Skip to main content

Full text of "The works of the Rev. Sydney Smith"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 



r • 

THE » > 










filfT OF 


I t 


W«N fi«t I went imo Uie Church I had a curacy in the middle of Salubmy Plain. 
The Squmj of the ^aruih took a fancy to me. and leqoested me to go with Mi aon^to 
««de at the Umyonity of Weimar; be&n, we could^get there. GexSaTy wLTtS 
aeat of war. and m atreas 6f politics we put into Edmburrfi. Where I re^^ « 
yea« The principlea of the French RevWon were thTfi^ SoUStt ST 
possible to conceive a more violent uid agitated state of society. Among the fim r^ 
wns with whom I became acquamted were, Lord Jef&ey. Lord Murtav fli^ l3 ?T 
Yocate for Scotland) jmd Lord BrouAam; aU of them maintaining 
subjects a htde too hberal for^the Synasty of Dundas. then exLl^mg^Se^WM 
over the northern division of the island. * »««yxoiuo power 

One day we happened to meet in Ae eighth or ninth story or flat in Buccleugh-olace 
Ae devated residence of die Uien Mr. /eflfrey. I p^poid that we H,ho,Sd wt^Ta 
Review ; this was acceded to with acclamation. I was appointed Efitor and rZki„ J 
long enough in Edinburgh to edit the first number of tU EdUnSwh iSdew tSJ 
motto I proposed for the Keview was, * ««w»w. xn* 

•TcmrfiMMaRi flMMiMar mma.' 
' W« colUvate litciatuie npoo a little Mtmeal.' 

But this was too near the truth to be admitted, and so we took our nrasent <yr«». -««« 
fe.mP«W«, Syn«.of wk.mnone ofus.1 amsiie, hadever^ J^^Ke^SrS 
pm what has since ttimed odt to be a very important and able jouraaL Whei I leftET 

thehighestnointof populariqr and success. I contributed fiom England mi^iuS 
cles, which 1 have been foohsh enough to collect and publish with some other tw^ 
wntten by me. "»•«.» uw,ia 

n J" IPP^^f? *** T^® °^ ?® ,f ?^°^?^ ^*>^ien, the state of England at the pe- 
nod when that journal began should be had in remembrance. The Catholics were ^ 
emanapated-the Conwration and Test Acte were unrepoalei-the Gw^e La^" eS 
homblyoppressive-Stee Tiups and Spring Guns were set all ov«Te c^wt^!!! 
Pmoners tned for their Lives could have no Counsel-Lord Eldon »d Ae Co37f 
Chancery pressed heavily upon mankind-Libol was punished by the mo« <iuel and 
Tmdicuve mipnsonments-4eprinaplesof PoMcal Economy JereliXunSt^ 
-Je Law of Debt and of Conspinwy were upon the wia« possible f«S-Se 
enormous wickedness of the Skve Trade was tolerated— a thousa^ evils were^ Jf. 

^^effecu have been not a Uttle assisted by the honest boldness of theElnbJJJh 

I see very little in my Reviews to alter or repent of: I always endeavoumd to fi<rl,» 
against evfl 5 »d what I thought evil then. I& evil now^ mSStw & 

m JliTf^^^ ^5"" ^? "'•g'Of ."Pi-i*"' "e abolished, and I see nothi| in sud^ 
measoTM but unm«ed go«>d and real inaease of strength to our Establishment 

The ideaof dangerfiom the extension of the CathoKcreUgion in England I utterly deride 
J'^Sf^-^JS;?" •''^»T*»''.« «? *« worfd. but those^whose faiW^SiSTy 
tt, are quite riAt m prefessing it boldly and in promoting it by aU means which^e 
law aflows. A pfaynaan does not say ' You will be weU « so^ «, ri„, mi»gM M 

4 PIl£FACB. 

of;' but he says < You will not be well tmHl after the bile is got rid of/ He knows af- 
ter the cause of the malady is removed, that morbid habits are to be changed, weakness 
to be supported, organs to be called back to their proper exercise, subordinate mala- 
dies to be watched, secondary and vicarious symptoms to be studied. The physician 
is a wise man — ^but the anserous politician insists, after 200 years of persecution, and 
ten of emancipation, that Catholic Ireland should be as quiet as Edmonton or Tooting. 

Not only are just laws wanted for Catholic Ireland, but the just administration of 
just laws ; such as they have in general experienced under the Whig government ; and 
this system steadily persevered m will, after a lapse of time, and O'Connell, quite con- 
ciHate and civilize that long injured and irritable people. 

I have printed in this Collection the Letters of I'eter Flymley. The government of 
that day took great pains to find out the author ; all that l^ey cmdd find was, that they 
were brought to Mr. Budd, the publisher, by the Earl of Lauderdde. Somehow or 
another, it came to be conjectured that I was that author : I have always denied it; but 
finding that I deny it in vain, I have thought it might be as well to include the fetters 
in this collection ; they had an immense circulation at the time, and I think above 20,000 
copies were sold. 

From the beginning of the century (about which time the Review began) to the 
death of Lord Liverpool, was an awful period for those who had the misfortune to en- 
tertain liberal opinions, and who were too honest to sell them for the ermine of the 
judge, or the lawn of the prelate : — a long and hopeless career in your profession, the 
chuckling grin of noodles, the sarcastic leer of the genuine political rogue — prebenda- 
ries, deans, and bishops made over your head — reverend renegadoes advanced to the 
highest dignities of the Church, for helping to rivet the fetters of Catholic and Protes- 
tant Dissenters, and no more chance of a Whig administration than of a thaw in Zem- 
bla — these were the penalties exacted for liberality of opinion at that period ; and not 
only was there no pay, but there were many stripes. It i^ always considered as a 
piece of impertinence in England, if a man of less than two or three thousand a year 
nas any opinions at all upon important subjects ; and in addition he was sure at that 
time to be assailed with dl the Billingsgate of the French Revolution — Jacobin, Level- 
ler, Atheist, Deist, Socinian, Incendiary, Regicide, were the gentlest appellations used ; 
and the man who breathed a syllable against the senseless bigotry of the two Georges, 
or hinted at the abominable tyranny and persecution exercised upon Catholic Ireland, 
was shunned as unfit for the relations of social life. Not a murmur against any abuse 
was permitted; to say a word against the suitorcide delays of the Court of^ Chancery, 
or the cruel punishments of the Game Laws, or against any abuse which a rich man 
inflicted, or a poor man suffered, was treason against the Plmdocracy, and was bitterly 
and steadily resented. Lord Grey had not then taken off the bearing-rein from the 
English people, as Sir Francis Head has now done from horses. 

To set on foot a Journal in such times, to contribute towards it for many years, to 
bear patiently the reproach and poverty which it caused, and to look back and see ibat 
I have nothing to retract, and no intemperance and violence to reproach myself with, 
is a career of life which I must think to be extremely fortunate. Strange and ludicrous 
are the changes in human affairs. The Tories are now on the treadmill, and the well- 
paid Whigs are riding in chariots ; with many faces, however, looking out of the win- 
dows, (including that of our Prime Minister,) which I never remember to have seen in 
the days of the poverty and depression of Whiggism. Liberality is now a lucrative 
business. Whoever has any institution to destroy, may consider himself as a commis- 
sioner, and his fortune as made ; and to my utter and never ending astonishment, I an 
old Edinburgh Reviewer, find myself fighting in the year 1839, against the Archbishop 
of Canterbuxy and the Bishop of London, for the existence of ihe National Church. 




Dr. Purr - 

Dr. Rennel 

John Bowles 

Dr. Langford 

Archdeacon Naies 

Matthew Lewb - 


Fiev^'B Letters on England 
""K Edgeworth on Bulls 

Trimmer and Lancaster . 

Paroell and Ireland 

Indian Missions 

Catholics • 


Hannah More 

Proftssional Education 
—Female Education 

PnbMc Schools 


Charles Fox 

Mad Quakers 

America • 

Game Laws 

Botany- Bay 

Chimney Sweepers 


Spring Guns 



Persecuting Bishops 

Botany Bay 

Game Laws 

Cruel Treatment of untried Prisoners 

America - - . 

Bebtham on Fallacies 

Waterton • • 

Man Traps and Spring Guns 

Hamilton's Method of Teaching Languages 

Counsel for Prisoners 

Catholics • 

Neekar's Last Views 

Cattean, Tahlean des Etats Danois 

ThoQgfati on the Resideaoe of the Cleigy 

TwrelifkemPaletUne - «... - ^ 




























of the 

Letter on the Curate's Salary Bill - . • 
Proceedings of the Society for the Suppresnon 

of Vice 
Characters of Fox 
Ohserrations on the Historical Work 

Right Hon. Charles James Fox 
Disturbances at Madras • 
Bishop of Lhicoln's Charge 
Madame d'Epinay • 
Scarlett's Poor-Bill 
Memoirs of Captain Rock 

Island of Ceylon - 
Delphine • 
Mission to Ashantee 
PubUc Characters of 1801, 1802 
Account of New South Wales 
Wittman's Travels 

Speech on the Catholic Claims - 
Speech at the Taunton Reform Meeting 
Speech at Taunton at a Meeting to celebrate the 

Accession of King William IV. 
Speech ^t Taunton in 1831 on the Reform Bill 

not being passed ... 

Speech respecting the Reform Bill 





The Ballot 

First Letter to Archdeacon Singleton 
Second Letter to Archdeacon Singleton 
Third Letter to Archdeacon Singleton - 
Letter on the Character of Sir James Mack- 
intosh ..... 
Letter to Lord John Russell 
Sermon on the Duties of the Queea 
The Lawyer that tempted Christ : a Sermon • 
The Jndge that smites contrary to the Law : a 
Sermon ..... 
A Letter to the Electors upon the Catholic 
Question - • . . . 

A Sermon on the Rules of Christian Charity • 
^PeterPlymleyVLetten • 















Dtl. PARR.* (EDUfBtjmoH Rsvxxwi 1802. 

AMtat Sermon, preached at Christ Church upon Easter- 
^eaday, April 15, 1800. To Which are added. Notes by 
Samuel Parr, LUD. Frlnt6d fur J. Mawman In the 
Poi^tiy. 1801. 

Whoetsk has had the good fortune to see Dr. Parr's 
wig, must have observed, that whUe it trespasses a lit- 
tle on the orthpdox magnitude of perukes m the ante- 
rior parts, it scorns even the Episcopal limits behind, 
ftnd swells out into boundless convexity of flrizz, the 
agya Bav^a of barbers, and the terror of the literary 
world. After tfte manner of his wig, the Doctor has 
constructed his sermon, giving us a discourse of no 
tommon len^h, and subjoining an immeasurable mass 
of notes, which appear to concern every learned thing, 
erery learned man, and almost every wileamed man 
since the beginning of the world. 

For his text, Dr. Parr has chosen GfU. vi. 10. A» we 
haoe thtrtfore opportunity, let tu do good to oU fii«n, upe- 
HaUy to those wKo cert of the household of faith. After a 
preltminary comparison between the dangers of the 
selfish system, and the modem one of universal benev- 
olenco, he divides his sermon into two j^arts : in the 
irst examining how fhr, by the constitution of human 
nature, and the circumstances of human life, the prin- 
ciples f particular and universal benevolence are com- 
patible : m the last, commenting on the nature of the 
chariuble institution for which he is preaching. 

The former part is levelled against the doctrines of 
Mr. Godwin : and, here. Dr. Parr exposes, very swong- 
ly and happily, the foUy of making universal bene vo- 
Jence the tnmedUUe mottve of our actions. As we consi- 
der this, though of no very difficult execution, to be by 
far the best part of the sermon, we shall very willingly 
■lake some extracts from it. 

<To me it appears, that the modem advocates for unl- 
Tcrsal philanthropy have fallen Into the error charged 
upon those who are fascinated by a violent and extraor- 
dinary fondness for what a celebrated author calls " some 
aaoral m)ecles." Some men, it has been remarked, are 
hurried into romantic adventures, by their excessive ad- 
miration of fortitude. Others are actuated by a head- 
* strong zeal for disseminating the true relialon. H«nce» 
while the only properties, for which fortitude or zeal can 
be esteemedf are scarcely discernible, from the enormous 
twlklness to which thev are swollen, the ends to which 
alone they can be directed usefully, are overlooked or de- 

* A freat scholar, as rude and Tiolent aj most Greek seholan 
are, unless they happen to be Bishops. He has left aothiof be- 
kiad him worth leaving: he was rather fitted for the Uw than 
the ebareh, and would hare been a more eonaiderable man, if be 
had been more knocked about among Um equals. He lived with 
eoastry gaatltmaB and elergiansy who flatursd and feared Um 

Cetited ; the public good is impaired, rather than increased { 
and the claims that other virtues equally obligatory have 
to our notice, are toUlly disregarded. Thus, too, wh n 
any dazzling phantoms of universal philanihropy have 
seized pur attention the obi»cts that formerly engaged it 
shrink and fade. All considerations of kindred, friends, 
and omntiymen drop from the mind, during the struggles 
it makes to gra^p thi? collective interests of the species; 
and when the afsoclation that attached us to them has been 
dissolved, the notions we have formed of their compara- 
tive insignificance will prevent them from recoveiing, I 
do not sav any hold whatsoever, but that atrong and li§t- 
ing hold they once had upon our conviction and our feel- 
ings. Universal benevolence, should it, from any ttrange 
combination of circumstances, ever become passionate, 
will like everv other passion justify itfelf : and the impor- 
tunity of its aemands to obtain a nearlng will be pfopor 
tionatetothe weakness of its cause. But whs t are the 
consequences? Aperpefual wrestling for victory between 
the refinements of sophistry, and the remonstrances of in- 
dignant nature— the agitations of secret distrust in opinions 
which gain few or no proselytes, and feelings which excite 
little or no sympathy-— the neglect of all the usual duties, 
by which social life is preserved or adornrd; and in the 
pursuit of other duties which are unusual, and indeed ima- 
ginary, a succession of airy projects, eager hopes, tumultu- 
ous efforts, and galling disappointments, such, in truth, as 
every vrise man foresaw, and a good man would rarely 

In a subseanentpart of his sermon. Dr. Parr handles 
the same topic with equal success. 

* The stoks, it has been said, were more successful Sn 
weakening the tender affections, than in animating men to 
the stronger virtues of fortitude and self-command ; and 
possible if is, that the Inftuence of our modern ref irmers 
may he greater, in tumishing their dlscii les with pleas for 
then^lect of their ordinary duties, than In stimulating 
their endeavours for the performance of those which are 
extraordinary, and perhane ideal. If, indeed, the repre 
sentations we have lately neard of unirerral philanthropy 
served only to amuse the fancy of those who approve of 
them, and communicate that pleasure which arises from 
contemplating the magnitude and grandeur of a favourite 
subiect, we might be tempted to smile at them as groundless 
and harmless. But thev tend to debase the dignily, and to 
weaken the efficacy of those particular affections, for which 
we have dally and hourly occasion in the events of real life. 
They tempt us to substitute the ease of specolatlon, and 
the pride of dogmatism, for the toil of practice. To a 
class of artificial and ostentatious sentiments, thev give the 
most dangerous triumph over the genuine and salutary dic- 
tates of nature. They delude and inflame our minds with 
Pharisaical notions of superior wisdom and superior vli^ 
tue ; and what is the worst of all, they may be used as *' a 
cloke to us" for insensibility, where other men feel ; and 
for negligence, where other men act with wisMe ana vs^ 
fid, though limited, effect.* 

In attemptiDg to show the oonneetioB between perti* 


cnlar and universal benevolence, Dr. Parr does not ap- 
pear to 08 to have taken a clear and satisfactory view 
of the subject. Nature impels us both to good and 
bad actions ; and even in the former^ gives us no 
measure by which we may prevent them from degene- 
rating into excess. Rapine and revenge are not less 
natural than parental and filial affection ; which latter 
class of feelings may themselves be a source of crimes, 
if they overpower (as they frequently do) the sense of 
justice. It is not therefore, a sufficient justifica- 
tion of our actions, that they are natural* We 
must seek) from our reason, some principle which 
will enable us to determine what impulses of na- 
ture we are to obey, and what we are to resist: 
such is that of general utility, or, what is the same 
thine, of universal good : a principle which sanctifies 
and Bmits the more particular affections. The duty of 
a son to a parent, or a parent lo a son, is not an ulti- 
mate jninciple of morals, but depends on the principle 
of universal good) and is only praiseworthy because it 
is found to promote it. At the same time, our spheres 
of action and intelligence are so confined, that it is bet- 
ter in a great majority of instances, to suffer our con- 
duct to be guided by those affections which have been 
long sanctioned by the approbation of mankind, than to 
enter into a process of reasoning, and investigate the re- 
lation which every trifling event might bear to the gene- 
ral interests of the world. In his principle of universal 
benevol^ce, Mr. Godwin is unquestionably right. That 
it is the grand principle upon which all morals rest- 
Chat it is tare corrective for the excess of ail particular 
affections, we believe to be undeniable : and he is only 
erroneous in excluding the particular affections, be- 
cause, in so doing, he deprives us of our most power- 
ful means of promoting his own principle of umversal 
' good ; for it is as much as to say, that all the crew ought 
to have the general welflire of the ship so much at heart, 
that no sailor should ever pull any particular rope, or 
hand any vndimdMal sail. Bv universal benevolence, we 
mean^ and understand Dr. Parr to mean, not a barren 
affection for the species, but a desire to promote their 
real happiness ; and of this principle, he thus speaks : 

' I admit and I approve of it ts an emotion of which rene- 
rsl hSDpiness is the cause, but not as a passion, of which, 
according to the usual order of humsn affairs, it could often 
be the object I approve of It as a disposition to wish, and, 
as opportunity may occur, to desire and do good, rather 
than harm, to those with whom we are quite unconnected.' 

It would appear, from this kind of language, that a 
desire of promoting the universal good were a pardon- 
able weakness, rather than a fundamental principle of 
ethics^ that the particular affections were incapable of 
excess ; and that they never wanted the corrective of 
a more generous and exalted feeling. In a subsequent 
pact of his sermon^ Dr. Parr atones a little for this 
over-zealous depreciation of the principle of universal 
benevolence ; but he nowhere states the particular af- 
fections to derive their value and their limits from their 
subservience to a more extensive philanthropy. He 
, does not show us that they exist only as virtues, fVom 
their instrumentality in promoting the general good : 
and that, to preserve their true character, theydioula 
be frequently referred to that principle as their proper 

In the latter part of his sermon. Dr. Parr combats 
the general objections of Mr. Tnrgot to all charitable 
institutions, with considerable vigour and success. To 
say that an institution is necessarily bad, because it 
will not always be admhiistered with the same zeal, 
]>roves a little too much : for it is an objection to poll* 
tical and re]i|[ious, as well as to charitable institutions ; 
and, from a lively apprehension of the fluctuating cha^ 
ncters of those who govern, would leave the world 
without any government at all. It is better that we 
should have an asylum for the mad, and a hospital for 
the wounded, if tney were to squander away 50 per 
cent, of their income, than that we should be disgusted 
with sore limbs, and shocked by straw-crowned mon- 
•rchs in the streeU. All institutions of this kind must 
suffer the risk of beins governed by more or less of 
probity and talents. The good whicn one active cha- 
nctir effects, and the wiae order which he establishes, 

may outlive him for a long period ; and we all hate 
each other's crimes, by wnich we gain nothing, so 
much, that in proportion as public opinion acquires as- 
cendancy in any particular country, every public insti- 
tution becomes more and more guaranteed from abuse. 

Upon the whole, this sermon is rather the produc- 
tion of what iAalled a sensible, than of a very acute 
man; of a man certainly more remarkable for his 
learning than his originality. It refutes the very refu- 
table positions of Mr. Godwin, without placins the 
doctrine of benevolence in a clear light ; and it almost 
leaves us to suj^pose, that the particular afiections are 
themselves ultimate principles of action, instead of 
convenient instruments of a more general principle. 

The style is such, as to give a general impression of 
heaviness to the whole sermon. The doctor is never 
simple and natural for a single instant. Every thing 
smells of the rhetorician. He never appears to forget 
himself, or to be hurried by his subject into obvious 
language. Every expression seems to be the result of 
artifice and intention ; and as to tlie worthy dedicatees, 
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, unless tfie sermon be 
done into EnjgjLiah by a perton of honour j ihey may 
perhaps be flattered by the Doctor's politeness, but 
they can never be much edified by his meaning. Dr. 
Parr seems to think^ that eloquence consists not in 
exuberance of beautiful images — nM in simple and 
sublime conception;! — not in the feelings of the pas- 
sions ; but in a studious arrangement oi sonorous f exo- 
HCf and sesquipedal words : a very ancient error, which 
corrupts the style of young, ana wearies the patience 
of sensible men. In some of his combinations of iKfords 
the Doctor is smgularly unhappy. We have the din 
of superficial cavillers j the prancings of giddy ostentO' 
tion, fiutUring vanity, hissing scorn, dank clod, &c. 
&c. &c. The following intrusion of a teclmical word 
into a pathetic description, renders the whole passage 
almost ludicrous. ' 

I Within a few days, mute was the tongue that uttered 
the«e cdOKtlal soundu, and the hand which (signed your In 
denture lay cold and motionless in the dark and dreary 
chambers of death.' 

In page 16, Dr. Parr, in spealdng of the indentures of 
the hospital, a subject (as we should have thought) 
little calculated for rhetorical panegyric, says of 
them — 

< If the writer of whom I am sjieakin^ had perused, as I 
have, your indentures, and your rules, he would have 
found in them seriou«nese without austerity, eamertneaa 
without eKtraTagance, Kood sense without the trickeries of 
art, jTOod language without the trapping of rhetoric, and 
the firmness of conscious worth, rather than the prancings 
of giddy ostentation.* 

The latter member of this elojgc would not be wholly 
unintelligible, if applied to a spirited coach horse ; but 
we have never yet witnessed the phenomenon of a 
prancing indenture. 

It is not our intention to follow Dr. Parr through the 
copious and varied learning of his notes ; in the peru- 
sal of which we have been as much delighted with the 
richness of Us acquisitions, the vigour of his under- 
standing, and the genuine goodness of his heart, as we 
have been amuseawith his ludicrous self-importance, 
and the miraculous simplicity of his character. We 
would rather recommend it to the Doctor to publish an 
annual list of worthies, as a Idnd of stimulus to lite- 
rary men ; to be mcluded in which, will onauestiona- 
bly be considered as great an honour, as for a com- 
moner to be elevated to the peerage. A line of 6reek> 
a line of Latin, or no line at all, subsequent to. each 
name will distmguisb, with sufficient accuracy, the 
shades of merit, and the degree of immortality con- 

Why should Dr. Parr confine this euhgotMuUa to 
the literary characten of this island alone ? In the 
univeraity of Benares, in the lettered kingdom of Ava, 
among the Mandarins at Pekin, there must, doubtless, 
be many men who have the eloquence of * Bappoves^ 

Tlimt fd9 eo^i. iXu it'^ttpop itbreffiat 6av^«* 
il Bd^povov, Kol fiXto TatXapov. See Ludan In Vita Dm* 
moaact. vol, iL p. 894*— (Dr. Fair's note.) 


of TaiXM^f I aQd th6 J udjrment of. SW^y 
Dr. Pan might be happy to aay, that they 
'iindity without obscunty— peispicuity with- 
' ' r— ^mament without glare-^eraeaesa with* 
less— penetration without subtlety— corn- 
pivhensWeness without digressioft— and a great num- 
ber of other things without a^reat number of other 

In spite of 9S pages of very close printing, in de^ 
tence of the Unirersity of Oxford, is it, or is it not 
tme, that Tory many of its Professors enjoy aniple 
dJaries, without reading any lectures at all? The 
ci&aracter of particular colleges will certainly vary 
with the character of their goyemors ; but the Urn- 
vernty of Oxford so far differs from Dr. Parr in the 
sommendation bestowed upon its state of piibHe edu* 
ration, that they have, smce the publication of his 
book, we belioTe, and forty years after Mr. Gibbon's 
residence, completely abolisned their very ludicrous 
dud disg!Ricefal exercises for degrees, and have sub- 
ttituted in their place a system of exertion, and a 
)cale of academical honours, calculated (we are wil- 
ing'to hope) to produce the happiest effects. 

We were yery sorry, in reamng Br. Parr's note on 
Jie Uniyersities, to meet with the following pas- 

* lU would it become me ttmely and lilently to acquiesce 
in the itzictureB of this formidable accuAer upon a seminary 
to which I owe so mfny obligations, though I left it, as 
must not be dissembled, before the usual wme, and, in 
tiuth, 1l^ been almost comjocUed to leave it not by the 
want of poper education, for I had arrived at the first 
place in the nxst form of Hanow School, when I was not 
quite fourteen -not by the want of u.<^ul tutors, for mine 
were eminently able, and to me had been uniformly kind-~ 
not by the want of ambition, for I had begun to look up 
ardently and anxiously to academical distinction9~not by 
the want of attachment to the place, for I regarded it then, 
as I continue to regard it now, with the fondest and most 
unfeigned affection— but by another want, which It were 
rto name, and for the supply of which, after 

on, I determined to provide by patient to.U and 
resolute aeif-denial, when I had not competed my twen^ 
tieth year. I ceased, therefore, to reside, with an achins 
heart: I looked back with mingled feelings of regret ana 
humiliation to advantages of which I could no longer par- 
take, and honours to which I could no longer aspire.' 

To those who know the truly honourable and re- 
spectable character of Dr. Parr, the vast extent of his 
learning, and the unadulterated benevplence of his 
natnre, such an account cannot but be very affecting, 
in spite of the bad taste in which it is communicated. 
How painful to reflect, that a truly devout and atten- 
tive minister, a strenuous defender of the church 
establishment, and by far the most learned man of 
^ day, should be permitted to languish on a little 
paltry curacy in Warwickshire? 

— — Dii melioxs, be. fcc* 

DR. RENNEL. (Edinsukgh Revycw, 1802.) 

Digeounts on Vtmout Suijects. By Thoman Rennet, D. D, 
Master of the Temple. Rivington, London. 

We have no modem sermons in the English Ian. 
gpage that can be considered as very eloquent. 
The merits of Blair (by far the most popular writer 
of sermons within the last century) are plain good 
sense, a happy application of scnptural quotation, 
and a dear harmonious style, richly tinged with scrip- 
toral language. He generally leaves his readers 
pleased with his judgment, and his obseryations on 
numan conduct, without ever rising so high as to 
touch the great passions, or kindle any enthusiasm in 
favour of virtue. For eloquence, we must ascend as 
hig^h as the da3rs of Barrow and Jeremy Baylor : and 
oven there, while we are delighted with their energy, 

* The courtlyphrate was, that Dr. Parr was not a pro- 
dMtdtie man. The same phrase was used for the neglect 
or Palsy. 

their copioqsness, and their fancy, we are in dangei 
of being suffocated by a redundance which abhors all 
discrimination ; which compares till it perplex^, and 
illustrates till it confounds. 

To the Oosst of TUlotson, Sherlock, and Atterbury. 
we must wade through a barren page, hi which the 
weary Christian can descry nothmg all around him 
but a dreary expanse of trite sentiments and languia 

The great object of modem sermons is to hazard 
nothing: their characteristic is, decent debility 
which alike guards their authors fVom ludicrous 
errors, and precludes them Arom striking beauties. 
Every man of sense, in taking up an Engluh sermon, 
expects to jBnd it a tedious essay, full of common- 
place morality ; and if the fulfilment of such expecta- 
tions be meritorious, the clergy have certainly the 
merit of not disappointing their readers. Yet it is 
curious to consider, how a body of men so well edu- 
cated, and so magnificently endowed as the English 
clergy, 'should distinguish themselves so little in a 
species of composition to which it is their peculiar 
duty, as well as their ordinary habit, to attend. To 
solve this difficulty, it should be rememl>ered, that 
the eloquence of tb» Bar and of the Senate force 
themselves uito notice, power, and wealth — ^that the 
penalty which an individual client pays for choosing 
a bad advocate, is the loss of his cause — ^that a prime 
minister must inihllibly suffer in the estimation of the 
public, -Mio neglects to conciliate the eloquent men^ 
and trusts the defence of his measures to those who 
have not adequate talents for that purpose : whereas, 
the only evil which accrues from the promotion of a 
clergyman to the pulpit, which he has no ability to 
fill as he ought, is tne fatigue of the audience, and the 
discredit of that species of public instruction ; an evil 
so general, that no individual patron would think of 
sacrificing to it his particular hiterest. The clergy 
are generally appointed to their situations by thoso 
who have no interest that they should please the au- 
dience before whom they speak ; while the very re- 
verse is the case in the eloquence of the 'Bar. and of 
Parliament. We by no mesne would be understood 
to say, that the clergy should owe their promotion 
principally to their eloquence, or that eloquence ever 
could, consistently with the constitution of the Eng- 
lish Church, be made out a common canse of prefer- ■ 
ment. In pointing out the total want of connection 
bet'^reen the privilege of preaching, and the power of 
preaching well, we are giving no opinion as to whether 
It might or might not be remedied, but merely stat- 
ing a fact. Pulpit discourses have insensibly dwin- 
dled from speakmg to reading ; a practice, of itself, 
sufficient to stifie every germ of eloquence. It is only 
by the fresh feelings of the heart, that mankind can 
be very powerfully affected. What can be more lu- 
dicrous, than an orator delivering stale indignation, 
and fervour of a week old ; turning over whole pages 
of violent passions, written out in German text ; read- 
ing the tropes and apostrophes into which he is hur- 
ried by the ardour of his mind ; and^so affected at a 
preconcerted line, and page, that he is unable to pro- 
ceed any farther ! 

The prejudices of the English nation have proceed- 
ed a goiod deal from their hatred to the French ; and 
because that country is the native soil of elegance, 
animation, and grace, a certain patriotic solidity, and 
loval awkwardness, have become the charactenstics 
of this; so that an adventurous preacher is afraid of 
violatnig the ancient tranquillity of the pulpit; and 
the audience are commonly apt to consider the man 
who tires them less than usual, as a trifler. or a char- 

Of British education, the study of eloquence makes 
little or no part. The exterior graces of a speaker 
are despised; and debating societies (admirable in« 
stitutions, under proper re^datjons) would hardly be 
tolerated either at Oxford or Cambridge. It is com- 
monly answered to any animadversions upon the elo- 
quenjce of the English pulpit, that a deigyman is to 
recommend himself, not by ms eloquence, out by th» 
purity of his life, and the soundness of ms doctrine ; 
an olfaction good enough, if any connection could be 



pointed mit between eloquence, heresy, and dissipa- 
tion : but, if it is possible for a man to live well, 
preacfap weU, and teach well, at the same time, such 
objections, resting upon a supposed incompatibility 
of these good qualities, are duller than the dulness 
they defend. 

The clergy are apt to shelter themselves under the 
plea, that siujects so exhausted are utterly incapable 
of novelty ; and, hi the very strictest sense of the 
word fuwetty, meaning that which was never said be- 
fore, at anytime, or in anyplace, this may be true 
enough, or the nrst principles of morals: but the 
modes of expanding, illustratrng, and enforcing a par- 
ticular theme are capable of infinite variety ; and, if 
they were not, this might be a good reason for preach- 
ing commonplace sermons, but is a very bad one for 
publishing them. 

We had great hopes, that Dr. Rennel's 'Sermons 
would have proved an exception to the character we 
have given or sermons in general; and we have read 
through his present volume with a conviction rather 
that he has misapplied, than that he wants, talents for 
pulpit eloquence. The subjects of his sermons, four- 
teen in number, are. 1. The consequences of the vioe 
of gaming: 3. On old age: 3. Benevplence exclusive- 
ly an evangelical virtue : 4. The services rendered to 
the £nglish nation by the Church of England, a mo- 
tive for liberality to the orphan children of indigent 
ministers : 5. On the grounds and regulations of na- 
tional joy : 6. On the connection of the duties of love- 
ing the brotherhood, fbaring God, and honouring the 
Kmg: 7. On the guilt of blood-thirstiness: 8. On 
atonement: 9. A visitation sermon: 10. Great Brit- 
ain's naval strength, and insular situation, a cause of 
gratitude to Almighty God : 11. Ignorance productive 
of atheism, anarchy, and superstition : 12, 13, 14. On 
the sting or death, the strength of sin, and the victory 
over them both by Jesus Christ. 

Dr. RennePs first sermon, upon the consequences of 
gaming, is admirable for its strength of language, its 
sound good sense, and the vigour with whioi it com- 
bats tfaAt detestable vice. From this sermon, we shall, 
with great pleasure, make an extract of some length. 

* Farther to this sordid habit the gamester joins a disposi- 
tion to nuup, and that of the meanett cast To those who 
soberly and fairly appreciate the real nature of human ac- 
tionsi nothing appears more inconsistent tlian that societies 
of men, who have incorporated tbeniMlves for the express 
purpose of gaming, should disclaim fraud or indirection, or 
affect to drive ttom their assemblies those among th^ asso- 
ciates whose crimes would reflect disgrace on them. Surely 
this, to a considerate mind, is as solemn and refined a ban- 
ter as can well be exhibited: for when we take into view 
the vast latitude allowed by the moat upright gamesters, 
when we reflect that, ao(y>rdmg to their precious caAiistry 
every advantage may be legitimately taken of the young, 
the unwary, and the inebriated, which superior coolness, 
skill, address, and activity can supply, we must look upon 
pretences to honesty as a most shameless a^nravation of 
their crimes. Even if it were possible that, in his own prac- 
tices, a man might be a rtUL OAMnrxa, yet, for the result of 
the tsztended frauds committed by his feQows, he stands 
deeply accountable to God, his country, and his conscience. 
To a system necessarily implicated with fraud ; to associa^ 
tions of men, a large majority of whom subsist by fraud-; 
to habits caleulatedf to poison the source and principle of all 
integrity, he gives efiBcacy, countenance, and concurrence. 
Even hb virtecf Le suifeis to be subsidiary to the cause of 
vice. He sees with calmness, depredation committed daily 
and hourly in his company, jperhaps under hi^ very roof. 
Tet men of this description oedaim (so desperately deceit- 
ful is the heart of man) against the very knaves they cher- 
ish and protect, and whom, perhaps, with some poor soph- 
istical rehige for a worn-out conscience, they even imitate. 
To such, let the Scripture speak with emphatical decision— 
When thou Mttmut a thitf. Men thtm eonttnteist vritk him.* 

The reader will easily observe, in this ouotation, a 
command of language, and a power of style, very su- 
perior to what is met with in the great mass of ser* 
We shall make one more extract. 

' But in addition to fraud, and all its train of crimes, pro- 
pensitiea and habits of a very different complexion enter 
into the compoaition of a gamester: a most ungovernable 
FBocrrr or Msrosmoif. however for a time disguised and 
latent, is hivariably the result of his system of conduct. 

Jealousy, rage, and revenge, exist among etmesteia latlwir 
worst and most frantic excesses, and end frequently iHfiqpil^ 
sequences of the most atrocious violence ana outragflT 9f 
perpetual agitation the malignant passions spurn and o tf w- 
whelm every boundary which discretion and consetece 
can oppose. From what source are we to trace a vexr laive 
niunber of those murders, aanctioned or palliated indeed by 
custom, but which stand ajFthe tribunal of God predsely 
upon the same grounds with every other species of murder ? 
—From the gaming-table, from the nocturnal receptacles of 
distraction and frenzy, the dueUist rushes with his hand 
lifted up against his brother's life 1— Those who are as yet 
on the threshold of these habits should be warned, that 
however calm their n atur ai temperament, however meek 
and placable their disposition, yet that, by the events which 
every moment arise, they stand exposed to the ungoverna- 
ble fury of themselves and others. In the midst of fraud, 
protected by menace on the one hand, and on the other, of 
despair; irritated by a recollection of the meanness of the 
artmcea and the baseness of the hands by which utter and 
remediless ruin has been iniUcted; in tne midst of these 
feelings of horror and distraction it is, that the voice of 
brethren's blood **erieth uiUo God from fte grotmd"—" and 
now art thou cunedfrom the earAf vohich hath qpenerf her 
mouth to receive thy hroti^i blood from t^ hand." Not 
only THOU who actually sheddest that blood, but trov 
who art the artificer of death— thou who administerest in. 
centives to these habits— who dissemlnatest thie practice of 
them^-improvest the skill in them — sharpenest the propen- 
sity to themr^at vrt hands will it be required, surely, at 
the tribunal of God in the next world, and perhaps, in most 
instances, in his distributive and awful dispensations to- 
wards thee and thine here on earth.' 

Havhig paid this tribute of praise to Dr. Rennel's 
first sermon, we are sorry so soon to change our eulo- 
gium into censure, and to blame him for having select- 
ed for publication so manv sermons touching directly 
and indirectly upon the French Revolution. We con- 
fess ourselves longsmce wearied with this kind of dis- 
courses, bespattered with blood and brains, and ring- 
ing eternal changes upon atheism, cannibalism, and 
apostasy. Upon the enormities of the French Revo- 
lution there can be but one opinion i but the subject is 
not fit for the pulpit. The public are disgusted with 
it to saiety ; and we con never help remembering, that 
this politico-orthodox rage in the mouth of a preacher 
may DO profitable as weU as smcere. Upon such sub- 
jects as the murder of the Queen of France, and the 
great events of these days, it is not possible to endure 
the draggling and the daubing of such a ponderoos 
limner as Dr. Rennel, after the .etherial touches of Mr. 
Burke. In events so truly horrid in themselves, the 
field b so easy for a dedamier, that we set little value 
upon the declamation i and the mind, on such occa- 
sions, so easily outruns ordinary description, that we 
are apt to feel more, before a mediocre oration begins, 
than It even aims at inspiring. 

We are surprised that Dr. Rennel, from among the 
great number of subjects which he must have dis- 
cussed in the pulpit (the interest in which must be 
permanent and universal) should have published such 
an empty and frivolous sermon as that npon the victo- 
ry of Lord Nelson ; a sermon good enougn for the gar- 
rulity of joy, when the phrases, and the exultation of 
the Forcupine, or the Trae Briton, may pass for elo- 
quence or sense ; but utterly unworthy of the works of 
a man who aims at a place among the great teachers 
of morality and religion. 

Dr. Rennel is apt to put on the appearance of a holy- 
bully, an evangelical swaggerer, as if he could carry 
his point against infideUty by big words and strong 
abuse, and kick and cuff men into Christians. It is & 
very easy thing to talk about the shallow impost- 
ures, and the silly ignorant sophisms of Voltaire, Rous- 
seau, Condorcet, D'Alembert, and Volney, and to say 
that Hume is not worth answering. This affecUtioa 
of contempt will not do. While these pernicious wri- 
ters have power to allure from the Church great niun- 
hers of proselytes, it is better to study them diligent* 
ly. and to reply to them satisfactorily, than to veil itv> 
soience, want of power, or want of mdustry, by a pre- 
tended contempt ; which may leave infidels and wa- 
vering Christians to suppose that such writers are 
abused, because they are feared; and not answered,' 
because they are unanswerable. While every body 
was abusing and desnishig Mr. Godwin, and while Mr.! 



CMMn WM» among a eenain deacription of under- 1 This mssage, at fim, ttruck ut to be untnie ; and 
' Dcreaiing every day in popularity, Mr. Mai- we could not immediately recollect the aflictions Dr^ 
the trouble of reniting him ; and we hear I Rennel alluded to, till it occurred to us, that h^ must 

ao more of Mr. Godwin. We recommend thia exam- 
ide to the consideration of Dr. Rennel, who seems to 
thnik it more useful and pleu^^t, to rail than to fight 
9 After the world has retumed to its sober senses upon 
the merits of the ancient philosophy, it is amusmg 
enough to see a few bad headi bawling for the restora- 
tion of exploded errors and past infatuation. We haVe 
aome dozen of plethoric phrases about Aristotle, who 
is, in the estimaticm of the Doctor, etrexet tutor ho- 
niM. and every thing else ; and to the neglect of whose 
works he seems to attribute every moral and physical 
evil under which the world has groaned for the last 
century. Dr. Rennel's admiration of t)K ancients is 
ao great, that he considers the works of Homer to be 
the region and depository of natural law and natural 
leli^dii.t Now, if, by natural religion, is meant the 
wilTof God collected from his worlis, and the necessi- 
ty man is under of obeying it, it is rather extraordi- 
nary that Homer should m so good a natural theolo- 
gian, when the divinities he has painted are certainly 
a more drunken, quarrelsome, adulterous^ intriguing, 
laaeivioQs set of oerngs, than are to be met with m the 
moat profligate court in Europe. There is, every now 
and then, some plain coarse morality in Homer ; but 
the most bloody revenge, and the most savage cruelty 
in warfare, the ravislung of women, and the sale of 
men. &e. Ice. Itc. axe circumstances which the old 
hard seems to relate as the ordinary events of bis 
times, without ever dreaming that there could be much 
harm ia them ; and if it be urged that Homer took his 
ideas of right and wrong from a barbarous age, that is 
just saymg, in other woids, that Homer had very im- 
perfect ideas of natural law. 

Having exhausted all his powers of eulogium upon 
the times that are gone. Dr. Rennel indemines himself 
by the very novel practice of declaiming against the 
preaent age. It is anert/ age— an odtdUrouM ogs— an 
itinerant age— an apoataU ag»— and a fojaitk age. Of 
the propfiety of the last epithet, our readers may per- 
haps be more convinced, by calling to mind a class of 
fops not unusually desiffuated by that epithet'<~men 
clothed in profound black, idth large canes, and 
strange amorphous hats— of big speech, and impera- 
tive presence — ^talkers about Plato— great afiiectera of 
senility— denpisers of women, and all the graces of 
life — ^nerce foes to common sense— abusive of the 
Mving^ and approving no one who has not been dead 
for at least a century. Such fop, as vaiii^ and as shal- 
low as their fraternity in Bond Street, differ from these 
only as Gorgonius differed from Rumlus. 

In the ninth Discourse (p. 226,) we read of St. Paul, 
that he had < an heroic zeal, directed, rather than 
bounded, by the nicest and most profound humility.' 
This Is intended for a fine piece or writing ; but it is 
withoupt meaning : for, if words have any limits, it is 
a contradiction in ttmu to say of the ooau person, at 
the aofiM time, that he is nicely discreet, and heroi- 
cally zealoua ; or that he is profoundly humble, and 
imperatively dignified : and li Dr> Rennel means, that 
S\. Paul displayed these qualities at different tunes, 
then could not any one of them direct or soiten the 

Sermons are so seldom examined with any consi- 
derable degree of critical vigilance, that we are apt to 
discover in them sometimes a great laxity of asser- 
tion : such as the following :— 

•Laboor to be undeigone, afflictions to be borne, contra- 
dictions to be eoduzedp danger to be braved, intereit to be 
de^>iaed in the beat and most flouiishinff ages of tbe church, 
are tbe perpetual badges of far tbe greater part of those who 
take iq> t&dr cross and follow Christ.' 

undoubtedly mean the eight hundred and fiily actions 
wiiich, in tne course of eighteen months, have been 
brought sgainst the clergy for non-residence. 

Upon the danger to be apprehended from Roman 
Catholics in this country, Ot, Rennel is laughable. 
We should as soon dream that the wara of York and 
Lancaster would break out afresh, as that the Pro- 
teatant religion m England has any thing to apprehend 
from the machinations of Catholics. To such r scheme 
as that of Catholic emancipation, which has for iu 
object to restore their natural rights to three or four 
millions of men, and to allay the fury of religious 
hatred. Dr. Rennel is, as might be expected, a very 
strenuous antagonist. Time, which Ints up the veu 
of political mystery, will inform us if the Doctor has 
taken that side of tne question which may be as lucra- 
tive to himself as it ia Inimical to human happiness, 
and repugnant to enlightened policy. 

Of Dr. RennePs talents as a reasoner, we certainly 
have formed no very high opinion. Unless dogmati- 
cal assertion, and the practice (but too common among 
theological writers) of taking the thing to be provecf, 
for part of the proof, can be considered as evidence of a 
logical understandina, the specimens of awunent Dr. 
Rennel has afforded us are very insignificant. For 
puttine obvious truths into vehement language $ for 
expanding and adorning moral instruction ; this gen- 
tleman certainly possesses considerable talents: and 
if he will moderate his insolence, steer clear of theo- 
logical metaphysics, and consider rather those great 
laws of Christian practice, which must interest man- 
kind through all ages, than the petty questions which 
are important to the Cliancellor of the Exchequer for 
the time being, he may live beyond his own days, and 
become a star of the third or fourth magnitude in the 
English Church. 

* I cannot read the name of Malfhus without adiUng my 
tillnite of aifection for the memoxy of one of the best men 
that everllved. He loved philosopmcal truth more than any 
man I ever knew,— was full of practical wisdom,— and 
never indolged in contemptuous feelings against bis inferi- 
ors ia vndentanding * 


JOHN BOWLES. (EnmBvaoH Review, 1808.) 

JU^Ieefion* at Vu condition qf the War: Being a sequel to 
Reflections on the Political and Moral State of Society at 
the Close of the £ighteenth Century. The Third £di- 
tiou; with Additions. By Jotm Bowles, Esq. 

If this piece be, as Mr. Bowles asserts,* the death- 
warrant of the liberty and power of Great Britain, we 
will venture to assert^that it is also the death-warrant 
of Mr. Bowles's literary reputation ; and that the 
people of this island, if they verify his predictions, 
and cease to read his books, whatever they may lose 
in political greatness, will evince no small improve- 
ment in critical acumen. There is a political, as well 
as a bodily hypochondriasis ; and there are empirics 
always on the watch to make their prey, either of the 
one or of the other. Dr. Solomon, Dr. Brodum, and 
Mr. Bowles, have all commanded their share of the 
IMiblie attention : but the two former gentlemen con- 
tinue to flourish with undiminished splendour ; while 
the patients of the latter are fast dwindling away, and 
his orugs falling into disuse and contempt. 

The truth is, if Mr. Bowles had begun his literary 
career at a period when superior discrimination, and 
profound thought, not vulgar viol^ce, and the eternal 
repetition of rabble-rousing words, were necessary to 
literary reputation, he would never have emerged 
from that obscurity to which he will soon return. 
The intemperate passions of the public, not his own 
talents, have given him some temporary reputation ; 
and now, when men hope and fear with less eagerness 
than they have been lately accustomed to do, Mr. 
Bowles vml be coinpelled to descend from that mo* 
derate emhience, where no man of real genius would 
ever have condescended to remain. 

The pamphlet is written in the genuine spirit of the 

* It is impossible to conceive the mischievous power of 
the corrupt alanaists of those days, and tbe despotic man- 
ner in which they exercised theur authority. They were 
fair objects for the EdinbuaiH Review. 



Windham and Burke School ; though Mr. Bowles can- 
not be called a serrile copyist of either of these gen- 
tlemeni as he has rejected the logic of the one| and 
the eloquence of the other, and imitated them only in 
thei|: headstrong Tiolence, and exaggerated abuse. 
There are some men who continue to astonish and 
j^ease the world, even in the support of a bad cause. 
They are mighty in their fallacies, and beautiful in 
their errors. Au. Bowles sees only one half of the 
precedent ; and thinks, in order to be famous, that he 
has nothing to do but to be in the wrong. 

War, eternal war, till the wrongs of Europe are 
avenged, and the Bourbons restored, is the master- 
principle of Mr. Bowles's political opinions, and the 
object for which he declaims through the whole of 
Uie present pamphlet. 

The first apprehensions which Mr. Bowles seems to 
entertain, are of the boundless ambition and perfidious 
character of the First Consul, and of that military 
despotism he has established, which is not gdIj im- 
pelled by the love of conquest, but interested, for its 
own preservation, to desire the overthrow of other 
states. Yet the author informs us, immediately after, 
that the life of Buonaparte is exposed to more dangers 
than that of any other hidividual in Europe who is 
not actually in the last stage of on incurable disease ; 
and that his death, whenever it happens, must involve 
the dissolution of that machine of government, of 
which he must be considered not only as the sole di- 
rector, but the main spring. ConAision of thought, 
we are told, is one of the truest indications of terror ; 
and the panic of this alarmist is so very neat, that 
he cannot listen to the consolation which he himself 
affords : for it appears, upon summing up these perils, 
that we are in the atmost danger of being destroyed 
by a despot, whose system of government, as dread- 
ful as himself, cannot survive him, and who, in all 
human probability, wiU be shot or hanged, before he 
can execute any one of his projects anunst us. 

We have a ffood deal of flourishing m the bennning 
of the pamphiiet^ about the effect of the moral sense 
upon the stabihty of governments ; that is, as Mr. 
Bowles explains it, the power which all old ffovem- 
ments derive Arom the opinion entertained by the 
people of the justice of their rights. If this sense of 
ancient right be (as is here confidently asserted) 
strong enough ultimately to restore the Bourbons, 
why are we to fight for that which will be done with- 
out any fighting at all ? And, if it be strong enough 
to restore, why was it weak enough to render restonu 
tion necessary? 

To notice every singular train of reasoning into 
which Mr. Bowles falls, is not possible and m the 
copious choice of evils, we shall, from feelings of 
mercy, take the least. 

It must not be forgotten, he observes, ' that those 
rights of government, which. because they are ancient, 
are recognized by the moral sense as lawful, are the 
only ones which are compatible with civil liberty.' 
So that all qnestions of right and wrong, between the 
govemora and the governed, are determinable by 
chronoloffy alone. Every political institution is fiivonr- 
able to lioerty, not according to its spirit, but in pro- 
portion to the antiquity of its date ; and tne slaves of 
Great Britain are groaning under the trial by jury, 
while the freemen of Asia eznlt In the bold vrinlege 
transmitted to them by their ftthersi of bemg tiam« 
pjed to death by elephants. 

In the eifihth page, Mr. Bowies thinks that France, 
if she remains without a kmg, will conquer all Europe ; 
and, hi the nineteenth page, all the miseries of France 
are stated to be a judgment of heaven for thehr cruelty 
to their king : and m the 33d pngOi they are disco- 
rei ed to proceed from the perndy of the same king 
to this country in the American contest. So that cer- 
tain misfortunes proceed from the maltreatment of a 
person, who had himself occasioned these identical 
misfortunes before he was maltreated; and while 
Providence is compelling the French, by ev^ry species 
of affliction, to resume monarchical government, they 
are to acquire such extraordinary vigour, ftom not 
actinias Providence would wish, that they are to 

trample on every nation which co-operates With the 
Divine intention. ^ 

In the 60th page, Mr. Bowles explains what fs 
meant by Jacobmism ; and, as a concluding proof of 
the justice with whick the character is drawn, tri- 
umphantly quotes the Aiase of a certain R. Mountain, 
who was tried for dammng all kings and all govern., 
ments upon earth ; for, adds R. Mountain, < I am a 
Jacobin.^ No one can more thoroughly detest and 
despise that restless spirit of political ionovationy 
which, we suppose, is meant by the name of Jaco- 
binism, than we ourselves do ; out we were highly 
amused with this proof, ab ibriis sutoribuSj of the 
prostration of Europe, the last hour of human felicity, 
the perdition of man, discovered in the crapulous eruc- 
tations of a drunken cobler. 

This species of evidence might certainly have es- 
caped a common observer : but this is not all ; there 
are other proofs of treason and sedition, equally 
remote, sagacious and profound. Many good subjects 
are not very much pleased with the idea of the Whig 
Club dining together ; but Mr. Bowles has the merit of 
first calling the public attention to the alarming prac- 
tice of singmg after dinner at these political meetmgs« 
He speaks with a proper horror of tavcm dinners, 

*^where conviviality is made a atimillua to dlsaflliection — 
where wine serves only to inflame disloyalty— where toants 
are converted into a vehicle of sedition— and where the 
powers of harmony are called forth in the cause of Discord 
by those hireling singers, who are eaually ready to invoke 
the Divine favour on the head of their King, or to strain 
their renal throats in chanting the triumplu of his bitter- 
est enemies.' 

All complaint is Aitile, which is not followed up 
with appopriate remedies. If Parliament, or Catarrh, 
do not save us. Disnum and Sedgwick will quaver away 
the King, shaxe down the House of Lords, and warble 
us into aU the horrors of republican government. 
When, in addition to these dangers, we reflect also 
upon toose with which our national happiness is me- 
naced, by the present thinness of ladies' petticoata 
(p. 78), temerity may hope our salvation, but how can 
reason promise It 7 

One solitary gleam of comfort, mdeed beams upon 
us in reading the solemn devotion of this modem Cut- 
tins to the cause of his King and country— 

«My attachment to the British monarchy, and to the 
reigning family. Is rooted in my ** heart's core."— My anxi- 
ety for the Brnish throne, pending the dangers to which, in 
common with every otho* throne, it has latdy been ex- 
posed, has embittered my choicest comforts. And I must 
solemnly vow, before Almighty God, to devote myself, to 
the end of my days, to the maintenance of that throne.' 

Whether this patriotism be original, or whether it be 
copied from the Upholsterer in Footers Farces, who sits 
up whole nights watching over the British constimtiou, 
we shall not stop to hiquire ; when the practical effect 
of sentiments is good, we would not diminish their 
meriu by investtgathig their origin. We serioush^ 
commend in Mr. Bowles this future dedication of lust 
life to the service of his King and country; anil 
consider it as a virtual promise that he will write ncj 
more in their defence, ^o wise or good man has evert 
thought of either, but with admiration and respect.^ 
That they should oe exposed to that ridicule, by the 
forward imbecility of iriendshin, from which they 
appear to be protected by intrinsic worth, is so painful 
a consideratioOj that the very thought of it^ we are 
owles to desist from 

a VUUSlUeiBilUU, UIBi UlC T6J 

persuaded, vrill induce Mr. 
writing on political subjects. 

DR. LAN6F0RD. (EnnrBvaoB Retzzw, 1802.) 

Atmivenary Sermon qfiht Rmfoi HwrnaiM fioa'chf. By W 
Laagford, D. D. Printed for F. and C. Bivington. 

Ah accident, which happened to the gentleman q. 
gaged in reviewing this sermon proves, in the mst 
stnking manner, the importance of this charityibr 
xeatoring to life persons m whom the vital powr is 

a&chdeAcon nares. 

He was discovered, with Dr. Lansford's* 
_ , ) lying open before him, iii a state of the most 
pSflSbimd sleep, irom which he could not, by any 
means, be awalceued for a great great length of'^ time. 
By attending^ however, to the rules prescribed by the 
Humane Society, flinging in the smoke of tobacco, 
applying hot flannels, and carefldly removing the dis- 
course itself to a great distance, the critic was restored 
to his disconsolate brothers. 

The only account he could give of himself was, that 
he remembers reading on, regularly, till he came to 
the foUowing pathetic description ofa drowned trades- 
man, beyond which he recollects nothing. 

« But Co the indtvldusi biiB«elL as s man, let us add the 
intenruption to all the temporal buainett in which hi« inte- 
rest was engaged. To him indeed now apparently lost, the 
world is Sd nothinsr ; but it seldom happens, that man can 
lire for himsdf alone: sodiety parcels out its concerns ia 
rariouB connections; and ttom one head issue waters 
which ran down in many channels. The spring being sud- 
denly cot off, what connuion must follow in the streams 
whicn have flowed from its source? It may be, that all 
Che expectations reasonably raised of approaching prosperi- 
xy, to tho^ who have embarked in the same occupation, 
may at once disappear; and the important interchange of 
commercial faith be broken off, before it could be brought 
to any advantageous ooncLuslon.' 

This extract will suffice for the style of the sermon. 
The charity itself is above all praise. 

▲RCHJ)£ACON NARES.* (EDiffBTraoB Review, 

Ji Thaatksgivingfor PleiUiy, and YTanuiur 'Sfomsi ^fsanec. 
A Sermon. By the Reverend Robert Nares. Archdeacon 
of Staflbitd, and Canon Residentiary of Litchfield. Lon- 
don: Printed for the Author, and sold by Rivingtons, 
St. Faults Churchyard. 

Foa the swaim of ephemeral sermons which issue 
from the press, we are principally indebted to the vani- 
ty of poiNiIar preachers, who are pttfi*ed up by female 
praises into a belief, that what may be delivered, with 
pireat propriety, in a chapel full of visitors and friends, 
IS fit tor the deliberate attention of the public, who 
cannot be influenced by the decency of a clergyman'^ 
private life, flattered by the sedulous politeness of his 
manners, or misled by the fallacious circumstances of 
voice and action. A clergyman cannot be always con- 
sidered as reprehensible for preaching an indifierent 
sermon ; because, to the active piety, and correct life, 
which the profession requires, many an excellent man 
may not unite talents for that species of composition ; 
but every man who prints, imagines he gives to the 

orld something which they had not before, either in 
matter or style ; that he has brought forth new truths. 
or adorned old ones ; and when^ in lieu of novelty ana 
ornament, we can discover nothing but trite imbecility, 
the law must take its course, and the delinquent suffer 
that mortification from which vanity can rarely be ex* 
pected to escape, when it chooses dulness for the mmi- 
ster of its gmtifications. 

The learned author, after observing that a large 
srmy praying would be a much finer spectacle than a 
large army ^hting, and after entertaining us with the 
old anecdote of Xerxes, and the flood of tears, proceeds 
to express his sentiments on the late scarcity, and the 
{Resent abundance : then, stating the manner in which 
the Jews were governed by the immediate interference 
of God, and informing us, that other people expect not, 
nor are taught to look for, miraculous interference, to 
nuniah or reward them, he proceeds to talk of the visi- 
tation ef Providence, for tne purposes of trial, warn- 
ing, and correction, as if it were a tmth of which he 
had never doubted. 

fitill, however, he CMteads, though the Deity does 

^ To this exceedingly foolish man, the first years of 
Stonlan Education were intrusted. How i* it possible to 
Infilict a greater nii«fortune on a country, than to flU up 
each aa office with such an officer? 

f TMs was another geatkmaa of the aUrmisttiilie. h 

interfere, It would be pxQSumptttous and implons ta 
pronounce the purposes for which he interferes ; and 
then adds, that it has pleased God, within these fe# 
years, to give us a most awful lesson of the vanity of 
agriculture and importation without piety, and that he 
has proved this to the conviction of every tiiinirii>|j 

< Though he internose not (says Mr. Nares) by posi- 
tive miracle, he influences by means unknown to all 
but himself, and directs the winds, the rain, and the 
glorious beams of heaven to execute his judgment, or 
fulfil his merciful designs.'—Now, either the wind, the 
rain, and the beams, are here represented to act as 
they do in the ordinary course of nature, or they are 
not. If they are, how can their operations be consid- 
ered as a judgment on sins ? and if they are not, what 
are their extraordinary operations, but positive mira- 
cles? So that the Archdeacon, after denying that any 
body knows icAen, koWf and why the Creator works a 
miracle, proceeds to specify the Hmty ifutntmenty and 
object of a miraculous scarcity ; and then, assuring us 
that the elements were employed to execute the judg- 
ments of Providence, denies that this is any proof ofa 
positive miracle. 

Having given us this specimen of his talents for 
theological metaphysics, Mr. Nares commences bis 
attack upon the farmers; accuses them of cruelty and 
avarice; raises the old cry of monoply; and expresses 
some doubts, in a note, whether the better way would 
not be, to subject their granaries to the control of an 
exciseman ; and to levy heavy penalties upon those, 
in whose possession com, beyond a certain quantity to 
be fixedby law, should be found.— This style of rea- 
soning is pardonable enoa|^ in those who aigue ttom 
the belly rather than the brains ; but in a well fed, and 
well educated cJeigyman, who has never been disturb- 
ed by hunger from the free exercise of cultivated 
talents, It merits the severest reprehension. The far- 
mer has it not in his power to raise the price of com ; 
he never has fixed ana never can fix it. He is unques- 
tionably justified in receivine any price he can obtain : 
for it happens very beautifully, that the efiect of his 
efforts to better his fortune, is as beneficial to the pub- 
lic, as if their motive had not been selfish. The poor are 
not to be supported, in time of famine, by abatement 
of price on the part of the farmer, but by the subscrip- 
tion of residentiary canons, archdeacons, and all men 
rich in public or private property ; and to these sub- 
scriptions the farmer should contribute according to 
the amount of his fortune. To insist that he should 
take a less price when he can obtain a greater, is to 
insist upon laying on that order of men the whole bur- 
den of supporting the poor; a convenient system 
enou^ in the eyes ef a rich ecclesiastic ; and objec 
tionable only, because it is impracticable, pernicious, 
and unjust.* 

The question of the com trade has divided society 
into two parts — those who have any talents for reason- 
ing, and those who have not. We owe an apology to 
our readers, for takins any notice of errors that have 
been so frequently, and so unanswerably exposed ; liut 
when they are ecnoed ttom the bench and the pulpit, 
the dignity of the teacher may perhaps communicate 
some degree of importance to the silliest and most 
extravagant doctrines. 

No reasoning can be more radically erroneous than 
that upon which the whole of Mr, Nares's sermon is 
founded. The most benevolent, the most Christian, 
and the most profitable conduct the farmer can pur- 
sue, is, to sell his commodities for the highest price 
he can possibly obtain. This advice, we thinx, is 
not in any great danger of being rejected : we wish 
we were equally sure of success in counselling the 
Reverend Mr. Nares to attend, in ftiture, to practical, 
rather than theoretical questions ^bout provisions. 

* If it is pleasant to notice the inteUecteal growth of an 
individual, it is still more pleasant to see the public grow- 
ing wiser. This absurdity of attributing the hiffh price of 
com to the combinattona of fannen, was the common non- 
sense talked in the days of my youth. I remember when 
ten judges out of twelve laid down this doctrine in their 
charges to the various grand juries on the drcidt*. Tim 
lowest attorney's clerk is now better instnctadl 




Ha maf be a T«rjr hospitable archdeaeon ; hat noth^ 
ing short of a fotUtvt mbmd» can make him an acute 

KATTHEW LEWIS. (EmnvBas REVxaWy 1803.) 
JKffounKtmg^fCaaliU. A Traced j, ia Uto Ads. B j M. 

Axromoi king of Castile, had, many years preTi- 
oos to the supposed epoch of the play, left his mini- 
ster and general, Orsino, to perish m prison, ftom a 
false accusation of treason. Csesario, son to Orsino, 
(who by accident had liberated AmeLrosa, daughter 
of Alfonso, from the Moors, and vho is married to 
ber, unknown to the ikther.) becomes a neat fiivour* 
ite with the King, end aTails himself of the command 
of the armies with which he is intrusted, to gntify 
bis revenge for his father's misfortunes, to forward 
his own ambitious views, and to lay a plot by which 
be may deprive Alfonso of his throng and bis life. 
Marquis Guzman, poisoned by bis wife Ottilia in love 
with Cesario, confesses to the King that the papers 

Son which the suspicion of Orsino's guilt was found- 
, were forged by nim : and the King, learning from 
bis daughter Amelrosa that Orsino is still alive, re- 
pairs to his retreat in the forest, is received with the 
most implacable hauteur and resentment, and in vain 
implores forgiveness of his injured minister. To the 
same forest, Csesario, informed of the existence of his 
father, repairs, and reveals his intended plot against 
the King. Orsino, convinced of Alfonso's goodness 
to his subjects, though incapable of forgiving him for 
bis unintentional injuries to nimself, in vain dissuades 
bis son from the conspiracy ; and at last, ignorant of 
their marriage, acquaints Amelrosa with the plot 
formed by her husband against her father. AmeU 
rose, already poisoned by Ottilia, in vain attempts to 

Brevent Cossario from blowing up a mine laid under 
tie royal palace ; information of which she had re- 
ceived from Ottilia, stabbed by Ctesario to AVoid her 
Importunity. In the mean time, the King hai. been 
Vemoved from the palace by Orsino, to bis ancient 
retreat in the forest : the people rise against the 
usurper CBsario ; a battle taaes place : Orsino stab» 
his own son, at the moment the King is in his son's 
power ; falls down from the wounds he has received 
m battle ; and dies in the usual dramatic style, re- 
peating twenty-two hexameter verses. Mr. Lewis 
says in his prela 

< To the a98ertion» that mv play is rtupul, I have nothiiij 
to object; if it be found so, e\'en let It be so said; but 1 
(as was most/olM/y asserted of Adelmom) any anonymous 
writer should advance that this Tragedy is tmm«rol, I ex- 
pect him to prove his assertion t;y quoting the ol^ecUonable 
passages. Thb I demand as an act of /ustice.' 

We confess ourselves to have been highly delighted 
with these symptoms of returning, or perhaps nascent 
purity in the mmd of Mr. Lewis — a delight somewhat 
impaired, to be sure, at the opening of the play, by the 
following explanation which Ottilia gives of ner early 

< ACT I. Scsms L— Tl« palace gontenw— Diy-^rcoi. 
Ottiua enttn in a ntgU-drest.* Aer kairjiow di^kevdUd. 
Ottil. Dews of the mom descend! Breathe, summer 
My ihished cheAs woo ye ! Play, sweet wantona, play 
'Mid my loose tresses, fan my pantinc breast. 
Quench my blood's burning fever !^ vain, vain prayer ! 
Not Winter throned 'midst Alpine snows, whose wiU 
Can with one breath, one touch, congeal whole realms, 

!And blanch whole seas: not ths^. fiend's self could ease 
This heart, this gulf of flames, ^ils purple kingdom, 
Where passion rules and rages !* 

Ottilia at last becomes quite furious, from the convic- 
tioQ that Csesario has been sleeping with a second lady, 
called Estella ; whereas be has really been sleeping 
with a third lady, called Amelrosa. Passing across the 
stage^ this gallant gentleman takes an opportunity of 
menUoning to the audience that he has been passing 
Us time very agreeably, meets CtUlia, quarrels, makes 
H up ; and so end the nrst two or three scenes. 

Mr. Lewis will excuse tis for the Uberty we take in 
commenting on a few passages in his jday wfaicb ap- 
pear to us rather excepuooable. The only mformatioa 
which CsBsaiio, imsgining his lather to have been dead 
for many years, receives of his existence, is in the fol- 
lowing short speech of Melchior. 

* Mzbcs. The Count San Lucar, long thought dead, buts»>- 

It seems, by aaeirosa's care.— Time p res ses 
I must away: fareweiL' 

To this laconic, but important information, CBsario 
makes no reply, but merely desires Melchior to meet 
him at one o'clock, under the Royal Tower, and for 
some other purposes. 

In the few cases which have fallen under our obser- 
Tation, of &thers restored to life after a supposed death 
of twenty years, the parties concerned nave, on the 
first information, appeared a little surprised, and gene> 
rally asked a few questions— though we do not go the 
length of saying it is natural to do so. This same Cstt- 
sano, (whose love ofhis father is a principal cause of 
his conspiracy against the King) begins cnticising the 
old wamor, upon his first seemg him again, much as a 
virtuoso would criticise an old statne that wanted aa 
arm or a leg. { 

< Oftsuro enUnfrom HU ease. 
CasAEio. Now by my life 

" A noble ruin!' 

Amelrosa, who imagines her father to have banished 
her from his presence for ever, ii) the first transports of 
pardon, obtslned by earnest intercessicms, tnus ex- 
claims : — 

< Lend thy doves, dear Venus, 
That I may send them where Casario strays : 
And while he smooths their silver wings, and gives them 
For drink the honey of his lips, I'U bid them 
Coo in his ear, his Amelrosa's happy !' 

What judge of human feelings does not recognize in 
these images of i^ilver wings, doves and honey, the ge- 
nuine lanffuage of the passions ? 

If Mr. Lewis is realty in earnest in pointhig out the 
coincidence between his own dramatic sentiments, and 
the Gospel of St. Matthew, such a reference (wide as 
we know this assertion to be) evinces a want of judg- 
ment of which we did not think him capable. If it pro. 
ceeded ttom irreligious levity, we pity the man who 
has bad taste enough not to prefer honest dulness to 
such paltry celebrity. 

We beg leave to submit to Mr. Lewis, if Alfonso, 
considering the great interest he has in the decision, 
miffht not interfere a Uttle in the long argument carried 
on between Ceesario and Orsino, upon the propriety of 
putting him to death. To have expressed any decisive 
opinion upon the subject, might perhaps have been 
incorrect ; but a few gentle hints as to that side of the 
question to which he leaned, might be fairly allowed to 
be no very unnatural incident. 

Iliis tragedy delights in explosions. Alfonso's em- 
pire is destroyed by a blast of gunpowder, and re- 
stored by a clap of tnunder. After the death of Cs- 
sario, and a snort exhortation to that purpose by 
Orsmo, all the conspirators fall down in a thunder- 
clap, ask pardon of the king, and are forgiven. This 
mixture of physical and moral power is beautiful ! 
How interesting a water-spout would appear among 
Mr. Lewis's kings and queens ! We anxiously look 
forward, in his next tragedy, to a fall of snow three or 
four feet deep ; or expect tnat a plot shall gradually 
unfold itself by means of a general thaw. 

All is not so bad in this play. There is some strong 
painting, which shows, every now and then, the hand 
of a master. The agitation which Csesario exhibits 
upon his first joining the conspirators in a cave, pre- 
vious to the biowina up of the mine, and immediately 
after stabbing Ottilia, is very fine. 

* Cjcsauo. * Ay, shout, shout, 

And kneeUng greet your blood-annolnted king. 

This steel his sceptre ! Tremble, dwarft in guilt. 

And own your master ! Thou art proof. Henriques, 

'Gainst pity ; I once saw thee stab in battle 

A page who dasped thy knees: And Melchoir there 

Made quick work with a brother whom he hated. 

But what did I this night ? Hear, hear, and reverence ! 



Tlime-wit « liroast on which my hetd had raited 
A tbouMnd timet ; a breast which loved me fondly 
As taetven lovet martyred saints: and yet this breast 
I stabbed, knave— stabbed it to the heart— Wine! 

wine there? 
For my soul's joyous !' — p. 86. 

The resistance which Amehrosa opposes to the firing 
of the mine, is well wrought out ; and there is some 
good poetry scattered up and down the play, of which 
we should very willingiy make extracts if'^our limits 
would permit. The ill success which it has justly 
experienced^ is owing, we have no doubt, to the want 
of nature in the characters, and of probabilitv and 
— -^ arrangement in the incidents ; objections oi some 

AUSTRALIA. (EnniBuaoH Retiew, 1803.) 

Jtaxnutt of the EngKA Colony of Ktm Bouik WoUt. By 
Lieutenant-Colonel CoUins of the Koyal Martnei. VoL 
11. 4to. CadeU and Davies, London. 

To introduce an European population, and, conse- 
quently, the arts and civilization of Europe, into such 
an untrodden country as New Holland, is to confer a 
lasting and important benefit upon the world. If man 
be destined for perpetual activity, and if the proper 
objects of that activity be the subjugation of physical 
difficulties, and of his own dangerous passions, how 
shsurd afe those systems which proscribe the acquisi- 
tions of science and the restraints of law, and would 
arrest the progress of man in the rudest and earliest 
stages of nis existence ! Indeed, opinions so very 
extravagant in their nature must be attributed rather 
to the wantonness of paradox, than to sober reflection 
and extended hiquiry. 

To suppose the savage state permanent, we must 
suppose the numbers of those who compose it to be 
stationary, and the various passions by which men 
have actiudly emerged horn it to be extmct ; and this 
is to suppose man a very difierent being from what he 
really is. To prove such a permanence beneficial, (if 
It were possible), we must have recourse to matter of 
fact, and judge of the rude state of society, not from 
the praises ot tranquil liUratiy but f^om the narratives 
of those who have seen it through a nearer and better 
aediwa than that of imagination. There is an argu- 
ment, however, for the continuation of evil, drawn 
from the ignorance of good ; by which it is contended, 
that to teach men their situation can be better, is to 
teach them that it is bad, and to destroy that happi- 
ness which always results from an ignorance that any 
greater happiness is within our reach. All pains and 
pleasures are clearly by coinparison } but the most de- 
plorable savage enjoys a sumcient contrast of good, to 
know that the grosser evils from which civuization 
rescues him are evils. A New Hollander seldom pas- 
ses a year without sufiering from famine ; the small- 
pox falls upon him like a plague ; he dreads those 
calamities, though he does not know how to avert 
then ; but, doubtless, would find his happiness in- 
creased, it they tuere averted. To deny this, is to sup- 
pose that men are reconciled to evils because they are 
mevitable s and yet hurricanes, earthquakes, bodily 
decay, and death, stand highest in the catalogue of 
human calamities. 

Where civilization gives new birth to new compari- 
sons Btt&vourable to savage life, with the hiformation 
that a greater good Is possible, it generally connects 
the means of attaining it. The savage no sooner be- 
comes ashamed of his nakedness than the loom is 
ready to clothe him ; the forge prepares for him more 
perfect tools, when he is disgustea with the awlnvard- 
nessof hisown ; his weakness is strengthened, and his 
wants are supplied as soon as they are discovered ; and 
the use of the discovery is, that it enables him to derive 
frooi comparison the best proof of present happhiess. 
A man bom blind is ignorant of the pleasures of^whlch 
he is deprived. After the restoration of his sight his 
happiness will be increased from two causes >-fVom 
the delif^t he experiences at the novel accession of 
power, and from the contrast he will always be enabled 
to make between hit two situations, long after the pAea- 

sme of novelty has ceased. For these reasons, it is 
humane to restore him to sight. 

But^ however beneficial to the general interests of 
manlund the civilization of barbarous countries may 
be, in this particular instance of it, the mtcrest of 
Great Britain would seem to have been very little con- 
sulted. With fancifhl schemes of universal good we 
have no bushiess to meddle. Why are we to erect 
penitentiary houses and prisons at the distance of 
tudf the diameter of the globe, and to incur the enor- 
mous expense of transporting their inhabitants to and 
at such a distance, it is extremely difficult to discover. 
It certainly is not from any deficiency of barren is- 
lands on our own coast, nor of uncultivated wastes in 
the interior ; and if we were sufficiently fortunate to 
"be wantinp^ in such species of accomodation, we might 
discover m Canada^ or the West Indies, or on the 
coast of Africa, a chmate malignant enough, or a soil 
sufficiently sterile, to revenge all the injuries which 
have been inflicted on society by pick-pockets, lar- 
cenists. and petty felons. Upon the foundation of a 
new colony, and especially ^e peopled by criminals, 
there is a disposition in Government (where any cir- 
cumstance in the commission of the crime alforas the 
least pretence for the commutation) to convert capital 
punishment into transportation ; and by these means 
to hold forth a very dangerous, though certainly a 
very unintentional encouragement to offences. And 
when the history of the colony has been attentively 
]>erused m the parish of St. Giles, the ancient avoca- 
tion of pickingpockets will certainly not become more 
discreditable from the knowledge that it may even- 
tually lead to the possession of a fkrm of a thousand 
acres on the river Hawkesbury. Smce the benevolent . 
Howard attacked our prisons, incarceration has not 
only become healthy but elegant ; and a county jail is 
precisely the place to which any pauper migut,wish 
to retire to gratify his taste for magnificence as well 
as for comfort. Upon the sa^e principle, there is 
some risk that transportation will be considered as 
one of the surest roads to honour and to wealth ; and 
that no felon will hear a verdict of < not guUty^ without 
considering himself as cut off in the fairest career of 
prosperity. It is foolishly believed, that tlie colony 
of Botany Bay unites our moral and commercial ints- 
rests, and that we shall receive hereal'ter an ample 
equivalent, in bales of goods, for all the vices we ex* 
port. Unfortunately, the expenses we have incurred 
m founding the colony, will not retard the natural pro- 
gress of its emancipation, or prevent the attacks of 
other nations, who will be as desirous of reaping the 
fruit, as if they had sown the seed. It is a colony, 
besides, begun under every possible disadvantage ; it is 
too distant to be long governed, or well defended ; it 
is undertaken, not by the voluntary association of in- 
dividuals, but by Government, ana by means of com- 
pulsory labour. A nation must, indeed, be redundant 
in capital, that will expend it where the hopes of a just 
return are so very small. 

It may be a very curious consideration what we are 
tp do with this colony when it comes to years of c:-. - 
crction. Are we to spend another hundred millious 
of money in discovering its strength, and to humble 
ourselves again before a fresh set of Washingtons ^ 
and Franklins. The moment after we have suffered 
such serious mischief from the escape of the old tiger, 
we are breeding up a young cub, whom we cannot ren- 
cer less ferocious or more secure. If we are gradual- 
ly to manumit the colony^ as it is more and more ca> 
pable of protecting itself the degrees of emancipation, 
and the periods at which they are to take place, will 
be judged of very differently by the two nations. But 
we confess ourselves not to be so sanguine as to sup- 
pose, that a spirited and commercial people would, m 
spite of the example of America, ever consent to aban- 
don their sovereignty over an important colony with- 
out a struggle. Endless blood and treasure will bo 
ei^austed to support a tax on kangaroos' skins; 
faithful Commons will go on voting fresh supplies to 
support a just a$id neeeMtary war ; and Newgate, then 
become a quarter of the world, will evince a heroism, 
not unworthy of the great characters by whom she 
was originally peopled. 



• Tlie experimenti however, is not less interesting in 
a moraL oecause it is objectionable in a commercial 
point of view. It is an object of the highest curiosity, 
thus to have the growth of a nation subjected to our 
examination ; to trace it by such faithful records, from 
the first day of its existence ; and to gather that 
knowledge of the progress of human affairs, from ac- 
tual experience, which Is considered to be only ac- 
cessible to the conjectural reflections of enlightened 

Human nature, under very old goTemments, is so 
trimmed, and pruned^ and ornamented, and led into 
such a varietT of factitious shapes, that we are almost 
ignorant of the appearance it would assume, if it were 
left more to itseh. From such an experiment as that 
now before us, we shall be better able to appreciate 
what circumstances of our situation are owing to those 
permanent laws by which all men are influenced, and 
what to the accidental positions in which we have 
been placed. New circumstances will throw new 
light upon the effects of our religious, political, and 
economical institutions, if we cause them to be adop- 
ted as models in our rising empire ; and if we do not, 
we shall estimate the effects of their presence, by ob- 
serving those which are produced by their non-exist- 

The history of the colony is at present, however, in 
its least interesting state, on account of the gfreat pre- 
ponderance of depraved.uihabitant8,^whose crimes and 
irregularities give a monotony to the narrative, which 
it cannot lose, tiU the respectable part of the. com- 
munity come to bear a greater proportion to the cTimi< 

These Memoirs of Colonel Collins resume the history 
of the colony from the period at which he concluded 
it in his former volume, September, 1796, and conti- 
nue it down to August luOl. They are written in the 
style of a journal, which though not the most agreeable 
mode of conveying information^ is certainly the most 
authentic, and contrives to banish the suspicion, and 
most probably the reality, of the interference of a boolc- 
maker— a species of gentlemen who are now almost be- 
come necessary to deliver naval and military authors 
in their literary labours, though they do not always 
atone, by orthography and grammar, for the sacrifice of 
truth and siiAphcity. Mr. Collinses book appears to be 
written with great plainness and candour ; he appears to 
be a man always meaning well ; of good, plam, com- 
mon sense ; and composed of those well-wearing mate- 
rials which adapt a person for situations where genius 
and re&iement would only prove a source of misery and 

We shall proceed to lay before our readers an ana- 
lysis of the most important matter contained in this vo- 

Thenatives in the vicinity of Port Jackson stand ex- 
tremely low, in point of civilization, when compared 
with many other savages with whom the discoveries of 
Captain Cook have made us acquainted. Their no- 
tions of religion exceed even that degree of absurdity 
which we are led to expect in the creed of a barbarous 
people. In politics they appear to be scarcely advan- 
ced CMiyond ramily-govemment. Huts they have none ; 
and, m all their economical inventions, there is a 
rudeness and deficiency of ingenuity, unpleasant, when 
contrasted with the instances of dextenty with which 
the descriptions and importations of our navigators 
have rendered us so familiar. Their numbers appear 
to us to be very small : a fact, at once, indicative 
either of the ferocity of manners in any people, or 
more probably, of the sterility of their country ; but 
which, in the present instance proceeds from both 
these c&nses. 

*Oftiniiig every day (tm Hr. CoIUns) some further 
knowledge of the inhumaa habits and customs of these peo- 
ple, their being so thinly scattered through the country 
ceased to be a matter of surprise. It was almost daily seen, 
that from some trifling cause or other, they were continu- 
ally living in a state of warfare: to this must be added their 
brutal treatment of their women, who are themselves 
equally destructire to the measure of population, by the 
hoirid and cmel custom of endeavouring to cause a miscar 
risge^ which their female acquaintances effect by pressing 
the body in such a way, s> to destroy the infant In the 

womb; which yiolence not vafireqnoitty ocesatons the 
death of the unnatural mother also. To tllia they have re- 
course to avoid the trouble of carrying the Infant about 
when bom, which, when it is very young, or at the brea^ 
is the duty of the woman. The operation for this destruc- 
tive purpose is termed Mee-bra. The burying &» infant 
(when at the breast) with the mother, if she should die, ia 
another shoeking cause of the thinnesa of population among 
them. The fact that such an operation as the Mee-bra waa 
practised by these wretched people, was communicated by 
one of the natives to the xvincwal auxgeon of the settle- 
ment'— (p. 134, 130.) 

It is remarkable, that the same paucity of numbers 
has been observed in every part of New Holland which 
has hitherto been explored ; and yet there is not the 
smallest reason to conjecture that the population of it 
has been very r^ent; nor do the people bear any 
marks of descent from the inhabitants of the numerous 
islands by which this great continent is surrounded. 
The force of population can only be resisted by some 
great physical evils ; and many of the causes of this 
scarcity of human beings whicn Mr. Collins refers to 
the ferocity of the natives, are ultimately referable to 
the difiicnity of support, we have always considered 
this phenomenon as a symptom extremely unfavoura- 
ble to the future destinies of this country. It is easy 
to launch out into eulogiums of the fertility of nature 
in particular spots ; but the most probable reason why 
a country that has been long inhabited, is not well in- 
habited, is, that it is not calculated to support many 
inhabitants without great labour. It is difficult to 
suppose any other causes powerful enough to resist the 
impetuous tendency of man, to obey that mandate for 
increase and multiplication, which has certainly been 
better observed than any other declaration of the Di- 
vine will ever revealed to us. 

There appears to be some tendency to civilization, 
andsome tolerable notions of justice, in a practice very 
similar to our custom of duelling ; for duelling, though 
barbarous in civUized, is a highly civilized institution 
among barbarous people : and when compared to as- 
sassination, is a prodigious victory gained over human 
passions. Whoever kills another m the neighbourhood 
of Botany Bay, is compelled to appear at an appointed 
day before the friends of the deceased, and to sustain 
the attacks ot their missile weapons. If he is killed, 
he is deemed to have met with a deserved death ; if 
not, he is considered to have expiated the crime for 
the commission of which he was exposed to danger. 
There is in this institution a command over present 
impulses, a prevention of secrecy in the gratihcation 
of revenge, and a wholesome correction of that passion 
by the elect of public observation, whicn evince a su- 
periority to the mere animal passions of ordinary sava- 
ges, and form such a contrast to the rest of the nistory 
of this people, that it may be considered as altogether 
an anomalous and inexplicable fkct. The natives differ 
very much in theprogress they have made in the arts 
of economy. Those to the north of Port Jackson 
evince a considerable degree of ingenuity and contri- 
vance in the structure of their houses, which are ren- 
dered quite impervious to the weather, while the in- 
habitants at Port Jackson have no houses at all. At 
Port Dalrymple, in Van Dieman's Land, there was eve- 
r^ reason to believe the natives were unacquainted 
with the use of canoes ; a fact extremely embarrassing 
to those who indulge themselves in speculating on the 
genealogy of nations ; because it reduces them to the 
necessity of supposing that the progenitors of this in- 
sular people swam over from the main land, or that 
they were aborinnal; a species of dilemma, which 
effectually bars all co^gectureupon the intermixture of 
nations. It is painful to learn, that the natives have 
begun to plunder and rob in so very alarming a man- 
ner that it has been repeatedly found necessary to fire 
upon them ; and many have, in consequence, fallen 
victims to their rashness. 

The soil is found to produce coal in vast abundance, 
salt, lime, very fine iron ore, timber fit for all purposes, 
excellent flax, and a tree, the bark of which is admira- 
bly adanted for cordage. The discovery of coal 
(which, ov the by, we do not believe was ever before 
discovered so near the line) is probably rather a disad- 



Ttmage thask an adraatage ; becamay aa it lieseztreme- 
1t faTourahle for sea carriagOi It may prove to be a 
eneaper fael than wood, and thus operate as n discoor- 
ngement to the clearing of lands. The soil upon the 
mea-coaai has noi been foimd to be Terv proouctiye, 
though it improTes in partial spouin the utterior. The 
climate ia healthy, in spite or the prodigious heat of 
the aummer months, at which period the thermometer 
has been observed to stand in the shade at 107, and 
the leaves of garden vegetables to fall into dust, as if 
they had been consumed with fire. But one of the 
most insuperable defects in New Holland^ considered 
as the ftatura country of a great people) is. the want of 
large rivers penetrating very far into the mterior, and 
navigable for small crafts. The Hawkesbury, the 
laige&t river yet discovered, is not accessible to boats 
for more than twenty miles. This same river ocea- 
siottaliy rises above its natural level, to the astonishing 
height of fifty feet ; and has swept away, more than 
once, the labours and the hopes or the new people eii« 
led to its banks. 

The laborious acquisition of any good we have long 
enjoyed is apt to be forgotten. We walk and talk, 
end run and read, without remembering the long and 
severe labour dedicated to the cultivation of these 
powers, the formidable obstacles opposed to our pro- 
gress, or the infinite satisfaction witn which we over> 
came them. He who lives among a dvlH^ed people, 
may estimate the labour by which society has been 
brought into such a state, l>y reading these annals of 
Botany Bay, the account of a whole nation exert- 
ing itself to new floor the government-house, repair the 
hospital, or build a wooden receptacle for stores. Yet 
the time may come, when some Botany Bay Tacitus 
^all record tne crimes of an emperor Uneally descend- 
ed from a London pack-pocket, or punt the valour with 
which he has led his New Hollanaers into the heart of 
China. At that period, when the Grand Lahma is 
sending to supplicate alliance ; when the spice islands 
ore purchasing peace with nutmegs ; when enormous 
tributes of green tea and nankeen are waited into Port 
JTackson, and landed on the quays of Sydney, who will 
ever remember that the sawing of a few planks, and 
the knocking together a few nails, were such a serious 
trial of the energies and resources of the nation. 

The Government of the colony, after enjoying some 
little respite firom this kind of labour, has begun 
to turn its attention to the coarsest and most neces- 
sary species of manufactures, for which their wool 
appears to be well adapted. The state of stock in 
the whole settlement, in June ISOI, was about 7,000 
sheep, 1 ,300 head of cattle, 2dO horses, and 5,000 hogs. 
There were under cultivation at the same time, be* 
tween 9 and 10,000 acres of com. Three years and 
a-half before this, in December 1797, the numbers 
were as follows >-Sheep, 2,500 ; cattle, 350 ; horses, 
100 : hogs, 4^300 ; acres of land in cultivation, 4,000. 
The temptation to salt pork, and sell it for Govern- 
ment store, is probably the reason why the breed of 
hogs has been so much kept under. Tne increase of 
cultivated lands between the two periods is prodigious. 
It appears (p. 319,) that the whole number of con- 
Ticts imported between January 1788 and June 1801 
fa perioa of thirteen years and a haUV^ has been about 
5^000, of vrbom 1 ,157 were females. The total amount 
of the population on the continent, as well as at Nor- 
folk luand, amounted, June 1801, to 6,.500 persons ; 
of these 766 were children bom at Port Jackson. In 
the returns from Norfolk Island, children are not dis- 
crimin&tcd from adults. Let us add to the imported 
jiupulation of 5,000 convicts, 600 free people, which 
(it we consider that a regiment of soldiers has been 
kept u^ there) is certainlv a very small allowance ; 
then, m thirteen years ana a half, the imported popu* 
lation has increased only by two-thirteenths. If we 
suppose that something more than a fifth of the fne 
people were women, this will make the total of women 
1,2 a) ; of whom we may fairly presume that 800 were 
capable of child-bearing ; ana if we suppose the chil- 
dren o( Norfolk Island to bear the same proportion to 
the adults as at Port Jackson, their total number at 
both settlements will be 9]3;~-a <!tate of infantine 
po)A2latiott whi^ ceitainly does not justify the vary < 


high culogiums which have been made on the fertilirr 
of the female sex in the climate of New Holland. 

The Governor, who appears on all occasions to be 
an extremely weil-disposed man, is not quite wo con* 
versant in the best writings on political economy as 
we could wish : and indeed (though such knowledge 
would be extremely serviceable to the interests which 
this Romulus of the Southern Pole is superintending,) 
it is rather unfair to exact from a superintendent of 

fick-pocketa, that he should be a philosopher. In the 
8th page we have the following mfonnation respect- 
ing the* price of labonr :«* 

•Some representations hsTlns been made to the Oo« 
vemor from the settlers in different parts of the colony, 
purporting that the wtflres demanded by the free labouring 
people, whom they baa occasion to hixe, were so exorbitant 
as to run away wkh the greatest part of the profit of their 
farms, it was recommended to them to appoint quarterly 
meetings among themselves, to be held In each district, for 
the puipo.^ of settling tlie rate of wsges to labourers in 
every different kind of work ; that, to this end, a written 
agreement should l>e entered into, and subscribed by each 
settler^ a breach of whkh should be punished by a peaaltf, 
to be fixed by the seneral opinion, and made recoverable m 
a court of rtvU judicature, it was recommended to them to 
apply this forfeiture to the common benefit : and they were 
to transmit to the headrquarten a copy of their agreement, 
with the rate of wages which they should from time to time 
establish, for the Governor's Information, holding their fiist 
meeting aa early ss possible.' 

And agam, at p. 24, the following anangementa on 
that head are enacted : — 

In pursuance of the ordv which was lisaed in January 
last recommending the setueis to appoint meetings, at 
which they should fix the rate of wages that it might ba 
proper to pay for the different kinds of labour which their 
fazms shoula require, the settlen had submitted to the Go- 
vernor the several resolutions that they had entered into, 
by which he was enabled to fix a rate that he conceived to 
be fair and equitable between the farmer and the labourer. 

'The following prices of hibour were now estahUah- 
ad, viz. 

£ «. 



1 6 
1 10 
1 4 

Felling forest timber, per acre • 
Ditto m bruah ground, ditto • 
Bummgoffopen ground, ditto ... 
Ditto brush ground, ditto • • • 
Breaking up new ground,ditto • . • 
Chipping fresh ground, ditto • • • 
Chippmg in wheat . ditto • • . 

Breaking un stubble or com ground, 1 l-4d. 

per rod, or ditto • - - 16 

Planting Indian com, ditto - - - 7 
Hilling ditto ditto . • - 7 

Reaping wheat, ditto • - • 10 

Thrashmg ditto, per busheli • • •GO 
Pulling and husking Indian com ^per bushel 
Sptittmg paling of seven feet long, per h'd 3 
Ditto of five feet long, ditto * • - 1 
Sawing plank, ditto - - -07 

Ditching, per rod) three feet wide and three 

feet deep 10 

Carriage of wheat, per bushel, per mile - 2 
Ditto bkdlan com, neat - - - -003 
Yearly wagea for labour, vrith board - 10 
Wages per week, with provisions, consist- 

hig of 3 lb. of salt pork, or 6 lb« of f^h, 

and 21 lb. ofwheat with vegetables •060 
A day's wages with board - • • -010 

Ditto without board 2 6 

A government-man allowed to officers or 

settlers in their ovm time • - - 10 

Price of an axe 020 

I^ew steeling ditto 6 

Anewhoe . • * - - -019 

Asiclile 16 

Hire of a boat to carry gram per day -050 

<Tbe setUers were reminded, thst, in order to prevent 
any kind of dispute between the master and Kervant, when 
th^ should have occasion to hire s man for any length of 
time, they would find it most convenient to engaire him 
for a quarter, half-year, or year, and to make their Vree- 
ment in writing ; on which, should any dinute axlae, an 
appeal to tiie magistrates would settte it' - 



This If «U rery had ; and if the Governor had cher- 
Sihed the intention of destroying the colony^ he could 
have done nothing more detrimental to its mterests. 
The hirh price of labour is the very comer-stone on 
which the prosperity of a new colony depends. It 
enables the poor man to live with ease ; and is the 
strongest incitement to population, by rendering chil- 
dren rather a source of nches than of poverty. If the 
tune difficulty of subsistence existed m new countries 
ns in old, it is plain that the progress of population 
would be equally slow in each. The very circum- 
stances which cause the difference axe, that, in the 
latter, there is a competition among the labourers to 
be employed ; and, in the former, a competition among 
the occupiers of land to obtain labourers. In the one, 
land is scarce and men plenty; in the other, men are 
scarce and land is plenty. To disturb this natural 
order of thinffs (a practice injurious at all times) must 
be particularly s6 where the predominant disposition 
of the colonist is an atersion to labour, produced by a 
long course of dissolute habits. In such cases the 
high prices of labour, which the Governor was so de- 
sirous of abating, bid fair not only to increase the 
agricultural prosperity, but to effect the moral refor- 
mation of the colony. We observe the same unfor- 
tunate ignorance of uie elementary principles of com- 
merce in the attempts of the Governor to reduce the 
prices of the European conunodities, by bulletins and 
authoritative interference, as if there were any other 
mode of lowering the price of an article (while the 
demand continues the some) but by increasing its 
Quantity. The avaricious lovo of gain, which is so 
feclingnr deplored, appears to us a principle which, 
in able hands, might be guided to the most salutary 
purposes. The object is to encourage the love of 
labour, which is best encouraged by the love of money. 
We have very great doubts on the policy of reserving 
the best timber on the estates as government timber. 
Such a reservation would probably operate as a check 
upcKi the clearing of lands without attaining the object 
desired ; for the timber, instead of being immediately 
cleared, would be slowly destroyed, by the neglect or 
malice of the settlers whose lands it encumbered. 
Timber is such a dntr in new countries, that it is at 
any time to be purchased for little more than the 
labour of cutting. To secure a supply of it by vexa- 
tious and invidious laws, is surely a work of superero- 
gation and danger. The greatest evil which the 
Kovemment has yet had to contend with is, the inor- 
dinate use of spirituous liquors; a passion which puts 
the interests of agriculture at variance with those of 
morals: for a dram-drinker vnlll consume as much 
com in the form of alcohol, in tme day, as would 
supply him with bread for three s and thus, by his 
Tices, opens an admimble market to the industry of a 
new settlement. The only mode, we believe, of en- 
countering this evil, is by deriving from it such a 
revenue as will not admit of smuggling. Beyond this 
it is almost invincible by authority; and it is probably 
to be cured only by the progressive refinement of 

To evince the increasing commerce of the settle- 
ment, a list is subjoined of 140 ships, wliich have 
arrived there since its first foundation, forty only of 
which were ttom England. The colony at Norfolk 
Island is represented to be in a very deplorable situa- 
tion, and will most probably be abandoned for one 
about to be formed oa Van Diemen's Land.* though 
the capital defect of the former settlement has been 
partly obviated, by a discovery of the harbour for 
small craft. 

The most important and curious information con- 
tained in this volume, is the discovery of straits which 
•eparate Van Diemcn's Land (hitherto considered as 
its southern extremity) from New Holland. For this 
discovery we are indebted to Mr. Bass, a surgeon, after 

* It is siaguiarthst OoyernmenU are not more desirous of 
pushing their tetQements rather to the north than the south 
«f Port Jackion. The soil and cUmste would probably im- 
prove, in the latttnde nesner the equator; and lettlements 
In that position would be more contiguous to our Indian 
colonies. > 

whom the straits have hem named, and who was led 
to a suspicion of their existence by a prodigious wvtH 
which he observed to set in Arom the westward, at the 
mouth of the opening which he had reached on a 
voyage of discovery, prosecuted in a common whale* 
boat. To verify this suspicion, he proceeded after- 
wards in a vessel of 25 tons, accompanied by Mr. 
Flanders, a naval gentleman ; and. entering the straits 
between the latitudes of 38*' and 40'' south, actu&Uy 
circumnavigated Van Piemen's Land. Mr. Bass^ 
ideas of the importance of this discovery, we shall 
give firom his narrative, as reported by Mr. Collins. 

« The most prominent advantage which seemed likdf to 
accrue to the settlement firom this discovery wais the expe- 
diting of the passage from the Cape of Good Hope to Port 
Jackson ; for, althoitfh a line drawn ^m the Cape to 44* 
of south latitude, and to the longitude of the South Cape of 
Van Diemen's Land, would not sensibly differ from one 
drawn to the latitude of A9» to the same longitude; yet it 
must be allowedi that a ship will be four degrees nearer to 
Port Jackson in the latter situation than it would be in the 
former. But there is» perhaps, a greater advantage to be 
gained by making a passage through the strait, than the 
mere saving of four degrees of latitude along the coast* 
The major part of the stups that have arrived at Fort Jack- 
son have met whh N. E. winds, on opening the sea round 
the South Cape and Cape Pillar; and haree been so much 
retarded by them, that a fourteen days' passage to the port 
is redconed to be a fair one, although the difference of lati- 
tude is but ten degrees, and the most prevailing winds at 
the latter place are ftom S. £. to 8. in summer, and from 
W. S. W. to S. in winter. If, by going through Bam Strait, 
these N. £. winds can be avoided, which in many cases 
would probably be the case, there is no doubt but a week or 
more would be gained by it ; and the expense, with the 
wear and tear of ^e ship for one week, are objects to most 
owners, more especially when fireighted with convicts by 
the run. 

< This strait likewise presents another advantage. From 
the prevalence of the N. £. and easterly winds off the Soutli 
Cape, many suppose that a passage may be made from 
thence to tne westward, either to the Cape of trood Bore, 
or to India ; but the fear Of the great unknown bight be- 
tween the South Cape and the 8. W. Ca^^ of I^ewen's 
Land, lying in about 36« south and IlS^ east, has hitherto 
prevented the trial being made. Now, the strait removes a 
part of this danger, by presenting a certain place of retreat, 
shoold a gale oi^ose itself to the ship in the flr.<!t part of the 
essay : and should the wind come at S. W. she need not 
fear maldi^ a good stretch to the W. N. W. which course^ 
if made good, is within a few degrees of going clear of alL 
There is, besides, King George the Third's Sound, dlscoT- 
ered by Captain Vancouver, situate in the latitude of 3fi« SO' 
south, and longitude 118^ 13' east; and it is to be hoped, 
that a few years wiU disclose many others upon the coastr as 
well as the confirmation or futility of the conjecture that a 
still larger than Baas Strait dismembers New Holland.'^- 
(p. 19a, 193.) 

We learn ftom a note subjoined to thiji passage, 
that, in order to verify or refhtc this conjecture, of 
the existence of other important inlets on the west 
coast of New Holland, Captain Flinders has saHed 
with two ships under his command, and is said to be 
accompanied Dy two professional men of considemble 

Such are the most important contents of Mr. Col- 
lins's book, the style of which we very much approve, 
because it appears to be written by himself: and we 
must repeat again, that nothing can be more injurious 
to the opinion the public will form of the authenticity 
of a book of this Kind, than the suspicion that It faaa 
been tricked out and embellished oy other handsw 
Sach men, to be sure, have existed as Julius CoesAr, 
but, in general, a correct and elegant style is hardly 
attainable by tnose who have passed their lives in 
action : and no one has such a pedantic love of good 
writing, as to prefer mendacious finery to rough and 
unerrammaticaitnith. The events which Mr. Collins'* 
book records, we have read with great interest . There 
is a charm in thus seeing villages, and churches, and 
farms, rising from a wilderness, where civilized nrnn 
has never set his foot since the creation of the world 
The contrast between fertility and barrenness, pomi- 
lation and eoUtude, activity and indolence, fills me 
mind with the pleasing images of happiness and in* 
crease. Man seems to move in his proper fpbere 
while be ia thna dedicating the powers of his mted and 



bodr to WKp thote vevaidt which th« boontiftil Author 
•f ail thingv has assigned to his industry. Neither is 
St any common enjoyment, to tnm for a while txom 
Ihe memory of tnose distractions which have so 
lecently agitated the Old World, and to reflect that 
.ts Tory horrors and crimes may haye thus prepared a 
Jing era of opulence and peace for a people yet in- 
roUtd in the womb of time. 

X. FIEVEE. (Bdixtbuboh Retisw, 1809.) 
UttrmmrPjangUtgrre. ParJ.^Fier^ 1809. 

Or aU the species of travels, that which has moral 
ibservation for its ohvtcX is the most liable to enor, 
and has the greatest cufficnlties to overcome, before it 
:an arrive at excellence. Stones and roots, and leaves, 
ATe subjects which may exercise the imderstanding 
frithont rousing the passions. A mineralogicci travel- 
ler will hardly iall fouler upon the granite and the 
feldspar of ot&er countries than his own ; a botanist 
will not conceal its non-descripts ; and an agricultural 
tourist will faithfully detail the average crop per acre ; 
but the traveller who obsGn,'es on the manners, habits, 
and institutions of other countries, must have emanci- 
pated his mind from the extensive and powerful do- 
minioo of association, must have extinguished the 
agreeable and deceitful feelings of national vanity, 
and cultivated that patient humility which builds ge« 
neral inferences only upon the repetition of individual 
fiicts. Every thing he sees shocks some passion or 
flatten it ; and he is perpetually seduced to distort 
&cts, so as to render them agreeable to his system 
and his feelings I Books of travels are now published 
in such vast abundance, that it may not be useless, 
perhaps, to state a few of the reasons why their value 
so commonly happens to be in the inverse ratio of their 

1st, Travels are bad, from a want of opportunity 
for observation in those who write them. If the sides 
of a buildlBg are to be measured, and the number of 
its windows to be counted, a very short space of time 
may suffice for these operations ; but to gain such a 
Imow ledge of their prevalent opinions and pT(»ensi- 
ties, as will enable a stranger to comptehend (wnat is 
commonly called) the genius of people, requires a loni 
residence among them, a famUiar acquamtance wit] 
their language, and an easy circulation among their 
various societies. The society into which a transient 
stranger gains the most easy access in any country, is 
not often that which ought to stamp the national cha- 
racter ; and no criterion can be more fallible, in a peo- 
ple so reserved and inaccessible as the British^ who 
(even when they open their doors to letters of mtro- 
chtction) cumot for years overcome the. awkward 
timidity of their nature. The same expressions are 
of so different a value in different countnes, the same 
actions proceed from such different causes, and pro- 
duce sucn different effects, that a judgment of foreign 
nations, founded on rapid observation, is almost cer- 
tainly a mere tissue ot ludicrous and disfraccful mis- 
takes ; and yet a residence of a month or two seems to 
entitle a traveller to present the world with a picture 
of manners in London, Paris, or Vienna, and even to 
dogmatize upon the political, religious, and legal in- 
stitutiooe, as if it were one and the same thing to 
sp<>ak of the abatraet effects of such institutions, and 
of their effects combmed with all the peculiar circum- 
stances in which any nation may be placed. 

2dly, An affectation of quickness m observation, an 
i&tuitive glance that requires only a nwmen^ and a 
wtrt, to judge of a perpauity and a wKoU. The late 
Mr. Petion, who was sent over into this country to ac- 
atiire a knowledge of our criminal law, is said to liave 
declared himself thoroughly informed upon the sub- 
ieet, after remaining precisely hi» <md tMrty ndnuies 
In the Old Bailey. 

3dly, The tendency to found observation on a sys- 
tem, rather than a system upon observation. The (act 

and bring beek firom a lesldence infonlgii eooutiiM 
nothing but tiie vague 9tid customary nottons concem* 
ing it, which are carried and brought back for half s 
century, without verification or change. The most 
ordinary shape in which this tendency to prejudge 
makes lU appearance among travellers, is by a dispo- 
sition to exait, or, a still more absurd disposition, to 
depreciate their native country. They are incapahle 
of considering a foreign people but under one smgle 
point of view— the relation in which they stand to 
their own ; and the whole narrative is freouently no> 
thing more than a mere triumph of nationoi vanity, or 
the ostentation of superiority to so common a failing. 
Bat we are wasting our time in giving a theory of 
" " * ' " * 5 have such ample 

the faults of travellers, when we 
means of exemplitying them all from the publicadba 
now before us, m which Mr. Jacob Fievte, with the 
most surprising talents for doing wrong, has contrived 
to condense and agglomerate every species of absurd* 
ity that ha? hitherto been made known, and even to 
launch out occasionally into new regions of nonseasei 
with a boldness which well entitles him to the merit 
of originality in folly, and discovery in impertinence. 
We consider Mr. Fiev^e's book as extremely valuable 
in one point of view. It affords a sort of limit or mind- 
mark, oeyond which we conceive it to be impossible 
in future tluit pertness and petulance should pass. It 
is well to be acijuainted with the boundaries of our 
nature on both sides ; and to Mr, Fievee we are in- 
debted for this valuable approach to pestimitm. The 
height of knowledge no man has yet scanned ; but we 
have now pretty well fathomed the gulf of ignorance. 
We must, however, do justice to Mr. Ficv^e when 
he deserves it. He evinces, in his preface, a lurking 
uneasiness at the apprehension of exciting war between 
the two countries, from the anger to which his letters 
will give birth in England. He pretends to deny that 
they will occasion a war ; but it is very easy to see he 
is not convinced by his o^yn arc^ments ; and we con- 
fess ourselves extremely pleased by this amiable soli* 
citude at the probable effusion of human blood. We 
hope Mr. Fievee is deceived by his philanthropy, and 
that no such unhappy consequences will ensue, as he 
really believes, thou^ he afiects to deny them. We 
dare to say the dignity of this country will be si^tls* 
fied. if the publication in question is disowned by the 
Frencti government, or, at most, if the author is given 
up. At aU events, we have no scruple to say, tliat to 
sacrifice twenty thousand lives, and a hundred miUione 
of money, to resent Mr. Fiev^e's book, would be an 
imio5itifiable waste of blood and treasure ; and that to 
take him off privately by assassination, would be aa 
undertaking hardly compatible with the dignity of a 
great empire. 

To show, however, the magnitude of the provoca- 
tion, wc shall specify a few of the charges which he 
makes against the English : that they do not under- 
stand fireworks as weil as the French; that they 
charge a shilling for admission to the exhibition ; that 
they have the misfortune of being incommoded by a 
certain disgraceful privilege, called the liberty of the 
press ; thai the opera band plays out of tune ; that the 
English are so fond of drinking, that they get drunk 
with a certain air called the gas of Paradise ; that the 
privilege of electina; members of parliament is so bur- 
thensome, that cities sometimes petition to be ex- 
empted from it ; that the great obstacle to a parlia- 
mentary reform is the mob ; that women sometimes 
have titles distinct ttom those of their husbands— al- 
though, in England, any body can sell his wife at 
market, with a rope about her neck. To these com- 
plaints he adds — tnat the English are so far iVom en- 
joying that equality of which their partisans boast, 
that none but the servants of the higher nobility can 
carry canes beh&d a carriage ; that the power which 
the French kings had of pardoning before trial, is 
much the same thing as the English mode of pardon, 
mg after trial ; thathe should conceive it to be a good 
reason for rejecting any measure in France, that It 
was imiuted f^om the English, who have ao fiunUv 
affections, and who love money so much, that tbmt 

is, there are very few original eyes and ear^. The first question, in an int^uiry concerning the charactet 
great mass see and bear at they are directed by others, | of any man, is, as to his diegree of fortuoe. Lastly^ 


Mr. Fievie alkgei agtlntt the English, that they have 
great pleasure in contemplating the spectacle of men 
deprived of their reason. And indeed wc must have 
the candour to allow, that the hospitality which Mr. 
Fierce experienced, seems to atford some pretext for 
this assertion. 

One of the principal objects of Mr. FieT^e-s book, is 
to combat the Anglomania, which has raged so long 
amonff his countrymen, and which prevailed at Paris 
to such an excess, that even Mr. Neckar, a foreigner 
(incredible as it may seem} afUr hating been twiu 
minister of Francej retained a considerable share of 
admiration for the English governments This is quite 
inexplicable. But this ia nothing to the treason of the 
Encyclopedistt, who, instead of attributing the merit .of 
the experimental philosophy and the reasoning by in- 
duction to a Frenchman^ have shown themselves so lost 
to all sense of duty which they owed to their country, 
that they have attributed it to an Englishman,* of ihg 
name of Bacons and this for no better reason, than that 
he really was the author of it. The whole of this pas- 
aage, is written so entirely in the genius of Mr. FievAe, 
and so completely exemplifies that very caricature spe- 
cies of Frenchmen from which our gross and popular 
notions of the whole people are taken« that we shall 
give the whole passage at full length, cautipusly ab- 
staining from the sin of translating it. 

* Quand je reproche auz philosophes d'aroir Tant^ 1* An 
cletexTe, par htme pour les iiMtltutions qui soutenoient la 
Franceje ne hasaifie rien, et je foumiral une nouvelle 
preuve de cette assertion, en oika les encyclopedistes, chefs 
avou6fl de la philosophie modezne. 

• Comment nous ont-il9 pr^eent^ J»Encydop*dic ? Comme 
un monument immortel, .comme le dei^t prteieux de 
toutei 1«8 connoissances butnains. Sou<* quel patronage 
Pont.ilselev^ce monument immortel? Est oe sous P^gide 
das ^crivaina dont la France a'bonorqit? Non, Us ont 
choiai pour mAitre et pour idole un Anglais, BAcon ; Us lui 
on fait dire tout ce quells ont voulu, paice que cet auteur 
cxtraoxdinairement volumineux, n*Aoit pas connu en 
France, et ne Pest gu^re en Angleterre que de quelques 
hommes studieuz ; maW les philosophes scntoient que leur 
Sttcc^s, pour introduire des nouveaut^s, tenoit a faire croire 
qu'eUes n'^lent pas nmatt pour les grands e^irite ; et com- 
me lea grands esprits Fransais, trop oonnus, ne ce prAtoSent 
pas A un pareil dessein, les philosophes ont eu recours a 
I' Angleterre. Ainsl, un Quvrage fait en France, et offert a 
I'fbdzniration de I'Europe comme Pouvrage par excellence, 
fttt mis par des Frangais sous la protection du gtole Anglais. 
O honte! Et les philosophes se sont dit patriotes, et la 
France, peur pxiz desa degradation, leur a dev« des statues! 
La siAde qm commence, plus juste, parcc qu'il a le senti- 
ment de la Ttoitable grandeur, fiassera.ces statues et PSncy- 
dop^die s'enseveUr sous la mdme pouasl^re.' 

When to this are added the commendations that 
have been bestowed upon Newton, the magnitude and 
the originality of the discoveries which have been 
attributed to him, the admiration which the words of 
Locke have excited, and the homage that has been 

Kid to Milton and Shakspeare, the treason which 
■ks at the bottom of it all will not escape the pene- 
trating glance of Mr. Fievee ; and he will discem that 
same cause, f^om which every good Frenchman knows 
the defeat of Abonkir and of the first of June to have 
proceeded— 4Ae moneter Pitt^ and hit English guineas. 


JBicsy on IriA BuBt. By Ridiard Lorell E^evorlh and 
Maria Edgeworth. London, 1802. 

