mj ijntpr 
is safe. Cat I meaiil wt;l] ; and for any other Mfi^t^, 1 iu[i 
not «Md to be rery luliciluuH^ 

I lun nlwmya norry. whca 1 ncc noy hcmj^ Ubourin^ an 
T«Q ; and, in ivlum for the jomnuliiCM iLttcnlioti to tiii^ 
■kfvty. I will c6nff4K souir ci^mpnimion fur hin tiunulliioUH 
rr'sbpnimriil ; *inc4» nil his invrrliTc-n rumt^ iufii lliv* ^r, 
witb #o )[lUi- died upon mo. tbut I titill c«tC4*iit him* uh atx 
that hiw tho tfj«-f-K^ t>rmfmunff uvU; nn<l still hclicvc him to 
bo a m^it, xAtMe faihntft may tf ,f^»tl^ p<tt4t>nfid for An 


Tmtt ia a lery curious wd euterlaioii^ nu^CL^IIuttv of cri* 
tScal raoiariu wid fiterary hijitory. Thi>ngh ihv hook prci- 
loUiin^ bu( obvtirvjitiuua on ilit* MriLjii^ of Fupc 

■ Aut tt nvli 1 ffun. U uvo be Tr^Lird. lEiu Dr- Jidinhiii wu, by ■'hal- 
Euv. initUTHl la yisik. miih innntnnj' L ^'aK ix I* |intbftblv. tb«t tie lui4 

Ac wfadk cvw of tiM hfr, wli»n Uc coiiaMcnulwl to "l¥«* i^T *hmf Am 
*•■ vniiFQ ifiJarf him. C. 



yet DO Dpporttiiiity is npgUoted ttf intrndadn^ the oha* 
ra<»I^r t>f Miy uiLer writer, or the m^'niioTi or nnv perfom- 
unci! on^VETit. in whiuli LruLrmu^ is irittf rested. Frum Fi>pi*, 
faowever, he olway* Ukrn hi/, liint, and i<} Pojit^ he returns 
ngtun from bu di^cAsioii«. The incUt Mfhivh iw mcntioiiA, 
tkoai^ Uk9y oro ai^idoin aar^odotofi, in n ria;oroQt «cii*n. nro 
oApti BDcli &s are very litfle known, and tuoh iik will de- 
light more reader* ihaci naked critiritiTn^ 

Aa be (ftaminnjt Ilit* wurkH uf Ouri ^reat poet^ Lu aa order 
noarly chrrmolosii^ttl, lx« iiccmarily bflgiiu with ha paa- 
torub, *t'hich. ronnjdorcd tis rtrpn-'auntultuirja ol'uiiy kind of 
ltf«, he rery ju»tly i;;?nflur<?(; ; for Uioro » in ibvm u mix- 
tart' of Gr^dnn und Gnf^itli, of ancient and mwlmt 
unHgeji' WimJ«or ifi coupled Willi HvhiH, ami Thamnt 
With PactoluA, ill* liiieri oumpuea »uiue puMiugvs wblcli 
Popo hftA imitated, or tranblul«d, with tht inuCatioa, or 
version, and gi\*!s the prutdreiu^o Ko tb(< c^rii^uutA, per- 
hujis, not alvAys upon aunviuciu^ ar^ifuiiivutf. 

Theuc^Htiis tnake« hijt ]o\(-r wUb tn be a btp, tJial lis 
ml^bt crrnp among tlie Iravrx IIliI form Ihr rluiplrt cif hiH 
UiBtrea!*. Pope^» enamoured ^wniu longa to be made (be 
captive bird that rid^^ in hU fair onc't bower, tbat sbe 
might liHten to his song«, and reward liiin with ber kiMCI* 
Thn crifick prefen the imo^e of T^ieocrilaa, m more wild, 
more itelii^^fA, imd iiioriT umromtnop. 

It is nnturol for a Invor to wiiih, thai be mi^Ut be any 
tblnff that could cumv avax to lij» Indy^ Bat we mora 
natarally dc«iro lo be that wliii^b hIic fotidlen nn4 care»ca, 
than that wliicb 8be fi'ould avoid, at len«l woiUd ocgUct. 
Th* tnpt'Tioiir delicacy of Theorrtliift I rannot discover, noc 
<Min, indeed, lind, Ihnf eilhcr in tbe one nr Itje ofber imag« 
t]]er« ia hay wont of deticary. Wtich uf (ho two imvi|^ 
tias lesA common itt Ihi' timci of tKi.' poet who a^^'d it. fcT 
on that con5idc ration Uiv mc-rii oi nuxclty dep«iidij, I IhiiUt 
it itt novont of any critiok'* power to docide. 

Mv rvmnrkt^ I am nfrnid, wilfa too mntb jn>tic«, Ibal 
Ibeje in not n KJn^le new thought in the p^wtcffflld; ttod, 
with equal TcOMii, 4€oUre», ibat tbctr chi«r beauty cooAita 

WUmWCfl AWD ClMirs op POPE. 

ID ditrir corret'l und miittical versilji'^Ctou, uUicL hiLE so id- 
OufDCRil flir Eri|{1i)L|i truT, un l« n-iidur t^vvry modi^rate 
rbymcr iiArmoniouA. 

In hn c^amioation of the Mc^iah. he jvtalljf obttcrvnt 
bcittic dpriatioDA fioni tho ifispuxNl author, wliicb wi^nkGn 
thr im^tfi^rv, And ctiAplHi the eipreuion. 

On Winili^or Fon^sl, lie iWi'breii, I lliiitk wilhmit proof, 
that tlraciiptivu [njvUy vias by tm mt^iM Ihn r^xcrlUmc** of 
Popet ho drflwo Uiia mfcrtincc from the f<:w tiijage» inlro- 
4V06d in thiii poem, whiiih wt>utd not equally licJcutr ^ 
aaj olb^ plac«. Hv muvl uii|iuro, whotlier M''JD(hor 
(nre%t hoM, til rvaliij, imy tiling p^ulinr. 

The Su^'diiutc U not, Iko flaya, mi full, ho 4(iii]iut**i:l, »nil 
M) cir^ujttbUitilMied, an Soiutrrville^H. Barely lu say, UiHl 
««i» p«rianDBBGor u nor &o ^D(k1 oa uuolher, u (ocritieine with 
Utile etactntf'AH. But Pupv Lue ttirei.'li<il, Uml ui? should, io 
«verj work, n^gird tin* autbur'a *tid. Th« stajt-fihiwr is 
lbs iMdn Mibjtrtit of Soiricnille, nnd mt^hi^ tht<n<forc, bo 
profM-rly dilated into all its i:tn:uma1atir('» . in Pcipr. it it 
only incidcnUlt 4\nd won to be drnppttchi'd in a frw line*. 

He ninkcA a jiiit obAorration, " that Ihn dencription of 
dw MttcmA! bcflutict of nature* i* unmlly ih« lirxt uETurt of 
« jonug ^tiuK, h^^forf' he hnlh uiudird niUnn; uiid piw- 
■Otui< Hoojft of Milton'^ most i^nrLy, um well uk mofit ck- 
qninito pi««of, nrc hi» LycJdae, rAllc^o, and il Pcnscroso, 
if vc mty except lus ocLi^ oo Iho Natiuty ofCbrinC, which 
i«, indeed, prior is ord«r of time, nnd in which n p<*iio- 
tm(in|; critick mif^hl hare observed ihi* sr(*i1ii of fhat 
bouiuUvAs JEuogiutttiu^j, which W4u, OU4T day, tu priHluut; iho 
l^rwliH LoEtt." 

Mmiiontftfc Thonuon, und olh^ deecriptirt^ pouttf, hd 
remarks, tbut wrilert fuil in thnir copir»> for wnut of uc- 
(|iiaiiilJuiCL< with origiimlE. und jnRily hdkulc^s ihosv uho 
thank lln?y can form jiiil idri^t of vallry», TiiounUinn. and 
nreri, in a garret in Uid Slnuid. For tbi« r«iuoii. 1 Cftn- 
bot rrfETcl, with thtf author, that Pope laid nnidc hiji dca^^n 
of writuij^ Am<irican pnfitoroi^ ; for. n£ be iau»t have paint- 
ed *^QM, which be oever «»w, and uanDcrc, which hi^ 



piquing amuseni^nt of fmicy, would huve t^ihillrLd'd 110 
rep re«en ration nf nntiirr or uf lifi-, 

ACttir thi* pabk'ratH, tbc critick coDiudm lh« Jyrick 
|)o«T.r; 111' PupF, mid d«clU lougctl on tiic ode on 8l 
Cecilia's (lu>. which he, Jiko the rest of muikmil, p1ftc» 
next to thut of Drjileii, and not much Wlow It^ He 
remarlmf after Mr. Spt-ut'e, iti;!! ihe flr4( suiit?^ t» a 
perfect concprl: ihfi «i^<umd bt tJimkH n liltk Ual; he 
jiiNllj cominfiidi ihvr fuurth* hul without notice of tbo boat 
line in Ihut iUiur-4> or iii llit! pucm . 

And rnvD j[r*w bh« «l Ibr uixod." 

Ill 1I1P lulier pitrt of the uJtr. bt- objects to the Alonz* W 
tritiinph ; 

" TJiU* HUUfg. CDVU |PlvruP|"4E' 

u vritlrri In a mcnfturv ridiciiloiui luiJ burWque. mad 
jnjitilirA his anavFr, b'V observing, that Addiiori uses lh« 
5amfl numbers in ibc scene of Kofiamonil, between Gridd- 
line nnd »ir Tiusly: 

*' How nhippy *t h*p"i»c- 

Hiat Ibe mtMUttro Is thi? jsAine iu both paasu^J^ rULiiit be 
fionfcvscd. and both poet*, perhnjw*, chase their numborv 
properiyi for thov both meont lo c^xprtis* u kiad of aiiy 
hitftrity- Th<* xwo pftwion^o of m^rrimrvil and euhacion 
nri>, nndonhlrdly, dilTkrn'nt ; they arn an diJfrnml m u ^iti» 
bol and A Iriumph, but eueh a n hpeeie» of joy ; nnii porllcol 
meMUrcA have not. in tuiy Itrnguugc. been so IVr rrlined, n« 
to provide for th^ [iiibdiTiiiiotTi o( puaaion. Th<^v <«kn ooLy 
b# adapted lu ^m-ral purpofwi:; but fhe piiriitulur ftod 
minuter proprivfy mu*t ha sought only in thf »^ntiin<*iii 
and Ungiiagiv ThnK thr niLmSm nrr tlif^ finmn rn <'elin*« 
CoaDp1«nt« nnd in iho ballad of Djirby and Jonn^ ihoii^h. 
ill one, sadnesA in repreaeoted, aiid> iu Iho other, trflntjiitl- 
litT; 90 the Rfea&uro » Ihe same of Pope's linfortiinutc 
Ijftdy, and the Praise of Voitarv. 



!«r ohncT^e. vory jutillxi (h^t tho odtM, both of Drydrn 
and l'ope,'CoacludDt uiuuitably und uuuaturally, wilh Lpi 

Hf* ihpn s[irn(iK ii piigr upon Mr. Hjmclrrr* mnMnk to 
Dr^deufJ odt*. tiiid ■^itoak^oriiitn wiiJi thut n-gnrd wjijrh hi? 
kw jteDviully obtuiiicd ooiouf; the [overs of ^uijd. Ho 
Cokil* notncthmiE fimU:i in Lhi? nif " With mvi^ihcil f^uM," 
but hst^ cvvcrlookod^ or forKn'tcu. the groAM:At TaiiU in that 
coinpo«iti9n. wbi^^h U that in thin line t 

* It*t«otT, r«Ti<B(t|TiiiBDtK(ut cnca." 

He ha% laid much unHS upon Che Iwo latter wtirdi, vhich 
arc mereK wordti of coiiur^xtuEip and oiigUti m rauni^k. to 
be coBfidercd :u pu rentier tic uL- 

From tliiA ode ui «tnjrk out a diipT^i^ii on tho nature 
of odM, arid (h^ comfinrsliv^ <ixcfi1^«not^ fif thr andenta 
SDd nodiTiiA, He meittions tbo chorus which Popo wfote 
for iki* duke of Burkirj^hiirn ; und thent'e Itikcfft occjiaIoii 
to treat cif the cbura» iif Uit ancients. He tlien oomeK to 
nDoliier od*'. of " The djin^ ChrJ^tiau lo hU Soul i" in 
vbieb, tiudinK un upporcnt imitntioD of Flnlaiaa, ho fuiU 
^hito a plenxing a ad learned epeculalioti, oa tbe r8M>mbliDf^ 
pBiinyiia to be foimd in difTerent poef&. 

He Rtc-nlionfl, wilhgrvut rejfurd, Pofie*s ode on Soliludt*, 
vnttcn nhen he ivda but tweUo jt^uTH dIJ. but umib lo 
meutton tbo poejn on Silcncv, <Jompo«-dp J Ihiok, nn i-orly, 
with mucb ki^^Ict d^junco of diction, musiok of'n[iml>or% 
eslent of olwervitlion, and forciT of ibou^f- If be had 
hupiHTDt-d lo ihiiik on HMillets t'hnpirt of Eufiins trel^brPH. 
br alight hnvr madr, on rliU oofusioiir u verj eutfrrlaiuing 
dtMertatioQ ou ctuly exc«^Uirace. 

H<T comoa noxt lo Iho K»Aay on Criticiem, tbo fttu- 
pMMUras performance of a joutb, not yet twenty ycxrK old; 
and, after having deluded the fellritte^ nf condition, to 
abacb lie imuffiitrj Puiie Ici hnre owed hi* wonderful pr** 
naluntv oTmttidH be tell.t K^. llml lio !« «dl iufonued thi« 
eatay woi Jirat vrrittcn in pro^e. There is atAUin^ impra- 
bablo in tbe report, ttoUiing, iradccdp but what ti more tik«iy 


than tbc contrary; 7Ctl''connot forbear la bint to this 
wiitor, and all others, the djuif^er tmd yn^akneja of truAtia^ 
loo readily to iiifonnation. NoUun^; but cxponcnor couJd 
evince ihe ire<\tiency of falito iuformutioit, or frnnblii any 
mnji Co r^oilcri\L\ that %a tn.tny gtouiidlcsH reports aliouM 
be propagRtfrcI, rj* cv^^ry m^n of omineimr mtiy hear of 
hima^ir Sonic men tcIbIc what lliejr tbuii, aa wW they 
knoyri aume men, of coaiiisod mv.mof\fA aud habitual in* 
accuruc>, ubc-ribe to one mmi, vhiit bclonj;* to another j 
nad some luli ou, wilhoul (kmgUl or cnre. A few men 
nrr ttiilTtnitrnt to hrourh frtlsehotMlsi, ^vhicb are adptwixrd^ 
liinoci^ntly dJiT'iiMni b^ s^uoctT^Aivo rrlitters. 

n« pri>cc^ii» oti. examining poasAge al'loi paaaagc of 
thin r5Mi^^ but v/e inuAl pa^A over oil thofiO crlticums, to 
vhioh 'wv bavo not ftomeUuitf; to add or to objoot, or 
whoro itii» author du«M uot dillV^r rrom the f^nvral voicu 
of mankind. Wr nHunut »gri-*<? with bim in lii* ireitxarii 
of llir coiii|mriMiii oj'u xtudent ud('uncifL|[^ in nciriicc. witli 
tt Cravellc'T paAsIng the Alp*, which ii* perhaps, the bc«l. 
umile m our loDguogo ; thst, in which tho meet vxaot re- 
Mfmblanoo la Crooed betweeu thing*, in sppearaLnce, utterly 
unrelated to each oilier. Thai lL« la^l line oooT^ys no 
nt^w irJni, ii not Irnt?; it niaken parLiculur* uUni woa lie* 
fore general, Wbt^tbtrr ihr dvKcnplicJD, which he add* 
from another nulbor, be, lut bL- aixyn, moro lull aiid alfikuig 
than that or Popo, u not to bo inquirvd. Popc*a de- 
MriplJun LB relative, and T^on admit no gmutt^T Icnglb thun 
U vKUrtllv nlloukcd ti> o Himilr, nor an^^ otlirr purtii'-ulurs 
tbau »u^h OB forjii tbe conn»poDdouc«i 

Uutari^d rhymes. aojA llus wiili^r, highly di^guat rcad- 
cn of a good ear. It id, mrely, not tUo cur, hut the viud 
tliat ift ofFvad^d. The fault, uriMin^ Uom Uie luo of com* 
moo ri^mc'f i*, that by reading the piut Ituio, the xt^coud 

lluA. «itf] liii tnicnilJiLI* iljtr, vhic puinud bim out, v (tkf pr]ii(.i|4l pfOOD 

WJtlTlN9»( AMJ (;IV1U» OP POPS. 


,b« go«wed, aiul lialf tlie cotopoeltlon Iosas (be gntft 

On oocuioD of ibe roenlic^D of ikii titxandriac^ tte cri* 
ticlh otwcrvcA, tL&t '* ihv txyjmndrine mny be Uioii;H:hl n 
Ikodorn nciuuro, but Ibal Rttlfvrt of QlinictaUrs IVifft U 
ui &l0ian«irine, vitb the udditbn of two «yNnbL«c; and 
Ihiif Steraliold uid ilopkin^ tr^DAlAW tbi^ PKalm* ia lli^ 
VJUII4? lueatturo of fuuricen hjlUblea* Cbuu^li Llufy Jtru 
printed dlbenri»4?." 

Tbi« i<^cm« not to be uccuratdy conceit frd or cxprnn«cd : 
Ui uleKftDdrinc, v\th the addition of two flyllabkfi, is no 
DKW an aJexaodnap, rbnn witb tho detraction of two »y]* 
Uli|e«. ftierzihoUt itml llopkniA did, ^nrmlly, wrii*« in tb»« 
nhemaiti^ minuun; a( rifcbt and tnji svllnbl«& ; but llopkinA 
commonly thymrd tbc fml uid third; Slemhold. only the 
B«coa4 niid roiiiibt «o that 8li?rnbo1d may be con^idcrcMl, 
u writing coapLoU of lon^ linoit; bal Hopkins wto1« re- 
gular tftitnxHS. From the prnirtice of printing the lon^ 
lint's of Ton riv«ii Hylkblea iti two ^liurt IJuva, iinike tbi? li- 
ccow? of Kom« of our jkwIs, vho. though profcAnin^ to 
write in itanstu, tic^kct the rbymcx of tlio tint und ibiid 

Pop* bns in?Dti<mifd Pftuonitu, nmcmi; th<> f^vnX oavamt 
ofc^riticicm. lU the r^Hi^rfccr jn«l1v nhiprvf'i;. without nrty 
critical noerit- ll ia to hr h\ih|HTlf:d, lb«t }*opr had iM'V<*r 
reiid tu:i book, dmd meutic^iii^d him on the credit of two or 
tlirco »ea(eiic«0 which hv had oftL-ii hc€ii quokd, ima^niji^* 
UiAtwIiGro then' %Ti!i 90 much, tb<^ri« muHt oeceflflBnly b« 
ttora. Younff fn€>a; in hmtv to be renowned, too fro* 
qppat^ tm\k of houk-K wbirh thfty havr ftcarotrly «««n. 

Tbi rovlvjJ of Icaniing, meulioned in ihi» pocm> uiforili 
an opportvoity of nicndouiug tlie chiff penodft of Ht«rary 
bi«tory, <if whi«hlhi» uiitcr rctkonafivo; tbnt of Alexan- 
der, of Ptolemy Philudf^lphua, of Auf^ustu*. of Lao Iho 
leotli, of 4|ueen Antie. 

Time ubtPTviilionii ar« ooncludcd with a remark, which 
fleaexYct j^at nUcntion; *' fa no puliibod nation, iifUar 


UKVIfcW 01' AN liSbAV OH TllS 

ofWsni hu Ttct^n mncli HUJiptT* ami th« mtf« (kr«rTejn^ 
eiUBfldwd* Iloa Aii^ tcrj" e.vlmordiiidfy tuuk trvtrr iif>- 

'I^L' Rflpf" of fho Lock wus alwajG rc^iircled, by Popi^ ju 
tfin hi^hPKt prnduclion of Ztif; ^cniai- On oc^ouHton of Hui 
irorfc. th« hiMory of ihpcomict'hnrfn'olt it giv^n; anti we 
lire told, lliaf It d^itcenclf d ^tjin Fansiiiil 1o Boilofttc. from 
Boileuu (" Gurtb, und fnitu Gurtla to Pt^ptv Hjirtli ix 
mcntionrd, ptrhapsH witli Uhj mncli bonour; but a\] are 
confrvMod tn bo mfcrrioiir <o I'ope, Thrrt? U, in bisrAmarki 
on thU vork, no dincovory of any latonl bcuut^^, nur uny 
thing subcle or etrikiof^; ho is, inrirprt, Rnmmonly rigJil, 
but buH divcuA^ted no diflicuU ig<i<*Hlion^ 

Thr ncxl pii-cm in Im irDiisidc-red uttr. i\ie Verse* to ibe 
Wcmory cf on iinfiirtunntc Lfldr, Hie Proloptii? to C;tlD, 
and l^pilcKnc to Jano Shon^. The first jkir^rr ho commi^ndB, 
On orcaninti of the Hrcond, liti dif^r^siiftj., nrrordmjj;^ 1o hi* 
cnstoni, into n lrHmj*rl rliHr^riulinn tm lrn^O[li«^«, niid rom- 
|iAre« (.ho En^lihh jind FrriH^li with ih-/ Gre«k 6Ih|^', He 
jujtllji ctfoaur^A Colo, for want <»f a('(ii>u find of (ibanialerv; 
btil ticarculy does juHtico to tlie HubKuiily of somt^ aptecbiM, 
and tht- pbilotiophical exaclneiis iu iLr^ -tt^ntimi^nt^, " Th<^ 
limiltf of mount Alias, and that of the Xiiinidtuii Iruvdier, 
tmothr^rrd in the HJirid^i, nre, indued, in thariiirErr," Miivii 
ihtt critick* *' l>nt ^uf1il-i^tltlJ ctbvloiiit." TIk- ?iiritih^ of tltc 
luoutilniu is, indeed, eomntoa i but ihAt of the IroTciler. 
I do not rirmentber, Tbul it ia ob\ion!» b ca»y to say. ADd 
t'asy to dyny. Many thiDj^a are ub*iou«, when ibuy wr9 

Hp )>rac^<*od]( to oriticiin^ ib^ ofhrr wj>rk(i of AddiKon, 
till the q>ilo|^»e calfn hin altenliori tu Itowi^, i^liow* t-bn- 
raeter he d.iacu»?ie:i in Iha Kunt: manner, witli aullScwMt 
frerdoin and HolTicitnit oandour, 

I'hr^ tmnslatioD of thr cpi^tk oi' Suppho to I'huon is 
next conaid^n^d; but ]?»appho Mt6 Ovid ate tnaw Ihcr «nb- 
j^cti of this diAtjujHtioii, ibiin Pupt^ Wi< thnlU ibftrcforir, 
paAi over it la a piccr of »ftr« imjHirmnov. tlic- ^pulle of 




tin to Abrtanl, whii-li may jiiafly he n^^pirdril, ua vnn 
die works on «hicti tlic reputation of Pope wiM ]itiin<l 
futaro timcA. 

Tb<i cntick ptimioe Eloisn through ull the chaDj^es o£ 
uioQ, produces tbe jia^iiagpf) of lior Iciter*, to vrhlcli any 
lusion 14 inad«. uuil iitfe»pfrtief» manv ^grernble piirti- 
lun and ineSdenlitl relalujui. Tbirrc i» not luuub (jr»- 
tidity of criliciim, beoftnic the beuitlicii ore scutimenta 
xtTK. vliicli Iho Icarnod and the i^znorant teoL alike. 
jusCh reuiork^d by bim, tbat thu wish i>f El^isa, (or 
happj pttm^ cf Abelitrd inio tbe other wortd, i§ 
loraivl w^cordin^ to ihe idt'UH of mirntifk drvtytinn. 

Thrift nrfT the pircm rxiimiiinl In iIlik vnhiniit : wbntliirr 
tbe rmuiniug |)ar( of Ihr work irill bo one volume^ or 
liore. porbapB the wrilvt biin^clf raanot ^et JitforDi tis*. 
Hiia pieop 13, however, u complt-'lt' work, io far a-t it jToe^; 
oud tbe wrilAr U of cipiniuri, tbut hi^ haa d^iiputchcd tho 
fkiff part nf hi» IiuIl ; for ht* vvnvirt^ to rcmprk, ibnt the 
nrpuiatioti of Popew a» u poel, among posterity, will f>u 
pfinctpsUy fuuDilcd uti hht Windsor V0rc\t^ Uupo uf llir 
Xock, uiil Eloiia lo AbcUrd ; while the facU niif1 cbflroc- 
ten, alluded t» to hi.t bitu wrrtiut^K, will be for^ttrn and 
mikfiowii^ And thoir poigooncy nnd propriety Iil1l« relUh' 
«d; for vil and satin- Are Iranaiiory And perJAhable, bet 

llfllurrt and p;Li)iioii un- rterndiL 

Ilr han iiiterspcnod xnnw paAiafft^n cff Pupa's bftf, will) 
vbicJi otoit reudrrii will he ptotiK^d. When I'opc waa 
jvt & child, hiH father, who had been a morcbfiol in Lou- 
don, rttijvid lo BintioM. llo «9fl tflUf^bt to read by mi 
ftuut; and learned lo write, without a master, by copying 
firioied buok4. Hi* father uhed (o «rd^r btm lu makr 
Eft^linb \l^r3LC)L, iiid would oblifCti tiiiii tn rorrct:t and nr- 
toitch them over uad over, luid. at lojt, could »ay. " Tlic»o 
Bnt good rliyuc*," 

At eiffht years of n^e, he wua comniitrrd fo one Tn- 
veviMir a pritfii, vbo laugbt hitn the nidimniiK of tbe 


Latin and Greek* At this timer ^ ^^t irith Ogleby's 
Homer, which seized his attentioD ; he fell next upon 
Sandya'a Ovid, and remembered these two tranakuioup 
frith pleasore, to the end of his life. 

About ten, being at achool, near Hyde-park comer, be 
was taken to the playhouse, and was so struck with tho 
^lendour of the drama, that he fonned a kind of play oat 
of Ogleby*s Homer, intermixed with verses of his own. 
He persuaded the head boys to act this piece, and Ajax 
was performed by his master's gardener. They were ha- 
bited according to the pictures in Ogleby. At twelve, he 
retired, with his father, to Windsor forest, and formed 
himself by study in the best English poets. 

In this extract, it was thought convenient to dwell 
ehiefly upon such observations, as relate immediately to 
Pope, without deviating, with the author, into incidental 
inquiries. We intend to kindle, not to extinguish, ovri* 
oaty, by this slight sketch of a work, abounding with ca- 
rious quotations and pleasing disquisitions. He must be 
much acquainted with literary history, both of remote and 
late times, who does not find, in this essay, many things 
which he did not know before ; and, if there be any too 
learaed to be instncted in facts or opinions, he may yet 
properly read this book, as a just specimea of literary 


'filA is a tn^aliMr, oonsi^trnff of »lx Icri^rH, upon a vory 
imk tmd un|x>rliint qu^rshcn, v^cb, I kim [Ll'mid, Uii« 
Lthor'«eii<Uuvi>iir«ttriUiio( fri?c from lh<' pc^rpi^^xiij vhich 
vnlan^nf thr^ iprt^iildliRffi of nil ngi^ti, nnd whirh must 
Vtmyt ronlinur whil*^ */jp am but I'm ;>fi^^ Hi' culiw it a 
iPVvf £ufiH>y, and. iiidf^i), Kisfrr^dom if. I Oiiak, ^roator 
liifl RioU«s1_v. Thou(;b li^ is far froni tbc contempti- 
Ikrroftanue, «r Ibe impioua licentiousiwa* of Dolutf^' 
le, y^i b« <l«oicle«. tr><> ea«EI^, upcti qiMsboiu out of the 
tlt^cb i>f iMimua tlc-lunnJiiutitin, u^illi luo liltln i^tiniailrni- 
tion of mortal «rAknr^Ji« and with too miiclj vtfAvilv for 
tkc itcccuary cautton. 

In tlie 6nt leltor, o& evil in f^aoral, h^ observes, that, 
\*^ il k the *oluiioD of thiA i[i>|>i)rlajit <{uealjoii« wboncu cMno 
\f akme, thui i^uii nAci^rlmu the tnomi churjiclcmtic of 
God, vhhoiti Mhit-h tht-rti in un rnrl nf uti di^Tm^^lion bf* 
Iweni f^ocn) «rul hiiL" Vol liir lit^f^inK ifiit tjii|ijir^ l>^' ihiH 
Joclaralioa ; " That tUor*^ b o auprirmt- leiii^* iuDjiitrly 
fMnrerfnl, wuc, aud bcnt^votcnl, thir ^ri-ui criwtor uiiil 
pr«*ervt-r of ull tbinfT«, in u Irutb fto clearly dcmonitrutud, 
llkiit il Khali br horo ultcn for ^antod." Whiit i* thi*, but 

'tbi EmiLUfji publiih^rl iti I7A7, (■■« (lap pmduniipn nf Soamf Jvaym, 
O^ Kte wrsr FoTE"* llt<' tBlhdr nr thf th'ipit. II i> ptiaful Xe* nlntir, lliat, 
■Act Ac bhi aupprt^cd hu n'iAiil4nra[ duriiijE Dr, JuUiiiqii*ii life, hv iftrc it 
Tfin. ID • yatulul tud Ulithm] iULX^t-«iiii9]i1i. whidi wuitUl nai li«tr dewrinl 
MttM, kbJ a bot liMA blBkiTTvil inro rhr oiliijon oE Tilt >&wl>. puUinli^ bj 
Mr. CaAc, Wbcs Iku fpMtpU fkru appctrrtl <n (he newspappn, M^. Hoaw^^tJ 
lamwd iltj umhcf uimq JUr, J»r>ii>, Ti]tLii|, ii 1ca«i, in jJliUndtly* 

TIaiivaiett bjitiitf rrck^cd oat o^ Lti? Iitirii ipnjijtr-iia uf cnUt-mji m oui 
iMfng*. lAil n r*«r1 miiIi turh <4|r*rti«. whrn |Mt}Liihed in ttic Ijlrrify 
Wtpilfctfc Ual i1l4 aul}i<jrwiu iixlui^hl la i-fpnM lUn AimiJl vvlum* bj HhJE; 
• arMHUoee wbch Apfiun to Iviyc cjict)^ >]r> Iki4oll'«fC»tuch, 


yutiRW rip A 

to »»^T tliQt y^^ havu- ulrrady reiimjii lu graiiil the mil 
of those Attribute* of Uod, winch tlic present lu^uary 
Jr^iJgHeil (o provof The proifiil inciuirv h, ihtu, aurelj 
made tu no [ji]r|>OM>H Tho aCtribule^, lo tht- UL'tnoniitrtt- 
titw of which the aulutlon of ihi4g:redlcfufri1ifm innccvjiMiry, 
lr>Vh* hnvv htft^n ilF'mi>n'<lr)il<'J, wirlioiit iiny inhilinn, or hv means 
of (lt€ luiliiliori i>f Mmtr lunrtrr iiril^r. 

Ho rt^ciA the MonithcA^i 5yalr?ui. but iniputrn Ici it ail'^ 
Abttardity. from whicit, amittitt all \U nbnurULtJci. it nrrm* 
to ho Vrtc, and ndopU tiny sysU-m uf Mr. j'opc^ *• That 
poin i* DO «Tilr if fl0f:t«rtocl with n'<gL]/ci to tho individnaU 
who iiiff^T it. la ilowEiri^'ht nonsense ; but if oonsidored ^i 
it ^iflf^EtB thf? imivt<riul syntt^m, ih du uniiaiihlrd truths tnid 
m«Hns onty, ihftl tlirrtf ia no niort^ pniii iti it, tliiui what i« 
ueoeMary to thv' pruiluctiun of fa^ppinrf^. How m<iny 
Mover of thoM cvIIh. Uim. foriic tbDmsdvcs ioto tlic vrca- 
ttcw. dO long 08 llio j^ood prepond«niles, it l« a wcrk weU 
worthy uf inliiiiEo wivdora tuid b«uevoT^nr« ; jiud, imtwUh* 
ilundin^ thr* impertectimiv of ib pjirU. the vholr i«. ino*! 
uddoubtodlyi prrfcct.^ Arid* in thp t'crnirr pvrl of the 
leUi^, ht) i^lvfTft the principle ofhla »y3lrm In thcAv wtinlii: 
" Omnipolrnce cvtinol work cuiitriiUif^tious : it ciui unly 
effect all poflMble tbiuK', But ao httin urc 'kv iLcquiiioti^d 
with tlic whole lyiEcAL of mitiirv, that wr know not what 
an- po&iih1(f^ uml nhul urr not ; bi:l if wo may j»Hgo froni 
Uiui coufttaiil mixture of |juiii with )>TEVSiTre. aud incon^ 
vcinerii^y with nilvunt^f^e. which *h mu*t iibirrvt? in trvrrj 
thiD^ liCountl ti>. wc hnvc rcn^on to conch^do, thnl, to en- 
due created hc'miCA willi pcrfcclioti, tfmt is* to produce 
good, rxctunive of cvil^ k og€ of ihoftu imjHMisibrhtieft, which 
«TeQ in^oilo pow«r cannot accumplUh/^ 

Tbitt it elegunt and uoutr, but will by no euimuii ralm 
diMTOnlruf, or «i]r?nn' rarioiily ; tor, wlirther «M-i1 can \tn 
wholly scpAfolcd froui good or not, it t& plulii, tiiut Ihi^y 
may bo mtxeU, m VJirioui cI«gret'S, aikI, «« fai u bunui 
vy«ii car) judj;rc> the dcj^rcc of c«tl inif;ht huv« h«otj !««•, 
wiiliout «riy impediment to good. 

Thi^ trrohd lpil'*r. on !h«» ev\h of im|>f>Tr<iction, 1% little 




more tbun it pftrfipbraae cf Popcr's Fpulletf, or, yci 1«4s 
thui a pnmpbrairr, a mere tron^fution o( pot^iry into prosit, 
Thi«M, *urrlf-, to«tlarkdif!irulty with v<?ryclJHprnporli(}imtV 
nhilitieft, Ui (^ul ihii (fordinn knot with V4-rv Uunt iuslm- 
mcncs. When w» arp told of the infliifiJoiprioy nf formrf 
i^oliiliom, why U mte oribtL< [aT4'«l, vtbiL-li no iiiun onn li^v« 
A>r^i>llrh, ^Ivf^ii ui u^iia ^ 1 am loM. llmT this ptmiphTel 
iji not the efl'ort of hunjfcr: what dud U b<.\ tht'n, but th<^ 
product ^f mtiity f ttnd vet, bow can vruiity bo tfnitiHt^d by 
plagiMtAin or tranflcription ? \VhL>n tJiu vpfcuLatiKl licidii 
him>»pir promptr^d fo jtnoth<ir perform nnrp^ \pt liim ronildor, 
vphelbprhp h abniil fo drr^burden liin mind, or employ bis 
Gn^ers ; and, tfl nuE^bl vv^uturv to ulTcr Lim a Mibjt'rtt I 
•liould wUh. thut he wouIJ aolvf> thU r|u«tt1iou : Wby he, 
thdt bus nothing to wnli-\ nhoLild dosiro to be » writer f 

Vet i< Doi thin Icitor wilhoiil xc:>m(? K<*ntiiiicji1i(, which, 
thnngt) nM new, are of great impnrlanrp, nnd mny hi* rrwd, 
wilit pk'flLStirt', In (htr llioi>?<iiiidlh repeiilJutr. 

•' Wtifllct*»r w« tnjoy, in purely u free gin ffom our 
crwlor; hat, tbut vtc t^njoy no more, cnn novor, mirr, be 
deemed tm injury, or n just r^aoon to ipioRtion hi» intinitc 
bMM)polcac«. All OUT happiness lA owin^r fo hie f;oodnC)^H; 
but, thai ft U n<igrenier>ii« owinjf only to ourselves; that U, 
to our not having any inherfiil rif^hl lo any bisppin«<«A, or 
evrQ to any cxivlrrcc <it ulL Thin it. no more lo he im- 
puted to God. than ifir wantii of n hrg^tir to the person 
viha h(U n^ltcvod him : Ihitl hc^ had Romeihin^, wlw owing 
la Uk bpn<<tJLelof ; but that lie bad no moie, only lo his 
nvn oHgioal poverty-" 

Tfa»s fur htf tpcaku what every man must approve, And 
vrhut cTcry wue man han >iaiil b^fiire bim. Ht> Then ^v^h 
II* the fivMem <tf *uljt>nHn«tiiin. not inventrJ. for it wiw 
iLfK'vn, 1 rhmi, to liw Anitian mctapbysiciana, but ndopteil 
by Popif, and, from hioi, horrovod by tho dJligc-Dl re jwarobcs 
of tliU great invuKtignlor, 

" Nfl KTMem 4-AU poftiubly ho Jbrm^, e\^n in bnoffino- 
tiofi, vitliont a nubnrdinnlion of pnrlA. Every ufiiinal body 
aiQJt harv difTerr^jt mdnhp-ra, fuhsirrvirnt to rnch olhpr; 



ovcry picture must be coinjWKcd of vtuicius coloun:, and of 
light and dhadc ; ixU hannonv miiRt be formed of treUe«, 
1eD0un,aii<I l>ase»; ^very heau(U^jl nud tisel^l i?r1iJiro mnsti 
ciinaUl of bLf;birr ftrii] luwer> tuurt? Hiid Ic^n iiiagiiUk'ent 
apurluieLtU, Tliis ta in llic vcrj; «»ftem:e of ull crctttvd| 
iJiinj^.i, itrift, 1ii«n'f<rrc, ouiiuot be pri^vcuk-d, bj any nacoji* 
^vha1<>va^. uiiIdm by nol creutiitf; Utvm uC all.'* 

Tlieae in^lancf^ft urn tiscd, inntcad of Popos ouk uiii| 
weedn, or Jupiter und bin wjlrllitrH ; but n^^irhrr Pofu', naw 
tUi» MrJItr, lm«v mucb coutiibuttd to &ulvo tbc dlHicultji 
Porfcclioi], or impcHVcUciii of unconscious bcin^ hu no 
meaning, ns rofcnv^d to tln^mr^olrt-'H ; 1)i<? ham und th« 
tfvblo Die Pfjoally p<Trf(H:t; the mouQ iird mu^Jkifiaent 
Apartmeuts feel no plffflsur^ or pnin from tlit^ coinpnri«on. 
Pope rrkkgbt ^nk tbe wnrd, why tl vem IrAs rbnii lint (Mtk 1 
but tbi3 vhtwd wuuld uever a»k tlie tjuuftlirju fur itw^lf. Tlie 
hme and txoblo differ only to tUu heuror, meuuiitfls und 
mAj>iiif)ceuco only io tbo Jubiibitaut. Thero m no ("tlI bul 
muttL inhero in u conicioui btiui^^p or he r«fi'rrod (o it ; tbat ' 
w, e\\\ ma«t b<i foli^ brfom it 'm er\h Yot, 0T«n on thiN 
jnitijrfl, tnsiny ^ii«>MioD« might be olTer^, which human 
undrrftluuiliii^' bus iitil yi<t juMwc-rrd. uml ivbit^b tJitt |irv-» 
flcnt haste of tJiin extrncl will uot puller mr to tiilttli;. 

He proceeds to nn humble dctoit of PopcA opinion : 
" Tho universe is u ftyittum, ^vbof^o wry i*«««ncc consists iu 
nuborditiation ; aicakofbeinfcv d^-'j^acnditifC' by insensible 
depreev, from infiiiito porfcoiion To nbtoluli* nr^tbui^; in 
u'hir-h, though wr rufly Jiislly expect tn And prrfection in 
the whole, could we possibly cotuprebernd tt; yot would it 
he Iho higfao&t abfturdily to hopo for it iu all lU parts, hv- 
cauM the beauty und happiticM of the whole depend dto- 
^ethor oa the jujit inferiority of itJi |>uit« ; that it. on tbc 
compamtivc imperfections of the several beiuf^ of whtcb 
ii k coeopos^. 

'* Tt would hnvii biviti nn mom »n iiwdmce oC God'* 
wiitdom to hiiTc created no hoing«, but of the ba^brnt nitd 
not perfect order* than it would h« of a pnintcKs nit to 
cover his wholo piece with one »iDi;(c eolouFi tbe most 



bcAobfii] he oouLd ooTQ|>o«e, UmJ he confined liimsclflo 
«ik1i, iMlhuifr could Imvo oxisUrd but dotni'^odSi cr arch- 
angftU, iwd, ih^n, all inft^rior orders iniL«tb&v« been void 
njid uitltihabued ; bn: ah it H, «iirelv, more aj^eable Co ia- 
finil^ Wni^vulenoe^ UiaI all di««e bIiouM be (Ul^d up Mrib 
betttf^ cmpiiMp of rtijo^m^ 1iaf>[iines»i t[ieni»r]vi^K, untX cnii- 
Ifibutin^ lo chnt of others, tlie^ uiuat, tii^cefifiarllyi be £ll«l 
wUh inforior beuiigs : Ibat is. vilh »licIi as ure le» [m:p- 
fe*it, bvt from vhOHD cxistotice, notwitb standi iif; ihut loM 
perf^ciion. inoro fclicit}, upon Ihe whole, iiccru^g to tlie 
uoivrmr, than if nn iLirh had hi^^n crr-attf^d. It h, moir^ 
over, highly prf>biiblt\ tlint ihor^ ts wiii^b ii connrxinn be* 
Iveen all rouka aad ordt^ra. by Huboriliiiato Jcgrffia, thai 
tlioy mutually auppurt yiiuh othor'a o\Utfi]ii:o, and every 
one, m iu pluooi iv absolutt^ly ueci>iHary towards Kusluintag 
iba whole rutt and mugniliceni lubriE^. 

•■ Our prfltpnrrit fnr rompiuiiil noiild iir itl' Ifn* "nly, 
that nc uro DOl mi bi^b t» tlir McnW of i-xifilirKirr^ fu our 
ignorAnt ftoiUfJon uiay dcMrc; a pretence whii^h ULii:it 
etornaUy tmb^tvl. bi'cau>»<^, wure «e ov^r 00 much h>>7ljL'r. 
there would be «Ull room for iidinite powor to oxult ua; 
and, tfincr no link in thn chuiti can be broLv, tho «ara» 
rrvfton for diiMgrnoT iiiii«t ri'innirk I0 iho^o who Nocceed to 
tb«i c)ut>Hnf, ttblt^h inu8t bo oeoA^ion^d b^ our prvfermeiiC. 
A man cart have 110 rosuun lo repine, tbut he is not nil 
4af;cl; nor a boric, ihul he iji not a man^ muub k's», 
that, in their levcrol lUtioni^ tbcy po.tjioitft nut the fiiciil- 
li«« of AaOthpT i for thj» would he an inHuGerable inisfor- 

Thia doclrino nf tho r^-gubir nubnrdiniUion uf beiii;{iL, thi^ 
w:iilc of PV.iHt^ui.-e, and t\w cbain of miliire. I huvc often 
conAider«»dk but uJ^nji lofl tbe inquiry in doubt nnd un- 

Tkat every btun^ not inliriile, compared with inliiiity, 
HlQul b* imperfecl, if pvitUnt to intnidon; tbut, wbafrvrr 
H iiDp^rfeci miHl Imve n certain Wnr. wliirh it i-nunot puAS, 
ii oqu«iy oertaio. But the r^niiun wbioU detrimined tbia 
Haiil, oikl for which «uch Ijei^iff waa inlTered to odvonco 




IhiiR (att and no l'[>r(h*^T, wr rhaW novcr be ab!« lo durcm. 
Our difiroverer^ tell ua, the creAtoT had ma^o btriii)^ of all 
order*, iind that, tliorefore. one of tliL-m muiil he ftiich fu 
niun ; 1mi ihU MKtrm nt^rmK Ui hi- rfttutilUhrHl <tn n coti- 
t'c^KJiion, wlikli, if it br rrAiJiitd, Ciiuiiot br v\torird, 

Evc^rjr rcasoD which con be:- broiiflit to itrovc, Omt there 
are beiuRs of evory ]>ossiblc »OTt, will |frove, Uiftt tbc^re u 
the f^rvateHt number poasible of «veT}' sort of beii3>f« ; but 
thijf, wUh rojptH't it> man, we know, if w<* know aijj thing:, 
not la hi-, in jr. 

It clor-» not appear, even to tht- imn^liiatidtk, tbul vf 
tlirc« ordern of beiii^, tbi^ tir^l and l)ie* third rrct^ivr any 
udvatituf^ from Ibt? imprrlVction of thr M'^ond, or tbal, 
indixid, thoy ma; not oqimlly oxiist, thoufch tho iwcimd hud 
never been, or sboiiM cerw? to bf»; m\d why uhouM th»t 
be concluded neoextary, vbicb cannot be prov^^d even to 
b« imi^fnl I 

Thrr Hriair* of cxUtrnor, Croni infinity in riollitii£, cannot 
poa»ib1\ have bi-iirig. The Liffbe^t botug not intimtc, cniinl 
be, aa Ilab been ofteo ohsorvodi at an infiniUt dblancD 
bdo-n infLniry- Choyne. -who, with tht- desire inherent in 
mAibcmiiiiemnK lo nnjuco (ivory thing to nMiht-maliiNil 
imnjfr^, rnn«iders hII PKUlence im n ctintf ; hIIowk ihut tbn 
hasis la Hi nii tntlniti- ifiHlHriee frjm !be body: »ind in lliis 
dUtant'e hrtHCfrti Jiciilp And iiifiniti-, tbprr will htf rottsu for 
ever, for nn inlinitc scncs of indv^finnblc? oxuitonoo. 

Br^twrou (ho lowest positiri^ irxUt^nc^ and nothinffi 
nherev^ we p^ivppose positive existence lo cewe, h an- 
ollier chH^m infinitely rieep ; where there li room a^in 
Utt endlDAA orderv r>f tcuhordiniitr nntiirr, ronltmieil for 
CTi^r uiid ri>r «t^er. nitd yet inHiilti-ly inprrioiir to oon- 

To tbc«o medili^liona bumauily U unequal. But ytt we 
may aJit, not of our mnkrr, bnl of each other, einoe, on the 
one side, erealion. wherever it 4to|>», mu«t *lop infintlcly 
helnw infiriily. mid on th** olW, infrnilrh nbovo nntbtng, 
nlial niM:rMily thrrft im. iliul if «»hoiifil pror^frd mi far, cither 
wny, that bcing« §o high at ho Low abould ever h9ve 




eiured i We tnay &«L ; but, I li^lif v^, no cn?&1ufl wudom 
C4U1 give aui Hileijutfte diinwur- 

No* is thii alL In ihc wralcn wherever it br^in» or 
cnil», ar<T inliliitc vacuitirs- At whraU^vcr HJsUncc wc *«p- 
poM* tiie ODXl order of beiupt to 6e abov^^ mun, theirc » 
room for lui mfennediate ord^r of beiiiK^ Wrwe^^n ihf^m ; 
and If for tnw order tlitii for icirmife urdtrv ; vlncr rtrrv 
Uiiri^ tW mlmits of mure? cr ]i?u, 4iiU cnrtKifiittrnflv nil (lii> 
|uirU of that irlkkb ntlmit?i them, niuv br Irifijiitcl^ itivi<k-d. 
So that, iu» far a« wc can jud^r, Ihorr may be room in tliu 
tsifTaitjr between j^iiy ti*o Ktepa of tbe scule, or bclwccD 
any t«u pAtiits of llie cone of bt<iuff, for iniinito irxortiou 
oritifinite pou'cr 

ThiHi it Rp|jrurH, bow llrilo ntason thirae. who re|io8e dimr 
rc^flon ii^oii tlM' »caT« of buiii^* \m^v to tniiiiriil] uver ijinm 
wlio recur n> uny otliir i-xju-^Jieut of a(>Iuiiou» and what 
diHicullietf m^, onvvory »til(.% to rcpronf th« robi^lliunic of 
pfMnenptiioiu d<«Uioii : ^' Qui puucu ooiiKidc-rutr fiicik 
promin^i^^l " In our pat;&a^i* tliniiigh th^i boiindlriiS oceuii 
of (liHiguUilioi), wc (fCitii tukcT Cogs for luiid, iind, nrii^r buvhi^ 
.loilf (oited to uppiuuek ih^^tii, Olid, iimlirud iif rcrjHrsf mid 
^%tahoun, ticw sIcrin-H uf ubjtxtiuEi, uud BucCiiutioii.^ ofuo- 
certain Ijr. 

W<r Eire &<-xt rmterlauicd witb Pope's aUeviatioriH o( 
lbiH<* avilia nhicb w<^ jre doomed to hulfor 

■' Po»«rty, or The want of riclit'K, l« jre»f?mlly oom- 
pt*n)i)iti-t1 Ij5 hnviuj; mor^T hi][><*i, mid ft-wcr ft-iirK, tiy ii 
fTcatcr »bivc of hit-^IlL* uiid t lUurc- uxquUitc rcli»b of the 
malk«t ciijo>iiicnl^, llian lbo«c whij poascA^ Ibcm arc 
M1MII5 blofftf^ with' Tho K'aut of la^te arjd goiiiits, wilJi 
nil tba pkotfuivM that uxiit* from them, ur^ t-ouiuiotily r<*- 
cojnpi*iiMtHl by r nion- tiM'ful kind or* common *4*iki-, trj- 
gHli4-r vhilb u woiidrrfid dr-Tighl. m nti-U il% »uc'cc-3ft. iu 
ibc busji pujftULlA of n Acr&nibliiiB? «nrld. The sulFcnn^ 
of tL« mcJl urc ;p-v4ktly rifltev<id by many Irilbri); i;nitilic-U' 
6oi>&, tdipi^-nxptililo to nlh^rn, uud, si>molim<"«> fllmcmt npaid 
by i^e iucoocvUublc tmutporU ofrci-Lbi«>ned by tbQ reium 
of btf«Ilh sod vigfoiif . FoUy cannot be very i^rievfjus, b&- 

Kit kNQIJiftY. 5r$ 

; fndo^, nre inft^nftiblu of many 
metlmes imbUtvr ilii* poNsrfi^innMf 
QuUp up Iht- rtE^h. TJirv nr^ not 
ly, or moHilicd by llie niutilutioii 
bappinciM i« like diat of a mall- 
ei tbo cords tbol binU bim, vrbcn 
bit I1fl<h. 

r one t^njoyniUDt iit lupptiod by ihd 
r, tttuy be fuirTy ;illfiwiiH ; but the 
EtK-SH I bavn never foi^iiJ ntrur lo 
Qsports of recovery ouly prove Ibe 

if vtlliDg U> conleag him^olf very to- 
ld, tht^efgre, tfs poiru unil ploaiiiree 
vhnt tb« aulbnr hdi/s nf itii hjk{>pine«ft, 
to fatuity, or jjrciKs clulni'Si^ : Inr tlmt 
indinif, wbicb mukrvi one man. witfaoui 
ftlave, or tool, or property ol^nrrolbur, 
timea usdea^, and somrlimcn ridicii- 
very quick 8eii«ibtliry. On tbe bap- 
jw tbe cate is T>ot vt*ry fre^Hetil, it U 
d tliMjutsiiioij, but I rntitint fi^rhrar 
t'ti^veryet knew dborders of mind in- 
pery landman is eitbcr orro^nikt and 
ky nod MiApicious, or poaR«AA<i<l by Bom« 
L destructive to bis qaiel. He liiu al- 
B hlfl look, ond malt^ity in hl^ botiom, 
f pdwcr of rboirp, hti wduIi! mum repriit 
ttiA rcoAou to secure his peace. 
I^portlou of ignorance necessary to malie 
he Icvor clussvA of mankind aofo 1o Urn 
ibl« tu ibi<mik«lvei(, both tnomU and policy 
uy ihuu will be wry «uum or very CH^ily 
■ umlnab1i*[lly. n <\v^rt*e of kaiuwledgvi 
I juUEi to rvfcr all to providence, mid lo 
:iOtirttou witb ^bicb omnisoieal; ^oi»Jium« 
f allot biiu; V> conAirler Ibis world U m 
il voon gliU^j from boforo hift (^pk, arul 




rau>e imperceptible ; and I daubt not bttt tbcrc is nomo 
truth iu that rorit of a mud poet, lliat there in u plenmirc lq 
bciti^ mud, which nor*' hiil madiui-n know, Ignoranod, or 
the want of Lnovlcd^ nnd litt^rntum, thi* iippoinW lot of 
all born to perprty hikI thr dnidgi^Hm of lifi^, i« thi> otil^ 
opraiti oapaMe of infiifflRg tlint inflL-nj^ihflJIVp vhhlrh ran 
mable them to iriirlure the miat-neii of llic one. and Ibe 
fnli^ieit of the olh^ir it ts a cordial tidniinifilcrcd b^ Ihtf 
gTftcioii39 hand of providence, of which Ihev oiif^^-fiL never 
to be deprived b^ an ill-judged end improper edurallon. 
Il aa the baeli of all Biibordinalirm, thn Buppori of «MTMily, 
and ih« pmif«^D^ of iiidividniilji; ami I ha^t^ evt^r Ihoir^hi 
it H miJMt remark^iblt- itinlance of the divLxH? wimiom^ tbut, 
irhoreas in nil animnlfi, whe«e individuuU riw littli^ ftbovf^ 
the rent of their nprci^^a, know[ed|;^r U inKtmetive; in man, 
irhose iudividiiHlfl ure so widely diflf^rear, it i% ac^fuired by 
edacRtion ; by wbirh rnnanR Ihp prince »nt\ iho iMhonrer, 
the p!iilo*(opfif>r and the |HVLiH^n1, zin-. In tiotiie fii«aiBr^, 
Itttc^l for their nikpectivv Mlmitioiw-" 

Hueh of those ponilions in, perhaps, Irne^aod the whole 
pcragrapb taiglit well paas willjout c^u^ure. were not ob- 
jflotioaa neoMsary to the v»1nblUhiuent of knewb-d^. 
Poverty is very f^ently paniphmcrd by want of riches. In 
thul «(*nflr, Eifmotl rvi^rv mnn miiv^ in his own opinion^ be 
peer. Hnl ibere tv anutiier poverty, wliidi is want of 
ccmpotfrnee of aW Ih^t can sofkeii tbe tniKcrieA of life, of 
all that can diieridfy ultrntion. or deU^hl imn^natiofi. 
There U yet another poverty, which i* wnat of nec^a- 
iwries, a sp^Mries of poverty which no care of the pubhok, 
nn rharily of pnrrrrulnrs. can preserve mauy fri>m feeiiuf? 
nprniy, nnd many se(■^^el^y. 

• That bopt* mul Irnrnrt^ in'^parahly, or very fri^senlly, 
<^'ounfcted with poverty and ritliet, my p»iu-ve\B of life 
have not informed lue. The milder degrees of poirerty 
are, com^timea, supported by hope; but the mere severe 
of>no aiok down in motiealeia deApondenc4i, Life moRt b«i 
wen, before it nnn be kiMwn. This author and Pope, per* 
haps» never saw tho niLAfrrii^A wbicb lliey iniJigiiK* ihiia ea«y 

fRBU tiN(^lllRV 


to b« bono. The poor, indet^d, uru inMniible or many 
Uule T«xadoa«p wliieh loaielimci tmbittor tho pcrft«rssions, 
and pollute the rnytyinvtii%, nf thn nrh^ Theiy are not 
paiiwd bv CJuaal inci^ilit^. or morlifieil Ly l}je nmiilutiuii 
of a compUmcnt ; bat thu hap^inees ia IiIeo (Jut of u titalo* 
faclorr who e«aA«<» to ft: o I the cords thuC bind faim, ^cft 
th« ptnc^r* are 1f<urio]7 bU Heib, 

TUit u-iEQt of IhaIo for one onjoymont in inpplied by t[i9 
pli*4!iiirT^ nf Homr ntbrr, msij bi? fnirly iillowod ; but tbft 
coiupeiuuliuua of ucLiiE-:ts I lia*c uever fuurid ncur ^o 
eqQivftlonc^p and the lrmi«porti of rccovrry only prnTc thr 
intrftfftiriiv of ihr pain' 

Wilb folly, »o mutn h wiUinf^ to confoaei hiffi»i}lf very in< 
limatcly aoquaifUi^rt. and, therofore. its paiDs ami pl^aHuraa 
ant kept «ecrt-r. But whut ibi^ author <a^i of irs bap|iinet!i(, 

k«eiB3k upplirnhlr rin!y In falniiyr ^C ^^>** iIuIekwi ; for f h;it 

inferiority ofuDdcrstaikdm^, vhiob mnk^fii odo inon. w^ilbout 
titty other rca&ou. 1h<i ^Invc^ or tool, or proiwrty of uuoOior. 
vbii'b QiAkf?!i bjoi ftonititimea uaolcss, and 8oniottiTit*i ridicu' 
louf, N often fell wiib v«ry <4m«k »enalbiJily. On the bup- 
pdnma of aiudrnt^n. at tb<* cane U not very frc-tjucnt, it in 
not PMMTs«;iry lo ruiw h duijuiHitirM), but 1 runnot forbear 
lo obacTTCt that I ne^cr jot kocw diaordcr^ uf utiud in- 
cn4a« ftilicity ; every inndmnn i» cither arro^Dl attd 
iraadbW, or gloomy and daspiotous. or posacsaud by scans 
pauiOD, or notion, licalrucltw to bU quiet- Ho baa ul- 
wityn discontent in hia loolc, and muU^ntty tti his ho«oni. 
And, if hf had (He power of choice, hr woidd ution rnpeut 
wbu nliuuUl rvsi^^n bU reiuuii to «»urti hU peace, 

Ctmct^tnhtg tho portion of i^nonnc^e neccsaiary to make 
tbc condition of tbo loner clirMc^^ <>t' riunkind aufo to tbc 
pabiick^ and tok^rablo to tliomiirU'cii, both momU und puliey 
oxact a Dic4>r inquiry tliiu) will b" Twry soon or vc*ry 4<;ui]y 
wkde. Tbere it^, undoubtedly, h degri^r* f^( krmwtrd^ 
wIimIi will din^c'l 4 man tn rt*-fnr nil lu p 10 vl dunce, and lo 
acquicacc^ in tbc conditiau with wblcb oinulacJcat ^oodncaa 
htts dctcriitinod to nlloi him; to comider this world an a 
pbuiloin, tJjat miist soon glide from bvforo bjjt eyeit, and 



Iho clhtress^A and vexniiot)» th&l <?nromputi(]t faun, nic dust 
Acat1«red Lii lit^ path, n« a h\asX that M\U hiin for a mo* 
nnsni. m\t\ \m%%rn cilT fur <?ver. 

Sucli vifldom. nruin^ from the compunAon of a pmt 
ftith the vholc of our cxintcnct^, tho^c that nanl it mo«l 
caatiot pOAflibly ohtniri from philoRtph^; nor» iifjlt3C« fbe 
ueilioti of edacatiou. and tie ^neral tejioiir of Itfe are 
cbODi^^p will very easily retcivp U from reliyiop. The 
hulk firmunkiiid h tun IWa^ly tn lir vrrv witi^orvcrj ^od; 
and 1 know not, nhrlhcr llic^jc tite not imun «tittra of life, 
u] vhicb fill knowledge, less thao the hightat wudom> will 
prodtJoo djitc^ontcnt aud darjii;>>r I believe il ruay Ih.* 
Miiik«tijneii fotjnd, that a iifltr Uarnin^ it* to \x poor ni^ri, a 
ttanfftroHx Ihin/j. But nut-h w (Jkt (condition of Inmmnily, 
(hut Vr 4^£iA]ly Kno, iir rjliirkly frrl Hir u ron^. hill c'JIUUat 

alirays di«tii)^ai»ii iLi- r%hi. Wliulever kiiuwlvd^e u au" 
pcrtltionj, in irremediable poverty. U burlfuU but Ihc diHn 
culty u to delcMikint.^ ivLen povt-rly i* irromudijible. and at 
what point Buperlluily heguis> Gro*» if^Doranoe tvifry muu ^^ 
ha« found equally daiigeroiiit with pervr^rlivl kiiiiw1cMlg«^^| 
Men, \tifi vhrjlly to l}ifir uppr(i1i'% nnd ihrir itutinrwr^^ 
with little &\^iKG cf moral cr religious oblijGTiitioii. and uiih 
very faint difltuictiona of right and vruu^, con oover h& 
tafcly einployc^d, or t^uolidt^ntiy IriinlL'd; Ibey eiiu be hoaMi 
only by obM.tnacyt and dih^rnt otiEy by compuliioiL or oa- 
pric?. Some instructioD, ther^orp, in nt-ccE^nry, nad much, 
p^rbapu. may hv darigoroa*^ 

Though it >:hoidd Ut: graulvA, tluit ihosH? who ars httrn ta 

povvrtt/ mtddnalijvr^, bhoald ikot be dcprmd, b'f on ■'i^^| 
nropfr tdt4ccttit}ii* of lla: opiaU of i0nortinr4 i even llii^^^ 
i.u^cc8eii>ii will uoi br of much iiso to tlirf.^t't uttr pracijc^, 
iiDle«i it btf d<^<<< Trained, icho ortr iho^ie ttuil are lorn to 
poveriif. To vnluil irrrvdrflibk povvfty upon (ir**neniijoii 
aftrr grnmition^ nnty litransri i\n^ nm^vsUtr bap[if!iird tii 
be poor, i«, in ilMrlf, eruH. tf not aiiju>il, ^id i^ wholly cod* 
traT3' to (be muximt of a ciJinrntrti"! nutioin nbi4:b always., 
«appo&e tind promoto a rotztt^on of property, ajid 
•very individoul a cfannco of mending hw cooditton I 

dtiiytTBce. Tbow, wLu curuuiunivulc Utcratarc lo tlio son 
of ■ poor m^u cuTisidtrr him, 115 one not bom lu poverty, 
bol to 4hc Of!i.-o*sity ol" deriving n beHur forlunc? from liim- 
fti-lf. In tbU uiK^mjil, AK in others, miLnv luil unci niuDy 
>ucC4*tf^- Those thiit laif, witl frcl ihnir minerT marf-. 
ttcnldy; hut tiiif^f poverty u now roiifi^*iNcrl ti> he Micb a 
cahunity, &a c-aiiuot be boroc without the upiiitc of iuacim^ 
bilit}-, I bopo tho happiness oflho^o wLiom oducotioo eoa- 
bl(>« lo cA^a.p€ from il, may turn the balaac^ ug&iiidt that 
4?xuc«fbitiou wbJL-lj ihe others ^iifTer- 

I am jilwu}! iifruid oC di-lt-rmuiing on ihr fudn of envy 
or cniphy. Thr [trivilrgm of nlucalioik may, Aonit-lJme>i, 
bcT tmpropeHv Ic^towcd, Ijut 1 fthall ^iIwuvh fi*iir ti> wilh- 
hoid thc^m. Ic'st 1 should be viL^din^ to Ihc su^^-ilions of 
pridi?. while 1 pcrtuudo mvM^lf Ihiit I urn lollowin^ the 
maxioiK of policy - and, iiiidt^r lim uppcurancr of salutary 
rif^TTnirU. ^hotiTd he tndidgin^ thr liut of djimimofi) Aiiit 
ihjt m&l«'*olfij(;e whlirh delj|{blv 1^1 ptet-iii^ oihertt deprf^>i)»?d. 

Popi:'!! cl<jGlfJnt^ U, nX htat, oxbttritffd ill a cum|jufiiiat], 
which, like ciihtr proofs of the sutan kind, la better 
adapted lo delit;hi ifao f^icy tlititi cori\iiirc Uic tltiuwu, 

" Tlint tbpif universe roftc-mblcs n larfj;Q. &pd nell-r«gu- 
Inli^d familv, in trlnrh nit tliif oHU'er^ nnd aenuTitc, and 
even the domi^Hlir, animaU, an.' >iu1>Nv^rv lent t^ eai-h oilier, ifi 
11 pri>tM?r Nubordinttlion i vucli ciijoy>i Uic pri>]leic» aad pf^r- 
i)ui»lc« peculiar In hiK pliin-, nml, at The ;<umc time. coiiLri- 
bato. by that jkisl fiibor<liiiuCion, to tho moj^nilioeutio mid 
hippiii«>M of thd whoU." 

The mflgnJflc^nce of a hoiive is of u*p or pleasure alway* 
tu l]i« niuater, and ii(rmetiaie>i to ihtr duineslii'Ln, Itut l\xe 
□M^cnificvfice of ihr tinivitmc adilx nothing tti tijtr Aiiprrmo 
birii^f ; for any pitri of iu in ha bit At) tA, v\xh ^hiib humno 
knovh^dgo is ncqilAiiited, an Liiiiv<ir!je inuub lesA tpactoud 
or itploodid would huv« Iwoa ttutHcii^ut; and of bappiiieea 
it dopfl not appeur, that Liny iv oummunicaied from the he. 
ia^ i>f A hrwer worirt to Ihosr ol' ^1 big:hi*r. 

Tbc inijuiry nfttT l\u'- CdiiM" of HHlund ovil in conimaii^d 
ill the third letter, in wliicb, as iu the f<^niicr, tbcre la 


pnatttrc of bfiTT«w<)d tnitlj, nud natit<f foJly« of tome 
1ioti«« jii*t Mill trilo, with othcn ti&coinmon and ridioutous. 
Hh opinion of %hv raluir purl nnporUinco of bappini*** it 
t^rTafnly ji>f*l.ftn<^ I nhall imtcrl It; iiol ihnl ilwill giv*> any 
iiifunniiliciu 1o UTiir render. Imf It iiitiy serve 1o f;liow, hov 
tho laont cominup rioliuu uiuv be swelled iu sotind. luid 
dilluiod in bulk, till it abull, pcrhupi, luitomsh the outbor 

" llappint'Ef^ u lh<T only thing of rcid value in e^tstcnci^p 
tifillier rirhfiA, nor povr^r, iinr vibdom, nor learning, nor 
airfTDglb, »ur be}4uljr> qot virtue, nor ii*ligion, nor evea life 
ibt^lf. Inking of nity iinportiatice. but as tb«y coutributo to 
Its produotian. All thcac an?, in tbt-maelvt-'H. rieillit-^r icoo^ 
nor«vil; happine*« niotio in Ihcir ^ul end* nnd tbty ura 
cMiBble only as titoy (oncl to promotti it." 

8ne«fiGs prodniir-* n>iLt^d»?nner After tH» diwow^ry of 
the vulut; of lutppincnTh. liu prticuedH, williuut any disLriut 
tit liiinAvIf, to toll us wiuit lios bmi hid frtirii oil fi>riaeT in- 

*' The trn<t ftolutinn of thin important qui^iitinn, so loni^ 
und so v&ioly floarcbe<l for by the ^biloaopbrri^ of »ll n^e 
nod sA\ couulriei, 1 tuLe lo fie. At lustl^ uo mi>ri> than thL>, 
thnC thME rirni i?viU procni^d from tlw witne lource us chcMt- 
ifln^nury oni*t> of tmpfiHV'rIiiiri, brfun? (ri^alrd of* DMinrlv, 
ffom that lubordiiiuliou, wirlioiit >vbbb no ci^akd system 
Ottn auUiist; all aubordiuatiou implyini^ imporfoction, dl 
imporle<liouv%il, urid ull Q^i\ aonie kind of iDcomwiMiioy 
or Kofrvriiig: lu that there muit he pafticnlar iDconrvsi. 
4Cficin« mid AuHcnngs nnDaxvd to ov^ry purliculur niuk of 
crcttttHi bniit^ by tine oircumxtiuiccii i>C ibui^, nud chrir 
mode* of exifltcnoc 

"<vod, indeed, nii^htliavo made ua quite other erentufeis, 
and placed ui in a world quite dilfer«nlJy coiutitiiti^d ; but 
ihcu wt- hud bL-eti no longer nien^ and whutevvr beings hud 
oocupird our stations in the iiniTersal f^ycTem, thr*y mnic 
lii)^« been liable to ibc r^mi* incouvonit^iuie^'* 

Ju all ibJa, there la njUiiiiK tbjt eau ailetic<T the iuquirica 
of curioMly, or c^lm the pcq^turbotions oi' do jbl, WhiMher 



mbendiBtttioii tmphe* imperfectioB mny be difipiilod. Tlic 
tiMhUK rofpocting ihcraselves may be as pori^ifrt us tlic ctid, 
Thfl v-red^'ns n wrM,!'* no less pprfe*f cbofi the oak. (u> ^n 
otti. Tba( tmptrfttitutn irupllfA ei'ii. and nml %HffirriuQ, is 
by no in«-<ui:i i^\idt-nl. Iiupt^rfuclzou may impl; privHliw 
eiil, orUir abAi-itc^' uf somo ^cid, hut lliuv privation |>ro' 
ductfii no Kutfcfin^, biil by Utc hdp of knowlod^. An in- 
ftot at the hr^tut ih y<tt fin impcriccl mao, but t}i<ir« i« iiei 
reaMo for \\^\\ei, thai he w unLappy by hi* immalurily, on- 
lem wrnit* })b^mve pmn be vuprrnddrd, 

Vten thU aiillior presttTnra to iipeak of Um aiLi\«rM, 1 
wW<t nJiUi* lum ;& htili? to ilifilruat Iiibowu fuoLiltiea, how- 
ever l^r^ and comprehensive, Mnijy word?, eanily undvr- 
•Aood on rommon oocasinna, becomo uncortoiti and fiffiirii' 
lifo. whi^h applied lo the works of omnipotence Sulior- 
diaatiou* in hmuau iilfairi, is veil iindersrood ; hot, when It 
in ntlrifnilt'd tn the ttniversd «y»trtm> ibi meaning ^raw^ 
IrSA crrtnSfi. likr tlir pretty di!stmc(ioji?i of tot'iilitv. wliirli 
arc of good Udc upon our own ^^lobc. but haie uo Tnoaniu^ 
with regard flo aunnitc fipoce, lu which notbiug ia AiyA cr 

Thut, if man, by oxnlutinn (o a higher nature^ wf^ro ex* 
Mnptpd fmiti thp fOfiW vhtrh he now nulTeTii, aomr* othrr 
helng riiLiil i^ufVer them ; iliaU if man were not manj Knmff 
otbrr bfitif^ muiil br niati, is u pOMliou aristrig frtrm his 
«iitabluhod tic>tion of the aoale of bt'ini;- A notioa to 
w^ich Pope hfu iQnivrn fiomo imporUnci^ by adoption; it, 
ai«d vf vhicb I biive, therefore, endeovourt^d to show tho 
uneertainiy und incon«iiietioy. Thiv sealeof beinf^ [ bav« 
ik'cum<tlr3ted lo h*- ndvrd by prrxEimptMoifn iuiiiffiualiou, 
ti> rc\l on nolbing nl (hi^ hottom^ tii k-jtii on iiolhiri^ iit thr 
li>p» aiHl to have vacuities, from step lo stop, Ihroosh which 
any ovdcr of being may sink into nihility witbont nny in- 
MOV«Bbfice, ttu for U5 we can Judgi.\ lo the next rank 
ftbov« or bt^ow it. We are, Ihenefon*. little enlifi-hTrned 
hy It writer who iHU ai, thnl mij being tn the ntate of mnti 
mu^l *iiffer wiml uiun j-uflV-ni, when Ihr oidy (Ju^^fton that 
re<iujrea to he reioUed eh : Why un\ being is in thia Hate. 





Of poverty and bliour lit* ^j^rs just und el^gnut repra- 
strnmtitmit, nhirli vt?t lUt not ri^miivr- ihi^ difUculiy ^kf the 
lifbt mid fuoinftirDlid (jUT.iAlioii, lliuugli »iip]iuf>itig ihn |»m- 
oLul sluiv of lutui Qcceaattr^r. they may »u|ipl> Mtiae uxo- 
tivufl tucoatoat 

" Povwrly I* wh^fcl dll ci>ulil ii^t ponjiibly linvr U<>eti cii- 
tmptrfl from, not «nly bj nnwn of cli^ (luclu^iiiu^ iiufura 
iif hiiniuri poA£i*umiiK, hut beraiisd lli^ world could not 
subsist AvUljotit il ; for^ Lad all Ireeii ruli. tioiie could Hiivn 
Hiibiiiitkd lo the ooniiniincla of unolbcr. or iho ncccAsojjr 
druilifLTUJK of tifet thuiLccf all (((ivenimifQb Diii«t kavo 
b«9ii di«solro(l, HrM Dcrgloctcdi oikI ijinil^ ([ncLtUi^ate<l» 
and 80 AH umver»jkl peritiry have overuLvlmed uli, maiieud 
of now luicl lh(<D iiiiicbing ii f<*w, Hon(<<% by thr by, np- 
pmrn llir* gn-nt rxccllrin^T' cif rimrifv, by wbirh mpri nrr 
CLinblt-^* by it pniliuuUr dk»lnbutii;u uf (Lo )>k-3»!fi^3 diid 
o»jojmviit« of UfOi ou proper occuttlons. lo prorfcit ilmt 
poToriy, wliicb, by « ^cuoml ouf, omaipotL-iiti.' ibrlf couH 
novcr bavo prt^voutLnl; xo thLit, by cut'orciu^ thi^ diLty> 
God, ofi il wem, d(>mnndH our iu«iKCHticii to promntfl Qui* 
Vfttfinl bflppiTiriti*, and lo *biil out iTtIfl«iry ai ovory door, 
ttbcre tl ilri*fH lo irilrude Jlaelf, 

" Lu-bour, indt^etl, God m\gU\ easily Knvr cxcu^cil na 
from, sinve^ at hi^ cortiniuntl, the riirlb would ivadily linvo 
pouriid fortli all )L<Tr trob^suiofi, wilboul our iucotittidcruble 
aasisf&Qce; but« if Ih^ iimi'K'EEt bibour cunuot «ulbci^iifJy 
lubdite tbe inoliff'nily of hunuiu nulur^. wbut ploiH ntui 
m4chi[iitlioii.<, wbiit warx. Mpiiir. mui di-viiJ4t»li<m, whiil 
proJIixncy and Licciilio»»tiCMp iuu<il iiavc bt-eii iLo corj«r- 
<]iii?ncrii cf uitivcr&al id]rfiic<Aa ! So Xhni luboiir Odgbl only 
to be lookod upoo, uti a taik kindly imposed vifHiti u* by 
our iLdulf^eut vr^uior, tioc<^^£ary to prcKurvo our liealth, 
our suiffly, Mud our ionoorncp." 

1 iim Aifriiid. tbul " ihf* liilti^r i-uid of Lis roirimniiwrAltU 
forgt-U the- bcgiiimii^." If God tvald eiuittj itttt^ trxcuArd 
ut frtjm laftoar. 1 dn not (-ompr r^bc ud irby /« coaW nut 
po«$ii/tif have fseuipUd olifrttM /wir/^/y, for povi^rty, in 
iU eufttcr and tnoro tokrablo degree, it liltlo moro than 





Qi-Cd««liy of Iftbour; and, in itM more urverp nnti Hoplor- 
•■ Atile fttate, Ifule mor* than iiiubLlity for Inbonr. To he 
j>«'jr in tu v(*rk for ofhi-r*. or ta wiuit thr qiirrntir nf other*, 
viibout work. And thr ^anir cxiihcranl ft-itiljl;, whirb 
would Biakc work «nncccs*flry. might make po>rrt\ im- 

- ^04ftibl4l. 

-SiiT^lj, m man who necmji not (>ompl(?1c»ly inn«t«r of hh 

cwn ojHQion, iLoald buvo tpokm morr canlionely of otn- 

*VdpttteiirrH, nor hnvr* prriiiinn*d lf> sut wliai if cmrlH per- 

oT wliAt it roukl prrvc-ift. I uui tii lEmihl, uhcrthi^r 

IbOM?, who fltan<i hi^lio^t in tlifr scale of leinrj, ipenk ihiu 

confidently of tbo JUponaalioEm of tht-Mr muker : 

" F<v fools rivh m, where logcU fvar lo Lr«&d-" 

or oiif inqiiictudf^ft of mind. Uii* nccoimt in jitUI l<rw(* r^n»on- 

{ ftblc: " WbiUt mcb urt^ thjun^d, titvy muut bo inHaiiK'd 

vitb anj^er; arid, ^hilut (hey fi6fr {^ruelUea, Ihi^y nkuet be 

vi<<h(>d wilh pity ; urhilct thoy perceive danft^^r. lh<-*y must 

t ^ bo H'ftsibic of f(*(ir.'" Thiji i» to give a n'u*cm for nil pvi!, 

^^B'by ftbowin^, lltal onf* *'\t\ pnuliirr^s nnothrr. If th(<-rc? em 

^^P-ioogct, ihtrre oui^hl in bt- fi^ur ; but. If fi'ar b u(t €vil, why 

I tboold tb^rt^ ht: daiif£tT ? Ili^ vindication of puin i» of 

J Ibc sunic kind : pcuti is iiH^fid (o uhirm ua, tliul wc may 

ihllfl grfrntiT evils, bnt (hofo ^roDtrr i^vik muAt be pre- 

nppos«d, ihat ibe fittje8§ of jMin mny npp^nr, 

- TrtaliiifT oti denlb, be Uhh vxpnwwrf thi^ knnwu iuid 

tnir ijDi:friiki^ wllli H|)riu;:bllJueAs of Jaucy, and noiitncjv of 

)dict>0D. I «hnM, thcTrftrrr, mticri il. 'tkvrc urc truths 

'wbidi. as tbey an? a1wny« QOCCMnry, do not ifrow tttalv by 


*< Dc^ulh, th(^ Ijut :ukd most dreadful of atl evils, tn «■> 

ftir" from being one, tbitt it ia ihu infallible cure for nil 


Ta dlt, i> luding on nnt nUm ab««i 

Cmrcll vt lc?l tlir fncuclly i»rraU. "lit vV- (jtujii. 

For, nbfrtracted from the atckuess und Muflferiug^ uiiially 
tttteadiot; il, il ia no more than the expinition of ibbt term 




of life Gnd wui pleojted 1o bt^itow on u£, without anj 
clnim or roortt on our puri. Bui nuK it an evil «v^r ao 
grent, it conM noi hr rcmrriW, Init hj one mucli grenlvr, 
whiub U. bjf living Tux t^vi^r ; by wliicb im-ima, our wicked- | 

ii«s«, unrestrained by iho prospect of a futurt? titiiU\ would 
jl^w AO iriaup portable, our sutTcrings ao intolerable l>y ^H 
prrM^vor»»ce, and our pleasures ao liresonto by repeti- ^^ 
lion, tbnt no being- in the universe could h«» no complel(-ly 
nisenibfo* im n specieK of imnmrtal men. We bnve n4> 
n.-uAuu. 11]«r(.-rorc, tu louk upuu dt^ulb ua uu uvii. or to Cuar 
it ai a puntaKmenl. even without ony auppoaition of o fu- 
ture Ufo : but, if wc con:iidcr it, na a pa^snge to a Divrt 
p^rfo^t fttJitei Of a remoye only in an ett^mul sucoo^ion of 
stin-improTJfijf Atatea, (for %i'biofa we hnvo the ilroDjcest 
reasciu*,) It will tben nppf'iir a nev favniir from thv divine 
inunifii'«n<^f ; unJ a ninn niunt be a« aluurtl to repine ul 
dyin^, oa a truvi^llcr would be, who propcmcd to bimfielf b 
delightful tour throuf^h various unknown countnc^, to la- 
menl, thnt ho cnunot tokir up hi^ rcndcuce at Ibe firA( 
dirty inn« which he bnil« nt on the road. 

'* Tlie in-itubility c{ human life, or of the ohiin^e* of 
lilt succrasive pmnd<4, of wliicli M/e %o fn*i|iirnliy cam- 
plain, are no more thatu the ut^ceflAary prog^re^ of tl to 
ttia uGCessarj couclu^ou; and urc so fiir frvni bein^ eviU, 
de^erviu^ these complaiJiU, tliul iht^y nrc tlir Mijurce of 
our (^reuteGt pleaaure«, a& they ore the tonreo of udl no- 
Toity, from whioh our greatest pleoeurefi are ever donved. 
The conlinunl vncresAion of ^eaaons In Tfie human lifi\ by 
dttily prfl»i-ntitL^ to m9 new mxtwt, render It n^reeoUln* 
tiiicl. like tUoHtf of the year, alT^rd n% dtli^bC^ by their 
change, winch the choicest of them could not give u» by 
their continuance. In the spring of life, tlie ^iidin^ of 
the HuHAliiae, the verdure of the flelje, and the variegated 
puiulingii of tho uky, 4r^ no exf|uUile in the eye* of in<i 
fnnl9, at their HrT<t looking nhnmd into u nrw wurld, us 
nodiing, peHiapa, nftorHardA can rqiinl. rhc heal and 
rigour of the sncceedinK flummer of youth, ripenji for ii» 
new pleasures, the bloominf^ moid, the nijt:htly revel, and 





ti)« joriftl chute: ihe serene nutumn of comiilru^ ni»ii- 

hood fcaiU uc wi(b %\ie ^\t\fn hanrilg of our wnrfdiy 

paniuilji: nor in iti4< hoary winlor of uM aur ileatilutr? nf 

it« poculuir comforU and eDjovments, orvkicli the recol- 

, loctioD ftud rdntiou of thoitc pott, lire, porhnp^, iiutir of 

Iho lewl; Andr nt Inst, dontb opi^ns to ns a new prosfiocl, 

Cropt whence ve HfaalU probably, look back upuu tbc cli' 

J vonkin* aind occtiputiunx of tbtv world, wkli Elic? mmc coti- 

ti-mpl Wf *lo imw on niir tup.ii ^md lii»lihy h^rsra, nnrj witJi 

the ^amc Hirpnatv tliEit Uir^ cnuld cTcr »o niucli cuterUiu 

Of cn^B^ IIS." * . 

' I woold not willinf^y detract from tho beauty of Ihi* 

1 p:«ra^Taph; And, in graiitnde to bJm ^^ho ba^t to woll in- 

J cukatw) aucb iiuporl^ni iruihft, T viU venture ui ndmon- 

Ui bun, »mYi iln- rliiff ciiinrcirt ufcbt? uld is tbt? rt't'oHr^r- 

•liodi of th« post, Ao to employ bi» limr fuid bla iLouglilB. 
(bat, when Iho imbecility of a^o shall come npon bini. be 
0WJ bc< nblo to recrontc its languors, by tbo rcmciubriinco 
of hour* ipeut, nut in preduinptiiouA deciftmitx, but miv 
dtfftt inquiri^n; not in dogroulie;il liitiiuttiunn of omnipo- 
Cenot% but in hiimbin rii:c|iiit!a:rnce» uud fervt?iit iidcirution. 
^ OM a^ will diov him, time much of ihc book, iiuv bufoie 
nBp b«i no otJicr use than to perplex the scriipulcuA, and 
ti» iboke Ibc wcah, to encourage impioufl proanmption, or 
ItvnulAto idle curioMiCy. 

Having ihuc dr-<[uitL-h<^d the coriKidmtioti «f particulur 
pcviln, bti cniiu*ji» ut hi^t. tn a ^i-nnnil rciiHoii. for whlrh evii 
\m»y be said (o br r/iu- jfuuri. llv m v( upjniuti, tbdt lb»ro 
is ttoioe ificoDceit ubio bcacJlt ui pnui, fib0inict«^1y const^ 
dnv>d; that pain, hovoicr inthotcd* cr wht^rcTCr felt, 
ooQioiuiueatffH »oine good to tho general system of UoiDg, 
umI, thai eiery finimal h, some way or otb^r. the bettor 
lor Uie pQun of every ulher uuiuiul. ThJn opiriiuu he CAr-* 
tWM tta far, m% in aup[Kt}fce, lbi«t iht^rn (inueji ttuine principle 
oTsnion through all tuiJniAl life, ab aftriiction i» comnnini- 
e*lod to all corporuni nature ; an^i. Omi the ciils atiflrred 
DQ diis globe, uuy. by soiue inc one civ able mcana, cootri- 



bote to the frlicUy of tbe iiihubilunts of the remotoet 

How thn orij^in of Pvil is hroii^ht nearer to humau ron- 
r(-|jti«ii, hj anj intvttveuublt iiit^miis, I tun not ahle tu 
dwcovrr. We believcj, thai the presrnt ervstetn »f crri>* 
tiOQ »ns right, thotigh vtc oc»rlcl not explain tlir ntlnptAtioii 
of oao part to the othi^r, or for the vholtf ^iKroi^aion of 
vauaett and cotis<^qiieiirp4. Whero has thia inqulror added 
to Ihe Iktle knoulf^rlge that wr hnri hpfore? Hp hns loM 
u« of the heiiefils of tvil. wiiich no nimi fcelf*, und rt?U- 
tiotvi between dintant purtj of tlje uniTCfne. whiah ho cAn- 
not liim^clf conorivp. Tboru wivm <iimi^K in thi> question 
mronci'iTablo hcfor**, ani] wp .hnvc hltlc ndvaotago from • 
n«v iDCouceitable solntion. 

T do not mefln to rrpfoanli thin anthnr fop not knowing; 
vrjiut lA i-qiidMj liiildrii fTv>iu Icumnig and fcum i;(iinrHni~f. 
Tiift ihame ja, to impose words, for idea^, upoo onraclTr-^ or 
olhtfj. To imnc^ui*, that we nre gointr l'orwar<l, when wo 
fire ottly luniin}; r<jund. To think, tfiut tikcrc in any dJlTer- 
euce hciwrr>n him that givet no rea^u, nnd bim that 
giv^ii a Ti^fi^6ti, vhirh, hy hjft ovrii confeflsloD, oaituol be 

But, thut he may not hr thoujeht to coiicirjTc notliiiijf^^| 
hut tbintfn incoticf^ivahli^, he hii», at last. thoujfUt on a waj,^^ 
by wblch hiimim vulfi^nngs may produce good oflecttt. He 
inift^ii4>«^ that nil ttr hav^ noi i>uly aoirnalit for food, but i 
ehooiip some for riir d'lversionj rlie sume pri\ih>^ mny h* 
rtlluutd to .tome beiijf^ iibcivf m, nTfui maif ifrrrvv, lor- 
mtnt.or dfjtrojj ti£,/iir tftf cn^:t, otUt/, of fhnr «tmi pktA' | 
turt or <fitilitify 'l'hi« hfi ngain fijidj- impoAsiLik to he con* 
iH'ivird, hui ffuit imf>&st(if/ifity fcs4fHJ not tiif probahiiifif of 
thf conj^ftvrp, vtncU. by aimhrft/, in fv stron^l^ amJSrm^. i 

I (Moiiol TVHiAi iht- iL'mptaiioii of con Tcm plating; thit 
amdn||(y, whicli, I Uiiak, hi^ Rtight hare c-nrrirvl furlhtr, 
vrtv much 1o tbr advaiilAge of hU OMgnmrai- He iiiJ|;lil 
have n|iQVn« llial these *' bunlerx, whrfae Kumo b m^ri/* have 
raany aports cuialogous to oar ova. Aik vft drowu whelps 

rRKB e\QlJltY 


und kittens, ihcy amnso ilionj«<r]v4Ts, iii>w uud tbiju, ^tb 
siokuiff u ahip, aod »i4iid roiiii<l the Iji'ldn ui' Ulrnhcim, or 
ihi? wclU i»f Prfiffue. ut Wt tf-ncirclc* li cockpit. An vfli 
iihflal » birfl fiving. thrv iukn a amu in l^r miditr nf lii« 
bu^incs* or |>tcQ«iirr, imd liQix'k Mm duwii willi mi apo- 
plexy. Si>in« of them, prrlinpft, are virluusi. mid ilt-light 
in Ibe OfXrratioDfi of an aalhrnti, ha a tiiimun phito-iophi^r in 
Out effcc-ts of the mrpump- To nwcll a man with a Cym- 
pADv b HI! good Kpon ojt to btoM n frog. M»ny a merry 
bout hnvr ihofic rrnlic'k tx^ings at t\\v vicJrisJUKlei of an 
a^tne, wtil Kuud spurt It i*> tti tH-t a iiiuii tEinible with un 
vpik^pny, ami jrcvivr and Inmbli: ^i^iin. ^iml dill thi% ha 
kDOv» not »bv. A« thcj of<^ vi^cr and luoro povrrfut 
lliaii i»«*, Ibey h&ve nwre exquMite divorhious ; for we bave 
no wmj of prociinii^ utiy ,^port ho brisk uoi\ &q lustiaK* ^ 
the paroxyxmit of ib<? gout utid it^ne, ubJcb. uailoubtL'dty, 
nnifl m^kr bigh mrrih, rKprrmlli^ if thr pliiy br^ ii littU- i^i- 
vrrHiAtrd wicb lli4* Miiitdrr*. tmd pu/.zltrv of iLtf blind mid 
dtftif. We know not hoit fur thilr Kpbrrr of ob^rrvutioii 
nuy extend. IVrhripR, dovt and Ibcn. a merry hcin^: niAy 
pitted himself in Aucfi afiilontio^i, ua lo «ujoy, ut oni-c, alllho 
lari^tieHofuii vpidvmicul diivtiiK^, cramuFtt^ ha Leisure witb 
Uiv toiG«jng* EiEid f^ontorltonA of every pofMiblcpuiiir^*^>bited 

One ^pori Iho mi-rry ninUrc* of ibr'Jie bein);ii ]vih found 
mrnnft of i^njo^ving. tii wlirch «c fiiivr notliin^; rquoJ or 
nimilnr. Tbc) how and \\tru Lulib a morlijl, proud <>i'hi» 
pcirU, Ufid (httcfod cithi^r by tlif aubniiaaioii of tboac viho 
f ourt bis kiDdn<*)^«H fit thf notio(> of iboi^ ^vho tiufler him to 
court Ibpirn. A hi^ud, [bun prepared tor (lit; r^c^plion of 
ffibn opinion*, And ih** pinjeetion of vsiio dt-ii^iit* ih«y 
eft«ily (ill vtii) idle notiuMti. till. In IJini% ilif^y iiiukt? tlieir 
fi^ytbiii^ 40 autlior i iJirit Itrnt diverHion comtnonly begins 
vilb B« odo or iin r^piMlr. tlicn riM?*. p<!rhii|T4, lo □ potiticul 
irony, und it^ at lunl, brouEht to us litiL^lit, l>v a troatiRC of 
ptiilo«opliy, Th^n bepni tiir poor unjmul to <iutaiig1e him- 
irif is Bophiunt, And Uoirnder in ahnurdity, to tulk confi* 
deotly ot tbe tcule a( being, and lo give »o1utiuiif^ «bich 

Ifll, YIh 



hoycvcT, it bappfOA, (hot their pLeiuuKi b V'ilbout nmcb 
mischior The nutbor I'oAb no pujn, but wliJc lli<?y ntv 
wondering at tlit* exiraritj^ncc oi liU opiaion, und point- 
ing him Dtit to onv ariotht^r, lu n dcw c?iiuin|>l4» ofliuman 
M\y. }w n viijr>}in^ liU own iifiphnivt^ ami llijtt of Urn coiU' 
pdtnc^iia, iunI>|JL-rliafj9. uii-1uvtitc<l witb tie Jjope uf atti&diuf 
&t the hciid ol'u fi«w aocl. 

fttan^ <trtb(-^ books wLiob now crowd tbc world, m^j bo 
justly fiiapoctod to bo written for tbe sako of ^oiue invinble 
order of heingv. for surety they are of no Ufte to auy of iJie 
corport*;i] iidiabitiirirx of ibfr world. Of the produt^fioixL of 
the lii:(t hounti-taiA jiMr, how many can lit: Ruid (o M-ne 
ftoy purpose of u»c or plcaaurt ! The odIj cod of writing 
u to ounblo the readers bettor to «ujoy Ufo, or butter to 
endure it ; and hou wdl either of ihnA^ be put taona iu oitr 
power, by hirn who telU at. that »<? arc puppc^tt, of which 
Monic* crejiture, not muoli wiier Ibun oursclrrit, mnnngirt the 
wirpJtt Tbiit u Mrl of beings, onhre» Mod unheard, ar^ 
hovering about uh, trying t^xponmctits upott our senHiUlity, 
putlift^I iu in u^omt-^rt. to it^^ our linibH quiver; lorturinf^ iu 
to inudiici58, thfvt they may luti^b ut om vagurie^; natnotiiiic-A 
obstructing the biJr, that they inuy Bee how a man Jook«i 
trhen he iajellaw; someIink<?K tire^ikin^n tmveller't^ bone«, 
to try how he will get home ; fttiiuetiajeK wii^f iiij^ A uaio To 
a ^elclon, nml sometimes kdliti)i: bini fat, for ihc g^rejitrr 
clcganoo oi'h\» hide. 

This u All Account of natural cvW, which thoughj like 
the r««1. not tfuile new, u lery tJatertuiaiuKt thouj^h I know 
not h<tw mutrb it may conlnbute to patience. The only 
reuKon why we »houM cont^mpUte ev\l 14, thut «e may 
bpiir it belter; aud 1 iini :irnud nothing' in irruch more 
placidly dodured, fur tlv h.ike of making vtht^rA Hport. 

The first pa^^ oflho fonrth lett^^r arc »avh, a> incline me 
both CO hope and wi«h tbfit 1 %hnl\ tind uolbinji to bUme in 
th(t tucc«edm^ part, U« o^era a critMoa of octioiij on 
ueconnC of virtue mid vig«< for which 1 have often con* 
tended, and whieh mi)«r hf rmhrarr-d by all wUoare widin^ 

Id ki)o«-, mhy tkvy ihct, ot why ihey rorhrar to giro sMj 
trttoM at tkcif «:oii<li>cl to (hpiiurlvKft tir otlkiire- 

*^ Id order io Ijnd ool the tmc ori^ui of moral evil, U 
i»ill be iiecc«8ary, in the lirvt Hac^, 1o t^uqutrt.- uito itn 
fluUure «nd «wefl(^e; <u-. wbal it ia lUul coiulibatoa our 
ftctioii ini), aikd aaolh^r good. VLirioiis huvc bircn the 
Dpiuioui i>r variuuK ^luliiori uii iliii L-rjlrrirKj of vjrtuo ; nnd 
thi% Tonety \uKt n'Tidrri^U ihul clttubtrul. wfiicli miiNf, athei^ 
wbe> liAve Sorij cio>v iuid niaiiifcM tv \he me4iii«»t citpacJt)r, 
Sone. ind^d. Lave denied, iJiiit tliorc i.'< uiiy such lUing, 
bMiUAe dilfcrc'tit ngc* lUid imlicioa have i^ntcrtaincd dj- 
fomit ftontinu-DU coccL-ruin^ it ; but ihij^ ik juhI as roa»oii- 
vble, at to jwsrri, limt lliorr nri* npitljfr kuu, tilood, j>or 
stars, btfcuun^ a>itroAoiueri Jiave kUpiMirtftl [ljfr«r«ni systa^i?! 
of tbv juotiiiiiA unii iTiuj^oiludc'^ *tf Uie»- L'di^itLjiJ buclirK. 
£jguiD luiv(7 pLu;<:d tt in <:o[iri>rmity lo trulh, Aoino to llic 
fitnotd of tbiiiss, Olid otlior^ to tJic will of God ; but aJJ 
liuB U i&eroiy tfuporttcml : llitiy resolve lu aol, why trutb, 
cv dio Jlli«ii of thingK, air« «iUii^r cJigiblt- or cbligaiory, or 
why God «h(»uld rM|uire uk to act in one? nuuuuir raUicr 
ihHn jiiiotlier. Tho triio rpnjtiin ofwliicih (^nti pt»ulbly br 
no ulli«r tIjAA liii», bet^auac bouiu fivliuiiii {ulhIucc Jwp[jiiK'afi. 
and otber» roiderj ; >o tbat alJ moral good dud oril axo 
bothiaji: more Cbari tlic prodartion of natural. Tbia uluriO 
it U llut luokcfi truth prntvrablc to fkilfwlaood, this, that 
daUrairiftfi tl<^ fitn^u of tbin^, aud tliU tbut iad(Ji:<-!i God 
to <MMiinaaJ iu>nie Hcikms, iird f'lrbld iilhi^rA^ Tb»y Mho 
tixtoi tbe Inilh, Iwanty. uuil Wiauiiy of virtue. i-\c1uai^c 
of iU coiuoquciic^fji, dviil but iu pocipoua iion»CQ^c; and 
Ibcy, libovotild persuade u^, ibal izood and wil aro ilungs 
ukdiff«rei)t, dopcjidiuff wholly on ibv will of God, do bat 
ooufouml tbo riiii«rv of Uutig», as «©IJ fts all our outtoutt of 
God hitnMilf, by fpprc-BtTiting him t'apabl*i of wiEliri^ cou- 
lrBilictioni<; ihut it, rlial w<^ Uimild br, uud be bappy, iiltd» 
Kt the Muie Uuitr, that wt' shouM lurmcnt oud destroy <-aoh 
otb«r^ for injuncs cannot he made bcuoljls. pam cannot 
be OMldi; pk«jii4ro, nnd. coiwcqui-TJlly, vicp C4tiuot be niiide 
firlnp. by titiy power whatcvvor. It i» ihr ooufti^fjut-iu^eH, 



tberdnre, cf atl bumun ucliotis thnt must Htami) tkcLr vbJw 
So for ns Iho gv^nt^ml pruoticr; of uny action trnds to pro- 
duce R-ood, *iid introdm^e happinnns into Ihc world, so fnr 
w« lULiy pnitioimce ii vtriut)U» ; so iniicli evil tis U oecasioni, 
siicli U the de^ce of Tivc* il uonlfiJiri^. I sh^' tbe ^4*ii«Tral 
pra(7li^4^ h(*causc we niiinl 4lwuva irmriiibcr. in juilging 
hy tbl» Hfle, lo apply il ouly tt> the general specie* of 
uclicna. ucd not to particulur ncrion^; Tcr Ibc inlinitc^ wU- 
dom o( God, desirous to aet bouuda lo ibe destructive 
coruct|ii»in(?es. whicb niu»i, oiberwiKr, biive followed Iron 
ihtj ijnJv«r»i1 il(*pruvity of nmiikiiKl, tuis ^u uonderfnilj 
oontriic-it iho imliir^r of lliingH, ihot our most vlliim^^ aclioM 
mtLv.Aomeiiiiien, a(;c!dFiitdlJ>aridcoIl«ltrally.prutlQ4:«good, 
ThtiK. for ifi^tunoe. mbbi^ry amy JtKpcrsti-- usgIcms boEirda to 
the tirncfit of llii> public ; nilultcry niny brir^ heirs^ und 
good humour too, into many fumilj^s, wh«iT« tb«y would 
oth^rwivi* bav^' been uaoiii?^; and uiurder, free ibe world 
fnini tymnfx nnd iipjiri'siow. Luxury maiulaiiis ii» thotj- 
s&ndii, and vuitity il» (eji (lioiiKHiids^ StipcMiiJon nfkd 
arbitrary poi*tr cuDlnbutr to tlic gruridcur of maiky na- 
litfiiK* uiid tbf liljcrlirs of other? urc prptiervt-d by tbo 
pcrpL^tual coDtcDtions of avarice, knavery, ^dhnbucM, usd 
flmbittoQ; and tiiuH tJi« worHt of tjo««i and th^ worst of 
men, are ofli^n comptitEvdp by provident^e, to serre llie most 
lit-iieficijil purpiiH-% rorjlrary lo ihHr owu nijilevolenl teo- 
d«tioii?A Lind liicliiiations ; unci tfiu» privntr vlcct bccfunv 
public beuelll»i. by ihc furcv only uf accidc-ti1*il nrcum- 
Atunccit. But tbjd imprnclic?* not tho Iruib of tbe crhenon 
or virtue, bcforo meiJtioric^d. the only lolid fouudatlon on 
wbioh ;jny tnii' i)st<^m of cthic!4 am b<? built, ibo only 
pintle ■iniplf^, Bud uniform rule, by wliich vi? t^un pass utiy 
judgment on our actiooft ; but by ibU wr may b<? riiablvd, 
tiot only tu Jrif rirjiiir- chilli urr K""i^' ^^'^ wbicb arc cril^ 
but> aLmoit mutbf niHltcally , lo Jf^moiiMtuli' tbo proportion 
of virtue or vioo which boloufcs to onob, by coiLpuriog ihem 
with ibe degrw8 ^^f buppiue^i^ or misery vhicb tbtfy occa- 
Mon. But, ibou^fb tbfi produtuion of huppioeM i* the «^«- 
sfuce of virtue*. It ii by no mennft the end ; tlie great end 

PRRB ENQUlltY- 60 

is tiio probation orronukiad, or tbo ^^uig (hem an oppor- 
tuoitj n4'cx:i]lUL^urdt*f;Tu<lmf;t|itn]Ht.-lv4-E, in auolht-r stale, 
fcr ifceir bvliuviour in ibf- pfcwnt, Ar«l diua, iutlopil. h 
WM%wf% two most imporiuiit pitrpoH'.t : tUasr. Jim. thr citn- 
irrTfttioR ofotir }tnj>pi'krv^ anrj lli{! irst of our obi^licncQ ; 
or. Itful nut flucli n tf fl ft<-cmcd ncceaskirv to Gocr» infiikit^ 
Wtfdomp nnd productivi? ol" uuivi^Matl tjood. he would iiCTiT 
bart? pennitiRd tlio ImppiDf^t of mi.<ti« <?vc?n in lUis lifi^ t« 
have 4«pMide<l on no prrcariont n Ij^nitrf*, an Ihrir mutonl 
good h«rbiivi<inr to onrh nlhnr Vor it ik ohqi^rvahlr, thai 
hvt wfii> br»t known o«ir ftirmnliDn, ItoA lni»ted no une 
thing of importjiiicc to imr reanoii or virtue ; Ue Inifits onlj 
to our uppvtitvft for (h(^ support (>f Iho jridtvidual, und liic 
conUDiutnre of our kp^oieji ; to our vflfiity. or comjiiuKion, 
for our bounty to oUirrK ; and to our fcAiTx. Tor tlip prcsor- 
Tiitinn nf [Uin<rlv<"fi ; oArn tn our virr*, fnr Ihi? Kiippi^rt of 
govtrnuiit^utt unO. noiurliiufH, to our follieii, for tliu pre-wr- 
lation iif iiur rrliKion. But. aim'r soimr tnt of our iil^udi- 
Clicc wuji ncccftnry. nolbiiJic, »uri\ roidd Imtc bi?cii com- 
Biuidffil for tbat ot>d, t-o lit and proprr, and, at tbo satae 
tim<*. w> u^fiil, ftf the practic-o ot vtrtuts riolbrrt|^ ctndd 
harp been to juMtl^ revarilt^d wjtb [|U|ipinL-*t. us tfit? pro- 
duetiun nrimppifu-Ks, in ronfnrmity l4i ihr will of (rod. It 
i:» tills rnnformity^ aIoui^, whicb uddu mcHl to \ir((ir', and 
con3ititulo» tiic <-»aenlidLl dilTrt*QC(? bciwcrn moTuliiy and 
roli^on- Morality oblij^cit ni<!D to livu bouostly and «obi?Hy. 
b«€ftiiA0 such bebikviour it moat condiiriv« 1o public bap- 
pinev, luiil, coDSt^qut'Tilly, (o their own ; roli^ion, (o purtui- 
tfae mmc oouDU-, bi<ejium> ronrormublp In Ihr wilt nfllirir 
cnmtor. Monility irdiiucM Ihi^m lo embrnct^ virtue, from 
prudential conuJcrulIoiiH ; rilij^loii. from ibuttr of^Tatiludt' 
■od obedMDoe. Moraltly. thvr&fore. cnlinrly ab!itrn<:tt>d 
from religion, can liuvc t^otbin^ mvrilonouft in it ; it bt^iuF? 
but vi»doin, pnid«no<>, or f(ood economy, wbiirb. tiLo h^ultji. 
boanty, or HgIipa, nn* rnihpT ohlignlionA ronfr-rrrHl tipoii ii« 
by God, ibrtu mcTitH iu uh luwHidi^ bim; for, tbou^b vi« 
nuiy he justly puniftbird fi*r injurtJi^ our»rl*'cs, wc cnn 
clnim wt rcvnrd for ftplf-prevorriilion ; a> auicid^ dosorros 




iiKvifiw ur A 

ptin1«1im^iit dnt] infAmy, Kut n irjiii tlf^nArvrs no rownn! or 
huiinun fur (lol Lt-iiig S'"^^J ofiL ThU 1 Idktr tu 1m tb« 
meaning of &U tho«e p&9ADgcs in our AcnptnrcA, in «htcb 
worku firo r<-prc!(i>nU-d ta buvc no nu.^rtt vrilhout faitb ; thai 
U, not ttithoitl bolirvinff in hiKlArih^al f&clK, in crytcct», and 
vrtid^ but* wilhont bAin^ dono in pur^jaance of otir belief 
ht Gof), An<l in obrdii-nct^ to hh tommtiiKls. Auil nuv, 
Imvtu^ uitutionird iHiripturc, X iHimtii iim'iX obsrrving- Uml 
the chriitian is tb<T only rdit^tona or uiorni inKtitntion in tbe 
world, Ib&l CTor »€!» in a riffht li^hl, tKt'HR two mntoruil 
pointi. the oiW^enre und ihsc^nd ofvirlnf, tbntcvrr founded 
lh<f anp in tbe (iroiinction of bippinesa, thai h, in DmrerMd 
bt:■|]<*voIeN(M^ or. in t\wir Ijingn»g'«-, i^biirlty lo alJ men: iha 
othtrr, ui Ihr pii}lii&lion uf mnn. And hiH obt^dti^iicv to bift 
cro4(or, Subljme pnd mii^nilifeQt ■» va» ibr pbito^opl^ 
of the itnoierUs^ a\\ Ihuir morul nysiomi^ were dcfitimt in 
ihmw two itnporlanl flriiL-l^i. Thry v-«ro a)] built ^n (he 
lunilj foundultom; of 1br< innntn h^auty of virtuo, or Mw 
ibuHiUAtic! fialrioltMin; jijul thrJr ^renl point in view wn 
tbo coirteniptibl« reward of buniaii glorjr ; fom>d«tinnfl. 
wliicli vtTi', by no iucudb^ ubl«T to nupporl tbo nmjiniftoent 
»tniclun?A which Ui«y eructod upon thctn ; for the bv^aut^ 
of virtue, hidcpenttent of it« oflrcfts, i« unmanning non- 
RoiiflP : palriotiflni, which injurt^c mnnbind tn g^nf-rftl, for 
lh« "iiikf of i\ p^rlicnW eonnlrv, in but a more extmHivd 
selfiabnev, and reaUy crimiiuil; nud ali butnon |{lorj, bttl 
n mcnn and ridiculous dejitnior). 

"Tbr whtileart'iuf, thon, cf rr^ligion nnd mornlily, thovvb* 
j»o1 of to many thousand volume*, u, tu ftbort, no mom 
tban thii:- the snpr^nip bt^inif^ inQmlolv ((ood, ni well as 
pow«*rfiiL detirou* in diflaut h^ppitiou by uU posMiblo 
mmuiL, hn% created innumKrahle rankn and ordcn of be- 
ings, all aubj^eivit^fit to eutb other ljy proper aiibordiitatmi. 
Ono of tb«4e is ocoiipiod by inan, a c<r<^atu^e endued witk 
suoli 11 cfTrtain (l4.-f;ree of knowledge, rcHUon, and fr«ewiU, 
0* ia «ui1ahle (o hi* situation, (ind pUcf^d. for a tune, oii 
tliilt globe, Hn in a f^chool of prohnfion itiid rdiicntion. 
Ilent he liaft an opjiorluiiity giren bim of aiuproriib^ or 


<l«b«Mf iiMiiiititrfr. iniQcb a maimer, a^ to rt?Dder lumnHtf 
fil for ft rank of hi^Jicr pcrrcoijoD attd liappineaH, or to Jo- 
jpftde hiniNolf to a atu1« of ifrfiitcr imporfeotiorL atid mi- 
•cry ; jte€»»urT, tnd^d, tuvaril^ t^arrying en tlio baaJnoRii 
of ihff univenr, hut Tory g^ricToim iinti hurtii^nAonif^ to thfyKt>> 
indivUliialK who, h}' Ihcir owii mUcoiiditct, are oblige! 
1o submit to it. THo tfut of UiIb liiit bebavtaur ii doiiig 
good, lluit in, coo|>oratin{{ wilb hi« i;rra(or> oa for ax his 
nvrrow nphcro of action will permit , tn the production of 
buf»p<DCMB. And thuM Iho l»^ppin4»ifi itiid miser; of a fu1iir« 
vCiMif will be th«i jdHt reward or punishment of promoting 
or preveitliog- happineM iu ihir^. So Hrlifu-iHlly. by IhJs 
iD^aiiAp U tbc italure uf dl bumaa virtue and rioe coalrived, 
thol tbeir rcwurdi und panisbrnf^ntA arL^ woven, as it were. 
ID ibcir very cMcni<o , Ihcii immrdlak* ePWu givo ua u 
foirettuto of tboir rulurc. und liicir IruitK, iu tha prctnni life, 
urr ibf^ pnjppr sampleii of whnt I boy must iinnvoUlflhIy prcv 
duc^ in anulfifr. Wt* h^vo reasioii ^tTen ua Iu disliiiguifih 
llie^e coi»c?qurnc(;», and re^'alate our couduct ; audi leat 
that fdiould ncjt:lcct ibi posl, conscience also b appointed, 
□ft ttn iDMiBctirc bind of monitor, perpetually to remind us 
bolli of our interest arid our duty/' 

*' Si tic omma dixiisott" To tbii; accoimt of tho essenco 
i>r \\c^ nnd Tirhu\ ir is ontv npceAeary to add, tbnt the* 
coRsrqueikceH of human acttoiin being Mjnii^tiTUfiv nii«i^r- 
taio. ai>d aomelinufa r«mo1«, it ia not poftaible. iu many 
otvofif^r 0)e»t mcu, nor in Ml caiwa, for nny dt^ter- 
ibumvImI aation* viU nliimatcly prgduoe biippiueJis, and, 
tliefHion.% it wM propor that revolatioD should lay down a 
rvUt lobe lbl!owrd,iavariably,innpp[)Hiiion to ap^ieariino*"*, 
and* in e\evj change of ciri-'uiiislarices bv wliiub wtr miij be 
oerlaui to promolv tbr gcnrml ftfliclty, and bo net fre« 
from Uir daagcroa* IrmpUtioi^ afd^iiiif fvU that good ma^ 
ttMM. Boeanso it may coAily happen, ^nd, in <ilt<--ot, m ill bap- 
pin, wry frMjnanlly. that our own private bapptnfui ntay 
h% pranoted by an act ipjuriouii to other»» wbrn yiU no man 
call hft obbfpNlf by nnluri\ to pn^fnr, uUimjtlely, ibf h;ippi- 
of otbera to bi^ o«ii : tbi^rt>ron\ in llie iiutrui^tioni of 



Tlfi\ ir.W OK \ 

mfirtTtr wuidoin, it whs nocnattiry Ihat infinite power flfaould 
ndd penal cnndioiis- That every oiuu, to v'hi>m tboftD iu- 
stnictloQA shall be impartt»d, maj hnovr, ibiit be eau n^rer, 
ullmiulflj, itijurt: lkiDl^t■lf bv lii^ni^filin^ ulhrrs,ur, ultiimilrly. 
bj injiirLiii^ ittlicT^ biTJi'lll hiiiiM^Lf ; bill tb^il. bimnvrr tbcr to< 
of Ibf? ^idod mid had may l>o budilloil together in tbfr ^oa- 
fii^ rotiruhioii of our pre^out staUo, tlio hmo <i)mtl uiidoubt- 
«i|l> cumcp vhuii tiiL* mciHt virtuous will b^.' mcnl happy- 

I mu corrr, thiit llio ri*rnLiinin|r purt of thiK letter U not 
mjhaI 1o thr fifAt- Tbo mitbor hits intlppft, pn^iigifd in h 
dis[|iiifiilii)T^ Lfi stliii'h uf> ii^t'd nul woiidcr if he fails, fn 
ibe £oLuiioti of (|uei1ioim on whiclk pbihiAoplirrs Imve ttxu' 
ployed thrir lUiilitiCA Irom the corlLCftt timcx. 

" And GiMiiifl no vblK hi wtnd'rui^; DltUfA }mt," 

ilc donien, tb**f man wa* crcfiird prffrrf, bt^fuusp Ifar 
0yst(;tn r^uirrs ^nbordiiuitioo, And becauso thr power of 
lo«ini^ hie pprfrclion, of " rendering himself wi(*krd and 
tnberable, is lht> highr^iT imperfhrlUin Tnm^inublt*/' B^ 
aidvBt, (be n?fa;ubir gr.idjaiims of the %f.n\c of btin^^ rcqiiiiwl, 
aomcwhrrc, *' atiub a creature a» innn, with all hix iafinnt* 
tic* about him; uiid ibt* totiil removfti of those Tonld bo 
nitorinff hia natnri*. nnd, vlwii he bouiiitioi|>erfi*ct, ha must 
cem^ to be mnn.'' 

I hnvo alrparly spent Bom*» ooiinidprflttoni: on xhf *ivrf^ 
t^tntltiu, i.jf uhit^h. wX, T mil oliligeil to ri-nrw tlit* irimtioi). 
vhonever a new nrj^uincnt i* nmde to rent upon it ; and I 
muM, t]i(*rofor«?< nfCiuti remark, tbcit roriHeqiicncct ontittot 
bflv^ ^eater ovrliiinly than the posUilnlt- from which they 
nrc dr&wr>, aiid ihut no ipt<*OT cut be more hypolbeti^ftl 
than lbi-«, iiiid. p(*rb;ipK. i>o lu'polheii« mont Libxtinl. 

He jif^nin drrrivi'tt himself with re-^pert to ttic pcrfcc- 
lion with wbit'li mail i» huld to be originallj vcftcd. "That 
mon cnmt: perfect, that i», endncd with all possible pcrfoc- 
tiori, out of the hundK of hi» r-renlor, is o fnlno notion 
d^iv^d from thu philoxophon. — ^Th« uoiveri*al kviit^iii «- 
quired i!ubordinniion» and, cflnsflqiiriitly, t-oin partitive im* 
perfi.u lion." That *nan ii?m tvfr emUitd u.iih cU p*iA$ibf4 

rnvLK KMfuiK^, 


jffrfetiion, thut Ia, with all prrfc^^tion, of whicli llie t(l«a ui 
not contrvwlictory, or ilrAtrtiotivc of itaolf. is, iindouhtL'dl^ . 
fiUe. But il cnn hardly be culled it faUf notwn. b^^causi? 
DO nisn ^vcT tliought if. nor cau ii bt' <l(*rivi?d from the 
jthiloaapft^rt : fur, witlujut pn^tf-ndtng lo giirss whn! phJIo- 
■ft<»pbrrv hr may tiic^in, il if^ very ^ufv in nlljrrii, llial no 
pIpl^iAOphcT o>cr Aoid it. Of thoac vrbo jiow oifiinfain tlutt 
wiam wufl ooc^ prrftcf, nho i»ay vt- r; e4t»i]y b« found, let 
tii<? itQtkor inqtiirr, vhotbcr mtrit wn-t ov(^r omiiijicjcril, 
"vrb^tlM^r hf viui f^vrr omaipotrtit ; vht^tbpr he pver had 
•T<^n thi* towrr powrr of UTrhiing^^U or nrigi?lFt- Their 
>iKw»rv will MHMi iDform him, iIihI ibe Hiippuft^d perToi^fioii 
mf man f** "ot alrtolute. but n*ip<-i:live; ihtit he was pe»r* 
A-'Cl. ia « M^as4* irouMnlcDt cnouf^b with fiubDrcliaution, pe?r- 
fc^ol. oot (w cotnpUTt^d Willi diirtrtut b(>mj^. hut with him- 
>c1f in hilt preicnt degvoemc^ ; uot pvTl't*ct» lu uu uigolL 
but |M»riPc(, i« man. t 

Fruni iht^ prrfc^t-llor. what^^vcr it wuh, \i^ tbiiik<c it ne- 
rcviaur; Uml mun ibould br d«ljum-d. hn:iju,ie puiii is uc< 
«c«»irv to thr ^Ofl<l of Ihr nnivcriK? ; nnd the pain of one 
ordi^r of b^^in^K oxtrndiojr ilA ^inlulnry loflvcncr to innu- 
B>i^mbl€ oriprs nhove and belou, il vus ncc«(Leni7 that 
HMD should suffer ; hiil^ bepAiiae il a not vuilable lo ju>aJce. 
fiiiif pinri slifiuld be infTfrfed on iiiiiocent^i*, it wua neceMUTv 
tbiit mail sboiild br crt^iTiuL 

Thifl ui ^ivco QA n «4i1i«fActory ai^count of the; oritpoal of 
9til, wbtcli amoiinl^ only to thirt, Ihut God cn^otcd 
i^vhoee l^uilt he ftrveknew, jn ordor Ihul he might 
hBT6 proper objects of pain, bec-auto iht- (luin of pnrt U, 
man Lnows liow or uby, rwcr^vNUTy lo ihn felicity of 
The perihelion which umri ancn Imd. may be so e«iJy 
TcJ, that, without ntiy unu^u^il ntram of tmoginatiou* 
OftD figure ibi n*vi\uL All the duties to God or tnim, 
tliat are ne(flcck<d,wtimny fancy porfontit^d: nil ibe crimM, 
tbul aw commillod, wo max conj'nivf rorhm'ne. Man will 
tl>cn hr nvlored to hin ninrid [iprfociions ; niid inlo tthul 
bea«l can it enter, that, by ihU chaiiK*-, the uni^erval fty*-- 


b'Ri voiitit be »faaL«a, or the coadltioa offlhy order oriw 
iu^ Attorcd for tlie wor«c ? 

Hf como», in the lil^h Icttor, to polittcolr and, in tlio 
sixtli, to relif^oufi evjU, Of politioal evil, if we suppoca 
tits oripn of mor^ i^vil discorered, the accoaut ii bv no 
mi'an* ditliirult ; fiolily Ix^tn^ onl^ the conduct of immonil 
men in publiok nitntni- Tha rviU of rnch particular Lind 
of f^v<*niiikc(tt «tr« very cicarlv uud clcgauil^v duplit^«J. 
uni), from thoir accondar^ causes, vory ratioiLally deduced ; 
bat the ftrtt cause lie^ ilJlJ iu its aric>«<ut obscurity. Tber« 
IS, bi Ma Itftu-r, oothinf; ntw, nor uiiy thing emiut^nlly in- 
etructivQ; onr of bin pmctioid doditnljont, thiit " from ^o- 
verment^ cvtU cannoC he rrudicMtcd, 4iiul iheir €XCf*M only 
am be prevented." has beeu alivayA allowed: ibf* qne^ 
tior), upcii vbkib all diAni'iMioii ari^te*. ia, wbcit tbut excc^M 
bcff^JiUi tti Pfhui point mon ahah ce:u« to bc^ar. and attempt 
to remedy. 

Another of hiH pret'epl^t, ihniigb nut n«^w, well drvnrvrt 
to ho tmnscribcd, bccuukc it ctuuiot be too froijueiitlj^ im* 

" Whiii hoM bere bc«n atiid of tlieir imperfections uad 
abvio-i, U, by no meanjt, intended aft a dH'eneo of tbem: 
OT^ry wit4) mnn oaffhi to nrdrcss ihom to tbo utmost of hia 
poiv«tr; whirh car be f^tTect^ by nrip mnlhod only, that 
h, by u reformutivn of iiiuriiieni -. fur, aa all polilLcHl pvUh 
derive ibeir orij^iaal from ntural, tbene ctta never be re- 
movrd. until those are first nmctidf^d- lie. tht^refort.^ wbo 
strictly udbercs to virtue und Jiobrioiy m hiti conduct, niid 
Miforc^» them by bin exuuplc, does moro real MrrTico to m 
»ta(e, tbaiii he who diiplacei a minUti^r, or dethrones n ty- 
rant : thin givi** but a ti-mpnrary rHi^tf, but that e\1«*rmi.* 
oatctf the «an»o of ihc diM-Aae. No immomi luau, then, 
oao pouibly be a true patnot ; and all Ihuru- wbu profeu 
OUtnfCMiua iteul for Ibi? liLll^rty and prtHpt-rity ol their 
country, and, ut tbe sam^ time, itifrinf^e h^r lawa, alTront 
ber religion, and d(?b8iich her people, ari> but deKfM<;nb1e 
qunck«> hv fnind or ignorttnee increiwing the tliKord^^m 
ibey preteud to remedy.*' 

rniB HKijcmr. 


Of religion he bu smd ncihmg but what be hM leomoif, 
or tti^t have learned, troiti 1W divitiiMi ; that it in nol uni- 
ra«8i> bcc4UH« it must be receiTcd upon conviction, and 
•ncc^ttftively received by ifaote whom rnnviction reached ; 
Uijkt ilM «<vidtfrK7«e>t and fUiicltoii^ ure not irre^lfriUil^. W 
couAc il wiu iiilrtidcil to tikdtjce, n^t to tompel; and tlmt 
it u ob»curc, bi' «i^ wont faouUivs lu ccimpu-hcud it- 
What he mcuDH by bis tissertioo, that il wunU polioyt I do 
not vnll vndcrELmd ; he does not mean 1o denv, tb^t a 
good cJmAlinn will h« a ^od gnrernour, or i\ good «uh- 
J4*cL; Hihl he bua WlWe jutttljr obtiHMril. llml ibn guoi 
tnftii only 13 a |fatrt[>t- 

K«bf^uo bua b(*cn, ho ftay», corrupted by the wicbodocan 
ef (bo«o to whom it vnu ccmmuuicatttd, and ha:i loMt piut 
of fti efficacy, by iu conooxJon WJib temporal interevt Ktd 
IwinAii pn«iti(in. 

He jiuUy observes, thai iVom dl thia do Goiiduatuii uao 
bo diawD a^nat the divioc ^rigiual of chruiliiuiLtyp sxncta 
the ubjectioDti arUo not from the nulurL- ol' the reveUilion, 
but of hou to whom it it cotnmumcutud- 

All tbift U knowD^ and all thifl h irut.* ^ btil why. we hiivo 
pot jfil cJJK'oviTrd^ Our uLiihor, if F LitidrrtLbiiid him righr, 
punucft \hts nrgumcDt (biu: iko rcligioD of uiun prudiu^es 
be^aoM the morality of amu la fmpcrfcrcl; hia luo- 
U imperfect, thut Ut) may hu juttty u dubjoot of puu- 
icbveut; be U macte ,tubj«ol to puuitthni«uir becauje lli« 
|>aiQ of |>art u necemarv 1o the faappiue^is of the whole - 
pain iji ti«:i7:uiiry lo ha|iptiiesji, tu> tiwtU\ ctm luU wliv, ur 

Tbu4i after haviit^ clambered, with iireal labour, from 
4)00 ilop of argumoaUtiou lo MHithvT, lu^lcud of u^itif^ 
into the bgbl of bikouleUffa, we ora ilevolveil b^-k into 
dark iffuorouce ; Aud ul! our ejforl endi in belief, tbat for 
Umi (!vi]]i of lifi^ tJiirr in sonii- goi^d re^iiAuiu 4iid in conf**!- 
■Ml, tlkal the reason cannot be found. This is ttU tkit has 
boen produco<i by ihe revival of UbrrsippUR « iintrautublc- 
tieaa of matter, und the Arubiuu Acuie of ezistoacc. A 
tjitMit baa been rotitid, whicb is t*> ready to fall lo pieces 


bf itself, that do great praise can be deiived from its dc- 
fltruction^ To object, is always easy, and, it has been well 
bbaerved by a late writer, that *' the baud which cannot 
build a hovel, may demolish a temple'-" 


or TI1K 



rioB iTi nun- irsi ; 

la which the moft coiuLderahLe jnpen commuDic&led to ihe lociclj, whicK 
have, hitherto, noi heen pubLiBh«d, atp !n»rttd, in their propev order, >■ 
a Bupplem«Tit to ihp Philo»phicJil Truxaacll'>ii4. By 'rhomaq Birch, D. D, 
■«rttarj bi ihe Royal wcielj, 2 rolt. iio. 

This book might, more properly, have been entitled bj 
the author, a diary than a history, as it proceeds regularly 
from day to day, so minutely, as to number over the mem- 
bers present at each committee, and so slowly, that two 
lai^ volumes contain only the transactions of the eleven 
first years from the institution of the society. 

I am, yet, far from iTitendiDg* to represent this work as 
useless- Many particularities are of importance to one 
man, though they appear trifling to another; and it is al- 
ways more safe to admit copiousness, than to affect bre- 
vity. Many informations will be afforded by this book to 
the biographer. I know not where else it can be found, 
but here, and in Ward, that Cowley was doctor In physick- 
And, whenever any other institution, of the same kind, 
shall be attempted, the eiiact relation of the progress of 
the Royal society may furnish precedents. 

These volumes consist of an exdct journal of the society ; 
of some papers delivered to them, which, though registered 
and preserved, had been never printed; and of short mo- 

■ Ntw Practice of Phyiick. 

moin of tlir more t*miiirnl inc?niberM, iowfrt^ Rt the end 
ot'tLtr ye^ iu vhich r^cU dir^d. 

Thit oriptnul of tli« society in placed cutUct tn tlii« hu- 
toiT than in thut of Dr- fiprul. Tlieodort? lliiah, a (kcmion 
of fho PulalitiutP, in liU5> propoH^d, (o »Dznc? inquibirivv 
and Immrd mrn. ii wrt*k1y mi-rling, for ih<» cultivatioa of 
natural kiiowlv'^gi?- The lirKl iisM>ctales vhu^e iinm<^< 
otigbt. tureh. to be pjrstrveii. were Dr. Wilkinii, Dr 
WMlb, Dr. UodUard, Dr. Eut, Or, GlUson, Dr. Mirret. 
Mr. FoiCcr vf Grttshimi, nad Mr. Huuk. £iomolimc nfter- 
wardE, Wilkin*, Wullis, and Goddun). being- n'Riovid (o 
Oxford^ ciLrried on thp »nme d€«i^ ihet^ by %{aU-d 
in4'etifif^. lEiid »dti|>le(l irifi* itieir iiacjely Dr. Ward, Dr. 
n«ib«rM, Dr, Prity, und Dr- WUIui. 

file OxJbrd wcictj comiug (f> I»ndon* in 1(^, JoWd 

tbcir fri^udti, and luigmcntcd IliL-tr uumbcr. und» for lomc 

time, met in Gr«bliam collvf^. After tin* realomtton, tkcir 

iflinbcT «tti again incTr^uic^d, and an Ui»28tbof Novcntbor, 

^IGQOt n fwlrcrl pnrty hnpppning to rrlin; for (xinvrrvEiCion, 

to Mr. Rooke'4 n|)4rlmr[il iti (iR-AbHin rnll<*jj^f*, formed ibi* 

[liriil pUu of h ri-gjfar ?iO('icty. Hcrt Dr Sprat's bijilory 

flK-giiUt and. 1bcrl!^ort^ from ibU period, the prncrcdin^:< 

im veil known \ 


fir thi 


I* nv»MOUrra»>Liti» r««ii fii»4M(Ci ■« m* u^airTov. 

This appear* to be one of ibft bookv, which will long do 
lour 10 ibe pre**-!!! ngf*. Il has beer, hy tomr Trmarkt-r, 
'ed. ibul jjo matt t'trr i^rew immorUl by a IrdnalAlion ; 
id. Bsdoiibtcdly, Iranilntionn into tbe pro»c of a living' 
laoglMigcaiiiftbc Uidujitdc,whE^ncvortb(?l(iii;;t]af;ocbQU|EeSp 


* Fmni till Ut9ttrf Mji[Uinv. LTftfi. 


l>ecfttt4o xho mmivr btfinj^ olway* lo be fonnd id the orisi- 
tM^ conlribulp* nf>thin^ to \he jyreavrvsitiim of tLe fom 
«LiperlTidn^.firi by thi- tnmdLilor, But »iir1i rertioa* niaj 
liuiL lull;;, liiuu^U Llicy caii bcarcel)^ last aliiVjavH; And thpr« 
w fr4i»nn ti> brlirvp thai UiLv will |;toh in rv?|>u(HlioD, while 
iliC Ed^IIjsIi ton|[n<: rontinucft in iU present atttde. 

The g^roftt diUiculty cf u tranaUttor is to preserve the 
cfttive furm of bia lim^uafre, &n<l the uitcoiuitniLnud manner 
nf ttti rirt^iDiLj writiT^ 'That Hr. Hampton ^cvmi to hare 
iitlaini^d, in u il^iiin^^i^ <>l' whirii thrrr urc iVw nnmplfkaL 
HiH buuk hitit till* (ljf;riily (if nutiitiiily, mid llir eai^v flow of 
a raodrni cumtioAJtion. 

It were, pcrhupji, to be desired, that ho hod UltJAtTOtccU 
vfiih notes, an author wbi<?h muM have many «iinicultie« to 
un Eiii^litih readier, and, pnrtjcidsjly, thai be hnd eifdaint^d 
the ani'it^iit Lirlof war: but thes« omiMioDs may be v«aitjr 
fliippljod, by mi iufciiour liaxid^ froui the unlkjiiarirK and 

To utite omtAflkons, where there i$ to much perfurined, 
weubl be ievidieuti, end to coomiond iei uuueooAMry* where 
the cXFcnerce ol'tbr work may hv muro i.<at(ily and i-ffec- 
luelEy fhown, by i^xhibiling h kpt-'cimc^n '. 



TiMK Tol«iao, tbotigh cnly one namo rippt^urt upon thr 
first pa^, hni been produced by Ibt* contribution of rounj 
hands, and |)nui4*il by the enrourxf^mnnl of n tinmpronA 
iiubM--riptmn, both vthirh favniin %fpm to h^ dpsen4»d by 
iImt modesty Biid piety of ber oit w]ii»n tb*^v were besiuivfrtl. 
The Authors oC the esas^y^ in prove seem, ^ncnlly. to 
baveimitdled.or Ificdtoimitnle, the copionsneM end luxu- 

t Pidih lit LllBrtv^ Ml^clXM, lli/i. 




of Mm. R43v<t; tliin, liovrcvcr, is not oil thvit 

tbej hi«T^ labniirod to add to her bnj^btn^sM of 

igery. Ler pnriiy of npntiin^ikti. The |>o*?tt havi* hud 

r. Watit* b*"forc ihtfir rjen, u writer v/Iuk if in* utooH nnl 
thf' iir»l cbiK^ of fl;*?fi]ii3i, cpinjirn Milfoil ihiiT ilrfrol^ by a 
rtmdy ftppli<«tioii ef lai< powers <o tbo promotion of ]»ieij. 
ThotttTempt 1o employ llio orrinm^uU of romuiit:^? in ibr 
dvcoratioD of ToNfTion vas, I Ihiitk, (ir>t mafJv by Mr. 
Boylo'f ^lumrdom ijfThrudoni; but IlcytF'4 philoHoj^hicnl 
«liid>o8 did lint ditov him ijznf^ for ibe cullivRlioD of styl^, 
mttd lJi0 com|i1utioii uf tim grt^ut tlfrugii waa reserved for 
Uia. Bovt. Dr, WhUk wan our of llie Hrnt wliu laxi^ht 
tiw dwentcri to write nad ^pvuk like otiu^r men, by 
•bo*ri»ff tbrnir ihiit olo^ncc miffht coniiKt with piety. They 
woold huve lioLb dor<* hoiiouT Id u brlCi^r Rucii^ty, for fhoy 
bad that cbanty whioh migbl. vr^ll mfike iheir faihng« for* 
gulltfo, nnd with «hirb the wfavle i:lubtiuik world might 
vbh for oommiuiion. Tbtry wtre pxnv from utl Uir be- 
ruiet of ftu n^c", to vhich cTrry opinion is bocomt- u fa- 
rVOoritt*. that tL« iiaivorAnl church hax, hithorlOr dctofilcd. 

This praitfe tbt> f-^neral interest of m^iolLiijd rt-quires 
to be givi'o to vritert »bo please, and do not corrupt, vbo 
^trsct, mid do not vrcrary. But Lo thrm ult biTmAn eiilo- 
gtei we VftlQ. whom. 1 bolicvr appUudc^i by an^oU and 
BHBbered witb tlie jUlC^ 

■ tnm tlta Lfitru^ AId^ilpp. ITM. — Thrr* ir* nibflr ■vii'Hk of bot^i^ liy 
Dr«JbtkVBb, lA thi* m>fuint> t>iil4 la gsbon]^ vary ■hurt, uiJ ivAtiatLnif 
chScdr uf* k* tiiLriHliiclnrT imHrl*, and aa viln<(. TUl ^d Mn- lUr- 
k^»Ui*uIliA(ci nA>be urnumti^ «udia*lii^ iDWcKian. frun vLt aubr« uf 

r, WklU. 



Iota ibe evidence produced by (be euls of Mobav ttnd Mobtciv a^aioit 


With ao eiamlDatioD of ibc i«v«reDd Dr. Rob«rt»ii'i Dissertation, and Mr. 
Hume'fl KiBtorj. with retpect to tbat cvldepce "- 

Wb live in an age, in which there b much talk of inde- 
pendence, of private jud^ent, of liberty of thought, and 
liberty of press- Our clamorous praises of liberty raffi- 
ciently prove that we enjoy it; and if, by liberty, nothing 
else be meant^ than security from the persecnticms of 
power, it is so fully possessed by us, that little more is to 
be desired, except that one should talk of it less, and use 
it better- 
But a social being can scarcely rise to complete inde- 
pendence ; he that has any wants, which others can sup- 
ply, must study the gratification of them, whose assistance 
he expects; this is equally true, whether his wants be 
wants of nature, or of vanity. The writers of the present^ 
time are uot always candidates for preferment, nor often 
the hirelings of a patron- They profess to serve no in- 
terest, and speak wi(h loud contempt of sycophants and 

There is, however, a power, from whose influence nei- 
ther they, nor their predecessors, have ever been free. 
Those, who have set greatness at defiance, have yet been 
the slaves of fashion- When an opinion has once become 
popular, very few are willing to oppose it- Idleness is 
more willing to credit than inquire; cowardice is afraid 
of controversy, and vanity of answer ; aod he tbat writes 

* WrillBD bj Mr. Tjller, of Edinbnrgb. 

^ PrinEfd in the GcDtltmaa's Ma^aiinr, OclobeTt 1700. 



It hv now hi}(^i ftuluoiuibk, fur near iiulf a ccDlur^y, to 
dcfttmc «nd vilify ibt* boud^ vf Seu;U'1, urid lij cMilt nod 
mu^itify tb« ?vigii of EJiubi^U). Tlic Siti«ru Jiavo found 
lev apolof^frtt. for llie (kad c^innol pn} for pnua^; and 
who will, nilhuijt reujiril, oppow lite tide oC iiupuUirit}' ! 
jrt tlirrr ttmtiiujih. Mill, aniori^ tt*. not vhoTly rKliiigLiislinl, 
a ztjI fui truth, a doi>lrc of CBtdblisbiu^ lighl, iq i^pijutu- 
Cion to fikflhiuri. The author, whotto work Ih now Luforc 
u*. kttx ollrmpttid ■ vindicatioD of Mary of Scotland, 
whoM? pome hoB, for vomo VL^ur^. Wot) tt^^ntTiillj! r«r«igoo<l 
10 inlaniy, snd vht> ban brr'Ti mntidrri^d, u« thi? luiird^rer 
of h*^r btubauid. 4nd L^ondeniiifd by heir own If^ltHft. 

Of thr-H" Irllt-r^. Ihr iiiithor of thii viiidii-Mlion rorjfrrap* 
tiMT tuiporlkiEu:^^ la bt? tiijL'b, [Jjftt, " if iht^y \n^ ^^iiujjie. thv 
ijuf^en wft» ^iliy ; and. if ihfy h apurioiis. ah<^ wa.i uino- 
ccnL" Uf! hOM, therefore, tiudertaken to prote Ihcm 9<pu- 
nooi, and divUU^d his troatiec into 9i\ paxU^ 

Id ihie ini i« conl^ified tho history of the letters from 
ibi'ir dteorerr bj ih^? *!url of Morion. th<?ir Win^ pro- 
diuml N^init r^urcrn Mitrv, ^ind Ihpir lit^iprnl iipppunm^^es 
in England, bvfore ifttccn Ciizabclh auil her i^oniuiiraiuiii^rA. 
unlit they wrre finally delivered hunk a^ani to the earl of 


Tho aecond contaijis n abort abaErnct of Mr- GoodnTI's 
n^pimentA for proviog the letlon to be A|>urioua and forged ; 
•■d of Dr. R<^>nrtion and Mr. Huxue'^ objecitoiu, by waj 
ai mawor to Mr. nondnll. wrtb cTiltcal nb^trrvufiniii^ rin 
ihefte auibor*. 

Tlie llird contains au t^xaininalion of the ju'gumcntji of 
Dr. Roberbon und Mr Hume, in Kuppori of the autben^ 

Th« foiulb contains an L'xaoiiruktion of llie confeuirn of 
MicholM Htibext.eonunonly billed Frtnt;h Paria, with oh- 
M>r%utiociii, thowin^ ihr wmr to hr n ftir^ery. 

The lil\J] cMtiuitis H nliort ri't-upittdn1io», ot Hiimmary, of 
llie argmoeiiti on both iide« of the qimtion. 


The last i& an historical collectioD of the direct or positive 
evideoce still od record, tending to show what part tbe 
earls of Murray Hind Morton, aod secretary Lethington, 
had in the murder of tbe lord Darnley. 

The author apologizes for the length of this book, bj 
obserring, that it necessarily coraprises a great number of 
particulars, which coiitd not easily be contracted : the same 
plea may be made for the imperfection of oar extract, 
which will naturally fall below the force of the book, be- 
cause we can only select parts of that evidence, which 
owes its strength to its concatenatioD, and which will be 
weakened, whenever it is disjoined. 

The account of the seizure of these controverted Letten 
is thus given by the queen's enemies, 

" That in the castell of Edinburgh, thair was left be the 
erie of Bothwed, before his fleeing away, and was send 
for be ane George DalgW^hf his servand, who was taken 
be the erIe of Mortoun, ane small gylt coiTer, not fully aue 
fufe lapg, garnisht in sindrie places with the romao letter 
F. under ane king's crowne; wharinwere certane lelteria 
and writings weel knawin, and be aithis to be affimtit U> 
liave been written with the quene of Scottis awn hand to 
the erle.'' 

The papers in the box were said to be eight letters, m 
French, some love-sonnets in French also, and a promise 
of marriage by the queen to BothwelL 

To the reality of these letters our author makes &ome 
considerable objections, from the nature of things; bat^as 
such arguments do not always convince, we will pass to 
the evidence of facts. 

On June 15, 1567, the queen delivered iierself to Hor- 
ton, and his party, who imprisoned her. 

June 20, 1567, Dalgleish was seized, and, six days after, 
was examined by Morton; his examination is still extant, 
and there is no mention of this fatal box. 

Dec. 4, 1567, Murray's secret council published an act, 
in which is the first mention of these letters, and in which 
they are said to be usritlen and suhscrivtt with her avm 



fumd. Tc'o dtijn after, Murruy's firvl purliainciit met, mad 
pOMcd an a<:t, id nbich they mcnUon prfvir fcttern v^rit' 
tm kitifilu [wholly] ifith t\fr airin hind, Tlie ililT^fefio^ 
between trntltn ^ati /tithncrihfd. Anil wfiofJy viritttn, ^ive% 
tht^ UEiliior jii»i rroKoii to ■ij*]j**rf. fir*(, rt Air^^ry, and then 
fivanvtion oftW TorKt^ry. It In, inrliW, >rry rrmurknhlo^ 
thai tikC iir»t accoittit .'U»erU marc than the AecoucJ, Ihvu^Jj 
tlio Mcoml coiitaiina ull the truth ; t'ur tlie Lcttrrti, wht^tlirr 
tn-iVim by tbi^ qix^en or not, wc^r^^ not ^ubscnbrd. Had 
Ikca ft«»coild DCfount difT'ETed from the finl only by nonie- 
lkiiBf( <uld«>d, the fintl mi^^ht have oohtuined truth, tlioti^b 
not ftll llie truth ; but hh Ihf Nbruiid rorr»<G(ft (ht< fintl 
hy dimimition, ttiu Jir^jt r.nnnot lir rlrun^d from fAt^n- 

In Octobrr. 1^18, \\%t^*iv Lvlkr^ vor^ ihowii at York 1o 
Elijeubfrtb'ji cToinmiiuionflrH, by tfao Ei|;oiit^ of Mtirruy, but 
iKl in Ihrir publick character uh commiiULoiicre, but by way 
iit |>n\ai4f infonnntioi). nml w^^ro not^ llif^rofoiv. rxiwArd to 
Mary's commJHaiorK'ni- Hur^^ hourrver. Iit^ariiig tJuil ?(orio 
leiien w«r0 iulcndixl Ui Ue pnxlucf^d ^igaiiiNl bf^r, directed 
Jrt oomoiiitnoncn to rtquirr tbctn for bcr iri^]irrtjtin. und, 
ta ihfi mcttn time, to ilrclnrc thcin/a/wr ctiKt firignftl, forced 
oa4 inrtnU^t ohwr^'ms, ihat iUl'tv wvn* many thai could 
rounlerfuit hi-r hfind, 

Ti> cAimlc-rfHt a nnmr- U rji«y, to counlc^rfoit » bmd. 
tkroiigh cjgbl li-itcrf v<*ry diHloidi. Iliit it dixf)^ not appi^nr 
ikit ibe luttt^ra wvtv e^vj xluiwii lo thoHt' who would dt'Mri^ 
tfl d«tcx:( liiem ; and. to ibc FnglUh commiK^nnicni. n nido 
ami rcmolo imilntion might be Aulficicnt, »iuco they vorc 
not Abovrn tts judicuil ]>ruofH; end why lb<*y wtro not 
■bovn as proofi, no oth<-r n^iuon cmi bi< f^ivrn. that] tb^y 
mn^liuTi* ih<*D brenviTcnmmoi), nndthntc-xamiikntiiin would 
lunrr drtrrtinl iho forf^'ry. 
Tliew l«Uc<r!i, tliua titnoruuHly uiid KUAfiJuiouAly ccmmu- 
y Micated. Wire nil the rvidrnc*^ n^iunnt Muiy -, for tlie «icr- 
I raatt of Bothwclt. excepted for tbc niurdiT of the kioff? 
P ftcquitied tho quooi), at Ibe hour <rf (loath. Tb<*so kitorv 
t ii«i* 10 Decea&ary l*> Miin-^tv. that be allege* ihem, an tlie 



reason of the queen's imprison oi en (, though he imprisoned 
her on the 16th, and pretended not to have intercepted 
the letters before the SOth of June. 

Of theae letters^ on which the fate of princes and kin^ 
doms was suspended, the authority should have been pat 
out of doubt ; yet that such letters were ever found, thera 
is no witness but Morton who accused the queen, and 
Crawfurd, a dependent on Lennox, another of her ae- 
cuserSi Dalgieish, the baarer, was hanged without any 
interrogatories concerning them; and Hulet, meDtioned 
in them, though then in prison, was never called to an* 
thenticate them, nor was his confession produced a^ainat 
Mary, till death had left him no power to disown it< 

Elizabeth, indeed, was easily satiated ; she declared her- 
self ready to receive the proofs against Mary, and abso- 
lutely refused Mary the liberty of confronting her accnsersr 
and making her defence. Before such a judge, a vei^r 
little proof would be sufRcient- She gave (he accufieTV of 
Mary leave to go to Scotland, and the box and letters 
were seen no more- They have been since Tost, and the 
discovery, which compat^on of writing might have made, 
is now no longer possible. Hume has, however, endea- 
voured to palliate the conduct of Elizabeth, but ** his ao 
count," says our author, *' is contradicted, almost in every 
sentence, by the records, which, it appears, he has himseU' 

In the next part, the authenticity of the letters is ex- 
amined ; and it seems to be proved, beyond contradiction, 
that the French letters, supposed to have been written by 
Mary, are translated from the Scotch copy, and, if origi- 
nals, which it was so much the interest of such numbers to 
preserve, are wantiug, it is much more likely that (hey 
never existed, than that they have been lost. 

The arguments used by Dr. Robertson, to prove the 
genuineness of the letters, are next examined. Robert- 
son makes use, principally, of what he calls the intemal 
tvidence, which, amounting, at most, to conjecture, is op- 
posed by conjecture equally probable* 



Td «fxiuiiimi)g the confirM^iciii of NkhoUh ITiitri^rt, or 
Frtnrb Paris HjU ue« Apubj^tAt uf M^iv ?<eifmrf lu ^tini 
grovnJ up<>u licr accuser. P&riis Irt iDi.-iiUi:fiivc)< in tfit? lut- 
(en*. as Ibe Iwurer ol'lbem to i1oth^\ctl; wlitm IhC test of 
Botiiveltf «en'tiiiU wrr« c^xcculnd, i^lriiring Iho <jiiCH'n 
ui tbo hnl noni^nl, Pvib, iri8te<ad of suAeruig hi» iriol. 
vitb die rejtt. At Edinbiirj^li, ub» eonvt^yv^d lu ^iL AiidrewV 
wl<en- Hiirmt wutt uWli^lc- ; jiiil intrt a iliiiig'r*ijr] of Mur- 
r^'s cit&drl « oad. Iwo yarn uAcr> contlcmi^d by Mumij' 
biai»r-)fi Dol>odv Ldcw hew. Scv«nJ monlik» uftcr bis 
death, a cotif^ssiuii lo bU Dumt-. without the n^Kiilur tcnti- 
lic»Uo«i«» ft-M MiiH CO Cecil, at wbut exact time, nobody 
am tdl. 

Of Ibis confrfitauii, Lttfrtliv liinboji of R<mh, <i|hii«I^ dr'iiii>i] 
ibiQ ^nuiui-iiFAa, ill a buok pfiiilvd At Luiiilun, uud lup- 
prrannl by EJiubctb; uid fln«>tlMr hbtoriun of that tinio 
declares, that Paris tlt«d wUlioat auj- conl'c^JE^ou ; ami thr 
^onfeiaion ibirlf « aa Dovor shown to Mflrji ot to Mary'a 
comai~LMii>n«>n. Th«< nuthor unaJEc^a ibte reOectiou : 

*■ From ibe viojtiil pr^'KLmptJuilK (hut ariM? from tln^ii 
CttTTfiaK tbri ponr iguifnml Mrangrr fifim Fdiiihurgh, Uu' 
ordinary tc-al of justice; tlit^ir Li.'i^|jir>K lilui liici from ull 
tbo viorld, ill II irmote dufifteriD, aTiii ii^t productii^ fiini, 
with thrir oUi<^r ci-idcpcr«, so m lie oiigiU hare bc<.Hi puh- 
Uckly cjuoationod ; ll«> pofiitivo and dirrct tcttiiuoiiv of tljt> 
autbor of Cmirfurd'A aiiiuu9crij>l. then living, trnd on tb<? 
■pnt at the tim^*; with ih« publicl iidirmauon ttf thn }jii]ui)j 
of Boat, at Ibr- iiaic of PamH ilrutb. lliut hv !i^ viadi- 
oated llio qaoni with his dyit^ brt-itth; tbc l>«UKitiour of 
kJlurniT, Morioo, Utic-liaJiaQt and vita of Hnyr the at- 
^bihsr of Ibis proteuJcU confcMioii, on that oci^aaion ; ihrir 
claao aftd reaorved liWKt-. ut ih^ tinii; vhun they miut 
baia bad (bin coiifv»ii>n of FaHe iu iht-^ir puci^t L and 
iboir |inbliiihiti^ rvrry othrr cin^iinisLuiCf' thut <'(iuld tejid 
to blackoii the t|atTou, auil yut uimuicij,' Ibis GonfojiiJon, the 
only din-ct Cfideoce of ber nupprjM^d ^uili; all tbl^ dtilj 
aad tliJipua^jouatirlT L*>oiittdcrcd, 1 think, one niiiy sadaly 
AMctode, titat it wtiA jiHlK^^tl >^*>^ fi* <<* cx^iom*, so «eoii, tu 



ligfit tht« plftre of cvu1<«[U'e a^ii»L the rjuof^n: wliich a 
tluud of vfitiitrsHd^t, livLiij^, anJ |>rt^»riit at l\u'i>'» vit;(;ii< 
tiori. would, miTelv, Imvc glwu dear teatunony aguiosl. na 
II notorii^us iinpostuir," 

Mr. lliimo^inJccd.obfierveA:*' It is in vurn, n( pr«««Bl» 
to sB^b for im[>robAbililieii in Nicholas Hiihert's c1yinj|r eon- 
festMiuii, iirid Uy muf^txKy fht* >imulfest diffiriillii^H iiitn u mii- 
trwliciion. It wui ri<rriiiri]y -i rvf^ular juJti^bl pii|mr. ^'ivrii 
ID rrgnlnrly iind judicially, and oLigbt 1o have bcpo cad- 
vftMcJ at the lime, if the pi^r^onn, whom h <ii>iicnTnc<l, had 
bocu as8iiToU of ihetT Umocenco" To which our oulbor 
makof u reply, which cnmiot be tiliorleDed wilLoul wealeo- 

" U|Xin whrtl dops thh niilhor grniind lim flent«nc0 ? 
U|mii twci \eTy plain rcuHoii^, i]tyi, Umf the limifnnion 
wnN n juclicinl one, that if, tukru iu prrmr'iicr. or by iintho- 
rity ol' n Jiid^r. And Aocondly. Ihat il wiia ir^ilnrly nnd 
jndicinlly p^^" ■" ; ihnt must bo imJorstood dtiriof iho 
tjm« of the coufereno^s before ^jueen Eli£hih<?1}i nad faer 
oounoil, IU prej(«iiCf* of Mury's corniuissimjert; Ai which 
limn 4hr oMgUt tn hiivr n^mvrtniril it," »iyi onr (luthnr, " tf 
Aie ktit!w hfr ifini>i;eiit«'. 

