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^73^, ,yp;^ 


9 P 
















! VOLUME m. 

I » 





1-4L God is the inperior Duposer of man's time, 25, 26 

I 7-^ Mad, who is made next to God, and to retnrn to his rest at 

the end of the larger circle of his life, is to retoro to 
' him at the end of the lesser circle of eTCiy week, . . 26, 27 

10-13. What a moral law is not, 28,29 

14, IS. How a divine law maj be said to be moral, ...... 29 

» 16. What a moral law is, strictly token, 29 

17-2a A moral law, considered in a strict sense, is not good merely 
because commanded, but is therefore commanded be- 

caose it is good, 30-^2 

^ 21-23. What is that goodness in a moral law for which it is com- 
manded, 33-35 

24, 25. Bj what mles maj that goodness be known, which are fonr, 36, 37 
Dirers consectaries flowing from the description of a moral 

law. . ^ 37-41 

That dirine determination of something in a law doth not 

always take awaj the morality of it, 42-44 

^ 29-^. That those are not moral laws only, which are known to 

all men by the light of cormpt nature, 44-51 

That the whole docalc^e, in all the parts of it, is the 
\ moral law of God: Tilssef 30, where objections are 

answered to, 51 

J9-42. Three sorts of laws which were among the Jews, moral, 

ceremonial, judicial, 51-58 

43. The true state of the question whether the Sabbath be a 

moral or ceremonial law, 54 

44, 45. The agreement on all hands how far the law of the Sab- 
bath if moral 55,56 








1 "' 

Something general la sgraed on, and wholhnr it lies uodor 

this gcneril, vii., a seventh day, 


The rliief means of resolving this concrotarsj in opening 

m "' 

tlie menning of the fourth commandment, .... 



The things which are tnonl in (he fourth commandment 
are either primarily or secondarily moral. Those 
things which are primarily and genernlly moral in 

me lonrco commannnient arc tcireu i i. d nine ot 



Not the worship itself, hut only tho solemn time of it is re- 

qnircd in the fonrlh commandment, 

61, ea 


How holy dniies »re for lime, -. . . . 



Instituted worship is not directly reqnircd in the foarth, but 
the second eomroandment is occasionally cleared 

against Wttllceus, 



If tlic moral woi-sliip itself be not reqaircd herein, mnch 

less is tho whole eeremanial worship 



Keither the pahlic worship only, nor Jewish holy dajs, re- 



Kot a part of a dny, but a. whole dny, is moral, by tho 



God's wisdom did rather choose a whole day together for 
special worship than borrow a part of every day, , . 



Tho sin of Familists and others who allow God no specini 

day, hnt mnko all days eqaal, 



How any day is said to bo holy, and that though nil places 

are alike holy, yet all days are not therefore alike holy, 



Answer to such scriplorea as seem to make all days alilto 


holy under llie New Testament 


The chief reason why some abolish tho day of (he Sabbath 

whole decalogne itself as any rule of life nnto his people. 



An inward Sabbath may woU consist with a Sabbath day, 



The great controversj whether the law be a mlo of life (o 

a believer, discussed in sundry theses 


91, 9S 

The Spirit is not tho rale of life, 

is tho rule of life, 


* OS. 


5 94. 

The rule of the law is kepi in Christ as matter of our jus- 

tilrcnlion, ool sanetiScation, 




ii^A. J 



I ^ 



formed bj ChriBt for believen under that notion of 

thankfulness, bat by way of meriti 94 

98, 99. Whether a believer is to act in yirtae of a command, . 94-96 
100 The sin of those who affirm that Christian obedience is 

not to be pat forth by virtae of a command, ... 97 

101. To act by virtue of a commandment, and by virtue of 

God's Spirit, are subordinate one to another, ... 99 

102-104. Whether the law is our rule as gi%'cn by Moses on Mount 

Sinai, or only as it is given by Christ on Mount Sion, 99-101 
105, 106. How works and law duties are sometimes commended 

and sometimes condemned, 102 

107. The new creature, how it is under the law, 102 

108, 109. How the children of God under the Old Testament were 

under the law as a schoolmaster, and not those of 

the New, . . • 103-108 

110. How the gospel requires doing, and how not, and about 

conditional promises in the gospel, 109 

111. Various motives to obedience from the law and gospel, 

from God as a Creator, and from Christ as a Re- 
deemer, do not vary the rule, 1 10 

112. Unbelief is not the only sin, Ill 

113. Three evils arising from their doctrine who deny the di- 

recti\-e use of the moral law, 112 

114. The sin of such as deny the humbling work of the law 

under gospel ministrations, 112 

115, 116. Their error who will not have a Christian pray for par- 
don of sin, OT^tum for sin, 118,119 

117. Whether sanctification be a doubtful e%'idence, and may 

not be a just evidence, and whether the gospel and 
all the promises of it belong to a sinner as a sinner, 
and whether sight of corruption be (by the gospel) 
the settled evidence of salvation, as some plead for, 119 

118. Whctlicr the first evidence be without the being, or only 

the seeing of grace, 128 

119. The true grounds of evidencing God's love in Christ cleared, 131 
120-122. Not only a day, nor only a Sabbath day, but a seventh 

day determinedf'is the last thing generally moral in 

the fourth commandment, 133-135 

123, 124. That which is particularly moral herein is this or that 

particular seventh day, 138 

125. The morality of a Sabbath may be as strongly and easily 
urged from the comniandmcnt of observing that 
particular seventh day from the creation, as the 
morality of a day, 139 



9. It tB not in man'a liberty to take «ny one of tho a 

days in a week to be the Christian SBbbalb, . . . 139-141 

I. A determined time is here required, but not what natnre, 
but nhnt coanael, shall determine, and conseqaenlly 
this or Ihnt geveolh day, 143, 143 

3. Tho forco of God's example in resting tho eeventh, and 

working Etx da<ra, how far it extends 113,144 

6. No reason that God must hare a scccntli year, because 

he will have a seventh day, 146 

How a cirenmstanco of titne is capable of moralily, . . 148 

The law of the Sabbatb is a bomogeneal pan of the 
moral lew, and is iheicfbre moral ; and whether it 

be moral in respect of the tetter, 146 

Whclhor the decalogne is said to be the moral law in re- 
spect of tho greater part only,' 147 

0, The law of the Sabbath hath equal glory with all the 

other nine morals, and bath therefore eqnal raoralitj, 148-154 

1. The Sabbath was giyea as a moral law to man in in- 

nocency, 15S-158 

3. The Sabbath said to be sanctified, (Gen, ii.,) not merely 

io a way of dcsliDBlioa or anlicipatioo, 158-16S 

6. Adam in innoceney might need a Sabbatb, 166-168 

No types of Christ given to man in innocency, .... 16S 

8. The Sabbath was no type In respect of its original ia- 

elilation, 169-174 

3. Tho heathens, by the light of corrupt nature, bad some 

kind of knowledge of the Sabbath 174-176 

7, The law of naiuro diversely taken, and what it is, . . . I7G-1T9 
So argument to proro the Sabbath ceremonial, because 

Christ appointed no special dajforihe Lord's supper, 179 

No argument to prove the Sabbath ceremonial, because 

it is reckoned among tbe cerenonials 179 

Christ is not said to be the Lord of the Sabbath, because 

it was ceremonial, 180 

Thongh the Sabbath be made for man, yet it is not thore- 

fore ceremonial, 131 

A fond distinction of the Sabbalb i"n miuu myalimetlileraii, IS9 

Although wo arc bound to rest every day from sin, jet 

WB are not therefore to make every day a Sabbath, 1S3 

5. The Sabbatb was not proper to the Jews, because they 

only were able (na some sty) to observe tbe exact 

7. An onswer to M. Carpenter's anil Ilcylin's new-invented 

■rgument against the moralil; of the Sabbalb, . . 184 


It light in Scri|itit. 
Apottoliol uinritlen tnui 
Keilher cbottli'i cuMom, 

ror change of the Snbbatli, 
am nagmiiud for clionge of il, 
r any imp«rkl taw, ground of 



EoT Ihe obMrvklion of (he ChriUiui Sabbath ariaeth from 

the Taarth commaDdmenC 

How the tint daj ia tbv week m»j 1h called the •«ienlh4By, 

1. The wtl! of God the efficient euur, the resninctiDii of 

Christ the moral eatiae, of thu cliange of the Sabbath, 

i. The uiettuiou no groBud of the change of the Sabbath, . 

r. The ml of God being spoiled in his &nt creation 1^ the 

(jn of nun, kenm the day of rvit nuf be well changed, 

I. Neilfaer the three days' resting of Cbrist in the grave, nor 

tbe ihirqr-three yean of Chriat'e labor, Iho.groand of 

oar labor and rent now, 

Kol only Chriil's iwnnvctioo, bat an affixed type 10 the 
im Sabbath, U the groand ot the abrogation of it, - 

I. What the afflxcd type to the Sabbath is, 

Tba mere exerciMa of holy duties upon a day are doi any 

tne grotmi] to make sadi a day tbe Cbriitiui Sabbath, 

Bow holy duties on a day may eviacc a S^bath day, . . 

I. Thafinl dajof Ihc week honored by the primitive chnrcbet 

boD the commaadniODl of the Lord Jcsns. .... 

I. The apoalle'a preaching on ihe Jewish Sabbath doih not 
aigue it lo be ihc Christian Sabbath, ....... 

The Stsl da) of the week proved to be Ihe Christian Sab- 

balh by divine institution 

Tbe Gnt pUee ilirgeA for Ibe Chriition Sabbath (Acli: 

XI. 7) cleared by oiae consideraiioni, 

Tbe second place (from 1 Cor. x*L I, 2( clcarod from 

> general 

19S, 103 



97-99. Tbe third leripiorc (Her. i. 10) deared hy t' 


i^^ 40. How iha Christian Sabbath a 

^^^L nandoient. althoo^h it be n 

^^^L4I. Hie «fTtir of thuar, vspcdnlly ir 

^^H ohaerred two Sabbaths, 

^^H itS,H. How ihe work of reileniplion m 

^^B 10 obKrve ilic Snblulb, 

^^H M. Hon fat the jud^meni ol God upon profaners of the Lord's 

^^m 6af i* of force to ovinoe Ibo halineaa of the Sabbath, .. 

selh from the fourth com- 
31 particularly named in it, 
Ihe easicm churches, who 

■y be s ground far all men 






DiSbreDce of tbe laints* bondage ander sin nnd Sntui from oAen, 207-999 

Wherein the imrnrd govcmmenl of Christ c^onaiils, 300 

Wbea the govemment of Christ is cast off, Christ him^lf to be 

received, Ml 

When the goal receives Christ hiiDBcIf, 302 

Whole aoni mnst close with the whtrfe will of Christ, 303-304 

Will of Christ directing or correcting, SOt 

Will of Christ cast otT in jadgmeat or practice, 305 

Corao to Christ for strength to do his will 306 

Xho benefits of itceiving Christ for strength 307 

How men refuse to do this 303 

For what ends wc mnst aabmit to Christ, 30» 

The ehutrih Christ's kingdom, '. 310 

Threefold power of Christ in (be church 310 

Sapieme power of Christ in his cbnrcb, 311 

Breach of corcnant a provokiog sin, 312 

Breach of covenant procures the desolatioo of churche*, • • ■ SIS 

Setring up hnman inventinns casting off Christ, 314 

Sin of dialing off ordinances for temporal advantages, . . . . 315-31 B 
Secret pollntion of onlinanccs whnt "drives the Lord nwaj, . , . 31S,31» 
Tocomc toordinanctis, and not lo Oirisi in them, it to cASt ofTChrfst, 3M 
We must bo content with nothing short of the power of the lift 

of Christ, 328 

Tbe chnrch the liighesl tribanat of Christ on earth, 323 

What |K>nrer given the church, 399, 324 

Neglect of living in chnrch Boetel^, 3S4 

Power of binding nnd loosing, 325 

DdIj of cbnich members lo edify one another, 326 

Means of ediRcation, 397-330 

Hindcran CCS of matnal edification, 330,331 

Fewer of chardi officers 931-339 

The sin of those who usurp it, 939 

Tbe evil of not submitting to them, 330 

MiiCMTiage of chnrch mcmben, 338 

Common wealtha, when ordered according to Chrbt's will, an his 

kingdom, 339 

No one forni of civil government jure diii'no 340 

We most be subject (o the civil magistrate, and wbj, 341 

When this eubjectioa it cisl off, 342 

Wbelher he ma; pnnish sins after the first table, 342, 343 

Kmr and heresy die bj opposition, truth thrives the more. . . . 343 
Error and heresj may not moke what laws thej please, .... 343 
Two tbiugl occasion the breach of ail laws, 343 


Seldom * penecator, bat he is an adulterer, 844 

The eril of loose companj, 844 

Soldiers not to neglect the command of their leaders, 844, 845 

Townsmen shoald obey town orders, 345 

God's laws only absolately bind conscience, 345, 346 

All good laws either expressly mentioned in the word, or dedaced 

from it, 346 

Whj all laws shoald be according to the word 347 

Homan laws, agreeable to the word, bind conscience, and why, . 847 
What a Christian shoald do in case thej be not according to the 

word, 347 

Things indifferent not to be restrained by law, 348 

Laws for pablic good to be submitted to, 349 

Of breach of laws merely penal, 349 

The sin of serrants not subject to their masters, 350 

In places of liberty, most danger of licentiousness, 351 

Ciod hath many wars to bring into bondage when his goyemment 

is cast off, 351, 352 

Reason to be thankful for our liberties, 352 

Means of thankfulness, 352, 353 

Ways in which liberty may be abused, 353, 354 

Look not for an earthly paradise of Christ, 355 

Spiritual refreshments abundant recompense for temporal dis- 
tresses, 355 

Hotires to come under Christ's government, 355 

Difference between God's senrice and the ^nrioe of others, . . . 356 

Wherein to submit to Christ, 356 

ETeiy one to whom the gospel comes bound to beliere, .... 358 

Objections against believing answered, 358 

Love to Christ an evidence that we are his, 858 

How great a sin to neglect this, 359 

to submit to Christ, 859 


Christ the true Messiah, 863 

What was the Father's testimony, 863 

/. Two degrees of knowing God, 364 

A man may hear the word, and not hear God speaking In it, . . 864-866 


mj the Mints find sncb alterationB In tihaniselvcs whon ihtj heu 
the word 8 

How ire we to know whether we have heiird the Lord's Toice in 
the word 3 

God'» Toicfi carrius liome Christ, 

The eflicBey of the word may lie hid, 

The efficacy of tlio word maj be lost afler it huth been felt, ... 8 

Rot needful alwuya to feel it alike, 8 

Not preserved in a spirit of iirayer, 

Nat thankfoloeBa for the good found, 

A double virloe in the word to beget and nourish. 

EIScBcy of the word sppenrs in a power of conflict againit comption, 

Feeling the clBcacy of the word an pvidcneo of election, .... 

Victory against sin either complete or incomplete, 

rs how to pfcaci 

B«»t not in onf 

How to hear the word effcctnally 

Come to hoHT, moDming nnder a aenae of iafirmiiies, 

How to hear God speaking in the word, 

Tnut not to the outward word, but to the grace of Ood wHh it, . 

Place onr happiness in closing with the word, 3 

Brery tittle of the word cost the Wood of Chriat, 

IT not under the power of the word, we are under the power of Inat, 
Tbe comfort of the word remains till deatb, yea, nnto eternal life, 


(Psitnci, By DSTliI Iliiio«ii,) 












Neh. ziii. 17« 18. — '* What eril thinff is thin that ye do, and profane 
the Sahbath day ? Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God 
brinK all this evil upon us, and upon this city ? yet yo bring more 
wrath upon Israel by profaning the Sabbath.'* 

Jbr. zrii. 24, 25. — " If ye hallow the Sabbath, to do no work therein, 
then shall there enter into the gates of this city kings and princes.'* 



TexT a seventh part of time hatb been religiously and univer- 
sally observed both under the law and under Ibe gospel, is without 
■U controversy; the great doubt and difficulty which now re- 
mains cmtceming this time is the morality of it, whether it was 
tinu observed in the Christian churches by unwritten tradition, 
or by divine commisaion ; whether from the churches' custom, or 
Christ's command ; whether as a moral duty, or as a human 
law : for although some would make the observation of such a 
portion of time ibe sour fruit of the Ebionitcs' superslitioua doc- 
trines, yet all the ancient and best writers in the purest timea do 
gi»B micb honor to it, that whoever doubts of it must either be 
utterly ignorant, or willfully blinded in the knowledge of the his- 
tories and doctrines of those times, and must desire a candle to 
■bow them the aun and noonday. Clemens only seems to cast 
(om« stains on it by making all days equal, and every day a Sab- 
bath ; but upon narrow search, his meaning may appear, not to 
deny the observation of the day, but only to blame the froth and 
TBoity of sundry Christians, who, if they externally observed the 
day, they cared not how they lived every day after : nor is it to 
be wondered at if Origen turn this day sometime into an allegory 
and a continual spiritual rest day, who miserably transforms 
(many times) the plainest Scriptures into such shapes, and Inms 
their subslanca into such shadows, and beating out the best of (be 
kataeKfoeds hit guests with such chaff and busks ; and although 
wtaaf OttMr festivals were observed by those times, which may 



make the SabbntU suspected lo be bora out of the same womb 
of human custom with the rest, yet we shall find the seventh 
day's real to have another crown of glory set upon the head of it 
by the holy men of G!od in those times than upon those which 
superstition so soon hatched and brought iurth ; so that they that 
rvud the histories of thofie times, in observing two Sabbaths in 
some places, Easter, Whitsunday, yea, divers ethnic and heathen- 
ish daya, will need no other comment on those testa of Paul, 
wherein he condemns the observation of days ; which, beginning 
to fly abroad in the daylight of the apostles, might well outface 
the succeeding ages, and multiply with more authority in darker 
times ; yet so as that the seventh day's rest (call it what you 
will) still kept its place and ancient glory, as in the sequel ahall 

When, therefore, the good will of Him who dwelt in the burn- 
ing bush of the aiSictcd primitive churches gave princes and 
emperors to be their nursing fathers, pious Constantiue, among 
other Christian edicts, enjoins the observation of the Lord's day ; 
wherein (if he was bound by his place to be a nourishing 
father) he went not beyond hia commission, in swaddling and 
cherishing this truth and apgtointnient of Christ, and not suffer- 
ing it to die and perish through the wickedness of men ; the 
power of princes extending to see Christ's laws observed, though 
not to impose any humau inventions and church constitutions of 
their own. It is true, indeed, that this princely edict was mixed 
with some imperfection and corruption, it falling loo short in 
some things, and extending loo far in others ; but there is no juat 
cause for any to stumble much at this, that knows the sick bead 
and heart by the weak and feeble pulse and cross temper of those 
clouded though otherwise triumphing times. 

The successors of this man child (bom out of the long and 
weary throes of the poor travailing church) wei'e enlarged gener- 
ally in their uare and conscience to preserve the religious honor 
due to this day, until the time of Charles the Great, who. in the 
latter end of Lis reign, observing how greatly the Sabbath was 
profaned, (especially by the continuance and lewdness of church- 



I'UKFACi;. It 

men.) did tfaerefore caII five nalioiial councils, (which I need not 
here mention,) in all which the Subbath b advanced to as strict 
observation to the full a^ hath been of Ute ycai's coodemned hy 
wme in the Sabbalariiu] reformers, that it is s. wonder how any 
man should cast off all shame, and so far forget himselt' as to 
make the Sabbutb a device of Fulco, or Peter Bruis, EustacLJus, 
or the Book at Golgotha, and put the visor of novelly upon the 
ag«d fac« of it, as if it were scarce known to anj* of the martyrs 
in Qaeen Marj's time, but receiving Gtrengih and growth from 
Ua«ter Perkins, was first hatched and received life from under 
the wings of a few \ate disciplinarian zealots. 

jVnd it con not be denied bat that the Sabbath (like many other 
precious appointments and truths of God) did shake ofi'her dust, 
ind put on her comely and beautiful garments, and hath been 
rntieh honored and magnified, since the times of Ilie reformation; 
the doctrine and darknes:^ of Popery (like that of the Phari- 
««e«) Dot only obscuring the doctrine of faith, but also of the law 
and obedience of faith, and so hath obscured this of the Sabbalh ; 
only herein they did excel their forefathers the scribes end 
nnriwes, for these added their own superstitious resting from 
ikings nnnlful and lawful to their merely externa] observation 
of the day ; but they (unto their external observation of the 
ttame of the day) ailded their abominable profunntiona to it, in 
Jby games, and May poles, in sports an<l pastimes, in dancing 
tai revclings, and so laid it level, and made it equal, (in a man- 
a*r,) to the rest of tlieir holy days ; that as th£y came to shuRle 
out the second commandment almost out of the decalt^ue, so 
■D lime they came to be blinded with that horror of darkness, aa 
to translale the words of the commandment into some of their 
Mtechiatn*, remember to ktep the holy J'etticaU ; and therefore 
IhoM! woriliies of the reformation who have contended for all that 
'.fcotior which is duo to this day are unjustly aspersed for ptead- 
fag for a Jewish and superstitious strictness, when the cause they 
' fctn'lh is no other, in truth, than to vindicate the Sabbath, both in 
'"%» doctrine and observation of it, from Papists' profaneness ; 
tfaerefore all the world may see, that under pretense of op* 


posiug in others a kiDd of Judaazing upon this day, ihe adver^ir 
ries of it do nothing else but maintain a. gross point of practical 
Popery, who are by law most ignorant und gross profanera of 
this day ; and therefore when many of Christ's serranta are 
branded and condemned for placing bo much of religion in the 
observation of this day, and yet Bishop White and some others 
of them shall acknowledge as much as they plead for, if other 
festivals be taken in with it ordained by the church, (as that they 
are the nursery of religion and all virtue, a means of planting 
faith and saving knowledge, of heavenly and temporal blessings, 
and the profanation of them hateful to God and aU good men 
that fear God, and to be punislied in those which shall offend,) 
they do hereby plainly hold forth what market they drive to, 
and what spirit acts them in setting up man's posts by God's 
Pinal's, and in giving equal honor to other festivals and holy days, 
which those whom they oppose do maintain as due to the Sab- 
bath alone, upon better grounds. 

The daystar from on high visiting Ihe first reformers in Ger- 
many, enabled them la gee many things, and so to scatter much, 
yea, most, of the Popish and horrible darkness which generally 
ovei'spread the face of all Europe at llial day ; but divers of them 
did not (as well they might not) see all things with Ihe like 
clearness, whereof this of the Sabbath hath seemed to bo one : 
their chief difficulty lay here; they saw a moral command for a 
seventh day. and yet withal a change of that Hrst seventh day, 
and hence thought that something iu it was moral in respect of 
the command, and yet something ceremonial, because of the 
change ; and therefore they issued their thoughts here, that it 
was partly moral and partly ceremonial, and hence their observa- 
tion of the day hath been (answerable to their judgments) more 
lax and loose ; whose arguments to prove the day partly ceiemo- 
niol have (upon narrow examination) made it wholly ceremo- 
nial ; it being the usual unhappiness of such arguments as arc 
produced in defense of a lesser error to grow big with some 
man child in them, which in lime grows up, and so serve only 
to maintain a far greater; and hence by that part of tite 


PBEFACt. 13 

controversy ihey have laid foundaliona of much looseness upon 
tbat day ajuong themselves, and have unawares laid ihe corner 
■ones of some gross points of Familism, And strengtheaed hereby 
tte haada of AriDioians, malignants, and prelates, aa lo profane 
tte Sabbath, so to make hkc of ihcir principles for tiie introduc- 
tion of all human inventions under the name and shadow of the 
church, which if it hath power lo authorize and estabhsh such 
a (lay of worship, let any man living then name what invention 
b« can, bni that it may much more easily be ushered in upon the 
■ame ground ; and therefore, though posterity hath cause forever 
to admire God's goodness for that abundance of light and life 
poared out by those vessels of glory in the first beginnings of 
leformatim, yet in this narrow of the Sabbath it is no wonder if 
they stepped a little beside the lAith ; and it is to be charitably 
hoped and believed, thai, had they then foreseen what ill use 
Mme ia af\er ages would make of their principles, they would 
kavB been do otherwise minded than some of their followers and 
fifenda, «si>ecially in the churches of Scotland and England, who 
■ight well «ee a little farther (as they use lo s])cak) when they 
Mood upon such tall men's shoulders. __ 

II la easy lo demonstrate by Scripture and argument, as well 
m by experience, tbat religion is just as the Sabbath is, and 
decays and grows as the Sabbath is esteemed : the immediate 
bodor and worsliip of God, which is brought forth and swaddled 
ID the Ihr«e IJrsI commandments, is nursed up and ruckled in the 
boKun of tlie Snbbutli. If Popery will have gross ignorance and 
btind devotion continued among its miserable captives, let it then 
bo made (like the other festivals) a merry and a sporting 8ab- 
hult ; if any state would reduce the people under it lo the 
Hant'uh fajtb and blind obedience again, let them erect (for law- 
fal pastimes and sports) a dancing Sabbath ; if the God of this 
worU wotild have all professors enjoy a total immunity from the 
Uw of God, and all manner of licentiousness allowed them with- 
oot ebeck of oonscience, let him ihen make an every-day Sabbath. 
If tfapre hatli been more of the power of godliness appearing in 
that tmall iudosure of the British imlion than in those vast 
TO I., in. it 







contineaU elsewhere, where reformation and more exact church 
discipline have taken place, it cannot well he imputed lo an}- out- 
ward means more ibau their excelling care and conscience of 
honoring (he Sabbath; and although Master Rogers, in his Fref* 
ace Id the 39 Articles, injuriously and wretchedly makes tlie 
strict observation of the Sabbath the last refuge of lies, by which 
Blralagem the godly ministers in former times, being driven out 
of all their other strongholds, did hope in time lo drive out tlie 
prelacy, and bring in again their discipline, yet thus much 
may be gathered from the month of such an accuser, that the 
worship and government of the kingdom' and church of Christ 
Jesus is accordingly set forward as the Sabbath ia honored. 
Prelacy, Popery, profaiieness must down, and shall down ia 
time, if the Sabbath be exaetly kept. 

But why the Lord Christ should Iteep bis servanla in Eng- 
land and Scotland to clear up and vindicate this point of 
the Sabbath, and welcome it with more love than some pre- 
dous ones in foreign churches, no man can imagine any other 
cause than God's own free grace and tender love, whose wind 
" blows where and when it will ; Deus noltit h<ec otia fecit, and 
the tiroes are coming wherein God's work will better declare the 
reason of this and some other discoveries by (he British nation, 
which modesty and hnmilty would forbid all sober minds to make 
mention of now. 

That a seventh day's rest hath (therefore) been of universal 
observation, is without controversy; the morality of it (as hath 
been said) is now the controversy. In the primitive times, when 
the question was propounded, Servtuii Ihminicum i (Hast ihou 
kept the Lord's day?) their answer was generally this : Chri$- 
tiania mm ; intermitUre Tionpostum, (i. e., I am a Christian; lean 
not neglect it.) The observation of this day was the badge of 
their Christianity. This was their practice ; but what their 
judgment was about the morality of it is not safe to inquire from 
the tractates of some of our late writers in this controversy ; for 
it is no wonder if they that thrust the Sabbath out of para- 
dise, and banish it out of the world until Moses' time, and then 



mak« it » mere ceremony all bis time till Cbrisl's ascension. If 
■ince thai time lliey bring it a peg luirer, and moke it ta be a / 
haman moslilution of the church, rather than any divine insd- 
tation of Christ Jesus, — and herein those that oppose the morality 
of it by dint of argument, and out of candor and conscience, 
propose their grounds on which they remain unsatiaficd, — I do 
from my. he^art both highly and heartily honor, and especially the 
labors of Master Primrose and Muster Ironside, many of whose 
arguments and answers to what is usually said in defence of the 
morality of the day, whoever ponders them shall find them 
heavy 1 the foundations and sinews of whose discourses I have 
therefore had a special eye to in the ensuing theses, with a most 
&ee submission of what is here returned in answer thereto, to 
the censure of belter minds and riper thoughia ; being verily 
persuaded, that whoever finds no knots or difficulties to humble 

spirit herein, either knows not himself, or not the controversy. 

It Bd for those whose chief arguments are reproaches and re- I 
viliiigs of imbittered and corrupt hearts, rather than solid reasons ' 
of modest minds, I wholly decline the pursuit of such creatures, 
irhoK weapons is their swell, and not any eiren'gth, and do leave 
them to His tribunal who judgeth righteously, for blearing the 
eje« of the world, and endeavoring to exasperate princes, and 
make wise men believe that this doctrine of the Sabbath is but a 
kt« novelty ; a doctrine tending to a high degree of schism; a 
bnatio Jwlaixing, like his at Tewksbury ; Sabbata tanda cola, i. e., 
ft piece of disciplinary policy to advance Presbytery ; a 
■itioas seething over of the hot or whining simplicity of ai 
rigid, crabbed, precise, crackbrained, Pnritimical party. Th e\ 

iieoDB God hath his little days of judgment in this life lo clear 

and vindicate the righteous cause of his innocent servants 
[lapinit all gainsayers ; and who sees not (but those that will be 
Wind) that the Lord hath begun lo do something this way by 
late broils ? The controversy God hath with a land ia 
HIBity times in defense of the controversies of his faithful wit. 
tiMtM i the sword maintains argument, and makes way lor that 
whieh the word could not : those plants which (not many years 




since) most men would not believe not lo be of God's planting, 
hath the Lord pulled up. Tlie three innocent firtbrands so fust 
tied to Bome foies' tails are now prelly well quenched, and tlie 
tails almost cut off. This cnuse of the Sabbath, also, the Lord 
JeauB ia now handling ; God hath cast down the crowns of 
princes, stained the robes of nobles with dirt and blood, broken 
the crosiers, nnd torn the miters in pieces, for the controversy of 
his Sabbath. (Jer. xvii. 27.) He hath already made way for his 
discipline also, (which they feared the precise Sabbath would 
introduce again,) by such a way as hath made all hearts lo ache, 
just according to the words, never to be forgotten, of Mr. Udal, 
in his Preface to the " Demonstration of Discipline." The 
Council of Matiacon imputed tlie irruption of the Golha into the 
empire to the profanation of the Sabbath. Germany may now 
. sec (or else one day they shall see) that one great cause of 
their troubles is, that the Sabbath ivanled its rest in the days of 
I their quietness. England was at rest' till they troubled God's 
I Sabbath. The Lord Jesus must reign ; the government of hia 
house, the laws of his kingdom, the solemn days of his worahip 
must be established ; the cause of his sulfering and afflicted ser- 
vants, (not of our late religious scomers at ordinances, laws, and 
Sabbaths,) who are now at rest from their labors, but in former 
times wept, and prayed, and petitioned, and preached, and writ, 
and suffered, and died for these ibinga, and arc now crying under 
the aitar, must and shall certainly he cleared before men and 
Tangels. Heaven and earth shall pasa away before one tittle of 
|_the law (much less a whole Sabbath) shall perish. 

But while I am thus musing, methinks no measure of tears 
are sufficient to lament the present state of times ; that when 
the Lord Jesus was come forth to vindicate the cause and con- 
troversy of Ziou, there should rise up other instruments of spir- 
' itual wickednesses in high pkees, to blot out the name and sweet 
remembrance of this day from off the face of the earth. The 
enemies of the Sabbath are now not so much malignant lime- 

# servers and aspiring brambles, whom preferment principalljr ' 

* bissed lo knock at ttie Sabbath ; but those who have eaten b: 

pnncipalljr ^m 


irith Christ (a generation of professing peopU') do lift up their 
keel ogainet liis Sabbath. So that, what could not formerly be 
done against it hy angels of darkness, tlie old serpcut takes 
SDolber course to effect it, by seeming angels of light ; who, by a 
Dew device, are raised up to build the scpulehers of those who 
per»eeated tlie prophets in former limes, and to justify all the 
books of sporU, and the reading of ihem ; yea ail the former and 
pretcnl profanations ; yea, scoffs and scorns against the Uabbalh 
&y. For as in former times ihey have ceremonial! zed it out of 
the decalogue, yet by human eongtiliUio have retained it in the 
cbnrch ; so these of later times have spirilualixed it out of the 
deodogue. yea, oul of all the churches in the world. For by 
making the Christian Sabbath to be only a spiritual Sabbath in 
the bosom of God out of Heb, iv., they hereby abolish a 
•efeDlb-dKy Sttbbaih, and make every day equally a Sabbath to 
k Clirisiiao man. This I hope will be the lost, but it is the most 
•pecioiu and fiiircsl color and banner that ever was erected to 
Sgbt under against the Christian Sabbath ; aiid is most Hi lo dc' 
■etre. not only some sodden men of loose and wanton wits, but 
capeeially men of spiritual, but too shallow minds. In limes of 

(as these are reputed lo be.) Satan comes not abroad usually 
to deceive with fleshly and gross forgeries and his cloven foot, 
(for every one almost would then discern his hallings,) but with 

mystical, yet strong delusions, and invLtible chains of dark- 

'iriiereby he binds his captives the faster to the judgment of 
day- Aud therefore the watchword given in the bright 
ng' times of the apostle was, to try tlie spirits, and 

re Dot every spirit. And take heed of spirits, who indeed 
were only fleshly and corrupt men, yet called spirits, because 
they pretended lo have much of the Spirit, and their doctrines 
only to advance the spirit ; the fittest and fairest cobwebs 
:ve and entangle the world, in those discerning times, that 

ly eould be spun out of the poisonful bowels of corrupt and 



The limes are now ron 
nlly of the old monks, i 

wherein, by the refined myi 
only the Sabbath, but also 





ordinaneea of Clirisl in ihe New Testament, are allegorized and 
spiriiualized out of the world. And therefore it is no marvel, 
when thej abolish the outward Sabbath, because of a spiritual 
Sabbath ill Christ, if (through God's righteous judgment blinding 
their hearts) thej be also lell to reject the outward word, because 
of an inward word to teach them ; and outward baptism and 
Iiord's supper, because of an inward baptism bj the Holy 
Ghoiit, and spiritual bread from heaven, the Lord Christ Jesus ; 
. and all outward ordinances, ministries, churches, because of an 
luward kingdom and temple. And the argument will hold 
Btronglj, that if because they have an inward Sabbath of rest 
in the bosom of Christ, (which I deny not,) that they may there- 
fore cast away all enlernal Sabbaths, they may then very well 
reject all outward baptism. Lord's supper, all churches, all or- 
dinances, because herein there is also the inward baptism — 
spiritual feeding upon Christ, and inward kingdom and temple 
of Got!. But thus tlipy wickedly separate and sever what God 
halb joined and may well stand logether, through the madness of 
which hellish practice I have long observed almost all the lale 
iind most pernicious errors of these times arise ; and those men 
who have formerly wept for God's precious Sabbaths and ordi- 
nances, and have prayed for them, and pleaded for them, and 
have offered their lives in sacrifice for them, and fought for them, 
yea, that hath felt perhaps the comfort, sweetness, and blessing 
of God's Sabbatlis, yea, the redeeming and saving power of God's 
ordinances to their own souls, yet through pretenses of more 
epiritual enjoyments above, and beyond, and without all these, 
ihey can part wiih these their old friends without weeping, and 
reject them as polluted rags, and fleshly forms, and dork veils and 
curtains which must be drawn aside, that so they may nol hinder 
the true light from shining in them. ^ 

This, therefore, is the reason why the love of many at this 
day is grown cold toward the external Sabbath, because the in- 
^ temal and spiritual Sabbath is now all in all. And therefore 
many men walk either with bold consciences, and will observe 
no Sabbath, of eke with loose consciences, thinking it lawful lo 


ofaeerve il. (if men will enjoin it,) but not thinking ih&t they are 
tied and bound thereunto from any precept of God. That place 
of Ueb. iv. which they bo oiueU siit^k Id, wanis not light to 
dciDonsirale iliat the SahbatiBm ihere may well agree not only 
with the internal, bul the oulward Chrialian Sabbath. But some 
of the ensuing thc^s will serve to clear up these things. This 
only I fear, that because of these indignities done thus to God's 
Sabbaths, even by the underworkings of some of God's own poo- 
pk, tliat the lime hastens, wherein if no man should speak, yet 
tlie right hand of the sore displea-iure of a provoked God, by 
plagues and confusion upon ihe glory of all flesh, will plead for 
bis own name, and for that in special which is engraven upon the 
forehead of bis holy Sabbaths. Jerusalem remembered wiib 
r^ret of heart, in the days of her affliction and misery, all her 
pleasant things, and especially this of the Sabbath. (Lam. i. 7.) 
If the days of our re#l and quietness can not make us to relish 
the good things of his temple in ihe fruition of our Sabbaihs, 
then doubt not of iI, but that the days of our aflliction shall 
tnalM) n remnant lo remember that they were pleasant thingti. 
Of ail Ihe mercies of God to Israel, this is reckoned to be one 
of llie grcale«l, that be gave bis laws to Israel, (Ps. cxivii. 19, 
SO :) and of all laws, ihb of the Sabbath ; for so the remnant 
ot the capliviiy acknowledged il, (Neli. ix. 14.) who perhaps 
bad far lower thoughts of it before their bondage. And if the 
very making of it known be such a sweet mercy, what ttien is 
the rest and peace of it, the blessing and comfort of il ? for 
which I doubt not but many thousands are admiring God in 
baa(6n at litis day. And shall u shady imagination of an every- 
dtjr Sabbalfa make us sell away fur nothing such a heavenly and 
fndom eeoMin, and make it common ? The Lord Jesus wished 
bu disciplea to pray llial their Hight from Jerusalem might not 
bo in winter, nor on the Sahbnih day, (Matu xxiv. 20,) account- 
ing it a great misery that his people should lose the public benefit 
(tliraugb the disturbance of any) of one Subhuth day; (fo 
it Jewish or Christian Sabbath, 1 now dispute not 
vm m Sal^baih day, which it set^ms was to conliime alYer Chfi»t* 


3r ho - H 



ascension to the Father, and therefore not irhoUj ceivmonial.) 
And Bhftll we account it no affiietion or misery to fight or fly, to 
ride or go, to work or plaj, to hear the word in public or stay 
at home upon tlie Sabbath day ? Is it no mercy in these days to 
enjoy many Sabbaths, which was ao sore a misery in Christ's 
" account, and in the apostles' days to lose but one ? " If man's 
heart be lost in the necessary cumbers of the week, (upon the 
Sabbatli,) the Lord is wont to rccaU it again \o him. If any 
fear that the time of grace is past, tlie continuance of the Sab- 
baths (the special seasons of grace) confutes Lim. If a man's 
Bonl be wearied with daily griefs and outward troubles, Ihe 
bosom of Jesus Christ (which is in special wise opened every 
Lord's day) may refresh him. And shall we have and profess so 
little love to such a time (more precions than gold to humbled 
hearts) as to cast away such a rich portion of precious time, and 
make it common, under a pretense of making every day a Sab- 
bath, which is cither impossible to do or sinful ? The loudest 
voice (one of thom of the love of Christ) which now sounds in 
the world continually in the ears of his people, is this : Come 
into my bosom, ye weary sinners, and enjoy your rest. And the 
next voice lo that is this of the Sabbalh, to call us off from all 
occasions, and then lo say to us, Come to me, my people, and rest 
in my bosom of sweetest mercy all this day ; which call would 
not he a mercy if it were every day ; for then our own occasions 
must be neglected, which the wise and fatherly providence of God 
forbids, and spiritual work only mindecl and intended, which God 
did never command. Nor should any marvel that the voice of 
the law should contain such a voice of love, and therefore should 
not think thai this controversy about the law (or for ihb one law 
of the Sabbalh) is unlit and unsuitable lo these evangelical and 
gospel limes ; for although ihe law is dreadful and full of terror 
as considered wiiboiit Christ, and is lo man fallen a voice of 
words and a voice of terror and fear, which genders unto bond- 
age, yet as it is revealed with reference to Christ, and n people 
in Christ, so every commandment doth tpirare amorem, (as he 
Bpeaks,) and breathes out Christ's love, for which the sainls can 

not but blese the Lord with everloeliDg wonderment (hat e 
he made ihem to know these heart secreCa of bU good will and 
love, especitLlly then when he writes them in titeir beans, and 
thereby gives uoto them the comforl ihereof. And verily if it 
be BDch a sweet voice of love to call us in to this reat of the dny, 
certainly if ever ihe English nation be deprived of these seasons, 
(which God in men^y forbid,) it will be a black appearance of 
God against them in the days of their distress, when he i 
■eem to shut them out of his rest in his bosom by depriving ibem 
of the reel of this day. What will ye do in the solemn day, i 
tbo day of ibe feast of the Ix)rd ? For lo, they are gone beiause 
of destruction i Egypt shall gather them, Memphis shall bury 
Uiem, their silver slmll be dosired, nettles shidl possess them, 
Ibonu «hall be in their tabemaclea ; ihe days of visitation £ 
oomc, the days of recompense are come, Israel shall know itj 
ibe prophet is a fool, the spirilual man is mad, for the multitude 
ot thine iniqaity, and the great hatred. (IIos. ix. 5-7.) But let 
men yet make much of God's Sabbaths, and begin here ; and if 
it be too tedious to draw near to God every day, let them but 
make consciuiice of trying and tasting how good the Lord is but 
lhi» one day io a week, and the Lord will yet reserve mercy for 
U* people, (Jer. xvii. H-26 ;) for keep thb, keep all ; lose this, 
lose all ; wliich lest I should seem to plead for out of a frothy 
and graundlesi affection to the day, and lest any in these times 
■hould be woree than the crane and the swallow, who know their 
times of return. I have therefore endeavored to clear up those 
Jbur gr«at difficulties about this day, in the theses here fol- 

]. Concerning the morality. 

8. The change. 

S. The beginning. 

4. The sanctification of the Sabbath. 

Being fully persuaded that whosoever shall break one of the 
leaat eammandraents, and teach men so, shall be called least ii 
Uie kingdom uf God. I do therefore desire the reader t 
kkng with lum these two things : — 

r to take I 



Sua ppndin^ liLa ju dpnent concerning Ihe trulli and validilj 

of any part or of any particular thesis until he Lath read o^er the 
whole ; for Ihey have n dependence one upon another for mutual 
clearing of one another ; and lest I should iiV cocliim apponere, 
Knd eay the eame thing twice, 1 have therefore purposely left out 
that in one part, and one thesis which is to be cleared in another, 
either for proof of it, or resolution of objections against it ; and 
nllhough litis dependence may not so easily appear, (because I 
have not so expressly eet down the method,) yet Ihe wise- 
hearted, I hope, will easily find it out, or else pick out and accept 
what they see to be of God, in such a confused Iieap ; for it was 
enough to my ends if I might lay in any broken pieces of limber 
to fonvard this building, which those that are able to wade deeper 
controversy may please to make use of (if there be 
any thing in them, or in any of them) in their own better and 
1 orderly frame ; for it hath been, and still is, my earnest 
desire to heaven, that God would, raise up some or other of his 
precious servants to clear up these controversies more fully than 
yet they have been, that the zeal for God's Sabbaths may not be 
fire without light, which perhaps hath hitherto been too little, 
through the wickedness of former times, encouraging the bvoks 
one way, and suppressing those of most weight and worth for 

2. To consider that I do most willingly give way to the pub- 
I lishing of these things, which I could in many respects have 
much more readily committed to the fire llian to the light ; when 
I consider the great abilitiea of others ; the need auch as I am 
have to sit down and leam i the hazards and knocks men get 
only by coming but into the field in polemical matters, and the 
tinusefulness of any thing herein for those in remote places, 
where knowledge abounds, and where to cast any thing of this 
nature is to cast water into the sea. I confess I am ashamed 
therefore to be seen in this garment ; and therefore that 1 have 
(thus far yielded, hath been rather to please others than myself, 
iwho have many ways compelled rae hereunto. /The things for 
■nbstauce contained herein were first preached in my ordinary 



Course, upou the Sabbath dnys, ia opening the commanilmenta. 
The desires of iomu studenu in (he i-'ollegc, and the need I saw 
of resolving some doubtn arising about these ihingd in the hearts 
of foine ordinary hearers among the people, oceasiuned a more 
large discussing of the conirovewy ; to wliich I was tlie tnorc in- 
clined, b«(^niiee one among u.'< (who ivunted not abilities) was 
taken awaj from us, who hud promised the clearing up of all 
these Diatteri. When therefore these things were more plainly 
and fully opened and applied lo the coneciences of some more 
popular capacities as well as others, I was then put upon it to 
reduce the doctrinal part of these sermons upon the fourth com- 
maodmenl into certain theses, for the use of some students de- 
sirous thereof; when being scattered, and coming lo the view of 
wme of the elders in ihe country, I was by some of (hem desired 
lo take off some obscurity arising from Ihe brevity and littleness 
of ihem, by greater enlargements, and a few more explicationa 
cf them ; which promising lo do, and ihen coming lo the hearing 
oT many, I was then desired by all the elders in the country, 
ihen met together, lo commit them to public view ; which hitherto 
my hettrt bath opposed, and therefore should still have smothered 
(hem, but that some have so far com[)elled me, as that I feared I I 
abonld insist and fight against God in not listening to them ; in | 
which many things are left out, which perhaps might be more 
ineful lo a plain people, which then, in the application of matters 
of doctrine, were publicly delivered ; and some few things are 
kiUoJ, especial m that particular, wherein the directive power 
of lli« moral law is cleared against the loose wits of these limes. 
We are strangers hero (for the most part) lo the books an3 
vriiiog* which are now in Europe ; but it is much feared that tb^ 
inovastt and growth of the many tares and erroj^in England 
have been by reason of the sleepiness of some of the honest hus- 
batidtnen ; and lliat those who are best able to pluck them up 
hsn nM veasonably stood in the gap, and kept them out by a 
MmIobb convicilug and public bearing witness against them bj 
wofd and writing ; and tliat, therefore, such as have with tooj 
mpllanco tolerated errors, error will OM 



b Icnderness and c 



day grow up to tliat head that it will not tolerate or suffer tbem 
to sp«fik Iniih. We have a proverb here, that " the devil is not 
»o soon risen but Christ is up before him ; " and if any of his 
precious aervanla have slept and lain longer abed than their 
Master hath done, and have not spoken or printed soon enough 
for Jesus Christ in other matters, yet O that in this matter of 
the Sabbath God would betimes awaken, and that lliese weak- 
nesses might stir up their strength ; for I much fear and foresee 
that if it be not done, there is an hour and a nick of templation 
in such a juncture of times approaching, wherein the enemy will 
come in like a flood, and rise up from all quarters against the 
doctrine of the Sabbath, and then farewell all the good days of 
the Son of man, if this be lost, which then men shall desire to 
Bee, and shall not see them, I have therefore been the more 
wilting to let my own shame and weakness appear to the world, 
(if so it be found,) if this might be any means of doing the least 
good for keeping up the price of God's Sabbalhs in the hearts 
of any, I have therefore spent the more lime about the morality 
of the Sabbalh, because the clearing op of this gives light to all 
the rest. 



Tkent 1. Tm is one of the most precious blessings which 
worthless man in this world enjoys; a jewel of inestimable 
worth ; a golden stream, dissolving, and, as it were, continually 
mnning down bj us, out of one etemitj into another, yet seldom 
taken notice of until it is quite passed away from us. Man (saith 
Solomon) knows not his time. (Eccl. ix. 12.) It is, therefore, 
most just and meet that He who hatli the disposing of all other 
things less precious and momentous should abo be the supreme 
Lord and Disposer of all our times. 

Tresis 2. He who is the Disposer of all our times is the 
sovereign Lord of our persons also, ajid is therefore the utmost 
and last end of both ; for if our persons and all our times be of 
him, they are then to be improved for him, as he sees most meet. 

T%e$it 3. Now, although all creatures in the world are of 
God, and for God, so that, being of him, they receive their being 
from him as their first efllcient, and being for him, are therefore 
preserved and governed by him as their utmost end; yet no other 
inferior visible creature is set so near to Grod, and consequently 
is not in that manner for God, as man is. 

Tresis 4. For although all inferior creatures are made lastly 
for Grod, yet they are made nextly for man ; but man, having 
nothing better than himself, between hiin and Qod, is therefore 
made both lastly and nextly for Grod ; and hence it is that no in- 
ferior creature, which coines out and issueth from Grod, hath such 
a reflux and return again back unto Grod, as man hath ; because, 
in and by this reflux and return into him, man's immortal being 
is eternally preserved, like water running into the sea again, 
from whence it first came. 

nesis 5. For whatever is set next, and, as it were, contig- 
uous to eternal, is eternal : Omne contiguum atemo tpirituali est 
mUmumj (say some,) and hence it is that the soul is eternal^ 
TOL. ni. 3 25 




ixlly made, 
IS It were, in a straiglit 
□ of vrkich slraight line 
in, tliey ihen 


because it is made ncxtly for Gotl, anil as it were contiguous to 
him. The body also shall be eternal, because contiguous lo the 
eternal souL Bui no oilier inferior creatures are thus eternal ; 
for allhongh they be made nexlly for man, yet so as ihat they 
are firstly tor the body, which is of itself mortal, and not eternal, 
and thei-efore, not being contiguous lo that which is spiritually 
eternal, are not so themselres ; and the reason of this is, because 
all inferior creatures, as they come out from God, so their 
motion is toward man, for whom they 
they go out straightforward from God, 
lino toward man, to the last end and tei 
when they are come, in the service oi 

proceed any farther, and do therefore perish and cease to be, 
without reflecting, or returning back again immediately unto 
Cod. But man, being made immediately and nextiy for God, 
halh therefore his motion so toward God as that he returns im- 
mediately unto him again, and is not ted in a straight line, but 
led (as it were) about in a circular motion, and hence returninf; 
immediately lo him, he is hereby eternally preserved in 
for whom he is immediately made, and unto whom he is r 
contiguous, as hath been said. 

TSem 6. Now, although, in this return of man to God, (sup- 
posing it to be iniemal, regular, and spiritual,) man's blessed 
being once lost is hereby recovered and preserved in God, yet 
when man is left unto himself, the motions of his soul out of this 
circle, in straying from God, are innumerable, and would be end- 
less, if God, who set him next unto himself, did not some time 
or other recall, return, and lead him back agtun (as it were in a 
lieavenly circle) into himself. 

TTieiii 7. Look, therefore, as when man hath run his race, 
finished his course, and passed through the bigger and larger 
circle of his life, he then returns unio his eternal rest, so it is 
contrived and ordered by divine wisdom, as that he shall in a 
special manner return unto and into his rest once at least within 
the lesser and smaller circle of every week, that so his perfect 
blessedness to come might be foretasted every Sabbath day, and 
BO be begun here ; that look, as man elanding in innocency bad 
cause thus to return from the pleiisant labors of his weekly 
paradise employments, (as shall lie shown in due place,) so man 
fallen much more from his toilsome and wearisome labors, lo 
this his rest again. And therefore, as because ail creatures were 
made for man, man was therefore made in the last place after 
tbem ; so man being made for God and his worship, thence it {■ 
that the Sabbath (wherein oi^n waa to dr: 




God) was appointed aller lli«^ creation of man, as Peter Martyr " 
ribnervea, tor although man is not made fur tlie .Sabbath merely 
in respect of the outward reat of it, ad the PhHrisees dreamed, 
yet he ia made for the Sabbath in respect of God in it, and the 
hulinesd of it, to both which, then, the soul is to have its weekly 
rcvoliilion back again, as into that rest which is the eod of all 
our lives, labor, and in e|>eciBl of all our weekly labor and work. 
77iait 8. As, therefore, our blessed rest in the fruition of 
Gu(i at the end and period of our Lves ia no ceremony, but a 
glorious privilege and a moral duty, it being onr closing with 
our utmost end to which we are called, so it can not be tliat such 
a law which calls and commands man in this life to return to 
the some rest for ttubstonce every Sabbath day, should be a cer- 
emonial, but rather a moral and perpetual law ; unless it should 
appear that this weekly Sabbath, like the other annual Sabbath, 
hath been ordained and instituted principally for some ceremo- 
Diona ends, rather than lo lie a pan, and indeed the beginning 
ofoorre^t to come; there being little difference between this 
1 tlut to eome, but only this, tliat here our rest is but begun, 
Ihere it is perfected ; here it is interrupted by our weekly labors, 
there it is continued ; here we are led into our rest by means and 
Ordhtances. but there wo shall be possessed with it without our 
nrtd of any help from them ; our God, who is our real, being 
' then become unto us immediately all in all. 

7%ettt 9. Were it not for roan's work and labor ordained 
ad appointed for him in this life, he should enjoy a continual 
BablMtlh. a perpetual rest. And therefore we see that when 
BUUi'* life is ended, his sun set, and his work done upon earth. 
nothing else remains for him but only to enter into his perpetual 
and eternal rest. All our time should be solemn and sacred to 
I the Lioni of time, if there were no common work and labor 
J bcre, which necessarily occasions common time ; why, then, 
abouU any think that a weekly Sahbalb is ceremonial, when, 
were it not for this life's labor, a perpetual and continual Sab- 
bath wonld then be undoubtedly "accounted moral. It is hard 
for any to think a servant's awful allendance of his Lord and 
Matter at certain special times not lo be morally due from him, 
who, bat for some more private and personal pccasions allowed 
him to attend unto, should at all times conlinually be serving 

* Tm hk onlinvm coniidera. aija cnwuiur pmplcr liomineai, idco po't ilia 
eeadilBr hano. Homo vcio od l>ei i-olturu idea BUtim pobi illiiu crumiloa 
■■ Sobbotbi Iwoediciio tt laociificatio iaducitor, — Pti. Mart, in Pnae. 4 m. 



Hiexii 10. The word ia iyijittfor, and no Scripture phraae, 
and llieretbre not proper fillj and fully to express the question 
in conlroverey, to wit, whether llie fourth commatidraent be & 
moral precept. The best friends of this word find it slippery, 
and can hardlj tell what it is, and what they would hare to be 
understood by it. and hence it is become a bone of much conten- 
tion, a fit mist, aiid swamp for bucIi to fight in, who deiiire so to 
contend with their adverBariea as that ihemaetvea may not be 
Lknown, either where they are or on what ground they stand. 
Tet it being a word generally taken up and comnioiily used, it 
may not therefore be amiss to follow the market meanure, and to 
retain the word with just and meet explications thereof. 

TlienM 11. They who describe a moral law to be such a law 
as is not typically ceremonial, and therefore not durable, do well 
and truly espreas what it is not, but they do not positively ex- 
preM what it is. 

Tliesii 12. Some describe and draw out the proportions of 
the moral law by the law of nature, and so make it to be that 
law which every man h taught by the light of nature. " That 
which is morally and universally just, (say some,) which reason, 
when it is not misled, and the inward law of nature dictaleth, by 
common principles of honesty, or ought to dictate unto all men 
without any outward usher. It is that (say others) which may 
be proved not only just, hut necessary, by principles drawn from 
the light of nature, which all reasonable men, even in nature cor- 
rupted, have still in their hearts, which either they do acknowl- 
e<^, or may at least be convinced of without the Scriptures, by 
principles stJU lull in ihe hearts of all men." But this descrip- 
tion seems loo narrow; tor, 1. Although it bo true that the law 
natural is part of tlie law moral, yet if the law moral be resolved 
into the law of nature only, and the law of nature be shrunk up 
and drawn into so narrow a compass as what the principles left 
in corrupt man only suggest and dictate, then it will necessarily 
follow, that many of those holy rules and principles are not the 
law of nature, which were the most perfect impressions of the 
law of nature in man's first creation and perfeciiou. but now, by 
man's apostasy, are obliterated and blotted out; unless any shall 
think worse than the blind Papists, either that man's mind is not 
now corrupted by the fait, in losing any of the first impressions 
of innouenl nature, or shall maintain, with them, that the image 
of God (of which those fii'st impressions were a pari) was not 
natural to man in that estate. 2. It will then follow that there 
ia no moral discipline, (as they call it,) that is, nothing moral 
discipline informing, or positively moral, but only by 

U there ^ 
loral by ^M 



du-taling, wbieb is cross not only lo the judgments, but Bolid arKu- 
nent?, of men judicious and most indiffcreiil. 3. If Ibat only ie • 
to be accountcil raoral which ia bo eit&ilj known of b)1 men, by 
die light of naiure corrupted, then the imperfect light of man's 
corrupt mind must be the principal judge of that which is moral, . 
nlher than the perfect rule of mornlily contnined in the Scrip- , 
tnr«, which aa^riion would not a little advance corrupt anil blind ' 
tulure, and dethrone ihe perfection of the Holy Scripture, 

7H«ii 13. They who define a moral law lo be such a law 
AS is |ierpetual and universal, binding all persons in all ages and 
times, do come somewhat nearer to the mark, nud arc not far o(F 
from the truth, and guch a description is moat plain and obviouB 
to «uch ta are not curious ; and in this sense our adversaries in 
ihb cause affirm the Sabbath not to be raoral, meaning ibat it 
n not a law perjielual and universal. Others, on the coutrary, ' 
affirming that it is moral, intend thus much — that it is perpetual 
ind universal, a law which hinds all persons, all times, and in all 
■gei ; and herein lies the chief matter of controversy at this day. 
Kow in what re.<pect and how far tbnh the law of the Sabbath ' 
is perpetual, ^hall be hereafter shown ; meanwhile it may not be 
HnLiB U> inquire more narrowly into the nature of a moral law. 
For (bough a kwprim^|ilj.5iffl2lisp5ri;glj)al, yet perpetuity 
Mems to be an adjunct~nilEer than ortneessence of a moral law, 
■nd ibe difficulty will still remain nntoucbed, viz., to know when 
ft law ia perpetual, and nhat is internal and Intrinsioal to such a 
law as makes it perpetual, or moral ; whcreinlo I would not 
•CATch, lest I should seem to afiecl curiosity, but that our critical 
■drersaries put us u{)on it, with whom there is nothing lost in 
W« we gnin nothing by wrestling a little with them upon their 
own grounds, where for a while we sliall come up lo them. 

Thtii$ 14. A divine law may be said to he moral two ways. 
1. More largely and generally moral. 2. More strictly and 
^keciall j moral. 

Thftii 15. A law generally moral is this — that the whole 
uneniga will of the Lord be done and submitted unto by every 
«r«alur«i and in this large sense, every law of God. whelhor 
ceremonial, judicial, or for special trial, may be said to be moral, 
beeoiue ihc sovereign will of God is in all these laws to bo 
adund. It is a raoral duty that God's will be done ; and hence 
k b that so far forth as the will of God is in ibeiii, so far forth io 
yield obedience to them is a moral duty ; but the question is not 
alxMI Ihi* morality, nor what things are thus moral. 

1%nu Iti. A law more strictly and specially moral, which 
ODBeenu the manners of all meu, uod of which we now speak, 

P 30 TB 



Lmay be thus dcBcrilicd ; viz., it ia such a law, whiuh h therefore 
commanded, bccauGc it is good, and ia not therefore good merely 
■■ TTietii iT. Thifi is Austin's desfjipliun of it long Einc«, whom 
most of the schoolmen follow ; which learned Cameron, with 
sundry laie writers, confinns, and which our adversaries in Ihia 
conlroveray plead hard for, and unto which the evidence of Scrip- 
ture and reason seems to incline ; for laws mt;rely judicial and 
I ceremonial are good laws, (Deut. vi, 18-. 24;) but this was merely 
[ beeauae they were commanded, and therefore it had been simply 
evil to burn incense, oETcr sacriliuc, or perform any ceremonial 
duty in the worship of God, untt*G9 tliey had been commanded. 
What is there therefore in moral laws which is not in those laws ? 
> Verily, this inward goodness in ihem which others have not, and 
because of which goodness tliey are therefore commanded ; for 
to love God, lo honor parents, to preserve the life of man, to be 
' merciful, and bountiful, and just in all our dealings, etc, are in- 
wardly good, and are ihei'etbre commanded, and are therefore 
moral laws ; and hence we see that when Uie a|>ostle would set 
forth the glory and excellency of the moral law, (for of do other 
law can he speak, Kom. vii. 7, 1^,) he gives these titles to it — that 
it is holy, juai, and good; wliicli holiness, justice, and goodness 
he opposeth to his own moriil (not ceremonial) wickedness. I 
fim carnal, (saith 'he,) but the law is holy, just, and good. And 
look, as it was evil in itself for lo have a nature contrary to the 
law, so the law which was contrary to that nature was good in 
itself, and was therefore commanded ; and therefore in this thing 
moral laws are in a higher degree good than such as were only 
ceremonial, which were therefore good merely because com- 
manded. The prophet Micnli therefore perceiving how forward 
many were in ceremonial duties and sacrifices, in opposition 
beruunio, he lells them, " The Lonl hath showed thee, O man, 
what is good," (speaking of inoi-al duties, of showing mercy, and 
walking humbly with God, Micah vi. 8.) Were not sacrifice and 
offerings good, as well as mercy and walking humbly ? Yes, 
verily ; but herein lies the ditl'erence, (ns our most orihudox gca- 
erally make it,) sacrifice and offerings were not per le and in 
themselves good, but only as commanded for higher ends, and to 
further moral obedience, (Jer. vii. 22, 23, and vi. I'J, 20. Is. i: 
14, IG. Ps. 1. 13-lJJ;) hut such mural obedience as the 
prophet mentions, viz., to show mercy and to walk humbly, were 
good in thi.-mse)vefi, and were therefore commaiideil of God, aniT 
here called by the prophet good. The sum of moral obedience ii 
lore to God and man. (Matt, xxii.) But what love ie this? j 


I tLei nsi.-lve9 lovely , and c 

» Surely it is in *ucU things 
■equentlj- in themselves good ; lor otherwise oerenionial obedience 
>hoaM be A part of moral obedience, beeaiise in performing such 
obedience as is merely ceremonial, we show our love to God also, 
it being n branch of love to Lave respect unto all God's cotH' 
mandmenli. (Dent. vi. 1—3, with v. G.) Ouly herein our love 
. towttnl God appears io ceremonial duties, because theae laws are 
P Mmmanded ; our love appears in the other, because the things ^ 
I flOcnmaDded are also lovely in themselves. The image of GodiaV 
' n itself. Bs God hiuuelf is good in himself. Now, the moral I 
n exact rule of nothing else but God's itni^c, as is evident, ' 
fy> Si, where the image of God is made io ponsist in holj - 
"" " _^J (, the lirat table being the rule of tlie one, 

d taUe beiug the rule of the other ; and hence it follows 
l<'aDd«ntably, that moral laws, respecting only God's image, have 
L'Xnpcel oiOy to such thiugs as ar e goo d in themselres, and wheru- 
kin w« resemble and are made like unto ijod. Some things (sailb 
TCuaeruu) are good in ihemselvea, viz., such things wherein God's 
Itauge ahines forth, as ho is holy, just, and good. (Col. iii. 10. 
Kph> \v. 24.) Some things are indlfierent, neither good nor bad 
' ' iwlvtrs, but merely as commanded or forbidden, Which also 
it God'a image, unless it be tub ratione rnih, hut not tnh 
toralU ; i.e., they resemble God as he is a being, but 
t Is holy, just, and good in himself, the rule of which 
Dce is the uoral law, which therefore commands thin^ 

■ ^hpv arf! gnm^. S. _^ 

'ITittit 18. God, out of his absolute sovereignty, could have 

Budo laws biuiting nil (icrMins in alt ages, (and in this respeet 

moral,) without having any more goodness in them than mei-ely 

|_U*own will; but it is hia will and good pleasure to make all laws 

e moral Io be fir«l good in themselves for all men, before j 
Cfce will impose liicm npun all men. And hence it is a weaknessj 
Efcr any la affirm, that a moral law is not such a law which is 
^■ben-fare commanded because it is good, because (say they) it is 
■JWt the goodocM of the thing, but the sovereign will of God, 
f irliich makes nil things good ; for it is the sovereign will of Goil 
1 proved) to make every moral law good, and therefore to I 
ind it, ralher than to make it good by a mere command- 
Tkttit 19. The will of God is indeed ilie rule of all good- 
>, and conM'iiuetitly of All moral laws j but we know there ifl 
roAM tUereCi and volanliu numdati, the first of which is, viz., 
D wQl of Gud's decree, (as it appears in the execution of it,) 
a m tiling to be ({ood, whether it be creature or law; (he 



formable u 

second ol' these, viz., tLe will of Gad's comnmnd, enjoins the 
practice of such a iliitj, the rule and law to guide which is first 
made good (if il be a moral law) bj Ibe wisdom and power o 
the will of God's decree ; bo that the will of Giod appearing in 
both these (viz., Grod's decreeing and commanding will) is the 
complete rule of every moral law ; so that as no law is morallj' 
good merely because it is comroanded, so neither is it thus good 
rWless also it bo commanded. God's will in all moral laws is 
■ KtM to maiie Ihem good, and then to command them, when 
they nt-e thus far made good ; both which together make up a 
[mo ral lawi^ 

TRem 20. Il is true that sin 13 fe^ transgre ssion^jSod'a law. 
There is noiliing, thererorc^sinfiil biitit is ilie' ffsiTsgression of 
ind hence there is no obedience good but what is con- 
to some law. But we must know that as transgres- 
Bion 01 auy law doth not nxake a tl ung morally sinfu l, (for then 
la break a ceremonial law would be a moral siii,) so also obedi- 
ence to every law doth not make a duly morally lawful and 
good, (for then obedience to a ceremonial law must be a moral 
obedience.) Moral transgression, therefore, is a breach of such 
a law which forbids a thing beca use it is evil , as moral obedi- 
cQfe is our conformity to such a law which -commands a thing 
' txjcuuse it is good J nut that any thing is morally evil in itself be- 
fore it be forbidden, for then there shoul d be a moral sin bef ore, and 
without any law to forbid it, which ia most absurd; but because 
a thing is evil in itaelt, and is therefore forbidden, it is there- 
fore morally evil, God may and doth make it fundamentally 
-evil before it be forbidden, but it is not morally evil until il be 
forbidden./ The like may be said concerning moral obedience 
according to any moral law. No man should tiierefore think that 
this description given of a moral law should give occasion to any to 
imagine that some things are morally good or evil, before any 
law pass upon tliem, and that therefore there are some duties, 
and some sins, which are so without, and belbre, any law of God. 
For we see that things good in ihemselves must be commanded, 
else they are not moral duties ; yet witlial they are therefore com- 
manded, because they are good in themselves. It is true tliul, 
by the verdict of some of ilie schoolmen, some duties are iiiur- 
ally good before any law commands them, (as to love and mag- 
nify God,) and that some sins (as to curse and blimphetne 
God) are moFally evil, before any law forbids them ; but (10 
omit other answers) if such sipppositious may be rationally made, 
. (which some deny,) yet ii may bo upon good grounds denied that 
any duty can be mondly good, or any sin morally ovil, until 


■lui* piui apon them either to comnianil or forbid ihe same. It 

\it luilocil suitable and meet in nnlure for man to love God, and 

Bsuiiable and unmeet to bladpbeme and hute God ; but suelk 

nitablenees or UDSuilableiieiis, as lliey make things fundament- 

dljr good or evil, so tbey CAa not make any thing morally good 

ir evil, nnlesa we suppose »om« law ; for it would be, ia 

Vlhlii (^ase, with man as it is in brute creatures, who do man^ 

Vlliinga unnatural, (as to eat up and destroy their own young.) . 

which yet are not morally sinful, beuiuse they are not under any * 

r BwnJ law ; and one of the most ancient and best of the schoolmen, 

I Ibough he thinks that the obserrance of the Sabbath before 

I Moms' time was not ieeundiim ra/ionem prtecepti, or rlebite jieri,- 

I i.e., was not actually commanded, yet that it was lecundam ratio- 

I iMm htmetti, hoe ett dignejitri ; ■'. e., it was congnioue, and a thing 

eet and wonhy to be observed, even from the first creation. But 

I vUl wfiV of our adversaries hence say, that because it was meet 

^^Mid worthy to be observed, that therefore it was a moral law from 

ktte bcgiantng of the world, while it had uo command (as is 

1W them supposed) to be observed? For it must be Bome- 

I ttitig meet &ud congruous, and worthy to be observed of man, 

I which, when it is commanded, makes it to be a moral law ; for 

I then the law commands a tiling that is good, and because it ia 

k Mod it is therefore commanded ; which goodness we must a-lit- 

I Ue more nanowly now iuquire into. 

TWm 21. If it be demanded therefore. What is that good- 
k.Ml tt moral law for which it b therefore commanded? the 
R is gi\*en by Vosques, Suarez, Smisingn, and most of 
KilmEOj and sundry of oar own writers, that it is nothing 
t Ihal ramely suitableness and meelness in the thing 
Uided unto human outure as rational, or unto man as ra- 
KitiooBl, and consequently unto every man. When I say as rational, 
f I nndcrstand as Master Irotisidc doth, viz., a&right reason, nci- 
t blinded nor corrupted, doth require. When I say as suit- 
I, and consequently to every man, I hereby exclude . 
1 aerely judicial and evangelical from being moral: the 
'"* * ' e guiiAblc to some men only ; the other are not 
men as men, but to man as corrupt and fallen, 
i tberafore bind not all men, but only those among whom 
vfliey are sulficiently and actually promulgated, as is evideni. 
f (ttoia. X. 14. John xv. 22.) But moral laws are suitable to all 
fclBcn, and have an inward meelness and congruiiy to bo observed 
{•f all men. For look, as when the Lord gives laws to any par- 
r-halion, whether immediately by himself, or mediately by 
I, h* ever makes them suitable to the people's peace and good 





of tliat natiou ; bo when he makes laws binding all mankmd in 

s, he makes them auilahle lo hut 
kind therein. And look, as Dnlional lawa binii not merclj by ths 
mere will of th e lawgiver, but frora the goodnesa and suitable- 
besB in the thing unto their comiaon good, so here moral 
laws, which concern all nations, bind not merely because of the 
will of God, {whi(^h of itself is i-ulfieieut to bind nil men, if he 
had pleased to put no more in moral laws,) but nlao because of 
■ M>me goodnesa in J he thin gs commanded, which in nothing else 
but eucK suitableness as is mentioned unto the common good of 
nun. What this suitableness lo human nature is, we shall show 
in due place ; meanwhile, I do not understand, by snitnbleneBs ta 
human nature, the inchnation of human nature now corrupted b/ 
sin; for infused and supernatural virtues and graces (to which 
therefore human nature is not inclined) are (as Vaaques truly 
and strongly maintains) in some sense natural and good in 
themselves, not because human nature Is inclined to them, but 
because they are very congruons and consentaneous thereunto, 
and perfecting human nature, as such, and consequently suitable 
thereunto. A good is said lo be utile el deteclabi/t in respect of 
some prodt or delight which eomes to man by it ; but bonum honei- 
turn in genere mnrit (as Suorez and his fellows call it) ccn- 
sislB in a kind of decency, comeliness, and sweet proportion be- 
tween sach an act and such a nature as acta by right reoFon ; to 
which nature it is exceeding comely and suitable, whether any 
profit or delight cotne thereby, yea or no. As now in the di- 
vine natutB it is exceeding beautiful and comely for it (and there- , 
fore good in itself) to he bountiful and merciful, and to do good 
unto the creature, although no profit could come lo him thereby. 
It is God's nature, as I may so say, so lo do : so it is in human 
nature ; it is a comely thing to honor parents, reverence God's 
name, to be loving and merciful lo all men, ta heart, word, aud 
deed ; to give God a fit and the most meet proportion of time 
for solemn service of him, who allows us many days to serve 
our own good : tbifi is good nature, and being thus seemly and 
suitable to it, this, and such like tilings, are therefore good in 
_the mselve3, though perhaps neither profit nor pleasure should 
rSome nnio man hereby. And hence^t is well observed by some 
of the schoolmen, that right reason ilolli not make a thing mur- 
al, but only judgelh and discerneth what is moral ; for right rea- 
son doth not make a thing suitable, but only seeih whether it be 
|bo or no ; a thing may he suitable before right reason see it, yel 
'when it is presented to reason, it sees it suitable, &i the wall is 
white before the eye see it, yet when the eye doth sec it, il 

appears nhitc alM. It may be a 
Gml a serenih part of our time, though 
I itself find out such a meet proportion ; yet when reason sees it, i« forced to acknowledge a pomeliDees of eiguil}-, nnd suitable- 
I aesa therein, as shall hcrcatier nppear.^^^ ^^^^s^ 

' " 7%esit 22. But here let it be ob^rveJ, that allBough all 
moral laws are thus suilable to man's nature, yet they are not 
all alike suitable thereunto, and consequentl}' not equally good 
in ihenuelves ; for some laws are more immediately suitable 
And good, others mediately. And as Wallceua well observes, out 
of Scotus, that there is a double morality : " The first is ii« lege . 
L Datura tlricte tumpla, i. e., such laws as are so deeply en- | 
I graven upon nature as that these principles can not be blotted | 
I ou but by abolishing of nature; the second is de lege naiu- 
Lf*f l"'' tuntpla ; and these laws do much depend upon the will 
M*tS the Lawgiver, but yet they are very congruous and suita- 
l-JHo to liuman nature, even from the light of" those princip les 
Pit nature." And hence I suppose it will follow, that /the law 1 
pfer a seventh part of time to be dedicated to God, may welt 
I'lie a aoral law, although it depends much upon the will of 
I'lhv Lawgiver, and is not so immediately written upon man's 
I lieart, nor so equally suitable to human nature, as the law . 
I tif love and thankfulness to God our Creator is. For (as I 
I.Cameruu well observes) that some things which are good'Bf"^ 
I Ihemselves have more of Grod's image stamped upon them, 
ft«oine bare lesd of it i and hence it is, that though all moral 
f fatws arc good In themselves, yet not equally so: there is more 
l> inuuttiibleneM to bate and curse God tlian to lust alter another 
W nan's house or servant ; and yet both are evil in themselves, 
R«nd breaches of moral rules. 
K Thrtit 23. Hence, therefore, it follows, that bocanse moral 

■ precepts are of such things as are good in themselves, they are 
Klberefore pc-rpelunl and unchangeable, and because they are in - 

■ this respect good in themeelvcd. to wit, because they are suitable 
haiHl cumely to man's nature as rational, hence also they are 
vmivcraol : ao that perpetuity and universality seem to be the 
Kiiii«panil>le adjuncts, rather than the essence of a moral law : 
B^KI when Uiey are called iKrpelual and uncbangeable, we must 
MudersUnd them in respect of Go<l's ordinary disiHsnsation ; for 
■b* w^ it the groat Lawgiver may, and doth sometimes extraor- 
H4inarily dis^M-nsc with moral laws. Abnihnm might have killed 
W^M aon by irxtrHordinnry dis|ivnaaiion : Adam's sons and dnugh- 
Bcn did Biarnr one another by special commission, which now to 
HO ordinarily would be inoMtuous, and consequently against ft 



moral law, as is evidenl. (Lev. xviii.) Only let it be here re- 
meiabered, that when 1 coll moral kwa perpeluiil and uniTersal, 
that I spenli of such lawe as are primarilj moral, which do first' 
ij and originally suit wilh human nature ; for laws as are at 
secoud band moral, and as it were accidentally so, may be change- 
able, as hereafter shall appear. 

T^esit 34. How these things may evince the morahty of a 
seventh part of lime will be difficult to conceive, unless farther 
inquiry be made j to wil, when and by what rules may it be 
known that any law is suitable and agreeable unto human nature, 
and consequently good in ilsejf? For resolation of wluch doubt, 
there is great silence generally in most writers : Bishop White 
endeavors it by giving three rules to clear up this mist ; but (pace 
tanli tfiri) I much fear that be much diirkens and obscures the 
truth herein, and muds the streams. For, 1. Because the Sab- 
iiutli is not simply moral, but hath something positive in it, he 
therefore makes it lemjiorary, as appears in his conclusion of that 
discourse ; whenas it is evident, by his own confession, that some 
laws positively moral are general and universal. " For laws 
positively moral (he aaith) are either personal only, as was Abra- 
ham's coming out of his own country. (Gen. xii. 1.) Some are 
for one nation or republic only, (Ex. xxii. 1, 3, 7.) Some are 
commoD and general for all mankind, as the law of polygamy." 
2. He seems to make laws simply and entirely moral to be such 
ns are in their inward nature morally good, before and without 
any external imposition of the Lawgiver. Now, if by external 
imposition he means the external manner of Mosaical administra- 
tion of the l^w, there is then aorae truth in what he affirms i for 
doubtless before Moaea' time the patriarchs had the law revealed 
atYer anotlior manner ; but if by external imposition be meant 
external revelation, whether immediately by God himself unto 
man's conscience, or mediately by man. then it is most false that 
any thing can be morally good or evil, much less entirely and 
simply ao, befoi'e and without some such law ; for though it 
may be good and suitable to man before a law pass upon it, 
yet nothing can be morally good or evilwilliouL_somo^ taw, 
for then there should be some sin whicKTanot the transgres- 
eioD of a law, and some obedience which is not directed by any 
law, both which are impossible and abominable. 3. " He makes 
moral laws by external imposition and constitution only .to be 
, such as, before the external imposition of them, are adiaphorous, 
and good or evil only by reason of some circumstance." When- I 
as we know thai gome such laws as are most entirely moral, yet 
in respect of their inward nature generally considered, they are ■ 



iiidifl'ereiit aL«o ; fur not to kill and take away man's life is a 
moral Iaw entirely so. yet, in the general nalure of it, it is indif- 
ferent, »Qd by cirt;utu«lanc« may become eitlier lawful or un- 
lawful ; lawful in case of war or public execution of justice ; 
unlawful out of a private spirit aud per^nal revenge. In one 
word, the whole drill of bis discoitrsc hc'reia in to show that 
the Sab bath is not mora l ; and this he woulil prove because the 
tnbbath is ooi simply nniTentii-ely moral, ^which ia a most feeble 
•nd weak consequence;) and this he proves "because the Sab* 
balh day hath (in respect of its inward nature) no more holiness 
and goodness thiin any other day, all the days of the week bein^ 
«<|aaUy good by creation." But he niighl well know that the 
day is not the law of the fourth commandment, but the keep- 
ing holy uf the Sabbath day, which is a Iliijig inwardly good, 
•nd entirely moral, if we speak of some day. Nay, (saith the . 
bifhop,) the law of nalure leachetb that some sufficient and con- 
Tcaient time be set apart fur God's worship ; if, therefore, some 
day be moral, although all days by creation be indlfiferent and 
equal, aorarding to bis own confession, what then should hinder 
fhe juata pan, or the seventh part of time, from being moral ? 
Will he say because all days are etiually holy and good by crea- 
ti«n ? Then why should he grant auy day at all to be entirely 
moral in respect of a sufficient and convenient time to be set 
■part for God ? If he saith the will and iiapusilioD of the 
Lawgiver abolisbeth its morality, because he binds to a seventh 
pan of lime, then we shall show that this is most false and fee- 
ble in the sequel. 

nwt 25. There are, therefore, four rules to guide our 
judgments aright herein, whereby we may know when a law ia 
•uilable and agreeable to human nalure, and consequently good 
in itnelf ; which will be sufficient to clear op the law of the Sab- 
bath to be truly moral, (whether in a higher or lower degree of 
morality it makes no matter,) and that it is not a law merely 
icmpomry and ceremonial. 

1. Sudi Inws as necessarily flow from natural relation, both 
between Gi>d and man, as well as between man and man: 
IhoBB ar« fcaod in themselves, because suitable and congruous 
hi human nature ; for there is a decency and sweet comeliness 
In Bitnnd to those rules to which our relations bind vs. For 
Imm litis ground the prophet Muiochi ualls fur feur and honor 
of God us monil duties, be<'ause lliey are tio comely and seemly 

I for n^ in respect uT tlie relation belwi 

If I be your Lord, 

I and Master, and Father, where is my fear? where is my honor? 

[(klal. i. e.) I^vc alsobetwi 

I and wife is pressed aa m < 

38 TUE iionALiTi ov Tilt: sABiiArn. 

comely duty by the apostle, from tbat near relation beliceen 
them, being made "oue flesh." (Eph. v. 28, 29.) There are 
Bcarce any who question the moi^ityof tlie duties of the second 
table, because they are so evidenlly comely, suitable, and Agree- 
able to human nature, coneidered relatively, as man stands in 
relation to those who are or should be unto him as hia own flesh ; 
and therefore he is to honor superiors, and therefore must not 
kill, nor steal, nor lie, nor covet, nor defile the flesh, etc. ; but the 
morality of all llie rules of the liriit table is not seen so evident- 
ly, because the relation between God and man, wliieh makes 
them comely and suitable to man, is not so well considered; for 
if tb&re be a God, and this God be our God, according to the 
first commandment, then it is Tcry comely and meet for man to 
honor, love, fear him, delight, trust in him, etc ; and if this God 
mustbeworshipedof man in respect of the mutual relation between 
them, then it is comely and meet to worship him with his own 
worship, according to the second commandment, and lo worship 
him with nil holy reverence, according to liie third command- 
ment ; and if lie must be thus worshiped, and yet at all times 
(in respect of our necessary worldly employments) can not be so 
solemnly honored an^AorshJped as is tomely and meet for so 
great a Gad, then it la very fit and comely for all men to have 
some set and stated time of worship, according to some fit pro- 
portion, which the Lord of time only can best make ; and there- 
fore a seventh part of time which he doth make, according to 
the fourth commandment. 

* 2. Such laws as are drawn from tlie imilable attributes and 
works of God arc congruous and suitable to man's Datum ; for 
tfEat greater comeliness con there be, or what can be more suit- 
able to that nature which is immediately made for God, than to 
be like unto God, and to attend unto those rules which guide there- 
unto P Hence to be merciful (o men in misery, to forgive our 
enemies and thode tbat do us wrong, to be bountiful to those that 
be in want, to be patient when we suffer evil, are all moral du- 
ties, because they are comely and suitable lo man, and Uiat be- 
□ause herein he resembles and is made like unto God. Hence 
to labor six days and rest a seventh is a moral because a 
comely and suitable duly, and that because herein man follows 
the example of God, and becomes most like unto him. And 
hence it is that a seventh year of rest can not be urged upon 
man to be as much moral as a seventh day of rest, because man 
hath God's example and pattern in resting a seventh day, but 
not in resting any seventh year ; God never made himself an 
example of any ceremonial duty, it being unsuitable to his glori- 

TllK -linilALITV OF Jt\K SAHBATn. 39 

reU>;nrj tn lo do, but onlj of moral and Bpinliial holinesa ; | 
d idfivfore ihere is $omewliiiI ebe ii) a seventh dny that is not/ 
a wvenlh year; and it is utterly false to think (as some do)/ 
It tliere is as mucli equity for the oliservaliun of the one 
I there is of the other. " And here, by the way. may he 
ttn a gross mislake of Mr. Primruse. who would make God'ii 
■ «xun|ile herein not to be morally imitabic of us, nor man 
necessarily bound thereunto, it being not naturally, and in re- 
fpect of itself, imitxblc, but only because it pleaseth God to com-* 
nand man so to do ; as also because this action of God did not 
flow from Buch attributes of God as are in their nature imitable, 
•• mercy, bounty, etc., but from one of those attributes as is not 
imitable. and which we ought not to imitate, viz., hid omnipo- 
ICDcy. But suppose it did How from his omnipotently, and that 
we otif^t tiot to imitat« his omni{ioiency, and that we, who are 
weakneas iuelf, can not imitate omnipotent actions, yet it is obvious 
lo common sense, that such acts which arise from such attribules 
aa nui not be imitated of us, in respect of the particular effects 
which are produced hy them, yet in the actings of such attributes 
lb«re may be something morally good which is imitable of us ; 
as, for example, though we arc not to imitate God in his mirae- 
ntoua works, (as in the burning of Sodom, and such like,) 
jH there may be that justice and wisdom of God shining therein 
which we ooght to imitate ; for we ought lo see, before we cen- 
■uro and condemn, as God did in proceeding against Sodom. 
So it is Id this exlraonlinary work of making the world, where- 
in, ahhaugh we are not to go about to tnake another world with- 
in that timei, as God did, yel therein the labor and re.«t of God 
«u teen, which is imitable of man ; which labor and rest, as 
tb«y are moral duties, so they are confirmed by a moral exam- 
fir, and therefore most seemly and comely for man to imitate 
froRi such an rxample; and whereas he afiirms that this example 
was not moral. U^cause it was not in itself imitable, being grounded 
duly upon God's free will." The reason is weak : for to labor in 
ne'a calling is. without controversy, a moral duty, (as idleness is a 
BOral sisi) yet if one would ask why man is to labor here, and 
■M rather lo lead a contemplative life in the vision and fruition 
of (tod immediately, I suppose no reason can be given but 
the good pleasiire of God, who, in his deep wisdom, saw it most 
meet for man to s|iend some proportionable time in labor fur him- 
■elf, and some in reHi for God : whereunlo he gave man such 
an eminent example from the t>eginning of the world. Master 
PrinronG can not deny but that a convenient time for lalMtr anil 
mt, in general, is moral. " But," saith, lie, " if God had not dc' 
dnrvd lus will by a eonunandraent particularly to labor six days, 



nndrest tlw eevenlb, iheJews would nol have liionsht llicinsplr«i 
bound to Ihii observBiioii from God's example only : wbieh showi 
that there ig do moraliljr in it to bind (lie cunscivncu forever." 
But it maj be ns troll doubted whether acts of liounlj and mer- 
ey (to which he thinks we are bound merely from God's ex- 
ample) in respei^t of the parliculiu' applicaliou of ihnte acts to 
enemies of God and of onrselve*, as weli as lo friends, be o*' 
binding virtue merely by God's example, miless we had n com- 
mandment thoreunto yfor in moml precepts, as the thing is com- 
manded becanse it is good, so it is not morally pxid nnless it be 
commanded : but suppose that God'a example of labor six days, 
itnd rest ihe seventh, should not have been binding as other ex- 
amples, unless there had been a commandment for so doing ; yet 
this is no argument that this example is not moral at all, but only 
that it is not so equally moral, and known to be so, as some other 
duties bo ; for man may spend too much time in labor, and givs 
' God loo short or too little time for rest. If, therefore, he wants the 
light of a commandment or rule to direct and guide him to the 
dttesi and roost meet proportion of lime for both, is be not apt 
hereby to break the rule of morality, which consists (as hath 
been showu) in that wbii?h is most suitable, comely, and conven- 
ient for man lo give to Goil or Toan ? The commandment, there- 
fore, in this case, measuring out mid declaring such a proportion, 
and wliat time is most convenient and comely for man to tnktt 
-to himself for labor, or to give lo God for rest, it doth not abolish 
the morality of the example, but doth rather establish and make 
it> It sets out [he most comely and meet proportion of time for 
labor and rest, and therefore such a time as is most good in itself, 
because most comely and proportionable, which, being therefore 
commanded, is a moral duty in man, and tbe example hereof 
morally binding in God. 

3. Such taws, which man's reason may sec, either by innate 
light or by any other external help and light, to be just, and good, 
and Bt for mnn to observe, such laws are congruous and suitable to 
human nature. I say by any external help, as well as by innate 
light; for neither internal nor external light makes a thing just 
and suitable lo man, no more than the light of the sun, or the 
light of a lantern, makes the king's highway to the eiiy ; but 
they only declare and manilost the way, or that which was so iu 
itself before. Hence it comes to pass, that although man's rea- 
son can nut see ihe eqnity of some laws, aitfecedenter, by innate 
light, before it be illuminated by some external light, yet if by 
this external light the mind sees the equity, justice, and holiness 
of such a law, this may autficiently argue the morality of such a 
' which was just and good, before any light dUcoverod it, and 


n DOW dUcorercd onlj', not made to be eo, whelher by inlerDal or 

external light. " And henl^c Aquiiins well observes, tbnt moral 

bws (which he nmkcs to be such as are congruous lo right 

Kngoo) sometimeE are euch as not only command such things 

which reason doth readily see to be comely and meet, but aUo 

socb laws about which miin'a reaflon may readily and easily err, 

P flod go u&tray from that which is comely and meet." And hence 

^Jt is, thnt aUhough no reason or wit of mun could ever have 

■'fcuod out the most just And equal proportion of time, or what 

IproportioD ift mojit comely and suitable, or that a seventh part of 

■ liaie tboidd have been universally observed as holy to God, yet 

■ tr any exi«rtial li<;ht and teaching from above shall reveal this 
B tfmc, and the equity and suitableness of it, so that reason shall 
liadtnowleUge il etjuul and good, that if we have six days for our- 

■ wives, God should have one for himself, this is k strong argu- 
B-MODt thai such a command is moral, because reason, thus illami- 
■asicd, cait not but ackuowlcdge it most meet aod equal ; for though 
■i>BKon may not, by any natural or innate light, readily see thnt 
HfB^ a dirisioa of lime Is most suitable, and yet may readily err 
■iml misconeeive the most suilabte and convenient proportion an<l 
■iE vision of time, it is then a sufficient proof of the morality of such 
■-a command, if the congruily and equity of it be discerned con- 
tmgufntfr only, (as we say,) and by external light.-' 

■ 4. Whatever law was once writ upon man's heart in piire na- 
■'tv« ii tiill Kuilnhle, and congruouR, and convenient to human 
E afttare, and consequently good in itself and moral. For whnl- 
I trvT WB0 so writ u|)on Adam's heart was not writ there as ujioii a 
U^ritaic person, but as a common nerso n. having the common na- 

■ iisre of man, and tiumlTiig in the room of all mankind- Hence, 
KM DOtbing was writ then but what was common to all men, so 
Ksoch lhing» thus writ were good for all men, and suitable lo 
Mtll men, it bring most injurious to God to think that any thing 
Hcvil sboulJ be iiDprinled there. If, therefore, it be proved 
nku the lnw of the Sabbath was then writ upon man's heart, 
nben it undeniably follows that it is meet and suitable lo all men 
BmII io obtcrve a ISabbath day ; and indeed to the right under- 
Bitooding of what is suitable lo man as man, and conaequenlly 
■toontl, there is uotfaing more helpful than to cunsidcr of our prini- 
Hti*e wtate, and what was suitable to our nature then ; for if that 
BAich is moral in marriage is to be searched for in the first and 
HipHenI records of our first creation by the appointment of our 
nfevioar, I then know no reason (whaiever others object) 
uni morality in all other laws and duties is there to be sought 
KAm ; for altbougb our original perfection is now defaced ' 



lost, and in ihat respect is a nieruin non eru, (as some 
call it,) yet it had once a being, and, tlierelbre, in tliis con- 
troversy, we may lawfully inquire afi«r it, consitlering espe- 
cially iliat this being which oqco it had may be eufiicienllj 
known by the contrary being of universal corruption iLat is 
in us now, oa aha by the light of the Scriptures, in which 
the Searcher and Maker of all hearts declares it unto us ; and, 
indeed, there are many moral duties whieh will never appear 
good and suitable to man, but rather hard and unreasona- 
ble (because impossible) until we see and remember from 
whence we are fallen, and what once we had, 

TAesis 26. If, therefore, a moral law eommand that which 
is suiLiblo to huniHU nature, and good in itself, then it follows 
from hencer-(wliidi was touched before.) that divine deleroilna- 
tion of something in a law dotit not always take away moral- 
ity from a law ; for divine determination is many times no 
more but ft plain and positive declaration of that whieh is 
suitable, just, and good, and equal for man to observe. Xow, 
■hut which points out and declares unto us the morality of a 
law can not possibly abolisli and destroy such a law. For a 
moral law commanding that which is suitable and gooil, (as 
liath been shown,) it is impossible that the commandment 
which delerminelh and direcleih to lhat which is good, that 
by thia determination it should overthrow the being of such 
a good law, nay, verily, particular determination and posi- 
liveuess (as some call it) is so far from abolishing, as that it 
mther adds to the being, as well as to the clearing up and 
maui festal ion, of such a law. For if it be not sulficient to 
make a moral law, that the thing be good in itself, but that also 
it must be commanded, tlien the commandment which many 
times only determints to that which good (and coneequently 
determination) doih add unto the being of a moral law. 

Tyteii* 27. There is scorce any thing but it is morally indif- 
'ferent, until it falls under some divine determination; but divine 
deiermioaiioo is twofold: 1. Of such things which are not good, 
lil, or needi'ul for man to observe without a command, as sacri- 
fices aiid sacraments, and such like : now herein, in such laws, 
positive determination may be very well mconsistent with moral- 
ity ; and it may be safely said, that such a law is not moral, but 
rather positive ; and thus the learned sometimes sfieok. 2. Of 
such tbmgs as are equal, good in themselves, needful, and suita- 
ble for man ; and here particular determination and moruiiiy 
may kiss each other, and arc not to be opposed one to auother: 
and hence it is, that if God's commandment positive determines 



e any part of insiitulcd worahip, (suppose sacrBinents 
,) yet Burh laws ure not moral, (flirhough it be moral 
. general to woi^hip God aflei* bis own will,) because ihe ihiugs 
'tbenuelve^ are not good in ihemselvea, nor needful : but if God 
•hall iletcriniDe us to observe a Sabbatli day, this delcrminaiioii 
dulh Dot lake away the morality of the command, because it 
being good in ii£ijlf to give God the meetest and fitti^t pni|y)riion 
of time for holy rest, and the commandment dtjclaring that thid 
Mvcnih part, or so, is such a time, henee it comes to pass, that i 
Ihta time ia good in itself, and therefore determination, by the J 
oommandment in tills case, doth not abolish the morality here of. I 
It is a moral duly to pay iribate to CueHar, to give to Cuisar that 
ubich u Creaar'i : hence because a man may give loo much or 
too little to him, that determioalion- which directs us to that par- 
tKular wliieh is Caesar's due, and most meet for him to receive 
and us to give, lliat is best in itself, and is therefore moral : so 
prayer b a moral duty ; but because a man may be templed lo 
pray loo oft or else loo seldom, hence detennination of the 
fittest, and this finest season, makes this or ihat moral. So it is 
here in the Sabbath. I do willingly and freely profess thus far 
with our adversaries of the morality of the Sabbath i that it is a 
moral duty to give God some time and day of holy rest and wor- 
ship, as it is moral lo give CsiUir his due, and to pray to God : 
Vit b«tw.u$e we may give God too mimy days or loo few, hence ' 
iho determination of the most meet and fittest proportion of lime, ' 
and particularly of this time, makes this and Ihat to be also 
noTaL if no day at all in general was good and lit for man to 
give to God, and God should, notwithstanding, command a 
wtenth day. then Ihe commoudmcnt of such a day with such 
po^live determination could not be moral any more ihan the 
determination of sacriJices and such like. But every day. (say 
mnt^ of our adversaries,) some day, (say others of them,) being 
•ckiMwIedged lo be equal, just, and good, and most meet to give 
God. bcnce it is that determination of a seventh day dolh not 
abolish, but clear up, that which is raornl, because it [Hiints out 
onto man tliat which is most meet and equal, lleuce, therefore, 
it follows that a seventh day is tlierelore commanded, because it 
U good, and not good merely because commanded. Dciermino- 
tion, also, declaring what is most meet, dcclareih hereby thai this 
Commandmept is also moral, and not merely positive and ceremo- 
nbl ; which not being well considered by some, this fourth com- 
(hnving some more positiveness aud del eriiii nation 
diven of the resij hath therefore been the chief btumbling 
I wkI rock of offense to many against the morality of it| by 



which they have miserably bi-uiscd thprnselveii, while Ihey havo 
, endeavored to desli-oy It, upoii so gross » inii^iake^ 
- • TTietit 28. It is true ihut God, out of his Hbsolute sovereignty 
I mid good (jleaaure of his wilt, might have deli.Tinine<I ua lo ot* 
.serve n fourth, a iiioth, a twenlieili part of our lime in holy rest, 
more or leas, as well as lo a seventh j yet let us conaider of God 
ai acting by counsel, and weigliing and cunsiderlng with himself 
what is most meet and equal, and whal proportion of time, iii 
most fit for himself; arid tlien (with leave of better thoiightg, 
when 1 see better reason) I BupjtOBe uo man can prove (unless 
be be made privy to the unknown secrets of (be wisdom of God) 
that any other proportion had been qs meet as this now made 
by the actual determination of God /there was not, therefore, 
the mere and sovereign will of God wbicli thus determined of 
this sevontit part of time, hut also ihc wisdom of God, which, 
considering all things, saw it luoat meet and suitable for man lo 
give, and God lo receive from man, and therefore, being com- 
nntnded, and thus particularly determined, becomes moral. 

ThtiU 'i'i. If that couimandmenc be moral which is there- 
fore commanded because it is good, llien hence it follows, in the 
second place, that such laws only are not moral htws, which art) 
known to nil men by the light of corrupt nature. For. as halh 
been already said, a law may be holy, just, good, suitable, and 
meet for nil men lo observe, whether the light of corrupt nature, 
by awakening or sleeping principles, (as some call tbem,) know it 
or no, and such a comeliness 
sufficient to make it moral. 'I 
in Paul, which he never saw, 
of corrupt nature, until the 
efficacy and power, (Kom. vii. 
his moral laws to wliat our 

of themselves to see, any more than lo what our i: 
ure actually able to do. If the light of ukture be imperfect 
in us since the fall, (which no wise man doubts o(,) then there 
may be many things truly moral, which the light of nature 
now sees not, Iwcause it is imp«rt*ect, which in its perfection it 
did see; and this consideration ot' the great im|>erf(«tiuii of ilia 
light of nature is alone sufficient forever lo stop thei: 
and silence their hearts, who go abuul to make an imperfect 
light and law of nature the perfect rule and only n 
moral duties, and who make so narrow a limitation of that 
which is mond to that which is thus imperfectly natural, 
not now tex nala, but lex data, whieb is the rule of moral du 
[ the whole Scriptures contain the pert'ect rule of all moral aul 

and suitableness ii 

ti such a law is 

here were many si 

Buret moral sina 

nor could have it 

■en by the light 

law fell upon hi 

m wiih miglity 

;) for God is not 

bound to crook 

corrupt minds ai 

re aclually able 


whether man's cormpted and imperfect light of nature see 
them or no. It is a common, but 'a most perilous, and almost 
groundless mistake of manj in this controversy, who, when 
the J would know what is moral, and what is not so, of such 
things as are set down in the Scriptures, thej then fly to the 
light of corrupt nature, making it to be the supreme judge hereof, 
and there fall to examining of them, whether thej are seen by 
the light of nature or no, which is no less follj than to set up 
a corrupt and blind judge to determine and declare that which 
M moral, to make the perfect rule of morality in Scripture to bow 
down its back to the imperfection and weakness of nature, to 
pull out the sun in heaven from giving light, and to walk by the 
light of a dim candle, and a stinking snuff in the socket almost 
gone out; to make the hornbook of natural light the perfec- 
tion of learning, of the deepest matters in moral duties ; to 
make Aristotle's ethics as complete a teacher of true morality 
as Adam's heart in innocency; and, in a word, to make man 
fallen, and in a manner perfectly corrupt and miserable, to be 
as sufficiently furnished with knowledge of moral duties, as 
man standing, when he was perfectly holy and happy. Ima- 
gine, therefore, that the light of nature could never have found 
out one day in seven to be comely and most meet for man 
to give unto God ; yet if such a proportion of time be most 
meet for man to give to God, and it appears so to be when 
God reveals it, it may and should then be accounted a moral 
law, although the light of nature left in all men could never 
didcem it. The schoolmen, and most of the Popish generation, 
not considering these things, (which, notwithstanding, are some 
of their own principles,) have digged pits for themselves, and 
made snares for some of their followers, in abolishing the 
fourth commandment from being (in the true sense of it) 
moral, because they could not see now such a special part 
of time, viz., a seventh part, could be natural, or by the 
light of corrupt nature discernible ; which things so discern* 
ible they sometimes conclude to be only moral. But how far 
the light of corrupt nature may discern this proportion shall be 
Fpoken to in its proper place. 

Tke9i$ SO. If, lastly, those things which are thus commanded 
because they are good be moral, then the whole decalogue may 
hence appear to be the moral law of God, because there is no 
law in it, which is therefore good only because it is commanded, 
but is therefore commanded because it is good and suitable to 
human nature. When I say, suitable to human nature, I do not 
mean human nature considered absolutely, but relatively, either 


in relation to God, or relation unto man : for not only the light 
of nature, but of cotnmun ttease also, bears witness tbat every 
precppt of the Beconil lalile, wherein mnu ta considered in relii- 
lion to mitn, is thus far good ; for how eoraely and good is it to 
honor pRrenIs, to be tender of other men's lives and comforls, to 
presene one's self and others from filthy pol]llIion^:, to do no 
wrong, bat all the good we can to other men's estates 1 etc. Nor 
do I think that any will question any one commandment of thia 
table to l>e good and amiable to human nature, unless it be some 
Nimrod or Brennus, (that professed he knew no greater Jusiii'e 
than for the elronger, like the bigger fishes of the sea, to swallow 
up the lesser in case they be hungry,) or some Turkish Tartar 
or eannibnl, or some surfeited professor, transformed into some 
licentious opinionist, and so grown master of his own conscience, 
and that can audaciously outface Ihe ver)' light of nature and 

Qon sense, through the righteous judgment of God blinding 

lurdcning his heart. And if the commandments of the second 
be thus far good in themselves, are not those of the first 
table much more ? Is love to man (when drawn out into atl the 
six streams of the second table) good in itself, and shall not love 
to Go<l, drawn out in Ihe four precepts of the first table, hs the 
spring from whence all our love to man should flow, much more ? 
Are Hie streams morally sweet, and is not the spring itself of the 
same nature? I^ve to God and love to man are tlie common 
principles (saith Aquinas truly) of the law of nature ; and all 
particular precepts (saith he, perhaps unawares) are conclusiona 
flowing from these principles, out of Matt. xxii. And are th6 
principles good in themselves and suitable to human nature, and 
do not all Ihe conclusions participate of their nature. For what 
are all particular precepls but particular unfoldings of love to 
God and lore to man ? If all the precepts of the second table 
be moral, which do only coucern man, why should any of the 
first fall short of that glory, which do immediately concern God ? 
Shall man have six, and all of them morally good, and God have 
but four, and some one or more of them not so ? Is it comely and 
good to have God to be our God in Ihe first commandment, to 
worship him afler bis own mind in the second, to give him his 
worship with all the highest respect and reverence of his name in 
the third ; and is it not as comely, good, nnd suitable that this 
great God and King should have some munificent day of state 
to be attended on by his poor servants and creatures, both pub- 
licly nnd privately, with special respect and service, as oft as 
himself sees meet, and which wo can not hut see and confess to 
be moat equal and just, according to the fourth commandment? 

divided into labor imd rest, is il not equal 

uid good, if we have six dajs, ihat God should have a seventh ? 

T tbe brute beasts could speak, thuy would buj that a aevenlh 

. a good for them, (Ex. xxiii. 12;) and shall man, 

> balli more cause and more need of real, even of holy rest, 

f that it ia not good for faim even to rest in tbe bosom of God 

telf, to which he is called thb daj? Take away a SabbathTI 

a defend us from atheism, barbarism, and all manner of I 

a Mid protaneness? And ia it evil thus to want it, aiidj 

not be good to have it ? I confess, if Gud had com- 

1 a perpetual Subbaib, it bud not then been good, but 

tie. to observe any set Sabbalb ; but if God will have man to 

r for himself six days, and this labor be morally good, being 

* commanded, why is it not then as good to observe a seventh 

t to God, being also commanded of him ? 

rm 31. It is therefore at least an indigested assertion of 

wbo affinn that the decalogue sets out tbe precepts of the 

' of nature, and yet withal doth superadd certain precepts 

roper to tbe Jewish people; in which last respect tbcy suy all 

I bound to the olnervance thereof, (and they produce 

! fourth cooimandment fur proof,) but in respect of tbe lirst 

But although, in the application of a law, something 

Y be pniper to the Jewish people, yet (with leave of tbe 

med) there is never a law in it but it is moral and common to 

to make any law in the decalogue proper is an assertion 

g from a false and blind principle, viz., that that law only 

wliich is natural: not natural,as suitable to human nature, 

which is seen and known by the common light of corrupt 

re. without the help of any external usher or teacher. If 

3 any laws in the decalogue be proper, how will any Giid out 

rem moral laws which concern all, from proper laws which 

^risin only tusome? Fur if God huth made such a mingling, 

suveml moral laws by themselves, then man hath uo 

>vclBlion by any distinct and severed laws left unto him, 

a laws proper and peculiar from laws moral and com- 

Ni, which how pernicious it may be to dien's souls to be lell to 

' uncertainty, as also how injurious to God, and cross to lus 

) eadi in discovering moral laws, let the wise consider ; for 

y uty that we must fly for help herein to tbe light of corrupt 

e, then, as hath been shown, an imperfect light, and a blind 

Ic, and a corrupt judge must be the chief rule of discerning 

tt which i* moral from that which is peculiar and pn)[>cr, for 

wbltejM such a kind of light ii tlie light of corrupt nature. 

: 7%tMii SI. Some ttitnk tlial tliosu comimmdmcnts only are 






morally good whicli llie gos|>el lialh decUired and confirmed lo be 
BO ; and hj ihia shift tliey Ihink lo .tvoid the absurdity of flying 
to the blind guide of corrupt nulnre to judge of these colors, viz., 
what is moral and what is not. Mr. Primrose therefore eicludcB 
the foarih commandment from being moral, Ihe other ninu being 
ratilied by the light of the gospel, which ihb (he SMtli) is not ; 
but if his meaning be, tluit there must be a general ratification 
of Inws moral by the verdict of the gospel, then llie fourth com- 
mandment can not be excluded from being moral, because it haih 
a rat ill cat ion in general from the gospel; for therein we read ihat 
the moral law is holy, just, and good, (Bom. vii.,) and lhat Christ 
carae not to destroy the least jot or tittle of the law, (Matt, t.,) 
much less a whole law of the fourth commandment. In the gos- 
pel also God promiscth lo write his law upon our hearts, wherein 
the fourth commandment is not excepted. But if his meaning 
be this, that ihe gospel must particularly mention, and so make a. 
)>articular ratificatioD (as it were) by name of every moral law, 
then hJH assertion la unsound ; there being many judicial Uws of 
Moses of which some are wholly moral, others containing in them 
something of common and moral equity, which we have no ex- 
press mention of in the blessed gospel ; and let him turn over all 
the leaves of the gospel, he shall not And that proportion of lime, 
which himself affirms lo be morel in the fourth commandment, to 
be expressly and particularly mentioned in the gospel ; and there- 
fore lhat also must be excluded from being monil upon his own 
principles, as well as what we contend for in this commandment 
«o to be./ 

77ie»it 33. " Some of those who maintain the law of the 
Sabbath lo be ceremonial affirm that every law in the decalogue 
is not moral, upon this ground, to wit, because the law is caUed 
God's covenant, which covenant they show, from sundry instances, 
not only to comprehend morals, but also ceremonials ; for they 
make it the excellency of the decalogue to comprehend, as a short 
epitome, all God's ordinances, both moral and ceremonial, which 
epitome is more largely opened in ihe writings of Moses, where 
not only moral, but also ceremonial laws are expressed and dis- 
persed. And hence ilicy think, that as the other nine are the 
Bummar}' and epitome of all moral ordinances, so the fourth 
commandment, which was kept with the practice of ceremonies, 
was the summary and ejiitomc of all the ceremonial ordinances, 
and hence the fourth commandment becomes ceremonial. Bui 
for answer to this wily notion, unjustly fathered upon Austin and 
Calvin by some, it may thus far be granied, that as the woni law 
is sometimes taken more strictly for Ihe decalogue only, (Bom. 

I Ri. 20 ; Jamc« iii. 8.] unil fomeiimes more largely. Cur the 

whole doctrine coiitniiied in all ihR irriliiigs of ibe OM Teala- 

I nenl, wherein the gospel also is ctimpii'li ended. (Ps. six. 7 ; cxixi 

[ 1. 51, 37.) BQ ihe wonl eovttiaiit is sometimes taken more Htrict- 

I Iv Tor ilie covenant of works, nhich is contained compendiouiity 

[ ill the decalogoe only, writ by ihe finger of Gctd in two labies, 

. (Deul. i*. 13, 14; Ei. xxsiv. 38,) and Bomatimes more largely 

I lor all tlie holy writing* of Moses. (Ex. xxir. 7, 8, and xxxiv. 

Ler. xxvi. 14. Jer. xxxiv. 13.) Now, although all the 

writings of Moses may be called iLe covenant, «* it is largely 

taken, and so the covenant comprehends not only moral but 

ceremonial law?, yet they are never called that covenant which 

waa writ by the finger of God- in two tobies of stone, and 

given to Moses ; and in this atrici sense the word covenant com- 

prehcnds no other laws but moral, nor can the places and texts 

which they allege evince the contrary, for, in that place of £.x. 

xxiT. 7, it b not said that Ihe inbles of the covenant, but the 

I book of the covenant, was read in the audience of all the peo- 

fit ; which book we readily acknowledge to comprehend cere- 

■loniab aa well as morals, but not the tables of the covenant, of 

which Ihe question now ie. So also when the Lord sailh (Ex. 

} xxxiv. 10) tliiU he will moke a covenant, his meaning is, that ho 

I iwill revive his covenant by writing, (as it is there set down in 

I the come chapter.) in which writing it is very true that there is 

I mention made of many ceremonial laws : but suppose tliis cov- 

k «nant written by Moses comprehends sundry ceremonial laws, 

\ will it ihcrvforo follow thai the tables of ihe covenant written 

I with the fiiigrr of God did the like ? No such matter i and 

I therefore there is an express difference put in the same chapter, 

(ver. 37, 28,) between the covenant written by Moses, and the 

I ten nummaniimcnls written by the finger of God. But secondly, 

I let it be granted that the decalogue comprehends aumroarily all 

lite laws which are particularly dis[>ersed here and theru in the 

writings of Moses, yd it doth not follow that there must be one 

«Temonial hiw written by the linger of God, and lifted up in iho 

decalogue to be the epitome and summary ot' all ceremonial 

k laws eWwhcre explained in the writings of Moses. For all 

I laws, wheilu-T ceremonial or judicial, may be referred to the 

k drcaiogae. as apfieiidlcee to it, or applications of it. and so to 

f comprehend all other laws as their summary. 13ul such a sum- 

f nary will no way enforce a necessity of making any one of them 

b the Kpitouie o1' (.■ervmontuU, and the other nine of them of the 

I norals, for we know iltnl many judieinl laws are comprehended 

[ ander nornl laws, being referred m npjicndices thereunto .by 

I VOL. 111. i ^ 




Ctilvin, MArl3'r, Cheninitius, Ames, and stundry others ; and yet 
it will not futlow from lience, that one of the lav/a in the dec- 
alogue must be a judiciiil law as the sumniary of all judicials, 
whii^li are brandies of the covenant, aa well as Master Primrose's 

T/trsi» 3-1. It should not seem strange tbal that law, whicb in the 
general nature of it is moral, may, in the particular application 
ul' il, be uuio a thing ceremonial ; and in this respect it ean not 
be denied, that the moral law may comprehend all ceremonial 
laws ; but il will not hence follow, (as Mr. Primrose infers,) that 
one law in the decalogue must be ceremonial as (he head and 
summary of all ceremonial taw^, because, we say, ceremonial laws 
may be comprehended under some moral law, as special appli- 
calioni thereof; c. g., it is a moral law to worship God acconling 
U> his own will, and not nS\cr man's inventions, as the second 
commandment holds it forth. Now, in the application of this 
law, the Lord points out his own inetiEuted worship in sundry 
significant ceremonies, sacrifices, sacraments, elc. ; which partic- 
ular institutions (though ceremonial) are to be referred imio, and 
are comprehended under, tlie second commandment, which is a 
moral law -, for if God will be worshiped with his own worship 
according to Ihis commandment, then it is necessary for the Lord 
to show (and chat under his commandment) what those institu-. 
tiona he, wherein he will be worshiped, many of which are (xr- 
emonial, which are therefore directly comprehended here. 

T^etii 3b. There is therefore no necessity of making one 
law in the decalogue to be ceremonial, that it may be the sum- 
mary bead of all ceremonials, viz., because ceremonials aro 
branches of the covenant, which is the decalogue ; for upon the 
like ground, there must be one judicial law abto as ihe summary 
of all judicials, nay, one evangelical law also as the head of all 
evangelicals, sprinkled here and there in Moses' writings, of 
which we read, (John v. 43 ; Rev. x. fr-B, with Dent. xsx. 
12, IH i Gul. iii. 8, with Gen. xii. 3 ;) for judicials and evangel- 
icals are branches of the covenant as well as ceremonials, if Mr. 
Primrose's principle he true ; but if, by his own confession, 
nine of Cliem arc morale, and one of them only the head of cer< 
emoniuls, how shall judicial and evangelical summaries corae in ? 
which either he must make room for in the decalogue, or ac- 
knowledge his foundation to be rotten, upon which he hath built 
one ceremonial law among ihe nine morals. 

T/tm» 36, It is true, that among men Ihe same boily of laws 
may be framed up of divers articles, as Mr. Primrose pleads : but 
thai the decalogue was such a body as had ceremonials mixed 
wilJi morals, it can never be made good by any color of proof, 


except it be that which we have shown will as Rtrongjj enforce 
an iniroduclion of some one judicial and anolher evangelical law 
into the decaloguG, as well as one cei'cmouial ; but such a con- 
fusion of law aud gospel, evRDgeliculs and judicial^, ceremonials 
'•and mornl-s the bles^ God Rhhors; for il neither suits with 
God's n-isdom and end in giving llie law, nor yet wiih man's 
weakness, (which God pilies,) to make such a jumbling and cod- 
I fiuioD of things together ; for who can then lell what law is moral, 
I and what evangelical, and what ceremonial, unless it be (ns was 
■Iiawn) by flying for light to the dictates and instinct of nature, 
• to show gnto poor deceitful man what laws are moral and what 
not. wlierei[) the remedy would have been as bait as the disease. 
Theii* 37. If " there must be one law in the decalogue cer- 
emonial, that so the more Authority may be procured hereby (as 
Ur. Primrose pleads) unto all God's ordiminces, and therefore 
e of the ceremonials was written in the decalogue with God'a 
own finger, and honored with the like prerogatives as the moral 
s were, which were immediately spokeo by God himself," 
1 (if this reasoning be solid) why was not one judicial and 
[ uotfa«r evangelical precept alike honored abo? For was there 
L not ms much need lo procure authority to this as well as to cere- 
I noniols? And yet we see their authority was sufficiently procured 
I irilboat being thuffied into the decalogue, and so might ceremo- 
\ sialsKUo. 

