Skip to main content

Full text of "The Works of Virgil: In Latin & English. The Aeneid"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 


K-^^rnnfr ^Pff ^-r 

^*>l 1 




O F 

V I R G I L, 


The JE N E I D TranQatcd • ' " ' 

The Eclogues and Georgics, with Notes on the Whole, 
By the Rev. Mr. JOSEPH WAR TON. 

With fevcral New Observation's, 
By Mr. Holdsworth, Mr. Spencf, C. Hbyna^ and Others* 


A Dissertation on the Sixth Book of the /Eneid, 

On the Shield of JEsrasj by Mr. W. Whitehead. 

On the Charafter of Iapis, 
By the late Dr. ATTEREURY, Bifliop of Rochester. 


Three Essays on Paftoral, Didactic, and Epic Poetry, 
By Mr. J O S E P H W A R T O N. 





with confiderable Improvements. 

VOL. I. 


Printed, for J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mali. 


t i 3 






CENSURE is fo feldom foftened by apologies, 
that perhaps it may be ufelefs for me to de- 
clare my confcioufnefs of inability to do juftice to 
the moft pcrfeft of poets, in the following tranf- 
lation. When I firft entered upon this work, I 
fometimes imagined, that I heard the voice of 
Virgil addrcffing me with the humanity of his 

^uo moriiitre ruts ? tnajoraque viribus audes f 
Falls t te incautum pietas tua /— 

for indeed nothing but my afFeftion for the author 
could hav6 engaged nie in fo arduous an under- 


Whoever Confiders the degree of delicacy and 
correftnefs to which the Eclogues of Virgil are 
polifhed; together with the eafe and wonderful 
harmony of his numbers; will be convinced of 
the extreme difficulty of transfufing into another 

Vol. I, b tongue. 

ii Prefatory Qedication'. 

tongue, beaacies of fo refined and fubtle a natirre# 
It requires no fmall command of language, to be 
^le to carry on Paftoral Dialogues, without fink- 
ing into vulgar idioms> to unite fimplicity with ' 
grace, and to preferve familiarity without flatnefs* 
A ftyle too highly elevated would-be naufeoufly 
unnatural, and one too profaic and plebeian, would 
be infipid and unafFefting. And to keep a jullr 
mean, is perhaps as difficult ia writing as ia 

There are few images and fentiments in the 
Eclogues of Virgil, but what are drawn from the 
Idylliums of Theocritus : in whom there is a rural, 
romantic wildnefs of thought, heightened by the 
Doric dialed i with fuch lively pidhires of the 
paffions, and of fimple unadorned nafure, as are 
infinitely plcafingto fuch lovers and judges of true 
poetry as yourfelf. Theocritus is indeed the great 
ftore-houfe of paftoral defcription; and every fuc- 
ceeding painter of rural beauty (except Thom:son 
in his Seafons,) hath copied his images from him,, 
without ever looking abroad upon the face of na- 
ture themfelves. And thus a fct of hereditary 
objefts has been continued from one poet to an- 
other, which have been often made ufe of without 
any propriety cither as to age or climate. 

But Virgil never borrowed an idea from hi& 
Sicilian mafter, without beautifying and heighten^ 
ing it with the luftii: of his language. And per- 

t*REFAfoRY Dedication; ili 

Kap3 It may be obfcrvcd in general, that if the 
komans crcr excelled their Grecian nnafters in the 
graces of diftion, which however was feldom the 
cafe, it was owing to theif' everting all their 
powers, in dfefling up thofe thoughts and ideas 
that were ready found to theii* hands. The mind 
can attend but to one objedt at once, with any 
vigour and intenfenefs : and if it be big and di- 
lated with the conception and creation of new 
images, has fcarce leifure to adorn them with that 
pomp of ftudied cxprcflion, which the writer that 
coolly copies them,* can bellow upon them. 

Indeed of all authors, either ancient or modern, 
Virgil fcemeth to be the moft perfeft in his ftyle j 
1 mean in the poems he lived to finilh. There is 
a profufion of the moft daring metaphors and moft 
glowing figures, there is a majefty and magnifi- 
cence of diftion throughout the Georgics, that 
notwithftanding the marvellous harmony and gran- 
deur of the Greek verification, is fcarcely excel- 
led by Homer himfelf. Our author's terms and 
epithets are chofen with fuch propriety, elegance 
and exprcffivehefs, that, as Mr. Addifon finely ob- 
ferves, ■We receive more ftrong,and lively ideas of 
things from his words, than we could have done 
from the objefts themfclves: and find our imagi- 
nations more affefted by his defcriptions, than they 
would have been by the very fight of what he de- 
fcribes'. We may juftly therefore apply to him 
what Ariftotle thought fo high a commendation of 
b 1 Homer : 

iv^ Prefatory Dedication. 

Homer : that he found out living words. If the 
arrows which are impatient to deftroy, and the 
fpears that thirft to drink blood, are fo defervedly 
admired in the Iliad, Virgil doubtlefs merits equal 
praife, for giving life and feeling, love and hatred, 
hope and fear, wonder and ambition, to plants 
and to trees, and to the very earth itfelf : and for 
exalting his favourite infefts, by endowing them 
with reafon, paffions, arts, and civil government. 
To ufe Ariftotle's expreffion, Every thing in this 
poem hath manners^ and all the creation is ani- 

But alas ! fince this is the cafe, what muft be- 
come of a tranflator of the Georgics, writing in a 
language not half fo lofty, fo founding, or fo 
elegant as the Latin, incapable of admitting many 
* of its beft and boldcft figures, and heavily fettered 
with the Gothic fhackleS of rhyme ! Is not this 
endeavouring to imitate a palace of porphyry with 
flints and bricks? A poem whofe excellence pecu- 
liarly confifts in the graces of diftion is far more 
difficult to be tranflated, than a work where fenti- 
mcnt, or paffion, or imagination, is chiefly dif- 
played. So that I fear we can receive but a faint 
notion of the beauty of the Georgics froni any 
Englifh verfion of them. An engraving may in- 
deed faithfully reprefent the fubjeft, but can give 
no idea of the colouring of one of Titian's land- 
fcapes. Befides, the meannefs of the terms of 
hufbandry is concealed and lofl in a dead language, 


Prefatory Dedication. v 

and they convey no low or defpicable image to the 
mind ; but the coarfe and common words I was 
neceflitated to ufe in the following tranflation, viz. 
plough and fow^ vsheaty dung-, ajbesy borfe and cow^ 
&c. will, I fear, unconquerably difguft many a 
delicate reader, if he doth not make proper al- 
lowances for a modern compared with an ancient 
language i and doth not frequently r^coUeft, 

■ verbis ea vlncere wagmni 

Siuamfit ! et anguflis hunc addere rebus honorem. 

So juft is the obfervation of Boileau, that a mean 
or common thought exprefled in pompous diction, 
generally pleafes more than a new or noble fenti- 
ment delivered in low and vulgar language ; be- 
caufe the number is greater of thofe whom cuftom "" 
has enabled to judge of words, than whom ftudy 
has qualified to examine things. In Ihort, the 
Georgics aice the higheft flight of Virgil, and the 
mafter-pieces of his genius, excepting always the 
fourth book of the Mntid. LSome of the tranfi- 
tions with which they are adorned, are the boldeft 
and mod daring imaginable, and hold very much 
of the enthufiafm of the ancient lyrics ; and I 
think one may venture to afBrm, that this poem 
contains more original unborrowed beauties, and is 
more perfect in its kind as a Didaftic, than the 
^neid as an Epic poem. Of this laft work, give ' 
me leave to fay, that I have ever obferved, perfons 
of elevated and fublime imaginations are more cap- 
tivated with the Iliad, and men of elegant and 
b 3 X tender 

yi ' pRiFATORY Dedioatiok. 

tender minds with the ^ncid. He that pcrufea 
Homer, is like the traveller that furveys mount 
Atlas; the vaftncfs and roughncfs of its rocks^ the 
folciiin gloominefs of its pines and cedars, the 
evcrlafting fnows that cover its head, the torrents 
that rufh down its fides, and the wild beafts that 
roar in its caverns, all contribute to ftrike the ima* 
gination with ipexpreflible aftoniftiment an4 awe, 
While reading the ^neid is like beholding the 
Capitoline hill at Rome, on which ftood many 
edifices of exquifite architefture, and whofe top 
was crowned with the famous temple of Jupiter^ 
adorned with the fpoils of conquered Greece, 

If the defign of the iEneid was to compliment 
Augufhis, and reconcile the Romaics to the gor 
vcrnmcnt of the Julian family ; if, as Mr. Pope 
was ufed frequently to fay, // was evidently as much 
, a party 'piece J as Ahfalom and Achitophel\ you. Sir, 
are too warm a lover of liberty and the virtue of 
ancient Rome, not to cepfure the poet as an abjeft 
flatterer j unlefs you will allow the validity of r^t 
ufual excufe for his conduft ; that as the common^ 
wealth maxims were no longer prafticable, and a 
change in the government was unavoidable, after 
the laft ftruggle for liberty at Philippi had ended 
fo unfortunately, and even the virtuous Meflalla 
had thought it no fhame to fubmit to the con- 
queror, Virgil believed it would be the beft fervice 
he could then do his countrymen, to endeavour to, 
foften their minds towards fo mild and gentle a 
5 niaftc^' 


mafter as Auguibss^ out of whofe hands it was 
impoflible for them to extort the power he had 
ufurped. And that fome change in the conftitu- 
tidn of Rome was abfoiutely necefrary> (eems to be 
the opinion of that admirable writer and pene- 
trating politician^ the prefident Montefquieu : It 
muft be acknowledged^ fays he, that the Roman 
laws were too weak to govern the republic, when 
it was arrived at its Jieight: experience has proved 
it to be an invariable fad, that good and juft lawSj 
which raife the reputation and power of a fmall 
republic, become improper and ufelefs to it, when 
once its grandeur is eflablifhed, becaufe it was the 
natural effeft of fuch laws to make a people greats 
but not to govern them when made fo. He adds 
afterwards with his ufual pregnant-brevity. Take 
this compendium of the Roman hiftory: they fub- 
dued all the nations by their maxims ; but when 
they had fo far fucceeded, their republic could not 
fubfift any longer: the plan of their government 
muft be changed, and maxims contrary to the firfl:, 
being then introduced, they were divefted of all 
their grandeur. 

As to the poetical faults of the iEneid I believe 
they are but few. What may feem the moft liable 
to cenfure in the condudt of this poem, is the 
making Dido a far more interefting and ftriking 
charadler than Lavinia, upon whom the whole 
a^on turns. But this circumftance is furely ex- 
cufable^ if we refied how great a ftroke pf art the 

b4 poet 

▼lii pREFAToiiy Dedicatiok. 

poet has exhibited^ in affigning this origin of the 
inveterate enmity betwixt the rival powers of Rome 
and Carthage; who were fo often engaged in thofe 
important and bloody contentions of which Lij- 
crctius fpeaks {q fublimely j 

Omnia cum belli trepido concujfa tumultu^ 
Horrida contremuere fuh alt is aether i^ auris^ 
In dubioque fuit fub utrorum regna cadenduth 
Omnibus bumanis ejfet terraquc marique. 

L. iii. 845. 

And farther; thofe who cenfure Lavinia as a 
tame and infipid charaftcr, fhould confider the re- 
tired nature of female education among the ah- 
dents; for if Virgil had painted this beautiful 
young prihcefs any otherwife than full of modefty 
and refervediiefs, filent and obedient to her parents, 
he had falfified the manners of the age of which 
he wrote i in which the fair fex were not permit- 
ted to make that confpicuous figure in life they 
have fince done, to the great ornament and im- 
provement of human fociety. 
i » . . . . • 

There are two particulars more, which perhaps 
will not fo eafily admit of an excufe. One is, a 
manifeft want of variety of charafters in the 
^neid, where the few that are introduced are not 
fufficiently diverfified : Homer's Achilles, Ajax, 
Diomede and Heftor, are all brave ; and Ulyfles 
and Neftor are wife ; but then each of thcfe heroes 
is brave and is w//Jr, in a manner eminently different 
from the other. " The chafafters of Virgil (ftys 
" • ' • — Mr; 

Prefatory Dedication. Ix 

Mr. Pope) " are far from ftriking us in this' opeo 
," manner ; they lie in a great degree hidden and 
." undiftinguiAied, and where they are marked moft 
" evidently, afFeft us not in proportion to thofi; 
^* of Homer. His charafters of valour are much 
** alike j even that of Turnus feems no way pecu- 
" liar, but as it is in a different degree : and wc 
" fee nothing that differences the courage of 
** Mneftheus from that of Sergeftu§, Cloanthus, 
** and the reft." Perhaps it may be urged, that 
the char^der of ^neas, which is entirely of our 
poet's own formation, and in which wifdom, piety, 
and courage are fo happily blended and tempered 
with each other, may in fome meafure atone for 
this deficiency. — The other feeming bleraifli is, 
that in reading the laft fix books, one cannot for- 
bear, pitying Turnus, who undoubtedly ought to 
have been drawn with fome fault or other to 
have excited our averfion, or raifed our indigna- 
tion. But to fee a valiant young prince, robbed oj 
a miftrefs whom he paffionately loved and who re • 
turned his palfion, and to whom he was even be- 
trothed; nay to behold him murdered, while he 
fights to maintain his claim to her, by a perfeft 
ftranger, who has nothing to plead for his conduft 
but the gods and oracles; are circumftances that 
while they prejudice the reader againft ^neas, 
deeply intereft him for Turnus. It were to be 
wifhed the poet had either given the latter fome 
unamiable quality, or elfe had reprefented Lavinia 
as averfc to the match. All that can be faid in 
6 defence 

X Prefatory Dedication. 

defence of this proceeding is, that the preftnt 
readers of Virgil judge of it in a manner different 
from the Romans to whom he wrote ; who probabLy 
looked on Turnus ds juftly puniihed for having 
broke the fdemn truce agreed to in the twelfth 
book, and for fighting againft the will of Heaven j 
and moreover might view this gallant prince in an 
unfavourable light as he oppofed the efts^blifhmeiit 
erf* that perfon in Italy, 

— Genus unde Latinum 
Albaniqui patresj atque altae moenia Romae* 

Thus am I rafhly endeavouring to pick out 
ieeming blemifhes and defeds in this admirable 
writer, while I fhould be making fome apology for 
undertaking the following tranflation, after fo many 
pcrfons of eminence, and particularly Mr. Dryden, 
for whofe name and writings I have the fincereft 
veneration and love. But I muft at the fame time 
beg leave to obferve, with truth, and I hope with 
modefty, that in his verfion of the Eclogues and 
Georgics, which is certainly inferior to his ^neidj 
there are fo many grofs miftakes, fo many carelefs 
incorred lines, 'and fuch wild deviations from hia 
original, as are utterly aftonifhing in fo great an4 
true a genius* But inflead of the invidious and 
difagreeable talk of pointing out thefe paflages ac 
length, I choofe rather to fay in thofe generous 
words of Mr. Pope on a fimilar occafion, " that 
** nothing could have made Mr. Dryden capable of 
^ fuch miftakes, but extreme hafte in writing; 

" which 


^' which never ought to be imputed as a fault to 
<^ him^ but to thofe who fuficred fo noble a genius 
♦* to li« under the ncceflity pf it." 

And I have ftiU a weightier reafon for not fpeci* 
fying thefe blameable paflfagesi which i$^ that I 
am apprehenfive^ an equals or perhaps a greater 
number of my own lines, might be produced on the 
fame occafion. Juftice obliges me to add, that even 
in the midft of thefe lownefles and inequalities of 
Mr. Dryden, his native fpirit and vigour, the 
veneris veftigiaflammae^ frequently break forth : and 
I have deeply felt how difficult it is to work after 
(b great a maftcron the fame fubjeft. 

Give me leave to intrude on your patience a 
moment longer, to fpeak of Mr. Pitt's verfion 
of the ^neid. I am very well informed that Mr. 
pope, notwitiiftanding his juft afFe<5bion and even 
veneration for Mr. Dryden, regarded Mr. Pitt's as 
an excellent trandation. It is lucky for me that 
fome of Mr. Dryden's errors in this part of the 
work have been lately pointed put by a very candid 
writer, and one who entertains the highcft opinion 
of his genius, to whom, fays he, our Englifli 
poetry is more obliged for its improvements than 
to any other writer, excepting only Mr. Pope. 
What I hint at, is one of the chapters upon alle- 
gory in Mr. Spence's Polymetis, where that gentle- 
man hath endeavoured to Ihew, how very little our 
|>oets have underftood the allegories of the ancients 


xii Prefatory Dedication. 

even in their tranflations of them ; and has chofeii 
to inftancc in Mr. Dryden's tranflation of Virgil'^ 
jEneid, as he thought him one of our mod cele- 
brated poets. The miftakes are very numerous, 
and fome of them unaccountably grofs.. Upon this 
I was defirous to examine Mr. Pittas tranflation of 
the fame paflages, and was furprized to find, that 
in near fifty inftances, which Mr. Spence has given 
of Mr. EUyden*s miftakes of that kind, Mr. Pitt 
had not fallen into above three or four, A few 
ipecimens may not be amifs, to entertain the c^T 
riofity of their feveral readers, 

]• Cum tacei omnis ager^ Mn. 4« ver. 52^^ 

^nd peace with downy wings was brooding on the ground. 

Prydcn, ver. 752» 

Virgil does not mention peace at all on this occa- 
fion ; and I do not remember, fays Mr. Spence, to 
have met with any one ^ancient rcprefentation of 
Peace with wings. Pitt only fays ; 

O'er all the fields a brooding filence reigns. 

Pitt, ver. 759* 

2. Jatnque rubefcehat radiis mare^ et aethere ab alto 

Aurora in rojeis fulgebat luUa bighn ^En. 7. 26. 

Now when the rofy morn began to rife, 
^nd wav'd her faffron ftreamer thro* the (kies. 

Drydcn, ver. 35* 

Mr. Dryden here feems to have admitted fome 
mixture of the allegory and the reality together: 


PrefatorV DsDiCAtiotf. liii 

Virgil is free both from the flreamcr, and this 

hvlty mixture ; fo alfo is Pitt j 
Now on her car was gay Aurora bofne^ 
And Ocean reddens with the rifing morn^ Pltf, 3^4 

3. Turn quorum oitwitoi Baccha nemora avia matra 
Infultant thiajisy (nequi ifum liVi mnun Amatat) 
Vndique coUeai coiunij Martimqui fatigant. 

Then they, whofe mothers frantic with their fear. 
In woods and wilds the flags of Bacchus bear. 
And lead his dances with difhevell'd hair, 
Increafe the clamour, and the war demand*— 

Drjidea, 803. 


As he had before given a ftreamcr to Aurora^ he 
here gives flags to the attendants of Bacchus i 

Thofc too whofe mothcfs by the queen were led, 
V/hen fir'd by Bacchus, to the woods (he fled, 
(Such was her int*reft in the realm) declare 
For open arms, and breathe revenge and war. 

Pitt, 735- 

4. Cybele in another place is drawn by the tygers 
of Bacchus inftead of her own lions. 

JIma parens Idaea deim^ cut Dindytna cordis 
Turrigeraeque urbes^ bijugique adfraena hones. 

JEn. 10. 253. 
Hear thou, great mother of the deities. 
With turrets crown'd, on Ida's holy hill. 
Fierce tygers rein'd and curb'd, obey thy will. 

Dryden, 356. 


xiv Prefatory DsDfCATioii* 

Great guardian queen, of Ida's hills and Woods^ 
Supreme, majeftic mother of the gods ! 
Whofe ftrong defence proud towering cities fhare, 
While roaring lions whirl thy mighty car* 

Pitt, 366* 

5. J7/V, mii disje^ai moUsj tn^ulfaqui faxh 
Saxd viies^ mixtfUi mndantem puherefumkm^ 
Neptunus mmr$ff magn$qu€ emota tridenti 
Pundaminta quatst', totamque ab fedibus urbem 
Eruit'-'^^ JEtii 2. 612* 

This exalted paflage Mr. Drydcn has thus tranf- 
lated : 

Amid that fmother, Neptune holds his place, 
fielow the wall's foundation drives his mace. 
And heaves the building from the folid bafe. 829 


Where it is to be obferved he has divefted Neptune 
of his trident, and equipped him with a Gothic 
mace. That Pitt hath reftored the god his pro- 
per tnjigniay is much the leaft part of his praife in 
this fublime pafTage : 


Where yon' rude piles of ihatter'd ramparts rife. 
Stone rent from ftone, a dreadful ruin lies. 
And black with rolling fmoke theduily whirlwindflies: 
There Neptune's trident breaks the bulwarks down^ 
There from her bafis heaves the trembling town. 

Pitt, 8i2. 

6. — — Paierque Sabinus 

Viti/atoTy curvam fervant fub im€tgint falcfm. 

^ &n. 7. 179. 


Prefatory Dedication. xw 

In tranflating this paffage, Mr. Drydcn hath made 
Sabinus lean his head upon his pruning hook^ 
which as it would appear abfurd in a ftatuc or 
pifture, cannot be proper in a poetical defcrip- 


There ftood Sabinus, planter of the vines. 
On a (hort pruning hook his head reclines. 
And ftudioufly furveys his generous wines. 

Dryden, 049. 

Sabinus there who preft the foaming wine. 
Extends the hook that prun'd the generous vine. 

Pitt, 22U 

7. One great occafion of faults in Mr. Drydcn in 
relation to the imaginary beings of the ancients, 
is owing to his not being fufficiently acquainted 
with (or not recoUefting) their particular qualities, 
rank and dignity ; and this makes him fometimes 
vary from his original. 

Eccefurens mnims aderat Ttrynthiusj omnemqut 
Accejfum lujhransj hue or a ferebat et illuc^ 
Dentibus infrendens^ Ter totum fervidus ird 
Lujtrat Aventint montem ; ter faxea tentat 
Limina mquicquam \ Ur fejfui valU nfedit* 

JEn. 8« 2aS« 

The wretch had hardly made his dungeon faft. 
The fierce avenger came with bounding haftc > 
Survey'd the mouth of the forbidden hold. 
And here and there his raging eyes he roU'd ; 
He gnafh'd his teeth, and thrice he compaft rouni 
With winged fpccd the circuit of the ground* 


xl4 Prefatory Dedication." 

Thrice at the cavern's mouth he puIlM in vain. 
And panting thrice defifted from his pain. 

Dryden, 304. 

Scarce had the fiend let down th^ enormous weight, 
. When fierce the god came thund'ring to the gate ; 
He gnafh'd his teeth with rage, the paffes try'd. 
And roird hi^ eager eyes on ev'ry fide ; 
Now here, now there, a fiery glance he threw^ 
And thrice impetuous round the mountain flew i 
Thrice ftrove to ftorm the mafly gates in vain. 
And thrice, o'er-fpent^ fate panting on the plain. 

Pitt, 3€!o. 

8* Non tutit Akides animis : feque ipfe per igmrn 
Praecipiti jicit faltu : qua plurimus undam 
Fumus agitj nebulaque ingensfpecus aeftuat atra. 

Mn. 8. 258: 

The wrathful god then plunges from above. 
And where in thickeft waves the fparkles drove. 
There lights ; and wades thro' fumes, and gropes his^ 

Half fing'd, half ftifled till he grafps his prey. 

Dryden, 344. 

This laft particular is great in Virgil, and little in 
Dryden i and fitter for the herdfman hero (as he 
calls him in the beginning of the ftory, 279) than 
the chief of all the heroes who were deified for ha- 
ving adted in this world for the good of mankind. 
Let us fee Mr. Pitt's tranflation- 

With that the vengeful god in fury grew. 
And headlong thro* the burning tempeft flew ; 
Fierce on the fiend, thro' ftifling fumes he came. 
Thro' {{reams of fmgke and deluges of flame. 

ver. 331. 

Prefatory Dedication. xvii 

In fine, if my partiality to Mr. Pitt does not 
miflead me, I (hould think he has executed his- 
work with great fpirit, that he has a fine flow of 
harmonious verfification, and has rendered his 
author's fenfe with faithfulnefs and peripicuity ;. but 
my teftimony can be of little confequence in this 
cafe ; and there is no reafon to doubt but he will 
ftand by his own intrinfic merit j which the public 
hath already fufficiently approved. 

I thought it proper to premife thefe few reflec* 
tions, on Virgil, on Mr. Pitt, and myfelf, before I 
ventured to give the following tranflation into your 
ll^nds; I dared not fay, 

^— — to Meti difcendat judicis aures^ 

till I had endeavoured to point out the peculiar 
difficulties attending this performance, and had 
obviated any charge of envy, or even of emula^ 
tion, in attempting it after Mr. Dryden. I have . 
only to add, 'that among other reafojis why I copld 
wilh this work may reach pofterity, one of the. 
greateft is, that it may be known, I enjoyed the 
favour and friendfliip of Sir George Lyttblton. : 

I am, 


Your obliged and obedient fervant, ^ 
Jan. I, 


Vol. I, f 

( xviu y 



CT^H E dejign of the following volumes is fogivi 4 
^ poetical tranjlatiofty and a correS edition of Vir-^ 
giTs worksy illujirated with explications of the difficulty 
and obfervations on the beautiful pajfages. For which 
purpofcj his beft critics and commentators have been, 
confulted and made ufe of^ but never quoted without 
acknowledgment. Beftdes thefe affijianc^s^ I muji in- 
form th€ reader^ thqt Mr. Spence hath promoted this 
undertaking with that warmth and readinefs with 
which he always ferves his friends ^ by communicating 
to, me a great number of manufcript notes of the late 
Mr. Holdfworthy author of Mifcipula, ^c:, who by 
fifiding r^ny years in Italy^ and by making Virgil his 
confiant companion in his travels^ had an opportunity 
$f being very exa£l in his obfervations on his favourite 
author. Many of them, that are locals and relate te 
theffil, the climate and cufioms of Italy y will I believe 
ie found extremely curious and ufeful. Mr. Spence 
tikewife obliged me with fever al excellent remarks of his 
m»ny ma4ejViben h£ was abroad^ that were never yet 
fublifiedy and with fome few of Mr. Pope*s. Hisi 
fMyV^m tslfo ha fk greatly enriched the following col^ 


AD V E R T I S E M E N T. xix: 

Ugticn. I muft mt negk^ to return my thanks tJII^^ 
ffFarkurtMj for giving leave that bis tnoji learned and 
ingenious dijertation on the fix tb book of tbe jEneii 
might be here inferted ; which th/t reader will find 
much altered and enlarged with fever al valuable addic- 
tions. Mr. William Whitehead hath contributed to' 
the ufefulnefs and beauty of this work by giving it 
what Virgil has long wanted, a defign for the fhield of 
Mneas. Hi hath added a differ tation on this fubjeSfy 
wherein are fpme curious remarks on the Roman biftory^ 
which it is notfirange that be fbould underftandy wh§ 
has made one of its great eft heroes appear fo nobly on 
pur * ft age. To my learned and ingenious friend Mr. * 
Samuel Jobnfon J am very much obliged; not only for 
bis elegant effay on Paftoral Poetry ^ but for fever al- 
ffufi judicious remarks and obfervations fcattered thrtf 
the whole. It was thought proper not to omit in this 
edition, Biflsop Atterburfs celebrated^ conjeilure, con-- 
ceming lapis^ in the twelfth book of the Mneid. It 
pay be neceffary likewife to take notice here that Mr. 
Pitt has borrowed about fixty lines from Mr. Dryden^ 
and I myfelf about a dozen, and a remark or two in 
\he life of Virgil. I am indebted alfo to Mr. Benfon 
forfome obfervations, and for fix lines of bis tranfla^ 
fion of the two firft Georgics. For the reft I am 
anfwerabky and I hope thofe readers that are able ta 
jjudge, who are likewife ever moft inclined to pardon^ 
will excufe the fmaller faults and inadvertencies that 
will neceffarily happen in the courfe of fo long a work. 

• Ij9 his tragedy called the^Roman Father* 

I begin 


t'hifk nw) mofi fenfihly to perceive the fare^ of that 
faying of a French author : " ff^en a man writes, 
*f be ought to animate himfelf with the thoughts of 
^^ pleafing all the world i but he is to renounce thai 
*' bopCy the very moment the book goes out of his 
«^ hand^:* 

In this edition are now firft addedy feveral remarks 
and obfervationsy taken from an edition of Virgil^ 
fublifhed at\xx?%\Cy '77 1> in four volumes^ oSlavo^ 
by the teamed and ingenious Christopher. Gott. 
Hbyne. 7he title of Excursus, which he has given 
to fome of the longer of thefe ohfirvations^ is here 
preferved. And it was thought to be no objeSion to 
the infer tion of them, that fome of them contained re^ 
marks contradiflory to what had been before advanced 
in thefe volumes^ In criticifm^ there will fver be af^ 
^feftd variety of opinions^ 

C * ) 



O F 

V I R G I L. 

W£ have ah eageir defire to be thoroughly ad« 
quainted with the minuteft circumftances in 
the lives of thofe who have made themfelves 
greatly eminent* It is probably owing to this curiofity^ 
that the writings of old Montagne, notwithftanding his 
excurfions and irregularities, are found fo amufing and 
delightfuL Plutarch obferves, that the true genius, and 
charaderiftical turn of men's minds, arc beft to be ga- 
thered from the fmall and feemingly inconfiderable par- 
ticulars of their lives and fortunes. It were to be 
wiihed antiquity furnilhed us with any light of this fort 
with regard to our celebrated Poet. But we have very 
few materials to gather from; only fome fcattered re- 
marks of old commentators and grammarians, and a life 
written by Tiberius Donatus, (by fome falfely fuppofed 
to -^e St. Jerom's mafter) whofe authenticity Ruaeus 
hath taken great pains to explode and deftroy. What 
can beft be depended upon feemeth to be as follows. 
PuBLius ViRGiLius Maro was borA on die fifteenth 
Vol. I. B day 


day of Oftober in the year of Rome 684, in the conful- 
(hip of Pompey and CraiTus, at a village called Andes, 
tiow Petula, not far from Mantua* His father's name 
was Virgil, according to the opinion of Servius and Pro- 
bus ; for if he had been called Maro, as Donatus affirms, 
our Poct'» name muft have been, according to the cuftom 
of the Romans, Publius Maro Virgilius. 

His father was undoubtedly of low birth and mean cir- 
cumftance^, but by his induftry fo much recommended 
himfelf to his mailer, that he gave him his daughter^ 
named Maia,in marriage, as. a reward of his fidelity. Our 
Poet, difcovering early marks of a very fine genius, was 
fenfr at twelve years old to ftudy at Cremona, where he 
continued till his fevcnteenth year. He then removed to 
MHan, and from thence to Naples, being the refidcnce 
of feveral teachers of philofophy and polite learning, and 
profecuted his ftudics with great induftry and intenfe- 
nefs, carefully perufing the moft elegant of the Greek 
and Roman writers. But phyfic and mathematics were 
his favourite fciences, and to which he principally at- 
tached himfelf: and to this early tindure of geometrical 
learning were owing, that regularity of thought, pro- 
priety of expreffion, and exa^eft of conducing all fub- 
je£b, for which he is fo remarkable. He learnt the Epi- 
curean philofophy under the celebrated Syro, of whom 
Cicero fpeaks twice with the greateft encomiums both 
of his learning and virtue. 

His acquaintence with Varus, his firft patron, com- 
menced by his being fellow-ftudent with him under this 
philofopher. Tor whom Virgil feems to have had a warm 
affe^ion and efteem. 

There is an epigram remaining, addreffed to Syro, 
written with fo beautiful a fimplicity that one may fafely 
pronounce it the work of Virgil : who being afraid his 
father and family would be turned ovit of their eftate at 
Andes, endeavoured to find a retreat for his parents, 



Und caft his eye u^n a little farm that Syro poflefled In 
the country. 

Ad Villam Scironis. 

VilUlay qua Scironis eras^ fef pauper agellt^ 

Virum Hit Jomino tu qitoque divitia ; 
Mi tibij i^ hos una nucum^ quos/empir amavi^ 

Si quid depatria tri/fius audiero^ 
Commtndoj in primlfque pairem ; tu nunt iris Hit 

Mantua quodfueraty quodqui Cremon^ prius. . 

After Virgil had cdttipleated his ftudies at Naples, Doha« 
tus affirms, that he made a journey to Rome ; that by 
his extlraordinary flcill in the difeafes incident to cattle 
of all kinds, he recommended himfelf to Auguftus's mafter 
of the horfe,-Who procured appointments for him in 
the royal (tables; that Auguftus having a colt prefcntedto 
him by the Crotoniates which promifed uncommon fwift-^ 
nefs and fpirit^ Virgil immediately pronounced that he 
came from a fickly mare> and would be good for nothings 
which proved the cafcj and laftly, that the emperor hear* 
ing of his extraordinary penetration and difcernment^ 
fent for him privately to enquire concerning his own 
parentage, whether he was really the fon of 0£lavius or 
Dot. But Ruaeus and the moft judicious critics have re« 
jeded and refuted thefe ftories as highly fabulous, im^^ 
probable, and impertinent; and are of opinion that he did 
not appear at Rome, and was not known to Auguftus till 
long afterwards* Perhaps *tis fafeft to ftcer betwixt thefe 
two oppofite opinions, and to fay, that our Poet might 
probably pay a vifit to Rome, and be introduced to Au- 
guftus, though not by the methods Donatus has affigned. 
At leaft, Ruaeus ffcems to lay toO great a ftrcfs on that 
paflage in the firft Eclogue, 

Vrlim quam dicunt Romania Mettbopiy putavi 
Stultut ego huic nojira fimiUm - ■ 

B a And 


And again, 

Et qua tantafuit Romam tibi caufa vldendi ? 

For tho' Virgil is faid to rcprefent himfelf under the 
pcrfon of Tityrus, yet this ignorance of the largcnefs 
of the city might be counterfeited, and thrown in, as a 
natural, ftroke of paftoral fimplicity, and may perhaps be 
juftly confidered as afentiment rather beautifully poetical 
than ftrii^ly true. 

- We cannot imagine that fuch an exalted genius as Vir- 
gil was bleft with, could lie long una6iive and unexerted. 
We are told accordingly, that in the warmth of early 
youth, he framed a noble defign, and boldly intended to 
write a poem on the Wars of Rome i but after fome at- 
tempts, he was difcouraged from proceeding, by the 
roughnefs and afperity of the old Roman names, which 
horridly difgufted fo delicate an ear. That great mafter 
pf verfe (fays a lively writer) found it difficult to put fuch 
harfh words, as Vibius Caudex, Tanaquil, Lucumo, or 
Decius Mus into his poetry. Some of the names of 
towns could abfolutely find no place in heroic mea- 
fure. They were almoft as frightful as Boileau's Woer- 
den, or the hidequs Wufts, of whofe name he fo woefully 
complains as quite* fearing his mufe. 

Des ville; que iu prens Its noms durs et barbares, 
N^offrent de toutes partes que fyllabes bizarres i 
Et qui pent fans fumtr aborder Woerden, 
^elvers nc tomberoit aufeul mm de Henfden? 
Wurts, Vefpoir du patSj et Pappui de ces murs^ 
Wurts — Ah quel nom^ Grand Roi^ quel He^or que ce 
Wurts f Epitre 4. 

Not only fo, but 'tis probable he was deterred from an 

undertaking above his years, by the reafon affigned by 

our Englifb Boileau, 

^ • When 


When firft young Maro fung of kings and wars. 
Ere warning Phoebus touch'd his trembling ears. 
Perhaps he feem'd above the critic's law. 
And but from nature's fountains fcorn'd to drawi 
But when t' examine every part he came. 
Nature and Homer were he found the fame ; 
Convinc'd, amaz'd, he checks the bold defign ; 
And rules as {kriSt his labour'd work, confine. 
As if the Stagyrite o'erlook*d each line. 


Captivated with the native beauties of the Idylliumi 
of Theocritus, and ambitious of introducing a new fpe-^ 
cies of poetry among the Romans, our poet from hence- 
forward feems to have bent his whole thoughts to imitate 
and rival the fweet Sicilian : And having tranfplante^ 
Paftoral into his own country, it flourifbed as fuccefsfully, 
as the cherry-trees which Lucullus .conveyed from' 

Of thefe compofitions 'tis highly probable that in- 
titled Alexis was his firft performance. Dr. Martyn 
thinks it might have been written in the year of Rome 

709, when the Poet was in his twenty-fifth year, which 
was a little while before Caefar was afiai&nated in theyeac 

710. Julius Csfar might have read this beautiful imi» 
tation of the 'Ef«m of Thepcrftus, and been ftruck with 
admiration of the promifmg genius of its author. PoiE- 
bly the Palaemoh was his fecond performance ; it is- 4 
clofe imitation of the fourth and fifth Idyllic of ThecH 
critus* . • 

May I venture to mention the Silenus as the next com- 
pofition in order of time ? This fine piece of philo/bphy 
is faid to have been publicly recited oq the fta^ge hf 
Cythcris^ a celebrated comedian, remarkable for a fweet- 
nefs and propriety of fpeaking, infomuch - tjiat Catroii 
imagines that expreifion in the tenth Eclogue^ ^^u^ legai 
ipfa Lycoris^ does not only fignify that be may write fucb 

B 3 verfes 


vcrfes as may touch or affcS Cytheris (rcprefcntcd by 
Lycoris) but fuch as may be fit for a pcrfon of a mar- 
vellous fweetncfs of voice to pronounce. Let us hear 
Catrou's opinion with regard to this fixth Eclogue. It is 
not from this verfe 

Prima Syrac^/io dignata eft ludere verfu^ 

4iat I conje&ure that this Eclogue ought to precede that 
6f Tityrus. It is for another reafon, that I am going to 
produce. It is true, that the author of the life of Virgil 
feems here to contradict himfelf. He affirms, in one 
place, that the Tityrus was the firft Eclogue which the 
Poet compofed. ^' It appears, fays he, that Virgil had 
^* not cQippofed any Eclogue before the Tityrus, from 
•• the fourth Georgic i where he diftinguiflies his Buco-« 
^* lies by th^ Eclogue of Tityrus," 

Titjre Upatula acini fub tegmitufagi. 

He adds befides, that the Poet fpent three years in com- 
pofing his Bucolics, Bucslica friennio ferfeciu That isy 
if one can believe it, that Virgil began his fiHl Eclogue 
about the year of Rome 713, and finifbed the laft after the 
year 715. The fame author alfo relates, that the Silenus 
was recited by Cytheris, before a full audience, in the 
prefence of Cicero. This laft fafl cannot poffibly be 
true, fuppofing the Tityrus was Virgil's firft performance 
in this kind. Cicero was dead when our Poet compofed 
the Tityrus. In fo manifeft a contradidion, I incline to 
the fide of the ftory of Cytheris, which is attefted by 
Servius. As for the conje6hire formed by the writer of 
Virgil's life, that the Tityrus was his firft Eclogiie, it 
is grounded upon a very frivolous argument. The quo- 
tation from the fourth Geoi^ic, which is the only fup- 
port of it, proves only, that Virgil, in the edition of 
}us Bucolic$, \L^<^. placed th<p Tityrus in the fronts It ig 



faid alfo, that Virgil made ^11 his Eclogues ill three 
years. Therefore Cicero could not hear any one of 
them. But, in the original it is perftcitj that is, he per^ 
fe<Sted them ; he made them fit to appear. Thus this 
Eclogue might have been prior to the Tityrus, and Cythe- 
ris might have recited it in the prefence of Cicero. 

I beg to add a conjecture purely my own, and fubmit 
the dccifion of it entirely to the learned. Cicero having 
heard this Eclogue, cried out in an ecftafy of admiration, 
that the author of it was 

' Magna /pes altera Roma^ 

the fecond great hope of RonUj efteeming himfelf, fay the 
commentators, to be the firft. I underftand the words in 
a far different fenfe. The (\xh]tSt of this piece, we fhould 
remember, was an account of the Epicurean Philofophy. 
both natural and morale which had been but lately beauti- 
fully illuftrated by Lucretius ; an author whom Cicero 
was fo eminently fond of, as to revife and publifh his 
work. Upon hearing therefore the beautiful vcrfes pf 
Virgil on the fame fubje£l, Cic^o exclaimed to this pur* 
pofe ; Behold another great genius rijmg up aimngjl ttx, who 
will prove a fecond Lucretius. This interpretation at oncQ 
takes away the imputation of vanity of which Cicero has 
been accufed for ufing thefe words, making the Spes altera 
refer entirely to Lucretius. And befides, the expreifion 
of Spes necefiarily implies fomething yi/^«rr and increajingi 
whereas Cicero was at that time arrived at a maturity of 
fame and abilities: neither do I perceive the propriety of 
the connexion, in joining an eminent poet with an emi* 
nent orator. 'Tis obfervable that Virgil inferted this he- 
miftich^ afterwards in the twelfth book of his ^neid, and 
applied the words to Afcanius. 

Dion Caffius relates, in his forty-feventh book, that in 
the year of Rome 712 the Triumvirs, Antony, Odtavius, 
and Ltpidus, ereded and confecrated a temple to Julius 

B 4 Caefar 


Cafffar in the foromy carried about his ftatu^ in iblemn 
procefiion with one df Venus ill the Circenfian games, 
decreed fupplicatione to, hioi on the news of any viftory, 
^d ordered be (hould be worfhipped as a god. In allu^ 
jion to the death and deification of Caefar, Virgil com-r 
pofed the fifth Eclogue. He introduces two ihepherds la- 
menting the death of paphnis, a Sicilian fhcpherd; he 
reprefents the cattle abftaining from their food for grief, 
%hc very wild bes^fts lamenting, the fields withering, Apollo 
and Pales leaving the plains, the nymphs mourning around 
his body, and Venus herfelf bitterly lamenting. 

Cum compUxa fui corpus miferabiU natty 
Jttqui decs atque ajhra yocat crudelia inater* 

tor Venus is undoubtedly the Mother here mentioned, 
;md not the city of Rome, as Ruxus imagines. 

This opinion may be confirmed by a parallel paffage in 
the Metamorphofes. Ovid there reprefents Venus terri- 
fied af the approach of Csfar's death ; (he difcovers all 
the fears and tendernefs cJf a mother; intercedes wirh the 
gods for his prefcrvation ; fmites her own breaft, and en- 
deavours to hide htm in the cloud in which (he had pre-, 
(crved Paris and ^neas; 

— ■ ^od ut aurea vidii 

JEneee genetrix^ vidii quoque trlfte parari 
Pontifici letum \ &r conjurata arma moveri 

Fallult : 

Turn vero Cytherea manil percujfit utraque 
Pe^lusy £sr JEneadm molitur condere nube.^--^ 

I cannot forbear obferving the peculiar beauty of the 

epithet miferabiU in Virgil This fingle word points 

out the mangled body of Julius Caefar in almoft as lively 
s manner as Antony's artful fpecch in Shakefpear ; 

Q Look t 


Look ! in this place ran Caffiiis' dagger thro*'-* ' 
See, what a rent the envious Cafca made—- > 
Through this the well^-beloved Brutus ftabb'rf ; 
And as he pluckt the curfed ftecl away, 
Mark, how the Wood of Caefar followed it \ 

Julius Cafary AB 3. &. 6. 

In the latter part of the paftoral, the Poet changes the 
fcene into joy and triumph, which makes a noble con- 
trail to the beginning. He rcprefents Daphnis admitted 
into heaven, pleafure and joy overflowing the plains^ the 
very mounuins breaking forth into foogs, altars ere^ed^ 
and folemn -facriiices performed to him as to Ceres an4 
Bacchus^ Aaguftus muft have been infinitely pkafed 
with this exquifi^e. piece of flattery* 

The fatal l^ttjfi at Philippi was fpugbt at the latter end 
of the year y^a; which at once put aii end to all gloriouft 
ftruggles for the libeiXy of the comnv>nwealth, the pattiatn 
murder^t^ Brutus and Cai&us, having refolutely fhuH 
thcmfelves jygppn the defeat of their army, leaving Caefar 
and Antony y^^dous. One cannot forbear wifliing the^o 
had been fome Virgil to have lamented. tl^e death of the 
incomparable Brutus, as well as that of the tyrant Juliui^ 
Caefar, who, notwithftanding his many amiable and cxalt-^ 
ed qualities, was no better than the enflaver of his coun- 
try. After this adion the veteran foldiers began to mur- 
mur for their pay, and Auguftus, to reward them, diftri«v 
buted amongft them the lands of Mantua and Cremona. 
Appian relates, that when the lands were divided among 
the foldiers, great numbers both young and old, and wo^ 
men with their children, flocked to Rome, and filled tho 
forum and temples with bitter lamentations, complaining 
they were driven from their lands and houfes as if they 
had been conquered enemies. Virgil was involved in thisi 
common calamity, applied to Varus or to Pollio, or both^ 
who wnimly rt^omm&ded him to Augufhts, and procured 

. J bis 


his patrimony for him again. Full of gratitude to Au-r 
guftus, he compofed the Tityrus, introducing in it two 
fhepherdsy one of them complaining of the diftra£lion 
of the times, and of the deflru^on the foldiers had com- 
mitted among the Mantuan farmers, the other rejoicing 
for the recovery of his eftatc, and promifing to honour the 
pcrfon who reftored it to him as a god. 

" IlUus aram 

Sape tener no/Iris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus. 

But our Poct*$ joy was not of long continuance ; for 
wc arc told that when he returned to take poflefTion of his 
farm, he was violently afiaulted by the intruder, and would 
certainly have been killed by him, if he had not made his 
cfcape by fwimming haftily over the Mincio. 

Upon this unexpeded difappointment, melancholy and 
dejeded, he returned to Rome to renew his petition ; and 
during his journey feems to have compofed the ninth 
Eclogue ; which appears to have been haftily made up, 
out of feveral little fragments of poeqas, and imitations 
of Theocritus he 6ad by him. One ftroke in it ts too 
artful to be omitted. He advifes the (bepherd to confult 
no more the old conftellations and figns as they were 
wont to do, but to look up to a brighter ftar, the Julium 
Sidus, — alluding to the famous comet which is faid to 
have appeared feven days after Julius Cacfar's death, and 
w^ fancied by the vulgar to be Csefar's foul converted 
by Venus into a blazing ftar* Suetonius fpeaks of it in 
the following manner : In Ji$rum nunurum nlatus tft^ nan 
wre m$d$ dearneniium^ fid it pirfitafiim vulgi. Siquidim 
buXsj quos prtmo conficratos ii hares Auguftus idehaty Jiilla 
^rimta pit feptim diis eontinuoi fulJH ixgriins cins undid' 
mam haram. Cnditumqui ift^ animam ijfi Cafarisy in ccelttm 
ruiptif (^ hdc di eauja fimulacra ijus in virtia JliUa 

In the year of Rome 714, Virgil compofed the cele- 


bnted Eclogue intitled ufually, but perhaps fidfly, Pollicv 
as it related to the birth of his fon Salonius. But Ca-- 
trou has endeavoured to ihew that this is a grofs miftake, 
and that the fubjed of it is the birth of young Marcellus^ 
who was afterwards adopted by Auguftus. The fub- 
ftance of his opinion is as follows ; which will give us 
fome infight into this intricate affair. 

Csefar did not remain long in quiet after the compleat 
yiStory which he obtained over Lucius, and Fulvia the 
wife of Antony, who had raibly taken arms againft hinu 
This turbulent lady fled to her hulband, and incited him 
to make war upon Caefar^ Antony inflamed with rage^ 
fteered his courfe to Italy ; and began a moft furious and 
dangerous war. But the news of the death of Fulvia, 
whom he had left fick at Sicyon,. coming opportunely, 
gave a favourable opportunity of fettling a peace between 
theie mighty rivals. Cocceius, a common friend to both, 
went between them, and projeded a reconciliation : The 
conful Pollio appearing on the part of Antony, and Mae- 
cenas on the part of Caefar, to arbitrate the differences 
between them. The arbitrators propofed, that as Fulvia, 
• the wife of Antony, was juft dead, and Marcellus alfo, 
the hulband of 0£bvia, half fifter to Csefar, OAavia 
Ihould be given in marriage to Antony. This being agreed 
to,' caufed an univerfal joy : and the whole army expreffed 
their joy by (houting all that day, and the following night. 
O^via was with child at the time of this marriage. 
Therefore as this great lady, who was alfo a perfon of a 
moft unfpotted character, was the cement of fo bleffcd a 
peace and upion between the two great Triumvirs, who 
were upon the point of tearing the world in funder by 
'their divifions, Virgil was not backward in teftifying his 
joy for fo happy an event. The Sibilline oracles had 
foretold, that a child was to be bom about this time, 
who fhould rule the world, and cftablifh perpetual peace. 
The Poet ingenioufly ftippofes the child, with which Oc- 



Uvii was flie'h pregnant, to le tlie gloriotis mfant^ iindeif 
wfaoTe ilile oiftzdcind was to be nade happy ; the goMen 
age was to return agaitt frolki hdufca i and fraud and vio- 
lence was to be no moire. 'This is the fitbjeift of that 
Eclogue, of which the ufual title is Pollio. In this cele^ 
lirsted poem, the author, with great deltcaoy, at the fame 
time pays his court to both the chiefs, to his patron PoU 
lio, to O^via, and to the unboln Infant. It is dedicated 
to the great Pollio by name, who was at that time conful t 
And therefore we are fure of the date of this Eclogue, a» 
h is known that be enjoyed chat high office in the year of 
Rome 714. 

In the year of Rome 715, P^olUo, who was now in high 
larour with Auguftus, marched againft, and fubdued tho 
Parthtni. During this expedition, Virgil addreiTed to him 
one of his nsoft beautiful Eclogues, the Pharmaceutria^ 
an imitation of one with the fame title in .Theocritus. 
Catrou giDundlefsly imaghies Auguftus to be the perfon 
intended by the fine compliment at the beginning, becaufc 
this prince attempted to write a drama called Ajax, in 
imitation of Sophocles. Pollio's thara£fer was one of the 
moft illuftrious that ever adorned Rome ; he was mafter 
of many various accomplifhments^ that, feldom ihine to-r 
gether in oAe perfon j was a fkilful and fuccefsful ge«« 
teral ; 

Ctii laurus aternos honor es^ 
t>almatico peperii triumpho : 

was an admirable hiftorianj^ ^osator, artd poet ; Horace 
joins with Virgil In bearing teftiihony to the excellenog 
of the tragedies he wrote, Od. u S^xrft 7m 

Paulumjsvira mufa tragedi^ 
Deftt thMtris \ mox ubi publicas 

Res ordinarisy grandt munus ' 

CicropU repetis cothurn^^ 


In which ode one cannot foxibear obferving that |he poet^ 
confcious of the digaity ef the perfon he was writing to« 
^as*ex^rted his genius^ and warmed his fancy, and has 
given us fpme of the moft fpirited .and futntime images 
that are to be found in his works : 

yam mmc fwuid'mu^ure cormtuni I . ' 
P^ftringis aura \ jt^ikuifr^ifuiaf 
Jamfttlgmr armarum fugacit 
Tarit equps eq^itumqu^ vubnsj 
jfaJire itu^Hos jam viAfiT dacii 
NQntndenr<f jmhere firdidpf / 

Pollio was likewife the firft who erefted a public libra- 
ry at Rome, adorned with curious bufto's of the moll ^- 

. lebrated writers. He had a moft delicate taftc for the fine 
arts, particularly archite£b.ire and fculpture : Pliny* tells 
us, that fome.of the capital pieces of the moft exquifite 
Grecian artifts were in his coliei^ion ; particularly, a Si- 
lenus, a Neptune, an Apollo, and fome Bacchanalian 
Nymphs, all by Praxiteles j which arc particularly men- 
tioned in the fiflth chapter of the thirty-fixth book of hit 
Natural Hiftory. It wa$ none of the fmalleft honours 
Virgil met with, to be proteded and efteemed by this all- 
accompliihed courtier. 

In the laft Eclogue our Author compofed, he introduces 
his friend Cornelhis Gallus, lying difconfolately under 
a mountain in Arcadia, bitterly bewailing the inconftancy 
of his miftrefs,' aiid furrounded by all the rural gods, an(l 
by Apollo himfelf, who cOme to fympathize with him in 
his grief,, and endeavour toadminiftcr con»fort to him. 
He had before paid Gallus a hjgh compliment in his Si- 
lenus, reprefcnting him wandering on the banks of Pcr- 
meffus, and met by one of the Mufes, who leads him to 
the Aonian mountains, where the whole aflcmbly of gods 
and poets rifes up to greet fiis approach, anjl Linus gives 

Jiim the pipe of old Hefiod : 


^'^^^ibus illefolibat 

Cantand^ rigidas deducer$ vMntihus ornos. 

Gallus was greatly beloved by Auguftus, who advanced 
him from a low condition into the higheftpofts. But be- 
ing afterwards made governor of Egypt, he fell into a 
debauched and luxurious, life, abufed the emperor in his 
cups, and ereAed ftatues of himfelf throughout the pro- 
vince; for which, and other mifdemeanors, being banifh- 
cd by Auguftus^ he fell upon his own fword^ in an agony 
of grief and defpair. Donatus relates that Virgil was fo 
fond of this Gallus, that the fourth Georgic, from the 
middle to the end^ was filled with his praifes ; and that 
he afterwards changed this part into the ftory of Ariftacus^ 
at the command of Auguftus. But Ruaeus juftly queftions 
the truth of this ftory* He pbfcrves that the ftory of 
Ariftsus is fo well connected with the culture of the 
bees, that it does not feem to have been ftuck in, but to 
rife naturally from the fubjeft, and to have been afirft 
thought ; that it is not probable, that Virgil would be- 
fiow fo large a part of his work in the priaife of Gallus^ 
when he had given but a few lines to Maecenas himfelf, 
to whom he dedicated the whole poem : and laftly, that 
Auguftus himfelf, according . to Suetonius, lamented the 
death of Gallus; and therefore cannot be thought Co 
injurious to his memory, as to envy him fome empty 

Thus we fee Virgil employed the very carlieft efforts of 
his mufe, at a time, in other poets. 

When pure defcription holds the place of fenfe, 

to ufeful and prudent purpofes, to conciliate the coun^ 
tenance of the great, to relieve the diftreffes of himfelf 
and his family, to commemorate his benefactors, to gain 
the favour and friendfliip of tfiofe by whom it was honour 
and happinefs to be beloved* 



And now being in his 34th year, he retired to a de-» 
lightfttl and convenient privacy at Naples, and laid the 
plan of his inimitable Georgics : which he undertook at 
the earneft entreaties of that wife and able minrfter^ 
Mzcenas : not to rival and excel Hefiod, whom he has 
but little imitated, as he had lately done Theocritus, 
but on a noble political motive,* and to promote the wel- 
fare of his country. Great was the dcfolation occafioned 
by the continuance and cruelty of the civil wars : Italy 
was almoft depopulated ; the lands were uncultivated 
and unftocked ; a famine and infurredion enfucd ; Au-» 
guftus himfelf hardly efcaped being ftoned by the en- 
raged populace, who attributed this calamity to his am- 
bition. This beft and wifeft minifter therefore, Mzce- 
nas, refolved if poffible to revive the decayed fpirit of 
hulbandry ; to introduce a tafte for cultivation ; to 
make rural improvements a fafhionable amufement of the 
great. What method fo likely to effed this, as to re- 
commend agriculture with all the infinuating charms of 
poetry ? Virgil fully anfwered the expe^tions of his 
polite patron ; for the Georgics contain all thofe maf- 
terly beauties that might be expeded from an exalted 
genius, whofe judgment and imagination were in full 
vigour and maturity, and who had leifure to give the iaft 
polifli and perfedion to his incomparable workmanAip. 

As to Mscenas's charader, tho' a bad writer himfelf, 
fond of far-fetch'd metaphors and an afFefted ftile, yet 
was he indifputably the kindeft patron the Mufes ever 
found, in any age or country. Paterculus has given us 
a portrait of him, painted with his ufual elegance and 
cxpreffivenefs. Urbis cujlodiis prapofitus C. Maeenas^ 
itpiejiri fed JpUndidQ genere natus : vtr^ ubi res vigiliam 
exigerety fane exfomnis^ providens atque agendi fciens \fimul 
veri aliqutd ex negotio remitti pojfet^ otio ac mollitiis pane 
ultra foBtninam fluens: non minus Agrtppa Cafari carus^ 
fed minus bonoratus ; quippe vixit angujfo davo pane con' 


1$ THi: Life of Virgil* 

tattus'r nee minora confiqui fotuity fed -non tarn concfiplvlti 
Evetitheadxnired Auguftus was deeply indebted to thU 
£(ivou4te» for guiding his tafte and forming his man- 
ners. 'Twas he who introduced the poets to his court; 
infpired him with a rtlijQi fpf polite learning ; convinced 
him of the importance of having his character handed 
down to pofterity in an amiable light by the bef( writers 
of his age^ and of having his ftatue made by none but 
a Lyfippus. That the emperor wanted fuch a maftci' 
to foften and polifh his temper and behaviour, is fuffi-< 
^iently teftified by Suetonius and other authors, wfco 
tell us of his natural love of amphitbeatrical fpe^tacles, 
gnd other barbarous entertainments, little accommodated 
to the intercft of the Mufes. Horace, in his artful arid 
concealed manner, frequently glances at this, in manjT 
paffages of the celebrated epiftle in his fecond book^ 
And Dion CaiGus in particular relates the frank treat-« 
ment which this prince received from his friend Maece- 
nas ; who was forced to draw him from his bloody tri-> 
bunal and murderous delight, with thi^tcproach of 

Surge vera tandem^ carnifix ! 

