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liONDON : 

JVrillai in 17S8. 

'Tho' ^ef and fondness in my breast rebel. 
When injur*)! Thalk* Inds the town fareweU, 
Yet still my cahner flioughts his dioice ciHnmend, 
I pnuse the hermit, but regret the ftieod, 
ResoIVd at Inwth, fimn vice and London far. 
To breathe in distant fields a purer air. 
And, fix'd on Cambria's solitary shore. 
Give to St. David one true Briton more. 

^ Fot who would leave, unbrib'd, Hibenria's ladd^ 
Or change the rocks of Scotland for fte Strand ? 
There none are swept by sudden fate away. 
Bat all, whom hunger epares, with age decay : 
Here malice, rapine, accident, conspire. 
And now a rabble rages, now a fire ; ' 
Their ambush here relentlece ruffians lay, 
And here the fell attorney prowls for prey; 

JUV. Snt III. 

1 QuaraTis digrenu veteiis confusis amid ; 
Lsndo, taroeti, vacuie quod sedem figure Cumia 
Destinet, atque uniun ciTem donare Sibyite. 

S -^ Ego vel Prochytam pr»ppno Subuna, 
Nam quid tain TmBerum, Earn solum vidimua, ut noD 
Deterius oedas hfnrere incendia, lapsus 
Tectorum assidaoa, & mille pericula »iEva 
UrbiB, & Augusts redtaotes mense poeUa ? 

■ .S'tr John HaTsfAni tty; that bj/ Thaln we are Acre fo itni^' 
tlaad Sainige. 
Vol.. I. B 


Here falling houaes thunder on your head. 
And here a female Atheist talks you dead. 

^While TnAi.Es waits the wherry that contains 
Of dissipated wealth the small remains. 
On Thames's banks, in silent thought we atood 
Where Greenwich smiles upon the silver flood; 
Struck with the seat that gave Eliza' birth, ~ 
We kneel, and kiss the consecrated earth; 
In pleasing dreams the blissful age renew. 
And call Britannia's glories back to view ; 
Behold her cross triumphant on the main, 
The guard of commerce, and the dread of Spain, 
Ere masquerades debauch'd, excise oppress'd. 
Or English honour grew a standing jest. 

A transient calm the happy scenes bestow. 
And for a moment lull the sense of woe. 
At length awaking, with conteraptuove frown, 
Indignatit Thales eyes the neighbouring town. 

4 Since worth, he cries, in diese degenerate days 
Wants ev'n the' cheap reward of empty praise ; 
In those curs'd walls, devote to vice and gaifi. 
Since unrewarded science toils in vain ; 
Since hope but sooths to double my distress. 
And everj- moment leaves my little less ; 
While yet my steady steps no-' staff suBtainSf 
And lite still vig'rous revels in my veins; 
Grant me,. kind Heaven, to find some happier place. 
Where honesty and sense are no disgrace; 
Some pleasing hank where verdant osiers play. 
Some peaceful vale with Nature's paintings gay ; 

3 ^ed, dum tola domua rheda componitur unuj 
Subatilil ad vctcris arcus. — 

4 Hie tunc Umbritlut { Quando ortibus, ingnlt, hi 
KuUus In urbc louux, ntijln emolumenla laborum. 
Rca hodie minor est, heri q\mra fuit, atqiie eadem cr 
Detcret eidguis aJiquid : proponimus illuc 

n RixiOea, bom at Greetiirieh. 

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A pom. s 

Where once ttie haraas'd Bribm found repoae. 

And safe in poverty defy'd his foes ; 

Some secret cell, ye Powr's, indulgent give, - 

6Let — live here, for has leam'd to live. 

Here let those reion, whom pensions can incite 
To vote a patriot olack, a courtier white ; 
Explain their counOy's dear-bought rights away, 
And plead for * pirates in the face of day ; 
With slavish tenets taint our poison'd youth. 
And lend a lie the confidence of truth. 

' Let such raise palaces, and manors buy. 
Collect a tax, or farm a lottery ; 
With warbling evmuchs fill our 'I'^ilenc'd stage. 
And lull to servitude a thoughtless age. 

Heroes, proceed ! what boimds your pride shall holdP 
What check restrain your thirst of poVr and gold? 
Behold, rebellious virtue quite o'erthrown, 
Behol^ our fame, our wealth, our lives, your own. 

To such, the plunder of a land is giv'n. 
When public crmies inflame the wrath of Heav'n : 
6 But wiat, my friend, what hope remains for roe. 
Who start at tneft, and blush at perjCiry ? 
Who scarce forbear, tho' Britain's court he sing. 
To pluck a titled poet's borrow'd wing ; ^ , 

A Statennan's logic unconvinc'd can hear, 
'And dare to slumber o'er the % Gazetteer ; 
Despise a fool in half his pension dresa'd. 
And strive in vain to lauffli at Clodio's j^L , 

^Others with sotW smiles, and subtler art. 
Can sap the piinciples, or taint the heart; 

6 Cedamug patria :. vivant Arturiiu istic 
Et Catullui : maneuit qui nigra in candidB vertunt. 

T Quda fkcile eat udam conduc«e. fhimina, portul, 
Siccandem eluviem. portBuduiii Bd busts cadaver. 
Muuere nunc edijnt. 

8 Quid RoniK fadun ? mcntirl nescio : librum. 
Si malua est, nequeo laudan Sc pOBcerc — 

9 Perre ad nuplam qute mitUI adulter, 

Quf^tnandat norint i^ii ; me nemo mlninio 
Fur erit, atque ideo nulli comes etso. 

■ Tht iii«uiani of tJu Spauiardi mere J^finJei in (Ac huuci t/ 

t The licen^nlf net nu t/ien lately made. 

J Thepaptr vhith at that tim' amttitui apnl^lijbr the tmrf. 

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With mare addresa a lover's note conveyf 

Or bribe a virgin's innocence away, 

Wdl may diey rise, while I, whose mBtic tongae~ 

Ne'er knew to piiszle right, or varnish wrong, 

Spum'd aa a beggar, dreaded as a spy. 

Live unregarded, unlamented dre. 

lOFor what but social guUt flie friend endears? 
Who shares OrgUio's crimes, his fortune shares. 

11 But thou, should tempting villainy present 
All.Marlb'rough hoarded, or aU VilHers spent, 
Turn from the plitt'ring bribe thy scornful eye. 
Nor sell for gold,, what gold could never buy. 
The peaceful slumber, self-approving day. 
Unsullied fame, and conscience ever gay. 

l2The dieated nation's happy fav*ntes, see! 
Mark whom the great caress, who frown on me ! 
London ! the needy villain's gen'ral home. 
The common-sewer of Paris and of Rome ! 

With eager thirst, by follv or by fate. 
Sucks in the dregs of each corrupted state. 
Forgive my transports on a theme like this, 
131 cannot bear a French metropolis. 

l^Hlustrious EowAiin ! from the realms of day. 
The land of heroes and of saints survey ; 
Nor hope the British lineaments to trace. 
The ruatick grandeur, or the surly grace ; 
But, lost in thongfatless ease and empty show. 
Behold the wamor dwindled to a beau; 
Sense, freedom, piety, refin'd away. 
Of France the mmiick, and of Spain the prey. 

All that at home no more can beg or steal. 
Or like a gibbet better than a whe3 ; 

1! Qua nunc dii-itibus g 
Et nmm pnecipue f^iun propenbo Inai. 

13 ■ Non possum fcrre, Quirites, 

14 Soalieai llle tuus sumit trechedigaa, ^oiiiae. 
El eeromatico ftrt nic^uria collo< 

Hiss'd from the stage, or hooted fmn the court, 

Tfieir air, their dress, their politicks, iqiptm j 

Ifi Obsequious, artfui, volubte, and gay. 

On Britain's fond creduli^ they prey. 

No sinful trade th^ industry can 'ecspe, 

IsThej sing, they dance, clean shoes, or ci^re a clap ; 

All sciences a. fasting Monsieur knows. 

And, bid him go to cell, to bell he goes. 

IT Ah ! irhat avails it, that, from slav'ry fur, 
I drew the breath of life in English air ; 
Was early taught a Briton's right to prize. 
And lisp the tale of Henry's victories; 
If the giill'd conqueror receives the -chain. 
And flattery prevails when arms are vain ? 

ISStudious to please, and ready to submit. 
The supple Gaul was bom a parasite. 
Still to his inf rest true, where'er he goes; 
Wit, brav'ry, worth, his lavish tongue bestows ; 
In ev'ry face a thousand graces shine. 
From ev'ry tongue flowa narmony divine. 
ISThese arts in vain our ringed nativ 
Strain out with faulf ring diffidence a 
And get a kick for aukward flattery. 

Besides, with justice, this discerning age 
Admires their wond'rous talents for the stager 
MWell may th^ venture on the oinnick's art. 
Who play fi'om mom to night a borrow'd part; 
Pracba'd their master's notions to embrace, 
fiepeat his maxims, and r^ect his face ; 
With ev'ry wild absurdity cwnply. 
And view eadi object with another's eye ^ 

IB perdlla, fenno 


16 Augur, schcenobates, medicus, nugiis i amnin novil 
Creculus egiuiens. in ccdum, juswds, iblt. 

17 Usque adeo nihil eat, quod noptra lofantk ccelum. 
Huisit Av.entiiii P 

18 Qgiid ? quod adulsndi gcna praieatiaaiuitt, laudat 
SeniKKiraii indocti faciem defomiiB unici F 

IftUstc eodem. licet & nobia laudare:. sedillfi. 

Creditur. • ' 

3ft Natio conueda est Bfda F m^oiB cacbihno. 


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To-shake with laughter «« the jest they hear. 
To pour at will the counterfeited tear ; 
And, as their patron hints the .cold or heat, 
To shake in dog-days, in December sweat. 

81 How, when competitors like these contend. 
Can surly virtue hope to fix a friend? 
Slaves that with serious impudence beffuile. 
And lie without a blush, without a amile ; 
Esalt each trifle, ev'ry vice adore. 
Your taste in snuff, your judgment in a whore ; 
Con Balbo's eloquence applaud, and swear 
Ho gropes his breeches with a Monarch's air. 

For arts like tliese preferr'd, admir'd, caress'd, 
They first invade your table, then your breast; 
a Emilore your secrets with insidious art. 
Watch the weak hour, and ransack all the heart ; 
Tlien soon your iU-plac'd confidence repay, , 
Commence your lonls, and govern or betray. 

!3 By numbers here from shame or censure free. 
All crimes are safe but hated poverty. 
This, only this, the rigid law pursues. 
This, only this, provokes the snarling Muse. 
The sober trader at a tatter'd cloak • 

Wakes from hia dream, and labours fw a joke ; 
With brisker air the sUken courtiers gaze,. 
And turn the varied taunt a thousand ways. 
Si Of all the griefs that harass the distress'd. 
Sure a most bitter is a scomfiil jest ; 
Fate never wounds more deep the ^en'rous heart. 
Than when a blockhead's insult points the dart. 

t^Has Heaven reserv'd, in pity to the poor, 
No pathleas waste, or undiscover'd shore ? 

81 Non aumus ergo pnres : melior, qui sempet &. ornni- 
Nocte dieque potest alietium sumere culcinn. 
A facie JacUie menus : laudore paratus, 

88 Sdre volunt seereta doinue, alque itide llmeri. 

83 Materiam prffibet causaque jocorum 

Oomibus hir idem ? a fceda & scifsa locerna, &c. 

St Nil habet infelii paupertns duriu? in se, 
QuHiD i|uad ridiculos humines focit. 

3S Agminc facto, 

Debueranc olim lenues m'grfssc Quiritii. 

NoBccret island in the boundlees main ? 
No peaceful desert yet iinclaini'd* by Spain ? 
Quick let U8 rise, the ha[^y seata explore, 
And bear Oppression's insolence no more. 
This mourflful truth is ev'ry where confess'd, 
M Slow rises worth, by poverty depresb'd r - 
But Jiere more slow, where all are slaves to gold. 
Where looks are merdiandise and smiles are sold : 
Where, won by bribes, by flatteries implor'd. 
The groom retails tfte favours of his lord. 

But hark ! th' affi^ghted crowd's' tumultuous cries 
Roll through the streets, and thunder to the skies : 
Rais'd from some pleasTng- dream of wealth and pow'r. 
Some pompous palace, <b- aOme blissful bow'r. 
Aghast you Start, and scarce with aching sight 
Sustain th' approadiing fire's tremendous light ; 
Swift frMn pursuing liorrora take your way. 
And leave your little all to flames a prey; 
STThei". thro' the world a wretched vagrant room, 
Fm- where can starving merit find a honied 
In vain your mournful narrrative di^Iose, 
Wlrile-all n^lect, and most insult your woes. 
SflSfaould Heav'n's just bolts Orgilio'a wealth confbundj 
And spread his flaming palace on the ground. 
Swift o'er the I^d the dismal rumour flies, ' 
And public mournings pacify the skies ; 
The laureat tribe in venal verse relate. 
How virtue wars with persecuting fate; 

26 Haud facile emErgunt, quorum Virtutibua obstat 
Res angusta domi, Bed Bcimee durior illis 

Cum pteliD. 

C<^(iinur, et cultig augare peculia lervis. 

27 mtimua autem , 

^Tunince pumulus, ijuad nudum & Ihutra rogantom 
Nemo cibo, nemo hoapilio, tectoque juvsbit, 

S8 Si Tnflgnfl Afiturici cecidlt domjis, horrida mater, 
PuTlati proceres. ■ * 

" T/ie Spaniards at this Hme Kcre mW <u maie dain to KHne if 
our iim^icanfraiincei. 

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WWitb well-feign'd gratitude the penaion'd band 
Itefund the plunder of the be^^^u land. 
See! while he^ builds, the gaudy vassali come. 
And crowd with sudden wealth the rising done; 
The price of Boroughs and of gouls restore ; 
And luise his treasures higher than before : 
Now bless'd with all the baubles of the great. 
The polieh'd marble and the shining plate, 
SOOrgillo sees the golden pile aspire. 
And hopes from ai^ry Heav'n another fire. 

SlCould'st thou re»gn the park and play content. 
For the fair banks of Severn or of Trent ; 
There mi^lst thou find some el^ant retreat. 
Some hireling Senator's deserted seat ; 
And stretch thy prospects o'er the smiling land. 
For leas than rent the dungeons of the strand : 
There prune thy walks, support thy drooping flowers* 
Direct thy rivulets, and twine thy bowers ; 
And, whUe th^ grounds a cheap repast afiardi . 
Despise the dunties of a venal lord ,-. 
There ev'ry bush 'with Nature's musick ring^ 
There ev'ry breeze bears health upon its wings ; 
Chi all thy hours security shall smile, 
And bles^ thine evening walk and morning toil. 

32Prepare for death if here at night you roam. 
And sign your will before you sup from home. 
33 Some fiery fop, with t) 

Who sleeps mi brambles .till tie kills his n 

W Jam accumt, qui ir 

Confcrst impenuu ■- hie. Sec. 

Hie modium argenti 

. 30 Mdion, Hc plun reponit 

Peraicus orbonmi IttutiiBrimus.— 

31 SI potes avelli Circendbua, aptima Stira>,. 
Aiit FabraCeris domue. aut Pusinone paratur, 
Quanti nunc tenebre* unuin conduds in annum> 

Hortulug hie. 

Vive bidentiaamana & culli rillicu* hotll, 
Unde epulum poBeis ccnium dare PjrthagarKiiK 

St PosBJa ignavua haberi, 
Et mbiti casus impravlduf, ad ijrniint Bi 
iiWstatus eas. 

SSElKuiBi ac petularj, qui nullum fiitte cedi3it. 

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Sotoie finHdc drunkard, reelinj; from a feaaC, 
Provaikea a brofli and stabs you for a jest 
34 Yet ev"!! these heroes, imscfcievoualy gay, 
Iiords'of the stred^ and terrors of the -way ; 
Flush'd as they are, with foQy, youtli, and wine. 
Their prudent insults to the poor confine : 
Afar they mark the flambeau's bright appToacb, 
And shun the shining train, and golden coach. 

35 In vain these dangers past, your doors you doac^ 
And hope the balmy blessings of repose ; 

Ouel with ffuik, and darin;; wiUi despair, 
llie nudnignt mnrd'rer bureta the faiuiless bar; 
Invades the sacred hour of sUent rest. 
And leaves, unsgen, a dagger in your breast. 

36 Scarce can our fidda, such crowds at Tyham dier 
. With hemp the gallowa and the fleet supply. 

Propose your schemes, ye senatorian baiid. 
Whose * ways and means support the sinking land; 
Lest ropes he wanting in the tempting spring. 

a rig another convoy for the kingf. 

S7A single gaol, in Alfred's golden 

Coold halfthe nation's mminals contain ; 

Fair Justice, then, without constraint ador*d. 
Held high the steady scale, but sheath'd the sword; 
No spies were paid, no special juries known ; 
Blest age ! but ah ! how diff'rent Jirom our own I 

Dat piBDaa. Doctem potHui Iiujentis omicum 


34 Sed, quamvis imprDbus annls. 

Atque mero fetveus, cavet hunc, qu«ni cocdna Itena 
Vituri jubet, 6. comitum Itmgigmniua onto, 
Miiltuin prsterea. flammaruin. alque eeaea lampBO. 

35 Nee UuiEQ hoc tantuip metuas ; nam qui ^poliet tc 
Non deerit ; dausis damibus, Slc. 

36 Maximum in vinclis feni mottug ; ut timtaa, ne 
Vomer dcflciat, ne marcai &. aatcula deeint. 

37 Felices proavonim atavos, felioia dicas 
Secula, quw quondam sub regibua atque tribiixiia 

■e Romam. 
iR Ihc HauK o/CommoHifirnuSicdiqfraiiHig- 

er aitamttnUd «> Ot$ vknU ntait ly Ihe King to 

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10 LONDON : 

38Much could I add,— But see thfe boat at hand. 
The tide, retiring, calls me from the land ; 
39Farewell!~Whenyouth,andhealth,aiid fortune spent, 
Thou fly'et for refuge to the Wilds of Kent ; 
And, tit'd, like me, with follies- and widi crimes. 
In angry numbers wam'st succeeding times ; 
Then shall diy friend, nor thou refuse liis aid, • 

Still foe to vice, forsake his Cambrian shade; 
In virtue's cause once more exert hia rage. 
Thy satire point, and animate thy page. 

38 HIh alias poteram. & pluiies Butinectere causu : 
Sed Jumenta vooMil - 

39 Ergo vale nastri mrmor : & quotiea te 

Roma tuo refiei properantera reddet Aquino, 
He quoque ad Elvinam Cerenm, vcstnunque Dlsnem 
Cunvclle a Cumia : Badrarum ego, ni pudet illw. 
Adjutor geUdo* vaniam tfajl^^ui in agios. 

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Vanity of human wishes. 



Lkt *Observatioii, with extensive view. 
Survey mankind from Cfaipa to Peru ; 
Remark each ansious toil, each eager strife, 
And. watch the busy scenes of crowded life; 
Then say how hope and fear, deFiire and hate, 
Cerspread. with enarea the clouded maze of fate. 
Where wav'ring man, betray'd by vent'rous pride. 
To chase the dreary paths without a guide. 
As treach'rous phantoms in the mist delude. 
Shuns fancied ills, or chases airy good ; 
How rarely reason miides the stubborn choice, 
Rnles the bold hand, or prompts the suppliant voice ; 
How nations sink, by diu'tine schemes oppress'd. 
When Vengeance listens to uie fool's request. 
Fate wings with ev*ry wish th' affiictive dart. 
Each gift of nature, and each grace of art ; 
Witli fatal heat impetuous coui'age glows. 
With fatal sweetness elocution flows ; 
Impeachment stops the speaker's pow'rful breath. 
And restless fire precipitates on death. 

f But, scarce observed, the knowing and the bold 
Fall in the general massacre of gold ; 
Wide wasting pest ! that rages unconfin'd. 
And crowds with crimes the records of mankind : 
For gold his sword the hireling ruffian draws. 
For gold the hireling judge distorts the laws ; 
Wealm heap'd on weidth, nor truth nor safety buys. 
The dangeH gather as the treasures rise. 

Let Hisf ry tell, where rival kings command. 
And dubious title shakes the madded land, 

• Vei. J— IL + Vtr. li->CS. 

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'When statutes glean the refuse of the sword, 
How much more safe the vasBal than the lord ; 
Low Bculfcs the hind beneath the rage of power. 
And leaves the wealthy traitor in the Tower, 
Untouch'd his cottage, and his slumbers souml, 
Tho' Confiacatioij'fi vultures hover round. 

The needy traveller, serene and gay. 
Walks the wild heath, and sings his toil away. 
Does envy seize thee? crush lh' upbraiding joy ; 
Increase his riches, and his peace destroy ; 
Kow fears in dire vicissitude invade. 
The ruat'ling brake alarms, and quiv'ring shade.; 
Nor light nor darkness bring his T«in reSef, 
One shews the plunder, and one hides the thief 
Yet • still one gen'ral cry the skies assails. 
And gain and grandeur load the tainted ^es ; 
Few know the toiUng statesman's fear or care, 
Th* insidious rival and the gaping heir. 
Once + more, Democritus, arise on jearth. 
With cheerful wisdom and instructive mirth. 
See motley life in modem trappings dress'd. 
And feed with varied fools th' eternal jest : 
Thou who could'st laugh where want enchain'd caprice. 
Toil crush'd conceit, and man was of a piece ; 
Where wealth, unlov'd, without a mourner dy'd; 
And scarce a sycophant was fed by pride; 
Where ne'er was known the form of mock debate. 
Or seen a new-made mayor's imwjeldy state ; , 
Where change of fav'rites made no change of laws. 
And senates neard before they judg'd a cause; 
How would'st thou shake at Britain's modish tribe. 
Dart the quick taunt, and edge the piercing gibe? 
Attentive truth and nature to descry. 
And pierce eadi scene with philosophick eye. 
To thee were solemn toys, or empty show. 
The robes of pleasure and the veds of woe : 
All ^d the farce, and all thy mirtli maintain^ 
Whose Joys are causeless, or whose griefs ore vain. 

Such was the Bcom that fill'd the sage's mind, 
Renew'd at ev'ry glance on human kind ; 

• Ver. 23— ST. + Vex. !6— Si. 

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How just that Korji e« yet thy v6ice declare, 
Search ev'ry state, aad canvass ev'ry pray'r, 

'Unnumber'd suppliuits croird preferment's gate, 
Athirst for vealtfa, and burning to be great; 
Ddiuive fortune heara th' inceaAant call. 
They mount, the^ shine, evaporate, and fall. 
On ev'ry stage the foea of peace attend. 
Hate diws their flight, and insult mocks their end. 
Love ends viiib hope, the sinking statesman's door 
Pours in the morning wM^ipper no more ; 
Pmr giowii^ names the weekly scrihUer lies. 
To growing wealth the dedicator flies ; 
From ev'ry room descends the painted face. 
That hung the Iwi^ht palkdium of the place ; 
And, smoak'd in kitchens, or in auctions sold. 
To better features yields the frame of gold ; 
For now no more we trace in ev'ry line 
Heroic w^vth, benevolence divine : 
.The fortn dirtorted, justifies the fall. 
And detestation rids th' indignant wall. 

But wis. not foitain -hear the last appeal. 
Sign her foes' doom, or gnard her fav'rites' zeal? 
^Tbro' freedom's mas no mere remdnstTuicb riilga^ 

be^adbg nobles imd controuling kings ; 
Our supple tribes repress their patriot ttu-oatst 
And ask no questiona but tlie ^priee of votes ( 

"With weekly libels and septennial ale, 
Th^ wiKh is full to riot and to rail. 

In fulUblown dignity, see Wolsey stand. 
Law in his voice, and fortune inliishand: ' 
To him the church, the realm, their. pow'rs cwisigni 
Through him the rays of regal bounty shine, 
Tura'dby lus nod the eteeam of hraiour fiowa. 
His smile alone security bestows: 
Stilt to new hdghts hia reattess wishes' tovt'r. 
Claim leads to dutn, an^ pow'r advances pow'r ; 
Till conquest unresisted ceaa'd to please. 
And rignts siihmitted' left hiin none to seizor 
At length his sov'reigri frowns — the train ef^l^ 
Jlfark the keen glance, and watch the sign to Itate. 

■ Ver.*56~19T. 



■ Where-e'er he turns, he meets a straoger's eye. 
His suppliants scam him, and his firilowers fly ; 
Now drops at ance the pride of aw&l state, 
The golden canopy, the glitf rinff pkte. 
The regal palace, the luxurious Bmrd, 
The liv'ried army, and the menial lonL 
With age, with cares, with maladies oppress'd. 
He seeks the refuge rf monastic rest. 
Grief aids disease, remember'd folly stings, 
And his last sighs ve)»'oadi the fiuth ofkinga. 

Speak thou, whose thoughts at humble peace rapine, 
Shafi Wolse/s wealth, with Wolsey*s end, betUne? 
Or liv'st didu now, with safer pride content, 
The wisest justice on the banks of Trent? 
For, why did Wolsey, near the steeps t£ fete. 
On weak foundations raise th' enormous weight f 
Why but to sink beneath misfortune's blow. 
With louder tuin to the ^phs below ? 

*What gave great Vilhers to the assassin's knife, • 

And fix'd disease on Harley's closing life? 
What murder'd Wentworth, and what exil'd Hyde, 
By kings protected, and to kings ally'd? 
What Init their wish indtdg'd in courts to shine. 
And pow'r too great to ke^, or to resign ? 

tWhen first U)e college ToBs receive nis name. 
The young enthusiast quite his ease for fame ; 
Resistless pums the fever of renown. 
Caught irom the strong cMitagion of the gown; 
O'er Bodley'S' dome his future labours apreait. 
And t Bacon's- mansion trembles o'er his head. 
Are these thy views ? Proceed, illustrious youth. 
And Virtue guard thee to the throne of Truth ! 
Yet, should tby soul induce the gen^oes- best 
Till captive Science yields her last retreatfi; 
Should Reasm |tude'thee iwtb her brightest ray. 
And pour on misty DMibt FOMstlMs *laj ; 

• }0^«-J,13. + Vct. nt-J38. 

^tTbereUa o-adilian, that the study of Fiiai'Bacun, built on ta* 
■ich over the bridge, will fall when a man greater than Bacon 
■btOl pMS iKHler it. To preTwM «<f akocbiiig wMcMcM-it ««» - 
pulled down many yean aiiKM> 

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Lo 4ilBe kindness lure to loose delight. 
Nor praiee relax, dot difficulty fright; 
Sw)\ud temptiDg Novelty ihj cell refrain. 
And Sloth effuse her optat« iiunes in vain ; 
Should Beauty blunt on fops her &tal dart. 
Nor daim the triumph of a letter'd heart; 
Should bo disease thy torpid veins invade. 
Nor Melancholy's phuitoma haunt thy riuide ; 
Yet hope not life n-oni grief or danger free. 
Nor think the doom of man reven'd for thee : 
Dewn on the passing world to turn thine eycs> 
Anobipause awhile from Letters, to be wise ; 
There mark what ills the scholar's life assail, 
Toilj envy, want, the patron, and the gaoL 
See natione, slowly wise and meanly just. 
To buried merit raise the tard^ bust 
If dreams yet flatter, once a«ain attend. 
Hear L^dutt's li&,juid Galileo's end*. 

Nor deem, wlien Leamiog her last prize bestows, 
' The gUtf ring eminence exempt from foes ; 
See, when the vulgar 'scapes, despis'd or tnr'd, 
Rebellion's venge&l talons seize on Laud. 
FrcHB meaner minds, thou^ smaller fines content. 
The plimder'd palace, or aequester'd rent ; 
Mork'd out by dang'rous parts, he meets the diOck, 
And tatal Learning leads him to the block : 
Around his tomb let Art and Genius weep, 
But hear his death, ye blockheads, heai and sleep. 

tTbe festal blazes, the triumphal show, 
The ravish'd standard, and the captive foe. 
The senate's thanks, ^e Gazette's pompous tale. 
With force resistleBs o'er the brave prevail. 
Such bribes the rapid Greek o'er Asia whiri'd. 
For such the steady Bomans shook the world ; 
For such in distant lands the Britons shint, 
And stain with blood the Danube or the Rhine ; 
This pow'r has praise, that virtue scarro eeat Warm 
Till fame supphes -the universal diarm. 

• See Gent. Mag. vol. LXVIII. p, D5I. 1087. 

t '^ei- 133,— IW. 

C 2 

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Yet Reason frowns oii War's uneqiud game; 

Where wasted nadojis raise a sing^ tuune; 

And mortgag'd states their grnndsires' wreaths regret, 

Fr<Hn age to age in everlaating debt ; 

Wreaths -which at last the dear-bought right convey 

To rust on medals, or on stones decay. < 

*On what foundation stands the warrior's prid^ 
How ju*t his hopes, let Swedish Charles dedde^ 
A &ame of adamant, a soul of fire. 
No dangers fright him, and no labourG tire ; 
O'er love, o'er fenr, extends his wide domain, 
Unconquer'd lord of pleasure and of pain ; 
No joys to him pacific sceptres yield, 
War sounds the tpump, he rushes to the field; 
Behold surro\mding kings their pow'rs combine. 
And one capitulate, and one resign; 
Peace courts his hajid, but spreads her charms in rain ; 
"Think nothing gain'd," he cries, v till nought remaiuj 
"On Moscow's walls till Gothic standards fly, 
."And all be mine beneath the polar sky." 
The march begins in military state, 
And nations on his eye sufpeoded wait ; 
Stern Famine guards the solitary coast. 
And Winter barricades the realms (ri* I^^et ; 
He comes, nor want nor C0I4 his course delay ;~ 
Hide, blushing Glory, hide Pnltowa's day: ^ 
The vanquish'd hero leaves his broken bands. 
And shews his miiieries in distant lands; 
Condemn'd a needy supplicant to wait. 
While ladies interpose, and slaves debate. 
But di(l not Chance at length her error ulend^ 
Did no subverted empire mark his end ? 
Did rival moiiarchs give tlie fiital wound? 
Or hostile milhons press him to the ground ? 
His &11 was destin'd to a barren strand, 
, A petty fortress, and a dubious hanS ; 
He left'the name, at whieli the world gfew pale, 
To point a moral, or adorn a tale. 

tAll tinies their scenes of pompous woes afibrd, 
From F^m's tyrant to Bavaria's lord. 

• V«. 1«— 467^ fVa. 16ft— 197. 

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In eajr hostility and bub>oiu pride, 
With half nuu^und embattled at hia side. 
Great Xerxes comes to seize the certain prey. 
And starves exhausted rCgjoDs in bis w«y; 
Attend^it Flatf ry counts his myriads o'er. 
Till counted mjnads sooth hia pride no more ; 
Fresh praise is try'd till madness Ares his mind. 
The waves he lashes, and enchains the wind. 
New pow'rs are ctaim'd, new pow'ra are still bettoVd, 
Till rude resistance lops the spreKdino; god ; 
The daring Greeks deride the martial show, 
. And heap their valleys with the gaudy foe ^ 
Th' insulted sea with humbler thought be gains, 
A single skiff to speed his flight remains; 
Th' incumber^ oar scarce leaves the dreoiled coast. 
Through purjde billows and a floating host 

The bold Bavarian, in a luckless hour. 
Tries the deead susamits of Ceesarian pow'r ; 
With unexpected legifma bursts away. 
And sees defenceless realms receive his nray ; 
Short sway ! fair Austria ^reads her nnoumfut channs. 
The queen, tlie beauty, sets the world in aims; 
From hiU to hiU the beacon's rousing blaze ' 

Spreads wide the hope of plunder and c^ praise ; 
Ine fierce Croatian, and the wild Hussar, 
With all tlie.eons t^' ravage crowd the war; 
The baflled priuce, in honour's flatt'ring bloom 
Of hasty greatness^ finds the ^tal doom; 
His foes derision, and his subjects blune, 
And steals to death from anguish and from shame. 

•Enlarge my life with muldttide of days ! 
In health, in sickness, thus the suniliant praysi 
Hides from himself his state, and snuns to know. 
That life protracted is protracted woe. 
Time hovers o'er, impatient .to deetwy. 
And shuts up all the passages of jt^ : 
In vain their gifts the bounteous seastma pour, 
The fruit autumnal, and the vernal flow'r ; 
With listless eyes the dotard views the store. 
He viewBj and wraideis that they please no more : 



Now pall the taMelesa meate, and jc^Ieas wine^ 
And Liuiury with sighs her slave resigns. 
Approach, ye tninstrels, try the soothing strain. 
Diffuse the tunetu) lenitivea of pain : 
No sound, alast' would touch tn' impervious ear, 
Though dancing mounUins witness'd Orpheus near; 
Nor lute nor lyre hi* feeble pow'r attend, 
Nor sweeter mushdc of a. virtuous friend ; 
But everlasting dictates crowd his tongue, ' 
Perversely grave, <»■ positively wrong. 
The still returning t^e, and ling'ring jest. 
Perplex the fawning- niece and paraper'd guest, 
While growing hopes scarce awe the gath'ring saeejt-. 
And scarce a If^acy con bribe to hear ; 
The watchful guests still hint the last o^mce ; 
Tlie daughter's petulance, the son's expence. 
Improve his heady rage with treadi'roas skill. 
And mould his passions till they make his will. 

Unniunber'd maladies his joints invade. 
Lay siege to life, and press the d»« blocluide; 
But uncEtiiiffuiiA'd AVrice still remains. 
And dreaded losses a^^^vate. his pains ; 
He turns, with aradous heart and crippled bands, . 
His bonds of debt, and m<at^;ages of laada ; 
Or views his c«iflers vrith auspicious eye^ 
Unlocks his gold, and' csunta it till he dies. 

But grant, the virtues of a temp'rate prime 
Bless with an age eiempt tram scm^ or crime ; 
An age that m^ts with uuperceiv'd decay. 
And glides in modest innocence away ; 
Whose peaeefn) day Benevolence endeBrs> 
Whose riight congratulating Conscienee ditan; 
The gen'ral fav'nte as die gen'ral'friend : 
Such age there is^ and who riiall wish its aid?' 

Yet ev*!! on tjiis her loa<i Misfortune Aings, 
To press the weary minute's Bag^ng wings ; 
New sorrow rises-as the day returns, 
A sister sickens, or a daughter mourns. 
Now kindred Moit fills ithe sable bier,. 
Now lacerated Friendsfa^ claims a tear ; 
Year chases year, decay puEsues decay. 
Still drops some joy £rimx witb'ring liie away; 

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New forcns arise, and diffrent views engage, 
Superfluous la^ the vet'ran on the stage. 
Till pitying Nature signs the last release, 
And'bios afflicted worth retire to peace. 

But few there are whom hours like these await. 
Who set undouded in the gulphs of Fate. 
From Lydia's monarch should tlie search descend. 
By Solon caution'd to regard his end. 
In life's last scene what prodigies surprise, 
Fears of the brave, and follies of the wise I 
From Marlb'rough's eyes the Btreaiaa of dotage flow. 
And Swift extsres a <mv1er and a show, 

•Tbe teemmv mother, anxious for h« race. 
Begs for each bu^h the fortune of a face ; 
Yet Vane could tell what iBs from beauty ^riag ; 
And Sedley cnrs'd the fmm ^at pleas'd a king. 
Ye n3rmpl]s of rosy lips and radiant eyes. 
Whom Pleasm^ keeps too busy to be wise; 
Whorajoys with soft varieties invite. 
By day the froliek, and the dance by night ; 
Who irown with vanity, who smile with art. 
And ask the latest iashion of the heart ; 
What care, what rules, your heedless charms shall save, 
Eadi nymph your rival, and each youtii your slave T 
Against your fame with fondness We combines, 
The rival batters, and the lover mines. 
With distant voice negtei^d Virtue calls. 
Less heard and less, the faint remonstrance Mis; 
Tir'd with contempt, she quits the slipp'ry reign. 
And Pride and Prudence take her seat in vain. 
In crowd at once, where none the pass defend. 
The harmless freedom, and the private friend. 
The guardians yield, by force superior ply'd : 
To Int'rest, Prudence; and to Flatfry, Pride. 
Here Beauty falls betray'd, despis'd, distress'd. 
And hissing Infamy proclaims the rest. - 

tWhere Uien shall Hope and Feartheir objects find? 
Must dull suspense corrupt the stagnant mind? 
Must helpless man, in ignorance s^te. 
Roll darlding down the torrent of his &te? 

• Ver. *89~345. + Ver. 34&— 36ft 

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Must no didike ^arm, no wisheg rise. 

No cries invoke the mercies of the ekiee ? 

Enquirer, cease ; petitions yet remain 

Which Heav'n may hear, nor deem Religimi vain. 

Still rdse far good the supplicating voice. 

But leave to Heav'n the measure and the choice. 

Safe in his pow'r, whose eyes discern afar 

The secret anibush of i specious pray'r ; 

Implore his aid, in bis decisions rest. 

Secure, whate'erlie gives, he gives the beat. 

Yet, irhen tlie sense of sacred presence fires, 

And strong devotion to the akSee asjMres, 

Pout forth thy fervours for a healthful mind. 

Obedient passions, and a willreeign'd ; 

For love, which scarce collective man can fill ; 

For patience, sov'reign o'er transmuted ill; 

For laith, that, piuibng for a happier seat, 

Counts death kind Nature's signal of retreat: 

These goods for man the laws of Heav'n ordain. 

These goods he grants, who grants the pow'r to gain ; 

With l£ese celestial Wisdom calms the mind. 

And makes the bi^piness she does not find. 

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DRURV-LANI, 1747> 

Whkn Learning's triumph o'er b«r barb'rouB foes 
First resr'd the stage, immortal Shakspeare roae; 
Eadt titaage of many-colour'd life he drew. 
Exhausted worlds, and then imogin'd new : 
Existence saw him ^um her bounded reign. 
And putting time toQ'd aftu" him in vain. 
His pow'rim strokes presiding Truth impresa'd. 
And unresisted Parairai storm'd the breast. 

Then Jonson came, instructed irom the school. 
To please in method, and invent by rule ; . 
His studious patience and laborious art. 
By regular aj^roach assail'd the heart : 
Cold Ap^wobation gave tlie ling'ring bays. 
For those, who durst not censure, scarce could praise. 
A mortal bom, he met the gen'ral doom. 
But left, like Egypt's kings, a lasting tomb. 

The wits of Charles found easier ways to fame, . 
Nor wiah'd ibr Jonson's art, or Shaksgeare^s flame. 
Themselves they studied, as they felt they writ ; 
intrigue was plot, obscenity waa wit. 
Vice always fiiund a sympathetic iHead j 
They plei^'d their age, and did liota^ to mend. 
Yet bards like these aspir'd to lasting praise. 
And proudly liop'd to pimp in future days. 
Their cause was gen'ral, their sap^rts were strong. 
Their slaves were willing, and theu- reign was long: 
I'ill Shame regaiu'd the post that Sense betray'd. 
And Virtue cil'd Oblivion to her aid. 

Then, crush'd by rules, and weaken'd as refin'd. 
For years the pow'r of Tragedy declin'd : 
Prom bard to bard the frigid caution crept, 
. Till Declamation roar'd, whilst Passion slept ; 
Yet still did Virtue deign the stage to treads 
Philosophy remain'd, though Nature fi«L 

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aa PROLOOVX, 1747* 

But fim^d, at length, her ancient reign to quit. 
She aaw great Faustiu Jay the ghost .of Wit ; 
Exulting Folly hail'd the joyful day. 
And Pantomime and Song confina'd her sway. 

But y bo the coming changes can presage. 
And mark the future periads of the Stage } 
Perh^, if skill could distant times explore. 
New Behns, "new Durfeys, yet remain m store ; 
PerhajH where Lear has rav'd, and Hamlet dy'd. 
On flying cars new sorcererB may ride : 
Perhaps (for who can guess th' effects of chance f) 
Here Hunt may box, or Mahomet* may dance. 

Hard is hia lot that, here by Fortune plac'd. 
Must watch the wild vicissitudes of taste ; 
With eVry meteor of caprice roust play, 
And chase the new-blown bubbles of the day. 
Ah ! let not Censure term oiurfate oiu" choice. 
The stage but echoes back the publick voice ; 
The drmna's laws, the drama's patrons give. 
For we that live to please, must please to live. • 

Then prompt no more the fomes you decry. 
As tyrants doom their tools of guilt to die; 
Tis Yours, this nij^t, to bid the reign commence 
Of rescued Nature and reviving Sense ; 
To chase the charms of Sound, the pomp of Show, 
For useful Mirth and salutary Woe ; 
Bid scenic Virtue form the rising age. 
And Truth diffuse her radiance from iJie stage. 

' Hunt, a famoin iwxer on the stage; Mabomet, n rope-dan 
who had exhibited at Coveiit-Gardi:!! Thttilre the winter befi 
aakl to be a Turk. 

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Ye g^tt'ring train, vhom lace and velvet bless. 

Subtend the soft solicitudes of drew 1 

From grov'ling busineBa and superfluous care. 

Ye sons of Avarice, a moment spare I 

Vot'ries of Fame, and worshippers of Power, 

Dismiss tlie pleasing phantoms for an hour ! 

Our daring bard, with spirit unconfin'd, 

Sjveads wide the mighty moral for mankind. 

Learn here how Heav'n supports the virtuous inin4. 

Daring, though calm ; and vig'rous, though resign'd. 

Learn here what anguish racks the guilty breast. 

In pow'r dependent, in success dejtfess'd. 

Learn here that Peace from Innocence 'must flow ; 

All else is empty sound and idle show. 

If truths like these with pleasing language join ; 
Ennobled, yet uiichang'd, if Nature shine ; 
If no wild draught depart from Reason's rules. 
Nor gods his heroes, nor his lovers fools ; 
Intriguing Wits ! his artless plot forgive ; 
And gpare him, Beauties J though his lovers live. 

Be this at least his praise, be this his pride; 
To force applause no modem arts are try'd. 
Sibuld partial cat-calls all his hopes coiuound. 
He bids no tmmpet quell the fatal sound, 
Should welcome sleep relieve the weary wit. 
He rolls no thunders o'er the drowsy pit 
No snares to captivate the judgttient spreaSa, 
Nor bribes your eyes to prqudice your head^. 
UnmoVd though Witlings sneer and Rivals rail ; 
Studious to please, yet not aeham'd to faiL 
He sccsns the meek address, the suppliant strain.. 
Widi merit needless, and without it vain. 
In Reason, Nature, Truth, he dares to tniat: 
Ye Fops, be silent ; and ye Wits, be just I 
Vol.. I. D 

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Asp ASIA, 



Emp. of the Turks, 
First Visier, 
A Turkish Aga, 
An Officer, 

Turkish Captains, 

Greek Noblemen, 

An Eunuch, 


■ Greek Ladiett, 

Mr. Barry, 

Mr. Berry. 

Mr. Somden. 

Mr. Havard. 
iMr. Vther. 
\ Mr. Bvrton. 
i Mr. Garrick. 
\ Mr. makes. 

Mr. King. 

S Mrs. Cibber. 
\ Mrs. Pritchara. 

Attendants on Irene. 

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Dbhetkius and Leontidb, in Turtitk HahitM. 

And IB it thus Dethetriua meets his fliend. 
Hid in the mean disguise of Turkish robes. 
With servile secrecy to lurk iu shades. 
And vent our sufferings in clAndestine grouu t 


Till breathless fiiry rested trom destmction. 
These groans were fatal, these disguises vain; 
But now our Turkish conquerors have quench'd 
^ Their rage, and pall'd their appetite of murder i 
No more the glutted sabre thirsts for blood. 
And weary cruelty remits her tortures. 


Yet Greece enjoys no gleam of transient hope. 
No soothing interval of peaceful sorrow; 
The lust ofgold succeeds the rage of conquest. 
The lust of gold, unfeeling and Temurseless, 
The last corruption of degenerate man 1 
Urg'd by the imperious soldier's fierce command. 
The groaning Greeks break up their golden caverns 
Pregnant with stores that India's rainea might envy, 
Th* accumulated wealth of toiling ages. 

Tlut wealth, too sacred for their countrv's use ! 
That wealth too pleasing to be lost for freedom ! 
That wealth, which, granted to their weeping prince. 
Had rang'd embattled nations at our gates ! 
But, thus reserv'd to lure the wolves of Turkey, 
Adds shame to grief, and infamy to ruin. 
Lamenting AVnce now too late discovers 
Her own neglected in the publick safety. 
D % 

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Reproach not n 

Ill-fated race ! so off besieg'd in 

With &lse security beheld invas 

Why should Uie^ fear ? — That pow'r that kindly spreads 

The clouds, a signal of impending show'rs. 

To warn the wand'ring linnet to the shade. 

Beheld without concern expiring Greece, 

And not one prodigy foretold our fate. 

A thousand horrid prodigies foretold it. 
A feeble government, eluded laws, 
A factious pt^ulace, luxurious noblei. 
And all the maladies of sinking states. 
When publick. Villainy, too strong for justice. 
Shews nis bold tVont, the harbinger of ruin. 
Can brave Leontius call for airy wonders. 
Which cheats interpret, and which fools regard? 
Whert some neglected fabrick noda beneath 
The weight of years, and tatters to the tempest. 
Must Heav'n dispatch the messei^»s of li^t. 
Or wake the dead, to warn us of its tall f 


Wall might the weakness of our empire sink 
Before such foes of more than human force ; 
Some Pow'r invisible, from Heav'n or Hell, 
Conducts their armies, and asHerts their cause. 

And yet, ray friend, what miracles were wrought 

Beyond the pow'r of constancy and courage i 

Did unresisted lightning aid meir cannon ? 

Did roaring whirlwinds sweep us from the ramparts f 

*Twas vice that shook our nerves, 'twas vice, LeontiuB, 

That froze our veins, and wither'd all our pow'rs. 


Whate'er our crimes, our woes demand compossloQ. 
Each night, protected fay the friendly darkness. 
Quitting by close retreat, I range the city. 
And, weeping, kiss the venerable ruins ; 
With silent pangs I view the tow'ring domes, 
Sacred to prayr; and wander through the streets. 

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VVhCTe ccoomerce Uviah'd noexlunisted [Jen^, 
And jollity muataio'd eternal rerels. — 


— How chan^d, alas ! — Now gbasdy Deaolatioii 
In triumph sita upon our eluttter'd spires ; 
Nov siqierstidnn, ignorance, and error. 
Usurp our tomplea, and pro&tae our altara. 


From ev'iT palace bursts a mingled clftmonr. 
The dreadful dissonance of barb'rouB triumph. 
Shrieks of affright and wailinss of distress. 
Oft when the cries of violated beauty 
Arose to Hexv'n, alid pierc'd my bleeding breas^ 
I felt thy pains, and tremUed for Aspnaia. 


Aapasia ! spare that lor'd, that mournful name : 
Q>^r hapless maid—tempestuous grief o'erbeors 
My reasoaing pow'rs — Dear, hapQs», lost Aspaain 1 


Suapet^ the thought. 


Alt thought on lier is madness; 
Yet let me think — I see the helpless maid, 
Bdiold the monsters gaze with savage raptnre, 
B^old how lust and rapine straggle round her I 


Awake, Demetrius, from diis dismal dream. 
Sink not beneath imaginary sorrows ; 
Call to your dd your courage and your wisdom ; 
Think on the sudden change of human scenes; 
Think on the various accidents of war; 
Think on the migh^ power of aw^l virtue ; 
Think on that Prondence that guards the good. 


O Providence ! extend thy care to me. 
For Courage droops unequal to the combat, . 
And weak PhiloBopfay denies her succours, 
Sure some kind sabre in the heat of battle. 
Ere yet the foe tbiind leisure to be cruel, 
Diamia^d her to the aky. 


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PcrhapB, enamour'd (£ regembliiig virtue, 
Witb gentle bond restrain'd the streams of life. 
And snatt^'d her timely trom her country's fate. 


From those bright regions of etmial day. 

Where now thou shin'st among thy fellov-aaint^ 

Array'd in purer hg^t, lobk down on me:. 

In pleasing visions and assuosive dreamy, 

O ! sooth my soul, and teach me how to lose tbee. 

Enough of unavailing tears, Demetrius : 

I came obedient to thy friendfy summons. 

And hop'd to share thy counsels, not thy smrows: - 

While thus we mourn die fiwtune of Aspasia, 

To what are we r€9erv*d? 


To what I know not: 
But hope, yet hope, to happiness and honour ; 
If happiness can be witjiout Aspasia. 


But whence this new-qHimg hope? 


From Cali Bassa, 
The chief, whose wisdom guides the Turkish connsels. 
He, tir'd of slavery, though the highest slave, 
Projects at once our &eedom and nis own ; 
And bids us thus disguis'd await him here. 


Can he restore the state he couU not save ? 
In vaioi when Turkey's troops assaifd our walls. 
His kind intelligence betray'd their measures ; 
Their arms prevail'd, though Cali was our friend. 

When the tenth sun had set upon our sorrows. 
At midni^t's private hour, a voice unknown 
Sounds in. my sleeping ear, ' Awake, Demetriua, 
' Awake, and foUow me to better fortunes.' 
SuTpris'd I start, and bless the happy dream ; 
Then, rouzing, know the liery <iun AbdaOa, 
Whose quick impatience seia'd niy doubtful hand. 
And led me to the shore where Cati stood, 
Petsive and Hsf niiig to t&e beating aurge. 

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There, in soft hints Jotd in ambigucnu phrase. 
With all the difBdeitce of long acperieact, 
That oft had pvacti^d fiwid, and oft detected. 
The vet'ran courtier half rerul'd hli i^^ect 
By tuB cmnmand, equiini'd fbr apeedy fli^it. 
Deep in a winding cxcek a galW lin, 
Mann'd with the imvtst of our fellow-«qitiTeS| 
Selected by my care, a hardy band. 
That long to liail thee chief. 

But what avails 
So tmall a fc»oe ? or why should Call fly f 
Or how can Call's fli^t restore our country? 


Reserve these questions for a safer hour ; 
Or hear himself, for see tiie Basw cornea, 



Now summon aQ thy soul, illustrious Christian t 
Awake each facol^ that sleeps within thee. 
The courtier's policy, the sage's firmness. 
The warrior's ardour, and me patriot's seal : 
If, chasing past events with vain pursuit, 
<> wand'ring in the wilds of tiiture being, 
A single thought now rove, recall it home. 
Bat can thy friend sustain the glorious cause. 
The cause of liberty, tiie cause of nations ? 


Observe him closely with a statesman's eye. 
Thou that hast long perus'd the draughts of Nature, 
And know'et the characters of vice and virtue,. 
Left by the hand of Heav'n on human clay. 

His mien is Ic^y, his demeanour great; 

Nor OTirightly folly wantons in his sir, 

N(ff dull serenity becalms bis eyes. 

Su^ had I trusted once as 'ooon as seen. 

But cautious age suspects the flatf ring farm, ■ 


And only Cfedhs what experi^ice telle.' 
Has silence preas'd her seal upon his lips ? 
Does adamantine faith invett nis heart P 
Will he not bend beneath a hrant's frown ? 
Will he not melt before ambition's foe ? 
Will he not soften in a friend's embntce ? 
Or flow dissobring in a woman's tears? 

Sooner the trembling leaves shall find a vcMce, 
And tell the' secrets of their conscious walks ; 
Sooner the breeze ttliall 'catch the fl^ng sounds, 
And shock tlie tyrant with a tale of treasMi. 
Your slaughter'd multitudes, that swell the shore 
With njonumenta of death, -[HUclaim his courage; 
Virtue and liberty engross his soul. 
And leave no place for perfidy or fear. 

I scorn a trust unwillingly repos'd ; 
Demetrius will not lead me to dishonour; 
Consult in {nrivate, call me when your scheme 
Is ripe for action, and demands the sword. {^Gc/. 


Leontius, stay. 

Ftwgive an old man's weakness. 
And share the deepest secrets of my soul. 
My wrongs, my fears, my motives, my designs, — 
Wnen unsuccessful wars, and civil factions, 
Embroil'd the Turkish state, our Sultan's fath^. 
Great Amurath, a^ my request, forsook 
The cloister's east, reaum'd the tott'ring throne. 
And snatch'd the reins of abdicated pow'r 
From giddy Mahomet's unskilful hand. 
This fo'd the youtliful king's ambitious breasts 
He murmurs vengeance at the name of Call, 
And dooms my rash fidelity to ruin. 


Unhappy lot of all that shine in courts. 
For forc'd compliance, or for zealous virtue. 
Still odious to the monarch or the people. 

Such are the woes when arbitnry pow'r. 

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And lawless pasflion, hold tbe sword of jastice. 

If there be any land, as fiune reports. 

Where common laws restrain the prince and subject 

A happy land, where eirculatuiff pow'r 

Flows Uirough each member ofth' embodied state; 

Stire, not unconscious of the mi^^ bkssiii^. 

Her K'Bteful sons shine bri^t with every virtae; 

Untainted with the lust of umovation. 

Sure all unite to hold her league of rule 

Unbroken as the sacred chain of nature. 

That links the jarring elements in peace. 


Bat say, ^teat Bassa, why the Sultan's anser. 
Burning in vain, delays Uie stroke of deam i 

Young, and unsettled in his fiither*s kingdonii^ 

Fierce as he was, he dreaded to destroy 

The empire's darling, and the st^dier's boast ; 

But now conGrm'd, and swelling with his conquesCt7~- 

Secure he tramples my declining fame. 

Frowns unrestrain'd, and dooms me with his eyea. 


What can reverse thy doom? 


The grant's death. 


But Greece is still tbrgot 

On Asia's coast. 
Which lately bless'd my gentle government 
Soon as tbe Sultan's unexpected fate 
Fills all th' BStonisfa'd empire with confusion. 
My polity shall raise an easy throne ; 
The Turkish pow'rs &om Europe shall retreat. 
And harass Greece no more wita wasteful war, 
A gallejr mann'd with Greeks, thy charge, Leontiiis, 
Attends to weA us to r^xne and safety. 


That vessel, if obserVd, alarms the cour^ 
And gives a thousand. &tal questions birUi; 
Wbjr ■tor'd for flight? and why prepar'd l^ Calir 

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This hour 111 beg, with unsuspecdiig face. 
Leave to perform my pilgrimage to Mecca: 
Which granted, hides my purpose trom the wTOld» 
And, though refus'd, conceals it &om the Sultan. 


How can a Bingle hand attempt a life 
Which armies guard, and citadels endoHe f 

Forgetful of command, with captive beauties. 
Far &om his troops, he toys his hours away. 
A roving soldier seiz'd, in Sophia's temple, 
A virgin shining with distingiiiah'd charms. 
And brought his beauteous plund« to the Sultan. 


In Sophia's temple '—What alarm !— Pwceed. 

The Sidtaa^aa'^, iwwOnder'd, and he lov'd: 

-ilrfassion lost, he bade the conqii'ring fair 

Renounce her faith, and be the Queen of Turkey. 
The pious maid, with modest indignation. 
Threw back the glitt'ring bribe. 

Celestial goodness I 
It muat, it must be she ; her name ? 

What hopes, -what terrors, rush upon my soul 1 
O lead me quickly to the scene of fate; 
Break through the politician's tedious fiwms ; 
Aspasia calla me, let me fly to Kave her. 


Did MahCTaet reproach or praise her virtue? 

His c^ers oft repeated, still refiis'd. 

At length rekindled his accustom'd fiiry. 

And Chang**! th' endearing smile and am'rous whisper 

To threats <^ torture, death, and violation, 


These tedious nuraUves of frozen age 
Diatract my soul ; dispatch thy ling'ring tale ; 

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. r 

Say, did a voice from HeaVn restrain the tynatii 
Did interposing uigela guard her from him? . 

Just in the moment qf impending fate. 

Another plimd'rer brought the bright Irene; 

Of «[Ufll beauty, but of softer mien. 

Fear in her eye, submission on her tongue. 

Her mournful charms attracted his regards, 

Disann'd his rage, and in repeated visits 

Gain'd all bis heart; at length his eager love y ^ 

To her transferred the offer of a crown. * 

LEON TI us. , 

Nor found agun the bright temptation fail ? 

CALL ' '" 

Trembling to grant, nor darins to refuse. 
While Heav'n and Mahomet divide her fean. 
With c(^ caresses and with pleasing wiles 
She feeds his hopes, and sootlis him to del^. 
Fat her, repose is banish'd from the night. 
And business from the day. In her apartinenta 
He Uvea 


And there must fall, 

B14L yet th' attempt 
Is hazardous. 


Forbear to speak of hazards ; 
What has the wretch that has surviv'd his country. 
His friends, his liberty/ to hazard ? 




Th' inestimable privilege of breathing 1 

Imp ortant hazard ! Whaf s that airy bubble. 

When weigh'd with Greece, with Virtue, with Aipanaf 

A floating atom, dust that falls unheeded 

Into the adverse scale, nor shakes the balance. 

At least this day be calm — If we succeed,, 
Aspasia's thine, and all thy life is rs^ture.-^ 
Seel Mnstapha, the tyrant'g minion, comet; 

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30 IRENE ; 

InvMt LcMiliiu vith his new conamand} 
And wait AbdalU's unsuspected visito : 
Remember Fieedom, Gto^, Greece, and Lore. 

Z.Exaiiit Demetrius and Leoiitius: 



Bj what enchanbncmt does this lovely Greek 
Hold in her chains the captivated Sultan ? 
He tires his iav'rites widi Irene's praise. 
And seeks the shades to muse upon Irene; 
Irene steels unheeded from his tongue. 
And mingles unperceiv'd with ev'ry thought. 


Why should tiie Sultan shun the joys of beau^. 
Or arm his breast against the force of love ? 
. Love, that with sweet vicissitude relieves 
The warrior's laboura and the monarch's cares. 
But will she yet receive the faith of Mecca ? 

Those pow'rfiil tyrants of the female breast. 
Fear and Ambition, urge her to compliance ; 
Dress'd in ^tch charta of eay magnificence. 
Alluring grandeur courts her to his arms, 
Keligion calls her from the wish'd embrace. 
Paints future joys, and points to distant glories. 

Soon will th' unequid contest be decided. 
Prospects, obscur'd by distance, faintly strike ; 
Each pleasmv brightens at its near ajmroadi. 
And ev'ry danger shocks with double, ntrnwr. 


How shall I scorn the beautiful apostate; 
How will the briglit Aspasla shine above hn! 

Should shfij for proselytes are alwoys zealous, 
With pious warmth receive our prophef a law— - 


HeaVu wiU contemn the mercenary fervour. 
Which love of greatness, not of tmtii, influnM. 

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Ceaae, cease thy cenmires ; fiir the Sultan totaea 
Alone, vith am'roua haste to seek bis love. 


Hail ! terror of the monardu of &e world, 
Unslutken he thy throne as earth's firm hue. 
Live till the sun faivets to dart his beams. 
And weary planets loiter in their courses ! 


But, CaU, let Irene sh«re thy prayers ; 
For what is length of days without Irene f 
I come from empty noise, and tasteless pomp. 
From crowds that hide a monarch from himself. 
To prove the sweets of [Mivacy and friendship, 
Ana dweO upon the beauties of Irene. 


may her beauties last umjian^d by time. 
As those that bless the mansiotu of the good i 


Each realm whav baan^ turns the giaoefU ihapib 
Swells the fair breast, <h- Mnimirf« du ^anee. 
Adorns my palace with its brightest vir^in^; 
Yet, unacquainted with these soft emotions, 

1 walk'd Bupaior through the blaie of chaiina, 
Prsis'd without rapture, left without regret. 
Why rove I now, when absent from my fair. 
From solitude to (Zowds, frwn crowds to solitude. 
Still restless, till I clasp the lovely maid. 

And ease my loaded soul upon her bosom f 


Forgive, great Sultan, that intrusive duty 
Enquires the final doom of Uenod(»us, 
The Greoan coims^tn". 

Go see him die ; 
His martial rhet^ridt taught the Greeks resistance ; 
Had they prevaQ'di I tufat had known Irenei 

rExit Mustapha. 
Vofc J, E 1- 1^ 

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36 IRENE ; 




Remote from tumult, in th' adjoining palace. 
Thy care ^lall guard this treasure of my bouI; 
Tbere let Aspasia, since my Fair entreats it. 
With converse chase the melancholy moments. ■ 
Sure, chill'd with sixty winter camps, thy blootl 
At sight of female charms wiU glow no more. 

These years, unconquer'd Mahomet, demand 
Desires more pure, and other cares than Love, 
Long have I wish'd, before our prophet's tomb. 
To pour ray pray'rs.for thy successful reign. 
To quit tlie tmnults of the noisy camp, 
Atid sink into the silent grave in peace. 

What ! think of peace while haughty Scanderbeg, 
Elate with conquest, in his native mountains. 
Prowls o'er the wealthy spoils of bleeding Turkey ! 
While fair Hungaria's unexhausted valleys 
Pour forth their legions, and the roaring Danube 
Bolls half his floods unheard througli shouting camps ! 
Nor could 'st thou more support a life of sloth 
Than Amurath — 


Still fuU of Amurath ! l^Asitk. 


Than Amurath, accustom'd to command, 
Could bear his son upon the Turkish throne. 


This pilgrimage our lawgiver ordain'd — 


For those who could not please by nobler service. — 
Our warlike Prophet loves an active faith. 
The holy flame of enterprising virtue. 
Mocks the didl vows of solitude and penance. 
And scorns the lazy hermife cheap devotion. 
Shine thou, dlstinguish'd by superior merit, 
With wtmted zeal pursue the task of war. 

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^ai ev'ry nation reverence the Koran, 
And ev'ry suppliant lift his eyes to Mecca, 

This regal confidence, this pit>us ardour. 
Let prudence moderate, though not supprest. 
la not each reahn that smiles with kinder sunt. 

Or boasts a happier soil, alre^idy thine ? 
Extended empire, like expanded gold. 
Exchanges solid strength for feeble splendour. 

Preach thy cluU politicks to vulgar kings. 
Thou knoVst not yet thy mast^« future greatness, 
His vast designs, his pl^s of boundless pow'r. 
When eVry storm in my domain shall roar. 
When ev'ry wave shall beat a Turkish shore ; 
Then, Call, shall the toils of battle cease. 
Then dream of pray*r, and pilgrimage, and peace. 


AsrASiA, yet pursue the sacred theme-; 
Exhaust the stores of pious eloquence. 
And teach me to re^l the Sultan's passion. 
Still at Aspasja's voice a sudden rapture 
Exalts my soul, and fortifies my heart. 
The glitt'ring vanities of empty greatness. 
The hopes and fears, the joys and pains of life. 
Dissolve in air, and vanish into nothing, 


- Let nobler hopes and justcr fears succeed. 
And bar the passes of Irene's mind 
Against returning guilt 


When thou art absent. 
Death rises to my view, with all his terrors j 
Then visions, horrid as a murd'rer's dreams, 


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Chill Dn resolvea, and blast my blocnrnns virtue : 
Stem Torture ahakea bis bloody scourge before me. 
And Anguish gnashes on the mtal wheel. ' 


Since fear predominates in ev'ry thousht. 
And sways thy breast with absolute dominion. 
Think on th' insulting scorn, tlie conscious pangs, 
The future mia'ries that wait th' testate ; 
So shall Timidity assist Uiy reason. 
And wisdom into virtue turn thy frailty. 


Will not that PoWr that form'd ihe heart of woma«, 
And wove the feeble texture of her -nerves. 
Forgive those fears that shake the tender frame ? 

The weakness we lament, ourselves create; 
InstTucted &om our iofitnt years to court. 
With counterfeited fears, the aid of man. 
We learn to shudder at the rustling breeze. 
Start at the light, and tremble in ue dark ; 
Till, affectation ripening to belief. 
And Folly frightnl at her own chimeras. 
Habitual cowardice usurps the souL 

Vot all like tJiee can brave th« shocks of fate. 
Thy soul, by nature great, enlarg'd by knowledge. 
Soars unincumber'd with our idle cares. 
And all Aapasia, but her beauty, 's man. 


Each generous sentiment is thine, Demetrius, 
Whose soul, perhaps, yet mindful of Aspasia, 
Now hovers o'er this melanchtJy shade. 
Well pleas'd to find thy prect^ts not f<«gotten. 
1 could the grave restore the pious hero. 
Soon would his art or valour set us free. 
And bear us far from servitude and crimes. 


He yet aacy live. 


Alas! delusive dream'!' 
Too veil I know him ,- his immodnate couragci 
Th' impetuous sallies gf excessive virtue^ 

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Too strong for \oYe, have hurri^ bim on doth. 

CALI lO ABDALLA, (U thtg Odvoncf. 

Behold our future SulUnesa, Abdalta ;— 
Let artful fiatt'ry now, to lull suspicion. 
Glide through Irene to the Sultan's ear. 
Would'st thou subdue th' obdurate cannibal 
To tender friendship, praise him to hie mistress. 

t view these heav'nly char 
Reject the daughters of contending kings ; 
For what are pompous titles, proud alliance. 
Empire or wealth, to excellence Lke thine ? 


Receive th' unpatient Sultan to thy arms ; 
And may a long posterity of monardis. 
The pride and terror <rf succeeding days. 
Rise tVom the hap]^ bed ; and fuf^ire aueeiu 
Difiiise Irene's beauty through iJie world ! 


Can Mahomet's imperial hand descend 
To clasp a slave ? ex can a soul like mine, 
Unus'd to pow'r, and K»m'd for humbler scenes, 
Si^port the splendid miseries of greatness } 

No regal pageant deck'd widi casual honours, 
Scom'd by his subjects, trampled by his foes. 
No feeble tyrant of a petty state. 
Courts thee to shake on a dependant throne ; 
Bom to command, as thou to charm mankind. 
The Sultan from himself derives his greatness. 
Observe, bright maid, as his resistless voice 
Drives on the tempest of destructive war. 
How nation after nation &l]s before him. 


At his dre^d name the distant madntains shake 
Their cloudy sommits, and the sons of fierceness, 
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That range uncivilized firom rodi to rock. 

Distrust th' eternal fortreaaea of Nature, 
And viish their gloomy caverns more obscure. 

Forbear thii lavish pomp of dreadful praise ; 
The h<nnd images of war and slaughter 
Renew our aorrowe, and awake our fears. 


Cali, methinks yon waving trees aSord 
A doubtfid gUmpse of our approat^ing friends ; 
Just as I mark'd them they forsocA the shore. 
And tum'd their hasty st^s towards the garden. 

C<mduct these queens, Abdalla, to the palace : 
Such heav'nlv beauty, form'd for adoration. 
The pride of monarchs, the reward of conquests I 
Such beauty must not shine to vulgar eyes. 


How Heav'n, in scorn of human arrognnce, 
Commjta to trivial chance the fate of nations ! , 
While with incessanUhought labmious man 
Extends his miffhty sdtemes of we«lth Mid powV, 
And towers and tnumphs in ideal greatness ; 
Some accidental gust of opposition 
Blasts all the beauties of his new creation, 
O'ertuTBS the fabrick of presumptuous reason. 
And whelmS'the swelling architect beneath it 
Had not the breeze untwin'd the meeting bou^s. 
And through the parted shade di»cloe'd (lie Greeks, 
Th' imporbmt hour had pass'd unheeded by, 
In all lie sweet oblivion of delight, 
In all the fbpperies of meeting lovera ; 
In sighs and tern, m transports and onbracea. 
In B«3t cMuplsints, uid idf^ prolestaticHis. 



Could omena fright the resolute and wise. 
Well mi^t we fear impentSng disappointments. 



Your tftful suit, your miniArch'a fierce doual. 
The cruel doom of iMplesa Menodwi u . i 


And your new charge, that dear, that hMvUy 

All this we know already ftom Abdolhu 


Such slight defeats but animate the brave 
To stronger efibrts and maturer counsels. 


My doom confinn'd, establishes vty purpose. 
Calmly he heard till Amuivth's resumpttim 
Rose to his thought, and set his soul on fire ; 
When from his lips the fatal name burst out, 
A sudden pause m imperfect sense suspendod. 
Like the dread stillness of condensing stonns. 


The loudest tries of Nature urge us fbrward ; 
Despotic rage pursues the life of CaU j 
His groaning coimtry claims Leontius' aid; 
And yet another voice, forgive me, Greece, 
The pow'rful voice of Love iodames Dcmetr 
Each ling'ring hour alarms me for Asparia. 


Wbat passions i<ngn among thy crew, Leontiiuf 
Does cheerless diffidence oj^ress their hearts? 
Or ^ightlpr hope exalt thmr kindlinK spirits? 
Do they with pain repress die atmc^jng ibont. 
And listen eager to the rising wind? 


All there is hope, and gaiety, and courage. 
No clondy doubte, or.langiushing delays; 
Ere I comd range diem on the crowded deck. 
At once an hundved voices thunder'd round me. 
And eVry voice iraa Liberty md Greece. 


Swifl let us rush upon the careless tyrant. 
Nor give him leisare tar snotiier crime. 


Then let us now resolve, nor idly watte 
AnothfT hour 111 didl ddi))»«titm. 

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But Bee, wheie, destm'd to protract our counsel;). 
Comes Must^pha. — Your Turkish robes conceal yotu 
Retire with speed, while I prepare to meet him 
With artificial smiles, and seeming friendship, 



I see the gloofa tliat lojw'rs upon thy brow ; 
These days of love and pleasure charm not thee ; 
Too alow these gentle constellations roll : 
Thou long'st for stars diat frown on human kind. 
And scatter discord from tlieir b^^ul beams. 


How blest art thou, still jocund and serene. 
Beneath the load <£ business, and of years ! 


Sure, by some wond'rous sympathy of souls. 
My heart still beats responsive to the Sultan's ; 
I share, by secret instinct, all his joys. 
And feel no sorrow while my sov'reign smilefc 

The Sultan comes, impatient for his love ; 
Conduct her hither : I«t no rude intrusion 
Molest these private walks, or care invade 
These hours assign'd to Pleasure and Irene. 



Now, Mustapha, pursue thy tale of horror. 
Has treason's dire infection reach'd my palace? 
Can Call dare the stroke of heav'nly justice - 
In the dark precincts of the gaping grave. 
And load with perjuries his parting soulf 
Was it for this, that, sick'ning in Epirus, ,,,, . 
My lather call'd me to his couch of death, 

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A nuaiDT. i 

Joiii'd Call's band to mine, and fiJt'ring ary'd, 
Beatnin the fervour of impetuoiu youtn 
With ven^Ule Call's faithful counteU? 
Are thcM the counsela, this the faith of Cali? 
Were all our &vourB lavish'd mi a villain? 
Confestf— ~- 


Ccmfefit by dying Meoodonu. 
In his laM agwiies the gasping coward. 
Amidst the twtures of the bimune steel. 
Still fond of life, groan'd out the dreadful secret. 
Held forth this &tal scroll, th«i sank to nothing. 

HAHOMBTj ecomtnn^ ike Paper. 
Mb correqiondence with our foes cS Greece 1 
His hand! his seal! The secretsofnty sool 
Conceal'd fknn all but him ! All, all conspire 
To banish doubt, and brand him for a villain I 
Our schemes for ever cnws'd, our minds discover'dj 
Betray'd some traitor luricing near my bosom. ' 
OSt have I rag'd, when their wide-wasting cannon 
Liy pointed at our batt'ries yet nnform'd. 
And broke the meditated lines of war. 
Detested Cali too, with artful wonder. 
Would shake his wily head, and doe^ wfaii^OTf 
Beware of Mustspha, beware of treason. 


The fJuth of Mustapha disdains suspicion ; 
But yet, ^reat Empercv, beware of treason ; 
Th' maidious Bassa, fir'd by dis^ipointtnei^— 

9udl feel the venoeance oS an injur'd king. 
Go, seize faim, load him with reproachful chains ; 
Before the assembled tnx^ proeUim his crimce ; 
Then leave htm stretcb'd upon the Ung'ring rack. 
Amidst the camp to howl Ins life away. 


Should we befc«e the troops proclaim his crtnies, 
I dread his arts of seemin^f mnocence, ' 
His btand address, and sorcery of tongue ; 
And, should he f^ unheard by sudden justice, 
Th' adoring soldiers would revnige their idol. 



Cdi, this day, with hypocritic zeal, 
Implor'd my leave to visit Mecca's temple; 
Struck with the wonder of a statesman's gbodnes?, 
I rais'd his thoughts to more sublime devotion. 
Now let him go, pursu'd by silent wrath. 
Meet unexpected daggers in his way. 
And in some distant knd obscm-ely die. 


There wiH his boundless wealth, the spoil of Asia, 
Heap'd by your father's ill-plac'd bounties on him, 
Di^terae rebellion through the Eastern world; 
Bribe to his cause, and list beneath his banners, 
Arabia's roving troops, the sons of swiftness. 
And arm the Persian heretick against thee ; 
There shall he waste thy frontiers, check thy conquests. 
And, though at length subdu'd, elude thy vengeance. 


Etude my vengeance ! No — My troops shall range 
Th' eternal snows that freeze beyond Msotis, 
And Africk's ton-id sands, in search of Cali, 
Should the fierce North upon his frozen wings 
Bear Mm almost above the wond'ring clouds. 
And seat him in the Pleiads' golden chariots. 
Thence shall my fury drag him down to torturflg: 
Wherever guilt can fly, revenge can follow. 


Wflt thou dismiss the savage from the toilsj 
Only to hunt him round the ravag'd world ? 

Suspend his sentence — Enmire and Irene 
Clami my divided soul. Inis wretch, unworthy 
To mix with nobler cares, I'll throw aside 
For idle hours, and crush him at my leisure. 


Let not th' unbounded greatness of his mind 
Betray my king to negligence of danger. 
Perhaps uie clouds of dark cqnspiracy 
Now roll full fraught with thunder o'er your head. 
Twice since the morning rose 1 saw the Bassa, 
Like a fell adder swelling in a brake, 
Beneath the covert of this verdant arch 
In private conference ; beside him stood 

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Two men unknopn, the partners of his bosom ; 
I nutflc'd them well, and trac'd in either face- 
The gloomy resolution, horrid greatness. 
And stem composure, of despairing heroes; 
And, to confirm ray thoughts, at sight of nu^ 
As blasted by my presence, they withdrew 
With all the speed of terror and of guilt. 

The tfnmg emotions of my troubled soul 
Allow no pause for art or for contrivance ; 
And dark perplexity distracts my couDsels. 
Do thou resolve r for see Irene ccmes ! 
At her approach each ruder gust of thought 
Sinks like the dghing of a tempest spent, 
And gales of sottJer passion fan my bosom. 

[^Cali enter* with Ireoe^md exit mih Muatafibti. 



Wilt thou descend, fair dau^ter c^ perfection. 

To hear my vows, and give mankind a queen ? 

Ah ! cease, Irene, cease those flowing sorrows, ' 

That melt a heart impregnable till n 

And turn thy Noughts henceforth U 

How will the matchless beauties of ] 

Thus bright in tears, thus amiable in ruin, 

With all the graceful pride of greatness heighten'^, 

Amidst the blaze of jewels and of gold. 

Adorn a throne, and dignify dominion I 


Why all this glare of mlendid eloquence. 
To paint the pageantries of guilty state ? 
Must I for these renounce the hope of Heav'n, 
Immortal crowns, and fulness of enjoyment ? 

Vain raptures all—For your inferior natures, 
Form'd to delight, and happy by delighting, 
Heav'n has reserv'd no future paradise, - 
But bids you rove the paths of bliss, secnrs 

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-48 iubne; 

Of total death, and careless of hereafter; 
While Heaven's high minister, whose awful volume 
Recm^ each act, each thought of soVreign man. 
Surveys your plays with inattentive elance. 
And leaves the lovely trifler unregarded. 

Why then has Nature's vain munificence 

Pnrfusely pour'd her hounties upon woman? 

Whence then those charms th^ tonsue has deign'd to 

That air resiatlos, and enchanting blu^, [[flatter. 

Unless the beauteous fabrick was design'd 

A habitation for a £urer soul!* 


Too high, bri^t maid, thou rat'st exterior grace : 

Not always do the fairest flow'rg diffuse 

The richest odours, nor the speckled shells 

Conceal the gem ; let female arrogance 

Observe the feather'd wand'rers (f the sky; 

With purple varied and bedropp'd with gold. 

They prune the wing, and e^ead the glossy plumes, 

Ordain'd, like you, to flutter and to ahuie. 

And cheer the weary passenger with musick. 

Mean as we are, Uiis tyrant of the worid 
Implores our smiles, uid trenables at our feet 
Whence flow the hopes and fears, despair and rapturq. 
Whence all the bliss and agonies of love ? 


Why, when the balm of sleep descends on man. 
Do gay delusiwis, wand'ring o'er the brain, li' 
SooOt the delighted soul wiUi empty bliet t 
To want give afBuence f and to siav'rjr tireedoia ?- 
Such are love's joys, the lenitives of hfe, 
A fimcy'd treasure and a waking dream. 

Then let me tmce, in huiour of our a^. 

Assume the boastful arrogance of man. 

Th' attractive softness, and th' endearing smil^ 

And pow^ful gjance, 'tis granted ar« our own ; 

Nor has imp^rrial NatuTc's frugal huid 

Exhausted all her nobler gifts en you. 

Do not we wbaie tbe com|»rdietisiTC thoa^i% 

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Th.' enliveninft wit, the penetrating reason t 

Beal^ not the female breast with gen'ioua paasioaa, • 

The thirst of empire, and the love of glory f 

Illustrious inaid, new wonJers fix me thine. 
Thy soul ctnnpletes the triumphs of thy face. 
1 thought (forgive, my Fair,) the noblest aim. 
The strongest effort of a female soul, 
Was but to choose the graces of the day. 
To tune the tongue, to teach the eye to roll. 
Dispose the colours of the flowing robe. 
And add new roses tO'the fadetl cheek. 
Will it not charm a mind like>thine exalted. 
To dune tiie goddess of applauding nations. 
To scatter happiness and plenty round thee. 
To bid the prostrate captive rise and live. 
To see new cities tow'r at thy command. 
And blasted iiingdoms flourish at thy smile ? 

Cbarm'd with the thought of blessing Iniman kind, 
Too calm I listen to the flstf ring sounds. 

seize the power to bless — Irene's nod 

Shall break the fetters of tbe groaning Christian ; 

Greece, in her lovely patroness secure, 

fSiall mourn no more Der plunder'd palaces. 


Forbear — O do not urge me 'to tny ruin! 


To state and pow'r I court thee, not to min : 
Smile on my wishes, and command the globe. 
Security ^uU spread her t^ield before thee, 
And Love infold thee with his downy wings. 
If greatness please thee, mount th' imperial seat; 
If pleasure chartfi thee, yieW this soft retreat; 
Here ev'ry waAler of the sky ahalT-sing ; 
Here ev'ry fragranf e breathe of ev'ry spring : 
To deck these bow'rs each region shall combine^ 
And e'en our Prophet's gardens envy thine: 
Empire and love ^udl share the blissful day. 
And varied life steal unperceiv'd aWay. 

Vol I. F 




H^Cali e^tn niUh a diteonietUed Air; lo him enler* 

Is this the fierce con^irator, Abdalla ? 
Is this the restleBB diligence of tressoQ ? 
Where hast thou linger'd while th' incumber'il ho 
Fly lab'ring with the fate of future nations. 
And hungry slaughter scents imperial blood ? 


Important cares detain'd me from your counjselsi 

A weeping wife, perhaps, or dying friend, 
Hun^ on ^our neck, and hinder'd your departure. 
Is this a tmie for stmness or for sorrow i 
Unprofitable, peaceful, female virtues ! 
When eager vengeance shews a naked foe. 
And kind ambition points the way to greatness. 

Must then ambition's votaries infi^inge 

The laws of kindness, break the bonds of nature 

And quit .the names of brother, friend, sod father? 


This sov'reign passion, scornful of restraint. 
E'en from the birth aSects supreme command. 
Swells in the breast, and with resistless force 
O'erbears each gentler motion of the yninil 
Ab when a deluge overspreads the plains. 
The wand'ring rivulet, and silver lake, , 
Mix nndistinguish'd in the gen'ral roar. 

Yet can ambition in Abdalla's breast 

daiu but the second place : there mighty LoT« 

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titu fix'd his hopes, inquiettules, and feara, 
Hb glowing wiuiea, and his jealcnu pangs. 

Love is mdeed the privilege of youth ; 
Yet on a day like this, when expectation 
Pants for the dread event— But let us reason — 


Hut thou grown (Ad amidst the crowd of courts. 
And tiuti'd th' instructive page of human life. 
To cant, at last, of reason to a lover f 
Such ill-tim'd eravity, such serious folly. 
Might well befit the solitary student, 
Tb' unpractis'd dervise, cw sequeater'd faquir. 
Know'at Uwu not yet, when Love invades the soul. 
That all her &culties receive his chains P 
That Reason gives her sceptre to faia hand. 
Or only struggles to be more eiislav'd i 
Aniasia, who can look upon thy beauties? 
Who hear thee speak, and not abandon reason ? 
Season ! the hoary dotard's dull directress. 
That loses all because she hazards nothing ! 
Reason ! the tim'roua pilot, that, to shun 
Thcrocksof life, for ever flies the port! 


Bat why this sudden warmth ? 


Because I lore : 
Because my slighted passion bums in vain I 
Why roars the lioness distress'd by hiingnf 
Why foams the swelling wave when tempests rise f 
Why shakes die ground when subterraneous fires 
Fierce throi^h the bursting caverns rend their way ? 

Not till this day thou saw'st this fatal fair ; 
Did ever-passicm ntake so swift a progress f 
Once more rdiect, stqrpress this infant folly. 


Gross fires, enkindled by a mortal hand, 
^read 1^ degrees, and dread th' oppressing stream : 
7116 subtler flames emitted from the sky 
Flash out at cmce, with strength above resistance, 
F 3 

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How did A epaaia welcome your addres»^ 
Did you proclaim this unexpected conquest? 
Or pay with speaking eyes a lover's homage? 


Confounded, aw'd> and lost in admiration, 

I ffaz'd, 1 trembled ; but I could not spcal^: 

When e'en as love was breaking ofTfrom wonder^ 

And tei^dcr Accents quiver'd on my lipa. 

She mark'd my sparklinjr eyes, and heaving breast^ 

And Bmiliitg, conscious of her charms, withdrew. 

^Enter Demetrius and Leontiust 

Now be some raoments master of thyself i 
Nor let Demetrius know thee for a ri?al. 
Hence I or be calm — To disagree is ruin. 

o*Li, DEMHTnirs, LEoxTtrs, 

When will occasion smile upon oiu- wishes. 

And give the tortures of susj»ense a period i 

Still must we linger in uncertain hope? 

Still languish in our chains, and dream of freedom. 

Like thirsty sailors gazing on the clouds. 

Till burning death shoots through their wither'd limbs ? 

Deliverance is at hand ; for Turkey's tyrant. 
Sunk in his pleasures, confident and gay. 
With all the liero's dull security. 
Trusts to my care his mistress and his life. 
And laughs and wantons in the jaws of death. 

So weak is man when destin'd to destruction I— 
The watcliful slumber, and the crafty trust 

At my command yon iron gates unfold ; 
At my command the sentinels retire ; 
With all tlie licence of authority, 
, Through bowing slaves, I range the privateTooiWj 
And ctf to-morrow'a action fixttie sc«ne. 

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To-moFFOw's action ! Can that hoary wisdom, 
fiom down with years, still doat upon to-morrow ! 
That fatal nuAtress of the youti^, the lazy. 
The coward, and the fool, condemn'd to lose 
An useless life ia waiting for to-morrow. 
To gaze with longins eyes upon to-morrow. 
Till interposing death destroys the prospect ! 
Strange ! th^ this gen'ral fraud from day to day 
Should fill the world with wretches undetected. 
The soldier, lab 'ring through a winter's march. 
Still sees to-morrow drest in robes of trimnph ; 
Still to the.lover's long-^expecting Hrms 
To-morrow briiu^ the visionary bride. 
But thou, too old to bear anothf? cheat. 
Learn, dmt the present hour alone is man's. 

The present hour with open anus invites ; 
Seise tlie kind fair, and press her to thy bosom. 


Who knows, ere this important mtNTOW rise. 
But fear or rantiny niay taint the Greeks f 
Who knows, if Mahomef ■ awaking anger 
Hay spare the fatal bow-string tilt to morrow? 


Had our first Asian foes but known this ardour. 
We still had wander'd on Tartarian hills. 
Bouse, Cali ; shaU the sons of conque^d Greece 
Lead us to danger, and abash their victors P 
This night with all her conscious stars be witness, 
Who merits most, Demetrius or Abdalla. 

W6o merits most ! — I knew not we were rivals. 

Young man, forbear — the heat of youth. 
Well, — 'tis decreed — This night snail fix our laie. 
Soon as the veil of evening clouds the sky. 
With cautious secrecy, Leontius, steer 
Th' appointed vessel to yon shaded baj', 
Form'd by this garden jutting on the deep ; 
There, with your soldiers arm'd, and sails expanded. 
Await OUT coming, equally pret^d 
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For speedy flight, or obstinate defence. 

QExit LewitiiM. 

Now pause, great Bassa, from the UionghtB of blood. 

And Kindly gmnt an ear to gentler sounds. 

If e'er thy vouth ha§ known the pangs ofabsenee. 

Or felt th" impatience of obBtructtd love. 

Give me, before th' approaching hour of &te> 

Once to behold the charms of bright Aspaiia, 

And draw new virtue from her heav'nly tongitft 

Let prudence, ere the suit be farther urg'd. 
Impartial weigh the pleasure with the danger. 
A little longer, and she's thine for ever. 


Prudence and love conspire in this request. 
Lest, unacquainted with our bold attempt. 
Surprise o'erwhelm her, and retard our flight 


What I can grant, you cannot ask in vain — 


I go to wait thy call ; this kind consent 

Completes the gift offreedqm and of life. nfaiVDam., 



And this is my reward — to bum, to Aguish, 

To rave unheeded ; while the happy Greek, 

The refuse of our swords, the dross of conquest, 

T^ro^rs his fond arms about Aspasia's neck. 

Dwells on her tips, and sighs upon her breast. 

Is't not enough he lives by our indulgence, < 

But he must live to make bis mastars wretehed? 

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WhsC claim haet ihou to ple&d f 


The claim of pow'r. 
The unquestton'd claim of conquerors and kings! 

Yrt in the use of ^w'r remember justice. 


Can then th' aasassin liit his treach'roua hand 
Against his king, and cry, remember jmtice f 
Justice demands the forfeit life of Cali ; 
Justice demands that I reveal your crimes ; 
Justice demands — but see th' approaching Sultan t 
Oppose my wishes, and — rememBer justice. 


Disorder sita upon thy face — ^retire. 

Cfjti Abdalla, enter Mahomet. 


Long' be the Sullan bless'd with happy love ! 
My zeal marks gladness dawning en thy cheek. 
With raptures such as fire the Pagan crowds. 
When, pale and e^xioug for thei* years to come. 
They see the sun surmount the dark eclipse. 
And hall imanimoua their conqu'ring god. 


My vows, 'tis true, she hears with less aversion ; 
Slie sighs, ehe blushes, but she still denies. 


With warmer courtship press the yielding fair ; 
Call to your aid, with noundless promises. 
Each rebel wish, each traitor inclination. 
That raises tumults in the female breast. 
The love of pow'r, of {deasure, and <^show. 


These arts I try'd, and, to inflame her more. 
By hateful business hurried ftom her si^t, 
1 bade a hundred virgins wait areund her. 

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Sooth her with all the pleasnreB of command. 
Applaud her charms, and comt her to be great. 

\lExit Mahomet. 


CALI, lolaf. 

He's gone — Here rest, my soul, thy feintiag win^. 
Here recollect thy diaaipBted pow'rs — — 
Our distaAt int'rests, and our difi'rent passions. 
Now haste to mingle in one common centre. 
And fate lies crowded in a narrow space. 
Yet in that n^row space what dangers iise!-»- 
Far more I dread Abdalla'e fiery ftffly. 
Than all the wisdom of the grave divan. 
Beason with reason fights on equcl terma; 
The raging madman's unconnected schemes 
We cannot obviate, for we cannot guess. 
Deep in my breast be treasur'd this resolve, 
When Call mounts the throne, Abdalla dies. 
Too fiercs, too faithless, for neglect or trust. 

^Enler Irene tuUh Attendant. 



Amidst the s[J«ndour of etMnrcling beauty, 
Superior minesty proclaims thee queen. 
And nature justafies our monarch's choice. 


Reserve ihia homage for scane other fair ; 
Urge me not on to ^htf rin^ p^% lor pour 
In my weak ear ih' tntoxicatmg sounds. 

Make haste, bright maid, to rule the wilUi^ world ; 
Aw'd by the rigour of the Suhan's justice. 
We court thy gentleness- 

Can Call's voice 
Concur to press a lu^pless ci^t^s ruin ? 

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Lcmg would my zeal for Mahomet and thee 
Detsin me here. But nations call upon me, 
And duty bida me choose a distant waDf, 
Xor taint with care the privacies of love. 


iKENB, AsrABU, AttetulanU. 


If yet this shiuinff pomp.lhew sudden honourt. 
Swell not thy soul beyond advice or triendsbip. 
Nor yet inspire the follies of a queen. 
Or tune thine ear to soothing adulation. 
Suspend awhile the privilege of pow'r. 
To hear the voice of Truth; dismiss thy train. 
Shake off tb' incuHibrances of state a moment. 
And lay the tow'ring sultaness aside, 

[^Irene sigiu to her atundanlt to retire. 
^\'hjle I foretell thy fate; that office done,— 
No more I boast th' ambitious name of friend. 
But sink among thy slaves "without a murmur, 


Did tegai diadems iavest my brow. 

Yet should my soul, still faithful to her diolce. 

Esteem Aspasia's breast the noblest kingdom. 

The soul, once tainted with so foul a crime, ' 

No more shall glow with frienclfihip's halloVd ardour : 

Those holy Beings, whose superitn* care 

Guides erring mortals to the paUis of viartue, 

AflVighted at impiety like thine. 

Resign their charge to baseness and to ruin. 


Upbraid me not with fancied wickedness ; 

I am not yet a qneen or an apostate. 

But should I sin beyond the hope of me^. 

If, when religion prompts me to refuse. 

The dread of instant death restrains my tongue ^ 


Iteflect that life and death, bSeqting souodl I 

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58 naxE; 

Are only varied modes of endless being ; 
Reflect that life, like ev'ry other 'blessing. 
Derives its value from its use alone ; 
Not fbr itself, but for a nobler end, 
Th' Ktemal gave it, and that end is viitnA. 
When inconsistent wit^ a greater good, 
Beason comnuuids to cast the less away ; 
Thus life, with loss of wealth is well preserv'd. 
And virtue cheaply saVd with loss oflife. 


If built on settled thought, this constancy 
Not idly flatters on a boastful tongue. 
Why, when destruction rag'd around our walls. 
Why fled this haughty herc»ne from the battleP 
Why then did not this warlike Amazon 
Mix in the war, and shine among the heroes f 

Heav'n, when its hand pour'd softness on our limbs^ 
Unfit for toil, and polish'd into weakness, 
Made passive fortitude the praise of woman ; 
Our only anns are innocence and meekness. 
Not then with raving cries I fill'd the dty ; 
But, while Demetrius, dear lamented name ! 
Pour'd storms of 6te upon our fierce invaders, 
ImpWd th'Etemal Pow'r » shield my country. 
With silent sorrows, and with calm devotion. 

O ! did Irene shine the queen of Turkey, 

Mo mwe should Greece lament those nray'rs rqected; 

Again should golden spdendour grace ner cities. 

Again her prostrate paiacea should rise. 

Again her temples sound with holy musick : 

No more should danger fright, or want distress 

The smiling widows, and protected orphans. 


Be virtuous ends purau'd by virtuous means, 
NfO' think th' intention sanctifies the deed: 
That masim, nublidi'd in an impious age. 
Would loose tne wild enthusiast to destooy. 
And fix the fierce usurper's bloody title ; 
Then Bigotry might said her slaves to war. 
And bid success become the test of truth : 

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Unpitying nuusacre nii^t waste die wihM, 
Ai^ persecation boost Uie call of Heav'D. 

SluJl [ not wish to cbeer afflicted kings. 

And plan the happiness of mourning milliong } 


Dreaoi not of pow'r diou never catiit attain : 
When sodol laws first harmonix'd the worid, 
Superior nun posBea'd the charge of rule. 
The scale of jnstioe, and the swm^ <»f power. 
Nor left us aught but flattery and state. 

To memy lover's fondneis will restore 
Wbate'^ man's pride has ravish'd from, our aes~ 


When soft security abalt prompt the Sultan, 
Freed from the tumults of unsettled conquest. 
To fix bis court, and regulate his pleasures. 
Soon shall the dire seraglio's homd gates 
Qose like th' eternal bars of death upon thee. 
Imm.ur'd, and buried in perpetual sloth. 
That gloomy slumber of the staenant soul. 
There shalt thou view from far the quiet cottage. 
And sigh for che^^ul poverty in vain ; 
There wear tlie tedious hours of life away. 
Beneath each curse of unrelenting Heav'n, 
Despair and slav'ry, solitude and gnih. 


There shall we find the yet untasted bliss 
Of grandeur and tranqmUi^ combin'd. 