T^etit 38. There were three sorts of laws which are com- 
I Bonly known, and which were most eminently appearing among 
f tbc Jews: I. Moral. 2. Ceremonial. 3. Judicial. 

7%<m 89. The moral respected their manners os they were 
tien, and arc therefore called moral. The ceremonial respected 
ban as a church, and as such a kind of chureh- The judicial 
■a a oomroonwcallh, and as that particular commonwealth. 
Moral laws were to govern them as a human society, ceremonial 
u a Mcred society. Judicial as a civil society. Thus the learned 
■peak, and being oindidly understood, are true. 

7%«fi'f 40. The moral law, contained in the decalogue, i* 
DOlbing else butjJiC'4»w.«{nature revived, or a second edition 
and impression of that prTmJlive' and~ perfect law of nature, 
1 which in the gtato of innocency was engraven upon man's heart, 
I Ibtit now again written upon tables of stone, by the Anger of God. 
K For man being made in the image of God, he had therefore the law 
|'«f holiness and righteousness, in which God's image consisted, 
I Written in his heart ; but having hy his fall broken this tabic, nnci 
r Imi lhi> image, neither knowing nor doing the will of God through i 
Klb« law of sin now engraven on it, hence the Lord hath in much ' 


pily made known hi? Irw airiiiii, Bi^d pivcn us n fair copy of it 
)u the tWQ iiibles of alone, wliit;h are ihe rapy of that which wm 
writ upon innn'^ heart at Hrst, beciiifsc the Ui'dt labte cooiaifig love 
to Go<l in tioliness, the second love to auui in rishlmusness ; 
which holineea and righteousness are the two parts of God's 

■ image whicli was once enjTravcn upon man's soul, in his primi- 
Itive and perfect estate. (Kph. iv. 2-1.)/ Nor indeed do I see 
mU(F*thal Popish argument will be otherwise answered, jileading 

for B possibiliiy in man to keep the law perfectly in his lapsed 
and fallen estate in (hid life, for, say Ihcy, God makes no laws of 
impossible things, it being unjust for God to require and exact 
that of a man whieh he is not able to do ; to which it is com- 
moldy and truly answered, that man had once power to keep the 
law in his innocent estate, and hence, though man he not able to 
keep it now, yet God may require it, because he once gave him 
power to keep it; and that therefore it is no more unjust lo exact 
such obedience which he can not perform, Ilian for a creditor to re- 
quire his money of his broken debtor, or spendthrift, who ie now 
failed, (as they say.) and not able to repay. Man, therefore, 
y having once power to keep the law, and now having no power, this 
V argues strongly that the law of the decalogue contains nothing 
\but what vrae once written as a law of life upon his heart in his 
pHnocenl estate ; for I see not how God's Justice can be cleared, 

■ if he exacts such obedience in the decalogue which is impossible 
for man to give, unless the very same law and power of obedience 
was written upon his heart at first; and therefore it is a wild 
notion of theirs who think tlial the covenant of works which Grod 

F mode with Adam is not the same for matter with the covenant 
^ I of works expressed in the moral law ; for we see that lliere is 
Hi!? same image of holiness and righteousness required iu the 
tables of stone, as the condition of this covenant, which was once 
written upon man's heart, and required in the same maimer of 
him. Now, this law, thus revived and reprinted, is the deca- 
logue, because most natural and suitable ti 
it was made most perfect ; therefore ii 
ual i the substance also of this law be 
holiness toward Grod, and righteousness toward man. (Mat 
37, 3!). Luke i.) Hence also this law must needs be moral, uni- 
versal, and perpetual, unless any should be so wicked as to imagine 
it to be no duly of universal or perpetual equity, either to love God 
or to love man, to perform duties of holiness toward the one or 
duties of righle ousoes s toward the other. Hence, again, the 
things commaiiiled in this law are therefore coragiauded because 
t hey are good , and are therefore moral, unless any shall think 


1 nature, whei 
< universal and perpet- 
; love to God and man. 


Ih&l it i» nor good in ilsoir la love Goil or mnn, to be holy or 
ighteoQ* : and which is ^till ob^^ervable, ilici'e is Ruuh a love 
required Iieri.-in, and ^iidi a loveliness put upon these laws, as 
ihai, by virtue of these, all our obedience in other things which 
ftre not moral becomes lovely ; for there were many ceremonial 
obMrvances, in whieh and by which the people of God expressed 
ihfir love to God, as SI. Primrose truly concludes from Deut. 
u l-6,Nnd Matt. xsii. 37, a8,40; but yet Ibis love did arise by 
virtue of a moral rule, for iheretbre it was lovely to worship 
God in ceremonial dutie*, because it was lovely to worship 
God with bi» own worship, {of which these were parts,) which is 

~ tlie moral rule of the second commandment. And hence M. 
Primrose may see his gross mistake in mnkinp: one law of the 

• decalogue cert^monial, because the summary of the dcealogue 
bring love to God and love to man, and our love to God being 
ibown in ceremonial as well as in moral duties, because our love 
Is seen and ^hown in our obedience to ail the commundraeDts of 
God. ceremonial as well as moral. For though there be love in 
Mremonial duties, it is not so ranch in respect of themselves as 
In resperl of some moral rule, by virtue of which such duties are 
attended. _ 

77if$i* \\. The ceremonial law, consisting chiefly of types 
ind shadows of things to come, (Heb, viii. 5.) and therefore 
bcmg to cease when th e body wa s come, (Ool. ii. 17,) was not 
therefore perpetual, (as the law monil,) but tempoi;pry, and of 
binding power only to the nation of the Jews and iheir proselytes, 
■nil not putting any tie upon all nations, as the moral law did. 
Every ceremonial law was lem]H)niry, but every terapomry law 
was not ceremonial, (aa some Kay,) us is demonstrable from sun- 
dry judicials, which in their determinations were proper to that 
nation, while the .lewish [lolity continued, and are not, therefore, 
DOW lo be observitl. ^^ 

7%t$i» 42. The judicial laws, some of them being hedges 
and fnnc^ to safeguard both moral and ceremonial precepts, 
their binding power was therefore mixed and various, for those 
trhicfi did Mfeguard any moral law, (which is per[>cIUHl.) whether 
by just punishments or otherwise, do still morally bind all na- 


a the/ 

s as then, and there is as much need u 

the ptwervation of these fences to preserve these laws in these 
tlm«s, and at all times, m well as then, there being as much dan- 
ger of the treading down of those laws by the wild beasts of the 
world and bruii»h men (sometimes even in churches) now aaV 

then ; and henciyGod would have all nations preserve their fenceal 

forever, as he would have ibat law preserved forever which 
the«e aafei;unrd ; hut, on the oilier aide, ihe^e judteials which did 
gnfeguard ceremoniHl laws which we know were not perpetual, 
but proper lo thai nation, hence Ihose judieinle which compass 
lliese ahoul are not perpelual nor universal ; the ceremoniala 
llieiiig plucked up hy their roots, lo what purpose then should their 
llence s and hedges sianU ? As, on tlie conlniry, the morals abid- 
ing, why should nut their judiciaJs and fences remikin? The 
learned generally douhi not to affirm that Aluseii' jiidicials bind 
all naliona, so lar forth as they contain any moral equity in 
them, which moral equity doih appear not only in respect of 
the end of the law, when it is ordered for common and univer- 
■nl good, but chleHy in res|>cct of the law which they safeguard 
and fence, which if it be moral, it is most just and e(]ual, that 
either the same or like judicial fence (according to some fit pro- 
portion) should preserve it still, beeause it is but just and equal 
thai a moral and universal law should be universally preserved ; 
from whence, by the way, the weakness of their rea^oniugs may 
>>e observed, who, that they may take away tlie power of the 
civil magistrate in matters of the first table, (which once he lind 
in the Jewish commonwealth,) alfirni that such civil power then 
did arise from the judicial, and not from any moral law ; when- 
Bs it is manifciit Uiat this his power in preserving God's worship 
]iure from idolatrous and profane mixtures, according to the 
judicial laws, was no more but a fence and safeguard set about 
moral commandments ; which fences and preservatives are there- 
fore (for substance) lo continue in as much power and authority 
now as they did in those days, as long as such laws continue in 
iheir morality, which these preserve; the duties of the first table 
being also as much moral as those of the second, lo the preserv- 
ing of which latter from hurt and spoil in respect of their mo- 
rality, no wise man questions the extent of his power. 

TXesi'f 43. If, therefore, the question be now made whelher 
the law of (he fourth commandment be moral or nu, we must 
then remember that the true state of the question is not in this, 
lo wit, whether the law of the Sabbath be a priuciple of the 
light of nature, known and evident of itself, or at least such 
HE every man that hath the use of reason may reitdily find out 
without some external revelation, (as Mr. Ironside injuriously 
slities it. wrestling herein with his own shadow, with many 
others of bis fellowship in this controversy.) For moiiitity (as 
hath been declured) is of larger extent than such a naturulity. 
But ihe question is, whether it is one of those laws, which is 
therefore cummmaudeU because it is holy, just, and good in itself. 


whether man see it by any previous Ijglii of corrupt natnr^ 
ay or no ; and being Ihus crunmiiiided tn sui-li a law, wliether it 
)>« nni iherctbre of jierpetual anil univcrsiil obliguIJoD, binding 
all natbns and perwnd in all ages, in their hcaria, livtss, niaonen^ 
In ifae ob^ei'vnnce thereof, as a part of that lioliuese we ow 
God, and which God requires of men according to niles of morale 
equity : or, on tlie conlrary, whether it be not rulher a tjpica(^ 
ceremonial, liguralive, and tempomry precept, binding only sonaA 
(■erisons, or that one nation of the Jews fur some time, from ihs 
obedience of which law Christiana (in respect of any law of God) 
ntiB now exempted. 

TTirgit 44, For clearing up whereof it may not be aroisB Uf 
1:ike notice of the agreement (at lea^t in word^} herein, on aHr 
Lands, even by those who oppose (hat morality of tlie Sabbatk 
which we plead for. All sides agree in this, viz., that the lair 
of ibia fourth commandment concerning the Sabbath is moraL. 
Bat aa the ditTerenci's about the meaning of Tu e« Petrut are' 
man^. so here the dillii^uUy lies to know how, and in what sensfr 
nnd respect, it may be called moral ; for 3U. Ironside expressly' 
consents in ihi?, viz., " iliitl all the coromnndtnenls of the dcca*' 
logne are moral, but every one in his proportion and degree 
and «o (suiih he) is that of the Sabbath ; it is moral for suhslonca^ 
bat not for circumstance. 

" Sbster Primrose also (when he is awalie) expressly confess- 
eth thus much, viz., that the Sabbath is moral in its foundalioo, 
end. morrow, and principal substance ; and that a stinted time ia 
muntl. and grounded on the principles of nature ; and therefore 
ifae Gentiles (saith he) had their set day^ of religion ; and this 
(he tells as) is ratified by the gospel, wliich commendeth to the 
faithful the assembling of themselves together for word and 
sacmmenis, and CDnscifuenily tUitt iliey have appointed timet' 
lo attend upon them, wliercin the word of God be read and 
preached as under the Old Tesinmcni every Sabbalh day; nay, 
he yields yet more, viz., that not only stinted timep, but tiiat 
niao there should be a convenient pro|x)rlion and suiruble fre- 
fpvnry of time for God's service, now under the gospel as under 
liie luw ; and therefore atlirms that the Jewish annual feasts and 
new moons, being but once a year or once a month, und so being 
rare and w-ldum, could nut teach us the couvctiicnt and most 
suilai>le frequency of God's public service, as the Sabbath did^. 
which retorned weekly ; and therefore be aaith that ihe com* 
niandmcot runs not thus, viz.. Remember to keep the new moon% 
but. Remember to keep holy the Sabbath day. 80 that by U> 
PriainMe's cuucesaioo. nut only a time, but a atinled time, not only 


iDled time, bul al.'io such a conTc^oient proporlion and suitable 
frequency of lime, as is once in seven days, is morally holy by 
I virtue of Ihe f'ouMli commaiidtiieiit. 

" GoRianis oLio condudeB (bnt tbe public worsbtp of God, re- 
I ^ired in the fourlh commandment, calls for observation, liot 
I only of certain, but nl?o of sufficieni days for worship ; and what 
Aege sufficient days be, is to be gathered from the fourth com- 
nuuidment, iiiz., that they be not more rare and less frequent 
than the weekly Sabbatha of tbe Itiraelile^, because, if God (as 
he shows) challenged a weekly Sabbath of a stiff-necked people 
laden with the bunien of many other festivals and ceremoniej^, 
how then should Christians, freed frou their yokes and bur- 
dens, have ihem less frequent ? " 

Master Breervrood also lo Ibe like purpose professelh, that 
Chriatiann should not be less devout and religious in celebrating 
Ihe Lord*e day than the Jews were in celebrating their Sabbath ; 
and his reason (laboring with some spice of a contradiction) is 
this, viz., because the obligation of our ihankfulness to Giid is 
more than theirs, although the oblignlion of his commandment 
lo us in that behalf is less ; fur I confess it is beyond my shallow- 
ness to conceive iiow the thankfulness should be more, and the 
commandment less, unless he will imagine some such Popish 
work as exceeds the command. 

WalltBus comes almost quite over the threshold unto us, and 
maintains, upon solid arguments, "that, by the force and analogy 
of ihis fourth commandment, all the (rue worshipers of God 
are bound to the euict observation of one day in the circle and 
compass of seven ; " and then he produceth a cloud of witnesses, 
both ancient fathers and ihe chief of our kle reformers, tes- 
tifying [0 the same morality of one day in »ei'en, which him- 
self maintains ; that whoever shall read him herein would won- 
der how it should i-ver enter into the hearts of learned men (as 
White, Rogers, Dow, tbe historian, and many others) to imagine 
and go about lo befool the World, as if ihe moratily of a seventh 
day was the lale and sour fruit growing out of the crabbed and 
rigid slock of some English Purilatis and reformers, wherein they 
ore forsaken of all iheir fellows, whom in all other things they 
so much admire in oilier reformed churches. It being therefore 
confessed on all bands thai the Sabbath is moral, (though I con- 
fess at other times our adversaries unsay this, at least in their 
arguments,) the controversy therefore only lies in this, viz., how 
and in what respect it should be so. 
I Tlteti* 45. The general consent herein also is this, lo wit, 
I liiat the morality of the Sabbath chiefly is in respect of some 


generality, or in respect of something which in mare general in 
ihis commandment, rather than in respeut of th«t particular day 
which the commandment doth also point at ; far if the morality 
of it (lid lie in observing that particular day only, faow could there 
be a change of tlmt day to another? For if the morality of a 
Subbath wm liniiied unto a particularity, or to that one partit>- 
olar day, it is then impossible that any other day to which that 
first is changed should be moral by virtue of the xame command- 
ment ; but we shall show in tit place, that the day is lawfully 
changed, and morally observed, and therefore that which is in 
thi* commandment firstly moral miut of necessity be somewhat 
more general. 

7Ti<«> 4G, The general which we acknowledge to he moral 
in this command (rightly understood) is a seventh day. Our'. 
adverMiries would make it more general, and resolve it into a 
day or some day for solemn worship; yet when they are forced 
to we and acknowledge, by the dint of argument, that this is loo 
general, because thus the commandment may be observed, if one 
day in a thousand, or once in one's life it be sanctified, they do, 
tlicreforc, many times come nearer to us, to somewhat less gen- 
end than a day, viz., lo a stinted, filed, and appointed day, and 
to siicli an appointed day as contains such a aufllcient proportion 
of time for God, with convenient frequency, no less frequent 
than thein in the Old Testament, which was every seventh day, 
as may be seen Thess. i. 44 ; and truly, thus much being ac- 
knowledged by tbem, one would think that the controversy (with 
this sort of men) was brought unto a comfortable and quiet is^ue 
and full agreement ; but it is strange to see how contrary the 
langtwge b of these men sleeping, from what it is when they are 
Awake. They strike fiercely at a seventh day, and a determinate 
timo, at impossible to be moral, when they meet with them in 
the dark, and yet we see acknowledge them (in effect) to be 
manJ, when they meet with them sometimes in the lighi. 

7%«tii 47. But because a seventh day may be accounted con- 
venient by some, and moral byothers,aiid because the determina- 
tion of it may be made by some either more lai or narrow, vii., 
either to any in seven, which man or the church may appoint, 
or to such a seventh day as God shall determine, it is, iherc- 
forr, neudfui, for the clearing up of this controversy, to seek out. 
with an impartial and sober mind, the true meaning of the fourth 
commandment, and to inquire more iiarticularly and euiutly 
what is required in it, and what is commanded by virtue of it, 
wUcli tome able men. not taking a right observation of in the 
dark aw) lemgwsiuous times of controversy, have therefore made 


miserable shipwreck, not only of tlie iriilh, but al*o of (beiD- 
eelres, antl souls of otliurs. 

TTiesis 48. Tlie tilings wUioh are momlly enjoined iii thU com- 
mandment nre these two ; — 

1. Some iLingg are Primario, i. e., primnrilj, firstly, and more 
generally morul. 

2> Some Iliin^ are Secundariu ; i. o^ secondarily, dcriTatirely, 
and conscquetiliy moral. 

A time, h day, a seventh day of rest are in the first respect 
moral, but in the other respect this or that particular Geventh 
day may be said to be moral. Things primarily moral are per- 
petual ; things secondarily moral are not necestsarily so. As, for 
example, to honor superiors and fathers, whether of common- 
* wealth or family, is primarily moral ; hut to honor these or those 
particular superiors is secondarily moral, because our honoring 
of them ariselh from that primary and general law of moral 
equity, viz., that if our falhers are lo be honored, then, in the 
second place, it follows, tliat these and those particular persons, 
being our lawful fathers, are to be honored also. To honor our 
fatliers whom God hath set over us is perpetual ; to honor these 
or those particular fathers is not perpetual, because themselves 
are not perpetual, but changeable. It was a moral duly to honor 
this particular King David, but it was not perpetual ; for wtien 
David was taken away, ihey were not bound to honor King Duvid 
KDj more, when King Solomon, bis son, became liis successor : 
nor was it a ceremonial duty to honor this or that particular 
king, because it ivaa changeable from one lo another, but it was a 
moral duty so to do ; wherein the law and rule is not changed, 
(it being primarily moral,) but only the object, which we are 
bound to honor secondarily in respect of the general rule. So it 
is in this law of the Sabbath/ To keep a day, a seventh day's 
Sabbath, is perpetual, it being primarily moral; but to observe 
this or tliat particular day is of ilself changeable, being seconda- 
rily moral ; for if it be a moral duty to sanctify a seventh day 
which God shall appoint, then it is moral, (as it were,) in the 
second place, to sanctify this or that seventh interchangeably 
which God doth appoint ; and yet it doth not follow that this 
-or that particular seventh is in itself ceremonial, because it is 
changeable ; for in such a change the moral rule is not changed, 
■ but the moral object only, lo which it is morally applied : the 
duty is not changed, but only the day ; and in this respect it 
should not seem hard to make some things moral which are not 
perpetual ; for laws primarily moral are properly perpetual, but 
laws secondarily moral, not necessarily so, but changeable, b»- 


Tilt: uouALiTir ov Tiit: sah[(.iti[. 51) 

CKUM. aa harh been wiid, berein ihere id no cliange of the rule, 
but oalv of ibe object or a]>plicatioti of the rule, wliii^h mHiy bo 
variously and yet morally observed, 

nesit iS. This dUiinctioQ of things primurily and secoitda- 
rily moral Ls taken from tlie truth of ihiag^j, and n'hich tlioae 
who study this conlroverey will see iiieinseives forced unlo by 
the shifts and fuUaciea of the adversitrics of the truth herein ; the 
Cominandmenid of God are exceeding brond. according to David'a 

, measure, (Pi. cxix. 96,) and very eumprehen^ive, and hence 
the generals include many particulars, and eometinies tbe par- 

, ticulare have a special respect to ibiogs more general, as is evi- 
dent in the Mcond and Sfth commiUidmeutB, whitrh synecdoche 

I Ifr. Broad acknowledgeth to be in all other commaods except 

' Ibe Sabbath, wherein he will have no general understood, but 

* only a comroandinent to obsorre that particular day only, that eo 

' he may go one step farther tlian some of hi:j betters, and utterly 
Rboli«h the morality of thb commaud ; but whether this com- 
naodmcMit ia so narrowly restrained, will appear more fully iii 

r showing the truth of this distinction out of the coinmnndment 

I moru particularly. 

. Tketit 50. Those things first which are primarily and more 
generally moral, and morally eommanded, are these three : — 

' 1. That there be some solemn t-onvenient time set apart for 

' GudV worship. 

8. That tJiis time be not any small pittance of time, but a 

I •olrmn day of worshi|i, bearing the most meet proportion to those 
days man hnih fur himself. 

3. Thai this day be not any day indelinilely which man sees 
meet, but (as it is in the commandment) the Sabbatb or rest 
day, whicli God himself interprets and determines to a seventh 

iiome of our adversaries in this controversy will not acknowl- 
1 eilg« any »et lime or day to be moral by virtue of this command- 
I mvnx. because they tliink tliat that panicuhtr seventh day from 
the creation ia only eommanded, but now abolished under the 
gmpel ; and it only is commanded (they suy) because it is only 
[ cspresavd and mmle mention of in the commandment. I confesa 
L that thai particular seventh is expressed and jxiinted at, but not 
[ only ezprossod, (as we shall show in fit plan; ;) but suppose it 
I wvre granted, that that seventh only is exprcased, yet it will not 
I IbDow that therefore a seventh <lay, and consequently a day, and 
I KaMequmlly a time uf worship, is excluded ; for look, as it is in 
I llw iHKund cummiuidmenl, we see the worship of a 


f b [NUllcuUrly t< 

I, and yet that which i 

aven image 
c general 19 



: OF ' 



itho herein forbidden, xiz., the worship ot' God b]/ human inven- 
tions : and why may not the like general be enjoined by com- 
mitnding ihai pariiculiir siwenth in the fourth roramandment ? 
Others of our adversnries, on the contrary, acknowledge, there- 
fore, that in this particular seventh (which they make ceremo- 
nial) something more general and moral is herein required ; but 
this general they limit lo a time or some day of worship, but it 
Bevenih day which is more general than that particular seventh, 
yet less general than a day or lime, they fly from this ns from 
some serpent or bugbear, and will not admit it oa any thing gener- 
ally moral in this commandment. But it ia very observable in 
this conlroverey, that upon the earae, grounds on which ihey 
would exclude this general of a seventh from being moral, they 
may as well exclude their own generals, viz., a time or a day, 
from being moral ; for if they think it irrational, that because a 
particulnr seventh day is required, that therefore a seventh day 
more general can not be commanded, why is it not as irratioruU, 
upon the same ground, to exclude a time, a day, also ? Surely a 
seventh day lies nearer the bosom of a particular seventh, and is 
of nearer kin to it than a day. And I marvel lliat they should 
gather a solemn time and day of worship, which Is more gen- 
eral, rather than a seventh out of that particular day, as nut 
possibly to be intended, although in a manner expressed in the 
commandment itself. I know there are some who think that 
there is nothing generally moral in this commandment but a 
seventh day ; which unless it be well and warily explicated, I 
then crave leave to concur thus fur with our adversaries, viz., 
(hat a solemn time, and' a day of worship, are generally moral in 
this command, but not only moral, but that a eeventh diky also 
which God shall determine is gcuerally, yea, principally moral 
also, in this commandment 

T/uM 51. First, therefore, tliat which is moat generally 
moral in this command is that which is called tempiii culiia, or 
the time of worship : now, this time must either be indeterminate 
time, which necessarily attends all acts of worship and duties of 
piety, or else determinate and solemn time. Indeterminate time 
ia nut required here, because to make a special commandment 
about such a time would he both needless and ridiculous ; for if 
it be impossible that any duty should be performed without such 
. time, then wherever that duty is required, the time which neces- 
sarily attends it must he supposed and enjoined in the some com- 
mandment. Some determiuHle and solemn time is, therefore, 
herein gen i? rally, though not only, commanded. 

Thetit bi. It is a scruple to »ime to know to what command- 

neat soleaiTi time should be referred ; to which the answer is 
-that ihe same things may be velen-eil in several respects 
■Bio seferai oommandmentii, »nd so may this. SoleniD lime may 
be referred to ibe second comniandmeRt, where eolemn worship 
(in respect of the means of worship) is required, in some respect 
to the first commiuidmcnt, which requiring us to M^knowledge God 
r rovereign I^rd and happiness, he would have us there- 
'.» hare some full scope of time lo be serious and solemnly 
; taken up in the worship of him. But it is referred lo ibis fourth 
:,cpinmiu)dment as it stands in a general reference and relation lo 
>cTenlh day's Sabbath, wherein this gcneml of solemn time is 
•wallowed up and preserved ; and, verily, if the six days' labor be 
required in the fourth commandment, in case it be done in refer- 
,«»ce lo the s(;ve nth day's rest, much more all solemn time of 
worship, as it stands in reference lo a Sabbath day. 

7%r«u 33. The worship itself therefore is not required in 
iAm commandment, if only the time of worship be enjoineS ; and 
Iff ignorance or prejudice did not bias and sway men's judgments 
Anoi the naked and genuine meaning of each commandment, it 
VDuld soon apjienr that [he whole won^hip of God itself is con- 
tained in the ihree first commandments, and therefore nothing ', 
'faft that could possibly be enjoined by the fourth, but only lliu 
I know a lime of worship may in some respect be called 
' worship, but the wonibip itself in all olber respects is not i-cq«ired 
li this, but in other commandments ; for if in the first command* 
nl we are to have God to be our God, by love of him, trust Id 
n, delight in him, etc., (which nature, as it were, calls for, ifGod 
Jw our God,) then all that which we call natural worship is re- 
{■itrd hrre ; and if devised forms of worship be forbidden in the 
neond commandment, which ore of human invention and institn- 
w, ibcn all God's instituted worship must be commanded here- 
in ; and if vain and irreverent manner of worship be forbidden in 
Uw third commaadment, then all common worship, as some call 
it or rather all that holy and reverent manner of worship whioli 
t owe to God, is required in the Rame command; and if all 
fund, instituted, and common worship, or holy manner of wor- 
ip, be repaired in the three first commands, I mai;vel then how 
any worship (any further than as a time of worship may be 
railed worship) can b« required in thi^ fourth command. The 
lime, therefore, and not the worship itself, is required herein ; 
(or if any worship be required, it is either the whole worshiji of 
" ' e special kind of worship ; if the whole worship, i' 

^i|kere sboidd be n 
nini commattdmenls, bii' 

rship of God required directly in the tlirc 
the very same which is commtiiided i 

the fourth also, wliich gross taulology is mosl absurd lo •iitiBKino 
in tile sbort sum of these ten words ; but if any special kind of 
woraliip should be required, and not the whole, Iben the .SAbbxth 
day is sanctified lo »omc ono kind uf worship, rather ihan to the 
exerci.w of all kind of worahip, which ia moat false and profane ; 
for who will affirm that the Sabba'h is to be sanctified, suppose 
by that kind of womhip which is public, and not private al^o ; 
by exturnal, and not by intemat worship alr^o : by natural worship 
in love and fear of God, etc., and not with instituted in the Ui^e 
of all God's ordinances, and that wilb all holy preparation and 
reverence also?^ 

ITietii 54. The exercise of worship is one thing, the worship 
Itself is another j it is most true that the holy exercise of all 
worship is here required, but most false that the worship itself is 
fa. The worship itself is required in the three tir«t commands, 
but the BpecinI exercise of all this worship at such a time is re- 
quired in the fourth command : the exercise of holiness and holy 
duties is here required as the end, and a holy rest as a means 
thereunto ; and in this respect it is true which Walla;us observes, 
viz., thai it is not a bare and naked circumstance of time, but the 
rent itielf from labor, and the application of the day to holy ujcs, 
which is here enjoined ; but doth it therefore follow that the 
worship itself, and the holy duties themselves, are here directly 
commanded ? which he seems to mainlain. No, verily, no more 
than that works of mercy in the second table are required in this 
fourth command of the first table, because the exercise of mercy 
and love, as well as of piety and necessity, is required also in this 

"ninit 55. Ii is generally and frequently affirmed by tliosa 
who seek lo support the morality of the Sabbath, to wil, that ihe 
exercise of worship and holy duties, al this time, is required for 
the duties' sake, as, at other limes, the time is required for the 
lime's soke ; by which words iliey seem to make the bare circum- 
stance of time Id be required here ; but this assertion had need 
be understood with much candor, and the true explication of it ; 
for in some sense it is most true which our Saviour affirms, that 
man is not made lor the Sabbalh or the time of it. (Mark ii. 27.) 

Tkait 56. This time therefore may be considered two ways : 
1. Abstractly. 2. Concretely. 1. Abstractly, for the bare cir- 
cumstance of time, abslracted and stripped from all other con- 
siderations ; and so it is very absurd lo imagine all the holy duties 
of the Sabbath to be for the time, as if God and all bis holy 
worship should give homage unto, and attend upon, a naked, 
empty circumstance. Time, in thb respect, is rather for llio 



■'Worship's sftke. 2. Concretely, as it is wholly sanriitied and set 
BBfiart for God, or tu it ia a lioly lime, Bet apart lor lioly rest, 
fo roan might attend upon God; and in this respect all liolj 
'S are lor [liis lime, because in Iliiii res|)ect tliey are for God, 
is all in all in holy time. And therefore Wallicus need not 
u upon search to see whether the holy rest of the day bo 
ired in the f«cond or any other cominaod, for it h not 
ned by any, that the naked circumstance of time is here only 
InqnireJ, without any holy rest; but that a holy lime of rest is 
[ fterein cotamanded, and therefore to be referred to this lummand ; 
E bence aLw it is most false which some affirm, viz., " tliat the rest 
l.froni ordinary labors on this day. as it is connected with holy 
D/dniice of worship, without which they ean not be performed, is as 
laeccssary now as when the Jewish Snbbalh was in being; but 
f Bth^rwiee out of these duties there is no holy time of rest com- 
Latanded." For such a restraint of lime to holy duties as make« 
I tte limu holy for the duties' sake, so that no time is holy but in 

■ the performance of holy duties, and these duties (upon narrow 

■ •xaminalion) only public duties, dolli but open a gup for licen- 
I tiousnesa, voluptuousness, sports, May poles, and dog markets, 
I and snch like profaaeness, out of the lime of holy public worship, 

what private worship each man shall think most meet. For 
LIB this si'nse holy duties are for the time, because, the whole day 
I Ving sanctified, holy duties are therefore to attend, and in this 
I tespect are for this time, and not the time for them, tiz., thai 
f when the time of the exercise of some holy duties doth cease, the 
ime of holy rest or holy time must then cease also. 

Thrtit 57. Nor should it seem strange that holy duties should 

(lend holy lime, and be for the sake of such lime ; because, 

P although it be true thai this time is sanctified, that man may per- 

I Jorm holy duties, yet man is now called to the performance of 

\-tl\ lioly duties, that he may lastly honor God in all holiness in 

lanch a special lime ; which time, if any human power only should 

it axij holiness in, and it therefore should be attended on, what 

luUl it be else hut an observing of days and times? condemned 

J the aiM>:«tle, (Koin. xiv. ; Gal. iv. ;} which dirty ditch of ob- 

rving limes they uuawares fall into who plead against a deter* 

nod S^haili, sanctified of Go<l, and yet would have some time 

d day observed by the ap|>ointment of men ; for the observa- 

n of such days which Goil shall appoint can not be condemned 


i- observing of ti 

but the observation of days, which 

a ilinll think fit may be quickly reduced to s 
PWp If any ihink that there is a peculiar manner of 



boliness and of worslilpliig God lioi-cin required, wliidi is not 
requir^tl in any other conimamlment, it may be readily granted, 
if by peculiar manner of sancliHcalion be meant a more specinl 
degree and manner of exerdding the t^liole worship of God, in 
respect of euch a lime ; but it doth not therefore follow, that any 
new kind of worship (which WalliEus hence pleads for) is re- 
quired herein j/for lliia higher degree and special manner of 
worship is not the nubslancc of any new worship, it being only a 
peculinr degree of worship, and iberefore varies not the kind. 
And if the three Urst eominandmcDts enjoin the worship itself, 
then they do command the highest measures and degrees also 
severally i for where any duty is required, the highest degree 
and extension of it is also therewithal required. Hence, there* 
fore, it still follows, that this peculiar manner of exercising holy 
duties upon this day is chiefly with reference and relation lo the 
time which God Iiaih sanetilied, that herein he might be in a 
special manner worshiped and served ; and, verily, Wallceus, 
fore««eing the blow, had no other way lo expedite himself fi^m 
making'the three first commandments either to be mere ciphers. 
or the fourth commfindment from laboring with a needless tau- 
tology, but by flying for refuge lo this peculiar maimer of holi- 
ness, which he thinks is required herein, and not in any of the 
rest : • but wlial hath been said may be sufficient lo dear up the 
ungroundedness of this mistake. 

77iMtx 50. A little error is a great breeder, and begets many 
more ; and hence it is that Wallieus, nmong many others, that he 
might make the worship itself to be required in the fourth com- 
mandment, disputes therefore against those who place the insti- 
tuted worship of God directly under the second commandment, 
which if he could make good, he had then the fairer probabilities 
to show that the worship itself was required directly in the fourth 
command i which prinfciple, if it was granted, would expose the 
moralliy of the Sabbath lo sorer blows and bruises than perhaps 
appears at liri't blush. It may not therefore be amiss, but be 
rather of special use for the clearing up both of the meaning and 
morality of the fourth command, to demonstrate, that the insti- 
tuted worship of God (which Wallieus calls cukut txfemia et- 
iiiftntmeMala gidudi noslTa,per auditttm vtrhi et taeramtiitorvm 
tffiiin, etc,) is directly required in the aflmnativG part of the 
second command. 

G qaaiio prsoepio Hliquem pcculiureni ssnclificslioaia modnm 




60. Tlie 

s clearing up or ihia depends rauch upon a 
rijrhl and true unilcrstanding of two l]iiit;rs in [be second coni- 
mandnient : 1. What ihe graven imuge ami likened is. 2. What 
I by those words, "Love me and keep my comnutnd' 

7%c>i« 61. Fir«t. Graven iraagea, nner which the wholei 
wurlil atmoBt hath been enticed, and gone a-whoring from the 
true nror^faip of God, were worshiped two ways: 1. TertnJna- 
live, i. e., when people terminated their worship upon the dumb 
idoU ihemselves, as if ihey were gods, without looking any far- I 
iher to any God more supreme and glorious. This is the sin of 
Hiany of ihe ignorant sort of Papists, by Bellarrain's own confes* 
sioii, as also many of Ihe brutisli sort of the blind heathens. 
And this kind of worship and idolatry is directly forbidden, not in 
Ihe second, but in the first commandment ; and iliat appears 
d[>on this undeniable ground, 10 wit, that if the first coramnnd- 
meat expressly enjoins us to have no other God but Jehovah, lo 
tru.<t in, pray lo, love, fcur no niher God but Jehoviib, then fur 
any to lutve and worship sueh images as iheir g«ds which are not 
I Jnliovah, ia directly forbidden here. Hence, iherelbre, it unde- 
■iablj^ fallowsi, that by tiie making to ourselves a graven inuige. 
In the second commandment, somewhnt else must be understood 
than iLe v [prshiping of J ma^s . lermiofi'vly as gods. 2. Or 
•Iso they were won biped relative, i. e., relatively, or in refer- 
vnce lo the Irue God, as means and helps, in which, at which, 
and by which Ihe true God was worshiped. And thus the . 
learned and well -instructed Papists mainbiin their abominable 
worship of images, whether graven or (minted, crosses, cruciHxes, 
•tc™ lo be guod and hiwful ; for, siiy they, we do not wor* 
dtip, Dor are we so senseless as to honor the image or crucifix 
iiM-1f, but only as helps to devotion, to carry our hearts lo God 
and Christ, resembled by these images. Thus, also, the Jews 
of old, liiey did never worship ihe images themselves, but God 
in ihem and by ihem. They were not grown so soon no ex- 
tremely sottish as lo ihink that the golden calf was the true God 
kimielf which brought them a few weeks before out of ihe Innd 
of Egypt, but it was a visible help lo carry their hearts lo God 
only, and therefore the feast was proclaimed lo Jehovah. (Bx. 
xsxii. 4, 5.) Micnh's idolatrous mother prafesselh that she 
had dedicated the eleven hundred shekels of silver lo Jebovnh to 
^uha a molten image, (-ludg. xvii. 3 ;) she was not simple 
^■M^M b those confused and blind timed) to think ihut the 
HN^nM Jehorab, nor did her son Micah think so, and there- 
^H^WAKh Dot say, Now 1 know ihal the teraphim will bl«M 



ine, but that JKliovah will now bless n 
,for his service. Nay, verily, ibe i 


e, linving sel up no image 
neii luid best instructed 
J Ibe tieaihcna did never ihiak llint the idols and images 
lluimsclvcs were God, but they only worshiped God by them ; 
. which if any doubt of, Itl him but read Doctor Uainolds, wbo 
by pregnant and most eminent proofs duraon^lnites, that neither 
the Jews nor the lieathens, in their deepest apostasies, did ever 
worship their images any other ways tlian rclutively, as beliM 
and meima of the worship of Ibe true God ; and hereby seta 
forth the ahominahle idolatry of the Romish church, for such a 
worship of their images, which even themselves condemn in the 
idolatrous Jews and heathens, who had as much lo say for iheir 
image worship as the Pupists have. Ileiiee, therefore, it fol- 
lows, that if tlie graven image in the second commandment was 
not worshiped as God, but ouly as a means devised and invented 
by man to carry the ht^ort unlo Grud, then (by a usual fiyneo 
ducbe in every eoramnnd) all human inventions, and iiistitutiona, 
and devised means of worship, or of ntrrylng the lieart better 
unto God, are forbidden in this commandment; and if all 
human instiiuiions and devised means of worship be herein 
direutly forbidden, then certainly all divine instituiions and means 
of worship, and consequently all God's instituted worship, in 
ministry, sacraments, etc, are directly commanded in the affirma- 
tive part of this second command, and consequently not in the 
fourth command. And if all urthodox divines condemn the 
Popish relative worship of images, as directly cross and contrary 
to the second command, I then see no reason why any should 
question but that all the instituted means of worship (images, as 
ii were, of God's own devising) should belong to the atHrmative 
part of the same command. The second thing to be explained 
in this cammutidment is. What is love lo Qod, and keeping of bis 
commandments, whiuli we reail of in ibe close of the command- 
ment?/ Love lo God is liere op]>osed to hatred of God, and 
those that love him lo those that hale him. Now, this hatred is 
not haling of God at large, for there is a hatred of God in 
every sin, (Prov. 1. 29; viii. 36,) but in particular, wheu it 
appears in this particular sin of setting up of images and men's/ 
inventions, forbidden in this commauduieot, which therefore seta 
down Ibe proper punishment for this sin. So by love of God is 
not meant love of God at krge, (which is seen in keeping every 
command,} but in particular, when we love God iu bis own ordi- 
Look, therefore, as haired of God in 
setting up man's inventions and institutions (which superstitio 
persons think lo be much love to God) is here condemned in 

THF, mohalitt of the 


e by I'oiumaiKlnieiiLt 
Vifan commHnilnieiils, {oa 
I grouiidj^ which I ii^t not 
CaliEDlions and ordii 

KkWjiaiive part of ihe commanclment, so, on the contrary, love lo 

I God in closing nitb him and seeking of him in his own instilu- 

Ltions, whether word or saL-nunenta, etc., is here enjoined in the 

e part of Iliis command, and consequently not (us Wal- 

I ka» would have il) in Ihe ntlinnative juirt of tlie fourth com- 

■luid. keeping my command me nl.i being set down as a fruit 

if this love, and both together being opposed lo hatred of God. 

" ' ' 1 not be meant in general all .the 

le imagine upon miserable weak 

mention,) but in special, God's in- 

niled in special by him, to which 

i of men's hea<isafl!i_hands are 

t «onmoiily IB Scripture opposed, and are therefore condemned, 

it commtiuded, or because none of his commnndmenla. 

l(Jer. vii. 31. Deut. xii. 30, 31. Matt. xv. 9.) If, therefore, 

E agiun, God's institutions and commandments are liere enjoined 

I In lh» Kcond commandment, they can not be directly required la 

e fi>urtli command. These Ihinp being thus cleared, the objec- 

Nu of WalUeue are eBsily answered. For, first, he Baitli, "■that. 

Dm the negalire part of this second commtindtaent cnn not 

Bte gMhered such an affirmative pttrl aa this in, vii., that God will 

■ ke worshiped by the word and sacr&menls." But that this asf^er- 

fttioo, thus barely propounded, but not proved, is false, appears 

I'ftom what hath been said concerning the true meaning of the 

tgalive part of this command. For if buman inventions, under 

f name of graven image, he forbidden, then divine institutions, 

l«Brb Its word and aacramenta be, are here commanded, and from 

1 llmi nAgmive any ordinary capacity may readily see what the 

~ ' ! i^ ile suiih again, secondly, ** that if instituted 

rsbtp was cimlained under the affirmative part of the second 

nt, then this commandment is mutable, because God 

I ihud worshiped one way before Cliriit, and another way 

M Christ 1 but (saith he) the second commandment is moral, 

1 therefore immutable, and therefore such mutable worship 

n not bu ei\joinc<i herein." But we have formerly shown thai, 

_h tliit commandment be moral and immutable in respect 

f ttscK yet in re»pect of the application of it to this or that 

"leet or thing may be in that respect mulnblc 

c it is an humatable taw that God must be worshiped with his 

N wonthip, such as he shall institute, (and this is the sum of 

gad oommand moot itself;) yet the things inslituied (wherc- 

• b only an application of the command) may be mutable.: 

iroutniBandmunt duih not immutably bind lo the obser* 

I W that particular iniuiuted worship oul^', bi(t Kj 


observe GcmI's inslituted worship, and U> nttend his appointments, 
which 13 the only moral law and rule in the atfirn]»iive part of 
this command. He thirdly objects, ** that the worshiping of 
God in word and sacraments, etc., is never opposed in all lliu 

I Scripture to the Horshiping of images." But tliis is false ; for 
God's institutions (of wliich word and ^ncramentB ore a pan) are 
frequently opposed to human inventions, the worship appointed 
by God to the worship devised by man. Images of God's deris' 
ing ore oft opposed to imdges of men's own inventing ; [be voice 
of God, which was only heard with ibe ear-i a opposed to an 
image or similitude which might be seen. (Dent. iv. 12.) A 
graven image, a teacher of lies, is opposed lo ibe Lord's teaching 
of truth, and also to his presence in liis temple, which was tlie 
seat of instituted worship. (Hub. ii. 18-20.) The worship of 
images which God would liave abolished b opposed to the wor- 
ship of God by sacrifices and ceremonies, in the place which 
G(hI should cboose, (Dcut. xii. 1-20;) but yet he tells us, 
" that to WDi^hip God in images, and lo worship him in spirit 
and truth," (which is inward worship.) "are opposite; as also the 
lilling up of pure hands in every place." (John iv. 26. 1 Tim. 
ii. 8.) He tells us also, that acknowledging of God in bia immen- 
eity and infinite majesty are op{X)sed to image worship. (Rom. i. 
20-22. Is. xl. 22.) Be it so. But will it therefore follow, that 
to worship God according to his own institutions is not to worship 
him in spirit and in truth ? Is it rather a carnal than a spirit- 
_ ual worship, to attend on God in word and sacraments? May 
we not lift up pure hands in the usu of God's own institutions ? 
Is not God's immensity and m^esty acknowledged and ^een in 
the use of his own ordinances, >ts well as creatures and provi- 
dences ? I confess the blinder sort of heathens might worship 
stocks, and stones, and images of creeping things, and four-fooled 
beasts, in ihe place of God himself, termiuaiively, and God 
might account uf all their image worship as such, ibougb used 
relatively ; and hence the opposition may well be made between 
wor&hipiug them as God, and an infinite God ; and this worship (as 
was said) falls then under the iirst commandment : but assuredly 
this image worship which the apostle condemns, (Etom. i. 21, 23,) 
in debasing the inliriile majesty, and liiuiting it to this and Iliat 
iimige wherein they did worship it, is forbidden (being only rela- 
tive worship) in the second command. J-'or 1 think the aposile 
(in Rom. i.) hath an eye principally al the most lascivious idola- 
ters in the world, viz., the I'^gyptians, among whom principally 
we read of those images of creeping things and four-foolMl 
j, in their hieroglyphics : and ^et wb know that all tliat Uus 



«otshi]i dill get out sometliing or' other of the Deity, which thcre- 
'n (hdJ mi relatively) Iliey did warship. But I mast not enter 
iitu the discourse of these things here ; suHicient is said to clear 
1(1 Ibis jH>inl. vii., thut God's institmed worship fulb directly ' 
nnder the »ecoDd, not fourth eominand. 

7%e»u 6i. It is true that llie exercise of pnWic worship of 
tnnny U^ther is to be a.t this time upon tlie Sabbath ; but doth 
h fottuw that therefore this public wori^hip itself falls directly 
under this command ? For if public assemblies be (as some 
think) a part of natural worship, so as that the light of nature 
directs all men dwelling together, as creature^ to worship God . 
logeiher publicly as Creator, then thb worship falls directly 
nikder the first (not fourth) commattdment, where natural wor- 
■hip is directly commnnded ; but if public assemblies be consid- 
ered as distinct churches politically united and combined, publicly 
to worahip God, then such churches, considered thus as political, 
not mystical assemblies, do fall directly under the second com- 
numd, as parts of instituted worship ; for as all devised forms of 
chllrclle!^ whether diocesan, provincial, national, universal, (being 
the inventions of man to further ilie worship of God,) are con- 
demned directly in the second command, so all sucli churches as 
are framed into a spiritual polity, aAer the fashion and pattern 
of the word and primitive institution, arc (with leave of Erastus 
and his disciplen) enjoined in the same commandment, and there- 
fore not in the fourth. Gomarus and Master Primrose, therefore, 
much mistake the mark and scope of the fourtli command- 
ment, who affirm, "that as, in the three first commandments, 
<'>od ordaiaed the inward and outward service, which be will 
have every particular man to yield to him in private and sever- 
ally from the society of men every day, so in the fourth com- 
maulment be enjoineth a service common and public, which all 
tnuat yield together unto him, forbearing in the mean while all 
othrr business." But why should they think that public worship 
u> more requited here than private? Will ihcy say that tlie 
Sabbalh is not to be sanctilietl by private and inward worship, ns 
well as by public and external worship ? Are not private pre]i- 
Kratioo, meditation, secret prayer, and converae with God, re- 
quired upon this day. as well as public prayer and hearing the 
word ? If thej' say that these are required indeed, but it is in 
referrace to the public, and for the public worship's sake, it may 
be then as easily replied, ttint the public worship is also for tlic 
aake of the private, that each man secretly and privately might 
, BUM and fved upon the guoil of public helps ; they are iDUlUHlly 
. faelpful one to another, anil therefore are appointed one for 


another, utilcss any will ihink timi no more 
upoD this day iban while puhlic wor^bip ki 
hope shall nppcur Id be a piece of pi'ofe.^sed prolan 
metui whilu, louk, as ihvy bave no reason lu think Ihal private 
worship is required in this cuminiuid, bccauiie the exerciiie of 
private ivori^hip is at this time required, so they have an little 
reason to ihink that the public worship itself is lierein eDJoined, 
becaiiso the exercise of it is to be also at suth a time. It is 
therefore the time, not the wortihip itself, either public or pri- 
xaie, which is here direelly comraandeil ; although it be true, 
that both of ihem ure lierelu indirectly required, *iz^ in relation 
lu the lime. 

Thesii Oa. ir, therefore, the moral worship ilself, whether pub- 
lic, external, or private, be not directly required in this fourth 
command, much less is the whole ceremonial worship here en- 
joined, as Mitster Primrose maintains ; for the whole ceremonial 
worship, both in sacrifice, ceremonies, types, etc., was signiticanl, 
and were, as I may so say, God's images, or media cultui, means 
of worship, by carrying the mind and heart to God, by their 
special significations, and thcrelbre were instituted worship, and 
therefore directly contained under the second, and therefore not 
under the fuunh cominaud : *' And if there be but nine com- 
mandments whieh are moral, and Ibis one (by his reckoning) is 
to be ceremonial, and the head of nil ceremonials, and that lliere- 
fore unto it all ceremonial worship is to appertain," then thti 
observation of a Sabbath is the greatest ceremony, according as 
we see in all other commandments, the lesser sins are condemned 
under the grosser, as anger under murder, and lust under adul- 
tery ; and inferior duties under the chief and principal, as hon- 
oring the aged and masters, etc., under honoring of parents ; and 
so if all ceremonials are referred to this, then the &tbbath is the 
grossest and greatest ceremony one of them i and if so, then it 
is n greater sin Id sanctify a 8:itibaih, at any time, than to observe 
new moons and other festivals, which are less ceremonial, and are 
therefore wholly cashiered, because ceremonial i and if so, why 
ibeu doth Master Primrose telL us "that the Sabbath is moral . 
tor substance, principal scope and end, and that it is unm«ct for 
us lo observe fewer days than the Jews, in respect of weekly 
Sabbaths"? Why is not the name and memorial of the Sabbath 
abandoned wholly and utterly accursed from aS Ibu face of the 
earth, as well as new moons and other Jewish festivals, which 
upon his principles are leas ceremonial than the weekly Sabbath? 
I It may be an audacious Familisl, whose conscience is grown iron, 
and whose brow is brass, through a conceit of his immunity Irom, 


. rtspcct of, any ihing which lialh the 
■ works upon ii, may abandon all Sab- 
mcNins ei]ually : but those J 
I hope any pious mind else, 

that when Ihe Lord commands us 

nil- I 

I mnd Chri:itiai) liberty ii 

I BUperscription of law o 

ktlliB together with nen 

~ luppoee, dare not, noi 

I era but this one thing, ' 

I Kmember to keep the Sabbttth boly, lie must then ^according t( 

I this interpretation) command us that, above all other coinmand- 

■entfi, ne obsen-e his ceremonial worship, (which they say is 

here enjoined.) rather than his moral worship, wliieh they ao- 

I knowledge to be enjoined in all the other nine commandments, 

il the gate of none oF which commands is written this word 

mnrmifr ; which undoubtedly implies a special attendance to 

I be shown unto this, above any other ; for as we shall show, kuep 

[ this keep all; break this, slight this, slight all ; and therefore no 

wonder if no other eommrtnd hath this word remembrr writ 

I Bpoa the portal of it, which word of fence denotes special afiec- 

tinn and action, in the Hebrew language : but I suppose it may 

Mrike the hardest brow and heart with terror and horror to go 

about to aillx and impute such a meaning to this commandment, 

' VK„ that principally above all other duties we reioeraber to ob- 

e those things which are cercmotiial ; for although the obser- 

' Tntion of ceremonies be urged and re<iuired of God, as Master 

t Primrot^e truly observes from Fs. cxviii. 27 ; Jer. xvii. 26 ; 

[ Joel six. 13 ; Mai. i. 7, 8, 10, 13. U, yet that God should re- 

I quire and urge the observaUon of these above any other worship, 

\ ia evidently cross to reason, and expressly cross to Scripture. 

|,(Is. i. 11-16; lxvi.3. Ps. I. 13. Jer. vi. 20. Amos iii. 21. 

I Jliah vi. 7.) To remember therefore to keep the Sabbath is not 

\ to rmneinber to observe ceremonial duties. 

71«m 64. Nor should it seem strange that Jewish holy days 
I «r« not here enjoined, where a holy time, a Sabbath day, is 
I OMntnandrNl ; for those Jewish holy days were principally insti- 
I tdtvd (as Wollains well observes) for signitication uf Christ and 
I \v hunviaX*, (as may appear from 1 Cor. v. 7 ; Luke iv. I'J ; tieb. 

J and therefore, being significant, were parts of instituted 
lip, belonging to the second, not fourth command, but the 
h day (as shall be shown) is in its original institution atid 
Winn of another nature, and not signiticant ; yet this may 
I b« gnuitrd, that ceremonial holy days may be referred to the 
^ tburtli command, as appendices of it ; and if Calvin, Urain, 
olhers aim nt no more, it may be granted, but it 
r from hence that they therefore belong to Uio 
tnd indirectly, and directly to the fourth, (which 
e contends for,) but rather directly to the second, 


and redactivelj and indirectly ns npiiendices lo llie luurtlij 
whiuh appendicee, as Ihey may be put lo, so they niay be taken 
off again, the moral couimandment remaining entire : even na 
we know Calvin refers many ceremonial duties as appendices lo 
such commoads, concerning the morality of nhicli Master Prim- 
rose doubts not ; and therefore for him to tliink that the Sabbatb 
comprehends all Jewish festival days upon ibis ground, vii:., be- 
cause the Sabbath is joined with and put in among the reckon- 
ing of Buch festivals, (Lev. xxiii. j Is. i. 13, 14,) hath no more 
force in it, than by retorting the argument, and upon ibe like 
ground prove it to be moral, because it is joined nith moral 
commandments, as honoring of parents (Lev. xix. 3) and 
prayer, (Is. i. 19,) and by his own confession with the other nine, 
which are all of them moral also. 

TTient G5, Secondly, not only a solemn time, bat more par- 
ticularly a solemn day, a whole day of worship, is here also re- 
quired by virtue of this fourth command ; and the Lord gives us 
good reason for it, that if he gives us many whole days for our 
own work, then, not some part of a day, but a day, a whole day, 
according to the reason and espress words of the commandment, 
should be marked out and set apart for his work and service. If 
that jilacB, Is. Ivi, 6, 7. will not demonstrate a seventh day's Sab- 
bitth under the New Testament, yet it sufiiuently and fully 
clears the point in hand, viz^ that a Sabbath day is to be observed 
by the sons of the stranger or Gentiles, who are called strangers to 
the commonwealth of Israel, (Eph. ii. 12;) and indeed Wallmus 
freely confesse til and proveth, that a whole day ia here required; 
and if a whole day, I hope none will think that the time out of 
public assemblies is common and profane, if a whole day be 
holy ; and therefore Master Primrose tells us that the Gentiles, 
having no other law but the light of nature, have appointed set 
days for the exercise of iheir religion, and that as the Jews had 
their set days, (which we know were whole days,) wi should Chris- 
tians have theirs for their public assemblies under the gospel ; 
which I hope must be therefore whole days also : it is also consid- 
erable that if the three first commandments requiring God's wor- 
ship do consequently require some time for that worship, (as 
being a necessary adjunct to all actions, whether moral or civil, 
and without which tliey can not be performed,) then the fourth 
command must require somewhat more parucularly than a time of 
worship : ond therefore ibey that place the morality of the fourth 
command in requiring only a lime of worship (because, say ihey, 
a time of woraliip is necessary) may, upon this ground, wholly 
and iKirfectly abolish (he fourth command as sujierAuous and 

: OF THif R 


I needless, bei^ause ^uch a time of worsLip is required in sll athct 

[ comniandmeiits neFessarily. Thcj mny also imngine as great 

[ a morality in the comniond of buiUIing the temple the place of 

I vorihip, because a place of worship is a necessary as well as tf 

I tfnie: itis not, therefore, atime, butsuulia [imeasis iircserved iqa 

I day. even in a whole day, for worship, which is here commanded. 

t nesit 66. The wise God could liavo appointed some part oT 

[ "erery day to be kept hoty, rather than a whole day togelher ; 

I Ihic im wisdom saw this proportion of time every day lo be more 

I onmeet, in respect of man's daSIy cumbers, which do so eojily - 

^tangle man's thoughts and afIeclionE>. so as within some amall 

piece of a day he can not ordinarily nor easily recover and un- 

»o«e him^lf to find the end of a Sabbath scrviceJ which is most | 

fweel and full rest in the bosom of his God, as he may within 

Ae compass of a whole day set apart for that end : or aup- 

L fofc he could do so in a piece and part of a day, yet God's name 

rwonlit lose by it, if be should not have the honor of some solemn 

[ imj. which we see do serve to advance the names of idol gods, 

I md men on earth ; it is meet and just (bat God's name should 

be magnified by us commonly every day, by setting apart some 

thno which we may well spare (as whet to the scythe) out of our 

I atllin^, for God, and this doth honor him, but a day much more. 

I Tittit 67. They, therefore, who maintain that a seventh day 

it not moral, because it is bat a cireumslance of time, may an 

I well abolish time lo be moral, or any day to be moral, because a 

w 4ay (let it fall onl when it will) is but a cireumslance of time ; 

1 which notwithstanding they account to be moral in this com- 

I nand: bat we know that much morality lies in circumstances, and 

why n day sanctified may not be as much moral as a duty, I yet 

K not. 

TSrtit CS. The Familisis and Antinomians of late, like 

I Ifanicbees of old, do make all days equally holy under the gos- 

I ^1. and none to be observed more than another by virtue of any 

|- eommsnd of God, unless it be from some command of roan lo 

r which the ontward roan they think should not slick to oonfbrm, 

I *r utileu it be pro re nala. or upon several occasions, which spe- 

I «ial occasions are only to give the alamms for chureh meetings and 

e Christian assemblies — an audacious assertion, cross to the 

fht of nature nmong the blind heathens, who have uni- 

f idlowcd the Deily whom they ignorantly worshiped the 

f of some solemn duties ; cross to the verdict of Popish 

and pratatisls, whose slomuchs never stood much 

f ^bbalh at all ; cross lo the scope of the law of th& 

, if it bath any general morality, (not denied 






scarce to any of Moses' judiciuls.) surely one nuuld think it 
fihoulil lie in the observatioa of some day or days, though not in 
a seventh day, for which now we do not contend ; cross also to the 

.appointmenl of the gospel, foretold by Isaiah and Ezekiel, (Is. 

Jlvi. 4 . 6 ; Ezeli. xliii. 27^ made mention of by our Saviour to con- 

^tinuelong after the abolisningof all ceremonies by liis death, (MatL 
xxiv. 20,) who therefore bids them pray, that their flight may 
not be in the winter, nor on the Sabhath day, which, whether it . 
be the Jewish or Christian Sabbath, I dispute not ; only this is 
evident, that he hath an eye to some special set day, and which 
was lastly ordained by Christ, and observed in the primitive 
' j^rcbes, commonly called the Lord's day, as shall be shown in 
: place, and /khich notion, under pretense of more Epirilual- 
s, in making every day a Sabbath, (which is utterly unlawful 
and impossible, unless it bo lawful to neglect our own work all 
the week long, and without which there can be no true Sabbath,) 
dolh really undermine the true Sabbath, in 8{>ecial set days; and 
look, as to make every man u king und judge in a Christian com- 
monwealth would be the introduction of confusion, and uonse- 
(juently the destruction of a civil government, so to crown every 
day with equal honor unto God's set days and Sabbaths which he 
bath anointed and exalted above the rest, this anarchy and con- 
fusion of days doth utterly subvert the true Sabbaih ; to make 

• every day n Sabbath is a real debasing and dethroning of 

iGod's Sabbath. 

^^'hesit 69. It is true that every day, considered, materially and 
physically, as a day, is etjually holy i but this is no argument to 
prove that therefore every day is morally and theologically 
holy i for those things which of themselves are common may by 
divine appointment superadded to them become holy (witness the 
dedicated things of the lempk,) and so it ia in days and times ; 
under the Old Testament we see some days were more holy by 
God's appointment than others, and yet all days then were ma- 
terially und alike holy. 

Thetis 70. It is true that, under the New Testament, all 
places (in a safe sense) are equally holy ; but it doth not follow 
from hence (as our adverEaries would infer) that therefore all 
times are so ; and Wallaius himself confesseth the a:^ument to 
be invalid ; for it was not ea^ nor meet, but very dissonant 
from divine and heavenly wisdom, to appoint in his word all par- 
ticular places where his people should meet, their meetings being 
to he in so many thousand several countries, and various situations, 
which places are indeed for their general nature commanded and 
necessary, but in respect of application to circumstances of this 
_juid that place and country, the variation of them is almost 

[' enclltfs.*. and therefore very incongruoufi and useless lo Mil them 
' down in the wordi but it was not so in respei-i of Bolemn time, 
or a solemn day of worshi]), for herein the Lord might ensily 
appoint a particulur day to be observed, nraurding to the rising 
ftnd Netting of the sun proportion ably throughout all the world ; 
Kitd the Scripture hath expressly foretold in respect of phice, 
that neither in Jerusalem, Juijea, nor Samnria, but thai in every 
place incense should be offered up to God, (Mai. i. II;) but it 
hath not 80 »poken, but mther the contrary, in respect of lime, x 
n*(i( 71. Nor is any time momlty holy, in thiR sense, viz., 
instni mentally holy, or as an instrument and means by which 
God will convey any spiritual and supernatural grace, (as iiacra- 
nenia now do, and »acriliccs of old did ;) but being sanctified of 
God, they are holy seasons, in which God is pleased to meet and 
bleM his people, rather than at other times and days of our own 
devising, or of more common use ; reserving only the Lord's 
prerogative to himself, to work at other times also more or less, 
u he aees meet. Indeed, it is true that by our improvement of 
oor lime, and of such times, the Lord sweetly conveys him»etf to 
OS, yet still it is not by time itself, nor by the day itself; but as he 
(»nv«ys himself to us by holy things, and at holy places, (as the 
mtk and temple,) so in holy timee. 

7%Mf( 72. There are, indeed, sundry scriptures, which, to 
oae wlio is willing to have all days equal, may carry a great 
breadth, and make a specious show ; and I ingenuously confess 
that, tipon a rigidum txnmm of them, they are more weighty and 
heavy than the disputers in this controversy usually fee) them, 
and therefore lliey do more lightly cast them by and pass them 
ever; and it is lo he wished, that those who do not think that all 
_ ! are equal, yet will not acknowledge a seventh day to be 
moral, had not put wen[ions unawares into the hands of othert, 
vircnglhcning them thereby to destroy the morality of any day, 
and CO to lay nil days level; for/l scarce know an argument or 
•cripiore allegerl. by any German writer, against the morality 
«f a K'Tpnih day, but It strikes directly against the morality of 
I any day, which yet they acknowledge to be moral, f , 

TSmm 73. The fairest color and strongest fifrce from GalT 
r. 10, and C<d. ii. 16, lies in the gradation which some supposu 
L lo be ini4.-nded in both those places. " ¥o observe " (saith the 
Mwnle) "days, and months, and times, and years." (Gal. iv. 10.) 
" nvm the apostle seems to ascend from the lesser to the greater, 
1 day* (which are less than mouths, nnd therefore weekly 
baili days) to months, from months, or new moons, to timtn, 
sh are higher than months, nud by which is meant iheir an- 


jiubI feasts and faais, orJered according lo llie «oiyei, or filtf bI pcb- 
Gons of the year ; uod from limes lie ascends y^et hij^lier lo yenra, 
yiz., their sabbatical jenrs, because they were c«lebraled oiice in 
tamy years, sometimes seven, aotoetimes fifty years j/hy whieh 
.gradation it seemii evident that the observation uf dnys, which 
are lesa than mooths, and tiierefore of weekly SttbbKths, ora 
hereby condemned. The like grndation is urged from Col. ii. 
16, where the a|>Mtle seems to descend from condemning the 
greater lo the condemnation of ibe lesser : " Let do man judge 
you" (saith the aposUeJ " in respect of a holy day, new moon, 
or Sabbath days." There holy days seem lo be their annual or 
eabhaticnl days, their new moona are less than then), beLag e* ery 
month; and therefore by Sabbath days (they infer) must needs 
be meant the weekly ^bbath^, lese iban new moons. Indeed, 
.some understand by days and times (in Gal. iv.) heathenish 
days; but he speaking of such days as are beggarly rudiments, 
under which not the lieatbens, but the children of the Old Testa- 
ment were in bondage, (ver. iii.,) he must therefore sjieuk not n£ 
lieatheiiiKb but of Jewish days. I know also that some understaod 
that of Col. ii. 16 to be meant of Jewish and ceremooial Sahbatiiii, 
which were aimual ; but this the apostle's gradation seems to 

T/teiit 74. To both these places, therefore, a threefold an- 
swer may be given. Fii-st, admit the gradation in them both ; yet 
by days (Gal. iv 10) is not necessarily meant all weekly Sab- 
jtiath days, for there were oUier days ceremonial which ibe Jews 
observed, and wtiich the Jewish teachers urged, besides the Sab- 
bath ; to instance only in circmncision, which they sealonsly 
pressed, (Gal. v. S.) which we know was limited unto the eightji 
day. and whicli ihey might urge as well as circumcision itself. 
However, look, as the apostle when he condemns them for ob- 
serving times, xaii/oi, which signifies fit reasons, he doih not 
iberein condemn them for observing all lit aeajjous, (for then we 
most not pray nor hear the word in fit seasons,) but he condemns 
the Jewish ceremonial times and seasons j so ^^'hen he condemns 
(he observation of days, the apostle doth not condemn Ihe obser- 
VHtion of all days, (for then days of fasting an4 feasting must be 
pondemned, as well as days of resting under the New Testament,) 
but the observiuion of ceremonial days, which the Jews observed, 
and fabe tcftchers urged ; and indeed the apostle speaks of such 
roays as were beggarly elements and rudiments./ Kow, James 
'speaking of tlie moral law, which comprehends Sabbath days, he 
do|h not call it a beggarly luw, but a royal law, (James ii. 8, 1 ^ i) 
nor doth he make subjection thereunto lo be the bondage of 


I mrantft, (as thai was. Gal. iv. 0.) but the liberty of children, and 1 
ft ^refure culle'l a royal law of liberty. ^ I 

I Sccoinlly, suppose the n-cekly Sabbalh be liere comprehended 
■'■nder day?, a» also that by Sabbalh is meant weekly Sabbaths, 
I (CoL ii. 1 G ;) yet hereby can not be mennt ihe Christian Sabbath, 

■ but the Jewish Sabbath ; for the apos^lle condemns that Sabbalh 
ftand those Sabbath days which the Jewish teachers pleaded for 

■ amoag the Colossians/ Now, ihey never pleaded for the obaerva- 
flianirf the Christian Subbnth, but were zealuus and strong proctors 
I Jbr thai particul&r seventh day from the creation, which tiie Jews, 
w Ibeir forefathers, for many years before observed, and for the oh- 
w •erratiim of which some among us of lale begin to struggle as at 
I this day. Now, as was said, admit Ihe gradniiou ; we do not ob- 
I serve the Jewish Sabbath, nor judge others in re^ipect of that Snb- 
ft bub, no more than, for observing new moons or holy dnys, we do 
I Blteriy condemn the obserralion of that Sabbath. If it be said, 
I Vhy do we not observe new moons and holy days, as well by sub- 
I •tilultng other days in their room, as we do a Christian Sabbath 
V in the mnm of that Jewish Snbbaih ? we shall give the reason of 
I il in its proper place, which I mention not here, lest I should biM 
k toetam npponere. These places therefore are strong ailments 
I for not oWrvlng tluit seventh day which was Jewish and cere- 
ft Bonial, but ihey give no sulHcient ground for abandoning all 
I Clirisluui Sabbaths under the gospel. 

I Thirdly, there is a double obf^ervulion of days, (as Wallseus and 
I Davenant well observe:) 1. Moral. 2. Ceremonial. Now, the 
P apoAile, in the places alleged, speaks against the ceremonial and 
ft Pharisaical observation of days, but Dot moral ; for days of fast- 

■ aig (u% to be observed under the gospel, (the Lord Christ our 
I Brtd««room bi-ing now taken from us, when our Saviour expressly 
I toll* UK. that then his disciples, even when they had the giM^alcsl 
R aejwures uf Christ's spiritual presence, should fast.) (Matt. is. 

■ 15. 16.) But we are to observe days with moral, not cer- 
I «maiiiiU nbservation, such as the Jews had, in sackcloth, ashes, 

■ iMring knir, rending garments, and many other cercmoniHl trap- 
I pings i we are to rend our hearts, and cry mightily unto God upon 
^^fc mf days, which is the moral observance of them. So it is iu 
^■MMBof Ihe Sabbath ; no Sabbalh day, under the gospel, is to be 
^^H|HM*ith ceremonial or pharisaical observation, with Jewish 
^HpRlion», sacrifices, needless abstinence ft-om lawful work, and 
^^■Ob* formalities ; but doth it hence follow, that no days are 
ViB be obwrved under the gospt:! with moral observation, in hear- 
■.Ipg the word, receiving the sacraments, singing of psalms? elis. 
KThaw w»f 114 morality in the d«w moous, by virtue of ai^y spaciul 

coramandmenl, and therefore it is in 
may not be observed still, as well n 

vain to ask why new moona 
i Sabbaths, provided ibnt it 
be obaervatione morali ; for there is a morality in observing Iho 
Sabbath, and thai by a special cDmrnaod, which is not in new 
moons and holy days; and therefore, as we utterly abandon all 
that which was in the Sabbath ceremonial, so we do and should 
heartily retain and observe that whiuh is moral herein, with moral 
observance hereof. 

Jiesii 75. There were among the Jews days ceremonially 
holy, 03 well as meats ceremonially unclean ; now, in that oilier 
place which they urge against the observation of any days under 
the gospel, (Bom. siv. 5,) therein days ceremonial are com- 
pared with meats ceremonial, and not moral days with ceremo- 
nial meals. It is therefore readily acknowledged that it wan an 
error and weakness in some to think Ihemselres bound to eeilain 
ceremonial days, as well as it was to abstain from certain cere- 
monial meats ; but will it hence fallow, that it is n part of Chiis- 
tian liberty and strength to abandon all days as ceremonial ? and 
that it is a part of Christian weakness to observe any day under 
the gospel Jx- This verily hath not the face of any reason for it 
from this scripture, wherein the apostle (doubtless) speaks of 
ceremonial, not moral days, as (shall appear) our Christian Sab- 
baths be. And, look as it is duty (not weakness) sometimes to 
abstain from some meats, as in the case of extraordinary humili- 
ation, as we see in Daniel, (Dan. ix. and xi.,) so il may be duty 
(not weakness) still to observe some days ; I say not the seveiiLh 
day, for that is not now the question, but some days are or may 
be necessary to be observed now. 

Theti* 76. If any man sliall put any holiness in a day which 
God doth not, and so think one day moie holy than another, thii 
is most abominable superstition, and this is indeed to observe 
days ; and of this tho apostle seems to speak, when he sailb, 
" Ye observe days ;" but when the Lord shall put holiness upon 
pne day more than upon another, we do not then put any hollnesi 
in the day, but God dtith it, nor do we place any holiness in one 
day more than In another, but God plaeeih it first; and this is no 
obsen'ation of days, which the apostle condemns in those that 
were weak, but of tlie will of God which he every where 

Thesis 77. There is (as some call it) SabbatAum interaam 
tl externum, i. e., an internal and external Sabbath ; the first 
(if I (nay lawfully call it a Sabbath) is to be kept every day in 
a special rest from sin \ tlie second is to be observed at ceriain 
time# sod on speuuil days ; now, il' that other plAce (Is. Ixvi. 23) 


■ rat: s.vbbath. 

(which is much urged for the equality of all uajs) be meant of 
I m coniinual Sobbaih, so thiri those wonl^, " fromsKubbaih lo Sub- 
I buh," if they dignify a eonstani, continual wor.ihi^'irf God indeC- 
I initely, then the pro))het speaks of an intertial Sabbat hTVii^ich shall 
'n f pecial be observed under the gospel ; but tbia doth not aboliflh 
I lhf> observation of an external Sabbath ab^o. no more lliun in tbe 
lime* before ibe goi^pel, when the people of Gud were tiound to 
I observe a <v>ntiDUHl Sabbath and rest from iin, and yet wtire not 
exempted hereby from external Sabbatba, oa\y because more 
e b poured out upon the people of Gud under tbe New Tes- 
I ttment than under the Old, and under aonie times and seasons 
I of the New Testament, and some people, more than at and upon 
I others : hence tbid prophecy points at the limes of tbe gospel, 
wherein God's people shall worehip God more spiritually and con- 
tinually than in former limes. But if by this phrase, " from Sab- 
bath to Sabbath," be meant succession, i. e., one Sabbath after 
knuther succe«sively, wherein God's people shall enjoy blessed 
fvlkiwsbip with God from Sabtiatb to Sabbath, successively in the 
worship of him, one Sabbath after another, then this place is such 
t • weapon in their own bonds against them^elvef, as that it 
wouiuls to tbe heart tliat accursed conceit, that all days should be 
^wndoned by those under the New Testament. Itut suppose 
It by Sabbath is not meant the weekly Sabbath, (fur then, say 
ae, what will you undcnitand by now moons, which are con- 
I jtnned with them ?) yet these two things are evident : I. That 
1 SabhMhs and new moons were set times of worshiping God under 
I the Old Testament. 8. That it is usual with the prophets to 
ail (and not always to type out) the worthip, and so the limes 
I at worship which were lo be under the New Testament, under 
1 Ibe ordiuonees of God observed in the Old. as may appear. Is. 
I six. 19 i Ual. i. 11 ; asalwby Eiekiel's temple, and such like: 
I lwn«*, then, it follows, that alihougb this place should not evict a 
Iwvcnth day's Sabbath, yet it demonstrates at least thus much, 
■ Ihu tame set times and days, fihadowed out under the name of 
I'Mw mooos and Sabbaths, are to be observed under tha New 
I Tetdameni ; and this is sufficient lo prove ihe point in bund, that 
U days are not equal under tbe gospeL 
7%««w 78. The kingdom of heaven, indeed, doth nol consist 
I In meat and drink, as the a|iosile saith, (Kotn. xiv. 17,) i. e., in 
ase of external indilferent things, as those meats and drinks, 
■And some kind of days, were ; or if in some sense it did, yet nut 
B'iriiiefly in tbem, as if almost all religion did chiefly consist in 
K tbem : but doih it from hence follow, iliat it consists not in things 
^Wnuuonded, nor in any set days of wgc^bip, which arq woi* 



manded ? If because the kingdom nf God consistK in intemal 
peace, and riglitcou^neas, and juy of the Holy Ghost, thai there- 
fore all Rxleronl observances of times and duties of worship ara 
not necessary to be attended by gospel wol-shipers, (as some 
secreily imagine,) then farewell all external preaching, sacra* 
meuts, profession, and confession of tlie name of Christ, as well 
aa Sabbaihs : and let such artists of licentiousness bring in all 
profaneness into the world again, by a law from heaven, not con- 
deuuing the acts of the outward man, though never so uboraina- 
lile, in abstinence from which (by this rule) the kingdom of heav- 
en doth not coneiaL Is it no honor to the King of glory (as it 
is to eartlity princes) to be served sometimes upon spetiial fesli- 
valfl, in special alate, with specinl and glorious attendance by his 
people, as well as after a common and usual manner every day ? 
We have seen some, who have at first held community of days 
only, lo full at last (through the righteous judgment of God 
blinding tlicir hearts) to maintain community of wives; and that 
because the kingdom of God hath (-as ihey have thought) con- 
sisted no more in outward relations, (as that is between bui^bands 
and wives) than in (he observation of external circumsiancos 
and d ays. 

1 " 'metis 73, But this is not the ordinary principle by which 

■ many are led lo maintain an equality of days under the gospel ; 
but ibis chiefly, viz., that tlic moral law is not to be a Christian's 
rule of life ; for we acknowledge it to be no covenant of life to a 
believer, that either by the keeping of it he should be justified, 
or that for the breach of it In; should be condemned ; but titey 
say, that when a believer hath life by the covenant of grace, the 
law b now not ho much nn a rule of life to such a one ; and then 
it is no wonder if they who blow out the tight of the whole moral 
law from being a light to tlu^ir feet and a lamp to their paths, if 
they hereby utterly extinguish this pari of it, viz., the command- 

|ment of the Sabbath. | This dashing against the whole law is 
the very rayBtery of ibis iniquity, why some do cashier this law 
of the Sabbath : and Ihey do but hide themselves behind a 
ihreud, when (hey oppose it by their weapons, who therefore 
abandon it, hecnuse it nlonst is ceremonial, above any other taw. 
THen'f t^O. "The SitbUiih" (saith one) "is perpetual and 

' moral, but not the Subbnih day; the Sabbath" (which some make 
continual and inward only) "is perpetually to be observed, but 
not the Sulibiiih day ; a Sabbath is by divine ordinaiiuo, but a 
Sabbath day is lo be observed only as a human consliiuiiuii." liut 
they should do well to consider, whether that which ihey call an 
inward cootiuuol Sabbath b« ioconsisleDt with a upttdal day ; for I 




a tare that iLoy uDder the Old TeslAmcnl were bound equally 
' tritb us to observe a conlinual Sabbath iu resting rrom all sin, 
L ud reding in Go<l by Jvsus Chml, (Hob. iv. 1, 2;) yet this 
I 4id not exempt ihem from observing a special day. A Epecial 
L day u A mo^t powerful mcuns lo Sabbaiize every day ; why then 
1 Slay not a Subbaih aod n Sabbath day consist together ? An 
IiBirery-day Sabbath h equally opposite to h lime occsaionally set, 
1|^ to a set day, which the coDunandracnt enjoins ; and therefore, 
B'jf it exempts a Christian from observing a set day, it sets him 
B'free aiso from all observation of any euch set time ; for if, because 
rvUiristian Sabbath ought to be continual, and that therefore 
here ought to be no set days, then there should not be any occa- 
ioually tet times for the worship of Giod, because these neither 
fto be continual ; aod if there ought to be no such set times, wa 
f moij ibeo bid good night to all the public worsbip and glory of ~ 
I God iu ilic world, lUie the man with one eye to him who put his 
I pUicr vje quite oui. And if aiiy here reply, that there M not the 
k Ute rcMfion, because holy liuie and days arc not necessary, but 
t hxHy duties are ueces^ary, and therefore retjuire some occasional 
I au time fur them. I answer, that, let the difference be grunted, yet 
,1 whieli I now dispute on is this ground and supptt<ilion only, 
I TU^ tluil if all s«t days ar« to be abandoned, because a Christian's 
I Sabhalb ought to be continual and inward, theu all ocin^ionul 
Y let times aido are to be abandoned upon the same ground, be- 
I fiMue these can not be continual and inward no more than the 
I ^tber : ae for them who think no holy day necessary, but holy 
•0 lawful every <lay, we have already, and shall bcreaAer 
_ r up more fully in iu proper place. Meanwhile it is yet 
I doubtful to me whether those who follow Master Saltmarsh and 
ne others will acknowledge the of any occasional 
: timm for public worship, of hearing the word and prayer, 
[ tU- For he makes the bosom of the Father to be the Chri»- 
rlki) S^Utbaih, typified in the seventh day of the first creation, 
I (Bf) be makes the six days of work to be a type, not only of the 
I I<ard JcfUS in his nrCtive aod fulfilling administrations while he 
1 Vtu in ibii flesh, but also to be a figure of the Christian in bond- 
I IB*^' "^ (to "^ '<i^ "*■' words) of a Christian under active and 
I- Working adminisirittiuns, as ibose of the law and gospel are. B3 
'\ forms of worship, duties, graces, prayer, ordinances, etc. 
rom wb«uce it wjll follow, (from his principles, for I know not 
I pntctice.) that all fonns of worship, duties, graces, prayer, 
R ordinance*, urn tlieu lo ceuse. o-'^ types, and shadows, and ligure«, 
D oncL' the substance is come, (o wit. when they come in this 
mW^ lo the higlte&t atlAininenl, which is the bosom of the Father, 


THK 1 

man/ N 

which bosom is tl»e Iriie Sabbnth of a Christian man/ Now, I 
confess ihnt (be bosom of God in Clirist is our rest, and our all 
in all in heaven, and uur sweet consolalion anil r<?sl on earth, and 
that we are not to rest in anj means, ordinances, graces, duties, 
but to look beyond them all, and to be carried by them above 
them all, to Him that is better than all, to Uod in Christ Jesus ; 
but to make this bosom of God a kind of canker worm to fret 
and eat out the heart and being, not only of all Sabbaths and 
ordinances of worship, but also of all duties and graces of God'a 
Spirit, nay, of Christ Jesus himself, as he is manifested in the 
flesh, and is an external Mediator, whom some lately have also 
cast into the same box with the rest, being sent only (as they 
think) to reveal, but not to procure the Father's love of delight, 
and ifaerefors is little else than a mere form, and so to cease 
when the Father comes in the room of all forms, and so is nil in 
all. This, I dare say, is such a high affront to the precious blood 
of Christ, and his glorious name, and blessed spirit of grace, that 
be who hath his furnace in Zion, and his (ire in Jerusalem, will 
not bear it long, without making their judgments and plagues (at 
least spiritual) exemplary and wonderful, and leading them forth 
in s uch crooked ways, with the workers of iniquity, when peace 
I aliall be upon Israel. Are these abstracted notions of a Deity 
I (into the vision and contemplation of whose amazing glory — with- 
out seeing him as he is in Christ — a Christian, they say, must 
be plunged, lost, and swallowed up, and up to which he must 
ascend, even to the unapproachable light) the true and only 
tiabbaib? Are these (I say) the new and glorious light bceak- 
ing out in these days, which this age must wait for? which are 
nothing else (upon narrow search) than monkish imaginations, 
the goodly cobwel« of the brain-imi^ery of those idolatrous and 
superstitious hypocrites, the anchorites, monks, and friars ; who, 
to make the blind and simple world admire and gaze upon ihem, 
gave it out hereby, like Simon Magus, that they were some great 
ones, even the ^ery power and familiars of God. Surely, in 
these limes of distraction, war, and blood, if ever the Lord called 
for sackcloth, humiliation, repentance, faith, graces, holiness, pre- 
cious esteem of God's ordinances, and of that gospel which hath 
been the power of God to the salvation of thousands, now is the 
time ; and must God's people reject these things as their A, B, C ? 
and must the new tight of these times be the dreams, and visions, 
Ljind slaverings of doting and deluded old monks? Shall the 
simplicity of gospel ministry be rejected, as a common thing, 
and shall Haruktitt, Theologia Mt/ifica, Augwtinu* JSlulhe- 
riu4, Jaeoh BrJimen. Cufamit, Raimundut Scibund, Theologia 

r TUE MORALITV <H TItt: SAlitiAtn. 83 

tifennaiiieai niii) such like raonk-admirers, lie set up as llie iiewl 
lights and beacooa on the mounuin of ilie^e elevuted timgg?! 
Sbrelj (if (o) God hath his time and waj^ of putting a better 
reliuh to his precious gospel, and the cross of Christ, which wos 
wont in Faul'a time to be pluinlj preached, without such Popish 
paintings, and wherein Grod's people knew how lu reconcile their 
aweet rest in ihi? bosom of the Father, and their Sahbnih dny. 
TTietU 81. If ein (whicli is the transgress ion-of the law) he the 
»te«t evil, then hohness (wlt ich is juiLOjjiforiiji ty in ihe law ) is 
r greatest good. If sin be inan's greatest misery, then holiness 
a'e greatest happiness : it is therelbre no bondage for a Chris- 

be bound l«4he observance of the lavr as his rule, because 
t onljr binds him fast to his greatest happiness, and thereby 
" ects and keeps him safe from falling into the greatest misery 

i woe ; and if the great design of Christ, in coming into the 
srld, wad not so much to save man from affliction and sor- 
«, (which arc lesser evils.) but chie fly from sin, (which is the 
it evil,) then the chief end of his coming was not (as some 
i) U lift his people up into the love and abstracted epecii- 
[. the Father above the law of Gnd, but into his own 
where only we have ft-llowship with the Father 
B iaw of sin. 

I B2. The blood of Christ wan never shed to destroy all 
tase of sin and sight of sin in believers, and consequently all 
tendance to any rule of the law, by which means chiefly sin 
w seen ; but he died rather to make ihem sensible of 
: for if he died to save men from sin, (as is evident, I John 
i. 5; 11l ii. 14,) then he died to make his people sensible of 
I, because licreby his people's hearts are chielly weaned and 
ktered from it, and saved out of it, (as by hardness and insen- 
~leiwka of heart under it, I hey chietly cleave to it, and it to 
beiD ;) lutd therefore we know thai godly sorrow works repenl- 
novor to he repented of. (2 Cor. vii. 10.) And that Pha- 
s hardness of heart strengthened him in his sin agiunst God 
■to the lost gasp, and hence it is also that the deepest and 
atest spirit of mourning for sin is jnured out upon believers, 
tr God hath poured out upon them the Spirit of grace, as is evi- 
nt, (Zcch. xii. 10, 11,) because the blood of Christ, which was 
: the killing of their sin, now midies ihem sensible of 
r ain, because it is now sprinkled and applied to them, which 

1 not before, for they now see all their sins aggravated, 
ing DOW not only sins against the law of God, bui against the 

1 and love of the Son of God : it is therefore a tnoni tut- 
»d doctrine of some libcrlines, who imagining that (through 


Ihe bloodslied and righteousness of Christ in their free justifica- 
tion) God sees no sin in liia ju.atified people, tliat therefore lhem> 
selves are lo see no sin, because now they are justified and 
washed with Christ's blood ; and therefore lest they should bo" 
found out to be gross liars, lliey mince the matter, they confess 
that they may see sin by the eye of sense and reason, but (faith 
being cross i« reason) they are therefore to see the quite con- 
trary, and so to see no sin in themselres by Ihe eye of faith ; 
from whence it follows, that Christ shed his blood to destroy all 
sight and sense of sin to the eye of faith, though not to the eye of 
reason, and thus, as by the eye of faith they should see no sin, so 
(it will follow) that by the same blood they ore bound to see no 
law, no, not so much aa their rule, which as a rule is index «ui 
et , oblii/ui. and in revealing man's duly declares his sin. 'I 

1 know that, in beholding our free juBlification by the blood of 

I Christ, we are to exclude all law from our consciences as a cove- 
nant of life, not to see or fear any condemnation for sin, or any 
sin able to lake away life : but will it hence follow, that a jus- 
tified person mufit see no sin by the eye of faith, nor any law ss 
his rale to walk by, to discover sin ? and is this the end and 
fVuit of Christ's death too ? Surely this doctrine, if it be not 
blasphemous, yet it may be known to be very false and per- 
nicious, by [be old rule of judging false doctrines, \-ir., if eithir 

I they tend to extenuate sin in man, or to vilify the precious grace 

\ of Je sua Cliria% as this doctrine doth. 

fhstii 83. If sin be the transgression of the law, (which is a 
truth written by the apostle with the beams of the snn, (1 John 
■ iii, i,) then of necessity a believer is bound to attend the law as 
his rule, that so he may not sin or Iransgress that rule, (Ps. 
cxis. 11;) for whoever makes conscience of sin can not but 
make conscience of observinjf the rule, that so he may not sin i 
and conaequeotly whoever make no conscience of observing 
the rule do openly professs thereby that they make no con- 
Bcience of commiiling any sin, whicli is palpable and down- 
right atheism tuid profnneness ; nay, it is such profaneness 
(by some men's principles) which Christ bath purdiased fur 
them by his blood; for ibey make the death of Christ the 
foundation of this ltl)erty and freedom from the law, as their 
rule ; tlie very thought of which abominable doctrine may smile 
a heart, who hath the least tenderness, with horror and trem- 
bling. Porquius, therefore, a great libertine, and the Beelzebub 
of those flies in Calvin's time, shuts his sore eyes against this 
definition of sin, delivered by the apostle, and makes this only to 
be a sin. viz., to see, know, ur feel sin, and that the great sin of 



a is ro think llitU he doth sin. nnd lhn( (hU U lo put off lbs 
tonn, vUt Bid eernendo ampli'ui peccatum, i.e., by not seeing -_" 

Su thai when the apostle leila us, that em is Ibe Iransgres- 

I of the. law, Porqiiiua tells us, that sin is the seeing and 

Ing notice of nny such transgression ; surely if they that con- 

I sin shall Hnd mcrey, [heu they that will not bo much ob «ee 

a shall find none at all, A believer, indeed, ia to die unto the 

m, and to see no sin in himself in point of impQIation, (for so 

kIw sees the truth, there being no condemnation to them in Christ 

B2Mu*.)but thus lo die unto the law. so as to eeo no sin inherent in 

Ekimself against the taw, ihis is impious, (fur so lo see nu siu, 

land die unto the law. is an untruth,' if the apostle may be 

I Mieved. (1 John i. 10.) Those that so annihilate a ChrUtianTI 

1 make him nothing, and God all, so that a Chrisiian must'l 

I vither tare , itlU. or gmij it any thing of himself, but he must be * 

1 'Melted thny (jod, and die to tlieae, (for then they say he is out of 

I Vbe flesh,) and tivt- in God, un<l God must be himself, and such 

IMte language^ whidi in truth is nothing else but the swelling 

Blnven of the devout and proud monks, laid up of late iu ihnt 

Eftulc pock of mesl of T/ieologia Germanicot out of which Bom« 

'•en up of lute have mode iheir ntked, for the ordinary food of 

Mir deluded hearers: I say, ilietie men had need lake heed 

■fcw they stand upon this precipice, and that they deliver their 

warily ; for although a Christian is to be nothing by 

iKeing and loathing himself for sin, that so Christ may be nil in 

11 t» him, yet so lo be made nothing, as to $ee, know, think, 

mI, will, desire nothing In respect of one's self, doth inevitably 

»d to see no sin in one's self, by seeing which the sout is most 

^«f all humbled, and so God and Jesus Christ is most of all I 

Itu] J and yet such a kind of annihilation the old monks h ave) 

K'pleaded Tor, and preached also, (as I coald show abundantly from 

It of their own writings,) insomuch that sometimes they counsel 

in not lo pray, because Ihey must be so far annihilated as 

til p(sB# ; and sometimes they would feign tliemselves unable 

O bear the burden of the species of their own pitchers in their 

idU from one end of them unio another, because, forsooth, they 

o far annihilaiod as neither to vtlle, so neither to tcire or 

low any thing bfsidu God, whom they pretended to be all unto 

11, and tltemsi-hes nothing, when God knows these things 

e tmt brain bubbles, and themselves in these things as arrant 

^potritet as tJie euiib bore, and the most subtle underminers of 

K gracQ of Christ and the salvation of men's souls. . 

T&Mi'i 84. A true believer, thougli he can not keep the law I 

rfe«dy, as hU rule, yet be loves it, dearly : he blames his own I ' 


' lietirt wlieii he can not keep it, but dolh not find faull wtlli the Taw 
as loo hard/ but cries out with Paul, "The law is holy and good, 
Gul I am carnal ; " he lovus thia copy, though he can but scribble 
aflcr it; when, therefoi'e, the questioa is made, vis:., whether a 
believer be bouud to the law as his rule, the meaning is not, 
whether he hath power to keep it exactly as his rule, or by what 
means he is to seek power to keep it ; but (he question is, wheth- 
er it be in itself a believer's rule ; for fo to be a rule is one 
thing, but lo be able lo keep it, and by what nienna we should 
keep it, whether by our own strength or no, or by i)ower from 
on high, is another. 

Thetit sa. If the njKMlle had thought that all believers wero 
free from this directive power of ihe law, he would never have 
persuaded them l o love ,, upon this ground, viz., because all the 
law is I' ul filled in Jove, (Gat. v. 13, 14,) for they might then have 
weak and feeble, and have truly said, {if 
,) Whal have we to do with the law ? 
There is the inward law written on the heart, 
ii. 2,) and there i 

cast oR' this argument a 
this principle were true 

'Thmi 86. 
called Ihe law of the Spirit of life, (Rom 

' the outward law revealed and written in Ihe Holy Scriptures. 
Now, the extenial^a[|di)ul)yardlaw is properly the rule of a Chris- 
tian lifeTan^not tjic internal nnilJaS^^la*^^ (as some conceive ;) 
for the oulwac^Jaw is that it perfectly declares whal is 
God's will andw lianE5lT'but the inward bw (as received and 
writ in our hearts) is iim nrfprt jp ( jj ia lif i-. and therefore unfit to 
b« our nite. The inwai-d law is our actual (yet imperfect) con- 
formity to the rule of ihe law without', it is not, therefore, the 
rule itself; the htwwilhinjs^iR jIiing lo fyi r uU-d. (Pe, xvii. 4i 
cxIk. 4, 5.) The outward lawTiberefore, is the rule ; the law 
of the Spirit of life (which is the internal law) is called a law, 
not in respect of perfect direction, (which is essential to the rule,) 
but in respect of mighty and effectual openition. there being a 
power in it as of a strong law effectually fltlU BWeelly compelling 
to the obedience of the law ;/for as the law of sin wiihin us 
(wlitch the ajwslle calls the law of our members, and is contrary 
to the law of our minds, or the law of the Spirit of life within us) 
is not Ihe rule of knowing and judging whal sin is, but the law 
of God wilhoul, (Rom. vii. 7,) and yd it is called a law, because 
it hath a compulsive power lo act and incline to sin, like a mighty 
and forcible law ; so the law of the Spirit of life, the law of our 
minds, is called a law ; not that it is the rule of a Christian's life, 
but that it uomjiels the heart, and forcetb it, like a living law, to 
tliQobe<lience of that directing rule (when it is made known to 

I'll) from without. It iti therefore a great mistake to Ibinlc ihM 

I^God translates tiie Inw without into a belii^ver's heart,! 

refore ihti heart law is hb onlj or principiil rule of lire,! 

fcwtnBgine ihai the Spirit without tbe external law is the rule \ 

F«f life; the Spirit is the priiidple, indeed, or our obedience, ' 

I whereby we conform unto the rule, but it is not therefore the r 

l-tnelf. /It is true indeed, 1. That the Spirit inclines the heart [ 

) the obedience of the rule. 2. It illuminates the mil 

! many limes to see it by secret shininga of preventing light, 

[ u well as brings things to their remembrance which they knew 

before. 3. It acts them also aomeiimes, so as when they know 

Bot what to pray, it prompts them. (Rom. viii. ]C.) When they 

I know not what to speak before their adversaries, in that day it is 

I given to Ihem, (Matt. x. 19 ;) when they know not whillier to 

go, nor how to go, it is then a voice behind them, and leads ihem 

to roantains of living waters. (Is. xxx. 21. Rev. vii. 17.) 

I But all these and such like quickening acts of the Spirit do not 

1 argue it to be our rule, accoriling to which we ought to walk, but 

I only by which, or by means of which, we_OTmeto_wa!k, and 

I «re inclined, directed, and enabled to walk 'according to the rule, 

I which id the law of God without. For the pilot of the ship ia 

BOt the compass of the ship, becau::te that by the pilot the 

■hip is guided : nor doth il argue that the Spirit is our rule, be- 

Jise be guides us according to the rule ; it is not essential to 

e role to give power to conform unto it, but to be that aceord- 

j lag to which we are to be conformed. And therefore ii is a 

I «raiy argument to prove the law of the Spirit to be the rule of 

I onr life, because it chiefly gives us power to conform unto the 

I nle i for if the law be that according to which we are to be 

I guided, although it should give us no power, yet this is suHicient 

'ataake it lo be our rule. 

n«it* 87. The Spirit of God which writ the Scriptures and 

I'fa them this rule of the holy law, is in the Scriptures, and in that 

[ hw.u well as in a believer's heart ; and therefore to forsake and 

reject the Scriptureti, or this written rule, is to forsake and reject 

the Holy Spirit speaking in it as their rule ; nay, it is to forsake 

tluM Spirit which is tbe supreme Judge, according to which all 

privMe ftpirit«, nay, all the actings, dictates, movings, stxuikings 

i of God's own Spirit in us, are lo be tried, examined, and judged. 

[To the law and the testimony was the voice of the propb- 

) their day». (Is. viti. 20.) The Lord Christ himself 

K-Vefers the Jews to the searching of Scriptures concerning bim- 

I lelf. (John V. 39.) The men of Bereah are commended .for 

I •xamiDtng the lioly and infallible dictates of God's Spirit, in Paul's 

r, according to wtutt was written in the Scriptnrci of oA. 


■ Til*: «\iiiiArK. 

TTt U therefnre but a cracking noi^ of winOj words for nny lo 
>Miy ttmt tliey open do gap lo li(«ntiouji>e^ by renouncing ihe 
wriittn and external law as their rule, coiwideriiis that iliej cleave 
to a more inward and better rule, viz., the luw of the Spirit 
vrilliin ; for (as hnlh been shown) liusy do indued renounci' the 
Holf Spirit speaking in tlie rule, viz., tbe Irw without, winch, 
though it be no rule of ihe Spiril, (as eonw object,) yet it ia that 
rule ac«>rding to wliiuli the Spirit guides us lo walk, nod bj 
which we are to judge whether Uie guidance be the Spirit's 
I guida nce or no. 

•^&!u:tU 88. Some Ba.y, " that the difference between ibe Old 
iTeBt&meat dispensation and the New, or pure gospel and new 
covenant, is tbia, to wit, that the one, or that of Moses, was 
a ministry from without, and that of Christ from wilhin ; nod 
hence llicy say, that the mere couunandment, or letter of Scrip- 
ture, is not a law to a CUriijtian why lie should walk in holy 
duties, but the taw written on our hearts, the law of life." But 
if this be the diifcreuce between the Old and New Testament 
dispensation, l^e niini^try of tlie 0\i and the miuiatrjof tbe New, 
then let all believers burn their Bibles, ood cast all the sacred 
vritiugs of tbe New Testament and Old unto spiders and cob- 
webs in old hole-s and comers, aud never be read, spoken, or 
meditated on, for these external tbings are noae of Chrial's iom- 
\ iUrjf on which now believers are to attend i/and then 1 miu'- 
hllT fthy the apostles preaebed, or why they writ the gospel for 
after times, (for that was the chief end nf their writing, as it waa 
of the prophets in their times, Is. xxJC. 8,) that men might be- 
lieve, and believing have eternal life, and know hereby that tliey 
have eternal life. (John xx. 31. 1 John v. 13.) For ekher 
their writing and preaching the gospel wm not an external aod 
outward Kiinistry, (which 'n cross lo common sense,) or it was not 
Christ's ministry, which is blasphemous to imagine ; and it is a 
Tain shift for any to say, that although it was Christ's miois- 
try, yet it was his ministfy as under the law, aad in tbe Beth, and 
not in mere glory and spirit ; for it is evident that llie ni>OEtIo's 
preachings and writings were the effect of Christ's ascension and 
glory, (Epb. iv. 8, 11,) when he was most in ttie spiril, and had 
received the spirit that he might pour it out by lliii outward 
ministry, (Acts ii. 33 ;) and it is a mere new-oothing and dream 
of Master Saltmarsh aud others, to distinguish between Cliriet 
in ^sJliu^jLtid Chrial^-ia-Uie Spirit, as if the one Cbrist had a 
diveiaejainirtqjrom t he oth er : for when the Comforter is come, 
fvhich is ChristintEeSpirif,) what will he do ? He will lead (it 
<M Bali) unto all truth. (John xvi, IS.) But what tnith will he 

IB onto ? Verily to no other (for suh?innce) hul what Christ 
B ifae flesh had spoken ; nnd therefore it i^ said (hnt he shall 

■ Wing all things to yuiir remembrnnce, whatsoever I have said 
■imio you, (John xiv. 2S ;) nnd therefore (if I may u.'m; their 

te) Ch tist in the Spirit leada us I n v^hiir flirwi in the flesh ' 
. inniird Uhrist lcad« the faithful to the ouEwartl ministry ( 
P«r Christ ; Christ in the SpiiHt to Christ speaking in the leller, 
Ibe Spirit of truth to the word of truth, the Spirit within to the 
word without, by which we shall be judged at the lost ilny, (John 
^i. 48,) anil therefore certainly are lo be regulated by it now. . 
Theiit 89. It is true that the faithful receive an unclioa or* 
I an anointing of the Spirit, which teacheth them all things ; but ia I 

■ this teaching immediate or mediate ? If immediate, why doth 
E^ohn tell them th»t he writ to them that hereby they might know 
lUiey had eternal liff? (1 John v. 13;) but'ifit be mediate, 
Kvls.. by t he word extemaH y prp^hpil nr writ, (hen the eslemal 

■ trord still is lo be our rale, which the anointing of the Spirit 
ftielps us to know ; it is true, the apostle sailh, (1 John ii. 27,) 

■ 4fcU they, being taught of the Spirit, did not need that any man 

■ Aould tfoch them : what then ? was iheir teaching therefore im- 
Vsediaie ? No, verily, fur the apostle explains his meaning in 

Ibe words following, vix.. olh«;rwise. and aftt:r another way and 
■■nner. then as the Spirit taught them, for no the words run, 
>* \o» need not that any man ehould tearh you, but as the anoint- 
g l«achetb you all things, nnd is truth." Fur if ministers are 
9 preach and write in demonsinilion of the Spirit, then thoee 
' '. hear tbem, and are taught by them, need no man to teach 
B otherwise than as the Mime Spirit in the Mime demonstra- 
I l«tichetU them nil things.^i might be truly said that the 
n of Bereah did need tio man to teach them otherwise than as 
D Spirit, in compai'ing and searching the Scriptures, did teach 
a the things which Paul spake. And Calvin well observes 
n ibis plncf. that the sco[ie of the apostle, in these words, ia 
ifirm hi* doctrine which he writ to them, it being no un- 
it tiling, but H thing known to them by the anointing of the 
I, which either they had received by former ministry of the 
lOr which now thvy might receive by this writing ; as there- 
« tlH) Spirit lends us to the wonl, su the word leads us to the 
^ irit, but never to,j8jHntjviihouiand l>ey(md the word ; I mean 
• far forth as that tlie out war3"agini! i t t;ini t i o n nf Clirist in the 
nb, or in the word, or letter, mu^t cease, and be laid aside, when 
itiwnrd adminiyiration of Christ in the Spirit come*. 
TAtli* UU. Il ia as weak an argument lo imagine that we tire \ 
m he led nnd |[uidMl by any outward commands iu our ab«- 1 

Iftccop iplish rII the promises for us. For, if the question be, 
TT^'iat are we to live? Ihe sposllc'i nnswer is full, (Gal. ii. 
19, 20,) thai nil he did not live but hj llic faith of the Son of 
God, so are we, Hot if the question be. According to what rule 
are we to lis-e, and wherein are we to live? the answer is 
given b y pHvid . (Pa, cxix, 4, 5.) " Tliou hast commanded us lo 
keep thy prccopla diliscnily. O that my heart were directed to 
keep ihy statutes. Deal bountifully wiih thy servant, that I may 
live and keep thy word." (ver. 17.) " Let thy mercy come to me, 
that I may live, for ihy law ii ray delight." (ver. 77.) So that 
if 'the question be, What is the rule of faith by which we live? 
the answer is, Tim youpml . (Phil. iii. IG.) But if ilie question 
be. What is Ihe rule of life itself? the answer is. The mora l 
law; and of this latter is the controversy. 

^ Thtnis 91, The commanding will of God, called rolimtat 
*mandali, h l o be our rul e, and not the working will of God, 

■creti, or the will of God's 
fulfilling the one, but we may sin in fulliliing the other. 
'God's secret and working will was fulfilled when Joseph's breth- 
ren sold him into Egypt, and when Nebucliadnexzar afflicted 
God's people seventy years, as also when the scribes and 
Pharisees caused Clirist to be crucified ; yet in all these things 
a they sinned and provoked God's wrath against tlicni. How ? 
" Was it in crossing and thwarting God's working will, or the will 
' of God's decree ? No, verily, for it is expressly said, ihai Christ 
was crucified according to the determinate counsel and will ot 
God. (Acta iv. 28.) It was therefore by crossing God's com- 
Imanding will. It is therefore a hellish device of libertines to 
exempt men from all law, and from the sense of all sin._ Be- 
I cause (say they) all things good and evil come from God's will, 
and all things tlml are done are wrought by him, and all that 
be doth is good, and therefore all sinful actions are good, because 
God works ihem : tor what have we lo do to lake the measure 
of our ways by his working will ? God's will is his own rule to 
w prk with , not our rule toworkjjy. Our actions may be most 
I BinHil, when Iiis working ui and about these may be most just 
'^ and holy ; for though God purgioseth to leave the creature lo fall 
,. and sin, yet he so purposed it as lliat it should be only through 
VthuF "^'o ^i*"l' >'»" *'<' '''^y s'"- ^"^ although a Christian is 
Ho labmU humbly to tha just diaptosaiioua of GU>d wltea ht 

THE tlOml-ITr < 

Imtm ii 

vil, yd God'it working will 
be our rule, for tben we m 
AwD sin, but our own a&liciioa nnd penli 
these are coninjneil under hii working will 
\t gutitle and pernicious practiuu in many 
\ 0%-ertaken wiih any ain, or hampered 

ATH. 91 

in all snch dispen- 
<il will nol only our 
on forever; for all 
It is therefore a 
who, when they are 
I, they wash all off 
. from tliemselves, and lay all tliC blame (if any be) upon God 
' himself, ^ayiDg, The Lord lelt me. and he doih not help me, 
I and be must do all. and halh undertaken lo do all ; if therefore 
upon him be the blame ; or if there be any upon tlieni, it la 
but little. But why should any judge of the evil of their sin by 
God*« working will ? forthat is not your rule, but the commanding 
will of tied ; according lo which Samuel convinced Saul (when 
he was left of God to spare Agng) Uiat his digobedicnce agmnst 
tbe commnndraeni was rebellion, and aa the sin of wilchcraA in 
e eyes of G«l. (1 Sum. iv. 23.) 

T^Mi'f 92. It is a great part of Christ's love lo command us 
lo do any thing for him, as well as to promise to do any thing 
When the King of glory halh given ua our lives by 
promise, it is then the next part of his Bi«cial grace and favor 
to roiumnnd us lo »Iand before him and attend upon his greal- 
iiiinually. They ihat see how justly Ihey deserve to be 
forsaken of God, and given over lo their own hearts' lusts, and 
to be forever sinning and blaspheming God in hell, where God 
vill never command ihem to think of him, «peak of him, do for 
ilim, pray to him more, can not but acooani it a high and special 
" fcvor of Jesus Christ to command them any thing, or bid them 
my thing for him ; a poor, humbled prodigal will account it 
great love to be made a hired servant : John Baptist will count 
it a high favor if ho may but untie Christ's shoe lalchet, anH be 
commanded by him lo do the meanest work for him: David 
wondered at God's grace Inward him, flial God should command 
him, and in some measure enable him to offer willingly : *■ Lord, 
(saith he) what ore we ? " 1 clo thi^refore marvel how any can 

Ereiend that ihey are acted by the luvc uf Christ, and not by Ihe i 
iw of commands, considering thai there is so much love tn 
a for Christ to i»ramnnd, and how they can profess their relish 
I of preaching God's free grate and love, and yei can not away 
y with iwcet and gracious exhortations pressing lo holiness and . 
f holy duitet, in the revealing and urging of which there is so * 
I Buch firee grace and heart love of Christ Jesus : snrely if [he 
I IvTC of Christ is to lead us, llien the commands of Christ (wl 
I ID hs disovvers one chief pari of his love) are to guide us, 
a ml* of life unto us. Tha man who in bis cog) aod 



s. and H 

dalib- ■ 


t orate thouglilB imagines that a ChrUtran under the rule of ihe 
[ law ia a Christian unJpr boiidti^, may be juslly feared that 
biiai«If is Btill under the I>ondn)i;e of sin and Salan, and never 
yet knew what ihe true love of Christ Jesus is to this day- 

I- ' Thetit 93. The fundamental error of Anttiiomians ariselh 
from this — in imagiiiiDg the great difTerence between (he law 
, and gospel lo be this, viz., that the law re quires doing, but 
tlie gospel no doing, and that all believers, being under "'- ' — 


e Hierelore under no law of doing ; but we raust knt 
thai, na the gos]iel esaets rio'Hoingrihal thereby we may be just, 
so it requires doing also when by Christ Jesus we are made 

Must. I For if the gospel eommand us lo be holy as God is holy, 

'T (I* Pet. i. 15,1 and perfect aa our heavenly Father is perfect, 

(Matt. V. 48,) then the goiipel doth not only require doing, but 

' ntEb as much perfection of doing as the law dolh ^thc law and 
the p>spcl require the same perfection of holiness, only here is 
ihe difference, (which many have not observed :) (he gospel doll) 
not urgeJiis perfection, nor require it of us as the Jaw doth; 
for the law calling and urging of it ihnt so hereby we may be 
made jusf.lrilierefore accepts of nbiKing but perfection ; but the 
gospel requiring it because we are perft-ctly just already in 
Christ, hence, though it commands ua as much as the law, yet 
it accepts of less, even the least measure of sincerity and per- 
fection mixed with the greatest measure of imperfection. 
^FJiesit 94. The law (say some of the Antinoroians) is lo be 

I kept as an eternal rule of righteousness ; but their meaning then 
i.S (hnt believers nre thus to keep it in Christ, who linth kept it 
for Ihera, and if they meant no more but ihat Christ bath kept it 
lor righteousness to their justitication, they speak truly ; but 
their meaning herein is not only in respect of their justification, 
but alao in respect of their sanciificalion ; for ihey make Christ's 
righteousness to be materially and formally their sanclificBlion : 
hence tbcy sny, A believer hatb repented in Christ, and mor- 
tified Bin in Christ, and that morlilicalion and vivificalion are 
nothing but a l>elieving ihat Christ hath morlificd sin for them, 
Hnd been quickened for thein, and that that sanctifl cation which 
is inherent in Cbrisi, and not that which is inherent in us, is an 
evidence of our justifieaiion. But this principle, which confounds 
a Christian's juf^tilleution and sand ificat ion. aa it casu the seed 
of denying all inherent graces in a believer, so it luy^ the basis 
of refusing lo do any duly, or conform to any law in our own 
persons ; for if this principle be true, (which no orthodox writer 
doubts of,) viz., thai we aj'e to seek for no righteousness in our- 
ielvea to our juiililication, because we are perfectly just aud 


made righteous for that end in Christ, then it will undeniably 
foUoWy that we are not to seek for any holiness and sanctification 
in ourselves, because we are perfectly sanctified also in Christ 
Jesus, who hath repented, and believed, and mortified sin per- 
fectly for us in his own person ; look, therefore, as the perfection 
of Christ's righteousness to our justification should make a 
Christian abhor any personal righteousness of his own to his 
justification, so if we be perfectly sanctified in Christ, then per- 
fection of Christ's holiness to our sanctification should make a 
believer not only renounce the law, but to abhor all personal 
hoti n ess through the Sprrit to our sanctification, and then a 
believer must abhor to seek any love or fear of God in his heart, 
which is not painted but profesiBed pro&neness, and the inlet, 
per aeeidem^ but per 4e, to all manner of kxMeness and wicked 
Bess IB the world. ~ 

ThewU ^5. We deny not but that Christ is our sanctification 
as well as our righteousness, (1 Cor. i. 30 ;) bat how ? Not ni»- 
terially Bi ^ frMfnAlly^ bu t virtually and roe ritorionslv, and {with 
Bleat expliciUioBs) exemplarily ; our r igbteousneBa to onr juat ifU 
eation is iaherent in him, but our saS5ificatioB ip inhArpnf in 
oorselvcg , yet it is derived from him, and therefore «t is virtually 
aod meritoriously only in him ; and hence it is that we are never I 
oommaBded to justify ourselves, unless it be instrumentally emA { 
sacnunentanyJwfaenas we are commanded by faith to wash our- | 
ael^-es, (Is. i. 16,) aod*as Fknl at his baptism was commanded ^||> 
wash away his sins, (Acts xxiL 16;) ^ut we are frequently aiMA 
aboBdaatly exhorted to repent, believe, mortify our aifisctions \ 
Bpoa earth, to walk in newness of life, to be holy in all manner I 
of ootrversation, etc., because these things are wrought by Christ j 
in OS to our sanctification, and not wrought in Chnst for us as ( 
our rigfateoBsness to our justification. — -'' 

TlsM 96. They that are in Christ are said to be complete in 
Christ, (Col. iL 10,) and that they receive all grace from his 
fillnest, (John L 16 ;) so that it seems that there is no grace in 
themselves, but it is first in him, and consequently tlmt their 
sanctification is perfected in him ; but we must know, that though 
the perfection and fullness of all grace is first in Christ, yet that 
believers have not all in him alW one and the same manner, nor 
for the tame end ; lor our righteousness to our justification is so 
in him as never to be inherent in us, in this or in the world to . 
ooroe ; but our righteousness t6 our sanctification is so far in him, 
as that it is derived and conveyed unto us, and hence it is 
formally in ourselves, but meritoriously aod virtually only in 
him ; even as our resurrection and glorification at last day are 


LBOt H> in Chrin as never lo bi? ilvrivvd to us (for ihen tlic resur- 
rection were past alrtudy.) but lliey are *o in him as that (hey are 
, to be conveyed lo us, anil thei'efoi'c tht:y are mentorinuEly anil 

""■rirtunlly in him, and we are meritoriously and viiiually risen in 
him : a Christian therefore may be comgiletu in Christ, and yet 
not be perfectly formally sanetified in Christ, our aanclifiualioii 
being completed in hira after another manner, and for other ends 
than our ju^tilicatioa. 

TAetis 97. The thief end of Christ's first coming was to lay 
down his life a ransoin for many in way of salistaction and merik 
(Phil, ii, 8. Matt. XX. 28.) Now. by this satisfaction he did two 
things: ]. He brought in such a righteousness before God as 
might merit rocrc v and make us Just. Now, this is wholly in 
Christ out of ourselves ; but because there was a righleousnesa 
of new obedience and thankfulness to be wrought in us for this 
love, therefore, 2. By the same satisfaction he hath merited, not 
that this new obedience might justify us or make us accepted, 
but that it might be accepted though imperfect and polluted with 
sin, (1 Pet. ii. A, 6,) as also that it might be crowned and rec- 
ompensed. Now, hence it follows, that the Lord Jesus hath not 
performed our duty of thankfulness and new obedience for us, 
iui hoc fornudi, or as of thankfulness; for though Christ was 
thankful and holy for us, yet it was not under this notion of 
thankfulness for his own love to us, for this is personally required 
of us, and it sounds very harsh to say that Christ walked in all 
holy thankfulness lo himself, for his love lo us ; but he was thus 
thankful for us, «t(i rati'one merili, or in way of merit, it being 
part of that satisfaction which justjce eicacled. All that which 
might satisfy justice, and merit any mercy, Christ did for us in 
Iiimself ; but he did not believe and repent, and perform duties of 
thankfulness for us, because these and such like are not to satisfy 
justice, but follow as fruits of timt satisfaction, and therefore are 
wrought within us, and so are personally required of us ; and 
therefore, when a Christian finds a want of these things in him- 
self, he is not to comfort himself with fond tlioughis of the impu- 

UtOtion of these in Christ only unto him, but he is to look up to 

"Christ Jesus for derivation of these out of Christ into himself; 
othenvise, by making Christ his sanctifi cation, only in way of im- 
putation, he doth really destroy Christ from being his sanctifica- 
tion ; for if Christ be our righteousness only by imputation, then 
if Christ be our sanctification, it must be by derivation from him, 
•which they must needs destroy who make him their sole sancti- 
£cation by mere imputation. 