I cannot forbear adding a little rcfle<dion, which may 
fcrve, .an\(>ng pthers, to convince us of the great powrer-* 
fulnefs of poetry; which is, that we (hould have enter-* 
tained a far different notion of Auguftus, who was in 
reality a cool, a cruel and fubtle tyrant, and the perfon 
who gave the laft wound to expiring liberty, if Virgil and 
Horace had not fo highly celebrated him, and gained us 
as it were over to his party. But perhaps the refledtiori 
does not much honour to thcfe two poets. 

We are at laft arrived to the period of time when 
Virgil began writing his iEncid, in the year of Rpmc 
714, when he himfelf was forty-five years old. His dc-« 
iign in writing it has been very lately fo excellently ex- 


j^lained by i miafter of clafltcal learning, with equal 
judgment aiid bifte, that it would be unjuft not to quote 
his own words. 

*' Virgil is faiS to have begun this poem the very yeaif 
that Augnftud was freed from his great rival Antony: 
tjie government of the Roman empire was to be Wholly 
in him: and tho' he chofe to be called their father; he 
was, in every thing but the name, their king. This 
monarchical form of government muft naturally be apt 
to difpleafe the people; Virgil feems to have laid the 
plan of his poem to reconcile them to it* He takes ad- 
vantage of their religious turn^ and of fome old prophe« 
cies that muft have been very flattering to the Roman 
people, as promiling them the empire of the whole world; 
He weaves this in with the moft probable account of their 
origin ; that of their being defcended from the Trojans; 
To be a little more particular; Virgil in his ^neid fliews^ 
that ^neas was called into thrir country by the exprefs 
order of the gods. N. B. This is marked very ftrongly 
throughout all the firft part of the -flEncid. The very 
night Troy is burnt, ^neas is ordered to go and build a 
city in Italy, and to carry his gods to it, by the fpirits of 
HeAor and Creufa : Caflfandra had foretold the fame fre*' 
quently before : ^n. iii« ver. 185. 

Nunc ripito b^c gemri portendere deblta no/hro^ 
Etfape Hifperiantj fape Itala regna vocare* 

Apollo orders the fame ; 

> Antiquam exquirite matrem : 

Hie domus JEma cun&h dominabitur oris ; 
Et nati natorum bf qui nafcentur ab illis. 

JBn. iii. ver. tfi* 

And his domeftfo- gods, more exprefslyj JEn* iii. ver.' 
167. The fame orders are given to iEneas whilft at 
Vol. !• C Cvthage^ 


Carthage, by the fpirit of his departed father ; JEn. ir* 
ver. 351. And laftly, by the great meflenger of the 
chief of all their gods ; 

Jfcanium furgentsm i^ fpes haredis liili 
Refpice ; cut regnum Italia Romanaque tellus 

Dcbeniur ' 

^n. iv. ver. 275* 

He (hews Ukrwife that he was made king of it by the 
wtU of Heaven, and by all the human rights that could 
be. Viz. he has an hereditary claim from Dardanus and 
Jafius, iEn. iii. ver. 168.— He has a right by conqueft, 
Mn. xii. ver. x. — He has aright by compad, .^n. xii. 
ver. 17s to 225. — And he has a right by marrying the 
only daughter of the then king, ^n. xii. ver. 937. and 
Mjti. vii. ver. 50—52. He fhews likewife that there 
was an uninterrupted fucceffion of kings from him to 
Romulus ; that his heirs were to reign there for ever | 
and that the Romans under them were to obtain the 
monarchy of the world. It appears from Virgil, and the 
other Roman writers, that Julius Caefar was of this royal 
rac(^ ; and that Auguftus was his folc heir. The natural 
refult of all this is, that the promifes made to the Roman 
people, in and through this race, terminating in Auguf- 
tus ; the Romans, if they would obey the gods, and be 
mafters of the world, were to yield obedience to the new 
eftablifhment under that prince. As odd a fcheme as this 
may feem now, it is fcarce fo odd as that of fome people 
among us, who perfuaded themfelvcs that an abfolutc 
obedience was owing to our kings, on their fuppofcd de- 
fcent from fome unknown Ratriarch. And yet that had 
its efFeft with many about a century agoj and fecms not to 
have quite loft all its influence, even in our remembrance* 
However that be, I think it appears plain enough that 
the two great points aimed at by Virgil in his iEneid, 
were to maintain their old religious tenets ; and to fup- 
port the new form of government, in the family of the 
3 Caefars. 


Cfleftfs. That poem therefore may .very well be ccnfi^ 
derti as a work merely political. If thi^ was the cafe, 
Virgil was not fo highly encouraged by Auguftus and 
M^cenas for nothing. To fpeak a little more plainly ; he 
wrote in the fervice of the new ufurpation on the ftate ; 
arid all that can be offered in vindication of him in this 
light is, that the ufurpcr he wrote for was grown a tame 
one i and that the temper and bent of their conftitution 
was fuch, that the reins of government muft have fallen 
into the hands of fome one perfon or another; and might 
probably, on a new revolution, have fallen into the 
hands of fome one lefs mild and indulgent, than Auguf- 
tus was at the time when Virgil wrote this poem in his 
lervice. But whatever may be faid of his reafons for 
writing it, the poem itfelf has been highly applauded in 
all ages, from its iirft appearance to this day ; and tho* 
left unfiniihed by its author, has been always reckoned as 
much fuperior to all other epic poems among the Ro^^ 
mans, as Homer's is among the Greeks. It preferves 
more to us of the religion of the Romans, than all the 
other Latin poets (excepting only Ovid) put together : 
and gives us the forms and appearances of their deities 
as ftrongly, as if we had fo many pictures of them pre* 
ferved to us, done by fome of the beft hands in the Au« 
guftan age. It is remarkable that he is commended by 
fome of the ancients themfelves, for the ftrength of bis 
imagination, as to this particular -, tho' in general that is 
not his character, fo much as exa£tnefs. He was cer^- 
tainly the moft correft poet, even of his time j in which 
all falfc thoughts and idle ornaments in writing were 
difcouraged : And it is as certain, that there is but little 
of invention in his -Sneid ; much lefs, I believe, than is 
generally 'imagined. Almoft all the little fa£ls in it are 
built on hiftory : and even as to particular lilies, no one 
perhaps ever borrowed more from the poets that preceded 
him, than he did. He goes fo far back as to old Eiiniusf 

C 2 and 


tnd often inferts whole verfcs from him, and fome other 
of their earlieft writers. The obfoletenefs of their ftile 
did not hinder him much in this : for he was a particular 
lover of their old language ; and no doubt inferted many 
more antiquated words in his poem than we can difcover 
at prefent. Judgment is his diftinguifhing charader^ 
and his great excellence confifted in choofing and ranging 
things aright. Whatever he borrowed he had the flcill of 
making his own ; by weaving it fo well into his work, 
that it looks all of a piece : even thofe parts of hi? poem, 
where this may be moft praftifed, refembling a fine piece 
of Mofaic ; in which all the parts, though of fuch dif- 
ferent marbles, unite together ^ and the various ihades 
and colours are fo artfully difpofed, as to melt off infen- 
fibly into one another." 

Polymetis, Dial. 3. pag. 18. 

An event happened about this time too remarkable to 
be omitted *. Auguftus, either cloyed with glory, or 
terrified by the example of his predeceflbr, or to gain 
the credit of moderation with the people, or pofEbly to 
feel the pulfe of his friends, deliberated whether hefhould 
retain the fovereign power, or reftore the commonwealth. 
Agrippa, who was a very honeft man, but whofe view 
was of no great extent, advifed him to the latter : but 
Maecenas, who had thoroughly ftudied his mailer's tem- 
per, in an eloquent oration, gave contrary advice. That 
emperor was too politic to commit the overfight of 
Cromwell, in a deliberation fomething refembling this. 
Cromwell had always been defirous of the power, as he 
was afterwards of the title of King ; but by a too vehe- 
ment allegation of arguments againft it, he, who had 
outwitted every body befides, at laft outwitted himfelf, 

• See the author of Virgil's life, prefixed to Dryden's tranlla- 
tion. This ftory feems to have been feigned by the gram- 
marians, and later rhetoricians. 



'by too deep diffimulation : for his council, thinking to 
make their court by aflenting to his judgment, voted 
unanimouily for him againft his inclination, which fur* 
prized and troubled him to fuch a degree, that as foon 
as he got into his coach he fell into a fwoon^. But Caefar 
knew his people better ; and his council being thus di« 
vided, he aflced Virgil's advice. Thus a poet had the 
honour of determining the greateft point that ever was 
in debate, betwi;ct the fon-in-law, and favourite of Caefar. 
Virgil delivered his opinion in words to this eflfe^: The 
change of a popular into an abfolute government, has 
generally been of very ill confequence : for betwixt the 
hatred of the people, ai>d injuftice of the prince, it of 
neceffity comes to p^fs that they live in diftruft and 
mutual apprehenilon. But if the commons knewajuft 
perfon, whom tbey entirely confided in, it would be for 
the advantage of all parties tha( fuch a one fhould be 
their fovereign. Wherefore if you fliall continue to ad- 
miniiler juftice impartially, as hitherto you have done, 
your power will prove fafe to yourfelf, and beneficial to 
mankind. This excellent fentence, which feems taken 
out of Plato (with whofe writings the grammarians were 
not much acquainted, and therefore cannot reafonably be 
fufpefted of forgery in this matter) contains the true 
ftate of affairs at that time : For the commonwealth 
maxims were now no longer practicable ; the Romans 
had only the haughtinefs of the old commonwealth left, 
without one of its virtues. And this fentence we find, 
almofl in the fame words, in the firfl book of the iEneis, 
which at this time he was writing ; and one might won- 
der that none of the commentators have taken notice of 
it. He compares a tempeft to a popular infurredlion, 
as Cicero had compared a fedition to a florm a little 

Ac velutt magno in populo cum fape coorta eji 
Siditioy favitqut animis tgnobiU vulgus^ 

C 3 Jam^ui 


Jamqui faces acfaxa volant^ furor arma mimjfrat: 
X^m pietate gravem i^ meritis Ji forte virum quern 
Confpexere^ filenty arre&ifque auribus adjlant : 
Ille regit di^is anitnos^ Uf pediora mulcet. 

Auguftus was eagerly delirous to perufe the poem as far 
as it had been carried j he entreated Virgil to communi- 
cate it to him by feveral letters in the warmeft man- 
ner, Macrobius in the firft book of his Saturnalia, has 
prefcrved to us one of Virgil's anfwers to the emperor \ 

£go veri frequentius a te litteras accipio De Mnea qui^ 

dem meOj Ji mehercule jam dignum auribus haberem tuisy It" 
henter mitterem. Sed tanta inchoata res £/?, ut pane vitia 
mentis tantum opus irgrejfus mihi videor \ cum prafertim^ ut 
fcisy alia quoque Jludia ad id opusy multoque potiord im" 

Prevailed on at laft by thefe importunities, Virgil re- 
cited (and 'tis remarkable that he read his verfes with a 
Wonderful fwectnefs and propriety) the fixth book to 
Auguftus 5 and his fifter Oftavia, who had juft loft her 
fon l^arcellus, the darling of Rome, and the 'adopted 
fon of Auguftus, would needs be one of the audience to 
alleviate and divert her forrow. Let us indulge a thought 
that is naturally pleafing, for a moment ! Virgil, reading 
the fineft part of the ^neid to the Lord of the whole 
earth, attended by his fifter, and perhaps Maecenas, 
Horace, and other favourite^ ! He had artfully inferted 
that beautiful lamentation for the death of young Mar- 
ccUus, beginning with, 

O natey ingentem lu^um ne quare tuorum^''^* 

but fupprefted his name till he came to the line, 

Tu Marcellus eris^ 

upon hearing which 0£bvia could begr no more, but, 
fuddenly ftruck with furprize and forrow> fainted away. 



When ihc recovered, fhe made the poet a prefent of ten 
fefterces for every line, which amounted in the whole to 
above two thoufand pounds fterling. A reward equal to 
Oftavia's gcnerofity, and not above Virgil's merit ! 

The iEneid being brought to conclufion, but not to 
the perfcftion our author intended to give it; he rc- 
folved to travel into Greece to corrcA and to polifli it at 
kifure. It was on his undertaking this voyage^ that 
Horace addreiTed to him that afFedlionate ode ; 

Sic te Diva potens Cypri^ 
Sic Fr aires Helena j lucida fycUra^ 

Ventorumque regat pater ^ 
ObftriSiis aliis prater lapyga^ 

Navisy qua tibi creditum 
Debes Virgiliumy finibus Atticis^ 

Reddas incolumem precor^ 
Etferves aninue dimdium me a. 

It was during his ftay in Greece, that, in all proba- 
bility, he added that fine introdudion to his third 
Georgic, one of the fublimeft paflages in all his works : 
the numbers alfo are particularly majeftic ; 

Et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 
Propter aquam* 

In medio mihi Cafar erity templumque tenebit. 
JUi viSior egOy (sT Tyrio confpeSfus in ojlroj 
Centum quadrijugos agttabo ad flumina curru s ■ 
In foribus pugnam ex auro folidoque elephantOy 
Gangaridum faciamy viSforifque arma ^irini: ■ ■■■ 
Addam urbes AJia domitasj pulfumque Niphatem ; 
Fidentemque fugd Parthum^ verjifque fagittis :''''^^ 
Stabunt ^ Parii lapidesy fpirantia Jigna^ 
AJfaraci proles ^ demijfaque ab Jove gentis 
Nomina J Trofque parens^ i^ Troja Cyntbius au£lor. 

This paflage contains a magnificent allegory, in which 
C 4 the 


the poet intimates, that when he returns from Greece ht 
would perfe£l and publiih his ^neid : for this is the 
fuperb temple he intends tp ere£t in honour of Auguftus» 

^; Monumentum are perennius^ 

Rigalique Jitu pyramidum altius. HoR« 

The emperor was the chief divinity of the temple; his 
anceftprs were all to hive their ftatues erefted in it, (that 
is) were to be the principal adors in the ^neid ; and his 
viftories, like Baflb Relicvps, ^ere to adorn the glorious 
work. Catrou was the firft who hit of t}iis interpre- 
tation, which adds an infinite beauty to the pafTage. 

Nature feems to hj^/e thought, that for one perfon to 
have produced two perfeft poems, would have been too 
great a portion of famp and felicity for humanity to en- 
joy. Auguftus, returning vi&prious from thq Eaft, met 
with Virgil at Athens, who thought himfelf obliged to 
wait upon the emperor back to Italy. But he was fud- 
4enly feized with a fatal difteipper, which, being in- 
creafed by the agitation of the yefTel, he had fcarce time 
to land at Brundufium, where be diei on the twenty- 
fecond day of September, in the fifty-feqopd y^ar of hi^ 
age. What can give one fo high an opinion, both of 
his modefty and genius, as his earneftly requefting on his 
death-bed, that his ^neid might be burnt, becaufe it 
had not received his laft corrections and improvements ! 
which, to fpeak the truth, the lail fix books apparently 
want. But Mr. Upton is of opinion, that he ordered 
bis divine work to be deftroyed, not becaufe it wanted 
perfeftibn as an epic poem, but becaufe it flattered the 
fubyerter of the conftitution. 

iSilly fays fomewhat feverely, Adimc neminem cognovl 
poetantj qui fthi non optimus videretur. Tufcul. lib. I. 
/ never yet knew any poet^ who did not think himfelf the befi 
§f his profefjiorin This farcafm can be applicable to 
i>one but thofe trifling wits, who owe their complacency 


to their indelicaqr and infenfibility. Larger fouls are not 
fo eafily felf-fatisfied. Raphael frequently declared, that 
in none of his performances he had ever exprefled his no- 
tion of a perfed beauty. And Virgil's behaviour rather 
puts one in mind of what the fame Tully fays elfewhere, 
that in none of his works or orations, he was able to 
/come up to that high idea of eloquence he had conceived 
in his mind. Auguftus interpofed, and would not fuffer 
a poem that was to confecrate his name to immortality, 
to be deftroyed ; it was then bequeathed to Varius and 
Tucca, with a ftri£t charge that they {hould make no ad- 
ditions; which they fo exaAly obferved, as not to fill up 
even the hemiftichs which were left imperfed. He died 
with fuch fteadinefs and tranquillity, as to be able tm 
didate his own epitaph in the following words, 

Mantua me genuitj Calabri rapture^ tenet nunc 
Partbenope 5 cecini Pafcuoy Rura^ Duces. 

His bones were carried to Naples, according to his 
carneft req^eft, and st monument was ere&ed at a fmall 
diftance from the city. 

He was pf a fwarthy complexion, tall of ftature like 
his own MufsHS ; of a iickly and delicate conftitution, 
afflided with frequent head*achs, coughs, and fpittings 
of blood ; very temperate and abftemious in his diet, 
very regular, fober, and chafte in his morals. 'Tis a 
falfe opinion, that he was flovenly and ungraceful in hit 
habit and perfon*. He was fo bafhful, that he fre- 

* See the following pafiage in Peljmetu, Dial. 21. fag. 325. 

It feems to have been a vulgar opinion among the modems, 
(at leaft, axnong the modern commentators) that Virgil was a 
f-ough-looking, flovenly man. To overturn this opinion, I 
ihould not alledge Uriini's gem, which has fo often been called 
fihead of Virgil : both becaufe there is a great deal of reafon to 



^^ntly ran into the ihops to prevent being gazed at ii 
the ftreets of Rome ^ yet ib honouxed by the Romans, 

think, that It is falfely attributed to him; and becaufe we have 
pidnres of Virgil drawn at full length, and much lefs to be 
difpnted. What I mean are two pidures, placed before two of 
Ids Eclogues, in one of thofe old manufcripts of his works, in 
At Vatican library. You fee hira there reprefented with a fweet» 
IBftdeft countenance, and drefled particularly neat. Theie pic- 
tiwesy if you will allow of their authority, (and I know of no 
other ^t can pretend to near fb good an one) may ferve per- 
lu^pa to give us the true fenfe of an expreffion in Statius, and to 
ikve a paflage in Horace from the mifreprefentations of his com- 
mentators* Statius, in fpealdng of Virgil, applies the epithet 
of torvus to him i whence fome have been apt to imagine, that 
Virgil had a ftem or four look. But if one ought to truft more 
to this pi&ure than to the commentators, we fhould perhaps 
underftand that expreffion of his imtiags rather than of his 
perfonage, with which it will by no means agree : whereas if 
it be applied to his works, it may fignify the dignity and raa- 
jefly of them, which will agree with the context, and the occa* 
iion on which Statius ufes that expreffion, as much as in the 
other fenie it would be foreign to both. The pafiage I had 
in my eye from Horace, is where that poet is fpeaking of a man 
who had fome little faults^ mixed with nkore material excellen- 
cies, which might well enough conceal them, at lead to every 
good-natured obferver. The faults or defedb be mentions are, 
that he was a little too paffionate, fomewhat ungenteel in his 
converfation, and jU-drelTed. Here, fay the commentators, one 
fees an inflance of the fly way that Horace had of touching on 
the faults of his bed friends, even whilft he is commending 
them ; and the friend here touched upon they will have to be 
Virgil. The lines are as follows : 

Itacundior eft faulo ; minus aptus acutis 
Naribtu hprum bominum: rideri poffit, eb fuod 
Rufticius tonfo toga difiuity tsT malt laxus 

In pede calceus haret ■ 

Her. Lib. i. Sat. iii. 32. 



that coming once into the theatre, the whole audience 
rofe out of refped to him. His voice was mufical, and 
his elocution marvelloufly proper, and pathetic. He 
was of a thoughtful and melancholy temper, fpoke little, 
and loved retirement and Contemplation, and was an 
enemy to thofe talkative impertinents, from which no 
court (not even that of Auguftus) could be free. He 
had a heart full of tendernefs and fenfibility, and formed 
for all the delicate feelings of love and friendfhip. His 
fortune was not only eafy, but affluent : he had a de« 
lightful villa in Sicily, and a fine houfe and welUfur^ 
niihed library near. Maecenas's gardens on the £(qiiiUii« 
hill at Rome. 

But ah ! Maecenas is yclad in clay. 
And great Auguftus long ygo is dead. 
And all the worthies liggen wrapt in lead^ 
That matter made for poets on to play : 

fays an exquifite poet, who wanted fuch encouragement 
as Virgil met with j and who adds, in a noble ftrain, 
that, if he had been encouraged. 

Thou kenft not, Percie, how the rime j(hoiUd rage ! 
O if my temples were diftain'd with wine. 
And girt in girlonds of wild ivy-twine. 
How I could rear the mufe on ftately ftage. 
And teach her tread aloft in buflcin fine. 
With queint Bellona in her equipage \ 

Spenfer's 0£k>ber. 

Juvenal fays finely, that we jQiould have wanted the 
ftrongeft paintings, the nobleft ftrokes of imagination in 
all the iEneid, if Virgil had not been blefs'd with the 
comforts and conveniencies of life. 

Magna mentis opus^ nee de loiice paranda 
ScUicita^ currus isf equos^ faeief^ue de^rum 

AJ^iceri . 


Afpicere^ &r quails Rutulum eonfundat Erinnys. 
Hamfi Virgilto puer^ if tolerabik dejit 
H9fpiituMj caderent omhes ex crinibus hydri^ 
Surda nihil gemeret grave buccina'^^^ 

Sat. vii. vcr. 71. 

He ufed to revife his verfes with a judicious feverity, 
to di^te a great number of lines in the morning, and 
to fpend the reft of the day in coxreding them, and re- 
ducing them to a lefs numbq^. He compared himfclf 
to a (he-bear which licks her cubs into {hape. This 
was alfo the pra(Slice of our great Milton* His beha- 
viour was fo benevolent, gentle, and inofFenfive, that 
moft of his cotemporary poets (even the genus irritabiU 
vatum) tho' they envied and maligned each other, agreed 
in loving and efteeming him. Yet that age, polite as it 
was, could have furnifhed fome heroes for a Dunciad, a 
Bavius, a Maevius, and a Corvilius Pidor, who joined 
in traducing our Poet. But as an equivalent, Horace 
addreHed two odes to him, and frequently mentions him 
with particular tendernefs and efteem. In his entertain- 
ing journey to Brundufium, whither he went to meet 
Mscenas, Cocceius, Capito Fonteius, and other ac? 
complifhed wits, he tells us, 

Plotius &f Varius Sinueffa Virgiliufque 
Occurrunt ; anima quales neque candidiores 
Terra tulity neque quels me fit devinSiior alter : 
O qui complexus isf gaudia quanta fuerunt ! 
Nil ego contulerim jucundo fanus amico. 

Lib. i. Sat. 5* 

I have often thought what a delightful evening this cluf- 
ter of poetical friends muft have fpent at Sinueffa ! 

With regard to the charafteriftical difference between Vir- 
gil and Homer (on which fo many fruitlefs and furious dif- 
puteshavc been raifed) it may with truth beafErmed, that the 



former excelled all mankind in judgment, and the latter 
in INVENTION. Methinks the twof oets (fays Mr. Pope) 
lefemble the heroes they celebrate ; Homer, boundlefs and 
irrefiftible as Achilles, bears all before him, and fhines 
more and more, as the tumult increafes : Virgil, calmly 
daring like ^neas, appears undifturbed in the midft of 
the adion, difpofes all about him, and conquers with 
tranquillity. Or when we look on their machines. 
Homer fcems like his own Jupiter in his terrors, ihaking 
Olympus, fcattering the lightnings, and firing the hea- 
vens: Virgil like the fame Power in his benevolence, 
counfelling with the gods, laying plans for empires, and 
regularly ordering his whole creation. 

By way of conclufion to this life, I will add fome 
beautiful verfes, which I wonder to find omitted in all 
our late editions; as their purity and fimple elegance 
may juftly induce one to fuppofe they came from the hand 
•f Virgil. 

Dedicatiu ^neioos. 

Ad Venerem. 

Si mihi fufceptum fuerit decurrere munus^ 

O Venus y Ofedes qua eolis Idalias ! 
Troius JEneas Rotnana per oppida digno 

Jam tandem ut tecum carmine veSius eat ; 
Non ego thure modo aut paSla tua templa tabelld 

Omaboy li puris Jeria feram manibus ', 
Corniger bos aries bumiles ^ maxima taurus 

Vi£iima facrato tinget odore focos ; 
Marmoreufque tibi diverjicoloribus alis 

Interior piSfaJIabit amor pharetra j 
AdfiSy O Cytherea ! tuus te Cafar olympo^ 

Et Surrentini Uttoris ora vocat* 


C 30 1 

mt^**k*i*ittti iniiiiiii I I ■ immkiTi II II 


I f>i<rfi ti. m 1 ii m I 

V. C. Varr. 684. Cat. 682. 

J)/« Licinius Craffks. Cn. Pm^eias Magnus Cojf* 
a. C, 70. Virgilii /. 

His Coff. et quidem Idibus Ofiobribus, natum eflfe 
Virgilium tfaduftt id vnurh ortifies. Confcntiunt 
ct in hoc, Ande$, agri Mantuani vicum, ci natalc folant 
fuiiTe. Dc patre eiusque nomine vt et de matre multa^ 
ineptiunt Gramftiatfci. Patrem Virgilium Maronem, 
matrem Maiam fuiffe dubitari nequit. Nomen et Virgi- 
lius ct Vcrgilius fcribitur. Sed videamus de fingulis. 

Coff. laudatos non modo Pfeudodonatiis diferte me- 
morat, et Phocas v. 20. 21. vertim etiam Hieronymus in 
Chronic. Eufeb. p. 151, et p. 40. fed. 1658.) Virgilius 
Maro in pago , qui Andes dicitur , baud procul a Mantua , 
nafcitur^ Pompeio et Cra£o Cojf. cf. Scalig. Animadu. p. 
152 b. Nam Graeca refpicienda non funt, in quibus p. 
259 fequenti anno adfcriptum eft : B»^»x»of lyur^^ij. quod 
idem fequuntur Chronicon Pafchalef. FalH Siculi p. 184. 
C. Idatius Faftis Confular. a. 685. Apud eundem 
Hieronymum ad Olymp. 177, 3. is annus refte refertur. 
Phlegon Trallianas in Olympicorum et Chronicorum ' 
colleftione apud Photium Biblioth. XCVII. p. 267, 25. 
cd. Rothomag. vbi de Olymp. 177, 3. ««* Ow^iAioj lAu^vf^ 

Andes Hieronymus L 1. et Donatus aliique memorant. 



JInditu vico^ inquit Probus, qui abejt a Mantua tmllia 
pajfuum II L Situs btiiu^ vici mcertus eft. Mantuani 
tamen cum effc contcnduftt , qui nunc duo miHra paffiium 
ab vrbe difitus, vulgo dicitur Pctolo. v. Cluver. Ital. 
ant. p. 257. Ex more tamen fatis frequent! inter veteres, 
de quo vel Catulli exempk) conftat, qui, in infula Be- 
naci Sirmione flatus, Veronenfis appellatur, Virgiliiori- 
gines ad Mantuam ij^fam referuntur, vt ab ipfo poet^ 
fa£tum eflie videtur Ge. lit, 10. alia aliorum loca v. ap. 
Cluuer. 1. 1. Venetum appcllat apud Macrobium Euangc- 
lus. Sat. V, 2. fed cum ifriftone, vt fcilicet tanto magrs 
^cum a cuitu Graecarum litterarum aKenmn fingefct; 
nifi fecundum pofterioris Venetiae fines di£tum exiftimes ^ 
qui ad Adduum vfque flumen extcndcbantur. I%ocas 
Grammaticus in Vita Virgil. 21. Vatem Etrufcum appcl- 
lat, et V. 5. Aemula Virgiliumtellus niJiTufca dedijfet. Poffit 
id ad origines Mantuac referri3 fed vix tarn dodlc fcribere 
voluit Phocas. 

De Idibus 0<Sh>br. non modo ex Phlegonte 1. 1. verum 
ctiam ex Martiak XII, 6&i conftat : O^oires Maro cm" 
fecrauit Idus. Adde Aufon. Idyll. V, 26. A viris doc« 
tis eas inter dies feftos habitas fuifie, cum ex illis locis 
apparet, turn Silii Italic! exemploapud Mitt. Epift. Ill, 7. 
multum vbique — imaginum , quas non habehat modo , verum 
etiam venerabatur ; VirgiKi ante emnes , cuius natalem re^ 
Ugiofius quam fuum celebrabat. Natum Virgilium, ami 
Sol ex Virgine in Chelas receptus eflet, h. in locuoL 
Librae deinceps deftinatum, Phocas v. 21. 22. memorat. 
Augufti aeuo Sol Libram adibat Kal. XII O&obr. 

De fcriptura nominis digladiati funt inter k cum 
veteres turn recentiores Grammatici. Lapides et codices 
vtrumque exhibent. Etiam Graeci modo Ow^ix»<K modo 
Out^ioq fcribunt: et VergUius^ Mediceus, Picrii Ro- 
manus , et vetuftilfimum Fragm. Afpri apad Benedi6Hnos 
ifauv. Tr, di Diplomat. T. III. p. 152* Ccterum vide, 
fi tanti eft, Corrad. in Vita Virgilii pr. adde quos 



laudat Fabric. Biblioth. lat. Vol. 11. p. 226. Burm^tiih 
V. C. Antholog. T. I. p. 399. Pierius, Ccrda, Bur-» 
man. ad Virgil. Gc. IV. cxtr. Ruaeus Vita Virgilii ptj 
Nomini in veteribus nonnuUis libris Partbenius additur. 

Parentes Virgilius honeftos quidem, quales nobile» 
noftros villaticos , fed tamen obfcuros et in agro fuo co^ 
lendo vitaci agentes habuit. Vnde dudum illud ap. Ma« 
crob. V, ?• Fndi enim Veneto ruftici$ parentibus nato^ inter 
Jiluas ei frutices edu^Oy vel leuis Graecarum notitia littera^ 
rumi cum ironia di<3um, vt fignificet, immo vero longe 
snaximam fcientiam ei fuifTe. Quod autem figulum pa- 
trem efTe narrant , id vereor ne inepti monachi a filio 
carmina fingente duxerint : vti altera narratio de patre 
mercenario non aliunde nata, quam quod Tityrum in 
prima Edoga Virgilii patrem nonnulli tradiderant. 

V. C. 689. 
£• Aurelius Cotta. £. Manlius TorquatuSf 
a. C. 65. VirgiUi |. 

Q. Horatius Flaccus nafcitur VI. Id. Decemb. Sueton. 
in ei. Vita. g 

V. C. 696. 

i. Calpurnius Pifo. A. Gabiniuu 
a. C. 58. rtrgilii H* 

Hieronymus in Chron. Eufeb. p. 151 ad Olymp^ 
' 180, 3. adeoque h. a. Virgilius Cremonae Jludiis eruditur. 
Aliter Donatus § 6. Profe£lum tamen hinc efle vidctur, 
quod recentiores nonnulli fcriptores de ludo litterario 
publico, qui Romanorum tempore Cremonae floruerit ^ 
m^morant, v. c. Ludou. Cauitellius Cremonenf. Annal. 
p. 1262. A. T. III. Thef. Ant. Ital. 

De magiftris Virgilii vix quicquam certi tradi poteft. 
Quae flue Grammaticorum iidei , flue dodorum virorum 
coniei^ris debentur, ad Donatum reieda funt ad § 7 et 


PEk ANNb'S DiGfeS^A. yj 

Cctcrum^ ctii de magiftris Virgilii ct difciplirta non 
Tatisconftet, ct cum obfcuro loco natum-fcffe fatis ap- 
))areat j liberali tamcn inftitutionc eum vfum et cum virig 
dodis et clcgantiblis verfatum effe , tota ingcnii dus in 
carminibus exprcfla vcnuftas fatis prodit. Ex humili 
cnim et fordida vita et confuetudine nemo facile generofi 
poetae fpiritus fumit* 

V. G. 699. 

Cn. Pompeius Magnus IL M. Licinius Craffus lU 

a. C. 55. Virgilii t|. 

Hoc anno virilem togam fumfit VirgiUus, fi* vcnim 
eft, quod a Donato § 6. memoratur, iifdem:^ quibuft 
natus erat, Coff. id fadum effe, Et anno fere XV vel 
XVI ea fumebatur. v. Norif. Cenotaph. Pifan. p. 115 
fq. et paflim alios, vt Maflbn. in Vita Horatii et Ouidii. 

V. C* 761. 

Cn* Domiiius Caluinus. M> Valerius Mijfala^ 

a. C. 53. Virgilii Hk 

Hieronymus Chron. Eufeb. ad Olymp. 181,-4.: f7r* 
Xilius fumta toga Mediolanum tranfgrediiur : et poft hreui, 
^empus RoTnam pergit. At Donatus § 7 : Sed Virgiliui 
Cremona Mediolanum y et inde pauHo pojl Neapolin tranjiit-^ 
fe in Vrbem cohtuUt* Vter verius dixerit, quts definire 
aufit ? Forte ne Romam quidem omrtino turn adiitj aut, 
fi adiit, in agrum fuum mox fe contulit, quod inter 
' belli ciuilis initia fadum efie probabile fit. 

V. C. 709* 

C. iuliui Caefar W. fini Collega. ' 

a, C. 45. Virgilii |y. 

JlexiH hoc anno fcriptum coniicit, primam ccrte 

omnium Eclogarum fuiffe coritendit Martinus in vita 

Virg. p. XXXIV et ad Eel. V, 86. Ex verbis cniAl 

huius eclogae : Hac te nos fragili donabimus ante acuta i 

• VoL^I. D Haec 

34 P- VIRGItll VITA 

Haecms^ Fomufum Corjdon ar debut Alexin ^ Hate eadem 
dtcuit: C^iHmp^cusj an Miliboei? eclogam fecundam et 
tertiam ante quintam fuiile fcriptam apparet. Videtur 
gutem quinto anno 712 edita efle, vt mox videbimus^ 
ytadeo hoc certe anno anterior fit Alexis. lam autem 
Martinus et hoc ponit^ Virgilium Caefari notum fuifTe, 
idque baud dubie carmine aliquo, quod ipfum carmen 
jflexin fuiile fufpicatur, adeoque in hunc annum reiicit; 
fequenti enim anno occifus fiiit Caefar. Vides, vt fuf- 
picio ex Aifpicione neAi foleat. £flt tamcn Eclogae II 
cum argumentum tum tota tra£Utio , quod facile, fi fen- 
fyaa tuum^ non opinionem, audias, eiufmodi, vt noQ 
facile, iiifi in iuuenile ingenium , cadere poi&t. 

V. C. 710. 
C. luHus Caefar V* M. AnUnuis. 
a. C. 44. Virgilii ||. 
Idibus Martiis Caefar occiditur. Varia poft eius 
mortem, prodigia, ihpHmis Sol toto anno pkllidior. v. 
Plutarch* Caef. extr. Eacommemorat Virgilius Ge. I, 
466. fqq- vbi cf. not. Odauius teftaoiento Caefaris ex 
dodrante heres inftitutus et in familiam Caeiaris nomen- 
que adoptatus Apollonia Romam rediit, cum autem An- 
jtonium iniquiorem in fe efTe videret » Optimatibus kk 
adiunxit* ApoUoniae , quae Epiri vrbs eft, quo a Cae- 
fare ad Parthos profe«2;ar.o-praemiirus fuerat, fubftiterat, 
fiudiisque vacauerat. Sueton. OtStau. c. 8« 

V. C. 711. • 
C Vibius Panfa. jt. Hlrtius. 
C. luliui Caefar OShiuianus. ^ Pedius fuffeai. 
a. C. 43. VtrgilH |J. 

vs BelliixaJylutinenfc, quo, cum totam Galliam Ctfal- 
jpipanvi tum agrum.Mantuanum^ adeoque Virgilii pof- 
iiiil^qii^; yalde aiRi£tas fuifie necefle eft. Ex V. Kal. 
JQt^Q9hj..M« Ircpidus, M^ Anton^iyj^j^ C«. Caefar Ocr 
^ ,,■; Uuianus 


tauianus Triumuiros reij^. cohftitueildae iti qftlnque afmo^ 
fe retiuntiant, profcriptoruih tabulas propohui^t^ intci: 
quos a% d% VIL Id. Dec^ Cicero occiditlttri !' 

In prouinciarum diftributione^ quum Africam, Si« 
ciliatn ^ Sardinian! reliquasque eius mans infulas Caefar 
O^uianus, Hlfpanias cum Gallia Narbonenfi Lepidus, 
rcliquas Gallias Antorlius obtinuiflTet, v. Appian. Ciiiil. 
IV. p. 953. 954^ ager Mantuanus M. Ahtofin foftl ac« 
iftflerat. Miferat hie in has terras Afihium' Polliohem, 
qui vfque ad a* 714 Galliam Cifalt>iham in Antonii fide 
continuity cf. inf. ad 713%' 

Ad hunc porro annum Pataemomtn^ Eclogadi III 
fcfert Marti Aus Lip of Virgil 1^. XLIV clad Eel. V, 
86* quoniam in ea Pollio et primus et folus poetae taudi** 
bus omatur. Ex iis, quae modo difta funt, coniefhirani 
elegantiffimi viri alioqui leuiffimam firmi&re ()ofli$) certe ho^ 
Impctrare^ mature in Afinii Pollionis notitiaih yeniffe poe- 
tarn, cum is per cos annos in illis Italiae partibiis de- 
gcret. Cur mihi inter prima poetae tentartirna referenda 
^ideatur Ecloga III. ea eft cauffa, quod iuuettilfem'rtiedi- 
fatidncm ct exercitationem non obfcure prodat ; eft enirrf 
ex Thcocritcis Idylliis IV et V vnice coiiuerfa aUI^ 

, Iulit> Cacfari Virgilium innotuiffc ct carum fuifle^' 
ex Eel. V, 52. '4imauit no$ quoque Daphnis i contenduntj' 
Daphnidem cnim luUum Caefarem efle volunt» cf. ibid* 
argument, item Martinum in Vita Virgil, p. XXXIV! 
et adEcK V, 52. Idem vir dodus verfum ilium ad' 
ftudmm Caefariar in Mantiianos referebat, quibus, curh' 
ceteris GaUiae Tranfp^danac vrbibus, ciuitiatem dedxffc 
mertiomti>ii> XEI, 36. 

Ld^jida Oranfmadcoittm fabuk eft de Ecloga fexta , 

in ih^ikro aCythende nUfha cantata^ quam cum Cicerd 

audirct'^ raaguflnrh Vfrgilii famam pracfagiffc fertur. v» 

Donat. § 41; 8eru.>dEcL VI, 11; 

Hocanno^.ad^ 3^k'Ki!; Apnl. (XX/Martii) Om« 

s . i Da diut 

.36 .' p. VIRGILII VITA 

.dius luitus eft ; nee multo ante Propertius ; Tibullus autem 
iam ; ante 705 natus erat; quanquam alii eius natales ad 
a. 690. Propcrtii autem ad a- 697 refcrre volunt. 

V. C. 712. 

M. Aimilius Lepidus IL i. Munatius Plancus^ 

a. C. 42. Virgiliiil. 

Triumuirl Caefari diuinos honores decernunt. Kat. 
lanuariis i^ eius a£U iurant. Sacellum ei tanquam hergi 
in ' foro faciunt^ et quae id genus plura apud Dionem 
XL VII, 1 8. 19 mertiorantur. A quo inde tempore 
Diuifilius Odauianus dici coepit y de quo nomine fatis 
copiofe agit Heinf. ad Aen. VI, 793. Anno fere exeunte 
pugnatur ad PhilippoS in ea Macedoniae parte fltos, 
quae olim ad Thraciam pertinebat. Brutus et Caffius fe 
fua manu interficiunt. M. Antonius ad res Afiae confti- 
tuendas difcedit. 0<Ebuianus in Italiam redit , ad agros 
et praemia inter veteranosdiftribuenda. 

Ad Caefaris confecrationem nobiles illi verfus fpec- 
tant Aen. I, 290. 294. Nafcetur puJchra Troianus origins 
Cae/ar tic* et VI, 790. hie Caefar^ et otnnis luli Prc^ 
genies magnum caeli venturafub axem* 

De eadem confecratione feu apotheofi cum agere 
vulgo exiftimetur Daphnisy Ecloga.V. Martino Life of 
Virgil p. XLVI et ad Eel. V, 86. 20. 52. IX , 10. hoc 
ipfo anno ea fcripta fuifie videtur ; vt adeo 06biuiano 
Caefari iam turn commendatus efTe videri debeat; id quod 
hoc ipfo. carmine factum coniic^t Martinus ib. p. LI. 
Si mihi haec conie&ura de anno , quo fcripta fit Ecloga 
V. firmanda eiTet , aliud aliquanto firmius argumentum 
afferre poffem. In IX Eel. v. 19. 20. ^is eaneret 
nymphasf quis htantan florentibus her bis Sparger etf out vi- 
riMfontes induceret vmbraf baud dubie ad Eel. V, 20* 
40 refpieitur ; earn itaque nona, quam a* 713 fcriptam 
ofle liquido conftat , priorem efie., neceflfeeft. 
. Pc pugna ad PhtlippQjS v» Qe;.l > ^9 fqq. 



V. C. 713. 

P. Seruilius Vatia Ifauricut IL : In Am%mus. 
a. C. 41. Virgilii H* 
Oaauianus Caefar Romam rcucrfus ihim-^^itcrahis 
praemia peAbluere eosque in agros 'municipales Italiae 
a Triumviris promiflTos dcducerc inftituit, ingchtes |icr 
Italiam turbas, partim eonim, qui jpofleifionibus fuis 
ciiciebantur, indignatione, partim militum eiFreni cupi- 
ditate et audacia , de qua v. Appian. p. 1082 fqq* 
Dioncm Caff. XLVII, 17. cxcitari vidct. Qua dc re 
v. Argumentum EcL I. LatifEme autem calamitas ilia 
et ad quamplurimos pertinere debuit^ maximaeque foN . 
tunarum conuerfiones videntu^ effe infequutae, vhde et 
#* Antonius apud Appianum p. 1075 dicere potult^ OA4- 
uianum in Italiam iffe, fi res dicenda fit, tamquanl 
omnem Italiam fedibus fuisemoturum, a9«r{^i^»Tq»*trA7U«f, 
Vix enim eft ex ea aetate poeta, aut fcriptor, qui noh 
communi clade afflidum fe memoret. Hinc Tibullt 
plix quondam y nunc paufer ager^ I, i, 19- 23* cJP. IV, 
I, 1837X90. Propcrtius de fc IV, r, 129. Nam tua 
• tumn^ulti verfarent rura iuuendy Abftulit excultas pertica 
iriftis opes* Valerius Cato in Diris v. 45. Pertica ^ quae 
nofiris metata e/l impia agellos. Dum Fuluia, M. Anto^ 
nii vxor, coloniarum dedu^onem in viri aduentum dif* 
ferendam* efie contendit, L. Antonius, Marci frater, 
Conful, nouas et ipfe res molitur, et partim iis, qui 
praediis et agris fuis exciderant, opem fuam pollicehdo, 
partim Caeiarem ad veteranos criminando, magnuiti 
exercitum comparat, bellumque in Caefarem mouet. 

In ilia agraria largitione (non enim ^ aliam trahi 
poffe, quamquam res probatione vix eget, Ruaeus pr6* 
bauit ad Virgilii Vitam 713) etiam Virgilius agros fuos 
paternos amifit. Etfi enim Mantuani nihil in Triumuiro* 
commiferant, magna tamen agrorum fuonim parte tnul* 
tati funt, quoniam, vt aiiint, Cremonenfiumyjiui Bra* 
ti et Caffii partes fequuti eranti agri proferiptr Vetera- 

D 3 nonim 


norum cohortibus, qusf co dcduflac erant, ncn fuffi- 
ciebant. ■ Jaja^ VirgLliuin Roaram profedum O^uiani 
liberalitate agros fuos xecipifft^ cum autcm Maittuam 
rtdiiffctj i^>uam vctcraftorMm jjiiuriam expertum effc, ex 
]Eclog^ I (t I^ /atis apparet. ConfumH Marcialis 
VIII, ^6. lugera . perdidirat (Virgiliu^) mlferife v}cina 
Crmong^^ jpleiat ^ abdu^as Tityrta Odger oua. JRiJtt 
Tufcusifuesttc. Vidcainujs nunc ea, qua^ a Qramma* 
tici§, p^.cjpc^ue fide inaerta, ttradun^ur. 

$i S(|mi^is.lacinii$ 2,i £.cl. I^ , 7. fides habenda, in hx$ 

It^iap pajrtil^us O^Sfauius Mufa , Umitajtor ai Augujlo da-- 

(^f^gf^ff^Mm millia. f^im ffgri Mantu^ni militibus 

f^l^najratj cui^ Cr^emoiff^fii nanjuffiant:^ offenfus a Mam^ 

iuanii^ ^m^dp/cora eiuy in. ,agro publico aliquando daufiffmU < 

jJ^lpb^OUA^ tamen Varuqpi jnctatorem edit alia in iisdem 

aitcrius,. vt videtur, G/c^unnwtici lacinia ad v, lo. ^^i 

alii dif^pt l^JrgiliHm pjlen^ir^ voluiji, qpiod M<intuanjs^ fir 

ff^il¥i^t€m ^pheni Kari^ qui ,agrof diuiftt y pr^H^ paluf* 

iriq ni^bil reliSiumfit'y ficut e^ 9r4^Uone Cornelii in Alphinum 

^ojUnditur : *^ Cuoi iu^us tr<a millia p^flus a muro in 

" dinerfa relinquere, vt oAingcntos paiTus aquae qua 

** circuaidata dl, admetjr^i^, reliquifti." Praeclaj-uf 

jpquS) 9>odo nq^ e^t mutilus. Afioium PoUioncm i^ 

bi$ ^fxmxuni impcjcio cITq fiipra vidimus, Et fane hunc 

difiri^uendiii agris praefujiT^} sJia Serulanae compilatiptij^ 

jlop affijr;nant:.?d £cL 11, i^ feUi^y fui^o tevipct^ 

^ranfp§dQ»am IPfUat pari^fp^kfit it f^ris praarat diui^ 

dfiudis,, Et Donat^^ i^ ViUt Virgilii § 36: ific PoUip 

Trajffpfid^nqm prouift^iat^ r4g<kat.t curw fr^TU ^Mm V.ef 

iff^Mifr-^agri dijiribuifrtntur^ fnn Firgili^s non amifit. 

^i^d^.A^ij^: 4y^riliUfioni.yfiffs,fiu Cl^udid fin Jrrio datos 

-rfff^P^f^uit. Hon fyclUr ijtf qvQ aifequaris > quemadmodum 

;.44ffltfl?CT^W™ *d AJrfeftW V vuiis^ ipfewi ^iis in locis 

-fififffcir^^'fr'^ ^ '^ ^W> ^xp^R^lient, io. quibus Air 

-feBPfuY^f .?9?^^* ^f9l^ fupccAfe Undityr^ Ser«» 


fugaU , legatus TranJ^adanis fraepojaus eft ab Augufto \ et ad 
Eel. VI, b* Alii fufo fugnUqui AftniQ Pellione ^ ab Auguft^ 
Alfitium Varum Ugatum fubflittdum , qui Tranfpadanae pro* 
uinciat et agris diuidindis fraeiffii y qui curauitj ne ager^ 
qui Virgilio rejiituiui fuerat , a veteranis auferntur. Ha- 
bere no8 putabo aliquid , quod fequi poffimus , modo 
Pollionem eo anno fugatum eife probabile fieri poterit. 
Erat is M. Antonii amicus ; et ftatim a triumuiratus inde 
padione V. C. 711. Galliae Cifalpinae ab Antonio prae* 
fedus fuerat. (cf. Martin, p. XLIII). hoc anno, 71J 
Odtauiani copias ab Alpium tranfitu prohibuifie memo- 
ratur, v. Appian. p. io88. ef in bello Perufiano eius fit 
inter duces Antonianosmentio, qui Saluidienum e Galliis 
Odauiano copias adducentem perfequebantur, et L. 
Antonio fuppetias ferre cun£labantur, ibid* p. 1097 fqq« 
Quum L. Antonius anno fequenti fe dedidiflet , cum iis, 
quas habebat, copiis PoIIio profe£his eft, vt Antonio' 
in Italiam venienti occurreret \ in itinere Domitium cum 
topiis fibi adiunxit. v. Appistn. p. 11 13. 1114. Vellei. 
II, 76. Nam PoUie Afinius cumfeptem legionibus diu re* 
tenta in poteftafe Antonii Venetia^ magnis fpeciojisque nbtu 
circa Altinum aliafque eius regionis *vrbcs editis Arttonium 
pettns , vagum adhuc Domitium — iunxit Antonio. Potuit 
itaque inter has rerum viciffitudines fieri , vt PoUio ex 
a^is Tranfpadanis expelleretur. 

Haberet hoc aliquam veri fpeciem j fed turn in Alfeno 
Varo nouae difficultates oriuntur, quern nobilem ICtum 
male nobis Grammatici in haec teitipora intrudere viden- 
tur. V. ai^m^i Eel. VI. fi tamen fatis fe vel de quocun- 
que alio Varo ea narratio probauerit, tum alius ex Serui- 
ano centone locus non tam falfi conuincitur, quam 
innuerc videtur , plures in iis regionibus Triiftnuirorum 
negotia ciiriEifre : ad Eel. VI. 64. Gallup-^qui et a Trimn^ 
ftiris praepofitm fuit ad exigendas pecunias ab his municipiisj 
quorum agri in Tranfpadana regionenon diuidebantur. Gc- 
tenim vides y hie omnem illam liceMiam iam tum viguifle, 

D 4 quam 


quam nos fuperiori bello novo aliquo militum acumffie^ 
ad defpoliandos homines increbruifTe putabamus. 

Virgilium Romam ^i^cedentem , nam ipfum Romam 
abiiflTe, ex iis, quae Tityrus de jfe naifrat Eel. I, 20 fqq^. 
contendunty vt agros recup^raret, 0£buiano Caefari 
oommendatum efTe, omnes fere tradun^; fed alii ab Afinio. 
Pollione, v. Seru. ad £cl. IX,. ii. Donat.Vit. § 36. alii 
ab Alfeno Varo , alii a 'Gal)o, vt niodo vidimus, cf. 
Donat* § 30. 96. alii cum Martiale VIII, 56* ni(i is 
craffius loquutus eife videri ppteft , a M^ecenate id fa&um 
efle memorant. Scilicet, vt iam Ruaeo yifum eft, ciinx 
Pollioni primum poeta innotuifiet, ab hoc Maecenati 
commendad, huiusque ftudio in Ofbuiani amicitiam ve- 
nire potuit. Sed fatis eft', fl teneas, poetam his viris. 
omnibus mature gratum et carum fiiiiTe. 

Recuperato agro, Eclogamloco, non tempore primam^ 
fi fupra memorata re<Sle fe habent, fcriptam efte, dubitari ne- 
quit. Obtinet tamen vulgaris opinio, anno hoc 713. aetatis 
29* eum Bucolica fcribere aggrefTum efie. Quod quidem 
confilium poetam Pollipnis m^xime au£toritate et hortatu 
fufcepifle , inter Grammaticos fama tenet, y* Ponat. Vit. 
§ 36. lidem ex loco primo , quern Ecloga Tityrus tenet,^ 
omnium etiam tempore primam fcriptam, et calamitate 
amiffi agri addu3um Virgilium primum poeticen aggrefr 
fum (v. Phocas v. 67 fqq. Donatus § 91 etc.) effe puta- 
bant^ fcilicet vt ne vnus aliquis poeta eftet, quem non 
fames ct miferia ad, verfus fcribendos pepuliiTet. 

Cum Virgilius Mantviam re^ux agros fuos a veteranis 
qui eos occuparant , vindicai^et , noHam i(iiuriam accepit^ 
vt adeo fuga vitae confulere necefle haberet. Patet id ex 
£cl. IX, quam turn Roipam, vt aiunt,^ regreflus, vt 
denuo 0£hiuiani ppem imploraret, Varo obtuliiTe videri 
poteft ; quanquam in ipfq cs^rmine nihil ea de re praeter. 
honoriiicam Vari mentionem v. 27.35* occurrit. v. Argum« 
Eel. IX. Non male hoc R^aeus ipfa carminis forma ^ 
qwc fubjt9u:iam operam fatis prodit, ^onfirmari puut^. 


Menalcan in eo ckrtnine.Virgilium intelligendiim' dft ^ 
iam Quindilianus.moimit Inft. VIU) 6^47< Vetert-r. 
nus, cuius audaciaeet furori Virgilius vix fiiga fe fubduoere 
potuit , ab aliis Arrius centurio , ab aliis Clodius,- a Pioba 
. Milenus feu Milienus Toro primipilaris fuiflb traditur^ 
Sed de his difputationem ad Doiiatufa§[ 3i:feieciinu8f 

Iniuriam banc poetam non niii AfiniQ* PoUione fu-» 
gato, expertum efie, narratur in Seru. ad £cl. . IX » zzc' 
^uoy PoUionc^ fugaio y rurfui de praedtis fuii futrat Vit'^ 
gilius ixpulfus. • i 

Si quaeras , qua ratione poeta iterum in agros fUoi- 
jeduSus fuerit , Seruium habes Comment, in Bucol. pr*. 
§ 14 narrantem : Pxfftea ab Augufl^ mijjis triumuiris , it ipfi 
integer ager ejl redditus , et Mantuanii pro parte. In quam, 
fententiam idem ibid, interpretatur verfus 11 fqq. Eclr 
IX. Vix tamep illud* hoc ipfo. anno fieri potuit , quo 
bellum Peruiinum exarfit, quo late Jtalia conflagraret i* 
itaque rebus demum padione Brundifina a. 714 compofitia» 
|d efle UQxLtSi , reAius ponit Martinus p. LI. 

Mantuanis autem fimul in Virgilii gratiam agrorum 
partem reftitutam fuifle , fatis probabile fit ex £cK IX ^ 
y— 10. cf, Scru. ad. V. 10. . . 

V. C. 714, 

Cn. Domitius Caluinus IL C. Afiniut PoUio. 

SuiFe£li fub exitum anni : * 

L. Cornelius Balbus. P. Canidius. 

a. C. 40. Virgilii }?• 

Bellum Perufinum. O^uianus L. Antonium Peni* 

fiamque vrbem deditione accipit. Cum» M. Antonii in 

Italiam aduentu, maxima omnium, ne bellum recrudef*' 

^eret, follicitudo eflet, L. Cocceio, communi amico, 

cum vtroque agente, e^ Maecenate et Pollione adbibitisy 

^ Apod Gruter. p. C. 8. Marmor vifitor, a. d. IV. I4« 
9£tp)»r. ^iif Donutio ct C. Afinio Coff. inigiptiim. 