Tranquillity and guilt, dis}oin'd by Heaven, 
Still stretch in vain their longing arms a&r; 
Nor dare to pass th' insuperable bound. 
Ah ! let me rather seek the convent's cell ; 
11i(Te when my thoughts, at interval ofprgy't, 
Descend to range these mansions of minbrbio^ 
Oft shall I dweU on our disastrous ftiendahip. 
And shed the pitying tear for lost Irene. 

Goj languish on in dull obecurily ; 

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Thy duzled (oul, widi aU its boasted greatac**. 
Shrinks at th' o'erpow'ring gleams of regal state. 
Stoops from the bWe like a degenerate eagle. 
And flies for shelter to the shades of life. 


On me should Providence, without a crime. 

The weighty charge of royalty confer'; 

Call me to civilise the Russian wilils, 

Or bid sofl; science polish Britain's heroes : 

Soon should'st thou see, how fidse thy weak r^roai^. 

My bosom feels, enkindled from the sky. 

The lambent flfUnes of mild benevolence, 

Untouch'd by fierce ambition's raging fires. 


AmHtion is the stamp impress'd by Heav'n 
To mark the noblest minds; with active heat 
Inform'd, they mount the precipice of powY, 
Grasp at command, and tow'r in quest of empire; , 
While vulgar souls compassionate their cares. 
Gaze at their height, and tremble at their danger ; 
Thus meaner spirits with amaxemait mark 
The varying seasons, and revolving skies. 
And ask, KhaX guilty Pow'r's rebellious hand 
■ Rolls with eternal tod the pond'rous orbs ; 
While some ardiangel, nearer to perfection. 
In easy state presides o'er all their motions. 
Directs the planets with a careless nod. 
Conducts the sun, and reg^ilates the spheres. 

Well may'st thou hide in labyrinths of sound 

The cause that shrinks finm Reason's pow'rfiil voice. 

Stoop &om thy flight, trace back th' entangled 

And set the glitt'ring fallacy to view. 
Not pow'r I blame, but pow'r obtain'd by crime ; 
Ang^lick greatness is ongelick virtue. 
Amidst the glare of courts, the shout of armies. 
Will not the apostate feel the pangs of guilt. 
And wish, too late, for innocence and peace, 
Curst as the ^ant of th' infernal realms, 
Witli gloomy state and agonizing pompp 

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A TK^OItlT. Si 



A Turkisli stranger, of inajeetick mien. 
Asks at the gkte admissioa to Aspaaia, 
CommisBion'd, aa he aays, by Gah Bassa. 

Whoe'er thou art, or whatsoe'er thy message, ^Atidt, 
Thaidu for this Idnd relief— With speed admit bim. 

He comes, perhaps, to separate us for ever; 
When I am gone, remember, O ! remembtf. 
That lUHie are great, or happy, but the virtuous. 

{^£Mt Irenes enter DemeOius^ 


ASP ASIA, deWetrics. 


'Tis die— i^ny hope, my happiness, my lovel 
Aspasia ! do I once again behold thee } 
Still, still the same — unclouded by misfortune ! 
Let my blest eyes for ever gaze — ^- 




Why does the Ijlood forsake thy lovely clieek } 
Why shoots this chillneBs through thy sLaking nervea? 
Why does thy soul retire into herself? 
Rec^ne upon my breast thy sinking beauties : 
Revive*— Revive to freedom and to love. 

What well-known voice pronount'd iJtc grateful Round* 
Preedora and love ( Alas? I'm all confusion, 
A sudden mist o'ercasts my darken'd soul ; 
The present, past, and future, swim before m«. 
Lost in a wild perplexity of joy. 

Such ecstacy of love, such pure affection. 
What worth can mwit? or what faith reward? 
Vol. L G 

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A thousand thoughts, imperfect and distracted. 
Demand a voice, and struggle into birth ; 
A thousand questions press upon my tongu6. 
But all give way to rapture and Demetrius. 

O Bay, bright Being, in this age of absence. 

What fears, what gnefa, what dtu^rers, hast thoa knawii t 

Say, how the tyrant threaten'd, flatter'd, sigh'd ! 

Say, how he threaten'd, flatter'd, sigh'd in vain ! 

Say, how the band of Violence was rais'd ! 

Say, how thou call'dst in tears upon Demetrius ! 

Stemm'd in the breach the deluge of destruction. 
And pass'd uninjur'd through the walks of dealli? 
Did savage anger and licentious conquest 
Behold tlie hero with Aspasia's eyes ? 
And, thus protected in the gen'ral ruin, 

say, what guardian pow'r convey'd thee hither? 


Such strange events, such unexpected chf^nces. 
Beyond my wannest hope, or wildest wiahes, 
Concurr'd to give me to Aspasia's arms, 

1 stand axo&z'd, and ask, if yet I clasp ^ee. 


Sure Heav'n (for wonders are not wrought in vain !} 
That joina ua thus, will never part us more. 



It p«tfi you now — The hasty Sultan sign'd 
The laws unread, and flies to his Irene. 

Fix'd and intent on his Irene's charms. 
He envies none the converse of Aspasia. 

Aspasia's absence will inflame suspicion; 
She cannot, must not, shall not, hngct here; 

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Prudence and Friendship Ind me force her from you. 


Force her ! proikne her with a. touch, had die ! 


'Tis Greece, 'tis Freedom, calls Aspasia hence ; 
Your careless love betrays your country's causes 


If we niuat put— 


No I let us die tc^ether. 



Dispatch ; th' encreasing dangef 
Will not admit a lover's long farewell. 
The hmg-drawn intercourse of sighs and kisses. 

Them — O my feir, I cannot bid thee go. 

Receive her, and protect her, gracious Heav'n ! 

Yet let me watch her dear departing steps. 

If Fate pursues me, let it find me here. 

Reproach not, Greece, a lover's fond delays. 
Nor think thy cause neglected while I gaze ; 
New force, new courage, from each glance I gain. 
And find our passions not iniWd in vain. ^Ereuiit. 

A C T IV. 

DEMETRIUS, ASPAsiA, eiUer at talking. 

Enough — resistless Reason calms my soul — 
Approving Justice smiles upon your cause. 
And Nfrture's rights entreat th' asserting sword. 
Yet, when your hand is lifted to destroy. 
Think, but excuse a woman's needless caution,— 
Purge wdl thy mind from ev'ry private passion. 
Drive int'rest, love, and vengeance, from thy thoughts. 
Fill all thy ardent breast vrith Greece and virtue. 
Then strike secure, and HeaVn assist the blow ! 

G a 

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Tbon kind assistant of my better anger. 
Propitious guide of my bewilder'd soul. 
Calm of my cares, and guardian of ray virtue I 

My Bout, first kindled by thy bright example 

To noble tho«Lght, and gen'rous emulation, 

Now but reflects those beams that dow'd from thCA, 


With native lustre and unbonrow'd greatness. 
Thou shin'st, bright maid, superior to distress ^ 
Unlike the trifling race of vulgar beauties. 
Those glitt'ring dew-drops of a yernal mom. 
That spread their colours to the genial beam. 
And sparkling quiver to the breath of May ; 
But, when the tempest with sonorous wing 
Sweeps o'er the grove, forsake the lab'ring bougfl,. 
Dispers'd in air, or mingled with the dust. 


Forbear this triumph — stiU new conflicts wait us, 
Fdea unforeseen, and dangers unsuspected. 
Oft when the fierce besiegers' eager host 
Beholds the iainting garrison retire. 
And rushes joyful to the naked wall. 
Destruction flashes from th' insidious mine. 
And sweeps th' exulting conqueror away. 
Perhaps in vain the Sultan's anger spar'd nie. 
To And a meaner fate from treach'rous friendship— 


Can Abdalla then dissemble ! 
That fiery chief, renown'd for gen'rous freedom. 
For zeal unguarded, undissembled hate. 
For daring truth, and turbulence of honour! 


This open friend, this undesigning hero. 

With noisy falsehoods forc'd me from your, arms. 

To shock ray virtue with a tale of love. 

Old not tlie causa of Greece restrdn my sword, 
Aspasia should not fear a second insult. 

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Hia pride and love by turns inspir'd his tongue^ 

And intermix'd my praises with his own; 

His wealth, his rank, his honours, he recounted. 

Till, in the midst of arrogance and fondness, 

Th' approsching Sultan forc'd me from the palace; 

Then, while he gaz'd upon his yielding mietrtss, 

I *to!e unheeded from Uieir ravish'd eyes. 

And sought this happy grove in quest of thee. 


Soon may the final stroke decide our fate, 
Le»t baleful discord crush our infant scheme. 
And strangled treedom perish in the birth! 


My bosom, harass'd with alternate passions. 
Now hopes, now fears — ■ 


Th' anxieties of love. 


Think how the SoVreign Arbiter of kingdoms 
Detests thy ialse associates' black designs. 
And frowns on perjury, revenge, and murder, 
Embark'd with treason on the seas of fate. 
When Heaven shall bid the swelh'ng billows rage. 
And point vindictive li^t'nings at rebellion. 
Will not the patriot share the traitor's danger ? 
Oh could thy hand unaided free thy country. 
Nor mingled guilt pollute the sacred cause ! 


Permitted of^, though not inspir'd by Heaven, 
Successful treasons punish impious kings. 


Nor end my terrors with the Sultan's deatli ; 
Far as futurity's untravell'd waste 
Lies open to conjecture's dubious ken. 
On ev'ry side confusion, rage, and death. 
Perhaps the phantoms of a woman's fear, 
Beset the treacherous way with fatal ambush ; 
Eacji Turkish bosom bums for thy destruction. 
Ambitious CaU dreads the statesman's arts, 
And hot Abdalla hates the happy lover. 
O S 

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Capricious man ! to good and ill inconstant. 
Too much to fear or trust is equal weakness. 
Sometimes the wretch, unaw'd by Heaven or HeU, 
With mad devotion idolizes honour. 
The Bassa, reeking with his master's miurder, 
Perhaps may start at violated friendship. 


How soon, alas ! will int'rest, fear, or envy, 
O'erthrow such weak, such accidental, virtue. 
Nor built on faith, nor fortified by conscience? 


When deep'rate ills demand a speedy cure, 
Dbtrust is cowardice, and prudence folly. 

Yet think a moment, ere you court destruction : 
What hand, when death has snatch'd away Demetrius, 
Shall guard Aspasia from triumphant lust. 


Dismiss these needless fears — a troop of Greeks, 
Well known, long try'd, expect us on the shore. 
Bom on the surface of the smiling deep. 
Soon shalt thou scorn, in safety's arms repos'd, 
Abdalla's rage and C^'s stratagems. 

Still, still, distrust aits heavy on my heart. 
Will e'er an happier hour revisit Greece 7 


Should Heav'n, yet unappeas'd, revise its aid; 
Disperse our hopes, ana frustrate our designs. 
Yet shall the conscience of the great attempt 
Diffuse a brightness o'er our future days ; 
Nor wiU his country's groans reproach Demetrius. 
But how canst thou support the woes of exile? 
Canst thou forget hereditary splendours. 
To hve obscure upon a foreign coast, 
Content with science, innocence, and love ? 


Nor wealth, nor titles, make Aspama's bliss. 
O'erwlielm'd and lost amidst the pubhc ruins, 
Unmov'd I saw the glitt'ring tri£es perish. 
And thought the petty dross beneath a sigh. 

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Cheerful 1 fdlow to the rural ceU; 

Love be my wealth, and my distinction Tirtua 


Submissive, and prepar'd for each event. 
Now let us wait the last award of Heav'n, 
Secure of happiness from flight or conquest. 
Nor fear the fair and leam'd can waut protection. 
The miehty Tuscan courts the banish'd arts 
To kind Italia's hospitable shades ; 
There ehall soft leisure wing th' excm^ive soul. 
And Peace propitious smile on fond desire ; 
There shall despotic Eloquence resume 
Her ancient empire o'er the yielding heart ; 
There Poetn' ahall tune her sacred voice. 
And wake from ignorance the Western world. 



At length th' unwilling sun resigns the wtwld 
To silence and to rest. The hours of darkness. 
Propitious hours to stratagem and death. 
Pursue the last remains m ling'ring light. 


Connt not these hours as part of vidgar time. 
Think them a sacred treasure lent by Heaven, 
Which, squander'd by neglect, or fear, or folly. 
No prayer recalls, do diligence redeems. 
To-morrow's dawn shall see the Turkish king 
Stretch'd in the dust, or tow'ring on the throns ; 
To-morrow's dawn shall see the mighty Cali 
The sport of tyranny, or lord of nations. 

Then waste no longer these important nusnent* 
In soft endearments and in gentle murmurs; 
Nor lose in love the patriot and the hero. 


'Tis love, combin'd with guilt alone, that melts 
The soften'd soul to cowardice and sloth ; 
JBut virtuous passion prompts the grsat resolve. 

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And fans Uie slumbering spark of heavenljr fiie. 
Retire, my Fair; that Pow'r that smiles on goodness 
Guide all thy steps, calm ev'ry stormy thought. 
And still thy boaom with the voice of peace t 

Soon may we meet again, secure and free. 

To feel no more the pangs of separation ! ^Exit. 



This night alone is ours — Our mighty foe. 

No longer lost in am'rous solitude. 

Will now remoimt the slighted seat of empire. 

And shew Irene to the shouting people : 

Aspaaia lel\^ her sighing in his arms. 

And list'ning to the pleasing tale of pow'r ; 

With soften'd voice she dropp'd the faint refusal. 

Smiling consent she sat, and blushing love. 

Now, tyrant, with satiety of beauty 

Now feast thine eyes, thme eyes that ne'er hereafter 

Shall dart their am'rous glances at the fair. 

Our bark imseen has reach'd th' appointed bay. 
And where yon trees wave o'er the foaming surge. 
Reclines against the shore ; our Grecian troop 
Extends its lines along the sandy beach. 
Elate with hope, and panting for a foe. 

The fav'ring winds assist the great design. 
Sport in our sails, and murmur o'er the deep. 

'Tis well — A single blow completes our wishes ; 
Itetum with speed, Leontiua, to your charge ; 
The Greeks, disorder'd by their leader's absence. 
May droop dismay'd, or kindle into madness. 

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A TSASBDY. tif^ 


Suspected Htill !— What villain's poia'nous {tmgat 
Dare join Leontius' name with fear or falsehood? 
Have I for this preserv'd my guiltless bosom. 
Pure as the thoughts of ipfant innocence? 
Have I for this defy'd the chiefs of Turkey, 
Intrepid in the flaming &ont of war ? 

Hast thou not search'd my soul's profoundest thought* ? 
Is not the fate of Greece and Cah thine f 


.Why has thy choice then [minted out Leontius, 

Unfit to share this night's illustrious toils? 

To wait remote from action and frcmi honour. 

An idle list'ner to the distant cries 

Of slaughter'd infidels, and clash of swords ? 

Tell me the cause, that while thy name, Demetrius, 

^3ia11 soar triumphant on the wings of Gloiy, 

Despis'd and curs'd, Leontius must descend 

Through hissing ages, a. proverbial coward. 

The tale of women, and the scorn of fools ? 


Can brave Leontius be the slave of Glory ? 
Glory, the casual mtt of thoughtless crowds ! 
Glory, the bribe of avaricious virtue ! 
Be but my country free, be thine the praise ; 
I ask no witness, but attesting conscience. 
No records, but the records ot the sky. 


Wilt thou then head the troop upon the shore. 
While I destroy th' oppressor of mankind ? 


What canst thou boast superior to Demetrius? 
Ask to whose sword the Greeks will trust their cause. 
My n^ne shall echo through the shouting field : 
Demand whose force yon 'Turkish heroes dread. 
The shudd'ring camp shall murmur out Demetrius. 

Must Greece, atiU wretclied by her children's folly. 
For ever mourn their avarice or factions ? 
Demetrius justly pleads a double title ; 
The lover** int'rest aids the patriot's claim. 

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M; pride shall ne'er protrsct my cmmtry'B woes ; 
Succeed, my friend, unenvied by Leanbus. 

I feel new spirit shoot along my nerves, ' 

My soul expands to meet approaching freedom. 
Now hover o'er us with pri^itious wmgs. 
Ye sacred shades of patriots and of mar^ra ! 
All ye, whose blood tyrannick rage efiiis'd. 
Or persecution drank, attend our call ; 
Ana fromthe mansions of perpetual peace 
Descend, to sweeten labours once yoar*own ! 

Go then, and with united eloquence 
Confirm your troops ; and when the moon's fair beaia 
Plays on the quiv'ring waves, to guide our flight. 
Return, Demetrius, and be free for ever. 

^EaeutU Dem. and Leoift 



}iow the new monarch, swell'd with airy rule. 
Looks down, contemptuous, from his fancy'd height, 
And utters fate, unmindful of Abdatla ! 

Wealth, and command, and grandeur, shall be thine. 

Is this the recompence reserv'd for me ? 
Dar'st thou thus dally with Abdalla'a passion? 
Henceforward hope no more my slighted friendship. 
Wake from thy dream of power to death and tortures. 
And bid thy visionary throne farwell. 

Name, and enjoy thy wish— 


I need not name it i 
A^paaia's lovers know but one desire. 

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Nor hope, nor with, ncr liv«, but fin Aspuuu 

That &tal beauty, plighted to Demetriua, 
Heaven makes not mine to give. 

Not to deny. 


Obtain her, and posaess ; thou know'st thy riv«l, 


Too veil I know him, since tm ThraciA's plains 
I fett the force of hii tempestuous arm. 
And saw my scatter'd equadrons fly before him. 
Nor will I trust th' uncntain .chance of combat; 
The rights i^iprauxa let the sword decide. 
The petty clouns of empire and of hmtour : 
Revenge and subtle jealousy shall teach 
A surer passage to lus hated heart. 

O spare the gallant Gredt, in him we lose 
The politician's arts, and hero's flame. 

When nest we meet before we atmm the palau. 
The bowl shall circle to ccHifinn our league ; 
Then shall these juices taint Demetrius' diaiif^t. 

And stream destructive throuj^ his &eeziiv vans : 
Thus shaU he live to strike th* important bfow. 
And perish ere he taste the jt^s en conquest, 



Hencefinrth for ever happy be this day, 

Sacred- to love, to pleasure, and Irene ! 

The matchless fair has bless'd me with ctHnpliotm; 

Let every tongue resound Irene's praise. 

And spre&d the general transport through mankind. 

Blest prince, for whom indulgent Heav'a ordains 
At once the joys of paradise and empire. 

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Now join thy people's and thy Call' 

BiiB pra 
of blisa, 


ForbeaP— I know the long-try'd faith q{ Cali. 

S*" 7 smiles, and oaths, and praises, iU disguis'd^ 
ow rarely would they meet, in crowded courts, 
Fidelity so firm, bo pure, as mine. 

Yet, ere we give our loosen'd thoughts to rapture^ 
Let prudence obviate an impending danger : 
Tainted hy sloth, the parent of sedition. 
The hungry Janizary buma for plunder. 
And growls in private o'er his idle sabre. 


To still their murmurs, ere the twentieth sun 

Shall shed his beams upon the bridal bed, 

I rouze to war, and conquer fur Irene. 

Then shall the Rhodian mourn his sinking tow'rs, 

And Buda fell, and proud Vienna tremble : 

TTien shall VenetiR feel the Turkish pow'r. 

And subject seas roar round their queen in vaiD> 


Then seize feJr Italy's delightful coast> 
To fix your standard in imperial Rome. 


Her sons malicious clemency shall spare. 

To form new legends, sancufy new crimes, 

To canonize the slaves of superstition. 

And fill the world with foUjes and impostures. 

Till angry Heav'n BhaU mark them out for ruin. 

And war o'erwhehn them in their dream of vic& 

O, could her fabled saints and boasted prayers 

Call forth her ancient heroes to the field, 

Hqw should I joy, 'midst the fierce shock of nation^. 

To crass the tow'rings of an equal sout. 

And bid the master genius rule the world ! 

Abdalla, Cali, 2i>— proclaim my purpose. ' 

CEarettn/ Cali and Abdalla. 

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SdH Call lives : and most he live to-mMTOW t 
That fawning villain's forc'd concratntotiona 
Will doud my triiunpIiE, and pollute the day. 

Widi cautious vigilance, at _, 
Two fkithfui captains, Hasan and Caraza, 
Pursue him throiL^ his labyrinths of treat^on. 
And wait your summons to report his conduct. 


CiJl them — but \et tfaem not prolong their tale, 
fi<r press too much upon a lover's patience. 

l^Exk MusTAPiA. 


MiJiMnet, solta. 
^Vbome'er the hope, still blasted, sdll renev'd. 
Of hap^ness lures on from toilto toil. 
Remember Mchomet, and cease thy labour. 
Behold him here, in love, in war, successful, 
Behold him wretched in his double triumph ( 
His fav'rite faithless, and his mistrets base. 
Ambition only gave her to my arms. 
By reason not convinc'd, nor won by love. 
Ambition was her crime ; but meaner folly 
Dooms me to loath at once, and doat on falsehood. 
And idolize tb' apostate I contemn. 
If thou art ntore than the gay dream of fancy. 
More than a plessine sound without a meanings 
O luqipiness 1 sure Uiou art all Aepasia's. 



Csraza, nwak — fatve y nmark'd the Bunf 
Vou L . H 

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7* lUNi; 


Close, Ha ire might unseen, we watch'd hia step* ; 
His hair diaorder'd, and his gwt unequal, 
Betray'd the wild emotions of his mind. 
Sudden be stops, and ijiwavd turna hie eyes, 
Absorb'd In Ihot^it; t^en, staiting &om his trance 
Constrains a suUem smBe, and shsoCs awi^. 
With him. Abdalh we bej^hl— 




He weara c^ Ute reeenfanent on his, btrow, 
Deny'd the goremment irf Servia'i province. 


We mark'd hibi storming in exteat of Any, 
And heard, within the thicket that conceai'd us, 
An*)indi8tLQgui8fa'd sound of threot'hing rage. 

How guilt, once harbour'd in the conscious breas^ 

Intimidates the brave, degrades the great; 

See Cali, dread of kings, and pride of armies. 

By treason level'd witii the dregs of men I 

lije guilty fear depress'd thd luiai^ chie^ 

An angry nmrmur, a rebellious frown, 

Had Btretch'd the fiery* boaster m tbc grave. 


Shall monarchs feat to draw the sword of justice^ 
Aw'd by the crowd, and by their slaves restrain'Jp 
Seize hun this night, and tfaroi^^h the private paaaage 
Convey him to the pristrn's inmost def^s, 
Reserv'd to aU the pangs of tedieus death. 

^^ceitnt Mahomet and ttwttjifaa. 

SCENE rx. 


Contrive perhaps the ruin of our empire, 
XiCague with oui ebieft, and pre^pagate «« 

pre^pagate ■a^tim F 

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A TtAOtfiT. 


yfhstK'er time aduane, the Basea's deatli defeats it. 
And gratitude's strong ties restrain my tongue. 

What ties to slaves? what gratitade to foes? 

In that black day when slaugbter'd thousands fell 
Around these fatal walla, the tide of war 
Bore tne victDrioiu onward, where Demetrius 
Tore unreWBted from the giant huid 
Of stem Seb^as the triumphant crescent. 
And dash'd the migfit of Asftm from tile rampttrttt 
There I became, nor hitiati to make it knoTrn, 
The captive of his stiorA. The coward Greeks, 
Enra^'d by wrongs, exulting with success, 
Doom'd me to die with all the Turkish captains ; 
But brave Demetrius scom'd the laean revenge. 
And gave me life.- — 

Do tlton repay the gift. 
Lest unrewarded mercy lose its charms. 
Profuse of wealth, or bounteous of success. 
When heav'n bestows the privilege to faless ; 
Let no weak doubt the gen'rous fiand restraiB, 
For when was pow*r b^^cmt in vain f 




, ASPASiA, tola. 

In these dark moments of suspended fate, ' 
While yet tiie future fortune of my country 
Lies in the womb of Providence conc^al'd, , 

And anxious angels wait the mi^ty birth; 
O grant thy sacred influeace, pow'rful Virtue 1 
Attentive n»e, survey the fair creati<m. 
Till, conscious of th' encircling deity. 
Beyond the mists <^ care thy pinion tow'ts. 
TluB calm, these joys, dear Inoocence t are tb^: 
H a 

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Joyi 01 exchang'd for gold, and pride, and emptr«', 

£^nter Irene and Attendant!. 


4SFABtA, iRBNB, and AUeadants. 


S«e bow the Moon through all the unclouded f}tf 
Spreads her mild radiance, and descendina; dews 
Revive the languid fiow'rs; thus Natuie snone 
New from the Maker's hand, and fair array'd 
Jn the bright colonre of primeeval spring ; 
When punty, while fraud was yet unknown, 
Plav'd fearlesi in th' inviolated shadeB. 
This eiNaental joy, this gen'ral caho, 
Is sure the smile of unofiended Hea^n. 
Yet! why — 


Behold, within th' embow'ring groi^c 
Apa<ia standi-* 


With melancholy mieQ, 
PenHTe, and envious of Irene's greatness 
Steal unpereeived upon her meditationi^— 
But see, the lofiy maid, at our approach, 
Resunaes th' impenoug air of haughty Virtue. 
Are these th' unceasing joys, th' unmingled pleosurfc 
<CTo Aspasim 
For which Aspasia scorn'd the Turkish crown.' 
Is this th' unshaken confidence in Heav'n ? 
Ib tliis the boasted bliss of conscious Virtue ? 
When did Content sigh out her cares in secret ? 
When did Fehdty repine in deserts ? 


Ill suits with guilt the gaieties of triumph ; 
When daring vice insiuta eternal Justice, 
The ministers of wrath forget compassion. 
And snatch the fiaming bolt with hasty hand. 


Forbear thy threats, proud Prophetess of ill, 
Vers'd in die secret counsels of the sky. 

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Fwbeai !— But thou «rt sunk beneath re|M-Qach ; 
In Tain affected raptures flush the dieek. 
And songs of pleasure irarble from the tongue. 
When fear and an^^sh labour io the breast. 
And all within is darkness and confusion. 
Thus on deceitful Etna's ^aw'r^ *i^ 
Un&ding verdure glads tlie roviag eye ; 
Whik secret flames, with unextinguiah'd rage. 
Insatiate on her wasted entrails prey. 
And melt her tresch'rous beauties into ruin. 

^Eiiier Demetrius. 

SCENE in. 


Fly, fly, my Love ! destj^ction rushes on Mi, 
The rack expects us, and the sword pursHet. 

Is Greece deliver'dF is the tyrant fall's t 

Greece is no more ; the prosperous tyrant lives, 
Reserv'd tot other lands, the sctntrge ot Heav'n. 

Say by what fraud, what f^rce, were you defeated ? 
Betray'd by falsehood, or l^ crowds o'erbome? 


The preanng eageace forlrida relation. 

Hated nnuet his jeolons rage 
Broke out in per&^-— Oh curB'd Aspasia, 
Bcvn to compete the rain of her eonntry i 
Hide me, oh hide me from upbraiding Greece ; 
Oh, hide me £r«m myself ! 


Be frtdtless grief 
The doom of ginlt alone, nor dare to seiae 
H 3 

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The breitst where Virtue guards die throne of F«acF. 
Devolve, dear maid, thy sorrows on the wretcH, 
Whose fear, or rage, or treachery, betray us ! 

A private station may discover more ; 
Then let me rid them of Irene's presence : 
Proceed, and give a loose to love and treason. 

Yet telL 


To teU or hear were wast« of life. 

A SPA St A. 

The life, which only this design supported. 
Were now well lost in hearing how you fail'd. 


Or meanly fraudulent or madly gay, 
Abdalla, while we waited near the palace. 
With ill-tim'd mirth propos'd the bowl of love. 
Just as it reach'd my lips, a sudden cry 
Urg'd me to dash it to the ground iijjtouch'd. 
And seize my sword with disincumber'd hand. 

W4at cry ? The stratagem ? Did then Abdalla>— ■ 


At once a thousand passions fir'd his cheek ! 
Then all is past, he cry'd — and darted from lu ; 
Kor at the call of Cali deign'd to turn. 


Why did you stay, deserted and betray'd? 
What more could force attempt, or art contrire? 

Amazement seiz'd us, and the hoary Bassa 
Stood torpid in suspense; but soon Abdalla 
Return'd with force that made re^stance vdn. 
And bade his new confederates seize the traitw^ 
Cali, disarm'd, was borne away to death ; 
Myself escap'd, ot favour'd, or neglected. 

O Greece ! renown'd for science and for wealth. 
Behold thy boasted honours snatch'd away. 

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Though disappointment bUst our ffenera2 scheme,. 
Yet much remains to hope. I shi^ not Call 
The day disastrous that secures our flight ; 
Nor think that eSbrt lost which rescues thee. 

Z.Enter Abdalla. 



At length the prize is mine— The haughtjr tnaid 
That ^ars the fate of empires in her air. 
Henceforth shall live for me ; for me alone 
Shall plume her charms, and, with attentive watch} 
Statl nrom Abdalla's eye the sign to smile. 


Cease this wild roar of savage exultation ; 
Advance, and pmsb in tlxe &antic boast. 


Forbear, Demetrius, 'tis Aspasia calls thee; 
Thy love, Aspasia, calls : restrain thy sword ; 
Nor rush on useless wounds with idle courage. 


What now remains P 


It now remains to fly 1 


Shall then the savage live, to boost his insult; 
Tell how Demetrius shun'd his single hand. 
And stole his life and mistress irom his sabre ? 

In&tuate loiterer, has Fate in vaiiv - 
Unclasp'd his iron gripe to set thee free ? 
Still dost thou flutter m the jaws of death ; 
Snar'd with thy fears, and maz'd in stupefaction 


Foi^ve, my Fair; 'tis life, 'tis nature calls: 
Now, traitor, feel the fear that chills my hand. 


'Tis madness to provoke superfluous danger. 

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so isenb; 

Alid cowardice to dread the boast of tbtty. 


Fly, wretch, while yet my pity grants thee flight ; 
The pow'r of Turkey waits upon my call. 
Leave but this maid, resign a hopeless claim. 
And drag away thy life in «com and safety^ 
Tliy life, too mean a prey to lure AbdaUa. 


Once more I dare thy sword ; behold the prize. 
Behold I quit her to the chance of battle. 

■* [^Qwi'Wing- Aspasia. 

Well may'st thou caE thy master to the combat. 
And try the hazard, that hast nought to stake; 
Alike my death or thitie is gain to thee ; 
But soon thou shalt repent : another moment 
Shall throw th' itttenduig Janizaries round thee. 

X.^xil hastili) Abdalla. 



Abdalla f^ls ; now. Fortune, all is mine. \\Atidt. 

Haste, Murza, to the palace, let the Sultan 

ZTo one of her AUendants. 
Dispatch his guards to stop the flying traitors, 
Wlule I protract their stay, Be swift and faith&l. 

Zfixit Murza, 
This lucky stratagem shall charm the Sultan, ^Aside. 
Secure his confidence, and fix his lore. 


Behold a boafiter's worth ! Now snatch, my fair. 
The happy moment ; hasten ta the shore. 
Ere he return with thousands at his side. 


In vain I listen to th' inviting call 
Of freedom and of love ; ray trembling joints, 
Kelax'd with fear, refuse to bear me forward. 
Depart, Demetrius, lest my fate invcdve thee ; 

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Let ua not straggle with th' eternal will. 

Nor languish o'er irreparable ndns ; 

Come, haste and live — Thy innocence and truth 

Shall bless our wand'ringa, and prt^itiate Heav'n, 


Press not bcr flight, while yet her feeble nerre* 
Refuse their office, and uncertain life- 
Still laboitra with ima^nary woe ; 
Here let me t«id her with officious care^ 
Watch each unquiet flutter of the breast. 
And joy to feel the vital warmth return. 
To see the cloud fcrsake her kindhng t^eek. 
And hail the rosy dawn of rising heuth. 

Ob ! ratlier, scornful of flagitious greatness. 
Resolve to share our dangers and our toils. 
Companion of our flight, illustrious exile, 
Leave slavery, guiltj and infamy behind. 

My soul attends thy voice, and banish'd Virtue 
Strives to r^ain her empire of the ntind : 
Assist her eQorts with thy strong persuasion ; 
Sure 'tis the happy hour ordain'd alx>ve. 
When vanquish'u Vice shall tyrannize no tacen. 


Itemcxaber peace and anguish are before tJiee, 
And honour and reproach, and Heav'n and Hell. 


Content with freedom, and precarious greatness. 


Now make thy choice, while yet the poVr of choioB 
Kind Heav'n affords thee, and inviting Mercy 
Holds out her hand to lead thee back to truth. 

Stay — in this dubious twilight of conviction, 
The gleams of reason; and the clouds of passion, 
IrradiAte and obscure my breast by turns: 
Stay but a moment, and prevailing truth 
Will spread resistlesa light upon my wul. 

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, 8S inMii; 


But since none knowa the datiger of & moment. 
And Heav'n forbids tJ] lavi^ life away, 
l«t kind compulstoD terminate the contest. 

l^Seiang Aer kandi 
Ye ChristiMi captives, follow me to fi-eedom : 
A galley waits «is, and the windsinvite. 

Whence is this violence ? 


. Your calmer ihou^t 
Will teach a gentler t«m. 

Forbear lius rudeness. 
And leant the rev'renc* due to Turkey's (^een : 
Fly, slaves, and tsll the Sultan to my rescue. 


Farewell, unhappy maid :" may every joy ' 

Be thine, that wealth can ^ve, or guilt receive ■' 


And when, contemptuoue of imperial pow'r. 
Disease shall chase the phantoms of pmbition. 
May pemt(»)ce attend thy moumAil bed. 
And wing thy latest prayer to pitying Heav'n. 

Z.Exeant Dem. Asp. mliiparl of the altendanU. 


[^Irene ntaUci at a dUtaiKefrom her AitendanU.'^ 

After a pause. 
Agoibst the head which innocence secures. 
Insidious Malice aims her darts in vain, 
Tum'd backwards by the pow'rful breath of Heav'n. 
Perhaps even now the lovers unpursu'd 
Bound o'er the sparkling waves. Go, happy bark. 
Thy sacred freignt shall still the raging main. 
To guide thy passage shall th' aerial spirits 
Fill all the starry l^ps with double Uaze ; 
Th' applauding sky shall pour forth all its beann, 
To grace the triumph of victorious virtue ; 
While I, not yet familiar to my crimes. 

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Recoil frora tliought, bad ahudder at myself. 

H«ir am I diang'd ! How lately did Ir«ie 

Fly from the busy pleasures of her sex, 

Well pleasU te search the treaauiee of neraembrance. 

And live her guihkss moments o'er anew I 

Come, let us seek new pleasures io the pftLac^ 

\^Ta iter allendanls, going off. ~ 
l*!]! soft Ad^ue invite us to re|iose. 


]^Eiiler HtiBTAPHA, meeting and stopping Act-.]] 

Fair Falsehood, stay. 


What dream of sudden power 
Has' taught my slave the language of command I 
Heocefordi be wise,- bu hope a second psurdoa. 

Who caJla for pardon from a wretch condemn'dF 

Thy look, thy speech, thy aetian, bQ is wildnesfr— 
Who charge guilt *>n me? 


Who cfawges guilt i 
Ast of thy heart ; attend the voice of Conscience— 
Who charges guilt May by this proud res^ttasieiit 
, That fires thy cheek, wd devates thy mieii. 
Nor thus usurp the di^ty of virtoft 
Review tMs day. 


Whate'ee tby aecusatian. 
The Sultan is n^ judge. 


That hope is past ;* 
Hard was the strije of juatiee uidof love; 
But now 'lis o'er, and justice haa mevsfl'd.. 
Enow'stthou not C^iP know'st thou not Demetrius? 


Bold ekve, I know tibem bolji— -I know them tmboiv. 

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Un STAPH A. ■ 

Perfidious ! — yes— too well thou know'rt dicn traitors. 

Their treason throws no srtain upon Irene. ■ 
This day has prov'd my fondness for the Sultan : 
He knew Irene's truth. 


The Sultan knows it. 
He knows how near apostacy to treason — 
But 'tis not mine to judge — I scorn and leave thee. 
I go, least vengeance urge my hand to blood. 
To blood too mean to stain a soldier's sabre. 

\;^Eml Mustapho. 
IRENE, to her aitendanU. 
Go, blust'ring slave — He has not heard of Murza. 
That dextrous message frees me from suspicion. 


EnJer Haban, Caraza, nitk Mule» nho'thron the bhiek 
robe vpon Irene, and sign to her atlendanl* to with- 


Forgive, fur Excellence, th' unwilling tongue. 
The tongue, that, forc'd by strong necessity. 
Bids beauty, such as thine, prqwre to die. 

'What wild mistake is this ! Take hence with speed 
Your robe of mourning, and your dogs of death. 
Quick from my sights you inauspicious monsters. 
Nor dare henceforth to shock Irene's walks. 


Alas ! they come coimnanded by tlie Sultan, 
Th' unpitying ministers of Turkish justice. 
Nor dare to spare the life his frown condeions. 

Are these Ae rapid thunderbolts of war. 
That pour with sudden violence on kingdoms. 
And spread their flames resistless o'er the world ? 
What sleepy (^arms benumb these active heroet, 
Dq>re6s their qtiritt, and ntard their qteed? 

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Beyond the fear o£ ling'nng pnnnhment, 
A^pafia now, within her lover's arma. 
Securely eleeps, and in delielitful dreams 
Smile« at the threat'nings of defeated rage. 

We come, bright Virgin, though relenting Nature 
Shrinks at the hatekl task, for ^y destruction ; 
WhOT Bummon'd by the Saltan's clarn'rous fury. 
We Bsk'd wilJi tim'rous tongue th" offender's name. 
He struck his twtur'd breast, and roar'd, Irene 1 
We started at the sound, again enquir'dj 
Again lus thund'jing voice retum'd, Irene ! 


Whence is this rtige^' what barb'rous tongue has 

wrnng'd me ? 
What fraud misleads hlni? or what crimes incense? 

£K|nring Cali nam'd Iivne's chamber. 
The pUce appointed for his nuster's death. 

Irene^s chamber ! from my faitliful bosom 
Far be the thou^t— Bat hear my protestation. 

CAR A z A. 

'Tis ours, alas ! to punish, not to judge. 

Not call'd to try the cause, we licard the sentence, 

Ordaiif d the mournful messengers of death. 


Some ill-designing statesman's base Intrigue ! 
Some cruel stratagem of jealous beauty ! 
Perhaps yourselves the vUluns that defame me. 
Now Ba^ to inurder, ere returning thought 
Recall the extorted doom. — It must be so : 
Confess your crime, or lead me to the Sultan ; 
There dauntless trudi shall blast the vile accuser ;' 
Then vhaD you feel what language cannot utter, . 
Each pierdng torture, ev'ry wange of pain. 
That vengeance can invent, or pow'r inflict. 

l^Esier Abdall^: ke it^ sluni and Ualeus. 

Vol, 1, 1 

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ABDAJ.LA, aside. 
All is not lost, Abdalla ; see the queen. 
See the last witness of thy guilt and fear 
Enrob'd in death — Dispatch her, ^d be great. 

Unhappy fair J compassion calls upon me 
To check this torrent of imperious rage ; 
While unavailing anger crowds thy tongue 
With idle threats ana fruitless excliunation. 
The fraudfiil moments ply their silent wings. 
And steal thy life away. Death's horrid angel 
Already shakes his bloody sabre o'er thee. 
The raging Sultan bums till our return. 
Curses the dull delays of ling'ring mercy. 
And thinks his fatal mandates ill obey'd. 


Is then your soVreign's life so cheaply rated, 
Th&t thus you parly with detected treason ? 
Should she prevail to gain tiie Sultan's presence. 
Soon might ner tears engage a lover's credit; 
Ferhapsner -malice might transfer the charge; 
Perhaps her pois'nous tongue might blast AbdalU. 

O let the but be heard, nor fear from me 
Or flights of pow'r, or projects of ambition. 
My hopes, my wishes, terminate in life, 
A little life, tor grief, and for repentance.' 

I mark'd her wily messenger afar. 

And saw him skulking in the closest walks: 

I guess'd her dark designs, and wam'd the Sultan^ 

And bripg her former sentence new confirm'd. 


Then call it not owr cruelty, nor crime ; 
Deem us not deaf t» woe, nor blind to beaut^r. 
That thus conetrain'd we speed the stroke of deatli. 
Z.Iiechms ike Mvtes. 

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O, name not death ! Distraction and amazement 
Horror and agony, are in that sound ! 
Let me but live, neap troes on woes upon me. 
Hide me with niurd'rers in the dungeon's gloom. 
Send me to wander on some pathless shore. 
Let shame and hooting infamy pursue me. 
Let slav'ry harEss, and let hunger gripe. 

Could we reverse the sentence of the Sultan, 
Our bleeding bosoms plead Irene's cause. 
But cries and tears are vain ; prepare with patiencfr 
To meet tirnt fate we can delay no longer. 

ZTke Mule» at ike sign % hold of Her. 


Dispatch, ye ling'ring slaves ; or nimbler hands. 
Quick at my call, shall execute your charge ; 
Dispatch, and learn a fitter time for pity. 

Grant me one hour, O grant me but a moment 
And bounteous Heav"!! repay the mighty mercy ■ 
With peaceful death, and happiness etOTiaL 


The preyo* I cannot grant— I dare not hear. 

Short be thy pains. C^^"* "g"*" *<> **« Mvia. 


Unutterable anguish I 
Guilt and Despair, pale spectres ! grin around me. 
And stun me with Uie yellings of damnation ! 
O, hear my pray'rs ! accept, all-pitying Heav'n, 
These tears, these pangs, these last remains of life ; 
Nor let the crimes of mis detested day 
Be charg'd up<m ray sonl. O, mercy ! mercy ! 

{^Muletjifrce her out. 


ABDALLA, omie. 

Safe in her death, and in Demetrius' fli^t, 
Abdalla, bid tby-traubled breast b« cahn. 

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88 iit»i»; , 

Now iludt diOn shine the dttling of the Soltany 
The plot all CaJi'i, the detection thine. 


Does not thy bosom (for I know thee tender, 
A Btraneer to th' oppressor's savage joy,) 
Melt at Irene's fate, and share her woes ? 


Her piercing cries yet fill the l<)sded air. 
Dwell on my ear, and sadden all my soul. 
But let us t^ to clear our clouded Ivows, 
And tell the horrid tale with cheerfol &ce ; 
The stormy Sultan rages at our stay. 


Frame your report with circumq>ecUve art : 
Inflame her crimes, exalt your own obedience ; 
But let no thoughtleEs hint involve AfodalU. 


What need of caution to report the fate 

Of her the Sultan's voice condemn'd to die ? 

Or why should he, whose violettce of da^ 

Has scrv'd his prince so well, demand our silence 9 


Perhaps nty zeal, too fierce, betray'd my prudence ; 
Perhaps my warmth exceeded my commissiiH) ; 
Perhspa^wl will not stoop to pjead my cause. 
Or argue with the slave that sav'd Demetrius. 


From his escape leam thou the pow'r of virtue ; , 
Nor hope his fortune, while thgu wanf it hit worth. 

The Sultao comes, still gloiMny, still enrag'd. 


Where's this fair trsit'regaf Where's this snuling mis- 
Whom neither vows could lix, nor favours bind ? 


Thine orders, migh^ SuUsn ! are perfomi'd. 

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And all Irene now is breathless CIB7. 


Your huty lesl de&auds the claim of justice. 

And disamrainted vengeance burns in vain. 

I came to heighten tortures hy reproach, 

And add new terrors to the face of death. 

Was this the maid whose love I bought with empire r 

True, she was fair ; the smile of innocence 

Play'd on her cheek — So shone the first apostate — 

Irene's chamber ! Did not roaring Cati, 

Just as the rack fbrc'd out his struggling soul. 

Name fiv the scent of death, Irene's diMnber^ 

His breath jvol<Hig'd but to detect her treason. 
Then in abort sighs tbraook his broken firame. 

to penah 

Tb»e had ane liUl'd me with endearing falsehoodx 
Claap'd in her ann-i, or slumb'ring on her breast. 
And bar'd my bosotn to the ruffiu's dagger. 


I bring a tardy message from 1 


Some arftiil wile of counterfeited lore ! 
Some soil decoy to lure me to destruction f 
And thou, the curst aoonnplice of her treason. 
Declare thy mess^e, and expect thy doom. 

The queen requested that a chosen troop 
Might intercept the traitor Greek, Demetrius, 
Then ling'ring with his captive mistress here. 

The Greek Demetrius ! whom th* expiring E 
- Dedar'd the chief associate of his gu^! 

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A chosen troop— to intercept— Demetrius — 
The queen requested'— Wretch, repeat the mesiage ; 
And, if Mie varied accent prove thy falsehood. 
Or but one moment's pause betray conAidon, 
Those trembling limbe— Speak out) thou shiv'ring 


The qneen requeBted— 


< Who ? the dead Irene f 

Was she then ffuiltlesa ! has my thouf^htlen rage 
Destroy'd the fairest workmanship of Heav'n ! 
Doom'd her to death unpity'd and unheard. 
Amidst her kind solicitudes for me ! 
Ye slaves of cruelty, ye tools of rage, [^To Has. and 
Ye blind officious ministers of folly, [[Car. 

Could not her charms repress your seal for murder? 
Could not her pray'rs, her innocence, her tears. 
Suspend the dreaoAil sentence for an hour i- 
One hour had freed me from the fetal error ! 
One hour had sav'd me from despair and madness. 

Your fierce impatience'forc'd us from your pTtaaux, 
Urg'd us to speed, and bade us banish pity. 
Nor trust our passions with her fttal charms. 

What hadst thou lost by slighting those o 
Thy life, perhaps — Were but Irene epar'd. 
Well if ■ thousand lives like thine had perish'd ; 
Such beauhi, sweetness, love, were cheaply bought 
With half the grov'hng slaves that load Uie globe. 


Great is thy woe 1 But think, illustrious Sultan, 
Such ills are sent for souls like thine to conquer. 
Sh^e off this weight of unavailing grief. 
Rush to the war, display thy dreadM banners. 
And lead .thy troops victorious romid tlie world. 


Robb'd of the maid with whinn I wish'd to triumph. 
No more I bum for fame, or for dominiim ; 
Soccess and conquest now are empty sounds. 

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Remorse and aneuisb seize on all my breast ; 
Those emves, whose shades erabowor'd the dear Irene, 
Heard ner last cries, and fium'd^her dying beauties. 
Shall hide- me from the tasteless world for ever. 

QMahomet goe* back, and rttunu. 
Yet, ere I quit the sceptre of dominion. 
Let one just act conclude the hateful day. 
Hew down, ye guards, those vasaola of destruction, 

\^PoijUirtg to Hasan and Caraza, 
Those hounds of blood, tliat catch the hint ta kill ; 
Bear off with eager haate th' imfinish'd sentence. 
And speed the stroke, lest mercy should o'ertaLe tbem. 

Then hear, great Mahomet, the voice of truth. 


Hear ! shall I hear thee ! didst thou hear Irene ^ 


Hear but a moment, 


Hadst thou heard • moment. 
Thou might'st Iiave liv'd, for thou hadst ■par'd Irene. 


I heard her, pitied her, and wish'd to save bet. 


And wisb'd — be still thy fate to wish in vaki. 


Abdalla brought her doom ! Abdalla brought it 1 
The wretch, whose guilt, declar'd by tortur'd Cali, 
My rage and grief had hid from my remembrance : 
Abdalla brought her doom ! 


A))dalla brought it, 
While yet she begg'd to plead ha cause before thee. 


seize me. Madness— Did she call on me ! 

1 feel, I see the ruiSan's barb'rous rage. 
He seiz'd her melting in the fond appeal. 

And stopp'd the heav'nly voice that call'd on me. 
My spirits fail ; awhile support me, Vengesnofr— 

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Be just, ye itlaves ; Etnd, to be just, be cruel j 
C<mtrive new racks, imbitter ev'ry pang. 
Inflict whatever treason can deserve. 
Which murd^d innocence that call'd on me. 

Z.Exit Mahomet ; Abdatla u dragged off 

SCENE xni. 


MUSTAPHA to hur;;a. 
What plagues, what tertures, are in store for thee. 
Thou sluggish idler, dilatory slave ! 
Behold the model of consummate beauty, 
Tom from the mourning earth by thy neglect. 

Such was the will of Heav'n — A band of Greeks, 
That mark'd my course, suspicious of my purpose, 
Rnsh'd out and seiz'd me, tlioughtless and unann'd> 
Breathless, amaz'd, and on the guarded beach 
Detain'd me, till Demetrius set me iree. 


So sure the fall of greatness rais'd on crimes ! 

So fix'd the justice of all-conscioos Heav'n ! 
When haughty guilt exulta with impious joy. 
Mistake shall blast, or accident destroy ; 
Weak man with erring rage may throw die dart. 
But Heav'n shaU guide it to the guilty he»t. 

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U ABHV a Turk ! a hauefaty, tyrant king I 
Who thinks ua women bom to dreBBmnd nog 
To pleaw his fancy I see no other man 1 
Let him persuade me to it— if he can : 
Besides, he has My wives, and who can bear 
To have the fiftieth part fa^ paltry diare? 

'Til true, the fellow's handsome, straiffat, and tall. 
But how the devil should he please us 2l ! 
My swain is little — true~-but, be it known. 
My pride's to have that little all my own. 
Men will be ever to their errors bhnd. 
Where woman's not allow'd to ^i^ak her mind. 
I swear this Eaatam pageantry is nonaenie. 
And for one man-~«ne wife's enough of conscience. 

In vain proud man usurps whaf s woman's due ; 
For us alone, they honour's paths pursue ; 
Ingpiyd by us, tHey glory's heights ascend ; 
Woman the source, tne object, and the end. 
Though wealth, and poVr, and glory, they receive. 
These ore all trifles to what we can give. 
For us the statesman labours, hero fights. 
Bears toilsome days, and wakes long tedious nights i 
And, when blest peace has silenc'd war's alaitas, 
Bef^ves his full reward in Beauties arms. 

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Acled at Drvr^Lane Tltealre,for the Benefit of 
MiUon's Grand-daughter. 

Ye patriot crowds, who bum for Enj^land's fame. 

Ye njmiphs, whose bosoms beat at Milton's name. 

Whose gen'rous zeal, unbougbt by fiatt'ring rhym^, 

Shamea the mean pensions of ^ueustan- times. 

Immortal patrons of succeeding days. 

Attend this prelude of perpetual praise ; 

Let wit, condemn'd the feeble war to wage 

With close malevolence, or publick rage. 

Let study, worn with virtue's -fruitless lore. 

Behold this theatre, and griere no more. 

This night, distinguish'd'by your smiles, shall te& 

That never Britain can in vam excel ; 

The slighted arts futurity shall trust. 

And rising ages hasten to be just 

At length our mighty bard's victorious lays 
Fm the loud voice of universal praise ; 
And baffled spite, with hopeless anguish dumb. 
Yields to renown the centuries to come ; 
With ardent haste each candidate of fame. 
Ambitious, catches at hie tow'ring name ; 
He sees, and pitying sees, vain wealth bestow 
Those pageant honours which he scom'd below. 

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%Vlule crowds aloft the loiireat bust behold. 
Or trace hia form on circulating gold. 
Unknown, unheeded, long his offspring lay. 
And want buns threat'ning o'er her slow decaj'. 
What though ene shine with no Miltonian fire. 
No fav'ring muse her morning dreams inspire ; 
Yet softer claims the melting lieart engage, 
Her youth laborious, and her blameless age ; 
Hers the mild merits of domestick life. 
The patient sufferer, and the taithful wife. 
Thus, grac'd with humble virtue's native dunn^ 
Her grandsire leaves her in Britannia's arms ; 
Secure with peace, with competence, to dwell. 
While tutela^ nations guard bat celL 
Toot's is the charge, ye feir, ye wise, ye brave I 
Tis yoiir's to tawn aeatxt — beyond the grave. 




pRBBT by the load of life, the weary mittd 

Surveys the gen'ral toil <k human kind. 

With cool Buomission joins the lab'ring train. 

And social sorrow loses half its pain : 

Our anxious bard without complaint may share 

This bustling season's epidemio^ care ; 

Like Caraar's pilot digni^'d by Fate, 

Tost in one common storm with all the great; 

Distrest alike the statesman and the wit, 

When one a Borough courts, and one the Fit. 

The busy candidates for pow'r and &aae 

Have hopes, and fears, and wishes, just the same; 

Disabled both to combat or to fly. 

Must hear all taunts, and hear without reply. 

Uncheck'd on both loud rabbles vent then* rage. 

As mongrels bay the lion in a cage. 

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Th' offended burgess hoards hia angry tal^, 
For that blest year when all thst vote may rail ; 
Their schemes of spite the poet's foes dismiss. 
Till that glad night when aU that hate may biss. 

" This day the powder'd curls and golden coat/ 
Says swelling Crispin, " beg'd a cobler's vote." 
" This night our wit," the pert apprentice cries, 
" Lies at my feet; I hiss bun, and he dies." 
The great, 'tis tme, can charm th' electing tribe; 
The bard may suppUcatc, but cannot bribe. 
Yet, judged l^ those whose vtaeee ne'er were sold. 
He feels no want of ill-persuading gold ; 
But, confident of praise, if praise be due. 
Trusts without fear to merit and to you. 




This night presents a play which public rage. 
Or right or wrong, once hooted from the stage.f 
from zeal or malice, now no more we dread. 
For English vengeance wars not with the dead. 
A gen'rous foe regards with pitying eye 
The man whom fate has laid where lul must lie. 

To wit reviving from its author's dust 
Be kind, ye judges, or at least be iuat. 
For no renew'd hostilities invade 
Th' obhvious grare's inviolable shade. 

■ Performed at Covent-Garden tlwatra In 177T, for the bneCt 
of Mrs. Kelly, a widow of Hugh Kelly, Esq. (the author (rf tba 
play) and her children. 


Let one great payment ev'ry claina appease. 

And him, wlio cannot hurt, allow to please ; 

To please by scenes unconscious of offence. 

By harmlees merriment, or useful sense. 

Where ai^ht of bright or fiiir the piece displayc, 

Approve it only — ^tis too late to praise. 

If want of skill or want of care appear. 

Forbear to hiss — the poet cannot near. 

By all like him must praise and Uame be found. 

At best a fleeting gleam, or empty sound. 

Vet then shall calni reflection bless the night. 

When liberal pi^ dignify'd delight; 

When Pleasure Gr'd her torch at Virtue's Same, 

And Mirdi was Bounty with an humUer name. 

Stern ^^nter now, by Spring tepresa'd. 

Forbears the lung continued strife ; 
And Nature on her naked breast 

Dehghts to catch the eales of lite. 
Now o'er the rural kingdom roves 

Soft pleasure with the huighing train, 
Ijjve warbles in the vocal groves. 

And vegetation plants the plain. 
Unhappy! whom to beds of pain, 

Aj-Uiritic " tyra^iny consigns ; 
Whom smiling nature courts in vain. 

Though rapture sings and beauty shines. 
Yet though my limbs disease invades. 

Her wings Imagination tries. 
And bears me to Oie peaceful shades. 

Where ^s humble turrets rise. 

Here stop, my sou), thy rapid flight. 

Nor from the pleasing groves aejHUt, 

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Where first great luture charm'd my sight, ' 

Where wisdmn firat infonn'd my heart. 
Here let me through the vslcs pursue 

A guid^-B f«thei^-r-and a friend. 
Once more great Nature's works renew. 

Once more on Wisdom's voice att^id. 
From false caresses, causeless striie. 

Wild hope, vain fear, alike remov'd ; 
Here let rae learn the use of life, 

When best enjoy'd — when most improv'd. 
, Teach me, thou venerable bower. 

Cool meditation's tnilet seat. 
The gen'rous icom of venal power. 

The silent gruideur of retreat. 
When pride by guilt to greatness dimbs. 

Or raging factions rush to war. 
Here let me learn to shun the crimes 

I can't prevent, and will not share. 
But lest I fall by subder foes. 

Bright Wisdom, teach me Curio's art. 
The swelling passions to compose. 

And quell the rebels of the heart 


! down the western sky. 

Far' hence difiuse thy burning ray. 
Thy light to distant worlds sopp^. 

And wake them to the cares of day. 
Come, gentle Eve, the friend of care. 

Come, Cynthia, lovely queen of night! 
Refresh me with a cooling air. 

And cheer me with a lambent light. 
Lay me, where o'er the verdant grooad 

Her living carpet Nature spreads; 
Where the green bower, with roses crown'd, 

la diowere ha fragrant f<diag« dieds; 

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Improve the peace&l hoar with win^ 

Let musick die along die grove ; 
Around the bowl let myrtles twine. 

And ev'iT strain be tun'd to love. 
Come, Stella, queen of all my heart ! 

Come, boni to fill ita vaat desires ! 
Thy looks perpetual joys impart. 

Thy voice perpetual love inspires. 
Whilst all my wish and thine complete. 

By turns we languiah and we bum. 
Let sighing gales our sighs repeat. 

Our munnuTs-~murmuring l»ooks return. 
Let me when nature calls to test. 

And bid the waking world farewell. 


Alas! with swift and silent pace. 

Impatient time rolls on th^ year ; 
The seasons change, and nature's &ce 

Now sweetly smiles, now frowns severe. 
'Twaa Spring, 'twas Summer, all was gay. 

Now Autunm beads a. cloudy brow ; ^^ ^ 
The flowers of Spring are swept away. 

And Sunmier-fruits desert the bough. 
The verdant leaves that play'd on high. 

And wanton'd on the western breeze. 
Now trod in duat n^lected lie. 

As Boreas strips the bending trees.- 
The fields that wav'd with golden grain. 

As russet heaths, are wild and bare ; 
Not moist with dew, but drench'd with rain. 

Nor health, nor pleasure, wanders there. 
No more, while through the midnight shade. 

Beneath the moan's pale orb I sb-ay, 
K 2 

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Soft pleasing woes my he«rt invade, 

Aa Progne pours the melting lay. 
From this capricious clime she goara. 

Oh ! would some god but wings supply f 
To where each mom the Spring restores. 

Companion of her flight I'd ny. 
Vain wish ! me fate compels to bear 

The downward season's iron reign. 
Compels to breathe polluted air. 

And shiver on a blasted plain. 
What bliss to life can Autumn yield. 

If gtooma, and showers, and stonns prevail ; 
And Ceres flies the naked field. 

And flowers, and fruits, and Ph<ebus fail ? 
Oh ! what remains, what lingers vet. 

To cheer me in the darkening hour ! 
The grape remains ! the &iend of wit. 

In love, and mirth, of migh^ power. 
Haste— press the clusters, fill the bowl ; 

Apolto I shoot thy parting ray : 
This ^ves the sunshine of die soul. 

This god of health, and verse, and day. 
Still — still the jocund strain shfJl flow. 

The pulse with vigorous rapture beat ; 
My Stella with new charms shall glow. 

And ev'ry bliss in wine shall meet. 

w I N T E a, 

•K ODE. 

No more the mom, with tepid rays, 

Unfolds the flower of various hue ; 
Noon spreads no more the genial blaze. 

Nor gentle eve distils the dew. 
The ling'ringhouts prolong the night. 

Usurping Darkness shares the day; 
Her mists restrain the force of light. 

And Phoebus holds a doubtful sway. 

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By gloomy twilight half reveal'd. 

With Bigha we view the hoary hill. 
The leafless wood, the naked field. 

The siiow-topt cot.'the frosen rUL 
No muBick warbles through the grove. 

No vivid colours polat the plain ; 
No more with devious stepa I rove 

Through verdant paths, now sought in vain. 
Aloud the driving tempest roars, ■ 

Congeal'd, impetuous showers deicHid ; 
Haste, close the window, bar the do<H^, 

Fate leaves me Stella, end a friend. 
In nature's aid let art supply 

With light and heat my httle rohere ; 
Rouze, rouze the fire, and pile it high. 

Light up a constellation nere. 
Let musick sound the voice of joy. 

Or mirth repeat the jocund bile ; 
Let Love his wanton wiles employ. 

And o'er the season wine previu]. 
Yet time life's dreary winter brings. 

When Mirth's gay talc shall please no more ; 
Nor musick charm — though Stella sings ; 

Nor love, nor wine, the spring restore. 
Catch, then. Oh ! catch the transient hour, 

Improve each moment as it ffies ; 
_^Life'8 a short summer — man a flower; 

He dies— alas ! how boou he dies ! 


Behold, my fair, where'er we rove. 

What dreary prospects round us rise ; 
The naked hiU, the teafleas grove, , 

The hoary ground, the frowning ikies I 
Nor only through the wasted plain, 

Stem Winter ! is ihy force confess'd; 
Still wider spreads thy horrid reign, 

I feel thy power usurp my breast 
K S 

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Enlivening Iiope, and fond desire. 

Resign the heart to splefn and care ; 
Scarce trighted Love maintains her fire. 

And rapture saddens to despair. 
In groundless hope, and causeless fear. 

Unhappy man ! behiJd thy doom ; 
Still digging with the changeful year. 

The slave of sunshine and of gloom. 
Tir'd with vain joys, and false aWms, 

With mental and corporeal strife. 
Snatch me, my Stella, to thy arms. 

And screen me from the ills of U&. 

TO MISS "•" 

On her giving the Author a Gold and Silk Net-Work 

Purse of ha- orvn Weaving'. 

Though gold and silk titeir charms unite 
To make thy cmnous web delight. 
Id vain the varied work would shine. 
If wrought by any hand but thine ; 
Thy hand that knows the subtler art 
To weave those nets that catch the heart. 

Spread out by me, the roving coin 
Thy nets may catch, but not confine; 
Nor can I hope thy silken chain 
The glitt'ring vagrants shaU restrain. 
Why, Stella, was it then decreed 
The heart once caught should ne'er be freed ? 

isichord in a Room kuitg 
r-Piecea of her own PaitUingi^. 

When Stella strikes the tuneftit string 
In scenes of imitated Spring, 

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Where Beauty lavishes her powers 
On beds of never-fading flirarers. 
And pleasure propa^tes around 
£a(ii charm of modulated sound ; 
Ah ! think not, in the dangerous hour. 
The Nymph fictitioua as the flow'r; 
But shun, rash youth, the gay alcove. 
Nor tempt the snares of wuy love. 

When charms thus press on ev'ry sense. 
What thought of fli^t, <»" of defence? 
Deceitful hope, and vain desire, 
For ever flutter o'er her lyre. 
Delighting as the youth dravs nigh. 
To point the glances of her eye. 
Ana forming with unerring art 
New chains to hold the captive heart. 

But on those regions of delight 
Might truth intrude with daring flight. 
Could Stella, sprightly, fair, and young. 
One moment hear the mor^ song. 
Instruction with her flowers might spring. 
And wisdom warble from her string. 

Mark, when from thousand minted dyes 
Thou seest one pleasing form arise. 
How active light, and Oioughtfiil shade. 
In greater scenes each other aid ; 
Mark, when the different notes agree 
In friendly contrariety. 
How passion's well-accorded strife 
Gives all the harmony of life ; 
Thy pictures shall thy conduct frame. 
Consistent BtUl, though not the same ; 
Thy music teach thy nobler art. 
To tune the regulated heart 



EiENiNO now from purple wings 
Sheds the grateful gifts she brings ; 



Brilliant drops bededc tJie mesd. 
Cooling breezes ahake the reed ; 
Shake tlie reed, and curl the stream 
Silver'd o'er with Cynthia's beam ; 
Near tlie chequer'd, lonely grove. 
Hears, and keeps thy secrets. Love. 
Stella, thitlier let us stray, 
Lighdy o'er the dewy way, 
Phccbus drives his bumine cor 
Hence, my lovely Stella, far; 
In his stead, the Queen of Niofct 
Round us pours a lambent light j 
Light that Beeras but just to show 
Breasts th£.t beat, and eheeks that glow. 
Let UB now, in whisper'd joy. 
Evening's silent hours employ. 
Silence beat, and conscious shades. 
Please the hearta that love invades. 
Other pleasures give them pain. 
Lovers all but love disdain. 


Whether Stella's eyea are found 
Fix'd on earth, or glancing round. 
If her face with pleasure glow. 
If she sigh at others woe. 
If her easy air express 
Conscious worth, ra- soft distress, 
Stella's e^es, and air, and face. 
Charm with undiminish'd grace. 

If on her we see display 'd 
Pendant gems, and rich brocade. 
If her chmtz with less expence 
Flows in easy negligence ; 
Still she lights the conscious flame. 
Still her charms appear the same ; 
If she strikes the vocal strings. 
If die's silent, q>eaks, or sings. 

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If ahe sit, or if she move. 
Still we love «nd still HpjHwve, 

Vain the casual, transient glance. 
Which alone can please by chance^ 
Beauty, which depends on art. 
Changing with the changing heart, 
Whidt demands the toilefs aid, 
Pendant gems and rich brocad*. 
I those charms alone can prize 
Which from constant nature rise. 
Which nor circumstance nor dress. 
E'er can make, or more, or less. 


No more thus brooding o'er yon heap. 
With Avarice painful vigils keep ; 
StilLunenjoy'd the present store, , 

Still endless sighs are breath'd for more. 
Oh ! quit the shadow, catch the prize. 
Which not all India's treasure buys ! 
To purchase Heaven has gold the power? 
Can gold remove the mortel hour ? 
In life can love be bought with gold f 
Are fnendahip's pleasures to be sold ? 
No — all thaf s worth a wish — a thought, 
Fair virtue gives unbrib'd, imbought. 
Cease then on trash thy hopes to bind. 
Let nobler views engage thy mind. 

With science tread ue wond'rous way. 
Or learn the Muses' moral lay ; 
In social hours indulge thy soul. 
Where mirth and temperance nii!( the bowl; 
To virtuous love resign thy breast. 
And be, by blessing beauty — blest. 

"" e the feast by nature spread, 

Secure ftom pomp, and wealth, and strife. 

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I boast whate'er for man was nwant. 
In health, and Stella, and conteat ; 
And scorn I oh ! let that scorn be thine ! 
Mere tilings of day that dig the mine. 


When lately Stella's form di splay 'd 

The beauties of the gay brocade. 

The nymphs, who found their power decline, 

Proclaira'd her not so fair as fine. 

" Fate ! snatch away the bright disguise, 

" And let the goddess trust h^ eyes." 

Thus blindly pray'd the Fretful Fair, • 

And Fate malicioas heard the prayV; 

But, brighten'd by the sable dress. 

As virtue rises in distress. 

Since Stella sUll ext^mU her reigni •^ ' 

Ah ! how shall envy tooth her pain ? 

Xh' adoring Youth and envious Fair, 
Henceforth shall form one common |«ayer ; 
And love and hate alike implore 
The side*—" That Stella mourn no more." 


Not the soft sighs of vernal gales, 
The fragrance of the flowe^ vales. 
The murmurs of the crystal rill. 
The vocal ^ve, the verdant hill j 
Not all their charms, though all unite. 
Can touch my bosom with delight. 



Not all the p»wei-, nor all the fame, 
liiat heroes, kings, or poets, clum ; 
Nor knowledge, which the leam"d approve ; 
To form one wish my soal can move. 

Yet nature's charms allure my eyes. 

And knowledge] wealth, and fame, I prize j 

Fame, wealth, and knowledge, 1 obtiun. 

Nor seek I nature's charms in vain; 

In lovelj' Stella all combine ; 

And, lovely Stella ! thou art mine. 

Written at the Request of a Gentleman to mkom m 
Lady had given a Sprig of Myrtle. 

What hopes, what terrors, does thy gift create ? 

Ambiguous emblem of uncertain fate ! 

The myrtie (etisign of supreme command, • 

Consign'd by Venus to Melissa's hand) 

Not less capricious than a reigning fair. 

Oft favours, oft rejects, a lover's pray'r. 

In myrtle shadra oft sings the happy swain. 

In myrtle shades despairing ghosts complain. 

The myrtle crowns the happy lovers' heads, 

Th' unhappy lovers' graves the myrtle spreads. 

Oh I then, the meaning of thy gift impart. 

And ease the thmbbings of an anxious heart. 

Soon must this sprig, as you shall fix its doom. 

Adorn Philander's head, or grace his tomb. 

" Tfcese venes werB first printed in the Qenlkman's 
for IT68, p. 439, but were writteo many years eulier. El^ant 
IS they are, they were conipo«ed in the short epace o£ fin 

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At length must Suffolk beauties shine in vain. 

So long renown'd in &— — n's deathlcBa strain ; 

Thy charma at least, iair Firebrace, might inspire 

Some zealous bard to wake the sleeping lyre ; 

For, such thy beauteous mind and lovely face. 

Thou seem'st at once, bright nymph, a Mute and Grace. 


Ye nymphs whom starry rays invest. 

By flatfring poets given. 
Who shine, by lavishlovers drest. 

In all the pomp of Heav^i ; 

Engross not all the beams on high, 

which gild a lover's lays. 
But, as vour sister of the sky, , 

iJet Cyce share the praise. 

Her silver locks display the moon. 

Her brows a cloudy show, 
Strip'd rainbows round her eyes are seen. 

And show'rs from either flow. 

Her teeth the night with darkness dyes. 

She's starr'd with pimples o'er ; 
Her tongue like nimble lightning plies. 

And can with thunder roar. 

" This lady was Bridget, third daufthter of Philip Bacon, Esq. of 
Ipswich, and relict of Philip Even, Eiq. of that [own. %e be- 
came the second wife of Sir Cordell Piiebnice, the last Baronet of 
tlmt name (to whom ehe brou^t r fortune of 2S,OO0L) July 26, 
173T. Being again left a widow in 1T59, she was a third tini« 
married, April T, 1768. to William Campbell, Esq. uncte to the 
present Duke of Argyle, and died July 3, ITS!. 

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But aome ZelmcU, while I sing, 

Denies my Lyce shinet ; 
And all the pens of Cupid's wing 

Attack my gentle lines. 

Yet, qiite of fair Zelinda's eye. 

And all her bsida espress. 
My Lyce makes is good a eky. 

And I but flatter less. 


J PraeUter in PkjfiK. 

Cokdkhn'd to H<^'b delusive mine, 
As on we toil fitnn day to day. 

By audden blasts, or slow decline. 
Our social comforts drop away. 

Well try'd through many a varying year, 
■ See Leret to the gniTe descend, 
Offidoos, innocent, sincere. 

Of er'ry friendleaa name the friend. 

Yet still he fills Afledion's eye, 

Obscurely wise, and coarsely kind ; 

Nor, lettered Am^^ance, deny 
lily praise to merit unrefin'd. 

When fiunting natuM call'd far aid, 
And bov'ring death prepor'd the blow. 

His vig'roiu remedy display'd 
lite pow^ of art wiUtont the show. 

Id misery's darkest cavern know^ 
His useftil care was ever nigh. 

. i 


Where hopeless anguish potu'd his groao. 
And lonely want retir'd to die. 

No summons mock'd by chill deUy, 
Nci petty gain disdain'd by pride, 

The modest wants of ev'ry day 
The toil of ev'ry day supplj^d. 

His virtues walk'd their narrow round. 
Nor made a pause, nor left a void f 

And sure th' Eternal Master found 
The single talent well employ'd. 

The buiy day— the peacefid nighty 

Unfelt, uncounted, (glided by ; 
His frame was firm— xus powers were bright. 

Though now his eightieth year was nigh. 

Then, with no fiery throbbing pam. 

No cold gradations of decay. 
Death broke at once the vital chain. 

And freed his toul the nearest way. 



PAiLLiPs ! whose tOMh hanBoaiMucmild remove 
The pangs of guil^ pow'r, aad hapless love. 
Best nere, distrest by poverty bo ume. 
Find here that calm thou gav'et so oft before-; 
Sleep undisturb'd within "Uiis peace&l«hriB^, 
Till angels walie^tlleevitb.a note like. thine. 

' Theae lines ue aown^Mn. WiUimna'a' MiMEllsiiieB : th^ are 
nevertbeteBe recognised aa Jabnaon's in a memoruiduHi of his 
hand-writing, and were probabi;. written at ber regueet. Pbillipa 
was a travelling fiddler up and doini Wdea.snd'waB gnatly eeto- 

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HonoT^nlis admodnm Thomas Hanuer, 


Wilhelmi Huimer armigeri, e I^regrm^ Henrici 


De Mildenh^ in Com. Stiffolcite BaroneUi Ronre' 

et hierede, 


Johannis Hanmer de Hanmer BaionetU 

Hsres patruelig 

Antiquo gentie earn et titulo et patrimonio lucceasiL 

Duss uxorea fottitus tati 

Alteram Isabeltam, htmore & patre derivato, de 

Artingtoa comitigBam, 

Dciade celsissimi |Mincipb duds de Grafton viduam 


Alteram Elizabetham Tlv>ins Foulkes de Bu^n in 

Com. Su^. armigeri 

Filiam et hseredem. 

Inter humamtatea studia feliciter enutritus, 

Omttea Cbendium. artium dieciplinas avide ^ifuiit^ 

Quas moruna suavitate tiaud leviter omavit. 

Postquain exccssit ex ephebis, 

ContiiiuD inter populares suos fama eminens, 

£t comitatue sui legatus ad Parliamentuni missus. 

Ad Effdua regni negotia per annos prape trigititft* 

se accmxit : 

Cumque apitd iHos ampliBsimoriuji virorum ordines 

Solent nihil temere efFutire, 

Sed probe perpensa diaserte expromere. 

Orator eravia et preasus ; 

Nod minus integntatia quam eloquentife laude 


* &\ Hanmer church, ia Fljntahirtv 
t 3 

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JEqu« omnium, utcnnque inter se alioqui discddentium, 

Aures atque animoB attraxit 

Annoc^ue demum m.dcc.xiii. regnante Anna, 

FelidasmuE florentissimsque memoriie retina. 

Ad Prolocutoris cathednm 

Commnni Senatus universi voce deBtgnatos ert : 

Quod munus. 

Cum ntdlo tempore non difficile. 

Turn illo certe, negotiis 

Et varuj et lubricis et implicatb difficiQImuni, 

Cum dignitate sustinuit. 

HimoreB aliot, et omnia que sibi in lucnim cederent 


Sedulo detxectavit, 

Ut rei totus tnservirct pubUc« ; 

. Juati rectique tenas, 

Et fide in patriaia incorrupta Hotus. 

Ubi omnibus, que vinun civemque bonum decent, 

officiis satisfecisset, , 
Paulatim se a publicie consiliia in otium recipieni. 

Inter literarum amiemtates. 

Inter ante-actte vitae baud inauavea recordationcc 

Inter amiconim convictus et amplexus, 

Honorifice consenuit; 

Et bonis omnibua, quibus chariasimua vixit, 

DesideratisaimuB obiit. ^ 

Hie, ji»tft cinerea avi, suos condi voluit, et curavit 
Gulielnius Bunbury B»ui nepos et hierea. 



Thou who survey'at the^ walls with curious eye, 
Pauae at the tomb where Hanheh's aahes lie ; 

■ This Pa»phra«e is Inserted in Mrs. WI11Udu*b MiKellanlei. 
The Latin la there said to ba written b; Dr. Preind. Of tbe pcsson 
whose memor; it cclebratei, a copjous account nuy be vxa iR Uw 
Appendix to tbe Supplement to the BiogmphU Biitaiuiica> 

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Hia variatu worth through varied life attend. 
And learn his virtoes wUle thou moum'rt his end. 

Hia f<wce of genius bum'd in early youth. 
With thirst of Knowledge, and with love of truth; 
His learding, join'd with each endearing aii, 
Chann'd ev'ry ear, and gain'd on ev'ry Heart. 

Thus early wise, th' endanger'd realm to aid. 
His country call'd him. from the studious shade ; 
Id life's first bloom his publick toils began. 
At once commenc'd the sena.tor and man. 

In business dex'troua, weighty in debate, 
Hirice ten long years he labour'd for the State : 
In ev'ry speech persuasive wisdom flow'd. 
In ev'ry act refulgent virtue glow'd ; 
Suspended faction ceas'd from rage and strife. 
To hear hia eloquence, and praise his life. 

Resistless merit fix'd the Senate's choice. 
Who hail'd him Speaker with united voice, 
niustrious age ! how bright thy glories shone. 
When Hammer fill'd tlie chair— -and Anne tJie tlttoni 

Then when dark arts obacur'd each fierce debate. 
When mutual frauds perples'd the maze of state. 
The moderator firmly mild appear'd — 
Beheld with love— with veneration heard. 

This task perform'd — he sought no gainful post, 
Nw wish'd to elitter at his country's cost ; 
Strict on the nght he fix'd his steiuUast eye. 
With temperate zeal and wise ansiety ; 
Nor e'er from Virtue's paths was lur'd aside. 
To pluck the flow'rs of pleasure, or of pride. 
Her gifts despis'd. Corruption blush'd and fled. 
And Fame pursu'd him where Conviction led. ' • 

Age call'd, at length, his active mind to rest. 
With honour sated, and with cares opprest ; 
To letter'd ease retir'd, and honest mirth, 
' To rural grandeur and domestic worth : . 
pelighted still to please mankind, w mend. 
The patriot's lire yet sparkled in the friend. 

Calm ConsciencCj then, his former life survey*d. 
And recollected toils endear'd the shades 
Till Nature call'd him to the ven'rol doovi. 
And Virtue's sorrow dignified hia tomb. 
L S 

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Bright Stella, form'd for universal reign, 
T<JO well you know to keep the slaves you gaii_ . 
When in your eyes resistless lightningB play, ) 

Aw'd into love our conquer'd Eearta obey, i' 

And yield reluctant to despotic sway: 3 

But when your musick soothes the raging psin, 
We bid propitious Heav'n prolong your reign. 
We bless the Wrant, and we hug the chain. 

When old Timotheus struck the vocal string, 
Ambition's fury fir'd the Grecian kine : 
Unbounded projects lab'ring in his mind. 
He pants for room, in one poor world confin'd. 
Thus wak'd to rage, by musick's dreadful pow'i 
He bids the swora destroy, the flame devour. 
Had Stella's gentle touches mov'd the lyre. 
Soon had the monarch felt a nobler fire; 
No more delighted with destructive war. 
Ambitious only now to please the feir ; 
Resign'd his thirst of empire to her charms. 
And found a thousand worlds in Stella's arms. 


Verses 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. 

" Go to the Ant, liou Slu^ardf." 

TuBN on the prudent ant thy heedful eyes. 
Observe her labours, sluggard, and be wise ; 

' These lines, which have been communicated by Dr. Turton, 
ion to Mn. Turton, the Lad; to ivhoin they are addressed by her 

Bidden name of Hickman, must have been written at least as early 
at the year IT34, ^ that wbs the year of her maniage : at bow 
mufh earlier a pwibd oTDr. Johnson's life they may have been 
written, is not known. 

■f Id Mrs. Williania'a Miscellanies, but now printed ftnm th* orf' 
ginal in Dr. Johnaon's ewn band-writiiig. 

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No stem commandj no monitoiy voice. 
Prescribes her duties, or directs her clioice ; 
Yot, timely provident, she tustes away. 
To Hnatch ^e blessings of the plenteous d>v; 
When fruitful gummer loads the teeming pUinj 
She crops the haryest, and she stores the grain. 
How long shall sloth usurp thy useless nours. 
Unnerve thy vigour, and enchain thy poVrs ; 
WMle artful shades thy downy couui uidose. 
And soft solicitation courts repose ? 
Amidst tJie drowsy charms of dull delist. 
Year chases year with unremitted flight. 
Till want now following, fraudulent and alow. 
Shall spring to seize thee like an ambnah'd foo; 

HORACE, Lib. IV. Odk VII. tranblatkb. 

The snow, dissolv'd, no more is seen. 
The fields and woods, behold J are green; 
The chanf^ng year renews the plain. 
The rivers know their banks again ; 
The sprightly nymph and naked grace 
The mazy dance together trace ; 
The chat^^ing year's successive plan 
Proclaims mortality to man ; 
Rough winter's blasts to spring give way, 
^ring yields to summer's sov'reign ray ; 
Then summer sinks in autumn's reign, 
And winter chills the world again; 
Her losses soon the moon supplies. 
But wretched man, when once he lies 
Where Priam and his sons are laid. 
Is naught but ashes and a shade. 
Who knows if Jove, who counts our score. 
Will toss us in a morning more? 
What with your friend you nobly share 
At least you rescue from your heir. 
Not you, Torquatua, boast of Rome, 
When Minos once has fix'd your doom. 

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Or eloquence, or ^lendid birtb. 

Or virtue, «iuiil restore to euUi. 

Uippdlytiis, unjustly aUin, 

Diana calls to hfe in vain ; 

Nc« c«o the mi^t of Tfameue rend 

The chains of Hell that hold his friend. 

IJ- The fqUo^iag Translations, Pakoqies, and Buk- 
LESQUB Versbs, moKt of them extempore, are taken- 
from Anecdotes of Dr. Johnson/ puhHsked bu 
Mrs. Piozzi. 


LovELV courier of the sky. 
Whence and whither dost thou fly f 
Scatt'ring, as thy pinions play, 
XJquid fragrance all the vay : 
Is it buainesa ? is it love ? 
Tell me, tell me, gentle dove. 

Soft Anacreon'e vows I bear. 
Vows to Myrtale the fair ; 
Grac'd with all that charms the heart. 
Blushing nature, smiling art. 
Venus, courted by an ode. 
On the bard her dove bestow'd: 
Vested with a master's right. 
Now Anacreon mles my flight; 
His the letters that you see. 
Weighty charge conaign'd to me ; 
Think not yet my service bard. 
Joyless task without reward; 
Smihng at my inaster's gates. 
Freedom my return awaits ; 
But the lib'ral ^ant in vain 
T^npts me to be wild again. 

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Can A orudent dore dedine 
filissAu bondw;e such aa nune f 
Over failla ana 6elds to roam, 
. Fortaae'a guest without a home ; 
Under leave* to hide one's hdid. 
Slightly ■helter'd, coarsely fed : 
Vow my better lot bestows 
Sweet repast, and soft repose ; 
Now the gen'roua bowl I sip 
Aa it leaves Anacreon's hp : 
Void of care, and free firma dread. 
From his fingers snatch his bread ; 
Then, with luscious plenty g^. 
Round his chamber oanoe and play ; 
Or from wine, aa cotu-age springs. 
O'er his &ce attend my wings ; 
And when feast and iroUc tire. 
Drop asleep upon his lyre. 
This is aU, be quick and go. 
More than all ttiou canst not know; 
Let me now my pinions ply, 
1 have chatter'a uke a |^e. 


WrUten in ridicule, ofeeriain Poena publithed in 1777. 

Wheresoe'er I turn mv view. 
All is strange, yet nothing new ; 
Endless labour all along, 
Endleas labour to be wrong ; 
Phrase that tune hath fiung away. 
Uncouth words in disarray, 
Trick'd in antique ruff and bonne^ 
Ode, and elegy, and sonnet, 


from the Msdba o/'Eurifiobs. 

Ean shall they not, who resolute eXplM« 
Timea gloomy backwafd with ju^dous eyes; 

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And, scanning right the practices oCyore, 
Shall deem our faogr pn^enitors umrise; 

They to the dome whM« Smoke, with cnriinr |i^, 
Announc'd the dinner to the r^oni nnmd, 

Summon'd the singer bUthe, and harper gay. 
And aided wine with dulcet-streaming Bound. 

The better use of notes, or sweet or dnill. 
By quiv'ring string or madubted *ind; 

Tnunpet or lyre~~lSD their harsh boioinB diill 
Admission ne'er had aoa|pbt, ok eonld not find. 

Oh ! send them to tbe buU«i manaidiie dun. 
Her baleful eyes where Sorraw reHs around; 

Where eloom-enamonr'd Uischief loves to dwell; 
And Murder, all blood-bolter'^ icheiBei tbe wMind. 

When cates luxuriant pile the ipacioue (£sb. 
And purple nectar glada the testive-hour ; 

The guest, without a want, without a wish. 
Can yield no room to musklt's soothing pow'r. 


Of the Tpro First Stansat of the Song "Rio verde, Rio 
verde," printed in Bishop Percy's ReUques (if AncieiU 
EnglUk Poetry. An Imprommtf. 

Glas§v water, glassy, water, 

Down whose current, clear'and strong. 

Chiefs coofus'd in mutual slaughter. 
Moor and Chrisdan roU along. 

IMFTATiON of Ike Style of 

Herhit hoar. In solemn cell 
Wearing oat lifi^s cvram^givy. 

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Strike thv bosom, sage, and tdl 
Wkat IS bliss, and which the w^. 

Thus I apoke, and nieakiiiff Bi|^'d, 
Scarce repress'd the starting tear. 

When the koary sage reply'd. 
Come, my Ud, and dnnk some beer. 


OfthtfcOmmg £««* of Lopez deVeo*. 

Se acqnien los leones vence 

Venice una muger hermosa 
O el de flaco averguence 

O eUa di ¥et maa fiiriosa.' 

If the man who-tmnips cries, 
Ci^ not when his father dies, 
'Tw B proof that fae^ud radier 
Have a turnip than his &ther. 

Qfthefdiateing Lma at the Endaf BARjTaitg Eaiy 

Viva viva la padrona ! 
Tntta bella, e tutta bueiM, 
La padrona e un angiolella 
Tutta buooa e>t«tta bdb ; 
Tutta beUa e tutta buona; 
Viva ! viva la padrona ! 

LoNo may liveniylovdy H«tty ! 
Always young, wd^waye i««tty; 



Alirays prett^j always young. 
Live, my lovety He^, long r 
Ahrays youpg, ani uways pietty, 
Tjmg may live my lovely Het^ I 

Ofthefoliowuig DiHich on Iht Duke of Modata't 
fUng anas from '^ <^<>*^ *" 1?^ ^ 17^^- 

St al venir vo8tro i prindpi ae a' vamio 
Deh venga ogni di - durate un anno. 

Ir at your coming princes disiqipear. 
Comets ! come evVy day — — • and stay a year. 


Ofthejbikmimg Unet ofM.. fiEMfiKRADE a ton LM. 

Thkathe des ria, et dea pleurs, _ 
Lit ! ou je neis, el on je meura, 
Tu nmu &is voir comment voisins, 
Sont no8 pUisirs, et nos chagrins. 

In bed we laugh, in bed we c^. 
And bom in bed, in bed we die ; 
Tbe near unntiadi a bed may show 
Of human miss to inunan woe. 


Tbx hand of him here torpid lies. 

That drew th' essential ibrm of grace ; 

Here dos'd in death th' att^tive eyes. 
That aaw the manners in the (iff«. 

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OfihefeVoning Lines reriUen under a Print repreMn'- 
ing Pertotu tiaiting. 

Sur vui mince chrystal I'hyver conduit leuri pas, 
Le precipice eat sous la stace : 
Telle est de nos plaisirs U legere surface : 

Gliraez, ttiorteU; n'appu^ez pat. 

O'er ice the ru)id duiter flies. 
With sport above, and death below .; 

Where mischief lurks in any disguise, 
Tbns lightly touch aod quickly ga 



O'er crackling ice, o'er g^pha pnrfbuud, 

Vfith nimble glide the sluitera play ; 
O'er treach'rous Pleaautc's flow'ry ground 

Thus lightly skim and haste away. 

On her amtpleting ier lhiri^,0h Year. 


Oft itt Aao^fsr, yet iJive, 
We are come to thirty-five ; 
Long mug better years urive, 
BeKn years than thk^-Av« ! 
OmM plul«*M^]h«9« eontrive 
Life to rtop ^ thir^-five. 
Time his hoow should aevar dri«e 
Oer die bounda of tkirty>five> 

you. I. M 

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High to SOOT, and deep to dive, . 
Nature gives at thirty-five. 
Ladies, stock and tend your hive. 
Trifle not at thirty-five ; 
For, howe'er we boa£t and strive. 
Life declines from thirh'-five. 
He that ever hopes to thrive 
Must begin by thirty-five ; 
And all who wisely wish to wive 
Must look on Thrale at thity-five. 


Of an Am in the Clemenza de Tito of Metaetasis, 

be^nmng, " Deh 'se piacermi vuoL" 

Would you hope to gain my heart. 
Bid your teasing doubts deport; 
He, who blindly trusts, will find 
Faith from ev'ry gen'rous mind : 
He, who still expects deceit. 
Only teaches how to cheat. 


Of the Speech o/'Aquilbio in the Adruno o^ Meta»- 
TAsto, beginning " Tu che in Corte inveduastL" 

Grown old in courts, thou surely art not one 

Who keeps the rigid rules of antient honour; 

Well skiU'd to so^ a foe with looks of kindness. 

To sink the &tal precipice before him. 

And then lament his fall with seeming friendship ; 

Open to aU, true only to thyself, 

Tnou know'st those arts which blast with envions praise 

Which aggravate a fault with feign'd excuses. 

And drive discoujrtenanc'd virtue ftom the throne ; 

That leave the blame of rigour to the princej 

And of hii ev'ry gift usurp iJie merit; 

That hide in seeming aeal a wicked purpose. 

And only buQd upon another's rain. 

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M E S S I A'. 
Sx aliciio ingeDJo poett, ei buo tantum veisiGcMot. 


ToLLiTE concentum, Solymsx toUJte nymphie 
Nil mortftle loquor ; coelum mihi carminis alta 
Materies ; poacnnt gravius ccElestia plectrum. 
Muscosi fonUs, sylvestria tecta valete, 
Aonidesque DeEe, et mendacis somnia Pindi : 
Tu, mih], cjui flamma movisd pectora sancti 
'Siderea Isaite] dignos accende furores ! 

Immatura calens rapitur per secula vates 
Sle oraua— Qualis rerum nulii luscitur ordo ! 
Virgo! virgo pariti felix radicibuB arbor 
JesHeia smgit, miUcentesqije tethera flores 
Ckelestes l^riiunt animEe, ramisque columba, 
Nnncia sacra Dei, plaudentibus mBidet alia. 
Nectarees rorea, alimentaquc mitia coelum 
PrKbeat, et tadte fcecundos inigct imbres. 
Hue, fcedat quoa lepra, urit quoa febris, adeate^ 
Dia salutares spirant medicamina rami ; 
Hie requies feeaia : non sacra BEevit in umbra 
ViB Bores gelida, aut rapid! violentia aalis. 
Inita vuieacent prisca vestigia fraudia 
JnstidFeque manus pretio intemerata bilancem 
AttoUet reducis ; bellia prsetendet ollvaa 
CompoaitiB pax ahna auaa, terrasque reviaena 
Sedatas niveo virtua lacebit amictu : 

* Thii banaUOon haa been severely cHticieed bj Dr. Wnrlon, in 
hueditumofPape, voL i. p. 105. Svo. 1797. It wrtainly CDnwim 
•oine expiadong that are not elaaeical. Let it ^ remembered, 
bowerer, thai it was a coJl^e-eKercise* perforuned with great rapi- 
ds, and was at fint praised beyond all suspicion al defixrt. 

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Valvantur celerei anni ! lux purpuret ortum 
Expectatft diu .' nature clttuatra re&ingens, 
Nascere, magne puer J tibi primas, ecce, corollas 
Qeproperat tellus, fundit tibi auutera, quicquid 
Carpit Arabs, hortis quicquid frondescit Etna. 
Altius, en ! Lebanon gaudentia culmina tollit. 
En ! sununo exultant nutantes vertice sylvse, 
Mittit aromaticas vallis Saronica nubes, 
£t juga Carmeli reneant fragrantia coelum. 
Deserti Iteta iqolleecunt aspera voce 
Auditor Deus ! ecce Deus 1 reboantia cjrcum 
Saxa aonaJit, Deus ! ecce Deus ! deflectitur cetlier, 
DemissuiDque Deum teUus capit; ardua cedru^ 
Gloria aylvarum, dominum inclinata saluteL 
Surgite convalleB, tunudi subsidite moMes I 
Sternite saxa viam, r^idi diacedite 6uctus; 
En ! quern turba diu eccinenint enthea, vates 
En ! Balvator adest; vultas agnoscite cffici 
Diviaos, surdoa eacra vox permulceat aures. 
Ille cutim spifisam visus hebetare vetabtt, 
Reclufiisque oculis infundet amabile lumen; 
Obstrict^ue diu luiguaa in carmina solvet 
Ille vias vocie pandet, fiexufiqu£ Uqueotis 
Harmonis pur^ta novoB nurabitur aurig. 
Accreacunt tenerle tacti) nova robora nervis : 
CoQsuetus fulcro inniuia reptare bacilli 
Nunc saltu capreae, nunc curau provocat euros. 
. Non planctua, non mossta sonant suspiria; pectus 
Singultans mulcet, lachrymjmttis tergit ocellos. 
Vincla coercebunt luctantem aciamatitina nwrtfiiu 
^temoque Ord dominator vulnere languens 
Invalidi raptos aoeptri plerabit honores. 
Vt qua dulce'strepeiit acatebre, quo lata virescuat 
Pascua, qua blandum spiral purisiiuus aer, 
Pastor agit peeudes, t^neroi Aiodo suicipit ^ikm 
Et greniio fotis selectaa porrigit herbas, 
Amissas modo qusrit oves, revocatque VBgantes ; 
Fidua adest custos, seu oox furai iKHrida nimlii^ 
Sive dies mediua morienCia torreat arva, 
Poetera sic pastor divinus neda beabit, 
Et curas febx patrias teBtabttur orbis. 
N<«i ultra infestis coacuireat agmiiia signu. 