'^ Thut it w»a itol u jtidtctui confession, lei <^vidc?nt: the 
pjipcr it^cEf (IncH not itvat oiiy 9uch ninrk ; nor iloc* it 
mention, thnl it wi» taken in |>resenco of any |wr*on, «r by 
uuy uvithority xvhatsoever; ntid, by oooipnrinjf it with lli« 
jttdiciH! i-xutiiinailoui of D^ilf^lf-i^h, U^iy. aikI Hepburn, ii 
lit nppctrrnt, th^it it iw deKiilur^ ofvxrry foritiality, rt^ijtiisdtr 
in It ju^licivil evidence. In what dark corner^ ihnn, Uii« 
strange produelioii wn» ^iicrolcd* our author may cndco- 
rotirto liud out, if ho can* 

" As to hi* second lUM'rtion, that it vtut roRiilarly and 
judiuiaily given in, nod, thfrn'forcf, oa^ht to have biHMi 
cuDVOEipJ, by Mary during iho nonfereii<!r«; W(? hnvi? id- 
reddy nprti, ihut Ihi^i, likffwiii?, in nut fact ; Ihe coufcreocca 
bmkt* lip in Tehrujiry, lOfl!): NicholfiN IluU-rt won aol 
huaK^d till Auguf»t thercAfter, and hi* d>i»^ conlV»ion, aa 
Mr. Hume <uiU it, i* only dated ihc lOlh of thai aionlb. 


TVTiiRft-** BNJitlBV, 


ITrtw^fhm, ran (hi* g«>fi(lpmFiii ^wvely Ml «». ihat \}i'm 
confe^jion mn>i judirfuli^ >pvoii in, ;ii>il oii^bt to liiive bi?t!D. 
ul tlwt rt^fj timtt, cujivjuwil by 4|itiH<n Mitrj iinrl hrr 4*iiin- 
RtuwioiKT* ^' Sucfi positive D»AcrtloDS. A|>pJkrL-iitl)r cuntrary 
to foci, tttc utiwortliy iLi' character vf uji hialonuu. uuil 
uAt. vcrj jtiatly, reader ion decUion, with respect to *.-^\- 
d«iK-o» ofji bi^hor riu(iirf<, v^fr; duk^ouH. In anxwcr^ tlic*!^, 
to 3Jr. Hume: At ihr rjue<?n*« nccuKCirfl did doI choiMi? ti> 
pmduc«* ihifl Tuvid^nnl wirne^s, PArlt, whom ih^y hnd idivr 
and in tlif ii Luiid>i. tmr iiny dt!di]r4li(>ri cir cauftjrm'uui. Truin 
him, ul the triijcdl mid propi-r tiim^ f<jr hnvin^ i( ruiivaj^ud 
by the quocn, I appKhcod onr nutLor's coDcLanon may 
fait^y bo used nKninst him«olf ; thet it b in viun, &t pr<-ECfi% 
to Mipport iho im^t rob abilities and ab§iirditie» in a eonfrK- 
tloo, teken in n claadeiiiue vnv. nohmly kuowa how, snd 
pruductfd, ull<-r PitrU'i dratb, by n»h»dy kiinwv whuni, 
and, frofli cvrry n|>prfirAJkor. dfTHlilolt.' uf i^vcry formnlityp 
rcjuiiatc nnil common to such sort of ctidftico : for thcso 
re^KHUj I am nndor no sort of bcaitaticn 1o jpto eonlcDoc 
ii];;aiitt(t Xi4:holui( Uul>ert'a lTonf(-^»oh, u» u i:ro»A imposture 
and forg^fv," 

iTif slittr of tJip (**idrn*^f relnlJng To thr Irfl^^r* i» 

Muftuii alTirind* lluil ibrj wi^rr Ijtkrn ui Uic? hautbi of 
IXtl^lfub. The CMUnination of ]>jilp^kiAh is tititt o^tunt. 
mud ho nppCATS DOVer 1o b»%v bc<?n on(?c itttvrro^at(>d eoii- 
r«miiif; Ui« lt>tii'M. 

Morton and Murray nflinii, Eliui lhi>y u'oto wrillnn h^' ibr 
c|nc-rii'» b;iiid ; tht'y wrrv r.nfrfidly i'unrfaltd iVimi Mary 
nod brr commiMioBere, nod WL?ri? jitfvr rt)lluli;d by one 
mtto, wbo could deftiro to dUproxi* ihcai. 

S<fv«rfl1 of Ihc inc^idutitH mcniionvd in iho Icttors nto 
«0<lfifKied hy the oath ul'Cmwrurd, one of I^uhox'b do- 
fondaitU, EUkl »ORW of tbo incidents nn? no mitkUt«, n« thai 
ibry m«!d «c«r<^j( bo thonflfbl on hy n forpir, CnntTurdV 
lOttlknutiy i.i uu< vithoul kiivpiiwi. Wboi'vt'f prjicliAr* 
lorfvry, codvmour^ (o makv Injib Ibi' icbidt' of fali^c-tiood* 



Ota pHjice'* life vcn minute iiiriilenU nrt^ known ; and if 
iui> ere lou slight to be recnarkedp tbej ntay l>c MkftfL^ 
fei«:t)c<d< for thov t^re. likewise, too slight ti> be iontradicted. 
But there axe still nionf reasons Icr dvubtiiis' <fio (iri-nulnfs 
OfTM of tbrsr It^ttcn, Tbcv had no duU' ol' linic or plnrc, 
no %^ti\t no (lireclioir no «ufkeTAchpliOD- 

Thr onlv evidt^iioes ibul rould prove thr^ir autbfiiticJIy 

VBA Mev«r qucatioiiud al^oul thcni ; Pnri« w&» ncrcr pub- 
UcUy tried* tbouf^b be va.i kepi uUvc ibrougb ihc tUDc of 
tb« i-ont'erdTicc. 

Tim f-KiTvanU of BothwcU, vho wert put to doMh for lUo 
king* murder^ eknred Marir with ihcir hi»t v-nrd*. 

Th« L«tten wen* tirst dvd^trt-d to \w i^iil>MrnbiHl. «oi] 
wtre tiieji iiriKlLU^tbwiUuiiit !(iibMn'i|)tiuH^ 

They wcrr shown* duriuff ihr coufc^rc^ncea at York, |>ri> 
vatoly, to thn BrrgH^b coiDinisfiiorcrs, but W4?r<i ooDDcalvtl 
from Ibo oonimls^ioDcrH of Mary. 

Mary alwny« solicited lh~i< peruMul of thefle letters. Mtd 
tvan BlviivK detiitnl it. 

She di*mjiiidrd lo hr hrsird, in jhthjii, by Rtiitabeih, br- 
fore the iiol>I<-» of £itglai:d and the niiiW»sndoutv of other 
princcVj aud wuh nafuumd- 

Wbcn Miir)' pi:nn»tc-d in dimuridiDi? topics ol the letleri^, 
boT oommis^ionors were di^nuucd nitb Ib^ir box to Scot- 
Innd, nud the letters were *een no morr, 

Thi? French l^llert, nbirk, for idmriKl two rrntiirirN, hnva 
benii eminidered lu orlgiudlM, Lv i\u* t'lioiuit^fi L>f Miiry*a 
mtMnory. Ar« now dijkCQVrrcd to br iVir^^ricn. and acknow- 
W^isd to be traDsUtion*. nud, perhaps, Frcix-b trunhbitioti* 
of u Lntiii CrunrdtttioEi. And tbo modoni accii8fr» of Maty 
are forood lo lufvr, from tiit'se lettara, ^pbii^h dow exi*t, 
that othitr liiflrrj: pxisti^d formerly- wbieli have been loftt. 
in npito of ciirioKily, mfllic^^ an<\ intcrp*T, 

Tbi' n*at of tW* treali»rt iti ennjloj^d in an cadcawoTir lo 
]>ro^i\ that h\»Ty'^ nvcntitciin wcrr llr fiiijrdervrs of Danily; 
ihroDgb ibJB iiKjairy it u aot tieccatary to follow hiiu ; oidy 



■t it be obAort^il. Iliat, if tbeae letters wore forced hy 
I, Ibey muy eaudly bv Ihouj^bt t:up«l>li?< oi o(h<-r cruiM». 
Tliui Ihcr l«tUni w'lirc fofgi^l, U now mudi; so proliiiUi*. 


.Nftcfolk. near tbo towu oriiynii, iu a flold, wbicb ui 
itioo of Ibt? couutry ultinnjt lo h^v^ b&^u oncn 
tnhe, or mevT, and vhidi 4p]>o;irv. Irom uuihi^ntick 
records, to bave been calkHl, nboiii Iwo bunflrpil yearii 
SjDk Poliut, PT tht wiirBb, wu.% diM:trtvretl, nut \wi^ vin&t, 
a Ur^' »|tiiir<- Httnir. uiilcli U foiiml. upciii an r\at^( in- 
S|>cctioii, to be a kind oi'i;oaM<' marfrlr <>!' u ^ubsUnco nut 
firm QDOQgli lo ndmit of beiui; polUhod, ycC harder \htm 
cpur cooutiof] (juiirnett afford, and uol easily siiaceplihlo of 
iBjvrief from ut^iitb^r c>r oucvard accideub. 

It triu brought io light by a fjirint^r, wb<r. [ibvt-rviiig hm 
plovgli obslnicteiJ by Mkmcthtiig* ibrou^li wbith thr* tluut* 
eovliJ not make ils way, *jrdec«d his »ur>nikUi li> r<-mo>c il. 
TkU wiM Dot elTo<iIcd vniLout »omo diflbiiltyt tho atoiiio 
threo feet four incht*! deep, and four feet sijnai*^ iu 
M|ierficiei: nnd> convr<|tioiuLy, of a weighi doI euvdy 
lann^tgruMr. UnWfTVivrr by thr Hppltimiiuti of b-vi^m. it 
was. Ill Wiigtii. raised, and convc-y^rd lii u i^orm.^r of thr 
Gt'ld, »bvrt i( by, for souiv mouths entirely uniegard'jd; 
Bor, pcrhnpi, bud wu ever be<;ii made acquamled with Uii» 
Tcnerabio rulick of iinliqutly, fiud not ojr goi>d fortune 
be«n great«tr iban our curioMtr. 

A gfeflUlemati, well known lo iIk* It^unied u>irtd, und 
ilbittn^nibed fcy the pHtranaip* «f tbr Ma^foNtkJt of Nor- 

^ lint pnnlfjt id thr ytu LT3». 


folk, whoEe name, was I permitted to mentioQ it, would 
excite the attention of my reader, and add no small autho- 
rity to my Gonjectarefl, obaerTing, as he was walking that 
way, that the clouds be^an to gather, and threaten him 
with a shower, had recourse, for shelter, to the trees under 
which this stone happened to lie, and sat down upon it, 
in expectation of fair weather. At lenglh he began to 
amuse himself, in his confinement, by clearing the earth 
from his seat with the point of his cane ; and had conti- 
nued this emplojmeat some time, when he observed se- 
veral traces of letters, antique and irregular, which, by 
being very deeply engraven, were still easily dislinguish- 

This discovery so far raised his curiosity, that, going 
home immediately, he procured an instrument proper for 
cutting out the clay, that filled up the spaces of the let* 
ters; and, with very little labour, made the inscnption 
legible, which is here exhibited to the publicL: 

Cum bpidem buDC, miigDi 
Qui nuDC Jacet Lncola augni» 
VeJ pede «quus Ungpt, 
\''el aralor vopi«n fraught. 
Sentiet regm. mptusT 
EJFuDdct palria fletua, 
LiltDraque ul fluctiij 
lUsooabuDt oppLda Juctii : 
Nam fif cunda nibri 
Serpent per pnta colubri, 
GramiDa vaslaales, 
Florei rrucLusque FDiantei* 
OoiEiut fixdaDlcs, 
^'■tiajitH, et Bpoliantu; 
QuBnquam baud pi^aces, 
IbuqE per runcla miutccB, 
FujYi abique dmorFj 
Et pinguct ab«)u« Ubore, 
ITorrida deioenteA 
, Ra'pleLdiacoidiageDLM; 
rlurinu tunc legci 
Mulabit, pluTima tv^m 
Tiiiioi nmveru 
1q rabiem luoc conlteniet ui^a 


C^lliift, huw laiii 
Flortbont Uti* pntii i 

Leo, Hd violaie timebil, 
Omma coEuuetiu 
PopuJari pucu tstiu. 
Ante ocd« otXn 
Calcutn ct cniaatoa 
Jam fuel ignavtu* 
VFtiUqne libidlne pnvua- 
Ed quoque qaod minun. 
Quod dim denique du-am, 
Saoguiqein equua lUgit, 
Nequebclloa vicUreQiDgitT 

These lines he carefully copied, accompanied, in his letter 
of July 19, with the following translation, 


WlwDc'er thit tlaat, aorr hid beneath the laie^ 

ThF \mT%e ihail trample, or the plaogh khaJl break, 

ThvD, O my couDtrj ! ihalt thmi gnvi diitrol, 

GxicfswcU Lhioe ey«, and terroiu chili thy breast. 

ITiy aiiftti with Tioleric« oT w« ahail uDod. 

Loud ai the tulJow a bunting on tike grtntnd. 

Thea Ihnm^h (by fielda ihall icailel reptiJei itiay, 

And rapine and pollution mark their way. 

Their hungry iwbAia th« peaceful vale ahill fright, 

StiJl fierce to thnaten, itiU afraid to Agbt i 

Hie leemin^ yeai*! whole produd ihall devaor, 

InulJate pluck the fratt, aud crop the flow'r^ 

Shall glutton on ihe iaduatriniig peaAADia* spoil, 

Rob without fear, and falten without toil ; 

Then o'er the world ihall discord itrcti^h her wings ; 

Kings change their laws, and kii^doms chinge thei' kJn^S' 

The beaij enrag'd, th' affiighted moon shall dread j 

Ihe lilien o'er the valet triumphul Bprcad ; 

Nor shall the lioo. wont of old to rvign 

Despotick o'er the desolated plain, 

Henceforth th' iqvioUble bloom invade. 

Or dare to murmur !q the flow'ry gUde ; 

His tortur'd sons shall die before his face. 

While he lies melting in a lewd embrace j 

And, jet more sfange ! his teios % hone shall draiQj 

Nor flhall the passive coward once complua, 

1 make not the least doubt, hut that thb learned person 
has given us, as an antiquary, a true and uncontrovertible 


representation of the writer's meoDm^; and, am sure, be 
can confirm it by innomerable qnotationfl from the authors 
of the middle age, should he be publickly called upon by 
any man of eminent rank in the republick of tetters ; nor 
will he deny the world that sati^actioD, provided the ani- 
madverter proceeds with that sobriety and modesty, with 
which it becomes every learned man to treat a subject of 
such importance. 

Yet, with all proper deference to a name so justly cele- 
brated, I will take the freedom of observing, that he baa 
succeeded better as a scholar than a poet; having fallen 
below the strength, the conciseness, and, at th» same time, 
below the perspicuity of his author. I shall not point out 
tbe particular passages in which this dispaiity is remark- 
able, but content myself with saying, in general, ihat the 
criticisms, which there is room for on this translation, may 
be almost an incitement to some lawyer, studious of an- 
tiquity, to learn batin. 

The inscription, which I now proceed tu consider, wants 
no arguments to prove its antiquity to those among the 
learned, who are versed in the writers of the darker ages, 
and know that the Latin poetry of those times was of a 
peculiar cast and air, not easy to be understood, and very 
difficult to he imitated; nor can it be conceived, that any 
man would lay out his abilities on a way of writing, which, 
though attained with much study, could gain him no re- 
putation ; and engrave his chimeras oa a stone, to astonish 

Its antiquity, therefore, is out of dispute; but how high 
a degree of antiquity is to be assigned it, Ihere is more 
ground for inquiry than determination. How early I^tin 
rhymes made their appearance in the world, is yet unde- 
cided by the criticks. Verses of this kind were called 
leonine ; but whence they derived that appellation, the 
learned Camden ° confesses himself ignorant ; so that the 

"Sec hu Remaibi, 1614, p.337, " Himiog verHs, which are called veraut 
Itiiiiini, I know QOI wKerefore, (for a lyon's taile dolh not answer to iht middle 
pftjts u thrie venet doe,) began b the lime of Carotin AlogDui, and were only 



rnrriiH ni r<>riain murku oflta i^c. T ftliall only ob- 

W llw Kaist? (*vrm wilii (Iium^ oh kiuff Arlbur'n cofltn ; bul 
irr, from iticir Mmilituilf?, wn mn^ rcntiire to |jn>' 
ICC Ihf^in of liiii Muiic? ilult, 1 miMt refer to tlw iWJ" 
^■Bon of bolter judgai- 

Onr intiitlity to ^ the a^ <sf tluv inHoripiion, TiecoeHu- 
iafen our ig^nomiKi* of iu uuttior. villi rvlntion f^i 
iliaiB^ nnny contfovi^Hira mjy hp xoin^d, worthy of iho 
io»t (JTofuuiiil Iruntiri^. unil inn*t \m\v{iiii^Mi^ tlilrgrnrrp, 
Tbc? finl qu«AliDn ih&l laliirjlly uriftr!i i:^: Whfi[h«tr Iip 
«tx « Briton or a Haxmi ! 1 had, nt finf , conceited Hcjmii 
'bo)>« tJiut, Jti tbiH quMticii, in «lii<:li not only Uic idle mi- 
fiot-ity of viTluo^oft, bul tlie Jiouour of t^o mifchtv nntiona 
concvrtK^I, fome informalioo might br dtnwn from the 
vord fftlrh, mv cotjnir^'. in (he Ihifrl linp; En^iflaiicl bt*- 
ing nut. iri |)rciprj*^l)i <^f k[it<tith, ih^ iiounlry of ihr< Saxonii; 
\t Irait, J]ot f^l tlirir iWnt »triv»l- But> tipoii ftirther 16- 
IrctHKi, Uu0 arffumctit a^jpcjxroJ not f:i>ric[iiHivr» aiaocf v» 
["And tbftt, tn nil ajo^^. fi>rrit;iier« haw aOi-utcd lo cntl Eng- 
land iboir country, itrcn vbc-n, like thr 8n\oii4 of oM, 
Uifiy cnme only to pliiQtt«ir it^ 

An arguco«dit in fuvour of iht Britons nuy, indeed, bo 
dniwn from <hi' trndrmp«>i. villi wUtirU ibc uiithor mimiu 
to lamenl bin i-oirntryp ^iiid iTi^ rnfrtp^Miioii lir H^(IWH for 
iu apfiroachiiiff I'vUinilifiA. 1. wlm am h cleM^piiJuiil from 
Lbo Saxoas, and, tbcreifore, unwilling lo miv nny thittg do- 
rofotory from the n^fiutaticm of my forcfAtticre, mij»t yd 
allow tht» ur^mcnt its fulJ tou*ei for ii hoA boen rurely, 
ir«rj rttrctf, Lnovn, Ihnt forciffn^^n, howi^fcr wpti treatodj 
cirooflfMi, <»nrioli«(t riait^r^d, or eiEalted, ba^e rE>^rded 
tUt roaniry with ihc lenBi gjAtitiidf' or iifTrrtHiii, till the 
rwM? hitA, by !nn^ roniinunnce, afi^ mnny ^r^ni^rnfionji, 
been iialuralized uud dMimitutrd. 

Tbev have been rcndy. upon nil orr^riiom. to prefer (be 
petty iatoreflta of ibeir own country, though, porhiipii, only 

lli iquHi thui, tad in muiv i^» follo^^, ohirh drlifhfd in ikotlin^ mott 


some defiolatd and woithless comer of tba worid. Hiey 
have employed the wealth of England, In paying troopa to 
defend mud-wall towns^ and uninhahitable rocks, and in 
purchasing bairiera for territories, of which the natnral 
sterility secured them from iarasion. 

This argument, which wants no particular instances to 
confirm it, is, I confess, of the greatest weight in this 
question, and inclines me strongly to helieve, that the he- 
nevolaot author of this prediction must have heen bom a 

The learned dbcOTerer of the inscription was pleased to . 
insist, with great wannth, upon the etymology of the word 
palria, which signifying, says he, the land of my fathery 
could be made use of by none, hut such whose ancestors 
had resided here ; but, in answer to this demonstration, as 
he palled it, I only desired him to take notice, how com- 
mon it is for intruders of yesterday to pretend the same 
title with the ancient proprietors, and, having just received 
an estate, by voluntary grant, to erect a claim of hereditary 

Nor Is it less difficult to form any satisfactory conjec- 
ture, concerning the rank or condition of the writer, who, 
contented with a consciousness of having done his duty, in 
leaving this solemn warning to his country, seems studiously 
to have avoided that veneration, to which his knowledge 
of futurity, undoubtedly, entitled him, and those honours, 
which his memory might justly claim from the gratitude of 
posterity; and has, therefore, left no trace, by which the 
most sagacious and diligent inquirer can hope to discover 

This conduct, alone, ought to convince us, that the pre- 
diction is of no small importance to mankind, since the 
author of it appears not to have heen influenced hy any 
other motive, than that nohle and exalted philanthropy, 
which is above the narrow views of recompense or ap- 

That iuterest had no share in this inscription, is evident 
beyond dispute, since the age in which he lived received 


neither pleasure Dor iostmction from it. Nor is it less 
apparealr from the Guppreasion of his oame, that he was 
equally a stranj^r to that wild desire of fame, which has^ 
sometimes, infatuated the aoblest mmda. 

Hi« modesty, howevet, has not beeo able wholly to ex- 
tio^ish that curiosity, which so naturally leads us, when 
we admire a performance, to inquire after the author. 
Those, whom I have consulted on this occasion ; and my 
zeal for the honour of this benefactor of my country has 
not suffered me to forget a single antiquary of reputation, 
have, almost unanimonsly, determined, that it was written 
by a king. For where else, said they, are we to expect 
that greatness of mind, and that dignity of expression, so 
eminently conspicuous in this inscription 1 

It is with a proper sense of the weakness of my own 
ahilities, that I venture to lay before the publick the 
reasons which hinder me from concurring with this opinion, 
which I am not only inclined to favour by my respect for 
the authors of it, but by a natural affection for monarchy, 
and a prevailing im^lination to believe, that evety exceU 
lence is inherent in a king- 
To condemn an opinion so agreeable to the reverence 
due to the regal dignity, and countenanced by so great 
authorities, without a long and accurate discussion, would 
be a temerity justly liable to the severest censures, A 
supercilious and arrogant determination of a- controversy 
of such importance, would, doubtless, be treated by the 
impartial and candid with the utmost indignation. 

But as I have too high an idea of the learning of my 
contemporaries, to obtrude any crude, hasty, or indigested 
notions on the publick, I have proceeded with the utmost 
degree of diffidence and caution; I have frequently re- 
viewed all my arguments, traced them backwards to their 
first principles, and used every method of examination to 
, discover, whether all the deductions were natural and just, 
and whether t was not imposed on by some specious fallacy ; 
but the farther I carried my inquiries, tuid the longer i 



dwelt upon this great pomt, the more was 1 convinced, ia 
spite of all my prejudices, that this WDndeiful predictioa 
was not written by a king. 

For, oTler a laborious and attentive perusal of hutortes, 
memoirs, ohronietes, lives, cbaracten, vindicatiom, pane- 
gyricks and epitaphs, I could find do sufficient authority fo^ 
ascribing to any of our English monarchs, however gTacioos 
or glorious, any prophetical knowledge or prescience of 
futurity; which, when we consider how rarely regnl vir- 
tues are forgotten, how soon they ore discovered, and how 
loudly they are celebrated, affords a probable argument, at 
least, that none of them have laid any claim to this cha*- 
racier. For why should historians have omitted to em- 
bellish their accounts with such a striking circumstance? 
or, if the hbtories of that age are tost, by length of time, 
why was not so uncommon an excellence transmitted to 
posterity, in the more lasting colours of poetry ? Was that 
unhappyage without a laureate? Was there then no Young'' 
or Philips^ do Ward' or UitchelP, to snatch such wonders 
from oblivion, and immortalize a prince of such capacities? 
If this was really the case, let us congratulate ourseWea 
upon being reserved for better days; days so fruitful of 
happy writers, that no princely virtue can shine in vaio. 
Our monarchs are surrounded with refined spirits, so pene- 
trating, that they frequently discover, in their masters, great 
cfualitieSt invisible to vulgar eyes, and which, did not they 
publish them to mankind, would be unobserved for ever.. 

Nor is it easy to find, in the lives of our monarchs, many 
instances of that regard for posterity, which seems to have 
been the prevailing temper of this venerable man. 1 have 
seldom, in any of the gracious speeches delivered from the 
throne, and received, with the highest gratitude and sati<- 
faction, by both houses of parliament, discovered any other 

P Dr. Edward Youngs 

t Ambrose Philipi, ftulhor Dfthe DLUreat Mother, &C. 

' Edward Ward. Sm Duaciad, and Biogrephia Draraaiica, 

* JoKt^ Mttchdt. See Biogtaphia Dnnniiin, 


(roaoera tban for lh« curr^ol jwir, for which inppliea ftr* 
g^erally d^manderi lo very prra^ifig t«>rmii. anfl, nome^ 
limri, isucb u-i imply uo frrtiidf kiiUe sulinituilt.' fur }io«l4^n(j^. 

Nothing, indeed, rnii br more unrrMoDublr and Jkbiurd. 
UiAH to rc4talrc, tfafit a moaurch, distnicted witli carcs utid 
aarrouod^d vitii crnrtnirrN, should involve himself in super- 
Huouk aukieti^i, h\ AD nnnccoiiifary roncem sthout future 
^^nerutioiu. Are not prt-t«o<lerf, tiiook-pHtrioU, toak«r|u«* 
mi1<'«. iiptrTiiv fiirllitii^lila. (reat]e>i, t'oiivt-nliouft, ri<\ie^i^ 
^tnwiu^^rooin.i, the birllia of beira, mii\ tbe deatha of 
qucrm, «ulHoioQt to (norwhvlm nay rupucity but timt ol'a 
Lin^! Surely, ho tbnt Mctiuitv bimsclf AiKu^cuflfulIy of nucli 
aflUn Ukay (oni^nl htEniii(^ir wiih Th^ glt^rj bo ncquirefi, 
and t«flve pi>fct«rity to bin Kticut^s^oun. 

Thai lbj> bus bi-ru the iiJiidiii'i uf lu^iti prjritex, !■ i?v»* 
deal from Uk; occounUof uil ugi^Aund iiAtioa*^ and. tbcro- 
for«, I bopo it vill not be Ihon^t that 1 bnvc, wtttout 
|iut noacti*, difprivcd 1hi« inRcripTion of tho voDeruUun U 
night d^mnnd* a« the work of ji ktu^- 

Witb what Iftboriouj ntni^j;le« h^uinst prejudice* mid in- 
ctiutttioQ. Willi whnt eUcirtx of rpHf^cuilM^, nud pt^rtiiiiii^ilj 
of Mtf-^enUI, I bavr prcviiilcd npon m^scir to fiacrificc 
tbo hoQcur of thiji niouumcnt to tiio love of trulb, dodc, 
who mv unj)^qtiaiii<rd wilb tbv fondac^M of a oommtYntator^ 
will ha -Mi* |» conrf'ivLv Hur rbU instanod will be, I 
kofir, loflirirnt to ronvinci' ibr piihltcL. lb»t I wn(« wtib 
*iQccnt|, uid ihfit. whalwer my sutccis tn^y be, u\y lu- 
tentiona are ^^d. 

When? vib are to look for our atilhor, it slill romuins 
lo be coiiMdvrcd ; whotfacr in Ibi^ hi^h road of publick om- 
ploynienli, or the hv-p«lh» of private life. 

It h;i« idwHi4 Ixreii ab«icrv«rd nf ibose ibal fc^qiirint h 
court, Ib«t tbcT toon, by a kind of cuntngiun, Ciilcli the rc- 
ftml tpirit of ncglcL't'in^ futurity* The miuiAd-r fvims on 
«xp«dient to suffpend, or pvrpk'x, im iii(|mry into hi» moft' 
luir^ii, for It fi>'W inanibt, imd uppluudii and iriumpl»s in hi« 
own dirKti-rity. The pt-vr pun olT hU creditor for the pre- 
Miit d4iy> and foi^r-t« Ifml h9 i;i evrr to »rr him mnnv Thf^ 



frown of a prince, and the loss of a pension, h&ve, indeed) 
been foand of wonderful efficacy to abstract nien'« thongfati 
from the present time, and fill them with zeal for the 1i- 
bertj and welfare of ages to come. But, I am inclined to 
think more favourably of the author of this prediction^ than 
thai he was made a patiiot by disappointment or disgnvt. 
If he ever saw a court, I would willingly believe, that he 
did not owe his concern for posterity to his ill reception 
there, but his ill reception there to his concern for posters^. 

However, since truth i» the name in the mouth of a 
hermit, or a prince, since it is not reason, bnt weakness, 
that makes ^s rate counsel by our esteem for the coun- 
sellor, let us, at length, desist from this inquiry, so useless 
in itself, in which we have room to hope for so little satis- 
faction. Let tis. show our gratitude to the author, by an- 
swering hia intentions, by considering minutely the lines 
wbiob he has left us, and examining their import without 
heat, precipitancy, or party-prejudices; let us endeavour 
to keep tfa^ just mean, between searching, ambitiously, for 
far-fetched interpretations, and admitting such lov mean- 
ing, and obvious and low sense, as is inconsistent with 
those great and extensive views, which it is reasonable to 
ascribe to this excellent man. 

It may be yet further asked, whether this inscription, 
which appears in the stone, be an original, and not rather 
a version of a traditional prediction, in the old British 
tongue, which the zeal of some learned man prompted him 
to translate and engrave, in a more known language, for 
the instruction of future ages - but, as the lines carry, at 
the first view, a reference both to the stone itself, and, 
very remarkably, to the place where It was found, I cannot 
see any foundation for such a suspicion. 

It remains, now, that we examine the sense and import 
of the inscription, which, after having long dwelt upon it, 
with the closest and most laborious attention, I must con- 
fes<4 myself not yet able fully to comprehend. The fol- 
lowing explications, therefore, are, by no means, laid down 
as certain and indubitable truths, but as conjectures -not 



alvava vtioLlir aatUfjii;lOTj. wen to mjsclf, ami tvliirli T 
bftd not tjmvd to propose to m) «iDlifcht«a^ art ngc, on a^c 
wbicli ubo-uii<lE& vilb tho!U< K^t^At ommntrntn of hiimiui no- 
luj-p, Mki'iilieiH, ADlimoniliKtv, und JriTidtjt^, but nilh hopofl 
thul ifticry would oxclln ■cmc ptffukn of gn-ntftr nbillllea, to 
fM^Eirtniti^ furiKr-r toto tho onuruloiia obiciiriljr uftliu woi^ 
livrrul |3ie<llclioii. 

Not eT«ii (he four &ral Itncti uro intbout their difli- 
cialtie9« in wbicb t]i« lin]« of tho dUco\ory of tho Htono 
««eiQ« 10 bo ih<^ tim-,^ u«!(igii«(l for Uiu i^vcntft forcilold b^ it: 

"Cam Ittpidctn Kiinr, mQ^ni 
Qui guAC jftcrt iotut* tit^nl. 

V(l tiMn '(MTirre frinytt. 
Scniiol K^n hkcliui 

LiUDnujiir ut llurtu, 
SMnnbttnr nppiJt turiu." 

*■ imu«Vr ibiA itodPj CAW till IwirUh the Ukt. 
iW^onc >haLl Uvnpln. w iLi pluufh atijU bivft^* 

TtiUl. O aiy muutfj, di^I Ifujtt ^jtuiii JtftLmi, 
Un^ in Itiinc *jt*. nn-f itrn-wt in Ihy lj>«4kT. 
Thf itffvu Willi Violence uf v^tc kkal' toucil. 

*' Wlieii iJtifl iiifiue," mhvs Ii*?> " wliicli now lies hi<1 bo- 
LMMilh ibr Wiilrrt ttt a ilc^rp Lik<\ aImII bi- nlriick upon bj 
^^K bor«c, or broken hy i\n- ploi)fcl>> ih^^" abuJi tbovt my 
c^uitry, b<i njit«nl«h«d withtcrronrn, und drowued in t«flr«i 
ihp-tt kball lh5 Covrna tonod vttii lamODtationn, a» tby ihonH 
witk ib(' roaring of the lijiips," Tbe«^ ar^* (hi* words lU 
mslly roodiTfrd. Iiul hutv an* ibey vi^nll^rd! Tht^ Iiiko U 
dry. ibiT Alon« b luriurtl up. Lut llicre id no appoRrancc ot 
\kh dismal »cc<iie. U uot nil, tit bouie. Mttisraotion und 
tnifia|mlhly f all, ubroud. Aul>mi:i-iioii uud compEianci* '. It 
•I Uic intcn.-«t. ur iiic^liiJaiioi)» uf uriy phncp^ or dittn, lo 
dfaw u >«rnrd ji^*''"*' "**■ ""■^ ^*^ ^*^ ""^- novcidicleM^ 
■ccsml b^ a tinmcTon^ ^landing urmy. aud a kiii^ who if, 

himwlt". OB army I Have our troc^p* any oUktc omploy- 



ment tlian to maroli to a review ? Have our fleets en- 
countered any thing but winds and worms? To me tlie 
present state of the nation seems so far from an; reiem- 
blance to the noiae and agitation of a tempesluoas sea, 
that it may be much more properly compared to the dead 
stillness of the waves before a storm, 

" NuD fcecimdft rabri 
Scip«Dt p«r pnta colubri, 

FLo»i lnictbi«]uc vonnls, 
Omnii foBdulH» 
Viliantu, tl Bpaliulci i 
QuaDqnuD htud pugnac^i, 
IbuDt p«r cunctH minuut 
Yatvi alwqua liiaoTe» 
Et piD^es abique Ubon." ' 

" Thfen through ihj Anldi ibill KarUi » piilea itnj. 
And ripine »ind pollulion mark their way ; 
Their hungry iwimu the peaceful vale Aali frijhi. 
Stilt fierce Lo ihmtEn, itill arrbid to fighl ; 
The leenuDg yeu'i ivhi^e pioducl ^lU devour, 
lDutiBl»p1u(^klhp fruit, nod crop ihe flow'r; 
Shall glultoD OD the ioduitrioiu peannti' ipoil, 
Rob without feu, and fatteb without toil>" 

He seems, in these verses, to descend to a particnlar 
account of this dreadfnl calamity; but his description is 
capable of very different senses, with almost equal proba- 

" Red serpents/' says he, (rv^ricofu&ri are the lAtin words, 
which the poetical translator has rendered Mcarlei r€piiU$t 
tmng a general term for a particular, in my opinion, too 
licentiously,) " Red serpents shall wander o'er her mea- 
dows, and pillage, and pollute," &c. The particular men- 
tion of the colour of this destructive viper may be some 
guide to us in this labyrinth, through which, 1 must ac- 
Lnowledge, T cannot yet have any certain path. I confess, 
that, when a few days after my perusal of this passage, I 
heard of the multitude of lady^birds seen in Kent, I began 
to imagine that these were the fatal insects, by which Ibe 
island was to be laid waste, and, therefore, looked over all 



accooDts of tli«ni with uiicommnii itoncern^ But. wlit*n mj 
fint tcrroun hcj^nn to jsiibsttle. 1 h^ou recullei^riiU that 
lliewt CTcatarcx, ttnvinfl: both wlng^^ and fe^t, would !(<<'Arcc1j 
huvp Iw^n cnlU>d <pr|ivnU; and vgia ()mi;kly convinced, by 
tb^ir WsTinf^ the counirjr, uiihoui doing tiny htirt. that 
dwv kad ii<i qiJHiilv. but tlm cmjIdiif, Id common with lh« 

A« I un iif}t ablfi lo drlrrrninr^ 4d; tJiiiig uii ihla uuttx- 
tion, ] »hall content mysoirviih oiiUccltug, into one ticw, 
Uw* jsntf-ral proporliofi of ihtH pe^liferouB brood, with whrcb 
we &TP thrpairnpd, an hint* lo uiort* KUgiKioui: and fortu- 
nate read^-jTM, vbo, wln'-ii }\it*y >ibull find uiij r4-d iiiiimni, 
that mngif^i uiLCOu1rouIe<l over the country, mid disvmirh 
the Uboun of tbo trader ntid xh<* huibutidmuii ; timt carrier 
vith it coTTUptioii, rupin^?. pcllution, und d^MJif^totiofi ; tb&l 
threateDf viliiout couragv, rohs withont ft'nr, imd is pam- 
pered Tilho|it labour, ihtty may knnv thaf rbe prediction 
U i!04nplF'tHd. Tjet ni<^ orilv remark ftirtber, ib^l il' the 
•tjto of ihb, as ot' nW other prddii^lioua, U ^Rurutitc, i\ie 
vitpcMiU a wnilcbed animul thtit cruAvU upon the cnrtli, k 
a prop^ emblom of Jow riewT»> aetl intnrcM, and base «ut>- 
mbttion, u well lu of L-rucUy, mUchicr, :uid malovokuce, 

1 caBDOf forhi'ur in obvi^vTr, in IhiK placf*, ibaf, as it is 
of no adt^nisge to loanLiml lo be forrwikrned ofinevifiibte 
aod in^unnouiiUibk mis fort itue?v, tbo author, probablv» iu- 
ttfftdcd lo bint to bia ooiuitr>m€u llio proper romedics for 
UioeTibbodoEicribe!!. lii this oailamity, on vhivhhe dwells 
loafpett* ftnd wbkh he soemii to fleplore with the deept^iit 
torrow, be poinlii out oitn cir^umHtnticp, whic'b mn^ b«f of 
grrai uve to dUpprncr our iipprMierkMorih, and awaken lis 
from that ponick which tbr rL'uder mu^X iiecoafrarily f'Ct^], at 
the irst trvnuient v^ew of thiv drt-udful d«4criptiou. These 
aeffpmlAi fti^y* tbr otiFpnal. urv* " buud pu^nnce«," of nc 
Ibff race; thov will tbrvulvn, indeed, nnd hiss, nnd 
ifr the weak, nnd timoroui, uiid Uiuu);htl«'*i4> Imt b^ive 
nud roura^e or Ktrongth. So tbul the mischief done 
b; tham, their m^ages, devastations, and robberies, must 
be ootjr Ibe conieqtieacea of cowmdicc in the su0VrorJj 


who are baraafled and oppressed, only because they nifer 
it without raaiataDce. We are, therefore, to Temember, 
whenever the pest, here threatened, shall inTode cu, that 
submission and lameness will be certain ram, and thftt 
nothing but spirit, vigilance, activity, and opposition, can 
preserve us from the most hateful and reproachful mt- 
«eTy, that of beiog- pluodered, starved, and devoured by 
vennin and by reptjles. 

Rapiflt diacordii gentes ; 
Pluiima time Jegn 
Muttbil, plurima ngtt 

" Thm o'«r die world shall diacard stretch ber wiogi, 
Kii^ cHaiigf iheir lawi, tad kJDgdonu change ih^ kiqgs," 

Hero the author takes a general survey of the state of 
the world, and the changes that were to happen, about the 
time of the discovery of this monument, in many nations. 
As it is not likely that he intended to touch upon the 
affairs of other countnea, any farther than the advantage 
oflm own made it necessary, we may reasonably conjee* 
ture, that he had a fall and distinct view of all the negotia- 
tions, treaties, confederacies, of all the triple and quadruple 
alhancea, and all tbe leagues ofTensive and defensive, in 
which we were to be engaged, either as principals, acoes- 
saries, or guarantees, whether by policy, or hope, or fear, 
or our concern for preserving the balance of power, or our 
tenderness for the liberties of Europe- He knew that oui 
negotiators would interest us in (he affairs of the whole 
earth, and that no state could either rise or decline in 
power, either extend or lose its dominions, without affect- 
ing politicks, and inOuencing our conncils. 

This passage will bear an easy and natural application 
to the present time, in which so many revolutions have 
happened, so many nations have changed their masters, 
and so many disputes and commotions are embroiling, 
almost in every part of the world- 

That almost every state in Europe and Asia, that is,. 


alnkMt every cotmby, then knovn, is comprehended in 
thifl predictioa, may be easily conceived, but whether it 
«vteDdfl to regions at that time nndiscovered, and porteods 
aiiy idterfttion of government in Carolina and Georgia, let 
more able or more daring expositors determine: 

Con vena 

In rabiem tunc coalnoul una 

'* The bear, enrag'd, th' illrighled mooD ihall dreiul." 

The terrour created to the moon by the anger of the 
bear, is a strange expression, but may, perhaps, relate to 
the apprehensions raised in the Tarltish empire, of which 
a orescent, or new moon, is the imperial standard, by the 
tocreasing power of the emperess of Rnssia, whose domi- 
nions lie under the northern conatellationr called the Bear, 

Tunc lalii 

Florebunt Itlia pralia.'^ 
" The lilieA o'«r the vaLu triumphajit ipread." 

The lilies borne by the kings of France are on apt re- 
presentation of that country; and their flourishing over 
wide-extended valleys, seems to regard the new increase 
of the French power, wealth, and dominions by the ad- 
vancement of tbetr trade, and the accession of Lorrain^ 
This is, at first view, an obvious, but, perhaps, for that very 
reason not the true sense of the inscription^ How can we 
reconcile it with the following passage : 

" N« fnmere Kudcbit 

Lnt, Kd vUdue timebii, 

Omtua cotuuetus 

Populaii paicaa Uelu." 
*■ Norifadl the liaa» wool of old lo mgn 
Deipotick D'ei the drsolated plaio. 
KcDCVfiHib, ih^ iDTioIahle bloom mv^e, 
Or dar« to munaoi ld the flow'ry glade,' ' 

in which the lion that used, at pleasure, to lay the pastures 
waste, is represented, as not daring to tonch the lilies, or 
murmur at their growth! The lion, it is true, is one of 
the supporters of the arms of England, and may, therefore, 
figure onr countrymen, who have, in ancient times, made 


France- a desert. Bat can \\ be said^ that the lion dan» 
not marmnf or rage> (for frtmere may import botb,) when it' 
is evident, that, for man; years, this whole kingdom Iw 
murmured, however, it may be, at present, calm and secnrt, 
by its confidence in the wisdom of our politicians, aad thft 
address of onr oegotiators : 

" Ante ocatu matiH 
Colceatot et CTUCLatc4 
Jam (tret i^^vut, 
Vetita<^De libidlDe pnvuL" 

" His U)T(iir'd lODi ihkJl die before hit face, 

White he Un melLirig in > 1«wd cmbritc?," 

Here are otber things mentioned of the Lion, eqaally nn^ 
intelligible, if we suppose tbem to be spoken of our nation, 
as that he lies sluggish, and depraved with unlawful tnsta, 
while his ofTspiing is trampled and tortured before hij 
eyes. But in what place can the English be said to be 
trampled or tortured? "Where are they treated with in- 
justice or contempt f What natiou is there, from pole to 
pole, that does not reverence the nod of the British king? 
Is not our commerce unrestrained ? Are not the riches of 
the world our own? Do not our ships sail unmolested, 
and our merchants tmffick in perfect security? Is not the 
very name of England treated by foreigners iu a manner 
never known before ? Or if some slight injuries have been 
offered; if some of our petty traders have been stopped, 
our possessions threatened ; our effects confiscated ; our flag 
insulted; or our ears cropped, have we lain sluggish and 
nnactive? Have not our fleets been seen in triumph at 
Spithead? Did not Hosier visit the Bastimentos, and is 
not Haddock now stationed at Port Mahon ? 

" Ea quoque quod mirum, 
Quod dicaa dftmque dinim, 
Sanguinem equug lugit, 
Neque bellua victa remiigitr' 

*' And. ;ret more ilrange! bii veiDsa hone ihalL dniii. 
Norabtll Uie pusive cswud odcc complain !" 

It ia farther aaserted, in the concluding lines, that the 



•ball iuck llie lion*ft Iifood. ThiN U tititlmnr^ o1jRfur« 
mnj uf l1kt< rcKt; unit, iiiclrnd, rhfi flil11oi)lfir>» T hurc 
^«iet vith, evcv vi&co the tint moutioD oftlte Uou. uro m 
Biaojr «cu) great, thut 1 hod, in utter dcapAir of surmoiinl- 
iB^ them* ODco dpKiftlt^d from mj <I«Aign of jiubJishin^ uoy 
tliiiig ii|M>Ti thit ci>bjc(Tt; but WHS prevailed upon by tlio 
inporiitrutv of imnir frirndn, la vlioru I uan deny nolhin^, 
to resume my drtigD ; aud I munL u^^fi, ihctt Eiotliing nnj- 
VM*d aie 80 much a» the lLO[>e, tlitry flattered me wltli, ibtil 
fliy^naj might b« iiis«Med in tb«> Gnactteer> and. Ao, bc- 
come of ««rvice lo my couotty. 

Thai nwrfakrrHrkimiil xhuuld Jtuck the hlnoJ ofa ilxon^^, 
nidioiil MrKJ.MnrKitv if wholly inipi(ih«i!>li<, uiid iiiiM>n3iitt«fiit 
Vf itii the regard for solf-prcaorTatiou* .10 obtii^rvublt in p.jrty 
ordtr ttnd apceiei of bcing^' Wc muil. therefore, neces- 
sarily eodeuvour utter aomu fiffurativi! ^cnse, not liable to 
to iorupcfrabic un objection. 

Wrrp 1 to profiond in thn ftnmr t^inonr of lutBrpretation, 
by wbirh I ^Tptaiiifd llm tiiuun und the lilies, I might ah^ 

•PTTP, that a hoisc is the arm* of H . But how^ 

tfccii, df)r4 thi? Ivtm^ Huck thr lion'^i bl9t>d ! Mooey ut tlitt 

W«od of the body politi{:k. But my seal for tbe prejicDt 

bappy •itabluhment will not nutf^r m*s to purnuti a tmiii of 
tbooglilt that l^ada to tucb ibockbig conchi^iouBE, Thv idea 
b deBealflble, and vurb oa^ it tfugbl to bv hijpf>d, <;au eut^r 
into thr mind of none but « viriJent republican, or bloody 
l^cobitr- There ix not one bi>ncat man in tJir^ nution tiu- 
Donvuiccd, bow weak an utti^nipt it wuuld be to endoEivour 
to confuto lluA intintiation ; on irifiinuntion which do ps^y 
dv^ to abt^t. and of tio fntnl and drmn^clive a lendoncy, 
it nay prove p(|tially iIjut^erouH lo lilt.' anihor, wbetber 
true Of foUo. 

An, tiiercCorc. 1 can fonri nc bypothc^ifif on which a con- 
AeOeut intcrpretatioa mti) bo built, I oiUAl leavo Ihoao 
|oos» and nneoonpetod \aiiXa eotirely to tho cswdour of tlic 
roftdor, &nd confess, that 1 du uot ibink rny scbome of ex- 
plicatioDJusI, siiiL-e 1 i^uinol u{ijdy il, ihroa^fboui the wbirle, 
without iovohiiig luyHidf in diiri{:ultje*, Ifom wLiich the 


ablest interpreter woald find it no eaay matter to get 

BeiDg, therefore, ooovinced, upon an attentive and de- 
bberate review of these observations, and a constiltatiMk 
witb my friends, of whose abilities t have the highest 
esteem, and whose impartiality, sincerity, and probity, I 
have long knowoj and frequently experienced, that my 
coDJeotores are, in general, very uncertain, often improba- 
ble, and, sometimes, little less than apparently false, I was 
long in doubt^ whether I ought not entirely to snppreas 
them, and content myself with publishing in the Gazetteer 
the inscription, aa it stands engraven on the stone^ without 
translation or commentary, unless thai ingenious and learn- 
ed society should favour the world with their own remarks. 

To this scheme, which I thought extremely well calcu- 
lated for the publick good, and, therefore, very eagerly 
communicated to my acquaiutance and felloW' students, 
some objections were started, which, as I had not fore- 
seen, I was unable to answer. 

It was observed, first, that the daily dissertations, pub- 
lished by that fraternity, are written with such profundity 
of sentiment, and filled with such uncommon modes of 
expression, as to be themselves sufficiently unintelligible 
to vulgar readers; and that, therefore, the venerable ob- 
scurity of this prediction, would much less excite the 
curiosity* and awaken the attention of mankind, than if it 
were exhibited in any other paper, and placed in oppou- 
tion to the clear and easy style of an author geoeratfy 

To this argument, formidable as it was, I answered, 
after a short pause, that, with all proper deference to the 
great sagacity and advanced age of the objector, I could 
Dot but conceive, that his position confuted itself, aud that 
a reader of the Gazetteer, being, by his own confession, 
accustomed to encounter difficulties, and search for mean- 
ing, where it was not easily to be found, must be better 
prepared, than any other man, for the perusal of these 
ambiguous expressions ; and that, besides, the exptica- 



of tltifl Bioiio, beLikfl: n tiiKL which n^itliinjc^ could tnr- 
it but tlio niofil acut4* pcnotritiit^rir joini^d with iodo- 
futigvble puiionoe, «eeme<l, in mility, r^nrrred for lliaiir 
vbci bant ^vi-n ()nkt»f?i wf tiolli. in ibt Li^Leat de-Krat?, by 
rMidai^ uid undt^rslaiidiug the Gtuvttevt. 

Thtt ttuwcr ftatiafiod every one but Ui« objtvlor, who, 
viftnn obftlinacy not vi«rv unc<}niiiioii, ndhnrifd to biK nwn 
ephuoii, lliougf] he could not dc^4^nIl it; tind, Dol bmii^ 
ihble lo mni^ Jiay r<fpty. nftrmpt^d <o Iniigh Awtij my ai^c^r- 
il, but ToutkI ihv rcbi uf my frit'iidb tai tiltle dui|iUBC?il 
>tl upuji lliii ini|K^rlmit (ju^fstiuir, tb^t he wtu forci^l lii 
rcstnun hi» mirth, and conteul himself wilh m 5ulh^ miil 
eoctcmpluoTiA ftilonnc. 

Ani>ih<>r of mv fri(>i>ds, tvhnm 1 faod (uttfinblcd on tliis 
occnfdov\, bnting owii<»d i\tp nolidity of my niiswor to (ho 
first tihjvct'iaii, ofTvirvd a necoiiil. vbich, tri hti opinion, 
tould nol hr Mk r^t^ily drfiN^trd. 

" I b4TC obsc-ri'cd." uny* he, " ihnf thr (MEa>« in the 
OnaMttoer, tliou^ch writlrn on vfrry iin|]orUnt p^uhjiMTl^, by 
tb9 B^Mt liAJirU whicb nmbUion can incito, friondifiip en- 
g«g9, or money procure, have nev^r. ihougfa ^irculutLsl 
tbroufli tbe kingdom wiib tEie ulinost HpiiHuifinn, luu! f^ny 
rumarkable inQuciKfT npoii ihn pcopU^. 1 ioow many ]n:r- 
•OI0, of no common cnpiictly, Ihnt bold il xuflicivul lo 
p«ro*u tbeic pupvn four timrR n vfinr; end olWr^t who 
riNM^vt? thnn rcptUrlv* nnd, viihoEvt l^okin^ iipou (fti^m, 
tnttiuro them imiler ground for cbe beneAl of po<iT«>rt(y. 
8o tboAi (be nihCFi|i1tni] may* liy briji^ innerfi^il tbi'jr. itink, 
oooc morp, into dorkncM und obliiion. jnHlcad of infonniug 
iht^ age ond ii^tMfiii^ our ^pnont ininistry in the rogula' 
lion of their mcfuorcs." 

Another obwrveJ, ihaf noll^iii|^ vat more unreasupablif 
tliMn my hop**, tkil any remarkit ot <:-hioidalio»^ tvouUl bo 
drdvu up by tbu( fralvruit^, tjiice ibcnr own vmployinculH 
ido not aUow Ibcro uny bUiin: for Mich ollvmpU. Btcry 
oiM.'kao^«liui pnncf^rJtk U, lu Jtxown uuturv, tiocmy toaJt, 
and Innt lo defend in much .iiiuri- diftiuult thao to attack ; 
coovdcr, th^, «^i he. ivhai induUry, «]iat Hxiiduily il 



muMt require, to praise aiid vindicale a roimfltr^ tllift 

It WHS bititudr b; another, that ah iuacrlpttou, vrbich 
faaci no rclEilinn 1o nay pnrticulnr sot of tnon ^irnorifr^l 110, 
bul was compoiird mntiy iiget before th^ parti&«, wbiob oow 
divicl« ihe ntiliof), lind a liL-ing, ctiuld not lir* «d praporly 
convf^^ed lo ito world, by lueauA of a |iaj>rr dcdicnti-d to 
political dtbiLtes. 

ADotbc?r, to whom I bad conunu 11 tested my own ob»er- 
Tationj, in a more' pHvutt? maDOpr, na^ vho bad in8erU»i 
some of his own iiTgumRntt, df^cUm^d it, an his opinion, fbut 
tlifj were, Ihoti^b tit/ r-tmlrf>vi'itihk and uuftaii^facTorv, 
3'«t ino \a\\xMe I0 he IimI; aiid liut thoimrb to insert ilus 
inioription in a paper, of which such numbcrji arr daily 
dislnbalod u1 lh<< <?xponffti of Ibu publick, wiiidd, doubt- 
\atit. be very ugre«Ab|e to ibt* gi-uerou£ dt^vi^n of the 
initbor; yet ht? hoped, llmt hji nil tlirr »liidnnt4, «ilhf*r of 
po1ilirli« or Hikrf<|iiitirrs, waitld riMM-ivr- bolb [iliMSiiri* adi] 
improvmif^ot from tbo dii^sc-rlatiou wltb wbicb il u ac- 
companied, none of tbcm would regret to pay for »o Offroe- 
dhk' (in t>ii1erUii[n]it.'nt. 

fi oanntii hv woaderH, that I have yielded, iif lasl, in 
Hiirh ^Y'igbly nmKnhs, utid ^iicb in»ini)iLlin^ r»[iiplimrnt«, 
ami cbuAeii to grnt'\fy^ >it oitre, ihe tJK liiiaiimis of frir-iids, 
and the vanity of mi uuthur, YcU 1 should fhiiik, 1 Lad 
rcry imperfct^lly dUcbar^od my duty to mj coiiDlryt did X 
not vrnrn nil, whom cither interest or curiosity ahall loeite 
to iho p^raaal of thif> trentiAr, mit to Uy auy sireg* upon 
my ffXplirnliriTis. 

How n more rtimplete mid iiidi^putAht^ interpretation 
Diay bo olUiiued, it is iiol i^ajiy to *ay. ThU wil!, 1 sup- 
pose, be readily gmi^tcd, that U i^ not to be cipoctcd from 
any «iD^c hand, but from tho Joint inquiries, itnd niuled 
labours, of 11 immeroua socioly of ublc men. justilnted by 
ADthority, M^lvcitHi with great di«(-.rrnnii-nt ;tiid uiipitrlidily. 
and Miipporird at ihi.' Hiuq^i* ciftlic nation. 

I aiu vi-ry far fnnii apprcb(tidai|;, that any prupoitd for 
the attAinmont of so doJiinibEo an mid, viU bv rejected by 
thi& iD<|uisitJ^'e end «nUghtt»n«d a^e, and ^hnll, tbrrefore. 


['lay fadore the pubUck the project "ffhioli TlwYf^ fomiodt 
•mad miiturvil hj \m\^ cou»idf*rfitii>n, Utr the in«Htu1)Qn of A 
soGjrty of <*oiiUQ(?ti1utar« upon Ihin )nA(>npH4>n. 

I htiinbly propontr, itiat thirty of ifii? mont diRlingnisLed 
gimiiiR hr ohnirn fcT thu i^mplnymi^ni, half from thn iriDS 
ofcotirt. ami hulffroia tho anny. mid be incor|iiirLiret] iiiii> 
i society for live yc^ars, uadci th(^ tium^ of iht? Society of 

Thai ip-eat iind«rtAkinK« c&n only be executed by it ffrcut 
pumber of kuidi, Ib too evident lo ri-cjulrc tuiy proof; and, 
I mm afnud, ull diat rend Uiii ikcWaivf will tbink, ihwt ii in 
rhicBy drfcctitr in thin n^fL|>n:t, and lliiit Hhrii thrv rt^flrrt 
how many commixs&rica were thought ncccMar; ut Seville, 
and Ihat otvd tbeir utrf^otiatioDa entirely itiiaC£UTi«d, pro- 
hably for want of men* juifioiiates, Ihey will <]onoLude, that 
1 have proposed iiupo^hibllitieit. and that the end« cf the 
. iiifltiluljuii will be drft^ulcd by mi tiijudicjiriu ^id ill timr-d 

Bat ti it be coniidi^rt^d, bow weU tbo pervonA, 1 rc^coni' 
mevd, muftt huvc bcvn q^alifjl^d. by tbt-ir cduc^atioit and 
prof<<vfcioii, for thfl province awigncd thcfn, th** objection 
will ^iw Id^M wH^hly than t1 apponrs 1l is wnll known 
tolM the couaiuiit study of Ihe luwyers lo dlacover^ in acta 
of pafHiiini iiT, Qit:n]iiiiip» wUicU r» thi? cuuiuutcec< 
Ikot dnw tbem up, and the ^oualeu that pu8Aed tbcm into 
Uvrs, and to explutu villi, iuto a aeofle wbolly contrary to 
tbp iDteniioTi of iLe teiuiior. How easily n\»y nn ndppt 
iji thv!<i« udiairublr »jjd uit^ful htIa, iient-trute iitio llie iiio»t 
bidden import of \h.i% prrdiction i A m.-in. 4ccu«tom(.'d to 
vaiufy himiclf with tlir obvioni iind nntuml mrnning of a 
Mmtcfjrc, doc< not cnnily ^bukc otf bis h<)bit; but a Lnic- 
lirL'd hiurynr ncv^rr ronlnnu himiplf vnth one W*nw, when 
llwrn U ftoolfirr (o he found. 

Kor will ihc bt-iiufiL-ml couivtrqaeuvvft of liiia sclicrae lor- 
floiiuto in the esplicaiioii of this mouumont: they will ox- 
tcnd much ftnlher; for the (joiuinentAlorif. hnviiifp abarponed 
and improved their aagocity by thin tonj^ and didicult eourM 


of study, will, whea they retttm into publick Ufe^ be of 
wonderful service to the ^oremmeitt, in examiiiEn^ pam* 
phtets, songs, and journals, and in drawing up infoimations, 
indiotments, and instructioiis for special juries. They will 
be wonderfully fitted for the posts of attorney and solicitor 
generalj but will excel, above all, as licensers for the stage. 

The geutlemen of the aimy will equally adorn tbepro- 
viooe to which I have assigned them^ of setting the dis- 
coveries and sentiments of their associates in a clear and 
agreeable light- The lawyers are well known not to be 
very happy in expressing their ideas, beiug, for the moat 
part, able to make themselves understood by none but 
their own fraternity. But the geniuses of the army have 
sufficient opportunities, by their free access to the levee 
and the toilet, tlieir constant attendance on balls and as- 
semblies, and that abundant leisure which they enjoy, beyond 
any other body of men, to acquaint themselves with every 
new word, and prevailing mode of expression, and to at- 
tain the utmost nicety, and most polished prettinest of 

It will be necessary, that, during their attendance npon 
the society, they be exempt from any obligalion to appear oa 
Hyde park , and that upon no emergency, however press- 
ing, they be called away from their studies, unless the na- 
tion be in immediate danger, by an insurrection of weavers^ 
colliers, or smugglers. 

There may nol, perhaps, be found in the army snch a 
number of men, who have ever condescended to pass 
through the labours, and irksome forms of education in nae, 
among the lower classes of people^ or submitted to learn 
the mercantile and plebeian arts of writing and reading. 
T must own, that though I entirely agree with the notions 
of the uselessness of any such trivial accomplishments in 
the military profession, and of their inconsistency with more 
valuable attainments ; though I am convinced, that a man 
who can read and write becomes, at least, a very disagree- 
able companion to bis brother soldiers, if he does not abso- 



ly shun tlieir ucqitaiTitaricc ; that lie h apit to imbibe, 

hik booki, odd notions of liberty bnd tiid^J^ndi-^ncy, 

td^vea, !toiiM*ltnkeft. of monllty and vtrtut-, uil«fly iarnn- 

ttili-tit wilb Uw? ileiiniWe t-huruL'trr «f a prrlly jft-iillnmun ; 

ibiMiK^b wrilinjc fn-^qiivntly aluiriH thi? irlii(ri( fingrr, nml 

rifidinjc^ bu-1 4 ncluml trndrncy tp cloud tlic ciepcct, and 

kproH thut niry and IhoughiEofia vivacity, vhict) is ibe 

IfMiMgniibing cbnmcleriflticb of o modern vi^rrioiir; yaf* 

|«n IhU single orc^fiion. I cannot btil hecirTily wiftb, ihnl. 

a Atrict 9eun.-b, Uiere niuy be itiscoveri^iL xu lUi* army, 

tBtUytu men wIjo c&a urite and read. 

I know (liui the Lnowlcd^' of ihc aipbabet in f(t dijirc- 

lalabk* Amr>ng Uicmt ,t?enlkcrnc*ti, Ibat ihoBi* who bnvo, by 

II fortune, formiTly been fnugbt it, bavi* pnrlty forgot ft 

bliT dUiiiH*, nnd ]i:ir[t^ cnnc^i^d il from IIip wnrid, In nvnid 

mif milleriea und iiLHidtn ii> vfh'ich lliclr cductilion mi^ht 

riDtkict ibon liable; I propose, tbr?ro fore, i hat all the ofti- 

|«en of tbe army may bt; vxiuniuud tipoii oatli, one by one, 

tkat if fiftoeu C4nuot be Ki'luLlyd, wbo nro, at pre«eul, 

^naliJied, the deficiimey may be mupplied out of those 

rbn, Invtng nnee Irnrm^d to n^nd, tnay, ]it?rbiipK, vritti ihe 

ktanco of a mtaivr, iit a ahatl time, rr4ro»li their me- 


li may bo ibongfat, a1 tho flnt aigbt of this proposal, 

lat it migbt not be improper to a«tign, to c^ciy commen- 

ilor, a re^idtT and Horri^liiry ; btjt. it may be mxily con- 

Ttved, tlut not only lh« puliiki lui^'ht luurmui at soch au 

Iditton of expcn«r. but thnt, by the urifaiElit'uliH-Aior nc|f- 

If^noo of their »4?rvaDts, the dioccteried of th« society 

I) he corrjeil to foroi^c^i ouurti, aad mode uno of to iIjo 

l&MdTnnlagr of oiir o«ii cnuniry. 

Por ihn rc!«idi;ikce of thin lociely, f ci^fiiinl ihiiik ^uiy 

*pku:c more proper thnri (jr<:cnwich hospital, in which they 

oMy liavc Ibirly ap«irtinenl8 fitted up for tbom, limt Ihej 

mot mui^o l)ie«r obsenatioue \u private, nAd moel, once a 

day. tn Ihe painiMl liall to compnr^ ibem, 

Iflbo Mlabliihisent oflbb louiety bt- thought a nutter 



uf too tniicli importance lo Itc deferred till tie new build- 
inip are Golshcd, it will be Decoasary to make room Tor 
Ibeir recejition, by the e\[iulAion of suoh of the flcomrn ha 
]iuv« no pretensions to th4< tt-tllenu^ni iXivr*.'. liiil fractrir^ 
lioiln, loKs of vyv^a, or decayed coiistifutioru, who linf« 
lately bcrii udiDittc^il iu «ucb iiumUtrn»> tb^t it in now 
Mtu'cc po»ibIc to acoommodntc n iiob|cnian':i grooiD, fiiot- 
nukci, nr pontilioh, in a manner sciCnble to tlic di^oitj of 
Ms profpjifiion, und ibu original detign of the foundation. 

Thtt silufiticin nf (trrt^iwich will iialnrnlly di4|>0(« tb^m 
t(] ti;flc-(;lion and nlitdy; und jJQitioidar cmitiuu uugbt to 
be used, le«t any interruption be ^nifTtfred to diasipalc lh<^i^ 
utti^ntion, or distract thojr lucditalioDH : for tbi» rt^u^on, idl 
viflilB ntid kttcrrs from ladieu art* «lncU_v to ha prohibited ; 
und if uny of tbe membt^rs ihaU bu deit^oted Mitb a lapdog^, 
pcirk 4if r-ard.>i. bux of du:f. drmj|$ht-tublr. iftiifThox^ or 
liwkin^-^lass, he shall, for tho i;r»t oftrncc, be couEiuvmI for 
tbrco montba to water gruel, und, for the aocoud, be ex- 
polled thr society. 

Nothing now rernain«, but that »ii efltJm&t« be mad^ of 
tbo expenjies ne<:eKsury for rnrning on ibis noble and gene- 
ruun deai^n. Tlie sidary lo hij hUiiwkJ eni^b proftuor nui- 
not b« IcHS than H.OOOI. a vrur. which is. indeed, more tlian, 
tlic regular stipt-iul of a t^ommussionct of r^cisc; bat, it 
muAt bo rt*mtiniborod, tbui Ihi^ coinmcntatori: bavo fi much 
more difflcull and iinporUnt employrnont, and enn expect 
tbdr kultf-ieti but for (lie nhnrl 4[Mi:if of f&vf year« ; wbcfFoau 
» coinmUKioner (tiidcfaH be iuipruderitly ftalTrm biinm^lf to 
be currii'd away by a wbimHioat tcndt^rnrnji for bi» cooBtry) 
huK uii v^tab|iahmf^nt for life. 

It will be neceGaar^ to allow the sociMy, in £:i^E]eial, 
3fl,<KNV. yearly, for the cnpport of tho pubUck table, and 
40>000/, for setret service. 

Tbus will ibe luiniHlry have u fair prohpeci of obtnbnng 
ibe full Aeik«« und import of ihc prt diction, without bnr* 
demn;; tbr; publ^k viUi morr Ibun 4i^)»UU0/- whu:b mar 
be paid nut of 1h« ^inkin): fund ; or, if il h^i not thought 

pro|>^ to Tir>laU> thai sncrvd inramire, by conrc^rtin^ ftcj 
purl of il Id ii*ei Qot primarily intended, may l>e easily 
nUBp<l by » grnf^r^l pnll-cax, nr f^xciJtu iiptm htrud. 

Hdvtng now i:uiiiplcti.'(l my scbrmc, a ^chcint^ calcu- 
Ulfrd Tur tlie publitli briieOt, wltbcfut record to any purty, 
I entreat all m^u. lm-<ioEir»> imJ dt^iifii^lii'iiH cifmcu among 
Of. Id lay aside, for li time, their purly-ltiudu aud pvtty nm- 
nodtien; tuid, by b warm cQUciirrcrit^r on tlik urgent occa- 
sion, loach ;>ovteriTy lo «.ncnAce &very private intoreflt to 
ifaif udtnnlu^ iif [iit?if cutiJilrvK 

(Jo tbai ptiformiart, vlitrh wt fint priptvi) \n Urn jFtv 173$, JJt- JfihnuD, 
" W ft ffi(Hd4JSK.'n|>ti0D. ruppffwd TC HiTi IrrrD ft>iiiicl in Vorfatk, the cnuallf 
of 1B| |ti4«n W4]|uk, liirn tlir uliuvivttt^ |jnnie mtnitL^r af Ihit cokiaU'y. ilt- 
t«i|fu ftftiOBl iltr E^unTwir'L tucrrMinn. nud ll>r tbruurfv nf ^^ovrmminl can* 

ckL ei[«idie& limply \o i|« inoch nilh nrom nu-tlmi/vcriiui KoL/'—Bea- 


Tifli tixnif IM nnv aomc, in which ererv En^linbotan ex- 
pect! tA bf iriformrd of thit TJAJtioiml ufTaiin, uiid in uhich 
be has a ri^bt l4i Imie tlijjt i?x|trrLitbii ^ruliruHl. Fur 
wbiilfv^r Ruy be tir^cd by mioLAlcn.or tboHi; wboiu canity 
or intcmil make tbo followers of uiJuiAltrrs* coricoriiiiij; thti 
»ccf«uty of «OD&d«ucc in our sov4>niouni, und IK- prcnunip- 
tion of pr) inff, with profane eyes, iolo lU<f recoisu* fjf polipy, 
U ift evident, Uiat ibU rt^vftreore tun be c]mim<il oiily by 
nwiUH-1* yrt iinpxrr»ta-d, and pmjri'it HiiKpriidud id dHI- 
bcTUliuii' BuC «bi^u d dt-Aii^ti bui eii(l(*d lu luiflcai jiage or 
MKG«», when every oyc, nnd nrrry ear, in witnc^.w to gc- 
Mfd di*ooalctit, or general ^atiiifnction, it i^ then n proper 
tiflio to diMAbifigle cuBfusion* and illualrate ub^curity i lo 
ihow by what oauBes tvery ei<*iit wai prodiic<-d, am! in 
wbdil ^ecU it in hkoly Fo tt^rminalc; lo lay down, with 

< I^i \i i iItJ fan !■ liif liiiYif> MacviiH*. K«. i*. fronJqtr Ifi^to Ab,[, If, 
I7M* libit |iffK4]ir«] ^tari «i4 iieiIiIhIlciI hy I\,l\:htiiU«u.'ia l\»nni^fi-tom, 
bal !■«< dlmruUnH Bf-uLii rw4> vniin dfr«. Dr. Johnun wn>te tninj uiicla, 
<v4««t la>-# ti*4fi 4>nurni'rir«ii b^ Mr. U'ltf^ll, kt^ \Jtttt iw nlh*rt (rWK I 

• lit. *i 


distinct particnlaritj, what mmour always huddles in ge- 
neral exclamations, or perplexes by andigested narratires; 
to show whence happiness or calamity is derived, and 
whence it may be expected; and hoDestly to lay before 
the people, what inquiry caa gather of the past, aod coo- 
jecture can estimate of the future. 

The ^neral subject of the present war is ^Efficiently 
koown- Tt is stowed, on both siden, that hostilities b^aa 
in America, and that the French and English quarrelled 
about the boundaries of their settlements, about gronods 
and rivers, to which, I am afraid, neither can show any 
other right than that of power, and which neither can oc- 
cupy but by usurpation, and the dispossession of the na- 
tural lords and original inhabitants. Sucb is the contest, 
that no honest man can faeartiiy wish success to either 

It may, indeed, be alleged, that the Indians have 
granted lar^ tracts of land both to one and to the other ; 
bat these grants can add little to the validity of our titles, 
till it be experienced, how they were obtmued ; for, if Uwy 
were extorted by violence, or induced by fraud; by threats, 
which the miseries of other nations had shown not to be 
vain ; or by promises, of which no performance was ever 
intended, what are they but new modes of usurpation, but 
new instances of cruelty and treachery ? 

And, indeed, what but false hope, or resistless terreur, 
can prevail upon a weaker nation to invite a stronger into 
their country, to give their lands to strangers, whom no 
atEnity of manners, or similitude of opinion, can be said to 
recommend, to permit them to build towns, from which 
the natives are excluded, to raise fortresses, by which they 
are intimidated, to settle themselves with such strength, 
that they cannot afterwards be expelled, but are, for ever, 
to remain the masters of the original inhabitants, tbe dic- 
tators of their conduct, and the arbiters of their fate? 

When we see men acting thus against the precepts of 
reason, and the instincts of nature, we cannot hesitate to 
determine, that, by some means or olher, they were de- 



\mnpd irom choice^ that thry wrrv lurrd or frighted Into 
oovifkliBDce ; llial they cither ejantcd ouly what they found 
ivpoMibto to kocp, OT ex)>4«uu*d uUvauiu^i^ci nywn the fujth 
ofth^ir n««w inmat^K, uhich Ihcrr wat no piirpoKti to con* 
fer upon (hem. It canai^l be unid, ibai the Indinns origt- 
ivlly inrili'ij im to th(*ir uomt^; wl* werif, init-ullt'd unil 
onr^ipvcl^rd, to nutioiu who huti iin ijiiii^tiintinn Umt tlir 
eaiUi cdiitniiied aay mhabltajits, ho di stunt and «o di^crcnt 
from ibt'caaeKoA. yCe ustpubhcid them with our Mpt, 
with our arm>, aail witJi our p>ncra1 superiority. 'I'hry 
yicldird to UN, BK to bcinj^ of nnothnr nnd highor raet?, Ncni 
■mong lliem fiosa »om<* iioknowtj rc-^iona, uiih pov«r 
vhi^b naked fndhin« i;ou1d nut r<^«i«l, unci which llu?^ 
WDtD. i)ii*ri^orr, b^- pvf*ry tirt f>f humility. 1o propitiiittf. 
tliat tkty, who could fto easily dcMroy» might be iDdricnl 

To thu tnHacncc, and to thin only, aro to bo utlfibuted 
nil tbv eouions and AubmitiAtons of Iho Indian princoFi, if, 
indMd, any inoh «c»ioni were ever mude, of which wr 
hiiT« fio wtlm-B> but ihufto who ehtim frijm llwni ; and 
therv i% tu> gTr*tit muli^;nfly in unApetitrng, tiiiil IboNi? who 
hatr rohticd hate uImi lied. 
Aone cohtuien. iiide«d, \m\c be«D e«ttthliiibed note 
fAomUy ihm oiJicr». 'I'hc utmoitt c\lmnity of wronf;: 
DOl ahray» been pracli^cd ; l>ut thoao thnt havo sottbd 
tlie tww world, on th^* futfest lerms, hnvp no olhor itu-ni 
m thai of a »-rivMkL*r. who ruiiiK in kil^nc^^ over h pFun- 
Tfi-f llul ^rir.rn liy foroi^ ; nil luive lukeii ubat huxl other 
OTorrft. And a\\ huve had recoiir«CT (o nrniA, rather (hno 
|«il Ihc prct ou ivhich they bud fAAtened. 
The Amencan dispute, belwevn the Trcneh nnd at. U, 
■reform, only the* quurrel of two robbors for tlit- ipoJi of 
putiengvr: but, ua vobbor« hav« cenn* of coiifodcrucy^ 
rhinh ibi^y nri^ obligpd to ob^erv^, a« membon of t}ir pmg, 
the Eitglbh mid Fmnch tany b»ti? relativt* rights, nod 
iojuslicc to rufih othiT. whdir both utl* injuring tbe 1d- 
And *nc.h. indeed, b the prcMOt cont^^^t: they 
have parted the northern eontiaonr of AmerioQ between 


them, and are now disputing about their boundaries, and 
each is endeavouring the destruction of the other, by the 
help of the Indians, whose interest it is that both should 
be destroyed- 

Both nations ctamour, with great vehemence, about iD- 
fractions of limits^ violation of treaties, open usurpation, 
insidious artifices, and breach of faith. The English rail 
at the perfidious French, and the French at the encroach- 
ing English : they quote treaties on each side, charge each 
other with aspiring to universal monarchy, and complatn, 
on either part, of the insecurity of possession near socfa 
turbulent neighbours. 

, Through this mist of controversy, it can raise no wonder, 
that the truth is not easily discovered. When a quarrel 
has been long carried on between individuals, it is often 
very hard to tell by whom it was begun. Every &ct is 
dorlcened by diafauce, by interest, and by multitudes. 
Information is not easily procured from far; those whom 
the truth will not favour, will not step, voluntarily, forth to 
tell it; and where there are many agents, it is easy for 
every single action to he concealed. 

All these causes concur to the obscurity of the ques- 
tion: By whom were hostilities in America commenced? 
Perhaps there never can he remembered a time, in which 
hostihdes had ceased. Two powerful colonies, inflamed 
with immemorial rivalry, and placed out of the superin- 
tendence of the mother nations, were not likely to be long 
At rest Some opposition was always going forward, some 
mischief was every day done or meditated, and the bor- 
derers were always better pleased with what they could 
snatch from their neighbours, tban what they had of their 

In this disposition to reciprocal invasion, a cause of 
dispute never could be wanting. The forests and deserts 
of America are without landmarks, and, therefore, cannot 
be particularly specitied in stipulations; the appellations 
of tbose wide-extended regions have, in every mouth, a 
differeut meaning, and are understood, on either side, as 

«TATB OP ApPAin:; fv \7S6* 


'li«nlion hA|>pcrtR to POTilrrtt or rxtond ihfm. Who 

}'^t prolonged to ilelifjei bow mtioli of America U id- 

fliMled in Braail, Mexico, or Peru? It U almost ab easy 

dividi? lb*" AllnEitiir)^ ucf-arj liy u lini', ti.^ rlfiirly to a-ippr- 

in ihe limits i>r Ukim' umniltivuti^d, »iiin)Lubjlablc, un" 

ir«ii repoaa. 
JC b, Itkewiio, lo be ooa#id<^n><1, tbul cuntrncii i^oDcem- 
bonndurivn urt* cirten kit logiic ami indcHmlOf vitbouE 
lity, by thct dctirr of ^ach puty, lo interpret the am- 
U^ily lo il3G own ndTnmkii^, wb^n n l!l Oftportunir^ ^fctll 
be fomnd. Ta fornimj^ xlipiiliiEinfiii, ihr* rri]iimuiHrit'i& ure 
oflcT] ignomnt, lOil tiflrn n<*uHgi?nt: tJ»-y anr> somctiniTsR, 
wmry with debate, nmi i;oiitriii;t Ft tedioui di»eii»Mon into 
gv«erd ton»«. or relVr it (o ii former m^aij, wbich wa« 
PcTor tindr'ntood. Tlir vi'tikor purt U ulwuya afraid of 
rccgviring r;^p1.'irintionfi, nn<I tU^ ntrongnr itlwayR bu; an in- 
tomt if) b74ving iJif cjnA^iion nnd^ridcd : lha« it nill buji- 
»n, without f^al caulion mi i-ilbt^r side, thai, after long 
rjtiiri, 3u!rmn1y mlilW* ibc^ rigbtn tbat liod Ivecn ditt- 
itcd fuv «till ciinnllv itpni to coiilrovcny. 
la Amciica, it may ca^ly br suppo^i^d, tliut tbcrc arc 
tds of lanfl not virt ulaimcd by mthcr party, ond, there- 
(Ibrv, nionlionoil m no Iroalirs ; which yet on^r, or Hit^ 
iW, may ht* nftv^rwapda iricliMed to occupy ; hat to tht*e 
racflrit and tiii^t^tttr-d cmmlrir-^ each iijttioii niuy prrlond. as 
ctmcr-'iyf^ itu-lf caiiiliul ti> ull fhdl i^ uul exprcMJy 
fted to tb« olbfr. 
Here. 1b<'n, ia u peqi^tujil grotmct of content; cvcri" en- 
[lan^ment <>l llii' poMf^actioiif! at' t'lthrr will bo cunftidered 
MOietiuDg lukoM from Ibrr other, and eacb irdi ondoa- 
ir lo regain wlmt h»d never been cUimedi but lb:ii the 
ler orrnpied il. 

Tbiu i>1uM<iin! in tt% originnl n l)ir* AintiricaiJ i;out«»t. 
^^ diRicidt lo flud the firbi uivador, or lo tell irher« 
Vlwiofi proj>crly bvi^in^; but, 1 suppose, it U not to be 
donbtwl, Ikat uHcr tbe toil war. when (ho Kri^ncb laid 
nwlv poaet vilh iiuch uppart-m supertorily, tliey nntnrully 


beg^an to treat us with Leas respect id dutant parts of the 
world, aad to consider ua, as a people from whom thej had 
Dothiug to fear, aad who could no longer presume to con- 
travene their desigtiSr or to check their progress. 

The power of doing* wrong with impunity seldom waits 
long for the will; and> it is reasonable to believe, that, 
ID America^ the French would avow their purpose of 9g- 
graDdizing themselves with, at least, as little reserve as in 
Europe. We may, therefore, readily believe, that Ifaey 
were unquiet neighbours^ and bad no great regard to right, 
which they believed us do longer able to enforce. 

That in forming a line of forts behind our colonies, if im 
DO other part of tbeir attempt, they had acted agaiost the 
genera] intention, if not against the literal terms of trea- 
ties, can scarcely be denied ; for it never can be supposed, 
that we intended to be inclosed between the sea and the 
French garriaons, or preclude ourselves from extending 
our plantatioDS backwards, to any length that our conve- 
nience should require- 

With dominion is conferred every thing that can secure 
dominion. He that has the eoast, has, likewise, the sea, to 
a cert^ distance; he that possesses a fortress, has the 
right of prohibiting another fortress to be built within. the 
command of its cannon. When, therefore, we planted 
the coast of North America, we supposed the possession 
of the inland region granted to an indefinite extent; and 
every nation that settled in that part of the world, seems, by 
tbe permission of every other nation, to have made the 
same supposition in its own favour- 
Here, then, perhaps, it will be safest to fix the justice of 
our cause; here we are apparently and indisputably in- 
jured, and this injury may, according to the practice of 
nations, be justly resented. Whether we have not, in 
returo, made some encroachments upon them, must be 
left doubtful, till our practices on the Ohio shall bo stated 
and vindicated. There are no two nations, confining on 
each other, between whom a war may not always he kindied 

wi^i^ii llieui a rt!cipriQcuti»n aC ijijiiric^, utai Huo 
tuition of encT(Mcihmeii1«. 

Fn>m Ihc coiKjiiMtin of the Iitel peav<>, pcrpeUal cotn- 
ItiaiuU o4^ the siipjibtiliktioufl hud iiivuHimia of the IVrDoh 
hnve be«& sent lo Europe, (torn our colonius, nnd Iraiifimit- 
i«d lu our iriiDUlfrrH itl Pari*, wher^ Rood vords were, 
!(oinr?iunrj&. givrii h*, iintl ihe pntiMict^v of iht* Ameritnii 
eomi&ajBdera vetv, aumeiimi^A, ditciwiiriL ; Ixit mi rrdn^u 
WM eivrobtJiincd. nor i» it proUiMr, lliat aii^ ^rutiibUii'ii 
vu »cat. 1o Amcmci. \Vc wcic aUII umuflCil v^itii sui^Ii 
doubtful promwotf, oa Ihoae whoare ftfrvid of ww art- rcindy 
lo inlflrprci in ih«ir own I'^voitr, nnd thc^ [-Vcneli pu^ixfcl 
Ibnrtird tlidr tino oT forlit-aatct^, and E(si*inpi) to tr^oKo, that 
lipfon* cmr complflinla were finally dbmiiAe^l. alt remedy 
should be bu|NfleM. 

Wr, likrvvr* cnikftvourcd. at. iho tATiic llriK, In form u 
bsnirr ngainst fbc Canfuliaas, bvflcndjii^ a colouy to Nov 
ScollAnd, d cold iiticomfortablu Initl of K^uuud; of whJcb 
wr hiid lonjc llif^ iifkminal poiiWMpioii, birforo wu rca]])- 
bc^an to occupy it- To tim, tlia«o vere inviled whom tbe 
fiMmiofi of vfht deprUed of eiuplo^menf, and made bur- 
dviMOive to Iheir fuuntry ; utid »ettli?r« virrtf idlurud tliiltK^i 
hy taiutx fjiHacioiM description* of fi.-rtilr v»1lcy» luid clr-flr 
■km. ^hat c-tTcch llicrie plclurob of Ajuf^rioftji lutppWia 
ha^ Hpfru my coimlrrmci). I viu nivt-r iufonnid, but, I 
lEuppOttU, \Q7y ftiw »oiJKhlprifvi«ioij in Uiotttf froacen regions, 
vbom guilt. Of povoriy, did not drive frnm thc-ir nutix^if 
roantry. About ih<> hmiiidnrirH of this nrw rolony (beie 
were Bame dikpn[4*i; but, uh ihert.* vas DofLtntf yet worlh 
U cvtilrjl, lb<? power <if tbi- rri^iirli w.ix not niutd: L^xcrrlol 
oo ibal iidc; some disturbance vnt>, however, given, luid 
tome aliirmiflbea ciMued. Dut. pt^rhat^s hoinff peopled 
diAoAj with foidiem, vho vntiid rutlirr live by pluuder than 
by Bgrieulturo, and who consider war oi tbi^ir be^l fmde, 
Ndw 8cotUnd would be more obfitii^ulily deft-nded ihmn 
MHencf MT tilt men Is of fur grmler \alue; and thir Frencli arc 
too wvJI infbniK^ nf ibc^ir own iutcnnt* toprovokv liOdtilily 


for uo advantage, or to select that coaotry for iDTasiMT, 
where they must hazard much and can win little. They, 
therefore, pressed on southward, behind our ancient and 
wealthy Bettlementa, and bailt fort after fort, at such dis- 
tances that they mi^ht conveniently relieve one aoother^ 
invade our colonies with sudden incursions, and retire to 
places of safety^ before our people coald unite to oppose 

This design of the French has been long formed, and 
long known, both in America and Europe, and might, at 
first, have been easily repressed, had force beeu used in- 
stead of expostulation. When the English attempted a 
settlementupontheisiandof St. Lucia, the French, whether 
justly or not, considering it as neutral, and forbidden to be 
occupied by either nation, immediately landed upon it, and 
destroyed the houses, wasted the plantations, and drove, 
or carried away, the inhabitants-. This was done in the 
time of peace, when mutual professions of friendship were 
daily exchanged by the two courts, and was not considered 
as any violation of treaties, nor was any more than a very 
soft remonstrance made on our part. 

The French, therefore, taught us how to act; but an 
Hanoverian quarrel with the house of Austria, for soma 
dme, induced us to court, at any expense, the alliance of 
a nation, whose very situation makes them our enemiea. 
We suffered them to destroy our settlements, and to ad- 
vance their own, which we had an equal right to attack. 
The time, however, came, at last, when we ventured to 
quarrel with Spain, and then France no longer suAered 
the appearance of peace to subsist between us, but armed 
in defence of her ally- 

The events of the war are well known t we pleased our- 
selves witb a victory at Dettingen, where we left our 
i^Qunded men to the care of our enemies, but our army 
was broken at Fontenoy and Val; and though, after the 
disgrace which we suffered in the Mediterranean, we had 
some naval success, aud an accidental dearth made peace 
necessary for the French, yet they prescribed the condi- 



A, oblij^ Its to i^vtT bOiftuf^n. and acted as conqucroTn. 
ough m coDquiTTorn of oiiidcrtilion. 
In thill 'SOT Itir AinorJcnQg cliJ^tingui'^bcd tficmscl^a 
ft mann4*rn»bnown nmi im^xpeftcd. TJi^ New Enj;lisb 
ued an armv, ntid, under ilie comtuaud of Pi«pp«<ret, look 

o«t iiDpurl^iiil farlTRKfl in Aiiirncn. Wr [jlr^nAi-d mtr- 
trs )io mnch with \hr ari^uifition. Ibiit *e tould uot 
ink of Kati>nng 11 ; and, niiiong tha Qr;,'unii.-iits uied to 
Qamie lh« p^opl<} u^umdt CharW Stuurt, it wiu: vrry 
cLum^rouU)' tirj^L^d* lliut if ho f^^JiliKil the hirigdan!, he 
wootd aivr rnpp Bri'Imi Jiutilc to lh<* Fw-iich. 

Tb« Fri^ncli, 1io*x'Vit, liad a iin>ri; riwj t'xpcdic-nt !« rt- 
gaia cajw Brt^tou, tLau ty exoltiri^ C^harlca Sluurt to llit 
iglUh tbronc- Tliry (ook, in Ibcir turn, fori St. Gcor^«, 
bod our Katii inclin cumpuny ^h4>lly iu thotr poweri 
they rpstorpd, at thtr prncr, lo tlielr lormi^r posBW' 
lioiw, thai ihey niny conlmuo lo export our isitvcr. 

Ciipe Bevtoii, rlirrHort-, uii* n-iTnri?d, »nd Hui Fr*»ncli 
rcn^lahlishi-d in Aim-no^, \^ilh rqiial powt<r and 
fr«at«r «|iirit» hnving lual tioUiJu^ by tUo war, whidi Ibcy 
b«ri>f« ^iu4^d. 
To the iftmt-mt rupututioti of Ihrir nnn», (ind tbtit liabi- 
IqaI uipprifirity whirh ihcy dorivo fiom U, lli*»y ovy« ihoi/ 
|io«er m Amern'a, rothei iban io Rry reel atrenglti or cir- 
ciinn1ttnre?( of iLdvaintuj^E*- Tbeir rmuiherM art* yet not 
^reat ; ttii?ir Iniile, tWi^b fbiily improved, U not vtr/ c!t- 
tCDHrr i tbcir cnuntry i» biiiTcti ; their fortrcwicv, ihoajfh 
fiamofAns, aro weak, and rather ahclf.or^ from wild beiuitA, 
or Mvage nations, tbtin phcofl biiJll for dofeuco ui^Lim^t 
bomb* or cuoEkOQs. Cape Breton hai been found not Co 
impri'^riablf'; nor, if wp cvTiitult-r (ht- xtiife ortho places 
pa«rui>d bv Thrt tvn iisilinnt iti AmcHni, U thrri* uny rrBtoo 
upon wha'h tlie Fiv^nL'b should huvL* prT.'Aiinit!(] to jjioIl'hI lU, 
but that ihvv ibouffht our apint fto broken, that «<? dur^t 
not fCMAt ihi'm; uttd in thia opinion our loni; lorbt-anuioo 
•asily confirmed thom. 

W# forgot, or nilher avoided (o^tbink, that what we d^ 


layed to do, must be done at last^ and doae wiih more 
difficulty, as it was delayed longer; that while wq were 
eomplauaing, and they were eludiag, or amweriog our 
oomplmntfl, fort was riaing upon fort, and one inTasioD 
made a precedeDt for another* 

This confidence of the French is exalted by some real 
advantages. If they possess^ in those couDtries, less than 
we, they have more to gain, and less to hazard ; if they are 
less DumerouB, they are better united. 

The French compose one body with one head. They 
have all the same interest, and agree to pursue it by the 
same means. They are subject to a govemour, commis- 
sioned by an absolute monarch, and participating the au- 
tiiority of his master. Designs are, therefore, formed 
without debate, and executed without impediment. They 
have yet more martial than mercantile ambition, and 
seldom suffer their military schemes to be entangled with 
collateral projects of gain : tliey have no wish but for ccm- 
quest, of which they justly consider riches as the conse- 

Some advantages they will always have, as invaders. 
They make war at the hazard of their enemies : the contest 
being carried on in our territories, we must lose more by a 
victory, than they will suffer by a defeat. They viH sub- 
sist, while thay stay, upon our plantations; and, perhaps, 
destroy them, when they can stay no longer. If we pur- 
sue them, and carry the war into their dominions, our 
difficulties will increase every step as we advance, for we 
shall leave plenty behind us, and find nothing in Canada, 
but lakes and forests, barren and trackless; our enemies 
will shut themselves up in their forts, against which it is 
difficult to bring cannon through so rough a country, and 
which, if they are provided with good magazines, will soon 
starve those who besiege them. 

All these are the natural effects of their government and 
situation ; they are accidentally more formidable, as they 
are less happy- But the favour of the Indians, which they 
enjoy, with very few exceptions, among all the nations of 



ii4irth4?m rnnlitienl, vte ouj^hf to ettimdt'T wilb other 
ihoiightfi ; th'n friimirWT miglit hiivr f-njo^ril, tf we hail 
been carvful to iIcmuyc iL Tbc Frcncli, hy having lUatm 
Mvaj^ nulJotiB ntk Itirir fticlr, am nlwu\3 supplied vilh »pics 
■nd guidciii and with uuxiliariea, Ukc Ihc Turtiir* to llbc 
Tttrki, or tho llu«anrs la Ibo Uomians, of no |-raat m« 
•gfliQftt Iraopi mh^^t iu order of battle, but wry well 
quli£ect to miuBium u wur among wootU and HvuIpIh, 
vhrm miirh miBrhi'tf mHy Iin finiir hy un^xpectBd ons^Cl, 
ttad sifclv bf uljtHEiieil hy quii^L rvtrfub. Tlit\ mji wiuttti 
A colon; hy sqdd<3() itiruudap surpriaclhc str.ig^luig gilaiilrn. 
fiif^bk-n Itic iohabilanU into Ukwns, hinder tbc cultivation 
ttflantUt, tmd alarve tboso wliom iJioy are not able to eoli- 
th iki'. 


TitfC prvwoi 3TKlrm of Engluh pDlillfrkft niHv properljr he 
Bdif] to bavn Ukrn ri#r in ihr^ rrign of ^iitwn Elizubtrtk 
At iHs time- tbc prote»iAiit religion wa» vtubltxUc^il, wbich 
natur&ll; ullicd ua to tbi- retormi^d A(atL\ und mude all the 
popi«lk povcTA our ^oomirn- 

We bef^au in tlie Hame rrign to viitftid ourtrodo, by 
vhii^b we made il n^c^iiury to t>iirftelvif<4 to vntt^b tbc 
rommi-rriEd prn^ri^u of oizr nrigbbnrirft; und if nol to iu- 
comnofle aod obstruct tbeir ImlTlrL, to hinder ibem from 
inpairia^ oura, 

Wcf tbcTi, likewise, ftcttlrd colotiic^K in Amcrion, wbicli 
was bc<om<T Ibo grvai occno of Kuropcun (tmliitmn ; for, 
•etinj; uilJi wbut Ir^rosnrefl tlie Spaniard* were aniiually 

• )■ ll» nugknna, IbU arlirl* it promufLl '• lo be fmuDOiTiJ ;* bul thf id- 


enriched from Mexico and Peru, every nation imagined, 
that ap American conquest, or plantation, would certainly 
fill the mother country with gold and silver. This pro- 
duced a large eitteut of very distant dominionii, of which 
we, at this time, neither knew nor foresaw the advantage 
or iQcombrance ; we seem to have snatched them into our 
■faands^ upon no very just principles of policy, only because 
every atate, according* to a prejudice of long continuance, 
concludes itself more powerful, as its territories become 
larger - 

The diacoveriea of new regions, which were then every 
day made, the profit Of remote traffick, and the necessity 
of long voyages, produced, in a few years, a great multi- 
pUcatioQ of shippiog. The sea was considered as the 
wealthy element; and, by degrees, a new kind of sove- 
reignty arose, called naval dominion. 

As the chief trade of the world, so the chief maritime 
power was at first in the hands of the Portuguese and 
Spaniards, who, by a compact, to which the consent of 
other princes was Dot asked, had divided the newly disco- 
vered countries between them; but the crown of Portugal 
having fallen to the king of Spain, or being seized by him, 
he was master of the ships of the two nations, with which 
he kept all the coasts of Europe in alarm, till the armada, 
which he had raised, at a vast expense, for the conquest of 
England, was destroyed, which pat a stop, and almost an 
end, to the naval power of the Spaniards. 

At this time, the Dutch, who were oppressed by the 
Spaniards, and feared yet greater evils than they felt, re- 
solved no longer lo endure the insolence of their masters : 
they, therefore, revolted^ and, after a struggle, in which 
they were assisted by the money and forces of Elizabeth, 
erected an independent and powerful commonwealth. 

When the inhabitants of the Low Countries had formed 
their system of government, and some remission of the war 
gave them leisure to form schemes of future prosperity, 
they easily perceived, that, as their territories were narrow, 
and their numbers small, they could preserve themselves 

or GRRAT BRlT>\tr<. 

ouly tiy thut pow<ir whtcb u tbc vonsrqiwrucc of wf^nlth; 
aad tlialt by 9 people wfiose country frodncec) only th(» 
noc^tsaries of life, wenltii ^-urt not lo be uoquin^d, bitl 
f>am fomgD dominionp, and by xhc truntportiUioi) of tiio 
irrodttrfK of qnp <'oun(rv infu sjnothor 

From ibJH u<M.:f<i^ih. lliii:i ju^lly efitimated. urcrHi- u plan 
of coiiuuerco. uluch «ra«. fur muiiy ymrn, iiruKroiiiril niUl 
induMry and »i]f cciu» perhaps nrvct acimi in lli« wt'Hd Iw- 
forc, ood hy winch the poor tcnitnt^of mtAd-wullod viilagcs, 
iuid inipasMblo bo4^, erecii^d thf^tnseUes tiitc hir;)^ and 
mi^Cy Bla1«4, wba pui ib« f^rvaie^i moiiunbK ut ilc&mce, 
«trhuie ulliaooi* wit« r»iirlrd by <hi* pmudi-iit, iind whoip 
|»a«rr qax dri--adcd Uy i\w ficrcc-Ht nation- By ibrr ftifu- 
hli»i)in«-nt of ihin Mate, fbere AruM-, to EcLgUud. n mw 
ally, nod a Dt^r rival. 

At thiA lERic, vbicfi wcm^ to hi^ Iho period declined for 
ituf chmng4f of iii^ face of Eiiropp, Franco bo^^n first to 
fitti inio pover, and> from defending Iter own provuicvs 
wilL dil&L-ully and fliii'luiitiii^ sucoms. Co ihrenten ber 
neiglbUoon villi crcroucbmrDti mid ilrv;u4tat!onK. Vh^nry 
thr fourth having, After a Ioil|; Mf ng^lc, obtaiUL-O tIi^<:roiVfit 
found it eany to }n>^'crD noblta, <.-\lidusU-d and woaried 
villi a Ion;: oivil ^^^' ^^*^ havia;; ^lompusc'd tlio dbptitr^fl 
betw^'p tho ptoWsUttiXa mid papiMi!, no ai to obloiri, u1 
lratf.11 trnoe for boib partieti, vas at U-unrc; to acriLmiilfllfl 
treasure, and raiM* forueii, vblt^b hfr piiq>uscd (o liave «m« 
pkijt-din adr^ignof iirlliin>rrurt?v*?r tlicbalanL'e<if Europe. 
Of tkit gieal ticbruir he lived not to »er ttie vutLity, or lo 
feci the dutappoinCm«nt ; for He vta9 murden^d in the midst 
of bii miizbty prcp^nitionH, 

'Ilie FrencJ), botti-vcr, w<^fe. in tliia rei^fn, Uiught to know 
thfir own power; and tbi* grt-ul d%jti^ti% of n kiaj^, wbe«e 
wHdoitt they had to Intig i'ipi*rii*nrrd, rvm thmifcb Ibry 
weft- o(il broufflit lo tfiludl eipjefi^u^'^t^ dbpo^cil them to 
ciomiider thcnuclvci tu onutter* of the destiny of thoir 
!!«% libour» ; ond. from that itmv, \iv tli^l ihaW nicely ex^ 
amine llieir flciiemcif aud eonduvi, vnW, I bvlivve, find 
tbal lb«y bt-'gan to tuke an air of vuperionly» to which thry 



lull) oe^'CT prctcniicd licfflrc; and that they Iiotc beoft 
filwayn i-mplov^d, more- or \c*» oprnlj, upon »cbcracra of 
dominion, Uioujfti witb frequent intemipiiouft fDm ilomc^- 
tick Irouhlitfi, and with thoit- intf-'mmcionK «1iich hunaan 
coui]!i<.^lEi miibt ^Iv-njri] FnifTer, us nK^Ti intn]»t«<l with fifreat 
ttRuira an duvlptilt'd \i\ yoiilli, aiirl larrguict iii ii|[w; m 
emb^rrpii^Mrtl bjr i:(rmprtitor», or, nilLout Any cxt<*rn«I rci^ 

Frnncr wa* now no lon^or in dreud of tuBtdK dod in* 
vaaioiH from England. iShp wafl not only nblt) to mainlniQ 
her owu (errilorios, hut prcpnrcidt on nil oucaaioDs, to Jn- 
fodf others ; and v'& had now a iieij^hbour, «hoie inttfrcit 
it was 1o ho un enemy, ami who hui ditlurbcd lu. friim 
ihMl lime to this, wilh opt'u hn*liUty, or iwoiwl ninchioa- 

Sach was Ihc^ ntdte of Etig^land. and iti iJ<^i^hbDUT?i, wh«it 
Eliisabcth left thi! cruwn lo Junes of Soot.lnnd. It has 
not, I think, been fr<'<|UDnttyohaorvod, by historianft, at how 
critical a lime the ooion of the tvo kiagdumti happon^^d. 
Hud Eri^lLuid ;k[id 3(^o1hind <:ouliuued s^paratif kin^ornn, 
ttlien Frsiurr w»i rifuhliKhed in the fnll poMPfi^ioa of her 
niilitral powtir, the Scot*, in runliiiujuic** «f ih^ lrngiii\ 
which it would nuw have he^n more timn ever thnir inlpn»»t 
to observe, would* upon e>ery inttlgitlioa of the French 
court, have ruised au army with Frenrh money, uod hn- 
rA««od iM with an iuvti^ton, in which they wotild hov& 
thought lhefn««lve8 nuccff^ful, whutcv^r numbpni tJi^y 
mif^ht hflve left behind Ihem, To a people worlike und 
indigent, mil iiitunlon iitio d rich eonntry ct m-\rr hntU 
ful. Thr pay of Prunre. mtd ihi^ plunder of iJic northern 
countrirM» wonid alwayft havo trmpW th<^in to fanzard their 
IWeB, nad we should hiiye been under a Decettssity of keep- 
ing u lini< cf jcnrri^otis uluu^ our boider. 

Th'ia trouble, howover, vrtt t^ticapcd, hy the nt^cfnion of 
king Jamea ; but h In uneerlaiu, vhelher hiti natnral di^ 
pasitifMi did iio< irrjnre tis more llmn ihiv ii<^eidental condi- 
tion httpprnrd lo bcnr^fit iia, lln vtar, a man of griiit iheo- 
r«ticat kDOwlrd£(% but of no practical wisdom; he was 

\prT wtll able id ilisccni the true inlcrcsl of tiiinaHf, bid 
Lintfilocn, and liix poatentyi but saL'hficcd it, upoa ulj oc* 
rfi^Ukru, to bin |>r(!*ofit pleuiiir^ or hiji pr^s^Qt cu5c; lo 
coAM^ioBR of hiH own knowludg^ uiid ubililteii. thul ha would 
not tuflef & mimfltcr lo govr-rn, fine) vo lax of ^Kfrntion, 
ftoil (tmuruits of r]j>|io«ilioTi. ihnl liv was ik>I Able la govifrn 
for bimnclf. W'itli (Iilk nluininl'^r^ JiunrA qitwtiy fiuw tk0 
Dutch invAiie our comm<^Tor ; iLc grew frvery ili^ 
stronger and stron^r; uiiil lh« proti^iitunl int«ro«t, of 
wbich bo l><iJutL-4 huna^lf tli« heud, wiu) opprcftflcd on 
cr^TT fti(i4>, whilo h<f writr and hunted^ umX doi^fLiched Adi- 
bjuuidour^, who. when ih^ir nin>^trrU wpakneea wax oniv 
biMivii, were Ireufod. fn foreif^ri courb. with fi^rv littJn 
OOranHiny. Jnui^ri. hovrvrr, Inok ciirr in br flnlfprrfl rI. 
lKrcD«, and wa« n^itliei »iugry nor n»li«Lmcd at xhc apj>6tLr- 
osfo ihnt bi.' luudi.r in otLer coiinlriOA. 

Tbud Eii^luitd [<rw woult'r, or, what b, ia political 
MttuMtion, Ibo »afni> Uiinj^, ituw Jut lUHshbour? ^ow 
mroiif^r, witboul teceivitif( projKirtioDabl? additiont* to her 
ovn po«-«r Xoi ibnt tUv miichiuf vat m grvat us it u 
gi-nf?nalljr concrivftd nr mpri'irMlird; f<ir, T hrlirvp, it mfly 
he made lo appeal', thiil i\w w«-al(b itf thr: duEIuji mus, in 
thia rtiffn, vrry much incrra-iL^di llicju|,'h lljul of ihr cTown 
TO loiowncd- Oar irputntinn for witr wui mipairrd ; but 
CMttnerco thorns to have been citrnod on wilb grmt in- 
dvitrr and vi^^ur, aiid notbtn;; voa vaotinj^, but that w« 
should h>ivp (li-fcnd^d oiirKcUlf* from the eacroacbments of 
our neighhnun;. 

Tbe inclLibuticn 1u pUnt ci>tofiie» in Auicrjca «till cou- 
tuiui'd. and (bin bcinj; (be uuljr project iti wbicb mtn of 
ndvrnlurc luid irnlrrpri^c could ^xcrt tticir rjunlUic^, in a 
pa^^ifick Tr>if^> mulftludca, wbo vero diacoutorttcd vriih their 
condition in thirir nurivo i^ouulrr. and sucb miittitudrv 
thrrp wUl alvayft be, fioughi nrlitf, or, at lea*t. a chanyo, 
tn thn vi<vJrm n-gi4kna> ^'b^rf^ t1i«iy unltlrd. in the nurtliifTli 
port oftbi? cwntioi^nl, ul » di9iitiic«< frriiii thv S|iuniur<l«, at 
Ibal lime almoiit ihit only nutioii Ihiil bud any power or 
will to obfttmcl iM. 


Such was the coDditioD of this country, when the nit- 
bapp; Charles iuherited the crown. He had seen tlie 
erroura of his father, without being able to prevent them, 
and, when he began his reign, endeavoured to raise tho 
nation to its former dignity- The French papists had 
begun a new war upon the protestants: Charles sent a 
fleet to invade Rh^e and relieve Rochelle, but his at- 
tempts were defeated, and the protectants were subdned. 
The Dutch, grown wealthy and strong, claimed the right 
of fishing in the British seas : this claim the king, who 
saw the iacFeasing power of the states of Holland, r^ 
solved to contest. But, for this end, it was necessary to 
build a Qeetr and a fleet could not be built witboat ex- 
pense : he was advised to Jevy ship-money, which gave 
occasion to the civil war, of which the events and conclu-r 
sion are too well known. 

While the inhabitants of this island were embroiled 
among themselves, the power of France and Holland was 
every day increasing. The Dutch had overcome the dif- 
Jiculties of their infant commonwealth ; and, as they still 
retained their vigour and industry, from rich grew con- 
tinually richer, and from powerful more powerful. They 
e^ttended their traffick, and had not yet admitted luxury ; 
so that they had the means and tiie will to accumulate 
wealth, without any incitement to spend it. The French, 
who wanted nothing to make them powerful, butapmdent 
regulation of their revenues, and a proper use of their 
natural advantages, by the successive care of skilful mi- 
nisters, became, every day, stronger, and more conscioua 
of their strength. 

About this time it was, that the French first began to 
turn their thoughts to trafRck and navigation, and to desire, 
like other nations, an American territory. All the fruitful 
and valuable parts of the western world were, already, 
either occupied, or claimed; and nothing remained for 
Fraoce, but the leavings of other navigators, for she was 
not yet liaughty enough to seize what the neighbouring 
powers had already appropriated. 


Hie French, therefore, contented themBelves with send- 
ing a colon; to Cenada, a cold> nnconifortable, uninvitiDg 
region, from which eothing bnt furs and fish were to he 
had, and where the new inbabilanls coold only pass a 
Inbortona and necessitous Jife, in perpetual regret of the 
delicioiuneAA and plenty of theirnatiTo country, 

Notwithstanding the opinion which our conatrymen 
have been taagbt to entertain of the comprehension and 
foresight of French politiciaas, I am not ahle lo persuade 
myself, that when this colony was first planted, it was 
tbonght of much vatue, even by those that encouraged 
it; there was, probably i nothing more intended, than to 
provide a drain, into which the wasteof an exuberant nation 
might be thrown, a place where those who could do no 
good might live without the pow^r of doing mischief. 
Some new advantage they, undoubtedly, saw, or imagined 
themseives to see, and what more was necessary to the 
eatablishment of the colony, wns supplied by natural incli- 
nation to enperimeots, and thai impatience ofdoin^ nothing, 
to which mankind, perhaps, owe much of what is imagined 
to be effected by more splendid motives. 

In this region of desolate sterility they settled tbem- 
»ehea, upon whatever principle; and, as they have, from 
that time, had the happiness of a government, by which no 
interest has been neglected, nor any part of (heir subjects 
overlooked, they have, by continual encouragement and 
auistance from France, been perpetually enlarging their 
bounds, and increasing tbeir numbers- 

Theae were, at Grat, like other nations who invaded 
America, inctiaed to consider the neighbourhood of the 
nativas, as troublesome and dangerous, and are charged 
with having destroyed great numbers; but they are now 
grown wiser, if not bonesler, and, instead of endeavouring 
to frighten the Indians away, they invite them to inter- 
marriage and cohabiLation, and allure them, by all practi- 
cable methods, to become the subjects of the king of 

If the Spaniards, when they first took possession of the 



newly ctiMovered world, in«1f ad of deuroirin^ thn inbablt- 
anU by lLouuincl«. Iiail either had ihn nrhnniiy or ttie 
|iolt(-T li» }|["p ronriliati-cl llirm hy kiiiil IrKatiiitiil. uud tu 
imve ujutcd tijirm, graJunUy, to their own peopk-, Mich nn 
Acv«»ioD might have hccn miutc 1o the power of Lhc kinjc 
of ^puin, wt would havo mndo htm fnr the pc-atcil monnTcli 
that c\tT y«t ruled iu tiie |^lobe; bui the opportunliy vai 
\oH by foolUhuew pad cruelly, and uow chd never b© r*- 

Wbou the Tjarliamcnt hod Jinnlly prcYAilcd oror our 
hm^, and liic oniiy ovrr the porUamcat, the interctts nf 
Uio Ivo timniiioavi>aIlW of Elif^leiid attd HolUnd rwon ap- 
ptian^d to \ta cippotiiio. aud u new ffoi^romviii declnr^d 
war Hgnmit th<^ Diiti^h. In thi« Q(>n1«fit viti exvritid tbv 
niiTKiM pow<*r f>r th^ iwn imtion^, nnd th«- Diitrh vcro 
JbialK defealed, yt^l not wirli Kuch evidt^ui^e of *»up(<norit}'t 
M left n* much ro^jion to botui oar victory: they were 
obliged, liowt^er. to solicit pnino, which WAKirruntvd ibom 
on ousy oonditionA ; nnd (Jrotnvcll, wh<> wa^ now pouciscd 
of thp mprpitio pow^r^ was left at leUore to puraiw oihcr 

The l^urnpbuii puwerx bud aot yrt crnied U% took wilb 
envy on tJio SpaniAh acquisition* in Amrncit, ood, iburo- 
foTc. Cromvcll thought, llmt if bo gained any port of theae 
ceJ«bratcd r^^iuns, he should «x<ill his own roputatioit. mod 
tntich Ihe country, lle» theroforo, quun-t^llod vttb tbe 
Spujiiurd« upon «ome inch atibjoct of conhmtion, cua ho tlinC 
is molvrd npnii hrtstility may alwayn find; and Kftnr. Penn 
and VcrnoblcA into tb» wvstFfn seaa- TlL«*y iini lufidtfd In 
Ui^panioln, whorjcc they were driven olT, wilb no grvaX re- 
putation to tht>m»olvcN; und that tbey mij^tit not reium 
vhlbout hutin^ donr loibethinj^, they nflorwnrdK invudvd 
Juaaica, where thoy found Iv» Trn«tar»c«, nnd obiaiiwd 
that ifttnnd, which vm af>»>rw»rdfl ^^onstf^ucd 1o U4, being 
probnbly tif bltlt* vitlue to llw. SpuniardH, mid noutirinei. lo 
ihitf day, a pUf;c of ipRai weidih and df^adfid iiick«»dnc«N 
a don of lyrantii and it dunj^oon of slaves. 

Cro<mwoll, who, porhikpa, bad not loimiro to study fOreipi 

0¥ OBJfAT BIlITAlli. 


fiolilkk*, vu very fjilnMv mUtuVpn wllli rf^gnrd in Sptiin 
and PftiikCO- Spuiii iiud bt^4.-u iIih IdM jiuvt^r In Hunipe 
vbkb hail c|M>nly |>r«te«id«d to e^r^ l«w to other nations, 
ond Ibe n^^iourT of Uit« (^rrour lomflinrd. vhrn the rr^al 
cmuo WW nt ad t^nd. Wc hid more lately bnon fri^hlnd 
bj Itpoin than Hy Frjincp ; und though vpry f^w w*re then 
alft« of the f^eneraiio» that hud their jclef^p hrokeiT by tlie 
annMto. jrot tlrt usuav. oC iha S\mt\'iaTth w4h Ntill Li^rribln 
And a war BgttUut them ««» plcuiug: (o die peopU. 

Our ovn trottbloA had left da rcrr little dt^jrc to look 
Dot upon tbe c<iatinc'nC; ;ui iaieicmle pTcjndicc hindered 
iu Trocn peri-'eivmg, thul, for moro thnn half n century, the 
power of Knuice bnd hrfn inen-uting, find that of Spain 
hnd lirion growing }e«9i nor doi^« il *vvtn to have be^^n 
remembered, wlilrli yi:l n.'<|ulred im f^rt-ai depth of policy 
to diKera, thttt of two muiHirchf, neithrr of which oonld 
bo loojc our friend, il won our inleresl to hove the vcoher 
n««r lu; or, tbat if n war f!hi:nild hnppon, Spftin> however 
««a1ifaij or tironj in h^rxelf, wu, bj Uie diipenioD of h«r 
cenitorie^. nnnre obhoxioui to the ultuckc of a nuvul pcjvi% 
«nd, eocisni|uniilly. hud laort? tn fi^r from ui, and hud if 
Iota in her power lo hurt Ub. 

All ihCM couaidt^raiioiu were overlooked bj tho wi^dont 
of thMt ajtc: And CromwiTll oAiddted the pronch to drive ih« 
ttponnrdt out of l-liiindor«, at u tine when rt w&a our c»- 
Mc«al to hnvr £oppnrv^ the Spttnittrdft ugaioj^l Frunr^e. w 
farmery ihe Hollnnd^^rfl ngjiinst SEi;iin, hy which we mifcht, 
«1 traAt, have relArdcd ihi- growth o4' the French power, 
tbouzb, 1 think, it mitit hove timilly prevotlcd. 
^ Dltriog thix timir tmc colonio), vrhich wcro leu disturbed 
bjroQr commoiiciiK ihAu tho mother-couulry. naturally i»- 
<rtttMd; it tf probable lh»t muiiy> who were uiihappj nt 
koote, look shelter io ihf>«f* remoir rn^iniiH, where, fur ihtv 
«hLi< of iniilinjj;^ gn-uU-r immbt^n. every one van nll^jwed 
to think uid live li» own wny. Tlie French scttlomoat, in 
the meon timt^, went Alowly lorwitJ, too incoiiaidpndjlii to 
any jcalou«y, and too weak to aiirinpt noy encroacb- 


When Cromwell died, the ^oDfusiona that followed pro- 
duced the restoration of monarcby, and some time wu 
employed in repairing the mins of our constitution, and 
restoring the nation to a state of peace. In every change, 
there will he many that suifer real or imaginary grievancea, 
and, therefore, many will be dUsatisfied, This was, perhaps, 
the reason why several colonies had their be^nning in the 
reign of Charles the second- The quakers willingly aoug^t 
refuge in Pennsylvania ; and it is not unlikely that Carolina 
owed itfl inhabitants to the remains of that restless disposi- 
tion, which bad given so much disturbance to our country, 
and had now no opportunity of acting at home. 

The Dutch, atill continuing to increase in wealth and 
power, either kindled the resentment of their neighboors 
by their insolence, or raised their envy Ly their prosperitf. 
Charles made war upon them without much advantage; 
but they were obliged, at last, to confess him the sovereign 
of the narrow seas. They were reduced almost to exije- 
mities by an inTasion from France; but soon recovered 
from their consternation, and, by the fluctuation of war, re- 
gained their cities and provinces with the same, speed aa 
they had lost tbem. 

During the time of Charles the second, the power of 
France was every day increasing ; and Charles, who oever 
disturbed himself with remote consequences, saw the pro- 
gress of her arms and the extension of faer dominions, with 
very little uneasiness. He was, indeed, sometimes driven, 
by the prevailing faction, into conrederacie>i against her; 
but as he had, probably, a secret partiality in her favour, 
he never persevered long in acting against her, nor ever 
acted with much vigour ; so that, by his feeble resistance, 
he rather raised her confidence than hindered her designs. 

About this time the French first began to perceive the 
advantage of commerce, and the importance of a naval 
force ; and such encouragement was given to manufactures, 
and so eagerly was every project received, by which trade 
could be advanced, that, in a few years, the sea was filled 
with their ships, and all the parts of the world crowded 

0¥ Olt&AT URtTAIM. 


ini'rchn:it4. Thcrp U, prrhap*, no insiaDce in 
vi'irT, [>r «ii(*h n clintige pniHutW In «o chort a tiinei, 
in ibv- Ki7JiiTiiirjL u:ii) mutiiipnf of » [itHijile, uf hu nuuij 
Qcw loiirci'S of urnltK oprnrd. and »urK mnnbrM pfartifi^ 
ten ofkd mi^rclianu niadt-r to aCurt out ol~ ihc f;ri>uml, us wu 
aeon in the miuittry of Colbert. ■ 

Now it Has that tlie fiower of FruiLcv bfjcaine formidflblA 
10 Eii|ac^nd. H^r ftommiotii wi-ru lurgo bt-rori^. tmd ber 
urmi4» nmormvA ; hut hpr oprralinn^ vpfp net^pwmrily can- 
fioeil to Ui« couliiieaT. Slii^ bud ufilLi-r abi|j% for the 
trmmpofltftioQ of hiT troops, nor monL-jr for tbrir itupporl 
ia diilntit expedil^ona^ C!olbcrl miv hotli ihcftc vaiila, and 
vow that comtnrTCo onlv wo;i1d mrpplv Ihcin. Tho fertility 
ofih^ir coiiTitrv furninlK^R i\w Frrnrh wilb commoditiM; 
ihp pOT**nTof ih? common j^pople kepp« the price of Inbour 
low. Dv lli«f obvious przii^tice of jivlliii^ muL'h nnd budn^ 
little, it vas app^krnnl, llml tbr^ ironld »oi>» dniw ihr vii^alLb 
of otbcr fouDlri^A ItUo tbelr omu: and, by oorrying out 
tbcif n«rclia[idi90 in th<*ir own veMi*<]s, a num^roiu body «r 
Mllofi voiiM 'piioktj bv niia<?d. 

lliti «ui ^rojv^ct4.-d» iiitd ihii was porformsd, Tbo kiag 
of f''niarrt whk soon rnahlrd lo lirlhr ihonr whnm hr rniild 
fiut i.~0»qu4'r. iiimI tr> Et<rrif}, vith lii;! fleHi. llio?tK wliom \m 

dmiiei could not luvc d^iprouclieil. The? UiJlueuutf of 
Fnuicr VFA* itnddcnly difTiisrd all over thr globe ; hor unnit 
vofo drc^dtxl, And her pco^^tonA rrciritnd in remote} ro- 
fpon», nnd tlio?i« wore aliuoaC re;[tdy to A^kliowl^df^e li«r 
MM'frrcigniy, iiho, ^ fVvr yc^ura bvf^re, hnd Ainircely buvd 
ln'r luimr. Shr* rbnndrrr-d on thi? (-nnKln oi' Afriou, und r«>- 
privvd aitiSiiMJul(riir« from Siiim. 
So much may bv done by oue wi!i« nmn eiidtT'dTovrLnf , 
llOM^ty, the advantuge of tfie publtck, Bnl Ibjit ve 
may not nuhly condemn all miniM^^r^. n% wnntint: uudom 
or iot<»gntyp vliose connsels Jiavfi prodi^c^td no nnch ap- 
pmnt beiirfitfi to their rouiilry, it mu»t hr rcinddrriril, 
ibAt ColWri bad mrant of iK'liTig. wUirh uur |;»%errun»vni 
lUtr^ not hIIuw. He roiitd rnloKr* all his (jrdrm by tlii- 
power of nn uliBulutc niouarcli ; lie could i^ompcl iiidivi- 




damU ia Mii.-rlflr:-^ Ihfir pn'THfe profit to tbt* fi^n«ira! gttod ; 
Kit Cdulil iiiaku i>ut! uiidt;rHtiuidiLi|{ pn^^iile {ivtr mmj 
hands, ntiA rcmovt; diiTfcuhioA bj quick und violent expe* 
dicnl^, Wbcro no mon liiinki luniAolf tLnJcr mit ob]%«< 
liun to submit lo aiiotbrr, aud, iiuttr-nd of coapcratioii; in 
one ^T^ai trheme, ever) on«- haqtonfl ibrou^U b^-pAihd to 
privure profit, no gi^Ml ctmu|^v* van Hudilt^uW l>t* mjule ; nor 
JN fiiiprrioiir kiiowTmlj;^ uf miiob f-fTt^iH, Kbrm rvrrj miiti 
rMolvoa to usr kja own ovca find h» own judgmcDt. nad 
CTCnr ODG oppLmids tis own dc<(t^-rit7 &nd cUligeiiC6i in 
proportion aei be tieoum^a rich aoon^r thun hi:i aoit^bbonr. 

CodonitM Aftf nEwa^it tbe uH'ccEa and eauiu of navigDtUio. 
They wbo visit mjiny rotjniri(»ti lind mmt^, tn «likhp!«Q«on>, 
pmF<, ur MdV*<y iiiviti* tlioiu Iv aiftlle ; nml tkpMe «0lt1»' 
muiitji) wbtri Lhev Jut* ouco ru^de, must L«^p u perpeluu) 
correspond oii<;ti with IJ»? ori^iuil country to nbkh tbry nxe 
«ubjeut« and on wfui^b tlury dcpund tor protrction in dini- 
^r, uad fiupplici in nct:(?H)^iI]v\ So that a countryr once 
diKco^cred and planted, iniut always find employoaent for 
iibi{>pin^, moTv certbtfily tbon uny rufeij^n f omniercv, vliicb, 
dvpettdin^' on cuHunlliri, nmy be Hntiit^liinen nifin*. mid 
aomctimos less, and vkldi otLurr fiatiojQs rosy c-onCxaot or 
»Dpprc««. A trade to coloruon con never be much impaired, 
beinfr, in reuility. only an intoroou»f bolwoen distaut pro- 
vince* of tbo ftntno empire, trom wbioh intrudc'» are iNiuly 
estcliid^d ; libt^wite Ibr interrfai nnd nfiHtion ofiho cor- 
rospondeni partiea. bowe\*»r distant. \a thi? K^mp. 

Ou UiLA rea»ou uU uitiuii?». wbo<ie puw^r bus hwtt «x- 
ctImI Gtt Ibe ocemi. bavc fixed coloniea in fmuoIc part* of 
(be world ; und wbite ihone colonira sufcaintod, nLiTic«tkia, 
if it did not incrijujat;* wni: ulwaye proncnod from total do- 
cay. With thii policy the French were well acquartited, 
and, ilifrrdore, improved und aAi^m^-^nted the s^lllenieuta 
in America nnd oihor n.>|^onii, in projiorijon uft ihty ad< 
vaactrd ibtfir kcUeiuos of uaval gr^atnefi^ 

I1iv cjuicl tint«. in wbjc:b t^K-y made llieir acquisition* 
in jkmt^rica, or other quurtcrx of the j^lohc, it itt not iK^oca- 
t^iy to cnlleoL It i« mifficicnl loohaorvr, that tbeir Irvde 


md ikeir eolouivH iii4?rc*u»»n] fo^t<llti*r; ;ind, tf their puvul 
wmanwob wuri? i:im'ii?<l nn, a> \Ur.y ri^ilLy wrtr. iu gn^uli'v 
propar1»>o to their comiucrcc, (ban can be pracdtfcd im 
itihcr «ntaXtii^ it ttiVft be otlrihntcd to (bo rnartiol Ahpo- 
ailioD III thai x'uae |>rcvajliu|( iu Ibt.- nrLtiuu* to thv IK-^qtii^nl 
wm vUch Levis llie fourteuDth mnd<} upon bin nctgli' 
Itoiin, ttJifl Iu ibe exlefiiivr commrTr^ of tlin KnglUh ikrid 
DuuIl wbicb «(r<jr(]i?<l fto mucfi |>1i]iiili*r to imvitfeern, rhal 
war wuf more lucrative tbmi l/uilicb, 

'l1)Da tbo (M^«l poorer t>( Frunn: continued to IncrctLM 
dunn^ lijo rt'i^n «! Cliiirlcn thr j*^r-ond, who, bt^lwccn bi» 
fondnew of ejuu uiid pludirure, lh<] ftln:g}cl^» of ruction, 
wliich lie cmild not cup|>rriw, and hh indinaijon to thi> 
friwidnbip of Dh^olutf iiio]Jurrb\, bud uut much powr-r »r 
doaire to rvprvai iL And uf Jiuiie^k ilir v?l-oiu1 it i:oulil 
not br expected, tbul lio tbould act a^ain»t bU ncitcbbonrs 
iritb grciJt vi^oui, liitviii}^ tbo who[o bodir of bis subject* 
to oppcwv. He wiM not ignornrit o^ ibc reul iiiUireftt of 
luv GOttsirj; 'ic dr-'«ircd itfi pow^^r and iU bnppin^iK, and 
tkoii^t right ty, thai tlvm ii; no liRppiucfiv wilboui i¥-ti^ion: 
but br ibought vpry rrmnpoimlj und ahf^unlty, tJint tlirrc? 
ifl uo rebgiuii witbuji puperj. 

WWu llii> oi.-cc(ifqty of si^lf-pmrrv4tio» bitd impclLod 
the Bul»j«cta of Jajilv» to drive bim from the ibrouo. thvTo 
Muiw n time in vbich Uic p;u»ionK> uh veil lu jiilereat of 
ihi^ gotrmmrnt, acted iigHimt liw. Vrvnch, mid in whu'k It 
may, p^^rhaps, hn rnnttonahl^' dnublrd. wbillirr tlie lImhitp 
of liUBiblitifj Fr^iict- WJiA uuC ntroni^r. tbitu tbtit of exalting 
Eii|[l«i»d: of tbij(< bovcFcr. it id not nocu-Uiiry to inquire^ 
Moce. tbowgh the iDCcntioD axay Ik: difTtrcnt* tbi? event will 
W Uboumo. All moutlu w«ro now opon to d<>clurti v/imX 
vraqr cjo bad obMrrcd l)«loTt^, tbat tlio armx of France 
V«ire bveomv diui^;«ron« to Europe: aoil tlint, if her riH 
croachmrqits ivcxp fuflon^d b liuto lungi^r, itu^taucc would 
lie tou lute. 

It w«» now ilett*nniiipd to rcHA»<^rl th*' cmpinvof llio Mtti 
l>iit it Wiw more cQ*il) del<'rmjiit<d tbon pcrtonnt^d: tli« 
Ffvucli mode a vigoroMB dt^lbnce Agauist thd unot^d poriY 


of England and Holland, and were BometimeB masters of 
the ocean> though the two maritime powers were united 
against them. At length, however, they were defeated at 
La Hogae ; a great part of their fleet was destroyed, and 
they were reduced to carry on the war only with their pri- 
vateers, from whom there was suffered much petty mis- 
chief, though there was no dagger of conquest or icTasion. 
Tbey distressed our merchants, aad obliged us to the gdi^ 
tinual expense of convoys and fleets of observation ; and, 
by skulking in little coven and shallow waters, escaped our 

In (his reign began our confederacy with the Dntdt, 
which mutual interest has now improved into a friendship, 
conceived by some to be inseparable; and, from that time, 
the states began to be termed, in the style of politicians, 
our faithful friends, the allies which nature has' given ns, 
our protestant confederates^ and by many other names of 
national endearment. We have, it is true, the same in- 
terest, as opposed to France, and some resemblance of re- 
ligion, as opposed to popery; but we have such a rivalry, 
in roApect of commerce, as will always keep us from very 
close adherence to each other- No mercantile man, or 
mercantile nation, has any friendship but for money, and 
alliance between them will last no longer, than their com- 
mon safety, or common proflt is endangered ; no longer than 
they have an enemy, who threatens to take from each more 
than either can steal from the other. 

We were both sufficiently interested in repressing the 
ambition, and obstructing the commerce of Prance ; and, 
therefore, we concurred with as much fidelity, and as re- 
gular cooperation, as is commonly found. The Dutch were 
in immediate danger, the armies of their enemies hovered 
over their country, and, therefore, they were obliged to 
dismiss, for a time, their love of money, and their narrow 
projects of private profit, and to do what a trader does not 
willingly, at any time, believe necessary, to sacrifice a part 
for the preservation of the whole. 

A peace was at length made, and the French, with their 



llifll ti^nr iinil irirluntry, r^'Tmli ttiifrr flools, rMtOTftd 
ttirir mmmrrro^ niul hBOJim'*, in n vpry fpv yoflfi, abte to 
COQlAst Bgiiin thi* tluiiiimoii of IIiq tten* Tbeir nhtpi wv^nt 
mil Wif, mil] iitTLitn vory niimrroonly mnncicd; l1i«lr 
CoiMmandcrs, Imvin^ no hope* Iml from thtir bmvenr, or 
tfceir fortdno, wero rest>liifo, inid , hv'mK ^<^'y cnrefally cdii- 
C«I«(I for ibo MTQ^ w^rr ominr^ntly nkitftil- 

AM ihiN Wiis 4oan prrcHvpi^, vhen <^a9pn Anae, the 
tbiTi (fnrlins^ of Knglnnd, dnrUrV'H wsr n;{»inflC France. 
Our MiccMs bj nva. thuiii^li aiiffirmil In kw^p ii* frtim 
dcjcctioat vaa not sorb us drgrt^lnd nur cncniirn. It in, 
ifidcJcd, to Imt «)onfc«aod, tbut wc tlid not ex«rt ourvbolo 
pnviil r^trofiffth; Mnrlboroiij^h wan lie 0;i>v^rAonr of our 
coiinK4-lis siail iho ^rt^l vipv af T^lurlborodj^h vtah a war by 
bnit, tthkh hp krwv welt how lo condvtci, both 1o itm 
lioiKiuT of hi* Koofjtry anil bin »w;i proElt- Thf flfnt Wiw. 
thfrrforo, slnrri-d. thut tbi? nrtny might be Aiippllrd. nnil 
nnvAl advanUgcA vcrr rtoffcctf>d, for llw Adko of tflkjii^ 
a lowD in Flandore, to bo f^rrisouod by our allioa. The 
French, hovrever, wert* «o wenkenod by one itefeiil after 
^ofher, that, ihou^b their fle&l wui nex^r di-«lro)-<fd hy 
uiiy taUtl nvrrtbmw, tbt-y Jit Wi rrtnint<d it in thrir hiir- 
bocm, ond aiiiiIknI Ibrir ivliolc fnicc lo tbi* n^KihtAocr of 
tke ccmfifdorale ormy, ihnt uuw began to iiiij>roai;b iLeir 
friQBlien, and thn^ctteucd to lay wuulo ib^ir provinces a&il 

fn Ihe latter \ear« of this war. lhf> dan^ t of llii ir ut^igb- 
bourbood tn America. »e«ni!( to bnv4» h^pn rnt\Mvmd, iinil 
a I1ei-I wav fi1!i-d oril. itnd mpplittil wilb a pn>[ft*r number 
of Innd for^m, to wiat* Qurhrr. tlu- rnpitnt ijfCumBdH, or 
New yn\DCf ; bu( IhtJt cxprdiiion mfftcarrird» like that of 
Aiwou against tho Spuniards, b> the taieneis of tho KooKin, 
sfttj our i^orani^e of the cotuln on w h^ch we vere lo xtot. 
We retiirnt-'d with lo«», and only vxcitt-'d our euembea to 
gtvmlttr y'l^Uant'p, and, pprhnjifi. tci i<lrnnj|{pr forliJliialioQy. 

Whpti iJie jwace of l"trech( wbj* rnnde, nhicb thosf, who 
cbunuurcd atnoD;; u% nioit loudly tfgaJntl tU found it thoir 
iatcfVst lo keep, tht' FrtiDcli uppbed thonMelvc«> willi tho 



Qtmost industry, to the extenflioa of their tradet which w« 
were so far from biaderiog, that, for many yean, our mi- 
nistry thou^t their friendship of such valne, as to be 
cheaply purchased by whatever conceasion- 

luBtead, therefore, of opposing, as we had hitherto pro- 
fessed to do, the boundless ambition of the house of Boui- 
boQ, we became, on a sudden, solicitous for its exaltation, 
and studious of its interest. We asiisted the sehemea of 
France and Spain with our fleets, and endeavoured to 
make these onr friends by servility, whom nothing bat 
power will keep quiet, and who must always be oor ene- 
mies, while they are endeavouring to grow greater, and 
ve determine to remaiu free. 

That nothing might be omitted, which could teitify oaf 
wiltinguess to continue, on any tenns, the good friends of 
France, we were content to assist, not only their con- 
quests, hut their traffick; and, though we did not openly 
repeal the prohibitory laws, we yet tamely saSered com- 
merce to be carried on between the two nations, and wool 
was daily imported, to enable them to make cloth, which 
(hey carried to our markets, and sold cheaper than ve. 

During all this time they were extending and strength- 
ening their aettlementa in America, contriving new modes 
of traffick, and framing new alliances with the Indian na- 
tions, Tliey began aow to find these northern regions, 
barren and desolate as they are, sufficiently valuable lo 
desire, at least, a nominal possession, that might furnish a 
pretence for the exclusion of others ; they, therefore, ex- 
tended their claim to tracts of land, which they could 
sever hope to occupy, took care to give their dominions 
an ualimited magnitude, have given, in their maps, the 
name of Louisiana to a country, of which part is claimed 
by the Spaniards, and part by the Bngljsh, without any 
regard to ancient boundaries, or prior discovery. 

When the return of Columbus from his great voyage 
had filled all Europe with wonder and curiosity, Henry 
the seventh sent Sebastian Cabot to try what could be 
fouud for the benefit of England : he declined the track of 



Colanliiu, ond, Jttecrin^ to the irc»tvar<I. foil Ufjou Uic 
iglani, nhicb, tVom tbfit tmc, wqa «alW by tho En^lifii 
KevCoundlaud. Our priocefi se«in U> hare cooKidrroil 
themvehtfi a« etiiitled. bj tMr rifftit cf prior ftmiirc^p l(» 
Ihc ui^iUi^wn fHirtv of Aitiprit^Ei. n« llif £4pantnrde were nl' 
lowed* by ciiiivirnud twu»rjit, lU'ir rluim lo lite voutbirni 
rc^m for tLe aauio rciiaon; oiid w«« uccordiDR:^;, mudr 
our principal Mtticmeols ^tiiin llic liiniu f>f mtr own djft- 
eowic^T DBd, by dc'Ki'cciL, ploutod die flAitcrn ooo^t Cram 
Kvwfoundlond to C^oorgiu. 

As w» kad, accordmg to th^ Europeaii |jii»ciE>1eit, which 
aiilov nutbing It) thr^ iiutirfti of Ibt^MT regblU, our irlmtOR of 
»liiJ4tioD Id Lhui rxtcnaivr nutioUVp wo oatumlly (jxr-il our 
buMtBtioiu bIoo^ tlic (ojut. for tbc «nkn of tranick uud 
eorrctfpoihlctice uud uLt iho convcnicDCio ot~ iiftri^l;|e 
fiv#ns* And whi=<fi oiiv porl or riter won c>ccupiudt Hic 
next colony. Snileud of li\iu;f iLvjiu^Kes iii (be iiilund 
|KirLi behind the fannt<r, wi-iil on «>tiEh»4rd, till they 
pli%uc;il tbcjiuclriu wilb UDothrr marjlimc «ilujilioii' Fur 
lAk roftfOQ our coloQteft haro more Iciif^th ihau d«pth; 
iheu- extent, froai ooat to w(.^at> or froiu Ibu sura to tiir 
intonour country, buari ito proporlioo ta Uicir reach alon^ 
Uw oosrt. from north to tonih. 

It nd, boftetflr, iiiid<.-r3loucl, by a kind of tacit compaot 
UDod^ llm conunercul powcnc. tbu pr>Hiieii»iori of 1)^4^ rtfaul 
inoladvd a right to tbv inLand ; and, thrrcf^jrc. Ilio ibartont 
grvuicti to {\\c Mi\vin] coktoicB. limit llicir dutricia only 
fron north to poulh, iatvin^ their poMCfisions from ooat lo 
wc«t uiiiiatitx-'d und diftoretionaJ, ^uppodnf? thai, A* tke 
eohwy uuLrvjwcn, ih^^v naay toko lantit ok thc*y >I)»U wunt 
tfaom, llie po4;ii>i»ion of the eoa«ta,ex<:lnding oUivr nuvigu- 
lon, mid ihu u:ihuppy IndiiLiiM buviuj^ n a right ofniUufu or 
of nuliaiu. 

'rikb right oflLc Aftl Europeiin pos»c».^oijf v oa not dia- 
putod, till it bocome the iulercAl of tii«^ Fr^nob lo (jucatioct 
it. Cuojidu, or New Fmnctv on fihjih thc^y mudi? iheir 
lint i(Hii4TMi«nt. i« jutuated rnit^vird of our colonics, be- 
t«r««n vbirli ihry pou up fktt gn-ul river of 3l. l^wrenoo, 



vUh XewfoundlaDd on the north, and Nova Scotia on the 
flonth< Tbeir establiahment in this country wtti neittior 
envied nor hiodered ; aod they lived here, in no ^reat 
numbers, a long time, neidier molesting' their European 
neighboars^ Dor molested by them. 

But wiien they grew strODger and more nnmerous, they 
b^an to extend their territories ; aod, as it is aatoral for 
-men to seek their own conveolencer the desire of more 
fertile and agreeable habitations tempted them southward. 
There is land enough to the north and west of their seCtie- 
ments, which they may occupy with as good right as can be 
shown by the other European usurpers, and which neither 
the Eoglish nor Spaniards will contest; but of this cold 
region, they have enough already, and their resolution was 
to get a better country. This was not to be had, but by 
settling to the west of our plantations, on ground which 
has been, hitherto, supposed to belong to us- 

Hither, therefore, they resolved to remove, and to fix, 
at tbeir own discretion, the western border of our colonies, 
which was, heretofore, considered as unlimited. Thus by 
forming a line of forts, in some measure parallel to the 
coast, they inclose us between their garriaeas, and the sea, 
and not only hinder oar extensioa westward, bat, when- 
ever they have a sufficient navy in the sea, can harass us 
on each side, as they can invade us, at pleasure, from one 
or other of their forts. 

This design was not, perhaps, discovered as soon as it 
was formed, and was certainly not opposed so soon as it 
was discovered; we foolishly hoped, that their encroach- 
ments would stop; that they would be prevailed on, by 
treaty and remonstrance, to give up what they had taken, 
or to put lunits to themselves. We suffered them to esta- 
blish one settlement after anoth^^r, to pasH boundary after 
boundary, and add fort to fort, till, at last, they grew 
strong enough to avow their designs, and defy as to ob- 
struct them. 

By these provocations, long continued, we are, at length, 
forced into a war, in which ve have had, hitherto, very ill 

fortikDc- Oar troops, under Biiiddi>ck, vtrtt di^tboiioiimbly 
dcfeftlcil; our RecCn buv« yi.'t done iiolbiatf more tlum 
tak^n a few mcrctiAnt Khipi, and hnT«T diBtrtxfus^^d .^oiniji pri- 
vole famili^4. but havp >eT_y IJIIIe v^nken^d the power of 
France. Thr ilei4-nHi>ii of itit^tr i^iimt^n mjikeH ii. iudevd^ 
]«3a i»iv for lliE*ni to III out thvit run y ; but iIim dclii-'iiTQC^ 
will be cftsil; cvppticd by tbc nLacftty of cbr nation, wJiJcfa 
ift stwaya cn^r for war. 

It » onplessin^ (o repr^s^ot our att'uirs to our own dit- 
adTAJtia^ ; yet i( it nect'^mn to tUiw the vv'ih which we 
cUfvkv lo be removed; ond, ikrmfnrp, nonu* nccoLint may 
vfry properly be givp-n of rbr' mtiHSuren vhlrh buvt- girt-o 
them Uieir pr«>vut AvperioriCy. 

Th^'T ure suid to bo uttpplit^d from Frnocr with hotter 
ftovfroourn than our colonics buvc? tho fntr to obtoin from 
EngUwi. A French govcrnour u soldotn chQ«en for any 
otb^r reitsoo tlian hU qualifl cation* for his tni^t. To be a 
baiaknipt hi bnmr, or (o bi< vo infiimnrKly vitlous, ihnt hi* 
oumot be 4lrce[»tty protecCt-d in bi^ own country, seldom 
reconuiwpdft any miiii to iho ^t«cniD«nl ofti Fr«!ncb oo- 
loBy. Tbeir officcrrt art rommnnly KkilfnI. cither in w«r or 
ceotnuTTce, and nrvt taufzht to have no oxpcciution of honour 
Of prclvnnoDt, but from thv juictico and vigour of Iheix ad- 
mi ni»i ration. 

Tbtir ^rpat *eouriiy i* ih» fricud*liip of ihr natHi^*, and 
to tbu udvAiiUgo t\wy haii? ocrCuirjly an indubitable rights 
b«coil»G it i% ihr coii:«r<|T]rn<:c ofthrir rirtiit:. It is ridi- 
oulotia to iccui^ine^ that ibc Iricndsbip of m^iions, whether 
^9i\ or barb&rout, eaa bo f^iuaed and ki?pt htil by kind 
CraBtA^ut; and, surely, ihey who intrude, uncniltid, npou 
IIm conntry of a dinljant people, ought (o eoiiuder the iiu- 
livea HA worthy of t^onimnii kiadnri*, and conttrul them* 
■eIrcM to rub, without intvdti/i^ ihern^ 'Yiir Frc^DC^, M buj» 
baen already oltAcncd. Admit iha ludiaus* by mtcrmof- 
hafc<'> lo =n oqmbty witb thonMtvea; and thoip nutioni^ 
wild vhieh they liavo no nuch nrar intercoiir*o, ih*-y gain 
ov«»r lo t^ir intore«t by bo>if-«[y in lb*>iT deifttuigit< Our 



fectorfl and traders, having no other porpoM in view this 
hni&ediate profit, a>e alt the arts of an Earopean comitiiig^ 
bouse, to defraud the «imple hunter of hu fun. 

These ore some of the canaes of odt present veakn«M ; 
OUT planters are always qaorrelUng with their governour, 
whom they consider as less to be trusted than the French; 
and our trad«^rs honrlj alienate the Indians hj their trieks 
and oppres^ons, and wo continue ererj day to show, by 
new proofs ; that no people can be great, who bare eeased 
to be vhtiiOQs. 


BetwHb fail BrituDick nmjaLj and impenil lujeiiy of nil the Huuu, dgntd 
ftt MoKow, Drc. 1L, 1743; the treat; bptwHD hii Brituioick majaty ud 
(hE lamljnve of Hene Catsel, ngHd Jmw 19> iTfiA ; aad tli« tn«tf be- 
twecD bii Bntunick mfljcity ud her imporial uAjotj of kU tb« R«lri■^ 
ligned at St. PeteiibuTg, Sept, i^, 1755 r. 

ThesB are the treaties which, for many months, fliled the 
senate with debates, and the kingdom with clamours; 
which were represented, on one part, a« instances of the 
moat profound policy and the most active care of the 
publicb welfare, and, on the other, as acts of the most con- 
temptible folly and most Vagrant corruption, as violationa 
of the ^eat trust of govemment, by which the weaJth of 
Britain is sacrificed to private views and to a particular 

What honours oar mbtiatera and negotiators may ex- 
pect to be paid to their wisdom ; it is hard to dotennine, 
for the demands of vanity are not easily estimated. They 
should consider, before tbeycall too loijdly for encomiams, 
that they live in an age, when the power of ^Id is no 
longer a secret, and in which no man finds much difficulty 
in making a bargain, with money in his hand. To hire 
troops is very easy to those who are willing to pay their 

' Froia the Utanrj Higwne, (or JuJy, 1756. 

Qr< TBBATtBS. 143 

priw. It appi-'art, tKcreforo, tbal wbntovrr bu5 boiju doi>c« 
«fli ftotier by mr-aiis wbt«it i.'ii>ij mho known how to avip, 
if roTinbo isi ki^iU vDougb t(i put thtm iu litn pow^r. To 
am 1h«> nntiofiA of the north in tbr <t3iijkp of Rritnin. to 
brin^ (low II hohU it|;azn«t France, fraui the polnr circle, tiuN, 
iodondr H Kiuml or inniftiinci'ucf^, uhicli miicht inducr u 
Ibiod uoacqii«intc<l wit^ publitik affaim In imajciDc, tbot 
MtB^ effort of policy, more tliitn Uumuii, b^l bcH*ii cxrHoii« 
bf wkich dutAnt HAtioita v-ero armc-d in oiir cl<'foii(^Ot and 
ibe Jiii<ienr« efBhiRiii wa^ ^-xleiul^d fo ihe iilmoit limitu 
f^thv vDcId- But utlif-ri lliu Blnkiij^ plic-iiomviicni of nt^ 
goliitlon ui mtira* nmrly iniprctrd. it nppiMirt a hargaiii, 
nHMvlj mcitfLiililc, of one poHcr that wanted truo^js more 
tbau moaeit. with another that wiin1«d money, snil waa bur- 
dentd with troo(>a^ b«twE-eu unborn ihtnr mutual ULi»t> madt* 
an Hkcy contmrl, and who li^vc* ao othcT triendihip lor oaob 
olbpr, than nrcipmiMl ciiiivi-iiLincw h^ipjinm Ici pnidiir«*. 

Wa shalU therrfnre, bvi^ir tbr prvii«j-.4 of our fnii]l«ttin lo 
others. jDt not without thii acknowW^iucot. tbat if they 
hmc doner UttlL\ they do cot ftevm lo boual of dorns; much ; 
BOd, Ibnt wb«tbi!r inflnrnrrd by mndriiv ^t fruipility, tbcy 
htfo notwrnriod Ibf pnblick with mrroirriuTy punp|zyrUta, 
bat bare been content wilh the cnncnnrficr* r>f tbe paflift* 
meat, Mud have nui mut^Ti ftolii^ifvd the ti|jp1au»-i of (be 

In pnMick.on Id pm^lc traniuiclioDA. men more frt>qtioiitly 
deriflte frora tbo right, fi>r wnnt of virtni?, thnn of wisdom \ 
mad tbo06«bi> d«vtiu6 iht^mEietves di<iftatis1i«d with Ui«mo 
traattetf impoto ibom not to folly, but rorfuption. 

By ibni? iidviH^iitCK for Ifai! in(icjH*iuIiTni^n of Britsin, 
who, whi^tbrr ib«<ir urgitm<*n1s he juNt, or not. t,*^vm to bo 
moai fjftTOunibly heani by ibo people, it lA alleged, (bat 
IhcM troatica are cxpctiiivv, vitbout tKlvantu;;! ; that they 
WHte tiic (TMuurc, wbioh vro wnnt fcJT our ohu dof«uoe, 
ppoo ft forvign intoroU; and pokir thn gaiii* of oar eom- 
neroe into the coflTert of prbiceM, whoitr nnmity ninnot 
hnrt, nor fVieodihip help UH;,who let their n«hjir<:i« (o 
■ale, likd ahcc|i or oxtm, without any iuquiiy after tbo 



intentions of tho buyer ; and will withdraw the troopfi, with 
which they have supplied us, wheaever a higher hidder 
Bhall be found. 

This, perhaps, is true; but whether it be true, or false, 
ia not worth inquiry. We did not expect to bay their 
friendship^ but their troops; nor did we examine upon 
what principle we were supplied with assistance; it was 
sufficient that we wanted forces, and that they were willing 
to furnish them. Policy never pretended to make men 
wise and good; the utmost of her power b to make the 
best use of men, such as they are, to lay bold on lucky 
hourSr to watch the present wants, and present interests of 
others, and make them subserTient to her own conTenienee. 

It is further urged, with great vehemence, that these 
troops of Russia and Hesse are not hired in defence of 
Sritain ; that we ore engaged, in a naval war, for territories 
on a distant continent ; and that these troops, though mer- 
cenaries, can never be auxiliaries; that they increase the 
burden of the war, without hastening its conclufiion, or 
promoting its success; since they can neither be sent into 
America, the only part of the world where England can, 
on the present occasion, have any employment for laud- 
forces, nor be put into our ships, by which, and by which 
only, we are now to oppose and subdue our enemies. 

Nature has stationed us in an Island, inaccessible but by 
sea ; and we are now at war with an enemy, whose naval 
power is inferlour to our own, and from whom, therefore, 
we are in no danger of invasion : to what purpose, then, 
are troops hired in anch uncommon numbers? To what 
end do we procure strength, which we cannot exert, and 
exhaust the nation with subsidies, at & time when nothing 
is disputed, which the princes, who receive our subsidies, 
can defend £ If we had purchased ships, and hired sea- 
men, we had apparently Increased our power, and made 
ourselves formidable to our enemies, and, if any increase 
of security he possible, had secured ourselves still better 
from invasions: but what can the regiments of Russia, or 
of Hesse, contribute to the defence of the coasts of Eng- 



faofcd; or, hj whftt ttsislatice i:an tti^y r^fm us ihe eiima, 
wlikh ve bsve fttipvULttHl to jiav for their coilly lru?ii<lihi|i T 

Tluf ^>i|i: (ifOriMl Rritnin li;^, indjfNl, ntpnitnry im d»9 
COIItiliail. of vbtcii llic nAtivc% tjfcJiis tsldiid hciui:rl> k<jcw 
tho name, lill tii« prctrut ffliuily •noa cdlW lo iliu fliroDc, 
Mid y«>l kuow liltl« mvro tbati timi uur kio^ \'mia it from 
tiBA to tipM. Y^t, fi>r l1i<t drfpiiiJt) of thJi; c^untryp ure 
Amo mb^ioi npparrntlv |>nid, »»d tht^se troop* «vi- 
deody levM. The nchp8 of our naCiun are s«<Dt inin 
diitmil counlne!!. iiiiil iUt- t^irt-n^lU, wUicli Jihiriilcl \tt* «-iu- 
pU»ji-d ID ovr ftni^ i^DiiJTrl. con»(^i^iiriilU' impnirrfl. Jbr the 
««kfv of dODuoioDKt the intercut of vhich ba» no connexion 
with our«, und whichi hy the net of succossioo, w^ took 
«sn? lo kr^p veporflle truni tlie British kiu<donu. 

To ikw tli« ndvocuivt for the< mitiiiidieK a^y, that luireO' 
iIb ■tipiilniioiit, ivIiHhrr in ihf^ nrt iif Kr^tllrmrnt, or 
Other cutitmcl. Are, jfi llif^niw^UeN, vuid ; utid dull if A 
countrj coomccted wilJi Ea^lond. hy Hubjcction tu Uio 
iaoae •orc-reigo, u cndjin^criMl by iin KnglUh qiinrn^l, it 
mmiki be drfcudcxi by Du^lisli IWc ; aud thai wc do not 
flog^^fl in m war, fiir the sake of Httnov«r« but Lhut Ha(»- 
OTCT u, fcHT our tiokv, ox|iOf«d to dABger* 

Tha«^ viio hroagtl in th«»e foreiffQ Iroopia liave fltill 
ftoin«tfaut^ furlhc*r to n4^ in thrir drfrni^r. und of nu liuitest 
pira i> it Dur lutcnlinn to drfmi^d thrrn. Tlwj i^raitt, thtjf 
the lcrr<3ur of invaiioti may, poMibly, 1>o groubdioiti; Ibut 
th« rreneh may wajii Uk^ povrer. or the coiuii£<e. to attack 
nt M our own c-ouiilr> , but lbe\ rnuinl^u, Ukcwiao, thot 
Mtk iufauon U poiaibic, th^( ibo nnnuTu of Fmnc«» ut9 (O 
nnin4fro«i]i, ihjil %\w' nmy haxard a Inrge body on tbd oc^aiu 
trillioiit Ica^in^ bersi^lf 4^\puHifd; ihat )dit< W t-xiivp^mleil 
lo the ulmoat dcicrei.- of tuiutaitm , Liiid would br villmg lo 
do ua nu!u:hi«r ut licr nun peril. They aIIow, thul tU« in* 
Tadc!n» may br mlcrroptcd ot sen. or that^ if Ihcy l»od» 
lb«y mmy bo Uofenltd l>y o»r n.^tivo tn>op». But Ehry nay, 
and tBV juBEly, that ddnf;4^r w Lell^r avoided itian encoui^ 
1rr«*d : ihtti thuru* tniniili^Tt rcmsult tnuiv thi; ^ucd of ibetr 
cottolry. whu ptrvrut inia«ioi], lb»D repel il . and tW, if 


these auxiliariea hare only saved ua horn the anxieiy of 
expecliiig an enemj at our doors, or from the tumult and 
distress which an invastoD, how soon soever repressed, 
would have produced, the pubUck money is m>t spent in 

These arguments are admitted by some, and bj others 
rejected. But even those that admit them, can admit them 
only as pleas of necessity ; for they consider the receptimi 
of mercenaries into our country, as the desperate ^^medy 
of desperate distress ; and think, with great reason, that 
all meaua of prevention should be tried, to save us irom 
any second need of such doubtful succours. 