'T ' iTiesi* 98. Spirilualerror3,likestrong wine, make men's judg- 

rni; jiohalitt i 


Imntsreel and stagger, who are drunken thercwiili ; and hence 

~ e Antinomians ii|>eak so variously in llits point, that we knov 

It whtre to find tbein, or what tbej will stand ro ; for eometimg 

I Ihey will say that a believer is free fi-om the kw in all : 

I Ihority and officer; but this being loo gross, at other tiroes they 

I af)e>k more warily, and allinn that a Cliritllan is to observe the 

T Uw aa his rule personally, thus f»r forth, viz., to do n 

Buinded, but not in virtue of a command : the Spirit, say they, 

will bind and conform their hearts to the law, but they are not 

[ bound by any authority of the law to the direcliona thereof; the 

I Spirit, they aay, la free, and they nre under the 

I iBc Spirit, which is not to be controlleil and ruled by any law. 

i Now, if by virtue of a command they mennt by virtue of our J 

l-awn nMoral strength and abilities looking to the command, i 

I In true that a believer is not so bound to acl by virtue of the law, . 

r for then he was bound to conlbrm to the law pharisaically ; for i 

I what ia our strength but weaknesa and sin ? I But if by i ' 

I a noibmnnd they mean thn^ much, vix., that a believe 

I boDud by the commanding power of any law to conform there* 

tinlu. only the Spirit will conform his heait thereunto, go that be 

•hull do the things (perhaps) which the law requires, but not 

I fatjnui^ the law re<]uirea or eoramands them to be done. If this, 

I I (aj*. be their meaning, (its surely it seems Ui be,) then the mya- 

I lery of this iniquity is so plain, that he that runs may I'ead it. 

m Far lience it undeniably followa, that in case a believer fall 

t any &in of whoredom, murder, theft, witchcratY, etc., these 

I wicked acts, tliough they be sins in themselves, (because Uiey 

I are against ihe Inw,) yet they are not sins unto him, because ho 

frit iKrw act free from the law, and not bound to the obedience of 

It by virtue of any command ; for where there is no law, there is 

■O transgrestion, and if there be no law which binds him, there 

it no tnuugrewton then at least unto him. They are sins indeed 

a tbemaelves, but not unio him ; they are sins (as some say) to 

but not to faith ; sins in the conversation, but r 

r: sins before men, (because they may cross their 

ts before God, who exempla them from all law. And i __ 

n liBRj lo reply, llmt they may be sins to him, because tlicy^ 

,. be against ibc law of the Spirit which is his rule; for wo 

Bbtve already sMwn, that although the Spirit be the principle by 

t to con- I 
aws,) but I 
And it id J 





ivhieh we oli|(^, jet 

r Mile iiceording to which we 

mtn to obej^ Indeed, it is a high aggravation o 

nat ib« .Spirit; but In cross the .Spirit doth not firstly make 

e things sinful, nor could they lie sins unless they cross such 

e holy law, the very essence of 



sin lying in Ihe transgression, not o£jU)jJi!Wi_kil.lJl£jbsJaffi. '■ e-i 
the knam Lmoral cir ^yiiiigelicai law. Again ; if thme and such 
lilte he sins, becHuse they are only agninst the law of [he Spirit, 
then it is no sin to bow down before an image, to commit SIthi- 
ness, theft, etc., eupposting tliat the Spirit sliall siinpend his act, 
and not restrain ; nay, then it will follow, that sins of ignonuicft 
(uf which Ihe Spirit hath not convinced a. Christian) are no bIdb, 
nur to be repented of, which is expressly cross to the holy pmc- 
liue of David : " Who knows his errors ? Lord, cleanse me from 
my aepret sins." If sin therefore be tho Iranspression of the law, 
(whether the Spirit work upon a Christian or no.) then certainly, 
if he he under no commanding power of the law, he can not be 
gnilty. or be eaid to commit tiny sin ; and liien the conclusion is 
this, that every believer neither hath sin, or should say he doth 
stOi no, not when he commits murder, adultery, and the foulest 
I enorroilies in the world : wliifh doctrine, though so directly and 
expressly aguinst the light of Scripture, the coufeMions of all the 
Hints, yea, of the light of nature and common sense, and is the 
TC ry fllih of the froth of the fume of the tiotlomless pit, yet some 

nBere are who are not oEhamed to own ii,|the very jSoflo; and 
depth of a perfect Familist consisting in this, viz., when a man 
Cftn sin and never feci it, or have any remorse or soitow for ii, 
snd when one hath attained to this measure, he is then deified, 
and then lb»'y profess the Godhead doth prtere fimdum anima, 
(ae ihey call it.) when believing thai he hath no sin, he can 
therefore neitlier see it nor feel it. From which depth of dark- 
ness the God and Faliier of mercies deliver his poor people in 
these oomipling times, and I wish that those who defend this 
kind of B believer's immunity from the law did not lay this cor- 
ner stone of hell and perdition to their followers. I am sure 
they lead them hereby lo liie month of this pit, who, upon this 
principle, refuse either to mourn for sin, or pray tor pardon of 
ain, or to imagine that Goil alllicls for sin, being now freed from 

I the mandatory power of any law of God, they being now not 

I bound to act by virtue of any command. ^ 

lltetit 'J9. If God did work upon believerB as upon blocks or 
brute creatures, they miglit then liave some color to cast off all 

' ftttendance to the directive power of the law, and so leave all to 
the Spirit's omnipotent and immediate acta ; as the stars, which 
being irrational and incapable of acting by any rule, they are 
therefore acted and run their course by the mighty woi-d of God'a 
power, and therefure attend no rule ; but believers are rational 

I oreotures, aod therefore capable of acting by rule, and tliey are 
also sanctified and delivered from the power of their corrupt 

A tbererorc have gome ialii^rent power fto lo net ; for if 
v deati in treE|)Bsscs and sins, ihey Lave then 
p. life, and therefore some inherent power to act, accord' 
J to the rule of life : the image of Go<l, renewed in them, is 
■ part) like to the same image which they hud in the lirat erea- 
m, which ^ve <mui some liberty and power lo act accoa ting Jo 
t will of Him that creatt^ htm. / And if the first Adam, b; hjs 
anveys to ui, not only coodera nation , but ubo an inherent 
r of coiTupiion, then the second Ailara, the Lord Jesuii, 
more conveys unio all his posterity, not only juatilitiulion, 
II also »ontc inherent power of grace and holiness, which id 
■gun here, and perfeeted in glory ; for as sin hath abound ed. so 
'>'*'. nboundcth much more: and yet suppose lliey had no"' 
il power tliuii to act, yet they have an adherent power, tlie 
J Christ Jesus, by faith in whose. name they may nnd shJL 
e power to act And therefore/all hough Goil works in us | 
9 will and lo do of his good pleasure, yet this hinders not I 
i that we are lo work out our salraiion with fear and trem- 1 
ig, by attending ilie rule, by virtue of which we are bound to I 
Brk, both by pulling forth that power which we have already I 
soi'tid from God, as also in fetching in that power we have not | 
I receivetl, but is reserved daily in Christ's bands for 
IS ihcreunio. 

I 100. If they that say a believer is not lo act by virtus 

n ooRimand do mean ibis only, vii., ihat he is not to act by 

s of tJie bare letter and external words and syllables of it, 

J tiuM speak truly ; for such kind of acting is rather witchery 

in ChrisUauity, to place power and virtue in bare characters 

il lo(l«r«i which, though mighty and powerful by the Spirit, yet 

mp(y and powerless without it. But if their meaning be, 

re aro not to act by virtue of any command in any sense, 

a llin iisacrtioji is both jiemicious and perilous ; for the Lord 

I bning the rttfinay dE/ati>Di', or lirsl subject of all grace 

i gracious efficacy and power, hence it is true, wo are not tu 

* e tlio command of God the first principle of our obedieore, 

hi* it proper unto Cbrifet by the Spirit. (John v. 40 ; x\i. 13, 

2 Tim. iu 1. Eph. vi. 10. llom. viii. 2.) But because 

t Lord JwuA conveys by bis Spirit virtue and efficacy through 

it word, not only words of promise, but also words of command, 

ia ovtdcnl, Jer. iii, 2:2; Acts ii. 3H. 41 i Matt. ix. 9; Ps. 

. ft.) hence il is that a believer is bound to act from a 

md, though not as from a first, yet as from a second prin- 

>t OS from the first efficient, yet as from an instru- 

1 the hand uf Christ, who in commanding of the duly 

s, lol 







works bj-'ii, and enables li 
comes out of liU own rount 
God to follow him be kt 
Peter ccut his net ii 

; aiid therefore we see Abraham 
because called and commiinded of 
iibt whithev. (Heb. si. 8.) And 
raerelj because he was command- 
ed. (Luke V. 5.) And Dnvid deaired, O that my heart were 
directed to keep thy precepts, because God had commanded. 
(Ts. cxix. 45.) There is n virtue, a m or efhcacy in the final 
cause, as well as in the efficient, to produce the efTect, and every 
wise agent is bound to Act by virtue or for the sake of his 
utmost and last end. Now, the naked commandment of the Lord 
may be and should be the chief motive and last end of our obedi- 
ence to his highness; for whalever is done merely because of 
God's command is done for his glory, (which glory should be our 
utmost end in all our obedience ;) and hence it is that that obe- 
dience is most absolute and sincere (whether it be in doing or 
suffering the will of God) which is done merely in respect of 
commandment and will of God; when the soul can truly say. 
Lord, I should never submit to such a yoke but merely for thy 
Bake, and because it is thy will, and thou dost command it. What 
is it to love Christ but to seek lo please bim, aud lo give con- 
tentment to bim ? What is it to seek to give contentment to 
him hut to give contentment to his heart or his will ? And what 
is his will but the will of his commandment ? If therefore it be 
unlawful to act by virtue of a command, then it is unlawful, 1. To 
love Christ; 2. To be sincere before Christ; S. Or to act for 
the glory of Christ. And hence it is, that, let a man do the most 
glorious things in the world out of his own supposed good end, 
^aa the blind Papists do in their will works and aupersli lions,) 
which God never commanded, nay, let him do all things which 
the law of God requires, give his goods lo the poor, and his body 
to be burnt, and yet not do these things because commanded, let 
him then quit himself from hypocrisy and himself fi-om being 
R deep hypocrite in all tliese if he can. Surely those who 
strain at this gnnt, viz., not to do a duty because commanded, 
will make no bones of swallowing down this eameU viz., not to 
forsake sin because it is forbidden ; and whosoever shall forsake 
gin from any other ground shows manifestly hereby that he buili 
little conscience of God's command. I know the love of Christ 
should make a Christiiin forsake every sin ; but the last resolution 
and reason thereof is, because his love forbids us to continue in 
«D ; for to act by virlue of a command is not to act only as a 

God considered as a Creator, but by virtue of the w 
Hid commandment of God in a Redeemer, with whom a believer 
bath n 


TTtttit 101. To act tlier^fore by virtue of a commtmd, and by 
virtue of Christ'^ Spirit, are subordinate one to another, not 
opposite one against another, us tbese men carry it ; this cau- 
lU>n being ever remembered, that eunh acting be not to make 
oiir«elved just, but because we are already just in Christ j not 
tlial hereby we might get life, but becuuse we have life given us 
already ; not to jwcify God's justice, but to pleaae his m' 
being i>acified toward us by Christ already ; for nspunius 
observes a great difference between plaoare Deum and place, 
Dto, i. e., between pacifying God and pleasing God, for Christ'e 
blood only can pacify justice when it is provoked, but when i 
veuging justice ia pacified, mercy may be pleased with the b 
cere and humble obedience of eons./(Col. i. It). Heb. xiii. 2 
When n believer 'm once justified, he can not be made more ji 
by nil his obedience, nor less just by all his sins in point ofjusti- 
ficnlion, which is perfected at once ; but he who is perfectly just- 
ified li but impeiTectly sanctified, and in this respect may more 
or leas please God or displease him, be more just or less just and 
holy before him. It is, I confess, a secret bat a common sin it 
many to seek to pacify God (when they perceive or fear hli 
anger) by some obedience of their own, and m) to seek for that in 
Ihenuclvej chieily which they should seek for in Christ, and for 
ttuit in the law which is onlf to be found in the gospel ; but 
eorrupl practices in others should not breed, as usually they do, 
corrupt opinions in us, and to cast off the law from being a rule 
of pleasing God, because it is no rule to us of pacifying of God, 
For if we speak of revenging (not fatherly) anger, Christ's 
blood con only pacify iliat, and when that is pacified and God 
in MUisfied, our obedience now pleaseth him, and his mercy 
Accepts it as very pleasing, the rule of which is the precious law 
of God. 

7%ait 102. They that say the law is our rule as it is given 
by Chmt. but not as it was given by Moses, do speak niceties, at 
l«ut ambiguities ; for if the Lord Christ give the law to a be- 
liever as his rule, why should any then raise a dust, and allirm 
that the law i^ not our rule ? For the law may be considered 
cither materially, or in itself, as it contains the matter of the \ 
ooveiuuit of works; and thus considered, a believer is not to bo. I 
reguUtcd by it, for he is wholly free from it as a covenant of 
lifn i Of it may be considered finally, or rather relatively, as it 
Mnod in relation and reference unto the people of the God of 
AlmthMU, who were already under Abraliain's covenant, which 
«ru a covenant of free gnux, vie., " to be his God, and the God 
ofbit Med." (Gen. xvii. 7.) And in this Utter respect, the law, 




Hit wfis girttn by Mosys, was given by Christ in Mosc?, and ibere- 
fiire tbe rule of love toward mail (commanded by Moses) is 
called the law of Christ. (GrI. vi. 2.) For the law, as it van 
applieil lo this people, doth not run tbas, viz., " Do all thia, and 
then I will be your God and Redeemer," (for this is n covenant of 
works.) but thus, viz., " I am the Lord thy God," {vit., by Abra- 
ham's covenant,) " who brought tiiee ont of the land of Egypt 
and house of bondage ; therefore thou sbalt do all this." If there- 
fore the law ddivered by Moses was delivered by Christ in 
Moses, then there is no reason to set Christ and Moses together 
by the ears, in this respect I now spet^ of, and to aHim] that the 
law, not as dehvered by Moses, but aa given by Christ, is our 
few and rule. 

TXmiV 103. The law therefore which contains in itself absolute- 
ly considered (which Lulher calls filoses Mosissirans) the cove- 
nant of works, yet relatively considered as it yas delivered by 
Moses to a people under u covenant of grace, (which the same 
author calls Moses Aaronicus,) so it ia not to be considered only 
as a covenant of works, and therefore for any to nffirm that the 
law is no covenant of works, as it is delivered on Mount Sion, 
snd by Jesus Christ, and that it is a covenant of works only, as 
it is delivered on Mount Sinai, and by Moses, is a bold assertion, 
both unsafe and unsound ; for if, affit was delivered on Mount Si- 
nai, it was delivered to a people nnder a covenant of grace, then 
it was ool delivered to lliem only as a covenant of works, for 
then ft people under a covenant of grace may again come under 
K covenant of works, to disaniitd that covenant of grace ; but 
the apostle expressly affirms the qaite contrary, and sbows that 
the covenant tnade with Abraham and his seed, (which was to be 
a God to them, Gen. xvii. 7,) and which was conflrmed before of 
God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty 
yean after, ean not diMinnnl. (Gal. iii. 17.) Now, that the 
peD)ile were »rider a covenant of grace when the law was deliv- 
ered on Mount Sinai, let the preface of the ten commandments 
determine, wherein Gwl's first words are words of grace, " I am 
the Lord thy God," etc., and therefore thou shalt have no oiher 
gods but me, etc. I know Paneus, Zanchy, and others affirm 
that the law is abrogated as it was in the hands of Moses, but 
not M it is in the hand of Christ ; but their meaning is at sometime 
in respect of the manner of administration of the taw under 
Moses, and when they speak of the moral law simply consid- 
ered, yet it never entered into their hearts, that the law, as deliv- 
ered on Mount Sinai, was delivered only aa a covenant of works. 


TTtrtit 104. But there is a greater mystery iniended by some 

in this phrase, as given by ChrUt, for tlicir meaning ia tbis, to 

wit. as Chriat by bis Spirit writes it in our hearts, nut any vrtty 

A rule as wniien by Moses. A believer's heart (sailh Master 

Sftltmarsh) is the very law of <^omraands, and the two tables of 

Hoses, and in tbis respect it becomes not (sailh he) the glory of 

Christ to be beholding to any of the light upon Moses' ftu'e. It 

■eem-s then, ibat the law written is not to be n Christian's rule, 

I but only so far as it is written in the heart — a most accursed as- 

I aertion ; for how and why did Christ Jesus himself resist temp- 

, bUioD to sin ? Was it not by cleaving to the written word ? 

iSIatt. xliv. 10 :) and was liot this done for our imitation ? Wby 
id David and Clirist Jesus delight to do God's will ? Was it not 
Uiis, because it was written of tliera that so ihey should do ? (Ps. 
xl. 7, 8.) Did not the Liw in their hearts make them thus cleave to 
r the wriil4!o law without? Why did Paul persuade children to hoo- 
«r ibeir parents ? Was it not because this wns the first command- 
mctit with promise? (Eph. vi. 2.) Had it not been more eran- 

Elically spoken to persuade them rather to look to the law of 
Dsei written on their hearts within, lo direct them hereunto, 
rather than to be- beholding for any light upon Muses' face to 
, direct them herein ? How comes it to pii^ that Paul preacheth 
•o olh«r thing but what was in the Old Toslament of Moses and 
Ihe prophets who were only ibe interpreters of Mo^es? (Acts 
1 xxii. 20.) How is it that Clirist himself borrows light from Mosesi 
[ Psalms, and all tlie prophets, lo clear up his resurrection and suf- 
fering. (Luke sxiv. '27, 32,) if no light must be borrowed from the 
I Ace of Moses? If indeed we were perfect in this life as we 
[ Aall be in heaven, there would then be no need of the writings 
[ af the BpiMtle>i. prophets, or Moses, of law or gospel ; but we 
I being but imperfectly enlightened, it is no less than extreme lo- 
L pwitude and ant hank fulness lo prefer our own imperfect and 
I, impure light before that perfect, spotless, and heavenly law and 
I eounaels of God without us/which when the most perfei-t be- 
[ Sever doth see, he may cry out with Paul, " The law is holv, 
I bdl I am camnl." What is this but painted Popery, to muCel 
kthe spirit within lo be the supreme Judge, and su[>erior lo the ■ 
■ Spirit of God in the written word without? only they shrine ilj 
he pope's private conclave and kitchen, or somewliiit 
I'WOTM, but these in a company of poor, iraperfeci, deluded, and 
f 'prrhape rarrnpfed men : it is true, the covenant of grace (strictly 
l^taken) in thcgos]>el needs not to borrow any light from the cov- 
unt of worits in the law ; but yet, fur all this, the grucu of God, 
I'^pearing id the gospel, will have ui to walk worthy of God 




unto all well plen^ing acvonllng lo the Iftw, (Til. ii. 12, 13,) and 
bilterlj that we nrc so unlike thu will and image of God 
reri^nled in the law. (Ham. vii. 23. 24.) 

i( 105. Tiic BjKislle Paul, as he sometimes condemna 
works and sometimes commendB tliem, po he Rometimcs rejecia 
the law utid sometimes uommends the law ; aoinetinieii be would 
liBve believers die to tho biw, and sometimes he exhortfi them 
to live in all holy obedience to it : the ajiaslle, therefore, must 
■pe»k of ihe law under various considerations, or else must speak 
daggers and flat contradictions ; and therefore of net-essiij we 
are to consider the law not always under one respect, but vari- 
ously i for consider tin: law as a covcliant of works, or as the way 
unto or matter of our jus I ill cat ion, and so works are condemned, 
and ihc law is rejected and abrogated, and so we are lo die to 
the law i but consider the law as a rule of life to a person justified 
already, and ao the law is to be received, and works are lo be 
commended, and wc arc lo live thereunto. 

Theiii 106, When the gospel nakedly ui^lh believers lo 
good works and obedience to the law, it is then considered only 
U a rule of life; hut when we meet with ouch ecriplures ns set 
the law and Christ, the law and grace, the law and promise, the 
law and faith, etc, at opposition one against another, then Ihe law 
in such places is ever considered as a covenant of life, from 
.which we are wholly freed, and unto which we should be wholly 
dead, tjiat w^ may be married unto Chrlst^Rom. vii. 4 ;) hence 
therefore their arguings are feeble and weak, who would prove a 
Christian to be wholly free from the directive power of the law, 
because a Christian is said not to be under the law, but under 
grace, (Rom. vi. 14,) and because the law was given by Moses, 
but grace and truth came by >Fesus Christ, (John i. 17.) and bu- 
eause the inheritance ts not by the law, but by promise and by faith, 
(Gal. iii. 12, 18;) for these and such like scripiui-es speak of the 
uw as standing in opposition to Christ, and therefore speak of it 
as of a covenant of life, by which men seek to be justified; 
from which (we grant) a l>elievcr is wholly freed, and unto 
which he is not bound, tiaj. he is bound to renounce it, and east 
outtlib bond woman; but all this doih not prove tliat he is free 
from it as his rule of life. 

T/tftii 107. The law and man's sinful heart are quite op- 
posite one to another, (Rom. vii. 9. 10, II, 13;) bul when (through 
the^raceof Chridt) (he liearlischan){ed, soas there is a new nature 
or new man in a believer, theu there is a sweet agreement be- 
tween this new nature and the law, for, saith Paul, " I delight 
Vihelawof God in my iauw man." It ia ifaentfor* a humi 


;■ Of 1 



a believer is to be kept 
alure, is above all law ; 
a legal covenant, yet it 

&l«e assertion lo say lliat llie old m 

ODder tbe law, but the new man. or 

for iboiigh the new nature be almve 

oerer cornea to be willingly under it as a rule unill now : 

perfect new nature U infinitely glad of the guidance of a holy I 

And most perfect law. (Ps. cxix. UO.) _ 1 

nen't 108. It is very evident that the children and sons of 
God tinder tbe New TestDoient are not so under the law a^ the 
diildren and sons of God were under the Old Testament for 
the apoitle expreasly lells. (Gnl. iii. 23.) that before the faith 
came, wc (L e., the children of the Old Testaraeni) were shut up 
■nd kept under the law, and were under it as under a Rchool- 
Basler. (ver. ii;) and these of whom the apostle thus speaks are 
M>t only wicked and carnal Jews, but the dear children of God 
■nd heirs of eternal life in iliose times, as is evident from Gal. 
IT. 1-3 : but (he apostle, speaking of tbe sons of God in gospel 
tines, since faith is come and revealed, speaks as expressly that 
we are now no lonfi;er under tbe law as under a schoolmaster, 
{Gal. iii. io.) and that now, " when the fullness of ^me is come, 
God sent his Son, to redeem ihem that were under tbe law, that we 
Biigbl receive the adoption of sons," (Gal. iv. 3-5 ;) which though 
it be true of all men by nature, viz., that they are under the 
law, yet an impartial, clear eye will easily discern that tbe apoa- 
tie's dispute is not of our being under the law by nature merely, 
but of being under the law by peculiar dii^pensation, which was 
the state not only of the churcii, but of the children 
of God, heirs of tlie promise (and conseriuently such as were 
believers) in ibis church, in those Old Tet^Iament times; 
«e are not therefore now, in these New Testament times, under 
Ibv law, at iliey were ; the great diliiculty therefore remains lu 

1 know bow wo are not under tbe taw, as they were. Those who 
ny wc are not under the ceremonial law. as they were, do 

' spMik truly ; but they do not resolve the difficulty in this 
_ ' p* ; for I'crtaiiily the apostle speaks, not only of the ceremo- 
nial law, but aldo of that law which was given because of trans- 
greasions, (GaL iii. li*,) and which shut up, not only the Jews, 
but all men, under sin, (ver. 22 ;) which being ihe power of the 
■Ktral law chietly, the apostle must therefore intend the moral 

, law, oader which the Old Testament believers were shut up, and 
now are not : the doubt therefoi'e still remains, viz., how are 
n«l now under tbe moral law ? Will s 

arc not now under the 


I af il, but the Jeni under ihe OUl 1 
I •vn lUHkr tiM curM »f ii ' 

tny say that i 
^ and condemnalio 
were thus under i 
! tbe neauinf ; f«r 




allhough the carnal Jews were tbiis under it, yet the ftiithrul 
(whiim the apostle calls tlie heir atiJ Lord of all, GaL iv. 1) 
were not thus under it, for believers were as oiueli blessed then 
with faithful Abraham as believerfi now. (Cup. iii.9.) How then 
are we not under il, aa they were ? Is it in this, Ihat they were 
under it ua a rule of . lifejojvalk ^7- an*l so ai'e not we ? Thus 
indeed some strain the place, but this can not be it ; for the apos- 
tle in this very epistle presseth them to " love one another," upon 
this ground, because " nil the law i s fulfilled in love," (cap. v. 
13, 14 ;1 and this walking in love according to the law ia walk- 
ing in [fie spirit, (ver. 16,) and (hey that thus walk in Ihe spirit, 
according to the law, are not (snith the apostle) under ibe law, 
which can not, without flat contradiction, be meant of not being 
under the rule or directive power of it ; and it would be a tnis- 
erable weak motive to press them to love, because all the law ia 
fulfilled in love, if the law was not to be regarded as any rule of 
life or of love ; for they might upon such a ground easily and Justly 
obect, and say. What have we to do with the law ? If we therefore, 
OS well as they, are thus under the law as a. rule of life, how are 
we not under it as they were ? Is it because ihey were under it as 
a preparative means for Christ, and not we ? They were under 
the humbling and terrifying preparing work of it, but not we, 
I There are some, indeed, who think ihm this use of the law under 
'the gospel is but a back door, or an Indian palh, or a crooked 
way about, to lead to Jeeus Christ; but certainly these men 
^know not what they snjJtot the text expressly tells us that the 
Scripture hasconcluded.not only Ihe Jews, but "oil under sin, that 
so the promise by faith might be given to ibcm that believe." 
{Gal. iii. 22.) So that the law is subservieut to faith, and to the 
promise, that so hereby not only the Jews, but all that God saves, 
might hereby feel their need, and lly by faith to the promise 
made in Jesus Christ ; and verily, if Christ be the end of (he 
taw to every one that believes, (Kom. x. 4,) then the law is Ihe 
means, (not of itself so much as by the rich grace of God.) not 
only to the Jews, but to all others to the end of the world, to 
lead them to this end, Christ Jesus. If therefore the faithful 
under the New Testament are thus under the preparing work of 
the law, aa well as those under the Old, how were they therefore 
RO under the law, as we are not, and we not under it as they 
were ? I confess the place is more full of difRculliea than is 
usually Dbser\-ed by writers upon it ; only for the clearing up of 
this doubt, omitting many things, I answer briefly, that the chil- 
dren of the Old Testament were under the law, and the peda- 
gogy of it, two ways, after which the children of the New Testa- 
ntent are not under it now, but are rodeemed from it. 


1. At t)ie mora] Uw waa accompanied with a namlierot'barden- 
•orae Fcrt-monies, ibui! we are not under il, tlins they were under 
U ; for we know this law was put inio the ttrk, and there they 
were lolook npon it in thai type; if any inan then committed any 
BID H^nst il, whether through infirmity, ignorance, or presump- 
tion, they were to have recourse to the ancrificea and high priests 
yearlyand to (heir blood and oblations. They were to prny, (which 
was a moral duty.) btil it must be with incense, and in suvh a 
^tace ; they were lo be thankful, (another moral duly,) but it must 
be testified by the offering up of many sacrifices upon the altar, 
etc ; they were to confess tlieir sins, (a moral, duty also,) but it 
must be over the head of the scapegoat, ele. Thus they were un- 
der the Iftw, bat we are not ; and fu it is usual for the apostle 
tbm to speak of the law in other places of the Scripture, bo 
wirely he speaks of il here ; for hence it is that, in the beginning 
of this dispute, (cap. iii. 19,) be speaks 6f the moral law which 
wu given becaose of transgressions ; and yet, in the close of it, 
{Gal> iv. 3,) he seems lo speak only of [he ceremonial law, which 
he calls the elements of the world, under which the children 
vere then in bondage, as under tutors and governors ; which 
implies thus much, that the children of the Old Testament wei-e 
indeed under the moral law, but yet witlml as thus accompanied 
with ceremonial rudiments and elements fit to teach children in 
their minority ; but now in this elder age of the church, although 
ire are under the moral law in other respects, yet we are not 
under it as thus aceoropanied. 

3. In renpect of the mnnner and measure of dbpcnsation of 
the moral law, which although it had the revelation of the gospel 
eonjoin^d with it. (for Moses writ of Christ, John v. 46, and 
Abraham had the gospel preached to him, Gial. it. 8, and the un- 
believing Jews hail the gospel preached, Heb. iv. 2,) yet the law 
was revealed and pressed more clearly and strongly, with more 
rigor and terror, and the gospel was revealed more obscurely 
and darkly in res[>ect of the manner'of external diapensniion of 
ihom in those times ; there were three things in that manner of dis- 
pvnualion, from which (at least AC/>arfei>rtre(^^ft<) we are now 

1. Then there was much law urged, esternally, clearly, and 
little gospel so clearly revealed ; indeed gospel and Christ Jesus 
«ru the end of the moral law, and the substance of all the shad- 
ows of the ceremooiul law ; but the external face of these things 
WM MWTe any tiling else but doing and law, by reason of which 
lber« ia a vail spread over the hearts of the Jews in reading the 
Old Tetlwnent tinlo this day, as is evident, (2 Cor. lit. 13 :) lO 




that till) inside or end of ihe moral luw being gospel, snd ilie 
.autside and means H;>[>ointe<l lo ihis end lieing law, lient^e the 
gospel wa-t llicn less clearly, anil tlic law was more i^learly, re- 
vealed in liioxe times ; lo »ay (Imt Jesos Cliriet and hia beneliis, 
or eternal life, were then dispensed niidcr a covenant of works, 
or tub eoHditioae perfeeta obrdientiee. (us some eminent wortliies 
affirm,) is such an error wliidi wise and able men ini;>ht eosilj' 
fall into by tieeing how mueli law was revealed and urged in ibose 
times 1 fur ihougli tlie law, simply considered in itself, contained 
the matter of the covenant of works, yet considered relatively in 
respect of the people of God, and as they were under Abiiihem'a 
covenant of grace, so it was given to them as a rule of perfect 
rigtileousoess, by both which they might the better see their own 
wealcuess and unrighteousness, and fly to Christ ; and therefore 
the apostle (Gal. iii. 17) calls the promise which was made to 
Ahraham the covenant, and gives not this title lo the law, but 
calls it the law which (he saith) could not disannul the covenant, 
conRrmed in Christ ; and although it be propounded to ihem in 
way of covenant, (Ex. xix. 5,) yet ihis is to be understood (as 
some lliink) of evangelical keeping covenant, not of legal ; or 
if of legal, yet then it is not propounded simply, as a covenant of 
works, to convey Christ lo ihem, but ex hypothtti, or upon sup- 
position, that if they did think to be God's people, and have him 
10 be their God, by doing, (as Junius observes the carnal Jews did 
think and liope so to have him, and as that young man thought. 
Matt. xix. 17, as Chamier observes,) that then they must keep 
all these commandments perfectly, and to be accursed if they 
£d not continue therein. 1 dars iiot tlicrcfore sny tl>at Christ 
and eternal lite were dispensed in a covenant of works, under 
which covenant the Jews were shut in Old Testament times ; 
but rather this, tliatlhe law was more strongly pressed as a yoke 
upon llKir shoulders, and that this law which contains the cov- 
enant of works was more plentifully revealed and insisted on, 
and tl)e gospel more sparitigly and daiitly ; but now in gospel 
times the daystar is risen, (though in few men's hearts,) yet in 
the doctrine and clear revelation of it llierein, and therefore the 
gospel is called the " mystery hidden from ages and generations 
post, but DOW is made manifest to his saints," (Col. i. 2G,) wiiich 
ona not be meant as if they had no knowledge of it, for Abra- 
ham saw Christ's day, and there is a cloud of w.itneases in the 
Old Testament who died in faith, (Ilcb. xi.,) but not such clear 
knowledge of it as now : they were therefore then under the 
i, (because so much working and doing was urged 
and chiedy revealed,) but indeed were sous and heirs ; but we 


iioiv we iioi so under it. but are as sons having the Lord JeauB 

i our Father's face in liim ckarlj reveakd, and laitb in him 

chiefly and most abundantly urged in hia blessed gospel; and 

' 13 the apostle lelte ua in this text, (Gal. iv. 1, with iv. 5,) that 
the huirs of the promise under the Old Testament were as ser- 
vants, but by Christ's coming we are now us sons ; lootc also, as 
ihcy are said to be under the law, not as if they had no gospel 

ivcaled. or no use of the gospel, but only because the gospel was 
tnore darkly revealed, and the law more plentifully urged, so we 
kre said not to be under the law, not as if there was no Inw, or no 
Bse o( the law belonging to us, but because now the gospel is more 
Hearly revealed, and the law ttot eslemalty so proposed and im- 
posed as it was upon them. 

2. The law was a schoolmaster, tuior, and goi^ernor, to lead 
lliem unto Christ to come ; for so the apostle tells us in this place, 
(GaL iii. 23.) that "before fmlh came, we were shut up under 
the Inw, onto the faith which should afterward be revealed." 
Thus the ceremonial law pointed to Christ to come, the moral 
Uw discovered man's sin and misery, and need of Christ who 
was lo come ; nay, all the promises were made with reference to 
Jesus Christ lo come ; hut now " the fullness of time being come," 
lluu the Son of God is come, now " we are no longer under the 
kw" after this manner; neither ceremonial nor moral law is of 
any use lo us lo lead us unto Christ to come, for Christ is already 
come ; and hettre it is, that believers now are said to be rather 
under the gospel than under the law, and believers under the Old 
Testament to be nlher under the law than under the gospel ; 
bMnu^e, although these had the efficacy of Christ's redemption, 
yet ihey were not actually redeemed, because the Redeemer was 
■ot yei corae into the flesh, and in this respect they were under 
the rij^r of the law, and hence it was fit that they should be 
handled as servants, and the law and curse thereof principally 
rvvcKled ; but now Christ being come, nnd having actually re- 

Idi-emcd us. having been (not only virtually, but actually) made 
righteousness and a ctiree for us, now ifacrefore is the time ibat 
v« sbould see Christ Jesus with open face, and hear principally 
ti>Rc«ming iHilh and the Father's love in him ( now Christ is 
ivvcalcd chielly (being come) the end of the law, then the law 
waa revealed chietly (Christ being not yet come) a 
Ibis end : look therefore, as the promise before Christ, of which 
rbe ai>OStIe speaks. (Gal. iii. 17-22.) was fullilled in Christ being 
come, (as divines spvak,) rather than abolished, and yet abolished 
aa it WM a promise of grace to come, so the moral Inw is rather 
ftiMlM tluin abolished in Christ being come; and yet lu it 

l>eing ^ 

ished M 

alher H 

Udid V 





lead unU) Christ to come, it is abolished to ua now under the 

3. The law being principally revealed, and yet so revealed ta 
to lead unto Christ Jesus to come, lieiice ariseUi a third tiling of 
the law, from which we are now delivered, viz., they were ibere- 
fcre under more terror and fear of the law than we are (on 
God's part revealing the gospel more clearly) in ihese times ; 
and therefore Baith the aposlle, (Gal. iv. 4-6,) "iliatwhen the 
fullness of time came, Gn^d sent his Son to redeem us from under 
the law, (hat we might receive tlie adoption of sons, and thereby 
the spirit of song, crying, Abba, Falher." Could not they who 
were sons under the law call God Falher ? Tes, verily, doubtless 
thou art our Father, say they, (Is. Ixiii. 17;) but tboy having 
less light, they had more fear and lees of the spirit of adoption, t 
fay still, (ex parte Dei revelantU.) than we l^ve in these days. 
We ore not therefore so under the law, i. e., the fear and terror 
of the law, as they were. The sum of all this is. that although 
we are not so under the law, 1, so accompanied, and, 2, so dis- 
pensed, as they were under tlie Old Testament, yet this hindeia 
not but that we are under the directive power of the law aa 
well as they. 

Tlietit 109. The aposlle speaks of a law written and engraven 
on stones, and therefore of the moral law, which is now abolished 
by Christ in the gospel. (2 Cor. iii. 6, 7, 11, 13.) Is the moral 
law therefore abolished as a rule of life now ? No, verily ; but 
Ibe meaning of this place is as the former, (Gal. iii. 25,) for the 
ftpostlc, speaking of tlte moral law by a synecdoche, comprehends 
the ceremonial law also, both which the false teachers in those 
titnea urged as necessary to salvation and justiGcation at least 
together with Christ, against whom the apostle here disputes ; 
the moral law therefore is abolished, tirst, as thus accompanied 
with a yoke of ceremonies j secondly, as it was formerly dispensed, 
the glorious and greater light of the gospel now obscuring the 
lesser light under the law, and therefore the i^HMtle (ver. 10) 
doth not say, that there was no glory shining in Uie law, but it 
had no comparative glory in this respect, by reason of the glory 
which exccUeth ; and lastly, the apostle may speak of the moral 
law, considered aa a covenant of life which the false teachers 
urged, in which respect he calls it the ministry of death, and the 
letter which killelh, and the ministers (who were called Naxarei 
Mid Minei, 09 Bollinger thinks) the ministers of the letter, which 
although it was virtually abolished to the believing Jews before 
gospel times, (the virtue of Christ's death extending to all times,) 
jet it was not then abolished actually until Christ came in the 


i flesh, aod actually undertook to fulftll thU covenant for ns to the 
aimoit farthing of doing and suffering which is exacted ; and now 
it is aboliaht^d both vinunlly and iiciually, that now we may with 
open face behold the glory of the Lord as the end of the law for 
nghieousoesd to every one that doth believe. 

Tktii* 110. The gospel under which believers now an 
, Tcquires DO doing, (say some,) for doing i» proper to the law; 
the biw promUelh life, and requires conditions ; but the gospel 
' (»ay they) promiseih lo work the condition, but requires none, 
, and therefore a believer is now wholly free from all law. But 
, the gospel and law are taken two waya: 1. Largely, the law for 
the whole doctrine contained in the Old Testament, and the gos- 
pel for the whole doctrine of Christ and the apostles in the New 
Testament; 3. Strictly, the law pro lege operian, (as Chamier 
distinguisbetk,) and the gospel pro Ugtjidei, i. c., for the law of 
fiuth. The law of works, strictly taken, is ibat law which rereaC 
' lli« favor of God and eternal life upon condition of doing or of 
perfect obedience ; the law of faith, strictly taken, is that doctrin* 
which reveals remission of sins, reconciliation with God by 
Christ's nghteousness only apprehended by faith. Now, the gos- 
pel in thi« latter Mnse excludes all works, and requires no doing 
: in point of Justification and remission of ains before God, but only 
believing ; but take the gospel largely for the whole doctrine of 
1 {rod's lovv and free grace, and so the gospel requires doing j for 
a« il is an act of God's free grace to justify a man without callmg 
tot any works thereunto, so it is an act of the same free grace 
lo require works of a peraon justified, and that such poor sinners 
•haiiU Bland bctore the Son of God on his throne, to minister 
vnta biro, and serve him in righteousness and liulinegs all the 
day* of our lives, (Tit. ii. 14;) and for any to think that the 
gMpel requirei* no conditions is a sudden dream against hun- 
I dr«idA of scriptures, which contain conditional, yet evangelical 
I promises, and against the judgment of the most judicious of our 
I divines, who, in dispute against Popish writers, can not but ac- 
[ IiiKtwIttdgt) ihem only thus, viz., conditions and prpmises annexed 
I lo obedience arc one thing, (saiih learned Pemblc,) and conditions 
I innexed to perfect obedience are another ; the first are in iha 
I BMiirl, the other not. Works are necessary to salvation, (sait^ 
[ Chnmiur,) Hterisitatt prateatia, not e^fficreiilia ; and hence hgj 
I Biakeis two sorts of conditions, some auttetdenU*, wliich work or 
k Rterit salvation, and these are abandoned in the gospel; others 
I (he uuth) are comt^urnla. which follow the stote of a man jusli- 
I fied, atid thnse are required of one already justified in the gospel. 
^TlMiRi are indeed no con<litions required of us in the gospel, but 
VOL. lit. 10 




r halh n 

those only which the Lord himself bIiqII o 
and which by requiring of us he dolh work : will it therefore fol- 
low, that no condiiion is required in u», but because every con- 
dition is promised ? No, verily, for requiring the condition is tlie 
means to work it, (as might be plentifully demonstrated,) and 
menos and ends should not be separated. Faith itself is no an- "^ 
tecedent condition to o«r justification or Eulvation, take antecedent,' 
in the usual sense of some divines, for affecting or meriting con- 
dition, whicfi Juniua calls etgerUiaiii conditio : but take ante- 
cedent for a means or instrument of justification, and receiving 
Christ's righteousness, in this sense it is the only antecedent con- 
dition which the gospel requires therein, because it dolh only 
atitecedere, or go before our justification, (at least in oi-der of 
nature,) not lo merit it, but to receive it, not to make it, but to 
make it our own, not as the matter of our righteousness, or any 
part of it, but as the only means of apprehending Christ's right- 
eousness, which is the only cause why God the Father juslifieth -j^. 
and therefore, as Christ's righteousness must go before, as the. 
matter and moving cause of our justiflcatiuu. or that for which 
we are justified, so faith must go before this righteousness as an 
instrument or applying cause of it, by which we are justified, that 
is, by means of which we apply that rigbieousness which makes 
us just It is true God justifies the ungodly ; but how ? not im- 
mediately without faith, but mediately by faith, as is most evident 
from that abused text, Rom. iv. 5. When works and failh arc 
ogiposed by the aposlle in point of justification, affirming that we 
are justified by faith, not by works, he doth hereby plainly atfirm, 
and give that to faith which he denies to works ; look therefore, 
as he denies works to b^ anlecedent conditions of our justi Heal ion, 
be atfirms the contrary of faith, which goes before our justifica- 
tion, as hath been ex|tlained; and therefore, as do and live halli 
been accounted good law, or the covenant of works, so believe 
and live halh been in former times accounted good gospel, or the 
of grace, until now of late this wild age hath found out 
els tliat Paul and the apostles did never dream of,^*^ 

work, and have 

n may be set to do the si 
same rule given them to act'by ; but the 
r work, and the stripes and punishmenia 
for neglect of iheir work, may be various and divers ; a son 
may be bound to it, because he is a son and beloved ; a servant 
may he bound to do the same work, because he is hired and 
shall , have wages ; if a son neglect his .work, his punishment ia 
only the chastisement of a, father for his good ; if a servant be 
faulty, he is turned quite out of doors. So, although believers 


in Ciiri-i, and lliose tliat are out of Clirial, have divers and 
various motives lo tlie obedience ol' the law of God, yet ihese 
do not vary llic rule ; the liiw of God is iLe rule to ihem both, 
klihaiigli ibcy lliul be out of Christ liave nothing but fear and 
faopv of n-ajrea lo urge them, and those that are in Christ should 
have noihiu^ hut the love of a Father, and the heartblood 
nercy of a lender tSaviour and Redeemer to compel them : the 
one may be bound to do, that so ihey may live, the other may 
be bound to do, because they do live ; the one may be bound lo 
do> or eUe they shall be jui!tly plagued ; ibc other may be bound 
to do the same, or else they shall be mercifully corrected. It is 
therefore a mere feeblcne^ to think (as some do) tliat the law 

r rule is changed beeause the moiites lo the obedience of it, 

nd punishment for the breach of it, are now (unto a believer) 
changed and altered ; for the communduient urged from Christ's 
love may bind strongly, yco, most sirougly, to do the some thing 
which the name commandment, propounded and received in way 
of hire, may bind aAeo unto. 

7%Mu 112. Some think that there is no sin but unbelief, 
(which is a sin against the gospel oidy,} and therefore, there 
being no sin against any law, (Christ having by his death abolished 
■11 them,) the hiw cannot be a rule to them. An adulterous and ' 
Ml eril generation made drunk with a cup of tlte wine of thi? 
wrath of God. and slrong delusion, do thus argue. Are drunk- 
eoness, wboroiluiii, lying, cheating, witchcrati, oppression, thcfi, 
buggery, no sins, and consequently not to be repented of, nor 
wUchcd aguiiisl. but only unbelief? Is there no day of judg- 
ment, wherein the Lord will judge men, not only for unbeliel', but 
the secrets of all hearts, and whatever haib been done in the 
bMy, whether good or evil, according to Paul's gospel? (Rom. 
it. 16. 2 Cor. V. 10.) Uuw comes the wrath of God to be re- 
vealed from lieaven. not only against unbelief, bat against all 
anrigbwoiuness and nngodhness of man ? ( Rom. L 18.) If there 
was DO sin but unbelief, how can all flesh, Jews and Gentiks, 
U»xime guilty before God, that so they may believe in the gos- 
nel, (»» it IS Kum. iii. 21-24.) if they are all guiltless until unbe- 
lief cumea in ? There is no sin inde«d which chall condemn a 
Bwn in ca*e he shall believe ; bnt will it follow from hence that 
there is no sin in a man hut only unbelief? A sick man shall 

>t die in case he receive the physic which will recover him ; 

R doth it follow from hence that there is no sickness in him, or 
os» which is able to kill liira, but only his willful re- 
jFlfa* physic? Surely his refusing of the physic is not the 
( Jus siektuas which was before, not the natural, (for that 


his sickness \i.) but only the moral cause of hU death. Sin is 
before unbelief comes; a sick sinner before a heating Saviour 
can be rej<!cleU ; sin kilb the soul, as it were, naturally, unbelief 
morally ; no sin shall kill or condemn ua if ve believe ; but dolli 
it follow from beoce that there is no stn before or afler faith, 
because there is no condemning sin unless we fall by unbelief? 
No such matter; and yet such is ibo madness of some projjbets 
in these times, who, to lUiandon not only the directive use of tbs 
Ittw, but also all preparing and humbliug work of the law, am) 
to make men's sinning the first foundation and ground of their 
believing, do therefore either abolish alt the being of any sin 
beside unbelief, or the condemned estate of a man for tiin, yea, 
for any sin, until he refuse Christ by unbelief; for publishing 
which pernicious doctrines it had been well for them if they had 
never been born. 

7'Aem'g 113. One would wonder how any Christian should 
fall into this pit of perdition, lo deny the directive use of ibe 
law to one in Christ, if either they read Ps. cczix. with any 
favor, or the epiatles of John and James with any faith ; in which 
the law is highly commended, and obedience thereto urged as 
the happiness and chief evidence of the happiness of nian ; but 
that certainly the root of ihia accursed doctrine is either a loose 
heart which is grown blind and bold, and secretly glad of a lib- 
erty, not so much from the law of sin as from the law of God, 
or if the heart be sincere in the main, yet it slights the Holy 
Scriptures at present, and makes little conscience of judging in the 
matters of God according unto them; for if it did it could hardly 
fall into this dirty ditch, out of which the good Lord deliver, and 
out of which I am persuaded he will deliver in time all those 
that are bis own : ibr I much question the salvation of that man 
who lives and dies with this opinion ; and as every error is 
fi uitful, so this is in special ; for from this darkening the direc- 
tive use of the moral law arise (amidst many others) these ensu- 
ing evils, which are almost, if not altogether, deadly to the soula 
of men ; they are principally these three. 

I 7K«m 114. The first is a shameful neglect (in some affect- 
ing foolishly the name of New Testament ministers) of a wise 
and powerful preaching of the law, lo make way, by the humbling 
work of it, for the glorious gospel, and the affectionate enter- 
tainment thereof; for through the righteous judgment of God, 
when men once begin lo abandon this use of the law as a rule, 
they abolish mucli more readily this use of the law lo prepare! 
men thereby tor the receiving of ChrisL I know there are some' 
who acknowledge this use of the law to be our rule, but not to 

■mE MOHALiTr OF THE sabhatii. 113 

; bat huw loog they may be ortliorlox ill the one, who 
[ mn heleroUuK in the oilier, the Lord only knows, for I find 
[ that the I'liief nrgumeota agninst the one do strike atrongly 
L against the olher aliw. It is an easy th'iug lo cost blocks before) 
I ibe blind, and to out mists before the fare of the cle&reat truth, 
I anil to make many specious shows of New Testament ministry, 
I trw gracv and eovenant, against this supposed legal way and pre- 

Cngworki but assuredly they that have found and felt the 
: and comfort of this humbling way (for which 1 doubt not 
I bnt that thousands and thousands are blessing God in heaven 
I -that ever ihi'y heard of it) do <.-ertainly and assuredly know that 
e men (at least, doclrines in this point) are not of God — the 
word in iliese men's mouihs being flat uonlrary to [he mereiful 
I and the forever lo Iw adored work -of God in their hearts. 


f evn) when lie o 

i,(Johiixvi. a. 10.) which we know is chiefly by the law. (Rom. 
I 'Mi. 20;) and shall the ministers (not of the letter, but of the spirit) 
I mfusc lo begin here, especially in these times of wantonness, 
I otmtenlion, confusion, famine, sword, and blood, wherein every 
I thing almost rries aloud for sackcloth, mid therefore not for 
I litTany and silken sermons? As if this corrupt and putrefying; 
I age Mood only in need of sugar to preserve and keep them swei.'i 
w from wnnjling. A^ if sublime notions about Christ and frei> 
L grarr, covenant of grace, love of the Father, the kingdom within. 
f and Christian i-xcellcnces and privileges, were the only things • 
I this age stood iu need of, and not in any need of searcbings with 
BBfldlcs. terrors, shakings, sense of sin, or forewammgs of wrath 
to como. ) As if this old world did need no Noah to foretell them 
I of flooiU of fire and wraih to come. Or, as if the men of Sodom 
1 prinii's of Gomorrah should do well to moek at Lot for 
IllMlding liiin to liusten out of tlie uity, because God would destroy 
rb. Ah If ihe spirit of Paul in these times should not know the 
1 terror of tlie Lord, and therefore persuade men, (2 Cor. v. 10, 
II,) but only the love and free grace of the Lord Jesus, and 
I tbcrKfure lo exhort men, nay, rather, therefore, to relate to men 
I Moru-'S and notions alwul free grace, general redemption, the my«- 
|>tery of the Father's love, and the Christ in yon and in the spirit 
I i^*" *''^ person of Christ, or Christ in the ficsh) the hope of glory. 
I What will ihc Lord Jesus one day say to these sleepy watchmen, 
never tell the srcure world of their enemies at the door? 
d diven colors and )irc(i>nces for this course of daubing. 
Some say this savors of an Old Testament spirit, which 
I jru wont |o wound, and then lo heal ; to humble, and Ihon to - 
■ 10» 




raise ; to preach law, and then gospel ; but now we are (o 
be mini^lers of the New Testament, and let no law be heard 
of. I conress, ihoae that preach the law as Ihe means of our 
justiBofltion, and aa the matter of our righieouaness, wiihout 
Christ, or together with Christ, as the false teachers did, (2 Cur. 
iii. 6.) may well be called (as Paul calls them) ministers of thet 
letter, not of the spirit, of the Old Tesiameni, not of the New ; 
but to preach Christ plainly and. with open face the end of the 
Inw, and to preach the law as the means to prepare for, and 
advance, Christ in our hearis, can never be proved 1o be the 
Old Testament ministry, or to put a vail upon men's hearts that 
they can not see the end of the law, (as the Old Testament vail 
did, 2 Cor. iii. 14,) but it is to take away the vail of all conceit 
of man's own strength and righteousness, by seeing his curse, 
that so he may fly to the end thereof, the Lord Jesus, and em- 
brace him for righteousness. For the ajiostle doth not call theni 
ministers of ihe letter and of the Old Testament because they 
did preach the law to the humble and lead unto Christ, but be- 
cause they preached the law for righteousnesa without Christ, 
whom he ealb the spiril, (ver. 17,) and therefore calls them the 
ministers of the letter, and their ministry of death and condem- 
nation: there is something in the law which U of perpetual use, ' 
and something which is but for a lime — the vit coactiva lepit, (as 
■ome call it,) i. e., the force of the law to condemn and curse, 
to hold a man under the curse, and to hold a man under the 
power of sin, which the apostle calls the strength of the law, 
(I Cor- XV. 56.) is but for a time, and is hut accidental to the 
law, and may be separated from it, and is separated indeed from 
it as soon as ever the soul is in Christ, (Rom. viii. 1 ;) he is then 
free from the obligation of it to perform personol and perfect 
obedience to it, that so he may he just ; idso from the maledic- 
tion and curse of it, if be be not thus just. But that which is I 
of perpetual use in it, is not only the directive power of it, but 
this preparing and humbling virtue of it ; tor if all men by na- 
ture, Jews and Gentiles, are apt to be puffed up with their own 
righteousness, and to ble^ themselves in their own righteousness, 
and so to feel no such need of Christ, then this humbling work 
of the law to slay men of all their fond conceits and foolish con- 
fidence in their own righteousness, and to make men feel the 
horrible nature of sin, by revealing the curse and malediction 
due to it, is of moral and perpetual use. And hence it is, that 
though the gospel, strictly taken, (as is intimated Thesis llfl,) 
hath no terror properly in it, because thus it reveals nothing but 
recoDciliatiou through Christ's righteousness applied by faith, 


yet the gospel larirely taken, for tliat doctrine whirh reveals ifaa 
glad tidings of Christ already come, so ihere U terror in it, be- 
cnuse in this respect the gospel makes use of the law, and ( 
firms what is raorni and perpetual therein. 

The sin and terror which the gospel (largely taken) makes 
u^e of out of the law arc but Bubservient to the gospel slrieily 
taken, or for that which is principally or more properly gospel, ' 
for thereby the righteousness and free grace and lave of the 
Lord Jesus, and preciousness and greatness of both, are the more 
clearly illustrated. The law of itself wounds and kills, and 
rather drives from Christ than unto Cbriot; but in the bund of r 
the gospel, or as Cbri-«t handles it, so it drives tlie soul unto/ 
Christ, and (as hath been shown) is the means to that end ; and 
it is a most fidse and nauseous doctrine to alHrm that love only 
draws the soul to Christ, unless it be unilerslood with this cau- 
tion and notion, viz., love ns revealed to a sinner, and condemned 
for sin ; which sin and condemnation as the law makes known, 
to the gospel makes use of to draw unto Christ. If, indeed, 
the go»pel did wineTare ut caintraret, i. e., nound that it may 
wound and terrify only, (which the law doth,) tlien it (sjiith Clia- 
mier) was all one with law, (which Bellarmin pleads for;) but 
when it wounds that it may heal, this U not contrary, but agree- 
able, to the oilii^e of a good physician, whose chief work is to heati , 
and may well suit with the healing ministry of the Lord Je^ua; 
and hence we see, thai although Christ was sent to preach the 
gospel, yet he ciune to confirm the law in the ministry of the 
gospel, and therefore shows the spiritual sins against the law 
more clearly, and the heavy plagues for the breach of it more 
fully, than the scribes and Pharliiees. He that is angry with hia 
brother is a murderer, and he that calls him fool is in danger 
of hell fire. (Matt. v. 22.) 

Peier was no minister of the Old Testament because he first 
«nvinced and pritiked the Jews to the heart for their murder of 
Christ Jesus. Paul was no such minister neither, (whenos he 
would evince our justtficniion by Christ's righteousness only,) in 
tJint he begins and spends so much time in proving Gentiles antl 
a lie under sin and wrath, notwithstanding all the excuses 
of the one and privileges of the other, as appears in his three 
first chapters to the Romans ; but herein they were gospel prcouh-- 
en. Nor can it with any color of reason be thought that the 
prophet! in the Old Testament were herein ministers of t)ie 
, when they did first wound, and then heal ; lir»t humble 
by the law, and then i^vive by the gospel. M. Saltmarsh hath 
b«eii ao blinded with ihu notion of the Old Testament ministry, 




tbnt >0 nvike tliia dm of the law- in preaching the gospel, or (o 
hold foNh the promises of gr.iue lo them thai are qiialilitt] with 
the grace, of thu promise, {us tlie Old Te^>lumpnt pruphcU did,) is 
lo give (us he thinks) ihe wine of llie gosjiei burning hot. «s ihe 
cmelous genlleman did lo his gliosis : mid ai)other (n'ltom I sjiare 
to name) professeih that the Old Testament (I)ecau6e it urgelh 
tlie law lo humble) contaiaetli little good news, but much bad 
news ; but now, when Cliriet saith, " Go, preaeli the goapel," 
thereby he would have them (lie saiih) miiiiBiere of the New 
Tesiameot to preneh glad tidings, (nothing but gospel,) but no bad 
tidings, (not a jot of the law,} until mt-o po!>ilively reject the glad 
tidings of Ihe gospel. If iheae men speak true, then neither 
Peier in his preaching, nor I'nul in his writings, nor Chriet him- 
self in his ministry, were mimsters of the New Tealament, but 
did overheat their wine, and preach much bad tidings to the peo- 
ple of tiud. Verily, if this stuff be not repented of, the Lord 
bath a time to visit for these inventions. 

2. Some object, (Gal. iii. 24, 2.^.) that the children of the Old 
Testament were under the law, as their pedagogue Id lead them 
to Christ; but now (the apostle saith) we are no longer under this 
sel 100 1 master, who are sons of God in the New Testament. Be 
it so, that the sons of God under the New Testament are past 
the lerroring of ibis schoolmaster, is it not ilicn^fore ibe work of 
the New Tesiaraeni ministry to preach the law unlo servants and 
elaves lo sin and Satan in New Testnmeni times? No, (saith the 
same author,) for ihia is to preach bad neus ; this is no gooil 
news to i^ay. Thou art condeniTic<l for the.<e things ; for the gospi;! 
saith thus. Tliou pour drunkard, thou proud wonuui, here is a 
gracious God that hath loved thee, and sent Christ lo die for 
thee, and ministers lo nmke it known to thee, and here is ever- 
lasting salvation by him only, beciiu^ ihou ai-t a sinner; thou 
art now free Irom damnation : fear nut that, Christ bath loved 
thee, therefore obey him ; if not, thou-shalt not be damned, ibat 
is done away already, etc. 1 would know whether a proud wo- 
man, or a poor drunkard, a villain, who never jet believed, are 
in a stale of eondemnation, ay or no? I have read indeed timt 
" there is no condemnation lo them ttiat are in Christ," (Hum. viii. 
1 .) but never of any sui-h fi-eedom to them that are out of Christ, 
iinlc^ it was only in desiinulion and merit; and I hare read 
that we arc by nature children of wrath, while dead in sin; 
(Kph. ii. l-S:) hut never of this, vis., that we are in favor 
while we be in our sin, much less that we arc lu believe this 
It', therefore, such persona be iu a stale 
ind condemnMion, ia not tbis like the old 


fiil*c prophets, crying peace, peaiw, and snlTalion, where ihere is 
no pence ? " There is no peace to ihe vrickeil, saiih mj (lod." (Isi 
xlviil. utu : Kii. nil.) This is truth before tbcy reject the gos- 
pel, is it not ? This ilie law saith (say some) true, but is noi 
tills confirmed by the ministry of the gospel also ? (John iii. ult.) 
He that believes not, the wrath of God abides upon him, frti 
in a6iu»- it was upon him before he did believe ; and when he 
believes not, it abides where it did. Must the ministers of the 
New Teat&menl, therefore, prench lies and talshoods, and tell 
proud women, and poor drunkards, and villains, before they re- 
fuse the gospel by unbelief, that the Lord Jesus loves them, 
*and that they need not fear condemnation, when the Scripture 
hath shut up all men under it, that the promise by faith might be 
given to those that believe, and them only ? What ia this gos- 
pel ministry but to tell men they are whole, and not sick to 
death, but healed before they come to the Physician, the Lord 
Jesus ? Surely that is gospel ministry which advanceih Christ 
not only in word but in power in the hearts of poor sinners ; but 
doth this ministry advance the physician's custom and honor, 
vhicb where it comes must first tell all the crew of wretched drunk- 
ards, proud persons, and villains, that they arc already well and 
whole, loved and piu'doned, blessed and saved, before ever they 
come to Ihe Lord Jesus ? Suppose therefore (as some may say) 
tbot servants and slaves to sin may have the law preached to 
them, yet the sons and children of Giod have no use of it in that 
respect now ; it is true, I grant, not as the servants have under the 
New Testament, nor yet as the sons of God had under the Old ; 
for the children of God under the Old Testament had need of ibis 
achoolraasler to lead them to Christ to come, and ad Chrittum 
^fpieum, i. e., to Christ typed out in sacrifices and oblatious, high 
priest and altar, and so it led them to Christ afar olf, and as it 
were a great way about ; but it doth not follow that there is 
no use of the law therefore to be a schoolmaster still to lead unto 
Christ immediately and already come ; those that are servants 
to tin under the New Testament have need of the law to dhow 
them the condemnation and curse under which they lie by na- 
ture and are now actually under; but the sons of God (for whom 
Christ is made a curse) are not thus under it, and therefore have 
Dot this use of it, but only to show that curse and condemnation 
which they do of themselves deserve; and therefore the holy 
■poatle, when be was in Christ, and did live unto God, he 
^owB us how he did live unto God, viz., by dying to the luw, 
and how he did die tu the law, and that was by the law, i. c., as 
it did show him his condemnation ; he did live to God in his 



justitlcAtion ; as it did show liim liissin, nm] wbdIs, and weakness, 
it mndfi Lim die unlo it, and espeut uo lilb from it, and eo live 
imlo God in his BanctiKcalion ; for so ihe words are, " I throueh 
thn Inw am dfad lo the law, thai ! mny live unlo God," (Gal. 
ii. 19 ;) thn ifAue thererore is this, that if ihe doctrine be t&kua 
strictly pro legejidei, (as Chamier calls il,) or ihat doctrine which 
ehows the yay of man's righteousness and juslifleBtiun only, 
there iiidt^d all the works of tlie law, nil lerrara and threal- 
nings, are to be excluded, and nothing else bnt peace, pardon, 
pTBCv, favor, eternal reronciliation to be believed and received ; 
and therefore il is no New Testament ministry lo urge the law, 
or to thnnder out any terror here, for in this sense it is true 
(which is commonly received) that in ihe law there are terrors, 
but in the gospel none; buf if ihe gospel be taken largely for 
all that doctrine which brings glad tidings of Christ already 
come, and shows the love of God in the largest extent of it, and 
the illustrations and confirmationH of it from the law, then such 
servants of Jesus Christ who hold forth the law to make way for 
grace, and lo illustrate Christ's love, must either be accounted 
New Testament ministers, or else (as hath been shown) Christ 
1 ^ Je sus and his apostles were none. 

^~ Thesii 1 15. The second is a professed neglect, and casting 
' olf tiiQ work of repentance and mourning for sin, nay, of asking 
pardon of sin ; for, if Ihe law be no rule to show man his duty, why 
sliould any man then trouble himself with sorrow for any sin? 
For if il Ije no rule to him, how should any tiling he ain to him F 
k and if so, why then should any ask pardon of it, or mourn 
I jilpder it ? Why should not a man rather harden his heart like an 
fldamam, and make his forehead brass and iron, even unlo the 
death, against the feeling of any sin ? Uul what doctrine is more 
cross lo tlie s^iirit of grace in gospel times than thin? which is a 
spirit of mourning; (2ach. xii. 10, 11 ;) what doctrine more 
cross to the command of Christ from heaven than this ? who 
writes from heaven to the church of Ephesus, lo remember 
frora whence she is fallen, and repent ; (Rev. ii. 5 ;) wliai doc- 
trine more cross to ihe example of holy men than this: ? who after 
they were converted then repented and lamented most of all; 
(Jer. xxxi. 18, 1!*; 2 Cor. vii. 9-11 ;) what doctrine more 
cross to the salvation of souls, the mercy of God, and forgiveness 
of sin ? lor so the promise mna, " If we confess our sins, he ia 
faithful and just to tbi^ive us our sins." (1 John i. 9.) What doc- 
trine so cross to the spirit of Ihe love of Christ shed abroad in the 
heart, ihat when a man's sins are greatest, (which is after conver- 
beCHUse now against more love and more nearness lo Jesui 


^H muuemiing? 
^H ia sweet and g 
^B ing great who 
^^m tame subject, 
^V cation, and ihi 


I ghouli] l>e kost monkish and 
I lonlhsoiue, but godly sorrow 

believer's soi 
muuemiing? Sorrow indeed 

fa sweet and glorious ; doubtless tbme ineu'ii bliodneiis b exceed- 
b^ great who know not bow to reconcile joy and sorrow in the 
■ame subject, who ean not with one eye bt^liold llieir free justiH- 
cation, and therein diiil; rejoice, nnd the weakness and imper- 
fection of ibeir justificiilion with another eye, and for that 

Tlietit 116. Tbe third thinj; ift, a denying sun ctiticntiot 

honor of » fuiihful and true witness, or clear evidence of ou^l 

f ju»lilicalion ;/for if a believer be not bound to look unto the law | 

I lu hie rule, whj shootd he then have any eye to bin sanctilicalia 

I which is nothing else but our habitual conformity to tlie law, as 

f inherent corruption is nothing else but babilual disiigrecment j 

with it ; although sanctificiitiun be no part of our rigbteousneuT 

before God, and in this «ensc U no evidence of our justification, [ 

yet there is scarce any clearer trutli in all the Scripture than J 

litis, viz., that it is evidence that a man is in a juBtified estate^ 

L Jiodyet this leaven, which denies the law to be a Christian's rule 

I sf life, hath soured some men's spirits against this way of evi- 

\ duDcing. It is a doublfid evidence, («ailh Doctor Crisp,) an ar- 

■ gument. not an evidence ; it is a carnal and an inferior evidence, 
I Ihc litst and the least, not the first evidence; it is an evidence, if 
\, JustiKcfttion be first evident, (say Den and Saltmiirsli,) some men 
I may be led to these ojiinions from otiier principles tlian a plain 
I denial of the directive 0£<i of the law ; hot this I feur lies undcr- 
w »ost: however, let these two things be examined : — 

I K Wliether sancliacalion be a doubtful evidence. 

I 2. Whether it be a carnal, inferior, and may not be n firat 

I evidence. 

I llitma 117. If to be under the power and dominion of sin 

I And nriginul corruption be u sure and i-erluin evidence of actual 

I eondemnaiion, so thai he that suiili he knows Chriet and liuth fel- 

I lowship with him, and yi'I walks in darkness, and keepn not bis 

I eommnndments, is a linr, (1 John i. C; ii. 4.) why may not 

I Mnclincalioti then (whereby we are ^et free from the power of 

L iin) Iw a »ure and certain evidence of our actual justification 'i 

■ For hereby " we knuw that we know him, if we keep his 
K'DOminaudiDenls," (1 John ii. 3;) whereby it is manifei;! ikat 
K'lbe aiMSlle is not of llieir minds who think the negative (o 
P fcii true, vix., that ihcy that keep not Christ's commaudmcnls ai-e 
t In a ■late of perdition ; but they will not make llu: ullirmalive true, 
L la., that they that keep Ids i^jjuraandments may tliereby know 
BdttU they are in a slate of talvatiou; if Jesus Christ be wnt "to 






bless his people in turning them from theii- iniqaitieB," (Acta 
iii. ult.,) iben they thai know they are turned from their iniqui- 
ties by liim may know certainly that they are blessed in him ; 
and it they be not thus turned, they may know certainly that 
they arc yet accursed. If godltne^ hath the promises of this life 
and that which is to come, (1 Tim. tv. 8,) and if the free grace 
and actual love of God be revealed clearly to us only by some 
promise, how then is sanctifi cation («o near akin to godliness) 
excluded from being any evidence ? Is lliere no inherent grace 
in a believer that no inherent sanclification can be a true ei-i- 
dence ? Verily, thus some do think ; but what is this but an 
open, graceless professiOD that every believer is under the power 
of inherent sin, if he hath not the being of any inherent gi;ace ? 
or if there be any inherent grace, yet it is (say some) so mixed 
with corruption, nnd is such a spotted and blurred evidence, thitt 

I confess such an answer would well become a blind Papist 
who never knew where grace grew, (for so they dispute against 
oertiCado talitlit eertitudine Jidei, when the concltwion of faith 
arifeih from such a proposition as is the word of God, and the 
assumption the testimony of God's Spirit to a man's own expieri- 
cncfl of the work of God in his heart,) hut it ill becomes a minis- 
ter of the gospel of Christ to plead for such Popish ignorance in 
a Christian as can see no farther than his own buttons, and that 
can not discern by the Spirit of God (he great and wonderful 
, change from darkness to light, from death Co life, from Satan to 
God, the visible work of (jod, and graces of the Spirit of God. 
The things (which the aposile calls love) "are freely given to 
them of God." (1 Cor. ii. 12.) Peter's was imperfect, blotted, 
and mixed, and yet be could say, " Lord, thou knowest I love 
thee." (John ixi. 17.) The poor doubting, mourning man in 
the gospel had some faith, and was able to see it, and say, cer- 
tainly, " Lord, I btlieve ; help my unbelief." Could Paul discern 
(without extraordinary revelation, because he speaks as an ordi- _ 
nary Christian) an inner man, and a taw in his mind, delighting 
in the law of God, yet mixed with a law in his members, lead- 
|ng him captive into the law of sin, and can not we ? And yet 
I the doctor doth cast such stains upon sincerity, universal obedi- 
ence, love to the brethren, etc., and heaps Up the same cavils 
against the truth of them in the souls of the eaiols, as the devil 
himself usually doth by sinful suspicions and suggeHtions, when 
JGpd lets him loose for a season to buffet his people,'/liat so they 
may never know (if it wure possible) what great things the Lord 
kaih done for their souls ; and whoever reads bis book shall find 



^B or 

^ nl 


that he makes a believer sueh a crealure na can not lull certainly 
whether lie lie a sincere-bearied man or an arrant hypoerile ; 
" whether he be under the power of sin and Satan or not ; whether 
s Loan can be discerned from another to be a anint or a devil ; 
whether he hath any charily and love to them that are saints 
from them that are not; and so goes ahout lo befool and non- 
pliu and puEzle the people of God, as the slory related of iba 
German woman, desiroua to rid tlie house of her htisband, who 
fir«I making him drunk, and casting him into u sleep, did so shave 
him and dress him, and cut and clip him, that when he awakened 
he knew not what lo think of himself, or to say who he was ; for 
by looking upon and in himself he thought he was the woman's 
husband, and yet by his new cut and hahit he almost believed 
that he was a friar, as his wife affirmed. San ctili cation is an 
evidence always in itself of a justified estate, although it be not 
■Iways evident unto us ; and therefore, what though a Christiun 
■ees his sanctilication luid graces to-dity, and can not see them, 
but is doubtful about them, suppose to-morrow, shall he there- 
fore reject it as a doubtful evideuce, which is ever clear enough 
in itielf, though not always to our discerning ? For I would 
what evidence can there be of a justified estate, but partly 
through dimness and weakness of faith, (which is but imperfe 
and therefore mixed with some doublings all a man's life, 

3 or other,) and partly through the wise and adored provi- 
dences of God to exercise our faith, but that some time or other 
n not be discerned ? Is the immediate testimony of Gotfs 
t (which some would make the only evidence) lUways evi- 
dent, and the shinings, sbeddings, and actings of it never sus- 
pended, but that by some means or other they will be at a loss ? 
Why then should sanctification bo excluded as a doubtful evi- 
deoee, because sometimes it is, and at other times not, discerned '{ 
I know there are some who. perceiving the conceived uncertainly 
of all such evidences, have therefore found out a strange caiholi- 
con for these sick times, a sure wa y o f ev idencing and settling 
I's consciences in a w ay of peai^ and unshaken asauraucu 
Uve of CRrit't ; and therefore they make (whicfi 1 name 
»rror) the siglTt of corruption and sinful perdition, through 
the promise of the gospel, the certain and settled evidence of life 
■nd salvation, which opinion, the least 1 can say of it is, that 
which Calvin Miiil in l)ie like case, tu l>e rxundantU in mundum 
/tmrit Dti JIagtUttm. 'Woe lo the dark mountains of Wales, 

tmnd tlie fat vallcyp, lowns, anil cities in Kngland, and sea coasts 
and istanib in America, if ever this delusion take place I And 
y«t tills flume begins lo catch, and this infection lo spread ; and 




And / 
and / 




Iherefore I find M. Saltmarsli nnd W. C. In speak out, nnd 
openly to own llinl which llie Fninili^ilfi in formiT limes have 
eilher bt-en ashameil or iifi-aid to acknowledge, and that is this, 
vie, that the promises of the go^'pcl do belong lo a sinner, 911a 
sinnur, or &s a sinner, and tliat the law speaks good news to a 
righteous man, quatema a rigiiteous man, Lut the gospel quite 
coiitrar}'' ; it is to & man qnaUniu n sinner, not as a regenerate 
man, or as a humble man, or ns a saint, or as a believer, but aa 
B rinntn and lieni^e they inrer. that a Christian will never have 
liny settled peace, but bo olTand on, as a bone ont of joint, in and 
nut, a reeil lossed with the wind, never knit to Christ, if ihey 
lay hold tin Christ and Goil's love under any other consideration 
than as to sinners'; and therefore, tliough they see no good in 
tliemselveg, though they be not humbled, brok en-hen r led sinners, 
(as one preaclter tells Ihcm.) nor believing sinners, (as another 
preacher tella them,) yet, if ihey see themselves sinners, they 
must know a sinner is the proper object of the gospel, and there- 
fore this is ground enough to believe ; so that if the devil tell a 
man thai he is no saint, if the soul can nay, I am a sinner; tfUio 
devil say, Tliou art a hypocrite : Ay, but a hypocriie is but »^^a 
still ; though I be not a broken-hearted, this will be (th|Asaj) a 
refuge of peace to j'etreat unto in all temptations; and *hen men 
have learnt this lesson, their souls will not he in and out any 
more, but have constMil peace; for though ihey have nn interest 
in Christ as saints, yet they have real interest in the promises of 
Christ ns sinners ; hence also, they say, that no minister is 10 
threaten or declare ihe curse and wrath of God against drunkards 
tnd sinners, as such, until first Christ be offered in the gospel, 
and tliey refuse him, and that, if any do this, they are ministers 
of the Old Testament, not of the New. Sic desinit in piseein 
tnulier formoia. Lot us therefore see what chaff and what corn, 
Tvhni trurii and what falsehood, there is in ihis new divinity. / 

It is true, I. That Ihe gospel reveals the free grace and love 
of God, the death of Christ, and salvation by him for poor sin- 
ners, and that all those that are or shall be saved are to ac- 
knowledge and aggravate God's love toward them, in casting bis 
eye upon them when they were sinners, notwithstanding all their 
sins ; this the Scripture every where holds forth. (Horn. v. 6. 7. 
1 Tim. i. 19.) '2, It is true, also, that the gospel makes an offer 
fif Christ, and salvation and remission of ains to all sinners, where 
' it comes, yea, to all sinners, us sinners, and as miserable, yea, 
- though Ihey have sinned long by unlielief, as is evident, (llos. 
xiv. 1. Rev. iii. 17. Jer. iii. ^2. Is. Iv. 1.) All are invited lo 
eonie unto iliese waters freely, without money or price. These 


things no mnii doubts of timl knon-s ihe gospel ; but the question 
whether rcniiAsioii of sins ami rt?Foncitiation in the gospel 
belong to sinnera, but whether they belong to sinners immedi- t, 
aiely as xinners ; not whether they are meritud by Christ's death, ' 
and ofTcrrd out of hU rich gntce imtnediately lo sinners, bttt 
• whether they are actually and iinmt^d lately their own. so ns they 
may challenge them thus as their own, from this as Troro a fall 
and sufficient evidence, viz., because ihey are sinnerfi, and because 
Hwy sM ihomselvea tinners. For wo grant that Jesus Christ 
came into the world actually to save sinnurs, yet mediately by 
fiHtb, and then they may see salvation; that he Jiisiifieth also the 
ongoilly. liul how? immediately? No, but mediHiety hy faith. 
(Rom. iii. 5.) and that where sin abounds, grace aboumls. To 
whom? loallsinnere? No; but mediately loallthnaeonlywliobjr 
faith receive this grace, (Rom. v. 17;) so (hat the gospel reveals no ^ , 
actual love and reconciliation immedintely to n sinner, as a sinner, 
but mediately to a sinner, as a believing and broken-hearted sin- 
ner; and the Scripture is so clear in this point, that whoever 
doubts of it mu^t eacutire «um mle, and we may say to them, as 
Pi^l to the Galatians, ** 0, foolish men, who hath bewitched 
yoii Uint you should not see this truth?" For though Christ 
came lo save sinners, yet he professeth that he came not to call 
(he righteous, hut the sick sinners, (Malt. \x. 13;) though God 
jusIiHetli the ungodly, yet it is such an ungodly man as believelh 
in htm. whose faith is imputed unto righteousness, (Kom. iii. 5;) 
though grace abounds where sin abounds, yet it is not to all sin- 
ners, (lor then all should be saved,) but to such as receive abun- 
dance of grace by faith, (Rom. v. iV;) although God holds tonh 
Chrii-I to be a propitiation for sinners, yet it is expressly said to 
be mediately through faith in his blood, (Itom. iii. 24, 2^ ;) al- 
ihuugh tlie Scripture hath concluded all uiulcr sin, that the prom- 
ise might be given, yet it is not said to be immediately given to 
sinners, as sinners, but mediately to all ihut believe t and in ono 
word, though it be true that Christ died fur sinners and enemies, 
lliat ihey might have remission of sins, (then procured and mer- 
ited for ibeui,) yet we never actually have nor receive this re- 
mission (and consequently can not see it) as our own, until we do 
believe; for unto this truth (saith Peler) do alt the prophets 
wiineM, that '' whosoever bvlieveth in him shall receive remission 
of sins," (Acts X. 4.1 ;) and hence it is, that aa all the prophets 
preached the actual fuvnr of God only to sinners as believers, so 
the apostles never preuchi-d it in New Testament times otherwise ; 
and hcnee Peter (AcIh ii. 3S) duth not tell the sorrowful Jowa 
that they were linnere, and that God loved ibem, and that Christ 




'hud died for lliem, and tiint thoir eina were pnrdoncd. because 
they were .sinners; bul he first uxhoris iheni lo rcpeni, that so 
they miglK receive remission of ains; nordolh Paul lell any man 
that salvation belonged to liim, because he is a sinner, but if thou 
believe with all ihy heart tliou slialt be saved. (Rom. x, 5-7.) 
If tbe love of God be reve:iled lo n sinner, as a sinner, this must 
be either, 1. By the witness of the luw ; but Ibis is impossible, for 
if the curse of God be herein revealed only to a sinner, as a sin- 
ner, then the luvo of God ciui not; but the law cur«eih every 
sinner. (GaL iii. 10.) Or, 2. By the light and witness of the 
gospel ; but this cannot be, for it reveals life and salvation only 
to a believer, and confirms the Hentencti of Ibe law against such 
a sinner as believes not. (John iii. 17,36.) " He that believes not 
is condemned already," not only for unbelief, (as some -say,) for 
this doth but aggravate condemnation, but also for sin, by which 
uian is first condemned before he believes, if ihe apostle may be 
believed, (Rom. iii. 19;) and if a man be not co'ndemned for sin 
before he believe, then he is not a sinner before he believe ; for 
look, as Christ hath taken away any man's condemnation in his 
death, just so hath he taken away bis sin. 3. Or else by the 
witness and teslioiony of God's Spirit ; but this is flat contrary 
to what the apostle speaks. (Gal. iii. 20, with iv. 6,) " Ye are all 
the sons of God by faith in Christ Jesus;" and because ye are 
sons, (not sinners,} "he hath sent tbe Spirit of his Son, crying, 
Abba, Father," (Gal. iv. 4-6;) and, verily, if the love of 
God belong to sinners, as sinners, then all sinners shall cer- 
tainly be saved, (for a qualeniu ad omiie valet comeqiitntia ;) so 
that by this principle, as sin hath abounded actually to randemn 
all, so grace hath abounded actually to save all, which is most 
pernicious i nor do I know what should make men embrace thia 
principle, unless that they either secretly think that the strait 
gate and narrow way to life is now wide and broad, that all men 
shall in gospel times enter in thereat, which is prodigious, or else 
they must imagine some Arminian universal redemption and rec- 
onciliation, and so put all men in a salvable and reconciled 
estate (such as it is) before faith, and then the evidence and 
ground of their assurance must be built on this false and crazy 
tbiindatiou, viz., Jesus Christ bad died to reconcile (and so hath 
iled) all sinners. 


And therefor* 
gospel ministry 
some,) then 1 

1 am reconciled. If this be the bottom of this 
,iid prcni'hiiig free grace, (as doubtless it is in 
uld say these things only; — 

1. That this doctrine, under a color of free grace, doth as n 


I^ilify and lake off the price of free gr»ee in Christ's death aai 
my I kniiw ; I'or what ean villfV tliis gi-mre of Chriai more, tbgaj 
tar Christ shed \m blood ns that Peier and Abraham in 
heaven shall have no more c.tuse lo thank Jesus Clirist for his 
love therein than Judns and Cuin in hell? it being eqimlij shed 
for one us much as for the othrr. 
S. That litis is n fahe Itoiiom for failh to rest upon and gather 
•vidence from ; Tor, 1. If Chn«i hath died for all. lie will then 
«criainly save all ; for »o Paul reiuoni, (Rom. riil. SI, and \i. 
10;) he hath given his Son to death for us; how shall he not but 
with him give us nil ot%r thing!) ? and therefore he will pve 
fiuili. and give rt'[ii-'nlanee, and give perse v*ranee, iind give eior- 
tutl life aUo, which is mosi false. If he- did not pray for all, then 
he hitih not died for all, (John svii. 9 :) which Srripture never 
yet received scarce the show of a rational answer, tliough ttoine 
have endeavored it with all willlngne'^s. 

8. Thai whereas by this doctrine they would elear up thy way 

1(0 a full and settled evidence and Christian assunuice, lljey do 
hereby utterly subvert the principal foundation of all ^eliicdnesa 
■nd assurance of faith, which is this, viz., thai if Jesus Chtist be 
given to death tor me. then he will certainly give all other 
-diings to me. If we were reconciled to God by the death of his 
Sun. much more shall we be savei) by liis life. If Christ huih 
^ed and risen for u«. who then shall condemn i who shall then 
Mpamie us from God's tove? (Uom. viii. Si ; vi. 9, lU.) But 
if tliey KbnII bold no such principles, I would then know how uny 
muii rtui Imve evideut'jj of this, vix., that God loves him, and 
UiHi Christ bath died lor him while he is a sinner, and as he is 
> sinner? Or how any minisler of the New Teslamont can say 
to any man (under the {rawer of his sin* and the devil) that he 
is nut condemned for his sins, bill that God loves him, and tiiat 
Chritt bath died for liim, without preaching falsehoods, mid lies, 
and dreams of iheir own heart 'f Fur, 1. God halh not loved nor 
elected all sinnerf^, nor haih Chrii^i died for all sinners. 2. If 
every man l>o in a slale of condcmniiii<in before he believe the 
pMjiel. then nn man can be said to be in a stale of reconciliation, 
tind tbM God huLh laved him until be refuse the giwpel, but 
every man is in a slate of eun<lemnaliui) before he believe, be- 
miine our i^aviiiur expresfty telU us. ihat by fnilh we pass from t 
death to life, (•lolm v. 24.) and ho that halh not the Sun hath ' 
not life, ( I John v. 12:) and iheretbre, if ihose he mini»ioiii rf 
the New Testament who flnt preach to all the drunkHrds and 
whoremongers and villuiiis in a parish ihut God loves them, 
thai Uwy ar« reconciled by Chrisr* death, nnd that they j 
■ 11* 




know it because Ihey are Binners. ihen let the heavenB hear, and 
the earth know, timt sll pui'h mitiisters am false prophets, and 
cry Pence, peace, where God proclaims wraih. and that they 
a«]iiit them whom God condemns ; and if they be ministers of 
the Old Tesiamentl ppirii, who first show men their condemned 
estate, and then present God as trroth againHt lliem while ihey 
be in their Rin, that so they may prise and fly to favor and free 
grace, then such are ministers of the Old TeslnmenI, and not of the 
Kew, because tliey preach the truth ; and if preacliing the truth 
be an Old Testament ministry, no wise man llien, I hope, will 
deeire the new wine, for the old is better. While the lion sleeps, 
and God is silent, and conscience slumbers, all the beasts and 
wild sinners of the world (and many preachers too) may think 
that there is no terror in God, no curse or wrath upon themselves, 
in the mid»t of the rage, increase, and power of all their sins ; 
but when this lion roars, and God awakens, and conscience looks 
above head, they shall then see how miserably 'they have been 
deceived ; they may slight sin. alwlish condemnation, talk of and 
wonder at free grace now, and believe easily, because they are 
Binners; but certainly they shall be otherwise minded then. 
Some men may have good ends in preaching God's free grace 
af^er this manner in the gospel, and make the gospel a revelation 
of God's actual love to sinners, as sinners, and make a Chris- 
tian's evidence of it nothing else but the sight of his sin, and of 
bis being under the power of it ; but little do they think what 
Satan, the father of this fiilse doctrine, aims at, which are these 
fthur lliinge chiefly: — 

1. That sanctification. faith, etc., might be no evidence at all 
tc a Christian of a good esiaie, for this, they say, is a doubtful 
evidence, and an unsettling wa}' of assurance ; because they will 
hereby be as bones out of joint, in and oui ; humbled to-day, and 
then comforted ; but hard hearted to-morrow, and then at a loss ; 
whereas to see one's self a sinner, that is a constant evidence, 
for we are always sinners, and the gospel proclaims peace to 

2. That so men may keep their lusts and sins, and yet keep 
their peace loo ; for if peace be the portion of a man under the 
power of sin and Satan, look ihen, as he may have it, why may 
he not keep it upon the same terms ? And therefore W. C. 
saith, that if conscience objf^cl, thou art a hypocrite, (perhaps 
truly ;) yet a hypocrite is but a sinner, and God's love belongs 
to sinners, as sinners. And if this be thus, wliat doth this doc- 
trine aim at but to reconcile God and Belial, Christ and Uum< 
man ; not only to open the door to all manner of wickedneas, 
but to comfort meu therein? 


3. That so he may liring men in time purppsely to Bin tha 
more fretly, that so they may have llie (blearer evidence of tha 
love of God ; for if Gotl'a love be revealed lo Bionctv, as sinners, 
then, the more sinfal, the more denr evidence he hath of God'» 
love ; and therefore one once entangled with these delusions 
was induced to commit a gross wickedness, that more full assur- 
ance might be attained. 

4. That BO the true preacliing and ministry of tlie gospel of 
God's free grace might be abolished, (at lensi deRpised.) which 
is this, viz., thou poor, condemned sinner, here is Christ Jesus, 
and with him eternal remission of sins and reconriliaiion, if thou 
believe and receive this grace offered humbly and thankfully, 
for (bis is gospel. (Matt, xxviii. I'J. filark xvi. IC. Rom. x. 
5-8 ; iii. 21, 25. Acts viii. 37.) And hence M. W. C. hath 
these words, "Tlutt if the gospel hold forth Christ and salvstioo 
upon believing, (as many, saith he, preach.) it were then litUe 
better tidings than the law." Ah, wretched and unworthy speech, 
(hat when Jesus Christ himself would show the great love of 
God unto the world, (John iii. 16,) ho makes it out by two ex- 
pressions of it 1. Thai the Father sent his only Son. 2. That 
whosoever did believe in him, (or if they did believe in him,) 
they should have eternal life. The Lord shows wonderful love, 
that whoever believe may have Christ and eternal life by believ- 
ing ; but this doctrine breathing out God's dearest love, by this 
man's account is liiile belter than law, which breathes out nothing 
but wrath. But why doth he speak ihufl ? Because (saiih be) 

isy lo keep the ten commandments as to believe of 
Very true, as lo believe of one's self. But what is 

't the preaching and holding forth Christ and salvatioD 
upon condition of believing? For is not this preaching of tllo 
gONpel the instrument and means of working that faith in us 
which the Lord requires of us in the gositel ? And must not 
Jesus Christ use the means for the end ? Were not those throe 
thousand broughrTiito Unrliil~by^1anlir by Peter's promise of 
remission of sins upon their repentance? Were not many filled 
with the Holy Ghost when they heard this gospel thus preached 
upon cmndition of believing? (Acts x. 43.) Doth not ihe apos- 
'' '. that the gospel is the power of God to ealvHtiou, because 
n is Christ's rigbleousnesss revealed (not to sinners, as 
sinners) but from faith to faith ? The condition of works is 
impossible to be wrought in uh by the SpiriL but the condition 
of faith, (though ii be imposiijble for us lo work it in our hearts.) 
yet it is possible, easy, and usual for God to work it by requir- 
ing of it, (Jer. iii. 22.) which is do prejudice to God's free gnw«, 



ben\U!« failli is purpos{-ly required and wrouglit, because it 
diieHy hoiioro and advancelli free grace. (Rom. iv. 16.) Tlie 
promise \s of faiili, tliat it niiylit be \iy grace. If Mr. W. 0. 
will not jireai^h Christ u;N)n bidieTing, how will he nr any man 
else preai^li it ? Will ihey tell all men ihal God loves ihem, 
,and tliitC Christ hath died for ihein, and tliut he ilmt girea 
grace and pulvmion will work failh in rhem ? Tnily, thus W. 
C. seems to atfiriii ; but if they shall preach so to all siimor.s, as 
sinnai's. nnd tell them abi^olulely God will work faiih in them 
also, I suppose ihai tlieclmreh walls, jind plentiful and abundant 
experience, would teslify against tliis falsehood ; and ilie Scrip- 
ture teslitiea sufficiently that every mnn shall not have faith to 
whom [lie gospel is preached. Now. I do l>eseech the God and 
, Father of lights lo pity his straying servant*, who are led into 
those deep and dangerous delusions tbrough feeble mistake of the 
true ditrerenee between Old and New Testament ministries, and 
tliHt he woulri pity his people for wiiose sins God hath lei loose 
these blinding and hardening duulrines, by means of wliich thej 
are tempted lo receive that as the goapel of truth which is but' 
a mere lie, and lo take tlmt !U an evidence of salvation Ihat is, in 
trull), the evidence of perdition aud condemnation, as hath been 

7%MI» 1 18. The second thing remains to be cleared, whetlier 
eanctili cation may not be u first evidence, and thereibre Biore 
than a carnal inferior and last evidence, us M. Saltmarsh calls 
it i for if it be (not a iluubtfol) but a clear and certain eWdeneo 
in itself, (us haih been proved,) why miiy it nol be a first evidence? 
Why may not ibe Spirit of God, wlio works it in a person justi- 
fied, first reveal it as an evidence that he is justified? What 
mortal man can limit ijic Spirit of God to whal evidence he shall 
first bring into the conscience of a justified e«lale ? For li.'i sanc- 
tificatiun be taken in the largest sense for any work of saving 
grace wrought in the elect, (whether in vocation to faith, or in 
Ban cti Scat ion. which, strictly taken, follows our justiUcution by 
faith.) and take evidence not for evidence of ihe object, (for Christ 
Jesus in his free grace must be seen dm as the ground an which 
faith resle,) but tor evidence of testimony la the subject, and . 
then I Ihus argue, that this first evidence of special actual love 
in beholding God's free grace to a sinner is either, — 

1. Without fH?ing of tliith and other graces j — 

Or. i. Wiihout the seeing of them only, tlie eye looking up 
to Christ and free grace. 

But this first evidence is not without the l>eing of faith and 
IioUue^ for then it should be lo » uiau actually uudtr ihe power 



of sin, *ni his filthy lusts, and the devil ; which hllth been 
olreadj proved in llie former Thesis lo be a mere delusion ; (here 
being no such word of the gospel which reve.iU God's free lovB 
And actual reconciliation to a sinner, as a sinner, and as under 
the power of hia sins, but the gospel rather reveals the quite contra- 
ry ; and to affirm the witness of llie Spirit clears thia up. is lo pre- 
tend a teatimony of the Spirit contrary to the testimony of the 
word ; and yet I strongly fear, and do fully believe, ihal tliia is 
• the first evidence which men plead for, viz., lo see God's love 
toward them, while they neither see grace nor any change of 
heart in them ; or have grace, but are still under the dominion 
of their sin. 

And on the other side, if any affirm that this evidence is not 
without the being of grace, but only without the seeing of il. so 
that a Christian's first evidence is the feeling of God's free grace 
out of himself, without seeing any faith or grace in himself, and 
seeing nothing else but sm m himself, this I confess is nearer 
the truth, but it is an error which leads a man to a precipice, and 
near unto the pit ; for if this be so, then these things will una- 
voidably follow : — 

1. That a Chrbtian must see the love of God toward him 
in Christ, and yet must not see himself to be the person lo whom 
this love only belongs ; for (according lo this very opinion itself) 
it belongs only to a believer, and one that hath the being of grace, 
and not to a sinner, as a sinner. 

2. Then a Christian must not see the love of Christ and free 
grace of God by that proposition or testimony of the Spirit which 
reveals it, and that is this, Tufideltt, (Thou beUever,) called and 
sanctified, art freely beloved : and thus a man must not see his 
estate good by the light of the Spirit ; nay, ihua a Christian must 
receive ihe testimony of the Spirit, which assures him that he \a 
loved without understanding the meaning of the Spirit ; which is, 
(not thou sinner, as such.) but thou, believer, art beloved ; not thou 
that hnst no grace, but thou that hast the beingof it, art beloved. 

3. Then the first evidence is-built upon a mere weakness, nay^ 
upon an untruth and falsehood ; for it is a mere weakness not to 
see that wliich we should see, vii., the being of faith and 
grace in the heart, in which respect the promise is sealed : and if 
any man, by not seeing it, shall think and say there is no grace, 
no faith, no sanctificailon, and now he sees God's love to such a 
one, and he tliinks himself to be such a one, when he nees 
God's free grace, and hath this first evidence, it is a falsehood 
and an untruth, for it is supposed lo be there in the l>eing of tt 
all ihia while. Suppose, therefore, that some Christians, at their 


first relnm ami conversion to Goii, or aftfrivtirJ. liave frrnce and 
faith, but ^ee it not in their nssuraniTe nt' (ityl's love, (l)ie cmi- 
neney of the object and good of il swallowing up llieir llionglita 
and hearts from atiending lheniR);]ve.s) yet tlie question is ^o 
jur^ ; ihej do not see, nay, pliuuld not sac and take notice of 
the bein^ of them in themselreii. le not this a mei'e weakness 
and fttlsuhood which is now made the mystery of this tirsi evi- 
dence, and indeed somewhat like Cusanus's tumma lapicntia, 
which he makes to be this, viz., altingere illud quod est inaltin- 
(/ibile I'nallinr/iMiler, that a Christian must see and touch God's 
deep love, and yet neither see, nor touch, nor feel any change in 
himself, or any tteing of grace, when in truth it is there, in 
which respect also God's free grace and love in reveoled ? 

4. If this be the llrat evidence, then no minister, no, nor any 
aposile of Christ Jesus, can give any first eridence of God's 
love hy the ordinary dispensation of the gospel; for ahhou^h a 
'minister may say. Thou art a sinner, therefore the Lord Jesus 
may save thee, yet he can not say upon that ground that there- 
fore the Lord Jc^us will save him,' for then every sinner should 
I be saved. No minister can say to any unbeliever, Christ hath 
I redeemed thee, therefore believe; or say absolutely. Thy sins are 
pardoned ; for then he should preach contrary to the word, which 
expressly tells us, that he that believes not is already con- 
demned. No minister can say Giod will work faith in all you 
llial are sinners, as halh been shown; but they can say. Thou, 
believer, art pardoned ; thou art sanciilied, ai"! reconciled, etc. It 
is therefore au evil speech of one lately in print, who calls that 
ft bastard assurance, arising from a lying spirit, which first pro- 
ceeds from the sight of any grace, and thence concludes they are 
justified and shall be save<i. For I would thus argue, that this 
work of grace (suppose love to the saints, hunger and thirst after 
righteousness, universal respect tuall God's commandments, etc.) 
is either common to hypocrites, and unsound, or else it is pecu- 
liar to ihs elect and sincere. If the tirst, then it can not lie 
either first or second evidenco j il can be no evidence ai all, 
^ther without or with seeing, lirsl. God's free love to unners, as 
einners ; if the second, then either God's promise (made to such ' 
as are hungry and humble, and have a work peculiar to Go<)'a 
elect in them) must be false, (which is blasphemous to imagine,) 
(W else, whensoever it is seen, whether first or kst, it must needs 
be a most blessed, and sweet, and sure evidence ; fur when we say 
that such a work of grace may be a first evidence, we do not 
mean as if the work, simply considered in itself, could give in any 
cvidenus, but only as the free promiso uf grace is made to suuli 

THli MUBALirr Of TlIK a.VliDATir. 

HS have siich a work of grace : this promiae, wc say, lo suuh per- 
tou», whensoever iliey see this wort, gives in lull and clear 
evidence oi their blessed eslalc. And if the word,af grace lo a 
siiini^r, as a sinner, may give in a flrst evidence, (aa 
pne.) ihen much.more may it give in evidence where iheiti is 
nut only the word of grace, but also the Spirit of grace, yeu, the 
work of grace, lo osaure the conscience ; and for any to ultirin 
that liulh and sanctilication are ^^oo<l evidences, if jnstilication be 
(int evident, is but a quirk of fi-olliy wit ; for it may be as 
safely affirmed, on llie contrary, llint J UKiifi cation ii a gJud evi- 
dence, if faith and sanctification be tirsC evident, fur it U not thc>« 
simply, but the promide which i* our eviUcnee, which U never lo 
a sinner, as «ucli. I shall therefore conclude these things with v| 
ihuwing the troe grounds of effectual evidence of the love of Cbrigt. 
77i«(i« U9. The free grace of God in Clirist (not works) 19 
■be only sure foundation of justifying faith, or upon which faith 
i« builL (Rom. iii. 24, 25. 1 Pel. ii. 4-6. Matt. xvi. 18.) 
This free grace therefore must first be revealed by the Spirit of 
God in the ministry of the guspel in order unto faith, (Ram. x. 
14, lot Kjih.i. IS.Wwbich general revelation of free grace toaW 
make tu be tbe H rat Evidence on which faith rests, ami thus far it 
is irue ; but now this free grace is revenleil two ways : — 

1. In the free offer of it to he our own by receiving it. (AcU 
z. 13. GaL ii. IS.) 

2. In the free promise of il, revealing it us our own already, 
having actually and effectually received it. (John i. 12. Rom. ' 
V. 1. 2. 1 John V. 12.) 

The free offer of grace (eonin i n i ny God's call, command mcmb 

ui d i>escechingg to believe an d Tie rucon cilejjj^ jjyca utrightjo 

I inssession of Ohrist, or to come and t ake, and so posses^ 

-'!' ' i- J!.!.l. -Pi-- !!! 11-1 * ''-"f^-ltomZtt^ 

mutable pur- 

i BL ^ ^. ■ - ■ - ■ 

jjlirist JcsuH b^ J'aJ ir.~Tder. iii. 22. 1 Cor. 
The free promW of~gmcp (containing revealed ii 
poses and actual assurances of present and future grace) gives u 
right to the JViiiiion of Christ, or to enjoy Christ as a free gift 
when it is ofier«(l ; llie comnumd and desire of the donor lo re- 
ceive it to be our own. gives right and power to possess it; and 
when it is received, his promise to us, assuring us that it is and 
■liall continue oiir own. givesi us right and privilege lo ei^oy it 

i make use of it. Fur by two immutable things (ilie promise 
cunlirmed by uath) we have sirong conflation who have Bed for 
nrfuge lo the hope before us. (UeU vi. 17-19.) The free oBn\ 
is the first ipTiuni lof our fa ilh. why we receive Christ 10 be our I 

n : but l lie fre«iiini»ii»i.'l is tlie firil ground of the assarance of I 
faith, why we are usfluntl and persuaded thai he \a onr own 1 



^ already; for the jfospel contains tliree things: 1. The revela- 
tion of Christ. 2. The offer of Chriel. 3. The promise of 
Christ lo all thme that i-eceive lliis offer. Hence faith (which 
runs parallel with the gospel, ihe proper object of it) first sees 

.Christ: secondly, receives Christ; thirdly, is assured of the love 

[of C hrist, having received him. 

I'he free offer of grace being made lo (he soul, because it 
poor and sinful, cursed and miserable, and that therefore 
would receive Christ, hence it is that in this respect the soul 
not bound first to see some good in itself and so to receive him, 
but rather is bound (at first breathings of G!od upon ir) rather to 
eee no good, i. e., nothing but sin and perdition, death and dark- 
ness, enmity and weakness, and therefore to receive him. (Luke 
xiv. 21. Rev. iii. 17, 18. Gal. iii. 21. Rom. xi. 32. Hoa. xiii. 
3.) Gut the promise of free grace being actuaily given to the 
H>ul, (and not declared only as it is in the free offer, because it 
halh received Chriat already, by which he is actually its own,) 
' 'iS bound to see some 
I, and so embrace and 
So that although, in 

hence it is, ihat in this respect the & 

good or saving work of grace in itself fi 

receive the promise and Christ Jesus in 


) be 

r believe in him, yet, 
3 must first see some 
2]se we have no just 
n challenge any promise 
n Christ, the foundation 

selves wherefore we should receive him 
in receiving him as our own already, t 
good, (the work of free grace in us.) ( 
ground thus lo receive him. No man cb 
belonging to him without having a part ii 

^f them ; Ho man can have Christ but by receiving of him, or 
believing in him. (John i. 12.) Hence, therefore, they ihat say 
lhat the first evidence of God's love and free grace or actual fa- 
vor is lo a sinner, as a sinner, had need consider what they say ; 
for is it to a sinner as possessed with Christ and receiving of 
him, or as dispossessed of Christ, not having of him, but rather 
refusing and rejecting of him ? If they say the first, they llien 
speak the truth ; but then they raze down their own pernicious 
principle, that Christ and God's love belongs to them, as sinners. 
If they aUirm the latter, then they do injuriously destroy God's 
free grace and the glory of Christ, who think to possess promises 
without possessing Christ, or to have promises of grace without 
having Christ ilie foundation of them all. For, though the com- 
mon love of God (as (he bare offer of grace is) may be matiifest''d 
without having Clirist, yet special, aclual love can not he actually 
our own, without liaving and first receiving of him; and if the 
Spiiit of God convince the world of sin (and consequently of 
condemnation) while they do not believe, (John xvi. 9,) I wonder 


bow it can then convince tbem of pardon of sin and rtconoiliatioii 
"before they do believe? unless we will ima^ne it lo be « lying 
I ipiril, which is blasphemous. These things not considered of, 
' liave and do occasion much error at this day in the point of eTt- 
dancing, and hath been an inlet of deep delusion, and open gnps 
re been made hereby lo the looee ways and depths of Familisu 
I gross Arminianism, and therefore, being well considered of, 
< suflii'ient to clear up the ways of llioee failliful servants of 
the Lord, (who dare not sow pillows, nor cry peace to the wicked, 
mufh less to sinners, as sinners.) both from the slanderous impu* 
lation of legal ministrations after an Old Testament manner, ad 
' niso of making works the ground of faith, or the causes of assur- 
ance of faith : Ihe free offer being ihe ground of the -one, n.nd 
llie free promise the cause and ground of the otticr. Briefly, 
therefore, — 

1. The free offer of grace is the first evidence to a poor toGl 
sinner ihni he may be beloved. 

2. The receiving of this offer by fnilli (relatively considered in 
respect of Christ's fpoiless righteousness) is the first evidence 
showing why he is beloved, or what hath moved God actually lo 
tove hira. 

3. The work of sanctilicalion (which is the fruit of our rccctv- 
I lag this offer) is the first evidence showing that he is beloved. 

I If, therefore, a condemned sinner be asked whether God nuty 

love hiro, and why be thinks so, he may answer. Because Jesus 

' Christ is held forth and offered to snch a one. If he be further 

asked, why or what he thinks should move God to love him, he 

Eiay answer. Because I have reccivcil Christ's righteousness 

offered, for which righteousness' sake only I know I am beloved, 

I now 1 have received it. If he be asked, lastly, how be knows 

L' nertninly that be is beloved, he may answer safely and conti- 

|i 4efttly. Bei'auso I am sanctified ; I am poor in spirit, tbereforu 

. mine is the kingdom of heaven ; I do mount, and therefore I shall 

be comforted ; I do hunger and ihirst, and therefore I shall be 

Mlisfied. eCc We necil, in lime of distress and temptation, all 

these evidences ; and therefore it is greatest wisdom to pray for 

that Spirit which may clear ihem all up unto us, rather than lo 

^ OMiteiia which should be the tirsi. 

Atid thus we see that the whole moral law is our rule of life, 
I sod consequently the law of the Sabbath, which is a branch of 
Ftlus rule We now proceed to show the third branch of things 
I genermlly and primarily moral. 

f T^emt 120. Thirdly, not only a day, nor only a rest day,bul 
L'IIK' rast day, or Sabbath day, (which is expressed and ezproisly 

KU Tin; MoUALiTv oy hie saiihatu. 

inlcrprt;led in tlie rommamlmenl lo be tlie seventh Jti}', or a 
sevL-nih diiy of God's (lelermming. aix) [liert-fore called l/,e Sah- 
bath of the Lord uiir Cad.') is liere also enjoined und commanded, 
as generally moral. For if a diiy be moral, wtial day mu£t it be? 
If it be said, that any day which human wisdom shall delcrmine, 
whether one day in a hundred or a Ihou^and, or one day in many 
yearB ; if this only bo generally moml, then the rule of morality 
may be'brokeo, because the rule of equality may be thus broken 
by liuraan determination ; for il may be very unequal and unjust 
to give God one day in a hundred or a thousand for his worship, 
and to assume so many beside to ourselves foi' our own use. 
There is, therefore, something else more particularly, jct prinm- 
rily, moral in this command, and that is (lie SalAath dag, or Put'h 
a day wherein there ajipears an equal division and a fit propor- 
tion between lime for rest and time for work, a time for God and 
a time for man, and that is a seventh duy which God deiermines. 
A ill proportion of time for God is moral, because equal; man 
can not determine nor set out this proportion ; God therefore only 
can and must. A day therefore ihat he shall determine is moral , 
and if ho declares his determine ion lo a seventh, a seventh day 
is therefore moral. Gomarus ronfesselh that, by ihe analogy of 
this commandment, not one day in a thousand, or when man 
pteaseth, hut that one day in seven is moral, at least equal, fit, 
and congruous to observe the same ; and if the analogy he spenkii 
of arideth virlute manda/i divtjit, or by virtue of God's command- 
ment, the cause is in eSeet yielded : but if this analogy be made 
virtutt tibertah's himanO', so (hat human liberty may do well to 
g^ve God one in seven, (because ihe Jews did so, and why should 
Christians be more scant ?) then I sec not but human libia-ly may 
assume power to itself lo imjKise monthly and annual holy daya 
as well, because the Jews had their new moons and yearly festi- 
vals i and by analogy thereof, why may not Christians who have 
more grace poured out u)Kin them, and more love shown unto 
them under the gospel, hold some meet proportion with them 
therain also, aa well as in Sabbaths ? But it can never be proved 
that God hath left any human wisdom at liberty to make holy 
days, by the rule of Jewish projmnions. Beside, if bnman wi:> 
dam see it meet and congruous to give God at least one day in 
seven, this wisdom and reason is either regulated by some law, 
and iben it is by virtue of the law of God that he should have 
one day in seven, or it is not regulated by a law, and then we arc 
left to a loose end again, for rann to appoint wlial day be sees 
I Biect in a shorter or a longer lime, his own reason lieing his only 
towi and this neither Gomarus nor llic words of the command- 



^n[ will allow, wlikli sets nnd flxctli ttic dny, trhii:h we see is 
e day in seven, which noi man, bul God. Rliall deiemltne, and 
thtri^fore called tde Sabbalh oftlie Lord out God. ~~ 

I Thetit 121. The hardest'knot herein to unloose lies in this, 
I to know whether & seventh day in ^nerul which God shall de- 
\ 1«rmine, or that pniliculnr seventh day from the creation, be here 
\ 6iily eomninnded : the first seems (in Mr. Primrose's npprehen- 
I aion) to writhe and rack the words of the comtDondmcnl ; the 
\ aecniid (if granted) abolishelh ourChristinn Sabbaths. ....^^ 

I Thrtit 122. For clearing up of this ditliculty, therefore, and 
I leaving the dispnto of the change of iheSnbb:ilh to its proper place, 
[ it may be made good, that not that seventh day from the crea- 
f tion. so much as a seventh day whicli God shall determine, (and 
f tlicrcfore called the seventh day.) is primarily moral, and therc- 
\ fere enjoined in thi^ commandment ; for which end let these tiling 
L be considered and laid together, -" 

. Because the express words of the commandment do not 

\ nn tlius, viz., " Remember to keep holy that seventh day," but 

rre generally, " the Sabbath day ; " it is in the beginning, and so 

^ in the end of this commandment, where it is not suid, that 

I iGiod blessed that seventh day, bnt the Sabbath day ; by whiuh 

Fcxpression the wisdom of God. as it points to that particular scv- 

ftvnth day, that it should be sanctified, so it also opens a door of 

■liberty for change, if God Hball see meet, because the substance 

if the commandnient doth not only contain that seventh day, but 

G Sabbath day, which may be upon another seventh, as well as 

Upon that which God appointed first ; and that the substance of 

WOx command is contained in those tir^t words, " Remember tlie 

■ Sabbath day to keep it holy," may appear from the repetition of 
^llic same commandment. (Deul. v. 12,) where these words, "As 

■ '<bc Lord thy GimI commanded thee," are immediately inserted 
f beforr the rest of the words of the commandment be set down, 

a eltow thus much, that therein is contained the sub^itance of 
I the fuitrtb eomauind ; the words following being added only to 
1 preM to the duly, and to point out the particular day, which at that 
I tim« God would have ihcm to observe, 

2. Bomuse in the explication of tfiose words (the Sabbath) it 
f b not cnlird " lliut seventh," but " the seventh," for io the words 
" Six days »hatl thou labor, but iht; seventh ilay is the Sab- 
1 bftth of the Lord thy God." th« meaning of which is thisrouch, to 
r vit, that man taking six days to himitelf for labor, that he leave 
Ihe sevcnih to be the Lord's. Now, unless any can show 
J Uint no other day but that sevenih could be the seventh for rest, 
L Aor no other six days but those six going before thai aeveuih could 


be llie six days for labor, ihey can never prove that iLia fourlli 
commandment haiK only a respect to that particular seventh, and 
it b no email boldness neceasurilj lo limit where God halL left 
tree ; for we know that, if God will, man may take other six days 
for labor, and leave another seventh for God, than those six 
days and thai seventh day only.^ 

3, The change of the Sabbslh undeniably proves thus much, 
(if it can be proved.) that the morality of this command did not 
lie in that particular day only ; for if that only was moral, how 
eould it be changed ? and if it did nol lie only in that seventh, 
wherein then did it more generally lie? Was it in a day more 
largely, or in a seventh day more narrowly ? Now, let any indiffer- 
ent conscience be herein Judge, who they be that come nearest 
lo the truth, whether they that fly so far from the name seventh, 
which is expressly mentioned in the commandment, or ihey that 
come as near it es may be ; whether they that plead for a sev- 
enlii of God's appointing, or they that plead for a day (but God 
knows when) of human institution. And it is worth consid- 
ering why any should be offended at the placing of the morality 
oflhecomtnHndin a seventh, more than at their own placing of it 
in a day ; for in urging the letter of the commandment to that 
particular seventh, to abolish thereby the morality of a seventh 
day, lUey do withal therein utterly abandon the morality of a day ; 
for if that seventh only be enjoined in the letter of the com- 
mandment, and they will thence infer that a seventh therefore 
can not be required, how can llicy, upOQ (bis ground, draw out 
the morality of a day ? 

4. Because (we know) that ratio Ugi» ut amnut Ugit, \. e., the 
reason of a law is the soul and life of the law. Now, let it be 
considered why God should appoint the sevenih. rather ihan iho 
ninth, or tenth, or twentieth day, for spiritual rest ; and the rea- 
son will appear not to be God's absolute will m erely, but because 

. divine wisdom having just measures and balances in its hand, in 

I pra|>ortioning lime between God and man, it saw a seventh part 

of lime (rather than a tenth or twentieth) lo be most equal for 

himself to lake, and tor man to give : and thus much the words 

of the commandment imply, viz., that it is most equal if man 

hath six, that God should have the seventh : now, if this be the 

reason of the law, this must needs be the soul and substance of 

I the morality of the law. viz., that a seventh day be given lo God, 

'^tnan having six, and therefore it consists not in thatseventli day 

only ; tor the primary reason why God appointed this or that 

seventh was not because it was that seventh, but because a 

sevenih was now equal in the eye of God for God to take to 

f HE KOUALirr ( 


nseir. n 

ri lia 

i.togeilier for liimst-lf; iu\A because n 

5 Ihe full and fitlcst proporlicin of six days 

-ijlli 1 

s ihp finest pro- 

portion of time for God, he^l^e this or thnt iii<liviUiial and )iur- 

ticular seventh in the second place fall out to he moral, bei'nuse 

they contain the most equal and lillesi proportion of a seventh 

^ day in tht^ni ; there was also another reueon why that ««venlh 

1 sanctified, viz., God'a rest in it; but this reason is not 

Hmary, na hath been said, and of which now we tipeak. 

', Because, if no other commandment be in the decalo^i'e 

) comprehensive, and looking many ways at unce, why 

ro then pinion and gird up this only lo the narrow cum- 

« of that seventh day only ? 