^Afptm^p. fyii6. DioXLVTI, a8. ) pace BnnKTrfimi , 
amidtia inter Odatiianuin et Amonium icerum cwluft ^ 
sd qam-tantoiiiagis firmandam M. Antonius O&auiam, 
OAadiani (omiM^ cuiasmavittt&iiuperobieiaft^vxorefit 
dmnt; M0K cum Sext. PoMpeius, qui claffibu« mue^ 
tenebatyiceinmeiil^ Tvbem intercludo'et,' fame vrgente, 
de^pace cum^ Sexta agi eoeptutn eft. lam quae- ex his 
litius arnii -afiUs ad •Virgililia& pertiaeaiil , paullcr caraciu9' 
Tfdeaituia* • 

Perufia capta, tota fimul Gallia Cifalpina cum «cli- 
ifoisi Galtiis 6t iiifpaniis ia Caefiuds ditionem Tenit.v. 
Appiimi j^ vi 14 «xtE» kaqve turn demum Vixgilao agro* 
Hi^y p•(^«la8ieo8•ltcnimanu(el^, reftitutos eAe> cre^ 
dne^ liaet. • Teftifieandae faac betitiae grataeqite volun- 
titim opnSz' ia Van hotiorem y cuius opera jfecundum 
£ott IX y 7/1 fqif. ea xes perfefia foerat 9 Edogtan-fextam 
tvna feriptam efle^ opinatur Martinus Life of Virgil 
fiUil €t p« r49« Focfe,* cpn fioctam. omniiim prknoi 
loco fcriptamiefiediccreiU, DonatHS in Vita ^ loa aai*- 
nft;. ibt eoo-mala primv yerfiis : Prima Syrac^fa Sigmta 
^/«^/r# v/i^-^acceptioae indudos fulfie Tix dubites^ 
Aliam rationcm , quare ante Tltyrum Silcnus fcriptu» 
efle debuerit, Catrocusex eo petebat, quoniam fecundum 
DonatumetSecuium a Cytheride in fcena Cicerone adhuc 
audiente ea recitat^i fuerit. Sfc earn ante a. 711 quo Ci- 
cero ex profcriptione interfcdus eft , editam fuifie, neceffe 
eflfet. At dc'Cicerone illam Eclogam rccitari audienta 
explofa iam fupra ad Donat. § 4^ eft' fabula. 
^ Ad fif nuind}^ pacem Brundifii inter Cacferem et M. 
A^toriiuni YiSbxii 0"£tauiam Antonio in matrimoniam da- 
tam efle diximus. v. Dio XLV|tr> 31. Appian. p. 1126 
Iqcj. Erat ' autenu O^aufa e pridre marito, C. Cteudfo 
Marcello, grauida, vtDio 1. 1, memorat. Clxiu^lauda- 
fip^ae,fej55llfteV*t*^^q^^ BayKum, ncc non Frodi- 
cfiiufri in'Mahttffa Numihh. raf. in "ffiorir SytnftoHs^lilt; 
T. VU p/ li^rviiiTTberii Cikarls nuinus t^dt Oanutixf 
'" ■-. -^ ct 


•t Attgufti ore cxhibctur) coirfUici et pmifebfea cum omifM 
boni pacem et coneordiato ttockm ftabilrdim et fipmiAmo 
vinculo coagmenutam crcdcrent , cumqiie^tts <rui» Ah^ 
tonio coniugium magna pdpuli laetitia et acckmafieiie^ 
•xceptum effet, vidctur fane £r%tfr /F'aJ^mchtam et 
fcriptio ad h. a. referenda eflc, vt infans iUe nafciturus, 
cuius in co cstrmine tarn prraeckra fata ominatur poett ^ 
nullus alius fit, quani is, qucm Oftania turn vtero ge- 
rebat. Quamuis autem difficile fit dicere, quomodo d^ 
Marcelli pofthumo , fiue is ex Catroei , Mactini et Spencit 
opinione Pblymct. p. 189. 86. idem iile M. Marcdhw', 
qui immatara morte V. C. 731 obiit, (ad quern anmim 
vide) fiue alius minor natu fuit , tot et tanta ad fumrnancf 
rerum fpedantia augurari turn aliquis potuerit ; cumf 
tamen in£ui8 ille ex O^auiani forore natrus et ab Antonicr 
aliquando adoptatus, de quo forte iam turn comienerit^ 
ad fummas opes perucnturus efle videretur , potuit pocti 
laetitiae publicae impetum fequi , et rem fententiis exot& 
nare et amplificare, quas poetrca ratio fuppeditabat, in^ 
prhnis, quum $ibyllinum oraculum, quod fequeretur; 
haberet, et Sileiio, quaedicebat, tribueret. Hoc ccrtc 
.anno, pace iam confe£b, Edogam banc fcriptam efle, 
Jubitari nequit ; quum Pollioni Coofuli infcripte fit v. 
•3. II. 12. orfee iam pacata v. 17. Cf. Argum. illius Eo- 
logae vbi et illud notatum, male multps arbitrari, Pol- 
lioni filium natum eo carmine poetam gratulari. Secun^ 
dum hos Hicronymiis Chron. Eufeb. MKIXXX dixiti 
€. j^ius Gallnsy* Oratar y Aftnil PoUionls filius^ duni^ 
ettam Virgilius mcminit, dirts a Tiherio fuppliciis w^ 
iMkr, " 

' NoR^ modo Brundifinam , verum etiam Puteolanam 
paeem iam tum confr£lam fuifi!e , quum ea Ecloga fcri- 
beretur ^ Rruaeus cum* aliis memorat , vt vere totus ocbis 
pacatus videri pofiet; Enimuero n^n nifi ineunte anno 
ibqutnii, qitumadeo PolKo iamdudum C'onfulatu abierat, 
ilia pak-^compofita^ ^um Csiefaf et Antoniuf Fom« 



iieium apud Mifenum conueniflent» v. Oio XL VIII , 
^i extr. 36. Nam Appian\is temponim ordinem non 
tads accurate fequitur , quumetiam poft ifta p* 1135 extr. 
ta commemorety quae anno fuperiore perada fuerant. 

Antequam Antonius aduerfus Parthos proficifcebatur^ 
exercitus in hibernadeducendi partem aduerfus Parthinos, 
p^ulumJllyricum, qui loca circa Epidamnum infidebat » 
ct Bruti cauflTae eximie fauerat, mittit. v. Appian. p. 
J 1 35. Praefecerat iis copiis Pollionem , qui rem in iis 
terris egregie geffit , et anno fequente triumphum de Par- 
thinis egic. v. Dio XLVIII , 41. et ib. notam Fabric. 

Quo in itinere aduerfus Parthinos cum Pollio eflet^ 
Pharmaceutria , quae eft Ecloga VIII. ei a Virgilio mifia 
fuifle videtur. Namque v. 6. Tu mihi feu magni fuperas 
iflmjaxa Timauij Sine or am Illyrici Ugis aequoris, cf. ibi 
Botas. Ruaeus in reditu Pollionis fcriptum carmen efle 
putabat, id quod verborum et fententiarum ordini re- 
pugnat. Qui enim a Timauo ad Ulyricum procedit , is 
profedionem in Ulyricum facere debet , non in Italiam 
redlre. Pollionis etiam iuflu Eclogam perfcriptam efle^ 
V. II. ia« apparet: iujjis carmnaf^iptatuh^ 

V. C. 715. 
£• Marcius Cenforinus. C. Caluijius SaUnut. « 

a. C. 39. VirgiUi\i* 

A. d. VIII. Kal. Nouembr. C. Afinius Pollio ex 
I^arthinis triurfaphat. Fafti Capitol. Chronic. Eufeb. etc* 
Eft is triumphus Dabnaticus. cf. Flor. IV^ 12. ii. Horat. 
Carm. II, i, 15. 16. De captis a PoUione Salonis^ 
palmatiae vrbe v. Poiphyr. ad e. 1. et Sent, ad Eel. III. 
88. IV, I, VIII, 12. cf. PighiiAnnaL h. a. De filio 
Pollionis, Salonino, feu Salonico, qui tamen nuUus fuit, 
(ed nepos, eo nomine, v. Ruaeus ad £cU IV, pr.. 

Dum Pollio in apparatu triumphi cum maxime eflet, 
tertlam Eclogam a Virgilio fadam ex v. 84 fqq* PolU^ 
mnat noflram etc. ingeniofc QoUigit Roaeust vt de vidi^ 



mis triumphalibus in iis verfibus agatur. Sed vide fupm 
adV. C. 711. 

Hoc anno Horatium Maecenati a Virgitio et yari# 
commendatum efle , Sanadonius de coniedlura ponit, ex 
Horat. Sat. I, 6, 55. quod forte maturius fafiiinn, fi 
Weflelingii iententia Obff. II » 15. vera eft) vere buiua 
anni) cumAntonius Athenis Brundifium appuliflet, vt 
condida die cum Caefare colloquium haberetj ab Agrip* 
pact Maecenate^ qui eo accurrebant, Horatium ^ Vir* 
gilium, Plotium ac Varium adduAum fuifle. Qua de m 
v. Horat. Sat. I. 5. Egrejfum magna etc. inprimis v. 40, 
Alii ad colloquii Tarenti habiti^trmpus a. 717 referunt* 
v. Maflbn. vita Horatii ad 716. quod et ip{\xm Vimo Urn- 
fori incidiu v. Appian. p. 1149* vt adeo Wefflelingio cuf 
adftipuler, nondum habeam. 

V. C. 716. 
Jpp. Claudius Pulcber. C. Norhanuf FUmus* 
^ a. C. 38. rirgilii 45. 

Bucolicis hoc anno finem impofitum et Eclogam ade^ 
X confcriptam efle , Ruaeus cum aliis exiftimat ; ea fci« 
licet cauiTa indudus, quod Grammatici intra triennium 
Bucolica abfoluta fuifle memorant. v. Donat. Vita § 36. 
Phocas V. 95* Scd hominum illorum vanitas cum rerum 
argumentis tum iis ipfis, quae aliis locis repugnantia tra- 
dunt) facile arguitur. Nihil itaque commento illi iam 
Martinus tribuit in Life of Firgil p. LXIV. g. 

At idem vir dodiffimus p. LXIII ad hunc annum ^ 
Melihoium VIL Eclogam^ cuius alioqui incertum plane 
tempus eft 9 refert, hoc vno argumento vfus, ne it 
annus prorfus aliquo Virgiliani ingenii monumento 



Mi-Viffariiut Agrippa. L. Caniniui G^UU 
0I.C. 37. Virgilii \i. 

' A^'bunc animni Eclogam decimam refeteiidafii tfk 
C e nfc t MartmuS'5 hac decauffi, qiioniam in co caiminGj 
^alld infcriptd F. 2}«t47 Lycoris in Gallias^iabiiffe et 
lOimA amatorem» qui \n aitquo exercitu ad Rfaenum nnliM 
txbaty feqaiita dTa memoratun -^ Tua cura^ Lyaris y Per^ 
ifui niua alitmferqui b§rrida i^ftra fiquutm ift^^Tu pr^cut 
wpatiria^ Hic jfit mihi tnienf tentum Alpinasj ah Atrai 
niuis et fri^or^ Rhe^Me JHk f^ vldes. A Julio inde^ 
Caierare Mi* Agrippa primus fuit e Rotnanis, qui Rhenum 
IVaiecit; id^tie imtio htliusanni faAum^ quo Agrippa Cof. 
e/at. V. Die XLVIII, 49. Mox enim, hoc ipfo anno, 
a Caefare in Italiam euocatus Agrippa, clailique aduerfus 
Scxt. Pqmpeium fabricandaeexercendaeque praefeftus fuit. 
Poffit quidem aFiquLs haec. alio Dlonis loco labefadari pu- 
tare , vbi anno 715 ineuAte Odavianus Caefar in Gallias^ 
Vi e^citatos ift iis motttl fcdarct , profefhisf cfle dicatur , 
lib. Xli^in , ao. cf. c. 28. pr. Appian. p. 1135. Sed 
pf infium zti cxei*citum fccum* duxerit , non memoratum 
Inv^nias, turn nee Rhenamtranfiifle aut ad Rhenum qnic- 
Ifuam fenim eum geflifle doceas. Qtiicquid fit, probabi-^ 
Ilor haec eft fententia , quam Hla Scaligert, ad Hieronym. 
tr. 1960. qui ante c^acdem Caefaris Edogam decimam 
publice edit:im eflfe debere putat, dum illam opinionem 
impleftltur, quintam in Caefaris necem efle fcriptam, 
Intra triennium autem Bucdica ftiifle abfoluta. lam itaque 
fi , quantum fiue ex tcmporum notatione definire ,'fiue con* 
icftunraffequi poffis, ordtnem Eclogarum ac tempus con- 
ftituere velis, ante earn, quae nunc primo loco pofita eft^ 
ficufidam^ tertiam et quintam fcriptam tfl^ probabile fit. 
Turn prima et nona anno 713. Collocat poft banc fectam 
Cpni^ura Martini. Turn anno 714 yntfr/^m, 715 ^<J?<f«<i^p, 
Tulgatam fuiiTe in cpnfefib eft^ intra idem forte tempus 


poMa^ et 717 Jscima vltuno loco ftripta.Aiit; art idcb ad 
tempoTM ratiooem onlo bk cooftttuiifoctfi pofflt ; ' ^ 

lEclogaU. 6£cl«gaYI. 

a — III. 7, -^ ;IV, 7144 

3 - V. . 8..-«: VHL715. 

4 — I- 7'3» 9 ."^ yil* 

5 — IX. cod. iq — ^ X. 717, 
Laudata et commendata funt Virgilii BMplica iam ab 

iis ipfis poetis, qui eadem aetate viiiebanf • rropertius ad 
eorum argumenta alludit £1. II » 34 » 67 fqq. vbi : Fifus 
decern pojjint e^rrttmpere mala puellamj MiJJus et impreJ/U 
haeJus ab vberibus. Felix y qui if ties pomis mer carts amoral 
Huic ticei ingratae Tttyrus ipfi canat h. huic puellae., licet 
ea ingrata fit, cum tamen amores eius tarn paruo emanturt 
Ipfe Tityrus canat, qui Galateam amabat, nullo ad pe- 
tuliam fru6tu , vt Eel. 1 , 31 fqq. Felix intailum Coryd$^ 
qui tent at Alexin A'^icolae domini carper e delicias. gamuts 
iih Juam lajjits requiefcat auenam (igitur turn deflerat (cri- 
bere Bacoiica) Laudatur faciles inter Hamadryadis. Out- 
fcus autem Am. I, 159 25. Tttyrum laudlat, et Trift. II i' 
^37* Fhyllidis hie idem tenerofque Amaryllidis ignes Siuolii^ 
iuuenis luferat ante modis. 

Hoc etiam anno Maecenatis iufTu Virgilium Georgica 
exorfum ciTe, communis eft opinio, q^uam tam^n, fi mole- 
ftior fis, non facile nifi GrammaticoFumaudloritate, probes. 

De tempore abfoluti operis paullo certior nobis fides 
fit ex Georgicorum extr. verf. v. ad 724. Eo coniilio poetam 
de re ruftica carmen condidifTe,. vt hominum animos ad 
agrorum cultum per bcUa ciuUia negledum rcuocaret, 
do£li viri coniiciunt. v. Argum* Georgicor. 

Eodem anno ab , Agrippa , vt recens aedificatae dafies 
tutum receptum habercnt , lacu Auerno et Lucriuo cum 
mari commifTo , portus lulius faclus t&y de quo, v. inpri- 
mis apud Dioncm XLVIII, 50. 51. Huius operis Vir- 
gilius memipit Ge. II, 161 — 164 Afi memtrem pwtui 
Lucrinaque addita claujlra etc. 
• ' • • Antonius 

4t . K VlkGIliir VITA 

: AnitonittS cum>>>oIafle ex Aihenis Tarentum apptillft 
Tandem Odauii arbitra, Odauius vt eum conueniret^ 
ttdducitur... Nona: inter eos padio fit. v. Dio XLVIIL 
extr. Appian.p. ri'49fqq. Eodem Maecenas properans 
Horatium, Virgil turn, J^lotium ac Varium fecum adduxr 
erat* vide fupraada 715. 

' V. C* 'fit 

L. &mius Poplicola^ M* Cocaius Nerua. 

a. C. 36. Virgilii If. 

Ofiauiaiius Caefar, Sext. Pompeio pugna nauali in« 

ter Mylas et Naulochum » ad Siciliae littus, vido et Le- 

pido in deditionem recepto^ Romam reuerfus immodicis 

honoribus affefius eft. Anno fuo XXVIIL inquit Ap- 

pian. p. 1 1 78 9 oppidatim intier deos tutelares coli coepit* 

Haec prima diuini honoris in eum coliati mentio. v. Norif* 

Cenotaph. Pifan. p. 51 fqq* Quod itaque iam ante hoc 

tempus a Virgilio Deus appellatur. Eel. I, id fine dubio 

CO pertinet , quod Diuum lulium patrem habebat. Diui 

genus Ain. VI, 739. of. fup. ad 712. Summi tamcn iUi et 

cxquifiti honores annis demimi 724 et 725 fuere decreti. r^ 

Dio LI, 19. 20. 

V. C. 720. 

£. Scribonius Like. M. Antonius. 

a. C. 34. Virgilii |^. 

Af. Bauius poetffy quern Virgilius Bucolicis notaty inCap^ 
padociamoritur. Hierouym. Chron. Eufcb. Olymp. 186, 3. 

V. C. 722. 

Cn. D&mitius Ahenebarbus, C. Sofius, 

a. C. 32. Virgilii f 7. 

Inimicitiae inter Caefarem et M. Antonium ad beilum 

fpedant. Magni vtrinque apparatus ; de quibus verfus Ge. 

1 9 509 fqq. agere videntur : Hinc mouet Euphrates ^ illine 

Germania beilum ; Vicinae ruptis inter fe legibus vrbes Arma 

feruntj faeuit toto Mars impius orbe. 

a V. c/ 


V, C- 723. 

Caefar OSiauianns III. M. VaUrtut MeJJala. 

a. C. 31. Virgilii J 2. 

Pugna apud AAium, Epiri promontorium , a. d. IV. 

Kon. Scptcmbr. cuius magnifica ilia eft in fcuto Acneae 

dcfcriptio Acn. VIII, 671 fqq.. M. Atitonius viflus in 

Aegyptuin fugit^ 

Virgilium fequi voluljfe Augujlum contra Antonium ad 
ASiiaca belh froperantemy ait aliquis in Seruianis ad EcL.' 
III, 74. fcilicet, qu^madmodum Horatius Maecenaci 
comes eiTe volebat Epod. L 

V. C. 724- 

Caefar O^auianus V» M. Lictnius Crajfus. 

a. C. 30. Virgilii ^\. 

Caefar poft AtSliacam pugnam cum Samum infulam 
in hiberna fe recepifTct, turbatus nuntiis de feditione 
militum, quos confe<Sla vi<SloriaJ3rundifium praemiferat^ 
media hyeme rcpetit Italiam, tempeftate in traiedu bis 
conflidlatus. Nee amplius quam XXVII dies Brundifii 
commoratus in Afiam reuextitur. Inde fpretis Antonii et 
Cleopatrae legationibus , Aegyptum petit/ obfeflaque 
Alexandria, quo Antonius et Cleopatra confug^erant, 
breui potitus eft, 

Itaque narratio ilia Donati Vita Virgilii § 42 de prae- 
ledtis Cacfari Atellae decumbenti Georgicis nullam iidem 

Aegypto in prouinciae formam reda<Slae Comelium 
Galium, equitem R. Pracfeaum dedit; de quo v. ad Eel. 
X et VI, 64. 72. Fontanini hift. litt. Aquilei. p. 14. 
15. Fuerat huius Galli infignis opera in Aegypto rcci- 
pienda. vid, Dio LI, 9. Plutarch. Anton, p. 952. 

Caefar, rebus Acgypti conftitutis , per Syriam in AJiam 
prouinciam profeSlus hiberna ibi e^itj ftmulque et fubdiiorum 
§mnia negotia et Parthica compofuit. Ita Dio LI , 8. Ti- 

VoL. L E ridates 


. ridates regno a Phraate pulfus in Syriam confugerat, et, rt 
Caefar fe Romanis coptis reftitueret, fupplicafaat, cum 
intcfrea tegati a Phraate miffi et Tiridatem fibi reddi poftu- 
larent et amicitiam cum Caefare iungerent. Caefar vtri- 
que comiter reTpondit, et Phraatis filium, fiue a Phraate 
iiue a Tiridatd acceptum, Romam fecum abduxit et pr» 
obfide habuit. v. Dio K 1. 

lam hoc anno vltimam Georgicis manum adhibitam 
efie, vulgaris eft opinio ^ inque eam fententiam verfus iibri 
IV extr. interpreUntur, n^ tamen fie, vt omnia fatis ex- 
pediant : Caefar dum magnus ad ahum Fubninat EuphraOm 
biUoy viSorque voUntes Perp$puUs dot iura viamque affi&at 
Olympo. Verum quldem eft, efle eum poetarum faeculi 
Auguftei perpetuum morem, vt, quamquam nihil Au- 
guftus , quod admodtmi memorabile eflct , aduerfus Parthos 
geflerit, magniiice tamen de rebus eius Parthicis loquah- 
tur. Conftat porro e Dione , LI , 20. litteras de Parthicis 
rebus initio anni fequentis Romam allatas tantum ad 
publicam gratulationem momenti habuifle, vt illuftrart 
reliquam omnem Caefaris fortunam viderentur. Videtur 
tamen illud , dum fubninat ad Euphratem , pro re tarn 
t^ui, ac legatis auditis, nimis faftuofum efle; vt adeo, 
fi quis cum Martino in annum 731 illos verfus adeoque 
finem Georgicorum referat, equidem non intercedam* 
Nam illam narrationem , feptennio Georgica abfoluta a 
poeta fuiiTe, v. Donat. § 40. vndecim autem annos fuifle 
Aeneidi impenfos , vt adeo ab hac inde hieme eum ad Ae<* 
ncida animum aduertiffe neceffe fit, inter Grammaticorum. 
commenta referendam efle puto. Forte etiam in reliquis 
illis Georgicorum locis II, 170- 173. Ill, 26-33, non- 
nulla fint, quae melius illius anni , quam huius, adis il- 
luftrata videas. A Triftano Hijl. gemrali des Empereurs 
T. I. p. 137 conclufioncm Georgicorum in annum expe- 
ditionis Caii Caefaris in Parthos, quae in a. 754 incidit^ 
male referri, iam Norifius notauit Cenotaph* Pifan. DiflT. 
II. p. 249. 



Virgiliunv Neapoli Georgiconim partem certe cxtre- 
inam pcrtexuiflc, ex lib. IV cxtr. manifcftum eft, fi ver- 
fus illi ab eius manu funt. Erat ea vrbs illuftrium et 
doAorum vironim feceflu ilia aetate inprimis Celebris, vt 
otio ac leuioribiis ftudiis fe ibi committerent. In otia 
natam Parihenopen Ouidius appellat Met. XV, 712. v. 
Horat^ Epod. V, 43; ibique G^fner. Statium Silu. Ill, 5* 
85. Silium XII, 31, inprimifqiie Strabonem V. p. 378. 
Cf. Camini Peregrin! Campaniam felic. DifT. II. § 21. 

fetram Aeneidis condendae paullo altius petitum fui^ 
confilium^ poft Spencium in Polymet. Dialogs III. p. i8» 
aututnant yiri doAi j vt iummum vnius imperium et gen* 
tern luliam fatis ei imperio deftinatam Romaiiis commen* 

V. a 725. 

Caefar Osiauianus V. Sext. Jpuletus* 

a. C. 29. Virgilii JJ. 

l>ecreto Senatus laiius claufus eft. v. Dio LI, 26 et 
ibi not. Quo Virgilius refpexiffe credltiir Aeh. I, 29^ 
* 36Ci AJpera turn pofitis miiefcent fecula lillis — dirae Clau^ 
ientur belli portae: vti v. 296. Cana Fides et Vefta^ Rema 
Mafratre Sfyirinus luta dabuntj ad Cehfuram hoc anno 
a Caefare ^ aflumto M. Agrippa collega , a£tam. DIo LII^ 
42. A. d. VIIL VII. et VL Id. Sext. tres Caefaris tx 
Afia et Oraecia reducis triiimphi habiti , vnus ex Illyrico 9 
alter ex ASiaca vidoria , tertius de Cleopatra et Aegypto 
Aibada^ V. Dio LI, 2i. 

Ad hunc annum Caefaris de irfiperio dcponehdo ha- 
bita cum Agrippa et Maecenate cohfultatid pertinct. v. 
Dfo LII. pr. Quas Virgilio ea in re partes dederint in- 
tpti Grammatici, v. in Donato § 78' 

Hoc aut fuperiore anno Dacas trans Iftnim cum Ba- 
ftarnis, Moefis et aliis popuHs bello adortus erat M. 
Craffus: de qua eXpeditione v. Dio LI, 22. 23 fqq. Vn- 
de ^ffiit Virgilii dudus Ge. II , 497. aut cwiurato defcen- 
Jens DacuS(ti IftrQ. A. M. Antonio ad focietatem et auxilia 
£ 2 ' fcrenda 


fefenda pelle£^i fuerant ifti populi, quo fafium efle vide- 
tur , vt in fines Romanos infeftis mox annis incurrerent* 

V. C. 726. 

Caefar O^auianus VL M. Agrippa //. 

a. C. 28. yirgilii i|. 

Apollinis in Palatio templum cum bibliotheca Caofar 
perfecit et dedicauit. Ludos A£liacos quinquennales » 
' propter viftoriam ASiacam iam ante decretos, cum Agrip- 
pa exhibuit. Tunc gymnici quoque ludi z£ti funt. - Dio 

Hos ludos adumbrauit poeta fub iis, quos Aeneam 
fuum facit inftituere Aen. Ill , 280. A£}iaque Iliads cele^ 
hramus Uttora ludls. Exercent patrias oleo labente palaeftras 

Nudati focii. 

V. C. 727. 

Caefar O^iauianus VII. M. Agrippa IIL 

a. C. 27. Virgilii J|. 

Caefar ex ante diem XVI KaL Februarii , fententia Z* 
Munatii Plana y a fenatu ceterifque ciuibus AxiguAus appel- 
lattis eji , fefe ftptimum , et M. Vipfanio Agrippa tertium 
Confuitbus. Cenforinus c. 22. v. Dio LIII, 16 ibique 
Fabric. Romuli nomen a nonnuUis propofitum, et ab 
ipfo Augufto magnopere efle appetitum , fatis conftat* v. 
Dio ibid. Sucton. Aug. 7. Itaque verfum Ge. Ill, 27* 
vi£forifque arma ^irini hinc interpretandum efle exifti- 
mant virt do<fli ; quod ft rcdle faciunt , patet et ex hoc , 
Georgica ferius, quam 724 abfoluta, faltem edita et 
vulgata fuifle. Namque illud nonnullorum commentum, 
de verfibus ferius et fecunda aliqua recenfione infertis, 
quod forte ex Donato § 50 petitum eft, non admodum 
probamus. Nee Harduini fomnia nos tenebunt, cum in 
rcliquis, turn in iis,. quae ex temporum anguftia contra 
Aeneidis a Virgilio furceptum opus difputat in Pfeudouir- 
gilio (inter Opera varia p. aSo). Talia refellere, noftri 
otii non eft. Poft hoc itaque tempus etiam' ille locus Aen. 



VI, 792. fcriptus cffe debet : Hicvir^ t^ic eji^ tibi quern 
promitti faepius audit ^ Augujius Caefar^ Diui gtnu$. 

Hunc porro annum affignant viri doAi Satyrae decimae 
libri I. Horatii , in qua v. 45. molle atquefacetum Virgilio ad-' 
nuerunt gaudentes run Camoenae. Quod iudicium cum vnice 
ad Bucolicaet Georgica fpedtet, cumque ibidem: forte 
ip9S actr^ Vt nemo, Varius duett y adie^um fit , nihil adhuc 
de Aeneide turn poetam cogitafTe, nihil ccrte vulgaflfe, 
probabile fit. 

V. C. 728. 

Caefar Augujius VIIL T. Statiltus Taurus II. 

a. C. 26. VirgUii $J. 

Cornelius Gallus primus Aegypti praefe£lus Augufta- 

lis, cum propter multa flagitiofe a£ta infamia ab Augufto 

notatus, mox et fenatus iudicio damnatus efTet, dolorem 

lion ferens, poenam morte voluntaria anteuertit. Die 

LIII, 23. Eius laudes quarto Georgicorum libro Au- 

gufti iuflli turn fublatas Ariftaei fabulae locum fecifle, 

narrant Grammatici. v. Donat. § 39, Seruius ad 

£cl. X, I, 

V. C. 729- 
Caefar Augujius IX. M. lunius Silanus. 
a. C- 25. Virgilit J|. 
Expeditio Auguili in Cantabros. Abfentem eum a 
Virgilio littcris fuis Aeneidem flagitafic, Donatus memo- 
rat § 46. vbi V. notr 

V. C. 730. 

Caefar Augujius X. C. Norbanus Flaccus. 

a. C. 24. VirgiUi J7. 

Hieronymus Cbron. Eufeb. ad Olymp. 189, i. ^inc^ 
tilius Cremenenjis^ Virgilii et Horatii familiarise^ moritur. 
De eius obitu confolatur Virgilium Horatius noto car- 
mine lib. I. Od. 24. Quis ille Quindilius fuerit, igno- 
ratur: nam Grammaticonmi commenta audienda non 
E 3 funt. 


ftnt. V. Arpxm. fcL VI. cf. Maflbn Vita Horati} 
•d h« a. 

V. G. 731. 

Caefar Aug^ftus XL A. Tenntius Varro MuraiUM 

fuff. Cn» Calpumius Pifi. 

a. C. 23* VirgilU ^. 

Auguftus e graui morbo Antonii Mufae opera conuale? 
fccns fcmcftri fpatio mtcricdo }A. Marcellum ibroris fi- 
Hmixi, cum aedilitatem anno Aiperiore fufceptQet, et Au* 
gufto vulgo imperii heres deftinaxvtur, e morbo decedere 
yidet. Gravis tunc tptius populi luAus. pioLIII,30. 
Virgilius eius mortf^m pulcherrimis verilbus ornat Aen. 
Vly 861-887* De quibus veriibus ledis et lauta remu- 
neratione honeftatis, y. Donat. § 47. De M. Marcellq 
ti eius numo, v. Fortunati Mandelli Commentarium ii\ 
Nmua jLaccolta (P Opufc* fciint. f. XJh 

Tiriiatei ipfe^ a Phraaie Viro Ugati^ contro^frjiarum fua^ 
rum caujfa Romam vimre. ^tbus in finatum intr§du^^ 
€um Augufto caujfai cognitio decreta ijfety Tiriia^im Pbraat§ 
nequaquam tradidit^ fiUum tanun Pbraaifsj q^em in pote/lau 
fua habibat^ patri rmifft hac Uge^ vt pro to captiuos figna^^ 
pu militariaj Crajft et Antonii ^ladibus amijfay reciperetm 
Dio Lill, 33. Res tamen non perfeda ante annum 734. 
•Ad hoc AugufTi poftulatum, €[uo negato bellum in Parthos 
iiifceptum iri fiifpicio eflet, refpexifle creditur Virgilius 
Aen. VII, 605, 606. Siue Getis inftrre manu lacrimabili 
bellum Hyrcanisue 4^abisue parantj feu tenden ad Indet 
Auroramque fequi^ P^rthosque repofcere Jigna. Addebat 
Ruaeus fub h. a. ^\ Igitur annis minus quatuor fex fere 
vltimos operis libros poeta perfecit ; nee Vero tanta in iis 
elucet, quanta in fuperioribus, cura.*^ Atqui poterant 
ct haec fecundis curis operi inferta efle , fi fcmelboc ad* 


V. C. 732. 

M. Claudius Marcellus Aefeminut. Z* Jruntiuh 

a. C. 22. Virgilii ||. 

Auguftus in Siciliam fr§feilu$ efty vt iom ae tmmt alias 
md Sjriam vfque frowncies C9nftituirit. Dio LIV, 6. Fac- 
tum id fub finem anni videtur. Vidcri poteft de hoc 
itinere Norif. Cenotaph. Pifan. p. 292 - 294. 

Acthiopes, duce regina, Candace, impreffionem in 
Aegyptum faciunt , et Elephantinen vrbem diripiunt. 
Reuertentes eo8 ad terras fuas C. Petronius, Aegypti 
praefedus, caedit, regiam euertit, et terram eorum prae- 
fidiis occupat. v. Dio LIV, 5. Strabo lib. XVIL vbi de 
Aethiopibus agit* Haec Virgilius refpicere videtur Acn« 
V> 795— y*!i^^ '' Garamantas it Indes Prcftrft imperinm. 

V. C. 733. 

M. Lollius. j^. Aemilius Lepidus* 

a. C. 21. Virgilii |S. 

Auguftus nbus in Sicilia drdimstis in Graeciam tranfmi" 
fit. Rebus in Graecia confeStis in Samum nauigauit^ ibijui 
biimauit. Dio LIV, 7. 

V. C. 734. 

M. Apuleius. P. Silius Nerua. 

a. C 20. Virgilii |f , 

Vtre Augujlus in Afiam pitrexit^ ibiqui et in Bithynia 
9mnia conftituity Dio LIV, 7. etiam Syriam adiit. ibid, 
luftin. XLII, 5* Hanc Augufti in prouinciis adeundis^ 
dignam principe tanto, induftriam praedicat Virgilius 9 
Aen. VI, 802 - 8o6» Nee verg Akides tantstm telluris §biuii, 
etc. cf. Sueton. c. 47, 

Cum in Syri^ adueniflet, Phraates, veritus ne bello 
peteretur , figi|a Augufto cum captiuis et exercituum Rom. 
jfpoliis remifit. Qua re nihil ad Augufti gloriam illuftrius 
ynquam fa^um vifum eft. v. Dio LIV, 8. et ibi Fabric. 
J^que mag(ioperc inpriims a poctis ca res extolUtur et 
^ f magnificis 


magnificis verbis ornatur, vt idc profligatis Parthis , euerfo 
corurti impcrio, vi£ko Oricnte, India debcllata, eos loqui 
videar. Ad hunc itaque annum verfus poetae noftri 
X3c. IV, cxtr. II, 170- 173. Ill, 26- 33 non malcrefcrriji 
fupra ad a. 724 fignificauimus. 

. Occifo Artaxia^ qui aliis Artabazes fme Artavafdes, pit 
dolutn propinquorum ^ datus a Caefare Armeniis (maiori Ar- 
meniae) Tigran&s^ deduSlusque in regnutn a Tihtrio Nerone. 
Tacit. Annal, II, 3. v. Dio LIV. 9. ct ibi Fabric. 
Hinc Virgilii illud Ge. Ill, 30. pulfumque Niphat(n\ qui 
Armeniac pions eft, n^ale a poetis nonnullis pro flumine 
habitue, quorum loca y. apud MafTon. Vita Horatii 
p. 306 fiqq. 

£ Syria Auguftus in Samum reuerfus ibidem iterum 
hiemauit. Frequences bic ad eum legationes conuenerunt, 
et Indi pacem , quam antea per cratpres pctierant , tunc 
interpofito foedere fanxerunt ct dona miferunt. Dio LIV, 
9. Hoc paullo faftuoflus forte cxtuliffc vidcri poteft poeta 
Ge. Ill, 26. In foribus pugnam ix auro filidoqu€ ikphanto 
Gfngaridum faciam i nifi, quod malim, de Augufto ea 
omnino vaticinatur, quae ab eo iamdudum exfpeftaban* 
tur, vt Partho* cC Indos impcrio Roniano addcrct. 

V. C. 735. 
C Sentius Saturnlnus. J^. Lucretius Vefpilla. 
a. C, 19. Virgilii ||. 

Donatus in Vita § 51* Anno quinquagejimo ficundo ^ vt 
vltimam manum Aeneidi imponeret ^ Jlatuit in Graeciam et 
Afiam decide fe , triennioque continue omnem operant limationi 
' dare , vt reliqua vita tantwn philofophiae vacaret. Sed cum in^ 
grejfus iter Athenis occurrijfet Augujlo , ah Oriente Romam r^ 
verientij (quod verum eft v. Dio LIV, 10) vna cumCae/an 
redire Jiatuit. Ac cum Megara^ vicinum Athenis oppidumj 
vifendi gratia peter et^ languor em naSius efi: quern non inter" 
mijfa nauigatio auxitj ita^ vt grauior indies^ tandem Brun^ 
dijium ( alios Tarentum memorare , in notis monitum ) 



^dueniarit^f vbi dtetusfaucis obiitj X KaL O£fobr. C. Sentioy 
^. Lucretio Cof. 

Annum obitus confirmat Hicronymus Chron, Eufcb. 
ad Olymp. 190, 2. Virgilius Brundijii moritur^ Sentio Sa^ 
tumino it Lucretio Cinna ( hoc nullum Lucretiorum cogno- 
men) C^ Pltn. XIV, I. Haec {v\t\s per fc in vino piccm 
refipicns ) Virgilti vatis aetate Incognita y a cuius obitu XC 
aguntur anni : numero rotundoj cum XCV cffcnt. y. 
Bayliimi Diftionn, VirgUe litt. H. Harduin. ad Plin. 
ibid, ct XIV. fca. 5. 

Cum in Graeciam proficifceretur Virgilius, fcriptum 
fuiffe creditur ab Hpratio Carmen III libri I. Sic te Diui 
potens Cypri. 

Dum in Graccia fuit, tcrtio Gcorgicorum libro fplendi- 
dum illud exordium : Primus Idumeas referam ithi^ Man^ 
tuoj palmasy additum fuiffe cum Catroeo Wartonus puta- 
bat (Life of Virgil) ex interpretatione fcilicct parum 

Fuiffe, qui cum in itinere Tarenti vita exceffiffe trade- 
rent, ad Donatum § 51 di6lum, quae vrbs cum ad Cala- 
briam refcratur , hinc iiitelligcndus verfus Epitaphii : 
Mantua me genuit y Cal(ibri rapuere^ h. in Calabria vitac 
ereptum fe fignificat. cf. Phocas v. 105. vtCalabros tetigit 
— vehemens luxauit corpora morbus. 

Offa Virgilii Neapolin translata et ibi in via Putcolana 
fepulta. V. Donat. § 55. 56 et ibi not. Apud Hieronymum 
1.1. Offa eius Neapolin translata in fecundo ab vrbe miliaria 
fepeliuntur^ titulo ifliufmodi fupra fcripto ^ quern mori ens ipfe 
diaauerat: MANTVA ME GENVIT; quod apud 
Donatum § 55 legas, et in Eufebianum Chronicon baud 
dubie ab interpolatore venit ; rcpetitum inde a Vincent. 
Bellouac. Specul. hift. VII, 6o, 

De teftamcnto Virgilii v. Donatum § 56. 

Eum paullo ante mortem fcrinia adeoque omnia fua 
Tcripta, (vt ctiam Grammaticus it^ Antholog. iat. II, 184, 



X0PX4 accepit) comburere voluiiIe> max, vt Aeneis fal* 
tern combureretur,. tanquam imperfedum opus, teftm- 
loentoiube;^ voluilTe, tandem, amicorum precibus tic- 
tum^ Vario ac Tuccae, de quibus v. ad Donat. § 53, 
fcripU fixa l^afle, ea fub conditione ne emendarenty 
narrat Donatus § 52. 53* ab iis tamen, iufiu Ca^faris^ 
Aeneidememendatam fuifle, in eadem farragine memo- 
ratur § 56. quod tamen ita intelligas, vt emendarint 
quidem toUendo, non autem addendo. Ita fere Hierony- 
mas Chron. Eufeb. ad Olymp. 190, 4. Varies et Tucca^ 
f^rgilii et Horatii antubimaUs^ fQetae babeniur illufins ^ 
fut Aiueidum p^fttm likros ewuniarunt fub ea lege , vt nihil 

Reliqui Grammadci modo hoc modo itlud fequuntur* 
At veteres fcriptores, Plin. VII, 30. f. 31, Z). Auguftu$ 
tormina Virgilii crenuxri contra tejlamenti eiti$ verecundian^ 
Vetuit'y maiusque ita vati teftimonium ceniigity quam fi ipfe 
fua probajfet. GelK XVII, 10 — fed quae procrajiinat0 
funtaheny vt poft reeenftrentur ^ et abfolui^ quoniam men 
praeuerterat J nequiuerunt ^ nequaquam peetarum ^Ugantifjimi 
memine at que iudicie digna funt: itaque^ quum^ merbe ep^ 
preffusj aduentare mortem videret ^ petiuit orauitque a fuis 
awudjffimis impenfe , vt Aeneida , quam nondum fatis elima^ 
nijfet ^aboUrent, Macrob. Sat. I, 24* qui enim moriens poenut 
pium legauit ignij quid niji famae fuae vulnera pofieritati 
fubtrahenda curauit f ^ec immfrite> Multa in earn rem va« 
xiorum Epigrammata v. in Catale&is Scaligeri et Bur? 
inanni Anthologia. Adde Donat. § 57. 58* 

Ceterum Virgilio mox comitem ad Elyfas compos mors 
mifit Tibu}lum ii^uenem. v. Domitii Marfi Epigramma ad 
calcem TibuUi. Ouidius tum annum XXV agebat, 
itaque yirp\mv\tantum fe vidije teftatur Trift. IV, 10^ 
^i. Horatius annum ingreflus erat XL VII. 

Aeneidem cum viuo Virgilio multis bominum defiderii^ 
tnUpeSatam , tum eo mortuo magno fauorc et praedication^ 


^EfL ANN08 DtGESTA^ !• 

peceptwi ftti&j n pocti$ cius jtenparii^^ ^Ug^. Omim 
^cm.. 395. 396. Taniufnfi nobis EiegiMerefaUntur^t^m^ 
pm FtrgitU noUk 4^fi ep^t'^f 3ed idem Aea^4i9 wa 
aneminit Am, I, 15, %%• qiio4 cwma ad an^um 73if^ 
proximum a V irgilii morte » M^Aonus retulit : Tcitx'^ ji 
figitif Anmatfif arma hgntuTj Rma triumpbgii datm eapmi 
frUs erit. Et in Arte 751 edita lib. Ill, 337. Etpr§fiigim 
JituoHy akae primrdia Ronuu^ ^0 nullum Lath clarius 
fxtat opus. Nondum abfoluta et edita erat Aeneis, cum 
Propertius nobiies illos verfus fcriberet lib. 11. Eleg. extr. 
^i fqq* ^< ^^Ifnf Aemae Troiani fufcitat arma etc^ 

Virgilium paullo poft, et adhuc aeuo Augufteo, In 
fcholis praele<ftum et enarratum fuifle, e Suetonio fcimua 
4e ill. Grammat. c. 16. Q. Caecilius Epirota Cornelii 
Galli familiaris — ^rimi/i diciiur latim ex tempore difpu^ 
fa§ey primusque Virgilium it alios poitas nouos praeUgen. 

Caligula Virgilii memoriae addiodtun infeftus fuit. Sed 
$t Virgilii it T. Liuii/cripta it imagines , paullum afuit^ quin 
fx omnibus bibliotiids amouiret^ quorum alterum^ vt nulliut 
ingeuii minimaeque do^irinae^^ carpebat Sueton. Calig. y^ 
Itaque Virgilii Codices ad paruum turn numerum vtAz&m 
fuiffis necefle eft. An forte inde in tanto nunc apographoit 
rum numero minis ille librorum etiam vetuftiorum in cor- 
ruptdas confenfus repetendus eft ? vt, cum poft haec Viri» 
giliana carmina ex paucis, nee ferte emendatiffimis exem* 
plttribifs defcribereiitur, vera iam turn ledio periiflet; quo 
faAum, vt fruftfa nunc a libris auxilium, vbi haereas^ ex« 
fpedetur. Exftabat tamen Virgilii manus adhuc PUiiii 
maioris aetate H. N. XIII, la extr. et Quindiliani^ 
Inft. I, 7, ao. Virgilii idiographum librum infpedumy 

* ita leg. nam opus noUle tfiet (^oidem carman epicma» »M 
|;N)pfis epiou 


M ab alHs, GcUius memorat N.A*XI, 14. cf. tun* 
dem II, 3. XIII, 19. 1, 21. 

' Magnam copiam verfuum ct lufuum in Virgilium cius- 
^iie carmina cum bona turn mala , vetuftiorum et feriorum 
^oetanim, v. poft Pithoeum et lof. Scaligerum in Cata-p 
leftis ap. Burmaim. V. CI. in Antholog. Lat. lib, II. cp^ 

^73 %• 


[ 6l ] 




MAN is not To depraved, but that reprefentations 
of innocence and .tranquillity, are ftill delightful 
and pleafing to the mind. The firft employmexit of our 
forefathers was undoubtedly the tending 6f cattle: an 
employment which princes and patriarchs di4 not difdain 
to undertake, however oppofite it may appear to the re* 
finements of modern life. . This plainnefs and iimpli- 
city of manners is highly amufing and captivating to 
perfons uncorrupted, and, as Shakefpear fays, unliack- 
ney'd in the ways of men ; who love to be carried back 
into that age of quiet, of innocence and virtue. 

What time Dan Abraham left the Chaldee land. 
And paftur'd on from verdant ftagc to ftage. 
Where fields and fountains him could beft engage : 
Toil was not then. Of nothing took they heed, 
But with wild beads the filvan war to wage. 
And o'er vaft plains their herds and flocks to feed ; 
Blcft fons of Nature they, true golden age indeed ! 

Thomson's Caftle of Indolence. * 

The love of the country is fo ftrong a pailion, that it 
9 can 

te d biJirtathH upm pAStoH al Pobtrt^ 

can liardly be ever obliterated or overcome : tho' bufi : 
nefi or amufements, or criminal purfutts, or convenience^^ 
!0r courts, carry men into cities, yet they ftili continue 
tooA of fields and forefts, of meadows and rivulets. A 
very accomplifh'd courtier aflures us, that the ftatelieft 
tdificet, and the fineft pieces of architedure would lofe 
Aeir beauty, if rural objeds were not interfperfed among 

Ifempi inter varias nutritur Jjfha columnasi 
Laudaturqui dcmuSf hHg9S qkaprofpicit agros ; 
Naturam ixpellas furca tamen ufqui rtcumit 


This is owing to the Aiperior power which the workf 
of nature hold above thofe of art^ to afFeft and enter- 
tain the imagination. For iltho' the latter may fome-* 
lames apjpesir Very beautiful^ or evte wonderful, yet they 
oil hate nothing in them of that vaftnefs and immeniityy 
Which aflbrd fo great an entertainment to the mind of 
tdie beholder. The one may be as polite and delicate aar 
die gdier \ bat can never appear fo auguft and magnifi- 
cent in the defign. There is fomething more bold and 
Mafterly, in the rough caitlefs ftrokes of nature, than iit 
the niceft touches and embellilDiments of art. For this 
iMlbn is Paftoral Poetry fo amufing to the mind : In. her 
fairy region Txt found, 

BtfiturM fsrrf, ht mfcia fattire vita^ 
Dives 9pim varietrum: bit latis etiafundis^ 
SpehmcMy viviqui laeusy hicfiigida Tempij 
M^tufqui hornn^ nulbfpit fuh arUre fomni^ 


A true Paftoral, fays Mr. Pope, is an imitation of the 

aftion of a fhepherd | the form of this imitation is dra- 

nutic, or narrative, or mixed of both } the fable fimple, 

^e manners not too polite^ nor too ruftic : the thoughts 

3 ^urt 

A Dijirtatiin npm Pastoraii PofeTRt* 6j 

are plain, but admit a little quicknefs and paffion^ jet 
that fliort and flowing. The expreifion humblc> yet af 
pure as the language will allow ; neat, but not florid | 
eafy, and yet lively. In ihort, the manners, thoughts^ 
and expreffions, are full of the greateft fimplicity in na- 
ture. The complete charader of this poem confifts is 
fimplicity, brevity, and delicacy : the two firfl of whick 
render an Eclogue natural, and the laft delightful. 

Man^ laboured and tedious treatifes both of French 
and Italian critics, have been written on the nature ai 
this kind of poetry ; but I have not been able to find 
any thing on the fubjeft fo rational, fo judicious, and 
yet fo new, as a little piece very lately publiflied, by aik 
excellent writer of our own country, in a paper called 
the Rambler, which is therefore inferted in this place. 

•TN writing or judging of Paftoral Poetry, neither the 
X authors or critics of later times feem to have paict 
fufficient regard to the originals left us by antiquity; 
but have entangled themfelves with unneceflary diflicul* 
ties, and advanced principles, which, having no foun- 
dation in the nature of things, are wholly to be rejeAed 
from a fpecies of compofition in which, above all others^ 
mere nature is to be regarded. 

It is, therefore, necefTary, to enquire after fome mom 
diftin^t and exa£t idea of this kind of writing. This 
may, I think, be eafily found in the Paftorals of Virgil ; 
from whofe opinion it will not appear wzry fafe to de-« 
part, if we confider that every advantage of nature, and 
of fortune, concurred to complete bis produdions : that 
he was born with great accuracy, and fcvcrity of judg- 
ment, enriched with all the learning of one of the bright- 
eft ages, and embelliihed with the elegance of the Roman 
court ; that he employed his powers rather in improving, 
than inventing ; that, taking Theocritus for his origi- 

• The Rambler. N** 37. 


(^ A SiffirtatUn upon Pastoral PoETiiv; 

nal^ he found Paftond much advanced towards perfec*' 
tron, if not already pcrfcft ; and. that having therefore 
fi> great a rivals he muft have proceeded with uncommon 

If we fearch the writings of Virgil^ for the true defi- 
nition of a Paftoral, it will be found a Poem in which any 
^&ion or pajfion is reprefented by its efftSls upon a country 
lift. .Whatfoevcr, therefore, may, according to the 
common courfe of things, happen in the country^ Qiay 
afford a fubje£l for a Paftoral Poet. 

In this definition, it will immediately oecur^ to. thoftf 
who are verfed in the writings of the modern critics,, 
diat there is no mention of the golden age. I caiuipt 
indeed eafily difcover why it is thought ncceflary to refer 
defcriptions of a rural ftate to remote times, nor can I 
perceive that any writer has confidently preferved the 
Arcadian manners and fentiments. The only reafon 
that I have read, on which this rule has been founded, 
i$, that according to the cuftoms of modern life, it is 
improbable that fhephcrds fhould be capable of harmo- 
nious numbers, or delicate fentiments; and therefore 
the reader muft exalt his ideas of the Paftoral charafter, 
by carrying his thoughts back to the age in which the 
care of herds and flocks was the employment of the wifcft 
and greateft men. 

Thefe reafoners fecm to have been led into their hypo- 
thefis, by confidering Paftoral, not in general, as a re- 
prefentation of rural nature, and confequcntly as ex- 
hibiting the ideas and fentiments of thofe, whoever they 
are, to whom the country affords pleafurc or employ- 
ment ; but fimply as a dialogue, or narrative of men ac- 
tually tending fheep, and bufied in the loweft and moft: 
laborious offices : from whence they very readily con- 
cluded, fince charafters muft neceffarily be preferved, 
that either the fentiments muft fink to the level of the 


A bijfertation up0H Pastoral PoETRt. 6^ 

fpeakers, or the fpeakers muft be raifed to the height of 
the fentiments. 

In confequence of thefe original errors, ti thoufand 
precepts have been givenj which have only <:ontributed 
to perplex and to confound. Some have thought it ne-^ 
ceffary that the imaginary manners of the Golden Age 
fliould be univerfally preferved, and have therefore be- 
lieved, that nothing more could be admitt<sd in Paftond^ 
than lilies and rofes, and rocks and ftreams, amon^ 
which are heard the gentle whifpers of chafte fondnefs, 
or the foft complaint^ of amorous impatiehce; In Paf« 
toral, as in other writings, chaftity of fenthnent ought 
doubtleft to be obferved, and purity of manners to be re- 
prefented ; not becaufe the Poet is confined to the images 
of the Golden Age, but becaufe, having the fubje£l in his 
owh*choice, he ought always to confult the intereft or 

Yet thefe advocates for the Golden Age* lay down other 
principles, not very confident with their general plan ; 
for they tell us, that, to fupport the chara^r of the 
jQiepherd,^ it is proper that<^ all refinement ihould be 
avoided, and that fome (light inflances of ignorance 
ihould be interfperfed. Thus the fliepherd in Virgil is 
fuppofed to have forgot the name of Anaximander, and 
in Pope the term Zodiac is too hard for a ruftic appre« 
henfion. But, furelyj if we place our (hepherds in their 
primitive condition, we may give them learning among 
their other qualifications ; and if we fufFer tliem to al- 
lude at all to things of later exiflence, •which, perhaps,* 
cannot with any great propriety be allowed, there can 
be no danger of making them fpeak with too much ac- 
curacy, fince they converfed with divinities, and tranf- 
initted to fucceeding ages the arts of life. 

Other writers, having the mean and defpicable con- 
dition of a fliepherd always before them, conceive it 
Acceilary to degrade the language of Paftord, by obfo- 

Vot;L F lete 


6j^ A Syfiriation upon Pastoral Poiriiv; 

nal^ he found Paftond much advanced towards perfect' 
tion, if not already pcrfcft ; and. that having therefore 
fi> great a rivals he muft have proceeded with uncommon 

If we fearch the writings of Virgil^ for the true defi- 
nition of a Paftora), it will be found a Poem in which any 
^&ion or pajfion is reprejented by its efftSls upon a country 
life. .Whatfoevcr, therefore, may, according to the 
common courfe of things, happen in the country, may 
afford a fubje£l for a Paftoral Poet* 

In this definition, it will immediately oecur^ to thofc 
who are verfed in the writings of the modern critics, 
diat there is no mention of the golden age. I cannot 
indeed eaiily difcover why it is thought neceflTary to refer 
defcriptions of a rural ftate to remote times, nor can I 
perceive that any writer has confidently prcfcrved the 
Arcadian manners and fentiments. The only reafon 
that I have read, on which this rule has been founded, 
is, that according to the cuftoms of modern life, it is 
improbable that fhepherds ihould be capable of harmo* 
nious numbers, or delicate fentiments; and therefore 
the reader mufl exalt his ideas of the Pafloral charafter, 
by carrying his thoughts back to the age in which the 
care of herds and flocks was the employment of the wilcft 
and greatefl men. 

Thefe reafoners fecm to have been led into their hypo- 
thefis, by confidering Pafloral, not in general, as a rc- 
prefentation of rural nature, and confequcntly as ex- 
hibiting the ideas and fentiments of thofc, whoever they 
axe, to whom the country affords pleafurc or employ- 
ment ; but fimply as a dialogue, or narrative of men ac- 
tually tending (heep, and bufied in the loWefl and mofl 
laborious offices : from whence they very readily con- 
cluded, fince charad^rs mufl necefTarily be preferved, 
that either the fentiments mufl fink to the level of the 


A bijfirtation up$n Pastoral PoETRt. 6^ 

fpeakers, or the fpeakers muft be raifed to the height of 
the fentiments. 

In confequence of thefe original errors, ti thoufand 
precepts have been giveni which have only contributed 
to perplex and to confound. Some have thought it ne-^ 
cefTary that the imaginary manners of the Golden Agei 
fliould be univerfally preferved, and have therefore be- 
lieved, that nothing more could be admitted in Paftoral^ 
than lilies and rofes, and rocks and ftreams, among* 
which are heard the gentle whifpers of chafte fondnefs, 
or the foft complaint^ of amorous impatiehce: In Paf« 
toral, as in other writings, chaftity of fentimcnt ought 
doubtleft to be obferved, and purity of manners to be re- 
prefented j not becaufe the Poet is confined to the images 
of the Golden Age, but becaufe, having the fubjeft in his 
owh*choice, he ought always to confult the intereft of 

Yet thefe advocates for the Golden Age lay doWn other 
principles, not very confiftent with their general plan ; 
for they tell us, that, to fupport the charader of the 
jQiepherd, it is proper that* all refinement (hould be 
avoided, and that fome (light inftances of ignorance 
ihould be interfperfed. Thas the fliepherd in Virgil is 
fuppofed to have forgot the name of Anaximander, and 
in Pope the term Zodiac is too hard for a niftic appre« 
henfion. But, furelyj if we place our (hepherds in their 
primitive condition, we may give them learning among 
their other qualifications ; and if we fufFer them to al- 
lude at all to things of later exiftence, •which, perhaps^ 
cannot with any great propriety be allowed, there can 
be no danger of making them fpeak with too much ac- 
curacy, fince they donverfed with divinities, and tranf- 
mitted to fucceeding ag<;s the arts of life. 

Other writers, having the mean and defpicable con- 
dition of a fliepherd always before them, conceive it 
Beccffary to degrade the language of Paftoral, by obfo- 

Wou;l. F lete 

. 68 A Dijfertation upon Pastoral Poetry. 

of the death of fomc illuftrious perfon, whom when 
once the poet has called a fhepherd, he has no longer 
any labour upon his hands, but can make the clouds 
weep, and lilies wither, and the fheep hang their heads, 
without art or learning, genius or ftudy. 

It is part of Claudian's charadcr of his ruftic, that he 
computes his time not by the fucceffion of confuls, but 
of harvefts. Thofe who pafs their days in retreats dif- 
tant from the theatres of bufinefs, are always leaft likely 
to hurry their imaginations with public affairs. 

The facility of treating anions or events in the paftoral 
ftilc has incited many writers, from whom more judg- 
ment might have becnexpcfted, to put the forrow or the 
joy which the occafion required into the mouth of Daphne 
or of Thyrlis ; and as one abfurdity muft naturally be 
^xpefted to make way for another, they have written with 
an utter difregard both of life and nature, and filled their 
produftions with mythological allufions, with incredible 
fiftions, and with fcntiments which neither paiHon nor 
reafon could have diftated, fince the change which reli- 
gion has made in the whole fyflem of the world. 