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Rostiles oculis Aammas jacuUntja torvii j 
Hoa Utui accendent bellum, non campus ahenia - 
Trigte coniscabil: radiis ; dabit haata recuaa 
Vomerem, et in falcem rigidua cua^abitur enaig. 
Atria, pads opaa, aurgent, fineoique caduci 
NstuB ad optatum perdncet ceepta parentis. 
Qai duxit sulcoa, illi teret area meMiim, 
Et sene texent vites umbracula {roU. 
Attoniti duneta nd«it inculto coloni 
Suave rubere roais, sitienteaque inter arenas 
GaiTula mirantuT aalientia miinnuTa nvL 
Per Baza, ignivomi nuper apeltea draconia, 
Canna vlret, jundque trenut variabilis umbra. 
Hormit implexo qua vallis sente, figura 
Surgit amans abics teretis, buxique aequace« 
Artificis frondent dextin ; palnusque rubeta 
Aspera, odorats cedunt ipala gramina myrto. 
Per valles sociata lupo lasciTiet agna, 
Cumque leone petet tutus prtesepe juvencus. 
Florea manauettE petulantes vincula tigri 
Per htdum pueri mjident, et feasa colubri 
Membra viatoria recrebunt frigore linguae. 
Seipentes teneris nil jam lethole micantea 
Tractabit paLmis infana, motuaque trisulcs 
Ridebit lii^guse innocuos, aquaraasque virentes 
Aureaque admirans rutilantis fulgura cristce. 
Indue reginam, turrits irontia hoporea 
Tolle Salema sacroa, quam ctrcum gloria pennas 
Eiplicat, incinMam radiate luce tiarse ! 
En ! fonnosB tibi spasiosa per atria, proles 
Ordinibus aurgit deuaia, vitamque requirit 
bnpatienB, lenteque fluentes increpat annoa. 
£cce peregrinis fervent tua limina turbia ; 
Bariwnia en ! darum divino lumine templum 
Ingreditur, cultuque tuo mansueacere gaudet 
Cinoameoa cumulos, Nabatba^ munera veris, 
£cce cremant genibus trit^ regalibus ane ! 
Solii Ophyraeis critdum tibi montibus aunun 
Haturant radii ; tibi balsama sudat Idume. 
JEtheria en portas aacro fulgore micantea 
Ccelicobe pandunt, torreotia aitrea lucia 
Flomina pr<»ofnpuDt ; non posthac sole rubeace 
M 3 

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India nascend, ^addteve srgcnte* nocti's 
Luna vtoee ntetvet ; radios pater ipse diet 
Proferet ardtutypoa ; cicleeba gaiMlia lucis 
lp»o fonte lHbe«, quie ciraunfiisa betttam 
Kegiam intuida^, nutlia cessuro tenalxu. 
Litlora deficieas arvatu. dvaeret aqvir ; 
Sidera fumabuiit, dtro Idjefeeta trwiore 
Sasa cadent, solidique licpiewjent robora mon 
Tu secuTB tamen con^Ha riemeiit* vid^i, 
Ltetaquei Mewia semjper dontimdj^v t^g^i 
Pollidtis finnata Dei atabilha rainie. 

tJtw, », M, I778.J 

yvTM qui rarias vices 
Rerum perpetuus temperat Arbiter, 

Larto ceaere lumini 
Noctis tristitiam qui gelidfe jubet, 

Acri sanguine turgidos, 
Obductosque ocuIoB nubibus hunudia 

Sanari voluit meog. 
Et me, cuncta beans cui tiocuit dies, 

Luci reddidit et mihi. 
Qua te laude, Deus qua prece prosequ&rt 

Sacri discipulis libri 
Te semper studii^ udlibua coUm : 

Grates, sumine Pater, tuis 
Becte qui &uitur numeribus, dedit. 

[Dm. ftS. ITTft] 
Nunc die< GmfSto aemwanda nala 
Fulsit, in pectus miiu fimte purum 
Gaudium wtaa ftuat, et benigm 

Grada Cseli ! 
Christe da tiitam tte^Aa quifitem, 
Christe, spem pnBsta std>iieBi timend ; 
Dft fidnn certam, prectbuaque fidis 

Awwe, C^natm. 

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(In Leeu. dU PtMOoais. Apr. 13. Uel-l 

StiHHE Deua, qui semper axaaa ^uodcunaue creaati ; 

Judice quo, scelerum est pcenituisse salus : 
Da veterss noxas animo sic nere novato. 

Per Christum ut veiuam sit reperire mihi. 

[In Ucto, JDec 25, ITSS.) 
Spe non inani confugis, 
Peccator, ad latus meum ; 
Quod poscis, haud unquam tibi 
N^abitur solatium. 

[Nocte, inter IS et IT Junli, 1TS3*.] 

Sum HE Pater, quodcunqne tuum t de corpore Numen^ 
Hoc statuat |f, precibua § Chtistus adesse velit : 

Insenio parcas, nee sit mihi culpa rogasse IT, 
Qua solum potero parte, placere '* tibi. 

[CaL Jan. in Jecto, u>te lucem. 1TS4.] 

SuMME dator vits, naturte eeteme ma^sto*, 

Causarum series quo modcrante fluit, 
Sespice quein aubiget senium, morbique seniles. 

Quem terret vits meta propinqua sute, 
Kespice inutiliter lapsi quem pcenitet tevi ; 

Etecte ut pceoiteat, reqnce, magne parens. 

* The ni^t above lefured M by Or. Jobnson wat that in wU«li 
■ pnialyHc strolie had d^irjved hini of his voice ; and in the inile- 
Ij he felt lest it should likewise have impaired hia understanding, 
he compbsed the above Linen, and said, cnncerning them, that he 
knew at the time that the; were not good, but then that he deemed 
hia discemlug this to be sufflcienC for the quieting the anxiety be> 
fbre mentioned, as it shewed him that his power of jndging was not 

t AL leges. || AI. statuaat. 


Pater benigne, Bumina e^nper loiiti^, 
Crimine gravatam plurimo mentem leva : 
Concede veram pcenitentiam, precor. 
Concede agendam legibus vitum tuis. 
Sacri vagantes lunimis gressus face 
Kege, et tuere, qme nocent pellens procul; 
Vetiiam petenti, summe da veniam, pater; 
Venueque sancta pacis adde gaudia : 
Sceleris ut eJtpera onmi, et vacuus metu, 
Te, mente pura, mente tranquilla colam : 
^ihi dona morte lisec impetret Christua sua.. 

[Jan. 18, 1784.] 

SCHHE Pater, puro collustra lumine pectus, 

Anxietas noceat ne tenebroMa mihi. 
In me nHirea manu virtutum semina larga 

Sic ale, proveniat messis ut antpla boni. 
Noctes atque dies animo spes Ixta reciiraet;, 

Certa mihi sancto flagret amore fides. 
Certa vetat dubitaie fides, spes Iffita timere, 

^'elle vetet cuiquam nan bene sanctus omoKi 
Da, ne sint pemusaa, pater, mihi pnemia frustr^ 

Et colere, et leges semper amare tuas. 
Heec mihi, quo gentes, quo aecula, Christp, piast^ 

Sanguine, precanti promereare luo ! 

[Feb. 87, 178*.) 

Uens mea quid qaererie i veniet tibi mollior iioea. 
In summo ut videas numine la^ta patrem ; 

Divinam insontes iram placavit Jesus ; 
Nimc est pro ptena p<Enituisse reis. 

Qui cupit in sanctos Christo cogente refem, 
Abstergat mundi labem, nee gaudia camis 

Captans, nee fiutu tinnidtu, semperque ftituro 
Inatet, et evellens tetroris spicula corde, 
Suepiciat tandem clementem in nuinme patmn. 

Huic qnoque, nee genti nee sectce nonus uUi, 
Sit aacer orbie amor, miseria cyii semper ademc 
Gestiat, et, nullo pietada limite dausiis, 
Ctmctorum ignoscat vitiis, pietate &uBtnr. 
Ardeat huic toto sacer ig^s pectore, poBsit 
Ut Titam, poacat si rea, impendere vero. 

Cura placere Deo ait prima, ait ulttnu, sanctK 
Irrtiptum vitse cupiat servare tenorem; 
£t aibi, delinuis quanquam et peccat<v in horu 
Diapliceat, servet tutum sub pectore rectum : 
Nee natet, et niiDc has partes, aunc eltgat ilka. 
Nee dubitet quem dicat h^iun, aed, totiu in ui|9( 
Se fidum addicat Christo, mortalia temnena. 

Sed timeat semper, caveatque ante omnia, turfaM 
Ne stolidse aimilia, leges aibi a^reget audax 
Quaa aerrare veli^ tegea quaa lentua omittat. 
Plenum opus effiigiena, aptans juga mollis coUo 
Sponte aua demena ; nihilam decedere aumnue 
Vult DeuB, at qui cuncta debit tibi, cuncta reposcit 
Denique perpetuo contendit in ardua nim, 
Aimlioque Dei fretus, jam mente aerena 
Pergit, et impeiiia aentit se dulcibos actum. 
Paiuatim morea, animum, vitamque refingi^ 
Effigiemque Dei, quantum aervare licebit, 
Induit, et, terria major, ccelestia ^ir&t. 

Sterne rerum conditor, 
Salutia eterme dator j 
Felicitatis aedibua 
Qui nee scelestos exigia, 
Quoscumque scelerum poenitet; 
Da, Chriate, pcenitentiam, 
Veniamque, Chriate, da mihi ; 
£grum trohenti spiritum 
Succurre preesens corpori, 
Multo grsTotum crimioe 
Mentem benignus allev* 

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Luce collustret mihi pectus alma, 
Pellat et tristes anuiii tetiebras. 
Nee Binat eemper tremere ac dolore. 

Gratia Chrisd : 
M« pat«F tand^n reducem benigno , 
SummuB amplezu fuveat, beato 
Me gregi sanctus socium beatum 

Spiritus addat. 


Nrviat ut menti corpus jejunia serva, 
Ut mens utatur corpore, Bume ciboe. 

AD URBANUM*. 1738. 

Urbane, nullis fesse laboribtu. 

Urbane, nullie victe caluniniis, 

Cui &onte Bertum in enidita 

Perpetuo viret, et virebit; 

Quid moliatur gens iinitantiuin. 
Quid et mlnetur, eolljcitus paruD)^ 
Vacare solis perge Musis, 
Justs onimo studiisque fcelix. 

Lingua procaciaplumbea spicula, - 
Fid^s, superbo &aiige silesitio ; 
Victiix per obstantes caterva* 
SeduUtas animoaa tendet. 

Intende nervos fortis, inanibu» 
Bisurua oUm nisibus emuli ; 
Intende jam nervos, habebis, 
Fartidpes opera canuenaa. 

>• alio the Intoadaf> 

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18 pBffina _ 
Quam qns aeveris ludicra jungere 
Novit, &tigatamque nugis 
UtilibuB recreare mentera. 

Texente nymphia serta Lycoride, 
Rose ruborem aic viola adjuvat 
Immista, sic Iris refulget 
^thereis variqta fiicig. 


Errat adhuc vitreos per prata virentia riviu. 

Quo toties lavi membra tenella puer; 
Hie deluBa rudi fiiiatabar bracbia motu, 

Dum docuit blanda voce oabire pater. 
Fecerunt rami latebras, tenebrisquf diuriui 

Pendula aecretas abdidit arbor aquas. 
Nunc veteres duris periere aecuribtu umbrte, 

Longinquisque oculis nuda laracnt patent. 
Ljmpha tames cursus agit tndefessa perennis, 

Tectaqite qua fluxit, nunc «t aperta fluiL 
Quid fent extemi velox, quid deterat (etas, 

Tu quoque seciirus rei age, Nise, tuas. 

rNne-i seayton.- 

(Post L«iieDn Anglkaniuit auetum at emendatum.*) 

Lexico^ ad finem lon^o luctomine tandem 
Scali^er ut dixit, tenuis pertaesuB opellfe. 
Vile mdignatua atudium, nugasque moleatai, 
' Ingemit exosua, scribendoque l^ca mandat 

18, pcenam pro pcem . _.._„. 

Ille quidem recte, snblimia, doctus et acer. 
Quern decuit majora aequi, majoribus aptum, 
Qni veteran mcdo &cta ducum, modo cannina vatmH, 

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GeBserat et quicquid virtuB, upieatia quiequid, 
Dixerat, imperiique vices, oblique raeatiu, 
Ingentemque animo seclorum volveret artMm. 

FaUiuiur exempliB ; temere aibi turba wJwiUmm 
Ima tuaa credit permitti Scaliger iraa. 
Quisque suiun norit modulumi tibi prime, «in>nim 
Ut studiis spemn, aut ausim par ease quereli^ 
Non mibi Borte datum; lenti seu ranguinis obtiiit 
Frigora, seu Tiimium lonva jacuiue vetemo, 
Sive mihi mentem dedent nstura minorem. 

Te sterili functum cura, vfieumque salebris 
Tuto etuctatum spatiia sapientia dm 
Ezdpit sthereia, ara onuue plaudit amico, 
Linguarumque omni terra discordia concors 
Multiplici reducem circum sonatore magistruzn. 

Me, pensi inununis cum jam mihi reddor, inertis 
Deaidte sore dum manet, graviorque labore 
Tristis et atra quies, et tards tat^a vitae. 
Nascuntnr curis curae, vexatque dcJonun 
Importima cohcwB, vbcuk, mala somnia mMitis, 
Nunc clamosa juvont noctumee gaudia meiift». 
Nunc loca sola plocent ; fruetra te, Somne recumbena 
Alme voco, itnpaticna noctia metuduque dki. 
Omnia pemino trqudut, circi«n annua liutro. 
Si qua uaquam pateat meliori* semita vite, * 
Nee quid agam mTenio, meditatua grwdis, cogo : 
Notior ipse mihi fieri, iocuhtUMpic fitteri 
Pectus, et inj^ium vano se robore jactans. 
Ingenium nisi materieia doatiiBa mmistrat. 
Cesaat intnw rerum, ut torpet, ei marmoris abait 
Copta, Phidiact Secimda potentia cceli. 
Quicquid agam, quocunque ferar, conatibus obatat 
Res angiiata domi, et taacite poiuzia mentia. 

Non rationis opea animus, nunc parta recensen* 
Conspicit aggestas, et le mirstur in iUis, 
Nee sibi de gasa prsesens quod postulat usus 
SummuB adeaee jubet celaa dommator ab arce ; 
Non, (nierum soie aeriem dum compotst xti, 
Prietentia firuitur, lietos aut summit honorea 
Ipse 8ui judex, acta? bene raunera vibe ; 
Sed sua regna videns, loca nocta silentia late 
Hotret, al» vanz species, umbrxqua fligaoM, 

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Et rerum rolitant rane per inane figure. 

Quid fiidam ? ten*nnie pigram damnare icnectam 
Hestat? an acdngar studiia gravioribua audas ? 
Au^ hoc si nimium est, ttmdem nova lexica poscam ? 


Cum Glium petegre sgentem d«siderio ninua tristi fro* 

Fateris et^, quod populus solet 
Crq>are vfficors, nil sapientiom 
nrodesse vibe, literaaq-ne ; 
In dubiis dam terga rebus. 

Tu, queis hthonA sors hominum, mala. 
Nee Tinde acer, nee pateria pius, 
Te mille suecorura pdfentem 
Deatttuit medicina mentis. 

Per casca noctis tjedia turbida, 
Hgr» per hmtts Has inutitee, 
Torpesque, langaeacrsqne, curis 
Solicitiis T\imis lieti ! paterms. 

Tandem dolori plus satis est datiim, 
Exurge foitis, nvmc anintis opns, 
Te, ddcta, Laurenti ; vetnatas, 
Te medici reTOcaht hborea. 

Permitte summo quiqrritiJiifl^ipatri, 
Permitte fideiw, et iRiiIi«!>riM«i- 
Amiee, majorem qiletvKs 

Redde tuis, tifei r^Sie; mentem. 

IN THEATRO, 'H**cii 5, 1771. 

TcRTri ven» qinter ortw Isfltri, 
Quid theatralea tUn, Criape, pomp:??' ' : " 
Vol. I. N 

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Quam d«cet canos nude litter&tos 

Sera yo4upUw I 

Tece mulceri fidibus canons? 
Tene cantorum modulis stupere? 
Tene per pictaa oculo elegante 

Ciirrere fonaas ? 

Inter ffiquales, sine fi^e liber, 
Godices, veri studiosus, inter 
Kectius vives. Sua quis^ue caipat 

Gaudia gratus. 

Luaibus ffandet puer otiosis, 

Luxus oblAilat juvenem theatri, . 

At seni Auko sapienter uti 

Tepore reatat. 


Parta quidem regio, sed reli^one priorura 

Clara Caledoniaa panditur inter aquas. 
Voce ubi CennethuB populas domuisse feroces 

Dicitur, et vdhos dedociiisBe deos. 
Hue ego delatus placido per qerula cursu. 

Scire locus volui q^uid daret iste novi. 
niic Leniades humih resikabat in aula, 

Leniades, magnis nobiiitatua avis. 
Una duas cepit caaa cum genitore puellas, 

Quas Amor undarum cfj^dcret ess^ dean. 
Nee tamen inculti geli4i^jfatuer« si^ antris, 

Accola Danubii qualia sevusbi^t 
Mollia non deaunt vacuse solatia vitfe 

Sive libros poscant oda, sive lyram. 
Fulserat ilia (£es, legis qua.doct& aupeme 

Spes hominum et curaa gens procul esse jubet. 
Ut precibua juatas avertat i^mminis irae 

Et sununi accendat pectus amore boni. 
Poate inter strepitus non sacti munera cultu$ 

Cessarunt, jnetas iuc quoque cura fuiL 

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Nil opuB est Kris sacra de tuire wKuntis 
Adiiiimitu, ipsa suas nmiciat hon vices. 

Quid, quod saoifici versavit fcenuDa libroa ? 
Sint pro legitimis pure labeDa lacris. 

Quo vagor ulterius ? quod ufaiqne reqiuritar faic ea^ 
Hie iecipa quiei, hic et hmeatui amor. 


PoNTi profiindis clausa recesaibua, 
StrepeuB procdlis, rupiboR obdu, 
Quam grata deftsw virentem, 
Skia, sinom nritulosa pandu ! 

His, cura, credo, sedibus exulat ; 

His blaoda certe pax h^itat locia ; 

Non ira, uon mceror quietis ^ 

Ineidiaa meditatur horis. 

At non cavata nipe latescere, 
Menti nee sgra; montibus aviis 
Prodest vasari, nee &enientes 
In speciHa numerare fluctus. 

Huniana virtus non sibi sufficit ; 
DatOT nee icqaum cuique ■nimiiTTi gib 
Parare posse, utcunque iactet 
Grandiloquus ninus alta Zeno. 

Exiefltuantis pectoris impetum 
Rex summe, solus tu regis, arbiter; 
Mentisque, te tollraite, fluctus ; 
Tcj resident, moderante fluctus. 


Peru BO terras ubi nuda mpes 
Saxeas miscet nebulis niinasj 

N S 

J ;, Google 

Pervagor gentes faamiDUBi fnm^uii. 
Vita ubi nuUo decomta cuitu 
SquaUet injEbrmis, dgurique fumia 

Fceda latescit. 

Inter erroriB aalebrosa longi. 
Inter ignote, strepitiu loquelae, 
Quot modJB, mecum, quia egat, requin 
Tbralia dmciB 

Seu viri curas, pia nnpta muket, 
Seu fovet mater Hbofem benigna, 
Sive cum libris novitate pascit 

Sit memor nostri, fideique scdvat 
Fida mercedem, meritoque blandum 
Thralife discant resonare nomen 

Litton Sk». 


HoRA sic peragit dtata cursum ; 
Sic diem sequitur diea aagac^n 1 
Spea novas nova lux parit, secunda 
Spondens omnia credults homuUis; 
Spes ludit stolidas, metuque cttco 
Lux angit, mieeroi lodois horauUos. 

Apt. 16, 1783. 


Perpgtui, ambtta bis terra premia lactis 
Hfec faabet, altrid capra secunda Jovia. 

J ;, Google 

KtBMATA. 137 

u ramNAH qvanoah oenerosah 'hvm libertatib 


Liber ut esse velun suaHsti, puldira Msria ; 
Ut maoeam liber, pulchrm Maria, vale. 


HoRA peril furtim la^'s, mens t«raporis agra 
Pigntiam incusat, nee minus bora perit. 

Qdas navis recipit, quantum lit pondus aqiutruin, 
Diraidium tanti ponderii intret onus. 

QuoT vox missa pedes abit hone parte eecunda 
Undecies Centum denog quater a^e duosque. 


c,Uiv 'AXtOe'ii} iTfi^jfv \aipovaa ypd^ovra 

"Hptiitv Tt (Si'oKC Wpxtov, ijW ao^av, 
Kni ptoy, iTrer, Srar pii^^t Oaydrow )3A«rin, 
Xoi roTC ypaip<ificyev Rlp^iov dWov t-yoii:. 

Eic TO r^t *EA1I2H2 wtpi ray 'Ovtlpay 'Aiviypai, 

KvrpiSi, fajS" avTS atiprTpa fiin^\t ©lu. 

" The Rev. Dr. Thomas Bin^, iiutbor of the History of the 
Royal Society, and other wQrIiB of note. 

■f The lady on whom these verses, and the Latin ones that im- 
nedlateiy follow, were written, is the celebrated Mrs. Blirabrtb 
Carter, who tranalatcd the wotka of Epktelus from Ihe Greek. 

N S 



'Ei: dioc iorif Oyaft, 6sl6i tot iypa-iicv''Qnt)p^, 
'AXXa Toh' cU QvifTSfi Kwr/nc (r[fi^ev''Ovap. 

Zci;c ftSy^- ijiXoyiivTi vokin ticirepae Ktpauru, 
'Oftfiatrc Xa/iTpd itcot Kvrptt oivrd ^pei- 

IN ELIZjE Enigma. 

Quis fonnffi modus imperio ? Venus arrosat audax 
Omnia, nee curee sunt sua sceptra Jovi. ' 

Ab JoTe Msonides decendere somnia narrat : 
Hiec veniunt Cypriee somnia missa Dese 

Jupiter unus erat, qui stravit fulmine gentee ; 
Nunc annant Vennis lununa tela Joviri. 

* O oui benignua crimina ignoscia, pater 
Facilisque semper confitenti ades reo, 
Aurem iaventem precibuB O pnebe meis; 
Scelerum catena ine laborantem grave 
Sterna tandem liberet dementia, 
L't aumnia laiia sit, guouna Christo gloria. 

Per vitfe tene1»'ae renunque incerta vsgantem 
Niunine prsesenti me tueare pater ! . 

Me ducat lux sancta, Deus, lux sancta sequatur ; 
Usque regat greasus, gratia fida meoB. 

Sic perHgam tua jussa libens, accintus ad onuie 
Mondatum, vivamj sic mariarque tibi. 

Me, pater omnipotens, de puro respice ctelo, 

Quem mceetum et timidum crinuna dira.gravant; 

• This and the three following articlea aie raelriFal veraon* rf 
Brilect« in the Uturgy i the first, of that, beginning, "O God, 
whoee nature and property ;" the td and 3d, of the collects fbr tb* 
ITth and 8lBt Sundays after Trinit;; and the 4tb, of the 1st collect 
in the cc 

d:t Google 


Da vem&m pocemque mihi, da mente Mrena, 
Ut tibi qus placeant, oaaaa. ptamptaa agam. 

Solvi, quo ChristiiH cnnctia delicts TMemit, 
Et pro me pretium, tn patiare, pater. 

CDec. 5, I784* 3 

' Sdhub Deus, cui csf^ca patent penetralia cordis ;1 

Quern nulla anxietas, nulla cupido fugit; 
Quein nil vafrities peccantum subdoU i^t ; 

Omnia qui spectans, omnia ubique regis; 
Mentibus afflatu terrenas ejice sorae« 

Divino, sanctus regnet ut intus amor ; 
Eloquiumque potens linguis torpentibuB affer, 

Ut tibi laU8 omni semper ab ore sonet ; 
SaBKuine quoj^ntes, quo secula cuncta piavit, 

Heec nobis Chrietus promeruisse velit I 

PSALMUS cxvn.) 

Anni qua volucris ducitur orbita, 
Patrem ccelicolura perpetuo colunt 
Quovis sanguine cretfe 
Gentes undique carmine. 
Patrem, cujus amor blandior in dies 
Mortales miseros servat, alit, fovet, 
Omnes undique gentes, 
Sancto dicite a 

fSsv te SKV3, levitas sive improba fecit, 
Musca, mew comitem, participemque dapis. 

Pone metum, rostrum, fidens irantitte culullo) 
Nam licet, et toto prolue Ista mero. 

■ The day on which he recer-nd the Bacrament for the It 
and eight days beTare hin decease. 

■f The above is a version of tbe song, " Busy, curiouB 
" fly." 

J ;, Google 

40 PiftllATA. 

'u, quamcunque tibi velox indutserit annus, 

Carpe diem, fugit, heu, non revocanda dies ! 
[uiE nos blando comes, qnte nos perducat eodein, 

Volvitur hora mihi, volvitur hwa tibi ! 
Tnn quidem, sic fata volunt, tibi vivitur tettm, 

F.heu qiud decies plus mihi sexta dedit! 
tlim pneteribe numennti tempora vitte, 

Sexaginta annis non minor unus erit 

* Habeo, dedi quod alteri ; 
Habuique, quoa dedi mihi ; 
Sed quod reUqui, perdidi. 


Nunc, per gramina fuei, 
Densa ironde salicti. 

What I gave that I have ; 
What I spent that 1 had ; 
What I left that 1 lost, 
f These Lines we a TratiNlalion of part of a Song in the Complete 
ngler of Isaac Walton, written by John ChaJkhill, a biend of 
lenser, and a good poet in his time. They are but part of the last 
inia, which, that llie reader ina; have it entire, is here given at 

If the BuD'a excessive heat 

Make our bodies swelter« 
To an osier hedge we get 
Forafriendl; shelter; 
Where in a dike, 
Pearch or pike, 
Boach or dace. 
We do diase, 
Bli^tL or gudgeon. 
Without grudging. 

d:, Google 

Dmn defenditnr imber, 
Molles ducimus h(H«8. 
Hie, duin, debits morti 
Pauliim vittt morntur. 
Nunc rescire priora, ^ 
Nunc initare futuris. 
Nunc summi prece sancta 
Patria numen adire est. 
Quicquid quteritur ultra, 
Ceco dnch amoret 
Vel^ipe ludit inani, 
Luctua nun paritorum. 

* QoiSQUis iter teudis, vitreas qua lucidus undaa 
Spelimca: late Thameais prxtendit opaoe; 
Marmoru trepidant quK lentK in fomice gntts, 
Crystallisque latex fractus scintillat acutia ; 
Gemmaque, luxuris noodum fiunulata nitend 
Splendit, et incoquitur tectum sine fraude metallum ; 
Ingredere O ! remm pnra cole mente porentem ; 
Auriferasque auri metuena acrutare caveziuB. 
In^redare 1 Egeriie aacnun en tibi ponditur antnun ! 
Hic, in se tobun, longe per o^aca nituii 
Temporis, Hairicum rapuit vu vivida mentia ; 
Hic pia Vindamiui traxit aumiirit, in ipsa 
Morte memor pstrite ; hic, Mannonti peetore fffima 
Coeleatis fido caluerunt aenuna flamnue. 

Or we BOmetimM pew in hour 

Under a green willow, 
ThU defends ua fnwn a showeT, 
Making earth our pillou' ; 

Where we maj . 

Think and ptay. 
Before death 
Stopa our breath ; 
Other joya 

And to be lamented. 
' The above Llnei kre ■ Teraion of Pope's veraea on hia own 
grotto, which b^in, " ThMi wbo «twlt ilop where Tbanwa' troiu- 

d:t Google 

Temnere opes, pretiuni aceleria, p&triamque tueri 
Fortis, ades; tiiti sponte putet venerabile limen. 


Vtg. S. Brodfd edit. Bas. Ann. 154$. 
Von Argoa pugilem, non me HeBsana creavit; 

Patria Sparia milii esti, patria cUra vimm. 
Arte valent isti, mihi robo revivere 9olo est, 

Convenlt ut natis, inclyta Sparta, tuia. 

Br. «. 
QuANDoQviDEH passim nulla rattone feruntur, 
Cuncta siniSj'Cuncta et ludicra, cuncta nihil. 

Br. 5. 
Fectore qui duro, crudoa de vite racemos 

Venturi exaecuit, vascula prima meri, 
Labraque conBtrictus, semeaos, jamque terendos 

Sub pedibua, populo prtetereunte, jadL 
Supplicium huic, quoniam crescentia gaudia Insit, 

Det Bacchus, draerat quale, Lycurge, tibi. 
Hie poterant uvte lieto convivia cantu, 

Mulcere, aut pectus triate levare malis. 

Br. S. 
Fert humeria claudum validis per compita cax:uB, 
, Hie oculos socio commodat, ille pedes. 

Qui, mutare viaa ausus terrKque marisque, 
iVajecit monies nauta, fretumque pedee, 

Xerxi, tercentum Spai-te Mars olMtibt acri 
Mihtibu' j terns ait pela^oque pudorj 

d:t Google 

Br. 11. 
Sit tibi. Calliope, Pamaaaum, cura, tenenti. 
Alter vt adsit Homerus, odeat etenim alter Achilles. 

Br. IS. 
Ad Muaaa Venus hac ; Veneri parete puelle, 

In voB ne missus spicula tendat amor. 
Hxc Mu3x od Venerem ; sic Marti, diva, minerLi, 

Hac nimquam volttat debilis iate puer. 

pRosPERA Mrs nee te strepitoso turbine tollat. 
Nee menti injidat sordida eura jugum ; 

Nam vita incertis incerta impellitur auris, 

Onmesque in partes tracta, retracta fluit; 

Firma manet virtus ; virtuti innitere, tutus 
Per fiuctus vit« sic tibi cursus erit 

HoRA bonis quasi nunc inatet suprema fruaris, 
Plura ut victurus secula, parce bonis : 

Divitiis, utrinque csvens, c|ui tenapote pardt, 
TempOTe divitiis utitur, ille s^t. 

Br. 84. 

NuNQUAK jugera messibua onusta, aut 
Quos Gygee cumulos habebat auri ; 
Quod vitse satis est, peto, Macrine, 
Mi, nequid nimis, eat nimis probatunt. 

Br. Si. 

Br. Si. 

MoN opta aut predbus posco ditescere, pauds 
Sit contenta mibi vita dolofecarens. 

Br. S4. 
Rkcta ad pauperiem tendit, Cui «»T>or8Cordi est 
Multa alett, et multas sdificare domos. 

J ;, Google 

Br. 2*. 
Tu neque dulce putes aliense accumbere metiSEe, 

Nee proboaa avidie grata, sit oSa guhs ; 
Nee ficto fletn, fictis solvare cachinniBj 

Arridens domino, collacrymaHaque tuo. 
Lffittm hand tecum, tecum neque tristior unqoam, 

Sed Miliffi ridena, atque dc4eiia Mili^. 

Br. as. 
4iL non mortale est mmtalibua ; oiniie quod est hie 
Pnetcreunt, aut hoa p«eterk omne bonum. 

Demociute, inviaas faaninea m^ore cachinsa, 
Plus tibi ridendum Mcuk ooetra dabunL 

Hcraclite, ftuat lacrymanim crefaior imber ; 
Vita hominum muie pins quod miserwia kabet. 

Interea dubito : tecum me cauea sec ulla 

Hjdere, aut t«cum me tacniawe-jubet 

Perstrepit omne forunt ; cura nraleata (£seu «M. 
Rura labor lassat; mare mille pericula terrent; 

Verte solum, fient causa timofis-opes ; 
Paupertas misera est ; multffi cum conjuge lites 

Tecta ineunt ; cc^ba ottuii* aolna ages. 
Proles aucta gravat, lapta (Hrbat, ^eea joventte est 

Virtus, canities cauta vigore coKt. 
Ergo optent hoounes, aut mutqnain in luminiB o 

Vemsae, aut visa luce repente mori. 

Elioe iter vitse ut mavis, prudeatia hnw^oe 
Permeat omne forum; vita quieta domi est. 

Rua omat natuia ; levat maris aspera Lucnm^ 
Verte solum, donet plena crumena decuaj 

Pauperiea latitat, cun eoniiigtf gmdtt xamitm 

d:, Google 

Tecta ineunt, coelebs impediere minus; 
Mtdcet amor prolis, sopor eat Bine prole proAuidiu ; 

Fnecellit juvenis vi, pietate senex. 
Kemo optet nnnquKEa venisse in liuuinis oras, 

Aut perisse, sestet vita benigna bonis. 

Br. 27. 
Vita omnia scena est ludusque, aut ludere disce 
Seria seponens, aut mala duia patL 

Br. a?. 
Qcj; sine morte fuga est vitf, quam turba malorum 

Non vitanda graven), non toleranda facit ? 
Dulcia dat n^ura quidem, mare, sidera terras, 

Lunaque quas et sol itque reditque vias. 
Terror inest atiis, mterorque, et siquid habebis 

Ftirte boni, uttrices experiere vices. 

TERR.iH adii nudus, de terra nudus abiba 
Quid labor efficiet? non nisi nudus ero. 

Br. 27- 
Natub eram lacrymans, laxrymans e luce recedo : 

Sunt quibus a lacrymis vix vacat nlla dies. 
1*316 hominum genus lest, inUrmum, triste, misellum. 

Quod mors in cineres solvit, et abdit humo. 

Br. 39. 
Qoisquis adit lectos elata uxore sccundos^ 
Naufrsgus iratas iUe retentat aquas. 

fir. 30. 
PfLix ante alios nuUius debitor leris, 

HuDC eequitur coelebs) teitius, orbe, venis. 
Vot. J. O 

d:t Google 


Nec male res ceesit, subito si fiincre sponsam 
DitatoB magna dote, recondia hiuno. 

His sapiens lectis, Epicnrum qiuerere &ustra 
Qiudes sitit monades, qtu fit inane, sinas. 

Br. 31, 

Optahit quicunque senra sibi longius KTum, 
Dignus qui miuta in lustra senescat, erit 

Cum procul est, optat, cum venit, quisqiie SNtectam, 
Incusat, semper spe meliora videt. 

Br. 46. 
Omnis vita nimisbrevis est felictlwa, una 
Nox miseris Icwgi temporis instar babet. 

Gratia ter grata est velos, sin forte moretur. 
Gratia vix restat nomine digna sua. 

Br. 56. 
Seu prece poscatur, seu non, da Jupita* onuie, 
Magne, bonuro, omne malum, at poscentibus abtiue ' 

Br. 60. 

Me, cane vitato, canis excipit alter j eodem 

In me aninio tellus gignit et unda feras, 
Nec mirum ; restat lepcri conscendere ctelum, 

SidereuB tamen hie territat, ccce canis ! 

Br. 70. 
Telluri, arboribua yet frond«is, sidera c<b\o 
Grseciffi et urbs, urbi est ista propago, decus. 

Br. 75. 

lupiA facta patrans, homines fortasse latebis, 
Hfoi poteris, meditans prava, latere Deos. 

d:t Google 

Br. 75. 
Antiope Batyrum, Daiuw aurum, Europa juvencum, 
£t cycnum fecit, Leda petita Jovem. 

JEvi sat novi quam aim brevie ; astra tuenti. 
Per certas stabiti lege valuta vices, 

Tangitur haud ^ledibuB tellus : conviva Deorum 
Expleor ambrosiis exbilarorque cibis. 

Br. 96. 
Quod nipiiiim est sit in^ktum, -hiiic, ut dixere priores, 
Et meQi nimis fellis amaror iitesL 

Pnpps gubernatris sedisti, audacla, prinui 
Divitiis acuens aspera corda virum; 

Sola rates Btruis in&daa, et dulcis amorem 

Lucri ulciscendum mox nece sola docea. 

Aiirea secla bominunij quorum spectandus ocellia 
E longinqiio itidem pontus et orcus erat 

DiTEScis, credo, quid resbrt? quicquid habebia 
In tumuluna. tecum, morte jubente, trahes ? 

Divitias cumulas, p^vuntes negligia boras, 
Incrementa aevi fton cuiDalue potea. 

Mater adulantuiu, jwoleaque pecunja cure, 
Teque irui timor est, teque carere dolor. 

Br. IS6 

Mk miaerum sorg omnia habet ; florentibus a 
Pauper eram, nummis diffluit area aenia ; 

Queis uti potenun quondam Eortuna negavit, 
Queia utt nequeo, nunc inihi prcebet opes. 
O 3 

Br. 126. 

d:t Google 

Br. 127. 
Mnemosyne, ut Sappho mellita voce canentem, 
Audiit, trata est ne nova Musa foret. 

Br. 152. 
CiTU tacet indoctua, gapientior esse videtur, 
£t morbus tegitur, dum premit ora. pudor. - 

Br. 155 

Nunc huic, nunc aliis cedens, cui fmra Menippus 
Credit, Acbfemenidfe iiuper a^llua eram. 

Quod nulli proprium versat Fortuna, putabat 
llle suum stolidus, nunc putat ille suum.' 

Br. 156. 
NoN Fortuna sibi te gratum toUit in altmn ; 
At docet, esempio, vis sibi quanta, tuo. 

Br. 162. 
Hic, annini ut reperit, laqueum abjicit, alter ut aurum 
Non reperit, nectit quern reperit, laqueum. 

Br. 167. 
Vive tuo ex animo, vario nunore loquetur 
De t« plebs audax, hie bene, et ille male. 

Br. 168. 
VvTX rosa brevis est, properans si carpere nolis. 
QuEerenti obveniet mox sine flore rubus. 

Br. 17a 
PuLiciBus morsus, restincta lampade, stultua 
Exclanutt''; nuuc me cemere de&ni^ 


Mekodotum lunxit Diodonu, et exit iiaagp, 
Pneter MeDodotum, nuUius nbBunilis. 

Bt. 305 
Haud lavit Phido, haud teti^t, mihi febre calenti 
In mentetn ut Tenit qominis, interii. 

NvcTicoRAX cantat lethale, sed ipsa canenti 
Dcmophilo auscultans Nycdcorax moritur. 

Br. 212. 
Hermeh Deomm nundum, pennis levem. 
Quo regc gaudent Arcades, furem bourn, 
HuJHs palestra; qui vigil custos stetit. 
Clam node t^Jlit Aulus, et ridens ait; 
Piwstat magiatro «spe discipulus suo. 

Br. 223. 
Qui jacet hie, s^vue vixit, nunc, lumine cauus, 
Dario magno non minus ille potest. 

Br. 237- 
FoNus Alezandri mentitur iama; fidesqua 
' Si Pbcebo, victor nesdt obire diem. 

Br. 241. 
Nauta, quia boc jaceat n« percontere Mpulchro, 
Eveniat tantum midoF Ainda tibl ! 

Cur <^ulentus egea } tua cuncta in foenore ponis. 
Sic aliis dived, tu tibi pauper agii. 
O 8 

d:t Google 

Br. 26s. 
Qui pascit barbam si crescit mente, PUtont, 
Hirce, jwrem nitido tua ^x^rba &cit. 

Br. 266. 
Clarus Joannes, reginse aflinis, ab alto 

Sanguine Anastasii ; cuncta-sepulta jac«nt : 
Et pius, et recti cultor : non iUa jatere 

Dicun ; Stat virtus non subigenda neci. 

Br. 267. 
s tellus salve, levia esto pusiUo 
Lyaigeni, fuerat non gravis itle tibi. 

Br. 285. 
Navfracius hie jaeeo ; contra, jacet ecce colonus ! 
Idem orcus terree, sic, pelagoque subest. 

Br. 301, 
Qum salvere jubcs me, pessinte? Corripe Gressus; 
Est mihi quod non te rideo, plena saius. 

Br. 304. 
Et feruB est Timon sub terns ; janitor orci, 
Cerbere, te morsu ne, petat ilie, cave. 

Br. 307. 
ViTAM a terdecimo sextus mihi finiet annus, 

Astra mathematicos si modo vera docent. 
SufEcit hex; votis, flos hie pufcherrimus tevi est, 

Et senium triplex Nestoris uma capit. 

ZosiMA, qu£B solo fuit olim corpore serva, 
Corpore nunc etiam libera facta fuit 

D,c,l,;cd:t Google 

ExiQuuMMi! Priatni monmnentum ; baud ille meretur 
Quale, sed hosUIes, quale dedere manus. 

Hector dat gladium Ajaci, dat Baltetlm et Ajax 
Hectori, et exitio munua utrique fuit. 

Br. 3+4. 
Ut vis, pcHite minas ; modo tres disceaaeris ulnas, 
Ingemina fluctils, ingeminaque sonum. 

Br. 3M. 
Navfragub hie jaceo ; BAena tamen utere velis, 
Tatum aliis sequor, me pereunte, fuit 

Her-vclitus ego ; indoctte ne Icedite linguee 
Subtile ingenium qiuero, capaxque mei, 

UnU3 homo mihi-pro sescentis, turba popelli 
Fro nuUo, clanio nunc tumulatua idem. 

Br, 399. 
Ambraciota, vale lux alma, Qeombrotua infit, 

Et saltu e muro djtis opaca petit : 
Triate nihil paasus, animt at de Borte Platonls 

Scripta legeius sola vivere mente cupit. 

Sbbvus, Epictetus, mutilato corpore, vixi, 
Pauperieque Irus, curaque sununa Deum. 

Unde hie Praxiteles? nudam vidistis. Adoni, 
Et Pari, et Anchisa, non alius, Venerera. 

Br. iAS 

d:, Google 

Br. 45i. 
SuFFLATO accendia qmsquis carbone Iticem&m, ■ 
Girde meo accendons ; ardeo totus ego. 

Br. 486. 
Jupiter hoc templum, ut, siqiundo relinquit 0]ympUin. 
Atthide non aliua desit Olympus, habet. 

CiviB et extemus grati ; dotnue hospita nesdt 
Qiuerere, quit, cujus, qois pater, unde vaiie. 


Br. 487- 
Cum fiigere haud possit, ftactia Victoria pennis, 
Te manet imperii, Homa, pcreniie decus. 

L AT RONES alibi locupletum qujerite tecta, 
Assidet liuic cuetos sCrenua pauperies. 

Br. 488. 

FoRTUN* malim fldversffi tolerare procellas, 
Quam domini ingeiitis ferre superciUura. 

En, Sexto, Sexti meditatur imago, silente. 
Orator statua est, statuasque orator imago. 

PuLCHHA est virginitas intacta, at vita periret, 
Omneg si vellent virginitatt frui ; 

Nequitiam fugiens, servata contrahc lege 
Conjugium, ut pro te des hominem patriae. 

d:t Google 

Pert humeris, venerabile onus, Cytherelus bnoi 
Pa Trpjfe fltunmas, denaaque tela, patrem. 

Ctamat et A^vis, vetuli, ne tangite, vita 
Exiguum est Marti, sed mihi gr&nde lucrum. 

Non tenet; esca natstpiuchra, sed namua abest. 

CoGiTAT aut loquitur nil vir, nil cogitat u 
Fslici tbalamo non, puto, rixa atreplt. 

BucciNA disjecit Thebarum mcenia, stnixit 
Quse lyra, quam sibi non condnit harmonia ! 

Mente senes olint juvenis, Fauatine, premebas. 
Nunc juvenum terrea robore corda senex. 

JjBsvubi at utrumque decus, juveni quod prabuit olim 
Turba senum, juTenea nunc tribuere sejii. 

Etcepta hoapitio rausie, tribuere libdloB 
Herodoto hoapitii prtemla, qusque suum. 

Stella mea, obaervans stellas, Dii me eethera faxint 
Multts ut te oculis aim potia aspicere. 

Clara Cfaeronece sobolea, Plutarche, dicavit 
Hanc atatuam ingenio, Konu benigna, tuo. 

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Das bene collattM, qum Botoa et Grnda jactAt, 
Ad Divos paribus paisibua ire duces ; 

Sed similein, Plutarcbe, tua> deicribere vitam 
Nm poteras, regio non tulit ulla parem. 

Dat tabi Pytbagtn-am pictor; quod ni ipse tacerc 
Pythagoras maDet, vocem habuis^et opus. 

Prolem Hif^ et sua qua meliorem sectila nullum . 

Videre, Arcbidicen Ekc tumulavit humus ; 
Quam, regtun sobolem, nuptam, matrem, atque Bororem 

Fecerunt nulli sors titulique gravem. 

Cecrofidis ffT^vis hie ponor, Mardque dicatus. 
Quo tua signantur gesta, Philippe, lapis. 

Spreta jocet Marathon, jacet et SaUmima laurus. 
Omnia dum Maccdum gloria et arma premunt. 

Sint Demosthenica ut jurata cadavera voce, 
Stabo illis qui sunt, quique fuere, gravis. 

Florjbus in pratis, legi quos Ipse, C 
Contextam variis, do, Rhodoclea, tibi: 

Hie anemone humet, coofert narciasua odores 
Cuni violis ; spirant lilia miata rosis. 

His redimita comas, nwree depone superbos, 
Hkc peritura nitent ; tu pentura nites t 

MuBEM Asclepiades sub tecto ut vidit avarus. 
Quid tibi, mus, mecum, dixit, amice, tibi? 

Mus blandum ridens, respondit, pelle timoronf 
Hie, bone vir, sedem, non alimenta, peto. 

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S.EPE tuum in tumulum laciyinanira decidit imber 
Quern f'undit blando junctus amore dolor; 

Cliarus enim cunctis, tanquam, dum vita manebat, 
Cuique esses natus, cuique sudalis, eras. 

Heu quam duni preces sprevit, quam aurda querelas 
Parca, juventutem non miserata tuam ] 

Arti ignis lucem tribui, tamen artis et iguia 
Nunc ope, saj^lidi vJvit imago meL 

Gratia nulla hominum mentes tenet, ista Prc»nethei 
Munera muneribus, «i retulere tabri. 

Illa triumphatriz Graium consueta proc«»'uin 
Ante suas agmen Lais habere fores. 

Hoc Veneri speculum; nolo me cemere quatis 
Sum nunc, ncc possum cemere qualis enon. 

Cbethid* fabellas dulces garrire peritam 
Prosequitur lacrymis filia mcesta Sami : 

Blandam lanifici sociam sine Ane loquacem, 
Quam tenet hie, cunctas qu« maiaet, alta quieat 

DiciTE, Causidid, gelido nunc marmore magni ■ 
Mugitum tumulus ctHuprimit AraphOocL 

Si forsan tumulum quo conditur Eumarus aufers 
Nil lucii fades ; ossa babet et dnerem. 

. Me, r«x deomm, tuque, due, necessitas. 
Quo, lege, vestra, vita me firet mea. 

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Sequar libenter, sin reluctari veli'm, 
Fiam seelestus, nee tamen minus sequar. 


I'oETA, lector, hie quiescit Hipponax, 
Si sis seelestus, preeteri, ptoeiii, marmor : 
At te bonum si noria, et bonis natum, 
Tutum hie sedile, et si placet, sopor tutus. 

EUB- MED. 193—203. 

NoN inunerito culpanda venit 
Proavum vtccora insipientia. 
Qui eonvivia lautasque dapes 
Hilarare suis jussere modis 
Cantum, vitte dulce levamen. 
At nemo feras iras hominum, 
Domibus clalis exitiales. 
Voce aut fidibus pellere docuit 
Queis tamen aptam ferre medelam 
Utile cunetia hoc opus eKset ; 
Namque, ubi mensas onerant epule, 
Quorsum dulcia luxuria soni ? 
Sat leetitia sine subsidiis, 
Pectora molli mulcet dubite 
Copia ctenie. 

* 'Toioe'\pr}t jS/JoroXotyo'v irl VToXifioitri niu^vt 
Kai rotoc, Tlaifiilv •rk^^tv ipiJTi Qiciv. 

• The above is a Tersion of a I.Btin Epigram on the famous Jt 
Duke of Mailborough, bj the Abbe Salvini, n hkh ia as followa 

Haud alio vultu, fremuit Mars acer in arraia : 
Haud alio, Cjpriam pcicurit ore Deani. 
The Duke was, it t^ems, Temarfcably handsome in bis perBOn, 
which tbe second line has reference. 

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PRIMA parit terra* a*fts, siccatque secunds, 
Evocat Abramum dein terda ; quarta rdinquk 
JEgyptuia ; templet Sotomonis quintc siqmvit ; 
Cjrum sexta timet ; Is^tur vrptmui C^iristo. 

* HIS TempdmBm mimeria descripseris orbem 
I Cmn sex cotfuriia Judso ^iniUiK s^teii). 
ihama t .^gypto cesalt bia septima pingiu. 
Ujrias adsciscit sibi nonsgeauna geptem 
Imperiam qua Turca 3 ferox exercet iniquura. 

Undecies binas decadas et millia septem. 
Sortitiir 1 Pelopis teQiu qus nomine gaudet. 

Mjriadaa decies septem numerare jultebit 
Pastor * Arabs ; decies octo Bibi Persa 4^ requirit 
Myriades sibi pulchra duas, duo tnillia iio.icit 
Farthenope 4. s Novies vult tellus mjlle Sicana. 
6 Papa suo re^t impeno ter miUia quinque. 
Cum sex centuriis numerat «ex tnilli& Tuscus T. 

* To the above Lines (which are undniahed, and can thaetote be 
ddI; offeree] u b fragineQI), in the Doctor's manuscripi, an prelix- 
ed the words, " Geognipbia Metiica." As we are refiured, in the 
Srst of the verses, to Templeraan, for having funiifb«d the nume- 
rkal computations that are the subject of them, his work has been 
•ccordfinglf consulted, the lille of which is, " A new Survey of the 
Globe," and which professes to give an accurate mensuration of all 
Ibe empires, kingdoms, and other divisiona thereof, in the square 
milea that the^ respectively contain. On comperison of the seveial 
numbers in these verses with thoje set down by Templemaa, It ap- 
pears that nearly half oT them are precisely the same ; the test ate 
not quite sa eiacUj done. — For the convenience of the Reader, it 
has heen thou^t right to auligoin each numberi aa it stands in 
Templeman's works, to that in Dr. Johnson's venes which refers Ifl il. 

1 In this Brat article that is versified, there is an sceiitiue cunfor- 
oiitj in Dr. Johnson's number to Templeman's; who sets dowa 
the squan miles of Palestine at 7,600. 

8 The iquare miles of £gypt are. In Temirieman, 140,700. 

3 The whole Turkish eni|iire, in Templeman, is computed at 
980^057 square miles. 

4 In the fbur following articles, the numbers, in Tem[^emBn and 
in Johnson's verses are alike. — We Rod, accordingly, the Morea, in 
Templeman, to be set down at T,i!0 square miles. — Arab]*, at 
TO0,00a~PersiB, at 800,000.— and Naples, at !l,00a 

£ Sicily, In Templeman, is put down at 9,400. 
6 The Pope's dominions, at 11,S68. 
r Tuscany, at 6,640. 
Vol. I. P - 

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Centuria Ligursa B augent due tniHia quarta. 
CentuTJEe ocUvana decadem addit Lueca 9 secundo. 
Ut dicu, apatiis quam lads impost otIh 

10 Ruseia, mymda^ tev detua adde trecentk ; 

11 Sardiniam cum sexcende aes millia complent. 
Cum sexagenis, duiu plura recluaerit setas, 

Myriadaa ter mille homini dat terra 1! colendaa. 

Vult Sibi vicenaB millesima iryriaB addl, 
ViceniB quinas, Asiam 13 metata celebrem. 

Se quinquagenisoctingenteaima jungit 
Myriaa, ut meiiti pateat tota A&ica I* doctK. 

Myiiadas septem decies Europa iS dacentia 
Et quadragenia quoque ter tria millia iungit. 

Mjrriadas derias dat, quinque et miliia, sexque 
Centurias et tres decadas Europa Britannia 18. 

Ter tria mj^adi conjungit milHa quarts;, 
CenturiiE quarts decadea quinque 11' Anglia nectit 

Millia mjrriadi septem foecutida secunds 
Et quadragetiJB decades quinque addit lemelS, 

Quingentia quadragems socialis adauget 
Millia Belga 19 novem. 

Ter aex centurias HoIIandial^jaotat opima 
Undecimum Camber 19 vult septem millibus addi. 

8 Genoa, in Templsman, as in Johnsoa Ukewke, is set down el 

9 Lucca, at S6«. 

10 The HuBBian Eiiii[Hre, in the !9tb plate of Tempieman, ia set 
down at 3,303,485 square miles. 

1 1 Sardinia, in Templeioan, as liliewise in Johnson, 6.600. 

\i The habiuble world, in Templeman, is computed. In Iquaie 
milei, at 30,6G6,S06 equate mil«s. 

13 Ada, at 10.957,467. 

14 Africa, at 8,J06,!D8. 

15 Europe, at 8,749349. 

16 The British dominions, at 105,634^ 

IT England, as likewise in Johusoc's expresiiion of the number, 

la Ireland, at 21,457. 

19 In the three remaining instances, which make the whole thBt 
Dr. Johnson appears to have rendered into Latin verse, we find the 
iiuiubers eiactt; agreeing with those of Templeman ; who maizes 
the square miles of the United Provinces, 9540— of the proiince cf 
Holland, 1800~-and of WaJcs, 7011. 

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To the Rixht Honourable 

Philip Dormer, Eabl rfCHESTKRPiELD, 

One of his Miges^'a Prindpal Secretaries of State. 

Mt Losd, 

WHEN first I undertook to write an EnglUh Dictlo- 
mry, I had no expectation of any higher patronage 
than that of the proprietors of the copy, nor profpect of 
»ny other advantage than the price of my labour. I 
knew that the work in which I engaged is generally 
conadered as dri;dgery for the blind, as the proper toil 
<X artless industry ; a task that requires neither the 
lightof learning, nor the activity of ffenius, but may be 
succesafuBy performed without any higher quality than 
that of hearing burthens with dall patient*, and beat- 
ingUie tract rfthe alphabet with sluggish resolution. 

Whether this opinion, so long transmitted, and so 
•ridely propagated,. had its beginning from trutli and 
natnre, or from accident and prejudice; whether it be 
decreed by the authority of reason, or the tyranny of 
ignorance, that of ~aU the candidates for literary praise, 
the unhappy lexicographer holds the lowest place,' 
nrither vanity nor interest incited me to inquire. It 
appeared that the province allotted me was, of all the 
renons of learning, generally confessed to be the least 
delightful ; that it was believed to produce neither ftuita 
nor flowers ; and that, after a long and laborious cultiva-, . 
tion, not even the barren laurel had been found upon it. 

Yet on this province, my Lord, I entered, with the' 

pleasing hope, that, as it was low, it likewise would be 

•sfe. I was drawn forward with the prospect of emploj'-" 

P 3 

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ment, which, thoughnotspleiidid, would be useful; and 
which, though it could not make my life envied, woi^d 
keep it innocent ; which would awaken no passion, en- 
gage me in no contention, nor throw tn my way any 
UmpMion to disturb the quiet of others t^ censure, or 
my own by flattery. 

I had read indeed of times, in whicli princes uid states- 
roen thought it port of their honour to promote the im- 
provement of their native tongues ; and in which dic- 
tionaries were written under the protection of greatness. 
To the patronB of such undertakings I willingly paid the 
homage of believing that they, who were thuB solicitous 
for the perpetuity m their language, had reason to especC 
that their actions would be cdcbrated by posterity, and . 
that the eloquence whidi they promoted would be em- 
ployed in their praise. But I considered such acts oS 
beneficence as prodigies, recorded rather to raise wonder 
than expectation ; and content with the terms that I had 
stipulated, had not suffered my inuigination to flatter me 
with any other encouragement, when I found that my 
design had been thought by your Lordship of impor- 
tMice sufficient to attract your favour, ' 

How far this unexpected distinction can be rated a- 
mong the happy inciaenta of life, I am not yet able to 
determine. Its first effect has been to make me anxious, 
lest it should fix the attention of the public too much 
upon me, and as it once happened to an epic poet of 
France, by raising the reputation of the attempt, ob^ 
struct the reception of the work. 1 imagine what the 
world will expect &om a scheme,,prosecuted under your 
Lordship's influence; and 1 know that expectation, when 
once her wings are expanded, . easily reaches heights 
which performance never will attain: and when she 
has mounted the summit of perfection, derides her fol- 
lower, who dies in the pursuit. 

Not therefore to raise expectation, but to repress it, I 
here lay before your Jyordfihip the plan of my under^ 
king, that more may not be demanded than 1 intend; 
ana that, before it is too far advanced to be thrown into 
■ new method, 1 may be advertised of its defects or su- 
perfluities. Such informations I may justly hope, from 
the emulatioa with which those, who desire the praise 

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of elegance or discemmeiit, muit ctmtend in the pro- 
motion of a design tliat you, my Lord, haye not 
thought unworthy to share your attention with treaties 
and with wars.. 

In the first attempt to methodise my ideas, I found a 
difficulty, which extended itself to the whole work. It 
was not easy to determine by what rule of distinction 
the words of this Dictionary were to be chosen. The 
chief intent of it is to preserve the purity, and ascertain 
the meaning of the English idiom ; and this seems to 
require nothing more than that our language be consi- 
dered, so far as it is our own ; that the words and phra- 
ses used in the general intercourse of life, or found- in 
Ae works of those "whom we commonly style poHte 
writers, be selected, without including the terms of par- 
ticular professions ; since, with the arts to which they 
relate, Uiey are generally derived from other nations, 
and are very often the same in all the languages of this 
part of the world. This is, perhaps, the exact and pure 
idea of a grammatical dictionary ; but in lexicography, 
as in other arts, naked science is too delicate for Uie pur- 
poses of life. The value of a work must be estimated by 
its use : it is not enough that a dictionary delifhts the 
critick, unless, at the same tinie, it instructs the learner ; 
as it is to little purpose that an engine amuses the phi- 
losopher by the subtitty of its mechanism, if it requires 
so much knowledge in its application as to be of no ad- 
vantage to the common worlunan. 

The title which I prefix to my work has long con- 
veyed a very miscellaneous idea, and they that take a 
dictionary into their hands, have been accustomed to ex- 
pect from it a solution of almost every difficulty.'— If 
foreign words therefore were rejected, it could be littie 
regarded, except by criticks, or those who aspire to cri- 
ticism ; and however it might enlighten those that write, 
would be all darkness to them ttiat only read. The un- 
learned much oftener consult their dictionaries for the 
meaning of words, than for their structures or forma- 
tions ; and the words that most want explanation, are 
generally terras of art; which, therefore, experience has 
. taught my predecessors to spread, with a kind of pom- 
pous luxuriance, over their productions. 

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164 THB PLAN O* 

f The academirians rf France, indeed, rqected term^ 
of adence in their first essay, but fbund afWwards a 
neces^ty (^relaxing tlie rigour of iJieir determination ; 
and, though they would not naturalize them at once by 
ft single act, permitted them by degrees to settle thetn- 
selvei among the natives with little <^)po8ition ; wid it 
would surely be no ptoof of judgment to imitate tfaeiri 
in an error ■which they have now retracted, and deprive 
the book of its chief use by scrupulous distinctions. 

Of such words, however, all m^ not equally to be con- 
sidered as parts of our language; tor some of them ate 
naturalized and incorp<»'ated ; but otiiers still continue 
aliAis, and are rather auxiliaries than subjects. This 
naturalization is produced either by an admissicHi int^ 
common speech, in some metaphorical signification, 
which is the acquisition of a fcind of property among 
us ; as we say the zenith of advancement, the meridian 
of life, the cynogure* of neighbouring eyes ; or it is the 
consequence of long intermirture and frequent use, by 
iriiich the ear is accustomed to the sound of words tJu 
their orijpnal is foi^otten, as in equator, tateUkes ; or of 
the change of a foreign to an Engltih terminatitm, and 
a confonnity to the laws of the speech into which they 

andhave made no approaches towards assimilation, some 
seem necessary to be retained, because the purchasers 
of the Dictionary will expect to find diem. Such are 
many wtH^ls in the common law, as capias, habeas cor- 
pu*, priEftatnirf, nisi priiit: such are some terms of con-^ 
troversial divinity, as kyposiasis; and of physick, as thf 
names of diseasas ; and m general, all terms which can 
be found in books not written professedly upon parti- 
cvlar arts, or can be supposed necessair to those who 
do not regularly study them. Thus, when a reader not 
skilled in physick happens in MiUon upon tins line— 

^jiining atrophy, 

MBTBsniue. and wide- wasting pesUlencc, 

he will, with equal expectation, look into his dictionary 
tor the word marasnnu, aa for atrophy, or petlikjtce ; and 
■will have reason to complain if he does not find it. 


AM eNOusa DicTioNAKT. 165 

ti seems necessary to the completion of b dictionarjr 
designed not merely tor cnticks, but for popular use, 
that it should comprise, in some degree, the pecuhar 
w<m]B of every prtnesaion ; that the tenoa of war and 
navigation should be inserted, so fsr as they can be re- 
quired by readers of ttavc^ and of history ; and those 
m law, merchandise, and mechanical trades, so &r as 
lliey ean be auj^KMed useful in the occurrmcefl.of oraa- 
mon life. 

' But there ought, however, to be some distinction 
made between the different classes of words ; and there- 
fore it will be proper to print those which are incorpc^ 
Tsted into the lAiguage in the usual character, and those 
whidi are still to be considered as foreign, in the 7to- 
Vet letter. 

Another question may arise with regard to ai^>dl»- 
tives, or the n«mea of spedea. It seems of no great use 
to set down the words nww, d<x, cat, miUow, alder, dauy, 
nue, and a thousand others, of which it will be hard to 
xive an explanation, not more obscure than the word 
Itself. Yet it is to be considered, that if the names of 
animals be insetted, we must admit those which are 
more known, as well as those with which we are, br ac- 
cident, less acquainted j and ifthe^ are all rejected, how 
will the reader be relieved from difficulties ju>oduced by 
allusions to the crocodile, the chameleon, the ichneumon, 
and the hycena? If no plants are to be mentioned, the 
most pleasing part of nature will be excluded, and many 
beautiful epith^U be unexplained. If only Uiose whim 
are less known are to be -mentioned, who shall 6x the 
limits of the reader's learning ? The importance of such 
expRcations appears from the mistakes which the want 
of them has occasioned. Had Shakespeare had a dicti- 
onary of this kind, he had not made the n>ocH£6iRe entwine 
the hone^suckie ; nor would Milton, with such assistance, 
have disposed so improperly of hia eUops and his scorpion. 
• Besides, as such words, uke others, require that their 
accents should be settled, their sounds ascertained, and 
their etymologies deduced, they cannot be properly o- 
nu'tted m the dictionary. And though the explanatiotts 
of some may be censured as trivial, because they are al- 
most universally understood j and those of others as va- 

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166 tns PLAN Of 

neceswry, because di^ frill aeldom occur ; ytt it EOemfl 
not proper to imat ibera, since it is rather ta be wiahed 
that man)r i«sdcTB shonld find more than diey expect; 
than tbat one should miss what he might bope to find. 

When all the words are selected and arranged, llie first 
put of the work to be cfmudered, is the mthograjibyf 
whicb was loog vagne and uncertain; whidt at last, -when 
it* fluctuation ceased, was in msny cases settled but by 
accident; and in which, according to your Lordfihu'a 
observation, there is still great uncertainty antong Uie 
best critidu: nor is it easy to state a rule by wfaidi we 
may decide between costom and reason, or between the 
equiponderant aBtfaorities of writers alike eminent fiv 
judgment and accuracy. 

The great orthographical contest has long sufafasted 
between etyniok^ and pnmunciatiaa. ft has been de- 
nUDided, on one hand, that men should write as Utef 
tpeak ; but as it has been diewn that this conformity 
nev^ was attained in any language, and that it is not 
tOOK easy to persuade men to agree exactly in speaking 
than in writing, it may be adted with equal propriety, 
why men do not rather speak as they write. In France, 
where this ooittroversy was at its ^vatest height, tta~ ' 
•Atr party, however ardent, durst adhere steadily to 
their own rule ; the etymologiBt was often forced to sp^ 
widi the people ; and the ^vocate for the authority of 
pronunciation found it soraetiines deviating so capri- 
donsly frtun tbe rec^ved use of writing, raat he waa 
constrained to comply" with the rule of his adversariea, 
lest he should lose the end by the means, and be left 
done by foltowinjg the crowd. 

When a question of orthogr^hy is dubious, that prao 
tice has, in my ^nion, a claim to preference whidi 
pres^^es the greatest number of radical letters, or seems 
most to comedy with tiie general custoiii c^ our languase. 
But the chief rule which 1 propose to follow is, to make 
no innovation, withoot a reason sufficient to b^ance the 
incvnvenieiiceof dbange; and sudi reaaocs I do not ex- 
pect often to find. AlTchange is ofitadfan evil, which 
ought not to be hazarded but for evident advantage; 
and as incmistuicy is in evety case a naik of weakness, 
it will add nothing to the reput&don of oat tongue. 

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Tbeie are, iodeed, some who deajwe the inccaivenien' 
ces of confuRon, who sfem to tue pleaaore in d^Mri- 
iftg &oin custom, and to think altentkm desir&l^ £at 
its own sskie ; and the re&nnatian of our attbagr^Ay, 
which tbeae wnteni hare attemjrted, riiould not mm 
witfaont its due honours, but that I ■upfwae th^ Ud 
■iimiUrity its own reward, or maj dread the fiMcnwdon 
of laviah pnuse. 

The present usage of apellinff, where the present 
usajpe can'be distingiiished, will tbeiefive, ia this work, 
be generallj followed ; yet there will be often occaoiim 
to observe, that it is in itself inaccurate, and tolerated 
rxtber thou dtosen ; particukrlv whei^ by the chai^ 
"^ — e letter or mote, the meaning of a wend is obacur- 

ed, as injarrier, far Jerria; as it was formerly writtm, 
from Jerrum, or fer ; lo gi6berish, Sx geirish, the jar- 
gon of Geber and his chymical fidlowers, understood 
by none but tJieir own tribe. It will be likewise loaie- 
times proper to trace back the oribogrmf^j of diflcrent 
B^s, and shew by what gradations the word departed 
from its original. 

Closely connected with orthogmphy is pronunci^an, 
tlie stability of which is of great importance to the du- 
ratton of a language, because the liTst change will natu- 
rally begin by corruptions in the living speech. The 
want of certain rules for the pronunciation of former 
ages, has made us wholly ignorant of the metrical art of 
our ancient poets ; and since those who study their sen- 
timents regKt the loss of their nuiabers, it is luiely 
time to provide that the harmony of the ntodenu may 
be more permanent. 

A new pronunciation will make almost a new speech ; 
and tber^ore, since one great end of this ondertaiung ts 
to &x the Eagtith langu^e, care will be taken to deter- 
mine the accentuation of all potysyllabks by prtqjer au- 
thorities, as it is one of those capriciouB phenomena 
^lich cannot be easily reduced to rules. Tdub there is 
no antecedent reason for difference <^ accent in the two 
words dolorwu and tonorout ; yet of the one Milton gives 
the gound in this line. 

He psw'd o'er manj ■ icgKm iotoroiu ; 
md that. of the Other in this, 

Sonoroat metal blowing martial aaunds. 

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16B the PtAN OP 

It may be likewise proper to remark metrical licen- 
ces, such ai contractions, generwu, gen'rout; reverend, 
rev'rend; and coalitions, as region, guettum. 

But still it is more necessary to fix the pronunciation 
of raonoayllables, by placing with them words of corres- 
pondent sound, that one may guu'd the other sgninst 
the danger of that variation which, to gome of the moat 
conunon, has already happened; so that the words 
wound, and wind, as they are now frequently pronoun- 
ced, will not rhyme to sound, and imnd. It is to be re- 
marked, that many words written alike are differently 
pronounced, baJUuv and brom, which may be thus reeis- 
tatA,fion,teoe; brimi, iuitv ; orof whi<^ theexenqtufi- 
cation may be generally given by a distich: Aus the 
words tear, or lacerate, and tear, ihe water of the eye, 
have the same letters, but may be distinguished thos, 
tear, dare; tear-, peer, 

. Some words have two stfunds, which may be equally 
adroitted, as being equally defensible by autLtaity. 
Thus greai is diffn«ntly used : 

The care of such minute particulars may be censured ai 
trifling ; but these particulars have not been thought 
' unworthy of attention in more polished languages. 

The accuracy of the French, in stating the sounds of 
their letters, is well known; and among the Italiam, 
Cregcembeni has not thought it unnecessary to inform his 
countrymen of the words which, in comp&ance with dif- 
ferent rhymes, are allowed to be differently spelt, and 
of which the number is now so fixed, that no modem 
poet is suffered to increase it 

When the orthography and pronunciation are adjust- 
ed, the etymology, or derivation, is next to be considered, 
and the words are to be distinguished according to the 
different classes, whether simple, as day, Ughi ; or com- 

Sound, as daif-lighl; whether primitive, as, to act, or 
erivative, as actum, actionable; active, activity. Thia 

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\nH madi fiKilitate the ■ttnimneot of our language) 
whidi DOW atands in our dictiaoariee a coofuaed naq> of 
wmda without dependence, and without rdation. 

When this pait of the work ia pwfonned, it will be 
Ueceseary to inc}uire how our primitives are to be de- 
claoad £nm fprewn kngu^es, whidi may be c^len verjr 
UKoeisfully perMnned by the aasistanoe of our own e- 
^melogiflta. This aeardi will give occaaiao to many 
curious diaquisitians, and soni^ines perhapi to conjec- 
tures, whi(^ to readers unacquainted with this kind of 
atMdj, caiUMt but appear improbable and ca{Hidous, 
But it may be r^onably imagined, that what is so 
much in the power of men as language, will very of- 
ten be ca}viciously conducted. Nor are these disqui- 
sitions and conjectures to be considered altogedier as 
wanton sports of wit, or vain shows of learning: our 
language is well known not to be primitive or self-or- 
i^linated, but to have adopted words of eveary genera- 
tion, and, either for the supply of its necessities, or the 
increase of its copiousness, to have received additions 
tnaa very distant regions ; bo that in search of the j>ro- 
genitcH^ of our speech we may wandM' from the tropick 
to the frozen z<»ie, and find some in the vallies afPaUs- 
inur, and stnse upon the rocks of Norwag. 

Beside ^e detivation of particular words, there is 
. likewise an etymolt^y of j^ases. Expressions are of- 
toi taken &om irfiter hmguages ; some appariently, as to 
rmi a fitque, courir wi risque ; and some even when we 
do not seem to bmrow their words \ thus, to hrmg almU 
cr accomplish, appears an EngUth phrase, but in reality 
our native word about has no such import, and is only a 
French expression, of which we have an eXunple in the 
conamon phniee venir a botU tTune affaire. 

In exhibiting the deecentof our language, onretymrio- 
^ists seem to have been too-lavish of their learning, hav* 
mg traced almoat every word tlinmgh various tongues, 
(Huy to shew what was shewn sufficiently by the first 
denrabon. This practice is of great use in synt^ical 
lexicons, where mutilated and doubtful languages are 
^ilained by their affinity to otliers more certain and 
extenarve, but is georaully superfiuous in En^isk ety- 
mologiea. When the wwd is easily deduced from « 
Vol. I. Q 

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170 THE PIAN Of 

Saxm ariginal, I ehall not oftefl inquire ftir^er, tinee 
•we know not Uie parent of the Saxon dialect ; but when 
it h borrowed from the French I shall shew whence die 
French is apparently, derived. Where a Saxon root 
cannot be found, the defect may be supplied from kiif> 
dred languages, which will be generally iumished witb 
much liberality by the writers of our glossaries ; writera 
who deeerve onen the highest praise, both of judgment 
and industry, and may expect at least to be mentioned 
witl) lionouT hy me, whom they have freed from the 
greatest part of a very laborious wort, and on whom' 
they have imposed, at worst, only the easy task of re- 
jecting supernutties. 

By tracing in this manner every wOrd to its original, 
and not admitting, but with great caution, any of which 
to original can be found, we shall secure our language 
from being ■ over-run with cant, from being crowded 
with low terms, the spawn of folly or efTectation, whicb 
arise from no just principles of speech, and of which 
therefore no legitimate derivation can be shewn. 

When the etymology is thus adjusted, the analog of 
our language is next to be considered; when we nave 
discovered whence our words are derived, we are to es- 
amine by what rules they are governed, and how th^ 
are infiectcd through their various terminaUons. The 
terminations of the English are few, but those few have - 
hitherto remained unregarded by the writera of our dio- 
tionaries. Our substantives are declined <ndy bv the 
plural termination, our adjectives admit no vanatisn 
but in the degrees of comparison, and our verbs are 
conjugated by auxiliary words, and are only changed 
in Uie preter tense. 

To our language may be with ^eat justness uiplied 
the observation of QuiniiZion, that speech was not iormed 
by an analogy sent from heaven. It did not descend to 
usinastate of unifonni^ and perfection, but was produ- 
ced by necessity, and enlarged by accident, and is there- 
fore composed of dissimilar parts, thrown together by 
negligence, by affectation, by learning, or by ignorance. 
Our inflections therefore are by no means constant, but 
admit of numberless irr^pilarities, which in this Dic- 
tionaiy will be diligently noted. Thus^^u; makes in the 
plural Joxet, but ox makes oxoh Sheep h the qame in 

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IfC/A nambeis. Adjectives are sometiineB compared by 
danging the lost syllable, as proud, prouder, proudaf ; 
md aometimea by particles prefixed, as, ambiltoiu, more 
smbitiauB, raorf ambitioua. The forms of our verbs are 
subject to great variety ; aOme ead their preter tense in 
ed, as 1 love, I loved, I have looed ; which may be called 
the remilar form, and is followed by most of our verbs 
of aouUiem originaL But many depart from this rule, 
without agreeing in any other ; as I thake, I thook, I 
have thaien, or shook, oa it is sometimes written in poe- 
by : 1 make, I made, 1 have made ; I bring, I brought ; 
I wring, I mraag; and many others, which, as they 
cannot be reduced to rules, must be learned from the 
dictionary rstherithui the grammar. 

The verbs are likewise to be distinguished according 
to their qualities, as actives firom neuters ; the neglect 
rf which has already introduced some barbarities in our 
C(»iversation, which, if not obviated by just animadver- 
(ions, may in time creep into our writings. 

Thus, my Lord, will our language be laid down, dis- 
tinct in its minutest subdivisions, and resolved into ita 
elemental principles. And who upon this survey can 
forbear to wish, that these fundamental atoms of our 

rich might obtain the firmness and immutability of 
primogenial and constituent particles of matter, that 
they might retam their substance while they alter their 
^pearance, and be varied and compounded, yet not de- 

But this is a privilege which words are scarcely to ex- 
pect ; for, like their author, when they are not gaining 
strength, they are generally losing it. Though art may 
sometimes prolong their duration, it tvill rarely giv^ 
them perpetuity ; and their changes wiU be almost al- 
ways infdrming us, that language is the work of man, 
of a being firom whoni permanence and stability caiinot . 
be derived. 

Words having been hitherto considered as separate 
and imconnect*3, are now to be Ukewlse examined a« 
they are ranged in tlieir various relations] to others by 
the rules of syntax or construction, to which I do not 
know that any regard has been yet shewn in English 
dictionaries, and in which the grammarians can give 

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little aniBtuice. Thesyntaxof ddslongia^ iBbmin- 
iMmatwit to be reduced to rules, uid can4)e only lesro- 
ed by the diatinct ccmsideratioii of particular words as 
they are nsed by the beat authors. Thus we eay, ac- 
cording to the present modes of speech, the soldier died 
of his wounds, and the sailor [leriebed tuith hunger : 
and erery man acquainted with our language wooU be 
offended with a change of these particles, whidi yet 
seent originally a»dgned, by chance, there being no rea- 
son to be drawn trom gramniar why a man may not, 
with equal propriety, be said to die mlh a wound, cr 
perieh of hunger. 

Our syntax therefore is not to be taught by genosl 
rules, but by special precedents; and in examming 
wheeler Additoa has been with justice accused of s 
•otecism in this passage. 

The poor inhnUtant 

StSTvea in the midst of aataie'i bounty cunt. 
And In Um loadcQ vineyard diet/br ihirti— 
it is not in our power to have recourse to anv established 
laws of spee<^, but we must remark how the writ er s a( 
tormer ages have used the sane wcvd, and considor 
whether Be can be acquitted of impro|H^ety, vpoo tite 
testimony c^ Daeiea, given tn his &vour by a "'■"^Wif 

She loatha the wat'iy glass whereEn she gai'd. 
And ihuni it still, although />r IMrii ihe die. 
When the construction of a word ia e9f|dained, h u 
necessary to pursue it through its train of phraseology, 
through those forme where it is used in a manner pecu- 
liar to OUT languaj^e, or in senses not to be comprised in 
the general explanations ; as &om the verb xaie arise 
these phrases, to ntaie love, to maie an end, to naie way ; 
as, he made wag for his followers, the sbip made waif be- 
fore the wind; to make a bed, to makc-meny, to mate a 
mock, to make pretenlt, to nuiie a doubt, to make out em 
assertion, to make good a breach, to make good a cause, to 
make rtolking of an attempt, to make tamentaiion, to make 
a merit, ana many others which will occur in reading 
with that view, and which only their frequency hinders 
from being generally remarked. 

The great labour is yet to come, the labour of inter- 
preting these words and phrases with brevity, fiilnesa. 

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■od perajncnity ; » taA of which the extent and iutrU 
Vtey is suffitnenthr shewn by the miscarriage of those 
who bftve generslly. attempted it This difficulty is in- 
crrawd by the necessity rf explaining the words in the 
tame language ; for there is often only one word for one 
idea; and though it be easy to translate the words 
bright, sitvet, sait, bitter, into another language^ it is not 
easy to explain them. 

With regard to the interpretation, many other ques- 
tioDS have required consideration. It was some time 
doubted whether it be necessary to explain the thin^ 
napUed by partigular words ; as under the term baronet, 
whether, uistead'of this explanation, a titleqf honour next 
m degree to that of baron, it would be better to mention 
nxn-e particularly the creation, privilegea, and ranks of 
ban>nete ; and whether, under the word barometer, in- 
stead of being satiafiedwtth observing that it is an in- 
ttntmeiU to dacover the ireighl of the air, it would be fit 
to sp«nd a few lines upon its invention, constructi(»), 
and principles. It is not to be expected, that with the 
explanation of the one the herald ^ould be satisfied, or 
the philoEopher with that of the other ; but since it will 
be required by common readers, that the explications 
should be sufficient for common use ; and since, without 
some attention to such demands, the Dictionary cannot 
become generally valuable, I have determined to consult 
the best writers for explanations real as well as verbal ; 
and perhaps I may at last have reason to say, after one 
of the augmenters of Fureliere, that my book is more 
learned than its author. 

In explaining the general and popular language, it 
seMns necessary to sort the several senses of eacli word, 
and to exhibit first its natural and primitive significa- 

To arrive, to reach the shore in a voyage ; he arrived 
at a safe harbour. 

Then to give its consequential meaning, to arrive, to 
reach any place, whether by land or seaj as, he arrived 
at his country seat. 

Then its metaphorical sense, to obtain any thing de- 
filed ; as, he amved at a peerage. 

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17i THK FLAN or 

Then to mendon any ohaervatioa that atisea tram the 
comparison of one meaning with another ; ae, it nlay be 
remarked of the word amve, that, in conBequence cm ila 
original and etymological aense, it cannot he propnly 
applied but to words aignifying eomethiiig desirable : 
thus we Bay, a man arrived at ht^ipiness ; but cannot aay, 
without a mixture of irony, he arrived at misery. 

Ground, the earth, gennaUy as c^qiosed to the air, or 
water. He swam till ne reacaed ground. He bird fell 
to the ground. 

Then follows the accidental or cmisequMitial signifr- 
caticHi, in which ground imphes any thing that lies un- 
der another ; as, ne laid colours upon a rough ground. 
The silk had blue flowers on a red ground. 

Then die remoter or metaphorical signification; aa, 
the ground of his opinion was a false cmnputation. The 
ground of his work was his father's manuscript. 

After having gone through the natural and figurati?e 
senses, it will be proper to subjom the poetical sense of 
eacA wOTd, where it differs from that whlcli is in com- 
mon use ; as, reanlon, applied to any thing of wtuch the 
motion is irregular without terror ; as. 

In aaatoa ringlets curlM her hair. 

To the poetical sense may succeed the familiar ; as of 
toast, used to imply the person whose health is drank : 

The wiee mmi'a paaaion, and the vidn man's toait. Pope. 

The familiar may be followed by the burlesque ; as of 
ineVmv, applied to good fellowship: 

In all th; humours, uhelher grave or mWAm. ADDISOlt. 

Or of bite, used for cbeal : 

And lastly, may be produced the peculiar sense in 
which a word is found in any great author : asfacultUt, 
in Skaietpeare, signifies the powers of authority : 

— This OuHcan 

Haa barn his Jatultiei so meek, has been 
Sq clear in hli great office, th'al, &c. 
The signification of adjectives may be often ascertain- 
ed by uniting them to substantives ; as, sin^ swain, 
simple ihegp. Sometimes the sense of a substantive 

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may be elucidated bj the ^idiets annexed to it in good 
authors; aa, the bomdleit ocean, the open latmt: and 
Inhere such advanta^ c«i be gained l^ a sh(nt quota- 
tion, it is not to be omitted. 

The difference of dgniScation in words Generally ac- 
counted synonymous, ought to be carefully observed ; 
«8 in pride, haughlinea, arrogaiKe : and the strict and 
criticBl meaning ought to be distinguiahed trom that 
which is loose and popular ; as in the worA perfecUom, 
which, though in its philosophical and eiact aense it can 
be c^ little use uaong human beings, is oilen so much 
d^^raded from its original signification, that the acade- 
micians have inserted in theur work, the perfediott <^a 
latigaage, and, with a little more licentiooBness, might 
have prevailedjon themselves to have added the pe^ec- 
Hoa <ffa dictionanf. 

There are many other characters of wcmlt which it 
will be of use to mention. Some have both an active ' 
and passive signidcation ; oafiarftd, that which giveBwr 
whitm feels terror ; a fearful jn-odigi/, a feaiftd hare. 
Some have a personal, some a real meaning ; as in op- 
position to old, we use the adjective ^ka^, of animated 
beings, and nem oi other things. Some are restrained 
to the sense of praise, and others to that of diBapproba- 
tion ; so commonly, though not always, we exhort to 
good actioas, we instigate to ill ; we animaU, incite, and 
encourage indifferently to good or bad. So we usually 
atcrihe good, but impute evil; yet neither the use of 
these words, nor perhaps of any< other in our licentious 
language, is so established as not to be often reversed 
by the correcteat writers. 1 shall therefore, since tlie 
rules of style, like tiiose of law, arise from precedents 
ofbsa repeated, collect the testimonies on both sides, and 
endeavour to discover and promulgate the degrees of 
cuatom, who has so long possecsed, whether by right 
or by usurpation, the sovereignty of words. 

It is necessary likewise to^xplain many words by their 
opposition to others ; for contraries are beet seen when 
they stand together. Thus the verb stand has one sense 
as opposed Xafall, and another as opposed ta fiy ; for 
want of attenmng to which distinction, obvious as it is, 
the learned Dr. lienllev has squandered his criticism to 
BO puipose, on these hues of Paradise Lo»t : 

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Chariot and charioteer lajr ovcituni'd. 
And fiery fosming atceda. What itoid, rcroil'd, 
O'erwo^ed, llirou^ Ihe faiot BBtanic host. 
Defensive scarce, ur nith pale fem: Burptis'd. 
Fled Ignonuoious 

' Here,' says the critic, ' as the sentence is now read, 
! we find that what jtood,_^nf:' and therefore he Twcmor 
aes an alteratioD, which lie might have spared if ne nad 
consulted a dictionary, and found that nothing more was 
affirmed than that those _^rj who did w^faU. 

In explaining such meanings as seem accidental and 
adventitious, I shall endeavour to give an account of the 
means by which they were introduced. Thus, to eke otd 
any thing, signifies to lengthen it beycoid its juat dimen- 
siona by some low artifice ; because the word eke was the 
usual refuge fif our old writers when they wanted a syU 
lable. And buxom, which nieuu only obedient, is now 
made.infamiUarphraseSjtostandforwanton; because in 
an ancient form of marriage, before the Reformation, the 
bride promised complaisance and obedience in these 
terms : ' I will be braiair and buxom in bed and at board.' 

I know well, my Lord, how trifling many of these re- 
marks will appear, separately consiuered, and how ear- 
sily they may give occasion to the contemptuous merri- 
ment of sportive idleness, and the gloomy censures of 
arrogant stupidity j but dullness it is easy to despise, 
and laughter it is easy to repay. I shsll not be soUdt- 
ous what is thought of my work by such as know not 
the difiiculty or importance of philological studies ; nt^ 
shall think those uiat have done nothing, qualified to 
condemn me for doing little. It may not, however, bC' 
improper to remind them, that no terrestrial greatneaa 
is more than an aggregate of little things ; and to in- 
culcate, after the Arabtan proverb, that drops added to 
dr^s constitute the ocean. 

There remains yet to be considered, the distribution 
of words into their proper classes, or that part of lexi- 
cography which is strictly critical. 

The popular part of the language, which includes sU 
words not a}ipropTiated to particular sciences, admits of 
many distinctions and subdivisions; as, into words of ge- 
neral use ; words employed chiefly in poetry ; words ob- 

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■Diete; w<»dsirbich«r« admitted only bypudcularw 

}vea improper; varaa used 
buri^qiie writing ; and wof^ impure mi tMrbarons. 

ten, yet not in thenuelrea improper; woida used only in 

Words of ^neraj use will be known by having no sign 
<tf particulanty, and their various senses will be support- 
ed by authorities of all ages. 

The words appropri^ed to poetry will be distinguish- 
ed by some iharV prefixed, ox will be known by having . 
no BUtborities but those of poets. 

Of antiquated w obsolete words, none will be insert* 
ed but such as are to be found in autbors who wrota 
unce the accession oi EliaAetk, irota which we date the 
gcdd^i age of our lai^uage ; and of these many might 
he omitted, but that the read^ may require, with an 
appearance of reason, that no dif&culty should be left 
UBrmolved in books which he bids hunself invited to 
read.asconfesaedandestaUishedtaoddlsofstvle- These 
will be likewise pointed out by.some note of exclusion, 
but not of disgrace. 

The words which are found only in particular bo()k^ 
will be known l^ the single name <tf him that has used 
tbem ; but such will be mnitted, unless either their pro- 
|mety, el«^nce, or toKe, or the reputation of uieir 
Rudiora, a^rds some extraordinary reason (<a their re- 

Words used in burlesque and &miliar compoaitiont, 
will be likewise mentioned with their proper author!- 
ties ; such as dudgeon, ftom Butler, aiid leasing, from 
Prior ; and will be diligently characterised by marks of 

Barbarous, or impure words and expressions, may 
be branded with some note of infamy, as they are care- 
Adly to be eradicated wherever they are found; and 
they occur too fVequently, even in the best writers; a4 

ii in endlesa wior AufTd. 

' 7^ UcK that eart; taint tKe female souL 
In Addison : 

Attend to what a. letter muaa tndit«a^ ' 

And in Dryden, 

A dmdfUl qiriet fbH, and xnntr &t 

Than arms- — 

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If this part of the Work can be well p^formed, it will' 
be equivalent to the proposal made by Boileau to the 
AcBfiemidana. that they should review a)l thei> politrf- 
writen, and correct such impurities as mi^t be ibuud 
in tfaem, that their authority might not contribute, at »- 
ay distant time, to the depravation of the language. 

With regard to questions of purity or propriety, I wa» 
tmce in doubt whedier I should not attribute too much 
to myself, in attempting to decide thetn, and whether my 
^ovmce was to extend beyond the proposition of the 
quevticMi, and the diaplay of the suflrages on each side; 
but I hare been since determined, by your Lordship's 
opinion, to interpose my own judgment, and shall there- 
fore endeavour to support what i^pears to mtt most cat^ 
sonant to grammar and reason. Autotuu* thought thak 
modesty forbade him to plead inability for a task to 
which Catar had judged turn equal. 

Cur TMpouc ittgemfiuie quod iHepuUtt 

And I may hope, my Lord, that since von, whose autfao- 
ti^ in our lai^^uage is so generally acknowledged, have 
commiasioned mc to declare my own oiHiiion, I shall be 
considered as exercising a kind of vicarious jurisdiction, 
and that the power which might have been denied to 
my own claim, will be readily allowed me as the dele- 
gate of your Lordship. 

In citing authoriticB, on which the credit of every 
part of this Work must depend, it will be proper to ob- 
serve some obvious rules ; such as of preferring writer^ 
of the first reputation to those of an inferior rank ; of 
noting the quotations with accuracy ; and of selecting, 
when it can be conveniently done, such sentences, aa, 
besides their immediate use, may give pleasure or in- 
struction, by conveying some elegance of language, or 
some precept of prudence, or piety. 

It has been asked, on some occasions, who shall judge 
the judges ? And since, witli regard to this design, a 
question may arise by what authority the authorities are 
selected, it is necessary to obviate it, by declaring that 
many of the writers whose testimonies will be alledj^ed. 
were selected by Mr Pope ; of whom I may be justified 
in affinning, that were Ik still alive, soUdfous tfi he was 

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lor dte suctesB of this work, he would not be diipIeiMed 
that I have undertaken it. 

It will be proper that the quotatitHiB be ranged accor- 
ding to the ages of their authors ; and it will afford an 
agreeable amuBement, if to the words and phrases 
whidi are not of our own growth, the name of the wri> 
ter who first introduced them can be affixed ; and if to 
varde which are now antiquated, the authority be sub- 
joined of him who last admitted tbem. Thus, for tctitht 
and hucota, now obselete,. Milton may be cited :— • 

■ — " - The niountain 04)1 

Stands tcaih^d to hesven 

He with broad mils 

Winnow'd the buxom air — — . 

By this method every word witt have its history, and 
fte reader wiH be informed of the gradual changes of 
the language, and have beftrre his eyes the rise of some 
words, ana the fall of others. But observations so mi- 
nute and accurate are to be deeired, rather than expect- 
ed; and if use be carefiilly supplied, curiosity must- 
sometimes bear its disappointments. 

This, my Lord, is my idea of an English Dictdonary ; 
■dictionary by which the pronunciation of our laiiKUage 
Dtty befixed, and its attainment facilitated; by which its 
puri^ may he preserved, its use ascertained, and its du- 
ntibn lengthened. And though, perhaps, to correct the 
language of nations by books of gramnuir, and amend 
tbetp manners by discourses of morahty, may be task* 
eqnally difficult ; yet, as it is unavoidable to wish, it is 
nattind likewise to hope, that your Lordship's patronage 
may not he wholly lost ; that it may contribute to t£« 
Reservation of ancient, and the improvement of mo- 
dem writers ; that it may promote the reformation cS 
those translators, who, for want of understanding the 
characteristical difference of tongues, have formed a 
chaotic dialect of heterogeneous phrases; and awaken 
to the care of ™irer diction some men of genitis, whose 
attention to aigi nent piakes them n^hgent of style, 
or whose rapin imagination, like the Peruviaa torrent, 
vhen it brings dowfi gold, mingles it with sand. 

When I survey the Plan which 1 have laid before 
yotf, I canBot, my Lord, but confess, that I am frighted 

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ISO Ttti; PLAN or 

at its eztert, and, l&e the soldieTB of Casar, look tm 
Britain is a, new world, whicli it u almost madness to 
invade. But 1 hope, duit thaueh I should not complete 
the cxmquest, I amdl Bt least discover the coast, civilize 
put of the inhabitants, and make it easy for some otiier 
adventurer to proceed fartiier, to reduce them wholly 
to subjectii»i, and settle them under laws. 

We are taught by the great Boman oiatw, that every 
man should propose to himself the highest degree of, 
excellence, but that he may Mc^ with honour at the 
second or third: though therefore my performance 
should fall below the ercelleTice of other dirtiiinaries, I 
may obtain, at least, the praise of having endeavoui«d 
well ; nor shall I think it any reproach to my diligence, 
that I have retired, without a triumph, from a contest 
with united academies, and long successions of learned 
cmnpilere. I cannot h(^e, in the warmest moments, 
to preserve so much caution through so long a work, 
as not often to sink into negligence ; or to obtain so 
much knowledge of all its parts, as not frequently to 
fiul by ignorance. I espect that Sometimes the desire 
of accuracv will urge me to superfluities, and sometimes 
the fear oiprolixiiy betray ^ne to omissions: that in the 
extent of such variety I ^lall be often bewildered ; and 
in the mazes of auch mtricacy be frequently entangled : 
that in one part refinement will be subtilised beyond 
esactness, and evidence dilated in another beyond per- 
spicuity. Vet I do not despair of approbation from 
those who, knowing the unnwteinh of conjecture, the 
scantiness of knowledge, the fallibility of memory, and 
the unsteadiness of attention, can compare the causes 
of errcw with the means of avoiding it, and the extent 
of art with the capacity of man ; and whatever be the 
event of my endeavours, I shall not easily regret an at>- 
tempt whidi has procured me the honour of ^ipearing 
thus publickly, 

My Lord, 
Your Lordship's most obedient, 
'and most humble servant, 


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Tt is the fate of those who toil at the lower employ- 
ments of life, to be rather driven by the fear of evil, 
tlianattractedby the project of good; to be exposed to 
censure, without hope of praiae ; to be disgraced by 
miscarriage, or punished for neglect, where success 
would have been without applause, and diligence with- 
out reward. 