6, Because our adversaries in this jtoint are forced somelimcB 
' lo acknowledge thin morality of a seventh with us : we have hearil 
the judgment of Gomsrus hi-rein, (Thesis 44,) nnd M. Priin- 
nK«, wlio speaks with most weight and spirit in this controversy, 
profe«^elh phkinly, that if God give us «ix days for our own af- 
fairs, there is then good rca.4on to consecrate a ^eventh lo his 
service, and that in this rcai^on there is manilest jusliiMS and 
equity, which abideth forever, to dedicate to God precisely a 
seventh day after we have bestowed sin days upon ourst:lves. It 
ran not be denied (soilh he) but that it is most jusL Now, if it he 
by his coo^siun, 1, just, *2, most just, H, manifestly jnal, 4. per- 
petually Just. 10 give God precisely one day in seven, the ciiu^c . 
is Ihen yielded: ihe only evatuon ho mitkcs is this, v it., that 
^ylhough it be most just lo givt- God one day in seven, yet it is 
^^fat more just ihon to ptvc God one in six, or five, or four, thrru - 
Hpting mi natural justice in the number of seven mort- than in 
B^lw nnrobcr of six or four : but the answer is easy, that if man 
may give unio God superaiitiously loo niany, or profanely loo few, 
and if iho appointment of God halh declared ilsclf for a seventh, 
and that the giving of llii.' seventh be most just and Brjiial, then 
let it be considered whether it be not most salisliurlory l» a 
scrupling conscience lo allow Goil a scvcnih day which hi: halh 
appuinivd. which is confessed lo bo most just and perpeinully 
«i)iial, and consequently moral; and if there be a moral and 
^yo rpctuiU equity to give God one day in seven, then it is no 
HlMtller wlicther tlicre be any more natural equity ibcrein ihun 
Hb one in livti or six. Thi: dUputers tif this world may pic-use 
^^hein««lvea wiih such speculations and shifts, hut the wisdom of 
God, which hall) already ap|K)inied one diiy in seven rather than 
ill tix or ten. should bi- adored herein, by humble minds, in cut- 
ting out this proportion of time, with far greater equity thus 
man can now readily see. 
U. 12* ^ 


7. Because deep corruplioti is (lie groiin'l of this opinion, the 
plucking up of Gud'd bounds and landiimrks of a seventh is to 
put the etakes into the church's hands, to set them wticre she 
pleaseth; or if she set them at e seventh, where God would have 
them, yet that this may be submitted to, not because God pleas- 
eth, but because the church so pleaseth ; not because of God's 
will and determination, but because of the church's will and de- 
termination, that so, it being once granted lliat the church hath 
liberty to determine of sueh a day. she may not be denied liberty 
of making any other holidays, or holy things in the worship and 
service of God ; and tliat this is the main scope and root of this 
opinion, is palpably evident from most of the writings of our 
English adversaries iu this conti'over^y. ' 

Hitsit 123. A seventh day, therefore, is primarily moral; yet 
(us was formerly said. Thesis 46) there is something else in thb 
commandment which is secondarily moral, viK., this or that par- 
ticular seventh day. 1 will not say that it is accidentally moral, 
(as some do,) Jiut rather secondarily, and eonsequeiitly moral. 
For it is not moral firstly, because it is this particular seventh, 
but because it has a seventh part of lime, divinely proportioned 
and appointed for rest, falling into ii, and of which it partici|>ates. 
To give alms to the needy is a moral duty, and primurlly moral ; 
but to give this or that quantity may be moral also; but it is 
secondarily moral, because it flows ex emuequenti, only from thu 
first; for if we are to give alms according to ^ur ability and 
others' necessity, then this or that particular quantity thus suiting 
their necessity must be given, which is also a moml duty ; so it 
u in this point of the Sabbath.^ 

T^eti* 124. Hence it follows that litis commandment enjoins 
two things : 1. More generally, a seventh. 2. More particu- 
krly, this or that seventh, and in special that seventh from the 
creation, this or that seventh are to be kept holy because of a 
seventh part of time appointed falling into them. A seventh 
day also is to be kept holy by virtue of the commandment ; yet 
not in general, but with special eye and respect to that pariic- 
nlar seventh, wherein this general is involved and preserved. 
That seventh from the creation is commanded, because of a 
seventh falling into it; and a seventh also is commanded, yet 
with a special eye to that seventh wherein it is involved. And 
tlierefore it is a vain objection to atfirm, that if a seventh be 
commanded, that then no particular seventh is ; or if any partic- 
ular seventh be so, that then a seventh is not ; for the command- 
ment, we see, hath respect to both ; for wlat is there more fre- 
qnent in Scripture than tor general duties to be wrapped tip and 



Kt forth in some particular things, instances, and examples, and 
consequently boih commnnded together ? And after narrow 
search into this I'ommandment, we shall find both the general 
and particular seventh, not only inferring one the other, but both 
of thein in a manner expressly mentioned. 

Tlietit 125. When those that plead for the morality of the 
fourth uoutmuad, in respect of a seventh day, would prove it to 
be moral, because it is part of the decalogue and set in the 
heart of it, with a special note of remeiubrance affixed to it, etc., 
Mr. Ironside and others do usually dash all such reasonings out 
of countenance, with this answer, viz., that by this argument. 
That particular seventh from the creation is moral, which we 
see is changed ; for (say they) that also is set in the heart of Uie 
decalogue, with a special note of remembrance also. But the 
reply from what hath been said is easy, viz^ that that also ia 
indeed moral, only it is secondarily moral, not primarily ; and 
therefore (us we have shown) was mutable and changeable, the 
primary morality in a seventh immutably remaining ; the moral 
duty of observing a seventh day is not chiuiged, but only the 
day. If Mr. Primrose could prove thai there is nothing else 
commanded in this fourth command, but only that particular 
seventh from the creation, he had then enough to show that (this 
day being justly changed) the commandment is not moral or per- 
petual ; but out of this particular seventh which is now changed, 
himsell' acknowledgeth that out of it may be gathered the moral- 
ity of a day ; and why not of the seventh day also, as well as of a 
day? He saitb that it is a bold assertion lo say that this genus 
of a seventh is herein commanded. But why is it not as bold to 
affirm the same of a day ? For out of that par^culor seventh 
whence he would raise the genus of a day, we may as easily, and 
far more ratiDnally, collect the genus of a seventh day. 

Thrti* 12tl. Nur will it follow that because a seventh is 
ntoml. thai thereforu tiny one of the seven days in a week may 
be madi' a Christian Sabbath. For, 1. We do not say that it is 
any seventh, but a seventh determined and appomteil of God for 
holy rest, which is herein commanded. 2. The Lord hath in wis* 
dum appointed such a seventh as that man may have six whole 
days together to labor in: and hence it follows that divine detenni- 
nalion, without crossing that wisdom, could not possibly full upon 
any other days in the cycle of seven, but either upon the last 
of seven, which was the Jewish, or the first of seven, which now 
is (as shall be sliown) tlie Christian Sabbath. 3. As God hath 
appointed one day in seven for man's rest, so in his wisdom he 
nlen it « thai U iball be also a day of God's rest, and tlt a| 




is not to be found in any d&j of the vreeii but eitbcr in tlie last 
of seven, wherein the Father resieH, or in the first of seven, 
wherein the Sou rested from his work bIso.^ 

3K«n( 127. It ia true thnt the Siibbuth dajniid Umt seventh 
day from the creation lire indifferently taken, sometimes the one 
for the other, the one being the exegesis, or (lie explication of 
the other, as Gun. ii. 2, 3, Exod. xvi. 29, and elsewhere; but 
that it should be only so understood in this eoinniandment, 
Gndat Judeus Apella, turn ego, us be said in another case. I see 
no convicCiug ai'gunient to clip ihe winga of the Scrijiture so 
ehort, and lo make the Snbbnth day and that seventh day of 
equal dimensions ; aUbough it can not be denied but thut in 
some sense the Siibbath day is exegelical of the seventh day, 
because the commandment haih a special eye to that seventh 
from the creation, which is secondarily moral, yet not exclud- 
ing that which is more generally contained in that parlieular, 
and consequently commanded, viz., a seventh day, or the Sab- 
bath day. 

Thttii 128. Mr. Primrose would prove the exegesis, that 
by the Sabbath day is meant lliut seventh day only from the 
creation, because God actually blessed and sanctified thnt Sab- 
bath day, because God can not actually bless a seventh, being an 
unlimited, indefinite, and uncertain, indeterniined time. The time 
(saith he) only wherein he resied, lie only aclually blessed, whicli 
waa not in a seventh day indelennined, but in that delermined 
Mvenlh day. But all this may be readily acknowledged, and 
yet the truth remain Arm ; for that parlieular seventh being 
secondarily moral, hence, as it was expressly commanded, so it was 
actually and particularly blessed : but ns in this seventh a general 
of a seventh is included, so a seventh is also generally blessed 
and sanctified. Otherwise how will Mr. Primrose maintain the 
morality of a day of worship out of this commandment? For 
the same objection may be made against a duy which himself ac- 
knowledgeth. as against a seventh day which we maintain ; for it 
may he said, that that day is here only moral, wherein God aciu- 
atly rested, but he did not rust in a day indefinitely, and there- 
fore a day is not moral : let him unloose this knot, and his answer 
in defense of the monililyof aday will helphim tosee the momliiy 
"Of a Bovenih also. Thai particular day, indeed, wherein iioA 
actually and particularly rested, he particularly blesseil; but there 
was a seventh day also more general, which he generHlly blessvd 
also- He generally blessed the Siibbaih daj-, he panicularly 
blessed that -Sabbmh day, and in blessing of that he did virtually 
mid by analogy bless our particular Christian Sabbath also, which 




wfta to come. As JfoMS, in h'xa nclual blessing of the tribe of 
Levi, (D«ut. xxxiii. 7, 10.) he did virtually and by analogy blesa 
all the minislers of ihe goiip«l not then in being. And look, as 
when God coiamanded them to keep holy the Sttbbath in ceremo- 
nial duties, he did therein virtually command us lo keep it*lioly 
in evangelical duties ; so when be commanded tbem to obsei've 
that day, bet^^ause it was actually appointed, and sanclified, and 
blessed of God, he commanded us virtually and analogically 
therein to observe our seventh day also, if ever he should actually 
appoint and bless this other. 

T/tetit lis. The distribution of equity and justice conaiaU 
not always in puHcIo indtvitilnli, i. e., in an indivisible point and 
a set measure ; so as that if more or less be done or given in 
way of justice, that then the rule of justice is thereby brokeu ; 
«s. gr, it ia just to give alms and pay tribute ; yet not so just aa 
that if iDea give more or less, that then they break a rule of 
justice ; so it is in this point of the Sabbath ; a seventh part of 
lime it moral, because it is jnst and equal for all men to give 
unto God, who have sii for one given tliem to serve their own 
turn, and do their own work in ; yet it is not so juet but that if 
God bad required the tribute of a third or fourtL part of our 
time, but it might have been just also (o have given him one day 
in three, or two, or four ; for in ihia case positive determination 
dolb not so much make as declare only that which is moraL 
And therefore, if Mr. Primrose thinks that a seventh part of time 
is not moral, because it is as equal and just to dedicate more time 
to God, and that a third or fourth day is as equal as a seventh, 
it is doubtless an ungrounded assertion ; for so he afllrms, that 
although il be most just to give God one day in seven, yet no 
mure just than lu dedicate lo him one day in three or six. And 
suppose it be so, yel this doth not prove that a seventh day ia 
not moral, because it is as equal to give six as seven, no more 
than ihHt it is no monil duty lo give an alms, because il may bo 
as equal to give twenty pence as thirty pence txi a man in want. 
If, furthermore, he think that it is as equal and just to give God 
more days for his service, as one in seven, out of human wisdom, 
and by bunutn consecration, not divine dedication, then it may 
be doubted whether one day in Iwo, or three, or six, is as equal 
as one day in seven ; for as human wisdom, if lef\ to itself, may 
readily pve too few, so it may superstitiously give too many, (us 
hath been said.) But if four, or three, or six be alike equal 
in themselves to give lo God, as one in seven, then if ho thinks 
il a moral duty lo observe any such day in case il should be im- 
posed and consecrated by human determination, I hope he will 



not be oHendeil iit us if we lliuik it a moral iluty nl^o to ofi- 
B«'ve a seventh Jny, wbii'h we are certain dirine wisdom hiilh 
judged most eijual, and which is imposed on us by Jtvinc deterioi- 
nalion ; we may be uiieerltiiii ivheilier tlie one is as eqiiul, as we 
art eei'tain that & seventh dny is, 

T/iesit 130. Actions of worsliip can no moi'p be imagined lo 
be do]io without some lime, tlian a body be wittioul Eonie plHire ; 
and ihereforo in ihe three first eommandmenta, where Goil's wor- 
ship is enjoined, some time logetlier with it is nece.searily com- 
manded ; if, thensfore, any time for worship be required in llie 
fourlU command, (which none can deny,) it must not l*e aunh n 
time as ie connatural, and which is necexsnrily tied to llie action ; 
but it must be some solemn and special time, which depends upon 
some special determination, not which nature, but wliicli counsel, 
determines. Dc I ermi nation, therefore, by conn^l of that lime 
which is required in ibis command, dolh not alwli^h the morality 
of il, but rather declares and establisheth it. God, therefore, wlio 
is Lord of time, may justly cbuUenge the determination of this 
Ijine into liis own luind. und not infringe the morality of Ibis com- 
mand, considering also ibat be ia more able and fit limn men or 
angels lo see, and so cut out Ihe most equnl proportion of time 
between man and himself. God tlierefore hatb sei|uegicred a m-v- 
enih pftrt of time to be sanctilied, rather than a litth, a fourth, or 
a ninth, not simply because it was this seventh, or a sevenlli, but 
because, in his wise determination thereof, he knew it to be ibo 

most just and equal di 
and therefore I know nc 
seen one day in three, o 
tion of time as one day 
free to man to lake and 
(the Spirit of God not 

four, c 

n of time between man and bimsirif ; 
ingruily to afRnn, that if God hiid 
ir nine, lo be as equal a propor- 
1. that he would then bave left it 
either the one or the olbcr, 
9ually restraining where there is a lib- 
erty ;) and on the other side, if be had seen a third, or fifth, or 
ninth, or twunlieth part of lime more equul than a sevemli, ho 
would have fixed the bounds of labor and rest out of a seventh ; 
but Laving now fixed them lo a seventh, a sevenih day is therefore 
moral, rather than a fourth, or sixth, or nintli day, beeitngc it is 
the most equal and fittest proportion of time (all things consid- 
ered) between God and man; ihti appointment therefore of r 
seventh, ntther thim a sixth or fburtli, is not an act of God's 
mSE^wULiinl/. (as our advei'Siiries affirm, and therefore they 
thinirit5nt-i«2!ji!') '^'" ■' *"* ^"^ '^ *" '*"^ "' ''■* "isdom also, 
according lo a moral rule of justice, viz.. Id give unto God that 
which b roost fit, most just, and most equal ; and therefore, 
although there is no^ftturajjuslice (as Mr. Primrose calls it) in 


_ I seventh, Simp] J wiil abalniclly considered, rntlier than in a 
rixth or tenlh, yet if tlie most equal proportion of time for God 
be lotted out in a seventh, there is then eomelhing natural and 
niorul in it rather than in any other partition of time, vie., to 
give God ihni proportion of time which h most just and most 
C(]ual ; and in this respect a seventh part of time is commanded, ij 
becauiie it is goo<l, (according to the deecripiion of a moral law,)V 
•ad not only goo dbec ansi- it ia HimmanHpil . 1^ 

Thttit 131. ' it ia true that in private duties of worship, aa 
to reitd (he Scriptun^, meditate, pray, etc., the time for these 
and the like duties is tell to the will and determination of man, 
according to general rules of conveniencj and sea&onableness eel 
down in the word ; tnno's will (in this sense) is the measure of ' 
such limes of worship ; but there is not tlie like reason here, in 
det«nnining time for a Sabbath, as if that should be left to man's 
liheriy al^o. because those private duties are to be done in that 
time which is necessarily annexed to the duties themselves, 
which time is therefore there commanded, where and when the 
duly is commanded ; but the lime for a Sabbath is not such a time 
ma naturally will and most attend the action, but it is such a time 
■s cflunMl (not nature) sees most meet, and especially that coun- 
tl which is most able lo moke the most equal proportions of lime, 
lilfch we know is not in the liberty or ability of men or angels. 
It of God himself; for do but once imagine a time requited 
It of the limits of what naturally attends the action, and it will 
a found necessarily to be a lime determined by counsel ; and 
Wrefurc our adversaries should not think it as free for man lo 
Mnge the Sabbath seasons from the seventh to the Stlh, or 
tenih day, etc. as to alter and pick our times for pri* 

' 7K*m IS'i. There is a double reason of proposing God's 
auunple in the fburih command, as is evident from the com- 
" mandmeni itself : thefirct waste persuade, the second was to direct. 
I. To persuade man so lo labor sin days together, as to give the 
seventh, or a seventh appointed for holy rest, unto God ; for so 
■he example speaks — God labored six days, and rested the sev- 
enth ; therefore do ye the like. 2. To direct the people of God 
to that particular seventh, which, for that time when the law was 
given, God would have them then to ol>serve, and that was that 
seventh which did succeed the sii days' labor: and therefore for 

Pio make God's example of rest on that seventh day an argu- 
t (hat God commanded the observation of that seventh day 
. is a groundless assertion ; for (here was something more gen- 
y aimed at by setting forili this example, viE.,to persuade m^i 



hereby to labor ei\ dajs, and give God the seventh, wbicb be 
ehould appoint, as well as to direct to that particular daj, which 
for that time (it is granted) it also poinicd utilo ; and therefore let 
the words in the commandment be observed, and we shall Snd 
man's duty, 1, more generally set down, viz^ to labor six days, 
and dedicate the seventh unio God ; and then followii God's per- 
suasion hereunto from bis owi) example, who when he bad a world 
to make, and work to do, he did labor six daj's together, and 
rested the seventh ; and thus a man is boand to do still : but it 
doth not follow that he must rest that particular seventh only, 
on wbicb God then rested ; or that that seventh (though we 
grant it was pointed unto) was only aimed at in this example : 
the binding power of all examples whatsoever (and therefore of 
this) being ad speciem aetua, (as they call it,) to that kind of act, 
and not to the individuian actimiii only, or to every particular ac- 
eidental circumstance therein ; if, indeed, man was to labor six 
days in memorial only of the six days of creation, and to rest a 
■eventh day in memorial only of God's rest and cessation from 
creation, it might then carry a fair face, as if this example 
pointed at the observation of that particular seventh only ; 
but look, as our six days' labor is appointed for other and higher 
ends than to remember the six days' work of God, it being u 
moral duty to attend our callings therein, so the seventh day 
of rest is appointed for higher and larger ends (as Didoclavius 
observes) than only to remember that notable rest of God from 
all bis works, it being a moral duty to rest the seventh day in all 

Theiis 133. It wa& but accidental, and not of the essence of 
the Sabbath day, that that particular seventh from the creation 
should be the Sabbath ; for the seventh day Sabbath being to be 
man's rest day, it was therefore suitable to God's wisdom to give 
man an example of rest from himself, to encourage him there- 
unto, (for we know how strongly examples persuaide :) now, rest 
being a cessation from labor, it therefore supposes labor to go 
before ; hence God could not appoint the first day of the crea- 
tion to be the Sabbath, because he did then but begin his labor ; 
nor could he take any the other days, because in them he had not 
finished his work, nor rested from his labor ; therefore God's rest 
fell out upon the last of seven succeeding six of labor before ; so 
^ that if there could have been any other day as fit then for exem- 
plary rest as this, and rs afterward it fell out in the finishing of 
the work of redemption, it might have been as well upon such a 
day as this ; but it was not then so : and benc« the r^sl day fell, 
M it were, accidentally upon this : and hence it is that God's 


example of rest on tliat particular day doih not necessarily bind 
US to observe ilie same scventli day ; moral examples not always 
binding in iheir accidentals, (as the cafe is here,) although it be 
true that in tlieir csseatials tbey always do. 

Thetit 13-1. There is no strength in that reason, [hnt because 
one day in seven is to be consecrated unto God, that therefore 
one year in ^even is to be so also, as of old it was among the 
Jews; for beside what hath been said formerly, viz., that one 
year in seven was merely ceremonial, one day in seven is not so, 
(saith Wallffius.) but moral; God gave no example (whose ex- 
ample is only in moral things) of resting one year in seven, but 
lie did of resting out day in seven. I say, beside all this, it is 
observable what Junius nolc«< herein. The Lonl (saitb he) chal- 
lcug«lL one day in seven jure creatxoaii, by right of creation ; 
■nd hence requires it of «U men created : but he challenged one . 

Snr in «cven jure pemliari* posstssionis, i. c., by right of pecu- 
r possession, the land of Canaan being the Lord's land in « 
peculiar maTincr, even a type of heaven, which every other coun- 
try is not ; and therefore there is no reason lliat all men should 
give God one seventh year, as they are to give him one seventh 
duy. By the observation of one day in seven, (sailb he.) men 
profess themselves to be the Lord's, and to belong unto him, who 
created and made them ; and tins profession all men are bound 
nnioi but by observation of one year in seven, ibey professed 
thereby that their country was the Lord's, and themselves the 
Lord's tenants therein, which alt counlfies (not being types of 
heaven) can not nor ouglil to do; and therefore there is not thfl 
like reason urged to the observation of a seventh year as of a 
sc\~enth day. 

TJittlt 135, Look therefore as it is in the second command- 
ment, although the particular instituted worship is changed under 
the gospel from wlml it was under the law, yet the general duty 
rei|uire(l therein of observing God's own instituted worship id 
tnorul and unchangeable. So it is in the fourth commandment, 
where though tlie [tarliculnr day be changed, yet the duty remains 
moral and unchangeable in observing a seventh day; there is 
therefore no reason to imagine that (he general duty contained 
in this precept 'n not moral, because the observance of the par- 
ticular day is mutable ; and yet tliis is the fairest color, but the 
pirongcsl refuge of lies, which their cause hath who hold a scventb 
day to be merely eeremouial. 

TlittU ISli. If it lie a moral duly to observe one day tn 

'en, then the observation of such a day no more infringeth 

Cliriatian liheriy than obedience to any other moral law, oii2_ 

VOL. til. 13 






part of our Cbriatiao liberty consisting in our conforniily lo it, as 
our bondage con.sists in being left to sin against it ; and tbcrefore 
lliiit argument against the moralily of one day in sei'en is very 
feelilc, as if Christian liber^ waa hereby infringed. 

Thexii 137. It was meet that God should have special ser- 
vice from nan, and therefore meet for himself to appoint a special 
time for it; nhich time, tliough it be a circumstance, yet it is 
such a circumBtance as hatli a special influence into any business, 
not only human, but also divine ; and therefore if it be naturally, 
it may be aUo ethically and morally good, contributing much also 
to what is morally good ; and therefore tlie delerminalion of such 
a lime for length, frequency, and holiness, may be justly taken in 
among the moral laws. He that shall doubt of such a powerful 
influence of special time for the furthering of what is specially 
good, may look upon the art, skill, trade, learning, nay, grace it- 
self perhaps, which be hath got by the help of the improvement 
of lime i a profane and religious heart are seen and accounted 
of according to their improvements of lime, more or less, in holy 
things. Time is not therefore such a circumstance as is good 
only because coramanded, (as the place of the temple was,) but it 
is commanded because it is good, because time, nay, much time, 
reiterated in a weekly sevenili part of time, doth much advance 
and set forward that which is good. 

T%esis 138. That law which is a homogeneal part of the 
moral law is moral ; but the fourth commandment is such a part 
of the moral law, and therefore it is moral. I do not say, that 
that law which is set and placed among the moral laws in order 
of writing, (as our adversaries too frequently mistake us in,) tliat 
it is therefore moral ; for then it might be said, as well, that the 
Sabbath is ceremonial, because it is placed in order of writing 
among things ceremonial, (Lev. xxiii.;) but if it be one link of 
the chain, and an essential part of the moral law, then it is un- 
doubtedly moral i but so it is, for its part of the decalogue, nine 
parts whereof all our adversaries we now contend with confess to 
be moral; and to make this fourth ceremonial, which God hath 
set in the heart of the decalogue, and commanded us to remem- 
ber to keep it above any other law, seems very nnlike to truth 
to a serene and sober mind, not disturbed with such mud, which 
usually lies at the bottom of the heart, and turns light into dark- 
ness ; and why one ceremonial precept should be shufQed in among 
tlio rest which are of another tribe, lineage, and language, hath 
l>een by many attempted, but never soundly cleared unto this 
day. Surely if this commandment be not moral, then there are 
but nine commandments left to us of the moral law, which is 
expressly contrary to God's account, (Dcul. iv.) 





To alfirm that all the connnaDtla of the decalogue are moral, 
f et tivery one in liis proportion and degreo, and Ibat ibis of the 
Sabbatli is ihua mora], viz., in respect of llie purpose aod intent / 
of the Lawgiver, vix., that some lime be set apari, but not moral 
in respect of the letter in whicli it is expressed : it is in some 
sense formerly explained ; true, but in Lia gcnse who endeavors 
to prove the Sabbitlh ceremonial, while he saith it is moral, is ' 
Uitb dark and false ; for if it be said to be moral only in respect 
of some time to be set apart, and this lime an indiinduum cagum, 
an indeterminate time, beyond tbe verges of a seventh part of 
(■me, then there is no more morality granted to the fourth com- 
laandmeol than lo the commandment of building the temple and ' 
observing the new moons ; because in God's command to build 
the temple, ifae general purpose and intention of the Lawgiver 
was, that some place be appointed ibr his public worship, and in 
commanding to observe new moon^, that some time be set apart 
for Lis worship, and so there was no more necessity of putting 
remember to keep the Sabbath holy, tlinn to remember lo keep 
holy the new moons. And look, as [he commandment to observe 
new moon!! can not in reason be accounted a moral command- 
ment, because there is some general morality in il, viz., for to 
observe some time of worship, so neither should this of tlie Sab< 
bath be upon the like ground of some general morality mixed in 
il ; and therefore for Mr. Ironside to say that the law of the 
Sabbath is set among the rest of the moral precepts, because it is 
mixedly ceremonial, having in it something which is moral, which 
othur ceremonial commands (he saith) hare not, is palpably un- 
true ; for there is no ceremonial law of observing Jewish moons 
and festivals, but there was something generally moral in them, 
vix., tlwt (in respect of the purpose and intention of the Lawgiver) 
some lime be set apart for God, just as be makes this of keeping 
the Sabbath. 

ThttU 139. To inu^ine that there are but nine moral pre- 
cepts indeed, and that they are called ten in respect of the greater 
part according to which things are usually denominated, is an 
invention of Mr. Primrose, which contains a pernicious and 
poisonful seed of making way for the razing Out of the decalogue 
more laws than one ; for the same answer will serve the turn for 
cashiering three or four more, the greater part (suppose six) re- 
maining moral, according to which the denomination ariselh. 
For although it be true, that some time tlie denomination is 
according to the greater part, viz., when there is a necessity of 
mixing divers things togi-ther, as in a heap of corn witli much 
GboB*, or a butt of wine where there be many lees, yet there was 

V<'V>t(T1 Of 1 


■ . iMXturv •iiJ jumbling tojielher of mnrarK 
v. Mr. Primrose tetb us that he doth not 

■ tt iUI ike roinmniidmtMtts nrc williout PXi^iip- 
,1.^ *"•! therefore whj may Ihere not (snilh he) be 

kl lunMi^ tbcin ? But bj tliM reason he may as well 

B vtber nuio from being moral ntso; rcH" I read not 

M Am any one of them is styled by that name, moral ; 

igk it be truu which ho saiib, [hat covenants among 

nes logoiher of divers articles, as also that 

^tvvwiwrt (taken in some sense) sometimes did so, yet the 

l«Miaiit ot God made with all men (as we shall prove [he deca- 
ft'teue \») ought no[ to be so mingled, neither could it be ») with- 
I' w upparrnt eoutradietion, viz., that here should be a covenant 
I vbick bindelh all men in all things (o observe it and yet sotne 

rrt of it, being (ceremonial, slioald not hind all men in all things 
comraonds \ nor ia iliere indeed any need of putting in one 
ceremonial law, considering bow easily they are and may be 
reduced lo sundry precepts of the moral law as appendices thcre-i 
of, without such shuffling as is contended for here. 

Tliesig 1 40. If this law be not moral, why is it crowne<l with 
the aiuna honor that the rest of the moral precepts are? If its 
dignity be not equal with the real, why hath it been exalted so 
high in equal glory with them ? Were the other nine spoken 
tmracdiateiy by the voice of Ood on Monnt Sinai, with great 
terror and majesty, before all the people ? Were they written 
upon titbles of stone with God's own finger twice ? Were they 
put into the ark as most holy and sncred ? So was this of tho 
Sabbath also : why bath it the same honor, if it be oot of ibe 
same nature with Ibe rest? 

'JTiesit HI. Our adversaries turn every stone lo make 
answer to this known argument, and they tell us lliat it is 
disputable and very r|iiestionab]e, whether (his law was sjioken 
immediately by God, and not rather by angels ; but let it be how 
it will be, yet [bis law of the Sabbath was spoken and written, 
and laid up as all the rest were, and therefore liad the same 
honor as all the rest hod. which we donbt not to he moral ; and 
jut I think it easy to demonstrate that ibis law was immediately 
spoken by God, and the reasons against it are long since answered 
by Junius, on Heb. ii. 2, 3 ; but it is useless here to enter into 
this controversy. 

Tresis 142. Nor do I say that because the law was spoken 
by God immediately, ibat therefore it is moral ; for he spiiko 
with Abraham, Job, Muses in the mount, immediately alioiit other 
matters than moral laws ; but because he thus spake, and in bucI) 




a mnnner, oi^dI;, and to nil Llie people, young nnti old, Jews and 
proselyte Gentiles, ilieii present, with such great glory, and ter- 
ror, and nwijesly, surely it stands not (saitk holy Brigbtman) 
with lite majesty of tlie universal Lord, who is God not only of 
the Jews, but also of the Gentiles, speaking thus openly, (not 
privately,) and gloriously, and most immediately, to prescribe laws 
to one people only, which were emull in number, but wherewith 
alt nations alike should be governed. Mr. Ironside indeed thinks 
that the Lord had gone un to h ave del ivered all the other 
ceremonials in the like manner of fBIPfrora the mount, but 
tluU the fear and cry of the peo[A^lJiat he would speak no 
more to them) slopped him; but the oontrary ismust evident, vix., 
that, before the people cried out, the Lord made a stop of him- 
■elf, and therefore is said to add no more. (Deut. v. 22.) It was 
A glory of thu gospel above all other mc^iuiges, in that it was 
immediately spoken by Christ, (Hcb. i. 2 ; ii. 3;) and so Gud*s 
immediate pnblication of the moral law puts a glory and honor 
upon it above any other laws ; and therefore, while Mr. Ironside 
goes about to put the sHme honor u|)on ceremonial laws, he doth 
nut a little oliscure and cast dishonor upon those that arc moral, 
by making this honor to be common with ceremonial, and not 
proper only to moral laws. 

7*Aem 143, Nor do I say that the writing of the law on 
Hone argues it to be moral, (for some laws not moral were me- 
diately writ on stone by Joshua, (Josh. viii. 32,) but because it 
was wiit immediately by the linger of God on such tables of 
«tane, and that not once, but twice ; not on paper or parchment, 
but on stone, which argues their continuance ; and not on stone 
in open fields, but on such etone as was laid up in the ark,a place 
tl most safety, being most sacred, and a type of Christ, who 
ipi this law, and upon whose heart it was writ, (Ps. xl. 6, 7.) to 
lisfy justice, and to make just and righteous before God all that 
II be saved, of uU whom the righteousness of ihie law, ac- 
inlingto justice, was to be exaclcd. What do lliese things argue 
ft at least thu^ much, thai if any taw was to be perpetuated, this 
ircly ought so to be ? Mr. Primrose iclls us that the writing 
I stone did nut signify conlinuunce of the law, but the hard- 
of their stony hearts, which the law writ upon them, was 
ible to overcome ; and it is true timt the stony tables did 
_ ify stony hearts, but it is false that the writing on stone 
4id not signify continuance also, according to Scripture phra 
for all the children of God have stony hearts by nature. Now, 
Uod hnth promised to write his law upou such hearts as are by 
nature tlony, and his writing of them there Implies the contiiiu- 


13 • 


T«« «<.«kVTTT or TitK JAniiATn. 




mf» ti thMW tikNir ; *> ikiU biith iIicm: mighl stand togetiier, and 
Um tiwili»aifc' «• Ulij ihof, vix^ ihc nhulc: law of Goil was nrit 
M 1»)th> vt «MMS t0 txmtinup tlirre : so llie whole law of God 
k» Wtil <W Mmy tvemti* Itr iiaiure, iv coniinue iliereon. 

ftMtk 144> Onlv mural laws, and all moral laws, are tlius 
MWWMtiljr «nd iJMtcrall/ honored by God, the len commBiiU- 
ITMfiili bmg Chrutiaii piindt^ctd and coinraon heads of nil moral 
(hllivt tQ«-Mtl God and men ; under which general?, all the par- 
tk'ulnrmornldultedmlhe commenlaries of Uic prophets and apos- 
tlnt nra virluAllj c-omprcheDded and conUineil ; and thci-ufore 
Iklr. Primrose's argument in weak, who thinks that this honor put 
ii|Hin (he decalogue doth not argue il to be moral, because then 
luan^ other particular moiiil laws set down in Scripture, not in 
tables of slone, but in paichmenls of the prophets and aposlleR, 
should not be moral : for we do not say that all moral Liws par- 
ticularly were tlius specially honored, but that all and only moral 
laws summarily were thus honored ; in which summaries all ihe 

{articulars arc contained, and, in that respect, equally honored. 
t may ail'ect one's heart wi[h great mourning to see the miiny 
inventions of men's hearts to bloi out this remembrance of the 
Sabbath day : they first coat it out of paradise, and shut it out of 
the world until Moses' time ; when in Moses' time it is published 
OS a law, and crowned with the same honor as all other munil 
laws, yet then they make it lo be but a ceremonial law, continu- 
ing only until the coming of Clirist; after which time it ceaseth 
to be any law at all, unless the church's constitution shall please 
to make it so, which is worst of all. 

TTietit Ho. Every thing, indeed, which was published by 
God's immediate voice in promulgating of the law is not moral 
and common to all ; but some things so spoken may be peculiar 
and proper to the Jewu, because some things thus spoken were 
promises or motives only, annexed lo the law, to persuade to the 
obedience thereof; but tliey were not laws ; for the question is, 
whether all laws spoken and writ thus immediately were nut 
moral; but the argument which some produce against this is, 
from the promise muiexed to the fitlli command, concerning long 
life, and from the motive of redempUon out of the bouse of 
bondage, in the preface to the commandments, both which (they 
say) were sjioken iinmediuteiy, but yet were both of iheni proper 
unto the Jews. But suppose the promise annexed to the 
fifth commandment be proper to the Jews, and ceremonial, as 
Mr. Primrose pleads, (which yet many strong reasons from Eph, 
vi. 2 may induce one lo deny,) what is this to the question? 
which is not concerning promises, but commandmeAts antl laws. 


^^ Wll 


Siippoite also llittt ihe motive in the preface of the commanii- 
nteDls. lilorally understood, is proper to llie Jews ; yel tliis is also 
evident, ihul such reasons find motives as are proper to somp, anil 
perhaps ceremonial, may be annexed to moral laws, which lire 
common lo all i nor wilt it follow thai hiws are therefore not enro^ 
non, hecause the motives tliercto are proper. We thai dwell in 
America may be persuaded to love and fear God (which arc 
norAl dulie.') in regard of ourredemption and deliverances fruni 
out ofthose vast sea elorms we once bud, and tbe tumults in Europe 
which now are, which motives are proper lo ourselves. Pi'om- 
ites aiul motives amiexed to the commntidments come in as' 
mean* to a higher end, viz., obedience to the laws ihem^elvcs ; 
and benee (he laws themselves may be moral, and these not su, 
though iramediaiety spoken, because ihey be not chiefly nor lastly 
intended herein. I know Wallteus makes the preface lo the 
CommHndments & part of tlie Brst commandment, and therefore 
lie would hence infer that some pun (at lensi) of a command- 
ment is proper to the Jews ; but if these words contain a motive 
prea:iing to the obedience of the whole, how is it possible that 
they should be a part of the Inw, or of any one law ? For what 
force of a law can there be in that which only declares unto us 
who it is that redeemed ihem out of Egypt's bondage? For il can 
not be true (which the same author allirms) in these words 
b set forth only who that Go<l is whom we are to have lo be our 
God in the first commandment ; bin they are of larger c 
■buwini; us who that God is whom we are to worship, according 
lo tbe hrst commandment, and that with his own worship, aci-oril^ 
ing to (be second, and that reverently, according to the third, and 
whose day we are lo sanctify, according lo the fourth, and whose 
will we are to do in all duties of love toward man, according to 
the MTeral duties of the second table: and therefore this dcclu- 
rution of God is no more a part of the first than of any o 
nandraeni. and every other commandmeni may cliallenge it as d 
part of themselves, as well as tbe first. 

JTietii HCi. It is a truth tts immovable as the pillars of 
1i«avcn, that God hntli given to all men universally a rule of life 
to cunduci them to their end. Xow. if the whole decalogue be nut 
It, wiraishiill? Thegosiwl is the rule of our fnilh, but nolof uur 
gpi riiual life , which jjo ws from fa Jlh. (Gal. ii. 20. John v. 2i.) 
TniS law ihe rcfore isTEe rule of our lifg ; now, if nine of lhc*e 
be B complete rule witliout a tenth, exclude that one, and thuii 
who sees not an o|ieii gap mode tor all the rest logo out alal«o? 
For wha-a will any man slop, if once this principle be laid, viz., 
thai the whole law ii nol the rule of life ? Itluy nut Tapist* blot . 
'Cond nUo. aa some of Cussander** followers have d" 

^ all but tn-o, and as the AntinommnB at Iliis day do all ? And 
bSve they not a good ground laid for it, wlio n)ay lienee nafely 
Kity lliat llm di^cnlogue is not a rule ol' life for all ? Mr. 
Primrose, that he might keep himself from a broken head here, 
sends us for salve to Ibe light of nature, and the teElimony of the 
goiipel, both which (sailh he) maintain and confirm ihe morality 
of all the other command men Is except this one of the Subbatli. 
But Bs it sliftU a|)pear that the law of the Sabbath hnth conHnna- 
tion from both, (if this direction was sirtRetent and good.) so it 
may be in the mean time considered why the Gentiles, who were 
universal idolaters, and therefore blotted out the light of nature 
(as Mr, Primrose confesseth) against the second commandment. 
might not as well blot out much of (hat light of nature about the 
.Subbath also; and then how shall the light of nature be any 
suflicient discovery unto us of that which is moral, and of that 
which is not? 

TTietis 147. There is a law made mention of, James ii. 10, 
whose parts are so inseparably linked together, that whosoever 
brt-aks any one is guilty of the breach of all, and consequently 
whosoever is called to the obedience of one is called to the obe- 
dience of all, and consequently all the jiarticular laws which it 
contains are homogeneal parte of the same tolum, or whole law. 
If it be demanded. What is this law ? the answer is writ with 
tfiu beams of the sun, that it is the whole moral law contained in 
the decalogue. For, 1. The afKistle speaks of such a law, which 
not only the Jews, but all the Gentiles, are bound to observe, and 
for the breach of any one of which, not only the Jews, but the 
Gentiles also, were guilty of the brearh of all ; and therefore it- 
can not he meant of the ceremonial law, which did neither bind 
Gentiles nor Jews, at that lime wherein the apostle writ. 2. lie 
speaks of such a law as is called a royid law, and a law of liberty, 
(ver. 8, 12.) whiuh can not be meant of the ceremonial law in 
whole or in part, which is called'n law of bondage, not worthy 
the royal and kingly spirit of a Christian tosroop to. (Gal. iv. !l.) 
3. It is ttint law by the works of which all men are bound lo 
miinifest their faith, and by which faith i^ mtide perfect, (ver. 2t?,) 
which can not be the ceremonial nor evangelical, for that is the 
law of faith, and therefore it is meant of the law moral. 4-. It is 
thai law of which, "Thou shalt not kill," nor "commit adultery." 
are parts, (ver. 11.) Now, these laws are part of the decalogue 
only, and whereof it may be said He that said, " Thou elialt not 
commit adultery," said also, '■ Reraember to keep the Subbalh 
holy ; " and therefore the whole decalogue, and not some parts of it 
/ only, is the moral law ; from whence it is manifest that the apostle 
' doth not speak (as Mr. Primrose would interpret him) of oliend- 


ing agninst the word nt large, and of which llie ceremonial laWB 
were a part, bui of olTunding ugninst lliut pnrt of llie word, to 
wit, the moral law, of which he that offerKls against any one ta 
fjuitty of the breach of all ; hence, also, his olher answer falls to 
the dusl. viz.. that the fourth command ii no part of tlie law, 
anil therefore the not observing of it ia no sin um^er the New 
Testament, because it was given only to the Jewa.and not lo us; 
for if it be a part of the decalogue, of which the apostle only 
speaks, then it is a mere begging of the question, tu alfirm that 
it is no part of the law to Christians. But we se« the apostle 
Itcre s|>«ulu of the law and the royal law, and the royal taw of 
liberty i his meaning therefore must be of some special law, 
which he calls »ai' iiojii;r, the law. Now. if he thus speaks of 
•oinc special law, what can it be but the whole decalogue, and 
not a part of it only? aa when he speaks of the gospel ■«' (inx^y, 
he means not some part, but the whole gospel also; and if every 
part of the decalogue is not moral, how should any man know 
from any law or rule of God what was moral, and what not ? 
and consequently what is sinful, and what not ? If it be said, 
by the light of nature, we have proved that this is a blind and 
corrupt judge, as it exbts in corrupt man ; if it be said by the 
light of the gospel, this was then to set up a light unto Christians ■ 
to diiicern it by, but none to the Jews while they wantL-d the 
gospel as dispensed lo us now ; many moral laws also are not 
mentioned tn the gospel, it being but occidental to it to set forth 
ihn coratoandmcnts of the law. 

TKnrtf US. If Christ came to fulfill, and not to destroy, tb« 
law, (Matt- V. 17.) then the commandment of the Subbalh is iwt 
aboliiihed by Christ's coming; if not one jot, pric&, or tittle of 
ihe law shall {>erish, much less shall a whole law perish or be 
destroyed by the coming of Christ 

7%em 149. It is true, indeed, tliat by bw and prophets is 
sometimes meant their whole doctrine, both ceremonial, moral, 
and prophetical, which Christ fulfilled personalty, but not so in 
this place of Matthew ; but by law is meant the moral law,' and 
by prophets those prophetical illustruiions and interpretation* 
(hereof, in whicli the prophets do alKiund. For, I. The Lord 
Christ spcflks of tliat luw only, which whosoever should tencb 
men lo break and ca^it off, he should be least in tlie kingdom of 
betiven, (Matt. V. 19;) but the apostles did teach men to coat 
olf the ceremonial law, and yet were never a whit less in the 
kingdom of heaven. 3. He speaks of that luw by confoiiniiy 
tu which all his true disciples should exceed the righleuusncsH 
of Kribea Bad Pharisees ; but lltal waa not by being extemally 


bM.l<'»i H* if 
law ai V-M. 

»>iU HlU 

AM U»d It .< 

rMi»>v i< I'xi 

IOkIiiI, 111! 



eeirmonioiia or nioiul, but by iiiU>miil confiirmiiy to Uje spirit- 
onlnpsis of God's Ih«-. wliic-li iho I'linri-rw tlien reganled not. 
S. Clirisl i-pciikii ol' the IchbI (viiimimiliiwnts, nml of these least 
coinnmniimi-nW, ,«/« rflf ^ftoifir ui'™*- t'll»- ria»io(w. Now, what 
■lioiilU llnwi- l(iv«l wmmttiidiwiitM be but timse wliich ht nfitr- 
ir«nl* iiituriiri'iji ol' riwh mipr, ndiiltenwn ttyi>«, unclioste thougbi.s 
lovi> to cni'iHitvi. vn\, wliiiTi wv willwl Icnsl, In opposition to the 

ShHi'i'>uk>itl iliM'iiu-*' t>UHH>(|i lit llitwK tliue*. who urged the gross 
iiIJvi i-wninnmliHl, hihI i,\wj\-inii*^l turn only for gross sins for- 
, t\ui«u1«<it t>iir ounipttriH coiilbrmiij to ilie 
lnuti.rt', liy ihf Iwwt of tboac cominand- 
liiHii tJKwi* which he afturwarils seta 
I MiMlionot' the law, (ver. 21.) never 
ii-i Mv eeromonial, but moral lawg; 
iliinkg that there is no conneclion 
»ili iiikI iIip oibcr expoaitor*8 verses of the 
whiwuiivcr ponders the onalyeia impartially 
11!, ovuii from the seventeenth verse to the 
111' whivh is, to be perfect as our heaveuly 
> i' never made a pattern of perfection to 
iiiily in moral miitlcre. Il is true, indeed, 
(wlihih •unir oliji'i't.) iliiii then] is mention made of ahar and 
t>ni'r|/ltH', (vei-. iji't,) tvhk'ii wura cereraoniaJs ; but lliere ia no 
law nUtnt llivin, but only n moritl law of love is thereby pressed 
with ulhiilim to the oenimonial prnclice in those limes ; ho 
kixHtkn iiIk' nlxiut dlvon-e, but this is but Kccidenlally brought to 
•liiiw llu' uwrAlity tif Iho law of adultery; the kw of relalialion 
WHUI* no) hum) witiioMQH to testily to the morality of it, but I 
VUllifc ihluk il 1> brought In to set forth a moral law against 
pIVHli^ ii'vi'njp*. Uuv Sttviour, iiid(5cd, doth not spciik pnrlic- 
uUrly iiUuil lhf> Ihw uf the S<ibliulh, ■» tie doth of killing, and 
fttllihvry, »lu. I but If tbert-fore it be uoi moral, because not spoken 
of lltire, lh>'n iiuiiher [ho first, sceond, nor fiflli commanil are 
HK>n4i Iwcftunt' they «r« not expressly opened in this cbaplor ; 
foi" tliH m-ope of our Saviour was to speBk a^iinst the pharisa- 
tiuil luieiprplnliona of the law, in curluilinf; of il. in making gross 
UlurdiT to bo forbidden, but not anger; adultery lo be forbidden, 
but not lust i which evil they were not so much guilty of in |>oint 
of tlio Subbiah ; but they rather made the phyUclvries of it too 
brortd by overmuch strictness, which our Saviour ihorufore else- 
where eondemns, but not a word lending to abolish this law of 
tl>e Kubbath. 

Tnetit 130. If, therefore, the copmaiidment is to be ac- 
counted moral wliich the gospel reiinforcelh, an4 commends unto 



A ni. 



Hi, (according to Mr. Primrose's principles,) tlicn the fourth 
'inenl may wkU come into llie nccouot of such as are 
montl ; but the pliti.-BS mentioned and cleared out of the New 
TesUunent evince tliua much: the Lord Jesus coming not to 
destroy the luw of the Sabbath, but lo estabKsh it ; and of the 
breach of wliich one law he that is guilty is guilty of the breach 
of, all. 

Thetit 1.>1. If the observation of the Sabbath had been Hrstf 
impelled upon man since the fall, and io special upon the people' 
of the Jews at Mount Sinai, there might be then some color and 
reason to clothe the Sabbath with rags and the worn-out gar- 
meuts of cereraonialness ; but if it was imposed upon man in in- 
iKicency, not only before all types and ceremonies, but also before 
all sin, and upon Adam as a common pennon, as a commandment 
not proper lo that estate, nor as to a particular person, and proper 
lo himself, then the morality of it is most evident ; our adver- 
Mirie?, ilierefure, lay about them here, that they might drive the 
Sabbath out of par.ulise, and make it a thing altogether unknown I 
to the slate of innocency ; which if they can not make good, their 
whole frame against (he morality of the Sabbath falls Hal to the 
ground ; and therefore it is of do small coiisetjuence to clear up 
this truth, viz., that Adam in innocency, and in him all his pos- 
terity, were commanded to sanctify a weekly Sabbath. 

TTietit 152. One would think that the words of the te=t 
(Gon. ii. 2, 3) were so plain to prove a Sabbath in that innocent 
ntaic that there could be no evasion mode from ihe evidence of 
them ; for it is expressly said, that the day the Lord rested, the 
lame day the Lord blessed and sanctified ; but we know lie rested 
the seventh day immediately at\er the creation, and therefore ho 
Immediately blessed and BanctiJicU llie same day also ; for the 
words run copulativcly, hu rested the seventh day, "and he 
blessed and sanctified that day;" but il is strange lo see.not only 
what odd evasions men make from this clear truth, but also what 
ouriuus cabalisms and food interpretations men make of llie lie- 
brew text, the answer to which learned Rivet hath bug ainco 
made, which therefore I mention not. 

TkftU 133. The words are not thus copulative in order of 
•(ory, but in orJer of liute ; I say not in order of story and dis- 
eourse, for so tilings for distant iu time may be coupled togulher 
by this copulative particle and, as Mr. Primrose truly shows, 
(Ex. xvi. 32, ao : 1 Sam. xvii. 51 ;) but ilicy are coupled arid 
knit together in respect of time ; for it is the like phrase which 
Uosea immedialely after useth, (Gen. v. I, 3,) where it is said, 
: ** God created tnao in his image, and bleased them, and called 





tfieir names," elc-i which were lojielher in times so it is lierej 
the time God reeled, ihnt time God blessed ; t'ur the scope of 
: wards (Gen. ii. 1~3) is to show whnt the Lord did that 
'enth day, after the finishing of the whole creation in six days, 
and that ia, he ble^ed and sanctified it. For, look, as the Bwjjie 
of Moses in muking mention of the six days orderly was to slion 
what God did every particular day, so what else should be ttie 
scope in Diukiiig mention of the seventh day, unless it was to 
show what God did then on thutday? and (bat is, he then rested, 
and blessed and sanctified it, even then in that state of inno- 

TTtesia 154. God is said (Gen. ii. 1-3) to bless the Subbath 
as he blessed other creatures ; hut be blessed the creatnres at 
tliat time ibey were made, (Gen. i. 12, 28,) and therefore ho 
blessed the Sabbath at that lime he rested. Shall God's woik 
be presently blessed, and shull his reiil be then witlioul any? 
-Wfts Go<ra rest a cause of sanctifying the day many hundred 
years after, (as our adversaries say,) and was there not as much 
cause then when the memory of tlie creation was most fresh, 
whieh was the fittest time to remember God's work in? Mr. 
Primrose tells us thai the creatures were blessed with a present 
benediction, because Ihey did eonstantly need it ; but there was 
no necessity (he saitb) llnil man should solemnize the seventb 
as soon as it is made ; but as we sball show that man did then 
need a special day of blessing, so it is a anfficieut ground of 
believing that then God blessed the day when there was a full, 
and just, and sufficient cause of blessing, which ta God's reeling; 
it being also Bucb a cause as was not peculiar to the Jews many 
hundred years after, but common lo all mankind. 

ITiesis' 155. The rest of God (wliicb none question lo be in 
innocency immodiaiely after the creation) was either a natural 
rest, (as 1 may call it,) that is, a bare cessation from labor, or a 
holy rest, i. e., a rest »e\. apart t'n eiemplum, or for example, and 
for holy uses ; but it was not a natural rest merely, for tlifn it had 
been enougli lo have eaid, that at the end of the sixth day God 
rested; but we see God speaks of a day, the seventh day. God 
hath rested with a natural rest or cessation from creation ever 
since the end of the first sixth day of the world until now ; why 
then is it said that G04I rested the seventh day ? or why is it not 
rather said that he began his rest on that day, but that it is 
limited to a day ? Certainly this argues that he speaks not of 
natural rest merely, or that wliicb, ex natura rei, follows the 
finishing of bis work ; for it is itien an unfit and improper speech 
to limit God's rest wiihin the circle of a day; and therefore 


he epeaks of a holy rest (hen nppoinled for holy uses as nn 
example for ligly vaU which niiiy well be limited wirhin the 
uf a day ; and htnee it uiitleiiiiibly tullows, that if God 
rusted in innixrvncj niih such a rest, then the seventh day wm 
then mnclifi<!d, it being the day of holy reiit, 

T^Hi'f 16G. It utn not be shown tliat ever God made himself 
,n fXAinpIc of any act, but that in the present esatn pie there ivaa 
nd is a present rulf, binding iminediulely to follow that exiunple ; 
r therefore, from tlie foundntion of the world, God made himself 
an example in six days' labor and in a seventh day'^ rest, why 
should not this example then and at tbat time of innocency bn 
binding, there being no example which God sets before us but it 
suppoacth a rule binding us immediately thereunto? The gi^at 
ind roost high God could have made [lie world in a moment or 
n a hundred years ; why did lie make it then in six days, and 
rested the «even[b day, but that i( might be an example to m an?. 
■rident thai, ever since the world began, man's life w^^ 
be spent in l alior and action which God could have appointed to* 
coniomplationonlyi nor will any euy that his life should be spent 
fluly in labor, and never have any special day of rest, (unless tliA 
AntinomiunvS who herein sin against the light of nature ;t/if there! 
fore God was exemplary in h'm six days" labor, why slfould any 
itink but that he was thus also in his seventh day's rest ? point- 
ing out unto man most visibly (as it were] thereby on what day 
he should rest. A meet lime for labor was a moral duty since 
man was framed upon earth j God therefore gives man an ex- 
ample of it iu making the world in six diiys, A meet time for 
holy rest, the end of all holy and honest labor, was mnch more 
moral, (the end being better than the means ;) wby then waa not 
the example of this also seen in God's rest ? Mr. Ironside, in- 
deed, is at a stand here, and confesseih his ignorance in con- 
d'iriug liow God's working six days should be exemplary to man 
In innocency, it being not preceptive, hut permissive only to man 
in his apostasy. JJut let a plain analysis be made of the motives 
used to press obetlience to (he tburlh command, and we shall find 
(according to the consent of all tlic orthodox not prejudiced in 
ibis controversy) that God's example of working six days in cre- 
ating the world is held forth as a motive (o press God's people 
to do all their work within six days also; und the very reason 
of our labor and rurt now is tbe example of God's labor and 
■ nsi then, as may also appear, £x. xxxi. 17. And to say lliat 
[ those words in the commandment (vii,, six days thou slinlt labor) 
I mr« DO way preceptive, but merely promissivc, is both cross to the 
I Uprow letter uf the text, and contrary to moral equity, to alloir 
TUL. iti. 14 




uij pnrt or Ihe 0ix dnys for Hitiful idleness or neglect of our 
weekly work, so far forih as the rest upon the Sabbnlh be 
hindered hereby, 

7%NI( 157. Tlie word mnelijitd is Tnriously taken in Scrip- 
ture, and various lliings are variously and differently esnctilied; 
yet in this place, when God is said to Eanctify the Salibatli, (Gen. 
ii. 2, 3,) it ninst be one of these two ways: either, 1. By infusion 
of holiness and snnctifi cation into it, as holy men are said lo be 
eanclified ; or, 3. By separation of it from common use, and dedi- 
cation of it to holy use, ns the temple and altar are said to be 

Thetii 138. God did not sanctify the Sabbatli by infusion of 
any habitual holiness into it, for the circumsiance of a seventh 
day is not capable thereof, whereof only rational creatures, men 
and angels, are. 

TTutit 159. It must therefore be said to be sanctified in re- 
spect of its separation from common use, and dediciiion lo holy 
use, as the temple and labernncle were, which yet had no inhei*- 
eot holinees in them. > 

Tlittii 1 60. Now, if Ihe Snbbalh van thus sanctified by dedi- 
cation, it must be either for the use of God or of man ; i. e., either 
that God might keep this holy day, or that man might observe it 
as a holy day Eo God ; but what dishonor is it lo God lo put him 
up0[i the observation of a holy day ? aud therefore it was dedi- 
cated and consecrated for man's sake and use, that so he might' 
observe it as holy unlo God. 

TTieih IGl. This day therefore is said lo be sanctified of 
God that man might sunelify it and dedicate it unlo God ; and 
hence follows, that look, as man could never have lawfully dedi- 
cated it unto God, wilbout a precedent institution from God, so 
the institution of G^ implies a known command given by God 
unlo man thereunto. 

Hifsig 162. It is therefore evident, that when God is said to 
sanctify the Sabbath, (Gen. ii. 2, 3,) that man is commanded 
hereby to sanctify it, and dedicate it to Ihe holy use of God. 
Sancttficare est lanclijtcart mandare, saith Junius ; and therefore, 
if Mr. Primrose and others desire to know where God com- 
mandelh the observation of the Sabbath in Gen. ii. 2, they may 
see it here necessarily implied in the word »anetify. And tlicre- 
fore, if God did sanctify the Sabbath immediately after Ihe CR-a- 
tion, he commanded man to sanctify it then ; for so the word 
tnnctifiird is ei]iressly expounded by llie Holy Ghost himself. 
(Deut. V. 15.) We need net therefore seek for wood among trees, 
and inquire where, and when, and upon what ground the palri- 




STchs before Uoses obsen'ed a Sabballj, whcnns it was famoutilj 
dedicaled and eanctitied, i. e,, commtuiiled lo be sanclifiei), from 
tbe firsi foundation of the world. 

TAmii 163. Our adversaries, therefore, daxzled with the clear- 
ness of the light shining forih from the teil. (Gen. ii. 2.) to wit, 
tlint ibe Sabbaib was comaianded to be sanclilied before tbe fall, ■ 
do dy to their shifts, and seek for refuge froai several answers ; 
soipelimes they any it is sanctified by way of destinntlon, some- 
times they tell us of anticipation, soraelimes they think the Imok 
of Genesb was writ after ExoduR. and many such inventions ; 
wbich because they can not possibly stand one with another, are 
therefore more fit lo vex and perplex the mind than to Bfttisfy 
eonseienoe ; and indeed do argue much uncerlainiy to be in the 
minds of tho^ that make tlieae and the like a:iswer», as not 
knowing certainly what to say, nor where lo stand : yet let Ui 
examine them. 

Thriii ICA. To imagine that the book of Genesis was writ 
atWr Exodus, and yet to uflirm that the Sabbath in Genesis is 
mid to be sanctified and blessed, only in way of destination, i. e., 
because God destiiialeil and ordained that it should be sanctified 
many years afler, seems to be an ill-favored and misshapen an- 
■wer, and no way fit to serve their turn who invent it ; for if it * 
was writ af\er Exodus, what need was lliere lo say that it was 
dt^iinated and ordained to be sanctified for time lo come? when- 
as upon tliis supposition the Sabbath was already aanciified 
for time pa.«t, as appears in the story of Ex. xix. 20. And 
therefore Sir. Primrose translates the words ihua : that God 
rested, and halh blessed and hath sanctified the seventh day, as 
if Mnses writ of it as a thing past already ; but what irulh is 
there then to speak of a destination for time to come ? I know 
Junius so renders the Hebrew words, as al*o the word retted ; 
but we know bow many ways some of the Hebrew tenses look, 
nor i« it any matter now to trouble ourselves about them. This 
only may be considered, that it is a mere uncertain shift to affirm 
that Genesis was writ after Exodus. Mr. Ironside tcIU us he 
eould give strong reasons for it, but he produceth none ; and as 
for bis authorities from human testimonies, we know it is not tit 
lo weigh out truth by human suffrages; and yet herein ibey do 
not ca*t the scale for Genesis to be writ after Exodus j for 
although Beda, Abalcnsis, and divers late .lesuils do affirm it, 
yet Euitebius, Catlmrinus, Alcuinus, a Lapide, and sundry others, 
both Popish and Prolestuni writers, are better judgmcnted here- 
in ; and their reasons for Genesis to be the first boni, tts it is first 
Ml dowo, seem u> be most strong. The casting of this cause 

therefore depends not upon sut'li i 
disorder were granted, it will do their ei 
were, might he made nmnifesL 

Tlietit 165. Mr. Irun^ido cnntuRGeth, tliat God's resting and 
RADC^fying the Sabbath are eoeinneous. and acknowledgeih the 
connection of them logeilier at the same lime, by the copulative 
and; and that as God uclually rested, so he aelually saiiciiSed the 
day. But this sanclitieation wtiieb he means is nothing else but 
d^lination, or God's purpose and intention to sanctity it alYer- 
wanl ; so that, in cfiect, tliis evasion amounts lo thus much, viz., 
that God did actaally purpose to sanctify it about twenty-five 
hundred years after the giving of the law, but yet did not ac- 
tually sanctify it ; and if this be the meaning, it is all one as if he 
bad said in plain terms, viz., that when God is said to sanctify 
tlie Sabbath, he did not indeed sanctify it, only he purposed so 
lo do ; and although Mr. PrimroEe and himself tells us that the 
word tanetify signifies, in the original, some time to prepare and 
ordain, so it may be said that the word signifies sometimes to 
publith and proclaim. If ihey say that this latter can not be the 
meaning, because we Feod not in Scripture of any such procla- 
mation that this should be the Sabbath, the like may be said (u)>on 
the reasons mentioned) concerning their destination of it there- 
unto. Again : if to sanctify the day be only to purpose and ordain 
to sanctify it, then the Sabbath was no more sanctified since the 
creation than ah lElemo, and before the world began, tor then 
God did purpose that it sluiuld be aanclified; but tliis sanctifica- 
tion here spoken of seems to follow God's resting, which was in 
time, and therefore it must be understood of another sanctifica- 
tion than that which seems to be before all time. Again ; as 
God did not bless the Sabbath in way of destination, so neither 
did he sanctify it in way of destination ; but he did not bless it in 
way of destination, for let them produce but one Scripture where 
the word bleited is taken in this sense, for a purpose only to 
bless. Indeed, they think they have found out this purpose lo 
sanctify in the word saaclijied, (Is. xiiL 3 ;) but where will they 
find the like for the word blessed u\so? For as the day was 
blessed, so it was sanctified ; and yet I think that the Medes and 
Persians, in Is. xiii. 3, are not called God's sanctified ones, be- 
cause they were destinated lo be sanctijied for that work, but 
because they were so prepared for it, as that Ihey were actually 
separated by God's word for the accomplishment of such work. 
But our adversaries wilt not say that G<id did thus sanctify the 
Sabbath in paradise by his word ; and yet suppose they are called 
tua sanctified ones in way of destination, yet there is not the liko 


lo inteq>ret it bcre; for in Is. xiii. 3, God bimself is 
brought in imraediatclv speaking, betiii'e whuae eternal eyes aH 
ibingj to come are as prc-Menl, ainl heni;e lie iniglit call thera his 
\ -saiiclified ones ; but in this pluue ol' Deo. ii. 2, Sfosea (nut God 
I innncdialely) speaks of this windifyiiig in wny of historicul nar- 
' rniioti oiil}-. Tiiis destination, whicli is stood so much upon, is 
I but a mere imaginaiion. 

'( 1 G6. It can not be denied but that it is a u»nal thing in 
[ Scripture to set down things in way of pi-olcpitis and anticipation, 
u they call it, i. e., U> set down tilings aforeliand in ilie history 
which many years happened and came after in order of time ; but 
there is no such (irolepsij or anticijiHtion here, (aa our adver- 
•aries dream,) so that whmi God is siiid to sanciiiy the Sabbatb 
in Genesis, the meaning should lie, that lliis he did twenty-five 
bundred years after the creation, for litis assertion wants all 
I proofs and huih no other prop to bear it up, ihan some instances 
> of anticipations in other places of Scriptui'c. The Jesuits, from 
I unwary expressions of some of the fathers, tirsi started 
answer, whom Gomarua followed, and iifter him sundry 
Others prelatically minded ; but Itivet, Ames, and others have 
acallered this mist long since, and theretbre I shall leave buMhis 
one consideration against it, vii^ that throughout all the Scrip- 
ture we shall not 6nd one prolep^^is, but that the history is evident 
and apparently false, unless we do acknowledge a prolepsis and 
ftiitieipaiion to be in the story ; so that necessity of establishing 
tbu truth of the history only can estahlish the truth of a prolep- 
j ais in the history. I forbear to give a taste thereof by any par- 
[ t)''ular instances, but leave it to trial ; but in this place idl^cd of, 
(Gen. ii. 2,) can any say that the elory is apparently false un- 
lesa we imagine a prolepfis !' and the Sabbath to be Srst sanctified 
ta Mount Sinai, (Bk. xx. ;) for might not (jiod sanctify )t in 
paradiiie as soon as God's rest, the cause and foundalioii'of sanc- 
tifying of it, was existing? Will any suy, with Gomarus, that the 
Snbbaili was Uni stiuciificd (Ex. xvi.) because God blessed 
tb«m so much the day before with manna, wheoas in the com- - 
' nwndment ilMilf (Ex. xx.) the reason of it is plainly set down 
lo be God's rusting on the seventh day, and Banciil'ying uf it 
I fcmg before? 

7%*m 167. There is not the least color of Scripture to make 

! this blessing and sanctifying of the day to be nothing else but 

Ood's magnifying and liking of it in his own mind, rejoicing and 

ka it were glorying in it, when he had rested from his works; 

Bnd yet Sir. Primrose cu^ts this bloi-k in the way for the blind to 

I lUimbte at, supposing that there should be no such anticipation aa 

14 • 


fae pleads for ; for snrfly, if God blef^sed and sanctilied the day, 
it wa» n ri'al and an eHiictual sanctifl cation and blessing; but this 
tnagnifyint: und giorjing in il, in God's rainJ. is no real ihing in 
, t)i« blessed Gud, he having no suuh affections in him, but what 
I is Bftiil Ui be in liini that viaj is ever by some special effects, the 
. simple and pure essence of God admitting no affections, per mo- 
I dum t^rcliu, Ktd fffeclut, as is truly and commonly mainlaiiied. 
\ TTtetii 168. If God sanctified and commanded Adam to sane- 
I tify the Sabbath, it was either that he himself should observe it 
personally, or successively in his posterity also. Now, there is no 
reason to think that this i^ a command peculiarly binding Adam 
himself only, there being the same cause for his posterity to ob- 
serve a Sabbath as himsi;lf liad, whicli was God's example of 
Iftbor and rest ; and if this was given to his posterity also, then it 
was a moral duty, and not a (mint of mere order proper lo Adam 
to attend unto; yet Kir. Primrose, for fear lest he should liwot 
short, in one of his answers, wherein he tells us that it did dero- 
gate much from the excellency of Adam's condition to liare any 
one day for God appointed unio him, yet here, notwithstanding, 
' be IflUs us, that if Gud hud appointed such a dny, it was no moral 
thing, nor yet a ceremony directing to Christ, but only as a point 
of order which God was pleased then to subject him unto ; and 
that a man may as well conclude that it was a moral thing lo 
serve God in Eden becaui^e it was a place which God hud 
appointed Adam lo serve him in, as the seventh day lo be moral 
' biicause it was the time thereof: but this assertion is but a mere 
itifierof ; for the text l«Ua us expressly, that God did both 
I bless and sanctify the seventh day in a special manner, as a thing 
of common concernment, but is never said to bless and sani^tifj 
the place of Eden. All men in Adam were made in the image 
of God, and was there but one thing in innocenny wherein God 
made himself eminently exemplary in labor and rest ? and shall 
we think that that one thing was rather a point of order pi^per 
to Adam, than a part of God's image common to all ? The b|i- 
pointment of that royal seat of Eden was nn act of heavenly 
bounty, and therefore might well be proper to him in that estate ; 
but the appointment of the time for God's special honor whs an 
act of justice, made and built upon a rule of common equity, as 
may appear out of the second edition of this law in the Iburth 
* uommandment, and therefore might well be morally binding unto 
all, and not a point of mere order only for Adam lo obsune. 

jyifM 16<). If Adam hud mood, all mankind might, and 
perhaps should, have iiU'crved that particular seventh day Ibr- 
«vet on earth. But look, as Adam observed it not merely because 


tit waa that seventh, (a^ hnth been sliown.) which -wiu but second- 
uily, aod ns il were arc iden tally moral, but because it was ibe 
seventh day appointed of Qod, which is flrally aod primarily 
moral, so, although we now Uo not observe that seventh tlay 
which Adam did, yet the substance of the morality of this cam- 
maud given unto hitn is observed ^till hy us, in observing ihfl 
seventh day which God bath appointed, to which the equity of 
thiii commaud binds generally all mankind ; hence therefore it is 
of little force which some ulijecl, that if the commandment to man 
in inuoceney he moral, that then we are bound to observe the 

taame seventh day which Adam in innocency did. This is oft laid 
in our dUb ; but the answer is easy from what hath been said, 
'ntetU 170. If because we read not any express mention ' 
that tlie patriarchs Ix-fore Muses' time did sanctify a Sabbath, 
that ihervfore the Sabbuih was not eunctided at that time, we 
nay as wull argue that it was not observed all the lime of the 
Jadgeis, nor of the hooks of Samuel, because no express men- 
tion is made in those books of any such thing; for if it be said 
Ifaat there is no doubt but that tbey observed it, because it was 
published on Mount Sinai, the like we may my concerning the 
potriBPchnl times, who had such a famous manifestion of God's 
mind herein, from the known siory, commandment, and example 
of God in the 6r«t creation. (Geii. ii. 2.) It is not said express- 
ly ibat Abram kept the Sabbath, but he is commended for keep- 
iiig God's coiamandments, (Gen. zxvi. 3;) and is not the S»b- 
buth one of those cummandmenis, the breach of which is ac- 
couiitcil the breaking of all? {Ex. xvi. 27.28;) and may we 
bwfulty and charitably think that Abram neglected other mural 
duties, because they are not expressly mentioned ? Again : it 
may be as well doubled of, whether the patriarchs observed any 
day at all. (which our adversaries confess to be moral.) because 
it neither is expressly mentioned. Again: it may be said with 
a* Kood reason, that the riacriliees wluch they offered were 
without warrant from God, because the commandment for thern 
t* not pxpn'ssly mentioned : but we know that Abel by faith 
uffercil. and failh must arU« from a precedent word ; so that, as 
tlie approved practitie of holy men doib necessarily imply a coin- 
mnnJ, so iho command given (as hath been shown) to Adam 
dnth as nocvissarily infer a practice. Again : if no duties to God 
were performed hy the palriarcha, but such as are expressly 
meniionct] and held forth in their examples, we should then be- 
huM a uran^ face of a chunb for many hundred years together, 
and necessarily condemn the generation of the just for living 
in groM neglects and impieiicx, there being many singular and 





Special Julie* wliich doubtless were ilone that were not meet par- 
tieuiarly lu be menciuned in that short epilotne of above two thou- 
sand years togellier, in llie bool( of Genesis i and therefore for 
Mr. Ironside and Primrose to conclude tbat Ibe keeping of the 
Sabbath had certainly been mentioned if it had twen observed, 
is very unsound, llr. Primrose thinks tliaf, if the Sabbath had 
been observed, it Iiad been iIicd mentioned, because lesser tilings 
than the Sabbaih are made mention of, there being also i'reqaent 
occasion to sjieak of the Sabbath, and that Moses and the 
prophets woiiltl have pressed the observation of it from the 
palriarelis' example if thej had ao practiced. But what is this 
kind of arguing but to teach the Holy Ghost what, and when, 
and how lo speak ? For there be many lesser matters expressed 
in many other historical parts of tbe Scripture, and good occa- 
sion as man may fancy to speak of thij, Sabbaih, and yet we see it 
is iinssed by in silence. But it is no wonder, if he who questions 
whether there were any days of. fasting and prayer fur two 
thousand years together, because ihey arc not expressly men- 
tioned, if that he doubts also whether there were any Sabbath 
all thai time, upon the same ground. But can any question that 
considers the sorrows of those liiues, which all ages have put 
men to seek God in such duties, but that they had such days of 
fiisling, as well as their betters in evangelical limes, when the 
Bridegroom was gone ? 

27iciit 171. It is not improbable but that the sacrifices of 
Cain and Abel (Gen. iv. 3) were upon the Sabbaih day, Ibe 
usual Elated lime then for such services; for that which our 
translation renders, ''in process of time," the Hebrew calls it 
B'STi in:, i. e., " the end of days ; " and why may not this be 
the end of the days of the week, (a known division of time, and 
most famous from the beginning of tiie world, as Bivet demon- 
strates out of the best antiquaries,) rather than at the end of the 
monibs of llie year? But it is not good to wrestle with prolm- 
hilities, of which many are given, which do ntthcr darken than 
clear up this cause. This only may be added, ihal suppose the 
patriarchs observed no Sabbath from man's fall to Moses' lime, 
yet it will not follow that man in innocency was a stranger to it, 
because man in his apostasy forgot, or did not regard to keep it. 

TTietii 172. If, lliereforc, it was a duty which Adam and hia 
posterity were bound to keep by a law given Ihem in innocency, 
(tjen it undeniably follows that the observance of a Sabbath doth 
not depend u[ion great numbers of people to sanctify it; for at first 
creation the number was hut two, and yet they both were bound 
to observe it then ; nor yet is it to be cast aside through any 

mftn's freedom from worldly eiicumbnuices, whereliy be hath 
liberty lo serve God more I'ruquently evury day; Ibr ilius it vrns 
Also Id the slate of innoceiicy, and yet the Sabbath to be observcil 
*; is therefore unsound, whicli Mr. Primrose uflii-ms 
nz., That tlie consecration of a certain dny for GoA'i 
a not necessary, but then only, when many troop to- 
gether and make up tbe body of a great assembly ; and that tjiere- 
fore it may be doubted whether the patriarchs, having but small 
families and little cumber, observed any Sabbath, but rather 
served God alike every day with great ease and ajuiduity ; 
and therefore there was no need nor cause of a Sabbath till 
they became a numerous people at Mount Sin4i. But beside 
what hath been said, how will it appear that the posterity of 
Seth, called the sons of God, (Gen. vi. 1, 2.) were not a numer- 
ous people ? or that Abraham's family was so small, out of 
which be could gather three hundred fighting men to pursue five 
mighty prinees in buttle ? But suppose they were few ; yet have 
not small eompanies, and pariieular persons, as much need of the 
blessing of a Sabbalh, and special communion with God therein, as 
great numbers aud troops of people ? Is not the observation of 
the Sabbath built upon better and surer grounds mentioned in 
the Scripture (ban bigness of number, and freedom from cum- 
bers, not mentioned at ^1 ? 

TTietit 173. K Adam's fall was before the Sabbath, {as Mr. 
Broad and wmie others, otherwise orthodox in this point of the 
Stibbath, conceive, by loo much inconsiderate wresting of Ps, 
xlix. 12, John viii. 44,} yet it will not hence fallow that he had 
no such command in innoeency lo observe the Sabbalh before 
his fall. For whether man had fallen or no, yet the thing itself 
speaks that God was determined to work six days in making the 
world, and to rest and so lo sanctify the seventh, that he might 
therein be exemplary lo man ; and consequently God would 
have given this law, and it should have been a rule to him 
whether he fell or no; and indeed the seventh day's rest depends 
no more upon man's fall than the six days' work of creation, 
whii^h we see were all finished before the fall ; the seventh day's 
holiness being more suitable to that state tlian the six days' 
labor, lo whicli we see he wus appointed, if God's example liad 
any force to direct and lead him thereunto. Agtuu : if the law 
of kibor was writ upon his heart before he was actually called 
forth to labor, viz., to dress and keep the garden, (Gen. ii. 15,) 
why might not also the law of holy rc^I be revealed unto him 
by God, and so anawerably writ upon his heart before he fell. 
or came actually to rest upon tlie Sabbalh ? Little of Adam's 


universal obedience lo llio law of wniks.was ns yet actual while 
lid reinnincd innocent ; and yei all liia obedience in time to come 
was writ upon liis heart ihu fir^t moment of his crention in llie 
image of God, as it were nforchand ; and wliy mipltt not this law 
of the Sublinth be writ eo aforelitind ? AiiU therefore Mr. Broad 
need not trouble himself or olhers in inquiring whether God sanc- 
tified tiie Satibaili tiefore or nfier tlie first aeveotli day wliereia 
God rested ; and if liefore it, bow Adam «>uld know uf tiie Sab- 
bath before God'3 complete rest upon the first seventh day, the 
cause of it. For God was as well able to make Adam privy 
to Ills counsel aforehand <»nceming that day, before God's rest 
en it, which was a motive to the observance of it, as he was to 
acquaint his people with his purpose for a holy passover before 
the occasion of it fell out. Mr. Broad indeed tells us, that ii is 
most probable that God did not bless and sanctify the first Sab- 
bath or seventh day of recit, because it is not said that God 
blessed the Sabbath because he would, but because be had rest- 
ed in it ; but by hb leave it is most proper to say, that God 
ut the end of the six days' work bod then rested from all iiis 
works ; and thence God is said to sanctify and rest the seventh 
day; bis cessation from work, which is the natural rest, being the 
cause of resting the seventh day with a holy rest, (as we have 
shown;) and therefore there is no reason to slay till the seventh 
day was past, and then to sauclify it against the oext seventh day ; 
the first seventh day, upon the grouud mentioned, being first 
sanctified, and which Adam might be well enough acquainted 
with aforehand, as hath been shown. 

37ietii 174. If the Scriptures may he judge of the time of 
man's fall, (whii-h yet is not momentous to cast the balance either 
way in this controversy,) it will he found that neitlier angeLs nor 
men did fall the sixth day before the Sabbath ; for then Grod 
looked upon all his works, and they were very good, (Gen. i. 31,) 
and tlierefore could not as yet he bad and evil by any sin or 
fall ; and now, because it is more than probable that if Adnm 
liad completely sanctified and stood one Sabbath, lie had stood 
immutably, as I think miglit bo demonstrated, be therefore not 
standing a whole seventh day, for then he could not have fallen, 
and yet not being fallen the sixth day, he therefore fell upon the 
Sabbath day, that as the breach of every other commnod was 
wrapped up in that first sin, so tbis of the Sabbath. The objec- 
tiona against this from John viii. 44, that Satan was a murderer ' 
from the heginiirng, and from Ps. alix. 12, thai man in honor 
did not •\-^if, or abide ooe night in that estate, with some other 
coiyectural reasons taken from some of tlie schoolmen's obs and 

Till; Ml): 


Pnls, are easily ansncreU by n seriouB mid sober mind; and 
I therefore I leave llieui. 

T^etit 173. Adujn's soul, !>»y some, did not need a Sabbalh, 
r because every day waa a Sablmlli lo liim ; nor did his body need 
r it, because it was impassible, say some, noi* subject lo weariness 
in its work, »ay others truly. To what purjwse, then, shoulil 
i kny Sabbalh be appointed uiiio him in ihat estate? But we 
I must know, that the Hebrew word for Sabbath signifies holy ml, 
I aiid'tlierefore, as Rivet well showti, it is .called rca, not nm:o, 
Matuekah, whieh signifies common rest from wearines!>; henre 
it follows, that the Sabbalh being originally sanctiHed for holy 
rest, not fur common rcat, or rest from natural weariness in 
labor, Adam iniglit therefore stand in need of a Sabbath, though 
bis body was not subject to any weariness in or &ii»r his labor- 
Hence, also, nlihough he was to live holily every day, yet this 
liindera not but that his soul might then have need of the holy 
of a tjabbath. For, 1. Adam was to serve God in a par* 
ticuliir calling then, as is manifest from Gen. ii. 15; for he was 
iben to keep and drcsi ihe garden, and lo act with and under 
Cod in the government of many inferior creatures. (Gen. i. 26.) 
' And thus, his time being filled in serving God with all holiness 
i in his calling, he might need a Sabbalh i nor was it lawful for 
him to turn days of work in his culling into days of rest, and so' 
to keep a Sabbath every day, no, nut in iliat innocent and happy 
etiote; for if it was ctfntniry lo Adam's holy estate to work six 
days, how eould it be agreeable or suitable to tlie holiness of God 
Ui work sis days ? If God did htbor six days, and resied a sev- 
tiith without any need of a rest in resgiect of any weariness in his 
work, why might not, nay, why shonld not, man imitate and bs 
like In his God in latxir and rest, although he was not subject to 
any weariness in his holy work ? 2. Though every day was to 
be spent in holiness mediately, both in seeing God in the creti- 
(uree, and meeting with God in his labor and calling, yet it was 
Itot unsuitable, nay, it was very needful in that e«liiie to havo one 
day in the week for more immediate and special converse with 
I trod, and for God mure immediately and 8[>ecially lo converge 
with hiu. Xur indeed Was it suitable lo God's wisdom to con- 
fine man's holiness, cilher then or now. either to holy labor only, 
or U) holy rest only ; for then he should not have been so like unto 
Uod, who was cxemplnrily holy unto man in lioih. Special time. 
lor action wherein he closed with G(k1 mure mediately llirough' 
It the aix days' labor, might well stand with special time Cor 
Kitemplaiion of God upon the Sabbalh, wherein he was to et^oy 
lOodmore immediately. Adam did not need a Sabbath upon the 


same ground of wcakneBs thnt we do. viz., because we can not be 
earnest enough (aa Mr. Primrose objects) in holy services to 
God upon the week daya ; but we see it did not suit God's wiitdora 
Dor man's holy estate then to be intent and earnest only in the 
enjoyment of his rest, to which his inieniion on his calling and 
labor then could not be any liinderance when the Sabbath came i 
being free from such clogs of sin then, an we are now pressed 
down withal ; and therefore it is on unworthy expression, but otl 
used by the same author and others, viz., that it did derogate 
from the excellency of Adam's condition to observe a seventh 
day's Sabbath, and that the determination of a lime then did' 
argue Adam's inability, or want of inclination and atTcclion, to 
serve God ordinarily, and that the observance of a Sabbath is a 
mark of a servile condition, (is of other holy days under tlie law ; 
and that if Adam was able to serve Giod continually, that it was 
then needless to limit bim to a particular day ; and tliat if a day 
were needful, Goil would have left the choice thereof lo his own 
freedom, considering the wisdom and godliness wherewith God 
had endowed him. These and such like expressions are but hay 
and stubble, which the light of the truth delivered may easily 

Tiesii 176. It is true, the saints and angels in heaven have 
no set Sabbalh ; but doth it ihcrelbre follow that the state of in- 
noccncy on earth should have been in all tilings like (and par- 
ticularly in Ibis) lo the slate of glory in heaven ? No sudt 
matter ; for should there have been no marriage, no dressing of 
ibe garden, no day nor night, etc.. in paradise, because there is 
no marriage, nor dressing of gardens, nor weeks, nor reckonings 
of day and night, in heaven ? If God hath work for Adam to do, 
not only upon the Sabbath, but upon the week dnys nbo, why 
might he not be said lo glorify God without stint or ceasing, as 
the angels do in heaven? unless Mr. Primrose will say, that 
Adam's marriage and dressing the garden was a stinting and 
ceasing from glorifying God, which either he must afflrm, or else 
_ his argument falls Hat upon all four, who thinks that Adam could 
not have any set day for a Sabbath, because then he should not 
be like the saints and angels in heaven, who glorify God con- 
tinually without stint or ceasing. 

TTiegit 177. They fhat think that the Subbnth was not given 
to Adam, because it was given as a peculiar prerogative and 
privilege to tlie Jews, and ihey that think that it was the Jews' 
prerogative and privilege because of such scriptures as atfirm 
that God gave unto (hem his Sabbaih, (Ex. xvi. 211 ; Neh. ix. 
14; Ezek. xx. 12.) and such like, they may as well imagine 


tlist neitlier the whole dccnlogiiu nor any pari of it did belong to 
Adam, because the very same thing is aflii-mGil of it, viz., tliat he 
give his laws to Jacob, his statutes iind judgments to Israel. (Ps. 
edvii. 10.) To them aim, il is said, were voramitted the oracles 
vf God. (Ilom. iii. 2.) The Sabbath llierefore h not said to be 
^ven to them as a peculiar propriety to tlie Jews, no more than 
flther parts of the decalogue, but as a special mercy, yea, as a 
•weeler mercy in some respect than the giving of any other laws, 
tt U'-ing the sweetest mercy upon earth to real in the bosom of 
God, (which the law of the Sabbath calls to,) and to know that 
it is our heavenly Father's mind that we should do so ujwn every 
Sabbath day in a special manner, without the knowledge of 
which law we have less light of nature to hold the candle to us 
lo the observance of it, than from any other laws to direct us to 
^_l Uie obedience of them. .^ 

^L ?%«m 17S. Il is alBnneil (but unwarily) by »ome, that the^ 
^^m tree of life in paradise was a type of Christ; and thence some 
^^L vould infer, that it was not unsuitable lo Adam's estate and con- 
^^1 4iliuu in innoccncy to be taught by types, and that the Sabbath 
^^M ^glil iherefure be ceremonial, supposing that it was observed by 
^H Adam in his innocent estate ; but although the tree of life, and 
^^P Kindry oilier things in paradise, arc made similitudes, lo set forth 
^B,' Christ Je$us in his church, by iIjc H»ly Ghost, (Uev. xxii.,) yet 
^H It is a gross mistake, and most absurdttojuake every metajibor, 
^^K or similitude and allusion, to be as^pej for the husbandman 
^Haowiog of the seed is a similitude dpre aching of the word, 
^V (Matt, liii.,) and yet it is no type of it ; an affectionate lover and 
^H kosband is, in sundry scriptures, a similitude and resemblance 
^H vf Christ's affection and love to his church and spouse ; the head 
^H ■nd members of man's body are similitudes of Christ the head, 
^B ud the church bis members : but will any affirm that these are 
^H also ty|>es of Cliriet ? And just thus was paradise and the tree 
^M «f life if] it. Tbey were simililudes lo which the Holy Gbost 
^V alludes in making mention of Christ and his church, but they were 
^H M types of them ; tlierc was lypiufietiu in them, or arbftrariut, 
^B (which is all one with a similitude,) but there was no lyptu dt»- 
^B, linatitt therein, being never purposely ordained to shadow out 
^B Cbiist : for ibe covenant of works, by which Adam was to live, is 
^B- directly contrary (o the covenant of grace by faith iu Christ, 

iRom. xi. 6.) by which wc arc to live. Christ is revealed only 
^^ I itie covenant of grace, and therefore could not be so revealed 
^M to tlie covenant of works directly conlrary thereunto. Aduiu 
^V tlicrcforc was not capable of any types then to reveal Christ lu 
^B fciin ; of whom the first covenant nui not speak, aod of whom 
■ Vui.. ui. ' 10 




, Adam slood in no need s no. not so much as to confirm him in lliat 
estate ; for (wiih leave) I iliink iliat. look, as Adiim breaking the 
first povL-nanl by sin, he is become immutably evil and miserable 
in himself, according to llie nilc of justice in that covenant, so 

I suppose him to have kept that covenant, all his posterity had 
been immutably happy and holy, (not merely by grace,) but by 

I the same equity and justice of thai first covenant; and henee it 
follows, thai be Blood in no need of Christ, or any revelation of 
him by types ; no, not to confirm him in that covenant. 1 know, in 
some sense, whatever God communicaies to his creature in way 
of justice may be said to be conveyed in a way of grace, if grace 
he taken largely for that which is conveyed out of (jod's free will 
and good pleasure, as all things in the world are, even to the ac- 
ceptance of that wherein there is most merit, and that is Christ's 
death and satisfaction for sin : bat_th[ s is but to pla y with words ; 
for it is clear enough by the apostle^verdict, thatgrace"stnctly 
takeil is opposite to works, (Rom. ni. 6;) the law of works 
which only reveals doing and life, to the law of faith which only 
reveals Christ and life ; under which covenant of grace Adam 
was not, and therefore had no types then to shadow out Chritit. 
TjLSayjhai paradise and the tree of life wej^. tjp^ bj yay of 
an!ic^)aliorul[iisl-wme lately af!irm,) is as much as to say that 
they were not types then ; and llierefore neither these nor the 
Sabbath were ceremonial then, and that is euSicient for what we 
aim at; only it is observable, that this unsound expression leads 
into more palpable errors ; for as they make the tree of life 
typical by anticipation, so they make the marriage of Adam and 
Kvc, and consequently the marriage of all mankind, typical; and 
then why should not all marriages cease, when Christ, the Anti- 

I type, is come? Nay, they make the rivers, and precious stones, 
and gold in paradise, thus typicalof Christ and his church, (Rev. 
xxi.;)and ihenwhymay they not make'the angels in heaven 
typical, because men on earth who pour out the vials are re- 
sembled to them ? And why may not men riding upon while 
horses be typical, because Christ is so resembled? (Rev. xix. 1 1.) 
Pererius, who collects out of Hugo de Vict, a type of llie whole 
.new creation, in all the works of six days' first creation, may 
please himself (as other Popish proctors dol with such like shady 
speculations and phantasms, and so bring m the seventh day for 
company to be typical also ; but a good and healthful stomach 
should be exeueiling fearful of a little feeding on such windy 
meat 1 nor do 1 think that Hugo's new creation is any more anli- 
typical to the tirst six days" creation than Damascene's types in 
the fourth commandment, wha makes thou, thy son, thy daughter, 





thy Eervnni, the stranger, to be types of our sinful afFecUons 
of spirit, and the oslinil ihe ass ligures of (he flesh nnd sensual 
part, boih whieh he saith must rest upon llie Snbbnth day. 

TXrm 179. If Ihertfore the Sabbath was given to Adam in 
innocently before all types, nay, before the lea^t promise of 
Chridf, whom Bueh types must shadow forth, then it ean not be 
in ite first and native institution typical and ceremonial, but 
ttionU ; and therefore in its first and original institution, of which 
we spt-nk, it did not lypily either our rest in Christ from sin in 
this life, or our rest with God in heaven in another life, or any , 
other imagined rest which man's wit can easily invent and invest 
the Sabbath wiifi. But look, as our Saviour, in reforming ihe 
abuses in marriage, calls us to the first institution, so to know 
what is pcrjietual in the Sabbath, it is most safe to have recourse 
kilber, which, when it was first observed, we see was no way 
typical, but moral ; and if man no way clogged with sin and 
Mrth had ihen need of a Subhath, haVe not we much more ? 

Thetii 181). As, before the fall, the Sabbath was originally 
and essentially moral, so after the fall it became accidentally . 
typical : i. e., it had a type affixed to it, though of its own nature 
it m-ilb«r was nor ia any type at all. God atHxed a farther end 
unto it after the fall, to be of further use to type out somewhat 
to God*s people, while in the substance of it it remaineth moral ; 
and hence it is ttiat a seventh day remains moral, and to be ob- 
served, but not that seventh day which was formerly kept ; nor 
lisve we that enil of resting which was under the law, but this 
end only, [hat we might more immediately and specially converse 
witli Uod, which wus the miun end of the Sabbath's rest before 
man's fall ; for if the Sabbath had been essentially typical, then 
i( should be abolished wholly, and no more remembrance of it 
than of new moons anj jubilees ; but because it was for substance 
moral, being extant before the fall, and y<;t had a type af&xcd to 
it aflcr the liill, hence a seventh day is still preserved, but that 
Mventh day is now abolished ; and hence new moons and other 
JewiAli festivals, as they are wholly ceremonial in their birth, so 
tbey are wholly abolished (without any change of them into other 
days, OS this of the Sabbath i») in their very being. 

Titttt IHl. There are sundry scriptures alleged to prove 
tJie Sabbath to be typitml and ceremoniiO, out of the Old nnd 
New TusUmeni, as Is. Ixvt. -23; GaL iv. 10; Uom. xiv.4,.0; 
Cot. ii. Ifi; but if we suppo.<e tlmt thc«e phtces be meant of the 
weekly Sabljaih, (whicli some deny,) and rigiilly urge them, we 
inay quickly pre.s$ bloud instead of milk out uf them, and wholly 
aboliaii (aa Wullwus well observes) the obKrvalion of any Chris- 


tian RabLaih ; bill lliis one conBiileralion of a type affixed to it 
to make it so far forth ceremonial, aiid lliere'fore alterable, which 
for subalnnce ia moral, may be as a riglit thread to lead us into 
a way of truth io this great controt'eray, and to untie many knota 
wliieh I see not how poasibly lliey ean be otherwise unloosed, 
and therefore we may safely say that that seventh day is abol- 
ished, because it batb a type affixed to it ; but that a seventh 
day's Sabbath is still continued wherein there is no type at all. 

TTiesu 182. If any say. Why was now the ceremony afRxed, 
washed off", and removed after Christ's coming, and so thnt sevoiith 
day still continued, as we see ))ublic prayer is still used, but tbe 
type of incense removed, and tbe first bom still retain that 
which is moral, the type at^ed to them being now abolished ? 
the reason of this is, because there ia a necessity of the being 
of both, both prayer and first bom ; for public prayer must be, 
and first bom must be, and they can not be changed into any 
other ; but there was no necessity of the continuance of thai first 
seventh day to be the Sabbath ; nay, there was some cause to 
change it, and another day might be our Sabbath as well as that 
fii-st. Look, therefore, as the Lord coutd have kept the temple 
at Jcrusidem merely as a plaoe of worship, which at this day in 
the general is necessary, and have washed and wiped off tbe 
typical use of it in respect of Christ, yet the wisdom of tbe Lord 
abolished the very being of the temple, because that place might 
be as well changed into another, and lest through the typicalnesa 
of it man's corrupt heart should abuse it, so 1 may say, concern- 
ing the Sabbath, it did not suit witJ) the wisdom of God to wipe 
off the ceremony atfixed to that seventh day, when it might well 
be changed, and so kee]i that day, considering how apt men's cer- 
emonious and superstitious hearts are to abuse such times or 
places, unless the very types be abolished .vrith the things them- 

Thcth 183. It is true the Sabbath is called a sign between 
God and us, (Ex. xxxi. 13; Ezek. xx. 20;) but it doth not follow 
that therefore it is originally significative and typical, for it may 
be only accidenlully so, by reason of a type and sign affixed ; yet, 
upon narrow search of this place so much stood upon, no type 
at all can hence be proved, because a sign ia mentioned ; for it 
is not necessary Io think that It is a typical and sacraoiental sign, 
as circumcision and the passovcr were ; for it might he only an 
indicant sign and declarative, (as Num. xvi. 36, and xvii. 10,) 
and as tbe fruits of God's regenerating Spirit are signs of our 
translniion from death to life, (I John iii. 14,) which signs still 
continue ; and if it be such a sign, it t> rather a strong arfuraent 


I for the continuance of tUe Sabbatb, iban for any abolition or 
chan>re lher«of. 

~" r 184. The Sahbalh beinp no visible sign of invisilile 
1 KTace, it can not ihcrcrere be any sacramental sign, or typical; 
I U is therefore an indicant and declarnlire «ign of our communion 
vilh God, and God willi us, of our interest in bim, and of his in 
is: and therefore ui those places (Es. xxxi. 13. and Ezek. xx. 20) 
^ where it is called a sign, it b not made a sign simply and naked- 
' ly considered in itself, (as all sucrameniul and typical ei^ia 
I be,) but it is so called in respect of our keeping of it, or as it is 
obeerTed and kept ; and therefore it runs in way of promise. 
(Ksek. xs. 20.) If ye hallow ray Sablmlbs, tliey shall then be 
a sign between me and yon, and you shall know (hereby) that 
I am the Lord your God ; and although the Sabbath itself he 
called a sign, (Ex. xxxi.,) yet it is explained (ver. 13) to be such 
a sign as to know hereby that the Lord our God sanctifies ns, 
and in Ezek. xx. 20, that we may know hereby that he is the 
Iiord our God ; for we know he is tlie Lord our God if he 
isnclifies us, and that we are Ina people if we sanclify, or bo 
sanctified of him ; and in this respect it becomes not only a sign, 
bat a rooluad sign between God and us, and in no other respect, 
{as Walleeus would stretch it;) and hence it is, that whoever 
makes a conscience of sanctifying the Sabhaih aright, shull not 
long want assurance of God's love, hy this blessed sign. 

Thetit 185. What ty|ie should be afiixed to tbe Sabbath, 
and of what it is thns typical and significative, is not a little difH- 
, eah to find out, and, being found out, to prove it so to be. In 
I bundling the cban^ of the Sabbath, I shall positively set down 
' what I apprehend ; only at the present il may not be amiss to 
east in a few negatives of whnt it is not ; for men's wils in ima- 
gining types ami allegories are very sinfully luxuriant, unleEs God 
check them in such kind of divinity. 

Tieii* 186. The type lies not in the day of worship, for the 

greatest adversaries of the Snbbaih place a raornliiy therein; 

nor dolb il lie in a seventh day ; for though seven be made a 

Biunber of perfection, jet what sober mind ever made a tyiw 

I of Mven, more than of six or ten ? Some have made the week 

k a short (.ummary, and epitome, and resemblance of (hat old propb- 

1 tey of the world's continuance for six thousand years, (a tliou stiiid 

I years being with God but as one day,) and ihe seventh thousand 

f Ibe great day of rest and peace to the weary world ; but this is 

'' R doubtful assertion at best ; or, if true, yet it is not tbereforo 

I properly a iyi>e ; or if it be, yet not sinh a type as wa.« to it^aso 

\_ U the coming of Christ, (as our adversaries would have the 






Sabbath.) but wliPn the antitype is come of (hat seven tbousand 
yenrs. If, ilicrdfore, it lies any where, it is in it as in a rest day, 
or day of rest. 

TTiait 187. Some make the re»t of tlie Sikbbalh a type of 
Clirist's rest in the |;ravei and if it could be proved, I durst not 
oppose it ; but it ia but gratf» dictnin, affinned by Bome go(!ly 
learned, who herein symbolize with Popish postillei's, who please 
tbeniselvea rauch in this and such like allegorical signifiijalions 
of the Subbatb'g rtat. For if Christ did ntilber enter into the 
Blate of rest till his resurrection, nor^nto the place of rest unlil bia 
Bftcension, how then could the re^t of the Sitbbath type out his 
rest in the grave, which was part of his most heavy labor of 
humiliation, (Acts ii. 24,) and no part of bis rest, unless it was 
in respect of cessation therein from actions of natural life ? But 
the rest of one day is very unfit to resemble and type out the 
Pest of three days in the grave ; and whf may not Christ's real 
from labor in bis sleep be as well the antitype as ChrL^t's rest 
from the aelioits of this life in his grave ? 

Thesis 188. Why may not our labor in the six days be made 
a type of our laboring in sin, as well aa the Sabbalh a-tygie of 
our sancliUcation and rest from sin, as some would have it? 
nVhy may nut our libertines make nbstinence from adultery, 
forbidden in the seventh command, a type of ouf spiritual chas- 
tity, (as the Gnostics did of ohl,) as well as the rest from labor 
on (lie Sabbath a type of our veil from sin ? And by this liberty, 
how easy is it for frolhy allegorizing wits, which ray heart abliors, 
to typify (as it were) and allegorize all the commandments out 
■ of the world 1 

Thesis 189. The rest on the Sabbath may be considered 
either in respect of God's example in himself, or his command 
to man out of himself. Now, llio rest of the Sabbath, as it is 
exemplary in God, can not be a type of any thiujj;, because God 
never made himself an example of any ceremonial thing. God's 
own immediate nets can not, without much injury to God, be made 
types and ceremonies ; if, therefore, there be any thing of llie 
rest of the Sabbath typiual, it is so in refipcct of man's rest «n 
it, commanded nolo him of God; but whether and what it doih 
typify, we shall speak to in its proper place. 

TTiesis 19(1. There wants not sufficient proof thai the Gen- 
tilna generally practiced and approved a seventh dny's Sabbalh, 
and that it wiis higlily bonoied among them as very gacicd. 
This truth both Terlullian, Eusebius, Josephus, and Pliilo have 
formerly alBrmed. Ai'ctus, also, especially learned Rivi?t, have 
lately vindicated and made good against all the exceptions of 


IJGomiirus and others, insomiicb as lliat the last refuge both of 
GomaruH anil Primrose is this, viz., that all those heathens who 
wril abuut ihe Salihaih, and in honor of it, rei.'elved not their 
light from DBilure, but from the wriiings of the Jewish common- 
wealth, all those heathenish testimonies abont the Sabbath being 
published and writ long after the delivering of the law upon 

tUounl Sinai. And therefore they think this no argument to 
|ffove tlial tliis law was practiced ever einc« the world began, or 
ibnl it was known by ibe light of nature, by which it might be 
evinced to be momi ; but by this answer we shall scarce know 
any thing to be aci'ording to the light of nature by the writings 
of the heathens, for all their writings are since Moses' time, if 
ihey be of any credit. But suppose they did not know it by the 
working power of the light of nature, yet if ihey approved of. and 
honored this day when it was mode known by other means, go 
that they knew it by the approving light of nature, as the authors 
alleged ra&ke gooil, it is then eutRcieat lo prove the seventh day 
monil, even by the light of nature ; and nlthungh Seneca and 
some others nvSvA at the Jewish Sabbaths, as if they lost the 
Bcvrnth part of their time thereby, yet we koow that men's lusts 
will give them leave to scoff at that wbicli yet their consciences 
^^ ofaaMiae Ihcni for ; beiude, I think those eoofie were not so much 
^^L at the seventh day as at their strict and ceremonious observance 
^^B lliereufi- at aho of their seventh ycani, wherein it is no wonder if 
^V'.thBl the light of nature should not so dearly see. 
^^ Thetis I'Jl. The light of nature in the Gentiles, especially in 
matters of the first table, was very imperfect, dim, and corrupt 
Ucnce it is that we can not expect to find any jicrfect light of 
nature in matters of the Sabbath. Some glimmerings and dark 
practices hen-in are sutficient to pi\>ve that this law is natitral, 
L although the exact proportion of time for rest should not, or could 
[ 'aot, by any reaMniiig of corrupt nature, be perfectly found out. 
I'Tlicir observation of holidays and feslivab did argue some im- 
^rfect ligbt of nature lu)\ concerning the Sabbath, which once 
' nature bad luore ]>erfectly, as old walla and rubbiiih do argue old 
L and great buildings in former times. But suppose they could not 
J And out vsaclly the spvonth part of time, and so dalicate it to 
l-iGod for his Sabbath ; yet the want of such light argues only the 
• Want of perfection of the light of nature, which we should not 
■ expect to find iu the present light of nuture in matters of the first 
^telle. and in this of the Sabbath ; and therefore it is no ailment 
9 prove the Sabbaih not to be of the law of nature, because the 
' perfect knowledge of the eiact time thereof is not lefl in corrupt 
' Ml*"* now. 



TKflji's 102. Siip|ii«elheG(inlile,iiliii neiilicr know, nor were 
eyer reproved [larlii-ularly by any of the proplieis for bretiking 
the Sabballi ; yel lUU doih not ar<;iiB ibiit iliey were not bound 
to smiclily a Subbath, and that it was iio sin fur them to neglect 
llie Rabtmlh ; for il was a privilege of ibe Jews to bave God's 
oraclea revealed to ihein, and especially this of the Sobbalh, 
(Neb. ix. 14 1 liom. iii. 2 ;) so it was a curse upon the Gentiles 
to live without Christ, uud so also without SabbaUis. (Eph. ii. 
12.) The times of which ignorance God is said to wink at, 
(Acts xvii. 30,) iHrt fay excusing them for the breach of Sab- 
bath, or other sing, but by not reproving thern for it, as neither 
he did for many other moral transjp-essions, which ootwithatand- 
ing were sins. The patriarchs were not condemned expressly 
till Moses' time (by Mr. Primrose's account) for their polygamy, 
that we read of, and yet it was a sin all that time against the 
very first institution of marriage ; and why might not the breach 
of the Sabbath be a sin much more longer among the Gentiles, 
and yet none of the praphels reprove them particularly for the 
same? And therefore Mr. Primrose halli no cause to mark this 
argument with chalk, and with all attention, as he calls it, viz., 
that the breach of the Sabbath among the Gentiles was no sin, 
because it was not any where particularly reproved by the proph- 
ets of God ; for we see, by what liatb been said, upon what weak 
crutches it standi. 

niesii 193. The Gentiles shall not be TOnde(nneil only for 
what they did aclualiy know, and did not prueiice, but also for 
whut they did not actually know, yet might and should have 
known. The Gentiles did know Uial some days were to be kept 
holy to God, (saith Mr. Primrose.) and they should have known 
the fittest proportion and most suitable freifuency of such days, 
which the same author acknowledgeth to be moral ; therefore 
they should have known the Beienili day's Sabbath, and possibly 
might have known it if they hod not held truth in unrighteous- 
ness, but made improvement hereof; for in this sense hahrnti 
dabitur, to him that hulh shajl be given, to wit, more of the same 
kind of light, whether natural, moral, or evangelical ; if common 
light ID all these, more common light i if special light in them, 
they shall thou have more special and saving light. 

Thetis 194. As it is no argument that that law is according 
to the light of nature, which the Gentiles generally practiced, (for 
then polytheism, and sacrificing of beasts.yea, will worship, should 
be according to the light of nature, because these sins were gen- 
erally practiced,) so it is no argument that that law is not accord- 
ing to the light of nalqro which they generally neglected; awl 



tliiTeforc suppoiw the Genliles nevi;r obacrvcil a Subbatli, yet 
ii iiu Hrgumciil tiint il is therefore no moral law. I know 
Primrose ihiiiks tbat the sacrifices were by an instinct of 
Biilure, because it dictates that all sias wliereof mortal men are 
guilij are to be expiated by sacrifices and ofierings to God of- 
fended ; which assertion hath some truth in it, if those words, 
"by sacrifices and offerings," be left ont ; for what liglit of nature 
could tnalce men think that an infinite Deily offended could be 
pacifit:d by sucb curnal observanced sa the sacrifices of Itrute 
beasts and their blood, which never offtinded ? This custom the 
Gentiles migbl retain as a relic of former instruction and in- 
sttluiion. 1^ their first fathers after the flood i which, tieing mat- 
ters merely ceremonious, might be retained more firmly than 
other moral duties of great consequence. However, we see that 
the practice of the Gentiles is no fit guide to direct that wtiich is 
according to the law and light of nature. , 

T%tti» 195. If more narrow inijuiry be made, what the lawl 
of nature is, these distinctions must be otiserved: — 

1. The law of nature is either of pure or corrupt nature. ^ 

The law of pure nature was the law of God writ on Adam's 
heart in ionocency, which was nothing else but that holy bent and 
indiuation of the heart within to act according lo the holy law 
of God revealed, or covenant made with him without ; and thus 
Aquinas places the law of nature in this inclination. 

The law of corrupt nature is that dim light left in the mind, 
and moral inclination left in the will, in respect of some things , 
couuuned in the Uw of God, which the apostle calls conteitHce, i 
(Kom. ii. ld() which natural conscience is nothing but the rem* 
DaDt* and general principles of the law of pure nature, left in all 
men since the fall, which may be increased by more knowledge . 
of the hiir of God. or more diminished and defaced by llie widk- 1 
ednoM of man. (Til. i. 15.) 

d. The law of corrupt nature ia token either more largely or 

Ai it is taken more largely, so it comprehends all that which 
is agreeable and suiiuhle to natural reason, and that from a 
natur&l innate equity in the thing, when it is made known, either 
by divine instruction or human wii^dom, although it be not im- 
ineiiiately known by the light of nature; and thus numj judiciid 
laws are natural and moral, (though pwilive,) and of binding 
nature, nnio this day. 

As it is taken tiriclly. bo it comprehcmls no more but what 
nature immediately knows, or may know, wiihout external in- 
umction, u parenls lo be honored, man's life lo be preserved. 




3. Tlie luw of nature, sirielly iiiken, are eitlicr principles o 
nature, or coiu;lusi<»is I'rom sucb principles. 

The principks of Llie law of uarure are in some respect* -i 
man}', yd may lie reduced to thU one head, viz. : Tliat good is 
to be followed, evil to l)e avoided. 

Conclasions are deductions from ibose priociples, like several 
streams from the Game spring, which. Lhough less evident than 
the principles, yet may bo readily found out by diacourse and 
flad Bcardi. 

4. Conclusions arising from these principles ore more imme- 
diate, or mediate. 

Immediate are made (by Aquinas) to be two: 1. Love God 
with bU Ihy heart. 2. Lore thy neighbor as thyself. 

Mediate are sueli ns arise from llie former prindples, by 
means of those (wo more immediate conclusions: 'Ond of this 
, kind are some^ (as he thinks,) yea, ail the taws of the decalogue, 
if right reason may be judge. Now to apply these. 

Tlietia lOG. If the question be whutlier the Sabbath he 
known by the light of pure nature, the onswer is, yea; for 
Adam's mind knew of ii, and his heart was inclined and bent to 
the keeping of it, although it be true, that now this light in 
corrupt nature (as in many other moral duties) is almost wholly 
extinct and worn out, as hath been formerly shown. And. to 
speak plainly, tliis great and first impression left on mau's heart 
in pure nature is [he tirst rule according to which we are now 
to judge of what is tlie law of nature ; and it servgs to dash to 
pieces nnd grind to powder and dust, most eSectually and strongly, 
the dreams and devices of such as would make lite Sabbath not 
moral, because not natural, or not easily known by the present 
light of corrupt nature, whenas corrupt nature is no perfect 
copy, but a blotted discovery of some part of the light of nature, 
which was fully imprinted at large in pure nature: and there- 
fore it is no wonder if our adversaries so much oppose the 
commandment of the Sabbath in the state of innocency: such 
therefore as are otherwise orthodox in (his point, and yet make 
this description of the law of nature (viz., which was written on 
man's heart in his first creation) (o be both uncertain and imper- 
tinent, do unwarily pull down one of (ho strongest bulwarks. 
and the first that ever God made lo defend the morality of the 
Sabbath : there is indeed no express scripture which makes 
this description of the law of nature, (us ihcy object,) and so it is 
of many other things which are virtually awi for substance con- 
tained in the Scripture, although iliere be no formal description 
Bet down of tlie same ; and the like I say of this description here. 


1 nwt 107. If we speak of the law of nature, siriclly 
ikcn, for llini irlikli is iintnedintelj and readily knowji by iho 
' common light of nature in sll meu, then it may be ^ely 
affirmed, thai aitbough the Sabbath should not be in this sense 
natural, yut it will not follow lliut it is not therefore moral ; tor 
ihe moral law, once writ on man's heart in pure nature, is almost 
blotted out; only some rudera and old rubbi:jh is letl of it in a 
perverse mind and a corrupt heart, (Eph. It. 18.) We see the i 
wisest of the heathens mailing those tilings to be moral virtues 
(Junius instanceth in th« lavvol' private revenge, and we know they 
magnilii>d will worship) which the Scripture condemns as moral 
vii^es and sins: God would have commonwealths preserved, 
in all places of the world, from the inundnLion and deluge of 
nan's wickedness, and therefore he hath generally printed the 
notions of the second table upon men's hearts, to set bounds 
(as by eea banks) unto the overflowings thereof, and hence it is 
that they are generally known : but he would not have churches 
every where, and therefore there is but little known concerning 
matters of the first table, and consequently about this law of 
the Sabbath, which nolwithsljinding muy be moral, although it be 
not so immf-dialely made known. 

TAtsit 198. If we speak of the law of corrupt nature, 
hrgely taken, for that law which, when it is made known by 
' divine determination and declaration, is both suitable and congru- 
ous to natural reason and equity, we may then say that the law 
of the Sabbath is according to the light of nature, even of cor- 
rupt nature itself: for do but suppose that God is to be wor- 
shipped, and then tliese three things appear to be most equal. 
1. That he is not only to have a time, hut a special time, and a 
lit proportiou of time, for worship. 2. That it is moat meet that 
he should make this proportion. 3. The Lord having given 
iiiMn six dnys, and taken a seventh to himself, man's reason 
can nut hut confess Ihnt it is most just to dedicate that time to 
tiud : and fur my own part, I think that in this respect the law 
of the Sahbuth was a-t fairly writ on man's heart in innocency 
as many other moral laws, which none question the morality 
of At tills day; but disputes about this are herein perhaps 

netii 199. The sacrament of tha Lonl's supper may be 
■dmiitistered (meet circumstances concurring) every Lord's day i 
nay, ujion the week duys oRen, as they did in the primitive por- 
sRcations ; and hence our Saviour limits on time lor it, in the 
first iftstiiutiotT thereof, as he did for the passovet ol' old, but 
only thus : " At oft as yva do it, do it in rciuemhroncv of me." 





Eeitce it will follow, tbat now under ibe gospel lliere 'u no set 
Sabbalh (as M. PviniroBe would) because our Saviour, at tbe 
first iDstitutlon of tlio Lord's suppt^r, liniils no pur[ii;ultir day for 
the celi'bratiun thereof, at) once he did for ihe pa^suver; for 
though there ia aa appointed special time (as liliall liercafier 
appear) for the public ciiercide of all lioly duties, not being 
limited to those times, but enlarged to other linies also, hence 
there is no reason why our Saviour ebould institute a set Sab- 
bath, when he instituted the Lord's supper, at (he proper lime 
of the celebration thereof, a« it was in case of the passovcr. 

Thetit 200. It is no argumenttoprovetbe Sahbatblobecer- 
emonial, beuaase it is reckoned umong ceremonials, viz., show- 
breud and saciifices, as M. Primrose und Wallieus urge it out of 
Jilatt. xii. 1-3 ; for, 1. U|>on the same ground fornicAtion and 
eitiing of idolothjtes are ceremonial, because tliey are ranked 
among ceremonials, viz., bloud and things strangled, (Acta xv. 
2tt.) 2. Upon this ground the Sabbath hath no morality at all in 
it, no more then showbread and sucriiices, which were wholly 
ceremonial. 3. The Sabbath is in tbe same place reckoned 
among things which are moral, as pulling a sheep out of a pit 
upon the Sabbath day, an act of humanity ; why may it not 
then be as well accounted moral? 4. One may as well argue 
that the not keeping company with publicans and sinners was a 
ceremonial thing, because the Lord Jesus useth the same pro- 
verbial speech, " I will have mercy, not sacrifice." {Matt. ix. 13 ;) 
npon which he defends the hiwl'ulness of pulling the ears of 
corn upon the Sabbath day, in this, Matt. xii. 15: the scope 
therefore of this place is not to show the nature of the Sabbath 
day, whether it be ceremonial or moral, but the lawfulness and 
morality of his act in eating the ears of corn upon this day ; and 
Uius the arguments of our Saviour are very strong and convict- 
ing to prove the morality of such an act, but no way to prove 
the ceremoniality of the Sabbath ; for that is ilic scope of our 
Saviour, that mercy lo the hungry is to be preferred before ihe 
sacritlce of bodily resting u[»oii the Subbalh. M. Primrose 
indeed replies hereto, and tells us, that "mercy is to be preferred 
before sacriUce or ceremonial duties, but not before moral duties, 
and therefore Christ preferring it before the rest on the Sabbatii, 
the Sabbath could not be moral." But we know that mercy in 
the second table is someliraes to be preferred before niovnl duties 
in the first table: a man is bound to neglect solemn prayer 
■ometimes lo attend upon llie sick: it ia a moral duty to sanctiiy 
some day for a Sabbalh, (saith M. Primrose ;) and yet suppose a 
fire be kindled in a, town upon that day, or any sick lo be helped ; 

I BtQst not mercy be preferred beflire hearing the word ? which 
• himself will acknowlc'(lf;e to be tlien a moral duty. 