Thus far the learned and judicious Mr. Johnson, 

If I might now venture to fpeak of the merits of the 
fevcral pafloral writers, I would fay, that in Theocritus 
wc are charmed with a certain fweetnefs, a romantic 
rufticity and wildnefs, heightened by the Doric dialed, 
that are almoft inimitable. 'Tis worth remarking, that 
he hath borrowed many beautiful images from the moft 
cxquifite paftoral now extant, I mean the Song of Solomon 'y 
which he probably had read with plcafure in the Greek 
tranflation of the Seventy Interpreters, who were his 
cotemporaries in the polite court of Ptolomy. Several of 
bis pieces indicate a genius of a higher clafs, far fuperior 
to Paftoral, and equal to the fublimeft fpecics of poetry : 
liich are particularly, his Paiicgyric on Ptolomy, the 
3 F^'S^t 

A Dtjfertation upon Pastoral Poetry. 69 

Fight between Amycus andJPollux, the Epithalamiutn df 
Helen, the Europa, the young Hercules, the Grief of 
Hercules for Hylas, the Death of Pentheus, and the 
killing the Nemean Lion, Which of thefe compofitions 
is moft fpirited and exalted, 'tis impof&ble to determine : 
and I muft here apply a noble fimile of his. own, which 
he ufes on a like difficulty, 

Ti Vfcirov x«T«^f$a; ; tgni vafa fAVjix ihryv. 

The fweet and pathetic lamentation of Mofchus on the 
death of Bion, and of Bion on the death of Adonis, arc 
pieces of paftoral grief. 

qua Venus 

^intd parte fut ne^faris imbuit ; ^ HoR. 

and oblige us to lament the lofs of their works with fin- 
cere concern. We know of no other Greek paftoral 

Virgil, who comes next to be confidered, has excelled 
his mafter Theocritus in thefe three particulars ; in de- 
cency, in delicacy, and in the variety of his fubjefts. • 

We have feen Eclogues remaining of Titus Calpur- 
nius, a native of Sicily, who flouriflied under the hm- 
pcror Carus and his fon. Some of them are prettily fan- 
cied, and conduftqd with judgment j but the ftile favours 
of the barbarifm and corrupted tafte, that long before his 
age infefted the Roman poetry. 

M^ntuan is full of the moft abfurd allegories, and of 
allufions to Chriftianity ridiculoufly mixed and blended 
with the Gods and cufloQis of the Heathens. In one of 
his Eclogues you have a catalogue of all the Virgin 
Mary's holidays j in another an apparition of the Virgin, 
who promifes a fhepherd, that when he ihall have pafTed 

F 3 his 

70 A Dijfirtati9n up$n Pastoral Poetry/ 

his life in Mount Carmel, &e will convey him to a far 
Iil6re dencipus place, and will make him dwell in heaven 
with the Dryades and Hamadryades, a fort of new faints, 
whom we had not been accuftomed to hear of as inhabi- 
tants of heaven, 

Tl>e Pifcatory Eclogues df Sannazarius deferve to be 
mentioned with applaufe, I know not why the critics 
have condemned him for choofmg fubjefts friiitful of new 
imagery and fentiments. 

The Aminta of Taflb, the celebrated Paftoral Comedy 
pf which the Italians boaft fo much, is not free from 
tbecpmmoh vice .of all dieir compofitions, y<7^ thoughts 
and glittering c9nciitSy quite contrary to nature and truth, 
jSylvia, feeing the reflexion of her face in a fountain, and 
adorning herfelf with flowers, tells them fhe docs not wear 
them to mend her beauty, but to leflen theirs, and dif- 
grace them by being placed near her brighter charms. 
All critics of a truly claflical tafte, will be difgufted at 
fuch far-fetched prettinejfes. But the paftoral pieces of 
Guarini, of Bonarelli, and Marino, ar6 infinitely more 
unnatural and forced, crowded, to the laft degree, with 
littje points of wit, with epigrammatic turns, with af- 
fefled conceits, and with every inftance of falfe glitter 
^nd ornument, that ufually dazzle and delight fuperficial 

The Paftorals of the ingenious Fontenelle, are too polite 
and refined in their fentiments. His fhepherds are all 
pourticrsj and are bcttier fuited to the toilets of Paris, 
than the forefts of Arcadia. Inflead of ridiculing Theo- 
critus and Virgil, he had better have followed the precepts 
pf his jucjicioi^s countryman, the beft defender, judge, and 
imitator, of the ancients j who gives the following ad-^ 
wee to paftora) >vriters : 

Telle qu^une bergerBy nu plus heaujeuf de fefte^ 
pefuperhe rubis ne* charge point fa teftcy 

A Dljfertatkn upon Pastoral Poetry. 71 

Et fans meUr a Vor F eclat de diamam^ 

Cueille en un champ voijin fes plus beaux ornemens^ 

Telle y amiable en fon air y mats humble dans fonjtik^ 

Doit eclater fans pompe une elegante Idyllc ; 

Son tour ftmple tf naif n^a rien de fajleux^ 

Et n^aime point r^rgueilcTun vers prefompteux r 

II fait que ce douceur flat e^ chatoUille^ eveille^ 

Et jamais de grands mots n^epouvante Voreille. 

BoiLEAU, TArt Poetiquc, c. 2. 

F 4 P. Vlrgilii 

p. FirgUii Maronis 




O P 

F I R G I L. 

p. FirgUii Maronis 




O F 

F I R G I L. 

r 76 ] 


B U C O L I C A. 

E C L O G A I. 

T I T Y R U S, 

Melibobus, Tityrus. 


TITYRE, tu patulac rccubans fub tegminc fagi 
Silveftrem tenui mufam meditaris avena : 
Nos patriae finis, et dulcia linquimus arva ; 
Nos patriam fugimus : tu, Tityre, lentus in umbra 
Formofam refonare doces Amaryllida filvas. 5 

* Tityrus. 

O Meliboee, deus nobis hzc otia fecit. 
Namque erit ille mihi Temper deus : illlus aram 
Saepe tener noftris ab ovilibus inbuet agnus. 
Ille meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipfum 
Ludere, quae vcllem, calamo permifit agrefti. xo 

Yer. 2. Reed,] jfvena, fays the original.— —The mufical 
inftruments ufed by fhepherds were at firft made of oat and 
wheat ib-aw ; then of reeds and hollow pipes of box ; after- 
wards of leg bones of cranes^ horns of animals, metals, Arc- 
Hence they are called awena, ftipula, calamus, arusul^, fifiula^ 
huxus, tibia^ cornu, aes, &c. 

Et Zepbyri ca*va per calamwrum fifila primum 
Agreftes docuen ca*vas infiare cicutas : 

fays Lucretius, b. y ▼. 1381, in a paiTage which muft have 
been of ufe to Virgil in poliihing the Latin verfification. 

[ 77 3 


O F 



T I T Y R U S. 

Meliboeus, Tityrus. 

IN bccchcn (hades, you Tit'rus, ftrctcht along. 
Tunc to the flcnder reed your fylvan fong ; 
We leave our country's bounds, our much-lov*d plains^ 
We from our country fly, unhappy fwains ! 
You, Tit'rus, in the groves at leifure laid, 5 

Teach Amaryllis' name to every ihade. 


O *twas a god thefe bleflings, fwain, beftow'd. 

For ftill by me he fliall be decm'd a god ! 

For him the tend'reft of my fleecy breed 

Shall oft in folemn facrifices bleed. • 10 

He gave my oxen, as thou fee'ft, to ftray. 

And me at eafe my fav'rite fti^ins to play. 

7. ^T*was agoii,] This is pretty hieh flattery. Odavins hid 
not yet received divine honours, which were afterwards beflow- 
ed on him : but Virgil A>eaks as if he were already deified. 
This was the language of the courtiers' of that time. 

Frefenti tibi mature* iargimur bonorn, 

fays Horace. One cannot but recoiled, on reading fuch fort 
ot paflages, the words of the fpirited hiftorian: Igituf *uerfi 
tivitatis ftatu^ wibil u/fuam ffi/ci H integri $M9rii ,* 0Mnis exutd 
mi^ualitaitjnjffkfriucifis a/ff^ari^ Tacitus, Aaiiai* lib. i. c. 4. 

^8 P. ViRGiLii IfiAirqNi^ BucoLicA. EcL i^ 

Non equidem invideo : mixQr -magis. undique totis 
Ufque adeo turbatur agris. en ipfe capellas 
J'^rotenus aeger ago : banc ctfetm vix, Tityre, duco. 
Hie inter denfas corulos modo namque gemelloS) 
Spem gregis, ah ! filice in o^da connixa reliquit. 15 

Saepe malum hoc nobis, fi mens non laeva fuiflet, 
De coq|o tadag memini praedicere quercus : 
Saepe finiftra daVa praedixit ab ili'cc cornix. 
Scd tamen, ifte deus qui fit, da, Tityre, nobis. 


♦ - . ..... 

Urbem, quam dicunt Romam, Meliboee, putavi 20 

Stultus ego huic npftrae fmiilem, quo^ faepe folemus 

Paftorcs ovium tencros depellere foetus. 

Sic canibus catulosifutrilis. He matribus^ haedos 

Noram : fie parvis conponerc magna folebam. 

Verum l^iec. tantum alias ijater caput extulit ;i(Lrbis,' 25 

Quantum Icntajfolent jnter vib^rn^ cupreffi. 

• MfiLIfiOEUS. 

Et quae tanta fuit,.RQpiam tibi cau^a videndi ? 


Libertas : quae fera tamen refpexit inert<;m ; 
Candidior poftquam tondenti barba eadebat ; 
Refpexit taqi^n, et \mgo poft; tera(pore venit, 30 

Poftquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit. 
Namque (fatebor enim) dum me Galatea tenebat, 

• ^47. The ciij,] This manner of fpeaking of Rome, has the 
true pafloral fin^pUoity in it. 

34* As I0//J,] Notoaly different .in magnitude, but lakiiKi^ 
fay the commentaton. 

. 41. . Th^e Jm^rjUis refgnsA .j^me fanciful critics imagine 
that ihe poet meant Rome by Amaryllis, and ^antua by 
"Galatea. But Ruaeusioftly looks on. thefc ^Ilegprlcal inter- 
pretations as trifles, Vnd rqe£U them for the following reafohs. 
I. As the poet has twice inentioned Rome exprefsly, and by its 
proper name, in this Bclogne, what could induce him to call it 
iomftiiqet :Rmic> and fometimes Amatyliis ? 2« He diitin- 
raiihesl3^a(e4fffQmiMaQtaa'al& .when. he fays, that whiUt 
AC was a flayc.ia.G^«tea,^JieLluul no. profit from the cheeies 
which hri«»d(»A'/i9rai'tk|Lt oahAppjr city. ^3. If we^admit ths 

£cl« x« Thx SoLOGOXi or ViitGuu - ^ 

Nay, mine's not envy, tfwain, but ^ad Airpriie i 
O'er all our fields fucfa fcenes of rapine rife I 
And lo ! fad part'ner of the general care, ij^ 

Weary and faint I drive my goats afar. 
While foarcely this my leading hand fuftains, 
Tir'd with the way, and recent from her pains j 
For mid' yon tangled hazles as we paft. 
On the bare flints her haplefs twins (he caft, ao 

The hopes and promife of my ruin'd fold ! 
Thefe ills prophetic figns have oft foretold ; 
Oft from yon hollow tree th' hoarfe raven's croak^ 
And heaven's quick lightning on my blafted oak : 

I was blind thefe warnings not to fee !— — aj 
But tell me, Tit'rus, who this god may be ? 


The city men call Rome, unfkilful clown, 

1 thought refembled this our humble town ; 
Where, Meliboeus, with our fleecy care. 

We fhepherds to the markets oft repair. ja 

So like their dams I kidlings wont to call. 

So dogs with whelps compar'd, fo great with flnall : 

But fne o'er other cities lifts her head. 

As lofty cyprefles low fhrubs exceed. 

And what to Rome could Tit'rus' fteps perfua^e ? 35 


'Twas Freedom call'd ; and I, tho' flow, obey'd. 

She came at laft, tho' late (he ble(l my fight. 

When age had filver'd o'er my beard with white ; 

But ne'er approach'd till my revolting breaft 

Had for a new cxchang'd its wonted gueft : 40 

There Amaryllis reigns j yet fure 'tis true. 

While Galatea did my foul fubdue, 

allegory, that verfe Mirabar quid moefia dm^ is ioextricnUe,.. 
4. Servius has laid it down as a rule, that we are not to under- 
hand any thing in the Bucolics figuratively, that is, allegori- 
cally* RvAsut and Martyn. 

So P* yxROitii Maronis Bucol^a. £cI. f # 

Nee fpes libertatis erat, nee cura peculi, 

Quamvis multa meis exiret vidima feptis, 

Pinguis et ingratac premeretur cafcus urbi, 35 

Non uoiquam gravis aere domum mihi dextra redil>at; 

Mirabar, quid moefta deos, Amaryllis vocares c 
Cui pendere fua patercris in arbore poma. 
Tityrus hinc aberat. ipfae te, Tityrc, pinus, 
Jpii te fontesy ipfa haec arbufta yocabant. 46 

Qiiid facerem ? neque fervitio me exirc licebat. 
Nee tam praefentis alibi cognofeere divos. 
Hie ilium vidi juvenem, Meliboee, quot annis 
Bis fenos eui.noftra dies altaria fumant. 
tiie mihi refponfum primus dedit ille petenti : 45 

Pafeite, ut ante, boves, pueri : fubmittite tauros. 

Fortunate fenex, ergo tua rura manebunt i 
£t tibi magna fatis : quamvis lapis omnia nudui^ 
Limofoque palus obdueat pafeua juneo } 
Non infueta gravis tentabunt pabula foetas : 50^ 

Nee mala vicini pecoris contagia laedent* 
Fortunate fenex, hie inter flumina nota^ 
£t fontis facros, frigus captabis opaeum. 
Hine tibi, quae Temper vieino ab limite fepes, 
Hyblaeis apibus florem depafta fali^U, 5^ 

52. TlTfJh'uis.] The arhufta were large pieces of grodnd 
planted with elms or other trees, at the diilance commonly 0/ 
forty feet, to leave room for com to grow between them. Thcfe 
trees were pruned in fuch a manner, as to ferve for ftagcs to th« 
vines, which were planted near them. The vines faflened after 
t)u^ manner, were called arbtifti*uai <oiut. See the 12th chapter 
of Columella de arboribus. 

58. S'waim fe$d ] The word /ubmiftiti iti the original may 
mean the breeding the cattle^ as well as yoking oxen. 

61. PTJbat iho' rough /ones.] The reader of tafte cannot but 
be pleafed with this little landfcape, efpccially as foftie critics 

lei. 1. The Eclogues of Virgil. 8i 

tarclefs I HvM of freedom and of gain. 

And frequent viSitas thinii'd my folds in vain ; 

Tho' to th' ungrateful town my chcefc I fold, 45 

Yet ftill I bore not blck th' expcaed gold. 

Oft, Amaryllis, I with wonder heard 
Thy vows to heav'n in foft diftrefs preferred. 
With wonder oft thy lingering fruits furvey'd ; 
Nor knew for whom the bending branches ftay'd : 50 
'Twas Tit'rus was away— for thee detained 
The pines, the (hrubs, the bubbling fprings complain'd* 


What could I do ? where elfe expeS to find 

One glimpfe of freedom, or a god fo kind ? 

There I that youth beheld, for whom (hall rife 55 

Each year my votive incenfe to the (kies. 

'Twas there this gracious anfwer blefs'd mine ears^ 

Swains feed again your herds, and yoke your fteers. 

Happy old man ! then ftUl thy farms reftorM^^ 
Enough for thee, fliall blefs thy frugal board, 6^ 

What tho' rough ftones the naked foil o*erfpread, 
Or marfhy bulrufli rear its watry head. 
No foreign food thy teeming ewes fhall fear^ 
No touch contagious fprcad its influencie here. 
Happy old man ! here mid' the cuftom'd ftreams 65 

And facred fprings, you'll fhun the fcorching beams. 
While from yon willow-fence, thy paftures' bound. 
The bees that fuck their flow'ry ftores around. 
Shall fweetly mingle, with the whifpering boughs. 
Their lulling murmurs, and invite repofc : 70 

think Virgil is here defcribing his own eftate. *Tis a miftake 
to imagine the fpot of ground was barren, for we find it con- 
tained a vineyard and apiary, and good pafture land ; and the 
ihepherd fays he fupplied Mantua with vi£iiini and Acefes. 

Vol. h G 

$2 P. ViRGiLii Maronis Bucolica. EcL I. 

Saepe Icvi fomnum fuadebit inire fufurro. 
Hinc alta fub rupe canet -frohdator ad auras. 
Nee tamcn interea raucae, tua cura, palumbes. 
Nee gemere aeria ceffabit turtur ab ulmo. 


Ante leves ergo pafcentur in acthere cervi, 6% 

£t freta deftituent nudos in litore pifcis : 

Ante, pererratis amborum finibus exful, 

Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Germania Tigrin, 

Quam noftro illius labatur peftore voltus. 

At nos hine alii fitientis ibimus Afros : 65 

Pars Scythiam, et rapidum Cretae veniemus Oaxen, 
£t penitus toto divifos orbe Britannos. 
£n umquam patrios longo poft tempore finis, 
Pauperis ac tuguri congeftum cefpite culmen, 
Poft aliquot, mea rcgna videns, mirabor ariftas J 70 

Inpius haec tarn culta novalia miles habebit ? 
Barbarus has fegetes i en quo difcordia civis 
Produxit miferos ! en quis confevimus agros ! 
Infere nunc, Meliboee, piros ; pone ordine vltis. 
Itc meae, fdix quondam pceus, ite capellae. 75 

77. The Parthian.] Thefe images arc not Co much in charac- 
ter as thofc in the two preceding lines. They are too remote for 
cur iimple ihepherd. 

J35. Ah!fl?allIn£verJ] By ^n in the original^ fay the com- 
mentators, is meant unquamne, aliquandone, or an unquam. 
Ruaeus obferves that thefe expreilions are in general only a bars 
and cold interrogation, but furely in this paifage the poet means 
an interrogation joined with an eager defirc; a fort of languifli- 
ing in Meliboeus after the farms and fields he was obliged to 
leave. We find the fame expreflion in the fame fenfe in the 
eighth Eclogue. 

En ertt unquam 

Jlli diiSy mibi cum liceat tua dictrtfoBa ! 

86. Mattf a jear.^ By fo/f aliquot ariftas in the original, is 
certaijlly meamt afttrfimejean. It is natural for fhepherds to 


Eel. li The Eclogues OF Virgil- 8j 

While from fteep rocks the pruner's fong is heard j 
Nor the foft-cooing dove, thy fav'rite bird. 
Mean while fhall ceafe to breathe her melting ftrain^ 
Nor turtles from th' aerial elm to plain^ 


Sooner the flag in fields of air fhall feed, y^ 

Seas leave on naked fhores the fcaly breed. 

The Parthian and the German climates changd. 

This Arar drink, and that near Tigris range. 

Than e'er, by ftealing time efFac'd, (hall part 

His piuch-lov'd image from my grateful heart* 8o 

But we far hence to diftant climes fhall go. 
O'er Afric's burning fands, or Scythia's fnow^ 
Where roars Oaxis, or where feas embrace^ 
Dividing from the world, the Britifh race. 
Ah ! fhall I never once again behold, 85 

When many a year in tedious round has roll'd. 
My native feats ? — Ah ! ne'er with ravifht thought 
Gaze on my little realm, and turf-built cot ? 
What ! muft thefe rifing crops barbarians fhare ? 
Thefe well-till'd fields become the fpoils of war ? 90 
See to what mis'ry difcord drives the fwain ! 
See, for what lords we fprcad the teeming grain ! 
Now Meliboeus, now, renew your cares. 
Go, rank again your vines, and graft your pears : 
Away, my goats, once happy flocks ! away ! 95 

No more fhall I refume the rural lay : 

meafure the years by the harveils. Arifta is the beard of the 
wheat ; the Roman hufbandmen fowed only the bearded wheat. 
87. Ah / »fVr.] Thefe fhort and abrupt exclamations arc very 
natural, and have quite a dramatic air. The image of his 
little farm and cottage being plundered, breaks in upon the 
fhejpherd, and quite difordcrs his mind. The irony in the fol- 
lowing lines. 

In/ere ntiHCt MeUhoee^ piros, &c. 

ftrongly cxprefles both grief and indignation. 

G a 

84 P- ViRciLii Maronis Bucolica. EcI. i. 

Non-cgo vos pofthac, viridi projeftus in antro, 
Dumofa pendere procul de nipe videbo. 
Carmina nulla canam. non, me pafcente, capellae^ 
Florentem cytifum, et falices carpetis amaras. 


Hie tamen banc mecum poteras requiefccre noftem 8o 
Fronde fuper viridi. funt nobis mitia poma, 
Caftaneae molles, et preffi copia laftis. 
£t jam fumma procul villarum culmina fumant^ 
Majorefque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae* 

97. No more, as /».] I have (ccn in Italy (and on the Vati- 
can hill near Rome, in particular) a little arch*d cave made by 
the ihepherds of ever-greens, not high enough to ftand in ; 
there they lie at their eafe to obferve their flocks browiing. Is 
it not fuch a fort of cave which is meant here i Viridi is not a 
proper epithet for the infide of a natural cave, efpeciaily for 
fuch rocky ones as one finds in Italy. ' S p e n c e . 

104. Cbee/e.'] The Roman peafants ufed to carry the curd 
as foon as it was prefled into the towns, or elfe fait it for cheefe 
againil the winter. 

Eel. I. The Eclogues of Virgil. 85. 

No more, as in my verdant cave I lie. 

Shall! behold ye hang from rocks on high : 

No more (hall tend ye, while ye round me browfe 

The trefoil flow*rs, or willow's harfher boughs. lOO 


Yet here, this night, at leaft, with me reclin'd 

On the green leaves, an humble welcome find ^ 

Ripe apples, chefnuts foft, my fields afford. 

And checfe in plenty loads my rural board* 

And fee ! from village-tops the fmoke afcend, 105 

And falling fhades from weftern hills extendi 



C «7 3 



JJhephird defpairing to gain the qffidfions of a youtby tumid 
Alexis^ is here introduced^ uttering thofe natural and 
bitter complaints^ that difappointed affe£tion is fo apt to 
fuggeji. Dr. Trapp obferves^ *' That there is no loofe 
idea^ nor one immodeji exprejjion in the whole piece ; which 
means no more^ than either the platonic love of the beauties^ 
both of body and mind^ or excefs of friend/hip y or rather 
both. Experience gives us many inflames of perfons of the 
fame f ex y one of whom is beloved by the otSer^ to an ex^ 
tremity of fondnefs^ and almoji dotage. I dare fay no 
perfon^ unlefs monjiroujly debauched beforehand^ and fo 
being a tempter to himfelf {which he may be in reading 
not only innocent but facred things) had ever an ill thought 
fuggefled to him^ by the reading of this Eclogue.'* 

^^ >-t t %.»■<. ,\ / A-4. *.**T > ^ C . 

Cf* ^ '^U^i- * i 

i/l Ct •". i^» 


E 88 3 

E C L O G A 11. 


FORMOSUM paftor Corydon ardebat Alexin, 
Delicias domini ; nee, quid fperaret, habebat. 
Tantum inter denfas, umbrofa cacumina, fagos ' 
Adfidue Teniebat. ibi haec incondita folus 
Montibus et filvis ftudio jaStahsLt inani. 5 

O crudelis Alcxi, nihil mca carmina curas i 
Nil noftri miferere? mori me denique coges. 
Nunc etiam pccudes umbras ac frigora captant : 
Nunc viridis etiam occultant fpineta lacertos : 
Tbeftylis et rapido feffis meflToribus aeftu ;«i 

AUia ierpuUumque herbas contundit olentis. 
At me cum raucis, tua dum veftigia luftro, 
Sole fub ardenti refonant arbufta cicadis. 
Nonne fuit ^tius, triftis Amaryllidis iras 
Atque fuperba pati foftidia ? nonne Menalcan ? 1^ 

Quamvis ille niger, quamvis tu candidus efles. 
O formoie puer,. nimium ne crede colori. 

YtT. 13. Garlic founds,] We arc told by Pliny that gar- 
lic was very much ufed in the country as an excellent medi- 
cine ; Allium tul multUy ruris praecifue^ nuMcamenta prodeffe ere-- 
iitur. It mud in Italy be a very nutritious food for hulband- 

16. Shrill Cicada,] I don't know how every body almoft 
in England came to imagine, that the Cicada in the Roman 
writers was the fame with our grafliopper j for their charadlers 
are different enough to have prevented any fuch miflake. The 
Cicada is what the Italians now call Cicala, and the French 
Cigale. They make one couftant uniform noife all day long 
in fnmmer-time, which is extremely difagreeable and tire- 
fome, particularly in the great heats. Their note is (harp and 
ihrill in the beginning of the fummer, but hoarfe and harfli 
towards the latter part of it. They are fuppofed to feed on 
the morning dewj, and then fix on fome funny branch of a 


[ «9 3 



YOUNG Corydon with hopelefs love adored 
The fair Alexis, fav'rite of his lord. 
Mid* {hades of thickeft beech he pin'd alone, 
To the wild woods and mountains made his moan. 
Still day by day, in incoherent ftrains, j 

^Twas all he could, defpairing told his pains. 
Wilt thou ne'er pity me, thou cruel youth. 
Unmindful of my verfe, my vows, and truth f 
Still, dear Alexis, from my pafiion fly ? 
Unheard and unregarded muft I die ? |^ 

Now flocks in cooling {hades avoid the heats^ 
And the green lizard to his brake retreats. 
Now The{lylis the thyme and garlic pounds. 
And weary reapers leave the fultry grounds. 
Thee {till I follow o'er the burning plains 15 

And join the {hrill Cicada's plaintive {Irains. 
Were it not better calmly to have borne 
Proud Amaryllis' or Menalcas' fcorn ? 
Tho' he was black, and thou art heav'nly fair ? 
How much you truft that beauteous hue beware ! 20 

tree, and fing all day long. It is hence that this infed is op- 
pofed to the ant in the old iEfopian fables^ which is as in- 
daftrious and inolFenfive as the other is idle and troublefome. 
Virgil calls the Cicada queruUu sind raucae; Msurtial, arguiag 
and inbumanae. Their note is the more troublefome, becauft 
in the great heats they fing alone. Any one who has paiTed z 
fummer in Italy, or in the fouth of France, will not think 
the epithet iubumanoi too fevere for them. Spbncb. 

18. Amaryllis J] Servius informs us^ that the true name of 
Amaryllis was Leria, a beautiful girl whom Maecenas gave to 
Virgil, as he alfo did Cebes, whom the poet mentions under 
the perfon of Menalcas. Catrou thinks this {bry of Serviqs 
is a fidion ; but adds another fiAion of his own^ that Rome is 
meant by Amaryllii. 

90 P. ViRGiLii Maronis Bucolica. Eel. 2. 

Alba liguftra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur. 

Defpe^s tibi fum, nee qui fim quaeris, Alexi : 

Quam dives pecoris nivei, quam laAis abundans. 20 

Mille mcae Sieulis errant in montibus agnae. 

Lac mihi non aeftate, novum non frigorc defit. 

Canto, quae folitus, A quando armenta vocabat^ 

Amphion Dircaeus in A£laeo Aracyntho. 

Nee fum adeo informis : nuper me in litore vidi, 25 

Cum placidum ventis ftaret mare, non ego Daphnin 

Judice te metuam, fi numquam fallit imago. 

O tantum libeat mecum tibi fordida rura, 

Atque humilis habitare cafas, et figere cervos, 

Haedorumque grcgem viridi conpellere hibifco ! 3a 

Mecum una in filvis imitabere Pana canendo. 

Pan primus calamos cera conjungerc pluris 

Inftituit : Pan curat ovis, oviumque magiftros. 

Nee te poeniteat calamo trivifle labellum. 

Haec eadem ut fciret, quid non faciebat Amyntas ? 35 

Eft mihi difparibus feptem conpadta cicutis 

f iftula, Damoetas dono mihi quam dedit olim, 

Et dixit morjcns : Te |iunc habet ifta fecundum, 

JDixit Damoetas : invidit ftultus Amyntas. 

27. Sifffg''] The ancient ihephcrds walked before, and called 
Aeir fheep after them . 

2p. Firw^dJ] La Ccrda has very fully vindicated Virgil, 
agamft thofe who deny the poffibility of an image being rc- 
fledled by the fea. When it is perfedily calm it is quite a 

• I don't know whether you have taken notice of a mifcarriage 
in the moll judicious of all poets. Theocritus makes Polypheme 


H ya^ v^uf tq norTov i^ivXiivoy* igy ^i yaXava, 

Nothing could be better fancied than to make this enormous 
fpn of Neptune ufe the fea for his looking-glafs : but is Yirgil 
b happy when his little landman fays^i 


' Eel. 2. The Eclocubs op Vergil. 91 

The privet's filver flow'rs we ftiU neglcft, 

But dufky hyacinths with care colled. 

Thou know'ft not whcm thou fcorn'ft-^what fnowy kine. 

What lufcious milk, what rural ftores are mine ! 

Mine are a thoufand lambs in yonder vales, 25 

My milk in fummer's drought, nor winter fails \ 

Nor fweeter to his herds Amphion fung, 

While with his voice Boeotia's mountains rung ; 

Nor am I fo deformM I myfelf I view'd i 

On the fmooth furface of the glaffy flood, jo 

By winds unmov'd, and be that image true, 

I dread not Daphnis* charms, tho' judg'd by you. 

O that you lov'd the fields and ihady grots. 
To dwell with me in bowers, and lowly cots. 
To drive the kids to fold, the ftags to pierce ; 35 

Then Ihould'ft thou emulate Pan's (kilful verfe. 
Warbling with me in woods ; 'twas mighty Pan 
To join with wax the various reeds began; 
Pan, the great god of all our fubjeft plains, 
Protefts and loves the cattle and the fwains ; 49 

Nor thou difdain, thy tender rofy lip 
Deep to indent with fuch a matter's pipe. 
To gain that art how much Amyntas try'd ! 
This pipe Damoetas gave me as he dy'd ; 
Seven joints it boafts — Be thine this gift, he faid : 45 
Amyntas envious figh'd, and hung the head. 

Nee fum fldio informis : nuper me in lit tore v/V/'i 
Cum placidum mentis ft aret mare ? ■ 

His wonderful judgment for once deferted hiin> or he might 
have retained the ^ntiment with a flight change in the appU* 
cation. Hu a d's letter on the marKs of imitation. 

41. RoJ) Iff,] There is a fondnefs in mentioning this cir- 
cumilance of his wearing his lip. — This fiflula is ufed to this 
day in the Grecian iflands. The conilant effcdl of playing 
on it^ is making the lip thick and callous. Mr, Dawkins 
affured me he faw fcveral fhepherds with fuch lips. 

45. Joints.] Scrvius tells us, that Cicuta means ;he fpacc 
between the two joints of a reed. 


^a P- ViRGiLii Maronis Bucolica. Eel. 2. 

Praeterea duo, ncc tuta mihi vallc rcperti, 40 

Capreoli fparfis etiam nunc pellibus albo^ 
(3ina die ficcant ovis ubera) quos tibi fervo. 
Jam pridem a me illos ab4ucere Theftylis orat : 
JEt faciet : quoniam fordent tibi /nunera noftra. 
Hue ades, 6 formofc puer. tibi lilia plenis 45 

Ecee ferunt nymphae ealathis : tibi Candida Nais, 
fallentis violas et fumma papavera earpens, 
^areiffum et florem jungit bene olentis anethi, 
(um, cafia atque alils intexens fuavibus herbis, 
Mollia luteola pingit vaccinia caltha. 5^ 

Ipfe ego cana legam tenera lanugine mala, 
Caftaneafque nuces, mea quas Amaryllis amabat. 
Addam cerea pruna : honos erit huic quoque pomo« 
Et vos, 6 lauri, carpam, et te, proxima myrte. 
Sic pofitae quoniam fuavis mi/cetis odores. 55 

Rufticus es, Corydon. nee munera curat Alexis : 
Nee fi muneribus certes, concedat lolas. 
Eheu, quid volui miferomihi? floribus auftrum 
Perditus, et liquidis inmifi fontibus apros. 

47. Kids.] Thcfc were undoubtedly wild kids, taken from 
their proper dam, and not kids which Corydon had lofl, and 
now recovered again. Servius fays, kids at firft have white 
fpots, which alter and lofe their beauty afterwards. 

c t. Tiff mympbs itt bajkeu bring,] Thefe lines are of an ex- 
quime beauty, and contain *the fweeted garland that ever was 
offered by a lover. He concludes this defcription of his pre- 
fenta by faying that, Alas! Alexis would not regard any of his 
gifts, as he was only a poor ruilic, and that his rival lolas 
was able to make far richer prefents. At the mention of his 
rival's name he flops fhort, and cries. Fool that I am, to put 
Alexis in mind of him, — who will certainly prefer him to me ! 
This feems to be the true meaning of quid 'volui mi/ero mihi f 
tho' feveral commentators give a different interpretation. The 
agitation and doubts of a lover's mind are finely painted in 
this paff^ge and the fucceeding lines. At laft the fhepherd 
feems to come to himfelf a little, and refledls on the bad con- 
dition of his affairs, which his paflion has occafioned, ymf- 

futata tibi, &c. and finally refolves to leave the obdurate 

Alexis* and go in fearch of another obje& 


Eel. a. 'The Eclogues or ViRort. 


Bcfides, two dappled kids, which late I found 

Deep in a dale with dangerous rocks around, 

For thee I nurfej with thefe, O come and play ! 

They drain two fwelling udders every day. 50 

Thefe Theftylis hath begged, but bcggM in vain j 

Now be they her*s, fince ybu my gifts difdain. 

Come, beauteous boy ! the nymphs in bafkets bring 

For thee. the lovclieft lillies of the fpring ; 

Behold for thee the neighboring Naiad crops 55 

The violet pale, and poppy*s fragrant tops, 

Narciflus' buds flie joins' with fweet jonquils. 

And mingles cinnamon with daffodils ; 

With tender hyacinths of darker dyes, 

The yellow marigold diverfifies. 60 

Thee, with the downy quince, and chefnuts fweet. 

Which once my Amaryllis lov'd, I'll greet ; 

To gather plumbs of gloffy hue, will toil ; 

Thefe ihall be honour'd if they gain thy fmile. 

Ye myrtles too I'll crop and verdant bays, 65 

For each, fo plac'd, a richer fcent conveys. 

O Corydon, a ruftic hind thou art ! 

Thy prefents ne'er will touch Alexis' heart ! 

Give all thou canft, exhauft thy rural ftore, 

lolas, thy rich rival, offers more. 70 

What have 1 fpoke ? betray'd by heedlefs thought. 

The boar into my cryflal fprings have brought I 

60. Marigold,] Dr. Marty n has taken great pains to explain 
the true names of the flowers here mentioned by Virgil, and fix)ni 
h!s ikill in botany one may imagine he has jailly afcertained 
them. I follow him. 

61. Che/nuts fiweei,] There are dill in Italy, garlands in- 
termixt with fruits as well as flowers, like that aefcribed by 
Virgil in his Eclogues. 1 have fcen feme of thefe carried 
about the ftreets of Florence, the Sunday before Chriflmas- 
day : They were built up in a pyramid of ever-greens, chiefly 
of bays, and faced with apples, grapes, and other fruits. 

7 1 . What,] This reading is after the Vatican manufcript. 

^ p. ViRGiLzi Maronis Bucolica^ £cI. 2* 

Quern fugis, ah, demens ! habitarunt di quoque filvas, 6(» 

Dardaniufque Paris. Pallas, quas condidit, arces 

Ipfa colat. nobis placeant ante omnia filvae. 

Torva leaena lupum fequitur, lupus ipfe capellam ; 

Florentem cytifum fequitur lafciva capella : 

Te Corydon, 6 Alexi. trahit fua quemque voluptas. 65 

Afpicc, aratra jugo referunt fufpenfa juvenci, 

£t fol crefcentis decjedens duplicat umbras : 

Me tamen urit amor, quis enim modus adfit amori ? 

Ah Corydon, Corydon, quae te dementia cepit ! 

Semiputata tibi frondofa vitis in ulmo eft. 7a 

Qiiin tu aliquid faltem, potius quorum indiget ufus, 

Viminibus mollique paras detexere junco ? 

Invenies alium, fi te hie faftidit. Alexin. 

77. Pallas 18 faid to be the inventor of architcfture. 

88. Elms,] The cpithtt /rvmfo/a has great propriety : for 
Servius fays^ here is a double inflance of negfedt ! the vines 
are half pruned^ and the elms are fuffered to make long fhoots. 

91. I/this Alexis A Even when he refolves to forget the be- 
loved perfon^ he fondly repeats the beloved name. Tr a p r . 

92. From Theocritus. 

La Cerda has colleded^ with much exadnefs, all the pafTageg 
which Virgil has taken from Theocritus ; their number is in- 
deed very great. 

Eel. 2. The Eclogues of Virgii; 95 

Wretch that I am ! to the tempcftuous blaft 
O I have given my blooming flowers to wafte ! 

Whom doft thou fly ? the gods of heav*n above, 75 
And Trojan Paris deign'd in woods to rove 5 
Let Pallas build, and dwell in lofty towers. 
Be our delight the fields and Ihady bowers : 
Lions the wolves, and wolves the kids purfue. 
The kids fweet thyme— and I flill follow you. {^ 

Lo ! labouring oxen fpent with toil and heat. 
In loofen'd traces from the plough retreat. 
The fun is fcarce above the mountains feen. 
Lengthening the (hadows o'er the dufky green 5 
But flill my bofom feels not evening cool, 85 

Love reigns unchecked by time, or bounds, or rule. 
What frenzy, Corydon, invades thy breafl ? 
Thy elms grow wild, thy vineyard lies undrefl; 
No more thy neceflfary labours leave, 
Jlcnew thy works, and ofier-bafkets weave ! g^ 

If this Alexis treat thee with difdain, 
Thou'lt find another, and a kinder fwain. 


£ 97 3 



This Eclogue contains a difpuU between two Jhepherdsj of that 
fort which the critics call Amoehaea^ from AfMiSauij mutual 
cr alternate. In this way of writing the perfons are r/- 
frefented tofpeak alternately^ the latter always endeavour^ 
ing to exceedy or at leaji equals what has been faid by the 
former y in the very fame number ofverfes\ in which if he 
failsy he lofes the viSfory. Here Menalcas and Damoetas 
reproach each other ^ and then fing for a wager ^ making 
Palaemon judge between them. Menalcas begins the con». 
ientiony by cafting fome reflexions on his rival Aegon^ and 
hisfervant Damoetas. Fivesy as ufualj endeavours to aU 
Jegorize this Eclogue^ and fays that Virgil means himfelf 
nnder the fictitious name of Damoetas. I heardy fays Mr. 
Holdfworthy a poetical conteft of this kind at Val-Ombrofa^ 
which being very fatiricaU p^^ fM in mind of the old 

Vol. I, ti 

C 98 ] 



M£NALCA99 DAMOBt*A«, 1^AtA£M0K. 


Die mihi, Damoeta, cujum pecus i zti Meliboeil 
Non : verttm Aegonis. nuper mihi tradidit Aegon. 


Infelix 6 ienper ovci pectis ! 'ipfc Neaeriuh 
Dum fovet, ac, ne me fibi praeferat ilia, reretur ; 
^ic alienus oyis cuftos bis mulget in hora : 5 

£t fuccus pecori) et lac fubdHcitur agnis. 

Parcius ifta vina tamen objicienda memento. 
Novimns et qui te, tranfverfa tuentibtts hirciS| 
£t quo, fed faciles Nympbae rifere, facello* 

Turn, credo, cum me arbuftum vidcrc Mjrconis, 19 

Atque mala vitis incidere fake novellas, 

Aut hie ad veteres fagos, cum Daphnidos arcum 

Fregifti et calamps : quae tu, pervcrfe Menalca, 

Et cum vidifti pucro donata, dolebas, 

Et, fi non aliqua nocuifTes, mortuus efTes, 15 

12. H^e know that jou.\ Virgil here imitates Theocritus 
{.Ncvimus, t^c.) but is not fo groiS and indelicate as the Qreek 

[ 99 ] 

P A L A E M O N. 

Menalcas, Damoetas, Palaemom, 


ARE thefc, Damoetas, Meliboeus' fheep ? 
No ; thefc their mafter Acgon bade me keep. 

Unhappy iheep ! yet more unhappy fwain ! 
Whilft he Neaera wooes, but wooes in vain ^ 
And fears left I by fairer fortune bleft ^ 

Should win precedence in the virgin's bread; 
Lo ! here an hireling waftes his mafter's gains. 
And twice an hour of milk the cattle drains. 
How lean, too deeply drain'd, appear the dams ! 
And cheated of their milk how pine the lambs \ lo 

Damoetas. ' 
At leaft to men this fcoffing language fpare; 
We know that you— with whom — and when— ^and where: 
Wc know the cave — 'tis well the nymphs were kind. 
Nor to the deed the leering goats were blind, 

Ay, the kind nymphs, forfooth, no notice took, 15 

When Mycon's vine I tore with wicked hook. 

Qr rather when, yon ancient be^ch below. 
In fpite you broke young Daphnis' darts and bow. 
O fwain perverfe ! nay, when the boy received 
The gift, oh ! how your jealous foul was griev'd f ao 
'Twas well you found that way, or you, I wccn^ 
liad 4ied in very impotence of fpleen^ 

|00 ?• VULGILII M^SLOiritS BuCOLICAt £cl, ^, 

Menalcas. I 

Qiiid domjni facjant, audent cum talia fi^re^ i 
Non ego te vidi Damonis, peffime, caprum 
Excipere infldiis, multum latrante Lycifca f 
£t cum clamarem : Quo nunc fe proripit ille ? 
Tityre, coge pecus : tu poft care6bi latebas. IQ 

An mihi cantando vi£his non redderet ille, 
Quem mea carminibus meruiflet fiftula, caprum ? 
^i nefcis, me^s ille caper fuit; et mihi Damon 
Ipfe fatebatur : fed reddere pofle negabat. 

Cantando tu ilium ? aut umquam tibi fiftula cera 25 
JunStz fuit ? non tu in triviis, indo^, folebas 
^tridenti miierum ftipula difperdere carmen ? 
A. Damoetas. 

Vis ergo inter nos, quid poffit uterque, viciffim 
Experiamur i ego banc vitulam, ne forte recufes. 
Bis venit ad muldram, binos alit ubere foetus, 39 

Depono : tu die, mecum quo pignore certeSf 

pe grege non aufim quidquam deponere tecum. 
Eft mihi namque domi pater, eft injufta noverca : 
Bifque die numerant ambo pecus, alter et haedos. 
Verum id, quod multo tute ipfe fatebere majus, 35 

Infanire libet quoniam tibi, pocula ponam 
Fagina, caelatum divini opus Alcimedontis : 

56. Tdjfan.] Npt|iing can be fo fatyrical as this line, A}I 
Ihefe R's ( witli a repetition of/ injhi^enti ti ftipula) could not 
concur without fome defign. Milton imitates this paflage in 
his beautiful poem entitled Lycidas. 

Grate on their fcrannel pipes of wretched draw. 

48. jilcimedon.l As there is no account left us of any fiimous 
artift called Alcimedon, Dr. Marty n imagines that he was a 
^iend of our poet^ who was therefore willing to tranfmit his 
name to pofterity. By his name, he appears to have been a 
Greek. How highly the arts of painting and carving were 
ffteemed in Greece, appears frpip this vefy rem^kable paifa^ 
• ' in 

Stl. §• *rttE EciOCXTES OF VlRt?IL; tox 

What daring fcandal muft thy mafter prate^ 
Slhce thou^ his flave, canft talk at fuch a rate ( 
Did not I fee thee, thief, fteal Damon's goat, 25 

While loud Lycifca gave the warning note ? 
And when I cryM, — *' Sec, where the rafcal fpeeds j 
*' Tit'rus take care"— you (kulk'd behind the reeds. 

The goat was mine, and won beyond difpute; 
The lawful prize of my vidoriouS flute. 30 

Not Damon's felf the juft demand denies^ 
But owtis he could not pay the forfeit prize. 

You win a goat by mufic ? did thy hand 
E'fer join th' unequal reeds with waxen band ? 
Vile dunce ! whofe fole ambition was to draw 35 

The mob in ftreets to ftare at thy harfh-grating flraw* 

Howe'er that be, fuppofc we trial make ? 
I, to provoke you more, yon heifer ftake^ 
Two calves ihe rears, twice fills the pails a-day, 
Nbw for the ftrife 'tis your's fome pledge to lay* 40 

You cannot from my flock a pledge require^ 
You know I have at home a peevifh fire, 
A cruel flep-dame too — ftridk watch they keep^ 
And twice each day they count my goats and fheep. 
But fmce your proffet'd prize fd mUch you boaft'^ 45 
ril ftake a pledge of far fuperior coft. 
Two beauteous bowls of beechen wood are mine. 
The fculpture of Alcimedon divine; 

in Pliny ; fpeaking of Eupompus, he fays> *' It was enjoined hf 
*' his authority, firflin Sic/on, and next throughout all Greece^ 
** that ingenuous youths fhould above all things learn the art 
*' o£car*oing, that is, of making defigns in box ; and that this 
" art fliould be ranked amone the firft of the liberal ones. He 

H 3 ** thought 

lOt p. ViRGiLu Marovxs BUCOLICA* Ed. ^ 

Lenta quibus torno facili fuperaddita vitis 

Diffufos edera veftit pallente corymbos. 

In medio duo figna^ Conon : et quis fuit alter^ 40 

Defcripfic radio totum qui gentibus orbem, 

Tempora quae mefibr, quae curvus arator haberet? 

Necdum illis labra admovi, led fondita fenpo* 

£t nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit, 
Et moUi circum eft anfas amplexus acantho, 45 

Ocpheaque in medio pofuit, iilvafque fequentis* 
Necdum illis labra admovi, ied condita fervo. 
Si ad vitulam fpedbis, nihil eft quod pocula laudes* 

Nunquam hodie effugies* veniam quocunque. vocaris. 
Audiat haec tantum vel qui venit : ecce, Pakemon : 50 , 
Efficiam pofthac quemquam ne voce laceflas. 

Damostas. ' 
Quin age, fi quid habes ; in me mora non erit ulla. 
Nee quemquam fugio. tantum, vicine Palacmon, 
Senfibus baec imis (res eft non parva) reponas» 

Dicite : quandoquidem in moUi confedimus herba* 55 
Et nunc omnis ager, nunc omnis parturit arbos. 
Nunc frondent filvae, nunc formofiffimus annus. 
Incipe, Damoeta ; tu deinde fequere, Menalca. 
Alternis dicetis : amant alterna Camenae. 

'' thought the laws of honour were violated^ if any but^otle- 
** men, or at leaft thofe chat were reputably born, pradiled this 
'' art; and made a perpetual prohibition that ilaves never 
*' Ihould be admitted to learn it. Hence it is that we fee no 
*' celebrated pieces of ear^vin^, neither of engra<vingf or relievo^ 
'• [7Vr/»//V^] done by any perfon in the degree of a flave.** 

Nat. Hift. b. 35. ۥ lo. 

£ci. ji 'tnt I^ciootTCs OF Viroil« id} 

Whofe eafy chiffcl o'er the work has twin'd, 

A vine with berries of pale ivy join'd. 50 

Full in the midft two comely forms appear, 

Conon, with him who fram'd that wond'rous fphere^ 

Which points the change of feafoiis to the fwain. 

And when to plough the foil, or reap the grain< 

Thefe are my pledge ; which yet with care I keep 55 

Untouch'd^ and unpolluted by the lip. 

I have a pair by the fame artift made^ 
Their handles with acanthus* leaves o'erlaid, 
iVhere Orpheus in the glidft attraAs the grove— ^ 
But my iirft-profFerM prise is ftill above 6d 

All we can ftake ; tho' yet my cups I keep 
Untouch'd, and unpolluted by the lip. 

Name your own terms, nor think the field to flyj 
We'll choofe, forjudge, the firft who paflfes by— • 

Palaemon comes^ let him the caufe decide j 65 

For once I'll tame an empty boafter's pride. 

I fear the threats of no vain^glorious fwain^ 
No proud Menalcas, nor his vaunted ftrain* 
The fong, Palaemon, with attention hear. 
No mean debate demands thy liftening ear. 70 

Begin, fince on the tender turf we reft. 
And fields and trees in fruitful ftores are dreft. 
The lofty groves their verdant livery wear. 
And in full beauty blooms the laughing year. 
Begin Damoetas ; next, Menalcas, prove 75 

Thy (kill ; the Nine alternate meafurcs lovt. 

tt + 

104 P* ViftoaA Makohis Bvcolica. EcL 3. 

Ab Jove principium, Mufae : Jovis onmia.plena : 60 
Ille colit terras, illi mea carmina curae. 

£t me Phoebus amat : Phoebo fua femper apud me 
Munera funt, lauri, et fuave rubens hyacinthus. 

Malo me Galatea petit, lafciva puella ; 
£t fugit ad falices, et fe cupit ante yideri. 6j 

At mihi fefe offert ultro meus ignis Amyntas : 
Notior ut jam At canibus non Dcjia noftris. 
( DaMoetas. 

Parta meae Veneri funt munera : namque notavi 
Ipfe locum, aeriae quo congeflere palumbes. 

Quod potui, puero filveftri ex arbore leda 70 

Aurea mala decern mifi : eras altera mittam. 

Damoetas. ,k 
O quotics, et quae nobis Galatea locuta eft ! 
Partem aliquam, venti,. divom referatis ad auris. 

']'], Mufes from mtgbty.'\ Virgil feeins to have laid it down as 
an indifpeniable rule to himfelf, in thefe Amoebaean verfes, 
to make the refpondent (hepherd anfwer his opponent, inexadly 
the iame number of lines. Either this rule was never taken 
notice of by any former tranflator ; or the extreme difficulty 
of obferving it, hath deterred them from attempting to follow 
it. How 1 have fucceeded (both in this and the feventh Eclogue) 
mull be left to the determination' of the judicious readex, who» 
it is hoped, will make proper allowances for fuch a conlfa^nt. 

82. Laurel.\ The ancient poets fcem to ufe laurus indiffer- 
ently for laurels, or bays : ilridly fpeaking, lauro, or laurongio^ 
liguifijs the former in Italian, and alhro the latter; but their 
beft poets ufe lauro indifferently for both. Spekcb. 

103. Breezii, har.] This fentiment of Damoetas is beauti* 
ful and poetical to the laH degree, efpecially, farttm aliquam* 

Eel. 3* Tut EcioGOis 09 VaLoa; toj^ 

Mufes from mighty Jove begin the theme; ' 

With mighty Jove all nature's regions teem : 
With liberal hand he fows the plenteous plains^ 
Nor unpropitious hears my rural ftrains* (^ 

E'en me, mean {hepherd, Phoebus deigns to love. 
Sacred to him I rear a laurel-grove : 
And ftill along my laviih borders rife» 
His hyacinths pf fweetly-blooming dies. 

At me an apple Galatea threw, f j 

Then to the willows, wily girl, withdrew; 
Yet as with hafty fteps fhe (kimm'd the green, 
Wiih'd, ere fhe gain'd the willows, to be feen. 

But unfdiicited Amyntas bums 

For me, fpontaneoufly my love returns ; go 

Unafk'd the boy prevents each foft requeft. 
Nor by my dogs is Delia more carefe'd. 

To the 'dear Venus of my love-fick mind. 
Her fwain a welcome prefent has defign'd. 
I mark'd the bough where two fond turtles coo'd, 95 
And her's iball be the neft, and feathery brood. 

Amid the woodland wilds a tree I found. 
Its plenteous boughs with golden apples crown'd ; 
Then, all I could, to my dear youth I fent. 
And mean ten more to-morrow to prefent. 109 

How oft with words fo mufically mild. 
Has Galatea every fenfe beguil'd ! 
Some part, at leaft, to heav'n, ye breezes, bear. 
Nor let fucb words be loft in common air. 

10^ P.VMnkt(HAA^mTB^V^6iu:$, tdi^; 

Cbiicl prodeft, qpiai f» ipfe fdumo Hon fpemif , Aoiynta^ 
Si) dum tu fe^Mtf ifMKM, ego irecia fifrvo ? 75 

Pbyllida mitte miht ; Bit;us eft iiatalis» Jolft { 
Cum fociam vitula pro £nigibM9i ipfe venito. 

Phyllida amo ante alias (' iwn mc difcedefe flevit t 
Et) longum formofe vafe» Yaky iAquit, Jola. 

Trifle lupus ftabulis, maturia frugibus Imbres^ Id 

Ai^ribus venti ; nobis Anwyllidis iraet 

Diilce fatis bmrnV) depuliSa arbutus haedis, 
Lenta falix.fbeik> pecori i mifti folus Amynta$. 

Pollio amat noftram, quamvis e|b ruftica^ MuCua 1 
Ficrides, vitulam lodori pafcite veftro^ 8i 

Pollio et ipfe facit Jiova cannina* pafcite taurum^ 
Jam cornu petat, ac pedibus qui fpargat arenam^ 


Qui te, Pollio, amat, veniat, quo te quoque gaudeti 

107* Tht h$mr 4/ ^«] Orig. Si^ dum tufiamrii afr^s^ ig9 retia 
firoo f ** What fignifies your love to me, if ydu will not let me 
'* ihew mine to yon by fliaring your dangers ?"-^For all the 
danger was in hunting the wild oeafts ; none in watching the 
Aett. RuABVs'and Traff. 

133. Thillii d^er gnfiry 9ther nymfb,"] The original is, it kngum 
firmq/e, 'uale--^-^ loia / The vocative cafe lelm does not agree 
mth/orme/e, but is to be coi^fbtted at the beginning of the coa« 
plet: O lolas, I /w/ Philits above other luomen, jftr Jbe nvept 
when I parted from her, and cried, O fair /hef herd \MenaUas\ 
fareiwel, He. 

121. Femaljhowers,] La Cerda thinks the fhepherds are 
eqnal in thefe coaplets : but Catrou, according tocuftom, affirms 
that Menalcas has the advantage. ** The images/' fays he, 
** which Menalcas here prefents to the mind, are more agree* 
^ able than thofe of his adverfary, A wolf, unikaibnable rains, 
5 •* and 

Eel. i* Thb Eclocubs Of VuiGxi»« }0)» 

In vain^ Amyntas, you prfttend in vain 105 

To love ; you treat me with unkind difdainy 
If while you hold the briftly boar at bay, 
I keep the nets, nor fhare the dangerous day. 

Bid Phillis hafte t*improve the genial mirth 
Of this the day that gave her fhepherd birth ; no 

And when my heifer bleeds at Ceres' feaft, 
lolas, come thyfelf, and be a welcome gueft ! 

Phillis o'er every other nymph I prize. 
Oh ! how fhe took her leave with weeping eyes ! 
And as I went, ** Dear Ihepherd,*' oft fhe cry'd, 115 
And many a long adieu thro' the deep vales Ihe figh'd. 

The wolf is fatal to the folded fheep ; 
With fatal force o'er trees loud tempefls fweep ; 
Fatal the rufhing (how'rs to ripening corn : 
To me more fatal Amaryllis' fcorn ! 120 

Sweet are the vernal (how'rs to fwelling feed j 
The flow'ry arbute to the weanling kid ; 
The tender willows to the teeming herd : 
By me o'er all Amyntas i^ preferr'd. 

Pollio approves, though rough, my rural reed ; I2j 

Mufes, an heifer for your patron feed ! 

Since Pollio deigns to build the lofty ftrain; 
Feed him a bull that butting fpurns the plain. 

Let him who loves a Pollio's facred name 
Gain what he loves, and fhare a Pollio's fame : 1 30 

" and tempeftaoos winds, are the ornament of Damoetas's difl 
" courfe. In that of Menalcas » we have favourable rainsj and 
'* an agreeable nouriihment to the flocks."^ 

lOS I^. VAtith MAKOKia J^ucoticA. Edt. 3V 

Mella fluant illi, ferat ct rubu$ afper amomuin. 

Qui Bavium non odit» amet tua carmina, Maevi : ^ 
Atque idem jungat volpes, et mulgeat hircos^ 

Qui legitis flores, et humi nafcentia fraga, 
Frigidus, 6 pueri, fugite hinc, latet anguis in herba^ 

Parcite oves nimium procedere : non bene ripae 
Creditur. ipfe aries etiam nunc vellera ftccat. 9^ 

Tityre, pafcentis a flumine reice capellas : 
Ipfe, ubi tempus erit, omnis in fonte lavabo^ 

Cogite ovis, t)ueri : ii lac praeceperit aeftus,* 
Ut nuper, fruftra prefTabimus ubera palmis. 