We hardly know what to say about this rambling, 
scrambling book ; but that we are ouite sure the author, 
when he besan any sentence in it, bad not the smaUlest 
sospicion of what It was about to contain. We say the 
author ; because, hi spite of the mixture of sexes ui the 
title-page, we are strongly inclmed to suspect that the 
male contributions exceed the female in a very great de- 
gree. The essay on Bulls is vnritten much wiifi the same 
mmd, and in tne same manner, as a schoolboy takes 

^ * ^^ was conquered Oy a person of the name of Julius 
CMsr/ ktke tt^ pl^Me m ons of Mr. Newberry's Uttto 

a walk : he moves on for ten yards on the straMi 
road, with surprising perseverance ; then sets out after 
a butterfly, looks for a bird's nest, or jumps back- 
wards and forwards over a ditch. In the same rntm- 
ner, this nimble and digressive gentleman is away after 
every object which ctosses his mind. If you leave 
him at the end of a comma, in a steady pursuit of Lis 
subject, you are sure to find him, before the next full 
stop, a hundred yards to the right or left, friskiug, 
capering, and p^mning in a high paroxyism of merri- 
ment and agility. Mr. Edgeworth seems to possess 
the sentiments of an accomplished gentleman, the in- 
formation of a scholar, and the vivacity of a first-rate 
harlequin. He is fuddled with animal spirits, giddy 
with constitutional joy ; in such a state he must have 
written on, or burst. A discharge of ink was an eva- 
cuation absolutely necessary, to avoid fatal and ple- 
thoric congestion. 

The object of the book is to prove, that the practice 
of making bulls is not more imputable to iLe Irish 
than to any other people $ and tne manner in which 
he sets about it^ is to quote examples of bulls produced 
in other countries. But this is surely a singular way of 
reasoning the question : for there are goitres out of 
Valais^ extortioners who do not worship Moses, oat 
cakes out of the Tweed, and balm beyond the pre- 
cincts of Gilead. If nothing can be said to exist pre- 
eminently and emphatically in one country, which 
exists at all in another, then Frenchmen are* not gay, 
nor Spaniards grave, nor axe gentlemen of the Mile- 
sian race remarkable for their disinterested con- 
tempt of wealth in their connubial relations. It is 
probable there is some foundation for a character 
so generally difiuscd ; though it is also probable that 
such foundation is extremely enlarged by fame. If 
there were no foundation for the common opinion, 
we must suppose national characters fbrmcd by 
chance ; and that the Irish might, by accident, have 
been laughed at as bashful ana sheepish; which 
is impossible. The author puzzles himself a good 
deal about the nature of buUs^ without coming to 
any decision about the matter^ Though the ques- 
tion is not a very easy one, we shtul venture to 
say, that a bull is an apparent congrulty, and refd 
incongruity, of ideas, suddenly discovered. And if 
this account of bulls be just, they are (as might have 
been supposed) the very reverse of wit ; for as wit 
discovers real relations, that are not apparent, bulls 
admit apparent relations that are not reaJ. The plea- 
sure arising from wit proceeds from our surprise at 
suddenly discovering two things to be similar, in which 
we su9«)ect no similarity. The pleasure arismg from 
b.dl8 proceeds from discovering two things to be dis- 
sunilar, in which a resemblance might have been sus- 
pected. The same doctrine will apply to wit, and to 
bulls in action. Practical wit discovers connection or 
relation between actions, in which duller understand- 
ings discover none ; and practical bulls originate from 
an apparent relation between two actions, which more 
correct understandings immediately perceive to have 
no rehition at all. 

Louis XIV. being extremely harrassed by the re- 
peated solicitations of a veteran officer lor promotion, 
said one day, loud enough to be heard, < Tnat gentle- 
man is the most troublesome officer I have in my 
service.* < That is precisely the charge (said the old 
man) which your Majesty's enemies bring against 

An English gentleman,' (says Mr. Edgeworth, in a story 
Citadirom Joe Millar,) <was writing a letter in a cotfec- 
bouse ; and peroeivhig that an Lishman stationed behind 
himwastakiDf that liberty which Parmenio used with his 
friend Alexander, instead of putting liis feal upon the lips 
of the curious impertlnentf the English gentleman thought 
proper to reprove tlxe Hibernian, if not with delicacy, at 
feast with poetical justice. He concluded writing his letter 
intheue words: "I would say more, hut a damned tall 
Irishman la reading over my shoulder every word I wtfit," 
* " You lie, you scoundrel,'' sakl the self-convicted Hlber> 
nian.*— (p. 39.) 

The pleasure derived fVom the first of these stories, 
proceeds from the discovery of the relation that subsists 
between the object he had m view, and the assent of the 
officer to an obsenratioii so tmfiiendly to that end. lA 


the fifst rapid fhnce which the mind throws upon his 
words, ho appears, by his acquiescence , to be pleading 
against himself. Ther^ seems to be no relation be* 
iween what he says, and what he wishes to effect by 

In the second story, the pleasure is directly the re- 
verse. The lie given was apparently the readiest 
means of proving his innocence, and rtalty the most 
actual way of establisliing his |uut. There seems for 
a moment to be a strong relation between the means 
and tae object ; while, in fact, no irrelatian4:an be so 

What connection is there between pelting stones at 
monkeys, and gathering cocoa-nuts from lofty trees ? 
Apparently none. But monkeys sit upon cocoa-nut- 
tr&tis ; monkeys are imitative animals ; and if you 
pelt a monkey with a stone, he pelts you with a cocoa- 
nut in return. This scheme of gathering cocoa-nuts is 
Terr witty, and would be more so if it did not appear 
osetoi : for the idea of utility is always inimical to the 
idea of wit.* There appears, on the contrary^ to be 
some relation between tne revenge of the Irish rebels 
against a banker, and the means which they took to 
gratify it, by burning all his notes wherever they 
found them ; whereas, they could not have rendered 
him a more essential service. In both these' cases of 
bulls, the one verbal, the ^her practical, there is an 
apparent congroity, and real injoongruity of ideas. In 
boih the cases of wit, there is an apparent incongruity 
and a real relation. 

It is clear that a bull cannot depend upon mere 
incongruity alone ; for if a man were to say that he 
would ride to London upon a cocked hat, or that he 
would cut his throat with a ponivd of piokkd salmon, 
this, though completely iucongmous, would not be to 
make bulls, but to talk nonsense. The stronger the 
apparent connection, and the more complete the real 
disconnectioQ of the ideas, the greater the surprise, 
and the better the bull. The less apparent, and the 
more complete the relations established by wit, the 
higher gratification does it afford. A great deal 
of the pleasure experienced from bulls, proceeds 
from the sense of superiority in ourselves. Bulls 
which we invented, or koew to be invented, might 
please, but in a less degree, for want of this addition- 
al zest. 

As there must be apparent connection, and real 
Tecongmity, it is seldom that a man of sense and edu- 
cetion finds any form of words by which he is con- 
scious that he might have been deceived into a bull. 
To cooDuceive how the person has been deceived, he 
must suppose a degree of mformation very different 
from^ and a species of character very heterogeneous to. 
his own ; a process which diminishes surprise, and 
censeqiiently pleasure. In the above-mentioned story 
of the Irishman overlooking the man writing no per- 
son of ordinar]^ sacacitv can suppose himseifbetrayed 
into such a mistake ; but he con easUy represent to 
himself a kind of character that might nave been so 
betrayed. There are some bulls so extremely falla- 
cious, that an^ man may imagine himself to have 
been betrayed ints them ; but these are rare : and, in 
general, it is a poor, contemptible species of amuse- 
ment, a delight m which evinces a very bad taste in wit. 

* It must be observed* that all the great pasdonB, and 
many other feelings, eztteguiih the rdish for wit Thus 
JyMoAa vuAos Deummdit et enbw'tt would be witty, were it 
not bordering on the sublime. The ie«emblance between 
the sandal tree imparting (while it falls) its aromantic fla- 
vour to the edge of the Mxe, and the benevolent manje- 
wmrding evil with geod, would be witty, did it not excite 
Tirtuous emotions. There are many mechanical contriv- 
ances which excite sensations verysimjlar to wit; but the 
attention is absorbed by their utili^^ Some of Meilhi's 
machines, which have no utility at ail, are quite similar to 
wit. A small model of a steam-engine, or mere squirt, is 
wit to a child. A man speculates on the causes of die fiist, 
or in its consequences, and so loses the feelings of wit : with 
the latter, he is too familiar to be surprised. In short, the 
essence of every spedes of wit is surinrfse ; which vi termini, 
must be sudden ; and the sensations which wit has a ten- 
dency to exctte, are impahred or destroyed as often as th^ 
m mtngisd with much thought or piaaton. 

Whether the Irish make mofs bttUt than their 
neighbours, is, as we have before remarked, not a 
point of much Importance ; but it is of considerable 
iiiiportance that the character of a nation should not 
be degraded ; and Mr. Ed^eworth has great merit in 
hia very benevolent intention of doing justice to the 
excellent qualities of the Irish. It is not possible to 
read his book without feeling a strong and new dispo- 
sition in their favour. Whether the imitation of the 
Irish manner be correct in his little stories, we can- 
not determine ; but we feel the same confidence in the 
accura<5y of the imitation, that is often felt in the 
resemblance of a portrait, of which we have never seen 
the otigmal. It is no very high compliment to Mr. 
Edgeworth's creative powers, to say, he could not have 
formed anything^ whicii was not real, so like reality ; 
but such a remark only robs Peter to pay Paul ; and 
gives everything to his powers of observation which it 
takes from those ef his imagination. In truth, no* 
thing can be better tlian bis imitation of the Irish 
manner: it is first-rate painting. 

Edgeworth and Co. have another faculty in great 

?irfection. They are eminently masters of the pathos, 
he Firm drew tears from «s in the stories of little 
Dominick, and of the Irish beggar who killed his 
sweetheart : Never was any gnef more natural or 
simple. The first, however, ends in a very foplish 

• ■ f ormota tupente 
Deainii in ptacem. 

We are extremely glad that our avocation did not 
call us from Bath to London on the day that the Bath 
coach-conversation took place. We except ftom this 
wish the story with which the conversation termi- 
nates ; for as soon as Mr. Kdgeworth enters upon a 
story he excels. 

We must confess we have been mvch more pleased 
with Mr. Edgeworth in his hiughing and in his pathe- 
tic, than in his grave and reasoning moods. He meant, 
perhaps, that we should ; and it certainly is not very 
necessary that a writer should be profound on the 
subject of bulls. Wkiatever be the deficiencies of the 
book, they are, in our estimation, amply atoned for by 
its merits ; by none more than that hvely feeling of 
compassion which pervades it for the distresses of the 
wUdf Idnd-heartedf blundering poor of Ireland. 

RxviEw, 1806.) 

A Compamtive View of tKe New Plan of Edueation profMd' 
gated hy Mr. Jotepi ^Mncaater, in his TracU eoucermng 
the In$trveiion ^f Ac CkMren of the Labouring Part qf the 
Community ; and of the Syttim of ChriHian Education 
founded ty ottr pious ForeftUhera for the Initiation of the 
Toung Membert of the Eitt^ihed Ckurth in the Prineiflee 
ef tke R^ormed Migion, By Mrt». Trimmer. 1806. 

Tms is a book written by a lady who has gained 
considerable reputation at the Comer of St. Paul's 
Churchyard ; who flames in the van of Mr. Newbuiy's 
shop ; and is, upon the whole, dearer to mothecs and 
aunts than any other who pours the miUc of science 
into the mouths of babes and sucklings. Tired at last 
of scribbling for children, and getting ripe in ambition. 
she has now written a book for grown-up peo]?lc^ aud 
selected for her antagonist as stiffs conUoversiaUst as 
the whole field of dispute could well have supplied. 
Her opponent is Mr. Lancaster, a Quaker, who has 
lately given to the world new and striking lights upon 
the subject of Education, and come forwani to the 
notice of his country by spreading order^ knowledge, 
and innocence among the lowest ofmankmd. 

Mr. Lancaster, she says, wants method in his book; 

* Lancaster Invented the new method of education. The 
Church was sorely vexed at hi« success, endeavoured to set 
up Br. Bell as the discoverer, and to run down poor Lan- 
caster. George the Third was irritated bv this shabby con- 
duct, and always protected Lancaster. lELe was deughted 
with this Review, and made Sir Herbert Taylor leaa It a 
second time to him 


•ai Uwnfbw hor inswei to him !• witfamit any ar- 
nmgeniBnt The same excnae most mffice fox the 
dcaultory ohservatioiis we ahall make upon this Jady's 

The fixBt tenntton of disguat we experienced at Mrs. 
Trimmer's boolc, was ftom the patronizing and pro- 
tecting air with which the speaks of some small part of 
Mr. Lancaster's plan. She seems to supnose, because 
she has dedicated her mind to the subject, that her 
opinion must necessarily be valuable upon it ; forget- 
ting it to be barely possible that her application may 
have made her more wrong, instead of more right. If 
she can make out her case, that Mr. Lancaster is do- 
taig mischief in so important a point as that of nation- 
«I education, she has a right, in common with every 
one else, to lay her complaint before the public ; but a 
right to jDublish praises must be earned by sometiiine 
more difficult tlian the writing sixpenny bmiks for chiiu 
dren. Tills may be very good ; thougn we never re- 
member to have seen any one of them ; but if they 
be no more remarkable for judgment and discretion 
than parts of the work belore us, there are many 
thriving children quiu capable of repaying the obli* 
gations they owe to their amiable instructress, and of 
teaching, with grateful retaliation, * the old iaea how 
to shoot.' 

In remarUng upon the work before us, we shall ex- 
actly follow the plan of the authoress, and pefix, as 
she does, the titles of those subjects on which her ob- 
servations are made ; doing her the justice to presume 
that her quotations are fairly taken Arom Mr. Lancas- 
ter's book. 

1. Mr. laneasUr^M iV</<ice^— Mrs. Trimmer here 
contends, in opposition to Mr. Lancaster, that ever 
since the estabhshment of the Protestant Church, the 
education of the poor has been a national concern in 
this country ; and the only argument she produces in 
support of this extravagant assertion, is an appeal to 
the act of uniformity. If there are inilliona of £ng. 
tishmen who cannot spell their own names, or read a 
Qgn-post which bids them turn to the right or left, is 
% any answer to this deplorable isnorance to say, 
ihere is an act of Parliament for public instruction? — 
ID show the very line and chapter where the King, 
Lords, and Commons, in Parliament assembled, or- 
lained the universality of reading and writing, when, 
ecnturies afiervrards, the ploughman is no more capa- 
ble of the one or the other than the beast which ne 
4rives ? In point of fact, there is no Protestant coun- 
try in the world where the education of the poor has 
%een so grossly and infamousljr neglected as in Eng- 
land. Mr. Lancaster has the biffh merit of calling the 
vublic attention to this evil, and of calling it in the 
lest way, by new and active remedies ; and this un« 
•Andid and feeble lady, instead of using the influence 
the has obtained over the anility of these realms, to 
H>in that useful remonstrance which Mr. Lancaster nas 
begun, pretends to deny that the evil exists ; and when 
rou ask where are the schools, rods, pedagogues, 
primers, histories of Jack the Giant-killer, ana an the 

Hon iM conducted.'-'' Happily fer mankind,' says Mr. 
Lancaster, < it is possiDie to combhie precept a^d 
practice together ia the education of youtn : that pub- 
lic spirit, or general opinion, wliich sives such strength 
to vice, may be rendered serviceable to the cause of 
virtue ; and in thus directing it, the whole secret, the 
beauty, and simplicity of national education consists. 
Suppose, for instance, it be required to train a youth 
to strict veracity. He has learned to read at scnool : 
he there reads the declaration of the Divine will re- 
specting liars : he is there informed of the pernicious 
efi*ects that practice produces on society at large ; and 
he is enjoined, for the fear of God, for the approbation 
of his friends, and for the good of his school-fellows, 
never to tell an untruth. Tms Is a moet excellent pre- 
cept ; but let it be taught, and yet, if the contrary 
practice be treated with indifferenee by parents, 
teachers, or associates, it will either weaken or de- 
stroy all the good that can be derived fVom it : But if 
the pwoats or teacher^ tenderly nip the rising ihootfl 

of viee s if the asaodatea of y<nith poor contempt on 
the liar ; he will soon hide h& head with shame, aadi 
most likely leave off the practice.'— (p. 34. 26.) 

The objection which Mrs. Trimmer makes to this 
passage, 18 that it is exalting tkefear of man above the 
fear o/ Uod. This observation is as mischievous as it 
Is unfounded. ^ Undoubtedly the fear of God ought to 
be the paramount principle from the very beginning of 
life, if it were possible to make it so ; but it is a feel- 
ing which can only be built up by deerees. The awe 
and respect which a child entertains tor its parent and 
instructor, is the first scaffolding upon which the sa- 
cred edifice of religion is reared. A child begint to 
pray, to act, ajud to abstain, not to ptease (*od, but to 
please the parent, who tells him that such is the wHl 
of God. The religious principle gams ground from the 
power of association and the improvement of reason ; 
iNit vrithout the tear of man^— the desire of pleasing, 
and the dread of offending those with whom he lives, — 
it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to 
cherish it at all in the minds of the children. If you 
tell (says Mr. Lancaster) a child not to swear, oe* 
cause it is fbrbidden by God, and he finds everybody 
whom he lives with addicted to that vice, the mere 
precept will soon be obliterated ; which would acquire 
lU just influence if aided by the effect of example. — 
Mr. Lancaster does not say that the fear of man ever 
ought to be a stronger motive than the fear of God, or 
tliat, In a thorougmy formed character, it ever i$ : he 
merely aays, that the fear of man may be made the 
most powerful mean to raise up the fear of God ; and 
nothing, in our ojmiion, can be more plain, more sen- 
sible, or better expressed, than his opinions upon these 
subjects. In corroboration of ti^s sentiment, Mr. Lan- 
caster tells the following story :— 

< A benevolent friend of mine,* says be. who re^es at a 
villsffe near London, where he has a school of the class 
called Sundm SehooU, recommended several lads to me for 
education. He is a pious man, and these children had the 
advantage of food mrscnte under his instruction in an em- 
inemt degree, but had redaced them to very little practice. 
As they came to my school ttom some distance, they ^ eic 
permitted to bring their dinners: and, in the interval be- 
tween morning and tftcrnoon scnool hours, spent their time 
with a number of lads under similar circumstt sees iu a rlav- 

K>und adjoining the school-room. In this pUy^f^round tfie 
ys usually enioy an hour's recrestion ; tops, balls, races, 
or what beet suits their taicUnatlon or the season of the 
year ; but with this charge, <' Let all be kept hi innocence. '* 
These lads thought themselves very happy at play with 
their new anodates ; but on a sudden they were seixed and 
overcome by numbtts, wore brought into school iu^t as 
people in the street would seize a pick-pocket, ana bring 
him to the police office. Happening at that time to be 
within, I inquired, "Well, boys, what is all this bustle 
about ?'*—«< Why, sir,** was the general reply, «< theve lads 
have been swearing.** This was announced with as much 
emphasis and solemnity as a judge would use in passing 
sentence upon a criminal. The culprits were, as may be 
supposed, in much terror. After the examination of wiu 
nesaes and proof of the facts, they received admonition as 
to the offence ; and, on promise of better behaviour, were 
dismissed. No more wa^ ever heard of their swearine ; yet 
it was observable, that they were better acquainted witk 
Ae theory qf Chrieliaaity, and could give a more rational 
answer to queetiontfrom e&e senplttre, than several of the 
boys who had thus treated them, on comparison, « eonsta- 
Ue» wndd do a thief I coll this,' odds Mr. Lancaster, 
«pfa«(<'eaIreb'gi'otatfueruci>omand could, if needful, give 
many such anecdotes.'— (p. 36, 37.) 

All ttitX Mrs. Trimmer has to observe agamst this 
very striking illustration of Mr. Lancaster's doctrine, 
is, that the monitors behaved to the swearers in a very 
rude and unchristianUke manner. She begins with be- 
ing cruel, and ends with being silly. Her first obser- 
vation is calculated to raise the posse comitattis against 
Mr. Lancaster, to ffet him stoned for impiety ; and 
then, when he produces the most forcible example of 
the effect of opmion to encourage religious precept, 
she says such a method of preventing r.wearing is too 
rude for the gospel. True, modest, unobiiiisive reli- 
gion — chu^table, forgiving, indulgent Christianity, is 
Uie greatest ornament and the greatest bl^sin^ that 
can dwell in the mind of man. But if there is one 
character more baee. more infamous, and more ahock- 
iDg than another, It is him who, for the sake of som« 


V^tOf jMrndOoBi in the vorid.i0 cYcr readjto acoiM 
tofu^ouDus persons of inellgiod— to tum common in- 
former for the church— and to convert the most heau- 
tifhl feelings of the human heart to the deatniction of 
the good and great) hy fixing upon talents the indeli* 
hLe stigma of irreligion. It matters not how trifling 
and iiuugnificant the acuser ; cry out that the church 
is in danger, and your object is accomplished ; lurk in 
the valk of hypocrisy, to accuse your enemy of the 
cTime of Atheism; and his rnin is quite certain ; ao* 
quilted or condemned, is the same thing ; it is only 
sufficient that he be accused, in order that his destmo 
turn be accomplished. If ve could satisfy ourselTes 
that sncU were the real views of Mrs» Tnmmer, and 
that she were capable of such baseness, we would 
have drawn blood from her at every line, and left her 
in a state of martyrdom more piteous than that of St. 
Uba. Let her attribute the miUc and milthiess abe 
meeta with in this review of her book, to the convic- 
tion we entertain, that she knew no better — that she 
really did understand Mr. Lancaster as she pretends to 
understand htm>-and that if she had been aware of 
the extent of the mischief she was doin^, she would 
have tossed the manuscript spelling book m which she 
was engaged into the fire, rather than have done it. — 
As a proof that we are in earnest in speaking of Mrs. 
Trimmer's simplicity, we must state the ol^ectionshe 
makes to one of Mr. Lancaster's punishments. — 

* When I meet,' says Mr. Lancaster, with a slovenly 
boy, I pat a label upon his breast, I walk him round 
the school with a tin or paper crown upon his head.' 

* Surely^'sajs Mrs. Trimmer, (in reply to this,) < sure- 
ly it should be remembered, that the Saviour ^ XKe 
world was crowned with thnms. in derision, and that 
this is ths reason why crowning u an improper punish^ 
mentfor a slovenly &oy,' /// 

Rewards and Punishments,-^Mn. Trimmer objects 
to the fear of ridicule being made an instroment of 
education, because it may be hereafter employed to 
shame a Iwy out of his religion. She might, tor the 
same reason, object to the cultivation of the reason- 
mg faculty, because a i>oy may hereafter be reasoned 
out of his relision : she surely does not mean to say 
that she would make boys insensible to ridicule, the 
fear of wiilch is one curb upon the follies and cccoi- 
tricLties of human nature. Such an object it would be 
impossible to effect, even if it were useftd: Put an 
hundred boys tosethor, and the fear of being laughed 
at will always be a strong influencing motive with 
every incKvidttal among them. If a master can tum 
this principle to his own use, and get boys to laugh at 
vice instead of the old plan of laughing at virtue, is he 
not doing a very new, a very difficult, and a very lau- 
dable thinff? 

When Mr. Lancaster finds a little boy with a very 
dirty face, he sends for a little girl, and makes her 
wash off the dirt before the whole school : and she is 
<Urected to accompany her ablutions with a gentle 
box of the ear. To us, this punishment appears well 
adapted to the offence ; and in this, and in most other 
instaaces of Mr. Lancaster's interference in scholas- 
tic diacipUne, we are struck with his good sense^ and 
deliglsted that arrangements apparently so trivial, 
really so important, should have fallen under the au 
tention of so ingenious and so original a man. Mrs. 
Trimmer objects to this practice, that it destroys 
female modesty, and inculcates in that sexy an hamt 
^/giving boxes on the ear^ 

* Wben a boy gets into a singing tone in reading,' savs 
Mr. Lancaster, *tbe best mode of cure that I have hltheito 
found effectual is by the /ofca of ridicule.— Decorate the 

offender with matchea, bauade, (dying speeches if needful ;) 
{ in this paib send him round tne school, with some boys 


befoie him crying matdies, &c, etactly imitating the dismal 
tones with which such things are hawked about London 
street^ as will resdUy recur to the reader's memoxy. I be- 
lieve many boys behave ruddy to Jews more on account 
of the manner in which th^ cry '<old dothes/' than be- 
cause they are Jews. I have always found excellent effects 
from treating boys, who sing or tone in their reading, in the 
manner described. It is sure to tum the lauth of the whole 
school n^n the deUaquent ; it pfovekes li&iility, in spite 
ofevcsTeiideaTourtodieckit,iaallbutlft«<(^fieiidcr. I have 
rainowa aboy Ihas puMad osos^ for whom tt was 

Ineedf^aseooadtlme. It Is also rmnr sAJoa ttiat a bey 
deserves both a log and a shackle at the same time. Most 
boys are wise eaouch, when under one punishment, not to 
tran»ess immediately, lest it should be doubled.'— (p. 47, 

This punidunent is objected to on the part of Mrs 
Trimmer, because it inculcates a dislike to Jews, and 
an mdifference to dying speeches ! Toys, she says, 
given as rewards, are worUly tbmgs ; children are to 
be taught that there are eternal rewards in store fox 
them. It is very dangerous to give prints as rewards, 
because prints may hereafter be the vehicle of inde- 
cent ideas% It is, above all things, perilous to creato 
an order of merit in the borough school, because il 
gives the boys an idea of the origin of nobility, 
* especiallv in titnes (we use Mrs. Trimmer's - own 
words) which furnish instances cf the extinction of a 
race of ancient nobUiiy, in a neighbouring nation, and 
the Ovation of some of the totvest people to the 
highest stations, Boye accustomed to consider themselves 
the nobles of the school, may in their future lives, form a 
conceit of their own merits (unless they have very sound 
principles), aspire to be nobles of the land, and to take 
place of t?ie hereditary nobility,^ 

We think these extracts will suificiently satisfy 
every reader of common sense, of the merits of this 
pubhcatmn. For our part, when we saw these ragged 
and interesting little nobles, shuiing id their tin stars, 
we only thought it probabl<) that the spirit of emula- 
tion would nmke them better ushers, tradesmen, and 
mechanics. We &d, in truth, imanne we had ob- 
served, m some of their faces, a bola project for pro- 
curing better breeches for keening out the blast oi 
heaven, which howled through those garments in 
every direction, and of aspiring hereafter to greater 
strength of seam, and more perfect continuity of cloth 
But for the safety of the titled orders we had no fear; 
nor did we once dream that the black rod which whipt 
these dirty little dukes, woukl one day be borne be 
fore them as the emblem of legislative dignity, and 
the sign of noble blood. 

Order.— The order Mr. Lancaster has displayed in 
the school is quite astonishing. Every boy seems to 
be the cm[ of a wheel — the whole school a perfect ma* 
chine. Tnis is ao far from behig a burden or con- 
stmint to the boys, that Mr. Lancaster has made it 
quite pleasant to them, by giving to it the air of mili- 
tary arrangement ; not foreseeing, as Mrs. Trimmer 
foresees, that, in times of public dangers, this plan fur- 
nishes the disaffected with the immediate means of 
raising an army ; for what have they to do but to send 
for all the children educated by Mr. Lancaster, ftom 
the different comers of the kingdom into which they 
are dispersed, to beg it as a particular favour of them 
to fall into tne same order as they adopted in the 
spelling class twenty-five years ago ; and tne rest is all 
amtter of courser— 

Jamquef^fi€$t et Beaa solofiC. 

The maht object, however, for which this book is 
written, is to prove that the church establishment is 
in danger, from the increase of Mr. Lancaster's insti- 
tutions. Mr. Lancaster is, as we have before observed, 
a Qimkcr. As a Quaker, he says, I cannot teach youi 
creeds ; but I ple&e mpelf not to teach my own. I 
pledge myself (and if I deceive you, desert me, and 
give me up) to confine myself to those points of Chris- 
tianity in which all C3iristians agree. To which Mrs. 
Trimmer replies, that, in the first place, he cannot do 
this ; and, in the next place, if he did ao it, it would 
not be enough. But why, we would ask, cannot Mr. 
Lancaster effect his first object ? The practical and 
the feeling parts of religion are much more likely to 
attract the attention and provoke the questions of chil- 
dren, than its speculative doctrines. A child is not 
very likely to put any questions at all to a catechisms 
mtfSter, and still less likely to lead him into subtle and 
profcnmd disquisition. It appears to us not only prac- 
ticable, but ve^ easy, to confine the religious instruc- 
tion of the poor, in the first years of life, to those gen- 
eral feelings and principles which are suitable to the 
established chnrcb, ana to every sect ; afterwards, tfaa 


diicriiDiiiatiiig tenets of eftcfa subdiyieioii of Chris- 
tians may be fixed upon this general basis. To say 
this is not enough, that a child should be made an An- 
tisocinian, or an Antipelaghin, in his tenderest years, 
may be very just ; but what prevents you from mak- 
ing him so ( Mr. Lancaster, purposely and intention- 
ally, to allay all jealousy, leaves him in a state as well 
adapted tor one creed as another. Beein ; make your 
pupil a firm advocate for the peculiar doctrines oi the 
English church ; dig round about him, on every side, 
a trench that shall guard him (torn every species of 
heresy. In spite of all this clamour you do nothing ; 
you do not stix a single step ; you educate alike the 
swineherd and his hog— ana then, when a man of real 
genius and enterprise rises up» and says, Let me dedi- 
cate mv life to this object ; I will do every thing but 
that which must neeessarily devolve upon you alone ; 
you refuse to do your little, and compel him, by the 
cry of Infidel and Atheist, to leave you to your an- 
cient repose, and not to drive you, by insidious com- 
parisons, to any sy.stem of active utility. We deny, 
again and agam, that Mr, Lancaster's instruction is 
any kind of impediment to the propagation of the doc- 
trines of the church ; and if Mr. Lancaster was to per- 
ish with his sjrstcm to-morrow, these boys would pos- 
itively be taught nothing ; the doctrines which Mrs. 
Trimmer considers to be prohibited would not rush in, 
but there would be an absolute vacuum. We will, 
however, say this in favour of Mrs. Trimmer, that if 
every one who has joined w her clamour, bad la- 
bored one-hundredth part as much as she has done in 
the cause of national education, the clamour would be 
much more rational, and much more consistent^ than 
it now is. By living with a few people as active as 
herself, she is perhaps somehow or another persuaded 
that there is a national education going on in this coun- 
try. But OUT principal argument is, that Mr* Lancas- 
ter's plan is at least better than the nofAzng which pre- 
ceded it. The authoress herself seems to be a lady of 
respectable opinions, and very ordinary talents ; de- 
fending what IS right without judgment, and believing 
what is holy without charity. 

VIEW, 1807.) 

aistorieai JUpologyfor ikt IrUh CathoU'ea. By WUlism Par- 
neU, Edquixe. Fttzpatridc, Dublin, 1B07. 

Ir ever a nation exhibited symptoms of downright 
madness, or utter stupidity, we conceive these symp- 
toms may be easily recomized in the conduct or this 
country upon the Catholic question. A mas has a 
wound in his great toe, ana a violent and perilous 
fever at the same time ; and he refuses to take the 
medicines for the fever, because it will disconcert his 
toe ! The mournful and folly-stricken blockhead for- 
gets that his toe cannot survive faim ; — that if he dies, 
there can be no digital life apart from him ; yet he 
lingers and fondles over this last part of his body, 
soothing it madly with little plasters, and anile fo- 
mentations, while the neglected fever rages in bis 
entraps, and bums away his whole life. If the com- 
paratively little questions of Establishment are aP 
that this country is capable of discussing or regard- 
ing, for God's sake let ns remember, that the foreign 
conquest, which destroys all, destroys this beloved 
toe also. Pass over free'dom, industry, and science — 
and look upon this great empire, by which we are 
about to be swallowed up, only as it affects the man- 
ner of collecting tithes, and of reading the liturgy — 
still, if all goes, these must go too ; and even, for 

* I do not retract one syllable (or one iota) of what I have 
said or written upon the Catholic que^on. What was 
wantrd for Ireland wa« emancipation, time and justice, 
abolition of present wrongs; time for foifrettlng pa^ 
wrongs, and that continued and even justice which would 
make such oblivion wise. It is now only difficult to tran- 
quiUze Irdand, before emandpation it was impossible. Aa 
t) the daneer from Catholic doctrines, I must leave such 
apprehensions to the reapertiible anOi^ of tbeie reains. J 
n^ not meddla with tt. 

their interests, it is worth while to conciliate Iielandr 
to avert the hostility^ and to employ the sUenrth of 
the Catholic population. We plead the question as 
the sincerest iriends to the Establisliment ^— as wish' 
ing to it all the prosperity and duration its warmest 
advocates can desire, — but remembering alvirays, what 
these advocates seem to forget, that the Establish' 
ment cannot be threatened by any danger so great as 
the perdition of the kingdom in which it is estab- 

We are truly glad to agree so entirely with Mr, 
Pamell upon this great question ; we admire Ms way 
of thinking ; and most cordially recommend his work 
to the attention of the public. The general condu* 
sion which he attempts to prove is this ^-4hat refi^ 
gious sentiment^ however perverted to bigotry or 
fanaticism, has always a Tendency to moikration ; 
that it seldom assumes any great portion of activity 
or enthusiasm, except from novelty of opinion, or from 
opposition, contumely, and persecution, when novelty 
ceases ; that a government nas little to fear from any 
religious sect, except while that sect is new. Give a 
government only time, and^ provided it has the good 
sense to treat ioliy with forbearance, it must ulti- 
mately prevail, when, therefore, a sect is found, 
after a lapse of years, to be ill disposed to the govern' 
ment, we may be certain that government has widen* 
ed its separation by marked distinctions, roused its 
resentment by contumely, or supported its enthusiasm 
by persecution. 

The particular conclusion Mr. Pamell attempts to 
prove is, tliat the Catholic rclisicn in Irelana had 
sunk into torpor and inactivity, till government roused 
it with the lash. : that even then, from the respect and 
attachment, which men are always inclined to shoiw 
towards government, there still remained a large 
body of loyal Catholics ; that these only decreased in 
number from the rapid increase of persecution ; and 
that, after all. the effects which the resentment of the 
Roman Catholics had in creating rebellions had been 
very much cxagrerated. 

In support of these two conclusions, Mr. Pamell 
takes a survey of the history of Ireland, from the con* 
quest under Henry, to the rebellion under Charles the 
i irst- passingvery rapidly over the period which pre- 
cedea the Keforraation, and dwelling principally 
upon the various rebeUiona which broke out in Ireland 
between the Reformation and the grand rebellion in 
the reign of Charles the First. The celebrated conquest 
of Ireland by Henry the Second, extended only to a 
ver}' few counties in Leinster ; nine-tenths of the whole 
kingdom were left, as he found them, under the domi- 
nion of their native princes . The influence of example 
was as stroug in this, as in most other instances ; 
and great numbers of ti>e English settlers who came 
over under various adventurers, resigned their pre- 
tensions to superior civilization, cast off their lower 
garments, and lapsed into the nudity and barbar- 
ism of the Irish. The limit which divided the pos- 
sessions of thtt English settler from those of the 
native Irish, was called the pale ; and the expressions 
of inhabitants within pale^ and vithottt the po/e, were 
the terms by which the two nations were distinguish- 
ed. It is almost superfluous to ctate, that the most 
bloody and peniicious warfare vi*as carried on upon 
the borters — sometimes for something — sometimes 
for nothing— -most commonly lor cows. The Iri&h; 
over whom the sovereigns of England afiectcd a sori 
of nominal dominion, were entirely govemed by their 
own laws; and so very little cconection had they 
with the justice of the invading country, that it wns 
as lawful to kill an Irishman, as it was to kill a 
badger or a fox. The instances are innumerable, 
where the defendant has pleaded that the deceased 
was an Irbhman, and that therefore defendant had a 
right to kill him ; — ^and upon the proof of Hibemicism 
acquittal followed of course. 

when the English army mustered in any great 
strength, the Irish chieftams would do exterior ho- 
mage to the English Crown ; and they very fiequent- 
ly^ by this artifice, averted from their country the 
miseries of invasion : but they remained completely 
unsubdind, tintU the rebellion which took puce & 


tbe leigB of (|Q6en Elizabeth, of trhich that politic | 
womaa availed herself to the complete BubjagatloQ of 
Ireland. In speaking of the Irish about the reign of i 
Elizabeth, or James the First, wc must not draw our 
comparisons from finsland, but from Nov Zealand ; 
they vere not civilizea men, but savages ; and if we 
xeaeoa about their conduct, we must reason of them 
as savages. 

• Afler resding every account of Irish history,* /says Mr. 
PameUf) ' one gresi perplexity appesn to remain : How 
d>ei it lisppen, that» mm the first invuion of the English, 
till the reign of Jame« I., Ireland seems not to have made 
the smallest prozress in civilization or weslth? 

• That it was divided into a number of small principali- 
ties, which waged constant war on each other, or that the 
app ointment of the chieftains was elective, do not appear 
saindent reawns, although theie are the only one» assigned 
by th)de who have been at the trouble of considering tlie 
stttjject: neither are the confiscations of property quite suf- 
ficient to account for the etfect There have Seen great 
confitcatioM in other countries, and «tiU they have noUr- 
l^ed: the petty states of Greece were quite analogous to 
the chiefries (as they were called) in Ireland; and vet 
they seemed to flourish almost in proportion to their ol** 
sensluns, Poland felt the bad effects of an ^ective monar- 
chy more than any other country ; and yet, in point of 
civilization, it maintained a very rci^>ectaDle rank among 
the nations of Europe; but Ireland never, for an instant, 
made any pr o gress in improvement till the reign of James 

' « It te scarcely credible, that In a climate like that of Ire- 
land, and at a period so far advanced in civilisation a^ the 
end of Elizabeth^s reign, the greater part of the natives 
sboul i go naked. Tet this is rendered certain by the testi- 
mony of an eye witness, Pynes Moiyson. " In the re- 
mote parts,** he says, •« where the English manners are un-* 
known, the very chief of the Irish, as well men as women, 
go naked in the winter time, only having their privy parts 
covered with a rag of linen, and their bodies with a loose 
mantle. This I speak of my own experience , 3ret remem- 
ber that a Bohemian Baron coming out of Scotland to us 
by the north parts of the wHd Irish, told me in gteat ear- 
nestness, that he) coming to the house of 0*Kane> a great 
lord amongst them, wan met at the door by sixteen women 
all naked, excepting their loose mantles, whereof eight or 
ten were very fair ; with which strange sight his eyes being 
dftzzled, they led him into the house, and then sitting down 
by the fire with crossed legs, like tailors, and so low as 
could not but ofi\end chaste eyes, dedred him to sit down 
with them. Soon after, O'Kane, the lord of the country, 
came in all naked, except a loose mantle and shoes, which 
he put off as soon as he came In; and, entertaining the 
Baran at\er his best manner in the LaUn tongue, desired 
him to put off his apparel, which he thought to be a burden 
to him, and to sit naked. 

• ** To conclude, men and women at niatat aoing to sleep, 

lye thus naked in a round circle about the nre, with their 
^eet toward) it They fold their heads and their up] 
parts in wooUen manfles, first steeoed in water to keep 


them warm ; for they say, that wooUen cloth, wetted, pre- 
server heat (as linen, wetted, preserves cold,) when the 
sttoke of their bodies ha^ warmed the woollen cloth.** 

* The cause of this extreme poverty, and of its long con- 
tinuance, we must conclude, arose f^om the peculiar laws 
of pronerty, which were in force under the Irish dynasties. 
These laws have been described by most writers as similar 
to the Kentish cuitom of i^avelkind; and indeed so little 
attention war paid to the subject, that were it not for the 
re^earchu of Sir J. Davi;», the knowledge of this singular 
\x^ie would have been entirely lost. 

* The Brehon law of propertyi he tell* us, was shnfiar to 
th«! custom (as the English lawyers term it) of hodge-podse. 
When any one of the seiit died, his lands did not descend 
to his sonf, but were divided among the whole sept : and, 
for this puroose, the chief of the sept made a new division 
of the whmle landr beloni^lng to the eeut, and gave every 
one hii part accordine to seniority. So tli&t no man had a 

Sroperty which could descend to his children ; and even 
urinj* rdft own life, hii po»ses»lon of any particular ^ot 
wa$ quite uncertain, being liable to be constantly shuflted 
and cnan '^ed by new partitions. The consequence of this 
was that there was not a house of brick or stone, among 
the Irish, down to the reicrn of Henry VI. ; not even a 
garden or orchard, or weU fenced or improved field, ndther 
viUage or town, or in any respect the least provision for 
posterity. This monstrous cuJKom, so opposite to the feel- 
in7B of mankind, wa^ probably perpetuated by the policv 
of the chiefs^ In the first fdace, the power of partitioning 
being lodved in their hands, made them the most absolute 
of tvrants, being the dispensers of the property as wdl as 
of the liberty of their subjects. In the second place it had 
the app^axanoe of adding to the number of their aavsge 

armies; for, where there was no bnproYement or tillage^ 
war was pursued as an occupation. 

« In the eariy history of Ir^and, we find several instances 
of chieftaiiui discountenancing tillage; and so late as Eliza- 
beth's reign, Moryson says, that •< bir Neal Garve restrain- 
ed his people from plouvlung, that they might ansifrt him to 
f mwchlef.'* '—(p. 9d— 103.) 

do any x 

These quotations and observations will enable us to 
state a fev phun facts for the recollection of our Eng. 
lish readers. Isf , Ireland was never subdued till the re* 
hellion in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 2d, for four 
hundred yetrs beiore that period, the two nations had 
been almost constantly at war ; and in consequence of 
thiS) a deep and irreconcileable hatred existed between 
the people within and without the pale. 3d, The Irish, 
at the accession of Queen Elizabeth, were unquestion- 
ably the most barbarous people in Europe. So much 
for what had happened previous to the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth : and let any roan, who has the most superfi- 
cial knowledge of human alfairs, detennine, whether 
national hatred, proceeding from such powerful causes, 
could possibly have been kept under oy the defeat of 
one single rebellion ; whether it would not have been 
easy to have foreseen, at that period, that a proud, 
brave, half-savage people, wpuld cherish thr^ memory 
of their wronga for centuries to come, and break forth 
into arms at every period when they were particularly 
exasperated by oppression, or invited by opportunity. 
If the Protestant religion nad spread in Ireland as it 
did in England) and if there never had been any differ* 
ence of faith between the two countries, — can it be be- 
lieved that the Irish, ill-treated, and infamously gov- 
crtied as they have been, would never have made any 
efforu to shake off the yoke of England ^ Surely there 
are causes enough to account for their impatience of 
that yoke, without endeavouring to inflame the zeal of 
ignorant people against the Catholic religion, and to 
make that mode of faith responsible for all the butche- 
ry which the Irish and Enghsh, for these last two cen- 
turies, have exercised upon each other. Every body, 
of course; must admit, that if to the causes of hatred ai> 
ready specified, there be added the additional cause of 
religious distinctiim, this last wiU give greater force 
(and what is of more consequence to observe, gi\*e 
a name) to the whole aggregate motive. But what Mr. 
Pameli contends for, and clearly and decisively proves, 
is, that mahy of those sanguinary scenes attributed to 
the Catholic religion, are to be partly imputed to causes 
totally disconnected from religicn ; that tlie unjust in- 
vasion) and the tyrannical) infamous policy of the Eng- 
lish, are to take Uieir full share of blame with the soph- 
isms and plots of Catholic priests. In the roien of 
Henry the Eighth, Mr. Pameli shows, that feudal sub- 
mission was readily paid to him by all the Irish chiefs ; 
that the Reformatfon was received without the sl'eht- 
est opposition ; and that the troubles wiiich took place 
at that period in Ireland, are to be entirely attributed 
to the ambition and injustice of Henry. In the reign 
of Queen Mary, there was no recrimmation upon the 
Protestants ;— a striking proof, that the bigotry of the 
Catholic religion had not, at that period, risen to any 
great height in Ireland. The insurrections of the va- 
rious Irish princes were as numerous, during this 
reign, as they had been in the two prcced^g reisns — 
a circumstance rather d'fficult of expluiatlon, if, as 
is commcnly believed, the Catholic religion was at 
that period the main spring of men's actions. 

In the reign of Elizabeth, the Catholic in the pale 
regularly fought aguin.n the Catholic out of the pale. 
O'SulIivan, a bigoted Papist, reproaches them with 
doing so. Speaking of the reign of James the First, he 
says, * And now the eyes even of the Englifh-Irish' 
(toe Catholics of the pale) < were opened ; and they 
cursed their former felly for helping tne heretic' The 
English government were so sensible of the loyiltT of 
the Irish-English Catholics, that they Entrusted them 
with the most confidential services. The Earl of Kil- 
darc was .the principal instrbment in wagmi? war 
against the chieftains of Leiz and Offal. William 
O'Bourge, another Catholic, was created Lord Castle 
Connel for his eminent services ; and MacGully Pa- 
trick, a priest, was the state spy. We presume that 
this wise and nuuUy conduct of Queen JQizabeth was 


WOftitS or THE R£V. 

utterly imknown both to th« Pastrycook and the Secre- 
tary of State, who have published upon the ilangers of 
employing Catholics, even against foreign enemies ; 
iBft in those publications have said a great deal about 
the visdom of oOr ancestors— the usual topic whene- 
ver the folly of their descendants is to be defended. 
To whatever other of our ancestors the^r may allude, 
they may spare all compliments to this illustrious 
Princess, who would certainly have kept the worthy 
confectioner to the composition of tarts, and roost pro- 
bably furnished him with the productions of the Right 
Honorable Secretary, as the means of conveying those 
juicy delicacies to an hungry and discerning public. 

In the next two reigns, Mr. Pamell shows by what 
iDJudicious measures of the EUiglish government the 
spirit of Catholic opposition was gradually formed ; for 
tnat it did produce powerful effects at a subsequent 
period, he does not deny ; but contends only (as we 
nave before stated); that these effect^ have been much 
overrated, and ascribed 9o2t/y to the Catholic religion, 
when other causes have at least had an equal agency 
in bringing ihem about. He concludes with some 
general remarks on the dreadful state of Ireland, and 
the contemptible folly and bigotry of the English ;* — 
remarks fuU of truth, of good sense, and of political 
courage. How melancholy to reflect, that there 
would be still some chance of saving England from the 
general wreck o( empires, but that it may not be saved, 
because one pohtician will lose two thousand a year by 
it, and another three thousand—a third a place in re- 
version, and a fourth a pension for his aunt ! — Alas ! 
these are the powerful causes which have always set- 
tled the destiny of great kingdoms, and which may level 
OM England, with all its boasted freedom, and boasted 
wisdom , to the dust . Nor is it the least sineular among 
tl>e political phenomena of the present day, that the 
sole cousideratlon which seems to influence the un- 
bigotcd part of the English people, in this great 
(]uc;ition of Ireland, is a regard for the personal feel- 
lugs of the Monarch. Nothing is said or thought of 
the enormous risk to which Ireland is exposed,— 
nothing of the gross injustice with which the Catho- 
lics are treated.— nothmg of the lucrative apostasy 
of those from whom they experience this treatment : 
but the only concern by which we all seem agitated 
is, that the King must not be vexed in his old age. 
We have a great respect for the King ; and wish him 
nU the happiness compatible with the happmess of 
his people. But these are not times to pay foolish 
compliments to Kings, or the sons of Kings, or to any 
body else : this journal has always preserved its 
character for courage and honesty ; ana it shall do so 
to the last. If the people of this country are solely 
occupied in cunsidering what is personally agreeable 
to the King, witli^ut considering what is forhisperma- 
nf^nt ^ood, and for tlie safety of his dominions; if all 
public men, quitting the common vulvar scramble for 
emolument, do not concur in conciliatmg the people of 
Ireland; if the unfounded alarms, and the compara- 
tively trifling interests of the clergr, are to supersede 
the great question of freedom or slavery, it does ap- 
pear to us quite impossible that so mesrn and foolish 
a people can escape that destruction which is ready to 
burst upon them ; — a destruction so imminent, that it 
can only be averted by arming all in our defence who 
would evidently be sharers in our ruiuy — and by such 
a change of system as may save us from the hazard of 
being mined by the ignorance and cowardice of any 
general, by the bigotry or the ambition of any minis- 
ter, or by the well meaning scruples of any human 
beinff, let his dignity be what it may. These minor 
and domestic dangers we must endeavour firmly auu 
temperately to avert as we best can ; but, at all haz- 
ards, we must keep out the destroyer from among as, 
or perish like wise and brave men in the attempt. 

* It would be as well, in future, to ssv no more of the 
revocation of the edict of Nantz. 


«^' METHODISM. (EDiiqitrBOH Retoew, 1806.) 

Ctatae$ oftkt thereuc of Metkodi»m und Di'smmimi. By 
Robert Acklem Ingram, B. D. Hstchan). 

This is the production of an honest man, possessed 
of a fair share of understanding. He cries out lustily, 
(and not before it is time) upon the increase of Metho- 
oism ; proposes various remedies for the diminution 
of this evil; and speaks his opinions with a freedom 
which does him great credit, and convinces us that he 
is a respectable man. The clergy are accused of not 
exertuig themselves. What temporal motive, Mr. 
Ingram asks, have they for exertion ? Would a curate, 
who had served thirty years upon a living in the most 
exemplary manner, secure to nimself, by such a con- 
duct, the slightest right or title to promotion in the 
church ? What can you expect of a whole profession, 
in which there is no more connection between merit 
and reward, than between merit and beauty, or merit 
and strength? This is the substance of what Mr. 
Ingram says upon this subject; and he speaks the 
truth. We regret, however, that this gentleman has 
thought fit to use against the dissenters, the exploded 
clamour of Jacobinism ; or that he deems it necessary 
to call into the aid of the Church, the power of into- 
lerant laws, in spite of the odious and impolitic tests 
to which the dissenters arc still subjected. We believe 
them to be very good subjects ; and we have no doubt 
but that any Airther attempt upon their reHgious 
liberties, without reconciling them to the Church, 
would have a direct tendency to render them disaf- 
fected towards the Slate. 

Mr. Ingram (whose book, by the by, is very dull 
and tedious) has fallen into the common mistake cf 
supposing his readers to be as well acquainted with 
the subject as himself; and has talked a great deal 
about dissenters, without giving us any distinct notion 
of the spirit which pervades these people — the objects 
they have in view— or the degree of talent which is to 
be found among them. To remedy this very capital 
defect, wc shall endeavour to set before the eyes of the 
reader a complete section of the tabemacfe ; and to 
present him with a near view of those sectaries, who 
are at present at work upon the destruction of the or- 
thodox churches, and are de&tined hereafter, perhaps, 
to act as conspicuous a part in public affairs, as the 
children of Sion did in the time of Cromwell. 

The sources from which we shall derive our extracts, 
are the Evangelical and Methodistical Magazines for 
the year 1807; works which are said to be circulated 
to the amount of 18,000 or 20,000 each, every month ; 
knd which contain the sentiments of Armmian and 
iCalvinistic Methodists, and of the evangtUcal clergy- 
men of the Church of England. Wc shall u£e t£ie 
term Methodism, to designate these three classes of 
fanatics, not troubling ourselves to point out the finer 
shades, and nicer discriminations of lunacy, but treat- 
ing them all as in one general conspiracy against com- 
mon sense, and ratiomu orthodox Christianity. 

In reading these very curious productions, we seemed 
to be in a new world, and to have got among a cet of 
beings^ of whose existence we had hardly before enter- 
tained the slightest conception. It has'b«*en our good 
fortune to be acquainted with many truly reHgions 
persons, both in the Presbyterian and Episcopalian 
churches ; and fiom their manly, rational, and serious 
characters, our conceptions of true practical piety 
have been formed. To these confined habits, and to 
our want of proper introductions among the children 
of light and grace, any degree of surprise is to be at. 
tributed, which may be excited by the publications 
before us ; which, under opposite circumstances, would 
(we doubt not) have proved as great a source of in- 
struction and delight to the Edinburgh reviewers, as 
they are to the most melodious votaries of the taber- 

It is not wantonly, or with the most distant inten- 
tion of trifling upon serious subjects, that we call the 
attention of the public to these sort of publications. 
Their circulation is so enormous and so mcreasing — 
they contain the opinions, and display the habits of 
so many human neings — ^that they cannot but be 
objects of curiosity and impoitaiice. The comm<« 



r cktMs of people are thfl puTchaiert ; 
' I religion— though not that religion 

and the iidddHm 
and the subiect 
certainly vhich is eetaSUihed bylaw, and encouri^ed 

5r national proTialon. This may lead to unpleasant 
rcumatances, or it may not ; bot it carries with it a 
sort of aspect, which ought to insure to it serious 
attention and reflection. 

\, may 

faiaist upon some articles very slightly ; to bring for- 
ward others prominently; and to consider some por- 
tion of their tormal creed as obsolete. As the know> 
ledge of the jurisprudence of any country can never be 
obtained by the perusal of volumes which contain 
some statutes that are daily enforced, and others that 
have been silently antiquated : in the same manner, 
the practice, the preachmg, and the writing of sects, 
are comments absolutely necessary to render the pe» 
rusal of their creed of any degree of utility. 

It is the practice, we believe, with the orthodox, 
both in the Scotch and English churches, to insist very 
rarely, and very discreetly, upon the particular in- 
stances of the Interference of Divine Providence 
They do not pretend that the world is governed only 
by general laws — iliat a Superintendmg Mind never 
interferes for partictUar purposes ; but such purposes 
are represented to be of a nature very awftil and 
sublime— wheu a guilty people are to be destroyed, 
when an oppressed nation is to be lifted up, and some 
remarkable change introduced into the order and 
arrangement of the world. With tliis Idnd of theology 
we can have no quarrel; we bow to its truth ; we are 
satisfied with the moderation which it exhibits ; and 
we have no doubt of the salutary effect which it pro. 
duces upon the human heart. Xet us now come to 
those special cases of the interference of Providence 
as they are exhibited in the publications before us. 

JSu interfennce wUK raptel to tkt Rev* Jame$ Mooiy. 
* Mr. Jsmes Moodv was descended from piou« ancestors, 
w^ resided at 'Paisley ;— bid heart was devoted to music, 
dandnff, and theatrical amusements ; of the Utter he was 
so fond that he used to meet with some men of a similar 
cast to rehearse plajrs, and used to entertain a hope that he. 
dkouid make a figure upon the stage. To improve himself 
m mosic* he would rise very early, even in severely cold 
weather, and practice on the German flute : by his skill in 
music and singinfr. with his general powers of entertaining, 
he became a desirable companiun : he would sometimes 
Tentuze to profane the day of God, by turning it into a 
•eason of carnal pleasure : and would join in excursions on 
the water, to variouj parts of the vicinity of London. But 
the time was approaching, token tht Lorij v^ hoi daign$ 
of mercy /or 4i'm, attd for many othert by kit meant, woe 
^Ikevt te etep ktmiuUe vem carter of n» mU JbUy. There 
were two professinf servants in the house where he lived ; 
one of theae was a porter, who, in brushing his clothes, 
would say, ** Master James, this will never do— you must 
be otherwise employed-^yeu must be a minister of the gos- 

C^L" This worthy man, earnestly wishing his coovenuoii, put 
to hie hands that ezeelleac hook which God liath so much 
owned, jtlUm'e Alarm to ike VkeouverUd. 

*Abottt tliis tinie it pleased God to visit him with a disorder 
in his eyes, oocasioned, as it was thought, by his sitting up in 
the night to improve himself In drawiug. The wprehensioa 
«r loeiiig Ihs right occasioned many serious refleetious; his 
mimi was impressed with the importauoa and necessity of 
aeeking the salvation of his soul, and he was induced to attend 
tbo preaching of the gospel Tiie first sermon that he heard 
with a desire to profit, was at Spa-fields Chapel ; a place 
where he had formerly Arequented, when it was a temple of 
vanity and dissipation. Strong convictions of siu fixed on liis 
niud; and he contmued to attend thepreached word, parti> 
cularly at Tottenham-court ChapeL avtry sermon increased 
bis sorrow and grief that he hod not earlier sought the Lord. 
It was«coasiderahle time before he found comfort from the 
gospel. He has stood in the ftee part of the chapeU heoriiig 
with such emotion, that the tears have flowed flrom his eyes in 
torrents; and when he has returned home, he has coutinued a 
areat part of the night on his Itnees, praying over what he had 

'The change cflTecled by the power of the Holy Spirit on 
bis heart now became visible to all. Nor did he holt between 
two opinions* as some persons do; he became at once a de- 
cided character, and gave up for ever all his vain pursuits and 
amoeraMnts ; devoting himself with as much resolution and 
-dilicMce to the aervtoe of Qod, as he had feronrly done to 
Ibqy.'— £r.aiV.plM. 

•^ iiUeifkranea TotfecHng Cmrie. 
' h claigyman notfar distant fh>m thespoton which thase 
line* were written, was spendtof an evenins— not In his 
Closet wrestling with his Divine Ma^te." for the communica- 
i**J!l5'',^^«'*^''^^ ^ ^ ptculianj necesiary for the 
faithful discharge of the mlnl^rterial function— not in his 
atady searching the sacred ora*-l*»» of divine truth for ma- 
iSSfi'^i*'^'^*^ ^ prepare for his pubUc exerciios and 
reed the flock under his caro— not in pastoral visits to that 
flodt, to inquire into the^ute of their aouli, and endeavour, 
pT his pious and affectionate conversation, to conciUato 
their esteem, and promote their ediilcation, but at the card 
teNe.'— A.fter sUting that when it was his turn to deal, be 
dronped down dead, «It U worthy of remark (iays the wri- 
ter,) that within a very few years this wa^ the third character 
m the neighbourhood wiuch had been summoned from tlia 
card table to the bar of God.'— £». jjCog. p. 363. 

lfttei/«reiice nspeebng fiiMonng— a Bee Lhe instrameaf. 

< A young man is stung by a bee, upon which he buffeti 
the bees with his hat, utterin ; at the same time tiie most 
dreadful oatlw and imprecati.^ns. In the midst of his fury, 
one of these little combaUnts stun^ biii ii]>on the tip of 
that unruly member (hlstonaue.) which wn' then employed 
in blaspheming his maker. Thu> can Lh? T.oiti nngai e one 
of the meanest of his creatures m rci*ioving the bold trans- 
gressor who dares to take his name' in vaia.'— £t». Mag. p. 

Trtterf^tnee wtth reapect to David Wrichty n-ko taw 
cured ofAtheitn and Scrofula by one Sermon of Mr, 

This case is too long to quote in the language and 
with the evidences of the writers. The substance of 
of it is what our title implies.— David Wright was a 
man with scrofulous legs and atheistical principles ;— 
being with difl!lctilty persuaded to hear one sermon 
from Mr. Cole, he limped to the church in extreme 
pain, and arrived there after great exertions ;— during 
church time he was entirely converted, walked home 
with the greatest ease, and never after experienced 
the slightest return of scrofula or infidelity .-— £9. Mag, 
p. 444. .*• 

The di»pUaaur€ of Providence ie expressed at Captain 
ScotVs going to preach in Mr. Romaine^s Chapd, 

The sign of this displeasure is a violent storm of 
thunder and lightening just as he came into town. — 
Ev. Mag, p. 537. 

Interference with respect to an Innkeeper, who was de* 
stroyed for having appointed a cock-fight at the very 
time that the eervke was beginning at the Methodist 

' " Never mind,*' says the innkeeper, ** ill get a greater con- 
gregation than the Methodist Parson ; — we'll have a cock- 
fighL" But what is man ! how insignificant his designs, how 
impotent his strength, how ili-fhted his plans, wheu opposed 
to that Eeing who is infinite in wisdom, boundless in power, 
terrible in judgment, and who ft-equently reverses, and sud- 
dealy renders abortive, the projects of the wicked! A few 
days after the avowal of his inteutioo, the innkeeper sickened,' 
Suc. 9t>c, Ami then the narrator goes 00 to state, that hta 
corpse was carried by the meeting-house, *(m the day, atUt 
exacUyat the timt^ the deceased hod fixed for the cock-fight.'— 
MctA. Mag. p. 125. 

In page 167, Msih. Mag.y a father, mother, three 
sons, and a sister, are destroyed by particular uiter- 

In page 222, Meth. Mag., a dancing master is de- 
stroyed for irreligion — anotner person for swearing 
at a cock'fight — and a third for pretending to be deaf 
and dumb. These are called recent and authentic ac- 
counts of God's avengmg providence. 

So much for the miraculous interposition of Prori- 
dence in cases where the Methodists are coucemed : 
we shall now proceed to a few specimens of the energy 
of their religious feelmgs. 

Mr. Roberts^s feelings in the month of May, 1793. 

* But, all this tfme, my soul was stayed upon Oodj my de* 
siree increased, and my mind was kept in a sweet praying 
frame, a going out of myself, as it were, and taking shelter in 
hun. Every breath I drew, ended in a prayer. I Ihlt 
myself helplem as an islhnt dependent upon God fbr all 


tmnn. I WIS. In • eomtaat daily espoctatlon of reoeiTing 
all I wanted; and, on Friday, May »l«t, under Mr. Euther- 
• ford*} sermon, though enuirly independent of It, (for I 
could not give any account of v.-hat he had been preaching 
abjut,) I wa« given to fed that God wa« waiting to be veiy 
gracious to me; the «pirit of prayer and supplication was 
given me, and such an assurance that I was accepted in the 
Beloved, as I cannot describe, but which I shall never for- 
get.'— 3feCJ^ JlTdg. p. 8ft. 

Mr». ElizaMh Price and her Attendants hear eaered 
mueic on a eudden, 

«A few nights before her death, while some neighbours and 
her husband were sitting up with her, a sudden and joyful 
sound of mu»ic was heard by all prestent, aUhou^k utmt <tf 
then^ were carnal peopU; at wnich ame she thought she saw 
her crucified Saviour before her, s|ieaking these words with 
power to her soul, **Thy sins are forkiven thee, and I love 
thee ftedy." After this she never doubted of her acce^Aance 
with God; and on Chrhitmas day following was taken to 
celebrate the Redeemer's birth in the Paradise of God. 
MicMACL Covtm.'—Meth, Mag. p. 137. 

T. L.y a Sailor on board of the Stag Frigate hat a tpeeuU 
revelation from our Haviour, 

'October S6th, being the Lord's day, he had a remaikable 
manifestation of God's love to his soul. That blessed morn- 
ing he was much grieved by hearing the wicked use profane 
iah/uage, when Je*us revMled iiiinself to him, and impres- 
sed on his mind those words, <» Follow Me." This was a 
jvecious day to him.*— lfe(&. Mag. p. 140. 

The manner in which Mr. Thomat Cook vxta accus- 
tomed to accost S. B. 

« Whenever he met me in the street, his salutation used to 
be, "Have you free and-lively intercourse with God to-day? 
Are you giving your whole heart to God?'* I have known 
kim on such occasions s|ieak in so pertinent a manner, that 
I have been astonished at his knowledge of my state. Meet- 
ing me one morning, he said, **I have been praying for you; 
you have bad a sore conflict, though all is well now." At 
another time he asked, **IIave you been much exercised 
these few days, for I have been led to pray that you might 
especially have suffering grace." '— JfetA. Mag, p. 947 

Mr. John KesUn on his death-bed. 

* «0h, my dear, I am now going to glory, happy, happy, 
bappy. I am going to sing praises to God and the Lamb; I 
am going to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. I think I can see 
my Je-«us without a glacis between. I can, I feel t can, dis- 
cern, < my tide clear to mansions in the skies. ' Come, Lord 
Jesus, come! why are thy chariot-wheels so long ddav- 
teg ?" '— £». Mag. p. 134. a / 

The Reverend Mr. Mead^s sorrow for his sins, 

«Thls wrought Urn up to temjwrary desperation ; his In- 
«pre*iible grief poured Itself forth in groans : *« Oh that I 
had never sinned against Godf I have a beU hereupon 
•srth, and there is a heU for me in eternity !" One Loixi»8 
ZS: ^fl**?>' ^ ?' morning, he was awoke by a tem- 
JSf of ♦^-"^/u? lightning; and imagining it to be the 
?"' ®/ iP® world, his agony was great, suppoiSng the ereat 
day of divine wrath was lime, and he unp^wdfbS 
kappy to find it not so.'— £». Mag. p. 147. 

Similar case of Mr. John Robinson. 

J About two houiB before he dird, he was in great agony 
of body and mind; it appeared that the enemy was pennit- 
ted to rtrugifle with him; and being gr»^Uy agitated, he cried 
out, " Ye powers of darkness, besone !" This however did 
PJ*^***1^,''°8 : " the prey wa^ Ukcn from the mighty, and 
the lawM captive delivered," although he was not permit- 
ted to tell of his deUveraijce, but Uy quite stiU and com^ 
posed.'— i;r. Mag. p. 177. 

The Reverend William Tennantin an heavenly trance. 
•"While 1 was conversing with my brother," «.Md he, 
w on. the state of my soul, and the fean. I had entertained 
for my future welfare, I found myself In an instant, in an- 
other titate of esistence, under the direction of a superior 
peine, who ordererl me to follow him. I was wafted alonr 
I know not how, till I beheld at a disUnce an ineffable 
glory, the impression of which on my mind it is impossible 
to communicate to mortal man. J immediately reflected on 
my haopy change ; and thouchl, Will, blessed be God ! I 
am safe at last, notwithstanding all iny fears, I saw an in- 
numerable host of happy beings surrounding the inerprewl- 
Me glory, In acts of adoration and joyous worship ; but I 
did not ee any bedUy shape or i«iin<imUtlon la t& gUrri. 

otu appaannoe. IheardthlnnmiuMerahle. Ihetsdthelr 

songs and hallelujah* of thanksgiving and praise, with un- 
speakable rapture. I felt joy unutterable and full ol glory. 
I then applied to my conductor, and ret^uested leave to join 
the happy throng." '*—£v. ifag. p. 361. 

The foJlowiog we conaider to be one of the moat 
shocking histories we ever read. God only knowa Low 
many such scenes take place in the gloomy annals of 

* A young man, of the name of S C— — , grandson 
to a late eminent Dissenting minirter, and brou^iit up by 

him, came to reside at K g, about the year 1SC8. he 

attended at the BaptUt place of worshi|.s not only on the 
Lord's day, but l>equently at the week-day lectures and 
prayer-meetings. He was sm^posed by some to be seriou^^ljr 
Inclined ; but bis opinion of himself was, that he had never 
experienced that divine change, without which no man can 
be saved. 

< However that might be, there is reason to believe he bad 
been for some years under powerful convictions of his miit> 
erable condition as a sinner. In June I60C, these convic- 
tions were observed to increase, and that in a moi« than 
common degree. From that time he went into no company, 
but, when he was not at work* kept in hi« chamber, whcra 
he was employed in singing plaintive hymns, and bewail- 
ing his lost and perishing state. 

« Re had about him several religious people ; but could 
not be induced to oi>cn his mind to them, or to impart to 
any one the cause ot his distress. Whether this contiibuteil 
to increase it or not, it did increase, till his health was 
greatly affected by it, and he was scaicely able to work at 
his bufliness. 

* While he was at meeting on Lord's day, September 14th, 
he was observed to labour undtr very ^leat emoticn of 
mind, e^>ecially when he heard the folios* ing wordb. " Sin 
ner, if vou die without an interest in Christ, you will sink 
Into the regions of eternal death." 

< On the Saturday evening following, he intimated to the 
mistress of the house where he lodged, that some awful 
judjunent was about to come upon. him; and aa he should 
not be able to be at meeting next day, requested that an at- 
tendant might be procured to stay with him. She replied, 
that she would herself stay at home, and wait upon him ; 
which she dkL 

( On the Lord's day be was in great agony of mind. His 
mother was sent for, and some relit ions tMcnds visited 
him; but all was of no avail. That night wai» a nl{.ht 
dreadful beyond conception. The hotror whidi he en- 
dured brought on all tlie symptoms of raging madness. Ke 
desired the attendanU not to come near him, le»t they 
should be burnt He said that •* tlie bed-curtains were in 
flames,- tliat he smelt the brimstone,— thst devil» i^ere 
come to fetch him ,^that there was no hope for him, for 
that he had sinned against light and conviction, and tltat he 
should certainly go to hell." It was with difficulty he could 
be kept in bed. 

* An apothecary being sent for, as soon as he entered the 
house, and heard his dreadful howlln}:8, he inquiied if he 
had not been bitten by a mad dog. His appearance, like. 
Wise, seemed to justify such a suspicion, his countrrunoe 
resembling that of a wild beast more than of a man. 

'Though he had no feverish heat, yet hii> pulse beat above 
160 in a minute. To abate the mania, a quantity of Uood 
was taken from him, a blister was a) plic^d, his head was 
shaved, cold water was copiously poured over him, and 
fox-glove was administered. By tbe^e meana his fury was 
abated : but his mental agony continued, and all the symp. 
toms of madness which nis bodfly strength, thus reduted, 
would allow, till the following Tfaaraday. On that day he 
seemed to have recovered his reason, and to be calm in his 
mind. In the evening he sent for the snothecary ; and 
wished to speak with him by himself. The latter, on his 
coming, desired every one to leave the room, and thus ad- 
dressed him : «« C , have you not something on your 
mind?" "Ay." answered he, "thai tt it.'" He then ac- 
knowledged that, early in the month of June, he had gone 
to a fair in the neighbourhood, in company with a number 
of wkJced young nien: that they drank at a public-house 
together till he was in a measure intoxicated; and that from 
thence they went into other company, where he was crim- 
inally connected with a harlot "l have been a micerable 
creature," continued he, " ever since but during the last 
three days and three nights. I have been in a vt^tn of de- 
speration." He intimated to the apothecaiy, that he cculd 
not bear to tell this story to his minister : *«But," fcaid he, 
<* do vou inform him that I shall not die in de»q air ; for 
light has broken in ujwn me ; I have been led to the treat 
Sacrifice for sin, and I now ho^e in him for salvation." 

'From this time his mental distress ceased, his (ounte> 
nance became placid, and his convcrsatiion, Instead of 
being taken up as before with fearf\il exclamations ron- 
cernlng devils and the wrath to come, was now confined 
to the ayiag love oS Jasui ! The apothecary w«i of opi- 


akrn, tkmt If his ftr«i«fk had not Vmbm mueh mhiniti^rt, 
he wotthl now hare been la a state of religious transport 
Ri5 ner vous aystem, however, had received such a shock, 
that his recovery was doubtful } and it seemed ceriaiJi» that 
If he did recover, he would bink hiio a state of idiocy. He 
surviyed this interview but a few days.*— £v. Mag. p. 41:1, 
4IS. f 

A religious observer Gtands at a turnpike gate on a 
Sunday, lo witness the profane crowd passinff by ; he 
sees a man driving very clumsilv in a gig ; the expe- 
rience of the driver provokes the loUowing pious obser- 

•** What (I said to mycel ) if a slngte outwaid dream- 
stance should hap|ien ! Sboidd the horse lake fright, or 
ihe wheel on either side got entangled, or the gic uijaet^in 
«i(lier case what can pretiervr him .' And should a morn- 
ing so fair and pramising bring on evil before night- 
should death on his pale horse appear— what follows? My 
Blind shuddered at the images I had raised.'* '— JSv. Mag, 
p. 66S, dM. 

Jtftft loiiisa CookeU rapturous afttfe. 

* From this period she Urcd chiefly in retirement, either 
in reading the sacied volume on her knees, or in pouring 
oui her soul in prayer to God. While thus employed, she 
was nut unfirequently indulged with visits from her gra- 
cious Lord ; and sf.meUmes she felt herself to besurroundcd, 
as it w«je, by his gracious presence. After her return to 
Biiitol. her frame of mind became so heavenly, that she 
seemed often to be dissolved in the love of Ood her Sa- 
viour.'— Ur. Mag. p. 676, «77. 

Objection to Altnanackg. 

* Let those who have been partial to such yaln produc- 
tions, only read Isaiah zlyli. 13, and Daniel 11. 37 ; and they 
viU hei« see what they are to be accounted of, and in 
what company they are to be found ; and let them learn 
to despise taeir equivocal and artful insinuations, wiach 
are too ftequenily blended with profanity ; for Is it not 
pmfanity in thm lo attempt to pahn their frauds upon 
msiikind by scripture quotations, which they seldom fail 
to do, especially Judges v. SO, and Job zxxviii. 81 f neither 
of which teaches nor warrants any such practice. Had 
Bantch or Deborah consulted the stars? No such thing.* 
-£v, Mag. p. 600. 

This energy of feeling will be found occasionallj to 
meddle with, and disturb the ordinary occupations 
and amusements of life, and to raise up little qualms 
of conscience, which, instead of exciting respect, 
border, we fear, somewhat too closely upon the ludi- 
crous. ' 

A , Methodist Footman. 

* A gentleman's Servant, who has left a good place be- 
cause M was ordei-ed to denj his master when actually at 
home, wishes sometldng on tnts subject may be introduced 
inio this work, thai persons who are in the habit of deny- 
inz themselves In the above manner may be convinced of 
its evil.*-£v. Mag. p. 79. 

Doubts if His right to take inter aH for money. 

* rnrfv.— Sir, I beg the favour of you to Insert (he fbllow- 
ingcsrp of conscience!* I frequently find in scriptme, that 
C$um Is partUmlarly condemned ; and that it is repre- 
•enud as ihe character of a good man, that " he hath not 
riven forth upon «sury, neither hath takes any Increase," 
E<*ek. rviil. 8, Ice. I wish, therefore, to know how such 
P>tt»ges are to be understood ; and whethei* thetsklng of 
interert for money, universally practiced among us, 
can be reconcUed wilh the word and will of God? Q.*— 
£r. Mag. p. 74. 

Dancing m suttedfor-a creature on trial for eternity. 

« If dancing be a fwaste of time ; if the precious hours de- 
voted to it may be better employed ; if It be a species of 
liiflins ill suited to a creature on tiJal for eternity, and 
hastening towards it on the swift wings of time : If It be 
i»com])at)ble with genuine repentance, true faith in Chrl5t, 
lapreme love to God, and a siste of genuine devotedness 
to htm,— then is dancing a rractlce utterly opposed to the 
whole spirit snd temper of Christianity, and subversive of 
Ihe best interesU of the rising generation.'— lf<<4. Mag, p. 
1*7, lis. 

The Methodists consider themselves as constituthig 
a chosen and separate people, living in a land of athe- 
ists and Yolnpftuariea. The expressions by which 
tbcy desigQaU) tbeix own sects, are the dssr people^^ 

the cfocf— the «Mffc of Ood. Tbn teat of mamkiud 
nxeoamalpeopU^^hepeopieoftMsvorldf^c.ko. The 
children of Israel were not more separated, through 
the favour of God, from the Egyptians, than the JVlr- 
tbodists are, in their own estimation, fVom the rest of 
mankind, we had hitherto supposed that the dis- 
ciples of the Established churches in England and 
Scotland had been Christians ; and that, after bap- 
tism, duly performed by the appointed minister, and 
participation in the customary worship of these two 
churches, Christianity was the religion of which they 
were to be considered as members. We see^ how- 
ever, in these publications, men of twenty or thirty 
years of age first called to a knowledge of Christ wu 
der a sermon by the Rev. Mr. Veim,'— or first admitted 
into the church of Christ under a sermon, by the Rev. Mr. 
Romaine. The apparent admission turns out to have 
been a mere mockery; and the pseudo-christian to 
have had no religion at all, till the business was really 
and effectually done under these sermons by Mc. Venn 
and Mr. Romaine. 

An auful and general departure from the Christian 
Faith in the Church ofEngkmd, 

* A second volume of Mr. Cooper's sermons Is before us 
stamped wHh the same broad seal of truth sjid excdlence 
as the fonner. Amidst the awful and general departure 
from the faith, as once delivered to the Mints, in the Church 
of England, and sealed by the blood of our reforrners, it is 
plea^in^ to ob««rTe that there Is a remnant, according to 
the election of grace, who continue nrfng up to t&iit\ the 
gospel of ibe grace of God, and to call back their fellows 
to the considrration of the great and leading doctrines on 
which the Reformation was built, and theChurch of £n( land 
by law established. The author of these sermons, avoiding 
all matters of more doubtful dii^putation, avowtsdly attache -i 
himself to the threat fundamental truths; and on the two 
substantial pillars, the Jachin and Boas of the living temple, 
erects his superrtructure. 1. Justification by faith, without 
works, free and full, by grace alone, through the redemp- 
tion which is in Jesus Curiirt, stands at the commencement 
of the fliait volume; and on Its side rises in the beauty of 
holiness,' ice— £v. Mag, p. 79. 

Mr. RiMnson called to the knouiedge of Christ under 
Mr. f^enn'e Sermon. 

* Me. Robinson was called m eariy life to the knowledge 
of Christ, under a sermon at St Dunstan's, by tlie late Uev. 
Mr. Venn, from Erek. xxxvi. 3ft, 26; the remembrance of 
which greatty refreshed his soul upon his death-bed.'— j;«w 
Mag, p. 176. 

Christianity introduced irtto the Parish of Launton, 

near Bicester j in the year 1807. 

« A very general spirit of inqubry havins? appeared for some 

time in the viUa:re of Launton, near Bleeder, MHne serious 

Eersens were excited to communicate to them the word of 
fe.'— £». Mag. p. 880. 

We leam in page 128, Meth, Mag.^ that twelve 
months had elapsed from the time of Mrs. Cocker's 
joining the people of <xod, before she obtained a clear 
sense of forgiveness. 

A rdigious Hoy sets off every veekfor Margate. 

< Jtdfgi'otM Paueneers aceommodated.—To the Bditor^&ir, 
it aflorded me coni.werablc pleasure to see up«n tbe cover 
of your Msgazine for the pie!»ent month, an aUvcrti»cra''nt, 
announcing the ej*tabli*hment of a packet, to liall >7cekly 
between London and Margate, during tlie season; which 
appears to have been set on foot for the accommod.itiun of 
religious characters; andjn which *<no profane conver<»a- 
tion Is to be allowed." 

« To tliose among the followers of a crucified Redeemer, 
who are in the habit of visiting the Ide of Thanet in the 
summer, and who, for the sea air, or from other circum- 
stances, i»efer travelling by water, such a conveyance must 
cerUinly be a Httideratitm, e*pedaUy if they have ej^pe- 
rienced a mortification similar to that of the wiiter, in the 
course of tl>e last summer, when shut up in a cahin with a 
mixed multitude, who spoke almost all lanpuagesbut tha< 
of Canaan. Totally unconnected with the concern, and 
personally a stranger to the worthy owner,! take the liberty 
of recommending thi< vesnel to the notice of my fellow- 
Christlani! ; peri&uaded that they will think themselves bound 
to patronize and encourage an undertaking that has the 
honour of the dear Redeemer for Its professed object it 
ought ever to be remembered, that every talent we possess, 
whether Isrgt or small, la given ua In tmst to be laid out lipr 



God; snd I btre often tbooglit tbtt ChristUiu act incon- 
ristently with tt^ir high profeaelon, when they omit, even 
in their most Summon and tririal eacpenditunssy to gire a 
decided prefeiimce to the Mend of their Lord. I do not, 
however, an'.itipate any such ground of complaint in this 
instance; hat rather believe that the religious world in 
general will cheerfully unite with me, while I most cordially 
wish success to the Princess of Wales Tacht, and pray that 
ahe may ever sail under the divine protection and oleasing ; 
that the humble followers of Bhn who spoke the storm into 
« calm, when crossing the lalce of Gennesareth, may often 
feel their hearts glowing with sacred ardour, while in her 
cabins they eigoy sweet communion with their Lord and 
with each other; and that strangers, who may be provi. 
dentially brought among them, may see so much of the 
beauty and excellency of the religion of Jesus eiempUfled 
in their conduct and conversation, that they may be con- 
strained to say, *»We will go with you, for we perceive that 
God is with vou.— -Tour God shall be our God, and his people 
shall hencefozth be our chosen companions and aaaociates." 
I am, Mr. Editor, your obliged friend and sister ia the 
gosp<d, £. T^— '£0* Mag. p. 368. 

A religiout nnospaper ia aimounetd in the Ev, M. 
for September. — It is said of common newspapers, 
( That they are absorbed in temporal coneemSf while 
the coneideraHon of those which are eternal is postponed ; 
the business of this life has superseded the claims of 
immortality; and the monarcns of the world hare 
engrossed an attention which would have been more 
properly devoted to the Saviour of the universe.' It 
IS then stated, ' that the columns of this paper (The 
Instructor f Price Sd.) will be supplied by pious re- 
flections ; suitable comments to improve the dispensa- 
tions of Providence will be introduced ; and the whole 
conducted with an eye to our spiritual, as well as 
temporal welfare. The work wiu contam the latest 
news up to four o'clock oa the day of publication, to- 

5 ether with the most recent religious occurrences, 
'he prices of stock, and conect market-tables, will 
also be accurately detailed.'— £0. Mag. September Ad- 
vertisement. The Eclectic Review is also understood 
to be carried on upon Methodistical principles. 

Nothing can evince more strongly the influence 
which Methodism now exercises upon common life, 
and the fast hold it bas got of the people, tlian the 
advertisements which are circulated every month in 
these very singular publications. On the cover of a 
single number, for example, we have the following : — 

'Wanted, by Mn Turner, shoemaker, a steady appren- 
' lice: he will have the privilege of attending the ministry 
bf the gospdj^a premium expected, p. 3.— Wanted, a 
serious young woman, as servant of all work, a.— Wanted, 
a man of setlous character, who can shave, 8.— Wanted, a 
serious woman to assist in a shop, 8. — A youiu; person in 
the millinery line wishes to be m a serious family, 4.— 
Wants a i^Iace, a young man who has brewed in a serious 
family, 4.— Ditto, a young woman of evangelical principles, 
4. — wanted, an acuve serious shopman, 6. — To be sold, an 
eligible residence, with sixty acres of land ; go^wl preached 
in Uiree places within half a mile, 6.— A single gentleman 
may be accommodated with lodging in a small serious 
family. s.-^To let, a genteel first floor In an airy situation 
near the Tabernacle, 6.— Wanted, a governess, of evan- 
gelical principles and corresponding cutracteri 10.* 

The religious vessel we have before spoken of^ is 
thus advertised : — 

<The Princess of Wales Yacht, J. Chapman, W. Bourn, 
master, bf divine permiasion, will leave Ral];^'s Quay 
every Friday, 11.' £c kc—Jvly Ev. Mag, 

After the specimens we have given of these people, 
any thing which is said of their activity can very 
easily be credited. The army and navy appear to be 
particular objects of their attention. 

* British Navy^Jt is with peailiar pleasure we insert the 
following extract of a letter from the pious chaplain of a 
man-of-war, to a gentleman at Oosport, intimating the 
power and grace of God manifested towards our brave sea- 
men. " Off Cadizt Nov. 36, 1806.— My dear friend— A fleet 
for England found us in the night, and Is just going away. 
U&ave only }o telt vou that the work of God seems to pros- 
per. Many are under convictions ;— some, I trust, are con- 

verted. But my own health is ssiTering much, nor ahall I 
probably be able lone to bear it The ship Is like a taber- 
nacle; and really tnere is much external reformation. 
Capt. ^^ ralsei no objection. I have near a hundred 

hearers every night at six o'clock. How unworthy am I ! 
—Pray for u8.»'^-£r. Mag, 84. 

The testimony qf aprqfane Q0teer to the wor& ef Pious 

Mr. Editor— In the mouth of two or three witnesses, a 
truth shall be established. I recently met with a plea^ng 
confirmation of a narrative, stated some timerince in your 
Magazine. I was surprised by a visit from an old acquaint- 
ance of mine the other day, who Is now an oflicer of rank 
in hitf Majesty's navy. In the course of converbsticn, I 
was shocked at the profane oaths that perpetually inter- 
rupted his sentences ; and took an opportunity to express 
my regret that such language should be so common among 
so valuable a body of men. " Sir,*' said he, still inter«i.-er- 
sln^ many solemn imprecations* " no ofilcer can live at sea 
witibout swearing ;— not one of my men would mind a v ord 
without an oath ; it is common sea-languase. If we i%cre 
not to swear, the rascals would take us for lubbers, stare in 
our faces, and leave us to do our commands our»eIve8. I 
never knew but one exception ; and that was extraordi- 
nary. I declare, believe me 'tis true (suspecting that I 
might not credit it,} there wws a set of feUcws called KdAo- 
iftite, on board the Victory, Lord Nelson's ship, (to be sure 
he wa3 rather a religious man himself!) and those men ne- 
ver wanted swearing at The dogs were the best seamen 
on board. Every man knew his duty, and every man did 
his duty. They used to meet t^ether and sing hymns ; and 
nobody dared molest them. The commander would not 
have sutTered it had they attempted it They were allowed 
a mess by themselves; and never mixed with the othnr 
men. I have often heard them sine away myself ; and 'tis 
true, I assure you, but not one of them was either killed or 
wounded at the battle of Trafalgar, thoueh they did tlic-ir 
duty as well as any men. No, not one of the psalm-sin^ing 
gentry was even hurt ; and there the fellows are swimmini; 
away in the Bay 01 Biscay at this very time, sinking like 
the d— . They are now under a new commander ; but 
still are allowed the same privileges, and mess bv them- 
selves. These were the only fellows that I ever knew to 
do tbeir duty without swearing ; and I will do them jusUce 
to say they do it" J. C— £v. Mag. p. 119, 130. 

These people are spread over the face of the whole 
earth in the shape of missionaries.^Upon the subject 
of missions we shall say very Hitle or nothing at pre- 
sent, because we reserve it for another article m a 
subsequent Number. But we cannot help remarking 
the magnitude of the collections made in favour of ii;e 
missionaries at the Methodistical chapels, when com- 
pared with the collections for any common objcci of 
charity in the orthodox churches and chapels. 

*Rdigiou$ Tract Socj'rty.— The mort satisfactory Report 
was presented by the Committee ; trom. v hich it apr«««l, 
that since the commenccmrnt of the Institution in the year 
17», upwards of Four MtUions of Religious Tracts hare 
been iwjued under the auspices of the Society ; and that con- 
siderably more than one-fourth of that number have been 
sold during the last year.*— £v. Mag. p. 384. 

These tracts are dropped in villages by the Metho- 
dists, and thus every chance for conversion afforded 
to the common people. There is a proposal in one 
of the numbers of the volumes before us, that trareJ- 
lers, for every pound they spend on the road, should 
fling one shillmg's worth of these tracts out of the 
chaise window ; — thus taking his pleasures at 5 per 
cent, for the purposes of doing good. 

< Every Christian who expects the protection and bles- 
sing of God, oujfbt to Uke with him as many sAilliner worii, 
at least, of cheap Tracts to throw on the road, and leave at 
inns, as he takes out pounds to expend on himself and fa- 
mily. This is really but a trifling sacrifice. It is a highly 
reasonable one; and one which God wiU accept— £». 
Mag. p. 405. 

It it port (f their pdUey to have a great e&onge qf Ministers. 

* Same day, the Rev. W. Haward, firom Hoxton Academy, 
was ordained over the Independent church at Rendhaip, 
Suflblk. Mr. Pickles, of Walpole, be^an with a prayer and 
reading ; Mr. Price, of Woodbridge, delivered the introduc- 
tory discourae, and asked the questions; Mr. Dennant, «f 
Halesworth, offered the ordination prayer ; Mr. Shvffl^t- 
totm qfBungm,, eove the charge f^m Acts M. 38 ? Mr. \ in- 
cent, of D^n «ie eeneral prayer; and Mr. Walford of 
Yarmouth, preached to the people ftom 2 Phil. 11. 16. — 

ChapSs^ened.—* Hambledon, Bucks, Sept S2.—Eifihteen 
months ago this parish was destitute of the gospel : the yw- 
ple have now one of the Rev. G. Collison^s students, the 
kev. Mr. Eastmead, setUed among them. Mk. English 01 



VTfiolNunt aad Mr. fNT» prttclMdott tteoocaiio&; and 
Mr. Jon« of London, Mr. ClrarcUll of Henlejr, Mr. R«d- 
Ibrd, of WindMT, and Mr. BtiratLnow of Peiotfleld, pray- 
ed.'— £t. Mof. p. ttt. 

MtOMimm in Am Mi^eHu'a Aip Tmmm*^^ UtUr fnm tk» 
* It is wKh great satisfkalon that I can now Infimn jou 
God has deigned in a yet greater darree, to own the weak 
eSbrta of- hia fenrant to turn many from Satan to himaelf. 
ManT are called here, aa is plain to be seen by their pen- 
sive looks and deep sighs. And if they would be obeaient 
to the beavenlT call' instead of griering the spirit of grace, 
I dare saT we should soon have near half the ship's compa- 
ny brought to Ood. I doubt not, however, but, as I have 
ca5l my bread uion the waters, it wiU be f»iind after many 
days. Our IS are now increased to upwards of 30. Surely 
the Lord delighieth not in the death of him that dieth.*— 
lf<£AJfeff.p. 188. 

It appears also, from p. 193, MtOi. Mag.y that the 
same prlociples prevail on board his Majesty's ship 
Sea-horse, 44 guns* And io one part of Evan. Mag.j 
great hopes are entertained of the 25th regiment. 
We believe this is the number ; but we quote this fact 
from memory. 

We must remember, in addition to these trifling 
specimens of their active disposition^ that the Metho- 
dists hare found a powerful party in the House of 
Commons, who by the neutrality wiiicb they affect, 
and partly adhere to, are courted both by ministers 
and opposition ; that they have gained complete pos- 
session uf the India-House ; and uudcr the pretence, 
or, perhaps with the serious intention of educating 
young people for India, will take care to introduce 
(as much as they dare withont provoking attention) 
their own particular tenets. In fact, one thing must 
alwa^-s be taken for granted respecting these people, 
—that wherever they gain a footing, or whatever be 
the institutions to which they give birth, proulyliam 
will be their mam otject; everythhig else is a mere 
!Bi>trument — this is their principal aim. When every 
profeetyte is not only an addition to their temponu 
power, but when the act of convenion which gains a 
tote« saves (as they suppose) a soul ftom destruction, 
—it is ^uite needless to state, that every faculty of 
their minds will be dedicated to this most important 
of all temporal and eternal concerns. 

Their attack tt|)on the Church is not merely eonfined 
to pnblications ; it is generally understood that they 
have a very consideraDle fbnd for the purdiase of liv- 
isgs, to which, of course, ministers of their own pro- 
fession are always presented. 

Upon the foregoing facts, and upon the spirit evinced 
by tnese extracts, we shall make a few comments, 
'l. It is obvious, that tliis description of Christians 
entertain very erroneous and dangerous notions of the 
present judgments of God. A belief, that Providence 
mterferes in all the little actions ot our lives, refers 
ail merit and demerit to bad and good fortune ; and 
causes the successful man to be always considered as 
a good man and the unhappy man as the object of 
divine vengeance. It fumisnes ignorant and design- 
ii^ men with a power which is sure to be abused : — 
the cij of, a judgment, a judgment^ it is always easy 
to maKe, but not easy to resist. It encourages the 
grossest superstitions ; for if the Deity rewards and 
punishes on every slight occasion, it is quite impossi- 
oio, but that sucn an helpless being as man will set 
himself at work to discover the will of Heaven in the 

appearances of outward nature, to apply all the phe- 
nnmena of thunder, lightning, wind, and every strik- 
ing appearance to the regulation of his conduct ; as 
the poor Methodist, when he rode into Piccadilly in a 
thunder storm, and imagined that all the uproar of the 
eierac'nts was a mere hint to him not to preach at Mr. 
Romaine's chapel. Hence a great deal of error, and 
a great deal of secret misery. This doctrine of a 
theocracy must necessarily place an excessive power 
in the hands of the clergy ; it applies so instantly and 
so tremendously to men's hopes and fears, that it must 
make the priest omnipotent over ihe people, as it al- 
ways has done where it has been established. It has 
a great tendencT to check human exertions, and to 
prevent the employment of those secondary means of 

effecting aa oh^tKX which providence hat pbced i& our 
power. The doctrine of the immediate and perpetual 
mterference of Divine Providence, is not true. If two 
men travel the same road, the one to rob, the other to 
relieve a fellow-creature who is starving ; will any 
but the most fanatic contend, that they do not botn 
run the same chance of falling over a stone, and break- 
ing their legs? and is it not matter of fact, that the 
robber often returns safe, and the just man sustains 
the injury ? Have not tne soundest divines, of both 
churches, always urged this unequal distribution of 
good and evil, In the present state, as one of the 
strongest natural arguments for a future state oi retri- 
bution ? Have they not contended, and well and ad- 
mirably contended, that the supposition of such a state 
is absolutely necessary to our notion of the justice of 
God — absolutely necessary to restore order to that 
moral confusion which we all observe and deplore in 
the present world t The man who places religion vpon 
a false basis is the greatest enemy to religion. If vic- 
tory is always to the just and good, how is the fortune 
of impious conquerors to be accounted for 7 Why do 
they erect dynasties, and found fhmilies which last 
for centuries? The reflecting mind whom you have 
instructed in tUs manner, and for present efiect ouiy, 
naturally comes upon you hereafter with difficulties 
of this sort ; he finds he has been deceived ; and you 
will soon discover that, in breeding up a fanatic, you 
have unwittingly laid the foundation for an atheist. 
The honest and orthodox method is to prepare young 
people for the world, as it actually exists ; to tefi 
them that they will often find vice perfectly success- 
ful, virtue exposed to a long train of afflictions ; that 
they must bear this patiently, and look to another 
world for its rectification. 

2. The second doctrine which it is necessary to no- 
tice among the Methodists, is the doctrine of inward 
impulse and emotions, which, it is quite plain, must 
lead, if universally insisted upon, ana preached among 
the common people, to every species of folly and 
enormity. When a human being believes that his 
internal feelings are the monitions of God, and that 
these monitions must govern his conduct ; and when a 
great stress is purposely laid upon these inward feel- 
mgs in all the discourses ttom the pulpit ; it is, of 
course, impossible to say to what a pitch of extrava- 
gance mankind may not oe carried, under the influence 
of such dangerous doctrines. 

3. The Methodists hate pleasure and amusements ; 
no theatre, no cards, no dancing, no punchinello, no 
dancing dogs, no blind fiddlers ; all the amusements 
of the rich and of the poor must disappear, wherever 
these gloomy people get a fooling. It is not the abuse 
of pleasure which they attack, but the interspersion 
of pleasure, however much it is guarded by good sense 
and moderation ; it is not only wicked to hear the 
licentious plays of Congrcve, but wicked to hear Henry 
the Vth, or the School for Scandal ; it is not only dis- 
sipated to run about to all the parties in London and 
f-ldinburgh, but dancing is not fit for a being who it 
preparing himself for Eternity. Ennvi, wretchedness, 
melancholy, groans and sighs, are the ofi*erings which 
these unhappy men make to a Deity who has covered 
the earth with gay colours, and scented it with rich 
perfumes ; and shown us, by the plan and order of his 
works, that he has given to man sometliing belter 
than a bare existence, and scattered over his croatiou 
a thousand superfluous joys, which are totally unne- 
cessary to the mere support of life. 

4. The Methodists lay very little stress upon prac- 
tical righteousness. They do not say to their people, 
do not be deceitflil ; do not be idle ; get rid of your 
bad passions ; or at least (if they do say these things) 
they say them very seldom. Not that they preach 
faith without works ; for if they told the people, that 
they might rob and murder with impunity, the civil 
magistrate must be compelled to interfere with such 
doctrine : but they say a great deal about faith, and 
very little about works. What are commonly called 
tlie mysterious parts of our religion, arc brought into 
the foreground much more than the doctrines which 
lead to practice— and this among the lowest of the 

22 WOftK» OF Tmn ll£V. SIDNEY SMITE. 

Thtf Methodists hare hitherto been accused of dia- 1 difficnUr, under the intlueoee of thia noiiaelkse^ fa 
•enting from the Church ef Engi&Dd. This, asfkras ' '' * ' 

folates to mere subscription to articles^ is not true ; 
but they difitir in their choice of the articles upon 
which they dilate and expand, and to which they 
appear to g^ive a preference^ from the stress whicn 
they place upon them. There is nothing heretical io 

saymgi that bod fometinus intervenes with his special 
providence ; but these people dif er from the Estsblish- 
ed Church, in the degree in which they insist upon 
this doctrine. In the hands of a man of sense and 
education I it is a safe doctrine ; m the managemeM of 
the Methodists, we have seen' how ridiculous and de- 
grading it becomes. In ther same manner, a clergy- 
man ot the Church of £neland would not do his duty, 
if he did not insist upon the necessity of iliith, as well 
as of good works; but as he believes that it is much 
more easy to give credit to doctrines than to live well, 
he labours most in those points where human nature 
is the most liable to prove defective. Because he does 
so, he is accused of giving op the articles of his faith, 
by men who have their partialities also in doctrine ; 
but parties, not founded upon the same sound dlscre- 
tion, and knowledge of human nature. 

5. The Methodists are always desirous of makkg 
men more religious than it is possible. fVom the con- 
stitution of human nature, to make them. If they 
could succeed as much as they wish to succeed, there 
Would at once be an end of delving and spinning, and 
of every exertion of human industry. Men must eat, 
and drink, and work ; and if yeu wish to fix upon them 
high and elevated notions, as the ordtTuiry furniture of 
their minds, you do these two things ; you drive men 
of warm temperaments mad, and you introduce in the 
rest of ihe world, a low and shockmg familiarity with 
words and images, which every real friend to TeMgion 
would wish to keep sacred^ The friends of the dear 
Pedfemer, tcho are in the habit of visiting the lUe of 
Thanet-^CeA in the extract we have quoted) — Is it 
possible that this mixture of the most awful, with the 
most fanviliar images, so common among Methodists 
now, and with the enthusiasts in the time of Grom- 
welli must not, in the end, divest religion of all the 
deep and solenui impressions wliich it is calculated to 
DToduce ? In a man of common imagindtion (as we 
na<^e before observed,) the terrer^ and the reeling 
wiiich it first excited, must necessarily be soon sepa^ 
rated: but, where tnc fervour ef Impression is long 
jiieserved, piety ends in Bedlam. Accordingly,. there 
IS not a mad-house in England, where a considerable 
part of the patients have not been driven to insanity 
by the extravagance of these people. We cannot 
enter such places without seeing a number of honest 
artisans, coveied with blankets, and calling them- 
selves anffels and apostles, who, if they had remained 
contented with the instruction of men of learning and 
education, would have been sound masters of their 
own trade, sober Christians, and useful members of 

6. It is impossible not to observe how directly rU 
the doctrine of the Methodists is calculated to gain 
power among the poor and ignorant. To say, that 
the Deity governs this world by general rules, and 
that we must wait for another and a final scene of 
esdstence. before vice meets with its merited punish- 

convertihg these simple creatures into active and 
mysterious fools, and making them your slaves for 
life? It is not possible to raise up any dangerous 
enthuaiaamy by telling men to be just, and good, and 
charitable ; but keep this part of Christianity out of 
sight, 9sxd talk long and enthusiastically betbre igno- 
rant people, of the mysteries of our rehgion, and you 
will not feJX to attract a crowd of followers: verily 
the Tabemaele loveth not that which is simple, in- 
telligible, and leadeth to good sound practice. 

Having endeavoured to point out the spirit which 
pervades tlicse people/' we snail say a few words \iym. 
the causes, the effects,' and the cure of this calamity. 
The fanaticism so prevalent in the present day, is one 
of those evils Irom which society is never wholly ex- 
empt ; but which bursts out at different periods, with 
peculiar violence, and sometimes overwhelms every- 
thing in its course. The last eruption took place 
about a century and a half ago, and destroyed both 
Church and Throne with its tremendous force. Though 
irresistible, it was short i enthusiasm spent its force ; 
the usual reaction took place ; and Kngland was de-* 
luged with ribaldry ana indecency, because it bad 
been worried with ftinatical restrictions. By degrees, 
however, it was found out that orthodoxy and loyalty 
might be secured by other methods than lieent'.ous 
conduct and immodest conversation. The public 
morals improved ; and there appeared as much good 
sense and moderation upon the subject of religion as 
ever can be expected from mankind in large masses. 
Still, however, the mischief which the Putitans had 
done was not fbrirtftten ; a general suspicion prevailed 
of the dangers of religious enthusiasm ; ana the fa- 
natical preacher wanted his accustomed power amcng 
a people recently recovered from a religious war. and 
guarded by songs, prenrerbs, popular stories, and the 
general tide of humour and opinion, against all excesses 
of that nature. About the middle of the last century,, 
however, the character of the genuine fanatic was a 
good deal forgotten, and the memory of the civil wars 
worn away ; the field was clear for extravagance in 
piety; ana causes, wliich must always pr^uce an 
immense influence upon tho mind of man^ were left to 
their own nnimpedea opemtiotts. AeUgion is so noble 
and powerful a consideration — ^it is so buoyant and so 
insubmergible — that it maybe made, by fanatics^ 
to carry with it any de«$ree of error and of per« 
ilous aosurdity. In this instance Messrs. 'Whit^ 
field and Wesley happened to begin. They were 
men of considerable talents ; they observed the com^ 
mon decorums of life ; they did not run naked into the 
streets, or pretend to the prophetical character ; and 
therefore they were not committed to Newgate. 
They preached with great energy to w^eak people ; 
who first stared — then listened — tnen believed — their 
feU the inward feeling of grace,, and became as foolish 
as their teachers couid possibly wish tbem to be ; iff 
shorty folly ran its ancient course, and human nature 
evinced itself to be what it has always been under si- 
milar circumistaaces. The great and permanent cause^ 
therefore, of the increase of Methomcm, is the cause 
which has given birth to fanaticism in all ages— fAr 
facility of Mingling human errors with the fundamertal 
truths of religion. The formerly imperfect res'dence 

ment, ana virtue with its merited reward ; to preach tbf the clergy may, perhaps, in some trifling degree, 
t}*is up daily, would not add a single votary to the Vhavc aided tlus source of Methodism. But unlefs a 
Tabernacle, nor sell a Number of the Methodisticai'man of edueation, and a gentleman, could stoop to 

such disingenuous arts as the Methodist prcachcrr, 
unless he hears heavenly music all of a Fuddcn, and 


Magazine : but to publish an account of a man who was 
cured of scrofula by a shigle sermon — of Providence 
de5tro3rng the innkeejoer at Garstang for appointing 
a cock-fight near the Tabernacle; this promptness of 
' jdgment and immediate execution is so much like 
iiman justice, and so much better adapted to vulgar 
c.ipacities, that the system is at once admitted as soon 
Ks any one can be found who is impudent or ignorant 
enough to teach it ; and, being once admitted^ it pro- 
Cuccs too strong an effect upon the passions to be 
easily relinquished. The case is the same with the 
<!octrine of inward impulse, or, as they term it, ex- 
perience. If you preacn up to ploughmen and artisans, 
that every singular feeling which comes across them 
is a viaitation of the Divine Spirit, can theie be any 

enjoys sureet experiences^ it is ^uite impossible that Le 
can contend against such artists as tbepe. Moie ac- 
tive than they are at present the clergy might perhaps 
be : bat the calmness and moderation of an Estiiblif n- 
raent can never possibly be a match for sectarian ac- 
tivity. If the common people are ennvVd with t} e 
fine acting of Mrs. Siddone, they ^o to Sadler's WcUi. 
The subject is too serious for ludicrous comparierna : 
but the Tabernacle really is to the Church, what Sad' 
ler's Wells u to the Drama. There populariiy is 
gained by vaulting and tumbling — ^by low arts wnich 
the regular clergy are not too idle to have recourse 
tOy but too dignified ; theSi lastitiitiona ate dtaste and 


BTfm, they «iidetTW» to do thit wMch «po» tlu \ Oetr, If theywcm done, they would do much good. 
mckoU, and for a great nutnber qf years , will be found Whatever happens, we are for common sense and or. 
to be the nioet admirable and the most useful : it is I thodoxy. Insolence, servile politics, and the spirit of 

kko part 01 their plan to descend to small artifices for 
Ihe sake of present popularity and etfect. The re- 
ligion of the common people, under the government of 
the Church, miy remam as it is forever ; enthusiasm 
must be progressive, or it will expire. 

It is probable that the dreadful scenes which have 
lately been acted in the world^ and the dangers to 
which we are exposed, have increased the numbers 
of the Methodists. To what degree will Method* 
ism extend in this country ? This question is not 
easy to answer. That it has rapidly increased 
within these few years, we have no manner of 
doubt ; and we coniess we cannot see what is like- 
ly to impede its progress. The party which it has 
formed m the Legislature; and the artful nentral- 
itj with which they give respectability to their small 
number, the talents of some of this party, and the un- 
impeached excellence of their characters, all make it 

Srobuhle that fanaticism will increase rather than 
iminish. The Methodists have made an alarming 
inroad into the Church, md they are attacking the 
army and navy. The princinaiity of Wales, and the 
£a$t India Company, they have already acquired. 
All mines and subterraneous places belong to them ; 
thoT creep into hospitals and small schools, and so 
WDfic tlieir way upwards. It is the custom of the reli- 
gious neutrals to oeg all the little livings, particularly 
in the north of England, from the minister for the 
time being ; and from these fixed points they make in* 
cursions upon the happiness and common sense of the 
vicinage. Wc most sincerely deprecate such an 
event ; but it will excite in us no manner of surprise, 
if a period arrives when the sober and orthodox part 
of the English clergy are completely deserted by the 
middling and lower classes otthe community: We 
do not prophesy any such event ; but we contend that 
it is not unpossible, hardly improbable. If such, in 
future , ahoula be the situation of this country, it is im< 
possible to say what political animosities may not be 
ingraftoa upon this marked and dangerous division of 
mankind hito the godly and ungodly. At all events, 
we are auite sure that happiness will be destroyed, 
reason oegraded, sound religion banished from the 
world s and that when fanaticism becomes too foolish 
aid too prurient to be endured (as is at last sure to be 
the ease)) It ^i^ he succeeded oy a long period of the 
grossest immorality and debauchery. 

We are not sure that this evil admits of any cure, 
or of any consldomble palliation. We most sincerely 
hope that the government of this country will never 
be guilty of such indiscretion as to tamper with the 
Toleration Act, or to attempt to pot down these follies 
by the Intervention of the law. If experience has 
taught US anything, it is the absurdity of controlling 
men^s notions of eternity by acts of Parliament. 
Something may perhaps l>e done, hi the way of ridi* 
cule, towards turning the popular ophiion. It may be 
as weU to extend the privileges or the dissenters to 
the members of the Cnurch of England ; for as the 
law now stands, any man who oussents from the 
Established Church may open a place of worship where 
he pleases. No orthodox clergyman can do so with- 
out the consent of the parson of the parish, who al- 
ways refuses, because he does not choose to have his 
monopoly disturbed ; and refuses in parishes where 
there are not accommodations for one half of the per- 
sons who wish to frequent the Church of England, 
aad in instances wliere ho knows that the chapels 
from which he excludes the established worship, will 
be immediately occupied by sectaries. It may oe as 
well to encourage in the early education of the clergy, 
a better and more animated method of preachmg ; and 
it may be necessary hereafter, if the evil rets to a 
great height, to relax the articles of the English church, 
and to admit a greater variety of Christians withm the 
pale. The greatest and best of all remedies is per- 
baps the education of the poor ; we are astonished, 
that the Established Churcn of England is not awake 
to thiignean of arresting the progress of Methodism. 
Of course none of these things will be done ; nor is it 


persecution, we condemn and attack, whenever we ob- 
serve them ; but to the learning, the moderation, and 
the rational piety of the Establishment, we most ear- 
nestly wish a decided victory over the nonsense, the 
melancholy, and the madness of the Tabernacle.* 
God send that our wishes be not in vain. 

INDIAN MISSIONS. (£x>nrBTr&OH Rsvicw, 1808.) 

Coiutderationt on the Policy ^ eommtmieatir^ the Knew 
Udg€ qf Chri»Uamiy to the AQtti vet tn India. By s late &e- 
sident in Bengal. London. UatclisiTi, 1807. 

^n Aidmt to th* Ckoirman of the Eott India Company, m- 
ooffioncrf iy JTr. TVinttw't LetUr to thai OeniUma$i, By 
the Bev. J obn Owen. London. Hatckard. 

^ Letter to the Ckairaum i^ the JBaet India Compamf on the 
Danger of interfermg in the retigioue Opinione ^ the Ifa- 
ttvrt ^ India. By Thomas Twming. London. Kidgo- 

Vindieation of Ae Hindooe. By a Bengal Officer. London. 

Letter to John Beott Waring. London. Hatchsrd. 
CvfUMnfAam't Chrietianity in India, London. HatchanL 
Anewer to Mi^or Scott Waring. Extracted from, the Chris- 
tian Oboerver. 

Oheervatione on the Preeent Blete qfthe Saet India Company^ 
By M^r Scott Waring. Bidgeway. London. 

At two o'clock in the morning, July the 10th, 1806, 
the European barracks, at Vellore, containing then four 
complete companies of the G9th regiment, were sur- 
rounded by two battalions of Sepoys in the Company's 
service, who poured in an heavy nre of musketry, at 
every door and window, upon the soldiers : at the 
same time the European sentries, the soldiers at the 
main-guaid, and the sick in the hospital, were put to 
death ; the officers' houses were ransacked, and every 
body found in them murdered. Upon the arrival of 
the 19th Light Dragoons undar Colonel Gillespie, the 
Sepoys were immediately attacked; 600 cut down 
upon the spot ; and SOO taken from their hiding places, 
and shot. There perished, of the four European com- 
panies, about 164, oesides officers ; and many British 
officers of the native troops were murdered by the ii^ 

^bseqnent to this explosion, there was a mutiny at 
Nundydroog ; and, in one day, 450 Mahomedon Se- 
poys were disarmed, and turned out of the fort, on 
the ground of an mtended massacre. It appeared, 
also, from the information of the commanding officer 
at Tritchinopoly, that, at that period, a spirit of dis- 
afiection had manifested itself at Bangalore, and other 
places ; and seemed to gain ground hi every direction. 
On the 3rd of December, 1806, the ffovemment of 
Madras issued the following proclamation :-*- 

<A raocLABUTioir. 