TTietU 201. When Christ is f^aid to be Lord of the Sabbath, 
(Malt. xii. 8,) the meaning is not aa if he was such a Lord as 
had power to break it, but rather such a Lord as had power 
to appoint it, and consequently to order the wqrk of it for 
liis own service. &L Primrose thinks " that he is said to be 
Lord of it because he had jjower lo dispense with the keep- 
ing of it, by whom and when he would ; and that Christ did 
choose to do such works upon the Sabbath day, which were 
neither works of mercy nor neceseiily, nay, which were servile, 
which the Liw forbade ; for Christ, (saith he,) as Mediator, liad 
no power to dispense with things moral, bat he might with 
mailers ceremonial, and therefore with the Sabbath." How far 
Christ Jesus might and may dispense with moral taws, I dispute 
not now i I think Biell comes nearest the truth in this controversy j 
(miy this is considerable : suppose the Sabbath was ceremonial; 
Tel it is doubtful whellier Christ Jesus, who came in the days of 
bia llesh u fullill alt righteousness, could abolish or break the 
law ceremonial until his death was post, by which this hand- 
writing of ordinances was blotted out, (Col. ii. 14,) and this 
middle wall of partition was broken down. (Epfa. ii. 14-16.) 
But let it be yielded -that Christ had power to break ceremonial 
bws then before his death, yet in this plitce there is no such 
mailer ; for the words contain a clear proof for the right obser- 
vaiiiw of the Sabbath, against the over-rigid conceptions of the 
copcrslilious and proud Pharisees, who aa they thought it un- 
lawful for Christ to beat the sick upon tlie Sabbath, so to rub 
out, and eat a few com ears upon il, although hunger and want 

Sand perhaps more than ordinary in the disciples here) should 
»ree men hereunio, wtiich was no servile work, (as SI. Primrose 
.) but a work of necessity and mercy in thb case ; and onr 
Saviour proves the morality of it from the example of David 
Mliug the showbread, and those thai were with him, preferring 
tkai aci of mercy before sacrifice, and obstinence from show- 
kread ; and hence our Sainour argues, ihat if they attending 
anon David might cat the showbread, much more his hungry 
I 4uciplcs might eut ihe com while they atiended upon him that 
s Lord of the Sabbath, and that Ihey might be the 
belter Bireiiglhened hereby to do him service : these things being 
tun, where now is tliere to be found any real breach of the 
hbbath, or doing of any servile work, or maintenance of any un- 
ary work, which the same learned and a^utc writer impulca 
P our Saviour ? which I had almost said b almost blaiphemoDS. 

VOL. 111. 16 



Thetit 202. It is no argument that Ihe Salib&tli is not moral, 
because it is suid (Mnrk ii. 27) that man is not mailc Tor it, but 
it for man ; for. sailh M. Ironside, man ia made for moral duties, 
not they fur man : for let the Sabbath be taken for the bare 
rest of the Sabbath, as the Pharisees did, wbo placed so mucli 
religion Id tlic bare rest as that they thought it unlawful to heal 
the sick on that day, or feed llie hungry ; so man is not made aa 
Ia£l1y, for ihe bare rest, but rather it for man and for his good ; 
but if by Sabbath be meant the aanciilication of that rest, so 
man is made for it, by Itl. Primrose's own eoafession. Now, our 
Saviour speaks of the Sabbath in the first respect ; for the rest 
of it is but a means to a further and a better end, viz., the true 
sancttficalion of it, which the Pharisees little looked unio ; and 
therefore he might well say tliat the Sabbath was made for man, 
the rest of it being no further good than as it was helpful to man 
in duties of piety or mercy required of man, in the sanctification 
tliereoT. M. Primrose, confessing tlial man is made for the sanc- 
tification of the Sabbath, would llierefore wind out from litis, by 
making this sanctification on the Sabbath to be no more than 
what is equally required of man all the week beside: but he is 
herein also much mistaken ; for though works of piety and mercy 
■re required every day, yet they are required wiib a certain 
eminency and specialty upon the Sabbath day, and thence it is 
that God calls men to re^t from all worldly occasions, (which lie 
doth not on the week days,) that they might honor God in spe- 
cial upon the Sabbath, ns shall hereafter appear. 

Thttit 203. It is a monkish speculation of M. Broad to dis- 
tinguish BO of the Sabbath in unm myttico and geniu littrali, as 
that the mystical sense, like the lean and ill-favored kine in Pha- 
raoh's dream, shall eat up the literal sense, and devour God's 
blessed and sweet Sabbath ; for the Lord never meant by the 
Sabbath such a mystical thing as the resting from the works of 
the old man only every day, no more than, when he commands 
us to labor six days, he permits us to labor in the works of the 
old man all the six days. 

Tketii 204. For though it be true that we are to rest every 
day from sin, yet it will not hence follow that every day is to be 
a Christian's Sabbath, and that no one day in seven is to be set 
apart for iL For, 1. Upon tlie game ground Adam should have 
hud no Sabbath, because lie was to rest from sin every day. 
2. The Jews also, before Christ, sliould have rejected all Sab- 
baths, because they were then bound to rest from ein as well as 
Christians now. 3. Upon the same ground there must be no 
days of fasting or feasting under Ihe gospel, because we are to 


^H Tim MonALiTv uF nir. saI'-bath. 183 

^v fwl from sin everj-Jny, and In be joyful and lliankful every dfiy. 
^V I know eouiu libertinee of late eay so ; but upou the GBine 
™ gruuud iherc ehould have been none under tlic law neither, for 
Ihey were llien buunti as well as wc lo faiit from sin. 4. Hence 
neitiic-r sliouli! any man pay his debts. becauGe he is bound to be 
paying bis debt of love lo God and all men every day. 5. Ilenee 
also DO man should pray at any time in hie family, nor alone by 
himself solemnly, because a Cliristiiin is bound to pray continu- 
nlly. And, indeed, I did not think ttiat any forehead n>uld I>c so 
bold and brazen as to make sncb a conclusion. But while I was 
writing this, came to my lietiring concerning a seaman who came 
to these coasts from London, miserably deluded with princiiiles 
of Familism, who, when an honest New English man, his cabin 
le, invited him lo go along and pray together, considering their 
essiiies, he would professedly refuse to do it, upon this 
ground, viz., Dost not pray continually 't Why then should we 
pray together now ? 6. The commandment of the Sabhaih dolh 
SOI therefore press us to rest only from such works us are in 
themselves evil, which God allows al no time ; hut from the works . 
of our callings and weekly cmploymcnU, nbidi are in them- 
■elves lawful and of necessity to be attended on at some lime. 
It is therefore a loose and groundless assertion to make every day 
' under the gospel to be a Christian's Sabhaih daj~. 

Thetis 205. To think that the Sabhaih was proper to the 
Jews, becanse they only were able to keep and exactly observe 
the lima of it, being shut up (as ]U. Primrose sailb) within a 
Utile comer of the earth, and that the Gentiles therefore are not 
bound lo it, because they can noi exactly oliserve the time of it, 
in icvcml quarlfrs of Ilie earth so for distant, is a very fcehle 
tu^ument; for why might not all nations exactly observe iho 
rising and setting of the sun, according to several climates hy 
vfaich tlie natural day, and so this of a Sabbath, is exactly meas- 
■red? and which God haih appointed (without limitation to any 
hour) lo be ihe bounds of tlie Sabbath as it sooner or later rises 
or s«ls ? Were not the mariners of the men of Judali bound to 
' observe the seventh day in all the several coasts where Ihey 
made their voyages ? Did God limit lliem lo the rising or Eelting 
■nn of Judea only ? What color is there to think thus of theiu ? 
Indeed, it is true that, in some habitable northern coasts, the sun 
it not out of sight some months logelber ; but yet this is cerlain, 
if they know huw the year spends into months, they can exactly 
reckon the weeks of those months, and ibereibre can exacily IcU 
Tou the days uf wbich those weeks consi.'^t, and lliercfore llicy 
uve their exact rules and menauret to know east and west, the 

place of the sunri^ing and eun^^etting, and conseqiientljr to know 
the Saliliatli dajrs; uud yet, if tbey Bhonld not exactly know it, 
their will to do it is herein (as in other tilings) accepted of God> 

TKuii 20C. If this truth concerning the morulily of the 
Sabbath did depend upon the leBttmony of ancient writers, it 
were easy to bring them up here in ihe rear, not wiihafnnding the 
flourishes of the great historian : but this haih been done suffi- 
ciently by others, nor doth it suit our scope who nim nt only the 
clearing up of the meaning of the fourth command, whicli roust 
stand firm ; the heaven and earth shall fall asunder ; the Lord 
will rnlher waste kingdoms, and the whole Christian world, with 
fire and swoE^, than let one tittle of his law perish ; the land 
must rest when God's Sabbiitha can not, (Lev. xxvi. 3'! ;) and 
although I wish the ministry of Christ Jeeus a L'oniely and com- 
fbrlable maintenance, as may richly testify his people's abundant 
tliunkfulnesB for the feet of those his messengers as preacii 
peace, ret melhinks it argues great blindness in those men who 
plead for a morality in u tenth pig, or sheaf of com, and yet 
will acknowledge no morality in a seventh day. 

T^etit 207. I shall therefore conclude and shut up these 
things with answer to M. Carpenter's and Heylin's ii-giixa, an 
argimient against the Siibbatli, which they have gone compassing 
the whole earth and heavens about to find out, never heard of 
ml their days, and now it is brought to light. I would not make 
inirth with it, (as some have done, and left the scruple untouched,) 
but in words of sobriety, and seriousness, and plainness. If the 
Sabbath, or Lord's day, (say they,) be moral, then the moral law 
is subject lo manifold mutalion, because the nations issuing out 
of Noah's ark spread themselves from thence over the face of 
the whole earth, some farlher, some at a shorter distance, where- 
by, changing the longitude with their habitation, they must of 
necessity alter the differences of times ; neither can any exactly 
and precisely observe any one day, either as it was appointed by 
Hoses, or as it was instituted by Christ's apostles afterward, by 
reason of the manifold transportation of colonies, and transmi- 
gration of nations, from one region into another, whereby the 
timea must necessarily be supposed lo vary, "tho answer is 
ready and easy, viz. : Although the nations issued out of Noah's 
ark, and spread themselves over the face of Ihe whole earth, 
tome farther, some at a shorter distance, and thereby changing 
their longitude, altered the dilFerences of time, some beginning 
the day sooner, some later, yet they might observe Ihu same 
day ; for the day is regulated and measured by the sun, and the 
sua comes to one meridian sooner or later than to onolher, and 

'Itenre Ihe day begins in one place sooner or Inter than in another, 
~ so the beginuing of the liaj is (respeclively) variccl, but yet 
Ae day itdelf remains unuliangeably the same : what lliough our 
Muiilrymen in Old England begin their Sabbath above foar 
hours before us in New, they beginning at tlieir evening, we at 
r evening ; yet bolb may and tlo observe the same day : alt 
nalions are bound to keep holy a seventh part of time ; but that 
time must be regulated by the sun, neither is it necessary that 
Ae^ame individual twenty-fonr hours should be observed by all, 
but the liame day as it is measured by the sun in this or that 
place, which may be^n in places more easterly many hours 
sooner than in other places more westerly ; a day is not prop- 
erly time, bm a measure of time, and therefore the manif<^ld 
transportation of colonies, and transmigration of nations, from 
Me region unto another, hinder not nt all, but that they mny ex- 
■ctly and precisely observe the same day, which was instituted 
■nd appointed ; for although the time of the beginning of the 
day be varied, yet the day itself is not, can not be varied or 

Now, whereas they say, that if any man should travel tbe 
world about, a whole day must needs be varied, and if two men 
from the same place travel, the one eastward, the other west- 
ward, round about the earth, and meet in the same place again, 
.0Ky Htiall find that he who hath gone eastward hath gotten, and 
ihe other going westward hath lost, a day in their account ; yea, 
'ttie Hollanders, after their du^oovery of Prelum de Mayre, 
coming home to their country, found, by comparing their ac- 
counts with their countrymen at home, tliat they had lost a day, 
^viug gone westward, and so compassed the earth round. I 
aniwer, what though a Inivelor varying perpetually tbe quantity 
|«f lite day, by reason of his continual moving with or against the 
Mn's ranlion, in time get or lose a day in his account ; is tbe day, 
dKi^forc, of its own nature variable or cluingeable? God hath 
plkcud the sun in the Krinameol, and appointed it for times and 
MOHons, and in ^t>ccial for the regulating of the day ; and as the 
■notion of the sun is constant, so there is an ordinary and constant 
Hiccession of days without variation ; lor unless tbe sun's course 

»be changed, tbe day which is regulated by it is not cliangod. 
Kow, if any shall travel round about the world, and so anticipate 
«r second the diurnal motion of the sun, and thereby varying 
continually thu quantity of the day, at length gain or lose a day, 
According to tlieir reckoning, they may and ought then to correct 
their accounts. Gregory XIII., having found the Julian year to 
be loo grvU for tbe motion of tba sun, cut off ten days, by wtiioh 



the equinoxea and solEtices hnd anticipated their proper places, 
(hat go the year might be kept at Its riglit periods ; and ta it not 
ftS good reason that a traveler who, oppoaing the sun's diurnal 
course, contiiiunUy shortens somewhat of his day, till at Ust in 
compaseing the earlh round he gains a irhole daj, should cut off 
ia his fucounts thai day wliii-h he hath gained by anticipating the 
Ban's course, and so rectify liis account of the day ? For in every 
tvgion and counlry whai?oever, and howsoerer situate, as men 
■re to begin the day at ihnt time whca ttie day naturally begins 
ib that place, so likewise ihey are to reckon and count the days 
U tliey ore there regulated and ordered by the sun, and that 
should be the first or second day of the week to them which is 
nalurally the first or second day of the week lo that place where 
they are; and thus their doubts arc easily salisfied when they 
return to the ])lace whence Ihey first came. But if any shall say, 
it is very difficult for men thus lo rectify their accounts, and lo 
observe that time in every place which was at first instituted, 
and it is probable that the nations in their several transmi- 
grations and transportations never used any such course, the 
answer is obvious : men's weakness, or neglect and carelessness to 
do what they ought, ia not a suflicient argument to prove that not 
to be their duty ; l>esideg, it is not probable that any nations were 
thus put to it to travel round about the whole earth, (although 
some particular persons in this later age have sailed round about 
it,) and therefore could not vary a whole day possibly ; but going 
Bome eastward, some westward, some southward, some northward, 
they spread themselves over the face of the whole earth, some at 
A shorter, some at a farther distance, and so some began the day 
sooner, some later, and yet all (as hath been shown) might ob- 
serve the same day. The morality of the Sabbath is not built 
Vpon astronomical or geometrical principles, and therefore it can 
not fall by any shady speculations so far-fetched. 


7^«( 1. Tub cljangc o[ this day from iho last (o the iii^t 
if ihe week, altliough it be confirmed by an ancient custom, jet 
the true reason and grounds of so great a change are not so fully 
knowD, Bscred writings not k> expressly setting down (as it doth 
in some things of less concernment) the causes hereof. And 
many of the argumenU heaped up and multiplied by some for 
tlio change of it, which may seem of rery great weight, while 
they want an adversary at the other end of the scale lo balance 
them : yet upon sod examination and search into them, they 
prove loo light, and consequently occasion the tempialion of 
scrupling the truth and Talidity of others more clear. We are 
therefore wiih more wariness and humility of mind to search 
into this comroverey, and with much thankfulness and. modesty 
to accept that little light which* God gircs us in greater, as well 
ns of much light nhidi he is pleased to lend us in smaller mai- 
lers. PmcimaT operlii, exerceraur obtcurii, was his speech loiig 
bince concerning the Scriptures, There is no truth so clear but 
man's loose wit can invent and mint many pernicious caviU 
agitinst it; and therefore in those things which f^hine forth with 
less evidence, it is no wonder if it ca^ts such blots and stains 
ofion ibem as lliftt they can scarcely be discerned, yH magit 
inimieam ttrilatt, acumine nimio. We should therefore bo wise 
with sobriety, and remember that in this and such like contro- 
versies, the Scriptures were not written to answer all the scru< 
plea and objections of cavilers, but to satisfy and stablish the 
consciences of poor believers. And verily, when I meet with 
»uch like speeches and objections as these, viz.. Where is it ex- 
pressly Kud that the old Subbalh is abrogated? and what one 
scripture is there in the New TesUment decbring expressly that 
the Lord's day is substituted and put in its room 'f 1 can not from 
such expressions but think and fear that the ignorance uf this 


change in some doth not Bgiriiig so much from defiuienej and 
wiint of light on God's pari, but nwlier from perverseness on 
man's pari, which will not see nor own the truth, because it is 
not revenled and disjiensed after that mannei' and lashion of 
CApre^^ion as man's wit and fantasy would hnre it. Like 
Nuainan, who, because llie prophet went not about the cure of 
bis IcpnH'j' in thnt way and fashion which he vrould have bim, 
did not thi^refore (for a time) see that way of cure which God 
Itud revealed to bim. For the Holy Ghost is not bound to wiite 
all the prineiples of religion umler commonplace hcadii, nor to 
«iy expressly. In ihia place of Scripture you may see the old 
8abbaih abrogated, and the new ineiituted ; tor we find no such 
kind of expressions concerning Paul's epi^tle^, and many bookd 
nf Scripture, that this or that epistle or book is canonical, whicli 
yet we know to be so by other evidences. We know, also, that 
the Holy Ghost, by brief hints of truth, gives occasion of largo 
oomnicnts, and by writing about other matters tajigiiam aliud 
agtnt. it brings forth lo light, by the by, rcvel^on» of great con- 
, corument, which it saw meet purposely in that maniier to make 
known. And as in many other things it hutb thuH done, so es- 
pecially in this of the Sabbath. So that if our hearts, like locks, 
were fitted to God's key, they would be soon opened to see 
thoroughly the difficulties of this point : which I confess, of all 
practical points, hath been most full of knots and difiiculties to 
my own weakness. 

T^mit % To make apostolical unwritten Inspirations, notified 
ftnd made known in their days to the churches, to be the cause 
of the change of the day, is lo plow with a Popish heifer, ami 
to cost that anchor on which deceivers use to rely, and by which 
thoy hope lo save themselves when they know not how other- 
wbc to defend their falsehoods. 

77ie*it 3. To make ecclesiastical custom, established lirst by 
the imperial law of Conslanline, to be the foundation of the 
ehange, is to make a prop for prelacy, and a step to Popery, and 
to open A gap to all human inventions. For if it be in the church's 
power to appoint the greatest holy day, why may not any other 
rile and ceremony bo imposed al^o ? And if it be free lo observe 
this day or not, in respect of itself, because it wants a divine 
institulioii, and yet necessary to observe it, in respect of the 
ehurch's custom and constitution, (as some pretend.) why may 
not the church's commandment be a rule of obedience in a 
thousand things ehie as well as in this? and so introduce will 
wurvhip, and to ^erve God afier the tradition of men, which God 


Theii* 4. The observation of the first day of the week for 
the Clirislifui S»bbath ariselb from the force of the foiirtli com' 
maiidmenl, as Btrongl/ as the observation of the media cultia, 
or means of worship, now under the New Testament, doth from 
the force of the second commnndment ; only let this be supposed, 
that the day is now changed, (as we sliall hereafter prove,) as 
also that the worship itself is changed by divine institution ; for 
gospel institutions, when the/ be appointed by divine sovereign 
authority, yet ihey may then be observed and practiced by virtue 
of some moral law. The gospel appointed new sacraments, but 
we are to use them by virtue of tlie second commnnduient ; so 
heru the gospel appoints a new seventh day for the Sabbath, but 
it Htands by virtue of the fourth commandment, and therefore the 
olwervalion of it is not an act of Christian liberty, but of Clirig- 
ti;in duty, imposed by divine authority, and by virtue of the 
moral law. 

neiit 5. For. the morality of the fourth commandment (as 
liaih been proved) being preserved in observing not that Sabbuth 
only, nor yet a Sabbath merely when man sees meet, but in ob- 
serving llie Sabbath, i. e., such a Sabbuth as is determined and 
apininted of God, (which may therefore be cither the lirsi or lost 
si' tlie seven dayt,) hence it is, that the first of the seven, if it be 
determined and instituted of God under the New Testament, 
Hn»ctb e(]ually from the fourth commandment, as the last sevenili 
day did under the Old Testament ; and tlierefore it is no such 
piaruiam, nor deluiion of the common people, as Mr. Brabourn 
would make it, to put the title of the Lord's Sabbath upon the 
Lord's day, and to call it the Subbatb day ; for if it be bom out 
of the same womb the first seventh waa, il" it arise (I mean) from 
the same commandment, " liemembcr to keep holy tbe Sabbath 
day." why may it not bear the name of the Sitbbuih now, as Iho 
lirijt bom did in former times ? 

Theiit 6. If tbe Lord would have man to work eix days 
together, according to his own example, and the morality of the 
fourth commandment, that so a seventh day determined by him- 
self might be observed, hence il is tliat neitlier two Sabbaths in a 
week can stand with the morality of the fourth commandment, nor 
yet could the former Sabbaih be justly changed iulo any other 
lUv tluui into the first day of the week ; the first day could not 
belong to the week before, for then there should be eiglit daya 
in a week, and if il did belong to the week following, then (if we 
suppow that tlie second had l>een the Sabbuth) there must be 
one working day, vix., the first day to go before it, and five work- 
ing dayi BKer il, and so there should not uur cuuld not be six 

working days continued logelLer, that Ihe sevenlli might b 
Lord's, according lo ihe inoralily of the fourth commandment. 
And hence it is, that no human or ecclesiastical power cau change 
llie Sabbath lo what day of the week thej please, from the first, 

7K«m 7. It should not seem an uncouth phrase, or a hard 
saying, lo call the first day of the week a seventh, or the serenth ' 
day ; for though U be the first absolutely in order of existence 
from the creation, yet relatively in way of relation, and in respect 
of the number of seven in a week, it may he invested with the 
name and title of a seventh, even of such a seventh aa may law- 
fully be crowned and anointed to be the Sabbath day; for look, 
as Noah, though he waa the first in order of years, and dignilj 
of entrance into the ark, yet he is called the eighth, (2 Pet ii. 5,) 
in that he was one of them (as the learned observe) qui oelona- 
rium nuntentm perjiciebani, or who made up the number of eight; 
so it is in res])ect of the first day, which in divers respects may 
be cnlled the first, and yet the seventh also. Mr. Braboum's 
argument therefore is of no solidiry, who goes about to prove the 
Christian Sabbath to be no Sabbath, because "that Sabbath 
which the foui-th commandment enjoins is called the seventh 
day ; " but all the evangelbts call the Lord's day the first day of 
the week, not the seventh day. For he should remember that the 
same day in divers respects may be called the first day, and yet 
the seventh day ; for in respect of its natural existence and be- 
ing, it may be and is called the lirst day, and yet in respect of 
divine use and application, it may be and Is called Ihe seventh 
day, even by virtue of the fourth commandment, which is the 
I.ord's day, which is confessed to be the first day. 

Thttit 8. For although in tmmtro numerarUe, (as they call 
it,) i. e., in number numbering, there can be but one seventh, 
which immediately follows the number six, yet in nuinero Hu?n«- 
ralv, i. e., in number numbered, or in things which are numbered, 
(as are tbe days of the week,) any of the seven may be so in way 
of relation and proportion. As, suppose seven men stand to- 
gether ; take the last man in order from the other six, who stand 
about him, and he is the seventli ; so again, take the first in order, 
and set him apart from the six who stand below him, and if the 
number of them who are taken from him make up the number of 
six, he then may and must necessarily be called the seventh. 
Just thus it is in the days of the week ; the first Sabbath irom 
the creation might be called the seventh day in respect of the six 
days before it; and ibis first day of the week may be called the 
HVenth day also, in respect of the six working days together aflw 


It That may be callc<) the last seventli, this ihc BrsI seventlt, 
without anv absurdity of account, which some would iinagioe ; 
Md if this first day ol' the week is called (hu eighth day, iiecord- 
iag to Ezekii.'re prophecy of evangelical tiroes, and lib reckoning 
onward from the creniJon, (Eeek. xliii. 27.) why may it not then 
in other respects put on the name of a seventh day also? 

The$it 9. The reason why the Ix>rd should depose the last 
•erenlh, iuid exali and crown the first of seven to be the day of 
the Christian Sabbath, is not go well considered, and therefore 
to be here narrowly examined. For as for thofe eastern Chrix- 
tions, who, in the primitive limes, oliscrved two Sabbaths in a 
week, the Jewish and tiie Christian, doubtless their milk sod over, 
icd Uieir seal went beyond the rule. The number of Jew§ who 
were bebevers, and yet, too, too zealous of their old customs, we 
know did fill those places in their dispersion, and before more than 
llie western and more r«moie parts, and therefore they might more 
powerfully iofect those io the east; and they, to giunu- keep them, 
' night more readily comply with them. Let us dierefore see 
bto the reasons of ihb change from one seventh onto another. 

Thrtit 10. The good wiU of Him who is Lord of the Sab- 
Mlb, is the first ellicienl and primary cause of the institution of a 
WW Sabbath ; but the resurrection of Christ, bein|; upon the first 
3>y of the week, (Mark xvi. 9,) is the secondary, moral, or moving 
•Skuse hereof: the day of Christ's resurrection being Cbrisl's 
Joyful day for his people's deliverance, and the world's restitution 
d new creation, it ia no wonder if the Lord Christ appoint it, 
d the apostles preach and publish it, and the primitive Chris- 
tians observe it as their holy and joyful day of rest and consola- 
lioo. For some notable work of God upon A day being ever tbe 
"al cause of sanctifying ihe day. hence the work of redemp- 
tion being finished upon the day of Christ's resurrection, and it 
rlieiiig ihu most glorious work that ever was, and wherein Christ 
was first most gloriously manifeiiled to have rested from it, (Kom. 
i 4,) hence the Lord Christ might have good cause to honor this 
day above all others ; and what other cause there should be uf 
tite public solemn assemblies in the primitive churches, upon the 
fint tiny in the week, than this glorious work of Cbrisl's resur- 
rection upon the same day which began their great joy fur the 
rising of tlie Sun of Righteousness, is scarce imaginable. 

Thai* 11. No action of Christ dotb of itself sanctify any time : 

tor if it did, why should we not then keep as many holy days 

•very year as we find holy actions of Christ recordcil in Scriji- 

:, as the superstitious crew of blind Papists do at this day? 

. if Go<l, who is ihe Lord of time, shall sanctify any such day 

or time iftierein ittiy such ttrrlion is done, such a daj then is to be 
kepi holy ; and therefore if the will of God hath sanctified the 
day of Christ's resurrection, we may lawfully sanctify ibe same 
day ; and therefore Mr. Braboum doth us wrong, as if we made 
the resurrection of Christ merely to be the cause of the change 
of this day. 

netit 12. Why the will of God should honor the day of 
Christ's resurrection aa holy, rather than any other day of his 
incarnation, birth, passion, ascension : It is this; because Christ's 
rising day was his resting or Sabbath day, wherein he first 
entered into his rest, and whereon his rest began. For the Sab- 
bath, or rest day, of the Lord our God, only can be our rest day, 
according to the fourth commandment. Hence the day of God's 
rest from the work of creation, and the day of Christ's rest from 
the work of i^edemplion, are only fit and capable of being our 
Subbntlis. Now, the Lord Christ, in the day of his incarnation 
and birth, did not enier into his rest, but rather made entrance 
into his labor and sorrow, who then began the work of humilia- 
tion, (Gal. ir. 4, 5 ;) and in the day of his passion, he was then 
under the sorest part and feeling of his labor, in bitter agonies* 
upon the cross and in the garden. And hence it ia that none of 
those days were consecrated to be our Sabbath, or rest days, 
which were days of Christ's labor and sorrow j nor could the 
day of liis ascension be fit to be made our Sabbath, because, 
although Christ then and thereby entered into his place of rest, 
(the third heavens,) yet did he not then make his first entrance 
into his estate of rest, which was in the day of his resurrection ; 
the wisdom and will of God did therefore choose this day above 
any other to be the Sabbath day. 

7%«m 13. Those that go about (as some of late have done) 
to make Christ's ascension day the ground of our Sabbalh day, 
had need be fearful lest they lose the truth and go beyond it, 
while they aiTecl some new discoveries of it, which seems to be 
the case here. For though Christ at his ascension entered into 
his place of rest, yet the place is but an accidental thing to 
Christ's rest itself, the stale of which was began in the day of his 
resurrection ; and therefore there is no reason to prefer that 
which is but accidental above that which is most aubstwlial ; or 
the day of entrance into the place of his rest in bis asceni>ion 
before the day of rest in his resurrection ; beside, it is very un- 
certain whether Christ ascended upon the first day of the week; 
wo are certain that he arose then ; and why we should build such 
a vast change upon »u uncerlainly I know not. And yet sup- 
pose that, by deduction and strength of wit, it might be found out, 

■ TUt ov Titi: sabdatu. 193 

■ jet we see not llie lialj (ihoat expressly setting it down, vis., 
KtltBt Christ ascended upon ilie drst day of tlie week, which, if 
I -ke had iDtended to have mode the ground of our Cbristiiwi Sab- 
■Mth, be would surely have done ; the lii^t dttj in the week-being 
■ever accounted llio Lord's day in Holy Scriptures ; and no 
I wber first day do wo find mentioned on which be ascended, but 
K«tily on that day wherein he aro» from the dead. 

K 7%Mt« II. And took, OS Christ waa a Lumb slain from the 
rnundotion of the world raerlloriously, but not aclutilly, so he 
I'iraa also risen again in the like manner from the fouudntion of 
Vthe world meritoriously, but not aciuully. Hence it is, llmt look, 

■ H God the Father actually instituted no Sabbalh day, until he 
I Iwd actually (tni^lied bid work of creation, so neither was it meet 
r Had thjij d»y should be changed until Christ Jeaus had actually 
W Aniitheil (and not meritoriously only) the work of redemption or 
I Kllorslion ; and hence it is that the cburuh. before Christ's 
I floming, night have good reason (o sanclity that day, which was 
L {natiluted upon the actual finishing of the work of creation, and 

■ yet miglit have do reason lo observe our Christian Sabbath ; the 
1 Work of restoration and new creation, and rest from it. Dot 
rbeiag Ihcti so much as actually begun. _^ 

■ Thetit 15. Whether our Saviour appointed that first indi-t 
Bgidaal day of hie resurrection to be the first Christian Sabbath \ 
^Ht Bomewntu ditBcult lo determine ; and 1 would not tie knots, 
Kind leave them for others to unloose. This only I aim at : th at J 
B|d>lu>ugh the first individual day of Christ's resurrection should 
E')MH pusHibly be the first individual Sabbath, yet still the resur- 
I nciion of Christ is the ground of the institution of the !jabbath, 

■ which one consideration dosheth all those devices of some men's 
m Jwnds, who puzzle their readers with many intricacies and dilfi- 
I mIiios, in showing that the first day of Christ's resurrection could 
I MI he the first Sabbath, and tbeuce would infer that the day of 
I bis resurrection was not the ground of the institution of the 
W, Sal>l>atb, which inference is roost fuUe ; for it was easy with 
I Christ to make that great work on this day to be the ground of 
I ttc institution of it, some time aller that work was past. 

I n«*it 16. The sin and fall of man having defaced and 
I Ipoitad (tie jure, though not de fuclo) the whole work of crea- 
I tiwi, as the learned Bishop Lake well observes, it was nut so 
I Beet thcrefure that the Sabbath should be ever kept in respect 
I tt tliat work, but rather in respect of this new creation or resto- 
l<Mion uf all things by Christ, after the actual accomplishment 
k>ti>fr(!«f in the day of his resurrection. But look, as God the 
ll^ather having created the world in six days, he rested therefore 
\ voi» III. 17 


and EanttiSed the seventh, so this work being spoiled and 
marred by man's sin. and ihe new creation being finished and 
ended, the Lord thcrefoi-u rested ibe first day of the week, and 
therefore Mini;lifii.-d ii. 

TJieiii 17. The fourth coniniandmeut gives in the reasoti 
why God Banctilied the sevenih day from ihe creation, viz, : 
bei^use God rested on that day, and, as it is in Ex. xizi. 17, 
was refnished in it, that ia, took a complacency and delight in 
bis work so done and so finished. But the sin of man in falling 
from his first creation made God repent that ever he made man, 
(Gen. vi.,) and consequently the world for man, and therefore it 
took off that complacency or rest and refreshing in thia bis work ; 
if, tlterefore, Ihe Lord betake himself to work a new work, a new 
creation or renovation of all things in and by his Son, iu which . 
he will forever re^l, may not the day of hia rest be then jastty 
changed into the first of seven, on which day his rest in his new 
work began, whereof he will never repent? If the Lord vary 
his rest, may not he vary the time and day of it ? Nay, must 
not the time and day of our rest be varied, because the ground 
of God's rest in a new work is changed ? 

TXem's 18. As it was no necessary duly, tliereforfl, perpetu- 
ally to observe that seventh day wherein God first rested, because 
his i^st on that day is now change<l, so also it is not necessary 
orderly to observe those six days of labor, wherein he first 
labored and built the world, of which, for the sin of man, he is 
said to have repented ; yet notwithstanding, though it be no 
necessary duly to observe those particular six days of labor, and 
that sevenih of rest, jel it is a moral duty (as hath been proved) 
to observe six days tor labor, and a seventh for rest ; and hence 
it follows that, although the Lord Christ's rest on the day of hia 
resurrection (the first day of the week) might and may justly 
be taken as a ground of our rest on the same day, yet his 
labor in the work of redemption three and thirty years and up- 
ward, all the days of his life and humiliation, could not nor 
can not justly be made the ground or example of our labor, so as 
we must labor and work thirty-three years together before wo 
keep a Sabbath the day of Christ's rest. Because, although God 
could alter and change the day of rest without infringement 
of the morality of the fourth commandment, yet he could not 
make the example of Christ's labor thirty-three years together 
the ground and example of our continuance in our work, with- 
out manifest breach of that moral rule, vir. : that man shall 
have sis days together for liilwr, and the seventh for rest. For 
man may rest the first day of the week, and withal observe six 



^B days for labor, and so keep the fourth commnndraent; but he 
^V can not labor thirty-three years together, and then keep a Sabbath, 
^ without apparent breach of the same commainlineni i and there- 
fore that argument of Master Braboum against our Chriatian 
Sabbath melts into vatiity, wherein he urgetb an equity of the 
change of the days of our labor, " either three days only together, 

>(a& Christ did lie in the grave,} or thirty-three years togethtir, (aa 
be did all the daya of bb humiliation,) in case we will moke a 
change of the Sabbath, from the change of the day of Christ's 
rest." And yet I confess ingenuously with him, that if the Lord 
hod not instituted the lirHt day of the week to be our Christian 
Sabbath, all these and such like arguings and reasonings were 
invalid to prove a change ; for man's reason hath nothing to do 
to change days without divine appointment and institution : these 

I tiling only I meniiou why the wisdom of God might well alter 
fbe day. The proofs that he hath changed it shall follow in 
due place. 
Tllen't 19. The resurrection of Christ may therefore be one 
ground, not only of the sanctilication of the Christian Sabbath, 
but also a sufficient ground of the abrogation of the Jewish 
Sabbath. For, first, the greater light may darken the less and 
k greater work (as the restoration of the world above the 
ereatioa of it) tnay overshadow the less. (Jer. xxiii. 7-8 ; Ex. 
zii. 2.) ' Secondly, man's sin spoiled the firat re^t, and therefore 
tile day of it might be justly abrogated. For the horrible wrath 
of God had been immediately punred upon man, (as might be 
proved, atid as it was upon the lapsed angels,) and consequently 
npon all creatures for man's sake, if Christ bad not ^ven the 
Father rest, for whose sake the world was made, (Rev. iv. 11,) 
and by whose means and mediation the world continues as now 
It doih. (John vi. 22.) 

Tb»iit 20. Yet although Christ's resurrection be one ground 
not only of the institution of the new Sabbath, but also of the 
abro^Uion of the old, yet it is not the only ground why the old 
was abrogated ; for (as hath been shown) there was some type 
dExed to the Jewish Sabbath, by reason of which there was 
jnM cause to abrogate, or rather (as Calvin calls it) to transUte 

Ithe Sabbath to another day. And, therefore, this dasheth 
•notber of Mr. Itraboum's dreams, who argues the continuancs 
of the Jewish Sabbath, because there is a possibility for all 
Mtions still to observe iu " For," saith he, " can not we in Eng- 
land as well as they at Jcnisalcm remember that Sabbath ? 
Secondly, rest in it. Thirdly, keep it holy. Fourthly, keep the 
whole ijay holy. Fifthly, the Inst of Mren. Sixthly, and all 

this tn imitation of God, Could no nation (sailb he) besides 
the Jews observe these six things ? " Ye», verily, that they could 
in roapect of natural ability ; but I he questiun i» nut what men may 
or might do, but wliat they ouglil to do, and sliould do. For 
besides the chnnge of God's rest through the work or the Son, 
there was & lypu affixed lo that Jewish Sabbath, for which cause 
it may justly vanish ot Christ's death, as well as other types, ia 
respect of the alfixed type, which was but accidecUil ; and yet 
be continued and preserved in another day, being originidly and 
essentially moral. A Sabbath was instituted in parodiee, equally 
honored by God in the decalogue with alt other moral laws, 
foretold to continue in the days of the gospel, by Ezekiel and 
Isaiah, (Exek. xliii. ult. ; Is. Ivi. 4-6,) and commended by Christ, 
who bida his people pray that their flight may not b« in the 
winter or Sabbath day, as it were enay to open these places 
against all cavils ; and therefore it is for substance moral Yet 
the word Sabbatism, (Ileb. iv. 9,) and the apostle's gradation 
from yearly holy days to monthly new moons, and from ihem to 
weekly Sabbaths, which are called "shadows of things to come," 
(Col. ii. 16,) seems strongly to argue some type affixed to those 
individual Sabbaths, or Jewish seventh days; and hence it is, 
perhaps, that the Sabbath ia set among moral laws in the deca- 
logue, being originally and essen^ally moral, and yet is set 
among ceremonial feast days,. (Lev- xxiii. 2, 3.) because it is ac- 
cidentally typicaL And Iherelbre Mr. Braboum need not rmse 
such a duEt, and cry out, " O, monstrous I very strange 1 what a 
mingle-mangle I what an hotchpotch have we here I wliat a con- 
fusion and jumbling of things so fur distant, as when morals and 
ceremoniab are here mingled together 1 " No. verily, we do not 
make the fourth commandment essentially ceremonial ; but being 
accidentally so, why may it, notwithstanding this, be mingled 
among the rest of tie morals? Let one solid reason be given, 
but away with words. 

TMent 21. If the qucslitm be, What type is affixed ond an- 
nexed to the Subbath ? I think il ditficaU lo find out, although 
man's wanton wit can easily allegorize and readily frame imagi- 
nations enough in this point. Some think it typified Christ's 
rest in the grave; but I fear this will not hold, no more than 
many other Popish conjectures, wherein their allegorizing poe- 
tilera abound. Bullinger and some others think that it waa typ- 
ical in respect of the peculiar sacriftceB annexed to it, which 
sacriiices were types of Christ. (Num. sxviii. 9.) And although 
much might he said for this against that which Mr. Brnbourn 
replies, yet I fee nothing cogent in tliis ; for the multiplying of 


eacrifiees (whirh were partes cuHus imtiluli) on lliia day proves 
rather a specialty of worshiping God more aliunilttnlly on this 
diiy timn any ceremon lain ess in il ; for if ihe offering of socrilices 
merely should make a day cerenioiiial, why did it not raaka 
every day ceremonial in respect of every day's offering of the 
morning and evening sacriKce ? Some think that our rest 
upon the Sabbath {not God the Father's rest, as Mr. Bra- 
rn turns it) waa made not only a resemblance, but abo « 
type, of our rest in Clirist, of whicb tlie apostle speaks, (Heb. 
VI, 3,) wbicb is therefore called a Sabbatum, (ver. 9,) or keeping 
of a nabbaih, as ibe word «igni(i<.-s. What others would infer 
from this place to make the Sabbaili to be merely ceremonial, 
and what Mr. Brabourn would anst^er from hence, that it is not 
at all ceremonial, may both of them be easily answered here 
Kgain, as already they have been in some of the former theses. 
Some scruples I see not yet through, about this lest, enforce me 
herein to be silent, and therefore lo leave it to such as think they 
may defend it, as one ground of some ailiied type unto the Jew- 
iab Sabbath. 

Tketi* 2'2. Learned Junius goes before us herein, and points 
out the type affixed to that Sabbath. For besides the first insti- 
tution of it in [uu-adise, he makes two other causes, which be 
«dla accessory, or affixed and added to il, 1- One was eiviJit, 
or civil, that men and beosis might rest from their toilsome labor 
every week. 2. CereittoHtalii, or ceremonial, for their solemn 
oommemoration of their deliverance out of Egypt, which we 
know typified our deli vernnce by Christ. (DeuU v. 15.) Some 
ihink, indeed, that their deliverance out of Egypt was upon the 
8iiibbaih day ; but this I do not urge, because, though it be very 
probable, yet il is not certain ; only this is certain, that they 
were lo sanctify this day because of this their deliverance ; and 
H is certain this deliverance was typical of our deliverance by 
Christ : and henee it is certain that there was a type nffiited to 
this Sabbath ; and because the Scripture is eo plain and express 
in il, I um inclined to think the some which Junius dolb, thai 
tills is the type rather than any other I have yet heard of; 
■l^nst whicb I know many things may be objected ; only it may 
be sufficient lo clear up the place against that which Mr. Bro- 

Thetii 23. " The deliverance out of Egypt," sairb he, " is not 
■nt down as the ground of the institution of the Sabbath, but Oidy 

o the ob: 


Uie preface to the decalogui 
command, which, iratwiths landing. 

the obediei 

e general ii 
r every c 

: not ceremonial ; for God 

^ftilh, I am the Lor<l, nho brouglil tliee out of H^ypt ; thereroro 
keep thou lilt; tir^I, tiie Fcn>n(l, the [liinl, ihi? Iil>h, ih^ sixth, es 
well Oo tlie fourth ooiomundiiienl ; and therefore, nuilli he, we 
IDBJ make ererj coiniDBiidment ceremoniul as well as the Sab- 
bath, if the motive of deliverance out of Egypt makes Ihe Sab- 
bath to be po." Thb is tlie substance and sinews of hi» discourse 
herein ; and I confers it is true, tbeir deliverance out of Egypt 
was not the first ground of the institution of it, but God's rest 
after his six days' labor; yet it was such a ground as we ooiilend 
for, viz., a secondary, and an annexed or affixed ground. And 
that it was not a tnolive only to observe that day, (as it is in the 
preface to the decalogue,) but a superadded ground of it, may 
appear from this one consideration, viz., because that very ground 
on which the Lord urgeth the observation of the Sabbath in 
Ex. XX. 11 is wholly left out in Ihe repetition of the law, (E)eut> 
V. 15,) and tbeir deliverance out of Egypt put into the room 
thereof; for the grouml in Ex. xx. 1 1 is this : " Six days God 
made heaven and earth, and rested the seventh day and sancti- 
fied it ; " but instead of these words, and of this ground, we find 
other words put into their room, (Deut. v. 15:) "Iteraerober thou 
wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord brought 
thee out thence with a mighty hand ; therefore the Lord thy God 
commandeth thee to keep the Sabbath." Which seems to argue 
strongly that these words are not a mere motive, but anollier 
ground of the observation of rhe Sabbath. And why might not 
the general motive in the preface to the decalogue serve as a 
snfficient motive to the obedience of this commandment, if there 
was no more but a motive in these words of Deuteronomy ; and 
therefore I suppose this was also the ground and affixed tyjie unto 
the ,lewish Sabbath. 

7%#«i« 24. But Biill Ihediffirulty remains; for Mr. Brabourn 
wilt sny that those were but human reasons : but what ground is 
there* from Scripture fur the institution of another Sabbath, as 
well as the abrogation of the old ? which if it be not cleared, I 
confess this cause sinks: here, therefore, let it be again observed 
that we are not to expect such evidence from Scripture concern- 
ing this change, (as fond and humorous wit sometimes pleads for,) 
in tliii controversy, namely, that Christ should come with drum 
and trumpet, as it were, upon Mount Zion, and proclwm by word 
or writing, in so many express words, that the Jewish Sabbath 
is abrogated, and the first day of the week instituted in its room, 
to be observed of all Christians to the end of the world. . For it 
la not the Lord's manner so to speak in many other things which 
■ " \ kingdom, but as it were occasionally, or in way of 


^K.tatlorj. or epislle to some jiiirticular church or people ; and thus 

f^^ he doth coiicerninf; ihe Sabbath ; and yet Wisdom's mind is plain 

" mough to them ihnt undcrslujid. Nar do I doubt but that those 

scripnireB which arc sometimes alleged tor the change of the 

Sabbath, although at the first blush ihey may not seem to bear up 

the weight of this muse, yet being thoroughly considered, ihoy 

III are not only suilicient to stablish modest mind<i, but are also Huch 

|k ■■ may t-nmiofilieir, or slop the mouths eren of wranglers them- 

■ »lve«. 

11^ TKmi* 2.5. I do not think that the exercise of holy duties on 
a dity argues that such a day is the Christian Sabbmh day i for 
the apostles preached commouly upon the Jewish Sabbath, 
Mmetimes upon the tirsi day of the weelt also ; and therefore the 
bare exercise of holy duties on a day is no suindenl argument 

Idut either the one or the other is the Christian Sabbath ; for 
Aen there might be two Siibbnilis. yea. many Sabbaths, in a 
week, because there may he many holy duties in several days 
of the week, which we know is against the morality of the fourth 
Thcm't 2C. Vel, notwithatanding, although holy duties on a 
day do not argue such a day to be our Sabbath, yel that day 
which is set apart for Sabbath services rather than any other 
iMy, and u honored above any other day for that end, surely 
mch a day is the Christian Sabbath. Now, if it may appear 
that the lint day of the we^k was thus honored, then certainly 
it is to be accounted Ihe Christian Sabbath. 
ThtiU 27. The primitive pattern churches thus honored the 
flnt day of the week ; and what they practiced without reproof, 
diat the apostles (who plumed those churches) enjoined and 
preached unto them so to do ; nl least in such weighty mallt-rs 
as the change of days, of prcl'erring one before that other which 
the Lord hath bonoivd before ; ami what the apostles preached, 
that tlie Lord Jesus commanded, (Mntt. sxviii. 20,) " Go teach all 
nations tlial which I command you." Unless any shall think tliat 
ihe apostles sometimes went beyond iheir commission to teach 
tlial to others which Christ never commanded, which is blasphe- 
nous to imagine ; for though they might err in practice as men, 
and ■■ Peter did at Antioch, and Faul and BarDalma in their 
ronienlion, yet in their public ministry they were i[>ra1lib1y and 
cxiraordiaarily assisted, especially in such things which tlicy 
hold forth as patterns for after times i if, iberdbre, the primi- 
tive churches thns honored the finil day of the week alnve any 
other day for Sabbath services, then certainly they were Jnsti- 
taied and taught thus to do by tlie apostles approving of tbrm 





I from 


herein: nnd whal the aposllea tmiglil the ehiirrlies,l1iat llie Lord 1 
Jiisiis coinmiinded to ihe apostles. So that the approved practice 
of the churches herein shows whul was Ihe doctrine of the 
apostles; and tlie doctrine of the apostles shows what wae the 
command of Christ ; eo that the sanctiti cation of this first day 
the week is no human Iradilion, hut a divine iastitutioo f 
Christ himself. 

ITtttii 28. That the churches honored this da^ above any 
other shall appear in its place, as also that the n[toslleit com- 
manded them so to do. Yet. Mr. Primrose sailh, that this latter 
IB doubtful; and ilr. Ironftidc (not questioning the matter) falls 
off with another evasion, viz., that they acted herein not as apos- 
tles, but ns ordinary pastors, and consequently as fallible men, not 
only in commanding this change of the Sabbath, but in 'all other 
mailers of church govemmeni, (aowng which he reckons this of 
the Sabbath to be one,) which he ihinks were imposed according 
to iheir private wisdom, as most fit for those times, but not by 
any apostolical commission as concerning all times. But to im- 
agine that matters of church goTcrnmegt in the apostles' days 
were coals for the moon in respect of after time^, and that the 
form of it is mutable, (as he would have it,) I suppose will be 
digested by few honest and sober minds in these times, unless 
they be biased for a season by politic ends, and therefore herein 
I will not contend ; only it may be considered whether any pri- 
vate spirit could abolish that day, which from the beginning of 
the world God so highly honoi'ed, and then honor and advance 
another day above it, and sanctify it too (as shall be proved) for 
religious ecrvices. Could any do this justly but by immediate 
dispensation from the Lord Christ Jesus? And if the apostles 
did thus receive it immediately from Christ, and ao teach the ob- 
servation of it, they could not then teach it as fallible men and as 
private pastors, as he would have it ; a pernicious conceit, enough 
to undermine the faith of God's elect in many mailers more 
weighty than this of the Sabbalh. 

Thetit 29. To know when and where the Lord Christ in- 
etpucled his disciples concerning this change, is needle^t^s to inquire. 
It is suincient to believe this: thai what the primitive churches 
exemptarily practiced, that waa taught them by the agioslles uho 
planted Iheui ; and ihal whatsoever the apostles preached, the 
Lord Christ commanded, as hath been shown. Yd if the change 
of the Sabbath be a mailer appertaining to the kingdom of Crod, 
why should we doubt but that, within Ihe space of his forty days' 
abode with ihem after his resurrection, he then taught it them? 
fur it is expressly said, that he then taught them liuch things. 



T^ttii 30. Wlicn tlie aposiles came among the Jews, they 
preached usually ujxia ihe Jewish Sabbaih ; but thid wiu not be- 
CBuite ihey did tliink or appoint it herein lo be tlie Christian 
Ssbbatb, but that ihey might lake the fittest opportunity mid Bea- 
con of meeting with, and bo of preaching the goapel to, the Jews 
in those times. For what power had they lo call them to< 
geiher when they saw meet? Or, if they hud, yet was it raeet 
for them thus to do, before they were sufficiently instructed about 
God'ii mind for setting apart some other time ? And how could 
tbey be sufficiently and seasonably instructed herein without 
watching the advantage of those limes which the Jews thought 
were (he only Sabbaths ? The days of pentecoel, pas»over, and 
hours of prayer in the temple are lo be observed still as well as 
the Jewish Sabbath, if the apostles' preaching on their Sabbaths 
argues the continuance of them, as Mr. Brabourn argues ; for we 
know that they preached also, and went up purposely lo Jerusa- 
lem, at such times, to preach among them, aa well as upon the 
Sabbath days ; look therefore, as Ihey laid hold upon the days of 

Setitecost and pujisoTer as the Httcst seasons to preach to the 
ews, but not thinking that such feasts should still b« continued, 
M it is in iheir preaching upon the Jewish Sabbaths. 

Thftii 31. Nor did the apostles sinfully Judaize by preaching 
to the Jews upon their SuiiboLhs, (as Mr. Brabourn would infer;) 
supposing that their Sabbaths should not be still observed, they 
■bould then Judaize and afier ceremonies, (saith he,) and so build 
up those things whicii they labored to destroy. For suppose 
tbey did observe sucli days and Sabbaths as were ceremonial for 
K time, yet it being done not in conscience of the day, but in con- 
science of taking so fit a season to preach the goepel In, it could 
not nor can not be any sinful Judaizing, especially while then 
the Jews were not sufficiently instructed about the abolishing of 
those things. For Mr. Brabourn could not but know that all 
the Jewish ceremonies, being once the ap|)oinlment of God, were 
to have an honorable burial, and that therefore ihcy might be 
lawfully observed for a time among the Jews, until they were 
more fully instructed about them ; and hence Paul circumcised 
Timothy because of the Jews, (Acts xvi. 3,) and did olbor- 
wiie confuriu to them, that so he might win and gain the more 
upon tbcm ; and if Paul observed purposely a Jewish ceremony 
« eircumcision which was not necessary, nay, which was not 
lawful to b« observed among the Gentiles, (Gal. v. 2,) and yet he 

preach the goapel, which i 

itself a necessary duty, ui>0[) ii 

bwbb Snbbalh which fell oul occosiooally 10 him, and therefore 



might lawfully be observed for such an end among ihe Jews, 
which among the Gentilea might be unlawful ? Suppose there- 
fore tbtit lUe apostles might bave Inughl Iho'Jen-e from huu^ to 
house, (as Mr- Braboum argues against the neeesfiitj put upon 
the apostles to preach upon the Jewish Sabbath,) yet what reason 
or conscience was there to lose the opportunity of public preach- 
ing for the more plentiful gathering in of souls, when many are 
met together, and which may lawfully be done, and he contented 
only to seek their good in such private ways ? And wlrnt although. 
Paul did assemble the chief of the Jews together at Rome, when 
he was a prisoner, to acquaint them with civil matters about bis 
imprisonment, (Acts xxviii. 17 ;} yet had be power to do thus in 
all places where be came f or was it meet for him so to do ? Did 
not he submit the appointment of a sacred assembly to hear the 
word rather unto them than assume it to himself? (Acts xsv iii. 
23.) It is therefore false and unsound which Hr. Brahourn 
aflirras, vii., tliat Paul did preach on the Jewish Sabbath in con- 
science of the day, not merely with respect of the opportunity he 
then took from their own public meetings then to preach to 
tliem ; for (saith he) Paul had power to assemble them together 
, on other days. This, I say, is both false ; for he that wm so 
much spoken against among them might not in all pla'^e.s be able 
to put forth such a power; as also it is unsound ; for suppose he 
had such a power, yet whether it was so meet for him to put it 
forth in appointing other times, may be easily judged of by what 
hath been said. 

TTuiis 32. Nor is there a foundation here laid of making all 
other actions of the apostles unwarrantable or unimiiable, (as Mr. 
Braboum saith,) because we are not to imitate the apostles herein 
in preaching upon the Jewish Sabbaths. For no actions either 
of Christ or the apostles, which were done merely in respect of 
some special occasion, or special reason, are, ea tenui, or in that 
respect, binding to others ; for the example of Christ eating the 
Iiord'a supper only with men, not women, in an upper chamber, 
and toward the dark evening, doth not bind ua to exclude women, 
or not to celebrate in other places and times, because we know 
that these actions were merely occasioned in respect of special 
reasons, (as the eating of the passover with one's own family, 
Christ's family not consisting of women,) so it is here in respect 
of the Sabbath. Tlie apostles preaching upon the Jewish Sab- 
baths was merely occasional, by occasion of the public meetings 
(their liiiest lime to do good in) wliich were upon this and any 
other day. 

TTiettM 33. Now, although the Jews observing this day, the 


tposlles observed il among the Jen-g by preaching' among them, 
Tel we slinlt (iiid thai amoii}: the Cliristian Gentile churches and 
believers, (where no Judaism wna U> be eo mueJi as loleraled for " 

,) not any such dity vna thus observed ; nay, another day, 
the first day in the week, is honored and preferred by the apos- 
tles above any other day in ihe week for religious and Sabbath 
■ervictis. Fur, alihougb holy duties do not argue always a holy 
day, yet when we shail find the Hoiy Ghost single out and nomi- 
nate one particular day to be observed and honored rather than 
any other day, and rather tlian the Jewish seventh day itself, for 
Sobbttlb services and holy duties, this undeniably proves that duy 
to be the Chri^itian Sablmth, and this we shall make evident to 
be the Brut day of the week ; which one thing seriously minded 
(if proved) doth utterly subvert the whole frame and force of 
Mr. Brabcum's shady discourse for the observation of the Jewish 
SKbbaUi. and luoit effectually establisbech the Christian Sabballi. 
Hr. Brahoum therefore herein bestirs his wits, and tells us, on the 
contrary, that Paul preached not only to the Jews, but even unto 
Ihe Gentiles, upon tliis Jewish Siibbatli, rather than any other 
day: and fur this end brings double proof: one is Acts xiii. 42, 44, 
Vhere the Gentiles are said to desire Paul to preacli to them, 
^ lu fittaii aiGSatai', i. e^ Ihe week Ijetween. or any day be- 
tween till the next Sabbath, (as some translate it,) or (if Sir. 
Braboum will) the nest Sabbath, or Jewish Sabbath. wht;n 
BlsKMt oil the city came out to hear Paul, who were most of them 
Gentiles, not Jews. Be it so, they were Gentiles indeed ; but as 
jet no church or Christian church of Gentiles actually utider 
Christ's government and ordinances, among whom (I say) the 
Srst <lay of tlie week was so much honored above any other day 
for sacred assemblies. For it is no wonder if ttie apostles yield 
to their desires in preaching any lime of the week which they 
tbought the best tim«, even upon the Jewish Sabbalh, among 
whom the Jews being mingled, they might have the fitter oppor- 
tnoily to preach to them also, and so become all things to all men 
to gain some. His second proof is Acts xvL 12, 13; and here 
ho telU ud that Paul and Timothy preached, not to the Jews, but 
to the Gentiles, upon the Sabbath day. I confess they are not 
called Jtuv no more than it is said that they were GeiUilr* ; but 
why might not Lydia and her company be Jews or Jewish prose- 

StM, who, we know, did observe the Jewish Sabbath strictly till 
ey were belter instructed, aa they did all other Jewish cere- 
monies also? For Lydia is expressly said lo be one who wor- 
shiped God before Paul came. Mr. Braboum tells us they 
were no Jewish proselytes, because they hod no Jewish syna- 




201 TUK cnANGi: vv tuu sabbath. 

gogtie, and therefore they were fuin lo go out of the city into the 
(leliJs, Ijeside a river to pray. I confess the text saith that they 
vrf lit out to a river aide, where prayer waa tvont to bo made ; but 
that this was tbo open field.', and that there waa no oratory, 
house, or pkce of shelter to meet and pray in, ihis is uot id the 
text, but it is Mr. Brubourn's comment and gloas on it. But . 
Buppose it was iu the open fields, and that they had no synagogue i 
yet will it follow that these were not Jews ? Might not the Jews 
be in a Gentile city for a time, without any synagogue, especially 
if their number ))e hut small, and thia smiill uumber consist 
ehiefly of women, as it seems this did, whose heartii God touehed, 
leaving their husbands to their own ways? If they were not 
Jews, or Jewish proMlytes, why did they ehooee the Sabbath 
day, (which the Jews eo much set by,) rather than any other, lo 
pray and worship God It^ether in ? But verUy such answers aa 
those, wherewith the poor man abounds in his treatise, make me 
estremely fear that he rather stretched his conscience than was 
acted by a plain deluded conscience in this point of the Sabbath. 
TTieiit 34. It remains, therefore, to prove thai the first day 
of the week is the Christian Sabbath by divine institution ; and ' 
this may nppear from those three texts of Scripture ordinarily 
alleged for this end: 1. Acts xx. 7; 2. 1 Cor. xvi. 2; 9. 
Hev. i. 10 ; which, being taken jointly together, hold these three 
things : — 

1. That ihu first day of the week was honored above any other 
day lijr Sabbath services in the primitive church's practice, as is 
evident, Acts xx. 7. 

2. That the apostles commanded the observation of this day 
rather than any other for Sabbath services, as is evident, 1 Cor. 
xvi. 1, 2. 

3. That this day is holy, and sanctified to be holy to the Lord 
above any other day, and therefore it halh the Lord's name 
upon it, (a usual sign of things holy to him,) and therefore called 
the Lord's day, as is evideul. Rev. i. 10 ; but these things need 
more particular ex plication. 

Tiitu 85. In the first of these places, (Acta xx. 7,) these 
particiilarB are manifest r — 

1. Tliat the church of Troas (called disciples) publicly and 
generally now met together, so that it was no private church 
meting, (as some eay,) but general and open, according as ihoso 
times would give leave. 

2. That this meeting was u]]on the first day of the week, 
ealled ir ig iiia tu-y audliitaii : which phrase, although Gomarus, 
Primrose, Heylin, and many others go about lo translate thus, 

•is., upon one of the days of llie week. Y«t this U sufficient to 
dash dial dream, (besides what else might be said,) viz., that 
this phrase is espounded in other Scriptures to be rhe first day 

lot the week, (Lukexxiv. 1 ; John xx. I,) hal never to be tbunil 

Kbroughout all the Scriptures expounded of one day in the week. 

wOoniarus indeed tells us of if ;"<• ^osfivir, (Luke t. 17, und riii. 

ftSSt &nd xz. 1,) which is translated quodam die, or a certain day; 

■tat this will not help hini, for this Li not ir ifj fiu tuf uaS€itiar, 

»■ it is in this place. 

W 8. That the end of this meeting was holy duties, viz., to break 

Vbread. or Ut receive the Lord's supper, as the phrase is expound- 

■ ad, (Acts ii. 43,) which was therefore accompanied with preacb- 
Klng the word and prayer, holy preparation and serious meditu- 
fttion about those great mysteries. Nor can this breaking of 
V'tread be interpreted of their love feasts, or common suppers, 
K ■■ Gomarua saspects. For their love feasts and common sup- 

■ pera were not of the whole church together, (as this was,) but in 
pgereriil houses, as Mr. Cartwright proves from Acts ii. 4ti, And 
■.llthough tlic Corinthians used their love feasts in public, yet they 

Eg*dly reproied for it by the apo«lle,(l Cor. x\. 12,) and 
reforc he would not allow it here. 
k 4. It is not said that Paul called them together because he 
■was to depart the nest day, or that they purposely declined the 
Eliord'a supper till that day because then Paul was to depart, (as 
kUt. Primrose urgeth ;) but tlie text speaks of it as of a time and 
uhf usually observed of them before, and therefore it is said, (hat 
■* when they came together to break bread ; " and Paul thcreture 
Ktook his opportunity of preaching to them, and seems to slay 
K^rposuly, und wait seven days among Ihem, that he miglit com- 
■niinivatc with them, and jireach unto them in this ordinary time 
mtt public meeting; and therefore, though he might privately iu- 
nHruct und preach to them the other seven days, yet his preaching 
BbBw is mentioned in regard of some special solemnity of meeting 
Hbb this A»y. 

B &. The first day was honored above any other day for these 
^W^It duties, or else why did they nut meet upon the last day of 
nhe week, the Jewish Sabballt, for these ends ? For if tlie 
BChridlinn churches were bound to oliserve the Jewish Sabbath, 

■ 'M^iy did they not meet tlien, and honor the seventh day above , 
l]0M first day? considering that it was but the day before, and 
■iberefore might easily have done it, more fitly, loo, hod ihat 
neveitth day been the Christian Sabbath. 

■ 6. Why is the first day of the week mentioned, which is at- 
nUbuted only in the New Testament tu the day of Clirist's resur* 





reclion, unless Ibis day was ihen usually honors iJ Biid sanctified 
for holy duties, calk-d here breaking of hreaii, by a synealocbe 
of a part for the wbulc, and theretbre comprehends all other 
Sabbath dutiex ? For there is no more reason lo esclade prayer, 
preaching, singing of psalmg, etc, because these are not men- 
tioned, than to exclude drinking of wine in the sacrament, (as 
the blind Papists do,) because this neither is here made men- 
tion of. Mr. Prirorosc indeed tells us thai it may be the first 
day of the week is named in respect of Ihe miracle done in it 
upon EutychuB. But the text is plain ; the time of the meeting 
is mentioned, and the end of it to break breail, and the miracle 
is bm brought in as a particular event which happened on this 
day, which was set apart fii'st for higher ends. 

7. Nor is it said in the text that the church of Troas met every 
day together lo receive the sacrament, (as Mr. Primrose sug- 
gests.) and that therefore this action of breaking bread was done 
without respect lo any particular or special day. it being per- 
formed every day. For I do not tinit that the primitive church 
received the Lord's supper every day ; for though it be said 
(Acts ii, 42) that the church continued in the apostles' fellow- 
ship and breaking of bread ; yet it is not said that they brake 
bread every day. They are indeed said to be daily in the tem- 
ple, (ver. 46,) but not that they brake bread every day in the 
temple, or IVom houi« lo house, or if they should, yet the break- 
ing of bread in this verse is meant of common, not sacred bread, 
Hs it is verse 42, where I think the bread was no more common 
than their continuance in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship 
was common ; and therefore in this 4fiih verse the phrase is al' 
tered, and the original word properly signifies ordinary bread 
n nourishment. And yet suppose they did receive the 
t every day, yet here the breaking of bread is made 
)f as the opui diei, or the special business of the day; 
and the day is mentioned as the special time for such a purpose ; 
and hence no other day (if tliey brake bread in it) is mentioned, 
imd therefore it is called in effect " the day of meeting to break 
bread." Nor do 1 find in all the Scripture a day distinctly men- 
tioned for holy duties, (as this first day of the week is,) wherein a 
whole people or church meet together for such ends ; but that 
day was holy : the naming of the particular day for such ends 
implies the holiness of il, and the time is purposely mentioned, 
that others in aflertimes might purposely and specially observe 
that day. 

i. Nor is it said that the disciples met together the night after 
the first day ; but it is expressly said to be upon the first day of 


the week : and suppose (as Mr. Braboiirn aailh) tliat their meel- 
uig was not together in the morniug, hut only in the evening 
time to celebrate the Lord's supper, )i little before the abutting 
. ia or the dny ; yet it b a sufficJeni ground for conscience to observe 
I this day above any other for holy services, although every part 
r of (he day be not filled up with public and church duties ; for 
I aupposo the Levitcs on the Jewish Snbhath should do no holy 
public duty on llieir own Sabbath until the day was far spent ; 
will Mr. Briihoiiro argue from thence that the Jewish Sabbath 
VMB not wholly holy unto Gtod ? But again : suppose ihe latter 
pan of the day was spent in breaking qf bread ; yet will it follow j 

that DO other part of the day was spent before, either in any H 

private or pubhe holy dutica? Possibly they might receive th« H 

Lord's supper in the evening of this Sabbath, (for the time of ^ 

this action IB in the general indifferent ;) yet might they not spend 
the rest of the morning in public duties, as we know some do 
nnw in some churches, who are said to meet together to break 
bread the latter part of this day, and yet sanctify the Sabbath 
the whole day beibrc ? Suppose it be not expre^ly said tliat ^M 

they did shut up shop windows at Trons, and forsake the plow ^M 

knd .the wheel, and abstain from all servile work; yet if he ^M 

believes that no more was done this day hut what ia expressly H 

Kt down, Mr. Urabourn must needs see a pitiful face of Christ in 
the Lord*8 supper, and people coming rushing upon it without 
ly serious examination or preparation, or singing of psalms, be- 
uae no such duties as these are mentioned to be upon this day. 
9. Lastly, Master Primrose, like a staggering man, knows not 
whftt to fasten on in answer to this place, and therefore lells us, 
"la suppose it was a Sabbath, jet that it might be taken up 
mn the church's liberty and custom, rather than from any 
ivine institution ; but besides that which hath been said to dash 
Ua dream, (Thesis. 27, } the falseness of this common and l>old 
Utenion will appear more fully in the explication of the second 
test, (1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2.) which now follows, whereui it will 
Kppcar to be an apostolical (and tlierefore a divine) institution 
from Jesus ChrisL 

TKffif 36. In the second of the places therefore alleged, 
(1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2,) these things are considerable to prove the 
nmt day in the week to he the Christum Sabbath, and that not 
ao mud) by the church's practice, as by the apostle's precept j 

1. Although it be true, that in some cases collections may be 
made any day for the poor saints, yet why doth the apostle here 
limit ibcm to (his day for ihe perlurmance of thb duty ? They 



that translate '«i't /I'ur oaSdiioii; upon one day of the week, do 
iniseratily mistake the pbrase, which in Scripture phrase only 
sigDifics ihe first day of it, and beat their foreheads against the 
main scoi>e of the aposilc, viz., to fix a certain daj for such a 
duly as required bucIi a certain time ; for tliey might (by this 
translation) collect their benevolences one day in four or tea 
years, for then it should be done one day in a week. 

2. The apostle dolh not only limit Ihem lo this time, but also 
all the churches of Galalio, (ver. 1,) and consequently all 
other churches, if that be true, (2 Cor. viii. 13, 14,) wherein the 
apostle professcth he preswlh not one church, that he may ease 
another chnrch, but that there be an equality ; and although I 
Bee no ground, from this text, that the maintenance of the min- 
istry should be raised every Sabbaih day, (for Christ would not 
have them reckoned among the poor, being biborers worthy of 
their hire,) and although this collection was for the poor saints 
of other churches, yet the proportion strongly holds, that if there 
be ordinary cause of such collections in every particular church, 
these collections should be made ihe first day of the week, much, 
more carefully and religiously for the poor of one's own church ; 
and tliat in all the churches of Christ Jesus to the end of the 

3. The apostle dolh not limit them thus with wishes, and 
counsels only to do it if ihey thought most meet, but ilonep 
Miuia. (ver, 1,) OS 1 have ordained, or instituted ; and therefore 
binds their consciences to it ; and if Paul ordained it, certainly 
he had it from Christ Jesus, who first commanded him »o to 
appoint it ; who profesaeth that what he had received of the 
Lord, that only he cominiinded unto ihem to do, (1 Cor. xi. 13.) 

4. If this day had not been more holy and more fit for this 
work of love than any other day, he durst not have limited them 
to this day, nor durst he have honored this day above any other 
in the week, yea, above the Jewish seventh day. For we see 
the very apostle tender always of Christian liberty, and not to 
bind where Ihe Lord leaves his people free; for thus doing he 
should rather make snares than laws for churches, (t Cor. vii. 
27, 3.i,) and go expressly against his own doctrine, (Gal. v. 1,) 
who bids them " stand fast in their liberty," and that in this very 
point of the observation of days. (Gal. iv. 10.) But what fitness 
was there on this day for such a service ? Consider therefore, — 

5. That the apostle dolh not in this place immediately appoint 
and institute the Sabbath, but supposeth it lo be so already, (as Mr. 
Primrose is forced to acknowledge,) and we know duties of 
mercy and charity, as well as of necessity and piety, are Sabbatb 


duties ; Tor wliich end this diij (nhich Beza linds in an nncient 
manuscript lo be called the Lord's diiy) was more fit for those 
collections tliaii any other day ; partly because ihcy usually 
' net together piihticly on this day, and so their collectioDS might 
1 greater readiness against Paul's coming ; partly, also, 
I tbat they might give more liberally, at least freely, it being sup- 
I posed that upon this day men's hearts are more weaned from 
I the world, and are warmed, by the word and ordinances, with 
re lively faith and hope of belter things to come, and there- 
), having received spiritual things from the Lord more plcnli- 
I lully on this day. every man will be more free to impart of bis 
I tempontl good things therein for refreshing of the poor saints, 
d the very boweU of Christ Jeans. And what other reason 
n he given of limiting this collection to this day I confess I 
ti Dot honestly (though I could wickedly) imagine. And cer- 
I tatnty if this was the end, and withal the Jewish day was the 
lOiristian Sabbath, the apostle would never have thus limited 
I them to this day, nor honored and exalted this first day before 
r that Jewish seventh ; which if it had been the Christian Sab- 
I tpth, had been more lit for such a work as this than the first 
I i*y (if A working day) could be. 

t ' 6. Suppose therefore that ibis apostolical and divine institution 
tlv lo give their collections, but not to institute the day, (as Master 
■primrose pleads ;) suppose also that ihey were not every Lord's 
Viay or first <)ay, but sometimes upon the first day ; suppose also 
krdut they vrere extraordinary, and for the poor of other churches, 
ntbiue for that time only of their need ; suppose also 
|,AaI no man is enjoined to bring into the public IrciLsury of the 
ihurch, but {i«li laiiiia iifc'ibi) privately to lay it by on this 

■ jlliy by himself, (as Mr. Brabouni urgt'lh against this text.) yet 
■tiU the question remains uniuiswcrcd, viz.; Why should the 

OKtle limit them to this day ? Either for exintordinary or pri- 
lu collections, and such special act* of mercy, unless the Lord 
' liAd honored this day for acts of mercy (and much more of 
piety) above any other ordinary and common day ? What then 
could this day be but the Christian Sabbath imposed by the 
iipustles, and magniQed and honored by all the churches in those 
L wys? I know there are some other replies made to this scrip- 
L^tom by Mr. Brabourn ; but tliey are wind eggs (as Plutivrch calls 
Vthitt philo»opher'i notions,) and have but little in them ; and there- 
More I pnss litem by as I do many other things in that book as 
K^ worth the time lo name ihcm. 

■ 7. This, U<>tly. I add. thi^ fir^t day was thus honored either by 
Ettrlne or human institution ; if by divine, we have what we 
I 18* 


plead for ; if b; human custom nnd traililion, then tbe apostle 
assuredly would never have commendeil the ohiiervation of this 
daj, who elsewhere condemns Ilie observation of daya, though 
the days were formerly by divine insiitulion. "TeobBer\e,"8aith 
he, "days and limes;" and would he theti have commt^nded the 
observation of these diiya above any other which are only by 
human, but never by divine institution? It is strange thnl tlie 
churches of Gabtia are forbidden [he observation of days, (Gal. 
iv. 10,) and yet commanded (1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2) a more sacred 
and solemn observation of the lirst day of the week rather than 
any other. Surely, this could not he, unless we conclude a 
divine institulion liereof. For we know how zealous the holy 
apostle is every where to strike at human customs, and there- 
fore could not lay a stumbling block (to occasion the grievous 
fall of churches) to ullow and command them to observe a 
human tradition, and to honor this above the seventh day for 
such holy services as are here made mention of. But whether 
this day was solemnly sanctified as the Sabbath of tlie Lord our 
God, we come now to inquire. 

TAesii 37. In the third Lest, (Rev. i. 10,) mention is mnde 
of the Lard's day, which was ever accounted the Grst day of ihe 
week. It seems, therefore, to he the Lord's day, and conse- 
quently the Sabbath of tlie Lord our God. Two things are 
needful here to be considered and cleared : — 

1. That tliis day being culled the Lord's day, it is therefore 
set apart and sanciiHed by the Lord Christ as holy. 

2. That this day thus sanctified is the first day of the week, 
and therefore that first day is our holy or Sabliaib day. 

77iftit 38. The Grst diiBcutty here to prove and clear up is, 
that this day, which is here called the Lord's day, is a day ineli- 
tuied and sunctiRed for the Lord's honor and service above any 
other day. For, as Ihe tiacrament of bread and wine is called 
the Lord's supper, and the Lord's table, for no other reason but 
because they were instituted by Christ, and sanctified for him 
and his honor, bo what other reason can be given by any Scrip- 
tare light why this is called the Lord's day, but because it was 
in the like manner instituted and sanctified as they were? Mr. 
Brabourn here shifts away from the light of this text, by afKrm- 
ing tfaEkt it might be called the lord's day in respect of God the 
Creator, not Christ the Redeemer, and therefore may be meant 
of the Jewisli Sabbath, which is called the Lord's holy day. (Is, 
Iviii. 3.) But why might he not as well say, that it Li called the 
Lord's supper and table, in respect of God tlie Creator, consider- 
ing that in tbe New Testament, since Christ ii actually exolted 


I'te be Lord of all, this phrase is only applied to the Lord Christ 

las Redeemer? Look, Ujeruf'ore, as Ihe Jewish .Sabbaih, being 

E«Klled the Lonl'i: Subbatli.or the SubbnUi of Jeho\-nh, is hy that 

Stie and note certainly known to be a day aanetilied by Jeho- 

<^Kh, aa Creator, so this day, being called the Lord's day, is by 

■rtainly known b) be a day sanctified by our Lord 

esus, as Redeemer. Nor do I find any one distinct thing in all 

e Scripture whii;h balh the Lord's superscription or name upon 

I, (aa the Lord's temple, the Lord's offerings, the Lord's people, 

! Lord's priests, etc.,) but it is sanctified of Grod and holy 

m. Why is not this day, then, holy to the Lord, if it equally 

I the Lord's name? Master Primrose, indeed, puts us off 

■ %itb ftnolher shift, viz., that this day being called so by the 

fiAureh's customs, John, therefore, calls it so in respect of that 

t which the church then used, without divine instilulJon, 

(ot why may not he as well say that he calls it the Lord's table 

[|d respect of the church's custom also ? The designation of a 

Klifty, and of the fimt time in the day tor holy public s 

PtBdeed, in the power of each particular church, (i 

eture, and the hours of Sabbath meetings ;) but the sanctifica- 
n of a day, if it be divine worshi|i, to observe it if God com- 
1 and appoint it, then surely it is will worship for any hn- 
Bian custom to institute iL Now, the Lord's name being stamped 
npon this day, and so set apart for the honor of Christ, it can 
not be that so it should be called in respect of the church's cus- 
i for Rurely then they should Iiave been condemned fur will 
rarship by some of the apostles ; and therefore it is in respect 
t the Lord's ineliiution hereof. 

7%«tiJ 39. The second dilltculty now lies in clearing up this 

'rticular, tiz.. that this day, thus sanctified, was the first day of 

t week, which ia therefore the holy day of the Lord our God, 

1 consequently the Christian Sabbath: for tliis purpose let 

M ensuing particulars be laid together. 

I. That this day of which John speaks is a known day, and 

was generally known in those days by this glorious name ot' the 

Lurd^ day, and therefore the apostle gives no other title to it 

but ihu Lord's day, as a known day in those times ; for the scope 

't down the day and t 

e of it, I. 


the n 

e credit to 

B certainty of it, when every one sees the truth c 
m!, and they bear of the particular time ; and it may seem 
it absurd to set down the day and time for such an end, and 

it particularly known. 

1 day, what day can it b« ntber by 


■ LordU 
^1 wrath 

■ encebe 

evidence of Scripture, or anj antiquity, but the first daj of (W 
week ? For, — 

1. There is no other Asj on which mention is made of anj 
other work or action of Christ which might oc«i.iion a holy daj*. 
but only this of the resurrection, which ig esactly noted of all 
the evangeltsta to be upon the first day of the week, and bj 
which work lie is expccssty said to have all power given him in' 
heaven and earth, (Malt, xxviii. 18.) and to be actually Lord of 
dead and living, (Bom. siv. 9 ;) and therefore why should any 
other Lord's day be dreamed of? Why should Master Braboum 
imagine that this day might be some superatiiious Easier day, 
which happens once a year ? the Holy Ghost, on the contrary, 
not setting down the month or day of the year, but of the week 
wherein Christ arose, and therefore It must be meant of a weekly 
holy day here called the Lord's day. 

2. We do not read of any other day besides this first day of 
the week, which was observed for holy Sabbath duties, and hon- 
ored above any other day for breaking of bread, for preaching 
the word, (which were acts of piety,) nor for collections for the 
poor, (the most eminent act of mercy:) why. then, should any 
imagine any other day to be the I^ord's day, but that first day? 

8. There seems to be much in that which Beza observes out 
of an ancient Greek manuscript wherein that first day of the 
week (1 Cor. xvi. 2) is expressly called the Lord's day ; and the 
Syriac translation saiih that their meeting together to receive 
the sacrament (1 Cor. xi. 30) was upon the Lord's day; nor is 
there any antiquity hut expounds this Lord's day ol" the first day 
of the week, as learned Givet makes good against Gomarus, 
professing that Quatquot inlerprelei kactenut foruni, h<rc verha 
de die Teturrertionii Domini intellexerunt ; toltu quod quidem 
leiam, CI, D. Gomarvs eontradixit, 

4. Look, as Jehovah's or the Lord's holy day (Is. Iviii. 13) 
was the seventh day in the week then in use in the Old Testa- 
ment, so why should not this Lord's day be meant of some 
seventh day, (the first of seven in the week which the Lord ap- 
pointed, and the church observed imder the New Teslameol,) and 
therefore called {as that was) the Lord's day ? 

5. There can be no other clay imagined but this to be the 
Lord's day. Indeed, Gomarus affirms that it is called the Lord's 
day, becaune of the Lord Jesus' apparition in vision to John ; 
and therefore he leils thai, in Scripture phrase, the day of the 
Lord is such a day wherein the Lord manifests himself chher in 
wrath or in favor, as here to John. But there is a great differ* 

between those phrases i the Lord's day, and the day of the 



For such an inlerprelatiot 
1 uiicert&in time, is directly c 

I^i-i), nhich it id not called h 
the Lord's day, as if it was 
to the scope of John in setting down this vision, who. t 
BMire credit to it, tells us, tirst, of tbe person Ibat s 
John. — (Rev.i.9;) secondly, ibe particular place, in Fatmos; 
tfairdly, ilie particular time, the Lord's day. 
These coiiiuderalions do Utterly subvert Mr. Brabonm's dis- 
course, to prove the Jewish Sabbath to be the Lord's day, which 
«e are still to obi^crve, and may be sufficient to answer the scru- 
ples of modes! and humble minds ; for, if we ask tbe time of it, 
tt is oa (be first day of ihe wet^k. Would we know whether thia 
time was spent in boly duties and Sabbath services ? This also 
bath been proved. Would we know whether it was sanctiticd 
Ibr that end? Yes. verily, because it is culled tbe Lord's diiy, 
and consequently all servile work wrk and is lo be laid aside in 
it. Would wc know wiietber it is the Christian Sabbath day ? 
Verily, if it be the day of the Lord our God, (ibe Lord's day,) 
why is it not the Sabbath of the Lord our God? If it be ex- 
alted and honored by the apostles of Christ above the Jewish 
Sabbath for Sabbath duties, why should we not believe but that it 
was our Sabbath day? And although the words Sabbath day, or 

>Hvt»th dag, be not espressly meniioned, yet if they be for sob- 
Mwice in ibis day, and by just consequence deduced from Scrip- 
Mre, it is all one as if the Lord had expressly called them so. 
TTittit 41*. Hence therefore it follows, that although this par- 
ticular scvenlli day, which is the first ofsei'en, be not particularly 
pade mention of in the fourth commandment, yet the last of seven 
being abrogated, and this being instituted in its room, it ie there- 
fore lo be perpetuated and observed 'in its room. For though it 
be true (as Mr. Urabourn urgetli) that new Jnslilulions can not 
be founded, no, not by analogy of proporlioo, merely upon old 
institutions, as, because children were circumcised, it will not 
follow that they are therefore to be baptized, and so because the 

PJewB kept that seventh day, thai we may therefore keep ihe first 
ifcy; yet this is certain, that when new things are insliluled not 
kj human analogy, but by divine appointment, the application of 
these may stand by virtue of old precepts and general rules, from 
whence the application even of old insiiiutions formerly arose. 
For we know that the ruiliu iitttiliUut in the New Testament, in 
ministry and sacrumenu, stands at this day by virtue of tbe sec- 
ond commandment, as well as the instituted worship under tbo 
Old. And though baptism stands not by virtue of the institution 
of drcumcisiuo, yet it being, de novo, instituted by Christ, as tbe 
•Mkl of initiation into Ciuisi's mystical body, (1 Cor. xiL IS,) it 


now stande by virtue of tliat general rule by whicb circnmcision 
ilaelf was adminislercil, viz., ibat Ibe Beal of inilialion inlo Clirisl's 
body be applied to nil the visible members of that body ; and 
faeoce children are to be now baptized, as once they were cireum- 
cised, being members of Christ's body. So the first daj of the 
week being instituted to be the Lord's day, or Lord's Sabbath, 
bcnce it follows, that, if the first Ecvpnib, which is now abrogaied, 
was ODce observed because it was the Lord's Sabbath, or ibe 
Sabbath day which God appointed. — by the very same rule, and 
on the very same ground, wc also are bound to keep this first duy, 
being also the Sabbath of the Lord our God, which he hath now 
appointed anew under the New Testament. 

Thetit 41. It is true that some of the primitive cbarches, in 
lh£ eastern parts, did for some hundred of years observe both 
Sabbaths, both Jewish and Christian. But they did this without 
warrant from God, (who allows but one Sabbath in a weeic,) and 
also against the rule of the apostles ; for I think that Paul, fore- 
seeing this observation of days and Jewish Sabbaths to be stirring 
and ready to creep inla the church, that he did tberef(»« condemn 
the same in bis Epislles to the Galatinns and Colossiaus ; and that 
therefore Christian emperors and councils, in after tiroes, did well 
and wisely both lo condemn the observations of the one and 
withal honor tlie other. 

Thexit 42. Although the work of redemption be applied unto 
few in respect of the special benefits of it, yet Christ, by bis 
death, Is made Heir and Lord of all things, being now set down al 
the right hand of God, and there is mime benefit which befalls all 
the world by Christ's redemption ; and the government of all 
things is not now in the hand of God as Creator, but in the hand 
of a Mediator, (Heb. i. 1,2; ii. 8,9; John v. 22; Col. i. 16, 17; 
1 Tim. iv. 10 ; John iii. 35;) and hence it is no wonder if all men, 
aa well as a few elected, selected, and called, be commanded to 
sanctity the Lord's day, as once they were the Jewish seventh 
day ; the work of Christ being in some respect of as great extent, 
through all the work of creation, as the work of .the Father. 
And therefore it is a great feebleness in Mr. Brabuuru to go 
about lo vilify the work of redemption, and extol that of creation 
above it ; and that therefore the Sabbath ought still to be kept ia 
reference to the work of creation, which concerns all men, rather 
than in respect of redemption, which he imagines concerneth 
only some few. 

7»«m 43. The Lord Christ rested from the work of re- 
dempiioo by price, upon the day of bis resurrection; but he is 
not yet at rest from the work of redemption by power, uulil the 



day of oar resurrection and glory be perfected. But it doth not 
hence follow (as Mr. Primrose imagines) that there is no Lord's 
day instituted in respect of Christ's resurrection, because he hath 
not, nor did not then rest from redemption by power ; for look, 
as the Father, having rested from the works of creation, might 
therefore appoint a day of rest, although he did not, nor doth not 
yet rest from providence, (John v. 17,) so the Lord Christ 
having finished the great work of redemption, he might justly 
appoint a day of rest, although his redeeming work by power 
wasyet behind. 

Tnests 44. The heavy and visible judgments of God revealed 
from heaven against profaneness of this our Lord's day Sabbath 
will one day be a convincing argument of holiness of this day, 
when the Lord himself shall have the immediate handling and 
pressing of it Meanwhile I confess my weakness to convince an 
adversary by it ; nor will I contend with any other arguments from 
antiquity for the observation of this day ; but these may suffioOy 
which are alleged from the holy word. 


Tlnri* 1. It is a holj labor (saith one) to inquire after the 
begioning of holy rest. The Sabbath can not be ao sweetly mu)i>- 
tiSdd unless we know the time when to begin and end it; die dif- 
ferent Apprehensions of such aa have iaijuired after ihe truth in 
this particular have made way fur the more elenr and distinct 
knowledge of it, it being the privilege of trulli to be more puri- 
fied, and ^hine the brighter, by passing tlirough tlie heats and 
fires of men's contentions and disputatiune. 

77iesit 2. There being tlierefore five Eeveral opinions con- 
cerning this particular, it may not be unuseful to bring them all 
to the balance and touchstone, that so by snufiixig the candle, and 
rejecting that which ia false, the light of truth may shine the 
brighter at lost. 

77ieiis 3. Some there be wlio make the time mutable and 
TarioUB, afflrmitig that God hath not fixed any set time, or that 
he stands upon or would hare hi« people troubled with eilch nic&> 
ties 1 so ioDg OS the day be observed, (say they,) it is no matter 
when it be begun : nor do they make this variation to be accord- 
ing to that which God aUowa, (suppose from suu to sun, sooner 
or later, as the lime of the year is,) but according to the civil cus- 
toms of several nations, as they variously begin or end their days 
among whom Ihey live ; as suppose they live among Romans, 
they think they may begin it at midnight ; if with Babylonians, 
at Bunrising; if among Grecians, at suDset; if among Umbriaiw 
and Arabians, at midday. 

Thftia 4. If the Scripture hud left us such a liberty as this, 
Tiz., to measure the beginning of the day according to human 
custom, a scrupulous conscience (I think) might have a moat and 
ready quieting answer here ; but it will be found too true, that 
though civil and common lime may admit of such variations as 
may best suit tvith their manner and occasions, yet sacred and 
^_- 216 





holy ti 

not depcnilent upon human customs, but upon divine 
for wliii:h purpose God hath macle the lights of heav- ). 
en to be for seasons, (Gen. i. 14.) lo be guides and helps to 
be^n and end ibe seasons and days whiuh he shall appoint. 

7Tie$i* d. It is true that il suits not with God's wisdom (o 
determine all particular circumstances pf things (which are &1- 
mosi innumerable and inHnite) by the express letter of the Scrip- 
ture ; and therefore he hath lefl us a fen general rules to direct 
us therein ; yet for the Lord lo leave the determination of some 
circumstances to human liberty would he very perilous. The 
ttimple was but a circumstance of place, and Eing Uiziah, in offer- 
ing incense, varied only in a circumstance of person ; yel we 
know that the ten tribes were carried away captive for not sacri- 
ficing at the temple, and Uxziah smitten with leprosy till big 
death ;' BO the Lord havinff determined the seventh day lo be his, 
what now should hinder but that he should determine the hegin- 
ning; also thoreof ? 

Tlieii* 6. If God hath been accurately careful to fix the be- 
ginning of other feasts and holy days, far inferior unto this, a> 
appeareih, Lev. xxML 23, Ex. sii. 6, why should we think thnt 
the Lord is lens careful about the beginning of his Sabbath ? 

Tiieti$ 7. If the Lord hath not left it to human wisdom to 
act down the bounds and limits of holy places, (as appears in 
the temple, tabernacle, and all their appurtenances,) why should 
think that he hath lefl it to man's wisdom to limit and deler- 

TTketit 8. If the Lord will have a special time of worship 
E within the circle of seven dayi4,and not appoint the lime for 
beginning and end of it, might he not lose much of the beautf 
of the holiness of the day, evi^y thing being beautiful in iu 
uuu ? Uay not man begin the day at such a season as may not 
beautiful ? 

TTiait ^. The deputation of time for holy uses upon occasion 
nlkiwed to man ; yet ^anciiUcaiion of time, and to set the 
iiids and limits of it, b left lo no man ; sonctificalion not only 
tive, but relative, (as here in llie Sabhalh.) l>eiog as proper 
the Holy Ghost as t^-eation to the Father, and redempliou to 
e Son. 

ThtmlO. Application of holy time to the [icrfurmance of 
duties on the Suhbtith (as to lix what liours lo meet in upon 
. day) is loft to human prudence from general rules of 
oontcniency, order, comeliness ; but consecration of constant aid 
Hxcd time is the lord's propriety, not only of the middle, but «f 
th« beginning and end thereof. 

■ of th 

vol- lit. 



T^etit 11. TKe Scriptures have led the de terra i nut ion of tlittl 
beginning of the S&bbalh no more lo civil nations, am) their cuftr 
toms, than to particular churches, and each particular person ; 
for they may all equally plead against the Lord's strktness to 
any exact beginning of time ; but if such a loose liberty were 
granted, a world of confusion, scandal, and divieion would soon 
appear ; for some persons might llieu begin it at midnight, soma 
at midday ; some might measure the beginning of the Sabbath 
according lo their sleeping sooner or later on the Sabbath day 
morning ; some migbl be plowing, or dancing and drinking, 
when others are praying and hearing of the word ; and who could 
restrain them herein ? for they might plead [he Sabbalh is not yet i 
begun lo them. 1 

7%e»is 12. If, therefore, God haih Bnnctiticd a set time, he 
halli set and sanctified the hounds and limits of that time ; and 
to begin the time when we list, it may sometimes arise from weak- 
ness, but usually it is a fruit of looseness of heart, which se- 
cretly loves to live as it lists, which would not conform to God's 
rule, and therefore will crook and bend the rule to its humcnv . 
which will not come np to God's lime, and therefore make God ■ 
lo come down to theirs. 

TSmi* 13. Others there be who give God the honw of de- 
termining the beginning and end of the day, but they cut him 
short of one half of it, in that they make the artificial day, or the 
daylight, from sunrising to sunsetting, to be the day of his Sab- 
bath. Thus some alGrra downright. Others more modestly saj 
that conscience ought not to be scrupulous, nor trouble itself, if 
they conscientiously give God the honor of the Snbbaih daylight, 
having some general preparations for it the night before, and 
good atfecliona the night after. 

7%eii» 14. But if the daylight be the measure of the Sab* I 
bath, those that live in some part of the Uussia and East land ~l 
must have once a year a very long Sabbath, for then 
times of the year wherein they have daylight a month together. 

TTietit 15, If Glod give us six natural days lo labor in, is it 
not fit that the seventli day should bear an equal proportion with 
every working day ? And thcretbre it is not an artiiicial, but a 
natural day, conaisling of twenry-four hours, which we must i 
conscience allow unto God lo be the Sabbalh day. 

TTtetit 16. It is true that tlie night is given to man to rei 
in, it being most fit for that end ; but it is not necessary that bB > 
the weekly nights be spent in sleep, for we then do labor, and 
God's providence puts men generally upon it lo tabor in their 
callings early and lute those nights, and Uie Lord allows iti nay, 










it would be fiin nni] iillRiiess ia many not lo do it ; besides that 
rieep niitl' re^t wliii-li ix lo be taken in fhe niglit, it is in ordiae, 
or in refereni-e lo day labor, and ia as a whet thereunto ; and ia 
thia revpeot the whole weekly night, as well as the day. is fur 
labor; as the sleep we take on Habbaih night b in orrfine, or 
with respect to spirilunl rest, and so that whole natural day is a 
^y of gpirilual rest. It ie therefore a vain thing for any to 
make the nights of the six working days to be no part of the 
flix working days, because (they gay) they are given lo man to 
rest and fleep in : for upon the same ground they may make 
the artificial days no days of labor neither, because there must 
be ordinarily some lime taken out of them to eat, drink, and re- 
fresh our weak bodies in. 

7^1* 17. If Nehcmiah shut the gates of the city when it 
began to bo dark, lest that nighttime should be profaned by 
bearuig burdens in it, then certainly the time of night was sane- 
tified ot' God as well as the day ; lo say that this act was but a 
jnst preparation for the Sabbath is said witliout proof, for if God 
allows men ais days and nights to labor in, wliat equity can there 
be in forhidiing all servile work a whole night together which 
God hath allowed man for labor ? And although we ought lo 
■uke preparation for the Sabbath, yet the time and measure of it 
ii left to each man's Christian liberty ; but for a civil ma^strate 
to impose twelve hours' preparation for the Subbath is surely 
bdth against Christian liberty, and God's allowance al«o. Again : 
Hebeiniah did- this, lest the men of Tyre should occasion the 
/ewi to break the Sabbath day by bringing in wares upon that 
■jgbt; M as, if that night therefore had not been part of the 
8<Uibath, they could not thereby provoke the Jews to profane 
the Sabbtitb day, by which Nehemiah tells them they had pro- 
voked ihe wrain of God. 

7A««t'« 18. A whole natural day is called a day, though it 
take in the night also, because Ihe daylight is the chieft-st and 
bci^t ]iart of tlie day, and we know that lite denomination of 
tilings is usually according to the better part ; but for Mr. Bra^ 
bourn 10 affirm ibat the word dag, in Scripture, is never taken 
but for the artificial day, or time of light, is utterly false, as might 
appear from sundry instances ; it may sufBce to see a cluster of 
•even days which comprehended their nights also. (Ex. lii. 15, 
18, 10, 41, 42.) 

Thttit 19. To affirm that the Sabbath day only comprehends 
(lis daylight, because ibe first day in Gen. i. began with morning 
light, it tiot only a bad consequence, (Buppo:iing the ground of it 
Co be true,) but the ground and foundation of it is as cerlaiol/ 




no thk Br.Gi.N.viNG of the SAniiATEt. 

false B8 lo say that ilnrkncis id light : for it is eviJent tfiiU iLb^ 
flrsl daj in Genesis bcgnn wiih ihal ilnrkne^s wliicb God eaOvI 
night, (P& ir. 5.) and lo AlGrm ikni tiie lirsi day in Gen. if.M 
begins with morning light is as grossly fal^e as it is apparently t 
true that within sii days tbe Lord made heaven and earth. (Ex. I 
XX. II ;) for before the creating of that light which God calls 1 
day, the heavens, and with ihem the angels, and the earth, 0^9 
first matl«r called liie deep, which was overspread with darknem; 1 
were erealet). Either therefore the l«rd did not create iIib J 
world in six days, or it is untrue that the first day in Generis 
began with morning light; and I wonder upon what grounds this 
notion should enter into any loaii's head; for though God calls 
the light day and the darkness night, (as we shall do when we 
speak of the artificial day,) yet withal he called the evening of 
the rooming the tirsi day ; and what was this evening and mom- 
ingp Surely it is all that space of time wherein the Lord did 
his first day's work : now, it is evident that part d' the first day'a 
work was before God created the light; and what ihoogh evening , 
be oftentimes taken for tbe latter piart of the daylight? y< 
is too well known to those who have waded the deep in this < 
troversy, that it is oftcntiincB taken not only for tbe bound b^ * 
tween light and darkness, i. e^ the end of tight and heginoing ' 
of darkness, (Josh. x. 26, 27 ; Ps. civ. 23,) but also for the whola 
time of darkness, as it is here in this first of Genesis, and oa we 
shall prove in due jilaee ; and therefore to affirm that (he He- 
brew word used by Moses for evening, not to be nalurally ap* , 
pliable to the night, because it signifies a mixture of light axA I 
darkness in the notion of it, is a gross mistake ; for the Ilebrev] 
word Giurtb doth not signify a mixture of light and darknea^ J 
but only a mixture, because it is the beginning of darkness, 
wherein all things seem 10 be mixed and compounded together, ■ 
and can not be clearly and distinctly discerned in their kinds and 
colors, if Buxtorfius may be believed, as is also evident, (Is. 
xxix. 15;) and lo affirm thut the day is before tbe night, even in 
thia first of Genesis, because Moses sometimes sets the day be- 
fore the night, it may seem as feeble an argument as to say that 
the evening is before the morning, because Muses here sets the 
evening before the morning; but this will not seem rational to 
ihem who make the evening to comprehend the latter part of 
the daylight, and the morning the first part of it. Lastly, to 
make the light to begin the day, because the lime of light is a , 
principle of compulation, (tbe space of darkness beforft ■ 
that light was created being unknown,) is all one as if one sbould'l 
~ that the lime of daylight was not tlie beginning o 


TIIi: BEGraN» 


d>y, because llie gpace of that is also as miicli unknowu. For 
if we know tliat darkness was before light, thoagli we may not 
know how long it coDtinueil, vet we do know certainly that the 
Aral dny began with darknen^s, and that this darkness and light 
made op the space of twenty-four hours, or of a natural day, 
(as in all olbor days' works of creation.) and which is sufilcieni 
to break down thia principle, viz., that the first day in Genesis 
began with morning li^hL 

T%ent 20. Some say the Sabbath is significative of heaven, 

and therefore it only comprehends the daylight, which ia St to 

signify the lightsome day of heaven, which darkness is not ; but 

why may not nighttime signify heaven as well as dayUme ? for 

' besven is a place of rest, and the night is the fittest time for 

'"rest, aAer our weary labors in the day. Who teacheth men thus 

, to allegorize? How easy a thing is it thus to abuse all the 

Scripture ! And yet sup|>ose it should signify heaven, yet why 

way not the Sablnilli continue the space of a natural as well aa 

of an artificial day, considering that the natural day of the world, 

or of bolh-lieinispherea, consists only of light, which these men 

ia BigniHcative of heaven ? 

'Vient 21. We may and do sanctify time by sleeping on the 

I Saltbnlh night, as well as by showing works of mercy and doing 

[ works of neee-ssity upon die Suhbath day, or as we may do by 

I ming and drinking ; for to lake moderate sleep is a work not 

I only of necesHly, but also of mercy to ourselves ; and therefore to 

[ abolish the SabtMtli night from being any {>art of the Sabbath 

'ccause we can not (aa some think) sanctity time by sleeping, no 

lore than by working, is very unsound. 

Tktsit 22. Moses indeed tells the people, (Ex. xvi. S3,) that 

„ lo-morrow is the Lord's Sabbath ; but he doth not say that the 

I daytime only was the only time of the Sabhath, or that the day* 

l' light begins and ends the Sabbath; but he mentions that lime, 

I because on that daylight of the seventh day they were apt and 

i inclined to go out (as in other days) to gather manna, and so to 

' break the Sabbath ; and it is as it we should say to one who 

I was ready to ride out on the Sabbath morning about worldly 

I oceasious, " Do not stir out, for to-morrow ia the Sabbath i " tliat 

i> we may hereby prevent the breach of the Sabbath in that 

Y thing, especially at that Ume wherein one ia most inclined 

[ to to do. 

Thftit 23. To imagine that the Sabbath most be contained 
L within the bounds of daylight, becauee Christ Jesos arose at break 
[ of d^y, (Matt, sxviii. 1.) is of no more force than as if one •heul4 



conclude the contRinment of it within llic bounds of some dark< 
ness Hnd ttrilight ; for it ia evident thai he arose about that time. 

TTtegig 24. There is no mora necessity of sanctifying a day 
and a half, by beginning the day at evening, than by beginning 
it at morning lighi, (for thus some argue ;) for what ia said of iha 
evening of both hemisphere!!, that the second evening would be- 
gin twelve hours after the first, if the Sabbath was sanctified to 
begin at the evening of both hemi^pherea, and so there would be 
B day and a half sanctified ; the like, I say. may be averred of 
the morning, supposing tliat both hemispheres ehould begin their 
Sabbath at the morning of both hemisplieres ; but we know that 
the Sabbath day is sanctified to begin and end according to the 
setting and rising aun in each hemisphere and longitude of places 

y^ettt 25. If evening, morning, light, and night made up 
every day the creation, why shall we think but that ibe Sabbath 
day also consisted of [he same parts ? and if the whole world waa 
made in eix days, and these days be only such as consist of day- 
light, when tlien was (he third heaven and chaos made which did 
exist before light ? Those fathers and schoolmen who set Euoh 
narrow bounds to tbe day had need consider of it, leat their an- 
_ swer be like lua, who hearing a simple preacher desiring lbs 
(XHitinuance of the life of tlie king so long us sun and moon en- 
dured, and being asked, if that should he so, when should his bob 
reign, he replied, it may be the preacher thought that he might 
rule by candlelight. 

Tht$it 2ti. Suppose therefore that there was no public wor- 
ship in the temple (as one objecteih) among the .lews in ihs 
nighttime, yet it will not follow from hence that the Sabhath was 
to continue no longer than daylight ;^ for the Sabliath might be 
Mociilied privately in llie night, as well as more publicly in the 
day ; and thus the Jews were wont to sanctify their Sabbath, 
and so should we. (Is. xkk. 29. Ps. Ixiii. 7 ; xeii. 2, 3.) 

TTittit 27, It is true that it is very good to prepare for and 
end the SabbAih with holy affoctions ; yet if a seventh part of 
weekly time be due to God, as six parts of it are due to us, 
through llie goodness of God. then let God be glorified as God, 
and the whole day allowed him as bis day. Let Cicsar have his 
due. and God his. 

Tkegit 28. Others allow Ihe Lord hia whole time, but they 
think that he hath tixed the l>eginDing of it at the gates of mid- 
night, "which midnight they call morning, or morning midnight, 
or midnight morning, and therefore they imagine qui of Gen. i. 




the morning viaa Imlf night wherein lime begun, and half 
4>7 : six hours night from iniclnight to six, and six hours day 
from six to midday ; and by the same proportion, the evening to 
be^n at midday, and so to conlinue six hour« day from twelve 
to six, and aix hours night from six to midnight ; and Iberelbre 
they uy, that God is said to atrelch the north upon the emply,~ 
(Job xxvi. 7,) because tlie first beginning of the notion uf lime 
began from the north point, when darkness was first upon ihe 
flee of the deep, and from this north point in the revolution of 
Uic heavens we do account it midnight, as bt-ing opposite lo the 
)uth, which in the course of the sun is at midday ; and therefore 
•1m> they say that evening is never taken in all the Scripture 
Jtir the whole nigbc, but as evening begins at midday, so morning 
begins at midnight." 

T^en't 29. But if the first day, and consequently the Sabbath 

day, should begin at midnight, it were meet to give a demoiistra- 

~' in that this first darkness should continue just six hours, or half 

e lime of such a night when ilie sun is in the equinoctial ; but 

although it be certain Ihut the first time began in darkness, yet it 

b whirilj uncertain whether this darkness continued but six hours. 

l-XHOchius and many others have very good cards to show that ihii 

Srst darkness continued a complete night of twelve hours; others, ~ 

Ml the other hand, make it far leas ; certain it is, it continued some 

■Onaiderable space of time, in that it bath the name of niglil put 

ion it ; bat that it should be just fix hours, neither can man's 

■son demonstrate it, nor haih God in any scripture rvvenled It, 

It it in a mere uncertainty, and therefore an ill foundation for 

■tettling Ihe beginning of the Sabbath upon. -— . 

Thtiit SO. Some would prove the Sabbath to begin nt mid-1 

Bight, because Christ arose at midniglit, and he arose at midnight 1 

^cuaee Samson, a type of Christ, carried away the gales of 

Oaxa at midnight, (Judg. xri. 3 ;) but such allegorical reasonings 

were fit tools for blind monks in former times to delude the aim- 

fie p«ople wiih. I suppose men are wiser now than to l>e fed 

irilh wind and cluitr, and to build their faith upon cozening alle- 

yorie* of human wit, by which as the blind monks of old did feud 

'^ people, so Ihe Fnmilisla now deceive the world ; both which ' 

n the fruila uf God's heavy curse upon their hearts, who, because 

bey did not lave the truth to feed upon it, are therefore fed wiih \ 

saity of mind. ■ -^ 

TJtetu 31. It is Iruo Paul preached till midnight, (Arts xk. 

7,) but dolb it hence follow that the Sabbath was to end at tnid- 

nigbti' Mo, verily, for the beginning and end uf the Sablialh is 

•ot BMUur«d by man's preadiiug a longer or a shonar time. 


Paul might have continued preaching lon^r than tlie Sabbath, 
or raidniglit, ihe case being exlratirdinarj in reepeci of his depart- 
ure tlie next day, never to see tbeir faces moi-e ; and he might 
have continued a ehorier time than the Sabbath continued, as 
our Saviour himself did before sunMil, (Mark i. 22, 32;) for the 
bounds of continuance of the Sabbatii are not set according to the 
beginning and end of any man's preaching, which is so exceeding 
nnccrtain. Paul's long sermon was not ixHitinucd and ended at 
midnight purposely, and becau.'>e so long the Sabbath continued ; 
but occBdionully, in regard of his final departure from tliem Ihe 
next day : and hence in respect of this extraordinary cause he 
continued so long at it, which in ordinary course had been very 

TJiftit 32. It is not said in the first of Genesis that the 
morning and the evening were the first day, as if the day sbould 
begin at morning midnight: but the evening and the morning 
were the lirst day ; and therefore it in strange that any should 
derive the beginning of the Sabbath from morning midnight out 
of this texL The Grecians, because they begin the day at the 
evening of eunseE, did therefore orderly call their natural day 
(2 Cor. xj. 25) i-ux6^uf(/or-, and is it probable that Moses would 
e|icak disorderly, rt ordine rttroffradtt, here ? and not ralber 
according to llie interpretation of Daniel, who calls twenty-tbree 
hundred days by name of Glinereb liuier, which signifies even- 
ingt, momingt, because tite evening, not the morning, much less 
midnight morning, is to begin the day. (Dan. xiv. 26.) 

TTim* 33. It is true that sometimes those things which are 
first in order of time are spoken of last in order of story ; luul 
therefore it is no solid argument to prove that the evening is he- 
fore the morning, merely because the evening is set down first 
before the morning, unless it can be proved that the story sets 
down such things (and so Ibis in particular) orderly ; which I 
suppose is evident, 1. Because tlie first darkness is called night, 
and also comprehends llie whole time of night, as light compre- 
hends the whole lime of the day. (Gen. i. 4, 0.) Now, I do not 
find in oil the Scripture, nor is any man, I [hink, able to show, that 
the whole night is taken for the morning ; and therefore the first 
darkness could not possibly begin at the morning or midnight 
morning. 2. Because [he scope of Moses in this chapter is to set 
down not only the work of creation, hut (be exact order of it, and 
consequently of the order of lirae, which was consecrated with 
the world ; first the beginning of it, then the succeiijion and vicis- 
"f it, first in the dark night, then i 

e light day. 

U one) firat in the evening, then in th« moniing. 8. 

TlIK Bl 


t cause ihe evening may be the end of tlie artificial day; 
. I know no prooi' from any instance in Scripture to make 
It ihe eiwl of the natural day, of which Moses liere Bpeaka ; 
and therefore as evening can not end the day, so midnight morn- 
ing can not begin it. 

TKnm 34. To aSirm that the evening ia never taken in 

I Scripture for the whole night, and that therefore by the evening 
we are to understand six hours day and six hours aighu as the 
Wnsequence in most weak, so the assertion is most false, as may 
'•ppear to any who seriously ponders these and such like scrip- 
tares : Hab. i. 8 ; Ps. xuii. 2; Jobvii. 4: Deut. xxviii. 6U, C7 ; 
Zach. xiv. 7 ; Is. xxi. 12. 
Thftit 35. Nor can it be proved that the evening begins at 
■aidday, which is their principal argument lo prove that Ihe 
SDorning begins at midnight. 

"Dietit 36. For,, though it be said (Ex. xxix. 38,39; 
xii. (i) that the lamb was to be slain between the two evenings, 
(as it in iu the Hebrew.) yet neither these or any sucli scriptures 
are able tu prove that one of those evenings must necessarily 
begin at midday ; but only this, that some part of the afler- 
nooa, when the sun was in his declining, was one of these 
evenings : some of tbe Jewish rabbins begin it at noon, and yet 
it is without warrant from Scripture, and they are overwhelmed 
with cross testimonies from most of their fellows, who bepn it 
•ome about one, some about two of the clock in the afternoon ; 

»Bnd Joscphus, (who knew best his countrymen's manners.) and 
who is one of most credit in his writings, tells us that ibey began 
ttteir first evening about three of the clock in the afieraoon. 
JTiMit 37. We read indeed of the shadows of the evening, 
(Jer. vi. 4;) but it dolb not hence follow that the evening begins 
■t midday, but rather some time after it, the shadows of the 
evening being the shadows of the day declining, which therefore 
grow long; but midday is no time of declining shadows. 

»7K#«t« 3d. Although tbe evening may be called by human 
cnstom all that part of the day wherein we wish men good even 
jroiB noon till sunset, yet it is ilien called the evening in rt'Spect 
of the ariilieial, not natural day, of which Moses speaks when he 
divides the day into morning and evening, part of which after- 
noon is also called evening by the Iloty Ghost in Scripture; 
because it is either appronching or hasting loward the evening 
of the natural day, or contiguous lo it ; even as part of a dark 
right ia aumetimea called morning, because it is either contiguous 
or not far from the morning light, and men are then usually up, 
■pd pniNuiiig for it. 






Thftit 3Q. And hb no text can Iw produced lo prore Ibat 
tbe evening begins ai midday, eo neiiber can an; be alleged to 
prove ibc morning to begin at mtdniglit; the Scripture (speak- 
ing properly) putting an enpress difftrence belween midnight, 
coult -crowing, and morning. (Mark xiii. 35.) 

Tlietii 40. And llierefore to translate llie words in Gen 
So wag the evening, so was the morning the first day : and then 
and this gloss and interpretation, viz., that out of the premises 
of night and day, so was the evening mixed of tliem both ; fO 
vias the morning also compounded of both, to wii, of ni 
and light ; this, I say, is but words ; here is no proof for such en 
interpretation. Junius's translation is best and most clear, and 
rntional, viz., So was the evening and the morning of the first 
da^; for, as hath been said, the whole time of night ia never 
called by the name of morning; let any roan show the least tittle 
in any scripture of it, and I will yield to them in this cause. 

T/iriu 41. To affirm that the division of the natural day 
(Gen. i.) into day and uight was for civil use, and into evening 
and morning for religious use, in respect of the evening and 
morning sacrilice, a long time aJ^r, ie Just such a device as his 
who would needs think that the first day of the week was called 
/ila auSSoioii-, hecause God foresaw and ordained the change 
of the Sabbath unto that first day ; for we know God speaks of 
things as tbey were then in their nature, when tbey did first 
exist, Ijefore sacrifices were thought of; Adam called the names 
of things according to their natures and special use, and is it 
credible that before his fall, where there was no use of sacrifices, 
that he should know of morning and evening sacrifices, in which 
respect it was called evening morning? And yet suppose it was 
in respect of religious use that these names are given to each 
day ; yet why must not the evening begin the day rather than 
the morning ? it being, as halh been proved, lii'st in being as it 
is first in naming. 

nmt 42. It is true, the time before day (Mark i. 35) 
is called early morning, and we read of the morning watch 
before daylight, (Ex. xiv. 24;) yet these places no way prove 
that which tbey are produced for, viz., that morning begins at 
midnight; that Christ went to prayer at midnight, because he 
went to it in the early morning, or that the morning watch 
began at midnight; for we know it was some time after it; 
these places, indeed, show thus much : that some time before 
daylight is sometimes called morning, which is readily acknowl- 
edged in the respects forementioned. 