Hiat we are able to defend our own country, that arms 
are most safety entrusted to our own hands, and that we 
have strength, and skill, and courage, equal to the best of 
the nations of the contiuent, is the opinion of every English- 
man, who can think without prejudice, and speak' withont 
influence; and, therefore, it will not be easy to peranade 
the nation, a nation long reeowued for valour, tbat it can 
need the help of foreigners to defend it from invasioUi 
We have been long without the need of arms by our good 
fortune, and Long without the use by our negligence ; so 
long, that the practice, and almost the name, of our old 
trained bands is forgotten ; but the story of ancient times 
will tell us, that the trained bands were once able to main- 
lain the quiet and safety of their country; and reason, 
without history, will inform us, that those men are most 
likely to fight bravely, or^ at least, to fight obstinately, 
who fight for their own houses and farms, for their own 
wives and child ren- 

A bill was, therefore^ offered for the prerention of any 
future danger or invasion, or neceastty of mercenary forces, 
by reestablishing and improving the militia. It was passed 
by the commons, but rejected by the lords. That this 
bill, the first essay of political consideration, as a subject 
long forgotten, should be liable to objection, cannot be 
strange; but surely, justice, policy, common reason, re- 
quire, that we should be trusted with our own defence^ 

INTttODUCTJOlt, &«. 14? 

mt$ he Vepi no tMi^per in tnch 4 li^lplnti «fato as, at onc^,. 

to drt.'ii<l our i:ii<-!t]H'!i mid rurif<.<(ieT»1<'ii. 

Ry tki^ hiM, mcli mk it wmi formi-il, xixty thmiNiml oifri 
III hImiivs In- LM aims. We IiQvi? nLuwii' Uavt rbcy 
Ik, upoo auv exigctKc^ (^ajrily uicmiMrcl tu a hurktlri^c] 
Mid fiftj tboiunnil; ujhI, 1 bdiuvi;, neither our Ihcndn nor 
€Miai«B will Ihink it proper lo inniilt our coaeti, «li«n 
Lfavy «KpNt to find upori ihem a Ituitdred and M\y tbou- 
tti»d Englivkm^n. wirh iwotdn in ihetr b^iiid^^ 


for e1d4lilif^ ftfarh pSMnpn of nur. 

TffK c«minitt?e IntraHted viih ih** moni?\, oonTrihui^ 1o 
die fellef of ibfr KTibjerli of Franirr, now jiriKOiiert to tlio 
Brifixfa tlomiiimrift, In-n? Iny hrfoTe the piibltclc nn vxittx 
■ccouitt of nil llie ttamn rvcciv4-il iiud c-vprnilrd, ihuf titir 
donon nay Jtidp^ how propetljr tlivir Lcnufiiutjoiit hiiw 

CVmrity wn«H hw> itj* tinme, utt" ll inft^lctlc*^d bj fto 

m««n a motive da humnn pmie* ; it is, tlHtrcfOTi?, not in- 

Ifllided to celobnitA. by any poHiaular menorinT. tlie tibe- 

nElj Dr«ing1itpi^rsor»4, orflUrforl mH-irlifT* ; il is mifTtrt^'nt, 

tbrir wotifi |iniitti* iHt^rri. 

«t In;, who IB (ta tntm se^^kui^ bonour, may vtvy joilly 
O^viiite ft^niitrc. If n good cXHmplr hnA born n^t, if miiy 
liMO iU iiiflt>nii4?fi by mi^nrprofinnlniiori ; and, to five rhu- 
fitjfipom ropToncb in \Up\fa cUnriinhIo nclion. 

Afpilnil th^ relief of fb<* French only on*^ argument bat 
lirtfa Tjroagbt : but that ruiti ii ftu jmpttlar nnd spct'loiit»> 
ihnl. if it wcTT to rcnaifi unrxtiminrt). t1 woidil, bv muriv. 


■ dnUMnyHftpuiK, K*>ii.p.03< 


148 INTROfiUGTtON, &C. 

be thought irrefragable. It has been urgedt that chanty, 
like other virtues, may be improperly and unseasonably 
e&erted; that, while we are relieving Frenchmen, tbero 
rem^n many Englisbmen unrelieved ; that, while we lavish 
pity on our enemies, we forget the misery of our friends. 

Grant thia argument all it can prove, and what is the 
conclusion ? — That to relieve the French is a good action, 
but that a better may be conceived. This is all the result,' 
and this all is very little. To do the best can seldom be 
the tot of man : it is sufficient if, when opportunities are 
presented, he is ready to do good. How little virtue could 
be practised, if beneficence were to wait always for the 
most proper objects, and the noblest oecasiona; occasions 
that may never happen, and ^ objects that may never be 

It is far from certain, that a single Englishman will suffer 
by the charity to the French, New. scenes of misery make 
new impressions; and much of the charity, which pro- 
duced these donations, may be supposed to have been 
generated by a species of calamity never knon^ among us 
before. Some imagine, that the laws have provided all 
necessary relief, in common cases, and remit the poor to 
the care of the publtck ; some have been deceived bj 
fictitious misery, and are afraid of encouraging imposture ; 
many have observed want to be the effect of vice, and 
consider casual alms-givers as patrons of idleness. Bat all 
these difiiculties vanish in the present case: we know, that 
for the prisoners of war there is no legal provision ; we 
see their distress, and are certain of its cause; we know 
that they are poor and naked, and poor and naked without 
a crime. 

But it is not necessary to make any concessions. The 
opponents of this charity must allow it to be good, and 
will' not easily prove it not to be the best. That charity is . 
best, of which the consequences are most extensive: the 
relief of enemies has a tendency to unite mankind in fra* 
tenial affection; to soften the acrimony of adverse na- 
tions, and dispose them to peace and amity; in the mean 


time, it alleviatea captivity, and tabes awtij eomethiQ^ 
from the miseries of war. The ra^ of war, however initi- 
ated, wiU always fill the world with calamity and hor^ 
roar; let it not, then, be unaecessarily extended; let 
animosity and hostility cease together; and no man be 
longer deemed an enemy, than while his sword is drawn 
against us. 

The effects of these contributions may, perhaps, reach 
atill further- Truth is best sapported by virtue : we may 
bope, from those who feel, or who see, our charity, that 
they shall no longer detest, as heresy, that religion, which 
makes its professors the followers of him, who has com^ 
mauded us to " do good to them that hate us." 




By those who have compared the miUtary genius of the 
English with that of the French uation, it is remarked, 
that " the French officers will alwajs lead, if the soldiers 
will follow;" and that " the EogUsh soldiers will always 
foUow, if their officers will lead." 

In all pointed sentences, some degree of accuracy must 
be sacrificed to conciseness; and, in this comparison, our 
cheers seem to lose what our soldiers gain. I know not 
any reason for supposing that the English oflicers are less 
willing than the French to lead ; but it is, I think, univer- 
ully allowed, that the English soldiers are more willing to 
follow. Our nation may boast, beyond any other people 
in the world, of a kind of epidemick bravery, diffused 
equally through all its ranks. We can show a peasantry 

• 'DuM ihort pAptr was added to Hint edxiioTu or the TdLer, wh«n collvcled 
into Tolumn, but ddl bj Dr. JohoioD, as Mr. BoswelJ auerU, aotto (hecirfy 
cditima of Uul work. 


ofheroecj and fill onr armiefl vith cloves, wboM cottnge 
may vie wttb Uiat of their general. 

Tbere maj he Bome pleasure in tracing the cauMs of 
this plebeian magDanimitj, The qualities which, CMnmcMlj, 
make bd anny fonnidable, are long babtts of regvlan^, 
great exactness of discipline, end great confidence fn the 
commander. Regalaiity may, io time, produce a kind of 
mechanical obedience to Hignals and commanda, like that 
which the perverse cartesiana impute to animals; dis- 
cipline may impress such an awe upon the mind, that any 
danger shall be less dreaded, than the danger' of pniusb- 
ment; and confidence in the wisdom', or fortune, of the 
general may induce the soldiers to follow bun blmdly to 
the most dangerous eoterprise- 

Wbat may be done by discipline and regularity, may be 
seen in the troops of the Russian emperess, and Pmsiiaa 
monarch. We find, that they may be broken without eon- 
fuHion, and repulsed without flight- 
But the English troops have none of these requi^tes, in 
any eminent degree. Regularity is, by no means, part of 
their character : they ore rarely exercised, and, therefore 
show very little dexterity in their evolutions, as bodies of 
men, or in (he manual use of their weapons, as individoals 
tbey neither are thought by others, nor by themselves 
more active, or exact, than their enemies, and, therefore 
derive none of their courage from such imaginary sope 

The manner in which they are dispersed in quarters, 
over the country, during times of peace, naturally pro- 
duces laxity of discipline : they are very little io sight of 
their oflieers ; and, when they are not engaged to the slight 
duly of the guard, are suffered to live, every roan bis own 

The equality of English privileges, the impartiality of 
oar laws, the freedom of our tenures, and the prosperity of 
our trade, dispose us very Uule to reverence superiours. 
It is not lo any great esteem of Ibe ofiicers, that the Eng- 
lish soldier is indebted for his spirit in the hour of battle ; 


Mfor, pcrbapv^ it docs not oOon happen, that he tbinkv mm Ii 
better <ti hJA leader thau of buaaclf Tht; Frracb couqI, 
vbo bo> lAldy published Uie Art of Wnr. r<^markfl, bow 
inocfa valdwre ar« animntvd, wb«D tUoy «de all tli^^ir dan- 
grrn filinred by ilioc^ who wi?re bom to ba tht-ir mitxtorft, 
and whom ttiey romid^r, uk lirin^ of n difforcnt ranlt- 
Tli0 £ii]£LithniUfi dr«[}t)H» iiitfli rnotivt'ii of t'onrauv: h^ 
was bom wilbont a muster; <iud JixiLb imt on bim Jimu. 
bowftvcr di^iticd by lace or titl^^.^i, m doming, from DnIurCi 
any cloiuks tv his r««ptfol> or inhcriliti^ anv qiioltltcs sapc- 
rioiir to hb owD. 

Thrnf aro «onii^, p«<r1i»ps, wbo vould imu^^ims thalworv 
Eit^isJiDian dffUlA bt-Ker thuti iJie xiibjecU of abnoliito 
gotoramrnU, brcuuvr lir Ua>> morr to dirrirrul, Hiil «liAf 
k» Uie EiigliftU mor« llmu ilio Francb soldier i Properly 
lliej are botb, commonly, willioul, f^ibctty in. lo Clir- 
lovcut ntnk of even' nntion^ little more tliaii Ibc cbotce 
of working or alarvm^c; and Ibie olioioo i», I EUppotto, 
equally allowed iu ovtrry country. Thu Ei]|;;lii(b soldier 
seldom biu bit bt^ud very foil of thr ooiiatiiiition ; tir>r ba« 
ihrtr be«*n, for motvr llmo n frrnlDTy. fin} vnr ibtil put tb^ 
propctly or liberty of a single HfEi^Iinliniaii in dmigi^r 

Wbtncc, tbfn, \v the eour<-igo of (he EngliiK i ni^iU *. ft 
proeecddi io nty opanloi), from timl diMdutioa of dcpcnd- 
t^ncc, wtiicb obltgeft U)<ery muii lo tegibrd hh own cijnructor. 
Wlula ^very diad U f«d by liii own baoda, he has no need 
of aoy w:r>iie atit; bo imiy u)wu\ii lave woj^ei for bi« 
Iflboar; nnd I* fio leu nrreioisjrv lo bin t-mplover, tbmi 
bJB employer is lo fiijii. Wbilu ho look.i ft*r no protec- 
tioa from otbcrs, ho h uiitiindly rootod lo Ix- hit own pro- 
teelOff : and bavni^ nothing to ubatc h[« ^'fltccm of biniA«l( 
be, ecus^ucptly, mpirc^ lo tbo eHteem of o1her», Thu« 
et^tf nian fh:it erou'tU ^ur slreH* in u muii of honour, 
dbdalnful of ohtigrulioii, impalieni of reprMub, aiid d««lr- 
oua of efttrndiji^ hin roputaiion nmong thoM^ of h\% awn 
rank ; nrid. h» eouru)-r iv in mn!(l fri*r|tjrri[ u*v. llir fame of 
courage in mini rii^vrly purtiic^d- Fiuin lliis ue^ecl of 
Mibordiauliofli J do not deny, lijat some inconTCuicticies 


may, ttom time to timet proceed : the power of the law does 
not, always, sufficiently supply the want of revereace, or 
maintain the proper distinction betveen diSerent ranks; 
but good and evil will ^ow up in tkis world together ; and 
they who compUin, in peace, of the insolence of the po- 
pulace, must remember, that their insolence in peace ia 
bravery in war. 


Fii]liluF> egrcgia qauquLs *ub princLpe ci«lit 

Srrviliimi, oubquain liberLfls ^r^tiar citat 

Qum nub tcgc pio. ClautlanuBp 


Ok Jofanson'H dLoracter, aa a political writer^ we cannot dweU 
with pleasure, since we cannot apeak of it with praise^ In the 
IbUowing pamphlets, however, though we cannot honestly sub- 
loibe to their doctrines, we must admire the same powers of 
compodtion, the eante play of imagination^ the same keen sar- 
cuat and indignant reproof, that embellish his otber productions- 
He might, and did, think wrongly on these subjects, but he 
never wrote what he did not believe to be true, and, therefore, 
must be acquitted of all dmr-gefl of eervility or dishonesty' The 
False Alann was poblished in 1770, and "intended," snya Mr. 
Boftwell, " to justify the conduct of the ministry, and their majo- 
rity in the house of commons, for having virtually assumed it a^ 
VQ axiom, that the expulsion of a member of parliament was equi- 
valent to exclusion, and thus having declared colonel Lutterel 
to be duly elected for the county of Middlesex, notwithstanding 
Mr. Wilkea had a great majority of votes- This being justly 
coDsidered as a gross violation of the right of election, an alarm 
for the constitution , extended it^lf all over the kingdom. To 
prove this alarm to be false, was the purpose of Johnson's 
pamphlet ; but even hts vast powers are inadequate to cope with 
constitutional truth and reusoui and his argument tailed of effect ; 
and the bouse of commons have since expunged the offensive 
resolution from their joumals. That the house of commons might 
have expelled Mr. Wilkes repeatedly, and as often aa he should 
be rechosen, was not to be denied ^ but incapacitation cannot be 


but hy an net of the whole I^^wlatorfi- ll mi wondorful to Me 
ho# a prejudice in favour of govemmeDt hi gnefil, and an 
avouoii to popular clDinour, could blind and contraA wmh an 
understanding a« Johnson's in thia particular cafe/' Wli«re 
Boawell expre&ses himself with regard to Johiuojij in terms lo 
r^jrehensive as the above, we cannot be accused of aeverity in 
repeating bis juat ceoEUre. Seveiat oiuwers appeared, but, per- 
haps, all of them, in compliance with the eidted feelings of the 
times, dealt rather in personal abuse of Johnson, as a pendoner 
and hireling, than in fair and manJy argument- The chief were, 
the Crisis; a Letter to Dr, Sumuel Johnson; and, the Cotutitu' 
tion Defender and Fen^oner exposedj in Remarks on the False 


of X}ie chief mfvunt'<G[<-H ilrri*<»*l hy ihe prt^ii^iir gp- 
tion from llitr unproiemcul uW dilTuhion afphiliuiv 
pby. 191 lUOiv^mnr^ frcm imoircrHfliiry t^rroim, and cxcnip' 
tinn Ircim fkiW iiLuatn. 'flic imu)ku;il np^^rRmncoa, whcflicr 
ro|;;iiliir or necitJeiital, wliidi ottce mrend coiisterMUlioEi ovr>r 
i^^H of tj^oraiiipe. are now tlio rLvr<.«:tliuiiK orinqiiitilivt^ 
'«ii-ciiritv, Thr* Klin i* no morr Inmfntj^d when it lis 4H'lip*Hx], 
tluiii whi*ii it «ei« ; nntl Enc^teor* |>Ttty ikeir caniscotloiiA 
%]|lMni1 pro^noaticL or [Jipdictlon. 

Tho u^vftnccment of politit^al knowlf^d^i may be ox- 
ppclcci <o proc1uc<', in tinic^ the like elfccU. llnancte^ 
dtMODtenl, ami seditions vioknc^, will grow trftsfr^qnonl 
»n(l leu formidDMe. as ibe »cienc« of ^oTornmf^nt i« Wttpr 
Bi(«f<iunc(J. by II <liligi-rtt *tncly of ll»^ Ihtorj of ni;tT]. 

It Uiiol, iuilcfvl. to br rxp<'cl«'i], Huit pbyHimt und po* 
litical Irutfa abould lawt >viUi t^t\na\ m^cvytiaucv, or gain 
^otind upon tbc yf*yt\d with otpml fuciljtv. Tbo notiooA of 
llir nuliiruiuLt luid mnnkmit in u vtalo oi' Di^utrulily, ofi «1 
wont.huTonothiu^ to lWlcoont<^^ but projitdico and viujiCy; 
pmjfldiefi^ wttbont mnlignity, and vutiiiy ^ilbout iniirreit. 
Bill ibe ftolitician'A iniprovetiiifnls nrr op|Jii)HTd by vxcry 
,pa»iva ibal ran <-xr-liido ctinvieiJunor^uppn-st it, by am- 
bition, by Bounce, by ho|jc»andby tcrruur, by publicJi bic- 
lioii, and pHv utr iiiiuno>tit7. 

It i« evident, wlialrvcr be Ihu- cause, Ibat ih'ta nntion, 
wilJt uU its rt'Down for npi^ciilution ond for k*imaiig. bun 
y«t madr llltlo proBcioncv in ciul wiidom. We tm^ still 
Ml mirh iiii^rf)itntnt«td with out ovn t^tdtp, and mi inuktl- 
fill in ibu pursuit of hap]jiiifiiH, that wt? bliudd^^r wilWil 
danger, compbiin wiUiout ^ounnccv. «ind suflV-r ODrf|ukl 
1o be difllnrb«-d, and our commcic^ to bo intcrruptoft, by an 
^ppoeilion to iho ;;o\rrnu&rEil, ruised <rnly by Mitcrr^t. und 
tn|»ported only by claiooiir, wbicb yet ba^ «o far prevsilcd 


Upon igDOrance and timidity, that many favour it, as rea- 
sonable, aod many dread it, as powerful. 

What is urged by Ihoae who have been so iDdnstrioua 
to spread suspicion^ and incite fury, from one end of the 
kingdom to the other, may be known, by perusing the pa- 
pers which have been, at once, presented as petitiona to the 
king, and exhibited in print as remonstrances to the peo- 
ple. It may, therefore, not be improper to lay before the 
publick the reactions of a man, who cannot favour the op- 
position, for be thinks it wicked, and cannot fear it, for he 
thinks it weak. 

The grievance which has produced all this tempest of 
outrage, the oppression in which all other oppressions are 
included, the invasion which has left us no property, the 
alarm that suffers no patriot to sleep in quiet, is comprised 
in a TOte of the house of commons, by which the freeholders 
of Middlesex are deprived of a Briton^s birthright — repre- 
sentation in parliament. 

They have, indeed, received the usual writ of election ; 
but that wnt, alas \ was malicious mockery : they were in- 
sulted with the form, but denied the reality, for there was 
one man ejtcepted from their choice ; 

'* Kdd dfl fi, Deque UEde, UM vfneiw, 
Sed lift tst mihj de iribua capdlit." 

The character of the man, thus fatally eitcepted, I have 
no purpose to delineate- Lampoon itself would disdain to 
speak ill of bim, of whom do man speaks well. It is suffi- 
cient, that he is expelled the bouse of commons, and con- 
fined in gaol, as being legally convicted of sedition and 

That this man cannot be appointed one of the guardians 
and counsellors of the church and state, is a grievance not 
to be endured. £very lover of liberty stands doubtful of 
the fate of posterity, because the chief county in England 
cannot take its representative from a gaol. 

Whence Middle^'iex should obtain the right. of being de- 
nominated the chief county cannot eusily be discovered ; 
it is, indeed, the county where the chief city happens to 




, but. bow ihnt ciiy tn^atrd iho Tiivoiirito of Mi<1<IU- 
b noi tet forj^utl^n. Tlie j^annlt. 9B dlfdngublivd 
lilt* dl^, h;u i)(i rUlm U> |i»r1kubr roitxiili^nitiDn^ 

That A fiijin vn* in ^nol fjT *<*(lilioii nni) inipirtv, vi^tilfU 
I bcllciu, W^c br<^if, withiti mci&oryi a «i>l!Ii:-iciit tcumid 
wti\ lie fihooM nuf ccmo out of i;piul n lein^blor. 'Eliin riN^ 
foa, notwictulaiiflmf; ilie mtiEuliiliiy cf tnthum, happra* 
ttill to openittt 4111 thi.* huEiiii^ tyi coinmimsi. Th^ir noliona, 
howtfvi^r itrnngr^ mny hr juMilif^rl liv a fommon obtierva* 
tioa, Ihat fv* ure rarmlcd bv iTuprbouaifiUI, miil liiut hi*, 
witote criDiea havt: rustic coutiiiLnienl ittscauuiry, »rlclom 
Bttkcfl «Df olber uie of hj* i^alarKCiiieDt* ihaa to do, miU 
^TAati^r cunning, wbai hu did bi»fi>ro with Icftia. 

But iW propio huvi* bct*A lold, villi ^rent conlidenoet 
Ikiil the liouw oimnot conirol ibe riglii of couatitiirinf; r6> 
prp«e[rUifit(«i; that be uJiucan pennuide buI'LiI elf^lom ti> 
cliocHii? him, vfiibtf'vcr trr hiA rlmriuitrr, x* Ijjwfijtlv i:hoMii, 
and bflU o claim to a wat iu pailJamcrit. froni u hich no liu- 
ttian aulhoritT can deposu him. 

lli'ro, bt^wevor, thv puFronn of opjturtiijon unt in Aomo 
p«vplexily. Tll«y ar** forced to ironfeu, ihnt, by n Imin of 
pre^«d«<iit«, STifltcient to cftraMitli a oriMooL of parliaEneni, 

Ibc boLUf of rtiiratnutii lutn jiirisdiciioii uvrrr ilii own ilM'nt- 
bent; that iImt twbolr bju poK4Ti tivrr iiidUiduaU : anil t fiat 
Uiti pow«r boH been cxcrcJacd M>m«tinica in imprisoDmeDi, 
and oOca in ^^ipulaion* 

That flucb powirr should ro^ido Id Ibc boate of i-ontmuuia^ 
In sQtne ca»e», is inevitably ncce«Mry ; «ince tt U rpf\mrnd, 
by even polilv.lliat wbeie (here ib a pa««lhiliiy ofoflVncp, 
there sboiild bp » poikihilitj v£ ptiniihnient, A meiulwr 
of ihc hoiMC (Miiiiot ho t'i\r.t[ for lii!i i^oiidui^l in parli/un^Dt 
b^tforo any oihc-r court ; ami. therefore, if the bou»c cannot 
isb him, l:<: may atUok. with aapuitity, ibo rijKbU of tbo 
li^ and Ibv title of (he kmtc< 

Thb oxAmption frvra t\w AUthoriiy of oih«<r roujis «u, 
! think, firrt «t1itbll«Lied in f.wotirof (hi? five mt'Oibfru in 
iha long pariianietir ll i« tiol lo brr <:i>iuidm;d im an 
amvpflticm. for iL l\ implieil in the priiicipW of govern- 


Tfl» KALPiK ALAflM. 

inrnl. JC U^wUxUe powers are not ocH>rdmftte, tbcy ceaie, 
in |Mrl. t^ hr lo^k<»l'Ui\(^; nnO if ikcy be coor^ttCr-, tfao/ 
iiM tijaaccuunlable ; i'ar to whom mu«t ihitC potter aceotiiil, 
wliiofk hint no nupehourf 

1*bo faotiiao of comfnons is, indeed, dUsoluble bv tb« 
klii^. <u tlie )»niwn hns» of late, been v^ cUtnoroutrfy 
lold; but while it HtiWii^tH tl U oiwrdrnate vi'itti ihe oUier 
|iowitnt, and tliis 4iat>rditi4lioti cp»u4es otj1>> when i)ir hoiisr, 
b^ ilUsoluLion, ccwc?i to jtiibaiat- 

As ihe iifirticiilw rq>rcflcntfttt%rfl H i\vc- proptn arc, >» 
tb^ir publick DburuGiOTi above ihe control of Ilio courts of 
lav, thev must bi; stibjt^ct to tfie jiirUdr^iion of the hoiu« i 
und as tbo bouse, in \hf* px^kw of iis iiuihoritr, imii be 
n«)lh«r dJret'fetl nor rvatmined. iti ow« n>«ib»lionM miwt 
hr ilx hiwjK, III IriiKl. if th(^n< r« no uiitrrrtitk-nt dm-'itiloD of 
the wboir Ic^slflturo. 

Ttii* priHUi^, not contirmcil by any written low or posi- 
tive <iompticf, bttt by tliL' resii^lloMfl power of poiilictiL ne- 
4j4*uity, lbt*y huvo oxcrtUod, probably, from tluTir firat iwti- 
tiitiori, but ci'^uirdy, us their rooordi inform uc, from thtt 
2^Ud {if FIJKub'lii, w\u:n ttiry rx|»fllr^d ii mnmhrr for dfim- 
Ifatintr fiom liirir privil(^^cK> 

It innvt porhnps> bo doubted* vbellicr it wfia orujinaily 
necessary, ibAl (his rlpht of ootitrol iind punEshmont Uiould 
ifXtond tioyond otivnccM in ibo ewrcisi^ of puriikmnntary 
duty, ftiiu^ ul\ othrr ^^riTDt^'a nri? rn^ivubb^ by olWr courlii- 
Hru ihey who hif Ihe o«ly j^dgAs »f tbnir nwn rights, have 
excrittd Hm powitr uf expaUiun (in othf^r ucuuiotix, nnd 
«h<.']] viel(<?(Iat<M urrivr^d nt n ot^rtnin mnffnitudn, have con- 
vidt-red un ullcncc i^c^iiniit jtoclcCy. os nn oH'cnco «giuMst Iho 


They have, therefon^. divoiitod tioiorioiut di'Linqumtx of 
their tv^Uhfivo cburuci^r, and dclivL'n^) (btmi up ii> ehflHW 
or [niiiiNhmriit, nnkod and tinprotrrlfrd. IJml they might 
not cuolHuiijiute llio dimity of puiltarjicriit 

It is iillowod* tlut n tnnn uttjintod of frUiny ramiot ta\ in 
puriiAinant, and tho eoinmoiis pixibably judifed, itiat, nut 
bflintf bound Co (he formn of luw. iJioy mipht irent ibwc tu 



ft li Wj toh»6 «rii»ra tf^re. in thrTr apiiiion, eiiiriviJtrnt tn 
Mvuji uiiJ Ui4l. un Aktuiwti fi?|ijii ^uuld not dt^ r.hnimi, a 
Vftn, «o Eke n fiblon liiut hu ooutil not rnAi!; ht> dulinguisL- 

Tha fir^ lawa hiul no Iaw tofifiToroo them\ tbe firjt ui- 
tboht> wiu conslituK^d by ittelf. The power extrroiaed 
hy Ibe hovhc of cominoDN is. of t!iix kiixt: n pow^r rooted 
in dke prinriplfft ofgovrTnum?!!!, und hnmch^iA oiil by oacu- 
iioiiaI pnicttcv; a power wLJcli utM:e4Aity inailn jukI. iini'l 
precedents baTo Timdc Iv^L 

It will occur, tliat nuthctity fha» unconlToulable mav. m 
times of heoX ond coDtcst, bo opprcsfeliely nucl lujuriounly 
«xvrt<Ml, and ibart hu wbo duffertt ii>juvtjre 't% vitbout n?- 
^>u. however innorcnt, hawc^vot tniicmble. 

Tbi> pnnition k Urn*, but tbfi itr^ivmonl U mHess. Th6 
ttoiu luajit bt< L-ciiilrulleU. or be viem^l friiin control- 
ir ihef are exempt* they m;Lj da iaptry which cannot b<T 
reclrtwted, if thcyoirf^ controlled, they «n; do Ion ^r legisla- 

If thii poAcibtlit^ of abnao be an arj^inieat flpiiiiat ati- 
ihority, no autJioriiy ever cad be esULbliihed : if tbe acrtnnl 
■biitft ilMtroyi il> IrgHlily. thrrc in no It^gul govornrnent 
DOV in llie world. 

TW powef, wbicli IIm coinmun!i bjive »o biriic rxeruUrd, 
they ventured to use once more oKninj^i Mu Wilkej. luid. 
Oft tbe 3rtl of February, 17*3', exprllcd him the houim, 
" for having printed am} publUbcd a ftttdilioiu bhol, npil 
lhfe« obt(N*ne nnd impious lll>eU," 

If lhieft(^impiifiilii.iiL*i were juaLlbt r-xpitUiun w4*(pHurely, 
fnWKUiUo; nml that tliey werrjujit, thr hour^r lind n^JiMin 
hu driermiiic, n^ be bad GOnfc«sc<i himAclf* Jl tiio bar, lUe 
aatbor of Ibe lib«l whivh tliuy term Hcditiouv, aad wna 
eoQvieled, in thu Kinj^'a Boiiob, of both Ibe publioa- 

But ibo frpplioldpre of MiddleiieT were of nnollirr npi- 
ttioa_ Tbey eilhtT ihfju^hl bini irmocf^ni. or wero not of- 
A<ttileil by bi« ^aJl- Wbrn n writ wjui usuci] for thc- 
«lectioci of ft knight for Middlesex, in llie ruum of John 


"Wilkes, esq. expelled the house, hts frienda, on the six- 
teeDth of February, chose him again. 

On Ihe 17th, it was resolved, " that John Wilkes, esq. 
having heen, in this session of parliament, expelled the 
house, was, and is, incapable of being elected a member 
to serve in this present parliQinent." 

As there was no other candidate, it was resolved, at the 
same time, that the election of the si^tceDth was a void 

The freeholders still continued to think, that no other 
man was fit to represent them, and, ou the sixteenth of 
March, elected him once more. Their resolution was dow 
so well known, that no opponent ventured to appear. 

The commons began to find, that power, without mate- 
rials for operation, can produce no effect. Thej might 
make the election void for ever, but if no other candidate 
conld be found, their determination could only be negative. 
They, however, made void the last election, and ordered a 
new writ. 

On the 13th of April was a new election, at which 
Mr. Lutterel, and others, offered themselves candidates. 
Every method of intimidation was used, and some acts of 
violence were done, to hinder Mr. Lntterel from appear- 
ing*- He was not deterred, and the poll was taken, which 
exhibited, for 

Mr. Wilkes - - 1143 

Mr, Lutt«J^l - - 296 

The sheriff returned Mr. Wilkes; hut the house, on April 
the fifteenth, determined that Mr> Lutlerel was lawfully 

From this day began the clamour, which has continued 
till now. Those who bad undertaken to oppose the mi- 
nistry, having no grievance of greater magnitude, endea- 
voured to swell this decision info bulk, and distort it into 
deformity, and then held it out to terrify the nation. 

Every artifice of sedilion has been since practised to 
awaken discontent and inflame indignation. The papen 


of every day have beeo filled with exbortations tuid me- 
naces of faettoD. The madneaa has spread through all 
rankd, and through both sexen; women and children have 
clamoured for Mr. Wilkes; honest simplicity has been 
cheated into furj^ and only tho wise have escaped in- 

The greater part may justly be suspected of not believ- 
ing their own position, and with them it is not necessary 
to dispute. They caiinot be convinced who are convinced 
already, and it is well known tliat they will not be ashamed. 

The decision, however, by which the smaller number of 
votes was preferred to the greater, has perplexed the 
minds of some, whose opinions it were indecent to despise, 
aud who, by their integrity, well deserve to have their 
doubts appeased. « 

Every diffuse and complicated question may be ex- 
amined by different methods, upon different principles; 
Mid that truth, which is easily found by one investigator, 
may be missed by another, equally honest and equally 

. Those who inquire, whether a smaller number of legal 
votes can elect a representative in opposition to a greater, 
roust receive, from every tongue, the same answer. 
« The question, therefore, must ^e, whether a smaller 
number of legal votes shall not prevail against a greater 
number of votes not Legal. 

It must be considered, that those votes only are legal 
which are legally given, and that those only are legally 
given, which are given for a legal candidate. 

It remains, then, to be discussed, whether a man expelled 
CAD he so disqualilied by a vote of the house, as that he 
dull be no longer eligible by lawful electors. 

Here we must again recur, not to positive institutions, 
but to the unwritten law of social nature, to the great and 
(MegDant principle of political necessity. All government 
inppoaes subjects; all authority implies obedience: to 
tuppose in one the right to command what another has 
tike right to refuse, is absurd and contriadictory ; a state, 



Tint rAl>«<n ALARM, 

SO ODAStitnted, miivt rc»t far ever in iiaotioiilc!!* orpiipoi^f^. 
ynih oqiial ftltrooliona of controrr trodcncy, with oqnal 

Laws which fUtiDot bt* ^nfoived L^ao neither prereiit 
nor n*rtify dwnrdtrs. A iflTilPiicH which cunnot l»t trxB- 
cutcd can kive no powi'i tii wiini op Ir> n*fi>rni. If th« 
commons huve onl^ Uie ponvr of diHUuasiiig. fcr n fen dftfi, 
1Ji« mun vhuiD tui coD^ititutiDta can iiaraeii^jilcljitetid bade 
il' Iht^y UkD oxpol, hul ciinnot v^tckdu*, thry hLiv<< nolhinff 
more than noniinal authorilVi (o which, pcrhupa, obvdukoevs 
ntivt'T may h*» paid. 

The n^pre«eiitalN4T!i of our Ditceilorii lind im o^>inton 
very didrnint: ihny Itnvd and impriaouRd iheir mmnbcn; 
OD ^cAt proiocatiou. fhcy di^obW Ificm for ever; and 
thin power of protio(ini;iii|: f4i;rp^'^<^' disahilJIy ia BAin- 
Uin^d by Seld^n bimiclf. 

Tlieie claiiQn twin to Ikavo hvtn miul« and ;dlowed, 
vvheri ihc* cmiKtitution of our govi^rnini<n1 hud no! tK been 
auiUoicully atudivd. Such powti* htv riot K^gul, bvtcttuft« 
they are not necessary ; and oi' that puver which only ne* 
oeaAity jiintificii, no more it (o be tidmitlcd thnn nec«i»ily 

The comroorm cannot make Inws ; ihey can only |>4ua 
reAohitiViDs, whirh, like all re«o1urioii!f, are of force only to 
tho&tr tlmf make i\wm, anJ (u thoie, ojily while ihoy nrti 
willing ia ohsrrvn thoiDp 

Th<^ vole of the hijuae of oomiuonH htu, thert.'fure« qdIjt 
so far (he fo^;l^ of tt Uw, lu that force \^ ac<:.ciiH\Ty (9 pns 
iiorr^ the vote from loving iu oflicacy^ it must Iwjpo by 
opf<ratitk^ upon th(>inKrhT«> nntl extend ilA intliji^noe to 
otlicr«, only hy consequeiiceii &rulb;( from the Uril iuien- 
tioa. Ho that vtarlji garnu ofi h» uwu manor, may pnmut- 
il into aTHitlipj, 

Tbcy C'lu pio^rly moie Laiwii only for Ihomsdn^a: a 
member, whilo ho koepa bi» M?a1. ia aubjcvl to theae lava; 
but when he ia o\p«<ll(.<d, tlto juriidicUon oeaaoa, for be u 
now no lon^r tvithin Ihtir duminion. 

Th« difiubiLity, which a vot« can «aporinduco to expol- 



r«diAs wa« inolailed in «TptiUion JUdf; it 
slanHion of Uw cofamoim, ihnl thrv will piTinit 
no longwr him. whom ihe\ tliiu rrttwire, to flit villi (heni in 
IwHimmrnf ; ii decluraltuu mmlv Uy tlint ri^lit, whiJ^li llipjr 
llfH'rt>i«in1^ jKisii^i, of rrgii|;itiMg iht-ir «wii Wi3|-, And of 

jttliictiik^ piuiwhmcnt on ibcir own drlint^ucjilAi 

Tbej Jiavej Ibercfofe, do other w&y to ^nforco the mb- 
l«iie« «f iiioa|ueltj, lliao tliat of ttdheriiifr to it. Tb^^ cdh- 
not otlien»i]*« putiivb tli« «amlidai6 lo diftf|uolilivcJ for of- 
frrittg- himjwlf, n<ir iJif^ vflrrfun fcrT ^irrrplinp bim, lint if 
b« hu mny commit I i (or. thiit compMiJror inuhi (>nTvtii^ und 
if Ue huM ium«. bai elvvtioit will he void ; for the rJglit of 
tbr hoitu- to rt^jr^t aimiiiilntrs with regard to Ui^ man tw 
rrjt'rti-^d, Ihc rij^ht of I'krlinif. 

It h«i bdM uri^d, that the povc<r of the hoiino t«niii' 
ivl^ villi llieir kenHion ; linvf*!! pmoncr. (^oniniiiied by tho 
ipmkvr't wjirrujii, rmmot bv 4iolfTbi<-(l during tlti* r(*ci?Aii. 
That pow<<r, indeed, ceiu^s with tlie aeiiaion, which mnit 
iipmtjt by Uir flgrn4:v nf nthi^ni: brcniiai^. whrn tiiRj Ho 
hot »it, the; cau employ no a^nt, fiavtii^ no Icjoger aii^ 
l^giJ isftbteiK^ : but that vluch b t*xerci«,'d on (h<Tiiitt«h en 
rvitiCH at ibtTtr meeting;, vUan the inbjoct of that power 
>till luL^uiti: tJtny can, in the ii<*xt sewior), rofnflo to n>. 
odnit hioip vbom. in ihr former M*Mioi>. they expolM. 

Tltfil rx|i«d4t»r) fsfrrrrd t^xcliision, ir) the prpfiVfiil riue, 
iBtt^ W, 1 UiitiL. eiLuly admitted^ Tbe c\piiUiofi. and tkfl 
writ iftmeil for o iit;w election wrrc in thf: taoi«« noion. 
aimI, mnoo ihc ho«»o i^, by tJic rnlo of parKamonl. Iio-xid 
for tke »eaoofiby« v6(«oii(ie puaoed. th« expelled member 
cmttiMrt be admittod. He ihmt oannot b« ulmiKed, oannot 
br rttctpH : luid tin? voir* jtivr<n ta ;t mtiR InoSistibln bein^ 
gif«a in lain, tJit? bi^benl niimbt^r fur ah eligible uandiilntr 

To Iticftc cootliiuonn. AA to miMtt moral, and to all politi- 
cal poaitionv mauy objrclioh^ niuv be madir, 'J*li« perpo- 
l«a] Mibjfici of pctltijcal diaqniaition U not nbMilolo, bvl 
oonpaMivo good. Of two lyntomi of p^^emm^itit* fir two 
lava avUtuiglo the tfimo ft»bjvi:i, nmib4-r will evet be nuch 



as. theoretical nicety would desire, and, therefore, neidm 
can easily Force its way aghast prejudice and obstinaGf ; 
each will kave its excellencies and defects; and every 
moa, with a little help from pride, may think his own the 

It seems to be the opinion of many, that expulsion is 
only a dismission of the representative to his constituents, 
with such a testimony against him, as his sentence may 
comprise ; and that, if hia constituents, notwithstanding the 
censure of the honse, thinking his case hard, his fault 
tricing, or his excellencies such as overbalance it, should 
again choose him, as still worthy of their trnst, the hoaae 
cannot refuse him, for his punishment has purged his faalt, 
and the right of electors must not be violated. 

This is plausible, but not cogent. It is a scheme of re- 
presentation, which would make a specious appearance in 
a political romance, but cannot be brou^t into practice 
among us, who see every day the towering head of spe- 
culation bow down unwillingly to groveling experience. 

Governments formed by chance, and gradoally improved 
by such expedients, as the successive discovery of their 
defects happened to suggest, are never to be tried by a 
regular theory. They are fabricks of dissimilar materials, 
raised by different architects, upon different plans. We 
must be content with them, as they are ; should we attempt 
to mend their disproportions, we might easily demolish, 
and difficultly rebuild them. 

Laws are now made, and customs are established ; these 
are our rales, and by them we must be guided. 

It is uncontrovertibly certain, that the commons never 
intended to leave electors the liberty of returning them an 
expelled member ; for they always require one to be chosen 
in the room of him that is expelled, and I see not with 
what pro{}riety a man can be rechosen in his own room. 

Expulsion, if thb were its whole effect, might very often 
be desirable. Sedition, or obscenity, might be no greater 
crimes in the opinion of other electors, than in that of the 
freeholders of Middlesex; and many a wretch, whom his 



eoUnfiM* nhoiild cxpri, mifl:ltt 


hack petfBoaMiito 

fkaM, aMl|>n>voke, «jlh Irairdt^r front, a acdond CRpnWon. ' 
Many of tli« repi^ftenUtivet of the people c*n hardly ^ 
wd to Lbt«% lin^n rliturR ;i1 nil. 8r>rnf, hv mh^ritin^ » 
boTOagh. inberU a aesl ; unti »oine vil by llie fuvour of 
otber», vlufiu, pnhaiJtti thrr may f^ritiry by llit; uot which 
provoked Uio rxpulnign. Some uro t^nfc ty Ihrtr popu- 
Idnty. and fomo by llicir alliances. None vould dread 
vKpttlvion, if this doctriDcr w«fe rec^eii'ed, bill Ihaae wbo 
' boogkl ih^r ele>ctton<, and nho vould be obll^d to buy 
Uwnt «{[Ujii Hi tt Ui^fiL-r priL***. 

But « tiO£rr1iiinlit^-« Hrir (o be dulenninetl by tbiiig» 
eefftaiiii nad cuHloma to h^ cxplmnej, nhf-rT.- if U pussiblo, 
bj VrilteD Uwp tUc pjklriuta buw tnuin|thecl vritb » t|uotH- 
tios from an tut of tho I'diJitb <md liftfi of Anne, whidi 
peraiiu tho»9 to be re<-hoaeii, wbo^o st>AU urt' vacat<»d by 
the actf«g>taQC« of ii ptut-t^ of proQi. Thi« they uist<ly t:oji' 
uder SBt un i?xpuUion, nnd fnim iku^ prrrniEi^ioiir iiJ thl> 
I cwg, of a rcel(vtioi). irtrrr. lli^l rvf-ry <>tlu-r oxpuLutMi 
I loftToa tho delinquciJt (.'ulillvd Iip Uie mmie u]dii|g«u<:»; 
I Tlus U tilt |i4ftri^mph : 

P " ir any pcr*oii, being chosen a member of Ihc hous<- 

^^^of vommont^, shaU iiccopt of any ofGoo l^ni the cronii, 
^^■dBFrinip iacb lime aa h«* kIiuH contiuuv u ia«n]l>^r, hta «1ee* 
^^Mkw sbiJI b«, und ih hirrfby iWhirril [i> bt* vt)id: uiirl ii MrW 
^^B^ftt «lulL ivm* for u iirw oli-i^lion^ tiA if .^iich prnion^ mi mT' 
f «cptin(ff, yrai ntitumlly dead. Novcrlhclci^ MJcb prooti 
I fluU be capable of beiup affuiu eltrcted, aa if hln pl«c« JiiiJ 
I Dol bccoiDc void as nfoToAvd-" 

How thi« ravoiin Uio doctriiicT of rrudmbAion, by u 
aaeoad choice, 1 am not able lo discover. Tbe <1a1Htci of 
tbo Ihiniefb nf ClurlM tin* KPL-ond bnd rniKled, ihnt -- hv 
mho ihaixid Mt in thi? liouKt; itf <!Oinmoiix» without Ittkiiif; 
the Dalbs, aud sttbai-ribiikv: tUt; iv»1> should bt? diitfibEt-d lo nil 
m tbo hotifto dunng th^il purlkumvut, imd jx wril ^tiould is^m^^ 
for Ibo rl^xtion of a new rnvmber, ia pluco of ihv niomhvr 
«o duahl^*d, at if Aacb nit^nibcr liud nutuniily died/' 

TbU ba cluu&e is, nppjronily, oopi^nl in thi< ;icl of Ataw, 



but with tfac Gomitioii <aic of imittilon- In the act of 
Charl««, tlic political dcaCb contii^uod cliuiu;; ihe parlMk 
mcnt; in tiiut ol Aoue it nua bardly irortli tli« whilo 1o 
kill tliQ man whom iht^ n<'\i brvalli huk to i^xixv. It vt, 
howeveriappnr^nlt ihni iei iho rtpiiiion ol' ihc parHamtrnt, itta 
cloud-duiii^ tinf*« would hi*\e kept hJm ntoliurile^s if be liail 
itot lirrii ntiiovrn't! by n kimt rxcc^ptimi. A iiciit Trailed 
coulil ui>t Ue re^HiLL'd, witbout oprcJti penni««ion of the 
sanio statute. 

The tij^l of facinft chosoo ujruin to q aeat tbns vacated, 
in not «njoyr<l bv nn)' f^rn<^ral ri)chl, but rt-quirod u ^pccinl 
clause Jiud MoliiMtoiH provUioik^ 

Bui wtiiU n^KrmblmiciT l'^ti iinflf^iiiaciun 4:onirfive btv 
CWRcii 4mr mun >fti^jilin^ Iim u-at li\ u irmrk of favour frtmi 
Ibo crowLi> diid luiolhcr drivtu from it for sc<]ilJ9ii and 
obdocnit}' i Ti)<i aci:opttintu uf & plnce coul&mtTiatcit do 
character ; the ciuwn iliat gi\ti& il. ialcnds lo ^ise with it 
dwji^« tliffait^r Admctjmes unlhoritv. Tbc oommoiu, it h 
wdl known, IhJnk nol wone of it^mselvnq, or olbi<rc. for 
thff'tr ofUcf)! vf profit; yel profit iffjj>lii-4 lemplatioQ, mkI 
uitiy v\poae u rt-'prtiseiiLiliTc Ui Uje Auspii^iuri uf Im cututi- 
tucntj; tliouich, if ihcy stiJl think bim wortliT of their cou- 
iidcnco, they may agmn elcot hinL 

Sncb is tbo convequcui^e. When u mtui is d)snu»od by 
hw to his conBtitueiiU. with ii«vv trn«t a«il il4)w dif^ity, 
lhi?y may, if llipj think hun iiicfirrujitiblr, r4*atuTe him l4i 
luK MMl : wlml r.mi follim. Uu^n-fcirr. but ibtt, vvhen thi? 
hou»c drivofl out a vutli^t* ^ Ub publick mfimy. he goaa avm; 
witfi tiic like p(Tmi«ai(iij (o r«taru ? 

If LufatuntioD bo, U3 tb<? provc-rb tr^ll* u)i» lh« IbrvruiHier 
of dottlruction, how near diukI bi> Iho niin of a natioa tluU 
crni bo incited ngjunnt it* govftrnouri hy Ho|thitlry liio 
this' 1 mny he exniM^d. if I ojiteb th^ panirk. urirl join my 
l^rumia, at thi^ dttrniio^' cruus, vilh tlw geut'ial Ituucuuti^^^ 
of weeping putriota. ^^H 

Anotbor objection is, Ihnt the rommoni, by prononnrmj^' 
ibr Rontenci* of iliBquulilicutiou, mako a law* odd lako upon 
ihi^mftolvPi the p<rwttT of tho wholo Icgialature. Hsoy 



-1|ttoHtioiU nrr iWu prodtu^v^d Uv prove, Ui«T Ifcu totuaoT 
COaaolU tiin makr^ no Uhx, 

TWee ncU liave been clkd, tlivabUu^ tnembcra, ftjs ilif- 

nnwrkvii, ihiit if tlir conimnnK codUI, Iiv tJicir own pnti- 
Iag9t baro uAde n dwc|imlilicatir>n, (hoir Jealousy of thoir 
pririlei^v would never Ija^e admitldd tke coticunvoC ituc- 
Uoa or ihv oUi^r puven. 

I mtiiti far rvi*r mmiml iIuhu? [may coiilrorrrtiiiU, thai 
]ow« of pirrrnHDCUl ubli^fkliuu ; ibdt twu ciT 
iu fierce. uu<l tbut ili« udior cxpirvd onl)r 
wictt it bnd t'ulfiNod ilj end. Huch Liws ihe commcn* 
cooaot nwke ; tiir; could, porhnps, have di^tc^miiwd for 
liwfBMlras, thai ther would t^^pel vtll who j^iiould not tnktt 
liie t«t, 1>iit Ibe; could leave do autboriTy bt^hind tbem, 
libnt «lMmM oblj^ tho tipxt pajrHjttnritl tij <<xpflil thi-m- 
TImj oould rriiiHC tfjr Si;utli »i A diir<:torH, bill tht^y twulJ 
lMt«kld tL« refu^. Hiej lan tlj«qualii'y by ^ ot«, bat uol 
1>^ low; they i^oniiM know iliut tJic soulenco or diKinaliJi- 
iMUiob pFonouuced (o duv muy uot becomo vuid to morrow, 
liy IIm iftiuotuliott of ibt-ir owtt boiidC. Yd, whdo the same 
pwfnwimt ftiu, thn d iaqriji I i Miration continiieA, unless llie 
rotf^ Iw reu^mdnl ; mid, wiiibj il so roidiiiue^ mukt-ii the. 
TOlo, which rrcuEiuldtn'31 iimyic"c 1o the iutrrdioli?d (.^ndi^ 
date, iuiete4*wHl dcttd.siDco there citnQoicxi!>t,witlir€»f>rct 
r|o ike MUM> subject, at tb^.' «aiiio time, an ubAolutp power 
«boo*e and un ;ibM7tule power lo reject. 
In lt>L4r ihff sttluruey ^em-rol wiu toied iuuapnMt< of ti 
ieat in llir honHi* of coniinonR ; mid thn n^lion iii irininph- 
■atlj tulcl, that, though the lolu never waa revokeil, the 
*rioni«y gvucral in uon a mcrratHrr. Hr. c<;rtai»1>, ntay 
jiow br fl nvmbcr, without TCTO<;ation of the rote, A law 
of pcrfiQiual ohligntion; but «l vole ui notbinff, wIiod Ibc 
are gone. A law i» a compact rr<ciprocftLly nude 
by ibe le^lativc pcwi-rK, nnd, therefore, nor in bo mlvm- 
but by all the pnriioEK A vote ia bimply h re^oluliuii^ 
rbieb bbnU onh hJm UmI i» w|[[jn}c to be hound. 
1 Wtc thus pulJctdiuu^ly lUid miJintcly pursued thin di»- 


qnisitioD, because I suapect, that these reaeoners, whose 
business is to deceive othera, have SDmetimes dec^ved 
themselves, and I am willing to free them from their em- 
bairassmeDt, though I do not expect much gjatitude for my 

Otber objections are yet remaiuing, for of political ob- 
jections there cannot easily be an end. It has beeti 
observed, that vice is no proper cause of ^pulsion ; for if 
the worst man in the house were always to be expelled, in 
tune none would be left; but do man is e&pelled for 
being worst, he is expelled for being enormously bad ; fats 
conduct is compared, not with that of others, but with the 
rule of action. 

The punishment of expulsion, being in its own nature 
uncertain, may be too great or loo little for the fault. 

This must be the case of many punishmenla. Forfeiture 
of chattels is nothing to him that has no possessions. Exile 
itself may be accidentally a good ; and, indeed, any punish- 
meut, leas than death, is very diflerent to different men. ■ 

But, if this precedent be admitted aud establbhed, no 
man can, hereafter, be sure that he shall be represented by 
him whom he would choose. One half of the house may 
meet early in the morning, and snatch &□ opportunity to 
expel the other, and the greater part of the nation may, by 
this stratagem, be without its lawful representatives. 

He that sees all this, sees very far- But I can tell him 
of greater evils yet behind. There is one possibility of 
wickedness, which, at this alarming crisis, has not yet 
been mentioned- Every one knows the malice, the sub- 
tlety, the industry, (he vi^lance, and the greedineaa of the 
Scots- The Scotch members are about the number sufficient 
to make a house. I propose it to the conaideration of the 
supporters of the bill of rights, whether there is not reason 
to suspect that these hungry intruders from the north are 
now contriving to eJtpel all the Engiisb. We may then 
curse the hour in which it was determined, that expulsion 
and exclusion are the same ; for who can guess what may be 
done, when tho Scols have the whole house to themselves? 



nil ubjrvtHJtia, reuJ ur uuagitkir^v. CImjk t'OUAiMtL-ul witli Ihr 
pffoctiee of fonn^r ticn6>» will Utua consequentiul tu the 
origunlpnnciplo&rtravcmiacnl, Lt thatdcdjtion, l)> wlii<;Ii 
»0 nSQcii VKolffncc! of i1iiico»t(^nt has licrn t?\citc*[i, nlii4;U 
lifti been M dolorou^ty bcwniM, ani^ sc> oulra^cmutly ri?- 

f>Tt iiiL, hnvrrfifr, cmt Uv. sa^Hvrm] l» [lut ton much coiill- 
UeoceiD jtutioc or in truth : tbcj Lnv€ ofLeii bn^n Wml in- 
itctivfi in tkviT ova JefoDco, dticL ^nc mon^ conflilciii;<T llmrj 
bclp to tlieir frti^adi and ttidr advocates. It mav. pcrliufiH. 
lie prudent to muic oni-* momcritiry ooitofSAion to ruUvbooil, 
by ouppe>«inf^ thr vnin Jn Mr. I-uit^rera favour lo ht; ^rron^. 

AM irrvii^ rtigbl id hi* rf^oliliod. If Mr WUiL*< 1% de- 
|im«d of n Inwful icni, Imlli be mid U\% t?l«r1orK bnviv rea- 
HOn locorapUin; but it wilt ncit be poxWy foutuL «bv, jmiJii>f 
tii« ioDumcrabk «Toiip of wbicli o grcDt \Hnl of ni^inl^iitd 
Me hourly cucnpluiiiifi^* lEic whole curt* of <hr puliljck 
■ImmiJiI bo tnttisft^rrpd ti> Mr- WtlLe^ and ih^j fri!i?hnldcrn dV 
UkldlowXp who migtil idl sink into uoncx Intone e, viiJicut 
nay i^thpf efTect. ibin (hal ibero wonld be room mudtt for 
« cien rubble, nnd h m-w reluiler ufst^itiljui] mid rilMrrrriniy. 
Hio caiui; of our coimlTy would JunVr liltfr , (he mbbk*, 
wbcitreiocvcr tb«y come, will be nlwojs pjifnots, oud ttl- 
mtiys uipporitiM of ttie bill of rigbtfi, 

Tb« bouso of commons decide** iho dis|:iates umin^ 
from t-lc'ctiotin. Wa? il ever 4uppo<ted. that m aW cilft^ 
Ihrlr decUions were flgbt ^ l'!irrv m&m. whotr kivru] elec- 
taon b Jefealcfil. u c-quLilljf wruugi'd with Mr. WiJkei, imd 
hit cuuatitut-EilH feci ihvir UiiuppuiiiUiK^iil. witJi iio Imi 
DjiJCuiAh thiui tb<T tVi:clioi(lcrjt nl MJdilkAc;^, 'i'hcAo (!lc<;i- 
Kkmi hjirr often bpcn nppLircntly partiul, and, Aocii«timos, 
lynmEiiuaUj oppreuive. A innjority h^s b^«ii ^ivcn to u 
fjiiotiriiv caodidJtte. by expi-mgifig voie?( wbirh had ntwityt 
Ivfnit nlbitt-i^d, nad wbb-h, ihert-fan*. luid ibe HiiiUi'ntT by 
nhkb till fotcA sro giio-ri, tbut of riinloiti uniiitermpti^l. 
\^'bcii tbi? commons detcnvlnc who Uiiill br conuitnestA. 
tbey muy, *itb sornvc |iToprie1y, be fauitl lo mJiL(* Lum, tic- 


rnfi PAL8I! ALA KM 

cau«r thoae dctormtctalioDs havt^, hitliorlo. Tor Ibo mkc of 
qioct, bcou mioptud ti;^ suuciwcliii|r purlJAmrtiU. A vote, 
Lh^rotore, of tlicr koii«i.«, vhvn it operulcs ua a law, u l«j 
ifidividiiaU a law only 1«*m[iorjinr> hiit to cominaj 

Yet, ihoufl^h nil titU huH bireri donv^, mid tliough, nt rn^r^ 
new parliamiriit, nmch of thU u osiprctcd to be done a^in, 
it hai never i)roduccd, in any former Cimi^.auchanaluntuitg 
orinn. Wo iiav^ fonud, by ex|>L<nenee, lliuT tlui"^*" iiw|«iJ^ 
hia g^vftn aIo and vcnisoD in vuiu, luid u borough hat b^eo 
oompelled (Q ser its do»niftt iolnrr^Kt m the hanOi of hiA 
whom il did not IruHi* 3'rt lhi.< ^poitiiI <>iflt« of iht* nutiufl- 
bus conlinurd tlir Aunio. TIlv *ur) htu rii^rn, mid tJic; cnni 
hoB Rn>wii, and, wh&lcvcr talk hiu been of the duigicr of j 
pro|ictty, yet ho that pi[>ugh»?d tbc* ficJd commonly rcApt^d 
it; mid ht.- tbut biull n houiti< H-ud muflti^r of iho door; tha 
voifiiioii vxoitvd by inJEiblic« uuflorcd, or titppoftcd to bi 
SiifTrrt'd^ by nny privuti^ mun, or smglo oommunitT, wm 
locu) and l4-inporarj, lE nrtihrr hprend far, nor lasilvd loo^. 

Tbc! natioE) loukoiJ ou with IiIUk cure?, bccau^R then- d'td 
not sctsia to be much dan^ur. The connrqucnrr of nntatt 
irrc-^lariticK wua not Iblt, kind wc bad iiot yet karocd to 
be i«mli«>il by vi^ry diiitant «-n<imJeA. 

But qtuet and »ectmty ure now uC an end. Our vij;i- 
IfUkco Ik ^^uiakeriifd, and our comprrhi^niinn n rnlsrgcd. 
We Dol only wtv. ovenU in their cnupies, bij( licforr rb^'ir 
t';iU!it-<(; we btar the ihumlt^r wliile tlie »Ly U clt'ar. uud 
wc the mint- Jtprung before it i-i dn^. Politiiiul windom 
baa, by the feree of Kiif^Jiiih ^uniu*, been improved, at IasI, 
not only to politjonl mtuition, but (o politi^Tal pr^tMiODOt). 

But it cannot, J am afnud, be £aid, that ai we are grown 
viae, ve are mudi* bappy. It U laid of thote vlio have 
ibe wcindi-rfifl pourr <'u1|i<d nr^rond li^bt. tJuit they wddoni 
aco any ihin^ but evil - |>oU(icf-il ^frcond «ight liaa the aatan 
tfflocti wo beiLT of notiiing but of an alarming omia, of 
tioUt«>d n^htd, and expiriri^ libcdMs, TJie morning n«T* 
upon new wrongs, and tho droumor pacftoc tbv nigbc m 
imaginary ebacklos. 



Thr jEphrrv^ of wnxicly in uavr mlLLr^iul ; bn That Mlherto 
cjirecj miK for Jjimcrlf, now rarr* fur ih*? |)ubli<:L ; for JiO 
tuw Ivaninlp tlidL llir hnp|>iJJtTH of tmlivHtiitiU ih cfjtnprUril 
in llro pro^pcrilT of'fhr uhoV , nnH thut hih lu^iiitr^ iirtt^f 
sulTm, Eiul ho «afti'r* witij iti however it hu]^|jT.u?< ilmt be 
fwla no poin. 

Ptr«il w itb thin f^er of opideiuic k puinoiijcm, f hr? Uifcr 

ciaiih UyK Hewn hiH bimmi*r; Ihry mot^r nt hd |]0[i9i( al«f- 
bouMf, ctjusidcr lJi« Male of the iiutioti. rtrml i>r lifiir Ihp 

st t^e dreudful cmiA, and ftubt»cnbe to tht; support of the 

It Mnettme*, indeed, b^pp^ns that aii intrudt^r, of more 
l)«Bevo1ei3^» than prudeiuw, ati«in|iU to dispt-rvc thnr cloud 
(if drjftflion, hihI enxp ihrir hrnrtK hy irJiKnriRble coii4o[a* 
tioQ. Ill" lrllr» tliF'in, itint ihuugli the |^ovi!*rricQent cMunot 
tw loo dUigtintlj wjktcbcd. it may be Unt linAlily iiiicii«r*il ; 
and thiit, thmtgti pHvnlo jodftrriK^nt U <?vcrry mun's rl^Ut, 
yet *c c*nnot jud^r ot whiit wc do not know i tbut wc 
feel fli pr«&eat uo «Ttls whkh )^vernin«<nt oan ollevrnttr, 
mmI tbil ll)i> publick bmincitH is conunittt'd to m^ri, who 
havn nil miirh right lo onnfld^nci* an fhcir ndsrr4tiri'-« ; 
llnl the frceholdi^rN of Middte^en, if xUi^y could nnl clioo?(e 
Ur. Wilkofl, miKht b^v<i chorea any other tnaii, niid that 
*■ bv tjtisi*! wo havL" tritliiD (bt- realm, fivf huadrcd nti good 
at he i" tbut c\t: n if Ibi:!, «'lii«h bus happen^ to Middb- 
■UL. h^ buppcEi4?d lo ovpry oth^^r county, lluit oni* mnn 
fthotdd ho nind^ incDipuble of bein^ cWted, 11 could prrv 
doiDt no ^Tvnl tihiin^e in thi* pnrlhini(?nl, nor murli contnc^l 
th« powr-r of 4^lrc1ion : thai, wimt Uan lnnm done i», T>ri>- 
bttblj. right ; aiid that if il ho wron^i tt h of little? gooho- 
qneoeo, aiace a like cose c^inot r^^ily occur ; thai expul- 
sions flra very ram, nnd >f ihcy tbouki, by unbonndMl 
inioli-nC4> of fat'lion, beoocK* more frnjuent, ihi? cleclorn 
may ira«ily provide a t^icond choice^ 

Ail ihut ho niny htty. but not half of Ltiijt wiU be hfuril; 
bi« oppoutuLf will «luii Atiniond tLetnfio1v«4 with a coofuftod 


sound ofpeDsioDs and places, venality and corniptioD, op^ 
pression and invasion, slavery and ruin. 

Outcries, like these^ uttered by malignity, and echoed 
by folly ; ^neral accusations of indetermipate wickedness; 
and obscure hints of impossible designs, dispersed among 
those that do not know tbelr meanlog, by those that know 
them to be false, have disposed part of the nutiou, though 
but a small part, to pester the court with ridiculous peti- 

The progress of a petition is well known. An ejected 
placeman goes down to his county or his bprougb, telb 
his friends of bis inability to serve them, and his consti- 
tuents of the corruption of the government- His friends 
readily understand that be who can get nothing, will have 
nothing to give. They agree to proclaim a meeting; meat 
and drink are plentifully provided; a crowd is easily 
brought together, and those who think that they know the 
reason of their meeting, undertake to tell those who Icnow 
it not; ale and clamour unite their powers; the crowd, 
condensed and heated, begins to ferment with the leaven 
of sedition: all see a thousand evils, though they cannot 
show them ; and grow impatient for a remedy, though they 
know not what. 

A speech is then made by the Cicero of the day; he 
aays much, and suppresses more; and credit is equally 
given to what he tells, and what he conceals. The peti- 
tion is read, and universally approved. Those who are 
sober enough to write, add their names, and the rest would 
sign it, if they could. 

Every man goes home and tells his neighbour of the 
glories of the day; bow he was consulted, aud what he 
advised; how he was invited into the great room, where 
his lordship called bim by his name; how he was caressed 
by sir Francis, sir Joseph, or sir George; how he eat 
turtle and venison, and drank unanimity to the three 

The poor loiterer, whose shop liad confmc^l him, or 
whose wife had locked him up, hears the tale of^liuury with 



tnTXt nnd.nt JiiM, inquirrn whnlwiu their pel i lion. Orthr: 
pctilion notkiDK ""^ rt^nicmbt^rt^fl by the nsirrfltor. but Ihnt it 
e|>oki- ranoti of fears ntid nppreberLAiofjK, and %am^tU'\n^ 
«er^ aUmiinjf . And that he i« Mure tt U ti^iilnBt Ibe ^ovem- 

)iii4<iil; thf- other U conviiict^il thcit iT miwl W riRibl, Aiii 
vinlies h« h4i<l bt'rn ihtTC, for lie loves wine aiiil veuiruin, 
mad ifl reiolved, lu \on^ jia W live*, to be ii|[niiiKt tlin 

• llm petition u tJicn huitdrd from tovEn to town, and from 
hmise to boBi^; Aijd, vlirrrv«tr i( romcs, (he izibabjtonlA 
iock toother, lltnl ihey mny u^e rb;U wliJctt muvi bv jat^nl 

tlo tlw Lin^. Kuiiiev kw euhily culleoied. Oite mutt nan*, 
bvcuiMc hr buluA the (m|mU; itniitbr?rp Uhuiuc he his 
vov«d d^Htruotioo to tlic liirnpikcic ; one, bectiuw it will 
\tx the ]>ursoi] ; auollitr, hcvatiac Iw nw«s bin landlord 
notbifie; one, bccaufti? hu la rich ; tuiulbt-r, buODU^do hi; is 
poof ; one. 1o vbow Ujhi h« it not nfrnid ; nnd nnother, to 
^^■bnv tbnl he* cEin write. 

^H^ TliG piuxdge, however, b noT alw»^V!< itmontb. Tboi;^) 
^^Mrho eollrfst cfiiifrihiiitianK in irditifUi. hfimrlinie& 'tpply to a 
f nwi of higher rnnh and rnoro enlightened niincJ, whu, Ui- 
f ftMi] of leitdiAg tbcm bia naniOi calmly reprover th^m for 

bejDii: se^lucera of lh« peopio, 
^K You who «n- here, nayt^ hv, complaJniti); of vcnahlr. arc 
^V^urwkes the agents of tbote who havinjif eilimdted 
ihemtelv^v at toi) hi|^b u price. &re oidy nu%ry lh»t (fiev 

(are not iKiijghl. Von nn? ;tpp<-it]ib}^ Ai^m llie pairlnmient 
to tbc rubble, and iuvJtiri^ those \vho, >curceljrt in iho most 
comaioti offatn, tliniin^ui.ih rt^-hi from wrou^, to judge of 
m «|iie«tion coimphcaled «itb law written nnd unwritten* 
with the ftcneral principloK or^ovtrramunt, uud tht? partictt- 
lor cu«iota« of the hoiiv of rommoHA; you iot* Kliowin^ 
them a |(rteinfM<e, to tlisruiU i^iat ihry CAinnnt m*t' it, tind 
[ m li^t tliut they tiinnot led it: for htiw. but b) uiutet^en- 
auy ifltelligeace aiid artiticiaJ provooitiou* iibould tbo furm- 
tn au^ sfaDpJtt?epera of VuriNhire nnd Cn-'iiberlnnd know 
OT cure bow Middle>e\ isrrpre^iotcd ; Instead of wand<*r- 
itt^ thus ronnd ih<* ooiinl\ Ut exiiMperate the rnge of party, 


TflK ^ALfCK ALAtlU. 

and duripn Ibe «iiiipicioiu of ignor«iioL% H in ibe Uui^' of 
men Uktf ^(JQ, who have lel^i^re for jn<|uir^, to \tnu\ hunk 
thp prapli? In lhi?ir lioiii^vt hibiiiir; \o tirll iHem, llut sub- 
iiiiHiiciQ ia ihu duly of (he i^toraiit, nod content the virtuo 
of the poor ; that th«y have no tkiU in tbc oft ot^ ^vern- 
tnanU nor any int<^re*l in Iht' difiiunBions of tho (rfc^l; ond 
vhcti jou ni4)Ct with niiy, us Komo thuru arc, u'lkuae uii<ter- 
Btnndhl^ nj« cnpubl^ of conviction, it vrill hrcontu >ou 1« 
idlay (hi& roaming ebulLltion, by tLhowin^jf xUem. ihul lhpjr<. 
hnvr AH miii-h h;4|>pinAH «U( tbi? i.-DndLtimi cif lite will cotil/ 
receive ; nnd that a gciTrmnifinL of whirh an erTon«oua or 
tiDjitit reprrACTitiitioQ r>f MiddkMCx id thr f^ntMt crimo 
ttiut intvrol tun di;M<ioTi>r, urmuliou can upbfaid|i« ^v#fB^ 
mi>iil npproocluna; nearer to porfiiction, than uny that €dl<- 
pcritmi^o hnn known^ or hiRlory rrlalnd, 

Tbo rinulgrs «f Hrilirinn wish to cliaTige ihtrir ground; 
tlH.'jr bear hiEU iwith auIlt'U silence, frtid t^tiuvlLtivu vitbont 
repi-iilaJK-e, huJ am ctMifuiindrd, but imt itbiuhi^d ; tbey ^o 
forward to itni>tlicr door, and iiud a kinder reception from 
A man onrogvd u^ainat tJio f^it^rnmetiti bocouso he bt* 
jiut b^fti puviUf; the lAX upon hi^! windows* 

Tbal » pvtiiroji I'uT a ditfioEution of th(> parliament will. 
Ill all lijnfs, hiivr* itn fdvnnrera^ may be efu»ily imugiiird. 
The people, indeed, do not exprtl llait one hoime nf com' 
nuHIc will be ranch hu^tatrr or much wi«r-r than niiolbrr ; 
Ibcy do not »ii|>poflc that the tai«A will be lightened ; or» 
IhiHiffh tiicv Itavc bdta ew often taiiffbl to hopo it, thai 
v;rMi|» njid (andlea wiil bo clionpcr; Ihcy rxpcct no rcdrrM 
of ^irvHiicefi, for cf no grifivoncea, but ta&es, do ihey coin< 
plain ; ibiiV wisli not the ex1«<nAon of liberty, for they do 
itot fed any rt^j^trHint; ahouf lb» iM?curit% ai pritilegr nt 
property ihcy arc totally cntolew. for they spo no projieHy 
tnradvd, nor know, lilt tht-y ure lold, ibat any priuli<gn 
hu BnffiMrod vJoliJioiu 

Loa»t of all do they expect^ that any futnrtr parLiamenl 
will K^Hon it« OMU pnwrrs, or coiiuniinicalc to ihe pcopla 
thiU aiiihurity H'biHi it bn4 once obtiLinL'd. 

Yet a new parliameiii a Hiil>icii?ntly deftimble. The 



HecrSon in n rem of jullily; and, iv hut in »ti1l morft 
[|« a vrur of equality; U);; ^Tutton now rikts ibo 
dolkftrM"-* Ibr «hirh he. ionjxcd when lie? ooalJ not pur^hue 
(fafiiBt And tii« drunkard lian chr |iton8iiie of win:f» without 
lli« «o«1: the drorte lives awhitf* without vork, mtd Ihp 

KlM»pire|iF>r, iQ lliP llowr of riiUTie^. Tiliiit!)! Iiin prirP : thp 
mrf luniok, lhn( Irrmblrd at (hr promrnw of sir JoKe^ili, 
Buv bida bmi coma Aguin for an ^iuswer: uml iiiK [nmtiheTg 
wbooc fpin has been iieixcili now fHidn- an opportunity to 
rofikim il. li,\ea Ui« bunrit man b aat dijsplcanod lo see 
khnttlf important, nnd willinjcly rcKumo», in twayears, Ibat 
poir^r vblrh h*» had r<>M(jnpd for seven, F«w love lh«rlr 
fnemb au uell tu not li> dt^Hire sii^riorit; by uriei^pbiutivr 

Vrl. uolvithstuulin^ all tbo«c mothca to coinpUtuiur, 
the profnoltn of petitions have not been AucueMful, Few 
codUI be perauuded lo UmcrnC evils wUi«b Ibt'y did doI 
citlfi^r.tOr ta i^jdt for redre^^ which thoy do not want. 
Tlio petition bu br4^n, in *u>Rie places, n^ji^ct^d ; and, prr- 
bapaj. is all but out*, signed only by tL# ineBnact and 
f^roaaestt ufUie pi-a|ila. 

Since this expedient, now tnTWlcd or revived, to dia- 
traa0 tba ^Tcnuncnl, and equally pructioablor at all timed, 
bj aI vho oball be cxrludL^d from |>uwtr mid t'niDi proKl, 
hti pffoduMd >o titllo elTti^l* \vi ttn i-onitider the epr>'>vition 
oa mo loAgar formidiiblr, Thr grcut en^pno hiu recoiled 
npoo Ihem, They thought, thni th^ t*rwji, ibi^y unt. uvr* 
termt of trw^Hl^ whii'b w»uld Uiivu a^niimti alt, and tluiMblrd 
mtuiy: but tbc consternatioD ia now otcr. end their foei 
atou/ mprifhi, oi before. 

Wilb g^nl propri<Tty and digmty the king baa. i^ his 
spa«cb, Def^levted or forfrol1«n thum. H« mif^bt crnlf 
know, that wJiat vjm prru^iitL^d* ha the «cnAc« of the prniplr, 
ta ibp seu>(P only of (be protlipUit and dinwbitiT ; and, that 
vbateier parliumenibbould be v^uveuetl, tbr sane p«6- 
Intiera wvuld be ready, for tho kancie lea^on, to rcqueit tta 

Aa «« once bad a rebeJIioQ of the clowntf, we have aov 



an oppoBitioD of the pedlers. The quiet of the nation has 
been, for years, disturbed by a faction, Qgainst which all 
factions oughf to conspire; for it» ori^nal principle is the 
desire of leveling- ; it ia only animated, under the name of 
zeal, by the natural maHgnity of the mean against the 

. When, in the confusion which iLe English invasions pro- 
duced in France, the villains, imagining that they had 
found the golden htiur of emancipation, took arms in their 
hands, the knights of both nations considered the cause as 
common, and suspending the general hostility, united to 
chastise them. 

The whole conduct of this despicable faction ia distin- 
guished by plebeian grossness, and savage indecency. To 
misrepresent the actions and tbe principles of their ene- 
mies is common to all parties; but the insolence of in- 
vective, and brutality of reproach, which have lately pre^ 
vailed, are peculiar to this. ^. 

An infallible characteri stick of meanness is cruelty. 
This is the only faction, that has shouted at the condemna^ 
tion of a criminal, and that, when his innocence procured 
his pardon, has clamourad for his blood- 
All other parties, however enraged at each other, have 
agreed to treat the throne with deceocy; but these low- 
bom railers have attacked not only the authonty, but the 
character of their sovereign, and have endeavoured, surely 
without eSect, to alienate the afiections of the people from 
the only king, who, for almost a century, has much ap' 
peared to desire, or much endeavoured to deserve them. 
They have insulted him with rudeness, and with menaces, 
which were never excited by the gloomy sullenness of 
William, even when half the nation denied him their alle- 
giance; nor by the dangerous bigotry of James, unless, 
when be was finally driven from his palace; and with 
which scarcely the open hostilities of rebellion ventured 
to vilify the unhappy Charles, even in the remarks on the 
cabinet of Naseby. 

It is surely not unreasonable to hope, that the nation 


will «OD«iiU it* dimity, ir oot itj safety, find disdain to be 
pfotcetcd or CLalav«d Eiy tha d(.-cUtiiiiorn, or the plutlora of 
a ciCt laf^rii. Hud Roin« fulleti Lv tliv Catilinimai] con- 
■ptl^kov, *bt! migbt ha»^ i^otisoU^d titr futt' by llie ftreutuesw 
of her dpslrrtyt-m: biil wti»t would lm\« ulkvmli-d llie 
dugncr of Vitg^Mul^ hud her gnvcrnmrDt bi^ru lijitiigeJ 
by Tiler or b> Ket ^ 

One part of tbc uatiorj baa nev«r bc-fore contended with 
till* other, bui (or sonWJ WL'ij-bly and ^ipparout in(«n>flt. If 
the moiuiK w«n.> violc-ttt, Lhe did wa4 ^rn^it- Tlu; civil wnit 
wu Toogbl for whnt each army called, and believed^ th<? 
he*i relijpoD and thi? biist govcrairiLMil, Tho Mnigglfi in 
tlie rei^ of Anue, was tv utt^Iudc ur rL-Morc uu i^xile kiog;, 
Wc nra now di5ptitin)C, willi almojit rqual uiiimoaity, wb«- 
tlit^r BJiddJuHL^x flhall be rc]>rc«cnii;d, or nol, by a eriminoJ 
from it |i;aoK 

Thp only rooifort left, in siicb degeneracy, ii^ tbul a lower 
t1at« c&u Iw no longer po>tMMe. 

In t^ conlcmptijoait crn^arr, I i]i4!aa not lo innlade 
ercrj iringle iiinn. In aII le-ad. bays tbe cbyml^t, there ia 
lilvCTi and in all copper there ti ic*>'d- But minified 
iMUuee an> ju»tly dunomin^ted bjr tiu^ |:reater qaantity, 
and vIm'D the pnwioiis particIdH nro not trorth cxtraclion, 
a fsHian tind ti pij^ ma^t be melted down logethro* to 
ibt^ fomiN mid ofRceit that 4:hance nllots tbem: 

" FiiiDL uraol^ |J«l*n. vUtAft). pauna." 

A few weeks will now ahow. wbethcr tlie govonuneot 
vmn Ih: i^mlen by empty noise, and whctlior (he fttetion, 
i«bicb depends upon iu influen.'o, han not d^^ceiveH, aliko, , 
(be pubUck ^nd i1»eir Thai it should have ooutinued till 
now, ia Airflkiepfly ihiunHaL Nont can, tad^ed, woadet 
ihiftt il ]m% bf-KH ftiippnrltrd by ibn wcliiriir-v. 1]i« nhtura] 
CumrBtor* of acditiun, nod coufederate^t u( tbe rabble, of 
^hojBc religion little now remaiaa but haired of CAtabliab- 
Benls, and who art.* untnT ^'' '^'■d »<<paration dow only 
tolenil«d, which was nxif*^ r<*wardott ; but ^•very hon««4 
una cniist tamiiDt, that il bag b^en rrgarded with fnj^id 



neutrality bj the tones, who, bein^ loDg acciutomed to 
iignalize their principles by oppositioD to the court, do not 
yet coQBider, that they have, at last, a king, who knows not 
the name of party, and who wishes to be the common fa- 
ther of all his people. 

As a man inebriated only by vapours soon recovers in 
the open air ; a nation discontented to madness, without 
any adequate cause, will retum to ita wits and its allegi- 
ance, when a little pause has cooled it to reflection. No- 
thing, therefore, is necessary, at this alarming crisis, bnt 
to consider the alarm as false. To make concessions is ta 
encourage encroachment. Jj&t the court despise the fac- 
tion, and the disappointed people will soon deride it. 




Tme fnlloniuK tluiu|i1tU wi-rp ihiMixW in I J7L frtun rantrrialu 
furnlfthi^ U tbr nuUiar hy tlif mfnUtrv- Hw ilctKri|ition nf the 
■ilspriM of wHr Ih mmt MiiqiiviiHy [lersuii'fcfvt-. nml h\% invpctfvM 
■gm£fisi th^ npjHAltfon, nnf\ thr'tr iumIltIoub diJLinpion. nlniund 
with ihp tii04t Trircftil^ anil fnu^nnl tatitc. In a l^tivr tu Mf. 
Luigtoii, from Jolmtiuir wv lirjtl thut lord Xnrlli 4tqip«t<l tlit- bdJc, 
More nwny copies hail \ttxii diipcrteil J<rlinMiiL urt>tv(-il to hi> 
tAtm^ that hv did nil (IJHtirctly know thu ivruwn uf the ninu- 
t<-r'a ocndnct ; tratj in bU pnrbuliUity, it wiu dictated hj a dread 
^f the tiftdi of unqtialifit^d o^ptfrity^ nnj, nccordinxlj. !n ifio 
■eCDod ctiition, mauj of tl;c mnr^ viiklrnt nprrniuJiH w^r^ wft^ 
cneil diiirii m Hxjiiin^l. Il huH fflwn tlimiy^lit, by ■umu-. that 
Or- Johnum nitpd the vidue of tbr Piilklmid utrindu lo Kri^Iniifl 
taa lew.— Bd. 


To pro|iortk>ii th<i oagrrni^jiji of conUittt to iu impcrtiiitc* 
■rpian loo hnrd n Uink for hiunun viKdom. TIi(< |>nfl<< of 
vil KsE kppi AgP.4 buss in (he di'K'ii^ijtnn of iiju*]rM fjiiri«- 
tuios. ;4i]d iIl<* pridff uf ]iuwt-r bufl dtiiUoj^oiI uiuiica. lo ^din 
or to krcp unprofitable poi>»cR:(ioiiR. * 

Not niaov vf'ArA hi\e |I3mk^> hIucc the CTncltic« of mir 
were Qllirip 1hi- world vilL k-rrour and w»th8om>V( rtigfe 
vm:i ut )a»t iippe«m?d, or stren^cth vxbuuhted. utid. to fh« 
banuuud tiKiions poact^- wok n.-«1orc-d wiih il« plt-iiMum 
and iu brnrfiiii. Of thiR nfiiltt nil frll zhr hiipptnt'ui, luid 
all iiupluied the curitifiuuiice ; but ivlinl coiitiiiUAiHTr of 
bi^>piueo cttn be expedited, whvEi thu whole svMcm of 
Europran t-mpirc catt be in iliin^T of a new ooDctraoion. 
b^ fl contention for n fow 4|tot* of carib^ whick in the de- 




aeita of ihe ocean, liaci nlmobt racnpefl humnn notice, qdiI 
vfaick it thov haii not Impp^ned to mnke n ^^runrk, hod* 
(i^rbupt^, Tii.^ver Lad a nnmeT 

Fortune oHeii i1p1igiit»i t» diijcriify nhal iisiltin? fiUK neg- 
lected ; and lliat reiiu^n v-hkU ctiriiiot br cUtUKTct tii in- 
Irmsick e^tcetlence «r greuUie»M» ia, som^liuies, d^^riied 
froici uuei]>ccted accident*. Thr Kuba:(>n wa» eimoblcd 
by the ))[USAge of Cfcsur, and tlwi tinK? i«i now oomcf, «li«Q 
Falkland's ielaiidK demand their h:btcnnn- 

Biil tb<? wriH?r, to whom this employmeiil abnll He aiu 
clgiii^d, will buve fcrw up [i or t unities of de!u;ri|j(ite spW* 
dour, or imrrHlive Hfgiint^e. Of other ooiintrirx it )» 6))d, 
how oflvn tliey haw ubanged tJieir ^ovcTQiricnt ; tbc*c 
ulundu have. Jiitberlo, chnuged only thoir nani€< Of b^ 
ro<i» lo (conquer, or k-jjislalors Xo civiliz«', hert ba>i be^n 
DO apppLirnnoe ; notbiEig hus happened lo ttiefii. but Uml 
tb^V hnve been, scmetimps, seen by wiinderia}^ nu^ignton, 
wbo punned by lliein in senrch oriiellcr h^htlulion^. 

Wben the Spaniards wbo< uudci ibo conduct of Co- 
lumbus, diacovcn-d Amem^u, hod taken po^t^snUa of ib 
nio^l woidtbv rr^ioiis* tht^v nnrpriscd and Icrribcd Europe, 
by a Budden and unexampled influx of ncJken. Tfioy wcro 
tnflde, at once, biKupportably innolent. and mtgbt. |»erbaps, 
havt^ hrcnnif im**ii!(!ihly pftwi-rfuf, hnd not ibf-ir nioitntiiiit- 
oiiH IreoMiirt^^ been MCiiltfrir'd in the u\t, with (be igoor^uit 
profnaion of niiiiccuxtomt^ opulence. 

Tbu grt^utcr port ni' Ibfr Kuropraii i>otrnUTrii naw ih'a 
stroum ofriches tlowingf intp Spain» without nttcrapting to 
dip their own bunds in tbr ifolden fountain* France bad 
DO nariil skill or power; Portu^Al waa e\1endiji^ b^r do- 
miniooM in the trast, over re^^ioni fomu'd in thi? gniriy cd^ 
nature; thtr Hucsejittck Ira^ui-, U-iiig ^Umned only for 
the Aecnrity of traflkk. bad no tendi-ncy 1u dWuvt<ry nr 
inva^ioti ; and tlie commercial nt^itc^ of Ituly* plowing rich 
by Iraduif; between Asm niid l^uropc. and not lyin^ upon 
the ooeaji, did not dutsirtf io Aook, by great hosordA, a( a 
diHt^ifici*. wbni wbs nlmoHt at home, to be found with 

pkhxLkJifyw inhkifVB. 


tlif^ S]MuiiHL Davigfitijrs, to try if nay [liiDg with left iLal 
ffiiflit reward odvc-Dluro, or incite appro priotiou. Tlic> 
»*Q| C«b(>t idto tht' north, but ta the north there wus oo 
^[oUI or »tlv4ir to bo found. The besst rc^ofii v/v^ra fnn- 
oecnpiod, yot tho^ itill contmiied Iheir hopri^ nn<t ihsir 
biWiirs- Ttiev w<in* the Mfcond ntifioii itiHl iWed the 
ejitcftt of lh« P&cind uctruEj, aud llib secojiJ isircutuiiuvl- 
gatom of the (^obc. 

hj the wor brtTccn Ellzaloth and Philip, the wrwlth 

of Ajn«rnca became lii^fui prize, and ttioHo vbo nero Ics8 

afnid of dan^4<T than of pov^H^r. Buppoued that lieheB 

ittl^bl ruztilv III- crbliiinr'H hy plundering Ihi? Spbiiminls. 

NolJiiD^ ii difTlmtl, vhrn gmn Jind honour iiiiilr ihrir in- 

fltirnco; the ipiril mid tlguur of tbes« eApeditlotiA od- 

brpod our rievri of tlic qe^w world, and made ua Urat ac* 

quailitcd vith itt rtf^motrr coaul^. 

' In tiM fatnl yoyn^ of Cavrndish^ (15EKfr)i>aptiiia Davin, 

wbo, being itrul otiI uh Ins n»n<-ititr, wiie iiftprwrurds pjkrli-d 

fnooi bim, or drnprled him, n^ hi> mtn drii4»M, by vinh-nrr 

' of weaiber, about tJie klruiu cif Mu^ulJuii, U Kuppo^i^d ti> 

Ltere been the first wlin kaw <br Imidi now c^Ilt^d Fulk- 

F VmI'* Ulaadji, but biH dutrch* pormittc^ him not tv» mukc 

' aay obdervstioD ; Qod hu l«fl them, aa bo found thora, wiUi- 

oat a naiD^- 

Nol long uftLTVvurds, t'-'WI,) <ir Kitbrtrd Hiiwkiu^j biding 
tn tbr tumr «r»«, viib tlu^ *<.inir drxigiM, saw llirHr* Ufujidti 
a^Q, if they arf^-. tftdcei}. thu ?i;Lrut- islaiulr«, uud. in liODoiir 
afbu DiUlxejiH, callt^ tbcm Huwkiru'x muidta huid. 

Thiit vojtt^ va« nut of renown Hullicirnt i*t iimcurc a 
S^nonU foccption lo Ih^ new niiimo; for i^bcn lb(t Dutch, 
I »bo had nov becumo iifroDf; euouf-b not only t>> ikf^^nd 
ihenuHvef. but to aituck thi*ir maMrn, »ent ^1508) Ver* 
hagtm and Srbjild t\r Werl tiito thp Smilh %vu^, iU^ac 
nlftidfl. whirb ihvic not ^inpiJoM'd to bavc br<^n known 
keforc, obtained tho dcaomiiiation of Scbald'» ixlaudH. uiid 
vt-'rv, from thcil line, plmicd in the churb ; thon^b Froeiur , 



tolls as, thnl tbcry were yet coOHidomd aa of doubtful 4^%- 

Theii present Enfflieli nami» wu*, probttbly, ^v«ii ihem 
(I6fi9) bj St^ol]^^ who'^r jonrnnl, ypt nnpriiiti-il, may W 
found in thr- MtiM<itm. T\ui* imme wbs uiio};iT€vl hy Hal- 
lejr, and ha«, from thnt limt?, 1 Iwlieve, hetn r«i;oive4 into 
our map*, 

THl* privaieora, whiirh were put into motion by the var» 
of William and Anwi, vnye tlioii** Ulcndn, and iii4*nCioii 
item ; but tbey were yel nM con!*ifl**red as fpmtnriR* 
wortb 11 onnle^t- Strong Hllirtikt^il lluil \ht*re nun no wood; 
and Dj&mpitrr ftU3]»^ctf^d l)Mt tlioy bud no unlrr. 

Frrei^r drAcribf^i ibelr npjj<-tiiancc vJtJi more distinct' 
ness, nod mentions nome ship* of .St. Malo's, by which 
Ibey bad been Tisitod. tind to wJiiob ho seems wiUing 
enough to uscribe the honour of drst^ovoring iKUndt, which 
yet he vdmils lo hnve lieeii seen liv H&wkinn, aod tiumvd 
by Sebald de Werf- He, [ <uji])o<<e. in b^nonr of hb 
cuuntrymuu. culled lhi?iii tbe Malouincs. Il^c dpnamtantioD 
now »sed by tite Sp^niurd^i. who fieciu tiot. till very Intrlv. 
lo hare fhoti^hl them importunt enotigb lo dcscrvr o nnmc 

Sinco tb^ publication of AiKon's *oyuKt^ tbey bft\e lery 
much chaii^td their opinion, lindin^awittJuuit.-tit in Pepy*"*. 
or Fjdklnnd'i ifilcind, nx'ommpnd^d by tbe author an necfa- 
snry to \\\r MUt^cev^ of orir future <-\pedi[inn4 ui^hiflI The 
4^0Jut of Ohil!, ^md h^ ofAMch uhi; ^nd import'inri?, tliiit it 
would prodnoo many ndvaulages In poace, and. in vvr. 
would mnko u» maatcra of tho South aea. 

Scarfloly any de^t*o of jud^icnt in mITioic&l to n<stmm 
tbe imapmilion from mn^ifyioiar that ou which it is long 
dt>1uini*d. The relatpr of Anion's voyuf^e had heated hjfi 
mind ivifh its turioiis i-vefiU : had piLrtnk«ii rhi* hopr with 
wbicb il wim hegiin, iinil the vexation (QflTen^d by Uk vnrtouK 
miflCurrLAgof, and then ihou^hl iKitbiii^ i:uidd be of greater 
hrnrlit to tbc nation. i\mn Uul wbirh mi^hl pronaolp the 
BUecoaa oftfuch anc>th<Tr entcrpmc. 

Had tbir horocw of that hislory even performod und «l^ 


M tlint. when Ihev Gnt Bi>rtfad their sails, Iber veji- 
tSrtd'to hope, the ooDseq ai>Dt.'i> wduI<I yet hiivc produced 
vpty liide hurt lo the Spaniaxdi, and very little b^efil to 

the En^lifth. TTiey wuuld hav*- tuVvn n Trw towns; Ansoo 

and liLS CE)m[Jiuiiuun wnulJ [uiir i^hnrril the |diiiider or tlw 
nuuoBie ; rmd tho Spnniurdn, findio^ iLeJr Aoatbern itmto* 
rm iiGcrMJble, would, lor thi> fiUur«, have FTu^rd^ tliciD 

Tknl tneti a ftettleTnent may be of u«e in war, uo msB, 
that ciiu^itdcn [f-t HlruatmiiH will drny. But war \s not tlie 
wholn buniuvui of lilV ; it happens biil ^i^ldcirii. und evi>rj 
aaftD, cither ^ood or wise, wJibes tfiat ila frvqueucy were 
»till Ie38- That conduct which betrays detti^uH of fulurc 
hoetility, tf it doc» aot excite violence, will utvp-ay^ gcne- 
nie raaliguiiy ; it mtiit for ever exclude confidence umI 
fricnilBhip. nnd rnniinn^i n cold ftnd «Ui^^«b rivalry, h} & 
«ly reciprocjtttoii of Jtidlrei^t iujurion, wjibuul i\m bruveiA 
of war or ibe wcnrily of pence. 

TIkC advantage of «iich a *et1lcmont, in time of peace, u, 
I think, not cojuly io be proved- Fcr wbnl u^c cun it 
bav9, hot ofn ftntton for coattttbnnd tnidon, m nursery of 
frauds and a rFCppt^rle of ihc^fl ! ^fltrbo^olIgb, nbout a 
eenivry a^v, vtan of opiuioU) ibiil mo AdvAritkge vixild Im 
oblaisied in voyages Ic the South sea, except by flucb an 
areuimcni OM, with n milor'n morality* miffhi Iradet bif force* 
It IS well known, Ibnt the prohibitions cflort^ij^a rommeree. 
an, in ihe«e couulriee, lo the toxt dc^-e. ri^oroiu. and 
that no man. eoi anthorized by tbt* king ofSpuiJi, can iradr 
ibrrr hut by forrr or stralth. Wbut«»er proUt itt ubLttued 
nau«t be ^incd by the vinb'ncc mf mpiiic, or deatcrity of 

Govmiment wiil uot,perhnps,Aoon arrive at such purity 
and exceUmK«, but that some oounii'unce, at leojil, will bo 
indalgt^d to the Irtumphiinl robber and ftncrrMful rhr-ni. 
Hn Ihftl bringK wrjtltb licimn in nrldcm latertogatcd by what 
nieuii it wail obtained. TbU, bowrven a oue of thoae 
B»cd«« ofoorruptiou wilb wbich mankind ou|t;ht olwaya lo 
Btru^l«<, oitd which ibcy may, in time, hop^ to overcome. 



lii^hlened, polk-j ami momliry will, "t Uwt, he rr^rrrnrlled, 
and timt nutioiiN will leuru not to do vJiat ihey «ouM ov\ 

But the silent tolcTLhlion of auspeGl«d piUl ii a decree 
of dopravity far hclow tfaol which openly iuoites, ftud m^ 
mfrfttly protects it. To purdnn n pirate may he injiiriottfl 
to mankind; Irul how miirb greiitiir h ihe crime of oper- 
ing n pnrt, m ^vb»'U all pirati's ahull be safe! Thti iiuulrv' 
httaid tiiiilLT U Tioi mofp worthy of prolttltonfl ; if, with 
Narburou^h* he trades hy force, be is u pimti? ; if he trade 
ACDiotly, he ia only a thief. Those who honestly refuse 
htB trulHck, Ue hales, as obstroct^rs of his prolit ; and those, 
vrith whom ha dvaln. he clieuls, heeau»4f he knows that 
thny dnrr nor rnmphiiri. He Uver^ wilh a livart full of 
that Dioli^ity, which fear of detection nlirayi generates in 
those, who are to dcfi^n^l iinjiu^t acquUitionn Qgoinnt Uwful 
authority ; and when be camos homo, with riches thin ac' 
quired, he hriti}^ a mind hardened in evil, too proud for 
rr?proof. uEid tou itopid for reltectiori ; he oflVntlif the bi^ 
hy biH inAojr-niu', mid icimiplK tb>? low |jy hix rxample. 

Whether ihcftc truths w(irc forgotten, or de»piti«d: or, 
whothor some bettor purpose was then in u^CalioD, ihv 
reproMTntalicn made in Adhol';* voyu^ bad nucli rlTe«t 
upon the trateijin^u of (hut limt-, that, in 174b> »oiae »loo|>« 
wrtre filnul ont for Ihr fnllnr knowlrdgo of P«py*'i and 
Fulkbiiid's isUiods, nnd for f^irtber diaeoveH^^* iri ihe Soutli 
SCO. Thiit cxpeilitioii, though, perhnpv, dt^Ai/^tit-d tu hv 
Hcerct, was not lon|^ uoucoaled from Wall, Ihe Spanish am- 
bnKciidour, who so vcht-mpntly opposed it, and so atronglj 
maiutLniied the rij^lit of the 8pauiorda (o the oxclume do- 
nuniort of the South sea, diat tb« fingluh mUlialf^ ndin 
(juishrd piirf of their original design, imd dtsriurvd, ibai 
the c^amuiaiiuii of thoKr* two iidjuais wiu tho uLntoitt that 
dicic Oifdem .nhoidd compriae. 

Thin concession was AuHicieutly liberal or AuHicieiicly 
submiHivu J yet the Spanub court was neilbci ETrutified by 
our kindness, nor sorienod by our humility. Sir Hcnjomw 





. who then rcsi^iofl at Mftdnil, wn* interro grated by 
Carrajftl, ooncernin^ th<* visit intended to IVpvs's ^nd Faik- 
Iiuid** ularidB, in terni^ of ^eat JeAloiis^ and tliicuuicot ; 
and lilt' iiUi'mlKil eKpL^liliun «ti3 rt-|rre«enti-ct. if af>l jir h 
dirrct V iolblii^ii of thr luli? pructf > yt-t ai uei nrt incoriHihti-nt 
With Amicable intcntioii«» nnJ oootniry to the profesatona 
of mutridl kini]|i^t«, whliih Ihrn |iRK)?r<] bcifwceii S|juiFi and 
Eng^laikd. Koeiie wan dirrttrcL to pTDtrni^ iJttit nultiin^f 
more than mere di«cr>t«rj wsa ioteniletl, aud that no «i»t* 
llannil wua to be KsbibliKhKcl, Th»- Spjmmrd rf^ntjily 
nplit^d, tJiat, if lki» wus d voyugi' of uaiiloii iMirJirMljr. it 
might be Ratified with Icm troublrf, (qt he waa Nvilling to 
comntjujcntc wh»t«ver -van known ; Ihnt 1o ^o ho fur onlv 
Co coiEL4» bact was no reiUonah\ty ncf ; aad it woidd bo a 
deoUer sHoriAce to peace and friendship to oAitt » vo^ag^, 
in wluch niilliing wtu to U- ^liiied; th^it if wr Ml iho 
pWi?4 Ilk vfT found ihrm, tbc vovagc wiu hm'^m ; and if 
w« look pouesniua, it woa b boatilo arniamont ; nor oould wo 
exp^t Uiftt iho Spaoiurda would suppoMii ^j>» to viAit the 
aoutbem purtA of Auit*nca olIv from L-urioiiity, jiflvr (b^? 
■rlwiiB* propued by tbc author of Anao^'i voytigo. 

Whru onrn nr hud di^nviird nil piirposp of t<*lttmf^. It 
n 0|'p«r«<nt| (lint Mr co»ld imjI dt^fnid tho [troprltrty of our 
vxpeditiou hj Arj^JiiKUtA i^-quivalt-iU lu Cur\iiju!*» obj^HV 
tioni. 'l^bc ministry, thertfori^, di.iiniwwtl tlii^ wliolo dt-sijcn. 
but ao dcclunition wni; roqiiirod, by which our riqhl Iti pur* 

B il. bvroufter, mif-hc b4? ^uuiilkd- 

From tbti limo FalLliuid'a iiluiid wov forgotten or uetc- 
cU-d. till lh»f rnndnr.t of nuvul ^ifluirK whh iolniKtrd to th«f 
rarl of Bgnioiil, a imtn wWr mlnii wtM ^igoron» noil 
anient. who»r< buowItdKn wua L^nii-iianr,aud tr hoftO dtaigns 
wrre nuifniticciit ; but nho hud jfomvwhut vitiutc^l bib jud^- 
nooC bj- too nincb indolK^^noo of romuntjok projocln und 
ir^ ap^cidationft. 

Lord E^ont'ft eHgerne^s al^et Komrthing iu*v Hrtrr- 

ii»«l him to tnakf* im|uiry ttfti-r Fulklnnd't Ultrnd, and \tv 
t mil cnpUia Hjtoii, who, in tin- hrfpimuig of (be jrca< 



1765, took, he s&yt, a formal pojfleaaioD. in wc uamo of bn 
firitauuiclc maje!ji_>\ 

Tli« poaaes^fijon of ibis plncv is, oocordiiig lo Mr. BfTOf^^ 
repress II ration, tio defipiuable RcqmsitioD. Ha eonc^iii^d 
ih^ isUniil (o be six or «evpri bttndrei) nuleti round, and re- 
pr««enieJ if, at u rt^^ion iiLikt^d iiidired uf vrood, but wbiclu 
if llmt drfccl vitict^ sujjplit'd, wuuld huvn all that uAturc, 
nlraoEtt all tiint luxury cniilcl wanl. The hnrboiir he found 
capnciouR »incl scoiiro, and, therefore, thoa^bt il wnrthy of 
the uaine of £|^oii1. Of water ibere vsji no vnnt, And 
tbe ^ouad be described, as baving all Ibe excellenciei of 
Hoil, and hh covertn] with iintuircrhutiti b«<rb)L, (be restore 
livrit of tbrr lallot. ProvNIou vii» rmt'iiy to bo bad, for 
th<-y killed, aInioaC cicrv dajr, q hundred gcr«e to c*ob 
sbip, by pt^ltiug Ibt-m with cloaca. Not confcnl with phy> 
sick nnd with food, hu Beart'hed yol dtj«p«r fur tbe value of 
the new liomiuiou^ He dupf in quoiit of on?; found iron m 
abtitidani^e, aind did not dr^jtuiT t>f noblor nK^tulR, 

A Goiiiilnr Uiij>i fiTiilr jLiid dvli^itful, forluhul«ly found 
wbertT none vuuld hnve expected it, laboul llie Hftielh de- 
grce ofMiuthern latitude, could not. without |freat lupuie- 
ues5, he ncf^looted. Earl5^ in the next yeur^ (Junuury H, 
17tJ6,) captain Maobrido arnved at port Egniont, wUero 
he erected it amuLI bWk'bottse, and stutioned a pirmon. 
His description wa« less llairerrng. He found what be 
calls a niB«» of ifiluiidfi unJ bnihen Innds, of wtucb the »oit 
was uotbing^ hut :i bo^, wilb no bettur prubpvcl ihiia tbnt 
of barren mountains, hi-aten by -itornu idroont porpi^tuul. 
Yot tliiii, lays be> is &uRiinor> and ;f the «inds of winltrr 
boid thi^ir natural iiroportton, tboao who Uo but two cublvt' 
leo^tlt from the shore, miwi pus* weak* vitbom any com- 
mnmirarion with it- Tb(t plenty which regaled Mr. Byron, 
and which mlgbl bavE* supported noi nitly nrmies, hut 
armies uf PutUfjrunK, was ntt LongrrrliJ bw found. The gtrcw 
were too wiac to «tay, wlicn men lioUtod their haunta, and 
Ur. Mjicbridi^'s crcv could only now nnd ll^cn kill u pfooee, 
whpn tlic weathur would pernul. AJl ihv quadruped* 





bo mel there were foxe*, mppotf^d by htm to hnvfl 
b#eo brouf^ht upon th(< ice ; but ci imeleu uiiimuU, ^tir b aa 
wa Lions iind pen^iini;, whirh hr rhIU vnroiin, ttie ntimber 
v-uB ijkcj^ilible. Ifi- il1Ii>w», hovcvcr. llidt iLuite who IdiigIi 
al Uirsr lAlaiidA muy fintl f;emi0 tuul M4peb, ut)d, in tbe suin- 
iQcr mwitbA, wild cd<^ry and *orrrl. 

No token VTM tiocD, bv 4*Jtbor, of auy st'ttleminl ot^ 
MAde upon IhU i^littidi u»d Mr. MucbHdr tbou^bt hiius^U^ 
M> t^vre rrom bojiFile dlKturbunop^ that, Avben he ervcUtd 
bin irnodrn bWk-hniJir, b(! nmilti^rt 1o npfvr) the portH and 

Wbcn B ^am»on wn« stationed at port Eginoiit, it wiu 
ni^cirftiikni' to try what ^Matennncc t]?r ground oould be, by 
vuhuro. t^xcitcd lo produce. A ^^den voa propiiriid; but 
tlw ploiitu tbat aprtiDf^ up viifaer^d uway in immatiintyt 
m«M lir siirdK vhri* <;nwri ; but, ihong-b thtK h'^ ihf native 
traa of ru{^g:cd diinHl«H, (be yoiirtg Urt, ibal nnti nfiave iU<' 
ground, died lake w«itker berbai^; tbo cold contimiod 
loo^, and tbc ocran »«ldojr vn% ui rent. 
C^tilc succeeded better Ihnn vc^otubto^, <Jo&u, ihecp, 
d hogtf that were carried tbither, were found to Ibrivt? 
d Increaj^, av in oilier plui'ei. 
" Nil nHirtulibuK urduiim pM T ibc^re ie nothLii|][ wbEeU 
haciBt) courn^ will Tiot undertake, and little iliui boman 
patience will not tiidurf. Tbti ^arriAoii litcd upon Fnlk- 
lattdTtudftnd. ihnnkinif from ibt- blast, und sbnddrrin^ at 
tbc billows. 

Thu was a colony wbioh could nevnr bocctne indepeud 
eol, for It never 4^oitld be nble to mnintain iuelf. Tlu^ 
ntcv^stary «upplir!i urrr .iriiniully iteiil from Knglnnd, nt an 
cxpeoM' wbich llu- aduiir^Uir brgnn to ihi^ik Koiitd not 
quickly be rdpoif^. But <iliu»ie ofdrscrtiug a projecli mid 
wilUit^cu to contend witli a projector tbat meant well, 
coi)timi<^d tbo ^rrinon, and supplied it vitb reifulor rctntt- 
tanoe^s of ttores and provision. 
Tbai of whiob we were Abnom w<?iiry oiirtcKa«, wo did 
t op^ct any om» to envy ; uiid, llierefore, Mupftnwd tbiil 



v& iilicitild ho permilted In refiide in FulLlumrti itdnnd, Uto 
imiltflpiitril lonU of leni|jea-lieate]j l*arreiiiic-ji», 

Dut, oil thcSBlh of Nnrembcn 176d» ^nplAJD Hunt, ob- 
.icrvin^ u Spaiibtt scLoouer hovorin^ oboul tliv ifllaLid, mtd 
surveying it, houK the commander a nicasa^o, by whuh ho 
nquircd him to depart, Tbe Spaniard niude un upp^ur- 
ADcd of obeying, bur, in two dayij, cam** back wilh Irlti-ri, 
written hy fbe ^ovenmiir cjf port f^oUdjid, und brought hv 
the cHtif oiBct^r lit a settlemi-alj uu the «ail part ofFalL' 
UniL** iidand. 

Id this lft(cr, drtt^rd Mnlmdnn* November 130, tiic p:i>Y«r- 
DOtif compiuinE, tbal mptnin Hunl^ vhv-n ho ordorod Ibo 
tohooner to <l^pnrt, nfltiini«»d a power lo which he could 
h^VB uo preieu«Jori^, by Hi^nditig vn\ im|«erioufi rae«4a^ to 
ihtr SpmiiurdH, rii Urn Liii^ ufSjKutt'h iinn HoniinmiiA. 

Tn another lelter, jti^nt at the samo tunc, be anppoM^ 
the English lo be in Umt pnrt only by arcidtut, and to be 
rcfldy to dopari,a' the first warmri^. Thialcttorwusarcoin' 
panied by a pr^B^iit, of whi«h« sayK h«, " If it be tt4!<illirr' 
equal to my deairo nor to your nn*nl, you miut iiuptilc tin? 
defitiiencv to Ihc situntinn of iik bi'rth." 

lu rclum lo tlila Lubtilv dvJIily. captain lltiut warnt-'d 
(licm from Ihc Uland, which Ik- claimed iu thw name of tlic 
king, ta bclonjfit^^ Ut tlit KngU»ff, by right of th() iirrt dtfh 
covory and the first svttlotnont. 

Thia was an atts^rtion of more confidence ihan certainty- 
The ri^bi of discottry, ind<*tsL lia* slreiidy iippt'unMl lo bo 
probubit*. biJl tbr ri^hl whii-li priority of Sfittirmimt confers. 
I know DOT vihL-lLcrr ivcr yt't c^ii e^tabliflb. 

On December 10, Uie uflkcr, HtfKt by Ibc |;ovornour of 
port Hotidad, made three protests ngnin^^t ccpUin Hunt, 
for throaleuiiiR tofiro U|ioii him; foroppo^m^ bis entrance 
into port E^moot ; nnd for entorini; huaiielf ioto port So- 
lidad- On tbe 12lh. tl^e goi/trnour of port Solidad form4l1y 
warned capluiit Hoiil Ici IciiTi? port Kginont, und tn for- 
beur llie nfiviKutiiin of ihenr m^hj^, without perini^ion from 
the kin^ of Spain, 




Cflptmn Himt replied, by repealing tiT# former 
dftjm; hj dcL-lariikg dial lii» ordort were 1o kt-cp iJUHHea- 
skio ; dfid by once more wuniiu^ Uifi Bpaniard* to tlrpofU 

'I'ltc next tnondt procLuot'd more prolvtila unci tnoro rr- 
plio«, <if whicli thrj Icrioitr W4U tii^urly the f^amo> Tho 
opeffttiooA of tiicb hnrmlpKg t^nniily hnving prodiu^ed no 
effect, n^re fhen recijirotutly (liHCOiiliiirietl, nud ihe Engliili 
wrrer Icfl. ri>r ii limR, Ici viijny Uie plRa^urciK of FulLlunr^ 
i>1(uid, without molcstutioa. 

Tlii« lTftuquillity» however, did not lost Vong, A few 
nonths aflerw^rdi, (Jiioo 4. I770J tbo Indui^try. u Spnnij^h 
frigate, comoiJiiieteJ by an cjfljcer, whose name wok Mndu- 
ris^, aiurbon^d in port K);mimt, bmriiil. h« waii luid, for 
port SoJidad, nnd mduriMl, by u p^ihiu^r from l)iiiTno4 
A.yTc9 i>r JlAj-lbrcc dnys, to u ant »>r wator, 

llircc dayii nflorwnrds, foi^r othor frigatc<i entered tbc 
port, Bad a broad pendaat, such a^ if< bonit* by tlic t^oni- 
tnafider of a nAsa\ aniutmeot, wa^ dUplayod from tho la- 
duKtry. Cnptuiii P^irna-r. of ibi* Swifl fri^ntr, wbo com- 
OAiidi^ ihv garrUoii, ordt^rrd thi- (Tew of ifie Swift to 
COBIO oil bhori^, Hiid dAfilFit iu its defvucir: mid dinvrrd 
captain Maltby to bring the Faiourite fria^ti^ which he 
commanded, ncnrtT to thr bod. The SpaiiJordH riuilj 
di»cn*«Hti|( tlio porpoAc of hi« motion, Irt biin kfiow, tluit 
if he weighed hu aovhor, they wctild fire upon hiM idiip; 
hcti, payiDg no ragnrd to t\\i'j>v mefiareH. he- udviinn-d to- 
ward thr! ihorfT. Thr SjtEUiivli Ib-rt f<iilnwinl, luid iwo shota 
were ftfi^dt uWh ffll ul u dislaiiot; from him. He iheu 
jteii! to ini^mrr tho reason of aucIi bo»tiIity, and waji told, 
thiit tkc tbota were intended only n^ ngneU. 

Both the EagLiah cupiiuu^ wrote, the next day, to Muda- 
riJkgu, lh« SpndiKh commodon;, wurniii|f hiiii froui Ibt^ 
kliiidr ta from a plac« wliit^b ihfi Englifih hi.dd by 't^lit of 

MadtfHa^, who lei^tnx to have hud no debire of uiinc' 
ceuury rmchirf, invilrd tfirm {Jnuv l^) to nend tiu officer, 
who should ULc n riow of bin lorccH, Chut thoy might bo 
cciiviueed of tho raoity of resUtoiice» and do that, with- 



oirt compQlaion, which he was, upoti rtrfunl, prepared to 

An ofTiiirr vms t^iai, who found sixteen htJTidfcd ment 
with 11 Irnin of twenfy-^even cannon, four mortan. and 
Isvo }Liriii1n^<l bomhs. Thi> fleet coitibteil of five rrt^iM, 
frum tnriity to tltirty guri?i, wyoli wf?re now Mutioiit^d 
OppOMtc to the h[nck-hot]£r. 

He thCD sFint them a formal mt^mnriali in whirli be main- 
tained hU masters right To the wholp Mn^ollaoiot repion, 
and exhort^i) the English (n rrlirp r|nirlly from vbe lettl^* 
meiif, whii^li i\ivy conUI urilhiir justify \>y ri^hl, nor mttin* 
Uun by power. 

He olFcrcd them the liberty oi cnrryin|^ away whatever 
they wcire denironB to remove, and promiood his receipt 
for whut :ikmki he left, thai no lowi m^\ii be ciUVereil by 

Htfl propoKitioiui wrrr rxpreiUVMl in if^rmc iif ^rpNt civi- 
lity ; but he conchjdeH with deniaadtng an answer in tifle^n 

Having, vhilc be won writiojop, roecifed the leltem of 
wurniuts Vfrittcn the dny hrfore by the l"i>f;Iifth ertptains, 
be (uJd them, thnl he thought himAelf able to prov« the 
king of Spain*« Title To all These ouunirieAp but that rhb 
WBf be lime Tor terlnd tiherculionM^ Hi* perttM^-d in Jini 
d«teTjniEiatioii, ^id (ilJowed orjly lifte^n iiiLnute-rt for an ta^ 

To thi> it Witt replied* by raptinn Fjirmrr* that thonghj 
thero hnd been prcstinbcd jrt a nbprtcr time, he «biraM^ 
alill resolutely def*:rnd hi« eharpfe; that thtb, whether me- 
Diice or A>rre, uonid be ecmider^d as mi ieftult on th« 
Briiiiih t1;ig, and that Kaiisfiu'iioi) would c^riuinly br> r&* 

Ou Xhr next dttv. June 10, Maddn;igH landed hii* fei 
and it may be cnailv in»u;r>nrd, ihtii be bud do Melody eon- 
<[iic«t. The lin^iiHb bad onEy a wooden blocrk bouAe, built 
At MToolwicb, and curried in pieces to the iviiard, with a 
small bali4*rj of rannon. To contend with obstinacy hud 
been only to Invjah life wiihoiiC me or hope. Al^er the 

rAl^KLAttOS lALANl>a< 


•xchuigc of a very ft^w ibott. u i^apitulatioa wt\f pro- 

Tlte SpanUh commander acted with inotl«ratio» ; he ex- 
erted Utile of rhe con<)nercir : what b« lud olfered before* 
the attuck, hv gninl4<c1 al^er the vkuirj ; rbf Enfflish wmh* 
allovcd t<i U-uVf? Uir pliice with every liohoLir. onl^ itteir 
dcfwrlurv fFsn drlajod, by (he tenrn of tlic rnpttutatioti, 
Ivcfilv days; nod, to Accurc llidr &iityt tbo ruddrr of the 
Favourite was taken off. Wbat they deairod (o ourry 
■vTAj ihey removed witiioni iuoU>s(ation ; und oi' what thuy 
letl, lui invL-tilory vui dmwn, for whicb iWt' ^ipaniMh oftioer, 
by his rrinpipt, promi^rd ti* in* rtc^oiiiil.^hle^ 

Of tha potty mvolutzou. *o nuddi^ij uikI hu diiUut, the 
Eai^luh miuiHtry coidd nut poaaibly huvc luch Qotlcl^, u 
mis^ht vaubk> thorn to prevc.-t]t tt. The conquosit, if ±\iah it 
may b« colled, cort but thr(>c dflyc; for ih<? Spamard*, 
frilhptf siipponiD^ the f^rrisOD fftron;;«r ibau it wuu, or re* 
■olving to tni'it fiuditrifi; t^> chuiice. or cotisidi<rni|jf thtit, lift 
ibeir force Wtut jctrruler. thrre wivt {van djin^T cf bluod- 
ilird, G4tmc vith a power that made resistance ridicalod*. 
ABCi. at once, di-aiuuded und obtiiined pobA^^aaioii. 

T1k» Ont account of uiiy discontent i'xpivAseHl by iLo 
Spankrdi, wat brouffht by cuptain Hunt, who nrnving' ml 
oih, Jtmn Z. 177i>, informed the admirnlty, that ibe 
bud bv^ri elrtimt^d in December, by tho govrrnour of 
port SoUdad^ 

This obtin. lnadr^ by an officer of »o Ulllc di^iity, with- 
out any known direction from biK iiiponoiirx* t'ould bo con- 
<id«rMl only a« the aeal or oflictou^nosA of ra individual, 
ttnvonby of publick notice, or the formality of remoD- 

In Augiuit, Mr. lUrnA, ihr riTticient n1 Miidrid, garc 

^ .M lord Wi'virioutL, of ail ;i4;t^ouij1 newly brout^bl (t» 

iBki nai the Enj^liah irrre in poasVA^ii^Ji of port Ciiizn- 
ia, ih« *£km<* wbicb wo caU port Ejpnonl, iti (be Man^eDa- 
■iok •»; tlut in Janourr, thf^y bud warned nway two 
dpAltisfa «bipii ; and that an nrmnnirnt wju »enl ont in May, 
from Burno* Ayrw, to diftlodgrr rhpan. 




It niu. prrliiijis not yH ccrtuiii, thut thU noRoimt vn« 
true; bul tlie iLfurmation* however fuithfut, wfts too Iftto 
for p^(^^'«lltiur^ It wok canity Idiown^ that <i Hcct dc- 
ftpaUhtrd in Muy, had, berur^ August, succeeded or iiii»- 

Id October, captnin MHltby camc< to Englpnil, imd gntr 
OiF uirpooiil wliidi f iiuve uow i?-|>ilojm^(l| uf hi» rx|ftijl«roii 
fn>m rnlLUiid^?! iilan^ls- 

From this nipmeul, (he whole nation can wilneaft, that 
no time wft.» lost* The navy was aancyed, Iho sbipc re- 
flltttJt and fomm»ndcr« tappoinled; aod & powerful Ae«it 
wuH iuit>mb1ej, well Difiun^tt siitd well stored* witti e^ipedi- 
tion, flftcr so long n pi'ucc, perbupN. never known bt^fore, 
wad vith vigour, which, nffcrr lb« wuste of so long n war, 
Bcart^clj any other imtLoii Ijud bvi^ii c-upalrle of exerting. 

Thj» prcpumtion. ko illuntrioua in the ejie« of l^nroper 
und no riKcaciotifl in itJt cTt^nt, won cbKtrucl^d bj tbc utmost 
powi^r of thnt noisy fnction, \thich hafi too tun^ titled the 
kingdom, sometimeG wiih iho roar of <*inpiy ni'enrtcp, »nd 
Aom»lin]e« with Ibeyell of hyjKJcriticul Uin^Dtuliun. Rxery 
ntau »nv, and t?\t-ry hoiieaci man »nw vilh dnfpjilJiticjti, that 
Ihcy tIio dfiiircd Ic force their M>tcreigTi into war, endea- 
voured, at the sumo time, to dmblc him from action- 

Tho \it^ur mid spirit of the minisffy easily hnAe 
through uU th(T machinuticiun of ihefc<.< p\|c^y r«)Kfl«, and 
oar armament wr8 quickly such an wilk lik«1y to mal:* onr 
nei^liationJL efle^^lUiU. 

The priiiue of MjiNwrraii. in Wi% first i^onfiTfJK^r wtlh the 
I^lkIj^Ii inijii9it«rA on thia occufiiont owned that he had froiii 
Mudrid received iutelflj^encc, thdt tlie J^lngliah had been 
forcibly expelled from Fulklnnd'n i?i1undp by Uiac<^ui\lli, tho 
povernour of BiMVoit AyrcK, withonl uny pnrtieuhir orders 
from ihu king ofSpahi. But being a^^ked, wheih«>r, in hti 
inimtrrV nnme, he disnvowod Biiccarelli'a lioleiice, be re- 
fuAL'd 10 ittiAwer. wilhinil dtruutioiK 

The scenic of i;vRX»tiut!oQ vtas row remored to Madrid, 
»jid, )U September, Mr< IJarris was directed lo demand, 
from Grimaldi, tbc Spaniflh roinratcT, the rcKtttdtioti t>f 




FdUukd'A Ufocid, nnri n i^iravoval of Buocarelirt ItOrti* 

It VfUt lo be t'xpontod tlint Grijiiiildi would objoct to us 
MTovh hvliaTioiir, who Knd urdere<l th« Sfrauiarili 1o tl«- 
f«rt ironi tlie ^anie iHlniitl. To ih'it it wui rt*plicd, Ihni 
Uw Bn^bh fom** wcro, tnrli^fd, dirpctfl<l lo vnrn oth#*T 
iwliom nvny; hut, if t^oinplmuc^ wer4> n-fiLHi-rl, (o pru(.'t«ctl 
cjtjiptlyki lualur^ ditiir HoLllerni^iil, ;iiiil s^iiflVr ihr- xubjtntu, 
of vbntL-tef povcr» to rrmjiiii lhrr« without iuotr«lAtiou. 
By pcrtftCRtron thus tuLi?n, flicr<i wn* only a disputable 
claim ntLvanc<'<l. wlucb tni^Ut he \H}jAt:4Mh\y und t^jfiilurlj 
<Wci(l^d, villiotit ioHuIt uii<l viihout forcv; nnd, if thi* 
Spununl* liJid Foni])UinT?il iii ilir Briliith rmirt, ilij^ir rpA- 
w>ai wntifd Tiiivr Iwrn lirard» Aiiif nil iiijurr'^4 r*»dr^i4ed ; 
but lliat, hy pn-tttipiiOEiiiig iJjti jtisTH-f of tlielr oi*n lille, 
and haimg rrci>urf« lo nrm?, wttlioui any prcTroux notice 
or rtrmori^lraiici!, they bud \IokloJ the {lencc, and influlttHJ 
the Bhtiab ifovi^ninKnil; niiJ. tln.'p*>rorL-, it wiis exp<!«kd, 
IhM Mtisftiction should br inadc by pablick diuirowal, nod 
un>M4t&t« r€«tilnlion^ 

Tht iiuiiwer of GrifnAldi wiis umbi^^uotis aiid oold. H« 
did itnt ulbkW th^t uriv pniiiriiUtr ordfTii hid Ix-rn gi\iifi 
fur driving the Kiiglixb from ibWr ^-tllrmcnl ; W friiuiu 
no Acniplr of tl<^ctuf itig, (iiat ^udi iiii tjeclion was jiutliiriK 
more iKao the vrttW* mijclit Imvc cxpt'ctc^J; u»d ibiU 
BuccoroUi hull not, in hU opinion^ iricumrd any bUmf.*, m 
liw ffeaeral injunclionft to the AiiiorJf«n f^v^mours were 
to BuQiFt no tfiicrciucbiiieiitN on tL«* Spiiniiih dotninion4> 

[n OclAt)i*r, ihf ptiiirr nf M»urn4n propriM'd u r-<int«*n- 
lien, for ibp mcommocUTjun of (lini-r4^no>--M by iniiliial con- 
ceanoin, in wbkU tht; M'sriitut? |^iv€» to ibe SpiLniarda, by 
llmt, Hbould bt' divai'owf'd on on»' tijd<!, utid tbt liolcnci? 
«M«1 by HuccarrUi, on the other. Tbb olfirr wub <^oriBi< 
dered, Ae iltUc loss iIihh n n^fw ii»u1t, and CiriniMldi w»t 
CoU, ituK Jfljary requ'nwl rp^tnnitioii ; ihni wlu^ii «lUirr 
pHity hjul iiifft-rvd cTideui throng, lliore waft uot iho p^irily 
uiliiuMing^i wbicb i^ implfrd In LTon\i'iitioii^ dniil coritrAct^i 



that «i> caoNiilerfid ounelvei lu openly luull^d, and do- 
maruIcK] luliEfuoUoii, pkiiiiry udiI ufivondiliund. 

Ortmalili iifTatrli'd lo wi>nHfTr» ffmf wr vt^we 9&i y^t b|w 
pcuM^t) lijf iL^ir i:DMcv>Hiuu>. Tbey buiI, be swiitp gnmird 
•11 llut w«s rrqiiiro<l: they hud cifTiirt-d lo nTstorp lite 
hhnd iu tbc Atatc in wbich tlioy found il ; bvtl be tbou^bt 
tliut tb<iy, liktiwbe, mi^^bt hupo for itome rvipuxl, imd tiiat 
llic wanuD};, 4ent by Hunt, would bi* du^avawod. 

Mr* IhiiTis, our mimutvr at Mndri4> iniiglod, that tbe 
iujured party lind n ri|;ht to Miooiidilioaal reparation, dfid 
Gfimuldi di?luynT UU mixwtr. ibut n cmmiril luigbt bu cutlvd^ 
In A TfTw day<4, oidrra wrrre dc-4|mtcbed lo prini-e ftffttte* 
niu. by vUicb ii^ waa (^muiLbaiourd to di?^luTQ <bt* kio^ of 
Spoinn reudinruM tu autiafy tbc di^jnond^ of tite isioir ^ 
£r>g:lnndi iri oiipoctitioii of receiving from ^im rcciprocad 
satiatiiction, by the duavoval, ao ofttfu re<juin*d» ot Uuttt^ 

Finding xhe Spaniard; dispo»4?d to mako itn olh^ ae- 
k uu H led )( moil U) lb«T l^uj^lish miitbtry conaud^rvd u wJim 
rot likrly to be loii^ uvoidi?d. In iko bitter trnd ofViv- 
vcmbcr, private notice wn» givon of tb<-ir datn^r lo tbr 
mcrchiuitH iiLCadi^, and ibo officcni nbaontfroui GiLraltiu'. 
were remaadod to their puHt^- Ou/ oavul I'orci^ wa& o^erj 
day iuoTetij«d, and uu mude no ahuti^niotit of our oriffiiml 

Tim obHliuacy of ihir Spaniith <;ouri still coniJaut-d, uid. 
(ibout llit? rod uf liku year, ult litipe uf ret:iiucjtjutir)Ei wha m 
nearly cxtio^l.-ihcd, Ikdt Mr. J{urri« vru dixcotcd lo wilh> 
druWr with the uhuuI forms, Ircni hii residence at UAdrid. 

Modrrotion t^ commooly Usm, oiid firmnoM ii nomnionly 
■ucceiiful; bntuij; ni>t ivellcnl oMr tiitl rc^<)(iiiitioii vitk 
any «uppHI»ouft npp^Ddiigf**, wn bnd nocbiojf to yi^ld, w^ 
i\wrv(ore, only repeated oar first |]ropu«itJop, pErepar^d for 
vnr. iJjongb dn»ri»u« of pfutcc 

About tlua time, aa ti ivdl Lrajwu, tbe king of Fnuicv 
duminned CboiMul from h'lv, ejnploymeitU^ Wbui effect 
thU revolution of tJu: I-'rcoeb court bad Ei|M>n the Spanuk 

rLKbJillDtl iHLAMDgL 


1 pre(«ni1 not ta br infanard. Clioi«i.Hi1 Imil 

bnvevvr jC Riaj b« suapc'Ctctt. lliut he Ufkc^ in (]ijli;rf-hl 

li mctut to b<* almofl the univorml i^rrour of liialoriuiu 
lo ffitppo4e it potiticAlty* ds it i« pliyHcolly tru«, Itiai isvvT\ 
ftfl4*«t Kiift ii ftroporlioniile eanttf. Id iht* injininiaftt lurtioa 
of nmilrr ii]Xjil iiiAUtr. Ui» motinti jinirlurnd run l>r Kiir 
M|ttKl lo ihc? foTCV of the moTin^ power ; but liter op^rdLium 
of life, vhelhor privale or puhliok, udnut no imch hivs. 
TIm CiipricPM of volotttor^' OfifenU lauffli at culculnllon. It 
ii Mftt alwAyn that <hf*ro in n f1l^fl^J; rcnxoit for a <ci^>aL ««r4iDt. 
ObtttinAoy sod llexibillty. irmli^niii^ mid LmdnesK, f-i\e 
ptteo, altentftiek, lo «hi-)i oth^r; uiid ihi* ro^uon of thvKc 
viMMkihli'ii, hnwrftir impfinitnl mny hr lltr romrqupnrtvi. 
oAfTV oveapea the miDd in >vhieh tb^ chnjigu in ruudt^^ 

Wbclli^r the allerotiOD. which Lwgiin in J&hu;ir\ in np^ 
p«9ir in the i^ponUh e^uDsaU^ bttd Any otkr cuuir tium 
coDTictiOTi of Ibr improprictT of their pft»t conduct, and of 
the ^luif^'f of a new war, il i» not coav (■> dvieido; but 
tkmf begun , whatever vta the rt^ason, to relax ihtrir baugltti- 
■Mt, Hftd Mr- HLirHn }> di'p^Tliiri^ va« roiirilc'mtnnilj^rl. 

The ilfiUHiida firal mude hy Fu^hiud wrn* Alill f oiilmupd, 
and on Junuiiry 22d» iht- prjai:? of MuAHrnui drliT>?ri:id i 
tkchu^ntion* in whi«h thr king of f^pnin " diHUvowH Ulc 
Tiolmt enlorpriac of Uucccrclh,^' cuid promuca " to restore 
Uie port tod fort vailed l^f^moot, with all Ui« arti1l<^ry and 
nlorrt, according lo tbu invrniorvp" 

T# tbit profBtM* of reslilntioii u fluhjomed* that *'thifi 
eagii^eineni [o reatori^ port EfciT>oni cairiiiut, ni^r ou^l^ 
ia may wi»r, to iffrcl ih^. cjuntniri of tUn prinr ri^ht of 
soiera^ty of th« Maimiind, oUierwbe called I'ulkknd'ji 

Thui oonePMton wiu accvptrd by Iho earl of Rochford 
who dveloiwd, on lh<» part of hu iiiaBlt<r, that the priitce o/ 
MnswrflD. bern]^ nuihoriwd by hit cfltholick tniijeiCy, "to 
olTirr. in hu iiTiiJrHlv*« tixmr, Uy iIh* litnj^ cf Gr4-a( Dntuhi, u 

tfof thr iDjiiri done htm. b^- diapoiaeMlag hifti 


of portEgmoDt;^ and, having signed a declaration, ex- 
preasiog that his cathoHck majesty " disavows the expedi- 
tion a^Dst port E^oDtt and eogagea to restore it, id the 
state in which it stood before the 10th of Jane, 1770, hii 
Britannick majesty will look npon the said dectaration, 
together with the full performance of the engagement oh 
the part of his cathoUck majesty, as a satisfaction for the 
injury done to the crown of Great Britain." 

I^is is all that was originally demanded. The expedi- 
tion is disavowed, and the inland is restored. An injury ii 
ackuowledg-ed by the reception of lord Rochford's p^ter, 
who twice mentions the word injury, and twice the word 

The Spaniards have stipulated, that the giant of poisei- 
sion shall not preclude the question of prior right, a qoeir 
tion which we shall probably make no haste to dUonss, Aod 
a right, of which do format resignation was ever required. 
This reserve has supplied matter for much clamour, aod^ 
perhaps the English ministry would have been better 
pleased bad the declaration been without it. But wbes 
we have obtained all that was asked, why should we con- 
plain that we have not more? When the possession is 
conceded, w^ere is the evij that the right, which that con- 
cession supposes to be merely hypothetical, is referred to 
the Greek calends for a future disquisition? Were the 
Switzers less free, or less secure, because, after their de- 
fection from the house of Austria, they had never bee« 
declared independent before the treaty of Westphalia* 
Is the king of France less a sovereign, because the king of 
England partakes his title ? 

If sovereignty Implies undisputed right, scarce any 
prince is a sovereign through his whole dominion!; if 
sovereignty consists in this, that no superionr is acknow- 
ledged, our king reigns at port Egmont with sovereign 
authority! Almost every new-acquired territory is, io 
some degree, controvertible, and till the controversy it 
decided, a term very diflicult to be fixed, all that r^an be 
had is real possession and actual dominion, 



who i< «iv**rT day kaftf^ning ihai ^pIc^iifLour of cha> 
nurlt-r wbich tJitce illufmnntet) ihv Litif^ilcim* ihru i\tiv.y,]n\, 
Bud nlWvardt inflamed it; and fnr vkhom it wUI lj<^ lj»ppy 
iftlidiAtionHlinll, ttt bftt,<)iNniH» Uim (o t]iit[it.-k*n4ol>dturilj. 
with that cquipoUe or blaiuo aud pmirte which ComcUlo 
uJlovr« to RichclitMi, u nun who, I iKirifc^ hnd mnch of hi^ 
>i]4tri(, and mnnv of hit f^ulfn t 


Htk, ftvar irnt* j« fi>n 4 irai nvn - 
U n'li hit U4p da bwa yua fin ijiix du nal i 
H d'i lail trap «1d m»\ ^Di la tlir* da biVDi" 

To pmll ddTnntngc^ too far is ncUhrr ^nt^ronii nor juAf. 
Had wo iosatiW on u concenAiuii of ank-ccdont h^rht, il 
■Mjr Dol iviiboDDine o», t'ithrr ujt moriLli»t« or poliliciQus, 
to cofliidcr tt)iut Orimnldi foM hAve annvffTvd. We huv« 
alivudy, \w might ^^y, graiil^d you the irhole (^Hect of 
ri^K And liave not d«Di**d you ihe aiutie. We huve not 
uid^ dttt Ujo riifht Mils oun brfoir lhi> concfSAiou, hut 
ou\j thmt vrhnl righi wc hnd, i^ uol* tjv this ooncrHinti* 
v«e«loil. Wc have now, for moro thun two ceoturicA, ruled 
luK* ImgIh of 1hi« Amcni^Lin coitlinpnl, by u cluim wbichr 
IMriiap, il tbiid only upon thi* LTonhidiiratton^ thut no 
pfiw^tr oan produ<:e h botl«>r; hy (h** nghi of di*cov*^fy, 
■Bi] jvriof seitlr*iiitiiiL And hy vucli rttli*« ulniiMt nil Llic 
doaumwn% o{ llin rfulli are Ijnldrn, wci-pt Ihat their ori- 
fpnaX b b<->^o&d nK^aiory. nod grrnU'r ob»curity ^vea them 
^TtaUtr rcncntlioD. Should a«o ullow lhj« picu 1o bo an- 
onUed, tho whole fuhrivk ot «ur empiri? ihakes at the 
ro«nd«tJon. Wbrn you nuppo^e yotuvcitven to buve ftnt 
dcTi(rri«*d Uu.^ dbpvil^'d idand, yoit mippoftc? whut you c\ui 
hardly pmir. We wt-cf, -it IniKt, ihh' gi-ij«-rul discovcrcm 
of tkv TkUg^lbuicb rr^iojj, Hjjd hav« luiiierto held it with 
wU iu odjuctncirn. The Ju4ti(;c of tbii teouro iho world 
has, hitbvfto, tuJmittcd. and your«cKcK> o1 Icu^!, lindUy 
hJIavchI tt, HbvD, ubout twL^nty ycitx^ ni^o, you ckitiiUvl from 

KpurpoMd i.\p«dtliom and viproitMly disowned iinj 
I of H^tilin^, wh«r« you arv^ now not couitni lu neltlv 


rAL|j,LAM>*» l»iA^D9. 

aD<L Ic nrif^, withoni exlorlioir sii«h a couf«iaioo of on- 
ginul ri^bt, eiji lUiiy iuvite muory otiier n4tiou to foli<»w you. 

To coFifiidrrutionA Huth un lbp««, it is renawnftbUr to im* 
pule that aniiely oTihit Sp»ni>LHM, rrnin which tlie import- 
jiiicb i>f thiE^ ivlaiii] Is irifoiTpiJ by Juniufi. one of lliv rt*vr 
wrili?n »riii» dr^p]«:iiMv fnctturi. whon* unme iluc-n act dU- 
gtoce the ptige of an opponoat ThGTalocorihc iJiinf du- 
ptiU'd niAv be ycry ditifVrenf (i> Uim tbttt ^un» urid him Ib&l 
\tt%oK iU Th(! ^^pJlma^K by yielding i'altlund'ji ijlaikd, 
h»%'<> ttdmitiod a pr<^cedonl of what liwy lliink rnrroaeh- 
ment ; have KuiT^red a breach lo b« rand* In the outworL* 
of iJirir i^mpirr , and, rmlwitliMunriiiig fho mi-rvf of pri^r 
right, h«ve AufTvn-d u dangcroiH rftct-plion lo the pfcwrip* 
livQ tenure of tUmr Amencou tBrrJtorioa- 

8u«ih in tbr Iflun of Spun; kl nA now compute the profit 
of Uriuiio. We have, by obtaining u disavowd of UuC' 
candii*! exp^d^IioD, and u reftlitutioD of our »etlleflaMilt 
maiiilajned the honour of ihv crowu, uiul the Auporkirity 
of our ioductice. llevond thii; vhal haw vp lUMfmnsdr 
Whul, hilt u bIt-Ak und j^lnomy voliliidt^, aiu inlitnd, ihrown 
iiMv IVuni bui:int] ukp, xttirmy in v-iultrr, mid bHrren \m 
AUnimtT, iLU I^Uind. which tiol tho soiitJioni suva^ts Iwto 
digoitied with huUtFitio:) ; where a gorriaon nauat bo iopt 
in a a1u1<i that coolL^mplutva with iiavy the i^xilcfl of fiibem; 
of which the 4.*xp^nji4r will b(> prrpt^tanl, aiid the imw only 
oocaflioiDti; and which, if foriune nmile upon our labourf, 
in»y become a neat of imuj^iifler* in pt^aci^, and in w;u- ibo 
rcfugn of futiirv buruiiii-rK. Tck nli ihU tbfi gnvrtnmmil 
ha* uov given oiuplc atk'nUiliunp fur ihvr ixhiud hii» btwn 
iiiiK'e (ibtiuduued. anil, p4?r}idp», wna kept only t4i i]utrt 
clumoiirn, vith on intrntion, not then wholly oomcc^kd, of 
<]ititliDg it in a «horl time. 

Thifi i« ihe courjtry of which «tre buvo now poAoeamon, 
and vf wltieh u iittmerouK patfly prett-^ndit to nUh tlkftl wo 
had miirdrrrd ThoniuindH for thr iTfuInt Mivi^migtity. To 
rbMr^^riy rn^n uilhftiiuh nuulrievAapproiicheitiianikccuwi- 
tiiin ilHVaIrd by ila uwu ii»cr<.'dib«lity. An ibey Uuw boea 
lon^ arc ifl poMibic ibut tkrynrc now 



Im^ anolhrr tn thi^ hmp, und thiit tlirv 4li> not 
monn nil !lwi iheir f^rofrvi, Rri «f iliu fnoMon whn( e»il 
*nu» not br «:rvditt!tl { Tiiey Jmve hiibt-rtu ihitwu nci tirlur, 
And Tcry litdc wit. Ixryond that ml»chicvous cunning for 
wliieh it Es beld, bv Hair. Uini cbildn-D mar be b&u^d f 

At var m liw but of reiiieilic«» " cuncta pnus Icatnndti " 
«ll lavftil c^xpLvliinitd xnuitt bv u^rd (ci av(fid it. Av wnr 
iatli««it»pniity<>f<'vii,it JB, irtirai^r the i^nly of thofi^f, vho«« 
MbIIoq iMrtifU ibem wtlh the €»t^ of nutioiiK, 1o avert fa 
fmifi tli*»if charif**, Tliprf anr disi-HHrv of ;inimnl nntinv^ 
wbirh nrilbir)|^ hii( ainpEiliitiiJh CAn n-rriove; to thprr mny, 
by tlie deiifmratjon of b(iina.u puAAutnji, he iiimeuni<'ii a 
^■nffmk<^ in coltcctivf Hfo, for which firr ^nd tbc sword 
tbr nccr-K4fv_T rcmcdicM ; but in vhnt cnn skill or 
i0tt be bo(1«r «howD, than preventing; snch dreadful 
op«»rul]oM«, utiiEr ihrri* it ycrt room for ({c^ntler ineltioda T 

It is wondpffui witli vhat cofilnrnt imd indiflWerte th*' 
grvtAler |>Ari of mnnkirid »ee wnr conimeikced- Thonr^ tbat 
timr of it nt u dUuiicv-, i>r rrud of il iii 1»Mik«, but hnT« 
n^'vra-prcAcntoditarviU lo tlirir mindv. coniidi-r it m littlo 
more than a splendid ffunc, a proclamation, nn Brmr, a 
buttle, and a triumph. Some, itido-od, muAt perinh iu tbv 
moxt MOL'^^-uful fK<Id, but ibfvdi^ upon Ibt; bnd ofbuuoLirr 
** rpvifpi thrir Uvcie atnliUt th^ jovv of f^tm^nni, nnd, Hllrd 
trilti Kiiglttnd\ glnrv, >ij]|]l« in deiitk** 

Thr life of d mcidfro Hjldif-r m ill rnpr«9Mih1rd by Iwroick 
ficiura. Wn bu moAufi of dcitnaction more formidable 
llwitfw«llilPOnand ibo nword. Of the? thouMitids andten 
llieoiioto, tbat ptrrubcd iit our luto contocts^ with I'runee 
Mid Spain, « very amttU pari ever fell Ibe stroko of an 
w n wm j t tb^ rt*jil lan^iiftfaed in teitt^ and ihtpe. Binldct 
dHDpf snd pi]lrefH4:lioit; pale, lor|nd, tpirillei-t, atid lif^lp- 
ksn; giupief^ umJ ^Tunuin^, njipitiifdnincin^mtii, uiadeob- 
d«rat4? by kti^ r on tiu nonce of hopMoiK misery; and were, ttt 
bM, ffbcLmt'd if) pite> or licovod into tbr ocean, without ao- 
lico nod v'ithonl reincinbruni^e. tfy uncommodjooi €IIcubi)h 
menm wd nitwiioloaiomo fttulionn, whrro courage ii naeltrsB, 


and enterprise impracticable, fleets are iilently diipeopldJ^. 
and annips sluggishly melted away. 

. Tbus u a people gradually exhausted, for the most parl> 
with little effect. The wars of civilized nations moke very 
kIow changes in the system of empire. The publick per- 
ceives scarcely any alteration, but an increase of debt; and 
the few individuals who are benefited are not supposed 
to have the clearest right to their advantages. If he that 
shared the danger enjoyed the profit, and, after bleeding 
in the battle, grew ^ch by tbe victory, he might show his 
gains without envy. But, at the conclusion of a ten yearsr' 
war, how are we recompensed for tbe death of multitndea,. 
and the expense of millions, but by contemplating the nid^ 
den glories of paymasters and agents, contracton and 
Dommissaries, whose equipages shine like meteora, and 
whose palaces rise like exhalations I 

These are the men who, without virtue, labonr, or haord, 
are growing rich, aa their country is impov«riil»ed ; they 
rejoice, when obstinacy or ambititm adds aootber year to 
slaughter and devastation ; and laugh, from their desks, at 
bravery and science, while they are adding figure to figure^ 
and cipher to cipher, hoping for a new contract from a dot 
armament, and computing the profits of a siege or tempest* 

Those who suffer their minds to dwell on these eonst' 
derations, will think it no great crime in the ministry, that 
they have not snatched, with eagerness, the first opportn- 
nity of rushing into the field, when they were able to 
obtain, by quiet negotiation, all the real good (hat victory 
conld have brought us. 

Of victory, indeed, every nation ia confident before the 
sword is drawn ; and this mutual confidence produces that 
wantonness of bloodshed, that has so often desolated the 
world. But it is evident, that of contradictory opiniona^ 
one must be wrong ; and the history of mankind does not 
want examples, that may teach caution to the daring^, and 
moderation to the proud. 

Let us not think our laurels blasted by condeacending 

irjlLKLANU'S 1»LA^D^- 


4o inquire, wbcUier we mt|(ht not p(;«atb1,T prroVrathrr hvi. 
tBao ^rmtrr hy uttnckin^ 8p»iii. Wbflhcr uf tlioiild 
huvti to ountc^nd «i(b Spain alonr-, whnic^cr hjtt brm pro- 
i»e4l bv our patrmt^, m»,V Vf>rv re^^otialjlv be dooblenl. 
A wuf dcfclurcd for ihv f^m^ty kouikI of uii uudeoi iirlcr to 
a Mng^n&iiick rock, would raiMi tlm indignAlion of iho 
fMlfa fl^iiiil ti4. Thesi? 4'niTr<Hirher5 orL th^ wu^lc tifiiH- 
tur^ KSTs oiit nil)' Oin RiiMiatj, if iht^y »u(,crej iii ibrir 
6rHt rdcrt gf Diurpation. iviU mukr wnr i^pon rut for a title 

»to Kumtscbatka. Thc»c unirnsuil ^ttlcr». Wiys our all)^ 
tbt*! Diiife, a "siiurt time, aoltle u}»ou Gri>uiiluiid, luid 
p Hect will buttrr CciptMihuffurj, till v/o ure wilkiof; to eon^ 
fins, thnc it iilwayq wnjt tlinr owir 
In tt i|itnrrrl, Jikv Hiin, if ifi luil |>n»i1iU^ tb'tt mi^ p«iw«ir 
klKinlii ffltniir it«, Hiid it IH xrry likelv ibui ifume wi^uUl op> 
I>o«w us> Tb« Freiitb, wc arc toM, ore olhcrwise rmploj- 
ed : tbft conlc^sti behvccu tUir kin^ of France, »ud Iiem cwtj 
•objcctn, iirr ntilftcirnt lo withhold bim from supporting 
SpAib. Hat wbo Aocn nol kii<>w tJiut ;i forcigti wiir buy 
I oA4*fj put a 4t'>p to dvil didoords \ II wiihdmvf thi* att^n- 
^H tjon oftbo publu?k from dome«lick grii<vLinc4-s. ofid ^JTordi 
^^ apportQnitipii nf difiiniaRinj^ thn liirbnlerit mid renllr** to 
dixtiinl i-Tiipiuvjiiriilii, Tin.* Spjiuidrdi 1i;iv*r tilt^Hvt 4Ji &r- 
^nanent of ureiniltblo pcmuoiioii; if France wtii uo! aup* 
port tbcm ^i^ninst Ln^Uodt tbry will ntK-nslhta Hnj^lnnd 
, ngiuEiKl Ftiuicc. 
^^L- But ki tKJadul^'e a dreum of idle Kpecolation, snd Kiip- 
^^^ pose tbat Wi> uxf lo pngftgp vilh Spain, ami with Spuio 
aloni? : il u tint rven yet vftrv c^rlaln 1h»[ miicli adrnnlAgv 
will be giuned. Spain ia nut euily vijlrirnibif : hf-r kingdom, 
by iht loda or ee^ion of iminy fr^i^TnenU ofdomiiiioii. iabe?- 
covne 4otid and foro^Hict. The Spflniiud* have, imlccd, no 
Ami ablo to oppo«« lu. but they will not tudravour acIuaI 
oppoviiion ■ they will tihul thenfstclvrM op m Ibetr own 
U'tritun^v^ and !^i n* <>xbiuil <iur MfumuD iii u hop«k«i 
aiof^w: UieT will gix-i* rommmionit to pmnlrert of tf^Teiy 
nation, who wilt pr«y U[>oii our vn^n hunTh wilbuiit po84ibi- 
Ihy of repri^b If lht-\ think their Vluta Wed in danger. 



TALKLAftttt I^LANli|<, 

thvv will forbid it lo wt vail, oatl live awhilo ¥pQtt xh% 
ctrdit d tr<-UBun> wliirh idl EL]n>gHr i^iow'd to be tafe ; MMl 
which, ir our obEiiiiuoy «huuld c'tvutliiiM- till Ui^y cun bo 
loofi^rb^ wklboni it, will hr f^oiirri^rd tn them with trcrrcy 
wid iieL-unty, by uiir rmltirul uiit^Diitis llie Fnrach.Of bjr tbe 
Uiilfih <>»r natural itlllcH. 

But t^e whulu continent of SpaniMh ijnenM vill lie 
cipcti to invHjdon ; we thM havo ucilhinif to 4m kut in#rcb 
ioto thcAo voaltbr rt^f^ion^, and miikc tbcir prasent matftefS 
coat^sA, thnt they w«>ro aIwov* oure by ancumt rigbt. W« 
■bdl lliruw briiHtt nnd iron out of our Lousea, and notbiu^ 
but Kilt rr will br arpn Among im. 

Afl lliiH is ^try dfsirabl«. but it ifi not c^tftio th«l it ow 
lir r«^ily »ttttin^J, l^nr^fl tracts ofAmrrica were addcdi 
by ibc \aftt war« Co the Rntiith domioiom ; but, tl' Lho fttclMW 
(K^dit tboir ovn Apgllo, tbcy veto coiaqiiiirL<d in Geroiaaf. 
They^ at bnet, nrr only lho b^ir^n patU of Ui9 ^onliautit, th« 
TOfuMe oflbi? ^nrlier udveuturen, which (h« Fr«DCb, whtt 
cnmc litJtl, bii<l lijkim nnly ok tHitler tiiitu nothiiiii:, 

Ag^kiniil till' S[i^mi)iti dnmtiiiorM ni^ buvfr or\cr, bllUD^fl^ 
Lmn able tu do uiucb- A Arw iJiiruteiira liave groWD Mfc 
al tbrir cx|iciul\ but no scbunie of conquest lutyet beM 
euctmsafii). Tliry pre dcfomlcdp not by wajla mounted vitk 
cannonii, wbicL by caiinunfi amy fcpo batlcrfid, bnt by Ura 
nturaiA of the doupr and tbo vuponre of tike huid, bj Um 
f^imeti of rnb^nUttX' nutl bliis^lv of pc<«lilrnc<*. 