< The Right Hon. the Governor in Council, having ob- 
served that, in fome late instances, an extraordinary de- 
gree of agitation has prevailed among several corps of the 
native army of this coast, it has been his Lordahij>'4 partic- 
ular endeavour to ascertain the motives which may have 
led to conduct so different from that which fozmerly di-stin- 
guidhed the native anny. From this inquiry, it has appear- 
ed that many persons of evil intention nave endeavoured, 
for malicious purposes, to ImnreM upon the native troops a 
belief that It ts the wish of the British government to con- • 
vert them by forcible means to Christianity ; and his Lord- 
ship in Council has observed wltli concern, that such mali- 
cious reports have been believed by many of the native 

< The Right Hon. the Governor in Council, therefore^ 
deems it proper, in this public manner, to repeat to the na> 

There is one drcumsUnoe to which we have nq^lected 
to advert in the proper place— the dreadAil piUage of the 
earnings of the poor which is made hy the Mcthodisbt. ▲ 
case is mentioned in one of the numbers of these two ma- 
gazines for 1807. 3f a poor man with a family, earning only 
twenty-eight shillings a weeic, who has made two donatione 
often guineae eoA to the m iet ionar y ^aUI 


tl?«tmo« bli wmmncd, flitt fh& tame reipcet which has 
been toTtriahly shown by the British goyemment for their 
idiglon and for their customs, will be always continued ; 
and that no interruption will be given to any native, wheth- 
er Hindoo or Mussulman, in the practice of his religious 

OflB^dQ Oil |QS« 

* His Lordship in Council desires that the native troops 
will not give belief to the idle rumours which are circulated 
by enemies of their happiness, who endeavour, with the ba- 
sest designs, to weaken the confidence of the troops in the 
British government His Lordship in Council dadres that 
the native troops wUl remember the constant attention and 
humanity which have been shown by the British govern- 
ment, in providing for their comfort, by augmenUng the 
pay of the native officers and Sepoys ; by allowing liberal 
pensiona to those who have done their duty faithfully; by 
making ample provision for the famiLes of those who mi^^ 
have £ed in luttle; and by receiving their children into the 
service of the%ionourable Company, to be treated with the 
tame care and bounty as their fathers had experienced. 

< The Right Hon. tne Governor in Council trusts, that the 
native troops, remembering these drcumstancea, will be 
sensible of the happiness of their situation, which is greater 
than what the troops of any other part of the world enjoy ; 
and that they will continue to observe the same good con- 
duct for which they were distinguished in the days of Gen. 
Lawrence, of Sir Eyre Coote, and of other renowned he- 

' The native troops must at the same time be sensible, 
that if they should Ail in the duties of their allesiance, and 
du>nld show themselves disobedient to their omcers, their 
conduct will not fail to receive merited punishment, as the 
British government is not less prepared tn punish the guilty, 
than to protect and distinguish those who are deserving of 
its favour. 

' It is directed that this paper be translated with care into 
the Tamul, Telinga, and Hmdooatany languai^ea ; and that 
copies of it be circulated to each native battalion, of which 
the European officers are ei^joined and ordered to be caro- 
ls in making i% known to every native officer and Sepoy 
under his command. 

* It is also directed, that copies of the paner be circulated 
to all the magistrates and collectors under this government, 
for the purpose of being fully understood in all parts of the 

* Published by order of the Eight Hon. the Governor tn 

< G. BocBAir, Chief Secretary to Government 

< Dated in Fort fit Oeore<h M Dee. 1806.' 

Seott Waring** Prrface, W.— r. 

80 late as March 18D7, three months after the date 
of this pTodamatioQ, so universal was the dread of a 
general revolt amons the native troops, that the 
British officers attached to the native troops con- 
stantly slept with loaded pistols under their pillows. 

It appears that an attempt had been made bv the 
military men at Madras, to change the shape of the Se- 
poy turoan into somethuig resembling the helmet of the 
light infantry of Europe, and to prevent the native 
troops fVom wearing, on their foreheads, the marks cha- 
racteristic of their various castes. The sons of the late 
Tippooy with many noble Mussulmen deprived of 
office at that time, resided in the fortress of Yellore, 
and in all probability contributed very materially to 
excite, or to inflame those suspicions of designs 
against their religion, which are mentioned in the 
proclamation of the Madras p^ovemment, and gener- 
ally known to have been a prmcipal cause of the in- 
surrection at Yellore. It was this insurrection which 
first save birth to the question upon missions to India ; 
and before we deliver any opmion upon the subject 
itself, it will be necessary to state what bad been 
done in former periods towards disseminating the 
truths of the gospel in India, and what new exertions 
had been made about the period at which this event 
took place. 

More tlian a centnry has elapsed since the first 
Protestant missionaries appeared in India. Two 
young divines, selected by the University of Halle, 
were sent out in this canacity by the iTmg of Den- 
.mark, and arrived at the Oanieh settlement of Tran- 
quebar in 1706. The mission thus begun, has been 
ever since continued, and has been assisted by the 
Society for the promotion of Christian Knowledge 
established fai this country. The same Society has, 
for many years, employed German missionanes, of 
the Lutheran persuasion, for propagating the doctrines 
of Christianity among the natives of India. In 1799, 
iheir number was six ; it is now reduced to five. 

The ficriptures, tnnslatsd kto the Tamnlic IsngntgSi 
which is vernacular in the southern parts of the yen- 
insula, have, for more than half a centnry, been print* 
ed at the Tranouebar press, for the use of Danish 
missionaries and their converts. A printing press, 
indeed, was established at that place by the two first 
Danish missionaries ; and, in 1714, the Gospel of St. 
Matthew, translated into the dialect of Malabar, was 
printed there. Not a line of the Scriptures, in any of 
the languages current on the coast, had issued from 
the Bengal press on September 13, 1806. 

It does appear, however, about the pieriod of the 
mutiny at Yellore, and a few years previous to it, that 
the number of the missionanes on the coast had been 
increased. In 1804, the Missionary Societyf a recent 
institution, sent a new mission to the coast of Coro- 
mandel ; from whose papers, we think it right to lay 
before our readers the foIloiRang extracts.* 

' March BUt, 1806^Waited on A. B. He says, Gotcm- 
ernment »eem$ to he very loiUing to forward our tieurt. We 
may stay at Madras as long as we please; and when we in- 
tend to go into the country, on our application to the gov- 
ernor by letter, h« would issue ozden for granting us pass- 
ports, which would supersede the necessity of a {mblic peti- 
tlonw— Lord's Day.'— TVans. qfUiu, Society, IL p. 360. 

In a letter from Brother Ringletaube to Brother 
Cnm, he thus expresses himself: — 

* The passports Government has promised you are so yai- 
uable, that I should not think a ioumey too troublesoHie to 
obtain one for myself, if I cculd not get it through your in- 
terference. In hopes that your application will suffice to 
obtain one for me, I enclose you my Gravesend passport, 
that will give you the particulars concerning my person.'— 
7*rafu. </ Jfiss. Aoei'efy, IL p. 869. 

They obtain their passports from Government ; and 
the plan and objects of their mission are printed, free 
of expense, at tne Government press. 

* 1005, Jvne 37, Dr. — sent for one of us to consult 

with him on particular business. He accordingly went 
The Doctor told him, that he had read the publications 
which the brethren lately brought from England, and was 
so much delighted with the report of the Directors, that he 
wished 300 or more copies of it were printed, together with 
an introduction, giving an account or the rise and progress 
of the Misskinaxy Society, in order to be distributed in the 
different settlements in India. He oft'ered to print them ol 
the €fovemment preu free qf expense. On his return, we 
consulted with our two brethren on the subject, and resolv- 
ed to accept the Doctor's favour. We have begun to pre- 
pare it for the press.'— Tr«iM. if Uiu, Society* II. p. 894. 

In page 89th of the 18th Number, YoL III., the 
Missionaries write thus to the Society in London, 
about a fortnight before the massacre at Yellore. 

* Every encouragement is offered us by the established 
government of the country. Hitherto they have granted 
us every request,' whether solicited by ourselves or others. 
Their permission to come to this place ; their allowing us 
an acknowledgment for preaching in the fort, which t»anc> 
tions us In our work ; together with the grant which they 
have lately given us to hold a large spot of ground every 
way suited for missionary labours, are objecbs of the last 
importance, and remove every impediment which might be 
apprehended from this source. We trust not to an arm of 
flesh ; but when we reflect on these things, we cannot but 
behold the loving kindness of the Lord.' 

In a letter of the same date, we learn fVom Brother 
Ringletaube, the following fact :» 

*The Dewan of Travancoresent me word, that if I de- 
spatched one of our Christians to him, he would give me 
leave to build a church at MagUandy. Accordingly, I shaU 
t*end in a short time. For this important service, our society 
is indebted alone to Colonel , without vekoee deter' 

mined and feariese interpoiition, none tf their miteionartee 
wyuld have been able to »et afoot in that country.' 

* There are six societies in England for converting 
Heathens to the Christian rdigion. 1. Society for Jfistiona 
to Africa and the East; of which Messrs. WUberforce, 
Grant, Parry, and Thorntons, are the principal encourag- 
ers. 3. Methodist Society for Missions. 8. Anabaptist So- 
ciety for Missions. 4. Missionary Society. 6. Socletv for 
Fromoting Christian Knowledge. 6. Moravian MlssioDe 
They all publish their proceedings. 


iB^pure 381, Vol. 11^ Dr. ]C«ir, ime of tlie chaplains 
«i the Madras establishment, baptizes a Mussulman 
who had applied to him for that purpose ; upon the 
first application, it appears that Dr. Kerr hesitated ; 
but upon the Mussulman threatening to rise against 
bim on the day of judgment. Dr. Kerr complies. 

It appears that m Tinevelly district, about a year 
before the massacre of VeUore, not only riots, but 
▼ery serious persecutions of the converted natives had 
laJsen place, From the jealousy evinced by the Hindoos 
and Mttssulmen at the progress of the gospel. 

« "Rev. Sir,- -I thouffbt you BuffidenUv soqusinted with 
the late vexations of the Christiana in those parti, arising 
from the bUnd zeal of the Heathen and Mahometans ; the 
latter viewing with a jealous eye the progren of the gospel, 
andtrjing to destroy, or at least to clog it, by all the craftv 
jaeuii in their power. I therefore did not choose to trouble 
yon ; but as no stop has been put to these grievsnces. things 

Son from tMd to worse, as you will see Arom what has 
f%>ened at Hicksdoe. The Catechist has providentially 
escaped from that outrageous attemi)t, by the assistance of 
ten or twelve of our Christians, and has made good his 
fii^ht to Palamootta ; whilst the exasperated mob, coming 
from PadeclccpaUoe, boveted round the village, plundering 
the hou«es of the Christians, and ill-treating thefr families, 
by Icicking, flogging, and other bad usage; these mon^sten 
nwt even fozbearing to attack, strip, rob. and mkserably 
l>eat the Catechist Jesuadian, who, partly from illness and 
partly thnmgh fear, had shut himself up in his house. I 
have beard various accounts of this sad event ; but yester- 
day the Catechist himself called on me, and told me the 
^ruth of iL From what he says, it is plain that the Manikar 
of Wayrom (a Black peace-officer of that place) has con- 
trived the whole affair, with a view to vez the Christians. 
i doubt not that these facts have been reported to the Rev. 
Mr. K. by the country priest ; and if I mention them to you, 
it is with a view to show in what a forlorn state the poor 
Chrutians hereabouts are, and how desirable a thing it 
would be, if the Rev. Mr. Rlngletaube were to come hitti^ 
a:} soon as possible; then tranquility would be restored, 
and future molestationB prevented. I request you to com- 
municate this letter to him with my oompUnMSits. I 
sir, ice Mmavaar, June 8, 180S.'* 

* This letter left a deep impresslofi on my mind, eroed- 
^7 when I receired a fwer account of the troubles of the 
Christians. By the Black underlings of the Collectors, they 
are frequently driven from their homes, put in the stocks, 
and exposed for a fortnight together te the heat of the 
raging sun, and the chilling dews of the night, all because 
there is no European mianonary to bring tnelr complaints 
Co the ear of OoTemment, who, I am happy to add, have 
never been deficient in their duty of procuring redress, 
where the Christians have bad to complam of real injuries. 
One of the most trying cases, mentioned in a postscript of 

*NovtmbT 16th.— Received a letter from the Rev. Jk. 
Taylor; we are hswy to find he is safely arrived at Gal. 
cutte, jsnd that our Baptist brethren are labouring with in. 
creasing success. The natives around us are astonished to 
hear this news. It is bad news to the Brahmins, who seem 
unable to account for It ; they say the world is iroinff to 
^^*-T^'<if Mi$i. Society, ILMfiMdUB. * 

* While living m the town, our house was watched by 
the natives trom morning to night, to see if any person 
came to oonvene about religion. Tliis preventwl many 
from coming, who have been very dusirous of hearinii of 
'^•fS^ ««y.'— Tmu. qfMiu. Society, No. 18, t. 87. ^ 

* If Heathen, of great luduence ana connections, or Brah- 
mins, were indined to join the Chrbtian church, it wouU 
probably cause commotions and even rebellions, either to 
prevent them from it or to endancer their life. In former 
years, we had some instances of this kind at Tranquebar : 
where they were protected by the ansisUnce of government! 
If such instances should happen now in our present tim««', 
we don't know what the consequences would be.'— 9v«« 
^JC»M.AocM^,n. 185. 


the abore letter, is that of Christians being flogged till they 
coruient to hold the torches to the Heathen idols. The 
letter says, "the Catechist of CoUesigrapatuam has in- 
formed me, that the above Manikar has forced a Christian, 
of tJie Vdlally caste, who attends at our church, to sweep 
the temple of the idoL A severe flogging was given on this 
occasion."— Trom such facts, the postscript continues, 
** Tou may guew at the deplorable situation of our feUow- 
believera, as long as every Manikar thinks he has a right to 
do them what violence he pleases." 

' It must be observed, to the glor^ of that Saviour who is 
strong in weakness, that many or the Neophytes in that 
dktxict have withstood all these flery trials with firmness. 
Many also, it is to be lamented, have fallen off in the evil 
day, and at least so far yielded to the importunity of their 
pertecutors, as again to daub thcte faces with paint and 
ashes, after the manner of the Heathen. How great this 
falling oif has been I am not yet able to judge. But I am 
haupy to add, that the Board of Revenue has issued the 
stnctest orders against all unprovoked persecution.'— 
Trant. qfMiss. Sodetyy H. 481—488. 

The followhig quotations evince hofw fkr from hidif. 
ferent the natives are to the progress of the Christian 
religion in the £ast. 

< 190ft. Oct. lO^-A respectable Brahmin in the Com- 
pany's cn^doy called on us. We endeavoured to point out 
to mm the Important object of our coming to India, and 
mentioned some of the great and glorious truths of the gos- 
pel, which we vriahed to tanpart in the native language.— 
fit e seemed much hurt, and told us the Oentoo religion was 
of a dlTine origin as well as the Christian ;— that heaven 
was like a palace which had many doors, at which 
people may enter ^— that variety Is pleasing to God, &c.— 
and a number of other aigtmienta which we hear every 

day. On talring leave, be said, « the Comosay hss got the , ^ .^^^„ 

country, ^tbeCngUsh are Terydever,) sad, perbsFs,ltKMazv{ whoptopossdtepiSfhe 

This last extract is conUined in a letter from Da- 
nish Missionaries at Tracquebar to the Directors of 
the Missionary Society at London. 

It is hardly fair to contend, after these extracts, 
thhi no symptoms of jealousy upon the subject of re. 
Bgion had been evinced on the coast, except in the 
case of the insurrection at Vellore ; or that no greater 
activitj than commcm had prevailed among the mis- 
sionaries. We are very far, however, from attributing 
that insurrection exclusively, or even principally, to 
any apprehensions from the zeal of the missionuries. 
The nimour of that zeal might probably have more 
readily disposed the minds of the troops for the ccr- 
rupt influence exercised upon them ; but we have no 
doubt that the massacre was principally owing to ad 
adroit use made by the sons or Tippoo. and the high 
Mussulmen living hi the fortress, of the abominabiis 
military foppery of our own people. 

After this short sketch of what has been lately pass- 
ing on the coast, ve shall attempt to give a similar 
account of missionary proceedings in Bengal ; and it 
appears to us, it will be more satisfectory to do so as 
much as possible in the words of the missionaries 
themselves. In our extracts from their publications, 
we shall endeavour to show the character and style of 
the men employed in these missions, the extent of 
their success, or rather of their failure, and the gene, 
ral impression made upon the people by their enoits 
for the dissemination of the gospel. 

It will be necessary to premise, that the misfions 
m Bengal, of which the public have heard so much of 
late years, are the missions of Anabaptist dissenters , 
whose peculiar and disthiguishing tenet it is, to bap- 
tize the members of their church by plunging ihem 
into the water when they are grown up, instead of 
sprinkling them with water when they are young. 
Among the subscribers to this society, we perceive the 
respectable name of the Deputy Chairman of the Kast 
India Company, who, hi the common routine of office, 
will succeed to the Chair of that Company at the ensu- 
ing election. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of 
the East India Company, are also both of them true* 
tees to another reBgious society for mUsiotu to Africa 
and the East. '' 

The first Number of the Amtbaplitt Missions faiforms 
us that the .origin of the Society will be found in the 
workings of Brother CareyU mindj whose heart appears 
to haeebeen set upon the conversion of the Heathen in 
1786, b^ore he came to reside at MotUton. (No. I. p. 1.) 
These workings produced a sermon at Northampton, 
and the sermon a subscription to convert 420 millions 
of Pagans. Of the subscription, we have the following 
account : " Information is come from Brother Care3-, 
that a gentleman ftom Northumberiand had promised 
to send him 201. for the Society, and to submsribe four 
guineas annually. 

• Atthis meeting at Northampton two other friends sub- 
scribed, and paid two guineas a-piece, two more one ruinea 
eac^, and another haff a guinea, inaking six guineas and a 
hatftaall. And audi members as were preaent of the first 
subscribers, paid tiidr subsoiptions into the hsndT^S 
♦„.— ~.-^ .*.-i^ inowsscelTedtoto 


&o hinds of abtaker, who wUl pay intemt for the same.' 
^B»pl. Mitt. Boe, No I. p. 0. 

In tbeir first proceedingd they are a good deal 
culded by Biother ThomaS; who has been in Bengal 
before, and who laya before the Society an history of 
his life and adventures^ from which we make the fol- 
lowing extract : 

< On my arrival in Calcutta, I sought for religions people, 
but found none. At last, how was I r^oiced to hear that a 
very religious man was cominff to dine with me at a house 
in calcuttH ; a man who would not omit his doset hours, of 
a morning or evening, at sea or on land, for all tlie world. 
I concealed my impatience as well as I could, till the joyful 
moment came: ana a moment it was, for I soon heard nim 
take the Lord^s name in vain, and it was like a cold dagver, 
with which I received repeated stabs in the course of Half 
an hour's conversation : and be was ready to kick me when 
1 8iH>ke of some thingd commonly believed by other hypo* 
crite-i, concerning our Lord Jesus Christ ; and with fury put 
an end to our conversation, by saying I was a mad enthusi- 
ast, to suppose that Jesus Gndst had anything to do in the 
creation of the world* who was bom only seventeen hun- 
dred years ago. When I returned, he went home in the 
same ship, and I found him a strict observer of devotional 
hours, but an enemy to all rel^ion, and horribly loose, vain, 
and intemperate in his life and conversation. 

After thU J aivtrtiudfor a Christian g and that I may not 
be mldunderstood, I shiall subjoin a copy of the advertise- 
ment, from Uie Indian Gazette of November 1, 178S, which 
now lies before me.'— Bajit. Miu. See, No I. p. 14, 16. 

Brother Thomas relates the Conversion of an Hindoo on 
the Malabar Coast to the Society. 

* A certain man, on the Malabar coast, had inquired of va- 
rious devotees and priests, how he might make atonement 
for his flins ; and at last he was directed to drive Iron spikes, 
aufficionUy blunted, through his sandals, and on these spikes 
he was to place his naked feet, and walk (if I mistake not) 
360 co5«, that is about 480 miles. If, through loss of blood, 
or weakness of body, he was obliged to halt, he might wait 
for healing and strength. He undertook the journey ; and 
while he halted under a large shady tree where the gospel 
was sometimes preached, one of the missionaries came, and 
preached in his hearing from these words, The Uooi of Jc- 
sus Christ dtanueth/rom aU sin. While he was preacning, 
the mun rose up, tmrew off his torturing sandals, and cri^ 
out aloud, •< This is what lumUl " '-^Bapt, Mist, Boe, No. I. 
p. a9. 

On June 13, 1793, the missionaries set sail, carrying 
with them letters to three supposed converts of Bro- 
ther Thomas, Parbotee, Ram Rom Boshoo and Mohun 
Chund. Upon their arrival m India, they found, to 
their inexpressible mortification, that Ram Rnm had 
xelapsed mto Paganism: and we shall present our 
readers with a picture of the present and worldly 
misery to which an Hindoo is subjected, who becomes 
a convert to the Christian religion. Every body knows 
that the population of Hmdostan is divided into 
castes, or classes of persons ; and that when a man 
loses his caste, he is shunned by his wife, children, 
friends and relations; that it is considered an abomi- 
nation to lodge or eat with him ; and that he is a wan- 
dcrer and an outci^t upon the earth. Caste can be 
lost by a variety of means, and the Protestant mis- 
sionaries have always made the loss of it a previous 
requisite to admission into the Chrbtian church. 

* On our arrival at Calcutta, we found poor Ram Boshoo 
^waiting for us : but to our great grief, he had been bowing 
down to idols again. When Mr. T. left India, he went fi-om 
place to place ; but, forsaken by the Hindoos, and na;lect- 
ed by the Europeans, he was seized with a fiux and rever. 
In this state, he says, ** I had nothing to support me or my 
family ; a relation offered to save me from perishing for 
want of necessaries, on condition of my bowing down to the 
Idol ; I knew that the Roman Catholic Christians worship- 
ped idols ; I thought they might be commanded to honour 
Images in some part of the Bible which I had not seen ; I 
hesitated, and comidied ; but I love Christianity still.'* *— 
JBopi. Miss. Boe. Vol. I. p. 64, 65. 

* Jan. 8, 1794. We thought to write you long before this, 
but our hearts have been burthenod with cares and sorrows. 
It was very aflUcting to hear of Ram Boahoo's great perse- 
cutiun and fall. Deserted by Englishmen, and persecuted 
by his own countrymen, he was nigh unto death. The na- 
tives gathered in bodies, and threw duitt in the air as he 
passed along the streeU in Calcutta. At last one of his rel- 
atives offered him an asylum on condition of his bowing 
down to their idols.'-.-J&uI. p. 78. 

Brother Carey's Piety ixt Sea, 

* Brother Carey, while very sea-sick, and leaning orer 
the ship to relieve hii stomach f^om that very oppressive 
complaint, said his mind walb even then 011ed with conso- 
lation in contemplating the wonderful goodness of God.'--> 
Ibid, p. 76. 

Extract from Brother Carey^s and Brother Thomas's 
Journals, at sea and by land. 

A little recovered firommy 

< 1793. June 16. Lord*$ Day. 
sickness ; met for prayer and exhortation in my cabin; 
a dispute with a French deist.'— Iftiii. p. IfiS. 

* 30. Lord* Day. A pleasant and profitable day : 

our congregation composted of ten persons.'— Aid. p. 159. 

'Jtdyl. Another pleasant and profitable Lora's Day; 
our congreaation increased with one. Bad much sweet en- 
joyment with God.'— I&i'd. 

* 1794. Jan. 26. Lord's Day. Found much pleasure in read- 
ing £dward8' Sermon on ths Justice €/ God in the damnation 
qf Sinners.*— Ibid. li. 166. 

* Jipril 6. Had some sweetness to-day, especially in read- 
ing Edwasds' Sermon.'— Jbi'd. p. 171. 

* Jim* 8. This evening reached Bow lea, where we lav to 
for the Sabbath. Felt thankful that God had preserved us, 
and wondered at his r«[ard for so mean a creature. I wss 
unable to wrestle with God in prayer for many of my dear 
friends in England.'— JBid. p. 179. 

« 16. This day I preached twice at Sffalda, where 

Mr. Thomas met me. Had much enjoyment; and though 
our congregation did not exceed sixteen, yet the pleaevje I 
felt in having my tongue once more set at liberty, I can 
hardly describe. Was enabled to be faithful, and felt a 
sweet affection for immortal souls.— Aid. p. IbO. 

* 1796. FA. 6. I am now in my study ; and oh, it is a 
sweet place, because of the oresence of God with the vilest 
of men. It U at the top of the house ; I have but one n in- 
dow in iV—Ihid. p. 29ft. 

« The work to which God has set his hand win Infallibly 
prosper. Christ has begun to bombard this strong and an- 
cient fortress, and will assuredly carry )L*—Bapt. Mis* VoL 
I. p. 838. 

< More miasionarieB I think shsoluiOiy necessary to the sup- 
port of the interest. Should any natives join u«, they would 
become outcast immediately, and mu^ be consequently sup- 
ported by us. The missionaries on the coast are to4his day 
obliged to provide for those who join them, as I learn from 
a letter sent to Brother Thomas by a son of one of the mis- 
sionaries.'— Jfttd. p. 334, 

In the last extract our readers will perceive a new 
difficulty attendant upon the progress or Chlstianity in 
the East. The convert must not only be subjected to 
degradation, but his degradation is so complete, and 
his means of providing for himself so entirely acstroyed, 
that he must be fed Dy his instructor. Tne slightest 
success in Hindostan would eat up the revenues of 
the East India Company. 

Three jears after their arrival, these zealous and 
most active missionaries give the following account of 

< I bless God, our prospect is considerably brightened up, 
and our hopes are more enlarged than at any period since 
the commencement of the mission, owing to very pleasing 
appearances of the gospel having been made effectual to 
poua poor labouring Mussulmen, who have been setting 
their faces towards Zion ever since the month of Augv^ 
last I hope their baptism will not be much longer deferred; 
and that might encourage Mohun Chund, Parbotte, and 
Cas«>i Naut (who last year appeared to set out in the ways of 
God), to declare for the Lord Jesus Christ, by an open pro- 
fession of their faith in him. Seven of the natives, ve hopet 
are indeed converted.'— Rapl. Miss. Vol. I. p. 846, 846. 

Effects of preaching to an Hindoo Congregation. 

< I then told them, that if they could not tell me, I would 
tell them; and that God, who had permitted the Hindoos to 
sink into a sea of darkness, had at length commiserated 
them ; and sent me and my colleagues to preach life to 
them. I then told them of Christ, his death, uis |.er&on, his 
love, his being the surety of sinners, his power to save, &c 
and exhorted them earnestly and affectionately to come to 
him. Effects were various ; one man came before I had 
well done, and wanted to sell stockings to me.^-^Bapt.Miss, 
Vol. I. p. 867. 

Extracts from JoumaJe. 

* After worship, I received notice that the printing-press 
was just arrived at the Ghat ftrom CalcutU. Betiiedand 
thanked God for furnishing us with a press.'— Ard. p. 469. 

nmiAii mrnms 

« We lament thU several trho did rttn w<!ll are now hln- 
deved. We hete fUnt hopes of a t&Wf and prettf t^ng 
AdMt of eiM or ftMf bat if t say mere^ It mnit be eitho* a 
ml recital of our joume>ing to one plaoe or another to 
preach tbe gospel, or soaiethins^ else relating to ouiaelTea, 
of which I ou^ht to be the last to speak.'— Aui. p. 488. 

JRxTMJLcrs psoM Mm. Wakd's Joo&val, a msw Ara* 


Mr, Ward admiret th€ Cuptam, 

* Sereral of our friends who have been sick begin to look 
np» This evening we had a mo^t precious hour at praver. 
Captain Wickes road from the 19th rene of the 98d of £je- 
odu-s and then jainod in praver. Oar hearts were all 
wanned. We shook hand-* ^ ith our dear Captain, and. In 
design, clasped him to our bo«ouM,*^Ibid, Vol. II. p. S. 

Mr. Ward is frightened by a Privateer, 

'June 11. Held our conference thiserening. A vessel 
is stiU pursuing us, which the Captain believes to be a 
Frenchman. I feel some alarm : con<4derable alazm. Oh 
Itord, be thau our defender ! the vessel seems to gain upon 
us. (Q,uarter past eleven at night.) There is no doubt of 
the vessel being a French privateer : when we changed our 
tack, she changed her^. We have, since dark, changed into 
our old cDttTfte, so that po stably we dhall lose her. Brethren 
O. and B. have en'<agea in prayer : we hare read Luther's 
pisalmt and our mtnd;» are pretty well composed. Our guns 
are all loaded, and the Captain seems verv low. All hands 
are at the guns, and the matches are lianted. I go to the 
end of the ship. I can just see the vessm. though ft is very 
fo^gy. A ball whizzes over my head, and makes me trem- 
ble. I go down, and go to prayer with our fiienda.'— iliA 
p. 8, 4, 

Mr. Weard feels a regard for the SaOofs. 

* Juiy IS. I never felt so much for any men as for our 
sailors; a tenderness wliich could weep over them. Oh, 
Jesus ! let thy blood cover some of them ! A sweet prayer 
meeting. Verily God is here.'^Aid. p. 7. 

Mr. Ward sees an American vessel, and longe to preach 
to the Sailors. 

* Sept, ST. An American vessel is along-^ide, and the 
captam is speaking to their captain through his trumpet. 
How pleasant to wk to a ftiend ! I have been looking at 
them tfaroutf;h thtf glass ; the sailors sit in a group, and are 
mairtng tbeir observations upon us, I long to go and 
preach to them.*— AiW. p. li. 

Feelings of the Natives upon hearing thdr Religion 

<1800. FA. flO. Brother C. had some converutlon with 
one of the Mussolmen, who asked, upon his denying the 
divine mission of Mahommed, what was to become of uus- 
•ubnea and Hindoos ! Brother C. expressed his fears that 
they would all be lost The man seemed as if he would 
have torn him to pieces.'— AiJ. p. 51. 

•Jfor. SO. The people seem quite anxious to get the 
hymns which we gave away. The Brahmins are ratner un- 
easy. The Chteruor advised his Brahmins to send their 
children to learn English. They replied, that we aeemed 
to take pains to make the natives Christians ; and thej were 
afraid tiiat their children, being of tender age, would make 
them a more easy conquest'— ifti'dE. p. IAS. 

*jSpril^. Lord'e Dav. One Bramnin said, he had no 
occasion for a hymn, for they were all over the country. 
He could go into any house and read one.'— Jd'^ p. 61. 

< May 9. Brother Fountain was this evening at Budda- 
barry. At the dose, the Brahmins having collected a num- 
ber of boys, they set up a great shout, and followed the 
brethren out f o the village with noise and shoutings.' — 

' Jfay 16. Rrother Carey and I went to Buddabarry this 
evening. No sooner had we begun, than a Brahmin went 
round to all the rest that were present, and endeavoured to 
pull them avray.'— Bapf. 3ftss. Vol. II. p. 63. 

' SO. This evening at Buddabanr, a man men- 
tioned in my journal of March 14th, insulted Brother Carey. 
He aiked why we came ; and sai'l, If we could employ the 
natives as carpenters, blacksmiths, fcc it would oe very 
well ; but that they did not want our holiness. In exact 
conformity with this sentiment, our Brahmin told Brother 
Thomas when here, that he did not want the favour of 
God.'— J&iJ. p. 63. 

* Jvne 72, LortTe Hau. A Brahmin has been aeveral 
ttmes to disturb the children, and to curse Jesus Christ ! 
Aiu?ther Brahmin complained to Broths Careythat, by our 
ad>ool and printing, we were now teaching the gospel to 
their chOdna (torn their infancy.'— iM, p. 66, 

round amoflgal the peopl6 

who wer* oottectad to baar 

Brother Carey» to persuade them not to accept ef o«r 
papers. Thaa <« darkness atrD^glea with light" *-*AiA 
p. 66. 

' It was deemed advlMUe to print aooo copies of the New 
TesUment, and also fiOO additional copies of Matthew, for 
Immediate distribution ; to which axe annased some of the 
most remarkable prophedei in the Old Testament req>ect- 
ing Christ Theae are now distributing, together with 
copies of several evangelical hymns, ana a very earnest 
and pertinent address to the natives, respecting the goweL 
It was written by Ram Boshoo, and contains a hunoed 
lines in Bengalee verse; We hear that thisA pajpem are 
read with much attention, and that apprehensions art 
rising in the minds of some of the Brahmins whereunto 
these things may grow.'— ifti^ p. 69. 

*We have printed several small pieces In Bengalaa^ 
which have had a large circulation.'— Ai'd. p. 77. 

JIfr. Poun/oM't gratHitde to Hsrvey, 
< tVhen I TV as about eighteen or nineteen yean of ag^ 
Hervey's Mediutions teU into my hands. Till then I had 
read nothing but my Bible and the prayer-book. Thia 
ushered me as it were into a new woria ! It expanded 
my mind, and excited a thirst after knowiedce ; and thli 
was not all ; I derived spiritual as wdl as intellectual adp 
vantages from it. I shaU bless God for this book while I 
live upon earth, and «s4«n /get to ikaoMn, IwiU Uumk dsar 
Htrvty kim»e^.'—Bapt. Mi»s. YoL II. p. 90. 

Hatred of the NaJtivss to tht Gospd, 

'Jen. vet. The inveterate hatred that the Brahmliw 
every where show to the cospel, and the very name of 
Jesus in which they are joined by many lewd fdlows of 
the baser sort, requires no common degree of self-posses* 
sion, caution, ana prudence. The seeming failure of some 
we hoped well of is a source of considerable anxiety and 
grief.'— JliVLp. no. 

* Aug. 81. jLor<i'f Day. We havethe honour of printing 
the drst book that was ever iJrinted in Bengalee ; and ttaii 
is the first piece in which Brahmins have been opposed. 
perhaps fur thousands of years. All their books are filled 
with accounts to e8tabli3h Brahminl-im, and raise Brahmins 
to the seat of Ood. Hence tliey are believed to be inferior 
gods. All the waters of salvation in the country are sup- 
posed to meet in the foot of a Brahmin. It is reckoned 
they have tlie keys of heaven and hell, and have power 
over «ickness and health, life and death. O pray that Brah- 
minism may come down !— IdVl. p. ill. 

*^Oei. 8. Brother Marahman having directed the children 
in the Bengalee school to write out a piece written by Bro- 
ther Fountoin (a kind of catechism), the schoolmaster re- 
ported yesterday that all the boys would leave the school 
rather than write it ; that It was designed to make them lose 
caste, and make them Feringaa ; that is, persons who have 
descended from those who were formerly converted by the 
papists, and who are to this day held in the greatest con- 
tempt by the Hindoos. From this you may gather how 
mudi contempt a converted native would meet with.'— At^ 
p. 118, 114. 

< Oct. 36. Lori?e Dau. Bharratt told Brother Tarey to- 
day what the peoi>Ie taBced among themselves— « Former- 
ly," say they, " here were no white people amongst us. 
NOW the English have taken the country, and it is getting 
full of whites. Now also the white man's shaster is publbth- 
ing. Is it not going to be fulliUed which Is written In our 
shatters, that aU sAoff heqfonc etuU / and will not this caste 
be the gospel V—Rii. p. 1 16. 

< Nov. 7. He also attempted repeatedly to Introduce Christ 
and him crucified ; but tney would immediately manifest 
the utmost dislike of the very name of him. Nay, in their 
turn they commended Creeshnoo, and invited Brother C. to 
believe m him.'— Jiid. p. 118. 

* Dec. 38. This forenoon Ookool came to tdl us that 
Kristno and his whole family were in confinement ! As- 
tonishing news ! It seems tne whole neiuhbourbood, aa 
soon as it was noised abroad that these people had lost caste^ 
was in an uproar. It is said that two thousand people were 
assembled pouring their anathemas on these new converts^' 
— Bttjrf. 3fi«t. Vol. II. p. 136. 

* Jan, 13. The Brahmins and the young people show 
every degree of contempt ; and the name of Christ is be- 
come a by-wozd, like the name melhodi§t in England for- 
merly.'— J&id. p. 180. 

* Sept. 36. I then took occasion to teU them that the 
Brahmins only wanted tbeir money, and cared nothing 
about their aalvation. To this they readily assented.'— 
Ibid. p. 134. 

* Nov. 38. Lord's Day* Went with Brother Carey to the 
new pagoda, at the upper end of the town. About ten 
Brahmins attended. They behaved in the most scoi&ng and 
blasphemous manner, treating the name of Christ wlu the 
greatest soom ; nor did they c^ontlniie their ridicule whs* 


Otf^r pnyvd wtth ttMni* Mo 

thoD *§ flat of our adotafale 

A ."— AuL p. ise. 

' Dee. 34. The Governor had the goodneu to call on us 
in the course of the day, and desired ua to lecure the girl, at 
leaat within our walls, for a few daya, as he w«b persuaded 
the people round the country were so exasperated at 
Kristno's embracing the gospel, that he could not answer 
for their safety. A number of the mob might come trom 
twenty miles distant in the night, amd murder tkem dL with- 
out the prepetraton being discovered. He believed, that 
had toey obuined the girl, they would have murdered her 
before the morning, and thougnt they had been doing God 
service !*^Ai<i. p. 143, 144. 

' Jon. 30. After speaking about ten minutes, a rude fel- 
low bi^an to be very abusive, and, with the help of a few 
boys, raised such a clamour that nothing could be heard. 
At length, seeing no hope of their becoming quiet, I retired 
to the other part of the town. They followed, hallooing, 
and crying «< Hurree boU !" (an exclamation in honour of 
Veeshno.) They at last began to pelt me with stones and 
dirt. One of the men, who knew the house to which Bro- 
ther Carey was gone, advised me to accompany him thither, 
saying, that these people would not hear our words. Goina 
with him, I met Brother C. We were not a little pleased 
that the devil had begun to bestir himself, inferring from 
hence that he suspected danger.'-^ Ai4. p. 148, 149. 

Ftdings of an HMoo Boy upon thetveof Convertion, 

* JVov. 18. One of the boys of the schooL called Benjamin, 
la under considerable concern ; Indeed there is a general 
stir amongst our children, which affords us great encourage- 
ment. Toe following are some of the exj^esaions used in 
prayer by poor Beiu'emifi t-^ 

< «< Oh Lord, the day of judgment is coming : the sun, and 
moon, and stars will all fall down. Oh, what shall I do in 
the day of judgment! Thou wilt break me to pieces, 
[literal.] The Lord Jesus Christ was so good as to die for 
us poor souls : Lord, keep us all this day1 Oh hell ! gnash- [ 
ing, and beating, and beating ! One hour weeping, another 
gnashing ! We shaU stay there for ever ? I am going to 
Bell : I am going to hell ! Lord* give me a new heart ; 
give me a new heart ; and wash away all my sins ! Give 
me a new heart, that I may praise Hlm« thai I may obey 
Him, that I may speak the truth, that I may never do evil 
things ! Oh, I have many times sinned against thee, many 
times broken thy commandments, oh many times; and 
what shaU I do in the day of judgment !'* ^^BafL Hiss. 
Vol. n. p. 183, 168. 

Alarmcftk* NaUioes at HUproaehing f^ tlu Goipd. 

* From several parts of Calcutta he hears of pec^le's at- 
tention being excited by reading the papers which we have 
acattcred among them. Many begin to wonder that they 
never heard thesethinga before, since theEogUah have been 
so long in the country.*— Atct. p. 938. 

< ftlany of the natives have expressed their astonishment 
at seeing the convertoc! Hindoos sit and eat with Europe- 
ans. It is what thp> thought would never come to pass. 
The priests are much alarmed for their tottering fabric, and 
rack their inventions to prop li up. They do not like the 
institution of the college in Calcutta, and that their sacred 
abasters should be explored by the unhallowed eyes of Eu- 
ropeans.* — Ibid. p. 338. 

< Indeed, by the distribution of many copies of the Scrip- 
tures, and of some thousands of small tracts, a spirit of in- 
quiry has been excited to a degree unknown at any former 
period.'— /U4. p. 936. 

« As he and Kristno walked through the street, the natives 
cried out. ** What will this joiner do ? (mnnlng Kristno.) 
Will he destroy the caste of us all ? Is uls Brahmin going 
to be a Fciinga ?** '— Aid. p. 34ft. 

Aecount oj 8uece$$ in IB02.—Tenth year of the Mienon. 

* Wherever we have gone we have uniformly found, that 
to long as people did not understand the rqport of our 
message, they appeared to listen ; but the moment they 
understood something of it, they either became tndiifierent, 
or began to ridicule. This in general has been our recep- 
tion.'— £apl Jf tss. Vol. U. p. 378. 

Hatred of the NoHvee 

'Sept. 9T. Thia forenoon threeof the people anived ftom 
Ponchetalokpool, who seemed very happy to see us. They 
Infbrm us that the Brahmins had raised a great persecution 
against them ; and when they set out on thdr journey 
hither, the mob aasembled to hiss them away. After Brother 
Marshman had left that part ot the country, they hun^ 
himineiBgy and some of the printed papfKfwuchne had 
diitribiitefigBtoiis thflm**--iKi p. 814. 

dbh to get Conoerte ehaoed. 
'Several penons there seemed wUUnc to be baptized^ 
but if they should, the village barberTronooth, wiU not 
•have them ! When a native loses Ua caate, or becomea 
unclean, his barber and his priest will not come near him ; 
and aa thej are accuatomecl to shave the head nearly all 
over, and cannot well perform thb businesa themselves, 
it becomea a serious inconvenience.'— AmI. p. 873. 

Hatred of the Nativee. 

* jSfT, 94. Xori*« Dmyt Brother Chamberlain preached at 
home, and Ward at Calcutta : Brother Carey was amongst 
the brethren, and preached at night. Kristno Prisaud, Ham 
Roteen, and others, were at BtMdabatty^ where they met 
with violent opposition. Th^ were set upon as Ferlngas, 
aa destroyers of the caste, aa having eaten fowls, egg», &c 
As they attempted to return, the mob began to best them, 
putting their hands on the back of their necks, and pushine 
ihem forward; and one man, even a civil olficcr, grazed 
the point of a spear against the body of Krlstn<( Prisaud. 
When they saw that they could not make our friends am^xy 
by such treatment, they said, Tou soOc; you will not be 
angry, win you? They then incited them again, threw 
cow-dung mtsed in gonga water at them ; talkeu of making 
them a necklace ot old shoes ; beat Neeloo with Rani Ro- 
teen's shoe. ace. : and declared that if ihey ever camo acain 
they would make aa endof them."— £ar <. Jfiss. vol. IL p. 

A Plan for procuring an order from Govamment to 
ehave the Converte. 

* After condudlpg with prayer, Bhorud Qhose, Sookur* 
and Torribot Bichoa, took me into the field, and told me 
that their minds were quite decided ; there was no necessity 
for exhorting them. There waa only one thing that kaj^ 
them from being baptized in the name of Jesus Christ — 
Losing caate in a large town like eerami*ore was a veiy dif- 
ferent thing from losing caste in their village. If they de- 
clared themselves Christians, the barbf r or their v illaM 
would no longer shave them; and, without shaving th«-ir 
heads and thnr beards, they could not live. If an oidcr 
could be obuined ft-om the magistrate of the district fur 
the barber to shave Christiana aa well as others, they would 
be immediately baptized.'— iii4. p. 897. 

Wo meet in these proceedings with the account of 
two Hindoos who had set up as gods^Dulol and Ram 
Daee, The missionaries conceivinoMb schism f lom 
the xeligion of the Hindoos to be iPery favourable 
opening for them, wait upon the two deities. With 
I^ol, who seems to be a very shrewd fellow, they 
are utterly unsuccessftil ; and tne following is an ex- 
tract from the account of their conference with Ram 
Pass: ^ 

< After much altercation, I told him he might put the 
matter out of all doubt as to himself: he had only to c«>me 
aa a poor, repenting, suppliant sinner, and he would be 
saved, whatever became of othtn. To this he cave no other 
answer than a smile of contempt. I then asked him In what 
way the sins of these his followers would be removed ; urg- 
ing it aa a matter of the last Importance, as he knew that 
they were all sinners, and must stand berore the ilehteous 
bar of Qod ? After much evasion, he replied that he had 
fire in his belly, which would destroy the sins of all his 
followers !'— Jjapl. Mi*$. VoL II. p. 401. 

A Brahmin Converted. 

•Dec* 11. Lord'* Day. A Brahmin came from Nuddea. 
After talking to him about the gospel, which he said he was 
very willing to embrace, we sent him to Kristno^. He ate 
with them without hesitation, but discovered auch a thixst 
for Bengalee rum, as gave them a disgust.' 

* Dec. 18. This morning the Brahnxm decamped wadAesn^ 
ly.'— Sopi. JfiM. Vol. n. p. 424. 

Extent of Printing, 
* Sept. 19. We are buikiing an addition to our printing 
oflloe, where we employ seventeen printers and tive book- 
binders. The Brahmin from near Bootan givea some hope 
that he has received the truth in love.'— itiVf. p. 488. 

< The news of Jesus Christ, and of the church at Seram- 
pore, seems to have gone much fiuther than 1 expected : 
it appears to be known to a few in most vUlagea-^— JUi. 
p. 487. 

Hdiredtothe CroepeX, 
'The caste (says Mr. W.) ia the great mfflstoMiouDd the 
QMks of theie people. Boteea wants shaving; h«t tb« 


btibtrlut* will not do K. He It nm awiy Uti 1m ihonld I one, aftor Ihad aade a begbminc, fhxwA fhe Tiolent od. 
STcMBpeUed. He tayi he wUl not tha^e TeMo Kxeert'i portion of the people. Comingto thb, oppotitton c^mT 
pe<»le!^i».il.p.4M. |ttidtlMreforeIcaUodltRMiO.OTn: for J Aorah hathmade 

'^ »Jo«a fo' ttfc Here I have railed a •pacioua bungalo/— 


Suceew grM^sr 6y importunity in prater. 
* WIUi recpect to thdr mecctt, there are feveral paxttou- 

^ Onaia,thatitwaapre- 

of inpoitunate praver. The brethren had 

lazs attendink it worthy of notice. 

ceded by a ai^rit of inpoitunate praver. 

an along committed their cause to God : but in the autumn 

of 1800, they had a special weekly prayer-meetins tut a 
blflsaing on tne work of the mission. At these assemblies, 
Mr. Thomas, who was then present on a Tisit, seems to 
have been more than nsuallT ktrengthened to wrestle for a 
blessinc ; and writinf to a friend in America, he speaks of 
■' ihe holy imction appearing on all the misftionartee^ espe- 
cially of late ; and of times of refresiilng from the prcMnce 
of the Lord, being eolemn, frequent, and lasting." In con- 
necting these tUngs, we cannot but remember, that preri- 
oua to Che outpouring of the Spirit in the days of Pentecost, 
the disciples " continued with one accord in prayer and 
supplication." '— Sapfc Mu». Prrf. Vol. in. p. vii. »^ 

What this sacceas la, we shall see by the following 

« The whole number baptised In Bengal since the year 
1796, nfortv-€ight, Orer many of these we r^oice with 
great joy ; for others we tremble ; and over others we are 
GompeULed to weep.'~J9ap«, Mtn. Vol. III. p. 21, 32. 

Hatred to tJu Gotpd. 

Jtpril 2. This morning, several of our chief printing ser- 
vants presented a petition, desiring they might have some 
relief, as they were oompdled, in our Bengalee woishlp, to 
hear to manv blasphemiw against their gods ! Brother Ca-> 
rev and I had a strong contention with them in the print- 
ing-office, and invited them to argue the point with Petum- 
ber, as his sermon had glvim them offence ; but they de- 
dined it; though we torn them that the7 were ten, and he 
only one ; that they were Brahmins, and he was only a 
sooder ! *— At'A p. 86. 

* The enmity agaiatit the gospel and its professors is uni- 
versaL One of our baptised Hindoos wanted to rent a 
hou«e: after going out two or three days, and wandering 
all the town over. Tie at last persuaded a woman to let him 
have a house: but though she was hcrsdf a Feringa, yet 
wben she heard that he was a Brahmin who had become a 
Chiistlan, she insulted hhn, and drove him away : so that 
we are indeed made the oiTscouiing of all thinga.'— AiiL 
p. as. 

' I waa sitting among our nativo brethren, at the Benga- 
lee school, heariI^: them read and explain a portion of the 
word in turn, when an aged, crey-headed Brahmfn, well 
dre«ed, came in ; and standing before me, said, with joined 
hands, and a supplicating tone of Voice, <• Sahib! I am 
come to ask an alms." Beginning to weep, he repeated 
tliese words haatily ; " I am come to ask ... an alma."— 
He continued standing, with his hands in a sunplicating 
posture, weeping. I desired him to say what alms ; and 
told liim, that by his Ioob», it did not seem as if he wanted 
any relief. At length, bcii^ pressed, he asked me to give 
him his son, pointing with bis hand into the midst of our 
native bretliren. I asked which was bis son ? He pointed 
to a young Bralonin, named Soroop ; and setting up a plain- 
tive cry, said, that was his son. Wo tried to comfort hhn, 
and at last prevailed upon him to come and sit down upon 
the veranda. Here he b^an to weep again ; and said that 
the young man's mother was dying with grief.'— .Aid. p. 4«. 

» This evening Buvoo, a brother, who Is servant with us, 
and Soroop, went to a market in the neighbourhood, where 
they were discovered to be Fssoo Kkruatare Lake (Jesus 
Christ's people). The whole market was aU in a hubbub : 
they dapped their hands, and threw dUAt at them. Buxoo 
was changini? a rupee for cowries, when the disturbance 
beran ; and fn the scuffle, the man ran away with the rupee 
without givingthe cowries.'— ifti'i. p. 56. 
^ <^ov.24. This day Hawnye and Ram Khunt returned 
from their village. They relate that our brother Fotick, 
who Uvea in the same viUage, was lately seized by the chief 
Bengalee man there ; dragged (Vom his house ; his face, 
eyes, and ears clogged with cow-dung— his hands tied— and 
in this state confined several hours. They also tore to 
pieces all tbe papers, and the copy of the Testament, which 
they found in Fottck's house. A rdaUon of these peraeca- 
tors being dead, they did not molest Hawnye and Ram 
iChunt ; but the towns-folk would not hear about the goa- 
pd : they only insulted them for becoming Christians.'— 
iW. p. 67. 

' Cviwa on the Ganges, Sept, 8, 1804.— Thisplace is about 
seventy miles ttom Serampore^ by the Hoogiey river. 
Here I have procured a spot of ground, perhaps about two 
acres, pleaaantly sttuated by two tanks, and a fine grove 
•f maxigo trees, at a small dbtaace ftom the town. Jt was 
with fSffflcatty I procured a spot I was forced to leave 

Ihid. p. 69. 

It woold perhaps he more pmdent to leave the qne^ 
tion of sending missionaries to India to the effwst of 
these eztiacts, which appear to ns to be quite deciaive. 
both as to the danger cdT insurrection from the prose- 
eution of the scheme, the utter unfitness of the persons 
employed in it, and the complete hopelessness of the 
attempt while pttrsued under such circumstances as 
now exist. But, as the Evangelical party who hava 

J rot possession of our Eastern empire have brought 
brward a great deal of argument upon the question, 
it may be necessary to make it some sort of reply. 

We adnut it to be the general duty of Chiistiatt 
people to dissemhiate their religion among the Pagan 
nations who aze subjected to their empire. It is true 
they have not the aid of miracles ; but it is their duty 
to attempt such conversion by the earnest and abun- 
dant employment of the best human means m their 
power. We believe that we aze in the possession of a 
revealed religion ; that we are exclusively in posses- 
sion of a revealed religion; and that tbe possession 
of that religion can alone confer immortality, and best 
confer present happmess. This reliMion too, teachea 
us the duties of ffeneral benevolence ; and, how, under 
SBch a system, the conversion of Heathens, can be a 
matter of indifference, we profess not to be able to 

So much for the general mle :-Hu>w for the excep- 
tions. ' 
No man (not an Anabaptist) will, we presume, con- 
tend that it is our duty to proach the natives into an 
faisurrection, or to lay before them, so fiilly and em- 
phatically, the scheme of the gospel, as to make them 
rise up in the dead of the night and shoot their instruc- 
tors through the head. If conversion be the greatest 
of all objects, the possession of the country to be con- 
verted IS the only mean, m this instance, by which 
that conversion can be accomplished ; for we have no 
right to look for a miraculous conversion of the Hin- 
doos J and it would be little short of a miracle, if 
General Oudinot was to display the same spirit as the 
serious part of the Directors of the East India Com- 
pany. Even for missionary purposes, therefore, the 
utmost discretion is necessary ; and if we wish to 
teach the natives a better religion, we must take care 
to do it m a manner which wifl not inspire them with 
a passion for political change, or we shall inevitably 
lose our disciples altogether. Tons it appears quite 
clear; from the extracts before us, that neither Hindoo 
norMahomedan is at all indifferent to the attacks 
made upon his religion ; the arrogance and the irrita- 
bility of the Mahomedan are universally acknow- 
ledged; and we put it to our readers, whether the 
Brahmins seem in these extracts to show the smallest 
disposition to behold the encroachments upon their 
religion with passiveness and unconcern. A mission- 
aiy who converted only a few of the refuse of tociety, 
might live for ever in peace in India, and receive Ms 
salary from his fanatical masters for pompous predic- 
tions of universal conversion, transmitted by the ships 
of the season ; but. if he had any marked success 
among the natives, it could not fid to excite much 
more dangerous specimens of jealousy and discontent 
than those which we have extracted from the Ana- 
baptist Journal. How is it in human nature that a 
Urahmm shouiUl be indifferent to encroachments upon 
his religion ? His reputation, his dignity, and, in a 
great measure, his wealth, depend upon tbe preserva- 
tion of the present superstitions ; and why is it to be 
supposed that motives which are so powerful with all 
other human beings, are inoperative with him alone ? 
If the Brahmins, however, are disposed to excite a 
rebellion in support of their own influence, no man 
who knows anythhig of India, can doubt that they 
have it in their power to effect it. 

It is vain to say that these attempts to diffuse Chris- 
tianity do not originate from the government in India. 
The omnipotence of government in the East is well 
known to the natives. If Government does nor pro* 


hibit, it tolentet ; If it tolerates the coiiTertioii of the 
natiTei, the suspicion may be easily fonned that it 
encourages that conversion. If the f xahmlns do not 
believe this themselves, the]r may easily persuade the 
common people that such is the fact ; nor are there 
Wanting, besides the aetivity of tlime new misslona- 
Yies, many other circumstances to corvotMNnite such a 
Tumour, under the auspices of the College «t Fort 
William, the Scriptures are in a course of translation 
into the lanffuages of almost the whole continent of 
Oriental Inma, and we perceive, that in aid of this 
object the Bibk Society has voted a very magnificent 
suDscription. The three principal chaplains of our 
Indian settlement are (as might be expected) of princi- 
pies exactly corresponding ^th the enthusiasm of 
their employers at home ; and their zeal upon the 
subject of religion has shone and burnt with the most 
exemplary fury. These circumstances, if they do 
not r^dly impose upon the nunds of the leading mu 
tives, may give them a very powerM handle for mis- 
xepresentmg the intentions oi government to the lower 

We see from the massacre of Vellore, what a pow- 
erful engine attachment to religion may be rendiered 
in Uindostan. The rumours mignt all have been fiilse ; 
but that event shows they were tremendously power- 
Ail when excited. The object, therefore, is not only 
not to do anything violent and unjust upon subjects «f 
religion, but not to give any stronger colour to jealous 
and disaffected natives for misrepresenthig your inten- 

All these observatiotis have tenfold force when a^ 
plied to an empire which rests so entirely upon opi- 
nion. If physical force could be called in to stop the 
proirress of error, we could afford to be misrepresent- 
ed for a season ; but 90/)00 white men, living in the 
midst of 70 million sable subjects, must be always in 
the right, or at least never represented as grossly in 
the wrong. Attention to the prejudices of the subject 
is wise in all governments, but quite indispensable in 
a government constituted as our empire m India is 
constituted ; where an uninterrupted series of dexter- 
ous conduct is not only necessary to our prosperity, 
but to our existenco. 

These reasonings are entitled to a little more consi- 
deration, at a period when the French threaten our 
existence in India by open force, and by every species 
of intrigue with the native powers. In all govern- 
ments everything takes its tone from the head ; fana- 
ticism has got into the government at home ; fanati- 
cism will lead to promotion abroad. The civil servant 
in India wiU not only dare to exercise his own judg- 
ment in checkinff the indiscretions of isnorant mission- 
aries, but he will strive to recommend himself to his 
holy masters in LeadenhaU-street, by imitathig Bro- 
ther Cran and Brother Ringletaube, and by every 
species of fanatical excess. Methodism at home is no 
unprofitable g<ime to play. In the Kast it will soon be 
the infallible road to promotion. This is the great 
evil : if the management was in the hands of men who 
were as discreet and wise in their devotion as they are 
in matters of temporal welfare, the desire of putting an 
end to missions might be premature and indecorons. 
But the misfortune is, the men who wield the instru- 
ment, oujrht not, in common sense and propriety, to 
be trusted with it for a single instant, upon this sub- 
ject thev are quite insane and ungovernable ; they 
would aeliberately, piously, and conscientiously ex- 
pose our whole Eutem empire to destruction, for the 
salkC of converting half a dozen Brahmins, who, after 
stuffing themselves with mm and rice, and borrpw^ns 
money from the missionaries, would run away, and 
cover the gospel and its professors with every species 
of ridicule and abuse. 

Upon the whole, it appears to us hardly possible to 
push the business of proseljrtism in India to any length 
without incurring the utmost risk of losing our em- 
pire. The danger is more tremendous, because it may 
De so sudden ; religious fears are very probable cau- 

empire is governed by men who, Fe art Teiy soncli 
af^d, would feel proud to lose it in such a cause. 

. But I think it my duty to m&ke s solemn appeal to aU 
who rtill retslo the fear of God, and who admit that reli- 
zloa and the course of conduct which it pxeicribes are not 
to be banished from the afi'airs of nations— now when the 
political ikv, so long overcast^ has become more lowerii^ 
and black than ever— whether this is a period for averment- 
ing the weight of our national sins and provocations, bjr 
an txehuite tolbeation of idolairy ; a crime which, unless 
the Bible he a forgery, has actually drawn forth the heavi- 
est denunciations of vengeancOi and the most fearful in- 
flictlona of Pivine displeasure.' — Con$ideration»t ^^c p. 96. 

Can it be credited that tills is an extract iVom a 
pamphlet generally supposed to be written by a noble 
Lord at the Board of Control. Arom whose omcial in. 
terference the public might nave expected a correc. 
tive to the pious temerity of others t 

The other leaders or the party, indeed, make at 
present great professions of toleration, and express 
the strongest abhorrence of usins violence to the 
natives. This does very well for a beginning, but we 
have little confidence in such declarations. We be- 
lieve their finders itch to be at the stone and clay 
gods of the Hmdoos ; and that, in common with the 
noble Controller^ they attribute a great part of our 
national calamiUes to these ugly images of deities cd 
the other side of the world. We again repeat, that 
upon such subjects, the best and abfest men, it once 
tmged by fanaticism, are not to h$ trusted for a singU 

2dliff Another reason for giving up the task of con- 
vetsion, is the want of success. In India, religion 
extends its empire over the minutest actions of life. 
It is not merely a law for moral conduct, and for 
occasional worsnip, but it dictates to a man his trade, 
his dress, his food, and his whole behaviour. His 
religion also punishes a violation of its exactions; not 
by eternal and future punishments, but by present 
infamy. If an Hindoo is irreligious, or, in other 
words, if he loses his caste, he is deserted by father, 
mother, wife, child, and lundred, and becomes in- 
stantly a solitary wanderer upon the earth : to touch 
him, to receive nhn. to eat with him, is a pollution 
produchig a similar loss of caste ; and the sute of 
such a degraded man is worse than death itself. To 
these evils an Hindoo must expose himself before he 
becomes a Christian ; and this difficulty must a mis- 
sionary overcome before he can expect the smallest 
success — a difficulty which, it Is quite dear, they 
themselves, after a short residence in India, consider 
to be insuperable. 

As a proof of the tenacious manner in which the 
Hindoos cling to their religious prejudices, we shsl^ 
state two or three very short anecdotes, to which any 
person who has resided in India might produce many 

* In the year 1766, the late Lord Clive and Mr. VerelsC 
employed the whole infiuence of Government to restore a 
Hindoo to his caste, who had forfeited it, not by any ne- 
glect of his own, but by having been compelled, by a most 
unpardonable act of violence, to swallow a drop of cow 
broth. The Brahmins, from the peculiar c&rcum»Uncp« of 
the case, were very anxious to comply with the -wishes of 

government ; the prtocipal men among them met once at 
[ishnagur, and once at Calcutta ; but after consuUalions, 
and an examination of their most ancient records', they de- 
clared to Lord Cllve, that as thcr»» was no rrecoJefit to 
Justify the act, they found It lmpot«ibleto rewtore the uiif:r- 
tunate man to his caste, and be died soon after of a broken 
heart'— ficott Wurinf'g Pr^ae*, p. Ivi. 

It is the custom of the Hindoos to expose dyirg 
people ttpon the banks of the Ganges. There is soir^t- 
thing peculiarly holy in that river ; and it soothes tlie 
agonies of death to look upon its uaters in the la&t 
moments. A party of Fjiglish wpre coming doun in s 
boat, and perceived upon the bank a pious Hindoo, in 
a state of the last imbecility— about to be drowned by 
the risiug tide, after the most approved and orthodox 
manner of their reli^on. They had the curiosity to 

sea of disaffection in the troops ; if the troops are I land ; and as they perceived some more signs of life 
generally disaffected, our Indian empire may oe lost | than were at first apparent, a young Englishman poor- 
to at as ioddanly as a frigate or a fort ; and that 1 ed down his throat the greatest part of a bottle of la. 



vender water, vhkh he happened to hare in his pocket. 
The efiecu of such a stimolus, applied to a stomach 
nccufltomed to nothing strunger than water, were in* 
stantaneous and powerAil. The Hindoo rerired suffi- 
ciently to admit of his being conveyed to the boat, was 
carried to Calcutu, and perfectly recorered. He had 
drunk, however, in the company of Europeans no 
matter whether voluntary or involuntary— the offence 
was committed : he lost caste, was turned away from 
his home, and avoided, of course, by every relation 
and friend. The poor man came before the police, 
making the bitterest complaints upon being restorea 
to lite ; and for three years the burden of supporting 
him fell upon the mistalcen Samaritan who had rescued 
him from death. During that period, scarcely a day 
elapsed in which the degraded resurgent did not ap- 
pear before the European, and curse him with the bit- 
terest curses — as the cause of aU his misery and deso- 
lation. At the end of that period he fell ill, and of 
course was not again thwarted in his passion for dy- 
ing. The writer of this article vouches for the truth 
of this anecdote ; and many persons who were at Cal 
culta at the time must have a distinct recollection of 
the &ct, which excited a great deal of conversation 
and amusement, mingled with comjiassion. 

It is this institution of castes which has preserved 
India in the same state in which it existed in the days 
of Alexander ; and which would leave it without the 
slightest change in habits and manners, if we were to 
abandon the country to-morrow. We are astonished 
to observe the UUe renident in Bengal sneaking of the 
fifteen millions of Mahomedans in Inoia as converts 
from the Hindoos ; an opinion, in support of whidi he 
does not offer the shadow of an argument, except by 
asking, whether the Mahomedans have the Tartar 
£ice f and If not, how they can be the descendants of 
the first conquerors of India ? Probably not altoge- 
ther. But does this writer imagine, that the Maho- 
medan empire could exist in Hindostan for 700 years 
without the intrusion of Persians, Arabians, and every 
species of Mussulman adventurers from every part of 
the East, which had embraced the religion of Maho- 
med ? And let them come from what quarter they 
would, could- they ally themselves to Hindoo women 
without producing in tneir descendants an approxima- 
tion to the Hindoo features 7 Dr. Robertson, who has 
investigated this subject with the greatest care, and 
looked into all the authorities, is expressly of an o^ 
posite opinion ; and considers the Mussulman inhabi- 
tants oi Hindostan to be merely the descendants of 
Mahomedan adventurers, and not converts from the 
Hindoo faith. 

< The armies,' (says Orme) < which made the first 
conquests for the heads of the respective dynasties. 
or for other invaders, left behind them numbers ol 
Mahomedans, who, seduced by a finer climate, and a 
richer country, forgot their own. 

' The Mahomcdan princes of India naturally rave a 
pTdference to the service of men of their own religion, 
who, from whatever country they came, were of a 
more vigorous constitution than the stoutest of the 
subjected nation. This preference has continually 
encouraged adventurers from Tartary, Persia, and 
Arabia, to seek their fortunes under a govemment 
from which they were sure of receiving greater eo- 
cunragement tlian they could expect at home. From 
these origins, time has formed m India a mighty na- 
tion of near ten millions of Mahomedans.' — Omu^ 
Indostan^ I. p. 24. 

Precisely similar to this is the opinion of Dr. Ro- 
bertson, Note xl. — Indian DisquUition, 

As to the religion of the Ceylonese, fVom which the 
Bengal reiidtrU would infer the facility of making con- 
TcrU of the Hindoos, it is to be observed that the re- 
li^on of Bottdhou, in ancient times, extended fVom the 
north of Tartary to Ceylon, from the Indus to Siam, 
and (if Foe and Boudhou are the same persons) over ! 
China. That of the two religions of Boudhou and 
Brama, the one was the parent of the other, there 
can be very little doubt ; out the comparative anti- 
qtdty of the two is so very disputed a pomt, that it is 
quite unfair to state the case of the Ceylonese as an 
nsiance of conversion from the Hindoo religion to 


any ofther : and even if the religion of Btama is tho 
most ancient of the two, it is still to be proved, that 
the Ceylonese professed that religion before they 
changea it for tneir present faith. In point of fact, 
however, the boasted Christianity of the Ceylonese is 
proved by the testimony of the missionaries them- 
selves, to be little better than nominal. The follow- 
ing extract fVom one of their own communications, 
dated Columbo, 1805, will set this matter in its true 
light :— 

*The elders, descons, end some of the members of fke 
Dutch coner^stion, came to see uSt and we paid them a 
visit in return, and made s liHle inquiry concerning the 
state of the church on this island, which is, In one word, 
miserable ! One hundred thousand of those who are called 
Christians, (because fhey are baptized) need not go back 
to heatiieni8m,for they never have been any thing else but 
heathens, worshippers of Budda : they have been induced, 
for worldly reasons, to be baptised. O Lord, have mercy 
on the poor Inhabitants of this populous island !*— Thnml 
Miss. Sou U. 260. 

What success the Syrian Christians had in making 
converts ; in what degree they have gained their nunu 
bers by victories over the native superstition, or lost 
their original numbers by the idolatrous examples to 
which for so many centuries they have been exposed, 
are points wrapt up in so much obscurity, that no kind 
of inference as to the facility of converting the na- 
tives, can be drawn ftom them. Their present num- 
ber is supposed to be about 1. 50,000. 

It wotud be of no use to quote the example of Ja- 
pan and China, even if the progress of the faith in 
these empires had been much greater than it is. We 
do not say it is difficult to convert the Japanese, or the 
Chinese ; but the Hindoos. We are not saying it is 
difficult to convert human creatures; but mflicult to 
convert human creatures with such institutions. To 
mention the example of other nations who hare them 
not, is to pass over the material objection, and to an- 
swer others which are merely imaginary, and hare 
never been made. 

Sd/y, The duty of conversion is less plain, and less 
imperious, when conversion exposes me convert to 
great present misery. An African or an Otaheite 
proselyte might not perhaps be less honoured by his 
countrymen if he became a Christian ; an Hindoo is 
instantly subjected to the most perfect degradation. 
A change of faith might increase the immediate hap- 
piness of any other individual ; it aimihUales for ever 
all the human comforts which an Hindoo enjoys. The 
eternal happiness which you proffer him, is therefore 
less attractive to him than to any other heathen, from 
the life of misery by wliich he purchases it. 

Nothing is more precarious than our empire in In- 
dia. Suppose we were to be driven out of it to-monow. 
and to leave behind us twenty thousand converted 
Hindoos, it is most probable they would relapse into 
heathenism ; but their original station in society could 
not be regained. The duty of making converts, there- . 
fore, among such a people, as it arises fVom the gene- 
ral duty of benevolence, is less strong than it would 
be in many other cases ; because, situated as we are. 
it is ^nite certain we shall expose them to a great deal 
of misery, and not quite certain we shall do them any 
future good. 

4/Wy, Conversion is no duty at all. if it merely de- 
stroys the old religion, without really and effectually 
teaching the new mie. Brother RinelcUube may 
write home that he malces a Christian, when in reality 
he ought only to state that he has destroyed an Hin- 
doo. Foolish and imperfect as the religion of an Hin- 
doo is, it is at least some restraint upon the intempe- 
rance of human passions. It is better a Braljmin 
should be resoected than that nobody should be re- 
spected. An Hindoo had better believe that a deity 
with an hundred legs and arms, will reward and pu- 
nish him hereafter, than that he is not to bo punished 
at all. Now, when you have destroyed the faith of an 
Hindoo, are yon ^uite sure that you will graft upon 
his mind fresh principles of action, and make him any 
thing more than a nominal Christian ? 

You have 30,000 Europeans in India, and sixty mill- 
ions of other subjects. If proselytltm were to go on as 


lapidly at the mo«t visionary Anabaptist could dream 
or desire, fa what manner are these people to be 
taught the {^enuhie truths and practices of Chrisiiaui- 
ty ? Where are the clergy to come from ? Who is to 
defray the expense of the establishment ? and who 
can foresee tlie immense and perilous difficulties of 
bending the laws, manners, and histitutions of a coub> 
try to the dictates of a new religion ? If it were easy 
to persuade the Hindoos that their own religion was 
folly, it would be iniiniteiy difficult efiectually to teach 
them any other. They would tumble their own idols 
into the river, and you would build them no churches ; 
you would destroy all their present motives for doing 
right, and avoiding wrong, without being able to fix 
upon their minds the more sublime motives by which 
you profess to be actuated. What a missionary will 
do hereatUr with the heart of a convert, is a matter 
of doubt and speculation. He is quite certain, how- 
ever, that he must accustom the man to see himself 
afr infamous ; and good principles can hardly be ex- 
posed to a ruder shock, whoever has seen much of 
Hindoo Christians must have perceived, that the man 
who bears that name is very commonly nothing more 
than a drunken reprobate, who conceives himself at 
liberty t6 eat and drink any thing he pleases, and an- 
nexes hardly any other meaning to the name of Chris- 
tianity. Such sort of converts may swell the list of 
names, and gratify the puerile pride of a mlssiouar)'' ; 
but what real, discreet Christian can wish to see such 
Christianity prevail ? But it will be urged, if the pre- 
sent converts should become worse Hindoos, and very 
indifTerent Christians, still the next generation will do 
better ; and by degrees, and at the expiration of half 
a century, or a century, true Christianity may prevail. 
We may apply to such sort of Jacobin converters what 
Mr. Burke said of the Jacobin politicians in his time : 
< To such men a whole generation of human beings are 
of no more consequence than a free in an air pump.' 
For the distant prospect of dohig what, most probably 
after all, they will never be able to efleci, there is no 
deerce of present misery and horror to which they 
will not expose the subjects of their experiment. 

As the duty of making proselytes springs from the 
duly of benevolence, there is a priority of choice hi 
conversion. The greatest zeal should plainly be di- 
rected to the most desperate misery and ignorance. 
Now, In comparison to many other nations who are 
equally ignorant of the truths of Christianity, the Hin. 
doos are a civilized and a moral people. That they 
have remained in the same state for so mmiy centu- 
ries, is at once a proof that the institutions which esta- 
blished that state could not be highly unfavourable to 
human happiness. Alter all that has been said of 
the vices ot the Hmdoos, we believe that an Hindoo 
18 more mild and sober than most Eiuropeans, and as 
honest and chaste. In astronomy the Hindoos have 
certainly made very high advances — some, and not an 
unimportant progress in many sciences. As manufac- 
turers, they are extremely Ingenious— <uid as agricul- 
turists, industrious. Chris-tianlty would improve them, 
(whom would it not improve ?) but if Christianity 
cannot be extended to all, there are many other Uft. 
tlons who want it more.* 

The Hindoos have some very savai?re customs, which 
it would be desirable to abolish. Some swing on hooks, 
some nm knives through their hands, and widows 
bum themselves to death : but these follies (even the 
iHRt) are quite voluntary on the part of the sufferers. 
VVc dislike all misery, voluntary or involuntary; but 
the difference between the torments which a man 
chooses, and those which he endures from the choice 
of others, is very great. It is a considerable wretch- 
edness that men and women should be shut up in reli- 
gious houses ; but it is only an object of legislative 
interference, when soch incarceration is compulsory. 
Monasteries and nunneries with us would be harmless 
mstltutions , because the moment a devotee found he 
had acted like a fool, he mleht avail himself of the 
discove ry and nm away ; and so may an Hindoo, if he 

^IS? •" '^» «»/ course, aiding the quwtlon only in a 
r«!ri\F*i?*ii\*r'* "T**^ ** °^^ i»'»»* of view in which 
wSant !*•<=«*• **wttgh certainly the lowcft and least im- 

repentt of hit resolutioD of rumung hooka into his 


The duties of conversion appear to be of less impor- 
tance, when it is impossible to procure proper persons 
to undertake them, and when such religious embassies, 
in consequei^ce, devolve upon the lowest of the people. 
Who wishes to see scrotula and atheism cnred by a 
single sermon in Bengal ? who wishes to see the reli. 
gious hoy riding at anchor in the Hoogley river ? cr 
shoals of jumpers exhibiting their nimble piety before 
the learned Brahmins of Benares i This nmdness w. 
disgusting and dangerous enough at home. Why are 
we to send out little detachments of maniacs to spread 
over the fine regions of the world the most uujnst and 
contemptible opinion of the gospel ? The wise and 
rational part or the Christian ministry find they have 
enough to do at home to combat with passions unfa- 
vourable to human happiness, and to make men act 
up to their professions. But if a tinker is a devout 
man, he infallibly sets off for the East. Let any man 
read the Anabaptist missions^-can he do so withoui 
deeming such men pernicious and extravagant in their 
own country — and without feeling that they are bene- 
fiting U8 much more by their absence, than the Hin. 
doos by their advice i 

It is somewhat strange, in a duty which is stated 
by one party to be so clear and so indispensable, that 
no man of moderation and good sense can be found to 
perform it. And if no other instruments remam but 
visionary enthusiasts, some doubt may be honestlj 
raised whether it is not better to drop the scheme 

Shortly stated, then, our argument is this : — ^We see 
not the slightest prospect of success ;— we see much 
danger in making the attempt ^-and we doubt if the 
conversion of the Hindoos would ever be more than 
nominal. If it is a duty of general benevolence to 
convert the Heathen, it is less a duty to convert the 
Hindoos than any other people, because they are al- 
ready highly civilizetl, and because you must infalli- 
bly subject them to infamy and present degradation. 
The instruments employed for these purposes are 
calculated to bring ridicule and disgrace upon the 
gospel ,- and in the discretion of those at home, whom 
we consider as their patrons, we have not the smallest 
reliance ; but, on the contrary, we are convinced they 
would behold the loss of our Indian empire, not with 
the humility of men convinced of erroneous views and 
projects, but with the pride, the exultation, and the 
alacrity of martyra. 

Of the books which have handled this subject on 
either side, we have little to say. Major Scott War- 
ing's book is the best against the Missions ; but be 
wants arrangement and prudence. The late resident 
writes well ; but is miserably fanatical towards the 
conclusion. Mr. Cimningham has l>een diligent in 
looking into books upon the subject : and though an 
evangelical gentleman, is not uncharitable to those 
who differ from him in opinion. There is a passage 
in the publication of his reverend brother, Mr. Owen, 
which, had we been less accustomed than we have 
been of late to this kind of vinriting, would appear to 
be quite mcrediblei 

« I Iiave not pointed out the comparative indifference* 
mwn Mr. Twlning'n iirincjples, between one rel^ion *nd 
another, to the welfare of a peoide : nor the im])os4$ibil':ty, 
on those iirinclples, of India being Christianized by any hu- 
man means, so long as it shall remain under the dominion 
of the Company ; nor the alternative to whkh Providence 
i4 by consequence reduced, of either plvlng up that country 
to everlai?ting superstition, or of working some mliade m 
order to acconqduh iti conversion/ — 0wen*8Jiddress, y. 3^ 

This is really beyond any thing we ever remember 
to have read. The hoy, the cock-fight, and the re- 
ligious newspaper, are pure reason when compared to 
it. The idea of reducing Providence to an alternative ! / 
and. by a motion at the India House, carried by bal- 
lot.' We would not insinuate, in tne most distant 
manner, that Mr. Owen is not a gentleman of the roost 
sincere piety ; but the misfortune is, all extra super- 
fine persons accustom themselves to a familiar phra- 
seology upon the most sacred subjects, which is^uite 
shocking to the commoa and Inferiof «rden of CaTi»> 


^o9iimurtdu€idtoaniUUnuaim! ! a ! Let 
it be remembered, this phrase cornea from a member 
of a retigious party, who are loud in their complaints 
of being confounded with enthusiasts and fanatics. 

We cannot conclude without the most pointed repro- 
bation of the low mischief of the Christian Observer ; 
a publication which appears to hsTe no other method 
ofdiacussing a question fairly open to discussion, than 
that of accusing their antagonists of infidelity. No 
art can be more unmanly, or, if its consequences are 
foreseoi, more wicked. If this publication had been 
the work of a single individual, we might have passed 
U over in siloit disgust ; but as it is looked upon ad 
the organ of a great political religious party m this 
country, we think it rigbt to notice the very unworthy 
manner in which they are attempting to extend their 
influence. For ourselves, if there were a fair prospect 
of canying the gospel iato regions where it was before 
unknown,^— if such a project did not expose the best 
possessions of the country to extreme danger, and if 
It was in the hands of men who were discreet, as well 
as derout, we should consider it to be a scheme of 
true piety, benevolence, and wisdom : but the base- 
ness and malignity of fanaticism sluiU never prevent 
us from attacking its arrogance, its ignorance, and its 
activity. For what vice can be more tremendous ihan 
that which, while it wears the outYrard appearance of 
religion, destroys the happiness of man, and dishon- 
ouis the naaie of God ? 

CATHOLICS. (Ediububoh Review, 1808.) 

JXMory of the Penal Laws against tJu Irish Catholics j 
fnm. the Treaty of Lxnyerick to ths Union. By Henry 
Famell, Esq. M. P. 

The various publications which have issued from 
the press in fiavour of religious liberty, have now near- 
ly silenced the arguments of their opponents ; and, 
teachmg sense to some, and inspiring others with 
shame, have left those only on the held who can 
■either learn nor blush. 

But, though the argument is given up, and the justice 
of the Catholic cause admitted, it seems to be gener- 
ally conceived, that their case, at present, is utterly 
hopeless; and that, to advocate it any longer, will 
only irritate the oppressed, without producing any 
change of opinion m those by whose influence and 
authority that oppression is continued. To this opinion, 
unfortunately too prevalent, we have many reasons 
for not subscribing. 

We do not understand what is meant in this country 
by the notion, that a measure, of com>ummate wisdom 
and imperious necessity, is to be deferred for any 
time, or ta depend upon any contingency. Whenever 
it can be made dear to the understanding of the great 
mass of enlightened people, that any system of poli- 
tical conduct IS necessary to the public welfare, every 
obstacle (as it ought) will be swept awaj before it ; 
and as we conceive it to be by no means improbable, 
that the country may, ere long, be placed in a situa- 
tion where its safety or ruin will depend upon its con- 
duct towards the Catholics, we sincerely believe we 
are doing our duty in throwing every possible light on 
this momentous question. Neither do we understand 
where this passive submission to iterance and error 
is to end. Is it confined to religion.1 or does it ex- 
tend to war and peace, aa well as religion ? Would it 
be tolerated, if any manrwere to say^ ^ Abstam from 
all arguments hi favour of peace ; the court have re- 
aolved upon eternal war ; and, as you cannot have 
peace, to what purpose urge the necessity of aV 
We answery— that courts must be presumed to be 
open to the mfluence of reason ; or, if they were not, 
to the influence of prudence and discretion, when they 
perceive the public opinion to be loudly and clearly 
against them. To lie oy in timid and indolent silence , 
.-to suppose an mflexibility, in which no court ever 
ooold, under pressing drcomstances, peraeyere— «nd 
to neglect a legular and viforooa appeal to public 
«ftaioo^to to 1^ up aUchanct of dofng ftod, andto 

abandon the only instiuneat by which tlK few ua 
ever prevented from ruining the many. 

It is foUy to talk of any other ultimahtm in govern, 
ment than perfect justice to the fair claims of Uie sub- 
ject. The concessions to the Irish Catholics in 1793 
were to be the ne plus ultra. Every engine was set 
on foot to induce the grand furies in Ireland to peti- 
tion against further concessions ; and, m six months 
afterwards, government were compelled to introduce, 
themselves, those further relaxations of the penal code, 
of which they had just before assured the Catholics 
they must abandon all hope. Such is the absurdity 
of supposing that a few mterested and ignorant indi- 
viduals can postpone, « at their pleasure and caprice, 
the happiuess of millions. 

As to the leeling of irritation with which such con- 
tinued discussion may inspire the Irish Catholics, we 
are convinced that no opinion could be so prejudicial 
to the cordial union which we hope may always sub- 
sist between the two countries, as that all the efibrts 
of the Irish were unavailing, — that argument was 
hcroeless, — ^that their case was prejudged with a sullen 
inflexibility which circumstances could not influence, 
pity soften, or reason subdue. 

We are by no means convinced, that the decorous 
silence recommended upon the Catholic question would 
be rewarded by those future concessions, of which 
many persons appear to be so certain. We have a 
strange incredulity where persecution is to be abolish- 
ed^ and any class of men restored to their indisputa- 
ble rights. When we see it done, we will believe it. 
TiJU it is done, we shall always consider it to he high- 
ly improbable — ^much too improbable — ^to justify the 
smallest relaxation in the Catholics themselves, or in 
those who are well-wishers to their cause. When iho 
fanciful period at present assigned for the emancipa- 
tion amves. new scruples may arise — fresh forbear, 
ance be called for— and the operations of common 
sense be deferred for another generation. Toleration 
neyer had a present tense, nor taxaVion a future one. 
The answer which Paul received ftrom Felix, he oTved 
to the subject on which he spoke. When Justice and 
righteousness were his theme, Felix told him to go 
away, and he would hear him some other time. All 
men who have spoken to courts upon such disagree, 
able topics, have received the same answer. Felix, 
however, trembled when he gave it ; but his fear was 
ill-directed. He trembled at the subject— he ought to ' 
have trembled at the delay. 

Little or ^lothing is to be expected from the shame of 
deferring what is so wicked and perilous to defer. Pro- 
fligacy in taking office is so extreme, that we have no 
doubt public men may be found, who, for half a cen- 
tury, would postpone all remedies for vl pestilence j if 
the preservation of their places depended upon the 
propagation of the virus. To us, such kind of conduct 
conveys no other action than that of sordid, avaricious 
impudence : it puts to sale the best interests of the 
country for some improvement in the wines and meats 
and carriages which a man uses — and encourages a new 
political morality which may always postpone any 
other ereat measure — and every other great measure 
1 well as the emancipation of the Catholics. 
We terminate this apologetical preamble with ex- 
pressing the most earnest hope that the Catholics will 
not, from any notion that thehr cause is efiectually 
carried, relax m anyone constitutional effort necessary 
to their purpose. Their cause is the cause of common 
sense and justice ; the safety of England and of the 
world may depend upon it. It rests upon the soundest 
principles ; leads to the most important consequences ; 
and therefore cannot be too frequently brought before 
the notice of the public. 

The book before us is written by Mr. Henry Pamell, 
the brother of Mr. William Pamell, author of the 
Historical Apology, reviewed in one of our late Num- 
bers ; and it contains a very well written history of 
the penal laws enacted agafaist the Irish Catholics, 
from the peace of Limerick, in the reign of King Wil- 
liam, to the late Union. Of these we shall present a 
very short, and, we hope even to loungers, a readable 
The war carried on in Ireland agtimt Cng WilHam 


cuinot dMerve the mtmc of a rebellion :— it wms a 
strugffle for their lawful Prince, whom they had sworn 
to maintain; and whose zeal for the CalhoUc religion, 
whatever effect it might have produced in Enffland, 
could not by them be considered at a crime. This war 
terminated by the surrender of Limerick, upon condi- 
tions by whicn the Catholics hoped, and very rationally 
hoped, to secure to themselves the free enjoyment of 
their relision in future, and an exemption from all 
those civu j>enaltie8 andf incajwcities which the reign- 
ing creed is so fond o[ heaping upon its subjugated 

hy the various articles of this treaty, they are to 
enjoy such privileges in -the exercise ot their religion, 
as they did enjoy in the time of Charles II : and the 
Kmg promises upon the meeting of Parliament, * to 
endeavour to procure for them such further aecurity in 
that particular, as may preserve them from any dis- 
turbance on account of tneir said religion.' They are to 
be restored to their estates, privileges, and immunities, 
as they enjoyed them in the time of Charles II. The 
gentlemen are to be allowed to carry arms { and no 
other oath is to be tendered to the Catholics who sub- 
mit to King William than the oath of allegiance. 
These and other articles, King William ratifiee for 
himee^f^ hia heire and eueceeaorSf as far as in him lies ; 
and coT^/irms the same and every other clause and matter 
therein contained. 

These articles were signed by the English general 
on the 3d of October. 1691 ; and diffused comfort, con- 
fidence, and tranquilhty amoiu; the Catholics. On the 
22d of October, the English Parliament excluded Ca- 
thollcs from the Irish Houses of Lords and Commons, 
by compelling them to talce the oaths of supremacy 
before admission. 

In 1695, the Catholics were deprived of all means of 
educating their children, at home or abroad, and of 
the privilege of being guardians to their own or to 
other person's children. Then all the Catholics were 
disarmed — and then all the priests banished. After 
this (probably by way of joke), an act was passed to 
confirm the treaty of Limerick— the great ana glorious 
King William totally forgetting the contract he had 
entered into of recommending tne religious liberties of 
the Catholics to the atteni^ of Parliament. 

On the 4th of March, 1 w4, it was enacted, that any 
son of a Catholic who wAdd turn Protestant, should 
succeed to the family estnc, which from that moment 
could no ionffer be sold, or charged with debt and 

acy. On the same day, Popish fathers were de- 

barred, by a penalty of 600/.. from being guardians to 
their own children. If the cnild, however young, de- 
clared himself a Protestant, he was to be delivered 
immediately to some Protestant relation. No Pro- 
testant to marry a Papist. No Papist to purchase 
land, or take a lease of land for more than thirty-one 
years. If the profits of the lands so leased by the 
Catholics amounted to above a certain, rate settled by 
the Sictr-farm to belong to tite first Protestant who mads 
the discovery. No Papist to be in a line of entail ; but 
the estate to pass on to the next Protestant heir, as if 
the Papist were dead. If a Papist dies intestate, and 
no Protestant heir can be found, property to be equally 
divided among all the sons ; or, if he has none, among 
all the daughters. By the 16th clause of this biU, no 
papist to hold any office, civil or military. Not to 
dwell in Limerick or Galway, except on certain con 
ditions. Not to vote at elections. Not to hold advow- 

In 1709, Papists were prevented from hoI<^g an 
annuity for life. If any son of a Papist chose to turn 
Protestant, and enrol the certificate of his conversion 
in the Court of Chancery, that Court is empowered to 
compel his father to state the value of his property 
upon oath, and to make out of that property a compe- 
tent allowance to the sod, at their own discretion, not 
only for his present maintenance, but for his future 
|)ortion after the death of his father. An increase of 
jointure to be enjoyed by Papist wives upon their con- 
Tersion. Papists keeping schools to be prosecuted as 
convicts. Popish|)riBsts who are converted, to receive 
SOc. per annum. 

Rawards are given by the same act for the diycovorv 

of the PopUi clergy : 60/. for diseoreriiig a Popish 
tnshop i 20/. for a common Popish clergyman ; 10/. 
for a Popish usher ! Two justices of the peace can 
compel any Papist over eighteen years of age to dis» 
close every particular which has come to liis imow- 
ledge respecting Popish priests, celebration of mass, 
or Papist schools. Imprisonment for a year if he 
refuses to answer. Nobody can hold property in trust 
for a Catholic. Juries, in all trials growing out of 
these statutes, to be Protectants. No Papist to take 
more than two apprentices, except in the linen trade. 
Ail the Catholic clergy to give in their names and 
places of abode at the quarter-sessions, and to keep 
no curates. Catholics not to serve on grand juries. 
In any trial upon statutes for strengthemng the Pro- 
testant interest, a Papist juror may be peremptorily 

In the next reign Popish horses were attached, and 
allowed to be seized tor the militia. Papists cannot 
be either iiigh or petty constables. No Papists to 
vote at elections. Papists in towns to provide Pro- 
testant watchmen ; ana not to vote at vestries. 

In the reign of George 11. Papists were prohibited 
from bein^ barristers. Barristers and solicitors mar> 
ryinff Papists, considered to be Papists, and subjected 
to all penalties as such. Persons robbed by privateers 
during a war with a Popish prince, to be indemnified 
by grand jury presentments, and the money to be 
levied on the Catholics only. No Papist to marry a 
Protestant ; any priest celebrating such a marriage to 
be hanged. 

During all this time there was not the slightest 
rebellion in Ireland. 

In 1715 and 1745, while Scotland and the north of 
England were up in arms, not a man stirred in Ireland ; 
yet the spirit of persecution against the Caihoiics 
continued till the J8th of his present Majesty; ond 
then gradually gave way to the increase of knowledge, 
the humanity of our Sovereign, the abilities of Ivir. 
Grattan, the weakness of England struggling in Ame- 
rica, and the dread inspired by the French revolution. 
Such is the rapid outline of a code of laws which 
reflects indelible disgrace upon the English character, 
and explains but too clearly the cause of that hatred 
in which the English name has been so long held in 
Ireland. It would require centuries to efface such an 
impression ; and yet, when we find it fresh, and ope- 
ratmg at the end of a few years, we explain the tact 
by every cause which can degrade the Irish, and by 
none which can remind us of our own scandalous 
policy. With the folly and horror of such a code 
before our eyes, with the conviction of recent and 
domestic history, that mankind are not to be lashed 
and chained out of their faith— we are striving to teazc 
and worry them into a better theology. Heavy op- 
pression is removed ; light instilts and provocations 
aro retained ; the scourge does not fall noon their 
shoulders, but it sounds in their ears. And this is the 
conduct we are purauing, when it is still a great doubt 
whether this country alone may not be opposed to the 
united efforts of the whole of Europe. It is really 
difiicult to ascertam wlilch is the most utterly destitute 
of common sense — ^the capricious and arbitrary stop 
we have made in our concessions to the Catholics, or 
the precise period we have chosen for this grand effort 
of obstinate folly. 

In whatsoever manner the contest now in agitation 
on the Continent may terminate, its relation to the 
emancipation of the Catholics will be very striking. 
If the Spaniards succeed in establishing their own lib- 
erties, and in rescuing Enroj>e from the tyranny under 
which it at present labours, it will still w contended, 
within the walls of our own Parliament, that the Cath- 
olics cannot fulfil the duties of social life. Venal pol- 
iticians will still ar^^e that the time is not yet come. 
Sacred and lay sycophants will still lavish upon the 
Catholic faith their well-paid abuse, and England still 
]m.S8ively submit to such a disgraceful spectacle of in- 
gratitude and injustice. If, on the contrary ^s may 
probably be the case), the Spaniards fall Deiore the 
numbers and military skill of the French, then are we 
letl alone in the world, without another ray of hope . 
and compelled tp employ against internal aimffectica 


that force which, exalted to it« utmoirt OMrgTy would 
in all probability prove but barely eqttal to the ezter* 
bal danger by wMch we should be surrounded. Whence 
comes it that these things are universally admitted to 
be true, but looked upon in servile silehce by a coim* 
try hitherto accustomed to make great efforts Ibr its 
prosperity, safety, and independence ? 

A(£TH0IH8M, (EDHiBimoK Rstikw.) 

StrietmrtM on two Critiqutt in tht Edin^mrgh RivUw, 
on the 8ubj€et of Mdkodim. and Mistioru ; wUh Re- 
marks on the If^uence qf Heview$j. in gtneralf on Mor- 
ale and Uappmees. By John Styles. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1809. ' 

Iv routing out a nest of consecrated cobUers, and in 
bringing to light such a perilous heap of trash aa we 
were obliged to work through, in our articles upon the 
Methodists and Missionaries, we are generally con- 
ceived to have rendered an useful service to the cause 
of rational religion. Every' one, however, at all ac- 
quainted with the true cliaracter of Methodism, must 
have known the extent of the abuse and misrepresen- 
tation to which we exposed ourselves in such a ser- 
Tice. All this obloquy, however, we were very will- 
ing to encounter, from'our conviction of the necessity 
of exposing and correcting the growing evil of fianati- 
cism. In spite of all misrepresentation, we have ever 
been, and ever sluiil be, the sincere friends of sober 
and raticmal Christianity. We are quite ready, if any 
fair opportunity occur, to defend it, to the best of our 
ability, from the tiger-spring of infidelity ; and we are 
^oite determined, if we can prevent such an evil, that 
it shall not be eaten up by the nasty and numerous 
vermin of Methodism. For this purpose, we shall pro- 
ceed to make a few short remarks upon the sacred 
and silly gentleman before us, — not, certainly, be- 
cause we feel any sort of anxiety as to the efiect of 
his strictures on our own credit or reputation, but be^ 
cause his direct and articulate defence of the princi- 
ples and practices which we have condemned, affords 
OS tho fairest opportunity of exposing, still more dear- 
ly, both the extravagance and the danger of these 
popular sectaries^ 

These very impudent people have one ruling canon, 
which pervades every thing they say and do. Who- 
ia wifrtandly to Methodttm, is an in/ioe/ and an atheist. 
This reasonable and amiable maxim, repeated, in 
every form of dulness, and varied in every attitude of 
malignity, is the sura and substance or Mr. Style's 
pam^et. Whoever wishes to rescue religion from 
the naads of di^ctic artisans, — ^whoever prefers a re- 
spectable clergyman for his teacher to a aelirious me- 
chanic, — ^whoever wishes to keep the intervals be- 
teen chuixdies and lunatic asylumns as wide as possi- 
ble, — all such men. in the estimation of Mr. Styles, 
are nothing better tnan open or concealed enemies of 
Christianity. His catechism is very simple. In what 
hoy do you navigate ? By what shoemaker or carpen- 
ter are you instructed ? What miracles have you to 
relate ? Do you think it sinful to reduce Providince to 
en aitemative^ &c. &c &c. Now, if we were to con- 
teat ourselves with using to Mr. Styles, while he is 
dealing about his imputations of infidelity, the un- 
courtlyJaaguage which is sometimes applied to those 
who are little curious about truth or falsehood, what 
Methodist would think the worse of him for such an 
attack ? Who is there among them that would not 
glory to lie for the tabeniade? who that would not 
believe he- was nleashig his Maker, by sacrificmg 
truth, justioe, and common sense, to the interests of 
his own little chapel, and his own deranged instruc- 
tor? Something more than contradiction or 'tonfuta- 
tion, therefore, is necessary to discredit those charita- 
ble dogoidtists, and to dimmish their pernicious influ- 
ence ;— and the first accusation agamst us is, that we 
have endeavoured to add ridicule to reasoaing. 

We are a good deal amused, indeed, with the ex- 
treme H^wKaK which Mr. John Styles exhibits to the 
hnmooi and pleasantry with which he admits the 

Methodists to have been atta^ed; but Mr. Jaha 
Styles should remember, that it is not the practice 
with destroyers of vermin to allow the little rietims a, 
veto upon the weapons used against them. If this 
were otherwise, we should have one set of vermin 
banishing small -tooth combs; another pioteetinir 
against mouse-traps ; a third prohibiting the finger 
and thumb ; a fourth exclaiming against the intolen- 
ble mfamy of using soap and water. It is impossible 
however, to listen to such pleas. They mu.«t all be 
caught, killed, and cracked, m the manner, and by the 
instrumenu which are found most efficacious to their 
destruction ; and the more they cry out, the greater 
plainly is the skill used against them. We are con- 
vinced a little laughter will do them more harm than 
all the arguments m the world. Such men as the au- 
thor before us cannot understand iriien they are out- 
argued ; but he has given us a specimen, from his irri- 
tability, that he ftdly comprehends when he has be- 
come the object of universal contempt and derision. 
We agree with him, that ridicule is not exactly the 
weapon to be used in matters of religion ; but the use 
of it is excusable, when there is no other which can 
make fools tremble. Besides, he should remember the 
particular sort of ridicule we have used, which is 
nothing more than accurate quotation from the Meth- 
odists themselves. It is Uue, that this is the most se- 
vere and cutting ridicule to which we could have had 
recourse ; but, whose fault is that ? 

Nothing can be more disfaigeuuous than the attacks 
Mr. Styles has made upon us for our use of Scripture 
lan^^uage. Light and grace are certainly terms of 
Scripture. It is not to the words themselves that any 
ridicule can ever attach. It is from the preposterous 
application of those words, in the mouths of the most 
arrogant and ignorant of numan beings ; — ^it is from 
their use in the niost trivial, low, and ihmiliar scenes 
of life f'-it is from the illiterate and ungrammatical 
prelacy of Mr. John Styles, that any tinge of ridicule 
ever is or ever can be imparted to the sacred language 
of Scripture. 

We admit also, with this gentleman, that it would 
certainly evince the most vulvar and contracted heart, 
to ridicule any religious opinions, methodistical or 
otherwise, because they were the opinions of the poor, 
and were conveyed in the language of the poor. But 
are we to respect the poor, when they wish to step 
out oi their province, and become the teachers of the 
land ?~when men, whose proper < talk is of bullocks, 
jpretend to have wisdom and understanding.' is it not 
lawful to tell them they have none ? An ironmonger 
is a very respectable man, so long as he is merely an 
ironmonger,— an admirable man if he is a religious 
ironmonger; but a great blockhead if he sets up for a 
bishop or a dean, and lectures upon theology. It is 
not the poor we iiavd attacked,— -but the writing poor, 
the publishing poor,->fhe limited arrogance which 
mistakes its o^m trumpery sect for the world: nor 
have we attacked them for want of talent, but for 
want of modesty, vrant of sense, and want of true ra- 
tional religion, — ^for every fault which Mr. John Styles 
defends and exemplifies. 

It is scarcely possible to reduce the drunken deda- 
mations of Methodism to a point, to grasp the wrig- 
gling lubricity of these cunning animals, and to fix 
them in one position. We have said, in our review of 
the Methodists, that it is extremely wronj^to suppose 
that Providence interferes with spedal aiid extraordi- 
nary judgments on every trifling occasion of life: that 
to represent on iimkeeper killed for preventing a Meth- 
odist meeting, or loud daps of thunder ratthng along 
the heavens, merely to hmt to Mr. Scott that he was . 
not to preach at a particular tabemade in Oxford- 
road, appeared tons to be blasphemous and mischie- 
vous nonsense. With great events, which change the 
destiny of mankind, we might suppose such interfc* 
rea(«, the discovery of which, upon every trifling oc- 
casion, we considered to be pregnant with very mis- 
chievous consequences. To all which Mr. Styles 
replies, that, with Providence, nothing is great, or 
nothing little^— nothing diflicult^ or nothing easy ; uiat 
a worm and a whale are equal m the estimation of a 
Supreme Bemg. But did any human being hot a Meth- 


odist, and a tMrd or fourth rate Methodist, CTer make 
aoch a reply to sach an argument? We are not talk- 
ing about what is great or important to Providence, 
but to ns. The creation of a worm or a whale, a New- 
ton or a Styles, are tasks equally easy to Omnipo- 
tence. But are they, in their results, equally import- 
ant to 08 ? The lightnbig may as easily strike the 
head of the French emperor, as of an innocent cotta- 
ger ; but we are surely neither impious nor obscure, 
when we say, that one would be an important interfo- 
rence of Providence, and the other comparatively not 
10. But it is a loss of time to reply to such trash ; it 
presents no stimulus of difficulty to us, nor would it 
offer any of novelty to our readers. 

To our attack upon the melancholy tendency of Me- 
thodism. Mr. Styles replies, < that a man must have 
studied m thetchooU ofHumUj Voltaire f and Kotxtbue, 
who can plead in behalf of the theatre ; that^ at fash- 
ionable ball-rooms and assemblies, seduction is drawn 
out to a system ; that dancing excites the fever of the 
passions, and raises a delirium too often fatal to inno< 
cence and peace ; and that for the poor, instead of the 
common rough amusements to wliich they are now 
addicted, ther6 remain the simple beauties of nature, 
tlie gay colours, and the scented perfumes of the 
earth.' These are the blessings which the common 
people have to expect from their Methodistical in- 
structors. They are pilfered of all their money, shut 
out from all their dances and country wakes, and are 
then sent pennyless into the fleldS| to gaze on the 
clouds, and to smell dandelions ! 

Against the orthodox clergy of all descriptions, our 
sour devotee proclaims, as was to have been expected, 
the most implacable war, declaring that, inone century, 
they would ha»€ obliterated all the remaining practical 
religion in the churchy had it not been /or thie new aectj 
everywhere epoken agfUnetJ Undoubtedly, the dls- 
tmction of mankind into godly and UDgodly— if by 
f^c^lf is really meant those who apply religion to 
iho extinction of bad passions— would be highly de- 
si/able. But when, by that word, is only intended a 
sect more desirous of possessing the appellation than 
ot deserving it—- wlien, under that term, are compre- 
hended thousands of canting hypocrites and raving 
cntnosiasts — ^men despicable ttom their iterance, 
and fonnidable from their madness— the distinction 
may hereafter prove to be truly terrific ; and a dy- 
nasty of tools may again sweep away both church and 
state in one hideous ruin. There may be, at present, 
some very respectable men at the head of these ma- 
niacs, who would insanify them with some degree of 
prudence, and keep them only half mad, if they could. 
But this wonH do ; Bedlam will break loose^ and over, 
power its keepers. If the preacher sees visions, and 
nas visiutions, the clerk will come next, and then the 
congTCf.ation ; every man vrill be his own prophet, and 
dream dreams for himself : the competition m extrava- 
gance will bo hot and lively, and the whole island a re« 
ccptacle for incurables. There is, at this moment, a 
man in London who prays for what garments he wants, 
and finds them next morning in his room, tight and fit- 
ting. This man, as misht be emcted, gains between 
two and three thousand a year from the common peo- 
ple, by preaching. Anna, the pr'^phetess, encamps in 
the woods of America, with thirteen or fourteen thou- 
sAnd followers, and has visits every night from the 
prophet Elijah. Joanna €outhcote raises the dead, 
&c &c. Mr. Styles will call us atheists, and disciples 
of the French school, for what we are about to taj ; 
but it is our decided opinion, that there is some tVaud in 
the prophetic visit ; and it is but too probable, that 
the clothes are merely human, and the man measured 
for them in the common way. When such blasphem- 
ous deceptions are practised upon mankind, how can 
remonstrance be misplaced, or exposure m'schievous? 
If the choice rested with us, we should say— give ut 
back our wolves again, restore us our Danish invaders, 
curse us with any evil but the evil of a canting, deluded, 
and Methodistical populace. Wherever Methodism 
extends its banetuf influence, the character of the 
English people is constantly changed by it. Boldness 

and rough honet^ are broken down into mMimess, 
prevarication, ana fraud. 

While Mr. Styles is so severe upon the indolence o{ 
the Church, he should recollect that his Methodiets 
are the ex-party ; that it is not in human nature, that 
any persons who quietly possess power, can be as ac^ 
tive as those who are pursuing it. The fair way to 
state the merit of the two parties is, to estimate what 
the exertions of the lachrymal and suspirons clergy 
would be, if they stepped into the endowments of 
their eompetitois. The moment they ceased to be 
pud by the groan, the instant that Easter ofierings no 
lonffer depended upon jumping and convulsions, Mr 
Styles may assure himself, that the character of bis 
darling preachers would oe totally changed ; their 
bodies would become quiet, and tneir mmds reason- 

It is not true . as this bad writer is perpetually 8ay)n2, 
that the worla hates piety. That modest and unob* 
trusive piety which fills the heart with all human cha- 
rities, and makes a man gentle to others, and severe to 
himself, is an object of universal love and veneratiou. 
But mankind hate the lust of power when it is veiled 
under the garb of piety ; they nate canting and bypoc- 
risy ; they hate advertisers and quacks and piety ; 
they do not choose to be insulted ; they love to tear 
folly and imprudence f^om that altar which should 
only be a sanctuary for the wretched and the good. 

Having concluded hSs defence of Methodism, this fa- 
natical writer opens upon us his Missionary battery, 
firing away with the most incessant fury, and calling 
names, all the time, as loud as lungs accustomed to 
the eloquence of the tub usually vociferate. In speak- 
ing of the cruelties which their religion entails upon the 
Hindoos, Mr. Styles is peculiarly severe upon us for not 
being more shocked at their piercing their limbs with 
kimea. This is rather an unfair mode of alamung his 
readers with the idea of some unknown instrument. 
He represents himself as having paid considerablo 
attention to the manners and customs of the Hindoos ; 
and, therefore, the peculiar stress he lays upon this 
instrument is naturally calculated to produce, in the 
minds of the humane, a great degree of mysterious 
terror. A drawing of the kime was imperiously caUed 
for ; and the want of it is a subtle evasion, for which 
Mr. Styles is fairly accountable. As he has been si- 
lent on this subject, it is for us to explain the plan and 
nature of this terrible and unknown piece of mechan- 
ism, A kime. then, is neither more nor less than a 
false print in the Edinsburgh Review for a knife ; and 
from this blunder of the printer has Mr. Styles manu- 
factured this Dasdalean instrument of torture called a 
kime ! We were at first nearly persuaded by fcis ar- 
guments against kimee f we grew frightened; we 
stated to ourselves the horror of not sending mission* 
aries to a nation that used kimes ^ we were struck 
with the nice and accurate information of the Taber- 
nacle upon this important subject ; but we looked into 
the errata, and found Mr. Styles to be always Mr. 
Styles, always cut ofif from every hope of mercy, and 
remaining for ever himself. 

Mr. Styles is riffht in saying we have abolished 
many practices of the Hindoos smce the establishment 
of our empire ; but then we have always consulted the 
Brahmins, whether or not such practices were conform- 
able to their reliffion ; and it is upon the authority of 
their condemnation that we have proceeded to aboli- 

To the whole of Mr. Styles's observations upon the 
introduction of Cbristiamty into India, we have one 
short answer :— it is not Christianity which is intro- 
duced there, but the debased mummery and nonsense 
of Methodists, which has little more lo do with the 
Christian religion than it has to do with the religion of 
China. We would as soon consent that Brodum and 
Solomon should carry the medical art of Europe into 
India, as that Mr. Styles and his Anabaptists should 
give to the Eastern World their notions or our reli' 

We send men of the highest character for the ad— ^ 
tration of justice and the regulation of trade ; nay, '^ 
take great pains to impress upon the minds of me lub- 



ttres tlw higfaett ideas of oat arts and manufaotum. 
bj laying before them the &wit specimens of our skiU 
and ingenuity. Why, then, are common sen§e and de- 
eency to be forgotten in religion alone ? and so foolish 
a «et of men allowed to engage themselves in this oc- 
dipatioin, that the natives umost instinctiTely duck 
and pelt them ? But the missionaries, we are told, 
have mastered the languages of the East. They may , 
also, for aught we know, in the same time, have learnt ^ 
perspective, astronomy, or anytlung else. What is all 
this tons ? Our charge is, that they want sense, con- 
duct, and sound religion ; and that, if they are not 
watched, the throat of every European in India will be 
cut : — the answer to which is. that their progress m 
languages is tndy astonishing ! If they expose us to 
eminent peril, tkrhat matters it if they have every vir> 
tue under heaven ? We are not writing dissertations 
upon the intellect of Brother Carey, but stating his 
ctiaracter so far as it concerns us, and caring for it no 
further. But these pious gentlemen care nothing about 
the loss of the country. The nlan, it seems, is this : — 
We are to educate India in Christianity, as a parent 
does his child ; and^ when It is perfect in its catechism, 
then to pack up, quit it entirely, and leave it to its own 
management. This is the evangelical project for se* 
parating a colony from the parent country. They see 
nothing pf the bloodshed, massacres, and devasutions, 
nor of the speeches in parliament, squandered millions, 
fruitless expeditions, job^ and pensions, with which the 
loss of our Indian possessions would necessarily be ac- 
companied ; nor will they see that these couseqences 
could arise from the attempt, and not from the comple- 
tion, of their scheme of conversion. We should be 
swept from the peninsula by Pagan zealots ; and 
should lose, among other things, all chance of really 
converting them. 

What is the use, too, of telling us what these men 
endure ? Sofferiog is not a merit, but only useful suf- 
fering. Prove to us that they are fit men^ doing a fit 
thin^, and we are ready to praise the missionaries ; 
but It gives no pleasure to hear that a man has walked 
a thousand miles with peas in his shoes, unless we 
know why, and wherefore, and to what good purpose 
he has done it. 

But these men, it is urged, foolish and extravaeant 
as they are, may be very useful precursors of the 
established clergy. This is much as if a regular phy- 
sician should send a quack doctor before him, and 
say, do you go and look after this disease for a day or 
two, and ply the patient well with your nostrums, and 
then I will step in and complete the cure; a more 
notable cure we have seldom heard of. Its patrons 
forget that these self-ordained ministers, with Mr. 
John Styles at their head, abominate the established 
clergy ten thousand times more than they do Pagans, 
who cut themselves with cruel fames. The efforLs of 
these precursors would be directed witli infinitely 
more zeal to make the Hindoos disbelieve In Bishops, 
than to make them believe in Christ. The darlmg 
passion in the soul of every missionary is, not to teach 
the great leading truths' of the Christian faith, but to 
enforce the little paltry modification and distinction 
which he first taught from his own tub. And then 
what a way pf teaching Christianity is this I There 
are five sects, if not six, now employed as missionaries, 
every one instructing the Hindoos m their own parti- 
cahir method of intezpreting the Scriptures ; and when 
tbese have completely succeeded, the Church of Eng- 
land is to step m, and convert them all over again to 
its own doctrines. There is, indeed, a very fine varnish 
of probnbility over this ingenious and plausible scheme. 
Mr.- John Styles, however^ would much rather see a 
kime in the flesh of an Hindoo than the hand of a 
Bishop on his head. 

The missionaries complain of intolerance. A weasel 
might as well complain of mtolerance when it is throt- 
tled for sucking eggs. Toleration for their own 
opinions — toleration for their domestic worship, for 
tfaeii nrivate groans and convulsions, they possess in 
tlM fullest extent ; bat who ever heard of tolerance for 
intoleiance? Who eve.r before heard men cry out 
they were persecuted, because they might not insult 
tbe reUgioAy shock the feelings, irritate the passions of 

their fellow cieatarM, and throw a whole colony into 
bloodshed and confusion ? We did not say that a man 
was not an object of pity \vho tormented tiimself from 
a sense of duty, bat that he was not so great an object 
of pity as one equally tormented by the tyranny of 
another, and without any sense of duty to support nim. 
Let Mr. Styles first infTtct forty lashes upon himself, 
then let him allow an Edinburgh Reviever to give him 
forty more — he will find no comparison between the 
two flagellations. 