Amonff these unhappy mortals is the writer of diction- 
aries; whom mankind have considered, not as the pu? 
5il, iHit the slave of science, the pioneer tif literature, 
oomed only to remove rubbish and clear obstructions 
from the paths through which Learning and Genius 
press forward to conquest and f^ory, without bestowing 
a smile on the humue drudge that facilitates their pro- 

E'ss. Every other author may aspii'e to praise ; the 
ictvrapher can only hope to escape reproHch, and 
even this negative recompence has been yet granted to 
Very few, 

Ihave, notwithstanding; this discouragement,sttenipt- 
ed a Dictionary of the hngluk language, which, while 
it was employed m the cultivatimi of every species of 
literature, has itself been hitherto neglected; suffered to 
qiread, under the direction of chance, into wild exuber- 
ance; resigned to ^e tyranny of time and fiishion ; 
and exposS to the corruptions of ignorance, and en- 
prices of innovation. 

When I took the first survey of my undertaking, I 
found our speech copious without order, and energetic 
without rule: wherever I turned my view, there was 
perplexity to be disentangled, and confusion to be re- 
gulated • choice was to be made out of boundless variety, 
without any established principle of selection ; adultera- 
Vou I. R 

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"182 PREFACE to THE 

tioDS were to be detected, without a eettled t«st of puri- 
ty ; and modes of expression to be rejected or received) 
without the su&ages of any writers of claMic«l reputa- 
tion or acknowledged authority. 

Having! th^«fore, no assistance but from general 
grammar, I applied myself to the perusal of our wri- 
ters ;' and noting whatever might' be of use to ascertain 
or illusbate any word or phrase, accumulated in time 
the materials of a dictionafy, which, by degrees, I redu- 
(xd to method, eetablishing to myself, in the progress of 
the work, such rules as experience and analogy sug- 
gested to me ; experience, which practice and observa- 
tion were continualtv increafing; and analogy, which, 
thoug-h in some words obscure, was evident in irth^-s. 

In adjusting the Orthography, which has been to this 
time unsettlea and fortmtous, I found it necessary to 
distinguish those irregularities that are inherent in our 
tongue, and perhaps coeval with it, from others which 
the ignorance or neg1ic«nce of later writers has produ- 
ced. Every language lias its anomalies, which, ntough 
inconvenient, and in themselves once nnnecessary, must 
be tolerated among the imperfectinns of hum^ things, 
and which require only to be resistered, that they may 
not be increased, and ascertained, that they may not be 
confounded ; but every language has likewise ita imm)- 
prieties and absurdities, which it is the duty of the lex- 
icographer to correct or proscribe. 

As language was at its beginning merely and, aU 
words of necessary or common use were spoken before 
they were written ; and while they were unfixed by any 
visible signs, must have been spoken with great oiver- 
sity, as we now observe those who canoot read, to cat«^ 
sounds imperfectly, and utter them negligently. When 
this wild and barbarous jargon was first reduced to m 
alphabet, every penman endeavonred to express, as he 
could, the sounds which he was accustomed to jno- 
nounce or to receive, and vitiated in writing sudi wordi 
as were already vitiated in speech. The powers of the 
letters, when they were applied to a new langnage, must 
have been vague and unsettled, and therefore different 
hands would exhibit the same soimd b "" 

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Prom this ancertain pntnuncUtion arise in great part 
ibe Tarioiu ^alecta of ute same country, which will al" 
wiyg be observed to grow ftwer, and less diSerent, aa 
boolu are multipljed ; and from this tu-bitrary represen- 
titian of aoimas by letters, proceeds that diversity of 
gelling observable In the Sojoa remains, tmd I suppose 
b the first books of every nation ; which perplexes oe 
deatroys analogy, and produces anomalous formations, ' 
tlut, being once incorpiM-ated, can never be afterward 
dismissed or reformed. 

Of this kind are the derivatives lenglh from long, 
ifravfA &om Hroag, dariiMg from dear, breadth &om 
bnM, from diy, drought, and from high, ke^ht, which 
Mi&on, in zeal for analogy, writes higktk : Quid te at- 
ffptajuvei ifxnU de planbux una ? to change all would 
be too mucfa, and to change one is nothing. 

This uncertainty is most frequent in the vowels, which 
»e so capriciously pronounced, and so differently modi- 
fied, by accident or aiEectadon, not tmly in every pro- 
Tince, but in every mouth, that to them, as is well 
known to etymolo^sta, little regard is to be shewn in 
the deduction of one laaguage &om another. 

Sueh defects are not errors in ortho^aphy, but spots 
of barbarity impressed so deep in the EagUsh language, 
thatcriticisTB can never wash themaway: these, there- 
fore, must be permitted to remain untouched ; but many 
words have likewise been altered by accident, or de- 
pmved by ignorance, as the pronunciation of the vul- 
gar boa been weakly followed ; and some still continue 
to be variously written, aa authors differ in their care or 
skill: of these it w^ proper to inquire the true orthog- 
riphy, which I have always considered as depending on 
theff derivation, and have therefore referred them to 
their original languages : thus I write enchant, encharU- 
Motl, enchanter, after the French, and incantation after 
the Latin ; thas entire is chosen rather than iniire, be~ 
eaage it passed to us not from the Latin integer, bixC 
fnim the French erUier. 

Of many words it is difScult to say whether they were 

inune^atdy received from the Latin <a the French, 

since, at the time when we had donunitms in France, we 

had La^ s«a-vice in our cbuniJies. It is. however, ray 


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184 rRI'ACE to *itS; 

Opinion, that the French generally supplied u»; fat we 
have few Latin words, among the temts of domestic lue, 
whidi are not French ; but many French, which ore ve- 
ry rwnote from Latin. 

Even in words of which the xierivatioD is trpftettxA, 
I have been often obliged to sacrifice unifwmity to cus- 
tom ; thus I write, in compliance with a numberless 
majority, convey and itmeiak, deceit and receipt, Jwiiy 
andphaniom ; eometimeB me derivative varies from the 
primitive, as explain and tipianaiitm, repeat and r^teti- 

Some combinations of letters having the same pewer, 
end used indiSerently without any discoverable reasoR 
vr choice, aa in choak, choke; toap, tope ; Jetvelijnd, aoA 
many others; which I have sometimes inserted. twicc^ 
that those who search for them under either forqa, joAy 
aot search in vain. 

In examining the orthography of any doubtful word, 
die mode of spelling by wnicn it is ins^led in the series 
of the dictionary, is to be considered as that to which 1 
give, perhaps not often rashly, the preference. 1 have 
left, in the examples, to every author his own practicf 
luunolested, that the reader may balance suflrages, 
and judge between us : but this question is not, always 
to be determined by reputed or by real learning; some 
men, intent upon greatet* things, have thought little on 
sounds and derivations ; some, knowmg in the ancient 
tongues, have neglected those in which our words are 
commonly to be sought Thus Hammond writes Jeci^ 
hUness ioT feasibleness, because I suppose he imagir^ it 
derived immediately from the Latin; and some words, 
Such as dependant, dependent; dependence, dependence, 
vary their final syllable,, as one or another language is 
present to the writer. 

In this part of the work, where caprice has long wan- 
toned without control, and vanity sought praise by pet^ 
reformation, I have endeavoured to proceed with a scho- 
lar's reverence for antiquity, and a grammarian's regard 
to the genius of our tongue. I have attempted few al- 
terations, and among those few, perhaps the jjeater part 
is from the modern to the ancient practice ; and I hope 
I may be allowed to recommend to tlioae, whose thoughts 

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bive bcoi perhaps employed too anxionsly on verbat 
anguhrities, not to disturb, upon narrow views, or for 
miiiate proprie^, ^e orthography of their fathers. It 
hu been asserted, that for the law to be known, is of 
more importance than to be right. 'Change,' saya 
Hooter, ' ie not made without inconvenience, even from 
vonr to better.' There is in constancy and etabitity a 
general and lasting advantage, which will always over- 
mlmce the slow improvements of gradual correction. 
Much less ought our written language to comply with 
the corruptiona of oral utterance, or copy that which 
every variation of time or place makes different from it- 
idf, and imitate those cnuiges, which will again be 
dumged, while imitation is employed in observing them. 

Tms recommendation of steadiness and uniformity 
does not proceed from an opinion, that particular com- 
binations of letters have much influence on human hap- 
piness ; or that truth may not be successfully taugiit by 
Ixodes of spelling fanciful and erroneous : I am not yet 
BO lost in lexicography as to forget that nords are the 
daxghlert of earth, and that fhiiigs are the som of heaven. 
Language is only the instrument of science, and words 
"t but the signs of ideas : I wish, however, that the 
nutrument might be less apt to decay, and that signs 
in«ht be permanent, like the things which they denote. 

m settling the ordiogTaphv, I havenot wholly neglect- 
ed the pronunciation, whicn I have directed, by print- 
ifg m accent upon the acute or elevated pliable. It 
*ifl sometimes be found, that the accent is placed by the 
aathor quoted, on a difTbrent syllable from that marked 
in the i^habetical series: it is dien to be understood, 
tliat custom has varied, or that the author has, in my 
'Tision, pronounced wrong. Short directions are some- 
fimea given where the soundof lettei'sia irregular; and 
if tiiey are aometlnies omitted, defect in such minute ob- 
■ervations will be more easily excused than superfluity. 

In the investigation both o£ the orthography and sig- 
wfitation of words, their Etifmolo^ was necessarily to be 
<wisidered, and they were thcrdOre to be divided into. 
priniitiyea and derivatives. A primitive word, is that 
*hich can be traced no furtjier to any English root ; 
thus drcmiapect, circumvent, circumtttmce, deMie, concave, 
R S 


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ai\& comfUcate, though compounds in the Latin, are t^ 
us primitivea. Derivatives, ore all those that can be re- 
ferred to any word in English of greater Eimplicity. 

The derivatives I have referred to their primitiveSj 
with an accuracy sometimes needless ; for who does not 
see that rcTtioteness comes from remote, iovely from love, 
coucauitif from concave, and demmutrtUive from demon-r 
ttrate f . But this grammatical exuberance the scheme of 
my work did not allow me to repress. It is of no great 
importance, in examining the general fabric of a lao- 
gUBge, to trace one word from another, by noting tlie 
usual modes of derivation and inflection ; and unifonoi- 
ty must be preserved in systematical works, thou^ 
BOtRetimes at the expence of particular proprie^. 

Among otiier denvativea, 1 have been carefiu to in- 
sert and elucidate the anomalous plurals of nouns and 
preterites of verbs, which in the Teviomctc dijdects are 
very frequent, and, though familiar to those who have 
always used them, interrupt and embarrass the learner* 
of our language. 

The two languages fi-om which our primitives have, 
been derived are the Soman and Teutonick: under the 
Roman 1 comprehend the French and provincial 
ton^pies ; and under the Teutonick range the Saxon, 
German, and all their kindred dialects. Most of our 
polysyllables are Roman, and our wor^ of one syllable 
are very ofien Teutonick. 

. In assigning the Roman original, it has perhaps some- 
times happened that I have mentioned only the Latin, 
when the woi'd was borrowed from the Freftck; and 
considering myself es employed only in the illustration 
of my own language, I have not been very careful to ob^ 
serve whether the Latin word be pure or barbarous, or. 
the French elegant or obsolete. 

For the Teutonick etymologies, I am commonly in- 
debted to Juniug and Skinner, the only names whidl I 
have forbame to quote when 1 copied their books ; not 
that 1 might appropriate their lemurs or usurp their 
honours, but that I might spare a perpetual repetition 
by one general acknowledgment. Of these, whom I 
ought not to mention but with reverence due to instruc- 
tois and benefactors, Junius appears to have excelled in 

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extent of learning, and Sitnn£r in rectitude of nnder- 
atanding. Juniiu was accurately skilled in all the nor- 
then langtugea, Skinner probably esaminecl the ancient 
ind remoter dialects only by occasional inspection into 
dictionaries ; but the learning q£ Junius is oRen of no o- 
ther lue than to show him a track by which he may de- 
viate from hie purpose, to whidi Skinner always presses 
forwanl by the shortest way. Skinner is oflen ignorant, 
but never ridiculous ; Junius is always full of know- 
ledge; but his variety distracts his judgment, and his 
learning is very frequently disgraced by his absurdities. 
The votaries of Oie northern muses will not perhaps 
fissily restrain their indignation, when they find the 
tume of Junitu llius degraded by a disadvantageous 
eomparison ; but wiiatever reverence is due to his dih- 
gence, or his attainments, it can be no criminal degree 
•f oensoriousnese to charge that etymologist with want 
of judgment, who can seriously derive dream from dra- 
ma, because life is a drama, and a drama is a dream ; and 
who declares, with a tone of defiance, that no man can 
6il to derive moan from uoVnc, monos, single or solitary, 
who considers that grief naturally loves to be alone*. 

' BAHim, retigare, ei baano vfl Urrllvrio eiigere, in exilium agere. 
6. hmtiir. It. iandirt, bamUggiart. H. bandir. &. bannen. JEvi 
■nfdii icriptoreB tennire dicebant. V. Spelm. in Bannuin & in 
Banleugs. Quoniam vera regianiim lublumq ; limites arduis pl«< 
rumq; manUbus, altis lluminibus, loiiglR ileniqi flexuosiaq; anguS' 
tisilinaruni viarum amfraclibus iiicliidebantur, fieri poIeBt id genu) 
limites ban did ab ea quod BansTai & Birwrfu Tarentinis olim, «cu< 
ti tnidit Hes;chius, vocabaotur £ Xsfii lalfii i&unnrf tin, " ahliquB 
ac miiiiiiie in rectum tendeotes viiE.'' Ac fortasse quoque hue ^eit 
(uod Bnrif.codem Hesychio tests, dicebant ifn cj"»i'''"i monleaarfuos. 
Emptv, emtic, PflcaM, isanfi. A. S. ^mbiji- Nescioi '— 
ab.ffiii vel t,ui7=<B. Vomo, evorao, vomilu evaeuo. Videtu 
rim etymologiain banc non obfcure firmare coilci Hash. Mat. xil 
SS. ubi antique Bcriptum inveiuroua gtntottr^b hit tmebLg. **ln 

HiLX., nviiw atilU. A. S. hjlL Quod vMeri pol«Bt 
ei u^wiT vel uhiv»(. Ci)lliB,tumu!us, locus in [ilanoedllior. Homer. 
II.I1.V.SII. Kiiir<f^i'nripieiiri\ioi iivCiiiul'jim. Ubi authori bre. 

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Otirknowledgeofthe northern literature is BO scanty, 
that of worda undoubtedly Teuionick, the original is not 
always to hA found in any ancient language ; and X 
have therefore inserted thdck or German substitutes, 
which I consider not as radical; but parallel, not as the 
parents, but sisters of the EnglUk. 

The words which are represented as thus related by 
descent or ct^ation, do not always agree in sense ; for 
it is incident to words, as to their authors, to degene- 
rate from their ancestors, and to change their manners 
when ^ey change their Country. It is suflicient, in c- 
^miologiral inquiries, if the senses of kindred wcmls be 
found such as may easily pass into each other, or such 
as m^ both he r^erred to one general idea. 

The etymology, so far as it is yet known, was easily 
found in the volumes where it is particularly and pro- 
fessedly delivered ; and by proper attention to the niles 
of derivation, the orthograpny was soon adjusted. But 
to COLLECT the WORDS of our language was a task of 
greater difficulty : the deficiency of dictionaries was im-' 
mediately apparent ; and when they were exhausted, 
what was yet wanting must be sought by fortuitous and 
unguided excursions into books, and gleaned as indus- 
try should find, or chance should offer it^ in the bound- 
less chaos of a living speech. Mv search, however, has 
been either skilful or lucky ; fur 1 have much augmeat^- , 
cd the vocabulary. 

As my design was a dictionary, common or appella- 
tive, I have omitted all words which have relation to 
proper names ; such as Arian, Socinian, Calvinist, Bene- 
tticttne, Mahometan; but have retained those of a more 
general nature, as Heathen, Pagan. 

Of the terms of iirt I have received such as could be 
found either in books of science, or technical dictiona- 

wi^, obscuritas, tenebrsc ; nihil enim teque aolet ci 
Bium. quBia caliginoaa profundte noctis obacuTitaa. 
. STAHHGKEft, Balbus, bJttsua. Goth. STAMMS A. S, )*(». 
awp, pzamup, D. sCam. B. stameJeF. Su. staniTiiia. I«i. fltanv. Sunt 
a rnyuiMa vul r"f*i/*Mi'. nimia ioquBcitate alios ofltaidere : qood 
iinpediCe ]o<]uenlc^ libcDtuanne garrire Eclcant ; vel quod aliis bit 
mii 8ein|>eT ^ idcar.Iiir, etinm jHin isvimc loqiientes., 

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niet,' and have often inserted, fnxn philosophical wri- ' 
tea, wordj which are supported perhaps only by a sin- 
gle authority, and which, being not admitted into gene- 
ral use, stand yet aa candidates or probationers, and must 
depend for their adopdon on tlie suffrage of futurity. 

The words which our authors hftve introduced by 
their knowledge of foreign languages, or ignorance o£ 
their own, by vanity ox wantonness, by compliance with 
behion or lust of innovation, I have registered as they 
ocaured, though commonly only to censure them, and 
wwn oth^s afftunst the roUy of naturalizing uselen 
forekners, to the injury of Uie natives. 

I have not. rejected any by design, merely because 
they were unnecessary or exuberant ; but have received 
throe which by different writers have been differently 
bnatd, as vitcid, and vUddiiy, tiiacou*, and viscosity. 

Compounded or double words 1 have seldom noted^ 
nc^ when they obtain a signification different from 
that which the components have in their simple state. 
Thus highicayman, woodman, and horxcoarier, require 
an explaii^on ; but of Ihieflike, or cogchdriver, no notice 
■ was seeded, because the primitives contain the meaning 
of their compounds. 

Words arbitrarily formed by a constant and settled 
Kiulogy, like diminutive adjectives in iak, as greenish, 
f^isk; adverbs in ly, as dwiy, opeidy ; substantives in 
KM, OS vilenett, fatJtinest ; were lees diligently sought, 
«Qd sometimes have been omitted, when I had no auflio- 
rity that invited me to insert themj not that tliey are 
not genuine and regular offsprings of English roots,' but 
because their relation to the primitive being always the 
"^ma, their signification cannot be mistaken. 

The verbal nouns in ing, such as the keeping of the 
csitk, the leading of the arr»^, are always neglected, or 
pUced only to illustrate the sense of Uie verb, except 
when they signify things as well as actions, and have 
therefore a plural number, as dmeUing, living ; or have 
m absolute and abstract signification, as colouring, paint- 

The participles are likewise omitted, unless, by sig- 
oiTybgrather habit orqualit^ than action, they take the 
Wurettf adjectives; AStit/mtAing voMt, amaaofpni- 

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190 nMtkcx' or the 

dence; « pacing horw, a horse that out pace: tfaete I 
have ventured to call participial adfeciivei. But neilher 
an these always inaerted, because they are commonly 
to be imdemood without an; danger of oiistake, 1^ 
cmuultin^ the verb. 

Obsolete wotds are admitted when ihey are found 
in authors not obsolete, or when ibey have any- force 
or beauty that may deserve revivaL 

As compositiaii ia one of the chief duracUriatica of 
a lan^ua^, 1 have endeavoured to make some rapav»- 
tiaa for the unirertal negligence of my predeceasois, 
by inserting great numbers of compcmnded words, as 
may be found under t^er, fort, new, mgkt, fair, and 
many more. The»e, numeroua as tliey are, might be 
multi|ilied, but that use and cuxion^ are here satis- 
fied, and the frame of our language, imd modes of ouv 
ctxobinatioD, amply discovered. 

Of scKne fijims of compositian, such sa that bjr wfaicb 
re is prefixed to not* repetiHtm, and wt to .si^iufy coth' 
trariety or prini^oit, all the esam^es cannot be. aceu- 
mulated, because the use of these partddea, if not wholly: 
arbitrary, is so little limited, that they are hourly affixed ■ 
to new wprds as occasion requires, ok ia imagined to re* 
quire them. 

There is another kind of composidon m««e ft«qnent 
in our language than perh^M in axn otho', frcm wfaicb 
arises to foreigners the greatest dkficulty. We modify 
the signification of many vecbs by a pactide snfojoBied ; 
as to come o^, to escape by a fetch ; to fall on, to attack ; 
to Jail off', to apostatize ; to btvak off, ta stop abruptly ; 
to bear out, to justly; to fall in, to comply ; togiveooer, 
to cease ; to kI off, to embeUiah ; ta tet in, to begin m 
continual tenour ; to«e<ou/, to begin acourseor journey ; 
to take off, to copy; with. innumerable eipressions of 
the same kind, of which some i^ipear wildly irr^ular, 
being so far dis^nt from the sense of the simple words, 
that no sagacity will be able to trace the steps by which 
they arrived at the present use. These I have noted 
with great care ; and though I cannot flatter myself that 
the coUectien is complete, 1 believe I have so iar assisted 
the students o{ our language, that this kind of phrase- 
ology will be no Icoiger insuperable ; and the combina- 

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tions of verb* and particles, by <4tM)0e «fHittad, wiU be 
axly eipUined by coinparisoB with these that i&sjr be 

Hinr words yet stand suppmted only by tlte rume 
(f Baiky, Airuteorik, PhiUpt, or the contracted Diet for 
iKiitaMnef aobjoined ; of these I am not al vayi ceitaia 
that they are read in Miy book but the works of tesico- 
gmpbetB. Ofsochl have tmiitted many, because 1 had 
■era read them ; and many I have inserted, because 
dt^ may pwhi^ exist, though they have escaped iny 
aedce; they are, however, to be yet considered as rest- 
kgtmly upon the credit of fonner dictionaries. Others, 
which I conaidtved as useful, or know to be proper, 
tfmugh 1 could not at present support them by autho- 
litiM, I have sikfiered to stand upon my own attestation, 
d&inung the same privilege with my predecessors, of 
b^ff sometimes credited without proof. 

The words, thus selected and disposed, are gramms- 
tjcaljy considered ; they are tef^red <o the diir«ent 

Cof speech ; traoed, when they are irregularly in- 
d, through their various terminations ; and lUus- 
trsted by observations, not indeed of great or striking 
importance, separately considered, but necessary to the 
elucidation of our language, and liitherto neglected or 
fnwtten by Englirk grammarians. 

That part of my work on which I expect m^ignitv 
most freqaentiy to fasten, is the explanation ; in whicb 
I cumot hope to satisfy tjiose, who are pa^iaps not in- 
dined to be pleased, smce I have not always t>een AAe 
to sating myself. To interpret a Isnguaee by itself is 
*eTf difficult ; manv words cannot be explained by sy- 
Boiiimes, because the idea signified by them has not 
•Hire than one appellation ; nor by paraphrase, because 
OQ]^ ideas cannot be described. When the nature of 
tbii^ is unknown, or the notion unsettled and indfr- 
Unite, and various in various minds, the words by which 
nich notions are conveyed, or such things denoted, will 
be ambifuous and peiplesed. And such is the iate of 
hspless lexicography, that not only darkness, but light, 
impedes and distresses it ; things may be not only too 
Ittue, but too much kntnfn, to be happily illustrated. To 
aqdnn, requiiee the use of terms lees i^>atruse tbaa,th«k 

;igi PRlFACt TO TBK 

which is to be explained, and Buch tenns cannot always 
be foifiid ; for as nothing can be .proved but l^ suppo- 
sing something intuitively known, and evident withont 
proof, Bonothingcanbedefinedbutby the use of words 
too plain to admit a definition. 

Other words there are, of which the sense is too sub- 
tle and evanescent to be fixed in a paraphrase; such 
are all those which are by the graniniariane termed e^ 
fietiva, and, in dead languages, are suffered to pass for 
empty sounds, of no other use than to fill a verse, or to 
modulate a period, but which are easily poxwived in 
living tongues to have power and emphasis, though it 
be sometimes such as no other form of expression can 

' My labour has likewise been much increased by a 
class of verbs too frequent in the EneUsh langunge, of 
which die siffnification is so loose and general, the use 
so vague and indeterminate, and the senses detorted so 
widely from the first idea, that it is hard to trace them 
through the maze of variation, to catch them on the 
brink of utter inanity, to circumscribe them by any 
limitations, or interpret them by any words of distinct 
and settled meaning ; such are bear, break, come, cast, 
fitU.get, give, do, put, gel, go, nin, make, lake, tarn, ikroK. 
If ofthese the whole power is not accurately delivered, 
it must be remembered, that while our language is yet 
living, and variable by the caprice of every one dftat 
q>eaks it, these words are hourly shifting their relations, 
fjid can no more be ascertained in a dictionary, than a 
BTOve, in the agitation of a storm, can be accurately de- 
Dneated from its picture in the water. 

The particles are, among all nations, applied with so 
great latitude, that ttiey are not easily reducible under 
jiny T^^ular scheme of explication : this diflicul^ is nctt 
less, nor perhaps greater, in Englith, than in other lan- 
guages. I have laboured them with diligence, I hope 
with success ; such at least as can be expected in a 
task, which no man, however learned o:r sagacious, him 
yet been able to perform. 

Some words there are which I cannot e^lain, because 
. I do. not understand them ; these might have been 
omitted, very often with little inconvenience, but I 



would not 80 &r indidge in3r vani^ as to decline diii 
confemioti : for when ZWi^ owiu him«elf igatmuit whe- 
llwr iatu*, in the twelve tables, means tijvneral long, or 
mwiuMg garvKnt ; and AriHoUe douhU vhe^ei oB^fvt 
in tbe Idm, signifies a mkle, or muUleer, 1 may snray, 
witbaiit thsme, leave some obacurities to happier in- 
dutiy, or future infiirmation. 

Hie rigour of interpretative lexicc^nphy requires 
tiut lie explanation, and the word' explained, xhoaU be 
a&Mw rednmcal ; this I have always endeavoured, but 
Goola not always attain. Words ore seldom exactly sy- 
iKHumous ; a new term was not introduced, but because 
As fonner was thought inadequate ; iwmea, thet«fo7e, 
bave often many idew, but few ideas have many names. 
It was then necesaarv to use the proximate word, fat 
&e defidency bf single terms can very seldom be sup> 
[diedbycirciimlocution; nor is the inconvenience great 
oTsudi mutilated interpretations, because the sense ma^ 
twily be collected entire from the examples. ■ 

In evesy word of extensive use, it was' requisite to 
mark the prosress of its meaning, and shew by what 
gndationa of uibmnediate sense it has [lassed from its 
primitive to its remote and accidental signification ; so 
that every foregoing explmation should tend to tliat 
which follows, and the series be regularly concatenated 
fttmi the first notion to the last 

This is ^>ecious, but not always practicable ; kindred 
senses may be so interwoven, that the perplexity can- 
not be disentangled, nor any reason be assigned why ■ 
oiu should be ranged before the other. When the rur 
■Heal idea branches out into parallel ramifications, how 
can a consecutive series be formed of senses in their na- 
ture tollaterftl ? The shades of meaning sometime? pass 
impo^ceptibiy into each other, ao that though on \ma 
«.& they apparently differ,' yet it is impossible t» mark 
^ pcrint (K contact. Ideas of the same race, though not 
einctly alike, are lomeUmes so little diif^rent, that no ' 
words can express-tiie diwimilitude, though the uund 
euOy perceives it when they are exhibited together ; 
and Mmetiioes there ia such a ooofiisiaiit «f accaptattoni;, 
that duxtemmeot ia wewed^ and diitincbion puieled, 
Vol. I. S . 

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and petBeverance herself hurries to an end.'by crowd- 
ingtogether what she cannot separate. 

These complainta of difficulty will, by those diat have 
never coosidered words beyond their popular v 

thought onlv the jargon of a man willing to magnify his 
labours, and procure veneration to his studies by involu- 
tion and obscurity. But every kit is obscure to those who 

have not learned it : this uncertainty of terms and com- 
mixture of ideas, is well known to those who have joined 
philosi^y with grannnagj and if I have not exjffesocd 
than Toy dearly, it must be r«nenibered that 1 an 
qpeakmg of that whidi words are insufficient to explain. 

Tbe ofiginal sense of words is often driven out of hm 
by thdr ntetqibarica] acceptations, yet must be inserted 
fiurdw sake ttf a r^uhor origination. Thus I know not 
whether arjtmr ia used tea •Material heat, or whether 
Jiagrant, in SmgUtk, ever deifies the same with Imm- 
tMg; yet eut±i are the jMimitive ideas of these wmda, 
which are therefore set first, though without examples, 
that the figurative senses may be comm odiously deduced/ 

Sud) is the exub^-ance of signification which many 
words have obtained, that it was scarcely possible to 
collect all their senses ; WH&etimes the meaning of deri- 
vativea must be sought in the motlier term, and s(mu&< 
times deficient e^lanations of the primitive may be 
supplied in the train of derivation. In any case of 
doubt or difficulty, it will be always prc^r to examine 
all the words of the same race; for some words are 
slightly passed over to avoid repetition, some admitted 
easier and clearer e^Ionation Uiati others, and all will 
Iw better understood, as they are considered in a greater 
variety of structures asd relations. 

All the interpretations of words are not vritten with 
the same skill, or the same happiness : things equaily 
easy in themselves, are not all equally easy to any single 
mind. Eveiy writer of a long work contmits erroure, 
where there appears neither ambiguity to mislead, not 
ubscuri^ to confound hinv; and in a search like this, 
many felicities of expression carnally overiocJced, 
many convenimt paraUeb will be fin^tteD, and naany 
particulars will admit improvement from a miud utterly 
- oviequal to the whole performance.' 

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Bnt many seeming faults are to be imputed rether to 
&e nature of the undertaking, than the negligence of 
the performer. Thus some ex^anations are unavoidably 
redprocal or circular, aa hind, the Jemak of the slag ; 
tkg, Ike oiak o/ the hind: somedmes easier words arp 
(iMiged into harder, as banal into sepulire or inlermeni, 
drier into deticcative, dryness into siccity or aridihj, jU 
mta parxM^iim ; for the easiest word, whatever it be, can 
never he translated into one more easy. But easiness 
lad difficnlty are merely relative ; and if the present 
preval^ue rf our language should invite fur^igners to 
^i^ Dicttobaiy, many wul he assisted by those words 
whidi now seem only to increase or produce obscurity. 
Ft» this reason I have endeavoured frequently to join a 
TruUmict and Jlonian interpretation, as to cheer, gladden, 
w txhUarate, that every learner of Englinh may be as- 
sisted by his own tongue. 

The solutioo of all difficulties, and the supply of all 
ileferts, must be sought in the examples subjoined to 
the various senses of each word, and ranged according 
to the time of their authors. 

When I first collected these authorities, I was desirous 
ftat every quotation should be useful to some other end 
Ulan the illustration of a word ; I therefore eirtracted 
from philosophers principles of science ; from histori- 
uiareuiarkable facts; fromchymists complete processes; 
ftixb I divines striking exhortations; and from poets 
bftutiful descriptions. Such'' is design, while it is yet 
»t a distance from execution. When the time called 
upon me to" range this accumulation of elegance and 
•wdom into an alphabetical series, I soon discovered 
A«t the bulk of my volumes would fright away the stu- 
dent, and vae forced to depart from tay scheme of in- 
cluding all that was pleasing or useful in En^ish liter- 
ature, and reduce ray transcripts veiy often to clusters 
of words, in which scarcely any meaning is retained: 
thiu to the weariness of copying, I was condemned to 
add the vexation of expungmg. Some pass^fes I have 
Jfit nured, which may relieve the labour of verbal re- 
searches, and intersperse with verdure and flowers the 
dnity desarts of barren philology. 

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The examples, thus mutilated, are no longer to be 
considered as conveying the sentimenta or doctraie of 
their authors ; the word for the sake of which they are 
inserted, with all its appendant clauseB, has been care- 
ftiUy prewrved ; but it may sometimes fiappen, by hasty 
detruncation, that the genaral tendency of the sentence 
may be changed : the divine may desert his tenets, or 
the philosopher his Eastern. 

Some of the examples have been taken &om writo^s 
who were never raenti<Hied as masters of el^^ance, or 
models of style ; but words must be soug^ht where ^y 
are used ; and in what pages, eminent for purity, can 
termsofmanufactureor agriculture to be found? Many 

3 notations serve no other purpose than that of {ffovins 
le bare existence of words, and are therefore select^ 
with jess scrupulousness than those which are to texch 
their structures and relations. 

My purpose was to admit no testimony of living au- 
thors, that J might not be misled by partiality, anathat 
tione of my contemporaries might have reason to com- 
plain; nor have I departed &om this resolution, but 
when some performance of uncommon excellence exci- 
ted my veneration, when my memory supplied me from 
late books, with an example diat wu wanting, or when 
my heart, in the tenderness of friendship, soucited ad* 
nusbion for a favourite name. 

So far have I been from any care to grace my pwes 
widi modem decorations, that I have sta4>ously encK»- 
voured to collect examples and authorities from die wri- 
ters before the restoration, whose works I regard as lAe 
tneltt of Engluh undeJUed, as the pure sources of genuine 
diction. Our language, for almost a centurv, has, by the 
concurrence of many i^uses, been gradually departing 
finxn its original Tattimick character, and deviabng to^ 
wards a Gallici structure and phraseology, from which 
it ought to be our endeavour to recal it, bv making our 
and^it volumes the ground work of. style, admitting 
among the additions of later times, onlv such as may 
siqtply real deficiencies, such as are readily adopted in 
the genius of our tongue, and incorporate easily wiui 
our native idioms. 


meUBH DICTtONAftV. 197 

But M every Unguage has « time (tf rodencM antece- 
dent toptffection, as well u of false refiBenaent and de- 
dranon, I have been cautious lest m; seal for antiquity 
tni^tt i^ve me into times too rranote, and crowd my 
book witfi wfH'ds now no longer undexstood. I have 
fixed Sidnei/t works Ra the bonndary, beyond which 
1 make ftw excnrsioni. From the authcvs which rose 
in the time of EUvAetk, a speech might be fonned 
adequate to all the purposes aS use and elegance. If the 
language of theology were extracted from Hooker and 
the translation of the Bible ; tfie terms of natural know- 
ledge tmm ^aam ,- the pTirases of policy, war, and na- 
vigation from Rateigk : the dialect of poetry and liction 
ftwn Speruer and Sidney ; and the diction of common 
life from Shaketpeare, few ideas would be lost to man- 
kind, fijf want of EngUth words, in which they auf^i 

It IS notsuffidentthatawordiafonnd, unlessitbeso 
nnnbined as that its meaning is aj^rently determined 
by the tract and tenour of the sentence ; such passages 
I have therefore chosen, and when it happened that any 
author gave a definition of a term, or such an explana- 
tion as is equivalent to a definition, 1 have placed bis au- 
thority as a supplement to my own, without regard to 
the chrMiologiral order, which is otherwise observAl. 

Some woi3s, indeed, stand unsupported by any au:- 
^lority, but they are commonly derivative nouns or od- 
Terbs, fonned &om timr primitives by regular and con- 
stant analogy, or names of things seldom occurring in 
booka, or words of which I have reason ta doubt the 

There la more danger of censure from the multiplici- 
ty than paucity of examples; authorities will sometimes 
^can to nave accumulated Wtthinit necessity or nse, and 
perhaps some will be found, whidi might, without loss, 
na?e been omitted. But a work of this kind is not has- 
tily to be chalked with superfluities ; those quotations^ 
which to careless or unskilful perusers appear only to 
Wpeat the same sense, will often exhibit, to a more ac- 
curate examiner, diversities of sTgnifi cation, or, at least, 
afford different' shades uf the same meaning: one will 
iltew the wofd applied to persons, another to things ; 
S 3 

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198 nUFACt TO T^E 

ime will express an ill, aoothefs good, indadikdAQa- 
tral sense; one will pative the expressum gentune from 
an ancient author ; onftther will shew it «legant &am 
■ nwdem: a doubtful authority is ocm^tbfflnited. by 
another of more credit; an ambiguous sentence ia as- 
certained by a passage clear and determinate: tbe word, 
bow a&ea soever repeated, ^ipeara with new associvte* 
and in different combinatiana, and every quotatioD coa- 
tribntea acnnething to the stabili^ or enla^aaent of 
the lanffuaiFe. 

When wot<ds are uaed equivocally, I receive them in 
either sense ; when they are metapkorica], I ado^ them 
in their priiaidve acceptation. 

I have sometimes, tbou^ nrefy, yielded to the temp' 
tation of exhibiting a genealt^o' "^ sentiments, by diew- 
jng how one authtn' copied the thoughts and diction of 
another : such quotations are inde^ little more than 
i«petitiws, whidi ini^t justly be censured, did they 
not gratify the mind, by affording a kind of int^ectual 

The various syntactical structures occurring in Ae 
examples have b^ carefully noted ; tbe licence or neg- 
ligence witii which many words have been hitherto 
naed, has made our style oa^cious and iadetefminote : 
when the difierent combinatians of the same wcard are ex- 
hibited together, the preference is readily givHX to ^m>- 
prie^, and 1 have often eadeavoured to du^ the cbwx. 

Thus have I laboured by settling the or^bofprafitj, 
displaying the analogy, regulatiiig the structures, and 
ascertaining the swnification of Eti^h wc«^, to~pei^ 
form all the parts <n^a faithful lexicographer : but I have 
not always executed my own scb^ne, or satisfied my 
own expectations. The work, whatever proofs of dib- 
genoe and attention it may exhibit, is yet capable of 
many imjH'ovements : the orthography which I recom- 
mend is still contjovertible ; the e^THology which I a- 
,dopt is uncertain, and perhaps frequently erroneous ; 
the Htplanations are sometimes too much contracted, 
and sometimes bio much difiused, the aignificatiwis are 
distinguished rather with subtility than skill, and the 
attention is harassed with unnecessary minuteaiesB, 

The examples are too often injudiciously truncated, 
and perh^s sometimes, I hope very rarely, alleged in 

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iSiitUkniHiue; fig in imking thit ctJlaction, ttnuU. 
•d mam to montHy, than, in a aUte trf* diw^uM awl 
taimmtmmati, menuny can ccHitain, and pnrpoafd to 
■iq^y at the review what wu left iocon^dete in ihe 
firat tmnKrifriiDU. 

Many tcrma i^mfinated to particular occupatioDi, 
tbon^ neecMaiy and ngnificant, are uodoBbtedly omit- 
ted; and of the words mqat •tndknuly oonaidaed and 
eatemplified, nuuy Mona baye eac^ied dbaerntion. 

Yet these failures, however freqoent, may admit ex> 
tennariop and ^Kdogy. To have at tempted mudi Is 
alwi^ laudaMe, even when the enterprise is above the 
ftreuth that undertakes it : To rest below Iue own aim 
is imadent to AveiT one' whose fimqr is active, and whose 

tto AveiT one' whose fimqr isi 
conqare^ensive; nor is sny r 
Bcause he has done mudb, bu 

I, but b 
- ooDonve little. When first I oigaged in this work, I 
neolved to leave neither wcads nor ihiiws uneKamined, 
and pleased myself with a prospect ot the hoars which 
I dtmdd revel away in feasts «mF literature, the obscure 
tecessM oi Dcotbem teaming whidi I should enter and 
nmsack. the treasures with which I expected every search 
into diose negleeted mines to reward my labmu-, and 
die trinn^ with which I should display my acquisi. 
tioDB to manldnd. When I had thus enquired into the 
or^insl of WMds, 1 reserved to shew likewise my atten- 
tioD to things; to pierce deep into everv sdence, to 
enquiK the nature of every substance of which 1 in< 
sated the name, to limit every idea by a delinitian 
Btrictljr logical, and exhibit evoy production (^ art or 
natnre in an accurate description, that my book mi^t 
be in place of all other dictionaries, whether appellative 
or technicid. But these were the dreams of a poet 
doomed at last to wake a lexicc^rapher, I soon fitund 
diat it is too late to lo«d[ for instruments, when the 
work calls for execution, and that whatever abilities 
I.bad brouxfat to my task, witii those I must finally per* 
fiirtn it. To delib^te whenever I doubted, to enquire 
whenever I was ignorant, would have probactea -the 
undertaking without end, and, pwht^ts, without much 
hiqirovenHst ,■ for I did nOt find by my firat experi< 
menta, thatwhati had not of my own was essOy to be 


obtained : I saw that one enquiry only gave occasion 
to another, that book nirieiTea to book, Uiat to seard 
was not always to find, and to find was not alwi^s to be 
informed ; and diat thus to puraue perfection, wae, like 
the first inhabitants of Arcadia, to chaee^e sun, which, 
irlmi they had reached the hill where he seemed to rest, 
vna sdll beheld at the same distance &om them. 

I dien contracted my design, determining to confide 
in nyielf, and no longer to sfdicit auxitiaries, which 
l^oduccd more incumbrance than assistance ; by this I 
obtained at least one advantage, that I set limits to my 
work, which would in time be ended, though not com- 

Despondency has never so far prevailed as to depress 
me to negligence ; some ftidts will at last appear to be 
the efiects of anxions diligence and persevering activity. 
The nice and subtle ranufications of meaning were not 
easily avoided by a mind intent upon aecnnicy, and con- 
vinced'Of the necessi^ of disentangling cranbinations, 
and separating similitudes. Many of the distinctions 
wfaifdi to common readers appear useless and idle, will 
be found real and important b^ men versed in tiie 
school of philosophy, without which no dictionary can 
ever be aocurately compiled, or sldHiilly examined. 

. Some senses however there are, wluch, thongh not 
the same, are yet so nearly allied, that they are often 
confounded. Most men think indistinctly, and there- 
fore cannot speak with exactness; and consequently 
some examples might be indiBerently put to either sig- 
nification : this uncertainty is not to be imputed to me, 
who do not form, but register the language ; who dft 
not teach m«n how they should think, birt relate how 
Act have hitherto expressed their thoughts. 

The imperfect sense of some examples I lamented, 
but could not remedy, and hope they will be cc«npen- 
sated by innumerable passages selected with propriety, 
and preserved with exactness ; some shining with 
qwrks of imagination, and some replete with treasdres 
of wisdom. 

-The orthography and etymology, though imperfect, 
are not imperfect for want of care, but because care will 
not always be successful, and recollection or infmraa- 
tion come too late for use. 



sMausa DicrioNART. Ml 

Iliat many tenns of art and nutnu&ctare are amitted, 
mist be frankly acknowledged ; but fat this deiect I 
in^ btddly all^e that it waa unaToidable ; I could wt 
nat cavrans to leam the miner's language, a/at -take a 
fiy/a^ to pȣBct my skiU in the dialect ctf navigatiMii 
nw visit the warehouses of merdiante, and shops t^st- 
tificcts, to gain the names of wai«s, tools, and operft> 
tioiu/of which no. mentim ia found in books; what 
&T(Hirab)e .accident,, or easy enquiry, brought within my 
Rach, has not been neglected ; but it hafi beMia h(>pe» 
leit laboux to glean tq> w<nds, by courting living infer* 
itation, and cmMettiiwNnUi the sulWueas of one, and 
the rooghneea of anot£er. 

To furnish the acadiunecTans d^a Cnuca with wwda 
ofthiskind, a series 4^ cmnedies called b Fiera, or tAe 
Fair, WBB professedly written-I^ BwManti; but I had 
no each assiatant, and therefore was contrait to want 
what they must have wanted likewise, had tfaey not 
luckily been so siq^Ued. 

Nw are all words which are not found in the vocabu« 
luy, to be lamented aa<mussione. Of the laborious and 
nacantQe part of the people, the diction ia in a great 
measure casual and mutable ; many of their terms are 
fonoed for soma temptu'ary or loc^ canvenience, and 
though current at certain times and places, are in others 
utterly unknown. This fugitive cant, which is always 
in a state of increase or decay, cannot be regarded aa 
ray part of the durable materials of a language, and 
dier^ore must be suffered to perish with omer things 
Bnwortfay of preeervation. 

Care wUl sometimes betray to the appearance of neg< 
%eDoe, He that is catching opportunities which sd- 
.doD OOQIT, will suffer those to pass by unregarged, 
whidi he expects bauEly to return ; he t^t is searcmng 
br rare and ranote things, will nwlect those that are 
obrioua and fit ri 'i H '"' ; thus many m the most comnum 
and cursory words have been inserted with little illua- 
tntion, bexause in gathering the authoritieB, I forbore 
to fiopy titose which I thought likely to occur whenever 
they were wanted. It is remarkable that, in reviewing 
my collection, I found the word tea unesemplified. 

Thus it hi^pens, that in things difficult there is dan- 
ger from ignorance, and in things easy from confidence; 

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the mind, afrsid of grratness, and disdainful of little- 
ness, hastily withdrawa herself from painful searches, 
and passes with scomfiil rapidity over tasks not adequate 
to her powers, sometmi^ too secure for caution, and 
again too anxious for vigorous effort ; sbmetimeB Idle in 
aplainpath, and sonietimesdiitracted in labyrinths, and 
disaipated by diflerent intentions. 

A large work is difficult because it is large, even 
though all its parts might singly be performed irith . 
facility; where there are many things to be done, each 
roust be allowed its share of tinie and labour, in the 
proportion only which it bea^ io the whole ; nor can it 
be espected, that the stones which form die dome of » 
temple should be squared and polirfied like the diamond 
of a ring, 

Ofthe event of this work, for vhich, having laboured 
it with BO much application, I cannot but have some 
degree- of parental fondness, it is natural to form con- 
jectures. Those who have been persuaded to think 
well of Tny design, will require tluit it should fix our 
language, and put a stop to those alterations which time 
and chance have hitherto been suffered to make in it 
without opposition. With this consequence I will cra>- 
fess that I flattered myself for a while; but now b^^n 
to fear that I have indiilged expectation which neimer 
reason nor experience can justify. When we see men 
grow old and die at & certain time-one after another, 
iTom century to century, we laugh at the "clntir that 
promises to prolong life to a thousand years ; and ivttli 
equal justice may the lexicographer be derided, who 
being able to produce no example of a nation that has 
preserved their words and phrases IVom mutability, 
shall imagine that his dictionary can embalm hie lan- 
guage, and secure it from corruption and decay, that it 
IS in his power to change sublunary nature, and clear 
the worM at once from folly, vanity, and aJTectatlon. 

With this hope, however, academies have been insti- 
tuted.'to guard the avenues of their languages, to retain 
ftlgitives, and repidse intruders ; but tlwir vi^^lance 
tarn activity have hitherto been vain ; sounds are too 
volatile and subtle for legal restraints ; to enchain syl- 
lables, and to lash the wind, are equally the und^w^- 

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ii^ of pride, imwiUing to meMure iti desires by iU 
sbvngth. The French hngiiage has visibly cfaansed 
under the inspection of the academy ; the B^le of Ame- 
JdCj traD^tion of tther Paul is otMerved by Le Couravtr 
to be uB pen paste; and no JtaUan will maintain, that 
the diction of any loodem writer is not perceptibly 
difin«nt £roia that olSaocace, Machiavrl, or Caro. 

Xotdl and sudden transf<«ina.tion8 of a language sel- 
dom bBiqien; oonquests and migrationfl ore. now very 
rare: Iwit there are other causes of cbatfee, which, 
though slow in tlieir operation, and invisiole in their 
ptigTess, are perhaps ai much superior to human r&- 
itstuice, as the revolutions of the sky, or intumescence 
of the tide. Commerce, however necessary, however 
lucrative, as it depraves the Joanna's, corrupts the 
Unguage ; tbey that have firequeut intercourse with 
strangers, to whom they endeavour to accommodate 
diemselves, must in time learn a mingled diidect, like 
the jargon which serves the traffickers on the Mediter- 
nmean and Indian coasts. This will not always be 
oHifined to the exchange, the warehouse, or the port, 
but will be communicated by duress to other ranks tX 
the people, and be at lait incorpOTsted with the current 

There are hkewise internal causes, equally forcible. 
The language most likely to continue long without al- 
teration, would be that of a nation raised a little, and 
but a little, above barbarity, secluded from strangers, 
and totally employed in procuring the conveniencies of 
life; eitlier without books, or, l£e some of the Maho- 
■K<a« countries, with very few ; m«i thus busied and 
uideaniad, having only such words as common use re- 
quires, would p^h^w long cMitinne to express the same 
Dodoas by the same signs. But no such constancy 
can be ciniected in a people polished by arts, and clas- 
sed by soboidination, where one part of ^e commamty 
is sustained and acconnnodated by the labour of the 
other. Those who. have much leisure to think, will 
alwi^s be eidarjnng the stock of ideas; and every ini- 
crease of knowledge, whether real or fancied, will pro- 
dike niew words, or combination of wm'ds. When th* 
uind is uadkained &om necessity, it viU nuj^^fter 

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convenience; when it is left at lai^ in the fifM of spe- 
cuhtion, it vill shift opiniona ; aa any custom is disosed, 
the worda that expressed it must perish with it; aa any 
opinion grows popular, it will innovate speech in the 
Same propoition as it alters practice. 

As Dy the cultivation of various sciences, a language 
ia ampUfied, it will be more Aimished with wtods tfo- 
flected frmu dieir original sense ; the geometridsn will 
talk of a courtiei's lenith, or Uie eccentrick virtue of m 
wild hero, and the j^yaidan of sanguine expectatitnw, 
and phlesmatic delays. Copiousness of speed) will give 
c^iportunities to capricious choice, by which some worda 
inll be preferred, and others dt^raded ; vicissitudes of 
&s)uon will enftrce the use of new, or extend the signi- 
fication of known terma. Thetropeaofpoeb^willmake 
hourly encroachments, and the metaphori(»l will be- 
ewne the current aense : pronunciation will he varied 
by levity, or ignorance, and the pen must at lengdi com^ 
{My with the tongue ; illiterate writers wtU, at one time 
or other, by pnbUc infatuation, rise into renown, who 
not knowing the original import of worda, will use them 
witii colloquial licentioumess, <2)nfouiKl distinction, and 
fillet propriety. A» poiitenese increases, some expr«a- 
siona wQl he considered as too gross and vulgar for the 
delicate, others as too fonnal and ceremonious for the 
g&y and airy ; new phrases are therefore adopted, which 
moat, for the same reasons, be in time dismissed. Smfl, 
in his petty treatise on the English language, allows tfiat 
new words must sometimes be introduced, but proposes 
that none should be suffered to become obsolete. But 
what njakea a word obsolete, more than general agree- 
ment to fiirfoear it? and how shail it be continued, 
when it conveys an offensive idea, or recced again into 
die mouths of mankind, when it has once become 
HBfigniliar l^ disuse, and unpleaaii^ by un&miliarity ?' 

There ia another cause of alter^on more prevalent 
than any other, which yet in the present state of the 
woiid cannot be obviated. A mistore of tvro Ungual 
gea will produce a third distinct from both, and Uiey 
will always be mixed, where the chief parts of educ»- 
tion, and' the most conspicuous accomphshment, ia skill 
in tjasifxA or io itamga tongues. He thM has hm^ 

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tahivated another kuiguasej will find iU words and ix»n- 
lanadons crowd upon Hie memoiy; and haste and 
negligence, refinement and afiectadMi, will obtrude bor- 
mwed tenoB and exotic espressioiM. 

The great pest of speech is frequency of tnnBlation. 
No book wae ever turned from one laoguoge into tmo- 
ther, without impartine nomething of its native idiom ; 
this is the most mischievous and comprehensive inno- 
vation ; sinffle words loay enter by thousands, and tlie 
titvick of me tongue continue the same; but new 
phraseology chanffca much at once; it alters not the 
single stones c^ ue huitding, but the order of the co-- 
lumns. If «n academy should be established foi the 
cultivation t^ our style, which I, who can never wish 
to see dependence multiplied, hope the spirit ofEngUth 
Kberty wUl hinder or destroy, let them, instead of com- 
piling granunars and dictionaries, endeavour, with all 
their iuBuence, to etopi.the licence of translators, whose 
idleoesB and ignorance, if it be sufiercd to proceed, will 
reduce us to babble a dialect of France. 

If the changes that we fear be, thus irresistible, what 
nntains but to acquiesce with silence, as in the other 
insurtsountable distresses uf humanity i It rauauis that -. 
we retard what we cannot repei, that we paUiate what 
we cannot cure. Life may be lengthened by core, 
thaugh death cannot be ultimately defeated : tongues, 
like governments, have a natural tendency to degenera* 
titm ; we have lung pieserved our constitution, let i^ 
make some strugf^es for our language. 
' In hope at givmg longevity to tliat which its own na- 
ture forbids to be iramortal, I luve devoted this book, 
the labour of years, to the honour of my coiuitry, that 
we may no longer ^ield the palm of philoWy, without a 
content, to the mtbunsof the continent. The chief glo- 
n of every people, arises from its authors : whether i 
snail add any iJiing by my own writings to the repute 
tion o£ Enmixk literature, must be left to time : much 
of my lite bs been lost under the pressures of disease ; 
mucQ has been trifled away ; and much has al^vy^ 
been spent in provision fbr the day that was pasaing 
over me ; but I shall not tluiik my employment useless 
or ignoble, i£, hy my assistance, fot^gn nationi^ and^ 
Vol. I. T 

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diitaiit ages, gmtn Mcess to ^ pit^iagitora of inoVr- 
itdge, and nnaerStand the tendMn of trnth ; if my !«•• 
boDTB xflliwd light to the repositaHiea of KMnce, Biid -adcl 
Celebris to Bacat, ft Honker, to Mihom, and to Sovie, 

When I >m anhnated hy dua widi, I look with ^ea* 
sure OD my boodc, however deftctive, aoA ddiver it to 
the worM with die ^urit of « mAn dut has indeavonnd 
ireD. Hut it irill immediately became popular I hare 
not praMned to myadf : a few wild blunders, and riai- 
Me absurdities, ftvm which do work (tf aadt muhitdicity 
was ever free, may fbr a time ftmiiflh foUy with hiugb- 
ter, and harden icnonmce into contempt} but uaeflil 
dUligOKe will at last prevail, and diere dbvct can be 
wanting some who distinciiish deseM; who will consi- 
der that no dictionuy of a livuig tongue eve- can be 
perfect, since, while it is hastening to publicatimi, s<Hne 
words are biiddinff, and some nlling away; that a 
whole life cannot be spent upon syntax ancl e^molo- 
n, and that even a whole life would not be sufficient; 
Sat he, whose design includes whatever language Can 
express, must dften speak of what he does not under- 
stand; that a writer will sometimes be hurried 1^ 
eagerness to'the end, and sometimes faint vith{wearines» 
under a task, whidi Scaliger compares to the labours 
of the anvQ and the mine ; that what is obvious is not 
always known, and what is known is not always pre. 
sent ; that, sudJden fits of inadvertency wiU suiprise vi- 
gilance, sl^jht avocations will seduce attention,' and 
casual eclipses t^ the mind will darken learning; and 
diat the writM* shall often in vain trace his memory at 
die mcHnent of need, for that whidh yesterday he knew 
with intuitive readiness, and whidi will crane uncalled 
into his thoughts to-morrow. 

In this work, when it shall be found that mu<A is 
omitted, let it not be forgotten that much likewise ■• 
performed ; and thou^ tio book was ever "pared out 
of tenderness to the authto-, and die world is litde so> 
lidtoue to know whence proceeded the &ults ot that 
which it (wndemne ; yet it may gratify curiosity to ii^ 
fitnn it, that the English Dictionary was written with 
litUe assistance of die learned, and without any patto- 
nage of the great ; not in the soft obectirities (tf jtf^re~ 

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ment, at imder the abritei of acv^e^iick boven, but 
MTiidst mctwvenience and distractian, in sicknesa and in 
KRTOW. . It maj reprew the triumph a! nudioiumt eri- 
ticiflm to observe, that if our langiuge is not here fully 
ilispUyed, I hare oidy failed in an attempt which no 
hnman powers have hitherto completed. Ifthe lexicons 
of ancient bmgues, now immutably fixed, and com- 
prised in a few. voluiHes, beyetj after the toil of succes- 
sive ages, inadequate and delusive ; if the sffgrwated 
knowledge, and cO't^Mrating dili^nce of the Jtaliam 
■cadanidans, did not secure them feom the censure of 
Am*,- if the embodied criticks of France, when fifty 
ytm had been sp^it upon their work, were obliged to 
change its tBCtmouay, oad give their second edition ano- 
tha form, I may surely be contented without the praise 
ti yetSeetioa, woiohj if I could obtain, in this gloom of 
•ohtude, what would it avail me? I have protracted 
my wwk till most of those whom I wished to please 
have sunk into the grave, snd success and miscarriage 
are entpty sounds. I therefore di«auss it with frigid 
tnnquility, having little to f^ar or hi^ irom censure 
«> fiom preise*. 

* Di. Johiuon'B Dictionarr waa publUhed on the fifteenth day uf 

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Printed in the Year ITfiS. 

"Whin the works of Shakespeare are, after eo mmy edt 
tion«, again offered to the Publiek, it will doubtless be 
inquired, why Shakespeare stands in more need of oiti- 
'cal aseistance tlian any other of the Engihh wrtten, and 
what are tlie deficiencies of the late attempts, whitA 
another editcr may hope to svpply ^ 

The bnaincM of him that republiebes an ancient book 
is, to correct what i« corrupt, and to explain what is ob- 
scure. To -have a test corrupt in many places, and io 
many doubtAd, is, among tJic audiors that have writtai 
since the use of types, almost peculiar to Shaketpeare. 
Moat writers, by publishing their own works, preveQt 
all various readings, and preclude all conjectural criti- 
cism. Books indeed are sometimes published after the 
death of hiin who produced them ; but they are better 
secured from corruption thai>>tfae8e unfortunate conqx^ 
sitions. They subsist in a single copy, written fX 
revised by the author; and the faults u the printed 
volume can be only fiitdts of one descent 

But of the works o£ Shaketpeare the condition haa 
been far tlifierent : he sold them, not to be printed, bat 
to be played. They w^re inunedtately copied for the 
actors, and mtdtiplied by tauuaipt after transcript, vi- 
tiated by the blunders of the penman, or changed by 
the affectatitjo of the player ; perh^w enlarged to intro- 
duce a jest, or mutilaled to sbort^i the representadon; 
and printed at last without the concurrence of dw 
rathoTj without the omKtit of the prt^ietor, from 

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fROPotALt roa psntTiNe, &c, CO9 

enmpbtioiii nude -bj duutce or by MealUi o«t of the 
iqmte puts written fiv die tbeatn; and thai thriut 
mto die waM surreptkiousl)' and' luutOy, they suKxcd 
■nedMr depRintMm from the ignonnce and n^jtigence 
of Ae prmten, » every man who knows ib» state of 
tte |veH in dtat age will readily conceive. 

It it not easy for invention to bring together so many 
ouusrcancumng to vitiate the text No other author 
fKt gave np hit worin to fintune and time with so lit^ 
Se cwre: no books coaU be left in hands so likely to 
b^nre them, as jUam frequendv acted, yet continued in 
msDoscnptt no ottier transcribers were Ukely to be n 
littie qnaufied Jbr th^ task as those who copied fet the 
Mage, at a time wh«t the lower ranks of the peofde 
vaeuitivenally ilUtemte: no other editions were made 
flwB fragments so minutely broken, and so fortuitously 
le-nDited; and in no other age waa the art of printing 
nauch unskiUiil hands. 

With the causes of corruptiwi that make the revixU 
of Siaiegpear^t dramaticK peces necessary, may be 
mimersted the causes of obscurity, whidi may be 
I)ar% imputed to his age, and partly to himselE 

When a writer outlives his contemporaries, and re- 
■nuDS almost the only nnfiirgotten name of a distant 
time, he is necessarily- obscure. Every age has its 
Bodesofmeeeh, anditetsfitoftheught; which,though 
(aiGy npWied when there are many books to be cont- 
pBM with each oUier, becomee sometimes uninte]lt- 
gHe and always diffi«^t, when there are no parallel 
lusiges that may conduce to their UluetratioR. Shako 
fart is the first considerable withW of ^sublime or fa- 
mfliar di&loffue in our language. Of the books which 
^ read, and from which he fonowd Us style, some per- 
^^ have perished, and .the rest sre neglected. Hip 
iantaljoRs are therefbre unnoted, bis tdloeions are undisr- 
c^cnsd, and many beautigfl, botii of pteasantry and 
ErestDesa, are lost with fte objects to which thev were 
DBited, as the figures vanish when the canvass has de> 

It is the great excellence of Shatetpeare, that he drew 

^ snnea &om nature, and Irom life. He cf^ied the 

■Bsimen of fix world then-passing btSon him, aOd has 

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more alfauiMu than oQter poets to ^af^tMtkm and 
mpentidon d the vnlgsr ; wfatdi must tbatSure he 
traced hvtart be can be understood. 
' He wrote at a time when our poetical huwuige vas 
yet nnfarmed, when the meaning of oior jArases w» 
yet in fluctuation, when words were adopted -at ^aa- 
van from the neighbouring languagee, and while the 
Saxoit w»s still vinbly minted in our dic^on. The 
reader is therefcn« embarrassed at once wjlh ilead and 
with foreign langOages, with obsoleteness uid innova- 
tion. In that Bffe, as in all others, fa^on prodneed 
^uvseolc^, which succeeding fa^ion swept away be- 
ibre ~its meaning was generally known, or suffidently 
aathorised : and in that ige, above alt others, expert- 
ments were made upon our language, which distorted 
^ts combinations, and disturbed its uniformity. 
' If SAoiUfpeare has'difliculties above other writers, it 
IS- to be imputed to the nature of his work, which re- 
quired the use of the oommon colloquial hu^age, and 
consequently adnritted many phrases allusive, elbptica], 
and proverbial, such as we speak and hear every hour 
without observing them ; and of whi<^, being now fa- 
miliar, we do not suspect that they can ever grow un- 
couth, or that, being now obvious, they cto ever seem 

These are the prtncip^ causes of the <^>scuri^ of 
Shake*peart ; to which might be added the tiilneds of 
idea, which might sometimes load his words with mora 
sentiments than they could conveniently convn, and 
that repidity of inwination whidi might hurry him ta 
-A second thought before he had fidly explained the first 
But my (pinion is, that very few of his lines were 
difficult to his awHence, and that he used such ex- 
pressions as were then common, though the pand^ of 
-contonporary writers nukes than now teem pecuher. 

Authors are often praised Ibr improvement, or blamed 
for innovation, with very little justice, by those irfw 
-read few other books of the same age. Addison himself 
^as been so unsuccessful in enumerating the words with 
which Milton, has enriched our huigvuge, as perhaps not 
to have named one of which JWiAem wbb the author; 
and Btntley has yet more unhi^ipOy praised him as the 

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TRK woBSfl or bhakmpuiue. ell 

m trodnoar of tbosa eliBimw inta EngKth poeOy, whidi 
Itad been lued ttom tfae linrt essaya of venincation ^ 
non(^ iu, and which Milbm waa indeed the bat dut 

Anotfaer impediment, not tfae leut vexatious to thfe 
camneMtator, ia the exaictneaa with whidi Shakapatrt 
fidbwed hia «atbora, InMead of dilating hia thou^ta 
into geiM»litiee, and expnarin^ tQcidento with poeti- 
cal latitude, he often combines arcunutances unneces- 
*ny to his main deaini, only beeauae he hamtened to 
find them togfAtur, Sudi passages can be ulustrated 
vAy by him who has read the uaae story in the verf 
booK which Skaiemeare consulted. 
-' He diat vndertKkea an editiod of Shakerpiare, haa iJl 
Aese difficulties to encounter, and all these obstructimiB 
to remove. 

The oomiptiona of the text will be corrected by « 
careful c<dlAtion of the oldest copies, by which it ia 
bopedthat many restorationa may yet be made: atleaat 
it win be necessary to collect and note the variation as 
msteriols for fliture criticks ; for it very often happens 
that a wrong resdinff has a&iaty to the right. 

In thia part all the present editions are wpparently 
and intcntionaUy defective. The. criticks did not ao 
much as wish to facilitate the labour of those that fol- 
lowed them. The same books ai!<e still to be i»mpa- 
red; the wcvk that has been done, is to bedone agam;, 
and oo single edition will supply the reader with a text 
on whi<di he can rely as the wst copy of the worics of 

The edition now proposed will at least have this ad- 
Taida^ over others. It will exhibit all tfae observable 
Varieties of all the copies that can be found ; that if the 
reader is not satisfied with the editor's detemuDAtion, 
be may have the means of choosing better for himself. 
• Where all the books are evidently vitiated, and coU 
ladon can give no assistance, then begins the task of 
critical aagsci^ : and some changes may well be ad- 
mitted in a text never settied by the author, and so tons 
exposed to c^rice and ignorance. But nothing shall 
be imposed, as in the Oxford edition, without notice of 
the alteratiim ; n(» ahiul conjecture be wantonly or 
uimecessarity indulged. 



It has be«i long found, that very spedous e 
tioDS do not eqtiaBy strilce all miiMli Avith amvictjon, 
nor even the same mind at different tiroes ; and there- 
fore, though perhaps many alterations may he prtiposed 
as eligible, very few win be obtruded as certain. In a 
language so ungrammatical as the Englith, and so licon- 
ttous as that ^ Shalcupeart^ emendatory criticism is 
always hazardous ; nor can it be allowed to any man 
who IS not particularly versed in the writings of that age, 
and particular!; studious of his author's diction. There 
is danger lest peculiarities should be mistaken &r cor- 
ruptions, and passages rgected as unintelligible, irindt 
a narrow roind happens not to understand. 

All the former cnticks have been so much emphryed 
on the correction of the text, that they have not aof- 
ficiently attended to the elucidation of passuies ob- 
scured by accident or time. The editor will endeavour 
to read the books which the author read, to trace hia 
knowledge to its source, and compare his copies with 
their originals. If, in this part of his design, h^ hc^jn 
to attain any degree of auperiimty to his predeceesors, it 
must be considered, that he has the advantage of tlwir 
labours; that part of the work being already done, 
more care is naturally bestowed on the other part; and 
that, to declare the truth, Mr. Rotee and Mr, Pope, wev 
veiy ignorant of the ancient English literature ; Dr. 
fVarbtirton ' was detained by more important studies ; 
and Mr. Theobald, if faxae be just to his memory, con- 
sidered learning Mily as aa mstrument of gam, and 
made no further inquiry after' his author's meaning, 
when once he had notes sufficient to embellish his page 
with the expected decorations. 

With regard, to obsolete or peculiar diction, the edi- 
tor may perhaps claim some degree of confidence, hav- 
ing had more, motives to consider the whole extent of 
our language than any other man &om its first forma-i 
tioti. He hopes that, by cemparing the works of Shaic' 
tpeare with those (^writers who lived at the same tinte, 
immediately preceded, or immediately foUoweH him, he 
shall be able to ascertain hia ambiguities, dismtan^ 
hia intricacies, and recover the meaning of words now 
lost in the darkness of antiquity. 

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When tbovfim anv obvcun^ arian fiom an allnnoQ 
>k, tbep 

will be I ^ _^ ,__ 

le ia broken Df tlie Bup- 

e Other book, tile passage will be quoted. When 
im w entai^led, It wfllDe cleared I^ aparaphnM 

innioa of part (^ the sentiment in pleasantry or pas- 
WD, the ctmneuon will be aumliea. When any £ot- 
gotten custom is hinted, care wiQ be taken to retrieve 
■nod explain it The meaning asai^ned to doubtful 
words will be Bumwrted by the authorities of other wri- 
ter^ i» by parsllel passagies of Shakapeare himself. 

The obaervaticni of £dts and beauties ia one of the 
duties of on annotator, whidi aome of Shaietpear^t 
editors have attempted, and ■ante have neglectod.— ' 
For this part of his- task, and for this only, was Mr. 
Pope eminoidj and indisputably quaUfied ; nor has Dr. 
^riurlon foUowed him with less diligence or less suc- 
cess. But I have never obaervad tluit mankind waa 
>nwji delighted or improved by their asterisks, com- 
nuB, or double commas ; of which the only effect ii, 
tltat they preclude the pleasure of judging for ourselves ; 
teach the young and ignorant to drade without prin- 
cipki; defeat cniioaity and discernment, by leaving 
toem less to discover; and at last show the opinion of 
the critidc, without the reasons on which it was founded, 
■nd without affording any light by which it may be 

The editor, though he may less delight his own va> 
Jiity, will [Nwbably pl^se his reader more, by suppoc- 
iag him equally able with himself to judge M beauties 
■lul faults, which require no previous acquisition of r^. 
"note knowledge. A description of the obvious scenes 
of nature, a representation of general life, a sentiment 
of reflection or en)mence, a deduction of conclusive 
■TSuments, a forcible eruption of effervescent passion, 
sre to be conaideo^ as proportionate to common appre- 
bension, unassisted by critical offidousneBS ; since, to 
convince them, nothing more is requisite than acquaint- 
ance with the general state of the world, and those 
"Culties which he must almost bring with him who 
would read Skaketpeare. 

But when the beauty arises &om some adqitation of 
tbe sentiment to customs worn out of use, to opinions 

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■il* PKOPOBU9 roB mUMTIIIOj &c 

not muvCTBally prevalent, ot toai^ accidaital or miifute 
nrticularity, vnich cannot be etq^lied by coiomMi un- 
oentanding, or common observatira, it is tliedu^^of 
B commentator to lend his aBsntasce. 

Tbe ni^ce of b^uties and fimhs thus limited, wQ] 
make no distinct part of the design, being reducible hi 
tbe «iq)lanation of some obscure passages. 

The editor doewiot however intend to preclude him- 
self from the comparison of Shaietpeare's sentim^ita w 
espressiim with those c^ ancient or modem authors, or 
&om the display of any beauties not obvious to the stu- 
dents of poetry ; for as he h<^aes to leave his auth<7 bet- 
ter ondeTEtood, he wishes likewise to procure him more 
rational tqtprobation. 

Tbe former editors have el&cted to di|^t their ^». 
deoeaMtfs ; but in this edition all that is yalnalde will 
be adt^ited from eveof conunentatw, that posterity m^ 
consider it as including all the rest, and exhibitiiig 
whatever is hitherto kiwwn c^ the greftt tatber of the 
£figluh drama. 

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PuUiahcd tn Uw Year 1T«S. 

That praiset ue wUhont rcMon Uvidied aa tbe desdi 
and that tlie houourB due onlv to excellence are paid to 
anliqui^, is a complaint likely to be always cantinued 
1^ tnoae, who, being able to add nothing to truth, hope 
&r eminence from the hereiies of paradox ; or tboMj 
who, being fon»d by diMmpointntent upon cooatdatofy 
expedients, are willing to nope from posteritv what tha 
IKeseat a^ refiuea, sod flatter thnoielvee that the re- 
gard, which ia yet denied by envy, will be at lait be- 
stowed by time. 

Antiquity, like every other quality that attracts the 
notice of mankind, has undoubtedly votaries that re- 
vennce it, not from reason, but from prejudice. Some 
seem to admire iadiscriminately whatever has been long 
preserved, without considering that time has sometimes 
co-operated with chance ; all perhaps are more willing 
to honour past than preaent excellence ; and the mind 
CMitemplates senius through the shades of age, aa the 
eye surveys Ue sun through artificial opacity. The 
great oontnttion of criticism is to find the faults of the 
modems and the beauties of the ancients. While an 
author isyetliving, we estimate his powers by his wont 
ueribnaAnc^, and when he is dead, we rate them by 
Lis best 

To works, however, of which the excellence is not 
duolute and definite, hut gradual and comparative ; to 
works not raised upon principles demonstrative and 
sdentifick, but appealing wholly to observadon and ex* 
perience, no other test can be.^applied than length of 
duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind 
have long possessed, tiiey have often examined and 

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comjMred ; ind if ibvy persist to value the poERessunt* 
it is becKute frequent compariBonB have CDufinned oja- 

a its &v(nir. Ai among the wcvks of nature, no 
moM can properly call a river deep, or a mountain high, 
without me Knowledge'ot many mountains, and many 
rivers; so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be 
■tyled exigent till it has been comjMfed wiUi otiier 
works of the same kind. JJenumBtration immediately 
displays its power, and has nothing to hope or feat 
from Uie flux of years ; birt woriu tentative and experi- 
mental must be estimated by their proportion to die 
i;«neTal and collective ability of nun, as it is discovwed 
in a long succession of endeavours. Of the first build- 
ing that was raised, it might be with certainty detow 
mined that it was round or square ; but whether it wm 
spacious or lofty must have been referred to time. The 
P^hagorean ecaie of numbers was at mice ^iscova«d 
to be perfect ; but the poems of Homer we yet know 
not to transcend die conrnuni limits of humui intelli- 
gence, but by remarlting, that natitm after natitm, and 
century after century, has been able to do little more 
than tranmose his incident^ new-name his characters, 
and paraphrase bis sentiments. 

The reverence due to writings that have long Bubsiat- 
ed arises, tberefore, not from any credulous cmifidcDoe 
in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy pfersua- 
non of the d^eneracy of mankind, but is the consequence 
of acknowle^M and indubitable positions) that what 
has been longest known has been most censideredj and 
what is most considered is be«t understood. 

The poet, of whose works 1 have undertakoi tbe re- 
vision, may tiow begin to assume tbe di^^ of an 
mcient, and claim the privilege of est^li^ted fam^ and 
, prescriptive veneration. He bas lone outlived his sen-. 
tury, the term ownmonly fixed as the test of litenijr 
merit. Whatever advantages he might once doive 
from person^ allusions, local customs, or temporary 
opinions, have for muiy years been lost ; and ev^y t^ 
pick of 'merriment, or motive of sorrow, which the 
modes of artificial liie afforded hiro, now only obecne 
the scenes which they once illuminated. The effects of 
fkvour and ctnnpetition axe at an end ; tbe traditioii ef 

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fufaCe to shakispeake. S17 

{m frjenddupt and his eiiinitie8 hAs perished ; bis works 
mpftxn no opinion with arguments, nor aunply an^ 
AOion with inrectives; tbey can neither indulge vbui- 
ly, DOT gratify inaligmty; bat are read without any 
odto'nasoo than the desire of pleasure, and are there- 
Are paiied only aa pleaanre is obtained; yet, thus 
ODUSUted by interestDr passion, they have past through 
nriationa of taste and changesof manners, and, as they 
dentdred &om one generation to another, baye received 
new honours at every transmission. 

But bocaHse human judgment, though it be gradual- 
ly nining upon certainty, never becomes iidallihle ; 
MM spi^obation, though long continued, may yet be 
<n)y tfie approbation of prejudice or fiuhion ; it is pro- 
wr to inquire, by whist peculiarities of excellence 
SkaJiapeare has gained and kept the favour of his 

Hodiing can please many, and please long, but just 
J^nesentatione of general nature. Particular manners 
on be known to few, and therefore few only can judge 
bow nearly they are copied. The irregular cmabina- 
tiouof&ncifid invention may deliglft a white, by that 
novelty of which the common satietv of life sends us all 
in qnest ; but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon 
ei^asted, and the mind can only r^wse on the stabi- 
lity of truth. 

Skaietpeare it, i^ve bD wnt^n, at least above all 
awdcTO writers, the poet of nature; the poet that bcdds 
up to his read^s a faithfiU mirror of manners and of life. 
His characters are not modified by the customs of partU 
<^ilsr traces, unpractised by the rest of the world ; by 
the pecnliaritieB of stodies or professions, which can 
oMnte bat upon snudl numbers ; at by die accidents 
of transieiit fashions or temp^ary oj^ions : they are 
^ genuine progeny of common humanity, such as the 
wond will alw^e supplvj and obs^stion will always 
find. His persons act and speak by the influence of thooe 
general 'passions and principles by which all minds are 
■gitaled, snd the whole system of h'fe is continued in 
laodon. In the writings of other poets, a character is 
>oo cAen an individual : in those of Shakapeare, it is 
conuBonly a qiecies. 
Vw.. I. IT 

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It» ftom thii wide extenrion of dnvn dut ao mndi 
iiutructioa is derived. It is Uiis wliidb fills the pbm 
«f SAofeMpeare with pckcticsl axioms and domestic wik 
dun. It was aud <« SMTvadet, tbit every verse ww « 
nreoept ; and it in«y be said of SJuUte^xart, that firan 
tiis works may be collected a system o£ civil and ieoa> 
nomical pnidetice. Yet his real power is not diewn ia 
the s]denaour of particular passages, fact fay the i » qjje a B 
of hii fable, and the tenoui^c^ his di^og^ : and he Aat 
tries to recommend him by select quotatioiii, will sbc- 
ceed like the pedant in Hteroclea, who, when be offered 
his houae to aale, onried a brick in ins podtat as a 

It will not easily be ima;nned how much Skakapeme 
excels in aooommodoting his sentiments to re«l life, but 
by coBiparing him with other authors. It was obsoved 
of the ancient schools of declamation, that the men 
diligently th^ were frequented, the mare was the stu- 
dent disqnalised for the world, because heibund nothing 
there which he should ever meet in any other place. 
The same remark im^ be applied to every stage but 
that of Shakespeare, The thertre, when it is under any 
other direction, is peopled t^ stidi characters aa were 
never sem, cmiversing in a language whitji waa never 
heard, upon topics which will never arise in-die goi»- 
jnerce of mankmd. But the dialogue of this author is 
often so evidendy debennined by the incident wfaidi 
^M'oduces it, and is, pursued widi *o much ease and 
NnapHcity, . that it seems scarcely te claim the tnerft t/t 
fiction, but to fawre been gleaned by ditigent aelectiaii 
out of common conversation, and comsion occurrencea. 

Upon every other at»ge tiie universal o^eat is tore, 
by whose power all good and evil is distnbuted, sohI 
eveny action quickened; nr retarded. To bring a lover, 
a lady, and a rival into the fiible ; to entaiwk them in 
contradictory obligations, perplex them widi o^paai- 
tions of interest, and harass them with ^olence of 
desb«B inconsistent with eadi odier ; to make then 
meet in rapture, and part in agony ; to fill their montbs 
wid) hyperbolical joy and outrageous sorrow ; to dis- 
tress them as noting human ever was distreMed ; to 
deliver them as nothing human ever was d eli vered; is 

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die biuiaeM at k nednn dramatuL For thii, proba- 
bilit7 ii violated, life ia min«^«Mnted, and langa^^ 
is depraved. But love is only one i^ many pmiona ; 
and as it hrm bo grwt iQAuence upon tihe sum of y^ it 
hu little opemtioii in the dramu of ■ poet, who CMufat 
ki> ideas from the livinc worid, and exhibited onlj what 
he saw before him. He knew that any other pasHtm, 
as it wasrcgular or exorbitant, was a cause of h^spinMa 
Mr cabunity. 

Characters thus ample an4 general were not easily 
discriminated and preserved, yet periuapa no poat ever 
kept his pnsoiiBges more distinct firon eadi other. I 
will net say with Pope, that every speech nuj be aa- 
s^ncd to the [proper toeaker, beoiuse many spoedies 
tfaeiv axe winch have nothing characteriatical ; but, pei^ 
baps, though some nay be eqaally adapted to every 
person, it will be diitcnlt to find that any can be pro- 
periy transferred from the ]vesent pesaessor to anotWr 
claimant. The choice is right, when there is reason fi>r 

btdicd or aggrarated characters, by ftbulons ai 
exampled cseeUence or dejnmvity, as the writers of bar- 
barous ranaaces invigorated die reader by a giant and 
M. dwarf; and he dut dioald ibrm his espectatioBs a[ 
kiunan a&irs from the play, or from the tale, would be 
equally deceived. SA»keipeare has no heroes ; his saenes 
are oeciipjed cnly by men, who act and speak as the 
reader thinks that he shotild himself have spdun or 
acted on the some accasioti : even where the agency is 
Bupeniatnral, the dialogue is Wvel with Ufe. Omer 
writers diflCttise tbe most notural passions and most fre- 
quNit incioents; so ibtt he who contemplates them ii 


full the event which he rei^esents will 

but, if it were possible, its effects would probity 


iNMy be 

as he has assi^ed* ; and it may be said, that be 

" Qiiarh qaod nusquam est genttum, repcril tamen, 
'* Fsclt Hind tcrMinJIe quod mendoetum ett," 

rtsuti Feendoha, Act. I. Sc iv. , 

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exigencies, but u it would be found in trials, to whidi 
it cannot be exposed. 

Tliis therefore is the praise of Shakespeare, duit hit 
drama is the mirror of life ; that he who has mazed h>» 
imagination, in following the phantoms which otben 
raise up before him, may here be cured of his delirioa> 
ecstacies, by reaxling human gentimenti in human lan- 
guage, by scenes irom which a hermit may estLmate the 
transactions of the world, and a con&ssBr predict the 
pnwress of the passitms, 

Hia adherence to general nature has exposed him te 
^e censure of criticks, who form their jutufments upon 
Narrower principles- Denms and Uvmer think his Bo- 
man* not sufficiently Roman ; and Vokaire censures his 
kings as not completely royal. Dennis is oflended, that 
Menemus, a senator of Rome, should play the bufforai ; 
uid Voltaire perhaps thinks decency violated when the 
Danish usurper is represented as a drunkard. But 
Shakespeare mwavs nuUces nature predominate over ac- 
cident • and, if be preserves the essmtial character, i) 
not very carefiil of diatinctions saperindticed and ad- 
ventitious. His stoiy requires Romant or kings, bnt 
he thinks only on men. He kn^v that Kon£, ^ke every 
other city, had men of all dispositions ; and wintin| a 
btifibon, he went into the senate-house for that which 
the senate-house wo»ld certainly have afforded him. 
He was inclined to show an usurper and a murderer, 
not only odious, but despicable ; ne therefore added 
drunkenness to his other qualities, knowing that kings 
love wine like other men, and that wine exerts its na- 
tural power upon kinga. These are tiie pet^ cavib of 
petty minda ; a poet overlooks the casual distinction of 
country and condition, as a painter, satisfied with the 
figure, neglects the drapery. 

The censure which he has incurred bv mixing cwnuck 
and tragick scenes, as it extends to all his works, de- 
serves more consideration. Let the fact be first sUrted, 
and then examined. 

Shakeipeare's plays are not, in the rigorous and critiod 
sense, eimer tragedies or comedies, but composidoiu of 
a distinct kind ; exhibiting the real state of suhluiitiy 

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Btfm, whidi partakes of good Had evO, joy aad mt* 

low, aaagled with endleM vsriety ttf proportioD and 
iiamnerable modes of cranbinatiim ; and czpreMiiig 
tlw conrae of the vorld, in which die lois of one ia the 
siinafanirilieT; in which, at the same time, tber«vet- 
ur is hasting to his wine, and the monmev bmring bis 
£rie&d; in which the matignitjr of oneii somMimeade- 
ilMtedby thefirolickofamitheT,- and rMny ntisdiicft and 
nsnj benefits ore done and hindered withoot de^gn. 

Out ofthia chaoa of tqingled purpoees and casuhies, 
the andent poets, according to the laws which cuatmn 
had prescribed, sdected mow the criii»« of men, and 
■aae their aheurdities; aome the momnitous viciari- 
tades of lift, and aoane the l^hter occurrences ; some 
the terrours of distress, and scune the gaieties of pros- 
' p«i^. Thoa rose the two modes of inutation, kDown 
oj the name* of tragedy and co«fie«jy, compoaitiona in- 
tended to promote OifTerent ends b^ contrarj means, 
tod considered a* so little allied, that I do not recollect 
■SKuig the Grettit or Aomnu a angle writ^ who 
sttei^itad both. 

Skake»peare has united the powers of exeiting lau^v- 
ttf and sorrow, not only in one mind, bat hi one com* 
pMftioa. Almost all hb plays are divided between 
eerious and ludicrous characters, and, in the sueceseiTe 
erotutions of the design, sometimes produce seriousness 
and sonow, and sometimes levity and laughter. 

That this is a practice contrary to the rules oi criti- 
cinn will be readily allowed ; but there is always an 
^ifteal open from cnticiam to nature. The end of writ- 
ing is to mstnict; the end of poetry is to instruct by 
pwaung. That the mingled drama may convey all the 
mitTDcticm of bagedy or comedy ctonot be denied, 
t^cause it includes both in its aH^Btions of exhilAion, 
and appmaches nearer than either to the appearance of 
Efe, by shewing bow great mac^ikiations and slender 
dwigns may promote or obviate m» another,, and the 
aigli and the low co-operate in the general system by 
unavoidable concatenation. 

It is objected, that by this chuige of scenes the pas- 
suns are interrupted in their lo^^ressioN, and that the 
principal event, being not advan^d by a due gradati<« 
U 3 

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of ptvpanrtiory inddenti, wants Kt last the power to 
move, whidi constitutefl the perfection of onunatiek 
poetry. This reasoning is so specious, that it is received 
as true even by those who in daily experience feel it to 
be false. The interdianges of minj^led scenes seldom 
&il to produce the intended vidssitudes of pawiaii. 
Fiction cannot move so much but that tfac atteation may 
be easily transfrared ; and thou^ it must be allowed 
-that plraaing n>elancholy be sometimes intem^rted by 
unwelcome levihr, yet let it be considered likewise, that 
melancholy is often not pleasing, and that the disturb- 
ance t£ one man may be the reli^ of another ; that 
different auditors have different habitudes; and that, 
upon the whole, all pleasure consists in variety. 

The players, who m their editiixi divided our author's 
works into comedies, histories, uid tragedies, seem not 
to have distinguished the three kinds by any very exact 
or definite id^is. - 

An action which ended happily to the principal per- 
•cms, howeva- serious or distressful through its inter- 
mediate incidents, in their opinion, constituted a come- 
dy. This idea of a comedy continued long amongst 
us ; and plays were written, whidi, by changing the 
catastrophe, were tragedies to-day, and combes to- 

Tragedy was not in those times a poem of more ge- 
neral mgnity or elevation than comedy; it required only 
a calamitous conduston, with whtcn the commtm cn< 
ticism of that ase was satisfied, whatever lighter plea- 
sure it afforded in its progress. 

History was a senes of actiMis, with no odier titan 
chronological succession, independent on each other, 
and without any tendency to introduce or regulate the 
condusion. It is not always very nicely distmguidied 
from tragedy. There is not much nearer apf^oadi to 
unity of action in the tragedy of Anthony una Cleopatra, 
than in the history of mchard the Second, But a his- 
tory might be continued through many plays ; as it had 
tio plan, it had no limits. 

Throuf^ all these denominations of the drama, 
Shaketpear€» mode of composition is the same; an io- 
terdiange of seriousness and merrimeat, by whidi the 

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nuad u Mftened «t one time, end exhilarated at another. 
But wliatever be hie puipose, whether to gladden oi 
d^ffeas, or to conduct the stoiy, without vehemence or 
emotion, throu^ tract» of e«ay «nd familiar dialogue, 
be never fails to attain his purpose; as he commands 
iu we laugh or mourn, or sit silent with quiet ezpecta- 
tttm, in tranquillity without indifference. 

When Shakerpeart^t plan is understood, most of the 
critidsms <J Renter and VoUaire vanish away. The 
^y of Hamlet is opened, without impropriety, by two 
Kntinels ; Jago bellowa at Brabanlio's window, without 
injury to the scheme of the play, though in terms whidi 
a modem audience would not easily endure ; the ch»- 
racter of Polonius is seasonable and useful; and the 
grave-diggers themselves may be heard with ^plause. 
Shaketpeare engaged in dramatick poetry with the 
wtvld open before him ; the rules^of the ancients were 
yet known to few ; the publick judgment was unform- 
ed ; he had no example of such fame as might force him 
upon imitation, nor tsiticks of such authority as might 
restrain his extravagance : he therefore indulged his 
natural dispositiiHi ; and his disposition, as Rumer has 
remarked, led him to comedy. In tragedy he oftea 
writes, with great appearance of toil and study, what is 
written at last wita little felicity ; but, in his comick 
scenes, he seems to produce, without labour, what no 
lahour can improve. In tragedy he is always struggling 
after some occasion to be comick ; but in comedy he 
seems to r^kose, or to luxuriate, as in a mode of think- 
ing congenial to his nature. In his tragick scenes there 
is always something wanting, but his comedy often sur- 
passes expectation or desire. His comedy pleases by 
Ule thoughts and the language, and his tragedy for the 
. greater part by incident and action. His tragedy seema 
to be skill, his comedy to be instinct. 

The force of his comick scenes has suffered little di- 
* minution from the changes made by a century and a 
|ialf, in manners or in woi'ds. As his personages act 
upon principles arising from genuine passion, very lit- 
tle modified by particular forms, then* pleasures and 
vexations are communicable Xo all times and to all places ; 
ihtsy are natural, and therefore durable: the adventi- 

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tioaa pacnliwitiea of personal htbhs ore OA^ supetficul 
dgies, brig'ht and pMMin^ for t. little while, yet moo 
fiiding to K dim tract, without any remwts of fomter 
liutic; but the discrkninaitioiis of true passion are tbe 
colours o( nature : they' perrade the whole mass, and 
can only perish with the body that exhibits them. The 
accidental con^siUoiis of heterogeneous modet are di»> 
solved by the chance which combined tbem ; but the 
unifonn Himplicity of primitive qtmlities neither adtnite 
' IV. lie 51 " 

, ___r sutlers decay. The sand heaped by one 

daod is scattered by uiotlier, but the rock alwaya cod- 
tinne* in its place. The stream of tinw, which is coo* 
tuiiiaUy washing the dissoluble fabric^s of other poets, 
passes without injury by the adamant €£ SAakapeare, 

If there be, what J believe tliere is, in every satiM), 
a style which never beeonies obsolete, a certain mode 
of jmraseokigy so consonant and congenial to the mm- 
iogf and iHindples of its re^ective language, as to re- 
main setlted and unaltcn'cd ; this style is probably to be 
sought ill the CMmnon intercourse of life, among ihoee 
who speak only to be understood, witbout anilHlion of 
<^egwic«. The polite are always catching modish ia- 
■ovations, and the learned depart from egtaUished fi»ms 
of speech, in hope of finding or making better ; those 
who wid> for diatincti<m forsake the vulgar, when the 
Tulgar is right ; but there is a conversation above gtoss- 
ness, and below refinement, where propriety re«idee, 
and where this poet seems to have gatbei^ his eomick 
dialogue. He ]s timefore more agreeaUe to the ears 
<rf'the present age than any other author equally re- 
mote, and among his other excellencies deserves to be 
stuped at oTte of the origina] masters oltmt language. 

These observations are to be considered not a£ unex* 
ceptionably CMistant, but as containing general and pre- • 
dominant truth. Skakerpear^s fantihar dialogue is af- 
firmed to be smooth and clear, yet not whoUy without 
ruggednes^or difficulty ; as a countnr may be emineDt- 
ly fruitful, tliaugh it has spots unfit tar cultivation : his 
characters are praised as natural, though their senti- 
ncnts are sometimes forced, and titeir actions impn>b»- 
Uc ; as the earth upon the whole is ^eriea], Uoug^ 
its smrface is varied with ]XYFtuberances mhI cavitiss. 

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Skalkespeare iritib hia ex6ellenciea hot likeiriaefiiults, 
md Itiulte eiiffident to obscure and overwhelm any 
otber merit. I shall show them in the {woportion in 
whidt tbey a|^>ear to me, without envious nialtg:nity or 
n^ieratitioua veneration. No queeticHi can be more in- 
nocently discussed than a dead poet'a pretensions to re- 
nown ; and little regard is due to that bigotry whidi 
sets candour higher than truth. 

Hia first defect is that to which may be imputed moat 
f^ the evil in books or in jaea. He sacrifices virtue ta 
convenience, and is so much more careful to pleftM 
dian to instruct, that he seems to write without any 
moral purpose. From his writings indeed a system of 
kobI duty may be selected, for he that thinks reasona- 
Uy must think morally ; but his precepts and axioms 
map casually from him ; he makes no just distribution 
of good or evil, nor is always careful to show in the 
virtuoiu a disapprobation ctf the wicked ; h« carries his 
persons indifierently through right and wrong, and at 
me dose dismisses them wi^out further care, and leaves 
their examples to 'operate by chance. This fault the 
barbarity of his age cannot extenuate; &>r it is always 
> writer's duty to make the world betUr, and justice ii 
a virtue independent on time or place. 

The plots are often so loosely formed, that a very 
slight consideration may improve them, and so carelessly 
nnnued, that ^ aeoiOB n«t alwjiy« fuUy to oompre- 
DCTid his own design. He omits opportunities of in- 
abncting or delighting, which the train of hia story 
seems to for?e upon him, and apparently rejects those 
exhibitions whickwould be more afiectiDg, for the sake 
of tboae which are more easy. 

It may be observed, that in many of his plays the 
latter part is evidently neglected. Wlien he found him- 
self near the end of his work, and in view of his reward, 
he shortened the labour to snatch the profit He there- 
fore remits his efforts where he should most vigorously 
exert them, and his catastrophe is impiob^y ^oducea 
ox imperfectly represented. 