Thttii 43. The angels indeed were created togather with , 


the third lieiiven, (Gen. i. 1,) iu ibe beginning of lime; for, 
being incorruptible, (as tbe third heaven is,) they could not be 
•fterwnrd cretited out of tbe fit^^t matter, as all ibis visible 
and corruptible world was ; therefore the earth is said to be 
dark and void, (i. e., of all inhabitants and beautiful form,) in 
opposition to ibe third heaven, which was made with it, which 
was lightsome and full of inhabitants, vie., the angels; and if 
it was a kin^om prepared from the foundation of llie world, 
surely Ibis kingdom had a king then, and this king had his eub- 
jectd; who could they then be but angels? but to infer from 
hence that this lime of darkness, wherein tbe angels were created, 
■liould be morning, and that Ihereforo they are called by Job the 
morning stars, (Job xxxviii. 6, 7,) as some imaginej will follow 
no more than as if one should affirm that the King of Babel 
(called Lucifer) was certainly bom in the morning, because be 
kIso is called a morning star, (Is. xiv. IS;) for vho sees not but 
that the speech is metaphorical in both? glorious excellency 
above others being bestowed on them, as special brightness and 
luster b given to the morning star. 

7%eiii 44. Belshazzar is said to be stuin in the night, (Obii. 
\. 30,) which the prophet Isaiah boa foretold should be in the 
morning, (Is. xlvii. 11 ;) but will it follow hence that ihe morn- 
ing is the lime of midnight ? Might it not be after midnight as 
well? for the text is silent ; and yet I do not think thiU the 
word morning in Isaiah is meant of Enidnight, nor any part of 
any night, bui. by a meiaphor, the apparent time of tbe beginning 
of his misery, (the light of the morning manifesting all things 
^purenlly,) the Lord also alluding to the manner of human judi- 
Mlures, who were wont to pass the sentence and inflict it in the 
norning, as the Scripture frequently holds forth. 

T^tit 45. Though also it be Irue that the Lord smote tbe 
Kgyptions at mldnighl, and ihat ibe Israelites were prohibited 
from stirring out of doors till morning, (Ex. ziL 22, 29, 30,) and yet 
that they did itir up one another to depart before morning 
light, yet it will not hence follow (as some would infer) that 
raid.iight was ihe beginning of their morning; for then, I. They 
might have risen at midnight, just when God was destroying the 
Egyptians* tint bom, for that was part of the morning by this 
account, 'i. Tlicy are prohibited from stirring out of doors till 
morning, as of themselves: yet if God, and Fboraob, and 
Muses will force them out, there is no rule broken by stirring 
out in such a c»se before daylight morning. 3. It is more than 
probable that there was some good «pac«v after midnight before 
they stirred out, which is said to be in the morning natch ; for 


m S28 

' Tile SABUATH. 


(he dealh stroke was Htmiclniglil, nfler which Fharnoh and his 
council Diust Bit anil consult, and conclude what lo do, and send 
for Mo^ea ; after which ihere muBl be some lime for Closes to 
acquaint the Israelites to mnke them lit and ready to depart 
their departure ; therefore " in the morning " was not at midnight 
which began this morning. 4. Pharaoli sends for Mose« after 
midnight; yet this lime is called night, (Ps. xxx. 31.) auil not 
morning; and indeed properly it was not so, only called so hy 
an improper speech. 

T7ieti4 46. When Job saiih that God stretched out ihe north 
upon the empty, (Job xxvi. 7,) it is not spoken of the empty 
chaos, for Job had no occasion to speak thereof, nor is it his scope ; 
but of the places near the north pole which are void and empty 
of inhabitants, none being able now to dwell in that frigid zone. 

TAeiit 47. If God hath set any time to begin the Sabbath, 
surely it is such a time as may be ordinarily and readily known, 
(hat so here (as well as in all other ordinances) the Sabbath may be 
begun with prayer, and ended with praise : but if it should begin at 
midnight, what man of a thousand can readily lell the certain time 
when it begins, that so they may in a holy manner begin the 
Sabbath with God ? All men have not the midnight clocks and 
bells to awaken them, nor con the crowing of cocks herein give a 
certiun sound ; a poor Christian man had need be a good and 
watchful mathematician that holds this opinion, or else 1 see not 
how he will know when midnight is come ; and if he can not, 
then it is very considerable, and to me unquestionable, that that 
can not be the beginning of holy time which can not be begun 
in a holy manner: there was never any ordinance of God but it 
was so ordered as that it might ordinarily be begun and ended 
with God ; wliich makes me question that the beginning of it at 
moniing midnight can not be of God. 

TArtit 48. Others there be who do not begin the Sabbath at 
morning midnight, but begin and end it at morning light, at the 
rising of Ihe sun, and the light of it ; who indeed are assisted 
with better proofs and stronger arguments than any of ihe rest, 
»nd therefore need trial, and we have need to know what weight 
they are of ; as also to bo accurately wary lest the nrle of 
love be broken Ipward such gracious and learned servants of 
' God ; considering how much Ihey have to say in this point, in 
which case, much love, rci^pect, and indulgence hath been ever 
accounted necessary by men of moderate and sober minds, 

Tktfit 49. The six working days being considered absolutely 
in themselves, in this re.«]iect it is no matter whether they begin 
M evening, or morning, or midnight, or midday ; nor is it in this 

I begin and end llie days according lo l]i« custom 
n where we live ; but because thew days are 
' lo be considered relatively in respect of the seventh day, hence 
the week days are so to be begun as that their relation to ilie 
seventh be not disturbed, so as that tlie bounds and limits of the 
Sabbath be not impaired or iransj^ressed : for there is no religious 
necessity to begin snd end civil lime with sacred ; nor is it 
so uncomely as it may seem, at Hrst bluah, lo give God and Ciesor 
their due ; civil accounts to the one, and sacred to the other ; 
for when the Jews were subdued by the Romans, tliey might and 
did begin their reckoning of civil time as the Romajis did, and 
yet reserve the bounds of sacred time wholly unto God. They 
did the like in England many years since, saith M. Fox, and that 
their civil days began in the morning, and religious days in the 
evening ; and when they did thus variously begin their days, 
there was no suck indecent disproportion of times as Ber. Mr. 
Cleaver imagines, in the like case, if holy time should not begin 
with morning, wliich he pleads for. 

TfitM bo. The principal foundations of this opinion are the 
words of the four evangelists. (Matt, xiviii. 1. Mark xvi. 1, 2. 
Luke xxiv. 1. John xx. 1,) Among all of which that of KlalL 
xxviti. 1 hath most weight, wherein it is said. " In the end of the 
Sabbath, as it began lo dawn toward the Hrst day of the week," 
etc., from whence it seems to follow, that if the Sabbath day did 
end at the dawning of the first day of the week, thai then the 
dawning or the daylight of the first day must be the beginning 
t tilt! Sabbath day, or of the Christian Sabbath. 
"Dttti* bl. The consideration of this scripture hath caused 
Be, very judicious, (vii., Beza, Junius, and others,) who con- 
nive the Sabbath to I>egin at even, to allimi, upon very proba- 
' 'a grounds, that there was among the Jews, at this lime under 
r RumNu bondage, a double account and reckoning of the days 
the week. 1. Civil. 2. Sacred account. According lo sa- 
I account, («ay ihcy,) the church of God began their Sab- 
h at evening, not morning, which they demonstrate i'rom sun- 
y pregnant texts in the Old and New Testament ; but accord- 
g to the civil account of the Romans, who gave the precedency 
(a the morning before the evening, they l>egau it therefore in the 
morning, and according to this latter account they suppose the 
evangelists to speak. 

Thent ht. But if the several texts be duly examined, right- 

lerpreled, there will i 


t appear 

t from this place, but rather that 
cUsu, which arc ordinarily produced lo evince the beginning 




of tbe SitblHtth ftt morning, will bring in strong evidence to de- 
monatrale ila beginning rather on ihe evening before. 

TTifgit 53. For this dawning toward ihe fii'st day of the 
week is meant of iho artihcifll ila^, or the light of (he ^rst day 
of the week, as the word dawning implies, and the evidence of 
Iheir fact in coming to iho sepulchre deraonstrales aa much ; for 
it is not tlie scope of the evangelist to set down when tbe first 
day of Ihe week began, hut al what lime of the first day of the 
week such and such actions fell out: any thing done in any time 
of the day, whether at six or nine, or two of the clock, may be 
said to be done that day ; but it will not follow that they are 
therefore done in the beginning of that day. I meet with two 
exceptions here. 

1. Some say that it might be meant of the artificial day 
if Ihe words had run thus, vix., nt the '' dawning of the day," 
or tbe first day of the week about the dawning of the day ; but 
Ihe dawning toward the first day, this phrase (they sny) seems 
to describe the beginning of such a day as stands in relation to 
the whole week, and all the other days of the week, which 
are to be taken for natural days. But, 1. There is, I hope, a 
first artificial day of the week, as well as a natural. 3. This arti- 
ficial day doth not in this account exclude the night before as 
part of the first day, and consequently the natural day, consist- 
ing of ' night and light t therefore it may well stand in relation 
to the other days of the week which were natural ; for although 
the cvaDgclist seta down particularly when these things about the 
resurrection of Christ happened to be, viz., at the dawning toward 
the first day of the week, yet we, that begin the Sabbath at even- 
ing, may and do use the same phrase, and yet so speak of the 
artificial day upon which some event begins, as not to exclude the 
night before upon which the natural day begins. 3. Compare 
the evangelists, and the dawning, in Matthew, toward the Snt day, 
will be found to bo all one with this phrase, viz.,' the first day 
about or at Ihe dawning of it : for that which Matthew calls 
dawning to the first day, Mark calls early in the morning, 
the first day of the week, at Ihe rising of the sun ; and Luke 
calls upon the first day of the week very early in the morning : 
whence it is evident that Matthew's dawning to the first day is 
mil one with about the rising of the sun upon the first day : so 
that this diifercnce between dawning toward tbe first day, and 
the dawning upon the firsi day, seems to be an Etiglish cabalism, 
Mid a mere curiosity exhaled and extracted out of the 
rather than any solid truth which the text holds forth, or 
Spirit of God aimed at. 

rords; I 

«■ the I 



1, A seconii exception is, tli<il thougli llie words dag in Scrip- 
) be taken Tor the artJKcial day, yet never when Ilio first, 
second, or thinl day, etc., are joined togetbur: and tliey point us 
to the fir^t of Genesis, where, when the first or second tlay is 
meniiuncd, ii is constantly meant of n natural and not an artifi- 
cial day. But, 1, Tliis ia a great mistake i for the day of the 
Levites' travel (which was not in the night, but upon the artifi- 
cial day) is called tbe fourth day, (Judg. xix. 5,) and the 
fifth day. (ver. 8.) 2. This artificial day may be called the 
first day. as that it may involve tbe night before, (where we make 
the Sabbath to begin,) as well as the night after, on which they 
make the Sabbath lo end; and thus Ilie natural day may be 
here comprehended also, (which they plead for;) the same day 
which artificially begins at daylight may naturally begin the 
night before. 

The*it bi. If we should suppose that this day is meant of 
the artificial day, yet there is a harder knot to be unloosed in 
tbe words of Matthew, who atHrms that this daylight or day- 
dawn was the end of the Sabbath ; whereby it seeras that the 
Sabbatb began at tbe dawning of the day before, and therefore 
it ends at the dawning of tlie first day following ; and hence they 
infer tliat the daylight of this first day can not belong to the 
night of llie Jewish Sabbath, which immediately went before. 
And I confess the argument is strong and undeniable, as the 
words lie under the gloss. We must therefore inquire more nar- 
Xttwly into the true translation of the words, and their meaning. 
7%ttu 5!<. That, therefore, which we translate tlic end of 
I Sabbath, is in tbe original Aifi Si onfifiurui'', which words 
B rarioualy translated ; we shall only observe that the Greek 
1 i^i halb a double signification, in frequent use among 

1. Somewbile it signifies late time, or the extreme and last 
i of the continuance of any thing, aa /"I'i if^i tf^g^i i. e., 
lale time, or latter time of the day. 
i. Sometimes it signifies a long lime afler, as iv* >4> rpianr, 
Lea long time after the Trojan war. Now, in this place it is 
I to be translated, and in this latter sense, thus, " a long time," or 
" a good while after tbe Sabbath was ended, as it began to daHU to 
the first day of the week," etc ; which interpretation, if it be mode 
good, will clear up this ditBculty, viz., that the Jewish Sabbnili did 
not end at tbe dawning of the first day of the week, but long 
before ; nor, indeed, durst I incline to this interpretation, if 1 did 
not see the evangelists (tbe best interpreters one of another) 
nuking tb« tome to my hand. 



Hiesit o6. For drst. Murk, who writ ufler Matthew, nad is 
best able to interpret his words, expressly saith ihal tlie Snbbath 
was pasL when the women ctuiie lu the sepuleher ; his words 
are, SiaytruiAirov oufffitlfou, the Sabbalh being past. (Mark x\\.) 
1. Hence, thercrore, if Maiihew'a words should be translated, 
late on the Sabbath, or U>wai-d the end of the Sabbath, then 
the Sabbath was not already past, (as Mark aflirms,) but draw- 
ing toward an end. iklark, therefure, telling us that the Sab- 
bath was ended, and yet not telling us when it ended, wh3r 
should we not harmonize the evangelists by Matthew's words, 
whieli tell us that it was long before ? 2. The time of the com- 
ing of some of the women to the eepulchcr. as it was npon lh« 
first day of the week, so it was some lime within ihe night ; and 
hence Mark tells us it was very early, (Mark xtL 2,) which can 
not he at the rising of the sun only when it is said also that they 
came to tbeseptileher; for that is not Uat nqo», valde niorte, or 
very early. Again : Luke tells us that it was toHqou ^ddro;, 
Tery early or in the depth of the night ; for so the word AfS^o; 
frequently signifies the tirae of the night when cocks crow. I 
forbear to instance in Greek writera, because the evangelist John 
clears up this most fully, who expressly saith that it was oaonios 
inl tOo'ii, it being yet dark ; and thou^ it be said (Mark xvi. 
2) tliat the women came lo the sepulcher about the rising of tha 
sun, yet Fiscator and others interpret that of their last actual 
coming to it ; their preparation for it being very early, while it 
was yet dark night ; and itseems there were two comings by sev- 
eral of them to the sepulcher ; for it is evident that Mary (who 
had most aifection) came to the sepulcher while it was yet dark, 
the rest of them possibly preparing tliereunlo. However the 
evangelists be reconciled, this is evident, that the first stirring of 
the women about that work from which they abstained upon the 
Sabbath day was very early in the depth of the morning dark- 
ness, before the daylight, when some would begin the Christian 
Sabbath ; and from hence it follows, 1. That if the Sabbath 
was not passed even before this dark lime of the night began, 
but rather ended when the first day of the week began to dawn, 
then it will follow that these holy women did not rest the Sab- 
bath according to the commandment ; for we see they are this 
nighl busy about those things which they did forbear to do be- 
cause of the Sabhath. [Luke xx'm. 52.) 2. Hence it will also 
follow that if the Sabbath was not ended before this dark time of 
Ihe night, hut only at the dawning of the daylight, then our 
Saviour could not arise from tlie dead the first day of the week, 
but within the dark ni^ht of the Jewish Sabhath ; for Mary came 
when it was dark, nnd the Lord Christ was lisen befora sha 

233 .1 


and liow long before no man can tdl ; but it is evident 
that Christ aro$e the lirst dnj of the Uf t-k, (Mark xvi. 9.) and 
tiierefore the Saiibnth voi ended long bi-lbre. S. If, Iherefare, 
die Sabbath woa past al the dark time uf the night, how, then, 
«ra the Sabbatli begin al morning light? and if it was passed 
vfaen it wax thus dark, when, tlien, could ihe Sabbath end, but 
when tbia night did first begin ? and if this was bo, it was then' 
trulj' ^v' aHfKiiiiuir, a good while after the Sabbath wau ended 
when this dawning toward the lirst day began, according to Ihn 
interpretation given. 

T^uit 57. It is true, indeed, that thi^ lime of darkness is 
Cftlled morning; and heni-c some would infer that the Subbath 
begins in the morning ; but suppose it be so entltid, yet it is not 
called morning light, at which lime they plead the Sabbath should 
begin : and it is improperly called morning, because (as bath 
been formerly shown) it is preparalively so, men usually prepar- 
ing them for the work of the daylight following. Morning ia 
bUo frequently taken in Scripture for any early time, (Epb. iii. 
5,) and bo this night of the first day of the week, wherein Ihe 
women arose to their work, was an early time, and therefore 
cnllt^d morning. Again, suppose a double morning be acknowl- 
edged, (as there was a double evening,) yet it will not follow that 
this morning belongs only lo the day folluwiug, for it may be- 
long to the night before; for, as where there are two evenings 
■pnkcn of. the former belongs to the day, the latter to the night, 
■0, if we grant two mornings, the latter morning may belong to 
the day ensuing, and the former lu the night preceding ; if, there- 
fore, any plead for the beginning of the Subbaih al the morn- 
ing light, these places of the cvang'-list will not bear them out in 
it, it being dark morning when Christ arose ; if they say it be- 
gins in the diirk morning, then let them set exactly the time of 
that dark morning wherein Christ arose, and when they would 
begin it ; but no wit of man, I fear, is able to demonstrate this. 
* 7X?*u ^8. And surely it is of deep consideration to all those 
who would have the beginning of the Sabbath to be just at the 
time of the resurrection of Christ, on the morning, that not any 
Mie of the evangelists do set forth, or aim to set forth, the exact 
time of Christ's resurrection ; they tell us, indeed, the exact 
time of Ihe women's preparatioTi and coming tu the scpulcher, 
cod of the earthquake, and fear of the soldiers, and that these 
things were done in the morning, but none of them points out 
the time of Christ's rising, nor is it their seope to show exactly 
when he rose, but only to show that lie was risen, and that he ap- 
peared to many being risen, who came to seek for him. Now, 





HHuredl^, if it bad been the mind of God tliat his people should 
begin ibe Siibbaih when Christ bej^an his resurrection, he would 
have pointed ogC the exact liroe when he did rise, tliat so ibey 
night exuctly begin the Sabbnlh ; bnt none of the evangelists 
point out the time, nor is it tlieir scope exaHly f o to do ; nay, 
fliey do eiaetly point out when other malters happened about the 
«omen'« coming to the sepulcher, but this in not miide mention 
of} only we miiy gather by laying mony things logpiher about' 
vbat time it lihuulil be, and therefore I marvel at them who 
would prove the beginning of the Sabbath at the time of Christ's 
resurrection from the four evangelists' speaking etactly to the 
time of the women's rising in ilie morning to tisil Christ's sepul- 
cher, but not » word of the main thing this drives at, which ia 
the exact time of Christ's rising. 

TSui't bS. Those that would have the Sabbath begin at 
morning allege John xx. 19, where it is said, "that the same 
day at even, which was ihe first day of the week, Jesus came 
among his disciples, when the doors were shut." which (say they) 
was within night ; and theKlbre the night following belongs to 
the day before, which was the Christian Sabbath ; wbii^h place 
compared, with Luke xxiv. 33, does further clear up (as they 
BHj) this truth ; for the two disciples who went lu Emmaus, and 
met Christ, are said to return to the disciples when they are 
Ibus met together ; which evening can not (say they) be po^ibly 
meant of the Jirst evening before sunlight was set, because the 
day being far spent, (vcr. 29,) and they constrained him to abide 
with them, (whi<.'h argute that it was lair,) and tlie distance of 
£mmauB from JeruHalem being sixty furlongs, or eight miles 
excepting a half; so tliat it wna impossible for them to travel 
BO long H journey in so short a lime, within the compass of the 
first evening : heni:e therefore it is meant of the second evening, 
which was within night, which yet we see belongs to the day 
before. But there are many things considi:rable to evacuate 
the strength of these reasons. 

Thetis 00. For, first, this invitation our Saviour had to stay 
by the two disciples was probably to some repast, some time 
^ler high noon ; possibly to a late dinner ratliisr than a late 
■upper toward the latter evening ; and if so, then the disciples 
might easily come from Emmaus to Jerusalem before sunset with- 
in the former evening ; for the words " toward evening," nt/ui ta- 
tiii/ur, may be as well understood of the first evening toward 
two or thi-ee of the elook, as of ihe second ; and if it be object- 
■d, that before the first evening the day could not be said to 
JH iM spent, yet if the words ba well obsurviid, i 


Dslation can be forced from them, for ihe words are xinmcr 

) ftfii^a, I. It., "Ihe (lay hath declined," which is truly said of 

any time aller high noon, and llierofore mif^ht be a fit season 

to press our Saviour to eat; aa may appear by comparing 

Uiia with a paralkl scripture, (Jud;;. xtx. 8, 9.) which is almost 

word for word with this place of Luke : for the Levile's father 

invitea him to cat somulhing at\er his early rUiiig, (ver. 8,) 

which was too soon for suppor, and iberefore stiema to be 

rather to n dinner which they tarried for until aher high noon, 

or OS it is iu the original, Divi rrias'is, i. e., until the day de- 

«lineil, (just as it is here in Luke.) and then when dinner 

I Was ended he persuades him to stay still because the day was 

I weak, and (as we translate it) toward evetiin;;, (as here the 

t^isciples tell our Saviour ;) and yet after Ilieae persuasions 

tarry, as late as it wits, he departed and came to Jerusalem 

f 'kefbre night, and from (hence lo Gibeah (without any miracle 

to) before sun was set, or the latter evening ; and verily if we 

■ay give credit lo topographers, Gibeah was almost as far from 

r Beihlem (from whence the Levite came) as Jerusalem was from 

tEromauSi and therefore if the Leviie came with hi» cumber and 

'concubine so many miles liefore the second evening, notwiih- 

•tanding all the arguments used from the day declining, and 

(hat it was lowurd evening, why may we not imagine the like 

of these disciples at Emmaus much more? who had no cumber, 

and whose joy could not but add wings (oavery swift return lo the 

deven before the second evening, notwithstanding the like argu- 

s here used in Luke xxiv. 29. And yet, secondly, suppose 

>t they invited our Saviour lo sapper; yet, the former evening 

igtnning about two or three of the clock in ihe afternoon, our 

k'Saviour might stay some time to eat wiih them, and yet they be 

icly enough at Jerusalem before the second evening ; for sup- 

it Jerusalem before the second c 
r Saviour slaid an hour with tbeni, or more, after two o 
i of the clock ; yet, if a strong man may walk ordinarily 
rve miles an hour, why inigbl not ttic tidings of this joyful 
i make ihem double their pace, whether on fool or hurse- 
:, (no mention is made of either,) and so be tliere wiihin an 
li Imur and half, or thereabout, before the second evening could 

TTietit ei. And, although our Saviour ap)>eared lo ihem 
when i)i« doors were shut, yet it is not said that the doors were 
■htil because it was nighi, bnl for fear of the Jews and ifaeir 
punuivitnts; that they might not rush iu suddenly upon them, 
which tliey might do in the day as well as in the night; ami 
though this was a poor tafepiard from their enemiw, yi( it wa* 



•ome, aniJ the best which ihey liad. or at leost could think of at 
such n lime ; and ir our Saviour came to iLem when ihcy were 
at supper, (Mark xvi. 14,) and if the ordinary time of the Jtwn' 
■upper was a iiitle alter, or about sunset, (as might be ilemon- 
■tnUcd^ then the second evening was not as yet lifgun ; no, not 
when Chrisl came, much less before the other Xwo came, who 
"were there from Emmaus before. 

TTittit 62. It is fuiJ, by some, that if it was not very late, 
tlien the argumenU of the disciples to persuade Christ to Blay 
were weak ; but it ^ecms (say (hey) they were strong, because 
it is said " they constrained him ; " but we know that much 
•Section will sometimes urge a weak argument very far, for 
atay of some special friend ; and when arguments will not pre- 
vail, it will hold them and constrain them by force ; and thus it 
■eems the discifites dealt h'ith our Saviour ; iheir constraining 
him was not bo much by force of ailment as violence and 
force of love, for so the woixls in the original (;iii^6'i<luic»io) 
properly signifies ; and hence it seems thai there was day enough 
above head tp travel farther in ; otherwise what need such vio- 
lent persuasions to stay with them ? and for any to say that the 
parallel of the Levite's father's persuasions to slay, upon weak 
grounds, is not the same with this, because his arguments might suit 
well not to begin a long journey when it was past noou, whiuh 
was the case there ; but it is a reason of no foi'ce to persuade to 
go farther when a man is in a journey already, which is the case 
here. I say this answer is against the praciice of love in coni> 
mon experience ; men weary in their journey may stand in more 
need of persuasions to siay than they that have not begun to 
travel at all ; nor was the Levite's journey long from Bethlem to 

The^t 63. Nor is it an argument of any weight, from John 
xxxix. 1, because the two disciples are said to abide with Christ 
that day, that therefore the night following did belong to that 
day, (they staying, as it is supposed, all night,) and consequently 
that the day begins in the morning ; for these disciples coming 
to Christ at the tenth hour, or four of the clock in the afternoon, 
there were then two hours remaming until night, (the Jews' ar- 
titlciul day continuing from six to six,) within which time our 
Saviour (who can do much work in a small time) might suffi- 
ciently instruct them (for that lime) wiihin the space of two 

Cientiy instruct tiiem (tor lliat lime} wiium me space oi two 

^^ hours ; and why might they not depart before the nigiit came, I 

^^L ■nd HO stay with him only so short a lime ? And yet, if they I 

^■tdid stay that nighl, they might, noiwilhslanding, be said to stay I 

^B*that artificial day only, without reference to any night before or M 

L _ _ oi 



after, or lo any parP of [be morning foUuwing llmt niglil, when 
it is probable ihej' departed, if tbey did slay witb him all that 

Thetit 64. Tho»e who think that Paul would never have 
prealihed till midnight, (Acts xx. 7.) if that night bod not been 
port of the Sabbath wbieh began the morning before, mach less 
would he, after this long sermon, hare rommuniuued with (hem 
in the sacrament, (ver. II,) anleaa it Lad been the Sabbath day, 
miiy do well to conaider these things : — 

1. That tlie cause of taking in no much of the night following 
for preaching till midnight wa* exlroordinary, viz., Paul's early 
departure never to see their faucs more, and lo say that if this 
night was no part of the Sabbath, it was then unreasonable to 
hold ibem »o long at it, is an assertion which wants reason, if we 
do but consider the shortness of his time, the largeness of Paul's 
heart, speuking now for his last, and the sweetness of their affec- 
tions OS might enaily enable them to cuntinue till midnight 
and upward, with cheerfulness, and without thinking the duty 
tedious and unreasonably long. Paul therelbre might begin bis 
Krmon some part of the daylight, which was part of the Sabbath 
day, and continue it till midnight fallowing, and yet ibis night he 
no part of the Cliristian Sabbath, because it was an extraordinaiy 
cause which pressed him hereunto. 

2. That there is nothing in the words which will evince the 
Sabbath to continue so long as Paul's sermon did ; for suppose 
those who begin the Sabbath at evening, thnt it should be said 
of such, ihei being met together the lirst day of the week to 
break bread, ihcir teacher, l)eing (o depart on the morrow, 
preached unto them, and continued bis speech till midnight ; will 
this argue a continuance of the same day ? No, verily ; and the 
like reason is here. 

3. That the Lord's supper might be and was administered be- 
fore Paul's sermon; for there is a double breaking of bread in 
the text: the one is of common bread, (ver. II,) after Paul had 
prenched ; and the other is of holy bread in the eucharist, (ver. 
7 ;) for the Syriac calls that breaking of tlic bread wliich is men- 
tioned verse 7, the eucharist or Lord's supper ; but that which 
ia mentioned verse 11, common brund; and the Gr«ek word 
jtaaafiMnti implies as much, and hence also it is spoken of one 
man principally, viz., that when he had broken bread, and eaten, 
and Ulked a long time till break of the day, be then deported, it 
being some ordinary repast fur Paul after his long preaching, 
and before his long journey, and is not therefore any sacrsLmonial 
eatinf! the manner of wliicb is wont to be expressed in other 

words than as they ai-e here set down ; if, therefore, Pnol's enting 
(Ter. 11) WHS common brenil, it can not be then Afltrmed Lhat the 
euehwist wns then adiuinisiered afier sermon ut midniglii, and yet 
they pnrtalcing of the siirirament thid diiy. (ver. 7,) it seems ihere- 
fore that it was adminii»Iered soinv time before this cxlruordinary 
course of preaching began. 

Tlitsit 6J. Nor will it follow that (he Sabbath begins in the 
morning, because the morning is set before ihe itighl, in tlie 

gLttlm, for the Subbath, (Vs. xcii. 1, 2 ;) tor, 1. The scope of the 
inlmtst is not to set forth when the Sabbath begins, but how it 
is to be sanctified ; and that is not only by showing forth the lov- 
ing kindness of God every morning cm" daytime, (for that per- 
haps many will readily do,) but also in the nighi, when men may 
think it loo unseasonable or loo luce, and therefore in a holy gra- 
dation from the less to the greater, he first makes mention of the 
morning. 2. The Hebrew word for every night, is, in Ihe nights ; 
and therefore (suppose that this psalm is specially applicable to 
the Sahbath, which we know some question) yet this place will 
as soon evince llie Sabbath to begin in the night Iwfore the morn- 
ing, and to be continued iti sweet affections ibe night after, as 
tbnt it should begin in the morning, and be continued the night af- 
ter 1 so that this place will not clear this cause, nor is there 
any weight in such kind of reasonings. 

Tlifm 66. Nor will it follow from Levit vii. 15, with 22, 

29, 30, and Ex. xii. 10, that because the fleHh of the peace offer- 
ings was to be eaten the same day, and nothing to be left until 
the_ morning, (something like this being spoken also of the 
pnssoTer,) that the day therefore began in the morning : for in 
Leviticus there is a double commandment, I. To eat the flesh of 
their peace offerings the same day ; but yet because, when they 
have eaten, some bones and offul might remain, hence, 2, They 
aru commanded to leave nothing till the morning, which doth not 
argue that they had liberty to eat it as long as they might keep 
it, but that, as tliey had liberty no longer than the same day to eat 
it, BO nor liberty any longer than the next morning so much as to 
keep any of the relies of it. And as for the passover, (a 
place much urged by some,) they were to kill it on the fourteenth 
day, (Gx. xii. 6,) which they might eat the night following, (ver. 
8,) yet so as to leave nothing of it till the morning, (ver. 10.) 
This night following is not, therefore, any part of the fourteenll^ 
but of the fifteenth day : for at midnight there was a cry, (ver. 

30, 31,) and this niglit they went from Rameses to Succoth, (ver. 
37, with 46,) and this lime is expressly called the morrow after 
the passover, (Num. xxuii. 3 ;] nor is there any in< 


269 1 


rule broken to kill llie piissover upon one day, and rontinuo 
eating of it M)me part of anollier, ihe [lossover being a feast of 
more dnys llian one. 

Thegii 67. Nor dolh it follow that because our Saviour lelld 
Peter, (Mark icii-. 30; Luke sxii. 34.) ibut this day, even ihia 
night, (viz., of ihe pasMver,) he Bhould deny him, that this night 
tiicrefore was any part of the precedent day ; for it may be as 
fiiirly interpreted to belong to the day following thai nigltl. Nur 
b it necc8»ary to del«rmine ibis word day attvAys to a determi- 
nate time of twenty-four hours, of which the night was a pan, but 
only of a special aeason of time : for so it \i frequently ligunUively 
taken without any rexpect to a diiy of twenty-four or twelve 
hours, viz., for a special season of time wherein eome special 
providence of God doth appear and is put into execution, aa It. 
xsix. la and xxv. 9, and xxvti. 1 ; Ex. xiv. 13 ; 1 Sam. iv. 7, 8 ; 
X Sam. iv. 5, 7, H. 

Thesit G8. It answers many objection.^ produced against tho 
beginning of the day in the evening, for the morning, to consider 
that the word day is frequently taken in Scripture for un artlHcial 
day, and that Ibe word morrote frequently signifies a new artili- 
cial day, which, in respect of, and reference unto, llie artificial day 
going before or following alVer. is no part thereof, but as the prov- 
erb is, to-niorrow is a new day ; and thus it is taken, John xii. 
IS; vi. 32; Act» xxi. 7, 6 ; 1 Sam. xiv. H ; Acts xxiii. 31, 
tSi 2 Sam. xi. 12, 13; Ex. x. 4, 13; DcuL xxi. 22, 23; 
Josh. viiL 29, and X. 26; Ex. vii. 4,11,12, 17, with i. &-13i 
Sx. xir. ult., with xxxiv. 2, 4, 2S; Deut. ii. 9. 11. Whence 
•aly let ihia be noted, that to ai^e from hence, that to-morrow 
morning or to-morrow daylight is the beginning of the natural 
day, because it is called a new or another day, is not solid ; nor 
also tliat although the night following the artificial day be 
not frequently called la-morrow, yet sometimes it is so called, (1 
Sam. XXX. 17,) where the evening of their morrow stopped Da- 
vid, i. e., that night. 

TKrm 60. There are some who confess that the Jewish Sab- 
bath br-gan at the evening ever since the rrvation unto the time 
of Christ's resurrection ; but now they tell us that it begins in 
the morning, because of Christ's resurrection, (the cause of it,) 
which began then ; so ihnt, as this makes the change of the day, 
■o it makes a change of the beginning of tho day from evening 
till morning, when the resurrection of Christ began ; hut the foe- 
Uencas of this opinion will apjteur from these ensuing cuniider- 

7%M)* 70. 1. Contider. Thitt the foundation of ibis opimoD 


240 TUK BisGiKxiNi; OF TriK sAit&*Tn. 

ia Bxceediiig roKen, viz.. Hint the day must not begin until 
thnt work whii-h ot^caeions the chnnge duih actually exist. 
But we know that the passover began before tlic work which 
did occasion it ilid actually exist, vie., the angels passing over 
the l9rBelii«siiimidnight,(Ex. icit.29, with xii. 13, 14,and vi. 8 ;) 
indeed, the Christian Sabbath day is not before the day o( Christ's 
resurrection ; yel the beginning of this day may be before [be 
beginning of the resurreclion, as it was in the passoTev. 

2. Contider. Thai if any of the evangelists hod intended a 
new beginning of the Sabbath at morning, that they would then 
have set down the exac;t time of the Lord's resurrection ; but 
none of them do this ; they set down the time of olher things lo 
prove tliAt Christ was risen, but not the exact time of the resur- 
rection, for it is wholly uncertain ; certain it is that it was before 
daylight began ; for Mary came and found him risen while it was 
yet dark, (John xx. 1,) and how long he was risen before, who 
can determine ? 

3. Cuniider. That if Christ's resurrection began the Sabbath, 
■0 that in that moment and point of time wherein Christ arose 
tLe Christian Sabbath began, iben Christ could not lie three 
days in the grave j for either he lay three days according to the 
Jewish account, beginning the day at evening, and then the 
third day on which Christ arose (which also was the first day) 
roust begin at evening, as we plead for, or else he must lie 
three days according to ihe new account, which begins ihe third 
day in the morning, leaving out the night before as not apper- 
taining to any pait of the week before or after i but according lo 
Ihis reckoning it is impossible that Christ should he three days in 
the grave : he may be then indeed said lo arise the third day, 
but not to lie any part of the third day, because lying in the 
grave implies some time of continuance therein upon the third 
day ; but how could this be when they say that the moment of 
Christ's resurrection began the day of uur Christian Sabbath ? 

4. Contider. If the Jewish Sabbath was the last day of the 
week, and began and ended at evening, then the Christian Sab- 
bath must either begin at evening, when the Jewish Sabbatll 
ended, or the first day of the week can not be the Christian Sid>- 
baih, but only a part of the first day, and part of the second day ; 
tor the night which goes before the Christian Sabbalh either, 1, they 
must make it to belong to the Jewish Sabbath, and then that Sab- 
bath must be sanctified thirty-six hours, and so it must be more than 
> day which is sanclitied, which is absurd ; or, 2, ibey must make 
it belong lo the CLrisiiun Sabbath, and then they can not make it 
begin in the momhig; or, 3, they must leave it out from all 

^P«U1 I 

■ Ibere 

even, and iKol 
«CDnie of that I 
y of the week ' 

weeklj' account, Hud so take in the night Tolloiving (wliiyh i 
of the secoml day) as part of Ihe Sabbalh. 

Coiuider, That llie seventh part of time can not be orderly 
1 lo God, but it mugc be either the first or last seventh, (ma 
been shown;) and the moralitj' of the fourth commandment 
rroui not be observed without giving to God either of these ; if 
Iberefore the Jewish Sabbatii ended at even, the Cliristian Sab- 
bath must immediately succeed it, and begin it then, or eUe a 
moral mie is broken. 

6. If the Jewbb Sabbath began and ended at c 
Christian Sabbath began at morning, what must become o 
night which is between them both, and to what day o 
must it belong? If any xuy, that it is no matter whether i 
long to any or no, so long as tipie runs on, tbi« answer will not 
suffice ; for though time runs on, yet what orderly time is there 
bere which is running on ? Time constsis of years, and ycare of 
months, and months of weeks, and weeks of days ; to what day or 
what week then must this night belong ? They that maintain this 
opinion do roundly allirm that it is no absurdity to leave that 
one night out from weekly, nor ns pertaining to any week before 
or after, but say it was lost. Alas ! poor forlorn night, that art ,' 
thug strangely Ibrsaken ; what a alnuige kind of night is ibis 
which belongs to no day ! Wbut a misslmpen lump of lime art 
thou, and yet how canst thou be part of time, that art part of no I 
day, but only (as they say) of time flowing and running on, with- \ 

out head or foot, week or day ! ' 

Tltetii 71. Tbey tell us, that "in Joshua's time, when tbe^i 

stood still, and in Hezekiab's time, when Ibe sun went back, that 

there was as great a perverting of the order of time as this cornea 

and ibat there is as good reason to alter the time upon such 

special and wonderful occasion as Christ's resurrection, as there 

to disorder the course of time then ;" but the weakness of this 

»er may appear from these things : — 

, That in tbe days of Joshua and llezekiah, there waa no 
nonstroua, misshapen piece of time cut out, as here is imagined ; 
4>r though the sun stood still, suppose about twelve hours in 
ihua's time, and so made a day of ihirly-six hours, yet these 
hours were part of that day, and of that which ordinarily 
Uie day, viz., the motion of the sun about the earth, which 
ordinarily once in twenty-four hours, only the Lord stopped it 
• while, and so made it a longer day, and yet measured by ihu 
ordinary measure of a day, viz., the sun comjiassing the earth ; 
which this night is noi. 
TOL. m. i\ 






3. Though novae part of Ihu weekly lime wa.-< changed in some 
respect, jet no ])art of saert'd nod Kubbaili time was perrBrted 
by either the euii's standing still, or -its going hack, because, 
though these things were longer than ordinary, jet they were 
bat ordinarj days in this sense, viz., because there was no more 
to either daj than that whicli ordinarilj makes a day. to wit, that 
space of time wherein the sun circularly compa^seth the whole 
«arth. For though a seventh part of time be morally due to God, 
man having sis days for himself, jet this is to be understood as 
€ach day is measured by, and made up of, the whole complete 
tnolion of the sun eircltng the earth : now, though these djijs were 
longer than usual in those famous times, yet ihey were onlj sueh 
days as were made by this motion ; and hence there was no 
change or perverting of the time of the Sabbath, but God hath 
bis due then orderly. But here we must make a new and 
strange beginning of time, by leaving out a whole night, and 
denying God a seventh day, according to ordinary account and 
reekoning, and must fall to a disorderly beginning, upon pretense 
of a more than ordinary occasion i which yet we see was not so 
in those cxtraorditiarj timcti of Hezckiah and Joshua. 

3. In the days of Joshua and Hezeiiah there was some neces- 
sity of prolonging those days, and that in a course of providence, 
supposing that God would work wonders bj his providence ; but 
what necessity is there to begin the daj when Christ did first 
arise ? for this action falling out upon the first day, might sanc- 
tify the whole day, which in ordinary course should have begun 
Rt evening; wo see the whole fifth of November is sanctified, 
upon an occasion which happened about nine or ten of the clock ; 
and the evening of the passover was sanctified before the angel 
passed over the Isi-neUtes at midnight, which was the occasion of 
tlie sanctiScation of that day : what need or necessity was there 
to leave a whole night out of weekly account, and lose such a 
part of precious treasure ? 

4. It was for the manifestation of the marvelous glory of God 
in the eyes of all the world, good and bad,^ make that violation 
(as it were) of the course of time in the days of Joshua and Hez- 
ekiah ; but what glory doth Christ gain in the eyes of others, by 
making the day to begin at the time of his resurrection by the 
loss of the whole evening before out of the account of weekly 
lime ? Or what glory doth Christ lose if he should begin the 
day at evening when the Jewish Sabbath ended, wlienas the 
whole day thus is celebrated and sancti^ed for his glory in re- 
spect of his resurrection upon this day ? And therefore it is : 


imagine as mncli reason for ihe violalion of the 
of lime in respucl of Ghriel's resurrection (which makes so 
little for the glory of Christ) as there was tor the Tariation of 
time in the days of Joshua and Hezekiah, which made so ajipoT' 
ently, and evidently, and exceedingly for the glory of God, and 
Ibe honor of (hose who were types of Chvist, 

TAeii* 72. To say that ibere b a. necessity of begiDoing the 
Chrbtian Sabbath when Christ first entered into bis rest, (the 
&st moment of his resurrection,) because the Father began the 
Jewish Sabbath the first moment of bis rest after his six days' 
labor, is not solid nor sound ; for there was a necessity for &>d 
the Father to begin his rest at the end of his work ; otherwise a 
moral rule had not been observed, viz., that a seventh part of 
time be sanctified ; for six days being finished in creating the 
world, there was now a necessity of sanctifying the seventh day 
wherein his rest began, test a moral rule should be exempUrily 
broken ; but there was no such necessity here ; for the whole 
evening of the first day may be aanctitied upon occasion of 
Christ's rest on some piirt of that day, and no moral rule broken 
hereby ; nay, there hod been a moral rule broken if the Chris- 
tian Sabbath hud not begun upon this evening ; because hereby 
God should have lost a Sabbath day within the compass of s< 
days as (bey are measured by the sun ; and this is directly c 
to the morality of tlie fourth command ; for if a whole ni^ht bu 
loot, (as these men reckon,) only time flows on, (they say,) liien 
it must be full seven days and a half before God have a Sabbath 
to begin ; and this absurdity in the course of time, I believe, will 
BM be found in Joshua's time, nor in altering the begiiming of 
the year in Moses' time, (Ex. xii.,) for no moral rule was ia- 
trenebed upon by these and such like alterations. 

TAetit 73. It is an ungrounded assertion lo say that the ren- 
ts of the change of the day are the same for the cliange of Ihe 
beginning of the day ; for, 1. There was a type atGxed (as hath 
been shown) to that Jewish Sabbath ; but I never yet heard of 
luiy type in respect of the beginning of ihe Sabbath. 2. Divine 
will and inslitution changed the day, and that according to a 
mond rule, vii., that God hath one day in seven given him ; but 
God could not begin the Sabbath with excluding the evening be- 
fore Christ arose without breach of this rule, as hath been shown. 
The day might be kept and changed without breach of that rule, 
but the beginning could not be changed but there would necessa- 
rily follow some breach thereof. 

7%t$iM 74. To think that the Sabbath must needs begin in 
the morning, because we read not expressly after Christ's resuiv 


rection, that the niglit Bhould belong to llie ilaj following, nor is 
there any instance thereof as in rhe Old Tegiament, and before 
Christ's resurrection, it ma^ be (thej confees) undeniably so 
found, — I say, lo think the Sabbath must begin in the morning, 
upon this ground, is somewhat like u> his conceit, who findinv in 
the Old Testament that ihe seventh day is to be sanctified, but 
rol finding this expresBion, after Christ's resurrection, hence ho 
thought there was now no seventh day to be sanctiBed. Those 
who can answer this objection may kDow how to answer thereby 
their own argument for ihe bcguming of it at momitig, which is 
just like unto it; if indeed there were clear scriptures for the 
beginning of it at morning in the New Testament, and none lo 
show the beginning of it at evening, the argument had much 
weight ; but this hath not yet appeared. Old Testament evi- 
dences are not apocrypha proofs in moral matters in these men's 
consciences who thus argue for ilie morniug. 

Tlieiit 75. To argue the beginnirig of the Sabbath at morn- 
ing, from ihe congruity and fitness of the season for holy time 
rather than evening, is no way fair or rational ; for, 1. There 
may be aa much aaid (perhaps more) for the fitness and congru- 
ity of the evening, if this arguing were evicting ; but we know 
the ground of all superstition hath been human wisdom, which 
puts out the eagle's eyes when it goes about to mend them ; and 
when it would better God's worship by goodly seemiiigs and trap- 
pings, it then destroys it, at least corrupts it ; this only may be 
said, that just ns-we lie down with our hearts over night, so we 
find ihem commonly in the morning ; the beginning of the Sab- 
bath at evening will force us in conscience lo lie down over night 
with Sabbath hearts, which marveloualy prepares for the receiv- 
ing of Sabbath blessings the day ensuing. 

Thai* 76. If, therefore, the Sabbath doih not begin, neither 
according to the custom of civil nations, nor at midnight, nor 
morning, what time, then, must it begin at (from any color 
y of Scripture) but only in the evening? At eveuing, therefore, 
afYer the settmg of the light of the body of the sun, wherein dark- 
ness begins to be predominant over the light, the Sabbath begins 
now, as the Jewish Subballi began in former times ; and hero let 
me say that Old Testament proofs may be in this, as in many. 
other tilings. New Testamcat rules. 

7Xe»i» 77. If the Jewish Sabbath did begin and end at 
ing, which was the Inst day of the week, then the Cli 
Sabbath iho first day of the week, which immediately succeeds 
the last, is to begin at evening also; if the Sabbath in the first 
institution began at evening, why should not the Christian 




Sabbath be conformed m near as may be lo tlie first institution ? 
But we see, oul of Gt;a. i^ that, as all otiicr days began at 
the evening or dark night, so it was not orderly or possiblii, ac- 
cording to the moral rule God acted by, that the Sabbath should 
begin upon any other time than the evening ; nor is it improbftbia 
but that Ezeluel foretells this, that in the Chrislian cliurch, as 
the g»Ie for the Sabbath should not be shut until the evening, 
(Ezek. ilvi. 1, 2,) 80, bj just proportion, the time for opening 
of it was the evening before, when the Subboth began. 

TTifiit 78. Now, although some deny the beginning of the 
Sabbath in Gen. i. to be in the evening, (deceiving themselves 
and their readers with the ambiguity and various acceptation of 
the words evening and morning,) yet this is moat evident, that 
the lirst day begun with night, or darkness, which is called night, 
(Gen. i. i, 5,) and consequently ended with daylight ; let even- 
ing and morning, therefore, be taken how they will, yet it is 
suflicient to prove that which we aim al, viz., that as the first 
day began with night, and ended at the end of daylight, so by 
just consequence every other day did, even the Sabbath itself, 
which still begins the beginning of night, whii^ is all that which 
we mean by evening when we say that it begins then ; which 
also the Holy Ghost calls darkness, which darkness (Gen. i. 2) 
J^^ calls night, (ver. 5,) and which night is all one with evening. 
J^ 7%en( 79. And if the natural (which some call civil, others 
pthe compound) day began fir«t in the evening, then surely it oon- 
'''^naed so; or, if not, then this disorderly practice should have 
been regnlated again, according to the tin-l pattern, as the abuses 
cr«pt into the Lord's supper were by Paul, (1 Cor. xi. 23,) and 
as errors about marriage were by our Saviour, telling them that 

7S«if 80. Nor should it bo a wonder why the wise Creator 
should begin tim e^with darkness, or the less noble part of the j 
day, no more tlian why^e Lord should begin the world w' ' 
rude and confused chaos before a glorious world ; tlie progreu 
of his wisdom in making the whole world being for the most pitrt I 
from more imi>erfect things to perfect, from the chaos to beauty, I 
from the servants and furniture to man, the lord and master of ' 
ibis great house ; and so here, from darkness to light : the Sah- 
buih also being a day of rest, was it not most proper to begin it 
tlien, when man begins his rest, which is the night ? when also 
God began rest from his work in the first creation. 

TfitMit 81. Some conceive by the evidence of the text thai ^ 1 
darknoaa was before light, yet wrestle with their wits to make it \ \ 
21 • 

)f the y' 
*ith a ^ 

THK BIC[>tN'>'IH<.i 

neither part of the night nor part of lime, but onlj punelum ttm- 
X^ jiorit, and by this shifl would make the first day to begin in the 

■ Thesis 82. Bat was ever any punetitm lemportt (which is 
•J thought to be no part of tirae) called by the name of night, as 
this darkness is? (Gen. i. 4, 5, with ii.) Was ihe world made 
ill six days, and is there a heaven and eurlh made within the 
time of this darkness, aiid yet this time of darkness to be no part 

I of lime, but only a mathematical point, but no real part of suc- 
ceeding time.? Zanchy long since haih largely confuted and 
ivushed this egg shell, where the reader may look ; there was 
not indeed any celestial motion of the heavens to measare this 
lime by. (for Master Weeraea olijecte. fempiu rit niertsura mohu.) 
but by tbis argument there was no time till the fourth day, when 
the sun and stars were created, nor is time properly mentura mo- 
J^ tug, but as eternity is the indeierroinale duration of a iking to- 
gether, so lime is the determinate duration of things by succes- 
sion 1 which was evidently since time began on the Hi's! moment 
of creation. 

Them 83. Others, who acknowledge this first darkness to be 
part of time, yet will not have it lo be part of the nighttime, 
y be(»use light, (the habit,} they say,niust go before darkness, (the 
privation,) liecause also liiis first darknesa is not so called night, 
but the separated darkness, (Gen. i. S,) when God separated the 
light into one hemisphere, and darkness into another. 

Thent 64. But this arguing is almost against the expreea let- 
ter of the text, (Gen. i.,) wherein it is muai evident that light 
was created alter darkness hod been some lime upon ihe 
V face of the deep ; which darkness can not be part of the day- 
light, no more than blindness is a pan of siglil, and therefore is 
a part of the night, before this conceived separated darkness 
could cxisi. Beside, the separation of darkness fmm light doth 
not make any new darkness which is a new denomiiialed dark- 
ness, but is the same darkness which was at first, only the sepa- 
ration is a new placing of it, but it gives no new being to it. 
t Tketig 85. Suppose also that light and darkness ore contra- 
rto privanlia ; yet it is not true, cither in philosophy or divinity, 
I that the tiabit must always actually go before the privation in die 
' Mme subject ; for the privation may be first it' it be in tubjeeto ca- 

£tei; i. e., in a subject capable of Ihe habit ; for silence maybe 
fore speech in a man, and blindness and deafness in a. man who 
never saw nor heard a word, because man is a subject capable 
, of both } and so here durkneris might be belbre light, because this 
p.Mdi|j«ct of the lirst matter was capable of bottv 


^H Thau 86. Kor U it true in divinity that the darknegs and 
^^■l^ht were at flrst separated into two hemispheres ; or if they 
^^B were, yet what orthodox writer aDinns that the supposed gepa- 
^K-nted darkness only is called night ? 

^^M TVm K7. For look, as the darkne«!i did OTerspread the 
^P whole cbaoe and all the dimensions of il at llie same lime, why 
night not the light, the habit, be extended ae far aa was the pri- 
vation before, and iliiit at the same time? there being no globe, 
or denoe body of earth and water, (existing ud now ihey do,) at 
that time created, and consei^uently no opaijue and solid body to 
divide between light and darkness, and go to separate them into 
two hemispheres, as by this means it is at this day, unless we im- 
agine miracles without necessity, and thai God then miraculously 
did it when there was no necessity of it. For the element of 
fire being figuratively called light, it being (as Junius shows) 
proprietai etteHiialii iffiiii, being also created in the superior 
pert of the vast chaos, might therefore be cast down by a mighty 
hand of God (there being no ordinary means of sun or stars yet 
craalcd to do il) into all the inferior chaos, and so make day. 
JLnd tlie ascending of this light upward again might make it to be 
night ; and therefore, although God separated between light and . 
I 4ukness, yet this sepiiration seems to be rather in respect of time )( 
^'Aan in respect of place, or two hemispheres ; for the light, when 
■^ WHS cast down, sepamled and scattered the darkness, and so j 
eluded it, so that when there was light, there was no dai-kness ; I 
1 darkness, there was no ligiht; and thus they succeeding 
excluding one another, the Lord is said to separate them one 
rftou anuthtr. but not into two imagined hemispheres, by which 
r tauginaiion of two hemispheres it will be also very difficult lo set / 
down when it was day and when it was night, at this time of theX 
cmuion ; because, in respect of one part of the chaos, it might 
be called day, in respect of the other hemisphere of the chaos it 
miglil be called night; and therefore it seems more suitable to 
the truth that the descending of the light mode day throughout tlie j 
whole chaos remaining, and the ascending of it to its proper place / 
•uccessively made night ; which as it answers many curious ques- / 
lions about the nature and motion of this light, so it yields a 
more than probable argument, that, if the daylight continued 
twelve hours, (which none tjueslion,) why should not each night 
continue as long? and therefore that the lirst darkness did 
continue »uch a time before the creation of the light. 

7%Mi'i 88. But suppose this local separation into two hemi- 
spheres was granted, yet it will not follow'frora hence that this 
MpMntod durkoM* only ia oMwA night, and ibai lb* darkowu 



i OV Tills a.VBBATlI. 


before waa no part of it ; for if the day and night began at the 
imagiBeJ division of light and (Urknesa, ihcn (this division being 
in an insloot of time) neither could the duy be before the night, 
nor the tligltt before ilie dny. but both exist and begin logetlicr; 
and then it will follow that the Iwginning of the first day was 
neither in the morning nor evening, in darkness nor light, in 
night nor day ; but tliat it began in the morning and evening, 
daylight and dark night, together ; which is too gross for any 
wise man to afltrni, nor would the God of order do it. Agitin : 
if the first darkness, which was preexislent to this hemispherical 
light and darkness, wae no part of the niglil, then much less wdb 
it any part of the first daylight, and so no part of the natural 
day ; which if any should alGrm, they must deny the creation of 
tlie world in six day^ ; for it is evident that the heavens and 
earth were made in the time of the first darkness. 

Thetit 89. To say tliat this first darkness was part of the 
morning, and did belong to the morning light, as now some time of 
darkness in the morning is called morning, and therefore is called 
the womb of the morning, (Ps. ex. i.) is a mere shift to prove 
the beginning of time to be in the morning, and an evasion from 
the evidence of truth. For, 1. This first darkness must either 
be the whole night, consisting, as the light did, of about twelve 
hours, and then it can not possibly be called morning, or belong 
thereunto ; or it must be part of the night, and that which came 
after the light another part of it, and then we may see a monstrous 
day, which hath part of its night before it, and part aller it ; be- 
side, it ia contrary to the text, which makes the whole morning 
togetlier, and the whole evening together, the whole daylight 
jogether, and so the whole night together. 2. That darkness 
which by an improper speech wu make to belong to the morning, 
in oiu' ordinary account, is the latter part of the night, or of the 
darkness ; but we read not in all the Scripture, nor is It suitable 
to any solid reason, to make the first beginning uf night or dark- 
ness as [lart of the morning. Now, this firat darkness (wbieli is 
the beginning of darkness) is called night, at least is the be^n- 
ning of night, and therefore can not be called morning, but even* 
ing rather, as we usually cidl the first beginning of darkness 
after daylight. 

T&etis 'M. That express commandment {Lev, xxiii. 32) 
to celebrate the ceremonial Sabbath from even to even, doth 
strongly prove the beginning of the moral Sabbath at the some 
time ; for why else is it called a Sabbath of resl^ but because it 
be spent in duties of humiliation, as the other Sabbath in ' 
I suitable to the nature of it? and hence the Lord's care is 



^■nallj esact herein, 1. Tbat no servile work be done, because 
^H h a Subbatli, (ver. 31, 32;) 2. Tbat it be spent and saiicti- 
^^Sed from even to even, (meaning,) like as you do your weekly 
Sftbbailis. And bonce the Lord eaith not, Vou sball celebrate 
your d*y of atonement front even to even, but (the Lord usually 
nrappino: up argument in bis words) your Sa&balh ; as if he 
should iay. You would account it a profane lliiog not to celebrate 
your ordinarj weekly Subbath from even to even, or to do any 
servile work on iliat day ; tbia day Is a Sabbalb, and tlierefora 
you must sanctify it from even to even, and therefore do no' ser- 
vile work herein. 

TTiftii 91, To imagine (as some do) that " the ordinary Sab- 
Iwib began at another time, because here God makes a new 
command, that it be from even to even, in oppositiou to the other 
Sabbaths beginning, and that otherwise it had been enough to 
eay, Vou shall celebrate this day as a Sabbath ; " one may Irom 
the same ground imagine ilmt in other Sabbaths they might do 
any servile work, because here also they are forbidden it ; for it 
may be as well siud, that otherwise it hud been enough to say, 
You shall sanctify this day as you do other Sabbaths : here, 
iherefore. is no new institution of time from the begitming of the 
Sabbath, but of » new ordinance, together with the application 
of time according to common and ordinary account ; and the 
Lord expresseib from even to even, (wbicli makes up a natui^ 
d»y,) lest man's heart (which is soon weary of duties of humilia- 
tion) should intepret it of an artificial (^y, to prevent which 
mi«take the Lord had good reason to set the distinct bounds of it 
from even to even. 

?%MM 92. Jtor can this evening be fairly interpreted of the 
former even before sunset, as taking in Uiat also : for this even* 
ing is to begin at the evening of the ninth day, (ver. S2,) which 
evening of the ninth day is not the evening of that day aboat 
two or three of the clock, — for the tenth day only is called the 
day of atonement, (ver. 27,) and therefore part of the ninth day 
is tio part of the atonement dny, — but, as Junius well expounds 
it, at the evening of the ninth day, pula ijua nonat dtei tUjuiit, at 
that nick of lime, which is the contmurtit terminal of the end of 
the ninth day and beginning of the tenth, you shall then cele- 
brate your SiU>bath ; which curious exactness of the Lord is 
partly to express his zeal for the full and plenary observation 
of the day, that he may not lose a moment's time of honor, as 
also to show what care iliey should have of holding out from tlio 
Arst iKiiiit to the last period of that Sabbath. 

7awi« 93. And therefore it is a groundless deduction from 


the text to make thia day to be of extiTiordiniu-y Itnglli, and bo 
an unfit measure for our ordinary Subbarh. And to euy tbat 
there was a ceremony in beginning ihis day ut cvrn is hut ffriUit 
dt'elwn, and can never be made good, unless ii be by gucU t'elcbes 
of wit whicrh can mold ihu pLiinest history into iha unage of ft 
goodly allegory, a most impudent (."oursc <i( ur;;uin};, in Austin's 
judgment and in bis lime. 

79iesii 94. If the Sabbath do not begin itt evening, why did 
Kehemioh (an exemplary magistrate) command the gates to be 
shut, when the gales of Jerusalem began lo he dark before the 
Sabbath? (Neh. xiii. 19.) Was it not lust the Sabbath should 
be profaned [liat night by bringmg in of wares nnd burdens 
through the gates, us nell ab in the ensuing dity ? Is it not ex- 
pressly said that he set his servants fit these gates that there 
might be no burden brought ia upon the Sabbath dny? Is it not 
expressly said that he set the Levites to keep the gates to sanc- 
tify the Sabbath day? (ver. 19, 22.) Now, if ibis evening was 
no part of the Sahbalh, how could tbey then ho said to saucttfy 
the Sabbath thereby 'f 

Tlietii 95. To imagine that Nchemiah did this to prevent 
the profaning of the Sabbath day after, ia as if a man should 
shut his doors at noon against such thieves as he knows will not 
come to hurt him until midnight be past. It would be weakness 
in a magistrate to Lake away any considerable part of the week 
which God allows for labor, to prevent [hut evU on [he Sabbaih 
which he knows he ie suliiciently able to prevent at the approach 
of ihe day itself; for Nehemiah might easily have shut the galea 
in the morning, if the Sabbath had not begun before ; and might 
have better done it than to cut so large a thong out of the week 
time lo prevent sueh dehlement of the Sabba[h day. 

Hittit 9G. When therefore the gates of Jerusalem began to 
be dark, or, as Junius renders the words, qtium abtimbrartntia- 
porta, i. e., when they were shadowed by the descent of the sun 
behind the mountains which compassed Jerusalem, and so did 
cast a shadow of darkness upou the gates of the city, Komcwhut 
sooner than in other places le.'^ mountainous, this shadow, being 
no part of the dark night, is truly said 10 be before, or (as the 
Hebrew is) before the face or looking out of the Sabbath i for 
although the Sabbaih be said to begin at sunset, yet it is to be 
understood not of the setting of the body of the sun visibly, 
but of the light of the sun when darkness begins to be predotn- 
ir the light, and men are forced lo forsake their work : 
now, just before iliis Nehemiah shut the gales, at the common 
term and end of the six days' labor, and the seventh day'i 

I THE BEU]^NI^ti Of T 

»esl : and ihererore it is a weak objeclion which some mak«, to 
My that this evening vas noi part of the Sabliath, because the 
•gues are said to be shut before the Sabbath. 
TTtesii 97. It is said the women who prepared spices for 
bur Saviour's bodj, that the; rested the Sablmth, which is evi- 
^n( to b« in th« evening ; and this they did not superstitiousljr, 
Cu some say,) but according [o the commandment. (Lnlce xxiiL 
63-56.) If, Uierefbre, these women began to rest, ai.'cording to 
tiie commandment of God, upon the evening, then the evening, 
lly the same commandment, is the beginning of the holy rest of 
the Sabbath. It is not only the commandment of God that one 
day in seven be sanctilied, but also that it be siinctilied from even 

I the evening, ia 

T/ittit 08. Now that they began t< 

» evident from lliese considemlions ; — 
1. That our Saviour died the ninth hour, (Luke xxiii. 44, 46,) 
vhich was about three of the clock in the afternoon. A little 
after this, Joseph begs his body, and takes it down, because it was 
w^aaSSaiof, or preparation for the Sabhalb, (Mark v. 42,) in 
which prejiaralion il is said that the Sabbath did entifuoni, an.w 
on, shine forth, (Luke xxiii. 34:) now, this shining or breaking 
jarlh of the SMbbalh can not be meant of the daylight morning 
■hilling forth ; for it is a mere dream to think tliat Joseph should 
be so long a time in doing so little work, from Saturday in the 
nflrimDon until the next morning hght only in taking of Christ 
from the cross, wrapping him in linen, and laying him in his own 
■epulcher, which was not far off, but near at hand also. (John 
xix. ii.) The shining forth of the Sabbath also stopped the 
women from proceeding to anoint Christ's body, after they had 
brought their spiced ; and therefore, if the shining forth of the Sab- 
bath bad been the morning after, they might certainly have had 
•ufflcient lime todoihat work in ; the shining fortli therefore of the 
Sftbbath was in the latter evening in which the Sabbath began ; 
•nd it ia said to shine forth by a metaphor, because it did then 
flmt ^^lear, or draw on ; or, as Piscnlor and sundry others think,' 
becwwe about that time the stars in heaven, and the lamps and 
nndlec in houses, began to shine forth ; which if just then when 

IdnrkneM is predominant, whiuh ia the beginning of the Sabbalb 
at evening lime. 
i. If that evening had not begun the Sabbath, why did not ths 
women (who wanted neither conscience, nor affection, nor oppor- 
tunity) anoint his body that evening, but defer il until the night 
■ft«r ? What could stop tliem bcri-in, but only tlie conscicDCe 
«r the commandment which bvgan the Sabbath Ihut evening? 





3. Either the Sabbath must begin thie evening, or they did not 
rest the Sabbath according to the coaimandment ; for if ibey 
began to keep the Sabbath at morning Uglit, ihen, if they rested 
according to the command men I, Uiey must keep it until the morn- 
ing light after ; but it ia manifest that Ihey were stirring, and in 
preparing their ointments long before that, even in the dark nigbt 
before the light did appear, as haih been formerly sho^vn. 

Thetii 89. Why the women did not go ^out to embalm 
Christ's body the beginning of the dnrk CTcning after the Sab- 
bath was past, but staid so long a time after till the dark morn- 
ing, can not be eertainly determined : perhaps they thought it not 
suitable to a rule of Grod and prudence to take some rest and sleep 
first, before they went about the ssuA work, and might think the 
morning more tit for it than the dark evening before, when their 
sorrowful hearts and spent spirits might need mercy lo be shown 
them, by taking their rest a while first. They might also possi- 
bly think it offensive to others presently to rim lo the embalm- 
ing of the dead, aa soon as ever the Sabbath was ended, and 
therefore staid till the dark moruitig, when usually every one 
was preparing and stirring toward their weekly work. 

Thtti* 100. The Lord Christ could not \\» three days in the 
grave, if the Sabbath did not begin at evening; and for any to 
athrm that the dark morning wherein he arose was part of this 
first day, and did belong thereunto, is not only to overthrow their 
own principles, who begin (he Sabbath at the beginning of day- 
light morning, but they also make the beginning of the Sabbath 
It) be wholly uncertain ; for who can tell at what time of this 
dark morning our Saviour arose? 

Thttii 101. It is true there are some parts of the habitable 
world, in Kussia, and those northern countries, wherein for about 
a month's time the sun is never out of sight : now, although they 
have no dark evening at this time, yet doubtless they know how 
to measure their natural days by the motion of the sun ; if, there- 
fore, they observe that time which is equivalent to our dark even- 
ings, and sanctify to God the space of a day, ns it is measured 
by the circling sun round about them, they may then be said to 
sanctify the Sabbath from even to even, if they do that which is 
equivalent thereunto ; they that know the east, west, south, 
north points, do certainly know when that which is equiv- 
alent lo evening begins, which if they could not do. yet doubtless 
God would accept their will for the deed in such a case. 

Jlient 102. If, therefore, the Sabbath began at evening from 
Adam's time in innocency till Nehemiah's time, and from Nehe- 
miah's time till Christ's lime, why should any Ihink but that 



where the Jewish Sabbath, the Uist day of the week, doth end, 
there the Christian Sabbath, the first day of the week, begins ? 
Unless any can imagine some type in the beginning of the Sab- 
bath at evening ; which must change the beginning of the day, 
as the type affixed did change the day ; or can give demonstra- 
tive reasons that the time of Christ's resurrection must of neces* 
sity be^n the Christian Sabbath, which for aught I see can not 
be done. And therefore it is a groundless assertion that ** the 
reasons of the change of the day are the same for the change of 
the beginning of it ; and that the chief of the reasons for the even- 
ing may be as well applied against the change of the day itself, 
as of the time of it jBut sufficient hath been said of this. I 
shall, only add this, that there is no truth of Christ's, but, upon 
narrow search into it, hath some secret knots and difficulties, and 
so hath this about the beginning of the Sabbath ; it is there&re 
humility and self-denial to follow our clearest light in the simpli- 
city of our hearts, and' to wait upon the throne of grace with 
many tears for more clear discoveries until all knots be unloosed. 
YOL. ui. 22 



K aUChr 
■ Tket 

Thfiit 1. The won! Sahbnth properly signifies, not commoir, 
but mcTtd or holy rest. The Lord tlierefore enjoins this rest 
from labor upon ihis day, uot so mucli for ihe rest's sake, but 
because it is a medium, or means of that holiness which the Lord 
requires upon tlijs day ; otherwise the Sabbath is a day of idle* 
neB3, not of holiness ; our cattle can rest but a common real from 
labor as well as we ; and therefore it is man's sin and shame 
if be improTo Ihe day no belter than the beasts that perish. 

TAeiig 2. And as Ihe rest of the day is for ihe holiness of it, 
eo is all the labor of the week for this holy rest ; that as the end 
of all the labor of our lives is for our rest with Christ in heaven, 
BO also of the six days of every week for the holy rest of the 
Sabbath, (he twilight and dawning of heaven. For the eightli 
commandment, which would not have us steal, commands tis 
therefore to labor for our families and comforts in all the seasons 
of tabor. This fourth command, therefore, which not only per- 
mits but commands us to labor six days, must have another 
respect in commanding us to labor, and a higher end, which can 
not be any thing else but with respect to the Sabbath ; that as 
we arc to watch unto prayer, so we are to work unto the Sab- 
bath, or so work all the week day that wo may meet with God, 
and sanctify the Sabbath day. 

T^etit 8. As therefore the holiness of the Sabbath is moral 
because it is the end of the day, so is the rest of the Sabbath 
(the immediate means to that end) moral abo. Look, therefore, 
whatever holy duties Ihe Lord required of the Jews, which were 
not ceremonial, the same duties he requires of us upon this day; 

whatever rest he required of them for this end, he exacts 

Christians also. 

ITtetit 1. Those (hat make the Sabbath ceremonial imagine 
BUicter rest imposed ujion the Jews ih ™ • ■ 








Im'.iiiil 1111(0, boeause they place the ceremonial ness of (lie Sab- 
balli in llie alriut rest of it ; but we are Iwund to the same rest 
fur BulujUnco of it; and ttic ground lor a stricter rest than we 
ftre bound unio will be found too light, if well pondered. 

Theti* b. For, though it be said that the Jews might not 
bake, nor seethe meat upon (his day, (Ex. xvi. 23,) no, nor make 
k fire upon il, (Ex. xxkv. a,) no, nor gather sticks upon it, with- 
out death, (Num. vi. 15, 3D,) — nil whit-h things Christians now 
mnj lawfully do, — yet nooe of these places will evince that for 
which they are alleged. 

Tluwi G. For. Bi-st. it is not saiil, (Kx. xri. 23,) Bake and 
seethe tliat to-day which may serve you next day ; but, that which 
remains, {viz., which is Dot sod nor bnked,) lay it up until the 
morning, and conact]iiently for the morrow of the next day, 
which being thus luid up, I do not find (hat they are forbidden 
to bake or eeelhe that which remains U])on the next day : but 
rather, if they must use it the next day, they might then bake it 
or seethe it that day alao, as ihey did, tliat of the sixth day, and 
without which they could not have the comfortable use of it upon 
the Sabbath day. Indeed, it was an lawful lo grind and beat the 
manna in mills and mortare, mentioned Num. xi. 8, upon this 
day as now to thresh and grind corn this day ; the meul there- 
fore, which did remain, is not forbidden to be baked or sod upon 
this day ; nor would God's special and miraculous providence 
ftppcar in preserving it from worms and stinking, if there had 
been any baking of it the day before, and not rather upon the 
Sabbalh day. 

Theiit 7. Although also they were forbidden to kindle Gk 
apon this day, (Ki. xxsv. 3,) in respect of some use, yet Ihey 
■re not forbidden so to do in respect of any use whatsoever. 
For there was tire kindled for the Sabbath sacrifices, and it would 
been a breach of the rule of meri^y, not to kindle a fire for 
the sick and weak in the wilderness. Nehemiah also, a man 
strict and zealous for the .Sabbath, yol had such provision 
made every diiy as could not be dressed nor eaten without some 
Are upon the Sabbath day, (Neh. r. 18;) and the Sabbalh not 
being a fast, but a feast in those times as well as these, hence it 
tl not unsuitable to the time to have comfortable provisions made 
,'l«tdy, provided thai the dressing of meat be not an ordinary 
[iUnderance to public or private duties of holiness upon this day, 
(Ex. xii. 16:) ihis kindling of the Are here forbidden must there* 
ure be understood in respect of ihc scope of the [ilace, viz., not 
U kindle a fire for any servile work, no, not in respect of ihia 
particular use of ii, vix.. lo further the building of the sanctuarj 


And tabernacle, made meniinn of in ihia diapter ; for it is said^ 
whosoever shall do any work therein (i. e,, any servile work, whicb 
is more proper Tor the week lime) shall be put to denth, (rer 
2 ;) there is, therefore, eiihur no dependence of these words in 
the third Terse with those in the second, or else we must under- 
slnnd it of kindling fires rrstrictiTely for any serrile work, whiel 
ia there forbidden not only the Jewa, hut us Christians also. 

TTifM 8. The man lliat gathered sticks on the Stibhath (Num. 
XV. 30) viae put to death. What ! for gathering of sticks only ? 
Why then did not the just God put ihem to death who were the 
first otfenders, (and therefore most fit to be made examples,) who 
went out to gather manna upon Ibb da; ? (Ex.xvi.) Thisgalh- 
ering of sticks, therefore, though little in itself, yei seems to be 
aggravated hy presumption ; aiid tliat the man did pnsumpluou3-> 
ly break the Sabbath, and therefore it is generally observed, tlial 
this very example follows the law of punishing a preBumptuoua 
transgressor with death in this very diapter : and though it be 
said that they found a man gathering sticks, as if it were done 
secretly, and not presumptuously, yet we know that presamp- 
tuotis sins may be committed secretly as well ns openly, though 
they are not in so high n degree presumptuous as when they are 
done more openly : the fear of the law against Sahbatb breakers 
might restnun the man from doing tltut <^nly whi«^ before 
God was done proudly and presumptuously ; and tliough Moses 
doubted what to do with the man, who had that capital law 
pven him before against Stkbbath breakers, yet they might be 
ignorant for a time of the full and true meaning of it, which the 
Lord here seems to expound, Tiz^ that a Sabbath breaker sinning 
presumptuously is to be put to death; and although it be doubted 
whether such a law is not too rigorous in tliese times, yet we da 
see that where the mi^strate neglects to tvstrain from this sin, 
the Lord takes the magislntie's work into his own hand, and 
many times cuts them off suddenly who profane his Sabballi 
presumptuously ; and it is worth inquiring into, whether pre^ 
sumptuous Sabbath breakers are not still to be put to death; 
which 1 doubt not but tliac the Lord will either one day clear up, 
or else dis<«ver some specialty in the application of this judicial 
law, to that polity of the Jews, as moet tit for ibem, and not so uni- 
versally fit for all others in Christian commonwealths ; but this 
latter I yet see no proof for ; nor do I expect the clearing up of 
the other while the temper of (he times is loose and lukewarm. 

7%etti 9. Considering, therefore, that some work may be 
done upon the Sabbath, and some not, and that man's heart ia 
apt to run to extremes, either lo gross profaneness or pliarisaica^ 




^^M atriclncj^ we are ihcrerore to inrjuire what works we must n 
^H from, anil whni not from, upon ihu 8iibt>itili dtiy. 
^ Thftit 10. If ihc Smiiiures may be jodge herein, we ebaU 
find that wlien ihpy forliid all manner of work, they inteqiret 
this of servile work. The work forhidderi in Itie annual Sab- 
balbs, (which did bul shadow out the rest on liiis Sabbath,} it is 
servile work, (Lev. xxiii. 7, 8 ;) and henee the rest on llie Sab- 
bath (in this fourth command) is opposed lo the labor on the 
week days, which is propisrly servile, lawful to be done then, but 
unlawful upon the Siibbidb duy. 

ThetU II. The schoolmen and some of their late idolixers, 
(like the Pharisees of old,) ever blind in interpreting the spirit- 
aalnees of the hiw of God, describe a senile work in that man- 
ner, so ae that the grinding of waiermills and windmilbi, as 
Iabo the counsels of lawyers to their client^ the herring trade of 
Ishermen, are with ihera no BCrvJIe works on this day ; and in- 
deed they scarce make any work servile, but what is slavish and 
•xternal bondage and burden. 
Thait 12. But if we consult with Scriptures and the very 
words of this fourth commandment, we shall tind two things con- 
eurring to make up a servile work: 1. If any work be done 
fer any worldly gain, profit, or H«e1ibood, to acquire and pur- 
ahase the things of this life bv, (which is the principal end of 
week-day Ubor, Eph. Iv. 28;'l Thess. iv. 12.) this is a servile 
work, all one with what the commandment c^Its " thy work," 

» Hence buying, selling, sowing, reaping, which are done for 
worldly gain, are unlawful on this day, being therefore servile 
works : hence also worlilly sports and pastimes (which are or- 
dained of God to whet on worldly labor, not necessary every 
dty. hm only at some seasons) are therefore most proper appur- 
tenances unto days of labor, and are therefore unlawful upon 
Ibis day. Iluly limes are no more to be sported on than holy 
plaresi hence alto, on the other side, to rub the ears of corn, to 

» dress meat for cumfortnble nourishment of man, becau.^e they 
respect not worldly gain, are no servile works, nor yet unlawful, 
kat may be more lawfully done for the comfort of man than to 
lead his horse to the water this day, (Luke vi. 2, and xiii. lA, 
and xiv. 5 ;) hence also such works as are done only for the pres- 
ervation of the creatures, as to pult a sheep out of a dituh, to 
quench fire in a town, to save com and hay from the sudden in- 
undation of water, to keep fire in the iron mills, to sit at stern and 
guide the ship, and a thousand such like actions, (being not done 
properly for worldly gain,) are not unlawful ; God himself not 
WMios from works of presBrvatiun. when h« did from tli9f» ff 


258 TUB s.»JiCTiriCATi(jjj or riiE SAiiitATH. ' 

creation ; hence also bupH workfi as nre not works of immediate 
worsliip, but only required ncceKanly llicreio, os killing ibe sac- 
rifices in the Ittnple, traveling a Snbtmlb day's journey to the 
public assemblies, being no servilu works for outward gain, ara 
not unlawful upon tliiK day. 

2. Such worldly works, which (hough ihey be not done for 
worldly gain or profit, yet if by a provident care and foresight 
they might be done an well the week before, or may as well be 
done a week after the Sabbath, these also ore servile works; for 
thus the eommandment cxpresselh it : " Six days lliou mayest do 
ull thy work," (meaning whinh can be done as well the week be- 
fore.) and if all can not be done, it may therefore be as well done 
tlie week afi«r. Hence the building of the tabernacle, (which 
was not so much for man's profit as God's honor,) because it 
might be done upon the six days seasonably enough, hence it is 
prohibited upon the Sabbath day. (Kx. xxxi.) If a man hath 
C(»ii in the Aeld, tliough be may pretend that tlic weather is un- 
certain, and il is ready lo be brought into the barn, yel he is not 
to fetch it in upon the iSabbaih day, because there is uo imminent 
danger of spoil the Monday alter, and then ho may fetch it as 
well as upon that day ; the like may be said concerning seamen's 
setting sail upon the Sabbath day, though they be uncertain of a 
fair gale upon the dny after. Yet we must trust God'a providence, 
who almost in all such matters keeps us at uncertainties ; hence 
also the sweeping of the house ought not to be done now, if it 
may as well be done the day before ; so ulbO to buy any things at 
shops, or to wash clothes ; if they may be done the week before 
or after, they must not be done upon this day ; hence, on the 
other side, works of necessity, which can not be so eoiivenienlly 
done the day before or after, are not unlawful upon this day, aa 
lo lly in persecution, to watch the city, to fight with the enemy. 
(Hatt xxiv. 24. 2 Kings i. 2.) Hence also works of necessity, 
not only for preservation of life, but also for comfort and comeli- 
ness of life, are not unlawful ; tor it is a gross mistake lo think 
tliat works only of absolute necessity are allowed only upon this 
duy ; for lo lead an ok to water, which in the strictest times was 
not disallowed of, is not of atraoluie necessity, for it may live 
more than a day without it ; only it is necessary for the comfort 
of the life of the beast : how much more is allowed to the comfort 
of the life of man ! Thedisciples possibly might have lived longer 
than the Sabbath without rubbing com ears, and men may live 
on Sabbath days generally without warm meat, yea, tbey may fast 
perhaps all that day ; yet it is not unlawful to eat such meat, becausa 
it JB.necessary for the comfort of life, Henpe 4]bo lo put on comely 


I garaientit, to WAfh hands nnd face, nnd many such -things as are 
r necessary Tor the i-omeliness as well as llie comrort of life, nre 
[ not unlawful now ; there is sometimes an inevitable neressily hy 
L God's pniviilence. and sometimes a contracted necessity through 
I want of care and foresight : in this case the work may sometimes 
I be done, provided that our neglect beforeliand be repented of: in 
L'SiTonl, h<> that shall conscientiously endeavor that no more work 
Kite done on the Sabbath than what must be done for the ends men- 
T'tjoned, Ihat so he may have nothing else to do hut to be with 
r God that day, shall have much peace to his own conscience here- 
r In. against Satan's clamors : tieiu'e. lastly, not only outward sci^ 
[' vile work, but gcrrilc thoughts, affections, and cares, are to be 
.1 off this day front the sight of God, as others are from the 
[' eyes of men ; senrile thoughts and affections being as much 
I against the fourth commandment as unchaste and filthy thoughts 
I apiinit the seventh. 

E Thetit 13. That we are to abstain from all servile work, not 
[. to much in regard of the hare abstinence from work, but that 
\ haviug no work of our own to mind or do, we might be wholly 
I taken up with God's work, being wholly taken off from our own 
L that he may speak with us, and reveal himself more fully and 
^ fiimiliarly (o ua, (as friends do when ibcy get alone,} having 
catled and carried us out of the noise and crowd of all worldly 
occasion s and things. 

Thtrit 14. Holy rest, therefore, being for holy work, it may 
not be amiss to inquire what this work is, and wherein it con- 
sieu \ for which end I shall not instance in any the particular 
Kveral duties, in public and private, of holiness and mercy, be- 
cause this is to be found in uU who write upon this subject. I 
■ball only speak of lhat kind of holiness which the Lord requires 
I in all public and private duties, and is to run throngh them,aiii]nsit 
t were animate them ; and in truth to find out this, and ob«erve this, 
<■ im one of the greatest difficulties (but yet the greatest excellency) 
of a Christian life. It consists therefore in these five thing* : — 
TlirtU \h. The first : the holiness upon this day ought to 1» 
immediate. I do not mean without the use of public or privtue 
means, but in respect of worldly things ; for we are commanded 
to be holy in all manner of conversation all the week in our 
worldly affairs. (1 Pet. i. 17.) Holiness is to be writ upon 
our cups, and pots, and horse bridles,, and plows, and sickles, 
(Z«cb. xiv. 20, 21 ;) but this holiness is more immediate; wa 





enjoy God by and i 
I and providences ; bnt do we think that thi 
.^mjaii^ upon the Uubbath ? Verily, every day then should bo 

e hulines* 





our Christian Salibath, which is most fnl^e ; end ihervfore some 
more immediiite holiness is rcqiilretJ now mi [his day which is not 
then, nor required of us every week day ; and whal can ibis be 
but dr&wing near to God this day more imraediuiely, and as near 
as mortal man can do, and casting aside the world, and getting 
out of it, and so to be near God in prayer, in hearing the word, 
in meditation, etc.? (Ps. xcv. .% 6.) If it were possible to bo 
with and enjoy Christ in heaven where lliero are no means, we 
should this duy long for it, and prize it ; but because tlii» can not 
yet be, and lliat the Lord comes down from heavea to us in hia 
ordinances, and thereby makes himself ns near to us as be can in 
this frail life, hence we are not only to draw near to ordinances, 
but to Giod and Christ in thera, upon this day, and so he as near 
them with greatest immediaieness that we can. (Vs. xlii. 1, 2; 
Ixiii. 1-3.) Adam did enjoy God in his calling the week day, 
but this was not so immediate as he was to have upon ilie Sab- 
hath day. 

T/ietii IC. The second is, this holiness ought not only to be 
immediate, but also special, and in our endeavors afler the high- 
eel degree, and with the greatest intention of holiness ; for we are 
bound every day lo be holy in more immediate and near ap- 
proaches to God some time or other of the day ; but now we are 
culled to !« more specially holy, because both the day and our- 
selves are uow set apart for it in a more special manner. We 
are to love, fear, delight in God, and pray to him, and muse on 
him every day, but now in a more special manner all these are 
lo be done. The Sabbath is not only called " holy," but " holiness 
lo lliu Lord," (Ex. xxxi. 15 ;) whicii shows that the day b exceed- 
ing holy, and suitably our affections and hearts ought therefore 
BO to be. The Bacrifiee on this day was to be doubled. {Num. 
xxviii. 9.) The Lord would have double honor from us this 
day ; that as in the week lime we are sinfully drowned in the 
cares of this world, and affections thereto, so upon every ^ubbath 
we should be in a holy mtinner drowned in the cares, and thoughts, 
and afl'ections of the things of God ; and hence we are com- 
manded lo call the Sabbath our delight, and not to think our own , 
thoughts, or do our own works this day. (Is. Iviii. 13.) David 
said (Ps. xliii. 4) that he would go to the altar of God, (the 
placts of public worship,) to God his joy, yea, his exceeding joy; 
HO are we not only to draw near to altar, word, sacraments, 
prayer,but to God in them ; nay, to God in them as our exceed- 
ing joy, our exceeding love, our exceeding fear, etc., especially 
upon this day. There is scarce any week but we contract soil 
from our worldly occasions, and by touching worldly things ; and 



er mnny decays, and lose much ground by (emptaliona 

Now, the Lord pilying us, and giving us a Sabbath of 

y, whftl should we Uo now but return, recover, and renew 

r strenglh, nnd, like the eagle, cnst our bills, and tiiund before 

r God und King this day of state and royal majesty, when all 

i compass his llirone and presence, with our moet beau- 

Tul gnnaenls, mourning especiaUy that we fnll bo far short of 

Jabbath ucis and services ? We shnuld not content ourselves 

Evilb working-day holinesa, joys, fears, hopes, prayers, pmiaes ; 

wbat Sabbath Joys, fears, praises, must be now our om&menls, and 

K^ within us must be rttised up to a higher strain ; that aa God 

Knives us this day, special grace, means of grace, seasons of grace, 

f Ipecial occasions of grace, by reviewing all our experiences the 

Kiveek past, m there is good reason that the Lord should be hon- 

[ ored with special holiness this day. 

Tresis 17. The third ia, this holiness ought to bo not only 

immediate and special, but constant and continued, the whole day 

together. For upon every day of the week we are to loke some 

time for converse with God ; but our worldly occasions soon call 

va off, and that lawfully i but Sabbath holiness must be constant 

and continued all the day. If the Lord was so strict that he 

would not loee a moment's honor in a ceremonial day of rest, 

w (Lev. u^iii. 32,) what shall we tbink the Lord expects upon 

■Bis day which is moral ? The Lord would not be honored tliia 

Ediy only by fits, and flashes, and sudden pangs, which pass away 

I f (he early dew, but as it ra in the psalm for the Sabbath. "It is 

good to sing of his loving kindness in the morning, and of his 

faithfulness every nighi," (Ps. xcii. 1, '2i) and though this be a 

wearisome ibing to the flesh to be so long pent in, and although 

we can not perfectly do it, yet it is a most sweet and glorious 

work in itself, to think that the infinite glorious God should call a 

poor, sinlul creature to be with him and attend upon him all the 

day long; to be ever with the Lord is best of all; but next to 

that to be with him a whole day together. They that see how 

fit ibey are to be forever bauislied from the presence of the Most 

High, and how exceeding unworthy to come into it, can not but 

infinitely tmd excessively prize tluit love of Jesus Christ, this day 

to come and enter into his rest, and lie in his very bosom all the 

I dity long, and as a most loving friend loth to part with them till 

rneedH must and that ibc day is done. 

~ r lU. The fourth if, this holiness ought nut only to be 

I inmediHie, special, and constant, but all those holy duties are thus 

~0 be performed of us as that hereby we may enter into rest : so as 

I tiwt our souls nitty Itnd and feel the sweet of the true rest of the 







Sl^ xnK sANrTit-icATiON or TnF. sabiiath. 

Sabbath; and thrrpfore it must be n sweet and quieting bolinesa 
also; for the Sabbath is not only called a Sitbbaih of n 
iipect of our exemption from bodily labor, but because i 
be sanctified, as lliat on this day we enter into rest, or such a 
fruition of tiod as gives rest to our souls ; otherwise n 
sanctify a Sabbath aright, because wc then fall short of this, which 
ii the main end thereof, until we come so to seek God as that we 
find him, and so find him as llint we feel TC»t in him, in drawing 
neiir to him and standing; before him ; that oa God, ot^er his six 
days' labor, did rest, and was rcfreRhed in tlic fruition of himself, 
so should we, afrer our six days' labor, also be refreshed in tho 
presence of the Lord ; that in case we want means upon the 
Sabbath, yet he may be in lieu of ihem unto uaj and in case wa 
Itare them, and find but liiile by them conveyed to us, yet that by 
that little we may be carried on the win^ of feith beyond all 
means unto that rest which upon this day we may find in his 
bosom i that as Christ, after his labors, entered into liis rest, (ITeb, 
iv.,) so we ought to labor after the same Sabbatism begun here on 
earth, but perfected in heaven i that after all the weary steps we 
tread, and sins and sorrows we find all the week, yet when the SaV 
bath cornea we may say. Reinm unto thy rest.O my soul. The end 
of all labor is rest ; so the end of all our bodily and spiritna) labor, 
whether on the week days or Sabbath day, it should be this rest; 
and we should never think that we have reached the end of the 
day until we taste the rest of the day. Nor is this rest a meteor 
in tbe air, and a thing only to be wished for, but can never bo 
found; but assuredly those who are wearied with their sing in 
the week and wants on the Sabbath, and feel a need of rest and 
refreshing, shall cei'tainly have the blessing, viz., the rest of these 
seasons of refreshing and rest, and Ihe comforts of the Holy 
fihoBl filling their bearls this day. (Is, 1. 2-4 ; Ivi. 5-8 : Iviii. 
13, 14. Ps. xxxvi. 7, 8.) Not because of our holiness, which la 
spotted at the best, but because of our great High Priest's holiness, 
who hath it written upon his forehead to lake away the int((uily 
of all our holy offerings, (£k. xsviii. SG, 38 ;) and who hatb gar- 
ments of grace and blood to cover us, and to present us spoilers 
before the face of that God whom we seek and serve with much 
weakness, and wliom at last we Ehalt find, when our short day's 
work here is done, and our long-look ed-for Sabbath of glory shall 
begin to dawn. 

TAeti$ 19. Now, when the Lord hath inclined us thus to rest 
and sanctify his Sabbath, what should the last act of our bolinesa 
be but diffusive and communicative, viz., in doing our utmost that 
others under us. or that have relation to us, that they sanctify the 




8ub1)atli also, ncTOrding to Ihe Lord's express |Hirtiuil:ir cburge 

in the uummaiidment, "Thou, thy Bun, thy dituglUer, thy aervanls, 

the stranger irithin ihy gates "F The exwilcucy of Chrixt's 

, boUness consists in makiag us like himaeir in holiness ; the escel- 

r leney and glory of a Christian's hoUnetH is to endeavor to be like 

' to the Lord Christ therein : our children, sert'ttnts, strangers who 

ftre within our gates, are apt to profane the Sabbath ; we are 

therefore to improve our power over them for God, in restraining 

them from sin, and in constraining them (as far as we can) lo the 

holy observance of the rest of the Sabbath, iest God impute their 

Bins to us, who had power (as Eli in the like case) to restrain 

them and did not ; and so our families and conscieocea be stuined 

with their guitt and blood. 

Thait 20. And if superiors in families are U> see their galea 
preserved unspotted from such provoking evils, can any think 
but tliat the same bond lies upon superiors in common wealths, 
who arc the fathers of those great families, whose subjects also 
arc within their gntes, and the power of their jurisdictions ? The 
civil magistrate, though he hath no power to imjiose new laws 
upon the consciences of bis subjects, yet be is bound to see that 
the laws of God be kept by all his subjects; provided always, 
that herein he walk according to the law and rule of God, v\t,, 
Ihal, 1, ignopant consciences in clear and momculous matters be 
first instructed; %, doubting consciences have sufficient means 
of being resolved ; 8. bold and audacious consciences be first 
forewarned. Hence it is, that though he hath no power to make 
holy days, and to impose the observation of them upon the con- 
Bci^nces of bis subjects, (because these are his own laws,) yet be 
may and should see that the Sabbath day, (tlie Lord's lioly day,) 
that this be observed, because he doth but see to the execution 
of God's commandment herein. 

Ity wimt rule did Nehemiah not only forbid the breach of the 
iiabbalh. but did also threaten bodily punishment upon the men 
of Tyre ? (although llicy were heathens, yet were they at this 
I time within the gales and compass of his jurisdiction, Neh. xiii. 
Certainly he thought himself bound in conscience to see 
\ that the Sabbalb should not be profaned by any that were within 
hia gates, according to this fourth commandment. If kings, and 
princes, and civil magbiralet have nothing to do in matters of the 
first table, (and consequently must give any man liberty lo pro- 
fane the Sabbatli that pretends conscience,) why then doth Jer- 
emy call upon princes lo see that it be not profaned, with prom- 
I iw uf having their crowns and kingdoms preserved from wrulk 
L if thus they do, and with threatening the burning up and oon- 




suminj; of cily anil kingdom if (bin (hej do not ? (Jer. xvii. 19, 
S5, 27.) If civil magisCrniei) have noiliing lo do herein, they 
then hitve nothing lo do lo preserve ihcir crovraa, kingdoms, scep- 
ters, subjecia, from lire and blood, and utter ruin. Nehemiab was 
no type of Christ, nor were the kings of Israel bound lo see the 
Sabbaib kept aa types of Christ, but as nursing fathers of the 
common wealth, and because their own subjects were within their 
gales, and under their power; and therefore, according to this 
moral rule of the commandment, they were Lound not only to 
keep it themselves, but to see that all others did so also. Il is 
true civil niagislrntcs may alnise tlieir power, judge amiss, and 
think that to be the command of God which is not; but we must 
not therefore take away their power from them, because they 
may pervert it and abuse it; we mast not deny that power they 
have for GoA, becnuse they may pervert it and turn llie edfre of it 
against God ; for if upon tliis ground tlie magistrate hath no 
power over his eulijecls in matters of the first table, he may have 
also all his leathers pulled from him, and all his power taken 
from him in matters of the second table ; for we know that he 
may work strange changes there, and pervert justice and judg- 
ment exceedingly ; we must not deny their power, because they 
may turn it awry, and hurt God's churcli and people by it, but 
(as the apostle exhorts, 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2) lo pray for them th« 
more , that under them we may live a peaceable life in all godli* 
Inesa and honesty : it is a thousand times better to suffer perse- 
P culion for riglileousness' sake and for a good conscience, than to 
desire and ple^ for toleration of all consciences, that so (by this 
cowardly device and lukewarm principle) our own may be un- 
touched : it was never heard of, until now of late, that any of 
God's prophets, apostles, martyrs, faithful witnessess, etc., that 
they ever pleaded for liberty in error, but only for the trutl^ 
whicli they preached and prayed for, and suffered for unto the 
death ; and their sufferings for the truth with zeal, patience, faith, 
constancy, have done more good than the way of universal toler- 
ation is like lo do, which is purposely invented to avoid trou- 
ble. Truth hath ever spread by opposition and persecution ; but 
I error, being a child of Satan, hath fled, by a aealous resbting 

Sick and weak men are to be tendered much, but lunatic and 
frantic men arc in best case when they are well fettered and bound : 
a weak conscience is lo be tendered, n humble conscience toler- 
ated ; errors of weakness, not wickedness, are with all gentleness 
lo be handled ; (he liberty given in the reign of Episcopacy for 
sports, and pastimes, and may games, upon the Lord's day, was 



tmee loathsome to ull lionest mindit ; but now to allow a greater 
lilwriy to buy, sell, plow, cart, thri^h, sport upon the Sabbath day, 
to all thoRe who pretend conscience, or rathpr that they have no 
conscience of one day more than another, is to l)uild up Jericho 
and Babel a|rain, and to lay foundations of wrath to ihe land ; for 
Grod will certainly revenge the poltutiong of liia .SabballiB : if God 
be troubled in his rest, no wonder if he disturbs our peace : some 
of ihe ancients think that Ihe Lord brought the flood of waters 
upon Ihe Sabbath day, as they gather from Oen. vii. 10, hccausfl 
they were grown to be great profaner* of the Sabbath ; and wo 
know that Prague was taken upon this day. The day of their 
sin began all their sorrows, which are continued ID this day, to 
the Mnazement of the world. When- the time comes that the 
Iiord'g precious Sabbaths are the days of God's church's rest, 
then shall come in the church's peace. (Ps. cii. 13, 14.) The 
freo grace of Christ must first begin herein with us,lhat we may 
find at last tliat rest which this evil world is not yet like 19 see, 
unless it speedily love his law more, and his Sabbaths belter. 

I could therefore desire to conclude this doctrine uf the Sab- 
bath with tears, and I wish it might be matter of bitter lamenia' 
tion to Ihe mourners in Sion, every where to behold (he universal 
profanation of Ihesti precious times and seasons of refreshilig, 
toward which, through the abounding of iniquity, the love of 
many, who once seemed zealous for them, is now grown cold : th« 
Lonl might have suffered poor, worthletis, sorrowful man to have 
worn ami wasted out all his days in ibis life in weariness, grief, and 
labor, and to have filled his days with nothing else but work, and 
minding of his own things, and bearing bis own ncccsnary cum- 
bers and burdens here, and never have allowed him a day of rest 
until he came up to heaven at the end of his life ; and thus to 
have done would have been infinite mercy and love, though he 
had made him grind the mill only of his own occasions, and feel 
Ihe whip and the lash only of his daily griefs and labors, until 
dark night came ; but such is ihe overflowing and aliundanl love 
of a blessed God, that it can not contain itself (as it were) ra 
longa time from special fellowship with his people here in asinuigo 
luid, and in an evil world, and therefore will have some special 
times of special fellowship and sweetest mutual cmbrocings ; and 
this tJme must not be a moment, an hour, a little, and then away 
■gain ; but a whole day, that there may be time enough to have 
Uieir fill of love in eitdi other's bosom before they part : this day 
must not be mcruly occasional at human liberty, and now and then, 
lest it bo too seldom, and so struugcnesg grow between them ; hut 
the Lord (who exceeds and excels poor man in love) therefore to 
VOL. 1U. 23 



make all sure, he sets nnd Hxetli the duy, and nppointa the time. ^M 

■nd how to meet, merely out of love, that weary man may enjoy ^H 

kis rest, his God, his love, his heaven, as much and as ofleo as ^M 

may be here, in tliis life, until he come up to glory, to rest with 
Giod ; and that because man can not here enjoy his days of glory, 
he might therefore foretaste them in days of grace ; and is this 
the requital, and all the thanks he hath for hb heart-breaking 
love ? to turn back sweet presence and fellowship, and love of 
God in them, to dispute away these days with scorn and con- 
tempt, to smoke ihem away with profanenera and mad mirtli, to 
dream them away with vanity ; to drink, to swear, to riot, to whore, 
to sport, to play, to card, to dice, to put on their best apparel 
that they may dishonor God with greater pomp and bravery, to 
tu1k of the world, to be later up that day than any other day of 
the week, when their own irons are in the fire, andyet to sleep ser- 
nion, or scorn the ministry, if it comes home to their conscieaces ; 
to tell tales and break jests at home, or (at best) lo talk of for- 
eign or domestic news, only to pass away ibe time, rather than to 
see God in his works, and warm their hearts thereby ; to think 
God hath good measure given him, if they attend on him in the 
forenoon, although the afternoon be given to the devil, or sleep, or 
vanity, or foolish pastimes ; to draw near to God in iheir bodies, 
when their thoughts, and hearts, and aSections are gone a-hunl- 
ing or ravening after ihe world the Lord knows where, but far 
enough off from him : do you thus requite the Lord for this great 
lore, O foolish people and unwise? Do you thus make the days 
of your rest and joy the days of the Lord's sorrow and trouble ? 
Do you thus weary the- Lord when he gives rest unto you ? Was 
there ever such mercy shown, or can there be ever any greater 
love upon earth, than for the Lord lo call to a wicked, sinful crea- 
ture, which deserves lo be banished forever out of his presence, to 
come unto him, enter into his rest, take his fill of love.and re- 
fresh itself in his bosom in a special manner all this day ? And 
therefore can there be a greater sin above ground committed out 
of hell than thus to sin against this love F I do not think that 
the single breach of the Sabbath (as to sport and feast inordi- 
nately) is 03 great a sin as to murder a man, (ufaich some have 
cost out lo the reproach of some zealous fur Ihe observation of 
the Sabbath day, truly the Lord knows,) for I believe their milk 
Bod over, if thus they »aid ; but I speak of the Sabbath 
under this notion and reHjwct, and as herein God's great love 
appears to weary, sinful, i-estle.^s man, as a day wherein all 
the treasures of his roost rich and precious love are set open ; and 
in this respect, let any man tell me what greater sin he can 


imagiiie tlian sins n^inst the greatest love. The same sins 
which are eommitled upon oiher dnjs in ihe week are then pro- 
voking sinsj but to commit [licse sins upoa the Sabhalli day is to 
douhle the evil of them. Drinking, and swearing, and rioting, 
and vain talking, etc., are sins on the week day, hut they are 

n but single sins ; but these and auch like sins on the Sabbath 
day are double sins, because they are now not only sins against 
Grod's command, but also against God's Subtialhs loo, which 
much aggravates them ; and yet men mourn not for [liese sins^ 
hod the Lord never mode knovrn his Sabbaths to his churches 
and people in these days, they might then have had some excuse 
for their sins ; but now to profane them since God hath made 
them known to us, especially the English nation and people to 
do it, upon whom the Lord bath shined out of heaven with greater 
light and glory in this point of (be Sabballi, above any other 
places and churches in the world, what will they liave to say for 
themselves? with what fig leaves will they hide this nakedness 
before the tribunal of God ? 

The Lord might have hid his Sabbaths from us, and gone lo 
another people that would have been more thankful fur them 
and glad of them than we have been ; and yet he hath been loth 
to leave us; and do we thus requite the Lord? Surely he hath 
no need of the best of us,orof our attendance upon him upon these 
days ; it is only his pity, which, seeing us wearied with sorrows, 
and wearying ourselves in our sins, makes him call us back 
to a weekly rest in his bosom, who might have let us alone, and 
tired out our hearts in our own folly and madness all our days ; 
and do we thus requite the Lord ? Certamly the time will come 
wherein we shall think (as once Jerusalem did in the days of her 
affliction) of all our pleasant things we once had in the days of 
our prosperity ; certainly men shall one day muum for the loss 
of all their precious time, who misspend it now, and (above .all 
limes) for the loss of their precious pleasant Sabbath seasons 
of refreshing, which once they had given them to find rest and 
peace in ; when t)ie smoke of their tormenting, everlasting bum* 
ing shall ascend forever and ever, wherein they shall have no 
rest day nor night ; you shall remember and think then, with tears 
trickhng down your dry cheeks, of the Sabbaths, the pleasant 
Sabbaths that once you luid, and shall never see one of those 
days of the Son of man more ; you sliall mourn then to see Abra- 
ham's bo»om afar ofi', and thousand Uiousands at rest in it, where 
you also might have been as well as they, if you had not despised 
the rest ol' God here, in the bosom of his Sabbaths. 

You shall then mourn, and wring your bands, and tear your 





* hair, and stamp, aiiJ grow raad, and yet weep lo think that if you 
had had a heart lo have spent that very time of the Subboth in 
seeking God, in drawing near to God, iu resting in God, which 
you dispend in Idle talk iind idleness, in rioting luid wantoU' 
ness, in sports and foolii'lineris, upon tliia day. you bad then been 
in God'a eternal rest in heaven, and forever blessed in God. 
It is said Jerusalem remembered, in ihe day of her affliction, all 
her pleasant things when the enemy did mock at her Sabbaths; 
and so will you remember, wiili sad hearts, the loss of all your 
precious bpo^ds of grace, «speci)tlly' then, when the dcvihi, and 
heathens, and damned outcasts, who never had the mercy to 
enjoy tbem, shall mock at Ihee for the loss of thy Sabbaths. 
Verily I can not think that any men that ever tasted any sweet- 
ness in Christ or his Sabbath, and felt the unknown refieshinga 
of this sweet rest, but that they will mourn for their cold afieo- 
tions to them and unfruitful spending of them, before they die; 
otherwise never go about to blear men's eyes with discourse, and 
invectives, and dbputes against them, or with comol excuses 
for your licentious spending of them ; for doubtless you taste 
not, and therefore know not what they are, and you will one day 
be found to be such as speak evil of the things you know not. 
Hear, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish : is the' infinil« 
majesty and glory of God so vile in your eyes that you do not 
think him worthy of special attendance one day in a week? Doth 
>ie call you now to rest in his bosom, and will you now kick his 
bowels, despise this love, and spit in his face ? Doth he c&il upon 
you to spend this day in holiness, and will you spend it in mirth, 
and sports, and pnslimes, and in all manner of liccntiousneu ? 
Hast Iliou wearied God with thine iniquities, and thjself in thine 
iniquities all the week long, (for which God might justly cut 
thee off from seeing any more Sabbath,) and doth the Lord 
Jesus (instead of recompensing thee thus) call you back again lo 
jrour resting-place? and will you now weary the Lord again, 
that he ran not have rest or quiet for you one day in a week ? 

O that we could mourn for tliese things ! and yet walk abroad 
the face of the whole earth at this day, and then say where shall 
you find almost God's Sabbaths exactly kept ; viz., with meet 
preparation for them, delight in them, with wonderment and 
thankfulness to God after the enjoyment of tbem. Alt tho 
world knows lo wliom the barbarous Turks do dedicate their Fri- 
days; the Jews also, how they sanctify their Saturdays, to the 
Lord Jehovah indeed, but not unto the Lord iheir God. What 
account the Papists put upon the Sabbaths, not only their writ- 
ings, which level it with nil other holy days, hut also their looss 




practice in eporU and revelings upon this day, bear sufficieot 
witness ; and that we had no cause to wa-^h off this spot with 
our tears from the beautiful and pleusani t'nce of the glorioiu 
grace and peace, which ODce shined in the German churches, by' 
whose graces we may stand weeping, and say. This is your miser/ 
for this your provoking sin ! Scotland knows best her own in- 
tegrity, whose lights have been hurning and shining long in their 
clearness in this particular; hut England haih had the name, 
and worn ihis garland of glory, wherewith the Lord balli crowned 
it above all other churches. But how halh that little Rock of 
slaughter, which hath wept for il, and preached, and printed, and 
done and suifered for it, been haled and persecuted ! Who have 
been the scorn, and shame, and reproach of men, but a company 
of poor weaklings, for going out a few miles to hear a faithful, 
painful preai-her, from those idle sheplierdei, who either could 
not feed them with knowledge and understanding at bomei' 
or else would not do it through gross profaueness, or exIremS 
idleness ? . _^ 

And now, sinc^Gud hath broken the yoke of their oppressoran 
and set his people at liberty to return to Sion and her solemn I 
assemblies, as in days of olilf and hath given to them the desires I 
of their hearts, that they may now be as holy on tbe Sab^ 
bath as they will, without any to reproach them, at least to coun- 
tenance such reproaches of them ; now, I say, when one wouM 
_think the precious Sabbaths, (which so many of God's servants 
in former time have brought down to tiiis generation, swimming 
in their tears and prayers, and which many in these days have 
so much looked and longed fur,) that every eye should be look- 
ing up to heaven with tliankfulncss for these, and that every 
heart should embrace God's Sabbaths with tears of joyfulness, 
and bid this dear and precious friend welcome, and lie and rest in 
their bosom i and so I doubt not but that England hath yet 
many a corner full of such precious jewels, to whom God's Sab- 
baths are yet most precious and glorious, and who can not easily 
forget such blessed seasons and means in them, whereby (if ever 
the Lord did good udio them) they have been so oft refreshed, 
and wherein ihey have so otl seen God, wherein they so of^ met 
with him, and he with them : but whose heart will it not make 
to relent and sigh, to hear of late a company, not of ignorant 
debauched persons, molignants, prelatical, and corrupt and camid 
men, but of such who have many of them in former limes given 
great hopes of some fear of God, and much love to God's ordi- 
nances and Sabbaths ? and now (what hurt tbe Sabbath's ordi- 
iiaacei of tba Lord Jesus therein have done them, I know nut, 
38 • 




but) il would break one's henrl lo see whnt little cure there is la 
sanctify the Snbbath, even by lliem who think in Ibeir judgments 
that tlie day is of Gud. What poor preparation tor it, either in 
themKelTes or families ! what little cure to profit by it, or 10 
instruel or catechize their families, and to bring them also in love 
with it ! what secret wearinei^ and deadheartedneBS (almost whol- 
ly unlaiuented) remain upon them ! what earthly thoughts, what 
liberty in speech about any worldly matter, presently after the 
most warning sermon is done ! that the Lord Jesue hath scarce 
good carcasses and outsidea brought him, which can not but 
threaten more crows lo pick litem unless they repent ; and yet 
this \e not so sad ns to see the looseneaa of men's judgments ia 
this point of the Sabbath, whereby some think a Sabbath lawful, 
but not necesdRry, (in re.Hpect uf any command of God ;) nayi 
Bome think it superstition to observe a weekly Subbalh, which 
should be every day, (as they imagine :) they have allegorized 
God's Sabbaths and almost all God's ordinances out of the world, 
imd cast such pretended an tt- Christian tilth and pollution upon 
Ihem, that spiritual men must not now meddle with them ; nay, 
verily, all duties of the moral law, and fruitful obedience, and 
holy walking, and sancliH cation, graces, and humiliation, and 
such like, are the eecret contempt of many, and the l>ase drudg- 
ery for a mill horse nnd legal Cbriatian, rather than for one that 
ij of on evangelical frame ; and herein Satan now appears wiih 
the ball at his foot, and seems to threaten in time to cari^ all 
before him, and lo kick and carry God'a precious Sabbaths out 
of the world with him ; and then farewell dear Lord Jesos, with 
ail tby Bweet love and life, if Sabbaths be once taken from us 
by the blind and bold di^pulings of wretched men: auihority 
03 vet upholds them, (which is no small mercy,) and the favor 
of Clirtst's sweetness in them, and the external brightness of the 
Iieauty of them, do still remain on many, with that strength nnd 
glory that it is not good policy for the prince of darkness now 
to employ all his forces against ihe gates of the Sabbath; but 
the time haaiens wherein the assault will he great and Ueree, and 
I much fear that for tlie secret contempt of these things, the 
Lord, in dreadful justice, will strengthen delusions about ibis day 
to break forlh and prosper; and then pray, you poor saints of 
God and hidden ones, that "your Highi may not be in the winter, 
nor on the Sabbath day ;" but " woe then to them that give suck," 
woe then to the high ministry that should have kept these galea, 
woe Chen lo tliat loose and wanton generation rising up, who think 
such outward tbrms and observation of days to be too coarse und 
loo hiw and mean a work tor tbeir ennobled spirita, which are 




now raised higher and nearer God than to look much after Sab- ' 
baths or ordinances, gracea or duties, or any such outward forma; 
for I doubt not, but if, alter all the light and glory shining in 
England conc-erning God'a Sabbaths, if yet ihey are not thereby 
become precious, but that tbe Lord will make them bo by his 
plagues, if ihia sin once get head, God will burn up the whole 
world, and make himself dreadful to all flesh, until lie hath made 
unto himself a holy people, and a humble people, that shall " love 
the dusi, and take pleasure in the very slones of his" house, and 
love the " place where his honor dwells," and long for the time 
wherein his presence and blessing shall appear and be poured 
out upon the Sabbath day. 

It is matter of the greatest mourning, that they, above all othera, I 
should trouble God's rest, wherein perhaps their miuIs huve found 
so much rest, or might have done ; that in these limes, wherein 
the Lord Jesus was coming out to give unto his house his ordi- 
nances, and unto his people his Sabbaths and days of rest every 
way. that now they, atiove all others, should ofler to pull them 
out of his hand, tread them under foot, and hereby teach oil the 
profane rout in tlie world to do the like, with a quiet conscience 
and without any check by their reasonings ; that now when God 
09 wasting the load, and burning down its glory, for the sius 
gainst his Sabbaths, that just at tliis time, more than ever, they 
should rise up to pollute and profane this day. Tlie Lord grant 
his poor people to see cause at last to mourn for this sin, that the 
rest of the Sabbath may be rest to their souls, especially in ihia 
weary hour of temptation, ' which is shaking all things, and 
threatens yet greater troubles unto all flesh. The Lord JesDa 
certainly hath great blessings in his hand to pour out upon hia 
people, in giving them better days, and brighter and more beau- 
tiful Sabbaths, and glorious appearances ; but 1 fear, and there- 
fore J desire that this unwise and unthankful generation may not 
stand in their own way, lest the Lord make quick work, and give 
those things to a remnant to enjoy, wliich others had no hearts to 














Matt. xi. 29. •■- ** Take mr yoke apon you, and learn of me ; 
for I am meek and lowly in heart : and ye ahall find rest 
unto your •onla/* 


One of the sweetest refreshing mercies of Qod, to his "Sew 
England people, amidst all their wilderness trials, and straits 
and sorrows, wherewith they at first conflicted in those ends of 
the earth, hath been their sanctuary enjoyments, in the beauties 
of holiness, where they have seen and met with Him whom their 
souls love, and had familiar and full converse with him, above 
what they could then enjoy in the land from whence they came. 
This is that that hath sweetened many a bitter cup to the remnant 
of Israel. The Lord alone led him, and there was no strange 
God with him, was said concerning Israel of old ; and this was 
accounted mercy enough when he led them into a land where no 
jnan dwelt, and which no man passed through. What Grod hath 
done for New England in this respect, and what their sanctuary 
mercies be, thou hath here a taste, though but a taste. Thesei 
notes may well be thought to be less accurate than if the author I 
himself had published them, and to want some polishments and I 
trimmings, which it were not fit for any other to add ; however, I 
thou wilt find them full of useful truths, and mayest easily I 
discern his spirit, and a spirit above his own breathing in theinul 

Concerning the author, it were worth the while to write the 
story of his life. 

It is needless to speak in his commendation ; his works p 
him in the gates. They that know him know he had as real ap^ 
prehensions of the things of Grod, and lived as much with GM, 
and with his own heart, and more than the most of Christians 
do. lie had his education at Immanuel College in Cambridge. 
The conversion and change of his heart was wrought betimes 





when he lived in ibe university, and enjoyed Dr. - Preston's 
ministrj', whereby God hitd the very best and strength of his part 
nnd yenra for himseir. ^Vhen he vros Jirgt awakened to look 
after religion, having before sworn quietly in ihe stream of the 
times, he was utterly at a loss which way lo take, being much 
molested with suggestions of atheism, (in the depths whereof 
Junius was quite lost for a time,) and moved and templed lo the 
ways of Fumilism also ; for some advised him in this condition 
to go to Grindleston and to hear Mr. Brierley, and being in- 
formed that the people were wont to find a mighty possessing 
overpowering presence and work of the Spirit when ihey heard 
him, he resolved upon the journey ; but God in mercy diverted 

. ha vigE reserved him for .tetter things. Yet he read what 

they^aid, turn Ihe books of liTli. amongst the rest, where meet- 
ing with this passage, '' Tiiat a Christian is so swallowed up in 
the spirit, that what action soever the spirit moves him to, sup- 
pose whoredom, he may do it, and it is no sin to him ; " this was 
enough ; for being against the light of his natural conscience, it 
bred in him an utter abhorrency of those loose and vile ways and 
1 principles ever after. This advantage also he had, that Dr. Tuck- 
TlSy was then his tutor, whom he acquainted with his condition, 
and liad Ins direction and help in those miserable fluctuations 
and straits of his soul. Happy is the man whose doubtings 
end in establishments ; nil lam cerium, qtidin quod de dubio eer- 
tum ; but when men arrive in scepticism, as the last issue and 
result ol' all their debates and thoughts of heart about religion, 
it had been good for such if they had never been bom. 