These men talk of the loss of our possessions in 
India as if it made the argument against them only 
more or less strong; whereas, in our estimation, it 
makes the argument against them conclusive, and 
shuts up the case. Two men ])os8e88 a cow, and they 
quarrel violently how they shall manage this cow. 
They will surely both of them (if they have a particle 
of common sese) agree, that there is an absolute ne- 
cessity for preventii^ tne cow from running away. It 
is not only the loss of India that is in question->but 
how will it be lost ? By the massacre of ten or twenty 
thousand English, by the blood of our sons and bro* 
thers, who have been toiling so many years to return 
to their native country. But what is all this to a fero* 
cious Methodist f What care brotliers Barrel and 
Ringletub for us and our colonics ? 

K it it were possible to invent a method by which 
a few men sent from a distant country could hold such 
masses of people as Hindoos in subjection, that mctliod 
would be the institution of caetes. There is no insti- 
tution which can so eflectualiy curb the ambition of 
genius, reconcile the individual more completely to his 
station, and reduce the varieties of human character to 
such a sute of insipid and monotonous tameness ; and 
yet the religion which destroys castes is said to render 
our empire in India more certain ! It may be our 
duty to make the Hindoos Christians — ^that is another 
argument : but, that we shall by so doin^ strengthen 
our empire, we utterly deny. What sienifies identity 
of religion to a question of this kind f Diversity of 
bodily colour and of languase would soon over]>ower 
this consideration. Make the Umdoos enterprising, 
active, and reasonable as yourselves— destroy the 
eternal track in which they have moved for ages— and, 
in a moment, they would sweep you ofi'the face of the 
earth. Let us ask, too, if the Bible is universally dif- 
fused in Hindostan, what must be the astonishment 
of the natives to find that we are forbidden to rob. 
murder, and steal ; we who, hi fifty years have extended 
our empire ffom a few acres about Madras over the 
whole peninsula, and sixty millions of people, and ex- 
emplified in our public conduct every crime of which 
human nature is capable. What matchless impudence 
to follow up such practice with such precepts f If we 
have common prudence, let us keep the gospel at 
home, and tell them that Machiavel is our prophet, 
and the ^rodof the Manicheans our god. 

There is nothing which digusts us more tlian the 
familiarity these impious coxcombs afiect with the 
ways and designs of Providence. Every man, now-n- 
days, is an Amoe or a Malachi. One rushes out of U. j 
chambers, and tells us we are beaten by the French, 
because we do not abolish the slave trade. Another 
assures us that we have no chance of victory till India 
is evangelized. The new Christians are now come to 
speak of the ways of their Creator with as much confi. 
deuce as they would of the plan of an earthly ruler. 
We remember when the ways of God to man were 
gazed upon with trembling humility— when they were 
called inscrutable — when piety looked to another scene 
of existence for the true explanation of this ambiguous 
and distresshig world. We were taught in our child- 
hood that this was true religion ; but it turns out now 
to be nothing but atheism and mfidelity. If any thmg 
could surprise us from the pen of a Methodist, we 
should be truly surprised at the very irreligious and 
presumptous answer which Mr, Stylos makes to some 
of our arguments. Our title to one of the anecdotes 
from the Methodist Magazine is as follows: M ^nner 
puni$hed--a Bee the inetrumentp to which Mr. Styles 
replies, that we might as well ridicule the Scriptnres, 
by relating their contents in the same ludicrous man. 
ner. An intetfirmce toUth respect to a traveOing Jew ; 


WnJimmtkeetnmqumee. Aet$jtkininihehaftgryand 
Jiril nku verBtt, The account of PouVt converaUm, 
V- 4^- ^'f P^ ^* ^"^ ^^®" ^'* Styles forget, that 
the one is a shameless falsehood, introduced to sell a 
twopenny book, and the other a miracle recorded by 
inspired writers J In the same manner, when we ex- 
press oar surprise that sixty millions of Hindoos should 
be converted by four men and sixteen guineas, he asks, 
what would have become of ChrisUanitv if the twelve 
Apostles had arsued in the same way f It is impos- 
sible to make tbis infatuated gentleman understand 
that the lies of the Evangelical Magazine are not the 
miracles of Scripture ; and that the Baptist Mission- 
aries ate not the Apostles. He seriously expects that 
we should speak of Brother Carey as we would speak 
of St. Paul ; and treat with an equal respect the mimdes 
of the Magazine and the Gospel. 

Mr. Styles knows very well that we have never said 
because a nation has present happiness, that it can 
therefore dispense with immortal happiness ; but we 
have said that, where of two nations both cannot be 
made CSiristians, it is more the duty of a missionary to 
convert the one, which is exposed to every evil of bar- 
barism, than the other possessing every blessing of 
civilizatioa. Our argument is merely comparative: 
Mr. Styles must have known it to be so : but who does 
not love the Tabernacle better than truth ? When the 
tenacity of the Hindoos on the subject of their religion 
Is adduced as a reason against the success of the mis- 
sions, the friends of this understanding are always fond 
of reminding us how patiently the Hindoos submitted 
to the religious persecutions and butchery of Tip^oo. 
The inference nom such citations is truly alarmmg. 
It is the imperious duty of Government to watch some 
of these men most narrowly. There is nothing of 
which they are not capable. And what, after all, did 
Tippoo effect in the way of conversion? How many 
MaJhomedans did he make? There was all the car- 
nage of Medea's Kettle, and none of the transformation. 
He deprived multitudes of Hindoos of their caste, 
indeed ; and cut them off from all the benefits of their 
leligion. That he did, and we may do. by violence ; 
Iwt, did he make Mahomedans ?-— or shall we make 
Christians? This, however, it seems, is a matter of 
pleasantry. To make a poor Hindoo hateful to himself 
and his kindred, and to nx a curse upon him to the end 
of his days t— we have no doubt but that this is very 
entertaining; and particularly to the friends of tolera- 
tion. Bui our ideas of come'dy have been formed in 
another whool. We arc dull enough to think , too, that 
it is more innocent to exile pigs than to offend con- 
science, and destroy human happiness. The scheme 
of baptizing with beef broth is about as bnitol and 
preposterous as the assertion that you may vilify the 
gods and priests of the Hindoos with safety, provided 
you do not meddle with their turbans and toupees, 
(which arc cherished solely on a principle of religion) , 
is silly and contemptible. After all, if the Mahome- 
dan did persecute the Hmdoos with impunity, is that 
any precedent of safety to a government that offends 
every feeling both of Mahomedaii and Hindoo at the 
same time? You have a tiger and a buffalo in the 
same enclosure ; and the tiger drives the buffalo before 
him ; is it therefore prudent in you to do that which 
will irritate them both, and bring their umted strength 
upon you ? 

In answer to the low maligmty of this author, we 
have only to reply, that we are, as we always have 
been, sincere fnends to the conversion of the Hindoos. 
We admit the Hindoo religion to be full of follies, 
and full of enormities ^— we think conversion a great 
duty— and could think it, if it could be effected, a 
great blessing ; but our opinion of the missionaries 
and of their employers is such, that we most firmly 
believe, in less than twenty years, for the conversion 
ofa few degraded wretches, who would he neither 
Methodists nor Hindoos, they would infallibly pro- 
duce the massacjfe of every European in India ;• the 

*£yerv opponent stys of Major Scott's book, 'What a 
daneerous book ! the arrival of it at CalcutU mav throw 
the whole Indian empire into confuMion ;— and yet thoie are 
tuo people whoM jeilglous pr^udice» may be insulted with 

loM of our setUemenU, wad* eonseqaentiy, oT ^ 
chance of that slow, solid, and temperate introducttan 
of Christianity, which the superionty of the European 
character may ultimately effect in the Eastern 
world. The Board of Control (all Atheists, and dis- 
ciples of Voltaire, of course) are so entirely of our 
way of thinkinf , that the most peremptory orders 
have been issued to send all the missionaries home 
^]pon the sUghtest appearance of disturbance. Those 
who have sons and brothers in India may now sleep 
in peace. Upon the transmission of this order, Mr. 
Styles is said to have desUoyed himself with a kimt. 

HANNAH MORE. (Edikbuboh Review, 1809.) 

Ca2«*f m Btardt ofa Wife j eompr^Unding Obterroiieiu on 

DomutU HabiU oni MonnerB, Rekgum, and MaraU. H 

Vols. London, 1809. 

This book is written, or supposed to be written, 
(for we would speak timidly of the mysterieo of supe- 
rior beings,) by the celebrated Mrs. Hannah More I 
We shall probably give great offence by such indis- 
cretion J but still we must be excused for treating ii 
as a book merely huraan^-an uninspired production, 
—the result of mortality left to itseU) and depcoding 
on its own limited resources. Intakmg up i^c sub- 
ject in this point of view, we solenmly disclaim iht 
slightest intention of indulging in any indt^roroia 
levity, or of wounding the reBgious feelings ofa laige 
class of very respectable persons. It is the only me- 
thod in which we can make this work a proper object 
of criticism. We have the strongest possible douUs 
of the attributes usually ascribed to this authoress; 
and we think it more simple and manly to say s« at 
once, than to admit nominally superlunary claims, 
which, in the progress of onr remarks, we should vir- 
tually deny, ^ ^ , ^ . . 

CdElebs wants a wife; and, after the death of hie 
father, quits his estate in J«(orthumberland to see tU*: 
world, and to seek for one of iU best productions, a 
woman, who may add materially to the happmess of 
his future Ufe. His first journey is to London, vhero, 
in the midst of the gay society of the metropolis^ of 
course, he does not find a wife. The exaltation, 
therefore, of what the authoress deems to be the rtji' 
gious, and the depreciation of what she considers to l>c 
tiie worldly character, and the influence of both upon 
matrimonial happiness, form the subject of this novel, 
—rather, of this dramatic sermon. 

The machinery upon which the discourse is suspen- 
ded is of the slightest and most inartificial texture, 
bearing every mark of haste, and possessing not the 
slightest claim to merit. Events there are none ; and 
scarcely a character of any interest. The book is in- 
tended to conveyy religious advice ; and no more labour 
appears to have been bestowed upon the story tlian 
1TO8 merely sufficient to throw it out of the dry, didac 
tic form. Lucilhi is totally uninteresting ; so is Mr. 
Stanley ; Dr. Barlow is still worse ; and Coslcbs a mere 
clod or doll. Sir John and Lady Bclfleld are rather 
more interesting— and for a very obvious reason : they 
have some faults ^— they put us in mind of men and 
women ; — ^thcy seem to belong to one common nature 
with ourselves. As we read, we seem <o think wp 
might act as such people act, and therefore we attend ; 
whereas imitation is hopoless in the more perfect 
characters which Mrs. More has set before us ; and 
therefore thcT inspire us with very little interest. 

There are books, however, of all kinds ? and those 
may not be unwisely planned which set before us very 
pure models. They are less probable, and there foij* 

^mumstMj 19 ACB8 ^greeaoie >« m. i * »x».» v ■.»——• > — .• ^ ^ 
more agreeable than Sherlock and Tilloteon ; and 
teaches religion and morality to many who would not 
seek it in the productions of those professional writers. 
Bat, making every allowance for the difficulty of the 
task which Mrs. More has prescribed to herself, the 
book abounds with marks of negligence and want of 
skill ; with representations of life and mannen which 
are either fals« or trite. 


^nuilM to fnendsh^ and Tiztoe most be totally 
1b^ aaide, for many yean to come, in novels. Mr. 
Lane, of the Minerva Press, has given them up long 
since ; and we are ouite surprised to find sach a writer 
as Mr8.\More busied in monu brick and mortar. Such 
an idea, at first, was merely juvenile ; the second time 
a little nauseous ; but the ten thousandth time it is 
quite Intolerable. Coelebsj upon his first arrival in 
London, dines out,— meets with a bad dinner, — suppo- 
sas the cause of that bad dinner to be the erudition of 
the ladies of the house ^—4alks to them upon learned 
sobjects, and finds them as dull and ignorant as if they 
had piqued themselves upon all the mysteries of house- 
wifery. We humbly submit to Mrs, More, that this is 
not humorous, but strained and unnatural. Philippics 
against fhigivorous children after dinner are too com- 
mon. Lady Melbury has been introduced into every 
novel for these four years last past. Peace to her 

The characters in this novel which evince the greats 
est skill are unquestionably those of Mrs. Ranl:^ and 
her dauffhters. There are some scenes in this p^rt of 
the book extremely well palnied, and which evince 
that Mrs. More could amuse, in no common degree, if 
amusement was her object. 

<« At tea I found the young ladies took no more interest 
in the conversation than they had done at dinner, but sat 
whispering and laugliing, ana neltinc white silk gloves, till 
they were summoned to the harpBicnord. I>e8palring of 
getting on with them in company, I proposed a walk In the 
garden. I now found them as willing to talk as destitute 
of any thing to say. Their convexsation was vapki and 
fxivoiouB. They laid great stress on small things. They 
seemed to have no shades in their understanding, but uBcd 
the strongest terms for the commonest occssions ; and ad- 
miration was excited by things hardly worthy to command 
attention. They were extremely glad and extremely sorry 
on suttjects not calculated to excite atfectiona of any kind. 
They were animated about triflea, and IndifTerent on things 
of Importance. They were, I must confess, frsnk and good- 
natuied ; but it was evident that, as they were too open to 
have any thing to conceal, ao they were too uninformed to 
have any thing to produce ; and I was resolved not to risk 
ny happiness with a woman who could not contribute her 
fvill anare towards spending a wet winter cheerfully in the 
cottntry.*--(I. 54, 55.) 

This trait of character appears to us to be very good. 
The following passage is stul better. 

<In the evening, Mrs. Ranby was lamenting in general, 
ia rather customnv terms, her own exceeding sinAiZness. 
Mr. Ranby said, "Ton accuse yoursdf rather too heavily, 
my dear; you have sins to be sure.'' "And pray what 
sins have I, Mr. Ranby ?" aaid she, turning upon him with 
•o much quicknesi that the poor man started. ** Nay,'' 
said he, mecldy, *< I did not mean to offend you ; so far 
trom it, that, hearing you condemn yourself grievously, I 
intended to comfoit you, and to aay that, except a few 

faults -b" " And pray what faults ?" interrupted she, 

continuing to speak, however, lest he should catoi an in- 
tenrai to teQ them. ** I defy you, Mr. Ranby, to produce 
one." " My dear," replied he, ** as you charged youneif 
vrith an, I tnought it would be letting you oft cheaply, by 
naming only two or three, such as ." Here, rearing 

matters would go too far,' I interposcid; and, softening 
thirurs as much 1 could for the lady, said, ** I conceived thn 
Mr. "Ranby meant, that though she partook of the general 

corruption — " Her© Ranby, interrupting mo with 

more spirit than I thought he possessed, said, " General 
cormptton, air, must be the source of psrtlcular corruption. 
I did not mean that my wife was worse than other women." 
— '•Worse, Mr. Ranby, worse?" cried she. Ranby, for 
the first time in his life, not minding her, went on, " As 
■he is always insisting that the whole species Is corrupt, she 
cannot help allowing that she herself has not quite escaped 
the infection. Now, to be a sinner in the gross, snd a saint 
in the detail— that is, to have all sins, and no faults—is a 
thing* I do not quite comprehend." 

• After he had left the room, which he did as the shortest 
vay of allaying the storm, she, spologizing for him, said, 
« he vras a wdl'meaning man, and acted up to the little 
liffbt be had ;" but added, " that he was unscquainted with 
religious fedings, snd knew little of the nature of conver- 

< Mrs. Ranby, I found, seems to consider Christianity as 
a kind offree-mssonry: and therefore thinks it superfluous 
to ^*enk on serious subjects to any but the initiated. If 
they do not return the sign, she gives them up as blind and 
(leflfd. She thinks she can only make hera^ intdliaible to 
txta^e to whom certain peculiar phrases sre familiar : and 


though her friends may be correct, devout, and both doc- 
trinslly and practically pious ; yet, if they cannot catch a 
certain mystic mesniug— if there Is not a sympathy of in- 
telligence between her and them-^if they do not fully con- 
ceive of impressions, and cannot respond to mysterious 
communications, she holds them unworthy of intercoume 
with her. She does not so much insist on high moral ex> 
cellence ss the criterion of their worth, m on their own so* 
count of their internal feeUngs.'— (1. 60— 6S.) 

The great object kept in view, throughout the 
whole of this introductioui is the eniforcement of reli- 
gious principle^ and the condemnation of a life lavished 
in dissipation and fashionable amusement. In the pur- 
suit of this object, it appears to us that Mrs. More is 
much too severe upon the ordinary amusements of 
mankind, many of which she does not object to in this 
or that degree, but altogether. Coelebs and LucULla, 
her optimua and optinuij never dance, and never go to 
the play. They not only stay away from the come- 
dies of Congreve and Farquhar, for which they may 
easily enough be forgiveo—but they never go to see 
Mrs. Siddons in the Gamester, or in Jane Shore. The 
finest exhibition of talent, and the most beautiful mo. 
ral lessons, are interdicted at the theatre. There is 
something in the word Playhouse which seeme so 
closely connected, in the minds of these people, with 
sin and Satan, — ^that it stands in their vocabulary for 
every species of abomiLation. And yet why 7 Where 
is every feeling more roused in favour of virtue than at 
a good playf Where is goodness ao feelingly, so 
en&usiastically learnt ? What so solemn as to see 
the excellent 2>assions of the human heart called forth 
by a great actor— animated by a great poet ? To hear 
Siddons repeat what Shakspeare wrote J To behold 
the child and his mother—the noble and the poor arti- 
san — ^the monarch and his subjects— all ages and all 
ranlcs convulsed in one common passion — wrung with 
one common anguish, and, with loud sobs and cries, 
doing involuntary homage to the €^ that made their 
hearts ! Wliat wretched infatuation to interdict such 
amusements as these ! What a blessing that man- 
kind can be allured from sensual gratification, and find 
relaxation and pleasure in such pursuits ! But the 
excellent Mr. Stanley is uniformly paltry and narrow, 
— always trembling at the idea of being entertained, 
and thinking no Christian safe who is not dull. As to 
the spectacles of impropriety which are sometimes 
witnessed in parts ofthe theatre, such reasons apply, 
in a much stronger degree, to not driving along the 
Strand, or any of the great public streets of London, 
after dark ; and, if the virtue of well-educated young 
persons is made of such very frail materials, their best 
resource is a nunnery at once. It is a very bad rule, 
however, never to quit the house for fear of catching 

Mrs. More practically extends the same doctrine 
to cards and assemblies. No cards — ^because cards 
are employed in gaming; no assemblies— because 
many dissipated persons pass their lives in assemblies. 
Carry this but a little nirther, and we must say, no 
wine — ^because of drunkenness ; no meat — ^because of 

uttony ; no use, that there may be no abuse .' The 
wCt is, that Mr. Stanley wants, not only to be religi- 
ous, but to be at the head of the religious. These 
little abstinences are the cockades by which the party 
are known, — the rallying points for the evangelical 
faction. So natural is the love of power, that it some- 
times becomes the influencing motive with the sincere 
advocates of that blessed religion whose very charac- 
teristic excellence is the humility which it inculcates. 

We observe that Mrs. More, in one part of her 
work, falls hito the common error about dress. She 
first blames hidies for exposing their ]>ersons hi the 
present style of dress, and then says, if they knew 
their own interest^! they were aware how much 
more alluring they were to men when their charma 
are less displayed, they would make the desired al- 
teration from motives merely selfish. 

< Oh ! if women in general knew what was their real In- 
terest, if they could fuess with what a charm even the ap- 
pemnme* of modesty invests its posessor, they would dress 
decorously firom mere sdf-love, if not from-prindple. The 
designing wouM assume modesty as an aitiflce ; the co- 


ounelTes for the pmont with nuJcisg a few suoh slight 
observations as may enable the saeacious to conjec- 
ture what our direct answer would be Were we com- 
peUed to be more e3Eplicit. 

One great and signal praise we think to be the eJni- 
nent due of Mr. Edgeworth : in a canting age he do«s 
not cant ^-«t a period when hyprocrisy and fanatic- 
ism will almost certainly insure the success of any 
publication, he has constantly disdained to have re- 
course to any such arts }— without evar having been 
accused of disloyalty or irreligion, he is not always 
harping upon Church and « King, in order to catch at a 
little populaity, and sell his books H-he is manly> in- 
dependent, lioeral — and maintains enlightened opi- 
nions with disa^etion and honesty. There is also in 
this work of Mr. Edgeworth an agreeable diffusion of 
anecdote and example, such as a man acquires who 
reads with a view to talking or vnriting. With these 
merits, we cannot say that Mr. Edgeworth is either 
very new, yery profound, or very apt to be right in 
his opinion. He is active • enteiprismg, and unpre- 
judiced ; but we have not been very much instructed 
by what he has written, or always satisfied that he 
has got to the bottom of nis subject. 

On one subject, however, we cordially agree with 
this gentleman ; and return him our tfaanln for the 
courage with which he has combated the excessive 
abuse of classical leaminff in England. It is a sub- 
ject upon which we have long wished for an oppor- 
tunity of saying something ; and one which we con- 
sider to be of the very highest importance. 

The prlndDsl defect/ says Mr. Edgeworth, < in the pres- 
ent syBtem or our great schools is, that they devote too 
laxge a portion of time to Latin and Greek. It is true, that 
the attainment of classical literature is highly desirable ; but 
it should not, or rather it need not, be the exclusive object 
of hoys during eight or nine years. 

'Much less time, judiciously managed, would give them 
an acquaintance with the classics sufficient for all uaeful 
purposes, and would ipake them as good scholars as gen^ 
tlemen or professional men need to oe. It is not requiiite 
that every man should make Latin or Greek verses ; thae- 
fore, a knowledge of prosody beyond the structure of hex- 
ameter and pentameter verses, is as worthless an acqutei- 
lion as any which folly or fashion has Introduced amongst 
the higher classes of mankind. It must indeed be acknovl- 
edged that there are some rare exceptions; but even pazty 
prejudice would allow, that the persons alhided to must 

quette wmdd adopt It as an alhuement; the pute as her ap- 
propriate attraction ; and the voluptuous as the most infu- 
fn>le art of ■educaon.'.~(1. 189.) 

If there Is any truth in this passage, nu^ty becomes 
f virtue ; and no decent woman, for the future, can be 
feen in garments. 

We have a few more of Mrs. More's opmions to 
Aotice.~It is not fair to attack the religion of the 
times, because, in large and indiscriminate parties, 
religion does not become the subject of conversation. 
Conversation must and oug^t to grow out of materials 
in. which men can agree, not upon subjects which try 
the passions. But this good hidy wanto to see men 
chatung together upon the Pelagian heresy-— to hear, 
in the afternoon, the theological rumours of the day— 
and to glean polemical tittle-tattle at a tea-table rout. 
All the disciples of this school uniformly faU into the 
iiame mistake. They are perpetually calling upon 
tiieir votaries for religious thoughts ana relip^ious con- 
▼eraation in every thmg ; mvitin^ them to nde, walk, 
low, wrestle, and dine out religiously ;— forgetting 
that the being to whom this impossible purity is re- 
eommended, is a being compelled to scramble for his 
existence and support for ten hours out of the sixteen 
he is awake ;— forgettUig that he must diff, beg, read, 
think, move, pay, receive, praise, scold, command, 
and obey s— forgetting, also, that if men conversed as 
often upon rehgioos subjects as they do upon the 
ordinary occurrences of the world, they would con- 
▼erse upon them with the same familiarity and want 
of respect,— that religion would then produce feelings 
not more solemn or exalted than any other topics 
which constitute at present the common furniture of 
hnmian understandings. 

We are glad to find in this work some strong com- 
pliments to the efficacy of works^-^ome distinct ad- 
missions that it IS necessary to be honest and just, be- 
fore we can be considered as religious. Such sort of 
concessions are very gratifying to us ; but how will 
they be received by the children of the Tabernacle ? 
It is quite clear, indeed, throughout the whole of the 
work, that an apologetical explanation of certain re- 
ligious opinions is intended ; and there Is a consider- 
able abatement of that tone of insolence with which 
the improved Christians are apt to treat the bungling 
•pedmensofpiety to be met within the more ancient 

churches. ^ve risen to eminence' though th^ had never wrlttoi sap- 

So much for the extravagances of this lady.— With phios or iambics. Though preceptoiSyparents, and the pub- 
equal sincerity, and with greater pleasure, we bear pc in general, may be convinced of the absurdity of mak- 

' ' .» . . « __^i^ 'Mngboysapcndsomuchof life In learning what can be of 

no use to them ; such are the difficuUies of making any 
change in the ancient rules of great establishments, that 
masters themsdves, however reasonable, dare not, and can- 
not make sudden alterations. 

The only remedies that can be 8ugge«ted might be» per- 

''*'"" not intended for profes- 

neoessary, away from 

classesy where prosody 

and Greek and Latin venes are^required. 

* In the college of Dublin, where an admirable couxve of 
instruction has been long established, where this course is 
superintended by men of aclcnowledged learaiitf and abili- 
ties, and punuea by students of uncommon indnetrv, such 
Is the force of example, and such the fear of appealing in- 
ferior in trifles to snglish universities, that much psiiiis 
have been lately taken to introduce the practice of writing 
Greek and Latin veniea, and much solicitude has been 
showp about the prosody of the learned languages, without 
any attention being paid to the prosody of our own. 

« Boarding-houses for the scholars at Eton and Westxnin- 
Bter, which are at present mere lodging bouses, might be 
kept by private tutors, who might, during the hours when 
the boys were not in the public classes, assist them in ac- 
quirii^g general literature, or such knowledge as might be 
advantageous for their respective professions. 

* New schools, that are not restricted to any establiFhed 
routine, should give a fair trial to experiments in eduration 
which aiford a rational prospect of success. If nothing can 
be altered in the old schools, leave them as they are. De- 

testimooy to her talents, her good sense, and her real 

gety. There occur every now and then, in her pro- 
icuons, Tery original, and very profoan<I observa- 
tions. Her advice is very often characterized by the 
most amiable good sense, and conveyed in the most 
brilliant and invitins style. If, instead of belonging 
to a trumpery faction, she had only watched over 
those great points of religion in which the hearts of 
every sect or Christians are interested, she would have 
been one of the most useful and valuable writers of 
her day. As it is, every man would wish his wife and 
Ids children to read CaUbs /—watching hhnself iu 
efiects ;— separating the piety from the puerility ; — 
and showing that it is very possible to be a good 
Christian, without degrading the human understand- 
ing to the trash and folly of Methodism. 


TIEW, 1809.) 

JSstaiys on Profu$Umal EducaHon, By R. L. Edge- 
worth, Esq. F. R. 6. &c. London. 1809. 
Trebz are two questions to be asked re«pectnig 
every new publication. Is it worth borrowing ? and 
we would advise our readers to weigh diligently the 
Importance of these interrogations, before they take 
any decided step as to this work of Mr. Edgeworth ; 
the more especially as the name carries with it con- 
siderable authority, and seems, in the estimation of 
the unwary, almost to include the idea of purchase. 
For oar own part, we would rather decline giving a 
^lect answar to tbe«e ouestions ; and shall content 

stroy nothing— injure none— but let the public try wlketlMT 
they cannot have something better. If ti>e eipeitment do 
not succeed, the public will be convinced that they ougbt 
to acquiesce in the established methods of instruction, and 
parents wiQ send their children to the ancient scauzxaxles 
with increased confidence.'— (p. 47—49.) 

We are well aware that nothing veiT new can iw. 
main to be said anon a topic so oHen 4ebatod. The 


I %pe iMEve to iMke AM mt laMt M flld as Uie 
tbom of Loeke and Dr.Sumwl Clarke: and the evU 
irikkh is the sobiect of these coBmUinu has certainly 
lather taicieasea than dimtaishea since the period of 
those nro great men. An hundied years, to be sore, 
is a very Uttle time for the duration of a national error ; 
and it is so fhr ftom being reasonable to look for its 
decay at so short a date, that it can hardly be expect- 
edy -within such limits, to have displayod the full 
bloom of its imbecility. 

Tliere are several feelings to which attention must 
be void, before the queetion of classical learning can 
be fairly and temperately discussed. 

We are apt, in the first place, to remember the im- 
mense benefits wliich the study of the classics once 
conferred on mankind ; and to feel for those models 
on which the taste of Earo^M has been formed, some- 
thiBff like sentiments of gratitude and obligation. This 
is all wel^enongh, so long as it continues to be amere 
feeling ; bat, as soon as it interferes with action, it 
Bonriflhes dangerous prejudices about education. No- 
thin? vill do in the pursuit of knowledge but the 
biadkest ingratitude ; the moment we have got up the 
ladder, -we must kick it down ^--as soon as we nave 
passed over the bridge, we must let it rot ^— when we 
nave got upon the shomdeis of the ancients, we must 
look OTor their heads. The man who forgets the 
friends of his childhood in real life, is base : but he 
-who dings to the props of his childhood in literature, 
must be content to remain as ignorant as he was when 
a diild. His business is to forret, disown, and deny— 
to think himself above every thing which has been of 
Qse to him in time past-— ond to cultivate that exclu- 
sively from which he expects future advantage: in 
short, to do every thing for the advancement of his 
knowledge which it would be in&mous to do for the 
advancement of his fortune. If mankind stUl derive 
advantage from classical literature proportionate to 
the labour they bestow upon it, let tneir labour and 
their study proceed ; but the moment we cease to read 
Latin and Greek for the solid utility we derive from 
them, it vouM be a very romantic application of 
human talents to do so fVom any feeling of gratitude, 
and recollection of past service. 

To almost every Englishman up to the age of three 
or four and twenty, classical learning has been the 
great object of existence ; snd no man is very apt to 
suspect, or very much pleased to hear, that what he 
has done for so long a tmie was not worth doing. His 
rlssaical Mteratore, too, reminds every man of the 
scenes of his childhood, and brings to his fancy several 
ef the most pleasing associations wluch we are capa- 
ble of fbrming. A certain sort of vanity, also, very 
naturally grows among men occupied in a conmion 
pirsuit. Classical quotations are tiie watch-words of 
scholars, by which they distinguish each other flrom 
the ignorant and illiterate ; and Greek and Latin are 
insensibly become almost the only test of a cultivated 

Some men through indolence, others throu^ ig. 
norance. and most thronxh ueceiMity, submit to the 
established education of the times r and seek for their 
children tliat species of di&tinction which happens^ at 
the period in vrhich they live, to be stamped with the 
approbation of mankind. This mere' question of con- 
venience every parent must determine for himself. A 
poor man, who has his fortune to gain, mnst be a 

2 nibbling Uieologian, or a classical p^ant, as fiwhion 
tctates ; and he must vary his error with the error 
of the times. But it woula be much more fortunate 
for mankind, if the public opiaion, wliich regulates the 
pursuits of indlvidimls, were more wise and enlighten- 
ed than it at present is. 

AU these considerations make It extremely difficult 
to procure a candid hearing on this question ; and to 
refer this branch of educauon to the only proper cri- 
terion of every branch of education— iu utility hi 
future life. 

There are two questions which grow out of this sub- 
ject : Ist, How Air is any sort ofdassical education 
useful ? 2d, How tta is that particular classical edu- 
cation adopted m this country usefiill 

Latin and Greek aie, in the first place, ustfal as 

thaj bme chUdna to JntoUactiyJ dUBodtlaf. nd 
make the life of a youns student what it oi^t to be. 
a life of considerable labour. We do not, of course 
mean to confine this praise exclusively to the study 
of Latin and Greek ; or to suppose that other dim 
culties might not be found whicn it would be useful to 
overcome: but though Latin and Greek have this 
merit in common with many arts and sciences, still 
they have it ; and. if they do nothing else, they at 
least secure a soUd and vigorous application at a 
period of life which materially infiuences all oUier 

To ffo through the grammar of one language 
thoroughly is of great use for the mastery of every 
other grammar ; because there obtains, tnrough ail 
languages, s certam analogy to each other in their 
grammatical construction. Latin and Greek have 
now mixed themselves etymologically with all the 
languages of modem Europe— and with none more 
than our own ; so that it is necessary to read these 
two tongues for other objects than themselves. 

The two ancient languages are, as mere inventions 
—as pieces of mechanisni, mcomparably more beauti- 
ful than any of the modem languages of Europe : thehr 
mode of signiQring time and case by terminations, in- 
stead of auxiliary verbs and participles, would of itself 
btamp their superiority. Aod to this, the cojpiousiiess 
of the Greek language, with the fancy, majesty, and 
harmony of its compounds ; and there are quite suffi- 
cient reasons why the classies should be studied for 
beauties of language. Compared to them, merely as 
vehicles of thought and passion, all modem language 
are dull, ill^ contrived, and barbarous. 

That a great part of the Scriptures has come down 
to us in the Greek language, is of itself a reason, if 
all others were wanting^ why education should be 
planned so as to produce a supply of Greek scholars. 

The cultivation of style is very justly made a part 
of education. Every thing whicn is written is meant 
either to please or to instruct. The second object it 
is difficult to efiect, without attending to the first; 
and the cultivation of style is the acquisition of those 
rules and literary habits which sagacity anticipates, 
or experience shows to be the most effectual means 
of pleasing. Those works are the best which have 
longest stood the test of time, and pleased the greatest 
number of exercised minds, whatever, theretore, our 
conjectures may be, we cannot be so sure that the best 
modem writers can afford us as aood models as the 
ancients ^— we cannot be certam tnat they will live 
tlirough the revolutions of the world, and continue to 
please in every climate— 4mder eveiy species of go- 
vernment— through every stage of civihzation. Tnt 
modems have been well taught by their masters; 
but the time is hardly yet come wnen the necessity 
for such instruction no lonser exists. We may still 
borrow descriptive power from Tacitus; dignffied 
penplcuity fVom Livy ; simplicity f^om Csesar ; and 
iVom Homer some portion of that hght and heat which, 
dispersed mto ten thousand channels, has filled the 
world with bright images and illustrious thoughts. 
Let the cultivator of modem literature addict himself 
to the purest models of taste wh^h France, Italy, and 
England could supply, he might still learn fVom Yirnl 
to be majestic, and fh>m TiduUus to be tender $ he 
might not yet look upon the face of nature as Theocri- 
tus saw it I nor micht he reach those springs of pathos 
with which Enripiaes softened the hearts of his audi- 
ence. In short, it appears to us, that there are so 
many excellent reasons why a certain number of ? cho- 
laiB should he kept up in this and in every civilized 
country, tliat we should consider every sjrstem of edu- 
cation from which classical education was excluded, 
as radically erroneous and completely absurd. 

That vast advantages, then, may be derived from 
classical leaming. there can he no doubt. The advan- 
tages which are dirived from classical leaming by the 
English manner of teaching, involve another and a 
very different question ; and we will venture to say, 
that there never was a more complete instance in any 
country of such extravagant and overacted attachment 
to any bnnch of knowledge as that which obtains in 
this country with reg^d ^ chtsalcal knowledge. A 


young EngUshmBii goes to school at^or seven yean | mastered the wisdom of the ancients, that is Tshwd, 
old; and he remams in a course of education till ' — *- — "^ -"-^^ — ^'' ^^ — ^'^'^ •**" **"* — u:-t- ;- 
twenty-three or twenty-four years of age. In all that 
time, his sole and exclusive occupation is learning Lat- 

in and Greek :* he has scarcely a notion that there is 
any other kind of excellence ; and the great system of 
facts with which he is most perfectly acquainted, are 
the intrigues of the Heathen gods : with whom Pan 
slept ?— with whom Jupiter ?— whom Apollo ravished ? 
These facts the English youth get by heart the mo- 
ment they leave the nursery ; and are most sedulously 
instructed in them till the best and most active part of 
life is passed away. Now, this long career of classi- 
cal learning, we may, if we please, oenominate a foun- 
dation i but It is a foundation so far above ground, that 
there is absolutely no room to put any thin^ upon it. 
If you occupy a man with one thing tul he is twenty- 
four years of ase, you have exhausted all his leisure 
time : he is culled into the world, and compelled to 
act ; or is surrounded with pleasures, and thinks and 
reads no more. If you have neglected to put other 
thinn in him, they will never get in afterwavds ; — if 
you have fed him only with words, he will remain a 
narrow and limited bemg to the ena of his existence. 
The bias given to men's minds is so strong, that it 
Is no uncommon thmg to meet with Englishmen, whom, 
but for their grey hairs and wrinkles^ we mif ht easily 
mistake for schoolboys. Their talk is of Latm verses ; 
and it is quite clear, if men's ageaare to be dated from 
the state of their mental progress, that such men are 
eighteen years of age, and not a day older. Their 
mmds have been so completely possessed by exagge- 
rated notions of classical leanung. that they have not 
been able, in the general school of the world, to form 
any other notions of real greatness. Attend, too, to 
the public feelings—look to all the terms of applause. 
A learned man! — a scholar !-4 man of erudition! 
Upon whom are these epithets of approbation be- 
stowed ? Are they given to men acquainted with tbe 
science of government 7 thoroughly masters of the 
geographical and commercial relations of Europe ? to 
men who know the properties of bodies, and their ac- 
tion upon each other ? No : this is not learning : it is 
chemistry^ or political economy— 4iot learning. The 
distinguishmg abstract tenn, the epithet .of Scholar, 
is reserved for him who writes on the (Eolic reduplica- 
tion, and is famUIar with the Sylburgian method of ar- 
ranging defectives in a and ^t. The picture which a 
young Englishman, addicted to the pursuit K)f knowl- 
edge, draws—his oeau ideal , of human nature—his top 
ana consummation of man's powers— is a knowledge 
of the Greek language. His object is not to t eason, 
to imagpne, or to invent ; but to conjugate, decline, 
and derive. The situations of imaginary glory which 
he draws for himself, arc the detection of an anapaest 
in the wrong place, or the restoration of a dative case 
which Cranzius had passed over, snd the never-dying 
Emesti failed to observe. If a young classic of this 
kmd were to meet the greatest cnemist or the great- 
est mechanician, or the most preifound political econ- 
mist of his time, in company with the greatest Greek 
scholar, would the lightest comparison between them 
overcome across his mind?-^would he ever dream 
that such men as Adam Smith and Lavoisier were 
e^ual in dignity of understanding to,- or of the same 
utility as, Bentley and Heyne ? We are inclined to 
think, that the feeling excited would be a^good deal 
like that which was expressed byDt. George about the 
praises of the great Kmg of Prussia, who entertained 
considerable doubts whether the king, with all his vic- 
tories, knew how to conjugate a Greek verb in /ti. 

Another misfortune of classical learning, as taught 
in England, is, that scholars have come, in process of 
time, and from the effects of association, to love the 
instrument better than the end ;— not the luxury which- 
the difficulty encloses, but the difficulty ^--not the fil- 
bert, but the sheU.*,— not Vhat may read in Greek, but 
Greek itself. It is not so much the man who has 

as he who displays his knowledge of tbe vehicle in 
which that wisdom is conveyed. The glory is to ahow 
I am a scholsr. The good sense and ingenuity I m&y 
gain by my acquaintance with ancient authors is mat- 
ter of opinion ; but if I bestow an immensity of pains 
upon a point of accent or quantity, this is somettiing 
positive; I establish my pretensions to the name of 
scholar, and gain the credit of learning, while I sacri- 
fice all Its utUity. 

Another evil in the present system of classical eda- 
eation is the extraordinary perfection which is aimed 
at in teaching those languages ; a needless perfection; 
an accuracy which is sought for in nothing else. There 
are few boys who remain to the age of eighteen or 
nineteen at a public school, without making above ten 
thousand Latm verses ; — a greater number than is con- 
tained in the JEneid : and alter he has made this quan- 
tity of verses in a dead language, unless, the poet 
should happen to be a very weak man indeed, he nev- 
er makes another as long as he lives. It may be urged, 
and it is urged, that this is of use in teaching the del- 
icacies of the language. No doubt it is of use for this 
purpose, if we put out of view the immense time and 
trouble sacrificed in gaining these little delicacies. It 
would be of use that we should go on till fifty years 
of age makhig Latin verses, if the price of a whole 
life were not too much to pay for it. We effect our 
object ; but we do it at the price of something greater 
than our object. And whence comes it that the ex- 
penditure of life and labour is totally pot ont of the 
calculation, when Latin and Greek are to be attained? 
In every otner occupation, the question is fairly staled 
between the attainment, and the time employed in the 

Sursuit ;— but in classical learning, it seems to be suf- 
cient if the least possible good is gained by the great- 
est possible exertion ; if the end is an^'thing, and the 
means every thing. It is of some importance to speak 
and write French ; and innumerable delicacies would 
be gained by writing ten thousand French verses : but 
it makes no part of our education to write French po- 
etry. It is of some iinportance that there should be 
good botanists ; but no botanist can repeat, by heart, 
the names of all the plants in the known world ; nor is 
any astronomer acquainted with th/e appellation and 
magnitude of every star in the map or the heavens. 
The only department of human knowledge in which 
there, can be no excess, no arithmetic, no .balance of 
profit and loss, is classical learning. 

The prodigious honour in which Latin verses are 
held at public schools, is surely the most absurd of all 
absurd oistinctions. You rest all reputation upon that 
which is a natural gift, and which no labour can attai^. 
If a lad won't learn the words of a langniage, his degra- 
dation in the school is a very natural pimishment for 
his disobedience, or his indolence ; but it would be as 
reasonable to expect that all boys should be witty or 
beautiful, as that they should be poets. In eittier 
case it would be to make an accidental, unattainable, 
and not a very important gift of nature, the only, or 
principal test of merit. This is the reason why boys, 
who make a very considerable figure at school, so very 
often make no figure in the world ; and why otner lads, 
who are passed over without notice, turn out to be 
valuable important men. The test established In the 
world is widely different from that established in a 
place which is presumed to be. a preparation lor the 
world ; and the head of a. public school, who is a per- 
fect miracle to his contemporaries, finds himself 
shrink into absolute insignificance, because he has 
nothing else to command respect or regard, but a talent 
for fugitive poetry in a dead language. 

The present state of classical education cultivates 
the imagination a neat deal too much, and other habits 
of mind a great .aeal too little ; and trains up many- 
young men in a style of elegant imbecility, utterly 
unworthy of the talents with which nature has en- 
dowed them. It may be said there are profound inves- 
tigations, and subjects quite powerf\il enough for any 

♦ „., ^ . ,. „ . . *r, ^ .« , , understandmg, to be met with in classical literature- 

cl^^^n»'w!L'i„H;-w"Ji;^^^^ ^^^ "« ^^ a« '^ likes to add the diffi. 

Lt1?tK:Sa!SiS*J^^^^^^ -^ ^^« Utiesof a hmguage to the difficulties of a subject; 

land to study metaphysics, morals, and politics in 



Gveek, when the Greek alme is itudv enough withoot 
them. In all foreign languages, tne mott popular 
vorks are works of imagluation. Even in the Tnnch 
language, which we know so well, for one serious 
work which has any currency in this country, we have 
twenty which are mere works of imagination. This is 
still more true in classical literature ; because what 
their poets and orators hare left us. is of infinitely 
ereater Talue than the remains of tneir philosophy ; 
for. as society advances, men think more accumtely 
and deeply, and imagine more tamely ; works of na- 
son'mg advance, and works of fancy decay. 80 that 
the matter offset is^ that a classical scholar oCtwentv- 
three or twenty-four years of age, is a-raan prtaicipaUy 
conversant with works of imagination, ms feelings 
are quick, his fancy lively ,'and his taste good. TalenU 
for speculation and original inquiry he has none; nor 
has be formed the in valuable habit of pushinff things 
up to their first principles, or of collecting dry and 
nnamusing facts as the elements of reasoning. All the 
solid and masculine parts of his understanding^ are left 
wholly without cultivation ; be liates the pain of think- 
ing, and suspects every man whose boldness and origi- 
nodity call upon him to defend his opinions and prove 
his assertion*). 

A very curious argument is sometimes employed in 
justification of the learned minutiae to which all young 
men are doomed, whatever be their propensities in 
future life. What are you to do with a young man up 
to the age of seventeen? Just as if there was such a 
want ot dlfiicultiesto overcome, and of important 
tastes to inspire, that, from the mere necesrity of 
doing somethmg, and tlie impossibility of doing any 
thing else, you were driven to the expedient of metre 
and poetry ;— as if a young man within that period 
might not acquire the modem languages, modem his- 
tory, experimental philosophy, geography, chrono- 
logr, and a considerable share of mathematics r— as 
if the memory of thines was not more agreeable and 
more profitame than tne memory of woras. 

The great objection is, that we are not making the 
most of human life, when we constitute such an ex- 
tensiTS, and such minute classical erudition, an indis- 
pensable article in education. Up to a certain point 
we would educate every young man in Latin and 
Greek ; but to a point far uiort of that to which this 
species of education is now carried. Afterwards, we 
would grant to classical eradition as high honours as 
to every other department of knowledge, but not 
higher. We would place it upon a footmg with many 
otner objects of study $ but allow to it no superiority. 
Good scholars would be as certainly produced by these 
means as gfood •chemists, astronomers, and mathema- 
ticians are now produced, without any direct provision 
whatsoerer for tneir production. Why are we to trust 
to the diversity of human tastes, and the vareties of 
human ambition in every thing else, and distrast it 
in class! cs alone ? The passion for language is just as 
strong as any other literary passion. There are very 
good Persian and Arabic scholars in this country. 
Large heaps of trash have been dug up fkt>m Sanscnt 
ruins. We have seen, in our own times, a clergyman of 
the University of Oxford complimenting their majes- 
ties in Coptic and Syrophcenician verses ; and yet we 
doubt whether there will be a sufficient avidity m lite- 
rary men to get at the beauties of the finest writen 
which the world has yet seen ; and though the Samt 
Gheeta has (as can be proved) met with human bemgs 
to translate, and other human beings to read it, we 
think that, m order to secure an attention to Homer 
and Virgil, we must catch up every man— whether he 
Ss to be a clergyman or a duke— begin with him at six 
years of age, and never quit him till he Is twenty ; 
making him conjugate and decline for life and death ; 
and so teaching him to estimate his progress in real 
wii»dom as he can scan the veraes of the Greek trage- 

The English clergy, in whose hands education entirely 
rests, bring up the first young men of tbe country as li 
they were all to keep grammar schools in little country 
towns ; and a nobleman, upon whose knowledge and 
liberalitT the honour and welfan of his country may 
depend, IS diligsntly woiried, for )^ his Ulb, with 

the small pedantry of longs and shorts. There \m a 
timid and absurd apprehension, on the part of ecclesi- 
astical tuton, of letting out the minds of youth upon 
difficult and important subjecu. They fsncy that 
mental exertion must end in nligious scepticism ; and, 
to preserve the principles of their pupils, they confine 
them to the safe ana elegant imbecility of classical 
learning. A genuine Oxford tutor would shudder to 
hear his young men disputing upon moral and political 
tnith,formnig and pulling down theoriea, and indulging 
in all the boldness of youthful discussion. He would 
augur nothhig from it out impiety to God and treason 
to kings. And yet, who vilifies both more than the 
holy poltroon who carefully averts from them the 
searching eye of reason, and who knows no better me- 
thod of teaching the highest duties, than by extirpa^ 
ting the finest qualities and habits of the mhid? If 
our religion is a fhble, the so<»er it is exploded the 
better. If our government is bad, it shoula be amend- 
ed. But we have no doubt of the trath of the one. or 
of the excellence of the other ; and are convinced that 
both will, be placed on a firmer basis in proportion as 
the minds of men are more trained to the investigati<m 
of trath. At present, we act with the minds of our 
young men as the Dutch did with their exuberant 
spices. An infinite quanUty of talent is annually de- 
stroyed in the univenities of England by the miserable 
iealonsy and littleness of ecclesiastical instractora. It 
Is in vain to isay we have produced great men under 
this system. We have produced great men under all 
systems. Every Englishman must pass half his life in 
learning Latm and Greek ; and classical leamins is 
supposed to have produced the talents which it has 
not heen able to extinguish. U is scarcely possible to 
prevent great men f^om rising up under any system of 
education, however bad. Teacn men demonology or 
astrology, and you will still have a certain portion of 
origkial genius, in sjpite-of these or any other branches 
of unorance and fhUy. 

There is a delusive sort of splendour in a vast body 
of men pursuing one object, and thoroughly obtaining 
it ; and yet, though it is very splendid, it is far from 
being useful. Classical literature is the great object 
at Oxford. Many mhids so employed, have produced 
many works and much fame in that department ; but 
if all liberal arts and sciences useful to human life had 
been taught there — if some had dedicated themselves 
to chemistry, some to mathematics, some to experi- 
mental philosophy*— «nd if every attainment had been 
honoured in the mixed ratio of its difficulty and utility, 
the system of such an University woula have been 
much mora valuable, but the splendour of its name 
something less. 

When an University has been doing useless things 
for a long time, it appean at first degrading to them 
to be useful. A set of lectures upon political economy 
would be dificouraged in Oxford,* probably despisea. 
probably not permitted. To discuss the indosure or 
commons, and to dwell upon imports and exports— to 
come so near4o common life, would seem to oe undig- 
nified and contemptible. In the same manner, tbe 
Parr, or the Bentley of his day, would be scandauzed 
in an University to be put on a level with the disco- 
verer of a neutral salt ; and yet^ what other measura 
is thera of dignity in intellectual labour^ but usefulness 
and difficulty ? And what ought the term University 
to mean, but a place where every science is taught 
which is liberal, and at the same time useful to man- 
kind? Nothing would so much tend to bring classical 
literature withm proper bounds as a steady and inva- 
riable appeal to these tests in our appreciation of all 
human knowledge. The puffed up pendant would col- 
lapse into his proper size, and the maker of venes, 
and the rememberer of words .would soon assume that 
station which is the lot of those, who go up unbidden 
to the upper places of the feast. 

We snould be sorry if what we have said should 
appear too contemptuous towards classical learning, 
vniich we most sincerely hope will always be held m 
great honour in this country, though we certainly do 
not wish to it that exclusive honour which it at present 

* They ksve sJnes been sstsbCshsd. 


cnjoyw. A great clasdol leholar is aa oiiiainiait,and 
an important acqulritkm to hia eonntry; but, in a place 
of educatioo, we would give to all knowledse an equal 
chance for distinction ; and would trust to the Tarieties 
of human disposition that oTerj science worth culti< 
Tation would oe cultivated. Lookinff alwava to real 
utility as our euide, we should see, with equalpleasure, 
a studious and inquisitive mind arrangiog the produc- 
tions of nature, investigating the qualities of bodies, or 
mustering the difficulties of the learned lai^^uages. 
We should not care whether he were chemist, natural- 
1st, or scholar ; because we know it to be as necessary 
that matter should be studied,' and subdued to the use 
of man. as that taste should be gratified, and imagina- 
tion inflamed. 

In those who were destined for the church, we would 
oidoubtedly encourage classical learning more than 
in any other body of men ; but if we had to do with a 
young man going out into public life, we would exhort 
him to contemn, or at least not to afiect, the reputa- 
tion of a great scholar, but to educate hixnself for the 
offices of civil life. He should learn what tbe consti- 
tution of his country really was, how it had grown into 
its present state, the perib that had threatened it, the 
malic;nity that had attacked it, the courage that had 
fought for it, and the wisdom that had made it great. 
We would bring strongly before his ndnd the charac- 
ters of those Englishmen who have been the steady 
friends of the public happiness ; and by their exam- 
ples, would breathe into nun a pure pubhc taste which 
would keep him untainted in aU tne vicissitudes of 
political fortune. We would teach him to burst through 
the well-paid, and the pernicious cant of indiscriminate 
loyalty ; and to know 'his sovereign only as he dis- 
charged those duties, and displayed those qualities, 
for which the blood and the treasure of his people are 
confided to his hands. We should deem it of the ut- 
most importance that his attention was directed to the 
true principles of legislation— what effect laws can 
produce upon opinions, and opinions upon laws— what 
subjects are fit for legislative interference, and, when 
men may be left to the management of their own in- 
terests. The mischief occasioned by bad laws, and 
,the perplexity which arises from numerous laws— the 
causes of national wealth— the relations of foreign 
trade— the encouragement of manufactures and agri- 
culturo— the fictitious wealth occasioned by paper 
credit— the laws of population— the management of 
poverty and mendicity— the use and abuse of monopo- 
ly—the theory of taxatioi^-^e consequences of the 
public debt. These are some of the subjects, and some 
of the branches of civil education to which we would 
turn the minds of I'atiire judges, future senators, and 
future noblemen. After the first period of life had 
been given up to the cultivation of the classics, and the 
Teasoning powers were now beginning to evolve them- 
selves, these are some of the propensities in study 
Which we would endeavour to inspire. Great Imow- 
ledge, at such a period of life, we could not convey ; 
but we might fix a decided taste for its acquisition, 
snd a strong disposition to respect it in others. The 
formation ot some great scholus we should certainly 
prevent, and hinder many from learning what, in a few 
years, they would necessarily forget ; but this loss 
would be well repaid— if we could show the future ru- 
lers of the country that thought and labour which it 
requires to make a nation happy, or if we could inspire 
them with that love of public virtue, which, after reh. 
gion, we most solemnly believe to be the brightest or- 
nament of the mind of man. 

7EB1ALE EPUCATION. (EmmmoB Rsview, 

jU9ies to Ynmg LaHet m tJU Iwmrotment of ike Mmd. By 
Thomas BaoADHUBST. Svo. London, 1806. 

Mm. BaoADHuasT is a very good sort of a man, who 
has not written a very bad book, upon a very important 
■abject. His object (a very laudable one) is to re- 
commend a better system of female education than at 
prvaent pi«svails to this comtry^to tun the attention 

of women from the titfiilDg mmolts to whidi they an 
now condemned— and to cuulvate (acuities ^diich^ua- 
der the actual system of management, might almost 
as well not exist. To the examination of^hii ideas 
upon these points, we shall very cheerfully give op a 
portion of our time and attention. 

A great deal has been said of the original dilfeKnce 
of capacity between men and women ; as if women 
were more quick, and men more judicious ; as if wo- 
men were more remarkable for deUcacy of ossoda- 
tion, and men for stronger powers of attention. AH 
this, we confess, appears to us very fanciAd. Thst 
there is a difference in the understaiulings of the mea 
and the women we every day meet with, every bodv, 
we suppose, must perceive ; out there is none siuelr 
which may not be accounted for by the difierence oi 
circumstances in which they have oeen placed, with 
out leferring to any conjectural difference of origiaai 
conformation of mmd. As long as boys and girls run 
aboi^ in the dirt, and trundle hoops together, they axe 
both precisely alike. If you catch up one halT of these 
creatures, and train them to a particular set of actions 
and opinions, and the other half to a perfectly oppo- 
site set, of course their understandings will differ, as 
one or the other sort of occupations mm called this or 
that talent into action. There is surely no occasion to 
go into any deeper or more abstruse reasoning, in ot> 
aer to explain so very simple a phenomenon. Takiiia 
it. then, tor granted, that nature has been as bonntifiu 
of understanding to one sex as the other, it is incum- 
bent on us to consider what are the principal objec- 
tions commonly made aeainst the communication of a 
greater share of knowledge to women than commonly 
falls to their lot at present : for though it may bs 
doubted whether women should learn all that men 
leam, the immense disparity which now exists be* 
tween their knowledge we would hardly think could 
admit of any raticmal defence. It is not easy to ima- 
gine that there can be any just cause why a women of 
forty should be more ignorant than a boy of twelve 
years of age. If there be any ffood at all in female ig- 
norance, this (to use a very coUoquial phnse) is suro- 
ly too much or a good tlung. 

Something in this question must depend, no doubt, 
upon the leisure which either sex eigoys for tbe culti- 
vation of their understandings : — and we cannot help 
thinking, that women have folly as much, if not more 
idle time upon their hands than men. Women are ex- 
cluded trom all the serious business of the world ; men 
are lawyers physicians, clergymen, apothecaries, and 
justices of the peace— sources of exertion which cod. 
sums a great deal more time than producing and suck- 
ling children ; so that, if the thing is a thing that 
ought to be done— if the attainments of literature are 
objects really worthy the attention of females, they 
cannot plead the want of leisure as an excuse for indo- 
lence and neglect. The lawyer, who passes his day in 
exasperating the bickerings of Roe and Doe, is certain- 
ly as much engaged as his lady who has the whole of 
the momingbefore her to correct the children and psy 
the bills. The apothecary, who rushes from an act 
of phlebotomy in the western parts of the town to in- 
sinuate a bolus in the east, is surely as completely ab- 
sorbed as that fortunate female, who is darning the 
j^arment, or preparing the repast of her .Ssculapius at 
home ; and in every degree and situation in life, it 
seems that men must necessarily be expo-ed to more 
serious demands upon their time and attention than can 
possibly be the case with respect to the other sex. We 
are speaking always of the mir demands which ought 
to be made upon the time and attention of women ; tor, 
as the matter now stands, the time of women is con- 
sidered as worth nothing at all. Daughters are kept 
to occupations in sewing, patching mantua-making, 
and mending, by which It is impossible they can earn 
tenpence a day. The intellectual improvement of wo- 
men is considered to be of such suDordinate impor- 
tance, that twenty pounds paid for needle-work wooM 
give to a whole family leisure to acquire a fund of real 
knowledge. They are kept with nimble fingers and 
vacant understandings till the season of improvement 
is utterly passed away, and all chance of forming 
mora important haUta complataly lost. We do no 


■MDyif ttbenecmarytlMt tbey ahoold ImuI tbe life 
of artlnns ; but we make this ■aeertion ooly upon the 
soppoeitioDy that it ie of •ome imponance women 
should be instructed : and that maaj ordinary occopa- 
lione for which a little money wiU Imd a better mboti- 
tnte, should be sacrifloed to this consideration. 

We bar m this discnssion, any objection which pro- 
eeeds from the mere noTelty of teaching women mora 
than they are already taught. It may be useless that 
their edacatien should be improved, or it may be per- 
nicious ; and these are the lair grounds on which the 
qoestion^may be arnied. But those who cannot bring 
their mmds to comlder such an unusual extension of 
knowledgei without connecting with it some sensation 
of the Ittdierotts, should remeniber that, m the progress 
from absolute isnorance, there is a period when colti- 
nation of mind u new to sTery rank and description of 
perBons. A century ago, who would hate believed 
that couniiy gentlemen could be brou|^t to read and 
^ell 'With the ease and accuracy which we now fre- 
quently remark) or supposed that they could be carried 
even to the elements of ancient and modem liistory ? 
Notliing is more common or nore stupid, than to take 
the actual for the possible— to beUeve that all which is. 
is all which can be ; first, to laugh at every proposed 
devktion from mactice as impossible— then, wnen it 
is carried Into effect, to be astonished that it did not 
take nlace before. 

I It 18 HLid, that the effect of knowledge is to make 
women pedantic and affected ,* and that nothing can 
be more offensive than to see a woman stepping out of 
the natural modesty of her sex to make an ostentatious 
display of her literary attafamients. This may be true 
eaoqgb ; but the answer is so trite and obvious, that 
we are almost ashamed to make it. All affectation 
and dispiay proceed from the supposition of possessing 
somethmg better than the rest of the world possesses. 
Nobody is vain of possessing two legs and two arms ; 
— becanse that is the precise quantityof either sort of 
limb which every body possesses, who ever heard a 
lady boast that She understood French?— for no other 
xeasony that we know of, but because every body in 
these dajrs does understand French ; and thooffh tnere 
may be some disgrace in being ignorant of that lan- 
nage, there is little or no merit in its acquisition. Dif- 
rese knowledge generally among women, and you will 
at once cure the conceit which niowledge occasions 
while it is rare. Vanity and conceit we shall of course 
witness in men and women as long as the world en- 
but by mnltiplyinff the attainments upon which 

these foelings are founded, you increase the* difficulty 
of indulging them, and renaer th^m much more toler- 
able, bT BuUdng them the proofr of much higher merit. 
When Isaming ceases to be uncommon among women, 
leareed women will cease to be affected. 

A mat many of the lesser and more obscure duties 
of life necessarily devolve upon the female sex. The 
amngement of all household matters, and the care of 
children hi their early inflmcy , must of course depend 
opon them. Now, there is a veiv general notion, that 
/the moment you put the education of women upon a 
i better footing than it is at present, at that moment 
there will be an end of all domestic economy ; and that 
if you once suffer women to eat of the tree of know- 
heagCy th^Bpt of the fkmily will very soon be reduced 
to the sa^Pkind of aerial and unsatisfactory diet. 
These, and all such opinions, are refernble to one great 
and coounon caase or error >— that man does every- 
thing, and that i^kture does nothing ; and that every- 
thing we see is referable to positive institution rather 
than to original feeling. Can anything, for example, 
be more perfectly absurd than to suppose that the care 
and perpetual soudtnde wliich a motner feels for her 
ehiloren, depends upon her ignbnnce of Greek and 
mathematics ; and that die would desert an infant for 
a quadratic equation 7 We seem to imagine that we 
can. break in pieces the solemn institution of nature, 
hf the little laws of a boarding-school ; and that the 
existence of the human race depends upon teaching 
women a little more, or a little less »— that Cimmerian 
ignorance can aid paternal affection, or the circle of 
axta and scieooespiodiieoiu destnictiaD. In the same 

manner, we foiget the ptinoiplei nptm which the lore 
of order, arrangement, and all the aru of economy 
depend. They depena not upon ignorance nor idle- 
ness, but upon the poverty, concision, and ruin which 
would enaoe from neglectmg them. Add to these prin- 
ciples, the love of what is beautiful and magnificent, 
and the vanity of display >— and there can surely be no 
reasonable doubt but that the oider and economy of 
private life is amply secured flrom the perilous inroads 

We woold Citai know, too, if knowledge is to pro- 
duce such banelU effects upon the material and the 
household virtues, why this influence has not already 
been felt ? Women are much better educated now 
than they were a century ago { but they are by no 
means less remarkable for attention to the arrange- 
ment of their household, or less inclined to discharge 
the offices of parental affection It would be very 
easy to show that the same objection has been made 
at all times to every improvement in the education of 
both sexes and all ranks-^and been as uniformly aiul 
completely refitted by experience . A great part of the 
objections made to the education of women, are ra- 
ther objections made to human nature than to the fe 
male sex : for it is surely true that kno^edgCi where 
it produces any bad effects at all, does as much mis- 
chief to one sex as to the other,— and gives birth to 
fttllT as much arrogance, inattention to common 
aiEurs, and eccentricity, amons men, as it does among 
women. But it by no means foUows that you get rid oi 
vanity and self-conceit, becanse you get rid of learn- 
ing. Self-complacency can never want an excuse i 
and the best way to make it more tolerable, and more 
useful, is to give to it as high and as dignified an ob- 
ject as possible. But, at ul events, it is unfi&ir to 
bring forward against a part of theworM an objection 
which is equally powerful against the whole. When 
foolish women thmk they have any distinction, they 
are apt to be proud of it ; so are foonsh men. But we 
appeal to any one who has lived with cultivated per- 
sons of either sex, whether lie has not witoessed as 
much pedantry, as much wrongheadedness, as much 
arrogance, and certainly a great deal more rudeness, 
produced by learmng in men, than in women ; there- 
fore, we should make the accusation general— or dis- 
miss it altogether; though, with respect to pedantry, 
the learned are certamly a little unfortunate, that so 
very emphatic a word, which is occasionally applied 
to all men embarked eagerly in any pursuit, should be 
reserved exclusively for them : for. as pedantry is an 
ostentatious obtrusion of knowledge, m which those 
who hear us cannot sympathize, it is a fault of which 
soldien, sailors, sportsmen, gamesters, cultivaton, 
and all men engaged bi a particular occupation, are 
ouite as guilty as scholars; but they have the good 
fortune to have the vice only of pedantry^— while scho- 
lan have both the vice and the name or it too. * 

Some persons are apt to contrast the acquisition of 
important knowledg[e with wiiatthey caU simple plea- 
sures; and deem it more becoming that a woman 
should educate flowers, make firiendships wi:a biids. 
and pick up plants, than enter hito more difficult and 
fatigumg studies. If a woman has no taste and genius 
for higher occupations, let her engage m these, to be 
sure, rather than renuun destitute oiany pursuit. But 
why are we necessarily to doom a girl, whatever be 
her taste or her capacity, to one unvaried line of^t- 
ty and frivolous occupation? If she is full of strong 
sense and elevated curiosity, can there be any reason 
why she should be diluted and enfeebled down to a 
mere culler of simples, and fancier of birds?— why 
books of history and reasoning are to be torn out of 
her hands, and why she is to be sent, like a butterfly, 
to hover over the idle flowers of the field ? Such 
amusements are innocent to those whom they can 
occupy ; but they are not innocent to thoee who have 
too powerful unaerstandiDgs to be occupied by them. 
Light broths and fhiits are innocent food only to weak 
or to infant stomachs ; bat they are poison to that 
organ in its perfect and mature state. But the great 
chaim seems to be in the word stnip2ictfy— simple 
pleasures ! If by a simple pleasure is meant an inno- 
cent pleasure, the obeervation is best answered by 


duywiag. that the plMwne which lesults from the 
acquisition of important knowledge ii quite ae inno- 
cent as any pleasure whatever : but it by a simj^e 
pleasure is meant one, the cause of wiiich can be easily 
analyzed) or which does not last long, or wiiich in 
itself is Tery faint, then simple pleasures seem to be 
very nearly synonymous with small pleasures ; and if 
the simplicity were to be a little increasedi the plea- 
sure would Tanish altogether. 

As it is impossible that every man should have 
industry or activity sufficiently to avail himself of the 
advantages of education, it is natural that men who 
are ignorant themselveS| should view, with some de- 
gree of jealousy and alarm any proposal for improving 
the education of women. But such men may depend 
upon it, however the system of female education may 
be exalted, that there will never be wanting a due pro- 
portion of failures ; and Uiat after parents, guardians, 
and preceptors have done all in their power to make 
everybody wise, there will be a plentiM supply of 
women who have taken special care to remain other- 
wise ; and they may rest assured, if the utter extinc- 
tion of ignorance and folly is the evil they dread, that 
their interests will always be effectually protected, in 
spite of every exertion to the contrary. 

We must in candour allow that tnose women who 
begin will have something more to overcome than 
may probably hereafter be the case* We cannot deny 
the jealousy wiiich exists among pompous and foolish 
men respecting the education of women. There is a 
class of pedants who would be cut short in the estima- 
tion of the world a whole cubit if it were generally 
known that a young lady of eighteen could be taught 
to decline the tenses of the middle voice, or acquaint 
herself with the iEolic varieties of that celebrated 
language. Then women have,, of course, all ignorant 
men for enemies to their instruction, who being bound 
(as they think) , in point of sex. to know more, are not 
well pleased, in point of fact, to know less. But, among 
men of sense and liberal politeness, a woman who has 
succesfully cultivated her mind, without diminishing 
the gentleness and propriety of her manners, is alwa)'s 
sure to meet with a respect and attention bordering 
upon enthusiasm. 

There is in either sex a strong and permanent dis- 
position to appear agreeable to me other ; and this is 
the fair answer to those who are fond of supposing, 
that an higher decree of knowledge would nuQce wo- 
men rather the rivals tlian the companions of men. 
Presupposing such a desire to please, it seems much 
more probable, that a common pursuit should be a 
Aresh source or interest than a cause of eontentiou. 
Indeed, to suppose that any mode of education can 
create a general jealousy and rivalry between the sex- 
es, is so very ridiculous, that it requires only to be 
stated in order to be refuted. The same dcslie of 
pleasii^g secures all that delicacy and reserve which 
are of such inestimable value to women. We are 
quite astonished, in hearing men converse on such 
subjects, to find them attributing such beautiful ef- 
fects to ignorance. It would appesr, from the tenour 
of such objections, that ignorance had been the great 
civillzer of the world. Women are delicate and refi- 
ned, only because they are ignorant ; — they manage 
their household, only because they are ignorant} — 
they attend to their children, only because they know 
no Setter. Now, we must really confess, we have all 
our lives been so ignorant as not to know the value of 
ignorance. We have always attributed the modesty 
and refined manners of women, to their being well 
taught in moral and religious duty,— to the hazardous 
situation m wiiich they are niaced,— to that perpetual 
yigiliihce which it is their duty to exercise over 
thought, and word, and action,— <and to that cultiva- 
tion of the mild virtues, which those who cultivate the 
stem and magnanimous virtues expect at their hands. 
After all, let it be remembered, we are not saying 
there are no objections to the difiusion of knowledge 
among the female sex. We would not hazard such a 
proposition respecting any tiling ; but we are saying, 
Jat, upon the whole, it is the best method of employ- 
ing time ; and that there are fewer objections to it 
than to any other method. There are, perhaps, 60,000 
fomalM in Great Britab who are exempted by cir<»m. 

stances from all necessary labour: Imt ( 
being must do something vnth their existence ; a&4 
the pursuit of knowledge is upon the whole, the most 
innocent, the most dignified, and the most useful me^ 
thod of filling up that idleness, of which there is al* 
ways so large a portion in nations far advanced ia. 
civilization. Let any man reflect, too, upon the soli- 
tary situation in which women are placed, — ^the ill 
treatment to which they are sometimes exposed, and 
which they must endure in silence, and without the 
power of complaining^— and he must feel convinced 
that the happmess of a woman wiU be materially in« 
creased in proportion as education has given her the 
habit and the means of drawing her resources from 

There are a few common phrases in circulation, re* 
specting the duties of women, to which we wisn to 
pay some decree of attention, because they are rather 
mimical to those opinions which we have advanced on 
this subject. Indeed, independently of this, there is 
nothing which requires more vigUance than the ciir« 
rent phrases of tne day, of which there are always 
some resorted to in every dispute, and from the sove' 
reign authority of which it is often vain to make any 
appeal. < The true theatre for a woman is the sick- 
chamber ;' — * Nothing so honourable to a woman as 
not to be spoken of at all.' These two phrases, the 
delight of Noodiedom, are grown into common-places 
upon the subject ; and are not unfrequently employed 
to extinguish that love of knowledge m women, which, * 
in our humble opinion, it is of o much importance to 
cherish. Nothing, certainly, is so ornamental and 
delightAil in women as the benevolent affections ; but 
time cannot be filled up, and life employed^ with high 
and impassioned virtues. Some of these feelings are 
of rare occurrence-^all of short duration — or nature 
would sink under them^ A scene of distress and 
anguish is an occasion where the finest qualities of 
the female mind may be displayed ; but it is a man* 
strotts exaggeration to tell women that they are bom 
only for scenes of distress and anguish^ Nurse father^ 
mother, sister, and brother, if they want it »— it would 
be a violation of the plainest duties to neglect them. 
But^ when we are taUung of the common occupations 
of life, do not let us misUke the accidents for the oc- 
cupations »— when we are arniing how the twenty- 
three hours of the day are to be filled up, it is idle to 
tell us of those feelings and agitations above the level 
of common existence, which may employ the remain- 
ing hour. Compassion, and every other virtue, are 
the great objects we all ought to Have in view ; but no 
man (and no woman) can fill up the twenty-four hours 
by acts of virtue. But one is a lawyer, and the other 
a plouffhman, and the third a merchant ; and then, 
acts of goodness and intervals of compassion, and fine 
feeling, are scattered up and down the common occu* 
]>ations of life. We know women are to be compas* 
sionate ; but they cannot be compassionate fVom e:ght 
o'clock in the morning till twelve at night : — and what 
are they to do in the mterval ? This is the only ques- 
tion we have been putting all along, and is all that can 
be meant by literary education. 

Then, again, as to the notoriety which is incurred 
by literature .r— The cultivation oflmovledge is a very 
distinct thing from its publication ; nor does it foUow 

she has talent enough (or it. We do not 



to write booksf— to defend and reply, — ^to squabble 
about the tomb of Achilles, or the puun of TYoy, — any 
more than we wish her to dance at the opera, to play 
at a public concert, or to put pictures in the exhibition, 
because she has learned music, dancmg, and drawing. 
The great use of her'knowledge will be that it contri- 
butes to her private happiness. She may make it 
ptA)lic: but it is not* the principal object which the 
friends of female education have in view. Among 
men, the few who write bear no comparison to the 
many who read. We hear most of the former, in- 
deed, because they are, in general, the most ostenta- 
tious part of literary men ; but there ere innumerable 
persons who, without ever laying themselves before 
the public, have made use of literature to add to the 
strength of their understandings, and to improve the 
happbtf as of thsir dyes. Alter ^ it may Da tB evu 



for ladies to be talked of: but ve reallr think those 
ladles who are talked of only as Mrs. Marcet. Mrs. 
Somerrille, and Miss Martineau are talked or, may 
bear their misfortunes with a very ^eat degree of 
Christian patience. 

Their exemption f^om all the necessary business of 
life is one of tne most powerM motives for the im- 
provement of education in women. Lawyers and 
physicians have in their professions a constant motive 
to exertion ; if you neglect their education, they must 
in a certain degree educate themselves by their com- 
merce with the world : they must learn caution, ac- 
fluracy, and judgment^ bejcause they must incur re- 
s^sibllity. But if you neglect to educate the mind 
of a woman^ by the speculative difficulties which 
occur in literature, it can never be educated at all : if 
you do not effectually rouse it by education, it must 
remain for ever languid. Uneducated men may escape 
intellectual degradation ; uneducated women cunnot. 
They have nothing to do ; and if they come untaught 
from the schools of education, they will never be in- 
structed in the school of events. 

Women have not their livelihood to gain by know- 
ledge ; and that is one motive for relaxing all those 
efforts which are made in the education of men. They 
certainly have not ; but they have happiness to gain, 
to whicn knowledge leads as probably as it does to 
profit ; and that is a reason against mistaken indul- 
gence. Besides, we conceive the labour and fatigue 
of accomplishments to be quite equal to the labour and 
fatigue of knowledge ; and that it takes quite as many 
years to be charming as it does to be learned. 

Another difference of the sexes is, that women are 
attended to, and men attend All acts of courtesy 
and politeness originate from the one sex, and are 
received by the other. We can sec no sort of reason, 
in this diversity of condition, for giving to women a 
trifling and insignificant education ; but we see in it 
a very powerful reason for strengthening their judg- 
ment, and inspiring them with the habit of employing 
time usefully. We admit many striking dificrences 
in the situation of the two sexes, and many striking 
differences of understanding, proceeding from the dif 
ferent circumstances in whicn they are placed : but 
there is not a single difi'erence of this kind which does 
not afford a new argument for making the education of 
women better than it is. They have nothing serious 
to do ; — is that a reason why they should be brought 
op to do nothing but what is trimng ? They are ex- 
posed 1:0 great dangers ; — is that a reason why their 
taculties are to be purposely and industriously weak- 
ened? They are to form the characters of future 
men ; — ^is that a cause why their own characters are 
to be broken and frittered down as they now are ? In 
short, there is not a single trait in that diversity of 
circumstances, in which the two sexes are placed, that 
does not decidedly prove the magnitude of the error 
we commit in neglecting (as we do neglect) the edu- 
cation of women. 

If the objections against the better education of wo- 
men could be overruled, one of the great advantages 
that would ensue would be the extinction of innumera- 
ble follies. A decided and prevailing taste for one or 
another mode of education there must be. A century 
piist) it was for housewifery — now it is for accomplish- 
ments. The object now is, to make women artists, — 
to give them an excellence in drawing, music, paint- 
ing, and dancingi^ — of which, persons who make these 
pursuits the occupation of their lives, and derive from 
them their subsistence, need not be ashamed. Now, 
one g^reat evil of all this is, that it does not last. If 
the whole of life were an Olympic game,— if we could 
go on feasting and dancing to the end, — this might do ; 
but it is in truth merely a provision for the little inter- 
vai between coming into life, and settling in it ; while 
it leaves a long and dreary expanse behind, devoid 
both of dignity and cheerfulness. No mother, no wo- 
man who has passed over the few first years of life, 
j^insfs, or danc*^, or draws, or plays upon musical in- 
•trurnsnts J These are merely means for disphyJng 
the grace and vivacity of youth, which evory womm 
gives op, as she gives up the dress and the* manners 
eighteen i she has no wish to retain them ; or, if she 

has, she is driyen out of them by diameter and deri- 
sion. The system of female education, as it now 
stands, aims only at embellishing a few years of Ufe, 
which are in themselves so full of grace and happiness, 
that they hardly want it ; and then leaves the rest of 
existence a miserable prey to idle insignificaoce. No 
woman of understandmg and reflection can possibly 
conceive she is doing Justice to her children oy sucn 
kind of education. The object is, to give to children 
resources that will endure as long as life endures, — 
habits that time will ameliorate, not destroy,— occu- 
pations that will render sickness tolerable, solitude 
pleasant, age venerable, life more dignified and useful, 
and therefore death less terrible : and the compeusa- 
tioD. which is offered for the ommission of all this, is a 
short-lived blaze, — a little temporary effect, which has 
no other consequence than to deprive the renuunder 
of life of all taste and relish. There may be women 
who have a taste for the fine arts, and who evince a 
decided talent for drawing, or tor music. In that 
case, there can be no objection to the cultivation of 
these arts ; but the error is, to make such things the 
grand and universal object, — to insist upon it that 
every woman is to sing, and draw, and dance — with 
nature, or against nature, — to bind her apprentice to 
some accomplishment, and if she cannot succeed in 
oil or water-colours, to prefer gilding, varnishing, bur- 
nisliing, box-makin^,to real solid improvement in taste, 
knowledge, and understanding. 

A great deal is said in favour of the social liature 
of the fine arts. Music gives pleasure to others. 
Drawing is an art, the amusement of which does not 
centre in him who exercises it, but is diffused among 
the rest of the world. This is true ; but there is no- 
thing, after all, so social as a cultivated mind. We 
do not mean to speak slightingly of the fine arts, or 
to depreciate the good humour with which they are 
sometimes exhibited ; but we appeal to any man, whe- 
ther a little spirited and sensible conversation— dis- 
playing, modestly, usefhl acquirements — and evincing 
rational curiosity, is not weU worth the highest exer- 
tions of musical or graphical skill. A woman of 
accompli8hm«>nts may ententain those who have 
the pleasure of knowing her for half an hour with 
great brilliancy ; but a mind full of ideas, and with 
that elastic spring which the love of knowledge only 
can convey, is a perpetual source of exhilaration and 
amusement to aU that come within its reach; — ^not 
collecting its force into single and insulated achieve- 
ments, like the effort made in the fine arts — but dif- 
fusing, equally over the whole of existence, a calm 
pleasure— better loved as it is longer felt — and suit- 
able to every variety and every period of life. There- 
fore, instead of hanging the understanding of a woman 
upon walls, or hearing it vibrate upon strings, — in- 
stead of seeing it in clouds, or hearing it in the wmd, 
we would make it the first spring and ornament of 
society, by enriching it with attainments upon which 
alone such power depends. 

If the education of women were improved, the edu- 
cation of men would be improved also. Let any one 
consider (in order to bring the matter more home by 
an individual instance) of what immense importance 
to society it is, whether a nobleman of first-rate for. 
tune and distinction is well or ill brought up ; — what 
a taste and fashion he may Inspire for private and for 
political vice ! — and what misery and mischief he may 
produce to the thousand human beings who are de- 
pendent on him ! A country contains no such curse 
within its bosom. Youth, wealth, high rank, and 
vice, form a combination which baffles all remon- 
strance and beats down all opposition. \ man of high 
rank who combines these qualifications for corruption, 
is almost the master of the manners of the age, ana 
has the public happmess within his grasp. But the 
most beautiful possession which a country can have 
is a noble and rich man^ who loves virtue and know- 
ledge ; — ^who without hemg feeble or fanatical is pious 
— and who without being factious is firm and inde"- 
pendent ; — who, in liis political life, is an equitable 
mediator botwfen king and people ; and. in his civil 
life, a firm promoter of all which can shod a lustre 
upon his coimtry, or promote the peace and order of 


the world. But if these objects are of Che hnportance 
which we attribute to them, the education or women 
must be important, as the fonnation of character for 
the first seven or eight years of life seems to depend 
almost entirely upon them. It is certainly in the 
power of a sensible and well-educated mother to in- 
spire within that period, such tastes and propensities 
as shall nearly decide the destiny of the tuiure man ; 
and this is done, not only by the intentional exertions 
of the mother, but by the gradual and insensible imi- 
tation of the child ; ior there is something extremely 
contagious in greatness and rectitude of thmking, eyen 
at that age ; and the character of the mother with 
whom he passes his early infancy, is always an event 
of the utmost importance to the cnild. A merely ac- 
complished' woman cannot infuse her tastes into the 
minds of her sons ; and, if she could, nothing could 
be more unfortunate than her success. Besides, when 
her accomplishments are given up, she has nothing 
left for it out to amuse herself in the best way she 
can; and, becoming entirely frivolous, either declines 
altogether the fatigues of attending to her children, 
or. attending, to them, has neither talents nor know- 
ledge to succeed ; and therefore, here is a plain and 
fair answer to those who ask so triumphantly, why 
should a woman dedicate herself to this branch of 
knowledge ? or why should she be attached to such 
science ? — Because, by having gained information on 
these points, she may inspire her son with valuable 
tastes, which may abide by him through life, and car- 
• ry him up to all the subhmities of knowledge ; — be- 
cause she cannot lay the foundation of a great charac- 
ter, if she is absoroed in frivolous amusements^ nor 
inspire her child with noble desires, when a long 
course of trifling has destroyed ^e little talents which 
were left by a bad education. 

It is of great importance to a country, that there 
should be as many understandings as possible active- 
ly employed within it. Mankind are much happier for 
the disco^ry of barometers, thermometers, steam-en- 
gines, and aU the inuumeraole inventions in the arts 
and sciences. We are every day and every hour reap- 
ing the benefit of such talent and ingenuity. The 
same observation is tnie of such works as those of 
Dryden, Pope, Milton, and Shakspeare. Mankind are 
much happier that such individuals have lived and 
written ; tney add every day to the stock of public 
enjoyment — and perpetually gladden and embellish 
life. Now, the numoer of those who exercise their 
understandings to any good j)urpose, is exactly in 
proportion to those who exercise it at all; but, as the 
matter stands at present, half the talent in the uni- 
verse runs to waste, and is totally unprofitable. It 
would have been almost as well for the world, hither- 
to, that women, instead of possessing the capacities 
they do at present, should have been bom wholly 
destitute of wit, genius, and every other attribute of 
mind, of which men make so eminent an use : and the 
ideas of use and possession are so united together, 
that, because it has been the custom in almost all 
countries to give to women a difierent and a worse 
education than to men, the notion has obtained that 
they do not possess faculties which they do not culti- 
vate. Just as, in breaking up a common, it is some- 
times very difficult to make the poor believe it will 
carry com, merely because they nave been hitherto 
accustomed to see it produce nothing but weeds and 
grass — they very naturally mistake present condition 
for general nature. So completely nave the talents 
of women been kept down, that there is scarcely a 
single work, either of reason or imagination, written 
by a woman, which is hi general circulation either in 
the English, French, or Italian literature ; — scarcely 
one that has crept even into the ranks of our minor 

If the possession of excellent talents is not a con- 
clusive reason why they should be improved, it at 
least amounts to a very strong presumption ; and, if 
it can be shown that women may be tramed to reason 
and imagine as well as roan, the strongest reasons are 
certainly necessary to show us why we should not 
avail ourselves of such rich gifts ot natare ; and we 
have a right to eaU for tba deal •tatement of tboM 

I perils which make it neoetary that such taleolr 
should be totally extinguished, or, at most, very par 
' tially dmwn out. The burthen of proof does not Ik 
with those who say, increase the quantity of talent in 
any country as much as possible — for such a proposi- 
tion is in conformity with every man^s feelings : but 
it lies with those wno say, take care to keep that un- 
derstanding weak and trifling, which natare nas made 
capable of becoming strong and powerful. The para 
dox is with them, not with us. In all human reason- 
ing, knowledge must be taken for a good, till it can 
be shown to be an evil. But now, nature makes to us 
rich and magnificent presents ; and we say to her— 
You are too luxuriant and muniflcent — ^we must keep 
you under, and prane you ; — ^we have talents enough 
in the other half of the creation ^— and, if you will not 
stupefy and enfeeble the mind of women to our hands, 
we ourselves must expose them td a narcotic process) 
and educate away that fatal redundance with which 
the world is afflicted, and the order of sublunary things 

One of the greatest pleasures of life is conversation ; 
— and the pleasures ot conversation are of course en- 
hanced by every increase of knowledge : not \hm we 
should meet together to talk of alkalis and angles, or 
to add to our stock of history and philology — though 
a little of these things is no bad ingredient in conver- 
sation { but let the subject be what it may, there is 
always a prodigious difierence between the conversa- 
tion of those who have been well educi^ted and of 
those who have not enjoyed this advantage. Educa- 
tion gives fecundity ot thought, copiousness of illus- 
tration, quickness, vigour, fancy, words, ima^s, and 
illustrations ;— it decorates every common thmg, and 
gives the power of trifling without being undignified 
and absurd. The subjects themselves may not be 
wanted upon which the talents of an educated man 
have been exercised ; but there is always a demand 
for those talents which his education has rendered 
strong and quick. Now, really, nothing can be fur- 
ther from our intention than to say any thing rude 
and unpleasant ; but we must be excused for obser- 
ving that it is not now a very common thing to be 
iiiterested by the variety and extent of female know- 
ledge, but it is a very common thing to lament that 
the finest faculties in the world have been confined 
to trifles utterly unworthy of their richness and their 

The pursuit of knowledge is the most innocent and 
interesting occupation vmich can be given to the 
female sex ; nor can there be a better method of check- 
ing a spirit of dissipation than by difiusing a taste for 
literature. The way to attack vice, is by setting 
up something else against it. Give to women, in 
early youth, something to acquire, of sufficient in- 
terest and importance to command the application of 
their mature faculties, and to excite their perse- 
verance in future life ; — ^teach them that happiness 
is to be derived from the acquisition of knowledge, 
as well as the gratification or vanity : and you will 
raise up a much more formidable barrier against dissi- 
pation than an host of exhortations and iuvectivos can 

It sometimes happens that an unfortunate man gets 
drunk with very baa wine, — not to gratify his palate, 
but to forget his cares : he does not set any value on 
what he receives, but on account of what it excludes : 
— it keeps out something worse than itself. Now, 
though it were denied that the acquisition of serious 
knowledge is of itself important to a woman, still it 
prevents a taste for silly and pernicious works of ima- 
gination ; it keeps away the norrid trash of novels ; 
and, in lieu of that eagerness for emotion and adven- 
ture which books of that sort inspire, promotes a calm 
and steady temperament of mind. 

A man who deserves such a piece of good fortune, 
may generally find an excellent companion for all the 
vicissitudes oi life ; but it is not s6 easy to find a com* 
panion for his understanding, who has similar pursuits 
with himself, or who can comprehend the pleasure he 
derives from them. We really aee no reason why 
it should not be otherwise ; nor comprehend how the 
pleasures of domestic Hfe can be promoted by dSmi- 


«lshltig the mimbeir of fal^eets in which penons who 
are to spend their Utos together take a commoii in- 

One of the most agreeable consequences of imow- 
Icdi^e is the respect and importance which it commu- 
nicates to old age. Men rise in character often as 
they increase in years ; — they are venerable firom 
what they liave acqaired, and pleasing from what they 
can impart, if they outlive their faculties, the mere 
frame itself is respected for what it once contained'; 
but women (such is their unfortunate style of educa- 
tion) hazard every thing upon one cast of the die ; — 
when youth is gone, all is gone. No human creature 
gives his admiration for nothinff : either the eye must 
be charmed, or the understanding gratified. A wo- 
man must talk wisely or look weU. Every human 
being must put up with the coldest civility, who has 
neither the charms of youth nor the wisdom of aee. 
Neither is there the slightest commiseration for de- 
cayed accomplishments ; — no man mourns over the 
fragments of a dancer, or drops a tear on the reUcs of 
musical skill. They are flowers destined to perish ; 
but the decay of great talents is always the subject of 
solemn pity ; and, even when their last memorial is 
over, their ruins and vestiges are regarded with pious 
afiection. » 

There is no coimection between the ignorance in 
which women are kept, and the preservation of moral 
and religious principle ; and yet certainly there is, in 
the minds of some timid and respectable persons, a 
vague, indefinite dread of knowledge, as if it were 
capable ef producing these effects. It might almost 
be suppose^ from the dread which the propagation of 
knowledge has excited, that there was some great 
secret which was to be kept in impenetrable obscurity. 
— that all moral rules were a species of delusion ana 
imposture, the detection of which, by the improve- 
ment of tne understanding, would oe attended with 
the most fatal consequences to all, and particularly to 
women. If we could possibly understand what these 
great secrets were, we ml^ht perhaps be disposed to 
concur in their preservation ; but believing that all 
the salutary rules which are imposed on women are 
the result of true wisdom, and productive of the 
greatest happiness, we cannot understand how they 
are to become less sensible of this truth in proportion 
as their power of discoveVing truth in general is in- 
creased, and the habit of viewing questions with ac- 
curacy and comprehension established by education. 
There are men, mdeed, who are always exclaiming 
against every species of power, because it is connect- 
ed with danger : their dread of abuses is so much 
stronger than their admiration of uses, that they 
woold cheerfully give up the use of fire, gunpowder, 
and i>rinting, to be freed from robbers, incendiaries, 
and libels. It is true,, that every increase of know- 
ledge may possibly render depravity more depraved, 
as well as it may mcrease the strength of virtue. It 
is in itself only power ; and its value depends on its 
application. But, trust to the natural love of good 
where there is no temptation to be bad — ^it operates 
nowheremore forcibly than in education. No man, 
whether he be tutor, guardian, or friend, ever con- 
tents himself with infusing the mere ability to ac- 
quire ; but giving the power, he gives with it a taste 
lor the wise and rational exercise of that power ; so 
that an educated person is not only one with stronger 
and better fiiculties than others, but with a more use- 
ful propensity— a disposition better cultivated — and 
associations of a higher and more important class. 

In sliort. and to recapitulate the main points upon 
which we nave insisted : — Why the disproportion in 
knowledge between the two sexes shoula be so great, 
when the inequality in natural talents is so small ; or 
why the understanding of women should be lavished 
upon trifles, when nature has made it capable of high- 
er andlMtter things, we profess ourselves not able to 
uiderstand. The affectation charged upon female 
knowledge is best cured by makine that knowledge 
more general : and the economy dev(Mved upon women 
is best secured by the ruin, disgrace, and inconveni- 
ence which proceeds firom neglecting it. For the care 
at ehUdi«n« nature has mada a direct and powarAil 

provision ; and the gentleness and eleganee of women 
IS the natural consequence of that desire to pleasoi 
which is productive of the greatest partof civihzation 
and refinement, and which rests upon a foundation 
too deep to be shaken by any such modifications in 
education as we have proposed. If you educate wo- 
men to attend to dignified and important subjects, you 
are multiplying, beyond measure, the chances of 
human improvement, by preparing and medicating 
those early impressions, which always come from th^ 
mother ; and which, in a great majority of instances, 
are quite decisive of character and genius. Nor is it 
oidy in the business of education that women would 
influence the destiny of men. If women know more, 
men must learn more — for ignorance would then be 
shameful — and it would become the fashion to be in- 
structed. The instruction of women improves the 
stock of national talents, and employs more minds for 
the instruction and amusement of the world ; — ^it in- 
creases the pleasures of society, by multiplying the 
topics upon which the two sexes take a common inter- 
est ; ana makes marriage an intercourse of understand- 
ing as well as of affection, by giving dignity and 
importance to the female character. The education 
of women favours pubUc morals ; it provides for every 
season of life, as well as for the brightest and the best ; 
and leaves a woman when she is stricken by the hand 
of time, not as she now Is, destitute of every thing, and 
neglected by all ; but with the full power and the 
splendid attractions of Imowledge,— diffusing the ele- 
gant pleasures of polite literature, and receiving the 
just homage of learned and accomplished men. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. (Edinbubob Revtew, 1810.) 

Remarkt on the Syattm ofEdmeatiou in Public SehooU. Svo. 
Hatchard. London, 1809. 

Thebe is a set of well-dressed, prosperous gentle- 
men who assemble daily at Mr. Hatchard's shop ; — 
clean, civil personages, well in with i)eo])le in power, 
— delighted with every existing institution — and al- 
most with every existing circumstance : — and, every 
now and then, one of these personages writes a little 
book ; — and the rest praise that little book-— expecting 
to be praised, hi their turn, for their own little books: 
— «nd of these little books, thus written by these clean, 
civil personages, so expecting to be praised, the 
pamphlet before us appears to be one. 

The subject of it is the advantage of public schools ; 
and the author, very creditably to himself, ridicules 
the absurd clamour, first set on foot by Dr. Rennel, 
of the irreligious tendency of public schools : he then 
proceeds to an investigation of the effects which pub- 
lic (schools may produce upon the moral character ; 
and here the subject becomes more difficult, and the 
pamphlet worse. 

In arguing any large or general Question^ it is of in- 
finite importance to attend to the nrst feelmgs which 
the mention of the topic has a tendency to excite ; and 
the name of a public school brings with it immediately 
the idea of brilliant classical attainments ; but, upon 
the importance of these studies j we are not now offer- 
ing any opinion. The only pomts for consideration 
are, whether boys are put in the way of becoming 
good and wise men by these schools ; and whether 
they actually gather there those attainments which it 
pleases mankind, for the time being, to consider as 
valuable, and to decorate by the name of learning. 

By a public school, we>mean any endowed place of 
education, of old standing, to which the sons of gen- 
tlemen resort in considerable numbers, and where 
they continue to reside, from eight or nine, to eighteen 
years of age. We do not give this as a definition 
which would have satisfied Porphyry or Duns-Scotus, 
but as one sufficiently accurate for our purpose. The 
characteristic features of these schools are, their an* 
tiquity, the numbers, and the iwes of the young people 
who are educated at them. We beg leave, however, 
to premise, that we have not the slightest hitention of 
hismuating any thing to the dispaxagement of the 
present discipline or pnaent nJert of tfaete fchoob, 



as compared with other times and other men: we 
hare no reason whatever to doubt that they are as 
ably governed at this as they have been at any pre- 
ceding period. Whatever objections we may have to 
these institutions, they are to faults, not depending 
on present adminisirution, but upon original con- 

At a public school (for such is the system estab- 
lished by immemorial custom), every ooy is alter, 
nateiy tyrant and slave. The power which the elder 
part of these communities exercises over the younger 
IS exceedingly great — very difficult to be controlled — 
and accompanied, not untrequently, with cruelty and 
caprice. It is the common law of the place, that the 
young should be implicitly obedient to the elaer boys ; 
and this obedience resembles more the submission of 
a slave to his master, or of a sailor to his captain, 
than the common and natural deference which woula 
always be ^hown by one boy to another a few^years 
older than himself. Now, this system we cannot 
help considering as an evil, — because it inflicts upon 
boys, for two or three years of their lives, many pain- 
ful hardships^ and mucn unpleasant servitude. These 
sufferings nught perhaps be of some use in military 
schools ; but, to give to a boy the habit of enduring 
privations to which he will never again be called upon 
to submit — to inure him to pains which he will never 
again feel — and to subject him to the privation of com- 
forts with which he will always in future abound — is 
aurely not a very useful and valuable severity in edu- 
cation. It is not the life in miniature which he is to 
lead hereafter— nor does it bear any relation to it : — 
he will never again be subiected to so much insolence 
and caprice ; nor ever, in all human probability, called 
upon to make so many sacrifices. The servile obedi- 
ence which it teaches might be useful to a menial 
domestic; or .the habits of enterprise which it en- 
courages prove of importance to a military partisan ; 
but we cannot see what bearing it has upon the calm. 
Tegular, civil life, which the sons of gentlemen, des- 
tined to opulent idleness, or to any of the three learned 
professions, are destined to lead. Such a system 
makes many boys very miserable ; and produces those 
bad effects upon the temper and disposition, which 
unjust suffering always does produce ; — ^but what good 
it does we are much at a loss to conceive. Reasonable 
obedience is extremely useful in forming the disposi- 
tion. Submission to tyranny lays the foundation of 
hatred, suspicion, cunning, and a variety of odious 
passions. We are convinced that those young people 
will turn out to be the best men, who have been 
guarded most effectually in their childhood, from every 
species of useless vexation ; and experienced, in the 
greatest degree, the blessings of a wise and rational 
indulgence. But even if these effects upon future 
character are not produced, still four or five years in 
childhood make a very considerable period of human 
existence ; and it is by no means a trifling considera- 
tion whether they are passed happily or unhappily. 
The wretchedness of school tyranny is trifling enough 
to a man who only contemplates it in ease of body and 
tranquillity of mmd, through the medium of twenty 
intervening years ; but it is quite as real, and quite as 
acute, while it lasts, as any of the sufferings of mature 
life : and the utility of these sufferings, or the price 
paid in compensation for them, should be clearly made 
out to a conscientious parent before he consents to 
expose his children to tnem. 

This system also gives to the elder boys an absurd 
and pernicious opinion of their own importance, which 
is often with dimculty effaced by a considerable com- 
merce with the world. The head of a public school is 
generally a very conceited young man. utterly ignorant 
of his own dimensions, and losing all that habit of 

* A public Khool is thouf ht to be the best cure for the inso- 
Isnee of youth Ail aristocracy. This inaoteuce, however, i< not 
a little increased by the homage of m asters, and would lOon 
meet with iu natural check in the world. There can be no 
occaiion to bring five hundred boys together to teach a young 
nobleman that proper demeanor which be would learn eo 
much better from the first EngUsb geatleman whom he might 
Hunk proper to insult. 

conciliation towards others, and that anxiety for ptif 
improvement, which result from the natural modesty 
of youth. Nor is this conceit very easily and speedily 
gotten rid of; — ^we have seen (if we mistake not^ pub- 
lic school importance lasting through the half ot after 
life, strutting in lawn, swelling in ermine, and cits- 
playing itself, both ridiculously and offensively, in the 
haunts and business of l)earded men. 

There is a manliness in the athletic exercises ot 
public schools which is as seductive to the imagina- 
tion as it is utteply unimportant in itself. Of what 
importance is it in after life whether a boy can play 
well or ill at cricket ; or row a boat with the skill and 
precision of a waterman? If our young lords and 
esquires were hereafter to wrestle together in public, 
or the gentlemen of the Bar to exhibit Olympic games 
in Hilary Term, the glory attached to these exercises 
at pubhc schools would be rational and important. 
But of what use is the body of an athlete, wlien we 
have good laws over our heads, — or when a pistol, a 
postchaise, or a porter, can be hired for a rew shil- 
lings ? A gentleman does nothing but ride or walk ; 
and yet such a ridiculous stress is laid upon the man- 
liness of the exercises customary at public schools — 
exercises in which the greatest blockheads commonly 
excel the most — which often render habits of idleness 
inveterate-T-and often lead to foolish expense and dis- 
sipation at a more advanced period of nfe. 

One of the supposed advantages of a public school 
is the greater knowledge of the world which a boy is 
considered to derive from those situations ; but if, by 
a knowledge of t!ie world, is meant a knowledge of 
the forms and manners which are found to be the most 
pleasing end useful in the world, a boy from a public 
school is almost always extremely deficient in these 
particulars ; and his sister, who has remained at home 
at the apron-strings of her mother, is very much his 
superior in the science of manners. It is probably 
true, that a boy at a public school has made more ob- 
servations on human character, because he has had 
more opportunities of observing than ifhve been en- 
joyed by young persons educated either at home or at 
private schools : but this little advance gained at a 
public school is so soon overtaken at college or in the 
world, that, to have made it, is of the least possible 
consequence, and utterly undeserving of any ribk in- 
curred in the acquisition. Is it any injury to a man 
of thirty or thirty-five years of age — to a learned ser- 

ieaiit or venerable dean — that at eighteen they did not 
:now so much of the world as some other boys of the 
same standing? They have probably escaped the 
arrogant character so often attendant upon this trifling 
superiority ; nor is there much chance that they have 
ever fallen into the common and youthful error of 
mistaking a premature initiation into vice for a know- 
ledge of the ways of mankind ; and, in addition to 
these salutary exemptions, a unnter in London brings 
it all to a level ; and offers to every novice the ad- 
vantages which are supposed to be derived from this 
precocity of confidence and polish. 

According to the general prejudice in favour of pub- 
lic schools, it would be thought (juite as absurd and 
superflous to enumerate the iUustnous characters who 
have been bred at our three great seminaries of this 
description, as it would be to descant upon the illus- 
trious characters who have passsed in and out of 
London over our three great bridges. Almost ere- 
ry conspicuous person is supposed to have been 
educated at public schools ; and there are scarce- 
ly any means (as it is imagined) of making an actual 
comparison ; and yet, great as the rage is, and long 
has been, for public schools, it is very remark- 
able, that the most eminent men in every art and 
science have not been educated at public schools ; and 
this is true, even if we include, in the term of public 
schools, not only Eton, Winchester, and Westmuia>ter, 
but the Charter-House, St. Paul's School, Merchant 
Tailors', Rugby, and every school in England, at aU 
conducted upon the plan of the three first. The great 
schools of Scotland we do not caU public schools ; be- 
cause, in these, the mixture of domestic life gives to 
them a widely different character. Spenser, Pope, 



ShakspeaTB. Bntler^ Rochester, Spratt, PanieU, Garth, 
Cougreve, Gay, Swift, Thompson, Slienstoue, Akcn- 
side, Goidsnuih, Samuel Johnsou, Ueauinont and 
Fletcher, Ben Jonsoa, Sir Philip Sydney, Sa\'age, 
Arbuttmot, and Buras, among: the poets, were not 
ed icated in the system of English schools. Sir Isaac 
NevrtoD, Maclaurin, Wallis, Uamstead, Saunderson, 
Simpson, and Napier, among men of science, were not 
educated at public schools. The three best historians 
that the Eaf^ish language has produced, Clarendon, 
Hume, and Robertson, were not educated at public 
schools. Public schools have done little in England 
for the fine arts — as in the examples of Inigo Jones, 
Vanbrugh, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Garrick, &e. 
The great medical writer and discoverers in Great 
Britain, Harvey, Cheselden, Hunter, Jenner, Meade, 
Brown, and Cuilen, were not educated at public 
schools. Of the great writers on morals and meta- 
physics, it was not the system of public schools which 
produced Bacon, Shaftesbury, Hobbes, Berkeley, But- 
ler, Hume, Hartley, or Dugald Stewart. The greatest 
discoverers in chemistry have not been bright up at 
public schools; — we mean Dr. Priestley, Dr. Black, 
and Mr. Davy. The only Englishmen who have 
evinced a remarkable genius, in modern times, for the 
art ot" war, — the Duke of Marlborough, Lord Peter- 
borough, General Wolfe, and Lord Olive, were all 
trained in private schools. So were Lord Coke, Sir 
Matthew Hale, and Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, and 
Chief Justice Holt, among" the lawyers. So also, 
among statesmen, were Lord Burleigh, Walsingham, 
the Elarl of Stralford, Thurloe, Cromwell, Hampden, 
Lord Clarendon, Sir Walter Raleigh, S; ' 
Sir W. Temple. Lord Somers, Burke. 
In addition to this list, we must not L.^^* u.« ..»...^, 
of such eminent scholars and men of letters, as Cud- 
worth, Chilling worth, Tillotson, Archbishop King, 
Selden, Conyers, Middleton, Bentley. Sir Thomas 
More, Cardinal Wolsey, Bishops Sherlock and Wil- 
kina, Jeremy Taylor, Isaac Hooker, Bishops Usher, 
Stiliingfleet, and Spelman, Dr. Samuel Clarke, Bishop 
Hoadley, and Dr. Lardner. *Nor must it be forgotten, 
in this examination, that none of the conspicious 
writers upon political economy which this country 
has as yet produced, have been brought up in public 
schools. If it be urged that public schools have only 
assumed their present character within this last cen- 
tury, or half century, and that what are now called 
public schools partook, before this period, of the 
nature of private schools, there must then be added to 
our lists the names of Milton, Dryden. Addison, &c. 
&c. : and it will follow, that the English have done 
almost all that they have done in the arts and sciences, 
without the aid ot that system of education to which 
they are now so much attached. Ample as this cata- 
logue of celebrated names already is, it would be easy 
lo double it ; yet, as it stands, it is obviously sufficient 
to show that great eminence may be attained in any 
line of fame without the aid of public schools. Some 
more strikiBg inferences might perhaps be drawn 
from it; but we content ourselves witn the simple 

The most important peculiarity in the constitution 
of a public school is its numbprs, which are so great, 
that a close inspection of the master into the studies 
and conduct or each individual is ouite impossible. 
We must be allowed to doubt, whether such an ar- 
rangement is favourable either to literature or morals. 

Upon this system, a boy is left almost entirely to 
himself, to impress upon his o^m mind, as well as he 
can, the distant advantages of knowledge, and to with- 
stand, from his own innate resolution, the examples 
and the seductions of idleness. A firm character sur- 
Tives this brave neglect ; and very exalted talents may 
sometimes remedy it by subsequent diligence : but 
schools are not made for a few youths of pre-eminent 
talenU, and strong characters ; such prizes can, of 
course, be drawn but by a very few parents. The best 
school is that which is best accommodated to the 
Tr^nt*'^ variety of characters, ond which embraces 
the greatest number of cases. It cannot be the main 
olgeei of education to render the splendid more splea- 

did, and to lavish care upon those who would almost 
thrive without any care at all. A public school does 
this effectually; but it commonly leaves the idle 
almost as idle, and the dull almost a.<! dull, as it found 
them. It disdains the tedious cultivation of those 
middling talents of which only the great mass of 
human beings are possessed. When a strong desire 
of improvement exists, it is encouraged, but no pains 
are taken to inspire it. A boy is cast in among five 
or six hundred other boys, and is left to form his own 
character; — if his love of knowledge survives this 
severe trial, it, in general, carries him very far: and, 
upon the same pnnciple, a savage, who grows up to 
manhood, is, in general, well made, and free from aU 
bodily defects ; not because the severities of such a 
state are favourable to animal life, but because they 
are so much the reverse, that none but the strongest 
can survive them. A few boys are incorrigibly idle 
and a few incorrigibly eager for knowledge ; but th« 
great mass are in a state of doubt and fiuctuation, 
and they come to school for the express purpose, nof 
of being left to themselves — for that could be done 
any where — ^but that their wavering tastes and pro 
pcnsities should be decided by the intervention of a 
master. In a forest, or public school for oaks and 
elms, the trees are left to themselves ; the strona 
plants livcj and the weak ones die : the towering oak 
that remams is admired; the saplings that perish 
around it are cast into the flames and forgotten. But 
it is not surely to the vegetable struggle of a forest, 
or the hasty glance of a forester, that a botanist woulq 
commit a favourite plant ; he would naturally seek for 
it a situation of less hazard, and a cultivator whose 
limited occupations would enable Mm to give t'> it a 
reasonable share of his time and attention. The very 
meaning of education seems to us to be, that the old 
should teach the young, and the wise direct the weak ; 
that a man who professes to iiistruct, should get among 
his pupils, study their characters, gsun their affections, 
and form their incUnutions and aversions. In a pubUc 
school, the numbers render this impossibh ; it is im- 
possible that sufficient time should be found for this 
useful and afiectionate interference. Boys, therefore, 
are left to their own crude conceptions and ill-formea 
propensities ; and this neglect is called a spirited and 
manly education. 

In by far the greatest number of cases, we cannot 
think public schools favourable to the cultivation of 
knowledge ; and we have equally strong doubts if they 
be so to the cultivation of morals, though we admit, 
that, upon this point, the most striking arguments 
have been produced in their favour. 

It is contended by the friends to public schools, that 
every person, before he comes to man's estate, must 
run through a certain career of dissipation; and if 
that career is, by the means of a private education, 
deferred to a more advanced period of life, it will only 
be begun with more eagemess, and puTFued intojnore 
blameable excess. The time must, of course, come 
when every man must be his own master ; when his 
conduct can be no longer regulated by the watchful 
superintendence of another, but must be guided by his 
own discretion. Emancipation must come at last ; 
and we admit, that the object to be aimed at is. that 
such emancipation should be gradual, and not prema- 
ture. Upon this very invidious point of the discus- 
sion, we rather wish to avoid offering any opmion. 
The maimers of great schools vary considerably from 
time to time ; and what may have been true many 
years ago, is very possibly not true at the present 
period. • In this instance, every parent must oe go- 
verned by his own observations and means of informa- 
tion. H the license which prevails at public schools 
is only a fair increase of liberty, proportionate to ad- 
vancing age, and calculated to prevent the bad effects 
of a sudden transition from tutelary thraldom to per- 
fect self-government, it is certainly a good rather than 
an evil. If, on the contrary, there exists ih these 
places of education a system of premature debauchery, 
and if they only prevent men from being corrupted by 
the world, by corrupting them before tneir entry mto 
the world, they can then only be looked upon as evils 


of the greatest magnitode, howeTer they may be 
aanctioned by opinion, or rendered familiar to us by 

The vital and essential part of a school is (he mas- 
ter ; but, at a public school, no boy, or, at the best, 
only a very few, can see enough of nim to derive any 
considerable benefit from his character, manners, and 
hiformation. It is certainly of eminent use, particu- 
larly to a young man of rank, that he should have 
lived among boys ; but it is only so when they are all 
moderately watched by some superior understanding. 
The morality of boys is genexally very imperfect ; 
their notions of honour extremely mistaken ; and their 
objects of ambition frequently very absurd. The pro- 
bability then is, that the kind of mscipline they exer- 
cise over each other vnll produce (when left to itself) 
a great deal of mischief; and yet this is the discip- 
line to which every child at a public school is not only 
necessarily exposed, but principally confined. Our 
objection (we again repeat) is not to the interference 
of boys ifi the formation of the character of boys ; 
their character, we are persuaded, will be very im- 
perfectly formed without their assistance ; but our 
objection is to that almost exclusive agency which 
they exercise in public schools. 

After having said so much in opposition to the ge- 
neral prejudice in favour of public schools, we may 
be expected to state what species of school we think 
preferable to them ; for if public schools, with all their 
disadvantagas, are the best that can actually be found, 
or easily attained^ the objections to them are certain- 
ly made to very httle purpose. 

We have no hesitation, however, in saying, that 
that education seems to us to be the best which 
mingles a domestic with a school life ; and which 
gives to a youth the advantage which is to be derived 
irom the learning of a master, and the emulation 
which results from the society or other boys, together 
with the affectionate vigilance which he must experi- 
ence in the house of his parents. But where this 
species of education, from peculiarity of circumstances 
or situation, is not attataable, we are disposed to think 
a society ot twenty or thirty boys, under the guidance 
of a learned man, and, above all, of a man of good 
sense, to be a seminary the best adapted for the edu- 
cation of youth. The numbers are sufficient to excite 
a considerable degree of emulation, to give to a boy 
some insight into the diversities of the human cha- 
racter, and to subject him to the observation and 
control of his superiors. It by no means follows, that 
a judicious man should always interfere with his au- 
thority and advice because he has alunys the means ; 
ne may connive at many things which ne cannot ap- 
prove, and sufier some little failures to proceed to a 
certain extent, which, it indulged in wider limits, 
would be attended with irretrievable mischief; he 
will be aware, that his object is to fit his pupil for the 
world ; that constant control is a very bad prepara- 
tion for complete emancipation from all control ; that 
it is not bad policy to es^oue a young man, under the 
eye of superior vnsdom, to some of those dangers 
which will assail him hereafter in greater number, 
and in greater strength — when he has only his own 
resources to depend upon. A private education, con- 
ducted upon these principles, is not calculated to gra- 
tify quicKly the vanity or a parent who is blest with a 
child of strong character and prc-enunent abilities ; 
^ to be the first scholar of an obscure master, at an ob- 
' scure place, is no very splendid distinction ; nor does 
it afibrd that opportunity, of which so many parents 
are desirous, of forming great connections for their 
children : but if the object be, to induce the young to 
love knowledge and virtue, we are inclined to suspect, 
that, for the average of human talents and characters! 
these are the situations in which such tastes will be 
the most effectually formed. 