In lh« reign of KJisuiV'tb, tW fflvmirilt^ pixind nf Rn^* 
lish ((n-uttJL'an, no cnk^ipiiBt.'a dj^ojiibt Auh.'ric» bad luijr 
other coiiaeqneucc than tbttt of eKtendlnjf English navijni- 
lion, ilvre CiiTendiab prn»bcd, nftcr oH hia banrdi ; nod 
bcTo Ornke and HawLm»i i^reul oa tbey wen u> Loov' 
li^tl^ tind iu fuiuo, buviu^ promised lioiifjur to tlteouotvei^ 
und domiEiion to Ibt; eoiiotry, niink by de»pcrution uul 
EHMery In dislKmonrnblo gravfM. 

During the pfolvctutvbii) orCruinwell, ft lioit* ufwbkJi 
tbc iwtriotick iHW^ »tiH mom jifdr»11y dmiir tbe n?tiini. 
Uio Spautth domiuioflA HL-rr ujpain ciilrnipted -, btit here. 
Olid wily hcf«, the fortiiAc of Cromvcil nwidc^ • pau^ . 

fiu fiorce* w^r« drivpii from TTlHputiioIn ; hb lidftMi Af po»- 
ttwi^ Ibtt U'nt Iiidk'a vuijitJivd ; and .FiLtnaim «»« tibtv, 
otil^ ti»U tlic vhole oxpediticD mij^il not gjo^ ndicnlotii. 

Tbo nltick of C^irthiixcna is ^(>l rcmcmlicreJ, wlicr« ibe 

■ttrda, from tbt^ rtuit[MrU, saw tfaeir iATLitkrii dcatrut rd 

tbd hoAlitity 4>f llie elemenU, pciMnod by the uir. and 

ripplod hj thff dewii ; n'bc*rn rt4>rT hour flw^rpC u^'ny hid- 

boot; and, in ibe ihrr-pdny* thai parsed bL*iv4WQ ihvdtf' 

eat nnd mcmliurkniidti, hairuii nrmy ppmhod, 

la the Uhi war tht- Unvumia ua?» (alien : ut whut oit** 
pr-ium ii lua w<;tl rv me mire red. Nbj tay a^uitUj be imtt^T 
cim«d vitU »ii(rh lutolhcr conr|UcRl ! 

Tkt^jM-f iiiaUiuco* ofDii^f^arnntfo. and Ihoaci aritomrnts of 
dtflicidtv, may, pcrhupH, iibalv tW militu/v nrdour «>f flu? 
imbticJc. L'pOQ 1^ op|ii>ncntg t>f the f^vemnient their 

peralioB vlll be daflerenf ; tlit^' wi«b for war, but nol fnr 
90W|Drftt ; viirlorj^ wuidit deleft lfif<r|Tiirpc»(PN <*iiintly wilb 
peater becsnw pri-iHiienly wmibl niitnndly continue itii- 
Iruil in thfjfi h^tiulit ttJiic;h fiod u»<^d t1 fortmijilrly. Tlif: 
pittrinlfi g^nititjed (KiMnsclteii >hith P\pi^clutioit;i llikit *iinn^ 
iiniaWMia avcideol, or cttodoodb coDdticI, rnif^ht diffintn 
ditfoont^nl, lind inlluoic* m&Lif^nttT. Thetr topt^ iii malovxK 
hiKCo, and their |^f>d U eviU 

Of CMr mnil for Ihrir crmnlry we have already bnd a 
men. While they wpre terrif^mn; xhf* natlcm with 
doukli. whrlJirr iC vmi any lender Ur eiMl : while ll»ey 
f»pr«4riitied iuraflive ariDiet am bevenn^ in the eloiid«. 
uhI lioftite Heeti. us o4ucr^ih^ from the deep«: they eb- 
•traetod nnr levif\ja of seamc^n. »nd f-uibctrrus-i^d onr im- 
deatonn ef defence. Of aiiHi inea he thiijkit with t»i- 
i>ecek«un- eandoitr who dr>cfl not believe Ibem likely fn 
bcitH' prtimDlivl iiw m'ifCinnn^\ which ihey dt'^iri^d, hy in- 
liniidtitii)^ niir irir]r>pii, or hrtmying iiur i-Diiiiseliii 

h u coskidrrod ua an injury i*> the ptiMick, by thoite 
fuin^Tnnry alulromen. IIjuI tlion^ the fleet bnft been re- 
fitted and munned. yet no fiostitilien huve followed ; and 
Ihey, who ^i wUhinf^ f^r mwery and ■luiijc^lt^r. nre di*«p- 
puutl«d 4ft ibeir pWAMire, Btil m peaee u the eod of 



war. U is the end, UkcwUe, of propumliona forvor; iiiiil 
Jif may Ucr j^istly Iiunlrrf ciowii, iw the enemy olmualundt 
tlmt cvm chooite to Attalch, by violcincp nnd bloodshed, wh^ 
goDtkr mruufi <^uii ^quuily obtain. 

TJi«» mini>iry nr» ri^pronrhpd, us nnl daring io provoke 
tin vtit^my, \i*Hl ill siKrceii^ nlioiild iltM:rf*(lit ajitt iliMpliictf 
thfiii. T hcjpc thai thi^v Und brlter ivii.<wun ; that ibc^' 
paid somr rcftard (» equity and hamaiiity ; ani roruadcrt^d 
tli(.-m£cU-«¥ ns intruslrd ^ith the iiuff^iy of Ihrir fcliovr-sub- 
}ticU, and aa the desh-oyrirs of all tbat aboald be aapertiu- 
ouily xUiughi^red. Buc let us napiioke, Omt l]i«ir owv 
■afely haci Komc inftupnirL* on rhinr <'onducl, ihcy will not, 
liowtfver, Hirik fu u levrl wilb tbi-iir vLii^miefi- Tbokigh Ihn 
timlivr ruight be Re1^l^h, (U<- aict MciVt ianucrnt. TbfTy, wJio 
glow rich by ndministrring phj'fick. arc not Io be Dum* 
torvd with ihorn iLat gci money by di^pf^DfliD^ poison, tf 
they maintaiu power by hurmteefitirin uud peaoe^ tbey 
nrnsi lor ever be ul ii grt-^ui difitanctr from nillianK, who 
voold ^in it by miAcbi^r i\iid coikfusion^ The irnicb of a 
city oiHv g^urd it lor btre ; but ntv veil empWfd iu pn^ 
lErliiig il from Ukibc, wlio He Id wail to fitn ihe nfrKptH, 
nftd rob the boosf-n^ amuUl the conflagjitliou. 

An unsuGcodftful vnr wuuld, u ado uh tiddly, baw bud ibo 
ctTcci whiL^b tbc vTic^mtei of ihu miniAlry lo cunic»(lj do- 
»ir<?; for who could bavo castainf^il tlie dJAgrnc<t of folly 
endinj^ in miKforTime' But bad uaoton iniaj^ion nodo- 
servedly pro^p^red, b^d Falklandn island been }jelded 
iiiii-i)]idii]c*nulK, with t-vi^ry rifjbt, prior and iKiM«?naf: 
tboij^h tilt f^ibbtr mi^bt Imvc ^boutc-d, futd tht^wiudows 
bsvft bUiKcd, yet tho&c who kuovr ibe value of life, and 
(he uncertainty of pablick credit, wuulJ bavu murmured^ 
pi^rhupK unheard, tti iho mcrcaso of oar debt, ;;nd ibu tout 
of oar pt^oplc. 

THtt tbirat of bloorl. however tbe vinible promoterA of 
wjditiiia may think il oonvr.aif-nt Io nhnnk fn«n Uit^ ao* 
OUMitEon. lit Uudly avowed hy Janiu^ ibc HnLrr to whom 
hia party owu* much of it» pndt*. and «omc of ila popu- 
larity. Of JuaiaH it caniiol bi- vaid. ua of lUy>ii4r»». thAl 




^nt^iitf* kniYiigiiDUfi rxprcMiniiK jmon^ th>- viil^ir; Air 
hn rn«<4 h»\i>i^Lp wiEbuiil rattrrv^. Mid endeiivijuiTt tn \t'i 
ilip the ilogf of foreign or of cLvil war. ignoraiit wbillR-r 
py arc fc<)iflG:i QAil 4;arolcas wliftt mui/ be ihoir prey* 
Juniun luis sometimes nuiJe hia aatirr t'eit, but let oot 
IDJiHlicioiiK Dilmiriition mifiUko ttui rcnum oftbo mW> for 
tli« yj^^oar of llie bov^ Hj" has adrnp-tiaipv sported vi'tih 
ln«ky malice; but fo him that know* hW <win|>aiiv. it *% 
nnl lidnF lo hv surctuttack lit 4 iti'isL. WbJJt? h« wjiikfi, likp 
JncL tJic ^lanl'klllcr. in a cciul of i1arkhi>s»H lir iiidv du 
mucb miAchu'f witli little atruiiglli. Nu^^kj ctiptivalcA 
tiie 9U|>t^^lioial ood tlioiiKbtlf-!U< ; v i^hcimoiico dcljfcbu the 
tod and turbulont Hit thut contnirliclA acknow^ 
tntli will alwuVK Lave An nudu'iior?; h<» ibnl vilifies 
ettUblifth^d ■mborily will ulwayi» ftad »tietlorB, 

Jiiiuiin hnmi mio noiii'(> viib ^t bl^isif* of itn|tii(l(mi-n nhirti 
tttiH ran-lj gTurrrl upon tho ivorld Wfori^, wiid (Jit:^w lljr 
rabbit; nfkeT bun, 4& « niuiibtor Jiiui«i a sliuw. When lie 
hod OBce providird for bin AJl'i^ty, by imi>CDCtrubio MN^nrcy, 
bo bod notbuif: in ci^mbnl but truth and jii^ticr, cnei&ics 
vhocn he Leiowh la 1>o ftiebla m Ibe dark- Btiin^; tbcn at 
libpiiy lo iitdul^ bimielf in a\\ tbe inununitirK of imisi- 
bility : Dcit ofrbt* rpncb ofcltingrr, hn b^iH beon bold; out 
of the? r^ach of Mhurnt*. b^? hun beea eouftdt^nl. A* » rbi*- 
toriciAJi. Iip btu* luid thr nrt of puriLJfidiiLK, yi/hvn iw m:- 
condcd di^Firr; aa o rrasoncr. be hju ci>ii\iiM:c(l thoic who 
httd no doubt bofortr; b» a inorali»ti hi? biL» tniightt tb^t 
wtae may dU^'auo; nnd, m a patriot, be huA fr^tifi«d 
tbo nmm bv iitsiiltt on 1b(> big^b. Finding f^dltion u^ 
cra^aiil, h(< biu been ablo to advnnce it ; finding ilia &^ 
tHMi coinbu><li[jl<\ bi< bi3« hvffit »bTe tn infttiiii(< it. Let nc 
dmtracl fn>in hiii wU ibv^ vjvucltv of tunobrticr. and '^^illi- 
dm* from bia cffrcaL-y tbe MiupulJirtick fu^oiir of pkibrriun 
msli|^Uv ; I do not ray ikat «e abnll lcei^« him notblti^ ; 
Hia e-MLiifi tbut 1 drl'cnd* seoni-t Ibi? bt-lp of falftefaood \ but 
if 1*0 li<u\Q him only hi* merit, what will bo hiit pnuMif 

ll LE Tioi bv bin livi^lincifr of imngr-ry, h\t. piiugvAj^y of 
pt'.TtoAt, or Jii« frr^lity uf ulluxinn, ib^t ti^ dntJuru |li« ciu 



of London, imd ilt« boon of Mitldlc*ex. Or ii^lv on4 
lontiaicnt ikcy inko po vo^ixiLdcu. Tbo^ Mdiniro kka, 
for virliiei lihi* llirir own, fur coiitpmp4 of order, and vio- 
Irm'f. (if uutrui;« -, fur raigi- uT JernnuflioTi, uehI and^icily of 
f^iUidiood. Tbc lupfKirtcnt of tlio bill rrf it^la fr«] no 
nictrlipei of ccmixraitioii, nor ile^lvnUtfA of xophntiy; Uirrir 
fecitltic* arc belter proportioned to the bnuT of Bdiib. or 
biirbanty of Book ford ; bnt they aro told, iJiat Juuiiis i* 
on Ibtiir side, and ihev un>, liitinrlbrf*. mm Ibiit Juitisi is 
infallible. Tbo^e \rlio know not vhilhor hv would liwd 
them, roHoUs lo follow him; nnd lhci«(* wbo caitnoi tlml 
bu Dit-uuinjf. hope he meafiK rebfflliou. 

JnniiiJf in on uiiuKOiil jihi'iioinonoii, an vrbic^h *AnK> hare 
f^axFil with wonder, and some villi terrour. but wondrf 
and Icrrour are tniriBilort poKaionti. H« wiJI ii>on be mote 
cloflcly vicwod, or moro lUtuntiroly cxomiaod ; and what 
folly bftA t&kon foi a comot, tlii;t from its f^titn'mg hair 
Ahrjok pe^rileaco and wnr, inquiry' will find (o be oal^r a 
rnrteor, fnmiud by iho viipoiirft iif ptiln^fftng dirmocracj, 
ami ki»dl«til tnlo Aam» hy ihr t'nVrvr4nfTn<r^ of int^rptl, 
•livg^lii]^ vfilli uOiLiIctioji ^ wliioli, afltfr buviu}^ pluuf^*il 
ill foilowt-'ra iu ft \m^, will Jeavo uji. inqnirinff why wc re- 
gard it. 

Yol, IhoM^h 1 cannot thifik th« atyie of JuniuB aecure 
from critidiun, though biii expreauonn ure oflvn irite, mmd 
fcifl periods forblv, I nliould itrvf^r huV4f itnltnnf'd him 
vbere he ba» plncvd him^f, ba<l f not raied bnu b> bM 
Kior^ibi niUier lli^ui h\% Jui^ultit'ji. Wlml. huvi PtipPn mnml 
bo ih<a pr!«-»t» where a inonk<-T is the ^od f M'b<il ntobt h«f 
lb# dnidjffo of II pArty, of which the hoodfi ore Wilkos and 
Crosby, Sawbridf^ir and TownM^ndf 

Junmc knows bis own mtattinif, ilmI can, thcn-^fonr, tai 
il. HtMs uti niwmv to tbo ministry; bo ^trs th^m growing 
hourly sircing'er. Ho known that a war. al onrr nnjnM ajid 
nnnutrcrufuL woitUi btive i^iTtiiiidy dJHplaEed thi^m, uud ia. 
tlirrrfoTi^, in htH xrjd fnr hi* (-nunlrk, uii^jr that wur W4i 
not nnjiL«tly made, auJ iiiiHucccjafaUy condnctcd. But 
Ibeiw tre others whoM Ihoufcbts i\re lea» clf^urly eftprvsscd, 


»ALKl.AirDil IIU^VD*. 


IJTkfetl ; wkfr (feolnv lliAt t\te\ il» iiiit ni^h Tor .i rnpliirt*, 

ycl condemn tb« minblTj Tor not doinff lliat. by which a 
ruptttre wouUI niitnrAHy haT<t b^cn innd<^. 

If one party t^aoKca 1o dt^mpnd vrfini the <Hber ro»i>lv4>H 
to rofii»tf, tk« dit^ute can be d«tennine<l ooAy by wbitrm- 
tion; Ai>() b<*t««i*() pftu^Knwlia hiivi' no rommoa supi^rioiir, 
tbere U no otber Jirhicrnfor tlmn t\w tjvorrl. 

Wfac-ihiv tb? fULumlryuii|;bt ii:>te4|uitKbWbiive tl«inuitil«d 
lort IS not worth a question. Th?? utmost exertion of 
rif^t ifl alwap invtdioitftp and. whore cUim* nrc not easily 
d«t0niunuUI«, i* alwuya dAiifi^^rou*. Wo A»k«4l all ibm 
WM PiBMMiry, arid penijtted in our flni ctaim, wittmul 
OMttM roeMiion, or waeiroii uggravxtiun. The Spaninrd* 
fcHind a* ratolulo. and complied, ivfipt a ihori Ktniggfe. ~ 

IImt rvtti eriinfl of tbi^ mjnivlry ia, that lliey liavn fniMMt 
tb« nWMw of Avaidiog their own min« but tlm r^uir^ 
•gwn^t tbom is mviltirttriou» nnd uonfaiied, u will hitp)i«B; 
vbea malioe and disconteol sro Ashncnod i>r IJit^ir conn- 
plunL Tht? pu^^ii and Uif fnluri^ ur« c<impiiontc(i in Ihr 
c#Miar9. Wp buv'CT btftiird a tLimiilluoufl clamour nbout 
iMOOvr And rigbi«, kijurit^s and iriTiultt, the Brittah rb^ and 
ibvff^vuuHtD'iruiMirr, Buccunrlli'i cntiducEund <-ninalili'« 
declaratJoni* tlic MAiijlta ninwHno, dohiyN »nd reparaiion. 

Tlirou^ii tho whole arg^unitfnt of the faction mm ihr 

^rix.-nil 4!rroar, tJml our nc^itlumcnt on FuTklund*! inl^Dil 

QOtonly lovtol, but onquoAtiAnable; thvt onr rig^ht wa* 

it only e«rtALn, but aekciowledf^ ; nnd thai the dquily aT 
our 4^oudu«t waa «ueh, xhni ilit? Spuuiardi <wuLd not btttim* 
«r olwtriKtt it, viihout combiiliog ihi»tr ovm convioEion, un4 
oppoaiiiff the gent^nl opinion of mankind. 

If onon it br diiicuvi^rt^d lli^t, in tbr opinion of thp 

SpaaiArds, ouf Mttkicent wa» tiaorped. our cloini a/bi- 

^H|rv7> Aiid oar coudnct Iiifvolcnt, all thtit hns hoppcnrd wtH 

^B^>pfttf to follow by a nalurul oonnalLViution. lX>tih(i will 

prodtioo diiftutoft Bind diminiAiuoir : di«(foi«tion rvfgfiirM 

drUy, and dniny ennse^ iiwonveiiien4i(t- 

Uad the Sinmi'th ifiiteirnm4*nt inunedintoly yleldod, nn* 



fl08 palklamd's islands. - 

GonditioDally, iiU that wbj required, we might hare been 
satisfied; but what would Europe have judged of their 
subtnisBion? that they Bhrunk before us, as a conquered 
people, who, having lately yielded to our arms, were now 
compelled to sacrifice to our pride. The hoDOur of the 
publick is, indeed, of high importance; but we moat re- 
member, that we have had to transact with a mighty king 
and a powerful nation, who have unluckily been taught to 
think, that they have honour to keep or lose, as well as oar' 

When the admiralty were told, in June, of the wamiog 
given to Hunt, they were, I suppose, informed that Hunt 
had first provoked it by warning away the Spaniards, and 
naturally considered one act of insolence as balanced by 
another, without expecting that more would be done tm 
either side. Of representations and remoustrauces there 
would be no end, if they were to be made whenever smdl 
commanders are uncivil to each other; nor could peace 
ever be enjoyed, if, upon such transient provocations, it be 
imagined necessary to prepare for war. We might thea, 
it is said, have iucreased our force with more leisure and 
less inconvenience ; but this is to judge only by tbe event. 
We omitted to disturb the publick, because we did not sup- 
pose that an armament would be necessary. 

Some mouths afterwards, as has been told, Buccarelli, 
the gcvernour of Buenos Ayres, sent against the settle- 
ment of port BgmoDt a force which ensured the conquest 
The Spanish commander required tbe English capttuns to 
depart, but they, thinking that resistance necessary, which 
they knew to be useless, gave the Spaniards the right of 
prescribing terms of capitulation. The Spaniards imposed 
no new condition, except that the sloop should not sail 
under twenty days; and of this they secured the perform- 
ance by taking off the rudder. 

To an inhabitant of the land there appears nothing in all 
this unreasonable or oJTensive. If the English intended to 
keep their jitipulation, how were they injured by the de- 
tention of tbe rudder I If the rudder be to a ship, what hia 

falklahd's jklamjs. 


Uil i« in fables to a tax, tho port id -nhkh boaoiiria plucecU 
aQdorvbicIilJiOTiDlutioiiis Di?t«r(obrrvniliir<fd, 1 omsQrry 
tkftlliie FaToiin1f>iiuir(?rc4<iiiincJi;fiiity,ba1ncinn(ityi^1 think 
it A CAiuao for wbifh nationn fihould i^laiightrr odo annthcr, 

Wlieo Biiccflivlirc inva^ioa va» known. anU ihB dti^Dtty 
ttf iho rrowij tiifrinji^rl. ve il4^mviiidi-i.l rtpHrHliaii iind pr»- 
parrd fciv war. und ^t ^inud (?(|U«il rici*q>rct by thn moiUs 
rmlion of our tcrmA^ and tho ipinC of our exertion. The 
SputUli mitiifltcr immediately denied liiot Bueeurelli had 
K^ved anv partieuliu orders to mso port Kfimotit, nor 
pratesded that be v'ii« jiulifled, otherwii^ lUan hy tbt? fcis 
nrnd iiutrui^ltotiE >ty whirb thf? AintTricim gnvitmoiirH tuo 
required to exelfidi?! th*i Hiil>ji-ct>i ofnrher ftowt^rs. 

To have iiic|iiiied ttbt*lh(*r uur selllfftntrnt ut port £^- 
iBOQt VTM Any violntion ef tbr Spamsli righU, bad bncru lo 
cotcr vpoa a dUciw^ion, which tlic pertinacity of poUticftL 
dbpatttilt ni^t have eonluiued without end. Wc, tfaerV' 
f«r*, ealled for rUKtitutton, not a% a ponft-Raion ol' rijchi, bat 
U9I 4 rf<Ei(inLlJi>R of honour, which requirrd thiil ve ihould 
bcr TfAlnrrd to €mt formej' MAti^ njion the i^Enudt And th^it 
ihm k'lun uf Spain hfiould iHbuviiw ifui uetimi of Uin fp- 

In return to (his dcmaDd. Ihc Spzuiiardb e\pectcd from 
US A disavowal oflLe menuciA. vrilU ^rbi^b tbL<y ^md been 
Am iatulled hy Hunt; mid ifthv cluim to tho Uland be 
SQppoMfd (UmhifiJ, Ihny eertninlv rrtpee-ljKl il viib etpial 
fttnon^ ThiR, hnwpieri wn» refiiitpd^ and mir tupfrriorily nf 
slrragtL gate Tslidity !■> »itr nr^nmi'iitH- 

Qui vt; arr told, thnt the disavowal (>f the ^in^ of Spain 
M temporary aud ffillacioun ; tbat Buccvrclli't amifimenl 
bod all the upfteurunee of regular force* and n concerted 
fl!Sp«dilioa; and that lie U not Ireoted at homo an n man 
giiilly of pimej, or oa dieebediofit to Ibe orderv uf lib 

Tliat the nxpeditinn wiih vhII plttnnud.^ aud' the forcei» 
pvopifHy jiupplied. nlforiU no pniof of comuiufiiedlioEi b#^ 
twecn l&e ^vertiour nod bis coLirt. TboM who orv intrusted 

nc Tt, 



wkli tbe earn ofkrugdnmit in anothrr Viifiniiiphorc, mtiitj^^ 
veay^ be iriiii^d with powfir ta df^fenrl ihftm. ^^H 

A* liule run lie inrt*Trei) fruiii liU irctrptiQU at llur Spmi- 
i«h <iiiirt. 11<T LA not punidbct). iudi*«d; for wliut Jiat be 
clone thfit ilc9icn4.'»puiiiKhincDtf He wcu sent 111(0 A mrricu 
to govern nnd ilcrfi'md thci (iomininns tA' Spuifi, Ho tliouKltt 
the Eri^^kiih wer& encroaolimj^, nnil ttrovo ihom iiwa>- No 
Sjiani^il ihiiikt thai he bun exre(M]i>d his tliil^, i^v «Juif 
tb(- klti^^ nrSpuiii I'fuirKi' bini wiUi piict-*^. Th*? liound* 
aric» of dumiiiioii, id tbtit jjtirt uf tlit- v^orJd. have iu>t jet 
been ficlUcd ; and bo mJaloob, ifa mtMakc Ujore was, ULc 
a sealouit tiubjot'tj in his iDuatir'ti fuvi>iir. 

But ulJ liiift *ii<|i]iry is jtiip«<rttiioiM- Coiitidi^rcd vj a re- 
j}iiT»tion cif bonoiirp ihr divAvnnul of \hr. kin^ of Span, 
Riudi* in flir «i^hl cif .i\\ f^;irn|U'. Ij* of i^qtml viilti^. wWiZict 
Uuti ur fiJ^L*. Tbeiir ia. izjilet-d, iiu n-ji^nit lu (jui-itliiMi li* 
verai^ilj ; tbo^. liuvurcr. \vliu do not belinve il, lauAl allov 
the wciffht of that iiillurnrc, b^ vhti^b a groat priDC^ lA rc- 
(1uc<>d lo di^wn hh own coraaii^sun. 

HuI the geu^rfll orderi», upon which tho t^ovoruoaf k 
acknovledf^ed lt> have ucU'd, urc iwi^hcr diauvow^ aor 
ri(pbiiTM'H, Wh\ tlit^ SpikniunU Rhoiilil disiivcnv thr di^lVnnt 
of tbcjr uvrn ternti^n»!i, thti ihurnmal diftpulaut Mill &int it 
difficult Ut tcfll ; uml. If l>y iiu r-\)diiuatU)n U Dieiiut un ut'cu- 
rati; dcliricatiou of ibo soiithf-ni empire, afid ihi- ttntitittii>tt 
of thi^ir^^luimti h«yond the liito, it c&naot l>oiin|>atr>d tonoy 
very culpable rvaiiAduesa, ibat ulijil Um he^n d«rBi«d for 
Iwo oetilurieM to llit Kuropi^uu ptiwe». ww net olituJli4*d 
irj a huAljr wrurigh? ^iboiii n pclly oF'tfli^mrnE. 1 

Tlie minUlry wi-rr loo well urrpmlhUd wilb nf^oli^lioo 
to fill iJicir LrudH with such idltf expeulnlioio. The i|U«»- 
tioo of righl was iai'Eplicablc and cndlCKs. TJiey k:l) il, hj 
it Kiood. To be rr:ilorrd to BCtunl possession vos conlj 
practicable- Thj» redluralion ihey required anad obtaiaad- { 

Rut ihey should, vay tlieir oppoiioiitii* huve in^teti opop 
morv^ ; ihey kiiould hnvi< ex^ictrd not mily n^paraiion 0/ 
our honour, fiul ropuynt^ni of oiir fiijieiMe. Kor mto lb«. 



M iniliM&d ttllh llif wtovt-ry (»f llit- tincU And ttnniugift of 
ikr* prfwjil Euiit(?Ht ; itu!^ iitr for tjikiiiff IhU oppjriiiiLJiy 
of CAllUif in M ilcbU, imd irviiing our ri|fhl to lUe rmj- 
focnc of Manillu. 

11m Uftnilla tmnaomn haf, I tbrok, beoii moat mcntionod 
by ibe ifif^riixiT ^lli>«eni uf «edi1ion. Thusif who load tho 
fjiiclioD know thiit it cunnof Lx* n*mMrnb^ri>d much in Ihctir 
inJ\;uilaf^. Tlie fnllowiTK ctrinnl IWkinjtIiniii n'm^^mhrr, 
liiat bU miiuilry brjc^n und rikdrid wlrhoiit oltairiLii^ itf' 
die odhcrpiiU Ifi C>ri>rmllc ^mild be told, llhit he could 
nev^r hv liLui^lil lo u])d<'rfiUii]d our i^hum. Thi> Itiiw of an" 
liOBfi raad^ llulp of his knowlrd^r, l^t him rol, bowevefi;, 
b** d^pret^iHltvl m bift gmve, IT b« hum somoliintrs vran^, 
he? vnA oftrii right'*. 

Of reiotbtmciaait tlir talk h;t^ b<*cn morn ctiiklidrnt* 
tbougb not mote reisonuhW. 'Vhv cxpcnflcn ofwnr Imvo 
been ofleu de^trvd, have betin Mornrliisfs required, hut 
«ere never paid ; or nvver, but when retUUnce via^ hope- 
le«, «ihI iherv rv-muuied uo ehuictf belwerii mbuiLi^ioit 
mw\ dr&iTui-iiou. 

Of twf bile e>quipiri«ula, I kiiuw uul froiii whom tho 
choriro ccui be rrry properly F!xp«<U^d. The Liiifc of ^pAin 
dMTovt the violence vthich provoked ija to nrm. and for 
tbft lauehiiTfpr which ho did not do, why nhoold he puy t 
BueoarellJ, thongh he hi^il le^irned nil \\w atts of an V.Mt 
iadiim govertiour, tould b^irdly buve rollm't^d, itt iliirnoi 
A^rcot. ii KUfn siiJIkir'iil lr> ^lEiufy uur driiLuudH. If he bo 
hannl, be is hardlj nch , nnd if he br dDpoHcd to rob, ho 
bad tbt.- mbifoftiiDe of beui^ phicod, whuro fobbcrs huvo 
bero befori? hitn. 

Tbe kiufc of dpcuit, indeed, dolayfrd to cotnpty with our 
propoMijH, and mir iLrmmnfni wa« mud»< n«re>MiHry by ub^ 
ifttiifactory iiiuwi-ri nnd iliblor) diphiiEt^s. This d(?tay cer- 

^^^b> ihc AntcJitivcj. ilib ^ruw^:^ i[l>oJ l1iu» . " IaK Liw iK4f bawtitfif, b« 
jH^^bfteud b hi* pivf. He hnJ putfcrt noi unJimHlly piwcwti] , t.i>ii1J lie 

TWn w«« MU* olh«r allsniwe* aijfitvtfd, II wovld Af^HTt bj loril tinnti^ • 



tflinly increased our expenses, and, it ii not nnlik^lj, Qmt 
the increase of our expenses put an end to the dc^y* 

But this u &e inevitable process of human aflBira. Ne- 
gotiation requires time. What is not apparent to intoitHn 
must be found by inquiry. Claims that have rerauaed 
doubtful for ages cannot be settled in a day. Raciprooal 
complaints are not easily adjusted, but by reoiprDcal ooo- 
pliance. The Spaniards, thinking themselTes ^lUdttd to 
the island, and injured by captain Hunt, in their tuin 4»* 
manded satisfaction, which was refused^ and where ia the 
wonder, if their concessions were delayed 1 They - nay 
tell us, that an independent nation is to be influenced not 
by command, but by persuasion ; that, if we expect ear 
proposals to be received without deliberation, we^ Mnms 
that sovereignty which Aiey do not grant ut ; and Aat if 
we arm, while they are deliberating, we must indolge osr 
martial ardour at our own charge. 

The En^ish ministry asked all that was reasonaUe, and 
OTifOTced all that they asked. Our national hononr is ad- 
vanced, and our interest, if any interest we havct is sof- 
ficicntly secured. There can be none amongst us, to whoa 
this transaction does not seem happily concluded, but Uuie 
who, hflvii^ 6xed their hopes on publick calamities, sit, 
like vultures^ waiting for a day of carnage. Having wwo 
out all the arts ef domestick sedition, having wearied vio- 
lence, aud exhausted falsehood, they yet flattered ihfm 
selves with some assiataoce from the pride or maUoe of 
Spain; and when they could no longer make the people 
complain of grievances, which they did iM>t feel, they had 
the comfort yet of knowing, that real evils were poaaifalBt 
and their resolution is well known of chaiging all evil on 
their goveraours. 

The recoDciftation was, therefore, considered as the le» 
of their last anchor ; and received not only with the ftet- 
fulness of disappointment, but the rage of desperatioa* 
When they found that all were happy, iu spite of dieir m»- 
chinations^ and the soft effulgence of peaoe sht^ie oat npoo 


tbif DafioD. iht*y felt no motion btil thnf of»ulleu envy; 
dmj couM util, tikn Miltmrs pnnce of hell, abstrncl thf*n»- 
fichob a mocieiit fmiii iht^ir evih ds lEie^i iave not diu 
wit of SatftQ. the^r huve not his vbttie ; tUey tried, oncfl 
affttin, wbnl could be don? by iiophUtry wilhotit Art, aod 
conlidonon wjftioni rrwiit. Thry r^proscrntcd their 80- 
Trr#*igii UH difthonoiireci, and their country as betrayed, oir, 
ia thpir fiercer |>aroX\tmfi of fury, rvvikd their sovereJ)p 
UK betruyir^ il. 

Their prclcocrji 1 buvr hern rndoaroctrcd to exposo, 
byAbowin^, that mom than ho? been yioldcd, woa uot to be 
«xpf ttrcf, thai more, p<rhnps, wtw not to bi> desired, and 
tbm, if a[| liAd been refueetl, there bad icuroeiy bijeu an 
adequate reaion for a wnir. 

. There wH^, prrliupn, never mn^iU tlangiT of wnr , ur of rf** 
fbttU. but whnl dnngt^r tht^ro wuj4^ procrcdcil from tlic fac* 
tion. Foreign nntiona. unncqnaintcd with the insolence ot' 
comnion councils, and iJua^'cuHlt^itit'd IuiIk' howl ofplebotnn 
pufriotiim, when lh<»y heurd ol' rubbk-v utid riob, of pe- 
titiDna find remonstrnnceE, of diqrnnt^ni in Surrpy^ Derby-i 
Abirv', »nt\ Yorksbire ; when tbpy 9nw the rhnin nf i:i]lKirdi< 
iialion liruLeii. jtiiJ tbe ItgisluJ^ure fhrenti^ued nnJ defied* 
naturally tmupnod, that suob n goTcram<?nl had little ki- 
anTcfor FulLlnnd'n inlund; they supposed tbnt ihv En^Ei^fb, 
vhen tbc%' re1i?rnml ejected from p<irl E^Emont, would fjiid 
Wiitr« invpfftpd with the proLertorate, or see the mayor 
flf fj>ndon, wliat ihe French bnv<r formerly sern tbrir 
mnyura of thw pahue, thr irumntiindrr of the army, ajid 
tutor of Ihe king, that the^ wouM be cnlled to tell their 
talc before the common council ; and Ibat the vorld was Li> 
expect war or peu«e frcm a vote «f tbt? ^ufaH0ribt.tr5 to xhe 
bill of ri^bti:^ 

But onr t^nnmicR bnv^ nov loM their hope?(, and our 
friradii, l bopc^ arp recovered from their ft*ar«- To fnucy 
thai ouri^ievuuieul cuu he aubvetted by lliutabble, whom 
ilJ lenity ha5 pampered into impudcnrr, in Xa fear that a 
city may bu drowned by the ovcrtlowin^ of ltd kuDneis^ 
The diatemper wbicb cowardice or maliee IhouKht either 



Inur. tnhuvK brt-n jiolbing mure iJmn a \nA'iili:td phffii'iritiuM, 
li L]iM.-R«o loo lonthnnmc for n plainer name, but (be effect 
of negligence mthtr tijiin of vtt^ukne!(s> and of wbicEk tli^ 
flliiuno i» fipreilter tlian (hir dkii]^t*r- 

Amoug ttiQ dUliirbers of our ijnirt sre «cme auuduIk at 
f^fairr hn\\i. wluim UiHr jmwfr i^f rjjiritii; iitrMuiidi'd tvs lo 
lljjnk foritiirluMp ; \»\t M/f. tmw jii^nreive llmi «i)iiiul and 
fcirrv dc uut qIwajs go to^rtbrr. Thr t\oix of a Mvage 
provcfi [lotbin;; bul hiA bunger- 

Aftrr iili our broil-1, fort'lfjii anci <lT>motiul(. wc may, at 
Inst, hopo lo rniinin n^hilir in quirt, amu^nd witb tfio viow 
of oiir own &iicc^«fi- Wo hnvi* ^inrd poHlirAl Urengfh, 
hy lhi< IfK'reLise of our rt^jnilnrioii ; vt* Iihvi- ^diuei! rojil 
Hlri'iiHCh, b> tbf ri'ji»riiIiori uf nut navy ; w<" liav*? nhimn 
T^urcpr. tliflt ten jrars of vav tiarr not yet ribftiistrd ni, 
nnd wchATcrnforccjl our scttlomont on an isUnd ou wluch, 
Iwcnty year* apo, we diirsl not v*>niiiro to look. 

Th^id rtn* tht f-rflfiriciitiorw only of bouoct mindft; bni 
(hrrv iv u time, in nhirh hopr coim^it lo nil. Krom lire 
[muriil bjippinrsK of thi» piihlick. fhr p^lHoTs ihrio^e^TM 
jnny dcnvf^ iidvaiitiigL-. To Lu ItjjriJiitAa. iLuu^h by im* 
pot4^ncc» obitiiiiB some drjpro of Kindnrjn: no man hatis n 
worm flit \u^ hates A^ipcr; Uicy wrrc onci^ drrndi-d rnooj^ti 
to he drtc-fited, as Aerpentii rhiit could biter; thoy hiiTe imw 
ftlmwD tbul tb^y ran only biKii, nnd may, therefore, 4|atoCh 
fdjnk into bolc«, end I'hnDge ih^lr viongh, mMnole-ii^d auH 


'J'L«v bnwj Inr fro('di>ia ■□ ihfir t^tat^ltm mood, 

Vcl Jdit itvult nrTirn Irulli wnuU aeI lliru ftn . - 

Lii^rnse ilicy mein. when ihnj e-e> Eitirrly, 
KnP whn I41VH IliQE (nun Pini br wiia lurl ijWhI. Milii>v. 

To iiupruve |]]e icdtdt-n momrnl of i»ppnrt unity ^ and caidi 
Ihe good that in witJjin our rri^li. !:« tbe grvac art nf life. 

' TTjC rmrit-t 11 nf Ihr umP fill Mnh lnhrtwn't oThn |iDli<iril KftbAgv. 
|[ VDiTeavoun lajtaiifr tlif nutiA^rt vi iha beuaq uf funHovcUp m lb«.C*ia 0* 


TilR PATHIOT, ^\5 

its art* %ti(ti'ct^i]. vrfiith mifflit oncf* hnvi^ hr^vn 
■■ppliivl ; Mu\ miirli t\mv. ik IoaI in r^^nttin^^ Iht* lime 
vikich had beieii lubt bi-foru. 

At Ihtr t'ud ofoYory seven vcAr» cumi^ the ■aturnalittii 
•viuon. wtitn tilt" Croomcn o\' ^rm* BriCuia jnuv pktt*c 
tbrms«k«« wild Uuf choiue of dielf repr«ientativ««, Tliia 
bappy linv hiiK now urriri^fl, iiomewb;il snonir thnii it could 
Ik* dflimecl, 

Ti» »elt^t und (Ifpuli* ihtrai-, by whnm liiwn nm lo b** 
miid<T, lind U%^ in be otiinlcd, in a hiffli tlignity, iinil un 
iiBpOrtant Irtut ; aod it i« tfic biidiii«»s of every elcctcir In 
lobitidcr, how this difn^i'y niiy be irull luatumud, und tbiK 
imU faitblijlly dUchvfrvd- 

It ougbt to ho dttpplv imprrfiAflid on Ibp niirds of all 
wbo lUTiv volcci« in thin niiiionfLl <Mib*>nitiort thai no man 
oui d«!MfrTe u heat in piLrliantent. who ik not a |)»lriii1- 
No other man ^i1 protn^t our righU: no otltfrr mAii onii 
nKTrit our confidence. 

A patriot is lio vrhow pnbli(^k oondnot is icfi^nlalod by 
<M*f Hiii|»1o motive. lh<> lovo of hifi country ; uho^ u^ lui 
ng«til in p[tHianii.*nl. Una, for hiniir?lf. neilber hope nor 
ff«r, neither kindneu nor ri'M^nlmrnt, hut refi^ni *>verj 
dini^ to th'* ro'nmon InlefefT. 

That of tivc hundred men. Huch ua ihli dt^^eocruto a^ 
AlTonU, n mnjorily *rau bo found ibm virtuously ub^tmclcd, 
who will altirm '- \ei ih^ro ij: no f^ood in d«spandenco: 
rip^lMkoe and aetivily often cfl^rt more than y/fon i^xpected. 
Let at liil:« ft pniriot, wh(rr<« we ein meet bim ; nnd. that 
wr aiity i*o1 f1u1ii*r oiirseKet by f'lUr iippi?»ir4tieej(r dU- 
tin^mh Unnc miirk^ wUirh uro <?€rtntn. fmm thoHn which 
nuy deceive; for a niau may hatv the exleriiul appear- 
ance of a patriot, wjtbiout the eonstituent qunhlii'tt; uu 
fala^ vuiaa Jiu^i< oJUmi liiNtre, though they waDt yro'i^hu 

hwac claim u pluoe in Ihc lisi of pulrioti, by sn aorlmcK 
niooft and nnnrmilling' oppoiition lo iho coiirl. 

IW MUdl«wi pW^d, *ikd to tinilirait ih« hanb mcuuiei iIicq ia ■jfitaucin 
>. — £a. 



ThU niftrk U by uo means infallible^. Putrioliim is not 
nccoflsorily mcludcd iu rt^belliuti. A man niov hutc ha 
k\n^, ^&t not lovi^ hifl counlry. Ho that has bti«B fofoMd 
areuAOuable, or uureasuDabl^ requeaf. who Ihinks bii merit 
URd<?rr>U4^d, and H^t'H bi-i iiiflui^noe di^uliuiii^, l}«Tgiii* %atm 
to tM of niitimil rqiiuUty. thr ul^urtlity iff " nuiny mudo 
for ouo.** lijc origia»l o»inpuoi> (bu foundation uroutlioritT, 
and thu raujc?ity of thr prnplt^, Aa hii; polilicnl mclancbolj 
increases, ho tf.-lls, and, perbA]>»> dronms, of ihe advances 
of the prorogntiv^j, und ih«* duuj^er* of utbiirury gxiwcr; 
yei bis deaign, in ntl bU dvcluniutiun, iji not to benefit htt 
<;uTtiitry. but In ^^tify hth ma]i(;<T. 

TbrMr, bowt;vrt, uri; tbe laoat bonoat of the Dppunt?aU 
of government; thtir pntrioti^jn is a eprcicd of dbc**^; 
and tbcv fool aomo port of vhnt tlioy express. But the 
|]^a1«r, far ibe grefit«r numbvr of tboM who rar^ and 
rail, TLfld inquire and accuHe, neither auspewC oor few, 
nor iHire' fcir the publiuk ; but btipti io forcf their way 
1o noJie«> by viruk^nci^ And tnt/pcrtivc, and are veliiriufnt 
anil djunoruiUt only thdt lh«y uiLiy be MWner btrad to bt? 

A man lomulinioii ilnrbi op a patriol, ot^ly by liiasoini- 
natin^ dixcont<>nt, and propa^tJng reports of aeoret ID- 
floonce, of dnn^rous couDKeln, of iriolated righu, und eii' 
croaclitn^' u^urpuiiiui. 

iThui pructicD it no ccrtaiu note of pntriotiaiu. To iu* 
atl^ntc tbr pr>pulocf witb rage Icyoud tbr pn»rtfi;4tioit. 
ia to suspend pnbbck bappiu(.-!iE», if not to dc^slroy i(. He 
ia tko brer of Iw country, tiiat unnct^f.^Mahly «U»tiirba it« 
p«ac». Few errourK uud frw fnult^ of ^ovrmrao&t, can 
joKltfy an ^ppf^al to ilkp rabble ; who ought not to judge 
oi wtuit tJjey caniiol undf-mlmid, aind wh^usu Dpininn^ are 
not piupd^utni by maMon. bal cntigbt by rmiUt^an. 

The faliaoioiuuca^ of ibia note uf luiliioiitiu is parti' 
cnlur^y apparent, whon tbo cl«cnoar continues after the 
«vil i* pas!. Tbcy who iire *lill lilliiiij oar c^u-* with Mr 
Wilkeit, and the frechoidorji of MiddlcscK, lament a irneT' 
ance thaC i> now at an end. Mr. Wilkea may be eho««ii, 



flnv wiif rbno^r hiin, and (Iip prr^tWi^nt ofliiH t-xt'hivian 
OiAkes not au)' hf>Tie<it, or un^ ilc^crnt nmri, tliiiik himM^lf 
in ilMigvtr. 

It mMj be iloxibtcd. wli«11ier Ui« DOmt^ of a patriot Gfto 
be fftirly given, u.i tht- rowurU of sct'ict itulirv, or open 
DQlrap), To fiti tho ncwKpnpcnt wilh uly biuU of corra|t- 
tioD and lutri|^uPr to ctTcu1»tr tht^ IhlkMlcu^x Joiinia!, and 
LubdoE] Pacijuel, mair\ inrU^t^il, hr 7^n1 ; hiiT it may, IlIl^ 
wi»tf, btf jntvr«*3l vud ruulico. To ufiVf u peiiilua, nut ei- 
pc«teil to be; j^runtcd ; to Jiiaalt a kius wilh n nide rctnoU' 
ptrftocc. Old) brcuNic tiicrrc ii no pmiuhmoDt for k-gal iu- 
solobce, id not uoLinig4f, ri>r tJiorc jh do doti|(eri nor pn- 
trioti«in, for i( ioikIb 1o tbe vubvemuD o( order, and toU 
^«k«diwu toa«t» upoD ibr luud. by deiiCroyiag Ui« rev^ 
reDC« dor to nmrrrFi^ HiiEliorily. 

it \a UiP quality of patriotism to bi? jealous mid w^Uelw 
fnl. to observe ull 34;crct inzic hi national, nrtd to nor puldick 
daniTcm ml a diitunat*. Tlio true? lorur of bi» couutr; la 
K^ady to comrnDnioatiT btf; fc^nni, and to i^ou^d Llio aUnn, 
ivboiK^er be porceiven tfiri npproacb of misuhii^f. Bitl br 
cOQiidB DO aknu. mL(-» tber« ih tio enemy; bf iif^vcr torn* 
Am liU cotinmniri) til) lir in Irrnlicil hlinsrir Tbe pa* 
triotiasi, ibercrortr, tiiAv \>r jiiMly dutd'tod of h'ua, who 
prolraea 1o bi- dltiturbrd \ty lacrifdibiUtiFa ^ xbo tt;lU, Ihat 
Ike btt pmcc vos obtuincd b> bribinfr tbc prinrcsa of 
WoJtffl; that Ibc iinff u grfuping at GtrbitrArv ]Kiwor; and, 
t^AI becaxiae the French, in th^ iiaw coiiquNt«, trojoy 
theii ova Uvt, tljere li a design at court of iiboliibmg', in 
Knicbtnil. ihv frinl Uy jiirtui. 

Still \cvi diir.h the inir putnot rirciibl«i opinioni whicJi 
be Luom tu be Tal*r. Ko man. wbu lovos bi* oot^alfv, 
Gils ihc nnliOEi wilh olumorou« romplointji. tbnl the prO' 
tettant rcb^on in in danffcr. bccaii»o " popery it- cs\u- 
bkmh^d in iii« eKlenviw provinco of Qiiebc'c,'' a fal^t^hiKKl 
■o opea and tbamelevt, iJiai it (ran need so confiiiaiion 
ttnon^ ihoM wbn know timt of nhich il ik idmiMt impos- 
«Ue for ihr inosl unpiJigiit^n^fd neidot to hv ignoraiil i 
Ttmt Quebec ■» on tbe otber Hide of iLe Atloutick. at 

21 B 


too grcnt II dintnorc to ilo much good or ImriD to Uie £a- 
ropcnn work) : 

ThiU Ihe i^iltnbittints, bem^ Fri>ncht werv nVsmy* pa- 
pUl<H ^vho ure ^-ertaitiU more dan^eruut us (*ticmics than 

Thul ll^oiig^h (111- |>n>vim'o br Widr, llkc [}iio})1<- nfe fov, 
probu1>i}' n^I io muny lu mny bo found in oue vf (b« lttrg<er 

Tbut pvrsi*i?itlioii iff nut moru Mrtuoii:* in a protc^lml 
tbftci a pQpivt; unci (but, wbilu «f bl«nii> LotriH tti« Ibnr- 
l«^nth> iVir big ilmgooni nui\ bin gaUttir's* ^^ O^iglil. when 
jiowffr L'i>m>-» into our bmiils, to iit<^ it wklb ^^^Hter t-<)uilv- 
Tliut v/\wn Cd()dd:i, Hidi Jl!» inbubilauL^, Man ^\ii4drd, 
ihe fr«c cnjoymrnt of ihuir ri^bf^ion wiia HlipiiliUvd ; n cou- 
(litioti, of which kiriff WiUmm. who whj: no propng:iktor ol 
popery, f;av«r an cK^uiipIc uciLror heme, at the surreixter 
of limericli : 

Thill in zm sig**, wbi^ri* every nnjitlh i* opfto fiir Bb^rl^^ 
vf cinm-iertcf^ it i« <H[iiiuLh1<' to t\iavf Mtmc cvgard to tbo' 
can*i:iKiicr of a papist, who njfly be nuppdied, Hkc otht^j 
mm, to think himM<ir nat'esi m bi.n own rrliipon « and thdit 
tboM;, ut Ictut, who enjoy d tolorution, oo^bt not to denj 
it lo our n^w subjects. 

If liberty of coiiitcieiioe be a imtural rif^hl. vr huvo n^ 
pnw4»r to viihboUl it; if it bo un iridulgcni't*, >i nuiy N<- ul- 
loved to |iapi»(», nhih: it is not dmiird to oiJirr »<4'1a, 

A pdtfiot a iiVi-tTSsiiril) iiud iiivfln^iblv u Ivvcr uf th« 
people. Bnt evtti tlit« mark may noDu'liincs deceive ujt. 

Tbv p^opk- u a very bctcro^i<^oii8 nnd onnfusrd mtti' 
of fhi- nt'dtby uud tho poor, thv nise luid tho tbolulit tko- 
f^ood and ihi^ hgd- Before wi? cvufer on a m^% vrbo et* 
rt>)ic&« thtr people!, ib« lilJ« of patriot, we inUHt ^xauaine to 
wbnl fwrl uf [h« jiropir hf» din'i:!* bU iiatitip. ll in pro- 
visrbially suid, tlijil br who i:lis?irmb)o4 \m ovn chnmctrr, 
muy be known l>y Ibat of Jua cofuponionA* Lf tiio c«ndi- 
diili* of patriolisUL 4?iidi'U>our9 to ihfutti- nt^bl opiniuni itilo 
ihff hi^bfir runkv* uiid, by th^rir lollucnco, tu reffiiiiiti' ibi< 
lowirr : if ho ooa^oHc (iliiufK' with the viaCj the trmpenitr. 



ibe rcicrtilftr. nad *br virtuou*:, his Iova of tbrt people may 
1»« rutioual and hou«6t. But iT hin firat or jirmcipal ufipli- 
rvtiiMi be to the \nA\^nt, whonn Always iotIanimab]« ; to 
ibp npjik. vhn Jim nulurarty <iiiv|itiriiiUH; t« lh<- i^rianmf, 
vho nr<: i:ji^i]y rniKlr'i) ; iiJiil hi t\tt* prnHi^ulr, who huvr n{> 
bopo but froiQ nnMrhicf and confuvion ; Int htn loic of tho 
pM>|)k> he no \ongGr botlstod. No mtin ciiit ri^Etsotinblt be* 
tbovf^l ift luver uf bra coiiTiiry, for roaMiitp an o\. i>r burii- 
k^ a boot, or Litt^ndin^ fht* meeting at MUe-^nd, or rct- 
gwlr'rinjt lii« ri^um- in tlie litmbi-r trmip, Hp muy. iiinnn^ 
ibi? (lni[tkjAii])^« hv a brurty fi^tlow. and. Jiiiitjng M>1irr bariili* 
craftnneo. • fr«e-apokefi g^'^tlf^maG ; but be miut have 
MBe bctttM ctistinatiofi, b4.'fc<rv h*^ ih h pjtnol. 

A pnlriflt v ul«ay« n-ndx lo count^naiJOL< tin* junt iiluimsr 
and nnivifltP Ih^ rffnHOTiDbl<> h(ip?« <^f the people^ bo r^ 
mindt ifaem, rr«<<ju4'ni1v. of Ihetr rifffal«> nn<) 4llmitlai^s 
llirm tf> rt-w*ni t'ticinmbmrntfi, muL lo ti]tjTti|iU M^nntici. 

But nil ibift tnuy be ikmf* iii n|i|>riinincc*t witbont rrul 
fMlrJotbDii He thnt rnW^ lUlsc ha[>rj( to «i:^rt'i; fi prciirDt 
pvrpOMt only rnahos a way for dL'^ap|><»iii(mcot and dig- 
co«l«nl. He wbo prumUc'M lo oadvuvour, wbat bo Lnuiri 
liU eod^Avotirt iirmhio to rjlr^cl, mmnA only to 'drludv hie 
foltowprn by an <'mpiy clMnKixir of iik^MVpiubI wsil- 

A inifi palriot ja no Ijlviftti pvomi^^r : be nndertiiLrb not 
p(ulianit-iit;< ; tu rvpi^l lu\t» ; or to <1knngr tbe 
T«prc!iciitntion« (r^invmitk'iJ by our iiucc^tora; ho 
hQoiatk tbal fututitT a not in bin jiovcr, aud tbat ali timcu 
nit* tMi aliko favoiirublo to cbaii^e. 

Mncb 1e4« do9« fi^ mnke ii v^jj'iio nnd iiid^finiln prnmiui 
^yin^ the niirndtiin of bU ronHtitucitii' H<* knu«a 
pifjtidicH offartioti. unit iiiroriMuncy of flie mill* 
titudu. Hr ttoiild lir?it ini^iilrr. bow tbc opimon of bin 
conitilupn1> sbiill be tnkeit. Fopiibir inslrurtioru urr, com- 
monly, Xh*? wort, tiol of tb<r wi*o» nud )i!*iady, hut the vio- 
|pnt and raih : i&e4'tiiijft Lr^ld for dir4*cling mpri-si-nriithes 
urv M-Iduni atlMidml biiF by tfit< irlli* iinil tbi' di«*<nfui« ; 
Hnd bt* ii nn( vithoni HUF<[iu;ion, that of lu> cijuatj(tt«iitA, 



hh ot other numbers of men. the imAller part icaj of\en 
be the wiser H 

He coiiAiden himiielf aa deputed topromotr (lie publick 
f^^odi nnd to preBi?rve his vonfitiineDt», with the r^U ofhis' 
«o nil try men, riot onty from Ijeln^ hurt by olb^n, bat from 
htirtiii^^ iht-mpwlvoB, 

Thr common tUDris of |jafnotiMni Imviu)^ been Hxaittioffd. 
and ahnwn to bo i^ucb u.h attiike may couutedeil. or folly 
uii0ap|)ly, it cannot be improper to con«idcr, wliPthrr thero 
ar<.'< nr^t ttome charauttifisticiil modes of speaking or acting, 
which may prove a mun lo he not tt patriol. 

In thin inqniry, perhiipun cb-wrer f?vid^nce may be dlft- 
covrr4?d. nml lirmcr pi^rsii^isiriii ntlniurd ; for it ik, <;uJti- 
motily, on^icr to know what is wron^ Iban whnt it n^t; 
to find what -^c abotild avoid, tbnn what wc should pursue. 

Ab WAT is one of the heaviest of natiaoal evibi, a tata 
mky In which every speeie« of misery is Iniolved; as It 
tt*Xjt tb« fi^enenkl vaft-ty fo buyiirrl^ vuvprmU ccimm^TiTe, and 
di!MjLut(fs the ooiuilry; m it expo^cr^ grriil numhi^rii In hurd- 
&hip3. dangers, captivity, and deatl'i ; nu niuu, wtiu Utairett 
th(5 ;>ttbltck pToapcrity, will iuttumt ^rnrral rciirntment by 
Ojjtfn'^^u^^jr n^^uutc iiijuriec, or onibrciag diipulnblc rigbC* 
oflinlo importance. 

It m»y, Therefore^ be safely pronounced, thatthoM men 
ar^ nu putrints, who, when rhe national honour waft vtndU 
catr^ in the sight uf Euni|jc. nnd the Spi^iiicirdK bavi 
Luvddcd whnt tbey vail ibcir owii. hutl vhruriL Li> u di»« 
avowal of their mtcmpt, uud ti rebixnfion Qi tbeir ctatni 
would flIiU havo inHtijoited u» to n war. for a bkok and 
bacreti »pcit iri tbr .Mfif;cllnnii*k oconn, of which no a^a 
could be miidc, itnlei:« it were a place of exile for tha k 
pucrite^ of palf iotiflm. 

Yel let it not 1m? forsultrn, (bil. by tbr bowliofl^ Wr>lrnni 
of pntriotjok T>igr. the n.Llictn wm. for a time, cxfisp<^ra1ed 
to sach aiaduc8s» thot, for a barren rock ander a stooDfj 
sky, we niik^ht have now hauji tiRblin^ and dyin;;, had not 
OUT compatitOTB bt»u witvr than ovrs4»lve« ; and tbc«a who 






courtiiifi; ibo frtToiir uf iHc p^ropie, by iioiiy j>ro. 
ol pttblick *i\nrit, wouldi wiii]^ tb«y wvrv r^otmtin^ 
ikc piolili oj' iht*ir urtif[<«, bave eujoyed tte pnlriolich 
pU^uiiri' of hruriji^, noiiii-ljmi^K* that iltouKumU Uat] heen 
m|iiiig^tili*n'<l III 4 bfiillc, iuidi Mtmc'limnKr thni u navy hud 
ti dispeopled hy poiBOD^d air aij<I <:orrTiptcd food. 
Ho Uut wulic* to ncc \m country robbed of iu rigMi 

That maHf Ihercfore, U uo putnot. who jailificH tbo ridi' 

14 rlnirntt of Amrrican ntiirpnridn ; vhn niuleavoura to 

pnrv <}ie iiHlJijn of lU luttur^l and ItawAit uiilliuHty ovf»r 

owu colunit* i tboae colcjnitn, wliit^li were tcltli^ft ijod«r 

ub protection; wore constituted by un Kng-lisli i-hsr- 

; und hnvQ bot^n di*fcindvd by £ng;lisli nrms. 

•nf^oAf-p thsit by ^cndini^ f>i]t n colony^ llio nation 
su iiidepL'Tideiit power: ibal wljen, by indtil- 
Dc« and fk*i>iir, nnugrants are bticamc* nc^h, Uiny sbalL 
not coRtribiirr to llicir riwn dcfiiijr*^, hut nt their own plnH- 
anra; aix4 tbdt they fthall not be ificludf>d, like miltioiiv of 
tfceir fetlotr-nubjc^ts, in Ibo f^^uontl system of reprcNon- 
toUon; involves nuch un [iccumulEition of ubAiirditv, an 
BOlhniig bnl iho show orputriotiem could pnUiale. 

H« thai pcceptii profociion. Rtipulatf** obediene^^ ' Wo 
Tiavf iilvr^y^ pmteeled ifi^ Amenc^uan; we luuy, ttH<n*farr>, 
*ubjtct lltr-ai lu govemnitrnt. 

The lei> im in«liidod in the tp-eoter. Tbut poiFc^r which 
ttwny life, mny sciie upon proprTty. The par- 
y enaotf fur Am(>n«a, n l»w of cnpital p^uiifh- 
Qt; ic mfty^ tben>fortv viiablUh a mode and proponioa 
^VbI there nn^ some who Inntent ibo sinte of thi^ poor 
fioatouLau^ beeauao Ibey cannol all be Auppused ia Ij«t« 
cOflBmitted loU i>r rcbrllinn. ycl alt ore involved in rh« 
pauhy impcMod. Thin, fbc^y »ity, is fo violate ibe tint 
mlo of jtistirer by cnfidemninK- tbe innocent to ciiiTcr vilb 
9 ^illy- 

This deHfrveji namr nocire, >uit set^mtdiufaleilbycKjiwiv 
mnd bninanily, brwRver it infly ra.ii* cnnlrmpt by the igm^ 

222 Till PATRIOT. 

raao0 which it hptrnyA of'tliA ulnlf? or man. And Ui9 syftl^m 
of tilings. Tli»f ilkf* innoc^irnt nhttiiH hi» r^onroniiilefl wiiB 
llie guilty, in, imiJoubtrdlv. tin wW - biil tt i^ mj ev j1 whitli 
noMrc or caul.ion can prcvvRt> National crimcA icqujrc 
fiationnl punichmc'ntN, of vhtch inuny ncJcoMrilj 
Imvn Ihrir pnri, %'lio huri* nol mcurrcd Ihtrm hy pitrfional 
^tfHilt. If rpbels shoultl Ibrlify (I ti>v«, Ihr cannon of law- 
ful autliurlrv will Hinilringi-r^ i-qimllj', Ihn ]mrnjlii»« hurghtrrs 
hUil llie criniiiiul ^^irrlbnu- 

Iti snmtr cunes, (ho»t> biiETlt motit who oie 1cdi»L intcixlrij 
lo he hurt. IC the Frt*n«h. id thcr hit(f var, b(i«l ttiif^u nn 
Kn|t;1ii;h city, uud |i«nnittcd thi* nutivi^u in kot-p thw 
dwellings, how cniild it linvo hern rroovered, but by tb« 
idmightrr uf our fri^udM ! A bomb might a* well iliMln^ 
un FngllHhiiiuD nx ii Frcnchinmi : mid, by rumiiie, wt- knnw 
<FniI the liilvibiUnts wniild bn the tirti that »ti(>uld pcribJi. 

ThJ>t iiillictloti <rf promise II OU0 oil moy, therefore, be la- 
int^nlod. hut vutmut bv hbuiiud. Tin? puittr of lawful jco- 
VL^rnmLVit muHt bo ouuntuiniid ; juid tho mUnric* whiiih 
rebdiinii produnfls, csn he chari^ed only on the rvhelt- 

Thai riLAn. lik^wiFte, isi iiuT a patriot, who dtDies bis 
gnvi<fiirHirA ihrir diit? pr»iM% dnd ivbo irciiii^^ulK from thn 
people ihc boocfit» which ihey rvooive* Thi>str. tbcreforc, 
ciLD luy Dt> efoim to this illiitLtrjuua fipj>otJuliuii. who iiii]Htle 
waril of ptihlitik opml fj tht* \iAti purliamTTDt ; lui ciAHvmbly 
ofmcnr whom, oolwithftt^ndid^ loniv lluctiuition of oduiL' 
ti*l, and %oti\v vc-4knv» of a|j;cncy, tlur itutiotj must alwuyii 
reni«mbt>r wiib griitiind**, finr^e it is inrichiiid to ihi^m for 
u i«ry umplovoocf^Bjtiou, m thi? rusigimtiuit of |fn>lvctioik9t 
uiid n wJitET mid boue^t utti^inpt to iiiiptx^vc tlie rou^liLiitioD. 
in tbi^ m-w judicature inflljtiitrci for the trjul of clc^tionji. 

Thn riRht of protoction, which miglii btr ncci^fHiry, whtfo 
it KAt tirst claimodpUnd was very cousi^tent with that libe- 
raViiy of immuiiili«i, in which lUt* tVudul con«ci1iiiion de- 
li^^blrd, wiiM, hy its imturti, Liubit? to ubiisK, auU h^d, ia 
rvulity, hrf<ri «oinrl>incA rnijuipp1ir<) lo (be rvaiiion of the 
hifr, and thir defeat of joitice, The evil wqj. perhaps, not 
ndoefititc to the cltunouri nor U it very certtun, that the 





e p)od of thbt privil^^ wns nut more than cqonl to 
poMibtiT ifvil. n in, huvi*vor, pluiu, tW, ^h^fbcr titcy 

T« Aifiy thiti^ or aol to tbr pulilick. lJK<y, ut fea8t, lo«l 

nctbin^ from thomHplvtf'ii. Th^y i1ivp^t**rl iheir tli^nity 

a irery fiptiwdiil diAlincllon. Hml fhowf^d tltnl tliry wirro 
re willing tliun tJirrir firtidfr^euoiK 10 utaad un n lovrt 

illi tbt'ir fi:llow-:<iLbjcct5. 

Th« new mode of tr^injjr clc^tionSr if it be found effr^C' 
fnal, iffiJI dJtTiiiiP itA coitHequpnc^ furlber lliuii st^titn* yd 

be forpncea. It iv, I belrev«>. ff^f>erally oonsid'^nid as 

vAntH^ntiH tJti\} Ii> ihoff who i^luim xenlK iti purliam^'iit ; 
bill, if lo cbotNU' rrprrrtriilftdvf^f^ b^^ (itir <rf t^H^ miiHt vmIu- 
■bl« riflit« of Bn^iabmcn. CTcrv voter muAt collider tlint 
Iftw 94 adding to bb h:tppii»c-4«, wbich mnkos \ih fuB'rujfn 
<<lliruf totiii; sinc^u it vra^ vain Co cbooiie, winle the oJcation 
could bv cimtn>Jl«d ^y itay oilier power. 

With wbiit impi'rioiiB i-tnUcrmpt of mivirni rights, >iiid 
vtltM^diCtoi^itn't^:! <tf »r[>itniry luithorily former |iar1iu* 
rt<dlriii>«j judj;ed lL« dispLitos ftboiU ckftioiiA, it !s nol 
offot-HMury to rebiti'- Tbe tMm of a candidate, and the 
rigiit crcUrcIorA, nrc Knid itonri'oiy to huvc bocn, rvon in 
uffMntUflcer rvforred to conHt-ieuce ; hut lo bave been de- 
rided hf parly, by pasflion, by prejudtce, or by frolick- 
fft liuvr* friendi in tbe bornii^h uaft aC I'tllle ijai^ to bim, 
who vuiUtrd fncndii lO tbr? Iiuust.'; a prvlrnce wiui i^puily 
found to cTddc n tnnjority. and thtr ftcui wu!*, ul U>1, hi», 
tbttt mvki rbofKD, not by bU ckctoM, but \m fvlluw aonatorsp 

TlioH lbi» nati^ju w&a iiuultod wiib u eao<'k e-kction, oiid 
iIk* parliun^ut wuit filled mIiIi «piinoitii r^jre»eufaiUe« 

<< of tbr tarwt imporiEmt Hdimx, ibut of n^cbt ri> nit in ftu? 
|inrii>e «M)iiiicii of lEic Ltngdom, wo* drbiitc^d in jrM, iirid 
too inuo couM b(? confident of MKccufi from tbc justice of 


A dupntcd cWtioii i» now ttied with tbo fwho K-ra- 
paJoainem und «okninity, nn luiy oiher title. Tbe etitHU- 
date thttt luu deiened w«ll of liU m-i^bTionrt, may now be 
CMtain of enjoviugtli« eOTeut of tbirir ■ipj>rubalian ; aod tbe 



^leolDT, who hoM volud honrittly for known morit, muy b# 
coriubi, Ihdt hr? fmx nnt vtitRil in viiin. 

Surli was the t^arli^uQcrit. wblch aoonc of thuiH', who are 
now usptnng (o Hit in miolhcr, huvi; tuufhl Ui« nibble lo 
fiOiuidDr OS lu) unluwfiil cOD^ontion of invn, worUUc^, 
vnanl, nnd pTOfttilnU*, Ktavei of 1h« court, and tyraiiU of 

th(* propUv 

Thiil thr 11(^11 hnuRft of oi>ramai)H mn^ ni;l iiprtn Ihit priit- 
ci|i!f!i (jfllitt Ia^I^ Willi iiwrv cuubtmii'v and Eii^ber Aij>ir[t, 
mUAt b« t1i<^ ^loh of all who wi?ih wi?ll to the publkk ; Bod. 
it i% raiifrlynot loo mtiob to <>xpGv1, that the nation will 
rccdi-rr from iu dirlutfion, utid miite in a grncral nblior- 
rpntjr of thi>Ao, vtUii. by deidviiig Ihf^ crcdnloiift itllli fie- 
ItiJous DkischiofA. ovvrbcMritr^ the w€uk hy ftiidaciiy of 
faliMbooi], hy appt-jihiig tu the juil^iuirnt uf ii^iK^muL't-, «ixl 
AiileTifii^ tbi; vuiiity cf meuntic-Ai, hy slandr-Ting honcaty, 
ftkd uisultiug dij^ity, huvc i^thorod round Ihcm whnl^Tfrr 
thcT kingdom curj supply of base, iuid ^n>a«, aud prollij^to; 
»nd " miEfid by merit to thb bad timin^nod," arrogate to 
lhF<iUHTlv«fft lh^ name of palrioCs. 



An iiHwrt^inthp imulniioB" and JVldTfuofibif American f«fipn*. tT3& 

In alt tbi; partji ofhumnn LuowkdKf'* whfthci ternunatJng 
in Ktiicnco merely »peculiilh(\ or operatitij; upon lift*, pri- 
vate or mvih arc ndnuti«<ct AOtrm futuUtoi^nUl priocipk". 
OF oommon uxioini* wbiob, bcjn|^ ^norally received, aro 
little doubcrd, and, being Ijttb doubtod, bav<^ hoen raroly 
proved > 

Oflheso grulnifoiiK and ii<^kiiuwlieid>^vd rruthit, it U oflc-n 
fbfT f.ili? til brcume l«ia!i rtidrnt Uy i?iidr'avMiir« Tn ctplaiu 
ihcui> howrvcr nccciiMiry nuch rndcavonr* oi*y be madn 
hy tho misapprchrnston^ of ubsiirUUyk or the MpbiAlricti of 

^ Fnr JirpimcoU in ilir npiHHiEr tide t>( ttin <|ii«iiopi, iPt ihv Abh* 1tijn»l'i 
Ray»liiqDanf AnfriH, iinil h'Aio- Rvt. al. p. 461, — K*, 



mtricuL II in dilfirult to provcr thn |}riiuripli>s of f«KiBed( 
boCfWAT DOtii^ns rflDGol Alwaya be (ounA more inMligihle 
ibjui ihosc vih\*^\i arc quvitianv^^ Tt ift difficull tu |)fiiTn 
ttM principle of pracliue. Womuo thej bavc, for the mast 
p*ri, oot been dlflcoverej by inv^iiti^iioD, but obtmdcd 
hv esptfritrnop ; jind lhi> donion^tmtor wili lind, uftrr ea 
oprr^Mc 4lrilu(rir>ii, that iii^ Jtax been Ujio^ to innk« tliftt 
Aeea. whkb cau h^ oii1^ fHi. 

OrtMs Lmd ts tliET |>oaiuonp thai " iho supreme puwer of 
«T^rv eoiDinuiitly haa iUv Hfrht of roquirio^, (rota all lU 
iubje«t», mcU contrtbuibnA hk Rr& oeceMor^ to tlit< publick 
uafrly or puhlirk pnispi^rity," ivliich wna coi)HidurL*d, by mU 
OMllLmd^ cu coinpriHinif lh4' primary uud ruimluij (-Dridi- 
tio^D of alt polkical ttucjety, till tt beomnr ilispuii?d by IhoM 
£oa1oli of juintrby. who bavo dvniod. to the |>ur[ijiincot of 
Brilnui the nj^ht of Cjixitie' Ibr^ Amcrit^fiii rol^mica. 

In favotir of this €>;«*mplion of iho AmencAfts from tbo 
■uihoriiy of jHciW lawf^il vovereigo, ^nd llie [lomialon cf 
llieir Ntr>[heT-cu<rntry, verv loud <'luiiioiirv hdvi^ been ndhed, 
and lUAiiy wild niT^cftioiix advanced, wbtctj, by nucb aa 
borrow- tfacir opininiiJi from Iho rrifniin^ fMhion, bavcbc^u 
■dniltod m ngw»nlA; nnd, what in ttriinfO', iboTi^b their 
tssdinwv ift to louott EnglJt^h boDour and Eogli^b power^ 
hate been beard bj En^lishmea* with a viib to find ibem 
tnte. Pamuon bui, tii its fjnl violeii{<t\ roo1ro1l«d iiilen*«l, 
mw tbv vddy for unliiU^ runfi n^mnjsl thf; itivann. 

To be prejudice a always lo bo weuk ; y«t ihcro an^ 
prcjttJ>cc--a Ao iivfur to latiduble, (haV thoy bnvo brcii oftcu 
pvaUedr and arc aivayn psrdunv>d. To lore ibeir country 
hw btffltt conctdcnfd ok virtuu tn men, who«» love Muld 
iMri 1«' cilbrrwtbi? fbim bliTid, br-CHiJic th«ir prpfiTi»i>i'*" wait 
madv witboni a i-oiiipHritoti; hut it ba« m-viv bi^ii my fnr- 
tiii>e to field, rilber ia afiiieiit or modeni ^ritpn, any 
bownrnhblcr menlioii of tbo!»r. who b4T<>, nitb cfgual bLind- 
oCM, hatod Ihcjr i-oiintrt- 

Him* m^tipalrioCLok pr^^jodicoB nro iho abctrrioDs of folly 
ivipragnated by fatrliun, whkh, ht'iag pmducnl ii|tiiiTiAi ilv 
tfUnUog order of naLiiro, bavt^ not itirvuglh «Lif1i<:ioal for 

t*L« n. 


loDfT life- Tbpy arp born* only to scream wid pmiU, wid 
\rnvt* Ibiwe lo coni«»njpl ei» ilrttstatiou, wbote kiniincsn WM 
rmployr?(l to nurse ibciii Into miAi^lut^r, 

To perplex the opinion <►( Ihc puhlii^k many artificw 
hftT« b*^n U!M*d, wUicl, an uauaUy happen*, when faUeboo^ 
is l** bo m^iDiuincd bv frtHJd, Icwp ihnir force bj counirraeT- 
lAf <>nc pnolhrr 

Tlw nation in, Komelimpn. to be mollified hy n tcn<lcr tote 
ufiutn. who fled from tyronnj to rocft« and dt^scrts, nod li 
peiwudod to lo»<7 oil oloima of justice, and all iwniiR of 
difEniCy. in cotnpaMion for u barmlea* people, whn, h<iving 
worked IlaiH f<ir hr^ftd In n wild rounlry, and obtaijbed. bjr 
t]i(-iduwprogrett>i(»riofmttniiAlindu]hlry,tJit! nctximtumlftlioiifl 
of life, Bic no* invaded by uopropcdcnlcd oTipirswoo, «ad 
plundered of their properties hy the haqiicft of lAxalioa. 

Wc nrp lold how Uicir mrfuslry ift olntnioted by on- 
ncturid reiitruinti, nnd ihw trade eonfLtied by rigorott« 
prohibition li ; how ihpy uiv forbidden to enjoy the pmdnet* 
of tlwir oHii Hoil, ro manufMefure tlie muirriaU which na- 
ture Bpredfls before them, (ir to eurry Ibrir own fOods lo 
the Dt^rtrst m^irktit; and j^nrety tlir gcnrroiily of EnKli>l> 
virtue will never henp new weiffht upon those that ure 
already averladiti ; will De%-er delight in thni dominion, 
whieh eannot he exen-iied, but by crufrliy and oiitnige. 

Hill, whflp we are melfirtg in nilenl sorrow, and, tu lh« 
trnruipottB of deliricu^i pity, dropping both tlje *word and 
balnuee from our biuidA, another friend of the Aniencan* 
ibinks It belter to cwokrn another pus-uon, nad trios to 
alarm our intc^rcat, or excite our veneration, by nix>ount« 
of ilirir greaines* and their opulence, of ihe ferljlily of 
ilwir laod. and ihe kplendour of liieir Invris. W** ifavD 
bef^-ia (o conjtider tlu- fiuehtiria with morr evenne^n of mind» 
uie ready to ciruclude fbai thot4T reHTriction« ore not very 
oppreuTVG, which have been fouud eoci»istctit with cbi» 
spttf^ily growlh cf pronponly : and be^n to think it r«Aaoil- 
nbte, that they who thun Uoarwh under the protection of 
oirr government. «hoiild eontribute iioinetbing lownnU iu 



Bm we are mioii lold. tliiif ihtf Ami^nim, how^ti^r 
w«u]Uiy, C4apf>1 lir \ii\et\ ; ihjl fWy nrr' Ihf ilriitirndwiift 
of racD vhft leA all far libc^rty* and ttiAl ihrj have cou- 
ctuillr [>rc»(rrvocl Ihc principlra an<\ M^bboroncss of their 
prO|^nl1ora; tliot Ih^y &r« too oh«tiuAte for perauiiAion, 
and l4>o powerful for coTi&lrsifjt ; lluti Ihey wiil laiigli at 
argamf'al, und tl^fcut \iolt*TK-4*; tlint titt- coiilirieiil o|' North 
Amrrica ctjtituirui thrt-c milEiuti.*!^ ti»t of mrii mf-mly, biil 
of wbiip, of whijEi fierce for lihcrtjr* oiid dUdainfal of do- 
minioti ; Ihut Ihcy multiply vilh tlic I'ocuDdily of their ohii 
rattkiiit'ik**^ ho that ovtiry <]uarter of a century doubles 
tbpir mimWrfl- 

Men accusloniwl to think (hpinvplvet mjut«?n do not 

ir ti> be thrrat<vH-d, Thl** Inlk U, 1 hiipr, commonly 
wn a^.iy. or rnisr* pasiioiw difl'crcnt fioiu thow which 
U wft* intruded to CKCLt«. Instead of Icrrifyin^ tbo Uu^ 
liih bparpT to tame o«<|uit<Fim-*nrt.v t1 dispones bini to huf^li^n 
tbs experiDKnf of h^ndiuf; ob^tinucy, bcfort^ it ii brfomfl 
5^1 mmr obdurate, nril convince* him ibat ii w nocenairy 
lt> atliwk ^1 mition tbiijt prnlitickn wbih^ vtt^ Timy ynt hiipn 
to prcvajL WLrii bo li (old> lliKrugb uhtU rxlent of triri- 
lory VO muit truvrl la aubdao tbirai. h« ri^collr^ct* bow far, 
a fvw ycttn oj;<i, w fnivc'llvd in thcrir drlVncit*. When il 
la unf^cl, ibitl tbc*y will Kbool up, likr Iht^ btdm. he njitu- 
rally «inMdent hov tho hviira vAt dfiirtroycHh 

Notliicig dfjvcK II Tn*(lrr liti^ On- inlcmiplion of bin 
profits. A C(inimrrci-i1 prnpli', houfcver miig:nntiunQTi0» 
Hkrtnk* at tbe thonj^ht of drclimng Iranitik uud an tuifii- 
T<ninibVc balance. Tbo cOVct of tbiA It^rrour has be«a 
triad- Wo have been ntuuded wiih lb* impoHna^o of om* 
AnrricAn ^.-onifaerce, aad beurd of ip«rchanta» vilh wnm- 
boowK Ihat aff- nevt-r lo tie t-mplied, aiKl of [aannfaclurvn 
atarTinj? for vnal of work. 

That our commcror with Ani< in ]>rofltubtp> however 
IcM tJuui o^tco(aliou» or deceitful nAtimotr^ hDvr made i1, 
and liiat it i» our interMt 1o proKcrrvo it, huK nf^^vrlw^n 
4mic>d; bni, iroMy, It will mcwC offrctUBlly be prrsiTTfd, 
by bein^ kept alwdvi in onr own powtfr. Con4;efl»ioD£ may 



pmnjtrin it for h niomenf, buf iu}>eni>rit5 onljr can Pnnurt- 
HI MatiDuaDoc!. There will u1wii\h bt- a pari, and atwnyii 
ft very iii^ p&H of ovorv rommiinity, ihnt havo no c&re 
but for Ihifirisi^lvoA, and wlio«e care for thornselvos rfiacfic>t 
litllo furtiw-'r ihsni irapaOeiKe of immediBte piiin, aiid «af^r- 
nv.** for lh<* ii<>jirrjit y^KJil. flie bTiiid art? itaid to ft**l villi 
prr,uliar uin^ly^ Tlii^y wbu look but little Into ftiliiritj', 
\iR\Cy pcrhAp^. llic ijiiickcfl 5cn»aiion of tlir? prnwiil. A 
morchant'» do»irc ia not of glory, but of i^ntn ; not of pub- 
licL wvaltb. but of private emoliinu'Dt ; h^ is, llierefore, 
rarely lo bt* «on«ult4*d about war und pefwe. or any d«iif^« 
of wide exti-nt imd dijirunt roitsnritietirc^. 

Yet iit'ih, \'Av- nibrr genErntl <;barTit:leTs. viil luirnclimrft 
ftuL Tbe Iradern of Birmingbaui Iiave reflciicd tbfni«Glvi>4 
frtmi a\\ impiiludoD of narrow n^JtUhnma^ by a rtiQidy rr- 
eomtii<?iidutioD to pitrtiotuoDl of Ibt.* rij^td and d^;iuty of 
ibeir naiivo couutry. 

To th*'**- mi-n J dci ntJt ini(*nd lo luscribr iin absurd aiid 
vDthujtiiulick contempt of tuforritl. but lo givi; ibcra tW 
ratiouRl and junt praise of di^lin^iAbing tc«I from weming 
jjTood i of bt^ioff oblc lo aco Ibrou^b tbe cloud of inliTpOLUit^ 
diiHcdllioi, lo thv lastJuf; and aolid hoppmioiis of riotofj 
iuid AiHtU-mdniv 

ftcM all theite 1opick« of p^r*iiaMii>» ihould fail, the 
gtrnifT actor of pulrlotiMm biu( trird Bnotber> in vliirh 
terrour uod pity vrc bnppily oomhincd. not widiout a 
proper lupcruddition of fliat adoiirAtion wbicb latter a^s 
have brought into th^* drAxaa. Tlie heroes ol Boston, h^ 
tallt lu. if tlip Hlfimp act bed not been rep«ra1«d, vouU 
have left tboir lotvii, iWir porL ami iTicir indp, huvr n^ 
vignciL tb<; fplcudour of ^jpuleuott, Aud c^iiilttrd tlti^ df'ligbta 
of boighbourboud* 1u di»pcr«c ihcnaclvcA over \he country, 
wb«r^ Ihey would till ihe E:rotind> EUid 6»b in Ihc riven, 
ttnd rnu^ tbe mountainir und bo lV«o^ 

Th<f»e, jiurdy, nro brsv? words, If the m^ra soond of 
ficcdoiD cflfi oppr»1t5 ibiiH p(iwt*rfii11y, Ipt iiu tmui, hvn^ 
after, doubt lb« >lorj of the Pied Pijicr. TI.e removal of 
ih« poople of BoHon in<» Cbe country, accnu. cTrn lo tho 


^Mil^M. not (inly rlifliriik in \u cwent'iou, hill important 
in il« rnnu^qurncri. Thr diniiitiU}^ of i>i«^^iilion i« hevi 
Luuivu 1u tliL^ BostouittnA thcoiscUca; tttf eouxequt-uL-t? 
ulas ' wUI only be, Ihat they vill Ichtci ^^d houM!! to wLier 

Ytft, before tbey quit tbe «oinforU or n wuid home, for 
ibe Mkuoirfinfr »rMnrlbinic wtuch tliey ihink bollifr, he ciinno4 
bff tbonghl thi'ir Rin-my wh» ud^iu^n thpm, ir> o-onuder well 
irbc11i«r they sbotl tinil it. By lurniu^ tuhernteii or biiiilt-m. 
Toodmea or shephcrdB, tWy muv bt-comr vild, 1)ut il is 
not to OMy tc (;iiiii;ujvo Ihcra I'm^ ; for vho cnn he more 
u kluve Ibiiu iu* Ibut 19 drivcsti^ by Torcfff from the <^omfor(s 
of tiff?, U compi^Mc^d to It^avc hii; hnapo ti> a casdaI ccmn', 
Mftd^ «hjLl«M rr h*^ tlora, nr whrn'vor he vnnd^Vs, flndft, «iv«»ry 
momeaU >outo uc* trfltimony of his uwu subjtrcltun I If 
cbok« ofevU be rrcedeiti, the fcbn in ihu jcullt?j> hn5 hu 
ofitjOD ol' Ubonr or ef utripM. The Uo«Uiniiin may quit 
hit bo«i« to atiirvv lu ibe lieldi ; hk* dofi; may rt^fuisn to «ct, 
and Mnnrl undctr tliv huh, und tbpy may then congratulnte 
p«oh olbi-r npon iIi«t urnili^pt of liberty, " [brufuAe uf blirt. 
mill prr|;^ndiit with dtrliijht." 

To tTcnl such dciQ^A oa ^if^rioiJa. would bn to think ten 
coDtcm|>!uoii4ly of Uostonian undrratandin^j. 'I'hc iirtilicrc, 
indeed, a not new : tbe blusterer, w>io thrrntrn«<l in v:un 
te deotrey hii opponent, bus. Fom«ti[neii, ebtaiued bi« end, 
by ra^in^ it belk^vod, tb'it he wottld tuirij; hiiiiAelf. 

But (erraiirs mid pity iin- nni tKi? idJy mt'iujH by v bicii 
tbe t40b«tien of the AinerLcant i* opposed. Tbeiv are 
tho»c, n'bo profcflft io ttsu them Qnly aa auxiJiarica to reojon 
wkd justice ; yiht Cirll u>, thut lo tux tJit< colonics ia tunrpo- 
tioa liJld opprettiou. un iDvoAinn uf uutural and legal rigliu, 
and m viobtioT) uf ihoctf prinoiplt-H whlrh i^iipporl the cott- 
itilution nf Eii^liiih govHrnmrnl. 

Tfcb ijuirACion h of gre^al im]jurtnrc<-. Tbut tbe Ameri- 
can* are able lo bear taxution, is bdubitAblc ; that iheir 
reToaa] may he ovt'mikd, ih tijsldy probablo; but pov«r ii 
ttOMifficicnt evid^nci> of triithr Let m examine our tiwn 
elaiip. and the objeetiont of the* retiiunuta, wirh cniition 


TrtXAim** Ni> TYRANNY, 

{iroporlioneU lu iha cront of Ibc ili^oivion, which itauHt cQa* 
vict 4>(i(.- part (tf robbt^ry, or the olhcr of rob«liion. 

A lux In Q p[ivTnf<nl, c^xsictrd by nuUkoritv, from pnrt of 
tlir mmmiinity. tVir lltr* heTi4*fll of thr whr>l«». From whom, 
ntui ill ivliiit pruporlioii fiiich ptnirrnt a\%M] be n^quired* 
aniltu wW U3cj( it nliAllbt.* appUoJ, those only are lujuigv 
to whom ifovcrnmcnt u mtriiatc^d^ In thv Urttisli domi' 
nlons luxcA nrr np portioned, levied, and approphulcd by 
ihiT Elates nsAembliid in piirUam'^Dt^ 

Of rvery empire jilt the lubordioate rommuaitE^^ aje 
liablvf fi> IjKxiition. iH^EUUse liif^ all sUiiTD lliv beii«<fit« uf 
goV(?rni]irijl» iiiul. tbortrforrp ou^ht nil to furiii^b tlirir pro- 
portioo oriho e^Lpciisc. 

TJits the XiatiTiaimft buvc norcr openly deniod. Tbti 
it ii Iheif duty to pay Uio ciuflts uf tbeir ovii safotj. thfir 
B^em lo admit; nor do thvy refuse their onuibQiioD to 
thti itxigt-DfiHK, tthiitcver ih^y m;i)r be, of iht? BriliKh rid* 
piri' ; hut thry niuki^ thi^t pLirticipfition of th*^ puMick bvr- 
dca 4 duty of very uucorluJu extent, luid impcrroct c^tigft- 
tion, ft duty tt'iuporury. occ&Atorial, and cleocire, of irbkli 
Ihty reserve to IbrmMlve^ th^r right of lettbiii- the dc^t-e, 
the t)m4^, and the dLiniioo; of judging w~b(?n it mitr be re- 
quired, anil when jl has hritn pprform^- 

Tbey alUjw to Ihf STJjtreine {lower notbiug; mote ifaao the 
liberty of notify irij^ ia them ilA dctmuid!i gr jln neoeaiiticf. 
Of this notification they profcsft 1o think for tbcnttelrcd. 
how far it 8h<;U iuniioDoc their connAelA; nnd of the no- 
ce8siti«^» iklle^-ed, how fiu- tUey fthufi eiideai-our 1o tf^lier* 
tfaem. They iifttunie the cxcluiivo power of aeidtoff not 
only thf* mmk, but the qimnlily, of ihirt paymenl. Thsy 
urr n'udv Lo i^ooperutr uilh nil t\\v othrr dominionK of 
tlie JuD^; but they will uoopemte by uo means iihicb 
tfiey do not liLt-, tuid ut no grcuter charge than they afC 
wtibn^ to boar- 

Tbi> cUim. wilrl su it may soom; thi* clflim, whicb mp- 
poae» dominion wJihoot Riiihoriiy. Aod «ubjectj vidioHl 
Hubordiiiutioii. ban found among iIh' lih^rtineft of poKcy, 
muuy clmnoruu-i Add fmrdy Tiudicututa- Tlie taw* of iiBtiuVi 



llie figbto ofhiimaiuty. Uie ttaih of di»rtrra, thti dun^r df 
liberty. Uie rncrtnirhmcDts of UAUrpnlloD. b^l^o bet'u lliuu- 
ilcrcd in our vat>, snoirtimcx f>y intcrcAtcd fuction, aod 
MWCittm^ft by hcnmt litijpidity. 

Il IE fiaiA hv Fontrni^llr, ihnt ir Iwentv philoiophen 
ahitW rvnahtXAy tlviiy iIia^ ibe pirKence oflhtr ftitii mukfa 
ihv dny, be will not dcipair but vh^ilo nuti(iD;i inuy utlnpt 
ibr opioiott. &o iiiaay political du(nii°ti^1^ huvc dcoicd 
to tli« uiotlKTrcottuLry Uie p<:iwt<r ol' tu\it)g Ihu cQlonica, 
and buvo f<^)fc)r<^pcl thvir cIcoluI Willi »*> muoh «ioLeiice of 
outcry, thnt thr-lr ^crl U drt-udy vrry numerous, and llie ■ 
l>iiMick xa'icv Minpvnth iu di-ioi^^ion. 

la moral udU political ()ucslionf), tlic cootftftt betwtreB 
iBtore»t uod juiitkcr faa» bveii oflon tedious and often tivTcc, 
but, pvvbi^pt. tt nt^vi-r tjupp tilled belbri*, thut jiuljc« fonad 
Diiicb oppaniion, vith ji)lui-i*ii on ht-r (id«. 

For ihiT witiftliirdon of tbiH inquiry, it in nrcvwury lo 
considvf. bow u mToov Ia coiiNtiluiiri) ; whut f\rr. tIit* terms 
of nigration. ai dictated by nnturc. ot scltltd by compact ; 
and whut »ocia[ or political riEfbta Ibomon 1o*«ia orncquiroa, 
tbat leavoe bis coiuitry to f^Atablieb himself ia a distaot 

Of Iwn modiM nf migrnlinn ihn htElory nPinnilkiiid U^ 
fofinii im. find Mk fjir ^ih I fnii ypl diiH^ovcr, oflwooiily. 

Ia couutnca where lifoi wus j<rl uiuidjv&lcd> uiid policy 
MjHbniMd, it ftOroctimcTi bapptrnod, 1ha(, by t)L« disAonfliooft 
aT IwMld of roniiJiei^ by tht* umbitiori of duriuj- udvcLlimn* 
bj looio arridrninlprnafiuroof distriTEf. or by the m^^redb' 
contpnl of idt4»n^H, one p^rt of ihfr nomniEinity brokr off 
from ibtf rett, &nd nu[iil>erH, j^ri^lrr or <inHtfifr. forxnok 
thttt hibitations, pui tbeniArUea uiiilcr (be cominanil of 
^^ favourite of fortiuu-'jiuid witbt or without tho content 
tiTilieir couDtrym^n or f^overoount weoL out to too wbut 
bL>lt«^r n-'piooi tbcy could occupy, and in whal plare, hy 
conqnrHt or by tr^nty, they could gain a huhiiutiou. 

Son» of enlrrpriFK*. lihi^ diete, wlio ronuntttod to tbeir 
OWD avofds tbetr hopes und (btfir live*, when they left 
th«tr coudtry* beoBmc another natioo, with dosi^fM, and 



projipceb, find inlorcsts, of their own. Thoy lookoil back 
no inoro io tUvir IWider bi>me; ihey expr^cted no he\p 
rri>m Uioio tthoni tUt^ had left behind ; if (hw conquered, 
thi'j romjiirrml i\tr thftnM-ht-K ; if Uirj wi^n? (lf'nlnj\i?J, 
Itir^ wt^nr not hy niij (}tbpr pnwrr cither lamtfiilvJ or rr* 

Of tLiJB kiud bociti to hn^o Ifcron «U the migratioB« of tlic 
early world, whi^thcr bjAtorical or r^buloiia, and of lhi« kind 
wc^rc* ibi:^ orttpiEor» of thuM> ruitiunv, whicli . IVoni ihe uorlb, 
irivikdf^d thr Rfriniin {-mjiire, ami filled Eurupn witb new 

UuT hIicii, by fh(^ ^nriunl ndmiitiiion of wivvr Utw> aad 
^iitkir miUftiicr^t «o(^icty brcamr more compacted and 
belter rejftiliiTed, ii wsj found, that the povvr of et^ry 
people cuniiiiited lit union, produc^rd hy one common In- 
tcff^Ht. uud ct|ii<r*ilin){: in j»ini c-iruriA uud (^itinifttent cuitmeb. 

From thijt timn independence pcxcepllhty ^^utrd nwAj, 
No part of l.lii: iiutiiin va^ permitted to ^ict for itkclf. All 
now hnd thr^ Annx^ ononiios and tho »nmo fri«*ods; Ibo 
goveniropnt protected indiTidunU, nnd indiTiduuU vere 
rviqnirrd to refm' their dpAgnN to the prmvperitj of the go- 

Uy this principle it ia, titat »t4il» nn! formed and otn- 
fiolidated. Kiery man la tuti^bt to couMdiT hiti own hop- 
pineiit, at conibmud «('iih tho publick prniiprntv, And to 
think bimv4<1f greni tind pnwc^rTnl, in proportion to Ibe 
(trpatxinoi Hod pow*ir cjf Ijijt ^nvnmnnrK. 

nod tikn wrMfini vonciueui Let-n discoiurv^ Ih-Iwih»i 
tho fourib nnd tenth cvntury, wlicn at! the northeti world 
wiw iu motion ; nnd hud uiivit^tion been, ai Ihol time, suf- 
ficienrty ndvaac^d to muko no lon^ n pnaMtgo at^Wv pr«c- 
firahle, then; i« littlo rf^AHon fnr doitbtin^, but lk« tnttt* 
mcxi^nonR nf nnlionfi woi>ld \vn\v luuud iN v«>nt, tike dl 
other OApa[iAivij viulencp, wht^n' thrrn w«s ^mt reidiit- 
anoo; ajid timt Hunn and ViindfiU instead of llghticri[ 
Hieir May to ili« ii>uth of Europe, would have goiw. by 
ChoiUiiudB luid by myriads, nndor th^ir »uvi>rat ohiedA, tv 
lake [iotM.*E«tt>n of rogiona timiliufC«ith plv^iure, and wKiinfr 




h fertility, from which ifac naked iahubitun(« were aiK 
oblc to rcpol lla^m. 

K'fcry cxpf-^ditioii would, iu ihot^- dixy* of laiity, have 

vaviau lie-rtwfl nii^Ut \\n\v liivitlrcl tlu! cimiilrv umoug Iheiu, 
and have; apreaJ the fruilnl snWiti«ton of re^falilv fruui 
pdaohtf buy tc IbiC Pucitick Oicnu. 
Jlut ColumbuA caiue tlve or 9^ hunilfed f(*iU!i too Urc 
r tlif cnndidatOM ot lovert'iftiily. When ht- formod hit 
pmiprl of dii^ovi-ry. tlie due tuu 1 10 lis of military inrha]«»oce 
bud Mjbfiid«d. flriil TLiropc brgnn I0 rrgnin n wttlvil furui, 
bj cttabltfbod gw«nuiicut and rr^Lbr lubordinatjon. No 
num ^oold tmy hnm*! oroi^l hiiiiM^lf into n cbionuin, nod 
l«(Mlout liiidtiUov^i&uljjectH, b> hiAOwn autbonty.loptundct 
or lo wjix- Il4.< ihjit fiimiiitUed nay ltd of hoMtiliir, bv lund 
or M^a* »ithi>iil ihn rommUiion irf Komr iicknowlrdgod 
ftovorvigiit vju oooaideiv^d, by fill uiaukmd, os a rof>ber or 
iMntfl. tiAiura w]]i<'b ^t-ru r^jWiifUtlltr cri-dil, and of which, 

rcfun*, 00 niuii vnm amhiUiyn-t. 
ColumbQi, iu a r«mott'T limc^ ^rould bnvo (oimd bU waj 

wotme diflcontcntnd lor<), or Romo yoim^T bro1h«T of& 
p4»l|y iu>vrrf»ign. vhi> would hav« Inkm fir<» hI hii; prAponnl, 
and huvtf «{iiivkly kindled. tvltlib<]uul beAi.u ititu\t uf ftilluw- 
«rs: ibcy would heivr bulll a,\n\>%. ot buvc ivizt-d liirm, and 
hare waodcTcd tvtib him^ ot nil udTrnturf.->i, d* fur tu llicy 
oould kocp hop« ia Ihoir compiwy. But tbo uge being 
DOW pA«t of vngrnnl oxcur«ton and forluilou^ hoHlitltv, he: 
wa« iiridPF the oecesiity of (ravelling from court to «o«rt, 
i«MiCDed und n^palu^d us a wild projc-clol', an idln prmniiitfr 
of kiugdomt iti dir rloudA ; nor hbu miy purt of thi^ woHd 
fcl bud rcaaon to icjoicc ibut he ft^uud, at Iiul, rec«pUuD 
a»d «iaployiibeot« 

tn the cani« ^'car, ia a year bithoHu ditaxlroiu I0 mttu- 
iiod, by the' Porltijjfiicie wan ducoicrpd lh<* psYi«uge of the 
Iiidi4% and by ibff Spiininrdn ihr c<nitt nf Amrrini. Tbt; 
nutionft of Kunipe wrnr lired with buundWfi ^^xprctntioni. 
and itie distorcrcra, piuHuiujf iboir uuterpriK', iikade ton- 
qinfOA in both h^imittphc-m of wtdfi cxUrnt But Ibc ad- 



vonturcTK wore not coittuciti^d with plundi^rt thoUKl^ thty 
took j^-oUl Mid !diU'(?r to ibemsclv^s, ihey si-i£e<l inUndi and 
kiii^tlomK in tht? tmmr nf llirir F;iJV~erfigiL>^ Wlirn ji nrw 
rrgioD wai gatiicil, a govenioiir wm nf>]ioinU;d bv lliat 
pOTor, whioli Iiiid gl^cn tlie commission to the conqueror; 
nor tuuc 1 met with nriv Europt^au. h\ti StukuU, of Loo- 
dou, Xhni fvwmcd u lii-zii^u of e\altiEif; )iirnfttiU' in tlie iMwIy 
fouui) CDuntricK to indt^pvndi^nt domiiiiou. 

T<] KP^cin? II rnrir|i»ij^l, it viut ii!w»y^ nnoMnary lo plant 
tt colouy. aL>d tcrriloriosi thus occupied and «nttlcd. were 
rightly coiiFiLiIcred, m incr«« cMcuakonft, or proc«a<* of 
empire ; oi rainifivaiiotiH wbirh. b> the circulnlion of o«e 
publick iutcreitp 0L>cnEnui]io^led will] the originul dotircp ot 
d(iNiini(in> »nit nhic^h wt-rt? kept flouriyliiiig 4ind tpnwdiiig 
by thu rjidiira! vijjciiur of tlie mulLi^i-cuuiitiy. 

Tht: colooicK of Coglutid diSi'cr uo ulliorwuo from thoK 
of otbt^r natioDB, llmu as tlitr Eii^liah ooiutilatiun diflora 
from Ihi^lrs, Alt govvnimt>nt ij ullrmutely utid <fiMMkliully 
Aibiarjlnir. Imt iiiitKirdijiiife JtuciMlitK may havt^ mcirc imniu- 
Jiilie«, or individuals icrralvr ItU'ityt as i^K^ o|wrBtioa« of 
^ovoriLiut'Ul urt diflVreiillj cuuductcd^ Aii Kn|;1iiLiiJidii m 
tho utjmmuD vourau of lift and aiilitm fL'^Itt no rt-itruiut. 
An CiiKhAli colony lin& i«ry liburul pow(j» of rc^^ulatui^ 
ilK vxtn r[iat>nor>;, »nd adjuulin;^ it« own aflaim. But on 
Kn^liiib irulividniil may, by ihf^ (ij|icvmr aiilhfirily, b» d^ 
jirived of lilHfrty. and m colony divested uf it.i |>u««ra, for 
ftiuionH of wbirh ibil aiitliarily U llic i»ily jud^- 

In N4>\ erf^i^n 1 J fbero arc so ^nilutlonii. Tbcte mny be 
limited rnyalty, thtirfi iu»y be limikd onsuUhip; but tfacre 
can bo no Itmitird itoTvTitin(.^aK Tbore muat, in o^ery 
boci^ly, bo nottXc powitr or otbcr, from vhicb tber^ b ii» 
up|H-iit, uhicb ndmiu nn rrjilrictiout. wbitrb prrvjuU-* the 
wholr maiy*i of ihr rommmniv. rvf^LilHrr-,& nnd iitljiuitH utl 
itu1iorJii))«li»n, enni^ti taws irr ri^pcnli thrm. ereeta vt aaaala 
judicatures, cr:(tcnd» or ni>n1rncU prlvilrgo. exempt it*erlf 
from question or oonlrol. and bounded only by pbyaical 

By lltiA powtr, wbftrevor it ftub«vt«, all leginlaiion and 



jvrbdictton a animatrd and mzuuUiititd. From rhix sail 
lefsl rights urc c[nauiitii>ii», which, wlmlher equltfiblj or 
0ot< 11U15 be lef,>alLjr revaUdd. It is tiot icilulliblc, tor it 
mav (to wron;;; bat it h irr^xUlibU, for it <'nii bo reacted 
only by n^brllJon. Iiy nn nr^t nhieJi m»kf^a it <|iip«iioiiable, 
wbnt #hiill btt (brnoc'rorwAnl t\i& supri-iiie puwer. 

All EngluU colony jb n nunibpt of pcmtn^i. tu «hom IImt 
kxug ^nmU n cbortor, p^nnittiiiic lixta to snttic in ^oinr 
di*hitil oouuln', And t^aabUii;; tbi-in to conHtiluii^ a, €orpi>- 
raiion f^DJoyint^ siich pov'ori; ^m lh<> I'lmri^ir ^ants^ to h^ 
Bdmiiiintrrrd in nurb formn an tikv cb^irf^r prescribes. A* 
m vorponUion, liiey mnkv \nv$s ftir lbriii«f<Ues : bul tix n cor- 
poraCioii. *iibRE<tinK by n^unt frum bibber uutfiorily, to ihe 
control of thnt authonty tbcy cootiRiic Mibjoct. 

As men ore placi9<l at a frr^^ator di^tauce from thc< tn- 
pMDie ^outicil ofthi' kirt^um. l^ey mu?it be inlfUEk'd ^tb 
»p1«r lib«^rty of rcjfulaibiB^ ltiL*ir l^oucIuoI by ihffir owo 
WM/Iom- An ihrry urc morr' u^eliidrfd from rjuy recoarse 
Uy nalwanl judicMlijn^ ibey muit be morfr oxiensivuly com- 
iuisuoi»n) to pu»a judRmt-nt 011 e44^h otW. 

Fi»r ibin rcoiion »ur more aaportaot And fipubfnt colonicfi 
tc*i iJto nppc-nranco, no'] fcol the cltcct, of a rc-triilar lo^«- 
IfltiiiVp wbicb, in eomci pia«e«, b&s setad so lon^ wlih un^ 
^nestHHiK] authority, lUat it baa forgottpa v!ic»no« that 
autbority »av ori^^iijilly deri^rd. 

To ibcir chartrr* the coIodic**! owe, Ukv otber corponi' 
lioiu. their polidoal cx»tcnci?- Th^ aulrmrtitlcfl of l<>gjs- 
lalMMi,thriKJmini»lro1ionotjuutiGc,thv9criarityur property, 
u^ all b^Btowed upon them by tht* royal grant. Without 
tbeiT charter, iLt-rt- would be no pnwpr amoii^ ibi^m, by 
vbicii onj liiw could bi- mudr, or dwlies t-iijuined; any 
d«bt rccovf red, or cnminul piiiiL^brd. 

A L-burler in a ^'mut of ctrrldiu powers or priviletfe*, 
given to a part of the commamty for ibo advantage of 
tbe wbolOr and is, tbereforc, linble, by iU ualujv, to changa 
or to nrrocntioD. Every tf^l of |^v<«rnmu]|t uiiav al pnhlick 
good. A cimrtcr, whii^h *^(>en<.'nrd hui; thown to be 
datiimi-tital to the nation, ii In be rvptfaled ; l>ccau»G gv 



oL^nit profl[*<?rity musl ulwa^s be preferred to pnrlicttliir in- 
t«ri?sL If a charter be a«'d lo evil pur^oi^v. It U fof^ 
f«ttfd, nt the 4«Bpf>Ti in tukt^ii avmy nhirh ii itijurii)u«Jy 

The cfinrtrr, tWfcfurti, hj wlikih proviDcial ^TcmtMmb 
aro couBlJtulcd. miiT bo iilwuya le^lly. »Q<f. whi^ro i- U 
eithur idoenvcnii^nt m iiet n;iture, cr misupphvd id ils ijk^, 
miiy 1i« ^quJUibly i^proled; hj such repviil thd vboI» 
fubrick of vubordlimlion is immedi^itt^ly dc'vfrnjfd, uiid Xhts 
c[m:<dtuti<in Kunk jit aacf. mio a vliuoa ^ tbe socit^ty i^ di«- 
iioItix) into n tumult of individtxaK without auibority to 
oomraoDd, or obli^tiori to i>bcy, withoLit loir punuhniLmt 
of wr€Dg». but by pereoDHi reflODtraaut, or m\y jirotvctioc ot 
rigbt, bill by tbe haud of the poweMor. 

A <:oloiiy IN to tbe motbercoutitry, a4 a mernhnr tn Ihn 
LhhW, tleH\uig iU militin und itB sUcjiKlb from iJi« |p*iMfral 
principle of viluJitj/'; receiving from the body, luiil com- 
mumcahn^ to it> nil cho beDotita aod evils of health and 
di»<iuno; liablfi, id dno^roas maladies, to sharp iqiplicu- 
tJonii, of wliich tbe body, however, must partake the psua : 
and expoft^d, if lucurublv tiiiiilvd, lo amputation, hy which 
the body, likt?wi?te, will br miilUjiIrd 

The molher-country dways coosiJti* the colonic!, ihaj 
OOrjncclod, U5 partit of it»o]f : tko proHpirrity or unhappincfH 
of oithcr, ia tliQ proi^pL'hiT cr uubuppinoAH of both ; not, per- 
haps, of both ill thf same dcj^rve, for thu bL>dy may «ub«i»i, 
though leu conunfHtiDUKly. vilhoul a limb, hut tht- limb 
must pt?riih, if it \uy pnriod from ihe boily. 

Onr colonici, thei-eforv, hi^went-r diiUuI, have lH?t-n» 
hitherto, tr^ntod m cousliTuFDt parr» of Uir BrituU empire. 
Tho iah^ibitaata iuoorpuratcd by l^gltsh charters wc en* 
tilled lo all tbf? riKblK of Knglt£hTn«ri. They utQ goteniod 
by Ku^hcb lavs, entitled to Euf^linh dif^niiies, refiiiUted 
by Knglisli counsels, iknd proleiTird by Euj^lUh urinn \ and 
it Htrvui-^ lo follow, by coriM^qnitiicf* not p^isily ntoldf^d^ that 
they urc subject to Caglibb |pjY«niuit*[il, aiiJ tharf^uhlr 
by )'^ngl)»li taxation. 

To him that coa«idcr» thi^ miurc, th^- orijcinAl, Ih^ pro* 




, unA the CtinnftliUiob of the rnU>Tm-«. who Ti^inffnfi^r« 
t lhi< firiil liiai-utrri-rs hud iMimmiMNHiriK fnini ihp I'.mwn, 
tktl Uie firtt #ciUcr» owe to a chnricr tbcir civil forms ah^ 
ro^Ur mn^fttnicT. and ihat all pcmoDnl inunuiiilios and 
le^ ae»otinti<>«, by wl^ch llie conciitton of Itie subj^^rT baa 
b««ti, froiD time to lime, iinprov^tt; have b^n «xleQd<-d to 
the Colombia, if will r:uf bt* doidited, but Ihe purlittmrrit nf 
ElniflHiMl hoM n ri^ht to l>iii[| ffirm by vIhiiiIimi, uiid lo Itind 
tbrm in aII rit«c» wbnUorvcr ; ond has. Ihen-rorir, d riuturat 
find coflslitutioiKd t^wcr of [nving upon them uny tux or 
im|MMt, «li^(hi*r extevaat or intenial, tipou Ih^ product of 
land* or t\w ntatiMfa^ittr^t of induKtry, in the exi^oncioH of 
WHT, *>r in iho lime nf profound prnun, for tho drfrtirp of 
AmfrirA, far the pitqiott* of rHi:>iiiig A rt^vetJiie* rir for Htty 
otkcr trod bt-nefiLiid lu t}ie ejiipir^. 

Tberc aic pwnic, nod those not inconiidcrabli? for num- 
ber, not ooDtcmpliblo for knowbd^c, who f^\ccpf the 
|»o^or of tax&lioti from thi> ^oii^nil doniinion of purlin- 
BODt, and hoId« thul whuU^rvr df^jfr^ttt of obedii<iice may 
bo exactcfd. or whuh-ver uullioHty may brt *"xvroisi*d iu 
vthibr MfiM of ^vrmmrnt, thnrr \s trilf mrrrnrr In bf! 
pttsd t9 inonoy, diid thai legiHluIJoii puhat^^ ila liiJiJlH whufi 
il violates tb^ purae^ 

Of thu eKception, wliich. by u head not fully impreir- 
u4ted vjtb politicki. U not i^utjly eomprebouded, il m 
■UiT^d, vt AD tinjuiBwrrahlo million, rhnt iIip rnlonivft vend 
no n?f>rrsm(iitiv<i« in Iho honu* of rcTomnnB, 

Il is, iny ifie Aineri^au udvoiutt-^. tbc iiuUmI Ji«liDc- 
lion of u fremAn, and the ItiKuipmilefp^ of an Eiij^i^hmun, 
thttt he i« ubic to cnll hi.i poi^.4c«jiioii9i hU ovn, that hr; tfdn 
ill Mtcvro in the eiijo<(mcnt of inhoritiuico or iit^quiiiilJDQ, 
Ikfll hifl bouse ii fortilied by (he law. nnd that noiliin^ cnn 
be luLeo from him, but by hit own oofitf^nT, 71ii« cnttfu^ni 
b g^i^ru for rvtry nun by kin ipprest-riLiiivr in piLiliuuit^ut, 
Tte Amcricvav. uurcpros^Dtcd^ cunnot i^on-Hecit to Hni^liiib 
lAXntiOGt. w n corporation, and tbcy will not coiuenK a» 

Of thin Brfliiniifnt, il hm been observifd by moro than 



rm<i, ihal its forcii cxtcTKlf^ oqnnlLy lo nil olhrr tii^s, for 
n frc'ctiiun i« not to be expoK^d to pnniebmcint, or h« cstlled 
to DtiT oDeroufl xervk'ti, but by liiv oh'd C(>n«f*ut The con* 
greishEisrxtrii(-ti!tl »ipiKiliDii fruiii llit-r)iii<riti4 M»iitr«]ui<Mi 
timt, " trt a frer ^Lite. cvrry nmiu bciri^ n frrr ii^nt, ou^t 
to be concirntod in bis own govcTnmciil/' Wbalcrer ia 
tnwi of tiixulioD, is true of every other biw. timt he who b 
bound by ii, without hU cousenti ii( not fret*, for be u not 
concemi-d in bis ovn g^ovtrcm^iti. 

He ih^i denie*^ the Eng1i«b pMrlbiinpnl thi- ri^ht of tax* 
ittiun, deiiieHJI, lihewi^ri, the ri^btaf maklDg adv olberlawn. 
civil or criminal, \vi tbia powder ovc^r ibe coloiijrs nai 
ncrcr y^t dUpulud bj tbvmselves^ Thev bnvr ulways ad- 
mittf'd Mntuli^s; for thr punbbmetit of ofTenctm, niid for the 
redress or prevention of inconvemencies ; antt tlie T^ct'\^ 
tiou of any law draws nfl<*r ii. by n cbiln whieh eanriQl be 
brekuu. Ibe unwekumtr ueci<BMty tif Hubmittinjc to tJimi- 

That « trccTDQD i» governed by himscIC or by law to 
which he has conaeutedt is a posifion of mighty sound; but 
every mati ibai iiCTer« it. with whuEever eonfiden^e, Qii4 
4^very aum ihui Ix^urv it, witb v'bati?vcr u(^<guiMcence, if 
i:oji:ti-rtl 1h? xiipptiAi-d lo imply ihrT jinwrr of rf^HtMl, feeU it 
lo Hk falir. We virtually nni! im]>lioilly idlow tlio imii- 
tdlimtd of aijj ^'OVL-niment, i^l'wbii^b vr riijoi Hu^ Wuefil, 
und aolicit tbf? protection. In wick- extended dcniiniaiv, 
Ihons^h power ha* brrn dilfusr^H with the most tren bend. 
y^t « vrry Emnll part of tbo pooplt* are eilber pnmarilT or 
CfffioncbirlU roTi>iiilr«>d in Tegi'tlnTioti, Tbi< hti«inA«H of the 
publiek mum be done by <1elei^ifion. TU<< choiee of dele^ 
piles EM Jiidide by u »tletl ttumbrr, and tboM^ who ure not 
elctinfK Mand idle onA helplem npcclatora of ibe common* 
veal, " wholly unconcerned in tbc govemnK^nt af Ibem- 

Of tlw eleelon ihe hap i» but tittio bettor. They ftfe 
t>nt'n frir rnun unitmmif^ in ihnir choice; nnd where tbe 
ijumbrr* npprojirh 1o Pijiialiry. nlmovt b^lf inutr itt- g;o- 
rcrned not only wllbonl. l«it nifainat tlirir clioii^. 



How ODj man ran have conscnletf to iiulitutir>i» I'j&Cu- 
blishciL Lu dikfaiit u^v». it will h^ dillicult lo pxplnin. In 
llw noftl luvouritu rv!iid«u(?c of libi'Tty, the content of iadt- 
Ttdttob in merely pmitlvv ; a t^cit ^tdmUiiuji, in «very com- 
nvnityj (if the? tcrm% vrhir.h Ihiil 4:-onirn unity granla uid r«- 
quiiv^ A« ail arf^ born the Hiil»jerf» of liom** !»ruib or 
otlierp we^ may ht smd io havtr W«n aII boni cvnM-ntin^ (o 
riomc sj7(«in of j£ovcram«nL Olbrr tonarnt thnn this ibe 
comlilWD of citii Uiv does Dot ullow. It is the Diipio-iiniTig^ 
claiiwuT of iJic [>^aDtfi of policy, Um' tlolirioui dream of 
rcpubtican fanalidsin, 

Bu[ lir;ir, ye imtn and dau(^bt(?r> of liherty^ tlin loimdia 
ttLiich Xhc vinds utty vuftifi^ fnJiii thr wc-i^lcrn n>nTiii(:ij|. 
Tbc Americans fire IcHin^ on^ nnother. vtliat, jfwc may 
jadfC front lliHr nouf TrfiiiDpli, i\v-\ haTC but luttly di.ico- 
v«Kd, wkd wLat j«t U a i«ry iniportuut irutii : " That Uicy 
w enllt]»d ro Lifi\ Iib4>rty, luid property; and ihui thoy 
JlAvr rcTer c*dcid tn any <nvrn'ign powrr whatpvrr n right 
to diftpow? ofc-illH'r ttithmil ihuir roiHL^ijl." 

Whik lius rrAoliiliou HtuikfN ttloijt?, lh« AmrriL^miH an? 
fnrr frnm NinsEiJarily ofopiiijon ; ihrir wit hat nr>t yet b^ 
irnyrd il>cm to brrc-«y^ Whilo tbcy «pcnk u.« tbc u^ke«1 
ftons of nature, they claim but what is claimed by oUior 
neo, and have withheld norhiiii;; bm uhai »ll withhold. 
Tbey nrt" hrn- upon lirm grournl^ liehiijil t^nin^nchmenta 
wl^icb itcvrr cnit lie fbrord. 

llumaiiity h vcr} uniform, Tbc AmcricaiiA hnvc t\m 
KMtc^lancc Co HuropL-mia, that lUoy do uot aUavH kuow 
«b«ii Ihey Ar« ve3t. Thcr soon quit tb«* rortreiv, that could 
•ipitb«-r bavo bw^n mined by sophistry, nor balfrrrd by dp- 
cliitRiitioiL- Tbrir nr\l rf^coiultoii derlaret, that " Their a»- 
e««lor». who Uni z^ellW the i oloriitiK, w^re, M ibo rime of 
dirlr p[iii;?r»1ii?N fruiu ibe ni<ifbfr-ciiiiu(ry. eniilird to a}V 
tbe ngbt*. librrticii, and immunities of free nod luttunil* 
bom H^bjcctA nitlaii the realm of EuglamJ.* 

Tki«r lii«viee, is true ; hut uben this \t i(rnnted> iHnr 
boail of oriffinal tif(htK iv at an <<ncl ; tbey are no )ui)j;«r 
1q m >U1« of naTnre, Thf*4n lonU of fhrniKi^keji, thntir 



kiagf of M H, ih^fltf demigckds of indepeDdence tnilc down 
to colotiiicU, fp^vem^d by >« charter. Ii* thmr snoMlon 
vttr*'. ftiihji*i^U. thry aokiiiiwleil^d o s,»verrig;n ; if They had 
a ri^bt 1o En^lUli privileges, iJicy wrre BCL-vuiiUblif to 
EngllalL Jaws ; and, whui inii«t ^rv<» iho lovrr of librrty 1o 
dUooT<fr, luiil coded to the king juid purliumcnt. whether 
tbo right uT not, ut \eaiti, tbo power ot' dixposin^, " without 
thdir conjidnt, of llmir Uvok, lihorti^, nnd prop«rtl«>." It, 
therefore, U reqnirml of thcny to prove, rhat ihe pEiHiameDl 
i^vi^r ct-ded Ui tliem a dispeii^utiiin ftum llmt obt?flirn<:r. 
wbif h Uicy ow<? n* nntiiral-bom mibjcclM, or njiy dcgTr« of 
indcpeikdcnco or tmmLinity, doI enjoyed byotbr^ Engluli- 

They May, that by vaub emifn^tioD, lliey by »o raeaiu 
forfeited, *urmidrred, or Wl uiiy of tho«e ri};ht» ; but, that 
" ihfy wrrR, nnd their di^spt'ndnnu now *ur. rniitlt^d In 
ihi» excrcM rlkI o^joytncut of all such of thrm^ as tbeii 
local and other circumdlajicoA euable tbem to exerciw aad 

Thiit tlioy who form u s^Itl&muof hy a luwful c^hartor, 
having committi-d no crinii?, forfuit no privjlege^, wUI he 
r^dily ronf<*s*fld: hut what thry do not forfeit by a/tt ju- 
dicial ittfutenutf. ibey may lo^e by aaltjral i-ffffifiit. A> mun 
can hr lnU in oua jiIucr, at once, he ciiTtiint bnic the ail- 
vanta^o of multiplird lesideitce. He ibnt will cajoy the 
brii^litnoM of suDshiao, mnat qirit tli*coolno«« of the shada. 
Hf> viia ii^otiA volimtarily to AniHrtva, caanot ooniptaao of 
louEif^ wbut he leaves in Knropr^ He, perhap», bad a right 
to Totc fur 31 kai^bl or burg;tmA; by <:ro»i»t^ tJn? Alhintinl, 
ho \\u» not nullified h\s ri^bt; but \\v 1mi4 rnadr iIa exer- 
tion no longer p^>Jt»ible'. Uy hia o«ii thoitr bo ha» \vit 
a onunlry. vh<Tro bo had a vote and Utile property, for m- 
other, wbori' be h^ ti^Ttini property, but ua rolo. But aa 
thiR protcmici' was d(->Ijb<*rutc and URconEinumHl, hr \% itjll 
" coiirrrned in ibo governnient of himself;" he \m» rD* 
duerd hiint:elf from u vuler, to otip of the tunu m i*f b lo 

* Of ihit rtEtiwilnir t owrpiri lai contrFMlton ir\i\t ut JaIle |ljivrthi>. 



Bttl1itiKl4^ that harfi no vote, lie has truly '* cchW hi« 
rif^l/' hut he iitin n §:ovcnicd hy liis own fop^cnt ; bccuuse 
b« hu eoa**iit«d to throv ht^^ atom of iDicrcut into !li« go- 
nfrral mflM of iIip commuuiiy^ Ofthr ^onRccinencea of his 
o«n act lie liai no eaiiv^ lo compimn : hf» hoA clioseD, or 
intended lo cbooMf, tbr ffrcatcr g<ioil ; he ih repreftented, 
w lum»elf dtMircd p in (hi.* ^norol rcpreacnlatian. 

But the privale;;e*» of un AmcHcon scorn (lie ItmitM of 
pk0d; tbtj u»c j>4rt of bimMflf, ftnri cannot ht* lo?(t by dc- 
partun? fmm lik rouniry; they 0oat in the air, or glide 
iirtda^r the ocean: 

" Dviii uzun uim jxhi taitnuisctAi uailinih" 

A pUuier. wti*ri>vpr he tt^tllif*, i« not only n fr«H?mAii, 
lntl A \vfpK\9t0r: " uh'i impr^ilcir, fbi Homn." '* At tlici 
En^uii colonift* arc uot rrprcscotcd in tlir Diiti^h parli»< 
Bciit, they ere cntitlod to a freo ond exclusive potrvr of 
JeguUbvn w thtiiT i»cvi.^Tul leKinlulvrv^. in all oiuci of IMx- 
alion and mtcmjil polit\, Kubjoct tnily to lb« iie^tiv« of 
tlio M>v«*rFigti, in iucfa monnrr n% ha* bcnn hcretafbra ii«ud 
sAd jicriitTnmpd Wp cbnnrAilly ronnnnt id ibt? npi-nition 
of Auch seta of the Diiliflh purtiauionL da ui'i', \tona lidr. rtr- 
ilminod to the i¥|nila1ioin of otir oxtemtil commerce — ex- 
clndtaiC «^ery idea of taxation, inlrmat or external, for 
raiHing n mvonue on Lho Kubjoctx of America, without their 

Their TMUOn for ihi< olnim i^ " ibut the fuunddlkm of 
Cugluli Utterly, and vf all govornmcntt w a rifihl in tW 
people to partici]>atc iti tlii^ir le|;i>i1alJvo counciL" 

" Tbey inhrnl, ' thp\ »ay, " from their anuestort, thu 
right vhioh their onoojitorfi po»eifted, of tfojoyin;; all tlio 
pririlv^v* of Kaf^linhmen-" That thry inhiirit ibi* fi^l of 
thnir Hncrfttort id alloivf d ; but Iboy cnn iiib^ril iici mun.', 
Tlteir ancestor* left n country, where (ho ro|ircHTtitaliifia 
^ tbo poople Here elected by men particularly quahtit-d, 
and where tiioae who wanted qtialilicntioiit, or vho did not 
n«e Iheia, w<-re bound by the dccinioiu of men, wUatn they 
hiMl not d«pnii«d. 

nn-4 lu • 



The coloniflli are the de«c«ndflnU of men, wIjo eiUior 
had no vole in elections, or u-tio vuluDlurilT TC«t^u«<l llH*m 
for Komnthirig, in iheir oiiiiiicm, nf morr rKtinmtinn: they 
have, therefurff exactlj wiijil thrii ancrvtors left ibcin, 
not a vole in laak'wg law*, or in conjitilntinp lfr^»iAlor». 
but the happioeM of bclog prulcctetl by law, arid the doty 
of obeying ii. 

What tb&ir nncesiors diti not onrry with ihtrni, nwitb^rr 
ibpy nnr iheir (lescriiiliinlK hiivff tinrr HirtpHri'il, Tfacy 
bavc t)cii. by abandouing thrir port in one IcguUiiu-ri ob- 
IsiEMd the power of conj^tittiting onotlicr, excluniT^ wkI 
indepondoiit* any bioro thftQ the mullituilos who nr<^ now 
dobarrv'd from voting, havo a ri|^hl lo erect a separai^^ 
piiHijmir*nr for themselve*, 

Mr'ii «re wrong for wnnt rif u^nw. but ihry ur*' wrunp^ 
by Ijulvta fur MaJil of spirit. Sincv lb(t A]nf!riiHn» l»itc 
cliscovcrei that they can make a purUnmcnl. vrhoQCft tcmctt 
i\ that tbc> do tiot think thooiMtlves oqvally ompoirored 
to make a Lin^f If they are sobjectfl, wbo»e jcoverame m 
IB eonsliltilf^d by a nharivr, tliey ean form no body ofind^^l 
peudent le^iHlnlnrr. If lh*^ir rii^htsL nn- inhtTrntunrt «a^^ 

derived, they may, by tbrir own »ulTrugrii, rncirgic, with <^ 

diadt^m. the hrciwa of Mr. Cu^ihitif. ^^| 

It in furthrr diMilarod, hy the can^tt^M of Philadelpbi^^^ 
" tbnl his n^ij^ty'ii co1onk» are entttti«d to all 1^ privi- 
le^ii atid imaiuhitit^H ^rjinlcfd Miid roriftrnied lu ihem by 
myal cburltn. or npcurpd l<i ibntu by tlinr srvrnil oadi 
of provincial lawn/* 

'the lir^t clnuae of ibia re^olotion ii easily nntWvstood. 
and will be rnadily admitted. To all iho privilcpo* wbioh^^ 
a charier can convey, liiey ari*> bv a royul chiirter, *t)I^^| 
dently entitled, Tlit? second clnmr* u of gremr dJIBculty: ' 
for bow c^u a provincial law MTnrif privllrgci or tmninni- 
ti» to a province * Provincial lav* may grant, to ciMtaia 
iadividitalE of Uic province, the cnjovfncnl of gainloJa or 
ao inuntinity from onerous oflicafl^ tbey way operate npM 
iba poflpl« to whom (boy relalv ; but oo provino^ can ooa- 
iVr jiioviucial prirlleg«ft on rtirlT They may tnve n lij^ 




lo all which the k'tng hn^ sprrrn ihcm ; but U in n coiicdt 
of Iho other iicmtflp^jrrr, thni men have a n^ht la ull 
vllicli titey hsvo given tn ThomEnliirR, 

A ^Torporalion la con^iit^fH , in Inw. a<4 an inrlividiiul, mid 
can Qo more viteiid irs own imiiiuiiitieSr Ih^tn h iri»iL caii^ 
bv bu own rhou'e> OAHumc diguitiri or Cilli^a, 

Tho IrKiKlalur^ of n colony (kt not the cotnpurison bo 
Uto much dtfctaincd) in only the vmlry of a lorji^r puriah, 
wbick msy lay a cese on (Ho iohabitJuiU, and enforce* the 
payment : hcl can eileod no likflui><Qce h&yond irs o«u 
duitnot, viusl modify iIb purlicolur rt-y^ulailiuns hv the fg&m 
nnm} Inir. iiiid* nhalcvcr muy bi>^ iU intcrnjil RXpniHci, 1% 
till Jjoblo to taxes luid by i^uprHoiir nuthnrity. 
Tbo phflrtflfs ^ven to differeiit provmc^t aro iliffi^rf*nt. 
Mid no i^Ki^ral ri^hl vAn hv v\ir.icliift] frc^ui fbeiii- Tho 
ckaner of Peimnylijuu;!, ivliere ihu coiigrc-«t of unurohy 
lua bevn tmpudenlly h(?ld. i^oHtnimt a dmi^ udmittiiig, in 
ex|»T«:> IrrmA. luxutioii h\ iJio |iurli>imrn1. If. in ihc. 
<^1her charters rio f^u«h rc^crvfr la rmidc. it muAt imvc been 
omiltod, (19 oot neccfisai^', bevnu^O jl J9 impliod in tlio nn- 
Ittre of siihordtnate goTemm^nl. Tli^y who are subject 
to lawn, urc iiublo to Uurs. If any mcli immuniiy had 
briNi gmntj^, it \% Rlill ri^i^cublr by lbi< li-^iulniurR. ntt4 
OQghl to Imt mriikf'd, im conlnirv to ihi- pnMick ^ood. 
^irl)*ch Ui in (^v«rir <h<irC«ri ultimately intruded, 
^H^SopfiOM) it lrtu.'i Ihul onyAucb i-xoinptton ih containod 
^^m ihv charter of MuTybml, it cao b* pload«4l only by tbe 
Mtiry I undent. It is of tia uap for Any other province \ and, 
wtib re^id ^vrn to them, must hftfe been roinid<*r*Hl hh 
one of xhe ^jrtlK lo whit^h (he kin^ has been tWtnivd; 
«Bd ouDullrd. lUt tn';st:hhvon% to the publick, by ittcnfioui^ 
lo OBO littlo ^tcUlement Uic gcncml Interest of the ecnpiro ; 
u tafrinpii^ the M«Ceni of (lominion, and violulin;^ th« 
compact of govemmtnl. Hut Dr. Tucker faun *ho<Mi, ihut 
TTi-n thin nhHni>r priimi^fK no excmplinn from purliiinKrnt- 

^^Pln dio coiitrovrnty agitiitrii ubont the Ir^^lnuinK of thia 
century, vbctbev the Euglidli law« could bind Ireland, 




Dav^uautj whi> dcfondcU dfrainat Mulyoetix Iho dvmfi of 
Eln^laitd. ^ODAid^r^d it nji ri^ceHiiai^ to prove iioihtDjc more, 
than thai \\io |iro4^ni IrUli mirM be dpomed m colony. 

Tlin tmtrKJfUfj c(>aiit-\Bon of reprefiejiUtiveiv with l>u<-a, 
nii(Mii4 to hnv<^ Mink i1i?rp inlo ntuny ot t]ioKir- ininilA, that 
admit sounds, wilhout ihrir rarjtnnj^. 

Our fk&tioii LB r£ipr«BOQtod la parllojiWDt by An ii«80nhly 
&» uiimL<rouf< us can well ooQ^Ut viih order ond doBpolcbt 
chosen by ptiunts iw difTi^r^hTiy r|iiAlitled tn illlTerenI 
|iluo»K, tliitt tlic itiodtf trf ilivice keeruji to be, for thi? nioal 
|>arl, fanned liy chnocr, and s«1ttt;d by cmtoia. Of indi* 
riclciab, far th*:- greater ptirt hnvo no vote, nii4, of tbc 
voters, ftjw have urty pcr^oi^nl krowtod^ of luin to wbon 
lh«iy intruNt their libvrty and fotluoe. 

YtX this rrprpKonlatton ha* iJw whole effect etpeuted 
or desirr^d, thai of spreAiling so widr thr run? of gi'iirmi 
intcreali and the purHui^tiliun uf jiuUick Goun»el», th4it 
iho adviiMiBf** or eorria|jtic>u uf purtii-'uUr men cau aeldom 
operute wilL much inpiry tn the; publick. 

For ibis reason manv poputoiifi and opulent to^na n^it- 
Iher enjoy tmr desiy(^ pnrticalar vepreseikta lives i Ibfty Are 
ioi^Ludml in ihiv griierni firheme r»f publiok ndmirtUtmlloQ, 
iHid CRUDot HUfter hut with the test ^f [he riupiie. 

If U urged* Uial the Amcrii:mi« h;ivc not tlie suin*- seen* 
rity, and thnt a Hniiiih Ic^^lator may wanton with their 
property ; yet, if it be Irae, tliot their nealtb is our venltb, 
and that their rnai will bt> our min, the parliamecLt ha» Ike 
inme iniereit in atti^ndin^* to them, na 1o any other part of 
tiie nation* The rennon why w« yAncv: taiy ennfiAt^nfv in 
our reprenentnlivrH ts. thni thr-v nia^t fthnrr iji tlic good 
or t?vi1 vhich their eoun^els tthtxW prodace. Theii Ahtue i», 
Lntleod, rommonly oonAequentiul and remote ; but it u nol 
often poBMble timi any immt^diflle advimlaK^ ean bo ex- 
tended to wucb nuinbcrii tut muy prevail n^ait it, W** 
ure. ihi-rT?((ir<\ lut Kecnrc* ugainst tnie&TiariHl difpr«tatt(ui« 
of KOTcmment. a« human wi^doni t^ii inake u», and upon 
thflji *c^Gu^ty the Americans may venture to ropow. 

It h *nid, by the old memher who ha« Tiritlen an a4>pea] 


the tax, tliat " as the ^rod«<^e of Amt-Ticun lubour 
t 111 Ifritish icaiiutikctiurtfA, llrd fmlmicc ol' trade u 
tly Again&i tliem; wliaiever >ou lake diivctly in taxes 
ii. in rffrvt, liikrn fmpi ioiir oftn nmimrrrr. If rhp nilntder 
■i/,cs ihe nioiH'^, vkilli nliirli ihi^ Amcrtcun should puy hit 
1»U, ttJid cumr 1o uiBTket, Ui« nwrchiuit uiuitiot ox|iih:I 
Siu cimVnmrr, noroofi flio dcbt^,lLl^^udyco^t^act^(J> be 
.- Svippaip wo obtain from America n milltoti, instead 
of onr hundred th^uEund pnuodii, it ivouM be dupplyiuff one 
nnn^U pxigpnec l)j thp fntiirfi roiu of onr commerce." 
PkrI of thJA U Into ; but tlie old member m^fm* nut lo 
rceite, that ifhbibrcitUrcii uftbt? IrKisTaturr Limw lbi% jti 
well ra NimM^If. ibc AmcrJCDTis ore in no d^agvr of oppres' 
jiOD, since- by RiciicommotiFv provident tiieymust br !qi>1aX' 
;«<l.aEUtat vo may not Itiso om^WAy, viitl vreg:ain onotber. 
The ftAtne old m-^mHrr hni <li*<?overed. That ihe jiiJfr^s 

AtrmeHy l)ioui»li1 it dle^ul to Iul IrT-lnud. Jitid drL-bir<?H lliul 

tatc* t-un be more nUke lliuii Uiosc oflnrlund und Atno- 
ric<i ; yd tLr judges whom lie <)|]qCcji hfivc mculionttd A 
diffDrcooc. Irelond, they «ay, " hnlli ii parlmmeiit of its 
owa." When »iiy eotony h^s an ukdependei^t porlLament, 
arktiowledjred by ibe parliameui of Bn(atii» the* eo«?« will 
difTrr lr*i. iht'ilxlJiurOt'cirg^r^llk'timt, rh^ptcriifEb, 
the 4CtA of flir Brili^h fiurlinment bind Inr?Rtid. 

ll is nrfed, thnt vhco Wakb, Durbani, and C1i<*sUir 
mre ilitwted «f tUi-'ir purticulur fmvilcgra, or tu»«ieot go- 
vcmmenli !tnd reduce lo ibu ilute of Eiififlbh v-onntios, 
tbf^bud re]>rr](eHlaIiv«*t o»i^i*d ib^TOi^ 

To llifHT rmm wbom iM>me(bing hiid been t^tkrn^ lome^ 
ihin^in return mi^bt firoperly l;e gKeii. Tc tlie Ami.incariK 
lhi*ir cbartcr> nn^ left, a.'t limy werr. nor have ibey lost Any 
iliiaff, except that of ivJiich tlicir sedition btu deprived lli^iii. 
If tbey irere to bo represented in parUomriitr ftometbiuK 
would be tcntnltd, (honicb nt^thtn^ is tvithdrawn- 

Tbe inbnbitantii of Chetlrrf Ourbaoi. kUjd WuU-t nrrr 
invited lo fixchangfi ibeir poculiar inslimtinfK for lb« power 
of voting, vbieh they wanW 1}efore. Tin.' Ainrricdu* have 
rolutitiurily migiicLl tlir power of toltug, to live in di^tAut 



and Hopnnilc t^Dv^mmeutf ; nti<1 wbnt tho^ hfitfi volnntarilj 
qii)tt»d, liitj- hflvu no rijflit lo clifcjm. 

1l miiAt Hlwnvft hr ronirmlii-rei), tUut ibey lire r^pra- 
^eiiled by iLe iiamG tirtunl rcprc^ntnlion M ihe ^frettlrr 
parlurEujjIJflhiiien ; unci tlml. If by riiaogo of pWc» ibc; 
hnvo lesa »harD in tho lcg;ulaturif Ihau u propoitioTialD lo 
Ihcnr opuk'Tic-o, thoy, bv tbeir removal, fi^ined ilukt opu- 
Iflnrp, ond hud (jriffiualtj, imd have now, ibejr choke of a 
vr>fi« nt homr, or rii^heH ul it diiUinci*, 

Wf> aiv lr>ld, what appcnri^ lo ihr old member and lo 
Olliera^ u pcutiUon tliat must drive us iiilo tncitricablc nb- 
■nrdity: that we have cither no right, or iho sole right, of 
taxing tho colonit^f^. The m«'UQiii^ U, tlinl if no can tax 
them* tL«y canuot fax thomsdvi^K ; imd liiut if they rtui i»\ 
thprnaetves, we cannot lax them. \Vr unuircr, with wty 
lillle liebiUitioii, ll]«t. fjr ihe g^enera) usr of Uio cDpiTc. 
we havr ihc sole risht ol' taxing Iht-iu. If ihoy have coo- 
IributAd abj tbinj; id their own usiircnbliubp uhul tJiey con- 
tributed xeop not piiiil, but given ; it vttut uot u 1a\ or 
lrih\jt?, but A pr<'«ont- Vet ihey hnve ihe nulurul atid logal 
power of levying money on them^elvo^ for provinrtftl par- 
pobett, of providing fur Ihrir nnn r^xpenw? at their oftO 
dieicretion. Let Dot tikis ho tlioughl new or ^tnu^ ; U ii 
tijc jtftto of every pari*U in the kingdom. 

The friendit of the Am<^rioitift itro ordiflcrcut opinions- 
Souie think, thuU being ut)repr(.'«4?Dl«d, lJi«y ouRht to lai 
ihemvelvev ; mid other*, th:jl they ought to hnv^ r^'prcM^nta- 
liwH in rhe Britiiih pHrliimnnl, 

[ftbey aiv to Xax ihcmscUea. uhat pow^r li lu rr^maiu 
in (ho inpTcaic legislature? Thai ihcy nmsl mjIiIc tbeir 
own mode of lev^iaj; ilicir monry is mppottid. May ihe 
BritiAh parliametit tell them how much thvy «ball contri- 
bme ^ If the sum may be projicribiMl, they will mturM (aw 
ibanU for the pownr of raJiinff ii ; if iliey nre al liberty to 
griint or lo deny, lliry aro uu luii^r subjevtM, 

If ibcj are to l>e tvpmentud, whiU numlirr of tU"e 
*r^teni oratora are to be winiitlcd i Thi*. 1 4ijppo»c, the 
pAdiameul muit )«ttlo : jct, if rocrn have a natural and as- 



ipht to he repreAonled, who shaTl d^l^Tinine llw 
Mr fl«']«-gntfi4 ? I^luft, huwt^ver, suppose ihifm 
to BBikil tVL-til^-thrt^', Wr iM jih the Liiif^iluni ofScoU 
Und, vhttl will ihii rrprc!<cMUtiun aiail them ? To pnjr 
hui«0 vttl bv still u jfrie^aiLm- Thr lovr of money will not 
b« It^MViwd, nor IW power of getting it incraoMd. 

Wiiilhi^r will thin necessity of rcpr^ftpnlation drivf^ tu? 
1% rtrry ftnUy «rttl«-mrDt tn be out of The reach of ^vem* 
moDl, till it lia« wiot u amtulor to parlianivut ; or may two 
■of ibenii ctr a greater number, be forc^ to oniie iimdnglo 
d«pi>tatiou '. Whut. uc Jiisl, is the clilVercnce botweca him 
Uuit U (axed, by compuUicn. williout representation^ amd 
htintbai itrepn?H-utrd, by enmpiklKion.inorderto hetaxwl? 

PW nuiny n-i^n« the houii^ (if i'c<mmoii-i was iii a Mnln of 
flvctomtioQ : now burgcMCA were added, from i\tnc to timo, 
williout any reojidn now to bo discovered i but th<» number 
ba« be«Q fixed for more Ihun u century and a half, and the 
king's pow^r uf iiitreuBinf; it ban beeu ijui^itiioued. It will 
liaidly be thought ftl lu new-inod(<l thu courttittjtiuu in 
favour (if ihr pUntrrit, who, am they grow rirh. may buy 
ejtetca in £ii^Iiuid» und> wilhuat auy iunovnllon. rttrcCUAlly 
rvprcscBt tbcir native coloujcA' 

Tb» fnonds of ibe AmericauB, indui?d. axk for thim what 
tbey do not atk for tbeiuHelvfii. This incftlimubk' right of 
repre««iitalifro thi^y have never solicited, *rhey nieun not 
tocJicbnnge solid money for such airy hoiuiur. They Hay, 
ond »ay wiUingljr. that (hey caiinot cguveiiiently bo re|>Tc- 
oented; because their inference is. that they cannot be 
tuxed. They arc too ri^moto to «hare the gen«ml goTorn- 
noBl. «Bd» therefore, clntni the priviJe^d cf goveniing 

Of the! principle* contained in the roAohitionfi of the 
oongT^Wr hoVkftver KilJ. iiidtYuiile. ^id oh»citrc. »ucb ha» 
baeo lb» inftuence tipon Americjin uudcrstnoding, Uut, 
from Xew England to ^oulh Carolina, there ia formed a 
general combinulion of nil thn pr<3viiic«( ug^iiutt ibeir mo- 
ther-eciintry. Tho miulnem of indr-pimdence hdt vj>read 
from eoh>ny to colony, till order u IoaI, and govrrnneut 



devpiaodi Biwl nil in filled with niarule, xi)iro&T, «ioU-ncv. 
ftud confuBii^n. To bn qnwt U OiiaflTitcttOik , 1o bp lo^nl 

Tim <:iHigTeNH uf PhibiiIt.*lijliiA. oji fUACDibljr coaveo«d 
by itn own autljoriU. ha> pruuiulgAW a dcclaratioii, in 
compliaDoc with which ihc communkutioii bcl»<*on Bri- 
tain and the ^oatc«t port of Nurlh Am^ricA, U now sii^ 
|>endcid. Tb«5 c9flNod to Hdmit ihc tntportiilioa of En^luk 
good4, ill Df^r^ember, 1774, itnd drtrnniiK- lo fi«*rxiut lb« 
t^xportaliuti o( ihui uwu nu lougur tban lo NovcvbcTt 
1775. - 

Thin mig-bt seem cnougk; but ih^y bnvo dotM noni 
lh<,7 havo <l«olarod, that Chi:^ thall trt?ul uU aa OMDIM 
who do not concur with ihera in dtBaJTeclion nnd p«Trt«n^ 
neBs; nod that tbejr will trade wich none thai iihall Irale 
witli BriULiii* 

Tbtj threaten lo Higmatiac. ia their guMltc, tbooo who 
■ImlL UflD,iiim<' ihn products or mcrcbandiAC of their mother 
Gcunlry, tind aro now tit.-ar(;Litij-^ AUflpectod bouMM for pro- 
hibited floods. 

Tb^ie Lok1i]« dedanitioni tbev profcKS Ihfiutaelves read^ 
(u iiiuiiiliiiTi liv iorc^r^ Tht-y lunn iirmeil the uiiEiLiti of 
Iheir provinces, and seiwd the pubUck stores of ammttoi- 
tion. They art, therefore, no longer tabjcctt, since thcf 
rcfuAC Uie laws of their soverei^^n, hn<\, in defence of thai 
refuvfil, urv muking open prvparationA for war> 

Bvin^ now, in their own opmioii, free ilflte«, they arr 
nul only niiRing Hrmie<i, biii fnnning ulliuni^i**. not duIji 
hai^tcning to robol themnelvtia, but acduulug their ncifh' 
boars to rcbrtlIou> Thoy have |]ub1iAb«^d on oddreu Ut 
tbc iiibabitunU uf <^i^cbcc. in which dis^'unlunt and r«>- 
usiuncc* aro opvniy inritod, and wJtJi very respectful in«D- 
liou of " lhi» iGagBcitj of Freochmer," invite tbcm to tt^^ 
dt*pLiticft to ihe congress of Philadelphia ; to tJial u^aL of 
virtue and vera^^ity, ^hencfl the penpir* of Bu^and are 
told, that lo rttnbli^h pi>pery» "» teli^on frvii^t with 
aacKiuiiiuy and impious lenei^/' even in Q^ebce. a country 
of which Iho inbabilaub ore |»piMi^ is ao contrary to Ihe 



ikftt il canaof be lavAiUy done by ibv JofcU- 
Hin hi^; where k is maide one of the luliclci oi (hnir 
wuticintioiu to [lc-}irite tlit? ro]ir|ii(!rv() Frrnrh nf thtnr re- 
itgious cftUiblislirncnt ; nufl whrncc Uic Fr4?jch ufQuubei- 
ore, allbcMUDc time. llnUcrod ii>to M^ililiou. by profuHviom 
of cikpcictaig " from the litKrality of setitimeiit diitmji^iixh- 
iUf; ihelf ualioD, that differeDce of relifiW vriW n^l pr«jii- 
dic« lliem a^iDci n lu^urty amily, bt-^ouuKc tW' trsinfii:<fTi4iatit 
iMliutf vf fntiilnm Mi^iiittw nil, who tiniCe In lhe< cause, 
above fnicli loW'iititJ<led tit^iultit'i." 

QiKrbcc, liowf-»er, t> ut a i^tvnX distnttven TTicy hai«; 
auiril u atrok«, from wliit^b thoj ra&y bupe for (trailer and 
wore api'My uim^Iiit^L Tboy buT*^ Iriod to iGfo«t tho 
pcoplL^ i>l Eti^liuid wiib ibn coitlugion of dUloyalty. Thoir 
errdil in, hAppily, nnt fiurh lut givi*« ibixm inAiipnce pit>* 
IKirtioiutttT lu (hvir luulice. WLeji lliuy talk oftlielr |in?- 
teaded immuuitioi " guumiitecd hy die phghtrd faiCli of 
l£ovvram«nl, and the m^Ht iiolvmti compuirta v'lih Et\g]uU 
iovorcigiis/' wc think onr«otv«!K ut liberty to inquire, wben 
till* fftith vas ptij;b(ed, and tho compuct miide; nnd, vhm 
we con only tlarl, lliat kihg Jninr^B and kiu^ Ch»rle« llui 
Gntt promiand ibn «i-1lIrrH in MbA»LchuxRCt'« huy, tinw 
fkinouA by the appr-llntioii »f DoiiloniariA. excmplion from 
taxc4 for ier<TO ycnrii, wc infrr, with Mr, Mntiduii, ihnt, by 
Uii* "nolotnn compncl," thoy wero, After oxpinilioa nf thr 
atif^ulatfid f«rnn, liable to lasatloa. 

When ihey a^lv to our compaction, by felling ii«, thai 
tliry urv fu [)t? i-nrrirtd from ihrir nwn country (d he IrlntX 
forcerUin offences, vc un.' nut so rtiady to pity tbom. u 
to ndriBc tbcm uot to otTend. Wbilu ihcy tiro innocent 
Ibuy iLTo ufe. 

Wboa they tell of law* mside «xpre»Iy fi>r ibeir punieb' 
iDOttt^ i»<* aiiiuer, ibut tumuli^ ond HTditioii were iilwnyi 
pmiulmb|i\ uiid lliitt thci n^w tiiw prrti^ribrfi tmly iJm; mode 
of pxociilion. 

Wben il U uid. thut the i^bule lown of BcAfnn i« di>- 
ffc«itcd for B miMletuoAuor of u fiw, wi' wonder ut (hear 
«banM>]oAuieft» ; for wo know ihut Uw> town of D«i«1ob aad 



all the twsooiitted proviEiccs, ara now in rebellion to dt^f^od 
or ju«(Uy the crlmioaU. 

irrri«ii(l?i ill lite impoMlj& of Bo»liin are trii^d hy contml** 
*ion witUoul u jtirVn thi-j sre tried here in llie same mudr- ; 
nikd wh\ siLould lite Biistoziionjc expect fruiu us inorc trtt* 
<leruoH« for them Utan for ounolvoa i 

If (hey ave roud^mned imlinard, tl b bee^uut lJ>«nT is 
no D«^(-*d of a trial. Thp crim^ fs mauifeit and ootorioui. 
All trial U the iiavestigittiou «f siimHlhin^ daLihlAil, Afl* 
Ilallt^u phi1oat>phc'r obaencs* that no idiui desires io hsiu 
wliat he hns ulrcudy neen. 

If tlieir oasemblitTs h^yn btvn Rud<ioulT diuoUod, what 
waB tli« reason? Their ddibiTntions were Lnde^mt, adJ 
tboir iu1e]iCL«>n» seditiotjs. 'Dui |mui-r uf dittKululion is 
gmnthd oud rcserveJ tur *ui;h tlmcfl uf turhul(?ne(i. Th^ir 
bcAl frirnds have bt-en Intt^ly lalicltitij; thr king to diMoUe 
\uA parliament t to do what Iht*y ao loudly complain of aiif- 

That tho lume v«D£;ean<-« invoKeA the intiocoDt and 
guilty, IK iin rvil lobe litiueoleil; biil hur»uiiettution<annol 
prt^vouf il, nor huniiMi pi»wrr ;ilways rcdrras it. To bring 
miAciy on tho^c who hjivc not dcMrivcd it. is part of the? 
A^grc^tcd ^liit cf robcllion. 

Tbat ipv«^rnaitrs hnve born (oicoiimos ^vcn thL-m, only 
thul a f^'reut man mif^^ht |f«t «aie from imporluiiity, aji4 
that Thry hnvtr had jndge*, not ^ii^y> uf ih*- daepffsL 1r«ni- 
in^. or ihf' piiml inlr-gniy, wr faavr- no ^rt-nt u^uta tn 
doubt, bcctiubc HUi^h misforluuei hd^peu to utinirhvs. 
Whoever h governrd, will, «omotime»» he governed ill, 
even when ho » moat " coDoemod m hid own piv 

Thdl iinprojitT otli(<er« or majpslrntc-^ are uiot, it thr 
erime or fnlJy nf Thixr xhat Mr'nr ihrni, Wh<fn incnpiicily 
is dlico^cr^d, il ou^bt to be remgved ; if c4^rrup(ioH is d«- 
tcctc-d, it outfit to bo puuiahed- No iforeroment could 
«ub»JM for n <luy, if aiii^k' iiroun cuuld ju»lifv dofection. 