He had no regard to distinction of time or place, but 
^v«8 to one age or nation, without scruple, the customs, 
institutions, and opinions of another, at the espenc« 

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not onty ot likelihood, but irf posnbifitj'. These Faalta 
Pope has ende&vunred, with more zeal thiin judgment, 
to transfer to his imagined inteniolators. We need not 
vender to find Hector quoting Arisiqtle^ when we see tfce 
loves of Tke*tug and ffippo^ambined with the gethlck 
mjithologj of fkiries. Shake»jieaTe, indeed, was not the 
MUy Ttfdfitor of chronology, for in the same age Siinm, 
who wanted not the advantages of learning, 'iaa, in his 
Arcadia, fonibnnded the partoral with the feudal times, 
the days of innocence, qaiet, and security, with those 
of turbulence, violence, and a<}ventra%. 

In his comie scenes be'is seldcnri very Mteees^\>), 
when fae mgages his diaraeters ki recqwocations of 
smartness and contests ot s^caas ; dteir jests are com- 
monly gross, and their pleasacitry Heentious ; neither 
his gentlemen nor hk Id^s have n:iHCb delicacy, nor 
are sufficiently distinguished from his downs 1^ any 
appearance of refined mteneTs. Whether he represent- 
ed the real craiversati«il of h)s time is not easy to de- 
termine : the reign ol ElizahelA is eominonly snj^wsed 
to have been a time of - BtaleUness, favmali^, and re- 
serve: yet pet-hops the reflations of that severity 
were not v«iy elegant. There must, however, have 
been always some modes &t gaiety jweferable to others, 
and a writer ought to chnse the best. 

In tn^edy his performance seems constantly to be 
worse, as his labour ia nmre. The c ffa g i gnB of paSSlon, 
which exigence forces out, are for the most part strik- 
. ing and energetick ; but whenever he solicits his inven- 
tion, or strains his faculties, the ofispring of his throes 
is tvuHonr, meanness, tediousness, and obscurity. 

In narration he affects a disproportionate pomp of 
diction, and a wearisome train of arcumlocution, and 
teUs the incident imperfect^f in many words, wiiieh 
might have been more plainly delivered in few. Nar- 
ration in dpunatich poetry is na.tara)]y tedious, as it is 
linanimated and inactive, and t^tructs tite progress (^ 
the action ; it should therefore always be rapid, and en- 
livened by frequent interruption. Shakespearttoand it an 
iscumlH'ance, and instead o( lightening it by brevity, 
ndesvoured to recommend it by dignity and splendour. 

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TO fliusecnuac. SS7 

Hia decUnutiDiu or tet apuecAvt axe eowxmotdy eM 
ind weak, f«r his power was &e powfr of ntttnre; 
vben he eiideavoured, like other tmgic -wntcrs, tQCfttch 
opfKBtunitiei of amnUficatiaii, and instead of inquiriii|f 
what the occasion demanded, to show how mutJi hii 
ttaret of knowledge could sappiy, be seldom escapes 
witlimd: the pity or retentment of his reader. 

It IS inddent ta hjni to be now and then entangled 
wid) an uqwieldy sentiment, which he cannot well vx- 
{H-esB, and will not reject; he-steiig^» with it a whil^ 
and, if it continneft stubfaom, ooinpnsca it in words such 
at occur, and learet it to ba disentangled and evolvti 
by dioae who have more leisure to bestow upon it. 

Not that always wii«ie the lan^usf^ is inti-tcate tite 
timna^ is subtle, ok the image always great where 
the hae is bulky ; die equalil^ of words to tilings is t»- 
ry often neglected, and trivial aentinients and Tulgnr 
ideas disappoint the attention, to wlut^ they are ie>- 
eommendea by sonorans ^t^eta and vwcdling figtves. 

But the admirers of this great poet harm moat reason 
to complain when he ^iprcndies nearest to his highest 
excellence, and seams &lly lesotvcd to sink them in de- 
jection, and mdlify them with tender emotions by the 
&11 of greatness, the danger of innocence, or the crosaea 
of love. What he does best, he soon ceaaes to do. He 
is not soft and padietick witJiovt some idle conceit, or 
contemptible equivocation. He no sooner begins to 
move, tlian he counteracts himself ; and terrour and pity, 
as they are risixu^ in the mind, are dieckad and blasted 
by sudden £n^mly. 

A quibble is to Shakttpeare, what luminous Tapours 
are to the traveller : he follows it at all adventures ; it 
is' sure to lead him out erf hia way, and sure to engnlf 
him in the mire. . It has some m^ignant power over \aa 
mind, and its fiucinations are irreiastible. Whatever 
bethedignity or profundity of his disqmmtion, whether 
he be enlarging knowledge or. «talting affection, whe- 
ther he be amusingattentumwidiintidents, or enchain- 
ing it in suspense, let but a quibble spring up before 
him, aiid he leaves bis work unfinished. A quiUile is 
the golden apple for whidi he will always torn aside 
ftom his career, <»' Aoop ftom his elevatiDn. A quibble. 

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SfiS nirAca to eiiAKKBn&ii£. 

pow and bairen as it is, gave him such delight, that he 
wu content to purchaee it, bj th« sacrifice of reaaoa, 
Mwpriety, and truth. A quibble was to him the Iktal 
Cleopatra for which he loat the w<M'ld, and was content 
to lose it. 

It will be diought strange, that, in enumerating th« 
defects of this writer, I £»ve not yet mendoned lu> 
n^lect of the unities ; hia vi<dation of thoee laws whidi 
have been instituted and establiiihed hy the joint author 
ri^ of poets and critic&B. 

.For bis other deviations from tiie art of writing, I 
resign hitn to critical justiGe, without making any other 
demand in hia favour, than that which must be indul- 
ged to all human excellence : that his virtues be rated 
■witii his fellings: but from the censure which- this 
irregularity fciay bring upon him, I shall, witib due n- 
Terence to that learning which I must oppose, adventure 
to try how I can defend him. 

His histories, being neither tragedies nor comedies, 
Mre not Bul:Qect to any of their laws ; nothing more is 
necessary to all the praise which they espect, than that 
die changes of action be so prepared as to be understood ; 
that the incidents be various and afiiectiag, a^d the 
diaracters consistent, natural, and distinct. No (Aer 
unity is intended, and therefore none is to be sought 

In his other works he has well enough pt'eserved the 
vni^ of action. He has not, indeed, an intrigue r^u- 
larly poplexed and regularly unravelled : he does not 
MideaVour to hide his design only to discover it, for 
this is seldom the order of real events, and S/iakefpean 
is the poet of nature: but bis plan has commonly, what 
AruMk requires, 4 b^^iniung, a middle, and an end; 
one event is concatenated with another, and the cihi<- 
elusion follows by easy consequence. There are per- 
haps some incidents that might be n>ared, as in mb^ 
Cx there is much talk that only nils up time upm 
stage; but the general systnn makes gradual *^ 
vancea, and the end of the play is the end of expectation. 

To die unities of time and place lie has shewn no 
r^ard ; end perhaps a nearer view of the principles on 
which they stand wiH diminish thdr value, and with- 
draw fivm them the veneration which, from the tiioe 

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W ConMsUr, tliey ba.-n vRy guwrdlj Fscamd, tgr di»- 
covmng tlut iaej have piven nuire trcMble to the paa^ 
tbm t>leuaK to tJie uidilar. 

Ttw necesMi? of obflminc tlw uaitiM'trf' tine mi 
nlaceuiaei from the timpoaed neoeM^ afmaldi^ the 
dnwOBcivdili^ Tbemtiduh^itiMpauiUetlwtaa 
«ction of mendu or years can be poMMUy briieved t« 
fMstin threebouTs; or that tW qMCtntor as nippoM 
bimMlf to sit in the tiwotiv, irinle anA m» tad o r n ^ nid 
return between dtstant kioga, vbiU amuM ace levied 
«uk1 towns beueged, while an csile wanders and Betums, 
or till he whom they eaw coiutiDg his miatrmB, ahall 
lament tbe untimely &11 of his son. Tbe mind revolts 
fitun evid^it ^sehood, and fictioK loses its £bax when 
it departs (max the resemblance of really. 

From the narrow Umitaiicm of time necestanly arises 
tiw contzactiDn of i^ace. Tbe epactator, who knows 
Uiat he saw the first set at Alegattdrln, cannot uiniase 
tlut he ae« the next at itonu, at a distuiee to wbicfa 
ii«t die dragons of 3f(dai coeld, in *o short a time, have 
banmorted him ; be knowB widi certainty dut he has 
SM)t oianged his pUoe ; and he knows tlut pboe oa^ 
not duage itself; that iritst was a house aauiot bc- 
CMnea^iu; that what was Z'AeAe«<»n«ver be Pera»- 

SoA is llie triumphant language with which a crjtick 
euitu over the misery of an irregular poet, and exults 
cammonly withowt cesiaantie or Tepfy. It is ttjne, tber^ 
Gx», totdl hin, by the au^tonty of Siaiftptartt that be . 
usiiaus, as an unqumtionable pnncifde, « porition, 
-whiidi, while his biesdi is fimning it into words, his 
uadacsUnding pwpomifea to be &&, It is &lae, that 
may MnraseDtatxn is nustakm for reali^; that any 
diwaattdt MJe in its sutoiality was aver c>ed3>tc, «r, 
'e mom^^ was ever cEeditcd. 

M»g the fast hour at Aiacandna, and the next at Shme, 
sappOBe*, titat vrhm the jiuf ajpcns, the spectator really 
JFnyFtff himwlf tf Aksuiulna, imd bdieves that bis 
walE to liie theatre has been a voyage to ^^, snddut 
be lirca in the days oSAndumg and CieopiAra. Surely 
Jie that iiTC'^f'B*' this JD^ imnginp more. H« that ean 
Vox. I, X 

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take the etaf^ at one time for the p^ace of the Ptoiemuff 
may take it in faalf an hour for die promontory of 
Adium. Delusion, if deliuion be admitted, haa no cer> 
tain limitAtion ; if the spectator can be once pca^uaded, 
that hU old acquaintance ore Alexander and Ctesar, that 
a room illuminated with candles is the plain of Pkarta- 
iia, or the bank of Graniau, he is in a state of elevation 
above the reach of reoaon, or of the truth, and txom tfae 
heights of empyrean poetry, may despise the drcum- 
BcnptionB of terrestrial nature. There u no reason why 
B mind thus wandering in ecstacy (diould count the 
clodc, or whv an hour should not be a century ut that 
calenture of we brain that con make the.stage a field. 

The truth is, that the spectators are always in their 
senses, and know, from the first act to the last, that the* 
stage is only a stage, and that the players are only play- 
ers. They came to hear a certain number Ot linea 
recited with just gesture and eleaant modulation. The 
lines relate to some action, and an action must be in 
some place ; but the different actions that complete a 
atmy m^ be in places vesy remote from each other; 
and where is the absurdity of allowing that space to 
represent first Alhent, and then Skill/, wtuch was always 
kaown to be neither Sicify nor AUtens, but a modmi 

n, as place is introduced, dme may be 
. the time required by. the foble elapses for 
the moat part between toe acts ; for, of so mudi of the 
action as is represented, the r^ and poetical duration 
is the same. If, in the first act, preparations for war 
■giunst Mxthridaiet are represented to be mode in Rome, 
tte event itf tfae war may, without absurdity, be repre- 
sented, in the cata3tro[^e, as happening in Ponitu: we 
know that there is neither war, nor preparation for 
war ; we know that we are neither in Rome nor Pontiu ; 
that neither Milkridatet nor LuctUlui are before us. The 
^Irama exhibits successive imitations t^ successive ac- 
tions ; and why may not the second imitation nwe- 
sent an action tiiat happened years after the first, if it be 
so connected with it, that nothing but time can be sup- 
posed to intervene ? Time is, of all modes of existence, 
most obsequious to the imagination j a l^>se of yeazs is 
as easily conceived as a passage of hours. In contem- 

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jtlfttion we easily contract the time of real actions, and 
thenftae willingly permit it to be contracted when we 
only see their imitation. 

u will be asked, how the drama moves, if it is not 
credited. It ia credited with all the credit due to a 
drama. .It is credited, whenever it moves, as a jnat 
picture of a real original ; as representing to the audi- 
tor what he would himself feel, if he were to do or suffer 
what is there feigned to be suffered or to be done. The 
reflection that strikes the heart is not, that the evils 
before us are real evils, but that thev are evils to which 
we ourselves may be exposed. If there be any fallacy, 
it is not that we fancy the jdayers, but that we fancy 
ourselves unhappy for a moment ; but we rather lament 
the posnbUi^ than suppose the presence of misery, as 
a moth^ weeps over her babe, when she remembers 
diat dsMb may take it from her. The delight of tra- 
gedy pn>ceeds from our consciousnesa of fiction ; if we 
thought murders and treasonH real, they would please 

Imitations produce pain or pleasure, not because tliey 
are mistaken f<H' realities, but because they bring reah- 
lies to mind. W^en the imagination is recreate by a 
painted landscape, tiie trees are not supposed capable 
«s siiM lu ahada, or the fbuntoins coolness ; but we 
consider how we should be pleased with such fountaint. 
p^^tng beside us, and such woods waving over ub.V 
We are agitated in reading the histoir of Henry Ike 
F^k, yet no man wtes his book for the field of Agin-, 
court. A dramatJck exhibition is a book recited with 
concomitants that increase or diminish its efiect. Fa- 
miliar comedj^ is often more powerful on the theatre, 
than in the page ; imperial tra^d y is always less. The 
humour of PcCruchio may be Heightened by grimace j 
but what voice or what gesture can hope to add dignity 
or force to the soliloquy of Cato ? 

A plOT read affects the mind like a play acted. It 
is th«'efi>re evident, that the action is not supposed to 
be read ; and it follows, that between the acta a longer 
or shorter time may be allowed to pass, and that no 
more account of space or duration is to be taken by the 
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33S rnsrACK to 

audhor af a drama, than l^ the reader of a samtiv*, 
befinre whoro may pass in an hour the life of a bero, t^ 
the revolutions of an empire. 

Whether Skakegpeare knew the unities, and rtjected 
them by design, ot deviated from them by liappy i^- 
doranxK, it is, 1 think, impossible to decide, and umch 
t» inqoire. We may reasonably sjippoM, that, when 
lie rose to notice, he did not want the counsels and ad- 
monitionB of scholars and criticks, and that he at latt 
detibemtely pereigted in a practice, which he might 
have b^iun by chance. A* nothing is essential to the 
fable but unity of action, and as the unities of time and 
place arise evidently from false assumptions, and, by 
drcumscribing the extent of the drama, lessen its varie- 
ty, I camiot Uiink it n^ucb to be lamented, that thev 
Were not known bv hira, or not observed : nor, if sndi 
aiiotiier poet could arise, should lT«y vehemently re- 
proach Inm, that his first act passed at Vauee, and his 
next iu Cyprus. Such violation! of rules merely poei< 
tive become the comprehensive genius of Shakemeare, 
tettd sach censures are suitable to die roinutfl tatd dea- 
der oritictsm of VcUaire. 

Ifat uifae adta ferv^ituitimit 
Serveiilurkga,mallnla CaiarftoUL 

^et when I speak thus slightly ofdramatick rules, I 
oumot but recollect how much wit and learning may be 
produced against me; before such authorities I am 
afr^d to stand, not that I think the present question 
one of those that are to be decided by mere authority, 
but because it is to be suspected, that these precepts 
have not been so easily received, but for better reasrnis 
than" I have yet been able to find. The resnlt of my 
inquiries. In which it would be ladicrous to boost ot 
impartiality, is, that the unities of time and place are 
not essential to a just drama, that tbwigh they may 
sometimes conduce to pleasure, they are always to be 
sacrificed to the nobler oeautjes cf variety and instruo 
tion ; and that a play written with nice observation of 
cHticf] rules, is to b« contemplated as an eIab<H:at« cu- 

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riostly, u the product of anperflnoiu and ostentntiona 
art, b^ -trhidi is shown, rather wiiat is possible, than 
irliat IS necessary. 

' He tliatj without diminution of any other excellence, 
dull prewrre all the unities unbroken, deserves the 
like applause widi the ardiitect, who shall display all 
ttie oraers of architecture in a citadel, without any de- 
duction (ram its gtrength ; but the principal beauty of 
a citadel is to exclade the enemy ; and the greatefit 
graces of a ptay are to copy nature, and instruct life. 

Perii^M, what I have here not dogmatically but deli- 
b«Btely written, may recal the principles of the drama 
to a new examination. I am almost fnghted at my own 
temerity ; and when I estimate the fame and the strengdi 
of those that maintain the owtrary opinion, am ready 
to sink down in reverential silence ; as JEneat withdrew 
from the deience of Tron, when he saw Neptune shaking 
Ae wait, and Juno heaoii^ the besiegers. 
' Those whom my arguments cannot persuade to give 
their ^probation to the in^ment cS Shaketprare, will' 
easily, if they omsider the condition t£ his life, make 
some aUowance for his ignorance. 

Every man's performances, to he rightly estimated, 
must be cmnpKred with the state of the age in which he 
lived, and with his own particular opportunites ; and 
tbou^ to the reader a book be not worse or better for 
die circumstances of the author, yet as there is always 
a silent reference c4 bmnan wttoks to human abilities, 
and as the inquiry, how fti man may extend his de- 
signs, or how high he may jate his native force, is of fiir 
greater dignity than in what rank we shall j^ce any 
particular perfonnaDce, curiosity is always busy to dis- 
cover the instruments, as well as to survey the work- 
manship, to know bow much is ttt be ascribed to origi- 
nal powers, and how much to casual and adventitious 
help, llie palaces of Pent or Mexico were certainly 
mean and incommodious habitations, if compared to 
the houses of European monarchs ; yet who coul^ fbr- 
bear to view them with astonishment, who remember- 
ed that they were built without the use of iron ? 

The Eolith nation, in the time of Shakesptare, was 

yet strii^ung to emerge from barbarity. The philolo- 

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Sof lit^ bad be«n tnn^lanted faither in the reicn t£ 
auytht Eigkth; and Uie Uuned languages liod been 
snccescfully raltivated by Lilly, LtTiacre, ana More ; by 
Pole, Cheke, add Gardner; and aftervardt b; Smm, 
Clark, HmUm, and Atcham. Greek was now tau^t to 
boys in the prinoi^ scbtxda ; and those who onitMl ele- 
BUKe with leaning, read, with great diligence, the 
Jtaiian and Sptmith poets. But literature was yet Gon- 
fiaed to pnrfesaed scholars, or to men and women of 
high ranJc "Yht publick was grtss and dark ; and to 
be able to read ana write, was aA accomplishment etiU 
valued for its rarl^. 

Nations, like individuals, have their infancy. A 
ptopte newly awakened to literary curiosity, bezng yet 
unacquainted with the true state of things, knows not 
how to judge of that which is jpmpoeed as its reaem< 
blance. . Whatev^ is remote nam common appear- 
ances is always welcome to vulgar, as to childish oe- 
duli^; a^f^ a country unenli^tened by learning, the 
«4HMe people is the vulgar. The study erf those who 
thm aspired to plebeian learning was Uid out upon ad- 
ventures, giants, dragons, and enijiantments. Tkt 
Death <(f Arthur was the fiivouritc volume. 

The mind, which has feasted on the luxuriooa wMtd- 
en of (ictitm, lias no taste of the insipidi^ of tmtb. 
A play, which imitated only the common occurrence* 
' of the world, would, upon the admirers of PoAmrM sihI 
Gtiy of Waneick, have made little impresB<Hi ; he that 
wrote for such an audience was under the necessi^ of 
looking round for strange events and fabulous tnnBac- 
tions ; and that incredibility, by which maturer know- 
led^ is oBTended, was the txiei reamunrndadoD of 
writings, to unskiliul curiosity. 

. Our author's plots are generally borrowed fiom m^ 
velsj and it ia reasonaHe-to suppose, that he chose the 
most popular, such as were read by many, and related 
1^ more ; fai his audience could not have followed him 
through the intricacies of the drama, had they not held 
the thread of the sbny in their hands. 

The stories, whidi we now find only in remoter 
authors, were in his time «»%siib1e and familiar. The 
fiU>le of At you like it, which is supposed to be coined 

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psBFACE TO eaAinnAKi. iS5 

finm ChoMtj't Geattb/n, wsa a little pamphlet of thoie 
times ; and c^ Mr. Cibber rememberaa t&e tale rf 
HaotUt in plAin Englitk prose, whidi the criticks hare 
now to seek in Sojco Grammaticut. 

His Eit^uk histories he took &om EnglM chronicln 
and Eagluk ballade; and as the ancient writera woe 
made known to his countrymen by versirais, they biu»- 
jdied him with new subjects ; he dilated BOtne at Pai~ 
larch's lives into jdays, when they had beat translated 
by North. 

His plots, whether historical or fabulous, are alwm 
orowded with incidents, by which the attention of a 
rbde peoplewas more easily caufht th«n by sootiment ' 
or argumentation ; and suti) is Uie power of the mar- ' 
TCtUoua, even over those who despise it, that every man 
finds his mind more strongly seized hy the tragedies 
of SAaketpeare llun of any other writer : others please 
us by particalar speeches; blit he always makes us 
anxions"fbr the event, and has perhaps escelled all but 
Homer in securing the first purpose of a writer, by ex- 
citins restless and unquentjiable curiosilr, and compel- 
ling him that reads his work to read it tnroueh,- 

The shows and bustle with which his plays abound 
have the same originaL As knowledge advances, plea- 
sure passes fi-om the eye to the ear, but returns, as it'' 
declines, tH>ra the ear to the eye. Those to whcm our 
authors labours were exhibited had more skill in pomps 
or processitms than in poetical language, and perhaps 
wanted some visible and discriminate events, as com- 
ments on the dialogue. He knew how he should most 
please ; and whether his practice is more agreeable to 
nxture, or whether his eKample has pr^udiced the nk^ 
tion, we still find tiiat on our stage SMuething must be 
done as well as said, and inactive declamation- i6 very 
coldly heard, however musical or elegant, passionate or 

fMaire expresses his wonder, that our author's es- 
iiKvaffancea are endured by a nadon, which has seen the 
tragedy of Cato. Let him be answered, that Addison 
!mws the language of poets; and Skaketpeare, o£ jaen. 
We find in Caio innumerable beauties wnich enamour 
us of its midiv, but we see nothing that acquaints ns 

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with human sendments or hiunan actions ; vre place it 
with the fairest and the noblest pro^ny which jadg-' 
ment propagates by conjunction with learning; but 
Othello is the vigorous and vivacious of^ring of obser- 
vation impregnated by genius. Cato affords a splen^d 
exhibition of artifici^ Mid fictitious manners, and de- 
livers just and noUe sentiments, in diction easy, elevat- 
ed, and harmonious, but its hopes and fettrs communi- 
cate no vibration to the heart ; the composition refen 
us only to the writer : we pronounce the name of Cato, 
but we think on Addison. 

The work of a correct and regular writer is a garden 
accurately formed and dil^ntiy planted, varied with 
shades, and scented with nowers: the composition of 
Skakeipeare is a forest, in which oaks extend thrar 
brandies, and pines tower in the air, interspersed scHne- 
times with weeds and brambles, and sometimes giving- 
riielter to myrtles and to roses ; filling the eye wit£ 
«w^ pomp, and gratiiying the mind with endless di- 
versity. Other poets display cabinets of precious rarities, 
minutely finished, wrought into shape, and polished into' 
brightness. Shatetpeare opens a mine which conttdns 
gold and diamonds in unexhaustible plenty, though 
clouded by incrustations, debased by impurities, and 
mingled with a mass of meaner minerals. 

It has been much disputed, whether Shakespean 
owed his excellence to his own native force, or wtether 
he had the common helps of sdiolastick education, the 
precepts of critical science, and the examples of andent 

There has always prevailed a tradition, that Shaka- 
ptare wanted leanung.that he had no regular education, 
nor much skill in the dead languages. Jonson, his 
friend, affirms, tilat he had small Latin, and less Greek; 
who, besides that he had no imaginable temptation to 
falsehood, wrote at a time when the character and ac- 

Susitions of Shakespeare were known to multitudes, 
is evidence ou^ht therefore to decide the controversy, 
unless some testimony of equal force could be opposed. 
Some have imagined, that they have discovered deep 
learning in many mutations of old writers ; but the ex- 
amines which I have known urged were drawn from 

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hooka tnluUted in hia time ; or woe nidi na^coinci' 
dences o£ thought, ns will tui|q>en to aU who consider 
the same subjects; or aach remarks on life or axioms 
of tnoralihr sa float in conversation, and are transmitted 
through the world in proverbial sentences. 

I have fonnd it remarked, that, in &is important 
sentence. Go btfore, J'Ufolhn>, we read a translstiftn of 
I prue, tequar. I have Deen told, that when Caliban, 
sRer a pleasing dream, s^s, / ^jfd to deep ogatH, the 
author imitates Anacretm, who liad, like every other 
man, the same wish on the same occaaim. 

There are a few passages which may pass fat imit^ 
tions, but ao few, that the exception tmly ccmfinna the 
rulej he obtained tfaent from accidental quotations, or 
by <Hal commuDication, and as he used what he had, 
would hxve used more if he had obtained it. 

The Comedg of Errors is confessedly taken &om the 
M/emacknd of Piaidiu; &om the only play d Ptaulut 
which was then in EngUth. \^hat can be vaore proba- 
ble, than that he who copied that wouM have copied 
nM>re ; but that those wluch were not translated were 
iiULccea^ble ? 

Whether he knew the modem languages is uncertain. 
That his plays hare scHue FreiKk scenes proves bnt lit- 
l^v ; Etc tuig;lit eoeilj uii^uiv them to be written, and 
prcdiaUy, even thouf n he had known the language in 
the eonmion degree, be could not have written it with- 
out assistance. In the story of Romeo and JuJut he is 
observed to hare followed the Englith translation, 
where it deviates from the Italian: but this on the 
oth^ part proves nothing against his knowledge of the 
original. He was to copy, not what he knew nimself, 
but what was known to his audience. 

It is most likely that he had learned LaHn sufficient- 
ly to make him acquainted with construction, but that 
He never advanced to an easy perusal of the Roman au- 
thors. Concerning his skill in modem languages, I can 
find no sufficient ground of determination ; but as no 
imitationB of Frenek or Italian authors have been disco- . 
vered, though the Italutn poetry was tiien hi^ in es> 
t«em, I am locliRed to believe, that he read little taon 

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SS8 rREPACB TO biuKehpeare. 

dum £uJM, and diose for his falde« onlf sudi tales a" 
he found truisUted. 

That mudi knowledge ii scattered over his works it 
Toy iufltfy observed t^ Pope; but it is often sncb 
knowledge as books did not supply. He that wiD un- 
derstand Shaketpeare, must not be content to study him 
in the closet, he must look for his meaning aometiraes' 
among the qwrts of the field, and sometimes among 
the manu&cturei of the shop. 

There is, however, proof enough that he was a very 
diligent reader, nor was our language then so indigent- 
of books, but that he mi^t very liberally indulge his 
curiosity without excursion into foreign literatwv. 
Many of the Roman authors-were translated, and some 
of the Greek;- the Reformation had filled the kingdoin 
with theoli^cat learning ; most of tlie topicks of hu- 
man disquisition had found English writers ; and 
poetry had been eultivated, not only with diligence, 
but success. This was a stock of knowledge sufficient 
for a mind «o oapable of appropriating and improving it 

But the greater part of his excellence was the pro> 
duct of his own genius. He found the Engiith Ktage in 
a state of the utmost rudeness ; no essays ehher in tra- 
gedy or comedy had appeared, from whidi it could be 
discoveiwd to whst degree of duliglit i-lUn-r one erotfter' 
mi^t be carried. Neither character nor dialogue were 

Kt understood. Shaketpeare may be truly said to 
ve introduced them both amonsst us, and in some of 
his happier scenes to have earned them both to the. 
tttvost hei^t. 

' ' By what gradations of improvement he proceeded, is 
not easily known ; for the chronology of iiis worits is 
yet unsettled. Rome is of opinion, ^at perhapt tee an 
not to loot Jot kit beginning, tike thou of other tvrifen, in 
At* lea^ perfect trorki; art had m Utile, and nature ta 
large a <Aare in what he didi thai for aught I know, says 
he, the perfbrrnancex of his ifouth, at they mere the moH 
vigorout, tvere the best. But the power of nature i» 
only the power of using to any certain purpose die 
materials whidi diligence procures, or opportunity 8iq> 
plies. Nature gives no man knowledge, and, when 
images are collected by study and experience, can only 

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uust in ctHiabiiung or iq^ying them. Shakeipeare, 
however &voured by nature, could impart only irfaat 
he had learned ; and a« he mart increase hia idrai, like 
other mortalsj by gradual acquisitiui, he, like them, 
grew wiser as he grew older, could display life better, 
as be knew it more, and instruct with more efficacy, as 
be was himself more amply inttructed. 

There is a vigilance of observation and accuracy of 
distinction whidi books and prece^ cannot confer; 
ttaok this almost all original and native excellence pro- 
'i!eeda. Shaketpeare must have looked upon mankind 
with perspicacity, in the highest degree curious and at- 
tentive. Other writers borrow their diaractra« from 
|ffeceding writers, and diversify them only by the ac- 
odental appendages of jxesent manners ; the dress is 
a little vaned, but the bo^ is the same. Our author 
bad both matter and form to provide ; for except the 
characters of Chancer, to wbtnu I think he is not much 
indebted, there were no writers in En^uk, and perlu^M 
not many in other modem languages, which shewed 
life in its native colours. 

The contest about the original benevolence or ma- 
lignity <tf man hod not yet commenced. Speculation had 
not yet attempted to aiml^e the mtnd, to trace the^»s- 
sions to their sources, to unfold the seminal prinaplet 
of vice and virtue, or sound the depths of the heart for 
the m<dives of action. All those enquiries, which from 
that time that human nature became the fashionable 
study, have been made sometimes with nice discernment, 
but <^tea with idle subtility, were yet unattempted: 
The tales, with which the iidkncy of learning was satis- 
fied, exhibited only the superiiciBi appearances of action, 
related the events, but omitted the causes, and were 
formed for such as delighted in wonders rathar than in 
truth. Mankind was not then to be studied in the 
dowt; he that would -know the world, was under the 
necewutr of ^eanipg bis own remarks, by mingUng as 
he could in its business and amusements. 
. Boj/le cmigTStiilated himself upon his high birth, be- 
CMtse it &vour«d his curiosihr, by facilitating his access. 
SluJteiptan had no, such advantage; he came to l/s^ 

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don K nwdy adventurer, and Bved for a time by vety 
mean empla]rm«iits. Many vorks of genius and lenm^ 
kig Iiave been perfimned in sutet of life tfa^ ^^ear 
veiy little favourable to thousht or to inquiry ; so many, 
that lie who conaldera them is inclined to thinb that he 
gees a)te3rpcizc and peTBeverance predominating over 
all external agency, and bidding liEJp and hindertutcc 
Tinisli before thrai. The genius of Skgiapeart waa 
not to be depressed by the -weight of poverty, nor li- 
mited by the narrow conversion to which men in 
want kre inevitably cmidanned; the inciuatvances t£ 
his fertune were shaken from hia mind, at doe drvpt 
firom a Hoiit mane. 

Xbou^ he hod so many difficulties to eneoonter, and 
■o little awstance to surmount them, he has been aMfl 
to obtain an exact knowled^ of many modes vf life, 
and many casts of n^ve di^waitions ; to vary then 
with ^rett nmltij^city ; to mark them by nice disti&c- 
tioDB ; and to shew them in fUl view by proper combi- 
iwtions. In this part of his perfiirmances he had none 
to imitate, but has been himself imitated by all suc^ 
ceeding writers ; and it may be doubted, whether Jrom 
nil his successors more maxims of theoretical luioir- 
ledge, fx more rules of practical prudence, can be col- 
lected, than he alone has given to his country. 

Nor was bis attention confined to the actioba of men ; 
he was an exact surveyor of the inanimate world ; hii 
descriptiiuis have always some peculiarities, gathered 
by oonlemnlating things as they really exist. It may 
be observed that the t^deit poets of many nations pre- 
serve their reputation, and lli&t the followin^f genc»> 
tions of wit, after a short celdHity, Hide into obHvioii. 
The first, whoever tbey be, must take their sentini^ita 
and descriptions immediately i&om knowledge; the 
resemblance is therefore just, thdr descriptions - aM 
verified by every eye, and th»r sentiments adcnow* 
ledgedW ev«y breajd:. Tho^ whom their fame iB* 
vites to the same studies, eiq>y partly than, and partly 
nature, till the books c^ one age gain such authmity, 
9S to stand in the jdace of nature to another ; and im^ 
taticB}, alwayS-denatiDg a. litlie, beoames at last capri^ 

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•aoua and casuaL Shaietptare, whether life or nKtme 
be hiavsabject, ahewa plainly tiat he has seen with his 
'own ey«s ; he gives the ima^ which he receives, not 
weakened or distorted by the intervention of any other 
nund ; the i^orsnl feel his r^resentations to be just, 
and the learned see that they art complete. 

Perhaps it would not be easy to find any authw, ex- 
cqit Homer, who invented so iriuch as Shaieipearei who 
■o much advanced the studies which he cultivat^ or 
■eSiised so much novelty upon hia age or country. The 
form, the cjbaracters, the lanmia^, and the biIowb of 
file EngUsk dnunA are his. He xeemt, says Dennis, to 
haoe Seen the oery original of our English tragical kar- 
in6m,that is,tiieharvuuiu<^/ilaHkvfrK,divern/led<^ien 
hy aii^Uabie and trisiyatMe lerminaiion*. For the (£• 
vertUy dufhguU'kei it Jrvm heroick harmony, and by 
bringtng it itearer to common uk makes it more proper U> 
gam aUeittioii, and mare Jit Jbr action and dialogue. Such 
verge me mate taken we are writing prOK ; tee make such 
verte in Common comtertation, 

' I know not whether this praise is rigorously just. 
The dissyllable temdnation, which the critick rightly 
unirujvifttes to the drama, is to be found, thoagh, I 
l£ink, not in Gorhoditck, which is confessedly Wore 
our author ; yet in Hierom/mo*, of which the date is not 
certain, but which there is reason to believe at least as 
old as his earliest plays. This however is certain, that 
he is the first who taught either tragedy or comedy to 
please, thei% being no theatrical piece of any older 
Writer, of which me iwne is known, except to anti- 
qoariea uid collectors o€ books, which are sought be- 
cause ihef are scarce, and would not have been scarce 
had they been much esteemed. 

To him we must ascribe the praise, unless Spenter 
may divide it with him, ef having first discovered to 
how much smoothnea» and harmony the English lan- 
guage could be st^^ned. He has speeches, perliq>s 
8 sCMes, which have all the delicacy ot Ratve, 

' It appears, from the induction of Ben Jonsoa'a BtrtholOTnca 
Fair, (o hsTS taen «»ed betara the yeaz 1500. Stetuk^ 
ToL. J. Y 

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wkhout hU effeminacy. He endeavours indeed com* 
moqlj' to strike hy the toree and vigour of his dialcgue, 
but he never executes his purpose better, thai when he 
tri«s to aooth by goftnesa. 

Yet it must be at last cfmfbssed, that as we owe even 
thin^ to him, he owes something to us ; that, if mw^ 
of hiB praise is pai4 by perception and jud^nent, mutji 
is likewise given by custran and veneration. We fix 
our eyes upon his graces, and turn them from hia de- 
foToiitjefl, and endure in him what we should is another 
loathe or desp^. If we endured without prsising, r^ 
epect for the fath» of our drama might excuse us ; but 
I have se^, in the book of eome modem critick, a txA- 
lection of anomalies, which shew that he has cainipted 
language by every mode of depravation, but which his 
adrsirer has accumulated as a monument of honoor. 

He has scenes of undoubted and perpetaal excellence ; 
but perhaps not one play, which, if it were now e»- 
hibited as the work of a contempfMrary writer, would be 
heard to the conclusion, J am indeed far ftwi thiidc- 
ing, that his works were wrought to his own ideas of 
perfection ; when ^ey were such as would satisfy the 
audience, they satisfied the writer. It is seUoiH that 
authors, though more studious of fame than Skaieipeart, 
rise much above the standard of their own age; to add 
a little to what is best will always be sufBcient fix we^ 
sent praise, and those who find themselves exited ints 
fame, are willing to credit tJieir encomiasts, and te ^pare 
the labour of c<Mitending with themselves. 

It does not appear, that Shakeif>eare thought hia 
works worthy of posterity, that he levied any ided 
tribute upon future times, or had any fiuiher proqpect, 
than of present popularity and present |Hvfit When 
his plays had been acted, his hi^ was at an »d ; he 
solicited no addition of honour from the teaAec .He 
therefore made no scruple to repeat the samo jests in 
many dialogues, or to entangle different |^ots by the 
same knot, of perplexity ; which may be at leabt for- 
given him, by those who recollect, Uiat of Congrev^i 
four c««aedies, two are concluded by a. marriage in a 
mask, fay a deception, which perhaps never happened, 
and which, whether lik^ <tf not, he did not invent. 

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Sft carelMB «M this gt«at poet of fatnre ftnie, tAst, 
ttiou^ he reared to ease and plenty, while he was yet 
tittle declined iiito the tale of war*, before he could be 
disgu^ed with fatigue, or disabled by infinnity, he made 
no collsdion (^ his workn, nor desired to rescue those 
that hod been already published (torn the d^ravations 
llut obscured them, or secure to the rest a better dei-' 
tiny, by giving them to the world in their genuine state. 

Of wie pla^ which bear the name of Skakapeare in 
the late mlibons, the greater ]>art were not published 
till about Mxen years after his death ; ana the few 
which appeared in his life are apparently tfanut into 
the world without the pare of Uie autbor, and therefbre 
probabty without his knowledge. 

Of an the publishers, clandestine or pn^eased, tfie 
n^^igence and unskilfulness has by the late revisers 
been sufficiently shewn. The faults of all are indeed 
nntno'ous and gross, and have not only corrupted many 
passages perhaps beyond recovny, but have bfougfat 
others into suspicion, which are only obscured by ob- 
solete phraseplf^y, or by the writef's unskilAilness and 
•ifectation. To alter is more easy than to eiiplain, and 
temnity is a more common quality than diligence. 
Those who saw that they must employ conjecture to a 
certain decree, were willing to indulge it a little further. 
Had the author published his own worke, we should 
< have sat quiedy down to disentangle his intricacies, and 
dear his obscurities ; but now we tear what we cannot 
loose, and eject what we happen not to understand. 

The finilts are more than could have happened with- 
out the concurrence of many causes. Ttie style of 
Shaketpeare was in itself ungrammatical, perplexed, and 
obscure ; his works, were transcribed for the players by 
those who may be supposed to have seldom understood 
them ; they were transmitted by copiers equally un- 
skilful, who still multiplied errors ; tney were perhaps 
sometimes mutilated by the actors, for the sake of short- 
ening the speeches ; and were at last printed witfaont 
correction c^ the press. 

In tiiis state tney remained, not as Dr. WarfmrtoH, 
•nppoaes, foecanse uiey were unregarded, but because 
Ae edttor'a art was not yet applied to modem kngiuges, 

y 8 

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2M PkxrAci TO atuMMarKsaM, 

and our onceshHs were accustaoK^ to w mnch negli- 
gence of £i^r^A printers, thai they could very patiendy 
endvire it. At last an edition waa undertaken by Rowe; 
not because a poet was to be published by a poet. Sat 
Rowt seems to have thought vay little on corfoctua 
or ^(planatipn ; but that our author's works might ap^ 
pear like those of his fraternity, with the q)peiidagei 
(^a life and reooounendatory preface. Rom; nas been 
clamorously blamed 'ibr not performing what h« did 
□ot undertake ; and it is time that justice be done him, 
by confessing, that though he seems to have bad no 
thoogfat of c(«ruptiot| beyoad the printer's errors, yet 
he has made many emeowitians,. if tiiey w^ not mad* 
before, which his successort have received without 
acknowlec^emmt, and which, if they had produced 
them, wouW have filled pages and pages jrath censures 
of the stupidity bv which the fuuts were committedi 
vitb displays of Uie absurdities which they involve^ 
with ostentatious exposition of the new reading, and 
self congratlilations on the happinesss of discove^ng. 

As of the other editors I have preserved Hit, pre&ces, 
I have likewise borrowed the author's life &om Boat, 
though not written w^th much elegancy or ^ifit; it 
relates however what is now to bo.uiown, ana tj^v- 
ibre deserves to pass through all succeeding puUica- 

The nation had been for many years content enoosb 
with Mr. Row^i perfonnance, when Mr. Pope made 
them acquainted with the true state of Skakespsar^ti 
text, riiewed that it was extremely corrupt, and gave 
reason to hope tlut there were means of reforming it 
He collated the old copies, which none had thought to 
exanune before, and restwed many lines to their inte- 
grity ; but, by a vtxy coippendious oiticism, he rejected 
whatever he disliked, and thought more of amputsticn 
than of cure. 

I know not why he is commended by Dr. Wart»nic» 
for distinguish ill g the genuine from the spurious pl^ys. 
In this choice he exerted no judgment of his own ; uie 
plays which he received, were given by Haaing* and 
Ctmdel, the first editors ; and those which he rejected, 
though, according to the licentiousness of the pres? in 

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ihame times; Aey were printed Aurn^ S/uAoperirt^ 
S£t, irith Idb. iuan«, had beat omitted By bia ftiendl, 
and were never added to Ms worka beture Ae edition 
*( l664, from Thich they were copied by the later 

That is a mtrlc vriiicii Po^ teerai t* have thought 
OQWordiy of his abilitieR, beuig not able to mipprcsB 
hia contempt of Ihf dtiU dat^ of an tiitrtr. He under- 
stood but half his undertaking. The duty rtf a collator 
vi indeed dull, yet, Uke odier tedious tasks, is v«ry 
neceesarr : but an emendattny criticJc would ill di»> 
riiarge his duty, widiout quauties very different fVoin 
dubwsB. In perusing a corrupted |)iece, he must have 
before him all possibilities of meaning, with all pesn- 
bilitjes of eiqiression. Sudi must be his comprehension 
of thon^t, and such his copiousness of language. Out 
of many readings possible, he must be able to select 
ttiat which beat suits with the state, opinions, and modes 
of lan^sge prevaiting- in every age, and with his au- 
thor'H particular cast (rf thought and turn of expression. 
8ndi must be his knowledge, and such his taste. Con- 
jectural criticism demands more than humanity pos- 
sesses, and he that eserdses it with most praise, has 
very frequent need of indulgence. Let us now be told 
no more of the doll duly of an editor. 

Confidence !s the common consequence of success, 
They whose eioellence of any kiira has been loudly 
celebrated, are ready to conclude, that their powers are 
universal. Pope^t edidon fell below his own expecta- 
tions, and he was so much offended when he was found 
to have left any thing for others to do, that he passed 
die Utter part of his- life in a State of hostility with 
verbal criticism. 

I have retained all his notes, that no frafment of so 
oreat a writer may be lost j his preface, vcuuable alike 
for elegance of compoaitiDn and justness of remark, and 
containing a general criticism on his author, so extensive 
that little can be added, and so exact that little can be 
disputed, every editor has an interest to suppress, but 
that every reader would demand its insertion. 

Pope was. succeeded by Theobald, a man of narrow 

comprehension, and small acquisitions, with 410 native 

Y 3 


and ititrinne ifrioidoar of genitw, wiUi little of the 
Wtiflcud Ught of learning, bat zealooB for mimte tc 
eancy, ana not ne^gent in pursaing it. He cn^iAtA 
the anctent copiei, and rectified many eninv. A nun 
•o anxioiuily scrupidous might have been expected to 
do more, but what little he md waa eommonly ri^t 

In hia reports of cejnea and editions be ia not to be 
trusted without ezanunatiofl. He apeaka stHnetimea 
indefinitely of copies, when he has only <me. In hia 
enumeration of editions, he mentions the two first fbUos 
as of high, and the third Iblio as of middle kutbori^; 
but the truth is, that the first ia equivalent to all odiera, 
and that the rest only deviate from it by the printer's 
negUgence. Whoever has anjr of the folios haa all, 
excepting those diversities wMch mere rrateratiDa of 
editions will produce. I collated them all at the be- 
ginning, but afterwards used only die first. 

Of his notes I have generally retained those which he 
retained himself in his second edition, except when tfa^ 
were confuted by subsequent annotators, or were too 
minute to merit preservation. I have smnetiroes adc^t- 
ed his restoration of a comma, without insvting the 
pftnegyrick in which he celebrated himself ftnr bis at- 
chievement. The exuberant excrescence of hia diction 
I have often lopped, his triumphant exultations over 
Pope and Roive I have sometimes suppressed, and his 
contemptible ostentation 1 have frequently concealed; 
but I have in some places shewn him, as be would' have 
shewn himself, for the reader's diversion, that the in&- 
ted emptiness of some notes may justify or excuse the 
eontrat^on of the rest. 

Theobald, thus weak and ignorant, thus mean and 
faithless, thus petulant and ostentatiova, by the good 
luck of having Pope for hia enemy, has escaped, ^d 
escaped alone, with reputation, from this undertaking. 
So willingly does the world su{:^>ort those who soliot 
favour, affainst those who command reverence; and so 
easily is ne*praised, whran no man can envy. 

Our author fell tlieii into the hands of Sir Themat 
Hanmer, the Oxfi^d editor, a- man, in my opinion, emi- 
nendy qualified by nature tat silch studies. He had, 
what is the first requisiteto unendattny criddem, that 

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wmamAcm to uiAKnptftMt. 947* 

hitfMoa hy- niudi the poet'a intention is iamediately 

diMOverad, and tibat dexterity of intellect whidi di*- 
Mtdbea its ^rork by tlie easieat means. He had on- 
oo^ttedly read much ; his acquaintance with customs, 
apaaam, and tcaditiana, teems to have been Urge; and 
, he is oPbat kamed without shew. He seldom [iiiiiiirii 
vhathe ^>ea not underatand, without an attemptto find 
m ta make a mesning, and Bonwtimea hastily make» 
vliBt a little more lUtentian would have found. He is 
B to reduce to ffnunmar what he could not bi 
that his author uitended to be snunniaticaL 
regarded mtat the series f^ ideas, than of 
vonu ; and his lansusffe, ntd being designed for the 
reader's desk, was 2l that he desired it to be, if it ooi>< 
ny'd his meaning to the audience. 

Hatrmei'M care of the metre has been too rioleiltly 
censured. He found the measure refmmed in so many 
passages by the silent labours of some edittws, with the 
ident scrquiescence of the rest, that he thought himself 
lUovrcd to estend a tittle further the licence, which had ' 
already been carried so far without reprehension ; and 
oS hie cmrectioni in general, it must be confessed, that 
diey are often just, aitd made comnKxily with the least 
pmaible violation of the texL 

Bntj by inserting his emendaticms, whether invented 
OT borrowed, into the page, without any notice of vann- 
ing copies, he has appropriated the labour of his prec^ 
ceasotB, and made tua own edition of httle authori^.- 
His confidence indeed, both in himself and others, was 
too great ; he supposes a]l to be right that was done W 
Pope and Theobald ; he seems not to suspect a critic^ 
(^fallibility^ and it was but reasonable Uiat he should 
daim what he so liberally granted. 

As he never writes without caref\il enquiry and dili- 
MUt consideratiiHi, I have received all his notes, and 
believe that every r^sader will wish for more. 

Ctf the last editor it ia more difficult to speak. Re> 
spect is due to hi^ place, tenderness to living reputa- 
tion, and veneration to genius and learning; but he 
cannot be justly offended at that liberty of which he has 
himself so frequently given an example, nor very soli- 
dtous what is thfwght of notes, which he ought never 

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to lia*i» eonridened part of Us «noui snqdojnentt, 
and which, I wipfwee, aiace tlie aidant of canpoaitioD 
U rMiUted, he no longer aamben amo^ faia hapfj 

The origin^ and piedofoniBiit tnoi of hia conamoi- 
tar^, ia aoquicacence in hia lint thougfata ; that jareem* 
tataon vhidi is prodhced by cmtsciounMs «f qui^ <&• 
cemnaent ; and that confioHioe which preaumes to do, 
hy inrvejring t£e lui&ce, what labour only can pef>> 
iMm, by penetratiiig the bottcmi. Hia notes exhibit 
sometimes pnrerse interpretations, and sometinies im- 
prob^e cmijectHres; he at tme time fftvea the waAor 
more profundity of mcamng thm Ute eentenoe wL 
■aita, and at anoth^ ctiscoTers absurdities, where dM 
sense is plain to every other reader. But hu emenda- 
tiens are likewise oft«i happy and jost ; and his int^- 
pretntitMi of (riMcure passages learned vid sagacions. 

Oirbia notes, I have coidmonly rejected t&>8« a^nal 
which the general voice of the publick haa exdanoed, 
oc which their own incongruity immediatdy condMnns, 
aiiti' which, I suppose, tike author iHmself would desire 
to be forgotten. Of ^e rest, to part I have given dte 
highest approbation, byinaertingtbec^ped »ad)iwiD 
the text ; part 1 have left to the judgment of the reaoer, 
as donbt^, though apeciotts ; and ptut I have oeii>nr> 
ed witlutut reserve, but 1 am sure withoat .bitterness of 
malice, and, I hope, without wsntonness of insult, 
■ It is no pleasure to me, in revising my volumes, to 
observe how much paper is wasted in oonfutatioii. 
Whoever crniaiders tlie revolutions of learning, and the 
various cjuestions of greater or less- importance, upon 
whidi wit and reason nave exercised their powers most 
lament the unsuccessfnlness of enquiry, and the slow 
advances of truth, when he reflects diat great part of the 
labour of ev^y writer is only the dcHtruction of those 
diat went before him. The first care <^de builder oT 
a new. system, is- to demolish the fabricks vhich are 
standing. The chief desire of him that comments an 
Wthor, IS to shew how much other commentators have 
corrupted and obscured him. The opinions prevalent 
in one age, as truths above the reach of controversy, are 
caufiited and rejected in another, and rise again to »• 

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itftimi in remoter 'tijtcea. Tbua the himun mind is 
kqM in motiMi without progreas. Xhiu stwoetimea 
truth andemnr, uid soonetimes condwrietie* of error, 
taiu ewJi other's place \>j reciprocal invoaion. The 
tide of 8e«mi^ knowledge, which is poured over one 
gcoeratioa, letires and leaves another naked and bar- 
m; the sudden meteors of intelligelice, which &x 
nritfle ^^>ear to ehoot their beams into the regicHis of 
obaenrity, on a sudden witMraw their lustre, and leave 
■evtals again to grope their way. 

These elevations and depressions of renown, and the 
nmtradictiens to which sll improvers of knowledge 
mist for ever be eniosed, since they are not escaped 
. bf Ae highest and brightest of disnkind, may surely 

antfaois. How canst' thou beg {w life, aays Hoiner't 
berO to his captive, when thou koowest that thou art 
now to suSer only what must KQOther day be suffered by. 

Dr. Warbmrlon had a name sufGdent to confer celo- 
htity to those who could exalt themselves into antago.- 
nists, and his notes have raised a damour too loud to he 
distinct- His chief assailants are the authors of The 
CannoHg.^Qriticu^ and of Tie BtniialofSkdketpear^t 
Teal t '6f whom one ridicules his errors with airy petii- 
Unce, Stable enough to the levity of the controversy ; 
the other attacks tb^ with gloomy malignity, as if he 
were th^ging to justice an assassin or inc^idiary. 
The on6 fltmgslike a fly, sudcs a httle blood, takes a gay 
flutter, and returns for more; the other bites like a 
viper, and would be glad to leave inilanunatione and gan- 
grene bdiind him. When I think on one, with his 
■wiiederates, I remember the danger of Coriotanus, who 
was afraid that girU teUh tmts, and bojft with tlones, 
Amdd dati him in pmiy baiUe ;- when die other crosses 
my imagination, I remember the prodigy in Macbeth : 

Let me however do them justice. One is a wit, and 

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mie ■ aciiolar*. Thejr luve heA shnra acutancM ■!■&- 
ficient in the discovsry of &ulta, eai hMve both adv«D> 
ced amne profaaUe interpratationB of obKViv pMsagea j 
but when du^ a^ire to conjectoie uid <nendati<m, it 
imean Iwif felsdy ife all estiiiute our own abSitie*, 
wd the liWe which they have be«i abU to porfimn 
might hare taught them mare candour to the « i dM 
vourg of others. 

Before Dr. IVariniTlOK'f edition, CriHaal ObtenatiamM 
on Shaietpeare had been published bj Mr. Uptan\, m, 
man akilled in lanffuages, and acquainted wiu books, 
but who leems to have had do great vip«ur tS ^cnitu> 
or nice^ of ta*t«. Many of his ex^anatiene are curiooa 
- and uaeful, but he likewise, though be profiused to o^ 
poae die UcentiDua CMifidence of editon, and adhere to 
the old copiei, is unable to reatrain tiie rage of eiuenda- 
tion, tbouffh hia ardour ia ill eeconded by bis g^3L 
Every cold empirick, when hia heart is expanded by ft 
succMsful experimmt, sw^li into a thet^st, and the 
laborious collator, at some unlucky moment, frolicki in 

CrilkiU, kiMorical, and exjUoMat^ry, notn have be<n 
likewise puUiihed upon Shaketpeare by Dr. Or^, 
whose diligent perusal of the old EngUak writers has 
enabled faim to midie tome useful (rfMM^ationa. What 
he undertook he has well enough per ft irtaed ; but aa he 
neither attetnpu judicial or emendattffy oitidtm, he 
employs raUier hii memory thui his sagacity. It wen 
to be wished that all would endeavour to imitate hie 
modesty, who h&ve not been able to surpass his know- 

I can say with great sincerity of all my predeceuora, 
what I hc^ will hemfta be said of me, that Dot one 

■ It i> eitratadinaTj tbu. thu gentleinBii ahoiild atten^ so vobi' 
vliiOUl a work, as the Revital of Shakeipeare'f leil, when be telb 
uiln hU preface, "be was not so fortunate as to berurniahed with 
" dlhcr of the folia editiona, much leas any of the andent quaitoa : 
*■ and «ven Sit Tkamat Hanmer't peifomunce was known to htm 
"odIt b; Dr. Warburton'i repreuutaticn." Fammmm. 

t Bepublkhed t^ biro in 1T16, after Or. Wdrimrton'i editioiit 
trlth dtcratiDiw, &C. Stztxhs. 

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InBlBftfjiAtapniTVwitbtmt unftfoVefneM; Borisdtere 
one to whooi I have not been indebted iar assittanoa 
ind udbmmttoBi Whstevtr I h&vft teknt &om tiaem; 
it was mj tntentitin to nfyr to its drij^nal HutiMNr, and 
it ii eeitoin, that what I hare not given to anotheTj I 
bciieied when I wrote it to be m;^ owf. In aome p«> 
li^w I hare been anticipatetl; but if I B^ ev^ fouiul 
to encroach upon the renurka of any other cvntmeat*- 
tor, I am wifling tiut the boninir, be^t raotv <» Ins, 
ibiniU be-tianifetred to the 6tiA daimant, fix hig right, 
ml bit alene, atanda above ^apute; the teeond can 
pmve his pret«iMona only to himaelf, aot can hinuetf 
Blwaya difungui^ invention, with sufficMnt cectajnty, 
fnni RcoUeraoni 

llHy have ^ been treated bv Die with candour, 
vUdi th^ have not been cwetiil of obaerving to en* 
taoBieT. It ia not easy to disoovei from what cause- tfa> 
animony of a scholiast can natiml^ proceed. TSk 
mbjeote to be discuesed by him tre of vMy small iaf 
portuice; diey involve neither jiroipierty nor liberty; 
Qor favour the interest of sect or putf. The Varioni 
rauhngs of copies, and different ioteipretations of a 
passage, seeea to be questicHH that migkt exciriae the 
wit, inthout engaging the passiwis. But whetfier it bc^ 
that rauUl things make mean nun proud, and vanity catch- 
es iRull occasions; or that all cimtrariety of opinioii, 
ereo in tlnwre that can defend it no \3ag^, make* proud 
men angry ; there is often lound in commentators a 
Bpontaneoue strain of invective and contempt, mwe ea> 
px and veBAnoua tlian is vented by the most furious 
cratrovertiBt in politicks against Uiose whom he ia 
bired to ctefkne. 

Perhaps the lightness of the matter may ctmdnce to 
^ vebraaence of the agency ; when the truth to be in- 
^Bstwated is s6 near to ineidstence, as to escape atten- 
tion, its bulk ib to be enloreed by rage aad exclamation c 
that to which aS woiild oe indiff^cnt in its origimd 
stale, -may attract notice when the dtM of a nuoe b 
ai^pmded to it. A commentater haa indeed great 
tMnptatians to sb^V by tutbcdenco what ke vanta of 
dignity, to beat hu litde gold to a spacions surfaee, to 
vatlt ^t to fi)am which no art or dihgrace an eu)t' 
■to spirit •■ 


iS$- fmvacc To bhakksmauk/ 

The notes vhidi I Iiave borrcnred or written iire ei" 
dter illustatrive, by which difficaltiee nre explained ; or 
jndicia], by which ftults and beauties are remarked ; or 
ixa&iiatxiry, hy wfaich depravalions are convrted. 

The expIanaticaiB transnibed from otJiers, if I do not 
subjain any other interpretatim), I Bnppoae rxOBraaaty 
to be right, at least I intend by acqnieacmce to c<m&as, 
that I have not}ang better .to propose. 
. After the labours of all the eoitorsi I found 'innty 
passages which ajq>eared to me likely to cdtatruct the 
greater number of readcsrs, and tfaoiwht it ray doty to 
ftdhtatelheir pamage. It is impos^le for an expontm 
not to write too littie for some, and too mucii for ottms. 
He can only judge what is necessary hy his own e&ue-< 
rience ; and fytw long soever be may delibwate, ti'ilf at 
hut explain many lines which the learned will dunk 
impossible to be mistaken, and omit piany for wliick 
the iffnorant will want his he^. These are cmmires 
ni«re^ relative, and must be quietly endured, i have 
endeavoured to be neither superfltKnudy copious, nor 
•crupulonsly reser^d, and hope dtat I have made iot 
author's meaning accessible to many, who b^re were 
.frifriited from perusinc^ him, and contributed something 
toUiepublick,l^difIunng innocent and rational pleasure. 

The complete explanation of an autiior not lystesna- 
tjck and consequential, but desultory and vagrant 
abounding in casual aUuBions and li^ht bints, is net to 
be expected &om any single scholiast. AH persond 
reflections, when names are suppressed, must be in a ftw 
years irrecorerabfy obUtersted ; and custMns, too mi- 
nute to attract the notice of law, sut^ as modes of dteM, 
formalities <tf conversation, roles of visits, diqioaitian of 
furniture, and Araclices of ceremony, which natiinlljr 
fiMLjfUces im ^mliardialef^. ar» so i^^itrre led on* 
snbsUntM; d)«t Uiey are not easily retained or recover* 
ed. What can be known wiB be collected t^ dianc^ 
from the recesses of obscure and obsolete pq>9S> pern* 
Bed ccnunonly with some other view. Of tlus knew 
ledge every man has smne, and none has mudi ; bvl 
when an authtn" has engaged the pubhck attcsttoo, 
those who can add any Uiing to his illustration, com- 
municMe their discoveries, and time pnidnGCa ^^taX bad 
ehided diligence. 

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to rtMjh mm^ n mi ^ m 
ittaid tbem. Dill iinliMi 

Ta liBw I fa>vc ba» obl^icd 
'whiti, though I did not understAiui 
hereafter be ex|dwiied; iwvilig, I bwe, lilnM 
wooMt whidt oOm have na gJi rt eJ at niijiArtu • 
tiam hy liwi tcmaito, or margind iliiiniirtii. Mich <■ 
«vc>y oditar baa added at hk iriU^ and oftn ^7 cook 
meata man lAoriova dian tb* iBanar vill Mem tv 
deaerre j bat tint whidi is moat diftlcak » notahrajn 
Huwt iai^oitaiit, and to an eStat aotbiiig » a trifle by 
which fall author is obscured. 

Tba {wetioal h ww Uarar drfwtr I lam oM baas t«7 
diligaot t0 obdcTva. Some fixft bara aaon, and aani« 
finrer ^ididal abaerratibna, not in pnpaatxni e» tbak 
di iia M UM af merit, bitt h i c adBt I mva tbia pfert of n^ 
deawn to dumoe and to CiARnee. ft>e r w d w , I bdiCT*, 
u sudaM pleaaad t» find ni* a^nkn Mitidpated ; his 
natonl to ddigbt man in what w« findar mak^ than 
in what we noam. Juc^ment, l&a other fiandtiefii i( 
improvad b^ fnctie^ aitd itt odvanconent is hindered 
hy submission to dictatwial deciaions, as the memory 
grows torpid bjr die uae of a^taUe-boci^ Some initia- 
tion ia imnvet nteeuay ; of all sldll, part n inflind 
l^prec^, and part iaolAdiiedl^ habit; Ihavedidre- 
f^re abswn ai> mudi as may euaUa flic caadidatri of 
crittfciam to diaco4fn the rast 

To the and of moat plan 1 fanr* added tbbrt atric 
tmias, eoabmuim a nnen!l censure of faults, at p«iir 
of aketlbXKe ,- & which I know not how much I haivv 
concurred with the current opinion ; but- i haw nMv 
in fCsy alfiwIiaUDB of ajnytdaruy, deriatad ntim it. 
Nothing is minnt^ and particularif eaatnined, and 
t h a wi fiir i i.it4a to be luppuwd, that in tiw plays which- - 
a^ (tandemaed d>ef« is much to be ptuaad, and in- 
tliote wfaidk W9 praiaed madt to be ocmdanaed. 

The partttf crilieism u whidi the whole mccessioR' 
of edittna has labodicd with die greatest dfltgence. 

and eKdted die kcmest aaiiaaay, is ue emendation o 
ctnmpted paasages^ to whidi tlw pnUidi aOaitiaii' 
havii^ beca first dnwa far the viokatce of the eonten- 
tion batwaair Pope and TkeobaU, has been omithiued 
l7 4iu pLi ia Bmi aw , whidi, with a bind oF tmtjpxwr. 
Vol. I. Z 

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has bem sintt niaed agamrt all the publuhen of iJAoif *• 

That laany pa§8Bffea have pasMd in a tt^e of depor- 
'ntHHi tfaniaj^ aU Uie editiiMU, is indubttiiblf certaiti; 
of these^M NsbwadcHi is only to be ottennted bv ci^ 

pronnce ii'aafe and caay, the ctn^fectttrer's periloua and 
difficult. Yet as the gieatra' part of the plays are extant 
•n^ in one cc^, the pail must not be avoided, aor die 
difficulty re&aed. 

Of ^rMdings which this emulattoD of amendmoit 
has hithoto waduced, some from the laboun of evay 
pabhsher I nave adranced into the text; those aie to 
he cmsidCTed as in my efMiiioB suffideotly siuqicwted; 
snne 1 have ngeded witoout mentitHi, as evidendy ei^ 
rooeoua ; some I* have left in the notes without censure 
or 'qiprobadm, as testing in equipoise between objec 
tkm and defence ; and some, which seemed specious but 
not rij^t, I have inserted with a subsequent onimad- 

Having classed the ohscsvatioQe of otfaen, I was at 
hat to tzjr what I could substitute for their mistakes, 
and how I could supply their onussions. I collated 
such copies as 1 comd procure, and wished for more, 
but have not found the colleeton of these rarities tor 
communicative. Of the editions which chance or kind- 
ness put into my hands I have given an enumeradm, 
that I may not be UaaKd Sax n^leeting what I had 
not the pow^ to do. 

By examining the old copies, I soon- found itai. the 
bter publidwrs, with all their boosts of dO^gcncs, suf- 
fered nuoiy passages to stand unuithorisetC u>d con- 
tented tbeinselTes with RaK^i regulatirai nf the tex^ 
even where the^ knew 'it to be arbitrary, and with a 
little ccmrideratum mit^ have ieuml it to be wrong. 
Smne of these alterations are <mly the ejectin) ^ a 
word {or one that ^pcared to him more^ dcgaat or 
tUore intelligiUc. Ttieae corruptions I have oRta 
nlently rectified; for the history «r.oiu- language, said 
the true force of our words, can iwly be presHv^ hy 
keeping the text of authors &ee fiOm. adultemtico. 
Othersj and those very frequent, smoothed the cadency 

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TO aiuxnnuwL ass 

or F^olatecl Ae meaanre; ondme I hsrenotemictMd 
tiie anne rigour ; if only « word wu tnoMpoaed, or « 
. pwtide ina^ted or Mnhtad, I have aomedmea siiffeKd 
the line to stand; tbr die mcoiutancy of the copies is 
■Bcli, as Aat some liberties may be easily permitted. 
Bvt Mb prat^ce I hare not suffered to proceed &r, 
bnisg restcnred dib primitive diction whesevei it could 
Ik any reason be jvetored. 

The emendatkMw, whtdb conqMrison of oi^es sup. 
riitd, I hare inserted in the tcact : sometimes, vhere 
dK inqiroTement wm slight, witboat notice, and some- 
time with an account of the reasons of the change. 

Coitjecrtnre, though it be sometimea unaroi^ble, I 
have not Vantonly nor Hoentiously indulged. It has 
beea my settled principle, that the readti^ of the an. 
cieiit books is prob^ly true, and therefore is not to be 
disturbed tor ttie-sake <^ e)egan<»> perspicuity, or mere 
improvement of the sense. For though much CMdit is 
not dne to the fidelity, nor any to the judgment of the 
first publishen, yet tibey who had the copy before their 
(yps were more likely to read it rj j^t, tWn we who read 
itoaly by tmaginadon. B«t it is evident diat they have 
often made strange mistakes by ignotBnce or ne^igence, 
snd Aat diere&re B<»uething nuv be pn^wrly attempt- 
ed by cridcdsm, keepibg the miadle wi^ between pre- 

[ to psactue, and 
where any passage apaesied inextricab^ peifdeted, 
have endeavoured to discover how it may be recalled 
to sense, with least violence. But mv ficst labour is al> 
ways to turn the old text on eveiy sioe, and Or if thoe 
be any int^vtice, through which light can find its way ; 
nor would Huetiu* himself condemn me, as refusing the 
trouble of research, for the ambition of akaration. In 
this modest induatir I have not been unsuccessful. I 
have rescued many lines fhim the viotatiohs of temerity, 
and secured many scenes from the inroads of correction . 
1 have adopted the Baman sendmmt, that it is mora 
btmonT^le to save a citizen, than to kill an «iemy, 
and have been more careful to protect than to attack. . 
I have preserved the common distrUmtion o^ the 
plays into acta, though 1 believe it to be in abwwt all 
Z 8 

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dw pins void of autfavit^. Some of tbew vbidi «i* 
divioed ia dw htter editwnt no diviaion in tlw 
fint fidio, and wme dut ue ^vided in d» fiibi fane 
■o dinsioa in the {weotding otqiws. The aetded mode 
af tfae dicatte n^urM&ur itdanrala in tlifl.phw; hKt 
bw, if anjr, «f «ut aadiOK^B oompafiidoBa can be pB»- 
poi^ didributtd in that mann^. An act is ao nwdi 
of ^ diaina as paaaea without interv^itiaB of time, «c 
ohai^ of place. A pnue laakei a amp act. In ovoy 
real, and uierefiM* in every iniitadive metJon, the intcto- 
Tala may be mwe or fewer, the ratriodm cf five AcCa 
being acctdmtal and ubitnuy. This Skfdcespettre ktww, 
and this he practiMd ; his ptajrs irere written, and at 
Ant printed in one anlnraken conttnuity, aad oiwbt 
HOW bi be exhibited with short pauses, intenmBedae 
, eAcB as the scene is dutwed, or any ceasidenUe 
time is required to pass, '^ia mcdiad wntdd at once 
tfudl athouHmd absardities. 

Jn rectorinff the aothor'g works to tlieir integrity, 
I have omsidcred the punctuation as wholly ia my 
power; for whrt could be their care of 4!olonB and ca|a< 
mtm, who coarupted wNdsand sentences? Wbtttera 
Gwld be dona tPf a^ustiiig pmats, is durefore aileudy 
periiMaBad, inaonie pays -wim mndi diligence, in othera 
with iess; it isbaM t»k«^alMi^.e^eBt<^'* " * 
upon evanescent atoms, or a discunire i 
evanesoant tzpdt. 

I^e ameubexhr has been taken witfa a few paitides, 
or o«hK wwd« at dight efeot I hare anmelimea ia^ 
■arted or omitted thraa widiout notice. I imwc done 
that sometimes, wJiirii the other editora hare dom 
timiyB, and whidi indeed the state of the text nwr 
au ffi grotiy juatify. 

The ^uMar^aEt of nadira, instead of blamiiig ua 
for msmi^ trilles, will wondto' that on aaere triflu so 
muoi UxMir is ezpandad, with audi importanoe of de- 
bate, and such wdemnity of diction. To these I answev 
with confidence, tiiat they are judging of an art which 
they da not understand ; yet cannot nuicb refffoadi 
ttiMia with tbair ignocance, nor promise that they woidd 
faeot^ ia general, by levning criticiaDi, uitwe luefil)* 
hap^MT, or wiser. 

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Ab I pnetiKd ctmjecture more, I learned to trnst 
it less ; and after I had printed a few plays, resolved 
to insert none of my own tending! in tfae text Upon 
this caution I now congratulate myself, for every day 
encreaset itay doubt i^my emendations. 

Since I have confined my imagination to the niarftin, 
it nuMt not be c«mfiderea as very reprebenflUe, if I 
have'snflered it to plajr some freaks in its own dominion. 
Then is no danger m conjecture, if it be proposed as 
conjectnre; and while the text remains tminfurnl, those 
dumg«s may be safety offered, whidi are not considered 
even by him that offim them as nece ssar y or ttXe, 

If my reacfings a» of Uttle vslne, Aey have not been 
osteatatioitsly dnpl^ed,' or importonately obtruded. 
I coald have written longer notes, for the art of writing 
notes is not of difficult attainment. The woi4 is per- 
formed, first by railing at the stnpidity, neghgence, 
ignorance, and asinine tostelessness of the former edi- 
tors, and shewing, &om all that goes belore and all that 
fidlows, the inel^ance anil absurdity ofthe old reading ; 
dien hy proposiog something, which to superficial 
readers would seem specious, but which the editor re- 
jects with indignation ; then by producing the true 
reading, with a long paraphrase, and concluding with 
loud acclamations on the discovery, and a sober wish 
for the advancement and prosperity of genuine criticism. 

All this may be done, and perhaps done sometimes 
without impropriety. But I have always suspected 
that the reading is right, iritich requires many words 
to prove it wrong; and the emendation wrong, that 
cannot without so much labour appear to be right. The 
justness of a happy restoration stoikes at onc^ and the 
moral precept may be well applied to criticinn, quad 
diibitaa nejeeerit. 

To dread the shore which he sees spread widi wrecks, 
is natural to the sailor. I had before my eve so many 
critical adventures ended in miscarriage, that caution 
was forced upon me. I encountered in every page wit 
stru^lling witii its own aophisby, and learmng con- 
fused by the multiplicity Of its views. I was tbroed to 
censure tfiose whom I admired, and could not but re- 
flect, white I was dispossessing their emendations, how 
Z 3 

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3<8 FUfTAeE TO SHAf E$n49E. 

MOD tht suu &te nuffht ba^tsB to mf lawa, widliow 
many of the readme wbicb I have convdad m^ be 
by Bome other editor defended and crti^bliabpd. 

Cliticlu I mv, that otbers' numm ef&tcc 

And fix their own, wilh labour, in the place ; 

Their own , like otheTf, aoon tdeirjilace legign, 

Or dlai^qteaT'd, andlrft^e flm behind. FoFC. 

lltat B coi^cctiml critick ifaoidd oAm be nistiAcn, 
cannot be wondeifid, either to tAen or himuc if, if it can 
be consiclered, Ibst in hia fit t^ne is no ^vtean, no prin- 
cipal and axJomattcal tmth that reguktn snbcrdmatt 
pMJtimf. Hia diance of raror is renewed at eroy at- 
tempt; an oUique view of die pasaage, a tligbt mis^i- 
[H%benmon o( a phrase, a casoal inatteHtian to tbe part* 
connected, in sufficient to nwlce bini not only &il, but 
Jul ridiculoiuly ; and when he Micceeds best, he paodn- 
ces pMh^s but one readoig of many nmbable, imd be 
lihat suggests anadier Till ^ways be ^le to dilute his 

It is an unhapOT ^ate, in vliicJi dvigcr is hid under 
^OBsure. The uluronents of amendotion are scaivdj 
resistible. Conjecture has all the joy and all tka piiAe 
of inTenttoii, and he tJiat hai once started a hi^ipy 
efauige, is too much ddi^ted to consider what ebJ«o- 
tions may rise agunst it. 

Yet coi^ectural criticisin has beoi of gnat use in the 

learned worid ; nor is it my intention to d^reciate a 

study, that has exercised so many mi^ity nrnids, from 

tfaeTevival of learning to our own agf!, ftom the hiAop 

of Aleria to Et^iitk Bentleg. The critidts on utciuit 

autbors haw, in the exerdse of their sagadty, many as- 

nstancea, which the editor of Shakespeare is coBdengned . 

to want. They are employed upon gnunmatica] and 

setded languages, whose constraction contributes so 

mucb to perspicuity, that Homer has fewer passages on> 

intflligitde than C/iaucer. The words have not only a 

n regimen, but invari^le quantities, which direct 

lon&ne die choiQe, There are commonly more 

scripts than one ; and they do not often consjnre 

> same mistakes. Yet Scaliger could confess to 

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potteaguam in «ait«Mf eodiea utcidimM. And Ltpim* 
could camplam, that criticlu w«« nuking £ralta br UT- 
ing to tcmeve Uimii. I7j! oUm vitiu, iiamme remain to- 
honour. And, indeed, where *a«ea conjecture i« to be 
uaaft the esoend&tioni of ScaHger and I^ptiMt, QotvidH 
gtanding th^ wtmderftd aafwntjr sid erudition, m» 
s^^m vague and disputable, lute mine or T^MfiaAf «. 

Perhaps I nuy not he mto'e censured for doing mon^ 
tluui for doing uttle ; for niiaing in the publidc, espec- 
tBtit»a« which at last 1 have aot answered. The expeo- 
mAm of ignu-ance is indefinite, and that ef kn*wledae 
•i» ofiteo ^raunical. It ii hazd to satisfy those w£a 
kspw not what to denumd, or tfaoee who demand faf 
design what they think impossible to be done. I liane 
indeed diuf^pmnted no pinion niore dun ay own ; 
yet I have endeavoured to perfoim my ta«Ic witfa no 
digbt solicitude. Not a single puBwe in the whtflc 
work has a{|)eated to me corrupt, imich I hav« not 
atteifipted to restore; or obscure, which I have noten^ 
deavoured to illusmte. In many I ihsve &iled, like o> 
ibera ; and fiasa many, after all my eSbits, I iwve rsp 
treated, a»d oon&Med the repulse. I have not paMed 
ov^ with affected superiority, what is equally difficult 
to the reader and to myself; but, where I could not in* 
struct biiD, \^vfs ovned my ignorance. I migfat easily 
have accumulated a mara of seeming learning upon assy 
scenes ; but it ou^ht not to be imputed to negligHice, 
tlut, where oothiug was necessary, nothing nas been 
done, or that, where others have said enough, I h«vc 

Kote^ are often necessary, but they are 
evils. Let bim, that is yet unacquainted widi the p 
of Shake^ieare, and who desires to fed the higiiest jdea^ 
sure that ^e4raina can give, read eveiy play, fimm the 
first scene to the lut, with uttM' negligence of all his 
commentators. When his fancy is once on the wing, 
let It not stoop ti. ccMrectitHi or explanation. When his 
attention is strongly eum^eA, let it disdain alike to turn 
aside to the name of TbeobaJd and of Pope. Let him 
read on through brightness and obscnri^, through in- 

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tegritj >nd curruution ; let him preserve hia comprev 
benaion of the dialogne and his interest in the ftbla. 
And when the' pleasures ot' novelty have tfeaeedj let 
him attempt exoctnesa, and read the commentators. 

.Psrticular passages are cleared hy notes, but the 
general effect of the work is weakened. The mind is 
refrigentted by interruption; the thouffbtsi^are diver- 
ted from the principal subject ; the reader is weary, he 
auBpecta not why ; and at last throws away (he bbok 
whidi he has too diligently studied. 

Parts are not to be examined till the whole haa beeii 
surveyed; there is a kind of intellectual remoteness 
necesaary for the conijwehension of any great work in 
its ^i design, and in its true proportions ; a close ap- 
proach shows ihe smaller niceties, but the beauty of the 
whole is discerned no longer. 

It is not very grateful to consider how little the suc- 
cession of editors has added to this author's power of 
pleasiiw. He was read, admired, studied, and imitated, 
while he was yet deformed with all the improprieties 
which ignorance and neglect could accumulate upon 
him ; while the reading was yet not rectified, nor his 
allusions understood ; yet then did Ihyden pnmounce, 
that Shaketpeare was the "man, who, of all modem 
"and perhaps ancient poets, had the largest and most 
"comprehensive soul. All the imaees of nature were 
" still present to him, and he drew tJiem not laborious- 
" ly, but luckily : when he describes any thing, you 
" more than see it, you feel it too. , Those who accuse 
■• him to have wanted learning, give him the greater 
" commendation : he was naturally learned ; he needed 
" not the spectacles of books to read nature ; he looked 
"inwards, and found her there. I cannot say he is 
" every where alike ; were he so 1 should do him inju- 
"ry to compare him with the greatest erf mankind. 
" He is many times flat and insipid ; his comick wit 
" degenerating into clenches, his serious swelling into 
" bombast. But he is always great when some great 
" occasion is presented to him : no miui can say, he 
" ever had a fit subject for his wit, and did not then 
" raise himself as high above the rest of poela, 

*' Quafitiiin laUa toknt inter vUnima cupreiii." 

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It ia to be lamented, th«t nu:}! « writer ihould want 
scontmentuy; that his language ihould become obec^ 
lete, or his aa^xaae^tt obecvre. But it ia njn ip carry 
wiaibea beyond the condition of human things; that 
which must happen to all, haa happened to SiMapean, 
\iy accident and time ; md more tnan has been Miflfered 
1^ any otiier writer since tJie use of Wpes, has been suf- 
fered by him through his own DMffigeofle of ftme, or 
petiiaps hy that siqierio^^ of mina, wUdi dospiued its 
own performances, when it compared tfiein widi ita 
powers, and judged those FWJu unworthy to be pre- 
serred, whicJt the criticks of following a^ were tn 
contend for the tame of rttstoring and eqiUuung. 

Among these candidates of inferior finne, I am now 
to Stand the jadgmoU oS the Pirididi ; and wish that i 
DBuid oonSdntly produce iny amuBnttarr as eqml ' 
dw «<w«wng«mcnt whidi I h»ve had tbe funuwr of i 

cflivi^g. Evwy work of this kind is bv its sv^fixm 
4»Siatiet, and I ^hpuld BaA little solicitude about th« 
imMwmk, wvpitt9 b« pn^KWDfitd only by the skilful 

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It is observed of The Tempctt, that ito plap is wular; 
this tbe author of The Bevual' thinks, wlut I tiaiA too, 
«n accidental effect of the story, not intended or r^ard- 
ed Ir^ our author. But whatever might be Skakofiar^t 
intention in forming- or ndoptinff the plot, he has nwde 
it iiutrmnenta] to the i?rMuction of many characters 
diversified wifli boundless invention, and preewrved 
with profound skill in nature, extensive knowled^ of 
opinions, and accurate observation of life. In a single 
drama are here exhibited princes, courtiers, and saflors, 
all speaking in their real characters. Th^ is the 
agency of airy spirits, and of an earthly goblin ; die 
operations of magick, the tumults of a storni,mie ad- 
ventures of a desert island, the native effusion of un- 
taught affection, the punishment of guilt, and die fimX 
happiness of the pair for whmn our passions and reason 
are equally interested. 


In this play there is a strange mixture of knowledge 
and ignorance, of care and negligence. The versifica- 
tion is often excellent, the allusions are learned and jnst ; 
but the author conveys his h^ties by sea frcnn mki in- 

'f teit, puUidie^ 

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Und town to utother in ibe same country ; be places 
the emperor at Milan, and sends his young men to at-' 
tend him, but never mentions him more; he makes 
ProlAeae, aAer an interview with iSUvia, say he hu 
aaty seen ber picture ; and, if we may credit the old 
copies, he has, by mistaking places, left his scenery 
inextricable, The reason of all this coniiision seems to 
be, that be to<^ his story from a novel, which he some- 
times fbllowed, and sometimes forsook, somedmea re- 
membered, and sometimes forgot. 

That this play is rightly attributed to Shakespeare, 
I have little doubt. If it be taken from him, to whom 
diall it be givoi i This question may be asked of all 
the dsputed pl^s, except TVftu Andronicat; and it 
w31 be found nwre creoLble, that Shaieneare might 
sometimes nnk below liis hi^est flights,' than that any 
other should rise iqi to hie lowest. 


Of this play Utere is a tradition preserved by Mr. 
Itotae, that it was written at die command of queen 
Eliz^Aeth, who was so delighted with the character of 
Taliiaff, that she wished it to be difTuBed through more 
plays; but suspecting that it might p^l by continued 
umformih', directed Sie poet to diversify his maniier, by 
diowiog him in love. No task is harder than that oS 
writing to the ideas of another, Shakegpeare knew what 
the queen, if the story be true, seems not to have known, 
that Dy any real passion of tenderness, the selfish craft, 
die careless jollity, and the lazy luxury o£ Falslaffiaxat 
have suffered so much abatement, that little of nis fin> 
tner cast would have remained. Fatsfaff could not 
love, but by ceasing to be Ftdslaff.' He could only 
counterfeit love, and his professions could be prompted, 
not by the hope of pleasure, but of money. Thus the 
poet approached as near as he could to the work en- 
jbined him ; yet having perhaps in the fonner plays 
completed his own idea, seems not to have been able to 
give FaUlaff ail his former power of entertainment. 

This comedy is remarkable for the variety and num- 
ber of the persom^ies, who ^libit more diaracten 

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tfi|«Dpristed Aid diwfTJifiiniited, than perbi^ cut he 
fband In any other play. 

Whedier Shakespeare was the first th«t piodnced 
apon the EngUtk stage the eflect of Unguiige distwted 
And depraved by provincial or foreign pronunciaticn, I 
GHonot certainly decide. This mode of forming ridicn* 
louB chturacters can confer jwaiie only on hua nha 
orieinolly discovered it, far it naqiiires not mud at 
eimet vit or judgment ; its success must be derived 
almost wholly &om the player, but ita power in a akil' 
fhl mouth, even he that de^aes it, is un^le to resist. 

The conduct of this drama is deficient; the action 
be^ns and ends often befiire &e conclusion, and the 
difimsnt parts might change places widmiit mcmiveni- 
eJK* ; but its gesi&rtii power, that power by which all 
ittiAs of genius tball nnaQy be tried, iS mA, that p«r- 
. . , a _ . , didnot 


There is perhaps not one of 5io(«it>eareVplayaitiore 
darkened than this, by the peculiarities of its author, 
and die unskiUiilness of its editors, by distortienf of 
phrase, or negligence c^ trutscription. 

The novel o£ Oiraldi Cyntkio, m>m which SKaietpalre 
is supposed to have borrowed this fabfe, may be read 
in Shaketpeare iUuHraUd, elegantly translated, whh re- 
marks, vniich will assist' the enquire to discover bow 
much ^Murdity Shakespeare has admitted or avoids 

I cannot but su^ect that some other had new-^no- 
delkd the novel of C^kio, or written a story whidt in 
some particidaTs resembled it, and that Cyntldo was not 
the author whom Shaketpeare immediately, tbllowed. 
The emperor in Cyntkio is named Maximne ; the doke, 
vx Shaketpear^t enumeration of the persons of die 
dnuna, is called Vtncentio. This appears a very sli^t 
remark ; but since the duke has no name in the play, 
nor is ever mentioned but by his title, why should he 
be called VincerUio among the persons, but beouse the 
qome was copied firom the story, and placed super- 
4uDusly at the head of the list by the mere habit oi 

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m^aeripdimi It ia dicrdfon UMy dut dure wu Ikon 
a itoTy of Vimeaiiio duka of Fiemna, diSerent from that 
of Jfomme •mperor of the Ranaiu. 

Of tliis pli^ toe I^ht or comick ^»t U vny lutml 
■ndpWsiwt but dM gniTe acenM, if a fewpuugesbe 
exMfrted, nave mora ubour than d^anoa. The plot 
ii rather intricate than art&L The tiiae of die action 

have elapaed between dte reoew of the duke and die 
impriKHimmt of Cbadie." fiir he miut hare leamad 
the story ofManaiia in hia di^tuiae, or he delegated 
his power to a man already known to be corrupted. 
The unities of action and place are sufficiendy preserved. 


In this play, ^luch all the editors luure ctmcurred to 
censnre, and some have rejected u qnwtndiy of our 
poet, it must be ctnii^sed that there are ntany paftaagea 
mean, childish, and vulgar; and some whi<^ ou^t not 
to h^v« been ^diifoited, as ire are told they were, to a 
maiden queen. But there are w^tt^vd thrwgh tbf 
irbtw maoy qiarlu a£ genius; ncv is diere «nv pUy 
diat has man evidmt raarits of the haqd of Siilta- 


Wild and fantastical as this pl^ is, all the Dcrta in 
dieir various modes are well written, and give uiekind 
of pleasure whidi the mthor designed. Fniries in hia 
time were much in fashion; common tradition had 
na^ thov Smiiliw, and iSpau&'»fono had madediem 


It has been lately discovered, that diis fable is taken 
from a atoty in the PeeenMC of Gima/im FiomUino, a 
nov^ist, who wrote in 13?8. The stun' has been pub- 
lished in Ettg!itk,»jid I hsve epitomised the transUdoq. 
llie tranelator is .df opinion, that the choice of the 
' casket* is borrowed from a tale of Bocaaee, whidi \ 
Vot,. I. A a • ' 

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have likewue abridged, thou|^ I believe dut Shakes' 
peare loiut have hod some other novel in view. 

Of the Mkrchakt op Vsmce the style is even and 
May, with tew peculiaritiei of diction, or anoiaaliea of 
eoaatnictioii. The comick part raises laughter, ondthe 
serious fixes ezpectatioti. The jn^fbabiJi^ o{ cdither 
one or the other story cannot be maintained. The union 
o£ two actions in one event is in this drama oninoithr 
happy. Drt/dat was much pleased with hie own ad- 
dress in connecting the two plots of his Spanith Friar, 
which yet, J believe, the cntick will find exceed by diii 


Of this play the table is wild and pleasing. I know 
not how the udies will approve the fscili^ with vdudi 
both RotaUnd and Celia eive away their hearts. To 
Celia much may be forgiven for the heroism of her 
^ friendship. The character of Jaque* is natural and well 
preserveo. The comick dialogue is very sprightfy, 
with less mixture of low bufibonery than in some other 

giays : and the graver part is elegant apd faannoiiiou& 
y basteninff to the end of his work, ShaJtapeart snp> 
pressed the dialogue between the ursurper and the ha> 
mit, and lost an opptu'tunity of exhil»tiDg a mmal lea- 
son in which he might have found matter worthy of his 
highest powers. 


Of diis {day the two plota are m> well united, that 
(hey can hiudly be called two widiont injury to tlte ait 
with which they are interwoven. The attoition is 
entertained with all the varie^ of a double plot, yet is 
not distracted by unconnected incidents. 

The part between Katharine and Petmchio is tm- 
nently sprightly and diverting. , At the marriaee -rf 
Bianca, Uic arrival of the real iather, perhaps, produces 
more pcrjJexi^ than pleasure. The whole pl^ ia T«y 
popular and diverting. 

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shakkstsakk'b pLatb. 


This play has many deli^tful scenes, thotioh not 
fflfidently probable, and some happycharacters, (hongb 
not new, dot [Hwluced by any deq> knowledge of hu- 
ma nabae. ParoUea is a boaster anil a cowaid, such as 
ha ilways been the apart of the stage, but perhaps 
MKT raised mare laugtiter or contempt than in the 
\iaAKX ShakMpeare. 

I GaanotrecfHicile my heart to iferf ram,* amannoble 
without generosity, and young without truth ; who 
marnes Hden as a coward, and leaves her us a profii- 
gUe : when she is dead by his unkindness, sneaks home 
to« second inarriage, is accused bv a woman whom he 
Ins wronged, def^ds himself by fidsehood, and is dis- 
nined to haminess, 

Tbe story i^ Bertram and Diana had been told before 
t^Afdriaiiaand^n^e&t, and, to confer tiie truth, scarcely 
merited to be heard a second time. 


Tlus plir)r is, in the graver part, el^pint and easy, and 
in gome n die lighter scenes exqnidtely humorous. 
^gfc^keek ia drawn with great j»Y)priety, but his cha- 
W*a i^ in « great measure, that of natural fatuity, and 
is Aerefore not the proper prey of a satirist The soli- 
Wuy of MaivoUo IS truly comick : he is betrayed to 
™eale mervly by his pride. The marriage of (Hivia, 
■»d the BUd^eding perplexity, though well enough 
oMrtnved to divert on the stage, wonts credibility, ^d 
&ils to produce the proper inetnicticm required in the 
onnia, as it exhibits no just picture of life. 


The story of this play is taken from the pleasant 
autmy of Donutut am Fattmia, written by Robert 

A as • 

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Thia tday, as Dr. War^urtoitjnadj iHmervtm,ia,wiA 
all ite abturdiliei, very enuaitauliiii^. The duuacter <rf 
AiUolycut is itity natunlly conceived, and ^ana^j 


. Thig pliy IB deservedly celebrated for the |a:qpt irty of 
hi fictions, and golemni^, grandeur, and variety arite 
action, but it has no nice discriminations f^obvtuStxi 
the events are too gre^ to admit the infiuenoe «f par- 
ticular diRpotiti<ns, and the course of the action oaort- 
^arilv detemiineB the conduct of the ogenta. 

The danger of ambition is well described; and I 
know Dot whether it may not be «aid, in dc^aice of 
some parts which now sectn improbable, diot, in Skaktt- 
pear^t time it was necessary to warn sedulity ayiitiit 
vain and illmive prediction^ 

The passions are directed to their tnle end. Im^ 
Macbeth is merely detested ; and though the coutage of 
Macbeth preserves some esteem, yet every reader re- 
joices at nis fall 


The tragedy of Kiiw Jokn though not written with 
the utmost pdwer of Shakespeart, is varied with k vcfy 
pleasinjf into^fabtge of incidents and chanctwt. Th» 
lady's grief is very affecting; and die charActer of tiw 
haatara coatuOs that ttiixtute of ^reatneaa ftad levi^ 
whidt this auttttH* delighted to ezhitnt. 


This play is extracted from the Chronicle <^ Halhp- 
hed, in wluch many passa^s may be found whidi 
Skakegfeare has, widi very little alteration, transi^anted 
into his scenes ; particularly a speech qf the biaho}i of 
CarlisU In defence of king RKhar^i UnaUeBhble i^bt, 
and immunity from hmnan jurisdiction. 

Jonson, who, in hie Catiline and Sejanas, has inaRted 
many speeches fimn the Roiwn historians, was peihaps 

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induced to that [wtice by tlie eunqik of iSAaie*peaFe, 
who had condescended sometmiet to earn amn ignoUe 
miterB. But Skaietpeare had moie w his own than 
JontoH, and if be wmetiDiea waa willing to qnre his 
labour, showed by what be perfomed at other times, 
that hia extracts weramade by chmoe or idleness rather 
dian necessitv. 

This j^y IS one <rf those which Shaketpeare has k^ 
parendy revised j but as sncceaa in works of invention 
IS not always mmortionate to labour, it is not finished 
at last wiUi me napi^ force of some other of his b«- 
gcediee, nor can be said much to afiect the passions, or 
taHarge Uie undarstanding. 


I fancy even reader, when he ends Ihis play, cries 
out with Desdemotut, " O most lame and inwotent 
coiudusion !" As this play was not, to our knowledge, 
divided into acts by the author, I could be content to 
conclude it with tlw death o£ Henry tie F<mrik.^ 

In th£t JeruuJcin aball Hanj die. 

These scenes, which now make the fifth act of Henry 
the Fourth, might then be the first of Henn/ the Fifth ; 
but the truth is, that they do unite very commodiously 
to either pl^y. When these plays were represented, I 
believe they ended as they are now ended ia the books ; 
but Shake^eare seems to have designed the whole series 
of action frtaa the bentining of Richard tJte Second, to 
the end c£ Henry the Fifth, should be considered by the 
reader as one work, upon one plan, only broken into 
parta by the necessity of exhibition. 

None of Shakespear^s plays are more read than the 
Firtt and Second Parta of Henry the Fourth. Perhaps 
no author has ever in two plays afforded so much de- 
light. The great events are interesting, for the fate 
of kingdoms depends upon them; the slighter occur- 
rences are diverting, and, except one or two, sufficiently 
probable ; the incidents are multiplied with wonderfid 
fertility of invention, and the characters diversified with 
A a 3 

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the ntmort nicetj of Aseemmeia, and dw pr^bnnJect 
skill in the nstuw ofmtm. 