TOLERATION. (EDiVBiniAH Rxnsw, 1811.) 

Hints an Toltrationj in Five EsgofM. ire. migguUdfir III 
Consideration of Lord Viscount Sidmouthf md the Dissentr 
trs. By Phllan^atharchM. London. 1810. 

If a prudent man sees a child playing with a porce- 
lain cup of great value, he takes the vessel out of his 
hand, pats him on the head, tells him his mamma will 
be sorry if it is broken, and gently cheats him into the 
use of some less precious substitute. Why wUl Lord * 
Sidmouth meddle with the Toleration Act, when there 
are so many other subjects in which his abilities might 
be so eminently useful — ^when enclosure bills are dra\ni 
up with such scandalous negligence — turnpike roads so 
shamefully neglected — and public conveyances illigiti* 
mately loaded in the face of day, and in defiance of the 
wisest legislative provisions ? We confess our trejH- 
dation at seeing the Toleration Act in the hands of 
Lord Sidmouth ; and should be very glad if it were 
fairly back in the statute book, and the sedulity of this 
well-meaning nobleman diverted into another channel. 

The alarm and suspicion of the Dissenters ujxm 
these measures are vdse and rational. They are nght 
to consider the Toleration Act as their palladium ; and 
they may be certain that in this country there is always 
a strong party ready, not only to prevent the further 
extension of tolerant principles, but to abridge (if they 
dared) their present operation within the narrowest 
limits. Whoever makes this attempt, will be sure to 
make it under professions of the most earnest regard 
for mildness and toleration, and vnth the strongest 
declarations of respect for King William, the Revola< 
tion, and the principles which seated the House of 
Brunswick on the throne of these realms; and then 
will follow the clauses for whipping Dissenters, im* 
prisoning preachers, and subjecting them to risid 
qualifications, &c. &c. &c. The infnngement on the 
militia acts is a mere pretence. The r^ object is to 
diminish the number of Dissenters from the Church of 
Ji^nglond, by abrldgina the liberties and privileges 
they now possess. This is the project which we shall 
examine, tor we sincerely believe it to be the project in 
agitation. The mode in which it is proposed to attack 
the Dissenters is, first, by exacting greater qualifica- 
tions in their teachers ; next, by preventing the inter- 
change or itinerancy of preachers, and fixing them to 
one spot. 

It can never, we presume, be intended to subject 
dissenting ministers to any kmd of theological examma^ 
tion. A teacher examined in doctrinal opinions, by 
another teacher who difi*er8 from him, is so very absuid 
a project, that we entirely acquit Lord Sidmouth of 
any intention of this sort. We rather presume his 
lordship to mean, that a man who professes to teach 
his fellow creatures, should at least have made some 
progress in human learning ; that he should not be 
wholly without education ; that he should be able at 
least to read and write. If the test is of this very 
ordinary nature, it can scarcely exclude many teacheis 
of religion ; and it viras hardly worth while, lor the 
very insignificant diminution of numbers which this 
must occasion to the dissenting clergy, to have raised 
all the alarm which this at^ck upon the Toleration 
Act has occasioned. 

But without any reference to the ma^itude of the 
eflfects. is the principle right ? or. What is the meanins^ 
of rehglous toleration? That a man should hold, 
without pain or penalty, any religious opinions — and 
choose tor his instruction, in* the Iwsiness of salvation, 
any suide whom he pleases ; care being taken that the 
teacher and the doctrine injure neither the policy nor 
the morals of the country. We mamtain that perfect 
religious toleration applies as much to the teacher as 
to the thing taught ; and that it is quite as intolerant 
to make a man hear Thomas, who wants to hear John, 
as it would be to make a man profess Arminian, who 
wished to profess Calvinlstical principles. What right 
has any government to dictate to any man who shall 
guide him to heaven, any more than it has to persecute 
the religious tenets by which he hopes to arrive there ? 
You believe that the heretic professes doctrines utterly 
incompatible with the true spirit of the gospel ; fint 
■ fon burnt him for this— then ]roa vbipped biin— ibfli 


you fined him— then yoQ put him in prison. All this 
did no good ; and for these hundred years last past, 
you have let faim alone. The heresy is now firmly 
protected by law ; and you know is must be preached : 
Wiiat matters it theui who preaches it ? If the eril 
muatt be commuoicated, the orsan and instrument 
through which it is communicated cannot be of much 
consequence. It is true, this kind of persecution 
against persons, has not been quite so much tried as 
the other against doctrines ; but the folly and iuexpe* 
diency of it rest precisely upon the same grounds. 

Would it not be a singular thing if the triendi of the 
Church of England were to make the most strenuous 
efforts to render their enemies eloquent and learned ? 
and to found places of education for dissenters ? But, 
if their learning would not be a good, why is their ig- 
norance an evil ? — unless it be necessarily supposed, 
that all increase of learning must -bring men over to 
the Church of England ; in which supposition the Scot- 
tish and Catholic universities, and the college at Hack- 
ney, would hardly acquiesce. Ignorance surely ma- 
tures and quickens the progress, by insuring the dis- 
aolution ot absurdity. Rational and learned dissenters 
remain : religious mobs, under some ignorant fanatic 
ot the day, become foolish overmuch — dissolve, and 
return to the Church. The Unitarian, who reads and 
writes, gets somo sort of discipline, and returns no 

What connection is there (as Lord Sidmouth's plan 
assumes) between the zeal and piety required for re- 
ligioos instruction, and the common attainments of 
literature? But ir knowledge and education are re- 

a aired for religious instruction, why be content with 
le common elements of learning f why not reouire 
higher attainments in dissentbig candidates for orders ; 
and examine them in the languages in which the books 
of their religion are conveyed ? 

A dissenting minister, of vulgar aspect and homely 
appearance, declares that he entered into that holy 
office because he felt a call ; and a clergyman of the 
fisublishment smiles at him for the declaration. But 
it should be remembered, that no minister of the Esta- 
blishment is admitted into orders, before he has been 
e^ressly interrogated by the bishop whether he feels 
himself called to that sacred office. The doctrine of 
calling, or inward feeling, is quite orthodox in the En- 
glish Church; and, in arguing this subject in parlia- 
anent, it will hardly be contended, that the Episcopa- 
lian only is the judge when that call is genume, and 
when it u» only imaginary. 

The attempt at making the dissenting clergy sta- 
tionary, and persecuting their circulation, appears to 
OS quite as unjust and inexpedient as the otner mea- 
sure of qualifications. It appears a gross inconsistency 
to say, ' I admit that what you are doing is legal— but 
you must not do it thoroughly and efiectually. I allow 
you to propagate your heresy, but I object to all 
means or propagating it which appear to be useful and 
effective.' It there are any other grounds upon which 
the circulation of the dissenting clergy is objected to, 
let these grounds be stated and examined ; but to ob- 
ject to their circulation merely because it is the best 
method of effectiug the object which you allow them 
to efiect, does appear to be rather unnatural and in- 

It is presumed, in this argument, that the only rea- 
son urged for the prevention of itinerant preachers is, 
the increase of heresy ; for if heresy is not increased 
by it, it must be immaterial to the feelings of Lord 
Sidnwoth, and of the imperial parliament, whether 
Mr. Shufflebottom preaches at Bungay, and Mr. Ringle- 
tub at Ipswich ; or whether an artful vicissitude is 
adopted, and the order of insane predication reversed. 

But, 8uppo8in|^ all this new interference to be just, 
what good will it do ? Ton find a dissenting preacher, 
whom you have prohibited, still continuing to preach, 
or preaching at Ealing when he ought to preach at 
Acton : his number is taken, and the next morning he 
ia summoned. Is it believed that this description of 
persoDS can be put down by fine and imprisonment 7 
His fine is paid for him, and he returns ttom imprison- 
OUBi ten times as much sought after and as popular 
•ahavaabefoxe. Thia ia a receipt for making a stu- 

pid preacher popular, and a popnlar preacher mora 
popular, but can nave no possinle tendency to prevent 
the mischief against which it is levelled. It is pre- 
cisely the old mstory of persecution against opimona 
turned into a persecution against persons. The prisons 
will be filled— the enemies of the Church made ene- 
mies of the state also— and the Methodists rendered 
ten times more actively mad than they are at present. 
This is the direct and obvious tendency of Lord Sid- 
mouth's plan. 

Nothinr dies so hard and rallies so often as intole- 
rance. The fires are put out, and no living nostril has 
scented the nidor of a human creature roasted for 
&ith ; then, after this, the orison-doors were got open, 
and the chains knocked 00"; and now Lord Sidmouth 
only begs that men who disagree with him in reli- 
gious opinions may be deprived of all civil offices, and 
not be allowed to near the preachers they like best. 
Chains and whips, he woulu not hear of; but these 
mild gratifications of his bill every orthodox mind is 
surely entitled to. The hardship would indeed be 
great if a churchman were deprived of the amusement 
of putting a dissenting parson in prison. We are con- 
vinced Lord Sidmouth is a very amiable and well-in- 
tentioned man : his error is not the error of his heart, 
but of his time, above which few men ever rise. It is 
the error of some four or five hundred thousand En- 
glish gentlemen, of decent education and worthy cha- 
racters, who conscientiously believe that they are 
.punishing, and continuing incapacities, for the good of 
the state ; while they are, in fact (thourh without 
knowing it^ only gratifying that insolence, hatred, and 
revenge, which all human oeings are unfortunately so 
ready to feel against those who will not conform to 
their own sentiments. 

But, instead of making the dissenting churches po* 
pular, why not make the English church more popular^ 
and raise the English clergy to the privileges of the 
Dissenters ? In any parish of England, any layman or 
clergyman, by payug sixpence, can open a place of 
worship,— provided it be not the worship of the Church 
of England. If he wishes to attack tne doctrines of 
the bishop or the iDcuml)ent, he is not compelled to 
ask the consent of any person ; but if, by any evU 
chance, he should be persuaded of the truth of those 
doctrines, and build a cbapel or mount a pulpit to sup- 
port them, he is instantly put in the spiritual court ; 
for the regular incumbent, who has a legal monopoly 
of this doctrine, does not suffer any interloper; 
and without his consent, it is illegal to preach the doc- 
trines of the church within his precincts.* Now thia 
appears to us a great and manifest absurdity, and a dis- 
advantage against the Established Church which very 
few establishments could bear. The persons who 
preach and who build chapels, or for whom cha- 
pels are built, among the Dissenters, are active dp- 

It night be lupposed that the general interests of tit • 
Church would outweigh the particular interests of the rector ; 
and that any clergyman woidd be glad to see places of wor- 
ship opened within his parish for the doctrines of the Esta^ 
blishcd Church. The ract, however, is exactly the revetitt. 
It is scarcely possible to obtain permission from the esta- 
blished clergyman of the parish to open a chapel there; and 
when it is granted, it is granted upon very hard and interested 

The oartshes of St George— of St. James— (^ 
ina of St. Ann*s, in London — may, in the pa- 

Mary-le-bone— ai 

rish churches, chapels of ease, and mercenary ch^pnls, con- 
tain, perhaps, one-hundredth put of their Episcopalian inha- 
bitants. Let the rectors, lay anU clerical, meet together, and 
give notice that any clergyman of the Church of England, 
approved by the bishop, may preach there ; and we will ven- 
ture to say that places of worship capable of containing 90,000 
persons would be built within ten years. But, in these cases, 
the interest of the rector and of the Establishment is not the 
A chapel belonging to the Swedettborgians,or Method- 
ist! of the New Jerussilem, was offered, two or three jrears 
since, in London, to a clergyman of the Establishment. The 
proprietor was tired of his irrational tenants, and wished for 
iietter doctrine. The rector (since a dignitary) with every 
possible compliment to the fitness of the person in question, 
positively renised the wplication ; and the church remains la 
the hands of the Methodists. No particular blame is intended, 
by this anecdote, against the indlvidaal rector. He acted at 
ny have done before and ainee } but the iscaaibent clergy- 
' is Us interest, bai 

tan ouf ht to posaest so suck power, 
at ths latetest of the BitsMlsKmenf 


rer peraons, with coniidcrable talents for that kind 
of enmloyment. These talents have, with them, 
their free and unbounded scope ; while in the Eng- 
fish Church they are wholly extinguished and de- 
iitroyed. Till this evil is corrected, the church con- 
tends with fearful odds against its opponents. On the 
one side, any man whb can command the attention of 
a congregation — to whom nature h^ given the animal 
and intellectual qualifications of a j>reacher — such a 
man is the member of every corporation : — all impedi- 
(Tieiits are removed : — there is not a single jposition in 
Great Britain which he may not take, provided he is 
hoMtiic to the Established dhurch. In the other ca«e, 
if the English Church were to breed up a MassiUon or 
u Hourdaloue, he finds everyplace occupied ; and eve* 
ry wiiere a regular and respectable clergyman ready 
to put him in the spiritual court, if he attracts within 
his precincts, any attention to the doctrines and wor- 
ship of the Established Church. 

The necessity of having the Bishop's consent would 
prevent any improper person from preaching. That 
consent should be withheld, not capriciously, but for 
good and lawful cause to be assigned. 

The profits of an incumbent proceed from fixed or 
voluntary contributions. The fixed could not be affect- 
ed ; and the voluntary ought to vary according to the 
exertions of the incumbent and the good will of the 
pcirishioncrs ; but, if this is wrong, pecuniary compen- 
sation might be made (at the discretion of the ordina- 
ry, from the supernumerary to the regular clergyman.* 
Such a plan, it is true, would make the Church of Eng- 
land more popular in its nature ; and it ought to be 
mude more popular, or it will not endure for another 
liulf century. There are two methods ; the Church 
must be made more popular or the Dissenters less so. 
To effect the latter object by force and restriction is 
unjust and impossible. The only remedy seems to be, 
to grant to the church the same privileges which are 
enjoyed by the Dissenters, and to excite in one party, 
that competition of talent which is of such palpable 
advantage to the other. 

A remedy suggested by some well- wishers to the 
Church, is the appointment of men to benefices who 
have talents for advancing the interests of religion ; 
but till each particular patron can be persuaded to care 
more for the general good of the Church than for the 
particaiar good of the person whom he patronizes, 
little expectation of improvement can be derived from 
this quarter. 

The competition between the Established clergy, to 
which this method would give birth, would throw the 
incumbent in the back-e round only when he was unfit 
to stand forward, — immoral, negligent, or stupid. His 
income would still remain; and if his influence were 
superseded by a man of better qualities and attain- 
ments, the general good of the Establishment would 
be cnnMilted by the change. The beneficed clergyman 
would always come to the contest with great advan- 
tages ; and his deficiencies must be very great indeed, 
if he lost the esteem of his pdrishioaers. But the con- 
test would rarely or ever take place, where the friends 
of the Establishment were not numerous enough for all. 
At present, the selfish incumbent, who cannot accom- 
modate the fiftieth part of his parishioners, b deter- 
mined that no one else shall do it for him. It is in 
such situations that the benefit to the establishment 
would be greatest, and the injury to the appointed 
minister none at all. 

We bos^ of men of sense to reflect, that the question is 
not whether they wish the English Church to stand as 
it nnw is, but whether the Rnglish Church can stand 
ap ii now is ; and whether the moderate activity here 
recommented is not the mininum of exertion necessary 
for its preservation. At the same time we hope no- 
body wul rate our sagacity so very low as to imagine 
we nave much hope that any measure of the kind will 
ever be adopted. All estdblithmenta die of dignity. 
They are too proud to think themselves lU, and to 
take a little physic. 

To show that we have not misstated the obstinacy 
or the conadence of sectaries, and the spirit witn 

* All tUs hM btw ptaMd OB a better footing. 

i^ch they will meet the regnlatioBM of Lord Sid* 
mouth, we will lay before our readers the sentiments 
of Philagatharches — a stem subacid Dissenter. 

'I shall not enter into a comprehoDBire ditscu»sion of the 
Bature of a call to the miniBterial office; but deduce ni,v pro- 
position Oram a sentiment admitted equally by contbrini*>t.'( 
and Don-coutbrmiftts. It is ementiHl to the nature of a cull to 
preach "that a man be moved by the Holy Ghoht to enter upou 
the work of the ministry:** and if the Spirit of God act pow- 
erAilly upon his heart to constrain him to appear as a puMic 
teacher of religion, who shall command him to desi^t h We 
have seen that the sanction of the magistrate can ){ivA no 
authority to preach the gospel; and if lie were to forbid our 
exertions, we must persist in the work: we dare not relinquUb 
a task that God hua required us to perform; we conjiot keep 
our consciences in peace, if our lips areclosod in sIIpdcc, while 
the Holy Ghost is moving our liearts to proclaim the tidinfR* of 
salvation: "Yen, woe is unto me," sailh St. Paul, "if I preach 
not the gosuel.** Thua, when the Jewish priests had lokeu 
Peter and John into custody, and aAor examining ihem cou- 
ccrniug their doc'triu<!, "commaiuled them not to i^peak at al\^ 
nor to teach in the iiuinc of J«'.< us," thr^t^o apostolical champions 
of the crosK uudiuuitodly replied, " Wi:ethcr it be right in the 
sight of God to lirnrkeu unto you moip than uutu God, judge 
ye ; for we cannot hut vpeak the things which wr have seen 
and heard.** Thus, hI^q, in our day, when the Holy Ghost 
excites B man to preach the gospel to bis fellow sinners, his 
message is snuctioued by nu authority which is "far above all 
principality and po>^rr; and consequently, neither needs tb« 
approbation of ^ubo^din.1tc rulers, nor admits of revocation by 
their countrrninitdinp p«licts. 

*3tlly. Hf> Hhor»'cri\<> a licrnse should not expect to derive 
from it a tortiinoiiv of qiial ill cation to preach. 

*It would bo ^rot>}>ly absurd to seek a tostinoony of thia de- 
scription from any single iudhiduol, even though he were .m 
experienced veteran in tho hTvice of Christ ; for all are fallible; 
and under feonie uufuvoitrablR )irepo»fessioureveu the « is* ^t or 
the be&t of luou might {:i\o un erroneous decision upon tbe 
case. But this obtservattuu wilt gain additional force whto w« 
suppo!!e the power of judging transforred to the person ol th« 
magistrate. Yfc cannot presume that a civil ruler undersutn Is 
as much of theology us a minister of tlK* gospel. His necessaty 
duties prevent him from critically investigating queations apiQ 
divinity; and confine his attention to that particular depart- 
ment which society has deputed him to occupy; and hence to 
expect at hi? hands a testimony of qualification to preach 
would be almoKt as ludicrous af to n-qnire au obscure country 
curate to fill the office of Lord Chancellor. 

'But again — admitting that a inagihtrate who is nominated 
by the sovereign to issue forth licenses to dissenting niinisten, 
is competent to the task of judging of tlteir natural and acquired 
abilities, it must still remain a doubtful question whether ihey 
are moved to preach by the influences of the Holy Gbo»t: for 
it is the prerogative of God alone to "nearch the heart and try 
the reins" of the children of men. Coni^equeutly, after every 
effort of the ruling powers to as>ume to themselves tbo right of 
judging whether a man be or be not qualified to preach, th« 
most essential property of the inu»t remain to be deter* 
mined by the consciejice of the individuul. 

'It is further worthy of observation that the talcnu of a 
preacher may be acceptable to many persons, if not to him « ho 
issues the license. The ^aste of a jirrton thus high in office 
may be toe refined to derive gratification from any but the most 
learned, intelligent, and act-oiopHshed preachers. Yet, as the 
gospel is sent to the poor as well as to the rich, perhaps hon- 
dreds of preachers may be highly acceptable, much esterntfd, 
and eminently useful in their ref7>ective circles, who would be 
desuised as men of mean attainiiiunts by one whose mind is 
well stored with literature, and riiltivatrid by science. From 
these remarks 1 infer, that a iiuin'a o\>n judgment must he the 
criterion, in determining what line of couduct to pursue before 
he begins to preach : and the opinion of the people to w honi he 
ministers must determine whether it be desirable that he should 
continue to fiU their pulpit/— (16d-«lTJ.) 

The sentiments of Philagatharches are expressed 
still more strongly in a subsequent passage. 

'Here a question may arise — what line of conduct consc>- 
•ntious ministert ought to pursue, if laws were to be enacted, 
forbidding either all dissenting ministers to preachi or only lay 
preachers; or forbidding to preaeh in ui unlicensed place: si 
the same time forbidding to licence persons and places, r^ce^^t 
under such security as the proi>erty oi the parties would oo( 
meet, w under limitations to which their consciences « outd 
not accede. What has been advanced ought to outweipb 
every consideration of temporal interest ; and if the ev il geniu* 
of persecution were to appear again, I pray God that « e inigl-i 
all be faithAiI to Him who has called us to preach the got>i el. 
Onder such circumstances, let us continue to preach: if fined, 
let us pay the penally, and persevere in preaching; and «bea 
unable to pay the fine, or deeming it impolitic so to do, let us 
submit to go quietly to prison, but with the resolution still te 
fttmk oa the first •ppertunity, tai, if pMSibla, t» oeDecl* 


ehonh ev«n jrhhin the preokiicts of th« gaol. He, who by 
theM zealoua exertion*, becomes the honoured instrument of 
converting one sinner unto God, will find that single seal to 
his ministerial labours an ample compensation for all his suf- 
ferings. In this manner the venerable apoAle of the Gentiles 
both avowed and proved bis sincere attachment to the cause in 
which he had embarked:— "The Holy Ghost witneeseth in 
every city, that bonds and afflictions abide me. But none of 
these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself; 
so tbat 1 might tini»h my course with joy, and the ministry 
whicli I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the goepel 
of the grace of God." 

^In the early ages of Christianity martyrdom was considered 
an eminent honour; and many of the, primitive Christians 
thrust themwlves upon the notice of their heathen persecutors, 
that they might be brought to suffer in the cause of that Re- 
deemer whoin they ardently loved. In the present day Chrie- 
tians in general incline to estimate such rash ardour as a spe- 
cies of enthusiasm, and feel no disposition to court the horrors 
of persecution; yet if such dark and tremendous days were to 
return in thiji age of the world, ministers should retain their 
stations ; they should be true to their charge; they should 
continue their ministrations, each man in his sphere, shining 
with all the lustre of genuine godliness, to dispel the gloom in 
which the nation would then be enveloped. If this line of 
conduct were to be adopted, and acted upon with decision, the 
cause of piety, of non-conformity, and ot itinerant preaching, 
must eventUiUiy triumph. .All the gaols in the country would 
^>cedily be filled: those 'houses of correction which were 
erected for the chastisement of the vicious in the community, 
would be replenished with thousands of the most pious, active, 
aud useful men in the kingdom, whoso characters are held in 
general esteem. But the ultimate result of such despotic pro- 
ceedings is beyond the ken of human prescience: probably, 
appeals to the public and to the legislature would teem from 
Che press, and, under such circumstances, might difiiise a 
revolutionary spirit. tliroughout the country.' — 069^-^343.) 

We quote these opinions at length, not because 
they arc the opinions of Philagatharches, but because 
-vtre are confident that they are the opinions of ten 
thousand hot-headed fanatics, aud that they would 
firmly and conscientiously be acted upon. 

Philagatharches is an instance (not uncommon, we 
are sorry to say, even among the most rational of the 
Protestant Dissenters) of a love of toleration com- 
bined with a love of persecution. He is a Dissenter, 
and earnestly demands religious liberty for that body 
of men ; but as for the Catholics, he would not only 
continue their present disabilities, but load them witn 
every new one that could be conceived. He expressly 
says that* an Atheist or a Deist may be allowed to 
propagate their doctrines, but not a Catholic ; and 
then proceeds with all the customary trash against 
that sect which nine schoolboys out of ten now know 
how to refute. So it is with Philagatharches , — so it 
is with weak men in every sect. It has ever been our 
object, and (in spite of misrepresentation and abuse) 
ever shall be our object, to put down this spirit — to 
protect the true interests, and to diffuse the true spi- 
rit, of toleration. To a well-supported national £stab- 
Ibiimcnl, effectually dischargmg its duties, we are 
Tery sincere friends. If any man, after he has paid 
his contribution to this great security for the existence 
of religion in any shape, chooses to adopt a religion 
of his own, that man should be permitted to do so 
without let, molestation, or disqualification for any of 
the offices of life. We apologize to men of sense for 
sentiments so trite ; and patiently endure the anger 
xrhich they will excite among those with whom they 
will pass for original. 

CHARLES FOX. (Edikburoh Review, 1811.) 

A yiMdieation of Mr. Fox' 9 Bistorf of the Early Part of the 
Reign ofJamet the Second. By Samuel Heywood, Serjeant- 
at-L^w. London. Johnson St. Co. 1811. 

Though Mr. Fox's history was of course, as much 
open to animadversion and rebuke as any otner book, 
the task, we think, would have become any other per- 
son better than Mr. Rose. The whole of Mr. Fox's 
lilte was spent in opnposing the profligacy and expo- 
sing the ignorance ot ids own court. In the flrst half 
of his political career, while Lord North was losing 
America, and in the latter half, while Mr. Pitt was 
miumg Euope, the cnatnres of th« goTemment weie 

eternally exposed to the attacks of this discenung. 
dauntless, and most powerful speaker. Folly ana 
corruption never had a more terrible enemy in the 
English House of Commons— one whom it was so im- 
possible to bribe, so hopeless to elude, and so difficult 
to answer. Now it so happened, that, during the 
whole of this period, the historical critic of Mr. Fox 
was employed in subordinate offices of government ; — 
that the detaU of taxes passed through his hands ; — 
that he amassed a large fortune by those occupations ; 
and that both in the measures wiiich he supported, 
and in the friends from whose patronage he received 
his emoluments, he was completely and perpetually 
opposed to Mr. Fox. 

Again, it must be remembered, that very great peo- 
ple have very long memories for the injuries which 
they receive, or which they think they receive. No 
speculation was so good, therefore, as to vilify the 
memory of Mr. Fox — nothing so delicious as to lower 
him in the public estimation — ^no service so likely to 
be well rewarded — so eminently grateful to those of 
whose favour Mr. Rose had so often tasted the sweets, 
and of the value of whose patronage he must, firom 
long experience, have been so thoroughly aware. 

We are almost inclined to think that we might at 
one time have worked ourselves up to suspect Mr. 
Rose of being actuated by some of these motives ; — 
not because we have any reason to think worse ot 
that gentleman than of most of his political associates, 
but merely because it seemed to us so very probable 
that he should have been so influenced. Our suspi- 
cions, however, were entirely removed by the fre- 
quency and violence of his own protestations. He 
vows so solemnly that he has no bad motive in writinff 
his critique, that we find it impossible to withhold 
our beliefin his purity. But Mr. Rose does not trust 
to his protestations alone. He is not satisfied with 
assurances that he did not write his book from any 
bad motive, but he informs us that his motive was ex- 
cellent, and is even obliging enough to tell us what 
that motive was. The Earl of Marchmont. it seems, 
was Mr. Rose's friend. To Mr. Rose he left his 
manuscripts; and among these manuscripts was a 
narrative written by Sir Patrick Hume, an ancestor of 
the Earl of Marcnmont, and one of the leaders in 
Argyle's rebellion. Of Sir Patrick Hume. Mr. Rosa 
conceives (a little erroneously to be sure, but he as- 
sures us he does conceive) Mr. Fox to have spoken 
disrespectfully ; and the case comes out^ therefore, as 
clearly as possible, as follows. 

Sir Patnck was the progenitor, and Mr. Rose was 
the fViend and sole executor, of the Earl of March- 
mont ; and therefore, says Mr. Rose, I consider it as 
a sacred duty to vindicate the character of Sir Patrick, 
and^ for that purpose, to publish a long and elaborate 
critique upon all the doctrines and statements contain- 
ed in Mr. Fox's history .' This appears to us about 
as satisfactory an explanation of Mr. Rose's author- 
ship, as the exclamation of the traveller was of the 
name of Stony Stratford. 

Before Mr. Rose gave way to this intense value for 
Sir Patrick, and resolved to write a book, he should 
have inquired what accurate men there were about in 
society : and if he had once received the slightest no- 
tice otthe existence of Mr JSamuel Heywood, serjeant- 
at-law, we are convinced he would nave tran.sfused 
into his own will and testament the feelings he deri- 
ved from that of Lord Marchmont, and devolved upon 
another executor the sacred and dangerous duty of 
vindicating Sir Patrick Hume. 

The life of Mr. Rose has been principally employed 
in the painful, yet perhaps necessary, duty of mcrea- 
smg the burdens of his fellow creatures. It has bem 
a life of detail, onerous to the subject— onerous and 
lucrative to himself. It would be unfair to expect 
from one thus occupied any great depth of thought, 
or any remarkable graces or composition ; but we have 
a fair right to look for habits of patient research and 
scrupulous accuracy. We might naturally expect iiv 
dustry in collecting facts, and fidelity in quoting them 
and hope, in the absence of comm'andlng genius, to 
receive a compensation ftom the more bumble and 
ordinary quaiiues of the mind. How far this is ths 



case, oar subsequent remarks will enable the reader to 
judge . We shall not extend the m to any great length , 
as we have before treated on the same subject in our 
review of Mr. Rose's work. Our great object at pre- 
sent is to abridge the observations of Sergeant Hey- 
wood. For Serjeant Heyn-ood, though a most respect- 
able, honesty and enlightened man, really does require 
an aoridger. He has not the talent of saying what he 
has to say quickly ; nor is he aware that brevity is in 
writing what charity is to all other virtues. Right- 
eousness is worth nothing without the one, nor author- 
ship without the other. But whoever will forgive 
this little defect will find in all his productions great 
learning, immaculate honest}^, and the most scrupulous 
accuracy. Whatever detections of Mr. Rose's Inac- 
curacies are made in this Review are to be entirely 
given to him ; and we confess ourselves quite aston- 
ii^ed at their number and extent. 

'Among the modes of dostropng penoiu (says Mr. Fox, 
p. 14,) in such a situation (s. c moDarcbs deposed), there can 
be little doubt but that adopted by Cromwell and his adhe- 
rents is the UoMt dUhommrable, Edward II., Richard II., 
Henry IV., Edward V., had noue of them survived their de- 
pcMudj but this was the first instance, in our history at least, 
when of such an act it could be truly said it was not done in 
• corner.' 

What Mr. Rose can find in this sentiment to quar- 
rel with, we are utterly at a loss to conceive. If a 
human being is to be put to death tmjustly, is it no 
mitigation of such a lot that the death should be pub- 
lic ? Is any thing better calculated to prevent secret 
torture and cruelty ? And would Mr. Rose, in mercy 
to Charles, have preferred that red-hot iron should 
have been secretly thrust into his entrails? — or that 
he should have disappeared as Pichegru and Toussaint 
have disappeared in our times ? The periods of the 
Edwards and Henrys were, it is true, oarbarous pe- 
riods : but this is the very argument Mr. Fox uses. 
All these murders, he contends, were immoral and 
bad ; but that where the manner was the least objec- 
tionable, was the murder of Charles the First — be- 
cause it was public. And can any human being doubt, 
in the first place, that these crimes would be marked 
by less intense cruelty if they were public, and, se- 
condly, that they would become less trequent, where 
the perpetrators incurred responsibility, than if they 
were committed by an uncertain hand in secrecy and 
concealment ? There never was, in short, not only a 
more innocent, but a more obvious sentiment ; and to 
object to it in the manner which Mr. Rose has done, 
is surely to love Sir Patrick Hume too much, — if there 
can be any excess in so very commendable a passion 
in the breast of a sole executor. 

Mr. Fox proceeds to observe, that * he who has dis- 
cussed this subject with foreigners, must have observ- 
ed, that the act of the execution of Charles, even in 
the minds of those who condemn it, excites more ad- 
miration than disgust.' If the sentiment is bad, let 
those who feel it answer for it. Mr. Fox only asserts 
the fact, and explains, without justifying it. The only 
question (as concerns Mr. Fox) is, whether such is, 
or is not, the feeling of foreigners ; and whether that 
feeling (if it exists) is rightly explained? We have 
no doubt either of the fact or of the explanation. The 
conduct of Cromwell and his associates, was not to be 
excused in the main act ; but, in the manner, it teat 
magnanimous. And among the servile nations of the 
Continent, it must naturally excite a feeling of joy and 
wonder, tnat the power of the people had for once 
been felt, and so memorable a lesson read to those 
whom they must naturally consider as the great op- 
pressors of mankind. 

The most unjustifiable point of Mr. Rose's accusa- 
tion, however, is still to come. < If such high praise,' 
says that gentleman, * was, in the judi^ment of Mr. 
Fox, due to Cromwell for the publicity ol the proceed- 
ings against the king, how would he have found lan- 
guage sufiicientlv commendatory to express his admi- 
ration of the magnanimity of those who brought Lewis 
the Sixteenth to an open trial V Mr. Rose accuses 
Mr. Fox, then, of approving the execution of Lewis 
the Sixteenth: but, on the aoth of December, 1 792, 

Mr. Fox said, in the House of Common *Upr9* 

aence of Mr, Rose^ 

* The proceedings with respect to the royal ftonily of Frasce, 
are ro far from being magnanimityj justice, or mercy, that they 
are directly the reverse ; they are mjustice, cruelty, and pusil- 
lanimity.' And afterwards declared his wish for an address to 
his majesty, *lo which he would add sn xpression * of our ab- 
horrence of the proceedings against the royal family of France, 
in which, I have no doubt, we shall be siTpported by the whole 
country. If there can be any means suggested that will b« 
better adapted to produce the unanimous concurrence of this 
House, and of all toe country, with rrsjiect to the measure now 
under consideration in Paris, I should be obliged to any p<«r- 
son for his better suggestion upon the subject ' Then, ailer 
stating that such address, especially if the Lords ioined in it, 
must have a decisive influence in France, he added, ' I have 
said thus much in order to contradict one of the most cruel 
misrepresentations of what I have before said in our late de- 
bates ; and that my language may not be interpreted from the 
manner iA which other gentlemen have chosen to answer it. I 
have spoken the genuine sentiments of my heart, and I anx- 
iously wish the House to come to some resolution upon the sub- 
ject* And on the following day, when a copy of instructions 
sent to Earl Gower, signifying that he should leave Paris, was 
laid before the House of Commons, Mr. Fox said, ' he had heard 
it said, that the proceedings against the King of France are 
unnecessary. He would go a groat deal farther, and say, he 
believed them to be highly unjust ; and not only repugnant to 
all the common feelings of maiikind, but also contrary to all tka 
fundamental principles of law.*— <p. 20, 21.) 

On Monday the 28th January, he said, 

* With regard to that part of the communication from bis 
majesty, which related to the late detestable scene exhibited 
in a neighbouring country, he could not suppose there wers 
two opinions in that House ; he knew they were all ready to 
declare their abhorrence of that abominable proG«ediag.'>~ 
(p. 21.) 

Two days afterwards, in the debate on the messaj^, 
Mr. Fox pronounced the condemnation and execution 
of the king to be 

_« an act as disgraceful as any that history recorded : and 
whatever opinions he might at any time have expressed in pri- 
vate conversation, he had expressed none certainly in that 
House on the justice of bringing kings to trial : revenge beicf 
unjustifiable, and punishment useless, where it could not oper- 
ate either by way of prevention or example ; he did not view 
with less detestation the injustice and inhumanity that bad 
been committed towards that unhappy monarch. Not only 
were the rules of criminal justice — rules that more than auy 
other ought to be strictly observed — violated with respect to 
him : not only was he tried and condemned without existici^ 
law, to which he was personally amenable, and even contrary 
to laws that did actually exist, but the degrading circumvtaa - 
ces of his imprisonment, the unnecessary and insulting asperity 
with which he had been treated, the total want of repubheam 
magnanimity in the whole transaction^ (for even in that Uou*9 
it could bo no offence to say, that there might be such a thiiag 
as magnanimity in a republic,) added every aggravation to the 
inhumanity and iigustice.' 

That Mr. Fox had held this laneuage in the Hooae 
of Commons, Mr. Rose knew perfectly well, when lie 
accused that gentleman of approving the murder of the 
King of France. Whatever be the faults imputed to 
Mr. Fox. duplicity and hypocrisy were never among 
the numoer ; and no human bemg ever doubted but 
that Mr. Fox, in this instance, spoke his real senti- 
ments : but the love of Sir Patrick Hume is an over- 
whelming passion j and no man who gives way to it, 
can ever say into what excesses he may be hurried. 
Non ahnvl ctdqtum coneedUuTj amare et sapere. 

The next point upon which Sergeant Heywood at- 
tacks Mr. Rose, is that of General Monk. Mr. Fox 
says of Monk, ' that he acquiesced m the insult so 
meanly put upon the illustrious corpse of Blake, under 
whose auspices wid command he had penbrmed the 
most creditable services of his life.* This story, Mr. 
Rose says, resU upon the authority of Neale, m his 
History of the Puritans. This is the first of many 
blunders made by Mr. Rose upon this particular topic : 
for Anthony Wood, in his Fasti Oxonienscs, enumera- 
ting Blake amoncr the bachelors, says, * His body v,-a3 
taken up, and, with others, buried tnapU in St, Mar- 
eareVa church^rd adjoining, near to the back door of 
one of the prebendaries of Westminster, in uhick pUic* 
it note remaingthf enjoying no other numument but 


what it reared hf Its ysloar, whkfa time itself can 
hardly efface.' But the difficulty is to find how the 
denial of Mr. Rose affects Mr. tox^t assertion. Mr. 
thone admits that Blake^s body was dug up by an order 
of the king ; and does not deny that it was done with 
the acquiescence of Monk. But if this be the case, 
Mr. Fox's position tiiat Blake was insulted, snd that 
Mnnk acquiesced in the insult, is clearly made out. 
Nor has Mr. Rose the shadow of an authority for say- 
ing tbst the corpse of Blake was reinterred tpith great 
decortan. Kennet is silent upon the subject. We have 
already given Sergeant Heywood's quotation from 
Anthony Wood ; and this statement, for the present, 
rests entirely upon the assertion of Mr. Rose ; ana 
upon that basis will remain to all eternity. 

Mr. Rose, who, we must say, on all occasions, 
through the whole of this book, makes the greatest 
parade of his accuracy, states that the bodies of 
Cromwell, Ireton, and Blake, were taken up at the 
same time ; whereas the fact is, that those of Crom- 
weU and Ireton were taken up on the 26th of January, 
and that of Blake on the 10th of September, nearly 
nine months aftenvards. It may appear frivolous to 
notice such errors as these ; but they lead to very 
strong suspicions fai a critic of history and of histori- 
ans. They show that those habits ot punctuality, on 
the faith of which he demands imphcit confidence 
from his readers, really do not exist ; they prove that 
such a writer will be exact only when he thinks the 
occasion of importance ; and as ne himself is the only 
iudge of that importance, it is necessary to examine 
his proofs in every instance, and impossible to trust 
him anywhere. 

Mr. Hose remarks that, in the weekly paper entitled 
Mercnrius Rusticus, Number 4, where an account is 
given of the disinterment of Cromwell and Ireton, not 
a syllable is said respecting the corpse of Blake. This 
is very true ; but the reason (which does not seem to 
have occurred to Mr. Rose) is, that Blake's corpse 
was not touched till rix months aftertcardM. Tias is 
really a little too much. That Mr. Rose should ^uit 
his usual pursuits, erect himself into an historical 
critic, perch upon the body of the dead lion, impugn 
the accuracy of one of the greatest, as well as most 
accurate men of his time — and himself be guilty of 
such gross and unpardonable negligence, looks so very 
much like an insensibility to shame, that we should be 
loth to characterize his conduct by the severe epithets 
which it appears to merit, and which, we are quite 
certain. Sir Patrick, the defendee, would have been 
the first to bestow upon it. 

The next passage m Mr. Fox's work objected to, is 
that which charges Monk, at the trial of Argyle, < with 
having produced letters of friendship and confidence 
to take away the life of a nobleman, in the zeal and 
cordiality of whose co*operation with him, proved by 
such documents, was the chief ground of his execu- 
tion.' This accusation, savs Mr. Rose, rests upon the 
sole authority of Bishop buraet ; and yet no sooner 
has he said this, than he tells us, Mr. I/iing considers 
the bishop's authority to be confirmed by Cunningham 
and Baillie, both contemporary writers. Into Cun- 
ningham or Baillie Mr. Rose never looks to see whe- 
ther or not they do really confirm the authority of the 
bishop ; and so gross is his negligence, that tne very 
mtspnnt from Mr. Laing's work is copied, and page 
431 of Baillie is cited instead of 451 . If Mr. Rose had 
really taken the trouble of referring to these books, 
all doubt of the meanness and guilt of Monk must 
have been instantly removed. ' Monk was moved,' 
says Baillie, « to send down four or five ofArgyWs let- 
ters to himself and others, promising his full compliance 
irith them J that the king should not reprieve him,* Bail' 
lie's Letters, p. 451. < He endeavoured to make his 
defence,' says Cunningham ; < but chiefly by the discove- 
ries of Monk was condemned of high treason, and lost 
his head.' — Cvnningham^s History ^ i. p. 13. 

Would it have been more than common decency re- 
quired, if Mr. Rose, who had been apprised of the ex- 
istence of these authorities, had had recourse to them, 
before he impugned the authority of Mr. Fox'< Or is 
it possible to read^ without some portion of contempt, 
thu sknrenly and indolent corrector of ftuppoted inao* 

comcies in a man. not only so mnch greater than him- 
self in his general nature, but a man who, as it tuns 
out, excels Mr. Rose in his own little art of looking, 
searching, and comparing and is as much his supe- 
rior in the retail qualities which small people arrogate 
to themselves, as ne was in every commanding faculty 
to the rest of his fellow creatures ? 

Mr. Rose searches Thurloe's State Papers ; but Ser- 
jeant Heywood searches them after Mr. Rose : and, 
Dv a series of the plainest references, proves the prob- 
aoility there is that Argyle did receive letters which 
might materially have aoected his life. 

To Monk's duplicity of conduct may be principally 
attributed the acstruction of his friends, who were 
prevented, by their confidence in him, from taking 
measures to secure themselves. He selected those 
amon^ them whom he thought fit for trial — sat as a 
commissioner upon their trial — and interfered not to 
save the lives even of those with whom he had lived 
in the habits of the greatest kindness. 

* I caanot,* mjs a witnAs* of the mont unquestionable autho- 
rity, ' I cannot forget one paMo^e that I gate. Monk and his 
wife, before they were moved to the Tower, while they were 
yet priioncrs at Lambeth House, came one evening to tho 
garden, and caused them to be brought down, only to stare at 
thom ; which was such a barbarism, for that man who betrayed 
Bomanvpoor men to death and misery, that never hurt him, 
but had honoured him, and tru«tcd their lives and interests with 
him, to glut his bloody eyns with beholding them in their bon- 
dage, as no story con puriUlel the inhumanity of.'— ^ 83.)— 
HutekituinCs Memoirs, 37S. 

This, however, is the man whom Mr. Fox, at the 
distance of a century and a half, may not mark with 
infamy, without incurring, from the candour of Mr 
Rose, the imputation of republican principles } — as if 
attachment to monarchy could have justified, in Monk^ 
the coldness, cruelty, and treachery of his character, 
— as if the historian became the advocate, or the ene- 
my of any form of goveniment^ by praising the good, 
or blammg the bad men which it might produce. Ser- 
jeant Heywood sums up the whole article as follows : 

' Having examined and commented upon the evidence pro- 
duced by Mr. Rose, thau which " it is hardly possible,** ha 
says, " to conceive that stronger could be formed in any eat* 
to establish a negative," we now safely assert that Mr. Fox had 
fully informed himself upon the subject before he wiote, and 
was amply justified in the condemnation of Monk, and tha 
consequent severe censures upon him. It has been already 
demonstrated that the character of Monk had been truly gi- 
ven, when of him ho said, " the army had fallen into the haiula 
of one than whom a basor could not be found in its lowest 
rank^" The transactions between him and Argyle for a cer- 
tain period of time wore such as must naturally, if not nece»* 
sariJy, have led them into an epistolary correspondence ; and 
it was in exact conformity with Monk's character and conduct 
to the regicides, that he should betray the letters written to 
him, in order to destroy a man whom he had, in the latter 
part of his command in Scotland, both feared and hated. If 
the fact of the production of these letters had stood merely on 
Bishop Bumc^ we have seen that nothinr has been produced 
by Mr. Rose and Dr. Campbell to impeach it ; on the contra- 
ry, an inquiry into the authorities and documents they bavs 
cited, strongly confirm it. But, as before observed, it is a sur- 
prising instanoe of Mr. Rose's indolence, that he should stato 
the question to depend now, as it did in Dr. Campbell's time, 
on the bishop's authority solely. But that authority is, in 
itself, no light one. Burnet was almost eighteen years of age 
at the time of Argyle's trial ; he was never an unobserriog 
spectator of public events ; he was probably at Edinbui^h, 
and, for some years afterwards, remained in Scotland, with 
ample means of information respecting events which had 
taken place so recently. Baillie seems al«o to have been upon 
the spot, and expressly confirms the testimony of Burnet To 
these must be added Cunningham, who, writing as a person 
perfectly acquainted with' tiie circumstances of the transac- 
tion, says it was owing to the interference of Monk, who had 
been his great friend in Oliver's time, that he was sent back to 
Scotland, and brought to trial ; and that he was condemned 
chiefly by his discoveries. We may now ask, where is tho 
improbability of this story, when related of such a man 1 and 
what ground there is for not giving credit to a fact attested by 
three witnesses of veracity, eaeh writing at a distance, and 
separate ft-om each other f In this instance Bishop Burnet is 
so confirmed, that no reasondile being who will attend to the 
subject, can doubt of the fact he relates being true ; and we 
shall faereaAer prove that the general imputation against his 
accuracy made by Mr. Rose is totally without foundati<m. If 
(kcts 10 proved are pot to be credited, hirtorians may Isf 


Slide their pem, and every mm must oo&tent hineelf with tho 
Dcanty pittance of knowled^ he may be able to collect for 
himMlf in the ytry limited sphere of hit own immediate obser- 
TDtion.'— (p. 86—88.) 

This, we think, is conclusive enough : but we are 
happy to be enabled, out of our own store, to set this 
part of the question finally to rest, by on authority 
which Mr. Rose himself will probably admit to be de« 
cisive. Sir George Maclcenzie, the great tory lawyer 
of Scotland in that day, and Lord Advocate to Charles 
II., through the greater part of his reign, was the lead- 
ing counsel for Argyle on the trial alluded to. In 
1678, this learned person, who was then Lord Advo- 
cate to Charles, puolished an elaborate treatise on the 
criminal law or Scotland; in which, when treating of 
probation, or evidence, he observes, that missive let- 
tors, not written, but only signed b^ the party, should 
not be received in evidence ; and immediately adds, 
* And 3'et the Marquis of ArgyU uxu convict of treason 


these letters being only subscribed by him, and not 
holograph, and the subscription being proved j}«r com^ 
paraiionem literarwii} which were very hard in other 
cases,* &c. — Mackenzie's Criminals^ first edit. p. 624, 
Part II. tit. 25, § 3. Now this, we conceive, is neither 
more nor less than a solemn professional report of the 
case, — and leaves just as little room for doubt as to 
the fact, as if the original record of the trial had been 

Mr. Rose next objects to Mr. Fox's assertion, that 
' the king kept from his cabal ministry the real state of 
his connection with France — and from some of them 
the secret of what he was pleased to call his religion ; ' 
and Mr. Fox doubts whether to attribute this conduct 
to the habitual treachery ol Charles, or to an appre- 
hension that his ministers might demand for tliem- 
selves some share of the French money ; which he was 
unwilling to give them. In answer to' this conjecture, 
Mr. Rose quotes Barillon's Letters to Lewis AlV. to 
show that Charles's ministers were fully apprised of 
his money transactions with France. The letters so 
quoted were, however, written seven years after the 
cabal ministry were in power — for Barillon did not come 
to England as Ambassador till 1677 — and these letters 
were not written tiU after that period. Poor Sir Pat- 
rick — It was for thee and thy defence this book was 
written i ! ! ! 

Mr. Fox has said, that from some of the ministers 
of the cabal the secret of Charles's religion was con- 
cealed. It was known to Arlington, admitted by Mr. 
Rose to be a concealed Catholic ; it was known to 
Clifibrd, an avowed Catholic : Mr. Rose admits it not 
to have been known to Buckingham, though he ex- 
plains the reserve, in respect to him, in a different 
way. He has not, however, attempted to prove that 
Lauderdale or Ashley were consulted ; — on the con- 
trary, in Colbert's letter of the 25th August, 1670, ci- 
ted by Mr. Rose, it is stated that Charles had proposed 
the traiti simulti. which should be a repetition of the 
former one in all things, except the article restive to 
the king's dechiring himself a Catholic, and that the 
Prote^nt ministers y Buckingham, Ashley, Cooper, and 
Lauderdale, should be brought to be parties to it : — 
Can there oe a stronger proof (asks Serjeant Hey- 
wood) , that they were ignorant of the same treaty 
made the year oefore, and remaining then in force"? 
Historical research is certainly not the peculiar talent 
of Mr. Rose ; and as for the official accuracy of which 
he is so apt to boast, we would have Mr. Rose to re- 
member, that the term official accuracy has of late 
days become one of very ambiguous import. Mr. 
Rose, we can see, would imply by it the highest pos- 
sible accuracy — as we see office pens advertised in the 
window of a shop, by way of excellence. The public 
reports of those, however, who have been appointed 
to look into the manner in which public omces are 
conducted, by no means justify this usage of the 
term ; — and we are not without apprehensions, that 
IXitchpoliteness, Carthaginian faith, Boeotian genius, 
and official accuracy, may be terms equally current in 
the world ; and that Mr. Rose may, without intending 
it, have contributed to make this valuable addition to 
the maaa of onr Ironical phraseoloCT 

Bpealdng of the early part of James's reign, Mr. Fo3e 
says, it is by no means certain that he had yet thoughts 
of obtaining for his religion any thing more than a 
complete toleration ; and if Mr. Hose had understood 
the meaning of the French word itablissenunt. one of 
his many incorrect corrections of Mr. Fox might have 
been spared. A system of religion is said to be estab- 
lished when it is enacted and endowed by Parliament ; 
but a toleration (as Serjeant Heywood observes) is 
established when it is recognized and protected by the 
supreme power. And in the letters of JBan'Won, to 
which Mr. Rose refers for the justification of his at- 
tack upon Mr. Fox, it is quite manifest tliat it is in this 
latter sense that the word itablissement is used ; an^ 
that the object in view was, not the substitution of the 
Catholic religion for the Established Church, but mere- 
ly its toleration. In the first letter cited by Mr. Rose, 
James says, that < he knew well he should never be in 
safety unless liberty of conscience lor them should be 
fully established in England.' The letter of the 24th 
of April is quoted by Mr. Rose, as if the French king 
had written, the establishment of the Caikolic religion ; 
whereas the real words are, the establishment of the free 
exercise of the Catholic religion. The world are so in- 
veterately resolved to believe, that a man who has no 
brilliant talents must be accurate, that Mr. Rose, in 
referring to authorities, has a great and decided ad- 
vantage. He is, however^ in point of fact, as lax and 
incorrect as a poet ; and it is absolutely necessary, in 
spite of every parade of line, and page, and number, 
to follow him in the most minute particular. The Ser- 
jeant like a bloodhound of the old breed, is always 
upon his track ; and always looks if there are any such 
passages in the page quoted, and if tlie passages are 
accurately quoted or accurately translated. Nor will 
he by any means be content with official accuracy, nor 
submit to be treated, in historical questions, as if he 
were hearing financial statements in the House of 

Barillon writes, in another letter to Lewis XIV- — 
' What your majesty has most besides at heart, that 
is to say, for the establishment of the free exercise of 
the Catholic religion.' On the 9th of May, Lewis 
writes to Barillon y that he is persuaded Charles will 
employ aU his authority to establish the free excercise 
of the Catholic religion : he mentions also, in the 
same letter, the Parhament consenting to the free ex- 
ercise of our religion. On the loth of June, he wriu-s 
to Barillon — < There now remains only to obtain the re- 
peal of the penal laws in favour of the Catholics, and the 
free exercise of ovr religion in all his states.* Immedi- 
ately after Monmouth's execution, when his views of 
success must have been as lofty as they ever could 
have been, Lewis writes — * It will be easy to the King 
of England, and as useful for the security of his reign 
as for the repose of his conscience, to re-establish the 
exercise of the Catholic religion.' In a letter of Baril- 
Ion, July 16th, Sunderland is made to say, that the 
king would always be exposed to the indiscreet zeal 
of those who would infiame the people against the 
Catholic religion, so long as it shoiud not be 7nore fully 
established. The French expression is^ tar,t ou'elle ne 
sera pas plus epleinement tabiie ; and this Mr, Rose has 
had the modesty to translate, till it shall be completely 
established, and to mark the passage with italics, as 
of the greatest importanco to his argument. These 
false quotations and translations being detected, and 
those passages of early writers, from which Mr.' Fox 
had made up his opinion, brought to light, it is not 

Sossible to doubt, but that the object cf James, before 
lonmouth's defeat, was not the destruction of the 
Protestant, but the toleration of the Cathol^c religion ; 
and after the execution of Monmouth, Mr. Fox ad- 
mits, that he became more bold and sanguine upon the 
subject of religion. 

We do not consider those observations of Serjeant 
Heywood to be the most fortunate in his book, whore 
he attempts to show the republican tendency of Mr. 
B ose's principles. Of any disposition to principles of 
this nature, we most heartily acquit that right honour- 
able gentleman. He has too much knowledge of man. 
kind to believe their happiness can be promoted in tbo 
stormy and tempestuous regions of republicanisu 


and, be^et this, that system of slender pay, and de- 
ficient perquisites, to wMch the subordinate agents of 
government are confined in republics, is much too 
painful to be thought of fur a single instant. 

We are afraid of becoming tedious by the eno- 
nteration of blunders into which Mr. Rose has fallen, 
and which Serjeant Heywood has detected. But the 
burthen of this sole executor's song is accuracy— his 
own official accuracy — and the little dependence which 
is to be placed on the accuracy of Mr. Fox. We will 
venture to assert, that, in the whole of his work, he 
has not detected Mr. Fox in one single error. Wheth- 
er Serjeant Heywood has been more fortunate with 
Mr. Rose, might be determined, perhaps, with sufii* 
cient certainty, by our previous extracts from his re- 
marks. But for some mdulgent readers, these may 
not seem enough : and we must proceed in the task, 
till we have settled Mr. Rose's pretcusions to accura- 
cy on a still firmer foundation. And if we be thought 
minutely severe, let it be remembered that Mr. Rose 
is himself an accuser ; and if there is justice upon 
earth, every man has a right to pull stolen goods out 
of the pocket of him who cries, < Stop thief! ' 

In the story which Mr. Rose states of the seat in 
Parliament sold for five pounds (Journal of the Com- 
mons, vol. v.), he is wrong, both in the sum and the 
volume. The sum is four pounds ; and it is told, not 
in the fifth volume, but the first. Mr. Rose states, 
that a i)er}>etual excise was granted to xhe crown, in 
lieu or the profits of the court of wards ; and adds, 
that the question in favour of the crown was carried, 
by a majority of two. The real fact is, that the half 
only of an excise upon certain articles was granted to 
government in lieu of these profits; and this grant 
was carried without a division. An attempt was made 
to grant the other half, and this was negatived by a 
majority of two. The Joumals are open ; — Mr. Rose 
reads them ; — ^he is ofi[icially accurate. What can the 
meaning be of the»e most extraordiuar}^ mistakes ? 

Mr. Rose says that, in 1679, the writ de haretico 
comburendo had been a dead letter for more than a 
century. It would have been extremely agreeable to 
Mr. Bartholomew Legate, if this had been the case ; 
for, in 1612, he was burnt at Smithfield for being an 
Arian. Mr. Wightman would probably have partici- 
pated in the satisfaction of Mr. Legate; as he was 
oumt also, the same year, at Lichfield, for the same 
ofience. With the same correctness, tnis scourge of 
historians makes the Duke of Lauderdale, who died 
in 16S2, a confidential adviser of James II. after his 
accession in 1689. In page 13, he quotes, as written 
by Mr. Fox, that which was written by Lord Holland. 
Inis, however, is a familiar practice with him. Ten 
pages afterwards, in Mr. Fox's History, he makes the 
faime mistake. * Mr. Fox added* — ^wnereas it was 
Lord Holland that added. The same mistake again 
in p. 147 of his own book ; and after this, he makes 
Mr. Fox the person who selected the appendix of 
Barillon's papers ; whereas it is particularly stated in 
the preface to the History, that this appendix was 
selected by Laing. 

^fr. Rose afiSrm.*;, that compassing to levy war 
against the king was made high treason by the sta- 
tute of 25 Edward the Third ; and, in support of this 
affirmation, he cites Coke and Blackstone. His stem 
antagonist, a professional man, is convinced he has 
read neither. The former says, < a compassing to levy 
vrar is no treason^ (Inst. 3., p. 9.) ; and Blacksone, < a 
bare conspiracy to levy war does not amount to this 
species of treason.' (Com. iv, p. S2.) This really 
does not look as if the Serjeant had made out his 
' assertion. 

Of the bill introduced in 1685, for the preservation 
of the person of James II., Mr. Rose observes — < Mr. 
Fox has not told us for which of our modem statutes 
this bill was used as a model ; and it will he difficult 
for any one to show such an instance.' It might have 
been thought, that no ppident man would have made 
such a challenge, without a tolerable certamty pt the 
ground upon which it was made. Serieant Heywood 
answers tne challenge by citmg the 3o Geo. III. c. 7, 
which is a mere copy or the act of James. 

In the fifth section of Mr. Rose's work is contained 

his grand attack upon Mr. Fox for his abuse of Sir 
Patnck Hume ; and his observations upon this point 
admit of a fourfold answer. 1st, Mr. Fox does not 
use the words quoted by Mr. Rose ; 2dly, He makes 
no mention whatever of Sir Patrick Hume in the pas- 
sage cited by Mr. Rose ; 3dly, Sir Patrick Hume is 
attacked by nobody in that history ; 4thly, If he had 
been so attacked he would have deserved it. The 
passage from Mr. Fox is this ; — 

' In recounting the failure of his expedition, it is impoa 
Kible for bim to touch upon what he deemed the miscom 
duct of his friends ; and tXuA ii4 tlie subject upon which, of 
all others, his temper mu;< luive been most irritable. A 
certain dp<cription of friends (ihc word* describing them 
are omitted) w-cie all of them, without exception, his great- 
est enemies, both to betray and de»trov him : and — 

and (the namei apain omittctl) were the greatest cauae of 
hiu ruut, and his being talcen, though not designedly, be 
acknowled/e.'*, but by iprnorance, cowardice, and faction. 
Ttii-s sentence bad scarce e:$caped him, when, notwithstand- 
ing the qualifying word^s with which his candour has ac- 
quitted the lak mentioned persons of intentional treachergf 
it appeared too harsh to hii gentle nature ; and, declaring 
himi$elf displeased with the hard epithets he had used, he 
dei«lre« that they may be put out of any account that Is tO 
be given of the^e transactions.'— Htyioooit, p. 866, 866. 

Argyle names neither the description of friends who 
were his greatest enemies, nor the two individuals who 
were the principal cause of the failure of his scheme. 
Mr. Fox leaves the blanks as he finds them. But two 
notes are added by the editor, which Mr. Rose might 
have observed are marked with an E. In the latter of 
them we are told, that Mr. Fox observes, in a privet 
letter J < Cochrane and Hume certainly filled up the two 
principal blanks.^ But is this communication of a pri* 
vate letter any part of Mr. Fox's history ? And would 
it not have been equally fair in Mr. Rose to have comp 
mented upon any private conversation ot Mr. Fox, 
and then have called it his history ? Or, if Mr. Fox 
had filled up the blanks in the body of his history, 
does it follow that he adopts Argyle's censure because 
he shows against whom it is levelled ? Mr. Rose hat 
described the charge against Sir Patrick Hume to be, 
of faction, cowardice, and treachery. Mr. Rose hu 
more than once altered the terms of a proposition be* 
fore he has proceeded to answer it ; and, in this in- 
stance, the charge of treachery against Sir Patrick 
Hume is not made either in Argyle's letter, Mr. Fox's 
text, or the editor's note, or any where but in the im- 
agination of Mr. Rose. The sum ot it all is, that Mr. 
Rose first supposes the relation of Argyle's opinion to 
be the expression of the relstor's opmion, that Mr. 
Fox adopts Argyle's insinuations because he explains 
them ; — then he looks upon a quotation from a private 
letter, made by the editor, to be the same as ifinclnd- 
cd in a work intended for publication by the author * — 
then he remembers that he is the sole executor of Sir 
Patrick's grandson, whose blank is so filled np ; — and 
goes on blundering and blubbering, — grateful and in* 
accurate J — teeming with false quotations and friendly 
recollections to the conclusion of his book.^ — Mum 
gemens ignominiam. 

Mr. Rose came into possession of the Earl of March* 
mont's papers, contamiug, among other things, the 
narrative of Sir Patrick Hume. He is very severe 
upon Mr. Fox for not havuig been more diugent in 
searching for original papers ; and observes, that if 
any application had been made to him (Mr. Rose,) 
this narrative should have been at Mr. Fox's service. 
We should be glad to know, if Mr. Rose saw a per- 
son tumbled into a ditcii, whether he would wait for 
a regular application till he pulled him out? Or. if 
he happened to espy the lost piece of sUver for which 
the good woman was diligently sweeping the house, 
would he wait for formal interrogation before he im- 
parted his discovery, and suffer the lady to sweep on 
till the question had been put to him in the most 
solemn forms of politeness? The established prac- 
tice, we admit, is to apply, and to apply vigorously 
and incessantly, for sinecure places ana pensions— or 
they cannot be had. This is true enough. But did 
any human being eTer think of carrying this practice 
into iiteramre, snd compellinff another to make inter* 
eet for papers eaeentiai to Uie good conduct of fai» 


ottdertakittg? We are perfectly astonished at Mr. 
Rose's conduct in this particular; and should have 
thought that the ordinary exercise ot his good nature 
would haye led him to a very different way of acting. 

< On the whole y and upon the ptoet attentive conaidera- 
tUm of every thing tohich has been written upon the suih 
ject, there does not appear to have been any intention 
of applying torture in the case of the Earl of Arvyle.' 
(RosBj p. 182.) If this every thing had includea the 
loIlowiDg extract from Barillonf the above cited, and 
▼ery disgiaceful inaccuracy of Mr. Rose would have 
been spared. * The Earl of Argyle has been executed 
at Edinburgh, and has left a full confession in writing, 
in which he discovers all those who have ossisted him 
with money, and have sided his designs. This hoe 
saved him from the tortured And Argyle, in his letter 
to Mrs. Smith, confesses he has made discoveries. 
In his very inaccurate history of torture in the south- 
em part of this island, Mr. Rose says, that except in 
the case of Felton — ^in the attempt to introduce the 
civil law in Henry VI .'s reign^ — and in some cases of 
treason in Mary's reign, torture was never attempted 
in this country. The fact, however, is, that in the 
reign of Henry VIII., Anne Askew was tortured by 
the chancellor himself. Simson was tortured in 1558 ; 
Francis Throgmorton in 1671 ; Charles Baillie, and 
Banastie, the Duke of Norfolk's servant, were tortured 
in 1581 ; Campier, the Jesuit, was put upon the rack ; 
and Dr. Astlow is supposed to have been racked in 
1568. So much for Mr. Rose as the historian of pun- 
ishments. We have seen him^ a few pages before, at 
the stake, — ^where he makes quite as bad a figure as 
ho does now upon the rack. Precipitation and error 
are his foibles. If he were to write the history of 
•ieges, he would forget the siege of Troy i — ^if he were 
making a list of poets, he would leave out Virgil : — 
Csssar would not appear in his catalogue of generals ; 
and Newton wouldf be overlooked in his collection of 
eminent mathematicians. 

In some cases, Mr. Rose is to be met only with flat 
denial. Mr. Fox does not call the soldiers who were 
defending James against Argyle authorized assassins ; 
but he uses that expression against the soldiers who 
were murdepng the peasants, and committing every 
■ort of licentious cruelty in the twelve counties given 
up to military execution; and this Mr. Rose must 
have known, oy using the most ordinary diligence in 
the perusal of the text, — and would have known it in 
any other history than that of Mr. Fox. 

* Mr. Rose, in his concluding paragraph, boasts of his 
speaking " impersonally,'* and ne noues it will be allowed 
' Uy, when ne makes a general ooservation respecting 


without reference to any person. His words are, ** But 
fatotory cannot connect itself with party, without forfeiting 
Its name ; wWiout departing from the truth, the dignity, 
and the usefulness of its functions." After the remam he 
has made in some of his preceding pages, and the apology 
he has offered for Mr. Fox, In his last preceding paragraph, 
for having been mistaken In his view of some leading 
points, there can be no difficulty in concluding, that this 
general observation is meant to be applied to the historkal 
work. The chaige intended to be insinuated must be, that, 
in Fox*s hands, hiitory has forfeited the name by being 
connected with party ; and has departed from the truth, 
the dignity, and the usefulness of its functions. It were to 
be wished that Mr. Ro»e had explained himself more fully ; 
for, after assuming that the application of his obser- 
yation is too obvious to be miitaken, there still remains 
some difficulty with respect to its meaning. If it is con- 
fined to such publications as are written under the title of 
histories, but are intended to serve the purposes of a party ; 
and truth is sacrificed, and factd pervertecf, to defend and 
give currency to their tenets, we do not dispute its pro- 
priety ; but, if that i:i the character which Mr. Rose would 
Sive to Mr. Fox's labours, he has not treated him with can- 
our, or even common justice. Mr. Rose has never, in 
any one instance, intimated that Mr. Fox has wilfully de- 
parted from truth, or strayed from the proper province of 
history, for the purpose of indulging hu private or party 
feelings. But, if Mr. Rose intends that his observation 
should be applied to all histories, the authors of which have 
felt strongly the influence of political connections and 
'principles, what must become of most of the histories of 
Xagland? Is the title of histoiiui to be denied to Mr. 

Hume? and in what dsss sre to be placed Echard, Kennel, 
Rapin, Dalrymple, or Macuhenon ? In this point of Tiew 
the principle la.d down u too broad. A person, though 
connected with party, may write an impartial history of 
events which occurred a century before ; and, till this last 
sentence, Mr. Rose has not ventured to intimate that Mr. 
Fox has not done so. On the contrary, he has declared hit 
approbation of a great portion of the work ; and hU at- 
tempts to discover material errors in the remainder have 
uniformly failed in every particular. If it might be as- 
sumed that there existed in the book no faults, besides 
those which the scnitinizing eye of Mr. Rose has di^ 
covered, it might be Jubtly deemed the most perfect work 
that ever came fTom the press ; for not a single deviation 
from the stricteAt duty of an historian has been pointed out j 
while instances of candour and impartiality present them- 
selves in almost every page ; and Mr. Rose himself has 
acknowledged and applauded many of them.'— (pp. 4:13^ 

These extracts from both books are sufficient to 
show the nature of Serjeant Heywood's examinutlon of 
Mr. Rose, — the boldness of this latter gentleman's as- 
sertions, — and the extreme maccuracy of the research- 
es upon which these assertions are founded. If any 
credit could be gained from such a book as Mr. Rose 
has published, it could be gained from accuracy alone. 
Whatever the execution of his book had been, the 
world would have remembered the iniinite disparity of 
the two authors, and the long political opposition in 
which they lived — ^if that, indeed, can be called oppo- 
sition, where the thunderbolt strikes, and the clay 
yields. They would have remembered also that Hec- 
tor was dead ; and that every cowardly Grecian could 
now thrust his spear into the hero's t>ody. But still, 
if Mr. Rose had really succeeded in exposing the inac- 
curacy of Mr. Fox, — if he could have fairly d^own that 
authorities were overlooked, or slightly examined, or 
wilflilly perverted, — the incipient feelings to which 
such a controversy had given oirth must have yielded 
to the evidence of facts ; and Mr. Fox, however quali- 
fied in other particulars, must have appeared totally 
defective in that labonous industry and scrupulous 
good faith so indispensable to every historian. jBut he 
absolutely comes out of the contest not worse even in 
a smele tooth or nail — unvilified even by a wrong date 
— without one misnomer proved upon nim — ^immacu- 
late in his years and days of the mouth — ^blameless to 
the most musty and limited pedant that ever yellowed 
himself amidst rolls and records. 

But how fares it with his critic ? He rests his credit 
with the world as a man of labour.— and he turns out 
to be a careless inspector of proofs, and an historical 
sloven. The species of talent which he pretends to is 
humble, — and he possesses it not. He has not done 
thatwluch all. men may do, and which every man 
ought to do. who rebukes his superiors for not doing 
it. His claims, too, it should be remembered, to these 
every-day qualities, are by no means enforced with 
gentleness and humility. He is a braggadocio of mi- 
nuteness — a swaggering chronologer ; a man bristling 
up with small facts — prurient with dates — wantoning 
in obsolete evidence — loAily dull, and haughty in his 
drudgery ; — and yet all this is pretence. Drawing is 
no very unusual power in animals; but he cannot 
draw ; — ^he is not even the ox which he is so fond of 
being. In attempting to vilify Mr. Fox, he has only 
shown us that there was no labour from which that 
great man shrunk, and that no object connected with 
his history was too minute for his investigation. He 
has thoroughly convinced us that Mr. Fox was as in- 
dustrious, and as accurate, as if these were the only 
?[uaiities upon which he had ever rested his hope of 
ortune or of fame. Such, indeed, are the customary 
results when little people sit down to debase the char- 
acters of mat men, and to exalt themselves upon the 
ruins of what they have pulled do^n. They only pro- 
voke a spirit of inquiry, which places everything in its 
true light and magnitude. — shows those who appear 
little to be stiU less, and aisplays new and unexpected 
excellence in others who were "before known to excel. 
These are the usual consequences of such attacks. 
The fame of Mr. Fox has stood this, and will stand 
much ruder shocks. 

Non kUauM iliam^ nonfiabra nsrae i/mlres 
Convtllunt; immotamanttfmiutosguep*^ 



MAD QUAKERS. (EDimumoH Rbyxew, 1814.) 

Deseription of the Retreat, an InttUution near York, for 
JaMM Pertons of the Soctetp of Friends. Containing an 
Me4funt ofiU Origin andFrogreee, the Modes ofTreatpuntt 
and a Statement^ Cases. By Soniuel Tuke. York, 1813. 

TtTE Quakers alwavs seem to succeed in any institu- 
tion which they unde'rtake. The gaol at Philadelphia 
will remain a lasting monument of their slull and pa- 
tience ; and, in the plan and conduct ol' this retreat Tor 
the insane, they have evinced the same wisdom and 

The present account is given us by Mr. Tuke, a re- 
spectable tea-dealer, living in York,— and given in a 
manner which we are quite sure the most opulent and 
iuiportant of his customers could not excel. The long 
account of the subscription, at the beginning of the 
book, is evidently made tedious for the Quaker mar- 
ket ; and Mr. Tuke is a little too much addicted to 
Quoting. But, with these trifling exceptions, his book 
Joes him very great credit j— it is full of good sense 
and humanity, right feelings and rational views. The 
retreat for insane Quakers is situated about a mile 
from the city of York, upon an eminence commanding 
the adjacent country, and in the midst of a garden and 
fields belonging to the institution. The great nrinci- 
ple on which it appears to be conducted is that of kind- 
ness to the patients. It does not appear to them, be- 
cause a man is mad upon one particular subject, that 
he is to be considered in a state of complete mental 
degradation, or insensible to the feelings of kindness 
and gratitude. When a madman does not know what 
he is bid to do, the shortest method, to be sure, is to 
knock him down ; and straps and chains are the spe- 
cies of prohibition which are the least frequently dis- 
regarded. But the Society of Friends seem rather to 
consult the interest of the patient than the ease of his 
keeper ; and to aim at the government of the insane, 
by creating in them the kindest disposition towards 
those who have the command over them. Nor can 
anything be more wise, humane, or interesting, than 
the strict attention to the feelings of their patients 
which seems to prevail in their institutions. The fol- 
lowing specimens of their disposition upon this point 
we have great pleasure in laying before our readers : — 

< The «mallne« of the court,' says Mr Tuke, * would be a 
■ericas defeat, if it was not generallv compensated by taking 
■ach patients as are suitable into the garden : and by fre- 
quent excursions into the city, or the surrounding country, 
and into the fields of the institution. One of these is sur- 
rounded by a walk interspersed with trees and shnibs. 

* The superintendent has also endeavoured to fUmlah a 
source of amusement to those patients whose walks are ne- 
oesaarily more circumsaribed* by supplying each of the 
courts with a number of animals, such as rabbits, sea gulls, 
hawks, and poultry. These creatures are generally very 
familiar with the patients ; and it is believed they are not 
only the means or innocent pleasure, but that the inter- 
course with them sometimes tends to awaken the social feel- 
mgs.»— (p. 95, 96.) 

Chains are never permitted at the Retreat ; nor is it 
left to the option or the lower attendants when they 
arc to impose an additional degree of restraint n^n 
the patients ; and this compels them to pay attention 
to the feelings of the patients, and to attempt to gain 
an influence over them by kindness. Patients who are 
not disposed to iniure themselves are merely confined 
by the strait waistcoat, and left to walk about the 
room, or lie down on the bed, at pleasure ; and even in 
those cases where there is a strong tendency to self- 
destruction, as much attention is paid to the feelings 
mod ease of the patient as is consistent with his 

< Except incases of violent mania, which is far frombeinf 
a frequent occurrence at the Retreat, coercion, when requi- 
site, IS considered as a necessary evil ; that is, it is thought 
abstractedly to have a tendency to retard the cure, by oppo- 
sing the influence of the moral remedies employed. It is 
therefore used very sparingly; and the superintendent has 
often assured me, that he would rather run some ri«k than 
have recourse to restraint where it was not absolutely ne- 
cessary, except in those cases where it was likely to have a 
salutary moral tendency. 

'Itel ao —un srtiafliottoii lait>ttiig» vgon tbm aaOwr- 

tty of the superintendents, that during the last year. In 
which the number of patients has generally been Moty-iomtf 
there has not been occasion to sedude, on an average, two 
patients at one time. I am also able to state, that althongh 
it is occasionally necessary to restrain, by the waistcoat, 
straps, or other means, several patients at one time, yet that 
the average number so restrained does not exceed four, m- 
eluding those who are secluded. 

* The safety of those who attend upon the insane is cer- 
tainly an object of great importance ; but it is worthy of in- 
quiry whether it may not be attained without materially in- 
terfering with another object,— the recovery of the paUenL 
It may also deserve inquiry, whether the extensive practioe 
of coercion, which obtains in some institutions, does not 
arise fh»m erroneous views of the character of insane per- 
sons I tnm indifference to tlieir < comfort ; or f^om liavinc 
rendered coercion necessarv by previous unkind treatment 

* The power of judicious kkidness over this unhappy class ef 
society is much greater than is generally imagined. It is, oar- 
haps, not foomncb to apply to kind treatment the words or our 
great poet, — 

"She can unlock 
The clasping charm, and thawthe numbing speU.**— Kxltok. 

* In no instance has this power been more strikingly dis- 
played, or exerted with more beneficial efTocts, than in those 
deplorable cases in which the patient refbses to take fbod. 

The kind persvasionB and ingenious arts of the superintendents 
have been singularly successAil in overcoming this distressing 
symptom ; and very few instances now occur in which it is 

necessary to employ violent means for supplying the patient 
with food. 

'Some patients, who refbae to partake of the fkmily meab^ 
are induced to eat by being taken into the larder, and there 
allowed to help themselves. Some are found willing to eat 
when food is left with them in their roonas, or when they can 
obtain it unobserved by their attendants. Others, whose de- 
termination is stronger, are frequently induced, by repeated 
persuasion, to take a small quantity of nutritious liquid ; and It 
IS equally true in these as m general cases, that every breach 
of resoiutioo weakens the power and disposition to resistance. 

'Sometimes, however, persuasion seems to strengthen the 
unhappy determination. In one of theso cases the attendants 
were completely wearied with their endeavours ; and, on remo- 
ving the food, one of them took a piece of the meat which had 
been repeatedly offered to the patient, and threw it under the 
fire-grate, at the some time exclaiming that she should hot have 
it. The poor creature, who seemed governed by the rule of 
contraries, immediately rushed fi-om her seat, seized the meat 
firom the ashes, and devoured it. For a short time she was indu- 
ced to eat, by the attendants availing themsolves of this contrary 
disposition i but it was soon rendere<I unnecessary by the remo- 
val of this unhappy feature of the disorder.'.— (p. lOiO, 167, 1^ 

When it is deemed necessary to apply any mode of 
coercion, such an overpowering forSe is employed aa 
precludes all poesibility of successful resistance ; and 
most commonly, therefore, extmguishes every idea of 
maldng any at all. An attendant upon a madhouse ex- 
poses himself to some risk — and to some he ought to 
expose himself, or he is totally unfit for his situation. 
If the security of the attendants were the only object, 
the aituatioa of the patients would soon become truly 
desperate. The business is, not to risk nothing, but 
not to risk too much. The generosity of the Quakers, 
and their courage in managing mad people, are placed, 
by this institution, in a very strikmg pomt of view. 
Tills cannot be better illustrated than by the two fol- 
lowing cases : 

< The superintendent was one day walking in a field adja- 
cent to the house, in company with a patient who was apt to 
be vindictive on very flight occasions. An exciting circum- 
stance occurred. The maniac retired a few paces, and seized 
a large stone, which he immediately held up, as in the act of 
throwing at his companion. The superintendent, in no degree 
ruffled, fixed his eye upon the patient, and in a resolute tone 
of voice, at the same time advancing, commanded him to lay 
down the stone. As he approached, the hand of the lunatic 
gradually sunk from its threatening position, and permitted 
the stone to drop to the ground. He then submitted to be 
quietly led to his apartment.* 

' Some years ago, a man, about thirty-four years of age, of 
almost herculean size and figure, was brought to the house. 
He had been afflicted several times before ; and so constantly, 
during the present attack, had he been kept chained, that his 
clothes were contrived to be taken off and put on by meana of 
strings, without removing his manacles. They were, howe- 
ver, token off when he entered the Retreat, and he was arii- 
ered into the apartment where the superintendenta were aim • 
ping. He was calm : hia attention appeared to be arrested by 
his new situation. He was desired to Join in the repast, duriSff 
which ha behsfedwtthtelsraUepfopitocj. Aftsritwassab- 


eluded, the fuperintendeiit conducted him to his apartment, 
and told him the circurastoDces on which his treatment would 
depend ; that it was hia anxious wish to make every inhabi- 
tani in the house as comfortable as possible ; and that he sin- 
cerely hoped the patient's conduct would render it unneces- 
sary to have recourse to coercion. The maniac was sensible 
of the kindness of his treatment. He promised to restrain 
himself; and ho so completely succeeded, that, during his 
stay, no coercive means were ever employed towards him. 
This cose affords a striking example of the eiBcacy of mild 
treatment The patient was frequently very vociferous, and 
threatened his attendants, who, m their defence, were very 
desirous of restraining him by the jacket. The superintend- 
ent on these occasions went to his apartment : and though the 
first sight of him seemed rather to increase the patient's irri- 
tation, yet, after sitting some time quietly beside him, the vio- 
lent excitement subsided, and he would listen with attention to 
the persuasions and arguments of his flriendly visitor. After 
such conversations the patient was generally better for some 
days or a week ; and in about four months ho was discharged, 
perfectly recovered. 

' Can it be doubted that, in this case, the disease had been 
greatly exasperated by the mode of treatment? or that the 
■ubsequent kind treatment had a great tende<*r.v to promote 
Us recovery r— (p. 172, 173, 146, 147.) 

And yet, in spite of this apparent contempt of dan- 
ger, for eighteen years not a single accident has hap- 
pened to the keepers. 

In the day room the sashes are made of cast-iron, 
and give to the building the security of bars, without 
their unpleasant appearance. Witn the same lauda- 
ble attention to the feelings of these poor people, the 
straps of their strait waistcoats are made of some 
■howy colour, and are not infrequently considered by 
them as ornaments. No adyantage whatever has 
been found to arise from reasoning with patients on 
their particular delusions : it is found rather to exaspe- 
rate than convince them. Indeed^ that state of mmd 
would hardly deserve the name ot insanity where ar- 
gument was sufficient for the refutation of error. 

Tho classification oi patients according to their de- 
cree of convalescence is very properly attended to at 
tne Retreat, and every assistance given to returning 
reason by the force of example. We were particular- 
ly pleased with the foUowmg specimens of (Quaker 
sense and humanity : — 

' The female superintendent, who . 
■hare of benevolent activity, and who' has the chief 
ment of the female patients, as well as of the domestic depart- 
ment, occasionally ffives a general invitation to the patients to 
a tea-party. All wiib attend dress in their best clothes, and 
vie with each other in politeness and propriety. The best 
fare is provided, and the visitors are treated with all the atten- 
tion of strangers. The evening generally passes in the great- 
est harmony and enjoyment It rarely happens that any 
unpleasant circumstance occurs. The patients controul, in a 
wonderAil decree, their different propensities ; and the scene 
is at once curious and affectin^Iy gratiiying. 

' Some of the patients occasionally pay visits to their iViends 
in the city f and female visitors are appointed every month by 
tho committee to pay visits to those of their own sex, to con- 
verse with them, and to propose to the superintendents, or the 
committee, any improvements which may occur to them. 
The visitors sometimes take tea with the patients, who are 
much gratified with the attention of Uieir flnends, and mostly 
behave with propriety. 

* It will be necessary here to mention that the visits of form- 
er intimate friends have Arequently been attended with dis- 
advantage to the patients, except when convalescence had so 
flur advanced as to afford a prospect of a speedy return to the 
bosom of society. It is, however, very certain that, as soon as 
reason begins to return, tlie conversation of judicious indiffer- 
ent persons greatly increases the comfort, and is considered 
almost essential to the recovery of many patients. On this 
account the convalescents of every class are (Vequently intro- 
duced into the society of the rational parts of the family. 
They are also permitted to sit up till the usual time for the 
ftmuy to retire to rest, and are allowed as much liberty as 
their state of mind will permit'— (p. 178, 179.) 

To the effects of kindness In the Retreat are super- 
added those of constant employment. The female 
patients are employed as mucn as possible in sewing, 
knitting, and domestic affairs ; and several of the con- 
valescents assist the attendants. For the men are se- 
lected those species of bodily employments most 
agreeable to the patient^and most opposite to the 11- 
losioDS of blA aiieaso. Though th« effect of ieai if 

not excluded from the institiitioni yet the love of es- 
teem id considered as a still more powerful principle 

' That fear is not the only motive which operates in prodiK 
eing telf-rettraint in the minds of maniacs, is evident from itr 
being often exercised in the presence of strangers who are 
merely passing through the house ; and which, 1 presume, cno 
only be accounted for from that desire of esteem which has 
been stated to be a powert^l motive to conduct 

' It is, probably, from encouraging the action of this princi- 
ple, thht so much advantage has been found in this inititution, 
from treating the patient as much in the manner of a ra- 
tional being as the state of his mind will possibly allow. The 
superintendent is particularly attentive to this point in hi^ 
conversation with the patients. He introduces such topics as 
he knows.will most interest them ; and which at the same time 
allows them to display their knowledge to the greatest advan- 
tage. If the patient is an agriculturist, he asks him qacktiou 
relative to his art } and frequently consults him upon any 
occasion in which his knowledge may be useful. I have bestri 
one of the worst patients in the house, who, previously to his 
indisposition, had been a considerable grazier, give very iea- 
sible directions for the treatment of a diseased cow. 

* These considerations are undoubtedly very material, as 
they regard the comfort of insane persons ; but they are of far 
greater importance as they relate to the cure of the disorder. 
The patient, feeling himself of some consequence, is induced 
to support it by the exertion of his reason, and by restraining 
those dispositions which, if indulged, would lessen the respect- 
All treatment he receives, or lower hischuucter in the eyes of 
bis companions and attendants. 

* They who are unacquainted with the character of insane 
persons are very apt to converse with them in a childish, or, 
which is worse, in a domineering manner ; and hence it has 
been frequently remarked by the patients at the Retreat, that 
a stranger who has visited them seemed to imagine they were 

* The natural tendency of such treatment is to degriule the 
mind of the patient, and to make him-indifferent to those moral 
feelings which, under Judicious direction and encouragement, 
are found capable, in no small degree, to strengthen the power of 
self-restraint, and which render the resort to coercion in many 
cases unnecessary. Even when it is absolutely requisite to 
employ coercion, if the patient promises to control himself on 
its removal, great confidence xs generally placed upon his 
word. 1 have known patients, such is their sense of honour 
and moral obligation under this kind of engagement, hold for 
a long time a successful struggle with the violent propensitks 
of their disorder ; and such attempts ought to be sedulously 
encouraged by the attendant. 

' Hitherto, we have chiefly considered those modes of indu- 
cing the patient to control his disordered propensities which 
arise fh>m an application to the genera] powers of the mind ; 
but considerable advantage may certainly be derived, in this 
part of moral management, Orom an acquaintance with the pre- 
vious habits, manners, and prejudices of the individual. Nor 
must we forget to call to our aid, in endeavmiring to promote 
self-restraint the mild but powerful influence of the precepts of 
our holy religion. Where these have been strongly imbuetl m 
early life, they become little less than principles of cmr nature : 
and their restraining power is frequently felt ev^u under the 
delirious excitement of insanity. To encourage the influence 
of religious principles over the mind of the insane is considered 
of great consequence as a means of cure. For this purpose as 
well as for others still more important, it is certainly right to 
promote in the patient an attention to his accustomed modes ot 
paying homage to his Maker. 

* Many patients attend the religious meetings of the society 
held in the city; and most of them are assembled, on a firkt 
day afternoon, at which lime the superintendent reads to them 
several chapters iu the Bible. A profound silence generally 
ensues ; during which, as well as at the time of reading, it is 
very gratifying to observe their orderly conduct, and tbwi de- 
gree in which those who are much disposed to action restrain 
their different propensities.'— (p. 158 — 161.) 

Very little dependence is to be placed on medicine 
alone for the cure of insanity. The experience, at 
least, of this well-governed institution is very unfavour* 
able to its efficacy. Where an insane person happens 
to be diseased in body as well as mind, medicine is not 
only of as great importance to him as to any oilier 
person, but much greater ; for the diseases of the body 
are commonly found to aggravate those of the mind ; 
but against mere insanity, unaccompanied by bodily 
derangement, it appears to be almost powerless. 

There is one remedy, however, which is very fre- 
quently employed at the Retreat, and which appears 
to have been attended with the happiest effect, and 
that is the warm bath,— the least recommended, and 
the most important, of all remedies in melancholy 
nadoMs. U]iiteittiumodeoftie«tme&t,theiuuBber 


of lecoTerieSi in cases of mdanehoHaf has been rtxy 
unusual; though no advantage has been found from it 
in the case of mania. 

At the end of the work Is given a table of all the 
cases which have occurred in the institution from its 
first commencement. It appears that, from its open- 
ing in the year 1796 to the end of 1811. 149 patients 
have been admitted. Of this number 61 have oeen re* 
cent cases : 31 of these patients have been maniacal ; 
of whom 2 died, 6 remam, 21 have been discharged 
perfectly recovered^ 2 so much improved as not to re- 
quire further confinement. The remainder, 30 recent 
cases, h^re been those of melancholy madness; of 
whomo huve died, 4 remain, 19 have been discharged 
cured, and 2 so much improved as not to require iur- 
ther confinement. The old cases, or, as they are com- 
monly termed, incurable cases^ are divid^ into 61 
cases of mania^ 21 of melancholia, and 6 of dementia ; 
affording the following tables ; — 

11 died. 

31 renuiin in the house. 

5 have been removed by their ftienda improved. 
10 hare beeo diechaived perfectly recovered. 

4 M moch improvedae not to require Airtherc<wfiaeaMBt.' 



1 removed wmewhaf improved. 
6 perfectly cured. 

2 to much improved as not to require Author ooaflneiBeot.* 

3 died. 

2 remain. 

S discharged as unsuitable olvjeeta. 

The following statement shows the ages of patients 
It present in the house : — 

< 15 to 90 inclusive 

SO to 30 — 

90 to 40 — 

40 to 50 — 

60 to 70 ~ 

TO to 80 — 

80 to 90 ~ 

Of 79 patients it appears that 

'IS went mad from disappointed affections. 
2 from epilepsy. 
49 from constitutional causes. 
8 from failure in business. 
4 from hereditary disposition to madness. 
8 tnm injury of the akulL 
1 frem mercury. 
1 fVoffl pttrturitioD.' 

The following case is extremely curious ; and we 
▼i«h it had been authenticated by name, place, and 


' A ronngr woman, who was employed as a domestic servant by 
tb« fitiifr of Uie rriatPri when he was a boy, became insane, and 
■t leufrth Aunk into a state of perfect idiocy. In this couditioo 
Af remaiDed for many years, when she was attacked by a ty- 
pbai fover | and my friend, having then practised some time, 
attendpd hf r. He was eurprined to observe, as tlie fever ad- 
Tsiir(>d, a development of the mental powers. During that 
ppriod of the |ever, when others were delirious, this patient 
*s>Fntirely rational. Shorecognizedinthefaceof her medical 
atteodant die son of her old master, whom she had known so 
■any yean before ; and she related many circumstances re- 
fpfctisfi; his family, and others which bad Isappencd to herself 
B her earlier dayK. But, alas ■ it was only the gleam of rea- 
aon- As the fever abated, clouds again enveloped the mind : 
me sunk into her former deplorable state, and remained in it 
^td ber death, which happened a few years afterwards. I 
feavp to the meUphyaical reader Airther speculation on this, 
•ertaialy, very curious case.'— <p. 137.) 

Upon the whole, we have little doubt that this is the 
pest managed asylum for the insane that has ever yet 
le?n established; and a part of the explauation no 
icnibt is, that the Quakers take more pains than other 
^-opie with their madmen. A mad Quaker belongs to 
J *mall and a rich sect ; and is, therefore, of greater 
VQponaace than any other mad person of the same 

I b2 

degree in Ufe. After every allowance, however, 
which can be made for the feelings of sectaries, exer- 
cised towards their own disciples, the Quakers, it most 
be allowed, are a very charitable and humane people. 
They are always ready with their money, ana, vniat 
is or far more importance, with their tiiae and atten^ 
tion, for every variety of himian misiortune. 

They seem to set themselves down systematically 
before the difficulty, with the wise conviction that vL 
is to be lessened or subdued only by great labour and 
thought ; and that it is always increased by indotenoa 
and neglect. In this instance^ they have set an example 
of courage, patience, and kmdness, which cannot ba 
too highly commended, or too widely diffused ; and 
which, we are convinced, will gradually bring into re- 
pute a milder and better method of treating the insane. 
For the aversion to inspect places of this sort is ao 
^eat, and the temptation to neglect and oppress the 
msane is so strong, both from the love of power and 
the improbability of detection, that vire have no doobt 
of the existence of great abuses in the interior of many 
madhouses. A great deal has been done for prisons ; 
but the order of benevolence has been broken through 
by this preference ; for the voice of misery may soon- 
er come lip from a dungeon, than the oppression of a 
madman be healed by the hand of justice.* 

AMERICA. (Kdihburoh Review, 1818.) 

1. Traveltim CunmdaMd tht United Stmtes, in 1816 mi 1817. 
By Lieutenant Francis MaU, 14th Light Drafoona, H. P. 
London. Longman & Co. 1818. 

& jMunudo/Travekin the XJtdttd SUtet ^f Ifortk Awteriea, 
amd in Lower Caauida, performed w the yetur 1817. ifc. ifc 
By John Palmer. London. Sberwoodf Neely s, Jonea. 

3» A Narrotive of a Jmameiif ttf Five Tkaugand MiUt tkrmgk 
the Eastern tmd Weatem States of America ; contminedtm 
JCigkt Reports, addressed to the Thirtf-nine English Fami' 
lies bp whom the Author waadepnted, ra Jane, 18l7, to weer- 
(om whether anv and what Part of the United States wmtdha 
suitable for tketr Xesidencs. With Remarks on Mr. Bvrh' 
heck's * NoUs' and * Letters: By Henry Bradahaw Fearon. 
London. Longman Sc Co. 1818. 

4. 7Vaee£>rM the Interior of America^ tit tha Yeara 1809, 1810» 
md 1811, ifc By John Bradbury, F. L. B. Load. 8vob 
London, Sherwood, Neely 4& Jones. 1817. 

These four books arc all very well worth reading, to 
any person who feels, as we do, the importance and 
interest of the subject of which they treat. They 
contain a great deaJ of information and amusement ; 
and will probably decide the fate, and direct the foot- 
steps, of many human beings, seeking a better lot than 
the Old World can afford them. Mr. Hall is a clever, 
lively man, very much above the common race of wri- 
ters ; with very liberal and reasonable opinions, which 
he expresses with great boldness, — and an inexhausti- 
ble fund of good humour. He has the elements of wit 
in him ; but sometimes is trite and fiat when he means 
to be amusing. He writes verses, too, and is occa- 
sionally long and metaphysical : but upon the whole, 
we think higiily of Mr. Hall « and deem him, if he is 
not more than twenty-five years of age, an extraordi- 
nary youug man. He is not the less extraordinary for 
being a lieutenant of Light Dragoons—as it is certainly 
somewhat rare to meet with an original thinker, an 
indulgent judge of manners, and a man tolerant of 
neglect and familiarity, in a youth covered with tags, 
feathers, and martial foolery. 

Mr. Palmer is a plain man, of good sense and alow 
judgment. Mr. Bradbury is a botanist, who lived a 
good deal among the savages, but worth attending to. 
Mr. Fearon is a much abler writer than either of tlM 
two last, but no lover of America,— and a little given 
to exaggeration in his views of vices and prejudices. 

* The Society of Friends have been entrmnely fbrtanate la 
the choice of their male and female superintendents at the aay- 
lum, Mr. and Mrs. Jephson. It is not easy to find a froatar 
combination of good sense and good feeUng than thaae two 
persons possess :— but than the merit of aelocting Ihaia rssCs 
with their employers. 


_ otlier liuilu with which our goTcmmeiit U 
chaigeaQc, the Tice of impertinenu hhs lately crept 
into our camnet ; and the Americans have been treated 
with ridicule and contempt. But they are becoming a 
little too powerfiil, we take it, for this cayalier sort of 
management; and are increasing with a rapidity 
which is really no matter of jocularity to us, or the 
other powers of the Old World. In 1791, Baltimore 
contained 1 3,000 inhabitants; in 1810,4e/)00; in 1817, 
09,000. In 1790, it possessed ISiXX) tons of shii ' 
in 1708, 69,000 ; in 1805, 73,000 ; in 1810, 103,444. 
pvogfesfl of Philadelphia is as follows : 



«In 1683 time 

were In Um dty 60 and 


1700 . 



1748 . 












1168, . 






1810 . 



*NowitisofMBpotod there ire at least 190,000 inhabitants 
fai the city and suDurba, oif 
pie.*— PafaMT, p. 954, 855. 

irba, of which 10,000 are free coloured peo- 

The population of New York (the city) , in 1805, was 
00,000 ; it is now 120,000. Their shipping, at present, 
amounts to 300,000 tons. The population of the ataU 
of New York was, at the accession of his present ma- 
jesty, 97^000, and is now nearly 1 ,000,000. Kentucky, 
first settled m 1773, had, in I'/dS, a population of 100,- 
000 ; and in 1810, 406,000. Morse reckons the whole 
population of the western territory, in 1790. at 6,000 ; 
In 1810 it was near half a million ; and will probably 
exceed a million in 1890. These, and a thousand other 
eqnally strong proofs of their increasing strength, tend 
to extmguish pleasantry and provoke thought. 

We were surprised and pleased to find from these 
accounts that the Americans on the Red River and the 
Arkansas River have begun to make sugar and wine. 
Their importation of wool into this country is becom- 
ing also an object of some consequence ; and they 
have inexhaustible supplies of salt and coal. But one 
of the great sources of wealth in America is and will 
be an astonishing command of inland navigation. The 
Mississippi, flowing from the north to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, through seventeen degrees of latitude ; the Ohio 
and the Alleghany almost connecting it with the Nor- 
thern Lakes ; the Wabash, the Illinois, the Missouri, 
the Arkansas, the Red River, flowing from the con- 
fines of New Mexico i — ^these rivers, all navigable, and 
most of them already frequented by steam-boats, con- 
■titute a facility of internal communication not, we 
believe, to be paralleled in the whole world. 

One of the great advantages of the American gov- 
ernment is its cheapness. The American king has 
about £5000 per annum, the vice-king £1000. They 
hire their Lord Liverpool at about a thousand per 
annnm, and their Lord Sidmouth (a good bargain^ at 
the same sum. Their Mr. Crokers are inexpressibly 
reasonable, — somewhere about the price of an Eng- 
lish door-keeper, or bearer of mace. Life, however, 
seems to go on very well, in spite of these low sala- 
ries; and thepurposes of government to be very fairly 
answered. Whatever may be the evils of universal 
anfiiage in other countries, they have not yet been 
felt in America ; and one thing at least is established 
bir her experience, that this institution is not necessa- 
luy followed by those tumults, the dread of which ex- 
cites so much apprehension in this country. In the 
most democratic states, where the payment of direct 
taxes is the only Qualification of a voter, the elections 
axe carried on with the utmost tranquillity ; and the 
whole business, by taking votes in each parish or sec- 
tion, concluded all over the state in a single day. A 
great deal is said by Fearon about Caucus, the cant 
word of the Americans for the committees and party 
meetings in which the business of elections is prepa- 
red—the influence of which he seems to consider as 
prejudicial. To us, however, it appears to be nothing 
more than the natural, fair, and unavoidable influence 
widch talent, popvOarlty, and activity always must 

have upon such occasions. What other faiflneiioe can 
the leading characters of the democratic party in 
Congress possibly possess 7 Bribery is entirely out of 
the qoestion — equally so is the influence of fainily and 
fortune. What then can they do. wi*h their caucus, 
or without it, but recommend ? And what chane ii 
it against the American government to say that tlioK 
members of whom the people have the hignest opmioo 
meet to|^ether to consult whom they shall recommend 
for president, and that their recommendation is suc- 
cessful in their different states 7 Could any friend to 
good order wish other means to be employed, or other 
results to follow 7 No statesman can wish to eidude 
influence, but only bad influence ;— not the faifloence 
of sense and character, but the infiuence of money and 

A very disgusting feature in the character of Uu 
present Engliidi government is its extreme timidity 
and the cruelty and violence to which its timidity 
gives birth. Some hotheaded young person, in d^ 
fending the principles of liberty, and attackmgthoM 
abuses to which all governments are liable, passes the 
bounds of reason and modemtion, or is tnooght to 
have passed them by those whose interest it is to think 
so. What matters it whether he has or not? Yoo 
are strong enoueh to let him alone. With such insti 
tutions as ours ne can do no mischief; perhaps he 
may owe his celebrity to your opposition ; or, if he 
must be opposed, write against him, — set Candidas, 
Scrutator, Vindex, or any of the conductitions pen- 
men of government to write him down ;— any tning 
bat the savage spectacle of a poor wretch, perhaps a 
very honest man, contending in vain against the 
weight of an immcDse government, pursned by a zea- 
lous attorney, and sentenced, by some candidate, per- 
hapSf for the favour of the crown, to the long miseries 
of the dungeon.* 

A Still more flagrant instance may be found in our 
late suspensions of the habeas corpus act. Nothing was 
trusted to the voluntary activity of a brave people^ 
thoroughly attached to their government— nothing to 
the good sense and prudence of the gentlemen and 
yeomen of the country — ^nothing to a little forbear 
ancc , patience, and watchfulness. There was no other 
security but despotism ; nothing but the alienation of 
that right which no king nor minister can lore, and 
which no human beings hut the English have had the 
valour to win, and the prudence to keep. The captiast | 
between our government and that of the Americans, 
upon the subject of suspending the habeas corpus, a \ 
drawn in so very able a manner by Mr. Hall, tnat we , 
must give the passage at large. 

'It has over be<in the policy of the ftderslisto to" streoptheii 
the hands of (roveminent.'* No measure can be imapned 
more eflfecttt&] for this porposc, than a law which ififts U»c ru- 
ling poverB with infallibility; but no eooDor was it eoictM 
than it revealed its hostility to the principicsof the Aroprku 
fiyatem, by generating opprestiion under the cloak of dcfeadiflf 
Borial order. 

•If there ever was a period when oircuisstanees •*«■«» «» 
justify what are called energetic measures, it was dnrisK w 
adniinistratioiu of Mr. Jefferaon and his miceesaor. 1 ^^ 

* A grent deal is said about the independence and intefrity 
of Eagiish judges. In caufies between individnsls they •« 
strictly independent and upright : but they hare stroHf ttmf- 
tations to be otherwise, in case* where the crown prosecslflr 
for lilieL Such cases often involve questions of party. «» 
are viewed with great passion and agitation by the miiii««T 
and his friends, imiges have often favours to ask for tt«/ 
A-ieuds and families, and dignities to aspire to for tbeiB«l«* 
It Is human nature, that such powerflil motives shMW ciwts 
a great bias against the prisoner. Suppose the chief jiutv'* 
of any court to be in an infirm state of health, aad o goTrrs* 
ment'libel-caute to be tried by one of the puisne i^f^rf 
what immense importance is it to that man to be «™"'J[ 
strong friend to government— how injurious to his naWral aw 
fair hopes to be callnd lukewarm* or adflicted to populwsjj 
tion^— and how easily the runners of the govemmpae wmM 
attach such a character to him* The useful inforenff irm 
these observations is, that, in all government cases, ihe jw^t 
instead of l>eing influenced by the cant phrases about IM»»« 
tegrity of English judgee, should suspect the operation of »ofa , 
motives— watch the judge with the most accurate jcslow?-^ 
and compel him lo be honest, by throwing themseivc* u»W "4 
opposite scale wheneves he is inclined to bo otherwise. 


t tong^ MtoalroBth«Aoiti«r%batiBthe 
▼ery peneCnuia of the republic To of^poee Teteran troope, 
Che ebleet generals, and the largeet fleets in the world, the 
Anerioan fvrerament had raw recruits, oOcen who had 
■erer aeea an emmy, halfadoxen frigatee, and a populatioo 
uaeemtDBed to saeriflcee, aad impatieat of taxation. To 
•rows theea dlsadvantacea, a aumt unportant aeetion of the 
Unioo, the New England states, openly set up the sundard of 
separation and rebellion. A conventioa sat for the express 
purpose of thwarting the measures of government ; while the 
press and pulpit thundered every species of denunciation 
■gainst whoever should assist their own country in the hour 
of dang«r.* And this was the woii^ not of jacobins and de- 
mocrats, but of the staunch friends of religion and social order, 
who had been so zealously attached to the government, while 
it was administered by their own party, that they suflered not 
the popolar breath '*to visit the president's breech too 

' The conrse pursued, both by Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Madi- 
son ttuwif bout this season of (UAeuIty, merits the gratitude of 
their country, and the Imitation of all governments pretending 
to be free. 

< So fkr were they from demanding any extraordinary pow- 
ers from Congress, that they did not even enforce, to their Aill 
extent, those with which they were by the constitution invest- 
ed. The process of reasoning, on which they probably acted, 
Buy be th«s stated. The majority of the nation is with us, be- 
cause the war is national. The Interesu of a minority suffer ; 
and self-interest ia clamorous when injured. It carries its op- 
position to an extreme inconsistent with its political duty. 
Shall we leave it in an undisturbed career of fkctiou, or seek 
to put it dawn with libel and sedition laws ? In the first case 
It will grow bold from impunity ; its i>roceedings will be more 
and more outrageous : but every step it takes to thwart us will 
be a step in &vour of the enemy, and, conseonently, so much 
ground lost in public opinion. But, as public opinion is the 
only ittstmment by which a minority can convert a majority 
to its views, impunity, by revealing its motives, affords the su- 
rest cfaaaee of defeating its intent. In the latter case, we ouit 
the ground of reason to take that of force ; we give the tac- 
tious the advantage of seeming persecuted ; by repressing in- 
temperate discussion, we confess ourselves liable to be injured 
by it If we seek to shield our reputation by a libel-law, we 
acknowledge, either that our conduct will not bear investiga- 
tioo, or that the people are incapable of distinguishing betwixt 
troth and fhlehood : but for a popular government to impeach 
the sanctity of the nation's judjpient is to overthrow the pil- 
lars of its own elevation. 

* The event triumphantly proved the correctness of this rea- 
MDing. The federalists awoke from the delirium of factious 
btoxication, and found themselves covered with contempt and 
khame. Their country had been in danger, and they gloried 
in her distress. She had exposed herself to privations from 
which they had extracted profit. In her triumphs they had no 
part, except that of having mourned over and depreciated 
then. Since the war federaliam has been scarcely heard of.' — 
BaO, 508—511. 

The Americans, we believe, are the first persons 
vfaohsTe discarded the tailor in the administration of 
justice, and his auxiliary the barber— two persons of 
endless Importance in codes and pandects of Europe. 
A judge administers justice, without a calorific wig 
ud parti-coloured gown, in a coat and pantaloons. 
He is obeyed, however ; and life and property are not 
badly protected in the United States. We shall be 
denounced by the laureate as atheists and jacobins ; 
but we most say, that we have doubts whether one 
atom of useful inftuenoe is added to men in important 
situations by any colour, quantity, or configuration of 
cloth and hair. The true progress of refinement, we 
conceive, is to discard all the mountebank drapery of 
b&rbarous ages. One row of gold and tur fails on af- 
ter another ttom the robe of power, and is picked up 
ind worn by the parish beadle and the ezhibiter of 
wild beasts. Meantime, the afilicted wiseacre mourns 
over eouality of garment ; and wotteth not of two 
men, whose doublets have cost alike, how one shall 
command and the other obey. 

* ' In Boetoni assoeiatiooi were entered into for the pnrnose 
of preventing the filling ap of government loans, indi- 
TiduKls dispoeed to subscribe were obliged to do it in secret, 
snd conceal their names, as if the action had been dishonest.'— 
yidt ' Olive Branch,' p. 307. At the same time, immense runs 
were made by the Boston banks on those of the Central and 
Southern states ; while the specie thus drained was transmit- 
* ted to Canada, in payment for smuggled goods and British go- 
wnvaent bills, which were drawn in Quebec, and disposed of 
ta great niunber*, on advantageous terms, to raonied men in 
the ttatea. Mr. Henry's missioa is the best proof of the result 

The dTMS of tewyuiy la, ho««TW| at tU evwite^ of 

less importance than their chaiges. Law is cheap in 
America : in England, it is better, ht a mere pecuni- 
ary point of view, to give up forty potmda than to con- 
tend for it in a court of common law. It costs that 
sum in England to win a cause ; and, in the coart of 
equity, it is better to abandon five hundred or a thou- 
sand pounds than to contend for it. We mean to say 
nothing disrespectful of the chancellor— who is an 
upright judge, a very great lawyer, and zealous to do 
all he can ; but we believe the Court of Chancery to 
be in a state which imperiously requires legislative 
correction. We do not accuse it of any malversatioa. 
but of a complication, formality, entanglement, ana 
delay, which the life, the wealth, and the patience of 
man cannot endure. How such a subject comes not 
to have been taken up in the House of Commons, we 
are wholly at a loss to conceive. We feel for climb* 
in^ boys as much as anybody can do ; but what is a 
climbing boy in a chimney to a full-grown suitor in a 
Master's office ? And whence comes it, in the midst 
of ten thousand compassions and charities, that no 
WUberforce, or Sister Fry, has started up for the sid- 
tors in Chancery?* and why, in the name of these af- 
flicted and attomey-wom people, are there united in 
their judge three or four offices, any one of which is 
sufficient to occupy the whole time of a very able 
and active man ? 

There are no very prominent men at present in 
America ; at least none vriiose fame is strong enough 
for exportation. Monroe is a man of plain, unaffected 
good sense. Jefferson, we believe, is stUl alive s and 
has always been more remarkable, perhaps, tor the 
early share he toolc in the formation of the republic, 
than from any very predominant superiori^ of under- 


Elill made him a visit : 

* I slept St midnight at Monticdlo, and left it fn the mom- 
Ing with such s feeling as the traveller quits the mouldering 
remains of a Oredan temple, or the pilgrim a fountain in 
the desert. It would indeed sxgue neat torpor both of Qn> 
dersUnding and heart, to have looked without veneration 
and interest on the man who drew up the declaration of 
American independence ; who ahared in the councils by 
wliich her freedom was estsblished ; whom the unboiwht 
voice of his fellow-citizens called to the exercise of a dig- 
nity from which hSs own moderation impelled him. whmi 
such example was most salutary, to withdraw ; ana who, 
while he dedicates the evening of his glorious davs to the 

Sursuits of science and literature, shuns none of the hum- 
ler duties of private life ; but, having filled a seat liigher 
than that of kings, succeeds with greater dignity to that of 
the good neif^hbour, and becomea the friendly suviser. law- 
yer, physician, and even gardener of his vicinity. This Is 
the " still small voice" of philosophy, deeper and holier 
than the lightnings and earthquakes which have preceded 
It. What monarch would venture thus te exhibit himself 
in the nakedness of his humanity ? On what royal brow 
would the Uurel r^Oace the diadem ?'— HM, 884, S86. 

Mr. Fearon dhied with another of the Ex-Kings, 
Mr. Adams. 

' The ex-prealdent is a handsome old gentleman of eighty- 
four ;— his lady is seventy-six }-~ehe hsa the reputation of 
superior talents, and great literary acquirements. I was 
not perfectly a stranger here ; as, a few days previous to 
to this, I had received the honour of an hospitable reception 
at their mansion. Upon the present occasion the minister 
(the day being Sunday) was of the dinner party. As the 
table of a " late King'' may amuse some of you, take the 
following particulars: — first course, a pudding made of 
Indian com» molasses, and butter ;— second, veal, bacon, 
neck of mutton, potatoes* cabbages, carrots, and Indian 
beans ; Madeira wine, of which each drank two glasses. 
We sat down to dinner at one o'clock ; at two, neariy sU 
went a second time to church. For tea, we had pound- 
cake, sweet bread and butter, and bread made of Indian 
com any rye (simflar to our brown home-made.) Tea was 
brought from the kitchen, and handed round by a nest. 