One of their eouipEuitiis ie not Kuch .is am elaiin mu<b 
fiOmmaieruiion from llir tiofUntl ba«om, Thav ti^H "s, thai 




L<i|[cil (itjr i.'nii(fiirf» nnil thut n tan U now Imd, 

diosc wL( 



iDcnt before^ To tJiU, wc think, il oiav be eajUy mmtrrTcd, 
ilut like loQ^r tbey liiive been BF^ored, iLe b^K^r Ibcy can 


It i» cerUiiilj riol murh iheir inFtfrrcL ta r^prpftcint ia- 
novntioii u cnintrial or iiividitiiift; fnr ihi^y hurf? inlra- 
dqc«^ into Ihr hinlory of m^kntkiod a new tao^a of dh^ 
ttflcdioD, ftnd hu^€ Kivon, 1 believe, tbc firM i<Kiimple ofa 
proscription publi^hoct by a colony aj^iutit Ibti uii>tber- 

To nliAil u iirg^d of iievf p4)Wf*rft ^:&i>tnd In the f onrtfl 
of Hdmirally. ttr ibii rxtPTMiim of ituihonly rttrifismfd on 
Uif jud^K. jt mjty be &ii»itcicd, id o few wordi*, tbat tbcy 
liavQ tbcEtischc-a tdriIc sitcb rc^itlalionA nrccssnry ; that 
tbf^y are t^KlAULInbed for tbe prer^^niuhn of i^reufer eviUt tit 
iho ^iD<> uraet ii must b« ob^^rved, tbat ihiM^povertbaTO 
Vi>t been exlvnded ilnce tbt- ivbellion id AinL^rlcu^ 

OQ«f iiio<li_- of pt-rsuQaii>n tlirir iu^inulty \m> titiggrMrd, 
wbicb it taay. pcHm]>»H bo IrnA (m\\ to rcii^L thai Wc 
may not Jpak vitb indillcrunco tm tbc Aincrican cod(c»I, or 
hnBginc ibut tha slrug^k it for b claim, wbich, boworar 
decided, U of naaW imjiorlAncc nnd n?inot« coiKetiuvnce, 
iii«< PhtUdelphutn con^reuft has raLen cure to irjfunn U!^ 
llmt ibry tm fcautiuK t\tc iumnndv of parLioiTurbt. tk% well 
for our juA^ tu tlicir own. 

TltL^r ktfcnntTU of perfpicctcity bju enabled tbcm ic 
punur connrqucncvit 1o n ^ntkt^r difltAOce; to Ude tbrouf^ 
cloDilii imprfiinTii In tUp climneM of European ftigUt; Hud 
to rind. I know tiol bov. tbaT whrii tlmy tiro mxod, v« 
■liall be tiislaved. 

Tluit MJAfrry » a mucrablo sbite we bavc been oHca 
t0M> luid. doubtless, many it Briton will treiobLo 1o find it m 
nosT OA in America; but buu' at wilj bo bruu^^hl btther tbv 
coDgim miiit iiirorm t». Tbt< cjueftiiun mi^hl diMrew n 
roiTinKiB mtdr-rtfuiicbng ; bui ihr utitf'imL'a nf ih^ ulb^r 
hemiiipbcrr <um *^H*ily r<>holve it, " Our niiniitrm." Ilicy 
mj, " ftre our cuctuio. find if tbey ^uld carry ibc poinl 



of taxalinn. mny. witli the name army, t^nalavc iu- l( nay 
be Jinid. wo will not \my Ihcm; but rcmcmtcr," Niy iho 
WG«t0n) lAgiiA, " lh<* buL4f» from Americ;!, and, wc may ttttd, 
l)if< nif*r)^ i^m) jiriTliriiluHy llif U^imun rathrhli<'kK of fhls 
¥a.4t contiiitrtir, ^ill ihh-it \tc Ifi (f)E- ^w^r of your vnejDleB. 
Nor hav« you auy reason to expect, ihftt. afler makui^ 
-ilnTGn of DM, muny of im wilt rcfiivr to ujvitl in rcdacin; 
you to the »am(* ah jcct state .'^ 

Th^ae nrci droAdf^iL mooaces^ bnt auspectJo^ that ih^^y 
have not much iho sound uf probahitity, the cunj^resa pro*' 
4iiM*d!f • " I)u not Irrut ihi^'A lU cLimfririil. Know, tbat hi 
IcM thnn half u century, thr fjuUrouU rtmtrvod lo Lho 
crowti. from the numbrrlcjis sr^uitit pf llii* vrwt contiiM-al* 
will pour lar^ slroamu of iroultli into thu royal coffcrt, 
[f to ihifl b& added tho power of taxiog America, al 
l>lea<(iire, lh«i rri^wiiwill pot^ess more trea^nro than mny 
lip iipcesvary lu purchaiti^ ike wmmiM of libcfrty in ^vur 
wlaud." -i • 

All IhU [a v^ry dteadrul; but. amidil the terrour that 
nhakcH my Intme. 1 cutiaol lurboax to wisb. that «omc sluice 
were opened for these streams of traadure. 1 Aht^uld jlflndly 
%ee Anierlcii reiiiro half of whfii England bai t^xpeiwlod ill 
hpt defpiit't-: ami of Iht? ittrrTzini-l|i:ii will " Ihiw «> lur^y 
in \<\s> tliaii lifdra ci-nlury," I linpn a smaM ril^atka&l, may 
he found to quench the ihirftt oF iho ptc^nt i^n^^iatiun, 
which »vomH to Ihiak iLMf in more dan^tT of vriuttinj: 
nionoy» Ihun of josiiii^ bbi-riy- 

Tl it dUlic^iiIt to judgiJ with wbut iutcnljoji Aicb aiiy 
bur^ix of tTiiilnYCibiriiir nro Vf^ntod ; if siirb writers hope 10 
drmv(\ Irt lis ralhttr nfpcl lliL*m with §coni, thuu reOito 
tbcm Ly dttipulaliuti. . 

lu this la^t lurrifick imruE^aph oro two pontiofu, thai, if 
our f4^ur» do not OTcrpnW(*r our nrHxri^tinnr may enable M 
to «Hj>port life n liltk loagK'r* Wo ara told by Uwao 
rroitbi-m of ral^niify, nof only thai our prpwnt mMilMrt 
iltTi^iga To cti»1;iv« MK, bui Ihuf lHt< sainie oialagiiiiy of pur- 
poAr ia to dettct^id tliroUKli all ibrir nuecrieuini ; niid that 
lhc< wealth lo he poarcd info Cn^Uud hy the Pactolu 



Amenta, wilJ, whwitvor ii comi^t, be omploynd lo pnr- 
<^bu»e lit' " remflini of liberty " 

or fbn»r whn Anw cuiuhicl Ihr nuiiorinl nffnjr^, vl^ mty. 
without much ^irrtigaiiL't', prchumt* tt> kiiuw nuin' iIimu 
tbrmjMrKen ; and of tijo*t who sball aucceed Ibrm, wlielJu-r 
minuter or bmf^. not to kiiour li^fin. 

The otbor p{>Kiiii>n in, itmt " the crovn," if this laudable 
oppDBulion ihoulit not be Kurccnfal, " will have the power 
of riixin^ AmiTicsi iil plriwun-/' Surrly ih*^y ihluk rathor 
loo mmiilj uf tiur apprtrljcnftioiiH, wteii ihty MippDHF im 
not to know what Iher well know thenuclvcA, that tbcy 
art: tu^edj lik<* all olbi-r BritUb Ffiibjctti, bv pjirUnment^ 
ond that (Jm crown bus not. by tbt* new impost):, whether 
right ox wrong, obuiined any iidditionul powftr ov^ ihekt 

It w«Tf- a uuitmiH, but an idle speculnttoi), to intjiiirp, 
what eflVcl Ihc^e dtcfuton *>f sedition cxpcci from the 
dupcriioti of their tf^ttcr amon^ tw. If ihcy believe thctr 
own oompUinI* of hnrd^hip, and roally drcJid tho dniiftrr 
wlilch ihey describe, they will nattirally hope to comaiu< 
nicaie fbe Batne percepiiouft lo their fellaw-«ubjeL'U. BllI. 
protmbU. in Anii-ritJi, ua iii ollH-f plairr^a, tlin r.hii-fi nm 
inccDdiAnes, tbnC bope to rob in the tuotLdt^ of o confla- 
fl^ntion. luid toM bnmda among a rabble pasnvoly cumhuB- 
tibh^. Those who wroto the addreea, thoogh Ihey havo 
flkowa ao grenl exletit or proftmdity of mind, nre yoi^ pro- 
bably, wiier Ibaa to believe it ■ but they hove been t^iighl, 
by Knmi- m^utcr of tnurhirf^ bow tti put In motion the en- 
^Do of political electiicttj ; lo iitltact* by the sound* cf 
liberty and property ; to repel, by those of popery aod 
alavtry; a&d to jrive Iho ^mM stroke, by the name of 

When «ubordinat<T communztiot oppowe the decree* f>f 
the ^ni*nil leg-kktiire with deflnnrf^ fhnn iiudiii^iciuH, and 
maligutty thus dLTiniuniouN, milliinf- lemuiiin hut to oon* 
quer or to jwld ; to allow their claim of indopendenco» or 
to rod«co them, by force, to aubmmon and nllrgianiro. 

It mtt^il be hopcdj that no £n(;liKhtiian could bp found. 



wh(im the mvnacoti of our own co1om«1», jnal rc«ciac«l from 
tbo Frcticb, would not move to iudi^stiour like thai o( 
thfi ScylUUtiM, u'ho. redirnln^ f^om war. foiinil rhemvelvM 
pxcliidml from llirir nwti hcH/»t's bj iliHr »Uvt-». 

Tbtil cf>rponitioni, conntiluted hy fafoiir. sutd exindcif 
bj «uffarancc, uliotild dorv to probibit i^ommcrcc with thnr 
native oouotry, at\d Ibrratru individuuU by iufuny, aod 
nDcietiei \v\\h, at l^ant, Kuspr-niiion gf nmicy, for dflHng 10 
be mor^ obedi^l to gnvrrnm''iit thnn ihornpiplT^tv. ir a 
'1^^'- "^ uihij1bil('« wliicli Jiut oiilj dvM^rv<*6 to be puuiUteit, 
but of wbii^L ihr. punialiTTK^rjt ia Wdlj tJt'niiKiidM hj Iba 
order of life and the pvuctr oi' imtioiiti- 

Y<*t th^rn hnvc mtn up. in th(^ face orili« publrck, men 
Vfho, hy uhnl^v^T ^'orropliorti:, or vbntmrr iiiriiliution, 
hflvu Mudertaken lo dflfond the Anwrirann^ rnilpaii>iir to 
■hrllnr ibem from rvM-ninwul, imil |iru()mi- recx»icil|jtLiDn 
witbout aubmia-iion. 

Aa pDlibcul di^riuc^ htc it;xtuta\\y contiipott»i let i1 be 
aappoaod, for a momi^nt. that ComwnU, B«ift«<I with ibc 
PhlMtilpbraii plirvi]5_v. niuy rt-colvtj lo «(*parale itself frM 
tUt? {fc^ueral tyiiem of lb« Engli«b couittirulioii, And Jsdg* 
(if ila own rigbtii in Its iiwii pitrliumi'nt, A cosip^wi migkl 
thrn mcpt ;it Truro, and addrcM tlie othrr <^ii)itir» in « 
style not imlihc the Iftogvagc of the Amcricon patriotsi : 

'■FAIBNOS AM> rKLLOW-EVBJBCTft,— Wo, lbod«l«^ 
^ute!i of tbv **<veni1 towns and pufiahe* of CoRiwnll, u* 
«i?mbii?d to deliljonile upon our our idtuli*. »nd tbHl of oiif 
con«ti1uentKp hiiviii|;, uflrr Hrnun« (Ipbnlt? vnd cn\m conJ- 
dcrntion, sHtlrd ilic scheme of our fLttirc conduct, bold it 
necL'ss4iry to df^clur*^ ihc resolutions which wc think our- 
selvfra enbllcd to fonn, by iht» nnohf^nnblo rights of rvAMn- 
able bdng^fin and into whirh we have fi^en coripj^Uwi by 
gri<iv&nc«-i apuI opprv^^iioiiH, long «'udun'd hy u« Jii patient 
)iilenc«. uol bu^aujie wtf did uol fetrl. or c-oulU not tetaon 
thefD. but bccaui^c wc wert^ unnillin^ to pvc di^larbancf 
to a ticttt^d (;ovvrumvrit, and hopt^d that others wou)d> ni 
tiiM, And, like ouncJve*, tbelr Irvio inti<r«si und their ori- 
^tnal poirm, and atl roojirniio to iirivrrEnl bappinrtvc. 


" But since* having long mdiJg<><l ihp pl^iuing expectiu 
tioD. we fiiicl gpnprni lii^ronlrnl not likely lo Jncreiue, or 
Dvl 1U<?]j to i.'ntl iu gcnf ml dcfc^utjoiii wv renolyv U> prrot 
flktne ibt- slaiid&rd of libcrlT* 

" Know ihvtt, tbat yon otc no longer to tsonftidcr Com- 
vaJI iw un Enicliith <'Oiioty> vuil^d by Enf^lifli judj^c^, re- 
Cietfing law Trum an En^liiti [lurhumcmE, or iitrludi^d in any 
^D«nil laiHlion of the kin^dnnii but an q vtatp, dutifi^it 
ftiid iitdi')>rudeiiL go^enjcd by ic« owu iiiAiilutiotiH, nd- 
■liriutcrt-'d hy iU own ntafibtratc^, and t\<.*mpt from any 
Xmx or InbuU-, bul <ucb na wo »liall Jmpobc upon ounsolvcx. 

" Wt^ ikiv th« rtcluowledj^e^ denetiibuU of llie I'lirlicHt 
ieibdlitEAnU of Briluin, ufini^ii. nho. bi^fort* iht- limi? of his- 
tory, took poKwmion of llic iilaiid do5oktc itnd uimti.'. 
and, UtCfefoTc, open to thi^ occupnntn. Of i\m de- 
■ecnt, our luu^uagc is a »ulEi«icnl proof, «> not quito 
a otfotury tiffo, wa8 different from your«. 

*' Suf^h uro iti^ Cornitfhm(?n ; but vlw are youf Vfho, 
but Ifap iiimutkoriHfd «nd bult^nK chJIdren of iiitradrrA, 
iiivarirxs, and opprrrMorft! «hn, but (he IfuoMnltrrrA of 
wrong, iLr iidicrilor!! uf robbery f In claiming indrpcnd- 
«ocf,wv claim but litllr. Wc uiiglit rcrpiirc yon to do 
pjirt from u lund %-\iwh you poutrss by UdurpatioD, und to 
Tr»ior« all thai )oa liavu taken from tu- 

•' 1ndcpcoil<mr« in lfi(< gift iif nninru. So man U bom 

ibv DMrltifr ofnnothrr, Bvrry ConiiRhman is a frcrmau; 

Ar w« haie ucvL*r roHJ^iied the rigUU orhLunanity ; and 

ho only can be Uionghl fn-^, vtio i» not gcvcrood but by 

faia ovn coiucal. 

*< YoQ CD4y nrgi^t ttrnl the; proMtnt Byj(!«<Ri of ^ov^frnmunt 
h<u df'HCL'ndnd ilimug:h many agm. and ihut wo have n 
tui^r part in tlie rvpreaentatiuu oflLe kingdnm limn any 
otli^r county. 

" All tbU h true, but it » noither <:0i^nC nor porfttiaaive. 
Wf* took to tbc original of things. Our union with tlio 
E^»h oountios vraa ojtbor compcllL-d by force, or sirtflv^l 
hf «oiBpiicC. 

" Tliat uhicb was itui4o bv violence, may by riolffnce 



he broken* If vc were trrnli^d m u ooiiiiu«re(l fieoptr, 
OUT HghtH migbt hid ubsutrrud. but rmild nevr-r htt ifxlm- 
^ui'.-vhrd^ The ^word can f^\<i nothmjt: bnt povcr, which 
a sbarpc^r svord vnu lake owu^. 

** If onr union won by compact, whom conld tbo ^om- 
j>not bifid, bill those iLaT concurred in the vlipuljiittorif ? 
Wt" ^iivf^ fiiir iMiirestr^rt rm i'f>i»nii:<^ion Tr> lettli- ihe leriri» 
or fiitiirr trxUlraiin. Tlir?y mig^bt bf? cowardn IhnI wrre 
fVigbtH. or blcckhcndA that were cheated; but. wliBtcvw 
they were. thc_Y could contract only for tJkCnisolvoo. Whftt 
they could efllabliah, we cun iinniil. 

" Af^ninil our present Tornt orf^v^mment, tt ilnkW flta&d 
in the plwro of id! urgnmc*nt, thitt we do nol likr ii. Whi1» 
we are governed as we do not Ike, where is onr liberty ? 
Wi- do ntil like laics wo wtll. Iberefore, uot Uo to\cil: 
we d<» not like jour laws, and will not obey thom> 

" The faxes t^d by our represenlalivefl* are laid, yoa 
l«lt lit, by our own oonseni: but we will uo lon^r eon- 
fiont la be reprt'Jtr^nlt^d- Our ntimber of h'^iKlulcrK w 
ong'mally n burden, and ought In have tieen refiiAett; it w 
now coiiAidcreil as a diAprn|}(irtinniUo iidvontogc; who. 
Ihoo, will complain if wt* rc^i^ it '. 

" We shall form a ^ennte of OLir own, under a presidonl 
wboin llie king ahall nominate, but whose authority we 
will limit, by aOjiifilinij; bin «tu|ary to bii merit. We wifl 
not withhold a pniper ihurr of rniitnbulioii tn Uiv m<ce-^ 
«ay expense of lawful fcovernnient. but we will deci4e 
for ournclves what nhnrc i« proper, whnl expcn^^e u ne- 
ceuftry, nn^ whut gavomment i^ Jnwfah 

" Till our roiinsel in pro<fl£Limed independent and 
ftf^coun table, we will, after iTie lenlli day of September, 
keep our tin in our ovta bat^dK: jxru can hv supplied fcum 
Qo other place, and muAt. the rclore. comply, or bcpeisonecl 
wjlb Iho copper of yocr own kitchcDS. 

" If unv Corninhman ithnll rofuae hio tiAirie to this jti<1 
nml IfiodaMf' a<i«ociatlon. he ^ball be tuffiMed from Si. 
MicbaeVfi mount, or burii^d nlire Ui a tin-mlnfi: and if 
ftny enu&sary idialt Im? found fteduHng ConiUhm^ii to tbcir 



fomtirr lUlv, ho «bnll bo imeared iviib tar, anti roHird in 
feflrkera; aati chat«d ullli <1cip^< oul of our domiuioQK, 

" Fniiii iJii* CvruirJi ouit^m uL Tiurn/' 

Of Uii» uirmuriAl, wti^t could be saM. Lut lltal It wuh 
written in jcM, or vrttlcn by 4l aiaJnmn ? Yet I krnw 
iK>1 whotbcr \iw y^rnufHi admirers of PeQUHvlvaninn oto- 
<]u«iKe, cat! find au> arKruni«>Dl in IW «dfJr«s^tf4 of tho 
ouQf^M, ibut ifl nofp vttlt grifuujr Alrength, u^ed b}' ihe 

Tlic nr^unieiit uf ibe irregulur lriii>p)i of contmvRnjr, 
ftripfHrd of ilA colouni, and tum<Ml nut naked ti> Ihe view,' 
U 1H» more than thiji. Kibrrtj i> the birthri^lit of man. and 
vlicffv eb*^di*M»co is com p Lulled, thoro is no liborl\. Thy 
an*w»r i« equally simple. Gorerument w necessary to 
man, aiMl wliexe obedience h not compelled, there in no 

If the Miliject nrruHus fu obey, tt ia the duty of uutKority 
to use conipulMon. Scirlrty cnnnnt ^ub^i^t but by th« 
powirr, first ofinnkiiif: biwu. nnd then of enforcing ihcm. 

To one ef tho Ifarrnt^ hJHfiod out by the oeogTefifl^ 1 have 
put nottunjif simibr into titt? Ci>rni-><b jirocb^mutiori ; brrcuu^e 
It ii too wild for fuUv. und lou fooliib for mudin-'ns^ If wo 
do not withhold mir king unit h\s pnrliitmpiil frf^m taking 
iIm^hu fhi-y will ciofti the Arbmiiok^ und eu^lutt* ub. 

How they will cimie. iht-y Unw not lold u» i perbapi 
tbcy will Ittke winj^, and li^ht upon our cofisfa. When 
the crunoH thiiA bc^n to flEitti^r, it m timo 1W pyu^rnLcs lo 
ke«p tlwir eyea about them. The grnat omtor obfcrve*, 
ibat tbey will be very fit, after they have been tntnrl, to 
impoKr* chulns npon u«, fflbt^y are i<i Sit n* their frirnd 
drtcrilj4-« thrm, iinil «o willirtg a* thny drHcrilm lhi?(ai«lre), 
Ie4 IMA incrcair our army* and double our inililJa. 

It b^u bevn, of iate^ a very ffuncnd practice to tM of 
ftluvrry omonK Thi*4« who ore sctiiujf ot defiance ev^^rj 
pcmcr that kf»epH the world in ordftr. If the learned 
mthor of ibe Re0eclieii4 on learning hofi nglitly ob- 
■rrireil, ibai no man i^vvrr l-jmM givi* l^w lo l^n^migr, it 
win br vnin to prnhihit thr iii^r of thr word ilarery ; but I 

»0b. VI. * 



could y/'ijAi it more <lii;croL'tly altered : it j» driven, itt one 
tcDC. loo Jiurd into our cnrs hj the lend hurricanr; of Pono^ 
syKnniun oloqu^uc^. aaJ, nt anothrr, glides too cold into 
our hf^nrtii by the iofl oonvpyantr of n female |>atHo1, l>&. 
wniltng llie ni[si?n«K of her fni^ndH natL fellow-iciLiBUTiit, 

i^iicli iiiu iH^eii the prugtt» <^f ArLlitlon, tlint iIiom- uho, 
u ficw yf^ars ago. (iiiiputcd only out rigLl of luyiiig (axes, 
DOW quustiou tho validity of oTpry act of Jogielation. 'Thay 
coQMdor thome^tves as ectnttcipatf^d from obetLieDce, and 
lu bi-'iiJf^Da loiif^er iLe ■tubj«<;i>^ of ihe British cruvn, Th^j 
\rn\v. iiH Tio f Uiiiirr. but 4if yirldiag iir <'<ii]i|Urnii^, of rr- 
fiignlng our doiiiinion or niniotninin|^ it hv forcr. 

From force m&ny cjidcavoiii« hnrc been ii»cd, ritLer to 
diaeundc, or to del«r iig. Somettinca th« moril of Ibo 
AnicncaEiB is exalted, and Aomelijueti ihvir tttLlUcrtn^ oro 
a^gruvured. Wv ure lold of their ooi;tribiitioiu to th* U»t 
war; u Hvur indli^d by ihrir oiitj-.rirK, and crnniinurd fcir 
tWir pmtoc:ti()ii ; n ftur by vihiclk noiH^ but tboinsHvea wen* 
gniacre. All llml (bey cnn bo<^t is. thai tbey did aome- 
thiDK lor tb^maolvL'a, and did iiol wholly iitund inoctitc, 
while the aoqi: of Uhluin wvrv lif^htinjc in their cau»c. 

If we cunriot udmir^. wi* am callod to pily tliom; to 
pity thoiir llijtt )(h(iw no rognrd to thf^ir niiithrr-«!oiintT7; 
hfivr obL'yed no luw. which ihcy could liolute; hjive im- 
parlffd DO ^uod. which lh«y could wittdiold; have enlcrod 
into tuiriocintion" of fmod lo rob their crvditom, and into 
combinotLons 1o di«irc!E5 all ^ho dt^pcndc^d on tiicir coid- 
mcrc<>- We ar^ rc'prnac^hrd with tho cruelty of shuttijg 
onf pofi, where every port h Muii against n*. We are 
oeiihuif^J 11?* lyrniLiiit'ul, fur hiiul^ritif^ lho?te from GUunc, 
who \at%K cuiidrnitittd our mrichanta to biutlirifptcy, aad 
our maEiuructurcrs to hunger. 

Utbcre persuade ub to give tbom more ljb4?rlyr to lahv 
off restraiuU. azjd r«lux aulbonly ; aod tell as what bappy 
conspfjue rices wilt nrhv from fcrbeufaoct* ; their affec- 
tlofis will bi? ninriliiitH, nrid \tiU> wimt iliiratii^nt of lipne- 
fiuenco thrir gmtiindc will laxtirhitp. Th^y will lovo ihfiir 
friend*. Th«y vtrill reTfrrenw? tlicir protectors- They will 



Uirav tbemselTes into our armn, imd ]iiy thnir f voperty nt 
OTir feet; cbcy will hnj fnwn uo otlicr wimi wc can hcII 
Uftcoi ; Ihf^^ ^11 »cll to no otbcr vliat wc wj«b to buy. 

Tbal Any obli^tions should ovorpow^r iL^ir ^tlcntiDn 
io pro6l» w«» havp known them lori^ 4^uouij;b iir>t to expert. 
Ic ift Hot bi \tt! exj>erie>tl frtvih u ruore liUernl people, Witli 
what kuidii«H ttirt rrpuy Itr-ut^litA. tliry ure iiow Hidwirig 
lu, m ho, M Jicon a* wc haw <lcli\€f4rd tiieui from France, 
arc drfTinf^ nnd proscribing us. 

but if tter ^ill jj^riutt xhetii iv Lix ibrmstlt'c^, ihoy will 
give us moro tlian W4< requir^f^ If wf jirovlmm Ihcm indfr' 
prndmr, ihry wilt, during plrjiittiri*^ pay nt a Hiihfidy. Th« 
oonttntuDol uow fonmHt^v. Imt for povcr. Th<* (jiii*Hi](in 
ifl nol, how much wt? shall collect. l>uf. by ivlmt AulJiarily 
tlic c^ltrclioik Khull l>r made. 

Tbosr who find that ihc Anjcrican» cannot be nbown. in 
any form, that mn? rflise love or pily, druH* thorn in habi^- 
mrntft of iVTTout, ttnd try loiiuikf? uii think tbiTm t'ormidnhli^. 
TUe Boitoniani cun i-idl into tbtt liHd ntiirty thniisnnd 
Whilr wr i^ncpirr all hrforn ii4» n^w i>nt*niit^n will 


ruiT up brhiod, and uur wurk will b« Jtlvuijii (u begin. If 
wc take pcisAi^ftsion of tbe Ui>v-n% the cv>luT)lAb vill retire 
into ihv inlund rufouns, and the guiti oi victnry will br only 
rtDpCy bonwJ, nud u vidt^ «ittcnt ot vtajde and dc«>lation- 
If w<» fuhilue tfai^m for lb<» prc^iit^nt, ihry will iinivrrtalLy 
i«ioll ill the Hell WM, luid reai^a UA. vithoiit pity, to «ub- 
jt-ctinn mid d ex j nil- 1 iff u. 

Tu all ibi^ it niuy hr nnvwrrrJ, ihut bc^twrcn 1o»in; 

Aiocrica, and rc-.ajgnJn^ it, Ibcrc i» no ^r^ral liifTcrcncc ; ihat 

-jtitt not vrry rcosonablo to jamp into ibo «<^p, bccaitsf* Iho 

&ip UE leaky. All tbosv ovils mny befall a<, but w^ ttcvd 

not bm1«n ibtrin^ 

Tbr Heuij of frIouce»lt-r has prupiined, and ht^tuis to pro 
|MMC iltrnoual^, thai wr should, at oatr. rclta^r cur clmtuti, 
declaroUi«iiiBka0li;r&of thcmtolvco, and ubiHllL- ibetn dowa 
ibe uiincl, HiH opiniuD is tbal our x^in 1'roui (b«m wEII 
be i\Kf lam^, lud our expend tefii, Whal th<:;y can huve 



mcfft chonply from Britain, t(t«y will ttiil buy; vliut they 
can ft^ll to m at th» liigiioBt pric«^, Xhvy will sitll ftel1> 

It i», however. ;> liill^ b^rd. thsif. hnving mo \aie\y fon^ht 
UDi] cimnnefpil for tldrir ffuft-tr, wt» *ilnniUi gijvr-rn llwm n* 
lon^rr. By leltiii;^ [hem lori^e lKtfor<r llie war. how mniiv 
millions might lisive been Biivrd. One i^ilil proposal b 
h^Hi c»i(U€rcd by tiDctbcr- Lcl us jViUm^ 1o the French 
wiial ve bave tuken ("rom tliem- Wg sball sec out coIo- 
n'mti ut our fet^l. nbeti ihey huve rd enemv po Rpnr tbcm. 
T^t lift five (he InHiHiis urnis^ und Iracb them diAciplinr, 
and eiJVOiinigt< tbeiiu now tirrd rhen, lo plunder » pitiiiia' 
lion. Security atnl leisure are the pureuU of ^rditioa. 

While ihtst^ diilcre^rit opiiiiuns are oifitatcd. it ftrmu 
to ba delimiiincHi, by the li^g:islature, Ibfit forco «biUl be 
tried- Men of ibe prn hate snirfnm wiy great «kil1 la 
conqiieriog kingHnms hut rhpy hR^e niroDg incbnation lo 
^yo udvjcr, I uuiiuol fiirbi-ur lo wish, Ibil ib'K cumraE^ 
tint] may f^nd ivilboul Llon^dithrd, uiid thai ihr rrbfl:^ iruiy he. 
«nbducii by tcrrour rather thkui by violcuc^r; and. tlierc- 
fore, ru^commfrrid Mich a force lu iDny tuk« awuy, not only 
tho jiovcr, but the bopo of nTfliAtiuiCfl, und, by comiufno^ 
without A batllo, unve many from (hti sword. 

If their fibfllinncy continues, without acniel ho^itliilefi. it 
Qinv, porhiip4, b(^ mollified, bv hiriiiii^ out the sfiblifnt to 
frtfte tjunrl'Tft, for)jiititing imy prrsi:Miid cmrlty or hurt. It 
bLi» bcuu propoAod, that the «lavv4 »bou[d be act fre«« nn 
net which. nurL-ly, lh<^' jovcre of liberty cannot but coutnu^od. 
If tbcy (LfL- furmMbed witb fireaims fur dvft^ucv, und 
ut^nnild for huiibuDdry, and «eillj*d in tomv ximple form of 
Ifovemmf^nt withiu tbo country, they mny bo morr grstrfiil 
and lH}nekt ihnii thfir murifert, 

Fitf bo it from nny ^u^Vthhtamit to tbtmt fcr tbc blood ti 
hift fcllow-^ubjecti. Tho!ic who most deserve our roaectl- 
meiil arc, unbappdy^ ni Icm diManot?. Tho AmcrioanA, 
when the stamp aet waA firiit proposed, undoubtedly di*- 
lik«d It. -lA every nation diitliLe^ ji> iinposl ; but tfaey bad 
no ibuug^hi uf rHHJ«hij^^ it. TiH ibi'v W4*re enrxiuraged and 


ttiritecl by European irjlt'lli^^ncc, fVoin mco irhoin they 
tJioiijEfat their tricndA^ but wlio wfirc friends only (o tbc^m- 

Od (he oHg'innI contriver* of miiichi^f let an iiif^uUed 
naiiuQ |ioiir oul tfs ^engearicf. With whul^vi*r d«*ai^ii 
lliej hare ialUined tbu prmicioun conlfwL. thi^y are, ih(*m- 
9ip1«'c^« v<|iiuIIt dvktftublc. If ifa<-v wltiL sucoe?^ iw i\w 
ooiotiicf^ th(!y arc traU«in to this country, if thpy wish 
Clwtr d4*f<Mt, ihey are traitors At onc«, to AmoHca and 
Snfhnd. To thenin and ihf-m 4>nl\. itieikI )>c imputed the 
iatenmpliau of cotiiinrrrj*, arid ihir mikirnns of war, th« 
jHjrrov of ihoti- ihiit »1iiiU be ruined, and chtr blorxt of 
thow that ahall fall. 

Since th« Antcricnnn hnvc made it ncceaiuiry to lubduo 
them, mnv tht*y br nubdurd with tbii li^nnt inj*'!? posRiblo 
to tlM»ir pffmon^ and thrir poi^iiriiEionfl ! Wh4>n ihoy are r«i- 
daci^d to obndir-nc(*. may tltLit ob<^dicnc43 b« fleeured by 
»tfirt»r lavfi and Htroiig«r oMii^lloikA ! 

Nothiog can hr? mon< mixiou^t tf> xoiurty. thntt Umt rr- 
rtmeoiu demenoy. which, whr^n n rebellion U «iippre»jird, 
9xao(a no forfeiture, and oatabtlAbe» no Accitnlies, but 
Imit«8 lb* r«beU iu their former etKaia. Who would net 
try the exp«riinpni, wbioh promisoit jixlviintaRL- tritbout ex' 
pcnsef If ri^bcht onen obtum a vktory, tht^ir vrt<>bes 
flr» aeoomplijthed : if tlM.^y uri.^ cLriiMted. ihi.*y .luJTt^r litllr, 
perhB|M IfiM diAU Iheir conqueror*; however ofli^u tbt^y 
phr tb« ^me, tfo« chance in always in ihoii f«voiir. In 
tbc m*ftp tim«, lhi*y uru p-owij? rich \>y viotualhn^ the 
troops thai we hove eexil agLiinat Ihnm. ^iid, pcrhupx, g^n 
aoom by ihe rofiidcnce of 1b<i army than ibcrj )oh< by lh« 
obitruclion of th«ir port. 

Their cbartera bcmg now, 1 Biippo»o, legally forfeited, 
K»j b(? modelled, u »hnll nppt'iir ma?! coinmodiouA to tho 
VMlber-oountTT. Thun tbc privileftes which are found, by 
MEpMrwcic«, bnbJe to niUQ»e, vill b« tuken awuy, and thow 
who now bellow aj patriots, bluaier 0,8 «oldii^r«, »nd doui- 
fte«r UA legiHlaEon, will niiik inio siuber morcbnnt* and »ttent 
piaillcra, pcmccably dili^eiii. aud securely rich. 



]1iit there it ontf writer, and, perhup^^ nmny who d 
write, lo whom thn Gontructioa of theae pt^nucioui privi- 
l^^s appenra veiy dnngeroij^, »rid who vmrtlii at tlur 
tUuujflib H" " Kiib^Uinl frei?. »tul Aiuer[<ra in i-Luiriji." Ckil- 
drcn 11^ fruiii tlicir <iwei Hlmdow, »nd rhrIi>nciao» ntt 
frighted by their own voices. Chains ik, undniititcdlj* <i 
dre&dfal word; hut, perhaps, lh» mft»i«*M of civil viatdom 
may difivoversom^ fjrrudatioufi b«itwe«n chniiH and anarchy^ 
Chftliu ut^ed not bo |>iir upon ihuso who will be refiiniinrd 
willutul ihvtn. ThU iMmirul miiy rrid in ihr niiflt-r jthruMf 
of Ejfcg]i>h Mjperiority and AmrricHu ohcdirntr. 

We arc loid. that the Aubjccttoo of Aitiencnus maj ti^nd 
to thtf diminulion of oxir tvwn libL-rlic^ ; fm iveiit, wbicb 
none but vory |H-r»|jii?aoioii.i pnliliciunjt uro ablo to f<tt^^^. 
If Eluvery bf> thua fulAlly contu^out, how b it that we 
hrnt ihn ioiidi*f^I yftlpn for llbi-Hy ammig iIia drivm of 
iif'grorv f 

Bui lol n* iutorrupl owliilf tEu.i dream of conqutot, sel- 
tlcmrnl, tind sopri^ni(kcy> Let ua remember, thul bcLa^ 
to contend, aceerdin^ to one orator, with tbroc iDdlion« of 
whig», mid, J^ocorditii,' to unolhur, vrith uio^ty thoustuid 
pntrinT^ of MavK^i-bitfl^tf !< buy. w<* may poii«ibly be cbecled 
in our tarvfr of reduclion, Wtr mjiy l»r rciLui^ed to p^acc- 
iiptin ri|ua1 irrniH. or driven from tbrr wriklrni conlioejil* 
and forbidden fo iiokli>« a »eeond txntc, tbe happy borders 
of Uie land of hbt^rly. Tbe time is now. pcrbttpH, at hand, 
which £;ir Thotnua Browue prediiilod, betweun jcvt iwd 
earnest : 

Dul ipf ai) tl 11 hoin« iu AjncflLtq ;iltiuii/c," 

- ir wc are allowed, upon our defeat, to atipulaie eotid*- 
tion^, 1 hope tko treaty of Brraton will permit ott to import 
into the contbdoratvd eontoDR Aiicb prodticU ai tbry d« 
not miw, mid nuch m<inufii<:lar«a an tbey do ooi maiOk 
und rannol buy 4-bpappr from other uaiionii, paying, lile 
othrr:^, the ap|ioinled eiiHloms : thai, if nii EfiglUb Mjt ta- 
lutcft It fort with foi;r giuis. it ^^hall bi; aoKW^tnrd, at least. 


with two ; and that, if an EDgUshmaD be iDcliDed to bold a 
ploDtatioD, be shall only taie an oath or alleg^aoce to the 
reigning powers, and be suffered, while be lives inofiTea- 
flveLy, to retain his own opinion of English rights, unmo- 
lested in his conscience by an oath of abjuration. 



Father Paul, whose name, before he entered into the 
roooBstick life, was Peter Sarpi, waa bom at Venice, 
August 14, 15^. His father followed merchandise, bat 
with so little success, that, at his death, he left bia family 
very ill provided for; but under the care of a mother, 
whose piety was likely to bring the blesainga of providence 
upon them, and whose wise conduct supplied the want of 
fortcne by advantages of greater value. 

Happily for young Sarpi, she had a brother, master of 
a celebrated school, under whose direction he was placed 
by her. Here he lost no time; but cultivated bis abili- 
ties, naturally of the first rate> with unweaned application- 
He was born for stud;, having a natural aversion to plea* 
sure and gaiety, and a memory so tenacious, that he could 
repeal thirty verses upou once hearing them* 

Proportionable to his capacity was his progress in lite- 
ratnre i at thirteen, haviug made himself master of school- 
learning, he turned his studies to philosophy and the ma- 
tfaematicks, and entered upon logick, under Capella, of 
Cremona ; who, though a celebrated master of that sci- 
enoe, c<»tfeased himself, in a very little time, unable to 
give his pupil farther instructions. 

As Capella was of the oEder of the Servites, bis scbolir 
was induced, by his acquaintance with him, to engage in 
the same profession, though his uncle and his mother re- 
presented to bim the hardships and austerities of that 
kind of life, and advised him, with great zeal, against it- 

' Wrilten for Ihc GuiI1«did'i BJiigtvM, for 1738. 



Bit hi vnit «ti-udy in biw moZutiouK, Hn4. in IQGG, took 
dw bafait of ll^ <ird«-r, Itiiing iJion <in1j Jh liiit fourlccnth 
T«*iir, » tiuttf of life, tn uiiiiit iierauu^. ^4?ry impropitr for 
surh cTiKnifrmmU; buC in bin), nttcnilcd wtlb suoii init* 
t^rilir of tik^iJ^tit, mid niich a M^lllcd temper, that lir itrvf^r 
seeiaed to rogrcl tbc cfaoic^ bo then madt\ >uid whif^U lio 
conArnieii bv u solemn publick pmfeuiitn, in 157^. 

At 9 ^iMivr»l cbiipitT of tho ^urvilcf, ho-ld ni MA[ilua, 
PboI, fnr no vr Rfanll now riitl him, hrrin^ then otilv twcntv 
VKikn old, iluliu^»h€U hiiDwlf 00 mucb. in n puHlir^k din- 
poluliAu, br bU Kt^niud ftud fcoiaioi:, thut Williiim, duLe 
of Mantua, a gie&t p&tran or letters. Aolicilcd tli« coaneiiC 
of hU fiip<^ni>urA to rr'tain him at bit conrt; and not i>nly 
□iiiilt* him pttblkL prof^sor of <Uviii1ly in iLr ctftbtniruJ, 
but botionreil him vtth iuhdj proof* of liia ealeem. 

But fitlltrT Puiil, findiEig at euctrl life not u^«»flbfe (o 
hif- feoniirr, rjuiltrd it two yrjiiA nftcrwRrdit, »nd retirnl 
to bii bvlovtfd pmftcio*. beirig: llien not only ar^uainuid 
iritti the Ldtiu. Grt'i'i, H«bn-^w, un<l Cbaldi^f^ InngUAgi'Sp 
but viih ^ibitohophv, ihc matbcmatic!ki, cjinon and citij 
bv, nil pATti of luturol pbtlofiophj, and cbyniistn- ilnelf; 
for Itia appllcarloii vaf iiQremLttfcl, Fu« bead cl«nr, hit ftp- 
pr^bi^iuiDn (|ui<L, and bii mfmor^^ rutcniiic. 

Being inndn n priejit, at tvttnty-two, hi? won distiu- 
^uUbod by tlttr tliuclrloua cttrdlnftt Dorroraco vilb bis cou- 
BAMtco, and L^mployvd b> hitn. on many occ^on^, not 
without Iho ouvy of persons ol' iL^ba ment, wbo werr «o fur 
ei(aiiporiit4-d ha to Iny a charge as^^i^'^t bini, bcforu Iho in- 
qnhilioii, for dpnyin^ thai ibf trinity could be proved 
from lilt Am cbuplt^r of OenesU ; but lh^ iK^uujaation van 
too ricUculonx to he taktfn notice of, 

AAer thi«, he poAAcd Bucce^aivf ly tbrongb the di|cnitiu4 
of hia order* find, in tbu iiilcTvals of bii^ employ mcitt, ap- 
plied bimftolf t€ bin 4tudi«a with ao exten«iv«r a ciipncity, as 
left no bnuicb of lLnowWg<? untouched. ^ By binf Acqun* 
pendente, Ike ^^at anaromist, confp«ir«. liial lie waa in- 
AwMlM bow vinon id perfoinied ; and thrnf are proofji, 
tbu he wax ncil n iimn^r to the circula1ir>u of the blooil* 



He rrequciitl;^ conversed upoD MtroDomv wLih 
Huiflns; upon unalomy with &Tirgcoiia; upon rcediciM^ 
phyiiciauH; and wilh i:livmUtd iipun tbe &iia)_v<itt of meiuU, 
not ui it «up^rffcial iiKjuirer, but u«it oompTeie muxi^^^ 

Hut thr hours of n^pox(-> tluit Ni? Mmpb>yed ta we*ll, were 
inlftrfuplrd by u nt^w information in the in<|»iiiilioii, wfafiiv 
tt roriucr &C()iiairitancr produced n klirr, vrittpn br him, 
in cipbcrs, in wlik^h lie said* " thai he detested tbu cmirt 
of Rome, und tbat uo preferment was obfamed there, but 
bv «twboii«-M me^iDS-'* Tliis acciiftatjoa, houev^r dan^rottc. 
was puwd orer, on accoonl of bti gn-ut rvputution, but 
jD&de such impression i>n ihut court, that he wiu arter»[ird 
dt^nird a bisbupruK by Cleraont tbe el|;]itfa, Aftci ihtw 
difJicullics wer& sumiouiitcd, father Paul aguiu relirtil to 
lua solitude, vh&re he appoorji, by tame wriliu^ii drawn up 
by him at tbnl lim«r to hnva turned hLs utlc-ntion moro to 
Improvements in piet^ tban karning Siu-h van tbe care 
with wbii;h he reail the Ht^ripfi^res^ tbul. it being bii cus- 
tom to draw u lino iindrr any passage whiuli he iiilruilrd 
more nicelj to consider, there wus not a siii^lt? word in 
hift Now Testament hut wajv tinderlined ; the wmc moikt 
of atldijtion appeared in hi^ Old Testament, Ps&Iler, and 

But the tna*t active ni^nne of hM life hc^ti ahcuit tbe 
)'eHr1fU>\ wbuii pnpiT 1\iid tfic fiftli^ eKM8p<'-mtrd by »oine 
decroei of the ■iDiml*? of Wnice, that lUterfrrcd Vkiili tbe 
prelendnl rlg^hlfi of the church, kid tbe whole jiUlo uadcc 
uit intt^rdict. 

Tho fionnle, filled with indigestion stX tius trontment. 
forbiide thii bishops to receivo or publish the pope'K bull; 
aud, cuTivt'iiiiig the rectors of iho ohun/hei, rommandMl 
Ihirni to crlebrule divine service? in x\w. ai^ciMnvaiul mnii' 
ner, vitJi which mcst of them re^diJy comphrd ; hut the 
je«mts, and some other*, rcfuMH^. were, bj a soleaa edict, 
eApelk'd the state. 

Beth purtie* buvri^ proceeded to extremitieB, e»> 
ployrd thfiir ableet wn1er§ lo defend Ihfiir nirn«ttre>: on 
tbe poj>e'« nidi), among otiien, curdmai BelJjiriuine en* 


b^MiJ the lisbt. uikI, Willi liis curiri^ilt^rHte Hirtbor&» ilt«ff*ndi^d 
tlir [mpil daiiii^, will) greul M:i]rrilit^ ul' t3L|Ki?Juiinn, and 
Tirry sophMtical rccmoningft, wbioh iverc ocinfutctl by tbo 
Vcnotinn npoloj^iRlfl, in mnrh mofp decent tan^iA|^, and 
with much ^OLitnr i^olidity ornrgumonl. 

Oa lliis occai^lon falli^r Paul wa4 mc^l F^mineatlf di«- 
tin^uisheilH bj hiTi Defc^tu'e ofllie RightH of [he Supreme 

from Oerson. witli nn Aptflogj, attd other vritJugb, for 
whiob he vit« <'i1ci1 brf^^rc Ihr iiiqtiisilioi] nt Home ; bat It 
jtiA^ b<- easily imQ|pn<id that h<^ die] not obey thu •miDmon*. 

The Ver>«tiuii \iTitprs, whatever might be the abilities of 
llieir Hdvi<r«Arit^H, vren*, til leaHl, Hi]|ieriuur lo (h<-m in ihe 
_|u»lica uf their cuuhh. The propu-iitiuiis lujioEulrml on {he 
»idc of Rome were (h^M:: tLat ibv pope in invented wilb 
oil the authority of beaven and iftLTth : that all prmcea are 
lu« va«B»U, aiid that he may ^^rduJ thetr inwi ikt pleasure: 
Uiai kiiigfi tuny stppeal lo htm, nn he is temponil monarch of 
dw whole tranh : llial he caim dist^liar^ subjects from their 
cialhft of ulle^mricc. uiid mukc it (heir duty to IrIlp up anns 
against their «o>ercig^u; that he tUAy dcpoAi; Liiig<i with- 
cal any Uni\l commitied by th«in, If the good of the charuh 
i«.-<|;itr9ft it; thut thc^ clergy arc exempt from all trihato 
lo kinffft, luid EiTf^ not accountable to them, even iu cattos of 
high trpuaon : that the pope cannot err ^ thai his deciaiou* 
are to borec«'ived and obeyed uu pain ofHi^i, though all the 
world should 3'"%*' ibt-m iti tie false; llial the pope tsGud 
upon earth; that his iiQntcnGc and thatof Godarc theaanKf; 
and that to call hia power io qaefltion, is lo call in questJon 
the power of God; muMoib c^juallv shocking, woak, por- 
Dieioufl, aad absurd; whi<'h did tiot ret^uire the abilities or 
Itimrna^ of father Paul, to deraoiutraLe their faWhouil, 
ami dHslnioliie t^ndfocv- 

It may be «a«ily imagined, that sucli principle* were 
quickly OTorthronn, and that no oouft, but that of Uomc, 
thought it for iu intcrost to fuvoar (hem. Th» pope, there- 
fore, liDiliJig hirt aolhotii eoufuledrSDd lus cause abaadoned, 
wa« wilhiij^ioc^un^tude the alfairbjlrttaly, whiuli, by the rae- 



diation of Kt<ttry tWri>tirt1i i>f Fnince. w;is jiccommoitai^i 
upon tjirm* M'vy miii^li lo tlir hifijcnir uf llw? Wiieliuiu, 

Dtit (Lc tlfffcnilcn of the Vcuctitn TiK^ln were, ihougli 
ci>niprrlicijiled in the treaty, oxcludf^d by the KocnaDa from 
thu bMUvtilofit; Nom^i, upon (lJfl«rcntpretoDc<iit were unpri' 
■on^, come ^eul to iIlp fl:al1ejft. and fill debarret^ from pr^- 
fprnifnl- But itieir malice vi:i» i-liiertv nimf^d ii^iiitist fuihrr 
Faii1> who sm>n fauiul thr rilrriU uf il ; for, n% hp wiu going 
Due night to bi^ convent, obout m ntouthA after tbu acct>m- 
modutiDn, lu? vfin uttacL^d br fivL- rufTiuns, unn^d with Mi- 
IcttooH, who gave him no ka^ thun til^ccn itibf, tJircc of 
vhicb wounded him in such n manner> timt be was loH 
for dviut. Thr.* murderers Oed for r<<fdf;fe to th? nuncio, 
and were uAerwards received into (be pope'a dumiuiouv, 
but. wprc pnmit^il liy di\m<- jiiKiiirt-, hihI all. excvpl utiv 
mftii wLio dif^A ij pn^oii. ppnahcd by violent deaths. 

TLui fltid otlicr attempts upou bi^ life, obti^od bim lo 
conlmt biiTisulf lo his convent, wliero ho ongn^i^d m wril- 
^n^ tho hUiory of tbe council of Trent, n work uiicquAlkMl 
for Ihn judicious dicpfiKiliuti of llie matter, uud urtful U'X^ 
turn nflbfi inimition. com m tended by l>r, Birrnrl. va ihv 
Gompletest cnodcl of bbtoncal writing, ami c«]i'braled by 
Mr. Wotton. as equivalent to any production ofanliciuitj; 
ill which ihc rt-'adcT Bndi *' liberty without ticcntiouuif^i*, 
piety without hvpacrurr, frcirdom of upcoch without ncg-lect 
of d<'c<*ncy, s^vPrity withonl rigour, nndex(^niiiv« 1e»niili|^ 
wilhniif o&ienlATion/' 

lu ibis und other wurki of l«« consHj ucrnn*. bn npvttl 
the rvmaininif part of hi» life, to the hrfl^inniii^ of the yc«t 
1G2^. irhcn ho mm ncir^ with n cold ond fever, wbicb lit 
nogtectod, till il becAoio iauuruble. Ho iangniflhod noM 
tbui tw«k« monibA, which he i^wui utmost wholly iu m pr^ 
paration for liii pjiiiuge into eternily ; und. among bil 
|]myi*n and ^upinitions, waii oflrii beurd In n^punt, " [^rd! 
oOiW let thy ftcf vaut deport in pedtreJ* 

On Sunday, the eighth oC Jutmary of the next year, he 
ro^e. woaIc us br wiia, to n)a»», And went to take bU repwt 
«hh Use rofit; but, on Monday, was soiled with a wnkkna** 



parcd for his cfanngie. byrectnTiu^ the? viaikiini wilh aucU 
akuriA of devotion^ ^ rqaally mchcd ttnd edJticd iho be* 

Throiiffb tliv vbole conne of hU illn^M, (o tliij luMt liour 

«/ his lifi-, b*- ttiiK t'tiiKiilted bv ibr «»nuie b publick afFiiSrft, 

^flpd rvlurnnl An4ver>, in bU Efr^rulnt wrukiiru, with bucb 

P^pesoDce of lUiDil, a« could ont^ onsr fn:>iJl (lie cuiitiuiuus- 

E»«'«j of iaiiocrDLf. 

Uq Suudu>, tbo dft> of bin d^acb. be hud (bo powtioo of 
our bkucd AHiiour reud to bim out of Si. Jobn'a gospel, 
M omcvery Ofh^ daj of flint wrr k,;Lnd i»pok« of ibe mvrcy 
of hu r^ilMriuer, htii) hu <'uiiJidriice in [jl« ni<^rit«. 

A< liii rnil rvjilrjilly a|>pruncl>^tl , lb*? br«tbr«n oC tbn 
coovcAt c«inc to pronounce tbr ld»l pruvcra, vritli which he 
coiild ooly join in lu« thoug^htA, bmn; >Ablc to pronoimco no 
iiMir« thun lht**i* worda, " Eflto p^r|>v1uii/' iau>nt tbuu \tai 
forever; whTcli wim umkrilrtod to hti a prMVt-^ for tbo 
proipmtT of bis enimtry, 

Tliu< tlM falber Psiil^ in ih«* «pv<^nty-fir»t j«ar of bit 
a^: baled b_t ihe Rr>inuii». as tfieir mini fi^rmidiilili- mirmy, 
uid booourrd by all ibr Irarrjcd for bi» ahilitici, and by 
tbc ftpod for iiin inlc^iy. II i> ficl4^*to1ton of tbe corrup* 
tMii<»ftbe Roman cburcb npprara in nil hir^ wriiinK^* but 

IpartioiilAirly in Ibu mcinoruble p£i«rtA|^ ol' one i>r bu trU 
litn: "Thrm in nolbin^ fnure esxtuiiul lluin to min tbif 
r«|iiitatinn of ibp J4*Ktiilft : by ihr ruin of ibc jr?»tiiu, Rnnirr 
«ill bf ttiiuvd ; utid if Roniv is ruliii^p religion will reform 

Ifc appears, bv mtuiy puA«jiK(^!t of bin life, to bavc? bnd a 
high o«l<^cin of tb(f cbiirch of Kiif^land ^ and bin friontlr 
father Pnl|^«niio. who had adopted all bifl notions, made no 
aempld of ftdminiiiCii'nni^ li> Dr. Dunconib. an Erift-ttftb gen* 
tlvnan that fidl sirk Lit Vnurr, ih<- iMramutiitni in both 
kind*, Mcordiiif lo the Common Priiycr, which he bud vith 
hint iu ItfiliAB- 

Hc vtts buried with great pomp, at tbr publick charge, 
ond.ti iiuif(ni1l4H>nt monument u-ha erected to his memory- 


Til H following arconnt of llio ]ni« Dr. BiM-TKauvr*, no loudly 
celebratctl. and A<f uniicrftdlly luii^eiit^'cl (Jiruiigli ihr wliole 
laariied wodd. will, wo Jiopf?, bv in>t unite t^cpt^tblo to our 
rtKidurn : wu could huvr mdili; if much liiff^or, by adoptii^ 
tiding ivportfl, and inAorlin^ unaltoMed (acUi a close ud- 
Liereiice xo certainty ha,^ coulracled t>ur ourrutivc, jind kin- | 
dtrrd it froni kwdIIih^ In Uknl bulk, lit which modern liU* 
tofi«* g(*ni.'rLill\ HTrifcj*. 

Dr. Ilcimun tioerUudv« wA.i burn on tbt^ \anX day of 
Dccf-mbcr, U)(>8, ubout atw id Ukt mortiitiff. ut Voorlkout, 
n villflii^c tw(P miU'B difllant from Loyden : his father, Janrn 
BoL^rtuutve, vaa miniHter of Voorbout, of vboiu his son', m 
ft )Uii>il] atcotini of bU own life, bai j^ivra u \vty fti&iofcle 
obiuiicter, for tht- *impiifily mid opruitieKi of bin b^^hnvioor, 
for bi*i c^nrl frugttlity in ihr iniinaf^rnirnl t^t a mu^row for- 
tuuF, aiid llie prudence, tcudciocsA, aud dibgeuv^, ultb 
which lie c<Iucalcd a numerous family of ume children; 

bt^ wun i*miiiVDtly stjll^d in hjstory uud gt-ut-udo^y, mid 

vor«(!d tn the Lailri, Gr^t^k, utid Hc'brvw langua^-i:. ^H 

lliH mof hr<r wiiv Hu^r Dui?ldi-r, ii tritdpamnn'i daughter^' 
of Anifit^rtUm. from wbijiit b** inighf, pirrbiph, flerito an 
hpTCTlilary iuclinuiJoii to iIjc atudy ofplivMck, m which she 
W4if very itiquiiilivt*» and bud obtamrd d knowWgc </i l\ 
■ot common in iVmak' rttudenU. 

This knowltdgt.*, huwovrr, »b<? did not live to codubi 
cale 10 her kor ; ft>r nhe diod, iii 1073, Ufa ye^n alter 

IIJA futhirr, lindlni; liiitisv^lf truL^uuibRri^tl with thrcorr 
seven cbtldroij, thought it ucocawary to lake a accond wiGe^^^ 

V " till JlcfllldUUi (CuLttV lArluV, tijCLT* tlclu tltX kl'lCUl : |kffll(lla tftlfc 

liKUiriBrum ct ^tiiltuni, I'U npcrluf* c^udtrfui. »iniil» , lalnfuuiLm op' 
<imu« aiiHv*. run, dilijifpnnii, 'ij^>liEal«, pniftcntLi. Kjm nm mij^m im ft. i*J 
pltaui ririuikA, hoidh lib«rit nlucu^UU '■ffin|>kBi pmbuU dntiiJan, i^nij ti- 



nnd in July, 1674, vun imirhBd to Ev^ du Bcfis, iluu|;btcT 
4>f u mmictur t>f Ix'yd^^n, who, by her jiruil^ul unit impar- 
tial rondaol, ao riulrarf <I hMr^'lf to lirr liuKli^atri^ Htildri^n, 
ibnx iLvy ulL le^drit-il Lcr as (bcir ova motht-r- 

Uerouiii Butilituive v/a^ always dcsigut-d, by Wn f<ither» 
for Ibc minUu^, uiid, wilh timl \'uiyf, iuatruclfti by lum m 
^raniniaticci] Icariim;;, und tlvo ^riit ek-m^uU of UM|j;iiu|;ea ; 
in wbiich L« madr? »uch u pruGciency, tbut bv won. a1 the 
«p' (if rlcv«*n yrjir*, mi! ijhIv miistj-r ni' tlir mien of ^ritm- 
BiAf, bal cAjjublc of trairblutiu^ witli tuk'jubli; uccunurj, 
aiid Dot wholly ignorant ofcrillcal iiiceliea* 

Al iiitorvab, to rocroate U\b uiiiid and (itrt-njcthun hb 
corutiiutioti, il wad liis laLberV cuKlom to bend bim iiUo tlw 
fii-idx, 40(1 rpiploy faim iti uj^rii^uUtirv, and Hiiirb bind of 
rtirjil o^nip^Uiniiii. whi< li br cnn(iTMii*(1, ibroiigh all iiin lifi>, 
14» Ujsc Aud ^rdvtLkc; and. l>_v tliiA viciMJludc vf tiludy ujitl 
exnciac, preserved buiucir, m a great mutuiurf , from tboHe 
duLejpapors aiiJ (KprLSsitius, whiob aru frfqutnily tbe con- 
aeqtieucus ol mdiiicri-^it dilij^oiict.' uijd uiiiutrrruplrd nppli- 
tntion; and fn&m vbichMudrntic, not well ncf|(tiiint(fd vith 
dw ronntihilinri oftbf' biim^n body, t^omrlimf-iflv ftr relief, 
to ttmc: iublL'iid ofc^v^rciM:, aiid purclmst.' t^uipi^iury vanv, 
by tbo huaLard of die most dreodful coiiAe<iuecio««. 

The Mudu-ft of yoLinif Boi^rhuuvu wore, about tbLi tine, 
LuUffraptcd by un accidoiil, «lui-'U d»nrvi?K u. pnrticalar 
neotioD, a^ il Itr^t inclioed hint to thai scirnrr. In wbicii 
he wai, by na1urt<, lo W4*ll adapted, uad wbicb br afr^^rwnrdH 
carrit^d to lu grr-iit pi-rffndion. 

In tbe tw<^lfib yc«r of bia age, a stubborn, paiDful, and ma- 
ligiuiDl «ilccr, brolr oui upon biA left thi^h ; wbidi. for near 
Arc jMn> dvft^ated aW tb<.' url uf iho siir^roa» and pbysi- 
ciam, iHd tiot ouly LiQhct«d liim uilli luosi excnicialinff 
poitDt, bill vxpofti?d hiiQ to xucb th-Ar\t ;uid torca^ktiiif^ ap- 
plirutJoiiK, ihul Ibi* diM-aiir aad ri-nit-<li<'> wcfv i^qudlfy 
iiuufTcMblv. Tbcii it wim. (hat lii» ovtd pain luaghl bim 
to coiapaMioQat<T oibon, and bb rxpi^ncac^i^ of Ibc incJIi- 
cacT of tbe ineliiodd ibeti in use, iiicilcd him to oltL^mpt tho 
diicov^rv of oihcrK moro cvrlaia. 




H« bofi;an to pnictijt^, at Itftk-ii, boiie«tly. for h« 
upon himself; &nc) his tirAt rnuiy wwi ci prrliide to his future 
fluci^^ftp Tot having IniH jisiH«» nil ihr prp^nripltrmfi of hiv 
ph^iiiiiuriH. Hilt) »]] ihtT ]ij>|>licutioritt uf tiU Ktjrgi^ous. be ul 
Itutt, hy Uiniipiiting the part ^ith autt utjcl uriitc. eflrclcd a 

That he roighl, on this occasion, obtain the Meifltnncc of 
aiirjcrona with \css iiiconvenicnco And ^xpensOi be wad 
brought, by his father, ni fourteen, to L€y<!tn, Had piuced 
in the fourlh class of the publirk «rhofll, nfip^r brin^ rx- 
urninr-il hy tin* muHler: heri^ \i\u upplicHlioii ftiitt ahilitirt 
werr cijixiilly coitNpicufius, In k'ix motitlis. by gjunjog the 
iiral prize in the fourth cUm. he wit^ raiAcd lo the tifib; 
and. in jdx mouths moTcupon the mm« proof of Iho supe- 
riority oi his ^eniuA, rewardt^d t^itb another pri^e, snd 
irauKluted to tht- i>\lh; from whrnce h i> uiiml, in 
mmithK Ttiorf-, iv bt? n-movrd In thn iiniFrrrviT. 

Thuj^ (lid mir ytntnj^ NlTiiK^nt advjincc in lovming' w 
r^pultitiou. whvEip a* he wiu withitj *itv oflW uniTerMty. 
ttHoddcn uiid unexpccli^d blow tbr«atcnt-d to defeat ttU hi^ 

On the 13Ui of Notocnbnr, in 1682. his fath^^r di^d, and 
l«ft hrhind him ii vpry blender provision for hb widow, and 
nine chililrcii, of ^hich (htf elde«t wu-h not yt^x veTeoteen 
ytutu nil). 

Tbli was n most ikfiliclin^ loss to the yoan^ schoTar, 
vrhostr rortmio was by tio means suftiriivit to bcttr the eX' 
p«DC«s of a li-arned education* und who^ Iht-ri'lorv, urcnicd 
to be now iiimmonnd, by Dnc«^ity, to somo way of lifa 
mori^ immr-dinii'ly ;»nd certninlv liirrntiv^"; b«T, with a r^ 
p^oT^itmn rqual to liiN jiMlitir"*, and n xpirit ncil ui drpri<Ksrd^^ 
and ahakrn, bo dfltcrmincd to brcjik through the obiitartt^^l 
of poverty, and supply, hydiligrncc, the want cf fortune. ^^ 

He. liirrefore, hiflkcd* and ohtaiued Uic conticut of bU 
gnardifitiSt to pron^rnle his studied, so loiif; bb hi« putriinoay 
would support him ; and, continuing h\% wontt^d iodttntj 
gHinHI another prijui>. 

He wa3 now to quit iW »diool for the iinivenily, bat on 




accovat of the Teitkiio:ts yet remaining id liU lliigb^ v». 
&t luA i>wa cntn-ul}. cuntiitued sisi monlha longer iiniler the 
can of hni mikilcr, Lbc l<!iirne(l W]iiitcbi>taD, where he was 
onc^ siore honoiirod with the ]>mo. 

At hi* rrtmovnl to iIk" iiniver^ii^', ih*? wiroc ^i?iiia» and 
industry met »it}i llie »Hine eiicoitfvt^iTieiil iiiid d|>p!HUAe. 
Tlie l««ronl THgTmidiui, cue of hi» falLrr'A rri[*ii<tK, inude 
•oon ^\tr profcvHor of dipiniU nt l^jdrn, dUtin^imhed 
him in p poitif^tilnr mamii^rt and re cotn mended him to Ihc 
fricndUiip of Mr. Van Apphen^ in whom he fouDd a ^ner- 
our nnd coruUoi patron. 

H« I)ecuii4>. now u dilif^i*iLl hrjiriT of th^ most ch1& 
bfuted profc^uom, tind [iinil<^ griutt uiIvuiu^i^a in all the 
«ci«ooc9, still regulotin^ his »tudici with a view, pritioi- 
pidly, to divinity, for which he wm onginully intended 
hj hi» father; and, for that reu&ou, exerted his utmost &j>- 
plicaiioD to attain un «xact knowled^ of th<^ Hchruw 

Being cooTmred of the neee^Hity of mathenutlieal leam- 
up. he h«>gmi lo Mudy Miajtv Acmncoi in 1687, hut tviUi- 
out that Inlcnif? indnttry wilh whirli the plcoanrc h<^ found 
m ikai kind of knowledge, ioduced him flftcnrorda to cul- 
tirstv Ili«i&. 

In ItlSK^ hnviuj^ peri'onned \hv <?x^rci)iefl of thi* univeT- 
Mty ^ith caeommon rrpiilatinn, he took hi* dtfcret- in phi* 
lotoiil^ ; 4Uid. oti ihut ovcajtion, di^cufi^ed the importuni 
wl arduous Hubjecl of lh« dlilint-l nuturea of the foiA and 
body, with such accuracy* perspicuity, nod suhliltj, th^l 
be ODiirrI; confuted all the suphiatry of l^pievruA, llohLoj 
wd Spin^MJi, aud otjudly misted the charaelCTA of his piety 

ivinitj waa rtilt hi* jffroat <?inploymrni, and the thief 
mm uf aU hiH iludirv Hr rr,id thr srriplTiri'* in their ori- 
pnol taiiffuu|^ji ; iukd Vkheii diiftt-ulut'^ oi^cuncd, consulted 
the intctprclAtiooa of tlie mo^t ancient fiithera, whom 
Uv tt^md in order of tinu^t bejnnnlnff vilh Cleincn^H RuinnrMii, 

In the perufuJ oi tbo90 otiHy writers'', ho woe Mrurk with 


Aim I 


the profoandest veneration of the simplieitj and piiri^«f 
their doctiinoB, the holinoBs of their lives, and the 181x1117 
of the drscipliDe practised by them ; but, as be deKendedt 
to the lower ages, foood the peace of ohrutianity brcAei 
by uaelesi cootroveTsies, and its doctnnea sopMiticated bj 
the 9ubtilties of the achooU: he found the htAj writen 
interpreted according to the notions of philosopben, tod 
the chimeras of metaphysicituiH adopted as nrticlei of 
faith: he found difficulties raised by nicetieSt and fo- 
mented to bitterness and rancour: be saw the m- 
plicity of the christian doctrine corrupted by the |tfivate 
fancies of particular parties, while each adhered to iti 
own phiJosophy, and orthodoxy was confined to the sect 
in power. 

Having now exhausted bis fortnne in the parsuit of hii 
studies, he found the necessity of applying to some pro- 
fession, that, without engrossing alt his time, might eiuble 
bim to support himself; and having obtained a very on- 
common kuowtedge of the roathematicks, he read lectnrea 
in those sciences to a select number of yonng geotiemeii is 
the university' 

At length, his propension to the study of pbysick grev 
too violent to be resisted ; and, though he still intended 
to make divinity the great employment of Us life, be cooU 

logiam, aClemnle Romano ei<mui» et juxCa Krieni KCnloroffl d^ftCvttdo*: tf 
Jeftu Chndi doctrinUQ in H.T, mditam, pnmit pauibo* iolcipRtuA^ 

" Horuio amplLc^tiilem ainceie docLrint, diBcipliiUB BanctiUL^n, «ilB D«d 
dicBlo integrilawiu adonbet. SubtLlLtatem acbolarum divini pntmoduB a- 
quinsue doJ«bal. -^gerrime tulir ■acronim interprcUliontm m wctii 
lanim pelL; «t FlaAonis, Arialoldis, Thojns Aqoinalu, Scoti ; HOq«« 
Carteiii,cogilatB melaphyAica idhib«ri prolegiboi, adquu caitigandliir 
tuiD scriptoniin dt Deo Hnlentiaj. Eiperiflbativ aqcrba diivdu, ii^uuonidqV 
subiiliuimotum Hcerrinta certamina, odLa, ambitioiiH, inde cieri, fbrerij mJb* 
CDbiraria paei cam Dto tt hmDioe, Nihil hie migii LUi obitabat ; qocb qal 
(HUii^a aBUranL aacram acripluram av9panrara6uc loquentem, OonrptnC b- 
plicandim; el Gfoirpfirotiav singuU defiuiuit u plccidi «ac mcl^hjikiL 
HDrr«bat inde donliLantLB a«t» pnevalenlcm opiniontm* orlliodoiic Bodv*. 
et regidaa, unice dare juita dktaia melaphjaicoTuin, ooii Bucnnik litcnraBt 
undc UiD vuiv KntenlLs de dociriaa limpUeiuiitia," — OHp. Edit. 



nol imf Ininiu^lf tht- tntiirnf^tic^n of ^ftendtn^ nomo time 
ii|xin the m^Hirnl writ^rn, for l)tf' pi^ni^nl of wliiuL he vrag 
M »o1t tiuulififil Uy liiA &i^qiiahUdri<:e witli the miil)it<mulK:kft 
mid |ihi[oAophj- 

Hui tht« si^icnot? corrcapcinilcd 50 much vith li]» natiral 
g«Mi«£, that b(^ could not forbonr mitkins; that his buBiDOfls. 
wbtcfa he iotendcd only ha U'm (livrraion ; nrid «til1 ^ovin^ 
more «>geT. nt he advanced fiirdier. he ai lorij^lli iteier* 
miiiad vboUy 1u rmnler Umt profi-hKir)!!, imd to lukn hiJi 
dc^rrec' in pbjniok, bf^forc hr ctignKcd in lb*' duties of tbe 

It a, I WlJuvfit & \or_v jt)»t ob&tirvaticiQ, that cneu'ri am- 
bition U, geDeralljr, proporCiooed lu ih<^ir captii'it}'- Pro- 
vidvnc<^ leldum tu-'ndit unr into ibo %('ortd with uu incUnu- 
lion In iilti'inpt gri^f thirigd, vhci hHvr nnx nbilifiPS, likct- 
wisc, to prrfono tbcni. To hdvc Ajnut-d Uie di^Higri of 
gaiaibg Q complete knowltdgu of rat^diciue. bj way of 
fU^renioD from lhoolo]{if!ul aludicsji, would bmc been little 
lam than mndiK^ei: in mont Tnon, nnd would have only vx- 
po^^d Hiem to ridicidf* and contempt. But Doerhfiave 
vs« one of 1bo«e cni^Uly ^i-uiu^ei, I0 ubom fiesirtre jtiiy 
Uiiu^' ugjpL-arH ii[ijH>Mil)hT. iirid oho Ibink itolhiit^ worthy 
of tlic'ir rPcrl-t. Hut what nppcLirt inaurmourkl^ible I0 coin- 
non cndcntUuiding;). 

He be^u thw atw courw of study by a dilijfcnl perusal 
ofVeKHliiu. Burtholiao, ocid Fa[lopiiii?; and, lo iK^quoint 
hioitetf tDoro fully wirh the atruvture of bo<iip8, va^ a con- 
ilant nltrndnnt upon Nuck*K public^k dissectionB iti (lie 
iWaire^ atid Tiim»-lf vnry urcurutrly in^pi-nfrd ibc buditfc 
of diflV-rCiit uriEinid*, 

Having f«mi^e<l himaetf with ihia preparalory krtow- 
lodgci, he ho^n to read tbi' aaeiunt phyHicianfi, in tho 
ortier of limf>, pimuin;; hiA inquirie« duwnwiirda, from 
Hippocraiei ibrougb ull the Gre^k ood Xviifin wrJier?<. 

Ftndtii^. HK br trilq n% hiin«-lf, that HIppurruU-H was 
tiir originul ;iourco of all mcdiciil knovlrd^r. tiiid that all 
the laid writers were IJule wore ihu:i tronAcribcrs front 
luin, be rvtunivd to him with more atU-iitun, and Apcut 



munb limu tn makioj^ txtratrU from him, dif^eaUiij; liii 
treatitic's mlo nietbod, ;md tixtnf; tht'm iii Iiih mvxnorv. 

He llion descended Co tho uiDdcrnn, iimang whom iioa« 
engflg^d fkim Irtnger, i^r iniprnv^d hini mnrp^ ihnn Svtirn- 
Wii, 111 wftuHe mt^nl he Jm^ bfc \h\n »klti?i!^talioo, " ibat be 
frccfMiirkU^ pRniKcd hiin. uiid ulnuya wiUi ^^^^r eager- I 

His insatiBhlc ouriosit^ ufli-r Jcnowlodg^ «ti(n^h<-'<I him 
now io tho prncticn of ohvmislry, ^hii^b he protcoat^d 
vilb fill (be nrtloiir nf fi phtlfi«ipbi% whoM* uidiisiry wiu 
iici( 4.0 be weurif^d. mtd wbuve hiv^r of Inith wna Im> fllron^ 
(<< 5ulfrr biin Ut Aicquii?j«ce Ui tbe reporia uf otlicra. 

V<it did bt: not itutlW one bratioh i>r3oii?Dcc to v-iUuIrair 
lus atlcuLion from olhi^rs: anatomy did not wilbhoEd biio 
from cbyniiatn, nor chymislry, enoliniiting iia it u, from 
Ibt' study of botany, in wfiirb b<* wa§ no lets skilled than 
in othrt pijrtM (if phyaicL. Il« vrau ucjI only a cauWal 
I'ltimirniT of a!I r.b<? [dnnfn iii (hr gurtlrn of Uit^ iinivmilt, 
but luudt excuniouA. fc»r bi.^ f\irth<:r improvciDcni, into the 
vToud^ attd lieldA, imd left do pbco unvisitod, wlien eoy 
inoretue of botujiical Luoxvled^^^* could be rotusouably koped 

Id nnnjniiriion wiih nil those infjiiiri^ft, to ttUl ponii^ 
btH Ihfidogic^d snidittpi. and Atill, iis wi^ are inforEmrd by 
bun^rlf. " prupottriJ. when bf^ Und mud<! ItiiiiM If mjjutcT of 
Uk? vholc iirt cf physick. cuul i^btainc^i ibc boaour 
degfCtt in th^it B[:i4^D(-c, to prlilioii rc^Lodv for a 
to pren^h, nnd to e»j;ng;e in ih^ cure of vouli;'* and 
tended, in hU tbeolo^cid exercht^, iq dUcia* this qiieji- 
lion. *' uhy ^i> many ut?rt> formerly c^imvurtrd (i> chHitiu- 
tty by llliic-riitr iktkoih, and ao few »t pn-*eat by men of 

In puratinncL- of tbb plan L^ ^cnt to Iliirdovich, a 
urdor Io takfj^ tbc di^KTcr of dr>i--tor in phy»K:K, wbichiic 
obtAinud in July, IfiS:)^ having pt^rformcd a pnbliuk ditpt' 
tarion, " de ntiltlate ^xploraodoraui excremi-ntoram £■ 
M^rlfi, Lit KJ^norum/' 

Then relnntin^ tu Ijcydeii, full of IiIji pioun dni^ of 

Mtcr of 
IT of a J 




uniVrl»l1ii<^ rhr minrntry, ho found, ia hU KtirinriAr', iin^^x- 
pfM:tf^(l ulBlucleA thrown la liis wa^, nnd un maiu^utidu 
<lispcriicd ihroifffh tlie unirersit^Yk tiiat DX^idt' liiin siuj>ectcd, 
not of nny »li£:fi1 dutiaUou fri>rn nrceivird opinloua, not of 
snv prrtinofiouK u<lhi?ronc.^<.' tu liU own notioni! in 4oub'tful 
and dufwlable in»;(lere, hnt nf no ken than Spkosism, or, 
in (ilutuer icfmiv, i>rd([icjiiin il4t>lf. 

How «n injurimu » rt<pur( raiair lu lir ruineil, f^iiru Idled, 
•nd i-reditcd, will bo, dotibllcsA, vrrT cag;Grly iLqiiin^d « vrc 
sludl, tbcrefon.', f^lve th<^ relAfJon, hr>l only to aalisfy tho 
cunosit^r <A mudkind, but 1o ahow thiit no mrrit, Uowever 
euiltedr b exempt from bvioj^ not ont^i uitackod, but 
votsndpd, by fho most rontrmplihtr whivprr*. Th(w« 
wIjo cannot strike wiih force, ran, howrvrr, [Hik*>n tbi^ir 
ve«p^n, and. weak un tliey tfrd. ^hi? mortui wounil», and 

iag ■ hfTO to th^ ji^aTc ; !io true; u tltat obMTTiition, that 
y arc able to do hurt, but iv.v to do good. 

Tbift dolcsfublo culuiiinir ovcil iU rifle to an imridoola' 
firom vhicb t\<t conseqiiouce of imjinrtnnce conTd be poa^ 
iLbly appreliecded. Ai BoL>rbnave nm f,\U]i\j^ in u com- 
OKio biKit, iJii-n-- nmur u nruivt^rjcnrtoii utBiong; tbr' pAMflngrnt, 
upon tfat uuptouv iind prrmcious dui^tiinc ufSi^nofiii. wbiL-li, 
as Ibej all agreed, lends lo llie utitr tm-ilbiow uf all reli- 
^Mi. Bocrbnorr itnt, ami attended silently to tbi^ dW 
eotmo for Homo time, till onf^ of thi? oompimy. wiUiii|* fo 
dtfting:ui»b himsffir by bts zc&i, iuMvud f>f t-oufuling tho 
potlllom of Splnciia by ar^iim^nt, b*>gan to (pve a looiO 
l« roEvluiuebuiiv Iflii^iJiigT*. imd tinibnl in^rrTtvfs, wljirli 
Boprli;ui¥r vas ito iilllc plrnitrd with, tluit, oi last, Uc ronld 
not forbcoi a^kin^ him. whether he b»id e^er read Lbe 
tatbor he di^olutjnod ac^njil. 

Tlio ontor, not being ablo to muko much anxwor, vast 
«bccli«d ici ibe midBl of hU tnv4^ctivr«, btit not wilhouC 
feffling n M-cn't rrvnntmrnt »cniii«t thi^ ppmon who bad, nt 
oDc^, iDtcnupteJ bih linrani^ut. diid i.^xj>o^4.'d bi» ij^iioruuci^. 

Thu viu obicri'C'd by a stmnKVr who viu^ in cbc boat 
vitb Ihom : Li* inqiiinid of biii ncrijcbbour the? numo of iho 
iHUiff maUp wboMi qiic«liou Ijad put an .«fn4_Io t^ .4*^ 



<^mir>Li\ and having l4<iimed i1, «et it dovti iti hU poci 
hnolt, rifl jE njiprnrs with a niHlicious (^, for in a few 
dayit it wust tbf cifiiuaoii coEifersattoii Hi L«!]deu, thai 
fiocrbiavr hud revolted to Sptnoaa- 

It was tu ynin thut hiA ud\o<iu1c» and fricnJn plcndcd 
hh loanicd and iinana^ornbLo coiifulatian of all ntltcUcicd 
opiu]i>fi«, Aijrl |isiriiriiLirl^ of ih^ t^rgr^ni of S^inoiuki in liis 
di^our&e of ilit* dialinclioci betweeo aoxi] und bodj. Sncli 
calumtiirKtirr nut ensllj su|>|ire,SHi?d, whrn Uii-j ftfr anrr be< 
como gcncrj. Tlicy arc krpt iiltTC nod iiiipportrd bjr tbc 
malice i)f bad» aud, ^oiucliniofi, by tbe zeal of ^c>d tueti, 
who, iJjougb the^ do not nbaolutcly bcltcvo thum, tbiitk it 
jrot th(i securest method to kci>|> not only fcuiity, but mw- 
pected men otJt of piibllck ^inploymcintfi, upon thU priii- 
cipl«»> that the safety of oiaiijr ig to b« preferred befbn^ 
till? iidvuiiUi^e uf r«*. 

Botrhuiivc, lindin^ Chi» foniiidah1« oppnnitioti niu«i 
uguinnt biji prctvniionc to ecclesiastical honc^ur* or pr^fer- 
nionts, nnd i^von ngninet his dostf^ of a»unkin^ tlie cba- 
factor of a divine, thought it neither necc8bary nor prudent 
to fktmg^Xf with lh« iorretit,of popular prejudke, na he mts 
i?qiiully iiudlifjed fat a pniri^tNjoii, mil. indtMnl, of n^ual 
digijity or importnncc, hui whuJi must, undoubtodlypdaiin 
the Kccond pfnce nLciou^ thoae which are of tho greatest 
bCDcftt to mattkind, 

Ho, therefore, applied htm^olf to hu modicai ftludiM 
with new urdciir nnd uluenly, reviewed aU bis former ob- 
aervatioMH and iucjuirieK. atud wat ^dnttuua]l_v eokplo^ed in 
uialuji^ nt^^ uiNjuiMliimj^, 

Haviu^miw ijuMilird hiinxrlf fur the pMcticccfpJijKicI, 
he began to visit patk-uiA. bnt without ibnt ctJcourR^mctt 
whieh othora, not i^qtudly dcsicrvinK. havo !»omelioaei> m*t 
utith. HiH buiinrM wua« at Hr«t, not £(rcat, und his cii' 
cucmtaucesi by no mcjuj« easy ; but Ktill. Kopcriour to apf 
diiironrugeiniintj he continued hii^ s^Nrch afl'^r knuwindgc. 
4m3 iletermined thiit proaperilj, if L'««r he wuh to er^^ i^ 
shonld bu thr; i-tPiuctjucnoc not of mc^n art. or diMOfCti- 
UO1I0 5ulicJlationp. but of real mcnU <^t)d volid Icftmiaj;:. 


Um 0mdy Adherence tn hi» rcrtolationA nppcnrn yet 
plaialjr from Uiui rircumatonco ; Itc i»a«, while he lyot 
fimiinri in ihii Diipl«ftEinf( eituatioo, invited by on^ <»t ihi? 
ftrtt favourilev of Liii^ WillJAna iht> ihird, 1f> settle at (he 
Ha^nu. upon vrry udvEiniu^ouK coudifiunH : btil iEerlimHl 
liw off<?r; Tor huviag uii afnliilioii but aCicr kimwlrrJ^, 
lie vftft dcfliroiu of living at libcrt;r» irifiioiit any rc^lraint 
vtfKW hia loolu, hu thou^btJt, or bia ton^^uc^ nnd nt the: 
■teost di8|axic« froia «U contei»lioiu nnd atate-paHiof, 
Ak tiraf uiu vhrilly lak^ii u[> in uifititijf lliv 4i(rk, Kliitl^- 
ing^, mukinfi cbymical t- itpi-rnnotiln, in>ttrrhin>^ ttilo rvt-v^ 
|nvl of meiliKilic vilh Uir uUnoxl ilili)ct~iicr, tcai;biiiK 
Uie Mftlbenaticks, titiJ reading l)ic ftCTi^jloTi'ii, andi tbo^o 
■nllion viM> prolcM io tvacb u <;ettiiiit nuilbod erf loviu^ 

ThU vruji bis nKflliod of living to tbtr veor ITtll, whi^ii 
Uf viu rwwuiniNidtd, by Van IWj{> to tfiti iinUoraily. nn 
m pro]k^r |>«raoii to «m-i-4-«d Dreliiic»r(jii& in iUe prof^rs- 
•oniLip of pbyiiick. mid vltt^lttti. without au> e(rliei(atioii« 
no bb pmrU vnd aEmo^l withi^ut liik eun^cnL on tbo LHUi 
of Maj. 

On ttig oecwoT>p bavmi^ obe^rtrd* wiib f^neft ib&t Uip- 
pocrftlM, whom he regarded uot only at tbo fiiilK*r, birl 
«i tb« iiriu^e a( pby«iouiiu, wan not AuHIrif^iilly reftd i>r vii- 
taMiied by yoang iludKnt*, \tv prouuuiji^^d an oration. " dc 
CMUnen^odo Jtudto Ili|>^oeraiico T l>y which )ki rcAtomd 
tb^t great author to hi* just and ancient rvpatation. 

fjo now biptn to rvud iiuIjUcIi. tectnroa nilb grvul up- 
pUuw« and wun pri^iuilrd upon, by bti audience, to (trilnrgr 
In* ordinal dra^^i, nnd inutnioi ihitm in vhyuiiKtry. 


" CWCA h« Miapua. UntLB condjClrFTiJIkiU, ttutiwihui pramvia, intUAVcu, 
nfb Odiabvi III- m lUctDK^niiiiLn nc^l^in i-i^ici rviluurun, ibcliniitii 

dtai la viiaeo m uuidm. c>Samiui VuLcui»t'o r inccr< -, i^niDn nttlic^na 




Tillfi ha undertook, not ati\y in the fr«at ftdvuiUfB «r 
\\i* papih, hill iti rhe ^eiU im|ir[)veiiieiit uflliir url itaeU, 
wliich Imd, hilliorlo, bt^eo treated only in a confu»od oad 
irrc>;ular muniicr, and vaa Itltic more thnn n history of 
particular cxpcrimoiiW, u[>t redm^C'd to corlain phucipki«, 
Dor coancctcd odo with nnolbor: ihU vast t^h&o^ he r^ 
duc«id to order, and maclf^ llmt rloor nnd «-UHy, which wa< 
before, lo fho Wt lilegrrp^ flilTifiiU nnd obtcim*^ 

Him repuUtiuii uo^ began to bear some proportion l<i 
hjA merit, and extended ilaelf to distant uiuTOrsilica ; to 
timt. in 170H, the profL-siLonihip of phy»ick brioj^ vacant a1 
Groologcn, he wat invitc^d tbilhcr ; but h<? rcfuKcd to Ivavp 
Leyd«ii, nud chofi^ tn oontiniir liin prr*ijrat c^ciurtc of Ufr, 

Tbjjt iiivjtulion And rt^fusml ht-iiig fi>lHlf*d (o tlie gnv«rit> 
(iiirs of lliK mux-Tsiiy of I^jdt'n, tliey li;id at* grutvful a of his rc^rd for liicm, lh»t they unnufdiatHy rcited 
nil honorary incn^ciAo of hi^ r^alary, and prombcd him the 
first profoaaorahip that t<hoii[d br^ vncant. 

On thiif Dccunion he pronounced mi oration upon tin? 
use of mi-cbKniL'kit in the sirit-utre of phyviok, iu nbich he 
endeuvuurrd to rrrcimnu^nd » r;itir>iiii] wid m.-tllu-nMlical 
inquiry into lh^ cau&irs of di»c4i»c5, rind the strncturc of 
bodices; and to show Ihc follies and woakoCASca of the 
jarj^on introdtjcod by I'afai^clBus. Ui>linon(,and other ofay- 
tnical eELihuAiasis, who hiiv« uhtrudr-d upon the world tho 
lOnAl utry dreflms und. uiMr-iicU^f rnlighti-mngfhi-ir n*Ftdcr* 
will etplicatiiiDK of tiuliirr, huvn durki^ni^d Iht* pluini^Kt 
nppcarancos. and bcwildcrud muiiiiud in crrt^ui auid ob- 

Hoorhaavc hud now for atao year* read phyaic^ lec- 
tures, hut without tUo tiUc or dignity of A profeasoT, when, 
by tliB deatii of profnAiior Hotton, the profeawraliip of 
phyAirk imd hotnny f^dl lo him of t^ourte. 

On this oci:uaioi] Ua 4Hsi?rtcd tlir siimpliciiy nnd fariHtv 
of tho acionoc of phy?nck, in opposition to thoae ihul think 
obecurrty cortribiilrn to tho dignity of IrAnitn^, and thai 
tft be adniiri^d it tn npoossnry not to bf iiudcrntood. 

His prnfmion of botany mndt' it (Xirl of hU daty to 

1>jr iLr immrnnt* iiiiinl»4ir rfm'w pl^iiitu ^vhirh hn prcwure^j 
that it vu viilur^eil (o twice it« original extent. 

lo 17H» tie wiw de*lC^vf^dI_> ^dvancoj to the litgtest 
«]i|^JUt*» of ttie umvenitj, und, isx the aamv yrur. mudc 
phyiiciui) of Sli Aujnistin's bospituL ui I^ydt-o, into which 
tbo utiiHrnU nm mtmitted twice n vet^k, to Imm the |irur- 
iHTi* of pfiysirk. 

Thjfi wdii of irqujil ailrauU^ Id tbt* kiL-k alvmI Id tliir ifu- 
d«l]lA, for tho i^ui^cr^A tif bb prrir'ticc yeta thr bv:i1 demon' 
Mrotion of tiir jiaundnrs^i of lib principliT*. 

Wht^n he Inid clc^wn hit olHcc of ^v^rnour of the iini- 
T^nity, inl7lA, he ninile an orntion upon the i^iibjr^'l of 
" ftlliiiijin^ (0 crrinirMj' Iji I'ultiral pliiloAopti)' ;" in »]iji-li 
lit* d<-i^Un-4, in thi? utrnnH^i'.it ti?rmJi, In favtmr of eipen* 
tnrntAl knovktrdgc; and rcflrcb, with }\iM *cvrrity, upon 
Ihoflc arrogrant pbili»ophon, who nrc too ctuily dj»^iiMod 
vith thf> ftlow lUtflbotjH cf oblumi^ff tmo liotiuns by fn>- 
qti^iit eJiperinu*ntK : ait^ vha, poi«i>«Bed wtib too bi^h tin 
opUoD of ikeit own ubiiilLt^E, r^thtT (rhooKp to consiiU thi^r 
awn imn^nttlicinK, ihnu irtqnirp inli> miltirp. sind nrp ttetler 
pleased wilb tho ch^uitrui; urttuM^mt^ni uf forntinK iiy|Mt- 
tltftfcs, thaD the loiUi^mti driidgt-ry of making «hncrv4tions, 

Tlio (>CDptincnx mtd uii<:(Ttainly of uIJ thn^t^ Hyitcmji, 
whether vi^ai'mbUr for thinr aEitiijuity, or ugrcuubU* for 
Ihoir noTpllT, he hm e\\dent]y shown ; And not only do- 
Httn*d, bill proved, iLflt we aire entirely igriorani of 1h*T 
piiuciplt^s uf thini^, nnd (hut all (be km)wt«dge wr im\L\ 
\i of such quulitic-H done n» nrc dittcovcrrablc by L'?(p«ri- 
vpcr, or Mich n» mny Ic deduced from ihcm by nLathciii&* 
licml dv^mondralioii. 

Thin discourse, 6lled on ll was wilh piety, and a trno 
■rn*r of the i^iiCneis of the lupn-mi? hoinp, and (be lH' 
coiupieheuHibility ul' bis «i>rk», ^vr snch (jfleiict- li> a 
profc'vscir of Fnuiokcr, who profcs»cil tlic uIdidhI esteem 
for l>€H C^urtcs, and coniidor^^d bi^ prindpW cm ihr bul- 
wark of orthodo:(yi ibat ho oppcnrcd in vindicution of his 
dftriit^ atilhof, and spoke of Iho injury done him villi the 


tetiiau &)rb(ciii tind Lhc chrialtiui muat iiicvitaMv aUuJ Mad 
fall togctlicr ; itt]d tliat to say that wc wcro ipnorunl of tho 
priocipk>f(af thtn[>e, «a& iiol oliI> to enlwl anumK the ftkq>- 
ticks, but U} fliuk tiUi> uthmim iUeli'- 

So &r Clin pn:ijudicr* diirki'vi the undi^rKtandiiig, u lo 
aaake it coiuidtrr precqrioLu Fiv«ti?m» as ibo nkivf Mtip|iort 
of aacred Aiiit invariiilile Utitb- 

This treatment of Itmrliaavc wu 90 far r^rnlctl by ttc 
fCovcruoura of hiit uDivcrHi1y> Ihat they procured froni Kmn- 
vkcr a rccaiitaiiciD of Iht^ invoctivo ttmt hod l>ccii rhromi 
out agRirul Dm : thii* ua8 not ojili/ compli^il wiih, but 
ciA't^rt were tiuidt* him of ii]r>re uitiple miliHliirlton : (• 
wUirli h*'. tDtitrriLul un uzixw«r iiiit )i?m ti> bu liutiotir thiin 
thi- victory he ^fiimnl, " ihni he should think hiniM-tf MtHi- 
cionlly com|>CRfialcd, if hi» riJvorsary fc«<^nccl iki furihi-r 
tuuleslation ou his uououuIh" 

So fur wus llujt weak and injudicious ai1;i<'k from ^.h^L- 
iiig u rrptiiaiiort not iravually raised hy fiLnhiiju ur ciif»ri€V, 
liiit fiiuiiditH iipmi Aolid inrrit, diut file umi; year hift cor* 
Bespoudi^ncc wua di^ir<^d upon boliioy and nulunil philo- 
sophy by Ibc Kcadoruy of ticicocc^ at i'orin, of vhioJi Uv. 
WWi upon th<? deulh of coutit Maraigli, In th« yeor 172)1, 
elected a member. 

\or w«!n(* tfj<- FrtTiKsli tlict only Tiaiiciu by which thia. 
^n'.ni oirm wiifi courtril und JisltngtiUbod ; for, two yvun 
nftcr, he ^ab tiT(Ti^tt:(1 ftilluw uf uitr [loyal AOvk-ly. 

It cantiol b(T ddubtvd bid. (hua crircAffcd aid hoiKHircd 
with the hightat utid moat publiok murks of asleem Ivf 
other untioriH, ho t^ccnine moro ochrbmlud in tbo ttni^i^r- 
nily ; for RoeiKiiuvc'-n'aH not one of ihosr Icnrr^Td men, of 
viiiom ilio wnrld Iih» teeu loo nuay. that diagnuw ihcir 
stadic* by (heir vices, and, by uuticeuuiU^blL' ^eaLiit^ne», 
make tlicinsclvc£ tidicutoua at home, while their wntinc« 
prociiro thorn the vt^norutjon of dJAtiot countri^, whcro 
their leurnliiff in known, but not their follio^. 

Not (ImI his t'oiinirymon vjin he ohprged with being in- 
aeutiible of Iuh v;it:t;lleii<^ir&, lilt olJter nttltonw la ugh 1 them 



»ire Mm ; ft>r, mlTlh, Hn was choAftTi !*> lucocrd Lc 
ill the |irofe4Si>r«lii|) of cK^mlscr)' ; uu wbirK wrca^ioii 

t^ln wbkh he treated that scit^ncc wjlb uii vli-}i;:aiiOf- 
f\e not oftctj to be founJ m chyutlcAl writcrup who 
rem nenerally to hav« alf'octod, not only u L»irbur«u«, but 
lifitellif^ihle plirai^, and tc li^vt*, hkc; thn ['^UjagoreQUn 
old, wrtpt up iheir Kein^tii in ujnibok ujid eniffoiaticul 
.pn^uiohK, i<ifh(fr hKt'uiijin thr^ holi(<v«d thai mankind 
rould rctercuco moHt >vha[ llicy lea^l undt-failcmd, jjr ha- 
lUM tb^y ttroli* not frum btiit^vuhnict?, hut vanity, und 
r^CTO dcuroujs to he pnu«od for their knowM^c, though 
thoy ccM not pnrroil upon thctmaolvos to comintiuk-utc it. 
In 1732, hi* ooiir»ej buUi of lectures and ^raotiue, wuh 
ibuetTupled by the goul, which, lu he rvhtlei it in hi« 
l|)rivih aftrr hU n^roviiry, hi? bmn^hf upnn hinurlf, by nti 
iprudrnl cooliikiicf^ in \Ut^ %tttiu^\i uf JiU umu cuuhtiiu* 
»n, uud by imnsgrt-AMiitg ttotto rule^ whioh ho hud a 
llhofLMLiid times iuL-uteutt-U (u hu pupihi uiid ucqumntoncc- 
^uinK in tbu tnotniTiK: bL'lori.- duy, he Wiini immLdiittdy, 
t'lUMl ftWL'oitiug, ffom his hi?d into iHl- open tui, and eX- 

hirikH'tf la ihr i:i>[d drwi, 
TIr- history of hih illorm can harJIy he rrad wilhont 
boiTonr: he viim for fMcuiunllm voutluc-d to hi;( l(?d. >vhrrc 
^fco Jttj upon hiti hack witfumi duriui^ In uttcmpt (he hwti 
lOtioo, bt^-CDUJic any ofTnrt n^ntwvd iuE toraii^^nli, which 
vero flo ox^uiftite, ihnC ho was, at lenj^th, not only 6^- 
prircd of motion hut of kf-^uM*. Here art wA!t at a auuid ; 
.AoUiitj^ rould }n^ ^llrmptrd, hi'tanu) niirhin^ could he 
i»cd with iJio Ica^t jiro8(KH't of «ui:ei>M. At lou^tb, 
\tbig. in thv flixth motilh of iu» ill(lc^A. obLcuntHl kiuio 
■t^misKioD, he took nimple mcdioinrt* in Idrjfir quuutitiojt, 
Uid. at ti*uf;1h, wondiirfully recovered^ 

Hit recovery, «o much dofiirod, nnd m> unexpected, van 

^ " 1iq<tr4 piBWA bibil iioit»r hHl^vum cjchoivip fmliti*, luniftnj*, nt^ 
lonii ii|tthlieit tciaiucA biutlittf iBtifoliffH copa Ufuli , hih«l i|t«lii|icnL 



Ctttbrateil on Jan, II. 1720, whf^n he [>|irn(^(1 Utn Mhonf 
Igiin. with gcnfTnl joy tint] puhlick tlluinlnatiujjs. 

It would W an iiiJLiry to tlio lucuiorv of Bo<^rhaavr, not 
lo Di«uti<»a what nnt rebtod b^ liimec^lf lo on« of hiii rriondt, 
Ibit vUen bi? I^y uhole diiys nnd ijif-hfis tvitliuui alcrp, L« 
feiund no niellirid of divfrrling Iiih Ihoti^htu «o ^fTcclual, m 
tOMlitj^tion ii[)oii \u% ,iTiidlr». nnd Uiul be oflcri n^litTTiid nnd 
MiUgHlird Xhv aetjsc of hif IcimttitA. bv i1il-< ro<:ol[t!i.^Elon of 
vhut bo bud rcrtd. o»tI by reviewing thost* ttlorc^ orkitow' 
Icdfjo, whioh ho hutl K^poiitwl ip his D»'mory. 

Thi»is»pcriiti|:9, un iniititnoonrronititd«T nnd ttf^ady rom- 
pomri> of iiiinil, whicb would hiiTflhpftn for^T^rtho boast of 
tbi* Ktiiiek Hi'hfxi!^. uTitI iiirtVHcmt th^ rrpulHlion orSfitrc^or 
C*ilii, Tbc (Kiiiriic-i? of Biirrbiutvr. n» ll wai tnor*- mttonn). 
Wbb» more In^tin^ thfin ibrir^^ U irnii tliat *' paticotia 
cbrnti^itka.'' which t*i|i«iii^. ibo great uia^^tor of tbc* McHrnI 
pbilottopby, beifG:eJ of Cod in bis liial boumt it vus loundt-d 
ot) rv'li^ou, HOC mmly, not on vBiin nwtoniogi^, but on con* 
fid?nc« in God. 

Til 1727, hv was seiflinl with n violent bunjinp^ ft-vflr^ 
vhlcli L-uiitinut^d m> \<m^* tbat he was onc« incre givpn up 
by hilt frjcnd^^ 

I'Vom thii tioio brr van frrqucnlli; ofniclcd nilh returns 
of bis diMrmprr, whinb yrl did not so far (ubdiir hici, n* to 
make him lay ni^idc his (imlt*^* or bia l«<i?iurtf«. idl. ia 17^. 
he found Iiiin»eir ho worn out, ihat it wnt improper for him 
to roritJouM any ImnH'rr ihr prDfnsnorthips of bolniij of 
chymiitry, nbicb ht?. therefore, resigned, April 3fl, und, 
Bpon hi* re»ignntion> spoke & "Senuo ;tc£idrn^]t:us," or 
oration, in which ho aB»^-rl< the powor and wUdom ofthft 
creafor from the woiidt<rrul fubrick of tho humnTi body; 
a»d (^^rifulfv w\\ iboti- idlr rfj|i4ancr«, who preletid to nc* 
pimn llirt riintNttion nf p^rU, or ihe animal o[ier.4tioa«, lo 
wliicb be proven, that urt can prodiwt' nnlhin^ i-rjuuT, nor 
any ilxDg pflrallol. One imtanci: I nbull mrnlion. which 
U produvL-d hy liim. of ihr vanity of 4iny attempt [o rital 
tho work of God. Nothing if more bQaatcd by (ho ud- 



'lltr«ni of cliTmbtry, than ihal Uiey can. by ftrlilit^ial lifaU 
and illgcstioii. imllnlc the prDclLicliorii of nature- " Let 
oil tikcsc lkcroi;)( of soionct? moct toffrthrr," say« Hot^rbanTOi 
" let them ial^v hrr:x<l and wini>, the food that forms th<i 
bk>odcf mau, and. b} i\>i*]nilT;4tioD,i^ontriliat<?4to ihe growth 
ai iiiti body: lei them Iry u)1 llieJr arts. tlj«y hhiill uut Im 
£iblr, from iJirAc rnalt-riuU, lo |>rucluce u single ilrup ot 
blcfO<l- S<i mucli if Ilit^ cio5t common aot of nature be- 
yond Ihc otniost crlToitJi of th<; mei^l c^xlcndcct science!" 

From thuf lime Boi?rhnave lived witb les« publick em- 

ploymeQi, in(t«ed, bui not an idle or as iiselets life; for, 

brnidf*! hiA butj» *t[>t*ril in initmi^lin^ biK M'liolnrs, u grent 

lull of liU tiim^ wax rnki^h u|i by |mtiriilSt wliii^b i:iime, 

rh«rj fbo dL«t«^m[)er wuuld adniil it, from ttll part;* of Eu<- 

to coEi^ull him. or by lo(!<*r» whicb. m more urgent 

in* vcre coutujuatJy sont to inquire Kip opinion und 4u:k 


or bis Eag'ncity, and the wondprfiil penetraiion wiib 
vbich 1)0 ol\eu diitroverFfd tmd di'M^ntwd, at Hrst M^^ht 
of « palieui, Amrb diKlPinpL-rs a» brlruy ibemArNr* by na 

Iiyinptonn to commoo vyes, »ut'b wondrrrful rrlaiioDK have 
bevD nprt-ud otnt the wnrtd> lis, though nUcAted bcyoad 
Ao«bt, CitA scarcely be credited, 1 niotilioti none of them, 
bf'caiun I \isk\e DO op|>ortiiuity of cohf<c-lia|^ t<-ilinioni(--Sp or 
disliiij^tii»hiii^ bt^tvvt^ii ihote iiL^t'otintH wbiub are wi^l 
pxDYed, and thonu which owo Uicir im to fiotiun and cre- 

Vet 1 cniiDot but impbre, with tho grcatoat earncslQcav, 
aueh an bare be^n conversant with i]wt f-reat man, that 

■dipy wiEl uot fio far ncjjlprt (bo romraoii iutcroKt of viun- 
llifid. U4 to KuflcT HTiv of tbpfip ciroiiGHt^nr^s to hp last to 
poslerky. Hlen are literally idl^. and ready to wlisfy 
,d]emM.-Ne<(, and mtirnidair tbr IndiiMry ofolbt^ra, by tuTI- 
\mg tbdi inipuMifjIc wljiv:lj a oulj diOiciilt. The nkill to 
rliich llocrbttuTo attained, by n Iod^ ond iiiiwvari<^d ob- 
ration of nature, onjE;lit, t|jerefore> to bo tnuiamitted, in 
particular!, to [^ulLiri? a^'S iLai hi« Aticcesiorii may hv 
rsshnmrd 1o fall bolow liim, and that none may lirm-Qfler 



ikh lgiKiran(^r> by pU^ndin^ (livimptMiibilily orclcntvr 

T«t 90 fw vraa ibia great mfiilcr from prelum pttaout 
cunfidcnco in hiA nbllitioiir thut, in hu ^^amiDatioDB oftbe 
sink, he wns rrmfirkiihlT circunuitantjal atid portictilar^ 
He well knew that the nri^nnU of diilrmp^r* nrr- of\i^n &C 
a diatanoi^ Trom llivir vUihlu effecls ; lliat (o coirje<^turr, 
iHifrre cerfuini^ iiiiij Irti olitiijiit^j, m eilUer ruiiity or aegli- 
^ij<.-e; aiid lljat life M not to be racrificed, eitlirr U> sil 
affecliition of t^uick di»Fcramont, or (>f cro^dird practice, 
but mnj ha reqturvd, i\' titlkd away, at ihc band of tho 

Alioul tie middle of Ihr ycnr 1737, be felt ibe firat ap- 
prcKH^livi of tlMt fiLful Illness (liHl bron^Tit him to ihn gmfr, 
of wllrh WH fiiivr InirrlJ^d ui) ih-i:(>iihI. wrillt-n by himselfi 
Sept. 8, 17l)B, to n frirtid At London ^ ; which ^c^rtrcA Dot 
only to be prcacr^rdk Rf^ iin fiiAloHcal rt:IuCir>n af the dis- 
oiiso which deprived us of so pvM a mnn, hut an a proof 
of hia piety and retifi^riulioii to the divLue vill. 

Ju fhw liul tllni'H, wlik'h wan, to the hist de^jw*, linger- 
ing-. pHinfril, LUid jiFHiriiTr, hh vmtsUtticy ond Hrmnt^HH did 
not forsdkc him- Mc neither iiilcrraiUed tfii? hcccmuitj 
L^iircB of lifc> nor forg^ol llic i^ropar prcparutions for dcJiCli* 
Though dojeolion tind lowrea-i of npintn wan, ob ho himfelf 
lella U9, part of hin diilemper, ytt even this, in toine nwu- 
•lire, ifiive \vjiy f o that vtp^ottr, whiHi thn uoiil roceJves froni 
n eonsdouNr>e«8 of innneence. 

About thr«e wueU before liia deaUi he received u visit. 

menibui nTf itam, ^^v** licbei, pkuitddmE lurftti* cnriiiiH, nnlwlun ad ttntm 
BdWDOS, cum VFQVu iiiffocit^'^Dti, pitUu niiriFii^fr nnurahl^^^ ;rivpt4in tvivliuM i4 
nQviD mAlutiir t'tgrbal ppvc^^iifr lubiiitvut pramu ci mlfrcrptt roapimtift al 

pririLit tidnoi Lbirii « utiifd vnrinLi^ piuisua lUoliiLirbdluj. luiu rujmiil4bih iitta- 
ifulaEjuujk niukiliit. Jfim; liixtrnin imlum* rrurunt^ fcmoTiiTnt lODti. piKpotU. 
t1 AtidcmiriLf, (faffiiErwniimiEit ^iMnii, f^n^ rinlnr mnnpt tn i1>4i>miiijr, tan 
iniiproiF tummi, nnhaJitu »tilIocii.uiu. m dvliUiuia inaiediliiJL ^ ccniM ptuM, 

hm luLior rmui qk cincri^, pAtiviili:' rijii^tUBi Del |d>u, quibus nngia, 
^KU. ()(iir iflla UttO, vT honorn urLr<t>"— Un^. Il^if. 



bb country houir, Irom iht^ rcvcrmd Mt, Sf^hnlteaa. hu 
iiiUmult? fritfTod, wliu fouud him »ittin§; witJiout -floor, villi 
h» wife, dUttrr, unH dnughti^r: aflor thd oomplim»Ql4 of 
fonii, t)i« Isdj^B withdrew, and lett them to privntv coO' 
v^nifttifiii ; «heik Boerhn^it* Uh>L ut^cnHion to li^ll him wbot 
hail bcreti, liuring; lirs illtie4.s thf? f^hirf Hijhji:-rt of liin 
tbiHi^ta, lie had ncTcr doubted of the «<pjntudl anil Im- 
matcnal Doturc of tb« soul ; but dt-xlarcd Uiat hr hrul 
latdy had a kind of o^pL^nmiMital cortumty of tlir di^dino- 
tinti biHwfwii coq^onul und iJimfcing KnhHtBiir<i«, which 
ni4*rc rpAKon Hnd pliilcinopliy cHiinul tiflbrd, and oppoTtniil- 
lien of conlrniplHling Ch>- workd^^rftil ai»\ inexplie^iMe uiiioii 
uf bdgI and body, vhtcli iiulbiii^ Ivut long ttivkneat^ ctu\ \^vv. 
Thin he ithutratcd by a di^suripliou of tliti cUV?cU which IhQ 
iaJfinnitics of hi» body httd upon fii^ racultie^n, which yd 
tbflydid Dol fiooppren orTsinqnish, but his bomI wn£ always 
nMter of itHcir, and alwflva resigned to the pleasure of iia 

ilr rvlat<Ml, with ^rrnt coiici^ni^ tbnt ntivfn W\f pattence 
90 for gave way to extremity of palo, llial, ai'icr liaving- 
Itiu) filU'cn hours lu (^xqumle torturcdi be prayed to God 
at ho mijt^t be st-^t free by deulli. 

Hr. Sehultvni, by way of comtolation, iinsworodi thnt he 
'Angbt fci<^ wisbo4, when forrrd by continTied nnd eiLcea- 
rtiVtormeDt8. unaToidable In Hki ^rt-Htiitt state cif human 
nature ; that the beat meu, eveu Jvh Itimnelf, were not 
ohlr to refrain froiTL hucK Hbirt* of ImpatieDce- Thiit hr 
did not deny ; hut naid, " ho thnt lo^cs Ood, oagh\ to think 
aothiJDR dettirahle, hut what U nio^t pteaeiiifl; to iho «uprerae 

Sve.h were hia «entimoati> nnd viich his conduct, in ihm 
MattP of weaLnei4.4 nnd pain: a» d^ath approachL*d nL^nner, 
Iw waa M> tnr froiu lenoiirttr rH^ufiKiirti. ihar he ^iiftrmed et**!! 
leas s<;nubl<< of f^in.aruJ ninrr rhcrrlul underbid tcrmcnlHt 
whu^h continued till the t^trd dny ot f^eptember, 1739, on 
wfaiob ho died, between I'ouf and five in the morobig, in 
h ymxr "I biA age. 



lliuH died B^erhaavi*. a m^n fonaod by nature for 
gr«ni dvngm, nnd ^iidi*d by religioD la the exertion of hi> 
fibilirii*^. Hr nitK iifn roluiNt ;4riil lUtiWkk i^oiislitutiou of 
binlj. -lo iiarJtncd bj cnrlv scvcfilic», und wholesome fjB' 
ii^nc, tbat he wa.« tttscosjblc of nn; ahnrporw of air. or in- 
clemency of wottllior. >lc wag (all, and rrmiirkubio for 
uxtmorclinury iirL^Dh''ib, Tli^re was, Ju Uls iiir nnd motion, 
flomothing roug!) and iirdvas, but so iiiujt^siJcJL uud greflt, at 
the fi»in^ lime, ihu: iin mnn ever loolir-d irjtini Uim willwut 
vGatrmlimip juid tt kiud of tacit aubuiibaiou to the snpcnori^ 
of hU g«niu9. 

Tbc vigour and activity of hii mind apiirltlofl viMtiljiD 
hia ey^^ ; nor was it ov^^r observed, lliat nny rbun^v of Ut 
forlmiep or altoralion in bis alTairSp «hpt!ipr hapfiy ot tin- 
furCunulcr. afTei^lt^d hi» t'Oiiiiiencuice. 

Ut'. wju nlwjiyit i:lt»i?rritl, mid tle-tirtiui uf prunioliug 
roittb bj A fncotJou* fuid humorouA oonvcrsntion ; he koj 
never soured by c&lumiiy Aod dctriirtiou, oar crcr thought 
il necessary to cotifuto tUem ; " for they at& ftparL»j" Mid 
h«, "which, if youdo not blow them, ivitl goout of ihen- 

Vol ho took core never (o (>roroke eDemi€^ by wrcrity 
of ceofiure, for he never dwt II on ibo fuulta fir di^lt-d* of 
others, aitd was so fur from iiinnraiiig tho vnvf of his rivulft, 
by dwt^llbg on hU own r\ccl]encioB, ibal bo rarely mea- 
(iotK'ii bim«e1f or bis wriiings, 

Htf wan Nultobe (j>triiwiHl ur Jc |>n->fted by ibe prv^xf-oi:^ 
frownn. or iiisolnioc nf great men, but por»i«trd. on alloo- 
cusions, in this rijrht, with o resolution u[woy« prov^pt and 
ntwuyi culm. Hit man nutdcsi, but not timorou4, anil 6nu 
wHhoui rud^ne«(i. 

He could, xviib uhcnmnion rc'^dinrss nnd ct^rtainty, make 
n L'onjoclun? kA' mrirn inrftnAlions und Cdjjacity by Ibrir 


Hi« method of Jifi^ was to study !n the morning and 
evening, juid to allot the middle of the day to bi« pabtiek 
builnejta. Ifi« usu&l exercise v-qj riding, till, iu hia brttor 




lib dnt^mpen mudr* i( more proper for him ti> wnlk : 
«bra }n' Ko« wt-iirt, ht^ umii&ed himfM^lfwirh pl^ylrig i>D 
(Imt violui. 

lli-i jcrcuU'Ht pIcdAure vas to retire lo kin hoiHi? in tbo 
fM>EiDtry, winjn- tic hnd a g-ordcn stored »ilb dl the herbs 
■ad twW9 which tho climatr vould bi^ar; bora ho usod to 
Mijty bb litKiri unnioU^teil* nnd prosecute bia fltudi«fi vrilb- 
OQt iDtenrupf icn. 

The dili^enc-n with which hi^ puniiml hi^ nlnHifti, U unf- 
ficitflttW «^vidf^iil fivJii hts »uci:tiH&. Sbilfuiii^ii miJ ^^Tfiienils 
ttuij f^ovi ^trai hj anvxpected dL-cidnib. utid a. forlutmte 
coDcnnctkcc of cirount ounces, ucllhcr procured nor foro- 
jR^pra by thomgolvoa ; hut raputAtti>Ei in tho Icnrncd vorld 
SnUt be tht.* Inflect i>r lodufltrv aud <;Apaoity. Boerha&vd 
lottC Donc of hiA houn, but, when be had atlttiued ono 
jHMftC-c. Allrtnptprl nnother; ho ndclr^d phvsick to divinity^ 
IH^niilr^ tu die la^ilbt'iuutii'Lv. unil hiiiLluiiiy lo hoTUiiy. 
He tfxamuied sij'ailr-niK by nxpcTimrnU, und formed cxpcri- 
bwqU into !47«trtii», 11^ neitber ueglectt-d ibc ob««rvA- 
lion* of otbcra, uor bliudly iiubiiii1te<l to cclvbruttd immtid. 
H« QMlher tboaght so bif^bly of hinii^lf, i» la imufpne he 
cocild recetft- no ll^hl rram books, nor no mi*nn1y, ^m to 
hrlini? h4T cnuld discover nothing bill wh;it wat lo br- karrt- 
f>d tium ifaem. He ejtaintiied tlf^ observuiiouA of otber 
loou. bill truBled oaU l<i bin »wn. 

Nor i«us he iia4cc4Uu.iiitcd with tbt^ art of rcootiuntMtdinp 
truth hy plcfpirTGc, nnd cnibcilttbii^^ tho pbiloiiophcr with 
politd literature: he kuevr thai b)it a smnll pnrt of man* 
Luid will fcacriflc« tbifir plisusurc* to their ijnprovrmetit, 
umI thott ttUlhora who would Itnd mnny rnadprv^ niixC CD- 
deanmr to pLriMr wbifr thf-i iriBlriicl. 

He kn«w the imporliiucL- of hU own writiiiK'^ tu omukind, 
aH k«t he mi^Ul, by a roughncM and burbarily of atyle. 
100 fre^iucnl umon^ men cfg^roat lonrnioiCt dUuppotnt ba 
ova inlcntionfl, utid make bU tabour« less iiAcful, he did 
Mil negirct ihe politer arti oreloqueuce aiid poetry^ Thus 
WBfi hu leflroiii|;, ul micv, vftHont and pxiu-'l, profouDil ^ind 

n. ■ 



But hw kno«le<l|^, liovfver ftncommoD, faoLil», in liis 
cbarnrtc^r, Imt ilir. HDtcmd pUcc i hh >irrui* wai yel much 
itior<^ iinoominon limn h'lty Icurnin^. Il*^ wqa af\ iMlniimiU.- 
«>3tuiiij>lt uj l4>mporai]<]i^. furtiliMte, huuiUty* nmd d«Ti>iici^ 
llii pk'ly, und a rt^tji^DM* asuic of hu dtipt^mioBCif on God, 
was tht' bam of all his virtn^fl, nnd tbc pritMiph^ of hoi 
u'JioJt- conrliic^l, H» was loo iieiMiUli* i»f hiK «viikni''9i Bo 
ivii-rilic .u\y tiling l» liiinKrlf. ar tir vmic-fivi* dml be cuulil 
»ubi]u<< puMioji. or withtftaiuk trmplfUioti, li^ his own na- 
(UtilI fK>w«r^ liiT attribiitofl evcrr food thou^L fln<l cvcfji 
taaflablc action, tu thu lUthtT ot ^oixltietiH. Bt.'in^'onoe 
ackt'ci by n fntsnil, wIhj had oflrn iidmiri'd liu putioac« 
(■nd«r R-rt*at fiTf>vo<riitiuiift. wbeih^r he kn«T what i1 V!W* to 
be ;ujgTy, iiad by whut m^unv lie fiiul to en1)f4»lt HuppreM^I 
(li)it impriuniifi n»d EingoTf^rtmbTf pauiiui, Ih- atiAirrfWil. 
wilb iIjc iilniiftit fnifiLrKAH uuti hincrntVp tWi lie »iu nalu- 
rullv quick of rt^tintmrnt, but thai Lit) liAtl. bv tbily praj» 
and ni<^dllatioii, ut long^tb Qttniucd lo tbi^ nuutovy om 
hi 0180 If. 

A& iDDn a» bo arose iu Ihn morning, il vas, tfaronf^licol 
bit vbolo lifi>. hi» duily pmrliro to rt^ltro far an b«ir liO 
lirivttir prRvpr nnr) ni^difntion ■ lliK bf> i>fteii lold lv# 
fricitdti^ K"^^ ^>"' vprrii <ind viffoiir in tLc biiviii**»« of 4lie 
daj.and tbiit h<\ tb(?Trf»rr»i:i>inmrnilrH,iLA tJio best mir ol 
l>f(^; for nolLiiig, he knrw, coold Mipport the 9au1, in nil 
difltrt*SA«<>, hill 1 cooftdonct m (he siiprt'mw li«m^; uor can 
a Mtrody and rational mngciiiTiimily ft»w from any otb^ 
froitri^it than a coiiAcJoiiflaesi^ of (ho diiini< favour^ 

Hn aisertoil, on u\{ occuMorw. the divine nitlhimty and 
vatred ^fliiriK-'^v of (Hl- holy w:ripiiire<: and ni>tiiitjitn^l thol 
tliry a\nnr (kjii^^ht iho wny nf Hdvaltoo. unJ (hat Ibey only 
could givo poaoeuf rnind. Tho oxcelloncy of the obrntian 
roligiou wiui the frrqitcnl jtubj^ot of bis ooEiycrAation, A 
ftlrict obcdicnt^o fo tho daotriai?, und udilip^at iniUalion of 
Uio vfXnDipTp of oar bLoa»«(l fl»vfoiJi, hv often dta'laird 10 
be ibe T^oiidarion ^ inj« tranquillity. He ivcommendnl 
l4» hikfni'adKit rfirrfiil nbFtrrvuilnfi nflbo pror«p« i>f Minm*-*, 
cuntOEritijj( Ihr- ktw i>f find aiid m^n. lie uonhippod 



Ood w liB i» 111 JTlfnwIf. wabiiul 4(Ti^mpi)fi^ la 'mi\u^ 
into fall nutiiff- Ht? iLr^tn^fJ ouh u* iliink iil^G{if}, wlint 
God kiiov» of hiin«rlf. Tbcrc Itr atopjwij. leM. bj In* 
ilul^iiil,' hU own iJciiji, lo ^huuIJ form a Aevty froni Iim 
ov/Q im^^iMitioQt iit3<l Bill! I>y (ullmjt down before film- To 
iJie will of G«d h« paid im ahvoliitr Aiibmw^OQ. uiUjoni 

and diu be nccoimirH rlip firu ;i[)(i moMt iiiviulublj.' t\tx\\ of 
;4 clirialinri. Wlieu liti livard of it rriroinn) mndrinnrfl (o 
d>c, l>c iLicd to ibink ^ ho obh tcil uKi^rbcr lliitt iiiuzi im imjI 
better ibin 1 ' or, if 1 am better, it n nol to bt it^cnbeil 
lo mysdf. but (i> tb« sooJneas of Uod, 

Sudi wore tbii (cntiBi«iitK of Bourkauve, mhoB9 vord* 
wo hnv<» fldti'^ in tlic notiT"'. So for wws Ihb tnim&fim 
beJAfp niAiie JcajKO^is by philnsnphy. or vitin by LnowTed^^ 
or by linnr, tbut br HKrribi-d jJI liinabiUiim tii lh<i botinlTr 
acid all hE«giMdm<»(otJicfpari^of tiod. Mfty lii* c )uun|}le 
exh-nd iU inQueuce to lib adiuJrer> uiid foUcwors! May 
Ukoio vbu iitadr hU wnliof^ imitutt* bii bfo ! and Ihoic 
wbo rndruvour ultrr bin Li)c>V'Ir<[;c<^, nspirr JikruUo to bb 

lie married^ September IT, 1710. Mary Dn>lL*mcitq:c. 
ibt- uvily (lauglili^r <d^ n UurgDmuIrr nf Liiydpn, by vlinm 
Ik? bnd Jouinn Moibi, who survival b^r fatliof, ^nd tlifee 
otbcr cbUdiVD, vho dir^ii tu ibcif iiif^ucy- 

Tkd works of iJiiji irrrut writer urc so jteiivniUy knoun. 

' " DdCUiDun ACrii lilcrii l!*Wwcrv| CiHtCF iruliUtn. tolkin aninis hIu- 
tvtn tt «ciif*i^ <t *tiui^ Onini o|iportiiij)tit« pmAiclinLnr iKxi'iptmBiit. i|umii 
J«UH CtniliU nr* ■! *i1« aipm^T, vnira (nnquilltfiirvTD dJir* fnvnU- Aam- 

mmtsr* i»|tiAn iaivutn, i]iiih1 iBfulpm vfnrL D^uni pTm imlomvitp tjLii u(. 
laieV^W^* [>n. iiTun, Tulrlni nT.'juM Umi Jci* uiirlli^i^ Koc«ni<i>u« 
ttOnl ivqmtivrt, ae ida]jitiii.crmr<l. In tnlunUtc l><j fir WjiiiMCctitl, 
■■UUB Ubuiuu iAUuu<ni Lmla^tuTliuii puU(TL> lUuc hi\h^ vt^itmkm 

!>• (Jut ■> MLptf *rQiicrb«l : ul i|Uotja cnmiBiB ftvt til ^tDit ItlmlH duiutfn* 
MoJirri. n^r c«|^iiit(C vpc <^r*ivr . ' Quit Jjieui tiiAon me gint nalHUH? 
tUitw, u ijH intltcir. id ooci jiiihl AurUirl lilburailuni «b«^. ptlim uv. on- 



and so highly esteemed, that, though it may not be im- 
proper to eoumerate them in the order of time, ia which 
they were puhlished, it is wholly UDoecessary to give any 
other account of them. 

He pubtishedr ia 1707, Institutiones medice; to which 
he added, in 1708, Apboriami de cognoaceodia et cuiundii 

1710, ladex fitirpium in horto academico. 

1719, De materia medica, et remediomm formoliB liber ; 
and, in 1727, a secoad edition. 

1720, Alter index stirpiiun^ &c. adorned with plates, 
and containing twice the number of plants as the former. 

1722, Epistola ad cl. Ruischium, qua aenlentiam Mai- 
pighianam de glandulis defeudit. 

1724, Atrocjs nee priud descripti morbi historia iiloitris- 
simi baronia Wassenoriie- 

1725, Opera anatomica et chirurgica Andrese VetalH; 
with the life of Vesalius. 

172S, Altera atrocis rarissimique morbi marchionis de 
Sancto Alhano historia, 
Auctores de lue Aphrodisiaca, cum tractatu prvelixo. 

1731, Aretiei Cappadocis nova editio. 

1732, Elementa Chemis. 

1734, Observata de argento vivo, ad Reg. Soc. et Acad. 

These are the writings of the great Boerhaave, which 
have made all encomiums useless and vain, since no mail 
can attentively peruse them, without admiring the abilities, 
and reverencing the virtue of the author ^ 

■ This life first ktppeared in the Gentlemu'i MiguiD«t I73S, vol. u, p, I7tt. 
It, thrimghoui, eibibilg (bat ardent foinbeH for chemjitrf, whicb Jofann cb«- 
riihed, and Ibat reBptct for phyucunip which fau qomenim memoin of ata* 
ben of thit piofenon, and bit attachment ti> Dr. Bathnru and the 
and liagJe-brarted Lvret, rvinced.— £d. 

At a LiiDC wb«a a nalion b fRpigcil in u wuf wilb au 
ttiritiY, whose insults, m^af^s, and barbontirn h&vo lon|i^ 
rall«cl for v«ngrfin<^r, nn nroomit of nu'h Enf|;1iAh com- 
manden «« h»Te merileil ihe acknowt^rl^t-nts oj* poite^ 
ritj, bj vsteiidiiif^ itie priwerti, uud ruintji^ Ihf) hommr of 
tlicir coaotry^ »ecm» to W no impraprr rntrrUinincul for 
our rcftdcTfl'- Wc Ahull, tbcffforc, nttcm|>l a tuccJuct 
oArmtion of the lifo and actions uf udmiTal BUikp, iit 
vWb w** bavt^ nolhing further m i:iew, 1hu» lo do ju^ticv 
to hit bmviTy arid coadiact, wilboul intt^ndiug any purallcl 
betvfpn Wifi nrhi^'VKtnpnlfl, and tho«r) of our pr^iapnt nd- 

Robert Blaktrwu.1 born at Dridgrwofrr^inSomersetsbirc, 
in Ang^iAt, 15W ; hi* fntkcr bcfin^ a merchant of tbat pIiLci?> 
who had ncquir^d a coDiidcrmbl^ fortune hy tbi^ Sponieh 
Ind^T. Of his vfliHicat j«Brs we bii\i? no ucaoiuil. und, 
th«refbn», can itmuiir the rt^udrr with nont* of those prog' 
flOilklu of blfl fuVtjra uc-tioni, i^ o^^n met with in fn«- 

lo 1015, hf" ffnliTi^d into ihc nnivi^nsilj nf rt\furd. wbrrir 
be Gontintied till l(k*^. Ihou^b vithout briiiflf much coun- 
tonaneed or ctuvsMrit by bLi ^uponours, for bo vn« moro 
than Q0C4.' di&uppDintrd in bin cndt-avours afi<-r &cadQmic;kl 
prcfrrmentft. Il ii obAt-rvnbln, Ibat Mr. Wood, in bit 
Alb^nip Oxonirniirx, nfirribpiy ibr ri^pnUn hf mt't vitb nt 
Wadhsm rollogiv wb<^o» bo »h8 compolitor for a fellow- 
iliip, ettlu^r to want of Icrurniug^, ur of HtaCum. With re- 
ipud to tb<< first objOGtion. Uta #anio writer bad before 
inlbnncd u», tbat ha was an early riser nod ntndioQH, 
tfcongli hf* sometimes reh^^ved bis attontion bv tbi> aniDftf- 
aSQlA of fowling artd fl«btof;. A* il i« ftighfy prnbahle rhitt 
he did not waut i-apaniy, w« may. therefore, roneludo. 

TliU tiEv vm Art! prmMd ui il» Geadctukiti 51^ULiie t^ die jt*i 1740» 



Upon this conf.-vHou of hia Jilif^ertceH ibwl hp cotiM not M 
of beinf; leBTiki?f1, a( 1en«T, In ili^ de^fr^f* rpcjnwire to ih** 
mijij^menl (if A rrlldWHliip: iiitil niny Mifrly umti^it hu di«^ 
apjioinlnH^Ht to lii^i wttul of ^Uturc* it being tlic custom of 
wt lletiry Savil^, tlieii Mcrdcii of tliut collegia, 1q paj 
akioli rt-'iforJ 1i> Lbu outuaril appeumnce of ihoae wbo boIi- 
oitcfl profcrmrnt in lliat Kucii^ly. ^o tnuvli do th« grmt- 
wt eventi» awe aoin^liiiH-s lo nc(:J4ptil or folly 1 

H« afier^ardi retlt^ to hi* aaUve plare^ where "ht 
livcid/' KHjn Cliirariiiliin. '' witlinul ttt*y )ip|)r4r.iii<ro ofiuuln' 
tjon to li^ n gn-Hti.^r niAii IJjtin hr w»u, bnt invi^i^irj witli 
gveax freedum agumat the tjcotuv of tlie times, «Dd power 
cif ttio C4>Lirt/' 

In 1G40, he wu» cUo«cri bur^^'iif* fi>r bnilKtumlcr by lie 
puritwi part}', lo whom li« bnd r^coninjcftd^'tL himf4»lf bv 
tIip (tlHaji|>robu(ioM of bUbop Laud^it vbli^ice and 4ev«rttj, 
AuU hiH ttuii-ouinpliunrt* wilii t!iu«r lu^w ot.-rt?iuui]i«s» nliich 
Itr vax thrn cfHJvu voir ring in i^klroduco. * 

When tbt' <-hil wnr bn>k<; i>uU Bluki^. iu ^oon^riuity vill 
t)Li avowed pniKiprr-f, dcclfui»i fi>r tbc i^aHiAmciit ; wul. 
diinbig u b>ro clcclamtion for ri^kl aol nil the duty of u 
good niiui, mised a troi>jj of dru^Eoons for hh parly, and 
appean^d in the firld nilfi m munh bruvory, that ho nm,i]i 
A iliort timo, ndvflJirtK), without meeting any of tho«o ob- 
lirrufiliuiiH v/IiiL'h Iw bud «ii(;crunfuTi.-d in tbr nuiverrity. 

In IIj4-V bi< WEih n^ovi^rnnnr of Tmiiilijn. Vk'tn^n Uu^ loid 
Goriotc cQDic bt-forc il whb au afutj vf ten ibouiiHiKl neO' 
Tho lovti wa* i!l fr^TlificdH and unKi)|)]>brd wilU atmo-it i><reij 
tbiog uecve&nry fnr Mup|>ortiri|[ a ftiogc^ Tbo *to(c of Ihis 
gsrfboii cQConriigcid ooLoiieL Wiiidbait)> wbo was iic- 
«]Wdfiti>d Willi Blakn, to proprKc* « capilulaiiou, wbw^ 
VMS ri^j«Tutt'd by Ohiktv with indtgnnlion und cnnlcBipt; 
uur uerc dlbrr pnrnnr^fi or p^nua^ioua of nny rffecl, for 
Uc mnintaincd ihr pliu^i'. uiidvr ail iu dis:id«uni«ftt«, till 
ibc »iicgu wita raided by lliu fiaTliamciit'^t aimy^ 

HLAEK. -2^5 

iMOil. on mAri\ nihtx iwiMwwnt. to pivc^ iftrouf^ 
ik; ci>uniK*''- '^nil n Ktoadinrnn iif r<^ solution 
not lo be aliokcQ; and, lu u proof of liiv firm ulhcrcncc Xc 
tin' p^irlianioiit. joined with i\w borou^fi of Tauntoii. tu rfi- 
turtLUif; lii4uk< tiir ibifir ivanlatton to mukn no moro nd' 
(ln«M« to iii« king. \>f was he 40 far from a|)pmtiiiff 
llie ij<*»l)i uf Chrif|f*H lli^ ^ni. tlmC fie mmie 110 »rfiif>h- of 
dfcLoriiu,'. ibul bir ^unbt vt-iituru litH lift- I0 huvi^ luni* uii 
williflxljr lU lie hail li^nr to nerve tfac [tjirlittmrnt. ; 

lei hVhrdurr, ltUb-J>, Uc wn* idjiHc a commisHionrr nf iho 
AAv^, and appc'iiitod 10 nerve on ihat i>kimi:ot. Inr wUich 
hm M«*i« by nature to \inve he^n deuigiW. Hir wuj «ooii 
alti-firnrib sent in piirvwif. of prinec Riiprrt, wh;jm hu Jihitl 
■pin liitT hjirhour of KinNii|(\ 111 InrlHrn)^ r<ir U'va-Tul monlhii, 
ttU vool of |ifwiaiunb, uiitl dt'^^uii of nfUrf, viuitcd ihtr 
prt»ce to moke a during otfurt for hlx p^capar, bv furcutf 
Ibroufch Iho purlkuiiirnt'H Heel: Ibis df^sijE^n hr «xccul«J 
vxih his vniiiki inlrepidity, nnd suocorded in it, though 
irilli thu U»» of IbrL« bbiptt. Ho wnb pursued by Blnh^ 
to Uw' cwot of Poriu^il, wb-rt? bo whk rtropUoi! iuto ibe 
Ttf^iu, nnd trv»t<^ wifh gn':Ll ilifLlinrtioit Uy Ihr PoHii- 

BUJii>, tomJEi^ to iW moutb of lliat river, nent to Ibr 
kiu^ a ine>imi,'«r, to iiifomt ikim, that Ibo ditt?!. io hU port, 
b(*tongiii|; Io (hv publick cnomioJ* of tho coTDmonwpalth of 
Kngloiid, hp drniitndod leave to fnll upon il. Thi« htiinf^ 
refu«ect, iJjougii ibe i4>fui'.(l aan in very soft temii. mid 
ACPntniwaictil wilh dirclunitiiinx of tsln-m, ufid Jt pr*'M-Ett of 
prmuioD*. «o oxAaperutod tbc odniind, ilmN witbouL nny 
bOMtation, he rL4l upon tiie I'mluguoju fluct. lli^ti lelum- 
iaz frOA Brudii, oi' vhicb bo took fi^virntcL-u shipa, und 
burnt tbreo. It wns Io no purpose tbot Un^ iiug o1^ Por 
lagnlr ulAm^d aI »i> uu«ivpectod a dMtru(;tion, ordrrod 
prine^ Rtipert to HtlacL bioi, ncd retake tlie Bra<il sthip*. 
Blaiv curfifMJ bonir hU pri:cflii wilfamtt mufr«rntuin, tbn 
pHiira- not Uiiuig Torrr enough to punur bim, wid nrll 
pleikMd with ibtr utjportuuity of quitting a port, wLcic be 
L'culd no ton^cr br protected. 



Bliikt^ «onn KtippUed hia fleet wilh proTi»ion, and rcceivi^d 
orders fo iriLike rcprlsiiN iipofi tht- Frvach, whw Jifid siilfcrod 
lltctr privAtcera to molest tho Knjslirth trudfit an mjnry 
wkich, in thoso days, wnt aiwnvi^ immeiliatolT reteAipd. 
ttd if not rejjaire'J, certiAiiil_v pLiniahrd. Stilling weth thii 
commlsH^uiTi, lie tiwk in liiii v>iiy a French man of nr, 
valurcl nt a mitlion. Hu« ihis ship liappeit^ lo be *o 
rich, wr arc not infimniHl , but ua it wua a cruuer. it is 
probnblo i\w rioh lEiding was tbc QrcurnDUit<rii plunder of 
many priKca. Then Ibllcwins Ihe uuforlunale Riiprrt, 
whoso Hoct, by storms and battl^K, viu now reduced ii> 
five flbipH, into Carlhagf^nsi^ h4* demnndrd kftvp ot the 
SpunUh ^veniour lo uuuvk Jiim in tbe harbour, but re- 
Rpivi'il the stttue mis%'et vthicb \mt\ bt-pn rplumed bc^fora 
by liiP Purtupinf^t: '* Thai they had a rlyht lo protrct all 
abipa ttmt i-uint.' into tUcir duniiuionA ; iInlI, if tUe adounii 
vero t'or«f*d m thilhiir. bo aUould tmd (he sdjoe aeottfitti 
and that bo r<^tfuir?^ him tiut lo violate tho ]Msice of a 
oautral port.'* Bhthr withdrrv. upon xhkt, an^wr, into tbe 
M«dicerraneaii -. niul Rnpfrl. lh«n leavinj^ C-HTlfaa^na, 
euti-rmi iiw purt al' MalajC4, wben* \«fi bitnil and Biuik ikv 
ireral Kiighsh merchant »bips. liUke, jadgin^ this to be 
no inlrjngemcnt of tbc ticntrality professed by iht Hpaiii- 
anl«, now made »o scruple lo fall upon Huperl's Iteet in 
the harbour of M«lu|r->f ^')^t huiiii^ di*!(troyed tliree of hii 
■bipN, ahli^fd him (o ^uit thi> spa, und take tancliiary ni 
tho Spiini^h oourr. 

Ill Febnian/* lfi>0-l, Blakr, ntill rtmlinuingto cntEism 
the Mediterranean, met a French ship of comidervblo 
farce, and comTnanded the captnin to cmae on boardi there 
being ao war dcclflivd butveen the two aationa. Thff cap- 
taia^ when hv oami?, wun ajtlccd by him, *' wlifther he wa« 
^willing lo lay down hU sword, and yic'ld," which hv ^- 
lantly rrfiisrd* ihongh ifi bia ^nemy'* power BluLe, mcotd- 
in^ to take advuuta^ tif an artilfcis and dHrMing thr np- 
pearatice of trciichrry, lold htm. " thai hr- wiui ai Itberty 
to f^ back to liis ship* and defend it, aft ]oa^ as be could.' 
Th« captaia wIMinf^k accepted hit olTrr. and, aflar a fixht 



of two lioinn, cofif^iej liimnetf co?iqiif>r«d, kU*^d hi* 

Ill 14>62. brokr out tho tnccnonibic ivni hi^lwccn tlie 
two CTJCutioi]iA'cahli« >>r Kii^lnod anri Hdltati<l ; n war, in 
wiiicb ibc ^catt-^t fjdiuirala Ibal, pcrbofis nny u^i^ hits pro* 
da«o<d, went enj^af^U uti eaoli aide; Lit whicb notdin^ I«m 
wAt rontf^f^d tliun ihr dAmiQ]ctno^t^r Kf^n, and vbicli was 
csfriwl on wiih vi^oiir^ animnMly. anH r^snliiiion, |jrot>or- 
Uoncd *o the imfiurt^iiC*^ of llie dinpHte. Tbe t^liinf com* 
oittiul«M9 of the Dutch flccti wm Ynn Trump, l>r Ruytcr, 
and Dc Witt, the n»o*t celebrated namca of their own 
nalioDrand who had be«ii> |>orkiHp(i, more rrnownod, kid 
ibe^ b«ea oppoaed by any other i^nemlea, The statei of 
Holland, tiivtug curried oii their fnidf wjlhoul oppoiition, 
and iilmoftt withrriLi rompi*Tifiim, mtl urtl^v diinnff rhr iitihc- 
tiTc TC)gn of Jdme^ the lirnt. but during the cooiinotJcuH 
of Euf,d^id. bad arrived to that heif Lt of navid powrr. lujd 
tbul artl]u«<iH:o of vaallh, thai, wilh tho urroi^nce M'bii^h a 
JoELfC-eootijiUcHl proiperiiy tiatutally prodtn.-***, thoy boa;Hn 
to iavvni imw daimi!, and lo trout ulhor mi(ioo< with itmo- 
1pi>cI>, whioh nothing run drfrnd» but Hiiprriiiril\ of forc€^ 
Tliey bad fur Aoiut; Iiiau mndti uiiivotitmoii prciKirnliortx, at 
u \mi\ cxpcni(«. uiid h&d ci^uippcd u luT^e Prrt, wilhoiit 
any apporrnt dunf^L-r thn-^iiti-'ninfi; lbT?m, or uny otowed 
dssipi of nttarkipfc' IhejT noif^hbours. Thijt uiiu«niLl araia- 
aMst van uot bebi'ld by tho Eap^liKh wiihont some jealOQiy^ 
snd raro vat i;kL«<h fo Qt oik !iucb a H^et a^ mi^hr ^ecnro 
ibr trudp from intLTTiiptlnn, and thi? co»kU Tram inMilIji; 
of thLt Uldho vfiu co[i>»ti1utod admiral for niae mouthit. 1u 
thia ■ituatiou tho two tiaimtkK remained, koopin^ a wati:l>- 
fitl eye upon riicb olbcr, without actin}; hoKtililics on either 
tide, till the ISth of May, .ltJ6a, when Van Tmmp «ppcor«il 
ID the Dow(», with a llecl of forty-fivo nien of v-ar, Blak«, 
wbo had thon but tw<<iay nhip*, upon tho approach of the 
Di^ch udmiral. juilifit^d him with thm< iiiiiKlt- nhuta, to re-> 
quiro ihai be j^hould, by hlriking bit flu^. Khovi tlait mApcMit 
tJio Eiigliah, which ia due to rvcry nation in tljcir ovn 

vmtniooa; to which the Dnlohmau aiuworocl with a broad- 



tidct un<l Hloko, ^Drcfirviog tbai ho iiklunded la dispute 
the pcint of hommr, JuKiturefl vjUi his own Uiip before Ui* 
reac of bw ftrvl, Iktl, if it nrt^n.^ pu«Bul>]i^, & ^ii^^rBl batik 
misfit be preveni^d Hut iIkt Diiu^h. in^tUmH nf oil mill iu^ 
him Ui Irtsit, Ttri^tl iifHm liiiri from their bholv llvri'l, wi|hou< 
»oy li'gdi'd ti> thr GiirttixnK of var. or thi- luw ^if iiutii^mL 
Dlitkc, for some litnc, stcKKl iiLt»ac iiiriMtiAt tfit^ir whoic forco. 
tilL ibiT rcut oJ' hia H()ua<ln>ri C4>mirii- up. Ibc b^hl ««d c9i»- 
tiitucd tViim bat^^o(Ml Tixir mid livv in Ibi? aflcmooit. lili 
Duie nl night, vhcii \\iv Dulnfa n^Un^d tvith iho Iom <>f tw* 
ifbifu, hih^ifig not d('Atn>\(^(t n aingi^ v^n§^\, nojr nioP9 thas 
fifteen men, iulj^I ^tC thfijch wrftf on boirird (h*^ ttilminJ, 
whrt, jM liti wrote to tlicj |Kir]iurarril« wun hloMi^lf ru^dgcd 
fur Tour hours witli tlic mmii body of (h^ DtiUh fli^ot, bctnf 
t^M: mnrk nl wbtcli lhf^> iiiiiitr<l ; mid. uj WhitJr>ck f«Uln. 
received Aho\c n iimuMiivi shnU Hhikt; in b4» Jrtt«f-, me- 
liuowkdfrofi iJio p;jrtjctilar hkstjioff and pneoerratiov of 
God, mid aKuribeit hit KUL'^e^s to ihe jii«1ic« of hid «aiiM>, 
Ihti Dutch hbtving^ lir^t nKocki^ httn upoa th« Bngliib 
4:oaA^' It i«, imli^4^d» hllh? Ii^vi thjiii mirnFuloLiK* thnt a tboi^ 
nuud i^Tt'iit bh'A sbould nut tlo more G\r€Ulioij ; Autl ihutO 
who Mill Jiot tkihnil the iiiforpOAidon of pro\»dciiC4?, may 
dniw. ut kifut* tiiiA infrrr-iicc from ll, that ihc brnvest eaua 
is not aiwQTi^ in Ihc ^rnlcsl doEtp^ern 

III Jiilj, he met the Diit«h lizthexj Qeel with a convofof 
Iwt^VD men of wur. itll which hr irok, with oitn himdrrid <if 
ihvir hfimniE-buK^fH, Ar>d,in S«*ptembf^r, h«>in|if ritinioitpd in 
tbtt Duuiu, will] j^hont xixt)- aw[. bir diHiiovr-rLtl ihi? I>ut«^ 
fldmirnSH. Dt^ Witt nnil Dc Uuytcr, with ncnr the aumt 
ttUfikbrri and advAiiccEl towflrds tLeni ; bnt <hc Dticch b«ia{ 
ttblii^, by the iiulurv' d' liieir count, luid alMJIoivneoft «tf 
Jlheir rivers to baiM ihifir shipi^ in tuch ei mtmnt^r, ibal 
,th<ty rcfiuir^ le^s d^^pili ofwiUrr thuii iho i'lnglidi VMSofc, 
took iidvanugeof ttie fumi utf their shippinG;, and olielterpd 
lbKmKeUf*ii lic-liii]«] a tkJi, e^illr-d Kifiitiidi Kaiick ; m^tlui 
1h« fiii^liftlip fnuliii^ siimc 'nf tlM^ir >\ii^ ii^iouad, vmr 
obliged to alter liejr tiounto ; but pcrcuivmg, cQii^ tbe OOXt 
mffTUJU^, thnt the Holluodcrfi luid forAukeik th*?tT vUboii 



Aay pitrvuefl (hem with nil ilie »|>eed thai lli^ wintV. whivh 

miitblo to FTAcli Uirm vitb the bulk of their llcel. aud, tiiv?n^ 
fotr, ilrUiclicd hjnio of tho liKlititit frif^leH to dtwc thr-m. 
ThcAC cnii]4> »o ueur, dH to luv upoit tiieni nhout Ihrcc in 
til* aflomoon; tnil Uie Uuloh, Injittfad of taokinf; about, 
koiilefl their Mh, iftec^red towurd tfieir own do;uC, nnd 
Andlofr ibi.-iD4«-lv«t, ihe next da)*, Toltowpd by lh(f wKote 
En^iaib flrrt, rrlin^l ititn Giirrn, Thr Kiulnn were Mger 
to attacJt tlierD tu tltdr o« ii littrlours ; hui a vtnincM of vritr 
hatitf conveucd, il vrad judged impruUtiat to hjisciird ilu* 
feet upoo the ^hoiUs, or to en^^ajrc id niiy Importiitit cntcr- 
pRM, without n fro«h aopply of proTigioos. 

That, in this fiii);af?«meiit, tLe liutory belonged to tbo 
Bngftib, V l^youd di>pule» liiKe. wtlhcni liio Ioki of ono 
«hip» Rud with Ein mnm ihfifi forty mm killi^d, Ihry drovf* 
llir FiR<my inln thfir own |L4rrl*s tcok lJit< rt-urttdiiiimJ nud 

IH^tothcr VfiitrL And HQ difi<rounig«d th« Dutch udiiiiml*, 

^^iio lud ii>jt agreed in tboir nica«urc«, thnC i>o Ruylcr, 

«bci hud dcclarod agBitiflt hoBardinf b battle-, dciirotl to ro- 

JHiirn hift comnbaioti, and I>« Witt, who hod iii^iattid ufion 

^^Igfatm;, fcP sick, ifl i( iv:kc smppoHt'd^ oith vexuCion. Bitt 

faov great tlw» low of i)m* nmrh v;is i« not rcrtninly kmiwii; 

Ifcat lv(i iddps wew takati. ihei^ are too wira Id <liiiiy, bill 

flffifin tliiil tbo«p two v^r idi ibat wvro <]t3(roifed. Tk^ 

i^bcBah. OM Ibo other «idc. oIKnn, tliui tlirr^c of ibutr vvuciU 

H^^kiaafaled fit tho nnt encoDDt«r, that Uiour cumbcnt on 

^^B^fecond day wero Tisiibkv dimiuisbed, aud tbat on iho 

J Bff day they taw tltroo or four ihif-t Kink in Elicir tHj^hi. 
^^ De WiM hein^ no*- disohari^ by th<* Hollniidora. uh iin- 
^^brtiinatti. and ibi* cthnef eommand restored to Vaa Trump^ 
great prrpimilionK v^^rc tmuU'. Icrr n'trieviiiff lb«ir Tti|Kilii- 
tiou, aud repatring tbow Vowcm* TheJr crjdoavoun 'v<!rc 
aa«>it«d by th* EfiKli.*H lh<*ni«lvi'*, nou mod« faotioo^ by 
adoccw; Uio mvn. >vbfl ven? iittnmtiHl wilb Ih^ cisil ad^ 
MiiiiHtration, N*ir{C jt^iito^A ol Iboto whtuM? mililar^ von- 
naada bud procirrtHt so mnch hoimur. b-Kl tiwy viHa nWd 
than >hnuUi be fMrlifi^d by ibi^ni Such in the euneraJ 



revotiitiou of dffkln in tivt^ry slate; dau^r^ and dSMlvt 
priiJiiu« uuiULimit; a»il bravery, virtuirs whicli m mMooi 
unnttendftdwithauccesA; butaucccas i« Che pArmI ofpnclo, 
and prtdc of jciklouiy and fut^tion ; t'uctioii makes i«ut for 
catauiily. and li&ppy i* tijnt nuUon whouc caLuniiicK renew 
tliAir unanimity. Such u fhe rnrati'>ti of Ent4^ri>«i«, ihsl 
AquiMlv if-rd to liiudcr ihe roul d e 41 r notion of h |>^op1e, 
and to nliAlrurl uii i?Xi>rbElitiii mcreuse ufpuwer. 