The prince, irho ii the hero both of th^ com j<^ and 
tragick part, is a youngmait of grcttt abiliHes aiid vkdent 
paseioiiH, whose Kntiments are right, tbou^ his Mtions 
■re wnHig ; wliose virtues aiv obstmred by ttegiigcneC/ 
and whose undersUnding is dissipated t^ levitv. In 
his idle boon he is rather ]oom thaa wickt^ ; Mid when 
the occsHon frnxee out his latMit qualttie«, he ia gnat 
wi&out eRirt, wid brave without tnimilt. TTie mSer 
is rovued into a heroj and the hero affafn reposes m the 
feriller. This character is gfert, f»iginal, and jurt, 

Percy is a rugged soldier, {^kJcHm, Mid ijmmtlBome, 
and hae only th% soldier's virtues, generosity lAid con- 

Bvf Fatstaff, unimitMed, unimitable Fahtaff, how 
shaU I describe thee ? Thou compound of sense and 
vice ; of sense whidi may be admired, but not esteemed ; 
of vice which may be despised, but hardly detested. 
Fat^ajfis ft character loaded with faultt, and with tiiow 
faults whidi natur^ly produce contempt. He is a diief 
and a glutton, a cowara and a boaster; always ready to 
cheat the weak and prey upon the poor ; to terrify the 
timorous, and insult the defenceless. At once obse> 

Siious and malignant, he satirizes in their sbsence 
ose with whom lie lives by flatterinp. He is familiar 
with the prince only as an agent of vice, but of this fa- 
miliarity he is so proud, as not only to be superdlioos 
and haughty with common men, but to think his inte- 
rest of importance to the duke of Lancaster. Yet the 
man thus corrupt, thus despicable, makes himaelf neces- 
sary to the prince that despises lura, by the most plear 
sing of all qualities, perpetual gaiety, by an unfailing 
power of exciting laughter, which is the more freely 
indulged, as his wit is not of the splendid or ambitious 
kind, but consists in easy scapes and sallies of levi^, 
which make sport, but raise no envy. It must be ob- 
served, that he is stained with no enormous or sangni- 
jiary crimes, so that lus licentiousness is not so offen- 
sive but that it may be home for his mirth. 

The moral to be drawn from this representation is, 
that no man is more dangerous than he uiat, with a will 

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MAitMBHAn'* nxra. ■ 171 

t* conaM, hxA tfie power to ^cese ; and dtst MidHt 
wH nor hones^ oogtit to diink th«nuelves ta& wiA 
■ndi a Gtanpamon, when Uiey see Hemy Be<iluoed hy 


Tbis {day has many scents of higfa dioDity, and ma- 
ny <rf«asynaTiment TfaeduractnofSi* king is well 
aapported, except in Ins courtihlp, where be has neitfatdr 
the vivatd^ of Htd, nor the grandeur of Henry. The 
hnmour otPittol is very h^pily continued: nia dia- 
racter has perhaps been the model of all die bullies that 
haye yet appeared on the English stage. 

The lines given to the chorus have many admirers; 
but the truth is, fliat in them a little may be praised, 
and much must be forgiven : nor can it be easily disco- 
vered wily the intelligence g^ven by the Chorus is more 
necessary in this play than in many others where it is 
omitted. The great defect 6f this play is the emptiness 
and narrowness of the last act, which a very little dili- ' 
gence might have easily avoided, 


Of this play there is- no copy earlier tiian diat of the 
fidio in 1623, though the two succeeding parts are ex- 
tant in two editions in quarto. That the second and 
third parts were published without the first, may be ad- 
mitted as no weaJc proof that the copies were surrepti- 
lioBsly obtained, and that the printers of that time gave 
d)e pnblick those plays, not such as the author designedj 
but Kadi as they could get them. That ihia play was 
written before the two others is indubitably collected 
fifom the seriea of events ; that it was written and ^J- 
ed before Henry the Fifth is apparent, because in the 
epilogue there is mention made tn this play, and not of 
the other parts; 

Henry the Sixth in swaddling bands crown'd king. 
Whose Mate bo many had the managing 
That they lost France, and made his England bked, 
f Whidi oft OUT atag^ hath ^ewn. 

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FroMvialoetin thisplqr. The two fdtowinc contain, 
U the old title imports, the conteation of the oouses ti 
Yori and Lancatter. 

The second and third parts of Henry VI. irea* 
print«l in 1600. When Henry V. was written, we 
know not, but it was pnnted likewise in I600, and 
therefore before the publication of the first part: the 
first part of Henry Vi. had been often shewn on the 
stage, and would certainly have appeared in its place 
had tiie author been the publisher. 


The three parts of Hcaiy VI. are suspected, by Mr. 
TheobM, of being suppositious, and are declared, by 
Dr. Warimrton, to be certainly not Shaketpmr^s. Mr. 
TheabalSt suspidon arises irom stnne obsolete words ; 
but the phraseolt^ is like the rest of our author's style, 
and single words, of which however I do not obs^ve 
more tlun two, can conclude little. 

Dr. WarbuHoH gives no reason, but I suppose him to 
judge upon deeper principles and more comprehensive 
views, and to draw nis opinion from the seneral effect 
and spirit of the composition, which he thinks inferior 
to the other historical plays. 

From mere inferionty nothing can be infared; in 
the productions of wit there will be inequality. Smuc- 
times judgment will err, and sometimes the matter 
itself will defeat tJie artist. Of every aulliin''B w<»'ks 
<me will be the best, and one will be the worst The 
colours are not equally pleasing, nor die attitudes 
equ^y graceful, in all the pictures of Titian or Rynoldt. 

Dissimilitudes of style, and heterogeneousness of 
sentiment, may sufficiently show that a jvoek does not 
really belong to the reputed author. But in these playg 
no such marks of spunousness are found. The dicdtqi, 
the versification, and the figures, are ShaJcespear^t. 
These jtlays, considered, without regard to diaracters 
and incidents, merely as narratives m verse, are more 
happily conceived, and more accurately finished than 

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flIUKIIFUtll'B n.&TB. nS 

tibose of King Johi, Richard 11. or the tragick scenei of 
Hemy IV. and V. If We take these pUvs from Shakes- 
peare, to whom shall they be given ? What author of 
dutt age had the same sasmew of expression and fluen- 
cy of numbers i 

Having considered the evidence given by the plays 
themselves, and found it in their favour, let us now en- 
quire what corroboradon can be gained frton other 
teatim<my. They are ascribed to Shakespeare by the 
fiurrt editors, whose attestation msv be received in 
qaeatjons of fact, however unskilfully Uiey superin- 
tended their edition. They seem to be dedared genu- 
iiie by &e voice t^ Shakemeare himself, who refers to 
tfie second pUy in his epilogue to Henri/ V. and appi^ 
rendy connects the first act of Richard III. with the 
last of the third part of Henry VI. If it be objected 
that the (days were popular, and that thereftav he allu- 
ded to them as w^ Known ; it mav be answered, with 
equal probability, that the natural passions of a poet 
would have disposed him to separate his owa works 
from those of ap inferior hand. And, indeed, if an au- 
A(^B own testimony ;ia to be overthrown by specula- 
tive critldfta, no man can be amy l<»iger secure <rf 
literary reputation. 

Of these three plays I diink the second the besL 
The truth is, that they ha^ not sufficient variety of 
action, fer the incidents are too often of the same kind ; 
ret tnany of the characters are well discriminated. 
King Henry and his queen, king Edmard, the duke of 
Gloucetter, and the Earl of tVarwick, are very stvougly 
And distinctly painted. 

TTie old copies of the two latter parts of Henfy VI. 
and of Henry V. are so apparently imperfect and mutila- 
ted, that there is no reason for supposing them the first 
dtangbts'of Shakespeare. I am inclined to believe them 
Copies taken by some auditor who wrote down, daring 
tlie representation, what the time would permit, then 
pR-haps filled up some of his (waigsions at a second or 
tinrd bearing^ and when he had bv this method farmed 
something ms a pUy, sent it to the priutn-. 

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This is one of the most celebrated of oUr author's per-' 
fixmances ; yet I know not whether it hoS not nap- 
pmed to him as to others, to be praised most, when 
praise is not most deserved. That this play has scenes 
noble in themselves, and very well contrived to strike 
in the exhibition, cannot be denied. But some parts 
are trifling, others shocking, and some improbaUe. 

I have nothing to add to tfae observations of the 
learned crilicks, but that some traces of this antiquated 
exhibition are still retained in the rustic puppet-plays, 
in whiqh I have seen the Devil veiy lustily belaboured 
by Punch, whom I hold to be the legitimate successor 
ofthe old Vice. 


The play of Henry Uie Eighth is one of those which 
still keeps ptHseesion of the stage by the 8[Jendom? of 
its paoeantry. The coronation about for^ years ago, 
drew me people together in multitudes for a ^reat part 
of the winter. Yet pomp is not the only merit of this 
play. The meek sorrows and virtuous distress of Ka- 
/jwinehavefumishedeomescenes, which may be justbf 
numbered anvoig the greatest efforts of tragedy. But 
the genius of Skaketaearv comes in and Koea out with 
KtitSarine. Every other part may be easuy cmiceived, 
and easily written. 

The historical dramas are now concluded, of which 
the two parts of Henry the Fourth, and Henry the Fifth, 
are atno^ig the hamiest of our author's compositions ; 
and King John, Richard the Third, and lienry the 
Eighth, &servedly stand in the second clasa. Those 
whose curiosity would refer the historical scenes to 
their (aiginal, may consult Hoiingghed, and sometlines 
Hatl: from Hdin^shed, Shcdetpeare has often inserted 
whole speeches with no more alteration than was ne- 
cessary to the numbers of his verse. To transcribe 
them into tiie margin was unneceeaary, becauM tin 

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'nri^ual is eaalj ekaaaiiBd, tuid tbejr Bre addom leu 
per9|NcnoiM in the poet than in the luBtariui. 

To ida^ butori^, or to exhibit a mccesaitm of cvenU 
by action and dialogue, was a cnninon entertainment 
among our rude ancestors upon great festivitieB. The 
parish cteriiB mice performed at ClerkemveU a pli^ 
which lasted three days, oontsining The Hittory mike 


The tragedy of CoHotanut is one of the moat amueing 
of our author's performances. The old man's mem- 
ment in Meneniusj the lofW lady's d^nity in Fotum- 
Kta ; the bridal modesty in Virgiha ; the patrician and 
military haughtiness in Coriotaniu; the plebeian ma- 
lignity, and mbunitian insolence in Brutui and Sicitiiu*, 
make a very pleasing and interesting variety : and the 
various revolations of the hero's lOTtune fill tlie mind 
with anxions curiosity. There is, perhaps, too much 
bustle in the first act, and too little in the last. 


Of this tragedy xaoxi^ particular passages deserve 
r^^s^d, and the contention and reconcilement of Btk- 
ftu and CoKtim is universally celebrated ; but I have 
never been strongly agitated in perusing it, and think 
it somewhat cold and unaffectina, compared with some- 
other of Shaketpear^* plays ; his adherence to the real 
story, and to Roman manners, seenos in have impeded 
the natural vigour of his genius. 


This play keqis cwiosity always busy, and the pas- 
uons always interested. The continual hurry of tiie ■ 
actiMi, die variety of incidents, and the quick succes- 
sion of one person^ie to aT>other, call the mind tbrward 
without intermission &om the first act to the last But 
the power of delighting Is derived principally from the 
trequent changes of the scenej for except the feminine 

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aitt) BOfoe of which are too low, whi«h dktvgauh Cte- 
Ura, no chancter is vei^ strongly djicrhniaated. 
^pttm, -who did not nsily nuas what he de^red to find, 
ha* ^Movered that the language of Ai^my it, with 
great akfll and leunJD^, made jMMuioua wad n^jperi^ 
Mending to hia real practice. But 1 think hia dictim 
not dirtingiiiahable fawn that of othqw ] the most timid 
apeeeh in the play is that which Qesar makes to Oalar 

The events, of which the principal are desoibed 
according to hiatory j are produced without any art of 
cramectiim or care in disposition. 


The play of 7%mM ia a domeadt^ tragedy, and therc- 
ii>rD atronnyfaatens an*the attention of the reader, bi 
the plan Uiere is not mudi art, but the incideats aic 
netival, and the characters, varioua and exact The 
cataBtra|die affi)rde a very powerfol wemiiig againat 
that ostentatiaus liberality, whidi acatters bounty, but 
confers no benefits, and buys flattery, but not frien^hip. 

In this traeedy, are many passafjes perplexed, ob- 
scure, and profiatuy corrupt, which Inave endeavoured 
to rectify, or explain, with due diligence; but having 
only one copy, cannot jwomise mysdf that my ende^ 
vonrs shall be mnch applauded. 


AH the «dit(tta Mid critidu agree with Mr. Tluo- 
bald in supposmg this play apurious. I aeti no reaaon 
fiw differing from-them ; for the colour of the style is 
wholly diflereot (tcm that of the odier t^ys, and diere 
is an attempt at regular versification, and artificial closn, 
not (dwaya inelegant, yet seldom pleasing. The bar- 
barity of the spectacles, and tlie general massacre, whi(^ 
«« here exhibited, can scarcely be conceived tqlerabl« to 
any audience; yet we are told by Jonmn, that ^ey 
were not Only borne, but praised. That Shaietpeare 
wrote any part, though Theohald declares it incmtest- 
ible, I see no reason for believing. 



He tMtiOMiiy [Rwliiiced at tbe b^iUBiiig of this 
fity, by which it is aacribed to Sltakuptart, u by no 
OMiu ectual to the Awimcnt aguaat its *nibe»tJei^, 

•riiu^ troia th« tetiil dakMBoe-ot omkIucI,. tanguut^ 
and aentiments, hy wttKk it stands a^ait fron mU Utt 
Kit. Meres bid BnbaUy no otiur •vKloioe, Ulan that 
oT a title-p^e, wnich, uotigh kt our time it bo mM- 
WBt, was t&a of no grast Mitfaority ; for aH the nhya 
which were Tweeted by the first collectors <£ Siuiket- 
pear^t worke, and adinitted in later editioiu, and again 
rejected by the critical editors, had Skaketpear^t name 
«n tbe tiUe, as we must suppose, 1^ the ti4udulerice of 
the printers, who, Vhile there were yet no g&zettea, 
)M>r advertisemeDta, nor any means of circulatuig liter- 
4vy itdeUjgenoej could usurp at pleasure an^ c^lnMed 
hamB. Nor had Shakajieare aoy interest in detecting 
the nupostOK, as none of his £une or profit was pro- 
dueed Dy the press. 

The cnriMtoIogy of tbis play does not piovfc it not to 
be Sbaie^ear^t. If it bad been written twen^-livc 
years in iSll, it might have been written when SmJcbi- 
peare was twenty-five years old. When be IcA Ww^ 
wkktMre I know not ; but at the age of tw«tiy-five it 
was rather too late to fly fbr deer-Bt«iling. 

Raventcn^, who, in the reien of Chatie* 11. revised 
this pltty, and restored it to-^ stage, tdli us, in Ms 
ue&ee, ln»n a tbeatritsl tradition, I suppose, which jn 
nis tinw nuoht be of sufEcimt audiority, that this pUy 
was touched in diflerent parts by Shalt^peare, but writ- 
tm b|r> aoBBe oth^ P**^ ^ ^ i^it find Shabapeart^j 
lOvdiM very discernible. 


. lUa -|)lay is UK»v c<«Tectly written than most of 
Shiakttpear€4 con^pofations, but it is not utie of those in 
wbic^ .dtber the extent of bis views or elefatitm of his 
I fuQy displayed. - As Ibe story abounded wUfa 
Is, he has cxeMed httle inv«ition; but he bas 
(Kvawfied his chalHctcars with great vari^, and pre^ 
•wed them with great axacOiesa. Hia vicioita d|a- 
ractera sonctimes ^sgust, but cannot cortlipt, for botla 
Vol. I. B b 

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S78 dENlUb OMtRVAttftNH i)H 

CrtuUa «bd P«nAt*v aK deteftfed md cMteDUiML 
The comidt d»a t»c lw » Mem -to Im*v been ilw fi^owitw 
ttftbewriur; tbey aftof tfceaupHficMldbd, tfidvx- 
UtMtttMMtf MiMaera tliMi imtuiv ; tmttfaey at««(^ 
•ailv fiSed, Midp(i>«r«rMly inqmued. 

]nn the <dd book of Casltm, «rbidi vm A«n vn; no» 
pulKF; but the Atftactw irf fferrito, rf^iMA ftai fa * 
no MenlMn, is a proof tiuR lliiB fJt^ «n w iKlm ■KM 
CAtymmi hkd inMdted hJB wnion <^ JToMM-. 


Tbi» {Jttjr bM i»an7 jtt«t MMfaneM*, wMSk «ann^ 
AabwMc, and wme pleuhig bcmim, bMlluv «k «b^ 
tanned'at Ae«mBoe«iiiiK^iiwo(^iii9. ToMiBMfc 
tbt ftdfy rf the Sodon, the dMuvdi^ oftbe Am^et, tbt 
omlbaian of the names, and nunneii'tf diSenHtOaMli 
nd thk tapoHai^liCr of the wento <!« m^ ayi ti ia of 
lift, ITOTB to ir— teqjticienniyiat iB>n ibltii^ fcnbeefli^ 
npeo &ah» «oo ««id«iA &r dMeolMi, Md too SHIM wt 

KltM; LEAR. 

lie tmg«^ at Ixar k d^ervc^ ccIebiUtfd Vam% 
thp drama of 8haktaf€mt€. Hxre ia petfaq 
iriiich keepi tbe attention «o atrons^ IxmI, 
vndi ^tiUa oDT MMJona, Aid'inMvMi'OOcariMily. 
31w w«d iMvdutiona of dutiiwt tetMMfU. Ae ••»&&■ 
OCT»owtiwi rf contrarj diaractew, the wwMaa et uWig M nr 

fiwtime, and the quick succession of events, fill Ae 
mind with a pnpetnal tumidt of indjgwnka, pi^, and 
hope. Th^ li no scene which does not contritNite to 
the ag gia n itw rn of the dirtreea wmndatAof flwMtioq, 
and tcaree a line which does not ctntdwe'to tfie nMgiai 
of die anene. So iKiweHVil is the cwvmt of we ^mmI^ 
im^ilwrtitn, that me mkid, wtddi eiice'vcnivea with* 
iniit,iaJMttTied iMCti«ibl;«lon)(. 

On Ae j M biing bt^n-^Htbihl^ ttf J^eM'* cMidiict, II 
Bi^ b« abMrTe&, that be is i«|nw«med atctwdk^W 
bittOriM «t Alt tine vn^lf »ceiv«d *k trtw. And, 

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ffrhtff^, if «re turn omr tbou^its upon ihe bubaxitp 
■ntf ignoftrao* of the ws ta which thii story w reftmji 
it w'msfffw not so luuikelv a* iriiile we ertimnte htw^i 
iiuuiB«ral9«ur«wiL SudtprefoeoceDfotudiil^itcr 
' '■ not don ' * . - 

tiooR, woukt be yet crediUa, if told af & pettyiHtnoe of 
gi'wta or Af«di^4Mcar. Shakupemrt, indsecC Iv the 
BMBtio* of fan euU ^nd dukea, has given lu the ideftof 
dwM »M« civilised, and of lite ragubted I^ wAcrnuo. 
naM ; and tbe tnitii is, that thouah he ao oiedy diacri> 
nintttea, aad ■• mimtely descr^M tlie <^ar»cten of 
net), he oommonl;^ iwi^llecta and oonfounda the chanc- 
ten of ages, by mii^thflg cuatoou ancunt and modein. 
Cag^A and ^eim. 

fiy Iwwaed ftwad Hr. fTortrnt, who hat ia the J<{- 
tiChwW my BUBvtdy cxiMciaed (kit pUy, innaric^ 
dwt the tnataoMa of oFuel^ are too wti^ and liiock- 
ing, and that the iRtenantioB of Edatmati daab^ the 
an^^a^ «f the ttwy. TheaaolijectiiMaainay, I think, 
h« a(iawar«d,hy Kpaatiag) that the arueky of the dauj;b- 
teaa in aahtstaiical fiwt, ta whidi tba poet haa adoitd 

Httla, havvf-oBly drawn it into a aenea by dial^giM 
and actwv. But I am oot able to tmolqgiae with equal 
plutsilnlity (or the extnuion of Ghder't eyei, which 

aemw an act too horrid to be eshired in dra m a ti ck «»• 
Ittbi^op,, and buA as miut always compel tlw mind to 
' Ft tat it ben 

nfieve ita dtatreaa by incnduli^. 

hercd (hat our attfhco' well knew what would pleaiadw 

audience few wtii^ he wrate. 

Tbai^jui^F done hy £dB»arf to the aimnlici^ of the 
actioib is ahwtdantl^ TCcon^wnaad ^ the additon of v^ 
lim, 1^ dip an with irtiich he is nade to oo-<^pMite 
with the dUef devgn, and the appartantl7 which he 
givea the poet of eonabining pscfidy with peridy, and 
coimecdng tiie wicked son with the wicktu dav^fatcra 
to unrest th^ important manl, that viltany ia nerer 
at a >feap> that Crimea lead to crinKs, and at hst tarmi* 
note in niia. 

But though AJsmoral be incidentaUy enfiHrced, $Aa<Ui* 

pears ha3 sufTered the-nrtite of CardeUa to pcnish in a 

JHst^ ca«M, oooferary to the m^ond ideas of jusdca, to 

the hope itt tfw roadWj and, what, is yrt taor» stm^, 

B bS 

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no eiMHAL «BSIR\ATrolfe ON 

to tbefaithofdironicles. Yet this conduct is juatifieft 
by Tke Spectator, vrho blantea Tate for ^vine Cordi^ 
ancccBB and happtnesa In li is alteration, and dedarei, 
tiiat in his opinion the tragedif ka» lost half iU beaatg. 
Dennis has remarked, whmer justly or not, that, t» 
lecure the favourable reception of Colo, the tornn war 
poisoned wkh mack false ttad ahornitiable critieism, and 
that endeavours hs^ been used to discredit and deny 
poetical justice. A play in which the wicked prosper, 
and the virtuous miscarry, may' dnnbtless be good* . be- 
cause it is a just representation of the commmi events rf 
human life i but since all reasonable beings natural^ 
lore justice, I cannot easily be persoaded, ihaX the ob- 
servation of justice makes a play worse; (K', that if other 
excellencies are equal, the audience will not always rise 
better pleased from thefinaltriumph of persecu ted vittnei 

In the preset ease the public has decided. CawMin ^ 
from the time of Tate, has always retired witfi Tictary- 
and felicity. And, if my sensations could add any diin^ 
, to the general sufli^a, I might relate, I was miaiy years 
ago BO shocked by Cordeliers death, that I know not 
whether I ever endured to read again the last scene* of 
theplay till 1 undertook to revise them as an editor. 

There is another controversy among the eritit^ can- 
cehiing this play. - - It ia disputed whether the prtdo^ 
minant image in Lear's disordered mind be Ae mm at 
hi« kingdmn or the cruelty of his dau^tan. :^r. 
Murphy, a.very jodfcioua criticfe, has evinced by induc- 
tion of particular passage^ that the cruelty of his 
daughters is the prrniary sottfce of his distress, and that 
the loss of ro^aky afTects him only as a secmidary and 
subordinate eviX He observes, wi^ great justness, that 
Lear would move our compassion but little, did we not 
rather consider the injur^ father than the d^rsded 

ThestoiToflliiBplav, except the episode of £Amniif, 
which is derived, I think, from Sidney, Is taken otv- 
ginally from Geoffry of Mojimfmlh; whom HoUngshed 
.generally copied ; but perhaps immediately fVcmi an dd 
historic^ baflad. My reastm for believing that the play 
was posterior to the ballad, rather than the ballad to lite 
p}ay, is, that the ballad has nothing of Shatapear^* 

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BMtanul tempMt, wliu^ k too ■trikinff to have been 
mfth^Aj and that it follows die (dmoiae ; it hu tha 
mduninti of tbe pUy. but none of it* ampIificatioiM : it 
first hinted Leai't madncH, but did not »my_ it in ai- 
cumstanoM. The irriter of the ballad added BOmethiog 
to the history, which is a [aoof that he would have 
added more, if more hod occurred to his mind, and 
miRie must luve ocetured if be bad seen Skalceipeart, 


This pb^ is one of tJH most pleaaing of ear anAn:'* 
porfbrmances. llie seenea are busy ai^ variont, the in> 
cidents numerous and important, the catastrophe irrems- 
MSAy afie«ting, and tbe process of the action carried on 
wim audi wooabilitp', at least with swji Gong7uit7 to po> 
pnlar t^muons, as tragedy reqoiree. 

I&reisotiectftbeftw attempts of >$Aa;le(pear« to ex- 
hilrit Hie conversation of represent the ai- 
Xj spri^rtUneM of juvenile (degance. Mr Dryden mea- 
xmrn a tntditicMi, which might easily reach his time, of 
a dedaration made by Sh^tetptan, that ke mu obl^ed 
f km Mercatio m ike third ai!t,lettke thoM have Aen 
UUtd bg Urn, Yet he thiiAs hkn no Mekjormidahlepa^ 
Mm but that he mtgU kotie Uvedtkraugh tlUpiay, and died 
wAwierffirtdiouldBiwertoapoet. /JrjvWM well knew, 
liad be bees in quest oftruth, Uiat, in a pmnted sentence, 
more regard is CMnwmly had to the words than the 
thought, and that it is very seldom to be rigorously un- 
derstood. MereiOiffs wit, gaiety, and courage, will al- 
ways wKure him friends tikat wigli him b longer life ; 
but his deatb is not precipitated, he has lived out the 
time allotted him in the construction of the play ; nor 
do I doubt tlie ability of Shahetpeare to have continued 
bis existence, tfaoiwh some of his ndlies are perhaps 
out of the reach or Dryden; whose genius was not 
very fertile of merriment, nor ductile to humour, but 
aeutet aivnmentative, comprdtenrive, and sublime. 

The Nurae is one oi tbe characters in whidt the au- 
thor delated ; . he has, with great subdhty c£ distinc- 
tion, drawn her at once loquadoua and secret, obsequi- 
ous uid inoolent, busty and dishonest 
B b 3 

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Hia eooiidf acenes are luippilT Kroo^t, but his pa- 
thetic strmias are alvays polluted with acaae uoexpected • 
deprAvatitMu. Hit jteraons, however distressed Aave 
a coactU left them m their misery, a miteraiie amcat. 


If die dnunM of i^/uiicffieare were to be charHcterised, 
each by the particular excellence which distituruishee 
it from the rest, we roust allow to the tragedy ctf Ham' 
la the praise of variety. The incidents are bo numer- 
ous, that tbe argument of tbe play wouki make a loag 
tale. The scenes are interchanaeably diversified witfi 
merriment and solemnity; with roerriment, that in- 
cludes judicious and instructive observations; and so* 
lemnity, not strained by poetical violence above the 
naturU sentiments of man. New cbaract»s aupear 
&om time to time in ctmtiniial sucoeseioB, exiamting 
various ftwros of life aad particular modes of coovecs^' 
tiem. The pretended madness of HamUl causes mucb. 
nirth, tbe mournful distrqction c^ Ophelia fills (be heart 
with tenderness, and every personage jMvduces &e. 
effect intended, frc»n tbe a^qwritioii that in, tbe first act 
chills the blood with horror, to the fyp in tbe lost, that 
exMses affectation to just CMttempt 

The conduct is perhaps not wholly secure against 
objections. Tbe action is indeed for the most part in 
continual progression, but thrae are scwie scenes whidi 
neither forwud nor retard it. Of the feigned madaeM 
of Hamlet thtn-e appeare no adequate cajtse, for he does 
nothing which he might not have done with the repu- 
tation of sanity. He plays the madman most, when he 
treats Ophelia with so much rudeaess, whicJi seems to 
be useless and wanton cruelty. 

HatnUt is, through the whole piece, rsAber an instn^ 
ment than an agent After he has, bv the strati^^em o{ 
the play, convicted the kin^, he m^es no attempt to 
punish him ; and hta death is at last effected by an iiw 
ddent which Hamlet had no part in ju^ucing. 

Tbe catastrophe is not very happily produced; the 
exchange of weapons is ratlier an expedient of'nece^ 
sity, dian a stroke, of art A scheme^might easily have 

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been fimned to kill Handel with the d^^er, and Lmt- 
tea wi& the bawL 

The poet is accused of havine shown little r^ird to 
poeticaf jiutice, utd may be charged with eqi^ neg^' 
lectofpoeticiAprQtMbiUt^. Ilie apparition left the re- 
Bums IK the dead to little purpoae ; the revenge which 
Be demanda is not obtained, but by the deata of him 
that was reqaked to take it; and the mtificatioii,. 
which would arise from the destruction m an usurper 
and a tnurdner, is abated by the nntimely death of- 
Ophdia, the young, the beautiful, the harmless, and the 

The beauti^ of this play impress tbemsdves m. 
steot^y vpotx the attention cv the reader, that titey can 
dm ilo aid ban criticsl illustration. The fieiy a 
ness oCOtkeUo, magnaaiiBous, arilew, and creidi:^ 
boundless in his c<miidence, ardent in his affecdwi, i 
dradble in his resolution, and obdurate in his revenge ; 
the cocJ raaligmty of logo, ulent in hia resentment, 
■ubde in his designs, and studious at once of his inter- 
est atidtus vengeance; the soft simplicity of Z)enieiii(»ia, 
confident of merit, and conscious of innocence, her art- 
less perseverance in her suit, and her slowness to sua- - 
pect that she can be auspected, are such proems of 
Shaketpear^t skill in human nature, as, I suppose, it is 
vain to seek in any modem writ^'. The gradual pro- 
gress which logo makea in the Moor't conviction, and 
die circumstances which fae erapl<rfs to inflame him, are 
BO artfhUy natural, that, though it will perhaps not be 
Bald of him BB he saya of himself, that ae is a man not ■ 
eatihf Jealout, yet we cannot but pity him, when at 
laat we find him perj^exed itt the extreme. 

There ia always danger, lest wickedness, ctmitHiied 
with abilities, should steal upon esteem, thon^ it nus- 
aes of approbation ; but the character cdTJi^ is so con- 
ducted, mat he is from the fint scene to the 1^ bated 
and despised. 

Even the utferior characters of tfaia play would be 
very conspicuous in any other piece, not only for their 



untBCM, bat dKiT Httcngth. Camo ia bnv«, b«MV»- 
lent, and honest, ruined only by his wMit'of atubfavm- 
■«M to resist an ineidioiis invitaticm. Koderigf^* uig- 
^daaa creikili^, snd in^mtient mbmiBsioa to the 
csfaestt which he sees practised upon him, and wfaidi bj 
penuaeion h« auffers to be repeated, axhibit a *tnmg 
picture of a weuk mind lietreyed by anhtwiiil deiire* 
ta a false &iend ; and the vntue of .^nuHa ia ancfa as 
m oftni find wom loosely, but not cagt tff, eaay t« 
Aanunit small criinea, but quickened and alarmed at 
■trooiwis villaniea. 

The scenes from the beginning to the end are boay, 
varied by happy interchanges, and regularly promtrting 
the progression of the stmey ; and the narrative in the 
«nd, though it tells but what is known already, yet ia 
iMceasaiy to produce the death of Othdlo. 

Had the scene opened in Cypnu, and tiM preceding 
incidents been occasionally related, there had been bU 
tie wanting to a drama (^ the meet exact and aerupn- 
leae ngulwity. 

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On Sir Thomas Hanher's Edition of Suauspeare, 
First frinlcd in the Yeu mdccxlt. 

"—As to all thoM thinn which havs been pubUihed ander the 
■> tittea €t Snof, JtmoAf, Ottrvatitm; ^V. on Skakeipeare, (if 
•■ you ei«^ •aoK aiHeal note* aa Maeteth, glT«i aa a apadnwii 
" <rf a pn^ectcd cdidon, and wiittvi a* appean bjr a man of paits 
" ao^ ganiia) tbc ntt ai« absolutelj below ■ ■erioiu notice.'* 

W^arinrtotu Pr^tice to Shakapeare. 

Enter three WUchet. 

In order to make a tme estinute of the sbilitieB and 
merits of a writer, it ia- always neceasaiy to examine tba 
geniiu of his age, and &e opjnioris of his contenqwra^ 
rieg. A poet who should now make die whole action 
of In* tngedy depmd upcnt enchantment, and iMroduM 
thechief events by the assistance of snpenulwu omenta, 
woald be coisured as tranaaivsaing the bomda of {iio- 
balnli^, he woiUd be banished fima the theatre to the - 
onrsery, and condemned to write Fairy Tales instead 
of Tra^^diea ; but a survey of the nations tiuut prev«kd . 

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at die tec wlitii thi* play wai written, «!U prose diat 
SluUtapearewBa in no danger of nich censures, since be 
only turned the system that i»aa then nniveraally ad- 
mitted to his advantage, and was &r Goca oveAurthen- 
inxtbe credulity of Ms audiance. 

llie reali^ of witchcraft or enchantment, which, 
tbourii not strictly Hie aaioe, are confiMinded in this 
play, iiaa in all ages and countries been credited by the 
cnnnMni people, and in most by tiie learned themselves. 
Tbese pluntoms have indeed appeared more ftcquently, 
in proportion aa the darkness of igaorance has beoB 
more gross; but it cannot be dhown, that the brightest 
gleams of knowledge have at any time been sufficient 
to drive them out of the world. The time in which 
this kind of credulity was. at its height, aeetes to have 
been that of the holy war, in which dte Christians inn 
puted all their defeats to enchsnbnent or diabolical cpp* 
position, as they ascribe their success to the assistance 
of tbeii military saints ; and tibe learned Hr. Wmiurlom 
smears to betwye fSmj^ ^ the ImhvdMcliim to Bat 
QmMigJ that tka first aecovMs af aaduntneDta wave 
brotq^ into this past ef tfie wvrtd, by tfewe tcAo re. 
turned {coot, their fsstem expeditions. But ^ere is 
always some distance between the birth and maturity of 
folly as of wickedness : tliis <q>inion had long exited, 
though perii^M the ^plication of it had in no forego- 
iiu age been so iVequent, mor the rectntion so genersL 
(^mpiodontt, in Photiu^t Extracts, tells us rf one Uba- 
niut, who practised thia kind of military inagick, and 
havjngpromised<^Jpf c orXirv»' Kara TAappdpmr iycpyhr, 
lo perform great thinrs agaiaM the Barbariamt withomt 
taldieri, was, at the instance of the empress ^addia, 
put ts dastb, when he was abowt to ham gn«i prac^ 
oi bis abilititK Tke enpresa shewed same Kindaess m 
her mgtt by-OKtUng him off at a tbne so oonvenient te 
bia nputatjon. 

But a move raurkaUc proof of die aBtiquitT of thh 
nodoo m»f he tmaiA » St. €hry$o»ioiifi book ie Saeet. 
dotio, whsch cxlttbitB a weaa of endMntmcnts not 
Aueededl^ any RMBSBce of the middle age; hesimpi»> 

rbiAiiw ft «dd of battle, attMidedbp 

It all WK varjooB olg«4a of hman 

J ;, Google 

^fftMBDY or «ACIIt¥N. iH? 

tk« cbgines t£ Aettriusxm, Mid A6 -sria of ekogbter. 

ttfi rtHk> ^nryrart^a() j wrMraf Ji d^js^ ^ipofitv»t, 

fterf 40 fAote Am m lAe oppNtle arme» horwa Jtyhg %jf 

aenf ptmer midj^rm i^nuipci. Whether 8t Chr^»- 
fen bclievnl duit -each pernrmnMn were redly to be 
•een in a day of bsMle, or tntly mdeavoiiKd to mfiveil 
Ue deseriinion, by Bdopting die notiom «f ttie Tdgar, it 
V eqiudly oeMmin, thnt Buot ntftiona -were in -hH tkne 
Mcened, and -dnt 'QKreflwe -they mtrt mrt innxvted 
-frsnitiieSiBraenwinKlftterage; the wars -wMt tne Sa- 
fnoaWjftawever, gsve occHitmto their pronwatien, not 
«dy u hifftfuy 'nMnraSy Swefmirs -protSgwa* bat u 
4be acme « &raon Wss retnoTed to a gteaCer diatmce, 
«id dittance either of tnne arfivx is • B iiB i eieB t 'te in~ 
'ConcQe weak mindfl to wondtyft! r^tifms. 

The i^onnation did rM inmedntdy ^anvv* «t itk 
neridian, and UiOBgh ' . « ■ . ■ . 

upon lu, the sobKns c 
' reriof - ' 

! tite 1 
Whose conviction is stfll c 

Sennon at Hk iUi t i g i O H . Bnt inAei^pt 'dFKinx /sMMti 
-in whidi (hts tragedy wae 't r iftt e i i, raenycircaiMitanoM 
concurred to propauEate and CMtfnaihisfifnnisii. The 
1df%, who Was ma(% «elebnted fhr his'loiowlec^, IimI, 
^ ' "b arriral in Eueland, not«nly«nmliMd in pn- 

faei^ his arriral in Efigland, not«nly« 
ton a woman accused rf witchdvft, fc 
very fontial account of the ftfaMteei Mtd ifianens Mf 

1 accused df witchovft, but bad ci' 
account of the jtraMten Mtd ifianei 
crif -nHrita, the compacts of wMhe*, Ac 

iiaed by tiwnij the manner flf detecting ■Aentj «nd Ae 
- — ^~; of puniahina; thenij in his di^o^tea 1^ Bmmm»- 
written in ^e SeeSM direct, and-|iKUiri)ed at 
■—7*. This book waa, aotm after hia accesMon, 
1 at LottAm .* and as Ae ««ady tnty Is gaift 
Kitng J(»m/« fevcnir wai to flatter his (f>e«Aittona, ilw 
«yM^ of BnwMofi^ WM inunediMely aaopwd by 4 
•mo desired eiUter to gain jnvfetnoit or net to tcMc tt. 
Thus the do^rine of witchcraft wis very ftmrnMOf 

:. Google 

SS8 dbbkrvatioks or Till 

incUlorted, and u the greatest part of nunldnd hMrcnt 
other reawm for their opinioDB thaa that they are is 
fashion, it cannot be doubted but this persuasion ma^ 
a rapid progress, since vanity and credulity cD-c^>erste4 
in its favour, and it had a tendency to free cowardice 
from reproach. The irfection soon reached the parlia- 
ment, who, in the first year of KineJatnes, made a law, 
by which it was enacted, ch, xii. That " if any persoii 
" shall use any invocation or conjuration of ar^ evil or 
" wicked spirit ; 2. Or ehall consulti covenant ■with, 
" entertain, employ, feed, fX reward any evil or cursed 
" spirit to or for any intent or purpose ; a. O take up 
" any dead man, woman, or child out of the grave,— 
" or the skin, bone, or any part of the dead powtn, to 
" be eihployed or used in any manner of witchcraft, 
" sorceryi charm, or encbantnient ; 4. Or shall use, 
" practise, or exercise any sort of witdiraaft, sorco^ 
" charm, or enchantment > 5. Whereby any praaon stml 
*''be -destroyed, killed, wasted, consumed, pined, or 
" lamed in any part of the body ; 6. That every such 
" person, being convicted, shall suffer death.'' 

Thus, in the' time of Shakemeare, was the doctrine of 
witdicraft at onceestabli^ied % law and by the fashiun, 
and it- became not tmly unpolite, bat cximinal, to doubt 
it ; and as }H«digie8 are ^ways aeen in proportion as 
tlMV are eiipected, witches were every Say tfiscovered, 
an^ multipUed so fiurt iw some jJaces, that bisbt^ HaH 
BtcnticmB a village in LaiKOthtre, where their number 

' was greater than that of the houseB. The Jesuits and 
S«ctariea totJc advantage of this universal error, and 
endeavoured to. promote the interest of their parties by 
pretended cures of persons afflicted by evjt spirits, but 
.they were detected and exposed by the clo'gy of the 
estaUished church. 

Upon this eeneral infatuation, Shaktmeare might be 
eiaaly allowed to found a play, entecuL^ since he has 
followed with great exactness such histories as were thai 
liiought true ; not can it be doubted that the scenes ef 
endiantment, however they may now be ridiculed, were 

> .both by himself and hia audience tbougiit awfUtaud 
affecting. . . , 

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Ill T ag incrakas MacAmd,—&om tbe Wntern Isle* 
Of Kenu and Gotitm-gUma wat M^d^d, 
And £>rt«uifl aa his dwoned fvOny smiling; 
g^ww'd like a rebel's wluHv. 

£erm are ligfab^umed, ntd GaStm^glaMMt beury- 
araaed Mildkrs. The word quarry lua oo aenie thAt is 
jMp wt l y jq^iUcible in tfau place, amd thwe&ie it is 
neceflsary to read, 

Andjhrtiate on At* damtttd quarrel tmiling. 

Quarrtl was (ormerly u*ed for coww, or for the oceanoti 
' ^a gvarrel, and is to be found in that sense in HoiUngi- 
hei* accouBt of the story of Macbeth, who, upon ttie 
creatioA of the prince ef CwiAerland, thou^t, says the 
histarUn, that he had a Jutt quarrtl to endeavour after 
the crown. The seiue tber^we ujbiiune mtting d» 
Aw acecraile came, &c. 


If I say sooth, I must report they were 
As cannons ovodiai^^ed with double cracks. 
So Uiey aedDubled atmkea \apaa the foe. 

tir. inKobald has endeavoured to improve the sense' 
of ttiis [Musege by shering the punctuatioii thus : 


K» cannons overcharg'd, with-double oacks 
So they redoubled strokes- 
He dedares, with some degree of exultatiiHi, that be has 
no idea of a cannon charged with double oracles; but 
surely the great audior win not 0Un roudi t^ an altwK- 
tion which makes him say of sImio, that lie reAMtke 
Vol. t C c 



atrota tvil/i doubk eracit, an exfffesaion not more 
loudly to be applauded, or more easily pardoned, than 
that which is r^ected in its favour. That a cantKot it 
charged with tkunder, or with doubk Ihundert, may be writ- 
ten, not only without nonsense, but with elegance ; and 
nothing- else is here meMit by cracks, which> in the time 
of this writer, was « word of such emphasis and digni^, 
that in this f^y he tenne the general dias<duti<»i <^ na- 
ture the crack of doom. 

There are among Mr. TheohaHs alt^tions othns 
which I do not approve, though I do nbt alwqrs cen- 
sure them ; far some of his amendments are so excel- 
lent, that, even when he has tailedj he ought to be treated 
with indulgence and respect. 


Sing. But who comes here ? 
Mat. The worthy 'Thane of Rosse, 
Leaox. What haste looks through his eyes ? 
So should he look that teemt to sp^k things strange. 

The meaning of this parage as !t now stands is, *o 
ihouid be htoi, that looks as ifke fold things strange. But 
Rotse neither yet told strange things, nor could look as 
if he told them ; Lenox amy conjectured from his air 
that he had strange things to tell, atid therefore un- 
doubtedly said, 

-.. — What haste looks through his eyes t 
So should he look, tfast teetst to speak things 

He hoks like one that is big Kith something o^- impar- 
tatice, a metaphor so natural, that it is every day used, 
in common discourse. 


Thunder. Enter the thrc 

Ist Witch. Where hast thou been, s 
«d Wiuh. Killing swine. 

d:, Google 

^OIDT or' MACBBTR. 89) 

' ~3d Wikh. Siater, Where thou? 

t«t IVilck. A Hailoi's wiie had diesnute in her Imp, 
And maaiicJt% and mouncfa't uid mouiM^'t. Gire mft, 

qootii I. 
(I) Aroint diee, witch, the nunp-fed ronyon cries. 

And, like a rat without a tail, 

ni do— ni do— «nd m do. 

2d fVifch, I'll give thee a wind. 

lat IVUch. Thou art kind. 

3d Witch. And I another. 

1st JVUch, I myself have all the other, 
And the (2) very points they blow. 
All the quarters that they know, 
I' th' Ship-man'B card 
I win dnun him dry as hay ; 

Sleep shall neither nisht nor day ' ■ 

Hang upon his pent-house lid ; 
He shall live a man (S) forbid; 
Weary sev'n'nishts nine times nine. 
Shall he dwindle, peak and pine: 
Tbo' his bark cannot be lost, 
.Yet it shall be tempest-tost. 
I»ok what 1 have. 

2d Witch, shew me, shew me. 

(1) Aroint thee, witch,— — 

In one of die foho editions the reading ia anoint thee, 
in a sense very consistent' with the common accounts 
<i£ witches, who are related to perf(»m many superna- 
tural acta by the means of unguents, and particularly 
to fly tbrongh the air to the luace where tney meet at 
their hellish festivals. In this sense atioiiU thee, witch, 
will mean, aruat/, ivilck, to your infernal attemilv. This 
readiof I was inclined to favour, because I had met 
witib the word aroiftl in no o^ier place ; till looking in- 
to Heam^i Collections, I found it in a very old draw- 
ing, that he has publiiiied, in which St. Patrick is re- 
presented visiting - hell, and putting the devils into 
great <»iifiui<Hi by hia presence, of whom me that is 
C c S 

J ;, Google 

driring tlK damned before him with ft prong, Imw a fabcf 
umiBg out from hia uoath with tbaM wordi, out o^ 
uroiigt, of which the laat ia evidently the aaine ihA 
mroitU, and uaed ia the aame aenae aa m this pMaag& 

(2) And tha very poiBts Qaty blow. 

Aa the word emi tahereef noodwr we thaato fill 
Ap the Tene, it ia hkely that Skakupeart wrote twaowi^ 
b miriit be eaaily miataken for very, being eith^ 
Rent^ read, haatilj' pnqiouiiced, or impoftcdy 

(3) He ahaU Uve a mMuJbrhid. 

Mr. Theobald has veiy justly e^ilaiiwd firbii hy a»- 
ewrted, bnt without giving any reason f£ hia inltuwela- 
tion. To M is onginaDy to pray, aa in thia Saam 

He ia wise that frmf Si improves. 

As to Jbrhid therefore implies b> prokibit, in CBpoa- 
tion to the word 6t[f in its present sense, it aigninca bj 
^e same kind of opposition to curat, when it is dwiv- 
cd from the same word in its primitiTC nieaiung. 

The ineongroitr tf all the nasaages in which Ae 
ThtM of Camtor u mentioned ts very remarital:^ ; in 
the eecoadtqent the Thanet of RotMC and Angut bring 
the king an account cfibe battle, and inform hkn Hut 

Asaisted by that most disluyal traytor 

Tie Thane tX Cawdor, 'gan a dismal conSiet. 

1% KppcKK that Caiudier was taken piis(m«, for Ae king 
wj*, in die same scenes 

d:t Google 

TMOBDlr W MAOWfH. 993 

^11 Go, pranounce his death. 
And with his farmer title greet JKoo&efA. 

Yet thou^ Cawdi^ was thus taken bv Macbetk, in amis 
againat his king, when Macbtth is saluted, in Uie fositb 
acme, Thant w Cawdor, by the weird Sisten, he ask*. 

How of Camdor f the T'Aone of Camdof Hues, 
• A pro^'rous gentleman^—- 

And in tiie next line considerB the promises, that be 
should be Cawdor and King, as equally unlikely to be 
accomplished. How can Macbeth he ignorant of the 
state o£ the Thane c^ Catodor, whom he nas' just defeat- 
ed and taken prisoner, or call him a prosperoiu GetiHc- 
man, who has forfeited his title and life by open rebelli- 
on?. Or why should he wonder that the title of the re- 
bel whom he has overthrown should be conferretl upon 
him? He cannot be supposed to dissemble his know- 
ledge of the condition of Catvdor, because he enquires 
wiui all the ardour of curiosity, and the vehemence of 
sudden astonishment; and because nobody is present 
but Banmo, who had an equal part in the bat^e, and 
was e^u^ly acquainted with Cawdor's treason. How- 
ever, in the next scene, his ignorance still continues ; 
and when Hosie and Ab^ present him from the<fiing 
with his new title, he cnes out - j '.- 

The Tkiau of Gwdor llvee,, 

^Vhy do you dress me in his borrowed, r^as? . 

Boste and An^, who wei^ the me^smgersthat i[t^the 
second scene informed the kin^ of tbe. assistance giv^ 
, by Catvdor to the invader, having lost, as well as Mik- 
belk, all memory' of what they had so lately seen and'r^ 
lated, make this answe>— , ; 

' Whether he waa 

Combin'd with Normiy, or did line the rebels 
With hidden help and vantage, or with both , 
He labmir'd in his country's wreck, I know not, , , 

Cc3 y. ■■■ 

d:t Google 


Neither Boue knew what he hadjtttt npsrtedj nor 
Jlfoc^etA what he bad joat (iane. This aeemv not to be 
one of the faults that are to be imputed to ^ transcri- 
ben, sincCj thou^ the incotnistmcy of Amk and 
'Angui nii^t be removed, b; ■appomng that tiicir 
names are nroneonflly kiierted, ma diat only Amm 
brought the account of the battle, and onlj Angui was 
■ent to cemplinient Macbefk, yet the fin^etfiuneBS of 
Macbeth cannot be palhated, nnce what he «^ coold 
not hare been spoken by any other. 


Tbk dun^fat, whose mnrdn yet is bat fentastica], 
'%«kes (S) my amgle state of mao^— 

The rijigk ttaie of man seems to be used by Shakemeart 
tat an individual, in of^Msitioa to a tommotuveaUk, or 
jooiyuMcf bw^ of men. 


Mtubeth. — CoHE what come may. 
Time and the hour runs thro' the roughest day. 

I suppose every reader ii disgusted at die tanto1<^ 
in this passage, time and the hour, and.wiQ therribrc 
willingly believe that Shaketpeare wrote it th)is, 

-. Cottie what come may, 

TinK ! on ! — the hour rung thro* die roughest day. 

"^ MacbethU deHberxting upon die events whidi are to 
'b^d him ; bat finding no satis&ction from hia own 
dioughts, he growB impatient of reflection, and lesolvea 
to wait die dose without harassing himself widt coif 

..-■■ C ome what cqme may. 

But to shorten the pain of enspense, be calls vwm 
time in die usual st^le of ardent (usire, to quickoi ins 
motioB, ' 


He then oomfiirta lunuelf wiA dw nflectito that all 
faia perplexity must have aa end, 

■ ■ -The hour runs Ihra' the nm^^ieat d^. 

This oonjectare U iimpcHied by the pasaue in the letl«r 
to his lady, in which he aay^ T/m re^rfd me to At 
camiog on (rftime wUh HaS King ttiat skall be. 

Jtfflfcofoi.' ■ N oTHiwB in hit life 
Became him like the leaving it He diedt 
Ab one that had been studied in his death. 
To throv away the dearest thing he tn^d, 
Aa 'twere a cardesa trifle. 

As the woAl (Mo'if affiMida here no setue but such aais 
tbrc'd and unnatural, it cannot be doubted that it was 
ori^iBally written. The dearat thing ke oit»'d ; aieading 
wfaidi needs amdaer deAnee nor e:q«Kcation. 


To find themind'B eoiMraeliea in the tkce. 

The constrvelion of the mind is, I believe, a phrase m- 
caHn to Shaltetpeare; itiwiplJetthe^/nMieor df^ptuifufi 
of the mind, by which it ii determined to good or 3L 


Macbeth.— —Tai service, and the loyalty I owe. 
In doing it, pays itsel£ Your highness' part 
Is to receive our duties, and our duties 
Are to your throne and state, children and servanti^ 
Which do but i^at they should, in doing eeay thing 
Sa^ tom'rdei/our hve and honour. 

d:t Google 

396 <»OBrATI01tS OK TIB 

Of the last line ctf this speech, vhicb is certainlv, as 
it U DOW read, nmntellieible, an emendation lias been 
Bttompted, which Mr. Warburton and Mr. Theghatd hav^ 
admitted as the true reading. 

— -.-. Our duties 
Are to your throne and state, children and Bervants^ 
Which do but what they 8hould,'in doing every thing, 
Tiefs to your love and honour. 

My esteem of these criticks, inclines me to believe, 
that they cannot be mudli pleased with the e^niresaons 
Fiefi to love, or Fieft to ktMour; and that they have 
proposed this alteration rather because no other occur- 
red to tbem, than because they approved it. I shall 
therefore propose a bolder change, perlu^ with no 
"betted success, but *wa cmqae placail. I read thus, 

Our duties 

Are to your throne and state, children and servants. 
Which do hut what they should, in doing vofking. 
Save tow'rds your low and }amo«r. 

We but peifbrm our duty when we ctMitract all our 
views to your service, when we act with no other prin- 
ciple than regard to your love and honour. 

It is prob&le that this passage was first corrupted 
by writing lafe for tave, and the lines then stood uius, 

, . ___X}oing nothing 
Safe tow'rd your love and honour. 

. Which the next transcriber observing to be wrong, and 
yet not being able to discover the raal fault, alt^ed to 
the present reading. 

^— Thou'dst have, great Glamit, 
That which cries, " thus thou must do if thou have il, 
" And that, " 4«. 

J ;, Google 


Av tfae objwt «tf Maebtlk't denn ia bore introdoeed 

t^Mkinff of Itself, it is oeceuaiy to read. 

I Thottd'at lutve, great Glamit, 
That -which ciiefl, " thus thou moat do if thou have 

The crown to which &te deatinea tbee, and which ^&* 
tematural aKents mdeavaa- to bestow upon tfiee^ The 

That I nuTf pour my spirits in thine car. 
And chastise widt me valonr of mv tongue 
All thM impedes thee firom the coMen mm^ 
Th«t fate and meti^lmical aid do Men 
To have thee oown'd withal. 

M the wnse evidoitly directs ns to read j 
n to which fide der*""-" *i—- --•' —wj^i. . 

».»___ annts endeavoia- 1 

golden round it dx lUadem. 


£rfu{y Maeftert.'^ ™ CoM K all yon spirits 
That tend on morttd tiumgkU, itluex me hen. 
And fill me from the crown to tii' toe, top^ftiU 
Ofdaestcrudty; make llii<^ my bkwd. 
Stop up di' access and poss^e to remorse, 
Hiat DO compomAioiis risitiiigt of nature 
intake ray Jul puipose, nor ieeppeace between 
Th' effect and It 

Mortal thoughts. 
This expreaiion signifira not the tkoughit of mortal*, 
hutmtalAermu,defuiljf,orilettnictwedetigiii, SouiactSth. 

Held &st the Mortal swoid. 

And in another place. 

With twen^ mortal murthcrs. 

. — ii.i jJor keep pace between 
Tb' effect and it. 

d:t Google 

The intent of La<ly Macbeth, evidently is to wish dut 
no womanish tendemeas, or consciendiius remorse nu,T 
hindo' her purpose &om proceeding to efiect, bat ne^ 
ther this nor indeed any otiier sense is expreseeil by the 
present reading, tmd therefore it cannot be doubted that 
Siatapeare wrote dilTerently, perhaps thus : 

That no compunctioua yisitinga of nature 
Shake my feU purpose, nor Awp pace between 
Th' effect and it 

To keep pace between, may signii^ to patt hateeen, or 
inUnene, Pace is on many occasions a fmvourite of 
Shaketpeare. This phrase is indeed not usual in tfiis 
sense, but it was not its novelty that gave o 
the present corruption. 

■* NOTE xy. 

King. This castle liath a pleasant teat s ^tn tSr 
Nimb^ tmd sweetly recommends (t«elf 
Unto our gentle senses. 

Banquo. This guest of summer. 
The temple-baunting Martlet, does am 
By his lov*d mansionary, that heave's I 
SineUf- wooingly here. No jutting iriexe, 
Buttrice, nor coigne of vantage, but this bird 
Hath made his pendent bed, and procreant cradle : 
.Where the}' most breed and haunt, I have observ'd 
The air is delicate. 

In tliis short scene, I propose a slight alteration to be 
made, by substituting tiie mr teal, as the ancient word 
for tUtuUion; and tmtejor setuet, as more agreeable to 
the measure ; for which reason likewise I have eridflft- 
voured to adjust thjs passage. 

Heaven's tveath 
Smf^ wooingly here. No jutting fHeze, 

d:t Google 

tmAOtDV or MAGBKTU. 299 

By,. j'hat^y T^ g the pvDctiution and adding a syllsble 

■ -■Heaven's breath 
Smells wcmingly. Here is no jutting frieze. 

Those who have peniaed books printed at the time of 
tiie firat editions of Shaketpmre, know that greater al- 
tcsations than these are necessa^ almost in every page, 
even where it ia not to be doubted that the copy wk^ 


The u^f^umenta by which Lady }iacbelh persu&des 
her husband to commit the murder, afford a proof of 
Sbaketptare'A knowledge of human nature. She urgea 
the excellence and dignity of courage, a glittering idea 
whid) has dazzled mankind from age to age, and ani- 
mated Bometimes the housebreaker, and sometimes the 
conqueror : but this sophism Macbelk has for ever des- 
troyed, by distinguishingHrue from false fortitude, in m 
line and a half; of which it may almost be said, that 
they ought to bestow immortality on the author, though 
all his other productions had been lost. 

This topick, which has been always employed with 
too much success, is used in this scene with peculiar 
pnmriety, to a soldier by a woman. Courage is the 
disDnguHhing virtue of a soldier, and the reproach ot 
cowardice cannot be borne by any man from a woman, 
without great impatience. 

She then urges fee oaths by which he had bound 
himself to murder Duncan, another art of sophistry by 
whid) men have sometimes deluded their consciences, 
and persuaded themselves that what would be criminal 
in otfiers ia virtuous in them ; this argument S/iatea- 
paa^, whose plan obliged him to make Maebeth yield. 


bat Rot coidbted, tboog^ be mi^t etsify have Aoini 
that a foimer oU^tion could not be vaci^ by a lattni. 


Lkttino / dart not, vait upon / would, 
like the poor cat i' tfa' adage. 

Tiat adage alliided to k, The cat lovajitk, Imt dam 
»Bt ivti lurfaoL 

Cahtt amat fitca, ted MOH mtU littgere plantas 

Will I vitb wine and wassel bo 

To conviDce ia m Skaketpeare to o v erpon x r or nMie,. 
B IB thii play, 

.1. ■■ — Their malady 
Tlte great aaaay of tnt. 

—Who ahall bear (be giult 


Qtt^l is mttrder, moir^uefler* bung in the ddbnguage 
the term for whidi nmrderert ia now uaed. 

ACT |].~«CItlK n> 

—1— Now o'er <Hie half dke world 
(l) tfaiun teent dead, and wicked dreams sbusfc 
The curtain'd sleep ; now witchcraft celebrate* 
Pale HecafM ofierings : and wither'd murder, ^ 
j'Alarum'd by his sentinel, the wolf, 
whose howl's his watch) dius with his EteaUhy pA^ 
With ^) Tar^pmCt ravithing tidet, tow'rds bia deeign 

vKjwnn or hacbsth. 

More* Uke m ^kmI— l^on aotmd and finft-wt eutt. 
Hear art my steps, wbieh way they mlk, fi>r fear 
Thy tarj Mi»iMpnte«f my wb^iv-^Knit, 
,,(«d (3) lake ihevreMMt horror fiim Uu£ 
That » ^ '*■ '' 

That is, mer oar ham$^iataU actio* aitdmotiim Mem 
to have iMued. This image, iriiich ia periu^ die mMl 
striking that poetiy cao produce, has De«i) adi^ted t^ 
Dryde» in bis Conquett of Mexico, 

All things are hiish'd as nature's sel/lay dead. 
The mountains seem to nod their drowsy head; 
The little birds in dreams tlieir soius repeat, 
And sleeping floVrs beneath tbe nightidews sweat. 
Even lust and envy sleep ! 

These lines, though so well known, I have ttonseribed^ 
that the contrast between them and dits pussg9 ei 
SAaietpeart may be more accurately observed. 

Ni^t is descnbed bv two great poets, bat one de- 
scribes a night ofquietjtxie other of perturbation. In the 
night of Drvden, all the disturbers of the world are Ui4 
a^ep i in that i^ Shake^eare, uotfaiOg but stvcery, lust, 
and murder is awake. He that r^ds Dryden, findtt 
bunself Itdled with serenity, and dUnposed to solitude 
and ctmtcsnplation. He that peruses Shaietpeare, looks 
rounS alarmed, and starts to find himself alone. One 
is the ni^t <tf & lover> the other that of a murderer. 

(«) miher'iiuurikr, 

Thus mOh kU tteaU^ pute. 

With Tarquin's ravishing tides tonfrd his desigu, 
Mo^et lite M ^6tL—~ 

Tbia'wjto tike readh^ <^ tiiis pftsa^e iti all the adi- 
ttona before that of Mr. Pope, who for sides, inserted in 
the text krideii wbioh Mr. Theobald luw Udtly o»pi«d 
Vol. I. D d 


ftom him, thoa|^ a more prt^wr altention might per- 
hapa have been made. A raeuhing *tnde is an action 
of violence, impetuoai^, and tumult, like that of a aft> 
vage rushing on bia prey ; vheretu the poet ia here ab 
tempting to exhibit an image of secrecy and caution, of 
anxious drcnmapection end guilty dmidity, the tteatihy 
pace a! & ravuher creeping mto the diamberoTa virgin, 
and of an assassin approaching the bed of him wh(Hn 
he pr^Mses to murder, without awaking him ; these he 

different from A 

•mted to be, as MilUm expresaea it. 

Smooth sliding without step. 

This hemisticfc will afibrd the true reading of this 
place, whidi in, I think, to be corrected tiius : 

— — And wither'd murder,- 

^Thua with bis stealthy pace. 

With Tdrquin ravishing, stides tow'rd his design. 
Move! like a ^ost 

Tarquin is in this place the seneral nuiB itf a im- 
visher, and the sense is. Now is the time in whidi evejy 
one is asleep, but those who are employed in wicked 
nes*, the witch who is sacrifidhg to Hecate, and thera-' 
visher and the murderer, who, like me, are stealing 
upon their prey. 

When the reading is thus adjusted, he wishea witii 
great proprie^, in the following lines, that t])e eaiA 
may not Aeor Au itept. 

(3) And take the present horror Stma the time 
That now suit* with it. 

I believe every one that has attentively read tUK 
dreadful soliloquy ia disappointed at the conclusion, 
llhich, if nqt wholly unintelligible, is, at least, ebaeue, 
nor can be explained into any sense worthy ot Ae •»■ 
ther. I shall therefore propose a djght ft* ' - 

d:t Google 

TUfliDT or MAflinB. 903 

i-lliou tmmd xad finn-Mt eacdi, 

He«r not my steps, vfaich way they walk, for fear 
Thy very stones prate of my wherenrtxiut, 
And te/t^-the present horror of the time t — — 
Tliat now soita with it— ■- 

MaeiM has, In the fbreginng line*, diitnrbed his 
imagiiUlton by enumtratin^ all the terrors of the night ; 
at IbiMh he H wrought np to a degree of frenzy, that 
B»ICes nim aA«id of some aupematurgl discovery of his 
design, and calls oat to the stonea not to betray him, 
not to declare where he walks, nor to tali. — As he is 
goiite to say of what, he diacovm the absurdity *of his 
snapidon uid pauses, but is aeain o'erwhehned by his 
guilt, and concludes, that saA are the horrora of the 
present ni|^it^ that the stones may be expected to ay 
out against him. 

TkM now suits with ib 

the strmigest convictiona oC 
of lus design. 

LeHOM. The ni^t has been unruly ; where we lay 
Qur^himniea were blown down. And, aa they snr, 
Lamenttnes heard i' th'air, strange sereams of deaui, 
Andpn^necyin^ widt accents tRiible 
Of dne e«mb(UtN>BB, and oobfused events, 
Nem hilck'd to the w^d Hme, 
The obacare bird dainonr'd the live-lons toAx, 
. Some aay the earth was fev'iroas and diaih&e. 

These lines I' think should be tadm r^ulated dius: 
— I^nphetTing with accents tartUe, 
Of dice ooraboroons and conAiaed erenta. 
D da 

d:t Google 

so* «isisp«Ti(Mii ON Tqa 

New-hatdi'd' wofiil^tiMM* tbe •faKore bitd . 
Clamour'd jtbe lire-lM^ lugfat Sooe mj tbeearth «n 
ferrous and did duk«, 

A prmhety of an evgnl nem-iLatcXd, temata to be a pro- 
vhecy man eveitt jxut. The tenn ne»-ltatiA'd is proper- 
ly applk^e to a bird, and ^lat tHids t^ m omen ihoidd 
be ntm-kafcKd to the wofid tiwie k vtry comutcBt with 
tbe rest of the prodigies h«v mentioned, aacl witJa tfa* 
universal diMirder into whicJi natiure ia devoibed ai 
thrown, I7 the perpetntioii of thia btnrid miawln. 

NOTE xxn. 

, ■ Up ! Up ! an^ Mfi 

. The gmtX doom's inui^ Malcolm, B^nqito, ^ - 
'As man your graves roe up. — — , : . 

Tbt seooDd line migbt have bcca ao,euiIj compietad, 
that it cuuiot be suj^osed to have been lot .impertet 
hf the aotfaM, who pro^pbl; winte, 

lialcatml BoM^qtuI riael 
AitfljWB yot»r,g»we> jw «y> ■■■— 

Many other onendations c¥ the tanae Um migfat be 
made, without any grBR^' deviation from the [aintcd 
cupiea, than i« found in Mdf of tbAn from the rest, 

NOTE xxni. 

Maebeth^^—HBax. ]k9 Dmom, 
Higspvwskin laced with bievolden^i^oed. 
And his gaah'd stabs lo^'d liu-a bimch in vstun, 
Fw ruin's wast^fij Mrttancft) tfcege.thegwrtb w w; 
Steep'd in the c^oiirs of their trqdeitheir d%;|;cia - 
Uwmantterlj/bi'eeoh'itrithgorp^—- .-.. , ., 

An uHmaniwfy dt»ger »Bd » dagger kfseei^, qr acilB. 
some editions breeckd with gore, are espresajwia BOt 
c^wlT^to.'bB uodeMtoed, iwr 0in'it beUa^^icd.^Rt 
Skaiespearc \vmM reproach the munlww,««.jusl^uf 
only with tBont ifwanlitTt. TJifM m ^vAlfli^t^.tm. 

d:, Google 


fimlta ior thia jfam ng t, irfaiA I h»w taA m foa nd to'Uke 

s iarthispaMag^ D 

V by readiiitfj 

di'd mrt iV iingt blood lie fatal da^ert, 

Eodi of tbete wmds migbt malj be cmifiHinded with 
that whid) I have (ubctiti^ed fin* it by a hand not exac^ 
a cunal Mot, or a ncgligeBt intpection. 

Mf. Pope has cndeaTOured to improve one of Iheae 
lines by subctitutin^ ^oory blood for golden blood, but it 
may eaaily be adnutCed, uiat he who could on audi an 
occasion talk of lacing the siher tktm would lace it with 
golden blood. No amendment can be made to thia line, 
of which every word ia equally faulty, but by a general 


It is not improbable, diot Siaketptan put these forced 
and unnatural metaphors into the mouth of Macbeth, as 
a mail of artifice and disnmulotion, to show the dif- 
ference between Ae studied language of hypocrisy, and 
the natural outcriee <^ sudden passion. Tfais whole 
■peet^, considered in this Bght, is a remarkable inatance 
IX judgment aa it consists entiroly of antitheses and 


ACT ni.— fiCENC II. 

Macbeik.^^-OvR fears in Banqtio 
Stick deep, and in his ''^'d^ "f nature 
Bei«^B that which would be (car'd. 'Tis mudi be dares. 
And to that dauntless temper of his mind. 
He hath a wisdom that doth guide his valour 
To act in safety. There is none but he. 
Whose being I do fear: and under him, 
My genius is rebakM; (1) asUie taid 
Antkon^t mas by Caiar, He chid the sisters, 
When first they put the nune of king upon me, 
D d'S 



Aih^tM^tboBttnlt tahliQ- tirai, iMofdietFlike, 

They hail'd him Jsther to a line of kingo. 

Upon my head Uiej' plac'd a frnideBa crown^ 

And put a barren ■ceptreiamy gHpe, 

Thence to be wrench^ with aa unhneal htad, 

No «on of mine succeeding. If 'tia so. 

For BAnfUtit iMuc have I 'fil'd tny mind. 

For then the ^^racioni Dwkom have I morthcv'ctj 

Put rancours in the vessel of my peace 

Only f<ff tfaem, and mine' tittrind jewel 

Given to the (£) common enemy of man. 

To make tliem kings,— 4he seed of Bvt^ia kinga. 

Bather than so, come fate into the Hat, 

(3) And diampion me to the utteranc e ■ 

(1) .11 . ■ ' As it is said, 
' Anikm^i was by Ctcier. 

Though I would not often SMume the critick's pri- 
vilege, ctf twing confitlcut wZiere certainty oumbt be 
obtaii^, nor indulse myself too fitrin departing-fiMna 
the establiflbed reading ; yet I cannot but propose llie 
rejection of this passM;e, which I believe wkh an inaer- 
iiim of Bome player, l£at having ao much lemming aa to 
discover to what Shakapeare alladtd, was not willing 
, tkat his audioice should be tcM knowing than himselti 
and haa therefure weakened the author's sense by tbe 
intnuim of a remote and useless image into a speech 
bursting from a man wholly possessed with his own 
present condition, and therefore not at leisure to ex- 
plain his own allusions to himself If these words are 
taken away, by which not only the thought but the 
niunbers are injured, tbe Hiies of SkakttpMrt dose to- 
gether, without any traces of a breach. 

Hy genius ia rebuk'd. He diid the sisters. 

(2) — -—The commoti enemy of man. 

It is always an entertainment to an inquisitive reader, 
to trace a sentimeDt to its cviginal wrarce, end therA: 
fore, though Uie tenp ^nen^^nan i^qdied'ta Ae devU 

J ;, Google 

■mA«iDT or MAfwrm. 307 

is ia Hsdf iwtuMl and obTious, y«t wme bmt be pleu* 
ed with being inibrmecl, titat SkaiupMre prmably bQr> 
rowed it from the first lines of the VeHruction rfTro^, 
ft book which he is have khL 

That thia jeauA may nst ffnr too trivial, I ahall 
tnke oceaairai from it to point oat a bcautifiil pMMgs ot 
MUtfM, evidently ct^ied from a book of no greater mi^ 
tlwRity: in describing the gates of hdt, boidiii. y.879> 
he Bays, 

. On A sudden open fly. 

With impetuous recoil and janing sound, 
Th' infernal doors, and on their hii^a gnrte 
Harsh thundn. 

In the htsbMT of Doit Bdtianu, when one ot the 
knights approaches, as I remember, the castle of Snm- 
daar, the gates ore uid to open graimg harth thunder 
npon tAtir &azen hinge*. 

(S) Come &te into the list. 

And champion me to the utterance.—— 

This passage will be best explained by translating it 
into the language from whence the only word of diiS- 
culty in it is borrowed. Que la d&HiKe se rende en lice, 
et qt^elle me donne un defi a Poutrnacc A challenge or 
a combat a foulrance, lo extremity, was a Axed term in 
die law of arms, used when the combatants es^ged 
with an odiam iidemecinmn, a» wttention to destroy each 
other, in opposition to trials of skill at festivals, or aa 
oUier occasions, where the contest was only for reputa- 
tion or a prize. The sense therefore is, IM JiUe, that 
kasjore-doojrtd the exnltiUion of the tont ofBaaqao, eiUer 
. the litis against me, rvilh lite tUmott unimotity, in aefetux of^ 
its own decrees, tvhich I mill endeavour to tavalidate, tvkaU 
eoer be tiie danger. 


Macbeth. Ay, in the cntali^ue, ye go for men. 
As howids, and grey-hounds, mungrels, spaniels, curs, 

308 obsBrvations on rut 

- Sbougfaa, ^nfxt-ngp, woA itaaj-volvea, are clept 
Alt by the name ordogs. 

Though this ig not the most «psrkling passage in the 
jixy, and theugh the name of a dog is or no grent iin- 
pcHtance, yet it may not be insptoper to remark, that 
there it no such apectee of dogs as tttonelu mentioned 
by Catu* de Canibtu Britatmicu, or any other vritA tliat 
has fallen into my hands, nor is the word to be fotmd 
in any ctictionwy which I have examined. I tfierefere 
imagined that it is falsely printed for tlouihs, a kind of 
dow bound bred in the southern parts of Engiand, but 
was informed by a lady, that it is more probably used, 
either by mistake, or acctvding to the orthography of 
(hat time, for tkoekt. 


Macbeth.— ~-ln this hour at moat, 
I irill advise you where to plant yourselves. 
Acquaint you with the perfect spy o' th' time, . 
The moment on't, for't must be clone to night. 
And something fVom the palace : 

What is meant by the gpg qfthe time, it will be found 
difficult to eiplain • and uierefore sense will be cheaply 
gained by a slight alteration. Machclh is assuring the 
assassins that they shall not want directions to find 
Banquo, and therefore says, 

i„m '■ — 

Acquaint i/ou with a perfect spy o' tb time. 

According^ a third marderer joins them afterwards 
at the place of action. 

Perfect is toeU iiutnicted, or weU in/brmed, m in tfaii 

Though in your state of honour I amptrfecL 

TItoiigh I OM well acquainted mlk i/our quality ami rttnJt. 

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Sd.Murdenr. H» Deeds Dot to mistrust, since )w 

Our offices and what we have to do. 
To tlie direction just 

Mr. Theobaid \a» endeavoured tauttceesif^y ta 
ammd tins paasagd, in which nothing ii faulty but the 
punctuation. The meuiinj^ nf this abrt^ didopue is 
this: The peTfed gp^, mentioned by Macbtth in the 
&ftegtHJ^ scene has, befere thej niter upon the stage, 
^▼en tbem the directions -which were promised St tn^ 
time rfthdr agreement; and therefore one of the mnr- 
demv 6b»exre»i that, since he haa given them tuck exact 
n^ormalum, he m«tU rwt dou6t m" Ihar petformance. 
thxa \fg wajr. of exfaurtatloB to Ins associates he ertes 

- To the direction just 
Macboth's iftv 


JVont noUine remains bvt thtU nv CO^^im <«k% tft 
ir_ _t _.t.g MtetioM. 

Machah. You know your own degrees, dt down: 
At first aiid laat the hear^ welcome. 

. As this |ttsss^ stoodsj not on^ the i 
very impertect, but the sense, if any can be ibund, weak, 
and coutamptilile. Tb» niunb«r« will be iiBfooved b/^ 

■ - .-.ait down at first. 
And last a hearty « 


But for latl should then be written ncA I beGeve the 
true reading is 

Yoo know your own degrees, tat down^— To first 

And last die hearty welcome. 

All of fvhaiever degree, Jrom the higke^ to Ike bmati 
matf be attund that Ueir visit is teeU received. . 


<■ MmAefh—TwcKK'a blood upon thy &ce. 

C_To Ae murthertr aside at the dwr. 
Jtimkrer. Tia Banqwft then. 
Mueieth. 'Tis better fto totihoat, thmi ke frilAin. 

'Tis better thee without, than Aim widiin. 

' That is, 7 am more pleated that the blood t^ 
thotUd be OH thyjace, than in hi* body. 


Lttdg Macbeth. Tropkh stuff! 
This is the very painting of youriear: 

J\Aside to Hacbctb. 
This is the air-drawn dasger which you said 
Led you to Duncati. OE7these flaws and starts. 
Impostures to fmejear, would well become 
A woman's story at a winter's fire, 
Authoriz'd by her grandam. Shune itself 1 
Why do you make such faces ? 'When all's done 
You look but on a stool. 

As starts can neither with propriety nor Mxao be c*ll- 
efl imposturrs to true fiar, somelsing else was undoubt^ 
eilly intended by the autbor, who periiqM wrote 

' Those flaws and starts. 
Imposture* true tojear, wonld weD 
A wonun'i sttw y — -* 

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TRAOEDv or jucsnii. SIl 

Tbese syniptcHaa of ternwandaniueiiwnt mm-htliet- 
ter became impottor* true onlf to fear, mg}U become a 
eotvard at the recktd of tuck filmhoodt at na man couid 
credit mhote uudtrttanding mat not teeaJeeMd by hif ier^ 
rors; lalei toldby a teamanooer a^reonllteaiUionly^ 


Mathetk.——\Ans and health to all I 
Hien I'll sit down : give me same wine, fill fullT- 
I drink to th' general joy of the whole table. 
And to our dear friend Banqno whom we miss. 
Would he were bei* ! to all, and him, we thint, 
Attd aa to aU 

Though this passage ia, aa it now stands, capable ot 
more meanings than Mie, none of them are very satis- 
&ctory ; and therefore I am inclined to read it thus : 

Mncbeik, being about to salute his company witli 
a bumper, declares that he includes Banquo, tliough ab- - 
sent, m this act of kindness, and wishes ieaith to alL 
Haii or heUfor kealik was in such continual use amonf 
the good-fellows of andeot times, that a drinker was 
CftUed a wtu-haitr, or a wisher of heaUk, and ibe liqu^ 
was termed mat-keil, because health was so often toithed 
over it. Thus in the lines of Htmvil the Monk, 

Jamque vagaiUe tcypko, ditcmcto pitture was-heil 
Jngendnant was-heu : labor est j£u perdere vini, 
QjiaiTt titU. 

>TheB« words were afterwards corrupted into watnal 
and rvattailer. " , . * 


Macbetk.—~^KV such things be. 
And overcome us like a summer's (Joud 

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Wttbout onr ^>ed«l wonder? Yon mske 

Even to the diipontian dutt I tme, 

Wbm now I think you can behold mdi n^ti^ 

This {MUMge, m it ncnr atanda, is untntdHgible, bnt 
may be reatored to aense by a Tsiy alight alteration. 

^ ■ ——.Yon make me alraoge 
£¥*« to tke diipoatdwi that I iamt, 

TAoi^ / Amj &f^«wntMi^iMj(aitoet iff yo»ir,cauTagt, 

Jonff acquaintance fmlA ifour disposition deer Mof AtMifer 
mejivm thai oHoiMhMtU ivkich novtAty pmduca. 


It viD have Uood, tb^ aay blood will have blood. 
Stones have been known to more, and trees to Bpcak> 

LI Iwoni^t fbnh 

In this passage the firatUne Io«es much of its £ane 

5tbe pRMOt pMBCtuatJOD. Jfa«ielA having ccsisidec- 
the |»odigy which has jott ^>peued, inferainstlv 
from h, that the deathofDmcM cannot paastmpuBishe^ 

It milllun* ikodr— . > 

llien alta a short pause,- dedans it as the general ob- 
smration of mankind, dut murderers cannot escapes 

rTk^ n^, blood miB haeeilood. 

Murderers, when they have practised aO human means 
•necnrityi are detected by suponatural directuHU. 

Augnra, that understand relstMms, ^. 

By the word rflation is understood Ae connection of 
cfl'eiis widi causes; to uiidertiand relations as an atigitr 



is to know how tbose things relaU to each other iriiich 
have no visible combinatibn or dependence. 


Etiier Lenox and aitother Lord. 

As Uiis tragedy, like the rest of Shaketpear^t, is per- 
haps overstocked with personages, it is not easy tu a»- 
eri^ a reason, why a- nameless character' should be 
inb^Mluced here, since nothing ia said that might not 
with equal propriety have been put into the mouth of 
any other dieanected man. I believe, therefore, that 
in. the original copy, it was written wiih a very common 
form of contraction, Lenox and An. for which the trans- 
criber, instead i^ Lenox and AiiffUf, set down Lenox and 
another Lord. The author had indeed been more in- 
debted to the traascribn^s fidelity and diligent^, hud hn 
cummitted no errors of greater importance. 



As this is the chief scene of enchantment in tfae play, 
it is proper in this place to observe, with bow much judg- 
ment Ukaketpeare haa select all the circumstances of 
his infernal ceremonies, and how exactly he bos con- 
^nined to conunon opinions and traditions. 

Thrice the hrinded cat liath mew'd. 

The HMial form in which familiar spirits ore fepmrted 
to converse with witches, is that of a cat. A witeh, 
who Was tried about half a centui? before the tixofi of 
Skaketpeare, Iiad a cat named Ifutierkfn, as the spirit of 
one or those witches was GrimaffttH ; and wlien anv 
mischief was to be done, she used to bid RutterUitgf 
and Jig ; but once Whe» shewould have sent fiwtfewM*. 
to torment a daughter of the countess of Hullaiid, in- 
stead olgotng ar_fyine,)xe only cried mfiv, from whid) 
she discovers that the lady was out of his power, the 

J ;, Google 

Skakeipeart haa t&keii care t« inroteote. 

Though faia bark cmwt be loet. 
Yet k Bhall be tempest totL 

The common aSktkNiB which the mslice of wltdies 
produced w«n mtiwwbwiy,' its, aad toaa of fledi, whidi 
■K threMcBed by one of Shaketpear^i witches, 

Wesiy •er'nuishts nine tisoies'iiuw 
SbaJD he dwindle, peakj a*d piee. 

It was Gkewive their practice to dextroy the cattle of 
their nef^bonrs, tchd the tanners have to thisdav ^any 
ceremonies to secHre ^eir cows and other cattle from 
witchcraftj but they seem to have been most suspected 
of malice asalnst twine. Shakeitpeare has accordiiulT 
made one of his witches declare that she has bem tU- 
ling noinei and Dr. Harttxel observes, that about that 
imiiau, bul tomt old woman foat charged tvith mtckcraji. 

Toad, that tinder the oAA stone 
Days and ni^ts has fbity-tme 
Swehcr'd veaMnn sleeping got. 
Boil thou first i' the channed pot. 

Toads have fikewise long lain under tAe tf^oadi of 
being hv some means accessary to witchcraft, tor wiuch 
reason Shaketpeare, in the first scene of this play, calls 
one of the spirits podacie or tvad, and fiow takes can 
to put a toad first into the pot. When Fatmnit was 
seized at ThimUniK, tliere was found at his loc^^ings m- 
geiubi(^ vitro huliMtt, a great liiml.»kiU hm tmai, auaa 
which those, that ptKwecsted him vtne/iciiim eafntm-i 
bmtt chti^tAkmi I suppose^ nitk mbihtr^i. 

Fi^et of a fenny snake 
# In the'caujclrqu boi^ ;uid Wk£ > 

Eye of ueut, MMJ toe 4rfl!i'0g;r-" 
; For a chwm, .Jk. 

■ Tlie propriety of di»e Infijedients. may b» kaowi^ 
fcy oonsnlting- me books ik FirSmt Anifalinm and * 

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MirM li i m Mmmdi, Moribed to Albertut' Magmi,' in 
which themder,'iriMfaBs Ime md ovdalily, maydiS" 
ovver ver^ wDndaf lU Mcrafs. 

Finger of birth- rtrangled babe, 
Ditch-dcliver'd by a. arab;— 

-It hu beCA lireadf metidoned in the Isv aminft 
wjtchea, that they ate a«ppoaed to take up dead wMtea 
to tue in enAuibBents, whidi wm confessed by the 
woBUHl whom King Jama examined, and who had of a 
dead body, that waa tfivided in one of their aaaembliet, 
two fingers for her ahne. It if obaerrable dut SAoAw- 
peare, oa tbia great occanoo, whi(3i inrolves the &te of 
a kio^ multiplies , all t^ ctrcumatances of bomour. 
The babe whose finger ia used, must be strangled in its 
birtbj' the graaae must not ^y be human, but iwut 
have dropped from a gibbet, the gibbet of a murders, 
and evea me aow whose blood is used must have o&nded 
nature by devouriog her own Arrow. These are tottdief 
•f judgment and genius. 

And how about tbe caiAlron atD g i ■■ 

Kne spirits and white, 
. Kack ^nrits and grey. 
Mingle, mingle, mingle. 
You diat mi^e may. 

And In a fbnner par^ 

Weird aisten hand in hand— — 
Tlias do go about, about, 
nitiee to mine, and thrice to ddne. 
And limes aguntemAe up nine. 

Tlwae two pssMges I have broi^t t^gethw, because 
Aty both' aeem subject to ike ot^actlon of two much 
levt^ for die solemnity of enchantment, and may both 
be uiewn, by one .quotatioa firom CamJen'i account oP 
Irelmnd, to be founaed apoa a.praetice really observed 
I7 the undyiliEed natives of diat coun^. " Wfcen any 
" one gets'a Ml, tm» the informer o^Camden, he starts 
" up, end AncMg Stree limes to the ¥igit, digs a hole in 
" the earth; for tiiey imagine that tbete is a spirit in 

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'■ the ground; and if be^s nckin two or three dmr^ 
" tbey send one of their women that ii skilled in that 
" way to the place, where ahe says, I c«ll thee from the 
" east, west, north, and south, &om the groves, the 
" woods, the rivers, and the fens, &om thejairia, rat, 
" black, vhite." There was ,likewise a book written 
before the time ofShaketpfare, describing, amongst oAcr 
projwties, the cohars of spirits. 

Many other circumstaitees laigtit be particularized, 
in which S'^jii^jpfar^ has shownltis judgment and bis 


Mat^li. THouarttooIiketbeaiMritof&m^iWjAnrir. 
Thy crown does (1) sear my eye-balls, and thy (S) hair. 
Thou other gold-bouad brow, is like the first, 
A third is tike the former.— . 

(I) The expression of Macbeth, that the enmntatrt 
hit eye-balls, is tdken fpm tbt^JtlMibjbalNH^ pt*th i 
tisedofdestroyhTj;tlw1^b»^^p<iBai9ig^e&^ ^ 
by holding a burning bason before the eye, wfaidi dried 
i^ its humidity, 

(3) As Macbeth expected to see a train cokings, and 
was only enquiring from what race they would proceed, 
he could not be auiprised that the Aoir c^ the second 
was iowuJn'i/A ^U like that ofthe first; hewasofiend- 
etl only that the serond resembled the first, as the first 
leaeiubled Banquo, and tlierefore said, 

^And thy air. 

Thou other gold-bound bipw, is like the first 


That trace Aim ia kU line— no boasting like afo(4, 
This deed HI do before my purpose votA, 

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MNUitBT or KMavrB: 8I7' 

Botti ^ MOM tiid mmnre of the tfditf Rnv whidi 
«a it i^ymes, ought, ueordii^ to the ytwe&a of dua 
«tthar, to be rwHlar, ue at j^resent ugured bj two 
auperfluous BylUolea, which maf eamly lie Eeneved bj 

i mut tnce his Im&-^ boasting like « fotd. 
BCBNl m. 
fiAfM. Deakest counn 

I pray you tehool yourself; but fiir your husband, 
He's noble, wise, judicioiu, and best knows 
The fits o' th' timej I dare not speak mu'di farther. 
Bat cruel an the times when we are tnitora. 
And do not knoVt oiirMlres : when we (f) AoMnamwr 
Froni what neJiMr, yet know not what «« fear, 
' But fioat upon a wild and violent sea 
Each way, and (2) moot. Ill take lo^ leave t^youi 
Shall not be lo^ Mt I'Ube here again; 
Things at the wont will cease, or else climb upwfixls 
To what they were hisftire.: my [Mvttytousin, 
Bleesiiig i^mhi you. 

(1) ■■ when we hold rumour 
Frpm what we &ar, yet know not what we fear. 

The present reading seems to afford no sense; and 
Aerefbre seme critical espmments may be properly 
tried u^ion it, though, tlie verses being^ without any. 
connection, there is room for suspicion^ lliat swne in- . 
termediate lines are lost, and diat the passage is there* 
fere irretrieTable. If it be supposed that the feult 
•rises only &om the corruption of same word^ and 
tbat^the traces of the true readii^ are sdD to be found, 
tile passage may be chai^^ thua: . 

—— When we bode ruin 
From whst we f^r, yet know not what we few. 

1 serae very appfiobte to the oecasipa of the 

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-•— Whrai the bold ntaming 
Fkhh vhat they fear, yet know not what they fear. 

(S) But float upon a wOd and violent sea 
Each way, and more. 

That he irhojtoaif uptm a rvugk tea must Move is evi- 
dent, too evident for smkapeare so emphatically to as- 
sert The line therefore is to be written thus : 

£a(^ way, and move — III take my leave of you. 

Ro*K is about to proceed, but finding himself over- 
powered by his tenderness, breaks on alsiiptly, for 
which he makes a short apology and retiree. . 


JUa/cohn, Let us seek oat awne dteolate shade, 
and there 
Weep oiir sad bostMns empty. 

Macduff. Let us rather 
Hold fast the mortnl sword ; anj Kke good men. 
Bestride our doirnfql birth-ioom : eadi new mom. 
New widows howl, new orphans ciy, new sorrows 
Htrike heaven on the face, that it resounds 
An if it felt with Scolland, and ^ell'd out 
Like syllables of dolour. 

He who can discover what is meant t^ him that 
earnestly eshorts him to betlrideloB dotmfal birth-dooM, 
is at liberty to adhere to the present text; but those 
who are willing to confess that such counsel would to 
them be. unintelli^ble, muEt endeavour to discover 
some rending less ^>scure. It is probable that Shaie*- 
peare wrote, 

——Like good men, 
Bestride our downfid'n birthdom 

The allusion is to a man ttoia whom something valu- 
able is about to be taken by violence, and who, that he 
may defend it without encumberance, lays it on the 

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gtornid, and >tanda over it with bU wnp6ii in fau hud. 
Our birtbdom, or birtliright, enya b^ lie* rai the ground, 
let us, like men who are to fi^t for wh^ is dearest to 
them, not abandon it, but stand over it and defend iL 
This ia a strong picture of obstinate resolution.' 

Birihdom for birihrighl is formed by the same analosj 
with rnaaterdom in this pkj, signifying the privikgu oc 
rig/Ux o[ atruuter. 

Perhqn it mij^t be birik-dame for mother; let nt 
stand orer our mother that Ues bleeding on the ground. 


Malcolm. Now well together, and die dumee of 

Be hke our warranted quarrd. 

The chance qfsoodnett, as it is commonly read, con- 
veys no sense. If there be not some more important 
errcff in the passage, it should at least be pointed tbos : 

— ^And the cliance, of goodness. 
Be like our wamuited quarrel. 

That is, May the event be, of the goodness of heawn 
Z^rojusUHa dxvtna^ answerable to the cause. 

But I sm inclined to believe that Skaietpeare wrote, 
•^And the chance, O goodness. 
Be like our warranted quarrel. 

This some of his transcribers wrote with a small o, 
which another imagined to mean of. [f we ad^t this 
reading, the sense will be, and O Inou muereign goodneu 
to whom we aotn appeal, may our fortune antmer to am- 


4CT V. — SCCdE III, 

Macbeth. Brino me no more reports, let them fiy all, 

'Till Btmani wood remove to Duntinane, 

I cannot taint with fear. What's the boy Makobn 9 

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Wa»ht not bBOk at wtmm} '- 

*— Fl^ f«be Tbmet, 
■ And mingle intli the Eitgluh epieuKi. 

In the first Une of this speech, the pn^er paiiMS He 
not observed in the present editions. 

Bring- me no more reports — let tbem flf all— 
Tdl me not tnuf woremdeKriioiu^-~lM oil my suhfecU 
kave me— I am tc^ iXa, S[c. 

The reproach of epicariHin, eii which Mr. TheobfM 
has bestowed a note, u nothing more than a natural in- 
Tective uttered by an inhabitant of a barrra country, 
agwut tho«'Who hare more t^qicHrtuAities of bonu;. 


MacMft. I HATK liv'd long enough : my troy of life 
It hSto into die sear, the yellow 1^. 

As there is no relation between the n>av ^^> and 
&Um inU} tkettar, I am inclined to think, uiat the ffia 
tmly an M inverted, and dutt it waa original^ written, 

/ am now paaedjrom the spring fo the avtttmn ^ mf 
dt^t, bitt I am/vi^UMt thote comfortt that tkavid smxeetl 
the tpnghtUxeu of bloom, and support me i» iMit Mc&m- 


SSatcobu. 'Tis his main hope: 
Tot where there is advantage to be g*oett, 
Both more or less hare given him the revolt ; 
And none aeme wiA him b«t caulraincd things. 
Whose hearts are absent too. 

The impropriety of the expression adfomtage fo it 
ghet, instead of adwaiiage poe», and the dia^ 
r^)etition of the wsrdgnww-u the next lin^ dm 

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—Where there is a vantage to he gone, 
Both more or less have given him the revidt. 

Adoaniage or vantage ia the tloie of Shaketpeare alg- 
nified oppmimnitg. 

Store and Utt is the same with greater and len. So 
in the interpolated Mandeville, a book of that age, there 
IB a cjiqrter of India the more and the kn. 


Macbeth. — Whkrifork wa« that cry ^ 
Sexton. The queeit is dead. 
Siacbeth. She should (1) have died hereafter; 
There .would have been a time for such a teord. 
To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow. 
Creeps in thia petty, pace from day to day. 
To the last syllable of (3)j«corded time; 
And all our yeeter^ys have lighted fools 
, The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle I 

^::,t.if&VbM|||'^^ shadow. 

She should have died hereafter. 
There would h^ve been a time for such a tvord. 