* This is still one of the great oneorrsctad avihi of the conn- 
try. Nothing can be so utterly absurd as to leave the head of 
the Court of Chancery a political officer, and to subject forty 
millions of litigated property to all the delays and intormp- 
tions which are occasioned by his present multipUcity of oflloaa. 
(1839.>— The Chancellor is Speaker of the House of Lords ; he 

ucicipatdd by our fovenunent fosa these proceedings in New i might as well be made Archbishop of Canterbury ;— it is on* 
Eagland. < of the graatest of axisting MUss. 



wlitte Mnrant rirl. The topics of convenation were rarl- 
ous.— En^lanol; Ameiica, religion, politics, literature, sci- 
ence, Dr. PilesUey, Miss Edi^eworth, Mrs. Siddons, Mr. 
Keui, France, Shakspeare, Moore, Lord Byron, Cobbett, 
American revolution, the traitor General Arnold. 

* The establisliment of this political patriarch consists of a 
bouse two storied high, containing, I believe, eight rooms ; 
of two men and thi>ee maid servants ; three horses, and a 
nUin carriage. How great is the contrast between this 
mdividual — a man of knowledge and information — without 
pomp, parade, or vicious and expensive establishments, as 
compared with the costly trappings, the depraved charac- 
ters, and the profligate exjjenditure of hou^e, and 

■ ? What a l^son in this does America teach ! There 

•re now in this land, no less than three Cincinnati !'>— 
FcoromJll— lU. 

The travellers agree, we think, in complaining of 
the iuaubordinatinn of American children — and do not 
much like American ladies. In their criticisms upon 
American gasconade, they forget that vulgar people 
of all countries are full of gasconade. The Americans 
love titles. The following extract from the Boston 
Sentinel, of last August (1817,) is quoted by Mr. 

* «* Dinner to Mr. jlrfanw.— Yesterday a public dinner was 
ffiven to the Hon. John Q. Adams, in the jBxchange Coffee- 
nouse, by his fellow-citizens of Boston. The Hon. Wm. 
Gray presided^ assisted bv tlie Hon. Harrison Gray Oti^, 
George Blake, E*^., and the Hon-. Jonathan Mason, vice- 
fffesidents. Of the guests were, the Hon. Mr. Adams, late 
president of the United States, his Excellency Governor 
Brooks, his Honor Lt. Gov. Phillips, (hief Justice Parker, 
Judge 8tory, Prc^dent Kirkland, Gen. Dearborn, Com. 
HuU, Gen. Miller, several of the reverend clei^y, and 
many more public officers, and strangers of eminence." ' 

They all, in common with Mr. Birkbeck, seem to be 
■track with the indolence of the American character. 
Mr. Fearon makes the charge ; and gives us below 
the right explanation of its caUse. 

* The life of boarden at an American tavern, presents the 
Bost senseless and comfortless mode of killing time which 
I have ever seen. Every house of this description that I 
have been in, is thronged to excess ; and there is not a man 
who appears to liave a single earthly object in view, except 
spitting, and smoking segars. I have not seen a book m 
tne nands of any person since I left Philadelphia. Objec- 
tionable as these habits are, they afford decided evidence of 
the prosperity of that countrv, which can admit so laxge a 
body of it* citizens to wa^^te In indolence three-fourths of 
flieir lives, and would also appear to bold out encourage- 
ment to Englishmen with English habits, who could retain 
their industry amid a nation of indolence, and have suffi- 
cient fiimnoBs to live in America, and yet bid defiance to 
the deadly example of its natives.*— f'coron, p. 363, 353. 

Tet this charge can hardly apply to the northeast- 
em parts of th^ Uni<Ni. 

Tne following sample of American vulgarity is not 

*On arriving at the tavern door the landlord makes liis ap- 
pearaneed — Lamdlord. Your servant, gentlemen, this is a fine 
day. Answer. Very fine^ — Land. You've got two nice orco- 
tmrea^ they are right dtg^ant matches. Ans. Yes, wv bought 
them for matches. Land. They cost a heap of dollars, (a pause, 
and knowing look); 200 1 coleulats. Ans. Yes, they cost a 
aood sum. — Land. PossibU! (a pause); going westward to 
Ohio, gentlemen? An*. We are going to Philadelphia. — 
Land. Philadelphia, ah ! that's a dreadfid large place, three 
or four times as hig as Lexington. Ans, Ten times as large. 
Land. Is it by George! what a migkty heap of houses, (a 
pause); but I reckon you was not reared in Philadelphia. 
Ans. Philadelphia is not our native place. — Land, Perhaps 
Meoyajy in Canada. Ana. No; we are ftom England. Land. 
I» it powaihUl well, I calculated you were from abroad, 
(pause) ; how long have you been from the old country ? Ans. 
We left England last Marchv— X.axi2. And in August here you 
are in Kentmck. Well, I should have^ti^MM^ you had been in 
the State some years; you apeak almost as good English as 
we do! 

'This dialogue is not a literal copy; but it embraeea most of 
the frequent and improper applications of words used in the 
back country, with a few New England phrases. By the log- 
house farmer and uvem keeper they are used as often, and as 
erroneously as they occur in the above discottr8e.*-~PaiM«r, 


This is of coarse faitended as a representation of the 
Biaimen of the low, or at best, the middling class of 
people in Ajneiica. 

The four travellera, of whose worics we are g^«g 
an account, made extensive tours in every pan oi 
America, as well in the old as in the new settlemrvti; 
and^ generally speaking, we should say their testimo> 
ny IS in favour of American manners. We mu&t ei* 
cept, perhaps, Mr. Fearon — and yet he seems to have 
very attle to mj against them. Mr. Palmer tells ut 
that he found his companions, officers and farmers, 
unobtrusive, civil, and ooliffing; that what the servants 
do for vou, they do with luacrity ; that at their tabUs 
d*h6te ladies are treated with great politeness. We 
have real pleasure in making the following extract 
from Mr. Bradbury's tour. 

'In regard to the mannen of the people west of the AUe- 
ghanies, it would be absurd to expect that a general character 
could be now formed, or that it wal be for many yean to cone. 
The population is at present compounded of a great aumber of 
nations, not yet amalgamated, consisting of emigronu froa 
every State in the Union, mixed with English, Irisli, Scotch. 
Dutch, Swiss, Germans, French, and almost AtNU every couatry 
in Europe. In some traits they partake in oonunon vith the 
inhabitants of the Atlantic States, which results from th« 
nature of their government. That species of hautenr whicl^ 
one class of society in some countries ahows in their intrr 
course with the other, is here utterly unknown. By theu 
constitution, the existence of a privileged order, vested b; 
birth with hereditary privileges, honours, or emolumrala, » 
forever interdicted. If therefore, we should here expect u 
find that contemptuous feeling in man for man, we »bouU 
naturally cxaiuiue amongst those clothed with judicial or 
military authority ; but we should search in vain. The justice 
on tho bench, or the officer in the field, is respected and obrvrd 
whilst dischargiug the Ainctions of his office, as the repreM>Dta 
tive or agent of the law, enacted for the good o/aU; bat should 
he be tempted to treat even the least wealthy of his oeisb 
hours or fellow citizens with contumely, ho would seen find 
that he could not do it with impunity. Travellers from Eo 
rope, in passing through the western country, or indeed aar 
part of tbe United States, ought to be previously acqusinied 
with this part of the American character, and more pariicul&rlj 
if they have been in tho habit of treating with coatcmpt, or 
irritating with abuse, those whom accidental circiunetaorci 
may have placed in a situation to administer to their wanti 
Let no one here indulge himself in abusing the waiter or oetkr 
at an inn ; that waiter or ostler is probably a citizen, and doei 
not, nor cannot conceive, that a situation in which fas do- 
charges a duty to society, not in itself dishonourable, shoald 
subject him to insult: but this feeling, so far as I have expe- 
rienced, is entirely defensive. I have travelled near 10,000 
miles in the United States, and never met with the least inci- 
vility or affront. 

'The Americans, in gonond, are accused by travellers, of 
being inquisitive. If this be a crime, the western people are 
guilty ; but, for my part, 1 must say that it is a practice that I 
never was disposed to complain of, because I always foaad 
thom as ready to answer o qu«>stion, as to ask one, and there- 
fore I always ciunc off a gainer .. *his kind of barter; sad if | 
ai:y traveller docs not, it is his own luult. As thb leads oe to 
notice their general conduct to strangers, I feel myself booai 
by gratitude and regard to truth, to speak of their hospitality. 
In my travels through the inhabited parts of the Unitecf Sutei, 
not loss than 2000 miles was through parts where there were 
no taverns, and where a traveller is under the necenity of 
appealing to the hospitality of the inhabitants. In no ooe 
instance has my appeal been fruitless; although in many cat«s 
the famishing of abed has been o^'idently attended with incoi- 
venieuce, and in a great many instances no remuneration wonU 
be received. Other European travellers have experienced thii 
liberal spirit of hospitality, and some have repaid it by a- 
lumny.'—Bradhiry p. 304— 306. 

We think it of so much importance to do justice to 
other nationsij and to lessen that hatred and contempt 
which race feels for race, that we subjoin two Aort 
passages from Mr. Hall to the same efiect. 

'I had bills on Philadelphia, and applied to a respectabh 
store-keeper, that is tradesman, of the village, to cash me o«; 
the amount, however, was beyond any remittance he had occa- 
sion to make, but he immediately offered me whatever §om I 
might require for my journey, with no better security than icy 
word, for its repajonent at Philadelphia: he even insisted on 
my taking more than I mentioned as sufficient. 1 tio not 
believe that thia trait of liberality woultl surprise an Americas i 
for no one in the States, to whom I mentioned it, seemed tc 
consider it as more than any stranger of respectable appesrsPM 
might have looked for, in similar circumstances: but it B«f« 
well surprise an English traveller, who had beea told, aa I hxh 
that the Americans never failed to cheat and insult c^ery «•• 
gliahman who travelled through their country, espedsUy il 
they knew him to be an officer. This Utter particular they 
nner ftOed to infbim thenielm U, tar Hmf v ^» 



IM«M tehfU ia iaqnlrMs: bat if the dkeanry op«nted in 

%uy way upon tbeir Mhaviour, it was rather to my advantage; 
nor did 1 meet with a single case of incivility between Canada 
and Charleston, except at the Shenandoah Point, fVom a 
drunken English deserter. My testimony, in this particular, 
will certainly not invalidate the complaints of many other 
traTeUars, who, I doubt not, have frequently encountered 
rude treatment, and quite as frequently de»erved it; but it will 
at least prove the possibility of traversing the United States 
without msult or interruption, and even of being occasionally 
suntrised by liberality and kindness.'— -Aia^ p. ^raS, SS6. 

*1 feU into veiy pleasant society at Washington. Strangers 
who intend staying some days in a town, usually take lodgiuga 
at a boarding-house, in preference to a tavern: in this way 
they obtain the best society the place affords; for there are 
always gentlemen, frequently ladies, either visitors or tempo- 
rary residents, who live in this manner, to avoid the trouble of 
housekeeping. At Washington, during the sittings of Con- 
gress, the boarding-houses are divided into messes, according 
to the political principles of the inmatcit, nor is a stranger ad- 
mitted without some introctuction, and tbo consent of the 
whole company. I chanced to joip a democratic mess, and 
name a few of its members with gratitude, for the pleasure 
their society gave me^— Commodore Decatur and his lady, the 
Abbe Correa, the great botanist and plenipotentiary of Por- 
tugal, the Secretary o.* the Navy, tiie Secretary of the Navy 
Bmrd, known as the author of a humorous publication entitled 
" Jobu Bull and Brother Jonathan," with eight or ten members 
of Congress, principally from the western States, whicii are 
gFDeraUy considered as most decidedly hostile to England, 
but whom I did not on this account find less good-humoured 
and oourtaotts. It ia from thus living in daily intercourse with 
the leading characters of the country, that one is enabled to 
judge with some degree of certainty of the practices of its 
lovemmeat; for to know the paper theory is nothing, unless 
It be compared with the instrument* employed to carry it into 
effecL A political constitution may be nothing but a cabulistie 
fonn, to extort money and power from the people; but then 
the jai^lers mast be in the dork, and **uo admittance behind 
the curtain." This way of living aflfordi) too the be(>t insight 
into the best part of i<ociety: for if in a free nation the deposi- 
tories of the public confidence be ignorant or vulgar, it is a 
very fruitless aoarch to look for the opposite qualities in those 
they represent ; whereas, if these be well informed in mind 
and manners, it proves at the least an inclination towards 
knowledge and refinement in tlie general moss of citizens by 
whom they are selected. My own experience obliges me to a 
fovourable verdict in tills particular. I found the little circle 
into which I had happily fallen full of good sense and ^ood 
homour, and never quitted it without feeling myself a gainer, 
oo the score either of useAil information or of social enjoy- 
ment.'— ifoB, p. 339-^1. 

In page 252 Mr. Hall paya some very handsome 
compliments to the gallantry, high feeling, and hu- 
manity of the American troops. Such passages reflect 
the highest honour upon Mr. Hall. They are ftdl of 
courage as well as kindness » and will nerer be forgiven 
at home. 

Literature the Americans have none— no native 
litexature, we mean. It is all imported. They had a 
Franklin, indeed ; and nuiy afford to live fur half a 
century on his fame. There is, or was, a Mr. Dwight, 
who wrote some poems ; and his baptismal name vras 
Timothy. There is also a small account of Virginia 
by Jefferson, and an epic by Joel Barlow ; and some 
pieces of pleasantry by Mr. Irving. But why should 
the Americans write books, when u six weeks' passage 
brings them, m their own tongue, our sense, science, 
and genlos, m bales and hogsheads ? Prairies, steam- 
boats, grist-mills, are their natural objects for centu- 
ries to come. Then, when they have got to the Pacific 
Ocean, epic poems, plays, pleasures of memory, and 
all the elegant gratiffcations of an ancient people who 
! have tamed the wild earth, and set down to amuse 
I themselves. This is the natural march of human af- 

The Americans, at least in the old States, are a very 
religious people : but there is no sect there which en- 
joys the satisfaction of excluding others from civil 
offices; nor does any denomination of Christians take 
for their support a tenth of produce. Their clergy, 
however, are respectable, respected, and possess no 
smaU share of influence. The places of worship in 
Philadelphia in 1810, were as follows : Presbyterian, 
8; Episcopalian, 4; Methodists, 5 ; Catholic, 4 ; Bap- 
tist, o; Quakers, 4; Fighting Quakers, 1 ; Lutheran, 
3; Calvinist, 3; Jews,!; Unirersalists, 1; Swedish 
Lutheran, 1 ; Morayian, 1 ; Congregationalists, 1 ; 
Unitoiiuit, Is Coveoanten, It Suck Baptisto, 1; 


Black Episoopatians, 1 ; Black Methodists, 2. The 

Methodists, Mr. Palmer tells us, are becoming the 
most numerous sect in the United States. 

Mr. Fearon gives us this account of the state of re- 
ligion in New York. 

* Upon this interesting topic I would repeat, what indeed 
you are already acquainted with, that legalhf there is the 
moat unlimited liberty. There is no state reTi^ion, and no 
government prosecution of individuals for conscience sake. 
Whether those halcyon days, which I think would attend a 
sunilar state of things in England, are in exiatence here, 
must be left for future observation. There are five Dutch 
Reformed churches; six Presbyterian; three AMociated Re- 
formed ditto : one Associated Presbyterian ; one Reformed 
ditto; five Methodist; two ditto for Uaokt; one German 
Reformed; one Evangelical Lutheran; one Moravian; 
four Trinitarian Baptist; one Uni verbalist; two Catholic; 
three Quaker; cisht Episcopalian; one Jew's Synairocue; 
and to thin I would add a small Meetinfr which is but little 
known, at which the pri»t is dispent^ed with, every member 
following what they call the a()06toUc plan of iiibtructing 
each othier, and •* building one another up in tbeir mo&t 
holy faith." The Presbyterian and Epii^copalian, or Church 
of England se^, take tlie precedence in numbers and in 
respectability. Their ministew receive from two to eight 
tliousand dollars \>es annum. All the churches are well 
filled; they are the f a^^hionable places for diflays and the 
sermons and talents of the minister offer never-ending sub- 
jects of interest when social converse has been exhausted 
upon the bad conduct and inferior nature of niggctrt (ne- 
groes); the price of ilour at Liverpool; the capture of the 
Gverriirt; and the batUe of New Orleans. The pertect 
equality of all sects seems to have deadened party feehng: 
controversy ia but little known.'— jFeoron, p. 46, 46. 

The absence of controversy, Mr. Fearon seems to 
imagine, has produced indifference ; and he heaves a 
sigh to the memory of departed oppression. * Can it 
be possible (he asks) that the non-existence of reli- 
gious oppression has lessened religious knowledge, 
and made men superstitiously dependent upon out- 
ward form, instead of internal purity?' To which 
question (a singular one from on enlightened man like 
Mr. Fearon), we answer, that the absence of religious 
oppression has not lessened religious knowledge, but 
theological animosity ; and made men more dependent 
upon the pious actions, and less upon useless and un- 
intelligible wrangling.* 

The great curse of America is the institution of 
slavery— of itself far more than the foulest blot upon 
their national character, and an evil which counter- 
balances all the excisemen, licensers, and tax-gather- 
ers of England. No virtuous man ought to trust his 
own character, or the character of his children, to the 
demoralizing effects produced by commanding slaves. 
Justice, gentleness, pity, and humility, soon give way 
before them. Conscience suspends its functions. The 
love of command — ^thc impatience of restraint, get the 
better of every other feeling ; and cruelty has no other 
limit than fear. 

' "There must doubtless," says Mr. Jefferson, <*be an 
unliappy influence on the manners of the people produced 
by the existence of slavery among \ib. The whole com- 
merce between master and slave is a periJetual exercise of 
the most boisterous passions: the most unremitting despo- 
tism on the one part, and degrading submissions on the 
other. Our children see this, and learn to imitate It; for 
man is an imitative animaL The parent storms, the child 
looks on, catches the lineaments of wrath, puts on the same 
airs in the circle of smaller slaves, give* loose to the worst 
of passions; and thus nursed, educated, and daily exercised 
in tyranny, cannot but be stami)ed by it with odious pecu- 
liarities. The man must be a prodigy who can retain his 
morals and manners undepraved by such circumstances." * 
Notes, p. 351.— Ho/;, p. 4«9. 

The following picture of a slave song is quoted by 
Mr. Hall from the " Letters on Virginia." 

« ««Itook the boat this morning, and crossed the feny 
over to Portsmouth, the small town which I told you is 
opposite to this place. It was court day, and a lai|>e crowd 
of people was gathered about the door of the court-Louac. 

* Mr. Fearon mentions a religious lottery for building a 
Presbyterian church. What will Mr. Littleon say to this? 
he is hardly prepared, we suspect, for thia union of Calvin 
and the Lime Go. Every advantage will be made of it by 
the wit and eloquence of his fiscal opponent; nor will It 
pMs nnbeeded by Mr. BUb. 


Ihadkudlycotapoa fhe i 

I to look in, wboi my earn 

were Msaileoby tbe roloe of ainginif ; and turning round 
to dbcover ttom what quarter it came, I saw a /roup of 
about thirty negroes of ditferent sizes and ages, Allowing 
a rough-looking white man, who sat carelessly lolling in h& 
sulinr. They had just turned round the comer, and weta 
oominff up the main street to pass by the spot where I stood, 
on their way out of town. As they came nearer, I saw some 
of them loaded with chains to prevent their escape; while 
others had hold of each other's hands, strongly grasped, as 
if to support themselves in their affliction. I particulaily 
noticed a poor mother, with an infant sucking at her breast 
a« she walked along, while two small children had hold of 
her B])ron on either side, almost running to keep up witik 
the TcA. They came along singing a little wild nymn, of 
.tweet and mournful melody, Hyine, by a divine instinct of 
the heart, to the consolation of religion, the last refuge of 
the unhappy, to support them in their distress. The sulky 
now sitopped before the tavern, at a little distance beyond 
the court-house, and the driver got out. "My dear sir," 
said I to a person who stood near me, "can you tell me 
what these poor people have been doing f what is thehr 
crime? and what is to be their punishment?" <*0," said 
he, "it's nothbig ^t all, but a parcel of negroes sold to 
Carolina; and that man is their driver, who has bought 
them." "But what have they done, that they shoulabe 
sold into banishment?''' "Done," said he "nothing at all, 
that I know of ; their masters wanted money, I suppose, 
and these drivers give good prices." Here the drivor hav- 
ing supplied himadf with brandy, and his horse with water 
(the poor negroes of course wanted nothing,) stepped Into 
his cnair again, cracked his whip, and drove on, while the 
miserable exiles followed in funeral procession behind 
him."'-lfa0, S56— MO. 

The law by which slaves are governed in the Caroli- 
nas, is a provincial law as old as 1740, but made per- 
petual in 1783. By this law it is enacted, that every 
negro shall be presumed a slave unless the contrary 
appear. The 9tti clause allows two justices ot the 
;>eace, and three freeholders, power to put them to 
any manner of death ; the evidence a^^st them may 
be without oath. — No slave is to traffic on his own ac- 
count. — Anv person murdering a slave is to pay 100/. 
— orl4/.'if ne cuts out the tongue of a slave. — Any 
white man meeting seven slaves together on an hign 
road, may give them twenty lashes each.^ — No man 
must teach a slave to write, under penalty of 100/. 
currency. We have Mr. Hall's authority for the ex- 
istence and enforcement of this law at the present 
day. Mr. Fearon has recorded some facts stul more 

'Observing a great many coloured people, particularly 
females, in these boats, I concluded that they were emi- 
grantt, who had proceeded thus far on their route towards 
a settlement The fact proved to be, that fourteen of the 
flats were fjreighted with human beings for sale. They had 
been collected in the several states oy »lave dealers, and 
ahipped from Kentucky for a market They were dressed 
up to the best advantage, on the same principle that iockeys 
do horses upon sale. The following is a specimen of adver- 
tisements on this subject. 

"twsntt DOLcaas aaWAKp 

"Will b6 paid for apprehending and lodging in jail, or de- 
livering^ to the subscriber, the following «Iavn«, bfilonging 
to JoixpH Irtih, of IberviUe. — TOM, a vcr>' light mulatto, 
blue eyes, 5 feet 10 inches high, appears 'to be about 86 
ycar» of age; an artful fellow — can read and write, and 
preache* occasionally. — CHARLOTTE, a black wench, 
round and full faced, tall, straight and liki^ly— about 36 
years of age, and wife of the above named Tom. These 
slaves decamped from thoir owner's plantation on the night 
of the 14lh September instant." — J'Varon, p. 270. 

*The three "African churches," as they are called, are 
for all th i-'o native Americans who are black, or have any 
shade of colour darker than white. The^e j)ersonH, thoujih 
many of them are t>o*se*»ed of the risihU of^citizenxhip, are 
not admitted into tne churches which are vi>itcd by whiteii. 
There exists a penal law, deeply written in the mind of the 
whole white population, which subjt-cts their coloured fel- 
low-citixens to unconditional contumely and never-cea»ing 
insult. No res|»cctability, however unquestionable, — no 
property, however large,— no character, however unblem- 
ished, will gain a man, whoxe body is (in American esti- 
mation) cursed with even a twentieth portion of the blood 
of his African ancestry, admission into society!!! They 
are considered as mere Pariahs— as outcasts and vagrants 
upon the face of the earth! I make no reflection upon 
these things, but leave the facts for your consideration.'' '— 
iM.p. 16S,10». 

That such feelings and snch piaeCicas ■booUt esdtt 
among men who know the vahie ofliberty, and profess 
to understand its principles, is the consomioatioii of 
wickedness. Every American who loves his country, 
should dedicate his whole life^ and every faculty of 
his soul, to efface this foul stam from its character. 
If nations rank according to their wisdom and their 
virtue, what right has the American, a scourj^er and 
murderer of slaves, to compare himself with tbe 
least and lowest of the European nations? — ^much 
more with this great and hnmaxie country, where the 
greatest lord dare not lay a finder upon the meanest 
peasant ? What is freedom, where all are not free ? 
where the greatest of God's blessings is limited, with 
impious caprice, to the colour of the body ? And these 
are the men who taunt the English with their corrupt 
Parliament, with their buying and selling votes. Let 
the world judge which is the most liable to censure^ 
we who, in the midst of our rottenness, have torn off 
the manacles of slaves all over the world ;— or they 
who, with their idle purity, and useless perfection, 
have remained mute and careless, while groans echo- 
ed and whips clanked round the very walls of their 
spotless Congress. We wish well to America — ^we re- 
joice in her prosperity--«nd are delighted to resist the 
absurd impertuience with which the character of her 
people is often treated in tliis country : but the exist- 
ence of slavery in America is an atrocious crime, with 
which no measures can be kept— fcrr which her situa- 
tion affords no sort of apology— which makes liberty 
itself distmsted, and the boast of it disgusting. 

As for emigration, every man, of course, must de- 
termine for himself. A carpenter under thirty years 
of age. who finds himself at Cinchmati with an axe 
over his shoulder, and ten pounds in his pocket, will 
get rich in America, if the change of climate does not 
kill him. So will a farmer who emigrates early with 
some capital. But any person with tolerable prosper- 
ity here had better remain where he is. There are 
considerable evils, no doubt, in England : but it would 
be madness not to admit, that it is, upon the whole, a 
very happy country— and we are much mistaken if 
the next twenty years will not bring with it a great 
deal of hitemal improvement. The country has long 
been groaning under the evils of the greatest foreign 
war we were ever engaged in ; and we are jtist begin- 
ning to look again into our home affairs. Political 
economy has made an astonishing progress since they 
were last investigated ; and every session of Pariia'- 
ment brushes off some of the cobwebs and dnst of our 
ancestors.* The Apprentice Laws have been s^ept 
away : the absurd nonsense of the Usury Laws will 
prolNibly soon follow, Public Education and Spring 
Banks have been the invention of these last ten y^^ais ; 
and the strong fortress of bigotry has been mdely as- 
sailed. Then, with all its defects, we have a Parlia- 
ment of inestimable vohie. If there be a place in an? 
country where 600 well educated men can meet to- 
gether and talk with impunity of public affairs, and a 
what they say is nublished, that cotmtry must ini- 
prove. It is not pleasant to emigrate into a country 
of changes and revolution, the size and integrity of 
whose empire no man can predict. The Ampricnu:- 
are a very sensible, reflecting people, and have con 
ducted their affairs extremely well ; bat it is scared) 
possible to conceive that such an empire should TtrV 
long remain undivided, or that the dwellers on ti* 
Columbia should have common interest with the uuvi- 
gators oi the Hudson and the Delaware. 

England is, to be sure, a very expensive country: 
but a million of millions has been expended in mak- 
ing it habitable and comfortable ; ana this is a con- 
stant source of revenue, or what is the same thins, a 
constant diminution of expense to every man li\ine 
in it. The price an Englishman pavs for a turnpike 
road is not equal to the tenth part of what the dolay 

* In a scarcity which occurred little more than twenty 

J ears ago, every ju<lf e, (except the Lord Chancellor, then 
ustice of the Common pleas, and Serjeant Rcminirton.) 
when they charged the grand jury, attributed the scarcity to 
the combinations of the farmers; and complained of it as a 
very serious evil. Such doctrines would not now be tele 
rated in the mouth of a schoolboy. 

G^ME t AWa. 

would cost him withovt a tompike. The New RiTer 
CompftiiY brings water to every mhabitant of London 
at an infinitely lees price thanne could dip for it oat of 
the Thames. No country, in &ct, ie so ezpensiTe as 
one which homan beings are just besinning to hihabit ; 
— ^where there are no roads, no bilagee, no skill, no 
combination of powers^ and no force of capital. 

How, too, can any man take upon himself to say, 
that he is so indifferent to his country that he will not 
beffin to love it intensely, when he is 5000 or 0000 
mUes from it 7 And what a dreadful disease Nostal- 
gia must be on the banks of the Missouri I Severe 
and painful poverty will drive us all anywhere : but a 
wise man should be quite sure he has so irresistible a 
^ea, betbrehe ventures on the Great or the Little 
wabaah. He should be quite sure that he does not 
go there from ill temper — or to be pitied— or to be re- 
netted— or from ignorance of what is to happen to 
Eim— or because he is a poet — ^but because he has not 
enough to eat here, and is sure of abundance where he 

GAME LAWS. (EDmtmeH Review, 1819.) 

nrM Littw on the Gmme Lain, Rest Fenaer, Blwk & Co. 
London, 181& 

The evil of the Game Laws, in their present state, has 
long been felt, and of late years has certainly rather 
increased than diminished. We believe that tney can- 
not long remain in their present state ; and we are anz- 
ioQS to express our opinion of those clianges which 
they ought to experience. 

We thoroughly acquiesce in the importance of en- 
couraging those field sports which are so congenial to 
the habits of Englishmen, and which, in the present 
state of society, anbrd the only effectual counterbal- 
ance to the aUnrements of great towns. We cannot 
conceive a more pernicious condition for a great na- 
tion, than that its aristocracy should be shut up from 
one year's end to another m a metropjolis. while the 
man of its rural inhabitants are left to its ractors and 
a^ts. A great man retuminp; from London to spend 
hjs summer in the country, diffuses intelligence, im- 
proves manners, communicates pleasure, restrains 
the extreme violence of subordinate politicians, and 
makes the middling and lower classes better acquaint- 
ed with, and more attached to their natural leaders. 
At the same time a residence in the country gives to 
the makers of laws an opportunity of studying those 
interests which they may afterwards be called upon to 
protect and arrange. Mor is it unimportant to the 
character of the higher orders themselves, that they 
should pass a considerable part of the year in the 
midst of these their larger families ; that they should 
occasionally be thro-wn among simple, laborious, frugal 
people, and be stimulated to resist the prodigality of 
courts, by viewing with their own eyes the merits and 
the wretchedness of the poor. 

Laws for the preservation of game are not only of 
importance, as they increase the amusements of the 
country, but they may be so constructed as to be per- 
fectly just. The game which my land feeds is certain- 
ly mme ; or, in other words, the game which all the 
famd feeds certainly belongs to all the owners of the 
land ; and the only practical way of dividing it is, to 
give to each proprieter what he can take on his own 
ground. Those who contribute nothing to the support 
of the animal, can have no possible right to a share in 
the distribution. To say of animals, that they are 
/er« NoturA^ means only, that the precise place of 
their birth and nurture is not known. How they »hall 
be divided, is a matter of amuis^ement among those 
whose collected property certainly has produced and 
fed them ; but the case is completely made out agamst 
those who have no land at all, and who cannot there- 
fore have been in the slightest degree instrumental to 
their production. If a large pond were divided by cer- 
tain marks into four parts, and allotted to that number 
of proprietors, the fish contained in that pond would 
be m the same sense, /er<e NaturA. Noboay could tell 
in which particular division each carp had been bom 
and bred. The owners would arrange their respective 

rights and pietenilont in the beet wit they oonUi 
but the clearest of all proportions would be, that th^ 
four proprietors, among them made a complete title of 
all the fish ; and that nobody but them had the small- 
est title to the smallest share. This we say, in answer 
to those who contend that there is no foundation for 
any system of game laws ; that animals bom wild are 
the property of the public ; and that their appropria- 
tion is nothing but tyranny and usurpation. 

In addition to these arguments, it is perhaps scarce- 
ly necessary to add, that nothing which is worth hav- 
ing, which is accessible, and supplied only in limited 
quantities, could exist at all, if it was not considered 
as the property of some individual. If every body 
might take game wherever they found it, there would 
soon be an end to every species of game. The advan- 
tage would not be extended to fresh classes, but be an- 
nihilated for all classes. Besides all this, the privil- 
ege of killing game could not be granted without the 
privilege of trespassing on landed property ; --an in- 
tolerable evil, which would entirely destroy the com- 
fort and privacy of a country life. 

But though a system of game* laws is of ^eat use in 
promoting country amusements, and may, m itself, be 
placed on a footing of justice, its effects, we are sorry 
to say, are by no means favoumble to the morals of 
the poor. 

It is impossible to make an uneducated man under- 
stand in what manner a bird hatched nobody knows 
where, — ^to-day living in my field, to morrow in yours, 
— should be as stricUy property as the goose whose 
whole history can be traced in the most authentic 
and satisfactory manner, from the egg to the spit. 
The arguments upon which this depends are so con- 
trary to the notions of the poor— so repugnant to their 
passions, — and, perhaps, so much above their com- 
prehension, that they are totally unavailing. The 
same man who would respect an orchard, a ^rden, 
or an hen-roost, scarcely thinks he is committmg any 
fault at all in invading the game-covers of his richer 
neighbour; and as soon as he becomes wearied of 
honest industry, his first resource is in plimdering the 
rich magazine of hares, pheasants, and partridges— 
the top and bottom dishes^ which on eveij side of his 
village are running and nying before his eyes. As 
these things cannot be done with safety in the day, 
they must be done in the night \ — and in this maimer 
a lawless marauder is often formed, who proceeds 
from one infringement of law and property to another, 
till he becomes a ^oroughly bad and corrupted mem- 
ber of society. . , , 

These few preliminary observations lead naturally 
to the two principal considerations which are to be 
kept in view, in reforming the game laws ^—to pre- 
serve, as far as is consistent with justice, the amuse- 
ments of the rich, and to diminish, as much as pobsi- 
ble, the temptations of the poor. And these ends, it 
seems to us, will be best answered, 

1. By abolishing qualifications. 2. By nying to 
every man a property in the game upon nis land. 
3. By allowing game to be bought by any body, and 
sold by its lawful possessors.* 

Nothing can be more grossly absurd than the pre- 
sent state of the game laws, as far as they concern 
the qualification for shooting. In England, no man 
can possibly have a leeal right to kill game, who has 
not lOOl. a-year in land rent. With us, in Scotland, 
the rule is not quite so inflexible, though in pr'mciple 
not very different. — But we shaD speak to the case 
which concerns by far the greatest number ; and cer- 
tainly it is scarcely possible to imagine a more absurd 
and capricious limitation. For what possible reason 
is a man, who has only 90/. per annum in land, not to 
kill the game which his own land nourishes ? If the 
legislature really conceives, as we have heard sur- 
mised by certain learned squires, that a person of such 
a degree of fortune should be confined to profitable 

Sursuits, and debarred fVom that pernicious idleness 
ito which he would be betrayed by field sports, it 
would then be expedient to make a qualification for 
bowls or skittles — ^to prevent landowners from going 

* All this has siace been established. 


to raC66; or following a pack of hounds—and to pro- 
bibit to men of a certain income, every other species 
of amusement as well as this. The only instance, 
lioweTeT, in which this paternal care is exercised^ is 
that in which the amusement of the smaller land- 
owner is supposed to interfere with those of his richer 
neighbour, lie may do what he pleases, and elect 
any other species of ruinous idleness but that in which 
the upper classes of society are his rivals. 

Nay, the law is so excessively ridiculous in the case 
of small landed proprietors, that on a property of less 
than 100/. per annum, no humdn being has the right of 
shooting. It is not confined, but annilillated. The 
lord of the manor may be warned ofF by the proprie- 
tor ; and the proprietor may be informed against by 
any body who sees him sporting. The case is sliil 
stronger in the instance of large farms. In Northum- 
berland, and on the borders of Scotland, there are large 
capitalists who farm to the amount of two or three 
thousand per annum, who have the permission of their 
distant non-resident landlords to do what they please 
with the game, and yet who dare not fire on a gun 
upon their own land. Can any thing be more utterly 
aosurd and preposterous, than that the landlord and 
the wealthy tenant together cannot make up a title to 
the hare which is fattened upon the choicest produce 
of their land ? That the landlord, who can let to farm 
the fertility of the land for growing wheat, caunot let 
to farm its power of growing partridges ? That he 
may reap by deputy, but cannot on that manor shoot 
bjr deputy ? Is it possible that any respectable ma- 
gistrate could fine a farmer for killing a hare upon his 
own grounds with his landlord's consent, without feel- 
ing that he was violating every feeling of common 
sense and justice ? 

Since the enactment of the game laws, there has 
sprung up an entirely new species of property, which 
of course is completely overlooked by their provis- 
ions. An Englishman may possess a million of money 
in funds, or merchandize — may be the Baring or the 
Hope of Europe — provide to government the sudden 
means of equipping fleets and armies, and yet be with- 
out the power of smiting a single partridge, though in- 
vited by the owner of the game to participate in his 
amusement. It is idle to say that the difficulty may 
be got over, by purchasing land : the question is, upon 
what principle of justice can the existence of the diffi- 
culty be defended i If the right of keeping men- 
servants was confined to persons who bad more than 
1002. a-year in the funds, the difficulty might be got 
over by every man who would change nis landed prop- 
erty to that extent. But what could justify so capri- 
cious a partiality to one species of property? There 
might oe some apology for such laws at the time they 
Were made j but there can be none for their not being 
now accommodated to the changes which time ha»' 
introduced. If you choose to exclude poverty fVom 
this species of amusement, and to open it to wealth, 
why 18 it not opened to every species of wealth f 
What amusement can there be morally lawful to an 
holder of turnip land, and criminal in a possessor of 
exchequer bills f What delights ought to oe tolerated 
to long annuities, from which wheat and beans should 
be excluded ? What matters whether it is scrip or 
short-homed cattle ? If the locus quo is conceded— if 
the trespass is waived-^rand if the qualification for any 
amusement is wealth, let it be any provable wealth — 

Dives agris, dives positis inftenorc nummis. 

It will be very easy for any country gentleman who 
wishes to monopolize to himself the pleasure of shoot- 
ing, to let to his tenant every other right attached to 
/the land, except the right of killing game ; and it will 
be equally easy, in the formation of a new game act, 
to give to the landlord a summary process against his 
tenant, if such tenant fraudulently exercises the privi- 
leges he has agreed to surrender. 

The case wmch seems most to alarm country gen- 
tlemen, is that of a person possessing a few acres in 
the very heart of a manor, who might, by planting 
food of whicli they are fona, allure the game into his 
uwn little domain, and thus reap an harvest prepaied 

at the expense of the neighbotur who surrounded lum. 
But, under the present game laws, if the smaller pos- 
session belongs to a qualified person, the danger of 
intrusion is c(|Ually great as it would be under the pro- 
posed alteration ; and the danger from the poacher 
would be the same in both cases. But if it is of such 
great consequence to keep clear from all interference, 
may not such a piece of land be rented or botight ? — 
Or, may not the food which tempts game, be sown in 
the same abundance in the surrounding as in the in- 
closed land ? After all, it is only common justice, that 
he whose property is surrounded on every side by a 
preserver of game, whose com and turnips are demol- 
ished by animals preserved for the amusement of his 
neighbour, should nimself be entitled to that share of 
game which plunders upon his land. The complaint 
which the landed grandee makes is this. * Here is a 
man who has only a twenty-fourth part of the land, 
and he expects a twenty-fourth part of the game. He 
is so captious and litigious, that he will not be content- 
ed to supply his share of the food without requiring 
his share of what the food produces. I want a neigh- 
bour who has talents only for suffering, not one who 
evinces such a fatal disposition for enjoying.* Upon 
such principles as these, many of the game Jaws have 
been constructed, and are preserved. The interference 
of a very small property with a very large one ; the 
critical position of one or two fields, is a very serious 
source of vexation on many other occasions besides 
those of game. He who possesses a field in the mid- 
dle of my premises, may build so as to obstruct my 
view ; and may present to me the hinder part of a 
bam, instead of one of the finest landscapes m nature. 
Nay, he may turn his field into tea-gardens, and de- 
stroy my privacy by the introduction of every species 
of vulgar company. The legislature, Id all these in^ 
stances, has provided no remedy for the inconvenien- 
ces which a small property, oy such intermixture, 
may inflict upon a large one, but has secured the same 
rights to unequal proportions. It is very difficult to 
conceive why these equitable principles are to be vio- 
lated in the case of game alone. 

Our securities against that rabble of sportsmen 
which the abolition of qualifications might be sup- 
posed to produce, are. the consent of the owner of the 
soil as an indispensable preliminary, ^larded by heavy 
penalties — and the price of a certificate, rendered, 
perhaps, greater than it is at present. It is impossi- 
ble to conceive why the owner of the soil, if the right 
of game is secured to him, has not a right to sell, or 
grant the right of killing it to whom he pleases— just 
as much as he has the power of appointing whom he 

5 leases to kill his ducks, pigeons, and chickens. The 
anger of makinp^ the poor idle, is a mere pretence. It 
is monopoly callmg in the aid of hypocrisj,and tyran- 
ny veilmg Itself in the garb of philosophical humani- 
ty. A poor man goes to wakes, fairs, and horse-races, 
without pain and penalty ; a little shopkeeper, when 
his work is over, may go to a bull-bait, or to the cock- 
pit ; but the idea of his pursuing an hare, even with 
the consent of the land-owner, fills the Bucolic senator 
with the most lively appreheusions of relaxed indus- 
try and ruinous dissipation. The truth is. if a poor 
man does not offend against morals or religion, and 
supports himself and his family without assistance 
the law has notliing to do with his amusements. The 
real barriers against iacrease of sportsmen (if the pro 
posed alteration were admitted}, are, as we have be 
fore said, the prohibition of the landowner ; the tax U 
the state for a certificate ; the necessity of labouring 
for support. — ^Whoever violates none of these rights^ 
and neglects none of these duties in his sporting, sports 
without crime ; and to punish him would be gross and 
scandalous tyranny. 

The next alteration which we would propose is, that 
game should be made property ; that is, that every 
man should have a right to the game found upon his 
land — and that the violation of it should be punished as 
poaching now is, by pecuniary penalties, and summa- 
ry conviction before magistrates. This change in the 
game laws would be an additional defence of game ; 
for the landed proprietor has now no other remedy 
against the qualified intruder upon bis game, than an 

action at law for a tretpaaa on the land ; and if the I ' The first ud most pslpable effect hu lutiirally 
trespasser has received no notice, this can hardly be ««'tation of all the bavago and desperate fcaturea in the poach 
called any remedy »t aJl. It is now no uncommon I e*"'" character. The ^ar between him and the gamelieeper has 

BecPMftrily hecome a " bt Hun iuiemenvnm,'^ A marauder may 
hesitate perhaps at killing hiii fellow man, when the alternative 


action at law for a tretpaaa on the land ; and if the I ' The first ud moat palpable effect hu iiatiirally been ■■ 

sserhas received no notice, this can hardly be I '*"''•■" — *■-•■'»- ^' - . < 

any remedy Ht all. It is now no uncommon 
nraciice for per>ons who have the exterior, and per- 
haps the fortunes of gentlemen, as they are travelUng 
from place to place, to shoot over manors where they 
have uo property, and from which, as strangers, they 
cannot have been warned. In such a case (which we 
repeat again, is by no means one bf rare occurrence), 
it would, under the reformed system, be no more dim- 
cult for the lord of the soil to protect his game, than it 
would be to protect his geese and ducks. But though 
game should be considered as property, it should still 
be considered as the lowest species of property — be- 
caase it is in its nature more vague and mutable than 
other species of property, and hecause depredations 
are carried on at a distance from the dwelling, and 
without personal alarm to the proprietors. It would 
be very easy to increase the penalties, in proportion 
to the number of oifences committed by the same indi- 

The ]}unt8hments which country gentlemen expect 
by making game nroperty, are punishments affixed to 

is only six months' iropri»oiimeut in the county jail; but when ' 
the alternative is to overcome the keeper, or to be torn from hia 
family and connections, and sent to hard labour at the Antipodes 
we cannot be much surpriiied that murders and midnirht com- 
bau have considerably increased this season ; or that luforma.. 
tion such as the following has frequently enriched the columns 
of the country newspapers. 

' " PoACHiNa.>-Richard Barnett was on Tuesday convicted 
before Richard Clutterbuck, Esq., of keeping and using enginea 
or wires for the destruction of game in the parish of Duukerton, 
and fined j£5. He wa» taken into custody by C. Coatea, keeper 
to Sir Charles Bamfyide.BarU, who found upon him 17 wire- 
snares. The new act that hasjubt potaed against these illegal 
practices, seems only to have irritated the oflVtuders, and made 
them more daring and desperate. The following is a copy of an 
anonymous circular letter, which has been received by teveral 
magistrntea, and other eminent characters in this neighborhood. 

• ♦* Take notice.— We have lately heard and seen that there 
is an act passed, and whatever poacher is caught destroying the 
game is to be transported for seven years.— TAs« i$ Evgtiak 
liberty ! 

• " Now, we do swear to each other, that the first of our com- 
pany that this law is inflicted on, that there shall not one geutle- 
man*8 seat in our country escape the rage of fire. We are nine 
in number, and we will burn every gentleman's house of note. 
The first that impeaches shall be shot. We have sworn not to 
impeach. You may think it a threat, but they will find it rea- 
lity. The game-laws were too tevere before. The Lord of all 
men sent these animals for the peasants as w ell as for the prince. 
God will not let his oeople be oppressed. He will assist us in 
our undertaking, and we will execute it with caution." '—^utA 

* ** Death op a Poacheb<— On the evening of Saturday se'eu- 
nlgbtf about eightornineo^clock, a body of poachers, seven in 
number, assembled by mutual agreement on the estate of the 
Hon. John Dutton, at Sherborne, Gloucestershire, for the pur- 
pose of tak ing hares and other game. With the assistance oftwo 
dogs, and some nets and snares which they had brought with 
them, they had succeeded in catching nine hares, and were car- 
rying them away, when they were discovered by the game- 
keeper and seven others who were engaged with him ia patr 1 
ing the different covers, in order to protect the game /Vom 
nightly depredators. Immediately on perceiving the poachers, 
the keeper summoned them in a civil and peaceuile manner to 
give up their names, dogs, implements, &c. they had with them, 
and the game they had taken ; at the same time assuring them 
that his party had fire-arms (which were produced for the pur- 
pose of convincing and alarming them), and representing to 
them the folly of resistance, as, in the event of an affray, they 
must inevitably be overpowered by superior numbers, even 
withoutflre-arms, which tney were determined not to resort to 
unless compelled in self-defence. Notwithstand ing this rem<Mi- 
strance of the keeper, the men unanunously reAised to give up 
on any terms, declaring that if they were followed, they would 
give them a " brush," and would repel force by force. The 
poachers then directly took off their great coats, threw them 
down with the game, Slc, behind them, and approached the 
keepers in an attitude of attack. A smart contest instantly en- 
sued, both parties using only the sticks or bludgeons they car- 
ried : and such was the confusion during the battle, that tome of 
the keepers were occasioimUy struck by their own comrades in 
mistake for their opponents. After they had fought in this 
manner about eight or ten minutes, one of the poachers, named 
Robert Simmons, received a violent blow upon his left temple, 
which felled him to the ground, where ho lay, crying out mur- 
der, and at^king for mercy. Th« keepers very humanely desired 
that all violence might cease on both sides : upon which three of 
the poachers took to flight and escaped, and the remainhig 
three, together with Simmons, were secured by the keepers. 
Simmons, by the assistance of^ the other men, walked to the 
keeper's house, where he was placed in a chair: but he toon 
after died. His death was no doubt caused by the pressure of 
blood upon the brain, occasioned by the rupture of a \ essul from 
the blow he had received. The three poachers who had been 
taken were committed to Northleach prii^on. The inquest upon 
the body of Simmons was taken on Monday, belbre W. Trigge, 
Gent., Coroner ; and the above account is extracted from the 
evidence given upon that occasion. The poachers were all 
armed witli bludgeons, except the deqeai^d, who had provided 
himself with tlie thick part of a flail, made of firm, knotted crab- 
tree, and pointed at the extremity, in order to thrust w ith, if 
occasion required. The deceased was on athletic, niu>>cular 
man, very active, and about twenty-eight years of age. Hf re 
sided at Bowie, in Oxfordshire, and has left a wife, but no child 
The three prisonerM were heani in evidence ; and all concurred 
in stating tnat the kee()ers were in no way hiameable, and attri- 

offence** of a mucn higher order ; but country gentle- 
men must not be allowed to legislate exclusively on 
this, more than on any other subject. The very men- 
tion of hares and partridges in t e country, too olien 
rats an end to common humanity and common sense. 
Game must be protected ; but protected without vio- 
lating those principles of justice, and that adaptation 
of paaishment to crime, which (incredible as it may 
appear), are of infinitely greater importance than the 
amasemements of country gentlemen. 

We come now to the safe of ^me.— The fbnndation 
on which the propriety of allowing this partly rests, is 
the impossiibuity of preventing it. There exists, and 
has sprung up since ine game laws, an enormous mass 
of wealth, which has nothing to do with land. Do the 
country gentlemen imagine that it is m the power of 
human laws to deprive the three per cents of phea- 
sants ? That there is upon earth, air, or sea, a single 
flavour (cost what crime it may to procure it), that 
mercantile opulence will not procure? Increase the 
tiifficulty, and you enlist vanity on the side of luxury ; 
and make that to be sought for as a dibpla}; of wealth, 
which was before valued only for the gratification of 
appetite The law may multiply penalties by reams. 
Squires may tret and justices may commit, and game- 
keepers ana poachers continue tneir nocturnal wars 
There must be game on Lord Mayor's day, do what 
yoD will. You may multiply the crimes by which it 
IS procured ; but nothing can arrest its inevitable pro- 
gress, from the wood of the esquire to the spit of the 
citizen The late law for preventing the sale of game 
rroduced some little temporary difficulty in London 
at the beginning of the beason. The poulterers were 
alarmed and came to some resolutionj^, but the alarm 
soon began to subside, and the difficulties to vanish. 
In another season the law will be entirely nugatory 
and forgotten. The experiment was tried of increased 
severii} ; and a law passed to punish poachers with 
transportation who were caught poaching in the night 
nine with arms. What has the consequence been?— 
^ol a cessation of poaching, but a succession of vil- 
lage guerillas ; an internecive war between gamekeep- 
ers and marauders of game ;— the whole country flung 
into brawls and convulsions, for the unjust andexorbi- 
.tant pleasures of country gentlemen. The poacher 
hardly believes he is doing any wrong in taking par- 
tridges and pheasants. He would admit the justice of 
being transported for stealing sheep ; and his courage 
IB such a transaction would be impaired by a con- 
scioa-sness he was doing wrong ; but he has no such 
Idling in taking game ; and the preposterous punish- 
ment of transportation makes him desperate, and not 
timid. Smgle poachers are gathered into large compa- 
nies for their mutual protection ; and go out, not only 
vith the intention of taking game, but of defending 
what they take with their lives. Such feelings soon 

produce a rivalry of personal courage, and the thirst of , ,,....,,-... . ,. -.. ,■ 

rprengP between the villasers and the aircnts of nower «"*''** '?'*'/ ^i"?*'*^' ^ tl»eir own indiscretion and miprudeuce. 
We PttrnVf TkI f«n«i!^^.: '*"°1"® agents or power, several of the keepers' party were so much beat as to be low 
from .ti tL r ^1^°*"'°^ passages on this subject Lonfined to their b'eds. *^ThJ two parties are said to be total 
uum me iiMPeo IjClters on the Game Laws : strangers to each other, conaequently no malice prepense could 


hKf Mdfltad betwMB thfim } and m it appeared to the jury, after 
a nuMt minute and deliberate inyestigation, that die conAuion 
during the affiray waa so great, that the deceued waa aa lilielv to 
be atruck by one of lua own party aa by the keepera*, they 
returned a verdict of— Mtuulm^hUr againat aome peraon or 
peraona unknown.** * 

* Wretched aa the firat of theae productiona ia, I think it 
aearcely to be denied, that both ita apirit and ita probable oonae- 
quencea are wholly to be ascribed to the ezaaperation naturally 
eonaequent upon the severe enactment juat alluded to. And the 
lait eaae ia at leaat a strong proof that seyerity of enactment is 
quite inadequate to correct the eviL'— (p. 356-359.) 

Poaching will exi«t in some degree^ let the laws be 
what they may ; but the most certain method of check- 
ing the poacher seems to be by underselling him. If 
game can be lawfully sold, the quantity sent to market 
will be increased^ the price lowered, and, with that, 
the profits and temptations of the poacher. Not only 
would the prices of the poacher be lowered, but we 
much doubt if he would nnd any sale at all. Licenses 
to s^ game might be confined to real poulterers, and 
real occupiers of a certain portion of land. It might 
be rendered p^al to purchase it from any but licensed 
persons ; ana in this way the facility of the lawful, 
and the danger of the unlawful trade, would either 
annihilate the poacher's trade, or reduce his prices so 
much, that it would be hardly worth his while to carry 
it on. What poulterer in London, or in any of the 
large towns, would deal with poachers, ana expose 
himself to indictment for receiving stolen goods, when 
he might supply his customers at fair prices by deal- 
ing with the lawful proprietor of game ? Opinion is of 
more power than law. Such conduct would soon be- 
come infamous; and every respectable tradesman 
would be shamed out of it. The consumer himself 
would rather buy his game of a poulterer at 'an in- 
crease of price, than pick it up clandestinely, and at 
a great risk, though a somewhat smaller price, from 
porters and booth-keepers. Give them a chance of 
getting it fairly, and they will not get it unfairly. At 

{>resent^ no one has the slightest shame at violating a 
aw which every body feeLs to be absurd and unjust. 

Poultry-houses are sometimes robbed ; — ^but stolen 
poultry 18 rarely offered to sale ; — at least, nobody 
pretends that the shops of poulterers, and the tables 
ot moneyed gentlemen, are supplied by these means. 
Out of one hundred geese that are consumed at Mi- 
chaelmas, ninety-nine come into the jaws of the con- 
sumer by honest means ; — and yet, if it had pleased 
the country gentlemen to have goose laws as well as 
game laws; — if goose-keepers had been appointed, 
and the sale and purchase of this savoury Dird pro- 
hibited, the same enjoyments would have been pro- 
cured b^ the crimes and convictions of the poor ; and 
the penodical gluttony of Michaelmas have been ren- 
dered as guilty and criminal, as it is indigestible and 
tmwholesome. Upon this subject we shall quote a 
passage from the very sensible and spirited letters 
before us. 

'Inflivourableaitnationa, game would bexeared and preaer- 
ved for the express purpoae of regularly aupplying the market 
influr and open competition; which would so reduce its price, 
that I aee DO reaaon why a partridge should be dearer than 
a rabbit, or a hare and pheasant than a duck or goose. This is 
about the proportion of price which the animala bear to each 
othor in France, where game can be legally sold, and is regu- 
larly brought to market ; and where, by the way, game ia aa 
plentiAil as in any cultivated country in Europe. The price 
BO reduced would never be enough to compensate the risk and 
penalties of the unlawful poacher, who must therefore be dri- 
ven out of the market. Doubtless, the great poulterers of 
London and the commercial towns, who are theprinc^ud intti' 
gator* ofpoadungi would cease to have any temptation to 
continue so, as uey would fhirly and lawfhlly procure game 
for their customers at a cheaper rate ft-om the regular breed- 
era. They would, aa they now do for rabbits and wild fowl, 
contract with persons to rear and preserve them for the regu- 
lar aupplv of their shops, which would be a much more commo- 
dious and satifoctory, and less haxardous way for them, than 
the irregular and dishonest and corrupting methods now pur- 
sued. Itia not aajring very much in favour of human nature 
to asaert,that men in respecUble stations of society had rather 
procure tiie acme eiida by honest than dishonest means. Thus 
wo«U an the temptationa to offend against the nme-lawa, 
•riannf from the change of aoeiety, together widi the long 
diaiB cf noral aad political mlaehieft, at onee disappear. 

* But then, in order to aecure a adSdent breed of gaouftr 
the aupply of the market, in fair and open competition, it will 
be aeceasary to authorize a certain number of persons, likelj 
tv breed game for aale, to take and dispose of it when reared at 
their expense. For this purpose, I w<Mdd suggest the propriety 
of permitting by law ocCupiera of land to take and kill rame, 
for sale or oUierwiae, on their own oooMpatMiM embfy ual^ (if 
tenants) they are specifically prohibited by agreement with 
their landlord ; reeenring the game and the power of takiiif it 
to himself, ^ is now frequenUy done in leases.) This prf. 
misaion should not, of course, operate during the curreat lea- 
ses, unless by agreement. With thia precaution, nothuf 
could be foirer than such an enactment ; for it ia certainly at 
the expense of the oeeupier that the game ia raised and maia- 
tained: end unless he receive an equivalent for it, either by 
abatement of rent ujion agreement, or by perndasioD to tab 
and diapose of it, he is certainly an ixgurad man. Whereat it 
is perfectly just that the owner of the land should have tbe 
option either to increase his rent by leaving the disponlofhji 
game to his tenant, or vice versa. Game would be held to b« 
(aa in fact it is) an amtgoing from the land, like tithe and other 
burdens, and therefore to be considered in a bargain ; and the 
land would either be lei gamu-frttf or a special reservatira d 
it made by agreement 

' Moreover, since the breed of game must alwnj's depead 
upon the occupier of the land, who may, and frequendv doei, 
deatroy every head of it, or prevent its coming to matority, 
unless it is considered in his rent ; the lieene«> for which I aa 
now contending, by affording an inducement to preserve the 
breed in particular spots, would evidently have a coastderabb 
effect in increaaing the stock of game in other parts, and ia the 
country at large. There would be introduced a general ivf- 
tem of protection depending upou individual interest, instnd 
of a general system of destruction. I have, therefore, very 
little doubt that the proviaion here recommended would, npoa 
the whole, add focllities to the amusements of the aportuaan, 
rather than subtract from them. A sportsman without land 
might also hire from the occupier of a large tract of land the 
pnvilegeof shootinifover it, which would answer to the latter 
as well as sending his game to the market. In short, he might 
in various ^ays get a return, to which he ia well entitled for 
the expense and trouble incurred in rearing and preaerriuf 
that particular species of stock upon his land.*— <p. 337—339.) 

There are sometimes 400 or 500 head of eamekilldl 
in great manors on a single day. We think it highly 
probable, the greater part of this harvest (if the game 
uiws were altered) would go to the poulterer, to poT' 
chase poultry or fish for the ensuing London se&soo. 
Nobody is so poor and so distressed as men of very 
large fortunes, who are fond of making an unwise dis* 
play to the world ; and if they had recourse to these 
means of supplying game, it is impossible to suppose 
that the occupation of the poacher could be continued. 
—The smuggler can compete with the spirit-merchant, 
on account of the great duty imposed by the revenue ; 
but where there is no duty to be saved, the mere thief 
— ^the man who brings the article to market with an 
halter round his neck — ^the man of whom it is disrepu- 
table and penal to buy— who ha2ard8 life, liberty, and 
property, to procure Uie articles which he sells ; such 
an adventurer can never be lonp the rival of him who 
honestly and fairly produces the articles in which he 
deals. — ^Fines^ imprisonments, concealment, loss of 
character, are great deductions from the profits of any 
trade to which they attach, and great discouragements 
to its pursuit. 

It is not the custom at present for gentlemen to sell 
their game ; but the custom would soon begin, and 
public opinion soon change. It is not unusual for men 
of fortune to contract with their gardeners to supply 
their own table, and to send the residue to market, or 
to sell their venison ; and the same thing might be 
done with the manor. If game could be bought, it 
would not be sent in presents : — bam-door fowls are 
never so sent, precisely for this reason. 

The price ofgame would, under the system of laws 
of which we are speaking, be further lowered bv the 
introduction of foreign game, the sale of which, at 
present prohibited, would tend very much to the pfr 
servation of Englisti game by underselling the poacher 
It would not be just, if it were possible, to confine 
any of the valuable productions of nature to the use tA 
one class of men, and to prevent them from berominft 
the subject of barter, when the proprietor wished » 
to exchange them. It would be just as reasonable 
that the consumption of salmon should be confined to 
the proprietors of that sort of fishery— that the use of 
chan should be Umited to the inhabiUntsof the lakes 


^ —that maiitime Englishmen thcmld alone eat oysten 
and loUtersy as that every other class oP Uie com- 
munity than landowners should be prohibited from 
the acoaisition of game. 

It wul be necessary, wl^enever the game laws are 
nvised, that some of the worst punishments now in- 
flicted for an infringement of these laws should be re- 
pealed. To transport a man for seven years, on ac- 
count of partridges, and to harass a poor wretched 
peasant in the Crown Office, are very preposterous 
punishments for such offences; humanity revolts 
asainst them^they are grossly tyrannical— «nd it is 
disgraceful that they should be suffered to remain on 
our statute books. But the most singular of aU abuses, 
is the new class of punishments which the squirarchy 
have themselves enacted against depredations on 
game. The law says, that an unqualified man who 
kills a pheasant, shall pay five pounds ; but the squire 
says he shall be shot i — and accordingly he places a 
spring-gon in the path of the poacher, and does all he 
can to take away his lii'e. The more humane and 
mitigated squire mangles him with traps ; and the 
suura-fine country gentleman <mly detains him in ma- 
chines, which prevent his escape, but do not lacerate 
their captive. Of the gross illegaiity of such proceed- 
ings, there can be no reasonable doiibt. Their immo- 
rality and cruelty are equally clear. If they are not 
pot down by some declaratory law, it will be absolute- 
ly necessary that the judges, in their invaluable cir- 
cuits of Oyer and Terminer, should leave two or three 
of his miyesty's squires to a fate too vulgar and in- 
delicate to be alluded to in this iouroal. 

Men have certainly a clear rignt to defend their pro- 
perty ; but then it must be by such means as the law 
allows :— their houses by pistols, their fields by actions 
for trespass^ their information. There is an 
end of law. if every man is to measure out his punish- 
ment for his own wrong. Nor are we able to distin- 
guish between the guilt of two persons, — the one of 
whom deliberately shoots a man whom ne sees in 
his fields— the other ot whom purposely places such 
instruments as he ImowB will snoot trespassers upon 
his fields. Better that it should be lawful to kill a 
trespasser face to &ce, than to place engines which 
will kill him. The trespasser may be a child— « wo- 
man— a son or friend. The spring-gun cannot ac- 
commodate itself to circumstances,— -the squire or the 
game-keeper may. 

These, then, are our ojnnions respecting the altera- 
tions in the game laws, which, as tney now stand, are 
perhaps the only system which could possibly render 
the possession ot game so very insecure as it now is. 
We would give to every man an absolute property in 
the game upon his lano, with full power to Kill — ^to 
permit others to Idll — and to seU s — ^we would punish 
uy viohition of that property by summary conviction, 
and pecuniary penalties — ^rising in value according to 
the number of offences. This would of course abolish 
all qualifications ; and we sincerely believe it would 
lessen the profits of selling game illegally, so as very 
materially to lessen the number of poachers. It would 
make game, as an article of food, accessible to all 
classes, without infringing the laws. It would limit 
the amusement of country gentlemen within the 
boundaries of justice — and would enable the magis- 
trate cheerfully and conscientiously to execute laws, 
of the moderanon andjustice of which he must be tho- 
roughly convinced. To this conclusion, too, we have 
no doubt we shall come at the last. After many yean 
of scutigeral folly— ^loaded prisons*— nishtly battles — 
poachers tCiUpted — and fiunilies ruined, these princi- 
ples will finally prevail, and make law once more co- 
mcident with reason and justice. 

BOTANT BAT. (EDiiiiiTBaB JiBvnw, 1810.) 

BO fewer than twdv te»- 

* In the conrae of the last year, 
ired penona were oomniitted for oftneea agaiiut the nme j 
betides those who ran away ttcm their feoailiee for the fear or 
commitment. This is no shght quantity tfmiaery. 

tk» jtdvMnUige§ wUek Ocm Cobnitt «if<a- Jbr JBrni^rmtion, 
mmd their 5iw«rMrtty m wumjf reneeU maer tkott p0§»e»9td 
fry the UmUei SUtet o/AwuricM. By W. C. Wentworth, Em., 
a Native of the Colooy. Whittaker. London, 1818. 

& Letter to Fieemmt SiJmomtk, Secretary cf State far tka 
Home Department^ on the TroHeportatiam Latoet the StaU of 
the Hmlke, and of the Coloniee m New South WaUe. By the 
Hon. Henry Grey Bennet, M. P. Ridg way. London, 1819. 

3. O^Hara's IRatorif of New Smith WaUe. Hatcbard. London, 

This land of convicts and kangaroos is beginning to 
rise into a very fine and flourishing settlement : — And 
neat indeed must be the natural resources, and splen- 
did the endowments of that land that has been able to 
survive the system of neglect* and oppression expe- 
rienced from the mother country, and the series of ig- 
norant and absurd governors that have been selected 
for the administration of its afiairs. But manldnd 
live and flourish not only m spite of storms and tem- 
pests, but (which could not have been anticipated pre- 
vious to experience) in spite of colonial secretaries ex- 
pre^y paic^ to vratch over their interests. The supine- 
ness and profligacy of public officers cannot always 
overcome the amazing energy with which human be- 
ines pursue their happiness, nor the sagacity with 
which they determine on the means by wlucn that 
end is to ije promoted. Bo it our care, however, to re- 
cord for the future inhabitants of Australasia, the po> 
litical sufierings of their larcenous forefathers ; and let 
them appreciate, as they ought, that energy which 
founded a mighty empire in spite of the afflictmg blun- 
ders and marvellous cacceconomy of their govern- 

Botany Bay is situated in a fine climate, rather Asi- 
atic than European. — with a great variety of temper- 
ature,— but favouraole on the whole to health andlife. 
It, conjointly with Van Biemen's Land^ produces 
co«l in great abundance, fossil salt, slate, lime, plum- 
bago, potter's clay ; iron ; white, yellow, and brilliant 
topazes ; alum and copper. These are all the impor- 
tant fossil productions which have been hitherto dis- 
covered : but the epidermis of the country has hardly 
as yet been scratched ; and it is most probable that 
the immense mountains which divide the eastern and 
western settlements, Bathurst and Sydney, must 
abound with every nicies of mineral wealth. The 
harbours are admirable; and the whole world, per- 
haps, cannot produce two such as those of Port Jack- 
son and Derwent. The former of these is land-locked 
for fourteen miles in length, and of the most irregular 
form : its soundines are more than sufficient for the 
largest ships ; and all the navies of the world might 
ride in safety within it. In the harbour of Derwent 
there is a road-stead forty-eight miles in length, com- 
pletely land-locked ;^varying la breadth from eight 
to two miles, — ^iu depth from thirty to four fathoms, — 
and afibrding the best anchorage the whole way. 

The mean heat, during the three summer months, 
December, January, and February, is about 80^ at 
noon. The heat which such a degree of the thermo- 
meter would seem to indicate, b considerably temper- 
ed by the sea-breeze, which blows with considerable 
force from nine in the morning till seven in the eve- 
ning. The three autumn months are March, April, 
and May, in which the thermometer varies from 65^ 
at night to 75® at noon. The three winter months are 
June, July, and August. During this iutervalj the 
monungs and evenings are very chilly, and the mshts 
excessively cold ; hoar-frosts are Sequent ; ice,tialf 
an inch thick, is found twenty miles fVom the coast ; 
the mean temperature, at daylight, is from 40^ to 46^, 
and at noon from 56® to 60®. In the three months of 

* One and no small excuse for the misconduct of colonial 
secretariea ii, the enonnous quantity of business by wbich they 
are dlatracted. There ahonld be two or three eolonial aecrs- 
taries instead of one: the oiBce la dreadfiiUy overwmht 
The govenuaeat of the colonies ia comBonly a aeries orM 

tprliiff the thermometer varies fVom 60*^ to 70^ The 
<iimatc to the westward of the mountains is colder. 
HeaTV falls of snow take place during the wmter ; tbe 
frosts are more severe, and the winters of longer du- 
All the -seasons are much more distmctly 


King, arrived in town from Paramatta : and yaaterday Mri 
KiAff returned thither, accompanied by Mra. PuUand. — <liU? 

* To be »old by private Contract, by Mr. ^eom. 

marked, and rcsemble'much more those of this cou^i- 


Such is the climate of Botany Bay ; and, in this re- 
mote part of the earth, Nature (having made horses, 
oxen, ducks, geese, oaks, elms, and all regular and 
usetiA productions for the rest of the world), seems 
determined to have a bit of play, and to amuse her- 
aelf as she pleases. Accordingly, she makes cherries 
with the stone on the outside ; and a monstrous ani- 
mal, as tall as a grenadier, with the head of a rabtnt, 
a tail as big as a bed-post, hopping along at the rate 
of five hops *o a mile, with three or four young kan- 
KaTOOs looking out of its false uterus to see what is 
passing. Then comes a cjuadniped as big as a large 
«t, with the eyes, colour, and skm of a mole, and the 
bUland web-feet of a duck— puzzling Dr. Shaw, and 
rendering the latter half of his life miserable, from his 
mtcr inability to determine whether it was a bird or a 
beast. Add to this a parrot, with the legs of a sea- 
gull ; a skate with the head of a shark ; and a bird of 
such monstrous dimensions, that a side bone of it will 
dine three real carnivorous Englishmen ;— together 
with many other productions that agitate Sir Joseph, 
and fill him with mingled emotions of distress and do- 
The colony has made the following progress :— 

Stock in 1617. 

Stock in 1788 

Homed Cattle 

Horiea - - - 

Sheep - - - 


Land in cultivation 


5 I>o. 

7 Do. 

S9 Do. 

74 Do. 

acres. Do. 
1000 Do. 



* An elegant four-wheeled chariot, with plated moontod 
hamen for four horses complete ; and a handsome lady's side- 
saddle and bridle. May be viewed, on application to Mr. Be- 
van-'— (p. 347.) 

< From the Derwnt Star. 

* Lieutenant Lord, of the Royal Marines, who, after the 
death of Lieutenant-Governor Collins, sucoeded to the com- 
mand of the settlement at Uobart Town, arrived at Port Jack- 
son in the Hunter, and favours us with the perusal of Ue 
ninth number published of the Dtncent Star and Vaa Du- 
men'8 Land Intelligencer from which we copy the foUowin^ 
extracts.*— <p. 353.) 

*A Card, 
'Tlie subscribers to the Sydney Race Course are ii^omad 
that the Stewords have made arrangements for two ball* dur- 
iug the race week, viz. on Tuesday and Thursday.— Tickpts, 
at 7#. 6d. each, to be hod at Mr. E. Wills's, George Streets 
An ordinary tor the subscribers and their friends each day of 
the races, at Mr. Wills's.— Dinner on table at five o'clock.'— 
(p. 356.) 

« The Ladies* Cup. 
' The ladies' cup, which was of very superior workmanship, 
won by Chose, was presented to Captain Richie by Mn. 
M'Quarie ; who, accompanied by his excellency, honoured each 
day's race with her presence, and who, with her usual arfa- 
bility, was pleased to preface the donation with the foHowiag 
i»hort address.—** Id the name of the Ladies of New South 
Wales, I have the pleasure to present you with this cop. 
Give me leave to congratulate you on being the sttoceaa(ul can- 
didate for it ; and to hope that it is a prelude to Aiture suc- 
cess, and lasting prosperity." '—(p. 357.) 

The colony has a bank, with a capital of 20,000/. ; a 
newspaper; and a capital (the town of Sydney) con- 
tain-ng about 7000 pers-ns. is also a Van Die- 
men's Land Gazette. The perusal of tliese newspa- 
pers, which are regidarly transmitted to England, and 
may be purchased in London, has afforded us conside- 
rable amusement. Nothmg can paint in a more more 
lively manner the slate of tiie setUement, its disadvan- 
tages, and prosperities, and the opinions and manners 
watch prevail there. 

*On Friday, Mr. James Squires, settler and brewer, waited 
on his excellency at Government House, with two vines of 
hops taken from his own groun<l8, &c.— As a public recom- 
pense for the unrem'tled attention shown by the grower in 
bringing this valuable plant to such a high degree of perfec- 
tion, his excellency has directed a cow to be given to Mr. 
i Squires ft-om the government herd.'— O'/foro, p. 855. 

• To Parents and Ouardian*. 

> A perM>n who flatters herself her character will bear the 
■trictest scrutiny, being desirous of receiving into her charge a 
proposed number of children of her own sex, as boarders, re- 
apectAilly acquaints parents and guardians that she is about 
to situate herself either in Sydn«y or Paramatta, of which no- 
tice will b« shortly given. She doubts not, at the same time, 
that her assiduitv in the inculcation of moral principles in the 

SouthAiI mind, joined to an uuremitting atteniion and polite 
iction, win insure to her the miich-rlctiir«^d confidence of 
those who may think proper to favour her with such a charge. 
—Inquiries on the above subject will be answered by G. Howe, 
at Sydney, who will make known the name of the advirtiser.' 
—(p. 270.) 

' Loet, 
* fsnppoaed to be on the governor's wharf,) two small keys, a 
tortoise-sbell comb, and a packet of papers. Whoever may 
have found them, wilf, on delivering them to the printer, re- 
•eivo a reward of half a gallon of spirits.'— <p. 272.) 

< To the Pnblic 

« As we have no certainty of on immediate supply of paper, 
W« cannot pronuse a publication next week.'— (p. 290.) 

< Fatkionable InteUigencet Sept 1th. 

'OaTaeaday Ui eseeUoncy the late govemor, and Mn. 

' Butehera. 
'Now killing, at Matthew Pimpton's, Cumberland street. 
Rocks, beef, mutton, pork, and lamb. By retail, . 4d, per. 
lib. Mutton bv the carcass. Is. per. lib. sterling, or Ud. cur- 
loncy; warranted to weigh from 10 lib. to 18 lib. per quarter. 
Lamb per ditto.— Captains of ships supplied at the whol«ol<» 
price, and with punctuality.— iV. J?. Be<»f, pork, mutton, aod 
lamb, at E LamWs lluiiti'r street, ar the abov# pric»WP. 

* Salt Pork and Flair from Otaheite. 

♦On sale, at the warehouse of MH. S, Willi% 96 G«>rfc 
street, a large quantity of the al>ove articles, well cured, bt'loir 
the Mercury's last importation from Otaheito. The tpruia per 
cask are loS, per. lib. sterling, or 1«. currency.— iV. B. For u» 
accommodation of funilies, it will be sold in quantities col .V;<» 
than 112 lib.'— (p. 377.) 

' Painting.-' J Card. 
Mr. J. W. Lewin begs leave to inform his friends and ihe 
public in general, that he intends opening an academj (n 
painting on the dnysof Monday, Wedn<^sday, and Friday fruB 
the hours of 10 to 19 in the forenoon^— Terms 5#. a leoaon: En- 
iranco 20*.— iV. B. The evening academy for drawing contma- 
ed as usual.'— (p. 384.) 

* Sale of Ram*. 
•Ten rams of the Merino breed, lately sold by auction from 
the flocks of John M' Arthur, Esq., produced upwards of 200 
guineas.'— (p. 388.) 

• Afrs. Jonee'e VaeaHon BaU, December 1«A. 
•Mrs. Jones, with great respect, informs the parriits and 
guardians of the young ladies entrusted to her tuition, that 
the vacation ball is fixed for Tuesday the 32d instant, at tV 
seminary. No. 45 Castlereagh street, Sydney. Tieketa 7*. W 
each.'— (p. 388.) 

* Sporting Intelligence. 
• A fine hunt took place the 8th instant at the Nepeaa, of 
which the following is the account given by a goutleman pre- 
sent. " Hiving cast off by the government hut on the Nep^'an, 
and drawn the cover in that neighbourhood for a native Ik^ 
nnsuccessfully, we tried the forest ground for a Kangaroo 
which we soon foumL It went off in excellent stylo alone the 
sands by the river side, and crossed to the Cow-pttstur<» Plains, 
running a circle of about two miles j then re-crossed, ukinjr s 
direction for Mr. Campbell's stock-yard, and from th**nc« ■« 
the back of Badge Allen Hill to the head of Boorroobahsm 
Creek, where he was headed ; fW>m thence he took the maia 
rijif e of hiUa between the Badge Allea ud Badf e Alkaabia- 


1m, te t ttnicht dureetion for Hr. ThroHby*! fWrm, where the 
DoandA tnn into him ; «ad he was killod, ufter a good run of 
About two houn.' — The weight of the animal was upwards of 
120 lib.'--(p. S8Q.) 

Of the town of Sydney , Mr. Wcntwoith observes, 
that there are iii it many public biuldJigs, as well as 
houses of individuals, that would not disgrace the best 
parts of London ; but this description we must take 
the liberty to consider as more patriotic than true. 
We rather suspect it 'was penned before Mr. Went- 
vorth was in London ; for he is (be ii said to his ho- 
nour) a native of Botany Bay. The value of lauds (in 
the same spirit he adds) is half as great in Sydney as 
in the best situations in London ; and is daily increas- 
ing : The proof of this which Mr. Wentworth gives 
is^ that ' it IS not a commodious house which can be 
rented for lOOl. per annum unfurnished.* The town 
of Sydney contams two good public schools, for the 
education of 224 children of both sexes. There are 
establishments also for the ditiusion of education in 
eyery populous district throughout the colony; the 
masters of these are allowed stipulated salaries from 
the Orphans' fuad. Mr. Wentworta states that one- 
eighth part of the whole revenue of the colony is ap- 
propriated to the purposes of education ; — this eighth 
he compares to 2o6oi. independent of these institutions, 
there Is an Auxiliary Bible Society, a Sunday School. 
and several good private schools. This is as it should 
be ; the education of the poor, important everywhere, is 
indispensable at Botany Bay. Nothing but the earliest 
attention to the habits of ctiildren can restrain the er- 
ratic finger from the contiguous scrip, or prevent the 
iiereditary tendency to larcenous abstraction. The 
American arrangements respecting the education of 
the lower order is excellent. Their unsold lands are 
surveyed, and divided into districts. In the centre of 
every district, an ample and well-selected lot is provi- 
ded for the support of future schools. We wisn this 
had been imitated in New Holland ; for we are of opi- 
nion that the elevated nobleman, Lord Sidmouth, 
should imitate what is good and wise, even if the 
Americans are his teachers. Mr. Wentworth talks of 
]5,000 acres set apart for the support of the Female 
Orphan Schools ; which certainly does sound a little 
extravagant : but then 50 or 100 acres of this reserve 
are given as a portion to each female orphan ; so that 
all this pious tract of ground will soon be married 
mway. This dotation of woman, in a place where 
they are scarce, is amiable and foolish enough. There 
it a school for the education and civilization of the na- 
tivea^ we hope not to the exclusion of the children of 
convicts, who have clearly a prior claim upon public 

Great exertions have been made in public roads and 
bridges. The present governor has wisely established 
toU-ijrates in all the principal roads. No tax can be 
more equitable, and no money more benehclall}r em- 
ployed. The herds of wild cattle have either perished 
through the long droughts, or been destroyed by the 
remote settlers. They have nearly disappeared ; and 
their extinction is a good rather than an evil. A very 

rd horse for cart or plough may now be bought for 
to 10/.; working oxen for the same price ; fine 
young breeding ewes from U. to 3/., according to the 
quality of the fleece. So lately as 1808, a cow and 
calf were sold by public auction for lOoL; and the 
price of middling cattle was from SO/, to 100/. A 
orecding mare was, at the same period, worth from 
150 to 2CX) guineas ; and ewes from 10/. to 20/. The 
inhabitants of New South Wales have now 2000 years 
before them of cheap beef and mutton. The price of 
land is of course regulated by its situation and quality. 
Four years past, an hundred and fifty acres of very in- 
dzfi*erent ground, about three quarters of a mile from 
Sydney, were sold, by virtue of an execution, in lots 
of 12 acres each, and averaged 14/. per acre. This is 
the highest price given for land not situated in a town. 
The general average of unimproved land is 51. per 
acre. In years .vhen the crops have not suffered 
from flood or drought, wheat sells for 9«. per bushel ; 
mai2« for 3s. fid.} barley for d«.; oats for 4*. tid.; pota- 
loQs for 6$, per cwt. By the last accounts received 
Itom tike colony, mutton and beef were 6d. per lib.H- 

veal Sd.i pork 9d, Wheat 9a. 6d. per bushel ; oats 4t., 
and barley 5». per ditto. Fowls 4j. 6d. per couple ;— 
ducks (if. per ditto ; geese 5«. each ; turkeys Is. 6d. 
each ; eggs 2$. 6d. per dozen ; batter 2«. 6d. per iib.-< 
There are manufacterers of coarse woollen cloths, 
hats, earthen-ware, pipes, salt, candles, soap. There 
are extensive brewenes and taimeries ; and all sorts of 
mechanics and artificers necessary for an infant colo- 
ny. Carpenters, stone masons, bricklayers, wheel and 
plough Wrights, and all the most useful description of 
artificers, can earn from 8s. to lOf. per day. Great 
attention has been paid to the improvement of wool ; 
and it is becoming a very considerable article of ex* 
port to this country. 

The most interesting circumstance in the accounU 
lately received from Botany Bay, is the discovery of 
'he magnificent river on the western side of the Blue 
Mountains. The public are aware, that a fine road 
has been made from Sydney to Bathurst, and a new 
town founded at the foot of the western side of these 
mountains, a distance ef 140 miles. The country in 
the neighbourhood of Bathurst has been described as 
beautiful, fertile, open, and eminently fit for all the 
purposes of a settlement. The object was to find a 
river ; and such an one has been found, the description 
of which it is impossible to read without the most 
lively interest. The intelligence is contained in a 
despatch from Mr. Oxley, surveyor-general of the 
settlement, to the governor, dated 30th August, 1817. 

* " On the 19th, we were Hratifleii by Calling in with a 
river running through a most beaulii'ul countrv, and which 
I would have been well contente«lvto have believed the 
river we were in search of. Accident led u« down to this 
;»tream about a mile, when we were surim^ed by iU junc- 
tion with a river coming from the Aouth, of such width and 
magnitude, as to di^ipel all doubts aa to thi» last being the 
river we had so long anxiously looked for. Short as our 
resources were, we could not resist the temptation this 
beautiful country offered us to remain two days on the junc- 
tion of the river, for the pur|K>se of examining the vicinity 
to as great an extent as possible. 

< « Our examination Increased the satisfaction we had 
previously felt. Aa far as the eye could reach in every 
direction, a rich and picturesque country extended, abound. 
Ing in limeitone, slate, good timber, and every other ro 
quiiite that could render an uncultivated country dedirable. 
The soil cannot be excelled ; whilst a noble river of tlie 
first magnitude afibrds the means of conveying its produc 
tions from one part to the other. Where I quitted it, its 
course was nortnerly ; and we were north of the paraUd 
of Port Stevens, being in latitude 8tl° 45' south, and Vt6« 
58' east longitude. 

* •< It appeared to me that the Macquarrie had taken a 
north>nortnwejit course from Bathurst, and that it must 
have f«ceived immense accessions of water in its coxuse 
from that place. We viewed it at a period be^it calculated 
to form an accurate judgment of its importance, when it 
was neither swelled by ifood;! beyond its natural and usual 
height, nor contracted within its limits by summer droughts. 
Of Its majj'nitnde when it should have received the streams 
we had crossed, independent of any it may receive from 
the east, which, from the boldness and height of the coun- 
trv, I presume, must be at lea<t as many, some idea may 
be formed, when at this point it exceeded, in breadth and 
apparent depth, the Hawke-ibuiy at Windsor. Many of 
the branches were of grander and more extended propor- 
tloh than the admired one on the Nepean river from the 
Warrai^ambia to Emu plains. 

* " Hesolving to keep as near the river as possible during 
the remainder of our course to Bathur<>t, ana endeavour to 
ascertain, at least on the west side, what waters fell into it, 
on the aad we proceeded up the river ; and, betwwm the 

})oint quitted and Bathur»t, brossed the sources of number- 
ess stream*, all running into the Macquarrie. Two of 
them were nearly as large as that river itself at Bathurst. 
The country from whence all these streams derive their 
source was mountainous and irregular, and api.earnd 
equally so on the east side of the Macquarrie. This de- 
scription of country extended to the immediate vicinity of 
Bathurst ; but to the west of those lofty ranges the country 
was broken into low {rrassy hiUs and fine valleys, watered 
by rivulets rising on the west side of the mountains, which, 
on their eastern side, pour their waters directly into the 

* ** These westerly streams appeared to me to join that 
which I had at first sight taken for the Macquarrie ; and, 
when united, fall into it at the point at which it was fixit 
discovered on the 19th in«t 

< "We reached this place last evening, without a staigl* 
accident havUag occurred during the whole progress of^ 


•qpedttioii, wbkh from this point bu endided, with the 
pvalleU of W* 0* south and 83<> south, and between the 
meridians of 149« 48* and 143« 40' east, a space of nearly 
one thousand mUes." '— IFcMtwofU, pp. 79—76. 

The nearest distance i>om the point at which Mr. 
Oxley left off, to any part of the western coasti is 
Tery little short of 2000 miles. The Hawkesbory, at 
Windsor (to which he compares his new river in mag- 
nitude,) is 250 yards in breadth, and of sufficient depth 
to floa^a 74-gun ship. At this point it has 2000 mues 
oi a straight line to reach the ocean ; and if it winds 
as riveis commonly do wind, it has a space to flow 
OTer of between 5000 and GOOO miles. The course and 
direction of tlie rirer have since become the object of 
two expeditions, one by land under Mr. Oxley. the 
other by sea onder Lieutenant King, to the results ot 
which we look forward with great interest. Enough 
of the country on the western side of the Bhie Moun- 
tains has been discoYered, to show that the settlement 
has been made on the wrohg side. The spAce be- 
tween the Mountains and the Eastern Sea is not abqve 
40 miles in breadth, and the five or six miles nearest 
the coast are of very barren land. The country, on 
the other side, is boundless, fertile, well watered, and 
of very neat beaut jr. The importance of such a river 
as the Macquarrie is Incalculable. We cannot help 
lemarkinff here, the courtly appellations in which Ge- 
ography delights ; — the river nawksalmryfj — ^the town 
oi Windsor on its banks ; Bathurai Plains ; Nepean 
River. Shall we never hear of the Gulf of Tiemey; — 
Brougham Point ; or the Straits of Mackiniosh on the 
river Qrey f 

The mistakes which have been made in settling this 
fine colony are of considerable importance, and such 
as must veryseriously retard its progress to power and 
opulence. The first we shall mention is the settle- 
ment on the Hawkesbnry. fhrery work of nature has 
its characteristic defects. Marshes should be sus- 
pected of engendering disease — a volcanic country of 
eruptions— nvers of overflowing. A yerj little por- 
tion of this kind of reflection would have induced the 
disposers of land in New South Wales to have become 
a httle better acquainted with the Hawkesbury before 
they granted land on its banks, and |^ve that direc- 
tion to the tide of ^ttlement and cultivation. It turns 
out that the Hawkesbury is the embouchure through 
which all the rain that falls on the eastern side of the 
91ue Mountain makes its way to the sea ; and accord- 
ingly, without any warning, or any fall of rain on the 
•ettled part of the river, the stream has often risen 
f^om '29 to 90 feet above its common level. 

( These inundations often rise seventy or eighty feet 
above low water mark ; and in the instance of what is still 
emphatically termed ** the neat flood," attained an eleva- 
tion of ninefy-thiee feet. The chaos of confusion and dis- 
tress that presents itself on these occasions cannot be easily 
conceivea by any one who has not been a witness of Its 
horrois. An immense expanse «f water, of which the eye 
cannot in manjr directions discover the limits, eveirwhere 
interspersed with growing timber, and crowded with poul- 
try, pigs, horseo, cattle, stadcs, and houses, having fire- 
quentlv men, women, and children, clinging to them for 
proteoion, and shrielcing out in an agony of despair for 
assistance ^-such are the principal objects by which these 
scenes of death and devastation are characterized. 

'These inundations are not periodical, but they most 
generally happen in the month of March. Within the last 
two years thine liave been no fewer than four of them, 
one of which was nearly as high as the great flood. In the 
^ years preceding, there had not been one. Since the 
establishment of the colony, they have happened, upon an 
average, about once in three years. 

«The princtpal cause of them is the contteuity of tliis 
river to the Blue Mountains. The Grose and warragambia 
rivers, ftom which two sources it derives iu principal sup- 
ply, issue direct from these mountains; and the Mepean 
river, the other principal branch of it, nms along the oase 
of them for fifty or sixty miles ; and recdves, in its proffress, 
Itom the innumerable mountain torrents connected with it, 
the whole of the rain which these mountains collect in that 
great extent That this is the principal cause of these cala- 
mitous inundations lias been fully proved ; for shortly after 
the pUnUtioA of this colony, the Hawkesbury overflowed 
Ms banks (which are in general about thirty feet in height,) 
In the miort of harvest, when not a single drop of rain had 
fiiUen on the Port Jackson side of the mountains. Another 
giMt causa of tha Inundations wUch take piaos in this and 

the other rivers in the ooiony li the ■nail f sO that Is in 
them, and the consequent alownesa of thefar currenti. The 
current in the Hawkesbury. even when the tide is tn tuU 
ebby does not exceed two mUes an hour. The water, there- 
fore, which during ttie rains rudies in torrents f^m the 
mountains, cannot escape with sufficient rapidity; and 
firom its immense accumulation soon overtops the banks of 
the river, and covers the whole of the low country."— 
Wmtwtrtk, pp. 34— M. 

It appears to have been a great oversight not to have 
built the town of Sydney upon a r^pdar plan. Ground 
was granted, in the first instance, without the least at- 
tention to this circumstance ; and a chaos of pigstyes 
and houses was produced, which subsequent governors 
have found it extremely aifficult to reduce to a state of 
order and regularity. 

Regularity is of consequence in planning a metropo- 
lis ; but fine buildings are absurd in the in&nt state of 
any country. The various governors have unfortu- 
nately displayed rather too strong a taste for archi- 
tecture—forgetting that the real Palladio for Botany 
Bay, in its present circumstances, is he who kee^ out 
the sun, wind, and rain, with the smallest quantity ot 
bricks and monar. 

The appointment of Governor Bligh appears to have 
been a very serious misfortune to the colony — at such 
an immense distance from the mother country, with 
such an uncertainty of communication, and witb a po- 
pulation so peculiarly circumstanced. In these extrsp 
ordinary circumstances, the usual jobbing of the tree* 
sury should really be laid aside, and some little atten- 
tion paid to the selection of a proper person. It is 
common, we know, to send a person who issomebody^s 
cousin ; out n^en a new empire is to be founded, (ne . 
treasury should send out, into some other part of the 
town, for a man of sense and character. 

Another very great absurdity which has been com- 
mitted at Botany Bay, is the diminution of their 
strength and resources, by the foundation of so many 
subordinate settlements. No sooner had the settlers 
unpacked their boxes at Port Jackson, than a fresh 
colony was settled in Norfolk Island under Lieutenant 
King, which was afterwards abandoned, after conside- 
rable labour and expense, from the want of a harbour: 
besides four or five settlements on the main land, two 
or three thousand persons, under a lieutenant-govern- 
or, and regular officers, are settled in Van Dieman's 
Land. The difficulties of a new colony are such, that 
the exertions of all the arms and legs are wanted 
merely to cover their bodies and fill their bellies : the 
passage from one settlement to another, necessary for 
common intercourse^ is a great waste of strength ; ten 
thousand men, withm a given ompass, will do much 
more fot the improvement of a coimtry than the same 
number spread over three times the space — ^will make 
more miles of road, clear more acres of wood, and 
build more bridges. The judge, the wind-mill, and 
the school, are more accessible ; and one judge, one 
wind-mill, and one school, may do instead of two i— 
there is less waste of labour. We do not, of course, 
obiect to the natural expansion of a colony over un- 
cultivated lands ; the more rapidly that takes place, 
the greater is the prosperity of^the settlement ; but we 
reprobate the practice of breaking the first population 
of^a colony, by the interposition of government, into 
small detached portions, placed at great intervals. It 
is a bad economy of their resources ; and as sach, ii 
very properly objected to by the committee of the 
House of^Commons. 

This colony appears to have suffered a good deal 
from the tyranny as well as the ignorance of its go- 
vernors. On the 7th of Decembet, 1816, Governor 
Macquarrie issued the following order : 

* His exceUency is also pleased further to declare, order, 
and direct, that in consideration of the premises, the under- 
mentioned sums, amounts, and charges, and no more, with 
resard to and upon the various denominations of work, 
labour, and services, described and set forth, shall be 
allowed, claimed, or demandable within this territory and 
its dependencies in respect thereof.'— FFanteiofftik, pp. IMi 

And then follows a schedule of every qpades of Iip 
boor* to Mcb of which a maiinwim it alBxed. Wt 



haYe only to oh§em, that a good stoat immdatioa of 
the Hawkesbary would be far ten pemicioiis to the 
industrr of the colony than soch gross ignorance and 
absurdity as this order erinces. Young surgeons are 
examined m Surgeon's Hall on the methods of cutting 
off legs and arms before they are allowed to practise 
saT|[ery. An examination on the principles of Adam 
Smith, and a tioense from Mr. Ricardo, seem to be 
almost a necessary preliminary for the appointment 
of goTemors. We must give aaotlier specimen of Go- 
vernor Macqoarrie's acquaintance wirh the principtes 
of political economy. 

*Q«nerai Ordert. 
*Hi« exoeDency haa observed, with much ooneern, that at 
the present time of acarcity, moat of the f arden fround at- 
tached to the allotments, whereon different descriptions of 
persons build huts, are totally neglected, and no vegetable 
growing thereon— «s such neglect in the occupiers, points 
tiwm out aa unfit to profit by such indulgenee, tnose who do 
not pat the garden ground attached to the allotmenta they 
occupy in cultiTatioo, on or before the 10th day of July next, 
will be disposed (except in cases wherein ground la held by 
lease), and more industrious persons put in possession of them, 
as the present necessities of the settlement raquire every exer- 

tion being nsed to supply the wants of families, by the ground 
attached to their dwelling being made as productive aa poesi- 
bie. By eommaad of his excellency. 6^ Blaxwxu., Sec. 

upply the wants of families, 

reliinp being made as productive as poesi- 

oF his excellency. 6. Blaxwxu., Sec. 

OoeenuMAt Assss* Sfduefff Jume 8UC, 180fi."~-O'irflra, p. 975w 

Tliis compulsion to enjoy this despotic benevolence , 
is something quite new in the science of government. 

The sale Of spirits was first of all mono|>olized by 
the government, and then let out to individuals, for 
the purpose of building an hospital. Upon this sub- 
ject, Mr. Bennet observes; — 

'Heretofore all ardent spirits brought to the colony were 
purchased by the government, and served out at fixed prices 
to the oflkers, civil and military, according to their ranks; 
henoe arose a discreditable and baneAil trade on the part of 
these officers, their wives and mistresses. The price of spirits 
at times was so high, that one and two guineas have been given 
for a single bottle. The thirst after ardent spirits became a 
mania anong the settlers: all the writers on the state of the 
colony, and all «rho have resided there, and have given testi- 
'aony concerning it, describe this rage and passion fyr drunk- 
•aness as prevmling in all classes, and as l>eing the principal 
foundation of all the crimes conunitted there. This extrava- 
grant propendty to drunkenness was taken advantage of by the 
governor, to aid him in the building of the hospital. Mr. Weut- 
worth, tJU sinyMm, Messrs, Rilej^ and Blaxwell, obtained 
permission to enter a certain quantity of spirits; they were to 
pay a d«ty of five or seven shillings a gallon on the quantity 
they introduced, which duty was to be set apart for the erec- 
tion at the hospitaL To prevent any other spirits fi-om being 
leaded, a monopoly was given to these contractors. As soon 
as the agreement was signed, these gentlemen sent off to Rio 
Janeiro, the Mauritius, and the East Indies, fi>r a large quantity 
ef rum and arrack, which they could purchase at about the rate 
ef St. or 9s. 6d. per gallon, and disembarked it at Sydney. From 
there being but few houses that were before permitted to aell 
thispeistn, they abounded in every street; and such was the 
enormous consumption of spirits, that money was soon raised 
to build the hospital, which was finished in 1814. Mr. Marsden 
informs as, that in the small town of Paramatta thirteen houses 
were licenced to deal in spirits, though he should think that 
five at the uUnoat would be amply sufficient for the aecommo- 
dation of the public'— ^emset, pp. 77—19. 

The 'triiole coast of Botany Bay and Van Dieman's 
Land abounds with whales ; and accordingly the duty 
levied upon train oil procured by the subjects in New 
South Wales, or imported there, is twentjr times 
greater than that paid by the inhabitants of this coun- 
try: the duty on spermaceti oil, im])oned, is Hxty 
timet greater. The duty levied on train oil, sperma- 
ceti, and head matter, procured by the inhabitants of 
Newfoundland, is onlv three times the amount of that 
which is levied on tne same substance procured by 
British subjects residing in the United kingdom. The 
dntj levied on oil procured by British subjects residing 
m the Bahama or Bermuda islands, or in the plantations 
of North America, is only eight times the amount on 
train oil, and twelve times the amount on spermaceti, 
of that which is levied on the same substances taken 
by British subjects within the United Kingdom. The 
duty, therefore, which is payable on train oil in vessels 
belonging to this colony is nearly seven times greater 
thaa ttui which is paymU« on the same detoriptiaa of 


oil taken in veatek belanffing to the ialfliid of New. 
foundland, and considerably more than double of that 
which is payable on the same commodity taken in 
vessels belonging to the Bahama or Bermuda islandSf 
or to the plantations in North America ; while the 
duty which is levied on spermaceti oil, procured in 
vessels belonging to this colony, is five times tha 
amount of that which is levied on vessels belonging 
to the above-mentioned places, and twenty times the 
amount of that which is levied on vessels belonging to 
Newfoundland. The Injustice of this seems to us to 
be quite enormous. The statements are taken from 
Mr. Wentworth's book. 

The inhabitants of New South Wales have no trial 
by jury ; the governor has not even a council to re- 
strain him. There is imposed in this country a very 
heavy duty on timber and coals exported ; but for 
which, sap Mr. Wentworth, some hundred tons of 
these vahiable productions would have been sent an> 
nually to the Cape of Good Hope and India, since the 
vessels which have been in the habit of trading be- 
tween those countries and the colony have alvrays re- 
turned in ballast. The owners and consignees would 
gladly have shipped cargoes ot timber and coals, if 
they could have derived the most minute profit firom 
the fyeight of them. 

The Australasians grow com ; and it is necessarily 
their staple. The Cape is their rival in the com trade. 
The foooof the inhabitants of the East Indies is rice ; the 
voyage to Europe is too distant for so bulky an article 
as com. The supply to the government stores f\imiRh- 
ed the cultivators of New South Wales with a market 
in the first instance, which is now become too insigni* 
ficant for the great excess of the sujjply above the con- 
sumption. Population goes on with immense rapidity } 
but while so much new and fertile land is before them, 
the supply continues in the same proportion greater 
than the demand. The most obvious method of afford- 
ing a market for this redundant com, is by encouraging 
distilleries within the colony ; a measure repeatedly 
pressed upon the eovemmeut at home, but hitherto as 
constantly refused. It is a measure of still greater 
importance to the colony, because its agriculture ia 
subjected to the effects ooth of severe drought and 
extensive inundations, and the com nised for the dis- 
tillers would be a ma!^azine in times of famine. A 
recommendation to this efiect was long since made by 
a committee of the House of Commons ; but, as it was 
merely a measure for the increase of human comforts, 
was stuffed into the improvement tmskets, and forsot- 
ten. There has been In all governments a great aeal 
of absurd canting about the consumption of spirits. 
We believe the best plan is to let people drink what 
they like, and wear what they like ; to make no sump- 
tuary laws either for the belly or the back. In the 
first plad^, laws against rum and rum water are made 
by men who can change a wet coat for a dry one 
whenever they choose, and who do not often work i^ 
to their knees in mud and water ; and^ in the next 
place, if this stimulus did all the mischief it is thou^ 
to do by the wise men of claret, its cheapness and 
plenty would mther lessen than increase the avidity 
with which it is at present sought for. ^ 

The govemors ot Botany Bay have taken the liberty 
of imposing what taxes they deemed proper, without 
any other authority than their own ; and it seemed 
very frivolous and vexatious not to allow this small 
effusion of despotism in so remote a comer of the 
fflobe : but it was noticed by the opposition in the 
House of Commons^ and reluctantly confessed and 
given up by the administration. This ^at portion of 
the earth begins civil life with noble prmciples of free- 
dom : — may God grant to its inhabitants tnat wisdom 
and courage which are necessary for the preservation 
of so great a good ! 

Mr. Wentworth enmperates, among the evils to 
^^ch the colony is subjected, that clause m the last 
settlement of the East India Company's charter, which 
prevents vessels of less than three hundred tons bur- 
then from navigating the Indian seas ; a restriction 
from which the Cape of Good Hope has horn lately 
liberated, and which ought, in the same manner, t* 
be lemoved fhmt New South Wales, wheie tfaem csi^ 



not be foT ^nany jcaxs to come^ sufficient capital to 
build vessels of bo large a burthen. 

' Tiie Uir*ability,' bays Mr.VVeuiworth, ' might bo removed by 
a fejaipl<^ order lu Louncil. Wiicaever his majesty's govern- 
ment »hall liuvc treed the colouibt« from this ubele&s and cruel 
fproUibition, the following brunches of commerce would then 
be opf'ii to thoin. Pimt, they would be enabled to transport, 
in their own vessels, their coals, timbers, spars, flour, meat, 
ftc. to the Cape oi'Uood Hope, the Isle of Fraace, Calcutta, 
and many ottier places ia the Indian aeta y iu all of which, 
marlfetti more or le«s extensive exist for those various other 
productions which the colony might Airuish. Secondly, they 
would 1)6 enabled to carry direct to Canton the saudal wood, 
\t6chc la mcr, dried feal tikins, and, in fact, all the numerous 
productions which the surrounding seas and islands afford tor 
the China market, and return freighted with cargoes of tea, 
(ilkis muikccns. Sec; all of which commodities are in ^reat 
uemaud in the colony, and are at present altogether furnished 
by Ea»t Inilia or American merclmnts, to the great detriment 
and dib«aii£factiou oi the colonial. And, lastly, they would be 
enabled, iu a short time, from the great increase of capitiU 
which thef>e ini])ortant privileges would of themselves occasion, 
as well as attroin from other countries, to open the fur-trade 
with the north-west coast of America, a&d dispose of the car- 
goes procured in China — a trade which has hitherto been car- 
ried on by the Americans and Kussiajui, although the colonists 
possess a local buperiority for the prosecution of this valuable 
branch of commerce, which would insure them at least a muc^ 
cestii'ul competition with subjects of those two natioaSir— -/Fent- 
wortk, pp. 317,318. 

The means which Mr. Wentworth proposes for im- 
proving the coudiliou of Botany Bay, are — ^trial by [ 
jury ; colonial asfcemblies, with whom the right of 
taxation siiould rest ; the establishment of distilleries, 
and the exclusion of foreign spirits ; alteration of du- 
ties, so as to place New South Wales upon the same 
footing as Other colonies ; removal of the restriction 
to navigate the Indian seas in vessels of a small bur- 
then ; improvements in the courts of justice ; encou- 
ragement for the growth of hemp, flax, tobacco, and 
wine ; au/l if a colonial assembly cannot be gnmted, 
that there should be no taxation without the autliority 
of parliament. 

In general, we agree with Mr. Wentworth in his 
statement of evils, and in the remedies he has pro- 
posed lor them. Many of the restrictions upon the 
commerce of I^ew South Wales are so absurd that 
lliey require only to be stated in Parliament to be cor- 
rected. The fertility of the colony so far exceeds its 
increase of population, and the dimculty of finding a 
market for com is so great — or rather ine impossibi- 
lity so clear — that the measure of encouraging domes- 
tic distilleries ought to be had recourse to. The 
colony, with a soil fit for every thing, must, as Mr. 
Wentworth proposes, grow other things besides com, 
and excite that market in the interior which it does 
not enjoy from without. The want of demand, in- 
deed, lor the excess of com, will soon effect this witli- 
out the intervention of goverment. Gorcmment, we 
believe, have already given up the right of taxation 
without the sanction of Parliament ; and there is an 
end, probably, by this time, to that grievance. A coun- 
cil and a colonial secretary they have also expressed 
their willingness to concede. Of trial by jury, and a co- 
lonial assembly, we confess that we have great doubts. 
At some future time the^ must come, and ought to 
come. The only question is, is the colony fit for such 
institutions at present? Are there a sufficient num- 
ber oi' respectable persons to serve that office in the 
various settlements ? If the English law is be to fol- 
lowed exactly, to compose a jury of twelve persons, 
a pauDcl of Forty-eight must be summoned. Could 
forty-eiglit intelTigent, unconvicted men, be found in 
every settlement of New South Wales? or must they 
not De fetched from great distances, at an enormous 
expense and Inconvenience? Is such an institution 
calculated for so very young a colony? A good go- 
vernment is an exceUent thing; but it is not the first 
in the order of human wants. The first want is to 
subsist ; the next to subsist in freedom and comfort ; 
first to live at all, tlien to live well. A parliament is 
still a greater demand upon the T^sdom and intelli- 
gence and opulence of a colony, than trial by jury. 
Among the twenty thousand inhabitants of New South 
Wales, are there ten persons out of the employ of 
government whose iK^flOoai aad pnidence could rea- 

sonably be expected to advance the interests of the 
colony without embroiling it with the mother-coun- 
try ? Who has leisure, in such a state of atlairs, to 
' attend such a parliament ? Where wisdom and con- 
' duct are so rare, every man of character, we will ven- 
ture to say, has, like strolling players in a barn, six 
j or seven important parts to periorm. Mr. M'Atlhur, 
who, from nis character and understanding, v>ouUi 
probably be among the first persons elected to the 
colonial legislature, besides being a very spirited agri- 
culturist, is, we have no doubt, justice ot the peace, 
curator and rector of a thousand plans, charities, and 
associations^ to which his presence is essentially ne- 
cessary. It he could be cut into as many pieces as a 
tree is into planks, all his subdivisions would be emi- 
nently useful. When a member of Parliament, and 
what is called a really respectable country gentleman, 
sets off to attend his duly, in our Parliament, sueh 
diminution of intelligence as is produced by his ab 
sence, is; God knows, easily supplied ; but in a colony 
of 20,000 persons, it is impossible this should be the 
case. Some time hence, tne institution of a colonial 
assembly will be a very wise and proper measure, and 
so clearly called for, that the most profligate mem- 
bers of administration will neither be able to rid;cule 
nor refuse it. At present we are afraid that a Botany 
Bay parliament would give rise to jokes ; and jokes 
at present have a great agency in human aflairs. 

Mr. Bonnet concerns himself with the frettlrment of 
New Holland, as it is a school (of criminals ; and, 
upon this subject, has w^ritten a > «ry humane, en- 
lightened, and vigorous pamphlet. The objections 
made to this settlement by Mr, Beni ;tare,in the first 

glace, its enormous expense. The colony of New 
outh Wales, from 1788 to 1815 is lusiAe, has cost 
this coimtry the enormous sum of 3,- «)y,983?. In the 
evidence before the transportation ».mmit(ee, the 
annual expense of each convict, fron? 1791 to 1797, is 
calculated at 33/. 9«. 5)d. per annum *vti thu profits 
of his labour are stated to be 20/. TJi. jince paid for 
the transport of convicts has been, on i i bveraicv, 37/. 
exclusive of food and clothing. It apL ^\v^, hor.'iTer, 
says Mr. Bennet, by an account laid VuWe F^flia- 
mcnt, that in the year 1S14, 109,746/. « pte yaiA for 
the transport, feed, and clothing of Ui^ cinvtcts. 
which will make the cost amount to abttit fCy. per 
man. In ]bI2, the expenses of the C4..\iuf were 
176,000/.; in 1813, 235,000/.; in 1814, 23i|4\>Vf.: but 
in 1815, they had fallen to 150,000/. 

The cmelty and neglect in the transport lutoo of 
convicts have been very great — and in thi\ vny a 
punishment inflicted w^hich it never was in i\\t con- 
templatiou of law to enact. During the flriv o.'ght 
years, according to Mr. Bennet 's statements, one- 
tenth of the convict^ died on the passage ; qb the 
arrival of three of the ships, 200 sick w^ere lai-ie*!, 
281 persons having died on board. These instauces, 
however, of criminal inattention to the health of th« 
convicts, no longer take place ; and it is mentictfed 
rather as an history of what is past, than a censure 
upon any existing evil. 

In addition to the expensp of Botany Bay, Air. Ben- 
net contends that it wants the very es'^tence of f iinisb- 
ment, terror; that the common people do not dread 
it ; that instead of preventing crimes, it rather excites 
the people to their commission, by the hopes it affords 
of bettering their condition in a new country. 

'AH tho«f. who have had au opportunity of witiie^&iiiir th« 
effect ofthis 8j>tcm of traiuiportation nfrrce in opinion. Ihat ii 
is no lonper an objecl of dread — ^it ha.*, iq fact, penerally 
ceased to be a punishment : true it i<i, to a father of a ihmily . 
to the mother who leaves her childn^n, this perpeta&l ixtpora- 
lion from those whom they low and whom they support, if a 
cruel blow, and, when I consider the mercileRs character of th« 
law which inflicts it, a severe penalty ; but by far the greater 
number of persons who suffer this punishment, refranl it ia 
(|uite a different light. Mr. Cotton, the ordinary of Newgate;, 
informed the police committee last year, *' that the ge^ner&licy- 
of those who are transported consider it as a party of pleavare 
— as ^oinf out to see the world ; they c;ylnce no peaitence, no 
contrition, but seem to rejoice in th« thiDg-Hnany of tbeai to 
court it. 1 have heard them, when the sentence of iransportak- 
tion has been paasod by the reeordor, return thanks for it, mad 
■oem overjoyed at their aeiytuioe: the very last pany iluki 


ofl; wlm Huiy irtro put ioto the eutmot diovtoc 
■ed, wad were v«iy Josroa*; MTttral of thom celled c 

, diovted and 
i oat to 
the keeper* who were there in the yard, the first fine Sunday 
we will have a f lortona kangaroo bunt at the Bay— eeeming 
to anticipate a great deal of pleaMira." He waa aaked if thoae 
persona were married or single, and his answer was, ** by far 
the greater number of them unmarried. Some of them are 
anxioua that their wives and children should follow them; 
others care nothing about either wives or children, and are 
glad to get rid of thefta.'* *— SeiiMt, pp. ()0,6L 

it ia a scandalous injustice in this colony, that per- 
sons transported for seven years^ have no power of 
returning when that period is expired. A strong ac- 
tive man may sometimes work liis passage home ; but 
what is an old man or aged female to do ? Suppose a 
convict were to be eonfmed in prison for seven Years, 
and then told he might get out if he could climb over 
the walls, or break open the locks, what in general 
would be his chance of liberation ? But no lock nor 
doors can be so secure a means of detention as the 
distance of Botany Bay. This is a downright trick 
and fraud in the administration of criminal justice. A 
poor wretch who is banished from his country for 
seven years, should be furnished with the means of 
returning to his country when these seven years are 
expired. If it is intended he should never return, his 
sentence should have been banishment for life. 