After his heart was changed, it was observed of him, that his 
abililies of mind were also much enlarged, divinity, though it be 
chiefly [lie art and rule of the will, yet raising and perfectjug 
the understanding also ; which I conceive came to pass chielty 
by this means, that the fear of God fixed him, and made him 
ser ious, and taught him to mcditalc, which is the main improve- 
Imcnt of the understanding. Thereforefsuch as came to him 
'for direction about their studies, he would often advise them to 
be much in meditation, professing that, having spent some time 



.u meditation every day in hia beginning limca, and writiei). 
down hid ilioughts, he saw cause now to blesa God for it. Ile[ 
was assigned to. the work of the ministry, at a solemn meeting 
knd conference of sundry godly ministers about it; there were to 
the number of tweUe present at the meeting, whose solemn ad- 
Tice WAR. Itiat he should serve the I.ord in the gospel of his 
8on; wherein (li«y liare been the salvation of many a eoal; 
ftr Upon lhi« he addressed himself to the work with that reality 
and seriousness in wooing and winning souls, that his words 
' made deep impressions, and seldom or never fell to the ground. 

lie was lecturer a while at Earlescolne, in Essex, (which, I 
lake it, was the first place of his ministry,) where he did much 
px>d, and the people there, though now it is long since, and 
many are gone, yet they have a very precious and deep remem- 
brance of him, of the mighty power of God by him to this day. 
But W, Laud, then Ili.'hop of London, soon stopped his mouth, 
and drove him away, as he did many other godly ministers from 
Essex at the same time. AAer this he lived at Bulterchrome, 
in Yorkshire, at Sir Richard Darley's house, till the iniquity of 
those times hunted him thence also. Then lie went to North- 
Ufflberland, till eilenct^d lliere also ; and being thus molested 
■ad chased up and down at home, he fled to New England, and 
after some difliculties and delays, by great storms and disDsiert 
U aea upon the sands and coasts of Yarmouth, which retarded 
his voyage till another year, he errived there at lajt, where ho 
wiu jwsiur lo a precious flock at Cambridge about fourteen 
years. lie was but forty-six or forty-seven years old when he 
died. His sickness began with a sore throat, and then a ()uin- 
sy, and then a fever, whereof he died August 2oth, lfi <|)- 
This was one tiling he said upon his death bed : " Lord, t am 1 
vile, but ihou art ^righteous." And to those that were about I 
him, ho bade tliem love Jesus Christ dearly ; " that little part 
that ! have in him is nu small comfort to me now." 

His manner of preaching was close and searching, and 
abundance of affection and compassion to hia hearers. He look 
great pains in hie preparations for his public labors, accounting 
VOL. III. 21 

part I 

t»k I J 




it a cuwed ihing lo do llie work of ibe Lord negligently ; 
therefore spending usually two or three whole days in preparing 

. for the work of the Subbaih, had his sermons finished Uaually on 

I Satu rday by two of the clock. He hath soraelitnes expressed 
himself thus in public : " God will curse that man's lalwrs that 
lumbers up and down in Ihe world all the week, and then upon 
Saturday in the anemoon goes to liis study, whenas God knows 

p^llP' '''"'^ were little enough to pray and weep in, and to get his 

I heart in frame, etc." He attecled plainness together with power 
in preaching, not seeking abstrusities, nor liking to hover and 
Boar aloft in dark expressions, and so shoot his arrows (as manj 

Iprcacliers do) over the heads of his hearers. 
fl^^lt is a wretched stumbling block to some, that his sermons are 

1 somewhat strict, nni,_(asjhey^_leEm^it) legal; some souls can 
relish none but meal-mouthed preachers, wTiocome with soft, and 
smooth, and toothless words, h/aina verba byuini$ virit ; but 
these limes need humbling ministries, and blessed be God that 
there are any ; for where (here are no law sermons, there will be 
few gospel lives, and were (here more law preaching in England 
by the nien of gifts, tliei'o would be more gospel walking both by 

^I bem selvea and the people. To preach the law, not in a forced, 
affected manner, but wisely and powerfully, together with the 
gospel, as Christ himself was wont lo do, (Matt. v. and elsewhere,) 
is tlie way to carry on all three together — sense of misery, 
the application of llie remedy, and the returns of thankfulness 
and duty. Nor is any doctrine more comfortiog than this bum- 
bling way of God, if rightly managed. 

It is certain the foundations of aiWr sorrows and ruins to tlie 
church have ever been laid in the daj's of her prosperity, and 
peace, and rest, when she enjoys all her pleasant things. Tliis 
the watchmen of Israel should foresee ; and therefore what should 
they do but seek to humble, and awaken, and search, and melt 
men's hearts, and warn every one night and day with tears, that, 
in the day of their peace, they may not sin away the things of 
their peace. There are Iberefuie three requests, which wo 
ith bended knee* for England, to 

luld des 

? lo bi-g of Goi 

cords of I 
allh, thSr' 


peq)Ctuale tlie present prosperity and peace thereof; and let us 
commend tbem to the mourning nnd praying ones amongst us, tliat 
iliey would be thn Lord'a remembrancers in ibese petitions : — 

1 . A right understanding and sober use of liberty. For when 
people come first out of bondage, they are apt to be not only 
somewhat fond of their liberties, but to wax giddy and wanloo 
with liberty, and instead of shaking off the bloody yokes of men, 
to cast off, at least in part, the government and blessed yoke of 
Christ also, tience it comes about that a day of rest from per- 
secution, which should be a day of liberty to the saints lo serve 
, God, may become a day of great seduction, and of liberty to se- 
ducing spirits to deceive, and damn, and mislead them fi-om the 
truths and ways of God. But the machinations of men, though 
in coojuDction with the powers and gates of hell, shall certainly 
full at last before truth and prayer. And of this b the first 
treatise which is seasonably published. 

To be fast bound lo t he rule g jth all the bonds and cords 
God and man is the perfection of liberty. Hence there 
surer comer stone of ruin to a Oiristian commonwealth, 
God will break them with unparalleled destructions by some 
overflowing scourge, when the day of vengeance is in his heart, 
than lo think that religion is none of their liberties; and yet how 
many sons of Belial are there void of counsel I neither is there 
any understanding in them who imagine vain things, and say, '' Let 
us break his bands asunder, and cast away his cords from us." 
How do men run into extremes, either stretching and paring 
every one to the giant's bed, and thereby denying liberty to the 
saints to serve hiro, according to the measure of their stature ia 
Christ, or else, on the other hand, opening the door so wide as to 
plead for liberty to all the disguised enemies and sins against 
Christ, thereby, instead of uniting the saints in one, endeavoring 

I through a dreadful mistake, lo unite Christ and Belial I It is a 
sad thing when a man is come to this puss, that he is not 
to resolve his conscience whether Baal be God, or the Lord b« 
God, and therefore would not have the worshipers of Baal pun- 



indifterency and Irresolution of spirit in Ibe things of God ? 
to the valley of vision, even f o a sinful nation laden with iniquity, 
nnd led away from the truth as it is in Jesus, and to the host of 
the high ones that sit on high, in the day of his visitation, if ihia 
be the npirit of these times ; for in the day when he visits, God 
will visit for these things. 

2. Tliat his word, especially the word of his gospel, may be 
precious and powerful, may run and be glorified in England. 
Alas ! m there ia much preaching, but few serious, few heart- 
breaking sermons, so there is much hearing, but little effectual 
bearing. Men stand like the oaks of Bashan before the words 
of the God of Israel ; no ten'or of the Lord, no news of ever- 
lasting destruction, no evidence of the fierce anger of God upon 
them, which bums down to the bottom of hell, can take hold upon 
their spirits, or awaken their consciences, to make inquiries after 
God in this their day ; yea, if the bars of the pit of hell were 
broken, and if the devils of hell should come flying up amongst 
lu, in our solemn assemblies, from the fiery comers of the pit 
below, with everlasting burnings about their ears, and with chains 
of darkness rattling at their heeU, they might fright men out of 
their wits, )>erhaps, or from the acts of sin, it may be, for a time, 
hut it would not work upon their hearts, their desperate, dead, 
besotted hearts. The fools in Israel will have their swing in 
their lusts, and go lo hell in a full career, let God do his best. 
O, the hardness of men's hearts ! And the main reason of it is, 
because they hear but a sound of words, but ihey do not hear the 
Idrd in tiiat word ; they hear words that are spoken by God, 
but they hear not, they see not, God himself therein. If ever 
thou wouldest profit by reading or hearing, take every word as K 
special message to thee from God ; and of this fruitless hearing, 
and the rules of hearing aright, is the other treatise. 

3. Conscience of hid Sabbaths. Of which there is an elaborate 
this author, formerly published by himself; there- 
fore we shall add no more. The blessing of Heaven go with 
these, to make us a willing people in the day of his power, lo 
Hibmit lo his word, and to come under the wing of the govern- 


ment of Jesus Christ, as esteeming these spiritual mercies our 
best mercies, our choicest and dearest liberties. If ever the Lord 
Jesus (which mercy forbid) should take his doleful and final fare- 
well of the English nation, as when he laid the tombstone upon 
Jerusalem, such as these will be his mournings over us: *'0 
Jerusalem I Jerusalem I thou that Idllest the prophets and bumest 
them that are sent unto thee," as they did in the time of Popery, 
^ how often would I have gathered thy children together,** (by my 
word and spirit therein,) *^ even as a hen gathereth her chickens 
under the wings'* (of my special govemment and protection,) ^ but 
ya would not ; behold, your house is left unto you desolate." But 
the Lord, who doth not only make the day dark with night, but 
also tumeth the shadow of death into the morning, even the Lord 
avert these evils^ and the Lord make the English nation his 
Hephsibah, and the land Beulah, which is the prayer of hla 
mourners in Sion, and of 

Thy servants in Jesus, and for Jesus' sake, ' 

William Grsbkhill, 

SiLMUBL Mather. 



The precious memory of the author of these ensuing sermona 
needs no reviving to any graeioua heart that had any knowledge 
of liim. Yea, the world knows in part, (though hut in a little 
port,) by some pieced of hie formerly printed, (while lie was yet 
wilh us,) wbo iliia author was, what it owes to God for biin, and 
how justly it might sigh over bis grave, with that of the apostle, 
" Of whom the world waa not worthy ! " His praise throughout 
all the cliurchca is far above any addition by eo mean a pen as 
writes these lines. But it is not lit that the first page of any 
thing published after his death (for I doubt not but his ileath is 
long ago publiL-ly took notice of) should go without some witness 
of a mournful remembrance thereof, which, indeed, no tears ran 
j Bufiiciently lament. We who sometimes sat under his shadow, 
and were fed from G!od by him, (the poor flock of this shepherd,) 
among whom he lived, " testifying repentance toward God, and 

I faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ ; " and whom ho sometimes 
" exhorted, comforted, and charg;cd every one of us as a father 
doth his children ; " we can not but carry sorrow in the bottom of 
lour hearts to this day, that we must here see his face no more, 
"Neither do we believe that his loss remains with us alone, or only 
within the limits of this remote wilderness ; the benefit (and 
consequently the want) of such a burning and shining light is 
of more general concernment than we easily apprehend, espe- 
cially in this age, wherein not only many sit in utter darkness, 
but, which is more, the new light thereof is darkness, and tha 


love of many waxing cold. But we must adl be silent before 
Him whose judgments are unsearchable. Neither maj we pre- 
sume to saj to him, What doest thou ? 

It is instantly, and not without cause, desired by many that 
such relics of his labors as do survive him may be (at least 
some of them) imparted to the public To effect any thing con- 
siderable that way is not an easy or sudden work. But this 
small piece being at present attained, it seemed not amiss to let 
it pass the press. These were some of his lecture sermons, 1 
preached, most of them, in the year 1 641. They are now tran- I 
scribed by a godly brother, partly from the author's own notes, I 
partly from what he took from his mouth. The subject (in 
both the texts) is of great use, and needful for these times, 
wherein there is more liberty than good use of it, and much more 
common and outwaird than saving and effectual knowledge of the 
word of Grod. These posthumous editions are far short of what 
the author was wont to do, and of what the sermons were in 
preaching. But though the sense be not every where so full, nor 
every thing so thoroughly spoken to, nor the style so good by far 
as the author's manner was, yet the intelligent reader will find 
a precious treasure of truth in it, not fit to be buried or neglected. 
The prophets do not live forever, but their words do. The Lord 
make them such ever-living words as may take hold of all onr 
hearts, not for judgment, but for mercy ; for one of these waji 
they shall live, yea, rise up at the last day. 

March 29, 1652. ' 




1 Chron. xiL 8, " NeTerthelesa ther shall be his le 

know hi; Mtrvicc, and ihc service of the kingdan 

rants, that thej mt 
I or the cooMiy." 

The greatest part of this chapter is spent in setting down 
that fumoua war which Shi^hak, king of ^gypt, mode against 
Behoboam, king of Judah. 

The cause of this war in regard of Shisbak is not set down ; 
probable conjecturea there be : Jeroboam probably might be 
treacherous, who having a party in Hgypt, lest Kehoboam shonld 
grow loo great, together with some other pretended nronga, 
might awaken this bear from bia den ; but in regard of God, 
you may Bee the reason set down, (ver. 2,) " because tbey had 
transgressed against the Lord." 

The time of this war is set down in the Grsl Terse — when ha 
bad established the kingdom by wholesome laws, erecting God's 
worship, and countenancing godly men, (3 Chron. xi. IG, 17,) 
which continued three years, and strengthened himself by forti- 
fied places, and munition lit for war, as in the foregoing cbapMr 
appears. Now, when he had most peace and quiet, he and all 
Israel suddenly forsake the Lord, which was the fourth year ; 
and in the filVh year comes Shishak, and with a mighty host 
wastes all before him until he comes to the chief city. 

Now, in verse the fifth and sixth is set down the repentance of 
the people, with their princes especially. Shemaiah, who, no 
doubt, had spoke against their idolatrous courses before, lakea 
his season when they were low and tamed, and tells them the 
true cause of their misery. (Ver. o.) Mony sins there we 
the land, as idolatry, and whoredoms, etc.; yet the venom 
" They had forsaien Ihe Lord." Let the sin be what it will ba^ 1 

yet let it be such a one as men forsake the Lord by it, that is 
the provocalion ; hereupon ihey humble iheroselves, some cfFect- 
uftlly, some hypocrilically, yet nil outwardly, niid say the Lord 
is righleous ; they extenuate not their sin, ihey ky not the 
Dame on man, no, not on Shishak, but see ihc Lord, justify his 
proceeilings : The Lord k righteous, we unrighteous, ■lihough it 
were more heavy than it is. 

Now, in the seventh verse, and in the words read, Is set (town 
the mitigation of God'a plague, and the moderation of his chas- 
tisement, " I will not pour out all my wrath," yet I think it not 
fit to show perfect deliverance, " I will make them servants, to 
let them know,'* etc- 

There are two parts in the words read ; — 

1. The punishment or chastisement on Judab for forsaking 
the Lord, and backsliding from him, which is bondage and 
privation of the liberty ibey had — they most be Shishak '» 

2. The Lord's end ; it was very gracious — " that they may 
know my service," etc. 
For explication. 

1. Wliat is meant by service ? 

Atu. There are two things in service : 1. Government. 2. 
Subjection ; cheerful obedience to that government. Both the 
Hebrew word, as also the nature of the thmg itself, hath these 

God sets up his government over a people ; his people do or 
should subject cheerfully to this government. By my service is 
therefore meant my government, and your subjection wrought 
by me to this government, 

2. " They shall know," 1. Not by the knowledge of the brain, 
for that they know now, but knowledge of experience, as it is 
said in Ezek. vi. ult. : "When I shall have made the land deso- 
kte in all their habitations, Ihey shall know that I am the Lord," 
Now, what shall they know of it ? 

Ant. The dift'erence between them, the sorrow of the one, 
the sweet of the other ; the misery of the one, and blessedness 
of the other ; the bondage of the one, and the liberty of the 

There might be many things observed from the words, bat I 
note only the general. 

Oluer. That when any people of God forsake the Lord, and 
cast off his government over them, they provoke the Lord to 
put them under the bondage of another government. They 
that abuse God's liberty must be under bondage ; the Lord hath 



« kingdom in this world most glorioux ; hence, when men will 
not be under it, if they will Dot be ruled bjr him, they must be 
ruled by the whip ; and if ChrJst'a lawa CAn not bind, Christ's 
chains must. Jer. v. 19, "And it slisll come to pass when ye 
ghall say, Wherefore doth rhe Lord all lliese things unto uB ? 
then shall lliou answer them, Like as ye have forsaken me, 
and served strange gods in your laud, eo shall ye aerre strangers 
in a laud that is not yours." Ps. cvii. 10, 11, "Such ae sit in 
darkness and in the shadow of tloath, being bound in affliction 
and iron, because they rebelled against the words of God, and 
contemned the counsel of the Most High." £zek. xx. 24, 25, 
" fiecause they had not executed my judgments, but had de- 
spised my statutes, and polluted my Sabbatlis, etc. Wherefore I 
gitve them also statutes thai were not good, and judgments, 
whereby they should not live," etc. Zech, xi. 15, IG, "And 
ihe Lord said unUi me. Take unto thee yet the instrument! of 
a foolish shepherd. For lo, I will raise up a shepherd in 
the land, which shall not visit those that be cut off, nor seek 
the young one, nor heal that that b broken, nor feed that that 
eiandcth siill," etc. 

When people break covenant with God, and loathe him, then 
saith the Lord, 1 will not feed, and then be sets over them Idol 

Thin is cerluin : when the soul will not subject itself U> God, 
he goes about to subject God to him, nay, lo his lusts. Is. xliii. 
24, " Thou hast made me to serve with thy sins." For one of 
them mu^t stoop, and d man would have the Lord bo merciful, 
pmiunl, and pitiful to him, when he is in league with his luits; 
(luw, this the Lord will not do. And hence, if he does not 
dcKtniy him, ho withdraws himself from serving of the creature, 
and hence other evils take hold of it, and bring it under. liVlien 
Adnm stood and viixs for God, all creatures served him, and the 
riches of God'a goodness preserved him, the Lord communicated 
the tweel of his government or service to him ; but wheu turned 
away from the right wajs of God, now, if the Lord should 
serve him by governing of him in goodness, he should serve a 
lust, tuid bow to the creature, nay, to a lust; which is a viler 
thing than for one creature to fall down and worship another. 
Ihcrefore, now, hence it comes to pass, because the Lord will not 
l>c a servant to any man's luat, there must he some other govern- 
ment that must seize upon them. Hence set all the saints in the 
churches with Ilicir faces subjecte<I lo the Lord, his good will 
and righteous ways, and then his goodness shall tlow down upon 
llicm in and tbruugh Christ ; for utlterwisc we liuvo nothing lo do 




with good, but when we are set riglil for God. Hos. ii. 19, 
" I will betroth thee unto me forever, yen, I wil! betrolh ihee unto 
me in righteousness, in judgment, in loriDg liindness, and mercy," 
etc The Lord will then command all crcaturcB U> be aerviccable 
to hifl church and people. (Ver2l,22.) But on the conirary, 
miHeiy muat needs seize upon the soul that doth cast off the 
govemmeot of the Lord Jesus, Thus much for the general 
espUcation of the point. Now, in particular, — 

1. Wlial u this government or serTice of God? 

2. What is that bondage he captivates his unto? 

3. Why doth the Lord do thus ? 

Que>. 1. What is this government or service of God which 
being shaken off the Lord gives ihcm over to bondage ? 

Aiit. There is a double government of the Lord over hia 

1. Internal or inward, of which our Saviour speaks. (Luke 
ivii. 21.) The kingdom of God {saith Christ) conies not by 
observation and outward pomp ; " For behold the kingdom of 
God is within you." And this is nothing else in general, but 
when the Lord doth by his Spirit in the word of his grace cause 
the whole soul willingly to submit and subject itself (o the whole 
will of God BO far as it is made known to it ; this is the inward 
kingdom of God and government of Christ in the aoul. Bom. viii. 
14, " So many as are led by the Spirit are the sons of God." 
Ps, cs. 2, " The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of 
Zion," etc 2 Cor. x. 4, " For the weapons of our warfare are 
not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong' 
holds." Ver. 5, " Bringing into caplivily every thought to the 
obedience of Christ." There are mighty boisterous distempers, 
but the Lord, when he comes in his kingdom, to sit upon the 
royal throne of the hearts of his people, now they fly ; and 
this is the inward kingdom of Christ, like a poor subject par- 
doned and received to favor, he is before the face of the 
prince continually attending on him. Rev. vii. 14, 15, "These 
■re they which carae out of great tribulation, and have washed 
their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb-" 
Ver. 15, " Therefore are they before the throne of God, and 
serve him day and night in his temple," etc. Now, this is meant 
in part by God's service in these days : do you think the Lord 
eared for thousands of rams ? No, but to walk humbly. (Mieah 
vi.) Did he care for temple and ordinances? No, but, (Is. i 
19,) "If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of 
the land." Neb. is. 20, " la these days he gave them Us good 
Spirit to instruct them." 

2. Extcmul or outward, the end and insligation of whtcli was 
d help forwsrd the inwnrd ; for externtU ordjaances 
noUiiag ia themselves, n«an things ; but ss they are Bp[>omt- 
ed and MBctilied for thi« end, they are Dtost glonous ; and there* 
fur« Christ threatens the Jews (Matt, xxl 43) that iho king- 
dom should be taken from them. What was that ? Surely not 
inward, for that Ihey had not, but tlic outward and cxiemol 
means called God's kingdom ; all tlie^e helps and means shall ^||l 
taken from you. and all laid ruinous. Now, )his exiernol king- 1 
dom of Christ is double. I 

1 . The external kingdon or govemment of G!od by his chu igh. 
in the administration, and execution, and eabjectktn to the blesded 
ordinances of God, wherein the power and kingdom of Christ i 
is aeeni and thus, (Dan. ii. 44, io ; vii. 27,) "It shall bel 
given lo the saints of the Most High," etc. Not to profane herd» A 
of beasts or cages of undean birds, but to the sainls of the Slost I 
High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all the \ 
printvs of liie woM shall sulyect themselves to this kingdom \ 
of Christ V 

This outward kingdom Christ admin i«tercth amongst his ) 
[leoplc in thid world : and this was pari of the Lord's govern- / 
ment over his people herein, though various from our form noy, / 

2. Of the commonwealth which may have divers forms, and 1 
liad in ibe lime of Israel ; but it receiving its law from God and \ 
governing fur God, hence it was tire government of God, and 
aiibjcption hereunto was subjection and service to God him- 
self./ And hence, when the people cast off Samuel, (1 Sam. viiL 
7,) " They have not rejected thee, but me." Rev. 
*' The kingdoms of the world are become the kingdoms of our 
Lord and of his ChrisI, and he shall reign forever and 
l-'or nlihough ihe commonwealth of Israel was made up of the 
church, and hence Jusephus calls it a theocracy, where the Lord 
governed, and yet the same thing had divers foif, forms and 
n-spects, and hence there was a diverse government then, and 
faence made diverse. 2 Chron. xix. 5,8, " Jehoshaphat sets 
Judge* in the land throughout all the fenmd cities." Such is the 
wildnesB, holitnesg, and carelessness of men's hearts, that they do 
not only need laws, but watchmen over them, 10 see they be 
kept : and hence ibe Lord appointed some chief, some judges in 
every ciiy, and also some in every village, as by proportion may 
t>o gathered, (Ex. xviii. ;) every ten men hod one over them. 

Now, this wa* the blessed wisilom of God to put all into sweet 
•ubordinalion one unto another for himself. 

1. Everyone professing his name la made for God, for Cbriat, 
VOL. iti 23 


our ^1 



a Lord of lords, unto whom every knee must bow," and lo' 
wardly subject. 

2. IIcDC^ the Lord (it being not good to leave man to bim- 
Beir) erects a kingdom of tbe cbiirch, with his own power and 
RUthority, and goTernment in it for tbat end. 

3. Tids being poor and sbiftless ogainat inward and outwai-d 
revenge, hence tbe Lord sets up kingdoms of the world, which 
either rule for this end, or these ends, or not. If tbej do not, the; 
are to answer it, and shall one day to Christ, " whom God 
liath made head over all things to the church." (Eph. i. 22.) If . 
they do, then their government, judgment, and kingdom ie the 
Lord's in a special manner ; and hence break the yoke of sub- 
jection to any one of these, you cast off Christ, the Lord's gov- 
ernment and service ; and being so linked together, in truth if you 
break one you breuk all, and this will provoke the Lord to make 
you kiss the clink, and to put your necks under iron bondage 
that refuse subjection to him. 

Quet. 2. What is tbat bondage or other goverumenl to which 
the Lord gives over his people when they have cast off his gov- 
ernment: this will provoke the Lord if the Lord be cast off, and 
the casting off the government of Christ will bring tbe most 
famous kingdoms, churches, and families into bondage: you wiil 
say. What is this bondage ? When is it that the Lord takes his 
season for the execution of it ? 

^n*. 1. The Lord lakes his own times to do it; these were a 
twelvemonth before the Lord sent Shishak, Here he was more 
quick. Nebuchudnezzar comes at last, and many years it is be- 
fore the Lord doth iL 

2. The Lord is various in working; as he is wonderful and 
hath divers ways or means of bondage, he hath more prisons and 
chains than one. 

1. Sometimes the Lord opens the door of a kingdom or stale 
for the inroad of some foreign, or it may be barbarous enemy, 
breaking in sometimes by power, coming in sometimes by craft, 
and then ruling like lions, which the Lord makes to vex and 
prick the people of God ; thus here their lives were spared, but 
Bberties lost. Thus, Judg. ii. 13, 14, » They forsook the Lord, 
and served Baal and Ashtarolb ; " and in verse 14," The anger 
of tbe Lord waxed hot again»>t Israel, and he delivered them into 
the hands of spoilers that spoiled tliem." Ver. 15, " Wbiiber- 
■oever they went out, tbe hand of the Lord was against them 
for evil." And this the Lord doth many times suddenly, that 
one would never think that ever the Lord should be so sudden ; 
the Lord can bo as quick to punish as man to sin, and that 



unexpectedly. £cd. ix. 12, "Mnn knows not his time, but is 
Inken like lisli in an eril net suddenly." Lam. iv. 12, "The 
kin^loniK of the earth, and all the inhabitants of the world, 
not have believed." Judg. v. 8, " They set i 
war was in the gate^" 

2, Sornetimea the Lord turns ibe edge of that lawful authority 
God hath set over them against ih^mselTes, lo be a heavy 
scour;^ from God upon ihem. Thus it was with Israel in Egypt, . 
(Ex. i. 8, 9 ;) there arose n king which knew not Joseph, and 
it is said then they were oppressed. Thus Jeroboam, whom the 
ten tribes chose, (Hoa. v. 11,) he oppressed the people, he will 
be innovating, and this becomes their oppression. Thus the 
people under the reign of degenerate Solomon, (tliough their 
complaint might foe in part unjust.) Such is the venom of sin 
and unsubduedness to the kingdom of God, that the Lord turns 
light into darkness, and makes ua aching head nuitter of sorrow 
to all the stale and body of people. Eccl. x. 16, " Woe to thee, 
O land, when thy king is a child." And one man shall do a 
world of hurt, one Shebna or Amaziah, and this the l^rd doUi 
in justice many limes'for casting off his government./^ 

9. Sometimes the Lord gives a people up into ihe bands of 
one another tu be mutual oppressors of each other, that a man's 
neighbor shall be his oppressor. Zecb. xi. 9, " I will piiy no 
more the inhabitants of the land, I will deliver them every one 
into bis neighbor's hands. I will feed you no more ; that which 
dieth let it die, and tliat which is cut off let it bo cut off, and let 
Ihe rest eat every one the flesh of another." Sometimes the Lord 
is pleased losendmarvelousslraics into a place, that men are forced 
lo imbondagc ibemeelves sometimes by words as bitter as death, 
as sharp as arrows ; the Lord is pleased, for the forsaking of his 
righteous ways, lo moke a man's aclf rip his own bowels, the father 
agninst the child, the mast«r shall be a scourge to the servant, 
and llie servant shall be a scourge lo his master, weary him of 
liis life, the government of the Lord iit a man's heart or family 
being cast off; (Micah viL4, u,) " Trust not in a friend." No great* 
er bondage in the world than for men jirofcssiog the Lord lo be 
desperately set one against another. 

4. By taking from a people all that righteous power of gov- 
ernment the Lord hulb set over them, when a jieople despising 
the Lord and inward government first, (for there all begins,) and 
so not prizing what they have, nor praying for them, nor sub- 
jecting to them, the Lord hereupon sends some sickness, or som« 
other evil, that tliey are either suddenly taken away, or gradu- 
ally ; and when they ore gone, all smk, or else such cruM 




492 , A wnoLKsosiE caveat 

CRmagefi, tbnt as Moses said, so s.iylhfj, "Icnnnot bear this pro- 
pie." Thus, (Judg. xxi. 25.) " Hen did ntmt was riglit in iheir 
own eyes nben iLere naa no Iting in Israel." No slnle so niiser- 
-able OS an aosn^iy, ivties erety one k a slave, because ereiy 
one will be a miisler. Thw, (Is. iii. I, 2, E.) " Be a rnler 
tons." No, I will not imdertiiie to mle. So (?Cliron. xt. 3, 5) 
when ivilltoDt a leaching priest, then no peace at ft)], men vrill not 
be under govemnient of them, jou shall not have theia, they 
shall rest in pem^, and you shall then knon the nant of iliem. 

5, By giving them over to Satan's and iheir own hearts' lusts, 
Ihat seeing they will not serve the Lord, ihey shall serve their 
lusts and Iheir sine, tlmt now the Lord he hath left df chnstising 
of men, nnd conscience shall check no more, prosper, saith the 
Lord, and go on in thy sin. Fs. Ixxsi. 12, " So I gave them 
up to their own hearts' lasts, and they walked after their owit 
counsels." Rev. xxii. II, "Let him that h lilihy be filthy 

When the Lord shall give a man over U> Satan, not only to 
winnow him, lo let out the ciiatf, and so to make the grain the 
purer, or to butfet tliem as he did Paul, bbt lo insnare them, and 
hold them, that he shall not only tempt, btit his temptations sliali 
lake, and not only lake, but holds (2 Tina. ii. ull.) "who arc 
taken captive by bim at hia will ;" taken alive as a snare doth, 
that now a man is beyond the reach of all means, only peradven- 
tlire Grod may give repentance ; (Is. i. 5,) " Why should ye be 
stricken any more? ye will revolt yet more and more." The 
Lord leaves smiling nnd says. Go on and prosper in thy sin ; and, 
which is the worst of all, Satan shaLI so blind him and lianlen him, 
fill him wilh pride, passion, lying, hatred of Uod's people, cavil- 
ing against the Lord's ways of grace, shghting of his belters, 
despising of wholesome counsel from his dearest friends, that he 
knows not that gray hairs are upon him. And after this, when 
God Imth cast out, it nuty be the church doih also, a most fearful 
bcmdage that the Lord gives snch a soul over unin. 

There arc two roasona of tliis point which I c«Ucct only from 
the story in this chapter. 

Jieaion I. In regard o£ the righteous judgment of God. It 
it just and equal that ho that will not lie ruled by this blessed 
Lord Jesus, he sliould be ruled by his luets ; he that will not be 
in subjection to a merciful Christ, he slkould be in bondage to 
Unmerriful men : this a humbled Iteitrl wiU acknowlei^e, as these 
do here. ( Ver. G.) Tlii^y ai'knawledged the Lord 10 be rigUleous- 
Man being fallen, it had lieen righteous with (iod to have left all 
men as the angels that fell in chaina of darkness forever. But 

among his church and people tlic Lord sends the gospel to pro- 
cliiim liberty, and with it sends Christ with his Spirit, to come (o 
the prison doors of poor sinners, to give rcpe'nlonce as well aa 
remission of sins ; and oow, if Ihey will not come out of their 
bondage, accept of the Lord's Uberly, it is exceeding righteous to 
deal with them as we do with prisoners condemned to die ; if the 
prince comes to the prison doors, and says, I am come to give thee 
thy life, nay, and here is pardon, nay, favor, and lo pull off thy 
cbains also ; now, if he says, No, I had rather be in prison, every 
one will say it is just, and as it was in the year of jubilee, he lliat 
would not go free was to be a bondman forever. It is very 
righteous to give men tlicir own choice ; it is no wrong to let them 
hove their own will: if, indeed, the laws of Christ were Draco's 
laws, hard and heavy, there were something to object; but they 
are most sweet, and for which of all other blessings men have 
cause to bless him. (Ps. cxlvii. utt.) 

Reatvn 2. In regard of the mercy or merciful wisdom of the 
Lord toward his church and people, especially his peculiar ones, 
that hereby they keep the closer lo tlic Lord, set a higher price 
u[>on the rules and govemmenl of the Lord, love his kingdom the 
more, and the liberties thereof, and use them belter when they 
have them again, so here, " that they may know my service," etc 

1. How sweet it is. Experience, we say, is the mistress of 
fools ; such is the foolishness of men's hearts that men are many 
limes never truly taught a truth till they arc taught it by sense, 
(Prov- V. 11,) "and ihou mourn at lost when thy fiesh is con- 
sumed : " tell a man of all the glory of the saints, they never un- 
derstand it till they feel it ; tell men of the woe of their ways, 
they will not believe it till they see it. Ps. xxxii. 9, " Be not 
as the horse or mule, that hath no understanding, whose month 
must be held in with hit and bridle." IIos. x. 1 1, " Ephraim ia 
like a heifer that ts laughu" Like untamed horses that will 
cast their rider, unless they be held under and backed, and then 
they are gentle, so it is here ; and truly it is long before a man 
can learn the sweet of Christ's government : hence Israel must 
be long in Egyptian bondage, and many long miseries, go that, if 
there be either justice or mercy in the Lord, he will do this, and 
this point shall be true. 

Cm I. / Hence, then, see that the greatest liberty anil sweet- ', 
est liberty is to be under the government of Christ Jesus, although 
men do not think so ^hence the Lord tells thera here " they shall 
know my service : " they might have replied. We do know it. No, " 
till they be in bonds tliey know it not, cor can not learn it. So 
it is now; and bencv, let men observe while they live loosely, and 




e guided by their own wisdom, for their own ends, according 
I to tbeir own will, Bt pera riven I urea, at rovers, bb they please, 
Ihey do think this liberty very sweet ; and il is beller than to be 
curbed in. But let (be I.ord strike an arrow id the lienrt of 
these wild bucks that have broke park and pale, send affliction 
and an iron yoke of sorrow upon lliem, or distress of conscience, 
if there be any sense and feeling left, they will bemoan them- 
selves, and say. I did ihink my liberty sweet, but now I see it is 
bitter in a sinful way : und the Lord's way was most sweet, by 
their own confession. Hence, (Ps. ii. 3.) " Let us break their 
bands," etc. But O. now hence learn this truth, and digest it 
thoroughly, that the greatest liberty lies here. Do not, in thy 
■ judgment, think Christian liberty liea in being freed from the 
law as a rule of ob edience in respect of the matter of it to bo 

ft thousand sori-Qws with it and griefs, yet it is sweet. Christ's 

" yoke (Matt. xi. SO.) is easy, and hia burden light." What, when 

not a bole to hide his head in, wb^n a reproach of men, a worm 

gnd no man, when he bore the Fatlier's wrath ? Yes, when he 

r iras meek under it, {" Not mine, but thy will be done,") it was 

Ir then most sweet. 1 Kings ix. 21, 22, To be a servtuit to Sol- 

. omon is do bondage. Ps. cxix. 32, " I will ruu, when thou shalt 

enlarge ray heart." 

Ute 2, Hence see the reason why the Lord hath deprived 
, his churches of their liberty, and his government over tliem at 
I randry times, and hatli put them under iron yokes and bonds, and 
'i sore pressures : the reason is shown ; they have either openly or 
I jnore secretly cast off the government of the Lord ; here halh 
been the very wound, the ail of all churches famous und glori- 
ous. Ps. Ixxxi. 14, " that they had heitrkened ! I should then 
soon have subdued their enemies." The cause is not so hard to 
find to a discerning spirit who is privy in any measure to the coun- 
sels of God. 1 Kings ix. 8, 9, Solomon hath a promise that "the 
Lord's eyes and heart shall be to his people " which are under 
him : but if once they slip the collar, then woe ; and why ? " Be- 
cause they forsook the Lord, that brought them out of Egypt ; " 
they bad liberty, but they cast it off. 

What do you think was the moving cause of all those bloody 
persecutions, when the blood of dogs was more precious than of 
Christian churches? Were not they godly? "Yes, I do not 
doubt of it. But as it was liere, though humbled they must lie in 
bondage, because they had cast off the government of the Lord 
Jesus. Am) hence in the apostle's time evil limes were come, 
awl Apostasies irom the truih, and because it was kaig befera lliey 

xntE OF LiBEnrr. 

were low enough. Amibence, (Rev. vi.) till the Gfih Eeal wu 
opened ; no crjiiig, as it wa~^ with Israel in bondAge, do pruyer 
to purpose, and because ihe Lord saw tbey would ubuac all liber- 
ties if they had [hem. And hence in ConBtnatine'a time, when 
peace came in, contention came with it, and so abused all, that 
their peace was tteir poison. And hence, in the primitive churohea, 
they began to cast off tb« government of tlie Lord Je^us 
raurings there were ; hence came persecution ; hut they ' 
precious people, and made blessed use of iL And the Lord 
couples their chief persecution with their resL And it is said) 
(Acts is. 31,) " Then had the cburcbea rest," etc. 

And what do you think of the reiiaon of the long reign of An- 
tichrist, exalting himself above God and all tliat is called God, 
bringing tlie church under llie heaviest bondage for body anit 
soul that ever the ^rth saw? Men did not love the I rutli, either 
speculative lo guide their minds, or practical to rule their wills ( 
atid hence left to this day. - . 

What is the cause of bleeding Germany's woe ? O poor Ger- 1 
many ! whence the gospel lirst brake out in its full strength, that 
now it is a field of bloo<l, that men in wooita like satyn are afraid 
of men, and men in cities glad to eat the entrails of beasts, and 
sometimes the flesh of their own babes, lo preserve tlieir lives. 
What, was there no evil, but the common condition of the ehureti r 
to be under the cross? Ask them, ibey can not tell what aila | 
them, but curse the emperor and Swedes, etc. O, think uf it with 
sorrow, in secret, for them that know it not themselves, ihey have 
secretly, I say, secretly cast off the government of a mei'ciful i 
Christ, and hence are under the hand of unmerciful men. ' .J 

What is the cause in our native country, not withstanding all 
prayers and tears no deliverance ? Truly men do not ktiow it, 
but the I^rd sees it, they know not bow to use tlieir liberty. 

And for ourselves, what sliuU I say ? I can not but bleu God, 
and wonder lo see how it is with many, and rejoice to see many 
precious, holy ones, lo whom one day in God's court is sweeter 
than a thousand elsewhere ; but I must profess, and can not but 
niouni tor others, men that were eminent under bondage, but 
never worse than here ; as if the Lord should say. Look, here 
be your emioenl ones; look, and fear, and mourn, you ministers 
of my house ; here .be the people you hod (bought had been con- 
verted, and that of all others such a one would never have lullen 
so ; one an opinion lakes him, anolhf^r a lot, nnotlier loose company, 
another liis lust, anuther goes proud, another 6erce, another mur- 
muring. Wbia, (bould 1 name all ? O, that my words might 
be healing I etc. ' 



Use 3. HencH see what will become of iis 
under the government of llie Lord, it' ever 
ciiher inward or outward, or both. We are not dearer 
tliun liU iieoplt' Israel liere, nay* Judali. When old Urael, iha 
grcut and numerous tribes of Israel, lind set up culves. Utile 
Judah and Uenjainin received the priests; and jet they fell, 
and were in bondage. I know we nre not yd in boniiuge ; yet 
it is not more unsensonable to apeak now than for ibe Lord to 
Solomon. (I Kings ix. 1.) 

Que»l. But there being much unsubducdness in tlic hearts of 
tlie best, how shall one know when there be such sins for which 
the Lord will cast from under bia governmeni? 

Am. 1. When men do not lonihe their own hearts for the 
unprofitnbluness, but loathe God's ordinancea sei^relly, and grow 
weary of ihem bb of iheir bm-dens, because of the unprofitable- 
ness of them; when a jwople find not that special good by 
thera wbicli recompenseth all losses, nnd so prize ihem, but lay 
blume on them, liecnuse unfruitful to them. (MaL iii. 13.) He 
speaks to a people got out of captivity, " Your words have beea 
fllout against me ; " no, say they, " It is in vain to eerve the Lord ; 
what protit is tiiero in this?" You must conceive they had 
many losses, were very poor, (as ver. 11,) a temptniion which a 
proud heart can not endure above any ; here is now no profit in 
mourning, fiisling, etc., and God's own people began to think so ; 
and hence, (ver. 10,) "Then they spake ofien one to another;" 
there was good efii;ct of bis sermon. Now what follows ? 
Chapter iv. 1, Hence the wicked shall come and cut off 
branch and i-oot in Aniiochua's time; there is a burning day a-com- 
ming, tliat shall burn down house, root and. branch; and hence, 
<Matt. xxi. 43,) "The kingdom shall be given to them that 
bring forth fruit." You will say. We do ; no, lliy own raoulh 
shall condemn thee : you do not ; you find no good by all ths 
onlinanees of God, and^hence come those quesiions ; what war* 
, rant for such an ordinance ? The bottom is, they never felt 
good of it, and hence grow weary of it. Well, if it be your 
burden, ihe Loi'd will ease you of it. 

2. When you see men (professing the fear of God) mutually 
naturally contentious, and continuing so ; I say contentious with 
eainis which they say they love, and which they are by cove- 
nant bound lo love, either from some conceived wrong, and 
hence can not forgive as Christ doth thera ; or from a preju- 
dicate groundless opinion, They care not for me, nor I for ihem; 
or from a spirit of scornful censoriousness, what are such and 
snch? or because di^la^led, because of some reproof in their 




or by Bome opinion, or hj eome worldly convenienc)', or 
laying out lots, or rc^lraiot of some liberty, etc., or becuuse of 
wmc fin ; now cnii sit and censure ; and I say, when thig is 
tnuliiul 1 for a godly man may be conlendL-d with, but be prays 
nnil mouma and pilies, unless it be at some time, bul when it 
slioll conlinunlly abide so fierce and implacable, (Ecclcs. vii. 9.) 
" Anger resteth in tiie bosom of foots." When a miui shall be 
glad (^ an occasion of difference, that so he may depart and 
have something lo quiet con»cience for breacli of covenniit, 
that there can be no healing, but bcllira of pigs are more dear 
than bowels of sainis, and when quiet, upon the lea^I occasion 
apt to pick bole^and quarrel: now, it is time for the Lord to 
give over to another governmenL Zech. xi. 14, 15, When 
brotherhood is broken, then an idol shepherd n set up. Ex, ii^ 
Mosea was sent to deliver Israel, but he Gnds two Hebrews, 
oppressed, striving, and must not be checked neither; well then 
farewell deliverance if you be of that spirit; you shall love one 
another better if ever the Lord dolh tlrnt for you. It hath been 
the wbdom of some princes, when their subjects have been at 
civil wars, lo call them forth to a common enemy, and there 
they can agree. brethren, there is no sin like ibis, and yet 
none »o slighted. You shall know what it is either by being 
yoked under enemies or sins ; the first of these breaking bonds 
of union to Christ, the other with hi^ members. 

Cht 4. Hence see the reason why many men are delivered 
up lo the bondage of their own lusts, the most snd bondage and 
power of Satan, who have seemed to be delivered from i t; 
truly they have cast off the government of the Lord. / Hen 
wonder why in this country men are more vile than ever they 
were, men that gave great hopes : the reason is this i they have 
iecmud to be under Christ's government, but secretly cast it off: 
and hence filthy and vile lusts are tlieir apparilo» and pursui- 

Objuet. The saints fet;l a bondage; how shall one know the 
dilicrence ? 

AnM. The first and greatest inlhralhnent is, when Satan and 
sin so rule as that they know tlicm not ; this is lamentable, that 
like those, (John viii. 33,) when Christ told them, if they con- 
tinued ill the truth it should make tliem free, they would not 
believe that ever Ihey were iu bondage. Su here a man ihinka 
himself free when he is a slave, thus: (Fs. Uxxi. 13,] "God 
gave them up to their own hearts' lusts, and they were led by 
their own counsels." The saints may be much carried away by 
Ac power of batan's temptsUions, but never so far as to think 




their bondage is llicir freedom, and to have rensons and argU' 
menla prevailing against the good ways of GckI's gract, and to 
have reasons to mainiaio their sinful eouri^es, and ihat is in sucli 
as have wit, and parts, and knowledge, wliich through the right' 
eotiE judgment of Giod are left bo far to abuse it as to moke uae 
of it to maintain their sinful lusts. 

2. When men, if they see their bondage, yet have no heart to 
oome out nf it, in using all raeans for that end. When llie will 
is in captivity, no captivity like it, no galley slave like it : a child 
of Grud hath a bondage and is led into eaptivily ; but, O misera- 
ble man ! he cries ; but these (Prov. svii. 10) " have a price in 
their hand, but no heart to make uae of it."^ Ezra i. 5, ^. So 
many wliose hearts the Lord stirred, they gat up to go to Jeni- 
satem." But the Lord never stirs the hearts of these poor 
creatures ; they know and fear, yet have no heart to get out of 
that condition, nay, rather willingly are bo. They sell iheniBelves 
to their lusts, and sins, and Satan. Here is (sailL Satan) this 
gain ; neglect prayer for it, tell a. lie for it, break covenant for it, 
lose fliy peace for it : here is this honor aild credit ; look big on 
it : here is thia estate ; carry thy counI«nance high, and thus ap- 
parel thyself with these trappings, walk thus with thy boots 
Preach-tike : here is this pleasure and mirth ; keep thou ihia 
company, loone thy heart, neglect thy God, give thyself over to 
it : here is this ease ; defer thy repentance, be cold in prayer, 
neglect thy family ; and a man sells himself to his lust, pleasures, 
and honors ; thou art thus provoked, and therefore now thou 
must fi'eC, and murmur, and rage, and hold thy own, and so ease 
thy henrt: thus men set themselves to sale willingly. 

3. When men hiive some heart to come out of it, but the Lord 
leaves men to an indifferency, and consequently to apostasy, as 
it was with Agrippa almost persuaded, and like the Israelites 
that refused to go into that good land, (Num. xiv.,) and here- 
upon the Lord was wroth, and said they should not, but they 
repented and would fain liave had some pity showed in regard of 
their misery, but iheir enemies fell upon them and desti'oyed 
them ; all the plea of the Aiminians is for this, which is nothing 

^— else but men's misery. Luke xiv., Those that were invited 

^L made their excuses, itnd said, " I must needs go and see it ; " but 

^B found no necessity to come to Christ. Now, the saints, the Lord 

^B never leaves them to a spirit of indifferency, but keeps them in 

^1 a spirit of necessity. I must come out of tliis miserable condi- 

^K tion, saith the poor soul ; ihey say no% Flesh is weak, but, I must 

^V have help. (Pb ex.) Because it is "the day of the Lord's 

^ft power," Ihey must not rest contented without help ; and if the 



Ijord delays them, and bears not, thnj will follow ihe Lord so 
much (lie harder. 

4. If they hove any resolution to come out, and think it must 
not be thu?, and purpose never to live thus again, yet notwiih- 

. standing all their purposes and resolutions, they fall again, and 
never get any real coiiquesl, iheir untamed hearts and wills aro 
never a wUii more aubdued. Is, Uiii. 7, 8, " For lie said. Surely 
they are my people, children that will not lie. So he was their 
Saviour ; but they w>on rebelled, and vexed his Holy Spirit ; " their 
wills were never subdued. But now the saials, either the Lord 
preserves them from such fulls and apostasies ; or if they do dC' 
part frora the Lord by reason of the prevailing power of any 
lempialion, they ever get rcjd conquest by their fall ; their sinful 
corruption thereby gels its deadly wound. (Rom. xi. 10.) Tbeir 
backs are not always bowed down, but the Lordraiselh their bowed 
down spiriiii, (Ps. culv. 14,) and upholdeth Iheir spirits for them 
when Ibey think they shall one day fait by llie hand of such Saul* 
like sins and dislempers. A carnal heart may carry a fair pro- 
fession, and be in snbjeclion to Christ for a time ; but his back 
stands always bowed down under his profesition ; il U h'ln bardeti, 
and hence al last he easts it off as a man doth his wearisome bur- 
den i but on the contrary, a child of God being indeed weary of 
his sin, and carrying that up and down with him as his burden, 
wilb his soul bowed down in the sense of his own vilencss, by . 
this means, through the help of Christ, at last he comes to get 
real conquest over his sin, and oast it off. 

5. When the Lord in this case lets them alone without inward 
or outward troubles, this is a fearful sign. Hosea iv. 17, 
" Ephraim is joined to his idols : let lum alone ; " the Lord will 
take no more pains with them ; he is wearied out with striving. 
Is. i, 5, " Why should ye be stricken ? ye will revolt yet more 
and more ;" when the Lord sees men the worse for his merciful 
corrections, he deals like parents that have striven long with tlieir 
children, and can do no good on them ; they then resolve to let 
them take their own course, and will own them no longer to bo 
of their family : the Lord never deals thus long with bis ; but if 
their sin will not waste by words, the Lord will then try what 
chains will do; and now they shall And good, now they sliall re- 
member their backslidings and apostasies from God, and their 
impeniiency in sin, in secret sins, especially in the days of their 
[teace and prosperity ; now the Lord will make sin as bitter as 
ever it was sweet. 0, consider ibis, you that are prosperous ; and 
because the Lord is good to you, therefore you tbink the Loril 
likes well of your ways. No greater plague than for the Lord 






(o give a mail peace in h'm sin ; or if the Loiil begios to afflict 
thee in thy naine, or estate begin lo be blasted, and thi 
see Gtiil'i hand on thee, and knowest it, and j'et lliou remainest 
unhiimbled, this ia a sign ibou art under the bondage of thy sin. 

Cm S. For examination, wliether tve do, or when a people 
do cast off the government of llie Lord and destroy his kingdom, 
it is needful to know the ain, tliat we may prevent the misery ; 
and it is certain, let New England be watchful, and make sure 
here to advance the Prince of Peace, and to keep the riglit and 
government in his hand, and you shall have the blessing of God 
and his ordinances, peace and mercy in your times, and contin- 
ued to your children ; for " bis kingdom is an everlasting kingdAm, 
and of the increase of his kingdom there is no end ; " and on the 
contrary, if New England cast ofl' the government from over them, 
■nd refuse his service, the Lord will then lake the kingdom from 
you, and you shall then know 
Mow, because Christ's governin 
outward in church and in stale, 

I shall let you know, 1, when the inward kingdom of Christ is 
set up, and when it is rased down, which I shall do by giving 
you a brief view of the nature of it, and wherein it consists, and 
so you may the belter judge of your own hearts in ihis particular. 
Ah Satan halh an inward kingdom in the hearts of those that 
Ub without, so the Lord Jesus hath an inward kingdom in ilie 
hearU of all his sainls. Col. i. 1 3, - Blessed be Giod " (sailh the 
apostle) " which hath translated us from darkness to light, and 
from the power of Satan into the kingdom of his dear Son," 
whieh is very spiritual, little seen ; a man may be under all out- 
ward government, and yet nought here j and therefore attend : 
this inward kingdom therefore consiiils in four things, or when 
the whole soul submits itself to God in ihesc four particulars : — 

1. When the whole soul gives entertainment unio the Lord 
himself to come into it ; for if a people shall say they are under 
such a government, and yet will not admit the prince himself lo 
come amongst them, but keep him out of the kingdom, ihey cost 
off his government and his kingdom. 

2. When the whole soul ctoseth with the whole willof the Lord ; 
for if A people ahali receive a prince amongst ibem, but he shail 
make no wholesome laws to govern them, but will be led by their 
own wills and lusts, they pull down his kingdom. 

3. When the whole soul thus eloselh with the will of Christ 
by virtue of the power and spirit of Christ ; for if a people 
submit to the will of their prince, but it is not by virtue of l^is 
authority over ihem, command of ihem, and helps he hath given 




KOK ; 


301 1 

flwm for that end, bul il is b^ reiuon of some foreign pow^r, that 
trnderhand encourngeth them to yield. Ibis is poor subjeclion- 

When the £oul thus submita to Cbrist'a will for the Lord's 
aadi, ilcnyiag its own wieilom or will, and m led by the Lord to 
his end ; for if a people shall submit lo their prince, but it is to 
■et up other princes, be is cast oH* from bis Ihronc. When a 
man shtill serve God, and be under his government because it is 
proSlAblc or honorable, it euita his own end, this is poor service 
in the Lord's account, 

1. I saj, then, the soni is under (he inward kingdom or gov- 
ernment of Christ, when the whole soul gives enlertainment to 
the Lord of lord^, the Lord himself, with all his (rain, in and 
by the gospel of grace, ll>e rojal swonl and scepter of Christ's 
kingdom ; for when Christ himself is thus received, the kingdo|p 
of God is come lo llmt soul, and entered into that heart ; anil 
hence (Mark i. 14, In) the gospel b called the gospel of the 
kiogilom, and when John and Christ preaclied, " Believe and ro- 
peni, for the kingdom of God is at hand." Under which word 
U comprehended much, but principally Christ Jesus ready lo en- 
ter the souls of his people ; and hence John preached Christ. 
Now, it is Niid those that were ctfcctunlly wrought upon, (Malt. xi. 
12,) that " the kingdom of heaven did sufler violence, and the vio- 
lent take it by force ; " so that the kingdom of God is come into 
ihe hearts of all tlie elect of God, when the soul uses a holy vio- 
lence, and the Lord does draw (he heart lo an entert.iinmcnt of 
the Lord himself. Many difficulties there be between them and 
Christ, and yet they break through all. 

This is the condition of all men by nature ; they are strangers 
to Christ, and live wiihouE God and Christ in Ihe world, and 
Christ from ihem, and so Saian lakes possession and rules them, 
and so men are under the kingdom of darkness, so that the devil 
himself possesses every natural man, as the apostle speaks, " lie 
worketh in llie children of disobe^lience," to run on so. and 
remain so. Now. the goiipel of the kingdom and the means to ad- 
vance Christ ill bis kingdom makes a free offer of Christ himself i 
indeed, it offers pardon, grace, mercy, life, glory, but all these are 
in Christ himseltj and we possess them by possessing and receiving 
tt Christ himself; as a poor woman hath all the wealth of the man 
tjf enienaining of ihc man. So that iho gos|>eI flrslty aiid pri- 
Vinrily offers Ciirisi himself, and faith doth pilch on Ctu-ist 
himself, and doih " open those everlasting doors that the 
King of glory may come in." John i. 12, It is said, "So 
mnny as received hira, he gave power lo be ihe sons of God." 
X John v. 12, '•He that haih the Son hnih life;" so that now lei. 
VOL. III. 26 






a man refuse or reject the Lord himself as be h llius offered iii 
the gosjiel, lie does refuse the kingdom of tlie Lord, nnd does re- 
fuse to be under tlje poiver of Ihe Lord. Tnie, it maj be said 
the kingdom of God hath been nigh to him, when Christ is offered 
in tbu gospel, nnd God says, as it nere, Kolbing shall please 
toe so much as this, if thou dost receive me. Luke x., ** Go 
and preach lo theae and these eities, and if they will n 
you, sliake olTibe dust of your feet, and let them know the king- 
dom of God hath 1)een nigh to ihetn ;" then Christ comes into 
the soul when the whole soul tukoe the Iiord for himself, Christ, 
and all that Christ hath, Clirist in a pardon, and Christ in a 
promise : at tlmt very day the Lord gave the heart to receive 
him, then is ibe kingdom of God come in that heart, and with 
^him all, life, peace, joy, and glory, God, Spirit, and all. 

Now, the whole soul receives him, when, J, the mind sees him 
in the glory of his grace, that though it had low, mean thoughts 
of Christ before, for which it mourns, yet the rising of lliis glo- 
rious eun upon him, ha esteems all things loss for him that he 
may win Christ, and be found in Christ, I in him, and be in me, 
in vocation ; end not having my own righteousness, in justifica- 
tion ; and to feel the life of Christ and death also, in sanutitieation ; 
and to attain to the resurrection of the dead, in glorification : and 
now nothing is dear to tiie soul but'Chri&t. 2. When the will, 
after the soul hath hud some hopes, the Lord may look toward 
it in his grace, and having had many heart-breaking tcai-s before 
Ihe Lord, the Lord is now pleased by the glad tidings of the 
gospel lo give the will power not only lo ifccive and entertain 
the Lord, but gladly lo receive him. The soul wonders that 
ever the Lord should how down to him, and ofler mercy to him ; 
and whenas together with this, by the sweel favor of his grace 
that he doth let into the heart, the soul doth receive the Lord 
with most dear embracings into his soul, ihnt now there is none 
like lo the Lord. Cant, i, 3, " Thy name is like an ointment poured 
out, where the very feet of the messengers of glad tidings are 
beautiful." Dut the Lord himself is the only crown and joy of 
the soul, when the least look of love to a castaway is more sweet 
than kingdoms, oy, and much more, that is, love itself. Is. Iii. 9, 
" Break forth into joy, sing together, ye waste places of Jerusa- 
lem : for the Lord hath comforted his people." When kings 
shall stop their mouths as vile in themselves, and not able lo set 
forth that glory they never heard of before, and the soul for joy 

I letls away all to buy this pearl, thot it says with Uuvid, " llow 

/ do I love thy law ! " 

Bow, beloved] when the soul does thuB receive the Lord, the 


a of God b come to time soul, and therefore trj and cz- 
ia it tliua with you ? or hath the Lord beguo to deitl thus 
with thee, to give himself, the glory of aagelj, the wonderment 
of heaven, the mighty God of heaven, lo come to thy heart? 
Thou art then under the government of the kingdom of Grod. 
Uut now, on the contrary, if thou canst be content to receive the 
ordinances of Christ, or the consolations of Clirial, or some of 
the commands of Christ, and that is all, and the Lord never gave 
thee a heart to close with Christ himself, it is a strange thing lo 
thee, that which is the main thing, the diamond in the ring of 
the gospel ; thou art yet far enough otf from the kingdom of 
God : I dare not say nor think, for all the world, that ever the. 
kingdom of God came to thy heart. Again, if jou have re- 
ceived Christ, but not with thy whole soul ; that now the offer^ 
promises, blood, life, grace, glory in the gospel, are grown com- 
mon things to thee ; that the Lord never sent thee home won- 
dering at the glory of Grod's grace to a poor wretch, never yet 
saidst, " Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lordj'' 
the Lord never yet lay next thy heart, or if thou hast had some 
liking, and some love and aflrctions in )iangs, yet the Lord is not 
only pr«cious and exceeding dear in thy heart, thy heart breuka 
not for grief that tbou hast so much slighted him, so little bonie 
him of thy heart. It is a sign that the Lord hath begun lo re- 
veal himself to thy soul when he gives thee a heart to mourn for 
thy standing out against him, hut this never came to thy soul. 

Certainly, here is the wound of many men. The gospel of 
God never hath its proper effect till the Lord help thee to giva 
thy whole heart thus to a Saviour, lo a God, to the Prince of 
I'eace ; and till this is done, the gospel is in effect u al, , it doth 
nothing. It was a sweet prayer of him. " Make thy Son dear, 
very dear, exceeding dear, only dear and precious, or not at all I " 
If thou hadst a thousand hearts, it was too little for Christ ta 
love him ; and dost grudge him one ? When thou hast imparled 
thy heart and esteem to thy lusts and creature, dost thou love thfl 
Lord with part of thy heart ? but a vile lust, a poor crealurs 
must have a share, and the remnant will serve Christ; is he not 
>nly pearl of thy heart ? to give him daily communion, knoir 
this thou art a stranger lo. " Hear, ye despisers, and wonder, 
and perish ; God will work a work in your days." What a 
that? The inlinite God can not express, as it were, the wrath 
tl>i>t shall come against such a soul, nor I can not express the 
wruih tJiat shall come upon such a denpiscr of the Lord Jesus- 
Give him all thy heart or none : if ihou bast the Loivl, thou hsst 
bi« whole heart: il' he had a tliousand lives, he would have laid 



^B 804 

^V them all down for tlicc. Hq poured out hi^ blood fur everj o 
^f of his ; but for tlie piiisent ihou nit out of [lie kitigilom of God 

to lliis day. 

2. Wben the whole aoul closeth with tiie whole will of Christ, 

having thus received him ; for if a prince be come, nnd people will 

not he ruled by him nor any laws that he raakts, though never 

80 good, hut what they list, the kingdom ia cast off; for, beloved, 

there ia a marvelous common deceit in men's hearU, ihey would 

not for nil the world but have Christ ; ay, but the will of Christ 

ia neglected, that is a clog, and ihe burden of the Lord of hosts. 

^L Christ is sweet And his will is hitter, Christ ia precious and his 

^H will ia vilaf Why do you make him a king, and ye will make 

^H hiwB for Christ, and you will rulo Christ, and his will shall not 

^M stand ? Here is no king. Such kind of idle libertines were in 

^H the apostles' time. 1 John i. 6, *< If we say we have fellowship 

^M with him, and walk in darkness, we lie, and there ia no truth in 

^P us." But now, when Ihe whole soul does submit to the whole 

will of the Lord, now his kingdom is come indeed, when his will 

is thus sweet. Dan. vii. 27, " Hia kingdom is on everlasting 

kingdom, and all natioiu shall serve him, and his servants ye are 

whom ye obey," whether Clirist, the devil, or your own hearts. 

tNow, the whole will of Christ is, 1, directing ; 2, correcling. 
Now, when the soul submits to both, then Christ rules in his 
kingdom ; sometimes you meet with Christ's directing will ; now 
this is men's frame, naturally they will not see it. " they will not 
come to the light," (John iii. 20,) they are Ifd by their own 
counsel, and will not regard the light and counsel of God in his 
word ; they will quarrel with the light when it ia cross to their 
ends, gain, honor, and the like ; men have high thoughts against 
the Lord Jesus, (2 Cor. x. 5,) " Casting down imaginations, and 
every high thought that exolleth itself against the knowledge of 
God." And again : if men do see it, yet, like the devil, that 
has much light, they do not love it, nor out of love, {not unless it 
be out of fear,) subject to it like Balaam, that had no love to 
> God's command, but only was acted by fear and constraint : now, 
when the soul continues thus, it casts off Christ's kingdom, but if 

tthe whole soul first comes to the light, though it sees little, seta 
the whole will of Chrbt before it, {Ps. xviii. 22,) saith David, 
" I have kept the ways of tlie Lord, and have not wickedly de- 
ported from ray God ; " and though it hath had many quarrelinga 
against ihe truth of God, yet now it hath not, nor darea not, but 
says. Lord, teach me ; the Lord gives ihem hearts to lie down at 
the feet of any man that shall show them any tiling that is amiss 
^^ in them, and they say with David, "Lord, search me, and try 


me J " I have aiany crooked wnys, niiH lh<;reforQ, good Lord, Rnd 
them out, and ttiererore curae to tlie Lord Tor tliai end ; and 
thotigli there bciminelhing in ihera tliol is desperately coiiirary to 
ihe good will of God. yei ihere is an inward man thai does delight 
in the law of God, and when ihe Lord is pleaaed la give ihem « 
heart to »ulimil lo the will of God, O, ihe suul doth wonder at 
the LiOrd, that the Lord should show him any thing, and help him 
againiiit temptations ; and though lliei-e be a great deal of weari- 
ness in llu; ways of God, yet there is a spirit within hiui, that it 
is indeed heaven itself to him to be in the ordinances of God; 
now, ye stoop to the directing will of Christ, when this is thy 
way, though thou goest oft out of it, yut contest in it again, aa 
ein is a wicked man's way, although be goelh a lliousand limea 
out of iL 

Now for the other, the correcting will of Christ. The Lord 
hath strong trial*. Now, here subjection lo Christ is required as 
well as to the directing will of Christ; then the soul submits to 
this will when the mind objects not, charges not God with folly, 
as Eli. I Sara. iii. 18, " It is the Lord ; lei him do what seem- 
eih hint good." And likewise the will, though it hath had muiy 
sad bouts, yet this is his frame in the conclusion, thai the will ut 
Christ is better than every thing else ; the will of Christ is alone 
Bweet to him. Is. xxxviii., Siulh Hezekiah, " Good is tlio 
will of the Lord:" and so Lam. iii., " It is good for a man lo l>ear 
the yoke in his yonth, and to turn his cheeks to him that smites 
him." Nay, when there is spiritual evils on the soul, as was on 
Christ himself, spirilual desertions, nothing but bitterness and 
sorrow, yet the soul »aiih. us Christ did, " Not my will, but thine, 
lie done ; Father, save mc from this hour ; yet, Father, glorify 
thyself," and so the soul does humbly submit itself to the Lord; 
though the Lord should never pity it, yet it will lie down at the 
feet of the Lord ; now is God's kingdom come.<^ 

But if the soul will have Chtisi, mid yet cast off the will of 
Christ, 1, either in his judgment, that the law of Goal, as given 
liy Christ, should be no rule to a Christian; sup[H>se you were in 
Knglanil, and were there pressed to bow before an altar, or image ; - 
what shall lead you, if that God's will and law must not be your 
rule ? The Lord will one day make you know his blessed will 
in that blessed law of his, that ye shall never find peace lo the 
end of the world, except the Lord do help ye thus lo walk. 
Again: when men can not endure the will of Christ, cannot endure 
cxhurtatiuns : Wlint doth the mtin mean lo exhort ut. thus? I tell 
thee ihore goelh forth t>uwer with the exhorialions of Christ. I 
•ay, take heed of casting off the will of Christ here i and so, 
26 • 




when men in tlwir praclice sbull qiinrrel against any of God's 
truths, and are lolh to see it, or, if tliey do, yet not love dearly 
every trolh of God, but it is a burden to them, especially if it 
cross Iheir own enils xnd gain, Ihey will not ece it to be B truth, 
lest iliey should be convluced a:id turn to the rule of it ; if the 
will and ordinftnces of Christ be a burden to a man, and a man 
ii not weary of his weariness, but weary of them all the while. 
Art thou under the government of Christ? If a man Ibrsaken 
of God, led by his own counsels, be under the kingdom of Christ, 
then thou art ; bo long as there is credit fur the truth, so long it 
ia entertained ; but now suppose it be costly, that it should bring 
beggary and affliction with it i is it now sweet to you ? doth 
this support thy heart ? I am in God's way ; canst lie down and 
subscribe to the equity of Christ's proceedings with thee, though 
he should never show favor to thee ? If it be not thus, 1 dare 
not say thou art under the kingdom of Christ. And so for the 
correcting will of Christ ; many sad aflliolious the Lord tries 
thee withal, the Lord tries men m;irvclously ; when thou art 
under the hand of the Lord, those very things that should make 
men cry to heaven and wean thee from the world, those very 
things do harden thee, and make thee grudge and repine. The 
Lord be merciful to thee, if this be thy frame ; the kingdom of 
Christ never came into that heart ; you are begging for mercy, 
and the Lord says, You mercy ? you have abused it ; no, saith 
the Lord, go to your lu^t. that have desf)ised the day of grace, 
ftnd BO now you cost oif the Lord because the i<ord will not give 
you mercy when you would have it. Will you now quarrel with 
the Lord ? No ! down, proud heart ; pray still, and mourn still, 
and turn to the Lord, and say. Lord, do with me wliat thou wilt ; 
I am clay in thine band ; thou mayest make me a vessel of dis- 
honor ; I deserve not the least bit of bread : such a one as is 
above the Lord aud hiswillis not under the Lord; therefore sub- 
mit thyself to the good will of Christ. 

3. When the soul doth thus submit to the will of Christ, by 
virtue of the power and spirit of Christ, i. e., when the soul doth 
not submit by virtue of its own power, strength, or ability, for 
this is foreign power. Kut as it doth seek to submit to the will 
of Christ, BO it would have Christ himself act it and rule it, and 
so enable it to submit thereunto. Now is the kingdom of God 
tTBIhe near to that heart. And herein Christ's kingdom is dilfer- 
' em from princes' ; ihey give laws that men may keep thrm by 
their own might; hence ihey conimund no impo.=siblc things; 
but the will of Christ is so cross to a carnal heart, that it is im- 
possible man of himself should submit to it ; but the Lord doth 

^ J 


it for this cml, that the soul shmilJ then come [o Christ in ita 
need, that he would do all the good [ileasun; of his will, and now . 
the Lord himself reigns, and that gloriously./ Rom. viii. l ^^Z. I 
" For [hi! law o( the spirit of life, whidi is in Christ Jesus, haCn 
made me free from the taw of sin and death." Acts t. 31, "A 
Prince and Saviour, for to give repentance and remission of ains." 
It is part of his princely powpr for to give remission of sins, hoih 
in turning from sin.anti to God and all the ways of God; and now 
Tou eicalt him when he is thus set up. 1 Cur. iv. 20, ** Tlie 
kingdom of God is not in word, but in povrer." The power of 
Christ Jmus is come into thy soul, and the soul is under tho king- 
dom of the Lord Jesus, when it doth lie under the migliiy power 
of the Lord Jesus Christ, 2 Tliess. i. 1 1. 12, " Wc pray always 
for you. that the I»rd would work and fullill the good pleasure 
of his will, and the woric of faitli in power, that Christ may be 
glorified.'' Yea, then is Christ glorified, when God omnipotent 
reigns over sin and unbflief ; and when the Lord doth this, not 
only the kingdom of God is now come, but the kingdom of Christ 
in glory is come. Tliere is many a poor miuI thinks Christ rules 
him not, because he can not do this nor ibut, because he finds hia 
heart unable and unwilling fur to submit to the will of ChrisL I 
fiad no eirengtli at all, sailh the soul, and I go to Christ, aud find 
not strength conveyed ; and now he tliinkd he is not under the 
kingdom of ChrisL I answer, that is not the question ; but hath 
the Lord made thee willing in the day of his power? When 
the soul doth lie under the power of the Lord Jesus Christ, when 
the soul doth lie like wax l>efore the Lord Jesus, when the soul 
sailh, Lord, tliere was never any change of my nature; the 
good Lord change it, and if there be any change, the good Lord 
increase and stir up tlie graces of thy Spirit in my soul, and do 
tliou lead me and guide me, — brethren, the kingdom of Christ is 
come to this soul. John v. 40, "You will not come to me for 
life," lie doth not say. Yon do not quicken yourselves, or, Ye 
can not come lo me, hut will not. Hi-rc is their wound j they 
will nut eomc to Christ fur life. Etom. vi. 19, " A3 ye have 
yielded your members servants to sin a:id Satan, so now yield up 
yourselves servants to righteousness and lo holiness." Ps. exis. 
i, 6, " Tliou hast cuinrouiided that we should keep thy preLfpts 
continually. O that oiy heart were directed lo keep iby pre- 
cepts t.-ontinually I O ihat my heart were directed to keep thy 
Bluiuies ! " When a Christian is grappling with his own he.4rr, 
ye will never be able to overcome the unsubduedncss ihcreof i 
but when ye bring them to the Lord Jesus Chri^ thai he would 
lako n course with them, 1, Now ye please Christ. 2. Ye lak« 



asurecoursi: to have the wiU of Go'l<lune, hebeing in office for (hat 
l;Dd ; for liitu hikth God exulled Ui be a Friiiue and Sitviuur lo 
larael ; when die soul doth look up to the Lord Jeaus, Euid he 
undor the power tiitd Spirit of the Lord Jedus. 3. You now 
make ttie yoke of Christ sweet, and hid Dame glorious ; nothing 
gloriliea Christ bo much as this, when Jesua doth work in a Chris- 
tiun ; now ihe kingdom of Christ 18 come to the soul, and that in 

But now, when men will not submit thus far lo Christ, 1, they 
can do nothing, but will not come lo him, on wbom God hatb 
laid salvation ; you say you can not understand nor edity by the 
BermoQS ye hear, and you om not part with your lusts. Ay, but 
now this id thy condcrannlion, thou wilt not go to a Sa^'iou^, that 
he may teach thee and help thee, when men will nut have the 
Lord Jesus to reign over them. Or, i, if men do come, they will 
not come lo him where he may be found ; but say I can do noth- 
ing; Christ must do all; and so neglect ihe means wherein he 
will be found. Or, 3, will submit and come in means to him, hut 
not then at the special time when he is to he sought and may be 
found, viz., in time of tetBptiition ; but then for^cl and forsake 
him, and cry, not Hosanna. Lord, now save, now help me against 
this lusL When temptation comes, when passion and pride come, 
do^'uu now go lo Je^us Christ? When the world begins to draw 
thy heart away, dost thou say thus ? — Lord, I have prayed this 
day against this sin ; and, Lonl, 1 have no strength against it ; now. 
Lord, help me. But here is the mi.sery of the soul ; it doth not 
go to Christ, and by this means live in comptaiiila ail their lite- 
time. ~i. If, lastly, any thing be lo be done, they will do it them- 
eelves, as Puul. (Gal. i. li.) Not but that a Christian should 
put foilh himself; a Christian is not a dead-hearted Christiau 
at all times, hut the grace of God, which comes fram Christ, doth 
Bet the soul in a continual dependence on Christ ; and where 
Christ acts Tiut, there Satan doth. Kow, I say the kingdom of 
God is come, when ihu soul doth ihus eubniit to tlie stream of 
the blessed Spirit of the Lord, that the Lord may guide it. O 
beloved, here is the skill, that poselh the augeU how to tell you ; 
so lo yield yourselves lo Christ, as that Clirisi may come ; bo lo 
abide in the stock, ihat all your fruit may be from him ; so to 
lie under the Lord, as that the stream of the Spirit of life may 
full on thee ; so to be implanted in the Lord, as to fetch lite from 
him. aji bring t'orih fruit lo him. But try this course, submit to 
the will of tht' Lord Jesus, be nulhing in thy own eyes ; and if 
the Loi-d do give thee any tiling, bless the Lord tor it ; if any 
strength against tliy sin, be vile in thy own ej>es, and try and see if 


309 V 

V find not the kingdom of God, llie glory of henren, come into thy 
O the light, life, prayers, you might have, the heavenly 
'~ oonference ye will have togelUer, ihat it would do a man's heart 
good to be with such a Christian ; that those that ai'e wilh you 
might say, Verily God is in this miui ; verily there is joy in 
lieaven when the saints keep in this fi'ame. 

4. When the eoul yields thus to the will of Christ for Christ's 
ends ; for such is the subtle wrei<:hedness of men's hearts, that, 
nen would have Christ glorify himself, that he may glorify ant) 
honor them ; like Simon Hagus, that would give any money for 
)i[)ostolical gii^, that he might be somebody that way also. Now, 
if a man shall submit, go to Christ for gilts and parts, that is to 
Ht up another king, to advance r man's self; and so, also, siu 
Mid the devil, and Christ must be made a servant for this end ; 
he is now no king; like a rebel, that is not content that thou- 
sands of the king's subjects should serve him, but he will have 
the prince s«rve him also. Every man will say, this doth utterly 
overthrow the kingdom of such a prince When a man shiJi 
secretly fight against the Lord, and he for himself, and for the 
devil and sin within ; when a man shall make all the creatures 
serve him, the soldiers of his army, meat, drink, and outward 
comforts, this is a marvelous thing ; ay, but when a man shall 
moke Jesus Christ, and God himself, and profession of Christ, 
make these to serve him, to raise up his name, this the Lord 
takes very ill. 

Only this I would add : When the soul doth look at Christ with 
a single eye, that Christ is sweet and precious, and lies under 
Uie blessed Spirit of Christ for that end ; and now looks up to 
Christ, that he may submit to him with a single eye^ that the 
name of Christ may be glorilied by life and death : true it is, 
self will be in every duty, and so is contrary to the Lord in all, 
and not fur the Lord. Yet though it be thus, there is another 
thing iu the soul that is wholly for God and Christ ; and hence 
seeks that he may do his work ; his heart loves him, and so 
seeks him ; and he begs it with many tears. that my children 
might serve and love this God ; nay, tliat all the world might 
see, and bless, and admire this God, and the Lord enlorgelh his 
heart herein, (fs. Ixxii. 19.) and truly now the kingdom of 
God is come to thy soul. liom. r. 17, As sin and Satan do 
reign by death, so Jesus Christ doth reign by life to eternal life. 
Matt. xxr. 14, He is the true subject that improves liis talents 
for ibe lung. Christ will subdue all his lo himself. Fs. Isvi. 3, 
■■ Through the greatness of thy jiower shall thine enemies submit 
themselves to thee." Rom. xiv. 17, " For the kingdom of 





God is not in meat iinil drink, but in riglitcousne«s, and peacSi 
and joy in the Holy Gliosl." Wlicn a man slitill be pickiug 
fault wilh tilings, and ibis and lliat oRbnd^ liim ; get ye gont^, the 
kingdom of God consists not in titat. liul when the «oal does 
go to tlie Lord, and maintain hia peace with God, and love to 
the people of God, and joy in the Holy Gliost, liere is llie king- 
dom of Goil. lie that serves Christ in these things, the king- 
dom of God is come into liis sout. 

Me that thus Bubmila to the Lord Cliriel, be must first be r 
man weary of his own counseli^, and muat loathe himself. When 
the Lord hath wearied a man of liie own ways, he says. What 
am I, that the Lord should b!iow me any mercy ? And when 
the Lord calls him to any service, Lord, what am I, that 
I should now pray to thee ? Bless the Lord when the Lord 
doth keep thy heart in this frame ; but now, when men will 
honor Christ, and yet, Saul-like, have Christ honor them^ 
Many poor creatures they think it a credit to be in olnirch fellow- 
ship, and they will seek to know Christ that they may altaia 
church fellowship, and have honor ; but know it, till the Lord do 
pull down thy huse ends, and make thee loathe thyself, and so 
to submit to his blessed will, truly till then the kingdom of God 
is not come to tby suul. Think of these things, for if the king- 
dom of God be in our hearts, tlien look for good days. Brethren, 
let New England be eonRdent of it : but if this be gone from the 
souls and hearts of men and women, in their several families and 
places, though they may have the outward kingdom of Christ, 
yet the inward kingdom being not set up, I say no more but 
what be said. Go to Palestina and Bohemia. C<?rtainly, if they 
had not cast off the Lard's government, they had never seen 
these lamentable days ; they bad outward ordinances ; O, but 
here was the thing : the inward kingdom of the Lord Jesua 
Christ, and subjection to the will of the Lord Jesus, and to be for 
the Lord Jesus, this the Lord saw was not iu them; therefore the 
Lord hath lell them to be lamentable spectacles. Therefore, 
dear brethren, I do beseech you, pray and beg for this kingdom. 
Thou sayest, I fall short of this. Know this kingdom of God ia 
at first like a grain of mustard seed, some little lying under the 
will of Christ ; if it be in truth, blessed be God for it ; the king- 
dom of God is come, and the sold doth weep and mourn after the 
Lord, that the Lord would bring every thought into suhjecti 

Know it, the kingdom of God is come to thy soul ; and kn 
it, thou hast Jesus Christ at the riglit hand of God the Path 
interceding for lliee ; iherefore go home and bless the Lord, and 
wonder at hia grace, that hath translated thee from the kingdt 



of darkness to llic kingdom or bis Hear Son. If tlie Lord bath 
let ibcu llnd llie Ixtginning or these things in truth, go home, and 
biesa the Lord Tor it. 

2. Try when iho exterpal kingdom of Christ in his church is 
cast off, Tor we told you this wns Christ's kingdom. It is called 
the kinir^lom of heaven. (Mutt. sxv. 1.) And it is it which ihe 
Lord gives up al the last day to God the Father. And iience 
(Matt. viii. 12) the members thereof are " the children of the king- 
dom ; " and hence we read of the rulers and governors of it, and 
the keys, not only of doctrine, but of power and jurisdiction, com- 
mitted by Christ Jesus to it, punctually expressed in Scripture. 

Now, we know, in the church there is a threefold power of 
Christ in government: I. The supreme, monarchical, absoluie 
power of Christ, in and by his ordinancss. 2. There is some 
derivative power of the church from Christ jointly together. 
8. There is a mintsterial power of the officers of the church 
il^lf. Hence the kingdom of Christ is overthrown when these 
three are, when this threefold cord is, broken by ibc sons of men ; 
and if whole America cast off these, or any of these, tlien they 
fall to bondage ; and if particular persons in churches do, the 
Ijord will do the like to them much more. 1 Kings ix. 4, S, 
When Solomon had been praying much, the Lord tells him, " If 
he would walk before him as David his father had done, to keep 
his Btiituies and obey his commandments, then lie would l>c a 
God, making good bis promise ; but if not, then the Jjord would 
ca»t off him and that place." So Zech. xiv. 17, " And it shall 
be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the eurth, 
to worsMp the King, the Lord of hosts, even Upon them shall bo 
no rain." The Lord is cjuick in his judgments, and will spare none. 

I. There is a supreme power of Jesus Christ in his church 
and ordinances thereof. Is. ix. 6, " The government is on bis 
shoulders ; " it is true this {tower is on others also, hut he is tho 
1 (Ucb. iit.,) Mosea was only » servant in his house, Christ 
as a son. The guidance of all things in the church doth lie 
chiefly on him, or else it would never be carried along. Christ 

■ Son, and that in his own house, into whose hand^i the supreme 

wcr of guiding and ordering nil things in the church of God is 
put ; the experience of God's sitints and {)cople doth lind another 
power, which shows that the Ixird Jesus hath, and doth exercise, 
a mighty power in the ordinances of his worship ; the supremo 
«nJ kingly power which he exerciscth in the hearts of bis people. 

Now, cast olT this kingly power, the l^rd himself is cast off; I 
Speak not immediately as in tho internal kingdom, but mediately. ; 
And for this tlte Lord will bring into boiidag>\ Luke xix. 17, 


"Those mine 
bIiouM reign ov 
Ihcm ; " which ii 

uth Christ, "which would not that tM 
■T ihem, bring tliem hither, Ihnt 1 maj slajT'l 
meiuit at tlie Lord's external administration t^ f 

Qiuit. When is this done ? 

Ant. 1. When men impenilcntl; break covenant made with (ha 
Lord { especially in his ordinances of cleaving and submilling to 
l)im therein, and remnin so with impenitency. 

Tliis is the main and first onginal of all the rest. Now, it ia 
mnnifest, the power of Christ Jesus, the supreme power of Clirist, 
iii cast off; for a man does profess hj this, that not the will of 
, Chriet, but his own will, shall rule him ; Christ shall not be Lord, 
J»ut as they saidj(Jer. ii. 31,) " Wc are lords, we will come no 
[more at thee." /When the league and covenant between p rinoB 
andjJgaple.SEe^l'rolfe, then Be is (SSTnirfroin being king ; this is 
certain, the Lord never did receive any people to himself, from 
the beginning of the world to this day, but he hath done it by 
some covenant ; nor never any people took the Lord to be their 
God, but by some coTenant they bound themselves to the Lord ; 
whereby tliey were either made his people, or continued to be 
Wa people, and he tlicir God ; but I can not now stand to clear 
this> Now, took, as when the Lord breaks his covenant, lie easts 
them off from being his people, (though this he never doth to the 
elect,) so when people break covenant with him, they cast him 
off, as much as in them lies, from being their God ; they do, as 
much as in them lies, make the Lord to he no God. I You shall 
Bee therefore, (Hos. x. 3,) "They say, We have no king, be- 
cause we feared not the Lord." It is the speech of conseienee, 
nnd that at a sad time, wherein they did not fear the Lord ; 
"they have spoken words, swearing falsely, and breaking the eov* 
enant." In tlieir time of covenanting with the Lord, there 
seemed to be much sorrow and humiliation; yol in these very eove- 
nanls, " hemlock did spring up," and hence captivity came. Many 
times the covenants that are made, there is such outward seeming 
reality, that not only men, but the Lord, speaking after the manner 
of men, he thinks certainly the^e promises, these covenants will 
never be broken. Yet they are broken. Is. Uv. 8-10, " I said, 
Surely," smlh the Lord, " this is a people that will not lie." Sueh 
professions and such acknowledgments, etc. ; so it is said, " In all 
their afiliclions he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence did 
redeem them : " but afterward " they rebelled, and vexed hia 
Holy Spirit." They cast otT the government of the Lord, they 
would not he under the bonds of tlie Lord, and " so lie was turned 
to be their enemy ; " this ia that which brings captivity nnd bond- 



itic. Jer. ii. 14, 15, etc., " Is Israel n servant ? sailli the Lord." 
Ye sliall ste the reason why he was bo. '' I have broken their 
iron yoke," saith the Lord, " and I have burat thy bond«, an<l L 
have planted ihee a noble vine, yet hast thou degenerated ; " and 
this is that which doth make them vassals or slaves. And in 
truth you never see churches laid desolate ; bul when that time • 
comes, men shall see, and shall profess it./ "When other nations 
shall ask. Why hath the Lord dealt thus with his people ? the 
answer shall be clear: They have broken the covenant of the 
Lord. When many miseries eomc upon particular persons, what 
is the cause of it ? then remember the covenant thou hast broken 
with the Lord. Is. xsiv. 5, 6, "They have transgressed the ' 
law," speaking of the whole eardi, " and they have changed their 
ordinances, and broken the everlasting covenant." A people 
that might have bad everlasting mercy, they would not submit 
to tlie Lord, they have broken this everlasting covenant of the 
Lord. Now what follows ? " The earth is defiled under the 
inhabiinnis tbereof;" and hence heavy things that arc there 
written shall befall the whole world. It id a sin thnt defiles the 
earth men tread on, and the houses men inhabit in, for it is a sin 
against most light. They which make covenants have a great 
deal of light, and also most will. And that does aggravate a sin ; { 
H'hcn the whole heart, as it were, does give ileelf up to a lust, 
and breaks hereby all bonds. And it is n sin that men might . 
avoid, if they would be watchful agaiusL For it is a. sinful 
thing (o make a covenant of impossible things ; therefore it lios 
heavy on the conscience of men afterward i I might have been 
belter, and might have walked heller. Is'ay, it is a sin that does 
destroy the law of the Lord: this sin it does desli-oy the 
very will of Christ Hadst thou never been bound in cov- 
enant, hadst thou laid by this covenant, the will of God had 
been kept whole. As cords not used are kept whole, hut when 
broke are utterly spoiled, when a man does bind himself by a 
covenant to the Ixird, and then break it, he does as much as in 
him lies to destroy the Lord from being King. 

It is true the saints and people of God may bo said in some 
case to break covenant, but yet they never impenileotly break 
covenant with the Lord; they may break covenant with the 
Lord very ollen, but yet it is with ihcm a^ those in Judges ii. I, 
4. When the angel of the Lord came to them, and they were 
under grievous sod bondage, sailh he to them from the Lord, 
"1 have brought you upouiofihe hind of Egypt, and I have broken 
your bonds ; and I have said I would never break covenant wiik 
you : and I said you shoubl make no league with (he Ctwaanites, 
vuL. III. 27 


but^e Iwve not obeyed mj vok-e ; why have ye done this?* 
And all the people heard this; and it is said, " All llie peopla 
■wept." Doubtless eurae were sincere, though haply many were 
full of hypocrisy ; and so the suicere heart lamenia it, and re* 
news hia covenant. TLe poor eoul hath nothing to eaj mnny 
times, though the Lord should bring never so much misery on it ; 
yet the soul stands weeping before the X^ord, that it hath broke 
the covenant of the Lord, and made void the covenant of the 
Lord ; yet the saints ihey never break it wholly, they never de- 
part wholly from the Lord. 

Now, when a people shall impeniicntly break covenant, as hath 
been said, that men can study arguments, how to nullify Christ's 
covenant; nay, worse, when in covenant, than ever before ; and 
the business is, ihey are loth to be in bends i when men 
shall grudge the truth of the Lord, others, if their judgment be 
not set jigainst it, yet uol with standing, in deed and practice, they 
live OS if they never had been in covenanL Once they were B 
pleasant plant, but now they are degenerated, na the Lord doth 
there complain. Beloved, when it is thus, the league between the 
Prince of Peace and ibe church is broken ; they do, as much as in 
them lies, seek to cast off the Lord from ruling over them. 

2. When there be additions made to the ordinances of Christ, 
by human ordinances and inventions of men ; let nny set up new 
w invention of men, ihcy set up new gods ; and 
they do as subjects set up new kings, wliicli is indeed to pull 
down him ihal was, and so ihcy do to Jesus Christ ; they do deny 
tbe supreme headship of Clirtst, and his authority ovix-thcmj^ 
though it may seem a small thing, yet thus it is ; and~Heiice ye snail 
observe Jeroboam's calves, tliough they worshiped the same 
God which was at Jerusalem, varying only in circumstance; yet 
the Loi'd prufesseih that they had set up new gods, and so indeed 
. did pull down the true God and bis government fn»m over ihem, 
and ibis brought bondage. And hence, (Col. ii. 18, IG,) " Let no 
man beguile you of your reward with a volunlnry humihty," saith 
the apostle, " and worshiping of angels, intruding into those things 
which he bath not seen," etc. 

Whatsoever pretense be upon the inventions of men, take heed 
of that i if it be the inventions of men, (in ver. Id,) and not 
holding the head ; the very headship of Christ is denied, and the 
ground is this : to say that Christ is not a sufficient means of sal- 
vation, of saving his people and ruling his people, it is to deny 
tlie headship of Cbrist ; and likewise to say, that Christ hath not 
appointed fur his people suincient means for that end, is lo say 
that Clirist is not a sufficient means to rule his people ; and he 
that iball say Jesus Christ is not a auffident meaiM| he «k>es deny 



the heai]ibip of ChrisL Now, to set up any iuvenlions of men 
in ihe worship of GoJ, to be a means lo carry (he lienrt 
to God, is to say that Jesus Christ halb not appointed 
sufficient means for liiat end ; and therefore lie is not a Bulli- 
ciuut means of guiding, and saving, and ruling hi» people. 
Nay, this I will add : let there be any invention addeil to the 
worship of Goil, that is merely the will of man ; nothing else, 
hut only this I would have ye do it ; ihey are such things as do 
neither make a man better nor wonge, but only use them, and ye 
arc commanded to use ihem, and nothing but the will of man. 
This is lo eet up a new Christ, and to pull down tlie power of Christ 
Jesus, lo submit herein to the authority of man, merely beeause 
of the will of man, that there is nothing seen hut his will. There 
is (it may be) ndther good nor hurt in it; it is to moke that 
man n God and Christ ; it is peculiar lo Christ to do it, and this 
does puH down the Lord Jesus Christ from liis throne ; when 
there is adding to the worship of Ihe Lord. I need not, J aup- 
\toae, speak any thing this way ; only remember to be watch- 
I'ul against this : when the Lord doth send temptations this way 
into churches, or into any place, be watchful agaiuet new tn- 
venlions of men tu be added or made ; they are very sinful ; and 
if ye ask me when we shall look lor such limes, I need not go 
fur from ray text. 

It is said that " Reboboam and all the people walked in the 
worship of the Lord three years;" but in one year Rehoboam 
and all the people fell off from the worship of the Lord. O, 
therefore luke heed of this when the temptation comes. 1. 
Wlien the Lord bows the hearts of those in authority, men of 
eminuncy to fall this way, then multitudes follow ; as ver. 1, Re- 
hoboam sinned and Israel with him. 2. When persecution aris- 
e(h for the truth, (Gal. v. 12,) "They must be circumcised to avyjiL 
persecution." 3./Whcn men's hearts ate surfeited with the ordi- 
nances of God, and weary of them, when the ordinances of tho 
Lord Jesus Christ, men lind no beneSt by them, the heart of man 
will tlicn be making out after something of its own ; then we 
must look for apostles, prophets, and evangelists, and this curios- 
ity, and the other nicely ; then a conceit and imaginary picture 
of a man's own is more beautiful than all God's ordinances be- 
sides, and all religion is plaeed there ; it may be in extending too 
far any ordinance itself, though it may seeui little at first ; yel 
«heu it is thus, then look for evil limes. ..^ 

^, Whciias a people seek to abolish and destroy any ordinance 
of Christ, but especially if on Ibis ground, either l>ecaust! of 
some outward evil they bring with tltem, in tlie fruition of theiOf 


. of them ; ^H 



or hope of some outwanl gwxl tbcy elinlt receive by casting 
off, or becnuee of no good tliey reap by ihe enjoyment of 
whensoever ye se^ (lib, that they are cast off on (his ground, then 
looi; for bondage ; for it will come on whole countries in general, 
and no parlicular persons ; for Jesus Clirist is in his ordinances, and 
his throne is not only in heaven, among the angels, but, (Is. \x. 7— 
9,) " He silB on the throne of David," among his church and 
people ; and pull these down, you pull down Christ's throne, the 
Prince of Peace, when ye pull down liis ordinances. 1 John ii. 
19, There were many that ilid seem to be for Christ, and yet 
aguinst Christ : thi^ ia one sign by which he notes them : "* They 
went out from us, for ihoy were not of us ; that it might be made 
manifest they were not of us." Now, I say, when men shall puU 
down the ordinances of Christ, and withdraw themselves from 
the communion of saints, and when it is for one of these ends, in 
regard of some outward evil that the ordinances do bring with 
ttiem, or eorae outward good they shall get by calling them off, 
then cerlninly look for bondage. As a prince that hath one near 
him, he rony attempt change of things in state ; but when he is 
set a-work by a foreign state, and is a prisoner to the pope or 
Spaniard, now he is real to root out the prince ; and this provokes. 
So here many times a Christian, he may in conscience speak 
against some of the ways of the Lord, and this may be the con- 
dition of the saints and people of God, and they may speak it in 
conscience ; and tliis may be tolerated, when it is Ibr want of 
light ; nay, they may, through stubbornness of spirit, cast off or- 
dinances 1 but when now it is for this reason, though he hath in- 
deed his colors for it, you shall, saith Satan, have this gain, and 
this ease, and these conveniences ; and what do you do with or- 
dinances ? And now a man begins to find out arguments ; and 
saith Satan, If ye attend to the enjoyment of ordinunces, here be 
these miseries; therefore away with some of God's ordinances, at 
leaaL brethren, when it is thus, that there is this secret pension 
from the world, that now had the Lord Jesus the honors of tha 
world attending on them, then they could make much of them ; 
but because they come with poverty, therefore they can plot 
and speak against them, and in time come to cast off tlie ordi- 
nances of ihe Lord Jesus. It b certain the Lord hath bondage 
for such souls, and you will certainly find this true one day. 
^ Mai. iii. 14, 15, The people, they say, "What profit is it thai 
' we have served the Lord, and that we have walked mournfully 
before him?" And hence they forsook the Lord; hence (chiip. 
iv. 1) the Lord threatens that " he will bum them up, both root 
Mtd bnuieh." The Lord hath consuming fire for such one day. 






asilj Tor jou. Mark 
lets il out I o I) usbtu Ill- 
last the Son him^eir 
ere ia the sou; let U« 
It of gain, that is the busi- 
n." Here is this gain lo 
t off Christ : " What v " 
will lake away hia vii 

religione polenlttn- 

The orainani^cs of the Lord were too ( 
xii. 7, 8, The Lonl haiU his vineyard ; he 
Dien, anil he ^ends far the fruit; lud at 
comes to call for fruiL Now say lliey, *' I 
killbim.-' Why, what is the matter Fo 
ness i " that the inheritance may be oi 
lie without them, and therefore to cil 
the Lord do to these husbandmen ? hi 
yard from them," etc. 

It is llie B|>eech of Luther, Ventrr in > 
mnmidolum. (When the belly is served, Christ must be destroyed.) 
AIi-ii may have this quiet life without these ordinances ; 
hence men bear a privy grudge against the ordinances of the 
liord, because the belly is not served. Look us il was with thfl 
Jews 1 they looked for a glorious king to come to them, and 
Christ came : and though they were told of it before, when h« 
came he bad nothing but his cross; nnd he lells them, if they 
will be his disciples, they must take bis cross. But now, becHUse 
he came not with pomp, but only with his cross, this is the gnml 
rciLson why, to this day, the Jews do set themselves against lliti 
Lord Jesus Christ : the cross came with Christ, that is the cnuso 
of it. So when men shall look for great things from the ordi- 
nances of Christ, and when they come to enjoy them, they meet 
with nothing else but Christ and his cross, and disappointinenli, 
and desertions ; when they meet with this, then Christ is cast 
off, and they profess he is no king, and Cicsar is our king ; and 
if we take Uiis man to be our king, the Romans will ruin us. 

I know it is a hard trial for a mtui to be put to such a strait ; 
for ilie Lord to nilvnncc the price of his ordinances at that high 
rate, that all roust be parted with fur the enjoyment uf iheiiii 
But yol, notwillistunding, he is forever unworthy to have the Lord 
Jcfua to rule him, that shall therefore make him a king as they 
did. (John vi.) He was ihelr cook ; therefore tbey made hiia 
king. Therefore this I s&y. Take heed of disputing against, or 
denying, or iiulliryiDg, nut only outwardly, but in thy very heart, 
seci'eily, any of God's ordinances; fur thai ihu Lord complains 
of his peo|iIe, thai " their hearts went after their wickedness." O, 
take heed of doing thus uguin:^! any one of U(>d*a ordiniuicea, be- 
cause straits do attend on tliem. It was the speech of David, 
( Ps. cxii.,) " Thy law is pure : therefore thy servant lovatb iu" 
SupiKise thou shouldeet never get any good by any of God'a 
ordinances ; yet " thy law is pure ; " the fault is in thy own heart ; 
and certainly the Lord he will remember, as there he speakelii, 
(Jer. ii. 2,1 "I rememb«r the lov« of thine esitousals, when thoa 


didet foUovr me in a Innd of barreiiiiess, in a land where ihera 
WHS no WHier." Thy lif'i; shuH be precious to the Lord, that shall 
follow tbe Lord in all ufltietion^ ; yet thy heart doth cleave to ibe 
Lord, and follow the Lord in all his ordinances ; therefore this 
is that I would say. there are many wants now in the country. 
llut yet, notwithstanding, let llie people of God get near to 
Christ ; speak often o»e U> another, and 6nd out ways and means 
to pay your debts, and lie down at the feet of the Lord Jesug, 
and be content, if the Lord will have it so, to be nothing, be con- 
tent thus ; and though ihou dost not find any benelit from ilia 
ordinance of the I^ord as yet, yel. notwithstanding, loathe thy 
own heart, but love ihem ; yet seek after the Lord, and look lo 
the Lord in ihem. And ihis is certain, tlie Lord hath blessings 
for hid people ; not only in this life, but as he there speaketh to 
his disciples, when they say to him, Lord, what shall we have ? 
saith the Lord to them, You that have R>llowed me, you shall »it 
on thrones. But take heed of this, if once ye come to slight 
ordinances, and cast off ordinances, because of these straits and 
wants, and so forth. And what are your ordinances, etc. ? and a 
generation of men risen up (I think Christians should send forth 
their groanings to the Lord, that the terror fif the Lord may fall 
upon them) they deny all the ordinances of the Lord, and the 
Spirit must teacli us only. It is true the Spirit mu^t do it, but 
will ye iheretbre lake away the means? and hence the very 
Seripiure is made an alphabet for children, and so they do destroy 
the ordinances of the Lui'd. Beloved, if it he from this princi- 
ple, lake heed of it ; for if it be, ye will certainly And bondage. 

4. When men do not thus pull down ihe ordinanceii, the throns 
of Christ, but drive the Lord JesUs away out of his ordinances 
(though ihey have his ordinances wiih them) by Iheir secret 
defilings, pollutions, spiritual pollutions of the glorious ordinances 
of Christ 1 this tlie Lord frequently complaineih of in Jeremiah 
and }<rf!ekiel. The very great retison why the Lord did leave his 
temple, where their fathers did praise the Lord, they had polluted 
and deliled it ; that was the reason of il. They had driven the 
Lord away from his throne, and ihis dolh pull down the princely 
power of the Lord, in his churches. 1 know there be many 
sins and delilemcnts ) and the sons of men have bidden ways of 
polluting the ordinances of the Lord, that a man shall sil under 
all the ordinances of the Lord ; and as it is said of Mount Gil- 
boah, not any dew fall u[>on him; never see good when good 
comufl ! the Lord is not dear, that is ihc reason of it. O, thy sc- 
OTflt detilementB of Ihe ordinances of the Lord have driven ihe 
Lord for from you. There are many ; I shall only name three 

" UpKlly, ihnl there may be a little hecil laken of them. 



First. ^Thcl] there is a secret contempt, grown upon a man's 
spirit, of the ordinances of Clirist, arti^nded with a secret weari' 
neiO of lliem, this dotli now [wllute the ordinances of the Lord, 
and this doth drive the Lord from his ordinances. MaJ. i. 7, 
" Ye have offered polluted bread ; wherein have we done it ? " say 
they. This was the cause of it : '■ Ye s&y that the table of the 
Lord is contemptible ; " the meaning is, you do despise roy table 
and ordinances, and so now do despise me too, and so ye do vilify 
and contemn the ontinances of the Lord, f herefore saith the 
Lord, in the conclusion of that chapter, (ver. 11,) " From the 
rising of the sun, my name it shall be known." As if he should 
say, I am not bound to you ; I ciin have a people among whom 
my nume shall be great ; for saith the Lord, " I am a great King." 
If one should have asked men in those days, What goo*l is in 
your sacrifices ? what great glory can ye see in them 'f ihe saints 
can see a great deal of glory in moan outaides. Now, when this 
ia wanting, the name of the I^rd is polluted, and so the Lord 
driven from his ordinances, lleb. xii. 1 5, " Take heed lest there 
be in any of yoti an evil root of biilerness springing up, and many 
thereby bo defiled." Wien men do live in secret lusis, or open 
profuneness, a man that hath a profane heart, such a heart as 
doth contemn the portion of mercy Ihe Lord doth offer to him, 
who, like Esau, did sell his birthright for a mess of pottage. 

(Secondly. Unbrokenness of heart in the enjoyment of ordi- 
nances, when men live not in a daily sense of the extreme need 
they stand in of mercy. Is. Ixvi. 1, 2, " Heaven is my throne, and 
the cnrih is my footstool," Now, observe what the Lord doth there 
■peuk: To him will I look that is poor in spirit, etc., contrite ; 
such n ])oor soul, aaith the Lord, will I look lo. And to theae 
are opposed stii-h as have not such hearts, but do look only to the 
ordinant^s of the Lord. Now saith the Lord to snch, " !Ie that 
olTereih a lamb is as if he cut off a dog's neck ; and he that offer- 
eth incense, as he that blesselh an idol." These were a people 
that did plead for the temple of the Lord, and had the ordinances 
of the Lord according to his command; but here was their wound, 
ihey were uot broken under the ordinances of the Lord. This 
you shall And. the saints have many sins and wants under (he 
ordinances of Ihe Irt>rd ; but little doc^ the world know their 
gronnings before the Lonl ; and the Lord hath mercy for such 
souls as are sensible of their need they stand in of the ordinaoras 
of the Lord. 

Itui now, when men have found ihc Lord in an ordinance sub- 
duing some particular sin, there are other sins remaining in their 
bcarts, and they stand unremovable in their hearts, and bencQ 





are the etrongCBt and dearest of all ihe rest. Now, I snj, when 
men having these sina, aud knowing lhe?e sins in their hearts 
and spirits ; whenas, becaui^e I ran not subdue these sins ; and 
thej have attended on the Lord in the use of means, and the 
Lard helps them not ; and because they hope to be Kaved at last 
for all these; hence 1 he j coma to a truce with their ain, and 
never go mourning to the Lord ; nor say, the Lord hath begun 
to subdue some of their lusts. Now, Lord, go on, but the soul 
is at truce with his sins. Beloved, if there be any pollution of 
the ordinances of the Lord, here it is : that men come with un- 
broken hearts to the ordinances of the Lord i that never feel 
your need of them, and wounds and sores tliat are in your hearts, 
that men do stand with those very sins, that tbey think they 
can not subdue : and because they can sot ease themselves of 
tliem, therefore they give way to them. When men keep these 
eins with unsensible hearts of them, ye do resist the Moly 
Ghost, ye feel not your need of the Lord ; therefore ye keep 
your sins, and your woes you shall have for them. 

Thirdly. Where there is a spirit of unbelief, that there is not 
a seeking to Christ Jesus, to wash away the pollutions of his 
heart and life, in his attending upon the Lord in his ordinances. 
Tit. i. 15, "To the uiibeliiiving nothing is pure; but even 
their mind and conscience is detiled." £xod. xxx. 29, it is 
said, " Every thing that touched the altar was clean," and 
bence, without this, all is unclean. When a poor, soul shall i»mQ 
to the Lord's ordinances, and prepare himself before he come, 
and in all it hath many weaknesses, yet it doth leave itself with 
Jesua Christ, every thing tlial doth touch this altar is sanctified, 
and is not polluted. But now, when men shall enjoy ordinances, 
and make no great matter of sins in ordinances, especially if 
secret, such is the venomous nature of sin, it doth defile the 
earth a man doth tread on. Now, when men shall have these 
sins, and know them, and yet never leave themselves with 
Christ, and lay themselves oit this blessed altar by faith, lliey 
do pollute the ordinances of the Lord. 

Fourthly. When the soul doth not so openly, manifestly drive 
away the Lord, but when men shall come to the ordinances, 
and never come to the Lord Jesus in them, now the LoM is 
eiut off. A great, prince that comes to a man's house, though he 
be not driven out of doors, yet if not attondcd on, he accounts 
himself cast off. The Lord Jesus Christ is in his ordinances; 
(Eitek. slviii. 35,) " The Lord is there ; " the saints, they come 
to God in them, and are carried to him by them. Therefore it is 
said, < (Acts s. 33, S4,) " Now, therefore, we are all present 



""tjeTore GoJ, to bi!ftr all tilings [hat are commanded the« of God," 
anil, (I's. Ixxxiv. 7,) " Every utio of ihcm in Ziuii nppeiiretb before 
God." Now, tlie Bointa and people of God, when they do thus 
vooie to (he Lord, they find many difiicultJea to break through, 
"a valley of Baca." Sumetiraes ibeir bearl is turned from (lie 
Lord, and sometimes God 13 turned from them ; m thai new, 
the saints, when ihey do come to the Lord in his ordinant'es, 
" they go through the valley of Baca," that Ihey may- see God 
in Zion. But now, when men do never break through difficulties, 
but gire way to a sluggish heart, when it \i thus jvith a people, 
it ia certain the Lord is now cast oflj and ye do as good now aa 
live withouu Christ in the world. (Amos v. 21.) Saith the 
Lord, " I bate your new moons and Sabbalhs ; for these forty 
years ye never sacrificed to me." (Ver. 25.) Did they not sacri- 
fice those forty years to the Lord in tbe wilderness? It was tlio 
very thing they came out of Egypt for, ibat they might aacriHee 
to (he Lord ; yet saith the Lord, Ye did not sacnfice to me ; 
truly here was the thing, ibey did Bacritii:e, but to enjoy com- 
munion with a God, that they did not ; tlie Lord he saw none of 
that ; and this is tbe frame of many a man, ye never beard K 
sermon 1 ye nerer broke through your difficulties to come to a 
God in ordinances ; therefore, in truth, though you had them, 
yet it is as if you never had tbem, because ye never did enjoy 
tlie Lord in ihem. 

Therefore ibis is that I would say: O brethren, let the 

s^unifi, lot it be tlie care of all the faithlul and people of God ; 

(lie Hrst thing that ye do, before yc come to hear a sermon, or 

receive a Bacramcnt, or to any Christian communion, or other 

ordinance of God; before thou dost come, endeavor it at least 

IP to bring thy soul lu a God, to Christ, above all ordinances, and 

break through (ho ditficulties; heart is dead, and mind b blind, 

and God is gone ; but yet break through difficulties, iind vrrcstis 

with (lie Lord in prayer, and then ye will find the blessing of 

the Lord. The great reason why we enjoy not that mighty 

presence of the Lord in his ordinances, it is this ; men eome to 

ordinances, and would enjoy ordinances, but they never broke 

through dlfflciil^esi, (o come (o a God. When men ahall eome to 

ordiiuuices only, (and blessed be God we have the temple of 

L the Lord,) truly this will do you no good in tbe world. 

I The flAh degree of casting olf the supreme power of Christ 

I in hit ordinances; many times when the soul can not come to 

H Christ, the Lord comes to iL Now, then, the supreme power 

H of Christ ia cast olf, when the soul is unwilling or careless, to 

H receive (be stroke of the eternal power of tbe life of Jgbus into 


hia heart ; but contents himself with some bpfiinninga, 

and tafle?, and dolh not lie under ihc stroke of ihe elcriint spirit 

of the life of Christ. 

Look as it is iriih a company of subjects ; Ihej' 
great town, that stands it out a^unat a prince ; if the pHnce 
send to them, and tliey parley witli him, and lliey are thankful 
for his gifVs, and glad of his parlt^y ; but yet, notwithstanding 
ihej are unwilling to receive the prince, with all bis power to 
come into the town ; if they be unwilling to do tliat, and are 
lotli to join sides against ihe other party, tbey citst him oS 
from being king. ' So it is here ; when men cose to the Lord in 
ordinances, tbo Lord he parleys with them, the Lord be sends 
promises, and they are marvelous precious things ; and they 
have some lasle of what the Lord docs send, and it is sweet to 
ihem ; but now, because Ibcy have lusts in their hearts, the 
Lord saith, Alake war against thy lust, and open the gates that I 
may come in. If so be, a man, now out of secret love to his 
sin, he content himself with the promises of Cbrist ; but the 
hie uf Christ, he cares not for that, he ases not alt means that 
he may find that, the supreme pon'er of the Lord Jesus is now 
cast off, and 1 know no difference between such a people uud 
Capernaum; tbey did enjoy the gospel of GikI, but now to eiv- 
leriain Llie Lord Jesus iu his spiritual power, this they were 
loth to come lo ; therefore siuth the Lord, " Woe to ihe^, Ca- 
pernaum ; the mighty work of Jesus Christ in their hearia, 
this ihey never cared for. Saith the apostle, (_2 Cor. x. 5.) " Tha 
weapons of our warfare, ihcy are mighty llirough God." A» 
poor tilings as you think the ordinances of the Lord to he, they 
are mighty through the Lord. Wtien Clirislians shall not he- 
willing to receive this mighty power of the Lord Jesus Christ 
truly, now the kingdom of Cbrist is cast ofl'. John vi, 49, " Your 
fathers ate raaiina in the wilderness, and are dead ; " that was_ 
outward manna ; hut he that ealeth me shall live forever. 

In one word thus : this is certom, a man never gels good by 
any ordinance, nor the Lord Jesus doth never attain his end in 
any ordinance, till there be an everlasting power and life of 
Christ Jesus commi^icated by the ordinance. " There," saiih he, 
" God commanduth his blessing, life fbrcvermore," (Ps. cxxxiii. ;) 
mercy forever teaching j and humbling forever continuing ; 
and a man will never think he doll) receive any good till he doth 
iL For if a man be healed of his blindness, and be blind 
presently again, what is be tbti better ? So, if a man hath some 
dash of light in the ordinance, Me^i the Lord fur it. The Lord 
qtiickena up tlte heart to walk with the Lord, blessed be tlie 


fi'eKng. 1 

Lord for it ; ay, but when the heart now shall lose that life, and 
rpnglh nhich it hai], (nol but that a Christian dovi lose to hia 
eJing, but it will return again.) When he is a-hearing, some aSvu- 
tion, but lie goes anay dead ae he came ; do, bat when the Lord 
comes by hia everlasting power and mercy, and life in any ordi- 
nance, now Christ comes in hb power, and now ye receive the . 
King in his power, and Christ attains his end in the ordinance. 
This is all that I would say, I do beseech you brethren in tlie 
Lord Se»as Christ : O, seek for ihis blessed life, everlasting life 
Lord, everlasting power Lord ; beg for that, and seek for that, 
nnd pray for that, and weep for that ; do not content thyself 
with sippings and tastings; loo): for everlasting life and power 
to cone with the ordinance ; though means be weak in them* 
selves, do not, therefore, vilify them. Look upon the brazen 
seri>ent ; what a {loor thing was that to bcal ihi; people thai were 
KtungI Tel the instituiion of Christ did put virtue into it: 
BO do thou attend on the ordinances, and never be conlenl till 
thoii doest tind the Lord, and feel the Lord, and say as some 
have said. Though I feel not the Lord now as I have done, yet I 
think I shall forever bless the Lord. Never be content till ye 
find the Lord bringing your heart to this pass, and then the King 
of glory, the Prince of Peace is come ; though ye find not the 
fame power at all times, yet if ye find that power which does 
tnuru your heart forever to bless the Lord, here is everlasting 
power. Jesus is now come to thy soul ; ay, but when ye content 
yourselves with some movings and beginnings, and sin and 
Snian^oa strong again as ever, and ye find not your sin wasting 
and consuming, in truth the Lord Jesus is cast oS*, and ye have 
not the end for which ye come to the ordinances of the Lord. 
But then ye are blessed forever when ye find this.'^ 

2. There is a derivative power of Christ to the church, jointly 
c<;asid(! red together. Mutt.xviii. 17, " Go and tell the church," is ^ 
the highest tribunal Christ hath on earth in the kingdom of saints. 
It ia Christ's hi f fh co^rt n( j mr l iiun nut, beyond which there ii no ap- 
jiral to any higher power than the church ; and it can not be ^ 
niciuit of the officers of tlie church (which is the fairest inter- 
pretation.) For the case may be thni there is but one officer; 
and is he the church ? oa also that he may sin, and nol hear 
of his sin ; and mu.«t they leave him to himself, at least to judge 
of his un ? The power of keys was given to Peter, quia JidelU,'' 
and the power to bind and loose to '■ two or three gathered togetlicr 
in Christ's name," (Matt, xviii. ;) but these things are known. 