Bluke had wcnkcncd hiA fleet by tnnny dctuc hmcntf . 
and Ur vtiih no norc than forty 9ai\ in the Doim^i venr ilt 
provided botli witli men und imnnuiiiEJon, and cipectui^ 
aow B»pp]iea from iho&e vho«c nnimoiity hind^rrod Own 
from providing them, end who obow mtb^r to t«« Ii9 
trade ufilieir <!ouuIr^ di?ilr<?sve^, thiiu thi* M-a officen ei- 
ttltrd by n nc*w acquisiliun of biriiour »ud innurnct*, 

Vun Tnimp, deiiroui of distinffuiKhinj; hioiifr-lf. at tbo 
resumption of bis unmmctnd* by nonic rcmnrkublc oction, 
had AH^mMod eighty nbipft of war, and toti finMhipA. and 
i(to«r(*d towai-di ibe Downs, nh«n* Bliik^, wkU vbo«« con- 
dition PDd itrciigtb bv wus probubly ucquuiiilud. van thca 
filxlioned, BUkr. iiol ubli' Ici rrnfrain bin Tmtnrni Hrdouf^ 
or pcrhap^k not fully informed of tb*^ aupi^riorily uf bjB 
enemioa, put out to encounter thom. tboiigb bij (it^% nm 
u> w<?ukly munDe!d, that hulf of iu5 ihipd were obll^d to 
lie idle without <ingiifpn^, for want of F^nilon^ The foroo 
of tb^ whole Dutch flri^t wsA, therefore, auHioined by aboat 
IwenlV'two tihipfi. Two of tbe Eti^Uvb friguIrK, oaatil 
the VmiguHrd nud the Vi(\erbnvifig, for n long thnr, 
Atood cti^nfT^J umidM ibr whole Dut<:b dv^U brake llinMi|^ 
withont much injury, nor did lii« E(iL,'tt»h tuse miy KhipA liJI 
tbo cv«ikit>g, wbuu tht^T Gurlmid, curr^itis forty piitt, vaa 
boarded, at once, by two f^vAi ship^t, which woto opposed 
by the Eujfliih, till they hud icorcnly uny men left lo defend 
tile df^i'kn; tbt^n rrtiring ir»to ihp lower part of tbe reuttl, 
th«y blew up their dtickit, whicb werir now pcuw*Jovd by 
the eucuiy. and. ul Icu^lb. wvm ovripowerc^l and takm. 
Tbo BonuTenture, a stout well-built racri^hant ship, foin; 
10 rtdicTVo tho GarlAnd, was allucked by a mun of wu»» aud. 

fIJ.AK B. 


after u stout re»ii1ajicc, in vhich tbe captniii* who il^ 
fcodc^l her nith tht^ utinoAt bruvcr>. wax killed, ^a* Itktr- 
vine caJTiCil oH" by the i>iitch. lllakc, id tho Tnumph, 
»e«uis tbe Giurljind in dtNtresM, previfcfd torwuni lo rvlicio 
lior, but in hJK vuv hud fu& ItjrL'tiiuxt ilt^ttered^ and v^i^s, lum- 
w\i bonrdcd ; but, braliri^ off the enemies, he duengaf^ed 
bimM^lf. und n*lin«i irtlu the Tli^mev, with rbe lass only 
oflvn ithi]H of iWrt*, nnd fnur Km^il) (rigLiIes, bnt wUb bi« 
wbok dfct lunch Abattcrcd. Nor woh tUe viulory guiut^d 
at A cb«dp rut^. uotwithaldiiding tho uuudual diiproportion 
of fttrcn^lJi; for of tbc Dutcli Ikgibipx, Qr»^ Tn« blowu 
iiPk ttiHl tbe <>ther two disablrd; a proof of the Enj^liab 
brnverTp vhic^b ithould have tndut^^d X^n Truiup (o liave 
■pared ibft intoEm^Ttr of earthing u broom ul bis Inp'tHMl, 
in bb Tmmpbniit paiasnjce through the Channel, wMch he 
iiil<-_ii(1rd ax II diTttlunitioti, tlml Um wotifd iHcrp ihe Hem of 
iLr Kngli-tU fthipiitng ^ tbi», which hr had btllr rnfuvjii 1o 
think of accomplislungr he »oon after pcri»hcd in at- 
torn ptiag. 

There nfCt ^omQtitncA, oli^t-'rvutioni und itiquirioA, which 
nil buitoKvDH lecm lo decline by ogrecmenl, of nhirb this 
action may alTord lu an rKnmplfr : noiMog appean, at tbe 
finU rivvt. more fu demand our L'iiriuKil\. omfTord iuii|fc%r Cdt 
rXAminatiort. ihoti Ibis wild encounter of tnentV'twoabi|H(, 
vith a forc«, nccordlng: to tboir acL^oont^i who fuvoiir the 
Outdi, three timet Bup^riour. NotJiing cnn jajdify b com- 
aaDder tn GKhtinK^ lutder eutib difidvajilaf^, bnt tho itn- 
pontbilrty of retriHitin^, But what hindered BlaVe from 
rrtiring, av wril bi^fore ihp fight, ti^ uflj^r il f To Huy hr wua 
i^oofani of the bireoislh of th*:* Dutch ili^eU is to iatpiito to 
bim tt Tery criminnl dt-grer of n«gltgeuce ; and. at LoajtCpit 
mmt bo Gonfc«iicd. liiat from tbe timv hr»uiv th(?ni,hi- oould 
not but know that they were loo powrrrful to bo opposed 
by bim, and eten tbeu there wuh time for retreat. To arge 
the ardour of hU suilon. it to dive-^t bim of ibv nuihority of 
aoomiaander, Mild to charge bitri uith rbe moat repnmcbful 
««kno» that can enier inio iho cbtinit'ter of a gemrrul. 
Ti> ncnlioit ibe inif etuo*Jt> of hb cwd toura^, u to make 



tho blmnij of bU Irmorily equal tQ tho [muse of bis talfHir; 
wliich «ccni«, ind^cil, to bo tbc moM gcnllv c^nximr thai 
the Iratb or history vrill ollov. Wv muti tlic^n acUnit. 
nmidit 'niir »ftituip<>)i and appluuMC, tbul ihc ^rt^t, the wim, 
ADcl ih^ vnlUnl Plubp, vn^ oTicf> botraycd to aji inocn- 
i»kritlt iiiid dLui|H^nile t-ntt^rpriM:', by thi- rvKUiUiEs ardonr 
of liin own Kpintt niicl <i tinMr jimlnuHy of tIio lionour uf bli 

It wtt5 not loiifc. before h<^ hod an oiiportunily of rcveng* 
iiiff bin loan, and reAimiitin^ Ihc iii»ol^Twe of tko Ihitcli. 
On lli<^ iSih of Fohruary, 1^52-^. Bjako. boto^ at llt« liciul 
of €isbt> sni), and nnialedt ai bis own rt^Cfu^t, by caloiiieU 
Monk amt DifHii, f>Gpi<?d Viin Trump, viiii m f\t^i of ith«va 
line hiiiidf^il niKii r^w;ir» nn (Uun'ridori rtAnit^H, <if swti^iitj 
by thttir uwii pnblid iici^uiil>, uiid ihriif hLifidii*il titer* 
cbunt sbrps Kinder hi!! ronvoj. Tbo Eo^ilinb, tnth th«ir 
iiaUAl inlropidity. advAoccd toward* Uinn; nnd Ulakc, iu 
tlic Triumph, in ivhich be ftlway» lod bie lj««t, with twok* 
ships morCf cumc to uii onf;uj^4?meut nlxh the main body 
of llie Dutch flrcl, nnd by thr ttispurily of ibcir force wu 
rC4liii?f^d 1o tho IraI ci^lrfmit^', having ri^ni*iviHl in bin hull 
no fe« i*r tbun MTfi-ti liiitidrt-il ibiiU. when l^wtou, iu th^ 
FniHWi f^amo to Iti^ iin^hiibificn. The ivst of thi- Engiut 
fleet now came in, and tbc li^bt wm coniinucd wilb tho 
otmo^ drgrrc of vigi^tir »nd rc^fiotution* till Ih^ iii|;tt guTe 
th^ Lhitch an opporlouily of rtilitinir, \rjth tbo loot ot dn* 
HvjCEbip, and <i\x other nieo of wur. Tho Englisb hvd 
many tr**<>lK d^imo^edt but noiw loat. Oti hoiiril Lavton't 
ahi]> iroro billed oii^ biiridi''^d mrn, nnd n\ mtitty na bour'l 
BlakeV wfiri lu-il bU enpt;iin ant^ ««Lr«lAry> »iid Ittonwir 
rrocivrd ■ wmmd in tlir thigh. 

Ulabff, having set ashora hift wounded mca, «fti1cd iu 
pursuit of Vfln Trun^p, who sent ius conToy before, and 
himAulf n.'trrrd fishting to%vnrds HnlloiKn. Blako ordonrd 
hU light fTigatOfa to follow the ineirchnnU^ still eontifitiwl to 
tirimss Van Trump; and. on tta' third d^y, th^ ^ib of F^- 
bruHry, ihi- two (IrHu rami- to mother buttle, in whicfa 
Vun Trump onvc more retjTt^d h«^forF the English, aii^< 



mHni: n^ of th^ peculiar form nf liU «1it^pmir. **vnf^d 
fcimw^lf i» lljc hIiouK TUr< LUU'cJiiuta of ihi« 'ig^i'n ^^ i^C nil 
tl>r ollien, arc vnrtonn : bnt the Dnlch writers [liernAtiZveH 
<^onlW«, Ihnt Ihcv foet cj^ht men uf war* unJ more llian 
lv«tity incrchuiit ahip«; Aod. i( i-t prohitbic, tbil t1ir\ silf- 
foTMl macli noiro than UHjy iir^ wiDinf? to ullov, for 
lliMv repeated d«fe»iK pfOvoK^il llie vommoii people to 
rioti and influrTe<^ilo(iA, vinJ ublig^d tliu «U(ei t» »%kf 
ibiiu^i iiu*frfM!tU4i]^, for pf^ocvi. 

In Apnl folloajiks:, llic form of ^^ovemmetil In Engimiil 

VM«bftn£«d» *ft(l tlit^ nuprfnuJ uuthorilj iLHsuniircl lij Crom- 

Wthi upon vlikh occAKiDii B]ak<T, vrilh hb luvrocinfrN, dc- 

^liVr<1 Uiul, notvitiiMnuilJn^ tbc* ^liaiii;i^ in th<^ jidmitiiatra- 

lUm, ihcy AhftnM «till bo retidy U> ^hscli^r^o Th<7iir Cnji^t, nnd 

lo defvoJ tliv nation from inftullit, injuries, nod encreacb- 

mriiii. " It k nckt." Qiid Rlnkr^ ■' ihii liuiinifiK of n ki^- 

maft In mlnil Hfjiltr kilTitrrH. but Iv* liiiidfrr forrl^-ntTtt from 

fnoSng iti." T1u» ww Oie principle from which be nvi«r 

dBTUl^il. and v\i\ch he ulvnyn <^nij<'avi>un!d lo ti]«u!«iit<T 

ici tJkt Acol, OS ihc «»Tra1 foiindiition of unAhimity nn<l 

■feadiofrii. " Disturb not one auolter vtith doiQmtick 

cfiupQfvpT but rrmt^ivibpr Ihi^t wo Arc Htiffliiah, and our 

mnrai^fn an* forci^o^-r*- Enemies T whitb, Ipl wbiii party 

imv«r ]>r»vail. it l« <<f|mil1)' ihi' iti!cT*st of our ccu^lr? lo 

livnbfe And rr^lriuh-" 

I An» Ibc :il)ili of April. UlS:). OTakr, Monk, ami IK^Qii 

<ail«d out of the Ut\^Vi»h liarboure with one liiindTrd men 

of wur, and finding thr- Uuteb with Mventy sail ou tbeir 

own ^OASts, drov<* thorn to ihu IVxcl. nnd took JiHy dof^- 

kpn. TIM'S Ihey mailed noHhword in pnrtnll of Vnn 

F^hnnp, who, hnvinjf U fleet ef merebjiiil^ imder l]i?4 ^oii- 

I voj, dvr*! not rntrr ihn ChnniuA, but %t<frrcd lowatdfl Iho 

Sound. uud> by great detl«rity nnd addrcSK. escaped the 

k^hrec Fn^lbh aibniraN, and Urouf^ht all bi» Mpf' into their 

PPbtrattr; then, f^nuvin^ ihut Ukkt- wiu ^titi m the north, 

«nmp beforo Dover, and ftrvd npon thai lowu, but vm« 

tlrt*«n off by the cawtle. 

Monk nnd [Van ilitliotitd ihemseKeft agnin Rt ihr mnnib 
uf th4> TexH, nnd bWlful irp thf Pnlrli in lhi<ir own porta 




With ciRb1>- flail ; but hoiirinir tJmt Van Trump von ot 
Uorci^t with cno hti&dn?d and twvDty m^n ofwmrr thcf 
ordered nil ships offgrctr in tho m»r bud porU lo i^palf to 

On June the :^nl, the two (lects cume to an etigagvfOMfDt, 
■D like beginning ol'whicb Dejiri wa» currli^ olT by h can- 
iioiHbiU; yet rbe fi^hl toutluufrd from about t««Ke to m 
in thr arteraiHJi), wbeci the Dutcli gave voy, &ad retreated 

On the 4th, in Ibe nftenioou, BUko oame up vitli 
eigUlc^u frevh KhipM, and profured the CngliaL a iooi' 
|>]«lc victory ; tior roiild tbo Dulrh nny otht^rwi^fT preM?rvr 
t)i«ir slii|>» thnii by ref trinf;, once more, into iLe ll&lft and 
nhallciwv, where tlie lurf^tf^t aC the Eng:IUb vi^hspU cquIJ not 

In this bntlle Van Trump boarded vioeuiiniral P^nis; 
but WOK beaten oIT, and himself boarded, aud reduced to 
blow up bin dei^ks, of ^vliicb the fjup^lish had ff^t poa^M- 
ftinri. He wna then entered, iit oace. by Pcnn and unother; 
nor itnuTd possibly buve n«rnpiMl. bud nol He Rityter auJ 
Dt* Wilt uiiivcd ul tikut iitiitiinl, uud rentued hkut^ 

However tbe Dukh may rndravour to cxlrnunlc iheir 
torn in (his boiilc, by odukittln^f uo more than ei^ht tibipa 
to havp boon tahon or deiitroyed. it ifl evidotjt that they 
must have rettived much }ireuler <t;Liuu|;ef> not only by the 
acroufilK of mnrr inkpiirfi;il hiEinrians. hnl by ibe reiDOO- 
vtrHiion 'iitd '-xHiimHlionH of their arlinir^lK ihemselveA; 
Vail Truojp detlurin^' befure the- itiair:%, timl *'i»itluiuta 
uumeroun reinforccmrnt of Inr^r men nf wnr, lie could 
■crvc tbrm no mor*i;'' a^d Dc Witt cryiniT out b<-forc ihc-ni, 
^Fjt)k thf! natural warzDtbof hk»cbflTQ4^1or: *' Why abould I be 
»[enl before my lords mid mkuten '. Tbe Eugluh are our 
ina«ler«, uiid by conve(juun<-c mufttL^rii of the tea," 

Fii Xuvrmbrr, l(\M, RIake w^in Krnt by C'ro»iw«*ll into 
tbc Mediterranean I ^ilb a povDrfut fleet, und ntay lie xiwl 
to ho*e received ibe bojuaf^e ufall that [mn of ibo wurM. 
beirtjf Cijutilly courted by the haughty 15poiiiutd»k (he •ufljr 
Dutcbr and ihc IjiwI«*ka AlgBiioM. 

In March, 1G5A, having forced Al^idrB to submiASioi], h« 



I Mt<^rod tht' liarbi>iir of Tunis, and demauJcd rcpnnitittn 

^mt thu mbdonoft pruclintHJ upon tho ICn^iAli bv the piralt-i 
of iluki ii\ai-i\ and infiiateil thai th^ coptivort ol liid it^Iioii 

^ nlwubl hr Krt St lihitrt}'. The 0[oveTnoiir. havii>tr plufitfd 
baltrricA tilon^ i\w sborr, ufjd druwri up IiIh «lnp« undi^r 
Ibe cutl». lenl BUkr nii baiigJilj/ and iiiKoli^iit nn^uer: 
" HicTfl arc our ca»t]cfl o( QoletlA mid Porto Fcrliiv." ^dd 
be, •' ujK>Q wlwcb yoo may do your woml;" adding oihor 
moiuceft nod in-tulU, afid men lion in j;, in U^rmsi oH iiiU<^a]o, 
the u»<|iiality of a fight b(>tn-o<*n shipn and cii^llcfi. Dluke 
hiut. lilEi*vtUi?, difmnnded Wvt> to InltO in walrt, which wau 

jLfl|AiM*iL him, Firf^d «i'ilh thrv iriliiimnn ttitA rrifiolciK 1rt?a(< 

■ 5mi1,Lc curled bU viliixkcM. as waAliJAcmlifia whvn hir wan 
un^y, and, vnltniK I'oHo Fvrinu with hU K^cat Mp^*^ 
d'mcbmwfftd hts xhul st> fast upon Ihc? bu1toh<rH and cu^(h<:t, 

! llisit in two boiirfi ihr ^ns ucro diEmounlcd, and tho 
Wflrlu fonokiTii, ihniigh he-, wan, nt iii«t, eiposcd 1o the lire 
of wiy ctJinon. lit- then ordered ]t\s ofWci^rn 1o KL-nd out 
llveir loai£ boat>» well manncdp lo ^eiKt' iiinr uf tbc pirutical 
»)upa tyiag^ iQ the rood, him^cir ronlinuing lo fire upon 
tho coBllCr Thia was no brovcly cxeciilf'd, thjtl, with the 
LoM of cnly tfT^nty-rive meu killvd.atid lorty t^i^bt tvouijd- 
ed, all the «bipi were lired in th(> ti^hl of Tuuii. Thence 
Baiting Co Tripoli, lit< fnnoludrd n ppai^r- vith tli:it nuliuEi ; 
llieo reiuriiiiig lo Tunis. \tv found nothing hat M}bmU»on. 
And Bucli. indeed, via liii rrputatiou. Iliat Itc met v'lih no 

L fvlber oppositioo* but cfjllcctrd a kind oflnhntc from tlifr 

I pHmoOfl of thOM ooanlrics, tii« busim-iEB bttnK (o demand 
reparation for alt tbe injuries oflerod to the Kngltih during; 
ibf^ ci*il iBum. Hi; isxacied from ihe duke of Tuicany 
GOfiOQl. mid, a% it u Kald, iirnT home lixtefii i^liipa la<loD 

' villi the rifectA wbich ho hnd rcrrivi^d from ncveni] »Uteft> 
The mpi'ii i*ilh ^littdi br obli^fd all forclKOt^ri to Irotit 
btt (HniutTjmi^n, ap|>tttf» from u *lory r4>lotcd by binhvp 
Uumcl. >Vhrn he la> befoni M&Uppn, in a liino of peac« 
with SpdiJn, aorac of hi» fluiiorv weot nbhore, mid meeting 
a proce«iion of the hont, not onh rrfu*ed ii# pity any 

' m|>«:1 to it, lint tnug^^uMl nt tlione ibal did. Thn people. 



briiijT pu*. ^y one of ibo pri**U, npou m^nttni; xh\» intlir- 
Dity. frll upon them nad hcot them flovorcty* Wbon ihcj 
rc'furnc^il to their ship, (hoy complwnpd of their ill tK^t- 
m<<nt: tipon tvhich bhik<.' lont to tlomaml ihe prk^t wb'> 
h.i4 prociirml it, 'rbi> vii^r>roy annrt^ml t)i»(, havm^ no 
niitltnhty over tht< priests, \w r.ouhl ii<il mrfid him : to vhirh 
Bl»ke ^oplJl^tl. *' thut ht fliO not iiiqiiijr« into ibe exlevt of 
the viceroy'^ ituthi>niy. but (hul, tl' the pri^tt were not sent 
witbin thrt^o houn, hv wt>iild bum the; tcwn.'~ 'Ilic vice- 
roy then s»nt th<*pri^ntto hiitif whoplcudi'd thf^prorocaticHi 
f^veo by lh« seamen. Bluke bravely ond ratinnalty aiusff- 
ed, ihiil if he had eoiriplwried to him, be wrouUI hiive 
puniHhrd fhrm ^rvrrHy, for he woidd mjl have ha imrn 
affront ihe estaMtah^d religion of any pUcc ; but that Jw 
woA tiitaty lliut the SpaniartU afaould aMumc that pov^r, 
for lie would hii^o a\\ the vorM Lnou-. " (bat an EoRbb- 
raau Mat only to Iw iiuniiibod hy mi Ijiit^lisbmann" So, kiv- 
in^ uiiT'd the pricvt ciiillVr hi? ct^nt blm l»^ick, brin^ «ati«&rd 
thai \if 'WAA ill hiH pover. Thi» conduct io vtim-U pleated 
Croruwell, timt be read the letter in council with grt$.i 
tfatiafuction* ai>^ mud, "h«i haped lo make tbe Dome of n 
£i]ffliAliniaii as grrat n« ever that of a Konini h«d bocnr 

in li;5tf, the protector, having d«<c]«ntd wftr a^^aiaK 
Spuin, de»p'L(tohe(l Bhike. with Ivenly-fitre neti of wm, to 
iufeift iheii cojistM, and inirrcL^pi tho«r Mpping, In par 
auanec of ibeao orders he cniiaed «U wiiilor iilraat ibc 
^truiu, KTid then h%y at (hr? month of thi^ Itfirtiovr of Cbleo, 
iHiere lie rocoived rutdlifpncc, that tjic SfMrnnJ) Plot* 
fleet lay at mchor in Iho boy of Sontu Cm, in rbc vU 
of T(*iirriff<>. On the IStli of April, 1067, be dep«ct*d 
fmnCaTen, and, on the 2ath, orrivisl ut 8antu Cnift, v toe 
lie fotinri NJxti'cn Spanish vesselt^ TU<^ hay w» dtfaadcd 
mi tim north tide by a cattle, well mnoTrted with eMiiion, 
and iu other porta with %t^%vu fori*, wiUi cunn<m |>ro|ioty 
lioDod to the bij^rieM, all united by n Ijrjc of eominuaicatioa 
mantled wiih tnTi.^krifcm. Tbe t^pftci^b adninal drr-.r ap 
ba$ cmili ships raider the caiiDt^n of tbe costlo, aii<t slattoa 
«d SIX gr«at ^teont with ibeir broaditdvfl to the *ea: u 

BLACK. 307 

adTtfrtagtoiM nn<l prrult^Tii dUpoMtion, but of lUili* «ff»ct 
4giftlltft flip En^tji^h roiniiiJiQtU'rt v liit» (Ixfrriniiimi^ lo atlaolE 
ikem, ord^fi-<l SUyitfi to f^uttrr Uit! liuj/ wiOi hin i4|Uj»lr»n: 
ifacil ^oitinfT MOin^ «f bU larf^t^r nhipK ti> play upon the for- 
lificatiotitt. lum^rlf vlUckcfl tho ffn]lcf>z)", vMcli, iiftvr u 
Kalhat rMtfliMGe. w«v, at l«ni^h, Abandoned by tho 
SpODittnli, tbc»ugh Uic* limtt of iheta u»s bi^^pr tiiuii lli«) 
btgf«9t of Blukff'ii KhipH, The farXi un<t imollur vvfiMtU 
boittdf nnw shaiiere^l and fornak^t^ Ihn vboir flpet wjw »et 
tm fins. iIk- i^illrijfis b}- Blkiltp. aitiit iUf rtmiUtr vriseU by 
SUyiwr. t}in Rng^lUb n^HHrU bi-iox <^" mucU AliuJIrri^d in 
1L«^ fijEbt 1o brinjc iHrm uwnv. Ttitis voa tlie whole Plata 
ll«ct di>Mroyt?<], " uml iho Sptininrds," Recording to itapin's 
reinuHi;, " anctuiuvd « ^^i^dt Lovb of iJiip^ monev. dx-q, und 
QMrrhaittlue, irlul« tfa« Euj^tixh Etaiued ooihio^ but ^lory^ 
■H if In? dat inr^nmnrft llir military rf-|iiifijliuri :if ■ p-oplf^ 
di^ ikol innfimr Ibrir povr<-r. Aiid hi: ilu4t v'ettkcai lib 

" The vtholc uction/' cay« Clai^DiloD, " vr&a ao incredi- 
ble, ibut fill mm. who knc^v tbc pluciv wondi^rrd that uny 
«obrr amn, with vlutE coum^o soever eridoiipcl, irouM ^vpt 
bave iijideTlakrii if, and they could hardW periiiindt^ them' 
H-itd to bL-]iv\tf vbiil they hiid doni?; ivhite the Spiitiuirds 
corarortcd tlM^ni-ii?lT<T« »itli the iMlirf, iJiat tbcy Ht^re de* 
tih, «nd pot met}, wbo b*id dcAlroycd them In such a nuui* 
■or. S*> inttcli a tlrcti^ re<i>lation <tf bold and coiinffoon* 
M«Q c*ii bring to |>aft», that no re^i^taiico or ndritata^ c€ 
ground ca« diva^ipciut them ; mid t1 uaui kurdly be in»- 
^urd bow Mtrnll u !»» the Kngtbh ftinXaiiir<l m thU im- 
panlMcHl «ctioit, not out: »hi|> brjttg Irfi briiiiid, and Ibp 
kiilrd and wounded Jiut nci^odiujc iwo huudft.-d nurti; 
vb(^ the AlABj^bler, ou board Uk^ f^puni^b ibips nud on 
•bon, WM uicrodiblr/' The ttcner^l cruucd, tor aomi^ 
timf* nl^tirwardi, vJtb hi*^ fjclorioiiK flool, at ibi* muutiL of 
Culei, lo intercept ^ the S[>!Liit4b shippbi^ ; biil» finding kJl 
€«IHliliitioii broken, by ibe faii^^ue ijf ib» last thri^^ vcMn. 
dfHmsiiK-d Ici relurn kvtne, ami dk-d bufurc be voniff lo 




Hifs body va.4 embalmed. anJ bavinf^ Iflin t;oin« lim^ In 
Kluiv lit Grrt'iii*ic1i boU9L\ WAi liaried in Hetsry ibe »e- 
v(?nlh^& r^lmprlt willi ull ihe ('Liiit-ral M>!eituiiEy dun U> the 
ranniL^ of n man »i> Aini^d for hi« bmvcnr. niid bo iipolf^u 
ID iiu Intcgrilj^ ; nor i» it without re|^cl. X\\M I am oblift^ 
lo rcloto the Iroatmcnl hj» body met, a ycsr lUlnr tbe rC' 
ilorvtion, wbc^n ^t viit tiiken U)> bv express conmand, Hiitl 
buriLvl JD a pit in St. ftlar^fet'ii oburoii-^'iLnl. Ha4 b*r bpt-n 
g^ilfy nf rbit miirilrr of CHhHi-k ihn Hrtl, Id inniilt bis borly 
hiid ber^n u mean rnven^e; but. ait bo woa iuitoc^'^ul. it 
AJIB> -il Icijuil, inhumiuiit^, und, [jcrbapa, LDg-ratiludr. " Let 
no mnu/' say* tJic oricnla^ proverb, " pull a dead lion by 
tho board," 

Btit tbflt ref^rd wliich was <li>nifrd biE licdj, bae b^n 
paid to bU better remaliu, hU name and lili memory. 
Kor biw iinj wrilcit cUiml tn dniy him the pmiu^ nf inirp- 
piditih, honrttv. cnntrrnipt of n^allti, nitd lovo of bU cuim- 
trj, '* He voA tbe firit mfl*i," says CI&reDdon» " that dc- 
cVnwd the old track, and madt* it nppareiit that the Mienoev 
mig^hi btf utiuiiKrd ui ]ve*( itniu than wua iniiiippod. H& 
uas (be flrU miiu (hat bmu^tit iLbipi to contemn cuIIim on 
nhiirr, %-\i\rh hud e\rr l)f<rii thnu^hl %prT r^irmidubk*, bnt 
wf^re <ti«<^ui I'riTil 1j^ bioi to niftkv h rioifft- only.iiml to Prij^ht 
tbo?ie wJio could rareiy be burt by iheiti. He? v/a* iJir ftrri 
tbat infOAi'd that proportion of courage inlr» vcnnicn, bf 
making tlioiu see, by expcrionc^?, wlint-oir^bly thinf^ tb«T 
could do, if they were refiol^ed e and t.-tugbl tbeiii lo Itfrbl 
in fke, a<t m'i<11 a« upou tin- wfiier; uud, tboiuj^b he Jvu 
b(wci very H-e]| imtfurttd atJid folbmrd, wuh tbr fTrKt Ibal 
jpive tbt.- rinmpli.^ of tbiit kind of irnvnl fourAgr, and bold 
and rrsolutc acbii^vcinenla." 

To thJH utloiUttion of hia militjiTT cxci^Ucdo^, it m»j br 
proprr io ^ahioiu an ncconnt of bi^ moral cbanictcri from 
th<r nalbor of Mvee, Enff:li»b nod Foreitpt. '* lie wiu jea- 
lous," 9nys tbnl writer, " of tbe liberry.of the «iibj«>ct, and 
ibu |^U»rv of bin wi(:on ; tmd i» be made iisr of no mean 
urlifk(^« to mhv httUHHrto tlur hi^ie«1 oiunniand ul urn, «u 
be needed no iulerest but b» merit to support bim in it 



lie «eoniGd uotliing morf^ than money, which, U4 fml an it 
ctti&Q ID, «a« kid out by hrm in th(> service cf tJic «Lil«, 
aid to show liiut lir was nninialcd bv Umt brnvc, jmblick 
fpirir, whit-b ho* hiupp boon rfiokonc^d rnther romanlick 
ihaa lirroirk. An<I \w w^is so <litunter&«1e(l, that (hou^b 
no man hail mort^ cip|:ior(unilteti lu enrirb liiri«Kir lEiurt he, 
who biLtl (aLce) ho uiuiiy milliviiA frurn xhe t^ttvm'irs of Kng- 
IqqcI, ytl he Ibri^w it ull jnEo iltr }iublick IrcMur^, and tiid 
tiol dji- livt* buiKlrvd pouudjt rinfior than bis father left Mm ; 
which ihiT uutlior u^on^ from hU p^rao/ral Luowl»d(^i> of 
hie fianily anrl lh(*ir circumstances, havjiif^ bt'vn bred up 
in il, ai>d ufltrn beard hiv IrrotliLT gi^v tbiH dLvoiint ot \nm. 
lie WBi rrli^vu:!, uci^urding Lo tlic prrlciulcd purity of 
these timcK but would frequently nllow himself lo bo 
iii«rry with hia ofliccrs, and, by hb tcudcrnc^s and ^dc- 
roftitj to the aeamen, had so t^udvuxed bim^ielf Ut thero, 
thnt, wb#n he died, lh«y lumcntcd \u* lost, &k thnt of u 
eoBUDOii fat her." 

Inatewl r>f mure it'stiimuuirh, bi?i (character may \}v prO' 
|H!fly concluded with one itit^idetit nf bin life, by which i1 
ftppeors liow mtjcb tbc 9ii>irit of BUkc wns »uprn4>ur (o ull 
pcivate view^n liu brotbcr, ro tlic btflt actJOD with the 
Sfwuardi, banu}; not douti Iiia duty, wan, at Blake'ii d^ 
•jro, diicardod, and iUv xhip wui pvcn to another ; y«t 
WM ho BOt test regardful of him as u brc»lht-T. for, wbeu be 
diffd, he left him his estale, knowing him wcU i|UuUtied to 
fliUirn «T enjoy n priviiti' fiirtune, though bo had fimnd 
him oofil to scrtv his country in n publick cbarjaotcr, und 
bad, Ihorcforc, not ^uHbrcd him to rob it. 

Tab MlvwinjE brief vyita\»n of BUkc'* lifi.*, diluting;, la maw 
pafticulurvr in>ni JttUxuivii'i uiconoir^ in toki-n fniin Au1irr)\ 

'» hariK ul . - , in com. S(anc«««l, »w '»f Albwi tmll, in 0%- 
fi«iL He wMtbiTCiyoongnum^iiJongl-KJy.mid j^kkI purtx. 
Ho WW Ml tm\x riMrt, sad iluiljtfd wtll, hut aU look hi» robu-t 


pleMUTFA of fishing and fowling^ fro- He would rteale vipumct^ 
— He served in the hcuw of comoot fiir . - - . A^. Dni ... he 
wea mode admirall. He did the greatest actiotm at m» that ever 
irere dtuie. He died A°. Dni , . . and waa buried ia K- H- Tth'i 
i^pell ; but upon the retume of the kinge* hia body was taken 
up again and removed by Mr, Wella' occaaioUt and where it ii 
now, I know not. Qn- Mr. Wells of Bridgewater?— EU>. 


Francis Drakb waa the bod of a dergjman, in DO" 
vonaMre, who being inclined to (be doctrine of the protest- 
ants, at that time much opposed by Henry the eighth, 
was obliged to fly from hia piece of residence into Kent, 
for refuge, from the persecution raised against him, and 
those of the same opinion, by the law of the six articles. 

How long he lived there, or how he was sapporled, was 
not known ; nor have we any account of the fast years of 
sir Francis Drake^s life, of any disposition to hazards and 
adventures which might have been discovered in his child- 
hood, or of the education which qualified faim for anch won- 
derful attempts. 

We are only informed, that he was pat apprentice, hy 
his father, to the master of a small vessel, that traded to 
France and the Low Countries, under whom he, probaUy, 
learned the rudiments of navigation, and familiarized hia- 
self to the dangers and hardships of the sea. 

But how few opportunities soever he miglit have, in 
this part of his life, for the eiiercise of his courage, be 
gave so many proofs of diligence aud fidelity, that hii 
ma£ter, dying unmarrieil, left him his little vessel, in rewaid 
of his services ; a circumstance that deserves to be remem- 
bered, not only as it may illustrate the private cbamcter of 
this brave man, but as it may hint, to all those, who miy 

1 From B. NorboDe, B.D. his contemporary lh?ie- 

' Thu Life wDfl lirst printed in the Gent, Mag. for 1740, ami Jufamoo'i ■■' 
cfaaiDg abhonence of Spanish encroachmeot and oppies^on ia reinui>bk 
ihroujtbmil. See hiaLondOD, and Idler, 81.— Ed. 



'nArr pn>|tuiBb \u% cQxu\tmt for thrir imitatian, lluit virtno 
ii llic ]iur<<«t foijiiiUiljmi both of n'piil^ilion aj\d rirlnne, 
and tluit tbe 1if*l tXi^t to fl:re«t[]c«a i« lo be honest. 

If it vcrc Dot inprnpor to dwoll lo»f;cf on un inciJt^nt, 
ut UiQ firdl vj<>w »o iiLcc(ULito<ruijk\ it mt^lit b4T uddcd* tlwl 
It cteiier««» Ike refl^cllou «f tJiD»«, ubo, wb«a tboy urc oii- 
gflged in alfairii tiof udoqtiuli^ fu ihtnr ubilirirH, pusK tbeni 
AVer whh n ronti^mprnoiiii r)i*gl«*rlv an^ \thil« ih^v amiifle 
lliemirh'iu witli L^liimerir^l actiemest, and phiiw ofruttirt! 
nndcrtakinict, nuQcr cvt^ry upporluuit;? of Ajniillr^r udviiu- 
tnft; to *Jip awuy, us unworthy lUt-ir nra;;flr<l. 'Ihoy niAf 
learp, fr^m tbr 4iXAm|iU' or Omkir, tliut diltj^-f^ncc in cmplo}- 
nentv of I^S4 con^cqitenoe, n ibo moBt su€c^<«fiil introduc- 
tkni in ^-jiliT i-riU'r|iri!tt<!>- 

AfUrf luiviii^ flit low rd. fur mjine limr. bin iiui«lrr\ pn^- 
feuioD. Ik- ^rcw wf^ary of to uEirrow a |>ri>uiico. juhI, ]m«- 
inir Aold hiB bllle vouel. venlurrj bid iflVcU in ihr: ihsw 
tradu to tbi« WcEt ludW, whicli, bnvmj; m>t bi^cn lor»K di»- 
^cwctfed, nnd vary liul«) fnH{Oontvd by ih*^ KnffUfih, till lluit 
luw, nrro is>ncchcd «o mm'b lo abound m w<*»lib, Uiat 
no vojA^e thiihrr cnnM fi'tl of boiii^ reconipeniivl b\ great 
lidtiiQla^B. Nuliiiii}^ wan tulkvd of uuimig ibr nionrniiUlrf 
or julrcnturou!! part of itiuJiLind, but tlivr beauty txnd ticbeii 
o( the new world. FrvKli dUuuvmci y^vrl^ IWqutnlly 
tllftdr, tJ4*w rouBirirft and nntiotiK nuv^iv bcurd of Lcforo, 
W4*re daily df^Minbrd, uiid il miiy (tanilT b« i^oiiulradcfdH tbuf 
ihe relaten did n<tt dimirmb Ihr int^ril of Ihcir uiliTrnpU, by 
ui|>prv»in)f or diminiAhitij^ any ciituuiNUincc tbal uigM 
pirod«cc wi>ndc?r,of cxcitr cunoAily. Nor wua ititir vuoity 
ocily op^agcd in raimn^ ndmircr*. but Lbcir ii»tcr4-*t, [iko- 
vine, LB procarJDg ailiTutnrore, w1k> were-, iodi-vd, canly 
piaiK-d liiy Ihe boji«« wbk-h naturally arit** from now proi- 
pvctc, tbouftb* llirou^b ijcuorance of the Amrnntn m'ttn, uiid 
by tbp nialin- of l)u- Spnti'uirtlK, tkhiK fnitu ibe llrHt iliMO- 
Very t>f LbotR- countrlt.^. cuiibidcicd cvrry other nation tiiiil 
aUemplvd io fulluw iheat, as mvadL^n of tlirir rj^Ebt^, Iht' 
bcvt coDccrlod dcAiRn^ of^cu mucarnod. 

Aiaon^ thoao who nulfered rao»l from tlie S|>Aniab in- 



jiisti<^o, wot oaptiun Jolin Huwl^Ln^, who, hai^og be«n the vicfTfi}', lo (mllit^k in the biiy«r]fl«xlcA*='*> 
concraTy lr> the ivli[ftki1:itinn ih<^n mndn lH?iwf?Pti U>i-in. and 
!i) viiilHliifii of tEit? pi'Kci- betweirn S|>ain and Englvid* at- 
(kicked wilhmit any ilecbruiimi of hottilitics* and obligi^d, 
idWr an obstinate mirinncr* to retire willi tlic \os» of four 
ship?, nnd n grrnt niinibrr of hiK mca. vho w«re «itber d^ 
fllroje»d or csrri^id into Alnvt>ry- 

Tn this \Dya|2;e Drfiko had advenftiivd almoiit nil liU fof- 
tiifitr, which he? Ill viiin ('iid**«vimred lo rti:ovt?r, bulh bj hi* 
DWii privulir intf^nitl. nnd b^ ohuJniit^ It-tlrn fn^m qitevD 
Klizfihrlh; for the Sp0nif)rds> (le»f to nil rcJDOiutAikoef. 
i>ithur viudicutod Ihc injuatici« of the vweroyr or, at lootf. 
forbcirc^ (o rt-drcns it. 

Drako, tha» opprofiH>d nnd impovemhed, Tettxint^d, ■! 
\iin%t. hiA ronm^ und his iTidiiNiry* that nrd«»nt Apirit thai 
^ri<m|j|vd hwt lo iidvpiiluresmid ihiil iiidefttligahl»< |)t<lHrDC« 
that rnnblcsl him to Kiirnttvunl diflroultici. He did noi at 
down idly to tnmc^nt mi?iforCDncff which hnaviMi bod put it m 
his power 1(k irnicdy, orto repine utfovf^rty.wbilothovcaltb 
of hta t^ni^inio)! w^i^ lo b<* i^ni'n^d. But hnvinp made l«« 
voyn^K to Aniericsi, Ajt ihe *nke of fHiEiihig in1ellh;rDr<> of 
tlie fit^te r»r ihr Spmiish s(<lllrini-iit!i. iitid Hri|iiainii.-d hlin- 
QcJf with llic »PJL% »nd ucmHtH, he dl^t^^lllllrd on a third rx< 
prdilion of more tmportnnoc. by which tlic Spaniards «hoD Id 
hiid hon iin|>nidonl1y they ali^ays &cU ^to injure und in 
fult R bnivu main 

On ih** '>ll}i of Wily, 1572, Fr»nrtj> Drnko url nail from 
Plyiuoulli, m UiP PiiAilm, rif Mfirnlv lon^. iirromprtfiipd Ht 
tfc© Swan, or(^rrity-fivc k'OS> cotnniiindrd by his brochiv 
John Drake, having, lu bolb the vt^awli*, SKventy- three atvn 
9iid boys, with a ycnr'^ provtrnon, and Eiuch tirtillcry and 
ammMDLtJon, its wub n«e«ssury for bin undertaking, which, 
bowrvcr iuori<diblc it mny nppear to aoch m coiwidcr itt- 
llifT hi« forrr Ihctn hiR iWtilndo, wa^ no 1p«« ihiin to naiii^ 
rrpH^nls ii\Hm thf iiut^it jtiiwf^rfid nation in ihr viirhr 

Thf >vinU ouutinuiMK fiivonf uMt. thry i^ulrt^d, J anr *2Qih, 
bctwofti (iuEidjilonpp and Doniinica, nod, on July 6tb, sat 



ir huting bo<ra bL^enlmcd tbr norn^ Vimo, they 
arrived Al pon PhrntHiir, rh ri»mril by Drnke. In a rormtr 

voiiL;^ li> l|i<- riDil uf Nuiutiiv []<.' DloH. Ift^tt^ lio propOfNfd 
tu build liLA {liiiimcci. i>Uii:b be bbid Lruugiil in f)i(?ci*fi rfratly 
fncDcd from I'lymonlb, and wtu gowf^ upbore, vith a Tew 
noD ttoannodt but, diftcovonna; n ^moke at u d»tan<rc> or- 
d^T^d tbe OCber boat to follow biui witb a fTreuiL-r t'i>roc, 

Tbeo inarebio^ towurdi ib^? fire, vbicli van in ibe top of 
^1 liS^h trrr, ti<* found u jibid^ nfWd nuitrd lo unoiht^r in^n, 
witli im inHcnplJvn rngrnv<:il iipnii U by oiif:< Gdrrrt, un 
dtiglishiPdn, wbu JiiiJ Irft tbit pluets but 6vc <!nyA bnroro, 
lUid LhiI taken tbii method of ittfiTrnimc: bim. ibit ihv 
Spuijiufdji bad bt'ciJ ndvv^rlibcd of hin m(riitio[i to ;ijiclior 
lit tbnt place, and tUat it, tberefore, would bo prudent to 
make a very »bori may ther^. 

But Dmk«, biiEiving biw convi*n»Mil tbit place nut f<>r 
bii dcugHA. niid roiMidcring tbiiC iJic bua^rd uiid vHSit^^ of 
lime, wlui^li ruidd not be avoided. In HtM.'kiik^ itiiulbt-r Mn- 
tMHi. wufl i<4{UJvuloul to liiiy oilier duEi^r ^hich vos to bo 
ftpprttbendod from Ihc Spaniard,^, dtlcraiititTd to follow Ins 
lint roiuiliition ; only, for h'w greater (lectiHly, he unleivd 
m ki&d ofpalJiade, or forltflcation, to be made, by fdlitig 
large treen. and lnylnj^ the fniiiLt and bnuiubeii. one? npcn 
HitolWr, by Ibc Mile ai Uio ritcir* 

On JuU SOtb, bEk>iiiK built tbcir piiiriacva. and Mng 
joined by one caploiu Kciii»e, who bnpprned to toiicb at 
tfa« MID» pl«co, witb u barL of tifty men, Ifioy set sail to- 
wofd* Nombre d» Wo%, aud, takins^ two 1>i|^ri's ul tbo 
idand of Pirws, were infornifid by ibr m-^nH-s, which lh*y 
found in ihem. ibat cbe iidiabilauU nf ibnt pUco w^ni in 
^xprclution nf »4imo loldicn, whkb tbt' govornour of Pa- 
iMAB lind promised, to defend ibum from the bymerona, 
or fuiritir^ iirpToe«i who, bavinb; oscuptd rrcm tbe lyranny 
«f llieir maAlen, in ^reot aamlxint, bktd m-lllpj fb<*m)H*hes 
uiMk^r tvu kiu^v, or leader*, on each ftidr of thi* way be- 
twet-n Numbn* dr Dici* ami rariuniM, and nE>t only HMrrled 
Uicir lulunil lighl to libi-rly und indt^ptiodcucc. but rn* 



hncl lutrlj pui liiit jiihhbjUitLl!! uf Nurtibn- da Diun ml» tlm 
ttUuiMit cLJiisterjtation. 

Tfiost' uey^roi^H ihi! captain eel on «hoTC on tLc mamlonij, 
to littl tlit.',y imK:}jU liyjumi^i? tlio S_TiTivroii£[| recover Uicif 
liberty, or, ;tt Ivimt, ouKht iwl hu\e it in thirir power to ^ttt 
the pno(ilr of Nombro dc \Yio9 auy cpccdj i&rormnliaii of 
his iiitr>nJi<»o lo'lnvAitlr thrm. 

Tbeu belifctiDg fifly-thrco ineu fnjm liia o^fii c>um|wuy« 
and twenty from i\w cmw of hU ticw a.>i»ociatr. cuiiUia 
ilAiiKL', Im tiuburked with llicm, iu bU piutittcci, and jvI 
gftil for Nombru dc Uiot. 

On July the 2Sth. nt night, he npproach<-il 1b» town, na- 
dt»c<iven*d, and dropt bis »n4^lmr» inidtr tli^ >Jior«, Iiit«iid- 
iii|^, ufu-r \n» ninii wt*n? rt-rrfKlinl, Ui begin the? nllnck; 
bill 6ndin[C tkil tbry wrn- tt'Triiyiii^ tstch other nilb Tor* 
miiinblc nccounti of the htrcn^th of (he pljicc, qikI tho 
multUudo of lhi> iubabitiiutti, bo dvtC'ivniued to liii>drr the 
pauick from apreAding furlher by Jeudliif;: theoL aniuie- 
dmtcly 1o uciiun ; Lind, ibtrrviore. ordering tlirm iv xhcit 
oHTA, b« Undtid without nay uppcmitioh^ thivii hninj; ocily 
oao giuiiicr upon llie bay, iJioui^b it >v&s be€U/eJ with m% 
brau caniioEiFt of Uio Ur^^at ivtv, rcudy inouutcd- But 
tJii^ ffunutr, v/hiUt Ihuy ^erc ibrowinjc ^>c cuinooft from 
tb^r cmriagoA, lUnrmril tho (own, ns they rood ilifioov^red 
by the bell, (bo drums, and tbe noift^ of lb« people. 

Di;tLe» leaving t«4fUe mvu to gu^rd lb« pinaieo*, 
inNrL-Ued ruuiid eIil- Iuwii, tvtth no gr<!til fipprj«ifioi», ihr 
men bcmff morr liurt by tnudlng on the ^vApi^iia. left vtt 
tko gniund by tlic fl.vtog enemy, th&u by thtf toabtome 
vhLcb (iLoy oncounterod. 

Al length, havLU^ tak»n sotna of the Spaniufd*, Univ 
(.'oniniAQd^d iJieni 10 kbow Idm tbt* gowrnonr't hou^u, 
Arbitrr lliET luulc-Ji tliut bring ihr i&itier frooi PunaniA w«re 
unloadifdi tbero ihey fouud tlir dooi open, uud, i^itvnng 
the roOiu whrro llie nilter w;ra rt^poslltrd. found it beapt.'d 
tip in turn, in auch i)uuntili<^j< na Aljno^l oxcced brlid', 
tiio pilo being, they coitjc^ttired, t^ionty feol io IcnglJi, 



f«^ in bn>n(lfV ^nd ivolve in hoi^ht, f^Ach bur woiia^htiig 
b4}(iv^a thirl^ end forly-five pounds, 

ll u «4ifty ro Intagine, Uiai, ai the ih^tit «f Thiit tnrii!tur«, 
ootlnitg wan thciutt'it i>ti liy the Vn^Msh. Irut liv whit m<*An« 
tkey mig^ht Iir^C rnmry it tn iti^ir boats; 'ind^ drkiibllfrM, 
il «u not ea05 for Omkc. nho, coti»drrin^ tbcir dutAocc 
from ihty sboro and tho ntunlK^i of Uicir «nomi«<», vas 
■iVmiil of b<^ii»f; inrrrc^|>iod in hid rctri^at, ti> biiidcT ^is 
nwrn from rrtoiLnili^nng th^in»«K«ft with no much lih^r ii4 
miglit hnvff rrtariird thnir tniin^h aih) iiH^lnicti>(\ ihf Qse 
of llit^ir wetkijurii^ ; hoyt^^rx. hy \iJon\\iitng io 1i'»d llirni to 
tk« kuig:'i Inwsurvhouflo* >vhcro Uicrc wa« ^oM uid j«web 
Ia a fnr ^n^atrr vdu<-, und «licnT tho Irtuitoro wcu not 
only motr \inriah\c, but iK^jrirr thu ctioat, bu pt>»i)iulcd 
tbon to follow bTm, and mjoin Ihd m»in body of his men, 
tlien dnwD n]> nndiar the i*omittaRd of lib brotbctr in the 

' Hftm ho found bin Utile tninp inncli dUt^otiraged by th*^ 
iflMgtMitkiD, that, if tbey «1iiy«iJ uny loui^rr, ilui i^Qciuj 
would gaiA poflA:«*iio<n of Lbeir pinnuce^. mid thut Uiey 
ibouUI tlic-n, without tuty mt*ann of Mifcly, be loti Io »1&nd 
■loue agvinit i1il« vhujo pote<»r of that coimtrv. Dmto, 
BOt, iMhwd, rUKily tfrmti^iL, but tuQloii>nily ciiutiooM, lejit 
to iko co»i?t1 Io inquire llie tnjtii, «ud iev if tbo mtme tvr* 
rour bad laLfn pusiwMioci of tin* utea wbiini ho had loft to 
gvAfd liLB buul:t : but. Gndinji; nofoundfltion forthrscilrvud- 
ful apprrhontioM, ho pcrniiitcd in biri tint d(T*i^, und li^d 
tb» troop fonrsrd to tho trostnr^boiiMt. In choir way, 
then* f^ll a violent (howof of min. whirh wel some of iheir 
bowtttrin^. and exlinKutiilu*d inimv of llitiir mulrlir*; a 
tuiAfi^rtuno which miffbt Kciiin lin'iv hcva rvpitirrd, »iid 
vbich, prrbapi^, t\iv ciioiuy niif bt niiflrr in common with 
tJkcn, but wbicb, Loweri^r, on tbia occasion, Tcry much 
€mbftmu)Aod thoni, as ih*i delay f>ruducod by it rcprocMid 
that ofttour whichr «ont«iitTit^s, it only to be l:^pt u|> by 
contioupd m-tion, and ^viMJmo tolhr [tmnniuHiuidilothfvl 
to tprrAd tln^ir iiiMnuatiuti> and pmi)iif<uir tbirir rowprilir^. 
SomOi wboM four wua (bou prvduminout pAukai, wtrrc 



cofjtlaually magmifyiDg tlie numbers and couni|j:«^ ortHi-li 
eaemic<i, und rc[iri!Beiit<^d tvbulc nutionfi a» ready 1^ riub 
upon Ihi-m; othor^t whoiK? nvuncv raintclcd Vhitb \hcis 
concern for i\ »wn liafeUi Wi^m nior<> ftolicilou* to pi 
snrvc vpliat ilii^y bnd nlrp^Hy gikjiied* thart lo acquire morv; 
;in<k oihern, liriiv<< iii LlieiiiFielvt^it uiid rt-w)liilt*, brjpui 
dtnihl iif jtucccA.i III uD iimlrrtukiii;^. in whiiili tU'j wei 
a««orkntc<[ with such towanily con)ptniif>ii«. Sl> lliut hililpIj 
any mau appcorcd to proceed in llidr €Dl4-rprbH.' wiib tlinl 
Apirit atid itluirriiy « Jiicti could f^^ire Drake a pro*p«Jcl 

This he pnrr<*iTr(l, imd, wiih tome ^motion^ li>1d iL^m, 
ihut if, jiftvr Living lim) llie chief irt'Hiiiirf' vC llm w^irld 
Hithri) thrir rr»i.h, tlir'V Mhi^IiI K'o bumn and hmguiUi in 
poverty, tlicy could bliime Jiotliiitg but ibcir own coward- 
iue; that he hud p<;rrorn:i4:<l hJa part, find vutt btWl dc^lr- 
vua lo lead Ibenk on to richoa and to bouciur^ 

Tiu'n tiudiit^ thii eitfaer fthanic or cunvktiou raado tluMii| 
itilling to fiillnw liim, ho ordfrntd the- tFrjuiirt'hoUKiT to lio 
rriiycii, iirkd mmtri^uiding tri^ brothi-r, nnd Ox«^rihfiia, t)f i 
PlymuutLj u inmi kiii^wu aflcrwtirda fur £iis bold udvi>tH. 
luri-'H iu tht aumc paita, Ur IoIlc i;bar^ oftbo trcu^urr, hi 
cunimandcd the other body to follow hJiii tn the markcl 
pluco, thai lie mi^ht bc< rvudy to oppojtc any <cat(crc4l 
tTUopa Qf tJi« Spaniards, nnd hinder them, from uDiting tol 
itiiiT body. 

Rut. im hv Kti-pptrd rfirwiird, lii« xlri'iBg^Ui fiiilril bim on 4 
buddvu, uud he fell dcwii Apceebtesa, Then it «aa timt^ 
bid cooipanions perceived a wound io hi« leg, which 
had roecived iu the lirst eacoimtcr, but bitWlo conccati-dt 
lotl hu men, eunily di^ooiiru;;ed, fdiould m^i« their cofkc^mj 
for liiA lifi> tt preti^nce for rt*1(iming to their bmit*. Sot 
hud been biK Ioeh ofblnod, nn wnt diccovrmd upon t>rarcr| 
vbservttlioii, iLut it had lilleJ the phnti of Itis foolAtep>»l 
nod it apputirt-d scarce credible that, aft«i ^uch vfTuj^on ofj 
bU>od, life ^ould rrmiiin. 

ThcT hravi:At were now willing to rrttrc : neither tiko de* 
nrc nf bonaar nor of riefatfs, wa^ Uiou^u cnoagli to pns 



tail in uiiy man cnirr Wi% rr^inl fur Kik T(<»<1eT- Drake, 
whom cordiulik bud tn>vt rr»lnri-d la h\ft, wnit fh^ 
Milj DlJUi ^vLu €0uk1 ijut ]jc prcvailf-il on tu leave [he 
ralerprist* uiifiimhtj. It wu-i to no purpose ibut ibry »*l- 
TiMcl Inin lo ^itlimit lo (;o od btuirJ to lm>c bin wound 
«lrv««il, flod promised to rolum with him And oompioto 
ihrir d^ai^Ti ; ho woll knrw faovr impnirlit-Jtblr it vm% to 
n-giiin iht^ oppnrtnniiy, nhi'n it vmk nnrc? ioM : and i^ould 
cfttily furciec. iLut o rcapitc, bat of a fe^r Lours, would rn- 
abl« the Spajiiardtf to rci^ovor from lli^-ir coiiMcniAtJon, lo 
aAM-Biblc ibdr foror?!, rolit thrir tmtl^^ric^, and rcmovir tbc*ir 
Iretutir*?. What be bud utidir^oni.* so uiarh daii^^r f« 
obtain was nov jn hia hnnda, timl tfin iho^^hl of teavinff it 
uiiloiicbt'd vitt% luo niorttf^LEig X*} bx p:«(i4^ri(ly ljorn«^ 

Howi^irr, UH tbero was liUlv Urue for c^ii^iilliitioTi, niid 
SHflie daiigfr altctidrd tlirir ftny, m thai prrpfrJLiU and 
mAimou, ud iheJr rftura. ibcy bound up h'n wound «itb 
hiA MTuif, Rnd partly by fcrce, partly by i^utrotily, earned 
him lo thif boaU, in xvhirb they all enibatkcrd by hrvak of 

Thea Caking uiiU them, otit of thp harbour, a nbip loaded 

ith wiurK, tbi*y U4<Mt lo lUe BuHtliueiilf*!, jui isluud u1h>u1 

a Iragur from lh<* tovn, vhrrc Ibry situyed turn dayn lo n>> 

po«o tho nouadird uwo, oitd to resale tb<iii!»rlvr;i w'tth tLc 

fniita, which |?rew in f^^at plenty in tho gardens of that 

Ihtriug Ihclr stay bmr, ihrro came over, (torn Die maifl- 
IuimI, a Spaniih gpntlpmnU) fpnt by thr govrnimir, witli in- 
AtrtiL'tioiiB to iii«jaire ^rlielher iht* cuptnaii w;ti l^iat Dmko 
wbo hiid bcvtt bi-for« oil thcii coast; wbethrT ttif arrovi 
with which many of tbcfr men were woundod were not 
poi4CiM>d; and wlu?tlier th«y wanted proviHiotii; or otli«r 
it«oefida/iea> I'Le ineirA(in]Ei>r, likewUe, extolled their nm- 
ngv vilK thv high(*«t vncomiumiE, itnd expre«9e<l hifi aflmi- 
ration of th«*ir dvHn^ uiiilr Jinking- Druktf, tliun^k ho 
know ibv frivilitieit of an cnomy anr alway* lo be 9iupect- 
«l, and ttial iJie mewruf^vT, amidftt flll hi" profctiion* of 
rv)(ar<l, wa» on oilier than a ^py. y<^t knowing ttiAt he had 



iKilbmi; to apprctend. Ucated him with ihe lujcliett lioiioui 
lli4( Uift ronditior) admitted of. In aiuwi?r ta liu loquiricfl, 
he 4i0durcd him that he was llio anmc Umke iritli wJiom 
i-bnmcler lUey w^re before ac(^(iajnted. tbul Iw- was a nipd 
ob*cTi«r of lUt' la«'» of wat, and ti(<ver pvrmiUod hb ar- 
rows to bi^ poinotird : he tiii*ii tlifimiKKTd him viih coniidiir- 
able |iroH4'nU> ^nd fold him t)ml, ihottgh he hnd uufortB- 
imtely fuiled tii Ihia dltcm|;l, hr would uckirr d«»bi| frvm 
biftdi!«i^ till be? bad aUarod vilh Spain Uw tirtisortJ «r 

AlUOnCii. ^H 

Th^T tbrn rpfi&lviHl to n-ttim to the \t,\c of Ptnca, vbd^B 
they bad ]<*fi their cbipB, nnd con^nlr about the ukejuur^i 
they were iiuw (■> take; arid bavju^ ufrived, Au^pit 1«^h 
lit ihcir fofincr Altttinn. they dinmUjipd ra^iliuD RMnoBr, o^p^^h 
judging it onKai<; to itay uny lonfc^r on tbo co^ul, dounrd 
to he no lona^r ctijcnJC^ in their df^sii^is. w^^ 

But Drake, not to bo dt^ico^iroged from hb piirpo«« ^f^^^ 
liuf^ie ditat>f>ointiiienl, after haviti|^ m()UJivd of a vwgro. 
vhom \ui luok nn bmird at NotnliTi- do l>ios, ib# 
viTJiIlby Mrtrh'inonl^, mill wi-.ikmt parU of ihi^ roattl« 
solred to alluuit Carlhagt-na l and. itUirii; tiuiI uiiImmiI 
ofliine, cftikic to ttnchor. Au^ajt i3lb. between CI 
and St- UumurdK, tvto i^ilands at a httEc diiiancc fron 
harbour of tWth^i^rna ; then paafcttif; with hia hoala rooid 
tha inland, he ein^red tho barbobr, arKi, 10 iho oMtith ofil^^ 
futnid a fri^!it<^ with uidy Lin old tnuo in it, nhn Vfiliuilaiil)^| 
jflfonncfd thnm, thiil nh^inl ua boirr brforrr a pinoMco ImhI 
IMMOcl by with smii and uarap and all llie AppearuiLce ufci ?*^, 
pcdition and impoitiuicu ; tb^t. Ha nbe ^aai^il. tiie cpcir<m 
board her bid Iht^m taki? curt: of tiiemsclvca; mi»d Uait, ns 
MiDti ai itbe loucbvd tiu? shoiv, tbcy board Ihct twM W 
caai^on tirvd aH a warning, and saw ibe diippiog Ui lb* 
pnrt drawn ri|> iimb*r fh^ 1^ti4 of ihi? rasllf*. ^H 

Tilt? Citi^iiain. wbu bftd iiitnsclf bt'urd Ibe diachur^i tif tb04 
artiM«rji W4s »ooa ccuTtiiced that ho was dincofcred, ind 
thiit, tlicrt-fi>ri7p notiiijij; could bo attcEDplcd with any pci^ 
bubility of «i»cco*6. Ilv, tiHTrelore. ixaitented btniiielf viA 
taking n ihip of Seville, nf iwo hundjrad and fort? K«k 

MIR l^ilAlfCia IIRAKX. 



the rclalcr of this royape modtion^ aa a very Inrj^t* 

md two smdil Tni^uli^'B, in nluvb he found lrt(<ini of 

AdviL'o from Numbrt- de llioa, iiitcndc-d to alarm that pan 

tfaa ctMUt- 

OraLp, now findmg his pinciuc«« of gr«^C Mae, a&d not 
having II suflicii^ht ujmbi^r of ^ullurs fur aII lik vewtt^ilit, wiu 
deMrvtJs of dcitfcfjUJ^ orii? of his !tlii)i>, tEtut hu ptnnftcw 
mi|^bl br better mannrii ^ ibbi, ncci:?i^iiry asitwa>*. oould not 
dwiiybc done wiihoat dui^iL«1iEi^ hi» compaay, wbu. bnvmg 
madtf aevemi pro6perou« voyages iu that vosihcL vduUI be 
uvwijlin^ 1i> haii^ it defliroyed. Drakt> well kri«fw Uiat 
DOlbift^ but tbi^ lov4< af tljetr leAdrrB could sniniatr bift 
foUowrra fo enconnler such bnnl(ibt|i» ha hir w^w about lo 
i^xpcae IfaniD lO) aiid. thorcifoir, mtb^r i^Uo&e to linng hta 
devipis to pAK^^ by nvtiticc thim aiilhority. Hi? .tcnl for thn 
c<krp«ntcr oftbc Swnji,look hioi into his cabioi and, bavin^ 
tint eo|ra|;<^ bim to »«orooy, ordered bim, in tbe middle of 
ibtT nigbl, to Ro dovti into tho wt)l.l of the Kbip, luid bon^ 
ihri't* hotea Ibroiigh tbv hoiiom, Inyinpf flomrtbin^ ngiun«t 
iheni tbH( nii^St bimlfr tb<- bubbling of the w^tir from 
biTia^ biHirt), T«* iIiIh the iTurprnlfl-r, after loomc «xpoKtula' 

iFlftoci. couw^iilcd, find the n^rxl ni^bl prrfornird bis pronuM- 
I In the momin^T Aii^nHi IC, IVrakc, ^ing <tut witb bin 
pinaaee a fiBhinfri rovod up lo iho 8\van, and haviuj; iik- 
vilMl bi* brotlier to partakt> of btx diternuna. tnf|uired, «itii 
■ negUgMK nir, wby thftir bark was hu rtrt^p in llii- wAter; 
aprn vhir.h lb«^Klru-nrd goirgdotvn, n-lunie<l iiiii]it--dbit«ly 
«i(b An MM^ount tbiLl tbi.- ^bi|> ivli\ Icjiky. and in dnngx'r of 
Mnbini; in m little timi>. Tbfiy had rccourae unmediattdy 
to tbc pamp; bat, baT]]>{^ Inbound till tbiw in \lw cflcr- 
■oon, and ^ined ircry little Ujion tlio Wftt^r. Umij willingly, 
a<-(!OTdlng lo Drake a advice, lat th^ vmmI on fire, and 
vQi OH board tbe pinniii^oa. 
Finding it rmv nrr.riu»n- to Itt- ironj^-ulrd for aoniv tia:«, 
till tlw SftaniafdA should for^t iboir dan^n und rtmit 
llieir ^i^anci-, tb^y si'l sail for thr »uund of Dnriro, imd 
ttitboQl opproac^binj; tht^ coiul, that ihtrir cour** might not 
b« ob««r<r<Hl, th^y arrived \h^m in nx dayi. 


Kin PftANCItft DRAXR. 

Thil bnng 9 convmii^int pUce ^r tLetr rMvplioD, both 
on iircoutic ofprWacv. lu it vaa out ^llie roadof ntl inid^. 
nnd nx il vra% wdll nupplleil nlrli wuuil, «:ili-v, n'M fnwl, 
liD^H, deer, iim] all ktndn t^f proviAiotiii, 1i<! clayed Itrre 
riAvei) da^tA to clean h'u tcmcU, mud refresh his uico, vliu 
worked irikrrhatBfi^eably, on one day Uio odo hair, ai»d oo 
tliu ni^t tlir Dther- 

Ofi ibe 5tb dny of Hrptfimber. Druko left bu brotbcf 
^irh {\w M\i at narit^ii. mid i:i*t nut viiIl twn pinniVM 
tu^varils tliP Rid Grniid*?, iwiicli lliej nraiclinltii Uutv days, 
iindk on llicf 9lh. wrrc dincovefvd hy & Spuniard from Uk^ 
bank, who believing them to he bi.i count fymon, niadc a 
si^al totboiD ta('ciiieoi])&fi4>r(', witb V'hichllL<^y vifnrcaddy 
complied; but he, aoon findinf^ hU miilske. AbandoDed bli 
plunEuiian, wbiTi' ilivy found f^refll plenty of provUiotit. 
willi ^bidi, huvin^ bileii th(*ir rrssrl*, ih«y drpiiriH, So 
great WG» the quuility of proviaioDs which the)^ Amazed 
bere and in other placea, thnt in different ptvtAof Ibo cod«[ 
tijoy built four mog^oftinea or tdoroliouvTHi vhicli fhcy fii 
with ni^aesdnnes for the prniieculion of 1li«lr voyUffO, Tb 
iht^y pluri^d ill «UL*h n liUUmcv from I'Uth utiicr, that 
■^HRrny. if hf Hhoiild ^ioqimn om\, might vrl not di»(0' 

Tn llir mrnn t>mr, hi^ hrotber. mptnin Ji>hn I>niki\ «<^n1, 
ncrordin^ to tlie instnutions thBl had been left biiu. in 
sc&rch of the Symt*ronB, or fuijitive iici^roctf, from wbnf^ 
Qssnilanco a!ono thoy Uati iio:v nuv |>roi|jort of u £iicoc4«lnl 
voyage: uud tuavlnng upon Xhe mainluad. by mi>«a« of the 
iif^gTU vhnm Ihry hnd takrn frnm Nfimhrr dr llio«, 
KU^ivl L^o of tljrm tu 4;oiiLr an board hi» pinnace, lea*i 
ti*o of their own mnii m boadiiKc^ for tlidr retumi 
Thesu m^n, havinff aH^arod DraJio of tbv AfTcclion 
tht^r nation, oppointf^d un interview botvrorn him and lb 
ItfadvrK, So huiriiig |Kirt I'jenty^ in llw i*ie of PiU' 
»o nnmi^d hy ihe Kn|^itih from the^freat «ioresorprovi<i 
which they hml iJimLvteiJ ui tbut plKi-f*, llk4*y citoie, hv I 
diroctiijn »f the Synirnmjis i"1o a sircu't buy, ainoitg bcaa 
tiful island? covered with tretr*. which conot*«kd their a\ 



from o^TTiitlon. Miicl 9hpr& rhe rltamit-l vnt ■» narrow 
rijvd rocker tliAt il WHH impintiitfle lo einlor it liy nirht, ho 
that llHfrfl VAA no danfrer cf n nudden Attack. 

H«ro IJi«5 in^lf und ontc'^^d i(i(o cn^fC^^mmtA, <(thiob 
cofsnen ^Mmttos tad cfiminoi) <l4ngrr>i f>iv«orv^ from 
vIoIhiIoii. Bill ihA frrvt ir.unvrrKniiciti informorl fhp Enftlufa, 
ihfti llieir tipet^tulLunH wrri? noi iinmi-dinCf^ly (o he graii* 
lltf'd ; for, upon llieir incjuih^i Afirr the iD04»t probable 
fn4<an« of FT^inini; ^old ond nilvc^r, Ihf^ SvrioroDa told tlwn, 
dwthAdthtfy tuciwaioont-'r tttochiof ^ndof Iheirexpddition, 
thr-T could c-uily Itutc* ^ratiHed thrm ; bin ihBl flurirtf^ the 
nuoT scnboiiH ivhic:!! viiu novr tirgiiii. unil which pfknlinuea 
nx niOfithii, the; couJd not recover the troAsorc, ithich thoy 
had takoQ from thti 8pAninrds, out or the riT^ra in vihich 
Ibcy h*d oonoouliid it. 

Dnkr, thv!Tnforp, proposing to wail id thiA plac». lilT ihe 
nin« wrro pa»t. built* kjiIi tlitr a%jtiH(jmo(f of the Symerutis, 
a fort <if attflk oad limber, and It-jivlrig piul of his coiupatiy 
villi iho 8yaoroTi«, act oot with 1hTL*o putuuccj toirardtf 
Cmr^M^tut, hf'ttkg ofa Jipiril too u(iv« t<> lie itill patiently^ 
f*Ti>fl ill a «fAip «f p1pni\ nml ^nniriry, aad vrlih tli« moft 
pnibable «:Lpeclatk»iiB vf imuit^iini- rWirv 

Oil Iba IGlb of Uc1ob4)r, ho ancborod withiii «|rbt of 
Caiibaj^'-nfik vtitUont lunditif:; und on tht? 17lh, Fpiiiii; out 
to fteu, i(^>uL a SfJuiLiiJi hark, with nhich iboy eotered tha 
harbotiFr whi^ro itu^v wrri< li^futTfd hv a ^paiiiBh gt^tilli^ 
awn, whom tbry liarl imnir timif Iir^jn< LAkttQ aud eiet at 
liberty, who coming Id llu^m in a boat, ua ho prcUrtidodt 
iiithottt the knoitlodffo of the frovoramir, madu iliena qreat 
pronui4i* of rcfrR'ihiDcat nnd profcmonji of o^lvrm; but 
Drakr, htntng vnitnd (ill (hi* nt^-xt moroiri^, without re* 
caivui^ iIk* pTOvixionx hii; Imd htH**!! proiiallod upcu to 
eipaot, l4>iiad that aU Uiin prctcudcd kiadncM wiuno mucv 
Umd a rtralagcDi to aoiuao lilrti, vhllc Ihc xovorrtour ivai 
raiaiiip foi¥«« for hi» ileslrnt^tioo- 

OcloWr 20, ihey took luo l>i|;aie« framing nut of Cat- 
Hiagatta, vithuttt lading, WTiy the S]Huiiiinh, knoviog 
Diake to li« al tin? in<Hith ^if the harioirr. *cnt oat their 



f«M«b aa purpose to ht lakcD, tlocn not apprnr. Perbi^ 
ihcv lUuiJ^lit tbtl, ill or<li^r to keep pottAL^ttiiiaii of his prts^ 
ht' would dividu hi« coJDpitny, and by tUat dirUion be mom 
i?aittlj (leitroyod. 

In 41 few tionrs j-iAi.TWftrtU th<^' 8Pitl out two frignten well 
nmiJiirJ. whicb Dm&e soou forcrd 1o retire, anrf. luo-in^ 
mink one of his prizu^, and burnt iho other in their t^i^dr 
kngicd uiTiirvrards unborn, stugle, iti d^Aancr of tlirir iroopf* 
vhioli hovered at ii dlstui^L^e in lli^ woodn nnd on the IwUi^ 
wiilmiti ever ^auturing to uppruucb withiii rcocb of the sbol 
froui ihr plnnacnfl. 

To Iciip u\n>n nn ftivniy's toust in aipLt of n siiponevr 
fonOQ, only to nIiow Itow Litl^f tLry v/vtv fuurud, wiu nn Ml 
Ihflt vould, in thrjuf timcu, mrH wifh liCtli^ sppbnve, BOf 
rnn ihn gi^nrml bi^ Arrinnidy rnninif'riilrdp or niiii>iiiilly ris« 
dJCfilcil, wild r^puM-a bJA pvrjion to drMlruclion, And, faj 
con»o(]Ucnco, hiH rxpcdilion to miscnnugiCt only for dK 
pUinsuro of au idlo insult, nn JoMirnifirfint bravado. AH 
ihat can bo urged in lii^ dcfr^rtcp in, ihsf, prrhitpt, it nj^h 
contrJbult* lo beii;br4<n llie rMTef^m of liU follower*, as §9W 
men, t^btpPciAll^ of llmt vluj^. are ithiloaopliical cdou^ to 
staio Ihc exiict limit* of pnidcnc<T und bnivcrv, or not to be 
dtivsJ^d uiih atj intrepidity, tiow improperly »o«i^t 03t«rM, 
ll mny he add«id, that, jierbapt, tbe S|>acLiardB, wbo«o no* 
tionx i^r courvige arti HuflirTeiitly romantick, aiij^t toolt 
upou liint a» a awm formid^blr vnemy, and yirld man 
euAily lo a brro, of \vboM: fortitude tiiey bu4l »o bijc^ 
id on. 

Howovor, finding the vbolo countr}' ftdv«rli*ed of hU 
jiltrmpfi, and In nrm« to oppotie bim. b»> thought it noc 
proprr to stjiy longi^r, wbere iherp wa« no prohabilily of 
succCM, nnd wberc lie niigbt. in liine* be overpowered by 
muftiludov. oud, thcri.<fon>, dotvrmiiied to ^ forward 1^^ 
Rio do H«-ha. ^H 

Tbit r^iolulioM, wbeii il wu* inovn bv liiit followrr^^^ 
[JiroK ibt^fii niUt ititoni«hinriit ; unil tbi< ri>m|utriy nf nm^af 
bis pinna<:r!s rernonftlraled te hid), timt. lliougli they plncnl 
tli<r bighc^nt confidf^ncc in hi* conduct, iLcy could doI 




of und^taJtiDfc iruch a ^oyagi; trilhout provivioni, huTiui^ 
only p g«mnioa ol' bii<?i>[L und a unuli quuntity of brcnd 
for H-Trnln<n iiiriu Dmkn nn»vi-rnd tfirm, ihut thi^nt irat 
OD boATil hw vc»^rl tTcn u i^«tcr »c*ircilj ; bu( jot, if 
lb;jr would nclvcntnrc 1<i Tihnrc Jiib fortutif', he did not 
doubt of pxtticiilinjc tb^^m frcm nil tiiiitr iJift'tcultiL-i, 

Sttcfa v-na the fierokk «pini of Dr-jke, thut h^ uevtrr <af- 
fvrvd hiiiMpir fu b« diverivil fTum h>> dvnagiiB by uoy dilH' 
cullies, iHjf tvt-r tlmu^-lit uf relieving liis exi^tfiimtu, but 
Kt tbr rxprn»c ofhiH rncmi^i^ 

Resolution aridsacccR* rociprooulfy produce each otfier. 
Ilf> hftd not BftileJ more llitin tbroo loa^uos, b«^fore tbcy 
diioofCfed B fiv|;e ihi|i, wdiob tUey allacked ^tih ull lji« 
inrrvpidity iliut ti«*ci>Mily tnNpirvN, u»il, Uuppaly, l^iund tt 
Indrii will) rxcrllrni proviMfiiih. 

&ui futdini; liU crrw ^ro;virt)£ faint and sicLly, wltb tliuir 
mAnncr of UTrng" in thv pinnncc«, vhicb wqa loaa comino- 
di4iiu than on bCMir<t tbit vh\\ii, he doferittinod (o f^o bucL 
totlw Sym«TOiu, wi(b vhom he lefl bie l^rutlirr und purt of 
bin ron^e^ Hod ulleuipf, by their porulutrl, to mukt* hU wuy 
avi?r, and iuv^di? ilje SpaumrcU in ihtf fnkiid p<iTt«, wbt^m 
ifccy vould. probably, nfrvrr dmim uf «> cr»rniy, 

Wbco tbcT lurivod nt |>ort l>i«p>t fto n^untrd from llio 
«ho had prociirad Chi?^m tboir rntorcoiirM^ with tho 
SynieroL', they found capl^iii John Drake*, tind odi* of lim 
rompftny, di^iid, bt^iii^LiUtf^l JTintt'^mpliii^,HtmoKt nnunncd, 
to board a fri^iite vrvW pn>vidod with all thtn^ nc(^c««ory 
lor iti defrocc. The cnpt^iiu wju uriwiUius to lUlack it, 
luid TTproioatrd to lb<<fn thr in»dti(^Mtt of IbeJr proposal; 
bvl, bcfin^ ovcrbomp by ibmr L-lumuuni iiiTd importunitiet, 
lo nvoid Cht* impntiiliou of co«tir(lic4-, f^amplitsl to liii d«- 
«lmciioii. So dnng<'roLis 18 it for thr cbiirf camniaudrr lo 


Nor nv this tlietr only minforttiuo, for, in a very vdiort 
Hoie, many of them w^re ;tlia<-Ldd by thr- rolonttirc-, a mii- 
)if[nan1 fvxer. vvry frequ4<i]l in ili« bni flimutrii, whirh 
runii-d iwaiy. mmong ■cvrral olbcr*, Joseph IMA**, luintlirr 
brolbirr of tliiT ccuninuudifr- 



While Drake wiui employed Id taking core of the Ai<L 
A^n* the 8yfncr€iij>» who ranged tho conotry for inttl- 
lig^ce, broui^hi him nn account, thnl the SpRoUh H^ot ma 
Euriv^d u1 Nomhrp '1^ DioN; tW iriiUi rtf whioh wju eoii- 
ririiitH] by 11 pEiiiiJii^e, wjiteli he ttfnt uiil In niuk^* olMi-m- 

1'hif, therefore, was ihc lime (or their jounkcy, whf^n 
Uw treasures of tile AmerieaD Eoiiiea were tahe Imnfparted 
rri>m Pauaina over land lo Nomhre d« Diuti, Hl% ihett- 
fore, by (he direelluD of Ihe S^oi^rouEi* lurutihL^d btmwdf 
with a\\ lhiii§;ii i]rc«»nrv, Jiiid, nn FRbniiirj fl, lu^t oot futtn 

Havijjg lost, alrcadi^> iwcnty^eight ef hia compaiiy, ftad 
being under the neoen^it^ of leaving aotne to gruifd bu 
8hi|), he look with him onW oighte«n Etij;ltfth, mid tliirtj 
Symeroritt, who tiof oiiK »erveU ss guidew fo show Ihe muj. 
but Hji (jurvejiirn tu pnjciire iiruviMiinis* 

Ttuy Ctirrit^d not tM\]y urnrws for wur, bat for hunlin( 
tiDd fowhng; tbe heud:^ of whtoU iirc proportioned in st»e 
lo the ^ame which Ihc^^ are piir«ijiiiK= ^or oxqd, 0biga,«r 
tvild bo;ir«, Ibej hbLvttarrtJWBor JuieliiiSt «i'i1h he^dv wvi^b' 
irrg a poirnd and huff, which they di&ch;ir^ twar httni, 
and which MZHTi-v\y «-vi?r fiiil of h^injc niuituK Thi? iH-rond 
Aori uiv uU>ijt hulf JLH hei)vv iu ibif otlierr uud ofe |{ri»e- 
r£,lly shot from their hows ; thcae arc intended for uullcr 
boA»;«p With tht^ third sort, of uhJch the heads are an 
ounec in vii-i^bi, iht^y kill birdd. Ao this u&Iivd ia in a 
«late that doea uet aei them abo«» rantinual earea for thf 
imoitfJJ^ite iiT'ircjiNunrji it^ lifr, hi? tbul vita irtiijw-f iron IimI- 
is» uiQun^ thrjD, iiioftt r«1^el^<^d ; nnd> perlvt]iB. it voulii 
h« hkippy fof cfery uatioa. if honour? nnd n|)pl«u»c4 vert 
Uft justly dislributfrd, ami he were moKt dinlin^ishod vhiMc 
nbiliiie« yN*.*T**> luuiit uw.'fol io iociely, llov many ehlm^' 
Heal lilies lo pr4>o(*d«fitc«, hov mauy fa\ne preteDc«» to 
reBpe4^l, would lliin ruli- hrinj< In llic f^ruuud? 

Every day, hj suori^ing, they bei^ui iv march, and. 
ha« iut( truvollcd till IcD, retted near Aome river tiit tvtdtf> 
then travelling ii^aiii 1)11 four, they ropoBod all night im 


hkfi th<- 8jm<rotis hod cithrr Irft ^taridin^ in 
SkaTcJK^:^, or iTrjr readily cifctcd for \Ucm, liy 
mtttm^ n\y three or four posU iu the grouiKl, and lajiojf 
pntrj from f^ni> rri nrtoih«<r in form ^f a roof, wWh ibev 
Ilittlclird ivitli pii1m4*tlo Inxigltk aiicl pbittam Iruvl*k. Iq 
tlie vaUc^fl, wbvit; iJiejr vetv Kh<Tltrn;ci iVvin ihc wiudji, tlirj 
kft ibn*c or Ibur tc<^i briow open; but on Ihc hilli, ^hcrc 
Ibc)^ voro more cxpo!»ccl 1o the chill blu»t« ofUi<: itigbt, 
Uwy LbMclKHl tliem cloite to Ibt) p^und, leaving only a 
door for polrancft, and a veni in ibt* miiMIt* of ih^ rouia 
ivt lh« smoke of Ibrtrr Hrtw, wbkh fbey niJidi- in merjr 

Id 1li«ir man^b iLc^r met nol ouly «*tb plenty of fruiU 
opuD tbt hankA uf ibo riv^'r^, but witb wild BwiH<-< ld pr^at 
•bmubuBcv, of wbich the Synif^roiiE, witboul cLilTictiUy, 
iilltfil. fof ibf? mnsf piurr, lu miii^b »k wsh wnnird. Oni- 
dav. howrvrr. llit'y found an nttrir. ttiid y^r.n^ aIkiuI Ii) lUrat 
it; At wbicb Drnkc €xprc)i»iug h\a wonder, wa^ a»kod hy 
PQdfi>, Ihr cJiiof S^nicroii i " Ar« you a man of «nr nnj in 
VMkt, and T«t doiJjt M'bolhcr lbi« l>o meat ibat hitih blood 
In it ?" For vMcb DrvLe in private rebuked blm, nny^ ibe 
rvteltir ; wheUier Juiil> ur nut, il i* mil Sfty iinjiortanC to 
dclermiikf*. Thrrc vormi to br in llrakr's tcruplc somo- 
wliat of mprrsttlion, pcrhnp*. not riuily lo bu juKtiljcd ; 
and Ihc^ ni'groa uniwrr vn^, nt Ir-ust marliul, and «ii1, 1 
belicvci, br genrrully niiLnowlritgrd lo lie riitii>nal. 

On tk& third d4y of iheir mnri-h. iVb, G, ilmy r^ie to a 
lawv of lUe Syuitrruu-H. siludtcd on ibc aide of u hdl. and 
encompuaiwd wlih u diich und a cnu<lwnti, to acourif it 
from a audden sarpri^e: hero tLM.'\ livod with ^t?«l m^ut- 
n<!i^ and plenlv, aud lom^ ohi^rvaUon of ntligiou. pnjinit 
IfTrfll icvcronci? to tbi? tiro** ; a pmcliuit which DnLt: |)rtf- 
Taih^ U[>im tbrni to nbitn;(i- fut ihu use of Ihn l*orcl'» 
pni>vr. llciv ihcy i[np<«rtu»c.-d Drukt- to slay for n ii^w 
d«7»t promiAtitg: lo double hb «lrviiKthi bat h«t vith» 
tfcinlttfig gnuter numbon unnocewary. or ft'flring thai, if 
aaf dfiffinvDce riiould mM^ \m» should U* u^rfboriR* hy llw 
itiimbi-f of SyDNtroot ; or ihut tb^y would denumd to ahar^ 



the plunder thai nhould be t&kt^n m commoti: or fur domA 
otht^T n^fuoD that might cu^ily occur, ri'fnsed oar luLdilioD 
to hit troo^, cndciLvouriiix 1o oxprenEt bus roruHUl in mdi 
l(?rmfi an mi^hf h^iK'^tftii their opinion of liiv hnivrry. 

Hif lhf;n prncceded on hu jmirn'^y throiiffh cool iduuirt 
«iwl lofty woiidH, whic-l> *lu'Urri'd thrm ko ^effectually from 
lllfi sun. llmt their match vkat- l(s« toilsome thou if Ihirv 
had truvcllpd in Englund during- llio licnt of th© »ammtT* 
Four oftJie Syinertuis, tliAl were acijiiniitied vith iIm mtT. 
went about a mile before Ihe troop. 9nd iM^aiiered bnmrhes 
to direct I Item ; llieti folloved twelve Sjrri©ron«, attrt 
wlunn <]U]ue Lhf^ Etigllitli. witU the Iva Loodefv. wnl ife 
othrr Symcroiis closed the rear, 

On Tcbruiirvll. they urrived iit th^ top of ik t^rry bifih 
hill, on the summit of which gr^w a 1ro« of wettid^rful 
jpt*iiliie», in whirh thry had i'M Kfopji for thr immi ««u^ 
nxceinl lo^ top, whoro thi.'ro waN a kind of !o»er, to 
which the; invit«d Drake, and from thence sbowcd bin 
not OKtIy the north «eu, from fvhoiice (hoy ounc, but thr 
grefli (oiith aeSt on which no En);rli»h \«'i8«l had oi^r 
uiilpd. Thk proApeL-t e^rUin^ hia n^iural ciin<uily. uid 
ardour for lulvRiifiires »nil disiro\'eriesi, hr liftrd up lik 
iiiui<t» to God. nxid implored his bl^^nf upon the te»uln- 
lioD. which hr then formed, of ^nilin^ in on Ho^lisb ship 
on that 8&U. 

Then eontiniiiu); Ihuir march, they cflm*?, after two dt; 
into no opon, lew! country, where their pa^iage vui «oinf^ 
whul inL-oium«dnd vilh thn grtisE. which is of ■ prcsliic 
kind, coTULsling of u Ktntk like of wbcat, and a bloiift 
on which Ihc- own und other cattle feed till it ^rowfi to> 
high for them to rOdcrh : lh«tn thii inhabitanta ACt it on tire. 
Hid in three duyjt it «pring!t up ognin ; IliU thcty Rm obliged 
to do ihrirr a year, ■» jffiMt iin llv* fertility of Ibo koP, 

At length, hcin^ within vica of Panunu, ^hey ktH all 
fr^q^(^plcd rondu, for fcoj of being di^oovcrod, oud poatoJ 
ihoiDsolve* in u f^y<t near llie way botveoo Piununa iai 
Nombro de Dio«; th4>n they sent r SyiDerrin in tlie bahii 
ofR uegro of Paiia^rmi, to inrpiire (tn what ni^^til thr rttt^a^ 


Kin Fft\jici& drakk. 


or driven of miili% l>v whiiiTi ihr IrenvnTt^ i« (*arnr^, vor9 
Id %ei rorili, Tli» mi^nrrigrr vr^u %u wHI f|aulifW fcir hU 
andGftaiing. And M> indu4triou« in the prosecution of iL 
lliat ko 4<»f>n rotumcd* viUi an aticonnt thnt tlio (roaaurfr 
of Limu, itit^ikdlnif to r^-^tufb to Kuropr, vniild pnMi thut 
ntgbi. with pight miili?' ladi^n vilh ^old, and one with 

Having n:ceiv«t(l thl^ iztrurmutuiu. ihe^ inimhiUiilt^ty 
anrcbcd tovuHv Vtrota Cru^, the £r«t toirn on th<7 way 

beforei «lia, &« Lli^y wifm^ ptTrt^civud, by the ficvni of a 
in«trli. that Kornr* Spimurd w"» bpfon- ltit*m, neid. going 
sileutly tWnnrd. lurp^M^d n noUicT oitcrpr iT|i<in the: 
(nnjiid. They immc-dintcly bouud him. and brought him 
lo UrakcT, wlio, tjpoa inqtiiry, found lUut Ihrir )ip\ hod not 
dc^tvivcd ihf^ai ill hU intelttgtMit-i-. Tlit* jtoldirr, luiving ia- 
formffd faimtrlf of the L-»|>|iiir')i iHim<\ ronc«ivi»d such n 
COiifidcnc«f in hi* well kiurwn clrtiit'noy. ihjil, al^vr havfnj^ 
BMdc nn mipk di^ovcry of the treasure that vas uoiv it 
band, bo p^tttionod not only tliat ho would cocnmaod the 
S^Bftooa to spare hiB lifi^, but (hat, when thv treasure 
■boiild fail Into his ffandt. h^" would allow him tifl miith as 
mi^hl maiuUin liim uud Im ninimfiji. tinea iht-y wrrc! uhaitt 
to Ipun tnoiv lliun llirir nholc compuuy i.-uuld cutrj. 

Drulc then ordered bin men to Ue dovn in the k&K 
gnudt, about fifty poerA from Ibe road, half on duo side, 
with himM>]f, artd hnlf on thr^ other, villi Oxeuhoiii a&d 
th<» eai>tAiii of ihe 3ym«rons, ro miieb behind, thai i>nr 
company miKbi tmvb tho fiirt-mcHl rtuMW, and tlio uthor 
Un luiHlerraont ^ for thi> mulcM oflbvsr tpcupHp oi drivers, 
beinK tied to^^tTther, tniitci on a liar* and aru oil f^idud by 

WheD they had lain about vm bonf in this place, ihey 
began U* hear (he belU of the niulrfl on ruch hiuid ; upon 
vbioh ordfn Wfrrv fi;iveD. (hut tho drorc which cbbo 
from Vcnta Cniu sLoidd pu« iHimolealed, becaoao tboj 
earricd Mlbtiif; of ^i^at valnv. and Iboitn onty be inte^ 
tmplmd which went tniTetliiiff tUlber; and tbal iwov of 


dm russciii ura^%. 

red h; 
i&id ptti 

rate e^ 

the non »bou1d hw u|>» tjll the fifriwl dkovld b« ^iv«iL B«t 
out Bob^ri Fikcf, hc^dtod wiiii «trucig li(|uor. leA bic (•ib* 
pany, &f)il |>r«viii1r'il upon iin<< vt' llwr S^ncrutti Id rn 
Willi kini (u Uiu wayaldc, thftt Uioy mighl 9i^iuiu£c 
■elfva bj acuejjig Uur tint mole; ond bconnfT t^^^ 
Uiiff of « bone, 4i« bo lay, vqM not bo nrstmUwd by ^ 
Symeroo frofn fisiikg iip to Qbf9<irt^ vho vnit pottiv^ hy. 
Tbit be did Hj imprudtriilfy, ihnt b(* vma ilttt'-overed hj 
Ot(? (iFiuen^'f; ftir, bif DraWi urJtrr. llm Ettglub bftd pttl 
thoir ihirt) on over Ui<:ir c<?ntt. ttml fix: oiglit ind 
uigbt not tiindcr thorn from LnDwinff tmo aootlier. 

Tho ^Btlcman vias iomK^di^ilcly obwrn-d b^- Dfake 
clui(i|^ his trot iuto » ^lto|> ; but, tbr re jisuu of it Dot a|>- 
pcttriu^ it wai inipuUrd to bu frnr of lUc rubber* tkii 
luunllj lufi^t llAt rond. And tlic Eo|cll»b iiiU continued b> 
oxjx^l tbc 1r€ii»uro< 

Id a »borl tkm^, one of tbo ntcocjf, itul w«n pasnniF 
tov&rdH VenlA Crui£, 4;ame up, and wn« pag^rly fi«isMl bj 
the Ejij^IlhIi. «Iio eK]i^L-lt-d notbing Lewi tbvu b^f tbe fe- 
veuuD of ibc Itidiev ; nur u U viuiy tv itiii*|;aie Xkelr morti- 
fication oikI pcipk'iit^^ , wbcit ttu-^v found only two mvke 
Ukdon with silver, tho rest bnvtajf no o4bu4 bordtn IbM 

Tho drivctr vns brought i mined lately to tbe e4ptMii>. and 
iafftrn^ed bim thuT llitr harsein^ui, cvboin litr b^il ob««nrd 
paau tt>- witb Ai) mucb |jrti:ipilaliou. Iiutd iaformcd tbc tiro- 
vuct oi~ what he had ob^errcd. mid odvued him lo m^p4 
bock thv iddIcs liiat carried hia ji^tsld nud j«YoIft. Hnd ETiflvr 
only ike reAi io pMorcd, tbiil be might, by ibat cheap »- 
perimcul, duwovor vbi-ituM ihcra nu itny ambvab via 

That Drake wajt not Igm diriKu-itcd ihai) bis foUowtrrt 
tkt» diaappoinC(n«&t, cannot bv doubled; but Ihvre «as 
now no time to b<^ spent in coiapluiiit*. Thir wbol« couulry 
VIM ulainKvl. nnd nJI tbr fj>n'n of tfii^ Spiitiiurrln vai t,uj^ 
OluDt-d tu u^trwhi-lm bim. He iind uo brtrcsb to roCin 
Io; «vairj man was bis oucny , aod tirct) retreat botler 
Itn^im Id tho Sp^niurds ihim. to buudcll. 



m$ ni itt oocwon tijnt demanded all t^ qualiiiofl of 
ulnnhciivrtrvpiditfDQTCf to ^ »hBk«a,indaiud|pncDt 
««rer lo ba p^/p'^'ved. tie unmediAlely «ooBict«r«(l lUI 
the drtum>taDc«tB ofhla pn'faent filtration, aiicl lound tiuil 
it aflbrd«l htm onlv thr chmcH cif iniiiL-hiiif^ buck liv< nimw 
wa; UirtHiifE^li vliicb be come, or o^fvtciufi ki* jiaAai^ lo 
VcqU CruB- 

T^ ttuuroh b«ck, vac ta conlVa* the sapcnority of lua 
•MindeAi oad to animate tbeni to ihkt |>uriujl; tJia wai>d« 
wiMilil MfHtnl cfp|iiirtunilir3 of amhuxh, aiu\ \n& foiloiren 
ntmti often <ltspcr«r tbciD»i>lvc« in sr-ireli uf pruviniuiu, 
labo would become i^n cag-y prcy> dispirited l»y Ibfir dija|>* 
puiutui^iil, and futii^ucd by their inurch. On the vay to 
VeBta Cririi h« Ahouid bave iiotbtuf;; lo fear but from opeu 
attack*. anJ i-xpfct*^d t-titniie*. 

DKlrnninJn^. tlif-rrrun-, In jwh lurw«rd lo WoJa Crust, 
be o«kcd Prdro, the Lrndcr of the Hymfmoiin, nJirtbrr be 
vraa rcaolwd to fnllov him ; and. Imviii^ rrccivni from bini 
tbo fltroD|fcM iLuiiriiricrA thid no1bLii|; ibould Mipuruto tbon^ 
OODvnndi^d bit men to refrf^fib ibcmfiMT^a, and prepare lo 
mft fiwward. 

Wbm Uiey curue wiibiu a imle ufllw tuwii, Uwj di»- 
tmjiwd tbc mulotf, wkicb Lbcy Uid made um of foi lb«ii 
move easy and spccd> iiajau^*, aud coutinund thuir cuircb 
along a road cal ibtcu^b ibE<k woodi*, iu «lui]U u «ojupuiy 
uTaoldim. »bo uer^t ^|uiLrleri.*d iu ih« plm^e »u dt^fead i< 
nf^iiinit Uu? Symrroua. biid pwla^il tbtrniBtflvcii. Ui^i-Ua-i 
wiib tt convent of Erion headed by one oflbRir bteCiren. 
vbcific aval Bgaonat tlio notthom hereby bnd iucilod him to 

^^^■KAfd bit penwa^ nnd aK«miio \\u* province of n |fi>ncra). 

^^p Drake, wbo vak udvertiAcd by two Sywerooii, ^vbom b^ 
w:nt before, of tbc ap(tniiMvb of tb<.' Simniards, ooramaDiliH] 

^^^b followers to rcGoivc tbc ArM volley without GriD^. 

^H^ In n fhort UtoiCw bo bcord hixR»otf sammoaed by tbo 
Kpuniflh t^npt^iiit lo yiflld, wiib a promJ*« of protp«liikn uiid 
ktiid in-^itninii ; tn which h^ itDftwered wLih dell^iice. coi^ 
tc«ipl> and tlw ilt«i.rtiur|ji* of hi* |mlof. 

Jmna«dblG]y ibc Spaiiiar«b f>oiucd m Xh^t nliol, by 


f<lR iritATtCtS DRAKB. 

vbioh onW one mnn wnA kiricd* and I>r&k«f, »ith »i 
olhcrfl, HtiK^tly noniidcd ; upon vhich Ihc ft'^rttl w«k ^vce 
by Drnito's whistio to fall upon lliem* TJj^ ED|;luti, «IW 
tffSnchJirging^ ihrir nrroWK and «hot, pi^sA^d furiotiftly for. 
vfird, and drovp thfr Spnninrd^ Wfori^ (liem; wludi llie 
Symeroiifi, wliom1li<^ U-rruur of thtsUiol baddnvcn to miedi- 
dUUoci', obHtifvod, udU rvcullin;; thoir Cfiuroge, miinkntcd 
each othi?r with tionffe m thuir own Unfn^iccr and rmbcil 
forwird with i«ch iuipt'Uiosily. thut lh<*y overlook tWn 
ni^nr llir to^n, mid, snppotlrd by ihv* Rii^lUb, dUpprwri 
thtm vith thr lojiji itfnnly one tnun, wbo, aAtt he had re* 
c«ivcd LtA wound, hod sUcnG^K nnd rotolatioD l<-fl lo kill 
bi-i asAailtint. ^^ 

They purmed the enemy Ititc ih« towii, In wbach thi^^| 
miM with toETie plnndt^r, wlilch vat ^ven 10 ihe 8vnH*nM]i: 
iind Ireated IIri inLabllHtiLH wtthgrc:*]it I'ieuientjy, llniLr 
Idmiwlf ^otn^ tu tbo Spunish Indici. to lunure then) that no 
injiirieJ abould bi^ ofllurt^d tbom; «o miieparnfalt^ is htimaarlj 
from Inip coum^, ^^ 

Hnving Ihiin hrokcn th« flpiritJt, nnd scattered the foreH^H 
of thn Sjisinmrdii. hr jmrKiif^d hU mnrrb In hid «bip. withciof^^ 
any apprchcuMuti mf dungei, ytrt witk ^rvut apt-rd, itvi 
very ioUcitou» about ibt- state of the crew; ao that 
ftll0W4.'d Wis moii« bunirtrttid as they vorc, but little time 
llecp or refrettbmtMit, but by kind exhortutiontf, )^n 
nutborif y, nnd 11 cb-rrfiil pnrtfiripjuion of nil ihHr hnrdihr 
prrtnibvl npon Ibf-m tiilmiir. withonlmurtniin. nntonly t 
toil of tvnvellia^> bul, ou Mime days, llir pain of Luuger. 

In ibiH mnrchr Uo owed much of his cxpodicion to i 
aflei^tniico oflbe .Syinoroud, who betnf^ nccnatomed U> 
cUmati?, and rmttimlly robiHt, not <vnly hronghl htm is 
genr^H and <dlif>wetl Ihr way, hut carried ii«c^«uirie«, p 
vidrd'iK. nnd hiiill ImlgingH. und, when mny at 
En^linh fnintcd in thr wa^, two of llicm wonid CAiry 
bfttwcftn f hrm foT two miW to(r*thcr ; nof wm thnr vnl 
leit thnii ihpir indnalry, uftor ih**y had learned froBi th 
En^Uli eompaniona to d«fpue the firearms of the S 




ruunl tt louii I>uilt ill di«ir absence by ttio Sj/meronSt at 
wbicb Druke touACuloJ to buU» scudtn^ & Sifm«ron to Ibe 
Mp, viU) hie gold tuotbfiiuk, ]i» a loken, which, tbou^b tbo 
mxirr Ln«iv it, waa rot sulftcietil 1o gain ihe m^Utiiifrrr 
cmlil, till, upuii examinHltori, lie fount! flmt (lie rupfain, 
baring nrdrrtd bim Ut rrifurtt m* rnvtw-ufii^r nirhmd bis 
ba»iivritinK> li<iil engruven b^ ntuno upon it viih the gjoint 
of hfli knife. He tbcti >crt< the piannco up the rtvcri which 
thi-y mei, and artomurdi n^tii (e the tovn for Ihono vhose 
iii%jniirflii biul mnd^ ibem unable to march ftirther. On 
Ti-tiniary ^, iLe whole cempaiij; vraa rfrunlled; aiid 
Drake, wbune goud ur ill nuci^r^M ncvt^r prevailed over bis 
ptclvt c«il«brated tbeir m^ctirtf; wilb ihuukK t>> (.*od. 

Draku, not jet ditiuouriist<(l, now turut^d bis Iboii^blv (o 
new ptotpvcii, and. without lun^iiitbLti^ in m<'lLiocbt>ly re- 
flectiom ujxiti hiv ]>h)^( mi«riim»ge'<, fmpluyril bini>it1f bi 
formia^ «abcmcAfor rep nt ring ttirm. Eaff<.!r arncIioti>aiid 
■oquaintcd with mnn'ii nalnrc, he nt-vet luflbn^d idlc^tipu 
to iafecit his fotlowcm with <ion'ardLcc» but kept lb(-m from 
sinking under any diwppointinoni, by diwrttbg their nt- 

nlion in anrot^ nt^w enterprlBP, 

L'purt coii«tjlfAlioii «itb bii^nwn nk<:ri nml tbo Sjoierons^ 
lie found tiieni divided >o ih<.'U' ij|nmoi}s; »omu df^ctaritig, 
Ibat. before tbeytinj^gcdia any iioiv utiemp^it was ni.>««»* 
way loiueH^ast tboir stori*iiof provUioDi; and others urging, 
Ibaf (be vhipf, ao wlucb tbt* ire^iLuro wu conveved, id«Mi1d 
be itnmodiatcfly nttiicked. I'br SymctniriA jiropoM-d a third 
p4aii, n&d ndti»c(l biiQ to underuikc nnother march over 
Intid to the bontc of ono I'eTioto, near WruguA, whoM; 
slaves brOEtght him, every day, more thsin two hundrod 
poundi Hiding item ihe min<*fi, vbicb ho h(*tip^d logelli*r 
Id a tlrong i\oat* bous^, vrbkb uirght, by the help ofUw 
Efjglisb, hf. iiim\y (invvd. 

Drake, being uawilLing to fnli|^»e bi> followvr» with 
aooiber journey, deCermincd lo roniply with both tho 
oOmt opinions; and, nuinnLiig bi« two piMioec^s, thi- Bvar 
luid lite Minii>u, h& ft^nt John OxenbAin, in th>* B4fiir, U^ 
wards ToJu, lo teix^ apon provinjoiiH; and weat himwtf. 



in ibe MioioD, to ihe Cabez-^M. 1o JAl^roepI ifc^ trfrnwiP 
lliat won U) hv (fji us ported iroin Veru^ii;« ifcnd Ihikl coatf^^^ 
In lh(? Ilfwl ttt Nornbrt* dr Dios. Iinl diatmintin^, vilh P^^H 
■ei>U, thi>»c S;mcroi» that df^iin:*) to ri^turti to Ihrif vivotfi 
und ctderiug iho*c (IhAt choK to rcsuun Iq be L-nlcrfvkn^^ 
in the Hhip. <^H 

Drniif^ fook, at Ihr Cuhr^fu, ti fri^Uc nP TJiriiragwi_ m^^ 
pilot f)f which utforinrfl him ihal ihrw. whe, in IIia I 
of Vvraguu, a vhip fm^Ubrd with mora than a million 
gold, to vthich he oQi^rcd to couduct hiu, bcib^ wcill 
quaiiiled nilli %kti somiiJii]|;«, if Uo mif^bt btr atlowtd 
«hare ol' \iw prifle; no much wus bii ut-aiioo itup«rioiir 
h» horwBly. 

DrtiLc, nftrr nomo diflibrrntioit. cnmpUlii^ with 
jjilufn im port unit W3. mailed tuwdtdH tlie- h^irbour. but hod 
no »ouii«r entered tbo oiogth of il tbuii tic- howd tbc rrpgd 
o^ nrtiltc^ry, vhich wm niitiw^red by ulb«n ^t » grvftiM 
dt«t3ii>co ; upon wbiob llif* pilot l€ld him, that lliviy 
diHCiiKTred, iLiTt iH^irif^ Lite hi^^uhI dppomlvd by tJl« guvei 
onr to uiarin llii?, 

Drake now iLuii^ht it coovvcucut tu rDlucu to xhc 
Illut l]<^ mij*Ll i[i(|i]irti thi^ kucuMS of tli^ olhor piiii 
wbttirh be fouud, uctL a frl^tv thai ftbe ba^t iak«a, VI 
(w^nty-ril^ht ffll lio^, two buudrtrd l]«*at. uitd ji^retit 
of ruALMii; or Inditn corii^ Tlitr \i?%*ci itii'lt'viu lo »l 
«mI well buUt, thut he filled it (>iil Tor viur, Hctcrmiiiin^ 
nlliwk the Oerl ai Nombre de Ihas. 

On Mitrcfi iho 31bI, he »i)t iail, with the tiaw liigttto 
ibe Uritf, Irrw^itdii thff CAbPKfl»4, at which h^ nrrivwl 
about ivto dujfs >ttid feuiid then^ Tt-Eii, ii Fn^fK'hniHii. mn 
u Mp cif war, nvhu, uftvi: biiiiii^ rroi<ivt?d frum him a sup- 
ply oT watCir uud othor pcec«jjidc.*i, ctitnmted that he 
miffht join vitb bini in bb uttcmpt; vrbich l>ruko eouMOt 
mg to, udmittuU bini r^> iiooomp^toy him with l«t*ctj of hit 
mniir ftlipnlniing tt> >lUow them im eqna! fJiHrn of whuU^iPi 
bootj ihty aboiitd ^^iii, Yi-t vrn- they iiu( vilbuttl 
fiaapicionA of duogc-r ffoui iliiei ncit iilly. be bavui^ rigl 
moDj a[id liioy bcici|; now rt:ducod Co Ibiiij'Oae. 

Th^n muujit^ic ihn friffule ciad two pititaac», thoy 

8IR KH^Tin>i IIRAKJ;. 


wna\ iaw the Cabmuui. where tfaey leA tfau fri^n, vhicb wa» 
1410 birgif^ for lli« nlmlEou^ uvfrr wKlch llipy wrm lo p^ii*, 
and prucc«(lc^ to Rio FraJicijicii, llrrr littry [ikkW. uijiI, 
huTui^ oiiit^rcd the pinniLcci tn r<?tiirn In tfar sumc place cm 
llie fovlli da> foAlowin^, tmTtrllcd tbToii|-h tho wood* t^ 
wifdi Nocubft> do DIofl, with curli itiJeikft< utid r4?i^1[iritj 
flianrpritRd the Fn-nc-h. vthu did iiul rmii^n<^ tbr SjTiifTons 
90 tUwTTi^t nr obrdii-'iit an thi-<jr uppr%U'i*Kt, ^md wenp, ihrnr- 
fofT> itt perpctuul Aimic^f) .abciit ihc fidelity of tlieEr guidef* 
oimI t&e probabilitjr of thoir rt-tum. Nnr did (lit? Sjmervm 
trettt Utem wilh tliftt siibmuHion und ref^rd vthiob llicy paid 
lo Ae Bngliflb, whoH* lirnTcry Hud conduct thej bud alreudT 
^MLt Icnfftb* nftrr a ItlHrnous tnurcb of more tbui KCTrn 
T n yttft^ ihcy bc^frm (o hror the hammcrn of the curpcntera 
in the bnr- it brin^ llie coAtom, in ibnt bot «ca»va, to work 
IB tbe Diglil ; RDd, ia n short tiino, Ibey porcetved xUe ap* 
proiflcb of the rvcoMi, or drovM of muloj, 1¥om Panama. 
They now iio lon^r dcihbl4*d th;it llieir inbiiLin votild be 
rewnrdt^d, lutd cvny oian ima^'itied bun»elf Avcuro fnjm 
pvvcity and biboitr for (he rfmdinin^ pitxl of lin lifr. 
'flkoy, thcrct'nru. ^ivu ihe mtilci cuitic up, ruiibt'd onl nnd 
a«it*U them, with an id^icrity |kTopi>rlion«*d to their expec- 
tadou. Tha tbriw dron^n cuiJHUtcd of on« bnndr^d tind 
qImb mulfiSv eanb of which cdrrUrd ihrM.^ huiidri^d poimdn' 
wri^ht of all err. It vus tu liltli? purpoar tbut the iM>Mirnii 
ordered to jcuurd Ibr trt^unure.ATIemptcd n:iiiBlnncc. After 
m iliori combat, ill wbicli the rrench ^upturn and one of 
the Sjm«roiu wore wounded, it nppcfin^d with how oiucb 
grentor ardour men ore nsimnted by ioleroat than Jidclify. 
Aa it waa pojitibte Cur itietii 1u cflrry away but a small 
J|rt uf tbifi treiuiurr, uflri hiLiifiK '■viirit'd ihtrnia^lvca widi 
^faiag it in ho1n» and »hid1ow water), thuy dclcnnined lo 
r«4[urQ by ihc fiiimc wny, nnd. wiibonl beiii|; purftoed, en- 
tered Ibe woods, wbori* the French captain, brinF? diftMbloel 
by hb wound, «.%« obUged to fltay. iwn of h'\% i;omp;iiiy 
emtinnln^ wlih hifln, 

Wben tliey hud tpne forwanl about two Icn^uea, lh« 



l^rcnchmon mbtHfd imothcr of tim'tr cotfipnDT, wbo, ttpon 
Inquiry, wax knnwn tn hr. iii1o\icnt4*r1 nilh wki^, nittl nnp' 
putu?d to buvi: lobt hlnuclf iu llie wuo<1a, bjr uoiflccliuf; to 
obatTTc tbc giJid««. 

But cominou prudence not uttowtnj^ ihcm to bur-ard ti>c 
wboli> compcmy bv loit triuch KulioiluEk' for a tiii;*li« lilb, 
ihey trairllfd on lowardi Rio Friiritlwo, iit whkh ihej 
nrrivod, Apnl llir l^ril ; !iu1. Inokini; out i'la ihar ikiansmti, 
wffc aurpribcd witK llic ni^lit of «f\c[i SpuiUh sltallopA* 
«nd ttniricttmlclv cudclixlcd, that noma inlollif^cuco of (Uir 
inotion« had been onrriesi to Nombre de Dkw, aiQd tiut 
Ilie««> voHtit*U luid beeti fitted out 10 punuo llit^m, which 
mighl, iitidoubtedly, have uverixi wired iho pinnmrt^ii luid 
their TiMsblf? flmw. Nor did tlwir aUKjjinJQii viep lierv ; but 
imtucdUtelT it (Kcurrrd lo liiria. thut ihrir men had bom 
compelled, by torlurc> U> dijwovor where ihv'a fngOJke and 
ihip wcro BtaiJOD^, which, h&n^ wholly muini^d, and 
wilbout thp presence ofihe chwt cofDmaDder, would CaU 
into ihejT hiiiid«, uluioitt wirb<;Til T^HiHliBricu^ mid all pon^ 
btlity of r*!4nii[iipg he rnlircly nut alf. ^^H 

Tbc-SR rcfkcliciis «ujik the whole oompony mto dopair^^ 
and every one, instcud of endoavourintf to brt-ui thr&ogb 
thedilticultieA that dtirrourukd him. roMf^ued %ip hiniitflf to 
bin iU tbrtitne; v;heu Drnko, whout* inln-pidity wat tn^ttr 
tu \w nliAkt-^n, £ind whoHp rvuion vent m^vrr in Im uurprutHl 
or ruihurru^M'd, rt?j>i(-j(rnt4td to Iht-in fJiul. though 
Spntkiards aboiild have uiad<; lhcm»cUcs moi^tcrs of lJ 
pinimces (hey might yet he hindered from dbeoreriiig 
flhipa. H^ pt^t tbem in mind, thnt Iho piDiUM** eouU 
bo taken, the taeu examiiioJ* tb(>irexiiiiiIaalfii>ni<>oiii| 
the rttHoltilioTiH fonnHl. flu-ir vi*-iiol:t m-dI out, and 
Nhip5 Ifikrii ID itn insftiiU^ Sorm^ lime riiml. tirreMBinl 
bo Mpent. briorc the ln«t blow could be »1riick ; aad, if 
liniri wore not neifh^ntly lost, it m't^ti be po»3tb]e 
aoibe of tbem tr> reach th'.< ubipa befoie llie enemy. 
4ire(-i theui fo change (heir ituiion- 

Thf*y vrrre animiiled wilh thu dWcourxep by which rbi 
diM^overrd Uiut ibeir lender hus not without bope; bi 



when they come to look more nearly into tLrir situation, 
they WCT« unubk' lo cuDCPive uj>ou whul il was foutidccl. 
To pass by land wha impo-nthU.', as the uuy Uiy uvi?r hi;;li 
mountiiiu*. through tbiok wood« i;ad ducp rivcrn; und 
tbey hm\ not ■ Hin^ln boat in it<^ir pciwi<r. ka thiil a (izw- 
lagv by iralrr svH'niril rijijally impructiculile. lint Dniiif, 
wk«#(! pcnrtfAtion immediately dincavrrrd all the cirv^utn* 
•tftfieo* and inoonvcnicncicA «f ovrry Mbcmc, noon t|c- 
tonnitwd upon tbt* onlv tnmns of ftiicct^ss which their eon- 
ctitton afi*i>riIod iheni ; and ordering hl» meu lo make n raft 
<itil of the trees llial were Uien IkiulJug mi thtr rUer. uflervd 
hlniAtrtriu put off lo flfn upon U, «iid chucrfuUy uakcd »Jio 
wovld nccompafiy him. Johu Ovrt'U, John Sruith, uoJ two 
FnriMrluneu, itho were ^ilhu^ to idi^re hii forluue, em* 
Iwrked with him ou thu riif^, «bicb wit*< fiitei.! out with u 
Mul nutdt? of 4 bisiruU-iuck, mi J an intr. lu diri*rl il^ courjir, 
ioftead of n rudder. 

Tien hoviiig comforted ihc rest, mib useuraocos of fau 
regurd for them, itnd rCHoIutioa to \eti\9 nothing moftt- 
teBple>d for iheir deliverance, be put olf, lUid after buving, 
vitll mucrh difl}cully, (tailed three leu^ui'v, dencrieJ two 
pinBSeen hiUtiiig tuttjudu lmii« ;vliii--lu upuTi n nrarv.t ap- 
proach. be dijicovered lo be hu own, ond pevecitiog' Ihut 
tber nochoTcd behind a point that juttcil out into the nca, 
Im) ptil Co iihor4\ iindi croaking' tbn land on loot, ^iiJi re- 
C«*#d, by hi« mmpany^ with that imttEfiicIion, wbieh in oiily 
knoim to thome ibnl have been arqnnTitlril witb itaiigmi 

The aamc niichi ihcy rowed to Riu FrsD(;i3C0, whcrfi 
Uicy look in the rest, with what trcMuure thcjr hud been 
cble lo curry vjih tbrm through ih^f nuodfi; thtm uilioK 
buck with tlu- iftjnoti expedition, ihny retumc^d to their 
Jrigate, «nd looii rtOer 1a tbr-ir ^liip. where DruLp dUidrd 
the i^ld and ulvcr eqtidly between Iho French nnd ike 

HvTv they fpptit i^ovt fourteen days in lilting out tiK*ir 
fripitv mont completely, nnd tlien diBmiMing the Spnoiardi 
vHii thc^r «hip> l^y a fen day«timotig the CnbeiM; whil« 


SIR PKAyClH drakr. 

hrelvD Eni^lioh nvul flbctoon S^rn^front Ijmclled, once- nn 
into tii4> ruuiiliy, ?u weJI to recover lh<t Fr«<i>cb capl 
whom lh(.'V hii<i lefl woTmdf*(l, (!■( lo lirm<a; awuv ih« tri^amre 
whirl] lli(*}r hvid liltlOi-'H in lUe samK Dmk«. ith^iin lii« catm' 
\iiiny v/*Hi\A nnt Kuflcr Itj liaxurd b'lH pt^nton in jinolkcr Innd 
cxixrditioiL went vrith cliciii to Kio Kntticuoo^ wbcrc h^H 
fouud oue of Ibc Frenchmen, wbo hod stayed to altert^" 
their captoiKi, aad %ra» informed hy him, apoa life int^iMm 
uftOT hiv furtune. HirT, half nn honr nt^er th^Ir ^epSEnii 
lh<? HiittuiiirilH i:aiiie Eifiun thcni, uuf! viiAily -wized u}iaii 
voandcti cAptnin ; but that hi» G«nptmian mt^ht faui 
«*CMped with liitn, had he not prororrud moDiyto lilt-, tc 
Mcinfi; turn (hfxiw down n bu\ or jewels tbut ruttirdpd hi 
h« could not frrrhciir taleiiiff it up, mid u-ilh thnt. and thrr ^1 
which ht^ Und atn^udy, wlix mi hjiiilrd llut li» ciiuld 
CAcnpc. With ri-jEO-rd to ihr hurt of i^old ami siiUcr. which 
thcfy had concealed in Iho g^round^ ho itttbmicd them that 
two thoiiHRiid mon had brtf^n rmployed m dtgf^g U 

Thv men, boweter. eilber miAlni^ltiig the tnrorfiiv^i 
raclljt. ur coiifiJeul that v/hul liiej hud bidileii coutid 
be found, pursued lbeir journey, but, upou th^-ir tirriTid 
Ihe )>lace, found the f^r-oiiad turrii-d up for two mi]o« round, 
and were able lo recover uo moro than thirteen b«ni o^h 
ttiWtrr, ujid It %mii]\ i|[itiiility of gold. Tbi<y d'wcot^rj^^ 
n^nrvauh. tUai Ih*^ Fmivhninu who wns left in lb« voodt, 
falling iifterwanlt into the hnodft i>f the SpanuTiU, was l«r- 
tuTrd by thi^m, till hc^ confcMcd where Dniic had oob- 
coiUtid his plunder. So fntal to Drttk«*« dipeditioB «u 
Uw dniiikr'nnf ta of Itis fo11ow«ni- 

Then, di^miNPiliig die French, tli^y pa»ed by C«ftbflg«ii& 
with lh«ir oolourj Jljifi^- **^*^ ^^^" uiic^r took « fngalo 
ladeu with provinioav and bonoy, wbidi they vnJaed m 
RTOat roritoTAtive, end then »ailcd nwny to the CiUwoM. 

Ilrru ihry Ktayi>d about a week to d*-iin tln-ir vv««elJ7 
mid tU ihrni for a Icitig voynge, Helerniiuiii)f to Xflt Koil fur 
£ii^lmid; nmlp th»t tJjo faithful SymeroiM niij^hl not ^ 
Awuy unrownrdctL broke up their piuuaocB. and gmve il 





Um iroD. lli« ini>!i( vuluablc preseut in Iho world, to n nn- 
lioo wbo«i^ ouJy employcnerntM wi-n* wur luid huniin|f> and 
VlBongtl whnm Khow iiml Trixiiry hn<\ no pWc*. 

Petlic, Ih^^ir ca|itiirii. (wii^ clf'^in^d b> Dmke lo gii 
dirongh ihe tih^|>. mid to chouse ^hni ho tao%t dc«irri1. 
Iix4;(l hii «J0 Dp04i s cimolur, hl-I -with diamonds, wliit'h the 
Frcneb cftptain bad niviuntL-d lo Druki?; n«d» htttti; un- 
willinf to fl^ for «o vahublc n pressntt offered for it four 
lArge quoitH. or ihtrL phiUi^ of gM, vMch he hud, liiihprm, 
CMirexInl; bul I>niLv, detiri^uh to abuu- Llm ibut hdi'lily 
ift veldoiD wilbotil a mconif)Oiifc. ^re it bim with tlie 
ki^lMAt pfofciAioat of ftiiljftrncljrm nnd c^tccnt. P<^drO|, 
r«e«Tiii£ it with the utmost p^ilittido, iufonucd bnii, tbal. 
by bcslowin^T ^t he had conftfrred Kreaioett uud honour 
opOM hini; for, b)r prawn ting it t<) bin kiti^, ha doabtrd 
mat of obuintti^ ih# higbefli rank nrnnnpsi the Synieront, 
He ihpti pertiiled in bU n*Kiliiliun o( Ir^nvln^ the M<o1t], 
vhlch Wii* gt^ncroLJAly (finiun hj Driikff info tbr rmnmon 
tlock; for h0 MJd, thai tho^c. at ^hoftv ^'itpenw* he had 
been MOt c«i1, ou^ht to sbure in nil Iho piiii of tbe eipedi-^ 
tiofi, «bili>vi:T prt'ttnco cutil utid chi«iin*'ry mijfhJ supply 
for the appropmlioEi of uny part of it. Thus u as DrikLi-'n 
ehitracUir ronsiKtrnt tvilh itf^fflf ; b#t wnx r^unlly iiup4>riour 
lo Mvarico and fear, and lhr[>ij^ti wbuiv^r-r danger \tv might 
j[0 in i|uei( of gvM. br thought al iii>l Vttluah1« enough lo 
be obtaiDL-d b; urtilici: or dijihoutrflty. 

I'boy oo« forsook tho co»Ht i^fAntvricj* whieh for mai^j 
BMotlu they bad kept in p«>q>«t(iul ulurniK, halving uiken 
■ore than Iwu huudred iihi|H, of nil hIkok, briwrin Cirtha- 
^«na und Xomhre df 1)i(K» of vhkh iht?^ jit'ver divtliuyeil 
■«)r, unlrAK ibitv vctr litird itut piguiiiftl ih<?tii ; nor (Tvrr d€- 
taiiKd llae prtioacr* longer than «a< iieGr0aiy IW Uieir 
ovn #cciility or concoatraoDl, providhifr for ih<<m in ibo 
uui^ pitDner aa for themaelvei, and pro(<?<:ting ihem fru«n 
tbe nnlwo vt the Symerooft; u h«bavioirr vbfch humfinity 
diclJiIrK, anri whii'h, |iprbii|rtf vxen poliry ctLnmit di«A)>' 
prow. He must i:«-rlnijdv mviti with obtlitiutc LrppoAitJou, 

«DI- t*. 


who lonli^ it r(|n4t1> clHiif^root to y'lM u to rc«at, ui4 
wlio lesveA hh mieniit^n ao Iw^vs but fvoiu ^UHocy. 

WItJit rkUf^H llic} ac<{arrEl U uot parlkruUrij rcUtcd, 
but it U Dot t^ be doubted, tbal the plabdcr of fo mttiy 
ycuoIa, toother with the »)v&r vbich ihoy ft«iMd it 
Nombfo dc Ditit, mUKt antoutil to u ven' Ijit}^ Aum, ibuni^b 
tbo piirt tbul w^B allotted to Drakr vai nat uifftcimi m 
lull liim in i^frcminiii-'y, or to ivpreu \ns tmtural indinatiori 
to niivrntiirrfi. 

T\it*y urrivud a( Pl^vmoath ou thoDth oTAu^xL 157^, 
oik Suii(Uiy. in tbti uAcnioon ; aud so mucU w«ro tko pCKt- 
plc delighted vith the nt^v-j of tlieir anivnl, thai Ihoj kft 
tbo pri'&ohor, txnti ran iu crowds to thi; quay* witli Aboabi 
atid con^utuUlioDS. 

Dmkt-* buving, in bw formor esp«>d|iioit. had n vwv of 
(br? Kiuilh Km, ^inrl ffirmml ii n^HnbihiHi tii nuU a|Hia it, diil 
UDt ftu[rer biraMt.-]r lo he div«r1ed froni fau deti^o hj ifae 
proApcvt of ail) diOii^uhiFA tli^it lulgbi obstruct the attedipt, 
nor uny darjgrrn iLut migbt nttcnd tbo cxccntio*!; ob«ta^ 
cks vhiob brave men oflon find it macli moro etuy ti>oTcr- 
■^ome, Iban Be<rr«<t eiicy und domoBtkk troacb^ry- 

DraL^*'^ r^puiJitiOD vas cow nuflicit-'Uily advanced to In- 
nl» diftradkiu ami fip;KJNli(jn ; and it at i^hxt to inn^ne. 
thbt a itiun by nature Riiprriour lo TD<tnn nrttficr-** Hiid bred, 
from luA earliest y«an> to llie lubour unJ luud^bipa of a >eft- 
lifc, w&a vtM7 little ucqimintcd w'tiii ptdicy und intrigsc, 
very littl<3 versed in tht? mcthoda of application to t\tc powi^r- 
ful ami groat, nnd urable to obviate the pnctic^s ol^ tbo«« 
wbom W\n merit bad made bii L'n«jni«f, 

Nor are Mwh tiia only oppomfntn nf un^ut t^ntofpriMtc : 
IhnTB urc >omr mm, of narrow viewi ftttd ^m^Hlio^ roDiwp- 
tions, wbo, wilbout tbu iiuilisfltion of pergonal malice, irtnti 
every now attempt, ns wild nod ofumcricnt. Aod lo^ npon 
every ondeorour to dt^ort from tho beaten truck, » Ibc 
raili efllort of a warm imsp^iuutiun, or tbe ^tlerinft ii|>«cv- 
lutiort rf Em exalied mind, thut nmv p1i<uM.< and daoslA for & 
tjmi.', but can |ifoduoi- no r<*ul or b«tin^ udTjmtng^. 


filVi PitANCiA E>RaKR. 


risMi. (i|}on belkOTing u^fliiii^ bnr Ih^tr cwti ienii^x, upoii 
enllin^ far <l«iu<iiMUttliuEi nvhrn^ U I'luinol ()ti«9iilily be oh- 
Uiil>e4, nnd. tOEnrtinicT. iipon holding out ogiirist il, wli^ci j( 
>B laid before Ihem ; upon iiivcutin^ orguiutub u^n^t llie 
■«ct«M of ttn^ new uDderlakui^. and, where urg:Liii>rnH 
cABDOt b<f found, iipun trt^ating it vith (^ootonipt and ridi' 

Such have been th^ mont fonnidable eoeml^t of the 
j^TRtt Iwnpfniilnr* lo mattkiriil* jitid io llimt- we c;i]i Imnlty 
doubt, bul tLitt niicb of x\u* nppnHitimt which DruLcT nii't 
vitb, is to be altribiitod ; for their uotiona and discourse 
sr^ to a^eeiiblo lt> i\n^ luxy* tbt^ cnviuiiH, niid (he umortiUR, 
tbul thuy »ld<rm lioil of bccominf; pnpulur, und directing 
Ibe i>fMiiion« Qf mankind. 

WhaUocv*rr were hi* obaisdps, and whntaop^pr the mo- 
lo^ff llntl pruducr-d (hem, it was riul till iNe ^fjit 1^77, Ibiit 
be waa ablu lu aurmblr » furci- priipnrtioncd Id bis drngn. 
and to obtua a cerDmitaion from ihc (juc^o, \>y wbich he 
mt eooftitated oaptttn-^^^ncrul of a tttrct, conabtin^ of livo 
T gaw ib, Af whieb tbe PvUcqd, Adraircl, of n hundred ton*, 
vuB comm&ncled by himf^lf; the Eti»ibetbi viceadnum), 
of ri^ty tonii> by John Winter: the Madgold, of iLEriy 
loiu, by John Tbomai; ibe Sw»n, fifty tun&, by John 
Cbotter; the OhriMophrr. uf fiflttrn tutj^, bj Thoman 
Hocbe. thr iOinc, &a it secm», ^*ho wiw cnrp^ntrr in the 
former voyage, and destroyed one of the ahip» by Drake 'a 

Th^ftC ftbipv, oquipptid pnrlly by hiniMftft niid partly by 
otbrrprivniA fidTenlurBra, be miutfied with ont^bnndicd and 
mly'fanr stnut sailerii, and funiiKhM] with ]iuch proTisi^jtit 
M be judgi'd m^c^^KuirT (it ibi^ 'oiig^ voyjig^i' in uhlcb Jie wui 
enjcui^ed. Nor did be conjjjie hli eouc^ni to naviA >k>rui. 
or oLihtAry preparfllions ; but coiried with bim whatever 
be lbi>uglil Biif^bt coutributi* to ruiae in tboso nationa, vtilh 
vhodi he abould lure itny intrreourM*, ibe bip;bo«l ideiw of 
lbepolttene» end mftgnifi^jrirr of hi> n«li*<<ouuiilry. He, 
ibcrefore, not only prouured u cunipUtle aenice of ailvcr. 


foi Ilii own tnWt', imd furniflbcd tho coi>k-KMMO with aiMy 
vcMcIs oC the some meUl. but en^ai^pd Rrvera! roiuiebii 
to accompnftv him; riffhily jiid^t&K, lliat noiliin^ viniW 
more exc-ife the acLniirnfinJi of any mvi^fv ami imc'ivtlucd 

lluviiifc bc-fi(i (Imtn back h\ a tempest iii their first •!- 
tempi, and obli^d 1o return to PIvmoutb, to repair tb« 
diMnofi^ca which they hud si]fl'i-rr>d. ihi^v «et sail n|^n from 
theuue on the I3lh of December. 1^77. Jind, on dw S5di. 
Iiad »if{ht of cap^ Qinrin, in Borhary, from vbence ttie) 
oohhUmI ™i stmthwurd Ih ibe l*l»iid of Mftgiwlor. nbkh 
Dr4k«' hiA<l np|>oi»tfld fur ihr firM plucc of rciidcKVoUK, and 
oij the ^tb. brought the whole ticct to auchor, in n hsirboof 
OD tbu mtkiuluiid. 

Tbcy wt*n.\ noon tifteT th^ir arrival, dii^ovort.^ by ikt 
Moors thui iiilial>itf-d tliose coasis, who f^T\t tvo fif ibv 
prinnijml mfn umuiij^vt lht<m od liuurd T)rukt9*» M\>, rc- 
(Tiving* lit lb<r Mime limiT, two of hU i:ompimy jui boatMjifSi 
These lui^a be uot ouly ticatc-d ir tbc moft uplcndid nnn- 
Dor» but pr(?6<?Dtod villi auqU Ibluf;* aa thi^y appeared mott 
to udmirv; itbuiuji; with bim im cititblubi-'d Biaxim, to«ii- 
dcAVOur to icTcuro, in overy cmjiiuy, u kbd r<.-<:i<ptioii to 
Bijcb Fnglifibmen ss mj^^^hl tome after liim. by irrntin^ the 
inh»ibil£iiiU V'liU kicKlness iind ^i^fMirukity ; a c-undiKt, M 
onrc^ junt aiiil publick, lo ihv [ii>f(lrcl ol' iffbicL iDAy bo at- 
tributed luouy of Iho injuries AufTrrcd by onr suiJon m d»- 
tont countries, which arc ^uorally oschhcd, rather to the 
«IFt>ct« of wtckedrjens and fully of our ow» oomnandtrt, 
ihnn ibe hMrbiiriiy of thL* uativet, who «eldum fall upOQ aoyj 
unless ibey huv»" been fint phmdnrpd oc instillpd; and, b 
i^vciigih^ ihr rii\ugr-i of imv orcw ujkon unoliii^r of the 
same uatioo, axe guilty of uctliing but what b cooote- 
naaced by lli<? exmriplt? of the KiiropcAns Ui<.'niiolvos. 

Hut Ihid friundly intrrcour^c wu:^, in (ippvunince, Moa 
brok<^D; for, on tb<T noxt day, observing tbe Moont makiaf | 
NignaU from ihe tnnd, ihey ieut out iheir boat, as befon*, ^ 
lo fetch them To ibt^ khip, and onr Johti Fry leaped asjiorc, 
inl4*ndinjc to biviorno n hostile, a& on thr formirr day, wbm 

flilt FHAIVtrtfl DIIAIK. 

{mm^iliftlcW lif* wa.1 sirixpil Uy lli« Moors; and the crirw, 
ob.iif-nii]^ )tTC4E numbt-rei to itarl up from brhinft the totik, 
with vcapon* m th^ir han<l«, foirnd it madness to attompt 
bU rcrtcun, nod, tboroforft, pri>vi(l4?d for tlwir own security 
bj' returning 10 lhf> nhip. 

Fry iffiL* iuiniedififrly currii'J ^o tlic* ting, whn, bring 
thru in conliniULl rxprrtiiliim i>riiji inviii^ioji from Porfii^l. 
sui|H-ctcd thfit lUc*c f\ti\is wcri.^ ao-jil only to obir-nt^ Ul« 
c<kast, aud dtacorcr a propfvr littrbour Tor ihti maiit IWt; 
but b«n)K inlorniLH! wtio ififv wtT^', und vhilhcr Ihry wrpo 
bouod, not only (liRmi»<^d hijt cajitivti. hut mnilo Jorgo 
ofl^ of friendnhTp nnrl asfietnnce. which Drjik^, bowev«r, 
flit] not Htiiy 1o rfri*ivr» bur, b<-iii^ dty^iiHlctl mT Ihii* brt-iirh 
of lb<' laivs tjf rcimmf-rri*, jimi afniid of fnrihrr tiohmc*', 
ftfter having iprnt Konio days in >carching for hi* man, in 
whicb h<r met wJdi no r<.-sip»taiic4^, lofl tiie cofiM oh l)<-c«m' 
biTltl, «ornc thuc brforc Frv'i rt^turn* who, bdn^ ubbj^t^d 
by tliii accident lo Bomrvlinl n longcfr rAMdcnrr among lite 
Moor*, wnt nftrrttarfiji fi*?nt home in n mrrfhant'i ii\a\t. 

On Jannnry 13^ (hpy arrived at oape Blanc, [m\tDg io 
ibrtr posMiige biheii M<(-t^nit 8|nm;vh vit;cm?W. Herr. vtlnltf 
Dnikr waf> employing hi« men Jn cAtchiitg itth, of which 
th» Goaat nflbrda great plenty, nod variont kindxi the inha- 
bitants cnuio down to the soasido vhth their nli*0T£94, or 
toollwr botllei, to (nillick for water, vhioh Ihpy »^re wtt- 
hng Id purcHust- uilh iifiifH-f^riii and oih^r giiitL^. I)u( 
Tlmlcft, tnmpHKidnnnting Ihi- miwry of llie-tr comliiiun, gavM 
ibeni vatrr> vthmevur |[)C> 4»ktrd f(ir ft. an\\ \r(\ them their 
conunoditi^i to trufliok wilU, Mhcn thi*} shoiild he n§pun rc^ 
dttced-ic the Aome di$trefld, vritboiit fiixbng the sarav ^o- 
oafDuty lo rel>i^v<.< thcm^ 

Hl^TV^haringdiKf hargnd Hcimr Spanish cliipn, which llu-r 
liQCl tjilftn, thpy KPl tail tr>irard« ih«^ UW nf rnpi' V<^d. twd, 
(ID JtfUu^LT} 28, c*^iue to nituliur ht-furf Mnyo. Iiopinj; to 
funiiah thf^niAcUvv with fresh wairr ; but liuving landed, 
tliey found the town by tbi> watcrtddt' cutirely dofwrted, 
tn^ ftiMhTT up thp ccuniry, miw the vnlley* 
Triiitfid. uiuk BKoncHJing willi ri}N^ iigi, coeiuv, 


Itlit VkAKCU UKAft«. 

uuit |>Untaliift, hul could by no mcaat prcTuI iipoa the io- 

were suflrrrd l>y thrm to rDU|Co tlie country without mok^ 
tfltion* but ioaiitl no wutcr, except at auct u dislBncc ffop 
i\w Kc-a, iLflt Uie Inbour of <^nvc}iQg it to tUe Mp* wai 
gr«a1or timn it w&a, at that time, necesairj Cor thvm to un- 
dnrgo. Snit, bud tliev WJinled it, uil^hf buro bc«il ob- 
biinecl vith [run tTouljIr, bring Irft li^^ ihi? «ea upon the 
jiund, and haTdi-u«d by Uiti tmtt during lb*; tthh^ in »ucTi 
cjuuntitii£, thatlbc cbicftruffick of (bcir Ulmd u earned 
vu Willi ic. 

in&uary ^1, tht^y pusaed by St. Jago aa idtuod nt ibat 
time diri(l<*d bvlwovu iht^ nalitei und iho FortitguesPr 
wLo, ^dL euterJDg ib^«fl ukndf undiT tJui show of traficit, 
by degrt^en «£Cabli-shed ihemselvev; chimed a supe-riodly 
ovnr liir oriffitial jjiiiubitiintd; and banUHtnl ibi^ja wilk «iH-b 
nruolly, tbal ibty obli^d thctucilbcr toflvlo iJio wtiottsaud 
tucunuius. and pcri«h with hunger, or to take up «rau 
ufCUinpl ibotr op|>rcAburs, and, trndor tJjv iii^vpcruble diMd- 
vuntt^cci wili^wbiuh lUcy contended, to die, almost wilkoat 
B bnltks in defonco of iboir nntiirol righu and aooiant pas' 

Stick treHlmc^ul hud tha tihtivc!* of Si- Jogo rocoii^rd, 
whinb liikd dmru tbcm into Ui« rocky piuta of tbe idasd. 
from wb^me tbcy nmde incu/aiona into lli? planlatioiu of 
tJju Portupirnc. anmc|im» «itb \ai$, but f;cnt-rully vilii 
liwt Mjf ccft» vliich do^prrutjon natarally procarc^; fo tbat 
Uio Foriugup^n wi>r4i in coiilinuid nl;krni», und Lived. «iA 
Uk- natural cnuM^qricinces of guilt, lenoiir, ami au&i«iy> 
TUfy vft^te v/t^aUhy, but nut Inippy, uud poigiuBi^ tba 
inland, but mil fritjoyif) it 

Tbcy then sailed on wilbin »i^iit of Fur^. an ufamd ao 
ca\\M from a mouuluiu* cdjout Ujc middlo of it* contiinAlly 
buruioj;, and, likt* ibc n'^t, inbubited by tbn PoHatTueve; 
tvo I«ag:u<!« to ihv KuuUi of wbtcb lici Ilruvji, wbicb hoj 
nri-eivtd iiii nainu from it« fertility, »botuidift|^, ibouitfa «ii- 
itdiubili'd, wiiJi jtll LrnilM ttf fniits. aud waliYt'd with Ri^*< 
nuiijW» of springs and biookst. vUicli would e^uily uiiiu 


ie pi>imioQr« of liiG o<1jncc[it islaiifh 1o Acltle in if. hnt 
tfatot it oflbnld noitbcr harbour nof aD«horasci^, Drake. 
aA^r bavmcf nent out hid boats with plTicimolM, wqji not 
ubl« lo liuil niiy f^<;iin(l uboiit if i uitJ H in r«portad, tha£ 
avuiy rxprrimcntt hi4vv bri*n mudi* viih tho same auu> 
ceu; bDwrf«r, b^ look in wutrr Rufnclenl, flBd, on tht- 
2iid of Fi^bruarj. %ei auil fur ttic Airaita of MAgtrlUii. 

On Ffibrirary 17, £bc> punned (he C(|un1or» and cou- 
liDiicd 1b«iT T<iyri)cc, ^th Horoctimcai c<iJma, and aunifi- 
timofi contrarT wind4, bul vilhoLiI ony iin'nioral>l«» acti- 
d^Dl, to M;ircli 38, vben ooe of Ihoir veudM, with IttiMity- 
vtght mm, and Uir ffreutt*ct part of tbc^ir frmh water oa 
Ixuifil, KBA, to llidr grt'Ht ifiBCOuragi^nient, nftp^rnleti ffnni 
tlivm ; bul Ibeir pL-rp!«\ity Id-ftt'O noi lung, for on lli«- (Jt*it 
day tbtiy diflcovcrcil And rejoined their awocialt**. 

In tlwir Jong cotir^o, wliich ^ve tbcra opportunities of 
ohMTTin^ flOTemI animaU, botb in tb« air und water, at 
tbal lime very tittle known, nothing ontifrtikuiQd or cur- 
prved tbrai morit ihnn ihr lyinf^ lith, wbioh i« ii«nr of 
Iha Mme »iBw> wilb n herriug. aad ba« tin^i of the l«*riglb of 
bis wbole tody, by ibe help uf wbbh, wb«it he 1% pur«iM?d 
by the bottita or ^cal mackerel, as AOoa a» Iip HthU him^ 
s^tfupoo tbo point of being taJLcn, he spring np into the 
air, and flkofl forward, ai lonf^ aa bt» visg* oontiTiuc wot, 
aovtiare being. a« it tccint, nucAuury to mak^ tticm pliant 
aad BOT^foblo; ojid when they brcom*' dry mid hIiII', he 
fiillv dowa into the* wal«^r, iinlput Mimr bnrk nr uliip inli-r- 
eept biiu. uiid di[H liietii jt>;rdiii fur a beeond flight* Tbii 
wdiappy aniinnl it not only pursued by fi»b«s iu biit nattinU 
atoawMit, but nttnciicd in the uir, whi-re be hopes for secu- 
rity, by Ibp don^ or v^pm-kito, a fyrai bird that preyn upon 
fiOi : and tlieir «p^rie« must surely be deutfoycvl, wrr« ant 
I^T increasfi in great, that lb« young fry. la onp pnrt of 
ILl* year, coTrri fhi* ^ra, 

Tb«m U ajiotbcr fisb, tinmiril iLi' vatllc. of which whole 
ftbeids will aoniifliraes Hm! at once out of the water, and 
of which a ^mt maltitude fell into their ship. 

At lengtl), bftvinif saded without sight of bod for vbily- 


tliri'H rlttVM, ihfy iirrivptJ, April 3, hi tin? coA^t of BmS, 
wlif^n\ on iJm Trii. tlii> ('tirUtopliE-r w;ir nqiunitcil agm 
from Ilieiu L_v & aturmi nftcr uliich ihcy Miilcd near lb* 
laud to thr^ 50t]lbw;iri), ttdd^ oil i!k' 14lb« uiicltorod andcr t 
ouprt which thr^> artrrwurils cull^id ciipi? Joy, b<.*caiU3e is 
two davft tikc vessel whicfa ihry hud l«4t rotnriki^d to tbcn. 

Hurm^ Bj>i?Dl n fortttif^hc in tfiP m<>r of Ptatfi, lo rvfrpili 
hU men, after ibeir loi]|;; voysg''. and ihen standing oDt l» 
V9M, Ui; wuH a^alu Mirpri«t-d b> tt Middtfn nlonti, in wUcb 
thoj lo»l »ight of tli<* SwflD, Thi* uccidrnt dctemuMd 
Dniko Co co[itract ibc number of his flf^cl, ihai lie BBigM 
not only uioid tho inconvemcnco wT snob frM|uent aepom^ 
tioriN, bul oaiw (bu Uibour of his m^u, bj luvin^ von 
Luuds in ^acli v^sd, 

Pnr ihlB purpoM lie sailed aloiiff ihe cnasl^ In <pevf of ■ 
t-ointnudioif!t JiJirlmur. uniT. on Muy !■% ducuverFcl n baf. 
irlkicfi Acrmrd not improprr for thrir piupcuo, but vhich 
IbcT diirflt not cnlcr^tiU it was examined; nn cmploTacai 
in wUioh Draltt* uevcr trxisted any, whotj?ver iDJgbc be lu 
I'oiifidvncu in bin followt^ru on otber occaaioDS. He mH 
kitf'W \tQVf rulAl oik(T motztt-nt'^ inutienlwn n^t be. Mid 
how 4'R4i1y ulmtijit i^v^ry man snfTpfA him.^rlf tck hri snrprriffMl 
l>y ii:di>lvuc(* mid M-furitT. Ht' ktirw tlnr Maiin? ciwlulily, 
ihitt nit|cliL prrvml upon liiui t<j tru:it iutather, suj^ht indvn 
iuiollic*r to commil Ihc Akune oOicc to a tbird ; nud it owt 
be, ni lontftfa, thiil some of Ibein vould bo decoiyed. Re, 
tbereforo, lU at other time«, orderod the boot to be bouttd 
out, ntid,i[ikJn^lV*]iuFiiitobi«biU]d, Vinton Boondia^lbe 
puuiifft-. till hv w^ix thrill? Iriigiirt frnm hiK ubip ; nbrn, od 
u tuddrii. till-! wcAthiiir chiui^rd, tl^i ftki«» bUcki'iird, the 
wlads whi^tlcd^ atid all ihp unual fotemiuiers of a atonn 
be^n to tbroaten thrm ; nothinj; was now paired but to 
rvlurti to llio sliip, but Vbc lliiclin€i>4 of tho (i^f; int«re4>pluijE 
t( from their eigbt, mudf the Allonpl little other than 
dfUTpprnfe. By so many utiforeto^n aecifUmiK U pnidvue* 
iudf tiabli? to he «mbarraiut?d ! So difliciill a il, iumetiBfi, 
for Ihv qtiickctl nugiicity, nod mofit L-nli^btcmtd rxpismtior, 
to ju^o what measures oiigbt to be fakonl To Irastao- 





^ I. 

Mmd an unknown conAF, upp^nred to Drirkn 
Mtf and preminpf ion ; lo he nb««ni from [lii IIctl-i, (hough 
bnl fr>r im liour, prrjvccl nothing te«i iImii U? hjiTmr^l thp 
tin^iu of ull ihrir tnboiir«, b<ircl>}iips. iind tlangori. 

In tbU |irr[>k-vi1_T. ufncli Drake was not niCHTt! aeiiaihln 
r than tbuTte whom ht* Imd J«f( in (bo .chips, nolbin^ waa 
li> hi- omiilrd. bciweior dan^^rous, (biit mi^'ht ooutributo 
to «*\lncni^ ih«ni from il, nn tbf^v could V4i»i»re notliiii;; of 
tial value with ih<^ Ijff* itf rheir |f4»nenil> C^iplatn Thomot, 
on*, having thr li^Tar-ir vi-(*a^f. Mreml linldly inlfi 
Um? buy, and liking tlii< ;k*'0^''^I idiouid, ilroppod ont^lior, 
«J lay out of djin^r. wbHo tlw rc«t, tlut were in 
-tbe o^D iMt mffor^^d mucb from (he tompnl, and tbr 
Hatj, a Portoffneae prise, wan dnv«ii j^uy brioro tHo 
vind; (iMf otbcr«, uk noon ua (be b^ropeil wiu OT^r, dia- 
mvcring, bj thr (trr*fl vhU\\ Virr^. mndr on sbon», vrbefe 
Dnile wHA. repaired lo hiiii. 

H«r«, fotn^ on »I»>tl\ they met vith rio inhabilnatar 
there were iirv<irfll hc»n«rji or bulji stttndliii^. tn 
they fotiod a ^i>iJ ^iLtaiility of <]h<<d ionh, and 
oD|f lb«m Lk f^m numbctr of oatrirhe*, of which (ho 
were its ).iTC[e ns thocc of a ^hof'p- Thca» birda are 
banv^ and unvirldy lo n»c^ from ihe ground, but vith 
the h«lt> of ibetr viufpi run so swifiiy. Iliai lb<r Eiif^lbb 
oanid noifrr fome ntmr ermu^b tu nbool at tlitTU). Ttie 
Indian*, commonly, by boldinir a iarf[(.' plumt' of (Vruibrra 
bcfora duMDj and walking gf^nily forwurd, dn^o tbo 
eaCrutbaa iQ(o acme narrow net^k, or point of Und, Iheo, 
jprawting* aironff n^i from one tide to the atlior. to binder 
ilkam from rrimrnini^ bnek to tbe open field*. %vi llieir 
doga upon ihem, (liufi «onfired U'tweiTii ibe iirl and tbr 
water, ud ^brn Ihrj are thrown on lhi.-ir bnci^ nub in 
and (aio tbcm. 

Not HndinK thu burtio"r convenionl, or u-«ll itor#d with 
wood and water, tbc*y Inft it on (be 13th of May, and, on 
tha Ittth, entered another nkucb Ktiftr, and more euniin<^ 
diwu^ wbifb Ihey no tuoriiT jirrived vti, timn Uiaiff, wiioiw 
rvadtfan opptioition nercf rvmtttni, seat Vr'JuCcr to Ibc 

046 ftlB rRAKOlS DRAILX. 

louthwaxd, in qucat cf ihoao dupt which vero absent, and 
iratJicdiuU.-ly uflcr onilod liiin^icir 1^ tbo O0Tthvar<d» uad. 
hofipiiy moeUnx wUU lUe Svran. Gonductcd it t<» tko rc«L «f 
ibci HoGit; nftrr wbicb, in ptmtmriDe of hU fonD^tr rviolv- 
lloil, t>« ordErrcnl it in lii^ ZimlRii ijp» n^f^i>fviii^ th^ Imm* 
work for Ji fuiiir** itup{)1>-. Tint olhcr v«*i«t<L wliich lliey la«l 
in the Ulc Klorm, nuuM iit>t he tUsuoi e-rod* 

While Uiu^ were tliu» rmpbjcd npcA nti Ulnnd about i 
Quk rrDm iht- niiuitUiuU 1o wliich, at lov water, tlierc wat 
a pn.ijiax<^ ijti loot, tbi^y were difroovered by (ho oativtsK, vlw 
appoari>d upon n hill at a diiluiict.% duodng tmd holdiiijEi 19 
theiftMudi, as beckoning the Cnglibhto thoni; wbichDcakv 
nbinrving, «Kqt out 11 bual, wiiii Liiivftt, belLc, mill bngld^ 
AJiil sucb thing;* Alt, by tln^ir iisi^riilTir^n nr ikovHlVr W in^ 
fftned wuuld bc^ ui-r^rablu. Am souu dji ibt.* EngUtJ) laudrd, 
ihcj obvriA'cd two mL*i] riinuiug towurda tb«m. w deputed 
by tb(! computiy, wbu cumi- nilliiii a liukr disluAC^. Mid 
then fltandirtg »tiU could not be prevailed upon to cOBia 
n^rvjr. Tbe Cai^liftb, tLer«<r<ire. ited their proseDts to a 
pok, wblcb (bey ti\i-d in ibe ^ouiid, and iJii-ii retiring, 
•nv ih^ Indiiinfi iidvniKif*, who> taking whnt iboj round 
ii^n Uic puir, fel\ iti reluru Jtuiib r«alheni as \}uty ve^r 
upon their beuda. with u minll bon« about nix incbcs in 
length, carved round the top, nod UmiJAbcd. 

JJrake, ubflorving ibcir inobikalion to friendabip 
traJfivkp advoncedp vitb some o( bii company, tovimU U>c 
hill, upon »igbt oJ' wboru i\re Tndiant raxige<L ib«-aiftcivr« is 
A \iuM* from cvaI Ip Hri(. and uncT id' tiirrcn ninnirig froin oiiv 
eiiil of tlic rfUQk to the otbcft backvard* and forwahb. 
bowed hiin»cif towards the riaias and »ottiiig of tbe utm, 
holdinj; bia baudfi over hia bead, aud iirequontJy ^toppio^ 
in the iniddl^ of the nink, leaping »p towurds tbo Dwxm, 
nbich then jibooe directly nicr Ibcir bends; llyie caUiog 
the ftna and nuKin, tbcr deities ihey woTKhip, lo witneaf Ibe 
■NictfriCy uf tbeir pri>f«ujitoua of p»uue aud friemdUiiii. 
While? this ccremetty wax porfurEned, Drake and bit com- 
pany tiAceiidcd the bill, to the apparetil terrour oftbc 
dians, wboM^ apprcbeasioiUj when the Eoglish p<vovit 


tiM^paaeaHbly rHimI, wlticU guv(? tlio iiativ» si> diqcIi 

citcbangcil thrir urrov!i> fcMiUtora. aail bocieo. Utt smch Iri* 
fto« 04 were ofl^Tcd ihcm. 