The most serious charge against the colony, as a 
place for transportation, and an experiment in crimi- 
nal justice, is the extreme profligacy of manners which 
prevails there, and the total* want of reformation 
among the convicts. Upon this subject, except in the 
reguhir letters, officially varnished and filled with 
fraudulent beatitudes for the public eye, there is, and 
there can be, but one opinion. New South Wales is a 
sink of wickedness, in which the great majority of 
convicts of both sexes become infinitely more depraved 
than at the period of their arrival. Iiow, as Mr. Ben- 
net very justly observes, can it be otherwise ? The 
felon transported to the American phmtations, became 
an insulated rogue among honest men. He uved for 
years in the family of some industrious planter, with- 
out seeing a picklock, or indul^ng in pleasant dia- 
lo^es on the delicious burglanes of his youth. He 
imperceptibly glided into honest habits, and lost not 
only the tact for pockets, but the wish to investigate 
their contents, wit in Botany Bay, the felon, as soon 
as he ^ets out of the ship, meets with his ancient 
trull, with the footpad of his heart, the convict of his 
afi'ections, the man whose hand he haa often met in 
the same gentleman's pocket — ^the being whom he 
would choose from the whole world to take to the 
road, or to disentangle the locks of Bramah. It is 
Impossible that vice should not become more intense 
in such society. 

Upon the horrid state of morals now prevalent in 
Botany Bay, we would counsel our readers to cast 
their eyes upon the account given by Mr. Marsden, in 
a letter, dated July, 1815. to Governor Macquarrie. — 
It is given at length in the appendix to Mr. Bennet's 
book. A more horrid picture of the state of any set- 
tlement was never penned. It carries with it an air 
of truth and sincerity, and is free from all enthusiastic 

' I now appeal to your excellency,' (he says, at the conclttsion 
of his letter,) * whether, under such circumstances, any man of 
common feeling, possessed of the least spark of humanity or 
relipott, who stood in the same oAeial relation that I do to 
these people, as their spiritual pastor and magistrate, could 
i^njoy one happy moment tnm the beginning to the end of the 

' I humbly conceive that it is incompatible with the character 
snd with of the British nation, that her own exiles shouH be 
exposed to eueh privations and dangerous temptations, when 
she is daily feeding the hungry and clothing the naked, and 
Tereiving into her friendly, and I may add pious bosom, the 
stranarer, whether savage or civilized, of every nation under 
l'8v<n. There are, in the whole, nnder the two principal 
""jsapprintendents, Messrs. Rouse and Oakes, one hundred and 
C'fht men, and one hundred and fifty women, and several 
•children $ and nearly the whole of them have to find lodgings 
for themselTea when they have performed their government 

' 1 trust that your excellency will be fully persuaded, that It 
i> tecallj Impoasible for the magistrate to support hb neoessary 

aotfaority, and to estobHak a regvkr polios, aader sueh a 
weight of aocumulated and aocnmulating evila. I am as sensible 
as any man can be, that the difilculty of removing these evilf 
will be very great; at the same time, their number and influ- 
ence may be greatly lessened, if the abandoned male and 
female convicts are lodged in barracks, and placed nnder the 
eye of the police, and the number of licensed houses is re- 
duced. Till something of this kind is done, all attempts of the 
magistrate, and the public administration of religion, will be 
attended with little good. I have the honour to be your ex- 
cellency's most obedient humble servant, Samvkl MABSDUf ' 
^Bauut, p, 104. 

Thus muoh for Botany Bay. As a mere colony, it 
is too distant and expensive ; and, in future, will of 
course involve us in many of those just and necessary 
wars, which deprive Englishmen so rapidly of then 
comforts, and make Enghind scarcely worth living in. 
If considered as a place of reform for criminals, its 
distance, expense, and the society to which it dooms 
the objects of the ex]>eriment, are insuperable objec- 
tions to it. It is in vain to say, that the honest people 
in New South Wales will soon bear a ^eater prdppr- 
tion to the rogues, — and the contanunation of oad* 
society will be less fatal. This only proves that it 
may be a good place for reform hereafter, not that it 
is a good one now. One of the princi})al reasons for 
peopling Botany Bay at all, was, that it would be an 
adinirable receptacle, and a school of reform, for our 
convicts. It tums out, that for the first half century, 
it wiU make them worse than they were before, and 
that, after that period, they may probably begm to 
improve. A marsh, to be sure, majr be drained and 
cultivated; but no man who has his choice, would 
select it in the mean time for his dwelling-place. 

The three books are all books of merit. Mr. O'- 
Hara's is a bookseller's compilation, done in a useful 
and pleasing manner. Mr. wentworth is full of infor- 
mation on the present state of Botany Bay. The 
humanity, the exertions, and the genuine benevolence 
of Mr. Bennet, are too well known to need our com- 

All persons who have a few guineas in their pocket, 
are now running away iVom Mr. Nicholas Vansittart 
to settle in every quarter of the globe. Upon the 
subject of emigration to Botany Bay, Mr. Wentworth 
observes, Ist, that any respectable person emigrating 
to that colony, receives as much land gratis, as would 
cost him 400/. in the United States ; 2dly, he is allow- 
ed as many servants as he may require, at one-third 
of the wages paid for labour in America ; 3dly, him* 
self and family are victualled at the expense of gov- 
ernment for six months. He calculates that a man,— 
wife, and two children, with an allowance of five tons 
for themselves and baggage, could emigrate to Botany 
Bay for 100/., including every expense, provided m 
whole ship could be freighted ; and that a single man 
could be taken out thither for 30/. These pomts are 
worthy of serious attention to those who axe shedding 
their country. 


^eeomt oftJU Proeeedwrt of the Socuhffrr mpeneditutlU 
Necttnty of ClimbiitgBoyw, Baldwin, &c London, 181©. 

Aw excellent and well-arranged dinner is a most pleas- 
ing occurrence, and a great triumph of civilixed life. 
It is not only the descending morsel, and the envelop- 
ing sauce— out the rank, wealth, wit, and beauty 
which surround the meats— the learned management 
of light and heat — ^the silent and rapid services of the 
attendants — the smiling and sedulous host, proffering 
guests and relishes — the exotic bottles — the embossed 
plate — ^the pleasant remarks — the handsome dresses—- 
the cunning artifices in fruit and farina ! The hour of 
dinner, in short, includes every thing of sensual and 
intellectual gratification which a great nation glories 
In producing. , , ^ 

In the midst of all this, who knows that the kitchen 
chimney caught fire half an hour before dinner !— eud 
that a poor Uttle wretch, of six or seven years old 


wu sent up In the midst of the flames to imt it oat? 
W^ would not, previous to reading this eTiaence, have 
formed a conception of the mi&cxies of these poor 
Tnretches, or that there should exist^ in a ciTifized 
country, a class of human beings destmed to such ex- 
treme and Taried distress. We will give a short 
enitome of what is developed in the evidence before 
the two Houses of Parliament. 

Boys are made chimney sweepers at the early ago 
of five or six. 

Little boys for amall fiuea, is a common phrase in 
the cards left at the door by itinerant chimney sweep- 
ers. Flues made to ovens aud coppers are often less 
than nine inches square ; and it may be easily con- 
ceived, how slender the frame of that human body 
"aiust be, which can force itself through such an aper- 

* What 'u the age of the yottngest boys who have been em- 
ployed in this tri^ei to your knowledge 7 About five years of 
age : I know one now between five or rix yean old ; it is the 
man's own son in the Strand : now there is another at Somer's 

. Town, I think, said he was between four and five, or al>ont 
five ; Jack Hsll, a littie lad, takes him about.— Did you ever 
know any female children employed ? Yes, I know one now. 
About two years ago there was a woman told me she had 
climbed scores of times, and there is one at Paddiugton now 
whose father taught her to climb : but I have often heard talk 
of them when I was apprentice, in different places.'-What is 
the smallest-sized flue you have ever met with in the course 
of your experience? About eight inches by nine ; these they 
are always obliged to climb in this posture (dtseribing' it), 
keeping the arms up straight ; if they slip their arms down, 
the^ get jammed in; unless they get their arms close over 
their head they cannot elimb.'—Zords' JtftfuttM, No. 1. p. 8. 

The following is a specimen of the manner in which 
they are taught this art of climbing chimneys : 

* Do you remember being taught to climb chimirays ? Yes^— 
What did you feel upon the first attempt to climb a chimney ? 
The first chimney I went up, they told me there was some 
plumb-pudding and money up at the top of it, aud that is the 
way they enticed me up ; and when I got up, I would not lot 
the other boy get ftom under me to get at it ; I thought he 
would get it ; I could not get up, and shoved the |[K>t and half 
the chimney down into the yard. Did you experience any in- 
convenience to your knees, or your elbows f Yes, the skin 
-was off my knees and elbows too, in climbing up the new 
chimneys they forced me up. — How did they force you up? 

When I got up, I cried out about my sore kneesw— Were you 
beat or compelled to go up by any violent means ? Yes, when 
I went to a narrow chimney, if I could not do it, I durst not go 

ome ; when I used to come down, my master would beat me 
with the brush ; and not only my master, but when we used to 
go with the Journeymen, if we could not do it, they used to hit 
us three or four times with the hruth.^^Lardti' Mimutet, No. 
1. p. 5. 

In practising the art of climbing, they axe often 

* You talked of the pargetting to chimneys { are many chim- 
n«yt pargetted? There used to be more than are now ; we 
used to have to n> and sit all a-twist to parge them, according 
to the floors, to keep the smoke fVom coming out ; then 1 could 
not strengthen my legs ; and that is the reason that many are 
cripples,— f^om parging and stopping the holes.'— Xoriis* Min- 
««#, No.l.p. 17. 

The^ are often stuck fast in a chimney, and, after 
remaining there many hours, are cut out. 

* Have you known, in the course of your practice, bojrs stick 
in chimneys at all ? Yes, frequently. — Did you ever know an 
instance of a boy being suffocated to death ? No *, I do not re- ' 
collect any one at present, but I have assisted in taking boys 
out when they have been nearly exhausted. — Did you ever 
know an instance of its being necessary to break open a chim- 
ney to take the boy out? O yee^—Fregwntly J MontUf I 
might teof ; it is done with a cloak, if possible, that it should 
not be discovered : a master in general wishes it not to be 
known, and therefore speaks to the people belonging to the 
house not to mention it, for it was merely the boy's neglect; 
they ofley say it was the boy's neglect— Why do they say 
that? Tile boy's climbing shirt is often very bad; the boy 
coming down, if the chimney be very narrow, and numbers of 
them are only nine inches, gets his shirt rumpled underneath 
him, and he has no power after he is fixed in that way {with 
kit hand mp.) — ^Does a boy frequently stick in thechhnney? 
Yea, 1 have known more instances of that the last twelve- 
nonth thin before^-^)o you ever have to break opea in the 

iaalde of a room? Yea^ I hare helped to break through ists a 
kitchen chimney in a dming room.'— ^onft* JftMsttcs, p. 3i 

To the same effect is the evidence of John Daniels 
(MinutUf p. 100,) and of James Ludford (Lordi' 
MinuteSf p. 147.) 

* You have swept the Penitentiary? I have<— Did you ever 
know a boy stick in any of the chimneys there? Yes, I have 
— Was it one of your boyal It was^ — ^Was there one or tws 
that stuck? Two of them.— How long did they stick there? 
Two hours*— How were they got out ? They were cut ont^- 
Was there any danger wtiile tliey were in that aitnation ? It 
was the core fVom the pargetting of the chimney, and therab- 
bish that the labourers hi^ thrown down, that stopped then, 
and when they got it aside them, they could not pass. — ^Thcy 
both stuck together? Yes.'— fonts' Ifmvtes, p. 147. 

One more instance we shall give ttom the evidence 
before the Commons. 

*Have you heard of any acddenls that have recently hap- 
pened to climbing boys in the small flues ? Yes ; I have oftm 
met with accidents myself when I was a boy ; there was lately 
one in Mary-le-bone, where the boy lott kit life in a flue, s 
boy of the name of Tinsey (his fhther was of the Mme trade) ; 
that boy I think was about eleven or twelve years old. — Yi'u 
there a coroner's inquest sat on the body of that boy yoil 
meutioned ? Yes, there was ; he was an apprentice of a nua 
of the name of Gay. — ^How many accidents do you reoolleci, 
which were attended with loss of life to the climbing boys? I 
have heard talk of many more than I know of; I never knew 
of more than three since I have been at the trade, but 1 hava 
heard talk of many more.— Of twenty or thirty? I cannot say; 
I have been near losing my own life several times.'- Comwmi' 
Report^ p. 53b 

We come now to burning little chimney sweepers 
A large party are invited to dinner — ^a great din>^y is 
to be made ; and about an hour before dinner, tikere is 
an alarm that the kitchen chimney is on fire ! It is 
impossible to put off the distinguished personages 
who ate expected. It gets very late for the soup and 
fish— the cook is frantic — all eyes are turned upon the 
sable consolation of the master chimney sweeper — and 
up into the midst of the burning chimney is sent one 
of the miserable little infants of the brush ! There is 
a positive prohibition of this practice, and an enactment 
or penalties in one of the acts of Parliament which 
respect chimney sweepers. But what matter acts of 
Pauiament, when the pleasures of eenteel people are 
concerned ? Or what is a toasted child, compared to 
the agonies oi the mistress of the house with a de- 
ranged dinner ? 

* Did you ever know a boy get burnt up a chimney? Yes*— 
Is that usual ? Yes, I have been burnt myself, and have get 
the scars on my legs ; a year ago I waa up a chimney in Liqaor 
Pond Street ; I have been up more than forty ehimtyo taker* 
I kave been bttmt. — Did your master or the ioumeymen ev«r 
direct you to go up a chimney that was on nre ? Yea, it is a 
general case.— Do they compel you to go up a chimney that is 
on fire? Oh ye*^ it was the general practice for two of ns to 
stop at home on Sunday to be ready in case of a chimney betag 
a-flre«— You say it is general to compel the boys to go op 
chimneys on fire ? Yes, boys get very ill-treated if they do 
not go upJ—Lordt* Minntu, p. 34. 

* Were you ever forced up a chimney on fire ? Yes, I was 
forced up one once, and, because I could not do it, I was taken 
home and well hided with a brush by the journeyman.— Have 

5oa fire^uently been burnt in ascending chimneys on fire? 
'hree times.n-Are such hardships as you have described coos- 
mon in the trade with other boys ? Yes, they are.*— AiA p. 

What is the price for sending a boy up a chimney badly on 
fire ? The price allowed is five shillings, but most of them 
charge half a guinea.— Is any part of that given to the boy ! 
No, but very often the boy gets half a crown j and then the 
journeyman has half, and his mistress takes the other part to 
take care of againbt Sunday.— Have you never seen water 
thrown down from the top of a chimney when it is on fire ? 
Yes.— Is not that generally done ? Yes ; I have seen that done 
twenty times, and the boy in the chimney ; at the time when 
the boy has hallooed out, *' It is so hot I cannot go any ftir- 
tlier ;" and then the expression is, with an oath, ** Stop, and 1 
will heave a pail of water down."*— /HiL p. 39. 

Chimney sweepers are subiect to a peculiar sort of 
cancer, which otten brings them to premature death. 

* He appeared perfectly willing to try the machines every- 
where ? I must say the man appeared perfectly willing ; ha 
had a fear that he and his family would be ruined by them . 
bat 1 must My ef hiiOf that he is very diilerent from ether 



twmipa I have seen ; he attends very much to his own bnd- 
nrM ; he was as btock as any boy he had got, and unibrtun- 
•t«ly in the eoune of conversation he told me he had got a 
eascer ) he was a fine healthy strong looking man } he told me 
be dreaded having an operation performed, out his father died 
of the same complaint, and his Ihther was nweeper to King 
Geofge the Second.'~/^on2s' Minutes^ p. 84. 

< What is the nature of the particular diseases t The diseases 
that we particularly noticed, to which they were subject, were 
ofa cancerous description. In what part? The scrotum, in 
particular, Slc Did you ever hear of cases of that description 
that were fatal? No, I do not think them as altogether being 
&tal, unless they will not submit to the operation ; they have 
such a dread of the operation that they will not submit to it, 
ao(i if they do not let it beperfectly removed they will be lia* 
ble to the return of it. To what cause do you attribute that 
diMsae ? I think it begins fVom a want of care : the scrotum 
being in so many folds or crevices, the soot lodges in them and 
creates an itching, and I conceive that, by scratching it and 
tearing it, the soot gets in and creates the irritability ; which 
disease we know by the name of the chimney sweeper's cancer, 
and is always lectured upon separately as a distinct diseasa^ — 
Then the committee onderstands that the physicians who 
entrusted with the care and management of those hospii 
think that disease of such common occnrrenee, that it is neces- 
sary to make it a part of surgical education } Most assuredly ; 
1 remember Bfr. CUne and Mr. Cooper were particular on that 
sobject.— Without an operation there is no cure % I conceive 
not; I conceive without the operation it is death; for caneers 
are of that nature that unless you extirpate them entirely they 
will never be cured.'—CMiaioiia' /2ep. p. 60, 61. 

In addition to the life they led as chiiimey sweepers, 
is superadded the occupation of nightmen. 

' (By « Lord,) Is it generally the custom that many mas- 
ters are likewise nightmen T Yes ; I forgot that circumstance, 
which is very grievous; I have been tied round the middle, 
and let down several privies, for the purpose of fetching 
watches, and such things; it is generally maae the practice to 
lake the smallest boy, to let nim through the hole without 
taking up the seat, and to paddle about there until he finds it ; 
they do not take a big boy, because it disturbs the seat.— jLen2s* 
MiMiiU», p. 3d. 

The bed of these poor little wretches is often the 
soot they have swept in the day. 

'How are the boys generally lodged; where do they sleep 
at night? Some masters maybe better than others, but 1 
know I have slept on the soot that was gathered in the day 
myeelC — Where do boys geoeraily sleep I Never on a bed; 
I never slept on a bed myself while I was apprentice^— Do 
thev sleep m cellars 1 Yes, very often ; I have slept in the 
cellar myself on the sacks I took out.— What had you to cover 
yoa I The same —Had you any pillow ? No Airther than my 
breeches and jacket under my head.— How were you clothed ? 
When I was apprentice we had a pair of leather breeches and 
a small flannel jacket.— Any shoes and stockings 7 Oh dear no ; 
no stockings.— Had you any other clothes for Sunday? 
Sometimes we had an old bit of a jacket, that we might wash 
out ourselves, and a shirt.'- Lord^ MvmUt, p. 40. 

Girls are occasionally employed as chimney sweep- 

* Another circumstance, which has not been mentioned to 
the eoramitioe, is, that there are several little girls employed ; 
there are two of the name of Morgan at Wixidaor, daughters 
of the chimaey-sweeper who is employed to sweep the chim- 
neys of the Castle I another instance at Uxbridge, and at 
Brighton, and at Wnitechapel, (which was some years ago,) 
uid at Hadley near Barnet, and Witham in Essex, and else- 
where., — Commons' Report^ p. 71. 

Another peculiar danger to which chimney sweepers 
are exposed, is the rottenness of the pots at the top 
of chimneys ; for thev must ascend to the very sum- 
mit, and snow their Brushes above them, or there is 
no proof that the work is properly completed. These 
chimney-pots, from their exposed situation, are very 
subject to decay ; and when the poor little wretch has 
worked his way up to the top, pot and boy give way 
together, and are Doth shiveredf to atoms. There are 
many instances of this in the evidence before both 
Houses. When they outgrow the power of going up 
a chimney, they are fit for nothing else. The mise- 
ries theyoave suffered lead to nothing. They are not 
only enormous, but unprofitable : having suffered, in 
what is csdlea the happiest part of his life, every 
misery which an human being can suffer, they are 
then c«st out to xob and stealj and giTen up to the 


Not the least of theii miseries, while their trial en- 
dures, is their exposure to cold. It wiU easily be be- 
lieved that much money is not expended on the clothes 
of a poor boy stolen from his parents, or sold by them 
for a lew shillings, and constantly occupied in dirty 
work. Yet the nature of their occupations renders 
chimney sweepers peculiarly susceptible of cold. And 
as chimneys must be swept very early, at four or five 
o'clock of a winter morning, the poor boys are shiver- 
ing at the door, and attempting by repeated ringings 
to rouse the profligate iootman; but the more they 
ring the more the footman does not come. 

* Do they not go out in the winter without stockings t Oh, 
yes«— Always f I never aaw one go out with stockings ; I 
have known masters make their boys pull off their leggins, 
and cut off the feet, to keep their Ibet warm when they have 
chilblains. — Are chimney-sweepers' boys particularly subject 
to chilblains t Yes ; I believe it is owing to the weather : they 
often go out at two or three in tite morning, and their shoes 
are jpenerally very bad.— Do they go out at that hour at 
Christmas? Yes ; a umn will have twenty jobs at four, and 
twenty more at five or siz.-~Are chimneys generally swept 
much about Christmas time ? Yes ; they are in general ; it ia 
left to the Christmas week. — Do you suppose it is firequent 
that, in the Christmas week, boyv are out from three o'clock 
in the morning to nine or ten ? Yes, fiirther than that ; I have 
known that a boy has been only in and out again directly all 
day till five o'clock in the evening.— Do you consider tho 
journeymen and masters treat those boys generallv with 
greater cruelty than other apprentices in other trades ars 
treated ? They do, most horrid and shocking.'— Xords' Jlfi 
nates, p. 33. 

The following is the relnctant evidence of a master. 

* At what hour in tho morning did your boys go out upon 
their employment ? According to orders^— At any time ? To 
bo sure; suppose a noblemen wished to have his chimney dono 
before four or five o'clock in the morning, it was done, or how 
were the servants to get their things done 1 — Supposing yoa 
had an order to attend at four o'clock in the month of Decem- 
ber, you sent your boy? I was generally with him, or had a 
careftU follower with him.— Do you think those early houra 
beneficial for him ? I do ; and I have heard that " early to bed 
and early to rise, is the way to be healthy, wealthy, and wise.** 
—Did they always get in as soon as they knocked 7 No ; it 
would be pleasant to the profession if they could.— How long 
did they wait? Till the MorvamU pUate to nse.— How long 
might Uiatbe} According how heavy they were to sleep.— 
How long was that 1 It is impossible to say ; ten minutes at 
one house, and twenty at another.— Perhaps half an hourf 
JFe cannot see in the dark koto the minutu ^9.— Do you think 
it aealthy to let them stand there twenty minutes at four 
o'clock in the morning in the winter time ? He has a cloth to 
wrap himself in like a mantle, and keep himself warm.'— 
Lords' Minutes, pp. 138, 139. 

We must not forget sore eyes. Soot lodges on their 
eyelids, produces irritability, which requires friction ; 
and the motion of dirty hands of course increases the 
disease. The greater proportion of chimney sweepers 
are in consequence blear-eyed. The boys are very 
small, but they are compelled to carry heavy loads of 

Are you at all lame yourself? No : but I am " knapped- 
kneed" with carrying heavy loads when I was an apprentice. 
— ^That was the occasion of' it? It was.— In general, are per- 
sons employed in your trade either stunted or knock-kneea by 
carrying heavy loads during their childhood ? It is owing to 
their masters a great deal ; and when tht y climb a great deal 
it makes them weak.'— Coaimons' Report, p. 58. 

In cllmbinff a chimney, the great hold is by the 
knees and elbows. A young child of six or seven 
years old, working with knees and elbows against 
nard bricks, soon rubs off the skin from these bony 
projections, and is forced to climb high chimneys 
with raw and bloody knees and elbows. 

Are boys' knees and elbows rendered sore when they first 
begin to learn to climb ? Yes, they are, and pieces out of 
'them.— Is that almost generally the case ? It is ; thore is not 
one out of twenty who is not ; and they are sure to take the 
acars to their grave : I have some now. — ^Are they usually 
comi'elled to continue climbing wh le those sores are open! 
Yesf the way they uao to make them hard is that way.— 
Might not this severity be obviated by the use of pads in 
learning to climb ? Yes; but they consider in the business, 
learning a boy, that he is never thoroughly learned until the 
boy's knees are hard after being sore ; then they consider it 
iwGsssar]: t9 pat a pad osf from teeiflff tks boy haTt bad kn^ 


tha childrea teneraUy wtXk •tiff-kneed.-Ia it lunal anoag the 
chimney ■weepers to teach their boyi to leiirn by meaiw of 
padsf No? they learn them with nearly oakod knees^Uii 
dono in one instance in twenty » No, nor one in my'*—Lordt' 
Minutes, p. 38. 

According to the humanity of the maater, the soot 
remains upon the bodies of the children, unwashed 
off, for any time ftom a week to a year. 

•Are the boyi generally waahcd regularly? No, oaleia 
they wash thcmaelvea.— Did not your master take care you 
were washed J No.— Not once in three mouths ? No, not once 
a vear^—Did not be find you soap) No ; I can take my oath 
on the Bible that he never found me one piece of soap during 
the time I was apprentice.*— iwds' MinuteSf p. 41. 

The life of these poor little wretches iaso miserable, 
that they often lie sulking in the flues unwilling to 
come out. 

< Did you ever see severity used to boys that were not obsti- 
■ate and perverse? Yes.— Very oAeu I Yes, very often. The 
boys are rather obstinate; some of them are; some of them 
will get half-way up the chimney, and will not go any further, 
imd Uien the journeymen will swear at them to come down, or 
go on; but the boys are too frightened to come down ; they 
halloo out, we cannot get up, aud they are afraid to come 
down ; sometimes they will send for another boy, and drag 
them down ; somethnes get up to the top of the chimney, and 
throw down water, and drive them down ; then, when they 
get them down, they will begin to drag, or beat, or kick them 
about the house ; then, when they get home, the master will 
beat them all round the kitchen aAerwards, and give them no 
breakfast, perhaps.'^I.oriif' AfimitM, pp. 9, 10. 

When the chimney boy has done sufficient work for 
the master he must work for the nian ; and he thus 
becomes for several hours after his morning's work a 
perquisite to the journeyman. 

< It is fircquenfly the perquisite of the journeyman, when 
the first labour of the day on account of the master is 
finished, to "call the streete," in search of employment on 
their own account, with the apprentices, whose labour is 
thus unreasonably extended, and whose limbs are weakened 
and distorted by tlw weights which they have to carry, and 
by the distance which they have to walk. John Lawless 
Bays; " I have known a boy to climb fhjm twenty to thirty 
dumneys for his master in the morning ; he has then been 
sent out instantly with the ioumcyman, who has kept him 
out till three or four o'clock, till he has accumulated from 
six to eight busbeU of soot." '—Lordt' Reporty p. 24. 

The sight of a little chimney sweeper often excites 
pity : and they have small presents made to them at 
the houses where they sweep. These benevolent 
alms are disposed of in the following manner : 

* Do the boys receive little presents of money from people 
often in your trade? Yes, it is in general the custom.— Are 
they allowed to keep that for their own use ? Not the 
whole of it,— the journeymen Uke what they think proper. 
They journeymen are entitied to haifhy the master's orders ; 
and whatever a boy may get, if two boys and one journey- 
man are sent to a large house to sweep a number of chim- 
neys, and after they have done, there should be a shilling, 
or eighteen pence given to the boys, the journeyman has 
his full half, and the two boys in general have tne other.— 
Is it usual or customary for the journeymen to play at chuck 
farthing or other games with the boys? Frequently.— Do 
they win the money from the boys? Frequently ; the 
• children give their money to the journeymen to screen for 
them.— What do you mean by screening? Such a thing as 
sifting the soot. The child is tired, and he says, « Jem, I 
will give you two-pence if you will sift my share of the 
soot;" there is sometime* twenty or thirty bushels to sift. 
Do you think the boys retain one quarter of that given them 
for their own use ? No.' — Lordi^ Minutes, p. 86. 

To this most horrible list of calamities is to be 
added the dreadful deaths by which chimney sweep- 
ers are often destroyed. Of these we once thought of 
giving two examples ; one from London, the other 
nom our own town of Edinburgh; but we confine our- 
selves to the latter. 

James Thomson, chimney sweeper.— One day in the begin- 
ning of June, witness and panel (that is, the master, the party 
accused) had been sweeping venU together. About fomr 
o'clock m the afternoon, the panel proposed to go to Albanv 
street, where the panel's brother was cleaning a vent, with 
the assistance of Fraser, whom he had borrowed from the 
panel for the occasion. When witness and panel got to the 
bouae ia Hbaaj street, thsj Ibund Fraier, wtaahad gOM u« 

B vent between deeen end tioelve o'clock, not yet cone dow» 
I entering the house they found a mason making a hole m the 


On entering t ^ ^ -^ .. 

walL Panel «id, what was he doing f I suppose he has taken 
a lazy fit. The panel called to the boy, ** What are you doing f 
what's keeping you?" The boy anwered that he could not 
come. The panel worked a long whUe, sometunes persuading 
him, sometimes threatening and swearing at the boy to get him 
down. Panel then said, ** I will go to a hardware shop and 

Set a barrel of gunpowder, and blow you and the vent to the 
evil, if you do not come down." Panel then began to slap at 
the waU— witness then went up a ladder, and qpoke to the boy 
through a small hole hi the wall previously made by the mason 
—hut the boy did not answer. Panel's brother toW witness to 
come down, as the boy's master knew best how to manage 
him. Witness then threw off his jacket, and put a handker- 
chief about his head, aud said to the panel, let me go up the 
chimney to see what's keeping him. The panel made no an- 
swer, but pushed witness away from the chimney, and con- 
tmued bullying the boy. At this time the panel was standuf 
on the grate, so that witness could not go up the ehimney; 
witness then said to panel's brother, there is no use for me 
here, meaning that panel would not permit him to me his 
services. He prevented the mason making the hole larger, 
saying, Stop, and I'll bring him down in five minutes' time. 
Witness then put on his jacket, and continued an hour in the 
room, during all which time the panel continued buOfing the 
boy. Panel then desired witness to go to Beid's house to get 
the loan of his boy Alison. Witness went to Reid's hoiae, and 
asked Reid to come and speak to panel's brother. Beid ■skod 
if panel was there? Witness answered he was; Kcid said be 
would send his boy to the panel, but not to the panel's brother. 
Witness and Reid went to Albany street; and when they got 
into the room, panel took his head out of the chimney aud 
asked Reid if he would lend him his boy; Reid agreed? wit- 
ness then returned to Reid's house for his boy, and Reid called 
after him, " Fetch down a set of ropes with you." By this time 
witness had been ten minutes in the room, during which time 
panel was swearing, and asking what's keepmg you, you econn- 
drell When witness returned with the boy and the rope% 
Reid took hold of the rope, and having loosed it, gave Alison 
one end, and directed him to go up the chimney, saying, do not 
go farther than his feet, and when you get there fiisten it to 
his foot. Panel said nothing all- this time. Alison went up, 
and havmg fastened the rope, Reid desired him to come down; 
Reid took the rope and pulled, but did not bring down tbo 
boy; the rope broke! Alison was sent up again with the 
other end of the rope, which was (hstened to the boy's fooU 
When Reid was pulling the rope, panel said, " You have not 
the strength of a cat;" he took the rope into his own hands, 
puUing as strong as he could. Having pulled about a quarter 
ofanhoWj panel and Reid fastened the rope round a crow 
bar, which they applied to the wall as a lever, and both pnlUd 
with all their strength far about a quarter of an hour lomger, 
when it broke. During this thne witness heard the boy cry, 
and say, "My God Almighty!" Panel said, "If 1 had you 
here, 1 would God Almighty you." Witness thought the cries 
were in agony. The msster of the house brought a new piece 
of rope, and the panel's brother spliced win eye on it. Reid 
expressed a wish to have it fastened on both thighs, to have 
greater purchase. Alison was sent up for this purpose, but 
came down and said he could not get it fastened. Panel then 
began to slap at the wall. After striking a long while at 
the wall, he got out a large stone ; he then put in his head 
and called to Fraser, "Do you hear, you sirl" but got no 
answer: be then put in his hands, and threw down deceased's 
breeches. He then came down ft-om the ladder. At this 
time the panel was in a state of perspiration : he sat down 
on a stool, and the master of the house gave him a drsm. 
Witness did not hear panel make any remarks as to the situa- 
tion of the boy Fraser, Witness think^ that, from panels 
appearance, he knew that the boy was dead."— Cwimiom' JU- 
port, pp. 136—138. 

We have been thus particular hi stating the case of 
the chimney sweepers, and in founding it upon the 
basis of facts, that we may make an answer to those 
profligate persons who are always ready to flmg an 
air of ridicule upon the labours of humanity, because 
they are desirous that what they have not ▼irtue to do 
themselves, ^ould appear to he foolish and romantic 
when done by others, A still higher degree of depra- 
vity than this, is to want every sort of campa$sion for 
human misery, when it is accompanied by filth, po- 
verty, and ignorance — to regulate humanity by the 
income tax, and to deem the bodily wretcheoness and 
the dirty tears of the poor a fit subject for pleasantry 
and contempt. We should have been loath to believe, 
that such deep-seated and disguitting immorality ex- 
isted in these days ; but the notice of it is forced upom 
us. Nor must we pass over a set of marvellously weak 
gentlemea, who discover democracy and revolntion ia 
0T«i7 effort to impzoYe the condition of the lower or 



deTB, and to take off a little of the load of misery fnm 
those points where it presses the hardest. Such are 
the men into whose heart Mrs. Fry has struck the 
deepest terror ; who abhor Mr. fientham and his peni- 
tentiary ; Mr. Bennet and his hullcs ; Sir James Mack- 
intosh and his bloodless assizes ; Mr. Tuke and his 
sweeping machines ; and every human being who is 
great and good enough to socrince his quiet to his love 
tor his fellow creatures. Certainly we admit that hu- 
manity is sometimes the veil of ambition or of faction ; 
but we have no doubt that there are a g^e&t many ex- 
cellent persons to whom it is misery to see misery, 
and pleasure to lessen it ; and who, by calling the 
public attention to the worst cases, and by giving birth 
to judicious legislative enactments for tncir improve- 
ment, have made, and arc making, the world some- 
what happier than they found it. Upon these princi- 
ples we join hands with the ftiends of the ch muey 
sweepers, and most heartily wish for the diminution 
of their numbers, and the limitation of their trade. 

We are thoroughly convinced, there are many re- 
spectable master chimney sweepers ; though we sus- 
pect their numbers have oeen increased by the alarm 
which their former tyramiy excited, and by the severe 
laws for their coercion : but even with good masters 
the trade is miserable^with bad ones it is not to be 
endured ; and the evidence already quoted, shows us 
how many of that character are to be met with in the 
occupation of sweeping chimneys. 

Atter all, we must own that it was quite right to 
throw out the bill for prohibiting the sweeping of 
chimneys by boys— because humanity is a modern in- 
vention ; and there are many chimneys in old houses, 
which cannot possibly be swept in any other manner. 
But the construction of chimneys should be attended 
to in some new buUding act ; and the treatment of 
boys be watched over with the most severe jealousy 
of the law. Above all, those who have chimneys ac- 
cessible to machinery, should encourage the use of 
machines,* and not tliink it beneath their dignity to 
take a Ultle trouble, in order to do a great deal of 
good. We should have been very glad to have second- 
ed the views of the Climbing Society, and to have 
pleaded for the complete abolition of climbing boys, 
if we could have done so. But such a measure, we 
are convinced from the evidence, could not be carried 
into execution without great injury to property, and 
great increased risk of flre. The lords have investi- 
gated the matter with the greatest patience, humani- 
ty, and good sense ; and they do not venture, in their 
report, to recoounend to the house the abolition of 
dimbii^ boys. 

AlfERICA. <£i>iFBUKOH Retitw, 1820.) 

SUaitHeal AmuU of the Vhited SUtteg ofjmericm. By Adam 
Seybert. 4to. Pliiladclphia, 1818. 

This is a book of character and authority ; but it 
is a very large book ; and therefore we think we shall 
do an acceptable service to our readers, by presenting 
them with a short epitome of its contents, observing 
the saiae order which has been chosen by the author. 
The whole, we conceive, will form a pretty complete 
picture of America, and teach us bow to appreciate 
that coraitry, either as a powerful enemy or a profit- 
able Mend. The first subject with which Mr. Scybert 
begins, is the population of the United States. 

PopulaHon. — ^As representatives and direct taxes 
are apportioned amon^ the different states in propor- 
tion to their numbers, it is provided for in the Ameri- 
can constitution, that there shall be an actual enumerap 
tion of the people every ten years. It is the duty of 
the marshais in each state to number the inhabitants 
of their respective districts : and a correct copy of 
Uie lists, containing the names of the persons returned, 
must be set up in a public place withm each district, 
before they are transmitted to the secretary of state : 
— they are then laid before Congress by the President. 
Under this act three census, or enunoerations of the 
people, have been already laid before Congrea»— ibi 

TheprieesfaflMcliineisfiftMB liulliBfi. 

the years 1790, 1800, and 1810. In the year 1790. the 
population of America was 3,921 ,326 persons, of whom 
697,697 were slaves. In IbOO, the numbers were 
5,319,762, of which 896,849 were slaves. In 1810, the 
numbers were 7,239,903, of whom 1,191.364 were 
slaves ; so that at a rate at which free population has 
proceeded between 1790 and 1810, it doubles itself, in 
the United States, in u very little more than 22 years. 
The slave population, according to its rate of proceed- 
ing in tbe same time, would be doubled in about 26 
years. The increase of the slave population in this 
statement is owing to the importation of negroes be- 
tween 1800 and 1808, especially iu lb06and lb07, from 
the expected prohibition against importation. The 
number of slaves was also increased by the acijuisi- 
tions of territory in Louisiana, where they constituted 
nearly half the population. From 1801 to 1811, the 
inhabitants of Great Britain acquired an augmenta- 
tion ot 14 per cent ; the Americans, within the same 
period were augmented 36 per cent. 

Emigration seems to be of very little importance to 
the United States. In the year 1817, by far the most 
considerable year of emigration, there arrived in ten 
of the principal ports of America, from the Old World, 
22,000 persons as passengers. The number of emi- 
grants, from 1790 to 1810, is not supposed to have ex- 
ceeded 6000 per aimunv None oV the separate States 
have been retrogade during these three enumerations, 
though some have been nearly stationary. The most 
remarkable increase is that of New York, which has 
risen from 340,120 in the year 1790, to 959,049 in the 
year 1810. The emigration from the Eastern to the 
Western States is calculated at 60,000 persons per 
annum. In oU the American enumerations^ the males 
uniformly predominate in the proportion ot about 100 
to 92. We are better ofi* iu Great Britain and Ireland; 
— ^where the women were to the men, by the census 
of 1811, as 110 to 100. The density of population in 
the United States is less than 4 persons to a square 
mile ; that of Holland, in 1803, was 275 to the square 
mile ; that of England and Wales, 169. So that the 
fifteen provinces which formed the Union in 1810, 
would contain, if they were as thickly peopled ai 
Holland, 135 millions souls. 

The next head is that of Trade and Comiii«rc«^In 
1790, the Exports of the United States were above 19 
millions of dollars; in 1791, above 20 millions; in 
1792, 26 millions; in 1793, 33 millions of dollars. 
Prior to 1795, there was no discrimination, in the 
American treasury accounts, between the exportation 
of domestic, and the re-exportation of foreign articles. 
In 1795, the aggregate value of the merchandise ex- 
ported was 67 millions of dollars, of which the foreign 
produce re-exported was 26 millions. In 1800, the 
total value or exports was 94 millions ; in 1805, 101 
millions; and in 1808, when they arrived at theiz 
maximum, 108 millions dollars. In the year 1809, 
from the eficcts of the French and English Orders in 
Council, the exports fell to 52 millions of doUars ; in 
1810 to 66 millions ; in 1811, to 61 millions. In the 
first year of the war with England, to 38 millions ; in 
the second to 27 ; in the year 1814, when peace was 
made, to 6 millions. So that the exports of the re- 
public, in six years, had tumbled down from 108 to 6 
millions of dollars : after the peace, in the years 
1815-16-17, the exports rose to 52, 81, 87 millions 

In 1817, the exportation of cotton was 85 millions 
pounds. In 1815, the sugar made on the banks of the 
Mississippi was 10 millions pounds. In 1792, when 
the wheat trade was at the maximum, a million and a 
half of bushels were exported. The proportions of the 
exports to Great Britain, Spain, France, Holland, and 
Portugal, on an average of ten years ending 1812, are 
as 27, 16. 13, 12, and 7; the actual value of exports to 
the dommions of Great Britain, in the three years 
ending 1804, were consecutively, in millions of dollais. 
16, 17, 13. 

Importt. — In 1791, the imports of the United States 
were 19 millions ; on an average of three consecutive 
years, ending 1804 inclusive, they were 68 millions i 
fai 1806-7, they were 138 millions; and in 1816, 133 
miUiona of dofius. The auuial Talue of tbo in^Tts^ 



on an areraffe of three yean ending 1804, was 75/)00- 
000, of which the dominions of Great Britahi fnmished 
nearly one half. On an average of three years ending 
in 1804, America imported f^om Great Britain to the 
amount of about 3o millions, and returned goods to 
the amount of about 23 millions. Certahily these are 
countries that have some better employment for their 
time and energy than cutting each other*s throats, 
nd may meet for more profitable purposes. — The 
American imports from the dominions of Great Britain, 
before the great American war, amounted to about 3 
millions sterling ; soon after the war, to the same. 
From 1805 to 1811, both inchisive, the average annual 
exportation of Great Britain to all parts ot the world, 
in real value, was about 43 millions sterling, of which 
one filth, or nearly 9 millions, was sent to America. 

Tonnage and Naoigation, — Before the revolutionary 
war. the American tonnage, whether owned by British 
or American subjects, was about 137,000 tons ; im- 
mediately after that war, 108,000. In 1789, it had 
amounted to 437,733 tons, of which 279,000 was 
American property. In 1790, the total was 606,826, 
of which 364,000 was American. In 1816, the ton- 
nage, all American, was 1.300,000. On an aver- 
ape of three years, from l6lO to 1812. both inclu- 
nve, the registeredf tonnage of the Bntish empire 
was 2,469,000 ; or little more than double the American. 
Xandf^All public lands are surveyed before they 
are ofiered for sale ; and divided into townships of six 
miles SQuare, which are subdivided into thirty-six sec- 
tions or one mile square, containing each o40 acres. 
The followhig lands are excepted from the sales.— 
One thirty-sixth part of the lands, or a section of 640 
acres in each township, is uniformly reserved for the 
support of schools ; seven entire townships, contain- 
ing each 23,000 acres, have been reserved in perpetuity 
for the support of learning : all salt springs and lead 
mines are also reserved. The Mississippi, the Ohio, 
and all the navigable rivers and waters leading into 
either,^ or into the river St. Lawrence, remain com- 
mon highways, and for ever free to all the citizens of 
the United Stated, without payment of any tax. All 
the other public lands, not thus excepted, are ofiered 
for public sale in quarter sections of 160 acres, at a 
price not less than two dollars per acre, and as much 
more as they will fetch by public auction. It was 
fonnerly the duty of the secretary of the treasury to 
superintend the sale of lands. In 1812, an office, de- 
nominated the General Land Office, was instituted. 
The public lands sold prior to the openmg of the land- 
offices, amounted to one million and a half of acres. 
The agjgregate of the sales since the opening of the 
land-offices, N. W. of the river Ohio, to the end of 
September, 1817, amounted to 8,469,&I4 acres ; and 
the purchase money to 18,000.000 dollars. The lands 
sold since the openmg of the land-offices in the Mis- 
sissippi territonr, amount to 1,600,000 acres. The 
stock of unsold land on hand is calculated at 400,000,- 
000 acres. In the year 1817, there were sold above 
two millions acres. 

Post O^cc.— In 1789, the number of post offices in 
the United States was seventy-five ; tne amount of 
postage 38.000 dollars ; the miles of post-road 1800. 
In 1817, the number of post offices was 3,469; the 
amount of postage 961,000 dollars ; and the extent of 
post-roads ol^OOO miles. 

Rwenue.-^The revenues of the United States are 
derived from the customs ; from duties on distilled 
spirits, carriages, snufi*, refined sugar, auctions, 
stamped paper, goods, wares, and merchandise manu- 
factured within the United States, household furniture, 
gold and silver watches, and postage of letters ; from 

moneys arising from the sale of public lands, and from 
fees on letters patent. The following are the duties 
paid at the custom house for some of the principal 
articles of importation : — 7 1-2 per cent, on dyemg 
drugs,- jewellery, and watchwork ; 15 per cent, on 
hempen cloth, and on all articles manufactured from 
iron, tin, brass, and lead->-on buttons, buckles, china, 
earthenware, and glass, except window glass ; 26 per 
cent, on cotton and woollen goods, and cotton tvdst ; 
ao per cent, on carriages, leather, and leather manu- 
ihetiues, Ice. 

The average annual produce of the costoms, betweea 
1801 and 1810, both inclusive, was about twelve mil- 
lions dollars. In the year 1814, the customs amounted 
only to four miUiona ; and in the year 1815, the first 
year alter the war, rose to thirty-seven millions. 
From 1789 to 1814. the customs have constituted 65 
per cent, of the American revenues ; loans 26 per 
cent. ; and all other branches 8 to 9 per cent. They 
collect their customs at about 4 per cent.; the Englim 
expense of collection is 61. 2s. 6d. per cent. 

The duty upon spirits is extremely triflmg to the 
consumer — not a penny per gallon. The number of 
distilleries ia about 13,000. The licences produce a 
very inconsiderable sum. The tax laid upon carriages 
in 1814, varied from fifty dollars to one dollar, accord- 
ing to the value of the machine. In the year ISO I 
there were more than fifteen thousand carriages of dif- 
ferent descriptions paying duty. The fumiture-tox 
seems to have been a very singular species of tax, laid 
on during the last war. It was an ad vatorem. duty 
upon all the furniture in any man's possession, the 
value of which exceeded 600 dollars. Furniture can- 
not be estimated without domiciliary visits* nor domi- 
ciliary visits allowed without tyranny ana vexation. 
An information laid against a new arm-chair, or a 
clandestine sideboard — a search-warrant and a convic- 
tion consequent upon it — ^have much more the appear- 
ance of English than American liberty. The license 
for a watch, too, is purely English. A truly free Eng- 
lishman wa^s out covered with licences. It is impos- 
sible to convict hjm. He has paid a guinea for his 
powdered head— a guinea for the coat of arms upon 
Lis seals— a three euinea license for the ^tm he car- 
ries upon his shoulder to shoot game ; and is so forti- 
fied with permits and official sanctions, that the mo^t 
eo^le-eyed informer cannot obtain the most trifling ad- 
vantage over him. 

America has borrowed, betwem 1791 and 18]5| one 
hundred and seven millions of dollars, of which uirty- 
nine millions were borrowed in 1813 and 1814. The 
internal revenue in the year 1816 amounted to eight 
millions dollars ; the gross revenue of the same year, 
including the loon, to fifty-one millions dollars. 

^rmy.— During the late war vrith Great Britain, 
Confess authorized the raising of 62,000 men for the 
armies of the United States,— though the actual num- 
ber raised never amounted to half that force. In Feb- 
ruary, 1815, the army of the United States did not 
amount to more than 32,000 men ; in January, 1814, to 
23,000.* The recruiting service, as may be easily 
conceived, where the wages of labour are so high, goes 
on very slowly in America. The military peace estab- 
lishment was fixed in 1816 at 10,000 men. The Amer- 
icans are fortunately exempt from the insanity of gar- 
risoning little rocks and islands all over the world ; 
nor would they lavish millions upon the ignoble end 
of the Spanish Peninsula— the most useless and ex- 
travagant possession with v^ch any European power 
was ever afflicted. In 1812^ any recruit nonourahly 
discharged (torn the service was allowed three 
months' pay, and 160 acres of land. In 1814, every 
non-commissioned officer, musician, and private, who 
enlisted and was afterwards honourably disciuirged^was 
allowed, upon such discharge, 320 acres. The enlist- 
ment was for five years, or during the war. The wid- 
ow, child, or parent of any person enlisted, who 

or died m the service of the United States, 
entitled to receive the same bounty in land. 

£very free white male between eighteen and forty- 
five, is liable to be called out m the militia, which is 
stated, m official papers, to amount to liSfiOO per- 

Aavy.— On the 8th of June, 1781, the Americsoa 
had only one vessel of war, the AlUaneej and thai viras 
thought to be too expensive, it was sold i The At- 
tacks of the Barbary^wers first roused them to form 
a navy; which, in 1TO7, amounted to three frigates. 
In 1814, besides a great increase of frigates, four 
seventy-fours were ordered to be built. In 1816, m 
consequence of some brilliant actions of their frigates, 

* P««!« with Great Britaia was si|nad ia Deoeabar» 181^ 


tlie DA^al Mzvke had become very popular thioogh- 
out the United States. One million of doUart were 
appropriated annually, for eight yean, to the gradual 
increase of the navy ; nine seventy-fours,* and twelve 
forty-four gun ships were ordered to be built. Vacant 
and unappropriated lands belonging to the United 
States, fit to produce oak and cedar, were to be select- 
ed lor the use of the navy. The peace establishment 
of the marine corps was mcreased^ and six naTY3rards 
were established. We were surprised to find Dr. Sey« 
bert complaining of a want of ship timber in America. 
< Many persons (he says) believe that our stock of 
live oak is very considerable ; but upon good authority 
we have been told, in 1801^ that supplies of live oak 
from Georgia will be obtamed witn great difficulty, 
and that the larger pieces are very scarce.' In treat- 
ing of naval affairs, Dr. Seybert, with a very different 
purpose in view, pays the following involuntary trib- 
ute to the activit]^ and effect of our late naval wai&re 
against the Americans. 

*For a loBf time the minority of the people of the United 
Slates was opposed to an extensive and permanent naval 
establishment; and the force authorised by the legislature, 
until very lately, was intended for temporary purposes. A 
navy was considered to be beyond the financiid means of our 
country ; and it was supposed the people would not submit lo 
be taxed for its support. Our brifliaDl success in the late war 
has changed the public sentiment on this subject ; many per- 
sons who formerly opposed the navy, now consider it an essen- 
tial means for our defence. The late transactions on the bor- 
ders of the Chesapeak bay, cannot be forgotten ; the extent of 
that immense estuary enabled the enemy to sail triumphant into 
the interior of the United States For hundreds of miles along 
the shores ef that great bay, our people were insulted ; our 
towns ravaged and destroyed ; a considerable p<H>n]ation was 
teased and irritated ; depredations were hourly committed by 
aa enemy who could penetrate into the bosom of the country, 
without our being ^le to molest him whilst he kept on the 
water. By the time a sufficient force was collected, to check 
his operations in one situation, his ships had already trans- 
ported him to another, which was feeble^ and offered a booty 
to him. An army could make no resistance lo this mode of 
warfare ; the people were annoyed ; and they suffered in the 
field only to be satisfied of their inability to check those who 
had the dominion upon our waters. The inhabitants who were 
in the immediate vicinity, were not alone affiBcted by the 
enen^ ; his operations extended their influence to our great 
towns on the Atlantic coast; domestic intercourse and inter- 
nal commerce were interrupted, whilst that with foreign 
nations was, in some instances entirely suspended. The 
treasury documents for 1814 exhibit the phenomenon of 
the state of Pennsylvania not being returned in the Ust 
of the exporting vtates. We were not only deprived of 
rerenue, but our expenditures were very much augmented. 
It is probable the amount of the expenditures incurred on the 
borders of the Chesapeak, would have been adequate to pro- 
vide naval means for tlie defence of those waters : the neople 
might then have remained at home, secure from depredation, 
in the pursuit of their tranquil occupations. The expenses of 
the government, as well as of individuals, were very much 
augmented for every species of transportation. Everything 
had to be conveyed by land carriage. Our communication 
with the ocean was cut oflT. One thousand dollars were paid 
for the transportation of each of the thirty-two pounder can- 
non from Washington dty to Lake Ontario, for the public 
sorvice. Our roads became almost impassable from die heavy 
loads which were carried over them. These Acts should in- 
duce OS, in tones of tranquillity, to provide for the national 
defence, and execute Huce internal improvements as cannot be 
effected during the agitations of w^.'— (p. 639.) 

Erpenditure.^The President of the United States 
Teceires about 60001. a year ; the Vice President about 
600/.; the deputies to Congress have 8 dollars per day, 
and 8 dollars for every 30 miles of journey. The first 
clerk of the Htmse ot Representatives receives about 
750/. per annum ; the Secretary of State, 1300/. ; the 
Postmaster-General, 750/. ; the Chief Justice of the 
United States, 1000/.; a Minister Plenipotentiary, 
2300/. per annum. There are, doubtless, reasons virhy 
there should be two noblemen appointed in this coim- 
try as Postmasters-General, with enormous salaries, 
neither of whom know a twopenny post letter from a 
general one, and where farther retrenchments are sta- 
ted to be impossible. This is clearly a case to ^iuch 
that imposttbility extends. But these axe matters 

* The American eeveaty-foor ran ships are as big ss our 
flist-ff«Me, sad their frigates ossiiysf big as iblpfoi' the laie^ 

where a piottiatimLof ondentanding it called foT ; and 
good subjects are not to reason, but to pay. If, how* 
ever^ we were ever to Indulge in the Saxon practice of 
lookmg into our own affairs, some important docu- 
ments might be derived fVom these American salaries. 
Jonathan, for instance, sees no reason whj the first 
clerk of his House of Commons should denve emolu^ 
ments from his situation to the amount of 6000/. or 
7000/. per annum > but Jonathan is vulvar and arith- 
metical. The total expenditure of the United States 
varied, between 1799 and 1811, both inclusive, ftom 11 
to 17 million dollars. From 1813 to 1814, both inclu- ^ 
slve, and all these years of war with this country, the 
expenditure was consecutively 33. 39, and 38 millions 
dollars. The total expenditure or the United States, 
for 14 years, from 1791 to 1814, was 333 millions dol- 
lars ; of which, in the three last years of wwu with this 
country, f^om 1813 to 1814, there were expended 100 
millions of dollars, of which only 35 were supplied by 
revenue, the rest by loans and government paper. The 
sum total received by the American treasury ftom the 
3d of March, 1789, to the 3l8t of March, 1816, is 364 
millions dollars; of which 107 millions have been 
raised by loan, and 233 millions by the customs and 
toimage : so that, exclusive of the revenue derived 
from loans. 323 parts out of 347 of the American rev- 
enue have oeen derived Arom foreign commerce. In 
the mind of any sensible American, this consideration 
ought to prevail over the few splendid actions of their 
half dozen frigates, which must, in a continued war, 
have been, with all their bravery and activity, swept 
fVom the face of the ocean by the superior force and 
eoual bravery of the English. It would be the height 
9t madness m America to run into another naval war 
with this country, if it could be averted by any other 
means than a sacrifice of proper dignity and charac- 
ter. They have, comparatively, no Tana revenue ; and 
in spite ot the Franklin and GuerrUrtf though lined 
with cedar and mounted with brass cannon, they must 
soon be reduced to the same state which has been de- 
scribed by Dr. Seybert, and Arom viliich they were so 
opportunely extricated by the treaty of Ghent. David 
Porter and Stephen Decatur are very brave men ; but 
they will prove an unspeakable misfortune to their 
country, if they inflame Jonathan into a love of naval 
glory, and hispire him with any other love of war than 
that which is rounded upon a determination not to sub- 
mit to serious insult ana ii\jury. 

We can inform Jonathan what are the inetntable con- 
teqtuncea of being too fond of glory ,*— Taxes up&n 
wery article which enter $ into the mouth, or cover $ the 
back, or i» placed under the foot^^taxee upon every thing 
wkUh it ie pleaeanttoeeejhear, fed, emeUyOrtaete-^ 
taxee upon warmth, light, and locomotionr'4axee on 
every thing on earth, and the waters under the earths 
on every thing that comet from abroad, or ie grown Mi 
home-^xee on the raw material-^axea on every freeh 
value that ie added to it by the industry ofman'-4axe» 
on the sauce which pampere man^e appetiU, and the drug 
mat restores him to AeaZ/A^-on the ermine which deco- 
rates the judge, and the rope which hangs the criminal 
--on the poor man^s salt, and the rich man*e epiee—on 
the braes nails of the comn. and the ribands of the bride 
—at bed or board, eouchant or levant, ire must pay.— 
The schoolboy whips his taxed top^he beardless youth 
managfs his taxed horse, wUh a taxed bridU, on a taxed 
road >-and the dying Englishman, pouring his meutctne , 
which has paid Iper cent., into a spoon that has paid 16 
per eent.,fiings himself back upon his chintz bed, which 
has paid 23 per cenJt.f-and expires in the arme of an 
apothecary who has paid a Ueense of a hundred pounds 
for the privilege of putting him to death, HU whole 

S'operty ie then immediatdy taxed from 2 to 10 per cent. 
eSdes the probate, large fees are demanded for bwrytng 
him in the chancel; his virtues are handed ^mm to poe- 
terity on taxed marbU ; and he is then ^eredto hia 
fathersj-io be taxed no more. In addition to all thte, 
the habit of dealing with large sums will make the 
government avaricious and profuse ; and the svstem 
itself will inffOlibly generate the base termm of spies 
and informers, and a still more pestilent race of poli- 
tical tools and retainen of the meanest and most 
odioof description j— while the prodigions pattonaga 


which the collecting of this splendid rerenne will 
throw into the hands of goTcmment, will invest it 
with so vast an intiuence, and hold oat such means 
and temptations to corraption, as all the virtue and 
public spirit, even of republicans , will be unable to 

Every wise Jonathan should remember this, when 
be sees the rabble huzzaing at the heels of the truly 
respectable Decatur, or inflaming the vanity of that 
fttiU more popular leader, whose justification has 
lowered the character of bis government with all the 
civilized nations of the world. 

Debt. — America owed 42 millions dollars after the Re- 
volutionarjT war ; in 1790, 79 millions ; in 1803, 70 mil- 
lions ; and in the beginning of January. 1812, the public 
debt was diminished to 4o millions dollars. After the 
last war with flngland, it had risen to 123 millions ; and 
so it stood on the 1st of January, 1816. The total 
amount carried to the credit of the commissioners of 
the sinking fund, on the 31st of December, 1816, was 
about 34 millions of dollars. 

Such is the land of Jonathan — and thus has it been 
governed. In his honest endeavours to better his situ- 
ation, and in his manly purpose of resisting iniury and 
insult, we most cordially sympathize. We hope he 
will always continue to watch and suspect his govern- 
ment as he now does — ^rememberinff, that it L* the 
constant tendency of those entrusted with power, to 
conceive that they enjoy it by their own merits, and 
for their own use, and not by delegation, and for the 
benefit of others. Thus far we arc the friends and 
admirers of Jonathan. But he must not grow vain 
and ambitious ; or allow himself to be dazzled by that 
gilixy of epithets by which his orators and news- 
paper scribblers endeavour to persuade their sup- 
porters that they are the greatest, the most refined, 
the most enlightened, and most moral people upon 
i earth. The effect of this is unspeakably ludicrous on 
this side of the Atlantic — and, even on the other, we 
shall im^ine, must be rather humiliating to the rea- 
sonable part of the population. The Americans are a 
brave, in'lustrious, and acute people ; but they have 
hitherto given no indications of genius, and made no 
approaches to the heroic, either m their moraliur or 
character. They are but a recent offset indeed from 
England ; and snould make it their cliief boast, for 
many generations to come, that they are sprung from 
the same race with Bacon and Shakspeare and New- 
ton. Considering their numbers, indeed, and the 
favourable circumstances in which they have been 
placed, they have yet done marvellously little to assert 
the honour of such a descent, or to snow that their 
English blood has been exalted or refined by their re- 
publican training and institutions. Their Franklins 
and Washingtons, and all the other sages and heroes 
of their Revolution, were born and bred subjects of 
the King of England, — and not among the freest or 
most valued of his subjects. And since the period of 
their separation, a far greater proportion of their 
statesmen and artists and political writers have been 
foreigners, than ever occurred before in the history of 
any civilized and educated people. During the thirty 
or forty years of their independence, they have done 
absolutely nothing for the Sciences, for the Arts, for 
Liteniture, or even for the statesman-like studies 
of Politica or Political Economy. Confining our 
selves to our own country, and to the period that has 
elapsed since tfi^ had an indepenaent existence, 
we would ask, Where are their Foxes, their Burkes, 
their Sheridans, their Wmdhams, their Homers, 
their Wilberforces ?— where their Arkwrights, their 
Watts, their Davys? — their Robertsons, filairs, 
Smiths, Stewarts, Paleys, and Malthnses? — their 
Persons, Parrs, Bumeys, or Bloomfields ?~their Scotts, 
Rogers's, Campbells, Byrons, Moores, or Crabbes ? — 
their Siddons's, Kembles, Keans, or O'Neils !— their 
Wilkes, Lawrences, Chantrys?— or their parallels to 
the hundred other names that have spread themselves 
over the world from our little islandT in the course of 
the last thirty years, and blest or delighted mankind 
by tl^eir works, inventions, or examples ? In so far 
ma we know, there is no such parallel to be produced 
n the wfapio MiMLto of thli ■elf-«dulating race. In 

I the four qnazten of the globe, who Rftdf an Ameiieaa 
book? or goes to an American j^ay? or looks at an 
I American picture or statue ? what does the world 
yet owe to American physicians or surgeons ? What 
, new substances have their chemists discovered ? or 
what old ones have they analyzed ? What new con- 
stellations have been discovered by the telescopes of 
Americans ? What have they done in mathematics ? 
Who drinks out of American glasses ? or eats from 
American plates ? or wears American coats or gowns ? 
or sleeps in American blankets ? Finally, under which 
of the old tyrannical governments of Europe is every 
sixth man a slave, whom his fellow-croatures may 
buy and sell and torture ? 

When these questions are fairly and favourably an- 
swered, their laudatory epithets may be allowed : but 
till that can be done, we would seriously advise them 
to keep clear of superlatives. o^ "•.'./ * , *•.. ' . ». 

IRELAND. (Edinbuboh Review, 1820.) 

1. WhitOaw'i HUtory of the City of IhMin, Uo, CadcU 

and Davieii. 
3. Ohaervatioiu on the State of Ireland j principally dirtcled to 
Us Agriculture and Rural Population j in a 8erie* of Let- 
ters written on a Tour through that Country. In U vols. 
By J. (J. Ciirwen, Esq., M. P. London, Idld, 
3. Oamble*s Vietn tf Society in Ireland. 

These are all the late publications that treat of 
Irish interests in general, — and none of them are of 
first-rate importance. Mr. Gamble's travels in Ireland 
are of a very ordinary description — low scenes and 
low humour making up the principal part of the nar- 
rative. There are readers, however, whom it will 
amuse; and the reading market becomes more and 
more extensive, and embraces a greater variety of 
persons every day. Mr. Whitelaw's History of Dub- 
lin is a book of great accuracy and research, highly 
creditable to the industry, good sense, and benero- 
lence of its author. Of the travels of Mr. Christisn 
Curwcn^ we hardly know what to say. He is bold and 
honest m his politics — a great enemy to abuses — ra- 
pid in his levity and pleasantry, and infinitely too much 
mclined to declaim upon commonplace topics of mor- 
ality and benevolence. But, with these draw-backs, 
the book is not ill written ; and may be advantageous- 
ly read by those who are desirous of information upon 
the present state of Ireland. 

So great, aud so long has been the misgoTemment 
of that country, that we verily believe the empire 
would be much stronger, if every thing was open sea 
between England and the Atlantic, and if skata and 
codfish swam over the fair land of Ulster. Such job- 
bing, such profligacy — so much direct t3rrannY and op- 
pression — such an abuse of God's gifts — sudi a pro- 
fanation of God's name for the purposes of bigotry 
and party spirit, cannot be exceeded in the history of 
civilized Europe, and will long remain a monument of 
infamy and shame to England. But it will be more 
useful to suppress the indignation which the yery 
name of Ireland inspires, and to consider impartially 
those causes which have marred this fair portion of 
the creation, and kept it wild and savage in the midst 
of improving Europe. • 

The great misfortune of Ireland is, that the mass of 
the people have been given up for a century to a hand- 
ful of Protestants, by whom they have been treated as 
Helots^ and subjected to every species of persecution 
and disgrace. The sufferings of the Catholics have 
been so loudly chanted m the very streets, that it is 
almost needless to remind our readers that, during the 
reigns of George I. and George the II., the Irish Ro- 
man Catholics were disabled from holding any civil or 
military office, from voting at elections, from admis- 
sion into corporations, from practising law or physic. 
A younger brother, by tummg Protestant, might de- 
prive his elder brother of his birth-right : by the same 
process, he might force his father, under the name of 
a liberal provision, to yield up to him a part of his 
landed property; and, if an eldest son, he might, in 
the same way, reduce his lather's fee-simple to a life 
estate. A Papist wm disabled firom pon^utsiiig free- 


Itold Isiid»-*«Bd evea ttom holding long leaacii mid 
9DJ person might take his Catholic neighbour's house 
hj paying £b lor it. If the child of a Catholic father 
turned Protestant, he was taken away from his father 
and put into the hands of a Protestant relation. No 
Papist could purchase a free-hold^ or lease for more 
thitn thirty years— or inherit from an intestate Protes- 
tant — nor from an intestate Catholic— nor dwell in Li- 
merick or Galway— >nor hold an advowson, nor buy an 
amraity for life. j£50 was given for discovering a po- 

fish archbishop — £30 for a popish clergyman — and 
Of. for a schoolmaster. No one was allowed to be 
trustee for Catholics ; no Catholic was allowed to take 
more than two apprentices ; no Papist to be solicitor, 
sheriff, or to serve on grand juries. Horses of Papists 
might be seized for the militia ; for which militia Pa- 
pists were to pay double, and to find Protestant sub- 
atittttes. Papists were prohibited from being high or 
petty constables ; and, when resident in towns, they 
were compelled to find Protestant watchmen. Barris- 
ters and solicitors marrying Catholics, were exposed 
to the penalties of Catholics. Persons plundered by 
privateers during d war with any Popish prince, were 
reimbursed by a levy on the Catholic inhabitants 
where they lived. AU popish priests celebrating mar- 
riages contrary to 12 Geo. 1. cap. 3, were to be hanged. 

The greater jpart of thebe incapacities are removed, 
though many of a very serious and oppressive nature 
still remain. But the grand misfortune is, that the 
spirit which these oppressive laws engendered still 
remains. The Protestant still looks upon the Catho- 
hc as a degpraded being. The Catholic does, not yet 
consider himself upon an equality with his former 
tyrant and taskmaster. , That reHgiou$ hatred which 
required all the prohibiting vigilance of the law for its 
restraint, has found in the law its strongest support ; 
and the spirit which the law first exasperated and 
embittered, continues to act long after the original 
attmuhtt is withdrawn. The law which prevented 
Catholics from serving on grand juries is repealed ; but 
Catholics are not called upon grand jnries in the pro- 
portion in which they are entitled, by their rank and 
fortune. The Duke of Bedford did all he could to give 
them the benefit of those laws which are already pas- 
sed in their favour. But power is seldom entrusted in 
this country to one of the Duke ot Bedford's liberality ; 
and every thing has fallen back in the hands of his 
successors into the ancient division of the privileged 
and degraded castes. We do not mean to cast any 
reflection upon the present Secretary for Ireland, whom 
we believe to be on this subject a very liberal politi- 
cian, and on all subjects an honourable and excellent 
man. The government under which he serves allows 
him to indulge in a little harmless liberality ; but it is 
perfectly understood that nothing is intended to be 
done for the Catholics ; that no loaves and fishes will 
be lo»t by indulgence in Protestant insolence and tyran- 
ny ; and therefore, amons^ the generality of Irish Pro- 
testants, insolence, tyranny, and exclusion continue to 
operate. However eligible the Catholic may be, be is 
not elected ; whatever barriers may be thrown down, 
he does not advance a step. He was first kept out by 
law ; he is now kept out by opinion and habit. They 
have been so Jong m chains, that nobody believes them 
capable of using their hands and feet. 

It is not however the only or worst misfortune of 
the Catholics, that the relaxations of the law are hith- 
erto of little benefit to them ; the law is not yet suffi- 
ciently relaxed. A Catholic, as every body knows, 
caimot be made sherifi'; cannot be in Parliament ; can- 
not be a director of the Irish Bank ; cannot fill the 
great departments of the law, the army, and the navy : 
is cut on from all the objects of human ambition, and 
treated as a marked and degraded person. 

The common admission fiow is, that the Catholics 
are to the Protestants in Ireland as about 4 to 1— of 
which Protestants, not more than one half belong to 
the Charch of Ireland. This, then, is one of the most 
striking feamres in the state of Ireland. That the 
great mass of the population is completely subjugated 
and overawed by a handful of comparatively recent 
■ettlersr-4n whom all the power and patronage of the 
eonatry U Testedr-who have been relnctantiy cooDb 


peUed to detiat tnm ttlU greater abnftet of aHjoritT, 
—and who look with trembling apprehension to the 
j increasing liberality of the Parhament and tlie country 
towards these unfortunate persons whom they have 
always looked upon as their property and their prey. 
Whatever evils may result from these proportions 
between the oppressor and the oppressed — ^to whatever 
dangers a counuy so situated may be considered te be 
exposed — these evils and dangers are rapidly iocrea^ in Ireland. The proportion of Catholics to Pro- 
testants is infinitely greener now than it was thirty 
years ago, and is J>ecoming more and more favoorable 
to the former. By a return made to the IHsh House 
of Lords in 1732, the proportion of Catholics to Pro- 
testants was not 2 to 1 . li is now (as we have already 
observed) 4 to 1 ; and the causes which have thus alter- 
ed the proportion in favour of the Catholics, are suffi- 
cientlv obvious to any one acquainted with the state 
of Ireland. The Roman Catholic priest resides ; his 
income entirely depends upi n the number of his fiock ; 
and he must exert himself, or he starves. There is 
some chance of success, therefore, in his efforts to 
converts but the Protestant clergyman, if he were 
equally eager, has little or no probability of persuading 
so much larger a proportion of the population to come 
over to his church. The Catholic clergyman belongs 
to a religion that has always been more desirous of 
gaining proselytes than the Protestant church; and he 
is animated by a sense of injury and a desire of re- 
venue. Another reason for the disproportionate in- 
crease of Catholics is, that the Catholics will marrr 
upon means which the Protestant considers as insnfif- 
cjent for marriage. A few notatoes and a shed of turf, 
are all that Luther has leu for the Romanist ; and, 
when the latter gets these, he instantly begins upon 
the great Irish manufacture of children. But a Pro- 
testant belongs to the sect that eats the fine flour, and 
leaves the bran to others ; he must have comforts, and 
he does not marry till he gets them. He would be 
ashamed, if he were seen living as a Catholic lives. 
This is the principal reason why the Protestants who 
remain attached to their church do not increase so fast 
as the Catholics. But in common minds, daily scenes, 
the example of the majority, the power of imitation, 
decide their habits, religious as well as civil. A Pro- 
testant labourer who works among Catholics, soon 
learns to think and act and talk as they do— he is not 

f roof against the eternal panegyric which he hears of 
ather O'Leary. His Protestantism is rubbed away > 
and he goes at last, after some little resistance, to the 
chapel, where he sees every body else going. 

Tnese eight Catholics not only hate the ninth man, 
the Protestant of the Establishment, for the unjust 
privileges he enjoys-~not only remember that the lands 
of their father were given to his father— but they find 
themselves forced to pay for the support of his rehgion. 
In the wretched state of poverty in which the. lower 
orders of Irish are plunged, it is not without considera- 
ble effort they can pay the few shillings necessary foi , 
the support of their Cfatholic priest ; and when this is 
effected, a tenth of the potatoes in the garden are to 
be set out for the support of a persuasion, the intro- 
duction of wluch into Ireland they consider as the great 
cause of their political inferiority, and all their mani- > 
fold wretchedness. In England, a labourer can procure 
constant employment — or he can, at the worst, obtain 
relief from nis parish. Whether tithe operates as a 
tax upon him, is Known only to the political econcmist : 
if he does pay it. he does not know that be pays it s 
and the burthen oi supporting the clergy is at lcu8t kept 
out of his view. But in Ireland, the only method m 
which a poor man lives, is by taking a small portion 
of land, in which he can grow potatoes : seven or eight 
months ont of the twelve, in many parts of Ireland, 
there is no constant employment oi the poor: and the 
potato farm is aU that shelters them from absolute fa- 
mine. If the pope were to come in person, and seize 
upon every tenth potato, the poor peasant would 
scarcely endure it. With what patience, then, can he 
see it tossed into the cart of the heretic Rector, who 
has a church without a congregation, and a revenue 
without duties 7 
We do not say whether these things ace right or 


wTonff— whether ther want a Temedy at all— or what 
remedy they want ; out we paint ihem in those colours 
in which they appear to the eye of poverty and igno- 
rance^ without saying whether those colours are false 
or true. Nor is the case at all comparable to that of 
Dissenters paying tithe in England ; which case is pre- 
cisely the reverse of what happens in Ireland, for it is 
the contribution of a very small minority to the reli- 
gion of a very laree majority; and the numbers on 
either side maike aU the difierence in the argument. — 
To exaiiperate the poor Catholic still more, the rich 
graziers of the parish— or the squire in his parish — ^paj 
no tithe at all lor their grass land. Agistment tithe is 
abolished in Ireland ; and the burthen of supporting 
two churches seems to devolve upon the poorer Cath- 
olics, struggling with plough and spade in small scraps 
of dearly-rented land. Tithes seem to be collected m 
a more harsh manner than they are collected in Eng- 
land. The minute subdivisions of land in Ireland — 
the little connection which the Protestant clergyman 
commonly has with the Catholic population of his 
parish, have made the introduction or tithe proctors 
very general— sometimes as the agent of the clergy- 
man — sometimes as the lessee or middleman between 
the clergyman and the cultivator of the land } but, in 
either case, practised, dexterous estimators of tithe. 
The Englisn clergymen, in general, are far from ex- 
acting the whole of what is due to them, but sacrifice 
a little to the love of popularity, or to the dread of 
odium. A system of tithe-proctors established all 
over England (as it is in Ireland,) would produce gen- 
eral disgust and alienation from the Establi^ed 

'During the administratien of Lord Halifax,' says Mr. 
Hardy, in quoting the opinion of Lord Charlemont upon 
tithes paid by Catholics, < Ireland was dangerously distuii)ed 
in its southern and northern regrlona. In the south urinci- 
pslly, in the counties of Killcenny, LimericlL Cork, and 
Tlpperary, the White Boys now made their first appear- 
ance ; those White Boys, who have ever since occasionally 
disturbed the public tranquillity, without any rational meth- 
od having been as yet pursued to eradicate this disgraceful 
evil. When we consider, that the very same district has 
been for the long space of seven-and-twenty years liable to 
frequent returns of the same disorder into which it has con- 
tinually relapsed, in spite of all the violent remedies from 
time to time administered by our political quacks, we can- 
not doubt but that some real, peculiar, and topical cause 
must exist ; and yet, neither the removal, nor even the in. 
▼estigation of this cause, has ever once been seriously at- 
tempted. Laws of the most sanguinary and unconstitutlon' 
al nature have been enacted ; the country has been dis- 
graced, and exan>erated bv frequent and bloody executions : 
and the gibbet, that perpetual resource of weak and cruel 
legislators, has groaned under the multitude of starving 
ciiminalB ; yet, while the cause is suffered to exist, the e^ 
f ects will ever follow. The amputation of limbs will never 
eradicate a prurient humour, which must be sought in its 
source, and there remedied.' 

« I wish,' continues Mr. Wakefield, ♦ for the sake of hu- 
manity, and for the honour of the Irish character, that the 
gentlemen of that country would take this matter into their 
serious consideration. Let them only for a moment place 
themselves in the situation of the half-tamished cotter, sur- 
rounded by a wretched family, clamorous for food ; and 
Judge what his feelings must be, when he sees the tenth part 
of the produce of his potatoe garden exposed at harvest 
time to public cant ; or, if he have given a promissary note 
for the payment of a certain sum or money, to compensate 
for such tithe when it becomes due, to hear the heart-rend- 
ing cries of his offspring clinging around him, and lament- 
ing for the mUk of which they are deprived, by the cows 
^<ang driven to the pound, to be sold to discharge the debt. 
Such accounts are not the creation of fancy; tiie facts do 
exist, and are but too common in Ireland. Were one of 
them transferred to canvass by the hand of genius, and ex- 
hibited to Enerlish humanity, that heart mu^ be callous in- 
deed that could refuse its sympathy. I have seen the cow, 
the favourite cow, driven away, accompanied by the sighs, 
the tears, and the imprecations of a whole family, who 
were paddling after, through wet and dirt, to take their last 
affectionate fareweU of this their only friend and benefac- 
tor, at the pound gate. I have heard with emotions which 
I can scarcely describe, deep curses repeated from village to 
Tillage as the cavalcade proceeded. I have witnessed the 

Soup pais the domain walls of the opulent grazier, whose 
rrds were cropping the most luxuriant pastures, while he 
was secure fh>m any demand for the tithe of their food, 
looking on with the mostunfeeUng indifferenfie.'— fTalfcf- 
^M, p. 480. 

In Mimater, where tithe oi frMioea is exacted. 
risings against the system have constantly occurred 
during the last forty years. In Ulster, where no auch 
tithe 18 required, tnese insurrections are unknown^— 
The double church which Ireland supports, and that 
painful visible contribution towards it whicn the poor 
Irishman is compelled to make from his miserable pit- 
tance, is one great cause of those never ending insur- 
rections, burnings, murders, and robberies, which 
have laid waste that ill-ihted country for so many 
Years. The unfortunate consequence of the civil disa- 
bilities, and the church payments under which the 
Catholics labor, is a rooted antipathy to thia country. 
They hate the English government from historical 
recollection, actual sufienng, and disappointed hope ; 
and till they are better treated, they wall continue to 
hate it. At this moment, in a Jieriod of the most pro- 
found peace, there are twenty-five thousand of the oest 
discipuned and best appointed troops in the world in 
Ireland^ with bayonets fixed, presented arms, and in 
the attitude of present war : nor is there a man too 
much—nor would Ireland be tenable without them.— 
When it was necessary last year (or thought necea* 
sary) to put down the children of reform, we were 
forced to make a new levy of troops in this country — 
not a man could be spared from Ireland. The mo> 
ment they had embarked, Peep-of-day Boys. Heart-of- 
Oak Boys, Twelve-o'clock Boys, Heart-of-fiint Boys, 
and all the bloody boyhood of the Bog of Allen, 
would have proceeded to the ancient work of riot, ra- 
pine, and cusaiTection. Ireland, in short, till her 
wrongs are redressed, and a more liberal policy is 
adopted towards her, will always be a cause of anxiety • 
and suspicion to this cotmtry ; and, in some moment 
of our weakness and depression, will forcibly extort 
what she would now receive with gratitude and exal- 

Ireland is situated close to another island of greater 
size, speaking the same language, very superior in 
civilization, and the seat of government. The conse- 
quence of this is the emigration of the richest and 
most powerful part of the community — a vast drain of 
wealtn — and the absence of all that wholesome influ- 
ence which the representatives of ancient fiuniliea 
residing upon their estates, produce upon their tenant- 
ry and dependants. Can any man imagine that the 
scenes wluch have been acted in Ireland within these 
last twenty years, would have taken place, if auch vast 
proprietors as the Duke of Devonshire, the Marouis of 
Hertford, the Marquis of Lansdown, Earl Fitzwuliam, 
and many other mea of equal wealth, had been in the 
constant nabit of residing upon their Irish, as they are 
upon their English estates ? Is it of no consequence to 
the order, and the civilization of a large district, 
whether the great mansion is inhabited by an insigni- 
ficant, perhaps a mischievous, attorney, m the shape 
of agent, or whether the first and greatest men of tne 
United Kingdoms, after the business of Parliament is 
over, come with their friends and families, to exercise 
hospitality, to spend large revenues, to dififuse infor- 
mation, and to improve manners ? This evil is a very 
serious one to Ireland ; and, as far as we see, incura- 
ble. For if the present huge estates were, by the 
dilapidation of famihes, to oe broken to pieces and 
sold, others equally great would, in the free circula- 
tion of property, speedily accumulate ; and the mo- 
ment any possessor arrived at a certain pitch of for- 
tune, he would probably choose to reside m the better 
country, near the Parliament or the court. 

This absence of great proprietors in Ireland neces- 
sarily brings with it, or ifnot necessarily, has actually 
brought with it, the employment of middlemen, which 
forms one other standing and regular Irish grif^rance. 
We are well aware of all that can be said in defence 
of middlemen ; that they stand between the little 
farmer and the great proprietor, as the shopkeeper 
does between the manuiacturer and consumer ; and, in 
fact, by their intervention, save time, and therefore 
expense. Ttiis may be true enough in the abstract : 
but the particular nature of land must be attended to. 
The object of the man who makes cloth is to sell his 
cloth at the present market, for as high a price as he 
can obtaio. If Uut price ia too high, it aoon falls ;- 



but no injury is done to his m«cluneTy by the superior 
price he has enjoyed for a season — ^he is just as able 
to prodace doth with it, as if the profits he enjoyed 
haa always been equally moderate ; he has no fear, — 
therefore, of the middleman, or of any species of moral 
machinery which may help to obtain for him the 
preatest present prices. The same would be the feel- 
mg of any one who let out a steam engine, or any other 
machine, for the purposes of manufacture ; he would 
naturally take the highest price he could get : for he 
might either let his machine for a price proportionate 
to the work it did, or the repairs, estimable with the 
greatest precision, might be thrown upon the tenant ; 
m short, he could hardly ask any rent too high for his 
machine which a responsible person would give ; — 
dilapidation would be so visible, and so calcu&ble in 
such instances, that any secondaxy lease, or subletting, 
would be rather an increase of security than a source 
of alarm. Any evil f^om such a practice would be 
improbable, measurable^ and remediable. In land, on 
the contrary, the object is not to get the highest pnces 
absolutely, but to get the highest prices which will 
not injure the machine. One tenant may ofier and 
nay doul^e the rent of another, and in a few years 
leave the land in a state which will effectually bar all 
Aiture offers of tenancy. It is of no use to fill a lease 
full of claoaes and covensnts ; a tenant who pays more 
than he ought to pay, or who pays even to the last 
&rthing which he ought to pay, will rob the land, and 
injure the machine, in spite of all the attorneys in 
England. He will rob it even if he means to remain 
npon it— driven on by present distress, and anxious to 
put ofl' the day of defalcation and arrear. The dam- 
age is often dilBcuit of detection, not easily calculated, 
not easily to be proved ; such for whi(^ iuries (them- 
selves perhaps ratmers) will not willingly give suffi- 
cient compensati<m. And if this is true in I&gland, it 
is much more strikingly true in Ireland, where it is 
eztremel]^ difficult to obtain verdicts for breaches of 
covenant in leases. 

The only method then of guarding the machine 
from real injurjr is, by giving to the actual occupier 
such advantage in his contract, that he is unwilling to 
give it up— that he has a real interest in retaining it, 
and is not driven by the distresses of the present mo- 
ment to destrcy the future prodnctiveness of the soil. 
Any rent which the landlord accepts more than this, 
or any system by which more rent than this is obtain- 
ed, is to borrow money upon the most usurious and 
pro^gate interest — to increase the revenue of the pre- 
sent dav by the absolute ruin of the propertjT. Such 
Is the effect produced by a middleman : ne gives high 
prices that he may obtain higher firom the occupier ; 
more is paid by the actual occupier than is consistent 
with the safety and preservation of the machine ; the 
land is run out, and, m the eud^ that maximum of rent 
we have described is not obtained ; and not only is 
the property injured by such a system, but in Ireland 
the most shoclong consequences ensue from it. There 
i« little manufacture in Ireland ; the price of labour is 
low, the demand for labour irregular. If a poor man 
is driven, by distress of rent, from his potato garden, 
he has no other resource — all is lost : he will do the 
impossible (as the French say) to retain it ; and siib- 
acnbeany bond, and promise any rent. The middle- 
man has no character to lose ; and he knew^ when he 
took up the occupation, that it was one with which 
pity had nothing to do. On he drives ; and backward 
the poor peasant recedes, losing something at every 
step, till he oomes to the very brink of despair ; and 
then he recoils and murders his oppressor, and is a 
WhUe Soy or a Right ifoy;— the soldier shoots him, 
and the judge hangs him. 

In the debate which took place in the Irish House 
of Commons, upon the bill for preventing tumultuous 
xisings and assemblies^ on the 31st of January, 1787, 
the Attorney-General submitted to the House the fol- 
lowing narrative of facts. 

<The oonunencement,' said he, 'wss in one or two pa- 
riahtt in the county of Kerry: and they proceeded thus. 
The people assemued in a Catholic chapel, and there took 
ta oaUi to obey the laws of Oaftain lugnty and to starve 

ttedagy. Ttoy ttien proceeded to (he next pariahei, on 
the following Sunday, and there awore the people in the 
same manner; with thU addition, that they (the people last 
sworn) should on the ensuing Sunday proceed to the chapels 
of their next neighbouring parishes, and swear the inhabi- 
tante of those parishes in like manner. Proceeding In this 
manner, thw veiy soon went through the provfaice of Mun- 
stcr. The first object was, the r^ormatiou of tithes. They 
swore not to give more than a certain price i»cr acre: not to 
assist, or to allow them to be assisted, m drawing the tithe, 
and to permit no ^oetor. They next took upon them to 
prevent the collection of parish cesses; next to nominate 
pariah derks, and in some cases curates : to say what church 
should or should not be repaired; and in one case to thxeaten 
that they would burn a new church, if the old one were not 
nven for a mass-house. At last they proceeded to regulate 
the price of lands; to raise the price of labour? and to 
oppose the collection of the hearth money, and other taxes. 
Bodies of 5000 of them have been seen to march through 
the country unarmed, and if met by any magistrate, they 
never qfered the fmaUeet rudeneu or (fffen^e; on the con- 
trary, ftey had allowed persons chaived with crhnes to be 
taken from amongst them by the magistrate alone, ^"^»i4ed 
by any force.* 

< The Attorney-General said he was well acquainted with 
the province of Munster, and that it was impossible for 
human wretchedness to eaxeed that (jf the peasantry of thai 
promnee. The unhappy tenantry were ground to pMer by 
relenUess landlords; that, far from being able to give ttie 
dexgy their just dues, they had not food or ratanent for 
ttiemsdves--the landlord grasped the whole; andsoiry was 
he to add, that, not satisfied with the present extortion, some 
landlords had been so base as to instkate'the insuraenta to 
rob the clemy of their Uthes, not in order to aUeviate the 
distresses of the tenantry, but that they might add tha 
deigy's share to the cruel rack-rents they already paid. 
The poor people of Munster Uved in a more abject staU of 
poverty than human nature eovld be supposed eewU to iear.'— 
(Srattan's Speeches, vol. I. 292. 

We are not, of course, in such a discussion, to be 

fovemed by names. A middleman might be tied up, 
y the strongest legal restriction, as to the price ha 
was to exact from the under-tenants, and then ha 
would be no more pernicious to the estate than a 
steward. A steward might be protected in exactions 
as severe aa the most rapacious middleman ; and then, 
of course, it would be the same thing under another 
name. The practice to which we object is, the too 
common method in Ireland of extorting the last far- 
thing which the tenant is willing to give for land, ra- 
ther than quit it : and the maclunery by which such 
practice is carried into effect, is that of the middle- 
man. It is not only that it ruins the land ; it ruins the 
people also. They are made so poor— brought so 
near the ground— that they can sink no lower : and 
burst out at last into all the acts of desperation and 
revenge, for which Ireland is so notorious. Men who 
have money in their pockets and find that they are 
improvmg in their circumstances, don't do these 
thing^. Opulence, or the hope of opulence or com- 
fort, is the parent of decency, order, and submission 
to the laws. A landlord in Ireland understands the 
luxury of carriages and horses ; but has no relish for 
the greater luxury of surrounding himself with a mor- 
al and grateful tenantry. The absent proprietor looks 
only to revenue, and cares nothing for the disorder 
anadegradationof a country which he never means 
to visit. There are very honourable exceptions to 
this charge : but there are too many living instances 
that it is just. The rapacity of the Irish landlord in- 
duces him to aUow of the extreme division of his 
lands. When the daughter marries, a little portion of 
the little farm is broken off-— another comer for Pat- 
rick, and another for Dermot — ^till the land is broken 
into sections, upon one of which an £^glish cow could 
not stand. Twenty mansions of misery are thus rear- 
ed instead of one. A louder cry of oppression is lift- 
ed up to heaven; and fresh enemies to the I^glish 
name and power are multiplied on the earth. The 
Irish gentlemen, too. extremely desirous of political 
influence, multiply ureeholds, and split votes; and 
this propensity tends of course to increase the miser- 
able redundance of living beings, under which Ireland 
is groaning. Among the manifold wretchedness to 
which the poor Irish tenant is liable, we must not paai 
over the practice of driving for rent. A lets land to 
B| who leto It to C| who lets it again to D. P pays G 



his rent) and C payi B. But if B faUs to pay A, the 
cattle of B, C, D are all driven to the poond, and, af- 
ter the interval of & few days, sold by auction. A 
general driving of this kind very frequently leads to a 
bloody insurrection. It may be ranked among the 
classical grievances of Ireland. 

Potatoes enter for a great deal into the present con- 
dition of Ireland. They are much cheaper than 
wheat ; and it is so easy to rear a family upon them, 
that there is no check to population from the difficul- 
ty of procuring food. The population therefore goes 
on with a rapidity approachmg almost to that of new 
countries, and in a much greater ratio than the im- 
proving agriculture and manufactures of the country 
can find employment for it. All degrees of all nations 
begin with living in pig-styes. The king or the priest 
first gets out of them ; then the noble, then the pau- 
per, m proportion as each class becomes more and 
more opulent. Better tastes arise from better cicum- 
stances : and the luxury of one period is the wretch- 
edness and poverty of another. £nglish peasants, in 
the time of Henry the Seventh, were lodged as badly 
as Irish peasants now are ; but the population was 
limited by the difficulty of procuskig a com subsis- 
tence. The improvements of this kingdom were more 
rapid ; the price of labour rose ; and, with it, the lux- 
ury and comfort of the peasant, who is now decently 
lodged and clothed, and who would think himself in 
the last stage of wretchedness, if he had nothing but 
an Iron pot in a turf house, and plenty of potatoes in 
it. The use of the potato was introduced into Ire- 
land when the wretched accommodation of her own 
peasantry bore some proportion to the state of those 
accommodations all over Europe. But they have in- 
creased their population so fast, and, in conjunction 
with the oppressive government of Ireland retarding 
improvement, have kept the price of labour so low, 
that the Irish poor have never been able to emerge 
from their mud cabins, or to acquire any taste for 
deanl'mess and decency of appearance. Mr. Curwen 
has the following description of Irish cottages. 

* These mansions of miserable eiistence, for eo they may 
truly be described, conformably to our general estimation of 
those Indispensable comforts roqulaite to constitute the bap- 
pincss of rational beings, are mo^t commonly composed of 
two rooms on the ground floor, a mo»t appropriate term, 
for they are literally on the earth; the surface of which ia 
not unfrequently reduced a foot or more, to save the ex- 
pense of so much outward wallinff. The one is a refectory, 
the other the dormitory. The rumiture of the former, if 
the owner ranks ii^ the upper part of the 9cale of scanti- 
ness, will con«*i^t of a kitchen dresser, well provided and 
hi^my decorated with crockery^not less apparently the 
pnde of the husband than tbe result of female vanity in the 
wife: which, with a table, a chest, a few stools, and an iron 
pot, complete thecatalo^ueof conveniences generally found, 
•» belonging to the cabin; while a spinning-vrhed, furnish- 
ed oy the Linen Board, and a loom, ornament vacant spaces, 
that otherwise would remain unfurnished. In iluing up the 
latter, wbich cannot, on any occai<'ion, or by any display, 
add a feather to the weight or importance expected to be 
excited by the appearance of the former, the inventory is 
limited to one, and sometimes two bedA. serving for the 
repose of the whole family ! However downy these may 
be to limbs impatient for rest, their corerings appeared to 
be very alight; and the whole of the apartment created re- 
flections of a verv painful nature. Under such privations, 
with a wet mud floor, and a roof in tatters, bow idle the 
search for comforts!'— Curvrcn, I, 112, 118, 

To this we shall add one more on the same sub- 

* The gigantic figure, bare- headed before me, had a beard 
that would not have disgraced an ancient Israelite— he was 
without shoes or stockings — and almost a sans-culotte-'Wlth 
a coat or rather a jacket, that appeared as if the first blatrt 
of wind would tear it to tatters. Though his garb was thus 
tattered,«he had a manly commanding countenance. I 
asked permission to see the hiside of hts cabin, to which I 
received his most courteous assent. On stooping to enter 
at the door I was stopped, and found that pomisslon from 
another was necessary before I could be admitted. A pig, 
which was fastened to a stake driven into the floor, wlfii 
length of rooe »ufflcient to permit him the enjoyment of 
son and sir, demanded some courtesy, which I showed him, 
and was suffered to enter. The wife wss engsged in boiling 
ihreadi and by h«r lid^ ntar thsfljs, a lorslr inOnt was 

sleeping, without any covexing, on a bare board. WMOm 
the fire gave additional glow to the countenance of tbe 
babe, or that nature impressed on its unconscious cheek a 
blush that the lot of man should be exposed to isuch priva- 
tions, I will not decide; but if the cause be referable to the 
latter, it was in perfect unison with my own feelings. Two 
or three other children crowded round the mother: on their 
rosy countenances health seemed established in spite of filth 
and ragged garments. The dress of the poor woman was 
barely sufficient to satisfy decency. Her countenance bore 
the impression of a set melancholy, tinctured with an 
appearance of ill health* The hovel, which did not exceed 
twelve or fifteen feet in length, and ten in breadth, was 
half obscured by smoke— chimney or window 1 saw none; 
the door served the various purposes of an inlet to li^bt, 
and the outlet to smoke. The furniture consisted of two 
stools, an iron pot, and a spinning-whed— while a sack 
stuffed with strsw, and a sixigle blanket laid on planks, 
served as a bed for the repose of the whole family. Need I 
attempt to describe my sensations? The statement alone 
cannot fail of conreying, to a mind like youns an adequate 
idea of them— t could not long remain a witness to this 
acme of human misery. As I left the deplorable habitation, 
the mistress followed me to repeat her thanks for the tiide 
I had bestowed. This gave me an oppoitunii^ of observing 
her person more partkulariy. She was a tall iifiure, her 
countenance composed of interwting features, and with 
every appearance of having once been handsome. 

« UnwiUing to quit the village without first satisfying my- 
self whether what I had seen was a solitaiv incstance, or a 
sample of Its general state ; or whether the extremity of 

Sover^ I had just beheld had arisen fh>m peculiar improvi- 
ence and want of management in one wretclied family; 
I went into an adjoining habitation, where I found a poor 
old woman of eighty, whose mimsrable exi^^tence was pain- 
f vJHy continued by the maintenance of her grand-daughter. 
Their condition, if possible, was more deplorable.'-'C'tt/'- 
wen, 1, 181, 188. 

This wretchedness, of which all strangers who visit 
Ireland are so sensible, proceeds certainly, in great 
measure, from their acciaentul use of a food so cheap, 
that it encourages population to an extraordinary de- 
gree, lowers the price of labour, and leaves the multi- 
tudes which it csuls into existence almost destitute of 
every thing but food. Many more hve, in conse- 
quence of uie introduction of potatoes; but all live in 
S eater wretchedness. In the progress of population, 
e potato must of course' become at last as diliicult 
to be procured as any other food ; and then let the po- 
litical economist calculate what the immensity uad 
wretchedness of a people must be, where the fartiier 
progress of population is checked by the difficulty of 
procuring potatoes. 

The consequence of the long mismanagement and 
oppression of Ireland., and of the singular circumstanc- 
es m which it is placed, is, that it is a semibarbarous 
coimtry :— more shame to those who have thus ill 
treated a fine country, and a fine people ; but it is part 
of the present case of Ireland. The barbarism of Ire- 
land is evinced by the frequency and ferocity of du- 
els, — the hereditary clannish reuds of the common 
people, — and the fights to which they ^ve birth, — 
the atrocious cruelties practised in the insurrectinns 
of the common people — and their proneness to insur- 
rection. The lower Irish live in a state of greater 
wretchedness than any other people in Europe, in- 
habiting so fine a soil and climate. It is difficult, of. 
ten impossible, to execute the process of law. In 
cases where gentlemen are concerned, it is often not 
even attempted. The conduct of under-8herifi*s is of- 
ten very corrupt.* We are afraid tbe magistmcy of 
Ireland is very inferior to that of this country ; the 
spirit of jobbmg and bribery is very widely diffused, 
and upon occasions when the utmost purity prevails 
in the sister kingdom. Military force is necessary all 
over the country, and often for the most common and 
just operations of government. The behaviour of the 
higher to the lower orders is much less gentle and de- 
cent than in England. Blows from superiors to infe- 
riors are more frequent, and the punishment for such 
aggression more doubtiol. The word gentleman seems, 
in Ireland, to put an end to most processes of law. 
Arrest a gentleman ! ! ! ! — take out a warrant against 
a gentleman — are modes of operation not Tery com- 
mon hi the administration of Irish justice. If a man 

• TlM difisttl^ often ii t9 catch the ihsrift 



Btxike* the meooest peasant in EngJand, he is either | 
Imocked down in his turn, or immediately taken be- 
fore a magistrate. It is impossible to live in Ireland, { 
without perceiving the various points in which it is in- 
ferior in civilization. Want or unity in feeling and 
interest among the people,— -irritability, violence, and 
revenge,— want of comlbrt and cleanliness in the low- 
er orders, — ^habitual disobedience to the law, — ^wantof 
confidence in magistrates, — corruption, venality, the 
perpetual necessity of recurring to military force,— uU 
carry back the observer to that remote and early con- 
dition of mankind, which an Englishman can learn 
only in the pages of the antiquary or the historian. 
We do not draw this picture for censure, but for truth. 
We admire the Irish, — feel the most sincere pity for 
the state of Ireland, and think the conduct of the 
English to that country to have been a system of cru- 
elty and contemptible meanness. With such a cli- 
mate, such a soil, and such a people, thb inferiority 
of Ireland to the rest of Europe is directly chargeable 
to the long wickedness of the English Government. 

A direct consequence of the present uncivilized 
state of Ireland is, that very little English capital tra- 
vels there. The man who deals in steam-engmes, and 

ckly and quietly 

turally bear high taxes and rivalry m England, or em- 
israte to any part of the Continent^ or to America, ra- 
ther than plunge hito Irish pohtics and passions. 
There is nothing which Ireland wants more than large 
manufieicturin^ towns, to take off its superfluous popu- 
lation. But internal peace must come first, ana then 
the arts of peace will follow. The foreign manufactu- 
rer will hardly think of embarking his capital, where 
be cannot be sure that his existence is sate. Another 
check to the manufacturing greatness of Ireland, is 
the scarcity — not of coal— but of ^ood coal, cheaply 
raised ; an article in which (in spite of papers in the 
Irish Transactions) they are lamentably mferior to 
the English. 

Another consequence from some of the causes we 
have stated, is the extreme idleness of the Irish la- 
bourer. There is nothing of tliC value of which the 
Irish seem to have so little notion as that of time. 
They scratch, pick, dandle, stare, gape, and do any 
thing but strive ana wrestle with the task before 
them. The most ludicrous of all human objects, is an 
Irishman ploughing. — A gigantic figure — a seven foot 
machine for tummg potatoes into human nature, 
wrapt up in an immense great coat, and urging on two 
starved ponies, with dreadful imprecations, and up- 
lifted shulala. The Irish crow discerns a coming per- 
quisite, and is not inattentive to the proceedinffs of 
the steeds. The fttrrov which is to be the depository 
of the future crop, is not unlike, either in oepth or 
regularity, to those domestic furrows which the nails 
of the meek and mudi-uijured wife plough, in some 
family quarrel, upon the cheeks or the aeservedly 
punisnedhnsband. The weeds seem to fall content- 
edly, knowing that they have fulfilled their destiny, 
ana left behind them, for the resurrection of the ensu- 
ing spring, an abundant and healthy progeny. The 
whole is a scene of idleness, laziness, and poverty, of 
which it is impossible, in this active and enterpnzmg 
country, to form the most distant conception ; but 
strongJv indicative of habits, whether secondary or 
original, which wiU long present a powerful impedi- 
ment to the improvement of Ireland. 

fhe Irish character contributes something to retard 
the improvements of that country. The Irishman has 
many good qualities : he is brave, witty, generous, 
eloquent, hospitable, and open-hearted ; but he is 
vam, ostentatious, extravagant, and fond of display— 
Mght in counsel—deficient in perseverance — without 
skill is private or public economy — an enjoyer, not 
as acqairer — one who despises the slow and patient 
virtues — ^who wants the superstructure without the 
foundation — ^the result without the previous operation 
—the oak without the acorn and the three nimdred 
years of expectation. The Irish are irascible, pron^ 
to debt, and to fight, and very impatient of the re- 
•tnints of Isw. mh ft peoplt ar^ not likely to keep 

their eyes steadily upon the main chance, like the 
Scotch or the Dutch. England strove very hard, at 
one period, to compel the Scotch to pay a double 
Church ; — but Sawney took his pen and ink ; and find- 
ing what a sum it amounted to, became furious, and 
drew his sword. God forbid the Irishmai^ should do 
the same! the remedy, now, would be worse than 
the disease ; but if the oppressions of England had 
been more steadily resisted a century ago, Ireland 
would not have been the scene of poverty, misery, and 
distress which it now is. 

The Catholic religion, among other causes, contri- 
butes to the backwardness and barbarism of Ireland. 
Its debasine superstition, childish ceremonies^ and 
the profound submission to the priesthood which it 
teacnes, all tend to darken men's minds, to impede 
the progress of knowledge and inquiry, and to prevent 
Ireland from becoming as free, as powerful, and as 
rich as the sister kingdom. Thougn sincere friends 
to Catholic emancipation, we are no advocates for the 
Catholic religion. We should be very glad to see a 
general conversion to Protestantism among the Irish ; 
but we do not think that violence, privations, and in- 
capacities, are the proper methods of making prose- 

Such, then, is Ireland, at this period. — a land mors 
barbarous than the rest of Europe, because it has 
been worse treated and more cruelly oppressed. Ma^ 
ny uf the incapacities and privations to which the 
Catholics were exposed, have been removed by law ; 
but, in such instances, they are stiU incapacitated and 
deprived by cu >tom. Mariy cruel and oppressive laws 
are still enforced agaiiist them. A ninth part of the 
population engrosses all the honours of the country ; 
the other nme pay a tenth of the product of the earth 
for the support oi a religion in which .they do not be- 
lieve. Tnere is little capital in the countiy. The 
great and rich men are called by business, or allured 
by pleasure, into England ; their estates are given up 
to factors, and the utmost farthing of rent extorted 
from the poor, who, if thev give up the hmd, cannot 
get e Jiployment in manuiactures, or regular employ- 
ment in husbandry. The common people use a sort 
of food so very cneap, that they can rear familiesi 
who cannot procure employment, and who have little 
more of the comforts of life than food. The Irish are 
light-minded — ^want of employment has made them 
icfie — they are irritable and brave — have a keen re- 
memberonce of the past wrongs they have suffered, 
and the present wrongs they are suffering from Eng- 
land. Tne consequence of all this is, eternal riot and 
insurrection, a whole army of soldiers in time of pro- 
found peace, and general rebellion whenever England 
is busy with other enemies, or off her guard ! And 
thus it will be while the same causes continue to ope- 
rate, for ages to come,— and worse and worse as the 
rapidly Increasing population of the Catholics be- 
comes more and more numerous. 

The remedies are, time and justice ; and that jus- 
tice consists in repealing all laws which make any 
distinction between the two religions ; in placing over 
the government of Ireland, not the stupid, amiable, 
and insignificant noblemen who have too often been 
sent there, but men who feel deeply the wrongs of 
Ireland, and who have an ardent wish to heal them ; 
who will take care that Catholics, when eligible, sbaU 
be elected ;* who will share the patronage of Ireland 
proportionally among the two parties, and give to 
just and liberal laws the same vigour of execution 
which has hitherto been reserved only for decrees of 
tyranny, and the enactments of oppression. The in- 
iustice'and hardship of supporting two churches must 
be put out of si^ht, if it cannot or ought not to be 
cured. The political economist, the moralist, and 
the satirist, must combine to teich moderation and 
superintendence to the great Irish proprietors. Pub- 
lic talk and clamour may do sometning for the poor 
Irish, as it did for the slaves in the West Indies. Ire- 
land will become more quiet under such treatment, 
and then more rich, more comfortable, and more civi* 

* Great OMfit is dus to the WU^i tar tke patceai«»W^ 
■tovsd oa Cstholiost 



Ized ; and the horrid soectaele of folly and tyranny, 
irhich it at present exhibits, may in time be lemoTed 
Irom the eyes of Europe. 

There are two eminent Irishmen now in the Honse 
»f Conmions, Lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning, who 
wiU subscribe to the justness of every syllable we 
have said upon this subject ; and who have it in their 
power, by making it the condition of their remaining 
m office, to liberate their native country, and raise it 
to its just rank among the nations of the earth. Tet 
the court buys them over, year after year, by the 
pomp and jperquisites of office, and year after year 
they come mto the House of Conmions, feeling ^eo- 
ly, and describing poweriuUy, the injuries of five mil- 
lions of their coontrymeny>--end continue members of 
a government that inflicts those evils, under thepiti> 
fol delusion that it is not a cabinet question^— -as ii the 
Bcratchings and auarrellings of kings and queens could 
alone cement pohticians together in indissoluble unity, 
while the fate and fortune of one-third ot the empire 
might be complimented away ftom one minister to 
another, without the smallest breach in their cabinet 
alliance. Politicians, at least honest politicians, should 
be very flexible and accommodatinj^ in little things, 
▼ery rigid and inflexible in great things. And is this 
not a great thing ? Who has painted it in finer and 
more commanding eloquence than Mr. Canning? 
Who has taken a more sensible and statesman-Uke 
view of our miserable and cruel policy, than Lord 
Castlereagh? You would think, to hear them, that 
the same planet could not contain them and the op- 
pressors ot their country, — ^perhaps not the same solar 
system. Yet for money, claret, and patronage, they 
lend their countenance, assistance, and friendship, to 
the ministers who are tne stem and inflexible enemies 

to the emancipation of Ireland 

Thank God that all is not profligacy and corruption 
in the history of that devoted people— and that the 
name of Irishman does not always carry with it the 
idea of the oppressor or the oppressed — the plunderer 
or the plundered— the tyrant or the slave. Great men 
haUow a whole people, and lift up all who live in thehr 
time. What Inshman does not reel proud that he has 
lived in the days of Grattan ? who has not turned to 
him for comfort, from the false friends and open ene- 
mies of Ireland f who did not remember him in the 
days of its burnings and wastings and murders ? Ko 

fovemment ever msmayed him — the world could not 
ribe him— he thought only of Ireland— lived for no 
other object— dedicated to her his beautiful fancy, his 
elegant wit^ his manly courage^ and all the splendour 
of his astonishing eloquence. He was so bom, and so 
gifted, that poetry, forensic skill, elegant literature, 
and all the highest attainments of human genius, were 
within his reach ; but he thought the noblest occupa- 
tion of a man was to make other men happy and free ; 
and in that straight line he went on for fifty years, 
without one side-look, without one yielding thought, 
without one motive in his heart which he might not 
have laid open to the view of God and man. He is 
gone ! — ^but there is not a single day of his honest life 
of which every good Irishnmn would not be more 
proud, than of the whole political existence of his 
eountrymen^the annual deserters and betrayers of 
their native land. 

8PRIK6 GUNS. (EDnraunoH Retisw, 1821.) 
7U Sh0cter'9 Chude, 

By J. B. JohiuoD. ISmo. £dward« sad 
Kaibb. 1819. 

Wheh Lord Dacre (then Mr. Brand) brought into the 
House of Commons his bill for the amendment of the 
game laws, a sjrstem of greater mercy and humanity 
was in vain recommended to that popular branch of 
the lef^slatnre. The interests of humanity, and the 
interests of the lord of the manor, were not, nowever, 
opposed to each other ; nor any attempt made to deny 
the superior importance of the last. No such bold or 
m l a rmm g topics were agitated ; but it was contended 
thatjif towa wan lesi ferocious, then would be more 

partridges— if the lower oideis of mankind weft not 
torn from their families and banished to Botany Bay, 
hares and pheasants would be increased in number, 
or, at least, not diminished. It is not, however, till 
after long experience, that mankind ever think of re- 
curring to humane expedients for effecting their ob- 
jects. The rulers who ride the people never think of 
coaxUig and patting till they have worn out the lashes 
of their whips, ana broken the rowels of their spurs. 
The legislators of the trigger replied, that two laws 
had lately passed which would answer their purpose 
of preserving srame : the one, an act for tran&por Jng 
men found with arms in their hands for the purposes 
of killing game in the night ; the other, an act for 
rendering the buyen of the game equally guilty with 
the seller, and for involving both in the same penalty. 
Three seasons have elapsed since the last of these 
laws was passed ; and we appeal to the experience of 
all the great towns in England, whether the difficulty 
of procuring game in the slightest degree increased? 
— ^whethernaies, partridges, and pheasants are not 
purchased with as much facility as Wore the passing 
this act ? — whether the price of such unlavrfiil com* 
modities is even in the slightest degree increased ? 
Let the Assize and Sessions' calendan bear witness, 
whether the law for transporting poachers has not 
had the most direct tendency to encourage bmtal a»> 
saults and ferocious murden. There is hardly now a 
jail-delivery in which some gamekeeper has not mur- 
dered a poacher— or some poacher a gamekeeper. If 
the Question concerned the payment of five pounds, a 
poacher would hardly risk Lis life rather than be 
taken ; but when he is to go to Botany Bay for seven 
yean, he summons together his brother poachers— 
thev get brave f^om rum, numben, and despair— and 
a bloody battle ensues. 

Anotner method by which it is attempted to defeat 
the depredations of the poacher, is by setting spring 
guns to murder any person who comes within their 
reach ; and it is to tms last new feature in the sup- 
poMd game laws, to which, on the present occasion, 
we intend principally to confine our notice. 

We utterly disclaim all hostility to the game laws 
in general. Game ought to belong to those who feed 
it. All the landowners in England are fairly entitled 
to all the game in England. These laws are coo- 
stracted upon a basis of substantial justice ; but there 
is a great deal of absurdity and tyranny mingled 
with them, and a perpetual and vehement desire on 
the part or the country gentlemen to push the provi. 
sions of these laws up to the highest point of tyranni- 
cal severity. 

< Is it lawful to put to death by a spring gun, or any 
other machine, an unqualified person trespassing upon 
your woods or fields in pursuit of ^ame, and who nas 
received due notice of your intention, and of the risk 
to which he is exposed 7' This, we think, is stating 
the question as fairly as can be stated. We purposely 
exclude gardens, orchards, and all contiguity to the 
dwelling-house. We exclude, also, all felonious in- 
tention on the part of the deceased. The object of 
his expedition shall be proved to be game ; and the 
notice he received of his danger shall to allowed to be 
as complete as possible. It must also be part of the 
case, that the spring gun was placed there for the ex- 
press purpose of defending the game, by killing or 
wouncung the poacher, or spreading terror, or doinff 
anything that a reasonable man ought to Imow would 
happen from such a proceeding. 