For the clearing up of Ihis, know ihiit there is ft threefold 
derivative power, which the Lord hath given lo the church 



jointly, and not to elders only ; which may be miserably abused, 
and so provoke the Lord to lake it oway from their bands till 
they know better bow to use it ; yet when it is used according to 
Christ, now not to be under the power of it, which ia Christ, 
power delegated to il, is lo cast off Christ's government. And I 
am confident the bondage of all the churches in Christendom, if 
ye examine the churches, is continued, because the Lord sees 
hearts unwilling to submit to him in the govenuacnt of churches, 
and will continue it till churches know how to use it, and men lie 
down to the power of it. 

1. They have a power given them from Clirist of opening and 
Ehutting the doors of the church, the kingdom of God on earth ; 
i. e., of letting in sin and keeping out any, according to Christ, 
into, or out of, their communion : and this I conceive to be one 
part of the power of the keys, committed to the church ; the 
chief office of which is to open and shut ; lo receive in, and 
keep out, according to Christ ; and hence the three thousand 
were added to the church, though the apostles were guides there- 
in ! and Acta ix. 26, Paul would have joined himself, but they 
would not accept of him, because they were afraid of him. Na 
body, natural or politic, but tliey have power to receive to tltem 
the useful, and keep from Ihem the hurtful ; so much more 
Christ's spiritual Ijody. And hence the church of Ephesus is 
commended, (Rev. ii. 2,) together with their angel, " Ibr trying 
tliose that seemed good, and were not." 

Now, it is tnie this power maybe miserably abused in opening 
doors too wide, or locking them up too long, or too fast; and ia 
many sad disorders this way, yet there is this power. Now, when 
men shall refuse church trial, and so communion with the church, 
and that not from sense of their unfitness and unwonhiness, op 
some other reason, which is in the sight of God of great weight, 
but from a careless contempt of God's ordinances, or God'a 
people, a man says, What care I for the one ? and what are the 
other ?-^ And from a resolution never lo grow better, they know 
they are not like to be accepted of them, and they are resolved they 
will grow no belter ; they think themselves as good aa they, and 
from a secret unwillingness to come to the light, they know things 
are amiss, and will not bo known of it ; they appear better than 
they are, and hence they are loth to be seen and judged as they 
are : certaiuly this is to cast Christ's power ; and if continued 
in, the salvation of your souls is also cast off. Acts ii. ult., " The 
Lord added to the church daily, such as should be saved." 
V To the church, i. e., not the universal church, but visible church, 
where it may be hod, " such as should be saved." Is. Iz. 14, 15, 



** For the nation and kingdom that irill not serve thee shall per* 
i«h ; yen, those nalions ehall utterly p^" Lamentable is llie 
condition of many ; not so naucii for not joining themBelvpa to the i 
church, as not seeking of the Ixird for that merey, that they ' 
nay be Hrst joined to the Lord, *nd so to hb people for the 
Lord's ^ake. 

There are great hops of people amongst the churches here 
Ihnt do stand i^ilty of this, — the Lord humble ns for it, — that 
content themselves to stand alieoslVom the comraonweahh of Israel, 
(Eph. ii. 12,) "etr&ngers from the covenant of promise; hav- 
ing no hope, and witlioul God in the irorld."/ The Lord is slow 
to wrath ; bat (here is a threefold bondage : 1. Of sin and Satan. 
Kev. siii. It, 15, " Let him that is Slthy be ilthy stilL" Nay, 
though there be some beginnings, yet apt to fall back, because 
«ot " planted in ihe courts of the Lord," And benoe, (Col. ii. a,) 
"joying aDd beholding your order, and the steadfastness of your 
faith in Christ : " order and steadfastness ore joined togeUier. 2. 
Of misery. Zecb. liv. 17, "And it shall be that whosoerer 
will not come up of all the families of the earth anto Jerusalem, 
to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, even upon them shall 
be no rain." 3. Sadne^^ : hence, (Is. Ivi, 7,) " Even them 1 will 
bring to ray holy mountain, and mnke then joyful in my house 
of prayer." To be joyful in the house of prayer is promised to 
such as join themselves to God's corenant. 

i. They have a power given them of binding and loosing; by 
■drnonilionof any one, that being received in, shall sin against 
their coraraunran, and the Lord in it; Uiereby Jg. deBJc the 
whole body , and to provoke the wrath of the Lord against^lhe 
Game ; and this is mentioned Matt, xviii., and by the apostle, 1 
Ciir- V. 1, 4 : and this is given to them, to use against whatever 
siupier or oflender it be, be he great or small, prinee or 
peer: if he be a brother, be is to lie down here: an adnaonitioa 
is an arr«8t and message from God, from Christ Jesus, the King 
of kings. Egkin must come down from his throne, when this ia 

Now. I grant again, this power may be abused miserably ; as 
(o admonish without coavi<;tion, or without cumpasaion and love, 
but in heat and passion, etc Vet this is part of Christ's binding 
power in his church ; which when it is done, it is bound in heaven. 

Now, wlien men come to that pass, timt they do mt only lin, 
e grown (o that height, that 

Uiey c 

t otT all reproofs and adroon 

Steeped, it may bcs In many tears and prnyura 
L sweetened with the spirit of mcrt^and tutor o 

for I 






Ihe moulha of his servnnls ; this faring under bondage. It is not 
gin so much, for this nill be ;. hut when Ihey can not abide re- 
proofs, they are Iron morsels, can not be digested i and hence 
Eonietimes hide it, and twenty shifts, and hall' as many lies ; or if 
it be found out, defend it, and fall a-fencing and thrusting, and 
Iry it out to the last, or extenuate it twenty nays, that a beam ii 
« mote ; and which is norae, Iheir hearts rise and swell, and they 
bear a priTy grudge against them, as if they were their cnemieS) 
because they tell them the truth ; when they should soy, " Le* 
the righteous smile me." Ex. ii. 14, "Who made thee a prinev 
and judge over ua ? " When Moses, the Israelites' deliverer, waa 
raised up, he thereupon departs, and they lie under heavy bond- 
age, when they cast off his reproof. It is true, a saint may not 
for a time submit ; but yet it argues a height of spirit for the pres- 
ent unlit for communion with God, and the Lord will bring them 
oB*, and humble them for their pride. 2 Sam. sxiii. 6, 7, " Bat 
tbo sons of Belial shall be all of them as thorns thrust away, be- 
cause they can not be taken with hands." 

A child of God may have many wealtnesses, a hypocrite many 
excellences ; but the trial of them is, when they come to be ar- 
rested with a sad reproof, how they yield there, and that as unto 
God ; especially when confession shall either discredit their per- 
son, or make others question their grace. Snakes will not hiss 
nor sting till touched ; a sheep will be led to the slaughter, and 
turn the cheek to him that smites : so should one poor brother do 
to another, when he comes to bim in the name of the Lord ; but 
not many that will so do, but resist and oppose against all reason. 

3. They have a power of communication of good one to an- 
other, in way of edification, according to their places in this their 
communion : so tliat now, it is not only left in the hands of tha 
officers, but of the whole church, and each member in the church, 
according to his place and ability, to edify the whole. Eph. iv. 
16, " From whom the whole body, fitly joined and compacted to- 
gether, by that which every joint supplieth, according to the ef- 
) fociual working in the measure of every part, making increase 
of the body, unto the edifying itself in love." 

Members are not to eland like beautiful pictures in church win- 
dows, and as costly images in churches, that have eyes, and see 
not, ears, and bear not ; but t hey are to be living ston es in God'i 
building ; not only to build up themselves, but one another also, 
that so a man may not only get no hurt from communion of 
churches, but he may get goml indeed from the same. And if I 
mistake not, here is the wound of churches ; when members seek 
Dot, and endeavor not Ihe good one of another, and so have 





oriliD&nces nad mcaaa of doing ooe anolher good, but exerciae 
Ihcni not ; or if iliey do, recei^ti nol [lie good ilicy might hereby,' 
but miLj SKy, nnd sbiiU say at lost, B,i be, Prov. v. 14, "I was 
almost ID all evil ta the niid^t of the congregatbii ; " sin pre- 
vailing, and sorrows by little and little, like water in a leaking 
ship, sinking the poor bark. 

Quetl. What are tboae mcaus that are l«fl to the eaiata them- 
selves, even privaK member?, to exercise, in Christian oommunion 
for men and women ; aJid so you may see, when these are neg- 
lected, or not improved, ihe power of Christ In bis church is 
cost off so br forth ? 

Ant. 1. The first ia, a spirit of dear Christ-like lore one to 
another, every one to all, atid all to that again ; being ready to 
express itself, in procuring the good of others as well as its own : 
thb doth sweeten communion very much, and edifies, quickens, 
and eaoourageth a Christian in his whole course marvelously. 
£ph. iv. 16, "Making increase of the body, unto the edifying 
itself in love." Love edifieth. 1 Cor. viti. 1, " Knowledge puffeth 
up, but charity edifietb." It is the joy of the saints, and that 
which makes the aainls to blcsa God in heaven ; where, take any 
one singly, all jointly besides honor it, tender it, and seek the 
good of it ; and that one hiessetb Gud, and seeks their good 
more Iban its own again ; and this is prophesied, (Zeph. iii. 0,) 
'' That they may call upon tfae name c^ the Lord, to serve lum 
with one consent, to serve the Lord with one shoulder;" to help 
one another spiritually and outwardly, where there be many 
griefs and burdens which depress tbe spirits, and make it unser- 
viceable, is removed ; ms, what is there that doth alienate the 
hearts of men more from God and hb church but want of love f 
Now, when men's love grows oold, that a godly man is not 
esteemed while he lives, nor his death lamented so much as the 
loss of a swine ; when people grow strange one to another, and 
take dibloslcs and [irejudices ; when ihey am sit by tbe fire- 
side, and censure, and whisper, and make oSenses, and take 
offenses ; and minds divide, and hearts divide ; that, if you ask 
what such a one is good for, tbe answer is, lie is good for himself, 
nnd good to breed brawls, and divide a church ; " A kingdom 
divided against itself can not stand ; " and therefore hereby you 
cast off this kingdom. O, Christians should pray for this, and 
mount for want of this ; and study peace, and follow it. It should 
be death to differ, or side, or make a parly, one against another. 

2. Earnest prayer for tbe church, and all in it besides thy- 
self ; and that with striving with God, till on answer is given; 
(Acta V. 12,) " strotcbed-oBt prayers," as they made for Pet«r. 





James v. 1&, " Confess your faults one lo anottin-. nn^ jiray-^me 
for another, that you mity be lieaicd." AiiU so, (Jutlc xx.,) " But, 
je beloVL-d, buililnigup3'ourselve$ iu rouriao«t Lolji t'luib, praying 
ia tho Holy GUost." TbU it a meftns lo etlify Mie aDoiht.T, 
when there is enlargedness of heart to pray one for another. 
Ps. cxxii. 8, "■ For my brethren's sake I will wish Ihj peuce." 
Somelimea a Christian can da oihera htlle good ; yet he 
will wrestle for him in his prayers U> God. One knows not the 
good utMWS hereby, if withal a man kveps a good conavience, 
making ccuscieace of his ways. And it is one of the greatest 
privileges thnt a tnua hulh, when ont^e he hath a share in all the 
prayers of the eaiots as his own; and it answers that query. 
WhM is a Christian the better for the liberties oi the church? 
Matt. xi-iiL 19, " Again I say unto you, Thot il' two ot you shaU 
agree on earth, as touching any tiling they shall ask, it sliall be 
doDe for ihem of my Father which is in heaven." Vt:r. 20, 
" For where two or three are gathered together in my name, 
there I am in the midst of them." 

Now, when people are false herein lo their brethren, and to 
their covenant ; to llieir God, and to tlieir own souls ; f I'or their 
is no one prayer thou mnkcst that shall he lost ; but if it alluia 
not % blessing for others, it shall return again into thy bosom ;> 
when there shall be no heart to spend prayer or shed tears for 
titem whom Christ hath shed his hlood tor, now you cast olT the 
kingdom of Christ. 

O br«lhmi, consider of it, when there shall be many a soul 
in a church taken by Satan's temptations, and held in tempta- 
tions, and ready to be overcome by tempiaiions ; and it may be, 
would not be so, but because thou dost not pray ; public ordi- 
nances, the ministry ot the word, little good doue thereby, 
because thou liaat no heart lo pray. Acts iv. 31, "And when 
they had prayed, the place was shaken where tliey were* met 
together ; and tliey were all filled with the Holy Ghost." Tbi« 
is tho reason: the hearts of thy children, servants, and fellow- 
brelhrcu remniit secure and unshaken by all the sermons lliey 
hear ; nothing doth them good, nothing will pierce or penetrate 
their adamant-like hearts, because thou hast no heart to pray 
ibr them, or at least not to purpose. 

3. Timely exhorUUioo ; when brethren are dead hearted, and 
hevlless in their Christian course. Ueb.iii. 12, 13, '^ lake heed, 
brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief 
in departing from the living Gtod; hut exhort one another while 
i^ J3 called to-duy, lest any of you be hardened through iho 
deceitfulnese of sin." Brotherly exhortation is n remedy against 





apostasy of heart ; far though a mnn can not eoi)Tinc« aaother, i 
yet he maj' exhort bim :/and it U to be done in season, whilgj 
it is called to-daj, with Hue respeci, and taking notice of what 
good there is, with mach wisdom, and a spirit of humility, or 
else ihou fpoilest all thou meddlesl withal ; putting yourselves 
in their estate, and with hearty unfeigned prayer, that the Lord 
would accompany the some with his blessing. Ileb. x. 21, 
" Consider one another, U) provoke unio love and good works." 
I/Ook over the congregation, and consider such a brother's or sis- 
ter's estaie ; one i^ poor and low, another falling, another very 
much altered. Now, in gome eases, a private brother may do 
more than a minister ;. the Lord help us, and stir us up to this 
work; now, when ihb ia neglected, many souls are hardened. 

4. Instructing and teaching one another, as occasion serves. 
Bom. IV. 14, "And I myself also am persuaded of you, my 
brethren, that you alao are full of goodness, filled with all knowl- 
edge, able to admonish one another." They were able for to 
instruct and teach one another. Is. liv. 13, " They shall be all 
taught of God." What Goil leaclielh thee, that do thou leach 
others ; what thou gainest by hearing, or by praying, or medi- -. 
Itition ; by putting questions lo others, sometimes to teach, and 
eometimes to be taught; and this do, if possible, in all occa* 
sional meetings and worMly discoursea ; mix with it some sweet 
trulh that God hath taught thee. But now, on the other side, 
when Christians shall meet, and a man is the worse for their 
fruitless dUcourse, no savor of any thing of God ; let them meet 
never so long or of[en, walking or sitting, this is sad. 

5. In comtbrting those that be sad. 1 Thess. v. 1 4, and ir. ult., 
" Comfort the feeble minded, and sup|)ort the weak ; wherefore 
comfort one another with these words." There arc many sad 
hearts in God's church, and sad things are as wounds to n man's 
limbs, that make him hall or fall. brethren, be much in this 
work, '2 Cor. i. 4, " Who comforteth us in all our tribulation^ 
that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, 
by the comlbrt wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God ; " 
that a soul may say. Such a one came to me, and spake some 
few words lo me ; but they were as scasooable as thongh the 
Lord bad sent an angel from heaven lo speak to me, and of 
more worth than if he had given me many pounds. But now, 
when this also is neglected, thai one Christian hath not a word 
of encountgement to another, but dry and savorless discourse ; 
this ihe Lord takes very ill at the hands of bis people, that 
have received comfort from himself in ihe day of their sorrow 
Mid distrew. 







6. Restoring & brolber faWen with a spirit of meeknesa. 
6al. vi. 1, 2, "Brethren, if any be overraken with n fftolt, ye 
irliicb are Bpiritual, restore audi a one with n spirit of meekness." 
O, how will a poor bouI bless ibe Lord for such a brother's 
prayers, Bdmonitions, and exhortations, nben the Lord shall 
have brought his heart back again to bimselT, altbough before 
be did most of oil disesteem and vilify him I 

Now. when these are not used, or not wiib a spirit of meek- 
ness improved, that a man never blesselh God for lliese ; ibe 
Lord Jesus is pulled down from his tlirone, when not done 
according to the ability, time, and place that the Lord afibrds. 
And this I wiali, the churches roourn not for another day : for 
my own part, I do adjudge myself, before God and men, as most 
guilty of this, that I enjoy many sweet ordinances, and we 
improve them not; and hence the glory of the LoM (ills not 
his tabernacle, abides not on hjs diurches, either (o draw others 
to them, or to make others abumlantly bless God for them. 

Now, hero I will show you the causes of this : — 

1. Not gaining much in private duties, in prayer, meditation, 
reading, and daily examination of a man's own heart. And 
hence ibey can not do good, because iliey receive none, or very 
liltl^ themselves : they have not a treasure within ; hence they 
ctm spend little, htov no heart or ability to exhort, instruct, 
comfort : he Ihiit keeps not his shop, his ehop will never keep 
him. As Ps. xli. 6, " His heart gatheretb iniquity to itself *, 
irhen he goetb abroad, he tellctb it." 

2. A low spirit, which makes a roan to have low thoughts 
and endeavors ; 1 mean not a humble, but a narrow spirit, not 
enlarged to hold mucb, or to do much ; hence it dolb little. 
As, take a plain couniryronn : he neither seeks nor reg;irds the 
affairs of the state in public, because bis spirit and condition are 
low ; but princes do mind and attend to the alfuirs of the king- 
dom, to advance it, because their condilimi is high, and they 
know it. MoBCB, "he suRered reproach with the people of G^;" 
loss of all the honor and pleasure of Pharaoh's court ; feared 
not Pharaoh, nor loss of life, for ibeir sakes; for "he saw that 
God which is invisible : " like Saul, when once a kingdom comes 
to be in his eye, he leaves dH' to seek the asses. 

8. Sloth. There are thorns (Prov. sv. 19) and lions (Prov. 
xxvi. 13) in a sluggard's way. There be many difficulties, 
businesses, occasions, and objections, wbenaa if once be were 
resolved to break through ihem, then the work would go on : 
Hke a man, when he is in his warm bed, he is loth to rise ; but 
irhen he is up. he would not be in his bed again, if he might be 


bired again U> put ofi' his clotlies : I aLall get no gi 

nor do nooe, aaith anotlier ; and when these i 

past, and oc«asioiiH over, and at anullier time. I will seek. God, 

and go itbout God'a work ; and thus a slothful spirit bimlere. 

4. Want of faiili. 2 Cor. iv. 13, " We believe, and hence wa 
«pcak." Faith empties us most, and hence fllU us with spirit and 
life of Christ Jesus ; hence Stephen, "full of liiiib and the Hul;' 
Ghost." A lively Cbristian, when be comes in anoibi^r Christiao's 
oompanj, it may be be knows not what to speak ; but he looks 
up to Christ, and says. Now, Lord, berc is an opjxirtuniiy in 
doing or receiving some good ; and therefore now, Lord, help. 

5. Wont of fear of God, and consolation of tlie Spirit of God, 
from the sense of God's love. Acts ix. 31, "Tliey walked in 
the tear of the Lord and consolations of the Uoly Ghost i" the 
church was edilied by the consolations of the Holy Ghost. A 
man that is wounded keeps within, and stiri not ; but when h« 
is in health and slrenglh, now hard work is his meal ; he can not 
live except he work. (1 Cor. xv. ult.) 

G. Not eonsidcring the shortness of our time of sowing. 
(Heb. X. 25.) Whereas, if men were on their dealli bed, they 
would wish, O that 1 had walked more blitraulessly and fruit' 
fully ! Men care not for a comfortable reckoning a« yet. 

Tbei'e are two causes why they receive ng good : — 

1. From a mean esteem of the saints ; looking on them 
as men, and not as an ordinanceof Chrbt ; their persons, prayers, 
kod speeches. And tliis is a rule : men never gain any good 
by that ordinance which they despise : if all were scholars, min- 
ialers, or saints glorified, they eould then esluein them. Hence 
(Eph. iv. ir>) edifying is by love, "making increase of the 
body, edifying itself in love." 

2. From want of being poor in spirit, and sensible of ihcir 
extreme need of Christ, continually, in all me-tns. Beggars wilt 
pick up cruma, and watch for a word of encoui'ngenieut. It. 
xi. 1 6, " A little child shall lead the wolf and the lion ; " that is, 
when the Lord hath humbled the heart of a man. O, when a 
Christian thinks. None so poor, and shallow, and heartless as 1, 
and every one ia better thun I, however I need mure than any. 
Ibis »oul will be glud to suck the breast ; and the Lord will fill 
othera with light and life, and bia own boweU, to do such a one 
good. Whereas, else they are shut up, and they lind no good 
conveyed In them by any of the ordinances of the Lord, nor any 
presence of God in them. 

"Si There it a miubierial power, committed from Christ b^tlip 
ehurob to the ruling officers thereof. 1 say, by the church, fur 




all power in the church is properly Christ's; yet he nexlljrl 
communicBlea il ordinarily (o his churclj, or mulliluileorbelierera, I 
to whom is i^ommllltd thu euprcme ]iower of [he keys 
word, and a binding and loosing, ae haih been showu ; and by | 
this church, this power hath been by Christ's appointment, and 1 
still is, to be (^ommunicHled to those that are chosen out of [hem- I 
selves, to be officers and rulers over them in the Lord, lo exer- , 
\ cisp the power of Christ over them according lo his will. Hence | 
llie very power of binding and loosing, opening and shulling, 
'given lo the church, is also given to Peier and the rest of the | 
nposlleit, and (he successors of Christ's apostles in doelrine, e 
of ChrisU John xx. 23, " WboEesoever eins ye remii, they are | 
remitted," etc Because, though the power of communiwition i 
of it is in the church's hand, yet the power of usual admittistrai- ' 
tion of it is in their hand, while they exercise it according to 
Christ, yet by the church. And hence Paul puis a difference 
between Ihis extraordinary ministry, as aposllesliip, and ordi- 
nary. Gnl. i. 1, "An aposlle, not of men, nor by-tlie will of 
men, but by Christ ; " for the church, not by it : now, this, I say, 
is by the cliurch from Christ, Hence, (Acta xi. 28,) " The Holy 
Ciliost hath made them overseers ; " for that it is no invention of 
man, or act of man, or the power of man, but of Christ ; and 
hence refuse to be under this power ; men cast off the yoke 
gp'l power of Christ Jesus. 
I For though the estate of the church be democra[ical and 1 
popular, and hence no public adniinist rations or ordinances are ^ 
to be administrated publicly, without notice and consent of 
the church, yet the government of it under Chrinl, the Media- 
tor and Monarch of his church, it is arislocratieul, and by some j 
chief, giAed by Christ, chosen by the people to rule them i 
the name of Christ, who are unable and unlit to be all rulera I 
themselves ; and lo cast off these, or not to be ruled by [liese, 
[ ia to cost off Christ./ Luke x, 16, "He that rejecleih yoo 
Tffjfecteth mc." Num. xvi. 3, "You are gathered together ! 
against the Lord ; " the Lord accounts himself opposed and 
resisted wlicn the officers of his church are slighted, and their 
goveniment despised. 
J"^Jue*(. What is this power ? 

1 Ans. 1, Negatively. I. Ii is not any lordly, pompous power, 
I to bear the bell of great smoky titles, to govern in worldly 
[pomp, or by worldly rewards and civil punishments./ 2 Cor. ) 
/ " Ibe weapons of our wartare are not carnal, bu[ mighty, through 
I God, to the pulling down of sirongholds." " It shall not be so 
with you," saith Christ, but as I hiive been without all worldly 


Btnte, so must you J>e one to anotber. Aod hence, (1 Pel. t. 4^^ J 
" Not lining lords orer God's lierilage." Christ never gave lliB 
rainisEcra puwer of opening aoU shutting tlie doors of Newgnlo, 
and Bonner'i cojvl house, it' thej' would uol subscribe, or to cou- 
fuic men's opinions with their own luws, and bind consciences 
with chains of iron, or to promote bis servants by spiritual liv- 
ings. Christ himself refused to be a judge in civil causes; 
henoe some of our divines, when they would grant that Peior 
was Christ's successor, and the Bishop of Rome Peter's and 
Christ's vicar, yet, as Christ, being on earth, exercised no civil 
power, so much less may these. 

2. It is not any anti-Christi&n iUimited power, viz^ to have 
power over many churches, (for that is the main spiritual anti- I 
Christian external power,) and the ministers thereof; tor wel 
read in Scripture of many elders and bishops in the same churcii, f 
(Acts XK. 28,) but never of any one ordinary minister, or officer I 
ovi-r many churches, either to govern or to baptize, as the Ana- ' 
baptists would among them, as many godly plead for noi 

misty confusion of Kngland. And look, as we cry out 

minister non-resident that shall have sis or ten livings, though he 
give never so good a stipend, not only because of hia pride and 
uovetousness, hut because of bis unconscionable ness, i ' 
here much more of one mun, overseer over many congrej 
it may he a hundred, at least. 

3. 1( is not any magisterial power, Diotrepbee-like, either T 
do what they will, (Uutt. xxiii. 8,) and their wills to be (1^1 
kw. f-» o. Hai i i M T Jii. B O , ■■ Tuuuh uU thai 1 l i B um i m i d -yw».'7lr 
they do sin, their persons are under the censure of the churcnj^ 
in case of manifest offense and scandal by the mouths of two or 
three witnesses, who, being members of the whole church, and 
under it, and being sinful members, may, if the case need it, be 
proceeded against by the whole. Neither have they any power 
to Oct any public ordinance whieh concums the whole church, and 
where it is hound by Christ to judge, without the privity and 
consent of the church, as to elect olficers, admit members, cast 
out ulTenderB in the Testry wliliout the knowledge of the church/ 
one of the blames of the reformed churches which the apostle, ^, 
with their extraordinary power, never did themselves ; much less I 
should these. (1 Cor. v.) 

4. They have no immediate power of rule immediately given 
by Christ, over any one particuhir church, but mediate by that 
church where they are: their gifis of teaching and ruling ar« 
immt^liatdy from Christ, but their actual power to exercise it 
over this or thai purlicuhir congregation is by that church only. 





Ileni^e dencotu that were only to tnke care for tbc outward w- 
talc of the church, (Ai^u ri. 3. 4,) they were ordaiacd by lifiiDg. 
up iheir hAodfl. Th!s is apostolical power, and an intru!iioD, and 
cdU asunder the force of the argument of Master Ball's book 
of [lower for Preitbylery, etc. 

2. What ia their power affirmatively ? 

Am. 1. They liave a power given them of ruling and gov- 
erning from Christ by the people ; hence Ihey are called rulers, 
and such as rule, and are over God's church i hence they have 

charge and command from the Lord to do iu Hence Paul 

"at Ep lies us, when he was with them three years, yet had rulers 
here ; and ver. 2S, " Feed God's flock bought by blood, 
which (not men, but) the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers." 
Christ's church being like sheep, apt to stray and perish, unless 
these watch against wolves, and these the apostle at his li»t part- 
ing left ; hence, also, they are to give an account of it at the last 
I day. (Ueb. xiii.)/ Henca these cast off the Lord's government' 
^ over them, who will have no rulers or governors in churches, who 
shall cither speak it or think it, but leave all to themselves and 
their liberty ; to teach, baptize, to order things in church, and so 
by this means they are not only single members or officers, but 
pastor, and teacher, and elder, and all. This generation of men, 
sons of Korah, arc risen up in these latter times; especially 
amongst Anabaplisls, Familists, and rigid Separatists, and who 
are privily crept into New England churches ; whose condemna- 
tion sleeps not, Satan carrying them to extremes, and pride lin- 
ing them up above themselves, above men, above officers, above 
ordinances, and above God. That look, as commonwealths are 
under greatest bondage where there is an anarchy, where every 
one must he a slave, because every one must be a master, so, in 
the churches, no greater bondage can come than this, the founda- 
tion of all confusion, atid the scandal of the ways of God, which, 
through mercy, his people here enjoy. _/ 

2. This power is more than any one private member halh in the 
church, who is not an officer. It would be a most simple ridicu- 
lous thing, if there should be election, ordination, many prayera, 
much trial of men, for to rule, and guide, and govern, separation 
from the rest, and yet not to have any more power than one pri- 
vate member. Hence the apostle says, " Submit to them that 
■Sttroveryou," (1 Thesa. v. 12.) and, (Heb. liii. 17.) "Obey them 
that guide you, or rule over you." Ilence those that do acknowl- 
edge governors in the church for names' sake ; but ihey arc such 
as have no more power than a private brother ; they do but al- 
low the name, but deny the thing. Hence, say they, they are to 



but I 

roa A TiMiv OF LiBKiiTr. 33d 

WBteh ; so are private members : the; arc to admonish ; so is 
every private member : thej are to rule ; the word signiliea to 
guide and go before another. 

Ant. 1. The vord to ru&, in 1 Theas. v. 12, is the same word 
with 1 Tim. iii. 4, 5. lie that rules his own house, which is a 
little more than thej that are besides him in the family, though 
this be not sucii a paternal power, yet it is somewhat more ilian 
tliat of private members. And that Heb. xiii. 17 is a word 
which is the same with that in Matt- ii. G — governor, porlicularljr 
■poken of Christ's gOTerument, to feed otJicrwIae than private 

2. It is Iroe, they arc to watch and admonish in way 
of Christian duty ; but otiiers in way of Christ's authority, as 
being bis ambassadors, and sent of him, as in a family one ser- 
rant should watch over another; but the chief stewai^. he is to 
du it with authority in the absence of his Lord ; and hence doth 
it with more majesty and jKiwer, and it takes, or should lake, 
deeper impression ; so it is in elders of a church. 

Hence, also/ when men shall cry for liberty to speak, an elder I 
forbids it. What, may not llie church have liberty ? True, hut f 
you are not a church. An elder reproves, and they will reprove 
again. What, shall not the church have liberty ? An elder 
^ives reasons strong and unanswerable for sometliing to be done : 
n young fellow shall step up, and say, without ground or show of 
il, Tliat is your light, and mine is otherwise. What, may not the 
church have liberty ? Yes, but you are not the church. This is 
very sad, and hath been a root of greatest scandal that ever 
God's ways had. If elders sin openly, it is another case, and 
somewhat, also, is there to be done : " Submit yourselves one tot 
another," much more lo an elder, etc. — ;;-* 

3. In the execution of their oDiiK according to Christ, they 1 
are over the whole church. Their persons indeed are under 
them; incase they sin, and sin in the execution of their office, they 
are to bo subject, not only to the whole, hut to the last member I 
of the church./ Suppose the sin be not only suspected, ar rep ort- -| 
ed, or apprehended by one, but two or three witnesses, at least, 
as 1 Tim. v. 19 ; but while they execute it according to Christ, 
tlicy are therein above tlie church, and it is bound to be subject 
ilierein ; and not to be subject is to refuse to be under Christ's ] 
government. Hence, (llcb. xiii.,) "Obey them that rule you;" 
he speaks to the whole church, which was not in evil, but in 
good things, according (o God ; and yet in evil things, look on 
them as those over them. Mxtmpli gratia, a minister in the execu- 
tion of his office, let him preach Christ's eternal truth, deliver 






it, and prove it. Whatever human weaknesses there be in hini, 
whatever darkaess there is in otiters, yet be is therein above 
churches, king^ or ang«U ; and thej shall Answer it at the great 
day, that do not aubmil. " Id regard of my person," said Luther, 
" I wilt fall down before any ; but, in regard of ibe trutb I admio- 
islcr, I look on tke kin^ of the earth aa nits, nay, duet," tUi. Ad 
Jiei/em Anffl. 

So in (he power of the keys in opening and shutting out mem- 
bere ; they have tried and proved such a one : if they bid, oa 
they may, then give them reasons ; but if not, ihey are bound lo 
submiL And that not as unio other Christians, but as unto an 
ordinance, atamped withau authority of God upon them : indeed, 
they are not to do any such thing without the presence, consent, 
and judiciary power of the church ; and the church may not 
submit to what elders propose to be Christ's mind ; but thea 
they cost off the Lord's [wwcr, which they ore to answer for 
wiother day. 1 Cor. lii. 28, they are called governors. Now, 
as a ruler of a. ship is to order it, though a king be in it, over 
him in that respect, and the king is to be guided by him while ha 
guides it right ; but If no), the king hath power over him to 
command others to take the place or cast him overboard. 
T""Il is true, they are hut servants to the church, because ihey 
lure by the church, tor the church, and to help the church, (2 Coi^ 
i. 24,) und are subject to them if they sin ; but yet they are sep*- 
i vaiils unto Christ, and in exercising his power according to hin^ 
I nbo ve the church. 2 Cor. iv. 5, " We preach Christ, and out* ] 
^wlves your servants for Christ ; " yet therein above thera. Hence, 1 
being their servants, if ihey sin, they arc under the censure of I 
the church, and the church may cast them by. So, being Christ's J 
servants, if not submitted lo, the Lord doth account bimseir ^ 
(^l off. 

\ k-B c ewMg c 'their power, thus rightly executed, is the power of ' 
Christ Jesus. Hence, refuxe it, you refuse to be subject to him. J 
If men will not be ruled by God's ordinances, but will rule ordi- 
nances, ihey go about to rule Christ. 

tr- B aca uiio i if there shall be no subjection here, it is professed 
licentiousness, and not liberty in churches. Tou have liberty, 
but what liberty ? lo be subject to Christ's power in pure lil)erly, 
and that in his servants. Xow, when men will not. and shall re- 
fuse without showing reason, or convicting ciders of sin. this is 
to cast off the government of Christ. 
». Elders ate helpers of people, and there is no people but 
. will stand in need of such helps, if humble, and able to discern, 
J[ to attend tlie public good, lo tench, and convince, etc. Hence, 




nlien there is no ^n appearing in ihe cxeculion of (heir office, 
they should with a holy fear submit, and i»y, If ye be faithful A 
watchmen, what am I that I should be uiisatislietl ? lilj- ignorance J 


may mislead others, etc. . ^ 

iy^They have power to oversee, when they sec cause, (ActsT 
XX. 28,) and to sec into and iniiuire into the estate of the fiockl 
of God ; to know their spiritual condition, so far as is lit to be A 
known, that so they may be comforted in the work of Christ, | 
tiiough there be no sin break out, nor they come to them. ( 1 The ss. | 
iii. 5, ti.) The apaitle inquired into their faith, charity, alliP 
prayer, (ver. 7,) and hence was comforted, etc And this Paul 
dolh not as an extraordinary man, but leaves his example as a pre- 
cedent to the elders of Ephesus, to go from house to house, and 
inquire, to teach and exhort, (Acts sx.,) for elders are to prevent 
scandals as well as to remove them, lest when they come they say, 
O that 1 had known this before, especially where they see need. 
Now, hence it is that men cast off the government of Christ, 
when they will not have their spiritual condition searched into ; 
the elder's foot is now too great for his shoe ; I am to give an ac- 
count to God 1 so ure they, also, of thee ; now thou canst not 
give it if thou inquirest not how thy condition stands, neither caa. 
thoy with comfort unless thou lellest them how it stands with 
thee. It is true there ar« many secret things they can nc 
find out ; yet they are to attend their duty. 

The minister's charge is to cast the seed, the elder's duty if 
inquire after the fruit in the husbandry of Christ : it is a i 
condition when a man hath such a wound that he will not go to 
the Lord for help, because he loves it, and will not have 
to know it, because he is ashamed of it. Itul yuu shall km 
at tlie lost day, that the Lord would have healed you, and you 
would not, but can quarrel and snap at the elders when thejr 
come to inquire of your condition ; and why do ye inquire ? you 
lake loo much on you. ^^ 

5h They have power to guide, and counsel, and warn the 
church, at least in all weighty afl'nirs which may concern them 
■nd their common good ; hence they are colled guides and leaden 
to the people. (Heb. xiii. 17. Mai. ii. 7.) I do not mean in aU^ 
personal things. Acts xx. 'til, "1 warned you of wolves," etc. 

1 . For members in matters of great and weighty affairs which 
concern the good of the whole cliurch, nay, all churches, never 
to inquire at Abel is coaling off Ihe Lord, m in election of offi- 
cers in church, and magistrates in the commonwealth, etc. 

2. (Icnce lu receive any opinion different from all the elder*! 

VOL. 111. W 

ou I 





388 A witoLi;soME caveat 

ill the church, anJ never bo much hs speak, much lesa come to « 
safi debate about il, is to cast off thia yoke, and contrary to cove- 1 
^nant ;/an<l elders would never have undertaken the care of ihs I 
cEurch without it; and it sods (heir hearts that they do their i 
nork feehly. 1 

3. Hence to propose a doubtful question to the church, which I 
may trouble, or bring an offender's sir to the church without .\ 
counsel of the elders, who may encourage them if of God, i 
ripen it for the church, or discourage it if not of God. Christ, J 
when he writes to the churclie?, he superscribes his epistles to I 
the angels : and if one man may propose a doubtful opinion, ai 
other may, and a third, and one may side with another, and i 
much confusion will follow. 

4. Hence, when men aholl not take warning of eviL-i to con 
upon evident grounds, il is costing off the Lord's yoke ; and whea I 
they come on thee, ihou mayest say, It is hecause I have refused I 
to hearken to my watchers : they warned me of this ; and it tatty 1 
be you will find else such evils which the Scripture notes, " ao- ] 
cording to the word of the Lord by his servant" Elisha, so will 4 
the Lord make good the words and ihreatenings of his faithful I 


t^X They have power of public reproof of any member of the 
' church, in case of plain, open, and public offenses i others with- 
out leave can not, nor ought not, although others may tell then). 
Reproofs are part of the power peculiar to the governors in any 
society, whijre governors are present especially, and at hand ; as 
now, in a family, no wise man will suffer brawls amongst his cbil- 
ldrenorBervants|butBayahe,Tellme. (ITim. v. 20.) Now, this is 
•mi when a man can not forbear reproof of others, nor hear re- 
proofs of elders, but turns again, and will he judge in hia own 
cause, though never so groes ; a sign of an Extreme froward high 
spirit, (Hos. iv. 4,) which makes the Lord to take away elders 
as soon as any sin is committed, and stop their mouths. £x. ii., 
" Who made Ihee a judge," etc. And when alllictions come, and 
^ou then inquire, What is the cause of it? you may bo sure thU 
IS one, even by the confession of the blindest deboist ones. Prov. 
V. 12, " Uow have I hat«d instruction, and not obeyed the voice 
of my teachers ! " 

G. They are to feed with power, as the word noifiairrtr gignifieth, 
every one in their places, publicly instructing, exhorting, comfort- 
ing, and privately also ; which though private men may do, 
yet here is the stamp of authority also, and so the more power 
.. the more blessing ufiually, if God be acknowledged therein, 
(AcU XX. 28.) Hence, — 



1. When men despise tlielr food, they nre poor things ; thej 
■peak, and ihey can sec no matter in thuni ; and that after Eludf, 
prayers and teitra, ctu., and m cast il hy : lliis i» to CASt ofT the Lord. 

2. When men grow glutted and full, (Mnl. i. ult.,) although 
Ihey eat not a bit, and hence thrive not, but a spirit of slum- 
ber and a deep sleep grows on them, that ihey can not be awii- 
kened by all the ordinances of God. These things mil for chains. 
Amos viii, 12, "When will these Sabbathd be' ended?" for 
which the Lord threatens a famine, and then you shall know the 
worth of them in the want of them. 

These things I speak, 1. Because 1 sec the apostle, in many 
of his Epistles, lays this charge on the people, (Heb. xtii. 7, 17 ;) 
it ia twice repeated, 1. Lest officers be sadded in Iheir work 
thai is heavy- 2. Lest it be unprofitable for you ; you think to 
get thb and that good by it, but it will be nothing in the con- 

2. Because we lie under slander of many, and that godly, as 
if elders in churches were but only ciphers. 

3. Becauae people begin to run to extremes, elders taking all 
to themselves, and people taking all for Ifacmselves. 

i. Because, if here he not attendance, you quickly see the mis- 
erable ruin and fall of churches, more sad than the burning of 
Solomon's temple. It is observed of Jeroboam, when he was 
sacriflcing he had no leprosy, but when he stretched out his hand 
against the prophet it was withered ; for the Lord will not bear 
here ; tliey may be despised, and yon may think " yourselves kings 
without them," (1 Cor. iv. 8,) and they will say so, tJicy may rule 
as they will, but you will do as you list. But the Lord will be 
provoked for this ; all Saian'a subtlety lies here : Disgrace the eld- 
ers, says one : Divide them, says another : Pull them down, says 
the third, that there may be no king in Israel, no, nor in Sion, 
that we may do what is right in our own eyes. 

3, Try when the external kingdom of Christ in a common- 
wealth is cast off; for when any commonwealth is ordered ac- 
cording to (he sacred will of Christ, by such persons especially 
whom; aim is to advance the kingdom of Christ by their rule and 
power, il is then become ihe kingdom of Christ Jesus. And 
henc«, (Kev. xi. 15,) when the seventh trumpet is blown, and tho 
Lord's last woe is come upon the world and the kingdoms there- 
of which have opposed Christ, and those kingdoms are turned 
to embrace the gospel, anil submit to the power of Christ in (he 
same, then it is said, " The kingdoms of the world are become 
the kingdoms of Christ;" it is nut said, Christ's kingdom is 
become the kingdom of tiie word, aa if Christ should put down 




civil authority, and exercise rule hy it liiraseir ; bul the kingdom^ 
of the world, i, e., ihe varioos kingilams are become Christ's, i. e^ 
to advance il, and debase iheinaelves at bis feet. Eph. i. 21, it ia 
said, " All tilings are put under Christ's feel, and he is bead over 
all things to the churcb," (that ia. universally, chiefly,^ 
licularly ;] so then earth's kiugdoms, wbeu they are subject to 
Christ, for bis ends, now they exercise the kingdom of Christ, in 
a manner ; and faenue lo cost olf ibis is to cast off the kingdom 
of Christ, and so to provoke the Lord to put us undi^r bondage. 
Q ufit. When is Christ's power and kingdom cast off here ? 
r^»»* There ia a double power in the kingdoms of the world, 
which, I suppose, when they become Chrbt's kingdoms, they will 

First. There is some supreme or higher power in the chief 
magistrates, princes, or chief court of justice. 

Secondly. There is some inferior power, by some superior 
power, set over partlcuhir persons, cities, and towns, for the well 
ordering of them. The ground of this is, that natural necessitj 
whicU Jethro propounded from God to Moses, {Ex. xviii, 17, 
18,) J" It is not good for thee to be alone, but thou wilt boili 
wear out thyself and thy people." Public authority mast have 
many eyes and many hands ; and like a river tbot is to water a 
country, it must huve many streams : and hence they hud in the 
commonwealth of Israel, which was for God. in every city judges, 
and in towns such as were over fifties and tens, (Ex. xviii. 25,) 
which, it seems, coaUnued long, till all fit men for government 
were taken away ; and then (Is. iii. 3) their condition is lamenl«d. 

Now, the form of this government is not in all commonweallha 
alike, the Lord not binding to any; and hence called ar^^ni*-^ 
xtloii, an ordinance of men. Hence it ia a foolisb vanity to ask a 
warrant in Scripture for such a form of government ; for human 
wisdom may leach this, though not in church government Yet 
this supreme and inferior government hath been in all kingdoms, 
i(l Pet ii. 13, 14,) to both which subjection is required; to refuse 
l^give it is to cast oft' the Lord's govemment;/und there aro 
coiifhed four reasons in that place to prove this. ' 

1 . Do it for the Lord's sake, for the name of Christ ; and that 
honor and majesty of Chiisl stamped on them, submit ; hence 
cast them off, you cast by respect unto ; nay, the name of Christ 

2. Because they are in the room of the Lord, to do Ihe work 
of the Lord ; " in punishing evil doers, and for the praise of them 
that do well." It is true, they may abuse iheir power otherwise ; 
but yet their power is one tiling, and their abuse of il another. 





3. Because " this is the will of Chrisl, anil jou do well in it; 
■nd so jaa »hall slop the mouths uf foolish men, apt to speak 
against you for sin." 

4. BecKUiM! this is the lil>erty of Christ, (yer. G,) and jod are 
eervonls. to Christ in it ; and to do otherwise is licentiousness ; 
and their liberty to exempt themselves from the power of law- 
ful aathority was but a cloak of it. For so it Beems, in those 
days, some held it part of their Christian liberty to be free from 
all bonds, and said that Christ had mad6 them kings on earth, 
etc. So that if they did ca-it off subjection, they did cast off tke 
name of Christ, power of Christ, will of Christ, libeHy of Chrirt 
Jesus, even under heathen magistrates ; what then do they that 
cust it off under others? 

Quf$l. When is Christ's government ca£l off in respect of the 
supreme power ? 

Aiu. Those that know the questions about llie power of 
princes and people, especially revived in these last days, can not 
but know the field is large, where now I am. I shall be wholly 
silent, unless I saw greater cause of speaking than I do, and 
only point out two or three particulars to prevent such sins as 
stand next to the door, (o break in upon this power. 

]. When men cast off secretly dread, and fear, and reverence 
of the majesty, dominion, and sovereignty that God stamps upon 
authority, and so come to have low, mean thoughts of them, and 
contempt of tliejn. It is true, none should be elected hut such as 
men can honor for some eminency or other, and that of God, 
seen in them. " Able men, fearing God, chief amongst the peo- 
ple," was the counsel of God by Jethro and Moses ; but when 
they be elected, now to despise them, and hence not to bow tho 
knee, or stir the hat, and speak rudely before them, it ii casting 
off, not only their power in sight of God, but the very root of it, 
which is honor ; and hence, in the fillh commandment, all duties 
to them are comprehended under the word Aonor. And who , 
sees not but this is a sin, which is apt to attend the spirits of men 
in a pinee of liberty, and in our weak beginning, and day of 
small things ? Keporta are abroad that no men of worth are 
respected, and hence tlic country is neglected. I can not say so 
after many thoughts, for I am persuaded no place in Europe 
more ready to honor men of public spirits, and of eminency in 
piety and humility, without the seeing of which no country more 
apt to vilify, because grace is the glory in the eye of a country 
led by religion. Bui take heed lest such a spirit befall us ; lest 
(he Lord put out our lamps, " and cost our crown down to the 




2, When men Seek to pluck the eworf of r«venge, for wn Imrt-^ 
ing the coninionwctilth, oiil of their hands; wiiliout which the 
grtiulest ])Owi^r in a I'utninonwentili is liut B pageant and e 
vanity, almost a nullilj. Hence, (Rom. xiii. 4.) " He is God's 
iiiiniiil«r ; " yc-s, when lie gives good counsel, And " when be is i 
revenger, to execute wrath on him that doetli evil." So that, be 
the evil what it will be, if illiurtlhecommonneAlth, orbe a^inst 
any wholesome law thereof, he is God's minister to punish it j 
civilly. In the first rvfiMiiiation of Geneva, Iherc were as manj 
heresies and errors almost us truths of God ; Servelus, he de- 
nied llie deity of Christ; whereupon the magistrate put him to 
deAlh, who died with extreme horror. Whereupon heresies 
being begun h> be snibbed and blasted, Bellius writes a book : 1. 
Thai men should punish no heresy at all, but be merciful and i 
meek, as Christ was lo the adulterous woman. '2. If Ihey did, I 
yet that magistrates llicy should not punish for errors or heresies. 
8. If ihey did, yet not with such severity as they began. To all ] 
which Bern huth given a most lenrned and solid answer, detest- 
ing the hypocrisy of the man, and the sad consequences of such , 
op inions, if their power should be diminished. I 

F"^I conceive it is casting off Christ's power to take away power , 
Ifrom magistrates to punish sins against the first table, of which 
lerron and heresies in religion are part It is as clear as the sun, 
^at ihe kini^ of Juduh that were godly did it, and were com- 
mended for it ; and it is as clear they were commended for it, 
not as types of Christ, but because they did therein that which 
was right in God's eyes, and according lo ihe conimandroeot of 
the Lord, which judicial commandments, concerning ihe punish- i 
ing of Sabbath breakers, false prophets, heretics, elc-, God'k 
fence to preserve moral laws, they are of moral equity, and ta I 
l 9 b e observed to this day of Christian magistrates, eic. To ex- 
r'eniiil clergymen in mailers of religion from the power of the 
' civil swonl is Hat Popery ; by means of which Antichrist hath | 
risen, and Imlh conlinued in his pomp and power so long logelhttr. 
.The indulgence of princes towards the Papal function in mattere 
\of re ligion hnlh undone Christendom. 

\ II is iruo, every error is not "to be immediately committed ; but 
when it is like a gangrene, of a spreading nature, then the magis- 
tpate in due time must cut it off speedily. 
Otjtcl. Leave them to the church. 

Jin». Time, leave ihera, 1, there. But, % sometimes ihe 
church will not, sometimes they are not of any church. A Papist, 
an Arminian, may come in and leaven and damn many a soul, for 
which they had beller never been. If ii were but one, and if 


he nAji, I do it with a meek B|iiril, (llieir lri(;k, of late,) and none 
must meildle, because mercy must be Hiiown lo these wolves. A 
wise slieplierd bad r&ilier let a Inintt^r Qouie in und kill one of 
bis sheep than let a wolf or fox escape, (Acts xx. 29,) aud see 
bis |>eople persecuted than their souls worried. 

llereay and error bath ibis property; it ever diea by severe 
opposition, and truth ever riseih the more ; because Christ is 
against tlie one, hence it must fall ; Lul for the other, hence it 
ahull rise bj' its fall. Hence, set yourselves ugHinet ibis, it is 
(u appose the power of Christ Jesus. And lienuc in Henry 
VIII.'s time, the abbeys fell, and never could rise to this day; 
but the six articles against the suinls pursued wilh blood made 
them increase the more. 

3, When men will not submit to the wholesome laws of magis- 
trates, which are either fundamentul and continuing, or orders 
that have their date and time of expiring, made fur common good. 
When men will either have no bws, or as good as none, or sub- 
mit U> none but wbitt they please, (Deut. xvii. 1 1,) " He that will 
not hearken, but do presumptuously, shall die;" he being ({ 
minister of the Lord; and indeed, it is lo out otT the Lord.' 
go not about here to establish a sovereign power in magistrates, 
which is proper to God, to make what laws they will about civil, 
religious, or indifferent things, and ihen people to submit to tbem 
for no other reason hui because of their will ; under which no- 
lion superstition in churches hath been ushered and maintained, 
you must obey authority ; in that cose it is better to suflTur tban 
to sin, and not to do than do. But 1 suppose the laws just, 
righteous, holy, and for public good, and that apparently so, and j 
not in saying so only. Now, liei'e lo cost olT laws is to cast oS^ I 
ChrUt. .^ 

There are two things, especially, which are the cause and oc-i 
cafiion of the lireach of all other laws, and the strongest sins and 
■wectcsl, which men, young men especially, the hopes of the 
common wealth, are caught with. (Pruv. ii. 13, IG.) 

1. Whoredom, secret lusts, and wantonness, and other stntnge 
lusts which I cease and dare not name. (1 Kings xiv. 24.) The 
sin before Shishak came, a sin which many limes Solomon coa 
not see through bis window, nor the eye of authority discern ; 
bul " God will judge for it," (Hub. xiii. 5 ;) and if he be judge, 
who shall be thy jailer, but Salan? and what shall lie thv sen- 
tence, but death ? and what thy chains, hut a hard heart for the 
present, and horror afterward ? A sin wliich pollutes the very 
earth, the land, the very dust of the ground, and the cause of aJ , 
■in aIniiMt in a pUce, as drunkenness, idleness, corrupt opinions, 




(scoffing at Ihe minislfi-i! of God and ways of God : for^ seldom 
knew a [lerseculor but he was an adulurrer, though it is not al- 
ways tru';, and in llie end, poverty anil ruin. /And know it, 
thuugh no man's eye has seen thee, no power or ninf;istrale can 
rtiocli thee, this word shall be fire to consume ihee, unless ihon 
repent, for [hy looks, thy lusts, thy dalliances, thy thoughts, thy 
ep«eches, thy endeavors this way, mu<!h more for (he thing. 
Man's law shall not bind you here, because it can not reach you ; / 
but know that Clirisl is cast off by you. /^ 

C*^. Loose ntmpanj', vain men. (Prov. sxv. 3, 4.) } A commcm- 
ealth is a refined ves.sel of use for God, and judgment is eaUib- 
lished ; when these ar» taken away, your knots of loose company. 
Take a poor soldier alone, he is as oilier men ; but when lUey we 
got into a knot together, now they grow strong against all laws 
of God or men. So here the knot of good fellowship bath been 
the hnne of the flourishing slAle of England, meeting in lavems 
and such places ; and the cause of whoredom, and of all evil, 
Oonimonly in a nation. For hence, 1. Much precious lime is 
lost, which if spent in praying, as in sporting with them, many » 
young man's soul had been blessed. Hence sometimes dicing, 
feasting, excessive drinking, merry tales, which take off all spir- 
itual joy. Hence filthy songs, and lascivious speeches, hy which 
hopeful young men are insnared, and taught to do wickedly, and 
M knit to them, that it is death to part with them ; and it is better 
. to bum a whole town, than lo poison one hopeful young man. 
Next to communion with wanton women, I have ever looked 
unnecessary fellowship with graceless men as the nest. Well, 
ow it, you onst off* the Lord's government from you by his 
■ervants, which will be sad to answer for another day. And as 
ike prophet said to Jeboshaphat, " Shouldest thou love them that 
hate the Lord ? hb wrath is against thee for thii<," so say I to 

I f^ue»t. 3. Inferior power, when is that cast off, viz., in particu- 
lar cities or towns, by meaner persons? 

Ant. I shall espi-ess it in three things chiefly. 
]. When soldiers in particular towns ca»t off respect, care, 
conscience, to ^e commands of their leaders set over them of 
I God, and who, under God, are the walls of outward safety for 
\th^ country ; it is not now an artillery day, only I niusl speak a 
/'word because it is a thing of moment, and matter of great eon- 
science with me. I gup|)0se, in such a place, at least, according 
to the centurion's example amongst heathens, (Malt. viii. 9.) a 
word of a commander to any of them should be a law. " I say 
!, Go, and he goes." Now. fur men lo come when Ihoy list 

may L 
mny )■ 


to tliose meetings, and so time is lost, and when the7 do come, 
no care, I LfliI almost said conscience, to nijnd their work in hand, 
and do it with all their might, as it to which they are called; but 
ofHcers may speak, charge, cry, yea, strike sometimes, yet heed 
not, it is intolerable ; but that members of churches, which should 
be examples to others, should do this, at least it is but bmtishness. 
But I do wonder what rules of conscience such do walk by. and 
if they do, where is their tenderness to withdraw their shouldera 
from under the work ? which if there be but English blood in a 
Christian, be will endeavor to be perfect in his art herein ; but 
if grace, much more, that he may make one stone in the wall, 
and be fit to shed his blood, if need be, fojythu defense of Christ's 
eerranta, churches, and cause of God. /"^ 

2. When any town doth cast off the power and rule of Ii 
men, set by the supreme magistrate to make such orders as may I 
make for the public weal thereof. I know sometimes men may 
not be sc able, wise, and carry matters imprudently. Town 
orders may also sometimes want that weight, that wisdom, those 
cautions, ihRt mature consideralioa as is meet, as also that due 
and prudent publication, that all may know of them, with records 
of them. But take town orders that be deliberately made, pru- 
dently published, for the public peace, profit, comfort of the place, 
to oppose these, or persons that make these, with much care, tear, j 
tenderness, if I know any thing, is a sin of a crying nature, pro- 
voking God, and casting off hia goTeniment. I confess, if the^ . 
be not care here, I know no way of living under any goveiiD- | 
ment of church or commonwealth, if the public affairs of tll6 
town be cost off. I know sometimes godly and dear to CliriaL 
may, through weakness, want of light, sudden paMioo, and vio- 
lent temptation, oppose here ; but I um persuaded, if they be the 
Lord's, he will in time humble them for il, and make them belter 
■ifler it. - 

I know the answer (o two questions would clear up all Hw 
doubts about this matter. 1. What prudence should be used in 
making laws. 2. How fiir those human laws and town orders 
bind conscience. But 1 can not attend these : only six things I 
would here say. .^_^ 

n The will and law of God only hath supreme, absolute, and 1 
sovereign power to bind conscience, (i. e.. to urge it or constr 
either to excuse Ibr doing well, or to accuse for sin ; far c 
•cience is at liberty without this :) this is a truth urged by a 
orthodox Proteslant divines against the Papists; so that no lav. . 
cau immcdiaiely bind conscience, but God's. __ ' 

1. Because he only b Lord of conscience; becaiue he made 

ilute, and 1 

for oon- 
;d byall 
t no law 

; and hence Ite oa\y is fit (o 


it, aod governs il, aoil only knc 
prescribe rule^ for it. 

2. Because lie only can «avc or dcsiro; (he eoul ; hath only 
power to make laws for (he bouI to bind conscience. (James ir. 
12.) " There ie one Lawgiver, who is able to Bave or desiroy," 
(Is. xxxiii. 33 :) for the law which soliinds conscience to a duty 
tliat the breach of it is a sin, and Ihat againsl God : we knov 
that the least Bin of itself destroys the soul, binds it over to 
death, but none have power to destroy it but the Lord himself. ^ 

3. Because the law is sutlicient to guide the whole man, in its 
whule course, in all the actions or occasions it meddles with or 
takes in linnd, even in civil as well aa in religious matters. Pror. 
ii. 'J, " Wisdom teachcth every good path." Ps-nnix. 11, "I have 
hid thy word, (hat I might not sin." Whatever one doth witb- 
oitt3.IulfiJxQm_Ilie_wurd, ia_ not of faith. Hence the word de- 
scends to the moat petty occMibns of our lives ; it teachetb mea 
how In look, (Ps. cxxxi. 1,) how to speak, (MatL xJi. 36 ;) it de- 
scends to the plaiting of the hair, (1 Pet iii. 5,} moving of the 
feet, (Is. iii, 16 ;) and what is of Christian liberty hath its free- 
dom from the word : a man must give an account at the last day 
of every stirring of heart, thoughts, motives, and secret words ; 

- and if so, then it mu^t be according to the rule of the word ; and 
hence the word only hath absolute power to bind masters, ser- 
, vaniB, and princes how they govern, and people how they sub- 
ject ; and this the Xiord hath done to make men take counsel 
from him, and walk in fear before him, and approve themselves 
to him, especially townsmen in their places nut to consult with- 
out God. 

r"^ All good laws and orders enacted in any place by men are 
teitlicr expressly mentioned in the word, or are to be collected 
and deducted from the word, as being able to give euSicient direc- 
; lion iierein. For all the authority of the highest power on earth, 
''in contriving of laws, is in thid alone, vis., to make prudent col- 
lection and special application of the general rules, recorded in 
Scripture, to such special and peculiar circumstances which may 
promote the public weal and good of persons, places, proceedings. 
Prov. viii. 85, " By me princes decree justice." Josh. i. 7, 8, 
" Do what Moses commanded ; turn not on either hand." O/^'tct. 
But I can not see my way from hence always. Meditate there- 
fore on it much, and then thy way shall prosper, etc Alany 
tilings Joshua did not particularly set down by Moses, but may 
be collected from it. Deut. i. 17-20, "The king is to have it, 
that he may prolong his days in the midst of Israel," in his king- 
dom. What made Uehoboam to turn from these ways ? He 





tlimi|;lil he cauld not slablJEh his kingdom without it i that wae, 
therefore, the ruin of liim and his kingdom^^ 

1. This appeara bernu^o iLe word u i^ulticieiit lo direct, as 
hath been ahown ; and hence all directions and rules are to be 
taken from honce. 

2. Because either men have rules lo walk by, or their own 
wills and npprehenaiuns are to be rules ; but not eo, because men's 
wills arc not only corrupt, but it is a peculiar prerogative lo God 
lo be obeyed, because of his will. The reason or wisdom whieli 
makes a rule binds ; which, if it be right, is part of the law writ 
in the heart, which is most plainly seen and fully opened in the 
word, whence direction is to be bad. ••— 

3. Human laws or orders, thus, either set down in the word,] 
or deducted from the word, and applied by those that be in placel 
in towns, though they do not bind conscience firstly, as human,! 
or by humnn power, (i. e., as published and imposed by man,) I 
yet they do bind secondarily, (i. e., by virtue of ihe law of God,) 1 
wherein they are contained, or from whence they are derived and I 
deducted, and according lo which they arc opposed : they are likq I 
tuhpainiu in the king's name, or writs of arrest, which by virtue 1 
of higher power challenge obedience. And thus to break these | 
is to bin against God, nnd makes the conscience liable lo punish- j 
ment from God ; and the reason is, — ^J 

1. Because men sin hereby against the Lord, and his holy, 
righteous law, because God's law is contained in these ; and what 
is deducted from the word is God's word. 1 Sam. viii. 7, " They 
have not rejected ihee, but me." 

2. Because tbey sin against the power of the magistrate here- 
by, and against men in place, and so against more means. Rom. 
xiii. % " lie that rcsisieth Ihe power resisieth the ordinance of 
God ; " i. e., when they command thee according lo God, which 
Ihe Lrfird takes very ill ; and the meaner the power is, (as iu 
lowns.) the more terrible will the Lord be when he comes to 
vibit for it ; hence they receive to themselves ^mnalion both by 
God and men. 

It is true, if ihey be not ihus according to the wonl, but rather 
against the general rules of it: though men in towns and plac«a 
are not lo be obeyed, yet subjection is their due, even then ; i. e., 
not to refuse obedience with contempt of their persons, places,' 
power, or scandal lo iheir proceedings, or profession of ihe gos- 
pel, " Revile not the Lord's high priest ; speak evil of no man ;" 
but ralher come in private, and confer with them, and hear what 
nay he said, and be willing to give and take reason. 

4. Human laws and ordera mny be known to be according (a 




the word, when they command or foi'hid such things as really 
udvance or tend to [iromoie the public good. 

Tliia I add to answer lliat great queation in many scrupulous 
minds. I can not see (so ignorant) when an order is coUecIed from 
the general rulea of the word ; now thia conclusion answers that 
(doubt: for lookfaa the main work of men in place is to pro- 
mote public good, (and hence public -spirited men are to be chosen 
for it,) BO the principal rule is that which God and his word 
gives ihera to walk by : whatever really dolh lend to the advance* 
Ime nt of that, publish that, record that, and execute that, i Rom. 
" He is Giod's minister to thee for good ; " i. e., for the pub- 
1. Ho is for men's private good, but it is in reference to 
public good ; that as private persons are to attend their work, eo 
public persona pubUc good. Hence, 1. If a law be made for 
public hurt, that law is not of God. 

Xi Hence, if the law be made only for the private good of 
I themselves, or any particular person, and hurls the public, that 
is not according to God. Admirable was Joshua's spirit herein. 
nh. xix. 49, 50.) 

, If laws be only in apjienrance and pretense for public 
good, and not rc^ly, they bind not ; none must do evil, much 
less moke a law of it, fur public good. Nothing more usual 
than to make civil laws and orders crossing God's Jaw, and to 
pretend public good, which ever prove the public pests, and 
plagues, and cankers of that place, as Jeroboam's command fur 
religion. Some things are forbidden plainly ; they make not 
for public good, but hurt — the statutes of Omri. Other things 
are indifferent in their nature, as swine to go abroad, or to be 
shut up ; but inconvenient in their use, and hurtful and scandal- 
ous, and tliat really to the general. They are not for public 
good, whatever is pretended. Some things are plainly commanded; 
they are for the public good circumslAntiated : some things 
are indiScrent in their nature, hut convenient and comforlable in 
tlieir use ; those are indeed according to God. And such things 
may be discerned, they are so obvious and sensible, of such 
, necessity and such profit, when duly considered by persons not 
blinded with their private interests. 

4. Hence things indifferent, which may as well be left undone 

as done, and so public good no way advanced, are not of God, 

thai any should restrain them ; tor the liberty which Christ hath 

I purchased by his blood, and which God's law gives, no law of 

.^ man can abolish or take away. It is the cry of the clawbaeks 

tof princes, that they have power in things indifferent ; i, e., such 
Ikuigg which make as much for public good not to use as use : 

FOB A TIME OF LiBEnrr. 349 

the truth i», he katli least power here : because ther are idle 
and idol laws; no hurt, nor is there good in them. And henc« 
some of the most rigid scliuolmco intiinUiin such laws bind not 
conscience ; we are not to seek our private odI^ : now, all hum&a 
laws arti helps to seek public. 

^i. That laws mode for and according to God for public good, 
if thej do not destroy some men's particular, only for some 
time pini-'h and press hard upon hie particular good, or their 
particular good, men are bound in conscience here to subroiL 
True, 1. If it were possible, all laws for public good should 
hurt no particolar man ; and townsmen, if tbt'j can, should 
help ibose that are hurt ; yet because no laws but usually ihcy 
will press on some man's particular, the heaviest end of a atafl* 
that is to be borne must fall on some man's shoulder, and such 
laws must be made. Hence n man is to bear and submit cheer- 
fully, i. e., fr om ihR pilj* "f '■>Yg, '"''''•'i will abate of particular 
for the general good ; love that more than mine own. 2, The 
law of justice : a man is to do as ho would be done by ; there is 
no man, but if his good was advanced by the general, hut would 
be content that Bome particular should be pinched. S. The law 
of nature : the stomach is content to be sick, and body weak, to 
beol the whole body. Hence Christians should not think that 
ton-nsmen are careless, unjust, and aimed at their hurt, when it 
is thus. (I Kings xii. 4.) 

6, A mere penal law when it is broke, the forfeiture is si^fll- 
cieot for the satisfaction of the offense, or trespass, but not in » 
miscd law. 

Firsl. A penal law is about thinp of small moment. 

Secondly. It is not made by way of command, but with ao 
aul, a dbjunctive copula, and b indeed rather a proviap than 

Thirdly. It is in the mind of the law, make Mitisfoctory if the 
I>cnalty be paid, though tlie law be not performed, because tlie 
public good in ihe mind of the lawmaker is known to be set 
forward tliat way as by obedience lo the law. In these cases 
penalty is enough ; but il' the law be mixed, i. e., there is a com- 
mand it shall be done; and lawgiver is sad, though penally 
being paid, as being about a mailer of weight ; it may be the 
livelihood and comfort of men, as keeping bogs out of corn, and 
peace in a town, that there be no eomphtining ; here the penally 
will not satisfy, because this is no penal law, but a law indeed 
deducted from rules of the word of God ; as it b in thefl, he 
that eleala «baU pay fourfold ; or that brawls shall be dudied 
in the wMer. Suppose one should say, I will suffer my servant 
VOL. 111. SO "■ 



to Steal or revile ; I hope it is no offense it he EufTer the penalty. 
Yea, but it is, because it is nui a mere penal law ; ilm thing is of ■ 
weight; peace between neiglibora, so peace in a town. It is a flat 
chftrge not to break it, and thou knowest mch ia the hon^sij 
and justice of a magislrale, (hat he will say, I would rather you 
would never do thus than offer those to do. Hence in God*s 
taw Christ must suffer, and do also, because Grod'a law is not 
merely penal : hut doing ihe thing gives more content than tlie 

3. When servants cast off all subjection to their governors,— 
families being the members and foundations of towns, and RO 
of commonwealths, — when they ar« not obedient, but answer 
again ; if they be let alone, then idle ; if rebuked and carbed, 
then Htubborn and proud, and worse for chiding, and Hnd fault 
with their wages, and victuals, and lodging ; weary and vex out 
the heart of master and mistress, and make thera weary of their 
lives, and (heir God also almost sometimes, and that by such 
professing religion, and all that they might be from under the 

r~ And here I can not but set a mark upon servants broho looM 

IfrouLlheir masters, and got out of iheir time, that arc under no 

ifamily nor church government, nor desiring of it, or preparing 

[for it : but their reins are on their necks./ I confess, if undw 

/uealhen masters, then desire liberty rather; but when men wOl 

/ live as they list, without any over them, and unfit to rule them* 

'selves, I much doubt whether this be according to God. 

I 1. Hence they come lo live idly, and work when they list. 

I 2. Hence men of public use can have little use but when thc^ 

please of them. 

3. When ihey be with Ihem, they have no power to eorrect,i 
or examine, and call Ihem to account, in regard of spirilud<l 

4. Hence they lie in wait lo oppress men that must have he^' 
from them, and so will do what they list. 

fi. Hence they break out to drunkenness, whoring, and looM 
• 6. Hence they make otlier servants unruly, and to desir^-' 

Now, examine and try ihese tbinga: is the kingdom of Christ 
oome into ua ? that though there be a law in our members war- 
ring, yet there is a law of the mind warring against it, and de- 
lighting in tho will of Christ, and setting him up as chief. Are 
we under ihu kingdom of Christ in his church and common- 
wcttlth i 10 an Ihe soul is willing in the day of the Lord's power, 



though there be, and have been, some pangs of resistance against 
' persons and against ordinances; so hs it is ih/ libertj' to be 
subject to Christ in hia ordiniuices, in his servants ; and it is ihy 
bondage to he otherwise, and tfaou longest for that daj, that the 
Lord would subdue all those boisterous lusls, and pride, and pas- 
sions, and bruiM sin, Satan, and self under their feet? Then I 
say, OS the Lord, (Is. xxxiii. 20-22.) " I.ook upon Zion, the dty 
of your solemnity," ete. (See Rom. viii. 7, 1.) 

But if the heart grows loose and licentious, and breaks the 
Lord's bonds and yokes, and will be led by your own fleshly enda 
and lusts, and so go on quietly, be you assured this trutli 
■ball have a time to lake hold of such spirits ; and know it as- 
suredly, it is not to be m Christ's family or kingdom ; it is not 
■crambiing for promises, catching at God's grace, talking of as- 
surance of God's love, which will shelter you from the wrath of 
the King of kings and Lord of lords, to whom God hath sworn 
that every knee shall bow. It is service and subjection which 
the Lord mms at, and which the Lord looks for. I know it is 
God's grace which only can save; but it will never save vrhen 
it is turned into Ucentiousness. 

Do not say. There is no danger of it here, whore we have 
Buch means, and such liberties are. 

Ant. I. Never such danger of being licentious as in places 
of liberty, when no bit nor bridle of external tyranny to curb in. 

i. Look on the kingdom of Judah here, which in one year all 

3. Why doth the Lord exercise ns with wants and straits? 
It is to hamble us, and abate our unrulineas. And it is the 
Lord's quarrel with his best people to this day ; desperate rebal- 
liuus hearts, that close not with bis government. 

Do not say. We know not how bondage should come here, 
though we should cast off the Lord's government. 

Am. 1. The Lord c-an let loose the natives against us. Ahab 
kills one million of Benhadad's men, but afterward, within seven 
years, he returns again. 

2. The Lord can raise up brambles, and Abiipelechs to bo 
the king of the trees, when the olives and the vines are loth to 
forsake their places, and to lose their fatness and sweetness. 

3. The Lord can tumlbe hearts of those in power against peo- 
ple, and let Satan sow suspicions, and sow seditions and cUshings. 

4. The Lord ciui leave us into one another's bands to oppress, 
I to take away the nether millstones. 

&. If none of these, Satan, nay, Christ himself will come out 
with garnients dippped in blood. 





3. Do not e&y, Tl is not so ; (here ia sireet Bubjeoti 
ie so, and blessed be Gud for it ; yet beware, I £|>eak to preventi' 
But yeU 1- Some Becm U> do so, and yet are not &o. 2 Coi 
4, 5, " Mighty to pull down every high thought : ' 
this, who cao be thugf^ Yet there are means migbty for this 
end : not that all be abolished, but all are abolishing. 2. 
Others otherwise, openly how zealona for an opinion, when it 
should be death to differ, and tilings in your own heart lying mis- 
erably waste, and some wretched luat the root of all, for which 
God's saints mourn in secret. Let such know that will not be ruled 
by Christ, or his servants or ordinances, but will have them to 
rule them, and not to be ruled by them. The Lord's chains are 
near ; and therefore now take your time, and come in, submit to 
the Lord, and do as these here did, acknowledge the Lord to ba 
righteous, and turn unto ihe Lord. 

Um 6. Of thankfulness for our present liberties, and freedom 
from the b a"<^»g° °f me n, bondage of conscience, bondage of 
Satan and sin : need there is of laying this use seriously to heart, 
considering two things principally : 1. The general complainta of 
the country, aa they of Jericho. 2 Kinga ii. 10, "The water* 
ore bad, and the ground barren ; " and these are engraven 
blei all other our libertiea are written on the water. 2. The di>* 
grace and reproach cast upon God's people and ways of Go^ 
and that unjustly, which I aiu afraid to mention ; whence lh( 
grows a contempt of them, and the rivers of Bumascus 
better than Jonluti. O beloved, if it be a heavy hand of God 
to be under bondage, then look on it as a special grace of God 
to free us from bondage. Deut. xxxJi. 11, 12, " The Lord alone 
did tend them," etc. ; and Moses, (chap, zxxiii. 29,) when he had 
blessed them, " Happy art thou, O Israel, a people saved by the 
Lord." And Ihe greater cause we have to do this, a people that 
have abused all liberties. (Is. ix. U-IO.) He lauenla it, but 
yet is thankful for it to God's grace : no man that can say bat he 
may be as holy as he will, and none to curb or snib. 

Afeam 1. Consider what all the liberties God's people enjoj 
have cost. Gal. v., ''Christ halh made you free,'' i. e., by his 
blood. Liberty of conscience from the bondage, not of Jewish, 
but of anti-Christian ceremonies, and government, and pressures ; 
liberty of will from any sin ; it is by Christ's blood and coat, 
that (as I am persuaded) our liberties have cost saints their blooL 
The tears, prayers, and blood of men are much, but of Chtiat 
much more ; and arc they not worth thanks that are of tliis price ? 
The great reason why untlmnk fulness comes in is, because tbey 
cost BO much, as loss of estate, of wife, or of child, by sea; dost 



SJ3 ■ 

thou repent now ? ClirUt doth not repent that liis blood haih 
■ been paid for them ; and if they be of so little value as there it ia 
said, "He repented ihftt he made mati," so miiy he thai ever be 
gave ihem suob gbrious Uberlics. 

2. Consider oft of ibe sod condition of them Ibat be in bond- 
Mge. Men in bondage prize liberlj, and ihitik ihera bappy ibut 
enjoy it : but men out of it do not. How sad is ibe^considum- 
tton of tbem Ibat be in hoods ! it will make tby heart sympa- 
tbiie with them, and bless God for your deliverance. Hence 
saiih Christ. (Luke xxii. 20.) " When you see Jerusalem com- 
passed witb enemies," elc^ *' Ity to the mountains ; and woe to 
tbem ibal gire suck." Consider ibem that are taken with tbe 
Turkfl; if you were in tbeir condition you would say so; to bring 
forth liirle ones to the murderer or idolater. (Is. xlii. 22 and 26.) 
Men's hearts failing for fear, this you should see somewhere. A 
moieoratliom is a little ihingi but no raan would have it always 
vexing for all the estate he bath, if he hath any eye or tender- 
ness in il ; so those smalt matters fur whieh ibe saints have suf- 
fered, and for whieb God is provoked, and under whieb some 
hikve roared, and others have been loaded, one al^er another, it 
ia worth a world ; O, bless God for it : but consider those tluit be 
under the dominion of sin and Satan, so strong and mio-enible ; 
■in lio dear, that tliere is not so much as a sigh under that ; be 
thankful for that. 

3. Labor to maintain in the heart a holy fear of abusing lib- 
erties, every one in his place ; for what makes tbem despised bnti/ 
prineipuUy the abuse of them ? In sueh a eongregalion ibere"^ 
waa sQcb conleniion, such affront to tbe elders, there is ibal 
degenerating of spirit, and backsliding from God, thai men grow 
worse under means than ever, ay, and so must be if men grow 
nut better. DeuL vi. 10, 12. The Lord exhorts them llial, when 
ihey be at liberty, ihey would nol iben forget the Lord, but iben 
fear. It is Luiber'a note on the place, " When in trouble, you , 
rejoice ; but when in peace, you fear." I will only name tbe 
sins of liberty. 

1. Take heed of a prayerless spirit, and thai Ibat lamp go not 
out. Men under some pressures cry, and it is lung before they do 
ory under tbem, and under ibeir sin ; but then at last they du. . 
and when ibe Lord gives bberty, though they have the guilt of 
tbe same sins, and more sins lie on them, yet then, like mariners 
when the storms are over, fall asleep. It is strange that Israel, 
under Pharaoh, cried, and under God's utBlcling band, in deny- 
ing ibem water, murmured. True thankl'ubiess will help to prize 
what liberty allbrds. 




iloving spirit to (he unints. It is that I have oflsai 
Boldiers, when lliey are set ggniust a common enemy, are hII ooet 
liberty, then Iliey Hing juvelins at one miotber's heftdl, 
inion, and in heart and afieclion, and it is not dcaA 
BO to do. Take heed of a rigid, e<;n-«riou», unloving spirit 

erne ignorance how to use our liberties, and licnee ran- 
ning lo extremes. Aa we say of Christ, there is ^ood enough in 
him, but men know not Iiow lo fet<^h and improve it. «o there 'u 
great advantage in liberties ; but men mbs of it through their 
ignorance and abuse. Hence many times more hurt done by an 
admonition than by the ein, when administered in pasdioo, and 
without compassion. Hence, under jireieose of liberty, extreme 

I ^ Imperiousncss of spirit, arising from a frothy empli 

'and an overweening opinion, and coneeitcdness of theii* om 
abilities and wisdom above other?; and hence will not Jte ted'j 
(being at liberty) by the counsel and advice of others, 
natural for miin to affect sovereignty, and when the time cornea of 
liberty, then it hath a vent : " Who mode thee a lord and judge 
over us ? " tliough in bondage, mueli more in liberty ; they thiri 
will's commonwealth is in their heads chiefly, and hence will not 

. be ruled by God's ordiuaoccs : and hence, if once taken with an 

\ opin ion, hardly ever removed, etc 

5. Resting with liberties aud in liberties. 
in bondage," (John viii. 33,) "yet Beri'ants to sin." "We be Abr»> 
ham's seed," belter than all the world ; yet under all the potrar. 
of sin and Satan, and must not be told of their ways, 
halo them that censure them for their sins. Men in bondage 
like sick men, that will cry if they were in another bed ; O, thi 
they should be well ; but tli<-y roust first be cured of Ihi 

4. Make use of liberties. He that bath them, but fteei 
much glory in lliera, or gels not much good from them, hi^ 

ore thankful than one that hatb large grounds may walk 4( 


liberty, but the t 

ground corn, through sloth i such a 

as ihey, (Deut. ) " -" -- ■ 

r manuring, bear no fruit, nord 

'11 starve tliere. Look, T 

10, 11.) tlicy were "lo bring the firat^ 

fruits, and present them before the Lord, and rejoice in all : 

should you, if ever you be thankful (or them, bring tlie first fruits 

to the Loi-d. and think there is more behind, and more in heaven. 

Objtct. But our outward straits are many, and temptations sad. 

Ani. It Christ himself should come on earth, what would you 

Id you have him coiue and set up ao cartlily 

paradise ? would you have belter entertainment than he, who had 

nol that which foxes nnd binls had ? or would you huve Uim come 
from his cross, and then you will make him king ? If you de- 
apbebie onliiisDces and libertitw because of want*, you would de- 
spise bituBcIf if be were present. But you will reply, and say. 
What if we can have both ? If that can be, and Christ calls 
to take both, refuse not his love, liut it may be a hea.vy indict- 
raeni against some al the last day, in that they forsake Christ, 
because he is poor and naked; for they are therefore called to 
clothe him : and tliia will be your peace, and you will be no losers 
yourselves another day. 

2. Suppose be cloili keep us low; jct (Ps. cslv. 13, 14) 
" His dominion is alway, and rajscth up all Ibut are bowed 
down." O, be humbled ; he b said (Deut. xxxii. 13) " to make 
the people suck honey out of llie rook, and oil out of the flint," 
sweetness and mercy out of the hardest condition. 

3. They that are not recompensed for their enjoyment of lib- 
erties by the spiritual refreahingB which the Lord gives, showing 
them more of their own hearts ; the Lord proclaims liberty to 
thera to depart. I am persuaded the whole country would flour- 

4. I^aroent rolhcr your own vilencsn, who, in tlie midst of all 
mercy, know not how to use, but abuse, our liberties : and henee 
the Lord forsakes us. (as Eira ix. 8, 10, 1 1.) " What grace bath 
been showed us? wliat shall we say, that after this"? etc. 
■* Wouldest thou not be angry with us till Ihou hast consumed 
us?" Fa. Ixxxi. 13, 16, " that my people had heard my voice ! 
I would have subdued tlieir enemies." God would not be waol- 
iag unto us, if we were not to liim. 

Take therefore that example to imitate, in Acts ix. 31," Having 
rest, tbey were edified." If we be not so, inily, as none have the 
like liberties, so no bondage so sad, nowhere such poverty, ito- 
where such anguish of conscience, nowhere such spirit and power 
of sin, nowhere such sad anger ; if in practice we be unthankful, 
or can rooutb and speak against long sermons, and against the 
country and Cbri^^lians, or in hearU undervalue them ; and whqn 
you see Indians rise, brambles, Abimelecbs, and Sbebtuu raised, 
etc., then know ibis is for abuse of liberty. 

U*e 7. Of exhortation, to come under Christ's government, 
and be in his service ; lest ye come to know the difference be- 
tween il and some other by experience. 

Motive I. You must be either under Christ's yoke, or Satan's 
sin's, and so all other miseries ; and tlierefore, as Joshua said, 
k PD say 1 to you : " Choosf you whom you will serve." 

Mot. i. Consider tlie difference between the service of the 
lliord and Sbishnk. 



1. The goTemment of others, tyrannical, proud 
Satan, or outward miseries ; it is full of rigor, force, and cruelly. 
Ezek. xxsiv. 4. "Wiih force and cruelty liaTO ye ruled thein." 
But Christ's government is llicre shown to be in mercy, and fall 
of mercy; though somelimes lost, he will fetch ihee in again; 
though sick and weak, he will heaJ thee agnin. (Ver. 16; Deut^ 
tv. G.) It is for thy good the Lord halh no need of thy servio^ 
etc. True it is, the Lord may show his people hard things, and 
give tliem sad miseries ; but these wounds do not kill them, only 
make way for heating the distempers of their hearts thai are iii 
his poor weak ones, and his end is to bring them lo himself. 

2. Their guvemment is in itself hard and bitter. To serve a 
lust now, it is a torment sometimes to conscience, if thst be 
awake ; if not, it is a curse of curses ; much reluciancy against 
it ; much chiding afler il, and God hides himself; dreadful fear^ 
and heart itself unquiet. But Christ's yoke is easy and bis 
burden light ; his assistance, and presence, and love, and pcaos 
make it so, and that daily, and at death especially. 

3. There is tiltle recompense for their service. The best that 
Saul can give are olive fields and vineyards ; but anguish of 
oonscieoce after the work is done. But the Lord gives a king- 
dom ; and not a word or thought, but there is a book of remem-. 
brance writ; not a cup of cold water, or rag to any of Christ's 
naked servants, but it will be recom)>en3ed. " You have followed 
me, you sball sit on thronsi:." 

Mot. 3. Consider how fain the Lord would have you under 
his government; for many will say, I have refused so ofl, and 
what shall I now do? The Lord will cast me by. True, he may 
do so, and you may be glad if the Lord will honor yoo in dointf; 
his work. Yet, (Prov. li. 23,) " Return, yon scorners, at my re- 
proof, and I wilt pour out my S|iirit upCHi you." Jer. xxxvi. 3, 7, 
" Read " (says God) " Iho words of tlie roll lo Ihem. It may be 
they will hear, and present their supplications before the Lord, 
and turn every man from his evil way, that 1 may forgive iheir 
iniquity and their sin." Read ihe place, if you can, without tearb 
You that have departed from God and Christ, and provoked' 
God's wraih, when there is but little hope left, it may be, O, yet 
read the roll. 

Moi. 4. Once Christ's, and under his government, yon sball 
never be castotf. " .\s sin hath reigned unio death, so shall grace 
reign unto eternal life." (Itom. v. 21.) " He will bestow on 
you the sure mercies of Dnvid, by an everlasting covenant." 
(la. Iv. 5.) 

Qttett. But wherein shoulU I submit lo the Lord ? 





Ant. Nane bnve power to rule conscience but Christ; givt 
him ihcrefonj this glory j Ibat wherein he binds conscience, con- 
science, not out of tf;ar, but love, may indeed submit. I have 
instiinced tbc particutara formerly, yet more distinctly. There 
be two great oommands or charges of Christ, that lie upon all 
men's consciences to whom the gospel comes, and therein lies our 
service of him generally; which two I name, because there no 
Ihink we are free, or do not know our liberty. 

FirsL The command of Christ is, that every one, to whom the 
gospel comes and is preached, do believe ; i. &, receive Christ Jesus 
in all his fullness in the gospel. (John i. 12.) For that is to be- 
lieve ; in which command lies God's offer. 1 John v. 23, " This 
is his commandment, that ye believe." John vi. 25, 37, 38, "This 
b the work of God, that ye believe." Now, here men think they 
are free. 1. They say ibcy are unworthy ; and bence ihey say. 
Depart from me. Lord ; I am a sinful roan ; as if God's grace was 
buill on man's worthiness. 2. Because unhumbled ; whereas 
God's grace calls in men unhumbled. (Rev. viii. 17, 18.) For 
God's call and o^r is general, though none but the humble will 
hearken to it. But there are none but it may be said to them, 
If they can believe, let them. 3. Because Christ is not tlieirs, 
and are tliey bound to believe be is? whereas the first act of 
faith is not to believe Christ is mine ; then men were bound to 
believe a lie. Bat to receive Christ as a woman her husband, 
that be may be mine by faith ; and so a man may know and say. 
He is mine. The gospel doth nowhere say lo any man, Christ is 
thine ; bnt if thou receive him, he b thine, and consequently the 
Spirit speaks so also. 4. Because Ihey can not beliere, unlesa 
they should presume ; as if the gospel bound the consdenee of 
none to believe but them that were able to believe it, and receive 
Christ in it : yet it is otbenrise ; for it binds all to receive Christ 
Jesus: to go up and possess him ; to feed, cat and drink, and live 
forever. And I will leave ihb one undeniable argument: If 
men are liable to eternal condemnation at the great and last day, 
and to bear the eternal wrath of God and Christ also, for dis- 
obeying the gospel, for refusing Christ and the offer of his grace 
therein, then those men's consciences arc bound to obey the 
gospel : i e., to believe and receive Christ now in this life. But 
all that have the gospel preached to them are luible la eternal 
condemnation for disobedience to iL (John iii. 18, 19.) Ps. ii. 13, 
•' Kiss the Son, lest he be angrj-." So, (2 Thess. il 8, 9,) " Ho 
comes to render vengeance on them that obey not the gospel." 
Rom. iL IS, "The Lord shall judge the secrets of all hearts by 
my gospel i " that is, wherever the gospel comes ; for Ihey that 






b&re no law, baTing no law fliall nut be judged by it ; liot n 
that have bad ihe gos]>el Khali be judged by it, and ilwreforc ara | 
bound to obedience ihoremiio. 

Tlie Berioua connidernlton of wbirh ono tmlh w enough Xo I 
draw alt to Christ from the power of uubcltef ; especialty they | 
IhM say, I can not or oogbl not betjere. For the rmson whjr I 

1. Tliey think ilie gospel^ eencems not lh«B; Wliat, dolb ihe 
Lord eay lo itte. Come, so vile mtil sinful ? Yes, that he doth. If 
there was no sucb law, there could be no transgression or con- 

2. They tbink tlicy sball prc«ame. No, if con«cienc« be bound 
to it, it ia no presumption to keep a Ssbbaih aright, or to receive 
Christ as God offers bka. O, this qoiels conscience. 

3. The Lord lajrs his chiun on the most lender place of con- 
science, as it wilt answer it at the great day, or will have anj 
peace ; take heed you refuse not so great salvaliMi. 

4. It is a chain, not of bondoge, but of Hb«rty, trnd mercy, and 
love. Come and receive, not a kingdom, but Christ, peace, par- 
don, and grace freely i which may draw the heart, as it will al 
the great and bst day. " Come, ye blessed, take a kingdom ; " 
take a Christ prepared lor you fron before the foandalion of the 
world. that this might souDd in your ears ! This is the finil 
and cliiefest: without ibis, all your obedience is hypocrisy, and 
abominable; but Ihit will please, and (ben all poor vbedienca 
■hall please. 

Secondly. Love unto the whole will of Christ ; especially to 
that part trf it, to lo ve those that be the niembers iJ ^CJirist. Some 
Christians they believe, and teeTin'g'a "heart so Swa to Christ, 
and the will of God, think they are from under the government 
of God and Christ, and so from under the grace of Christ, (and 
the argument is strong, if true ;) but why not under bis govern- 
nient? Because they find daily a sjaiii so cross to tlie will oi 
Christ, and Itcuce under continual fears of condemnation. 0, bul 
consider, bast thou no love to the will of Christ and law of God ? 
(forif any believe, this is found in him:) if so, tlien nnder Christ's 
iptvernmuikt. llom. viii. 2, " The law of the Spirit of life hath 
made me free." What is that law ? See chap. vii. 23,34, Spirit 
of "delight in the law in the inner man," and mourning for con- 
trary cuptivtiy. Know, therefore, though you can not do all, yet 
love the whole will of God, and mourn where you do not ; and 
Ibon >ay. Now no coDdumnation. Do not say, It is impossible. 
Oi hui^ is men's woe, and trial of subjection to Christ's will I 
How do you love it, love bis Sabbatlis and ordinances, becausa 
of liii lovt) to >ou ? How does this constrain you ? 



359 ■ 

In particular: Love t^gPeoplcofGodj that is hU special 
vommajidnicnt. (1 John iiiTzS; liii, ^4.) But now the want ~ 
hereof, or the oonlrary hereto: As when a man ihaU become, I. .'' 
A itiataster. 2. A contemaer. 3. A oensurer and nhieperer. 
4. A scoffer. 5. If met on a bridge, an oppowr of the truths or 
Bervants of God. This is that which kindles wrath, and wherein 
the inward venom of hypocrisy appears. There are many duties 
neglected, and not that spirit of prayer and holy conferences 
anungst Christians; yet do you keep love to them; that what 
you can not do yourselves, yet you love others Uiat can do it, and 
account it your blesaednesa to be like ihem, and daily mourn 
under your neglects ; that in every thing the gospel is not adorned 
by you : and on ttie other side, although you have many duties, 
Sabbaths, and good act?, yet, if not love, all is vile. I fear it is 
tiot men's joy, sweetness, delight to hear the lea^t good word that 
falls froia a good man's tips, but rather the truths and things of 
God despised ; if so, then look for woe. And for members of 
Chri^ their lives not desired, their deaths ttot lamented ; but 
you know how to n}nt«nd,and are careJeas though the gospel and 
<Jod be slandered ; you east off the Lord's yoke. / It was oiffl 
■nan's speech, that the great sin of this country will be hatred of \ 
the saints, a scornful contempt of Ibem. It will come by degrees, I 
first distaste, and then censure and contemn. 10, but if hereinj 
you submit, herein Christ is honored, and gospel gloriJied, in love 
and amiablenesa ; not in a rigorous austerity of spirit, and dia- 
bolical c«asorioHsness, but in word and deed, countenance and 
gesture, comforting and encouraging one another. 

When David would know what to do, " Truly," saith he, " my 
goodness extends not to thee ; but to the saints, in whom is ut 
my delight." O, therefore submit here; this consctenoe calls 
for, and Christ must have. 

To conclude with a word for help here : — 
Meant 1. Look to God's ordinances, not as they be in ihem- 
•elves, bat as appointed of God, to communicate an almighty 
power of spirit to ihcm that wail on the Lord in them. An al- 
mighty power must overcome, and go on conquering and to 
conquer. How shall we have this by God's ordinances ? Some 
more principal, as word and sncramenu ; some less. How shall 
we partake of this power in ihem ? Look not on them as them- 
selvea, bat as a|ipointcd and sanctiSed, and so as glorious. And 
there pray and wait, and look for the power ; nay, believe yon 
shall receive this power. As the waters of Jordan to Naaman, 
I liow did Ihey cleanse? When he looked upon ihem without the 
[ ooramand and promise, he despised them, and so found not the 



benefit of them ; but afterwards he found the benefit of fhem, when | 
he nashed seTen times in attendance to the appointment of God. f 
Brethren, it is but go and wash here. (I Cor. x. 5.) 

Meant 2. Know your disobedience, the breadth of it. Soma 
things Christians see, and pray against ihem, and then all is well ; 
but see the breadth of evil in your disobedience. There b somo' 
thing that doth oppoee God in every lawful thing, in whole or id 
pari, ( for flesh jn in it,) or else you are blinded if you see it not. 
O, therefore, feel the breadth of evil in It ; that being sensible 
of, and humbled under, and striving against your continnal dis- 
^ obedience, every thought may be bniagbt into subjeclitMi and 

obedienco to Christ. ^H 



TOL. m. 





John T. 37, " Te htut neither heard hia Yoice at aoj time, nor teen hit 


From the Slst verse to the end of this chapter^ our Sa- 
vioar proves that he was the Messiah to come, from four tes- 
timonies : — 

1. From the testimony of John, the first, yet the least, yet 
very strong and full, ver. 82, 33. 

2. From the testimony of his works, greater than that of 
John, ver. 36. 

3. From the testimony of the Father, by his voiee from 
heaven, ver. 37. 

4. From the voice of the Scriptures, the highest of all, and 
surer than a voice from heaven, (2 Pet L 19,) ver. 39, 46. 

Now, these words are annexed to the third testimony, which I 
told you is the voice of God from heaven, set down. (Matt. iiL 
17.) For this testimony of the Father is not the inward testi- 
mony of the Spirit only, because Christ speaks of public and 
evident testimonies in this place, nor is it meant of the testimony 
of the Father in the Scripture, for that is a distinct testimony; 
and though the Father doth testify of Christ in the Scriptures, 
yet it is not as his testimony, no more than the testimony of 
John, and of his works, whereby the Father did testify also. Nor 
is it probable that our Saviour woald at this time omit that fa- 
mous testimony of the Father at his baptism, which, if it be noi 
here, is nowhere in thb chapter. Besides, how is this testimony 
the Father's more than the Spirit's ? But then, being called his 
Son, he did evidently declare himself to be the Father that spake. 
Lastly, the Spirit's testimony is spoken of as the testimony of 
Moses and the prophets. Ver. 46, ^ For had ye believed Moses, 
ye would have believed me, for he wrote of me.** Ver. 47, 






" For if je beliere not his wrilings, how shall ye believe my 

Now, our Saviour, in these worda, answers an objection which 
the Jews (ever cooceited of Iheir own knowleilge) might moke: 
Vt know Lhe Father us well aa jon : »nd yet we know no such 
testimony that he gives. Christ answers, You do not know him ; 
for the certnin knowledge of a thing is either by seeing or hear- 
iAg ; now jou never saw bim nor heard hioi ; yoa have therefore 
no acquaintance with him. 

So that the words contain, I. Christ's fearful aiicuantion of the 
Jews to be ignorant of God. 2. The aggrovntion qimI extent of 
it, at no lime, i. e^ not only at baptism, but at no other time, in 
any ministry, or in any scriptnre, etc. 

QtieMiim 1. What is it not to see his shape nor bear hie voice? 

AnOBer. Some think they are laetaphoriciil speeches, to ex- 
press their ignorance of God. Now, though this be the scope 
and the general truth, yet I conceive the IJurd, speaking particu- 
krty, and knowing what he spake, intends smnetbin); psniealariy; 
and it is a rule never to Hy to metaphors where there can be a 
plain sense given. Tliere are therefore two degrees of true 
knowledge of God in this life, (h- it is attained onto by a double 
means : — 

1. liy bearing of him, for hence our faith comes by the word- 

2. By hearing tliua^from him, the mind also comtrs to have a 
Irue idea of God, as lie reveals himself in the woni and means by 
(he Spirit, (Job xlii. 5 :) " I have heard of tlice by the hearing 
of the ear, but now mine eye seeth thee ; " and this is lhe shape 
here spoken of, not bodily and carnal. Now, Christ dotli profess 
that they did want both. Carnal nnd onregenerale hearts neither 
hear God'a voice, nor have a right idea of God in their minds, 
but become vain in their minds, though tliey have means ot 
knowing, and their foolish hearts are darkened ; the wiser they 
be the more toolish they grow. 

3- At no lime, i. e., neither at baptiim, nor else in any mim'a 
ministry, nor in any of the scriptures which you read, and where 
the Lord speaks. 

3. But did they not hear the voice of God at Christ's baptism, 
and at the mount when Christ preached, when the Scriptures 
were opened every Lord's day, and at other times, amongst them ? 

Ana. No, they never heard it. It is a strange thing thai 
■neb men that read, heard, preached, remembered the Scri|>- 
tures, and could tell you mysteries in titles, never heard the 
TOice of God ; and yet it is most true. 

Obttrvatioii. That many-men may a long time together kntm 

(D. 3e& f 


KDd hear Ihe word of God wrillen and npoken, yet never bear 
the Lord sjteaking itiaC word, no, not so iDUcb as one wtird, title, 
or Billable ; no, not so much at once, nt any lime. This was the 
eataic of tlie Jgwh, and this is llic estate of all unregenerate laen. 
Heoco Christ (Luke xix. 41) laments and weeps over Jerusa- 
lem, saying, " O that thou hadat known in tills thy day," elc^ 

Qvtit. 1. How did the Jews hear, and yet not hear God 
speaking ? 

Ant. There is a twofold word, or raiher a douhJe decta- 
rulion of the same word. I. There is God's external or outward ~ 
word, containing |pitci» nm) ayiiai.inj^ ^nd this is Lia external 
voiee. 2. Tliere is God's internal word and voice, wliich secretly 
speaks to the heart, pv i-n hy rhp PKii-nml ynnl , when that only 
■peaks to the ear. / TKe^rst the Jews did licar nt Christ's bap- 
tism, in Christ's ministry, and in reading the Scriptures, and 
wtien they did hear it, it waa God's word they heard, full of 
glory, and so they heard the word spoken, but ouly man speaking 
it ; the other comes to few, who hear not only the word spoke n, 
hut God speaking the wor d. (Rom, x. 18, li).) Israel did bear, 
hut Israel did not know. Christ speaks in parables; hence in 
Beeinj; ihey did not see. (Luke viii. 10.) And this is one way 
how it is true that Christ says, ■* they never heard hjfa voice." 
As it is with a painted sun on the wall, you see the sun and stars, 
but there is a difFerence between seeing this and the sun and 
Stan themselves, wherein is an admirable glory : go to a {wnled 
■un, it gives you no heat, nor cherisheth you not; so it ia 

i. This inward word is double. 1. Ineffectual, (though in- 
ward.) 2. Efl'eeiual. 1. Incflbctual is that which bath some 
inward operation u|nn the heart, but it alinins not God's end to 
bring u man into a state of life ; and thus, ( Heb. ri. 2, 5,) " Many 
lasted of Ihe good word of God, yet fell away." And sucli a 
iiearl is compared to a held which a man plows and sows, and 
rain falls on it, and yet the end is not attained : il bi^ng« forth 
thistles ; and this many Jews did hear, and hence had some kind 
of faith in ChriaL 2. Effectual is ^lat which hath such an in- 
ward oUicacy upon men's hearts as that God attains his end 
tlicreby, (I* Iv. 1 1,) and brings men to a slate of life, of which 
Christ speaks, (John vi. 45 ;) and this voice none but the elect 
bear ; and of (his Christ speaks here, as appears ver. 8S : " Him 
whom he scot ye believe not" Hence it is you have heard Grod 
at no time. Hence he speaks of such a hearing and knowing, 
such a bearing outwardly, as is accompanied wilb such a hearing 
hiwordly, (John xiv. 17 ;} so that many men may hear the word 







spoken oulwardly, but never inwHrdly; ihey mRy hear it ii»^ I 
WBrdly. but nevtr effectually, translating ihem from stnle tasiata, I 
from death lo life, from life lo life and glory ; no seme of thfli I 
majesty of God speaking, nor effectual Learing of the woi^J 
spokt'D. Wlien the sun is down, the moon may arise ; but yet ^ 
man i» eold and dark ; but when tlie sun ariseth, O, it wannai;,] 
tiourishelh, and cherisheth, elc. i noibjng is hid from it: 
is here, when tlie Lord speaks inwardly and effectually to the 

Rrasan I. From ihat great distance and inliDite separation 
of men's souls from God, that though God calls, yet they can not 
hear no more than men a thousand miles off. " Men are dead in 
Bin." (Eph. ii. 1.) Kow, what is spiritual denih but separation 
of the soul from God and God from it? A dend man can not 
hear one word at no one lime ; ho was not dead if he could. 
Men's minds are far from God, and hearts also, that they are 
neither stricken with the sight of his glory, uor sense and saror 
of his goodncs!i, but must be vain, and have worldly hearts in the 
church, nay, adulterous eyes, or if they lisien, God is gone from, 
them, and fVom his word also. (Hos. v. 6.) J 

Reaion 2. From the mighty and wonderful strange power otM 
Satan, which blinds their eyes, ihey ran not see nor hear, (2 Cona 
IT. 4,) never such clear light, never such an effectual word, m~ 
that of the apostles, yet it was hid; why? The God of I 
world blinded them ; either he will keep such a noise and lumbc 
ID their heads that they can noi hear God speaking for the nois^^ 
or else turn himself into an angel of light, and speak, and by their 
light will blind them, that the light in them shall be darkness. 
(Bom. i. 22.) When men willi natural light began to be most 
wise, then ihey became the greatest fools ; so il is with other 
knowledge of Scripture, and things they bear. Happy were it 
for many a man if he had never heard nor seen ; for that which 
he hath heard and seen keeps him from hearing. Tyre and 
Sidon would hear sooner than Capcninum that heard most, 

Jteaton 3. From the righteous judgment of God, in leaving 
men to be blinded and made deaf, from and by the means where- 
by they should hear and know ; ihat as it is with the saints, all 
^vil things are for their good, so all good things are for their hurt^ 
(la. vi. 10;) the meriting cause is unbelief and sin, bat the dec 
and hidden rise of all is God's eternal dereliction of them./ ' 
never intended Ipve, sge dal love t o them ; hence he never ap 
one word to ih'einr 2(5>rr iv. 5T John vi, 65, " Many i 
oflended at his words, and forsook him." Now, lo take off ttd 
offense, I said, " None can come to me. except it be given him O 
the Father." What is that ? See vcr. io and 37. 

;al hearing the n-ORD. 


Uu 1. Hence see the reason why the word'is so wonderfully ' 
incSecluftl to Ilie bouIs of monj men, lliul it oever Etirs lliem, 
that it UastrADge thing to ihem. It is (Hcb. xii. IK) like the 
law, a v oice of worda . a «ou(]il of wonle ; bo lUey bear men apeak, 
bui understand no more iKaiDf iliBji fpeak in a strange language ; 
or if they do, it cuneerns not ibem ; or if it «lirs, it b but as the 
blowing of the nind ujmn a rock, wbich blusters for a time, but 
when the wind is down they are still. Truly they hear the word 
spoken, hut lliey do not hear God speaking. They beard Lati- 
mer spenk, but not God speaking ; tbey hear a sound, whii-U 
every one guys, and they think, is the word, but they hear not 
God speaking it. 

One would wonder that those Jews that heard John nnil his 
diseiptes, Moses and the prophets, nay, God's voice from heaven, 
saying, "This is my Son," tliat they should not hear this, and re- 
ceive him wilb hU their hearts, but they did not hear his voiee. 
One would wonder to see, that such things whieh a gracious heart 
thinks, this wonld draw every heart, yet remain not stirred; 
tilings which the deviln tremble at, and others which angils won- 
der at, yel ihey hear not. O, they hear not Goil speak, they are 
deud in their graves, far from God ; and there they are kept by 
the mighty power of Satan, like one in n deep, dark cave, kepi by 
fiery dmgons under the ground, and the tombstone is laid upon 
them. If Christ »pake, be would make the dead to bear, and 
ibe blind to see. 

Uu 2. Hence see why the saints find such changes and 
Blt«raiians in themselves when they come to hear; sometimes 
their hearts are quickene^l, fed and cherished, healed and com- 
forted, relieved and visited : sometimes again dead and senseless, 
heavy and hardened. Mark viii. 17, 18, 21, " How is it ye du 
not understand ? " Nay, which is more, that the Siune truth 
which ihey bear at one time should aflcct thera, and at another 
time doth not ; the same thing which they have heanl a hundred 
times, and never stirred tliem, at last should. Tlie reason is, 
ibey henrd the word of God spoken at one time, but not God 
speaking ; and they beard the Lord speaking that same word at 
another lime; the Lord is in bis word at one lime, ilte wonl 
goes alone at another time ; as in Etijali, the Lord was nut in the 
wbirlwiml, but be spake in the still voice, and hence there he was 
to Elijah. (Luke xsiv. 25, with 32.) Not that you are to 
tay blame on the Lord ; for he blows where be lisieih ; but to 
make us see il is not in outward means nor it is nut in our own 
spirits (o quicken ourselves, and to make us ashamed of our own 
darkness, that when be speaks yet we can not hear, there is ■o'' 




mueli power of spirilual ili-alli nnJ Sntan yet within u», only out 
of hid ])tly he siieaks somelimes. Not that you ^hotild despise 
t)ie outward viord ; no, no ; the Lord is there shining in peHec- 
lion of glory, and that which doth thee no good, the Lord niakea 
powerTuI to some others. But pt^ze the Spirit of God in that 
word, which alone can speak lo ihev. 

Uu 3. Of dread and terror to all unregencrate men. Hence 
»ee the heavy wrath of God against theni : tiiej have indeed ihe 
Scriptures, and the precious word of God dis|>en?ed lo tlicot ; but 
the Lord never speaks one word unto them. If any one, from 
whom we expect and look for love, pnsB by us and never speak; 
what, not speak a word ? and we call to him and he will not speak, 
we conclude he is angry and displeased with us. You look for 
love, do you not? You that hear every Sabbath, and come to 
lectures, and you must out ; it is well. Yes, you will say, bia 
love ia belter than life, and frowns more bitter than dmth. 
Love? Woe to me if the Lord do not love me; belter never* 
been bom. I hope he loves me. Happy I. if the mounlaiiis 
might fall on me, to crush roe in pieces, if he loves me not, etc 
But consider, if he loves, he will then speak peace unspeakable 
to tlty conscience when humbled, life to thy heart, joy in the 
Holy Ghost. (Is. Ivii. 19. John vi. 63. 1 Theas. i. G.) But took 
upon thy soul, and see this day in llie sight of God, whether ever 
the Lonl spake one word to thee: outwardly indeed he Iialh.but 
not inwardly ; inwardly also, but not effectually, " to turn them 
from darkness to ligbl, and the power of Satan to God," etc. 
The voice of Gud is full of tnnjesty, it shakes the heart ; it is 
full of life, it quickens the dead, and light, and [wace, and gives 
wisdom to the simple. Ps. cxix., " Opening of thy word gives 
light to the eyes." How many women, ever learning and ne\er 
knowing, and many men learning and knowing, what is said, bat 
never bejir God speak ! Then know the wrath of the Lord, flee 
and go home mourning under it. There is a fourfold wrath in 
this: — 
U 1/It is Ihe Lord's sore wrath and displeasure./ (Zeeb. i. 2, 
^ with ver. 4.) If one should expect love from another to do 
much for him, and he did not, it may he he would not take it as 
a sign of displeasure; but if he will not do a small thing, not 
epi^ak a wold to him, O, this is bitter. Wlial, will not tlie Lord 
speak a word, not one word, es|)eeially when iLy life lies on it, 
thy soul lies on ii, eternity lies on it, especially the Lord that ia 
o merciful and pitiful ? This is a sign of sore anger. 
ijlt in B. token of God's old displeasure, eternal displeasure 
1 1 know you can not hear ; hence, though God speaks, you hoar 


tiim not. But wliy ilolh not the I^ord retnofe that deafness ? 
You old henrers, that have ears Inl with hearing, but heavy, h» ■ 
never intended love, else h« would spi^ak j there would be some . 
time of love. /Bom. xi. 7,8, "Tlie elect Lave bad it; others arc I 
blinded, as it is written, Qod hath given ihem the spirit of slum- ' 
ber, ejres that they should not see, and ears ibat they should not 
hear, to this daj." 

3. It is the Lord's present displeasure. When a man looks 
fur love and speech, and he doth not speak nl those limes he ia 
not wont to speak, one may take it as no sign of anger ; but when 
the Lord shall speak usually, and then he speaks not, this is » 
sad sign. (1 Sam. xxviii. 6, 15.) He cries out of this, " He an- 
swers tne not by Urim nor dreams," nor theo by the gospel nor 
law, neither where be useth to answer. If this anger were to 
come, it were some eomfort; but when it is now npon thee, c-Ten 
that very senqon and word whereby he speaks to others, but not 
ft word to thee. 

4. It is bis insensible anger. For a fat heart and a heavy ear 
ever go together ; for you will say, Ifeel oo hurt in this; I have 
heard and been never the belter, but yet that hath made me never 
ihe worse. O, poor creature ! It is because you feel it not ; but 
when the lime of misery shall come, you will say, Thb is woe and 
load enough, for theJJord to give no answer. Ps. Ixxi. 9, "We 
see not our prophets, nor any to tell us how long; " so you that 
despise means, you shall then lament and say. None can tell how 
long. 0, therefore, lament ihla thy condition now, that the Lord 
may hear some of your cries, etc. 

Cw 4. Hence examine whether ever you heard the Lord's 
voice or no ; not only outwardly, (for that you know you have 
of^cn done,) but inwardly ; and not only so, for so ye may do. and 
yet your ears heavy ; but effectually, that if it be not so, you may 
be bumble and say. Lord, how have I spent my time in vain I 
And if it be so, you may be thankful, and say. Lord, what lun I, 
that the infinite God should apeak to me ? 

There ia great need of trial of this, for a man may read, hear, 
and understand, eslernally. whatever another may ; and yet the 
whole Scripture a sealed book. 

There are therefore these three degrees, by which you shall 
discern the effectual voice of God: you must take them jointly. 

1. The voice of God singles a man out, and (though it be 
generally written or spoken) speaks particularly to the very heart 
uf a man, with a nmrvelous kind ot' majesty and glory of God 
etam[ied upon it and shining in it. 

When a man hears ildnga generally delivered, the blessed 



estate of the saints, tlie cursed estale of the wicked. conBolatiooS ] 
to the one, curses to the other, exhorlatioaa to faith and obedi- 
ence to both, and a mttn sits by, and never thinks, The Lord ia 
now speaking, and means me, or, if it doth so, yet thinks he in- 
tends me no more than others, he hears not the Lord speaking; 
for when he speaks, he speaks particularly to the very heart of « 
man : he doth so tit the word to him, wliather it be the word of i 
the law to humble him, or of gospel to comfort, or of command (a j 
guide, as if the Lord meant none but thent. 
II The word ia liljg_nn ex act picture; it looks every man 

II the face tHaT looks on Tt, ifGodspeaFs in it. J Ileb. iv. 12, 13, J 
"It searcheth the heart," ver. 12; but ver. 13 he speaks of f 
God ; how comes that in ? Because God, the majesty of God, 
comes with it when God speaks it. " With whom we have to 

nfo i " why is that put in ? Bccauseywhen the Lord speaks, • 
man thinks. Now I have to do with God ; if I resist, I oppose a | 
God. Before this, a man thinks he hath nothing to do with 1 
God, they are such strangers. Ueoce it is one man is wrought 
on in a sermon, another not God hath singled out one, not the 

I other, that day. j Hence take a man unhumblcd ; he hears many 

Wbings, and it may bo understands not ; if so, yet they concern 
not him ; if they do, and conscience is stirred, yet they think man 
means them, and speaks by hap, and others are as bad as they, 
and his trouble is not much. At last he hears his secret thoughts 
and sins discovered, all his life is made known, and thinks it ia 
the Lord venly that halh done this; now God speaks (I Cor. 
xiv. 25) those things he did neither believe nor imagine, etc 
John iv. 29, " See the man that hath told me all that ever I did." 
Hence take a soul that is humbled ; he hears of the free offer of 
grace, he refuseth it : Why, this is to all, and to hypocrites as well 
as to me. Apply any promise to it, it casts by all, it looks upon 
them as things generally spoken, and applied by man, but they 
hear not God speaking; but when the Lord comes, he doth oo 
meet with their objections, and speaks what they have beea 
thinking may be true, that tbcy think. This is the Lord, Ibis it 
me. Hosca ii. 14, " I will speak to her heart ; " and hence i 
called "the ingrafted word," (James i. 21 ;) like one branch of J 
many, applied to the slock. (Job Kxxiii. 14, 16.) J 

2. The voice of the Lord ilotb not only speak particularly, but i 
it goes further; it comes not only with an almighty power, but i 
with a certain everlasting efficacy and power on the soul. Thai I 
it is here, (ver. 38.) " Ye have not his word in you ; " they had it>| 
out of them ; and not only in you, but abiding in you. 1 Pet, L 1 
its, " Bom of incorruptible seed." The apostle seems toe 

of a kind of birth by corrupLible seed, and such are like goodlj 
flowers, which soon wither; but you are born of incorruptible 
seed, which hath an eternal aavor, sweetnese, and power. (MalU 
xiii) Of the four grounds three of ihum fall away. (John xt. 
16.) Their fruit does not remain; tbey have Bome living af- 
fection at the present, but they go away, and it die^. Look but 
upon particulars, doth the Lord once gpeok by the word, and 
humble the heart ? it never lifts up its head more. Doth lie re- 
veal the glory of Cbriet? that light never goes out more. (Is. 
Ix. 19. 2 Cor. iv. 4, 5.) As at the first creation there was tight, 
nnd BO continues to this day, so doth he give life. (John xi. 26.) 
You shall never die more. Doth he give peace and joy? no 
man shall take their joy from them. Is. xxxii. 17, " Fruit of 
righteousness and peace, and assurance forever." Doth he give 
the spirit of all these, which (Gal. iii.) comes by hearing of faith ? 
it shall abide forever. (John xiv. 17.) 

That look, as God's love is eTerlaaling, so his words have 
an everlasting excellency and efficacy in them, and goodness in 
them, the sweeteet token of his love ; and as Chr