Eheu, quam pingui macer eft mibi taurus in ervo ! iO€t 
Idem amor exitium pecori eft, pecorifque magiftro. 

His certe neque amor caufla eft : yix offibus hacrent^ 
Nefcio quis teheros oculus mihi fafcinat agnos^ 

Die, quibus in terris^ et eris mihi magnus Apollo^ 
Tris pateat coeli fpatium non amplius ulnas. i0j$ 

Die, quibus in terris infcripti nomina regum 
Nafcantur flores : et Phyllida folus habeto^ 

139. GroKi not,] Catrou nnderftands this couplet as an alle-s 
fpry» implying a caution to avoid being fUrptizedi by dangerou^ 
inclinations. This feems a ftrained and forced ioterpretatipn. 

148. ffTfat magic eye,"] The notion of an evil eye, ftill pre- 
vails among the ignorant vulgar. L6rd Bacon fpeaks of the 
power of the glances of an envious eye. See an Mccetmt of 
fkJtimaiioH in Chambers's DiSionarjn 

151. Till this.] Catrou and Dr. Trapp are for the nvell and 
tie 9Vim, as the moft fimple and fuitable to a (hepherci's under- 
ftanding. But Dr. Maityn {>ropofes a new interpretation^ Mhd 
thinks the fiiepherd may mean a celeftial globe or fphert • 


^clr p The EcLOGUfifi of Virgil. , ip^ 

For him let golden ftreams of honey flow. 
And fragrant fpices breathe from every bough* 

]$ there a fwain that hates not Bavius' lap i 
Be it his curfe vile Maevius' verfe to praife : 
The fame degree of madnefs might provoke 135 

To milk male goats^ or ftubborn foxes yoke. 


Ye boys that gather flow'rs and ftrawberries» . . 

Lo ! hid within the grafs a ferpent lies ! 

Graze not, my flieep, too near the faithlefs bank^ 
{Scarce yet the ram has dry'd his fleeces dank. jjq 

Titjmis, thy kids too near the river ftray^ 
Myfelf will wafh them all fome fitter day. 

Boys, fold your (heep, 'tis vain to prefs the teat^ 
When all the milk^ as erft, is dry'd with heat. 

How lean my bull on yonder clover'd plain ! 245 

Love waftes alike the cattle and the fwain. 

Some heavier plague has made thefe lamias fo lean. 
What magic eye my tender brood has feen ! 

Tell me the place, where heaven's contrad:ed bound 
Appears to view but three (hort ells around ? 150 

Tell this, and thou my god of verfe (halt (hine. 

Tell this, and lovely Phillis fliall be thine : 
.0 tell in what delightful region fprings 
The flow'r that bears infcrib'd the names of kings^ 

154. 0/ hngs.'\ The flower here meant b the hyacinth, 
which a9 it is faid tp fpring from the blood of Ajax# was mark'd 

tto p. Ynoitii MAmoMi Bucolica. Ed. p 

Non noftrmn inter tos tamtas conponere litis : 
£t vituja tu dignuSy et bic : et quifquis amores 
Aut metuet dulcis, aut experietur amarot. no 

Claudite jam livoSt pMcri. fat prau biberunt. 

I C9. Thi JhwMmt.] CUuuiii$ jmm rmt^ U an allegorical ex« 
preffioD^ taken from a river's refreihing the meadows^ and ap« 
plied to mafic apd poetry delighting the can, the fancy, and 

pel. 3^ ThK EctOOUIS OP VlRQIIf III 

Which to prefer perplexing doubts arife : 155 

Neither have won, but both deferv'4 the prize; 
yVnd all deferve alike, whofe fqng can prove. 
Like yoursy how much they fear'd or hopM in love* 
'Tis time to ceafe, my boys : the ftreams reftrain, 
^nough the floods have drench'd the thirfty plain* x6<^ 


C "3 J 



Catrou feems to be the firji commentator that has given any 
thing like a rational interpretation of the fuhje£f of this 
famous Eclogue* His words are as follows^ viz. In the 
year of Rome 714, fays he, when Jfnius Pollio and Do^ 
mitius Calvinus were confulsj the people of Rome compelled 
the triumvirs 0£f avian and Anthony to make a durable 
peace between them. It was hopedy that thereby an end 
would be put to the war with Sextus Pompeyj who had 
made himfelf majier of Sicifyj and by the interruption of 
commerce J had caufed a famine in Rome, To make this 
peace the more firm^ they would have Anthony ^ whofe wife 
Fulvia was then deadj to marry 0£f avian Caefar*s ftjier 
OSfavia^ who had lately lojl her hufband Marcellusj and 
was then big with a child^ of which Jhe was delivered 
after her marriage with Anthony, This child retained the . 
name of his own father Marcellus^ and as long as he lived 
was the delight of his uncle O^aviany and the hope of the 
Roman people. It is he that is the fubjeSi of this Eclogue* 
Virgil addrejfes it to Pollio j who was at that time conful^ 
and thereby makes a compliment to Caefar^ Anthony^ Oc^ 
tavia, and Pollioj all at once. The MarcelluST, whofe 
birth is here celebrated^ is the fame whofe death is lamented 
by Virgil in the Jixth Aeneid. The poet borrows what 
was predicted by the Camaean Sybil concerning J^fus 
Chrijlj and applies it ta this child. 

Vol. I. 

t "4 1 

E C L O G A IV, 

P O L L I O. 

SIcclides Mufac, paullo majora canatnus. 
Non omncs arbufta juvant, humilefque myricac. 

Si canimus filvas, filvae flnt Confule dignae. 

Ultima Cumaci vcnit jam carminis actas : 

Magnus ab integro faeclonim -nafcitur ordo. .5 

Jam rcdit et Virgo, redeuiit Satumia regna : 

Jam nova progenies coelo demittitur alto. 

Tu modo nafcenti pucro, quo ferrea primum 

Defmet, ac toto furget gens aurea mundo, 

Cafta favc Lucina : tuus jam regnat Apollo. 10 

Teque adeo decus hoc aevi, te Confule, tnibit, 

Pollio : et incipient magni procedere menfes. 

Te duce, fi qua manent fceleris veftigia noftri, 

Inrita perpetua folvent formidine terras. 

Ille deum vitam accipiet, divifque videbit 15 

Permixtos heroas, et ipfe videbitur illis : 

Pacatumque reget patriis virtutibus orbem. 

Ac tibi prima, puer, nullo munufcula cultu, 

Errantis ederas paffim cum baccare tell us. 

Yen 21. For thee, O Mti/.} 'Tis impoffible to forbear ob- 
ferving the great ^militude of this paffage^ and that famous 
one of Ifaiah : 

<' The wildemefs and the folittry place ihall be glad for 
'' them : and the deiert (hall rejoice, and bloilbm as uie rofe, 
<' chap. XXXV. ver. i. The|;lor]r of LebaAon fhall come unto 
" thee, the fir-tree, the pine-tree, and the box together, 
" chap. xi. ver. 13. The wolf alfo fliall dwell with the lamb, 
** and the leopard lie down with the kid : and the calf, and 
" the voung lion, and the fatling together, and a little child 
*' ihall lead them. And^ the cow and the bear (hall feed, 
*' their young ones flull Uf down together : and the lion ihall 

" cat 

Eclogue the Fourth. 

On the Birth of MARCELLUS. 

To ;> O L L I O. 

GIVE mft, Sicilian maids, fublimcr ftrains. 
All love not lowly fhrubs and rural plains : 
Or if ye choofe to fing the fhady grove^ 
Make your theme worthy a great cohiurs love^ 

The years appr6£:ih^ by Sybils fage foretold^ if 

Again by circling time in order toll'd ! 
Aftrea comes^ old Saturn's holy reign^ 
Peace, virtue, jUftice^ now return again ! 
Sec a new progeny from heaven defcend ! 
Lucina hear ! th' important birth befriend ! |^ 

The golden Stge this infant fliall reftore. 
Thy Phoebus reigns— and vice Ihall te no more* 
The months begin^ the babe's aufpxcious face, 
Pollio, thy glorious confulfliip (hall grace ; 
What footftep^ of our ancient crimes remain |^ 

For ever flisU be bahifhM inthy reign* 
He fliall enjoy the life divine, and fee 
The gods and heroes of eternity ; 
The jarring world in lafting peace fliall bind^ 
And with his father's virtues rUle mankind. , aO . 

For thee, O child, fpontaneous earth fliall pour 
Green ivy, mix'd with ev'ry choicel^ flow'r : 

*' eat ftraw like the ox. And the fucking child (hall play 
«' upon the hole of the afp, and the weaned child flaall put 
" bis band on the adder's den» chap. xi. ver. 6, 7, S.'^ 

How much in/erior is Virgil's poetry to Ifaiah's ! The for- 
mer has nothing comparable to thefe beautiful ftrdces ; ** that 

•' a little child fluill lead the lion ; that the very trees of 

•' the forcft ihall come to pay adoration."— —Virgil fays 

1 a tnly 

ii6 P. ViRGiLii Maronis Bucolica, £cI. 4* 

Mixtaque ridenti colocafia fundet acantho* 20 

Ipfae la<Ste domum referent diftenta capellae 
Ubera : nee magnos metuent armenta leones. 
Ipfa tibi blandos fundent cunabula ilores. 
Occidet et Terpens, et fallax herba veneni 
Occidet : Aflyrium vulgo nafcetur amomum. 25 

Ac fimul heroum laudes et fa£la parentis 
Jam legere, et quae fit poteris cognofcere virtus ; 
Molli paullatim flavefcet campus arifta, 
Incultifque rubens pendebit fentibus uva : 
Et durse quercus fudabunt rofcida mella. 30 

^auca tamen fuberunt prifcae veftigia fraudis. 
Quae tentare Thetin ratibus, quae cingcre muris 
Oppida, quae jubeant telluri infindere fulcos. 
Alter erit turn Tiphys, et altera quae vehat Argo 
Delfe£ios heroas : erunt etiam altera bella ^ 35 

Atque iterum ad Troiam magnus mittetur Achilles. 
Hinc, ubi jam firmata virum te fecerit aetas, 
Ccdet et ipfc mari veflor ; nee nautica pinus 
Mutabit' merces :' omnis feret omnia tellus. 
Non raftros patietur humus, non vinea falcem : 4a 

Robuftus quoque jam tauris juga folvet aratpr. 
Nee varios difcet mentiri lana colores. ; . 7 
Ipfe fed in pratis aries jam fuave rubenti ;^ ^ V 
Murice, jam croceo mutabit vellera luto. 

only occidet et /erf ens ; Ifaiah adds a circumftance inimitably 
jpidurefque, that the fucking child (hall play upon the hole of 
the afp ; tnd that the weaned child, a' little older and begin- 
ning to make ufe of its hands, fhall pat his fingers on the 
adder's den. There arc certain critics who would never ceafe 
to admire thefe circumdatees and ftrokes of nature^ if they had 
not the ill fortune to be placed in the Bible. 

33. Haryefis.] The ancients ufed to fow bearded or prickly 
wheat, which deterred the birds from picking the ears. The 
epithet molli may therefore imply, that the corn ihall no longer 
f&nd in need of this fortification, this pallifade» this valJum 
etriftarum as Cicero calls it^ to defend it from injuries, but 


Ed; 4« Thb Eclogues of Virgil. X17 

Each field (hall breathe AiTyria's rich perfume. 

And fweets ambrofial round thy cradle bloom : 

With milk overcharged the goats fliall homeward fpecd, 25 

And herds Tecure from mighty lions feed. 

The baleful afp and fpeckled fnake fhall die. 

Nor pois'nous herb 'mid flow'rs conceal'd fhall lie. 

But when his matchlefs father's deeds divine. 

And how in virtue's arduous paths to fhine, 30 

Warm'd with old heroes' fame, the youth fhall know. 

Then cluflering grapes on forefl-thorns fhall glow ; 

Swains without culture golden harvefls reap. 

And knotted oaks fhall fhowers of honey weep. 

Yet of old crimes fome fqotfleps fhall remain, 35 

The glebe be plough'd, fhips tempt the dang'rous main ; 

'Round cities bulwarks rife, and maffy tow'rs, 

And other Argo's bear the chofen pow'rs ; 

New wars the bleeding nations fhall deftroy, 

And great Achilles find a fecond Troy. 40 

Laf(, when he reaches manhood's prime complete, 
The failor fhall forfake the ufelcfs fleet ; 
No freighted^fhip fhall wander ocean 'round. 
With ev'ry fruit fhall ev'ry clime be crown'd : 
No lands fhall feel th(B rake, nor vine the hook, 45 

The fwain from toil his bullocks fhall unyoke : 
No wool fhall glow with ajien colours gay. 
The ram bimfelf rich fleeces fhall difplay 

fliall fpring up fpontaneoofly, and grow ripe with tbh and 
tender beards. 

38. Arge^J.] By navigation and commerce Virgil means 
that avarice, and by wars^ that ambition fliall ftill fubfifl. 


^9. IFars.] A bloody war at lafl reduced Sextas Pompey to 
quit Sicily» and meet his death in Afla by Anthony. The 
conjan£^are of aflairs» the preparations made by O^vian, and 
above all» the difpofitions oC men's minds, gave room for the 
predidUon of the poet. Catrou. 


71$ P- ViRGiLii Mauokis Bucolic At Eel. 4^ 

Bponte fua fandyx pafccntis, veftict agnos. 4^ 

Talia faecla, fuis dixerunt^ currite, fufis 

Concordes ftabili fatorum numine Parcac, 

Adgredcre 6 magnos (adcrit jam tcmpus) honores, 

Cara dcum fubblcs, 'magnum Joyis incrementum. 

Arpice.convexo nutantem pondere mundum, j|o 

Terrafque, traAufque maris, coeIum()ue profundum : 

Afpicc, yenturo laetantur ut omnia fi^eelo. 

O mihi turn longae maneat pars ultima Vitae^ 

Spiritus et quantum fat erit t^a dicere filtd^ ! 

Non mc carminibus vincct ncc Thracius Ofphcus, 55 

Nee Linus t huic mater quamvis, atque huic pater adfit, 

Of phi Calliopea, Lino formofus Apollo. 

Pan etiam Arcadia mecum fi judice certet. 

Pan etiam A^'cadia dieat fe judiee ytdum. 

Incipe,< parve puer^ rifu cognofeere ma^reqi : 60 

49. Purple^] Murpt wft« a fhell-fifll fet about with fpikes» 
from whence the Tyrian colour was obtained* Lut^m is that 
Herb, fays Dr. Martyn, which oar ^nglilh writers of botany 
defcribe under the name of Luteola, wild woiad, and dyer's 
V(eed. It ia ufed in dying vellow both wool and filk. 

50. SanJy:f.'\ Servius and La Cerda affirm the fandyx to be 
an herb, which is a great miflake. Sandyx is fpoken of by 
Pliny, a» a cheap material for painting. The true fandaracha^ 
fays Dr. Marty n, which feems to be our native red arfenic^ 
was faid to come from an ifland in the Red Sea. 

54. O progeny of Jevr] Would it have been prc^r to bc- 
ftow thefe illuftrious appellations on a fon of Polho? Surely 
Virgil does not here pour them forth without reafon. But 
what young prince could at that time deferve to be called 
the child of the gods, and ihe.illuftrious offspring of Jupiter? 
Without doubt it mufl have been one of the ntmily of the 
Caefars ! And did there at that ti|ne come into the world any 
child of the family of the Caefars, except young Marcellus ? 
Tiberius was not yet entered into the houfe of O^iavian by his 
inother, and Drufus was not yet born. Catrou. 

55. Tottering nature, '\ What is the meaning of nutantem f 
fays the learned Dr. Trapp. With, or under what does it nod 
or flagger ? With its gpilt and ^fcry, fay fomc, and fo wants 

10 to 

Ccl. 4* The Eclogues or ViRGit. 119 

Of native purple and unborrowM gold. 

And fandyx clothe with red the crowded fold. 50 

The Sifters to their fpindles faid— — ** Succeed, 

Ye happy years ; for thus hath fate decreed ' 

AfTume thy ftate ! thy deftin'*d honours provt. 

Dear to the gods ! O progeny of Jove ! 

Behold how tottering nature nods around, 55 

Earth, ^ir, the wat'ry wafte, and heaven profound ! 

At once they change-— —they wear a fmiling face. 

And all with joy th' approaching age embrace ! 

O that my life, my vigour may remain ' 

To tell thy adlions in heroic ftrain i 60 

Not Orpheus' felf, not Linus fliould exceed 

My lofty lays, or gain the poet's meed, 

Tho' Phoebus, tho' Calliope infpire. 

And one the mother aid, and pne the fire. 

Should Pan contend, Arcadia's felf fbould own 65 

That I from Pan himfelf had gain'd the crown. 

Begin, begin, O lovelieft babe below ! 

Thy mother by her tender know ! 

to be fuccoured by this new-born hero. But that to others 
feems not to agree with the happinefs which is afcribed even to 
the firft diviiion, and to the beginning of this happy aee. 
And therefore they fay, it either nods, 1. e. moves and fhakes 
itfeff with joy and exultation; which is pretty harih to my 
apprehenfion ; or, which is not much better^ inclines and tends 
to another, i. e. a yet more happy ilate ; *vergentem, fay they, 
nutantemqug in melioremftatum. After all I like the firft inter- 
pretation bed. 'Twas good fexife to fay, the world at prefent 
labours with its guilt and mifery : but yet rejoices at the very 
near profpedt of the happy change, which is in a manner begun 

68. Thy Timber ty her tender /mile*] The commentators are 
divided in opinion, whether he means the fmiie of the child, 
or that of the mother. I choofe the latter meaning, as it may 
be fupported by the bell reafons. See Ruaeus, and £ry« 



120 ?• ViRcxLii Marovis Bucolica. £cI. 4« 

Matri longa decern tulenint faftidia menfes. 
Incipcy parvc puer : cui non rifere parentes^ 
Nee deus hunt menfa, dea nee dignata cubili eft, 

^i. SmiU not J] Thofe who nnderftand this paflage of the 
child, ftrain the verb cc^mfcen^ to fignify that the child Aoald 
own> or acknowledge his mother, ^ imilio^ on her : bat I do 
Bot find any inftance of its havipg been nfed u that fenfe. 

In the next line,; the making of the laft fyllable but one 
ihort tulirunt^ is a poetical licence not very nnafual ; thus we 
read fteterunt a mi/cuirMmt, for ^itertmt it wufimerunt ; fo tliat 
there is no occafion to read tfiUriift, as fome have done witk» 
out any good authority. 

Eel. 4« ' The Eclogubs of Virgil* t2X 

(Ten tedious months that mother bore for thee 

The ficknefs and the pains of pregnancy) 70 

For if thy parents fmile not, 'tis decreed. 

No god fliall grace thy board, no goddefs blefs thy bed. 

72. N0go^.} The life of the gods or apotheofis (here pro* 
mifed by the poet) confifted of two particulars ; the fitting at 
the uble of Jupiter, and the marriage of fome goddeG ; tliere* 
fore the threats of Virgil amount to this«— You fliaU not 
enjoy the life of the gods, becanfe neither Jupiter will admit 
you to his table, nor any goddefs to her bed, Ruabui • 


r "3 f 



Thi/ubje^ iff tbifolkwing Mclogue isgnat^ and thpset la^ 
boured his compojition accordingly \ it is no lefs than the 
death of Julius Caefar^ and his deification. Many rea-* 
fons may ie given^ why by Daphnis is not meant Saloni^ 

, nusj the pretended fon of PolUo^ nor Placcus^ VtrgiVs 
ffrother. This Eclogue mujl have greatly recommended cur 
author to the favour of Auguftus. jluaeus thinks it was 
written when fome plays or faerifices were celebrated in 
honour of Julius Caefar^ The fcene of it is not onlf 
beautiful in itfelf but adapted to the folemnity of the 
fuhjedl ; the Jbfpherds fit andfing in the aweful gloom of a 
^rotto^ n^hich is overhung by wild vines. 


E C L O G A V. 

D A P H N I S. 

MENALCA89 Mopsus# 
U R noH) Mopfe^ boni quoniam convenimus amboy 
Tu calamos inflate levis^ ego dicere Verfus^ 
Hie coruiis mixtas inter confidimus ulmos i 

Tu major, tibi me eft aequum parere, Menaica : 
Sive Tub incertas Zephyris motantibus imibras, J| 

Sive antrd potius fuccedimus. afpice, ut antrum 
Silireftris raris fparlit labrufca racemis. 

Montibus in noftris folus tibi certet Amyntas. 

Quid fi idem certet Phoebum fuperare canendo ? 

Incipe, Mopfe, prior ; fi quos aut Phyllidis ignes, X9 
Aut Alconis habes laudes, aut jur^ia Codri. 
Incipe : pafcentis fervabit Tityrus baedos. 

Immo haec, in viridi nuper quae ^ortice fagi 
Carmina defcripli, et modulans alterna notavi, , 

Experiar : tu deinde jubeto certet Amyntas. 15 

Vcr. 2. SkiWd,'] Boni difceri H inflare, in the orig. is « 
Grecifm of which there are many in our author. 

5. EUer,^ Scrvios fays, it may either mean^ major natu vfl 
merito. But the context Teems to favour the firft. 

15. jilcott-^Codnu,] Surely thefe fubjedb are not paftoral 
enough to be here mentioned by Menalcas. 

18^ J inch* J.] Cortici/gp. It was the ancient cuftom of 


( i^S } 



D A P H N I S. 

Mbnalcas and Mopsus. 

SINCE thus we meet, whom different fancies lead^ 
I (kiird to fing, and you to touch the reed. 
Why fit we not beneath this woven fhade, 
Which the broad elm with bazles mixt hath made i 

Mine elder thou ; 'tis juft that I obey ^ 

What you propofe i whether you choofe to ftay 
Beneath the covert of the branching trees. 
Which (hift their (hadows to th' uncertain breeze, 
Or rather in yon* cooling grot recline. 
Overhung with clufters of the flaunting vine. 10 

Amyntas only can with you compare : 

What if to fing with Phoebus' felf he dare? 

Begin thou iirft ; whether fair Phillis' flame^ 
Or Codrus* patriot quarrel be the theme j 
Or fkilful Alcon's praifes fwell thy notes : i% 

Tityrus mean while {hall tend thy feeding goats* 

Rather I'll try thofc verfes to repeat. 
Which on a beech's verdant Nbark I writ : 
I writ, and fung between : when thefe you hear. 
Judge if Amyntas' ftrains with mine compare. 20 

Italy to write on the barks of trees, as it was in Egypt to write 
on the Pttfyrus, a fort of ruih, from which the word Paper ia 

126 p. ViROILIl HaKQUIS fiucOLlCA. Ecl. $4 

Lenta falix quantum pallenti cedit olivae^ 
Puniceis liumilis quantam faliunca rofetis : 
Juiicio noftro tantum tibi cedit Amyiitas- 

Sed tu define plura^ guar : fucceffimi|s a^tro^ 
txftin&nn nymphae crudeli fUnefe Daphnin 2(i 

Flebant : vos cortili teftesy et flumina, nymphls : 
Cum,' complexa fai corpus miferabile gnati^ 
Atque deos atqtie aftra vecat Crudelia mater* 
Non ulli paftos itH» egere diebtis 

Frigida,-i>aphni,ba7esadflamitia: nulla neque amriem ij 
Libavit quad/iipes^ ned'eraminis adtjgit hetbam. 
Daphnt, tuum Poeiios etiam ingemui Ae. leones 
Interitufflj inontcfqtie'feri filvaeque Toquuntun 
Ijaphnis et Armenias currti fabjun^e|:e tigris 
Inftituity DapHnis thiafos inducere fiacchi^ jtf 

£t foliis.lentas intexere mollibus haftas. 
^IWtis lit arborrbus deCftri eft, ut vitibus uvae^ 
Ut gregibus tauri, fegetes ut pinguibus arvis ; 
Tu decus omne tuis. poftquam te fata tulerunt, 
Ipfa Pales agros, atque ipfe feliquit ApoHo. 3^ 

Grandia faepc quibus mandavlmus hordea fulcis, 
Infelix lolium, et fteriles iiafcuntur ^venae. 

22.] There istio EnglHh^aroe for /alJunca: it Is eithcu" the 
(j^iius Cfhica, or cUc.cntinery unknown. Marttn. 

27. His fad mothr,] Dr. Martyn with great probability 
obferves, that by the mother is meant Venus, and confirms 
his opinion by an almoll parallel paiTage in Ovid's MetamOrr 
phofes. Book 15. Ovid there rcprcfcnts Venus to be terrified 
at the approach of Caefar's death; ihe difcovers all tl^e fears 
and tendernefs of a mother, and confiders the injury as offered 
to herfclf. 

29. No cattU,^r-uo horJiJ] This citcum (lance Is remarkable^ 
aiid may allude to a ftrange fa6i that happeTied^ according to^ 
Suetonius's account, at Julius C^far's death ; He tells us/ 
diat the horfes nrhich this emperor confecrated when he paflcd 
the Rubicon, and had been turned wild ever fincc^ were .ob^ 


EcU5^ The Exwguss of Virgii,. ^j^2 

When the weak witlow with the olive vies. 
Or nard with the fweet jrofe's crimfoadies ; 
Then may Amyntas with thy raatchlefs ibain : 

' Mop«us. 
Enough for fee ! thc^blemu grottwe gain. . 

Round Daphnis dead the nymphs in anguiih moumM»45 
Witnefs, ye woods and ftreams^ for ye their plaints re* 

turn'd ! 
While his fi^d mother bis cold limbs embmcfd* 
Heav'n and the gods accufing in her hafte^. 
No Twain then drove his rattle to the flpQd ^ 
No horfe would tafte-the ftream^ or grafly food : ,9i^ 

Thee, defart rocks, thee vocal woods bemoan^, .. 

For thee with dreadful grief, ev'h Lybianlipfis groan'da^ 
Armenian tygers Daphnis taught to yoke, , T. 

And whirl the car obedient to the ftroke. 
To dance in frantic mood at Bacchus' -feaft, 2% 

And fhake the fpear with tender foliage dreft : 
As vines the trees, as grzpes the vines adora. 
Bulls grace the herds, and fields the golden corn^ 
So Daphnis while he dwelt upon the plaiQS, 
Shone with fuperior grace among the fwains. 4a 

Thee when the fates in vengeance fnatchM.s^way* 
Pales nor Phoebus deign'd a longer ftay : 
In vain we fow ; the promisM harvefts fail ; 
While wretched lolium and wild oats prevail ; 

fervid to abftainfiom their fqod, /#r/*r^(^Kw> ,/g&iffc aJ^/jifiirt 
ubertim^ue Jlerf. 

33. Armeniam tygers. 1 Ruaeus fays, the folemnities of Bac- 
chus were in a manner jfeil6r«d and celebrated by Odiefiir^widi 
greater ^agnificenee than they had ever been before. 

44» Wrmhii Uh'im.J Virgil here gives /oZtm the epithet oS 
infiUx. - It is of a auhgnant nature, and is fi> inndh !the ^ore . 
dangerou9from lu not beiag eafily to bediAuiguiQifid^ , 
com amoar which it nroally forings up. The andenU thonglii 
h bad for thC'^es : Mirum tf Uli9 n/iUttin tt tarn ntili triitai. 

tit p. VikciLii Marokis BucoLicA. EcK 5^ 

Pro molli viola, pro pufpureo nztciffo^ 

Carduus, et fpinis furgit paliurus acutis. 

Spargite humum foliis, inducite fontibus umbras^ 4^ 

Paftores : mandat fieri fibi talia Daphnis^ 

Ettumulum facite, et tumulo fuperaddite carmen t 

Daphnis ego in filvis, hinc ufque ad fldera notus, 

l^ormofi pecoris cuftos, formofior ipfe. 

Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poeta, 45 

Quale fopor felRs in gramine : quale per aeftum 
Dulcis aquae faliente fitim reftinguere rivo. 
Nee calamis folum aequiparas, fed voce magiftrum* 
fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo. 
N08 tamen haec quocunque modo tibi noftra viciffim 50 
Dic^mus i Daphninque tuum tollemus ad aftra : 
Daphnin ad aftra feremus. amavit nos quoque Daphnis. 

An quidquam nobis tali fit munere majus ? 
Et puer ipfe fuit cantari dignus : et ifla 
Jam pridem Stimicon laudavit carmina nobis* 55 

Candidus infuetum miratur limen Olympi, 
Sub pedibufque videt nubes et fidera Daphnis, 
Ergo alacris filvas, et cetera rura voluptas, 
Panaque, paftorefque tenet, Dryadafque puellas. 
Net lupus iniidias pecori, nee retia cervis 60 

P. ^uUfam? S^ %/tf lu/citStfus. P. Aedtp^l tu quidm CMiCMt^ 
noM iufcitiofus. Plaut. Mil. Gloriof. A6t, z. Sc. 3. 

Et eareant loliis 9Culos 'vitiantitus a^ri, 


And the modern Italians have jet a worfe notion of it r for 
thejr look upon it as the caafe of the melancholy kind of mad« 
aeis ; and 'tis common with them to fay of any fuch perfbn« 
J moHgiato pom con logUo^ * He has eat bread with lolium in 
•Jt/ HoLoswoRTHandSrBifCB. 


tc\. i. The Eclogues of Virgil. 124 

For violet foft, for purple daffodill, 45 

Brambles and prickly biirrs the meadows fill. 

With boughs the brooks o*erfliade, ye rural train. 
With leaves and flowers befpread the verdant plain j 
Daphnis thefe ritesi did for himfelf ordain. 
With grlteful hands his monument ercft, 5* 

And be the ftorie with this infcriplioii deck*d ) 
** I Daphnis here repofe j fam'd to the fky, 
•* Fair was my flock, but fairer far was IP* 

O bard divine ( ^i fweet thy tuneful lay. 
As flumbci* to tirM fwains on xlew-mown hay, 55 

Or as in fummet's fultry drought to taftc 
Cool flreams that bubbling o'er thfe meadows haftc. 
Thou ev'n with Pan deferv'ft an equal meed, ^ 

For fkill to tune the voice or touch the reed. 
Bleft youth ! Who now (halt (hare that niafter's fame ^ 69 
Yet will I ftrive th' alternate lays to frame : 
Bid Daphnis* praifes to the ftars afcend. 
For Daphnis lbv*d cv*n me, his humble friend. 

How pan'ft thou pleafe me more? — The youth thy priife 
Deferv'd, and Stimichon approves the lays. 6^ 

Daphnis with wonder mounts to heav*n on high. 
Above the clouds, above the ftarry (ky : 
Hence joy enchants the Woods, and fmiling plains^ 
Pales and Pan, the Dryads, and the fwains ; 
No more the prowling wolf the cattle fear, jt$ 

Nor fecret toils deceive th' incautious deer $ 

54. iarJ irWur.] Tke elegaitce and {wtethttk of AtCm 
lines are not to be eoualledhy any thing, but the anfwer Mop* 
fus makes to them afterwards in like 82 of the original. 

Nilm nifu mi tdnium, lie. 
Vol. t K 

130 p. ViRciLii Maronis BucoLicA. l^cK 5» 

Ulla dolum meditantur, amat bonus otia Daphnis. 

Ipfi laetitia voces ad fidera jadant 

Intonii montes : ipfae jam carmina rupes, 

Ipfa fonant arbufta : Deus, deus ille^ Menalca. 

Sis b'onus, 6 felixque tuis ! en quatuor aras : 6j 

Ecce duas tibi, Daphni, duoque altaria Phocbp. 

Pocula bina novo fpumantia IzStt quotannis, 

Craterafque duos ftatuaih tibi pinguts olivi : 

£t multo in primis hilarans convivia baccbo. 

Ante focum, fi frigus erit, fi meffis, in umbra j jo 

Vina novum fundam calathis Aruifi^ ne<5tar. 

Cantabunt mihi Damoetas, ct Lyflius Aegon : 

Saltan tis Satyros imitabitur Alphefiboeus. 

Haec tibi Temper erunt, et cum folennia vota 

Reddemus Nymphis, ct cum luftrabimus agros. 75- 

Dum |Qga mbntis aper, fluvios dum prfcis amabit, 

Dumque thymo pdcentur apes, dum rore cicadae, 

Scnrpcr honos, nomenque tuum, laudefque manebunt. 

Ut Baccho Ccrerique, tibi fie vota quotannis 

Agricolae facient : damnabis tu quoque votis* SQt^ 

73. PiaceJ] This expreflion of otia fcems more particalarly 
to allude to the mercy and clemency of Caefaf: virtues fbt 
which he was fo much celebrated by Tully and other writers. 

77. A god, agod,"] This paffage is very fublime, and bears a 
great refemblance to that of li'aiah (which probably Virgil 
might have read) ** Break forth into finging, ye mountains, 
«* O foreft, and tytry tree therein." And thiis lofty language 
muft confirm the opinion that Jnlius Caefar 13 meant, bf 

83. Chios\] Arviiium was a promontory of the ifland Chio^ 
now Scios, from whence the fined of the Greek wines came. 

9 1 • l^Jben the vi^tms.] This ceremony was called Ambahud'^ 
lia. The facred dances mentioned in the lines immediately 
preceding, were ufed by the ancients both Jews and heathens 
an religious ceremonies. An account of them may be feen in 
Pr« Delany's life oi David, and in Lncian mifi\ o^x;^<rfof . 

^z. So long.'] Aeneas addrefifes £fido in alm6^ tlio faipt 
words : but oMerve that all th6 ^epherd^ ideas' ar^ taken from 
rural objefts, whereas thofe of -AenefU are takep froj^.philofophy^ 
Such propriety doth Virgil everbbrerve in hisYentisnentn 


Eel. J. The ^ctoouKs ot Virgil. x^t 

The fylvan wars of crud hunters ceafe, 

Daphnis the mild loves univerfal peace.' 

The defert mountains into finging breaks 

The forefts and the fidds in tranfport fpeak i jrj 

The rocks proclaim the neW divinity ! 

A godi a god ! the vocal hills reply. 

O hear thy worftiippers I four altars fee^ . 

For Phoebus two, and Daphnis, two for thee f 

Two jars of fatteft oil, each rolling year, 8d 

Two bowls of frothing milk to thee I'll bear j 

The ritual feaft fliall overflow with wine. 

And Chios' richeft neftar fliall be thine ; 

On the warm hearth in winter's chilling hdur 

We'll facrifice J a fummcr in a bow'r i 85 

Alphefiboeus tripping fliall advance. 

And. mimic fatyrs in the feftal dance ; 

Damoetas there and (kilful Aegon fing ; 

And conftantly our oiF 'rings will we l^ring^ 

Both to the nymphs when facred rites are paid, ^o 

And when the vifiims round the fields ?re led : 

While the cicada fips the dew, while thyme 

The bees fliall fuck, while boars the mountains climb. 

While fiflies wanton in the wat'ry waftc. 

So long thy honour, name and praife fliall laft. 95 

Thofe holy vows which on a folemn day. 

At Bacchus* and at Ceres' flirioe we pay, 

Daphnis to thee fliall rife each circling year 2 

Thou too flialt be invok'd and hear our pray'r I 

99. Thcu — l^ar our prayer,] Ruaeus has well explained 
Uys paiTage: He who makes a vow defires fomething from 
God, and prodiifes fomcthing to him at the fame time. If 
God grants his requell, then he, who makes the vow, is in a 
manner judged^ and obliged to perform his promife. Thus 
God is faid damnare voiis or voti, when he grants the requoft* 
and fo obliges the perfon to perform what he had promifed. 

K 2 

^3i P* ViRciLii Maroms BueOLXCA. Eel. 5. 

Quae tibi', quae tali reddam pro carmine dona ? 
Nam neque me tantum venientis fibilus auftri,. 
Nee pereuflajuvant flu£tu.tam litora, nee quae 
Saxofas inter decurrunt flumina valles. 


Hae te nos fragili donajrimus ante eieuta* 85 

Haee nos, Formofum Corydon ardebat Alexin : 
Haec eadem docuit, Cujum peeus ? An Meliboei ? 

Ac tu fume pedum, quod, me cum faepe rogaret, 
Non tulit Antigenes, (et erat turn dignus amari) 
t^ormofum paribus nodis atque aere, Menalea. 90 

lop. Tie fame. Sec] 'Tis inferred from this paflage that 
Virgil certainly means himfelf under the name of Menalcas ; 
and likewife, that by his mentioning only the fubjefb of the 
Palaemon and the Alexis, and not a fyllable of the Tityrui, 
that all thefe three Eclogues were written before the Titvnis ; 
BOtwith/bnding that Eclogue, ufually, but erroneoufly, is 
placed firft in all editions. It is not improbable, that the 
Alexis was publiftied before the death of Julius Caefar, who 
might read and admire it. 

£cL 5* The Eclocuss or Virgu.. 133 

What thanks, what recompence, can my weak lay lOQ 
Tor fuch exalted ftrains as thine repay ? 
Not from frefli whifpers of the fouthern breeze, 
Nor gentle dafhings of the calmeft feas. 
Nor from the murmuring rills, fuch joys I feel, 
That gliding down the pebbly vallies fteal ! 105 


But firft receive this flendcr pipe, the fame 
That told poor Corydon's unpitied flame. 
Who vainly fought Alexis* heart to move : 
The fame vrith which Damoetas fondly ftrove. 

And thou, Menalcas, take this well-formM crook, no 
With polifh'd joints adorn'd and brazen hook | 
Which ev'n Antigenes could ne'er obtain 
Tho' worthy to be lov'd, a beauteous fwain. 



[ 135 ] 



ThSf piece is perhaps one of the mojl beautiful of all the Un 
Eclogues. Virgil addreffis it to Varus his friend and feU 
lowfiudent under the celebrated Syro an Epicurean philofo" 
pher. Two /hepherds are introduced^ who fei%e Silenus 
Jleeping in a grotto^ and compel him^ with the afpfianci tf 
a water nympb^ to entertain them with a fong h^ had often 
promifed them* The god immediately begins to give them 
4fn auQunt of the formation of things^ and lays before 
them the fyflcm of Epicurus* s philofophy both natural and 
moral ; tiMcb lafl circttmjiance was never thought of or 
Underjiood by any one tranjlator or commentator before Ca-' 
trou. After Siienus has told them how the world was 
jmade according to the doHrine of Epicurus, his adjungit 
Hylam; that is, fay the critics j he recounted the mojl 
famous ancient fables, andfome furprizing transformations 
that had happened in the world. How ahfurd and unlike 
the regularity and exaifnefs of Virgil! The meaning feems 
to be^-^that after Silenus had done with the natural, he en^ 
tered upon the moral philofophy of Epicurus : which con* 
fijled in teaching men to avoid all outrageous pajfions and 
^'iolent perturbations of mind. This was the reafon that hi 
fung to them the immoderate grief of Hercules for the 
hoy Hylasy the brutal luji of Pafipha'e, the vanity of the 
Praetides, the avarice of Atalanta, and the immoderate 
grief of the fifters of Phaeton. All which the Epicureans 
condemned as enemies to that quiet andfoft repofe which the 
f/leemed the perfeSfion of virtue and happinefs. 


r [136 ) 


S I L E N U S. 

Faunorum, Satyrorum et Silvanorum, DeIe£btio. 

PRIMA Syracofio dignata eft ludere verfu, 
Noftra, neque erubuit iilvas habitare, Thalia. 
Cum canerem reges et praelia, Cynthius aurem 
' VeUit, et admonuit : Paftorem, Tityre, pinguis 
JPafccrc oportet avis, dedu^um dicere caitnen. 3 

Nunc ego (namque fuper tibi erunt, qui dicere laudes^ 
Vare, tuas cupiant, ac triftia condere bella) 
Agrei^em tenui meditabor arundine mufam. 
Non injufTa cano. fi quis tamen haec quoque, fx quis 
Captus amore legct ; te noftrae, Vare, myricae, 10 

Te nemus omne canet. nee Phoebo gratior ulla eft, 
Quam (ibi quae Vari praefcripfit pagina nomen. 
Pergite, Pierides. Chrpmis et Mnafylos in antro 
Silenum pueri fomno videre jacentem, 
Inflatum hefterno venas, ut Temper, iaccho. 15 

Serta procul tantum capiti delapfa jacebant : 
£t gravis adtrita pendebat cantharus anfa. 
Adgreffi (nam faepe fenex fpe carminis ambo 
Luferat) injiciunt ipfis ex vincula fertis. 
Addit fe fopiapi, timidifque fupervenit Aegle : 20 

Aeglc ^ai'a^^ip pulcberrima*. jamque videnti 

Ver. 3. Chiefs.] Thi$ allfides to Virgil's attempt to write an 
hlfiorical poem on the adlions of the Alban kings. 

6. HumiUr,] The word dtduQum in the original is a metaphor 
taken froiji wool, which by fpinnine is made fmaller and 
jTmal ier. Tenui dedu&a po^maiajilo, Hor. Ru a E u s . 

21. Ga6/ef.] Cantharus was a cup facred tothe ufe of Bacchus, 
and not ufed by mortals. 

22.] The commentators are equally divided about the true 
meaoing of fr^cul tantum, which undoubtedly fignify newr or 
J^fih'^ ^f^ntma frocd^ is barely at a diftana. 


S I L E N U S. 

On the Eplcurew P^ilofophy natural and moral* 

MY Mufe firft fported in Sicilian ftrains. 
Nor blulhM to dwell amid' the woods and plaini ; 
When chiefs and fields of fight to fing I tr/d, 
Apollo whifpVing check'd my youthful pride ; 
Go, TitVus, go, thy flocks and fatlings feed, g 

To humbler fubje£ls fuit thy ruftic reed ; 
Thus warn'd, O Varus, in heroic lays. 
While bards fublime refound thy martial praife, 
I meditate the rural minftrelfy ; 

Apollo bids, and I will fing of thee. xq 

PleasM with the fubjeft, with indulgent cyw 
If any read^ and this, ev'n this fhould prize. 
Thy name fliall echo thro' each hill and grove. 
And Phoebus* felf the votive ftrains approve ; 
No page fo much delights the god of verfe, 115 

As where the lines great Varus' praife rehearfe. 

Strctch'd in a cavern on the mofly ground. 
Two fportive youths Sileilus fleeping found. 
With copious wine o'ercome; his flowery wreath 
Juft from his temple^ fall'n, lay ftrewn beneath » 20 
His mafly goblet drain'd of potent juice 
Was hanging by, worn thin with age and ufe ; 
They bind him faft (tho* cautious and afraid) 
With manacles of his own garlands made; 
For oft the fenior had deceived the fwains ' 25 

With hopes (for well he fung) of pleafing ftrains: 
Young Aeglc too to join the frolic came. 
The lovelieft Ns)id of the iieighb'ring ftrcam ; 

138 p. ViRGiLii Maxonis Bucolica. Ecl. 6. 

Sanguincis frontcm moris ac tempora pingit, 
Ille dolum riden€. Quo vincula neditis ? inquit. 
ScJlvilc me, pucri. latis eft potuiQe vidcri. 
. Carmina quae voltis, cognofcite : carmina vobis ; ^5 
Huic aliud merccdfs ^r!t. Amul'intipit ipfe. 
Turn vcro in numerum Faunofque ferafque videres 
hudkftt^ ivim r?g?4k* inttkrt cdCiftrilni quercusr. 
Ncc tan turn PJioebo gaudet Pafnafia.rupcs : 
Nee tantuni KKoiJop^ iHirahtur ei lunanis OrpTiea. 30 
Hi/i'rtqtid (tarteliar^' uH magnum per inaiie coa(^. 
Semina teffaifumq tte, ariimaeque, marifque ftiiffent^ 
Et liquidi iimul ignjs : ut his t\qrdii primiS 
femnia, ct ipte tcher mundi cbncreverit drbis. 
Turn durare fol\itri, et difcludefe Nerea ponto 35 

Coq>erit, et rerififi paullatim tufeiere fermas. 
Jamque lidvuiit ut terrae ftupeant lucefcere folem^ 
Altius utque cadant fubmbtis nutlbus imbres :. 
Wcipiant filvae cum primum furgere,. cumque 
Rara per ignbtos crrcnt animalia mdntis. 40 

Hinc lapide^ Pyrrliae jados, Satuniia regna^ 
Caucafiafque rcffert volucres, furtumque PrometHi. 

- <29.] That isv jcift as S^lenus begait to pj^efn his eyes : ^Mknti 
SileMO, . 

32. Enough J] Servius tell^ us the de;i^-gods were viiibleonly 
when they th6ug^'t praj^er. 

44. Htrwfeedt c/nvafgr.] Thu- u the (yftem of the atbmical 
philofophers ; though it is certain Epicoras was not the iw^o- 
tor of this dodrine, but received it from Qemocntus*. Thefe 
i^ofophers heid/thai there weit^ ttiCro principles of all things, 
body, and void ; or» as the moderns fpeak, matter, and fpace i 
and that by a fortuitous concourfe of thefe atoms, or particles 
of matter, the univerfe was formed without the affiflance of 1^ 
direfiing Mind. 

47. Mcifi.] The earth, by growing conlpad and folid, forced 
the waters to retire frpm it, and to form the feas. Thus the 
f<krwas fcparated or dtHingtrilhed, which itf the proper meaning 
^Xdifcluden. Maettn. 

50. Struck *with the nefw^ham/um*j,] This circumftance of 
the earth's being amazed at the firft appearance of the fan, is 
trongly imaglrtW; yet has been omJtted^by fereral tranilaiors. 

Bci. 6* The Eclogues or Vikgil. 13^ 

Who, as the god uplifts his drowzy eyes. 
With berries^ purple juice his temples dies. 30 

Pleas'd with the fraud — ^^ Unloofe me, boys," he Ci7'd, 
** Enough, that by furpriae IVe been cfpy'd. 

. ** Attend, ye youths, aadliear the promis'd lay, 
** But Aegle fhall be paid a better way." 

Soon ashe rais'd hisv^e, the lift'ning fauns, jj^ 
Aiid wondering beafk came dancing down the lawns i^ ; 
The hills exulted, and* each rigid oak, 
High-feated on their tops, in tranfport (book ; 
ParnaiTus' cliffs did ne^cr fo much rejoice,. 
At the fweet echoes of Apollo's voice ; 4a 

Nor Rhedope nor Ifmarus that heard 
The magic warblings of the Thracian bard. 
He fung, at univerfal nature's birth. 
How feeds of water, fire, and air, and earthy 
Fell thro' the void ; whence order rofe, and all 45 

The beauties of this congregated ball : 
How the motft foil grew ilifien'd by degrees. 
And drove to deflin'd bounds the narrow'd feas; 
How Earth was feiz'd wittv wonder and afFright, 
Struck with the liew-born fun's refulgent light. ^o 

How clouds condens'd, in liquid fhowers diilill'd, 
Dropt fatnefs and refrefhment on the field ; 
How firfl up-fprings fublime each branching grove. 
While fcatter'd beafts o'er pathlefs mountains rove. 
Next to the world's renewal turns the flratn^ 55 

, To Pyrrha's fruitful flones, and Saturn's reign ; 
And bold Prometheus' theft and punifhment, 
][iis mangled heart by angry vultures rent^ 

58. Bis mangled heart hy hmgry vidtufee reniJ] T&m tale has 
been prettily ^legorized. It u an ingenious but crael Aory 
which the poets have oontrifed to exjprefk the train of career 
brought into life by Promethem or Povefi^ht: The cbaias 
which faftened him to the rock» and the infatu]lle vulture that 
rends his vitals every morning. 

Blackwbll*s life of Homer, p. ia4t 

140 P. ViROiLii Maronis Bucouca. Eel. $. 

His adjungit, Hylan nautae quo fonte reliaum 

Clamaflent ; ut litus, Hyla, Hyla, omne fonaret. 

Et fortunatam, fi nunquam armcnta fuiffcnt, 45 

Pafiphacn nivci folatur amore juvcnci. 

Ah, virgo infelix, quae te dementia cepit ? 

Proetides inplerunt falfis mugitibus agros : 

At non tam turpis pecudum tamen uUa fecuta eft 

Concubitus, quamvis collo timuiflct aratrum, 50 

Et facpe in Icvi quacfiffct cornoa fronte. 

Ah ! virgo infcHx, tu nunc in montibus errai ! 

lUe, latus niveum molli fi^Itus hyacinthp, 

Htce fub nigra pallentis ruminat herbas, 

Aut aliquam in magno fequitur grcge. claudite nymphae, 

DiSaeac^nymphac, nemorum jam claudite faltus : 56 

Si qua forte ferant oculis fefe obvia noftris 

Errabunda bovis veftigia. forfitan ilium 

Aut herba captum viridi, aut armcnta fecutum, 

Perducant aliquae ftabula ad Gortynia vaccae. 60 

Turn canit Hefperidum miratam mala puellam i 

Tum Phaethontiadas mufco circumdat amarae 

Corticis, atque folo proccras crigit alnos. 

62. jindHylasJ] Hylas^ the favourite of Hercules, falling into 
a well, was (aid to be fnatched away by the nymphs. Pafiphae, 
the wife of Minos king of Crete, was faid to have had an ub- 
natural paffion for a bull. l^\it daughters of Proetes, king of 
the Argives, beiiig ilruck with madnefs by Juno, imagined 
themfelves to be cows. 

63. Cretan queen. "] The medals of the people of this town 
are marked with a cow or bull. Lord Pembroke's medalsi, 2, 
^4, 8. Qaaere, whether they had any facred cattle of that kind 
kept there ? or, whether the woman riding on it he not Pa£« 
phae ? Gortyna was a city of Crete. Spence. 

67. At this \tr{t^ ProetUes inplerunt, &c. begins the famous 
manufcriptof Vireil in the Lorenzo library ; authorized by one 
of the confuls, and dated by him in the cth century. Spence. 

73. Siile reclines.] In the originzl fuftus hyaeintho. Among 
the ancients every one was faid to bcfultus by whatfoever he 
refted upon. Thus we read Pul'vino fultus in Lucilius, Servius. 
The Rumen or Paunch is the firft of the four ftomachs of thofe 
animals which are faid to ruminate or chew the cud. 

75. NjmpbsJ] la the original claudite nymphae.'''''^li€re 
Paiiphae is introduced fpeaking to the nymphs. 

Eel. 6» The Eclocubs of Virgil. 14.1 

To thcfc he adds, how blooming Hylas fell, 
Snatch'd by the Naids of the neighboring well, 60 

Whom piercM with love, Alcides loudly mourn'd. 
And Hylas, Hylas loft, each echoing fliore return'd. 
Then, he bewail'd the love-fick Cretan queen j 
Happy for her if herds had never been; 
Enamour'd of ja bull's unfpotted pride, 65 

Forfaking (hame, for him (he pin'd and figh'd. 
The Proetian maids whofe lowings fill'd the plain, 
Ne*er knew the guilt of thy unnatural pain ; 
Tho' fearful oft their necks fhould bear the plough. 
They felt in vain for horns their polifli'd brow. 70- 

Ah ! wretched queen ! while you o*er mountains rove. 
Near fome dark oak regardlefs of your love. 
He, on foft hyacinths his fide reclines. 
Or for fome happier heifer fondly pines. 
" Di<Slean nymphs ! with toils your woods furround, 75 
** Search where my favourite^s fpotfteps may be found, 
^* Haply the herds my wanderer may lead, 
*' To freflier grafs on rich Gortyna's mead, 
** Or far away, while I fuch pains endure, 
*' The wanton heifers may my love allure !" So 

Next told, the nimble-footed, cruel maid. 
By the falfe apple's glittering fliew betray'd; 
The nymphs who their ambitious brother mourn'd. 
He next inclos'd in bark, and to tall poplars turn'd* 

81.] Hippomaiies being enjgaged in a race with Aulanta, in. 
order to obtain her in mamage^ threw down a golden apple 
whenever (he jgained ground upon him ; which (he looping to 
gather ap, Hippomanes had an o{>portuni^ of getting before 
her, and of con&quence of obtaining the lovely prize. The 
fillers of Phaeton confamed themfelves with weeping for his 
death 9 and were transformed into trees. Phaeton raihiy at- 
tempting to drive the chariot of the fan, woald have fet fire to 
the earth if Jupiter had not ftruck him down with a thunder* 

84. Ituks'd.] I have ventured to tranflate literally drcumdaf, 
becaufe it is very lively. He did not now fing Jkou(f they wcris 
iAclofed with mofs» but Jh indofed them. 

i^i P- Vxiijgilii Maxonis Bucolic a. ^L j64 

Turn canit, errantem Permeffi ad flumina Galium 

Aonas in inontis ut duxecit una.fororum ; 6$ 

Utque viro Phoebi xiiiorus adfurrexedrit omnfis ; 

Ut Linus haec illi divitue carmine paftor^ 

Floribus atcpe apio crinis ornatus amaro, 

Dixerit, Hos tibi ;dant calamos (.en accipe) Miifae, 

Afcraeo quos ante feni : quibus ille folebat jcf 

Cantando rigidas deduoere montibus oraos^ 

His tibi Grynaci nemoris dicatur origo : 

Ne qui fit lucus, quo fe plus jaflet A{lotlo^ 

Quid loquar ut Scyllam Nifi^ iaut4]uam fama fecuta^^ 

Candida fuccindlam latrantibus inguina monftris 75 

Dulichias vexafie rates, et gurgke in alto 

Ah timidos nautas canibus lacerafle -marinis : 

Aut ut mutates Teri narraverit attus i 

Quas ille Philomela dapes, quae dona pararitf 

Quo curfu defeita petiverlt, et quibus ante 8t 

Infelix fua te£b fupervoiitaverit otis i 

Omnia quae, Phoebo quondam meditante, bcfttus 

Audiit Eurotas, juffitque cdifcerc lauros, 

Ille canit. pulfae rcferunt ad fidera valles. 

Cogere donee ovis ftabuHs, numerumque refcrre 85 

Juflit, et invito proceffit Vefper Olympo, 

88.] When Virgil himfelf once entered the theatre, all thf 
fpedtators rofc up to honour his entrance. 

S9. Linus. ] Virgil has been blamed very ridicalonfly for noc 
faying any thing of Homer in his fixth Aeneid (637. 677.) 
where if he had iaid any thing of him, he muft have pot him 
hx Elyijlam before he was born. It feems more juft to complain 
that he has not mentioned him in all his works. He feems to 
have had a fair opportunity here, and another in the fourth, 
Bclogue (v. 55.) But have not the poets he mentions in botk 
thefe places iome relation to pailorai poetiy ? And miffht not 
the mentioning jof an epic^oet be improper in both f Here he 
x^ames Linus only ; and bej^orc, the fame limw, Orpheus, aa4 
Faa. iS?SN«ft« 

EcL 6. The Eclogues of ViRcit. 145 

How tuneful Gallus wandering, next he fmgs, 85 

Indulging raptures, near poetic fprings, 

A mufe conduced to th* Aonian feat, 

Whofe whole affembly rofe the gueft to greet ; 

While hoary Linus, crownM with parfly, fpakc : 

" The pipe, the Mufcs* gift, O Gallus, take, g^ 

** Which erft the fweet Afcrean fage they gave, 

" Who bade the wandering oaks their mountains leave; 

** Go, fing on this thy fam'd Grynaean grove, 

« So (hall Apollo chief that foreft love.** 

Why fhould I tell, the maid with monfters arm'd^ 95 

Whofe barkings fierce the wand'ring Greeks alarm'd, 

Whofe hungry dogs the ihrieking failprs tore. 

And round her dungeon tinged the fea with gore* 

Or why the Thracian tyrant's alter'd (hape, 
And dire revenge of Philomela's rape, 20# 

' Who murdtr'd Itys' mangled body dreft. 
And to his father ferv'd the direful feaft. 
What Phoebus fung, £urota*s banks along. 
And bade the liftening laurels learn the fong. 
All thefe Silenus chaunts; the vales reply^ 105^ 

And bear their echoes to the diftantfky; 
Till Hefpcr glimmering o'er the twilight plains, 
To fold their counted iheep had warn'd the fwains ; 
The heav'ns delighted with the matchlefs lay. 
To Hefper's beams unwillingly gave way. xi9 

91. AfcruM fagi.'l TYktfinex A/crmms, is Hefiofd^ who was of 
Aicra, a city in Bocotia. According to ibine he was coaeval 
with Homer. He writes with great fimplicity, though in hit 
defcriptioQ of the battle between the giants aad the gods, hm- 
fifcB to the true fublime. 