Suppose any gentleman were to give notice that aU 
other persons must abstain iVom his manore ; that he 
himself and his servants paraded the woods and fields 
with loaded pistols and blunderbusses, and would 
shoot any body who fired at a partridge ; and suppose 
he wero to keep his word, and shoot through the head 
some rash trespasser who defied this bravado, and was 
determined to nave his sport : — Is there doubt that he 
would be guUtyof murder? We suppose no resist- 
ance on the part of the trespasser ; but that, the mo- 
ment he passes the line of demarcation with his dogs 
and gun, he is shot dead by the proprietor of the land 
from behind a tree. If this ifr not murder, what is 
murder f We will make tha case a llttla better fof 



the homlcMe wqjidn. It than be night s the poacher, 
an unquaMed person, stepe OTer the line of aemarca- 
tioa with hie nets and snares, and is instantly shot 
through the head by the pistol of the proprietor. We 
have no doobt that this would be murder^that it oiwht 
to be considered as murder, and punished as mur&r. 
We think this so clear, that it would be a waste of 
time to argue it. There is no kind of resistance on 
the part of the deceased; no attempt to run away; 
he is not exen challenged : but instantly shot dead oy 
the proprietor of the wood, for no other crime than 
the tntentioji of killing game unlawfully. We do not 
suppose that any man, possessed of the elements of 
law and conunon sense, would deny this to be a case 
of murder, let the previous notice to the deceased 
haTe been as perfect as it could be. It is true, a tres- 
passer in a park may be killed ; but then it is when 
Be wUl not render himself to the keepers, upon an 
hue and cry to stiand to the kins's peace. But deer 
are property, game is not; and this power of slaying 
deer-stealers is by the 21 st Edward I., de MaHfactoru 
bus in Parcitj and by 3d and 4th Wilham & Mary, c. 
10. So rioters may be killed, house-burners, ravishen, 
felons refusing to oe arrested, felons escapmg, felons 
breaking jail, men resisting a civil process— may all 
be put to death. All these cases of justifiable homi- 
cide are laid down and admitted in our books. But 
who ever heard, that to pistol a poacher was justifi- 
able homicide ? It has long been decided, that it is 
oniawful to kill a dog who is pursuing game in a 
manor. < To decide the contrary,' says Lord Ellen- 
borough, < would outrage reason and sense.* (Vere v. 
Lord Cawdor and King, 11 £tuty 366.) Pointers have 
always been treated by the legislature with great de. 
licacy and consideration. To < tciah to be a dog and to 
bay the wtoorif^ is not quite so mad a wish as the poet 
thought it. 

If these things are ao, what is the difference be- 
tween the act of firing yourself, and placing an engine 
which does the same thinff? In the one case your 
hand pulls the trigger ; in the other, it places the wire 
which communicates with the trigger, and causes the 
death of the trespasser. There is the same intention 
of slaying in both cases— there is precisely the same 
homao agency in both cases ; only the steps are rather 
more numerous in the latter case. As to the bad 
efiects of allowing proprietors of game to put tres- 
passers to death at once, or to set guns that will do it, 
we can have no hesitation in saying, that the first 
method, of riving the power of lifo and death to 
esquires, would be by fiur the most humane. For, as 
we have observed in a pfevious Essay on the Game 
laws, a live armigeral sprmg gun would dtstii^guish an 
accidental trespasser from a real poachei^-<a woman 
or a boy from a man— perhaps might spare a fViend 
or an acquaintance— or a father of a iamily with ten 
children^-or a small freeholder who voted tor admin- 
istration. But this new rural artillery must destroy, 
without mercy and selection, every one who ap- 
proaches it. 

In the case of Hot versus Wilks, Esq., the four 
jodges, Abbot, Bailey, Holroyd, and Best, gave their 
opinions seriaHm on points connected with this ques- 
tion. In this cage, as reported in Chetwynd's edition 
of Bum's Justice, 1820, voL ii. p. 600, Abbot C. J. ob- 
serves as follows : — 

* I cannot naj that repeated and increaainf acts of asfreaaion 
max not reaaonablj call for increaaed meana of defence and 
protection. I believe that many of the persona whocnuae Kt- 
pines of this deacription to be placed in their iprounds, do not 
lio so with an intention to injure any person, but really believe 
that the pubttcation of notieea will prevent any person from 
auatalninf an injury ; and that no person having the notice 
pven bim, will be weak and toiAiah enoufh to expoae " 

to the perilooa conaequencea of his trespaaa. 

who place suck engines in their g roonda, do ao for the purpoae 

r persona 

of preventing, by meana of terror, iiyi 
rather than firom any motive of doing ttu 

to their property, 
lua injury.' 

< Increased means of defence and protection,' but in- 
creased (his lordship should remember,) from the pay- 
ment of five pounds to instant death— and mstant death 
mflicted, not by the arm of law. but by the arm of the 
proprietor ; could the Lord Chief Justice of the King's 

Bench faitend to say, that the impotilbility of potting 
an end to poaching oy other means, would justify the 
infliction of death upon the offender ? Is ne so igno- 
rant of the philosophy of punishing, as to unagine he 
has nothing todo but to give ten stnpes instead of two, 
an hundred instead of ten, and a thousand, if an hun- 
dred will not do ? to substitute the prison for pecuniary 
fines^ and the eallows instead of the jail ? It is im- 
possible so enBghtened a judge can lorget. that the 
sympathies of mankind must be consultea ; that it 
would be wrong to break a person upon the wheel for 
stealing a penny loaf, and tnat graaations in punish- 
ments must be carefully accommodated to gradationa 
in crime ; that if poaching is punished more than man* 
kmd in general think it ought to be punished, the fault 
will either escape with impunity, or the delinquefiit be 
driven to desperation ; that if poaching and murder are 
punished equally, every poacLer will be an assassin. 
Besides, too. if the principle is right in the unlimited 
and unqualified manner in which the Chief Justice puts 
it — if defonce goes on increasing with aggression, the 
legislature at feast must determine upon their eoual 
pace. If an act of Parliament made it a capital of- 
fence to poach upon a manor, as it is to commit a bur- 
glary in a dwellme-hottse, it might then be as lawful 
to shoot a person for trespassing upon your manor.- as 
it is to kill a thief for breaking mto your house. But, 
the real Question is— and so in sound reasoning his 
lordship snould have put it—' If the law at this mo- 
ment determines the aggression to be in such a state, 
that it merits only a pecuniary fine after summons and 
proof, has any sporadic squire the right to say, that it 
shall be punisned with death, before any summons and 
without any proof ?' 

It appears to us, too, very singular to say, that many 
persons who cause engines of this description to be 
placed in their ground, do not do so with an intention 
of injuring any peraon, but really believe that the pub- 
lication of notices will prevent any person f^om sus- 
taining an injury, and that no person^ having the no- 
tice given him, will be weak and foolish enouffh to ex- 
pose himself to the perilous consequences of his tres- 
pass. But if this is the real belief of the engineer — H 
he thinks the mere notice will keep people away — then 
he must think it a mere inutility uuit tne guns riiould 
be placed at all; if he thinks that many will be de- 
terred, and a few come, then he must mean to shoot 
those few. He who believes his gun will never be 
called upon to do its duty, need set no gun, and trust 
to rumour of their being set, or being loaded, for hia 
protection. Against the gun and the powder we have 
no complaint ; they are perfectly fair and admissible : 
our quarrel is with the bullets. He who sets a loaded 
gun, means it should go off if it is touched. But what 
signifies the mere empty wish that there may be no 
miscliief. when I perform an action which my common 
sense tells me may produce the wont mischief? If I 
hear a great noise m the street, and fire a buUet to keep 
people quiet, I may not perhaps have intended to kills 
I may have wished to have produced quiet by mere 
terror, and I may have expressed a strong hope that 
my object has been effected without the destraction of 
human life. Still I have done that which every man 
of sound intellect knows is likely to kill ; and if any 
one falls from my act, I am guilty of murder. * Fur- 
ther,' (says Lord Coke,) < if there be an evil intent, 
though that intent extendeth not to death, it is murder. 
Thus, if a man, knowing that many j>eople are in the 
street, throw a stone over the wall, mtending only to 
ftighten them, or to eive them a little hurt, and there- 
upon one is killed — this is murder — ^for he hath an ill 
intent ; though that intent extended not to death, and 
though he kx^w not the party slain.' (3 Inst. 67.) If 
a man is not mad, he must be presumed to foresee 
common consequences if he puts a bullet into a soring 
gun— he may oe supposed to foresee that it wiU kiu 
any poacher who touches the wire— and to that conse- 
quence he must stand. We do not suppose all preser- 
vers of game to be so bloodily inclmed that they 
would prefer the death of a poacher to his staying 
away. Their object is to preserve game ; they have 
no objection to preserve the lives of their fellow-crea^ 
tores also, if both can exist at the same time ; if not 



the least worthy of 6od^ creatures must fall— the 
rustic without a soul — not the Christian partridge — not 
the immortal pheasant— not the rational woodcock, or 
the accountable hare. 

The Chief Justice quotes the instance of glass and 
spikes fixed upon walls. He cannot mean to infer 
from this, because the law connives at the infliction 
of such small punishments for the protection of pro- 
perty, that it does allow, or ought lo allow, proprie- 
tors to proceed to the punishment of death. Small 
means ot annoyins trespassers may be consistently 
admitted by the law, though more severe ones are 
forbidden, and ought to be forbidden ; unless it fol. 
lows, that what is good in any degree, is good in the 
highest degree. You may correct a servant boy with 
a switch ; but if you bruise him sorely, you are to be 
Indicted — if you kill him, you are hanged. A black- 
smith corrected his servant with a bar of iron; the 
boy died, and the blacksmith was executed. (Grey's 
Case, KeL 64, 65.) A woman kicked and stamped on 
the belly of her child— she was found guilty of mur- 
der. {\ East J P. C. 261.) Si immoderate 9uo jure 
ulatur, tunc reus homiddii sit. There is, besides, this 
additional difference in the two cases put by the Uhief 
Justice, that no publication of notice^ can be so plain, 
in the case of the guns, a,s the sight of the glass or 
the spikes ; tor a trespasser may not believe in the 
notice which he receives^ or he may think he shall 
see a gun, and so avoid it, or that he may have the 
good luck to avoid it, if he does not see it ; whereas, 
of the presence of the glass or the spikes he can have 
no doubt ; and he has no hope of placing his bond in 
any spot where they are not. In the one case, he 
cuts lus fingers upon full and perfect notice , the notice 
of his own senses ; in the other case^ he loses his life 
after a notice which he may disbeheve, and by an 
engine which he may hope to escape. 

Mr. Justice Bailey observes, in the same case, that 
it is not an indictable offence to set spring guns : per- 
haps not. It is not an indictable offence to go about 
with a loaded pistol^ intending to shoot any body who 
^rins at you : out, it jou do it, you are hanged : many 
inchoate acts are innocent, the consummation of 
which is a capital offence. 

This is not a case where the motto applies of Tb- 
Unti non fit injuria. The man does not will to be 
hurt, but he wills to eet the game ; and, with that 
rash confidence natural to many characters, believes 
he shall avoid the evil and gain the good. On the 
contrary, it is a case which exactly arranges itself 
under the maxim, Quando aliquid profdbetur ex directoy 
prohibetur et per obliquum. Give what notice he may, 
the proprietor cannot lawfully shoot a trespasser (who 
neither runs nor resists) with a loaded pistol ; he can- 
not do it ex dxrecto ; how Uien can he do it per obli- 
quumy by arranging on the ground the pistol which 
commits the murder ? 

Mr. Justice Best delivers the following opinion. His 
lordship concluded as follows : 

' This CBM hna been diteuMed it the bar, m if theie enginet 
were r.xrlusively retorted to for the proteetioa of fane] but 
I consider them m lawfully applicable to the protection of 
mvery species of property againct unlawAil trespaaaert. But if 
even tliev might not lawftilly be used for the protection of 
game, I, for one, should be extremely glad to adopt such 
mean9, if they were found sufficient for that purpose ; be- 
cause I think it a great object that gentlemen thonld hare a 
temptation to reside in the cbuatry, amongst their neighbours 
and tenantry, whose intereaU must be materially advaneed by 
•uch a cirettms.tance. The links of aociety are thereby better 
preservedt and the mutual advantage and dependence of the 
nirher classes of society, existing between each other, more 
beurficially maintained. We have seen, in a neighbouring 
country, the baneful consequences of the non-residence of the 
landed gentry ; and in an ingenious work, lately publiahed by 
a foreigner, we learn the fatal effects of a like ayatem on the 
Continent. By preaerving game, gentlemen are tempted to 
reside in the country ; and, considering that the div«raion 
of the field is the only one of which they can partake on the 

» I have st4 

•states, I am of opinion that, for the purpose 1 have stated, it 
to of essential importance that this species of proper^ should 
be inviolably protected.' 

If- this speech of Mr. Justice Best is correctly re- 
ported, it follows, that a man may put his feUow- 
cnaUiiM to death for any inftiogement of his proper- 

ty—for picking the sloes and blackberrSes off hl4 
hedges— -for breaking a few dead sticks out of them 
by night or by day — with resistance or without resist- 
ance — with warning or without warning ; a strange 
method this of keepins up the links of society, and 
maintaining the dependence of the -lower upon the 
higher classes. It certainly is of importance that 
gentlemen should reside on their estates in the coun- 
try ; but not that gentlemen with such opinions as 
these should reside. The more they arc absent 
from the country^ the less strain will there be upon 
those Imks to which the learned judge alludes — the 
more firm that dependence upon which he places so 
just a value. In the case of Dean tersus Clayton, B^rt., 
the Court of Common Pleas were equally dirided upon 
the lawf\ilness of killing a dog coursing a hare by 
means of a concealed dog-spear. We confess that we 
cannot see the least difference between transfixing 
with a spear, or placing a spear so that it will transfix ; 
and, therefore, if Vere versus Lord Cawdor and King, 
is good law, the action could have been maintained m 
Dean versus Clayton ; but the solemn consideration 
concerning the life of the pointer is highly creditable 
to all the judges. They none of them say that il is 
lawful to put a trespassing pointer to death under anv 
circumstances, or tnat they themselves would be gk^ 
to do it ; they all seem duly impressed with the recol- 
lection that they are decidmg the fate of an animal 
faithfully ministerial to the pleasures of the upper 
classes of society : there is an avpful desire to do their 
duty, and a dread of any rash and intemperate deci- 
sion. Seriously speaking, we can hardly beliere this 
report of Mr. Justice Best's speech to be correct ; yet 
we take it from a book which guides the practice of 
nine-tenths of all the magistrates in England. Does a 
jud^e — a cool, calm man. in whose hands are the issues 
of life and death, from wnom so many miserable trem- 
bling human bemgs await their destmy— does he t« U 
us, and tell us in a court of justice, that ho places st;ch 
little value on the life of man, that he would plot the 
destruction of his fellow-creatures for the preservation 
of a few hares and partridges ! * X^othinff which lalU 
from me' (says Mr. Justice Bailey) « shall have a ten- 
dency to encourage the practice.' * I consider them.' 
(says Mr. Justice Best) < as lawfully applicable to tLe 
protection of every species of property ; but eren if 
they might not lawfully be used for the protection of 
^me, Ijfor orUf should he extremely glad to adopt them, 
if they were found sufiScient for th^at purpose.' Can 
any man doubt to which of these two magistrates he 
would rather entrust a decision on liis life, his liberty, 
and his possessions ? We should be very sorry to mis- 
represent Mr. Justice Best, and will give to his din- 
vowal of such sentiments, it he does dmavow them, all 
the publicitjr in our power; but we have cited his very 
words conscientiously and correctly, as they are given 
in the Law Report. We have no doubt he meant to do 
his duty ; we Dlame not his motives, but his feelings 
and his reasoning. 

Let it be observed, that in the whole of this case, 
we have put every circumstance in favour of the mur- 
derer. We have supposed it to be in the night time ; 
but a man may be shot in the day* by a spring gun. 
We have supposed the deceased to be a poacher ; but 
he may be a very innocent man, who has missed his 
way— an unfortunate botanist, or a lover. We have 
supposed notice ; but it is a very possible event that 
the dead man may have been utterly ignorant of the 
notice. This instrument, so highly approved of by 
Mr. Justice Best — ^this knitter together ot the different 
ordersof society— IS levelled promiscuously against the 
guilty or the innocent, the ignorant and the informed. 
No man who sets sucn an infernal machine, believes 
that it can reason or discriminate ; it is made to mur- 
der all alike, and it does murder all alike. 

Blackstone says, that the law of England, IBce that 
of every other well regulated community, is tender of 
the public peace, and careful of the lives of the sub- 
jects ; that it will not suffer with impunity any crime 

Large danum have been given for wo«iida inflktwl by 
spring guns aet in a garden ia the day-tiawrwhen the party 
wooDdsdlMd Boaotics. 



would alMO be punuhed by death J {ComiMniarietf toI. 
ir. 1S2.) ' The law sets so high a value upon the life 
of a man, that it always intends some misbehaviour in 
the person who takes U away, unless by the command 
or express ])ermission of the law.' < And as to the 
necessity which excuses a man who kills another m 
dffendtndo, Lord Bacon calls even that tuuatfUu ad- 

dilis.* {Commentariea, vol. iv. p. 187.) So far this 
tinary of the law. But the very amusements of the 
rich are, in the estimation of Mr. Justice Best, of so 
great importance, that the poor are to be exposed to 
sudden death who interfere with them. Tnere are 
other persons of the same opinion with this magistrate 
respecting the pleasures of the rich. In the last ses- 
sion of Parliament a bill was passed, entitled * An act 
for t|ie summary punishment, in certain cases, of |>er- 
sons wilfully or maliciously damaging, or committing 
trespasses on public or private property.' Annoprmo, 
—(a bad specimen of what is to happen,) — Gwrm IV. 
Re^y cap. 56. In this act it is provided, that < if any 
person shall wilftUly, or maliciously^ commit any da- 
mae^e, injury, or spoil, upon any buildmg, fence, hedge, 
gate, st^'le, guide-post, mile-stone, tree, wood, under- 
wood, orchard, warden, nursery-ground, crop», vegeta- 
bles, plants, lana, or other matter or thing growing or 
being therein, or to or upon any real or personal pro* 
perty of any nature or kind soever, he may be imme- 
diately seized by any body, virithout a warrant, taken 
before a magistrate, and nned (according to the mis- 
chief he has done) to the extent of bl. ; otj in default 
of payment, may be committed to the jail for three 
months.' And at the end comes a clause, exempting 
from the operation of this act all mUch^f done in 
hunting, and by shooters ic^o are qualified. This is 
surely the most impudent piece of legislation that ever 
crept mto the statute book ; and, coupled with Mr. 
Jastice Best's declaration, constitutes the following 
affectionate relation between the diflerent orders of 
society. Says the higher link to the lower, ' If you 
meddle with my game, I will immediately murder 
you ; if yon comnut the slightest injury upon my real 
or personal property, I will take you before a magis- 
trate and fine you five pounds. I am in Parliament, 
and you are not ; and I nave just brought in an act of 
Parliament for that purpose. But so important is it to 
you that my pleasures should not be interrupted, that 
I have exempted myself and friends from tne opera- 
tion of this act ; and we claim the right (without al- 
lowing you any such summary remedy^ of riding over 
yotir fences, hedges, gates, stiles, gmde-posts, mile- 
stones, woods, umierwoods, orchards, gardens, nurse- 
ry grounds, crops, vegetables, plants, lands, or other 
matters or things, growing or being tnereupon — inclu- 
ding your children and yourselves, if you do hot get 
out o'( the way.' Is there, upon earth, such a mockery 
of jastice as an act of Parliament, pretending to pro- 
tect property, sending- a poor hedge-breaker to jail, 
and specially exempting from its operation the accu- 
sing and the judging squire, who, at the tail of the 
hounds, have that mommg, perhaps, ruined as much 
wheat and seeds as woiild purchase fuel a whole year 
for a whole Tillage ? 

It cannot be urged, in extenuation of such a mtirder 
18 we hare described, that the artificer of death had 
no particular malice against the deceased ; that his ob- 
ject was general, and his indignation levelled against 
olTenders in the ag^egate. Every body Imows that 
there is a malice by implication of law. 

* In general, any formal design of doing mischief 
may be called malice ; and therefore, not such killing 
only as proceeds from premeditated hatred and re- 
venge against the person killed, but also, in many 
other eases, such as is accompanied with those cir- 
cumstances that show the heart to be preversely 
wicked, is adjodsed to be of malice prepense.*— 2 
Haw. c. 31. 

< For, where the law makes use of the term, malice 
aforethought, as detcriptiTe of the crime of murder, it 
is not to be understood in that narrow restrained sense 
hi which the modem use of the word malice is apt to 
lead one. a piineiple of malevolence to particuuirs : 
for thA kw, by tne tena malice, iiuditfa, in this bi> 


stance, meaneth, that the &ct bath been attended 
with such circumstances as are the ordinary symp- 
toms of a wicked heart, regardless of social duty, and 
fatally bent on mischief.'—- 7o«r. 266, 257. 

Ferocity is the natural weapon of the common peo- 
ple. If gentlemen of education and property contend 
with them at this sort of warfare, they will probably 
be defeated in the end. If spring guns are generally 
set — ^if the common people are murdered by them, 
and the legislature do not interfere, the posts of game- 
keeper and lord of the manor will soon be posts of 
honour and danrer. The greatest curse under heaven 
(witness Ireland^ is a peasantry demoralized by the 
barbarity and injustice of their rulers. 

It is expected by some persons, that the severe 
operation of these engines will put an end to the trade 
of a poacher. This has always been predicated of 
every fresh operation of severity, that it was to put 
an end to poachnig. But if this argument is good for 
one thing, it is good for another. Let the first pick* 
pocket who is taken be hung alive by the ribs, and let 
nim be a fortnight in wasting to death. Let us seize 
a little grammar boy, who is robbing orchards, tie his 
arms and legs, throw over him a delicate puff-paste, 
and bake him in a bun-pan in an oven. II j^oaUiing 
can be extirpated hy intensity of punishment, why 
not all other crimes f If racks and g^ibbets and ten. 
ter-hooks are the best method of bringing back the 

?;olden aee, why do we refrain from so easy a receipt 
or abolishing every species of wickedness ? The best 
way of answering a bad argument is not to stop it, 
but to let it go on in its course till it leaps over the 
boundaries of common sense. There is a little book 
called Becearia on Crimes and PunishmentSf which we 
strongly recommend to the attention of Mr. Justice 
Best. He who has not read it, is neither fit to make 
laws, nor to administer them when made. 

As to the idea of abolishing poaching altogether, 
we wUl believe that poaching is abolished when it is 
found impossible to buy game ; or when they have 
risen so greatly in price, that none but people of for- 
tune can buy them. But we are convinced this never 
can. and never will happen. All the traps and guns 
in tne world will never prevent the wealth of the mer- 
chant and manufacturer from commanding the game 
of the landed gentleman. You may, in the pursuit of 
this visionary purpose, render the common people sa- 
vage, ferocious, and vindictive; you may dis^ce 
your laws by enormous punishments, and tne national 
character by these new secret assassinations ; but you 
will never separate the wealthy glutton from the phea- 
sant. The best way is, to take what you want, and 
to sell the rest fairly and openly. This is the real 
spring gun and steel trap wnich will annihilate, not 
the unlawful trader, but the unlawful trade. 

There is a sort or horror in thinking of a whole land 
filled with lurking engines of deatn—- machinations 
against human life under every green tree^traps and 
guns m every dusky dell and bosky bourn — the /«r« 
natur&j the lords of manors eyeing their peasantry as 
so many butts and marks, and pantine to hear the 
click of the trap, and to see the flash of the gun* 
How any human being, educated in liberal knowledge 
and Christian feeling, can doom to certain destruction 
a poor wretch, tempted by the sight of animals that 
naturally appear to him to belong to one person as 
well as another, we are at a loss to conceive. We 
cannot imagine how he could live in the same village, 
and see the widow and orphans of the man whose 
blood he had shed for such a trifle. We consider a 
person who could do this, to be deficient in the very 
elements of morals— to want that sacked regard to hu- 
man life which is one of the comer stones of civil so- 
ciety. If he sacrifices the life of man for his mere 
pleasures, he would do so, if he. dared, for the lowest 
and least of his passions. He maybe defended, per- 
haps, by the abominable injustice of the game laws— 
though we think and hope he is not. Bat there rests 
upon his head, and there is marked hi his account, the 
deed and indelible sin otblood^guiUiness. 



PRISONS. (EDnrmoH Rjeview, 1821.) 

tm TkotvhU on dke Criminal Priton* vf thi» Coumtry$ oeca- 
noned^ the BiU now in the Houae qf Comnunutfor Con- 
solidating and jf mcfuii'Tif the Law$ rdating to Prieone ; 
vith tome Remarka on the PraeUce qf looking to the Taek- 
Matter qf the Pri»on rather than to the ChajOain/or the Re- 
formation of Offendert ; and qf purehaaing the Work qf 
thoee whom the Law ha* eondetnned to Hard Labomr as a 
Puni«Am«ni« by aUotoing them to ipend a Portion qf their 
Earnings dasring their Imprisonment, By Geoxge aoUord, 
Esq. M. P. RiTington. i8:2L 

S. Qumey on Prisons. Coiv«table and Co. 1819. 

S. Report q/* Society for bettering the Condition qf Prisons. 
Ben«ley. 1820. 

There are, in every county in England, laig« pub- 
lie schools, maintained at the expense of the counnr, 
for the encouragement of profligacy and vice, and for 
providing a proper succession of housebreakers, prof- 
ligates, and thieves. They are schools, too, conduct- 
ed without the smallesl degree of partiality or favour; 
there being no man (however mean his birth, or ob- 
■curc his situation,) who may not easily procure ad- 
mission to them. The moment any young person 
evinces the slightest propensity for these pursuits, he 
is provided with food, clothing, and lodj^ing ; and put 
to his studies under the most accomplished thieves 
and cut-throats tho county can supply. There is not, 
to be sure, a formal arrangement of lectures, after the 
manner of our iniiversities ; but the petty larcenous 
strippling, being left destitute of every species of em- 
ployment, and locked up with accomplished vlllams 
as idle as himself, listens to their pleasant narrative 
of successful crimes, and pants for the hour of free- 
dom, that he may begin the same bold and mteresting 

This Is a perfectly true picture of the prison estab- 
lishments or many counties in England, and was so, 
till very lately, of almost all ; and the effects so com- 
pletely answered the design, that in the year 1818, 
there were committed to the jails of the United King, 
dom more than one hundred and seven thousand per* 
sons !* a number supposed to be greater than that of 
all the commitments m the other kingdoms of Europe 
put t<^ether. 

The bodily treatment of prisoners has been ^eatly 
improved since the time of Howard. There is still. 
however, much to do ; and the attention of good ana 
humane people has been lately called to their state of 
moral discipline. 

It is inconceivable to what a spirit of party this has 
given birth ;— all the fat and sleek people, — ^tne enjoy- 
ers, — the mumpsimus, and * well as we are ' people, 
are perfectly outrageous at being compelled to ao their 
duty : and to sacrifice time and money to the lower or. 
ders of mankhid. Their first resource xras, to deny all 
the facts which were brought forward for the purposes 
of amendment ; and the alderman's sarcasm of the 
Turkey carpet in jails was bandied firom one hard- 
hearted and fat-witted gentleman to another : but the 
advocates of prison-improvement are men in earnest — 
not playing at religion, but of deep feeling, and of in- 
defatible industry in cnaritable pursuits. Mr. Buxton 
went in company with men of the most irreproachable 
veracity ; and found, in the heart of the metropolis, 
and in a prison of which the very Turkey carpet alder- 
man was an official visitor, scenes of horror, filth, and 
cruelty, which would have disgraced even the interior 
of asiave-ship. 

This dislike of innovation proceeds sometimes from 
the disgust excited by false humanity, canting hypoc- 
risy, and silly enthusiasm. It proceeds also from a 
stupid and indiscriminate horror of change, whether 
of evil for good, or good for evil. There is also much 
party spirit in these matters. A good deal of these 
Jbumane projects and institutions originates from Dis- 
senters. Tne plunderers of the public, the jobbers, 
and those who sell themselves to some great man, 
who sells himself to a greater, all scent from afar^ the 
danger of political changen-ue sensible that the cor- 

* Report of Prison Sodetji tir. 

rectioii of ott« abuse mav lead to that of another— 
feel uneasy at any visible operation of public spirit 
and justice— hate and tremble at.a man who exposes 
and rectifies abuses from a sense of duty — and think, 
if such things are aufiered to be, that their candle- 
ends and cheese-parings are no longer safe : and these 
eagacious persons, it must be said for them, are not 
very wrong in this feeling. Providence, which has de- 
nied to them all that is great and good, has given 
them a fine tact for the preservation of their plunder : 
their real enemy is the spirit of inquiry — the dislike 
of wrong — ^the love of right — and the courage and dil- 
igence which are the concomitants of these virtues^— 
When once this spirit is up, it may be as veil directed 
to one abuse as another. To say you must not torture 
a prisoner with bad air and bad rood, and to say yon 
must not tax me without my consent, or that of my 
representative, are both emanations of the same priu* 
ciple, occurring to the same sort of understanding, 
congenial to the same disposition, published, protect- 
ed, and enforced by the same qualities. This it is that 
really excites the horror agamst Mrs. Fry, Mr. Gur- 
ney, Mr. Bennet, and Mr. Buxton. Alarmists such at 
we have described have no particular wish that prisons 
should be dirty, jailers cruel, or prisoners wretched ; 
they care little about such matters either way ; but all 
theur malice and meanness are called up into action 
when they see secrets brought to light, and abuses 
givmg way before the diffusion of inteUigence, and the 
aroused feelings of justice and compassion. As for us, 
we have neither love of change, nor fear of ii ; but a 
a love of what is just and wise, as far as we arc able 
to find it out. In this spirit we shall offer a lew obser- 
vations upon prisons, and upon the publications beiore 

The new law rttould keep up the distinction between 
jails and houses of correction. One of each should 
exist in every county, either at n distance from each 
other, or in such a state of juxlapositioK that they 
might be under the same governor. To the jail hbouid 
be committed all persons accuscil of capital olfenccs, 
whose trials would come on at the Assizes ; to the 
house of correction, all offenders whose cases would be 
cosnizable at the Quarter Sessions. Sentence of im- 
prisonment in the house of correction, after trial, 
should cary with it hard labour ; sentence of impri^ 
onment in the jail, after trial, should imply an exemp* 
tion f^m compulsory labour. There should be no 
compulsor^r labour in jails— only In houses of correc- 
tion. In usuig the terms Jail and House of Cnrreciion, 
we shall always attend to these distinctions.' Prison- 
ers for trial should not only not be compelled to labour, 
but they should have eveiy hidulgence shown to them 
compatible with safety. No chains — much better diet 
than they commonly have— all possible access to their 
friends and relations— and means of eaniine money if 
they choose it. The broad and obvious distinction 
between prisoners before and after trial shonld coo- 
stantly be attended to ; to violate it is gross tyranny 
and cnieltv. 

The jails for men and women should be ao far sepa- 
rated, that nothing could be seen or heard from one to 
the other. The men should be divided into two class- 
es : Ut, those who are not yet tried ; 2d, those who are 
tried and convicted. The first class should be divided 
into those who are accused as misdemeanants and as 
felons ; and each of these into first misdemeanants 
and second misdemeanants, men of better and worst; 
character ; and the same with felons. The second 
class should be divided into, ]«f, persons condeiiuied to 
death ; 2dly. persons coudemnea for transportation : 
3<2/y, first class of confined, or men of the best char, 
acter under sentence of confinement ; Aihly, second 
cor^finedj or men of worse character nnder sentence of 
confinement. To these are to be added separate placea 
for king's evidence, boys, lunatics, and plaees for the 
reception of prisoners, before they can be examined 
and classed: — a chapel, hospital, yards, and voriE« 
shops for such as are willing to work. 

The classUicatioiif in Jails will then be aafoUowa:^ 



2d Ditto. 
\ri Felons. 
2d Ditto. 

Sentenced to death. 
Ditto transportation. 
Iff Confined. 
24 Confined. 

EiDg^s Evidence. 
Criminal Lunatics. 

Prisonera on their first reception. 
And the same dxTisions for women. 

But there is a division still more important than any 
of tlieae ; and that is, a division into much smaller 
numbers than are gathered together in prisons : — 40, 
60,snd even 70 and 80 felons, are often placed togeth- 
<^r in one ynrdj snd live tosether tor months previous 
to iheir trial. A(i]r classification of ofienoes, while 
there is such a multitude living together of one class, 
is perfectly nugatorjr and ridiculous ; no character can 
escape from corruption and extreme vice in such a 
school. The law oi^ht to he peremptory against the 
cfaafinement of more than fifteen persons together of 
rlf same class. Unless some measure of this kind is 
r&M>rted to, all reformations in prisons is impoesihle.* 

A very great, and a very neglected obiect m prisons, 
k diet. There should be^ in every Jail and house of 
uonection, four sorts of diet ;— ls(. Spread and water ; 
adlyy Common prison diet, to be settled by the magis- 

raies ; 3d/y, Best prison diet, to be settled by ditto ; 
ttAiy, Free diet, from which ^rituoos liquors alto- 
gether, and fermented liquors in excess, are excluded. 
All prisoners, before trial, should be allowed best pri' 
«0D diet, and be upon free diet if they could afford it. 
Every sentence lor imprisonment should expressly 
nentton to which diet the prisoner is confined ; and 
10 other diet should be, on any accoott, allowed to 
iuch prisoner after his sentence. Nothing can be so 
preposterous, and criminally careless, as the way in 
irhich persona confined upon sentence are suffered to 
ive in prison. Misdemeanants, who have money in 
iheir pocliets,may be seen in many of our prisons 
rith fish, buttered veal, rump steaks, and every other 
Kind of luxury ; and as the practice prevails of allow- 
ing them to purchase a pmt of ale each, the rich pri- 
soner purchases many vmts of ale in the name of nis 
poorer brethren, and arinks them himself. A jail 
should be a jdace of punishment, from which men re- 
coil with horror— a place of real suffering, painful to 
the memory, terrible \o the imagination ; but if men 
can live i<fly, and live luxuriously, in a dean, well- 
sired, well- warmed, spacious habitation, is it any won- 
der that they set the law at defiance, and brave that 
magistrate who restores them to their former luxunr 
and ea»e ? There are a set of men well known to jail- 
ers, called FamUy*men, who are constantly returning 
to jail, and who may be said to spend the greater part 
of their life therep-up to the time when they are 
Minutes q/* Evidence taktn Ufcf thUd dmimUUt on Gootr 

'Mr. William Bxbbt, JTeepcr of Iko New ClerkenweU 
Prifon.— Have vou many prifeoners that letum to you on 
re-conuDitment f A vast number ; some of them axe fre- 
quently discharged in the morning, and I have them back 
again in the evening : or they have been diachaiged in the 
eteninfT, and I have bad them back In the morning.'— £vi- 
dtfiee More the CommiUee of the Houee of Commone i«iil819, 
p. 278. 

'Fkajicis Corvt, £sq.» Ckairmon qfthe MiJUBeeex Quorfcr 
Sesfiona.— HsA that opinion been confirmed by any conduct 
yott hate observed in prisoner» that have come before you 
for trial ? I only judice from the opposite thing, that, ROing 
into a place where they can be idle, and well protected 
from any inconvenienoes of the weather, and other things 
tkatpovertv is open to, they are not amended at all; they 
laofrh at It frequently, and deaire to go to the House of Cor- 
rection. Once or twice, in the eany part of the winter, 
upon sending a prisoner for two months, he has a«ked 
whether he could not stay longer, or words to that effect. 
It is an insulting way of saying they like ]!L*^Evidenu be- 
fore tJU CommitUe eftke Memoe ^ Commmo im 1819, p. 386. 

* We abould much prefer solitary imprisonment ; but are 
at present sfyaking of the regulations in jails where that 

The fact is, that a thief is a vary dainty mntleman. 
MaU porta cito dUabuntur, He does not roo to lead a 
life of mortification and self-denlaL The difilculty of 
controlling iiis appetites, in all probability, first led 
him to expenses, wliich made him a thief to support 
them. Having Lost character, and become desperatOi 
he orders crab and lobster and veal cutlets at a pubUc 
house, while a poor labourer isreiVeshing himself with 
bread and cheese. The most vulnerable nart of a 
thief is his belly ; and there is nothing he feels more 
bitterly in connnement than a long course of water- 
gruel and fiour-puddings. It is a mere mockery of 
punishment to say, that such a man shall spend his 
money in luxurious viands, and sit down to dinner with 
fetters on his feet, and fried pork in his stomach. 

Restriction to diet in prisons is stiU more necessary. 
when it is remembered that it is impossible to avoid 
making a prisim, in some respects, more eligible than 
the home of a culprit. It is almost always more spa- 
cious, cleaner, better ventilated, better warmed. Ail 
these advantages are inevitable on the side of the pri- 
son. The means, therefore, that remain of making a 
prison a disagreeable place, are not to be neglected : 
and of these, none are more powerful than the regula- 
tion of diet. If this is neglected, the meaning of sen- 
tencing a man to prison will be this— and it had better 
be put in these words — 

< Prisoner at the bar, you are fairly convicted, by a 
jury of your country, of naving felomously stolen two 
pigs, the j)roperty of Stephen Muck, firmer. The 
court havmg taken into consideration the frequency 
and enormity of tliis ofl'ence, and the necessity of re- 
straining it with the utmost severity of punishment, do 
order and adjudge that you be connned for six montha 
in a house larger, better, better aired, and warmer 
than your own, in company with 20 or 30 young per- 
sons m as good health and spirits as yourself. You 
need dp no work, and you may have any thing for 
breakfiist, dinner, and supper you can buy. In pass- 
ing this sentence, the court hopo that your example 
will be a warning to others; and that evU-disposed 
persons will perceive, from your suffering, that the 
laws of their country are not to be broken with impu- 

As the diet, according to our plan, is always to be 
a part of the sentence, a judge willj of course, consi- 
der the nature of the offence for which the prisoner ia 
committed, as well as the quality of the prisoner : and 
we have before stated, that all prisoners, l>efore trial, 
should be upon the best prison diet, and unrestricted 
as to what they could purchase, always avoiding in- 

Tnese gradarions of diet being fixed in all prisons, 
and these definitions of JaU and House of Conection 
being adhered to, the punishment of imprisonment 
may be apportioned with the greatest nicety, either 
by the statute, or at the discretion of the judge, if 
the law chooses to give iiim that discretion. There 
will be— 

Imprisonment for different degress of time. 

Imprisonment solitary, or in company, or in 

In jails without labour. 

In houses ot correction with labour. 

Imprisonment with diet on bread and water. 

Imprisonment with common prison diet. 

Imprisonment with best prison diet. 

Imprisonment with free diet. 
Every sentence of the judge should sUte diet, as 
Well as light or darkness, time, place, solitude, society, 
labour or ease ; and we are stronffly of opinion, that 
the punishment in prisons should be sharp and short. 
We would, in most cases, give as nmch of solitary 
confinement as would not injure men's minds, and as 
much bread and water diet as would not injure their 
bodies. A return to prison should be contemplated 
with horror^horroT, not excited by the ancient filth, 
disease, and extortion of jails; but by calm, well-re- 
gulated, well-watched austerity— by the gloom and 
sadness wisely and intentionally thrown over such an 
abode. Six weeks of such sort of imprisonment would 
be much more efficacious than as loanyanontlis of JoUf 
company and veal catkts. 



It appears bt the Times newspaper of the 24th 
of June, 1821, tnat two persons, a man and his wife, 
were committed at the Surrey Sessions for three 
Tears. If this county jail is biad, to three years of 
idleness and good livrng-- if it is a manufkctunng jail. 
to three years of regular labour, moderate living, and 
accumulated gains. They are committed prtncipaliy 
for a warning to others, partly for their own good. 
Would not these ends have been much more enectu- 
aJly answered, if they had been committed, for nine 
montlis< to solitary cells, upon bread and water ; the 
first and last month in dark cells? If this is too se« 
Tere, then lessen the duration still more, and give 
them more light days and fewer dark ones ; but we 
are convinced the whole good sous^ht may be better 
obtained in much shorter periods than ore now resort- 

For the purpose of making jails disaereeable, the 
prisoners should remain perfectly alone all night, if it 
18 not thought proper to render their confinement en- 
tirely solitary during the whole period of their im- 
prisonment. Prisoners dislike thi»— and thertfore 
It should be done ; it would make their residence in 
jails more disagreeable, and render them unwilling to 
return there. At present, eight or ten women sleep 
in a room with a good fire, pass the night in sound 
sleep or jpleasant conversation ; and this is called con- 
ifinement m a prison. A prison is a place where men, 
atUr trial and sentence, should be made unhappy by 
public lawful enactments, not so severe as to mjure 
the soundness of mind or body. If this is not done, 
prisons are a mere invitation to the lower classes to 
wade, through felony and larceny, to better accom- 
modations than they can procure at home. And here, 
as it appears to us, is the mistake of the many excel- 
lent men who busy themselves (and wisely and hu- 
manely busy themselves) about prisons. Their first 
object seems to be the reformation of the prisoners, 
not the reformation of the public ; whereas the first 
object should be, the discomfort and discontent of 
their prisoners; that they should become a warning, 
feel unhappy, and resolve never to act so again as to 
put themselves in the same predicament ; and then as 
much reformation as is compatible with this the better. 
If a man says to himself, this prison is a comfortable 
place, while he says to the chaplafai or the visitor that 
ne will come there no more, we confess we have no 
great confidence in his public declaration ; but if he 
says, ' this is a place of misery and sorrow, you shall 
not catch me here again,' there is reason to believe he 
will be as good as his word ; and he then becomes 
, (which is of much more consequence than his own 
reformation) a warning to others. Hence it is we 
object to that spectacle of order and deconim-^^ar- 
pentcrs ia one shop, tailors in another, weavers in a 
third, sitting down to a meal by ring of bell, and re- 
ceiving a regular portion of their earnings. We are 
afraid it is better than real life on the other side of the 
wall, or so very little worse that nobody will have any 
fear to encounter it. In Bury jail, which is consider- 
ed as a pattern jail, the prisoners under a sentence of 
confinement are allowed to spend their weekly earn- 
ings (two, three, and four shillings per week) in fish, 
tobacco, and vegetables ; so states the jailer in his 
examination betore the House of Commons — and we 
have no doubt it is well meant ; but is it punishment ? 
We were more struck, in reading the evidence of the 
jail commitree before the House of Commons, with 
the opinions of the jailer of the Devizes jail, and with 
the practice of the magistrates who superintend it.* 

<Mk. T. BiCTTOif, Oovemor oftke Gaol at DnrtzM^^Does 
tbii confinement in solitude make prisoners more adverse 
to return to priiion ? I think it does^r-Doen it make a stronsr 
lm}'res«ion uix>n them? I have no doubt of it.— Does it 
make them more obedient and orderly while in gaol ? I 
have no doubt it does.— Do you consider it the most effectu- 
al punishment you can make use of? I do. — Do you 
think it has a greater effect upon the minds of prisoners 
than any apprehensions of personal punishment? I have 
no doubt of it.— Have you any dark cells for the punish- 

* The Winchester and Devizes jails seem to us to be con- 
ducted upon better principles than any otheri though eren 
these are by no means what jails ahoukl be. 

ment of xefractory prisoners ? I hare-^Do you find It 
neceasazy occasionally to use them ? Very sddom. — Hsive 
you, in any instance, been obliged to use the dark cdl, in 
me case of the same prisoner, twice ? Only on one occa- 
sion, I think. — What length of time is necessary to confine 
a refractory prisoner to bring him to his senses t Lem than 
one day. — Do you think it essential, for the purpose of 
keeping up the discipline of the prison, that you should 
have it in your power to have recourse to the punishment 
of dark ecus ? I do ; I consider punishment in m dark cdl 
for one day, has a greater effect upon a prisoner than to 
keep him on bread and water for a month.' — EvitUmee k^ 
for* tks Commitu* oftke Hmuo of Commmu tn 1B19, p M9. 

ThI evidence of the governor of Gloucester jail is to 
the same effect. 

<Mr. Tmomss CcmnivoHAic, Ketmtr of tko Qiomeeotor 

OaoL — Do you attribute the want of those certificates en- 
tirely to the nwlect of enforcing the means of ••olitary con- 
finement ? I do most certainly. Sometimes, where a cer- 
tificate has not been eranted, and a prisoner has brought a 
certificate of good behaviour for one year. Sir Geoige and 
the committee ordered one pound or a guinea from the 
charity.— Does that arise ttom your appr^nsion that the 
prisoners have not been equally reformed, or only ftom the 
want of the means of ascertaining such reformation ? It is 
for want of not knowing ; and we cannot ascertain it, from 
their working in numbers.— They may be reformed ? Tes, 
but we have not the means or ascertaining it There Is one 
tiling I do which is not provided for oy the rules, and 
which is the only thin^ in which I deviate firom the rules. 
Whea a man is committed for a month, I never eire him 
any work; he sits in solitude, and walks in tlie yard by him- 
self for air ; he has no other food but his bread and water, 
except tvr\ce a week a pint of peas soup. I never knew an 
instance of a man coining in a second time, who had been 
committed for a month. I have done that for these seven- 
teen or eighteen years.^— What has been the result ? They 
* ' in again. If a man is comimttcd 

dread so much con 

for six weeks, we give 'him work. — ^Do you apprehend that 
solitary confinement for a month, without employment, is 
the most beneficial means of working reform ? I conceive 
it is.— Can it operate as the means of reform, any more 
than it operates as a system of punishment? It is cmly for 
small ofiences they commit for a montli. — ^Would not the 
same efi'ect be produced by corporal punishment ? Corpo- 
ral punishment may be absolutely necessary sometimei ; 
but I do not think corporal punishment would reform tbcm 
80 much as solitary confinement— Would not severe cor- 
poral punishment have the same effect? No, it would 
harden them more than anything else. — Do you think ben- 
efit is derived from the opportunity of reflection afforded 
by solitary confinement? Tes.— And very low diet also ? 
Tes.'— fvitfcaee bejbn tk€ Commmea qf tks Houm of Com- 
mnu in IQ\9, p. Z9l. 

We mnst quote also the the evidence of the gover- 
nor of Horsley jail. 

' Mr. William Stokbb, Oovemor ^f tJbe Homn i^f C«rree- 
tion at UoroUff^—Do you obsorve any difference In tlie eoadoct 
of prisouera who are employed, and tboee who have no em- 
ployment ? Yes, a good deal ; I look upon it, from «bat 
judgment I can fo in, and I have been a long while in it, chat 
to take a prisoner and disciplhie him according to the rules as 
the law allows, and if he have no work, that that maa goes 
through more punishment in one montti, than a man wlio is 
lortion of his labour three i 
lave eroploymeul, because i 
n oway who have bean in tli 
of earniuff sixpence a-week to buy a loaf, and put them in soli- 
tary confinement ( and the punishment is a great deal more 
without work.-.-Which of the prisoners, those that have bm 
employed, or those unemployed, do you think would fro out of 
the prison the better men 1 1 think, that let me have a prisoa- 
er, and I never treat any one with severity, any iVirther than 
that they should be obedient, and to let them see that I will do 
my duty, I have reason to believe, that, if aprisoaeris commit- 
ted under my care, or any other man's care, to a house of e«r- 
rection. and he has to go under the disciplins of tite law, if he 
is in for the value of a month or six woelcs, that a man is in a 
great deal better state than though he stays for six months ; he 
gets hardened by being in so long, from one month to another. 
—You are speaking now of solitude without labour; doyoa 
think he would go out better if he had been employed during 
the month vou speak of? No, nor half; because I never task 
those people, in order that they should not say I force them to 
do more than they are able, that they should not slight it ; Ibr 
if they perform anything in the bounds of reason, I never find 
fault with them. The prisoner who is employed, his time 
passes smooth and comfortable, and he has a propiMlioa of bis 
earnings, and he csn buy additional diet ; but If iia ius no 

employed and receives a portion of his labour three months ; 
hut still I should like to nave eroploymeul, because a rreai 
number of times I took men oway who have been in the habit 

l^x>ur, and kept under the disc^line of the prison, it is a 
* piece of punishment to go through^— mich of the two 



dtoiiUTmitklBk mort Ukolj to rftnni iMMdmtely to btbila 
ot labour on their own account ? The dbpoaitions of all men 
•re not alike ; but my opinion 10 thia, if they are kept and diici> 
plinad aceordinf to the rulec of the prison, and have no labour, 
that one month will do more than six { I am certain, that a 
man who is kept here without labour onoe, will not be very 
nmiy to come here a«[ain.'— JE;m^aice hiifbr$ (As Cowmittes of 
tkt House «/ Commmo, pp. 398, 390. 

Mr. Gximtj and Mr. Buxton both lay a great stress 
npoa the <|uiet and content of prisoners, upon their 
subordination and the absence of all plans of escape ; 
but^ where the happiness of prisoners is so much con- 
sulted, we shoula be much more apprehensive of a 
conspiracy to break into^ than to break out of^^rison. 
The mob outside may, mdeed, envy the wicked ones 
within ; but the felon who has left, perhaps, a scold- 
ing wife, a battered cottage, and six starring children, 
has no disposition lo escape tVom regularity, sufficient 
food^ employment which saves him money, warmth, 
ventilation, cleanliness, and civil treatment. These 
symptoms, upon which these respectable and excellent 
men la^ so much stress, are by no means proofs to us 
that prisons are placed upon the best possible footing. 

The governor of Bury jail, as welf as Mr. Gumey, 
insist much upon the few prisoners who return to the 
jail a second tune, the manufacturing skill which they 
acquire there, and the complete reformation of man- 
ners, for which the prisoner has afterwards thanked 
him the governor. But this is not the real criterion 
of the excellence of a jail, nor the principal reason 
why jails were msjituted. The great point is, not the 
average recurrence of the same prisoners ; but the 
naudty or frequency of oommitmenu, upon the whole. 
You may make a jail snch an admirable place of edu- 
cation, that it may cease to be infamous to go there. 
Mr. Holford tells us (and a very curious anecdote it 
is}, that parents actually accuse their children falsely 
ot crimes, in order to get them into the Philanthropic 
Charity J and that it is consequently a rule with Uie 
governors of that Charity never to receive a child up- 
on the accusation of the parents alone. But it is quite 
obvious what the next step will be, if the parents 
cannot get their children m by fibbing. They will 
take good care that the child is really qualified for the 
Philanthropic, by impeUins him to those crimes which 
are the passport to so good an education. 

*\% on the contrary, the offender is to be punished simply 
by being placed in a prison, where he is to be well lodged, 
well ck>thed, and well fed, to be instructed in reading and 
writing, to receive a moral and religious education, and to be 
broag ht up to « trade ; and if this prison is to be within the 
reach of the parenta, so that they may occasionally visit their 
child, and have the satis&ction of knowing, from time to time, 
that ail these advantages are oonftrred upon him, and that he 
ii exposed to no bardships, although the confinement and the 
discipline ofthe prison may be irksome to the bov; vet the 
parents may be apt to congratulato themselves on having got 
niai off their han<ft into so good a berth, and may be considered 
by other parents as having drawn a prize in the lottery of 
haman life by their son's conviction. This reasoning is not 
theoretical, but is founded in some degree upon experience. 
Those who have been in the habit of attending the committee 
ofthe Philanthropic Society know, that parents have often ac- 
cused their children of crimes fidsely, or have exaggerated 
their real offences, for the sake of inducing that society to 
take them ; and so frequent has been this practice, that it is a 
rale with those who manage that institution, never to receive 
an object upon the representation of its parents, unless sup- 
ported by other strong testimony.'— iTo^orii, pp. 44,45. 

It is quite obvious that, if men were to appear again, 
six months after they were hanged, handsomer, richer, 
and more plump than before execution, the gaUows 
would cease to be an object of terror. But here are 
men who come out of jail, and say, '* Look at ua, — 
we can read and write, we can make baskets and 
shoes, and we went in ignorant of every thing : and 
we have learnt to do without strong liquors, and have 
no longer any objection to work ; and we did work in 
the jail, and have saved money, and here it is.'' 
What is there of terror and detriment in all this? and 
how are crimes to be lessened if they are thus re- 
warded? Of schools there cannot be too many. Pe- 
oitentiories, in the hands of wise men, maybe ren- 
dered excellent insUtations; bat a pris<»i most be a 
pnscn— « ptaM «f tonow and wailing ; which ahonld 

be ciBtevsd with horrori and qidtted with eatneat reso- 
lution never to return to such misery ; with that deep 
impression, in short, ofthe evil which breaks out bito 
perpetual warning and exhortation to others. This 
great point effected, ail other reformation must do the 
greatest good. 

There are some very sensible observations upon this 
point in Mr. Holford's book, who upon the whole has, 
we think, best treated the subject of prisons^ and best 
understands them. 

' In former times, men were deterred from pursuing the road 
that led to a prisou, by the apprehension of onoouuteriag there 
disease and hunger, of being loaded with heavy irons, and of 
remaining without clothes to cover them, or a bed to lie on; 
we have done no more tlian what justice required in relieving 
the inmates of a prison ftom these hardships ; but there is ns 
reason that they should be fVeed from the fear of all other snf- 
ferinn and privations. And I hope that those whose duty it is 
to Uke up the consideration of these subjects, will see, that in 
Penitentiaries, offenders should be subjected to separate con- 
finement, accompanied by such work as may be found consis- 
tent with that system of imprisonmeat; that in Jails or houses 
of correction, they should perform that kind of labour which 
the law has enjoined ; and that, in prisons of both descriptions^ 
instead of being allowed to cater for themselves, they should 
be sustained by such food as the rules and regulations of the 
establishment should have provided for them : in short, that 
prisons should be considered as places of puntehment, and not 
as scenes of cheerAtl industry, where a Conqpromise must be 
made with the prisoner's appetite to make him do the oommoa 
work of a journeyman or minuftcturer, and the labours of 
the spinningowheel and the loom must be alleviated by iadol- 

This is good sound sense ; and it is a pity that it js 
preceded by the usual nonsense about < Me nde o/Mos- 
phttny and sediHonJ If Mr. Holford is an observer of 
tides and currents, whence comes it that he observes 
only those which set one way ? Whence comes it 
that he says nothing of the tides of canting and hypo- 
crisy, which are flowing with such rapidity ?~of ab- 
ject political baseness and sycophancy — of the dispo- 
sition so prevalent among Englishmen, to sell their 
conscience and their country to the Marquis ot Lon- 
donderry for a living for the second son-«or a silk gown 
for the nephew— or for a frigate for my brother the 

* * That I am guilty of no exaggeration in thus describing • 
prison conducted upon the principles now coming into fashion, 
will be evident to any person who will turn to the latter part 
of the article, "Penitentiary, Millbank," in Mr. Buxton's 
Book on Prisons. He there sUtes what passed in conversa- 
tion between himself and the governor of Bury jail, (which 
jail, by the bye, he praises as one of the three best prisons ho 
has ever seen, and strongly recommends to our imitation at 
Millbank). Having observed, that the governor of Bury jail 
had mentioned his having counted 34 spinning-wheels in foil 
activity when he left that jail at 5 o'clock in the morning on 
the preceding day, Mr. Buxton proceeds as follows : — ** After 
he had seen the Hillbank Penitentiary, I asked him what 
would be the consequence, if the regulations there used were 
adopted by him V* ** The consequence would be,'' he replied, 
** that every wheel would be stopped." Mr. Buxton then adds, 
** I would not be considered as suppoeing that the prisoners 
will altogether refose to work at HiUbank-»they will work 
during the stated hours, but the present incentive being want- 
ing, toe labour will, I apprehend, be languid and desuJtory." 
I shall not, on my part, undertake to say that they will do as 
much work as will be done in those prisons in which Work is 
the primary olijeet ; but, Ix^sides the encouragement of the 
portion of earnings laid up for tliem, they know that diligence 
IS among the qualities that will recommend them to the mercy 
ofthe crown, and thai the want of it is, by the rules and regu- 
lations of the prison, an offence to be punished. The governor 
of Bury jail, who in a very intelligent man, mu«it have spoken 
hastily, in his ea|rnrncss to support his own system, and did 
not, I conceive, give himself credit for as much power and au- 
thority in his pri»on as he really po«sesses. It is not to be 
wondered at, that the keepers of prisons sliould like the new 
system: there is less trouble in the care of a manufactorv.tha^ 
in that of a jail ; but I am surprised to find that so much reh- 
ance is placed in arj^ument on the declaration of aome of these 
ofikers, that the prisoners are quieter where their work is en- 
couraged, by allowing them to spend a portion of their earn- 
ings. It may naturally be expected, that offenders will be 
least discontented, and consequently least turbulent, where 
their punishment is lightest, or where, to use Mr. Buxton's ows 
words, "by making labour nroductive of comfort or eonvea 
ience, you do mudi towards rendering it agreeable ;" bat 
must be permitted to doubt, whether these are the priaoos oi 
which men will Uve hi most dead.'..iEi(fbr4, pp. 1&-80 



otfitain? How eomeft our loyal caiooxist to foiget aU 
these sorts of tides ? 

There is a great eonfosion, as the lav now stands, 
ia the goTemmeat of jaiis. The justices are empow- 
ered, by seTeral statutes, to make subordinate regula- 
tions for the goremment of the jails ; and the sheriff 
■opersedes those regulations. Their respective juris- 
dictions and powers should be clearly arranged. 

The female prisoners shouid be under the care of a 
matron, with proper assistants. Wliere this is not 
the case, the female part of the prison is often a mere 
brothel lor the tumlceys. Can any tiling be so repug- 
nant to all ideas of reformation, as a male turnkey 
visiting a solitary female prisoner ? Surely, women 
can take care of women as effectuaUy as men can take 
care of men ; or, at least, women can do so properly, 
assisted by men. This want of a matron is a very 
Bcaadalous and immoral neglect in any prison system. 

The presence of female visitors, and mstructors for 
the women, is so obviously advantageous and proper, 
that the offer of forming such an institution must be 
gladly and thaakftilly received by any body of mag!»- 
trates. That they should feel any Jealousy of such 
interference, is too absurd a supposition to be made or 
agreed iwon. Such interference may not effect all 
that zealous people suppose it will effect { but, if it 
does any goocL it had better be. 

Irons should never be put upon prisonen before 
trial ; after trial, we cannot object to the humiliatimi 
and disgrace which irons and a particoloured prison 
dress occasion. Let them be a part of solitary con- 
finement, and let the words < Solitary Confinement,' 
Sn the sentence, imply pernussion to use them. The 
judge then knows what he inflicts. 

We object to the office of prison inspector, for rea* 
sons so very obvious, that it is scarcely necessary to 
enumerate them. The prison inspector would, of 
coarse, have a good salary; that in England is never 
omitted. It is equally matter of course that he would 
be taken from among treasury retainers ; and that he 
never would look at a prison. Every sort of attention 
should be paid to the religious instruction of these 
nnhappy people ; but the poor chaplain should be 
paid a httle better ^— every possible duty is expected 
urom him-Mind he has one hundred per annum. 

Whatever money is given to prisonen, should be 
lodged with the ^vemor for their benefit, to be ap- 
plied as the visitmg magistrates point out— no other 
donations diould be allowed or accepted. 

If voluntary work before trial; or compulsory work 
after trial, is the system of a prison, there should be 
a task-master ; and it should be remembered, that the 
principal object is not profit. 

Wardsmen, selected in each yard among the best 
of the prisoners, are very serviceable. If prisoners 
work, they should work in silence. At all times, the 
restrictions upon seeing friends should be very severe ; 
and no food should be sent from friends. 

Our general system then is — that a prison should be 
a place of real punishment ; but of known, enacted, 
measurable, and measured punishment. A prisoner 
(not for assault, or refusing to pay parish dues, but a 
bad felonious prisoner^ , should pass a part of his three 
months in complete darkness ; the rest in complete 
solitude, perhaps in complete idleness, (for soLtary 
idleness leads to repentance, idleness in compauv to 
vice). He should be exempted from cold, be kept 
perfectly clean, have food sufficient to prevent hunger 
or illness, wear the prison dress and moderate irons, 
have no communication with any body but the officers 
of the prison and the magistrates, and remain other- 
wise in the most perfect solitude. We strongly sus- 
pect this is the way in which a bad man is to be made 
afraid of prisons ; nor do we think that he would be 
less inclined to receive moral and religious instruction, 
than any one of seven, or eight carpenters in iiul, 
working at a common bench, receiving a part of their 
earnings, and allowed to purchase with them the deli- 
cacies or the season. If tlus system is not resorted to 
the next best system is severe work, ordinary diet, 
BO indulgences, and as much seclusion and solitude as 
■re compatible with work ^-always remarking, that 
'^ifeet sanity of mind and body an to be preaerrad* 

T^this system of aevwlty in Jails there ip but una 
objection. The present duration of punishments was 
calculated foV prisons conducted upon very different 
principles j — ana if the discipline or prisons was ren- 
dered more strict, we are not sure that the duration of 
imprisonment would then be quite atrocious and dis- 
proportioned. There is a very great disposition^ both 
m judges and magistrates to increase the duTati<m of 
imprisonment ; and if that is done, it will be dreadful 
cruelty to increase the bitterness as well as the time. 
We snoold think, for instance, six months' scilitary 
imprisonment to be a punishment of dreadful severity ; 
but we find, from the House of Commons' report, that 
prisoners are sometimes committed by county ma^ 
strates for two years* of solitiury coonnement. And 
so it may be doubted, whether it is not better to wrap 
up the rod in flannel, and make it a plaything, as it 
really now is, than to show how it nuiy be wielded 
with effectual severity. For the pupil, instead of giv- 
ing one or two stripes, wUl whip his p&tient to death. 
But if this abuse were guarded against, the real way 
to improve would be, now we have made our prisons 
healtny and airy, to make them odious and austere— 
engines of puniriiment, and objects of terror. 

In this age of charity and of prison improvement, 
there is one aid to pnsoners which appears to be 
wholly overlooked ; and that is, the means of regula- 
ting their defence, and providing them witnesses for 
their trial. A man is tried for murder, or for house- 
breaking, or robbery, without a single shilling in his 
pocket. The nonsensical and capricious institutions 
of the English law prevent him fkrom engaging counsel 
to speak in his defence, if he had the wealth of Crbsus ; 
but ne has no money to employ even an attorney, or 
to procure a single witness, or to take out a subpae- 
na. The judge, we are told, is his counsel ; — thu is 
sufficiently absurd ; but it is not pretended that the 
ludge is his witness. He solemnly declares that he 
has ihrei or four witnesses who could give a com. 
pletely different colour to the transaction ; but they 
are sixty or seventy miles distant, working for thetr 
daily bread, and have no money for such a journey, 
nor for the expense of a residence of some days m 
an assize town. They do not know even the time 
of the assize, nor the modes of tendering their evi- 
dence if they should come. When everything is so 
well marshalled against him on the opposite side, 
it would be sinffular if an innocent man, with such 
an absence of all means of defending himself, should 
not occasionally be hanged or tnin^mrted: and ac- 
cordingly we believe that such thingahave happe&ed.f 
Let any man, immediately previous to the assizes vi- 
sit the prisoners for trial, and see the many wretches 
who are to answer to the most serious accusations, 
without one penny to defend themselves. If it ap- 
peared probaole, upon inquiry, that these poor crea- 
tures had important evidence which they could not 
bring into court for want of money, would it not be a 
wise amplication of compassionate lunds, to give them 
this fair chance of establishing their innocence ? It 
seems to us no had finale of the pious labours of those 
who guard the poor from ill treatment during their 
imprisonment, to take care that they are not unjustly 
hanged at the expiration of the term. 

* House of Commoat' Report, 355. 
tFrom tile Cromwell Advertiser it appears, that Jolia 

Brien, alia* Captain Wlieeler, was Iband fuil^jr of morAar at 
the late assises for the county of Waterfbrd. ri t v iey a to Ua 
execution he made the folio iria; confession :— 

* I now again most solemnly aver, in the presanoe of tinl 
God by whom I will soon be judged, and who seat IkM aecrru 
of my heart, that only three, viz. Morgan Brien, Patrick 
Brien, and my unfortunate self, committed the horrible crimes 
of murder and burning at Bally garron, and the four unfbrta- 
nate men wlio have before suffered lor them, were tun is th» 
smallest degree accessary to them. I have been the cause for 
which thev have innocently suflbred death. I have conCraetad 
a death orjitttice with them— and the only and Umt raatits- 
tion I can make them is, thus publicly, solenuily, and with 
death befor my eyes, to acqu.t their memory of any guilt is 
the crimes Ibr which I deservedly suffer ! > I * r*i7aar>iai>iaf 



FRIS0N8, (EnDORnMH VLvnxWf ltt2.> 

I. 7k« Third Report •/ the CommitUe •/the Sodetf Jkr tkt 
JmprmtmaU ofPruon Ditdplme^ amdjbir tks Rtfitrmmtitu 
e/Juvemile Ofendtra. London, 1821. 

9l Rammrkt «p«m Pristm DMCspJuie, ^re., tfc, m « Z,«Uer ad' 
drtM$td t» the Lord LUmtaumt mmd MagiHratet of ike 
Catmt9 0f£a§ex. By C. C. WMtem, Eaq^ M. P. Lootf 


Trsaz nerer was a soeiety calculated, upon the 
whale> to do more good than the Society for the Im- 
provement of Prison Diaciplme ; and, hitherto, it has 
been conducted with equal energy and prudence. If 
now, or hereafter, therefore, we make any criticisms 
on theb proceedings, these must not he ascribed to 
any deJSciency of good will or respect. We may dif- 
fer from the society in the means— ^ur ends, we are 
proud to say, are tne same. 

In the improvement of prisons, they consider the 
small number of ricommitmentt as the great test of 
amelioratioD. Upon this subject we hare ventured to 
differ from them m a late number ; and we see no rea- 
son to alter our opinion. It is a mistake, and a very 
serious and fundamental mistake, to suppose that the 
principal object in jails is the reformation of the of- 
fender. The principal object undoubtedly is, to pre- 
vent the repetition of the offence by the punishment 
of the offender ; and^ therefore, it is quite possible to 
conceive that the ofiender himself m&y be so kindly, 
cently, and agreeably led to reformatio^, by the ef- 
forts of good and amiable persons, that the effect of 
the punishment may be destroyed, at the same time 
that the punished may be improved. A prison may 
lose its terror and discredit, though the pnsoner may 
retnmirom it a better scholar, a oetter artificer, and 
a better man. The real and only test, in short, of a 
good prison system is, the dimmution of offences by 
the tenor of the punishment. If it can be shown 
that, in proportion as attention and expense have been 
employed upon the Improvement of prisons, the num- 
ber or commitments has been diminished, — this in- 
deed would be a convincing proof that such care and 
attention were well employea. But the very reverse 
is the case ; the niunber of commitments witnin these 
last ten years having nearly doubled all over Eng- 

The following are stated to be the committals in 
Norfolk county gaol. From 1796 to 1815, the number 
averaged about §0. 

In 1816 

it was 















p. 67. 

In Stsfibrdshire, the commitments have gradually 
increased from 196 hi 1815, to 443 in 18S0— though the 
jail has been built since Howard's time, at an expense 
of 30,00(M.— (iisporf, p. 67.) In Wiltshire, fai a pri- 
son wliich has cost the county 40,000/., the commit- 
menu have increased from 207 in 1817, to 504 in 1821. 
Within this period, to the eternal scandal and disgrace 
of our laws, 378 persons have been committed for 
Game offences— constituting a sixth part of all the 
persons committed ^— «o much for what our old friend, 
Mr. Justice Best, would term the unspeakable advan- 
tages of country gentlemen residing upon their own 
pToperty ! 

When the Committee was appointed in the county 
or Essex, in the year 1818, to take into consideration 
the state of the jail and house of correction, they 
found that the number of prisoners annually commit- 
ted had hicreased, within the ten precedmg years, 
from 659 to 1993; and there is little doubt (adds Mr. 
Western) of this portion being a tolerable specimen 
of the whole Idngdom. We are far from attributing 
this increase solely to the imperfection of prison dis- 
cipline. Increase of population, new statutes, the ex^ 
tensiott of the breed of pheasants, landed and mercan- 
tile distress^ are very operative causes. But the in- 
crease of commitments is a stronger proof against the 
present state of prison discipline, than the decrease 
rf fMwnmifnwati in ia ite flwowr. WtaayponiMy 

hat« mads some ptegfon in tlia azt of teaching him 
w1m> has done wrong, to do so no mora ; but then is 
no proof that ws have learnt the more important art, 
of deterriBg those from doing wrong who are doubt- 
ing whether they shaU do it or not, and who, of 
course, will be prmcipally guided in theii decision by 
the sufferings of those who have previously yielded to 

Theie are some assertions in the Report of the So- 
ciety, to which we can hardly give credit,— not that 
we iiave the slightest suspicion of any intentional 
misrepresentation, but that we believe tnere must ba 
some unintentional error. 

* The Lsdiet' Ckmuiiitlees viaitiur Br«wffate and the Bo- 
rough Compter, have continued to &vote themflelves to Um 
improvemeut of the female prioonen, ip a q>irit wortinr of 
their enlightened zeal and Chrutian charity. The beneficial 
effects of their exertions have been evinced by the progressive 
decrease in the nomber of female prisoners recommitto4 
which has diminished, since the visiu of the Indies to Nowgsla^ 
no less than 40 per cent.* 

That is, that Mrs. Fry end her friends have re- 
claimed forty women out of every hundred, who, but 
for them, would have reappearea in jails. Nobody 
admires and respects Mrs. Fry more than we do ; but 
this fact is scarcely credible : and, if accurate, ought, 
in justice to the reputation of the Society and its reu 
interests, to have oeen thoroughly substantiated by 
names and documents. The ladies certainly lay claim 
to no such extraordinary success in their own Report 
quoted in the Appendix ; but speaking with becoxning 
modesty and moderation of the result of their labours. 
The enemies of all these reforms accuse the reformers of 
enthusiasm and exaggeration. It is of the greatest 
possible consequence, therefore, that their state- 
ments should be correct, and their views practical ; 
and that all strong assertions should be supported by 
strong documents. The English are a calm, reflect- 
ing people ; they will gtve time and money when they 
are convmced ; but they love dates, names, and certi- 
ficates. In the midst ot the most heart-rending narra^ 
tiyes. Bull requires the day of the month, the year of 
our Lord, the name of the parish, and the counter- 
sign of three or four respectable nouseholders. Af- 
ter these affectfaig circumstances, he can no longer 
hold out ; but givea way to the kindness of his na- 
ture— puffs, blubbers, and subscribes ! 

A case is stated in the Hertford house of correction, 
which so much more resembles the sudden conver- 
sioas of the Methodist Magazine, than the slow and 
uncertain process by which repentsnce is produced in 
real life, that we are a little surprised the society 
should have inserted it. 

Two notorioas poachers, no leas than had men, were eooi- 
mitted for three months, for not paying the penalty after con- 
viction, but who, in coiise<^uenoe of extreme contrition and 
good conduct, were, at the intercession of the clergyman of the 
parish, released before the espiration of thjir term of punish- 
ment. Upon leaving the house of correction, they declared 
that they had been completely brought to their sensee— spoha 
with grathnde of the benedt they had derived from the aarieo 
of the ehiq;>lain, and promised, upon their return to the parish, 
that they would go to their minister, express their thanks for 
bis interceding for them ; and moreover that they would for 
the future attend their duty regularly at church. It is plen^ 
slug to add, that these promises have been fidthfolly Ailfilled.' 
—Jpp, to Third Report^ pp. 89, 30. 

Such statements prove nothing, but that the clergy- 
man who makes them is sn amiable man, and proba- 
bly a college tutor. Their introduction, however^ in 
the Report of a society dependmg upon public ophuon 
for success, is very detrimentaL 

It is not fair to state the recommitments of one pri- 
son, and compare them with those of another, perhapa 
very differently circumstanced,— the recomnutmenta, 
for instance, of a county jail, where offences are gene- 
rally of serious magnitude, with those of a borough, 
where the most trifling faulta are punished. The mi- 
portant thing would be, to give a table of reoonmiit- 
ments, in the same prison, for a series of years^ — ^tha 
average of recommitmenta, for example, every five 
yearsln each prison for twenty years past. If the 
aoG&itycaaobtakithia,ltwiU baadocaneBto/aoiM 



importance, (thmigh of len pethaps than they voold 
consider it to be). At present they tell us, that the 
average of recommltmeuts in ceitain prisons is 3 per 
cent. : in certain other prisons b ner cent. : but wnat 
were they twenty years ago in tiie same prison T-- 
what were they five years affo ? If recommitments 
are to be the test, we must know whether these are 
becoming, in any given prison, more or less frequent, 
before we can determine whether that prison is better 
or worse governed than formerly. Recommitments 
will of course be more numerous where prisoners are 
received from large towns, and from the resorts of 
soldiers and sailors ; because it is in these situations 
that we may expect the most hardened offenders. 
The different nature of the two soils which grow the 
crimes, must be considered before the produce gath- 
ered into prisons can be justly compared. 

The quadruple column of the state of prisons for 
each year, is a very useful and importacnt document : 
and we hope, in time, the society will give us a gene- 
ral and particular table of commitments and recom- 
uiltments carried back for twenty or thirty years ; so 
that the table may contain (of Gloucester jail, for in- 
stance), 1st, the greatest number it can contain ; 2dly. 
the greatest number it did contain at anv one period 
in each year ; Sdly^ its classification ; 4thiy, the great- 
est number committed in any given year ; 5thly, four 
averages of five years eachy taken from the twenty 
years preceding, and stating the greatest number of 
commitments ; othly, the greatest number of recom- 
mitments in the year under view ; and four averages 
of recommitments, made in the same manner t^n the 
average of the commitments ; and then totals at the 
bottom of the columns.. Tables so constructed would 
throw great light upon the nature and efficacy of im- 

We wish the society would pay a little more atten- 
tion to the question of solitary imprisonment, both in 
darkness and in light ; and to the extent to which it 
may be carried. Mr. Western has upon this subject 
some ingenious ideas. 

*Il ftpp«ar* to me, that, if relieved from these lmpedinient«, 
Slid likewiae trom any idea of the necesaity of making the 
labour ofprltonen profitabler the detail of correctiTe priwM 
diacipline would not be difflcult for anybody to chalk ont. I 
would first premise, that the only puniiAiment for refhustory 
coodtict, or any misbehaviour in the gaol, should, in my opinion, 
be solitary confinement ; and that, instead of being in a dark 
hole, it should be in some part of the house where they could 
lUlly see the light of day ; and I am not sure that it might not 
be deeirable ia some cases, if ptoasible, that they should see the 
surrounding country and moving objects at a distance, and 
•veryihing that man delights in, removed at the same time 
trom any mtereourse or word or look with any human beinv, 
and quite out of tlie reach of being themselves seen. I consi- 
der svch confinement would be a punishment very severe, and 
ealculated to produce a far better effect than darkness. All 
the feelings that are good in men would be mnch more likely 
to be kept alive ; the loss of liberty, and all the blessings of 
UfW which honesty will insure, more deeply to be felt There 
would pot be so much danger of any delinqueut sinking into 
that state of sullen, insensible condition, of incorrigible obsti- 
nacy, which sometimes occurs. If he does under those circum- 
Jtancas, we have a rirht to keep him out of the way of mis- 
chief, and let him there remain. But I believe such solitary 
eonfluements as I have described, with scanty fare, would very 
rarely fail of iti effecU.'— /Fsstsm** Remarks, pp. 59, 60. 

There is a ffood deal In this ; it is well worth the 
trial ; and we nope the society will notice it in their 
next report. 

It is vei7 dlfiicult to hit upon degrees ; but we can- 
not help thinking the society lean too much to a sys- 
tem of mdulgence and education in jails. We shall be 
▼ery elad to see them more stem and Spartan in their 
discij^ine. They recommend work^ and even hard 
work ; but they do not insist upon it, that the only 
work done in jails by felons should be hard, dull, and 
uninteresting ; they do not protest against the conver- 
•ion of jails into schools and manufactories. Look, 
for example y to < Preston house of correction.* 

•Preston boost of conreetkm i« justly distinffuislMd by the 
teiuetiy which prevails. Here an idle hand Is rarely to be 
fbund. There were lately 150 looms in fhll employ, from each 
mi wUeh the averase weekly earnings are St. About 150 
pfaceioreotieafMdiisMwerksdofirperwesk. AconsMlsr^ 

able portion of the looms are of the priaonera' own maavlhctnre. 
In one month, an experienced workman will be nbte to earn 
the cost of his gaol allowance of food. Weaving has these 
advantages over other prison labour : the noise of the shuttle 
prevents conversation, and the progress o( the work constantly 
requires the eye. The accounts of this prison, contained in the 
Appendix, deserve particular attention, as tliero appears to be 
a balance of clear profit to the county, from the labour of the 

Eirisonera, in the year, of 13982. 9«. Id. This sum we, earned 
y weaving and cleaning cotton only ; the prisoners being be- 
sides employed iu tailoring, whitewashing, flagging, slating, 
painting, carpentering, and labourers' work, the earnings of 
which are not included in the above accounu'— 7%tr4< Report, 
pp. ai, 22. 

<At Worcester connty gaol, the aystom of employment ia 
admirable. Every article of dress worn by the prisooera is 
made from the raw matRriol: sacking and bogs are the ouly 
articles made for sale. — lb. p. 23. 

'In many prisons, the instruction of the prisoners in reading 
and writing nas been attnndcd with excellent effects. Schools 
have been formed at Bedford, Durham, Chelmsford, Wiu- 
chcster, Hereford, Maidstone, Leicester house of corrertioo, 
Shrewsbury, Warwick, Worcester, ^. Much valuable as- 
sistance has been derived in this department from the labours 
of respectable individuals, especially females, acting uoder 
the sanction of magistrates, and direction of the chaplain.*— 
/ft. pp. 30, 3L 

We again enter our decided protest against these 
modes of occupation in prisons ; they are certainly 
better than mere idleness spent in society ; but they 
are not the kind of occu]}ations which render prisons 
terrible. We would banish all the looms of Freston 
jail, and substitute nothing but the tread- wheel, or the 
capstan, or some other species of labour where the la- 
bourer could not see the restUts of his toil, — where it 
was as monotonous, irksome, and dull as possible, — 
pulling and pushing, instead of reading and writing, — 
no share of the profits — not a single shilling. There 
should be no tea and sugar, — no assemblage of female 
felons round the washing-tub, — ^nothing but beating 
hemp, and pulling oakum, and pounding bricks^ — uo 
work but what was tedious, unusual, and imfcminine. 
Man, woman, boy and girl, should iill leave the jail, 
unimpaired indeed in health, but heartily wearied of 
their residence ; and tauglit, by sad experience, to 
consider it as the greatest misfortune of tneir lives to 
return to It. We have the strongest belief that the 
present lenity of jails, the education carried on there 
— the cheerful assemblage of workmen — ^the indul- 
gence in diet — the shares of earnings enjoyed by pri- 
soners, are one great cause of the astonishingly rapid 
increase ot commitments. 

Mr. Western, who entirely agrees with os upon these 
points, has the following judicious observations upon 
the severe system : — 

'It may bo imagined by some persona, that the roles here 
preacribed, are too aevere; but such treatment is, in my 
opinion, the tenderast mercy, compared with that indulgence 
which is ao much iu practice, and which directly tends to ruin, 
instead of saving its unfortunato victim. This severity it is, 
which in truth forms the solo effective means which imprisoo- 
ment gives; only one mitigation therefore, if such it may be 
termed, can be admissible, and that is, simply to aborten the 
duration of the imprisonment. The sooner the prisoner cones 
out the better, if nil|y impressed with dread of what he has 
suffered, and communicates information to his fi-ieuds what 
they may expect if they get there. It appears to me, indeed, 
that one great and primary object wo ought to have in view 
is, generally to shorten the duration of impri«>nment, at the 
same time we make it such a punishment as is likely to d^tpr, 
correct, and reform; shorten the duration of imprisonment 
before trial, which we are called upon, by every principle af 
moral and political justice, to do ; shortrn aho the duration of 
imprisonment after trial, by the means here described ; and I 
am certain our prisons would soon lose, or rather woul'i never 
see, half the number of their prenent inhabitants. The long 
duration of imprisonment, where the discipline is less severe, 
renders it perfectly familiar, and, in consequence, not only 
destitute of any useful influence, but obviously productivr of 
the worst effects ; yet this is the present practice ; and I think, 
indeed, criminals are now sentenced to a longer perkMi of con- 
finoment than formerly. 

' The deprivation of liberty certainly is a punishment under 
any circumstances ; but the system generally pursued in oar 

gaola might rather be considered as a palUative of that pon- 
{■bnent, than to make it effectnal to any good yn w aa . Aa 
idle lift, aociety unrestrained, with associataa of auniur habitat 

better flue and lodgings in many caoes, and in few, if aaj, 
worts than fUls to the tot o^ the hard werkiai and iwlHixiMi 



. imwBt; iBd teit oft«B ateli bettar Qiui tiM prinMn irvra 
mthe eiOojnnaent of before tli«7 were apprehended. 

<Ido not know wbst could be devi-ied more agreeable to 
•II the different cla««s of olTenderM than thii sort of treat- 
ment: tbe old hardened sinner, the juvenile offender, or the 
idle vagabond, who run» away and leaves a «ick wife and 
family to be provided for by hi4 parish, alike have little or 
no ijiprehenMon, at jiresent, of any iinpri«onment to which 
tbeymay be sentenced; and thiu are the moxt effective 
meani we possess to correct and reform rendered totally 
bnavtilable, and even perverted, to the more certain ruin 
of those who might be restored to society good and valuable 
memben of it 

'There are, it is true, various occupations now introduced 
into many prisons, but which, I confer, I think of very 
little use; drawing and preparing straws, platting, knitting, 
heading pins, tec, weaving, ana working at a trade even, 
as it is generally carried on— iirisoners coaxed to the per- 
formance of it, the ta.«k easy, the reward immediate^anord 
rather the means of pa^Ming away the time agreeably. 
The« occuiMtlons are indeed better than absolute idleness, 
notwith<itanding that imprisonment may be rendered le»s 
irkfone therebv. I am far from denying the advanta|$e, 
still less wduid I be supposed to derogate from the merits of 
those irho, with every feeling of humanity, and witli inde- 
fatigable pain.9, in many inatance^, hate er4abli»hed such 
means of employment; and some of thnn for women, with 
wsihing, &c., amount to hard labour; but I contend that, 
for men, they are applicable only to a ho\is« of industry, 
and bv lio means suited to the correctite discipline whIUi 
should be found in a prison Individuals are Kent here to 
be punUhed, and for tbi^ sole purpose; in many caiies for 
' crimes which have Induced the forfeiture of life : they are 
not sent to be educated, or apprenticed to a trade. The 
horrors of dungeon imuriwnment, to the credit of the age, 
no longer exist But if no cause of dread is substituted, by 
w)ut indication of common sense is it that we send crimi- 
nals there at all ? If prisons are to be made into places in 
which penons of both sexes and all ages may be well fM, 
clothed, lodged, educated, and taught a trade, where they 
may find plnsant society, and are required not to take heed 
for the morrow, the present Inhabitants should be turned 
out, and the mo.4 deserving and industrious of our poorest 
fellow-subjects should be invited to take their place, which 
t have no doubt they would be eager to do.' — IVuUm, 
p. 13-17. 

In these MUtiments we most cordially tgree. They 
are well worth the most serious attention of the so- 

The following is a sketch from Mr. Western's book 
of what a prison life should be. It is impossible to 
^lite with more good sense, and a more thorough 
knowledge of the subject. 

' The operations of the day should begin with the greateiit 

Enctuality at a given hour; and, as soon as the prisoners 
ve ri^en from their beds, they should be, according to 
their several classes, marched to the workhouses, where 
they should be kept to hard labour two hobrs at least ; from 
thence ther should be taken back to wash, shave, comb, 
and clean themselve*; thence to the chai>ei to hear a short 
payer, or the governor or deputy should read to them In 
their rfrtpective' day-rooms; and then their breakfast, which 
may, aUogetber, occupy an hour and a half or more. I 
have stated, in a former part of my letter, that the hours of 
meals and Idsurc should he in solitude, in the ale^ng ceils 
of the prison ; but I presume, for the moment, this may 
not always be practicable. I will therefore consider the 
ca«e as if the classes assembled at meal-times in the different 
day-room*. After breakfast they should return to hard 
lal>uur for three or four houn, and then take another hour 
for dinner; labour after dinner two or three hours, and 
their supper given them to eat In solitude In their sleeping 

'This marching backwards and forwards to chapel and 
mill-house, tec, may appear objectionable, but it has not 
been so reiireaented to me in the pxisons where it actually 
now takes place ; and it ivto my apprehension, materially 
U^eAU in many resiiects. Tlie object is to keej) the vri^oners 
in a state of constant motion, so that there shall be no 
bun^inf time or loitering^ which is always favourable to 
n)j<hief or cabal. For the same reason it Is I propose two 
hiur4' labour the moment they are up, and before washing, 
kc, that there may be no time lost, and that they may be- 
gin the day by a portion of labour, which will tend to keep 
them quiet and obedient the remainder of H. Each interval 
f^r meal, thus occurring between labour hours, has ab«o a 
tendency to n»tider the miwhief of intercourse less pro- 
baMe, and at tke same time the evening asaodation, wbk:h 
h muit to b€ apprehended in this respe^ is entirely cut off. 
The frequent moving of the ulsoners from place to place 
keejuf the gorcmnr and stil>-offlcers of the prison In a simi- 
lar :<tate of activity and attention, which is likewise of 
sdvantage, tliough their tfitimbers should be audi aa to pro- 

vent their duty beoonlng too ardnons or Irkaome. TMr 
situation Is not pleasant, and their ref:ponFibility la great. 
An able and attentive governor, who exi cules all his ardu- 
ous duties with unremitting zeal and fidelity, is a most 
valuable jiublic servant, and eniitlrd to the greatest resi ect 
He must be a man of no ordinary capacity, «ith a liberal 
and comprehensive mind, posseafrinc a contxol o'ver his own 
passions, firm, and undaunted, a diaracter that commands 
ttxim those under him, in»tinctively, as it ^tere, je^Lect and 
regard. In vain are our bu.ldings, and rules, anaxerula- 
tions, if the choice of the governor u not made an object 
of primary and mo^t solicitous attention and con>ideration. 
•It doeu not ai j-car to me necesuiry for the j liHoner* to 
have more than tlirec hourii leiuie, inuuMve of meal-times; 
and 1 am convinced the do>e of the day must be in solitude. 
Eight or ten hours will have \ aso^ in comi any with their 
feUow prisoners of tlie same class {ior I am \ ie« limine (hat 
a separate compartment of the woikhoui-e will he allotted 
to each) where, though Ibcy cannot a^scciate to enjoy so- 
ciety as they would wi^h, no Llocm of bolitvde can oj ) lesa 
them: theie is more danger even then of too dote an in- 
tercoUne and conveiaalion, though a leady cure is in that 
case to be found by a wheel put in motion, the noise of 
which speedily overcomes the voice, home time afler 
Saturday night should be allow ed to th( m, more t aiticulaily 
to dean«e themselves and tlieir clothe!^, and they should 
have a bath, cold or waim, if necescaiy ; and on tlie Sun> 
day they aliould be dreM^ed in tlieir best ilcthei<, and tiie day 
>«hould be s^ent wholly in the chapel, the cell, and the air- 
ing-ground; the latter In presence of a daj-watcLman, as I 
have described to be in practice at Waiwick. I aay nothing 
about teadung to read, write, work, &c. &c. ; any \ ropor- 
tion of time necessary for any uteful ) urjjo^e may be ^i ar- 
ed from the hours of labour or of leot, atcoiding to circum- 
stances ; but I do not place any reiiante ut;on imj rovcmcnt ■ 
in any branch of education : tlicy would not, indred, be 
there long enough. All I want them to learn is that there 
exists the means of puniblimcnt for crime, and be fully im- 
pressed with dread of rei ctiticn of what they have under- 
Sone ; and a short time will »ufbce for that ] urpo««. Now, 
' each succeMive day is »pent in this manner, can it be 
doubted that the ft-equent commisiiion of ciime would be 
checked, and more done to deter, correct, and refoxm, than 
could be accomillshed by any other Iuni^^lment! A pe- 
riod of such discipline, longer or shorter, according to the 
nature of the offence, would !<urely be bvtfident for any vi- 
olation of the law short of murder, or that description of 
outrage which is likdy to lead on to the i rrietration of It. 
This sort of treatment is not to be overcome : it < annot be 
braved, or laughed at, or disregarded by any force of ani- 
mal spirits, however strong? or vigorous of mind or body 
the indivlaual may be. The dull, unvarylnc ccun^ of hard 
labour, with hard fare and seclusion, must tn time become 
so painfully irlcsome* and so wear and distress him, that he 
win inevitably, in the end, be subdued.'— ^cafcrm, p. 64 

There is nothing in the Report of the Prison Society 
so good as this. 

I'he society very properly observe upon the badness 
of town jails, and the necessity for their suppression* 
Most towns cannot q>aTe the funds necessary for build- 
ing a good jail. Shopkeepers cannot spare the time 
for its superintendence; and hence it narpens that 
town jails are almost always in a difgracetul state.— 
The society frequently allude to the diffusion of tracts. 
If education is to be continued in jails^ and tracts are 
to be dispersed; we cannot help lamenting that the 
tracts, though full of good principles, are so intolera* 
bly stupid — and all apparently ccnstructed upon the 
supposition, that a thief or a peccant ploughman are 
interior in common sense to a boy of five years old. — 
The story generally is, that a lahcurer Urith six chll' 
dren has nothing to live upcn but mouldy bread and 
dirty water ; yet nothing can exceed his cheerfbhiess 
and content—- no rourmuTB--no disrcbtent ; of mutton 
he has scarcely heard«~of baccn he never dreams : — 
forfurous breaa and the water cf the pool constitute 
his food, establish his felicity, and excite his warmest 
gratitude. The equire or parson of the parish always 
happens to be walking by, acd overbears him praying 
for the king and the members for the ccunty, sno for 
all in authority ; and it generally ends with their of- 
fering him a shilling, which this excellent man de^ 
clares he does not want, and will not accept ! These 
are the pamphlets which Goodies and Noodles are 
dispersing with unwearied ^igrnce. It would be a 

Seat bleasing if some gstiius would niU.e who had a 
lent of writing for the poor. , He vcnld be of more 
value than many poets living upcn the banks of lakea 
—or even (though we think highly of ourselves) of 



gttMXet tihif than many Tcrrieving men llTing in the 
garrets of the north. 

The society offer some comments upon the prison 
bill now penuiug, and which, unfortunately* tor the 
cause of prison improvement, nas betm so long pending 
in the legislature. In the copy of this bill, as it stands 
at present, nothing is said of the limitation of num- 
bers in any particular class. We have 'Seen forty 
felons of one class in one yard before trial. If this is 
to continue, all prison improvement is a mere moclc- 
ery. Separate sleeping cells should be enacted posi- 
tively, and not in words, which leave this improve- 
ment optional. If any visiting iustice dissents from 
the majority ,t it should be lawtul for him to give in a 
separate report upon the state of the prison and pris- 
oners to the jud^e or the quarter sessions. All such 
reports of any visiting magistrate or magistrates, not 
exceeding a certain length, should be published in the 
county papers. The chairman's report to the secreta- 
ry of state should be published in the same manner^ — 
The great panacea is publicity ; it is this which se- 
cures compliance with wise and just laws, more than 
all the penalties they contain for their own preserva- 

We object to the reading and writing clause. A 
poor man, who is luclcy enough to have his son com- 
mitted for a felony, ecfucates him, under such a sys- 
tem, for nothing ; whUe the virtuous simpleton on the 
other side of the wall is paying by the quarter for 
these attahiments. He sees clergymen and ladies busy 
with the larcenous pupil ; while the poor lad, who re- 
spects the eighth commandment, is consigned, in some 
darlr alley, to the frowns and blows of a ragged peda- 
gogue. It would be the safest way, where a prisoner 
fs kept upon bread and water alone, to enact that the 
allowance of bread should not be less than a pound and 
a half for men, and a pound for women and Doys. We 
strongly recommend, as mentioned in a previous num- 
ber, that four sorts of diet should be enacted for every 
prison : Ist^ Bread and water; Sd, Better prison diet ; 
3d. Best prison diet ; 4th, Free diet — the second and 
third to be defined by the visiting magistrates. All 
sentences of imprisonment should state to which of 
these diets the prisoner is to be confined ; and all de- 
viation from it on the part of the prison officers should 
be punished with very severe penalties. The regula- 
tion of prison diet in a prison is a point of the very 
highest importance ; and to aslc of visiting magistrates 
that they should doom to bread and water a prisoner, 
whom the law has left at liberty to purchase whatever 
he has the money to procure, is a degree of severity 
which it is hardly fair to expect from country gentle- 
men, and, if expected, those expectations will not be 
fulfilled. The whole system of diet, one of the mahi- 
iprings of all prison discipline, will get out of order, if 
iu arrangement is left to the interference of magis- 
trates, and not to the sentence of the judge. Free diet 
and bread diet need no interpretation ; and the jailer 
will talce care to furnish the judge with the definitions 
of better prison diet and best prison diet. A Imowl- 
edge of the diet prescribed in a jail is absolutely ne- 
cessary for the justice of the case. Diet differs so 
much m different prisons, that six weeks in one prison 
is as severe a punishment as three montlis in another. 
If any country gentleman, engaged in legislation for 

Srisons, is inclined to undervalue the importance of 
lese regulations, let him appeal to his own experi- 
ence, and rememoer, in the vacuity of the country, — 
how often he thinks of his dinner, and of what there 
will be for dinner ; and how much his amenity and 
courtesy for the evening depend upon the successful 
execution of this meal. But there is nobody so glut- 
tonous and sensual as a thief; and he will feel much 
more bitterly, fetters on his mouth than his heels. It 
sometimes nappens that a gentleman is sentenced to 
imprisonment, for manslaughter in a duel, or for a 

* The comity of York, with a priaon ander pre«entmenl 
bMn waiting nevly three yean for this bill, in order to 
ceed upon tlie improvement of their county jsiL 

t It would be an entertaiaiur chanre in human affairs t 

itment, has 

. ^^ ^ ^yjsw* 

t It would be an entertaiainr chanre in human affairs tode- 
tsrmiBe every thing by tmlturtiitM. They are almost always 

libel. Are visiting justices to doom such ft pHttrntr 
to bread and water, or are they to make an invidious 
distinction betwccu biin and the other prisoners { The 
diet should be ordered by the judge, or it never wiU 
be well ordered-^r ordered at all. 

The most extraordinary clause in the bill is the fok 
lowing : — 

* And be it further enacted, that in com any criminal prtso»> 
cr ftliiill bo giiiliy of any repeated ofleiioo agaiuat the rules of 
the privon, or hhaU be guilty of OHjfffraUer ajenee which the 
jailer or knc|M!r i» not by this net ciU|N>werod to puuiah, the 
suid jailor or kee|ier »h«li rcfiort tbo same to the visiting 
justice, or one of ilicin, for the liuie bctng ; and such justioe% 
or ouo of Uioin, shall liave-power to inquire upon oath, and de- 
tcrmiuo coiicoriiiiig siiy »uch oflTciico so re|torted to him or 
tlioui, Hud shnll ordor the oflcudcr to be punished, either by 
nuMicrutc whipping, reiMsatcd whippings, or by close confine- 
luout, for any icrui not enceedtng .'—Jet, p. SI. 

Upon this clause, any one justice may order repeated 
whippings for any od'euce greater than that which the 
jailer may punish, (hir respect for the committee will 
only allow us to say, that wc hoi^e this clause will be 
reconsidered. We beg leave to add, that there shoitldt 
be a return to the principal secretary of state of re- 
commitments as well as commitmeuts. 

It is no mean pleasure to see this attention to jail 
disciuluie travelling from EliigWiad to the detestable 
and despotic governments of the coutinent, — to see the 
health and lile of captives admitted to be of any im- 
portance,— to perceive that human creatures in dun- 
geons are of more consequence than rats and black 
eetles. All this is new— is some little gained upon 
tyranny ; and for it we ore indebted to the labours of 
the Prison Society. Still the state of prisons, on ma- 
.ny parts of the continent, is shoclciug beyond all 

It is a most inconceivable piece of cruelty and ab- 
surdity in the English law, that the prisoner's coun- 
sel, wnen he is tried for any capital felony, is not al- 
lowed to speak for him ; and tnis we hope the new 
{irison bill will correct. Nothing can be more ridicu- 
ous in point of reasoning, or mora atrociously cruel 
and unjust in point of fact. Any number of counsel 
may be employed to take away the poor man's life. — 
They are at full liberty to talk as Ions as the^ like ; — 
but not a syllable is to be uttered in his defence — not 
a sentence to show why the prisoner is not to be hung. 
This practice is so utterly ridiculous to any body tMit 
lawyers f to whom nothing that is customary is ridic- 
ulous), tnat men not versant with courts of justice 
will not believe it. It is, indeed, so utterly inconsis- 
tent with the common cant of the humanity of the 
English law, that it is often considered to be the mis- 
take of the narrator, rather than the imperfection of 
the system. We must take this opportunity, there* 
fore, of making a few observations on this very strange 
and anomalous practice. 

The common argument used in its defence is that 
the judge is counsel for the prisoner. But the defen- 
ders in this piece of cruel ana barbarous nonsense must 
first make their election, whether they consider the 
prisoner to be, by this arrangement, m a better, a 
worse, or an equally good situation as if his counsel 
were allowed to plead for him. If he is in a vorae 
situation, tchy is he so pleased? Why is a man, in a 
solemn issue of life and death, deprived of any fair 
advantage which any suitor in any court of justice 
possesses ? This is a plea of guilty to the charge we 
make against the practice ; and its advocates, by soch 
concession, are put out of court. But, if it is an ad- 
vantage, or no disadvantage, whence comes it that 
the choice of this advantage, m the greatest of all hu- 
man concerns, is not left to the party, or to his friends ? 
If the question concerns a footpath — or a fat ox — 
every man may tell his own story, or employ a barris- 
ter to tell it for him. The law leaves the utigant to 
decide on the method most conducive to his own in- 
terest. But, when the question is whether he is to 
live or die. it is at once decided for him that his coun- 
sel are to be dumb ! And yet, so ignorant are men of 
their own interests, that there is not a single nua 
tried who would not think it a great privilege if 



ccnmel wen mllnwad to tMak in hit (kvouT, and 
who woold not be tuprtmely happy to lay aside the 
fancied adTantage or their silence. And this is troe 
not merely of ignorant men ; but there is not an Old 
Bailey banister who would not rather employ another 
Old Bailey barrister to speak for him, than enjoy the 
advantage (as the phrase is) of baring the judge for 
his counsel. But in what sense, after all. is the judge 
eounsel for the prisoner? He states, in nis summing 
up, facts as the^ have been dellTcred in evidence; 
and he tells the jury upon what points they are to de- 
cide : he mentions what facts are in favour of the 
prisoner, and what bear anunst him ; and he leaves 
the decision to the jury. Does he do more than this 
infavour of the prisoner? Does he misstate? Does 
he mislead? iKies he brmg forward argiunents on 
one side of the question, and omit equally important 
arguments on the other f If so, he is indfeed counsel 
for the prisoner ; but then who is judge ? Who takes 
care of the interests of the public ? But the truth is, 
he does no iuch thing ; he docs merely what we have 
stated him to do ; and would he do less, could he do 
less, if the prisoner's counsel spoke for him ? If an 
a^ument was just, or an inference legitimate, he 
would not omit the one, or refute the other, because 
they had been put or drawn in the speech of the pri- 
soner's counsel. He would be no more ]>rejudiced 
against the defendant in a criminal than in a ciyil 
suit. He would select from the speeches of both 
counsel all that could be fairly urgea for or against 
the defendant, and he would reply to their fallacious 
reasonings. The pure administration of justice re- 
quires of him, in either case, the same conduct. 
Whether the whole bar speak for the prisoner, or 
whether he was le A to defend himself, what can the 
judge do, or what ought he to do. but to state to the 
jury the facts as they are given m evidence, and the 
impression these facts have made upon his own mind ? 
In the mean time, while the prisoner's counsel have 
been compelled to be ailent, the accuser's, the oppo- 
site party, have enjoyed an immense advantage. In 
consideniig what l>ears against the prisoner, the 
judge has Eeard, not only the suggestions of his own 
understanding, but he has been exposed to the able 
and artful reasoning of a practised advocate, who has 
been previously instructed in the case of which the 
judge never heard a syllable before he came into 
court. Suppose it to be a case depending upon cix- 
cumstantial evidence ; in how many new points of 
view may a man of genius have placed those circum- 
stances, which would not have occurred to the judge 
himself ! How many inferences may he have dirawn, 
which would have been unnoticed, but for the efforts 
of a man whose bread and fame depend upon his eter- 
lions, and who has purposely, ana on contract, flung 
the whole force of his understanding into one scale ! — 
la the mean time, the prisoner can say nothing, for he 
has not the gift of learned speech ; his counsel can 
say nothing, though he has communicated with the 
prisoner, and could place the whole circumstances,-^ 
perhaps, in the fairest and clearest point of view for 
the accused party. By the courtesy of Elngland this 
is called Jii«^€ — ^we in the north cannot admit of the 
correctness of the appellation. 

It seems utterly to be forgotten, in estimating this 
practice, that two understandings are better than one. 
The judge must inevitably receive many new views 
against uie prisoner by the speech of one counsel, and 
lose many views in favour of the prisoner by the si- 
lence of the other. We are not to suppose (like ladies 
going into court in an assize town) that the judge 
would have thought of every thine wnich the counsel 
against the prisoner has said, and which the counsel 
for the prisoner would have said. The judge, wigged 
and robed as be is, is often very inferior in acuteness 
to either of the persons who are pleading under him— 
a cold, slow, parchment and precedent man, without 
passions or prsecordia, — ^perhaps a sturdy brawler for 
church and King^ — or a quiet man of ordinary abilities, 
steadily, though perhaps conscientiously, following 
those in power through thick and thin— through right 
and wrong. Whence comes it that the method of get- 
ting at tratbt which is so excellent on all common oc- 

casions, shoQld be considend as so hnpTtmsr on the 
greatest of all occasions, where the life oi a man is 
concerned? If an acre of land is to be lost or won, 
one man says all that can be said on one side of the 
question — another on the other ; and the jury, aided 
by the impartiality of the judge, decide. The wit of 
man can devise no better method of disentangling dif- 
ficulty, exposing falsehood, and detecting truth. < Tdl 
tM why I am hurried away to a premature death j and no 
man suffered to epeak in my defence j vfhenattMs very 
moment, and in my hearing^ all the eloquence of the bar, 
on the other side of vour justice hall, is employed in de- 
fending a path or a hedge ? Is a foot of land dearer to 
any man than my life is tome f The civil plaintiff has 
not trusted the smallest part of his fate or fortune to his 
own efforts ; and will you grant me no assistance of su- 
perior unsdom, who have sufered a long famine to pur- 
chase it— who am broken by prison — broken by chains — 
and so shamed by this dress ofguittf and abashed by the 
presence of my superiors, that I have no words which you 
could hear without derieUm — that I could not give way 
for a moment to the fulness and agitation of my rude 
heart without moving your contempt V So spoke a 
wretched creature to a iudge in our hearins ! and what 
answer could be given, but < Jailer, take him away ? ' 

We are well aware that a great decency of language 
is observed by the counsel employed against the pri- 
soner, in consequence of the silence imposed upon the 
opposite counsel ; but then, though there is a decency, 
as far as concerns impassioned declamation, yet there 
is no restraint, and there can be no restraint, upon the 
reasoning powers of a counsellor. He may put toge- 
ther the circumstances of an imputed cnme in the 
most able, artful, and ingenious manner, without the 
slightest vehemence or passion. We have no objec- 
tion to this, if any counter statement were permitted. 
We want only fair play. Speech for both sides, or 
speech for none. The first would be the wiser sys- 
tem ; but the second would be clear from the intolera- 
ble cruelty of tne present. We see no harm that 
would ensue if both advocates were to foUow their own 
plan without restraint. But, if the feelings are to be 
excluded in aU cases of this nature (which seems very 
absurd), then let the same restraint be exacted from 
both sides. It might very soon be established, as the 
etiquette of the bar, that the pleadings on both sides 
were expected to be calm, and to consist of reasoning 
upon the facts. In high treason, where the partiality 
of the judge and power of the court are suspected, this 
absurd incapacity of being heard by counsel is remo- 
ved. Nobody pretends to say, in such cases, that the 
judge would oe counsel for tlie prisoner ; and yet, how 
many thousand cases are there in a free country 
which have nothing to do with hieh treason, ana 
where the spirit of party, unknown to nimself , may get 
possession of a judge ? Suppose any trial for murder 
to have taken place in the Manchester riots,— -will any 
man saj that the condu(it of many judges on such a 
question ought not to have been watched with the 
most iealous ciroomspection f Wonld any pri8oner-<^ 
would any fair mediator between the prisoner and 
the pubdic — ^be satisfied at such a period with the 
axiom that the judge is counsel for the prisoner ? We 
are not saying that there is no judge who mieht not be 
so trusted, but that all judges are not, at alltimes, to 
be so intrusted. We are not saying that any judge 
would wilfully do wronp; ; but tnat many mignt be 
led to do wrong by passions and prejudices of which 
they were unconscious ; and that the real safeguard to 
the prisoner, the best, the only safeguard, is full liberty 
of speech for the counsel he has employed. 

What would be the discipline of tnat hospital where 
medical assistance was allowed in all trifling com- 
plaints, and withheld in every case of real danger? — 
where Bailey and Halford were lavished upon stomach- 
aches and refused in typhus fever ? where the dyins 
Satient beheld the greatest skill employed upon tn- 
ing evils of others, and was told, because his was a 
case of life and death, that the cook or the nurse was 
to be his physician ? 

Suppose so intolerable an abuse (as the Attorney 
and Solicitor General would term it) had been esta- 
blished* and that a law for its coRsctlon was now fim 



proposed, entitled an -Act to prevent the Couned for 
^rvonersfronnbeing heard in their Dtfence ! ! ! 

What e^il wouJd result from allowing counsel to be 
in defence of prisoners ? Would too many people be 
bung from losing that Taluable counsellor, the judge ? 
or would too few people be hung ? or would things re- 
main much as they are at present ? We never could 
St the admirers of this practice to inform us what 
e results would be of deviating from it ; and we are 
the more particularly curious upon this point, because 
our practice is decidedly the reverse, and we find no 
other results from it than a fair administration of cri- 
minal justice. In all criminal cases that require the 
intervention of a jury in Scotland, a {irisoner must 
have, let, a copy of the indictment, which must con- 
tain a minute specification of the offence charged ; 
2dly, a list of witnesses ; 3dly . a list of the assize ; 
and 4thly, in every question that occurs, and in all 
addresses to the jury, the prisoner's counsel has the 
last word. Where is the boasted mercy of the English 
law after this i 

• The truth is, it proceeds from the error which, in 
all dark ages, pervades all codes of laws, of confound- 
ing the accused with the guilty. In the early part ot 
our state trials, the prisoners were not allowed to 
bring evidence against the witnesses of the crown. 
For a long period after this, the witnesses of the priso- 
ners were not suffered to be examined upon oath. One 
piece of cruelty and folly has g^ven way after another. 
£ach has been defended by the Attorney and Solicitor 
General for the time, as absolutely necessary to the 
existence of the state, and the most perfect perform- 
ance of our illustrious ancestor?. The last grand hope 
of every foolish person, is the silence of the prisoner's 
counsel. In the defence of this it will be seen what 
stupidity driven to despair can achieve. We beg par- 
don for this digression ; but flesh and blood cannot en- 
dure the nonsense of lawyers upon this subject. 

The Society have some very proper remarks upon 
the religious mstructions of the chaplain— an appoint- 
ment of vast importance and utility; imfortunately 
very ill paid, and devolving entirely upon the lower 
derey. It is said that the present Bishop of Glouces- 
ter, Dr. Ryder, ^oes into jails, and busies nimself with 
the temporal wretchedness and the eternal welfare of 
the prisoners. If this is so, it docs him great honour,, 
and IS a noble example to all ranks of dergjr who are 
subject to him. Above all, do not let us omit the fol- 
lowing beautiflil anecdote, while we are talking of 
good and pious men. 

* The Committee cannot reftrsln from extracting f^om the 
Report of the Paris Society, the inteTwtlnff anecdote of the 
excellent P*re Jonwony, who being acnt, oy the Consul at 
▲Iffiera, to minister to the Klaven, fixed hi« residence in their 
prison; and, durinf^ & period of thirty year^, never quitted 
tii« post Being compelled to repair to France, for a short 
period, he returned ajraln to the prison, and at length re- 
sigTied hi« breath in the midst of those for whose interests he 
had laboured, and who were dearer to him than life.'— R<- 
forit p. 80. 

It seems to be a very necessary part of the prison 
system, that any poor person, when acquitted, should 
be passed to his parish ; and that all who are acquit- 
ted, should be immediately liberated. At present, a 
prisoner, after acquittal, is not liberated till the grand 
jury are dlsmissea,* in case (as it is said]) any more 
bilis should be preferred against him. Tlus is really 
a considerable hardship ; and we do not see, upon the 
same principle, why the prisoner may not be detained 
Ibr another assize. To justify such a practice, notice 
should, at all events, be given to the jailer of inten- 
tiott to prefer other charges against him. To detain 
a man, who is acquitted of all of which he has been 
accused, and who is accused of nothing more, merely 
because he may be accuaed of aomething more, seems to 
be a great perversion of justice. The greatest of all 
prison improvements, however, would be, the delivery 
of jails four times in the year. It would save expen- 
ses ; render justice more terrible, by rendering it more 
prompt ; facilitate classification, by lessening num- 
Den; keep constantly alive, in the minds of wicked 

* This has rinosbaen done cwajrwlt&k 

men, the dread of the law i and diminish the mjiist 
sufferings of those who, after long impiisonmentiare 
found innocent. 

* From documents,* says Mr. Western, < upon the table of 
the Uou«e of Commons in 1819, 1 drew out an account, 
which I have already adverted to in part, but which I shall 
resitate here, as it places in a strong point of view, the ex- 
tent of injustice, and inconsistency too, arising o«t of the 
present system. It appeared, that at the MauMone Lent 

As9i-^es of tliat year theie were one hundred and sevens- 
seven prisoners for trial ; of the^e, seventeen were in pn»- 
on before the 1st of October, eigh