This pasM^ has very justly been suspected of being 
eomiDt. It 13 not apparent for what mord there would 
have Deen a lime; and that there would or would not 
be a time for any word, seems not a consideration of im- 
portance sufficient to transport MacheSi into the follow- 
ing exclamation. I read therefore, 

(1) She shoidd have died hereafter, 
Thiere would have been a titaefor — «uch a taorid!— 
To-morrow, SfC, 

It is a broken nieech, in which only put of the 
thought is espressetC and may be paraphrased thus : 

The queen it dead. Macbeth. Her death ikoidd havt 
been deferred to tome more peacefid hour; had the lived 
hnger, theoe would at length have been a time for Ike 

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honow* due to her a» m ^ wt en, .ami limt raped tMch I 
owe her fyr her^fideliiif mud love. Smeh w the werid— 
Much M the cpndilion o/^ ^mian f^, that we ahvaif* thini 
to-morrow wiU be happier than to-day; but to-mamm 
and to-tnorrom iteala over us uneitjw/ed and vmegarded, 
and me ttill linger in the ttnne eapeatalioK to the moment 
appointed for our end. All Utete dm/M, which have Ikat 
patted awaif, hane teal malliludet offvi» to the vave, who 
mere eiigroiKd hy the tame dream tgjvlurefeualg, and, 
when lye wot deparlingjraia them, were, lite tne, reckoning 

(2) To dw Ust Bflkble of recorded tinw. 

Secorded time eenns to signtfy the time fixed in the 
decrees of heftvtsi for the penod of lifb. The record of 
JJUurUi/ Mindeednoftccurateeipieuiuu, bntas weonly 
know tranaaetian* put or -present, tbe hngiage of men 
afford* no term for the rolumes of nresdeiice, in whidi 
future events may be suppoted to be written. 


Macbeth. Ir thou speak'tt biae, 
Upon the next tree dialt thou hang^ alive. 
Till famine cliifg thee : if thy speech be Bootb, 
I care not if thou dort fer me as mud> .■■.■ - 
Ip'di in resolution, and begin 
To doubt th' equivocation of the fiend. 
That lies Kke,truth. " Fear not till Bimam wood 
Do come to thintinane" and now a wood 
Comes towards Duntinane. 

Thoiwh this is tfae.7eading of ^ de e^tinu, yet •■ 
it is a ^raae without ntber exan^ile, elegance, or pro« 
priety, it is surely better to read 

I paB in reKdati«^^ 

I languitk in my coMlancrf, my confiieiKe begint tojbr- 
johe W. It is edarcely necessary to observe now eanly 
fsU might be changed into puU by a neg%etit writo', or 
oustakoi ftr it by an unekQful printer. 

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S ^ m n -i. H«D' I » many sons m I hare hairs, 

I would not vi«h tiiein to a fairer death : 

And so hia kndl is hnoll'd. 

This iiu^dentiathuB related from Henrg of Hunting- 
d&K by Camden m bis Remains, ftvm which our author 
probably copied it. 

When Seynard, the martial Emri of NoHfutnAeiiMtd, 
nnderstood' that hia son, wham he had sent in service 
against the Scotchmen, was slaio, he demanded, whether 
his wound were ia tbe Sixe part or hinder put of his. 
body. When it was answered in the fore part, he re- 
PUmI, " I am right glad; nejther vbb 1 any tXber 
'' death to me or mine." 

.a therefore convenient for me to deUy tbe publication of 
mj remark*, till 1 bod eiunined nhethp they were not anticipated 
by similar obficrvatitHU, or precluded by better. I tliereftire read 
over this tiayedy, but fcund tbat the edltAv'a apynbeaAiB I* s< a 
cast so diflereQt from mine, that he appean to Cod. na dilflculty in 
ma«t of those pasaa^iea which I byne repraaenled ai unititd%ible, 
and haa therefore pawe^ smooth^ over tbem, without any attempt 
to alter or explain tham. 

Some of the Uitfa, wkh which I h^ hem pnpfaaedi kaira been 
iodead »b fortunate a* to aunet hia regard ; a«d It it iMt vMmhu all 
tha asCtsfactiiHi wfakfa kia nnial tt^eapreaaortiaaekoecaaiaaa, Atk 
I Ipd an eMiceagraenent batwean jialn ■iliwriiMli^ ha riiili II.) 
jwirrd fbi quarrf, and ia explaining Uia adaga of taa ett, (Nota 

XVII.) 101 Ibw plfMuiaia, Hkaaooatr-"-- "- ■- - .- 

M:8rttl«d ;. <b« 1 have tbe unbqipinaa tc 
with re^d to any otber paango. 

Th» liM wUolk I baire euleajroiuad to amotd, Kota XI. ia like- 
wtoe aRwnptad by Ht* new edttur, and ia pcAai» tlie oaly paaaaga 
i0the iriflf in mUA be baa.fnt lulnniaBiTdy adsiiltcd tte sroeaAh 
tioBaofibmgafeig.i»ltiaa biMeadaf tbaaatanuKrraadii^, 

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Thb BltMUkMi, whidi, like bU the rest attempted li; Um, llie 
naderii expected to BdmittwitbaulBnjreBDD alleged in its defence, 
li in my oiHnioD, mora fdaus&Ie than that of Hr. Theeiaid ; wtw- 
thei it la right, I am not to determine. 

In tbe passage which I have altered in Note %1~ ai 
ia likewiae attempted in the late edition, where, for 

i« eubstituted— And the chance !■ gooditeiw — wbetbet with more ot 
less elegance, dignity, and propriety, than the reading wMdi I have 
ottered, I muEt agniti decline the province of deddirg. 

Meal o€ the othel- emendations wbicb he baa endearoured, whe- 
ther with good or bad fortune, are too trivial to deserve menlJotw 
For BUTcly (he Ticspana of criticiam ought not to be Uuntcd againit 
an editor, who can imagine that he is re^toting pcetrj, whUe be ti 
•musing himself with alleiations like thew: 

For - 

Like a r^^ good and hardy soldier fbughtk 
nay'd not this 
IS Macbeth and Banquof—^Y^ ( 

Out captains brave Macbeth and Bttigut) t — Yes. 

Such hannleas industiy may, nirely, be forgiven, if it cannot W 
|lniaed : may he theretbra oever want a monosyUeble, who can det 
tt with auch nonderllil dexterity. 

Bumpalur guitquii rampiitir inHifla / 

The tot of thk edition I have not read, but. from the Uttle that I 
have seen, think it not dangetnUBtodecl^ that, in my opinion, lis 
pomp reconiinenda it more than itB acctjiacy. ThBv Is do distiBC- 
tion made between the ancient reeding, ahd the innovatlafia of Iha 
editor; there is no reaaon given forany of theolteiationswUcltaiB 
made ; the emendation* of former critiei are adopted without any 
ackneiwledgmenl, and few of the dilficulttesju^ removed whidi have 
hitheno embarrassed the readers of Shakcipemt. 

I would not, however, be thou^t to insult the editor, nor to coi- 
Atire him with too much petulance, for having tailed In Htlie thlngri 
of whom I have been told, that be excels Jn g natei. But I roaji 
without indecency, observe, that no man should attenpt to tcmh 
others what he has never learned himself ; and that those who. like 
fAemi/focfat, have studied the arts of policy. snd^imllBcft.a hhS 
tliitt htta to gram great, should, like him, disdain to labour in tlid«» 
and conaideT petty accomplishmenls as below their ai 

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Thovbh criticiBm has been cnltivated in Bvery age of 
tearnin^ by men of great abHides and extensive kjiaw- 
ledge, fill the nilea of writing are become rather bur-" 
denflome than instructive to the mind ; though almost 
ereiT «pedes of composition hai been the subj^:! of par- 
ticular treatises, and given birth to definitions, distinc- 
tions, precepts and illustrations; yet no critick of note 
that 'has fallen within my "abservatitni, has hiUierto 
thou^t ^ejnUchral inscriptions worthy of a minute W-' 
amination,- or pointed out with proper accuracy their 
beauties and defects. 

The reasons of this neglect it is useless to inquire, and 
'perhaps impossible to discover ; it nuffht be justly ex- 
pected that this kind or writing 'would have been the 
favourite topick ef triticism, and that self-love misht 
have produced some regard fiir it, in those authors that' 
have crowded libraries with elaborate dissertations up- 
on Homer; since to afTord a subject for heroic poems is' 
the privilege of very few, but every man may expect to 
be recordid in an epitaph, and therefore finds some in- 
terest in providing that his memory may not suffer by 
an unskilnd pane'gyrick. 

If OUT |u^udtces in favour of antiquity deserve to have 
ai^ part in the r^^nlation of our studies. Epitaphs seem 
entitied to more than common regard, as they are pro- 
bably of the sam^es^ with the art of writing. The'most 
ancient structures in the world, the PjTamids, are sup. 
poaed to be sepulchral monirments, which either pride 
or gratitude erected ; and the same passions which in- 
cited men to such laborious and expensive methods of 

' This wn one of the numerous nnall pieces Dr. Jahnim WtdM 
fcr be Gentknuui'i Maguins, and appeared tliere io ITM. 

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preserving their own memory, or that of their 1>enefiu> 
tois, woiud doubtless ihdiae them not to neglect aaj 
easier means hj which the same ends might be obtained. 
Nature and reason have dictated to eveiy nation, that 
to preacrre good actions from oblirion, is both the in- 
terest and dut^ of mankind : abd tiierefere we find no 
people aconainted .with the nse of letters, that omitted 
to grace tbe tombs of their h«roes and wise men wi^ 
panegjrrical insoiptions. 

Td txamine, therefore, in what ibt perfection of Epi> 
TAPH8 GOOBists, and what rules are to be observed in 
eompoBing them, will be at least sF as much utiea»otbCT 
aitiGal UMjuiries ; and iai aadgning a few hour* to nid 
disquisitiodB, great exam{Jes at least, if not sbvog Te»> 
sons, may be pleaded. 

An Epitaph, as the word itself inqiiies, I'ft an ittterip^ 
/ton aa^ Iht lomh, and in its most extensive import rnxj 
actmit indiscriminately satire or praise. But as niaUce 
has seldom produced monuments of defamation, andtht 
tombs hitherto raised have been the work of friendship 
and benevolence, custom has contracted the orig^al la- 
titude of the taord, so that it signifies in the general ac- 
citation, an itucriplion engravaum a lonA m hottouT ff 
iJieperton deceased. 

As houonrs are paid to tlie dead in order to indte 
othm to the imitation of their excellencies, the {mnci- 
pal intention of Epitaphs is to perpetuate the iTamplM 
of virtue, that the tottib of a good man may siqiply the 
want of his presence, and veneration for his memoiTprc^ 
dlice the same effect as the observation of his life.' Those 
Ef iTAFHS are, therefore, detmost perfbct, which set vir- 
tue in the strongest light, and are best adapted to exalt 
the reader's ideas and rouse bis emulation. 

To this end it it not always necessary to recount the 
actions of a hero, or enumerate the writftjgs of a philo- 
■opher; to imagine such informations necessary, is to 
detract from their characters, or to suppose their works 
mortal, or their a^ievements in danger of being forgot' 
ten. The barename of sudi men answers every pmv 
jwse «f a long insoription.- 

Had only the name of Sir Isaac Newton been w^ 
joined i» the deri^ *'I^^ ^^ monument, imtead of a 

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1<H^ dstnl (rfhiB diflc 

wmt, and wlncb none but m phik^aphar can andBttti 
those, by whose direetioB it woa rauedi had doo* n 
hcnonF bcriji tA him «iid b> tbenuolvei. 

This indeed it a comineadatiaB whiii it raquicM iw 
gcnina t* bwtaw, bat irladi can acver became vulgar 
er oontamptible, if bestowed tritb judgitient;<beeuua 

fpaaegyndi. _. . 

■irted gainst the atlaoka of lime) aMdifmamfiad te 
f^MtatwB i>y aeaidcnt ^ ei^rioa. Jure nothuig but (hair 
■eamcB engraven on their Meabi, tfaeie i« danger lot ui 
«fe«p yamn the jmu i[Hiim JeneaMo intntpwtec. Thwa 
have meu a jqiuB tati m» been afa^ppweiad who hn 
Pieiu of Mitwdala with this pan^ow epiti^ : 

HI*. mine, then eelebielcd in the miataat eomera af 
de'Vaidi, tR tww ahneat fiNsdtten ; aiiil hia vovka, (he* 
vtodied, admired, and jfipuwded, an mnr iBouldeiip^ 
inriMduiity:. - , 

Next in digsit^i to tha.ben Ba«ie.M adioit tbaimeiee, 
sin^e B)ul unadcmad, without auif^gBntioat ai^eri^ 
tivaa, or rhatMidt. Such were the uuoriptione in use 
^tDong the Romantf in which the victonea gained by 
ibeir smpeKira wete OMninanumted by a lin^ e^hat J 
aa Casar GenmiMmu, Caaar Oadcut, Gemianiixt, liijf- 
ricus. Such would be this epit^qihj IsAACUBNEwnnHMi 
mattira It^ibut imxtttgatu, he quieMciL 

But to far the greatest pert of mankisd a longer 'en- 
comium is necessary for lixe publication of tlieii virtues, 
and the preservation of th«r memories ; and in the 
fioiaposttion of these it is thst art Ujatma^^f raquired, 
and precepts therrfcM'e may be usetul. 

Id writine Epitaphs, one drcunutaiiee !■ to lie con' 
sidered, which affects no other composition ; the place 
^ which they are new eomaionly found rsstrains them 
£o a particular air of solemnity, and deb^trs tbem fVopi . 
the admission of all lighter or gayer omajoents. In this 
it is that the style ftf an Epitaph necesaarOy differs 
Jh>m ibut of an ^uw^- The ciistow of burying ov 
F fa 

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MS ssiAY on MnTtraa. 

dnd «ther inor Bear our churches, perhaps mfpaJif- 
^butaded on a radeaal design of fitting ^he mind for re- 
'-Hgimu eaerciies, by ]a,yiag befitre it the mort affcctiag 
{mof of the imctMBUitf cfMSe, taakea k |»oper'to ex- 
chide fiom our EitTAPHs all auch alliuiotis as are c«i- 
, irary to the doctrines &r the ^vapagation of wfaidi the 
dburchcB are erected, and to the end for whidi tboae 
who peruse t2ie monamenta must be supposed to come 
thither. XoUiii^ is, tbereftwt^ more ridiculoua than to 

wpy the Roman inscriptions, whidi were etwravcB oa 
Voiles by the high ysy, and composed by Uk 
generally reflected on mottali^ only to excite ii 

wives and others a tpiid^ rdm of pleasure, and a mace 
luxurious et^joyment of life, and whose re^rd tox Ae 
dead exietided no fiirtbn than a wieh that earti a^gib 
ht light taxm them. 

All allusions to the heathen mythology are therefixe 
absurd, and all regard for the senselees remains of a dead 
taanimptftiaentandsuperstitioiis. Oneoftbefintdi»- 
tinctions of the primitive duistians, was their ne^^ect of 
bestowing garluida on the dead, in whidt thi^ arc vecy 
rationally ddended by th^ir apologist in MmutiM* F^x. 
." We lavish no flowers nor odonrS on the dead," says 
he, " because they have no sense of frasrsnce or i^ 
•* beauty." We profess to revecena the oead. not fta 
their saxe, bat for our own. It ia therefore always with 
indignation or contempt that J read the epitaph on Com- 
-Uif, a man, whose learning and poetry were his lowest 

. . 4Tea dut* latr wlitant tva iorifta per orbem, ' 

Etfama ctemam vivii, divine Poeta, 


Cava Fida. mgikntqueperenul lamjmdt Miua ! 

Sit igetr ittc loinit, na fnU temcrarhu aiuU 

Saeriiega larbare miMu oentiaLUe buitura. 
.,'-■ latacti immtaat, numeaat per ttecula duka . 

COWLEII rinerei, arveatqtu: immobili laxHnt. 

To pray that the ashes of afriendm^lieundisturbett 
-and that the divinitiea that fayourea him in his life, 

' mav watch for ever round him to preserve his tomb from 
*iolBtion, and drive sacrilege away, is only rational in 

.him who believes the soul interested in the repose of the 

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InAf, and the powcn vUdi he binAes fiir ta yntee- 
tionaUetopreaenrcit. To cmmwb »Mh LkpiLwd ams — 

coMiaiy to religion, or ■§ nnMni of bcMthot •vpetAi* 
* «t, would be Mo grest « degree of acrerf^. f con- 
no them only aa MtinKmctive and maSbetin^, as 

too hiitirrniii fnr TTTflmrti t grief fnr rhrirtnnil j anil 

Thai die dcaignl and deeoratiom of moaanunta 
ocij[;lit likewise to be formed wit& tiw «amc repaid to 
Ibe aoleaBnty of the place, cmnot foe dmied ; it ia «n 
iM t aWti bed (Minapte, that-all omneHtH owe tlieir bean- 
■ff to thefr pmpTM^. The aenw glitter of dfMt thst 
Mda grace* to gateCj' oimI Tonth, wodU ■adoe ag» and 
^Affiri^ contetnptiUe. Clitara», widiW>b<nt,iafofliam 
I w ^ht e nhy the nrfU grandeur of tiie wtivetv^ jodg- 
-sent, tbe^^ (bawn ^ Angda hnaeelf; nor is it eaijr 
40 fnuigine ■gtoMcr limnfaty than that vf gtacntc die 
■wrnHa of a diriedan temple wMi the Agore at Jimr* 
• '• 'wro to I "* " • . . 


«t the tomb of Samnasariiu ii, hi niy opinion, wore 
ra^ to-be deftnded', duui he ihM cnctcd them. 

It is'ftr the nme neaion impnqier to adifran die 
BnTAPW to' the i t a ewii gt r , a cmtom which an hijodiei. 
oae Venerdion tot adtiqaitf hrtroifaiccd again at the 
varival of tetters, end wUeh, amang aaai^ odiers, Au> 
tenOM snilred to mtriead hhs in hii EpiTAPit -ioiob 
the he«t ctf H«nrw Khig of fWoee, who waa itifabed Im 
dememtlht monk, which yet dewrvcs to be inetite^ 
lor the sake of Amnng faow beantifttl even hnproprie- 
tieo may hetotat, in the hands of a good writer: 

Aitta, vM»r, et dole ngum vicn. 
Cor RfgU itto amdltuT Mub mormon. 
Qui jura CalJli.Jura SarmntU dedit. 
Tatui aicuUo huae Hulullt iteariui. 

Abi, viator, ct dole r«jiin vicet. 

In the monkirii ages, hmrevtr ignoraot and uofWr 
hAtd, the EpiTAFiM were dnawn up with ^u-gMater 
pR)[R-iety than can be show* in Ihooe which more ei^ 
lif^itened times have iwodooed. 

Orate jira /iaiaia — miKrrimi PtccaiatU, 

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-was m addriess to tiie iaet Aegrea atrikii^ «Ad solemH, 
'«8 it Sowed' naturally ih>in the religion dien 'believed, 
- and awakmed ib the reader Bentini«9it» o£ beneveJence 
-fWrtBe deceased, andof caiGcm for his ovn haBplsesi. 
There was notliinff trifiing or Indierousy nothui* -that 
did not' tmd to Ujen obtest end) the propagation of 
piety, and the increase of devotion. 
-' It mayis^iean veiy stiperfl4ous to lay itdcnm as die 
Aret rule tor writing £f>rrAPH^, that the name of the 
-deceaaed is not th be- OQiitted ; not should I hare 
dienigbt'incfa a precept neCesBaff, -had not the pAKliee 
-of tiK f^reMest Vritera ahown, thatit has not Iwen'saf- 
ficientlj' re^ritA, Intaaot'afihB poetieal EptTArBS, 
tbe names for whbm Utey 'wvre- compowd, may be 
Bouj^ttond purjfos^, beix^ only'pteAxed ondieiuotHi- 
-ment.' TvexpasetbealMurilftyof dit«<:«nisstm),itise»- 
-ly necessary to ask how tbe £prtAPH^.whi(4i hareM^ 
-iired the- iton'es'<m iHneh they-were- iiucnbed, wttdd 
;have contiflnited to' tHe infon^MMn tS- p a o t e ri Q ', had 
tbey "wKtaieA ^e nanus «if tboie-Whoai they oelebratod. 
lia drawing the chuBct^ of tbe deceased, there ^re no 
roles to be observed not eqAslly relate 40 other 
'CbcopoiitJiHis. The praiseoi^htiiot Uyht genend, be- 
.caute dte mind is lost ib tbe estctit of any isdefinile 
ide^ and candrtbd aflected with whait 'it caAnnt compre- 
hend. Wbea wehearonly of a good or great man; we 
know not in what clasa to place hiiB, nor-^ve any no- 
tion of his character, distinct from . that of a thousand o- 
thers ; bis txaniplecBn have Bto effect upon our conduct, 
4s we have notliinff'reHiarkable or eminent ,ta pnqioee 
to our ;imitatidn. The Epitaph composed by Eiumt 
&r his own tomb, has bothtlie faults last mentibned: 

The reader of this Epitaph receives scarce any idea 
from it '; be neither conceives any veneration for me man 
to wboinit briongs, nor is insb'ucted by what method) 
this'JxMsted'reputatibn is to b^ obtained. 

Though a sepulchral inscription is professedly a pane- 
gyrick, and, therefore, not confined to historical impar- 
tjali^, yet it oUght always to be written with regard to 

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U«*Yi«K SPITAPUt. 8S1 

he never possesseo-, but whoever ia'curioua to know his 
fkults mmt inquire aft^ them in other ptaces : the mo- 
numents of the deful are not intended to perpetuate the 
nieiaoTy of crimes, but to exhibit patterns of virtue. On 
tiie tomb of Maceitas hie luxury is not to be mentioned 
with his muniHcence, nor is the proscription to find a 
fdBce vn- the numtuncnt «f ^H^iufcw^ 
' The best ■iri>ject tot EpiTaphb is pnvntevirtue ; vit- 
'tne exerted in tlie same circumstances in which the bulb 
-of naankind are i^aced, and which, therefore, may ad- 
mntofmanyiniitaters. Hethathasdelive9>edhiscauady 
'ftmitoppreMon, or freed the world frtan ignorance and 
■en-dl^, csoi excite tlte einulfttmn of a very small number'; 
but he limX has lep^ed the .tctnptali«is of pover^,' and 
■disdained to free himself from d»tress at the expense 
J^his viitu^, may animate' mnltitudes, by his example, 
to the aame firmneas of heart Bud steadiness of rasolutHMi. 
Of this kind I cannot &rbear the mention trftwo GrtA 
inscriptioos ; one upon a man who»e writings are well 
known, the other upon a person whose memory is pre- 
served only in her Epitaph, who both hved in slavery, 
the most <^mitous estate in human life : 

•'Zoniu, who in Iwr life could only Invc her bodTdulaTed, now . 
find* her body likewise set at liberty." 

It is impossible to read this Epitaph without being 
animated to bear the evils of life with constancy, ana 
to support the dignity of human nature under the most 
pressing afflictions, both by the example of the heroine, 
whose grave we behold, and the prospect of that state 
in whidi, to use the language of the inspired writers, 
" The poor cease from their Ubours, and the weary be 
at rest.*— 

The other is upon Ejudetui, the Sloick philosopher : 

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In the proTcrb, aod the ^vauritetJHeaveo.*' 

In this distich h dsupriwd the nnUnt -ptmigyndt, 
«nJtbencwtni^MHantinitructian. WenayleMBfrotn 
iti tint rirtiitf ii isBjnBcdcabie in rat coaditiMu mms 
£y I'c Wi I wmldiienMiuaen^ timgelf to die regwi of H«»- 
VCB, Mndst die Umptatiojra of poverty md slavery ; 
iriavBrjr, vfaidi has alvxra been fonnd ao deatrnc^Ttt t9 
virtwi, that ki nray languagea ■ dan and m thief we 
oywMB d hy IfaeiMW -waKd. And-wem«ybelikcinee 
MMumAeflliy it,-Bat to bv any rtxan Mi a nun's onft* 
wtrd artmntaneea, inmAiagan ettimate of hk real 
valM, linoe £EwldM tk ' 
aiarc^ ma (fae amtoritc « 

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{pint publilhed In the ecnUemui'i Magulna, ] 
following jou prefiied ta O^bDrne's -- " - ' 

To Bolidt ■ sabscription for a Catalogue of Booki eqm- 
■ed to aale, ia on attempt for which some apology can- 
not but be necessary ; for few woiJd willingly contribute 
to the expense of volumea, by which neither instruction , 
nor entertainment could be afforded, from which only 
the bookseller could expect advantage, and of which the 
only use must cease, at the dispersion of the libraxy. " 

Nor could the reasonableness of an universal rejection 
of our |nx>posal be dented, if this catalogue were to be 
compiled with no other view than that of promoting the 
sale of the books which it enumerates, and drawn up 
with that inaccuracy and confusion which may be found 
in those that are dajly published. 

But our design, like our proposal, is uncommon, and 
to be prosecuted aJt a very uncommon ejnwnse : it hein^ 
intended, that the books shall be distributed into their 
distinct classes, and every class ranged with some regard 
to the ase of the writers ; that every book shall be accu^ 
rately described; that the peculiarities of editions shall 
be remarked, and observations from the authors of lite- 
rary history occasionally interspersed ; that, bv this ca- 
talogue, we may inform posterity of ^e excellence and 
value of diis great collection, and promote the knowledge 
of scarce books and elegant editions. For this purpose 
men of letters are engaged, who cannot even be suppli- 
ed with amanuenses, but at an expense above that of 4 
common catalogue, 

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To show that diis collection deserrea a particular dfr- 
gree of regard from the learned and tbe studious, that it 
excds any library that was ever yet offered to public sals 
in die vuue, as well as number, of the volumes which it 
contains ; and that therefore this catakvue will not be 
of less use to men of letters, than those of tlie ThaanioH, 
Hettuum, or Bofberinian libraries, it may luA be impro. 
per to exhibit a general account of the different classes, 
as they are naturally divided ^ the several sciences. 

By this method we can indeed exhibit only a general 
idea, at wim magnificent and confused ; an idea of die 
wrhings of many nations, collected from distant parts of 
the world, discovered sometimes by chance, ana some- 
times by curiosi^, amidst the rubbish of tbrsaken'mo- 
nastertes, and tlw repositories of ancient families, and 
brauj^ht hither from eroy ftxtf as to the univeraal rsr 
ceptacle of leamli^. 

It wltl be no unpleasing etkct of ^s account, {f tiioKt 
ihat shaM happen to peruse it, ^ould be inclined Iw ft 
U reflect On the djaiacter of tile l'~>te proprietors, and to 
pay eonic tribute of veneration to their w^our for liter- 
ature, to^that genenwis and'exalted curiosity which they 
Ratified with incessant eearches and immense expmse, 
and to wliieh they dedicated that time, and that super- 
fluity of fortune, which many others of their rank em- 
jitoy in the pHrsutt of contemptible amusements, or the 
gratificution of guilty passions. And, surely, every man, 
who considers learning as ornamental and advantageons 
to the community, must allow them the bonoor ofpub^ 
lidt benefactors, who Imve introduced amongst us au- 
thors not hil^erto well known, and added to the litenk- 
ry treasures of ^eir native country. 

That our catalogue will excite any odier man to emu- 
late the collectors of this library, to preflsr books and 
manuBcripte to equipage and luxury, and to forsake 
noise and diversion for the conversaUon of flie learned, 
»nd the satisfaction of extensive knowledge, we are verff 
far from presuming to hope ; tut shall make no scruple 
U> assert, that^ if any man should happen to be seized 
. with such laudable ambition, he may find In this cata- 
, logue hints and informations, wfakh are not easily to be 
met with; he will discover, that the boasted Bodkian 

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librtdy is verv far fhnn a perfect nodd, «)d tiiM eTCn 
ihe learned Fabrichu cmnat completety iiutnict hiM in 
the csrljr edhkAis of tha doMick wrtlerB. 

But the dollectora of libmiea caanat btf numerow; ■»! 
dterefbre, cataloffuei cnntiot v«ry properly be nEi«»> 
mended to the publick, if tbev bd OM a mors gMMtal 
aONl fVequeiit use, an twe wfaicv every Jtudent lue C*pe- 
rienced, or neglected to his loM. Bv dw owau of cBt»- 
It^ues €»>ly cMi it be known, irtut haa beni written on- 
erery part of learning, end the hanmlnnoided of encmnv 
tering difficulties which hsve already been deand, di** 
cussing questions which have already been decided, and 
digging in minea of literature whicli fanner aget have 

How often this has been the fitte of student^ every 
num of letters can declare; and, perhaps Acre tn very 
few who have not sometjmee valued as new diecoveries, 
made by themselves, those observations, irtiich have 
long since bem pitbli^ed, and of whidi the wwld 
therefore will refuse diem tim praise ; nor can the raAi* 
sal be censured aa any enonoons violation of jnetiee ; 
fbr, why should they not Ibrfint by tbrir ^^noraiKe^ 
what they might claim by their sagacity t 

To illustrate this remark, hy the mention of obeenn 
nunes, would not much confirm it ; and to viliff Ibr ihia 
purpose the memory of men trulv great, would be to 
deny them the reverence which titey may juetly claku 
from those whom their writings have inBtructed. May* 
the shade at least, o( one great Englith critick rert witi^■ 
out disturbance ; and may no man presume to insult his 
memory, who wants his learning, his reason, or his wit. 
Prom the vexatious disappointment of meeting re- 
proach, where praise is expn^ted, every man will ccr- 
Oinly desire to be secured ; and therefore that book will 
have some claim to his r^ard, from which he may re- 
ceive informatitHi of the labours of his predecnsors, 
mch as a catalogue of the Harkian Library wHl copi- 
mniy alfittd him. 

Nor is the use of catalogues of less importance to those 
whomi curiosity has mgageA in the study of literary his- 
tory, and who tiiink the intellectual revolutions o{ the 
"World nwre wordiy of thmr attention, than the ravages- 

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of tynmta, ^e detoladaD of Vuwd<nM, the rout of tf' 
mies, and the fall of empires. Those who are pleased 
with observing the first birth of new opSoiona, their 
itrnggles against oppmitian, their silent pri^rvss nndff 
peraecntitHi, their general reception, and their gndual- 
decline, or sudden extinctioti ; those that amuse thrao- 
selves with remarking the different periods <^ hnmait 
knowledge, and observe how darkness and light snoceed 
each other; by what accident the moat ^twmj.n^it* 
of ignmance have given way in the dawn of scimce, and 
how learning has languished and decked for want of. 

Citronage and regard, or been overborne by the preva. 
nceofftishionameignoranoe, or lost amidst the tumulta 
I, and the storms of violence. All those lAo 

desire any knowledge of the literaiy tnasactiaDs.of past 
ages, may£nd in cafaUogues, like tins at leaat, suca an <^ 
account as ia ^ven by annah^ and chian^ogera of 
civil history. 

How the knowledge of the sacred wrkinga haa beea- 
diffused, will be obs^ed from the catak^e of the v*- 
rioua editions of the bible, from the first unprewian l^ 
fM(, in 1462, to'the present time; in whichwill be con- 
tained the polyglot editions of iSpoMiiFrance, and £»f> 
^attd, those of the original Hebrett, the Great- Septva- ■ 
giwt, and the Latin yt$igatet witli tbe versions whieh^ 
are now used in the remotest parts of 'Europe, in the. 
country of the GrUom, in l.itkiuiiiia,Bo/iemia, FtaUutdy.. 
and Iceland. 

With r^iard to the attempts of the same kind madfr 
in our own country, there me few whose espeetatioBa . 
Vill not be exceeded by the number of fn^&Ai bibles, 
of which not one is ffwgotten, whether valuaUe for the 
pomp and beauty of ^e imprestion, ^u- .&>r the >iol«< 
witii which the text is occtanpanieil, or for any.cmtxic^, 
Tersy or persecution that it produced, or Sor the.peou*> 
b'arity of any single passage. With the some ear* haw 
the various editions of tjie book of coniiiion>frajer been, 
selected, from which all the iterations which lunre been . 
blade in it may be easily remarked. 
. Amongst a great ntunber of Roraan miasala aad brer . 
viaries, remarkable for the beality of their cataand illu- 
nJnatime, will be found the Jtf tworaiw miasai and bcc^- 

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«iary, tfaat ntaad aadt cammotioiM m t^ kii^dom of 

The oontiovwakl tnatuei writtei in £iw/mrf, ^mot 
dte tintt of the Bc£nnutiAB, hare been dlSgcntlj odL 
lected^ wiA « arahittule of ramukabla tncti, >ii^^ 
semMm, tttdniuQtiMliaH; whiGfa, however worthy to 
twfffeaerwed, ve, periu^, to be found ia no other pUce. 

The regard wUch waa always paid, br the orikcten of 
tiuB libfBiy, todtattemarlud^period ottime in which die 
wt of priBtin^wMin vented, determined litaa toaccauna- 
tee dw ancient inpreaaioDs of the frdien «f the citurdi ; 
to which the lalereaitieiu are added, IcitatUiqnityabpukI 
have Memed more woHl^ of ote^ than aecoran; 

HiatetT haa been eonaidered with the r^ard d!ue to 
that study by wMck the maniiera are moat eaaily form- 
ed, and firam which the most efficaaoua instruction ii re- 
ceived; nor will the mbftextmuivecurion^&il of gra- 
tification in this Utwary ; from whid) no writers liave 
been exduded, that reute cither to die leUgioiu or dvS 
•fiura of any nation. 

Notonly liieae aulhan of eeclenaaticat history have 
■been fnecnred^ that treat of the state of religion in gene* 
nd| or ditiwep aceoants of sects or natiosia, bat tluMO lilce- 
wwe who have osvfined thenisdres to particiilar ord»s 
of men in every ^nreh ; who have rdated the origiiisl, 
and the ndes ef every society, or reoounted the Uveaof 
ita fimnderi aad its menbera ; those who have deduced 
in every Gountry.the succesuoa of bishops, and those 
iriii> have emploj'ed their abilities in celebr^ing the pi- 
le^ of particBtar saints, ^ martyrs, or. moidcs, <» nuns. 

Tta»dvil history of ^ nadons has be«i 'r^»^alU\ toge, 
dier; norisitoaiytadetenninewhichhasbeenthoa^tt 
moat worthy of carioaiu^. 

Of Fftmee, not only tbe^geaettH histories and ancient 
dwonides, the aebennts of cekbrated reigns, and oarrap 
dvc»'-rf renBiJutble. events, but even tl^ memorials of 
aiBgleiaBilic8,(theliTeB of private men, the antiquities 
ef'PMtiaaitf <i^dcs> chilrshes, and Monasteries, the tepo^ 
grui^of.|»onBoei^ ssid tbeAixonnts of law^ i iiiliiils^, 
and 111 u a unp rions; jsw -heaaito.bai found. . 
■Tito sg rs wl«tmeaaC/to<y&aife,.iB thii tww p ir yy.dieir 

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tenstmg, by being more puticnlKT. 

tMibm ClLiMWiuanpiw, of vnicli aa 

M^acM,' BDr kmne tbriv«Blinpdtie>, howCTw ainanJlr 
dnstfndMlj bcM lew attHMoMd^ Mucfaec^ t&n- tkorf 

ied Amt caUeotkai, aot 

iinS'baM MiEi^ed Amt caUeotkai, 
itpMtt)r, *nMi6rtt»CTwriMHlinn i 
i^khafrkut iwre th» dun-to 


aen vbineiBeB0iia»tWr fteaavft 

. WtcciiBki» ky of these OBllcctoi»«ailMMte<y»Arto«H 
Mitsof tfaewetM; iii»rdid4beyih»MttaBdkMBL^Bw^ 
them the N>uthOTi writera, or to wfioai tbwr Oallprtiw 

coon^ «faui CMtnnssie liiil ■iiiii^iiji liMliii. ad 
vhow Uitoi7 h -leaa duiHKtly'fedMiMteK^Acve u« ift 
thiaVfamy ra p q iitc dwidi »cc< nmla mgAc-Ai T «* nrm i ktM 
beailddini)>aU«<WobtuB; narare«hc.AfMW«tfaeTM>> 
Jar, tbc nni, and Oe Soroom; wtdtaiitlbauiMtarfMri. 
Unit ptnmu iwiiiiniiwliiii ■ilbiimiiHntliiiliMriiiii 
tinu of oAer itatiam, AiHiId ^Mfuke yet anuvi 
aftartiie hiMoiy oftfaeir ovnt BM.y bei 

—1 ;»j-.,i«i...j-w»fti.-ni— jj.; n-rm 

of daigoMcnd acctuKy. Htm Mttteiie ft— dj wifli 
" ft andent cbioiiicles, and bBwraHttBieBM Jritewi, 
l»«f le- 

. K |»»cwdw»aifc|iaiHt«Miln Hfcr 

•rMfaar CMOiflttt fa tb« cfauR^w JiMatalmteic 
di4e in private .Wkt.i - - 
«Mti,.ar drtottaUa fori 

«B(cl%iBn,a ^ ._.. ,_ 

That raoiMxable period ofi the fa^uA hubnyj njucfc 

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-VRtb the ILntonitMm, will «lnoat Awiish • library alone. 
aach ia the BUinbw of rohtmiM. fMHBpUetf,.«ad Mpera, 
vhach ware tMtdiihed by eithw pai^; aiiiiaiioh U tfae 
(MM mtb mttch tiiev faan been ftMttvtd. 
, HtrhbiUDij wiOtoutituing n mtMy p it ya ra ti wa an^ 
a(tmdant% ^c^(mphy .mkI ckranolvgy : of gva^t^hy, 
0ia batt wntcra Bn4 deliaMtws Mve baeii: procHrad, 
md. iKnnp apd MtHnK^tlunw-tMittilMkn i^ardad: tjie 
sMiBat DC^Atooola^ amr bar* &ai Ukanma tl^pae«u- 
tlM>ra wlio atatetMH-ttw raaocda erf tuH^ aad fiii«d tba 
pMriwia oCtdmvj. 

WMl.tii» kimwHU and Ci fagm yhi w a niajr )m ni^wil 
tjM vnfecri'vf YmftaaRd-tn^b. whi^maj.lwfleail 
lieni u ^ !«(«», SnglUi, DuttK CeraM*, -F/wW^ Ks- 
Imm. «ad Sf i mi ^ btvnvn. 

, Thalavaaf diS)f(»CfaHalnaa,aa^aniff thvik. 
actwes aqtudly word^ >MP ebtiaaHr vMi thev faftf*^! 
havev w tibM edbvlMQ, ^wao j«a% i!«{p«dad; aod lae 

. ntfea b^ »4»ch A* wrioui eonwinmtiaa ff thr wwU 
wa.gMvamKk majr faa bant «xanHw4 Mid Bw y nad. 
HanB aatt die MaivntttdilimM «f Aa papal dacratBMw and 
IbawaiWWftMflPua tb« civil bwitlw adicta«f Spmt 
■nd tha awUttM oC rw««. 

But vith particular indostrx.havalbe viWW «nM« 
m dM bnra «r onr'ov^ «Hiobv baeo aallrakad, ftmn 
the BMwtMfwnt Wtb4 pMatnttwM^ jEra* dMb»di«aor 

. Ihe-itebilaa to 'Aenmotaat tna^iw: nafc aalp the i«<- 
pvta, •pmwbantt^ and aaadiajp «rf ww cnm eoqiti, but 
•>*«« tie lava tttimx ffiaat- Z ^ ww «DlMWM,,«iU^ 
btttd is a«r oa^qpM- 

. But nolfasr la^mty oh Um hmrn bacn >o &r able ta 
engroM tfaia libaavf, M to axelnde pbfaic pbilfl»^hy, 
«■ ardicin. Thim b»e bem ttaa«bt> mtb wttice, 
wofdiy of at pketiirlw bftw eMminjd tti» dffiaraat 
w^iaa af anui^' dUiaeated tbeJR fiwva, or dwcribed 
<fc«r pu a uui liia and in i wta , ae who baw p e na tn afcd 
tMlwirdaaf tke earth, tn«ta4 <m Ma diferenl ttmm, 
«ad anal^aiil Ha wetala; a* who Jisve .aw aw ed |I«»- 
aatvai vith Ion UMriaw apafiilatiwfifc WHt plantad 
tne», or ooltftvated naawc \ 

. /nwaathatban«wdlecltJisiEt]MM^it«kbov»tbe»u- 

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MO AceotniT op thb- 

Duter pait4 of the cnstian, who hftve observed die mo-' 
tionB of the be&venly bodies, and attempted systetna of 
the universe, have not bees denied the htmour whJdi 
they deserved bj so great an attempt, whatever baa 
been their luccem. Nor have those nvrthematkiana been 
rejected, who have applied their sdenoe to the coniBaMi 
ptupoaei of Me ; or those that have deviatediato the 
khidred arts, of tactics, srctatecture, and foftifiiMtHHi. 

EvM arts of far test importance have finmd their 
authors, nor have these authora been despised by th« 
beun^Mi curioritv of the [XviMietOTa of Ui^ Slttrku» 
l^itary. The writers on hmsemonahip and fencing are 
naeeiKiineroiui, and ntOTe bulky, than could be expected 
hy tltoae who reflect how seldtHn those excel in eidiCF, 
whOTB ^eir eduntien h» qualified to conqtose books. 

The admirer of Greek and Aomom literatnre will mcel^ 
in this collection, with editimB little known to the mmt 
inquisftive critidit, and Which have escaped the cAmqw 
vation of those whose great emplc^ment has been dw 
eoUatian of xome* ; Itor will he find only Ae most an- 
cient editions of Famttm, JeHttm, Spifw, SfMyniam, and 
Patmarix, but the most accurate Ukewise and beantiftd 
of Coiinaia, the Junhe, Phniin, AUmi, the Siep&au^ and 
EbeiAr, with the «iinmentaries and observations of the 
kiost teamed ethtors. 

Nor are thev accompanied only with die illustrationB 
t£ those wiio have confined their attempts to particular 
writers, but of those likewise who have treated on aity 
part of the Greek at Smutm anttqmties,thMr laws, their 
cuMotns, their dress, their tnukUngs, Ihek wars, their re- 
venues, or the rites and ceremonies of their worsb^ 
md those that have endeavoured to explain any of dtecr 
authors ftvm' their statues or their coins. 

Next to die ancientB, those writo^ deserve to be men- 
tioned, who, at the restoration' of literature, -imitateri 
their language and their ^tyle with ae great success, or 
who labmired whh so much industry to make tbeni on- 
dCTBtood: such wem PiUJe^&K* and PtJitim, Soeti^ 
and BhcAsmms, and the poets' of the ^e of Leo tile jTnfM ; 
these are Ukewise to be found in this Ittmiy, togatihn 
T>tk,the Delida, or collections of aH nations. 

Painting is so nearly allied to poetry, that it cannot 
be wonderad that those rho have so mudi esteemed the 

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one, h»ve paid an equal ngud to 4ie other; and there- 
lore it may be easOy imagined, that the collection of 
rainta is numeroiu in an uncommon degree ; but surely, 
the expectatton at every man will be exceeded, when 
he is informed that there are more than forty thousand 
enffraven ftom Staphad, Titian, Guido, tiie Carracket, 
and a thousand others, by Nattteuil, HoBar, CoUet, Ede~ 
Uadc, anA^ Ddriffi^, and otber engraven <rf equal repu- 

There is als<; a great coiUectioD of orupnal dmirings, 
<£ which three seem to deserve a. particular mention ; 
the first exhiUta a representatidn of die inside of St. 
Peter's church at Rome ; the second, of that of St. JoJm 
Laieran ; and the third, of the high altar of St. Igiiali- 
•w ; all painted with the utmost accuracy, in their pro- 

Aa the value of this great collection may be conceived 
from this account, however imperfect, a« the variety of 
auhiectf must engage the curiosity of men of different 
atudies, inalinations, and employ mests, it may bethought ■ 
of very little iwe to mention any slighter advantages, or 
to dw^ on the decorations and embellishments which 
the generosity of the proprietors has bestowed unon it ; 
yet, since the compiler of the Thaanian catalt^^etnougfat - 
not even that species of elegance below his obB^^ation, 
it may not be in^roper to observe that the Harleian 
Uiaary, pcrfai^^, excaa all sthera, not more ia the buid- 
ber ana excellence, than in the splendour of its volumes. 

We may now aurely be allowed to hope, that our c^ 
talo^^ue will not be thought unworthy of the publick 
curiosity ; that it will be purchased as a reoord of thb 
gre^t CMlectjou, and pres^ved as one of the mnBoriala 
«( learning. 

The patrons of literature will forgive the purchaser of 
this library, if he presumes to assert some cUim to their 
^otection and encouragement, as he may have been in- 
■tmniental in continuing to this nation the advantage of 
it. The sale of Fotaiu^r collecticm into a fbreign coun- 
try, is,, to this day, r^etted by men of letters ; and if 
this eSort for the prevention of'^another loss of the same 
kind should be disadvantageous to hira, no man wtllhere- 
sftev willingly risk hh fortune in the cause of leaning. 
. „ . ' C J .3 , 

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E S S A Y 



WritWn for tlie IvrKOsiicTiaN to dra 


Th1»Uoh tfie KhMTieof the tWlowing Misceflaiiy is •) 
obrioua, tlwt the title alone is suffident to exphtin it ; 
and though several collections have been former^ at- 
tempted upon {dans, as to the method, yery litde, but, 
as to the capacity and execution, very different from ours; 
we, bein^ possessed of the greatest variety^fM" saA a 
work, hope fbr a more general reception than tliose con- 
fined schemes had the fortune to meet witli ; and, tfaer^ 
fore, think it not whoHy unnecessary to explain our in- 
tentions, to dinplay the treasure of materials out of whidi 
this Miscellany is to be eompited, and to exhibit a ge- 
neral idea of the pieces which we intend to insert- vn it 

There is, perhaps, no naticti in which it is bo aeees- 
sary, as in our own, to assemble, from time to time, the 
small tracts and fugitive pieces, which, are occasimially 
published; fiw, besides the general subjects of enquiry, 
which are cultivated by us, in common with every other 
learned nation, our constitution in churdi and state 
naturally gives birth to a multitude of performances^ 
-which would either not have been written, or could not 
have been made publick in any other place. 

The form of our government, which gives erery man, 
that has leisure, or cnrioGity, or vanity, the right <^ en- 
quiring Into tjie propriety of publick measures, and, 1^ 
consequence, obliges those who' are intrusted with the 
admimstfation of nationbl afioirs, to give an aeconnt of 
riieir conduct to ahnost every man who demands it, may 
be reasonably imagined to have occasloDed innuBVemue 
pami^Ucti, which wouM never have ^ipeared undec 

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oitiais ARD- nraiTAHCE, Ac 343 

isiMOmry goMnunents, wherec^^erf mah loUa hiAwelf in 
indolence nndar calnmtiea, of which he cnuiot prenoto 
die retfress, or tJnuks it prudent to concaftt thai wninwii 
IUS9, of «4iich he cannobeamphun without dangn. - 

TlmTiiiiltijJipi^yjif ^■lig^nllllM^l^^■ah^^f^l^^»f^y^lll^Hlg■lI■^ 

of which every one has fauod oj^wneatB aod vmdic«tora» 
is anodier wrarce of nn^bKUbbte piAlJcati<Hi, alumt 
peculiar to otuBelfea; for eonteovarsiea caaoot be Iohj; 
continued, nor frequently revived, where an inquisittX 
haa a right to •but up tfao disputants kkdiiqge«Mi: or 
where ulencs can be impoaea on atther-par^ hp liw 
refosal.of aUsencc ■ ■-■>•.■'■.:■. •• 

Not that it -should be inferred &om liaAcet that poli- 
tical or tcUgiouB «asitroveraies ara.lfas only ptoduots of 
the liberty- Mf the' &-ilt«A .press ; thC' mind Mice let looae 
to inquiry, and suffered to operate without qeotrwntt ji(h 
cesaarily deviateH into peculiar otunioiH, and iijMdiirn iq 
new, tracts, ulii iii film in iiiili iiif iiiiiiHitiiaiiiilw iliiii 
byriotb, tram whidi though she. cannot retwrsj and 
scarce knows hens to procead ; yet,'<«onietiiiMaK -MMiVca 
uaefiil d^sGoveriet, or. finds .out. nsacerpathsrtQikAoWY 

The boundless liber^ with which «)*»y autt-.nay 
write hU own thoughts, and the (Wpottum^ cf camfmy 
tM new sentiments to the publick, widMMit-dangsc oj' 
fuSerina; either ridicule or censure, which evany jnan 
may nnoy, whose vanity does not incite him too hastily 
to own hia peiformancca, naturally inrittG thgefi .who eiD' 
ploy, tbaaaarivea in speculalion, to try how Jair nodona 
will be received by a. nation, which excsqrts.cautioQ &mi 
fear, and modesty ieotn shune; .and it is ni?. wonder, 
that-where reputation may be gained, but B«ada not be 
lost, moltituoies are willing to try their fortune, and 
thruEt their opinions inti> the light ; sometiMiefl with unr 
siiccessful haste, and sometimes with ha^^.temerity. . 

it ieobserved, that, among the natives oSEn^ioid, ia 
to be found a greats variety <^ humour, than in any 
other countiy ; and, doubtlraa, where every inan has a 
fidi liberty to propagate his conoeptiiBia, variety ofhii- 
naour must produce variety of writers ; and, whwe th<^ 
aomber of authors is aogreat, thovcuuMt butbe som? 
worthy of distinction. 

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WMMiUlliil. hill oontributed to nuke paimihlctB and 

MMdttnatiAvaqrinipcrtntyaitefaii EwgiukVtnjj; 

• nar nvllMMMi^pieOM, npoo wbicb thoN wfao ssfttn 

t» tfc* npqtatian.xtf . judicious coQectanaf boolu, be- 

! atUntiati, or BeMn; expsne ; H"**™** mao^ 

7 be gyrtwj frwM thcpsoBalof thew 

— I, wbicb aie aca»ri|j- to be fauod ia 

•j^Jf^M MykHiiiU*i|, it is widl koMni, that Btod w- 
1iAi\^ li.^lliiwii liim &c ftlMig time oppeated in this 
fiHTD, and that tbe firat reUtiona of twnwtRtiwM, vbUs 
a>omyaMen)riD7t&aBoiijeiAiire>4fiunkuMl, areaei- 
liwed liylimi peter. iTOt«r% who tuure omoituiiitiet 
irf^cdlMtiiW liw difieraBt icmtiiiwiiU <^ diqptttanta, of 
Mi^MCMigiU* Iruth fKWi liviBg witnessea, and of onj- 
iagtlwif MpvMHitaCians ftMn th« ti&; aitd, tfaeieMw 
toy inmiUBKinridtaide of particular incad«ata,wtid» 
w A g a W in a #bQrt tiaa*. Off omitted JB fimnJal rdfc- 
liM^'kuul whacbaM y at'to be conetderal a^ ^adHttf 
trutii, whicli, when united, may ^ord light in some of 
^M dariuabaeenes of slate, Mvedoabttuit, willbeiu£- 
fltiiaily nrowd iai the tonne <^ thi* Uiacellany ; and 
*>hWl>itli8t tiKHibra, thcitiCKrett of the pubUdt to pre- 
■ente 'oseitinguiehedr 

. Thtmum ofaaencatiaiv may be extended bsaubjeeti 
i)fy«tttaiM>^ffltan^ In-cpi>t>or<Tsi« tfaainlate t* 
iWitnidiatliwigioai, the firat caaa^aofrefbnaalMnav 
ffcnml^ tiowtwoa; and those, w1k> hbvc t^uaioia to 
.ofo'y which th^ e^wrt to be opposed, prwhise tbm 
•entiment* by d^(ieu, and, fi»,tl>e dum* part, in naaiB 
tncta; hydegreta; that tfaeynwy not shods didr Ten- 
ders -with tao many nareltMs^t once ; and in muH 
tncta, thar tht^ may be eaaily di^ter^j or.pnsat^ 
iwiotcd:^ abaaat.cvary coBfifveT^, tberef^, baa been. 
for a tima, caiYiedon in pampfaleU, nor has swelled in^ 
to larger vohiMes, idl tlie first ardour of the dispntaott 
baa Bul^aided, and th^-bave recollected their notioni 
wkb c«i4iMBs emuigh to digest them into oidar, conso- 
lidate dwm faita syat«Bs,...aud fintify then with.auA» 

J ;, Google 

or rmum* mcife- MS- 

f^om pamphleta^ cooawpua^y, uv to be leamcd th« 
progress of every debate; tbe varioiu stMe to wfaidt 
the queatitHw have been bunged ; the artifices and faU 
Udes -trhidi have been tued, and the subterfuges by 
vfatcfa reason baa been dtidMl: in such writings n»j 
be seen how the miad ha» been a}«ened by iMgrees, 
hoir one truth has led to another, how error has been 
disentangle^ and hints improved to demonatratiDat 
which jMMsure, and nai^ others, are knt by him that 
rnilf Tfnds the larger writeta, by ^rlwDa these scettesed 
sentimeata are collected, who will see none of the 
c^ailgee of fmluAe which every i^iinioa has passed 
through, wilt have no opportunity of Tenuridnff,the 
tmaient advantans whiui enor nay bontMintea <£bdn, 
by dieartifieeaof it^palioB, or the successful nUie« bv 
whiA truih'regains the da^, -after a ionise ; but wiU 
be to faiin, who traces the du^uttethioBgh into particu- 
lar gradations, asbethatbearaofftTictOi^, tohiia tfa«c 
sew the batde: 

^noe the advantages of piesen-lng these enu^itracta 
are wo numerous, our attempt -to unite them in volumes 
cannot be thought etd>er useless or nnseasooable ; for 
there is no other method of sectuing Uiem from acci- 
denfii ; and &ey have jJresdy been so haig n^ected^ 
tlut dtis des^ cannot be delayed, without hatarding 
the loss of many pieces, which deserve to he D^uw- 
mitted to anoUier age. < ' 

The practice of publi^ing pamf4]kt»-op-the most 
unportant subjects, has now fwevailed m(n« thftn twa 
centuries among us ; atul tiiereftMe it cannot be duubfrv 
ed; but that, as no large collectioDS have been yet medei 
many Curious traeU ntust hava periahedrbutit is jtoo 
late to Isment that loss ) n<w ouj^t wete feflect i^MXi 
it, with any other view, than t Sat oS- qio^*mBg our 
(mdeavoura for the preservation of those that yet re- 
main ; of whit^ we nave now a greater numbw, tluA 
was, perhaps, enr amassed by any one person. 

The first appearance of pamphleta anoofc us, ts^;e- 
nerally thought to be at the new oppositiaa nuaed a^Jnst 
th* 'BfrOtB iad- comjpthnw of tbe dmrdi of Amift 
Those who trett: first convinced of the ressonableneef 
of tbe new learning, as it was then called, propa^ted 
their opinions in small pieces, Vhich wore che^ly ffdaSr 

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0(1; <n4,' wiMt was then of gnat MBportnice, enOjr 
OMieealwi. TbeMtrMtiaM were genially Drintad in 
ftmgacoantriH, and Mreiwt, tkerdtoc, alwav* *a^ 
oovnrt. Www iww w* tbCTi tiiato pjWrtui i i Q'urf prit- 
i«^ in pviMtt ; fbr the iMMtbcr at printera ««w «u^ 
ami Ifee pnssM iCck taaUjarcriaabMl bj-Ae da^, 
wbe ^ared m» Vb&ut ar vigilfum fortlie tapiawMMni 
of hmgj. TheM is, kamever, kmsoh to su^ecC, Aat 
aome •Menpt* wavft wade fo-ciavy on thejampoffatua 
of boifrbjFascCMt preM; ftp One of tbeuftnt txaatjaca 
iR fcvmir flf tbe itefeniuti<lD, is nid, at At tmi. Me be 
printid ■t'OtwmiM'e'A, t^ the ptrmuiiM af the Loot tf 

Inihe time afUng EArani tll0 Abrt, dw pnasea Mae 
LUHJfajDit in Awgwrof tfw i 'efcwa^ teKgian, and a>^ 
trceto w«i«<lbpN«aiJ-«v(r l^iuMioii, is cecoMnle ftem 
t» tJi» new fcnwitf ^raM^p. Itt this nige, iikewlacy 

the addrem ol 

rfp wj w g alingfte ^i i ati — fi^oftiwpeopU^diabnfced 
the eeo^ tfcfll twamnarvasqaevnilfiM^naohwdto 
reduce facr stAjtete to Ae Amm4 aupentmo, but Ae 
■flAdly, hy a 4li««m*, graaUd tivioenan ftcenm cf 
X«HdOT, h KlKMK-fldA^ i(«<do«b^ the GonMad, inliiidT' 
piwWlritad atfpTMsee, M «4iat^MddbelioeBHd^ 
.'thaaai whiA ^iai«c* talhalh^iri^chtlieaMrpeiatign 
of Stationers in London U at dits-tfane iMOoraoratad. 
~ UwdW-tiiMfa&gfc^qwieagBBitoifc, when ! i be Ki > i^in 
hegMt-toflBUiW, die pnictioe<rfivTitk^panpUata be* 
camenereAMMMi'; pmMM warelnuhipibed, andlioi^ 
AM die «ad« oC wMnff b^;ae at that time, wd llwt it 
haaevar atin cyj i J uayawj^ iri totbeWHnber, thoi^h, 
pci4wa, iMt £} the style «f Itwae that ftHomd it' 
- In-tttiawign was erscted AeAnCMcntnMaaagibtM 
Ibe (Jratdi aa new ettabUsbed, irf whidi 1 have ^md 
any certato a am tt Pt it yfts tmfilsyeAhj -ibm PinHMt, 
m coBVafadi A«m' «ne pwt ef- tike:n«tiMi to another, 

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«F'«IKMT<VK ngCUh $ilt 

^ Awn^, aa ibm. GnaA tbMaaetrw in d^ngu^- 4^ 
sanry. From fbia prau umned husI of tiw yinphibu 
■^■iiwt fVMiigifi and bis lUMooutM ja the MMMJaafio^ 
gaMnuBoot; «nd, wlua it w««^ Iwt B«aed at, Mmi^ 
dMitera it was wajAoyad itpptt « paiBi^tkC MUod More 
Wnri}6r a Caofer, . . 

bk tlie peaceable r«igit of king Jamet, tkoM uimAt 
wbii^ Bu^t^ pfriMpi; avitb Ww ri«tw4Mnc» of the 
warid, l>»v« biwt ^ ny am fd t^ wai^ weM «n^ey«d in 
tmtxtmnj ; and writioes-^ all kind* m^.Multiplied 
aOKM HA. Hu ynasr Wwevcr, ww Bot :wliolly <»- 
gfgBi in poicmiaal peribnnaRGea, fer SMve inaoaoat 
Mtgaeta McraWMMlUua tseated; and it deaerrea to be 
ta^trkad, baipavM it w not gwendly know, ifaatdw 
liwiTinw o(- £liubandty and .^^irMvAM^vwbM) wen jHitf- 
lUied «b(Mt dut tim^ are «o n a n a w KWM, ^u* it c«a 
•earcdjr be imagiaed 1^ whsml^ey wei».writtets orte 
wboma they weie aeld. 

The next tdga i« too well knewn U ban been a tioe 
«f ooicEvuion, and distivboBce, and diaputes <tf eveiy 
kind ; and the writinsa vbioh were j^odnced, bear a 
BAtunl.proportMMi to thenumbeEof questioiiatluCwese 
dijfwiwn t* that time; «aoh party had its authora and 
ita preasta, and no endenvours- were, <imittec) to gaio 
protdytes t» erary ^nion. I know itot vliether diis 
SBi^aDt.nnqierfy b««aUnd> TIte Afe«f-Pajrif>iUu ; Tag, 
thoi^h tney, peraaps, may not anw ia a«Kn«aukitud(» 
w k&., £am>iMM wv^iBed, &i^ w<*^- undoubtedly, 
moAnwDWCHU thmoanbeoiHtGetved byanywhohave 
not had an ^|H^rtuiut]r,<tf exaoaqii^ tbcHk 

After the^WtoiWiqq,' the eucne diffapCDoe^ in rdwi- 
ofUB opmionB, are •welt knmra to bav« trnktuttd, and Ae 
taxaa politiDal Bita(^lea to fcenit-bewi Acyeatly raaew- 
ad; and, tbH^ace a great nmnber er-pena wwfl eu- 
Bli^ed, on diflarent aoeauma, til^ at Je^gtJ^ idl otbar 
dimitea ,««av dMOTJted in the pi^di eantR>v«ty. 
. Eram the pamplikt* wfaitd) tbeae dtffwtot periedB ef 
.tiaae p(od«W^ it ie yropoted, that thts-MikoeUMy aball 
be«wppiled; for wuch iteuinotbe*itt»pMedtliat ni«- 
.tmlswiB be waptifig ; and. tbetreftre^ the iHily difficult 
.'Xf^l)t..i'^ whatmauwr ta di^oae them. 
' ^uwe who June gene ^bdm "», iu: utd^i^iiigB af 
thia kmd, have ruiged the pamphlets, which duiKfr 

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9M 'oUaiM AND WMmTANcV, &c. 

Atew into their hands, wltfioutsnyregard either ti> 9* 
subject on which they tmted, orthetimein wfaidithey 
wne mitten; spnt^ke in no wise to be imitated by m^ 
who T«nt fw no nuteiiolB ; of which we ahaJl dmoat 
tboM we think twet tat the patticular circumstancea of 
time* and tfainga, and moit itutnicting and ebtertsining 

Of tb« diOlemit methods wUcb present thepiwlTea, 
Upon the fint view of the great heaps of pami^lels 
-wnidi die Harhian Libmy eihibits, the two whit^ 
-merit most attention are, to distribute the treattm ac^ 
cording to their BUl^jects, or dieir dates ; but iMidH^ «f 
these ways can be conveniently fellowed. B^ ranging 
onr collection in order of tjmej we most neccsviri)^ pnb- 
lish thos« pieces tint, which least engage the cnriosi^ 
of the bulK of mankind 1 and our dmgn must ftU ts 
-the ground, for want of eQeoamgeinent, before it can be 
BO far advanced as to obtain general regard : by ctm- 
finine ourselves for aiiy long time to any single subject 
we shall redu<« our rcKhn to one cbss; and mH we 
shall lose all the grace of variety, shaO dit^st all those 
who read chiefly to be diverted. There is likewise tme 
objection of equal force, agaitist both ttiese methods, 
that we shall preclude ourselves fitnh thfr advantage of 
any future diecoreries ; and we cannot hope to assemble 
at once all the pamphlets which have been written 
in any age, or on any buI^ML 

' It may be added, m vindication of Aur intended prae<- 
tice, that it is the same with that of PkaHut, wftotfe col- 
lections are no less miscetlsneous tbah ours ; and who 
declares, that he leaves it to his redder, td redate his 
eztrarts under their proper hesds, * 

- Most of the pieceB<^bM4i shall beotfend m this cA- 
lection to the pDblick, Will be introduced hf short pre- 
fects, in which will be given some account bftfie testsmB 
for which they bt« inserted ; notes will be so i iietin iea mA- 
1oi;ied, fat the explanation of obscure passages, 'or abA»- 
Icite expressions ; and ^we will be taken to mii^Ie me 

hwJ pleasure thrt>ti^ the whole collectidn. ; Ntitwith- 

standing every subject may'n^t be relished hr every 
leader ; yet the \n^VT w^ Ve ast nted that Ck« '■ iMm- 

-l>n- will repay his getietou^'aUbwir^ition: ■ ■ - - 

•■■ ,,;vj -i'l ';.■■■■. :■■.::■. .. 

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Mr. tjRBAN, 

It vould not be found useless in the learned world, i! 
In vritteD controversies, as in oral disputations, a mode- 
rator c»uld be selected, who might in some degree su- 
periateud the debate, restrain all needless excursions, 
repress all personal reflections, and At tost recapitulate 
tM oi^uments on each ude ; and vho, though he should 
not assume the-province of deciding tlie question, mi^t 
«t least exhibit it In its true state. 

Tbia reflection arose in my mind upon the consider^- 
ticMi of Mr. Crousai^s Comrnenlary on the Essay on Man, 
and Mr. Warburton's Answer to it. The importance of 
tile sabject, the reputation and abilities of the eontrvver- 
tists, and perhaps the ardour with which each has en- 
deavoured to support his cause, have made «n attempt 
of this kind necessary fur the information of the great- 
est number of Mr. Pope's readers. 

Among tbe duties of a moderator, I have mentioned 
that of recalling the disputants to the subiect, and cut- 
ting ofl" the excrescences of a debate, wliicli Mr. Crousaz 
will not suQer to be long unempIoye<I, and the repression ■ 
<rf personal invectives which have not been very careful- 
-ly avdided on either part ; and are less excusable, becauw 
it has not been proved, tbat either the poet, or his com- 
mentator, wrote with any o^er design than that of pro- 
moting; iu^ntineaa by cultivating reason and piety. 
' Mr. iVarburV^n has indeed so much depressed the cha- 
racter of hifl adversary, that before I consider the cantro- 
ve;^ between them, I think it necessai'y to exhitnt some 
Specimens of Mr. Crousai's sentiments, by which it will 
probably be shewn, tliat he is far from deserving either 
ijadigaation or contempt ; that his notions are just, 
though Aey are sometimes introduced without necessi- 
^ tuid deMnded when they ore not opposed ; and that 
his ^ilities and parts are sudi as may entitle hint to re- 
verence from thme who think his critidsms superfluoup. 
Vol. 1. H b 

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SBO ceiiTtiyvfciiSY BsnrKKii 

In pa^ 85 of the En^Uh transUtion, he exhibits ab 
dtwervation which every vriter ought to imprew apon 
fail mind, and wlucfa m^ affbrd a aufficieiit xpolt^ tat 
his commeiitar;. 

On the nodoD of a ruling passion he offers this remark : 
' Nothing go much hinders men Sevm t^tauting a com- 
' plete victory over their ruling passion, as that all the 
'advantages gained in their day* of retreat, by jurt and 
' sober reflections, whether struck out by Uieir own 
' minds, or borrowed from good books, or from the con- 
' vereation of men of merit, are destxpyed in a few mo- 
' inentsbyafree intercourse and acquaintancewithh'ber- 
' ttuea ; and thus the work is always to be begun anew, 
'Agamester resolves to leave off play, by which he find* 
' his health impaired, his family ruined, and Ms passions 
' inflamed ; in this resolution he persists a few ^vs, but 
'soon yields to an invitation, which will give his pre- 
' vailing inclination an opportunity of reviving' in all its 
' ibrce. The case is the same with other men : but is 
' reason to be charged witli thes& calamities and follies, 
' or rather the man who refuses to listen to its voice in 
' cmposition to impertinent solicitations ?' 
On the means recommended for the attainment ofhap- 

• piness, he observes, ' that the abilities which our Maker 
'has given us, and ^e internal and external advantuie* 

• with which he has invested us, are of two veiy difier- 
'ent kinds; those of one kind are bestowed in common 
' upon ua and the brute creation, but the other exalt us 
'far above other animals. To disregard any of these 
'gifts would be ingratitude; but to neglect those of 

• greater excellence, to go no farther than the gross sa- 
' tisfactions of sense, and the functions of mere animal 
' life, would be a far greater crime. We are formed by 
' our Creator capable of acquiring knowledge, and r^gu- 
' lating our conduct by reasonable rules ; it is thefefrav 
' our du^ to cultivate our understandings and exalt our 
' virtues. We need but make the experiment to find, that 
' the greatest pleasures will arise from such endeavours. 

' It is trifling to allege, in opposition to this truth, that 
'knowledge cannot be acquired, nor virtue pursued, 
' without toil and efforts, and that all efforts produce f»- 
' tigue. God requires nothing disproportioned to die 
' powers he has given, and in the exercise of those pow- 
' era consiats the higheit satisfactioD. 

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'Tcilaad weanncM are the effects of vaniQr: wbeD 
' a man has fonned a design of. excelling others in me- 
' lit, he is disquieted by toetr advances, and leaves no- 
' thinj^ unattempted, that he may step before them : thif 
' occasions 'a tliouaand unresMmable emotions, whidi 
'justly bring their punishmeDt along with them.' 

' But let a man study and labour to cultivate and im- 
' prove bis abilities in the eye of his Maker, and with the 
' ^vspect of his approbation ; let him attentively reflect 

* on the infinite value of that approbation, and the bigh- 
'est encomiums that men can bestow will vanish into 
' no^i^ at the coc^Mrison. When we live in this man- 
' tter, we find thM we live for a oreat and glorious encL 

' When this is our frame of mind, we find it no Ion- 
' gev difficult to restrain ourselves in the gratifications of 

* eating and drinking, the most gross enjoyments of sense. 
' We take what is necessary to preserve health and vi- 
' goiur, but are not to give ourselves up to pleasures that 
' weaken the attention, and dull the understanding.' 

And the true sense of Mr. PotxTs assertion, that Whia- 
eeer is, is righl, aod I believe the sense in which it was 
written, is thus explained; — 'A sacred and adorable 
'order is establisheil in (lie government of mankind, 
f Tl^se are certain and unvaried truths : he that seeks 

* Godi and makes it his happiness to live in obedience 
< to him, shall obt^n what he endeavours after, in a de- 
'gree fir above iaa present cojuprehension. He that 
' turns his bade upon his Creator, neglects to obey him, 

, ' and perseveres in his disobedience, shall obtain no o^ 
'ther happiness than he can receive from enjoyments 
' of his own mocuring ; void of satisfaction, weary of 
' life, wasted oy en^ty cares and remorses equally ha- 
' rassing and just, he will experience the certain conse- 
' quences of his own choi<». Thus wilt justice and 
' goodness resume their empire, and that order be re- 
' stored which ni^n haye broken.' 

I am afraid of wearying you or your readers with taort 
quotations, but if you shall inform me that a continua- 
tion of my correspondence will be well received, I shall 
desoend to particular passages, show how Mr. Pt^ gave 
sometimes occasion to mistakes, and how Mr. Croutas 
was Dtisled by his suspicion of the system of fatality. 
J am. Sib, your's, &c 

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TirE importance of Education is a. point so generally 
understmxl and confessed, that it would be of iittJe nse 
to attempt any new proof or illustrstion <^its ntceAi^ 
and advantages. 

At a time when so many schemes of education have, 
been projected, so many proposals offered to the Publick, 
so nmny sdiools opened for general knowledge, and so 
many lectures in particular sciences attended ; at a time 
when mankind seems intent rather upon familidrisine 
than enlarging the several arts ; and every age, sex, aim 
profession, is invited to an acquaintance with those stu- 
dies, which were formerly supposed accessible only to 
such as had devoted themselves to literaiy leisure, and 
dedicated their powers to philosophies! inauiries ; it 
seems rather requisite that an apology should be maSe 
for any further attempt to smooth a path so frequently 
beaten, or to recommend attaimnents so ardenuy pur- 
sued, and so officiously directed. 

That this general desire may not be frustrated, aaz 
Khoole seem yet to want some book, which may exdte 
curiosity by its variety, encourage diligence by its &d- 
lity, and reward application by its usefulness. In ex.- 
amining the treatises hitherto offered to die youth of 
this nation, there appeared none that did not ^1 in one 
or other of tbefie essential qualities ; none that were not 
either unpleasin^, or abstruse, or crowded with learning, 
very rarely applicable to the purposes of common life. 

• Publiabnl in 1748, bjr DeJilry. 

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., Enrjnun, ifliohMlMenflsjmtedmtMiUi^hiiinni 
witli how mudt difficult joutfalul mioda we omfinad 
to dooe mdicaliimrWid Mir losdily thejr deriateto »ny 
Oiing, ntOmr tftaa attend to dut whidi ifl inmowd as ■ 
*— ■■ Tfa^ tUi diipocilioD, iriien it becontM inctMuut- 
■' " * " ' -• ij to be dwdwd, wifl 

degree Amat»i, ft csutot wholljM nujpvused^ it is , 
bukIjt ntional to turn it to xdvant^e, by tslcin^ care 
thU the Btmd ■ball nevw want ol^ects cm which its fk- 
eahies tony be usefully employed. It is not impossible, 
that this restless desire of novelty, which gives so much 
trouble to the teacher, may be often the stru^le of the 
understanding starting from that to which it is not by 
nature adapted, and travelling in search of somethinff on 
wbich it may fix with greater satisfaction. For with- 
out nqmosing eadi man particularly marked out by hia 
gtoihu for particular performances,' it may be easily con- 
ceived, that when a numerous class of boys is confined 
indiacriininately to ^e same forms of composition, the 
rop^tion o{ the same words, or the explication of the 
tome sentiments, the employment must, either by na- 
ture or accident, be less suitable to some than others ; 
that the ideas to be contemplated may be too difficult 
fiv the apprdiensi<m of one, and too obviaus for that of 
•aotiier ; th«y may be such as some understandings can* 
not reach, thou^ others look down upon them as below 
their reganL Every mind in its progress through the 
different stages of sdiolaatick learning, must be often in 
one of these cmiditiORS, must either flag with the labour, 

ow wanton with the facility of the work assigned ; 

n either state it naturally turns aside from the track 
before it. Weariness looks out for relief, and leisure 
'jor employment, and surely it is rational to indulge the 
wandmngs of both. For the faculties which are too 
lightly burthened with the huaijieas of the day, may with 
great propriety add to it some other inaujry : and he 
that iinds liimsdf overwearied by a task, which, perhaps, 
with all his efforts, he is not able to perform, is un- 
doubtedly to be justified in addicting himself rather to 
tma studies, luid endeavouring to quit that which ia 
H hS 

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^ove hu attnmBeDt, for dMt wUdi nators faM not made 
lum incBD^^ oi punuing with advmtage. 

UmA uwiwfore thia roving cnrionty msjr xiotrbv niw 
■atisfied, it -seeBu neceeury to scatter in ita mty rocb 
allurementa as may vithbald it fhmt ■nnaeleassndm- 
bowided diseipatian ; suoh as may regulate it -widiant 
violeBce, and direct it without reetrfunt; muit aa may 
suit every indintitioii, and fit every capacity ; nay oo- 
jioy die Btnniger genius, by onerationt) of reason, and 
engage Uw leu active or foEeihle mind, by anpplyin^ it 
WiU easy knowledge, and obviating that d^ximlenoe^ 
whid) qiyddy prevuls, when noluing appeare iMA a 
Micccanon of difficnlliea, end one tabeur only cesses thai 
SDOtber may be impoaed. 

A book intended thus to correi^Mid wttfa all di^KH 
sitions, and afford etttertainment for minds of diffineat 
powK^, is necessarily to contain treatises on different 
suUects. As it is designed for schools, though for die 
higtier classes, it is confined wholly to sw£ p«ts of 
knowledge aa young minds ma^ c(Hn[H«liend ; and at 
it b dfBwn up for r^tders yet unexperienced in liie, and 
■■ ■■ ■ ■ ' ' "Jfromtl ■ - -' 

unable to distinguish the useful fi 
or unnecessary jurts of science, it is ref)uisite that a 
very nice distinction should be ina<fe, that nothing un- 
profitsltle shoulil be sdmitted for the sake of pleasure, 
nor any arts of attraction n^lected. that might fix die 
Bttenticm upon cruM'e important studies. 

These considerations produced the book .wind) is here 
ofered tothe PuUick, as better adapted to the grcatdC' 
sign of tdeasing by instructttm, tiMU any whidi has 
hiUierto been admitted into our soniaanes of litanbire^ 
There are not indeed wanting in the wmld compendi- 
uros of science, but many were written at a time when 
philosophy was imperfect, as that of C. Folia ; many' 
contain only naked schemes, or synoptical tables, aa that 
aS Stitrau; and others are too large and voluminous, 
as that of Aittediut ; and, what is not to be considered 
SB the least objection, thev are generaUv in a language, 
which, to bojia, is TBOtv oifficult dion the subject ; imd 
it is too hard a task to be condemned to leant a new 
science in an unknown tongue- As in hfe, ao in study, 
it is dangeroua to do more tjiinga than one »t a time} 

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rmMTACa to -mi ntcMmm. 8$S 

mdAe grind « not td be hmwediijtfamineoerowyol^ 
•tractions, in m waj, of iriiidi the nstnral and iiiin«id> 
■U« aqMoi^ ia ntai u too freoneatly produce! detpain 
If dae laiguwe however had been uie oaly objectiaii 
to amr of the mmne* already extant, the sdwolg might 
hare been supplied at ft smaUezpmue by a ttwuhtion ; 
bat Dtrne coma be found that was not lo defectiva, re* 
dnndaiit, m* vwoagtMO, b« to be c^ more danger than 
hm. It was necMiMT then to examine, whet&r upon 
. every angle acienoe uiere. was not hxdo tteatisc written ' 
for'Uie use of scholars, whicii might be adapted to this 
design, lo that a Golleciian might be niade^iom diffiarent 
andun, without the iteoe«ity ttf writing new aystenu. 
This seardi was not whoQy widMmt success ; tot two 
atithon were foo^d, iriMWe pcribrmaacea rai^t be ad- 
mitted yfhii little aheratiom But so widefy does this 
BbudiffiBrlWimallotliera, so much has the state i^mtmy 
kinds ^ learning been changed, or so mifortunately 
have they hithutobeen c^vMed, that none itf die other 
subjects wer» e^lained in such a manner aa was now 
required; and therefbre neither care nor expense has 
been spared to riitain new li^^^, and procure to dus 
book tioe merit of an original. 

With wh^ i u^ment die design has been formed, and 
with what skill it has been executed, tho learned wwld 
is DOW to detcnuine. But befinv sentence shall pass, it 
is proper to explain uHoe fully iritat has been intended, 
that censure may uot be incurred by the omisaoa of that 
iritich die ori^nal plan did not comjaebtod ; to dedare 
more pardcularly who diey are to whose instructions 
these treatises pretend, that a charge of arrtwaaoe and 
piceumption may be obviated ; to lay down me reasons 
which directed the- choice of the several sntneets; and 
to explain more mhiutely the mannn in which each par- 
ticalar .part of these volumes is to be used. 

The title has already ileclared, that these Ttdumes are 
pardculariy intended tW the nee of sdiools, and there- 
fore it hns been the care ctf the authors to exphun the 
several sciences, of whidi they have treated, in the most 
fimni'liiir manner ; for the mind used only to common 
espressioni, and inaccurate ideas, does not suddenly con> 
f<KTa iti^to scholastidi modes afreMomng, or conoeive 

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tb* fnca dudactioiu of « subtile pbiloai^iinc iwdnuy 
be pn^iedy inidftted in ipeculative studies by an intia* 
doctioii like this, in wbicn t^ groasoess of vulgar oon- 
cefrtioB 18 omided, without the obs^rvaUau of nwti^y- 
aioil exftotneu. It is dieerved, that in the course cftu 
mtuial worid no change is inaUntancoug, but alt ita ti* 
awitade* are gradual and slow; the motions <^ intellect 
pnweed in the like ioqierceptible progresaicn, and i«o- 
■ar dcigi«e« of transition fiwu one studr to another are 
UMrefor* Beomaarjr ; but let it not be charged upon the 
writers of this book, that they inlcxided to exhibit tnove 
than the davn of knowled^, or {wetended to raise in the 
uiiMi any nobler product than the bloisrans of science, 
wfaida mere poweriul institutions may ripen into &uit. 

For this reaacm H must not be ejected, that in the 
fidkMnng p^ea should be found a comjilete circle (tf 
tibe scicnoes ; or that any authors, now deservedly e^ 
teamed, should be rejected to make way for wlut ia 
here ofieMd. It was intended by the means of these 
precepts, not to deck die nand with ornaments, but to 
protaet it fnan nakedness ; not to enrich it with afflu- 
enoe-, but to sup{dy it with necessaries. The inminf 
therefore was not what degrees of knowledge arc oeai* 
JaUe, but what ^te in most stations of life indispensably 
rc^piwed ; and the ehoiae was determined not by tM 
splsadour of any part <^ literature, but by the extent of 
its use, and the incottrenleiiGe whidi its neglect was 
lilody to {vodnce. 

I. TheprevaleiKeof thiaoansideratjon^meanin the 
first p«rt, -whicii is appropriated to the hJUDble purposea 

of teaclung to read, and tpeat, and mriu ieltert ; an aU 
tonnt <rf litde nu^pnifieeooe, but in whidi no maa 
needs to blush few luving employed hta time, if hooour 
be estimated by use. Fch* precepts of this kiod, how- 
ever neglected, extend their in^xwtanoe as &r as men 
are fonrnl who communicate theu thoughts one to ano- 
ther; they. are equally useinl to the highest and the 
kvest; they may often contribute to eiake ignoraoce 
less indegant; and may it not be observed, Uiat tb^ 
are fiKquentljf wanted for the embellishment evm of 
learning ? 

. In. order to shew the prcmer use of this part, which 
consists of various exemplincations of such difierebces 

J ;, Google 


frf st^le u nquiw coireipondent dinftities' of pranuiW 
cUtion, it will be proper to inform the schohr, that 
there are io general three forms ofityle, esdl of which 
demands its particular mode of elocution : ^tfam^ar, 
the'«ofe»in, and tbe pathetick. That in tbeJamUiar, be 
that reads is only to talk wi^ a paper in hii hand, and 
to indulge himself in &tl the Ughtm liberties of voice, m 
whoa he reada the common articles of a newg-p^wr, or 
a cunory lettered intelligence or businesa. That thesis 
kimt Style, such as that of a serious narrative, exacts an 
unifbrm steadiness of speech, equal, dear, and calm: 
That for the pathetick, sudi as an animated oration, it ie 
necessary the voice be r^^ulated bj the sense, varying 
and rising %*(th the passions. These rules, which are 
the most general, admit a great nmnber of sobonliiiRte 
observations, which must be particularly adaptad to 
ever]' schdar ; for it i* observable, that though very (inr 
read wetl, yet every man errs in a different way. Bat 
let one remark never be omitted : inculcate stroi^r to 
0rery scholar the danger of croying die voice of anotOCT ; 
an attempt which', though it hiu been crfVen repeated, is 
always unsuccessful. 

The importance of writing lottera with propria just- 
ly cLiima to be considered with care, since, next to the 
power of pleasing with hts-presence, every man would 
wish to be able to give delight at a distance. This great 
art should be diligently tau^t, the rather, because o£ 
those letteM which are most useful, and by wluch the 
general business of life is transacted, thnrw ere no enn»> 
p/ex easily to be found. It seems the general fault of 
those who undertake this part of education, Aat diev 
jwopose, for the eserdae of their schdars, occasions wliira 
rarely happen ; such as congratulatiaqs and OondolenGeat 
jutd Defect those without which life cannot proceed. 
It is posslUe to pass many years without the necessity 
o( writing pan^yHdis or epitbalaniiums ; but every 
man has freqONit ocoasion to state a ccmtraot, or di, 
mand a debt, or make a narrative of some minute inci- 
dents of commcm life. On these si^jeots, therefore, 
young persons ^ould be taught to think justly, and 
write clearly, neatly, and succinctly, lest the^ come 
from scbo(d into the world without any acguai n ta n cB 

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wiHi oopnnon afiain, bih] stand idle spactstart of num- 
kind, in expectation tiiat some great evtat niU give 
tlicm an <q)porUinity to exert their rhetnrick. - 

II, The aecoadpiaceiaaxBigiiedUt geometry ; tm tha 
■lefidness of which it is unneceseaxy to expatiate in an 

S» when mathematical studies have so much engaged 
e tuaention of ail classes of men. This treatise is one 
t£ these which have been borrowed, being a translatioD 
from, the work of Mr. /.e CUrc ; and is not intended u 
nMa» than the first initiation. In dellveriag the fund»< 
nental prine^es id gemnetry, it is necessary to prolxed 
\if slaw fp*! ^^"^ ^'^ prt^iontian maj' be fully un* 
dceatood bocne another is attempted, rot which puN 
pose it is nat aidlicient, that when a. question is asked 
ID tb» words of the bocA, the sehdar likewise can in 
the words of the book return the prt^ier answer ; foi 
tUl wmy be only an aet of merooiy, not of understand 
ing: it is alwur* pi<oper to vary the words of t^e qiu»< 
tion, t* place lAe pnqiosilion in difiereot paints of view, 
and ta ze^uie of the learner «i eiq|danatH« in his ewi 
tenn^ inj^wag hin however -whea (hey are Impn^ier. 
By this methoaTthe acholsr will beeoBHi cnutiouB and 
tttentive-, aod t^ maMer wiU know witb certainty the 
dijp'ee (rif hie ^oficiency. Yet, though thie rme il 
amoally right, I canaot bwt recmaamcnd a |»ecept of 
Par^t, that whan the student camot be made to com- 
fnhaad sane particular part, it diould be, for that 
time, laid a«de/ till new h^t shall arise £^ subs*' 

Wboi this compendium is OMBpletely understood, 
the acbobr may proceed to the perusal of Tac^c^, aAeiv 
wards o£ Mmtid himseF, and that of the modem im> 
BnvcT8«f gcMtwfrp, such as^orrpfti, Xei/.and SiriMH 

III. The necessity of some acquaJntAnce with £w^r» 
|iAv and oitronoimf will not be aisputedi If the pupil 
la Dom to Um ease of a large fortune, no part of learnii^ 
iemtve BBcesMry to him than the knowledge oi the 
ntnation of nations, tm which their interest generally 
difkend; if he is dedicated to any of the learned profts- 
■ions, it is scarcely possible that he will not be obli^ 
to sf^y htaastlf in some part of his Uie to these stncuei, 

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aa DO odwr bnfttch of liteMtun cut be Mfy c 
hended without tiiein ; if he is dMrigned for the arts of 
eiHtmmce or agncultnre, some genenl acquaintanu 
with these «denc«s will be found -extremety useful to 
bitn ; in a word, no Mudies afford more exteniive, nioM 
Wonderful, or more pleasins scenes ; and therefore ttnne 
ean be no ideas impressed upon. the miuI, which can 
more conduce to its future entertainment. 

In the pursuit of these sciences, it will be proper to 
imKieed with the same gradation and caution aa in getme* 
inf. And it is always of use to deccwate the nakednaaa 
K science, by interspersing such observations and nap- 
mtives as may amuse the mind and excite curiowty, 
Tfana, in explaining the stole of the polar regions, it 
might be fit to rewl the narrative of the EmgUtkmai 
that wintered in Greenlandj whidb will make young 
minds sufficiently curious after the cause of such a 
lengdi of night, and ' mtenseness of cold ; and many 
Mmtagems <a the same kind might be practised to ii> 
terest them in all parts of their studies, and call in their 
passions to animate their inquiries. When they have 
read this treatise, it will be premier to recommend to 
them Varenius'i Geography, and Gregorifa AstroncHuy. 

IV. The study at clmnuJx}gg and im^rr/ seems to b«. 
one of the most natural delights of the human mind. ■ 
It is not easy to live without enquiring by what means 
every thing was brought into the state in which we now 
behold it, or witiiout finding in the mind some dealr* 
of being informed concerning the generatifHW of man* 
^d that have been in possession of die world beftnw. 
us, whedier they were better or worse than ouraelvea ; 
or what good or evil has been derived to ug flmm ibsie 
schemes, practices, and instttntions. These are mjain 
ries which hiaior^ alone can satisfy ; and ht^ory can only 
be made intelligible by some knowledge of cknmofogy, 
the science by which ev«it9-«re ranged in their ordn-, 
and the periods of ctmipittation are settled ; and iftaA 
therefore assists the memory by method, and enH^tena 
the judgment by shewing the dependence of one tratw* 
action to another. Accordingly it should be dilij^t- 
1y inculcated to the scholar, that unless he fixes m hk 
inind some idea of the time in which each man of eaa* 

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Mnoe lived, and esdi mtniati wu {wrfciawd, with soiae 
part oi die omtemporwy hiatory a£ Ufe rest Af tbe 
worid, he will consume hia life in uselesa resdiag, and 
darken hia mind with a crowd of unc(Mui«cted events ; 
hia memory will be perplexed with ^stant transactioat 
resembling one anothcs', and his reflecdcma be like a 
(hream in a fever, bus; and turbulent, but confused and 

The technical part <^ chroiHilt^, or the art of com- 
puti^ and adjusting time, as it is very difficult, so it ia' 
itot of absolute necessi^, but should however be lau^t, 
so ftr as it can be learned witbmit the losa of those hours 
whic^ are required fw attainments of near^ cMicem. 
The Btndent may jmn with this treadae X^ Cim^x Com- 
patdivm <^ HiOory ; and afterwards may, for the histo- 
rical ^rt of cknmoiogff, procure Hetmctu't and Isaac- 
mm't TaUes; and, it' he ia dearoua of attaining the 
ledmical part, may first peruse Holder'B Accotmt tf 
Time, Hearm^j Dticior Hiitoneui, Stramiiutu, the first 
part of Pieitteiu^* Batiautrivui Tempormm i and at 
length Sadigfr de EmtmialJate TMaporwrn. And for in- 
■Inictiaa in tfaeaaetbodofhishiatoricalstudiea, he may 
consult Heam^a DtM^or Hiooriau, JVhear^t Lectures, 
RamUntom'j Direciiotu Jor the. Studu t^ Hittory, and Tor 
eodesiastical history. Cave and Dupiii, BaroHttu and 

V. Rhtbmck and poetry supfily h'fe with ju highest 
iotdlecturi pleaauKs ; and in the hands t£ virtue are 
of great use tax tbe impressicm of just sentiments, and 
recommendation of illuMrioua eumplea. In tbe |Kac- 
tice of these fp««t Brta, eomuch more is tbe eSect of na- 
ture, than the eflect of education, that nothing is at- 
tempted here but to teach the mind some genenu heads 
of (rtMervation, to which tbe beautiful passages of the 
best miters may ccnnmonly be reduced. In the use of 
this it i* not proper that the teacher should oMifine hixo- 
self to the cownples bef(H« him ; for by that method be 
wiUnever enisle his pupila to make juat applicatioD of 
the rules; but, having inculcated the true meaning of 
each figure, be ahould require them to f^ieivplify it Igr 
their own obtervBti<His, pointing to them tJie pecm, oUt 
in longer worka, the book or cantoin whichan example 


mttj b« AsHd, and bwrii:^ Ann to dtMtover tfle p«rti^ 
oMT'Matige by tfce light <rfti» ndes wbidi they have-' 

For s fSvdMv pnwieM in diaM> studies) they may CDH^ 
enA Q i w i Jittin and FimMt Rbetorick ; the «t ofpoetry 
wffl be hot leanied ftmn Bouh and Boh<mrt in Fremchi 
tagedwr witii ZhjrimVEssaya and PntWea, the criticRl 
-P^en atJMitom, Spence on Pope't (Myiwgr, and ZVap^« 
fneketiimet Poeitaei, but a ntore aecunte and jriflloMv 
phicnl account is expected fftm a omiiueiituy upotl' 
^rittotkfi ATt <a Poetry, with wfaidi liie literature of 
tbie'nation will be in a rfiort time aognMOted.' 

VI. Widi T^nd tadie practice <tf drainitgi it ie net 
iMoeasny to give any lyreetians; theaseof ^treatiM 
heiag oaVr t& teadt the proper method of initatii^ die 
^nree wUch are annexed. It will be- proper tvindte 
»ft seh<dm to industry; l^ebewinrin-otheir tHxte the 
uee of'the art, and infmung tfKin bow -modi it aasisie- 
tfie au pr eh Btt w op, and rdievee the mwmwy ; andiftiiey 
offe oboged: sometinMS totmte deocriplionB of ei^neii- 
otendk; or any cc«ndex pieces of workmamhip, they 
1^ more fUly <q> p r ep ewd'll>e neeesaity «f an expedient 
whhib- M> happSy mpidfea Ae deAets'oTlflnguage,. and- 
«HUee thto eye to conceive wlut«aimot be eenv^red t» 
the mind Miy otht* way. When tl^y hhro re«d 1hia> 
treatise, and practised uptnr these figures, iheir-theonr 
nmf bi» ini^oTed by tbe Jesuit PertpeotiVe, and their 
■nmiiirf-fmeMtitms l^. ottier figttres whidi may be eaeil]^ 

~ VII. liegiei, or-tbe vt of aiTanging and coimecti^ 
ideasi of fmning and enoiliui^ nyaments, is uniretb 
MBy alUnred tb M an attaintment in the almost degrev 
We Hhy tiie anJritioB of that beii^ whose highest hononi' 
i» to lie endued with reason ; but it is doubted whethei' 
diatmiUtlon hai yet be«i grstifiedj ud whether the 
yewWfl of ntioioinatian- have been much improved 1^ 
any ^tteina <^aT^ or methodical insdnitiim*. The l»J 
giii wbaA far m many ages kept p o e to wiwn of th^ 
tAoelb, has at last been condemned as « nne art of 
wm^ing, of -nry little use in tbe pnr^uitof truth ; Mid' 
iMw WBMn hcve odHlented dieniMlTCs widi- giViAg> aif 
Tt*.I. li 

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afiB MWTACB TO THE niKCltl>Tq& 

acGMmt rftbe <^iR«ti(wa <^thc mi&d, mfkyy dw w 
riouB stages of -her jprogreu, and ginng some gtaienl 
niles fijT the reffidabon of her conduct. The method of. 
dkwe writen iBnere foUawed ; but without a servile ad- 
herence to any, and with endeavours to make iBuirov»> 
n)ents upon aSL This wwk, however laborious, bu jet 
been &uitleM, if there be truth in an obaervatian vei; 
frequraitly made, that Ic^iciaiu out of the wSsqai do n>t 
naatMi bett» than men unassiBted by tboee light* whidi. 
their sdence is supposed -to bestow. . It is not to .jbe - 
doubted but that logicians may be sometimes averbam 
by their passions, or blinded by their pr^udices; aod 
that a man may reason ill, as be may act ill, oat becafc 
be does not know what is right, but because he doee oat 
n^ard it; ^et it is no mra« the fault of hia att4hat it 
does not direct him when his attrition is withdrawn 
fitm it, thsi it is ibe defed <^ his sight that he misses. 
hii way when he shuts his eyes. Against this ouase «f 
cnour, tltoe is no provision to be made, otherwise diu . 
b^ inculcating the vtflue o( truth, and the necaeeity «f 
conquenng ate passiiais. But logiek may likewise fail 
to wo^oe ib effects ap«m ctHumon occasiiMia, lix.waat 
of beiDg frequently BDq fiuDiliarly ^ilied, till. its ytv> 
Ucpts may direct the mind impercepobly, as As fingcn 
ofa nniacian are regulated by his knowledge of the tune. 
Thk rndineM of recotlec^itni is only to be procured b^ 
frequrat impresRoa; and therefore it will ^ pm^er, 
when b^idc has been tmce learaet^ the teat^tcr take, 
fiw^tait occasion, in the most easy and familiat o(mivc)> 
HtMD, toobearve when its rules are preserved, uul wben 
they are t»akeB ; and thtf aftcawards ,he rc^no aa- 
tbore, without exacting of his pufol «n aeoount of evciy 
remarkable exnmplificatioQ, or tweadi of, the lain « 

necessary to {Mwceed forther in me sbtiSy «tf i^ho^ i^ 
will be Tptoptx to tecaoanend Cromoz, fPqiU, ht Ciare,. 
Wo^u, aaid Locket Ettay on Humati- UnderttMtKiig ; . 
aad if there be imagined any aet^ssity p( adding |(l|e.]»- 
r^Metic^ Jkigickj which has been,'p*>hi^, rrrnHfrninnH 
without a candid trial, it will be coov^t^t tO'iBioQead' 
to Saniermm, WiiUu, i^ractaiUAorp, and Aritlotu. 