1 10. UnwiUimgtjJl There is a peculiar beauty in that epdwt 
snyiu Oljmpo. The iky was fo delighted with the long oi" 
Silenus, that it was fiiny and uncafy to iae the evening i>^ 


t HS ] 



The following poetical conUji betwixt Thyrfis tind Corf Jon f 
related iy Meliboeusj is an imitation of the fifth and eighth 
Jdylliums of Theocritus. Some fanciful commentators ima* 
gine that under thefe Jhepherds are reprefented Gallus of 
Pollioy or Cebes and Alexander^ and that Melibceus is Vir^ 
gil himfelf But there are not fufficient grounds for this 
conje^ure. This pajloral is introduced with a pretty rural 

This feventh Eclogue ^ as the third before^ feems to be an 
imitation of a cujlom among the Jhepherds of old^ of vying 
together in extempore verfe. At leajl 'tis very like the Im- 
provifatori atprefent in Italy \ who fiourijh now perhaps mori 
than any other poets among them^ particularly in Tufcany% 
They are furprijingly ready in their anfwers (refpondere 
parati) and go on o&zvc for oftave, or (pccch for fpeech 
alternately (alternis dicetis, amant alterna Camenae.) 
In both thefe Eclogues the fecond fpeaker fcems obliged t0 
follow the turn of thought ufed by the frfl \ as at prefent 
the fecond Improvifatorc is obliged to folk vj the rhyme of 
the firjl. At Florence I have heard of their having even 
Improvifo comedies. There were Improvifatori of this 
kind of old'y for before Livlus Androni(.hs endeavoured tg 
make any thing of a regular play^ compolltum temcrc ae 
rudem alternis jaciebant, fays Livy, 7. 2. U. C. 39X, 
They were Tufcans too who brought this method to Rome. 


Vol. I. 

[ 146 J 


Meliboeus, Coryoon, Thyrsis. 


FORTE fub arguta confederat ilice Daphnis, 
Conpulerantque greges Corydon ct Thyrfis in unum ; 
Thv/fis ovis, Corydon diftentas lade capellas. 
Amba florentes aetatibus. Arcades ambo, 
£t eatntare pares, et refpondere parati. 5 

Hie mihi, dum teneras defendo a frigore inyrtos, 
Vir gregis ipfe caper decrraverat. atque ego Daphnin 
Afpicio : ille ubi me contra videt ; Ocius, inquit. 
Hue ades, o Meiibbee : caper tibi falvus, et haedi. 
£t, fl quid ceflare potes, requiefce fub umbra. 10 

Hue jpfi potum venient per prata juvenci : 
Hie viiidis tenera praetexit arundine ripas 
Mincius, eque facra refonant examina quercu. 
Quid facerem ? neque ego Alcippen, nee Phyllida habebam, 
J[>epuiros a. la^ domi quae clauderet agnos : 15 

Et certamen trat, Corydon cam Thyrfide, magnum. 
Pofthabui tamen iUorum mca feria Itido. 
Alternis igitur contendere verfibus ambo 
Coepere : alternos Mufae meminiiTe volebant. 
Hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrfis. 20 

Nymphae, nofter amor, Libethrides, aut mihi carmen^ 
Quale mco Codro, concedite : proxima Phocbi 

Ver. 16. Bees.'l That is » afum ixamiua. 

ao. Gains.^ 'Tis difficult to make the paftoral fimplicity of 
tint inppodudion to the conteft, agreeable to modern readen. 
Tlic images are all taken frojn plain unadorned nature, and will 
not bear to be drefs'd up with florid epithets and pom])ous lan- 
guage, as is the cuftom of our modem paftoral writers in paint* 
ing their Scenes of adion. 

23. Njmpbs rf tb§ Jfrit^J] The critics are greatly divided 
about the fitoatioAof Jabethnim (Nj^^fbmLiktbridaJ but the 


£ H7 ] 



Meliboeus, Corydon, Thyriis; 


BY chance beneath an ilex' darkrdme Ihadd 
That Whifper'd with the breeze was Daphnis laid| 
Their flocks while Corydon and Thyrfis joined, 
Thefe milky goats^ and thofc the fleecy kind 5 
Both blooming youths, and both of Arc^y^ |[ 

Both Ikill'd alike to fing and to reply. 
Thither my goat, the father of the fold. 
While clofe I fenc'd my myrtles from the cold j 
Rambling had ftray'd; I Daphnis fitting fpy'd^ 
He faw me too, and Hither hafte, he cry'd, IA 

Safe is thy goat and kids : one idle hour^ 
Comcj wafte with me beneath this cooling bovi^'r : 
Here Mincitis gently winding through the meads. 
Fringes his banks with grafs and bending reeds : 
Hither thy herds at eve to drink will come, i j 

While from yon' facred oak bees fwarming hum* 
What could I do ? Alcippe was not near^ 
Nor Phillis to the ftalls my lambs to bear; 
Great was the ftrife betwixt the tuneful fwains^ 
And bent on pleafure I forgot my gains; 20 

In fWeet alternate numbers they began, 
(So bade the Nine) and thus the conteft ran. 

Give me the lays, nymphs of th' infpiring fprings I 
Which Codrus, rival of Apollo, fingsj 

learned and accurate Strabo. whofe teftimony is worth that oft 
thoufand commeDcacors, tells us, that Libethmm is the namf 
of a cave in or near Mount Helicon^ confechited to the Mum 
by the Thradans. 

24. C$dnis.] Codnu, fayi Servins, was a cotemporaiy po«e 
with Virgil, and is mentioned in the Blegics of Vaigbu* 


^48 P. ViRGiLii Maronis Bucolica, Eel. 7. 

Vcrfibus illc facit. aut, ft non poffumus omnes. 
Hie arguta faera pendebit iiftula pinu. 

Paftores, cdcra ercfcentem ornate poetam, 25 

Arcades, invidia rumpantur ut ilia Codro. 
Aut fi ultra plaeitum laudarit, baccare frontem 
Cingite, ne vati noeeat mala lingua futuro. 


Setoft caput hoc apri, tibi Delia, parvus 
Et ramofa Mycon vivacis eornua eervi. 30 

oi proprium hoc fuerit, levi de marmore tota 
Puniceo ftabis furas evinda cothurno. 

Sinum ladis, et haec te liba, Priape, quotannis 
ExpeAare fat eft : cuftos es pauperis horti. 
Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecimus : at tu, 35 
Si foetura gregem fuppleverit, aureus efto. 


Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hyblae, 

Candidior cycnis, edera formofior alba : 

Cum primum pafti repctent praefepia tauri. 

Si qua tui Corydonis habet te cura, venito. 49 

Immo ego Sardois vidcar tibi amarior hcrbis, 
Horridior rufco, projeila vilior alga ; 

30. IViib baccarJ] It was imagined by the ancients that this 
plant carried an amulet or charm againft the fafcination of what 
they called an evil tongue. 

33. Ifftilltbt chace.] In the original, //rc/riiMw hoc/urriti 
I. e, fays Ruacus, if you fhail make it as it were myo\^n, and 
perpetual. Da propriam Tbymbrae domuniy iEn. 3. What is 
the meaning o^ hoc f That I ihould make fuch verfes as Codrus« 
fays Servius. — But falfely, — The meanine is. As I have fuc- 
ceeded in hunting this boar and ftag^ fo may this fuccefs be 

40. hywHte."] More beautiful than ivy, to us mayfeem but 
in odd fimile. It might found otherwife to an Italian, whofe 
country abounds with ever-greens; mod of them of a rufly and 
difagreeabie colour i whereas ivy is of a clean lively green. 


Eel. 7. The Eclogues of Virgiim 149 

But if too weak to reach his flights divine, 25 

My ufelefs pipe Til hang on yonder pine, 

Ye fwains, your rifing bard with ivy deck. 
Till Codrus* heart malign with envy break ; 
Or if pernicious praife his tongue beftow. 
To guard from harms with baccar bind my brow. 30 


This briftly head, thefe branching horns I fend, 

Delia ! and Mycon at thy fhrine (hall bend; 

If ftill the chaee with fuch fuccefs be crown'd. 

In marble (halt thou ftand, with purple bulkins bound. 


Priapus ! cakes and milk alone expeft, 35 

Small is the garden which you now protcft ! 

But if the teeming ewes increafe my fold. 

Thy marble ftatue chang'd (hall (hine in poIi(h'd gold* 


O Galatea! nymph than fwans more bright, 

More fweet than thyme, more fair than ivy white, 40 

When paftur'd herds at evening feek the ftall, 

Hafte to my arms ! nor fcorn thy lover's call ! 

May I appear than wither'd weeds more vile. 
Or bitter herbage of Sardinia's ifle. 

They ofed it of old in the moft beautiful parts of their gardens t 
Pliny fpeakin? of his garden, and of the Hippodrome, whicH 
feems to have been one of the prettieft things in it, /ays, Plaim* 
nis circuitur, illae hedera 'veftiuntur \ utque/ummae fuisy ita imoi 
mlienis frondibus virpn. L. 5. £p. 6. Ijorace compares yoang 
beauties to ivy, and old women to dead withered leaves. L. i. 
Od. 25. St. ult. Spencb. 

44. Sardinia*! J] Diofoorides fays expreisly, that the poifon- 
ous herb of Sardinia is 9, f|)ecie^ of Bal^ax^v, ranunculus or crow^ 


t$^ p. Viacxtii Mahokis Bucolica. Eel, f^ 

Si mibi non baec lux tp^o jam Icu^gior anno eft. 
Ite domum pafti, £i quis pudor, ite juvencit 


Mufcofi fbotet| e^ fomx^p mollior herh^ 45 

£t quae vqs i^^m yiridis tegit arbutus umbra, 
Solftitium pecori defe^iditet jam yenit aeftas 
Torrida : jam laetp turguept ip palmite^ gemmaf t 

(lie fbcuSj^ ac taedi^e pingues, hie plurimus ignis 
Semper, et adiidua ppftes fuligine nigri* 59 

Hie tantum Bqreae curamus frigora, quantum 
Aut numerum lupus^ aut torrentia flumina ripas. 


Stant et juniperi, et caftaneae hirfutae : 
Strata jacent pafiim fu^ quaeque fub arbojre ppma : 
Omnia nune rident. at fi formofus Alexis 55 

Montibus his abeat, videas et flumipa fieea. 

Aret ager : vitio moriens fitit aeris herba : 
I/iber pampineas invidit collibus umbras. 
Phyllidis adventu noftrae nemus omne virebit : 
Juppiter et laeto defeendet plurimus imbri* 69 


Populus Aleidae gratiffima, vitis laccho, 
Formofac myrtus Veneri, fua laurca Phoebo. 
Phyllis amat corulos. illas dum Phyllis amabit. 
Nee myrtus vinee^ corulos, n^e laurea Phoebi. 

47. Ti wj^ /ounti'] This Ampcbaean is donbtlcfs ii|OK 
beautiful than the facceeding, and contains more delightfu) 
images of nature. Mr. Dryden has cqnitted the natural ftroktf 
of the fnioky pofts in the cottage. 

j4. fTokfes,] Catron gives qoite a new bnt fancifttl interpre- 
tttion to the word mmnnim $ he fays it means mn^cal lumbers. 

58. Stnams 'woMcea/e i§/§vK] The end of thb Amoebae«% 
appears to fome critics to be flat— wV/oi et fluminmficea. But 
I am of opinion the poet defign'd the line fhonld be faint an4 
languiihi|ig« as it wore^ more full/ to expreft that moomfol 

£cL 7* Tkb EcLoouss OP ViRGzi;: 151 

If a year's length exceeds this tedious day ; 45 

Homeward ye well-fed goats (for fhame) awayl 


Ye moflTy founts, and grafs more foft than fieep. 
Who ftill, with boughs o'er-hung, your coolnefs keep. 
Defend my fainting flocks ! the heats are near. 
And burfting gems on the glad vine appear. go 

Here ever glowing hearths embrown the pofts. 
Here blazing pines expel the pinching frofts. 
Here cold and Boreas' blafts we dread no more. 
Than wolves the fheep, or torrent ftreams the fliore. 


Here junipers and prickly chefnuts fee, 55 

Lo ! fcattePd fruits lie under every tree ; 

All nature fmiles ; but ihould Alexis go * 

From Aefe bleft hills, ev'n ftreams would ceafe to loir^ 

ParchM are the plains, the withered herbage dies, 
Bacchus to hills their viny fhade denies) 60 

Let Phillis come, frefh greens will deck the grov^ 
In joyful (bowers defcend prolific Jove, 

AlcidcS| poplar ) Venus, m]rrtle groves 1 
Bacchus, the vines the laurel, Phoebus loves ^ 
Phillis the hazels ^ while they gain her praife* 65 

Myrtle to them A41 yield, and Phoebus' bays. 

fUte of natare in his paindng, Mr. Pope has imitated this aB4 
the following paflage in \di ^rft paftoral. 

59. PitrePdJ] A fine cpptraft is obfervable in thefe two 
Amoebaeans. ^ The floariihiii^ fc^nei of nature are ftrongly iet 
off by the fading and langoifhing profped duit fncoeeds. 

63. JUiJis.'] When mrcolet retumed from heU« he wis 
fabkdto h«y€ qrown'd hit htad with «duipl«iof po|^liiVti« 


154 . P* Virgilii.Maronis Bugolica. £c1. 7, 

Fraxinus in fllvis pulcherrima, pinus in hortis^ 65 

Populus in fluviis, abies in montibus altis. 
Saepius at (i nie, Lycida formofe, revifas, 
Fraxinus in filvis cedat tibi, pinus in hortis« 

Haec memini, ct vi£kum fruftra contendere Thyrfin, 
Ex iHo Corydon, Corydon eft tempore nobis, 70 

71. Bui vanat^flid 'were his flr aims.'] The viftory is adjudged 
to Corydon, becaufe Corydon in the fir ft Amoebaean begins with 
piety to the gods; Thyrfis with rage againft his adverfary: in 
the I'ccond, Corydon invokes Diana, a chafte eoddefs; Thyrfis, 
an obfccne deity, Priapus : in the third, Corydon addreifes him- 
felf to Galatea with mildnefs; Thyrfis with dire imprecations: 
IQ the reft, Corydon 's fubjcfls are generally pleaiing and de- 
lightful to the imagination 5 thafe of Thyrfis are diredly con- 
trary. RUAEUS. 

72. And Corydon.'] The origind fays, ex ilio Corydon, {^r. 
wnich is an ellipfis, fays Servius, and may be fupplied <vr^0r 
nobilis/upra omnes. Simplicius fays, ix illo tempon Corydon ha- 
htur a nobis^ njirc Corydon : that is^ really worthy the reputatioR 
}ie has obtained. 

Eel. 7* The Ecloouis of Virgil. 153 


Lovelieft in walks the pine» the a£b in woods. 

Firs on the mountains, poplars in the floods ; 

Fair Lycidas, rcvifit oft' my field, 

Pine, poplar, fir, and afh to thee fhall yield ! 70 

Thus Thyrfis ftrove, but vanquUh'd were his ftrains ^ 
And Corydon without a rival reigns. 


[ ^s$ ] 



fits is ividmify m imiiafim §f tbt ^fiuutivrfm §f ni$m 
criius^ and is Vitj vabsaUi n$t infyfor its p$ttical biom^ 
ties J but tikmifi f^ tbi acc$ttnt it frtfervts t§ us 9f 
feveral fuperJHtiius ritis gnd biathen uitiins of imbmt^ 
mint. Tbi f^ttfrtms /# bavi bad an bigb idea of bis ctm^ 
pofition by bis introducing it in f§ Ufiy aftrtnn^ quoniia 
ftupefa£tae carmine lynces. Tbt critics bave buss very 
tnucb divided wbctber it is inferibcd to PoUio or Augujhu. 
Catrou pleads veryftrongly for Auguftus \ but Dr. Martyso 
largely examines this plea^ and confutes it foUdfy. Tbera 
is doubtlefs a great Jlrefs to be laid on 

Sola Sophocleo tua carmina digna cothurno. 

For tbougb Auguftus began a tragedy on the death of Ajax^ * 
{c^er Sophocles) yet this piece was never puhlijbedj as 
many fine ones of Pollio werCf who is highly celebrated by 
florace for his dramatic excellence. Lib. II. Od. i. 
Motum ex Metello, &c. The enchantments defcribed 
in this Eclogucy are finely imitated in the Arcadia del 
Sannazoro ; a boot to which our Sir Philip Sidney in 
his Arcadia is much indebted. Sannazoro has there given 
a loofe to his fancy ^ and has Jbewn that he had a very 
e^uberadt onu^^Profa. JO« 

C ^56 ] 


P H A R M A C E tJ T R I A. 

Damon, Alphesiboeus. 

PAftorum mufam Damonis et Alphefiboei, 
Iipmemor herbarum quos eft mirata juvenca 
Ceitantis, quorum ftupefa&ae carmine lynces $ 
£t mutata fuos requierunt flumina curfus : 
Damonis mufam dicemus et Alphefiboei. j[ 

Tu mihi feu magni fuperas jam faxa Timavi, 
Sive Oram Illyrici Icgis acquoris ; en erit umquam 
lUe dies, liceat mihi cum tua dicere fa£bi ? 
£n erit, ut liceat totum mihi ferre per orbem 
SolaSophocleo tua carmina digna cothurno ! xo 

Ate principium: tibi definet. accipejufiis 
Carmina coepta tuis : atque banc fine tempora circum 
Inter vi£bices ederam tibi ferpere laurus. 
Frigida vix coelo noAis decefierat umbra. 
Cum ros in tenera pecori gratiffimus herba, 15 

Incumbens tereti Damon fie coepit QUvae« 

Nafcere, praeque diem veniens age, Lucifer, almum ; 
Conjugis indigno Nifae deceptus amore 
Dum queror, et divos, (quamquam nil teftibus illis 
Profeci) extrema moriens tamen adioquor bora. 20 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, verfus. 
Maenalus argutumque nemus pinofquc loquentis 
Semper habet ; femper paftorum ille audit amores, 
Panaque, qui primus calamos non paflus inertis. 
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, verfus. 25 

Vcr. 17. Reclin'd.'] Denoting the mclanclioly Dofturc of 
the ihepherd^ leaning againft the tree* not iucumSins booth 
ix plivd, 

25. 'Tis vtry poetical to perfonify the mountain Macnalut^ 
and afcribe to it a voice and the power of hearing. 

[ 157 ] 



Damon and Alphesiboeus. 

CHarm'd with the fongs of two contending fwainsy 
The herds for wonder ceas'd to graze the plains. 
In deep furprife the lynxes liftening flood. 
The rolling rivers ftopt their headlong flood f 
O Pollio ! leading thy vidorious bands, r 

O'er deep Timavus* or Illyria's fands ; 
O when thy glorious deeds fhall I rehearfc. 
When tell the world how matchlefs is thy verfc. 
Worthy the lofty ftage of laurell'd Greece, 
Great rival of majeftic Sophocles ! I# 

With thee began my fongs, with thee fhall end j 
The ftrains thyfelf commanded, O attend ! 
And 'mid the laurels which thy brows entwine. 
Admit this humble ivy-wreath of mine. 

Night, her unwholefome fhadows fcarce withdrew, XJ 
What time the cattle love the cooling dew, 
Damon, againfl an olive's trunk reclin'd, 
Thus pour'd the tranfports of his jealous mind. 

Bright Lucifer arife ! bring on the day. 
While I deceived by Nifa pine away, M 

To heav*n addrefTing my lafl pray*rs and tears. 
Yet which of all the gods my forrow hears ? 

Begin with me, my pipe, Maenalian flrains* 
Delightful Maenalus, 'mid echoing groves. 
And vocal pines, flill hears the fhepherds' loves ; 25 

The rural warblings hears of fkilful Pan, 
Who firfl to tunc neglefted reeds began* 
Begin, &c« 

tSt ^» Vx&GILII MAkotfti BuCtitlCA. tld. I4 

Mopfo Nifa datur. quid non fperemus amantes i 
Jungentur jam gryphes equis : aevoque fequetiti 
Cum canibus timidi venient ad pocula damae* 
Mopfe, novas incide faces : tibi ducitur uxcor. 
Sparge, marite, nuces : tibi deferet Hefperus Oetam. yy 
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, verfus* 
O digno conjunda viro, dum defpicis omnis, 
Dumque tibi eft odio mea fiftula, dumque capellae, 
Hirfutumque fupercilium, prolixaque barba : 
Nee curare deum credis mortalia quemquam* 35 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, verfus* 
Scpibus in noftris parvam te rofcida mala 
(Dux ego vefter eram) yidi cum matrc legentem. 
Alter ab undecimo turn me jam acceperat annus : 
Jam fragilis poteram a terra obntingere ramos* 4a 

Ut vidi, ut perii, ut die malus abftulit error ! 
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, verfus* 
Nunc fcio, quid fit amor, duris in cotibus ilium 
Aut Tmaros, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes, 
Nee generis noftri puerum nee fanguinis edunt. 45 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, verfus. 

32. Timid ditf.] Benfon obferved that Virgil In this pailkge 
choTe rather to infringe grammar than to make a rhime | 
Timidi venient ad pocula Damae. 

34. NuftisdUibtsJ] The bride ufed to be led home by night 
with lighted torches before her. Their torches were pieces of 
pine or anfluoos wood, which were cot to a point that they 
might be the more eafily inflamed. Platarch fays, there were 
fitfg ufually carried. Marty it. 

That nucij fignify ivaUmti, and have a myflical iignification 
in the nuptial ceremonies, fee Martyn's Georgics, v. 187. 

36. He/per. 1 That is, night approaches. 

Hefperus that led 

*' The ilarry hoft (hone brighteft, till the moon, 5cc. 


40. Length of ieard.] La Cerda is of opinion, that the 
meaninfr is, my violent love has made me negle6l my perfon. 
^5. The choiceft fruitJ] The drcumftances of his officio a f- 
' pointing out the fruity and of his being but jufl able 


neu of 

tcl. 8. Thb Eclogues or VntotL. 15^ 

Fair Nifa Mopfus weds ! O wond'rous mate. 

Ye layers ! what may we not hope from fate ? *o 

Now gryphons join with mares ! another year. 

With hoftile dogs fhall drink the timid deer : 

Thy bride comes forth ! begin the feftal rites I 

The ¥ralnuts ftrew ! prepare the nuptial lights I 

O envied hufband, now thy blifs is nigh, m 

Behold for thee bright Hefper mounts the iky. 

Begin, &c. 
.0 Nifa I congmtuiate thy choice f 
Me you defpife, my pipe, and artlefs voice. 
My goats, my fhaggy brows, my length of beard, 46 
Nor think the gods your broken vows have beard* 

Begin, &c. 
Once with your mother to our fields you came. 
For dewy apples— thence I date my flame $ 
The choiccft fruit I pointed to your view, 45 

Tho' young my raptured foul was fix*d on you f 
The boughs I fcarce could reach with little arms. 
But then, ev'n then could feel thy powerful charms. 

how I gaz'd in pleaflng tranfport toft ! 

How glowM my heart in fweet delufion loft ! 50 

Begin, &c. 

1 know thee. Love ! on horrid Tmarus born. 
Or from cold Rhodope's hard entrails torn, 
NursM in hot fands the Garamants among. 

From human ftock the favage p^ver fprung. 55 

Begin, &c. 

to reach the branches from the ground, are nauml and poe« 

Utvidit utpmil utmt wudus a^alit irrwl 
is not equal to 

*nc iJbr, i>% iftftwf, iq K f^^* «I>^IT* ifi^a* 

Ahfttdit irror is not fo ftrong as the Greek. 

52. OS ibfmV Tmarus.] Does not the fliepherd LMqoa 
leMn to be too well acquainted with the geography of diftant 
CQttntriei f 


l6o P« VxRGiLf X Maronis BucoircA, EcL 8. 

Saevus amor docuit ghatorum fanguine matrem 

Conmaculare manus. crudelis tu quoque, mater; 

Crudelis mater magis^ an puer inprobus ille I 

Inprobus ille puer : crudelis tu quoque, mater. 59 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, verfus. 

Nunc et ovis ultro fugiat lupus : aurea durae 

Mala ferant quercus : narciflb floreat ainus : 

Pinguia corticibus fudent ele&ra myricae. 

Certent et cycnis ululae : fit Titynis Orpheus : 55 

Orpheus in filvis, in^er Delphinas Arion. 

Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, verfus. 

Omnia vel medium fiant mare : vivite filvae. 

Praeceps aerii fpecula de montis in undas 

Deferar. extremum hoc munus morientis habeto. 6« 

Define, Maenalios jam define, tibia, verfus. 

Haec Damon : vos, quae refponderit Alphefiboeus, 

Dicite, Pierides. non omnia poiTumus omnes. 

Effer aquam, et molli cinge haec altaria vitta : 
Verbenafque adole pinguis et mafcula tura : 65 

Conjugis ut magicis fanos avertere facris 
Experiar fenfus. nihil hie nifi carmina defunt. 
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin* 

57. ReUntUfs love.] After Medea had fled with Jafon, one 
of die Argonauts, from her father and country, he bafely for« 
ieok her and married another : this fo highly enraged her, that 
£he murdered before his face the children fhe had by him. The 
nioft pathetic tragedy of Euripides is on this fine fubjed : 
wherein the tendernefs of the mother, and the fury of the for- 
faken miflrefs, produce noble ftruggles of paiTion. I cannot 
forbear adding, that the ceiebraiea lines crudelis mater magis, 
CsTr. contain a trifling play and jingling of words very unwor« 
thy the fimplicity of Virgil's flyle. Dr. Trapp and Dr. Martyn 
are of a quite contrary opinion, and think the paflage beau- 

78. Te tuneful 'virgins,'] The poet hints tliat he is unable to 
proceed by his own ilrength, and begs therefore the ailiitunce 
of thejnnfes. 

8o* Bring 'water,] The water was heated in the houfe, and 


tcl. d. The ficLQOufcs of Virgil. i6x 

Relentlcfs Love the mother taught of yore, 

To bathe her hands in her own infants' gore j 

O barbarous mother thirfting to deftroy ! 

More cruel was the mother or the boy f 6o 

Both, both, alike delighted to deftroy, 

Th* unnat'ral mother and the ruthlefe boy. 

Begin, &c. 
Now hungry wolves let tim'rOus latnbkins chace, 
Narcifius' flowers the barren alder grace, 65 

Let bluihing apples knotted oaks adorn> 
Let liquid amber drop from every thorn [ 
Let owls contend with fwans ; our rural bard 
To Orpheus or Arioii be preferred ! 
Like Orpheus draw the liftening trees along, 70 

Or like Ariion charm the finny throng. 

Begin, &c. 
Let the fea rufli o^er all^ in Ihorelefs floods ! 
Take this laft dying gift ! — farewel, ye woods ! 
Nifa adieu !— from yon impending fteep, 75 

Headlong I'll plunge into the foamy deep ! 

Ceafe now, my pipe, now ceafe Maenalian ftrains. 
Thus Damon mourn'd. Ye tuneful virgins tell 
The fwain's reply — Not all in all excel. 


Bring water for the folemn rites defign'd, 80 

The altar's fides with holy fillets bind — 
The ftrongeft frankincenfe, rich vervain burn. 
That mighty magic may to madnefs turn 
My perjur'd love — *Tis done— and nought remaijis 
To crown the rites but all-inchanting ftrains. 85 

Bring Daphnis, bring him from the town, my ftrains. 

the forcercfs calls to her afliftant Amaryllis to bring it out to 
her ; fo there is no need to read offer ^ as feme have done. 

82. TheftrMgeft.'l ^^^ ancicnw called the flrongcft fort of 
frankincenfe, maU. 

Vol. L 1^ 

i62 p. ViRGiLii Maromis Bucolica. Eel. 8« 


Carmina vel coelo poflunt dcducere lunam : 
Cartninibus Circe focios mutavit Ulixi : yo 

Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis. 
J}ucite ab urbc domum, mea carmina, ducitc Daphnin. 
Terna tibi hacc primum triplici diverfa colore 
Licia circumdo, terque haec altaria circum 
Effigiem duco- numero deus inpare gaudet. 75 

Ducite ab iirbe domum, mea .carmina, ducite Daphnin. 
•Ne£le tribus nodis ternos, Amarylli, colpres : 
Nede, Amarylli, modo : ct. Veneris, die, vincula ne£lo. 
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 
Limus ut hie durefcit, et haec ut cera liquefcit 80 

Uno eodemque igni ; fie noftro Daphnis amore. 
'-Sparge mobm, et fragilis ineende bitumine lauros. 
Daphnis me malus urit : ego banc in Daphnide laurum. 
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducitc Daphnin. 
Talis amor Daphnin, qualis, cum fefla juvencum 85 
Per nemora atque altos quaerendo bucula lueos, 
•Propter aquae rivom viridi procumbit in ulva 
P^rdita, nee ferae meminit decedere noili : 

94. For three.] The ancients had a prodigious veneration for 
the number three, and held many ridiculous fuperftitions in re- 
lation to it. This number was thought the moil perfedl of all 
numbers, having regard to the beginning, middle, and end. 

103. jis this /ami Jin,] There were plainly two figures 
made, one of wax, and the other of clay; the former would 
naturally melt, and the other harden by the £re. The notion 
was, that as the image con fumed, fo did the perfon it repre- 
fented. Dr. Martyn obferves, that in the beginning of the 
lad century, many perfons were convidled of this and other 
fuch like prafticcs, and were executed accordingly, a» it was 
deemed to be attempting the lives of others. King James the 
Firft was a great believer of the power of magic, and wrote 
a very idle book on the fubjedl, entituled, Daemonologie. 
Shakefpear feems to have chofen the fubjedt of his Macbeth to 
pleafe the talle of that prince. 

The Sajs were burnt alfo to confume the flefh of the perCon 
on whofe account thcfe' magical rites were performed. The 
cake it crumbled upon the image of Daphnis as upon the vittim 
of this facri£ce. 


Eel. 8. Th& Cclogu£s of Virgil. 163 

By ftraiiis pale Cynthia from her fphere defcends ; 
Strains chang'd to brutes Ulyfies' wondering friends ; 
Strains in the meadow, or the fccret brake. 
Can the deaf adder fplit, and venom'd fnake« qd 

Bring, &c. 
Lo ! firft I round thy waxen image twift. 
And clofely bind this triple-cblour'd lift. 
And three times round the altar walk ; for thr^e 
Is a dear number to dread Hecate. 9^ 

Bring, &c* 
Hafte, Amaryllis, ply thy bufy hand ; 
Hafte, quickly, knit the confecrated band, 
And fay 'tis knit at Venus' dread command ; 
In three clofe knots the mixing colours knit^ xoo 

For ardent lovers fuch clofe bands befit. 

Bring, &c. 
As this fame fire melts wax and hardens clay^ 
To others deaf, let him my love repay. 
Crumble the facred cake, let witherM bays, 105 

Inflam'd with liquid fulphur crackling blaze % 
As Daphnis warms my bofom with defire. 
May Daphnis burn in this confuming fire ! 

Bring, &c. 
May Daphnis feel fuch ftrong, unanfwer'd love, 110 
As the fond heifer feels, thro' copfe and grove. 
Who feeks her beauteous bull, then tir'd and faint 
On the green rufhy bank lies down to pant. 
Loft to herfelf and rolling on the ground, 
Heedlefs of darkfome night now clos'd around I X15 

1C5. The moia was made of meal falted an^ kneaded, «r»- 
lita, whence it was called moia : and victims were faid to be 
immolated, because the foreheads of the viAims, and the 
hearths and the knives had this cake crumbled on them. 

, m RuAEus. 

115. Nighf,] Pirdita^ nee ferae meminit dectdtre noai\ which 
fweet line, fays Macrobius, is taken entirely from Varius. 

.M % 

r64 P« VxKGXLii Maronis BucoticA. Ed. 8. 

Talis airior teneat, ncc fit mihi cura mcd^i. 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea cannina, ducite Daphnin. g9 

Has olim exuvias mihi perfidus ille reliquit, 

• Pignora cara fui : quae nunc ego limine in ipfo. 
Terra, tibi mando. debent haec pignora Daphnin. 
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin« 
Has herbas, atque haec Ponto mihi le£la venena, 95 
Ipfe dedit Moeris. nafcuntur plurima Ponto. 

* His ego faepe lupum fieri,. et fe condere filvis 
Moerin, faepe animas imis excire fepulcris, 
Atque fatas alio vidi traducere meffis. 

. Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. 100 
Fer cineres, Amarylli, foras : rivoque iluenti, 

^Tranfque capyt jace : ne refpexeris. his ego Daphnin 
Adgrediar : nihil ille deos, nil carmina curat. 
Ducite ab urbe domum, meaxarmina, ducite Daphnin 
Afpice : co/ripuit tremulis altaria flammis 105 

Sponte fua, dum fe/re moror, cinis ipfe. bonum fit ! 

'Ncfcio quid certe efl : et Hylax in limine latratJ 
Credimus ? an, qui amant, ipfi fibi fomnia fingunt ? 
Parcijte, ab urbe venit, jam parcite, carmina, Daphnis. 

126. Sage Moeris.] The defcription of the powcrfulncfs of 
Moeris his magic, is fublime. Pontus was the land of poi« 
Tons : MitKridates, who ufed to eat poifon, reigned there ; and 
Medta was born in Colchis. 

133. The/e aJhesJ\ The moft powerful of all incantations 
was to throw the afhes of the facrifice backward into the water. 

i^i. The dying embers J\ The ancients thought the fudden 
blazing of the fire a very happy omen. For Plutarch relates, 
Ihat the vellal virgins congratulated Cicero, and begged him 
to proceed in his profecution of Catiline, and afl'ured him of 
great fuccefs, bccaufc the fire of their* facrifice lighted of its 
own acc#rd. 

Eel. 8. The Eclogues of Virgil. 165 

Ev'n thus, may difregarded Daphnis burn. 
Pine to defpair, nor I his flame rptum ! 

Bring, &c. 
This veft the faithlefs traitor left behind. 
Pledge of his love I give, to thee confign'd, 120 

O facred earth ! thus placM beneath the door, 
O may the precious pledge its lord reftore ! 

Bring, &c. 
Thefe powerful, poifonous plants in Pontus dug, 
(Pontus abounds in many a magic drug) 125 

Sage Moeris gave j in dire enchantments brew'd, 
Moeris his limbs with thefe has oft bedew'd. 
Hence the fell forcerer have I feen become 
A wolf, and thro' wild forefts howling roam. 
With thefe from* graves the ftarting fpeftres warn, 130 
* And whirl to diftant fields the ftanding corn- 
Bring, &c. 
Take now thefe aihes from th' expiring wood. 
And ftrew them, Amaryllis, o'er the flood j 
But backward caft them, dare not look behind, 135 

With thefe I'll drive to touch his harden'd mind ; 
But weak all art my Daphnis' breaft to move. 
For he nor charms regards, nor pow'rs above. 

Bring,' &c.- 
Lo ! round the altar's fides what flames afpire ! 140 

The dying embers burft into a fire ! 
Lift ! Hylax barks ! O may it lucky prove ! 
But ah ! how oft are we deceiv'd that love ? 
Can it be truth ? my heart will Daphnis eafc ? 
He comes, my Daphnis comes— Enchantments ceafe f 



[ i67 ] 



We are told hy Servius that Moeris is the perfon who had 
the care of VirgiVs farm^ ivas his procurator ^ or bailiffs 
Us we fpeak at prefent \ arid that when Virgil had from 
Auguflus received a grant of his lands j one Arrius a cen^ 
turion refufed to adinit him into pojfejjion^ and would cer- 
. tainly have killed him if Virgil had not faved his life by 
fwimming over the Mincius. This accident is mentioned in 
this Eclogue. Lycidas overtakes Moeris on his way to 
Romcy and ajks him to repeat to him as they paffed along 
fume favourite verfes^ that he formerly had heard from 
him. Moeris grants his requeji^ but fuddenly breaks off 
in a natural and dramatic manner. 

M 4 

[ i68 ] 

E c i;, O G A IX. 

M O E R I S. 

Lycidas, Moeris* 


Quo tc, Mocri, pedes ? an, quo via 4ucit, in urbtfin ? 
O Lycida, vivi pervcnimus ', advena noftri. 
Quod numquam veriti fumus, ut pofTeiTor agelli 
Diceret : Haec mea funt ; vetcres migrate coloni. 
Nunc vifti, triftes, quoniam Fors omnia verfat, 5 

Hos illi (quod ncc bene vertat) mittimus haedos. 

CeFtc equidem audieram, c|ua fc Aibducerc colles 
Incipiunt, mollique jugum demittere clivo, 
Ufque ad aquam et veteres, jam fradla cacumina, fagos» 
Omnia carminibus veftrum fervafTe Menalcan. XQ 

Audieras \ et fama fuit. fed cannina tantum 
Noftra yalent^ Lycida, tela jnter Martia, quantuni 
Chaonias ^icunt, aquila veniente, co]umbas, 
Quod nifi me quacumque novas incidere litis 
Ante finiftra cava monuiffet ab ilice cprnix, |jf 

Ncc tuus bic Moeris, nee viveret ipfe Mcnalcas, 

Heu, cadit in quemquam tantum fcelus ! hcu, tua nobis 

$' By/ear*] The two epithets w5/ and /r/)?rjr, Burman de- 
clares he cannot digeft; but the rule iie epitbeiis non multiflican4U% 
is a mere dream of the grammarians \ nor did the beft poet^ 
regard it. Sr enqe. 

C 169 ] 


M O E R I S. 

Lycidas, Moeris. 


SAY, Moeris, to the city doft thou hafte i 
O Lycid^, the 4ay's arriv'd at laft. 
When the fierce ftranger, breathing rage, fhall fay, 
Thefe fields are mine, ye veteran hinds away f 
To whom, by Fortune crulh'd, overcome by fe^fi 5 
Thefe kids (a curfe attend them !) muft I bear. 

Sure I had heard, that where yon' hills defcend. 
And to the vale their floping fummits bend, 
Down to the ftream apd ancient broken beech. 
Far as the confines of his paftures reach, 10 

Menalcas fay'd his al} by fkilful ftrains, 

Such was t})e tale among the l9(antuan fwaii^s ; 
3ut verfc 'mid dreadful war's mad tumults, proves 
As weak and powerlefs, as Dodona's doves. 
When the fierqe, hungry eagle firft they fpy, 15 

Full on their Heads impetuous dart from high. 
The boding rayen from an hollow tree, 
Warn'd us to ceafe the ftrife, and quick agree } 
Elfc of ourliberty, nayjife, depriv'd. 
Nor Moeris nor Menalcas had furviv'd. ao 

What rage the ruthlcfs foldier could induce 
To hurt the fwecteft favourite of the raufe ? 

xyO P. ViRGiLii Maronis Bucolica, Eel. 9* 

Paene fimul tecum folatia rapta, Menalca ! 
Quis caneret Nymphas ? jquis humum florentibus herbis 
Spargeret i aut viridi fontis induceret umbra i 20 

Vel quae fublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper. 
Cum te ad delicias ferres Amaryllida noftras ? 
Tityre, dum redeo, brevis eft via, pafce capellas : 
Et potum paftas age, Tityre ; iet inter agendum 
Occurfare capro, cornu fcrit ille, caveto, 25 

Immo haec, quae Varo ncc dum perfe<£ta canebat. I 

Vare, tuum nomen (fuperet modo Mantua nobis, 
Mantua vae miferae nimium vicina Cremonae !) 
Cantantes fublime ferent ad fidera cycni. 

Sic tua Cyrneas fugiant examina taxos : 3^ 

Sic cytifo paftae diftentent ubera vaccae. 
Incipe, fi quid habes. et me fecerc poetam 
Pierides : funt et mihi carminat me quoque dicunt 
Vatem paftores : fed non ego credulus illis. 
Nam neque adhuc Varo videor, nee dieere Cinna 35 
Digna^ fed argutos inter ftrepere anfer olore$« 


Id quidem ago ; ac tacitus, Lycida, mecum ipfe voluto. 
Si valeam meminiffe : neq^e eft ignobile carmen. 
Hue ades, 6 Galatea, quis eft nam ludus in undis ? 
Hie ver purpureum : varios hie flumina circum 40 

{ 25. fTho then couUftrev;,'] Virgil certainly alludes to his 
Eclogue, entitled Daphnis, compofed on the death of Julius 

35. Cremona^s.l Auguftas divided the lands of Crcmoria 
amongft his foldiers, becaufe they fided with Antony. But that 
country not affording fuliicient Quantities of land for all the 
foldiers, part of the territory of Mantua was added and given 
•Way in that manner. 

40. Cjrnaean,] Corfica was called Cyrnus by the Greeks, 
The honey of this ifland was mod remarkably bad. 

43. Cinna' s, t^c] This undoubtedly was not Helvius Cinna 

the poet who was murdered, by miilaking him for Cornbltua 

Cinna^ and an enemy of Julius Caefar^ at that cmp^eror's fu* 

9 neral; 

Eel. 9« The Eclogues or Virgil, ijt^ 

direful thought ! hadft thou, Menalc&s, bled. 
With thee had all our choiceft pleafures fled ! 

Who then could ftrew fwect flow*rs, the nymphs could Cng 
Who (hade with verdant boughs the cryftal fpring ? 26 
Or chant thofe lays which privately I read. 
When late we viiited my fav'rite maid : 
••* Watch, Tityrus, watch, and fee my goats receive 
•^ At morn frefli pafture, and cool ftreams at eve 5 3^ 
*^ Soon I'll return j but as the flock you lead, 
*' Bew^e the wanton ridg'ling's butting head." 

Or thofe to Varus, tho' unfinifh'd ftrains— 
^* Varus,, fliould we preferve our Mantuan plains, 
** (Obnoxious by Cremona's neighbouring crime) 3J 
^' The fwans thy name fhall bear to heav'n fublime.'* 

Begin, if verfe thou haft, my tuneful friend j 
On trefoil fed fo may thy cows diftend 
Their copious udders j fo thy bees refufe 
The baneful juices of Cyrnaean yews. ^# 

Me too the mufes love, and give me lays, 
Swains call me bard, but I deny their praife ; 

1 reach not Varus' voice, nor Cinna's fong. 

But fcream like gabbling geefe fweet fwans among* 


Thofe ftrains am I revolving in my mind, 45 

Nor are they verfes of a vulgar kind. 

" O lovely Galatea ! hither hafte ! 

^* For what delight affords the wat'ry wafte ? 

*' Here purple fpring her gifts profufely potirs, 

" And paints the river-banks with balmy flow'rs ; 50 

neral. But it feems to have been Lacius Cinna^ the grandfon 
of Pompey, and a great favourite of Aaguftus. Others think 
the words relate to two writers. 

47. O lovilj Galatea,] Thcfc verfes in the original, afTemble 
together feme of the lovelieft objedls of wild unadorned nature 
They are a copy of a beautiful pa^agc> in Thoocritati 

\^% p. VmoiLii Maronis Bucolica. EcK 9. 

Fundit humus flores : hie Candida populus antro 
Inminet, et lentae texunt umbracula vites. 
Hue ades ; infani feriant fine litora fludus. 

Quid, quae te pura foluio fub node canentem 
Audieram ? numcros memini, fi verba tcnerem. 4^ 


Daphni, quid antiques fignorum fufptcis ortus ? 

£eee Dionaei proceffit Caefaris aftrum : 

Aftnim, quo fegetes gauderent frugibus j et quo 

Duceret apricis in coUibus uva colorem. 

Inferc, Daphni, piros : carpent tua poma nepotes, 5a 

Omnia fert aetas, animum quoque. faepe ego longos 

Cantando puerum memini me condere foles. 

Nunc oblita mihi tot earmina. vox quoque Moerin 

Jam fugit ipfa r lupi Moerin viderc priorcs. 

Sed tamen ifta fatis referet tibi faepe Menalcas. 5<f 

Cauflfando noftros in longum ducis amores. 

52. Leavis.] Obfervc how judicioufly Virgil mentions opiy 
the (hades of the vines ; it being yet only fpring, there could 
be no grapes, 

^%.Dapbnis! heboUJ^ Virgil, faysLaCerda, fcems to have 
contended with himfelf in this place for viflory. He oppofes thefe 
£ve verfes to thofe which went before, Hue ades^ Galatea^ in 
which having excelled Theocritus, he now endeavours to excel 
Jiimfelf* In the former he aimed only at the fweetnefs of exr 
preflion, as became one who addrefled himfelf to Caefar, who 
was then admitted amone the gods. There he defcribes the 
delights of the fpring, flowers, rivers, (hades, fuch objedb z.% 
tend to pleafure ; here, he produces the fruits of fummer, corn, 
grapes, and pears, all which are ufeful to man. Who can fay 
that Virgil fpeaks idly, or to no purpofe ? 

58. Behold the Julian,] The Julian flar, according toDo^or 
Halley, was a comet ; and the fame that appeared (for the 
third time after) in 16S0. He Pays that the tail of that comet 
in its neareft approach to the fun, was iixty degrees long. So 
that it mull have made a very confiderable figure in the heavens, 
as Horace fays the Julian ftar did. After Caefar's death a 
comet happened to appear, which the fuperftiuQus vulgar 
fought was the foal of Julius Caefar, placed HmQPg the god&. 
Auguilus'Q courtiers propagated this notion* 

Eel. 9. Th» Eclogues op Virgil, 172 

*« Hci'c, o*cr the grotto the pale poplar weaves 
«« With bluihing vines a canopy of leaves ; 
<^ Then quit the Teas I againft the founding fhore 
«* Let the vext ocean's billows idly roar !" 

What's that you fung alone, one cloudlefs night i 55 
Its air I know, could I the words recite. 


<• Why ftill confult, for ancient figns, the fides t 

** Daphnis ! ,behold the Julian ftar arife ! 

** Whofe power the fields with copious corn (hall fill, 

•* And clothe with richer grapes each funny hill ; 60 

*' Now, Daphnis, for thy grandfons plant thy pears, 

** Who lufcious fruits (hall crop in diftant years,"— 

Alas ! by ftealing time how things decay ! 

Once could I fing whole fummer-funs away ; 

But ah ! my mem'ry fails — fome wolf accurs'd 65 

JIath ftopt my voice and look'd on Moeris firft : 

But oft Menalcas will repeat thefe lays* 

My ftrong defires fuch (light excufes raife ; 

55. FiilJj,] Segites generally fignifies ihtfieUs in Virgil's 

62. Fruits,'] Poma is commonly ufed by the ancients for any 
efcalent fruit. 

63. Alas ! iyftioling.'] Here the (hepherd breaks off abruptly^ 
as if he had forgot the reft of the poem. 

65. My memory fails,] Obferve two things, fays Raaeas^ 
I. I'hat ohlita is ufed in a paffive /ignification. 2. That mibi is 
put for me. So in the Aeneid, Nulla tuarum audita. mibi mequs 
Hfifa fororum. 

6c. Some *wolf accursed,] The ancients imaQ;ined« that if a 
wolt happened to look on any man firfl, the perlon was infUntly 
deprived of his voice. Avxov t^h^f lo^at^c rt^i u^ aofo^ finy, fays 

68. Caujfando in the original, fignifies by pretending to make 

Stultus uterque locum immeritum cau/atur iniqui. Ho a. 

ty4 P. VlftGIUI MaHONIS BuCOLICA. £cl.^ 

£t nunc omne tibi ftratum filet aequor : et omnes, 
(Afpice) veatofi ceciderunt murmuris aurae. 
Hinc adeo media eft nobis via. namque fepulchrum 
Incipit apparcre Bianoris. hie, ubi denfas 6b 

Agricolae ftringunt frondes, hie, Moeri, canamus : 
Hie haedos depone, tamen veniemus in urbem* 
Aut fi, nox pluviam ne conligat ante, veremur, 
Cantantes licet ufque (minus via laedat) eamus. 
Cantantes ut eamus, ego hoc te fafce levabo. . 65 


Define plura, puer: et, quod nunc inftat, agamus. 
Carmina turn melius, cum venerit ipfe, canemus. 

70. Thf ntighVrittg laie,] The original fays, ftrahm fikt 
mequor. By aequor cannot poi&bly be underilood the fea, as 
fome tranllators have imaeined. Catron's obfervation is wtry 
ingenious. Our ihepherck were already arrived at the edge of 
•^ lake of Mantua, which is formed round the city by the 
Mincio. Is not a lake difea in the eyes of iliepherds ? 

72. Bianoris tomhJ] Bianor, fon of the river Tiber, by the 
daughter of Tirefias, named Manto, is fabled to have firft of 
all fortified the city of Mantua, and to have given it the name 
of his mother. His tomb, as anci.ent ones ufually were, was 
placed by the way-fide. Hence the expreflion, abi motor ^Jiftt 
viator — abfurdly introduced into modern epitaphs, not placed 
in fuch iiiuations. 

Eel. 9- The Eclogues of Virgil. 17^ 

Behold no whifp'ring winds the branches ihake ; 

Smooth is the furface of the neighb'ring lake j 70 

Befides, to our mid-journey are we come, 

I fee the top of old Bianor's tomb 5 

Here, Moeris, where the fwains thick branches prune. 

And ftrew their leaves, our voices let us tune ; 

Here reft a while, and lay your kidlings down, 75 

Remains full time to reach the deftin'd town j 

But if you tcmpefts fear and gathering rain. 

Still let us footh our travel with aftrain ; 

The ways feem fhorter by a warbled fong, 

ril eafe your burden as we pafs along. 80 

Ceafe your requeft ; proceed we o*er the plain $ 
When HE returns we'll fing a fweeter ftrain. 

74. And ftreijo their leaves, 'K La Cerda fays, they gathered 
the leaves to ftrew them on Bianor's tomb : but the epithet 
denfas feems to point to amputation^ which they wanted by 
growing too thick. Holdfworth fays, a grovtf I fuppofe in 
which die peafants ilrip oiF the leaves ; Catrou has miftakeii 
the meaning. 


[ »77 ] 



The paet introducn his friend and patrm GalluSy lying undtT' 
a folitary rock in Arcadia^ bewailing the inconjlancy eif 
his mijlrefs Lycorisy by whom is meant the beautiful Ci^ 
therisy a moji celebrated aSfrefsy that left him to follow 
fome officer into Germany. He defcribes the rural deities 
coming to vifit Gallus in his dijhefsj as they do Daphnis in 
Theoetitus^ and laji of all Apollo himfelf^ who all endea^ . 
vour in vain to comfort him% 

Jfou I. N 

C 178 3 

E C L O G A X^ 

G A L L U S. 

EXtrtmum hunc, Arethufa, mihi concede laborenu 
Pauca mco Galld, fed quae legat ipfa Lycorts, 
Carmina Tunt diccn4^. neget quis carmina Gallo i 
Sic tibi, cum fluSus fubtcr labere Sicanos, 
Doris amara fuam non intermifceat undatn. 5 

Iiicipe. follicitos Galli dicamus amores, 
. Dujn tenera adtondent iimae virgulta capellae. 
NoA conimus furdis : refpondent omnia fllvae. 
Quae nemora, aut qui vos faltus habuere, puellae 
Nai'des, indigno cum Gallus amore periret f 10 

Nam neque Parnafi vobis juga, nam neque Pindi 
Ulla moram fecere, neque Aoniae Aganippes. 
Ilium etiam lauri, ilium etiam flevere myricae : 
Pinifer ilium etiam fola fub rupe jacentem 
Maenalus, et gelidi fleverunt faxa Lycaei. 15 

Stant et eves circum : noftri nee poenitet illas : , 
Nee te poeniteat pecoris, divine poeta : 
JEt formofus ovis ad flumina pavlt Adonis. 
Venit et upilio : tardi venere bubulci : 
Uvidus hiberna venit de glandc Menal<fas. 20 

Omnes, unde amor ifte, rogant, tibi ? venit Apollo : 
Galle, quid infanis ? inquit. tua cura Lycoris 

Vcr. 10. fThile hrowia the goats.] The original calls them 
Jlmoi capellae, fnub-nos'd goats, which will not bear to be 
rendered into Englifh, This is one inftancc among a ihou- 
fand that may be given, of the utter impoffibility of giving 
any gracefulncfs to many images in the claffics, which in a 
dead language do not appear grofs or common. 

13. ^here were ye. Naiads.] This is finely imitated in that 
excellent piece of Miltdh, inutulcd, Lycidas, but ii originally 
ia TI\eocritu9» 

i 179 J 


G A L L U S. 

A I D the laft labour of itiy rural mufe^ 
'Tis Gallus a(ks, aufpicious Arethufe ! 
But then fuch pity-moving drains impart, 
Such numbers as may touch Lycoris* heart ; 
Yet once more, tuneful nymph, thy fuccour brixlg; 5 
What bard for Gallus can refufc to fing ? 
So while beneath Sicilian feas you glide, 
May Doris ne'er pollute your purer tide ! 

With Gallus' baplefs love begin the lay. 
While browse tlie goats the tender-budding fpray } iH 
-Nor to the deaf our mournful notes we fing. 
Each wood fball with refponfive echoes ring. 
Where were ye, Nfiiads ! in what Jawn or grore^ 
When Gallus pin'd with unregarded love ? 
For not by Aganippe's fpring we play'd, t$ 

Nor Pindus' verdant hill your fteps delay'd $ 
For him lamented every laurel grove ; 
The very tam^rifcs wept his haplefs love ; 
His woes ev'n pine-topt Maenalus bemoan'd, 
Thro' all his caverns the dark mountain groan'd i 20 
And cold Lycaet^m's rocks bewail'd his fate. 
As fad beneath a \onely clifF he fate. 
Around him flood.his flock ill dumb furpris&e, 
A (hepherd's lowly name I ne'er defpife : 
Nor thou, fv\^et bafd, difdain fair flocks to guide^ 2$ 
Adonis fed them by the river's fide ; 
The heavy hind to him, and goat-herd hafte. 
And old Menalcas wet from gathering Wint'ry maft; 
All of his love enqvire ; Apollo came ; 
•* Why glows my Gallus' breaft With fruitlcfs flafiC i 3O 

N ^ 

i89 P. ViRGiLii Maronis Bucolica. EcL 10. 

Perque nives alium, perque horrida caftra fecuta eft. 
Venit ct agrefti capitis Silvanus honore, 
Florcntis fcrulas et grandia lilia quaflans. 25 

Pan deus Arcadiae venit : quern vidimus ipfi 
Sanguineis ebuli baccis minioque rubentem. 
Ecquis crit modu^ ? inquit. amor non talia curat. 
Nee lacrimis crudelis amor, nee gramina rivis. 
Nee cytifo faturantur apes, nee fronde capellae. 30 

Triftis at illc, Taraen eantabitis. Arcades, inquit, 
Montibus hacc veftris : foli cantare pcriti 
Arcades. 6 mihi turn quam molliter oiTa quiefcant, 
Veftra meos olim fi fiflula dicat amores ! 
Atque utinam ex vobis unus, veftriquc fuiflem 35 

. Aut cuftos gregis, aut maturae venltor uvae ! 
Certe five mihi Phyllis, five effet Amyntas, 
Seu quieumque furor, (quid tum, fi fu feus Amyntas ? 
Et nigrae violae funt,.et vaccinia nigra) 
Meeum inter falices lenta fub vitc jacerct. 40 

Serta mihi Phyllis legeret, cantaret Amyntas. 
Hie gelidi fontes : hie mollia prata, Lycori. 
Hie nemus : hie ipfo tecum con fu merer aevo. 
Nunc infanus amor duri me Martis in armis. 
Tela inter media, atque adverfos detinct hoftis. 45 

Tu proeul a patria (nee fit mihi credere) tantum 
Alpinas, ah dura, nives et frigora Rheni 

41. Sad Gallus iken,] This addrefs of Gallus to the Arca- 
dians is tender and moving ; efpecialiy that part of it where 
he wifhes he had been only an humble .fhepherd like them. 
But when he jull afterwards addreiles his millrefs, the lines are 
inexpreflibly pathetic. 

Hie gelt M fontes ; hie mollia prata ^ Lycori ; 
Hie nemus : hie if/o tecum conjumerer aevo. 

And then he turns off at once to the evils his pafllon has ex- 
pofed him to, 

« Nunc infanuj amor^ fcV, 

Eel. 10. The Eclogues of Viroil. i8i 

*' To feek another youth thy falfe one flies, 

*' Thro' martial terrors and inclement fkies." 

Shaking the ruftic honours of his brow, 

The lilly tall, and fennel's branching bough, 

Sylvanus came ; and Pan, Arcadia's pride, 35 

With vermil-hues, and blufhing elder dy'd : 

** Ah ! why indulge, he cries, thy boundlefs grief, 

'' Think'ft thou that love will heed, or bring relief? 

** Nor tears can love fuffice, nor (howers the grafs, 

*' Nor leaves the goat, nor flowers the honied race." 40 

Sad Gallus then. — Yet O Arcadian fwains. 

Ye beft artificers of foothing ftrains ! 

Tune your foft reeds, and teach your rocks my woes. 

So fhall my Ihadcin fweetcr reft repofe ; 

O that your birth and bus'nefs had been mine, 45. 

To feed the flock, and prune the fprcading vine ! 

There fome foft folace to my amorous mind. 