Thtti Ihi'T fniUvd fi^r Home lime; but, by frequocit iBtcr- 
€Q«n«, finding that PO vioknc^ waa int^nd^d, tUe> be- 
cHvit* fumiluir, luid niingliMi with the EnglUh withonl the 
U*afii diKlniKi. 

Tlieir go tjuite linked, except « akui of nomo aaiiuaJ. 
vhicb (h<^_v throw over iJicir shoulder* whi-'o they lie 'in 
Ibr ci|HTn iiir. ThoT kait up ihi^ir h»ir, whic^ in very Jtrn^, 
with s roU of o^tlicli rtiulht^rn, and ii»ual]y cnrrj thrir ar- 
rov« nra^jped up id ll, that they mny iiol vncumhcr Ih£im, 
ihrv beuiff miidi* vtalb f^^edv, heudvd wllb fliut, uikI, ibur^ 
ian\ n^t hRn%-y. Tht-ir how» arc? about uii ciU Itiii^. 

Tlieir chjoT fritainerit is paict, which they use of Mrfcral 
iiodi, tktincatiii^ gentrrally upon th«!ir hndieA, tha %«rG« 
of the lUD imd mooLi. in houour of ihtli dciticv- 

It ia ob4ervabk\ tbat mOHt rmlioiri, amount whom tli« 
mc of oloibot in uuknowD, fraitit ihvir bodieci. Such vol 
llir pmeticc of tbf^ lirct inhiibitttnU of our own cottulry. 
Fn)ffii ThU eiKloTU did nur parlieii eiienu^e^, the Picw> owe 
Uieir dtftomiiiuliun. Asi it ts Jiut prubnblp lluit cupncf? or 
faucj abouJd hr UDifiirm, ihrre uhtaI be. iltmbUvM, s<iist< 
rcftMrn for n pt^tctke ao j^encml and provciluiK xn dulunt 
pvte of 1h« world, which litito no conununicati^iQ viih 
<«tli otb^r. Thf* oricinul end of paiuliD^ th^ir hvdict wa*, 
probably, lo cx«lnd(* the raid ; on end wlikb, if we beli«<TQ 
■om<' rdiiijonfi, i« so efTeciunlly pridnrcd by ii. IbAt ihc 
■WB ihuH pQinlvd iievtr tdiiwr rI ibc uiiMt pwrirtitg bbuta. 
But, duubtleu, Auy propI<% Mi luirdenrd by t-ootinucd ae- 
Torilio. would, even without ptimt, be leas M-nniblo of iho 
cold tbao (be civtliuid itihAbiUnts of the aamo olimdtJ>. 
However, Ihu prAcbco muy eonlrihutCp iu »«ni0 de|^e, to 
der«ni| ihem from the injuripJi of winter: and, in tho«» 
dinuktc-t whenf little rvnpomUfH by tlie poret, imiy be U4cd 
with no ^rriU incuflveiiienrw; liiil in hot cauntHrii, where 
pertpuatiut] in Kn^iler de^'r ia la-LeMor), ibi- milivea 


ojAy use nnctioi] to preserve Uieoi from tlie other extreoM 
of weather: ho well do either reason or experience snppij 
the place of science in savage coantnes. 

They had no canoes, like the other IndiaoA, nor any me- 
thod of crossing the water, which was, probably, the reason 
why the birds, in the adjacent istaods, were so tame that 
they might be taken with the band, having never been 
before frighted or molested. The great plen^ of fowls 
and seals, which crowded the shallows in such nqmbers 
that they killed, at their first arrival, two hundred of them 
in an hour, contributed much to the refreshment of the 
English, who named the place Seal bay, from that animal. 

These seals seem 1o be the chief food of the natives, 
for the Eogliah often found raw pieces of their flesh half 
eaten, and left, as they supposed, after a full meal, by the 
Indians, whom they never knew to make use of fire, or 
any art, in dressing or preparing their victuals. 

Nor were their other customs less wild or uncouth than 
their way of feeding ; one of them having received a cap 
off the general's head, and being extremely pleased, ■■ 
well with the honour as the gift, to express his gtatitade, 
and confirm the alliance between them, retired to a little 
distance^ and thrusting an arrow into his leg, let the blood 
run upon the ground, testifying,. as it is probable, that be 
valued Brake's friendship above life. 

Having stayed iifteen days among these friendly sa- 
vages, in 47 deg, 30 min. s. lal, on Jane 3 they set sail 
towards the south sea, and, six days afterwards, stopped 
at another little bay, to break up the Christopher, lien 
passing on, they cast anchor io another bay, not more than 
twenty leagues distant from the straits of Magellan. 

It was now time seriously to deliberate in what manner 
they should act with regard to the Portuguese prize, which, 
having been separated from them by the storm, had not 
yet rejoined them. To return in search of it, was suffi- 
ciently mortifying; to proceed without it, was not only to 
deprive themselves of a considerable part of their force, 
but to expose their friends and companions, whom com- 



:] iir c»filivLty> TI>iH cuti^iileratimi prt-fniled; mid, 
dwivforCt on the- 18lh, nfter pn/rrft Co God. with whidi 
Drake npvcT forgot to bcpn ah cntoTprisCi he put to h^q, 
-iiid. the iif\t <1a^, near port JuIjaii, dkHuovored tbeir oa^o* 
cial^«. v\tu^ dliip itaa iiuw grown \taky, buvirtf; lulFcred 
Eoncli, bulh ill ilir !lr*f *!lorm. hy which lh*'y w^n? di«- 
jH-fM-H, iiiid. ijl<rrvHrd4, in frLiitli'»8 Htiempu lo ivgain the 

Draiic, tliCTcfore, b(!i(i([^C:>iriKH torclif^retWiT f&ti^«^ 
entered port JuUun. niiil, as it vns lus eiiatvEU nlwiiy* 
to Hilled in poriHin, wlion any imporliiht l>tui]iL*>>s wua ice 
hand, vont nshore* with tome of the chief ot' hJH f?ornpaQT. 
In 9vry fi>r i^^id^r. uliere he uuk imnirdititi?lv ncc^iHtfd b^ 
Ivo irailve^, ufwlwin IMuf(i?llun ti-ft a trry ti-rribU* nrroiint, 
Imriiif; dcncrihcd tficm. <w a at\i\»ti of i^iujiln mid muiisteri ; 
nor in bis nnriMtivr oniir<-lir vilhoui fouadatioiK for thfrjr 
tint of the lar^'it -d/A-. 1[K<U(;ii not tulhrr than »nii)c CnKli^li* 
iDen ; llieir i[ln7nf{th U proporLionod in iheir buik^ and 
tJieir voico lond, bi>iBlrioiJ4, ntid tf-rrible. Wbal vere 
ib«ir muutien ht^fore th«^ urrii^d o1* tli«f Spuuinrd^, U ii not 
p(i»iblp lf> diH:oii<r; bat llm cUiighlrr madi^ nflbffir c-ntrn- 
tQiitrti, prih4{>» ^ilhoMt provAcatLo^i, hy iiww vrai-.l in- 
trvdcri, tmd lb? Ktiicral lEiaattucre with vhich thut part of 
ih<r world hud bot'o dcrpnpululiidi luif^hl hu\o raiiod in 
thciD a Auspjcion or nU Htrniiifvn, and. by <!oni«qaeDOo» 
nuidc' them inbonpitntlc, irooi^hcroi]*, jmd bloody^ 

The two who odiaticiated it^^mselves with ihcf r.ngliiJi 
uppi-aired taiich pimwd uilii iJictr neu )>ui^tii. n»:ciirxd 
willin^ty what woa givm thrtn. AiiJ very ctootly observed 
rvrry thin^ that jMiMcd, seeming norc particubrly dv- 
hghti-d wiila MrciftfC OIner, ibo moatr^g^PDor, i^hoot an 
Kn^tiih nrrov. They nhol lhemaolv«e> lik*wi«o> in rsin- 
Jatioii, but ihcir airamt aiways fell lo th& groniud fur ^bort 
cif hi*. 

SwHi Jifii-T thiH ffii:nd[y contest c^jmcf luiothrr. mtIio, oh* 
servin; Ibe fnmiUunty oTbiA counlrjin^ii wiih the fliruncnre. 
Hppcorod much difplcAMd, nndi ast the EngluhmoD p«r- 
vtrivcd, cndcvvoiirod lo disMJado them Iron luoh un Ui- 



What cnVcl hk wrf^menU luul wm soon 
lU tor eaoti>cr of Dr&kv'a compiuiiotM. Moff 
anms (o «how Utc thini ln<lJJin li upc^imt^n of tktc J^g^li 
valour and ditxtenlVt uttemp(M, likcvhiK(», u> choot fin 
row, ]}Ut Jmwiiin; it Willi his full foroe, bnrsi ib^bemfris^; 
npmi which thf- IiKTianii, wh« wer*? iinMrr|iiHi«led wilh Iheir 
other wrnpr>nH, unng^inrd him <li<Lirm<rH. foltnwed thr 
pnri^, us thi'v wL^rt' ualkiii^ iirj;]^i;(illyd«»AD towttrds lli< 
bout, and k't fly iLi-tr arrows, aiming- pflfticularlir at Winli 
who hac! the bow in Iiia boniJ* Ho, fiodiu j; himsrLt' worn 
4id in iho nhouldor* 4fQdoarotirod to rr^t hi^ bgw, aii 
turnii]^ about. wa» pwrprd with ii Kciconfl nrrow in tl 
hraa>L OUvrr. the ^iinncrn iminediulfly pr«»enl«d 
piecitttt ihn inKiiUoua HSidilunl^, l^h'lch lalhit^ In tukr 
gKw fbriti ttoic to level iinol^rr flight ofnrrowv by vhli 
bo wiu kilW; tior» pcrhnps, had any of tbem «^ac*|»pi 
tiurpriE(0<l ond pcrptexed ui tht^y wcro, had not l>«ki 
wilh hi)^ tiFiiial pr«ffioiicr of mind, nnimnti^d tb^ir coi 
and (tir<>ct4?d ihe'ir molioiiB^ ordoTuiff tb«iin» by p^rpefi 
c lunging tht-ir plaoi-^, to elitJo, aji inuL*li u»<hi>y could, tl 
■im of lhi?ir t^tirRiH<K, oiul to dH<'i;d thvir fxidirt wilh ll 
Itt^ct*; and insiTuciin^ tbcni, bj hu ouo cxau»pk'. 
piaJt up, and brcfik tho arrows as Ibey fell; vrhich th«y d»d 
wilh ao murrh dth^^rncc. that ihc Itkdiuni won? 90011 ta 
danger of being diaarmed. Then Drato bimrolf takii 
Uio pfUQ, which Oliver had «o tinmoDenfuUy ftltempteil 
muLo itiit* of, diacharj^ed it at ih^ Indian that fir«l 
iho fmy and luid killed thn ^fini-r. nimin^ it mi hnppifj; 
tlial the hniUhoI, wilJi which it wos JoodcJ, toio opoB fan 
b«i|l}^, nnd forced him to !»ii<:h t^rrlt>l« outcries, that tl 
ludiauB. thou|;h Lhr^ir numbont mcrvcu^od, and juaay of thd 
connlrymi^n thowud thcitiu;otv4T8 from diftVrnnt |iartA of tie 
ndjoi^ing wood, wprp tno much l**rrified to raixrw tl 
uAsnah, and sufTi^rod Druko, viihoul molestation, to 
draw bid woandvd friend. »hr>, hifin^ burl lu hia luo] 
lanf^i>h«cl two dayip ami ihra dying, weu intrrn^d wil 
hia compajaion, with the itsTiaJ ceremony of a ntilitai 

Tb<»y vtnyod boiro two months afterward*, vitbovl rt- 



^ ODj oUwr injuricH from the nntir«s, wlio. Boding 
the (Unger to which thcj exposed thcmsclvL-s by cjpen 
boMlUitit**, vmd, uot boLnc; able ony more (u «an*n5o Ibo 
Eig^lunco of Dmie, preferred tboir laiVty t^ rcvi»Mgo, 

fiut Dmko hnd other enrmiiMi to coiiqii^^r or escnp^.^ 
Ikr moTtfT foriBfedAble iliari thpne h;irlumaiiis bikI ifi-tidioiiH 
pfvctieci to i>bvi&to. mure uriful und duitgi^nius ikiii th^ 
■nbiuhc*^ llw Indijirji; for in thU pl«cc nnv laid opeti 
a dcwgn formed by ono of thn g;onclr-aion of tbo Dcci, not 
oolj U> dfifent ihe voyngn, but lo murder tlie f^enoral. 

Thu traoiiuetion U related in uo obncure 4nd confueifd ii 
B«itt*Tr Ibul il b diffii^tjlt to form iiny jnxlgmrnt upon It. 
The writer vbij givcfi tlii? lurgi^itt ju'comtl uf it, ba,!* rtup- 
IMtrunl Uir muuc uf thi.' tniuioul, iihit:b wr» learn, from n 
more Huccinct nArmtivo, publi&hpd in a i:i>llc«tion at tra* cla 
utMX that tunc, to buvc been Tboina* Ootighlio. What 
were hh indQcemrmls to attempt (be deetruetiou of hit* 
leader, and the ruin of ihe expeditioo, or whut were hi* 
litfWft, if hii dtfiigii h^l iiii<:i:4<4?dt4d, what invmums ho IvkJ 
bitiierlo talcrn, «hom h<- Imd <<ndrjtvoun>id lo cenupi, witb 
what urls, or »iiiil &uoc<!m, «re ore riowltere htld. 

Tlie |dot. us the niuTa1i<io a$jiiirt;!i nx. wua tiud before 
ditir dci>«rture from Kii^iaod» and discoTcred, in i(§ whole 
esctOlUi le I>r.kke bunaeLf, in his giird«» at Plymonlb, who, 
nevenbetettf. uot only euterlAiii«d the per«ea m acciueU, 
HI one of his r4>n]pany, hue thiit writer virry particilUrtj 
r«tote«, treated liim with rems^rkablA kindiiftu urd n*^trd, 
fenlliti^ bim ulwuyH lU hit own tublt?, niid li>d;;i'd hJm ijj lb« 
sUD<; ciLbiii Willi himself* Nor did ever hr tlbcoter tbo 
kA«l fiupieioo of hi^ inleutionB, till lliey arrived at thi« 
plaieOi btil Appeared, by the utithoHly with wliieb bo iH' 
*e«lo{l hiiR, to consider him, an one to whom, in hU ib- 
seoco, bo eotild inotd aecttrely intrust the diroclion of Im 
affiiirs. At k-o|;[h, in UiU remoU? eoraer of the world, lie 
Couod out H drvigri tormt'il u^AiiiHl hit life, i^uUrd together 
all hJM oAlceiM, bbd liefore them Ihrr cridenet on whldi 
bo gTeaaded the accvimlioii, and «ummoued tJie erimiiml, 

rho, full of uU the borroun of i^ujlt, and coiifouoded nl so 


clear a detectioa of his whole scheme, immediately con- 
fessed hJH Grimes^ and acknowledged himself unworthy of 
longer life ; upon which the whole assembly, consisting 
of thirty persons, after having* considered the affair with 
the attention which it required, and heard all that coold 
be urged in ehteuuution of his ofience, unanimously signed 
the sentence by which ho was condemned to suffer death- 
Drake, however, unwilling^ as it seemed, to proceed to 
extreme severities, offered him lits choice, either of being 
executed on the island, or set ashore on the mainland, or 
being sent to England to be tried before the council i of 
which, after a day's consideration, he chose the first, al- 
leging the Improbability of persuading any to leave the 
expedition, for the sake of transporting a criminal to 
England, and the danger of his future state among f avages 
and infidels. His choice, I believe, few will approve: to 
be set ashore on the mainland, was, indeed, only to be 
executed in a different manner ; for what mercy could be 
expected from tlie natives so incensed, but the most cruel 
and lingering death I But why he should not rather have 
requested to be sent to Englandfit is not so easy to conceive. 
In so Jong a vojrage he might have found a thousand op- 
portunities of escaping, perhaps with the counivance of 
his keepers, whose resentment must probably in time 
have given way to compassion, or, at least, by their neg- 
ligence, as it is easy to believe they would, in times of ease 
and refreshment, have remitted their vigilance ; at least 
he would have gained longer life ; and, to make death 
desirable, seems not one of the effects of guilt. However, 
he was, as it is related, obstinately deaf to all persuasions, 
and, adhering to his first choice^ after having received 
the communion, and dined cheerfully with the general, 
was executed in the afternoon, with many proofs of re- 
morse, but none of fear. 

How fur it is probable that Drake, after having been 
acquainted with this man's designs, should admit him into 
his fieet, and t^ferwards caress, respect, and trust him; 
or that Doughtie, who is represented as a man of eminent 


flbSni]«*fl. flhould tfiig't^ in 4» [oit^ und bjixnrrlotif n vojr&f^, 
wilh riu otJii-r view lliun Ibkl nf ifrf^Hlin^ »( : H left lu tlio 
iJctcrmirwIioD of iJir rf^adcr. Wbal ilm>niH bti i^imlrl Imv « 
form^. Willi anv Ii0|>e '>f *iicceM. or 1r whflt »irtiou*> *ur' 
l)i> of ilr-uUj, ho cowltl imvt prwcodcJ wiiiiout ati:i>m- 
pliee^ for no&o nro menti^nrd, i« efjuuIlT dtflicult to tma- 
giii0< X«r, on th^ othor h^nd. thou^-li Ihr obtrurity of 
the acconnf, and iJi^ remote^ pWc chofirri for thp dinroverv 
of thJK vicird prpj«cU nmni tn givr* foiue reason for »iu- 
[ikiufi. doea there ap^icar ari> ttrmpUlW. rtuni RJlhcsr 
hofHr, f^'ur, (JT in(«r«Al. tliAl mij^hl mducc Orakr, or iuiy 
dMnmnndor in his j*tate» 1o put to death on innocent mao 
upon fi»lH» proinnc4^A. 

After the exeoulLuu of lliii inaa, the wbolo oooipuny, 
Aitbor convirici^d of llio justice of tho procroding. or aw«d 
b^ llie i^vpril), ajipljprl ihrrniHvt'n. wilhiiiif uiiv mtinnun, 
ur 4p|>enru[iui- of t1i?to(inleiil, iv iIit? pruirtuliuii of th<< 
voyttgir ; iind^ LiiTin;|( broki^u up anolTirT vi-Aficl, tiud ri^diK^^d 
tlie uMoibcr of tbcir abips to thrc^^, they k^fl the port, adiI, 
om A«)[n»t tht^ SOth. coleruU the itrojla of Moffvllaii. in 
vhiob Iko^ atmg^lcd with oontmn' winds, und the vnrioun 
4Uog«nt lo which the intvicoc}' of that uitdinf; poaiago 
vxpoaed them, tilt nighi^ nnd (hen eul^rrt'd a more open 
■e«, ill wliioh ib»y dLHL-4j\eiT(l mi i.HTuml with u huniin^ 
mountain. On tlii. IMih IIkt^ fdl in with thrrr mtar i»* 
laiicUr lo whkh Drake ^ro nam^ii, und. hindiu^ to taLo 
povMiasioD of them in the name of h\» fiOToroign. found ui 
llio [nr^st BO prodi^oiiH n rumbor of birdi, thut tltoy 
killed three ihovicirind of ibem in ono day. Tlu« bird, of 
vbicb Ihey knew not the namet was «onie«hn1 leu than n 
wilfl gtjoie, without frulherK, mid <:overi<d witti u Lm<l uf 
dodift, L;italjle 1u fly i>r tIh*-- from the ground, hut c^puhlu 
ni nuiuiii; und siwimjnitig with aiuafiiag celerity; they 
ft-ed on the aco. aud como to land only lo roat at oiglil. 
Of Iny tiicir 6(tgSi wbicb (key dopoait in boli-a tike tboae of 

From tl]OM» islands lo th« aotitb ttn. the ttmJT b^cooea 
very rrooked i^ud narrow, ao tbat aonelinuiM, by tiie iii4£r- 


position of headlands, the passa^ seems sbat up, and Ibe 
voyage entirely stopped. To double these capes is very 
difficult, OD account of the frequent alterations to be mode 
in the course. There are^ indeed, as Magellan observes, 
many harbours, but in most of them no bottom is to be 

The land, on both sides, rises into innumerable moun- 
tains; the tops of them are encircled with clouds and va- 
pours, which, being congealedt fall down in snow, and in- 
crease their height by hardening into ice, which is never 
dissolved; hut the valleys are, nevertheless, green, fniil' 
ful, and pleasant. 

Here Drake, Ending the strait, in appearance, shut npi 
went in his hoat to make further discoveries; and havinf 
found a passage towards the north, was returning to hii 
ships ; hut curiosity soon prevailed upon him to stop^fbr 
the sake of observing a canoe or boat, with several natives 
of the country in it. He could not, at a distance, foibear 
admirmg the form of this little vessel, which seemed in- 
clining to a semicircle, the stem and prow slnnding ap, 
and the body sinking inward; but much greater was lui 
wonder, when, upon a nearer inspection, he found it made 
only of the barks of trees, sewed together with thongs of 
sealskin, so artificially, that scarcely any water entered 
(he seams. The people were well shaped and ptunted, 
like those which have been already described. On Um 
land they had a hut built with poles, and cwvered wiA 
skins, io which they had water- vessels, and other utensils, 
made likewise of the barks of trees- 

Among these people they had an opportunity of re* 
marking, what is frequently observable in savage coan- 
Iries, how natural sagacity and unwearied industry may 
supply the want of such manufactures or natural produc- 
tions, as appear to us absolutely necessary for the support 
of life. The inhabitants of these islands are wholly stran- 
gers to iron and its use, hut, instead of it, make use of the 
shell of a muscle of prodigious size, found upon their 
coasts ; this they grind upon a stone to an edge» which is 

M fim ind ralid, that iif?irher wood nor sIoim ii ftbl» ti> 
mitt ft. 

SrptpmlirrO,lKi*y rnfrrt'H i\n- grnal tfiiith m*ii, nti vrhirli 
fio Eiitj^lihli vc-s^l Lad ctrr bi'cn untigntud before-, ntid 
|>ro|H)aeii lo Lavtr ilirticlcil tlieir courst* tuu^rds tbe litif', 
llul tbcir mt'o, wbo bad vuftered by thu •Hjvcrity of lLc< 
cliRUilif, mr|{lil rc(^c>vcr ihuir ftreiiKll* in ^ wm-mi^r Intiiude. 
Dut ibi<ir dcAignn wori* tiiMri't^ fotmod, btfori* llioy vrifre 
I Ihifttraied ; for, uii Sept, 7, after an c^i^lipw of lh« mooti, 
a Morm ariwe, no vlnU'iiL lliat il leA tbnii lillle linjrni of 
■UfTJiin^ il; tmr wiih it-i fury ah diradHil a* il^ fxiutiiiii- 
MDCo; for Lt La»tcJ. wilii lUtlc iiiLcrmiaaion, till October Stiw 
ftfly-two <l4iVFi. ditririH: v/UicU timo tti^y wero toAaed iuoott^ 
Bdnlly from onii pari of tht^ occun 1o unutUvr, witliout any 
I power of Kprondiniif iltvir fuuls. or tying upon thoir imchont, 
nmiilvt ihelvittg iihore.4, ^siifered nicki. und unkriown i^- 
lajitts, iba ttfmppi^f roiiliiitjtilly nuriu^, ±iiid lli4< wiivn 
diubiD^ ovrr ilirm. 

Ilk \\i\f. fiortu, on lit*? WiU of S^plomWr, ihe Marl^ld. 
c<iiuiiutiidt-d b^ cupluiii TliomiLip yt*%* M^puruUcL Irum ibL-m- 
On iLo 7Ui of October, huvinp; onbsrcd a hikrbour, where 
tboy hoped for ftomtr iiitrrmUkion of tlwir fdtipKw, thoy 
worn, ni a fi^w hoiir«, forced out to ^ea by a tioIodI g'liat, 
which broko ihe cnble, m wbicb time they loHt sight of ih*^ 
Elijuibrth, tlir ticrjidnjimt, %lia>rr i^rcv, tM wua afii^rwutdn 
ducoicTcd, wearied viitit labour, nnd dUcourugrd by iJic 
J pretp«ol of falxiro dAaj^r», recovered the iUmx^ on tbo 
' nest diiy. and, relunim}; ty the; aanie pns^a!^ thrgu^b 
which fbey come, inikd «lon^ the ooDtit of ItruMU, aemI 
on thp 2nil of iuij^p in tlie^ yonr folLoniiJg, Mrrivod ni 

l-'rom ih't* hn; tfaoy mtarv driven HOUtbward lo fiAy-five 
degrees. wlK^rv, aoioug AOLQctalaiulA. they stayed two day*, 
lo the gyty^i refrcflEunocrl of tho crow; but. boiti;; osttin 
CdtcocI iati> ihe mmo scu, thoy wer<? loca^d bTjou! with |>i'ff- 
petottl expnctBtioii of perishing, tin. tioon alW, t)^y aptm 
^jgm^ to ftucbor n^ar tlie kani^ plaoe, vrhem thifv fouod ltu> 
f^BlireH, wluoui the coikliiniancL* of die »tomi had probably 


silt l'RAN€lli UKIKU, 


■fidor'^d \f> i^qiul (liKr.rc!)f:t. rnmlng from one inland 
Qlht^r. uiiJ firuviiliiig llio lAxi^^hdnc?* v( lifr, 

Tl M, |»tTrliupEi, a jiisl obaerrulion* Uial, with rrgan] 
oiitwonl ciri^iimfltunroti, liappin^M uml miiior^ iiTc eqiialU 
ililt'uNod tbroiigb Jill et>lif« of hiini^n lifo. In cmliateil 
(-ountri^ft, wbi-re r«ffular policies bine seeured thtt neers- 
uri^v (tflift*, flmbilion, nv^nnt^^, imd luxurr, find ihc nkid 
at leisure for their r^^ripdnn, iind «oor> <<ngnge h in n«K 
|iunmiU; iiumtiilv tliul ah? tu be? mmud on hy mcaasml 
liibour, and, wWthrr mm or shi^ccmTu]. produce anLictj 
And couU'Tition. AiiioTie; saiil^o notions, ixntiginof^ «r«iiu 
find, iDdc-ed, no place; but tht^T Mnsn^ih is eibtitutcd b; 
n(TC(TfwuT5 toils, ami Ihcir piuuivrift ^ij^tUicd not by coati^ft* 
About fiuperiority, AlTlHpNfe, or prorcd^ncts hut t_v p«f- 
peliial onre for the present da^, and bjr fear ofp^shi 
for wdiit iif fuui). 

BtJl lor t.ur.h r^tk1^ticlnJ( aa tlm^ ibrj bad no timr; 
hniing ftpcnt tbrcc dajs in aiipplyitifi:tlu:nM;lvc> ¥rilti m 
and wAtor, tlicy were, l>ir a new stonn, drivi>ii to lln? bili- 
tuUu of lifty-nix clofcr«^ca, wIippo tbi'V l^ebtld tlie (??ilrciiiP 
tie« oftlic Amohcan eou^t, und lliv i!ouI1ut>nor of tbo 
liiittit'k 11 nil KotiThcTTt ocean. 

I IrrvT llit'i urrived un Ibv 28tb of Oclolier, and. mt 
won<bKt>N^d wtlfi fFiiMiigbtof n tmlm »f^a, hiiTing*, for uln 
two monlhii, cnditrcd flnob a &torm as no IraTollvT Ii4ui flii 
OQ ocoount of. iirt<L ttucii ojt, iji thfil puf i of tliu world, liiongb 
ncoiutomt-d to hurricunt'tt, they were before iuuw| 

On ihf^ 30t.h of October, tbey aieert^d uu^ay tuw^rdi 
pUre appointed for tbn ntiidf k\oue of ihr fieri, vbirh 
in tUirly dr^rc^i^s ; and, on tlini nexl day, di&co^^rvd c 
ulnndf, 00 well Htocked wjtlj fowU. ibat ihey >icluaD 
thoir »bipa wilb Ibein, and tbcQ »dcd fonmrd niodif 
coaat of IVru, till they v-aoic to ibirty'^ovro debtee*, 
lindiu^ nviibrr of UieJr ftlup», nor Any conreriiOB 
they come to ttttohor. November ibe ^b. nt Uuolka, an 
ivJoiid iritiabiit^d by xuirh Tndtiui«, as tlii? crue^lty of 
Sp*ni»b €onqui-ror5 had drivc^iL frojn Uu- rontinciiU lo w. 

am rKAKcis dbakv. 


ilipy nftplioJ for valcr uiiJ provinmin. clTorJnfif lliom, in re- 
InvD, 9ii«h (binici um thcv jn)[igin<.<(l iitvAl likely to pleMo 
IbctD. Thr IndiELDM iwcTni^d willine in lr4tfLi-k, an<L huvioir 
prrM^nt^d ihrm wifh friiifv, niitl l^o Tul tltrj'|i. voiild [lAve 
i^buwtivi llieui ti i^krt' u'fiLther tliL'y sliottliL coiue fnr vuler 

liuidcd wllii iLrir wrtlnf-vc'*d», aa\^ scni two men ftfrwanJ 
U»vftriJ« the f»inoi^ n|>pomlc(l, vho, about tdi? iniddk uf Uii; 
wAy, w«ro fluddouly atljiokeU by th*]^ Iitduinfl, and immis 
<U;ildy *liiiii- Nor uctp ihv rtHtl of llu* pompiinv tniX t4 
diitignr; for Whind tlto ro?k» w^w lod^^^d wi aiub^ftb vf 
Hvfi lititidfed iiit-n, ivfin, fttnrling il)> fruni tlieir rofri-Hl, du. 
cfaMTK*^ Ihi^r nimwA into thr wllli iiirh di*xtiTnty. 
UmI every unc of the crew wu^ woniidnJ bv ibcnj, Uio sea 
b^in^ then bl^b, aud hinUchiiK thuQi frtim eiUi«r ri^lmnf; 
or iBiiLiri;; use vf tbi'ir ueapouK^ JJruLo bimsvU' r'^ccivod 
an urruv uodrr bin ry(^. wbioJi |iit'rood him nlmt^Kt r> tli«» 
brmin^ pnd anolber in bi» bc^d. Tbe <]Hiig«r of ibew 
wtoiiiiiU »ji<i iTiiirb iiii'reii-ied by tbe jibiierit'r of llirfr iiiir- 
^1*1111. «bri w^i; ill iJir iK'i-iidmiriil» tf> ibnl thi*y \uu\ none 
to JtMiti Ificm but a bu^, ftbusti a^t? djd tiu( Adjiiil v( uiticii 
enporicncr* or nkiti . \ri •%.> mnrb wirt' Uioy tavDiirrd b^ 
prDvidi.-oor. ihnl thcj nil rccovcrcri- 

K« roASon cotild be (uaignod for whkb tbe liidiaikK 
itf»cL fb^m ^ki1l) rio runouK u tpihl uf iJiallgnilT. 
It ibt-y nilMouL (b«m for SpuniurrU^ whost Cfweltiw 
ntght t*rry Tmwn»Kly inriie ihpm to rrvvngi*, wbina tJii?y 
bod driicn b_v iucfviuiil |>t-rari-ii[ioii from tbuir L^i^iiutr}, 
«aa1in|^ijiimi<n!M:trnrtAoriimd by muMncrt' anddeva-iLttlioii. 

On Xhe uAcrnooii af thr luimr doy, (licy »rl mil. und, on 
iIh* ^tb of Novrmbor, droppoil imi^hor in Fhilip* btfy, 
ttbvrv their boii1« b^vini; broEi sent out to diocovrr lli« 
MMflolfjr returned with an Indian in bu caoae. whom thny 
biid nilvrri-pirJ, lli:' wnn ol'n grarrfal lUtan-. drtrHsed 
in « vbik- luai vr );i>wt[> n-ui-bin^ nlnioHl tu h» knct'^t. vrry 
miUL bumblv, and d<>cil<T, Kiicb as. perhaps* were ail the 
likdiani, till the Spauiuids Uiirgbt ibvm mcnf^v, Iretichcryi 
•Ml cnieltj . 


em fRAtiCm URAKIt. 

Tikis Itittinn. tiavinj^ been kindiv tresl^d, wiu du 

iDukr hTiii iindrrtl^inil. whiit tliey I'liii-fly wunlcil, ami wl 
iIk_> vt-rt- uilliu^ to give ill rctLirn, Dmkc ordciitif^ hi» bo«r 
lu iiU4!ui) bim in bin canoo, ftuJ (o k\ Uid aoTc on ll>e laiiit 

When he wiia luhoro. lio< direcled thvm (o vniil tilL hU 
rrliim, nml merlin^ flomn of hia roDdfrrmrn, (ciivo tiiC-m 
biicb on aoooiiTii of biH rp<:f^piion, that, wilhin a fev hovH. 
«et«rfll (>f tliem re^inlred wifh him to (he b<ial viiL famh. 
'*KfP*r iinti jt ]io^, and with tbi-in iinr <if tJ»-ir r^pliiinn, wKp 
willingly i-Ajno Ln[i>th(f IkmiI^ lui') tlchirvcl t<» br convo^vW^ 
by tlw Eij^lbli to the ship, 

Hy thh mnn Mrnkr mu inrormod, tbttt no ftuppllei 
ti> be cspcctod Lt'Tc, but thnt aonlbword, in m |ilieo 
tvhich be o^^red to be bis pilot, tb«re was gr&^i pl«i 
ThU [iTo]>u!tdI WLU aei*i^{>(t<l, ntiA, on tbe Alb of D<*c«s1 
itndrr ihv dircclion uf ihi* gnod'haUirrd liidmii, tbi^y cai 
lo sinchor in ibe liurlmiir catlfd, by ibr SpaiiunJn, V^j 
r^!»u, ntar llir town ofSt- Jomi'fl ofCMuli, wbcre tbc^v 
no! only with nuflicicnl »tOTcs of provision, and witb di 
bou5c« f»]l of tht^ win<'a of Cbili, but wilh n iiu^ colled cbe 
CaptAin of Murul, mbly bulon. buviiif;, toi^f^^tlirr ^Ih lorgt 
c|uaiitiiiv« of the Hunuf win<f«, fiomo of Uic fiiir gold of Bdd- 
divin, luid a f^rfnt cron^ of B^old set with emoratdft* 

Huvin^ Tipf>fit lhriM< duyM tii Kluiut^ ibi^Ir Klitp> vilb dl 
klndit of proviHioM in ibr »limud plr-iilv. Ihtty i)<'p»ru-d^ dad 
Inndc'J ibcir Indian pilot wlicrc they finl received bis. 
nHcr haTing rewarded bim oittoh above bb cxpectabosft <ff 

Thfiy bud now little othor nnvicty than for their fn<^« 
who had htM^n «^pHralojl from ihem, und whom 1]i«y nam 
dutermint^d to atH'k ; but ronhidrrJJi^ tlmt, by rotrriof 
am^ry enrrk and hiirbonr wirb ihcir ship, ihfty etpomd 
IhemAclves to tiar^rce^^wi^ ddN^iT?^, ^nd lha< llxfir but 
would not L-&ntuiii an<b u iiumbrr ivt mifcht defcBd ihem- 
u^lvea iif*ttintil fbe Sjpnniiud)^. ihcy dTrtiNminod to ftlatiiM 
iheif ftbip at fttimo pinrc, wljcro tbry mif^t eoiumodioasly 
build ii. pinnaco. which, being of light hardcOr might «aaly 

ut wfti-^n- ihv Khif> Will 111 dmiflniT of btirift Alriindcd. tiad^ 

tLt- »tiuie (i(Ut\ lui^ht I'Anjr n »ui]icicnt tWfc to ra^ul ibc 
cneiDjr. and oJTDnl better accijmnkodiUiou tb&u coultl be 
explored in 1li« boLit. 

To iluii end, on tho U)l[i of Doci.*mlM.T, tli^y vuloretl a 
bay nenr Cippo, a town inhabited by Spnnmrdit. whu, diit- 
r<nifTUi^ llkcni, iiiiiiit'driifeK Utut'd uiil, l<> iIjo ntim}jt-r <if 
A hundred borArinf ii> vitli iibtiul lw» liujuirfd ituk<'d Iti> 
dian» ruDnin^ bjr iWir aidi'i. The En^lUh, observing thck 
approotlip rcCiroJ to tliotr boftt, wltboul any Iims, 4>xc'i.'pt of 
one mail, whom no poraua^iiouA or t:rttreatkv4 cuuJd uiovv to 
retire iiitli iku rp*t. and wUo, ib^jn^fons m^us cbot by tJiu 
8pufiUrd«. Mbo, rxulIitiH: iii thi^ %'ictory, cnmni^ndi»d the 
ImliiinA 1o (Iniw ftir ilriid ntrttuu from the rork on wliicli 
Im: ft-tl, rtud, tu tbu si^bl (if iJiv Kii|^ti-tJt, bKbriultTd it, lhi*u 
cut qITHic n](ht hand, and tore out the heart, which they 
carried uvny, bftvin^ lint eommandcd the Ifidiujia to shoot 
their lUTows *i[l ov<Tr llie bwly. Th« urrow* of (lie lutluui* 
mt»r& oiiMtti of f^FQi^n wood, for iht? tmmedmto tL*rvico oflho 
d*y ; tbo Spaninrds, with tho fcur thul alwutx haraMea op- 
|)n<uorSr for1>iddlrtj|f lh«<Ri 1o have any veapona, wbt*n iht^y 
do out WAiU chi-ir |irrxrnt axKisttnrf . 

lA^ying thU ijIaov, thry kouii fo^ud a hurbaur inortr m^^ 
euro and couvculi-nl, NvbiTC Ibv^y buill thtrir pliiQuce, in 
which l>riiko wi^ol (o Aei-k iux eum|>auioiiM ; but, lindinf^ tlio 
wjnd cuntnu-y. ht? nui i>bli((i'd to n.-lurti in two day». 

Leaving Ihifl plw^t^ lo^sn aftirr, thoy caik-d itlori^ the coa^t 
in &^uf4:h of fn^iU waier, And landing at Tnrnpocst, they 
funnd u 8|iimiurd ;i.>dt-i^|). with mIv^t barn Wm^ by liitn. Ut 
thi- valuo of three tliniMami dncuUji: not nil the iunullA 
wlitoh tliey had received from hu conntrymco could pr<>- 
\uLe ihoiu to oftW any violuuee lo iua pf<r»i>n, and, ihcro' 
fore, Ihfy eumud uway bin treutture, Milhout doiDg liiia 
any further harm. 

|j<kndin^ in aootluT placp. they found n Spaniard driving 
«-igbt Fefuviiin ^heep. which are llie heAfrl> of bnrde-n in 
thai uuLiQlry, eiu:h hnien witli ii iundivd pujuds weight of 
wlrcr, which they seized, likewi^e^ and AroMj to thvir boat?. 



Farther &\oag the coast lay some IndiaD towDs, from 
which the lohabitaDtB repaired to the ship, on floats made 
of sealskins, blown full of wind, two of which tbey-tet«i 
together, and, silting betweeD them, row with great swift- 
ness, and carry considerable bordeus. They ver^^ readily 
traded for glass and such trifles, with which the old and 
the young seemed equ&lly delig-hled. 

Arriving at Monnorena, on the 26tb of Janaary, Drak« 
invited the Spaniards to trafBck with him, whieh they 
agreed to, and supplied hint with necessariea, aelling to 
Mm, among other provisions, some of those sheep which 
have been mentioned, whose bulk ia equal to that of a 
cow, and whose strength is such, that one of them can 
carry three tall men upon his back ; their necks are like a 
camel^s, and (heir heads like those of our sheep. Tbey 
are the most useful animals of this country, not only a^rd- 
ing excellent fleeces aad wholesome flesh, but serving as 
carriages over rocks and mountains, where no other beast 
can travel, for their foot is of a peculiar form, which enables 
them to tread firm in the most steep and slippery places. 

On all this coast, the whole soil is so impregnated with 
silver, that Ave ounces muy be separated from a hundxed 
pound weight of common earth. 

Still coasting, in hopes of meeting their friends, they 
anchored, on the 7th of February, before Aria, where they 
took two barks, with about eight hundred ponnd weight of 
silver, and, pursuing their course, seized anotber vessel, 
laden with linens. 

On the Idtfa of February, 1578, they arrived at lima, 
aiid entered the harbour without resistance, though tbir^ 
■hips were stationed there, of which seventeen were 
equipped for their voyage, and many of them are rvpie- 
seated in the narrative as vessels of considerable force; 
so that Ibeir security seems to have consisted, not in their 
strength, but in their reputation, which had so iDlimidated 
the Spaniards, that the sight of their own superiority could 
not rouse them to opposition. Instances of such panick 
terrours are to he met with in other relations \ but as they 



Um nott part, i^iilrkly <tHai]kut^(l l)\^ Tea«o» iind 
I wine lonimatkd^r uill mr^rlj fouud h\y liopps 
oC EiMTCEtWi nti fliinii ; mid, prrhupH. oh ihti ny?rH«ioti, llie 
SpHttiMnN ii^drct^fv dt'Mrrte a irevrrrr cciiavrti fur llir^lr 
ffOwdict. llidiL DrukiT for bin trmunly. 

In orto of these shipi^ thc> found ^ftrcn himdrcd bitni of 
silver; in eiiotli4*r o cli€»t *>f moiioy ; nn J v<<r^ r'tch ludfujf 
in nianjof Uie r^il. oL'wbii^h theSpatuunls fumt-ly Ruirrrcd 
diem U> carry llie lacifl valuut>le purt onuvr ond wonld havtf 
p^'fRiitliv] thrm lui 1i<i« jx^rrHhl)^ tn hnni thrir Hhip« ; but 
HrHkit nnvtr ieijuK- w/ir uiiii a fipirit itfcriifTJCj or rr-vi-n^*, 
OT cmritf J hoHtilidt'H furtber iban vrts» ii«i:CA9;iry Tnr JiU mrn 
odvantiifcc or dcfV^ncc. 

Tbcy ^t soil tLc ticxl morning tovanln Punnirta, in qui-sl 
«f Uie Cafla Fin>i-o, a very rich ebip, which bad sailed Jour- 
K'^'n ituyi before, bound ihitlier Irom IJma, ^hicli tbev 
ovrribok, on tin' lil of Mnrrii, in*«r i^sipr Fnini-hL-o, and, 
fcoardiii^ it, found not only ti [|UftnTi(y aFjt-wt-h^ mid twelve* 
ch»tjt »r tya}% of |)hite, but i?i}chty pmntdK wrighr of gold, 
and lwcnl)-i>ix t^na uf uncoined hJIvvi, with pit.M:r-i of 
vroQghL pTate lo u ^vut value. lu uoliLdiii^ lliia prixc 
|Im7 vpeiit six days, and ihon, di«m]?uiiiff thv £>pnDiimis, 
«tood olF lo xoa. 

Being now siilTioioiitly p-nrirhed, Hud liAving \m\ nil hopea 
of tinilinj; llirir mmM^iiitev, mjd, pj^rhiifM, he^riintn^ to he 
infirtf-fl vilh thnt dt-jijrr ttf ran* and p1rra.<(utr, wbiih \% llm 
DatuTdl coiuK^uencc of wealth obtained by dati^rcra and 
I4ili^c3> thi'^ be^D to consult nbout their Tctaro home, 
iwdft ni pumnniKc of Drake;']; odvico, n^aolrcd lir»t lo Iind 
out aom4j conveDicDt hnrbour, wbore Ihey mi^ht supply 
tfi^mMflvex with wood iiud uuter, and tlieii endeavour to 
diNOvrr a pojtamgc froin the- Koiilh wra inti> ibo Atljuilick 
M«ui; • ducflvpry, which vnuhl not only t^nnblr tla-in to 
letuni home vilh Wan dani^t-r, and in a sUurtcr time, but 
lid much faciljtale the navi^tion in ihoAu parb oftltc 


For tbii parptxit! ihry bad roooQTCc to a port In the 
lilaod vf Cuiu^i, where thoj met vUfa filbp iH)od, and frc^b 


water ; aod, id their conne, took a ship, laden with tilk and 
liaeo, which was the last that they met with od the coast 
of America* - 

But heing desirous of storiog themseWes for a Iod^ course, 
thej touched, April the 15th, &t Guatulco» a Spaniiih island, 
where they supplied themselves with provisions, and aeUed 
a bushel of ryaU of silver. 

From Guatulco, which lies in 15 deg. 40 min. they stood 
out to sea, aud, without approaching auy laud, sailed for- 
ward, till, OQ the night following;, the 3rd of June, being 
then in the latitude of thirthy-eight degrees, they were 
suddenly benumbed with auch cold blasts, that they were 
scarcely able to handle the ropes. This cold increaaed 
upoD them, as they proceeded, to auch a degree, that the 
sailors were disconmged from mouuttog upon the deck; 
nor were the effects of the climate to be imputed to the 
warmth of the regions to which they had been lately ac- 
customed, for the ropes were stiff with frost, and the meat 
could scarcely be conveyed warm to the table. 

On June 17th, they came to anchor in 38 deg, 30 mia. 
when they saw the land naked, and the trees without 
leaves, and in a short time had opportunities of observing, 
that the natives of thut country were not less sensible of 
the cold than themselves; for the next day came a man 
rowing in his canoe towards the ship, and at a distance 
from it made a long oration, with very extraordinary gesti- 
culations, and groat appearance of vehemence, and, a Uttle 
time afterwards, made a second visit, in the same mauner, 
and then returning a third time, he presented them, after 
his hurnngue was finished, with a kind of crown of black 
feathers, such as their kings wear upon their heads, and a 
basket of rushes, filled with a particular herb, both which 
he fastened to a short stick, and threw into the boat ; nor 
could he be prevailed upon to receive any thing in return, 
thougli pushed towards him upon a board ; only he look 
up a hat, which was flung into the water. 

Three days ufterwards, their ship, having received some 
damage at sea, was brought nearer to land, that the lading 



rniirhtt>(i fHti^n &dU Ju order fu which, tht^ Knf^lish, «liri 
hti'l jioA* hiiinwil ni>l too iiogli^onily fo coiiimic tJirir livci^ 
to Uie mvrty of aara^ ndliuus, nised a kind nf foriiHcn* 
lion with stont-fi, aa<t hitill llirir trnfj* nifhirt il. All tbiji 
vroA not beheld h^ ihn inlial>iUnt>i witbout llie uiniusl <ii- 
X&taakMtmt, which incited tbvm to coni4> down in crowds 
to the c^mer, with no orh(?r view, ai h sppeur^d, llion to 
wonktp the new divLniti^'S iliuE bad «oiidcsc<»n(iod to louob 
upon tlw'ir rminiry^ 

Drake vas fdr froiii i^ouiilruaticiug iLeir trmmrB, or 
Isluog^ adviiuliA^'V of tlicir Heaknt^ns, lu injim? or mol<f«( 
Ih^ni; tind, thrrcfor<% huvinf; directed ihcm to Iny Euiile 
(Wir hoW8 fi»d BrroWE, he f^rc&riitod Ihrm with Unett, ujid 
other iieoe«rarie4, of which ht> ^ha^vd iht^jn di^ uk-. Tb(?y 
th^n n^ttinii^d ro ih«ir hiibliatioaft, about threo qtmrtora cf 
a milr rrnni ttm EtJgliih r^inp. vvhrrr Ibry mndo ittch 
loml Hrid tiolt'rit ciiitorif^H, ihivt tJiry wt^ri? hriird lit the 
^ngliali, who found that thtfv btill penutcd in tlioir tint 
lioiMf asd vrcro puyiuf; than llieir kind of mchuiclioly 


Two dayi aftenranlA they perceived tlio Approitch of a 

fw more niimeroiw vompauy. who «top|H*d ttl fbn top of a 

hill, which avi-rl<K>kt-d the Kii^hjdi xHiltmi'iil, whil<» one of 

thrm Biudtf « lofi^ omtion> At the riid of which all the a»- 

jtrmbly buwcfl (hrir bvdii^, aiHt prououij<cd thtr sjUohlc? 

oA, with li Holcmti lowr, us by woy of coiifirinulion of what 

hod hem mid by the orator, I'hpn the snon, hiving down 

Uieir howfl« and leuvmff the wom«n and childTcn on Uio 

lop of th«* hill, tunw douT) towurdi the teiiti, dnd iie«riDe>il 

IninKportml, in tliv highenl drgn-r, lit thi* kiniinc<-Ki of Iho 

goiiend, who rvvraved thi-ir gifL*. and lulmJUcd iLeiu to Ills 

prMencc. The vomoii ut a diitmict? app«ar«d »rnu-d with 

a hind of phrvunj, »u{ih la that of old umoni; tho pii|pinB iit 

I ftoaie of their reli;Hioii» ormnonirfi» tuid in lu)DOur» ni it 

I M€*ai«dt of iheir gaa^t'U, tore tiietr checks und hoaom» with 

ihelf uaiU, and llirew tfaenitcirea upon \h<^ 8tonc4 with 

^^ tiieir uiiked ttodicv. till iht'y wore rovrrcd with lilond, 

^H^ The^c cm*-] riie«, aind lulalakca honours, w^-re b> no 





agT«nabla to DrAlc. wliooir prailoiiiiiiinl MiDliWWb 
nttdmn qf piHv. uud, Uicrcforfr. not to BiJte that 
cniuiDal in htmiH-ir by ivs concurrrncei «liK:hi pcrhnpa, tg- 
iiorunce mi^t mnkc ^uiftlt^i! in ibvm, bu oriliirii bi« 
wliol« conpunv to fiUI i^ton tWir knrr«r lind, itUb llmir 
ryfi« lifEpd tip to heaven, that llip tavagpa might ohMtra 
Ihnl lUE<ir vnrRhip wim iiifdn<«&4-(l to a brinjf n^iiling iWrv* 
lliev «]l jjim^rl in pntyiif^ t[i4t rhU Intm^ltim itixl dtflwM 
|iRi>|)lt< niE^ht 111.' liTOugbt to ibc KiiowloJgc uf the trao fi> 
li^on, antJ tlw <loclnnf?ftof our bItTurd Suviuur; uHcr vhkh 
tiiej «ung p9i^m»i ji prrfnrmapce so plcuainc to lliccr wtlil 
nudienouttbaUinall their vUitt, Ibrt ^pn^tmlly tinti>cco«tr4 
Ibriii «ilb n r<«im>*l timt they uould tiiiifi-. Tbey theo re* 
tUHK^d all lh<} pnTfiL'ntii wlikh iboy find received, udiI re* 

Tbi^e iluya aftt-r Iliir>. ou June 25. 15H>, our ft^^ihttuI 
roceivffd two jind^iA^ttdniirA from tbc biuh, or kiiiff of ih« 
country, who, intending to viail the cnmp* required tkit 
■nine token m^hi bo sent bim oT rricndship nnd pcacfi 
tlii* rcqurftt vru> rt^iidtly compliL^d wirli, iind «oon oHcf 
rnniiiT Ibo ktnp, utttMtdrd by u gtmrd of uboal n kufidtnd 
tflll mrn, nnd pn<rf-drd by hii tiflirifr cif Uiitp, kIio carried < 
■CBptre umtli' of bbirli vuuil. sdLinml villi cbinii9i>f n kind 
of bviir or horn, wliieh »nt mnriit of ihi^ higb4?«t boiwo 
amtJiifj: ibem, und buvjii);^ (wo L-.n>wn4. tniidc na bHorcr, with 
fcallitrrit fnntriK'd to il. wilfi li bn^ cf (be name bcxli, which 
ivDA prcj«:nlcd CO Drake at bi» tir«1 nrrivttl. 

Behind hitu tttut the kiii|( himt^lf, drM«^ in a coal tf 
t'ony-skin^, wirh u cuiil, uc^vt^n with r<<Jt(ierv, upoti hi« 
ht-nd, un urntimfni «n puif h in i^limniiDii ihrre, Ihul iioivi- 
but tbr doiTiPKiick» of tht* king are attawt>d to wemr il ; \m 
ailrndautH folJoired Eiicn, ndonifMl noHy in the aupic mvii' 
aer; ttnd fif>«r Chcm came the oonimon people, wilh b«t- 
krb piaitod no nrlifictully that iJicy bold wntvr. In vkith, 
by way nriLtimlico, llioy brought root* and Mu 

Drnk»\ nof lulled into «uciirtty, niii^«4l liui moo in ofdei 
o( batlle, arid umti^l Ihrir nppronck, who, irnming omivr, 
tlood »lill, wbiii^ (he r^cepire-beariT made an orslion, nt Iht- 

^m |r]iAKi:i]4 nxA&B. 


)^itxim of which tliry nfpin t^nmr forwnril to ihe fool 
I- hill, and [b^n the *t}t'\ttrt:''hfaTVT Wi^n ii Kung'^ 
wUWh he ii[trcini|i»niril with u iliuii:*?, iti hiith whit^h the 
men joim-d, hut tho women ilanccd without siugiii^. 

DruLi' uuw. fljalruatiu;* th^m no Ioniser. admittt?(] tlicm 
inlo kid fortilioatiDn, where Lb«*j conlinued lijcir $ottg and 
cUil4)D n short limn; nn<l Ihrn bptli thn king, and K>inc 
otben of the com^aity, mndii long hjininguoA, in vhi<^h il 
skpj»ear«d, hy ihe rest of Ih^ir belifliiour, (hat (hey tn- 
tTmLeil him to ^ir^i^'pt cjf llu^ir cmiuiuy, anil to tukr^ the 
govomini^iit tS it into hij awn haiiiU ; for tfll■^ Ltn^, vtlh 
the apparent ca[icuiTeiic« of lUr roAi, placed the crown 
upoD his houd, f^f^c'd him ^Uh tho olmiuH and other nigtis 
of uuliiuriiy. ii»d suluied hiui wilh flic tatir uf hioh. 

The kinf^ont thus offered, though of no farther vtttue 
lo him than lu ir funiiihed him wilb {irpsenl nereMnriei^ 
l>r^<- ihoiitfhl it noi prndrnt to r^'fiiii-; ;ind. Iheitfun*, 
l<Hik po^iofAton of it in Ihr munc; of t^ucrii Kliznhrlh, iii»l 
without ardeiil visUira. tbit thii ucqui^itiou uilfrLt iutvv 
hcci) ufuse to hia TUitivis i:ounU>, mid Ihul to mild und to- 
Qooent n pnoplt^ niijfht have bocn united to the church of 

The kinj^dodn bein^ thm oetiiigned, nud the jfnuid sffkir 
al an end, the cunmoii ptopli? luH thi^ir king und hin de- 
mvstickH with THnkfr. niid diHprrhr-d th^-mMtUeit awr Ihe 
Ciiin|i; Bad when ihey ftaw any ontr that pk4i»cd (hem by 
hU npp«amQc« more than th« risit, tbr^ tore their ficsh. 
and TiMttcd thi-ir outoriei nit before, in token of reverence 
and odminiioD. 

They tben protreeded to »bow tbeni tlicir v-outida and 
'dlsteusev, in bofHv of n mir^aLtloiiK luid in«tuiJlan<'oii£ eijre; 
to KhiLdi Hw Knglifih. lo bnii^ni and iindi^civc Ibein ut the 
sauic lime, npfbej auL.h nrnieLlicb lui tbcy used od the like 

Tbey were now f^^wu contident nnd fumdiari and cMne 
down to tho aiunp evurjf day, repi^uiiiij^ ibeir c^^rvmonSn 
and cnerificeit, till ihey were more fully inforincd how <lit- 
Agrveable ihey wr'n.' to ibbie wtiuw fuTotir iho^' wctrfi (O 


fltudioQg of obtaining : they thea risited them without ado- 
ratioD, iodeed, but with a cnrioiily eo ardent, that it left 
them DO leisure to proTtde the necemaaim of Hfo. witk. 
which the Eoglish were, therefore, obliged to supply them. 

They had then sufficient opportunity to remark the ctu- 
toms and dispositions of these new allies, whom tbey fonnd 
tractable and beneToleat, strong of body, far beyond the 
English, vet anfumished with weapons, either for assanlt 
or defence, their bows being too weak for any tbiog but 
sport. Their dexterity in taking fish was such, that, if 
Ihe3r saw them so near the shore that they conld oome to 
tbem without swimming, they never missed them. 

The same curiosity that bad brought them in such crowds, 
to the shore, now induced Drake, and some of his company, 
to travel up into the country, which they found, at some 
distance from the coast, very fmilful, filled with lai^ 
deer, and abounding with a peculiar kind of conies, 
smaller than ours, with tails like that of a rat, and paws, 
snob as those of a mole ; they have bags under their chin, 
in which Uiey carrj provisions to their young. 

The houses of the inhabitants are round holes dug in the 
ground, from the brink of which they raise rafters, or piles, 
shelving towards the middle, where they all meet, and are 
crammed together ; they lie upon rushes, with the fire ia 
the midst, and let the smoLe fly out at the door. 

The men are generally naked ; but the women make a 
kind of petticoat of bulrashes, which tbey comb like lienip, 
and throw the skin of a deer over their shoulders. They 
are very modest, tractable, and obedient to their has-, 

Such is the condition of this people; and not very dif- 
ferent is, perhaps, the state of the greatest part of man- 
kind. Whether more enlightened nations ought to look 
upon them with pity, as less happy than themselves, some 
skeplicks have made, very unnecessarily, a difficulty of de- 
termining. More, tbey say, is lost by the perplexities 
than gainod by the instruction of science; we enlarge our 
vices with our knowledge, and multiply our want* wiA 

SIR Pn^NCIft PR^Kft. 


OBf Attniiiinrtitja» nnA <hc hnppincAH of life \* hpUcr ae- 
L-ured bjr tbo ignornncc of vice, than by the kiioniedg^ of 
* fart lie. 

TTjff ffilUcy by wliirli *Mr!i rt-}iH»tiirrs Imrt" impiuinl tipon 
tJHMil9plvr-K, M-r-iijM III jHs'^ frnm tlii? ronipiirison Hhieb (liej 
nmkc, ucrt between tvo nieu equally moliued to applj tht 
metnm of hiippiiici-i in llieir powi-r to 1h^ t^ntl far nhicli 
providrnoi- oDnftirrrfl ihcm, but fumi-lird in unrqiinl pro- 
pofticms With tho mnatifT of happtn^Rir, which ia tJio tmo 
flaTPofsavB^p ami [»o|iiih*>i! i),iTion«: btii b*'Twtin (wci mtfii, 
»r vtKich hv* t4i vlium jirovklfiirr hiiv Lt-en most briiinlifuJ, 
ileiblrnyK ihi' blirmiiigK b\ iH^g^ligrhci; or ob«tiruil4T miMUfie : 
wbile ibc <it)ier, atcjidy, (lili§:oiit. and virttiouft, employs hii 
dbiiiUi-i iuid <:uiiVfr[iiouc<-A to ih^ir pioper end. Thr qtie»- 
tiou i» not, wlirthrr n ^aod Indiun or bad Eugbshm&n be 
mofit liappy ; bnt, which sl:Ue is most drnmb1c», supiwsing 
Virtue antt rea^ti the cauie In both. 

Xor i« ihii ttit* mily luistuke wUbh U j^4*rie™lly udmilErd 
!n ihU rcinlrnvi^riiy, for tlu-Hr n^oamrim frfrquenlly c<^(ifi^Mml 
iiauuieni^ii wilh lliff uicri^ Juciipncily of guilt. Hl< llnit 
never auw,i>T heArd. or fWififhtof vlroiifcUquorWrCiuinot bc 
proposrrl an a pnHirn of fiobrJcty. 

Tbii bmd uuci n^kmoiib by Drjikc, Atbion, from ita uliilr 
cbflTi, ici wbicb il bore kome rej^emblance to bis notivn 
eniiniry : and iJi'- n-fut" history of the ivttii^nutiou af it to 
tbn Fiiglinb Hii^ 'ii-i.n i-ti im a |>irri? v( bnu>, Oirn nuilnl 
uu a ptiiL arid li\ed np btifurrf iIicli depArturc* whicb being 
iww divcovcrrd by thr prnpli? to l»o iwar fit hand» tht^y covdd 
OOt fciH)car prqictnal hiiuc'TtliLlioiH^ Wbi'u ihf l^n|;lDstt. 
Oi» tbo S3rd of July, voighed uticbor, Ibey mw Ibcni 
ctimblDg to tbe top* of hilU, thut ibrry might krn-p tl^m in 
iagbt. flwl ohjK^ned firri li^hlnl up \n miwy juut^ of 
lb« rnuntry. on ^^hich, ui ibf^y ntippoufd, HUL-riJiues «err 

Sw ibU birbour they touched at Home i»luticL», vrht'n? 
they found preul numbers of scab; find. dcApmnut; now 
to And mny pa«Mgc Uiroiiic^' the northern parts, \w, nfwt a 
gmtral CCMUltntiun. tleTcnnin4>d Id Kteer away Ui the 


Mo1v4i(Mts, iuu\ »p1liii|C J^?ril Ji^lv 2Afh, \w ftajlt*d Tor »i\t 
ifi^ht rluvH wiiliijul .«iglU uf luiitl : and, uu SL'[]i<<fiiUL-r *M\\hi 
anivt?d irithiQ view pr nomc ulundji, AituatA abunt 
de^nwci northward from Ihc Line, fTOiu wheiico tlic ihlia1>it- 
antit retried to lhf.-m in cuoocs, bollowod out of Uiv vulid 
Ironk ofn tn^r. kind raui^il at bolh vudi id liigb abnvo 
H'utor. Ihnt tlipy Ht^^^mod itlnioat n spmicJrclr ; ihey veM 
buToubed in sueh a mantier timt they tboiie tUt< eUin^, 
Mnd ^nu* kt*pl vt^udj' by a pii^nt? df tiinbrr, liund on <> 
■nle uf thvim* witb strong cano^, tlut W4.-rir r&^U-ncd at 
«nd lo lUi? boal. aod at Uw other lo tbr i-ud uf Ibc tlmbcir. 

The lint company thttt oaino broiajrht fruits, potatiu^f, and 
otJk^r tbinffE of no grout rolaoj with tm nppouroiieio of 
truSick, and exishBn^^d (hoir ladloff for other coiaauKUfic«t ■ 
with ^fnsai «boir of boneftly aad friendship ; but buiio;, *■■ 
iboy imH^di'd, liiid hII KnapiiTion H^lrrrp, ihry iBcwti iH!sf^n 
utiulher tlfef i)f iimoL'^. ttC ^Wk\i tbr crvvkji b«li«ireil uilb 
filt tbr iiixulr<ni:c^ uft^runt*, nrid nil llir npaoiljr of Ihtcri!*; 
for. vhatover wax saRcTcd to como into their hAad*, lliaf 
wcmod to cunmder us tboir owci. and would neitlier pw/ 
for it, nor ri*:itoro it; and, ol lenj^Ut, findiiif; iht Mnfik 
rMoLvofl to tidmit thi?m no lotijfi^r, thoy diichar^^d n cliowet 
of ttovitfi; Irom tlit^ir boaEf^, irhich insult Driiki? prnda^nilj- 
und g^uerourily returned* bj orduriiiff n piooe of urtlni 
to ht* firt-d witiioul hurlitiK ihcinH At vlucli tluiy wore 
t<-mlicd, ibnf they leaped into the uaicr, BJkd bid Um 
nctrcs under the citnocSi 

H&vtnj^, for some lime, bnt 1hll« wind, ihcy did i 
urri^e ur the Moluccu>t till thia drd at Sovfmhtrr, and thru, 
d4wigning to tonoh at Tidoto, thvy were vi^ile^l, su Ihe^ I 
Aailecl by h liule inland belonging to ihe LinjT of T^-male. 
liy the vicirroy dP the plar-4% wbo informrd tbrrm, ibiU it 
vould ho more adrxntagooua fur thvm Xo Imvc nr«our»e lo I 
his master, for aupplie» mid au.iL<itanc«, than to the LinKc^^M 
Tvmalo, who wait, in somo dt^^c-e, dcip<?odcnt on tbc I'of^^B 
fup^esp, and that he would himself ctirry the newp of 
(h«<ir rjrrivnt, nnd prepare Tor thcrir reception. 

DntitT v/oA, by Uie iirj^nmonU of die viceroy, prvTul«d 




npon M alter hiA rcsolutioa. and, on Novcnthrr 5. ca^t 
uochor before 'I'ernatr ; aiiri vcanjv wn^ bo nmvcd, bofore 
tbo vicffTO5, nvith othm of ihe chief nobler, uame out in 
three ^f^T^ 1ioqU> row«d by forty m^n ou ei&L'b »de, to 
cnndupl ibe iJiip into h ■«(« kvlioiir; and Knoo aft^TT the 
king himai^lf, hftTiJi^ recp-iT^d n velvet cToHk by a Rieeuen- 
f^r from Drake, ^n o token of pmue, udtnt? with audi ■ 
retinui? and digiiLt}^ of Jippcjimnce, ui •Kut not expected in 
ikofii? rrrQOtr pATif of Ibc wcirld. lir- wns received with 
diRobmr^i.-K of cannoriH and «»very kind of nautkL. with 
which lie vrun «o much ilelig'tited, that, deamn^ tht* muti- 
eism 1(1 rome dnnn into ibr html, b(* w^k totted along Jo it 
At tf}0 Mleni nf ih^ »hlp. 

The Vinff WiUi ot a ^jU^Rful stulurr, nnil n*j^l curriajpr, 
of u mild afp<^:t, and low voicr : hU nttcnchintfi were drcMed 
in white <>ott<in or cnlico, of whom iiori4.\ wbiMc ago gu^e 
thsmft venerable appeurari(?e, ci>«mt4d bU couneclbr>, atjd 
the real oHiceK or uobit** ; hii gnutdi wv^re not i;-uaruDt a( 
Arenrmit, but hiid not muny umotig iht^tn, being ivjuippicd, 
for tlir inunt pari, with boui: mid durtii. 

The king, bdviu^ dprut sniiw tiiutr in admiiin^ liit' rntd* 
tUud« of new objects ibat presented thciuiiclvcft, rrtirrd tm 
pmm M the jibip vn^ hrongbl to ojacbor^ and promi>4cd 1« 
rfttorn on the dny followin);; nnd, in iho mrnn lime, the 
inhabiliinii, bavin)? leeto (o tnltit'k, hroiiffht dowp pr»* 
viaii^irui in grt^ut uhntidnnce- 

Al ihp tim«^ vh<?n rh** l^ii't? ^^'* r'Xpivird, h'n hrolhrr 
CMiKir oil tiourd, to ri'(|iirKl n^ Drukr llmt b« wuuld «'i>iue 
to tbo cw4le> propotmg to stay bim&elf a* a boHtiijre for bi* 
retuniH Drake refused to go. but «cnt horkt gcntlemrn. 
delaiiiiDf; th<T kini; s brother ia Ihtf moan tiino. 

ThciM> gcntlrmen wore rccmed by ouolbcr of the kingA 
brolber», who condnet^ct them to the cooncibhonse, near 
the cttUfe, In whleh (hey were directed U> w;ilk: tbertr 
dwr found ibn^ncore old mtn, pH«j countcllor* to Ulo 
kmg^ and on eiuli ttttlt* of the door without »tuod four ckl 
nm of foreign lountnea. who irrTcd n« int<>rpvet«T« iii 



In n tthtfi timr thrt kii^ ctan^ from Ibe eoslJr, dr^uW 
ID Hr>th of gi>]d> with ht» boir vorr^n into i^ld nnf^ a 
chain of |((^I<J upon htK ihxtIe, aiul on hii luuidt Ko^ tory 
urfiJitiiiLlI* srf vith dUimnndri dtmI jitvcU of gmil mliw: 
orrf his bfufl «'jia burne a Hrh trsiiupv ; and 1>i> liM chair of 
alrU«, on whtcU hr mi ilitwn whi-n lie hnd tmlrml ihe 
liQDKCi «1ooJ n |MigTT with fl fan 4ot villi Mpphir«». to 
moticralr Iht' excess of Ibe hcAt. Uoro bo roci-arcU tli9 
conplimoQli of tb^ En^lifih, uid tbt-n bonoornlilT di» 
miGsi'd thmi. 

The c'nflile, wliich \hey ha4 «oid« opporiwDUy of ob- 
WT\«i^, Ki^rmed of no fj^at furue ; it najt Iniilt tiT the 
Fdttiigup«i^. wb(r. ult«-mpLi<ig lu n^dnc^ xh'is> kingdom into 
nn iibMciliate nubjeclioD, murdered the kin^. nnd intended 
tc piimit^ ibrrir schema by the de^tmctioii of nil hia sona^ 
but thr gfincnil ubtiorrciiei^ likbioh crui^Uj nnd pcriidT 
DAturally excite, Armprl all tiie nation ugniuit ihliB, and 
procured Iheir total e^tpiiUion Tram all the docainionit of 
Trmulif, tfhicb, frarn lliut ijiiie, incr«u<tiQ^ in povt-r, coo- 
tifiiii^il to imikr ni.!w im>i]<{iii^s1s, nnd in drjiriw ibpn of 
f>L)iFr u(Tqui»tlionSi 

Whilb tbe_v lay before IVnintc, u gentleman cnini! on 
hoard, utttrndt^d by hii intorproler lie mu dro0cd »oae- 
wbat in lh<f Mnrnpcnn manner, nnd snon diKtiilgwsba^ 
hinuteir from tbe iiativea of Teriiai^. or any other eoantn 
that thry lm<t Ktvn, hyhin civlbtyund Appmhi-niuun^ Swih 
fl vUirfliit niiiy ranily Eir imaginifd tci rxi:iti< lbi?ir cnrkwity, 
wbtcli be i^nilifittd by tufurutiu^ Uit?iii. lijat bv Vfa^ n iMlif« 
of China, of llic famity of tbc kin^ tbcn rrtgnm^; nnd 
thnt bcin^ iiccuncd of « capital criuie, of v hich. tkoti^ be 
was tnnocctit, ho liod not evidew^c to vk^ut binuelfj he had 
petitioDiHj thi* kinj; ibal be miRbt not be expoaed to n uiul, 
but thnt bii cwiiiH> mi^bt bt? rtlWrt'd to divine pri»i«U-nCtf, 
nnd ihnt br might hr. nllnwed in Irvtiaf Witt t^jtintry. with a 
proliihittun u^itial rAtiirniu^. unless tu»teu> in liltt'^iUiun 
of hisi iiinoci-ni^i-. should trimblo hiui to brin^ bacJi to the 
kinj; lome intdlig<'ncc tbut mi^ht be to tbc honcnr nnd 
ndvitatage of tbe empire of ChiDa. In accirch o( aucb 




iarormatioa b<: bad now vpoot thrro y«ar». and Ijnd U4i 
Titloro foT Ihr sAkc of convrrfiin^ with the t^n^lj-vti ^jmtviiI, 
.^fitom wliom h(^ hoped lo recmv^ suoh ocronnt:! as i^iild 
tnvibJc Kim lo r>?tuni wifb honixtr und »«fViy< 

Drnkr villinglv rrrniinC''d nil hii nd^enluret and ob' 
fbervHlKina, ta whioh <l)t- Climate eit'Aa lUiFiird with Ih^ 
nftiuict dtt^ntiDii Mid delight, and. Imping tixcd Ihpm Jn hi<i 
laiiid, tJjnnki:i;l Ciod fcir the knowW^e be Utitl gatjieil. He 
lh«D proposal to the Eri^liaL i^nrra! Ut oondiict him to 
Chtuii. reoouutiii;;. hy vmy of uivitatLon* ihc wrflllli> oxtrnf > 
mnd rdktty ol' that Arapircr; but Druko coLtld uot be iii- 
diirrd to prolong fin voyugo, 

Hf^. therprmv. nel wil on 1li«!lih of NoTi^mbtr, in i^iirM 
of MHIHT rniivE^^n'Hl Imrboiir* in » 4]«!iH^rt iihind, I'l rrfil liiv 
abip« uot being HiMing. fir. it fieenis, lo Irrtst to (h? ^rwioaity 
of fli<r Lnij- of Toni^te. Five dny» nflerwfirila be foiifM a 
tcry cotiiitinriiouii hnvhour, in oti iKland overgrown with 
womI, whorv be Tp]>nJtrd hU v«>xel and rrfrephcd hiitmen, 
without dan^r or in term pi ton > 

l>4ving Ihii pliiet* thtf l^ih of Dt^L-rembev; they Miltrct 
townnlft thr Cf-lfbrn ; biil. halving li wmd nor vrry fuvoor* 
ablff. ih^'y w«re dcitiiint^d iitnfiliK ^ tiiulliludr of jhUikU; 
nungird with dnngoroai iiliallow*, tiJI January G, IA80-, 
Wlim tbcT thought themselves rl«ir, and wt^ro vojliiig 
forward with u ir!r:m|r ^le, thoy w«r(% at the bt^ginuiJi^ 
•f tbe dighl. fiurpnicud iu th^-ir cowrae by n Kiiddnn shock, 
*f which th^ oaiwn win* conlly di*covered, for ihi>y irwre 
ihroWD upon n *honl. and, by tbt» ■|M*fiI of iJicir coarse, 
6xvd iiHi fiHit f<*r «oy hup* of f«ciipiii^. Hero even iho 
Uitn!|jidily of Driikr wim ^hakm. mid hm dexterity balTled ; 
but bis piety, however, reraitiDi^d »tiil iho Hime* ond what 
bv could not DOW pronitie hmiaeir fron bin own ubiltty, ho 
hop<«d from the aAsitttAriee ol' provlileuc^- Tlj4» piitnp vrn* 
pJiod, Dad ihty ibip fonnd fm? fn)m new leakv, 

Tlio ii4*Kt 3itTi<inipl v'n4 to ditcoviT tawutAi ihtr m*4 kO«ie 

plaro where ibey ini|{ht (i\ ilit<tr liont. nod from tbrnve 

ding lb(- >hlp into di-rp water: bni, upon oxiuninntion, 

il •ppt-iircd thiit the rock, c-ii which tht-y hud ftl/ucfc, tom 

• bt 



perpendicularly from tbc w&tci, oud that tber« wu no 
unchuru^r, ncir uii> Loltoni lo br rouijrl a haexi's l<-ng^b from 
the ahip. But ilitu di4l^ovc^y, with lU cosM^qiicnccs, wilv. 
by Drnkc, wUdy coaccttlE^cJ from iha oommoa sailon, lest 
tb«y flhmiM nhniidon iliomiiclv4*K ro <1r-A|>siir« for wliii<h tli^iv 
wa« tnilec^d <;aLi?4fr ; iJmrr bfriiig no pnirtperl tHX. but lluil 
Ibey inu!Ll Ih^rc %'mk nitb tlie ship* whi^h lanf^U (utdoulil" 
e<ll¥, be 5oon doithc^cj lo pt<^ct>, oc pcmh in nUcmpliiig tu 
rcacL tbo ^horo ir (hrir boat, or be cut in pieces by har- 
bununv* ti Ihay sbould arrivii at Uod. 

In thn mid.<t ut' tbiK porpkxtiy und di^trc^K, Drakr 
dir^clod thul thr saammrnt ihould ht* ndminittered. a^ 
hiK men fiirlified vilb all ibe coiiftolaiioD wb>ch rvli^p 
atFoffU : ihrn prmiiadril liifm li> li^btcn ibr TrufJ, by 
ibronin^ into IWm'q part of ibdr lading, ttbicb^ju obirtr- 
fully compbod vitJi, Siil without elfccti At kogtbt wb«u 
their liop^A had ronukori thtrm* nod do iwv ttruf^o* coitAd 
be mudf > thL<y wi4r4? on a nuddi^n relieved by n romiflaaon 
ofibo wind, wbirb, biving bither|r> blown Kiron^^ly ajfoiiiAt 
tW Mf of ibt- sbjfi it'bk'h Uy towurdt tJufr ttea. btdd it up- 
rigbt u^aiufil tlie rouk. : but. when ilie Ijladt sUi^ki-iipd, Immd^ 
tben low water, the abip lyiiiK lu^btir willt tliot part xbkh 
rented on tbo rock thun with the olhcr, and boin^ borne «p 
no lon^i^f by (ho wiod, reeled into thir deep wnter, lo tbe 
siirpri?^ and joy of Drake aod biii conipujiioDt. 

This wiu tlin ^rala**) ^inrl moiit inrxiricable di*trM» 
nbicb ihr-y hm! rvrrMEdnrcd, and mnde aarh nn irapn^cnon 
Upon Ibeir nihida, iJiul. for iomc lijue sfti^rwiirdB, ibey 
dun^t not ndveulurc to spread ibcir *ailft, but Kent nlowly 
forwarri with tbe utmoal circunupcetioii, 

Th^y thutt oontinuvd tlirir course willtoul ttuj observable 
oirt^iirrrneo, till, on th« lltb ef Murcb* iboy eune to an 
anchor, hfCttre the island of Juvn, ntid ««iidiDf; to the 
king: 11 prejtrnt uf cbitli mid aiWa, received iVojn biio* bi 
returi». n lur^e qTiantJty of pnivisionH ; und. ibe fTayr roll«w. 
JOf^, Druke wont himaelf ou ^hnr, and cvteTlwiMrd Ibp 
kinjc with his miuick. and ohtsined leaie to ftlore bin nbip 
wrth provisloiia, 



intfiMBd'i»SOV«iltiC<l hvn i^ront nnmhr^rofprtfykinfV, 
orifeaVr inbordtntte to on? chirf; of the»e princes tlireo 
came en board (o^lber, n few dnp af^er ih^ir ArHvat; 
und liiivinifH ujion !l^l^r relutiu mrotinli't! ihi- wooftprK 
whicl) thry Und M^rn. »»<! ihrc? luvillrv n'irfi whk'li tliry hA{l 
bccD trealcd. inottcd others to untisfy tfacir curiositj in tlie 
4UB(? mauncr ; uml mia Donoii, Liio cliiirf kint-, i-aai<^ bim-' 
■ftif to view ihr »hip, vrilh llw wurlikc urmiMXicritc and IQ- 
ttrurnfiQlA of navigation' 

Thii int^TcouM* of oivitrtJes «om#'whAt retsirded The 
buKiiii^n for whrch llit-j^ ruiiie; btJl, ai Itnt^lh, lliejf iiol tiuly 
T]cl[Jf«lE<^d thvnr ithip, hut i^lrMiii^pd ltii< bottijm, nhich, in 
the liMi^ course, was uvcrgrown urith a kind cf «bcLlfi«li 
thai impeded her paisA^cv. 

Lcfiviuit Jiivu, ou Mari^b 36 tliey suil^ti hooi^wurd^ by 
tho Oipc of Good H()|i<^. vhich tbt^y tuvi on Jiid4? Ihi^ Tilb; 
on the Idth of Angii><t p^UAi'ii itu- Iropirk : ttud on ciip '2Rth 
of Sepl«inbi*r urrivtd a( PljnioutEi. uli^n* th4>y ftrunil that, 
tj pnuing throiiKb sto many itifTKrvnl clnnvtlfT^. Uity liad 
loM « dny in tbrir aixount of time, it hctjig Sunday bj 
tbcir jonrnid. but Monday by iho goncrnl oorapulAlion. 

In ibiB hiLstfrdoufi voyage they bod »peiil tvko y«ari^ tdn 
mODllki, and koiul* odd day« ; but vltl* recomp^iKcd for 
ib^vr toiU by grpnt riches xnt^ ihv. nnivonud app]iiaM< of 
tbeir «iiijiiir)'iiifn. Dmbt- afli-rwnriN brought hit ^hip 

up to DrpU'ord, wbcrr quei'ii EliUdbL^tli \iai]«d Ltin on 

board bift «hip, uid confcrrrd tb« honour cf bni>;hthoad 
upon him; an honour, in tliat ilUiKtriouj* rci^, not made 
cb«9p by prudtttittion, nor vvfn bvUvwtd without uncom- 
vnon mMit. 

f I ut not n^CMsary to p^o an ncoount, «^ini1ly parHcnlftr. 
of tlie renidtnin^ pirt of hin Wfr. tit hi<ft-x>t iiu longer ii prj. 
vniit miin, but rit^ngod in pohlit^k nlTuirii, and iL>»ocii«li3l 
in his c;«prdilJO[i» wilii ulbcr {;enGr«l», vihi>«n nttrmpt*, 
and llic »auceM of licm, ure related in tho hiAlori^^ft of 
thotie limt-'s. 

In 15K&, Ml tho 12lli of September, nr Frnncis Druio 
H>1 cai) from Plvmonrh with n flr^-l of li\'ivHud*lwi-niy 
^hipfi nnd pintiac4*«, of which hiib&^lf wn4 adrairiil, captain 



M^rtiu rnrbiitfacr, viccoclmiral, and c«)>tiuii PSrancii Knollb. 
KAfQ^niW; thov nerc filled out to eralH.* upun (be 
Spunitifd% ; iind hoviu^ totichod ii( Ih^ vflv of Havonnc, wid 
plandori'd W^c, )mi ro kpji uixiiin, i^d on ibo IGth of NV 
ttfinbcir arrked befor*i St. Jag'o, vbich Itie? ««(vrvd n ilbout 
resiatarMff, and re^CMl tliere fouHAtfu duvt. TiicUitig, ui Ihr 
mean tunr, San DominjcOt ■ town wilhin the land, whocli 
lhc| luujkd liiuiriMJ deaerLed ; uud. uttrrvtug ulTvhftl iWj 
pleased of thu producv of llui iaUml, tho^, at U>cir dc- 
pitrturc^, doslroyrii the town nnd vilJn^-«, in To^cngtr of 
Iho cnizrder of ouo of their hoys, vboae bodr tiury fovod 
maup^ed ill a mod Inliumun maumr. 

Froni Ox'w island xhoy piirsiwd ib^ir %'Ciya^ 1o ili^ W»4 
fridir-t), dDl^rminirif; To uriack Sh nominf^o tn Hivgiiiiudta, 
lU' tlie mlii'Kl fiW'4t in thnt |n<rt nf lint wurid ; iWy. ihrnr- 
fi>r<^. landed » thoiindfid men, uud with ^mall loss frntened 
The (oivn. uf whitb ihrj kt*\ii [tussi^ioa for a miMitli with- 
oitl intvrniplion or otiirm; during which timi^ a rcmnrktiblv 
a<iddcnt hupponcd, which doacrvcs to bo rc-lutrd. 
. Dmlcif, hiivtii>; isitmt* ititt^ntion of Irealiog with die 
Spaniard*, A<*nt to them a nrgro boy «ilh a Qag of !ni«*^» 
whu'Ji nnr i>f the Spaninrdfi *o littTr rr^rdt-d^ that he 
xUjbJK'd hiin tliroEi^h the hoHv with a lnn<v. Tkte haj, 
Jttlwitli^ funding lii* wound, rnmr bnrk to tbe ^npralL it- 
tatcd the treatment whieh be h^d fuund, ond dit-d in ha 
»ifht. Druki? was so inci^iutd ut this onlm^, ih&i he or 
dt^red (wf> innrn, Ihcn his pmoii«rH> to he ooav^yeit with ■ 
^ard to th^ pWr %ttK're th<* vrimo wns roramtttc^d. and 
lmn|Pod Mp In the vij^hl of tbc 8paniardt(, declaririg ihnl two 
SpuirUli prisonf-rH sliould nndfrg:o iht* vuine dradi t^rij 
ildv, liil the ntTendi-r i^luiiild b*- ddlvrred np by ihi-ia^ tlic) 
wer« too wHl uctiuainTcd willi the characlc^r of Drakr not 
to bhn^ him on thr dny following, when, to hnprru ih^^ 
stijimo of fltieh nolion'< more effeclimllv upon Ihcnt, he 
eont|>u)t^l ih^m 1o e\eciite him with Ihoir own hands> 0( 
ihkK town, nl their d<-purmrt\ they demolUhed pafi, and 
admiiti'd iht* rrM to be mmtnmrd for lU'o and twenty tbon 
cand iint^[il.(. 
" Prom (beiTct: itwy nuilnl tn Cftrlhugnnu. -whetn llw eDcm; 

01ft FRANCia DRAKRp 


rcct'Lvcfd i]itollif;<^nci> of tho (tiir. of St- Domingo, 
faacl dtreh^theiied tboii forliticatiouA, and pre^iir^^d (j> do< 
reu4 Ibemurlvt-^ wiLh ^rcat olMliiiAoj; but llie English* 
Insiliii,^ iu lli(* ni^^l, ritinf tijnm lKr*m liy u wiij wliii^U 1ht?y 
dk] not piut|>cct, )iiiij hiTJug in^ttftr urmnl, piirlly hy «iirpri«e, 
ami pivtix bv auperiontjr of ortlcr and vaJour. bvcaiuo aku* 
ter« of iki? plucf', ttijCTV tiioy dtnycd without fi-nr or danKi^r 
«ul week*, iindr ut thoiT dfrpartiiro, rrcdvcd a Imittircd aad 
teu Iboiuuud duoata, for tUe ransotne uf tW town. 

Tl>u\ ■flcrwiirdii took St. An^iisiin, uml. (ouffcmir o< 
Vrrginm, look on lioanl ik\r ^ovt^rJioirr, Air. l^me, with thn 
EDgliai}i tkul liad 1>i*en left lliere, rht^ year l>(*fore, by lii 
Wfthar Halrigb, and urrivrd at PtirfKiiioutb tni July 2B, 
Uifift hminfT io»t in the voynf^c ^evcii iiuji<lrril nnd fiAy 
mm. Tb« ^ia gfthij cxpoditioii aniounled lo aisly thoo- 
su>d poouib, of whiL'L forty woru UtQ »tMr« cf the adTt-n 
toivrs wliu fitird oiil lUc thi\>%, uud tho n^*t, flUlributod 
itiDong ib« ■nirriii rrvvis, niuonnl^ to ilx pounds Oacb 
umii- Si>ch«iip]y ih lifr AOfnrlJniei^ t^ jikh rded . 

Tfir Uuiuuclicrni ugujiivl the zinmuU. I^HB, ure, ni 
tUeinMtiir». for oioto nv^Doritblo, but \cm nece^ioty to be 
r«<jt<.'d in Ihr^ cac^^iw^t nnrnitivc; only let it be rcm«tt- 
borcd, tlut Urn* fKut of vicoadrninil of Eni^Liuid, lo vhiuh 
sir FraiK^K Dmlw was ihoii ra:jvd, i> a AidUc-i^ot |>n><if, 
UatL no obirurilv ot hirvh. nr mc-iuin^m of fufiuue, U m- 
mniMHiiilabbt to bruvi-ri mid diligrMcr- 

lu \SM, HIT FraiiuiH Dinke and etr Jubu llawkiiu vcfr 
ami witli ft flc<:l \o tbr Wc^t ltidtr>, wluch iipcflitiou 
wiu only mccnomblc for the de^truetion af Nonibrc do 
lko9, and the death of the two counionder*^ oJ whom iir 
Fniacu Draki^ <tit?d Junoujy 9, 1097, itiid ira« ifarown into 
thtt ■«« in o ]4*4(]i?ii cofBn, witb nil thn jxnnp of naval oIk 
nequiis^ It U iTpnrted by scnie, ihnt th«i iil Ki»ocrBii of 
this voyage li;L<<leiird \m death. [J])ou tvbat this CODJCC- 
tuiv ia (routkdi.-d t\oci not jipfit^ur ; <4»d wc may be oUowod 
to hope, for tho bonoar of >o f^reiit ■ mtu>, that it i* witti- 
out foundation; nud ihiti he, whom no tvrwM of bucccm 
oould pTcr betray lo viuiity or DegLJgenc(<> conid bavi; top- 
ported a cbftti^e of foiiun*^ without iiiipai>eflc«> or d«j«cliiin. 



Having not been able to pracnre matenaLs for a nmt- 
plete life of Mr. Barretier, and being; nerertltelen, willing 
to gratify the curiosity jiisttj rased in the publick by his 
nncommon attainments, we think the following extracts of 
letters written by his father, proper to be inserted in our 
collection, as they contain many remarkable pasaagei, and 
exhibit a general vii^w of his genins and learning, 

John Philip Barrctier was bom at Schwabach, Jami' 
aryl9, 1720-2L His father was a calvinist minister €l£ 
that place, who took upon himielf the care of bis ledit- 
cation. What arts of instruction he used, or by what me- 
thod he regulated the studies of his son, we are not abfe 
to inform the publick ; but take this oppoitnm^ of in- 
treatii^ thoser who have received more complete intelli- 
gence, not to deny mankind so great a benefit as the im- 
provement of edncation. If Mr, le F^vre thought the 
method in which he taught his children,, worthy to be com- 
municated to the learned world, how justly may Mr. Bar- 
reticr claim the nniversal attention of mankind to a scheme 
of education that has produced such a stupendouH pro- 
gress ! The authors, who have endeavoured to teach cer- 
tain and unfailing rules for obtainiug a long life, however 
they have failed in their attempts, are universally i^m- 
fessed to have, at least, the merit of a great and noble 
desZgn, and to have deserved gratitude and honour. How 
much more then is due to Mr. Barretier, who has suc- 
ceeded io what they have only attempted ? for to prolong 
life, and improve it, are nearly the same. If to have all 
that riches can purchase, is to be rich; if to do all that 
can be done in a long time, is to live long; he is equally 
a benefactor to mankind, who teaches them to protiact 
the duration, or shorten the business of life. 

' ThU uticlfi wu fint phoied in the GemlaiuD'i MiguiiH for 1740, TW 
pr^et ipcUing u Btnlis. 



Thnt llif*r€ are few vbin^H more worthv c>ur ciiriosiity 
ibati lliU mi-tbud, by yiiiinU iht^ lulhr-r nit^ilrHl thr gnnius 
of thn Rmi, <»Tery maTi will he ninviiiced. ibat conmden 
tho curly ()ti>f]iri<-iicy ut wlitcli it enublvcL jiirti to utrivt* ; 
nkcb n |)ri}fic 11-11 ry ui no viif? Imi jrt r<Tiir-litrd at tht; Humi: 
offc. «ftd 1o vliicfa It u, liiGTcfore, pfobotilc, llutcrory ad- 
tdntaf;^i>U!i cir(.'tim7t1aD<ii' coiiriEimL 

At Ihff flrjW of H w yi^iiff Ar nf>t onitf vxu maatvr cfjtve 
tanyuogti, Afi attsinmenl in tlM>lf ulmncl incrodiblo, but 
nndentood, lays \\\t fjuih^r. the hdy wriiers, beffer in tht^ir 
orjf^nal coa^M. rWn in hii owik If lie ttit-mu. by tJ]i« 
ttucrlioi]. ihitl ht! knrn iho 4(-nw^ of mum paMugr-fi in the 
original, whi^b trtrrc ubncuri? iu tbr (r&t»luliiin. iht a(^' 
coimt, Imwi'vcr wonderiVil, muy be udmitlpd; but il be 
inteudtt to Cell hU oorrrApondrnl. thut bis ^'m vjix better 
arqn^tinCi'd with the two lAni!;uai;^9 of tbn Eiiblr ihaii vitb 
bii nvD, ho xnuvE bo ullowtrd to sfiedk bv]>erbofio'^tly, or lo 
udmil, ibaC lit* Kon bEid uimr-wbiil iircflt*olr-d tbe blady of 
bu nutivr- luiiziiu^c ; or vp miii<t ovn. tbnC tbr ftinitiu^^a of 
A parent baa tiiuupurted luiu iiitv miuiv udtiirdl cxitg^ra^ 

Pari or tliifl loltnr [ Am tcmptisl tr> Mipprc*^, brinfc tm- 
witling to ilumaad tb« h^i\i*i ot olliLra to that ^bicU np- 
pMfi iDcr^dibk Cd myself; but cu my morediibty muy, 
perhapv, b*? tbr priKluct niibrr of pre- jiidirp limn irason, lu 
4-nvy ni»y bi-grl a rlUiiirlinatirifL fo iidmil ao iiJinii'ii»r wt 
Miperioritifr uiid lu uji ai^i-^uuni is nut to be injiiLodtdldjr 
CCDsuFed OJ fkil»4?. nicrrly brcniiHc il ia wondcrfuL I tihuK 
prn«vcd to pvc the rci! of hi?* fatbcr^ rclolino, from bin 
lotlor of ibe 3rd of MurcU. L?:2}>-,tO. He ^p^nkA, coti- 
fmi»e8 be, G^^rman, Lutiti, and Freiiob, equally wtrll. lie 
CAB. by laying bf*fcprc- him n tmnttntion. nW any of llie 
li(M)k« (if Uh* Did nr New To«THin4fnl, in its origiiud liui- 
gungc, >viili^(it be»itatiifii or p^qjloxtty. ilt u no ^trmujir 
to hMisnl ci-ificisn or pbilo»opby, nor uuacqiminicd witb 
ancient luid modcrm gooffraphy. and ia (|ualt6ed to support 
u eonvemution with learned xnon, vbo lrv<|iioiilly vUit and 
vonvspond nitb him. 



In hut ekteoth Tear, he not only publishod m 
letter )i> I'ltin. but trnn»latcd ihts 1^L^cbl of mbbi B«b> 
jaumTrom Ih'^ llntircv into Vrotmh^ which be illl>fllF■((^d 
wilb not4}H, Olid ftt'oompani^ii with di«AertalJiMks ; B «'ork 
in vhiir^t bic f^LlLvr. ,u ^t- lumtolj' di;ckr<e«, could ^ivr him 
liule :k4M>ilnncc, its ho did ti^t vndc^niCiind t)i« robbiniciil 
dmlt'i'L ^^ 

The niuuEi Tuf u'iiiub luxrnlVireiiipiKpdlum ta iIm »url^^| 
waa uuljr lo prcTAil upon him to write ■ ftlrcT hjatrd iban 
h« bud hilhorto nvcnstomcd hinwir to do, by invinf bin 
bopi.-d, thut il^ Uii should tmit^liiito aotam liiUc autUor, and 
ofltor B fair copy i)f bix vvrMoit to jumo bcwkxTUi^r, b» niijcbt. 
in r«tura for it, havi> nibcr book* which bi> irRutod aimL^^ 
could mil afrord lo purrl>;utf. ^^B 

Inciri^H by thi« rxpt^t^Uliijn, far fued u|ii>ii (iit< tnivdet 
of nibbl Dcnjomii), ns moat proper for hi't ptirpi>«:, bnng 
a bo:>k u«-itbcr bitlky uor coujinon, aud uj oik- inonlh €0«i* 
plctcd biA Iruiisliilion, uppl^in^ ouiy ouv ur two bonra 
day to that parlictilnr toj^k. In nnotb^tr moalb, ho di 
lip the priocipal Dotea; Mid, m tho third, vrotaMaka 
i«rlat>on« upon pnrliculur paiKAge« which aatrmed to rt* 
i|nire a lor^r rtiunintttinit. 

Tba«e notcai coiil«in ho tntuiy curiou« fMnarka aad 
quiri«ft, out of 1h« cuBiuiuti roud vf IcdrninK. and 
*o imuiy invtanccx of pcwjtfution, jiidpneat, and acgi 
that the r«ndcr jind4, in cvi^ry page, »ouio roason lo 
fluade bim iLut lb«'y cutiQot poiuibly hv tfav vtnrk of 
bill of a moil loiif^ ucuuiLtonicid to thfwt? «f udiwi, enliglii* 

hy reflKt'titni^ and dmtroim, hy long praciin\ in tlii? ive of . 

Iwokn, Yet, iJint it U the prrfomiarice of a buy tko^^f 
youijg;, is iK»l only pfovird by Ui« Itfvlimvoy tif bis iiitbcr,^^ 
hal by tbo c<fUcttjTC*nt rtid^ncir of Mr. Ic Maiirc> hia aa- 
HocitilL* iu Ihc oburch of Sdiwikbocb, who oot only autfrta 
bu ciaUn lo thif work, but lUlircia, that he hcraid tun, 
»X jcHnof af^p,ex|Jaif]1b«? Ilcbrvw if jthnd 
biii tiaiivi* laii^ujrii; ki> thui the foct is not 10 be 
wiUiout a dvgrrH^ of ih<TreduLiu, wbiub it will nut be ti 
c4uy to defend i 

HMD* , 






T\i\t copy WHM, tif>W0V4rf^. far from Mn^ Tuition wieh (be 
nrwlnru vhich hit r[iilif*r<li*RtT<i<l ; nordiii (lie f>i>oki4(.4k*n, 
to whoiu it wad oflVrtfd. make girvt>gnilx \t*iy o^haIiIp to 
llie «K|Jvcivliunb of fill' voun^ tracAluJor ; but. nflrr huviuf^ 
«iuiiiUDcd cht) |MTrr<irniuitco in tbcir mntkncr, a.m\ drtci- 
m]ti9<l to print il upon oondilionB not vv^nf ndviuitnjci^ons, 
ratnrned II lo W 1r»n«cnbe<l, tlii^l the printi^fv tnt|rht Qot 
be erobarraaiM^d wtili a «opy so djilioult to rotui. 

BomHirr irm rtnw vivaarnil lo the liMter end of hit 
tw«ilAli veiif. uikI iiutl uihiIl* Kr<<ui iKlvuiii:t-v in lui itiidi<-fl, 
iwIh illi^tijudiii^ an ciliKtjutitF lumuur in liji Urfl LjuilI, w htrh 
gnv^ him gjoat paioi odcI oblifod bim to n teilioua aiiJ 
trviblewMe metiied of cur4< ; auti rf^adint? orvr hU per- 
ftnmmnoc, m* to fiw from cotiioutiixt^ liimiistf wifJi faufdy 
tnoeenbiikg- it, thai Ik- oJtL-Tcd ihi! gTM^tnit port of tiio 
nott*n, nvW'aio^e\\p4 llm dinKprlBlioiifl, luid an^mrotwl lb& 
book lu twi<v its ftiniier bulk. 

Thi; ft-w 1o«i;hr.* whioli hiii falbci b«>loir«] opoa IIwt 

TJaal of tLe lHX>k. tbov^ tbcj nr minutely ^ct dowti by 
bim in thr preface, an^ ao inooaiidonbic, that it n not 
or«««f*ry lo mention them: and it mov be much mora 
a^freeable, aa well a^ useful, to exliibrl th«i «liort accouat 
tthicb ho there ftWea of tike melJiod by vhinb \w enabled 
hi« tan In slu^w, flo <>BrlT. bow easy an attniniArat b the 
knowledgi* orib»> Lmifia^i^i^-s. a knowtrdtccr wbicJi aomr man 
■IHTtid tlirir livpi in L-uUivatin^> lo ibc acjftcat of innrc 
valuable ttudie*, and wbicb tboy »e«m to rv^rd na the 
biglic^t pGrf<?cti<>n of huntun nnlure- 

Whai ap]>1aii«e« at^ dui^ to nn old mpi, ututcd in u 
Rcmpuloui nlt^Dtion to poiiiriiUr fi<-e<?ntii and ptymTtlof^wa, 
mav upprafn titvn hU father, by Mtiinjc bow little time ti 
nxjiiinnl lo ihrriTP at mich nn roiinrncr ut ibBar; ttiMlicia 
na many, tivifn of tboo vrncrablo dot:tor*. have mit at- 
lainiKl, for want of rntiouoJ mctbodA and rt-f^uUr up- 

Thw rt'hMiPo lb, doubtt«>«a«, jant, npoii thorn who >p<'iid 
(oo much of tbnir liviM upon iifcfU'K iiiopliiM, or wlio 
ii^peur to labMtr uitbout making any i^rvKVcai ; bait, as tJir 


Lnowled^ of laDguag^ is Deceesuy, and a mionte ac- 
curacy sometimes requisite, tbey are by do means to be 
blamed, who, in compliance with the particular bent of 
their own mindjs, make the difficulties of dead langiuges 
their chief study, and arrive at excellence proportionate 
to their application, since it was to the labour of sncb men 
that bis SOD was indebted for his own learning. 

The first Inn^&ges which Barretier learned were the 
French, German, and Latin, which he was tan^t, not in 
the common way, by a multitude of definitions, rules, and 
exceptions, which fatigue the attention and burden tbe 
memoiy, without any use proportionate (o the time which 
they require, and the disgust which they create. Hie 
method by which he was instructed was easy and ex- 
peditions, and, therefore, pleasing. He learned tb^n all 
in the same manner, end almost at the same time> by con- 
versing in them indifierently with his father. 

The other languages, of which be was master, he learned 
by a method yet mere uucommc»t> The only book which 
he made use of was the Bible, which bis father laid before 
him in the language that be then proposed to learn, ac- 
companied with a translation, being taught, by degrees, 
the inflections of nouns and verbs. This method, says his 
father, made the Latin more familiar to him, in his fourth 
year, than any other language. 

When he was near the end of his sixth year, he entered 
upon the study of the Old Testament, iu its original lan- 
guage, beginuing with the book of Genesis, to which bis 
father confined him for six months; after which he read 
cursorily over the rest of the historical books, in which he 
found very little difHcutty, and then applied himself to the 
study of the poetical writers, and the prophets, which he 
read over so often, with ho close an attention, and so happy 
a memory, that he could not only translate them, without 
a tnomeoVs hesitation, into Latin or French, but turn, wilh 
the some facility, the translations into the originul lan- 
guage in his tenth year- 
Growing, at length, weary of being confined to a book 




wbicb be Goulil almost entirely repeat, he <l<^Tiatcd, by 
ilevllii. into oilier vtiidif^a, mid, an lii« tmnnlAtiOTi of Ucd- 
juttin in a lufliciciit ir^idoaot*, lie rend n uiuldtudi' of wn- 
4<»n, of varioiift kini^N, In hit ttrvlflh yftrr Ac appliird mort 
particularlif to t/it slud^ of Uw faihtrA^ ond coirnnla of 
Uuf <Jx Hnl tcnfurtvH, and bei^dii lo triAke u regular i^ol- 
Irtiliou fif ihrir nrnnrm. He mtd rvrry aultar in ihr 
origiool, Ijtkvtug diacn^cfctl ^o murh nrsligencc or t^o- 
raooe in mosil trauftlttliotiH, lliat he paid no regard to tkoir 

ThiiE he continufid bin ctudic*, nc^ithrr drawn ibiidrt by 
pb^iiirpt nor diKcoiirnffod by diHiciiUirti, Tbf> gre&le*t 
ohtiiHfTi? Id hit iiiijinivfiitent uh*i WHiit c^f bookv, vriih wliicb 
bin nurraw fothJiic could noL Jiht-niUy supply Isiti; kd ibnt 
• UA obliged Cu liorrow ihn icrcatcit part of thiMT wbii;b 
ftludic*a rcquiR^tJ, nnd to rclurn llii^m when ho bad tfvd 
dirm, without bvini? ablo to uoutiiU tii«ui oocaffiuiitklly. or 
to recur to tbc^m wb«n lii» memory should fiid bun. 

Il i« obtiTVJiblc. lliBl nc'ilb'fr \\\a dili^uii<-i<, iiitinlrrnntt«>d 
Sfr il «rii», nor bU nnnt nf boolm, n wAot nf Vkhicb bv wiu, 
in llie bjf^Iient de^rire, nL-iiHiblc, e>«<r |jii>duc<?d In bim thttt 
ixpcrity. wbicb n lonjf and reclux life, villioiit bd; cir- 
cunatAncc of diiM|iil<Tt, frequently creates. He waa ulwup 
g*y, liri^ly, and ruai>lioiu; a tDEiipor wbiuh coiitnbutcd 
mncb to rifcommc^nd bin k^M-uinF;, uiid whwb tomo Rtn- 
drnt«, m»rb tupErionr in ag;c, would cnnsiiU ibt^ir rtuw, 
their repuiJition, nnd iheir interpU, by cop)ing from him. 

In tbK yeur ITSTt hi^ publibbeil AuU- Aiit^itiunitm ; kiiit, 
iiiitiuiD rv#riKc1it S. Joanoii advcmii.t Artcmt^niuoi tiu- 
diontum ^ and Attiuncd xuch n dr^<-c of rcpntafron. tLj&t 
DOl only Che publick, but pfiHc^c, wAa ard i^mmoMf^ tht 
Imt by whom merit a diiltiiffuibhed, begau lo lutpn^ti 
Uienu«lveft in bi* kucccm ; for, ihe icaiue year, the king of 
Prituia, whd luid bpiird of bim t-iirly aitumcpi in Ittrrjiliire, 
on account of a M:hem*i for diMovering the longitude, 
which hbd beto [(r:il to iLh? Ro^^uI Aociely of B«rl»Q, and 
wbicb wu^ tninimiiird uflcrAurd* by htm to Pnritf and 
J^Ddon, cn^ifcd to ukc c^ra of hU fortiints hu%iiig x^- 
c^Md fuMbor prooff of hif ftbilili«^ at bih own rourt. 



- Hr. Bftrreiier, bota^ proiBotod to itie cure of the cliiircb 
ofSletiii, v«fi cbb|^«d lo tnive) with kin son tkilJior, frwD 
Sc4«ibtcJi, ibrougli Udpnc and Berlin, a juunK*v vrrv 
ngtwrnlih^to h'vt «oii, aa it would fbrnuJi him wHh now op- 
|icinunili«!i oriui|»iwing hi« knuwledgv, tatd r&totidiiif lii> 
iioqiiBinlADCd niDoir^ men nf Ifriierf- For ibtt pufp^w 
tbej Hinjcct iOMtv ume >l Ldpsic, and Dica Irsirllixi lo 
Hftllc, vbcrv JMUiff fiorrt tier no dufjnt^iibbrd bimsdr in 
lira convcrsatiou witli the pruJrAKnri of the univcmty, thui 
tWy ofTcrrd him bis di^grrc ofdoctor in philu^opby, a dig- 
nity curre^pond^Dt to thai of mftsrcT of &tts umoKtg vl 
Barmtier drew iip» lli^l iii^hl. ' ittiinv pojniionii in )>hil^ 
Miphvr ami ttm niiitlirmuiTrkiB, which hn M^ni iininediabfl^ 
lo the pma. Anil dt-ft^ndrd, lh« atjxi daj, in a <irtm«lad 
andilory. witb so mm^li wit. ^piril, prr«?iM:r of tfaoo^hl* 
and Mrcn^b of rvanan^ tfani the whoto naivrrMilj iroi 4^ 
lighted nnd nmosed^ he was then admitted to hiJ degree, 
itnd uitL'ndt^d t>^< ih<< wWi> cmivoiirvif 1q hii ladjpn^* 
with complimcrnu nid n^fliinifiiianft. 

HJJ tbe4e<, or |ihito4^>t]Hfii) poulioiu, whinh \w prinlrd 
in iromp1imEr« iriili the practice of (hiU univcraitir, ran 
thningh »rvrml cdilionA In « few week*, and ni> testioioay 
of regard wm wanting, ihbi coi^id contribute io ■*"'T*f*t 
him in hi* firoftren. 

When thry nrrirod at Borltn, ihc king' onk-rc^ hira 
b^ brou|rhl Jnlo hu presence, and wns f;o much pi 
with hifi tonvt*r*ation, that h^ tent for htm almo«( etei 
dnj diiritig hin nluy :it Brrlm ; and diverted hitniu<trwil 
cngaupBg' him in toaveraatiuni upon a multiludc- of ml 
JM3ti» and in dKpfilr* wJth Wrr?pd mr*n ; on nil iwhidi 
casionff W nr<|ijilird liim^clf so happitr. that (he U 
formird iho hi£:b(*«t ideas of ht» capacity, aad fnliirc 
rw-Qce- And fhmkiiiiTi perhaps ^rith reafoii, (bat aciiv#l 
]if>- wfu the ntibkii Hphi^ro ol' n groat ^nkift. he rM<oii^ 
HKmded to him ihft Htndy of mnrlrrn htttciry* Ihr ruitovu 
of nation*, imd Fbrtrti* |iarl« of learning* lltut arr of in? M' 
pubUck irunAnctioni and civit rmp]ij)'Jiiet)lA, declaring, ifast] 
»ui^h nbililt4T», pro|>rrly culfivatc-d. mi^hl exult bim, in left: 
years, to bo tho frr^atcisl ininiAto/ of Mate tn Europe. 




B«rrrtior, whether vr attributo it to bU modifnitioi:! or in- 
cxpcrtenco. wiu nol rliu;/«W hj Ibo proefirct of »iich h'l^b 
proBUtlion, but uue^vered, that he uyi# too tmuch pU^t^d 
teiih $ci9nc* and qni^t, to teaive th^m lor utcb iatrxtricabbi 
itadirs, or siicb hnriuHing fLitignrii. A mjinlitlion ho dh- 
pteuiog to llie Ling, thai bis faiber »(tribDtev to it tbe 
cl«laj of llioftc fuvourft vbicb tbciv bml Imperii »r rertriving. 
the kiii^ hhvin^, u bo obicrvcv, ilotcrmincd to cm}rlo_v Lini 
in l^io niLnutry- 

h ie not imiioKsibJe lliat paturnnl oirvction mi^bl $u^- 
f^l to Mr. D;irrt<liur boeuit fnltti? oon<^cptio]»( of tho kln^'ft 
dtfii^; for h« inf^rv, fn^in tho introduotioD of bis toD (o 
(be fmiii|^ pririL'«*ft, auil llitt oir«'N8e^ wbiuti lie recei%nl 
fruni liioixi* lliul ibt* kin^ iiiU-nUi^tJ bim for th<iir precrplur; 
u Mplkvmc, sAys ho, vbjch somo otlior rcoolutioQ hopp^jr 

Wh^tei^er wim oriffuuilly mlen^odt and by whjitv^vL'r 
msMis tj)t^s4< inltnlioiu won> frutrrm^^d. Birf^iiLT, uHur 
having hnctk Ir^^ulr^d if tlb \\wi hi^boKt rvgnrd bv (iu* vWn 
rojal ftunjly, wav di^iiuivii^d wiih fi pnvioiit cf two hnuili^d 
cmwtitf; wkI bin latiwr, iuKlrad «f bmii^ faed ut StPliu, 
wm fimdo i^ontor of the Fmicb church ut Ilsllc ; a pUco 
more cotao) odious for fitud^'^t to which they rotJrc^d; Bar- 
relior boiik^' firvl admitted into tbo Ito^^L Hocivly al IJcr- 
lui, aud r^c^mmeiidvd, bv Iho Vm^, to tho tuiivonity ftt 

At Halle hp cotilinufd ftts Miitdirs with IjIk iisiihI U[ip1i(<»^ 
lioo Uiid aucctrsv. luid. cillifr by ba own rijlvclioru, or tho 
pcmi4uii>(iii of btai fdt^r, wwi pri-vailt:d upon to giro up 
hiv own ice liiiuti Otis \<t tbwic: of the kiuifi and dirvct bis 
■nqiuri<» to Ihoi? Hubjccis liiul biid been rocoixunciidvd by 

H« f outiuufd lo ndd wew iteqi^wiiions (o hi* N^aming, und 
lu iTir-ivuhf- hi^ ri*|)oiutio[i hy tirw |tt-tfiirnt-uict4, till, in tho 
bc^naiiig of his sLiictccutli }L-ar, his health b«:^aii lo ilt>- 
cUr»e, and bis utdiapuaitiuu. which, bcti>§; not oUrmin^ or 
^iokni, viu, pi'rhups, iiot at liritt sulticK^nlly ro^^ordod, tii' 
crrasod by hIow degroo« for cighlt^vn iiLonthtt* dtiritig vbioh 

384 BARRfiTlBR. 

he flpent days among his books, and Deither neglected bii 
studies, DOT lefl his gaiety, till his distemper, ten days be- 
fore bis death, deprived him of the use of fau limbs: be 
then prepared himself for bis end, vithont fear or emotion, 
and,oD the 5th of October, 1740, resigned his sonl into the 
hands of his saviour, vith cojijidence and tranqmiHty* 

In the Magazine for 1742 appe&red- the G>llowiiig AdditiohaI' 
Account of the Life op Jobn Philip BianRTiEB ■. 

" As the nature of our collections requires that enr ac- 
counts of remarkable persons and transactions should be 
early, our readers must necessarily pardon us, if tbey are 
often not complete, and allow ua to be sufficiendy studions 
of their satisfaction, if we correct our erronrs, and supply 
our defects from subsequent intelligence, where the import^ 
ance of tbe subject merits an extraordinary attentjou, or 
when we have any peculiar opportunities of procaring in- 
formation. The particulars here inserted we thought pro- 
per to annex, by way of note, to the following passages, 
quoted from the magazine for December, 1740, and for 
February, 1741.' 

P- 377- At the age of nine yean he not only wtv master 
of five lajtffut^es. 

French, which was tbe native language of his mother, 
was that which be learned Jirst, milled, by living in Ger- 
many, with some words of the language of the country- 
After some time, his father took care to introduce, in his 
conversation with him, some words of Latin, in such a 
manner that he might discover the meaning of them by the 
connexion of the sentence, or the occasion on which they 
were used, without discovering that he had any intention 
of instructing him, or that any new attainment was pro- 

By this method of conversation, in which new words 

< Iht pusagcs nf^rred to in Ihf precnlipp pf^* ^^ btTe priottd id hklin. 
fbr Ihe nam easy refereace- 



enry duy nilroduced, ha var had bct^n votncwlMil 
wsciMtomcd to the i<iflt.'ctfo»?i utiil vuriutioua of the Lotin 
10110^4^, h^ h^^gan ia altrmpt to ipuuk likr bin fathpt, naJ 
»BJ in a ihorT lirn^ rtrnwn nn, hy impcrt^ppitble rie^eea, to 
ftp^-nk LeiEeii, iijf^rmixrJ nitb olhrr kn^ujiges. 

Thiu. whrii lie waa b**t four >C4ir» oW. he Apok« rv^ry 
<jAy Fn^ch to hi» mother, l^tiii Ui bin faiiicr. und higfa 
Puti-ii in the inaiil, witliout uiiy ptrplciily tn Limsolf, or 
anv confiuicin at onv hm^uiif^ willi iLUoUt^f. 

P. 377, Hf if uo Ktrnn^rr to dihtUvtl crifiristM^ 

Hk*itt|(uuvi' ipiirti^d ati^li Htlegree of iLill m ihc Hitbrw 
hfyrftg" OH \a \tt- aMp tu cxjujpoM? m il. Iiotli in |>fDse and 
fcnet be wnA t^xtrcmrly dc^irou* i>r rcndiog tho mbbim; 
Aod bavin; liorrowcd «f the tifli|;lilKi(imig ckrffv, uiid Iho 
jows of Sdivaboch, o\[ ihe ho<tk% which tbi-v could supply 
faim, bit pivrailvd oti hifi fulLrr to buy him tho grenl rob' 
bioiCKl HibliT, ptibtithrcL ni Xfmt»ri\iirQ, m four Comi>4. folio, 
l9Sd, and r«ad it wiih Chuf ^kci^urMtiy aiiJ iilleniiun uhich 
apfMMUX by ibo «ccouiil of it wfittcij bj hha Id lii» fat<}UntR 
ll< Jc Muitr«, inserted in the bc^nmng of the Ivcntj-aixtb 
Tfdumc of thr IJibliothrftiT KPnuaniqac. 

Theae wrilerii w^i« read by b'lm, as ath^r youn^ percoiu 
pcnse nuDimc^* or po«el», only from a pu^n\t d«iire of 
anucfltnciit ; fnr tit? bitd w litlU* iftirMijoii fuf thiin. v*dii 
«hil« hr uliidjf^ii ibcni witb luot^ ra^Tnu'M, tliat br often 
^verled hU parcnu with icconntiog thoif Tiblt^ii luid 

I'. Je^l. in ^u l¥!tifth ijear /ic uppimi ravre parttcvtart^ 
lo lA« ^fnrff ^f th^f(UKer: I 

HiH faihtT bi-inp;' vi>m4>\i hitt iitivavv 1o o^cerv^ «o jnaeh 
lintt? tpt^nt b_v Uini un ruhbiuicitl irilW, fbuu^bt it neceir 
%mj non \q ri^ctfil bini to tho ntudy of tlie Greek l«U|fiiag^ 
vlttub Kv bad uf lute ij*f$lt:i:tcd, but 1o vhich he mturiM^d 
witb «o much nrtlour, Ibul, in a nboft UiDe> ho w«s ubl« lf> 
r«ad Greek vriib Itiv Mni« f»cilily A» Francbor l-dtiii. 

llv tJi«n rn^^inJ in the p»ruwl of lb? Gn^ck fulben, 
and t(iuncil« ofUit^lirt.! three' or four ceoliiri^i^; nnd iin- 
derlook, ol fab fulhef^ lU'^r^, to coufiit«f a irOMlUe of 



Smniiel CreltiuH, in whirli. vD4cr the naiiM! oT Artemomtift. 
ho lu» rijjpuvovrri] to Kubnliliiti.-. in tliQ brfponiDjc of S4. 
JoEinV poHpdr a rc^adin^ dttrcrrnt fmrn Ikftl vhkh u ■! 
present received, iinii lets fcivoiirakle to Uie otthvdox dve- 
trivM* ol' the divinity of (iitr Snviour. 

Tbiii iBnk w»« iimlprlBiLT-n by Burrrtif-r wilh i^nt nr» 
ilouT, nnct pn»i^i^ii(4n1 Uy liim witJj niiitalilc Qpptioaiiofi, Ini 
ke not only tlrt w ii|i a furjnAl conftiliiJioii of ArtenwmiM. 
but mado W^«i col]«<ticiifl from iho c-«rli««t vntcn» r^ 
Itxting to Ihn liiRtory af horoai^v, i*hich be |>rc^uMl at ini 
to hdvfr pvbliihod Rf fytrXimttiarit^n to lu« book, but, ftodiaf; 
tho tntroduclbn f^rew nt Inst lo n givuK^r hutk ihAO tW 
bonk ilsi^ir, hr* deipnniitt'il hi [lulilistli i1 af^nit. 

WIijUt )ir HdH aMtgiYAsrc] by llimr !af|tLinc&, au-iUpiit 
tkrcv fi |>a!r of globes into hli [iducI*. iri Oclobcr. 1794, by 
which bis curiosity vraa lo mucli o<cutt0<I, that Im Ukl aside 
hLa ArlonioniiiA, nml npjblicH himsflf 1o i-i^ofcxvpby uid u^ 
tronaniy. In ten (lnv« he wuji nblo to ftolv4> all llie |»n>- 
blrmx in the doctrme of the ffl<»beK,And hud atuiincd idnw 
lo irlvuT «ud lUi^nffoftdl the »ysIeiTi4, nii well anci^ol u 
mudfni. rhul lir-br^ii tf> think i-irinuLingnett dbvcpTrriH; 
anil for that purpuxe. hiyiri^ Bflide> for n litntr. ttll tettrcbr-t 
m(o ADtlquily, he rmploycd bii utmost iutcrcf^l to procwc 
books of untronomy Find of roathrmntiokA, und made Mick a 
profTT'^A" >n throi? or fotjr tnoQfh«, tiiat he %ccm^ to hvn 
jt|)(>ni Iti^ vbole life upon that «tudy ; for lie not onJy madri 
un Afiroldbe, und drrw up a^itroooniical taMe«. bnl in- 
vetilrd Jir« mpthodfl of crIcu lution. or iiui-b ill Iraiit im np- 
pciiic<l new 1o liiiii. becHUse tlit:) were not niciili«M«l if) 
tho book^ wbicK he- luui then un op^tirt unity of reAdiag ; 
and it i» a hufiicicnl pr<pot', both of th(< mpiility of bu pf^ 
^revAp and 1h« oxt^^nt of hin viowK, thut in lbr«<T monll* 
aHi^r hU tirti Mghl of u pnir of f^flobei^, hu furm<-d nebain^A 
for finding the longkude, vhich ho tenl, in Jaiiuary. ITdtk 
to ibcf RoTdl twciety ut fiomlou. 

His Kt-hrmr, bctii^r rrrommrntU^l to the mJrit-ty hj dir 
quc^iit ^n» con*idcred by thrjn with u dcf^rc^ of atlrbtkm 
vbioh, perhiipj, would not have be«ii bestowed npoo (h« 



nUrm^t of o moUiematieiiui so ^ooiiff, Jia<1 lie not been dif- 
iiiArd witli so illuitlrioufi a puirvna;;i*. Bui il vna loon 
ftinDil^ fhnt, fot want of book r, he Jiud itna^pned hunself the 
inv<*ntor of mf^thnd^ alrriiily in njmmoii imi?, fiud Ihat tie 
|iro|MivtTt1 no m*:*urit i>r<lfH0O\rrirg iTict loii^iliifliv bnt ttioli 
ai luid bn^ri ulrrmlj IrieJ ntid found iiiHiiftkii^nl. 8(lch 
wiU bfT very ffci^ucnlly lh« fate of tho*o, whoA<^ forlano 
citlM^r condemns Uicm vo »tndy wilfaout ib^ cie<^U9art u< 
AUtiUHTe from Lbrariot, or who^ in too much banc, publish 
their duicoverie»^ 

Tlii* Aiicrnpi exhibiliHl, howpvr-r, such a »]K>i*iineii of bit 
rA[>Bclly for inJilb<<inaliml Ipaniinf^, btk! uich a proof of hii 
enjiy profioiimny, llmt tba Ruyal »urit:ty of DcrUii iid- 
nitlcd him oji ono iif ibdr mcmbcrn in lT'i-\ 

F. 3MI. PnriCf^, v^fio ojf commonfy Ihf tost. 

Barretier, hod been dUluifj^uieh^d much morv c^arly by 
tbe nttrgrsTin of AnspncL, who, in 17^, trni for bin 
fil)ir*r and mofln?r to ib4< roiirt, wh^rr Ihrir non, wlifim 
tbcy carrird with liioni, Iwr with a Ipllrr ni 
Fravdi, and addresjied ttiioth^r in Iwitio to ibe young 
prince ; wbo nH^r-rwuTdK. iji ]7<M, [^antrd him ihrpmilrjcc 
of borrowing: hooks from Ibc bbrftric* of Annjiacb, to^tiicr 
with An winuat penuoa of frfty fiortoa, which h^ enjoyed 
for fonr yeart. 

In (hJA placfi It may not be imjirofif-r to rMoiinf Mtme 
hnoonra confiTmrd upon hioii vbich, if diji1mctf<in« me to 
be nttcHl by the kiioffledj]^ of iho^o who bc»tov thoca. mtky 
be ooiisid<^r^ aa more valiuble tban tboio which he re- 
otfhved from prince** 

In Junp,173t, he was initiai^sd in ih** finiveistty of Alt- 
doifV, iind at the rnrl of (lie yrnr ITAi, ihr %rnad ofihi^ 
Tt(nrmtt\ cbun:h», MJ at Chrhtinn ErUng, adtnittrd tiioi 
1o be prPKetil fit Ibcir ciminiIliiliiHit, uiid to pr^irrrer ibe 
mi^mory of fo r^imordiiiAnr u trrtn!kao1ii»i, lu th(* Ti-orplioii 
of a boy of okixfn yifor* into an occloviulu^ii] council, ro> 
cofdMl It in « ponioular arlrolr i^f tho net* orth« aynod. 

P,Oi^ H4 vat ioc titueft pl^tnini imfA scit^nct etui <jwt, 

Ajtroiiomy wsa alvayt Barrtitwr'i fflvonrlio «tiidy, and 



$0 much engrossed his tbouf^U, tliat b« did not williDgl; 
converge on any olher sabjuot; ncr vtas he oo ^r\\ pleuod 
witli lh« civjlitieB of th« ^f^atffst p4*r£onK, at witk tlto coo- 
venailoii of Ihe natbeniAtlcfuD^, Ad nKlronoiniml ob««r- 
laiion wns tuHic-u-nt lo wtthliold htm (rotn oourl, or to call 
him uvfay uliniplly finm ihr most illu:itriou« u-iMrmbLiot; 
nor ^nu there auy hope of rnjopng h» company, withoiil 
ioYitiD^ftomc professor 1o keep liim in IciDpcTrnnd ct^f^gc 
bjm in dUeourse; nor waa Jt poAGihlri, without tbu cs^^di- 
*"0t, to prevuit upon him to sit for h'u picture. 

Hjtd, Ai HnUr Up roRtimfifd his MtwHt-K^ 

Mr. Diim-lirr n-turiicd, on thr 2BUi i>f April. iTlVi^ (o 
ilallc, where h<^ continued the rcinainin^ port of hu life, of 
vliieh it mny not bo Improper lu ^ivr a imore p«rticiUar 

Al hiB settlpm^nt in the university* he ttetermiaed to 
rirrt kin pHvili-ge^ an rnHxtf^r iif jirlA, »nd In n^ad pti)>4kk 
lecturer to ihe ^dtdriitv; r dfi^igii from whit-h Lis father 
could uol dtMnuilc? him, ILoukIi he did not upproii? it; $o 
ccrliunly du hi/oourv or prcfcrmt-nU, too «oon conferred, 
iufutuMv the t;r4.'Qtujl cupucilio'L, He published an iavitft- 
tion lu Lhri'o lrolurr-4 ; oiio oritif^il on the book of Job* 
Jitiothrr nn ^isfronnriiy, and s third upon ancient eccleaM' 
ticul liihior}. Elut of (ht>< <i III ploy me II I 1m u-ia noon mui« 
woary by the ptlulmjcr nf {at amiitori. tlio fnltgnc which 
it occBftlcined, and t^e interruptii>ii of hiA studies which i1 
produced, and, lb<'refore, in n forftiigbl. he deaistt^l wWly 
from his lecliiroH, und never jtti<rrwurdF r<^tiimcd them. 

Be then applied bimurlf to ibe study of Iho \aw, aliBo»l 
ftgaiiiil Ji[-i own inclination, whirh, howitror. h^ con^veted 
»o fu litk tu liraome a n^^ohir uUeuduut on the leotorr* on 
thnt science, but spent all hiii other time ii{xhi diflef«»l 

The hrtit yeiir of biK roaidcnco nl H^iiif wus spent «pH 
natural pbUoKupby und mathemaltcka ; sud »caroeJv njr 
nulhor, and4>iii or modern, (bnl ba« treated oin iboae parU 
of Wrnang vrm ne^U't^n^tl by him, nor was he vatbfied with 
the knovlcd^ of whxt had been discovrrnl bi otb«r», bol 



li»i!fl nfyvr f>li«ervutioiiJi> atui dr(*w tip iinmiTrjiir anlniliitioot 
for hiA own u»c. 

He then rctunicd U> coclrHinnticBl hintoiy, and bc^an to 
retoncti hu Acf<»ui)t of Her^«ie«, irhich lie t>nd bo^-un at 
SchvabHcli ^ on ihtfi rcrnsion 1io rea^ the primitive uriten 
wilb gresl ttcciirm^j, and rorniMl u projitct of rrfcidatin^ 
the chrouoloKJ »f ttioao ;!«<'■; whith prodarrd u CliroDU- 
logionl DuKftatioR ou tiic nuccnision of ibc UwlmfiH uT 
Hmdc, Ifoin tit. l'<fh?r lo Vtctor> printed in hAi'm nt 
Uttwht, 17*0. 

fin ftfi^rwnrds wnr< wholly abiorbt^d id application to 
pulite liinratUFe, JLrid r«a<l itciC otkly n muliitudu of vrilMi 
in iIk? Orpnk and Liitif^. htit in flir Grrmim, Diitrh, 
Frrncb, Itidinn, Kngliih. and A.roblck Itm^iin^ca. mid, ui 
tii9 ]aM jf«r ofhifi life, ho wai engrossed tiy the Alndy of 
iiiFivriplrjus, ni<>didd^ uiid UTiti<|iiili(*t( ofjill miCioiu- 

lo 17U7 lie rpMimcd Iiih den^j tiC l\ti<\\ti^ A certain 
mrllind of diiGoiivpriii^ thf. JfinKi'ude. vhtrh he imu^fiMl 
Limsvir lo ha<e ailiiincd hv exin^t ol>ni'r\nti[*ri»i £>f ihr decli- 
vatiun and tuclmiilLuii uf tlie needle, tiiid st'iit lo the ttcfl* 
demy of Kuwoeek und 'o the Royul society of London. •! 
Ihp man*' limo, an ucfount of hiR ncht-mes ; to wtitefa it wuk 
£r>l un«wrrcd b\ tin? Ho^imI kocm-^Iv. that il apppttnad the 
ttme with one which -Mr. Whiiion hud bid before tbem; 
and BAeruHTds h^ lite iii^ndi^ni^ of mTieDL-t'», Uiat bi^ uietbod 
w«s bnl vrry lillle differeut froui one Ihiit had been pro- 
poaed by M. dt: In Ctoix, tuid vbich ita* ioKottioa^. bat in- 

Hr. Bam^tier, fiodiQcr hifi uiv^ntion olroiidy ■□ the poi- 
tMiion of tvo DLeu einin«»iit for nutlheoiuliml knowledge, 
drairtird fruniall tTtquirien afler the loa^itade, nnd cnga^od 
in AD eioinLH.itJoo nf ihr Csvptiiui naLujuitieti, wbicJi he 
.pmiioAed lu free from their prrceut obncarily. by decipb^f' 
«i|c tbc hiifrogljpbacka, and oxplaiiiTtif; their Lutrooomy ; but 
tbi^ design w«a iolerrupted by hi* di-ath. 

P. 384. Vonfidnti* a^d tranqtiUUftf. 

That rlitfHl Barretier, in ib» 2tUb year of hii a^e, bavuig 
given tt proof bow mat^b may be pcrfonned io 90 *borta 



Itinc hy uiJufati^nbtc diliffuiicc. Hu wu not only uMMfr 
of many lau^iin^cs. I>ut nkilbd iilmoat in evef^ tM^EW^. 
And capublo of dUlimr^ijihin)^ himself in every profouioo, 
except lluil i^if j>liy«Jrk, fnun -aih'wh hv hml bw«i duoott- 
mgrd by ri^mEirkirig ihe tlUcrHil^ of o|/mloi^ amoB^ tboic 
vrliQ lin<i bi^rtii cQiiAulled conccmiug liift own di«ordna* 

His leanitu;^, bowcier Tftjit, huU uot dqjiriwctl or orur 
bTirdoticd bid iiatuml facultir^, for hitt fi^moB ulwuys op^ 
l>cnrcd preset ominant ; and uhc-n lie inquired iota ibo van- 
oufl cipiiiioii4 of ttii^ wriirrK of »\\ Hgi% bi^ rrcwoikod asd 
detprminrd for bimielf, kavJuf^ u cDtud fit oocb coB]>rabon- 
■ive Aod dclioato, «ctifo nail ut(ouI.U«i Ho va« dbk to 
rcusDji vrilli Ibc inctapb^Mcianv oD the mo«t iUmCiuko qucc- 
ttotiji. or to «]filnt:u the moat unplcttMii^: siDbJG«t« l>j tbc 
Ipiiety of liifl fatxoy. He wrote ivitb i^al eleganoe iad 
cligTiJiy ctffilyUv uud bfid tb« pt4!u1uir felicity of reutiiMii 
nnd f^Luliiy in uvcrj tlung tbat hr undertook, bring Mv, 
williout iitimrdiliitLon, to tnuisbUe oup Isngiuigie iittoancH 
llivr. Jlv was uo iittitalor, but Atrti^k out ul<v tracks, and 
formed ori^nul syatenks. Hr hud u qmckiirxs of appfv- 
hvQni>o, uf»i lirmnt^sfl of mcincryr vhif^b i^DnUErd him to 
lead with iorrrdiblt^ ra|>idity, and, at the famo tiiBe, to ro- 
tuin what h^ read, vo ai to be able to reoo1I««t aind apply 
it. He lumtfd over volumes in itn irmtutil, arkd KcltFcind 
wbal vafi UBfTiil for Iiik piir|jcMiv \lv iwldoin madr >'k- 
tracts, oxccpt of books wbicb be could not pocun? wheu h^' 
lat^lit wMtl them a second time, beiHK olwuy* able to find n 
any author, M-ith ^i-t>;kt t<\;)edition. what ha had amce rMd. 
Hf> read over, in o&o wiiitor^ twenty vubI folios; aodlbocata- 
Iqgue of booki whirh he bad hoirovod, comfinied forty- 
4kno |>u^> in qiinrto, \\w wTttln^ clute. ami the btl» 
nbridgx^d. flo was a couAtmtt rt^ndor of lltrmry joariuilK. 

With regard (o couimon Ufe lie hod some peculiaritir«< 
lie could not bmr muAiok, and if Iw was ever cof^^d at 
piny could not utti^nd to ir. H« n«LlW lo^ed wine udr 
eiLieiiainmi'MK, nor danciaif. nor tJio aporta of 1b« tM, 
nor rrliuvrd hU Aladie-i with »n\ oihot dtwfVBkoa Ibaii that 
of vuJkitig and converxatinn. Hv rat liltl* Hull, and livrd 

^iv^Hj ufOD ntiih, t«a, brendt fnifti, nnd k«-citI> 

H9 hod KTcal vivacily in lit« ima^nalion, rqJ ftrdoor in 
hiA ^^fitr^i^, uhirli lh<^ rniv nuilho<l nf hit rdDrnlion hn<l 

wfiu had giuni-<d hia <otifi<l«Eio« yiith great frmlvm, but bu 
fnvouhl* !i wrrfl not numcToufi. and to t^thf^r» lin wnx nEvFA^* 
rcf^PT^e<l and $ilrnt, vithont x\k Jco^t incliuatiun to dtf- 
eover his sentijn^nU, or du^lay his l^arauff, H« nevar 
ftit^ his rlkolr<^ iij>oii nnv empToymenf, nor confined hH 
vli'Wit t» uoy prufmHion, belbg tluAJrotift of nothing h^il 
kntmWgr, und rnCirrli; uijUinl(?d witli a>iiricc or smbition. 
lie prrAcrvcil hiirrnclf nlwtiyfi loJ^peodGOlr and WM D^vcr 
Lnovn \t> bo s^Aiy of a IJt^ Uis conviaiit appBcation to 
J«4imini7 HU|>pT&!(AL«il Iboflt? pa&Nioim vbich belray olJi«n </f 
bil Af[C (o irTO||fiilHrit)i^jt, iind 0XL*[ude<1 u11 thum* fi^mptAtioiiv 
to which mm am i-Kpo«-iI hv idlcnirs^ <ir common tunuan- 


I^ISPTIH MoltiN wa« bom nl Mnos. on Ihr lltbof Jiify, 
lf<39, of pnri^trt cmmcnt for th<r\r pi^'ty. Ho wim 1h« 
<4rtr«i of ml^'pn dnTdreii ; n fjimltv (o wWli (licir ^miitr 
hore fw) pntfiortTon, twA Hhirb, in p(»r*«nH It**?* resfgiicil 
In pmvitlmcr, wnuld htixv ntuird tfrriii inir'UHint^Ft anil 

His i^omtb omiUcd rtotfaji^g in h» cduMttron, whiol 
n^hpon rt<[n\tv\ and which (heir fortune couW supply, 
BoljKDt «nm the jitufiy that uppmn^d to have Ijikeii possM- 
■iivn of hi* iitr limit ion, n* iroon nc thr Itrtii nf Iiin (pmia* 
fflViM hr dixoovrred. A coiiiiir\miin, iiihn ntifiplinl lh« 
upufLrrdrifi of i)tr< jihirr, wmn bt4 first ftiafttcT, nnd vrAn 
paid by him for }iii injttnicliojis with thr Ultlc motiey that 



h*' could firocure, nr that which wa* ^ri^n htm to ba^ 
Komrthuijg In r*iil ttf'tt*r fliiifirr. TtiiiE Jibuti ii^nc«» Rod ^^ 
fterosilj diBcovcfctt tlR-ijifteli<c-« wilh his |jabMou Cor botaav, 
and ihe ^Tutificdtioti of it dc»irc iiidiffcronl m ibi^ir. «m 
prcjroKil by iht" cxcrt-ise ol tuo \tr(ut>a. 

Il« VM %oon mafllcr of all biji inttnictora ktio«led^, 
Aod vaa obliged to ^nlarg^ bk lU-qiuiiitUficf* with plaalf, 
t>y ob«eTviiif( them blnnHf In ibo rkf^fglibovrhood of Huil. 
Httviog iii^ixlnfd bis ^;imnmlit^uL 3i1iidii?a, be wmi Hinil lo 
learn pbilo«<iphy at Pari:^, whttbtrr be trAVt41<^d on foot lAtf 
o atadccit id totnn^, find wta carL^fuL not to io»c vucb u 
opiKtrluEiiw of unprowmcnt. 

WJjc-ii bin cuuFK^ ai pbilosophj was completed, he W9» 
dfltnoira-d, by bis lov*? of Ixjluiij. to tb*? proicMion of 
phy«itk, niid> frnm 1h»it timr. f^n^pigird In n ciHjrsi^ of lift}; 
Vfbivb 4a» it^vur eAucwdt;il, eilbci by tbe oatcuUtiou of4 
pluloaopb^r, or lb* soverily of ttii auc-liorel; for be coai- 
fiDcd biiDKulf to Ijrcad and water, uoii. ut mosti «d)i>«cd 
biiUAolf DO indul^onoc hojond fniiU. liy Um motbod. h« 
pr«Mrv4>d a i<onstUQt freodoro and f^pmuty of itpiriu, 
fdwayft equally propter for liludy ; for bin wnl Imd no prn- 
teucrx r<i < ompbiin of Iiring overwhtflmt-d niUi nuiKvr. 

Tbij« i^imf^n, vitraoidinary cut it vm, hnd miuiy md> 
Ymotagct ; for it prvftcrved bi» bealtb, flu advaalage wblcb 
Tory feiv sutticicnily ref^aid ; it gave bin on nulhority 
to proacli did and abituiL*pro to bi> patienu ; uid it mad« 
him rieh wilbout the usnviUiuce of furimie; ri^b, uoi for 
binmrlf, but for iht* poor, who wrn- tbr onh pi-nuinE biruir- 
fit^d by that urlilictul uHluvuc^, >vbivb, of ail olhor6> u mio^I 
difficult to dutjuiit. It in tu»y lo iai«|piic, that, wbiie be 
pnKibwd in tbc midat of Pans (bv avvore iiiiupGnwc^ ofa 
burmil, l'uh» clitforod no oiburvini', with recpml lo him, 
from a h«rtoiUigo, iban tu it «uppliod him witb book» nod 
tbe conversaiion of l^arn^d men. 

In 1003, hi* wa« ndmilti'd doctor of pbj«ick. Aboui 
that tjmr Dr. Piijcon. Dr. Lon^urt. and Dr. Ooloji, all 
omiocnt for tficir «Kill irj botany, ncrc employed in drmwiiiff 
up 9 catalogue of Uie planla id IIio Royal gntlon, wlucb 




Vnn piibluhf^d In Iflf^, anili*r tlw nnme ot Dr. VsUot, 
thi^n (ir*\ phy^ioinn : HnHng lE^t pront^entioTi of ^< wor^, 
Dr- MvHd was of^D coiiflulttri). iiuil fruiu tltcist? convr^- 
■flttons it wftd Uiul Dr> Fa^n concrWflil n pArliculir 
olcom of htm. ^vluch h<i nl«u_vb continued to rrtain. 

AA^r hAvin); pmcliHcd pbyiiick »omo yonn, be was ad- 
miiri^d tjrptirfant lit ihr ll&int-Dtpu^ vlwre he was r^f^- 
luly to hav^ be«rt iiiRde per«tonArT physician »puu tki- 
lirvt lacsDcv; but mera uua^btHcl merit lulTunirra Hlirwly, 
if, wliat U not Tcry common, Lt ndvancei nt bM. Morin 
had ao acquaintance wiib the urt^ iicccavary tr> carry oa 
aehemoB of pr«ifofitiout ; tbo moderation of hh doftiroH pre- 
tervod hun from thu n^ceAvily of Uiid^itii^ them, and ibe 
privacy of hh life drb^irrL^d litin ffoiu iiiiy oji^jurtiuiily. 

At lasl, h»vn*T«H'. jifntirrt wax done him, in sphe of arti- 
fice fitkd partiality ; but hu ndvnaccmrat added notbb^ to 
hu condiiion. t^^cept the poiffcr of moro extcnuivo charity; 
r«r all thv Dioni?y wbi«h bo rc<«iv«il, oa a i^ary, be put 
Into the chum of thi^ bci«pita), atvruyi, on he imj^^ncd. 
witliQUt bAing ob4)i?rv4-d> Not rcntrnt with serving tbo 
poor for nolhing, hi* paid thmi for tiring M^rv^d, 

His rupulaliun iohv su bi^h in Pjula. thai aiadt-iaoUelh? 
de GoiAt was dp^iroui to make tim htrr physiciuu ; but it 
vas Dot ^ithoi^l difficulty thut he <vaa prevailed upon by 
bit friond, IJr. IWari, to air«<Tp( liic pluc«- llv veu by 
tbU ti«w adTaocemeiit laid uader the n«n<iAity of k4?«piD(f 
achariol. nn«'qiijpnfte very unsmiable to hU t'^mp'^r: but 
wbHe lie coinplii^d vvilh thi>ii? extDcior apptuaani?t?ii, vbicb 
the publick bad a rigbt to dcmnud from him, ho remitted 
nothing of hif^ former atirtcrity. in the more private and 
•Mootial parte of hia lift', which he bad olivaya the power 
of regnlatiiii; according to his onn dUpoMlion. 

la l«D yeLin jnd a half Iht: priiict.'M firll aek. and was 
ddpainrd of by Morin. who wiu a gn^Ai mustirr of pnig- 
nottieka. At ihi- lime when she thoug;ht brrwlf in do 
daaf^r be pronounced birr duatb inrtilALlc; n dcelftTnliarn 
to the bigheat de|nv<; dij(afl;rccab]c, but whidi vm made 
movi> e«u»y to him ituui to aay other, by bxa pit^tJ und art- 



UtI jldi|iliait^. Kfw dkl liU ninr^rlty i^mlftce any ill 
OOlM^UvnrpK Id UiiuH.-lt'; fur liiii prtJiL-en. ad^ttt^U^ by tdi 
naul. tukJtJ^ n Tinic fram her tin^or. e^rc? it bim, m ibc hut 
pU*cl|^ of her nft~EfDlii>n, uad rethurdctl him t^iU R)04rTT l<i bi* 
ntitijilticliou. Ijy prcpnrinjf li>r rl«aUi vith a lni« chri^lnn 
|Bttj« &ba tofl bim. by nill, a yrarly p«Q«itto of two 
CfaoiMiillil lifTi'i;, mhitli vilh iiliviatH rej^lurH p«iid him, 

K0 Noniirr vnw ^hn |trturfA ckjul, hut hi* frKn) hiiiMoir 
frain Llw vucmiihroiicc of his chariot, it&d retircrd Ui St 
Violor* w-jllirxit a scrviuil ; liftviof, however, tKi^iaCTitod 
biri dmij olluw^jjoc with a hilli; rico» boiif^d m wtiivr. 

Dodarl, vrito biul uiidertAk«« tke cbarf^ of boitig m* 
ItttioilK on hU ncrnittit. jiroi^ureil hirn, Ml thi- mMomtioa of 
Ihe Acad«my. ■'» 1<»9!)« to hr »r)Illiu4ll^(l mtndatv botaokt; 
mtl knowing!, what he wuuhi doubllt-aA Into befrn jjlnfturd 
with ibc knowledj^ uf, that ho inlruduonl kito ihat «t> 
.icmbly the idah that wus to lucccvd hira ia his |>ba«« of 

Dr. Ucrii) wdii* uoc odo< irho bad tipoa hi* hjtidi ibo 
hihour «f itduirliji||^ bimveEf to flu* duti^^fl of bU cooditiov. 
hijl nlwiivK found hhmu^lf iistunn^ nilaplvd Ia ihiin, H«t 
hjid, tJicrrfoTC, uu ilUficuUjr in htrijif* cuji>iraiit ut Ui^ tit' 
^L-mbliL'S of the ucadomy, DotwithxtoDdhig the dutaiioc 
of phicCN. whiEc hr had ntrcQ^h riioii|^li to MiippofI tbc 
joumoy. Mat bU rogioion «m» itot equally offectnal to 
])roduoo vi|ift>iir n* lo |jT«V4>bt ctrail^Eiipcrii ; utnl, being tixlt- 
ianr y«un old ui hv odimtsionr he ct^oLd uM coutiirao bU 
MHtduity man? tlmn n \4.-nr Rfb^r thr dnnth of Dodwl, 
wbiiro hr succtrcilod in 1707. 

WhoD Mr. Touinofoil yrcai lo punue his botevnl 
iiK|miot in tho Loritnt, ho drurcd Ur. Morni t« mpfly 
hiit |>l-^ce of domo^ttlrAtor of the plnnu In tbo HoyaJ 
^den» Lxttd rtwurdtd him for tho (rouble, by iiiMribmir 
to bini a m<w phml, n lucb ho hroitghl tVom the c^ksl, by the 
nnmc of Murlna iiHeiiliilin, un hi- fnuniril uthem Ihi? !>•- 
dnrlo, the rogoriiiLv tJir Difcnonnr. ihr Phrlip^tt. Thvae 
flro coinpliiiicnf& proprr lo h^- rmde by tho boitJUkuCi, MM 
oiUy to tboovof ihetr owei rxitAt but tolbo giofttc«l pei 



iera^lant is ft monamcDl <if u moro dnraMo naCitrc Oitin 

A ounIuI or IU1 obfliiflji i and yol, aa u procl ihtit c\cn 

tlwM vcfkiolcM iir« Dot tttwayi «idlt(.HetiL ti> tniDiaiil to fu- 

tiiritv th<' nimip coi^fiiiird with tli«tin, thn Ni^nttitnn iq iiov 

s<^am-lv Luo^u bif heij ulhr r name iLftu thitt of tobacco> 

Dr. Mona^a^lviLnciiii^ fiir iti o^etVU no« fitfced to taio 

■TTftnt, 4U)cl« vimt was Yi't u mon* ts^ctitiiLl Allcmtiocir 

lileJ opon himsdf to ukc nn ounce of wine & day, 

tJiich Lo mtfiuttred vitli ibo «anio ffxnctneu sts a modioiiM 

MderiuK' upou {loiitoii- H^i' 'juii(«d. ai llit- «am« time, ull 

i^lwurlicKH), nnd hin vTUtH to thv lltti:l-Dira; Intl bu 
wt'ftkncw ioorcoMiig, he vda lorccd to ixtcrciLM; hi* quantity 
of wine, wbl«li yet be alwuj» coulinuud to adjust hy 


#&veaty-eifrht hU I^|^ L<oii1d enrry liim no lou^ur, uad 

■c\y li-ftJiii Uvd : lilt JiiK irilrlLroU t-vnliniicxl mt- 

impoirvd, nxocpl in tbo liut nx jnoDth* of liia Itftt. Ha 

«xpiredi or, to v*c a more proper term, went ouf, on llic 

^Llt of ttarcb, 1714. itt the age of eighty yoor:», without ajiy 

tt«0per, and merely for vant of «tTeii^U,bft%in|^<fiijoycd, 

tbo b«Deflt of bu r^gimeru 3k lou^ aod bi^alUiy life, nod 

m gmitJo And rnty druth. 

iThift extiHordiuHiy r»jpiu«ji wa» t>iil |>arl of ibe diiily 
ej^totiiNi of bid life, <if wUiub ull tic oflkcs wort.- cvrivd 
III Willi n regularity uod exaolne^j twuily approucKmfl: to 
bat of the pl«nct44ry tnotiao*. 
He went to bed at Mv^a^ nod rose at two, tbd^ugbout 
be }ear. Ho apeet, in ih<> moniiDg, three hour* ai hk 
ilH«o(ion«v mid weul to llif) H6i«1-Di«Tu, in the »umner, 
reea Gve and ux, Kiid, b dw winter, bcCweoii ■•& tmd 

of wine, 


Itl^ ruin (iti tht |i<c«|t4Uuii (if Ikcjivh, kiutt i* iJiir'dj oppoUH to Uwt «f 

hi:* Up. * iliinaf aqy|uiBf«l inlirti»U*v f>r nay ^t*rty t^ hU inflt^rlul iUtrilw^ 

wcwa tHtity ludiKDier, ilut u th« caafwtivHpiixnipuv Hcklo. lbcj«ugbt 
to yttaat Lm- Orig^ t^Au. 



■evcDt hftarii)^ tnastj fcjr tbi^ moit pari, at Votrn Pami 
After hj» relttrn he itfud the holy ftcHpturo, diu^d ftf elevi-i 
and, wh«D it vias fnir woarher, walked till two Sd ifac Roi 
}pinl«-ii. wlirre lie exjaniiutMl tW nttv planti, aail ^^lil 
his rjirlii^tund Almn^Kt paiKiun^ For the Trmninin^ 
of the day. if he bnd no ]>r>ar to vUit, h« shut himt^ir u| 
uFtd roadbooks of bt^raluro or phyftlckj but chi^Uv pbvfrrlr|| 
LIS the doty of hi* profeasioo Kt|uir«d. Thi*, hht^wut 
trm UiA linto Iw roc<fivf»d visits, if any wcrv paid him. Hi 
OifVen lined thin eivpreK«ir>n ^ " ThiuMi ihnt romn to tet* ni< 
<ki luCT honour; ihove lluil >i(ay AWHy» do me u fnvoiir-" II 
U eauy to cou<:eit'«. Uial a niaD of thu temper n-^ nt 
crowded wilh mdiibitionA : 1h(^rt< wa<t only now and then dfl^ 
AoCouy Itmt would \>ay Paul a vUtt. 
I .Amongf bi« papers was found a Greek and l^tin indf-a 
tn Hippricrati?'), morp rnjtioiiR nnd «>xnct iban ihal of Pi 
wliii;b \i** bdd fiiiiFiliftd only u irt-iir bfrfun* bi.s dr-tith. S»i 
a VDik rvqiiirrd thr jiwduity iind patifincf? of ■ bPTTDJt', 

There in, likct^iae, ajourudl of tbe wcatbcT, Lepi will 
ont intcmjptioTi, lor uii>r4? Iban fcrty years, in whjfb facj 
hfls aocnfftmly «et down the nlfllo of tbo bnromolrr 
thermnniptpr "he drynesit ;iiid njoiBtun? of the nir, 1l 
variatioriH of ihi* witid in (br rTnnriH- t^f the dNy, U»e rail 
\hc lhiiiuli?ri, utid i^vcrn the ifiiddeti stoimft, in a v«>rjr ci 
modionit and concise method, which exlnhib. In ■ litl 
room, a ^eul tr^iu ol ditr<?rat)t obs^rralioift** What nniBTl 
hett of such rt^m^rks bud o^^iLiprd a man Ic^et uniform ii 
hialife. and whot» atlvntion ]utd boc^n oxiitndod tocoini 
objects I 

All the c>itfli«T wliK-h hr it'fl tn a collection of innlil 
BDOlber of herb>f. and a library ruled at Iwn ihoi 
orovna; which mnkt'. il evident that he spent niiich inoi 
upon bis mind than upon bin body. 

^ Thii ti Kb ioil4&r< of the AmjHualma {[rntntllf lotta^ m wrilen «f !iti 

db1y wntif^n by ruvn^ nhi> ncLCtier rH«v* nor MpMi icy louil ippUun 
Ibalr libaurt ^—Ortg, f^. 