Vllf. To exdte a c u r ' w ri ttr «fter the works efOod, u 
Aw diief deti^ of the nnill spechnen of natural kutory 
intnted in dus arfloction ; whidi, homTcr, may be tot 
ficient to pat tlie mind in motion, and tn some meaaon 
todiMct It* step*; but ita ^ecta may eaa^ be Impv»- 
ved by a^iiloaDphick master, vfao will every day And 
a 'Aotuma opportunitiea of tiuning tlie atteMioB of Ins 
fldidars to me contemplAion of 3ie obfect* that >tn» 
tonnd them, of laying open the wonderfid art with 
wfaldli every part of mt mnverae is formed, and tbe 
prOTidence whidi Mvenu Aie vegetaUe and animal 
mstion. He may lay beftite them the ReHgioat Phi- 
tthopller, Rtm, DtrAam't Pligtieo-Tke^lagf, togedwr wite 
dM SpectatM de la Ifature; and in time recommend to 
tbeir perusal Sontlafititu and AUrwattdui. 

IX. But how mudi soever tfteresaon my be strw^t h * 
cned by ^tviot, or the eonceptiona ef Ae mind eida^ed 
by the study of nature, it is necessary die man%e not 

-«ffi.;F.ul-t-n I II — p^» ^|j j ^,y-nl~.| y». ».^ ^ gl .f* A-^».. 

^ of himself, the knowledge of his own station in die 
ranks of being, and his varioos rdMionstotbeinnume- 
raUe mUhttudes whidi suiroand htm, and with whi^ 
Ida Iihk^ has ordained Iiim to be umted for the iecep>. 
tfam and onnmunieation ^hi^sfmiess. To consider th es e 
aright is of die eieateat impontance, sinoe Ana tteae 
arise-dttties which he cannot n^lect. EtUm, or vmral- 
itg, dterefore, is one of the atndiea which ought to bcwin 
imfa Ae firA glimpee of reasm, and only end with uft 
itad£ Other acqiuntions are merely tempmary bene- 
fits, except as they contribute to illustrate the knoMed^, 
nnd OMnrm the pndace of mtnality and piety, which 
elctoid thrir influence bcTond the grave, and inereaie 
our hqifnaeM thieuf^ endless 4unnoii. 

This ffieat science, therefiwe, must be inculeated widi 
eu« and aasiduity, sudi as its importance ooafat to in- 
cite in nasoriable minds; andfortfaeprosecationoftUB 
design, fit <^nK»timkiea are always at hand. Aslheim^ 
portaniceef ugscit is to be stiown by detecting fidse ai^ 

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idat dw lunof BMK mondi^ *N no e 

wid, howevcv tbaynuw, bj cMiTiction »f their Stamt, 

fietat ibereammat in uke aMde, mbtM the r'™'— - ftg 

ften tbdr ofajecta, tiw; will be frf" lit^ fbroe Munt 
tkc- urdsur ef detM, ov vdiemence ef ng«, anim tte 
plmuTea and tumults of the we»)d. To eountitmet A* 
pow» of tewptatioiis, hope atustbe-evdtedby Aa^n^ 
^ectofrewards, audibirby theespectaticHiofiinuiMb- 
ment; and virtue may owe heFj»n^y:ReIut«jn<)r«l%j 
but must d*?ive ber uidtorit^ ftom rdl^oa. 

Wlwn therefore the (Ali^ations of nMn^^aretan^Mj 
let lite uDcttoBiof dirtituiiity new be forgMao ; hf 
, whidi it will be shewn that tony give atroi^ «t4 hmr 
tre to each other ; religion will wpCar to be tfie toim 
of reaaom, and monli^Uw will itf God. Under tfa» ar- 
ticle muM be reconmended l^il^t G^eia, Grotmr, i^ 
fiitdorf, Cttmbfrlamit Lawi of Nature, and the exodUot 
Mr. Jibluott't Mood and &iigiotu £naif, 

X. Thus (ax the work iscmnpoeed fw tha use of sclw. 
Ian, -Bitrdy as they are mm. But' it was thoi^bt ne> 
twaaaiytointKiduee vorbeUuiig tfaatatight be particulMlT 
.adapted '.to Ant cgMiitry for which it is d««gaedj Ma 
tbeMMv a discxHine w beeb udded i^od tradt aa^ 

OMMMTw, of wUch it bociHBes.emy mancrf tfaiB 
to undentand at least the cmeral priao^^, as hu 
iwmoMJMa.tliat any riMMdd be higlt or htw <aough Mt 
to be in some dagreo afibotcd t^ tbH^ dec^enaHi er |nae- 
peri^. It is dumftee neeeaunj that it dioiild b« ani- 
veMuty known aDMM^vw, ^iritatelMagetof|»aper^B9W 
advanta»Aiu^ orwhen die baianee of lxwLei8«n oar 
de; wnal are " " 

t are the p«o&»cla or manu&dnrea of 
and how fiti «ae natienm^ir in 
_ _ efatHiB at preBRTve ammmj d 
'111* thean of tnde is yA but little niid< 

of trdEdc ebtHin at preaRrve smaiomy over anotbcn 
Th* thMn of tnde is yA but little niidtrstoad, mA 
dKrefise UM nraetiie ia *^cn wjdKwtrOdadTsntie''* 
; Mtitcaij " ' 

countries; and how fiti «ae nation m^ in tatf wpeat^ 
* - • *■ " iwftyd ^"^ - 


^ Mtnrfi 

4li£ puUick ; Mt it caicfat be cairied on with mare ^e- 
tmd teceesa, if i^ prmciptes mm better eauidflnd: 
andtencotelitAattetitianiaenriihiafdeiiffn. lEoAe 
MiMid flf ttus book BiM sneered «bat of JHw Mpan A- 


ant** IVeatMM, di« Brt^A Merelumt, Dktitmmain da 
Commerce, and, for an abstmct or compendiuni, Get, 
and an impvovem^nt that may Iiereaftsr be mode u|k« 
bkplan. ' 

-XI. TbefninaplmoflantKadgooeniiitenteomeBest 
to tie oaqsideied ; by which men are taught ta whMS 
«t>edi«ice is due, for what It ts ^id, and in what d^raa 
it Bu^ t>e ^(uOy'ret^iiiied. This knovledge, by peciK- 
liar^WOHsi^, coDstituteH a part of the education (^ an 
Eli^itlaitaH, who ^nnfesaes to obey his prince, acnordnig 
to uie la-w, uid mto is himself a secohdaij l^ialator, aa 
he girea his consent, by his repreaentatire, toaU&e 
lanrs by which he is bound, and has a riffht to petitiaii 
the 'neat CDundlof the nadoh, wbedeverlie thinks thejr 
■r« deliberatuiK upon ah act detrimental to the interest 
of tite ctMnmuni^. This is therefore asubject to which 
tbe thoughts of a younff nuraou^ht to be directed; and 
that he nuiy obtain sucn knowl^ge as may qualify him 
to act and judge as aae of a iree people, let hiia be dir 
rmted to add to thiaiutroductionj Fortacvt^i Treatifet, 
N. Bacm't HUtarical Ditcoum an thieLoivtandGoBern' 
tHuilof EMgla$id, Tei»iplf!» Introduction, Locla on GooerA- 
^mtnl, ZoncKt ElemerOa Jurit CivUit, PLoo Medutiim, 
Ottrdon.'i History of ParUameat, and Hooker'* Ecdeaai- 
tiaal Pqlitn. 

XII. luting thus supplied the young student ^iUi 
knowledjre, it remains now that he learns its applieatiari ; 
and that Uius qualified to act his part, he be at last taught 
to dioose it For this purpose a section is added upon 
human life and mannert ; in which he is cautioned agajnst 
the dai^er of indulging his patsioiu, of vitiating his 
hahiit, and depraving hia sentimenti. He ia instructed 
in these points oy three fables, two of which were of the 
highest authority in the ancient Pagan world. But at 
this he is not to rest ; for ii' he espects to be wise and 
h^>py, he must diligently study the Scriptures of God. 

Such is the book now prr-pc«ed, aa the first initiation 
into ^le knowledge of things, which has been thought 
by many to be too l<mg delayed in the present forms of 
eduction. Whether the complaints be not often Hi- 
grounded, may perhaps he disputed; but it Is at kut 



MM omMp to bdieve, dut gmter avSamef ofigjtf 
amnetiiaesbenttde; ^Bt ml knowMgem^Iit be son 
Mrly eomminicated ; and tltat duUnn nc^t be A- 

lowed, without injuiy to health, to enendmiuiyef tlicMe 
hoan imoo iMrfiu enulojnBents, midmiv fiesenUr 
leM in idtamH attd ^7 ; daerefen the pmick will 
«tt>dy raoonngc an ecpeidment, V^ wfaicli, if it f^a, 
tkobodj it hurt; mdifit suoeeeda, aHdw^Wireagn 
4if the world uaj £nd advantage J whidi may eradicate 
«r' prcTcnt vice, I^ taming to « better use those wo- 
mtata in which itiskancdormdulged; andinaoiw 
^CDKlenfftfaenlife, hr teachii^paatet^toeiiiof thete , 
yean whidi have hitherto been lost, llie siicaees, and 
evoi the trial of tfab experiment, will depctid upon thoae 
to irAom the cnre of our ytmlh ii conunittod ; audn doe 
KsM of the importance of their trust will edriify prcvaS 
upon them tc encdurage a "win^ "which pursvee uie de- 
sign <tf improving education. Ifanypart of thefijlhnK- 
iag pafonnanee diaU upon trad be fonnd ciqwble ai 
■oieBdmeiit ; if any thing can be added or ahexed, was 
to render the altantnent of knowledge niora ea^ ; flie 
Editor will be extraneiy <Miged to anygentkmvi, par- 
ticulaiiy tboie who «re ei^p^ed in the busineM of tocii- 
ng, for sucb bintB or tAterradoiu SB mrr tendtowaida 
the improvement of this book, and will spuKnadrnm 
exfeate nor'traidile in making the best nee of their in* 

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No expectation is more falUdoiu than that which authon 
jbna M the reception which their labours will find among 
manldnd. Scarcely any man publishes a book, whoU 
ever it be, withoutbdieviog that he has caught the mo- 
meat when the publick attention is vacant to his call, 
and the world is disposed in a particular manner to lean 
the art which he undertakes to teach. 

The writers of this volume are not so far exempt fiom 
^idcmical prejudices, but that they likewise pleas^ 
l£emeelve3 with imagining, that they have reserved their 
labours to a propitious conj uncture, and that this is the 
pcoper time for the pubUcation of a Dictionary of Com- 

The predictions of an author are very" far from infal> 
HbOit)' ; but inju8ti£cation of some degree of confidence 
it may be properly observed, that there was never from 
Che earhest ages a time in which trade so much engaged 
the attention of mankind, or commercial gain was sought 
with audi general emulation. Nations which have 
liithnto cultivated no art but that of war, nor conceived 
ai^ means of increasing riches but 1^ plunder, are 
awakened to more inoffensive indnstry. Those whom 
the possession of subterraneous treasures have long dis- 
posed to accommodate themselves by foreign industry, 
are at last convinced that idleness never will be lick. 
The merchant is now invited to every port, manufacturea 
are established in all cities, and prmces who just can 
new the sea from some single corner of tbeii dominions, 
are enlaTj^ng harbours, erecting mercontLle companies] 
and preparing to traffidc in the remoteet countries. 

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368 nwriicm to 

N4» is the fimn'Nif this work lets papular than the 
■ubject It has lately been the pnetite of the learned 
to range knowledge by the alphabet, rind publish die- 
tionariea Ot eiery kind of literatnre. Thitf pramec haa 
perhi^s been earned too fiir by the force of faduon. 
Scdences, in themselvn systanatical and cohea'eDt, ar» 
not very properly broken into such fortuitous distriba- 
tiona. A dictionary of arithmetick.or geometry can . 
MTve only to confound : but commerce, coniiidered in 
its whole extent, aeems to refuse any other method of 
arrangement, as it. compriBes innumerable particulars 
unconnected vit& each other, am^one which there is no 
reawD why any should be first or last, better.' dion u 
fhrmshed by the letters that compose their names. 

We cannot indeed boast ourselves the inventors of a 
BCJmne BO commodious and comprehensive. TheFrejici, 
among innumerable projects for the promotion of traf- 
fick, have taken care to supply their merchants with a 
rHetianaire de Commerce, (!ollected with great industry 
and exactneu, but too la^e for common use, and adntt- 
ed to their own trade. This book, as well as others, haa 
been carefully consulted, that our merchants may not'be 
ignorant of any thins known by their enemies or rivals. 

Such, indeed, is the extent of our undertaking, that 
it was necessary to solicit every information, to cmisnlt 
the living and the dead. The great qualijcation of faim 
that attempts a work thus general, is diligence of inqui- 
ry. ' No man has opporbmity or ability to acquaint him- 
self with all the subjects of a commercial dictionary, so 
as to describe from his own knowledge, or assert on hia 
own experience. He must therefore ofien depend upon 
the verachy of others, as every man depends in cMnnum 
life, and have no other skill to boast than that of select- 
ing judiciously, and arranging properly. 

But to him who considers the extent of our subject, 
limited only by the t)ounds of nature and of art, the task 
of selectton and method will appear sufficient to over- 
burden industry, and distract attention. Many branches 
of commerce axe subdivided into smaller and sinalln 
parts, till at last Aey become so minute as not easily to 
be noted by observation. Manj interests ore so wovca 
' Kmong each other as not to be disentailed 'vithoot Umg 

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Koi.T'a msmarnKV. ISf 

BiM^r |iMcd«M neeemry to be known, an CMtMd on,ia 
jiaitB too, HaM>te'£v intelligeBce- 

But tbe lu)flvl«dge^f trade U of w mudi iiiniiiiliiiiiiii 
ta ■ ■uridme natum, that nolabour can be tfaou^tgtMt 
ly which inffymtlJMna^ be nbrniitad; •ndthaMfon-we 
Mpetbe reader will noiMve rawon toamplaiB, Ijut^ af 
mat bediuj^t juatly ocpect to find, any tiun^ u conittad. 

T« {^ve « detail at aaalyaia of am wwk is very diffi> 
enlt.; a ^aaie intended t^oontraiiriutever^raquinte 
to be Imown l^r every tnder, mrnwiirily, bveomaa aa 
mao^laneoiu and uBOonneded aa not to M ettaily tedui* 
ciMe t» lieada ; vet, aiuae we pretend in eome mcanu* 
to treat itf traffick as a aamee, and to nuke that mpdar 
and wxtavatiod whicfa haa hitherto been to a gneat do- 
«Me mt^toutkand etmtectwal, and haa often *uBeMdf4 
Mr dHBoemtber dian by conduct, it will be proper te 
akow tint a dktribution oS parti haa been UtetaiOed, 
whicjh, 'Aoni^ mde and utadeqiiale, will at. least pi^ 
■cm eonw enbr, and aasi^ the n^nd to take a ta»- 
fepdieri and meewriw ^iew trf" tfaiS'^iign. 

In ithe dsetsonsry wfaidi we b»e :o£er to the pnblick, 
we^npaKtoedubit'thD wUeriali, ^ttfLiae*, andtha 
MMtM Of ti-affick. 

3%e aaateriide <er stdgects of ttiffidc ane whe^aer it 
&H^ ewi n&i^ and inomde tberet(ne«Teiy nuont&ctHe 
Qf«t, and idnust every {WoducdoH of nriwe. 

In givii^ an aocouit of the oaauao^taes of aattm^ 
whether those whidi are to be need in their anginal BtM^ 
ai droga end^ncea, or tfaose whit^ beooue metak when 
Aer reecew* new fbns ftom hanutn art, aa flax, oottos, 
anametala, we shall show tiie jdaces of theu prodaetiai, 
Ibe BMinner in wliich diey f^raw,. the art of euhiTatdng 
at ctdleeltng thoai, their ducriminatioas and vanetiea, 
iqr wUdt ne best atvte aw known ftem the worse, and 
fiBurine frMn ictitiooi^ the aits by wbic^ they are ooitnp 
Iwftiledj iJu caadalljes by vhidi thejr an impaired, and 

U likewise diow ttieu virtues and ufM, 
jnd ftncff Aem iJweugh iH the .dtangee whieb tfa^ m- 

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"910 "niKrACi vo '' 

The hirtorr -of mann&ctiaes U lik««riae dMnttflL 
Of evttj utiBcul comnodhy, the idalmCT ia iriiicli'ic 
is made ia in aome mtanuv deBcribed, thoiigh it miift 
b« reroanbered, tbat niBnusl openitioiU are acarce to be 
conveyed 1^ any words to-him tLat ha« cot seen tlwnf. 
Seme gmtetal notioiu may bowever be aSiitdetl : it n 
tny to ccmprefaend, that platea of inm are filmed by 
die pieaauie oCinOaa, and bars by the strokes of a hahi- 
mcTi HM a OumoB ia caat, and that an anril is forged. 
' Bat aa it is to roost traders of nu»e oae to knov Wnn 
their goods are wdltrronriit, than by what meana, ctxt 
has MCfi taken to name ue places where evmr nutoa- 
ftctme has been carried fludust, and the maricB by whidt 
its eicdlency nay be ascertained. 

By dke pmc* (^ TVwfe are understood all ports, ntia*, 
«r towns, where -sttqtks are esUMished, manu&ctnres 
are wrought, or any eonnnodities are bou^t told sold 
adnuttageonaly. "nits -part ot om work indudee an 
-eanracration of alineat all the»ces in liie 
world, with auefa an acoonnt of their tdUkationj cuatODO^ 
and producta, am the merdiant' would leqnJFe, who being 
to begin a new tnule in any fonsgn coontry, waa yet 
jgnomt c»f the eommoditiea of the piece, ana tbeniBO- 
jtera of the inhabitants. 

, But the chief attention of the merdiant, and conse- 
qnently of die andm who writes far mercfaanta, ought 
to be enifdoyed upon the mamu of Imde, whiidi incla& 
all the knowledge and {oactice necessaiy to die skiHU 
and aoeeeuAil conduct of commerce. 

The first of the means of trade ia proper education, 
vhichmay confer a competent akiB in numbers; Wbe 
afterwards completed in the counting-hoase, by dbaOw 
vadonofthe manner of stating accounts, and r^:u]ating 
books) whidi is tme of the few arts whidi haying been 
" d in prt^ortion to its importance, is carried as fitt 
s can require. The counting-houae of jin accom- 
Imerchant is a adwol of meUiod, where the gtvat 
R DMT be learned of ranging partieulart under 
gBuci^ o^ briwitig^ die different parts (tf a transwitian 
tf^iether, ^d of tiiowins at one view a long aoia of 
dniiog and exdiange. Let no man venture into hxgt' 
busjaess while he ia ignorant of the method cf reguladng 

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l3|igi)^; newlethnniiii^iiwtlMtuiy'd^lNearnattmJ 
ab^^jea will enable faira to aumly thia defmency, or 
m^ffive 'multiplicity of Hfikirs. Dcna inexteicable con- - 

T^ is the Btudy^, without wbidi all other studies 
Till be of little »vaU ; but this, alone is not suflident. 
X% will be necessary to lesm miu^ other things, which 
however ra&y be easily included in the prepuWry in- 
stitutions, sutjli u an eiact knowledge of the MWwAto. 
aad.MeawTM of difiereat countries, and some skill in . 
Upcwraphy and. navigation, witb~ which this book may 
peroiaps sufficiently aupply him. 

In . navi^tion, con^d^ed as part of the skill of a 
merdiant, u included not so inucn the art of steering a 
obip, as the knowledge of t^ se^c»iut, and of the oaf- 
fbrent parts to which^oes are sent ; the custocna 
to be paid; the posses, pranussions, or certificates tobt 
procured; the uasards of every voyage, and the true 
rate of insurance. To this miut be added, oti acquain- 
tance with tlie policies and arts of other nations, as weU 
those to whom the commodities are sold, as of those who 
cany goods of the same kind to the sune market; and, 
who are therefore to be.watched as rivab endeavourii^ 
to take advantage of every errour, : ' ' ' 

The chief of the mauu of trade is ntoney, of whidi 
our late refinements in traflick have made the know-- 
ledge extremely difficult. The merchant must not oik 
ly inform himself of (be various denominatiottB and vs- 
Uie of foreign coins, together with their method of 
countina aiia reducing ; sucJi as the nuUrees of Porlu- 
gftl, and the livrea of France ; but he must l«am whM 
18 of more difficult attainment.; the discount of ex- 
dianges, the nature of current paper, the princi^es up^t 
wlu(£ the several b^nks of £uriope.are.«tiA>liaIud, th» 
teal value of funds, the true credit of tndii^ companiei^ . 
irith all the, sources of profit, and poarilnlities of loss. 

All this he must learn movly aa a private dealer, tie 
'tentive only to his own advantage ; bM as every man 
^i^fat to consider himself as part of the conuuuni^ to 
which be belongs, and while he prosecutes his own in- 
terf«t to, pmnuHe likewise that «bi«Gouatt7, itiine* 

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caMBr;{brtbetrMlert6loakabnwdii{raHnuBikind, sn^ 
study many queations wibdi Uc^iernqM more {^operiy 
pelitica) iiian mercantile. ' 

He ouffbt therrfore to conrider yeiy accuMely the 
balance of trade, or tlie proportion between thines ex- 
ported and imported ; to examine what kinds of com-- 
merce are unlawful, eiAcr as being esprmilj probibited, 
becBUW detriment^ to the manunctures or oth<9' inteiv 
ett (tf bis country, aa die e^Mrtation of silver to tfae Etut 
Jndut, and the tnUvductton of French cc»nmoditin ; or 
unlawifU in itself, m the traffiofc for negroes. Me oug^ 
to be able to state with accuracy the benefits and mis- 
diietH of monopc^ea, and exclusive companies ; to in-, 
qnirs into llie arts which have been practised by tfa«n 
to make themselves necessary, or by their oppimentB to 
make dieni bdious. He shmild infom himself what 
tndes are declining, and what are improveable ;. when- 
thB advantage ia on our aide, and when on that of our 

The state of our wbtniet is always to be diligently 
mirv^ed, that no advantage may be lost which they can- 
tSard, Mid that every opportamty may be improved of 
increasing their wealth and power, or of making them 
useful to tbeii* mother country. 

There is no knowledge of more frequent use than 
that of duties and iinpost, whether customs paid at the 
ports, or excises levied upmi the manutacturer. 'Much 
of the pronwri^ of a trading notion depmds upon du- 
ties properly apportioned; so that what is neeessaiy 
may continue cheap, and whaC is o( use only to luxury 
may in some measure atone to the publidc far the mi»- 
dtief done to individuals. Duties may often be so re- 
gulated aa to become usefbl even to thoee that pay them ; 
•tid th^ may be likewise so unequally imposed as to 
discourage honesty, and' depress industry, and ^vc 
temptation to fraud aad .unlaw&l practices. 

To teach all this is the design of the Commercial I>ic> 
timiary ; which, though immediatdy and jmmarily 
written for the merchants, will be of use to every man 
of business or curiosity. There is" no man who is not in 
s«»ne degree a mer^ant, who has not somedling to buy. 
and efWMtbing t« sell, and wba does not tbenfi»e wwM 

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audi instructions as ma^ teach him the true value of 
poesessions or commoditieB. 

The descriptions of the productions of the earth and 
"water, which thie volume will containj may be equally 
pleanng umI useful to the specidatist widi any odmr 
natural histoiy ; and the accounts of various manufac- 
tures will constitute no contenuitible body of experi- 
mental philosophy. The descriptions of ports and a- 
des may instruct the geogrmher as well as if they were 
found in books appropriated only to his own science; 
and the doctrinesof funds, insurances, currency, mono- 
polies, exchanges, and duties, is so necessary to the po- 
litician, that without it he can be of no use either in the 
opundl or the senate, nor can speak or think justly 
either on war or bade. 

We therefore hope that we shall not repent the labour 
of compiling this work ; nor flatter ourselves unreason- 
ably, in predicting a favourable reception to a book 
which no condition of life can render useless, which may 
contribute to the advantage of all that make or receive 
laws, of all that buy or sell, of all that wish to ke^ or 
improve their possessions, of all. that desire to be rich, 
and all that desire to be wise.* 

' Of thiB [seface, Mr. BmikU inltmns «> that Dr. Johnum sold 
be nevei: uw Bolt, and never read the book. " The Bookaellen 

irinled a preface to a Dictionary of Trade and Commerce. J knew 
f eij n-dl what such a. Dictionory ihould be, and I wrote a preface 
accordiD^y." This may be beiteTedi but the book i» a most 
wretched famgo of artlcIeH plundered without acknowledgmenti or 
judgment, which, indeed, waa the case with raost alSeli'i cconplla- 
itons. C, 

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The folhmiog relation ia ao tamoni^aaA ttttat^ianf^ 
«nd the disaertations dut accompaojit «o jadidoDs aad 
uistrnctive, tluit the tranalator ». ceofideiit hit attempt 
stand* in need of no apology, vbatevcr cenasres m^' 
&U on the performance. . 

The Portuguese traveller, contrary tA die general vein 
^ hie countrynHsi, has amused bia reader with no lot 
mantick absurdities m incrediUe fictionB : whatever ha 
reUtea, whether true or not, is at least probable ; and be 
who t^k nothing exceeding Uie bounds of |»rab^>Oi^, 
has a right to draiand thst they ihould believe him who 
cannot centnilict him. 

He appears by bia modest and una^cted narration, 
to have described things as he saw them, to have copied 
nature irom tfae life, and to bave consuked bia senae^ 
not his imagination. He meets with no foanli^A diat 
destroy with their eyes; his crocodiles devourdi«r{>l«f 
without tears ; and his cataracts &T1 Irota the rock witb* 
out deafening the neighbouring inhabitants. 

The reader will here find no regions cursed with irre- 
mediable barrenness, or l^st with spontaneous feeM>di< 
ty ; no perpetual gloom or unctasing sundiine ; hot 
«re the nations here described either devoid of aU sense 
of humanity, or consummate in all private and aodal 
virtues; here are no Hof/ento<«without religion, polity, 
or articulate language ; no Ckinete perfectly polite, and 
completely skilled in ^1 sciences : he will discover what 
will always be discovered by a diligent and impartial 
inquirer, that wherever human nature is to be found, 
there is a mixture of vice and virtue, a contest of pu- 
sion and reason ; and that the Creator doth not appear 
-partial in his distributions, but has balanced in man 

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CAuatries thdr puticulv iDCODVcmenciss by particular 

. In hii Bceoant of tb? misnon, where his veracity is 
uoet to be iiupected, be neither exam^nM* overmuch 
^ merit! of the Jesuita, if we conuder the partial re- 
g«qd paid by the Portuguae to their countrymen, by the 
Jeauita to their society, and by the papiata to tfarar church, 
nor aggravatea.lhe vicea of tlie Abtfuimaut ; but if the 
reader will not be satisfied with a popish account of a 
ptqiiah misiiaa, he mf^ have recourse to the History of 
tiw Churcht^jjUjrMuiw, written by \ir.Gedde*, in which 
he will find Aeactiona and sufieriiu^s of the migaionaries 
^daccd iu a difiepeot Uj^t, though tine same in which Mr. 
Ze Grand, with all hia aeal for the Roman diurch, w^ 
■ veara to have eem thwn. ■ 

Thia learned disscrtator, however valnaUe forhia in< 
liMtry and erudition, is yet mare to be eateemed fbr 
having d^redaofre^ inthemidataf froace, to declare 

diMtry and erudition, is yet mare to be eateemed fi 

having dffredaofre^ inthemidataf froace, to declare 

bis disMKobotioa of tbe-pntriarch OoUd(ft sanguinary 

seal, ' who was continually inqwrbaiing the Porhiguue 

to bent up theu* drama for missionaries who might 
^pnaA the easpd witb swords in their hands, and pro- 
IMigate by desdatioQ and eUitghter the true worship of 
t)w 6ed w {Mtce. 

It is not easy tofoibear reflecting with how little 
n waon the«e m^ pnleM tfaemaelvea the followera of 
JGSU^ who left thia mat duracteriatick to hia dia- 
eipies, that tttey should be known IgF/evtw om aMotAer, 
^ waiveratd mi un b ounded charity and Denevoleioce. 

Let us suppose an inhabitant of some remote and su- 
puwi.ngwii, yetiuiflkiUed k) the waya of mmii, having 
read >ed conudered the preeepts ttf the goi^l, and the 
iple of our Saviour, to come down in search at As 


tTya.4^kiireh.j if he woukl ttet inquire after it among the 
em^ the inatdent, and the t^pressive; am<mg thoae 
: who are ei^tiauaUy f^aapmg at dtnninioa over souls as 
weU aa bodies ; among thoae wim are em^yed tn pn>> 
«oib^ to thetaadvea H^>uBihr for die nwst mormooa 
jnUaoiea, and studyuig nuthooa of deatn^ing their feU 
iQWHwatuMsu not for th«r ciwieabut thnrerrarajif 
Jbe would, not eniect to meet beeevf^enee en^^ige in 
nuMaaee, or to find auxcy in a court of inquiutmt^ 
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he wonld not look for the true church in the churdi of 

Mr. Le Grand hai giren in one dissertation an es- 
ffinule of sreat moderation, in deviating from the temper 
of ilia religion ; but in the others haa left proofs, Uiat 
learning and honesty are often too weak to oppose pre- 
judice. He has made no scruple of preferring the testi- 
mony of father Dit Bemal to the writings of all the 
Portaguesf Jesuits, to whom he allows great aeal, hut 
little teaming, without giving an j other reason than that 
his favourite was a Frfnckman. This is writing only to • 
Fjcuchmen and to papists r a protestant would be de- 
sirous to know, why ne must imagine that father Z)» 
Berual had a Cooler head or mdre knowledge, and why 
<Hie man, whose account is singular, ta not more likdj 
to be mistaken than many agreeing in the same account 

If the Ptrrlttgucse-werc biaaaed by any paiticular views, 
another bias equally powerful may have deflected the 
Frenchman from die tradt ; tor they evidently write with 
contrary desi'gna: the Parfaguete, to make their miautni 
seem more necessary, endeavoured to place in the etrong- 
est light the diffa^nres between the Abyttwan and Jto- 
Mtm church; but the great Ludo^ut, laying hold on the 
advanta^, reduced ^ese later writers to {ffove their 

Upon the whole, the controversy seems of no great 
importance to those who beheve the Hoty Scripturea 
sufficient to teach the way of salvation ; but, of what- 
ever moment it may be thou^t, there are no jsoo& 
sufficient to decide it. 

' His discourses on indiferent subjects will divert as 
well as instruct ; and if either in these, or in the relation 
of father Lobo, any argument shall appear unconvincing. 
Or description cfyaeute, they arc defects incident to all 
mankind, which however are not rashly to be imputed 
to the authors, being sometimes perhaps more justly 
chargeable on the translator. 

Ill this tranBlfltion (if it may be so called) great liber- 
ties have been taken, wbich, whether justifiable or not, 
shall be fairly confess^, and let the judicious part o£ 
nankihd pardon or condemn them. 

In the first part the greatest freedom has been used, in • 
reducing the narration into a narrow compass; so that it 

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or K&TKiit Loat^ ToTu*. S77 

is I7 BO meuu ft tnndation, but sa ephome, in whidi, 

wlieitlieT ereiy tbingridMT useful or cntertaiinQg be com> 
|»ued, ths con^ileT is lea>t qnaJiied to detennine. 

In rite account of Abyttinkt, and the continutttioB, tbm 
audioTs have been followed witli more eatactaera; and 
an &w pcsragea wpeared, either inngnificant or tedioiu, 
&w have been ei^er shortened or omitted. 

The dissertatioiu aie the oalj part in whicA an exact 
truubtion has been attnnptad ; and even in tfaoae, 1^ 
•Incts are sometimea given instead of literal qoototioiM, 
nrdcularly in the fint; and Knaetiines otiier parts 
oave been contnMed. 

SeTcral raemoriaU and letten, which are printed at 
the-end of die diisntalionB, to wcore the credit of die 
fMvgoing narrative, are entird; left o«L 

It ia hoped diat after dus confesrion, whoever ahall 
compare thia attempt with the original, if he ahall find 
no proofi of ftuod or partial!^, wDl candidlj overlook 
may &iluTe of judgment 




JANUARY I, 1757.' 

It bai always been lamested, diat (tf the little time al- 
lotted to man, modi most be ^oA upon superflnitiei. 
Every prospect has its obBtnicttons, which we must 
br^dt to eaiatge our view : every at^ of our progress 

* Dr. Jdhnton received the bumUe rewardiof a guisM (rtm Mr. 
BaiOt}/ for ttd« compoiitlan. C. 

Kk S 

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Ib^H inapeJiments, which, however eager to goSarwarA, ' 
we mast stop to remove. Even those who pralesa to 
teach the w^ to happineis, have multtplted our eQatni- 
bcvances, and the author of almost every bookTstords 
hiff instractions by apreface. 

The writers of the Chronicle hope to be eaaily ftr- 
given, though they should not be free ftora an infection 
that has seizei) the whole fraternity, and instead of fall- 
ing imniediatdy to their subjects, should detain the 
Reader for a time with an account of die importance of 
their design, the extent of their plan, and the accto^nr 
of the method which they intend to prosecute. Such 
premonitions, though not always necessaiy when the 
Ileader ha« the book complete in his hiind, and nu^ 
find by his own eyes what^er can be found in it, yet 
may he more easily allowed to wM-bs published gnuln- 
idly in successive parts, of 'which the scheme can only 
be HO far known as the author RbaJl think fit to discow 


The Paper which we now invite the Publick to add 
to the Papers with which it is already rather wearied 
than satined, consists of many parts ; some of which 
It Has in common with other periodical sheets, and some 
peculiar to itself. 

'ITie first demand made by the reader of a journal is, 
that .he should find an accurate account of foreign tran~ 
snctinns and domestick incidents. This is always ex- 
pected, but this is very rarely performed. Of those 
writers who haVe taken upon taemselves the task of in- 
telligence, some have given and others have sold tbetr 
abihties, whether Bmallor great, to one or otho- of the 
parties diat divide us ; and without a wish for truth or 
thought of decency, without core of any other reputation 
than that of a stubborn adherence to their abettors, car- 
ry on the same tenour of representation through all die 
vicissitodes of ri^t and wrong, ' neither depressed by 
detection, nor idiadted by conflation, proud of the 
hourly increase of infamy, and ready to boast of all the 
contumelies that falsehood and slander.majr bring upon 
them, as new proofe of their zeal and fidelity. 

With these heroes we have no ambition to be mmi- 
bered ; we leavft to the confessors of faction the merit of 

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their sofferings, and are denmu to theater oaradvea 
under the protection oF truth. That (dl our facts will be 
authentick, or all our remarks juat, we dare not venture 
to iHTomise : we can relate but what we hear, we can 
point out but what we see. Of remote transactioiis, the 
first accounts are always confused, and commonly ex- 
aggerated: andindomeatick affairi,it'thepowerto con- 
ceal is lesa, ttw interest to misrepresent is often greeXer ; 
and what it sufficiently vexatious, truth seems to fly 
from curiofltty, and as many enquiries produce many 
naimtivea, whatever engages the public attentioo is int- 
mediately disguised by the embellbhments of fiction. 
We pretend to no peculiar pow^ of diaentongllDg 
contradictisn or denuding forgery ; we have no setUed 
correspondence with the Antipodes, nor maintain any 
sjHcs in the cabinets of princes. But as we shall always 
be conscious that our mistakes are involuntary, we shall 
wvt^ the gradual discoveries of time, and retract what- 
ever we have hastily and erroneously advanced. 

In the narratives of the daily writCTSevMy reader pen. 
caves somewhat of neatness and purity wantitig, whidb 
St tbe first view it seems easy to supply ; but it must be 
cmisidered, that those passages must be written in haste, 
and that there is often no other choice but that they must 
want either novelty or accuracy ; and that aa life is ve- 
ry uniform, tile a^irs of one week are bo like those a€ 
another, that by any attempt afler variety of expreBflifm, 
inventionwouldaoonbeweariedjandlanguage exhausted. 
Some improvements however we hope to make ; and for 
the rest, we think that when we commit only common 
fanHs, we shall not be excluded Irom common indulgence. 

The accounts of prices -of com and stocks are to most 
of our Readers of more importance than narratives of 
greater sound ; and as exactness is here within the reach 
of diligence, our readers may justly require it from us. 

Memorials of a private and persona) Kind, which re- 
late deaths, marriages, and preferments, must always be ' 
imperfect by omission, and often erroneous by misinfor- 
mation ; but even in these there shall not be wanting 
care to avoid mistakes, or to rectify them whenever iJiey 
ihall be found. 

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mo naoMtauMT BMconu vo 

UmA put of OUT work, hy whi^' it is dtstanguiBlMd 
ffom all othen, a. the lit^vir joiuiul, or account <^ the 
UMmaadprodvctioiHcJtneleaBicd. TbiiwasfiMrs 
lottg tim? (unoBg di« defioeixiea of £iigiEifA titee^nte ; 
but a3 ttace^prioe «f man taahrtgrs startinf from toe Ihde 
latooBiat^TO baw iKnr unoigM othet dHturbanof hi^ 
nwB quiet, Ik niunerout body of Mviewen and nmariuvs. 
' £vcf7 Kt ia iiD^woved by the enuilatiao of compel 
ton ; tooae who make no adTWicea towaids excellence, 
tqaij ituKl u wanung* againat &uits. We ahaU endeft- 
vour to avoid that petulance which treats with Dontenmt 
whatever has hitbcvto beoi reputed aacred. We sh^ 
Mprcaa that dattiHt of malignity, which wantona in the 
(ywdtiea of criticiam, and not mly murdera wputatimi, 
but murders it In' torture. Whenever we feel ourselves 
IgDtaant, we ■bell at least be modest Our intentioQ ia 
Qot to preoccupy judgment t^ praise or censure, but to 
galafy curioHty by eudy int^^ence, and to tdl nttbeE 
what our authors have attempted, than what they bav» 
pqvAHined. The titles of books are uecesaarily short. 
and tfeetefinre disdoae but impeafecdy the omttenls ^ 
lliay are soiqetimefl fraudulaitand intended to raiae blae 
expectatlma. In our account thjs brevity will be ex- 
tended, and these frauds, whenever the^ are detected, 
wiU be ei^MMCd ; fbr though we write vilhout intentioo 
to injure, we shiaU not mma ourselves to be made par- 
ties to dec«t 

J£ any author shall tnuumit a summary of his work. 
we ahaU willingly receive it; if any litmry anecdote, 
w curipus observatifHii shall be conununicated to us, we 
wiU car^ully iaaot it. Many facts are known and ferw 
gotten, many observatiMis ore made and si^jressed ; 
and entertainment and instruction sre frequently lost, 
fev want of a repository in which they may be convcni- 
ently Iffeeeryed. 

No man can modestly promise what he c«inot ascer- 
tain : \rt hope far ihe praise of knowledge and discenw 
ment> but w« claim only that a£ diligence and eandow. 

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Navigation, like other «rts haa been perfected by de- 
grees. It h Dot easy to conceive that any a^ or nation 
.was without some vessel, in which rivers might be pas- 
sed by travellers, or lakes frequented by fiahernien ; but 
we have no.knowledge of any ship that could endure 
the violence of the ocean before the ark of NoaA. 

As the tradition of the delu^ has been b^nsmitted to 
almost all the nations o£ the earth ; it must be supposed 
that the memory of the means by Which Noah aod his 
&nuly were preserved, would be continued long among 
their descendants, and that the possibility i^ passing the 
seas could never be doubted. 

What men kaow to be practicable, a thousand motives 
will incite them to try ; and there is reason to believe, 
that from the dme that the generations of the postdilifa- 
vian spread to the sea shores, there w^e always nav]g»> 
tors that ventured upon the sea, though, perh^s, not 
willingly beytmd the sight of land. 

Of the anoieat voyages little certain is known, and it 
is not necessary to lay beibre the Header such comec- 
tures as leani^ men have offered to &e world. The 
Bomant by conquering Carthage, put a stop to great part 
of the trade of distant nations with one another, and be- 
cause they thoueht only on war and conquest, as their 
empire increasea, commerce was discouraged ; till under 
the' latter emperors, ships seem to have been of Uttla 
other use than to transport soldiers. 

Navigation could not be carried to any great degree 
of certainty without the compass, which waa unknown 

" A coUecdmi of Voyages and Travela, aelectcd ftoin the vritcn 
of nil nationi, in twenty miall pocket volumes, and published by 
Jfembery ; to oblige whom, it ia conjectured that Jdtntim drew up 
Ibis ciiTlousand iaatned paper, whloh Bp[>euad in the Bnt tdL 1TW< 

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to the ondenti. The wonderful cjualhy by ivtuch a nee* 
dk or Emsll bar of steel, touched with a ttwdabme or mw- 
net, and turning freely by equilibration on a pmnt, lu- 
wayi preserves the meridian, and directs Ita two eada 
north and south, wa* diacovered, aooording to ctnnmtHi 
opinion, in 1S99, by John Gola, ti£ Amayi, in Itoig. 

Froni this time it i»-i«asmable to suppose, that na- 
vigation made continual, thou^ slow mtiHwvemNit^ 
whii^ the oonftition and barban^ of the time«, and tfaa 
wuak of crammunicatian between ordoa a£ men so di»> 
tant as sailors sad monka, hindmd tVomlieiB^dirtine^ 
It and successively recorded. 

It teems, however, that ^e sailors still wanted eithw 
knowledge or cDur«|[e, &c tiiey coMinued &v two «eB- 
taries to creep along the coast, and CMuidwed ctcbj 
headland as unpaBS&ble which ran lar into the sea, attd •• 
gainatwhich the waves broke with uneommon agitriiaa> 

The first who b knowit to have formed tbe derigfl of 
■aw diseovenea, or die first who had power to cxeeota 
his purpoaefi, was Don Hatty ^m fifth, aoa tSMm, the 
first king t£ Portugal, and Pf^futm, aster of Hauy 
l^tomiHtofEi^Mmd. Don if omj havli^ attended lua 
&dicr to tha conquMt of Ce«<ii,- obtained by««i>HmatiaB 
with tha ijubabhaats of tba GoMmmt, aame oeaeantk of 
this mtarior kingdoms and soatiwm oeast of Afritms 
which, though rude and indiatinct, wcfc sufflcmit to 
taiie hia ntnowtj, and coavince biin, that tfaore war* 
c^ratriea yet raknown and worthy of cUseovcry. 
' He dtcMote cqmppsd srase snudl vessel^ and soBi- 
manded that thw showd pass as fiv as th*7 ca«U along 
thateaeatofi^irtCMiviucblodEed upon the great .JlAMfw 
•caan, the bwtcnsity of which staruck die gioiB and HB- 
skilfid oavigaten of those tintea with tarror and Mwae> 
Boent. HawasnstablctocoBuauuucatebisoWB'aidmv 
to bis seamen, who nroocedod v«ry dowty in the new 
attempt; each was ^aid to venture atadi ferdier than 
bathat went befiwe him, and ten-yean were a|)aat bcftne 
,they bad advanced beyond ct^ Bafmhr, so called frotn 
Its progreaaion into the ocean, and tbe circuit by which 
k most be doubled. The oppoattifm of this [wianCHitorT 
tq the course of the sea, produced a violent current aiM 
bigb vavM> into wliid) Uwy dunt not vmtwN, and 

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-a^ich tbey lud not jet knowledge enoagfa to BV<Hd by 
■tuKfing-off from the huid into tM open lea. 

The prince wu deurouB to know something of tlie 
tiaantries that Uy beyxnid tJiiH formidable eipe, and sent 
tw« conmuuiderB, named John Otmzaks Zarco, and Trir- 
tmn Fm, ia l*\8, to paas b^ond Baftaiot, and anrvey the 
oeast behind it. They were caught t^ s tempest, whidi 
drovs tbem out into me mduiown ocean, where they ex- 
pected to pent^ t^thevif^noeoftiiewind. Or pcrtiaps 
to wander for ever in the boundleas deep. At last, iil tne 
nidat of their des)Mk, tiwy found a small isUnd, frhere 
tfa^ riiritered titemadTes, and whidi the sense of tfa^it' 
dt^veranoe disposed tbem to call Puerto Statio, or the 

Wben tfiey'Mtamed With oh accouit trf* this new ie^' 
Imad, Hatty peifunued a pilblick act of thanksgiving. 
Mid sent them again wttili seeds and cattle; and we are 
trid by the S^mntk hist<»4an, that they set two rabbits 
on shore, which increased so mllch in a ftw yeftrs, that 
tfwy drove anray the inhabitants, by destroying their 
com Mid plants, and were snared to enjc^ the island 
without opposition. 

In the second or third voyage to Puerto Santo (fbr 
authors do not a^ree which)i a third oqitaifti called Pe- 
nlio, was jmned to the two' former. At tbey looked 
Found the island upon the ocean, &ey saw at a distance 
something whirii they took for a doud, til! they per- 
eeived dut it did not change its place. I^ey directed 
their course towards it, and, in 1419, discovered anotJier 
Mand covered with trees, whidi they therefore c^ed 
Madera, or die ItU of Wood. 

MadenyiM given to Vmor ZarcOi who set fire totbe 
woods, which are reported by Soiisa to have burnt for 
asven years togethn, end to tuve been wasted, till want 
of wood was the greatest inconvetrieticy of 1^ place. 
But green wood is not very apt to bum, Mid the heavy 
rains wMdi fUl in these countries must- surdy hare ex- 
lingmsheS the conflagration, were tt ever so violent. 

There was yet little progress made upon die southern 
coast, uid Henr^t project was treated as chimerical by 
many of his countrymen. At last GUianet, m I ASS, 
Mssed die dreadful cape, to which he gave the name t^ 
Bafador, and came back to the wonder of the nation. 

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la two voyagftB more, made in the two fdlovii^ 

Jears, they passed forty-two leagucB farther, and in the 
itter, two men with horses being set on shore, wander- 
sd over the country, and found nineteen m^, whom, 
qccording to the savage manners of that age, they at- 
tacdced, the natives having javelines, wounded odc i^ 
the Portuguese, and received some wounds from them. 
At the mouth of a river they found aea-wolres in great 
Qumbera, and brou^t home many of their aisjoB, miich 
were much esteemed. 

Antonio GoHsalet, who had heen one of the astociatca 
of (^iUanetj was eeiit again in 1440, to bring back a car- 
mt of the skiae of sea-wolves. He was followed in ano< 
Uier ehip by Nvnno Trittam. They We^e . now of 
BtretiKth sufficient to vaiture vipon violence ; th|^ tber«. 
fore landed, and* without either right or provocation, 
made all whom they seized their pngoners, and brought 
them to Portugal, with great <^inmendatioiu both ^»n 
the prince and the nation. 

Henry now began to please himself with the succev 
of his prmects, and as one of his purposes was the con- 
version of infidels, he thought it necessary to impart bia 
undertAkinff to the Pope, and to obtain the sanction of 
ecclesiastictd authorily. To this end Fervando topes. 
iA^xvedo was dispatched to Rome, who related to the 
Pope and cardinals the great designs of H^rjf, and 
magnified hi^ zeal for the propggatioa of religion. The 

Oie was pleased with the narrative, and by *.- fonnal 
I, conferred upon the crown of Portugal all tiie couDr 
tries which should he discovered as far as /M^,t«^thec 
with India itself, and granted several privileges and io- 
dulgencies to the churches which Bennf had built in his 
new regions, pnd to the men engaaed In the navigatirai 
for discovery. By this bull all other princes wn« foi»- 
bidden to encroach upon the conquests of the Porii^tm^ 
The approbation of the Pope, the sight of men whooe 
manners and appearance were so different frota those ot 
Europeans, and the hope of gtun from golden regions, 
which has been always the great incentive to hazard and- 
discovery, now began to operate with full force. The. 
'desire of riches and of dominion, whiiph is yet mote 

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-^dCMing to tile fancy, filled the donitsof the PorU^mte 
|irinc« with inaumcnble adnattarvn ttata very dutut 
parts of Europe. Some wanted to be employed in dw 

tluM vriiich bad been already found. 

CommunitteB now beg«n to be animated by the tpirit 
of enterpriae, and many aModaticNu were formed for the 
eqaipment of ships, and die acquisition of the riches of 
t&Rtuit remans, which perhaps were ^^^^ nippoaed 
to be more wealthy, as more remote. laeie under* 
takers agreed to pay tht prince a fifth part ttf the profit, 
Bometbnes « greater share, and sent out the •rmament 
at their own esncose. 

The ekj of Lagot was the firit that carried on this 
design by conoibution. The inhabitants fitted out rix 
vessels, under the command of Lttearot, one c^ the 
prince's hou«ehdd, and bood after fourteen mmv were 
tumished for ^e same purpose, under the same com* 
caander; to those were added many belonging to primte 
men, bo that in a short time twen^-aix sh^ put to eea 
in quest ofwhatever fortune should present. 

The ships of iMgo* were toon separated by foul wesi- 
ther, and the rest, taking each its own course, stopp#d 
at different parts of the African coa«f, from Cape Btanio 
to Cape FenL Some of them, in 1144, anchored at GSo- 
mera, one of the Canaries, where they were kindly treat- 
ed by the inhabitants, who took them ioto their Fervicc 
4^i]iBt the pec^le of the isle of Pabaa, with whom th<y 
were at war ; but the Portuguese at their return to 0«- 
ntfra, not bein^ made so rich as they expected, fell upba 
their friends, in contempt of all the laws of hospitality 
and sa'pnlationa of alliance, and, nutkSng several of them 
prisoners and slaves, set sail for Liibwi, 

The CanarUs ore supposed to have been blown, how- 
ever imperfectly, to aie ancients ; but in the confusion 
of the Bubseqoent agea they were lost and tbrgotten, tiQ 
■bout the year 1340, the Biscayiuts found I.ucam, and 
invading it (for to find a new country itad invade it has 
always been the same), brought away seven^ captive^ 
aod some commoditiefl of the place. Louii de la Cerda, 
oount of CUrmont, of the blood royal both of France and 
Spoilt, neph«w of Jokn de la Cerda, wlio callefl himuflf 
Vor,. I. L 1 

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StS iKtiavircfwii to Mk 

Dw. Priocb {]f FHtRBc, bad oaaB s mud to Mt& in tboK 

gm, aiul then to CiemaU VI. ww I^ the pofw cKowned 
•t jfp^gwnwj kingof At.Caminai,.m canditMii th«tba 
duHild icdtNX tiieiB to die tme ivligian; bt|t dte ptncR 
«h«c41u>itiiBd,.«i>d w<M into AwMK to serve agaiaat 
tha £«;iMA. .The kii^lNthof Csctife and Porfif^ 
tlMU|^ thtf did not opipow the |Mpal gnnt, yet cen- 
pUiatd of It, u rnadt mUtoat tmr knowle^ti, and ia 
cantnventMm of tfaeirri^tfB. 

The fint Mttlenent in dw f'afMWf v«s inade t^ 
•KaiN <b £tUma)ur, • f rtacA^nrtlaaui, for whom hu 
kinsmaii, £o&M (fe Braquemeni, admird rf f rcmoe, be^ 
j^thmt, widi the title of Kin^ from Ha»r3r-tibe nug- 
ta&tatt oT CattHe, to wboia he bad dnie eminent ea> 
vMe& iMn made bimidf nuuter of Bome of the. ialav 
bubeoaldnevereonmiertheBTBtid Canary jT andfaaviu 
ipeBt eU tbat ha ba^ wem back to Enmpe, leaving hit 
■qdtnr, Mtuaat dt BeUmeour, to take cai« ef bis new 
idoninitA. AasMOf had *<luamWilb the vicar-general, 
and vas likewiw dii^uated by the loog absence of hie 
vnale, wb<nn the ^reiwh king detained in bis service. 
Mil foein^ able to keqp bia gTMUid no longer, betrana- 
J^rcd bii rights to Don aenru, in exdunge for soitae 
4iatiwta in tfe Madera, vbcrehe settled his funily. 

Don HtKTjj, wbcn be had pnrcbased tlwMe islanda, 
«fnt tbithcr in I4d4, two tbopisand. five hundred ibot; 
•nd an. hundred and twentjr bor«; but the anny wa> 
tno numeriHiB to be maintained by the country. The 
king nf Cattiie sftervsrde claisied them, as oonquovd 
by bis subjects under Belancour, and held under the 
cnmn of CattUe by fealty and homage; bis dain waa 
allowed, and the Canariet were resigned. 
- It was the constant jprsctice of JSenr^t JoavigKlan, 
ivhen they stopped at a dtwrt island, to land ottle u^hib 
it, and leave them to breed, where, neither wantau 
room nor food, they multiplied rery Uet, and funudiu 
a.very covinodiouBBua^y to iboee wbe cameaftowardi 
to W -Mwe plaw. ThiB was iniilated is sane dc^iree 
biy Anten, at the isle of Juan Eernandex. 

^'hc islands vSJAadera, he not only filled vith.tnW 
bitaate, jmirted by pjtificeis of every kind, but pi;oCin«4 


»iA pltttta u Kened Siuij to flooriA in Aft d _. _, 
and JntPodBced sugar canea tmd viaei, which ritanracds 
pradaced a very urge revftnne. 

Hm tnde of .^/nco now begiat to be profitabk, Imk 
a forest part of toe gain oftne from tbe Mie of alaTefy - 
who were aimoallj' bcoui^ into Portugal, hy hondred^ 
ai La^Um* relates, a>d wtthont any appeaTancc of indig- 
nation or GOiapttMiim ; thejr KAriaeimported goU da>t 
in audi qoaotitiea, that ^MtUfuc V. cotaed it into a imm- 
aaeaea e£ moaey, odled CmMutes, which is Mill eoa- 
tmaadin PorbtgaL 

In tinw thc;f made their w^ aloiw die smith oosst wf 
Afrieoj eaatward to tile euuulrj of ae tfwnics, «iMi» 
ttejr found living in t«iti, witbout ai^ p(&tcil imtita^ 
tioai, aiippoiting life with rary litde hlmir, by -the taiHl 
of their Kne, and miHet, to which tbaeeiriK»MHlriled 
die coast added SA (Med- in the son. Having ntfm 
sent tbe nutives ar bewd of the art* of Ettrope, th^r 
gMcd with astonisfanient on the ships when tlin »■ 
MMKbcd their couts, soaetiraes t h i n hi ty than oiiav 
awi anoetimea fishes, accnding as tfwit MHs weve q^rtad 
qrlowmd; aodaonietHBescfmewnBgthnntiiheflMbr - 
pha'ntoma irtucb played t» and ftd fat the aoMn. Swh 
wtheaacbantgiTenl^lhefalahiriBn, p«A«M indt too 

^ t tbe balk Mid rtt iftuese 

of t]ie bu dup, w««U acaiccfy eoneaivD it to be eilfacr 
a bird era fisa; bnthanng seen innty bodiea. floating 
in the water, wonld think it what it redly: it, alam 
boat; and if be I»d no kiioiriedge of vqr aw«i» Cy 
whidi separate piecea of timbarm^ be joioBd togadm^ 
wedld fimn ytry wild notknu coneendng its oonsbve* 
tioD, ov pmbi^ anppoae it tobe aholl«w tmnk vt» tne 
, flrom eame opuntry whffe tnea grow (OAjnunh gnatay 
Iieuht and driduieas than in faia own. ' > 

when the PorA^uete caine to land, llwy incnaaed'tiu 
astonishment of the poor inhalMtants, wtio skw Bieii«iad 
uiiion.withthnndersndlii^lningintiieB'haiids.' Tkey 
did not andnatand eadi fldm, amla^uanavafyitnT 
Mrfoct mode of casnmunication, ef>m to>mto 4£M0to 
Iniowledge dam the ncgtoea, ap tbatAeycanld Mtt^teaiW 
ntgodMtt at taJSAt at last tbe iWigwap Iddjfan* 

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mnch pr^dice against a.negne'' 
tbdugB he iniglit weU woraur at 


oa rameoFdian to cany diem home fiwinnqiie; and 
thefar dread and amascment was raised, saya La^tau, to 
the highest j^tcji, when die Ewopeaa* fired their c«n- 
dtoiu and muskets among^ them, and diey saw their cmn- 
BaidoRS fUl dead at their faix, without any enemy at 
Wid, or any riaftle cause of their deatnictian. 

' Or what occasion, or for what putpose, cannona tJtA. 
□toskets were divdun'gfid among a peo||rfe harmless aod 
■More, by strangers who without any right Tuotadtiiar 
coast, it is Tiot thou^^ nMXssary to inibrra iis. The 
PortugueK could fearnothingfhnn Aem, and had there- 
Aire no adequate nrovocatian; nOr is ^ere any rensos 
to bcAleTe biit diat they ninrdered the n^roea in wanton 
merriment, perhaps only to try how many a v<dley would 
deatrvy, or what would be. the consternation of those 
that thonld escape. "We ore openly tfild, that diey had 
the lets wmpTe ccncemii^ their treatment of the savage 
pec^e, because they acarcdy considered them as dt»- 
tinct fVom beast ; and tnileen the praMic* of all the B»- 
ropeoH nations, and nnong adters of dte EnglM bar- ' 
bariUM that coltiTBte die »uth(m idonds of America, 


rever wideed and inluriaas, atill continues toprevA 
Interest and pride hamen the heart, and it is qi vsbi to 
dispntc against ankrice and pcnrer. 

By these practices die fint discoreren alienated Ae 
tutives from them ; and vrfienbver a diip mppe^vA, 
tiTBtj one that could fly betook himself to the nKhm- 
tobu and the wockb, so that notiiing was to be got 
more than they could steal : they sometimea am^iriaed 
a few fishers, and made diem Blaves, aiid did what they 
eaald to oSoid the negroes, and enridl thnnadvea. 
!ndB jwactice of robbery continued till some of tibe tw> 
noes «4u> bad been enslaved learned the language of 
Portugalj so as to be aMe to interpret toi didr countir- 
men, and ctoe John Ftmanda applied Inmaelf to the 
ne^o timgne. t 

' From this' time b^an sonetfaing like a r^;tilar trat 
Ml, lueh as coa sulraist between nations whore all the 
powvrie onone side; and a factory was settled in dn 
Mie of Arguin, imdv the protection otn Scat. The pro* 
ftl of tlua sev trade was anigncd txa a cextatB term to 

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F tr t K im d o Qomati wMdi swms to bs A* taaaaaa. 
metbod of M t abl wh ing a tnde that u yd too kiuU to 
enguadeonof »iuti(»,aQd wtont)^ be «tilai^;e4 
bjr tlut Kttentioo which is bwtoved li>v pliTCts oten 
iipon< printe «d w n t > g «^ Gamat wntaniMl tJie dit. 
coveriei to C*fe Cathmvie, twQ.dv^ree* and ft h^ bftr 

In the latter part of the tnaa of Al^aimt V. bbc 
aidour of disowMy vas tcmewbat iotcrniUted, ntd all 
coaunennaL ciMapnws wen intenu^tcd by th« waniv 
iKhidi be ^ma en^med with varioua Mutcas. But JtA» 

U. who aacceededf being-fiilly cooViocvd both of tbo 
faonooB and advanlw oc edHidin^ his domioitms-in 
eonntnas bidietta unknoini, prawcutod.ttte deiigna of 

prince Semy with the utiaoat vigour, and in t ahoit 
tnne added to hi« other titlcf, dut of king of Gkuh» 
rad of the eoait of Mrioa, 

In 1463, in the third year of the rei^ of Jb^b* ij. 
died prince Henjy, the drat eaceurager m remote a«y^ 
cation, by wbaae incitenieiit, natrMage, and eumple, 
£atont natioDi have been inade aoqitainted with each 
(^ur, vnkaovn countriea have been branght Into geo- 
erol view, and ihe power of Europe ha» been extended 
to the ifemotaat wta of the weald. What nuuikliul han 
loat and gained 1^ the genius and designs of thi» prince, 
it would ba long to compare, and very difficult to. e^- 
mate. Mneb Imowle^e has been acquired, and much 
€rae% beei cemnittm ; the belief of reliponlwsbew 
vary little pn^agated, and its laws h»y« been outrsge- 
oualy and oMBinouBly violated The Ewopeam have 
•oaKfly Tinted any coast, but to gratify avarioe, and 
~-"~d-ODrruptioQ ; to arrogate dominitw without right. 

And practice cruelty without incentive. Happy had jt 
thai be^ &r .the i^ipBfStcd, if the designs of JJenTif had 
dtept la his bosom, and surely more li^py for tlie up- 
pxeoson. Bitf there is reason to hope thiit out of so 
tench evil good may sometimes be produced ; md that 
&ie l^t ta the Ka^>el will at last Uluminatc tlie sands 
of Jfrica, and 3ie deserts of Ameriea, though its pro- 
a cannot bnt be sl(w, when it is so much obstructed 


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tung John, who 1ra> rary alriet in hia injonetiatu, not 
wily to sathb& t emmet, but to aeoiire poii e w i an af the 
«>iintric§ ttirt WMc-fe md . ThepraetioeafthefiraliM- 

vigatOTS mwilj to niM a txoss n 

« to the new cohI^ 

sapantMOMH . 
1 tfSM the device of Don Hmry, the i 

am imon (fees the device of Don t 
ivbidi they thon^At it yraptt to ^ve b 
Mid ai^ oOer iuoniMrtiMi, for thMO diat mi^it bimea 
to fidim* then ; but now Aey htg^ to «TCCt pme of 
■Kne vith a eroM on the top, end engraved en tlwataoe 
the anna of Porto^ the name ol' the khw, and of the 
eoBunaadn of die diip, with the da^ and year of die 
diMovery. Thia waa accownted anfiicunt to prave their 
claim to the new landa ; wlndi mi^t be pleaded with 
jufltice CBongh uatnat any other EwropemiM, and die 
rif^ta of the angmal inhatntanta were never taken into 
notice. Of these Mane recorda, nine nuee were erected 
in the reign of king Join, along die coast OtJJrica, aa 
&r as the C^^ ^ Good Hope. 

The fiHtrcfls in the ide <rf ^rpM waa fimsbed, and it 
waa fbnnd nccMeary to build anodier at St. Geargio dt 
Im Mima, a few d^raea noith of die line, to aeenre the 
trade of stdd dust, whid waa diiefiy carried <hi at diat 
ulaoe^ For thia purpoae a fleet waa fitted out ef ten 
mge and three analler vcaaels, iif^^ited with matnriala 

lion for aix hundred men, 

werlunen and labourers. Father l^^jCitMrdatca, in vny 

Horticalar tcnaa, diat thaae ahipa canied.hewn rtcmea, 

brick*, and timber, for the fort, eo that notiiingmnaincd 

bat hardy to erect it. He does not aeem to «onnder 



: barelvb 

how small a ftm cooldbe madeout of the lading of ten 

The command of thia Aeet was given to Daa Di^o 
^Azambue, \sbo get eail December 11, 1481, and rcat^ung 
t^ Mina, January 0), 148S, f^ave immediate notice «f 
Ilia arrival to Caramafua, a pet^ jwince of diat part 0f 
■the country, whom he very eamotfy invited to an im^ 
mediate cMiference. 

Having received a measege of civility from the negrop 
diief, he Unded, and chose a rinns ground, fwoper for 
his intended tiNrtress, on ^hicb be j^uted a |(«uio with 

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WMnjt snpLATin. 9^. 

Ae anm of Parttigal, and took powcuipn in the nsm* 
•f ki) muter. He than ni««d an altar at the foot of a 
great tree, m wUefa bum -wma c eU bf a t ad , Ae iritole aa- 
•embly, «jt Lqfi^m, breakitif oot into tans of dev^ 
1xoaaXA»^ptoKpecnk umtin|| dtaw bariMious natiixu 
to the profe—iom of the true fawb. BnngNcuieof &• 
goodoMs of the end, they had BO acm^ i£»t tbemeana, 
oar ever cowtdered how diSlerentlj from the primitiTo 
mar^Ts aad spotlit Aey mre attemptiiig to mdu 
pnw^jrtea. The first profiagators of drinian^ w 
eoMnunded theb doctnnes Im- their soAraigs Old vip* - 
- tae«; they e nt ered no dtfenctJessteiiitories with swKirdi 
in their Iwids ; di^ built no Acts npongrotind to whidi 
€»tiyh$d no right, nor polluted tae purity of rd%i«n 
wiUt the avarice oftrxde, or inatdenee of ^ewer. 

What may still raise higiier the indi^piation of a ckiia* 
tian raind, this parpoee of prt^iagating truth ^ipean 
never to have been seriouriy parauad by soy Eitroptmn 
nation ; no means, whether UwAil or ualawftd> nave 
been pAclised with dJUnnce and psvaenrance for the 
conrenioD of savaftes. When a fint is buiU, and a £ic- 
tory esbd>liahed, Oiere remuns no other cave than to 
.grow ridL it is soon fonnd that ^norance is mast 
oaailT kept in subjictien, and that t^ enHi^itenii^ dw 
•auaa wim truth, fraud amd nsorpation w«ild be made 
taea ptactic^le suid Wss secon. 

In a finr days an interview was qtpointed between 
Canamnua and AtutaJme. The Portuguett utteredby 
-his entwjRVtcr a pcnnpous speech, in wiiieh be nude 
die ne^roe prince large offers of bis master's friendriiip, 
esfaMtnu him to embrace the rdigion of kis new dy; 
and told him, that as they came tofinm a league (^ 
frienddnp with him, it was necessaiy tiiat they abould 
build a. fort,' whid> might aaeve as a retreat frcnn dieb* 
' common enemies, and in which the Foringiiete might 
be always at hand to lend him asaistasce. 
* The n^^roe, who seemed very wdl to understand 
- what the admiral intended, &ftcr a short pause, returned 
an answer f\iU of respect to the king of Porbi^al, but 
■mpeared a little doul^ful what \o determine with rel»- 
. tion to the fort The commander saw his diffidence, 
«^ wed ^ his «t of persuasion to overcwne it. Cant- 

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d by bojpe, or "'"■'r*'"— ^ hy tear, 
tiiba iaaxauM to make tfaran fiienda, or not donngta 
mke them CTflnum, cooaented, with & *bow of joy, to 
tkat whkli it va> not-inJiu powa to refuse ; uta the 
ae«! GOBBcn b^en the next day to Iweak the gmond 
ibr « fimndMlion of a ftrt. 

WiduB th« limit of their intended IbrtificBtioB^ircre 
mne qpvta apfVapEiated to aupersdtioiu pnrtioeB, wliich 
tbe neffont no •ocmer perceiTed in dai^^ of vitdatioo 
bf the ^ade and-pdcaae, Uian thej mn to arms, aad 
togan to iMemipt the work. The Porhiguae persiated 
b dKB" pa^oK, and there had Mxm been tumult jmd 
blotdthea, hitd oat the admiral, who tras at a diatance 
iB'tuMiintoid dw wnlndiitg the materiali fta the adifice, 
been infomed of die daoM. He was b^ at the same 
tane, diat the Mip|iart of tiwir aopentition was only a 
nwWao^ and that all dieir rage m^fat be amteased by 
UM TOM cm s which the prince expected, toe deb^ ot 
triuch had greatly ofiended him. 

l^e iWtoMwr odmind immediately on to his men, 
pM]tnbitedaU*icJ«nGe, and*Wppedtbecomniotioo;^ Iw 
then broo^t out the preaents, and spread duna with 
giMtpompbefere the prince; if they were of no great 
value, dtev were rare, for the negroea faod never seen 
■uch wiHMwn .bafiH« ; diey were diecefoie received with 
ecstan'. and perhaps the Portugaete derided th^ for 
thrirnmdnen of triae% without otmeideriBg.iMw'nuaiy 
AingB dmve their value only Iran didr scarcity ^ and 
tlwt gtdd and rutuea would be trifles, if aatanehadscat> 
tered them with lees firngality. 

The worit was now pcaceabfy oontinaed, and aacb. 
WM dM diligence with which thesteangera hastened to 
awMre the possession of the -coontry, that in twenty d^B 
tfaejr had soffidently fi»iified tlumselves agakiM the 
boMilinr of the negroes. Tb^ then proceeded tocom- 
^te their derign. A church was Inuk in ths plsoe 
where the fast ahar had been raised, ofi whidi a maaa 
was estabWsfaed to b« celelwated fc« evo', once a day, 
fe the npoee of the soul of Satry, the firtf mover «C 

- In this (eft the adnural ronsiaed with lix^ siddivs, 
mA Mat faMck the rest in the-ahips, vith gold, alavas^ 



and other comnoditie). It may be dbaerred thftt dares - 
were nerer foi^jotlen, and that whenver they went, they 
gratified Iheir pride, if not thdr avarice, and brought 
some of the natives, irtien it happened that they broo^ht 
nothing ebe. 

The Portuguae endeayoured to extend their domi- 
nions still &rther. They had sained some knowledge 
of the Jalofft, a nation inhabiting the coast of Gainea, 
between the Gamhia and Sene^<d. Thekingof the /a- 
^fft being vicious and luxunoui, comraittod the cara 
of die government to Beitiom, hli brother by the mo- 
ther's side, in preference to two other brothers by hi* 
&ther. Bemma, who wanted neither bravery nor pra- 
dence, knew that his station was invidious and dai^er- 
oua, KoA therefore made an alliance with the Portuguete, 
and retained them in his defence by liberality and kind- 
nesjs. At last the kint^ was killed by the contrivance 
of liis brothers, and Bemoia was to lose his power, «f 
mirinttin it by war. , ' , 

He had reoonrse in diis ez^ence tb'hlssreat ally die . 
king of Portijpt^ iriio promised to Bumort aim, on con- 
dition that lie should neoome a dinsuan, and sent an 
AmbaiaBdcn>, Mcompanied with missipnftries. Bemaiii 
{Momiied aH tfiat was required, ol^ectlng only that the^ 
time of a civil war was not a pnqMT season ft* a change 
of rdifion, whidi would alienate hu adherents; ait 
Midj that when he was once peaceably establishedi he 
woidd not only embrace the true rdigion hinuelf, but 
ironld endeavour the conversimt of the kingdom. 

This excuse was admitted, and Bemoin ddayad fala 
conversion for a year, renewing his promise froin tim« 
to time. But the war was unsnoceasful, trade was at m 
stand, and SmuMM was not aUe to pay the'mon^ whicb 
he had borrowed of the I\)r(iwiteM merchants, who sent 
intdligence to Lubom of his atiUya, and ncaved an <n-> 
- der flmn the king, commanding thnn, undo' Mvere p»> 
BaltieB, to Ktnm home. 

Bemon here saw his ruin appioadiii^, and bo^na 
diat nvmey woidd padfy all resentment, bonowed of 
his firiends a sum sufficient to disidui^ his debts ; ancl 
finding that even this enticement would not daUy tte 
departure of lh,e iVt^^tese^hs embarked hi* nephew te 

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9(M WTmoDCcnoii to twr - 

tluir liaps, vilfa «n knadied •kvw, wbom he preaented 
to die knv «f PortugaJ, to solicit his mHiataiice. The 
efiect of nis emboisy he could not at^ to know ; fi)r 
bmag HOB afUr d^med, be HOgfat ifaeltar in the fiarw 
tress of Arguin, whence he took shipping for Portugal 
widi twen^-IIve of hii prine^sl IbUowaM. 

The kin^ of P«rlugu/ jileued bia own TUiity and that 
of fai» aahjecu, bf reoRTing him witfa ir^M "tB^ "i^ 
magnificence, aa a nighty iscMun^ who had fled to an 
ally fbr nccomr is miafeTtDne. All the lords and ladiea 
of the tioort were asMniblcd, and BanoM was Gvndocted 
witii s ^ilaDdid atteadance into the ball of audicaicc^ 
wbare ue king nte bvm his tfanue to wdoome fain. . 
BmoM dwn made a lyecch with great ease and f^gnity, 
rcprcaenting his nnhi^py state, and implorins the &• 
voor of his powerftti aOj. The king was toocbed with 
hit affictitm, and stmck by bis wis^m. 

Tba esRvnaioii of BtuKm was mocb desired by ths 
king; and it was therefore immediat^nropaaedtahiiii. 
durt be aboHld bccoiw a diristiaa Ecatmalidu were - 
itattoinatraGtluni; madhmfiagnmrnoiiKmobttaiiem 
CraminUtaat, hcwv e«3yii«r<uaded todedanban- 
a^whaterer wmild pleaae tnoae on whom he now de* 
-~''^ fie waa b^tJaad oa the third day of i^axa^' 

far IMS 

14<9/ia the palace of the qneen, with great raagni* 
flflsnqB, and named Joba after the kii^. 

Seme time wuapcnt in ifeastt and sports on this great 
occasion, and tite negroes eignaliacd tfaaoHelvesby many 
feats of agiUty, &r surpassmg tbe power of £tirapenM|, 
who having more helps of art, are lefts diligent to cidtl- 
Tate the qualifies of nature. In the mean time twen^ 
large ahipe wo« fitted out, well nuOuied, stored with anw 
vnnition, and laden with materials necenary ibz the e* 
rectiMi of a fiirt With this powerful armament veie 
sent « i^eat munber of missionaries under tbe directioa 
ttfjhorez t}ic king's confessor. Tbe comnund of tbia ' 
fbrce, which filled the coast of Africa with terrour, waa 
giVMt to Per/n> yiiz d'Acugna, sunusned BitagH; who, 
•ooti after they bad landed not bdng wdl plowad widi 
JtieezpeditiMi, put an end to its inconvesuence by atal>> 
fchg Amom suddenly to die bcwt. ' The knig beard of 
AiB aam^ with great khtow, hot (Bd not attempt ta 
punish the murderer, , 

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Thfi Uag'« oonpem far die mbaiWMti <>£ Bemotm was 
luK the owe eStct of kiadacM, he lioped by hie belp to 
&ffllititlegnater4Mwn9, HelMnrbenn toiwrnJuwoa 
(^findW > wv^to tve £Mf /ndiM,Aad or««iiching- Ilia 
eoonOT »;r ^^ gafaflii eamt^epce ; this he w«f leocouXK- 
KLvm te pvince Henrff, and which (nhsequeot ^atxnrtnea 
Mive sbinrn to be siifficiently near-M exftctnesa, wlifte a 
ausage round ^e soutb-esaC part of Afriea w«s evi^ 
otaitly deacnbed. 

Tm kia^ had uiother aAeme yet more likelr te.on- 

nga attiont)', and aot itmcoitcilabte with hia jnUrMt 
The world had for some time been filled with \he rvpoA 
«f a powerftd donsUan prtDee ctdled Pretkr JfAn, mtose 
cB Mittr^ w« itfllui»«n, and vfaom some, after PiaJw 
Vaukff, eniipased to ttin in the midst o£ Asia, and o- 
tben m tie depth* of Mhimtia, between the ocean toA 
Scd Sea. The aceount oTthv Afriea» dtriatians was 
eonfirmed by some Jfrvutmaw woo had traveled into 
Spain; and by some triars iJiat had vinttd the Jwh' 
Jwd; and Ihe kinff was extiondp desirous of tbefr 
iOan«s{)(mdeiic« ana aUiaoee. 

Some obscure intelligence had been obtained, wJiidi 
mode it seem probable that a way might be found fr»m 
.the oountriM lately diseovered, to thoee of thw &r>&iEned 
jnonazch. la 1486, on antbasaador came from the king 
of Bfii*, to desire that preachera might be msH to in- 
Mruct hmi and his sutneets in the true relixioQ' He i*- 
ltf«d thu in the ijniana country, three hundred jmd fifW 
leasues eastward ttma Bemin, was a might? muuvch 
callod Ogane, who had jurisdiction both spiritual and 
temporu^over cAba kin^ ; that the king ttf BeauH hmI 
his neighlkmrs, at their occesuon, sent amluasadors to 
him with rich prescutR, and received from him the in- 
vestiture of their dominions, and the marks 9f sovereigD- 
^. which were A kind of auptre, a iielmet, and a latten 
cross, without which they could not be conndered as 
Iswfu] kings ,- that this great jHince was never seen but 
on the day of audiaice, and then held f>ut ooe of tus 
Aet to the ajubassador, who kissed it with great revo. 
;r«ice, and who at bis d^wrture had a crass of laUen 
hung on his neck, which enrnMed him thenccEbrHaid, 
/uid exempted him from all servile offices. 

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!tg$ mTRODOcnoN to ths 

Bemoim had IflcewJM tiM the kiii^, that to the east'of 
the Idngdom of TttvAul, there vss among other princm, 
vae that was neither Mahometan nor idolater, but who 
•eoned to profess a rehgjon nearly resembling the chii^ 
tian. Tbeae infiinnations compared with each other, and 
wiA die camnt accounts of Prater John, kiduced the 
\mg to an opinion, whi<^, thmigh formed somewhat at 
haK«Kl, is Etfll believed to be right, that by passing up 
ike river Senegal his dominions would be found. It was 
tberefore.ordfred that when the fortress was finished, an 
attempt should be made to pass upward to the source of 
die river. The design fufed then, and -has never yet 

Other waya likewise were tried of penetrating to ^ 
Idnodom of iVeifer JoAn; for the king refxAved to leave 
neiOier land nor sea unsearched till he should be found. 
The two messengers who were sent first on this design, 
went to Jervfolem, and then ret«med, being persuaA^ 
tliat, for want of understanding the Isngiiege of the 
eounby, it would be vain or impossible to travd fertber. 
Two more were then dispatched, one of i^bom was Ak. 
dro de CottUbm, the other Alp/tonm de Pavia. They pasa» 
ed from Naplet to Alexmrnria, tiad then travelled to 
Carro, from whence tfiey went to Aden, a town of Ara- 
bia, on the Red Sea, near its mouth. FrMn Aden, Pa- 
tiMi set sail for Ethiopia, and Coviliim for the Iitdieg. Co' 
viilan visited Canmtar, Calicut, and Coa in the India, 
and Staula in the eastern Africa, thence he returned to 
Jden, and then to Cairo, where he had agreed to meet 
Pavia. At'Cairo he was informed that Pavia waa dead, 
but he met with two Portuguete Jews, one of whom 
had given the king an account of the rituation and trade 
of Onmit: they brought orders to CowUhn, that he 
should send one of thero home with the journal of hia 
travels, and go Vo Onmte with the other. 

CooUioM obeyed the orders, sending an exact account 
<^ his adventures to Liiion, ^d proceedrng with die 
other ntesseng^ to -Cntiu*; where having made suS- 
cient enquiry, he sent his companion homewarda with 
the cararans that were going to Aleppo, and cnabarkiiig^ 
oAM man on the Bed Sea, arrived m time at Ab^stin^ 
and found the prince whom he had Bou|^t so h>ng, and 
with such danger. 

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ttomui Disn.AVCiK ^7' 

Two ihim wen tent out imtm Hie sune s^rcb, of 
•wiutAt BatwItmeK Diax bad we fMtfeoaaaaad; th^ 
■were attended 1^ « nosQar, TCMel Ud^n wHh proTuiatu, 
th^ iJiiT ai^t luA ratam upon pretence of want dther 

NiivigatiaD was now bttm^t nearer to perfection. 
The Portiiguete claim the honour of numy inventiot^by 
which the uilor U aaaisted, and whjch enable him to 
Uave Bi^t 1^ land, and commit himseif to the bound- 
leM ocean. DiA had orden to proceed beyond the 
^ tinar Zairt, where Die^ Can had stopped, to build mo- 
irameiits of his dtscoverie*, and to leave upon thecoasts 
nei^roe men and women well instmcted, who inight in- 
quire after ^e*Ur John, and fill the na^ves with reve- 
rence for the PmtarueM. 

' DiMts, willt mu(£ t^ipoiitioii from hia crew, whose 
mutinies he rqncssed, partly by softness and jMrtly by 
BteadinesB, saiwd xm till he readied the utmost point of 
^^frica. Which frmn the bad weather that be met there, 
he called Caba TormattMO, or the C^ of Storms. He 
Would hare cone forward, but his crew forced him to 
retnra. In Ma way back he met the P'kmaSer, &am 
wfaidrhe had been parted nine months before; of the 
nine men wMch were init at the aeparotioiiy aix had 
b«en kiBed by t&e o^roes, and of the ihree remaining, 
«»ediedfiir j<^attheBi^t<^hisfriends> DiazKtam- 
ed to Litbtm in StceMer 1M7, md gave an account i^ 

d thenceforward Ca6o ^ Ai«)M i 
the Cape<^G9od Hope. 

*■ *= — i beAm we expedition of Diaz, the rivec 

Zaire and the kiitfdcan of Cbt^tiad been discovered by 

pMled-to fly like the other inhaUtanta aS the cowt, met 
dtcm with oonSdmce, and treated them with kiadnMs ; 
bntt Oitff> finding that they could ndt understand each 
olhwr, seised seme of their chiefs, and carried thnn t» 
Parimgid, leaving some cif his own pet^le ia lb«dr Focna 
t«4earo the lawpiage <tf Conga. 
Vol. (. M «> 

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39t tstKtaactaoK to VM 

Thc^M^iMi wM« aodii pMsfiad, oad the JPor^i^MW 
left to tbetr ineKy ireFe ir^ treated; and as. tb^ by 
decree* srew ^« tojiiske H^tteaAvet andenteo^ rfr- 
cteUMDuM tltenudTes, ibtit BatMH>> bbA tlior-FeligioD- 
The kins o£ Portugal aait Diem b«ck in a voy short 
time wiu the ncgmea wUem hA luid foncd bih^ ; and 
when they were tet mSe oa Aon, thetdng tA- Congo 
craceived w much osteem for Di^i that heaait one 
of tfaoMirho had ntuimed, back aggia intboabivta^ 
Litbon, with two yomtg-tatmS^palaAieAatambKtaMfmf 
ta desire instructon to betanC tor the oonvcnieii of hia 

The ui^Maaadon were hooanr^y raeeived, and bMH- 
tized with great pomp, asd a fie«t wa» ioiaw^ vltffy aU- 
ted out for Conco, uoder the coiamand«f'G<i)MBJi>a jSa^-- 
ai, who dyit^ mbia pasiag«, was sacceeded in astbo-- 
ri^ by hia nephew Hoderwq, 

When they came to lana,tlie hii^iimcje, >riio ocm* 
mauded the province, immediately rei^iiested to be sch 
lemnly initiated into the cfariatien religion, wibid> wa* 
srantcd to him and hia young soiij on Suler day I49L. 
The &did' was named Manuel, akid the adu Atitmiot 
Soon afterwards the king, queen, and ridest prince, re' the font the aaiaeB,o£ JtAm, EltOner, and At*- 
phiMto.; and a war breaking out, the whcde aimy wa» ' 
admitted to the riteg of chnstiatu^. and then s^ 
aguEUt the enemy. They returned vKtoriwa, but soon 
ftffgot their faith, and fbnned » consptiaGy to leatacs 
paganism ; a' pow^tiil oppostion was raiaed by infidds. 
aoidapoctates, headed by one of the king's youiq^BCHiB; 
and tnenuBsioiiaries had been dttEtn^ed had ttotAiphoi^ 
io.daaded f(v thmn and &r christiaDity. 

The raiemiei of religion now became the-eBeuiea of 
.4/pAoN«c(, whom they uccueed to bia fetber of di^^ahy. 
HiB mother, queen Eleanor, gained time by odo artifice 
after another, till the king was calmed; he tiken haaxd 
thecautfagain, daolM^ his BDR'iniHKi»it,'andp(Uudh> 
ed his accusers with death. 

31ie king died som afteri and tlie Uinme woa dispo- 
tad In Al^onto, snpported by the ^istianB, asd Agt^ 
<»» his brother, followed by the infidels. A battle was 

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Anight, Aquitinio wu taken and put fa> death, and diiis- 
tiamty was tor a time eatabKsIied in Congo; but the 
nktion h» relapsed intct its former follies. 

Such was the state of the Portuguese nKvigation, 
when, in 1*92, C<^mbut made the daring and prospe- 
roos Tt^age, which gave a new world to European cu- 
riosity and European cruelly. He had offered his pro> 
pom], and declu«d his expectations t« kiiw Jofm of 
Portugal, who had slwhted him as a iknciful|and raah 
ptajecttw, that promised what he had not reasonable 
hones to perfomi. CdltlvAtahaA. solicited other [Kriaces, 
and had been repulsed with the some indignity j tA last 
JavMZti of ..^muoTi fitmisbatl hjm with ships, and haVhijg 
found ^^McrtM.neeideredlliemoalh of the Tagit3ia\& 
Trtura, and showed the natives of the new country. 
Wien -he was admitted to the king's presmce, he iicted 
«id' talked wiA so mnch haii^tiness, and r^ected on 
the n^ect wfaidr he had nndetjgene with so mnrii a* 
(rimony, IhSft'tfie coiortiers, who^aaw their, prince iniuj^ 
«d, offered to destroy hnt;- but the king, who knew 
that he deserved the reproat^es that had been used, 
and who nowaincerely ranetted his incredoli^, would 
flofier no vitdemw to be o^ed him, but ^smissed him 
■with pr es ents and with honours. 

The Pvriuguae and Spaittard$ becane how jealous of 
esi^ othar's dahu to countries whiA neither fud yet 
veen; and the Pope, to whom th^ appealed, divided the 
new world between them by a line-^awnfromnorA to 
fouth, a hundred lewues westward "from Cape Verd and 
flie Azoret, givitig all that lies west from 1h«t-line to the 
Spaniard*, and all that lies east to the Poriugueie. This 
was no satisifoctoty division, fijr the east and west must 
meet Rt last, but that time was then at a great distMKie. 

AccowSng to this grant, .the Portuguege centimied 
their discoveries eastward, and becamemastn^of much 
rf the ciMBt both of Africa tfnd the Indies; but they 
•eiaed much more than they could occupy, and- while 
they were under the dominion of Spain, lest the greatar 
part of ibdr /fldian territories. 

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The oigiu of t)u> odebffitad peribnoaoce U^ in miiui- 
aowt «b«y« A century and & half. Though A.waaitiA 
with the KTsatest plrasun by the leanoed ^Itahf,no 
man ir«a fianly <3iough, during to long a period, to in- 
troduce to the world « book in which the suocesstas of 
Si. PeUr were handled ao roughly : a naixsttve, whin 
aitivta and tovereigti princes, cardinals and cou^tezan^ 
ininicteii of state utd sovcbaaiics, k* treated with equal 

At kmgtb, in the year 1 7 90, an enterprising Nei^ol^ 
loH, encouraged l^ Dr. AtUonio Cocchi, one of.die ^olv 
test scholars in Europe, published this stHouch desired 
w<wk, in 4Hie vi^BBte quarto. The Do<^»e gave the edi* 
tor an excellent {Keface, which, with very slight ajtcr-i 
atioi^ is judicunuly }»eserved by the trartsutor. Dr. 
Nttgtut: Uw book is, notwithstanding, very scarce in 
II^: the clergy rf Naplti are very powerful; and 
though the editor very prudently put Coionia instead <^ 
ye^oli in the title-p«ge, the siiie of Cellini was prohi- 
bited; the court of AwK baa actually made it on article 
in their Imdcx Enptwgatoriut, and prevented the impcor- 
tation of the book into any country where the power of 
the Holy See prevails. 

The life oS Betaenuto CdUni is certainly, a dienome- 
Bon in biognwhy, whether we consider it with ret^wct 
to the artist nimseli', or the great variety of histoiicai 
facts whidii relate to others : it ts indeed a very good 
sopplement to the history of Europe, during the great* 
Mt part of the sixteenth century, more especially in what 
relates to painting, sculpture, and architecture, and the 

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im or BimcHUTo cgtbim. 

it maaten in those elegant arti, whose woriu 
CeBtni pniaM or ceniurM with peculiar freedom and 

As to the inan himwlf, there ia not pertups a more 
•inffular character among the race of Adam : the adnu- 
red Lord Htrbert of Cherbur^ scarce equals CeUiid in 
the number of pecuhar quabties which lepante him 
frooi die reft of the human species. 

He is at once a man of pleasure, and a slave to super- 
ititiott ; « despiser of Tulgar notions, and a believer in 
nuwical inf^ntatjons ; a fif^iter of duels, and a composer 
of£viiiesoQneta; on ardent lover oftruth.aBd a Trailer 
of visiomny &nraes ; an admirer of pwd pow«r, and A 
hUet of popes; an ofifender aoainst Die laws^ wi& » 
•tronff renance <m divine providence. If 1 may be id* 
lofred the enression, Ciliiai is <»e ■Bftiag' feitan 
added to the naman fbrm-^ P^'O'^T *■ ^ imoAma, 
at, not an example to be Tm^»»^, 

Though CMiii waa so bUncI Is Iti^ awn imperfections 
as to commit the moat imjasliAable actions, with a f^ll 
persuasion of the gaoda«ta ot hta cause, and tb^ ree&' 
tnde of his intention, yet no man waa a keen« and more 
mccnndeobMrv^oft^eMemirfies of others; hence hk 
book abounds with sarcastidc wit and tatirical ^nvs- 
sion. Yet thon^ hif portraits are sometimes grotesque 
and over-charged, &am miainfiimiation, from meUn- 
dit^y, from ii^rmi^, and from peculiarity of humour ; 
in general it must be idlowed that they are drawn frctn 
the life, and conformable to the idea given by contem- 
porary writers. His characters at pope demmt the se- 
venth, Paul the third, and hii basbuu aon Pier L^ip £ 
PrancU the first and his Bivourite mistress ifnM<»m d'Et' 
tampes ; Cotmo duke of Fhrenoe, and his duchess, with 
many others, are touched by die hand of a master. 

G^mal history cannot descend to minute det^ ^ 
Uie domestick life and |mvate transactians, the paa^ims 
and foibles of great p^stnuigea ; but these give truer 
representations of their charMters than all the el^ast 
and laboured cwnjpositions of poets and faistonaiia. 

To some, a register of the actiooa of a statuary may 
seem a heap of uninteresting occurrences; but toe dis> 

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aerning wQl not disdain the ^Orta of « oawettti-Boai, 
becuue the writer is not ennoUed by birth, at digm* 
£ed by (tation. 

The man who laiies himtetf by consummate merit in 
liu proftsaion to the notice of princes, who eonveraM 
with than in a langua^ dictated l^ honest freedcnn, 
who scnipka not to tfiU thrai those truths which they 
must despair to hear irom courtiers and &voiirites, from 
.ninioQs and parasites, U a. ^old leveller of distincticniB 
ifl^ the courts of powers monarcha. Genius is the 
parent of truth ^jul courage; and tiusa united dread no 

The Ttueao language is greatly admired for its da* 
sance, and the meanest inhabitants of Florence epeak. a 
Sialect which the rest of/to/y are proud to imitate. The 
riyte of Cellini, though plain and fiuniliar, is viKiroilfl 
and energetick. He possesses, to an unoommoa degree, 
strength of ezpressiua, and rapidi^ of fimcy. Dr. Nu- 
-gmt seems to neve carefully studied his author, and to 
have translated him widi cam and freedom, as well ■• 
tiutfa and fidelity.* 

■ Dr. Nagtv^i Ttamladon wai puhllabed in ITTl, S lOp. ivo. 
by T. Daviei. Thie article, wbicti iv... drn inwited tn Dr. John- 
ton't works by Sir Jolm Havkini, I Bin unwilling to ditluib, 
tJtIiough it lua very little al the Doctar'a manner. It is not noticed 
twHt.BafwUlBhj«".CIttii>aolaskalCatakieue," cSJii.Jslmim't 

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^^^issammmvimmii ipiupj i 


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