Some Phillis or Amyntas I fliould find : 

(What if the boy's fmooth flcln be brown to view, 

Dark is the hyacinth and violet's hue) 59 

There as we lay the vine's thick fliades beneath. 

The boy ihould fing, and Phillis twine the wreath. 

Here cooling fountains roll thro' flow'ry meads. 

Here woods, Lycoris ! lift their verdant heads. 

Here could I wear my carelefs life away, 55 

And in thy arms infcnfibly decay, 

Inftead of that, me frantic love detains, 

'Mid foes, and deathful darts, and bloody plains.: 

While you, and can my foul the tale believe. 

Far from your country, lonely wand'ring leave, 60 

Me, me your Jover, barbarous fugitive ! 

Seek the rough Alps, where fnows eternal ihine. 

And joylefs border? of the frozen Rhine. , 


53. Thefe four lines are taken from, Sir George Lyttclton** 
^kgant Eclogues, entitled. The fregre/s of lovi. 


itz p. VlRGILII MaRONIS BuCOLICA, Eel. 10. 

Me fine Tola vides. ah te ne frigora laedant ! 
Ah tibi ne teneras glacies fecet afpera plantas ! 
Ibo, et Chalcidico quae funt mihi condita verfu 50 

Carmina, paftoris Siculi modulabor avena. 
Certum eft in filvis, inter fpelaea ferarum, 
Malle pati, tenerifque meos incidere amores 
Arbonbus : crefcent iliac : crefcetis amores. 
Interea mixtis luftrabo Maenala nympbis : 55 

/Aut acris venabor apros : non me ulla vetabunt 
r rigora Parthenios canibus circumdare faltas. 
Jam mihi per rupes videor lucofque fonantis 
Ire : libet Partho torquere Cydonia cornu 
Spicula ; tanquam haec fmt noftri medicina furoris, 60 
Aut deus ille malis hominum mitefcere difcat. 
Jam neque Hamadryades rurfum, neque carmina nobis 
,Ipfa placent : ipfae rurfum concedite filvae. 
Non ilium noftri poffiint mutare labores : 
Ncc fi frigoribus mediis Hebrumque bibamus, 65 

Sithoniafque nivis hiemis fubeamus aquofae. 
Nee fi, cum moriens alta liber aret in ulmo, 
Aethiopum verfemus ovis fub fidere Cancri. 
Omnia'vincit Amor, et nos cedamus Amori. 
Haec fat erit, divae, veftrum cecinifle poetam, 70 

Dum fedet, et gracili fifcejlam texit hibifco, 

66, I go, I go,] How juftly arc tht various refolutions and 
Ihifting pajQions of a lover here defcribed ! Firft^ he rcfoives 
fo renew his poetical iludies* (for Gall us was a writer of ele- 
gies) then fuddenly he talks of leaving the world, and finding 
put feme melancholy folitude^ and hiding himfelf among the 
dens of wild beafts, and amuAng himfelf by carving her name 
pn the trees. Then all at once he breaks out into a refolutioi^ 
that he will fpend all his time in hunting ; but fuddenly re- 
pplle^ with a iigh, (hat none of thefe amufements will cure 
his palSon ; and then bids adieu to all the diverfions of which 
Jie had been fpcaking, 

88. FeeJ,] Verjtmus, in this place, in the original fignifies to 
fu/ (beep, or drive them about, to feed. 

89. Eljn,] Liher in the original figni^cs the inmofl bark of 
^ tree. 

90. Virgil afes the conftellation of' Cancer to exprefs the 

* 7 p-ojpiCf 

£cl. 10. The Eclogues of ViRGi];r> iSj 

Ab ! may no c#ld e'er blaft my deareft maid. 
Nor pointed ice thy tender feet inyade ! 65 

I go, I go, Chalcidian ftrains to fuit 
To the foft founds of the Sicilian flute ! 
*Tis fix'd ! — to mazes of the tangled wood, 
Where cavern'd monfters roam in queft qf blood. 
Abandoned will I fly, to feed my flame 70 

Alone, and on the trees infcribe her name'; 
Faft as the groves iti (lately growth improve. 
By pow'r congenial will increafe my love. 
Mean while on fummits of Lycaeum hoar. 
With the light nymphs I'll chafe the furious boar, 75 
Nor me (hall frofts forbid with horn and hound 
Parthenia's echoing forefts to furround. 
Now, now, thro' founding woods I feem to go, 
Tvranging my arrows from the Parthian bow : 
As if thefe fports my wounded breaft could heal, 80 

. Or that fell god for mortal pangs would feel I 
But now, again no more the woodland maids. 
Nor paftoral fongs delight — Farewel, ye (hades ! 
No toils of ours the cruel god can change, 
Tho' loft in frozen defarts we (hould range, 85 

Tho' we fhould drink where chilling Hebrus flows. 
Endure bleak winter's blafts, and Thracian fnows ; 
Or on hot India's plains our flocks (hould feed. 
Where the parch'd elm declines his fickening head. ; 
Beneath (ierce glowing Cancer's fiery beams, 90 

Far from cool breezes and refre(hing ftreams. 
Love over all maintains refiftlefs fway. 
And let us love's all-conquering power obey. 
Thus, as a ba(ket's ru(hy frame he wove. 
Your bard, ye mufcs, fung the pains of love : 95 

tropic. The fun enters Cancer on the loth or nth of our 

iune» which is the longeft day of the year^ and naturally the 


x84 P* ViRGiLix Maronis Bucouca. £cL 1o« 

Pierides. vos haec facietis maxima Gallo : 
' Gallo, quojus amor tantum mihi crefcit in boras. 
Quantum vere novo- viridis fe fubjicit alnus. 
Surgamus : folet efle gravis cundantibus umbra. 75 

Juniperi gravis umbra. * nocci^t ct frugibus umbrae, 
Ite doQium faturae, venit Hefperus, ite capellae. 

100. Loitirittjf.] La Cerda reads, cunSantibusy not cantants- 
ins, in the original, which feems to be the true fenfe. 

102. Even the ihades of juniper, tho' it is a tree whofo 
Jraves arp fo fragrant, are fiiU very qnwholefoxnc* 

Eel. 10. The Eclogues of Virgil. 185 

May Gallus view the fong with partial eyes. 

For whom each hour my flames of friencUhip ri(e ^ 

Faft as when vernal gales their influence fpreadji^ 

The verdant alder lifts his blooming head. 

But hafte, unwholfome to the loitering fwain lOO 

The {hades are found, and hurtful to the grain ; 

Ev'n juniper's fweet (hade, whofe leaves around 

Fragrance difFufe, at eve are noxious found. 

Homeward, ye well-fed goats, now finks the day ; 

Lo, glittering Hcfper comes ! my goats away. loj 


p. Firgilii MaronU 



G E O R G I C S 

O F 

V I R Q I L, 

I X90 ] 

G E O R G I C A. 



QUID faciat laetas fegetes, quo fidere terrain 
Vertere^ Maecenas, ulmifque adjungere vites 
Conveniat : quae cura bourn, qui cultus habendq 
fit pecori, atque apibus quanta experientia parcis, 
Hinc canere incipiam. Vos, 6 clariflima mundi 5 

Lumina, labentem coelo quae ducitis annum : 
Liber et alma Ceres, veftro fi munere tell us 
ChacH^iam pingui glandem mutavit arifta, 
Foculaque inventis Achclofa mifcuit uvis : 
£t vos agreftum praefentia numina, Fauni, 10 

Fcrte fimul Faunique pedem Dryadefque puellac: 
Munera veftra cano. tuque 6, cui prima frementem 
f^udit equum magno tellus percufTa tridenti, 

Vcr. I. Fiiids.] The fubjefls of the four following books of 
Georgics are particularly fpecified in thefe fotir firfl lines 1 
Com and Phuf^hing arc the lubjedt of \)\tfirft. Fines of theyi* 
€OHil» Cattle of the thirds and Bees of the laft. ^y feges Vir- 
gil generally means the fields, ^uofidere is very poetical fof 
quo tempore* Mr. Dryden fays only nuben to tarn, &c« I ap-^ 
ply experientia to the bees after Grimoaldus and Dr. Trappy 
as oiore poetical than the other meaning, and as fuitable to 
Virgil's manner of afcribing human qualities to thefe infers. 
I wonder, fays Mr. Holdfworthy whence Seneca came to fpeak 
fo lightly of Virgil's exadnefs in his Georgics : but this I am 
fare of, that the more I have looked into the manner of aeri- 
Cttlture ttfed at prefenc ij) Italy, the more occaiion I have had to 


f 191 3 


G E OR G I C S. 




WHAT culture crowns the laughing fields with corn^ 
Beneath what heavenly ligns the glebe to turn^ 
Round the tall elm how circling vines to lead^ 
The care of oxen, cattle how to breed. 
What wond'rous arts to frugal bees belongs 5 

Maecenas, are the fubjefts of my fong, 

Lights of the worfd ! ye brighteft orbs on bighj; . 
Who lead the .Aiding year around the flcy ! 
Bacchus and Ceres, by whofe gifts divine, 
Man chang'd the cryftal ftream for purple wine | id 

For rich and foodful corn, Chaonian maft ; 
Ye Fauns and virgin Dryads, hither hafte j 
Ye Deities, who aid ijiduftrious fwains. 
Your gifts I fing ! facilitate the ftrains ! 
And thou, whofe trident ftruck the teeming earth, 15 
Whence ftrait a neighing courfer fprung to tiirth* 

admire the juftice and force of his expreffions, and his exa£U • 
nefs even in the minuteft particulars. HoLDswoaxH. 

7^ Lights of tb€ 'W9rU,'\ Clarijffiwtm mmJi lumina cannot be 
put in aDpoution or joined with Bacchus it alma Ceres ; Virgil 
firft invokes theyiw anJ moon, and then j^tfrr^hv/*— -Varro's invo- 
cation proceeds in the fain* manner. 

1 1 . Chaeattiam «^.] The famotti strove of Dodona was ia 
Epirus or Chaonia. 

tgi T. ViRGiLii Maronu Georgica. Lib. i« 

Neptune ; et cultor nemonim, cui pinguia Ceae 
Ter centum nivei tondent dumcta juvcnci : 15 

Ipfe nemus linquens patrium faltufque Lycaei 
, JPan ovium cuftos, tua fi tibi Maenala curae, 
Adil^ 6 Tegeaee favens, oleaeque Minerva 
Inventrix, uncique puer monftrator aratri, 
Et teneram ab radice fcrens, Silvane, cupreflum : 2O 
Dique deaeque omnes, ftudium quibus arva tueri, 
Quique novas alitis non ullo femine frugcs : 
Quique fatis largunpi coclo demitcitis imbrem. 
Tuque adeo, quern mox quae fint habitura deorum 
Concilia incertum eft; urbifne invifere, Caefar, 25 

Tcrrartinique velis curam, et te maximus orbis 
Audtprem frugum, tempeftatumque potentcm 

' Accipiat, cingens matcrna tempora myrto j 
An deus immenfi venias maris, ac tua nautae 
Numina fola colant : tibi ferviat ultima Thule, 30 

Teque fibi generum Tethys emat omnibus undis i 

'Anne novum tardis iidus te menfibus addas^ 

18. SttOfW'fwbite hei/ers^ fceJs,'] Ariftaeus is here invoked, 
who taught the arts of cardiing milk and cultivating olive 
Vees. 7'"ptolemus the fon of Celeus was the inventor of th^ 
l^loaghi In a contention between Neptune and Minerva 
about naming Athens, Neptune ilruck the earth with his tri- 
dent, and produced a horfc, and Pallas an olive tree. 

19, Lycaeus^ grove. 1 Lycaeus and Maenalus were two moun- 
tains in Arcadia, facred to Pan. 

25. Sy/vaaus.] Medals reprefent Sylvanus bearing a young 
cvprefs tree torn up by the roots. Neither Mr. Dryden nor 
Mr. Benfon feem apprehenfive of this allufion, which is very 

31. JttJ thou.] The poet here begins a fine addrefs to Aii- 
^uftus, afking him whether he would chufe to be the eod of 
earth, fca, or heaven. Catrou ingenidufly imagines this ad- 
drefs was added by Virgil the year before his death, when fe- 
veral other pafTages were likewife infertcd; for he fays Auguf- 
tus WSL& not thus highly honoured till after his return from xha 
conqueft of Egypt. 

46. ScorpiusJ] Libra, or the Balance, was originally re- 
prcfentcd as held dp by ScorpiUs, who extended his claws for 


Book I. The Georgics of Virgil. 193 

Come thou, whofe herd, in Caea*s fertil meads. 

Of twice an hundred fnow-white heifers, feeds : 

Guardian of flocks, O leave Lycaeus' grove. 

If Maenalus may ftill retain thy love, 2d 

Tegaean Pan ; and bring with thee the maid 

Who firft at Athens rais'd the olive's fliade. 

Propitious Pallas i nor be abfent thou. 

Fair youth, inventor of the crooked plough ; 

Nor thou, Sylvanus, in whofe hands is borne 25 

A tender cyprcfs by the roots up-torn : 

Come, all ye gods and goddcffes, who hear 

The fuppliant fwains, and blefs with fruits the year;' 

Ye, who the wild fpontaneous feeds fuftain. 

Or fwell with (bowers the cultivated grain. 3Q 

And thou, thou chief, whofe feat among the gods 

Is yet unchofen in the blcft abodes. 

Wilt thou, great Caefar, o'er the earth prefide, 

Proteft her cities, and her empires guide. 

While the vaft globe fhall feel thy genial pow'r, 35 

Thee as the god of foodful fruits adore, 

Sovereign of feafons, of the ftorms and wind. 

And with thy mother's boughs thy temples bind ? 

Or over boundlefs ocean wilt thou reign, . 

Smooth the wild billows of the roaring main, 40 

While utmoft Thule (hall thy nod obey, 

To thee in (hipwrecks (hivcring failors pray. 

While Tethys, if fome wat'ry nymph could pleafe. 

Would give in dow'ry all her thoufand fcas ? 

Or wilt thou mount a fplcndid fign on high, 45 

Betwixt the Maid and Scorpius deck the (ky j 

that purpofe out of his own proper dominions ; and that^ un- 
der Auguftus, or a licclc after his deaths they made Scorpius 
contraft his claws, and introduced a new pcrfonagc (moft 
probably Auguftus himfelf ) to hold the Balance. On the 
Farnefe globe it is held by Scorpius ; (which, by the way, 
may perhaps (hew that work to have been previous to the Au*' 
guHan age :) in feveral of the gems and medals on which we 
\'0L, I:- o havo 

194 P- ViRCiLii Maronis Georcica# Lib. !• 

Qua locus Engonen inter Chelafquc fequcntis 

Panditur. ipfe tibi jam brachia contrahit ardens 

Scorpios, et cocli jufta plus parte reliquit. 35 

Quicquid eris j (nam te nee fperent Tartara regem, 

Nee tibi regnandi veniat tarn dira eupido : 

Quamvis Elyfios miretur Graecia eampos. 

Nee repetita fequi curet Proferpina matrem) 

Da facilem eurfum, atquc audaeibus adnue eoeptis^ 40 

Ignarofque viae meeum miferatus agreftis 

Ingredere, et votis jam nune adfucfce vocari. 

Vere novo, gelidus canis eum montibus humor 
Liquitur, et zephyro putris fe gleba refolvit ; 
DeprefTo ineipiat jam tum mihi taurus aratro 45 

Ingcmcre, et fuleo adtritus fplendefeere vomer. 
Ilia feges demum votis refpondet avari 
Agricolae, bis quae folem, bis frigora fenfit : 
Illius im'menfae ruperunt horrca meffes. 
Ac prius ignotuin ferro quam fcindimus aequor, 5c 

Vcntos, et varium eoeli praedifeere morem 
Cura fit, ae patrios cultufque habitufque loeorum, 
£t quid quaeque ferat regio, et quid quacque recufet. 

have the figns of the zodiac, it is held by a man. This i» 
{did to be Auguftus. It was a very common thing among the 
Koman poets to compliment their emperors with a place 
amon^: the conftellations ; and perhaps the Roman aftrono- 
iijcrs took the hint of placing Augullus there, and that in 
thievery fituation, from Virgil's compliment of this kind to 
the emperor. To fay the truth, there could fcarce have been 
a place or employment, better chofen for Auguftus. The 
aflronomers oiiginally were at a lofs how to have the Balance 
fui jo.tcd : they were obliged, for this purpofe, to make Scor- 
pius rake up the fpace of two figns in the zodiac; which was 
quiic irrei'ular ; and to be fure they would be ready to lay hold 
of any fair occafion of reducing to his due bounds again. On 
the oihei land, it was quite as proper for Auguftus, as it was 
impn;j'cr for Sccjpius, to hold it : for, befide its being acom- 
pliir; i;t to him tor his juftice, or for his holding the ba- 
lance of the . ftairs of the world , (if the y talked of princes then, 
in the ftyJe we have been fo much ufcd to of late) Libra was 
tht very fign that was faid to prefide over Italy j and fo Auguf- 
2 tus 

fiook 14 Tti£ CfiORGICS OF ViRCIt. X95 

Scorpius e'en now his burning claws confines^ 

And more than a juft fliare of heav'a rcfigns ? 

Whate'er thou choofc ; (for fiire thou wilt not deign, 

With dire ambition fir'd, in hell to reign, 50 

Tho' Greece her fair Elyfian fields admire, 

Whence Proferpine refufes to retire) — 

Look kindly down, my invocations hear I 

Aflift my courfe, and urge my bold career ; 

Pity with me, the fimple ploughman's cares, 55 

Now, now affume the god, and learn to hear our pray'rs. 

In earlieft fpring, when melting fnow diftils 
Adown the mountains' fides, in trickling rills. 
When Zephyr's breeze unbinds the crumbling foil. 
Then let my groaning fteers begin the toil ; 60 

Deep in the furrows prefs the fhining {hare ^ 
Thofe lands at laft repay the peafants' care. 
Which twice the fun, and twice the frofts fuftain. 
And burft his barns furcharg;^d with pond'rous grain* 
But ere we launch the plough in plains unknown, 65 
Be firft the clime, the winds and weather fliewn j 
The temper and the genius of the fields^ 
What each refufes, what in plenty yields j 

tus in holding that, would be fuppofcd to be the guardian 
angel of his country after his deceafe, as he had been fo for- 
mally declared to be the father and protedtor of it in his life- 
time. Upon the whole, 1 do not fee how any thought of this 
kind could have been carried on with more propriety, than thi« 
feems to have been, by the admirers or flatLei;ers of that emperor. 
PoLYMfcTis, Dialogue II. p. 170. 

57. Itt earlieft fpringJl The writers of agriculture, fay3 Dr. 
Martyn, did. not confine themfelvcs to the computation of 
aftrologers ; but dated their (bring from the end of the frofty 
weather. Pqffunt ijjritur ac idikus Januariis, ut principem men/an 
Rcmani anni ch/er*vii, aujpicari culturarum ojjjicia. 


63. Which fwict the fun, and /ov/Vr.] The meaning is, that, 
a field which has lain ilill two years together, inilead of 9ni 
(which laft is the commgn method) wlllbcrix a much greater 
crop. B&NSON. 

O z 

196 p. ViRGXLii Marokis Georgica. Lib. I. 

Hie fegctes, ilHc veniunt felicius uvae : 

Arborei foetus alibi atquc injufla virefcunt 55 

Gramina. nonnc vides, croccos ut Tmolus odores, 

India mittit ebur, molles fua tura Sabaei ? 

At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virofaque Pontus 

Caftorea, Eliadum palmas Epiros equarum ? 

Contintio has leges, aeternaque foedera certis 60 

Inpofuit Natura locis : quo tempore primum 

Deucalion vacuum lapides jadlavit in orbem : 

.Unde homines nati duru.Ti genus, ergo age, terrac 

Pingue folum primis extemplo a menfibus anni 

Fortes invortant tauri, glebafque jacentis 65 

Pulvcrulcnta coquat maturis folibus aeftas. 

At fi non fue: it tclius fecunda ; fub ipfum 

Arclurum tonui fat crit fufpendere fulco : 

Illic, officiant lactis nc frugibus herbae; 

Hie, ftcrilcm exiguus ne deferat humor arenam. 7Q 

Alternis idem tonfas ccffare novalis, ^ 

Et fegncm patiere fitu durefeere campum. 

Aut ibi flava fcrcs rautato f:derc farra, 

Undc prius laetum filiqua quaflante legumcn, 

Aut tenuis foetus viciac, triftifque lupini 75 

Suftulcris fragilis caiamos filvamque fonantcm. 

Urit eniin lini campum fcgcs, urit avenae : 

Urunt Lcthaco pcrfuia papavera fomno. 

74. Ca/or.] 'Tis a vulgar miftake that the tcfticlcs of the 
beaver contain the caftor\ for 'tis taken from feme odoriferous 
glands about the groin of this animal. Viroja in this place docs 
not mean fcijonousy but cjjicacious or poivcrful, 

87. There, left the nvecifs,] Virgil fpeaks of the feafons of 
ploughing ftrong and light ground. The firft, fays he, mufl 
be ploughed early in the fpring, and lie all furamer; and the 
other lightly in autumn : or elfe the ftrong ground will run 
all to weeds, and the light ground will have all its juices cx- 
haufled. Benson. 

92. The lupin JhoQk.'\ The triftii lupinus is not our lupin, but 
that feed which they now in Italy lay afoak fo long in water, 
to get rid of itfi bitternefs, and even fell it fo in their ib-cets. 

ig -. 'Tis 

Book I. Tnfi Georcics of Virgil. ' 197 

Here golden corn, there lufcious grapes aboun 1, 

There grafs fpontaneous, or rich fruits are found ; ^0 

See'ft thou not Tmolus, faffron fwcct difpcnfe ? 

Her ivory, Ind ? Arabia, frankincenfe i 

The naked Chalybes their iron ore ? 

To Caftor Pontus give it's fetid pow'r ? 

While for Olympic games, Epirus breeds, ^5 

To whirl the kindling car, the fwifteft fteeds ? 

Nature, thefe laws, and thefe eternal bands, 

Firft fix'd on certain climes, and various lands. 

What time the ftones, upon th' unpeopled world. 

Whence fprung laborious man, Deucilion hurl'd. 80 

Come on then : yoke, and fweat tRy fturdy fteer. 

In deep, rich foils, when dawns the vernal yearj 

The turf difclos'd, the clinging clods unbound. 

Summer fliall bake and meliorate thy ground : 

But for light, fteril land, it may fuffice, 85 

Gently to turn it in autumnal (kics ; 

There, left the weeds o'er joyful ears prevail. 

Here, left all moifture from the fands exhale. 

The glebe fhall reft, wherjcc laft ypu gathered grain, 

Till the fpent earth recover ftrength again : 90 

For where the trembling pods of pulfe you took. 

Or from its rattling ftalk the lupin fliook. 

Or vetches' feed minute, will golden cori> 

With alter'd grain that happy tilth adorn. 

Parcht are the lands, that oats or flax produce, 95 "^ 

Or poppies, pregnant with Lethean juice ; 

Nor want uncultur'd fallows grace or ufe. 


'Tis but a very in/lpid thing at bed. The /a/elu/ of the Romans 
is our lupin. Holdsworth. 

^^. Parcht are the lands. ^ That fl^x, oats, and poppies, dry 
and impovcrifli the foil, we have the concurrent tcilimony of 
Columella, Paladius, and Pliny. The Romans cultivated 
poppies^ npt our common fqarlet ones, but ouf garden poppy. 



rgS p. ViRGiLii Maronis Georgica. Lib', u 

Sed t^mcn alternis facilis labor : arida tantum 

Nc fa urare fimo pingui pudeat fola ; neve Jo 

EfToetos cinerem inmundum jaftare per agros. 

Sic quoque mutatis requiefcunt foetibus arva, 

Ncc nulhi intere^ eft inaratae gratia terrac. 

9aepe etiam ftcrilis inccndere profuit agros, 

Atque levem ftipulam crepitantibus urcre flammis : 85 

Sive indc occuhas vires, et pabula terrae 

Pinc;uia concipiunt : five iliis omne per igfiem 

JExcoquitur vitium, atque exfudat inutilis humor ; 

Seu pluris calor illc viar, ct caeca relaxat 

Sprranvsnta, nova.^ veniat qua fuccus in hcrbas : 90 

Sou durat magis, et venas adftringit hiantis ; 

Ne tcniics pluviac, rapidive potentia folis 

Acrior, aut Bor^ae penetrabile frigus adurat. 

JVlultum adeo, raftri.s glcbas qui frangit inertis, 

Vimincafqu;: trahit crate^, juvat arva : nequc ilium ^5 

Flava Ceres Uito nequicquam fpeftat Olympo ; 

Et qi.i, prolcifib quae fukitat aequore terga, 

Rurlus in obl.v^uorn vcrfo perrunipit aratro, 

Excrcctque frequc^ns tellur^n, atque impcrat arvis* 

102. To hum thcharn!2 ^lehe.'] Virgil, fays Mr. Benfon (but 
he feenis to be niifukcn) f,-eaks of two difrerent things, of 
burning the ioil itfeif befon the ground is ploughed, and of 
burning the liahblc attc . the corn is taken off from arable land. 
The r;ipif^Hy v^i Jaepe kv:m ftipulam crepitaniihus urere fiammu% 
^xprcflca il;e crav;klin^ ai]d Iwitcncfs of the Hamc. 

103. While the light ftvbhlc] They Hill ufe the method fo 
much recomniendcd by V^irgii (Geo. i. 84 to 93) of burning 
the ftubble, cfpecially in the more barren lields, in moft parts 
of Italy; and iibout Rome in particular, where there is fo 
much bad ;, round. The imoke is very trouble fome when they 
do it; and there had been fo many complaints made of it to Cle^ 
ment XJ. that he had refolved to forbid that pradticc. When* 
the order was laid before that pope, to be fi^jned by him ; a 
cardinal (who happened to be with his holinefs) fpoke math 
of the ufe of it ; fhewed him this pafla>;e in Virgil ; and the 
pop^ on reading it, changed his mind, and rejected the order. 


113. CbldJhmldfcorch.'\ Burning applied to cold is not merely 
a poetical exprcflion j but we find it made ufe of by the philofo- 


Book I. The Georgics of Virgil. 199 

But blufli not fattening dung to caft around. 

Or fordid aflies o'er th' exhaufted ground. 

Thus reft, or change of grain, improves the field, loo 

Thus riches may arife from lands untill'd. 

Gainful to burn the bqjren glebe 'tis found. 
While the light ftubble, crackling, flames around : 
Whence, or to earth new ftores of ftrength are lent, 
And large fupplies of richer nutriment j 105 

Or oozing off, and purify'd by fire. 
The latent, noxious particles tranfpire ; 
Or thro' the pores rcJax'd, the tender blade 
Frefli fruftifying juices feels convey'd ; 
Or genial heat the hollow glebe conftrains, IIO 

Braces each nerve, and binds the gaping veins ; 
Left flender fliowers, or the fierce beams of day. 
Or Boreas' baleful cold fliould fcorch the crops away. 

Much too he helps his labour'd lands, who breaks 
The crumbling clods, with harrows, drags, and rakes ; 1 15 
Who ploughs acrofs, and back, with ceafelefs toil. 
Subdues to duft, and triumphs o'er the foil : 
Plenty to him, induftrious fwain ! is giv'n. 
And Ceres fmiles upon his W9rks from heav'n, 

phers. Ariflotle fays^ that cold is accidentally an aflive body, 
and is fometimes faid to burn and warm, not in the fame man* 
ner as heat, but becaufe it condenfes or conibains the. heat by 
furrounding it. Martyn. 

116. fP^bo ploughs acrofs.'] What the poet fpeaks of here re- 
tains the Roman name to this day, in many parts of England ; 
and is. called, fowing upon the back ; that is, fowing IH^ 

f round after once ploughing. Now, fays Virgil, he that 
raws a harrow or hurdle over his ground before he fows it, 
mtiltum jwvat awa^ for this fills up the chinks, which other- 
wife would bury the corn ; but then^ fays he, *' Ceres always 
looks kindly on him, who ploughs his ground acrofs again." 

119. And Ceris.} Virgil, fays Spence, in his Georgics gives 
us an idea of Ceres as regarding the laborious hulDanamaa 
from heaven, and blefline the work of his hand with fuccefs. 
There is a picture like this in the famous old manufcript of 
Virgil in the Vatican ; and Lucretius has a ftrong defcription 

O 4 of 

aoo P. ViRCiLii Ma^okis Georgica. Lib. i. 

Humida folftitla^tque hiemes orate ferenas, )00 

Agricolae : hibcrno laetifSma pulvere farra, 

Laetus ager. nullo tantum fe Myfia cuitu 

JaSat, ct ipfa fuas mirantur Gargara meflis. 

Quid dicam, jafto qui femine comminus arva 

Infequitur cumulofque ruit male pinguis arenae ? 105 

Dcinde fatis fluvium inducit, rivofque fequentis ? 

Et, cum exuftus ager morientibus aeftuat herbis, 

Eccc fupercilio clivofi tramitis undam 

Elicit, ilia cadens raucum per levia murmur 

Saxa cict, fcatebrifque arentia tempcrat arva. no 

Quid, qui, ne gravidis procumbat culmus ariftis, 

Luxuriem fegetum tenera depafcit in herba ; 

Cum primum fulcos aequant fata ? quique paludis 

Conleflura humorcm bibula deducit arena ? 

Praefertim inccrtis fi menfibus amnis abundans 115 

Exit, ct obdufto late tenet omnia limo ; 

Unde cavae tepido fudant humore lacunae. 

Nee tamen (hacc cum finthominumque boumque labores 

Verfando terram expert!) nihil inprobus anfcr, 

Strymoniacque grucs, et amaris intuba fibris, 120 

Officiunt, aut umbra nocet. pater Ipfe colendi 

of another deity, exadly in the fame attitude, though with a 
yery different regard. Polymetis, page 103. 

TJiis image ot Ceres puts t)ne in mind of that beautiful one 
in the i^idlms-^ Righteou/ne/s (a pcrfon) Laib looked doiun from 
heaven, Pf. Ixvlii. vcr. 2. 

121. So!fice.'\ Solllice, when ufcd alone, is always ufed for 
the fumnicr folltice by the ancients. IIoLDbwoRTH. 

125. yind Gargarus,"] This is one of thofc figures that raife 
the llyle of the (Jcorgic*:, and make it fo majellic. 

133. Rills,'] Wheu the Perfians were malters of Afia, they 
permitted thole who conveyed a fpring to any place, which had 
not been watered before, to enjoy the benefit for five genera- 
tions ; and as a number of rivulets flowed from mount Taurus, 
they ipared no expence in direding the courfe of their ftreams. 
At this day, without knowing how they came thither, they arc 
ouad in the fields and gardens. 

Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws, Vol. i. p. 325. 

)39. Feeds do^ufi.] It is a comrooo pr^iftice among the far- 


Book I. The Georgics of Virgil. 2or 

Ye hu(bandmen ! of righteous Heav*n intreat 120 
A winter calm and dry ; a folftice wet 5 
For winter^duft delights the pregnant plain. 
The happieft covering for the bury*d grain ; 
Hence ipatchlefs harvcfts Myfia boafting reaps. 
And Gargarus admires his uncxpefted heaps. 125 

Why ihould I tell of him, who, on his land 
Frefh-fown, deftroys each ridge of barren fand ; 
Then inftant, o'er the levell'd furrows brings 
Refrefhful waters from the cooling fprings ; 
Behold, when burning funs, or Syrius' beams 130 

Strike fiercely on the fields, and withering ftcms ; 
Down from the fummit of the neighb'ring hilli. 
O'er the fmooth ftones he calls the bubbling rills; 
Soon as he clears, whate'er their paflage ftay'd. 
And marks their future current with his fpade, 135 

Before him fcattering they prevent his pains, 
Burft all abroad, and drench the thirfty plains. 
Or who, left the weak ftalks be over-weigh 'd. 
Feeds down, betimes, the rank luxuriant blade. 
When firft it rifes to the furrows' head. 140 

Or why of him, who drains the marfliy fands, 
ColleSs the moifture from th' abforbing fands. 
When burfting from his banks, th' indignant flood 
The country covers wide, with flimy mud. 
In doubtful months, when fwelling dykes refound 145 
With torrents loud, and fwcat and boil around. 
Yet after all thefe toils of fwains and fteers. 
Still rifing ills impend, and countlefs cares j 
The glutton goofe, the Thracian cranes annoy. 
Succory and noxious fhade thy crops deftroy. 150 

mers at prefcnt, when the corn is too rank and laxnriant, to 
turn in their fheep and feed it down. 

149. Goo/e.] Virgil fpeaks of the gecfe as a very troublc- 
fome bird, and very pernicious to the com. They are ftill fo 
in flocks, in the Campania Felice^ the country which Virgil 
had chiefly in his eye when he wrote his Georgics. 



aoa ^ P. Vinoiui Maronis Georgica. Lib* u 

Haud facilem efib viam voluit, primufque per artem 

Movit agros, curis acuens mortalia corda, 

Nee torpcrc gravi p^us fua regna vetcrno. 

Ante Jovem nulli fubigcbant arva coloni : 125 

Nee fignare quidem aut partiri limite eampum 

Fas erat. in medium quaerebant : ipfaquc tellus 

Omnia llberius nuUo pofcente ferebat. 

Illc malum virus ferpentibus addidit atris, 

Pracdarique lupos juffit, pontumquc moveri : 130 

Mellaque decuffit foliis, ignemque removit> 

]^t pafiim rivis currentia vina rcpreifit : 

Ut varias ufus meditando extundcrct artis 

PauUatim, et fulcis frumenti quaercret hcrbam ; 

Ut filicis venis abftrufum excaderet igncm. 135 

Tunc alnos primum fluvii feiifere eavatas : 

Navita turn ftellis numeros et nomiha fecit, 

Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Ar£i:on. 

Turn laqueis captare feras, et fallere vifco, 

Invcntum ; et magnos canibtis circumdarc faltus. 140 

Atque alius latum funda jam verberat amnem, 

Alta petens : pelagoque alius trahit humida lina. 

Turn ferri rigor, atque argutae lamina ferrae : 

(Nam primi cuneis fcindebant fiffilc lignum) 

Tum variae venere artes. labor omnia vicit 145 

Inprobus, ac duris urguens in rebus egeftas. 

Prima Ceres ferro mortalis vertere terram 

Inftituit : cum jam glandes atque arbuta facrac 

Deficercnt filvae, et viSum Dodona ncgaret. 

Mox et frumentis labor additus : ut mala culmos 150 

Efl'ct robigo, fegnifque horrcret in arvis 

153. TH/h cares he roused.'] This account of the providential 
ufefulne/s of fomc feexning evils, is not only beautifully poe- 
tical, but ftriftly philofophical. Want is the origin of arts : 
Infirmities and weaknefTes are the caufe and cement of human 
<pcicty. If man were perfcft and felf-fufficicnt, all the efforts 
of ind ud ry would be ufelefs. A dead calm would reign over 
all the fpccies. 

« Wants, 

Bo<4^ !• The Gsoacxcs of Virgil* 203 

Th' eternal fire, immutably decreed. 

That tillage fhould with toil alone fucceed ; 

With cares he rous'd, and (harpenM human hearts, 

Bright'ning the ruft of indolence by arts. 

£re Jove had reign'd, no fwains fubdu'd the gjround, 155 

Unknown was property, unjuft the mound ; 

At will they rov'd ; and earth fpontaneous bore, 

Unafk'd, and uncompell'd, a bounteous ftore : 

He, to fierce ferpents deathful venom gave. 

Bade wolves deftroy, bade ftormy ocean rave ; 160 

Conceal'd the fire, from leaves their honey (hook j 

And ftopp'd of purple wine each flowing brook : 

That ftudious want might ufeful arts contrive ; 

From planted furrows foodful corn derive ; 

And ftrike from veins of flints the fecret fpark : ^65 

Then firft the rivers felt the hollow'd bark 5 

Sailors firft nam'd and counted every ftar. 

The Pleiads, Hyads, and the northern car. 

Now fnares for beafts and birds fell hunters place. 

And wide furround with dogs the echoing chace : 170 

One, for the finny prey broad rivers beats. 

One, from the fea drags flow his loaded nets. 

Erft did the woods the force of wedges feel. 

Now faws were tooth'd, and temper'd was the fteel 5 

Then all thofe arts that poli(h life fucceed ; 175 

What cannot ceafelefs toil, and prefling need ! 

Great Ceres firft the plough to mortals brought. 
To yoke the fteer, to turn the furrow taught ; 
What time, nor maft, nor fruits the groves fupply'd. 
And fam'd Dodona fuftenancc deny'd : . 180 

Tillage grew toilfome, the choak'd harvefts dy'd j 

• Wants, frailties, paflions, defer ftfll ally 

* The common int'rcft, and, endear the tye;* 

hys the great moral poet in his EJ/hy on Man. And this doc« 
uine is ftrongly illuftrated throughout the whole fyftem. 


404 P. ViRGiLii Marokis Grorgica. Lib. r. 

Carduus. intercunt fegctes : fubit afpera filva 
Lappaeque tribuliquc ; interque nitentia culta 
Infclix lolium et fteriles dominantur avenae. 
Quod nifi ct adfiduis herbam infeiElabere raftris, 155 

Et fonitu terrebis avcs^, et ruris opaci 
Falcc premes umbras, votifque vocavcris Imbrem : 
Heu, m^num alterius fruftra fpe£labis acervom ; 
ConcufTaque fan\em in filvis folabere quercu. 
Dicendum, et quae flnt duris agreftibus arma : 160 

Quis fine nee potuere feri, nee furgere meiTes. 
Vomis, et inflexi primum graye robur aratri, 
Tardaquc Eleufinae matris volventia plauftra, 
Tribulaquc, trahcaeque, ct iniquo pondere raftri : 
Virgea praeterea Celei vilifque Aipellex, 165 

Arbutcae crates, et myftica vannus lacchi. 
Omnia quae multa ante memor provifa reponcs ; 
Si tc digna manet divini gloria ruris. 

189. From foreft'Oaks.'] This is another inftancc of Virgtl's 
poetical manner of telling plain things ; inftead of faying^ 
You will have no crop ; You will be forc'd, fays he, to go 
info the wild forefls, as man ufed to do^ befpre he was civilized, 
for food. 

192. Plough,'] I have a drawing of an antique plough, from 
a brafs figure in the Jefuits college at Rome. I don't know the 
cxad time or place in which it was made, but every part of it 
feems to me to have fomething to anfwer it in Virgil's defcription. 
The figure of it is below : and I take all the bending part of 
the wood, or the plough tail (mark'd a J to be what Virgil 
calls hurts ; b the pole or femo j c the two pieces that go over 
the necks of the oxen ; which he calls aures ; d the plough- 
ihare, dent ale ; e the two clouts of iron to fallen the plough- 
ihare, dQrfa\ and ^ the handle of the plough, or ft i'va, 


Book I. The Georcics op Virgil. 105 

Caltrops, wild oats, darnel, and burrs aflfail 
The beauteous tilth, and blights o'er the rich crops pre- 
vail ; 
Unlcfs with harrows' unremitted toil. 
Thou break, fubdue, and pulverize the foil, ,185 

Fright pecking birds, lop overfhadowing bowers, 
And beg of fmiling Heav'n refrelhful fhowers, 
Alas ! thy neighbour's ftores with envy view'd, 
Thou'lt fliake from foreft-oaks thy taftelefs food. 

Next muft we tell, what arms ftout peafants wield, igo 
Without whofe aid, no crops could crown the field : 
The fharpcn'd (hare, and heavy-timber'd plough. 
And Ceres' pond'rous waggon, rolling flow ; 
And Ccleus' harrows, hurdles, fleds to trail 
O'er the prefs'd grain, and Bacchus' flying fail. 195 

Thefe long before provide, you, who incline 
To merit praife by hulbandry divine ! 

I have borrow'd a few lines from Mr. Benfon's tranflation of 
this paflage. 

195. Bacchus* fiying f(ulJ\ The pcrfons who were initiated 
into any of the ancient myilcries, were to be particularly good ; 
they looked upon themfelves as feparated from the vulgar of 
mankind, and dedicated to a life of iingolar virtue and piety. 
This may be the reafon that the fun or van, the myftica 'uom" 
nus laccbiy was ufcd in initi^ations : The inftrumejit that fe- 
parates the wheat from the chatf* being as proper an emblem 
as can well be, of fcttine apart the geod and virtuous from the 
wicked or ufelefs part of mankind. 

In the drawings of the ancient paintings by Bellori, there arc 
tvvo that feem to relate to initiations ; and eaf:h of them has the 
<vannu5 in it. In one of them, the perfon that is initiating, 
flands in a devout pollure^ and with a veil on, the old mark of 
devotion ; while two that were formerly initiated hold the van 
over his head. In the other there is a perfon holding a van, 
with a young infant in it. The latter may iignify much the 
fame wiih the fcripture expreHion, entering into a (late of vir- 
tue ** as a little child." Mark x. 15. The van itfelf puts one 
in mind of another text relating to a particular purity of life, 
and the feparation of the good from the bad, *< Whoie fan is in 
^* his hand, and he fliall thoroughly puree his floor, and will 
*' gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaiF he wiH 
'• bum with unquenchable fire." Luke iii. 17. 

HoLDswoRTM and Spcnce« 

2o6 p. ViRdtii Marokis Geohgica^ Lib. u 

Continue in filvis magna <vi flexa domatur 
In burim, et curvi formam accipit uimus aratri. ijo 
Huic ab ftirpc pedes temo protentus in ofto, 
Binae aurcs, duplici aptantur dentalia dorfo. 
Cacditur et tilia ante jugo levis, altaque fagus^ 
Stivaque, quae currus a tcrgo torqueat imos, 
Et fufpenfa focis explorat robora fumus. 175 

Poflum multa tibi veterum praecepta referrc; 
Ni rcfugis, tenuifque piget cognofcere curas. • 
Area cum primis ingenti aequanda cylindro, 
Et vertenda manu, ct creta folidanda tenaci : 
Ne fubeant herhae, neu pulvcre vifta fatifcat ; 180 

Tum variae inludant pedes, faepe exiguus mus 
Sub terris pofuitque domos atque horrea fecit : 
Aut oculis capti fodere cubllia talpae. 
Inventufque cavis bufo, et quae plurima terrae 
Monftra ferunt : populatque ingentem farris acervom 185 
' Curculio, atque inopi metuens formica fenedlae. 
Contemplator item, cum fe nux plurima filvis 
Induet in florem, et ramos curvabit olentis : 
Si fuperant foetus, pariter frumenta fequcntur, 
Magnaque cum magno veniet tritura calore. 190 

At fi luxurie foliorum exuberat umbra, 
Nequidquam pinguis palea teret area culmos. 
"Semina vidi equidem multos medicare ferentes, 
Et iiitro prius et nigra perfundere amurca, 
Grandior ut foetus filiquis fallacibus efTet. 195 

Et, quamvis igni exiguo properata maderent, 
Vidi le£ta diu, et multo fpe£^ata labore 
Degenerare tamen : ni vis Humana quotannis 

202. Light to.] Magna *vi domatur ulmus-^olta fagus caedi" 
fur-'^urruj torqueat — all cxpreflxons ufed to ennoble the dc- 

fcription. r HoLDSWORTH. 

208. Floor.] Aream effe ofortet^olidd terra pavitam^ maxim} 

\fi ejt argillA, ne aejiu pcuminofa^ in rimis ejus grana delite/cant, et 

ttcipiant aptam, et oJHa aperiant murihus o formicis. Itaqut 

emurcd/okmt perfundere ^ ea enim berbarum eft inimica ^ formic 


Book I. Ths Georgics of ViRcit. 207 

When bent betimes, and tamM the ftubborn bough, • 

Tough elm receives the llgure of the plough ; 

Eight foot the beam, a cumbrous length appears ; 200 

The earth-boards double ; double arc the cars ; 

Light to the yoke the linden feels the wound. 

And the tall beech lies ftretcht along the ground ; 

They fall for ftaves that guide the plough-fliare's courfe. 

And heat and hardening fmoke confirm their force. 26$ 

More ancient precepts could I fing, but fear 

Such homely rules may grate thy nicer car. 

To prefs the chalky floor more clofely down. 

Roll o*er its furface a cylindric ftone ; 

Elfe thro' the loofenM duft, and chinky ground, 210 

The grafs fprings forth, and vermin will abound. 

Oft working low in earth the tiny moufe 

Her garners makes, and builds her fecret houfe; 

Their nefts and chambers fcoop, the eyelefs moles. 

And fwelling toads that haunt the darkfome holes ; .215 

The weafel heaps confumes, or prudent ant 

Provides her copious ftores, 'gainft age or want. 

Mark likewife when in groves the almond blows. 

And bends with luxury of flow'rs his boughs ; 

If fruit abound, the corn alike will thrive, 229 

And toil immenfc the copious threfhing give i 

But if with full exuberance of (hade. 

The cluftcring leaves a barren foliage fpread. 

Then will the chaffy ftalks, fo lean and poor. 

In vain be trampled on the hungry floor. - 225 

Some prudent fowers have I feen indeed 

Steep with preventive care the managed feed. 

In nitre, and black lees of oil ; to make 

The fwelling pods a larger body take : 

But the well-difciplin'd, and chofen grains, 230" 

Tho' quickened o'er flow fires with flcilful pains. 

Starve and cegenerate in the fatteft plains, 

carum, i^ fa If arum 'uenemkm. Thus fays Varro, from whom \ig 
plain Virgu borrowed this precept, as he has done many others. 


2oS P- ViRGiLii MaroKis Georcica. Lib. I» 

Maxuma quaeque manu legeret^ fic omnia fatis 

In pejus ruere, ac retro fublapfa refcrri. aoo 

Non aliter, quam qui adverfo vix flumine lembum 

Remigiis fubigit ; fi brachia forte remiiit, 

Atque ilium in praeccps prono rapit alveus amni. 

Practetca tam funt Ardturi fidcra nobis, 

Haedorumque dies fervandi, et lucidus Anguis ; 205 

Quam quibus in patriam ventofa per aequora ve&is 

Pontus et oftriferi fauces tentantur Abydi. 

Libra die fomnique pares ubi fecerit boras, 

£t medium luci atque umbris jam dividit orbcm : 

Exercete, viri, tauros ; ferite hordea campis, 210 

Ufque fub extremum brumae intra£labilis imbrem. 

Nee non et lini fegetem et Cereale papaver 

Tcmpus humo tegere, et jamdudum incumbere raftris, 

Dum ficca tellure licet, dum nubila pendent. 

240. TJhe tprrent.] It is remarkable in Virgil, that he fre- 
quently joins in the fame fentence the complete and perfedpre-* 
lent with the extended and pafling prefent ; which proves that he 
confidered the two^ as belonging to the fame fpecies of time $ 
and therefore naturally formed to co-incide with each other. 

Si hracbia forte remifit. 

Atque ilium in prdeceps prdno rapit alveus amni. 

Terra tremii, fugere ferae* 

Praefertim fi tempeftas a 'vertice Jyl'vis 
Ittcubuit, glomeratqueferens incendia 'ventus. 

■ Tardis ingens uhiflexibus errat 

Mincius, et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 

Ilia noto citius, *uolucrique fagitta. 

Geor. I. 







Ad terramfugitf et portufe condidit alto. . Aen. 5. 

In the fame manner he joins the fame two modifications of 
time in the pad ; that is to fay, the complete and pcrfedl with 
the extended and pafling. 

— — Irruvrant Danai tf teSum omne tenebant. 

Aen. IL 

yV/J imbris torti radios, tris nubis aquofae 
AddideraMt, rutuli tris ignis, et otitis auftri. 

JBook k» The GfioRcicd of ViRoa. 209 

Unlefs with annual induftrjr and art, 

They cull'd each largcft out, and plac'd apart : 

For fuch the changeful lot of things below, 235 

Still to decay they ru(h, and ever backwards flow. 

As one, who 'gainft a ftream's impetuous courfe, 

•carce pulls his (low boat, urg'd with all his force, 

If once his vigour ceafe, or arms grow flack, 

Inftant, with headlong hafte, the torrent whirls him back. 

We too as much muft mark Ardlurus' figns, 241 

When rife the Kids, when the bright Dragon fliines. 
As home-bound mariners^ in tempefts toft^ 
Near Pontus, or Abydos' oyfter'd coaft. 

When Libra meafures out to day and nighty 2if5 

Equal proportions both of (hade and light 5 . 
Work, work your bullocks, barley fow, ye fwains^ 
'Till winter's firft impraflicable rains. 
Now In their beds, your poppies hide and flax ; 
With frequent harrowings fmooth the furrows* backs^ 
Now while ye may, while the dark welkin low'rs, 251 
O'er the dty glebe while clouds fufpend their fhow'rs* 

Pulgores nunc terrificos fonitumque tnetumqui 
Mijcthant operi^ flammi/que fifuacibus iras* Acn. VIU. 

Harris's Hermes, p. 133. 

248. Winter* s.'\ Bruma was not ufcd by the ancients for the 
whole winter 5 but for one day only of it, the fliorteft day, or 
the winter folftice. Holosworth. 

248. Firft. "[ The word extremus in Latin has two very dif- 
ferent fignifications ; it may relate to the beginning, as well 
as the end of any thing ; or to the neareft part of it, as well aa 
the farthefl offl Thus if one was to fay, in extreme ponte, it 
may mean the bitber extremity or end of the bridge ; and when 
Virgil fays his countrymen ihould work 

U/que fub extremum brumae intraSlabilis imlrem : 

it muft be underftood of the beginning of that rainy feafbn, 
which was itfclf unfit for work ; this took up the latter half of 
December, which was therefore tnrned all into holy-days, or 
the Saturnalia, in which the flaves that were at other timet 
kept hard to work, were indulged in particular liberties, an4 
fpent all the time in mirth and joviality. Hqldsworth. 

Vol. I. P 

no p. VjRoitir KIaronis Georcica. Lib. r* 

Vere fabis fatio. turn te quoqiie, Medica, putres 215 

Accipiunt fulci ; et milio venit annua cura : 

Candidus auratis aperit cum cornibus annum 

Taurus, ct averfo cedens Canis occidit aftro* 

At fi triticeam in meiTem robuftaque farra 

Exercebis humum, folifque inflabis ariitis : 22# 

Ante tibi Eoae Atlantides abfcondantur, 

Cftoiliaque ardcntis decedat ftella Coronae^ 

Debita quam (ulcis conmittas femina, quamque 

Invitae propercs anni fpem credere terrae. 

Multi ante occafum Maiae cocpere : fed illos 225 

Exfpeftata feges vanis elufit avenis. 

Si vero victamque feres vUcmque fafclum^ 

Nee Pelufiacae curam afpernabere lentis ; 

Hnud obfcura cadens mittet tibi figna Bootes. 

Incipe, et ad medias fementem extende pruinas. 23a 

Idcirco certis dimenfum partibus orbem 

Per duodena regit mundi Sol aureus aftra. 

Qjiii'.quc tenent coelum zonae : quarum una corufco 

Scinper fole rubens, ac torrida femper ab igni : • 

Quam circum extremae dextra laevaque trahuntur, 235. 

Caerulea glacic concretae atqiic imbribus atiis.. 

257. His hack'ward-rijtng flar,'\ By averfo ajfro, in the ori- 
ginal, 'tis moll probable Virgil means the Bull', for that conftel- 
iation rifes with his hinder parts upwards. Throughout Ma- 
milius the Bull ia called aftrum averfum. Some read ad^trfum \ 
but that is fcarcc reconcileab'c to the fenfe of this paffagc. 

260. Pleiades.'] 1 he heliacal fetting of thefe ftars Eom 
jitlantidcs is pointed out by the word ahfcondantur, Wherc- 
evcr Virgil fpcaks of the fetting of any ftars in general, and 
without any fuch reftridion, it is always to be underftofjd of 
their natural fetting. Holdsworth. 

272. Fi-ve xones\^ Under the torrid or burning zone lies 
that part of the earth which is contained between the tw« 
tropics. This w2s thought by the ancients to be uninhabit- 
able, becaufe of the exccflivc heat: but later difcoveries have 
iljewn it to be inhabited by many great nations. It contains 
a great part of Afia, Africa, and South America. Under the 
two frigid or cold zones lie thofe parts of the earth, which 
5 are 

y^rf 271 

Bottk I. The Georgics of Virgil. aix 


Sow beans in fpring : in fpring, the crumbling foil 
Receives thee^ lucern ! Media's flowery fpoil j 
But ftill to millet give we annual care, 255 

. When the Bull opes with golden horns the year. 
And the Dog fets^ to ihun his backward-rifing ftar. 
But if for wheat alone, for ftronger grain, 
And bearded corn, thou excrcife the plain, 
Firft let the morning Pleiades go down, a6o 

From the fun's rays emerge the Gnoffian crown, 
Ere to th' unwilling earth thou truft the feed. 
And marr thy future hopes with ill-judg'd fpeed. 
Some have begun, ere Maia funk ; but them 
Their full-ear'd hope mock'd with a flattering ftem. 165 

If the mean vetch, or tare, thou deign to fow. 
Nor fcorn to bid Acgyptian lentils grow. 
Signs, not obfcure, Bootes, fctting yields. 
Begin, and fow, thro' half the frofts, thy fields^ 

For this the golden fun, in his career, 270 

Rules thro' the world's twelve figns the quartered year^ 
Five zones infold heav'n's radiant concave : one, 
Plac'd full beneath the burnings of the fun. 
For ever feels his culminating rays. 
And gafps for ever in the fcorching blaze ; 275 

On each fide which, two more their circles mark, 
Clog'd with thick ice, with gloomy tempefts dark ; 

are included within the two polar circles, which are fo cold« 
being at a ^at diflance from the fun, as to be fcarce habita- 
ble. Within the artic circle, near the north pole, are con- 
tained Nova Zembla, Lapland, Greenland, &c. within tho 
antartic circle, near the fouth- pole, no land as yet has been 
difcovcred ; tho' the great quantities of ice found there make 
it probable, that there is more land near the fouth than the 
north pole. Under the two temperate SEones are contained 
thofe pans of the globe which lie between the tropics and 
polar circles. The temperate- zone, between the attic circle 
and the tropic of Cancer, contains ih? greateft part of Europe 
and Aiia, part of Africa^ and almoft all North America. That 
between the antartic circle and the tiopic of Capricorn, con- 
tains part of South America, or the Antipodes* 

P 2 

ai2 P. ViRGiLii Maronijj Georgica. Lib* I. 

Has inter mediamque duae mortal ibus aegris 

Munere conceiTae divom* via k61tz per ambas^ 

Obliquus qua fe fignorum vcrteret ordo. 

Mundus ut ad Scytbiam Riphaeafque ardizus arcis 24# 

ConAirgit; premitur Lityae devexus in aiiftros. 

Hie vertex nobis femper fublimis : at ilium 

Sub pedibus Styx atra vidct, Mancfqoe profundi : 

Maxumus hie flexu finuoib elabhur anguis 

Circum, perquc duas in morein fluminis Ardtos, 245 

Ar(5los Oceani metuentis ae^uore tingui. 

lUie, ut perbibent^ aut intempcfta. filet nox 

Semper, et obtenta denfentiu no^ tenebrae : 

Aut redit a nobis Aurora, diemque rtducit : 

Nofquc ubi primus equis Oriens adflavit anhelis, 250 

Illie fera rubens accendit lumina Vefper* 

Hine tempeftatcs dubio praediteere eaela 

PoITumus, hinc meffifque diem^ tempufque (erendi ; 

Et quando infidum remb inpelkre marmor 

Convcniat : quando armatas dedueere claifis, 255 

Aut tcmpcfiivam filvis evertere pinum* 

Nee fruftra fignorum obitus fpeeulamur et ortus>, 

Temporibufque parem diverfis quatuor annum.. 

Frigidus agricolam fi quando continct imbcr^ 

Multa, forent quae mox eaelo properanda fercno, 26^* 

781. Roll the JSgns.'] Here the poet defcribcs the zodiac, 
which is a broad belt fpreading about five or fix degrees oi> 
each fide of the ecliptig line, and contains the twelve conftel- 
iation$ or figns. They are Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, 
Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, S;:gitcarius, Capricornus, Aqua- 
rius, Pifces. The ecliptic line cuti the eqainodial obliquely in 
two oppofite points, whence the poet calls the zodiac oblifutn 
fignorum ordo, , It travcrfcs the whole torrid zone, but neither of 
the temperate zones ; To that per antbasi maft mean bnwitn, 
not tbro^ them. Thus prefently after, Speaking of the Dragon^ 
he fays it twines, ftr duas arSloi : now that conilellation cannot 
be faid to twine thro' the two Bears, but between them. The 
zodiac is the annual path of the fun, thro' each fign of which 
he pafics in and about the fpace of a month. He is faid to be 
in one of thofe figns, when he appears in that part of the 
heavens, where thofe ilars are of which the fign is comjipfed. 