Pbtkk Bchua> w» born ut Utr^cbi. oil the !^>ib day 
uf JuDt?. Ifl6d. Tliff family ffDin whirh he dewmwdfcX h;u, 
for sovprui g<"nrri»^iritm, [irodHctTci mt'D of grffftl cmirwnce 
for piciv A»(j Icarnliig ; aaJ bla father, vho kab pro!>s»or 
of divmily in the umvemty, iui<i pfliilor of tUe city of 
UlrecLl, wai oqtiully colcbrudid for the atnctiJeiLft of hb 
tife, tiko vfhcucy 4ik] orthudoxy of his icrmons, uiid th« 
Imirniii^&nd pprvprciiity of hii ar^tlrtnical lKr4urrji. 

Tniin ttif^ HAhitilnnri.^ uiiil iii!ttrii<:tiim wliich viirh a fnUitrr 
vould doublleM buvD bccu cncourj^^cd by Eb« g^inus of 
this KtQ not to biivt? oinittod, bo waq uuboppily cut off ft! 
tflef«n jeuTi of uft^i b«inf^ &t thut timt-, b^ hia talber'n 
di;iith. thrown votiTolv under the cure of bu mothtfr, by 
whrpKr dih^pno^*, pi«ty, nnd pmdr^nrr, bit F^diip^lion vat 
«o reigulultfd, ihut be bud Kcarcdy »iiy re«ftot»> but filJul 
l?iidcirne»^, (o rricmt ibr loss of but ftttUrr. 

lie vns, ttbout tbi« time, «cnt to iUr- pnblick ncbool of 
Utrecht, Co be iuatrucCcd in tbc Ictinicd loD^u&^t; M>d it 
«iil convey no (Common idea of his i-^tpacity and indiulry 
to rehle, ihut be bcid paued tbrou^b the eiatMit, urid wun 
ndiiiiited taia tho luiiviTsify in bis ibirlt^onlb year. 

TbiH urcount of the nkplclity of biM progr^n in lh« ftrat 
pvt of hja »tudif^ id so attipcudoaA, that, thou|<b it is at* 
toted by biM rnrnd, Ur, OBtt'rdybe. o( vrbciai it cannoC be 
reuonobly nunpcclcd Ib^l hr i« him^ictlf deceived, or that 
fcp «da dcsiro to d^coive oUiers, ii moil bo aJlowf^d far lo 
fKrecd tiip liniitt of probability, if ^ be comidered, with 
rttgard fo ibe melhodx of <*duc4tion practimd iu ourcoim* 
Iry. wberir it i» not iinc^jminon for tbc biKhnt ^eiiiiu, tuui 
moftt campiX'hcoMVC capaolty. to bo rnlmiffkd for lea 
ye«n. in tbo«e tboray paths of lilcralun;. which BtHman 
H repTV«eiited to ha^e piis»«d in Iom Ihwi Ivo; aud vr 
Biul* doubtltmy. coEifcsi the ino^t ikiifuL of out mmtpn 



macli cxAollod by thf* uddr^JM of liio Diit«ii teochca^ or 
thv MViXlV'ti of our grtiulvKt vcTioIutk Isir KtiqincMjd by tboi 
of Bunmin. 

Bill, Ui rvdtuii? On« luuratiitf 1o cnnlibiDty, it Is iKc* 
Hxjy ihsti ndmiruliou sIkjuIiI Rite (ilf»»!! Ii> inqDiry. sad 
i( bo discovcrcit ^hat proJioicticy ii> iLlcmtur^ U csipaci 
from u Mludeiit, raqucslijig to be ndmilt«d iiitc ft 
ttikivenily. It i* to he ahsvTwJk, ibat in th« umvcnatM 
of foTi'iffn t'ountriri. they liuve profc««or« of phiiotx^. ot' 
hmnFitiitVr wliu«? j-mpUiymujil 'i% ifi mitrurl ihe yoiinj*?] 
ct8ft««* in ^nunnur, rhclorink^ and Innf iittge« ; sor dt% 
ongft^ hi the »tudy of phUosopky. lili tliey tiave iiOMcsdj 
throuf^liQ courso of pljiJoIofp^'ul koclitrea nod excrcUc*, 
wlikh, in «omo pliu>tfii two year* mtv conitiooly ollolteil. 

TItLf Hngliiii Mchemo of vdutrtttioriH wliich, v'ith r«i|(flrdl 
lo afRdrmirul ^Iiidirs, iA mt>tv ri^croni>, nnd set« lil 
liutiuurB ai a Lighcr prico than tbal of any Dibtn- iHiwitry; 
«x«cl)t from ibc yutilfi, y/lm urc iniiiiilcd iti our collogM, 4| 
dogicc of pKilolo^cal knnM-lcd^ iiifiioicDt to qonlify Ibftf 
forlecturoA io philoBopliv.whioh nro r»ad to llicm tn Lolifttl 
and io i*niih\» ihvia lo proiiCud in otlier Bludn^n vnttioirt^ 
uuiEUuK^o; IO ihiti U nmy be conj (*(.'( tirvd, fKai Jtnrtnan, 
liiH entrdiiDt? Into tlir iinii-i^idtT. bnd nn mich itkill tn blW: 
gUH^vifl, nor fiicb iibilti> jT i lf mm i 'on, jt« nro freqni 
lo W met wiib in iht- \ii^\\*:i :\,>--.--. < f ^i En^iah tdiMil; 
nor wiiji, pcrhttpit, more (ban mcKlvratcly »billcil in J^tio. 
nod taiijf ht the lirM rudimonts of Gfeck. 

In the iinn«rjuty bo wu4 «;omniit1iud to tiio car« of lliij 
l^nrned Gr«nii9^ vbo<f^ reipird for hit falb^r inrlin«d 
lo !4iiperjiiii^iirl liiii iitiidtesi witb more llian 4*Dmnoii ati 
litHi, vbU:h waji toon iroiifirnml jujd tncreajwd by hlA db 
coycrin of tbc gooiua of hia pupil, and hb Dbserralion 
bifl dibgcticc. 

One oi' ihe qualilica wbioh oontributcd eminently 
qualify Crnvviufi for an ingtmoier of yomlb, vna tbtf 
gi^city by wliirb ho readily djicorered tbe pfi 
faculty of vach puj>il. mid ib« pr^^uliav dtfJiigiMlion 
wLidi nature Imd ulloiird bim to any fipi;cir-> of lilfrature, 

and by *lii«b fa« was toon able to determine, tlial Burnvii 
vii» romarkably ndnfiti^ (o cbiMJc^ttl vitidkx, unil |>redict 
tlie |3fTeiit A<lv'aricf*« ihat ht^ vioiild mitkr^ hy iiithjuHoTKil^ 
puTitiuk^ llu* direrLiou of liib ^iirj«. 

AnimAtifd 1>y llm niajiinLftcriiK^ut of a liilor to cele- 
brelcd. Iio cfinlliMicd ibr vi0>i;r of bi^i iippUmlinnr iincl, 
forHricruL vrur^. iiol ouly fittc^iHlod iho tc«turo« of (Vrn^ 
*iiw, but matlt: imfl of every oilier opi)«rtiiin(y of ImprtiT©- 
meot, iritb luch cltti^4*uc«< ai mi^ht Jttilly be4>^peci«il fo' 
pcocJticfT un uiiriirnjiion profit j«ncy, 

liflriii^ tliri* atlittfi«t«l m aulllcieiit rirgmi^ of dAXKicnl 
ktttwlcd^ lo <tu«UfT him for inquirivn into otb«r sd^ncfflt 
b« applied liimsoir to (ho aindy of thi' law, duJ pnblJdiml 
a (liaMTluiiou, d« Vtueaima Ha^rLsliiutum. which ho piib- 
liekly dofvudeil, iind<T the protW«ur Vun Muyclfo, vUh 
fktuth IrMTriiog lUld plnijiinririf, lu ]>roriim(l liim ^rc^t ap* 

Tm^H^iiiinK, lbt*n. ibal ihe coiivfnirtlioii i*f oltiw men of 
incrr^n^ might be cf u^^c tovariU his (ortJirr improtoEiiL-nt, 
and riglitly jodging chal nolioiu forimtd in any siu^lo se- 
minary are, for ibi* f^^Liitrdt part, c»titraot«d and [KU'tiul, Up 
%<<nt to L«y<l«*n, vIktt Ik^ Ktui^ii'd ph»1o«opby lor a yoiir» 
undrr M^ dc V'kbW, uhfMr col^hrliy wik ko ^rrmt, that 
the Mhiiolft iiMi|^iii*d lo iht- octeiiceA, ivhicli il wan hiH )Btiv 
rinco tu tt:ach, wcro not jiufTiciiral, iboo^h rtrry ?ipw:imi9, 
to contain thr avdi^^Dcc that crowded bin lectyrrm from all 
pnrU of Europe. 

Yet ho did iiol aalfer hkntelf to be ofif|^rOK4«d by phtio 
■opbietl diiqitixitiona, to tho iic^leut of ihoAo ttadi«fl in 
which bn vra» more eaHy enga^^d^ and t« whit^l) hi* wtu, 
|»erbu|]Tt, by miluri^ bt-Tlc-r kidA|»led ; for he HCt<*ndrd nt tbp 
Mimr tknii Ryckiiu'K rxplanatiutiK of Tucituft, and Jnm^3 
Ortwoviufl** lectures on the Orc«k vrriton. luid hat otVii 
b««u heard lo firkiiowio<lfc, at nn advatiG^d n^> Uw a»* 
•i«laDe« vbicb bc» received from them. 

Having ihui ponf^d a yrar ut tx^dtwi viih gretir advan- 
M^, bff ivinm«rd to Uirerht, nnd once mon- upplit*d hin^ 
nrlf to philological studJen, by the auUlaiicc of OrwviiM, 



vJio#e aarly hop^t of hifl g^uiit were now raised to a Ml 
confidence of that (-scuUonc<*, at wbivh ho ftflerwvd* 

AtUcrrchl, m Man;h. 1686, in Uie tweiitiiflli >nar of hit 
»gt, be wa» advAiiocil lo tbc Jc}{rc« ofvloctor nriuws: on 
whkh occasion ho publiahi^d a toiiriM-d di^icrtetieii, tie 
TrnnFaciionibus, and defeudud it with bis vbuoI elcKjiwni 
tearninff, and siicceM. 

The aUftinmenI of thift honour wiu far from hftving n] 
Hiirnmn llmt ttlfrcC which huf ht-rn too oftPii ciHfl«*rTed 
bo |ir(kd^icrd in oUif-r^, ibbo, liuvliig in thtfir cmn oj>i&H 
no liiglier object of otnbitioji, have ri-ldpAod into idli 
And ^{Msunty, aud 4[>cnt lliu rt-nt of Ih^tr Lnea in a In:^ ci 
joymonC of Choir ouademic-ul dif^ilieti Btimum 
to further impnkvemt-fktv, uutl, iiol !tutiEtfu-d virli ibe op| 
111 nil ben , of IJtT^rv ronvi -nation nbrrh t'tn^rht afTorded, 
tmvdlt^d iiilo SwiUtrrlujiJ ;u]d UerniAn^v, wbete he ^m 
iin int^rr^MD boUi v( fdiut? and Icarulni;. 

At Wix return from thi* cxciimion, h» engaged in 
praotioe of Ihc Law> and plcnded sovcrnl cavsca wilb sui 
ri'put^blion, as miffht be hoped by a m»n vho hxd joi 
lo hijt knowledge of ihe l4i\r, the e ni belli ihmenlst of polii 
1iii;mtiir«p mid i\w. aitiirt rating iiiuli tin iif Inn- philoiophj 
and who wu^t Mv U* rmplny, on every occuAion, the 
of etcM^ucnci- uud the puwirr of arRitmeutulion. 

Whili- Burmon was hualuninff lo hijcH ropalation in 
courts Df jiistit^e, and to tiiosi? Hch<-i< and hcniourA «J 
blway« follow i1, he wak summoned, in UKM , by the m&fii 
Irviei of l^tmchl, to undertake the cbarffe of collector 
t]tv IfniClw, an ontrv. in ihut phice. of f^rpul hvnuiir, ai 
wbich Uo ovcr^\A<id, thir/cl'iirr. u!t u pmaf of iWir coni 
denco ond rstcem. 

While he wti-t cnj^djccd in thu cmploymcnti be 
Kvc C1oli<<rbok(^, [i yoi]ii|^ Udy cf a f^ood faoiity, and ni 
common ^niu» nnd beauty, by whom lie hitd ten ebitdrei 
of which 4-ijfhl dit^d yDuii|^ ; and vu\y t«a huiiji, Prancia 
Cuapuj, hviMJ 111 i:uaiolo ihr^ir tnollirr for iJwir falher*! 



N<tllli4<r jiiiblErL Imvim-Hc nor ilom^lirlf rnrrs ctotuinoct 
Biinniui frmn iho proH-c^nEjon ur lii« litrmrv iiii|iiirif*ft ; hv 
which he «o much cnJoorctl himscir (o Urwiiub, that htr 
vu rcooRimoikl«<i hy bim to Iho rc^Artl of iLu unhmity of 
Utr^obf, nod. B^oriltugly, in L6f>6. wax cho»nn prolt^Mdr of 
eloquence &ii:I hialorv, Iti ^hiab veu; uddfsd, ftftnr somo 
tiln(^ cbi* jjn^fpwnwhip of Uie Crcrk l;iiig^i>igr, nnd ftfter- 
vmHs thHt nf polilickn; An ^i^tiniiK did th'^y c-r^rkceivo Witt 
ttnlities, and ^ eKleuaive his kucwkdf^e. 

At hli entrance upcax ihiJi nrw pro^lurr, hr prnnouiiocvl 
un Antion npr>n t^iorjucncc (itkI poetry. 

Hdvint; now more frf«|nfrnl opporrunitira of ftiflpUjin^ 
hi? learnint^, Ii« uro«o. in a ihort 1im«. to a liif^h rvpul^lion. 
orH'hi<?h ihv gTi*i4l mimbrr nf hit midil^irj; vrxs a lulTiiTknt 
ptaaC, NnH whtj^h thf> prnllrii^nrf fif hln fiiipilu Pthmrjvf not 
to br ati^idonlal or undi^^ier^CHt. • 

III 1711, hf-- fonnr^d a n'-toEution of viMtinc Piimp not 
only for th<- tmk^ of oonfcrrin^, in pcnoTt. upon quoitionH 
of lil47mtiito, ^Cli fholcinrnrd mon of Ihatpluctv, and ofij^a- 
tifvJn^ hi* riirioRitv viih n morn fnniiHnr knowled^^ of ihoM> 
vrilera vhofte worki he admired, but vlth a li^w more hs' 
porlanl, nf viKitin^lhtr hhrsriM, ^iiul makin;; ihiiH- inqiiine* 
whtirh might h<^ of ndvAhtngc tn hU lUrUn^ «1ndy. 

Thei&G4lion uf lh« univemty allowed hiui toatny nl Wm 
bwt *ix ww'ks, which h^ f^mplovoil with fto much <loxt4>ri(y 
Aad indti»lry> that hi^ htul i^orchotl the principal libntriev, 
foilatcd a grpax nninb<*r of mnntJf^criptit and printed fopii^, 
dnd bronchi hack a fjfroat treasure of ci)noii« nhHiTiiLtiona. 

Fn thin visit in Pum In- cunirarti^d hn ui^naialaace. 
nmimg nthrr Irami^d nic-rip with ll:o r.rh^bml<?d fatht^r Muiil^ 
faucon; With whom be couv»T»od> at bin linit intorri^v, 
with no other chaiMct<*r hot that of a trflvollcr; hat, thoir 
difcoaru^ tnrninjif a|ion ancirnt IrAmin^, Ih* ^trnn^r woon 
pivf Kuch proofs of bin atUmm4*ntii, that Monifiticon dp- 
rkr^d him n vory nntomnion frftv(*ll*r, nnd oonfftfced his 
curitMity to know bU nfiai^ : yih\ch lir an nooiit-r hiMard, 
than he roir frnm Iuh iwiit, ftnd, t^aihracln^ hira irilh tho 
ntmcMt nrdoar. rjiprcvxrd hU »E(Ufa«tioo at having irpn 

VDi- Tl. »tf 

40tt btllHANt 

thi' inun tthjjKc |>roiltii'l((mfi of V4rit»uj Linil» lir bad so 
(Ifrii pruineJ; tiiid, tt* a, Tvn\ jtconi o\' hi* tx-fpini, oflefVil 
itol vnlj lo procure liim ftn tmrnodijitc LiitmiAALon 1o uEl tli4» 
libraricf^ of l*rtri», but lo lho«e i» r^inoler pro\inc««, whicb 
' ate rn>t ij^rirnilly opeo lo ftraii^en, anJ imdertook lo eiwc 
Uie tfXp«nAe« of bJA journey, by pruiiuriri)? bi«) ^ntertjiiii' 
mpiif in nil the moiiani^neii r^rhift order, 

Tliin futour BurmArL weis liinUi'rtriL fraoi avccptivtg, b^ 
tliQ iiec»fl)ty of trvAnvnlu^ to LMrvcbl at ibi; usual time i>r 
bfifnnt^iii^ A new oour»o of li^ctun^ii, to whicb them was 
bIwuvk Hop^at ft oonfourjc «f eUuUuU, as nmpb increased 
Ibt* dignity unci fiurie of ttt' uni»en*ity in which he 1au|rfal. 

Mr hmi alriHiily exleinlod to rlistniit paru hiH re|>«ti- 
tiiui r>ir knuvhlr^lgi* of <Lii4^irnt b»loi;i. by ii IrmlJKF, tie 
WetigfilibiiH Pupiili Runiaaj, on ibc rc^cmif^ of tlic R^ 
otuE)?i .fwiitl for bJH sIviU iji Greek IcMirn trig, and la anciral 
ooiru, by u tmcE culled Japihir Tu t curat or ; and afler hi& 
return from Vut'in, bo publiiih^l Phjrdnix* tirtt uiih iht 
iioie* of vnriQUS comm^nlatort, and aft^raurdb «itli bii 
OVfi. He pririted mniiv poenu, iimde many ontionH upon 
iKflrtrnt miUjrclA, »tit\ prixriirrd mi imprewuott of the r-piv 
lie* of (ludiifKnud Saiia\iii«. 

While be WM lhu,t ecnpEoyed, ibe profraaurvhtps of hlft- 
t4>r)r, eloquonciKund ihe <>rrtk luiieiJus:^'- beciutte vacant 
at LoydeUp by ibe difuth of Forixonins ftbicb BunaanV 
fMpuliiliort ificiffd ihr rurvlnr^ of ibt^ aiiivrr^ly to oCTrr 
him iipim vrry grnrroiib tt-rmK, ami whii*h, aflrr MUMf 
*trugglr» with his foudot-iis ff>r bin imiavtr p1ncx\ h%% fn^Ddtt. 
tud bitt coJlcuicuc«, hi: ^oa prevailed ou tc acc<.'f>t, tindinf: 
tho Rolieilnlions from Leyileii wunn and Lirf*L-nt> uad bi* 
frivndH at I'Irecht, ibouKb unwilling to be di-pme^lof biso. 
)/el iioi zealuuK enough for thu honour and iulviintag«! of 
iheir univerHily, lo^rulnnvoiir in ilrtain him by grpat libe- 
ral ily. 

At hM eatrnncc upon tbi£ new pn>f«^norsbip, vbicb wa« 
confefroil upttn hiiii m 171^5, he proiiovac«d an orutiad 
vpoa Ibe duty und oWicc of a proft^Mf of polilv lit^ratmr^; 
i}0 publivt humniMoHs diftt-ipliim- |>rnf4«wori)i proprio officii 




tfe I Bud ftbowefl, fay Xh^ unefnlii'^u an<1 prrspirnity 
lliat lie VBB not eonRm^H i» ii]ifVMUlivi> iio- 
tioikK on thnC itubff-H, luving; a wry hii|f]]> lEiHbu*! of ac- 
(MUlMtatliig lii» imtnictiojiA to itie difl'crrni ubilitJrS tiud 

fttfaanBM-nt» of lils pit]>il«. 

Nor did ho ivfftsr Ibe publick diilioaoflhiB station to hio- 
dcr hiv from pro moling; Uanimt; l>y fuliourv of » diflT^reot 
kind 1 for, br-^idoii mniiy poi>mi^ uiid oratk>NK> ii'liich bo r^ 
irited on difTt-rrnt orrn«ion«i. \u* vrottt fi^vrrnl pn^fiiciu tn liifi 
wtirLs uf utliem, and puljltA^ed lEiur^j iiirrul edilitiUo uf ditt 
bril IjuIiii wrilrn. wiili Lir^i^ cullcttjiru) vf u<jIl'» from va* 
rioiiK comRicntnlcni- 

llc wft.4lwiccroL<tor. or c1ii«rK4>vomoijr onhfiunlT^rilyr 
and di<cb;irf;ed tliui iuiporUiht ollice with e<\\ia\ i^qnitj and 
ability, and guiDed, by hi* conduct in every alaiton, m nuicli 
itftlrrra, ihnt wlirn i\xv |in>fc-xM]r«liipurimtiiryor(hel'uilvd 
I'rijyHK^c* hctuinf \>ir>Lnt, il >*4i* i:mif<'rriHi on hlin. a* an ad- 
dtttoD U hi> lioDoufH and revenues, wluvb be luigrbt jiutljr 
cbum; und attvrvuAt, of u pro^f of (he cAaFinuuncc of 
their ro^rd, and a tvaUmony lltal Jus rt-puruiion wuh kIiU 
in<:r«»iutiif^, tbey mado him i^bicf liliniriai), an uflico which 
wafl the more occepmble To him, oi it tJDiied hh buainen^ 
with bi« p^NJure, Hiid ipivc fiim iin opf>ur(iiiiiIy^ ul tb<? lume 
limn, of lQpr^intl^;lllln^ ihi; librury, and otirryiax cm hi* 
etudicfl. ^ 

Surh vuii the murMi cif hU lifo, till, in hu old n^EC, lear* 
inic olf hia pmctioc of walkin§^, nnd oth«r c:KCToi»ej, bo be- 
fftn to b«> litUicti^ wiih (he Kcvnv, which disoovered ilAelf 
by vrry lormrnling lyrnplnins of vArieuK kind*: Minietimei 
di«turljing hiii hi.*u<[ with ierri^c-ii, itumHimea cauAin^ fuinl- 
UM* in lii« litnbA, and !ii>ipf.'i)nxc» uttackiatr U'n Irjci^ «itb 
aa^Lftb io e^cmciulins, that all hi* Ti^our ivaA dextroycda 
and ihe power c>r walkms entirely Ukca uwa^, till, a1 Jcnjcth, 
iuft left foot b<!CHjni: motionloss. The violence of bi» pain 
proituc:nl irrr^Jnr ferprs. deprived him of reM, and on- 
cirri; dehilJtaiLvl hu whule rtma^^ 

Tbb turmenting diMMue be borr. tbuuj^b not wlthoal 
some degree of impftliaoeet yel vitbont luiy aabrcoittin^ 




or irmlionnl <l»pfirul4>firy, and apf fad himiMf m lli« liitor- 
mlnlou of liiK pmiiK l<i itwk Ibr ««llifi>rl ul 1Ii« dutin'B uf 

While !i« lay tn tlila btntc ofmuerj bo vMimdlB w- 
count ofthr promolion of two ot bta fsnuulsimtiWldAMk- 
Fatoi^c of the kinj^ of I'Vuncn^ft lil>mry, praitJoted Co bun 
by tli«f oominarKl of tlie kin^ hirnself, nod mpreSMd *oiih> 
AatisfariiDti on all tli4<«e ooea«&*>u4; bill «oon diverted blfl 
ffiorghli tn f hr morn importiiiil iraiisiLlcrulinn cif lui i?li?rii)il 
stule. into vth'ich \i*y \ta»wd on the dlst of Hnrcbt 1741. in 
the? [ie*e Illy -third ytrux of hi* age* 

Ho «a« a mnn of moderate? stature, of Rreot Atrctis^tii 
Ahd octivlly, which ho prescrvcrd hy lomfwrat* dioC, %iib 
out mo<lic&l ejtucUius.'J. und by ulbtliiij;; proportioCM of hU 
^olo rvlaxaiiou mnd nmuftfrmciDt. not tafferitig'bb ctudi^t 
to vxhRiiAl his KliYnigik. hiit rF'linvin^ thim by rmqucnt 
intcraisflinns ; u pr^rlicre roiisi-iffikl with llift mrr»t R\o*n- 
plaxy diHgieitc^, nnd whioli b« tUiit omits will fim) at 
lost, that timo may hr lost, like money, hy nnanu^MbJe 

In hin hours of relavaT.Jon be wa« i^ay, and -aomelim^ 
gnvei WAV »o f^r to his temper. iiBtiirnlly c^iincal, that li'^ 
drt*w upon hiriHelf ihtr ill-wilt uf iIiuh.- vrim hud brvii an- 
fortanately llir nuhjrclji i>f hiK ai'iriH ; but rnrmirs no pro- 
^okalt he Ihoii^ht it hrnratli him to rrffnrd oi- lo pncify; 
lot ho was <ii?ry, but uol malidoja, disd^nued llisatntiia- 
tion, and in hw piy or »L^rion« liours, preaerved m BOIIlpd 
d«l#4faiioi] of falvobood. 80 Ihiit bo mia an opt-ti find ntx- 
dbffufKrd frirnd or ftnemy. <»ntirely iinao<|iifl«it«d wiib iKf* 
ortiHrr^ of flHlterer*. bill ho j))di(;ioLi« in tbe eboicv of 
IricriifiA. and »Q cotis-Umi in bin ufThrtitin 10 tbem, ibat Ibow 
with wbom be hud contraclcfl fnmiliarily in hii yoiitb. lud. 
for tht ^roatcKl pnM, hi* conticlcnco in his old aa;c, 

Hii ftbiliiiftf, which wotdd probably bav«t e«iabl«<l bim to 
Ji^ivf^ r-xt^lW in Any kind of leammg, were cUfffly ^m- 
ployi^d, an liift .4tHri(iri rucjuirt^ri, on prvlii4* tit4fratiire. in 
which bo nnrirrd ul very iinconiiaoTi koowlpd^^; wbkl;, 
howoTCir, appears rather from Jndicioav compilmiofKi. tban 



mginiil prodii^tion.)^ HU ^lyio U lively and mttscuUiit;, 
bul not without IkanhDeas and coD^IrainU nor, pcrbaps, 
alwayii polinbod to Ibat purity, which lonie urrititrH havo 
ultiDEird^ Iff^ wu-t at IrMftt itiKlritmrnlitl to [h<T inBUiu-tioti 
ofriJUikind* hy ilii* piiK1ii.-dI»un ofiimny vuLuable perfbrm' 
«DC««, wkkh lay DC^Ioclcd bv llie i;nwte»t purt of ibn 
lmri]«d world; anii. if rrpntulion l>rt mtimntrd by oscfol' 
n<Ts*, hT' mn\ cinim q hig^hrr degree in the ranka of Icaru- 
io^t lh«n SQme others of happier efooutioD, or nore vl- 
gOfOiBft imti^iimlion^ 

Th** tH-Uico op Auvpieitm of those who either did Dot 

know* Off did not. kiv^r him, hud givrn niw l» Momr <li>iibt8 

dbottt hi$ rclx^iun. uLt<.h hL' tooL »ui opportunity of rr- 

motiBp on ht.i di.-;Lth'bf*d. by h voluxildry drclarutioti of h» 

fiitth, hb hopo fit v\t^r\usiiti^ solv^ltoa rrom tho rvvoalod 

profaiffN of G^d, »nd hl^ i^onfidc-iicr in tbr mi^riu of<iiir 

1tM|«6BlCT, of tlie cmctihly of which deceleration hj»i whole 

'fc^^hivicitif in hift long illni^iiK wai ^n iiimjEilrsfahl^ proofs 

iDd hv rondnckd hiK lif'V whkh lioil been illujlriutu for 

'ihiuiy vii|iK^*», by exhibiting- Ju c.idmpic oftnu^ piety. 

Of his worlit w« liiivt^ not been nbk- to procure a cooi- 

i^dfsloi^iii- : hr* pubTihhrd. Qiitntiliuoiu, 3 voU. 'ItO; 

i(iK MucciM ; Ovidinii, -I voU- tto i Po'.^ia: LHUui Mi> 

3vol«. 4to; cum Doti« vnriorum. BitchaD^uii Opera, 


TfiaHAsSYDBNitAH wn« horn in theyeitf I6!24,at Wiud- 

f<>fd Eayi\L\ in Uon»etjdurt', whoro ha fuUier, WiUkoa Sy- 

loaluifli, e«(|. hwl a );iri;;e lortuae. t'lid^r wUmp rare ho 

odncabed, or in whul nutr^n^*r he p^Med hu childr 

« A nAH fblL lifli !■ |ii«A lA ihff kut *d"iaK o^ l^< lUd^rtfiiTika] DkdoilVT. 
John &mv M.I>.ur Xt*culU, iu Sldbt^idiifc ITU. 



Ii<M>d, whmhtjr ]k« omde any e-irW dU(*ov«?ri«fi (>r a gonmi' 
peculiiarlv Lt(l»[>l<Td tu tbe sliid^ of nntiirv, or K»vp aiijr 
preBag«« of liiH fulEirt^ f-iuiriL-imt* iu iiiptltciiie, no mrorina- 
liyn b to be obtatij^d. Wc mn»t, tlicrcforc. rcpiVM ibat 
ouniMit^* ^liicli vould tralumllv incline ns to wnkb tho 
Krvl attempts of to vi^orou^ a nkiod, lo pursuo it id il« 
ohildbh inquiries, and fttw it atruK^lini; w-ilL ruttioL i)iv- 
Judtc^s, breaking, on trifling orcaiQotiH, ihtr Khn«klcR ofcre- 
dutl^, and giving proofs, in Ita cshqiiI fixcnrstnnHp that ii 
wiix farmeil (<i sliulr ofl" ilir v"V« »f prt«L".ri|fiioi:, uimI dut- 
fjirl tin; fihiinliiniK of livpolht^KlH, 

That tbe fttrongth of Sjdeiibum'a undontatidiii^, iIbc 
Hi^uunio^ of hia diAi:ertimeiit, und nrdour 4>f Itiii curit^tT, 
might haw bta^u remnrkcd IVoin hU inf^zic} by u ddiKvot 
obierver, titero it no rojuion to doubt ; Cor them k no ip- 
Ktiinr.r? of liny mnii. nhou^ hiiitnry hti% ht^n minulf*ly !*<- 
Julcd, (btit did ni:il,iri oi^ry jnwl uf lifr-, diM-cvcr llir HamB 
proportion of ijite11»cluid vigour; but it hw tieen the lot 
of tho greatest purt of tho^c; ^ho havo excelled in >oiooc«. 
lo b<T known only by ihnr o>^n whlin^. And to have left 
b<»hirkd Hi^in no remembrance of tht^ir domestick life, or 
private Transactioni, or only %vvh TuemoriaU of |>artieular 
paiHji]^!! a* urr, on cHuin ciitEiuonH. nrccufuity rt^cordtfd 
inpiiblick ixgiatra^* 

From tiicflc ii ia dUcovorad. tfiut. uf llii? mgv of ei^btc^n. 
in l&l^. Iiu cuniin«ii(Ted u commnncr of MugdaUti bnll, ia 
Oxford, vbcrL* it u not prohnblc tbat he continued longr; 
for he informit tr» himArlf, that he wiw vnthh«1d from tb« 
unifiTsity by ihr romnii*ncement of ibe »^ir; oor U it 
knoun in wfii^t filmic of life- h^ t^ngugtfd, or whnrc? he rt' 
aided during tbat hm^ At*rit-?i of publiok cominotion. Il< 
i», indeed, rc-portod, Ibat lit? bud a comiDt^aion in tbt^ Vui 
army^ but no particular nconiint U given of biA mililary 
oonduct ; nor are we told wbni rank bo obtAin^^^ wboo be 
entiired into ibe army, or wlwn, or nn wbat occ»iott, Im 
rrtirr*! fami iL 

It ift, bonrver, rrrlain, tliHl if ever be took upon h'u 
Ibo profeiuiou of unuft, he aperil but few ycuni in the Mua^ti 



of pliynick, f»r wliicli. u* Mumr mi^diiniml kmivlnlgr U »p- 
coMarjr, it may he iron^inrd tlinl hr Kiicnl somr timv iu 

If in applioition 1o tbi> Hady o\' ]>[iyHicb wua, a>t tir him- 
«elf r^Fal^t, produced by an accideDtal ii«quBim<iuit'<f witb 
Dr- Cav, u fihyiirisin, i^micirDt ut IIihi linif* m LrM>don. 
hHo in unmr^ «ii-kiir4ii prf>i«crib«-<t In htn hrolWr, iiiiil hI- 
l<'ii(liug him frrijut^iLlly on lli;il ucuttniuii, iiiqiMrviJ uf him 
irbut |Jtc1i-»-Mc>n hv cK-H^t'cl lo follov^ TLr yQiiofl^ man 
Uifli4«<nii^ ihni Jin v-n* undi^tormincil. ihr doctor n^com- 
inund<f(l |>[iy»ivk to hint, on M'hal iicuoLiiif, or wilfa ^Ikai 
urgiimpnts, if in not rolat«il; bui Itirf porsiiiiKion* wrrif so 
HTfTriiiaMl, tb»l .Syilenliim delt^rmioi-Hl to follow hrt ndvici^. 
Aud r<-[ireil tii Oxftirtl fur Irixun? rind ojiporC unity In piir- 
dur hi* tlEidii*^, 

ll ift evident tliHt tliis converautioii inuHt liavc biipp«?ncd 
bc'fofo h\a proioolioEi to uriy d^*(;n'i* in phvAifk* lic«jiuat; bn 
bJBK^If flxvt it iu tbe mlcrtut of hin ubftrnci? frani the 
ttniv^nity, A rircumfttiiiee which will 4>niibt^ us to conl'iilr 
mmj} fiilur rrporU rrlflting lo Dt. Syd^nbflm, which havt< 
bccD coji£d4^iit]y incuknii-d. and jmplvvily hrliri'pd^ 

Ic ii ibe ffvrierul opinimi, ihiil lir^ hik madr a phynki^iji 
by uccadctit and nrt^e^ity. juid hit Hiclmrd B(uokmi>rc 
rofK>rlj(, iu plain toTin4> [preface lo Uh TTcaii*"- on the Nmnfl 
Pot, j thill he eD|t;a|^ in pntctJcer without any prrpammry 
study, or pruvioui Liunwlvd;^. or !ho m*HliciiiDl u^i^iicp^; 
ttad vffirmx. ihiit whmi lir ^0% f.uuHulted hy biui vliMt 
bocks hr. should rr-iu\ lo qnnlify him for Ihc same priifrit* 
Mon. bo recommended Don ijuixotr. 

Tliot hi- ri*coniiii<>nde<l Don Quixote to Bhtckmorei wc 
are not ai1owi>d io duubi ; hut th« rvUtor it litnilered by 
that H^1f<Iflvc, which du/sden iill ninnkirid. from diiM^overinf; 
tbat h^ might inlmd H ^nlirc very diHenrni tVom u f^eiitTdl 
ceiwirc of at! the niiL-ieul and modvvn wnlcr^ on ro4?iliciih\ 
finer b^' niiuhi. ]» rlmp!(. tii(T4ii, i.'iilirr »«rioii«lir or iit ji<^t. 
lo ifisinutLlc, that Blnckmorc waj tiol adapted bv luturr t^ 
tbf* Ktndy of phv«ick, oiid lh»l, tvh««1h«r lie should rend 



CerT4tDtcs or Hippocrates, he woul4 be eqtuUy uBquoli- 
Hcfl for pnicticL\ nuJ oqunlly uusiicccMfui in it. 

Whuiincirifr Matt lu» n^auioff, nothinf? Is more evideat, 
(ban thai it wae n tr^naifnit >allj; of an imu^uaiicu wumwd 
with }f*"^ly- <*' ^l>^ uef^Ugcnl HfuKion uf ii raiml mti^tit upon 
«onif< oihtir i*mployni<^nl. siid in liHitle ic dihinttj u IroubTc' 
»onit^ inlrn<ler L r«>r it t* certain iiuki SvdrnliJtiii did not 
lliijik it iiupciBaible to Vkrllc uj<cfail> ^n mndiciitc. bccoiuc 
htj bfta bim^lf vritt'sn upon it ; and it is not profaabJo ikftt 
he carried his vunity so fur, n^ to ioiagitiQ tlint no man Imd 
ovsr acquired ilic tamo qualific^tioai bt^ifid^K luiiiMtr. Ho 
could not bill know ihat hr nilhrr reitorrd. Ihan in«-L*iitr^ 
tnuHL of IlIm priiictpfeN, and, ttuTcforr. coulil not but at;- 
huuvli-dgt? till- \a\ue uf (hfi»e vtnten wboAe doctrakm b« 
ddoptr^d (uid enforced. 

TUat he engaged id the |iv«filico of phriick without mat 
Acqvjumtiuict^ vfitt tho Uioury.of knowJodf^o of tboopiMni 
or preo^pu of forniLT oritur*. Lb uudoubtedly fajie ; for he 
dockrei, tlmt, nftrr he- bsd, iii purKUJUKM* of hw convi-m- 
tion wilU J>r- Cox* dptprmiTtrd upon Ibr profciuiun (if 
physick, 1k> *' uppljed biuiai^tf lu eariivfit to it, aiitl ^|ieu( 
aevL^rul jouri in tlic liui^tirAity." (aliquot aaoofl in Acadc* 
iniirii puhtitru,) b<^farc he hc§:aii lo practise in I^ndoii- 

Nor va« he satiftfiod wilh the oppor1uniii«YHcri£noiiilcdg:o 
which Oxford atflordj?d, but travL^lkd to Moiitpe<Llit;r, ai 
D^Tiault rHutM^ [Dintrrtaiton on CooKumptioru,] in quni 
of fiirthi*r informHtinn ; Montprliier, b<-in^ at ibul timr, thtr- 
moht L'rlobrateiJ scbuid uf [diviirV : *," fiir vaa Sydeubam 
from iktty conlompt of ucudoiuii < i ii-^iiuTion?. luid nv far 
froDi lijiiiiinj; it r<^nj4onabtc to Ic^rn phyiick by csprrv 
mvniM aimw, which miiAt nocefiaorily be mn4o at tho haxard 

Wh^i <AD be dt?indtid(*d betoiid tliit bv the moflt zooImm 
itd«u<.iilc (nr rr^lar nduciilionf Whiit irsin Iw t?xpeciti-d 
irom the inoal caiilioiia and moat ioduatnous tluilenl. ikwi 
(hut he should dt-'diculu M^ivriil yv-Mn to tiio riidim«a4« of 
1|^ Art, and travel for further iuitmctioni from ooo mm- 
vorsily lo anothfirf 




II ia ]Ikci¥»e tt commtrn c{>]miOii, Uiat Sydenham «u 
tliirtjr jears old, befurr [tc for/ucU \iia reAoliiLun of studviikf 
phjrack, for vliicli [ am dinuover ou otlior foundation than 
<M» ^xprf(aHi<»n in hit dodicatioti to Dr. Ma[jletot(, which 
««9DU 1o liav^ g ivan rinfi Co i(, hy a ^nas m\MUivrprt3HUi>n ; 
fof he only ob«vrv<<K, Uiui rmm bii convrnntion with Or 
C«l to the [luhUcalJon f( ihtit IrvaLUe, thirty yvnn hud 

Whatever may buvo produced lhi.<i tjotioti, or how long 
»ocvCT it may hnvc prevailed, it ii now proved* beyond 
coDtrovfr^y, to ho f:*t«e; since it iippo)«r» timt Sydouhiim, 
hftvuifir heon lor lomi^ tiaie abitent IVutji the uinviTiily, re- 
tantpd li> it, in [>rdtT lo punme hin pliyik^tl ih<|mrii-](, brforo 
hr »ri« IwRTity-fiiuryRnrifihl , fur, bi 1I}1S, Itt- ^m at\miiXtu\ 
to ihc di^grcc cf btichrlor of phjMek, 

Tbdt ftuch reports should be coulidcnLly spriMid. itrttt 
Ainoa^ Ilio conlcmpoiMni<A ol' tlir tiuUior to whom thoy 
rt^lntv, tutd ohiom, in ci frw yi^nra, such credit fts to roquiro 
• rogDlor confutation ; that it should bu irangiaed tlmt th» 
greatest pbyftlctaa of lh« afftf iirriv<?d al 1.0 bi|;h a def^u 
ftf skill, withuiit liny nuiMnriri; frnm \ia |iri?fW(rv«nni ; ttnd 
iImI n nifin, eminent for integrityt practised medicine by 
clMctce, «ind grew wiac only hy miirdor; is not to he con" 
aidercd without OfltoDiithmtut. 

But if it bi>, on tbo other part, romembercil, how much 
this opinion fovnurc thft Umnp^n cJ* ftomn. and l^w- pfidr of 
wlhew: how readily some men eonfirfe in natnnil i^Hs;ncity ; 
ufid ho¥i wHlinKly must vuidd ^ptire tlitirnisivlvt^a the* liibuut 
of noL'ur&lD reading Bad tcdioufi inquiry ; it wilL be ctuiily 
discovered, how mach the Jntcreft of ntultitiide^ wiu en- 
gaf^d in Iho production And conlinuanco of this opinion, 
and how cheaply thone, of whom ii was known that tlwy 
pnieliieJ pfmick btCore they itudi^^d it. nii^hl iatS«iy ibem- 
Mi^tvei mid othen with the exnmplc of ihc lUmUrioaft Sjr- 

It b, thereforVp i;] an uncommoft detfrec tiReful to pub- 
lish n true account of this mcoiorabie mun, thfil pride, 
temonty, and idlf*LkCAs, amy bo di^pri^vd of that pftlrousge 
whieh Hiey have i^njoyed loo lon^; ibnl tife may he te- 



cuml horn tti« dHiif^rousi experiments of tli« ijcnofant 
coil pr9fliiD)ptuou»; 4iiul tbdt thoi^v, who shaW, brrcnflrr, a«- 
•UBi« the iinportmjt provjocc of tupcrin tending Uic heullk 
of olhvn, niit> lt'Lirn» from tiiLs ^^reat master of the art. tbat 
the otiiy mvitriA ul umviu^ at vmiueiice und itu.'^.-rAi nrv 
luboiir and sindy. 

Fniiit tht'H' fiTnn reports it is pni1>nMf- thnl ABotk^'r 

ronfutcd, It doc» not apjicnr that cnliro crcxlit ou^t 1<» be 
j^ivcn. Tho acqii]»i(ioi] uf a Lotin »1i1<t did not #«ea coo- 
sisleut vkttii tbi^ 1131111111.^ i>f liri> imputed to him; ai*r ^tu 
it prtfbuhk*, ibut hr, wbo had no dilijc^itly cultivated |Iil> 
crtmmnilnl parln of genpral )i(eratOTr, would biivn nvg- 
Iri^U'ii ibr- e«Ni?ijiiHl fcUidiet of hii nwti profifKtion. Tbi>4is 
IfH^refurt-, who Hcfi' lU^lrrniiiii'd, at wbairvwc (iiicH, to n^ 
Ijlirj him in tbrir own pnrtj, and reprt^ittnt him «qtiaJly iC' 
oumnt und diirinf wjih 1bcniaelvc«, denied hirii Ih** crodit 
of writing hifi o^n works in lh« Innpi^jfo in vbirb tboT 
irrtrc* published, and uttserted, but wttfaoul proof, thai ibrv 
U'vre composed by him in Hiigltsh, And Iraiittlalt^ tmo 
liUliii by Dr. MapkUifl. 

Whether Dr. Maplctoft lived aiJtl wa« fainlliur «tth 
biro, dunn^ Ihc whole tiintr in ivhich tbese suftrnJ tretUuri 
Vforo printed, troatiat'H writtL-ii on particular occoaknuk and 
prtnl4<d at pivriudi connidcfrubly dijitujii from f?4cb otber, 
vtp bii\r hdd no opporluiiity of intfuiving. and. ibrrcfor^, 
cAnnot demou^trnlf* tlii> fAUrhAo^l of lhi« rr|>ort; but if il 
bi' froiuideri'd hot* uuliLt^ly il n, that any taau ahould ca- 
gafpe in n work ao lijborioa.i and no little neceiMiry. only lo 
advance- the rrputution cf onothrr. (>r th^t br .ihonld ba>c 
leisure to continuo the sumc office upon ull foUowin^ o^xn- 
tioDA; if it be rempmhprpil hou- M-ldcan Buch Ul^^mry cotn- 
binationi atv forme^l, and bow 4oom ihey Are, for i\v^ 
^rauli-Kt pari, i)i*ixuived, tbeiti wll] tippfrar nu reaauti for 
not dlov io^ Dr. Sydeabam tbr laurel of oloc|ucncc,u ««U 
MA physick *. 

■ S'mrp ilir ffliPenini- wti >»fiL>rii. bp hK«c npm Mi» tV4r<]'i Ur^ nf ihp 
IVifndai-t n( UtHli^m 'nllpgr, whi>, m ibv lift of 1>t. MaplclAfi. bvi, lh*<. 
In L<7ff, Dr, GyJcBbaa ^ 1lh[ip^hcli hii O^vfriiiooct mtdk« cim 






aTtpr hU i!«tCh, ^Moren alonr morv tLill in ihr Ijiiiri 
hmptngvt tbun in rrrminoiiU awHln^tl to Llm : mid it mirply 
»til uul Ire »iJ^prct«-il, liiat the olTc i(tu.nDc«« of Im fmiKlH 
tt&A cciutirtucd ftfler hiii death, or ihnt Ijc prot^urvd Uie 
book to bij tmnaUlHr only thnt, by leaving it iR-hind kim, 
bi? ni]fi;Uc spcurv bis rlatm to hm olb^r HntiDjj^u. 

It is it!U(Ttt.*d l)\ »r H^Fis SloLiiiv. tbut Dr. Syd^nhttm, 
vilfi trhnm h^ wuh rnniili:irly &ircjumnf»d, Mas p^rlictiUHy 
VLT3t:t1 ill (tto Aiitiii^^ of lb« ^cat ItoiDaii iirulur and fdii* 
l^Miplicrr^ aud there is (vidcDtlv iiuub d luxuridiior in hl» 
ttjl6, oji may dbcovcr Ibe uuUior whiisli gav<; bim mart 
plvmrat Mii^ niMt^ii^^od bU imitation. 

About 1bofl«m9tlin*llMt bo iKti^mi-bacbolcTdrphyHck, 
he obtained, by the mtefest of a relalion, a feilovabip of 
AH SouU* criUe^, hutitig nubinitU'd. by ihn fiubimptioii 
miinrcd, to the cutbDrily of tbr viJiittr* afijioi^klrd by ll«* 
fiTJilHWil iipoD vbitl principles, or how uotislsleaUy with 
bis fOTdB^r condij«1, it i» now impossible to discover 

Wbeti he thmi^hi himnolf qualifled for practice, ht: fixed 
hii fpiiderit*' iJi Weatm inner, became doctor oTpbynckat 
>C>i0iil>'idgj*» rrvi-ivi<d u Irt-rnKi- froin tbr mll^fgp of pby- 
n, and lived in the tirxl degree of repuUlioii> arid Ibi? 
p^Taleit uflluencc of practice, for many years, ttithdutony 
olber cnoraie* thuji tboi^c whioh he ruined by llai ftuperkar 
Biorit of bis condut^t, the brlffhler luMlre of bit iibititie-ii, or 
^is improv«meiits of bis science, and bin eonlempi of ^r- 
bicioutt methodi, tii|>p(iried only by nnihority, in oppouCiou 
tij Kiaind nsivin und iiidiibifalile t*\periejit?u. Tbcurf itirn 
:ftn liidebEed lo bim for concealing ibeif immcs, ^beit be 
records the]/ malice, Aincc Ibcy bu^e, thereby, escaped tbc 
cooten^pl and dotostation of po«t«rity, 

ftru^ttw bikioriua c4 nniiODfivi, «hifh ht d«dic«[*4 U Hr^ ^HpLvtaf^ lahoi m 
ihr iksirv vf iIk MiCiti, hoA u&QiliirJ ikfrn \tHD XMia , ftriJ ilint ili« «1Imv 
tD»cr« ol Ihai rmllroi fihytin^n vrrc tuinUtt<l iuu iliiii Iim^vh* bj 
Mr- 4»]h*rl Jlmm, nf Trinji* ni>k*jr,rflAibMJ|e, fc iiuilDtil in phjiifl, tui] 
rnrihil irf Dr. MopLttjIi, ttul, u Mr. Uutl. liLeUUi*, i*<;Jfrh i-* brunj ■*) 
)itui>f ot hit tii«rtJOfl. tlrt i|unliixj nuiwi kiilf be decide*! by liiikuLWiljr.— 
f'^f. i'rf ^, 



It it a melnncli^K r«flpcrimi, thai iliev wbu hn' 
titinifJ lUi* tii^hoiit rtpiiliitJOD, by pr4>HervintT ^^ restoring- 
tli<( hmUli of oihi-rii, hn\n oflrn hiiftn hRrned awiiv before 
llir rtuliinil tltxlint.' of IJAr, iir linvf pausfil manv tif llirir 
Tpnt3 ujLiltn' tljp lurnif^iitit of thi>.itf di»t<*tii(>r-rK which ihf.y 
1>ror>D« 1o rcticvc. In Ilii» otimlirr vas SjdcQham. uliow 
hoftlth WgikD lofnil in the Any-^ocondvoarof bi4a)^,brtli6 
freifu^nt atluck^ of the pout, to wliirh he ttu« subj««t for 
H gTiMit part fiC bid lifff, nrxd which wn« of^rrwnrdj acconi* 
p;ttilnrl wtib thp nloiifl in the iiffftny*, nod, itft nntiiral rop- 

ThnKr iTitrR (Sintemprrji which if len lli<< vrl of Sydrabnin 
roiild only pallioto, wichMit hope i>r ft pcrfcrt cure, but 
Athich, if he Un» not been abto by Iii8 precopU to iovtnict 
UFf Co Tt^movt, hi* Uixa, at li^aat, by bi« example, taof^i as 
loh<>ur; for bo n^trr b4*trnv^ uny hi<li>c«iil bnpafit'tjc^. 
or nntnmily itf^ji^riinn, ondrr hix 1tiria(*nl4, hiit Kuppqrlrfl 
hinift'lf by XUv refleclioiiM of pbiloi^ophy, and (lie cod- 
(idIuIioms of Trlli^itTn ; and in every iiiI<.^rviiL| of «aw applted 
hlmHclf to lht< Miixtnnoc of othrrn thtb bi.i mxtal luvNliitty. 

An^r tt life? tbus iiAcfuIfy €mpTo7<*d, he dic6 bI his booM 
jn Palhmnll, on iho Wih of Ut^cember, 1^89, and wan 
bnriffd In llie ai«1^, neur tho noolh door of ihtj char«h of 
8l. J»mM, in Wf*«tmin«t<*r. 

What was hi* rfinrnrtrr, iih h phyHiriiin, Hppean 
[hf* tretitiflei) whicli hii lids Ifft, ulikh it in not iwre'JsftrT to 
epttomhitT or tranncrilw; und froni thrm it nuiy likoviie 
bfi CGllviiiftl, thai hilt nkiFI tn phy?ic<-k va« i>o4 bt* hiit^Kl 
<*xr(t1]cnci> ; thfit bia wholo ohanioteT va« ainittblo; tbat 
hi« c)ii^f vkow was ihi> beneftl of raaiikiBd, ond Iho okivf 
inoiivr of bit) it<^iiorfl, ihr will of Gfld< whom Se mrntioiu 
with rev<<n>nre, ^pII h^coraiiig thf? moct riilightiTneil aiKi 
mojtt |>Piietri>tijif^ mind- Hr was bf-novuleiiti caudtd, aud 
comma nicatiTc. sincere, and rdi^ouft; qmditie*. whkliil 
«orv happy, if llicy t^oulrl copy from him, who comlste Ivt 
kfjowlvdge, nnd imtlalo biB ia«Uiod». 


TiJBAR lA »lway« ihU advuiilej^c in cuDlenclinK: wifL 
illQstnoua ndvorsarmH, th&t (Ijc combaUut ia cqiiutlT ira- 
n)onali2«d by cooque^t or defeat. Hv tli^kt ilica by llio 
■word o( u tivTO will lilwAVM be m«<iitiou(rd. vhcri the AOlb 
of hi« n[U'm^ iirn mnitiaitrtL Thr* iiimi, nfwbove life' Uit' 
following ntcp»iit IH offered In the publicb* hai, iudei-d^ 
Noiuent among liis own parly, nml Lad tjubltUcit, which. 
MDpbji-d III A good c^n&o, would Imvo ^ivua him aom<- 
claim todiitinDtion; but no one is now «o mvcli bUnd^ 
-villi l>igolry, n« to imsgino Ikim oqufll^tber to llnrnmoiK^ 
or Cbllliugworlb ; nor would hk memory, |><^rhiipit. \tA%c 
licwfi prrx«rvrd, bud bi? nut, by bmng oonjuiord wrlh U- 
luilrjoiiH niunt-ft. Iirci»nc tlif^ nbjrrl oT publick ciiritimly. 
FrAucU Cbojrud wua b'>ru iti ItiOH, al Oxford*, >vlio/e 
lutlier. Dr. JoUn Cbt^ync'l, who hud bi-i'u fdlow of 

i^oqjiu Chniili colii^^n, prui^tiiird phyaick with Kr<-<i1 rrpii- 
tuliarr. Iln U'liii t^ducLitiid m oiio of the i^nuikniaf si^hoolB 

if hi« iiAiive ctl)*, nnd, in ihe begionlng of the year 16^. 
I^^OTJiine ;i [jinrnWr of |1j(* UJMVfniily. 

Il w pn)bubltT, ibdt bt lo>t hii fulbi:r wb*''i bo »tts verj 

roiMi^^ for it a^pcittv* thnt bufbrv l^H), fai« raotbcrr had 
i^VarTHfd Dr Abbots bi«lmp ot Sulisburj. whom %he bad 
lik«Tifti«B burit<d. From Ibis mirria^^^ bo rrmivd gr^at 
advfliil^^e; for Uis moUicr, being; nov allied la Dr. Breni, 
.IVn^ei vurdcn of Mirrluii college, excrled her iiileri*vt ko 
vijforouidv, ibnl bi^ a^jli iidmilltrd there a probulioncr, and 
aHervfinU otijuned a fellottfiLip ^ 

UftviDff IaIloi) tbt- dt-tcre^ of master ofartf. ho v*t td- 

niUed to ordcfn, occordiiifc to Uio ritr^« of the cbntch of 

li«gl>iid, nnd hold n cur.ic> iJistr Oitford, loj^ellieT Hitfi 

' Flnl primnl in Tip &ail<aL IT^I- 



U< f«*11o«Bhip^ Fl^ ci^nrinit^d in hU collef^, till Itc « 
(jiiulifit-'tt, bj' Li* y^iin of residence, for ihr d^^tm.^ ofbo)- 
rrhc^lar nf ili vim ty. «liich h<* Hllvtnplrd ti> tvkfr in Iftil, 
fmt wa* cl<-iiied hi* grace', for disputing cuuc^nuiig pr«>- 
cleAtiimtuirii coiitrriry tn die king;'* iriJuDi^tiriii.i, 

Thi^ reliital oi bis dtrf^e he mentions hi hiji dcilicatioo 
to }\\n nccoiint of Mr ChillinpioHli : " Do n<'( roQceiv^ 
that 1 snatch up m^ pen in an ao;^ mood, Ibal I mi^t 
vccit my diingerouf wit, £ind oate mj overburden^ npl^WA ; 
no, no, 1 liHV*' iitmi»t r«>rKoM«n the yWiUxtUm of Mf^Tlnn 
cullFj^t*, ami ihe df^niat of mv gjare^ rlio [iltindvritkg of injt 
houM-. nitd liuLe library; 1 know vh^n. aud ^berv. wid oi 
whom, to drmniid aaiiTtrnrtioii for ttW tlici« iojvTi^ ntid in- 
dignttics. I hnvr L«^amt ' [!i.<iitiJiR |tlnf;nA Spartann do1>j- 
Iitat0 concoqiierf-' 1 hnv« not leanjt how to plundrr 
olli^n of u^odt. or living, and muk^ iriysetf umendfi bt 
f»ri*e uf urni!*^ f will not tnki* n livioft wbii'ii I^Hongrri lo 
any civil, MndiouH. Ir^ttn^f d d«^1in<iiirol ; iinlv»» it he llie 
nmcU-tiegWl^ cammtiuhim ufiu>iiiv lordly prelate, con* 
dr-mued by thr hnovn luihn of the land, and Ibo tu^faetC 
court of tbc kingdom, for some otToncc of lJi« Etrat Ba^ 

It ia obftervahfe. rbal he declares liimitelf to hav« atnkoit 
forgot hii injurieft nnd tndf^ili(*ii, tboa^lt he rocoants 
tbnm with an sppeiiniiiiir of nr^rimony. which i» no proof 
that the iinpre»ioD is much weakened ; ond iuaiatiAtes li» 
dofign of demaadinfc- cit ^ proper lime, HLtiAfuolton for 

Theie vexaliona vcro thi! conet'tjoirnct^ ratlior of tlid 
ubn«n of Irnmin^, than ihe «Am ofil; no one that rea<U 
iiix woiki^ can doirhl ibai h^ uaift tnrbuleni, obttinafe. ttoA 
^etuluiil; mid ready I o iiiAlrucrt hii NUpr-rinur», when he 
mo:ft nrrdcdizintriicliotifrom tlicni. Wliotcvcr hcbelii*veJ 
(und tho nnrtnth of his ims^inatioD n&tnrally made hjm pr^ 
L'ipiEute in foTTTiin^ hi^ opini(»u>he lhoiig;h1 himAotf oblif^vd 
lo profeH ; and what he profeued he mm ready to d^ 

■ Vid»Wosd'frJlM.UiiiT.Oi.^-t>r4> lirfD. 



>nd, withoitt t1i»t mcdnniv whioh i« alwiiyii p^ud«^nl, oacI 
i^eiK^mltv nc<'iTs«arv, unc) whicfi. though il waf^ not a^jM' 
abt« 10 Mr. Cheryn^l'^ lemper, anri, llit^refore, readHy con- 
tli<i]m<-r1 by lurn. in a very useiful ti»uciute lu tmlli, uuil 
odrn itirrndiicrh iirr, l«y ilr-f^rvrs, whcrre hIic riricr ronli] 
hftvc Torccd her wny hy urfrumcnt or dcclonntioii, 

A tL^mpor of ihis kind ir ic^ncnitly izKCiivoni(>iit and of- 
r«osiv« ill any society, biil in a pkco of ^ucatkiu it leaat 
to be lolemtej; for, as authority U nec^Mury to in^lruc- 
tkkti. vhiH-ti-r I'ndrtivoiirK tii drxtruy nuhordinufion, by 
ineukrnm^ timl n<\rrrnnf^ vhich h (daimird hy thuae t4i 
■ bom the g;uanlianHhip of youth id commiltcd by th^ir 
country I ilofuut»>Qt oDce, the infltiltilion ; and may bo justly 
driven from a society, by which he tLiinks himtielf too wiiw 
to be }rovpmo<l, and in vrbicb Iw ia too youuf; la touch. 
MkI loo opminnnriv«» to It^nni, 

Tliiv niav bt- reuilily fiippUKHil lu Kuve bf*en the 4.'Uie of 
Chcyncl ; and I kniJM' not how thoso cun \x' blunird for 
GCiksuririjr bi« condtxt, or punitibing hi» tlUobodiwcCi who 
liad a ri^bt to fl:ovcrn bkca, and vho might cOTtftill^f 9/Ci 
Mith o<|ual sincerity, and ^ith fErouter knowledj^. 

With fe^pird to the vUitutJon of Iklirrtoii c-oll<-go, llio ac- 
count i« vifuuilv obfii-Turp. ViBileni nre woll Lnovn to he 
generally called to regulait^ ibe uft^ln of colleger, when 
iJjt Qiriiibi^ri ili«aKrc^v wiUi ll^ir bead, or with one an- 
olJicr , and the Icniprr thai Ur Chryjiol duuovorn will 
cMlyindinfr hi* rcud^ni to i:uipoct, that be t^ould out loof^ 
hvo in anyplace, nithout finding tom«occiuijon for debate j 
nor debate aiiy qiietlloi). uilhoai oflrrying nppncition lo 
Mick a leof^ib ns niigbt maki' ^i ntuderaior ii<-c«i«Harj, 
Whether thiA wax bi> conducL at McrloD, or whether or 
nppt'ul to the visiter')! authority traii made by him, or hb 
ikdvL>n<arics or uuv oth<?r mrmbrr of lh<: college, i% not lo 
Im* known; rl app«nr« only, that thtrro vran a viiilution, 
tlijit br MiflV'rrd by it, nnd rmriitf^d bin pTini^hmrnt. 

lie wot afieni'rinl^ pn-Nertleil to a living of great value. 
iMTihr B«nbur^, where he \inA *unie di»puk< with orcbhibJiop 
L.uud. Uf thi« <l»prite ] hutf foniul no pRrlicutar a<^ 





irhilo ot h>i heif^t. 

Had Chc-yfiel been i^uai 10 lilt advcnan- in grcflUMW 
nnfl lenrnms, il luid mil brrn thhv In huvr TniTHd ^if K^r :i 
moi<^ proper oppoMie; for thf.y wfrn' botit, in the lii?ii de- 
,^rrc;, £ciibu», ncttrr. arid {jcrUtiaciouH, and vouUl Imirr 
nlford^^l ntfinkind a Apf^ntnclc cif rvnotittion imd boldil«*ii 
not often to bo^fici'ii. Hut llic nmuM^mml ofbdioldiDg 
tb« atru^le would homily havo bi^trn withool dsn^^r, u 
tlit^ were Vto fl^ry i^ot lo have rominnni^^nifd ll»^ir heal. 
lU'Jii^h ii should littvi* prudured a tiirina^ralion at llieir 

Aloal lh<T ycnr IWl, whfn (he vhok nalion irts wi- 
j^grd in the contr^^vcfe}' nbotit the rij^liU oftho churcb, 
iuid ncooAEiily of epiHcopnoy, he dt^otared him:ielf n pr<*)ibT' 
t4<rian, and wn i^ti**mv 'o hiKlinjXr litiifgict, ciT^^mAnifVi; and 
vaA coa«id4'T4'd, an oni? «f itie moil lenm^^d »nd acut^ of hU 
parly ; for, havitijj- ^»cDt rniirli of liii life in a coUvgff, iC 
cut^not he dniiUW thai he had a rcinsidrrnhtc knciwlc-dfpr' 
of books, which 1)i« vt-liemeiice oflila It-iapi.T eiiahted hua 
often to diaptaVi whrn a more lim^rou.** inuQ would liate 
bf^oM ailLnit, (ho^f^h in knrmaE not \iH inlctiour. 

Whim thft war hrokp out, Mr, CheyneJ, in coD»cquoiic4^ 
of hiE principles, deilared bim«elffor the pariUment: sad, 
ns he Hp])ear>( In Ijjv<? held il n* xi first prineipti*, thai nil 
grral mid nohli* uptiiu nhlior iiniiTrar»tv, ihrn* in no d(iuf>t 
bal that be exerted himself tu ^utn proselytes, and to }m>^ 
moto the jutercst of fha( purty. Avhich he hod tbi>u^1 it hi* 
duty to iMpoacG. The**! oadeaToum wen* so much rcic>Td^ 
bf tho parliament, thai, having Xak^n tho <<ovraiJiiit, Imt ww 
nominated one of ihe aa-tembly of diTin^*, who werw to 
meet at Westaihister for the «t«(l]enienl of ihv Dew div- 

llitfl distinction Jrctt . ueeeasarily, upon biai die bntrvd of 
the cnvalier^ ; and hia Uvrng bdini; uot ftr diflaiit frtmi Ihe 
Ifinf^'a bend- quarter*, ho roceivod a vtstt from nomf of tks 
troop», who, a* he aflirmi. plundered his house, ami dror« 
hitti (torn il. JIU living, which ww, I sappoot^, e<inii»di>rt^ 



fu forfeited by his abneiice. Uiougb he wm not ftulTcml ii> 
conlintjc upon tl. %'iiA gi\en i*> n clcr^vman, of m hum Jie 
»ayM, thai ho would brcome ^i bIjij^ bctUrr tbuit a putpit; 
a CftnflUii wbit^h 1 oan tieitbcr uout'ulo nor admit, bncntiAO 
1 Lavo not diacovered who wai Ilu suocatsoiir. Ii4» tbcn 
retirt-d infu Susuok, tn f>xr>Tct«fi hii nilnistry amonjf hii 
frirnds. in D plncr w^H^rr. oa be ob^orres. chr>re }»jct been 
link' of llir jjowef of rt'lj^lua t-Jtber kiiuwii or pM{-EiHrd. 
A* no reuoit cari be given wbr Ibc inliabitaiil.« of 8us»ex 
ahuild b^Tt* leoi ktLowl(>d}!:c or virliio thnii IboNC of other 
pUfo^ il may be Miipoclc^d ibnl hi^ incrnns nolbiuf? moro 
than n place wbere ibe piv»ibvt«ifi;indi«i.-ifili/t« or priiiciplat 
had nt<ter been re>ctiv»^d. \W now obv^rvt^. ibnt lhr< ntr* 
ihnduU, wbpTB thpv sicnllt>r (brJr tipinLonA. r«pn-*rnl Ihrm- 
mIvc)^ Bi prcTficbiii^ the ico»pd Co nncdnvertrd nutii/ii»: 
and rtitbuJtiiatd of all kindsi htivo been inuliiKTd to disg^no 
th«ir parlicvttir trnol.i "uilh pompon* nppeUjitionfl. ond to 
iBaofpnf^ tlr^inflclvrft the ffr(>flt irtfitrumo-ntfi of f<a1vDTion; yot 
it*cnust ho coDf«ftfl^d, ibat ell pUces are noC ^qiiftlly oq. 
KgbtvtiMl; ibut ill ib<< moHl dvilifed n^tii>ii« there ar» 
many r-nmrn whii^h may b*^ r-iiltnd bjifburmu, wbert? nci* 
Uirr polit^nc^n^ iior rrltgiou, nt/r ibe cumiuuu niU of li/e. 
bavey«t been cultiratcd; and U h likowbc c«ruiiii, UmI 
HiA nakabituDb of Su»iex have bcim si>mcl]iae« raentioiwd 
aa r«narl:abta for brutality. 

From SiiftKeK ho urmi of^on In l^^mdon, wb^m, iti 164-'), 
h« prea4'hed 1}jree iime^i before the |mrlrampnl: ;ind, r^v 
iDrntn^ m Novcmbtr lo ColcliMien f" keep the iiLouthJy 
faat them, aa vaft Uix custom, he oblaincd a convoy of m- 
teen sl>ldM^ra, i>hiM« brarcry or good fortnnr wta saoU 
th«t they faced, and pat to llj|;ht. more ihau tvo bandrod 
of the LtDfr'» forcoK^ 

In Uii» journey hi* found Mr Cbillingnorlb t<i the bAodi 
of the pailianiPDl's troops, of whose sirkni^t nnd drath hft 
gavo theari^Qiii, which has btfieti aulHi'icoil^v inndc known 
to tbr Irornrd worUl by Mr. Muijrraux, in iiw Life of t'bd- 

With ftf-ffard to thi» relation, it may be obM^rv^d. tbul it 




w wri(t4<n v/hh au Air of feorlvsi veradty, and vilh the 
qpirtl LffH mail wiko lJitnki» bi« cuiu« ju3t, dDtl hi> iKrharwar 
wilbuul reproach; nor does there appcur any miuoii fwr 
«loiil>1Jng that Chcyiicl spoko and at^ted us he t«IMm ; ffV 
he ditv* tmi pubWh on upc>loii;y. hul u eh«]leii|!«» aod wrilt?* 
Dot CO mach lo obviate oatuinnwE, Sis li> ^ui TrtMn othm 
Ihut cippluti»r wliif^h he «fenis ti.i hnvpi iHftttnwod vrrj libe- 
nillv iipnii him«i*ir, r»r Wm brli4V[our on llia4 oocmon- 

Srnce^ Ihorofore, thi« rcUtion i» tnadiblo, a grcfll part of 
it biilnf^ supportcil by cvidcBco which caooot bcf relutad, 
Mr. MiU£Odu^Bi;uinH vt^ry hia l«ifcuf Mr. Ctulliiig- 
tporth. (o oppoMi- iUv oommon report, tlwt hb lifo ww 
Khorii»nf^d hy iho iahiimnnity af thoHf |4> vliuni he mm n 
[t\'iA€iUfri for CheyjM.'i HpjiftHrt ti> baic pm«ppr>nd> iuvtidal 
all Ills ileienOitiwi i^r the iipiuiinu which lie inpolcd tu 
him, a sc^ kindni^si^ to hu pcmon. aiul vcnrratioB for hie 
oapacily; rtiT docs he appear to Imvc been cnutl lo baiKi 
otherwise thfui by thut inc^aaul Lmportttaityof diiqtutifclioD 
to wliioh lie wait di>ubtli*» incited b) a imcere belit^f of 
dmi^r of hifi coul, if hr chould die viilioQt retiou 
ttomt* of biK i>piiunriv. 

Tbb- Mine kiiidjiCflH vhJuli uiadr hini dcairous lo c<A* 
vert him b«rore his deutit, would iuchiic him to pitiiie 
him from dyin^ lufofi* he wus couvertud ; iumI aooordinfl; 
wo liiid, that, when the oorIIo wnii yioldcrd, ho look tmrm to 
prtK-iire him n connnodiaiifl lodging; wh^ti Iv ^w to haio 
been udseasoaahly removed, he Aiteiaptecl (o cliortcn hit 
jouriiey, whinii lir ktmw wcpoht br dntignruuii ; whim the 
physician wjm di«gu»tcd by Chilluigworth'« dt&Uu«t he 
prcvuilcd iipoii him, aa ihe ayiuptoiiB ^cw muvr dongt- 
rousr lo fcrncw hJa vUits; and «lien death LeA bo other 
acl of kindneflA to be pruotiKud, procured him ih<* nte« of 
biirlul, which KOtne would h;ive drnird him, 

lluving rlorip tbiii far ju«i)CA to ibr bumaniiy of C^<- 
uel. it » proper to iuquLre, haw fur hv dfat?r*vui blam^H 
He appeurs lo hnvv r^trnded none of tiuit kindnr-Mi to ibr 
opimonei of Ch i Hit i)C worth, which he iibowrtl to hia pciat^ ; 
for he inierprut^ every word in Iho wor«l fonao, and koeon 


■a tf«nk. 1 



iodilitnoui to discover, in ^to^ Kne, beroAies, whicb nitf^t 
liavv Mn|Md for g\qt any other apprelientioD : be appean 
alwayii huipktuu* of toinv luteni mult^utry, and rctuly to 
piTr34Tr,uti< v.-]int hi- only KUsprTcbi, wilh iIkt «am(t vii>\4-nc«, 
a» if il Imd hft'ii o|>i<nly ^vo^ed: in hU Uip< procirdiirr hfr 
feliowA hiiutdf sijicurt?. but nilbuut ctiiidvur. 

Aboul tbia timo Chtjyncl, in puniuuoco of bia aatural ' 
uxdaiir. AUrndi--d tbi? army uiidi^^r the' (-ommuad of the i*ar1 
of Eurx, fiud fulckd 1h« prnitc of vnloiir to ihut of IctLmiti^^; 
for be cliiiti|igiii$h«*d blm«iclf «o mucb by his peraonid hrti- 
T«*ry. and »1>ljiiiifO *o taiu^U ikill iu iht? Bfieiice of ww. 
that hi5 coiiiniiindi vrxt^ obfTy[^d \>y Uir ctdoiirU wUb us 
mucb H-ftpcct OS tboAc of tbc i^tneraL He scrmM. indeed, 
to hater boon horn a AoMicr; for Itcbad an iotrifpidily wbicb 
«y« noii^r lo be shaken by any daji;>;«r, and a spirit of «i»- 
l«q>x»e not lo he dlicuaraged by diflioully, Ukbich were 
9i«ppof(Hd b^ itti uiiuauul dt-|;rec of bodily Ktrvng;(b. Uu 
itcfTJcrft (if a\\ kinds \4<rrr iIloij^^IjI nf so miirb imp(>rtJiiiC4? 
by ibo parlJQUKnt, ibat ibt^y bellowed upou httn (he tnin^ 
4^ Pi-tTortb, til Siuves. ThiM fiv^ing ffd» «f the Tsiuo of 
tevcQ hundred poundfl prr Jiriuum* from vUich lhi>v hnd 
«jer(ed a man rcm^urkubk- for hit loyalty, ^tud, ihcrL'fcrt\ in 
ibrir opinmn. not W£>rlby of fciwh rewpnaefl. And it nay bo 
irtijuin-d. uhc-llirr, in acct-pliii^ t)iU pn^f'^rniKiil. ChrvncJ 
did not VLolut<; llu! prott-jLLiticjtt wLiib br males la the pra- 
I msc alrcnily rcc tied, and wbrtbcr br did not ntiflV^r bifi r^- 
solutions 1o be o>t-rbor[ie by iK^ tctnplatloiu of vt^nlllt. 

In 1GI6. ivb^u Oxford ^as tuk^n by tho forci^i of the 
parliaiuent, and the rt^forBiuiifra of the univ^nilj wn» nv 
SEuKed, Mr. Chi^vncl w^i* ami, wilh six oibi'm. lo prejKsrr 
tbc way for a viMtulji^n ; hiring a ill hnrij^rd by the pa/liaiarot 
to preach iii any of Uiccburches. without rcK&rd to tbcriiclit 
of tb9 member* of the; iinivimiU. lltat Ibfur doctrine niL|;ht 
profwre their bt;arL<ry for tht; chan^<'^ wLioh vrcrc iDtended. 

When tbey urrivod ai Oxford, they b«gmi> to execute 
their commmion, by poasrHfting ihorosolv^fd of llw pulpjta; 
but, if the relation of Wood'' in to he re^rdtfd, were beard 

k VUt Wo*d't QIM. Aaliq. Oioii^0rv< E<^ 




tpjih very liitid v«n»rAtLOii. Thoio who hnd b9#n «o«Di- 
tomed to the preachers of Oiiford, and rhe liiun^ of ibe 
i-hiircih of Kti^liitid, wi-n' ulTrn'M hI ihi? rmplitir-« of iHcir 
dUcourscK, wlitcli were npity and iiiiincatjiu^^ ; stl ibc iid- 
uiQfA gosiaroft, tiic wild distr>rlioDA, end the uucuulh toao 
wilb which (Lt'\ wt-r** doli^crcd; ut the ei>[dnc» of ihtir 
prnyt^n; for tin* king, utid th« vuhcmcnco and cxubrrancc? 
of thoitct tphich thny did not fittl to ut£«r for rA«r bifnpd 
fovnriU tiin\ nctionn of thp pRrlinmpnl niid nrmr ; and «t, 
«hut w^H surely iii]l (u he rcmurki^d uilliajt indiifuatioD, 
their omiuinn of the lA>ril» pr^i^f^r. 

But power cttiily «upplj*^il the wonl of reffcrciice, and 
tbey proceeded in tlierr pkn of rt.^f.>rmarion ; ttud ihiukiti^ 
MrmoDa not to vfllcuvtoiui lo conv«r«ion a> priralv inter-' 
rogaiori**!, und 4>xhorlLiEif>iiii, rhr^y rsUbEii:h*^d a iri?<*l:lT 
nifHing fiif ffvpivif f«nfUr coHAnenc^s frnm M'ru/iif, «t a 
hcj|i»c Ihal^ fruiii ihe btjMni<t<Ei tovhicb it wa* iip|»ruprnlnt, 
WHS called iht; scruph'tltop. 

With this project they were »o wel! pleased, that ihey 
flont to the parliflmoiit an account of tt, which was iift«^ 
wards pnut^dj und is nfBi?rib<TtI, by Wood, Ka Mr. Ch<?Tn<rl. 
They coufinucd fnr some wpi»Iv* Io h*?W tbcir meetings 
regulnrly, dad to ndmit gre^it numberq, whom rorionty* or 
& demre i>r roiiv tolmii , or h f-ompllaaoe wUh the preT^iling 
piurty, hrought titilhf-r- But tlicir tnuiqmlhly wok tinickly 
duturbcd by tbc liirhulcnce of the iQdtrpendcbts, wImh 
opiniark8 then prcTnlk^ ^mf>fig the ftoldicre, and ver^ very 
industrfoTialy propngut«d by (to dittcoura^e ol Wtlhuni 2at 
bury, a preacher of gr«^at repuiAtiori umob|f lliem, who one 
dnv gnthrnng ii rorKidrrnhli* niimbf-r at bb nio«t STAloua 
followtrs, wpijI Io \hv hoii'ti^ n{ipoiiited for the rptolntioo 
of M:n]p1eft. on a day uhkh wait §et apurt for lb« tlisqubi- 
tioTi of the tligrnly iiTjd oflice f>r a mLiii^ter, and bc|(iui to 
dift^"(<'> witb flTL'ut vtheint<iice, uifiuui^l Ibe preAbytonaii». 
whom be deiiiod to bavi; luty true mtniitore ncnong tbmi 
and whoic a^iemblr^t he nfllmipd not to bn ib#» lri»e rbcifeb- 
fle wax opjHLved vilh rtjuiil heal by th« prf«bvieriiri?i^ and, 
at length, they n^ecd to eiamuio liic poiut uuotJwr day« 



in m mpxtnr dfBi>utatioTi. Accordin^ljr, thoy appointed tint 
iiih of Novc-mbrr for uu irtquirj; "Whether, in iho 
vbristiaD churoh^ dit; oflicu of minister i« committed to stny 
pariiciilar p^^nonf ?" 

Oil Ihe day fiied, ttie mitHgoniBls a^|)e»red. e-ticii at- 
tended hy gwtii luimbrrji ; but, wIil<ii tbc quciktiun vAs pro- 
|>oftrd, tbcj began to wnihgk, fiot nbnut thr doctiint? 
wbioh tficj lisfl onj^ttf^d to namitic, but Bbf>»t the Urrmt 
of th« propnattioii. wbii^h tbo ludoptiideiitic ullej^ed to bo 
«-haT>gvcl nincc fhi'iragrromiril ; fliid,Eitl(<Dg^th, Iby toldiers 
itiKtcird thit iho f|i]««tioQ (hould be, " Whrfhpr thoiti^ who 
thII themftetvea miuistvirH, Imve more right or power to 
preach the ^tKt\ie\. fltiirt nriy other maci ihul ia a chriMi^Biir 
Tbii ciuciIioR wasdi::b4ifc<l, for #cimr limr, with ^trut vcbc- 
mriK^c and confitaion, but without nny prospect of o cca> 
cltuioD. Al lenf>;i[i, o^ie of tho KoIdii?r«, who ibou^tit tlie^ 
fcftd tn L*({iml Ti({ht with Xhtt rrsi to engiii^i^ in the ^unlro- 
V0T*y, diimandt'H of thti pr^Hbyirnnnx, «l|f*iior lh«Tjr ihcm- 
wlv<-* received iheir ufdecH, wbf Iher from binbof^h, nr any 
otljer ppriunH. This uneipecl^d tnlerruj^ulurj put tbrni 
Co ^rat difficoltic* ^ for it happenrd that the; vcre «U 
ordnin^it by the bisho]>H« vhich tbey durst not ackuowk^dftr, 
for ff^T of expusioR ihomdHtcs to a K^-iiL'<nit criHurt-, and 
bolo|F convicted from Iheir ovn duclarutio&v, in vhicb th«j 
bnd fn-i|Uf!nttjr fondfinnt-d i'pi*c<ipiii»y. m conirarj tt» i-hrii- 
lianily ; nnr <Iiir«l l\\py driiy it, Ijr-raiiift thry might hiLve 
I>eeii 4'oufiitod, uiid iiiubli ut once, bttvo lunL lutueuu tempt. 
The ftoldiers, aeti'hij; tlifrir pirrplrMty» insulted tJicin; and 
vent ftvray, boaiilin^ of Iheir victory ; nor did tht^ ptfi'abj- 
toriaiiA, for (otno time, recover npirit enough to ren^ir 
their ineelitig*. or to proooad in tbo work of o»iog oon- 

f^irbury, «xultin^ fii the victory, vhich. not ^ifi own 
nbilitioA, but (be fialjtlHy of (be Huldier had j>io<.-ureJ huu, 
begrAit to fcol hU oolioui of evtn Lii^d, witJiout acruplo, 
•nd, at Itfoffth, n:i«crtcHj. thai " llie suintA hod on o<iiiul mva- 
•uru of the diiino outure i«i1h our Satiour. Itioijgh Dot 
equally mauifp*!/' Al ibo ^atpo tLmo bd looL upon kini 

thfl dimity of Ft prophcl. and bi-ffun to utter prcdictioiM 
rcltttii^ lo thtt ulTuiTB ofEit^liuid and frclimd. 

H'n pTopbiM;ioH w^re not much rcgsrdi?^, bcil faui doc- 
truH< xnw <'rnjiiiri*d by l\w [jresbvt^rmns in iMt puJptEi: 
lujd Mr. CbejTifil (^hEilli^na^d him Lo u dl«puUUioii, ta which 
He ai^eil, uimU nt lii^ lir»t R|>p<'UtMncf? in St. Mary's cbareb, 
nddrcsswd hit auilicitce in ihc foll(»vJu^ Tflftuoti: 

" CbriMiiui fncmds kind felloW'9u1<ltcnt« uad wortbj atn- 
dcDts, 1, the bumble scrrant of all mnnkittd, tun thw day 
drawu, «j-niuAt my will, out of nij^ cell into tJii& publiek a»- 
Kembly, by the doub]<? olaiii af ac«iuatic>n and a cb4JI«D^ 
from tht> piil]ii<. I hiive bt^rji chftrffrd wllh bemy; I haw 
inifii chjilleirged lo conuT liithrr, in u Ipttor writlcn liy Mr, 
I^raui:i^ CL«yncL ilerc, (Jitin, I Ataud in defence o{ my 
aelf and my doctrino, which 1 fthull iutroduc« with only 
thtA OtrolunifioD, thai I clriim not Ibo oflic« of a nunistcr 
CQ acGoT^nt (jf any outvard cull, 1hou|-h 1 fornKtrly roc#iv#d 
oidionlion, nor do I boMt of illaminatioD, or the know- 
1fH]ge of cMir Snviuur, tliougli I fmvf b^t^ii hirld iii tr4lt<mi 
by ulbern, aind fiirmi-rly by oiywrlf; for I uow dr<'Urr, 
that I know nothing, aod am nolhii]^, nor woald 1 bo 
iboitKht of othorwi^e Chao aa an inquirer dcd »cekor/^ 

Ho tht>H advuuccHl hi^ I'ormor poaitioii ta alrotii^tr IcrmA, 
and V'Uh additioDit cqunlly deU^ytuble, ivhich Cboynvt aU 
tiickod ttilb tfar v«ihemencp whirb, zn to varm n tptn])^. 
Mi4ih horrlil n«tterliuuii uiiglil naturally ^xcifr, T\w di*- 
puti?, frM|iiRiil1y intrrnijitrd by iUtt rhtniuurs of Uw iwdi- 
«uot-« aad tnntnlta nu»cd to di:icc-RCcrt Cbeyad. who «a» 
vorj tmpopuTor, CDotiau^^ nboul four hoan, and thon holii 
tho controT«rlbta grt* weury» and retired- 11m proohy- 
leriAnv aHenvArds iJioitghi 1h«y AJiould mor^ iip«<e<li1y pul 
an vnd lo ibt* liert-iiii't uf E^irhiiry by puuer lliiin liy argu* 
oieiil; audj by !ti>1ii:iEin^ f^rui^ru] FatirfJu. procuml hiK 

Mr. Chc^ncl puMJtihcd an aC'Count of tbtf dl8pnlf^. onckf 
tlw tide of, l-'aitb triumphing over Errour and Ui*my. in 
n RcTelaiioTi, &<;.; nor oiu u b« doubted bm ht* had tho 
victory, where biA c^hijav gave hiiD Co gnfai tupefioniT' 

Somewhai boToro thU^ biA captioun and petulant dispofli* 
liotj i»ugn^d hifa in a controv<<riiy. from which be cuuld 
not expect to ^u vtjdnl n-putation. Dr. Hiunoiond bud; 
Mrt lijfi^ bpr^^rt-, piiMitliJ^U hi* Oalvchitm^ in vhich 
Mr. Clic^iirl, accenting to h» ciiTtrom, fouikd iiiAiiy frroMn 
ioifrlicd, if f>ot juA«rtvd; and, tlicrcfurr, u it wiu nuick 
read, tfaouj^bt it coorvaivot (o ccnniirr it in Ihc patpit^ OP 
thi« Df. Hummond bving informod, dr^ircd Uim, in n letter* 
to commtinicatc bii> objf^clfnnh ; to vhJch Mr. Choynel re- 
tunia-d an nn^vrr, written W](L hi* lUimk tempi^r, aiic), th«*re- 
foTC, Aom^wliul p«rvr*r«p- Thv itiftitrovi^niy wiu druwii D>t 
to a CO<i»iderftble Ivngtli; und iLu ptii^rni, an Ixitli Aidirs 
were aflorffanb coode pablick l>^ Dr. Humni<»iid> 

In 1647, it waa detarmiood by |iartiauiont, tb&t tho r«- 
fonnatiou of Oxford should bo more i'i;;oruusty carrie<i OB^ 
and Mr- Clicj'oel wa* t4t>niioa!*?d out? of iho vinUer». TTw 
griK>ml prnt^iiifi of tht^ viartntion, ihe rirmn<<va and lidrlitj 
of tW KtudriiU, thir 4k<}iJr(T)i« liy which llivi inijuiry wu d«* 
lajcd* wtd iLe Al«udin(is!i witli whicEi it ^va oppoaed, wbick 
u« TOry parliculnrly rc-ldtL^d by W^^od, and alltir bim by 
Walker, it is not neoCM^ry to m^ittioi] here, n« tbc) rclalu 
not oior« to Mr. Cb^ynal'* Vife tliiui io tho»9 of bis asso- 

There 14. iiiiWd, vome rouanti lo twlli^t-e iLut he watt 
moir ticlivr luid ^ifulrnt tliuji die ml. hrcaiiiw he tifJiivun 
to bavG brcn chariCH). tu a |>&rt)oular aianTicr, with »oini: 
of 1lH!ir nn>sl uiijuslifLublc moasiiro?). lie wnn Jicrn!(<^d of 
propD«tD|(, thai ih*j mrtnbcn* of Ihc iimvcrAily thoidd bo 
dvDii^d iho a&Ki£LiiLco of counsel, aaid wiw Imnpooaed by 
n^mf*. »u( a mmlman. in a vattre tvrilten on th^? vinilalion. 

OiR- aclioi), which jtbuut the violerLcr of Ut* Icinji^t 
itud hisi dWcfcard, both »f haniiuiily Ai)d dirooocy* wIhmi 
they caoir io rompclitLon with hi^ pa.»iDn»« must not bo 
forgotten. The vi^iterft, bring .>ff4indod ut iba obstinacyof 
Dr. F«n, doan of Chnalchiircfa, and Tictrehanoell^ of tb9 
nniv^rsitt, huiitif{ ^nl deprived him of his viretdiuiMri-llur- 
aJiip, dflermio'^d nftrr^nrdK to diKpoimewi him of bi» dran- 
rry; nud, in tho coune of tla^ir prorircdiaKii, llmaght it 



proper to Acuo upon hi* chambrn id di« colle^- Tbit 
wu« mi net whicK most mi;ri would vUliDifly httv« referral 
to tlie cfljt^rc to dvbom rhtf Uw nuig;tiriL it ; hnt Chrvnrrii 
fttty prumjitril him tu u ilifftr^iiT coiidutl. Hi-, and thrc« 
monfof ihr ijsitrrs unit pnil drmdiidcft] mliiiisflion ; which, 
bciD^ fttefiitily n^fusL-d fhcm. thcj ot>UiiiCTd hj the ftwut- 
»co cf u fik of solctk-fH, who forcod tho doom with piefc- 
«cai. ThcD iMiloriDf:. ilu.<v suw Mr», Ff-I1 ia ibo lodging*. 
Or. FVll being in pjU'm al l^tidun. atnl ordered her lo 
i|iiit ihem, hot fniind hrr not oiorf- ubiiei]UJi>iiH llvin her 
hiubflud. Tliey repented their orders with mriincrx, Lat 
vi-etv not libit- t(j prcvuil upuii ber to temo\e. They then 
fi'tirccl, und kfl her ;!:ipn!ird to the brutftlitj' of ibo *a^ 
diflr«, whom they commnncl«>d to ke^\> poaetNon, whicb 
Mr*. Fell, howcvtir, did not le^ive. About cmr day* afl^f- 
vardf, «he received ntinthcr vitttt of the ^aiiie kind from 
ibe new rbnncelfor, the earl of Prmbrokt? : who hHTUi^, 
liltr the oiherx, ordered her To depart wilbout rffbct, tresfed 
bor witb reprnuchriil lung^iingF, mid, ut but, cooimaoded the 
•oldicTB to tako her up la bcr ctmtr, nnd carry her out of 
dooiv. Her duuj-hterf , and aome other gendcwomcn tbftl 
were wiUi her. wore ulterwnrdt treated in ih& nuae num- 
ner; one of whom predicted, without dcjecdon, tivit fthe 
nbonld enter iLe bou»e a^ttin vith W*% dininihv, a! *omr 
other lime; nor Wiw Mbr mittiiketi ia her eonje::f^rt\ fi»t 
Dr. Fell KTcd lo bi; rrfttored to bis dennery. 

At the reception of the cbaneeller, Cheynel. u the taett 
ftccomplished of the Trnteri, had the proTiDc<t of preMiat- 
inff haat with the ensigns of hi* office, vome cf which vere 
eoufil<?rfeit, utid addresaint; him wilh a proper oration. Of 
ihii ■ppec'h< whif^h Wood Imn firrw-rved, I shall gi»e lomo 
pBxvngex, lj)~ which a jtidgnienl niAj hr. made of hjs oT«< 

Of the fftnTea of the beadles he observcft, that " some 
ftre stained with doiiblf^ ^nJt, that »ome are pale with fear, 
and that oFbcrs hiivo been mado uvie of as crutehrUt for ibr 
tupp/trt of bad cuustM and detperate ft^rtiinen ;" and ka m* 
niAxki of (hi* hook of ntfltiite* which ha delivers, Uiat " llw 



I tti 


ignoriLDt mflT. perhaiM, admire tbd splendour oflbe corer 
ttil tL« Iranicd knt>w (hat the tta\ {rf.atiiTC !« wilhm." Ol' 

eM two ««iit€Ticea it u oasjlj discofert^d, iIiaI the firrt jj 

nreii und unnatural, atid the second InvJAl and lon^. 

Soon ^iXei^Muh Mr, CbJ^yui-l wiu adinified to thn de- 
gr^ of hnch^Iorof diTJniti?, for «hioh his gruLM hnd h^n 
denied him lu IfMI, ntid, uh ha llreii siinVrpil for iin ill- 
timed asstrlkin uf iHe preAbyti-riun dm^lrinr-*, hr obtninpri 
that Eus Av^rrc nhoiild lir dated fmm th« limo at which he 
vu rcfiucd it ; «ri hot»oirr M'hich, howcveti did not scrurv 
him fiom hcirii; ^uoii &ftcrr pnhhekly repruacticd uh a mud- 

Bnl iho vigt>ar of Cbojnel u-ns thmight, hy his rompn- 
liion«, radenene profit, nii vi^K j)>fchDU(iur ; itud Dr. Biiiley, 
llie presidf^nt vf St. Jnhn\ enUrgf. heUtg imt rnnrr- c^lvi^di- 
CDt to tho nulliority of tlio pufliarucnt than the leil, was 
epnv<.-d of hia revL-imca and authority, with which Mr. 

e^ncl wu» Immi^dtatcly inv<^!tt(id > wlio, with hi* udual 
foolnoM and modvfity, look poncijiicici of iJie lodoingK 
t^n flfl^ by bnmkin^ opon tho doom. 

Tht> preferoieut being not ihotighf ndeqnale to tJie de- 
SiTti or abiltltt^H of Mr. CliryuH, it va*, tln»ri^fon\ dfEirvd. 
fcy ilio ccmmillcf of pflrlcAiurnl, that the: ^i4i1«-f!t wmiTd 
recommend hiiu lo the lecturctliip of divinity, founded bj 
the lady StargnriTt. To rri^ommend him, iind (o choose, 
VuK, al ihnt tim^, the j^nmo ; und ha liud noct tlir plcunur^ 
flf propagnlini^hii darling doririnp of prrd4*stian1ion, with* 
eiil tntermption, and without danger. 

Bi?ing^ ihaji llmfii'd with pnMrr iittd hurepuc, iherfi i« littl«* 
on fov doaliting ihat h»' gav<T w»y in Uif^ rinlur«I tt'he^ 
, aud iudulf^ed liimHi^lf in thi- atmo»t exce^^Mrs of 

^^xcttl, by whiehhc wa4, indeed, eu>muchdis(inf,niiflh«(lr 
lliat, in a aativt^ mentioned by Wood, he is diiiciiifit^d by tbo 
title of archvifiiler ; an appeltatioa ^hicb be firemn to haf« 
be*ia iodmlriom lo dcs^rvA by %evenlj and inflexihilily ; 
for, not eonienied with ih^ commitiion -n-bk-h h^ and hit 
rol1oagiio« hjid ntrondy n-ceiveil, he prnniTrfl »ii or Hff.wix 
of lb* mntibrrft of par1iami;n1 to meet pnTOlely in Mr. 



Ri>u9c's iwAff^ti^, and aft«um<T tke atyk' nnd mitbon1> of a 
cumcniltoc, and I'rom iht^m obtained d more cxtcnsivt- tiitd 
IvrAniucal power, by which tbv vigiu»rs were enaibltMl to 
forirf* i1i« Jo/e»n /«^u^ tfm/ <x)tvncifir, and liic nfyaiit>t oaih 
upon iiU ibr mt<mhcrri of \\%o nnlvrrKily, and to proiecule 
tho&e for & contciript wim did rutt ttj>prMr to a dtatiw. ai 
wh»tov«r diafancif tbc> migiit b^, «nd vlatei«f ri!A-Bo<u 
Uicy miftht nsai^ for their absencv. 

By i\\it mvXhvd \\^ f^unily drove* Kn-nt numbers from 
iiniv^Tsity, whtwir pUiceji ho mippUed vilh men of his own 
o|jiaio(i, whom \ie wn^ very Lndusuiou* to draw fnim othiTt 
pjirl-1, uilli [>foniise>i of nitikiij|^ u liht-ntl provUion for Uut 
out {if lh<r 5po!U of hcrrolicki and mali^NfitA. 

Ilarini^p in time, almort extirpated those opluiotia wlucb' 
he found so prcvulv^iit at his arnvul. or, al Jea^l, obliffcd 
ihontr^ who would nut ri^outit, U) un iippoaranco of con- 
formityi ho wsui ut loinurc for ^^mploymonU which doK<rv4 
lo be recorded with g^roaler commendAiion. About this 
linuT, inuuy Mcjciiibu uriCi^rft b^^ii lo puhljih thi^ir noiiontj 
Willi gn'ol boli]ni-M» which Ihi- pn^KhytrrituiA. citiuidpriaj 
tLs hertitiCAl find ImpiouH. llioughl it o^^ccMarj to icoufairf;- 
aud. ih«r<Tforc, Cbcyni'L who bad now ohtnWd hiadoctttfVj 
daf^^i waa doftiredi m l(UJ^. lo writo a viudic^tioD ofj 
the clontrmi? iiJ^ tbo Trinity, which ho porformod, nod piib«j 
Jiflbtid Ihe next year, 

Hu dr«w up. liheuiifti, a coJifutadcHi of lUtviA NnciiiiiiQi 
Umi*tj( mlvuHO(-il by Ji>hu Fry, u muii vho i|>i'ni gn^at piifti 
of hiA life io lun^tng fiooi one n-ii^iL^tj tu dijulhtir, 4nd ulig 
Aal ai» Duc of tht^ jud^L'n on thir kinj;, bvl WiV cx|>fr1lnl 
alli^rwurdo Irum the Iiouho of roniij)on)», aod dJHibted froiSj 
tiitUn^ in porEuuiicrtt. Ur. Cbe>iJol i« said to haio abov^i 
him^ieir evider^tly lup^rionr lo him in (be coDlroveny, auij 
4^!i miiwer^d hy him ouly with an c^pprobriout book agMiist 
the proKbyttfrtMii ^'Ir-rj^y, 

Of the remaining pan of liijt lift.% iht&tv^ m fouuil only an 
ob»cnie fiird cuiifuM-d ^ccounl. He t|uitl<;d the preudtut* 
skip of St> John'*, and iho profc^aor^ihip, in lUiU, ubi 
Culaniy rolutof^, hrcausc he wovilcl not lakv tho co^iiff^.j 




in«iit ; &iu1 fjtsv« ft |>roi>r iTjat h^ adiiM fliiflV^r. na welt sts act, 
in H miiir mh'ich lie Wii-rrtl just. Wi* ha*r, indeed. n» 
reHftOQ toqaefttion hi« rr^ioliitii^D, whntcTrr ncmnian misfit 
be ^rrn to ('xcrt it ; nor is it pTobabl«> tbal hct f«vcd ftlHic- 
turn more tboD danf;4^r, or that hv wouLdl Dot have b«nio 
pvrsocution bimftelf fot thotte opLnioDi whicli iziduifid Ub 
to pertcciitf? ofh<-T*- 

H«» did not KHfTcr mufh uptin tbU m^rjaitinn ; for he n- 
Ijiiimd tlitf Uviii^ of Pclwortlk, to which lir, tlioiicvrufvArd, 
confined hU labour*, atid wlitrc he was very nsaid^ous. 
and, u Calamy ntlirmiii vt^ry moccc^atul in the cxcrf^i.-^c of 
bis ministry, it bfriii^ biji pncuhdT character to bo varm and 
aeiJotii in all lii« undrnnkingv. 

This bMit of biii di<i[>0[iition. Jricreiised by the uncommon 
turbnlcniri- of ih^ tlitim in vhicb he lived, »ii<] by the 
opposilioit to >hich thr nnpnpnlar naturt* of M»me of his 
omploymonla exposed lanir vfu<, jit lost, belghlcned to du- 
tructioQ« Ao that he was, for i»ome years, iliBonlervd j» his 
UQdur»Luidb^. us botb Wood und Calum) n?lu(o, but wiili 
tiUch diflV^r^nci^ lu nitght br e:^|jecl<!d from tbnr oppoAilo 
principles. Wood appears <o tbink, thil a fefideiK-T to 
mttAuvtm »jiv dtfltotemble tJi a gredt \iuil of his life: Ca- 
Ijimy. tbjit it was only InuiBJCut and uccidcnfuJ, tboujcb. in 
biji ndditiorin to biji fir»l narrative, be plfsdi it, as nn <?x- 
toiMiQtioo of that fury with wiiich bi« kindisvt fricnUs con- 
feis him to have acted on some ooca^ioos. Wood declares, 
That he died liirle betiet thviu difiiracled ; Calamy, that ha 
niu prrJiTt^lJv rrcovrnnl tn i\ Round miiiU. befun? tJic n?* 
sioralion, at whicli time be retired to lYc»latu a siuull 
vilJage in Sumci. bciDg lunicd oul of hla iWiD^ at PH- 

]| doe» not jippvor that bv kept bis lit^iuff btl tbe f^^en^ral 
t!JertJon of tb<! oonconforDniit* ; iiud it it nol uriliLely that 
Ihr luipcrity of hi^ rarriuge, and tlv. knovkii virulmcr of 
hb temper, iiii^Ll have nised him encxQie*. who wore 
willing to make bicn feel the eflVeU cpf perMcatioo, whkb 
ho hnd 10 furiously incJIcii ajroiiiAt otiiern ; but of thia 
incidcrnt of his lifo there is no purtiuular acoounl. 

498 GAVE. 

After his deprivatioD, he liTed, tUl hU d«atb, irbich hap- 
pened in 14>65, at a amtdl village near Chichester, upon a 
pateroaL estate, not augmeDted by the large preferments 
wasted upon him in the triumphs of his party ; having been 
remarkable, throughout his life, for hospitality and con- 
tempt of money. , 


The curiosity of the publick seems to demand the hiatorj 
of every man who has, by whatever means, risen to emi* 
nence ; and few lives would have more readers (ban that 
of the compiler of the Gentleman's Magazine, if air those 
who received improvement or entertainment from him 
flhould retain so much kindness for their benefactor, as to 
inquire after his conduct and character. 

Edward Cave was bom at Newton^ in Warwickshire, 
Feb. ^, 1691. His father (Joseph) vaa the jonnger son 
of Mr. Edward Cave, of Cave's- in- the- Hole, a lone house, 
on the Street road, in the same county, which took it« 
name from the occupier; but having concurred with his 
elder brother in cutting oflT the entail of a ttmall hereditary 
estate, by which act it was lost from the family, he was 
reduced to follow, in Rugby, the trade of a shoemaker. 
He was a man of good reputation in his narrow circle, 
and remarkable for strength and rustick intrepidity. He 
lived to a great age, and was. In bis latter years, supported 
by his son. 

It was fortunate for Edward Cave, that, having a dispo- 
sition to literary attainments, he was not cut off by the 
poverty of his pareots from opportanities of cultivating 
his faculties. The school of Rngby, in which he had, by 
the rules of its foundation, a right to be instructed, was 

> Thu life tint ippcucd iq tlie G«nt]«nui'] mtguiDB for 1754, ukd ii odw 
priDtfdfroDi a copy reviled bjthe autKcu* at my rrquAi, in WBK N.^-tt tru, 
n thfl miguine, iouoducfd by a gcqeni rennfk, which wt have ifUQ 



ih^n m high reputBtiou under the reTerouJ Mr. Uotyocl, 
to wliokc care motit of the nci^hhouriiis f<iaiili<-',4. vxcn of 
the highc-^ilruuk, intniMoil their flons. He bnd juri|7n<fat 4o 
duc9vi-T, und, for aomv Xim^. j^eoerosiiy lo «iicounif^i Ibc 
g<i|iiiu of youiijr Caw^ ; ujid viu iio »4-!l ploa»(^(3 vfilh hit 
quirk progreu in tht* irhocil, Chdl he dvclan^d hh rr'noltilion 
Id brped him fi>r the iiriLvcntit^. and n-ioiiimcjidf^l him, am 
a servitor, lo some of hb i^dmlarstif high niuL- But pro*- 
pcrity which drprndi upon the caprice trf olhcnt, is of 
•hcrt diiratioD, Cave'ji Jin^cnority in litrralurc exulted 
ktm toimiuvidiauAfomilmTttywith boyAvho were fttr above 
blDi ill Tank and eipect^ttons ; and, ab in uii»i|uu] luiodS' 
liufiii ir ulwu}i IiuppeiiH, whatever unhjcky prajfik wm plnypii 
yrjtM impuled 1o Cavr- Whc^n any mUrhirr grrut or Hinull, 
Wfu deae, though, pet'litfpa, uLhera W4«ieduf the Atraiugpin, 
when it Hfla ftuccei^ifuh yet. upon de1ei:tioii. or tDi^caniago 
the fiuilt wiut Mirt} to rull upon fiocir Cave. 

At Lixf, hix nii3ireB§, hy Vim^ inv'nMo meona, teal a 
f«ieurl(e cock. C^ve vus, vilh hitle exHmioaljon, tti|;- 
inutif«d UH lli9 lh]4^f uiid murderer; uol beeuuw^ ho w&» 
miirr jippjin-ntly {TtminnT ibin nIhr-rN, but iK-riiiiAf* he wu 
naoit eu.iily rtuohed hj viiidii^IiTif jualjce. Froui that time, 
Mr- llclynck W)thdrt?w hi* kindnrAA visibly from hun, and 
lreat<:d bim with hnr«hnrh*, whrch ibc crime, in ]t« utmost 
aggravation, could ecorcelif dcMirv**; utid i«hich,iur<Tlt, be 
ivould have forborue, bad he ron^^idrrrd how hardly the 
habiiuut innucncu of birth uud fortune » r^tl^red ; and 
how rm|JU'ntly mnii, nol ivhnlly Hithoiil Arrrke at virtn^, 
afe betrayed to &gU mure alrocfous tbmi tlic vehbery of a 
lieu'rwbt. by a drtire <ff pleaftln^ Iheir Auperioura. 

TboAc redi;ct)on!i hJi mustrr iivver mnde, or made with- 
out elfcot; for, under prtitrnce that Cuve obttrucled the 
tdbcipliiM of iliu Kcliool, hyHr-lltng frlandcistine aiitittJLnee, 
•nd flopfilylug eiercite« to idlem, hp vns o]>pn^urd wiib 
nnreUKniitthle inxki, ihut there mi^-ht be an crpportunily of 
qudTTellin^ with hU Ciilurr, and when hU dihi^ehce bad 
aunnouiited them, no re^rd w» p>aid to Iho perfi>nnunce. 
Cave bore ihix pen«rotitiou awbiJe, and tbeu left the 



BchooU ftnd the hope of a UtL«nir)r vducattoB, to 9G«k aotBe 
other mcaiki of goinvtij; u bvolibood^ 

He wus first pUcrd wilh n rolldctor of tko excise- Ho 
tii;e<1 (or4>eotiii(, with some plensun*, » journey or iwowbich 
lie rodtf Willi liim uk lih i?krk, tiiii! n-Ule ihe TicfuTini that 
he ^Mici} over tlie v'\ci8f?inc-n in gramnw^col dispalHtkms. 
But Uic iiiaolctii;!^ of liifl laistrcM^ who employed bun ia 
Mrr^ilc dnid^-rr, f|uii;il\ dtHfpiMod buii» lUid b« wt^l up 
to London tiL qui^t of more suilabk* cmpJoymont. 

Ilo wu*^ r<Tt^oiinmendt'd Ui a tinibcT-tiicrcbti&t fit tba 
i)unt)iLdc, -ind, wtiiU* lie? wus l^icrp gn liking, U said to 
hikvt* jj'iveii hupf*s of gnul luerc&ntUe •bi1ili4'<» : btit diia 
pbic« he *poit M\, 1 know nut for wlmt reiOMin. oxul wdi 
bound opprcTOticc to Mr. Collins v. printer of loaic rcpulft' 
Uoij, aod deputy nldcrman. 

TbiK veujt a iTude for whicb men were formerly qaaliti^d 
by n Illt-'Tury t-'ducation, mid whieh «au ple;«»ip|^ to C«tv, 
biTJUiH- it fnrnifilird liomc rmploymnnt for bk« Krliol-iKtirk 
altuinmcntb. Hort- . tWri fon?, bo rosi>Urd to e«UJ<^. thuuj^b 
bis m«i!tler And nLlitreHi lited in perpetuul discord. 4uid 
tbeir houjtv Mra.% tbrroforc. no comfortabb? habitation. From 
thu inconvomciK'ios of thctc doiiio^tick tuinulta lie wa> 
■oon rcl4?JUcd, baviiifl[, in only two w&n:, ft(Uiii4»d ao ni«ch 
%k\\\ in hit art, and gaint'd )4o mi^ch th(f ronf}df*Dce of hu 
mailer, ibitl hv wwi «t-u(, without uny jiTi|>i-riutendttnl, to 
oondtiet n priiitinfc-ol^cr nt Norwich, nnd publiidj n weekly 
paper. In tUlit undrrtnkintf ht? met with 90mt oppoMtiun, 
vbich prodnccd o pubiJck contro^cny, and procqttsd young 
Cbto ibo reputktioa of a writer. 

His m^LitvT dir?d before bi« uppn-nticoRhip was oiftired, 
nnd bf wm not nblir lo bttur ibe prrver^n^M of hia mis- 
trees* Ue, iLeraffore, quitted b<?r bouse up<]n a 3iifNihitc!d 
idluwaiice» and niarrlcrd a )'oi'Dg widow, willi ubom hr 
lived Hi Bow. Wlif-n Ula Qpprcoti«:r»hip wa* orcr. be 
w»rkpd,aLaujournr3iiiun. At tbc printin^-tioutcof Mr. ila^ 
brr. u mutt much diitin^uiKbrd, und '"tnplojed by tbo to« 
rit^, wboKi* prinripkK h:id, a1 ibftl time, vo much preia- 
Icncf: wilh Cave, ibut be was, fur *onn» yeura^ a writer in 



SlUt'i Journal : which, thouich W aflenrurils obLunod. by 
hi« viiV'a ialcrrnl, a amuii ]Aacc in the poHt-otllcr. he Uif 
•CMBU! lirao c<niluiiiGd. Uul, lu intertvt m powerful, And 
casv«r«itioiia how(i\«r ra^^oo, iu time p^rHunsive, ho, by 
d^gro^i.aiiGlbvd to unoihor party; ui ^litrli. bo««ir«r, bv 
viiK iilvjyH moLlerute, [buu^h iteiidy atitl d«l^rviinf?d. 

WliiTt h<- u•l^ tttflmitti^il into ihr {XMl-oElirr, hf- Hlif) con- 
IJDtjictl. at hin lulervala uf dttuudaucc, to c*\eic»tf liiii trrulr, 
Gr to ircaploy liimicfir with tmiac lypo;cfaph'Kn\ Wn^iiH'M. 
Hv c<irTCciCid tlui (jrraduii nd FiiranAnam* nnd vns fjbo^ 
mlly revnrd«i] by tho compnny of Atnlion^n. He wrtili; 
au Aci^oDiit of the vWminuU, uhicb had, for Bom^ timo, u 
ronitidprubjfr v;ili*: luid puhlisdied tiiaiij Liltle paimphlrlfip 
ifaitt itrcidrnt hroiighl iritis hU hiii(U» ofiffhich It wniilH he 
very diflJcult to rt'cuvvr tbc ncuiury. Hj tlic curresponil-^ 
fttoe wrWIi hitf pWe in ditr pDSt'office fAcililiitj^d, bir pro* 
cured cDuDiry nci^Kpapurit. And nold th^-ir ukU.-IEi}e<?ni:e to a 
JDumnJijrt in Lutidon* for u Ruiiivu ■ «vi?k^ 

llr van Hftfvrwnrda rnivd to xhv fMvt* of ckrli of ibe 
fmjilM, in uhi<-b hf> nrlvd viilb gn-Al tpmt Hiid llrDin**u; 
uiduOeu iloppird frufiLn, yiWicii Mrtv ^veii hy im-mlimi ijf 
parliDmrnt Icr their t'neiid.i, brcuunr hp thought Aiich cx- 
Irnsion of n poculifir riii^bt iilt^^l^ I'liis rutaod many com- 
plaiiktfl, QCid bavifif; sloppod, ainouf? olli4>rH, u fmak fcivon 
1<» the old dtitchvjH of Mu-lhoTOu^^h by Mr. Walter Pluiri' 
mtr, hf wu* cilwl before t}ie bnuitp, us for u hrattob of pH- 
vilr^, and nri^uurd, I KiipptHn very iinjiuily, nf nprning 
leUex» to detect ihotQ. lie w<li treated with greul har«h- 
oeea and «eveHt>. but, declining their qu«tlioD5, by plead- 
ing bi?i Oflitb of vocrccy, w&i at Lust duimuicd- And it must 
be mcordt^d to hi^ honourp that, irlKin hv vras <*jecled froiD 
fail office, \w did uoT think hiiBwtf duchargrd from hj« 
trtiiil. but continued to refa^e, Co hi;) nenreil frirnrb. any 
informalinD uhmit ibn miina^t^menl of Itm uflii:e. 

Dj ihu L'oiialAUcy of diligciirr and divemiEtcaiaun of cm- 
ptoymeai, he tn tiniL- collooted « sum nuHiciL-ni lor the 
purcluitfe of a iinull printing office, nnd b(T|CuD fiie fienile- 
man'ii MagiiBinc. a periodicftl pHinphl«»t, of which ih*- 

432 CAVK. 

sohame ia kuQwii wherever the Eaglivh language is ipoken. 
To this undertaking he owed the affluence in which he 
passed the last twenty years of hU life, and the fortune 
which he left behind hiro, which, though large, bad been 
yet larger, had he not rashly and wantonly impaired it, by 
innumerable projects, of which I know not that ever one 

The Gentleman's Magazine, which has now subsisted 
fifty years, and still continues to enjoy the favour of the 
worlds i^ on^ of the most successful and lucrative pam^ 
phlets which literary history has upon record, and therefore 
deserves, in this narrative, particular notice, 

Mr. Cave, when he formed the project, was far from 
expectbg the success which he found ; and others had so 
little prospect of its consequence, that though he had, for 
several years, talked of his plan among printers and book- 
sellers, none of them thought it worth the trial, 'niat they 
were not restrained hy virtue from the execution of another 
man's design, was sufficiently apparent, as soon as that de- 
sign began to be gainful ; for, in a few years, a multitude of 
magazines arose and perished : only the London Magazine, 
supported by a powerful association of booksellers, and cir- 
Gulated with all the art and all the cunning of trade, ex- 
empted itself from the general fate of Cave's invaders, and 
obtained, though not an equal, yet a considerable sale^ 

Cave now began to aspire to popularity ; and being a 
greater lover of poetry than any other art, he sometimes 
offered subjects for poems, and proposed prizes for the 
best performers. The first prize was fifty pounds, for 
which, being but newly acquainted vith wealth, and think- 
ing the influence of fifty pounds extremely great, he ex- 
pected the first authors of the kingdom to appear as com- 
petitors; and offered the allotment of the prize to the 
universities- But, when the time came, no name was seen 
among the writers that had ever been seen before; the 

^ This WM Bsid ip the bcgmniflg of ihr year 1781 ; nod maj with tmlh be 
DDV repealed, N. 
J Thv LflndOD Magaiioe cea»d lo tiisl in 1785. N. 

CAVS. 433 

.nmveTutieB and sereral private men rejected the province 
of Bssigning' tbe prize. At all tbis Mr, Cave vondered 
for awhile; but his uatural judgment, and a wider ac- 
quaintaDce with the world, soon cured him of hb astonish- 
ment, as of many other prejudices and errours. Nor have 
many men been seen raised by accident or industry to 
sudden riches, that retained less of the meanness of their 
former state. 

He continued to improve his magazine, and had the 
satisfaction of seeing* its success proportionate to his dili- 
gence, till, in 1751, his wife died of an asthma. He seemed 
not at first much affected by her^ death, but in a few days 
lost his sleep and his appetite* which he never recovered; 
but, after having lingered about two years, with many 
ricissttudes of amendment and relapse, fell, by drioking 
Acid liquors, into a diarrbcea, and afterwards into a kind of 
lethargick insensibility, in which one of the last acts of 
reason> which he exerted, was fondly to press the hand that 
is now writing this little narrative. He died on the 10th 
of January, 17&4, having just concluded the twenty-third 
annual collection'". 

■ Ur. Cava ivu buried Id the rhurch of Hi. Jum, CltrkeowcU, iiilliout id 

cpiUph; but tbc followmg iDicriptiDD alRu^by, From the pen of I>r, Hawker- 

mnb, ii bere tFuiaibed from ibe AnecdoLp^ oThfr. Boivjcr, p. BA. 

Near ihia pUct lies 

Tb« body o( 


Lite of tills pariah: 

Who dtpuud tba Life, Nov. 18, 1747, 

Aged 79 )ean. 

Hfi Hu placed by Piovideoce m 4 humble sUti^n ; 


Imliiitry abuDdantljr lupplied the wanuof N>tim, 


Temperuee bleat him wilh 

CanleQl and Wealth. 

Ab he *ru an afTectionate Father, 

Me WIS made happy Id the decline of life 

By ihe deierved cniaenee of hia eldeit Son, 


Who, frilliout intereit, fortune, or cOtmcxLiHi, 

By (he native force of hn owp geaiu, 

VUJ„ VI, » f 

434 CATB. 

He wftf a man of a lar^ atatiife^Dot cmljtall bnt bnlkj, 
wad W9A, when young, of remarkable itreiq:tb Mtd Aotiri^. 
He was, geaeralJy, beaLthfnl, and capable of muck labanr 
and long application ; bat in the Ittler years of his Life was 
afflicted with the gout, which he eadeavoiired to core or 
alleviate bj a total abstine&ce both from strong' li<|nors and 
animal food. From animal food he abstained abotit four 
years, and from strong liquors much longer ; but the gout 
continued unconquered, perhaps nnabated. 

Hia reaolutioD and perseTcrance were very uncommon ; 
in whatever he undertook, neither expense nor f&tiigue 
were able to repress him.; but his constancy wb5 calm, and 
to those who did not know him appeared faint and langnid^ 
but he always went forward, though he moved slowly. 

Tbe same cbilness of mind was observable in his con- 
yeraatioD ; be was watching the minutest accent of thosa 

AsniMd obIj bj a cluaical «ducfttiaa, 

VVbich be received U the Grumav Khool 

or ihii Town, 

FlaniiEd, eirei^utedj and eaUblivhed 

A Litetuy work, called 



Whereby he acquired id ample fortune. 

The whole of which devolved to ha bmjly. 

Here alto lies 

The body oFWrLLiAH Cav^, 

S«cobd son of the Bid JoBtrii Cive, 

Who died May % 1757, aged 62 jtun; 

Aad wh«, having utrrived bii elder bnAher> 

EIdwarp Cati. 

Inherited from him a competent eaute; 

Aod* in gratiLude to faii benefactor. 

Of dered this mojiumenl lo perpenate hig memory. 

He 1iv*d a palriuch ia hi* numeroui nee. 
And flIiDw'd in charily ■ ChrutiaQ't ^race : 
Whate'er a friend or parent fceU, he knew ; 
HiH hand wai open, and hii hea/t was Inie ; 
In whii be gaia'd and ^ve, he iaii(hl jnaakiad, 
A grateful aLwayi ii & geatniit aiind. 
Here rett hi* clay ! hLi bouI miut ever rcM > 
>Vho blcH'd when living, dytag matt be'Ust, 

ftTNC OP I'RVfffllA. 


Whom h*^ dUgiibtncI bv s<-riniii^ mnftt'niintt : itml bit viitit- 
sul W1I4 aEtrprioPt) wh>>n hr riimr' u sririmd limr, bi/ pn^p^' 
lalioiu III e&e4:iit« lli(? Hvlicme mIiIcIi Ii€ ^uppotfed iMrier to 
bftTD li««n heard. 

He wf», con^Utcatij^ witK 1hi» ^cncrnl tr^KD<iiil1litjr of 
mind, tt CeRflciotK nmiRlunifrr, thouj^i not n olamoroiis d«> 
ound^r. of Lit ri^lil. In bis voiith, hnving ftiimikonej hii 

^on of rhrJr ntoMf^rQ. hrt moiintnH ii kinil nrrfMtTiim, nnd 
humnijiif cl llitrtii HI i^lliLML-iutjHl V. tlmt ihtf y i1t*ti.-rriiiiie<l lo rv- 
»iLt Lij] fiilxjTit in T mi on A ; and uhrci ihr flami^olTicr'x div 
mjindcd toaffimp the ltL»l Ij^lf'tbc^l t^ftbc rodi^aaDea, Mr 
Cbto filotie diefeaiod UK*ir (<lmin, to whrc^ Ibi* praprii>tara 
oftiw hvaJ DMfftt^Dts wouM m^mily Ii4v<7 submiltod. 

He vac a friend mlh4?r puty and roniiluoi, Ihan 2«ttb>iis 
luid Jtrtivp ; j€ti mnnv iimlancf't iri^hl bt> jpvpn. vibere 
bulb hirt niuot^y uird Iit4 dili^VUn? ur«rr<< eru^»i»_vr-d libf<ruU* 
for oUirift, Hu eomiljr wnx, iii like mnniirr, cW and drli- 
bcmto; but thoiiirlt iMoh it vka» not insiiliont, «umI thtnifb 
deliberate, not iHrffliadciouH. 

Hit menial fMiultie* vrrre «low, Uo caw lilllo at u tinte, 
but iW liuk b(^ «aw with jfrmt exartn«E«, If* was UiDf( 
ki Hnctrng ihn righl, but seldom r^Dii-d to Dnd 11 at lant- Hi* 
aflt^ctiiMii ^em not eustlv gained. ^iiA his cipirrarEN not 
qaiokty di«oi>veri-d. His rtutiTvr, lu it tnigM bide hii 
lilBEts, L-on>cc»)l€d iii» >irliic«; bat KUcfkhi.* i4tu. ux llwy «b« 
beat bnow hiiii bav« moat iojncMl^d* 


CiiAitl.Hii Fheiikhick, ibe present king nf Priwia. 
whnie iK^tknii; mm% titta^t iittw kee[i £un>pe tu sttentiiHu 
ill the cldrftt son of Fntdcrick Williuii, by Sophia l>6rO' 
tb<^&, dauf^hter ol'Ueor^r (h^ first, king: ^^ l^o^lAiid. He 
wns bom JuiiDTiry ^, 1711 12- Of bi» early year* noikic^ 




remaTkable baa been transmitted to qb. As be advanced 
towards mflufaood, he became remarkable by his diaagree' 
meat with bis father. 

The [ate king of Prossla was of a disposition violeot and 
arbitrary, of narrow views, and vehement passionsi earnest- 
ly .engaged in little pursaits, or in schemes terminating 
in some speedy consequence, withoat any plan of lasting 
advantage to himself or bis subjects, or any prospect of 
distant events- He was, therefore, always busy, tboagb 
DO effects of bis activity ever appeared, and always eager, 
though be bad nolbing to gain. His behaviour was, to the 
last degree, rough and ^savage- The least provocation, 
whether designed or accidental, was returned by blows, 
wbicb he did not always forbear to tbe queen and piin- 

From such a king and sucli a father it was not any enor- 
mous violation of duly iu the immediate beir of a kingdom, 
sometimes to differ in opinion, and to maintun that differ- 
ence with decent pertinacity- A prince of a quick sagacity 
and comprehensive knowledge, roust find many practices 
in tbe conduct of alTairs wbicb be could not approve, and 
some wbicb he could scarcely forbear to oppose. 

The chief pride of tbe old king was to be master of the 
tallest regiment in Europe. He, therefore, brongbt to- 
gether, from all parts, men above the common military 
standard- To exceed tbe height of six feet, was a certain 
recommendation to notice, and to approach that of seven, 
a claim to distinction. Men will readily go where they are 
sure to be caressed; and he had, therefore, such a collec- 
tion of giants, as, perhaps, was never seen in the world 

To review this towering regiment was his daily pleasore, 
and to perpetuate it was so much his care, that when he 
met a tall woman, be immediately commanded one of his 
Titanian retinue to marry her, that they might propagate 
procerily, and produce heirs to the father's habiUments. 

In all this there was apparent folly, but there was no 
crime. The tall regiment made a fine show at au expense 

itiNc; <»p rRtHftiA. 



not mwoh ffrpAter. wli^n one* it wn* c**Hecte<J, (liai> would 
liave btr'eii l>e«low^J upou oomnion ntpn. But tLe kiug'M 
inililpiry fjAiliiiifn urrn MOinKliiiieA m<ir« pt^rniciuuH. He 
mirinlniD<^i n iiumrroiis army, of wliich lir niAilc nu ttXhcr 
ii»t ihttd to rni^w and to talk of U ; and whvD lit^, or |>«r^ 
heps biA erntFtsurio*!. miw a boy, wboao i'orm atn\ Hpn^:LtlinL*tu 
pnimited a f(i|urt> Kolclier, he ordert^d n Li»<l uf Ikiidgu lo 
be }tnt uboiit hU iie<k, liy wbich fu< w;u murkr<l ttiit lor 
ihff v*r\uv>, lilc«t ih*? ^iitiH nr rliriKlinr) r.iiplivrA in Turkey ; 
mill hoi purt* ufA wexir furUddf u tcj dcbtini^ biui to uciy utlitfr 
niudp of litr. 

Tli» wiw duftitiontly opptx^«»ivr* but tbi* wn* not tlic ut- 
moAtofhif^ Itnnmv. Hit luid learnoJ, lltoiifch othorwiae 
fK'fhajn jio very f^rtiiil poliijcuiii, thut to be fich MruB to be 
pf>««vfu!; but ibut tbv richefi of 11 kin^ ou^ht to bc^ leen 
in ihn optilmrf) of hi* mihj^cU, he vunTrd ritlirr Hbtlift 4ir 
lj<'ni>vo1f*fii.'4< Id iiiidt^rAluiid. EErr. ibtTreforr, nti«<-ij rxorbt- 
lant tnxc?! froiii every kind of commodity HHd poaaeBsiou, 
and piled up ibc monr-y in bis ircufury, from wLiob il 
iunrd rw mufx\ iluw Ihe laud wbii-h bad piiid iii\<-9 once, 
wna lo |Kfcr tbecn « <epund lime, how irapgat* cotild bo 
levied filbotit cotnmcr^M.-, or t'oriLHirrfV cuiilKiued wicbuui 
raorw-v. il wv« nut hU cvnlnm tn irji|uirp, K^i^r-r Ui %n\tti.-U 
Ml moni-T, and dpligb1t*fl ki ccriint it. Ik? frtt new joy «l 
ci<rrv receipl. end thiiui^bl hiuftclf cnrit'licd by tbr im* 
puiembment of bU dominions. 

By vbtch of tb<f«c freaks of royuUy thir priucv wub of* 
rinded, or vlieth^r^ « pertapB moro frofjut^nlly hupppnt, 
ihe offeitcps uf uhiob b^ i'onipl;tJn« were of a dnniPUick 
tO^pMHMl bind, it is not rjkity Eo diiieovi*r. But biB n^ 
Muluiffiit, vhotfipT wiiA itH CAn»r, roir so higb, Ibiil be rip- 
foked not only to leave bla futber's covirt, bnt Wis (erri- 
torir*, Rod to vck a irfu|^ iiotonj? tbe nci^bounnj;; or 
kindred |»nnc«*A, Il in fccncralty bolwrrd (b^l hi« iiilentioft 
wiLi 10 come lu Engbind, And livu undL-r tbe protection 
ofbiH uDflr. tdl lii( fAtber's dentb, or cbaiigvf of L'ondoL'r. 
idtould ^ivr itirn bbi^ny lo reiuni. 

llis design, wbatt^vet it wiu, be uouc«tted wiib an ofli- 
c^r ID tbi^ nrmy, who»c OJinte waj Ka<. « tami in vltoin hi* 


klSti UF PitUinUA. 

plaj-(^d ^rt'ui L'niiiittfii^^, uiiil wbom, having c1io««Tn him fov 
tbp f^ftmpuiiinn afWit iliK^bl, ho iwmmtrily irui»t<.-cl wiUi tlir 
|irvj>uratorj mcjiaur^-SH A prince tonagt l«Ave hi« cocntvy 
wilh tbo ii|Hr(?(l of u ni^'Aticr fugiliTr. tioniollun^ ws* U 
bet providciJ* unrJ M>mi.'Chiiif; to b« adjusted. Asd, nrhrllwr 
Knt fooad tlic^ ttf;;i*ncy of otb«n necMkary, &ih1, ili«refore, 
vaH cori8lraiiiL'd to admit Knmr purlnen! of Oie ivrivl; 
ivIieUier k^vii^ i>r vuntty incilrd Kim Ut d'vt\nin\tin htta^M 
of II Irusl lliftt ftwclluU in Iuh bonaut* ui to jitiow tu a fiim^ 
or initftrca* Uin onn importance; or nheliier it be in ibdf 
difficult for pTLDccM to trnnuict nny ihin^ iu secret ; *o il 
n-oflj tbal tjie kiu(; wfi8 iutormcd of tha iAt^ndc- d Aifrlit* M<1 
the j>riiice, Diid Uis favourite, a tittle before ike time tettled 
for iheir dcpiirluip, wcii* nircdcd, uiid ccinfineid in differ- 
ent pb»-r*]q. 

Tlie life Ljf pnoireH U a«1<]oiu in dui^r, llw boutrd of 
Uicir irrL-j(uUhtir& fullji onlir oii those vJiom aoibition or 
ultection combiucft witli tJic-ni. 'i'be kiit^ oftrr «a im- 
(jrinonntciil of none time, set Iur son at iibcm ; but |>oor 
Kill va« orjcrott Iu be tried ior a capttaJ crime, Tbv 
iioiiri examined the cuuie, aod acquilled him ^ the kiiig 
n;niuiid«d bim in u Hrcniid trifti, mid oblif^td luii jutt^n lo 
uoudflinn him- In (unFinijtLrnr»^ of tiu- M:nU;iic<^ tbiu tr- 
rurinicnLI)r t^xlorle^i, be was publichljr bcbcvdcd. leaTinfT 
bcJiiod bini Mint' pbpcn of r«lleotiuoa made in tbo prisoM. 
vbicU vtcTv afivrvitxdt printwd, und amotifc oilier* afl ad- 
motiilioii to tbo prince, for wboirc t^akv lie tulf«r«dL lot lo 
fovtrr in bijii»«*lt rh? opinioD ofdeMiiir, for thM a prori^ 
drncc i* (ii-K'uierable iii tiwn iJiitis ruuiid tit- 

Tbia crqrl priMimiliaii of jh inuii vba iuul rooiuiittrd do 
criiuo, but hy coin|jllanoc villi inlliicucc not eo^ly ta be 
reKiKlcid, woA not the? only aot bv wbicb tbo old Liji^ tni* 
taied ijjj «oi], A lady ^^ilb whom tbu phucv wiu ■oapeolod 
Oif intimai^y. porhnp* mon? than i irtUL* uITowmI, vw aciisrd. 
I know not Tipon ulr.ic ncouiation, Aiict. hy ilu* Ling*< onlpr. 
uutwiihMMiidiu^f^ hII Ihe re;ftcun<< of detH'iicy and leuderaett 
thftC vpuEiitr ill ollir-r rotiMliirK. iind ottn^r judicature, vai 
pubiicbly whipped iu Uto utrccl* of Ucrtiii. 

At tarn, Ihul the priiicc nigkl l'e<il Ihe power of « king 



mtm fnlhar in tU atmoRt rigour, hr wo*, ui 17:J3. morned 
A|;aiiist hid vrifJ to the phisccsa Ivlrvobrtba Chn»tiDji o4^ 
BniDiwit^k Liiiii<biir}* Bevereu^ He mcrried her indeed 
at hU falhcr'n commuiid. but vilhmii profettinji; Tor ber 
filtber e^TfH^ni or affvcl'iou. mitl totiHidi^rin^ iber claim r>r 
|iarvnidl >uthoril^ fiiliy salUflcd by the eilerntil cerernoiiy, 
ut^linutrlj flDcl prrpcitmilEv. dunu): tlie life of bla falbcfr, re- 
frnincd from bcr bf^d. The poor priiicmii lived aboDt lOt^f^ii 
ycATA in the court of B<?rlin, in o stiitc which the world ha« 
Aot oAea »een. a vifo without a bunhand, married ro fur 
ftC to Mi|F»|[« her person to a maii who did uot deiire her 
affecliao, mid rtfwLiom iivm duiihlful, whi^thur hr thought 
hiiiuriricslruiitril tWm ibc powrr of nrpuilintioii by an Jict 
perforoieil tioUci u^idef^c vompdlMoa. 

Thu» he lived secluded from publicb buflbeM, id coq* 
kotim with bia futhi-r, LJi uitt'tiutiun irotn hit wifo, lliis 
fftalD of unvfUJn^iEK he fouijd tbr only mc<uii9 of toTteiiiiig. 
He dlTtrtedhbt miitd from the noc^ntu about him^ by sCudMw 
and fibf*rjt1 Mmust^merits. Tlie Hliidie^ cif princeH seldom 
pmJmr giral rflcrl*. for priiir^Fi dniw willi m««|pr mt>r- 
taJ« the lot of uudrrstfindiiijK . and ^incc of mutiy ittudcnU 
Mt more ihaa one catj be hoped io udvance fur towards 
^ecfectieti, it is nuorcely to bt- expected ttiul wt- dfaonld 
ii)d tbnt one ki phncc; that ibv desire of >cieooe «hovld 
oirrrpciwi^r \a iiny mind ihr love of piesutiri^, wbeii it in 
alwA_\>i jirnfieitt, or hlwrfyh withiii ir-ul\ ; thul JMtictrioiLN mf^di- 
tvliuEi shmdd bu prrfi-rred m the d^iA of youlJi to auiuhr' 
mmb and festivity; or ibai pcne>eriincc iihould pre^n 
forward in couteaipt of tlattt-ry i and thut he. in whom mo- 
derate acq uis^tiom would be extolled aa prodi):ie«, should 
exAct from him^olf that execllooeo of which the whole- 
uodd cnnijpirfiK to spare hjra the necesMly. 

In rtvry great performance, perbap« in every great cha- 
Tr. |Mrt ti ihe fciO of n^liirc, port the cuolnhiiiion nC 

tident, and part, very ofleii itot the ^catenl pnrl, ihv 
Toet of voluntary election, and re^lnr de«i^> Tbc kini^ 

PruMiiLwaA undoubtedly bom with more tiuiii foeifnoo 
^■bililiea; hut that he ba» cnltivatrd tliem with more iHut*' 


common diligence, was probably tlie effect of his pecultar 
condition, of that which he then considered as cruelty and 

In this Long interval of unhappioess and obscurity, fae 
acquired skill in the mathematical sciences, such us is said 
to have put hini on the level with those who have made 
them the business of their lives- This is, probably, to say 
too much : the acquisitions of kings are always mag'nifi^. 
His skill in poetry and in the French language has been 
loudly praised by Voltaire, a judge without exceptioa, if 
hia honesty were equal to his knowledge, Musick he not 
only understands, but practises on the German flute, in the 
highest peifectioD ; so that, according to the regal cen- 
sure of Philip of Macedon, he may be ashamed to play so 

He may be said to owe to the difficulties of his youth an 
advantage less frequently obtained by princes than litera- 
ture and mathematicks. The necessity of passing his time 
without pomp, and of partaking of the pleasurev and la- 
bours of a lower station, made him acquainted with the 
various forms of life, and with the genuine pasjiiozis, in- 
terests, desires, and diittresses, of mankind- Kings, with- 
out this help fi-om temporary infelicityt see the world in a 
mist, which magnifies every thing near them, and bounds 
their view to a narrow compass, which few are able to ex- 
tend by the mere force of curiosity. I have always thought 
that what Cromwell had more than our lawfiil kings, he 
owed to the private condition in which he first entered the 
world, and in which he long continued: in that state he 
learned his art of secret transaction, and the knowledge 
by which he was able to oppose zeal to zeal, and make 
one enthusiast destroy another. 

The king of Prussia gained the same arts, and, being 
born to fairer opportunities of using them, brought to the 
throne the knowledge of a private man, without the guilt 
of usurpation. Of this general acquaintance with tbe world 
there may be found some traces in hia whole life. His 
conversation is like that of other men upon commoD to- 

KINO OP l^fttfiSljL, 


picfc'i liU l^tt^n harr an nir r>f fumiliHr plegiinc^, ant! bi» 
wlmlp roiKliirt in titil of a miui tfhu hdi to du wich men, 
iiiitl who it nut i^orunt whut uiutivcK will prnv»il nvi»r 
frirnd* or rnrniiriL, 

Id 1744^ tbc old king fell «ick, aud «poke aud ucl^ in 
hia iUno&fi witli liis usual ttirbuJenc^ and rou^ne^jt, ro- 
proaehinjf hii phyiicEunx. in (hi? ^ro«Krit IcmiH, vith Iht^lr 
dBtkitfulncuA land impolcnc^t^, and iiapulinf^ 1o their igiio- 
ranr^ ar wirkpda^'U iho pain vhltrli <heir prescripliona 
failod 10 relitvtr. TIium- itmulu tht-y Iwirv uith tW mib- 
nadiun vhicb in cumiiionly paid to drapotick rnamtnliH: 
till at b»t the cclcbraled lloftmun wu» c3;>nHi]|lcU, wlio 
fading. Iik^ the re-si, 1o f^ive t-af^t^ to Uln m^tj^-^lv, wits, like 
tho rpM, treated with ifijurionii la(igu;»g^. lIuMinuu, con- 
scionft of hi> dvu iu«rk, replied, ilial be could ooi bear n-- 
pRMcliPJi vlui^b br did iiitl dcHrnr; ib^it b? bnd lnf<d >dl 
tko riTfardirH ibal itrl ruubl MJppU> ui' lutlTfrv t^niliJ admit ; 
that he wan. ntdi'mL a jirorvsaor by bia i[i»jt*sly'a bomitj; 
but Ibot, if hi» abihIJL'd vr iutt.*f;hty wltv dmibtcdp ha wu 
willing: lo k^vc, trni only llie uuiveraity, but tbc kinf^dom; 
and tluU ho noald not be drivua into any pUco where tbe 
Mine of HolTmiiti would want re^pert, Tbe kiij^. hovf- 
'^jtor iinai^cTiittictnifd io luch rvlurris. was Hltiu'k wilb I'nii- 
Tictioa of liU own indrcrncy. (old lidfrniun, tliat lir latd 
apokcD^cll.and requeftt^^d hini to voultnuc hit attendance. 

Tlic king, lindin^ his dist^inpi^r ^ainiuif upotj b» atrc'Dgth, 
grow at laal M-niiblc that hh end waft opproochmif, i*nd, 
ordering the prince to be called to hw hfd, laid vovcrrol in- 
juuctionv (jpou Lira, of u'hic-b ou^ van lo perpetuate %)*& 
tall regiment by continual ri-(?ryiti, and anoUier. lo receive 
biK mpouiH'd wifo- Tbr prince ^^f* him a n'tpcctfal oti- 
ftwvr, biitniaefyaiaideil to diiuiuUb hia oy/tt right or power 
by an abiolotir prooiisu; tind tlir kmff di(^ tnwcTtain of 
Ibo fate Af the t^dl rr^Kimrnt. 

The vonng king begun hlt^ ririgii with fcr^'At expectations, 
wbith he hat }ei »nJ7ias#ed. His fathpr'i fa<ilt« pmdured 
iniiny ntUanfa^e^K lo the fir*1 tear« of hU rrigii. ile had 
Hrmy of irvEfiily ihouMind men nell diacipJia^'d, wiUlout 


uijr impuUtum of severity to kmiielf, and wbi mvler of a 
Tflflt treiwure vithout tlw crime or reproach of rmsiDg tL 
It wa« publickly said in our koaw of commoita, that be 
had eight millionB sterling of our moztey ; but, I beheT«, be 
that said it bad oot conudered bow difficaUlj eigbt aiilUons 
would be found in all the Pmsuati dominioDs. Hea judge 
irfwbat they do not see by that which tiiey see. We ore 
uaed to talk in Engiaad of miktioos with great familiarity, 
«od imagine that there is the same afflueuce of money io 
other countries, io countries whose manufactures are few^ 
and commerce little. 

Every mao^s first cares are oeceuarily domestiok. Hie 
king, being now no longer nader influence, or itA appear- 
ance, determined how to act towards tbe unhappy lady 
who had possessed, for seven years, the empty title of the 
princess of Frassia. The papers of those times exhibited 
tbe conversation of their first interview ; as if the king, 
who plans campaigns in silence, would not accommodate a 
d^rence with his wife, but with writers of news admitted 
as witoesflCB. It is certain that he received her as queen, 
but whether he treats her as a wife is yet iu dispute- 
In a few days his resolution was known with regard to 
tbe tall regiment ; for some recruits bfeing offered him, he 
rejected them ; and this body of giants, by continued dis- 
regard, mouldered away. 

He treated his mother with great respect, ordered that 
she sbould bear the title of queen nothsTj and that, instead 
of addressing him as his majesty^ she should only cail him 

As he was passing soon after between Berlin and Pots- 
dam, a thousand boys, who had been marked out for mifi- 
tary service, surrounded his coach, and cried out: " mer- 
ciful king! deliver us from our slavery.'' He f»x>mised 
them their liberty, and ordered, tbe next day,.4bat the 
badge should be taken olf. 

He still continued that correspondence with learned 
men which he began when he was prince ; and the eyes of 
all scholars^ a race of mortals formed for dependencer 



vviit upon him. «)« a man IllEcily to ren^w the limeui of 
putronago^ luid to t*mulate the bonnti«« of Lx.-wi« the 

]l niMih nppt'Arad tbtt be wms reriuTved lo ^vffni ntlb 
^^rj liltie miiuiierial ani«t4iiiot- ; Kr fniik c»xiJi3t<tni-ff of 
Fvory Ihmg wilh liin own c^r^ ; d4;<'lArcd. that in all cmi- 
tmrieUoa of interest hc^twecii him uud hia sllt)j(^ot-^ the 
publioL i^ood sbuiild luivo the pn^fi-n-uct' ; nnd. in niic of 
Ihft flnt ^xi^ttiotiK of r(!gal paw^ffn IkuiiicIhkI the prime 
tnifliili'T ;iml ftivnoHlr rf hii^ fnlli^r, nn one tbaC bad " he- 
imju^i \m [ikABii*r, hkiI fihii^i»il bin Irii4t." 

Uo tlien declared ha reaoluUoti to (p-attt u lo- 
loTutioD of rclifcion, and, amonjc otbf^r lihcmlitic-Ji ofcijn- 
ocBOion, alLowod llic proic^fsnnn of fpfc-masoorfi It U the 
groat taint of hut character, ibat he tuu ppven rrraiicin to 
donbt, vhei^ior tbu loleniiion U the i-lfinrt of «hu-il^ or 
icidtflWfpnt^f, whrtht^r hi< ma^^i-titt to «uppnrt gncd m^n ai 
ii\ciy rrlig^on, or coDnidrm all religions na «»i)UHlly f^nd, 

'rj»er« had HiibHislt^. fur some Urn*', iti PruHin, rui order 
caiic<l thir"orUrr fcirfaTOiir.'vFhich. no oMling to its deno- 
tniAiitioi], hod licicn conforrod wttfa \i:rj UlXlc dbtinctioii. 
The kiti^ iuHtitutvd the *' ordt^r for miTit,^ with which he 
boDOunsl thou* whom ho comidurcd aa dtTKrrvJnj^. Thi-ro 
wcrA some nho ihfinght ihoir merit roi Eiiftinentlv re- 
e«>m|te[»«ed by tbiM nrw tille ; but hn waa itut very r^ady 
to f^TiUil piHiuniiirj n-wanls, ThouP who *«n? nio«t in 
hi« fovoar be *omcliiiios prrieiitcd wiUi nniilTlMir*. on 
which *sa tii»cnbcMil, " Amitiu augrmcnto le prix." 

lit? v/us, bowt^vor, chiint4ib1t\ if nol liberal, for be ar- 
d#r«d the magi»tntlo9 of tlirt ^evifra] dintritrlit to bo vcvy 
Attentive to the relief of ihe poor ; and, if thr fundi es* 
tablifth4*d for that une were iiot ^uffirienl, permitted tliat 
tlw defu'ir*ncy slionfd hr Hupplted out of ibe reveiiuefl of 
the town. 

One of bj« lirsl caro-a wa;» IJki odranc<^ibont of Wrainc. 
lmmedtut«.4y upon his uc^^eanon, be wrote to K^Uin and 
Vol t aire, t 1m t he dt^vired tb« ^^ontinujknoe of Ihetr friend- 
■hip; and Real for Mr. MaupcMiii*. thtr pnncipad of ibr 


French academicians, who passed a inDter in Lapland, to 
verify, by the mensuration of a de^ee near the pole, the 
Newtoxiiaa doctrine of the form of the eartb. He request- 
ed of Maupertuis to come to Berlin, to settle an academv, 
in terms of ^reat ardour and ^reat condescension. 

At the same time, be showed the world that literary 
amusements were not likely, as has more than once hap- 
pened to royal students, to withdraw him from the care of 
the kingdom, or make him forget his interest- He began 
by reviviiJg a claim to Herstal and Hermal, two districts in 
the possession of the bishop of Liege- When be sent his 
commissary to demaud the homage of the inhabitaDts, they 
refused him admission, declaring that they acknowledged 
DO sovereigu but the bishop. The king then wrote a letter 
to the bishop, in which he complained of the vioUtLon of 
his right, and the contempt of his authority, charged the 
prelate with couutenancing the late act of disobedience, 
and required an answer in two days. 

In three days the ?.nswer was sent, in which the bishop 
founds his claim to the two lordships, upon a grant of 
Charles the fifth, guaranteed by France and Spain; al- 
leges that his predei:essor5 had enjoyed this grant above 
a century, and ihat he never intended to infringe the 
rights of Prussia; but as the house of Brand enburgh had 
always made some pretensions to that territory, he was 
willing to do what other bishops had offered, to purohase 
that claim for a hundred thousand crowns. 

To every man that knows the state of the feudal conn- 
tries, the intricacy of their pedigrees, the confusioD of 
their alliances, and the different rules of inheritance that 
prevail in difTercnt places, it will appear evident, that of 
reviving antiquated claims there can be no end, bind that 
the possession of a century is a belter title than can com- 
monly be produced. So lung a prescription supposes an 
acquiescence in the other claimants ; and that acquiescence 
supposes also some reason, perhaps now unknown, for 
which the claim was forborne. Whether this rule could 
be considered as valid in the controversy between these 


imufiftnft, trios, bov«ivpr, he flniihi^d, for the ttiidiopfl 
■UWiin )4iirmA io impK, thai rhe Titl« ol' ib^; hous;:* of 
Branderihiir^ had htH<n kr-pt ulUv by n^pcHlffri r^AlmB. 
ibmj|;]i llic sc-L'zar« of the Icrntory hud heea hitii^rto fcir* 

The kiaflr ^id not auttV^r lii» daim to he sixhj^ticd to qqv 
allfljrcBiionji, but, hu^in^ publiKbifd n di-chiaihmt in which 
he chw|^(i 1hc> bUhop uith violence aud injaaUcv. and 
remarked tbal ib^ fendal tAwt al![>w**d every man, vhow 
piiiQit^HHtori wias witbhdil friim hmi. In riiirr if wirh an 
nrrnrtl forct^. be mimtiimU^ly (LfT^ppitrhrd two ibi^iiisuncl 
«oldi^rs inUi ibc eontrovcrtt^ roanlrics wbcro lliti> lived 
wjtbtiul control, cxorciAin^ nvcry bind of tniliUry tyr.t[)tiy, 
(ill ihv an&s of the iohabitftuU forcod iLt* bijihi^p Io rc- 
linquUh th«*m tv Uie quiet f^overnm^nt of PnuciiL 

Thi4 will bul » V-tty Hi^qtiiMlbn ; tbp limp wna tiov 
uume wWj ibir kilt^ of IVuitJtiA «m to ruriti mid rirf^iirn 

grriilcr duietiM. On the 9lb ^f October, I744>. half 
Buf of»c wn» throHii into contusion by tbo drulh of Cbarlejt 
tiie »L\th> cniprroiir of C^crmany, by wbo»o df^aib u\\ iUe 
hereditary ilomiiiioni; of tho houA? of AiulriA descended, 
utrcordiaig to the pra^^mAtitk snncf ion, lu hi« Men daiiglilcr, 
who wan nijirrifd io thL* duke uf fjotniiii. at ihc^ time of 
t)\0 t-mfMToorV df alb, diikr ofTiiiicany, 

By bow many nvcuritici the prap^matii^k smnttioQ wiu 
fortified, and how liltlc it wiia rL<gurdod wlirn lht>!i(- st^- 
CMriticM bccARio ncoosJiary; how many ctnimunt^ Murlnl up 
nt onrr to thi* Hpieral doiointou8 of Iho hoiD^o of Austria; 
Itov vehemenlly ihc-ir preieusio^is Her« enforced, and how 
uouy invaiionn werti thn-iit^cipd or uireuipfrd; the din- 
trcut*» of ibc rmpcrout'* dmt^blrr. kuowii for M^vrfdil yrjin; 
by the titlcoiily of Iheqiiccnof Hungary* becoaao Hi^ngnry 
w«» the only coMQtry to which bcr claiiu hud not been di^ 
puted : the firmueii* tvttb uikicb th« dlru^|{l«d with ber 
D difficulties, Jkud lltti ^ood fortune by which «h« i^iirmuuaied 

I thorn ; Ibr ikurrow plnn of iliia <*MaT will not tnitvr ntt Io 

I rrl«le, I^t^ ibem hr told by »oni« olber wvit^rr of more 

1 kiture and wider iutclii^cncc 




V^m l)ieeinperaur*««lftitb|iiiftD> of the Gcrmaii |kfiHC6l< 
fell upon tlic A(^Mn>in tcmlOfi^R. fi» upon a tlc^il ctucaaLS.. 
to be diMneinWred anions them without rcustA;ic«< AmcMg- 
llicw:, vith whutov(*f justice, cerUimtv with very lilllc i^t*- 
iiero«ity. Mat <hc kinii: '^l Prutttla, who, having ui^cmbk-il 
hta troopii, nn wha iimigineiL In support lh<» pra^tnatitk 
iiunctiun, on ii riiiiJdcii t^nlerrd Silt^Ma wiih llilriy Ihoufanil 
mint, puUiHhin^ a Oirrluruliun. in >vluc|j Uu (]uiirhiiin« m»j: 
iJosign of rnjijnnj^ the riKlttn orihchoiinc of Aartria. hut 
itr^ca Uh cUkim to Silc^to, &19 rising' " from ftnchint con- 
\eDti<;nH of family aod cor^fmloniUy bt*twetiQ ibc bouKr of 
UrundonbuTg luid tUe priticrt of SileM, nnd oU*i>f bo- 
nournhK* litlpt," Hi^ <uys, thi^ firtir of hfing ^^featad by 
i>liier jirt'Ii^tiderti Totlif* Ait^tnaji flMiuintoni, obUj^iecl bait io 
t-iilKr SilifMu viihoul tuiy pnrviuua expuHlnUtJoo vitb ih« 
queen, and that ho shall "»tnrciioiulyesf>oui« tl>e lulen^U 
of ihc houfie of Aufitria." 

Snch a di'dunttion wax, I bt-liev:;. in the opiaaoo of all 
Europv, nothin^r l«»fl than liic af^jn^intion of ho^tilily by 
intttilt. and was received by the Auidrians with sBiiabte 
indi^ution. The kiup^ piifNucd hb purpose, mvcfavd 
rorwttnl, ami m the ftimliftx of Siti^iii inudr u vp«>F«b M 
bi.H followcTK, in which he loUl liiciii^ That Ite tooMmtfiA 
Ihern tutlicr ' a.i fiiegd* [liiui subjccb* that the Inwp* of