Book I. Thb Georcics ot Virgil* 213 

Betwixt the firft and thcfe, indulgent Heav'n 
Two milder zones to feeble man hath giv'n ; 
Acrofs them both a path oblique inclines, 280 

Where in refulgent order roll the figns. 
Bleak Scythia's fnows, Riphaea's tow'ring ciijfts. 
High as this elevated globe uplifts. 
So low to fouthern Libya it defcends. 
And with an equal inclination bends. ' 28$ 

One pole for ever o*er our heads is roll*d. 
One, darkfome Styx and hell's pale ghofts behold 
Beneath their feet: here, the vaft Dragon twines 
Between the Bears, and like a river winds ; 
The Bears that ftill with fearful caution keep ^Tqo 

Unting'd beneath the furfacc of the deep. 
There, in dead filence, Itill night loves to reft. 
Night without end, with thickeft gloom oppreft j 
Or from our hcmifphere, the morning ray 
Returns alternate, and reftores the day ; 295 

And when to us the orient car fucceeds. 
And o'er our climes have breath'd its pasting ftecds, 
• There ruddy Vefper, kindling up the (ky, 
Cafts o'er the glowing realms his evening eye. 
Hence, changeful Heav'n's rough ftormsvve may foreknow. 
The days to reap, the happieft times to fow j 301 

When witli fafe oars it may be fit to fwcep 
The glafly furface of the faithlefs deep j 
When to the waves the well-arm 'd fleet refign. 
And when in forefts fell the timely pine, 30^ 

Nor yai^ to mark the varying figns oyr care, 
Nor the four feafons of th' adjufted year ; 
Whene'er the hind a fleety flio\^r'r detains. 
Full many a work that foon muft coft him pains • 

290. Tin BiMrs.] Mr. Benfon thinks this line in the orient} 
fpi^rioos^ and omits it as fuch^ 


ai4, V. ViRGiLii Maronis Georgica. tib. i. 

Maturare datur. durum procudit arator 

Vomer is obtufi dentem: cavat arbore lintrcs : , 

Aut pecori Agnum, aut numenos inpreflit acervis. 

Exacuunt alii vallos, furcafque bicornis, 

Atque Amerina parant lentae retinacula viti. 265 

Nunc facilis Rubia texatur fifcina virga: 

Nunc torretc igni fruges, nunc frangite faxo. 

Quippe etiamrfeftis quaedam cxcrcere dicbus 

Fas ct jura flaunt : rivos diducere nulla 

Rclligio vetuit, fegcti praetendcre fepem, 270 

Infldias ayibus moliri, incenderc vepres, 

Balantumque gregem fluvio merfare falubri, 

Saepe olco tardi codas agitatoc afelli, 

Vilibus aut onerat pomis ; lapidemquc revertens 

Incufum, aut atrae mafTam picis urbe reportat. 275 

Ipfa dies alios alio dedit ordine Luna 

Felices operum. quintam fuge : pallidus Orcus, 

Eumenidefque fatiae, tum partu terra nefando 

Coeumque lapetumque creat, faevomque Typhoca, 

Et conjuratos caelum refcindere fratres. 280 

Ter funt conati inponere Pelio Offam 

Scilicet, atque OiTae frondofum involvere Olympum : 

313. Mark,] How came the Romans not to find out the art 
of pnnting many ages ago? The Caefars impreffed their whole 
names on grants and letters, and this practice was fo common a 
one, that even (hepherds imprefTe'd their names on their cattle. 

'Fi*ui quoque fonder a tnelU 

Argenti coquito, Untumque bitumen abeno, 
Imfffjfurus o*vi tua nomina ; banc tihi tites 
Aufert ingcntei ic3ui prcftjfor in arvo, 

Ccilpnurnius, £cl. 3. 85. Spence. 

The fame obfervation is made by Toland^ in his Letters oa 
the Druidi. 

337- Offa on PelionJ] 

Ter /unt conati imponere Pelio OJfam, 

To reprefent the giants piling up the mountains on eack 


B«ok !• The Georgics of Virgil. 215 

To hurry forward, when the Iky is fair, 31-0 

He may with prudent forefight now prepare ; 

Now to a point the blunted fhare may beat ; 

Scoop troughs from trees, mark flocks, or facks of wheat ; 

Long fpars and forks may Iharpen ; or fupply 

Amerian twigs the creeping vine to tie ; 315 

With Rubean rods now baikets may be wove, [ftove. , 

Now grain be ground with ftoncs, now pa^qji'd upon the 

Nor do the laws of m,an, or Gods above^ 

On facrcd days foipc labours difapprove j 

No folemn rite fliould ^'er forbid the fwain, 320 

The mead with fudden ftreams o'erflow'd, to drain : 

To raife ftroijg fences for the fpringing corn. 

To lay the fnare for birds, to burn the thorn ; 

Nor to forbear to wafh the bleating flock. 

And foundly plunge them in the healthy brooks 325 

Oft' the flow afs^s iides the driver loads. 

With oil, or apples, or domeftic goods^ 

And for the mill brings an indented ftone. 

Or with black lumps of pitch returns from town. 

For various works behojd the ipopn declare 330 

Some days more fortunate — ;the fifth beware ! 

Pale Orcus and the Furies then fprupg forth, 

lapetus and Cocus, having ^arth 

Produc'd, a foul abominable birth ! 

And fierce Typhoeus, Jove who dar'd defy, 335 

Leagu'd in conjundion dire to ftorm the (ky I 

Ofla on Pel ion, thrice t' uplift they ftrovc, 

.And high o'er nodding Ofla roll above 

The line too labours^ and the words move flow. 


The verfe cannot be* read without making paufes ; fo ju- 
dldoufly are the hiatus's contrived. Hciiod has nobly dcfcrihe4 
this battle of the giants in his Theogony. Sec Milton's battle 
•f the angels. Book 6, and compare it with Hcfiod, 

f 4 


ai6 P. ViRCiLii Maronis Georgica. Lib. r. 

Tcr pater cxftruftos disjecit fulmine montis. 

Scptuma poft decumam felix et ponerc vitem, 

Et prenfos domitare boves, ct licia telae 285 

Addere. nona fugae melior, contraria furtis. 

Multa adeo melius gellda fe no<Ele dedere, 

Aut cum fole novo terras inrorat Eous. 

Nofte leves melius ftipulae, node arida prata 

Tondcntur : no£lis lentus non deficit humor. 29^ 

£t quidam feros hiberni ad luminis ignes 

Pcrvigilat, ferroque faces infpicat acuto. 

Interea longum cantu folata laborcm 

Arguto conjunx percurrit peftine telas : 

Aut dulcis mufti Volcano decoquit humorcm, 295 

£t foliis undam tepidi defpumat aheni. 

At rubicunda Ceres medio fucciditur aeftu, 

Et medio toftas aeftu tcrit area fruges. 

Nudus ara, fere nudus. hiems ignava colono. 

Frigoribus parto agricolae plerumque fruuntur, 30O 

Mutuaque inter fe lacti convivia curant. 

Invitat genialis hiems, curafque refolvit : 

Ceu prcflac cum jam portum tctigere carinac, 

Puppibus ct laeti nautae inpofuere coronas. 

Sed tamen et quernas glandcs tum ftringcre tempus, 305 

Et lauri baccas, oleamque, cruentaque myrta. 

Tum gruibus pedicas et retia ponere cervis, 

Auritofque fequi Icpores : tum figcre damas, 

Stuppea torquentem Balearis verbera fundae^ 

357. Ctfnr.] The Roman jf did not threflj or iuinno<w their 
corn i in the heat of the day, as foon as it was reaped, they 
laid it on a £odr made on purpofe, in the middle of the field, 
and then they drove horfes or mules round about it, till they 
trod all the grain out. Benson. 

This was the common pra^ice too all over the ealt ; and 
that humane text of fcripture, " Thou (hall not muzzle the 
" ox that treadeth out the corn," is a plain alluiion to it. 

B^k I. Thi Geoecics of Vircii. ' 217 

Olympus fhaggM with woods ; th* almighty fire 

Thrice dafli'd the mountains down with forky fire, 340 

Next to the tenth, the fevcnth to luck inclines^ 

For taming oxen, and for planting vines ; 

Then heft her woof the prudent houfewife weaves ; 

Better for flight the ninth, adverfe to thieves. 

Ev'n in cold night fome proper talks purfue, 345 

Or when gay morn impearls the field with dew ; 
At night dry ftubble, and parcht meadows mow. 
At night, fat moifture never fails to flow ; 
One, by the glowing ember's livid light, 
Watches and works the livelong winter's night, 350 

FoVms fpiky torches with his fharpenM knife; 
Mean while with equal induftry his wife. 
Beguiling time fings in the glimmering room. 
To chear the labours of the rattling loom ; 
Or on the lufcious muft while bubbles rife, 355 

With leaves the trembling cauldron purifies* 
But cut the golden corn in mid-day's heat. 
And the parcht grain at noon's high ardor beat. 
Plough naked ; naked fow i the bufy hind 
No reft but in bleak wintry hours can find ; g6^ 

In that drear feafon, fwains their ftores enjoy. 
Mirth all their thought^ and fcafting their employ ; 
The genial time to nlutual joy excites. 
And drowns their cares in innocent delights. 
As when a freighted fhip has touched the port, 365 

The jovial crews upon their decks refort. 
With fragrant garlands all their fterns are crown'd. 
And jocund ftrains from fhip to Ihip refound. 
Yet then from leaflefs oaks their acorns ftrip. 
From bays and myrtles bloody berries flip, 370 

For noxious cranes then plant the guileful fnare. 
O'er tainted ground purfue the liftening have ; 
Pitch toyls for ftags, and whirling round the ftringy 
Smite the fat doe with Balearic fling. 

mS p. VxRGiLii Marokis Georgica. Lib. r. 

Cum nix alta jacet, glaciem cum flumina trudunt. 310 

Quid tempeftates autumni et fidera dicam ? 

Atque ubi jam breviorque dies, et mollior aeftas. 

Quae vigilanda viris i vel cum ruit imbriferum ver ; 

Spicea jam campis cum mcflis inhorruit, et cum . 

Frurtienta in viridi ftipula laflentia turguent ? 315' 

Saepe ego, cum flavis mefTorem inducerct arvis 

Agricola, et fragili jam ftringcret hordea culmo^ 

Omnia ventorum concurrerc proelia vidi : 

Quae gravidam late fegctem ab radicibus imis 

Sublime expulfum eruercnt : ita turbine nigro 320 

Ferret hiems culmumque levem ftipulafque volantis* 

Saepe ctiam inmenfum caelo venit agmen aquarum, 

Et foedam glomerant tempcftatcm imbribus atris 

Conle<5lae ex alto nubes. ruit arduus aether, 

£t pluvia ingenti fata laeta boumque labores 325 

Diluit. inplentur fofTae, et cava flumina crefcunt . 

Cum fonitu, fervetque fretis fpirantibus aequor. 

Ipfe pater, media nimborum in nofte, corufca 

Fulmina molitur dextra. quo maxuma motu 

Terra tremit : fugere ferae ; et mortalia corda 330 

Pfr ecntes humilis ftrayit pavor, illc flagranti 

395. Great Jo*vi himfelf fa^ilion^ d,'\ This dcfcription is very 
fablime. While the winds arc roaring, the rains dcfccnding, 
the rivers overflowing, he nobly introduces Jupiter himfelf fuF- 
rounded with a thick cloud, and from thence darting his thun- 
derbolts, and fpHtting the lofcieit mountains, all the earth 
trembling and aflgnimed with fear and dread. I follow Mr. 
Benfon and Mafvicius, in reading //a/r^// (in (lead oi tlangunt) 
becaufe it adds a poetical and bold image of Jupiter's linking 
the woods and fliores. This dcfcription, fine as it is, is ex- 
celled by the flprm in the igth pfalm. God is defcribed flying 

upon the wings of the wind *' He made darknefs his fecrec 

place, his pavilion round about him, with dark water and thick 

clouds to cover him. The fpring? of waters were fcen, and 

the foundations of the round world were difcovered at thy 
chiding, O Lord." See the whole, too long to be tranfcribcd^ 
but inimitably great and fublime. 

Cedite Romani/crif tores ^ cedite Graii ! 


Book I. The Georgics of Virgil. 219 

While on the ground the fnow deep-crufted lies, 375 
And the clog'd floods pufh down thick flakes of ice. 

Why fhould I fmg autumnal ftars and flcies ; 
What ftorms in that uncertain feafon rife ? 
How careful fwains fhould watch in (horter days. 
When foften'd fummer feels abated rays : 380 

Or what, in Ihowery fpring, the farmer fears. 
When fwell with milky corn the briftling ears. 
Wtjen hinds began to reap, and bind the field. 
All the wild war of winds have I beheld 
Rife with united rage at once, and tear 385 

And whirl th' uprooted harveft into air. 
With the fame force, as by a driving blaft 
I^ight chafF or ftubble o'er the plains are caft- 
Oft in one deluge of impetuous rain. 
All heav'n's dark concave ruihes down amain, 390 

And fweeps away the crops and labours of the fwain. 
The roaring rivers drown the oxen's toil. 
The toiling feas in furious eddies boil ; 
Great Jove himfelf, whom dreadful darknefs (hrouds, 
Pavilion'd in the thickncfs of the clouds, 395 

With lightning arm'd his red right hand puts foich. 
And (hakes with burning bolts the folid earth . 
'f'he nations ihrink appall'd ; the hearts are fled ; 
All human* hearts are funk, and picrc'd with dread : 

398. The heafis are fledJ] Dr. Trapp juftly obfervcs, that 
fugere being pot in the precer-pcrfedl tcnfe has a wonderful 
force : '* We fee, fays he, the bealls fcudding away, and they 
" are gone, and out of fight in a moment." It is a pity that 
learned gentleman did not prcferve the force of this tcnfe in hii 
tranflation. He has not only ufed the prefent tenfe, but has 
diminiflied the ftrcngth and quickncfs of the expreflion, which 
Virgil has made to confifl only of two words, fugin firoit by 
adding an epithet to beafls, and mentioning tSe place they 
fly to : 

Savage beafts to coverts fly. 

Pryden has been gailty of the fame overfight : 
And flying beafts in forefts feek abode. 


aaa P- Viroilii Maronis Georgica. Lib. i. 

Aut Atho, aut Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia telo 

Dejicit : ingeminant auftri, et denfiffimus imbcr : 

Nunc nemora ingenti vento, nunc litora plangit. 

Hoc metucns, cacli menfis, et fidera ferva, 335 

Frigida Saturni fcfe quo ftella receptet, 

Quos ignis caeli CyUenius errct in orbis. 

In primis vcncrare deos, atque annua magnac 

Sacra refer Ccreri laetis operatus in hcrbis, 

Extremae fub cafum hiemis, jam vcrc fereno, 340 

Turn pingucs agni, et turn molliffima vina : 

Turn fomni dulces, denfaeque in montibus umbrae* 

Cun<S^a tibi Cererem pubes agreftis adorct. 

Quoi tu laflc favos, et miti diluc baccho : 

Terque novas circum felix eat hoftia fruges ; 345 

Omnis quam chorus, et focii comitentur ovantes ; 

Et Cererem clamorc vocent in tefta : nequc ante 

Falcem maturis quifquam fupponat ariftis, 

Quam Cereri torta redimitus tempora quercu 

Det motus incompofitos, et carmina dicat. 350 

Atque haec ut certis poifimus difcere fignis, 

Aeftufque, pluviafque, et agentis frigora ventos 5 

Ipfe pater ftatu it, quid menftrua Luna moneret. 

Quo figno caderent Auftri : quid faepe videntes 

Agricolae, propius. ftabulis armcnta tenerent. 355 

Continuo ventis furgrfitibus aut freta ponti 

Incipiunt agitata tumefcere, et aridus altis 

Montibus audiri fragor j aut rcfonantia longe 

The Latin, fays Mr. Ben Ton, is as quick and fuddcn as their 
flight. Tugire ferae, they are all vanilhed in an inilant. But in 
NS. Drydcn s tranflation, one would imagine thefe crcaturei 
were drove out of fomc inclofed country, and were fearching 
for entertainment in the next forcft. Yet Mr. Benfon himfelf 
did DOt obferve the beauty of the tenfe. 

Far ihakes the earth, beads fly, and mortal hearts 
Pale fear dejeds. 
jL\f. And Ceres cail.] This facrifice the Romans called Amh^f^ 
^ia from ambiream)ai for they led the vidim round the fields. 

Bodcx. • The Georgic J or Virgil. 221 

He ftrikcs vaft Rhadopc*s exalted crown, 400 

And hurls huge Athos, and Ceraunia down. 
Thic)c falT^the rains; the wind redoubled roars ; ffliores. 
The God now fmites the woods, and now the founding 
Warn'd by thefe ills, obfcrve the ftarry figns. 
Whither cold Saturn's joylefs orb inclines, 405 

Whither light Hermes' wandering flame is driv*n. 
Firft to the<Tods be all due honours giv'n ; 
To Ceres chief her annual rites be paid, 
On the green turf, beneath a fragrant fhade. 
When winter ends, and fpring ferenely (hines, 41a 

Then fat the lambs, then mellow are the wines. 
Then fweet are flumbcrs on the flowery ground. 
Then with thick (hades are lofty mountains crown'd. 
Let all thy hinds bend low at Ceres' fhrine ; 
Mix honey fweet, for her, with milk and mellow wine ; 
Thrice lead the viftim the new fruits around, 4x6 

And Ceres call, and choral hymns refound : 
Prefume not, fwains, the ripen'd grain to reap, 
Till crown'd with oak in antic dance ye leap. 
Invoking Ceres, and in folemn lays, 420 

Exalt your rural queen's immortal praife. 
^ Great Jove himfelf unerring figns ordains. 
Of chilling winds, and heats, and driving rains ; 
The moon declares when bhifPring Aufter falls. 
When herds (hould be confin'd near fhelt'ring ftalls. 
When winds approach, the vcx'd fea heaves around, 426 
From the bleak mountain comes a hollow found, 

427. Moantattt.] This pats me in mind of a ptflTage in Thom- 
fon's Seafons on the fame fabjeft, the approach of a Jorm : 

Along the woods, along the moorifh kns. 
Sighs the fad genius of the coming florm ; 
And up among the loofe disjointed cliffs. 
And fra^ur'd mounuins wild, the brawling brook 
And cave prefagefnl fend a hollow moan, 
Refoanding long in liftening fancy's ear. 

Thomson's Winter, vcr, 70. 

221 P* VlRGiLii Maronis Oeorgica. Lib. I. 

Litora mifceri, et nemorum increbrefccre murmur. 

Jam fibi turn a curvis male temperat unda carinis, 360 

Cum medio celercs revolant ex aequore mergf, 

Clamoremque ferunt ad litora : cumque marinae 

In ficco ludunt fulicae : notafque paludes 

Deferit, atque altam fupra volat ardea nubem. 

Saepe etiam ftellas, vento inpendente, videbis 365 

Praecipites caelo labi, no^fque per umbram 

Flammarum longos a tergo albefcere tragus : 

Saepe levem paleam et frondes volitare caducas, 

Aut fumma nantis in aqua conludcrc plumas. 

At Boreae de parte trucis cum fulminat, et cum 370 

Eurique Zephyrique tonat domus ; omnia plenis 

Rura natant foi&s, atque omnis navita ponto 

Humlda vela legunt. numquam inprudentibus imber 

Obfuit. aut ilium furgentem vallibus imis 

Aeriae fugere grues : aut bucula caelum 375 

Sufpiciens patulis captavit naribus auras : 

Aut arguta lacus circumvolitavit hirundo: 

£t veterem in limo ranae cecinere querelam. 

Saepius et teSis penetralibus extulit ova 

Auguftum formica terens iter, et bibit ingens 380 

Arcus : et e paftu decedens agmine magno 

Corvorum increpuit denfis exercitus alis. 

Jam varias pelagi volucres, et quae AAa circum 

Dulclbus in ftagnis rimantur prata Cayftri, 

Ccrtatim largos humeris infundere rores j 385 

Nunc caput objeAare fretis, nunc currere in undas, 

Et ftudio incaflum videas geftire lavandi. 

446. TJbg beifir tojpng,^ This prognoflic is taken from 
Aratus ; and I would obferve once for all, that almoft each of 
the figns of weather are borrowed (and indeed beautified) froni 
that ancient writer. The line 

Arguta lacus, circuttnfolita'uit hirundo^ 
with feveral that precede and follow it, are intirely taken with 
very fmall alterations from Varro Atacinus^ as may be feen in 

Book I. The Georgics ot Vincit^ . zij 

The loud blaft whittles o'er the echoing fliore, 

Ruftlc the murmuring woods, the rifing billows roar. 

From the frail bark that ploughs the raging main, 430 

The greedy waves unwillingly refrain. 

When loud the corm'rant fcreams and feeks the land. 

And coots and fea-gulls fport upon the fend ; 

And the tall hern his marfliy haunts forfakcs. 

And tow'rs to heav'n above the 'cuftom'd lakes : 435 

Oft, ftars fall headlong thro' the {hades of night. 

And leave behind white tracks of trembling light. 

In circles play light chafF and wither'd leaves. 

And floating feathers dance upon the wav^s. 

But when keen lightnings flafli from Boreas' pole, 440 
From Eurus' houfe to weft, when pealing thunders roll. 
The country fwims, all delug'd are the dales. 
And every pilot furls his humid fails. 
Sure warnings ftill the ftormy ihowers precede ; 
The confcious cranes forfake the vapoury mead, 445 

The heifer tolling high her head in air. 
With broader noftrils fnuffs the gale afar ; 
Light Ikims the chirping fwallow o'er the flood. 
The frogs croak hoarfely on their beds of mud ; 
Her eggs abroad the prudent pifmire bears, 4^0 

While at her work a narrow road (he Wears. 
Deep drinks the bow ; on ruftling pinions loud, [crowd. 
The crows, a numerous hoft! from pafture homeward 
Lo ! various iba-fowl, and each bird that breeds 
In Afian lakes, near fweet Cayfter's meads, 455 

O'er their fmooth (boulders ftrive the ftream to fling. 
And wafh in wanton fport each fnowy wing 5 
Now dive, now run upon the wat'ry plain. 
And long to lave their downy plumes in v;iin : 

452. Deep drinks the Sow.] Alludes to the ridiculotts noiion 
of the ancients, that the rainbow fuck'd qp water with its 
horns from lakes and rivers. 

1U4 P* Vtncitn Marokis Georgica. Lib. i. 

Turn cornix plena pluviam vocat improba voce, 

£t fola in ficca fecum fpatiatur arena. 

Ne no&urna quidem carpentes penfa puellae 39a 

Ncfcivcre hiemem : tcfta cum ardcnte viderent 

Scintillare oleum, et putris concrefcere fungos. 

Nee minus eximbris foles et aperta ferena 

Profpicere, et certis poteris cognofccre fignis. 

Nam neque turn ftellis acies obtufa videtur, 395 

Nee fratris radiis obnoxia furgere Luna ; 

Tenuia nee lanae per caelum vellera ferri. 

Non tepidum ad folem pennas in litore pandunt 

Dile^e Thetidi Alcyones : non ore folutos 

Inmimdi meminere fues ja^tare manipios. 400 

At nebulae magis ima petunt, campoque recumbunt : 

Solis et occafum fervans de culmine fummo 

Nequicquam feros exercet no£tua cantus. 

Adparet liquido fublimis in aere Nifus, 

£t pro purpureo poenas dat Scylla capillo. 405 

Quacumque ilia levem fugiens fecat aethera pennis, 

£tce inimicus atrox magno ftrijiore per auras 

Infequitur Nifus : qua fe fert Nifus ad auras. 

Ilia levem fugiens raptim fecat aethera pennis. 

Tum liquidas corvi preflb ter gutture voces 41^ 

Aut quater ingeminant : et faepe cubilibus altis, 

Nefcio qua praeter folitum duicedine laeti, 

Inter fe foliis ftrepitant. juvat imbribus adis 

Progeniem parvam dulcifque revifcrc nidos. 

461. Stalks acrofs the fcorcbing fands,'] The line admirably 
reprefents the adtion of the crow, and is an ech© to the fcnfc. 
Tnofe who ixc fond of alliteration, are delighced with this verfe, 
where fo many S's are found together : they may fay the fame of 
pkmm plwviam, Of 'vocat 'uoce, in the preceding line. 

467. Calm,] According to what Fieri us found in feveral old 
aafiafcripts : ex imbres in the origin al, for the poet begins to 
fyttk of fair weather. 

Book I. ThjJ Gedagics ot ViftciLi 145 

Loudly the rains the boding rook demands, 460 

And folitary flalks acrofs the fcorching fands; 

Nor lefs the virgins nightly tafks that weave 

With bufy hands, approaching ftorms perceive, 

While on the lamp they mark the fputtering oil. 

And fungous clots the light, adheftve^ foil. 46 ^ 

Nor lefs by certain marks may'ft thou defcry 

Fair feafons, in the calm, and ftormlefs flcy ; 

Then fliine the ftars with keener luftre bright^ 

Nor Cynthia borrows from her brother's light* 

No fleecy clouds flit lightly through the air^ 476 

The mifts defcend, and low on earth appear. 

Nor Thetis' halcyons bafking on the ftrand, 

Their plumage to the tepid fun expand 2 

Nor fwine deep delving with the fordid fnout. 

Delight to tofs the bundled ftraw about. 475 

To watch the fetting fun, the fullen owl 

Sits penfive^ and in vain repeats her baleful howl ; 

Nifus appears fublime in liquid air, 

And Scylla rues the ravifh'd purple hair i 

Where with fvvift wings (he cuts th' etherial w^y^ 480 

Fierce Nifus preflTes on his panting prey. 

Where Nifus wheels, (he fwiftly darts away- 

With throats comprefs'd, with (hrill and clearer voice. 

The tempeft gone, the cawing rooks rejoice ; 

Seek with unufual joys, on branches hung 48 j 

Their much-lov'd ncfts, and feed their callow yoiing. 

477. /« vain repeats.] Dr. Trapp interprets mquicquaMf in 
^aifi. Dr. Marty n, not repeats. — If we underlland the poet to 
be fpeaking of the continliance of fair weather, nequicquam miift 
fignify not ; becaufe, according to Pliny, the hooting of Ch9 
owl at fuch a time would be a iign of rain. 

Mr. Dry den has flrangely tranflated this paflage : 
And owls that mark the fetting fun declare, 
A Aar-light evening and a morning fair« 

Vot. I. O 


t$6 P. ViRGiLii Ma&oi^is Ceorgica. Lib* u 

Haud equidem credo, quia fit divinitus illis 415 

Ingenium, aut rerum fato prudentia major. 

Veriuxiy ubi tempeftas, et caeli mobilis humor 

Mutavere vias, ct Juppitcr uvidus auftris 

Denfat, erant quae rara modo, et, quae denfa, relaxat; 

Vertuntur fpecies animorum, et pedora motus 42a 

Nunc alios, alios, dum nubila ventus agebat, 

Concipiunt. hinc ille avium conccntus in agris, 

Et laetae pecudes, et ovantes gutture corvi. 

Si vero folem ad rapidum lunafque fequentis 

Qrdine refpicies ; numquam te craftina fallet 425 

Hora, neque infidiis no&is capiere ferenae. 

Luna revertei^tes cum primum conligit ignis. 

Si nigrum obfcuro conprenderit aera cornu, 

Maxumus agricolis pelagoque parabitur imber. 

At» fi virgineum fuffuderit ore ruborem, 4301 

Ventus erit. vento femper rubet aurea Phoebe* 

Sin ortiv quarto (namque is certif&mus au£tor) 

Pura, neque obtufis per caelum cornibus ibit $ 

Totus et ille dies, et qui nafcentur ab illo 

£xa£him ad menfem, pluvia ventifque carebunt : 435 

Votaque fervati folvent in litore nautac 

GlaucOj-et Panopeae, et Inoo Melicertae. 

Sol quoque et exoriens, et cum k condit in undas^ 

Signa dabit. (blem certiffima figna fequuntur, 

£t quae mane refert, et quae furgentibus aflris. 44O 

Ille ubi nafcentem maculis variaverit ortum 

Gonditus in nubem, medioque refugerit orbc ; 

487. Not that to them.] This is a remarkable inftancc of Vxr* 

g's clear and beautiful ft vie in cxprefling even the moft ab* 
ife. notions. The meaning of the words fato prudentia majorp 
which occafions difficulties among the commeutators, feems to 
bej a greater knowledge (than men have) in the fate of things. 
505. Clearly.'] The verfe in the original is quoted by Seneca 
in nis works^ in a different manner from the common readine» 
•— pLBNAa tuc obtufis per coelum cornibus ibit i and he certainly 



iook i. The Georgics of Virgil. iij 

Not that to them a genius Heav'n hath lent. 
Or piercing forefight of each dark event. 
But when the changeful temper of the fkics, 
The rare condenfcs, the denfe rarifies, 4^0 

New motions on the altcr'd air impreft, 
New images and paffions fill their breaft : 
Hence the glad birds in louder concert join, 
Hence croaks th* exulting rook, and fport the lufty kinc. 
But if thou (halt obferve the rapid fun, 495 

And mark the moons their following courfes run. 
No night fercnc with fmilcs, fhall e'er betray. 
And fafely may'ft thou truft the coming day : 
When the young moon returning light colle6t$, 
If *twixt her horns we fpy thick gloomy fpecks, 500 
Prepare, ye mariners and watchful fwains. 
For wafteful ftorms and deluges of rains ! 
But if a virgin-blufti her cheeks o'erfpreadj 
Lo, winds ! they tinge her golden face with red } 
But the fourth evening if (he clearly rife, 505 

And fail unclouded thro' the a:iure fkies, 
That day, and all the following month behind. 
No rattling ftorm (hall feci of rain or wind 2 
And failors fav'd from the devouring fea. 
To Glaucus vows prefer and Panope. 510 

Nor lefs the fun, when eaftern hills he leaves, 
And when he finks behind the blufhing waves, 
Prognoftics gives : he brings the fafeft figns 
At morn, and when the ftarry evening (hines : 
When with dark fpots his opening face he clouds, 515 
Shorn of his beams, and half his glory (hrouds, j 

meant it fo, by what he fays of it. If this be the true reading, 
it may be thus underftood. — " If on the fourth day of the new 
rooon^ its WHOLE disk appears, and the horns of that part of 
it which is enlighten 'd, are fharp> and well-pointed ; tben the 
next day» and all the following to the end <» the month, will 
he free both from high winds and rain/^ Hox^DiwoftTH. 

tit p. ViRGiLxi Marokis Georoica. X'ib^'V* 

SufpeAi tibi fiiit imbres< natnque urguet ab alta 

Arboribufque fatifque Notus pecorique finifter. 

Aut ubi Tub lucem denfa inter nubiia fefe 445 

Pivorfi nimpent radii, aut ubi pallida furget 

Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile ; 

Heu, male turn mitis defendet pampinus uvas : 

Tarn multa in tedlis crepitans falit horrida grando* 

Hoc etiam, emenfo cum jam decedet Olympo, 45^ 

l^rofucrit meminiffe magis. nam faepe videmus 

Ipfius in voltu varios errare colores. 

Caerulcos pluviam dcnuntiat, igneus Euros. 

Sin maculae incipient rutilo inmifcerier igni ; 

Omnia tunc pariter vento nimbifque videbis 455 

Fervere. non ilia quifquam me node per altum 

Ire, ncque a terra moneat convellere funem. 

At fij cum referetque diem, condetque relatum, 

Lucidus orbis erit, fruftra terrebere nimbis, 

Et claro filvas cernes aquilone moveri. 460 

Dcnique, quid vefper ferus vehat, unde ferenas 

Vcntus agat nubes, quod cogitet humidus Aufter, 

Sol tibi figna dabit. Solcm quis dicere falfum 

Audeat ? ille etiam caecos inftare tumultus 

Saepe monet, fraudemque et operta tumefcere bella. 465 

Ille etiam cxtindo miferatus Caefare Romam, 

525. TJlfe dujky^ rain.] Tho' I believe there is no one thing 
in the whole language of the Romans, that we are more at « 
lofs about now, than their names of colours ; it appears evi- 
dently enoueh, that coeruUus was ufed by them for fome dark 
colour or other. One might bring a number of initances to 
prove this, but one or two from Virgil will be fufficient ; 

CoeruUus plu*viam denuntiat, 

— — CoeruUus /upra caput ajlitit imhert 

NoSem hyememquiferens, et inborruit unda tenehris* 

Aen, 3. 195. 
PoLYMBTis, pag. 167. note 24. 

536. Anftir meditate.] Several of the commentators that have 
been ufed -to confider the winds only in a natural way, and 
iiCTcr perhaps in an allegorical one, are greatly offended at the 
word co£itet here. The tbiuking of a nuind is to them the 


Book I. The Georgics of Vircil. ai^ 

Sufpefl thou (bowers : the fouth from ocean borne. 

Springs noxious to the cattle, trees and corn. , 

When fcatterM are his rays ; with palenefs fprcad 

When faint Aurora leaves Tithonus' bed j 520 

Ah ' can the leaves their ripening grapes defend I 

Such heaps of horrid hail on rattling roofs defcend ! 

Obferve too, when he ends his heavenly race. 

What various colours wander o'er his face : 

The dulky, rain ; the fiery, wind denotes ; 525 ' 

But if with glowing red he mingle fpots, 

Then (bowers and winds commixt (halt thou behold 

In dreadful tempeft thro' black aether roll'd ; ' 

In fuch a night, when foon the waves will roar. 

None (hould perfuade to loofe my bark from (bore. 530 

But if his orb be lucid, clear his ray. 

When forth he u(hers, or concludes the day. 

Fear not the ftorms : for mild will be the breeze. 

And Aquilo but gently wave the trees. 

In fine, what winds may rife at evening late, 53J5 

What (how'rs may humid Aulter meditate. 

By fureft marks th' unerring fun declares. 

And who, to call the fun deceitful, dares ? 

JHe too foretells fedltion's fecret fchemes. 

Tumults and treafons, wars and ftratagems. 5415 

He too, bewailing her unhappy doom. 

When fell her glorious Caefar, pitied Rome j 

higheft pitch of abfardity that can be. They are therefore fiar 
altering the paiTage into fuiJ cogat et humidus tmftir^ or fm4 

toncitet contra omnes codicet, as themfelves fay : If thefe 

gentlemen would pleafe to confider that it is not they, but 
Virgil that is fpeaking here ; that the winds were fireqaently 
reprefented as perfons in his time ; that he had been ufed to 
fee them fo reprefented both in Greece and in his own coan- 
Cry; that they were commonly worihipped as gods — and they 
may perhaps be perfaaded not to think this (o ftrange an ex* 
preffion for him to ufe. Polymbtis, Dial. 15/ p. 204. 

Horace fpeaking of the river Aafidqs fays finely, Diluviim 
MIDXTATUE ams. Od. 14. Lib. 4. 

C41. Hi t§Of hrwrnihugj] 'Tis fometking ftrtnge that the beft 
himmant, Pliny, Plntarch, and Appian, join in relating thefe 

0^3 ^^\^^sa^ 


Cum caput obfcura nitidum ferrugine texit, 
Inpiaque aeternam timuerui^t faecula no£lem. 
Tempore quamquam illo tellus quoque, et aequora ponti, 
Obfcenaeque canes, inportunaeque volucres ^^q 

Signa dabant. quoties Cyclopum efFervere in agros 
Vidimus undantem ruptis fornacibus Aetnam, 
Flammarumque globos, liquefaftaque volvere faxa ! 
Armorum fonitum toto Gcrmania caelo 
Audiit : infolitis tremuerunt motibus Alpes. 475 

Vox quoque per lucos vol go exaudita (ilentis 
Ingens, et fimulacra modis pailentia miris 
Vifa fub obfcurum nodis, pecudefque locutae, 
Infandum ! fiftunt amnes, terraeque dehifcunt, 
£t maeftum iplacrimat templis ebur, aeraque Aidant. 48a 
Proluit infano contorquens yortice fiivas 
Fluviorum rex Eridanus, campofque per omnes 
Cum ftabulis armcnta tulic. nee tempore eodem 
Triftibus aut extis fibrae adparere minaces, 
\^ut puteis manare cruor ceflavit ; et alte 485 

per no(Stem refonare, lupis uluiantibus, urbes. 
Non alias caelo ceciderunt plura fereno 
Fulgura : nee diri toties arfere cometae. 
Ergo inter fefe paribus concurrere telis 
Komanas acies iterum videre Philippi : 490 

prodigies. Plutarch not only mentions the palepefs of the fun, 
for a whole year after Caefar's death, but adds, that the fruits 
rotted for want of heat. Appian relates the flories of the 
claihing of arms, and ihouts in the air, an ox fpeaking with 
a homan voice, flatues fweating blood, wolve« howling in the 
Forum, and vidims wanting entrails. 

562. Eridanus,'] The redundant fyllablc in JlwvUrum^ is 
expreilive of the inundation. Dion Caflius relates, that the 
river Po did not only overflow and occaiion prodigious da- 
mages, but left likewife great quantities of ferpents when it 

569. Pbilipfi.^ Many learned critics have difputed aboi;t 
the meaning of this paiTaee, which was never cleared up till 
Mr. Holdfworth publiihed a judicious diflfertation on the ful^ 
jed. He is of opinioo, that Vurgil means by hi« two battles 

Book I;. Thb GEOftGics or Virgil. tjf 

With dufky jrednefs veil'd his chearful light. 

And impious mortals fear'd eternal night : 

The;i too, the trembling earth, and feas that ragM, 545 

And dogs, and boding birds dire ills prefag*d : 

What globes of flames hath thund'ring Aetna thrown^ 

What heaps of fulphur mix'd with molten ftone. 

From her burft entrails did fhe oft exfpire. 

And deluge the Cyclopean fields with fire ! 550 

A clank of arms and ruihing to the wars. 

The found of trampling fteeds, and clattering carSf 

Heard thro' th' aftoniftiM flcy, Germania fliock'd, 

The foiid Alps unufual tremblings rock'd ! 

Thro' filent woods a difmal voice was heard, 55J 

And glaring ghofts all grimly pale appear'd. 

At dufky eve ; dumb cattle filence broke. 

And with the voice of man (portentous !) fpoke ! 

Earth gapes aghaft ; the wondering rivers ftop ; 

The brazen ftatues mourn, cold fweats from ivory drop % 

Monarch of mighty floods, fupremely ftrong, 561 

Eridanus, whofe forefts whiii'd along. 

And rolling onwards with a fweepy fway, 

Bore houfes, herds, and belplefs hinds away s 

The viftims' Entrails dire evenfs forebode ! 565 

Wolves howl in cities ! wells o'erflow with blood. 

Ne'er with fuch rage did livid lightnings glare, 

Kor comets trail fuch lengths of horrid hair I 

for this, Philippi faw, with civil rage. 

The wretched Roman legions twic^ engage i 570 

of Philippiy not two battles foaght on the fiine individual fpot, 
but at two diflant places of the faine pame^ the former at Phiv 
lippi (alias TMai Pbtkiae) nfsar Pharialos in Theflaly : the 
latter, at Philippi near the confines of Thrace. And though 
hiflorians (all except Lucius Florus) for diftin£Uoii's fake, ^H 
the latter battle only by the name of Philippi ; yet. as there 
was one at Philippi near Pharfalia, in fight of which the former 
was fought, the poets call both by the fame name. At to the. 
reafons which he lays determined Virgil to cidl both battles by thf 

^3* P. ViRciLii Maronis Georgica. Lib, u 

Nee fuit indignum fuperis, bis fanguine nofiro 

Zmathiam, etlatosHaemi pingucfcere. campos. 

Scilicet et tempus veniet, cum finibus illis 

Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro, 

Exefa inveniet fcabra robigine pila : 495 

Aut gravibus raftris galeas pulfabit inanis, 

Gnndiaque effoflis mirabitur ofla fepulcris. 

Di patrii Indigetes, et Romule, Veftaque mater. 

Quae Tufcum Tiberim, ct Romana Palatia fervas, 

Hunc faltem cverfo juvenem fuccurrere faeclo 50» 

Ne prohibcte. fatis jam pridem fanguine noftro 

Laomedontcae luimus perjuria Troiae. 

Tarn pridem nobis caeli te regia, Caefar, 

Invidet, atqi^e hominum queritur curare triumphos* 

fame name^ the chief of them I think is this: that in compliment 
to Auguftus, he might imprefs the fuperftitious Romans with a 
f>elief, that the vengeance of the Gods againil the murderers of 
Caefar was denounced by numbers of prodigies and omens; 
and in fo remarkable a manner that there appeared in it a par- 
ticular (Iroke of providence^ according to the heathen fuperfli* 
tion» that the fecond battle which proved fatal 10 the Romans, 
jbould be fought in the fame province with the firil, and near 
a fecond Philippi. 

574. Ploughs.] The delicate art of the poet in returning to 
kis fubje£t by inferting this circumftance of the ploughman's 
finding old armour, cannot be fulHciently admired. Philips 
bas finely imitated it in his Cyder ^ where fpeaking of the 4e« 
ftroftion of old Ariconium, he addsj. 

Upon that treacherous traft of land 
She whilom flood ; now Ceres, in her prime. 
Smiles fertile, and, with ruddieft freight bedeck'd 
The apple-tree, by our forefathers' blood 
Improv'd, that now recalls the devious mufe, 
Ui'ging her deflin'd labours to purfue. 

Philips's Qy^^r^ Book !• 

579. Te greater guardian gods,] Virgil (fays Mr. Spence) 
by the dii fatrii, here means the great train of deities, firtt 
received all over the eaft, and afterwards fucceffively in Greece 
and Italy; Among the Romans^ the three deities received as 


Book I. Thb Gioaoics of Virgil. at3j 

Emathia, (Heaven decreed !) was twice imbruM, 
And Haemus* fields twice fattened with our blood* 
The time at length (hall come, when laboring fwains. 
As with their ploughs they turn thefe guilty plains, 
'Gainft hollow helms their heavy drags (hall ftrike, 575 
And cla(h 'gainft many a fword, and rufty pikej 
View the vaft graves with horror and amaze. 
And at huge bones of giant heroes gaze. 

Ye greater guardian godst)f Rome, our pray'r. 
And Romulus, and thou, chafte Vefta, hear ! 580 

Ye, who preferve with your propitious powers. 
Etrurian Tiber, and the Roman towers ! 
At Ifijift permit this youth to fave the world 
(Our only refuge !) in confufion hurl'd : 
Let ftreams of blood already fpilt atone 585 

For perjuries of falfc Laomedon ! 
The Gods, O Caefar, envy and complain. 
That men and earthly cares thy fteps detain j 

fupreme, were Jupiter^ Juno, and Minerva; and therefore 
Virgil adds the word indigetes^ to fix it to the $co» varpaa,. or 
the three great faprem<: gods, received as fuch in his owa 
country. JnMgetps here is much the fame as noftri in Juvenal, 
when he fpeaks of thefe very deities. Mr. bpence obfervet 
\iOVi faultily Dryden has tranflated this pafTage. 

PoLYMBTis, Dial. 20, 
582. Etrurian,'] Virgil in this place, arid in Geo. 2. 530« 
(peaks of Tufcany and Rome almoll as if they were upon the 
fame footing ; chiehy out of complaifance for his great patroa 
Mecaenas, who was defcended from the old race of the kings 
of that country. Holdsworth. 

586. Fal/e Lacmedo/i.\ Apollo and Neptune being hired by 
Laomedon, to afllft him in building a wall round his city of 
Troy, when the work was finiihed were by him defrauded of 

587. O Cae/ar,] I at firft tranflated it great Caefar; botob- 
fcrved afterwards that the poet joins no epithet to Caefar ; I 
therefore omitted fo improper an addition ; which weakens t)ie 
(liignity and fimplicity of the original. 

^34 P* ViROiLii Maronis GsoRGitA. Lib. !• 

Quippe ubi fas verfum atque nefas : tot bella per brbcm : 
Tarn multae fcelerum facies : non ullus aratro 506 

Pignus honos. fqualent abduflis arva colonis, 
£t curvae rigid um falces conflantur in enfem. 
Hinc movet Euphrates, tllinc Germania bellum : 
Vicinae ruptis inter fe legibus urbes 510 

Arma ferunt. faevit toto Mars inpius orbe. 
Ut, cum carceribus fefe effudere quadrigae^ 
Addunt in fpatia, et fruftra retinacula tendens 
Fertur equis auriga, neque audit curnis habenas. 

^90. Impious warsJ] The amiable and gentle temper, the 
nmverfal benevolence of Virgil, appear in this (bikine paflkge. 
A certain melancholy flow in the numbers, and an air of pitf 
for the dKbefTes of his fellow-creatures, make thefe lines more 
valuable than even the poetry they contain. At the time I 
write this, 1761, it is impoffible to read them without feeling 
their force. 


Book I. Thb Georoics of Virgil. 23s 

Where facred order, fraud and force confound. 

Where impious wars and tumults rage around, 590 

And every various vice and crime is crown'd : 

Difhonour'd lies the plough ; the baniih'd fwains 

Are hurried from th* uncultivated plains ; 

The fickles into barbarous fwords are beat, 

Euphrates here, there war the Germans threat. 595 

The neighbouring cities break faith's mutual bands. 

And ruthlefs Mars raves wild o'er all the lands. 

As when four furious courfers whirl away 

The trembling driver, nor his cries obey. 

With headlong hafte fwift-pouring o'er the plains, 600 

The chariot bounds along, nor hears the reins. 


C 237 3 



This Booty which tnats of plantings is divided info fevim 
parts. I. The poet /peaks of the various ways in which 
trees are produced j both by nature and art. II. Their 
different fpecies and forts j and how they are to be numagei. 
III. ff^at foils are rnoft fuitable to each j from whence ha 
naturally digreffes into an encomium on the foil and pro'^ 
duffions of Italy. IV, The method of dif covering anel 
dijlinguijbing the nature of each foil. V. SHif culturg 
and management of the vine. VL The culture of tb$ 
•Uve and other trees. VIL The praifes of a country life. 


G E O R G I C A. 


HACTENUS anronim cultt», ct fidcra cocH : 
Nunc te, Bacche, canam, ncc non iilireftria tecum 
Yirguha, et profem tzrie crefcentis olivae. 
HttCy pater 6 Lenaee, (tuis hie omnia plena 
Muneribus : tibi pampineo grayidus audumno 5 

FIbret ager; fpumat plenis vindemia labris) 
Hoc, pater 6 Lenaee, veni ; nudataqne mtifto 
Tingue novo mecum direptis crura cothurnis. 
Principio arboribus varia eft natura creandis. 
Namque aliae, nullis homi^ium cogentibus, ipfae iq 
Sponte fua veniunt, campofque et flumina late 
Curva tenent : ut molle filer, lentaeque geniftae^ 
Populus, et glauca canentia fronde falidta. 
Pars autem pofito furgunt de femine : ut altae 
Caftaneae, nemorumque Jovi quae maxima frondet 15 

Vcr. 2. Nowthfi Ij!ng, O Bacchus.] Inftead of cooll); pro- 
pofing the fubjedt he is going to treat of, viz. the cultivation of 
vines, olives, &c. the poet at once breaks out into a rapturous 
addrefs to Bacchus, in the ftyle of an hymn ; the image con- 
tained in the following lines is beautiful and pidurefque. 

Hue, pater Lenaee, vem : nudataque mufio 
Tingue novo mecum direptis crura cothurnis. 

We fee the god treading the wine-prefs. Mr. Drydcn'f 
tranflation of this pafTage is remarkable. 

Come, flrip with me, my god, come drench all o'er 
Thy limbs in maft of wine^ and drink at ev'ry pore« 

G E 

r 439 1 



O F 

I c s 



THUS far of tillage, and the heav'nly figns; 
Now thee I fing, O Bacchus, god of vines ! 
With thee the native race of fylvan trees. 
And olives, blooming late by flow degrees. 
Come, facred fire, with lufcious clufters crown'd. 
Here all the riches of thy reign abound ; 
£ach field replete with bluihing autumn glows^ 
And in deep tides for thee, the foaming vintage flows* 
O come, thy buikins, facred fire, unloofe. 
Arid tinge with me thy thighs in purple juice. 

Kind nature trees, by feveral means, fupplies. 
Spontaneous fome, by art untaught, arife ; 
At will, by brook, in laVn or meadow, bloom 
Th' obedient ofier, and the bending broom j 
While with the poplar on the mazy fliore 
The willow waves its azure foliage hoar. 
Part by the force of quick'ning feed arife. 
Hence tow'rs the lofty chefhut to the ikies ; 
And Aefculus, great monarch of the grove^ 
Supreme and ftatelieft of the trees of Jove : 



li« Kind naiuri triis.^ The poet fays, wild trees are pro- 
daced three feveral ways, i. spontaneously, 2. by ssios^ 
3* and by suckers. He fiill nfet the iame order at verft th« 
6ift, &c. 

240 F* ViRciLii MARONia Georgica. Lib. i# 

Aefculus, sitque habitae Grails oracula quercu$, 

PuUuIat ab radice aliis denfiffima filva : 

Ut cerafis, ulmifque : etiam Parnafia laurus 

Farva fub ingenti matris fe fubjicit umbra. 

Hos Natura modos primum dedit : his genus omne 26 

Silvarum, fruticumque viret, nemorumque facrorum. 

Sunt alii, quos ipfe via fibi repperit ufus. 

Hie plantas tenero abfcindens de corpore matrum 

JDepofuit fulcis : hie ftirpes obruit arvo, 

Quadriiidafque Aides, et acuto robore vallos : 25 

Silvarumque aliae preiTos propaginis arcus 

ExfpeAant, et viva fua plantaria terra. 

Nil radicis egent aliae : fummumque putator 

Haud dubltat terrae referens mandare cacumen. 

Quin et caudicibus fecSiis (mirabile di&u) 39 

Truditur e ficco radix oleagina ligno. 

Et faepe alterius ramos impune videmus 

Vertere in alterius, mutatamque infita mala 

Ferre pirum, et prunis lapidofa rubefcere corna. 

Quare agite o, proprios generatim difcite cultus, 35 

Agricolae, fruSufque feros mollite colendo : 

Neu fegnes jaceant terrae : juvat Ifmara baccho 

Conferere, atque olca magnum veftire Taburnum^r 

22. Greece devoutly paidJ^ In this^ and many other paflage^/ 
he glances at» and ridicules the fuperliitions of the Grecians. 

24. Cherries,] This kind of fruit had not been brought int<r 
Italy many years before Virgil wrote. 'Tis faid, Lucullut 
firft introduced them into that country after he had conquered 

29. Tet other means J] Having fpoken of trees which fpon* 
taneoufly propagate their fpecies, he now proceeds to mention 
thofe mechods which are ufed by human indullry. The/e are 
by fuckers, fets, layers, cuttings, pieces of cleft wood, and in- 
grafting. Martyn. 

32. Cro/s'/fUt, or Jharpen^d flakes, '\ There are t^o ways of 
planting fetters. Tiie quadrifidas fudes (fays Mr. Benfon) is 
when the bottom is flit acrols both ways ; the acuto robore is* 
when it is cut into a point, which is called the colt's foot. 

37* O/roif.] It is common in Italy to fee old olive-tretSi^ 


fik>ok ^. The GE^MtotcJ of Virgil, 44! 

With the proud oak, beneath whofe awcful fcade 

Religious rites fond Greece devoutly paid. 

Some pout an infant, foreft from their roots. 

Thus elms and cherries fpring in frequent fhoots^ 

Thus too, their tender tops Parnaflus* bays, 25 

Beneath their njotfier's flieltering fhadow, raife. 

So fpring, as nature various means approves. 

Or woods, or ftirubs, or confecrated groves. 

Vet other mearw hath fage experience found ; 

This, from the mother-trunk^ within the ground jo 

The tender fucker fets 5 another takes 

Of larger growth, crofs-fpKt, or fharpen'd (lakes. 

And oft, in native earth, the bo^hs we fee 

Inverted, multiply the parent tree : 

Nor fears the gard'ner oft, the fmalleft (hoot 35 

To truft to earth ; fome a(k not for a root. 

Nay from cleft olive^trunks with age decay'd 

New fibres (hoot, and fprings a wond'rous fliade» 

Even different kinds a mutual change afTume, 

And ftill improv'd, with alien foliage bloom ^ 40 

By pear-trees are ingrafted apples borne. 

And ftony corneils blu(hing plums adorn. 

Search then, ye farmers, with fagacious mind, 

How heft to manage every various kind. 

With culture civilize your favagc trees, 45 

Nor let your lands lie dead in flothful eafe. 

What joy the grapes on Ifmarus to crop. 

And clothe with olives huge Taburnus' top f 

that feem totally dead in the trunk, and yet hav^ very floorifh* 
ing young heads. The fame is often as i'urprizing in old wil- 
lows 5 of which I have fcen feveral (and particularly ibmc iA 
the garden ifland in St. James's Park) which fend down a tap- 
root from their heads through the trunk> that often fcems in- 
tirely decayed ; and fo form a young tree on an old flock, 
which looks as flourifliing as the other does rotten. Spencb. 

47. I/marasi] Ifmarus is a mountain in Thrace j Tabomui 
in Campania> famous for olives. 

Vol. I. R 

747, P. ViROiLii Marqkis Georgica. Lib. t* 

Tuque adcs, inceptumquc una deCurre laborem, 

O decus, 6 famae merito pars maxima noftrae, 40 

Maecenas ; pelagoque volans da vela patent! . 

Non ego cunfta meis ampledi verlibus opto : 

Non, mihi fi linguae centum fint, oraquc centum, 

Ferfea vox. ades, et primi lege litoris oram. 

In manibus terrae. non hie te carmine fiSo, 45 

Atque per ambages et longa exorfa tenebo. 

Sponte fua quae fe tollunt in luminis oras, 

Infecunda quidem, fed laeta et fortia furgunt : 

Quippe folo Natura fubeft. tamen haec quoque fi quis 

Inferat, aut fcrobibus mandet mutata fubadtis, 50 

Exuerint filveftrem animum : cultuque frequenti. 

In quafcumquc voces artis, baud tarda fequentur. 

Nee non et, fterilis quae ftirpibus exit ab imis. 

Hoc facict, vacuos fi fit digefta per agros : 

Nunc altae ffondes, et rami matris opacant, 55 

Crefcentique adimunt foetus, uruntque ferentem. 

Jam, quae feminibus jaftis fe fuftulit, arbos 

Tarda venit, feris faftura nepotibus umbram : 

51. Z)^ tJl?ou, Maecenas.] If I miflake not, no patron was ever 
fo finely commended as Maecenas is in this work. Indeed all 
Virgil fays to him, or of him, is as follows, viz. In the firfl 
book, Virgil names him in the fecond line. In the fecond 
book, he begs him to affift him in his undertaking, and de- 
clares he owes the greateft part of his reputation to him. In 
the third book, he mentions the difiiculty of the talk Maecenas 
had put him upon, and again begs his aiCflance. In the 
fourth book, he defires him to look favourably upon that piece, 
and addrefTes it more particularly to him, than he had done 
any of the former. 'Tis true there is no great eclat in all 
this, but the compliment to Maecenas lies here. Virgil under- 
took a very neceffary work for the fervice of his prince, and 
his country. He declares it was Maecenas put him upon 
it. He found the work very difficult, but ftill Maecenas 
perfuadcs him to perfifl in it ; and by his patronage, and his 
gcnerofity, enabled him to go through with it ; fo that the 
whole, all the juflice that is done to Auguftus's charafter, all 
the fervice that work could do his country, was owing to Mae» 
cenas. This wa:> complimenting him in the fined manner. He 


Book 2. The Georgics of ViRcit. 243 

Hafte then, my better part of fame, my pride. 
Do thou my courfe at once affift and guide ; 50 

Do thou, Maecenas^ fliare with me the gale, 
And o'er expanded feas unfurl the fwelling fail. 
Nor foars my thought ambitious to rehearfe 
All nature's wonders, in my fhorter verfe ; 
A tafk like this, would afk an hundred tongues, 55 

An hundred mouths, and iron-armed lungs. 
Still will we keep the friendly fhore at hand,' 
Nor dare to launch too boldly from the land : 
Nor will I tire thine ear with fables vain. 
With long preambles and fuperfluous ftrain# 60 

The trees, whofe {hades fpontaneous pierce the fkies, 
Tho' barren, beautiful and vig'rous rife; 
For nature works beneath : but if thy toil 
Graft, or tranfplant them in a gentler foil. 
Their genius wild, where-e'er thou lead'ft the way, 65 
Of difcipline fequaccous, will obey : 
So will the fprouts that from the roots arofe. 
If plac'd amid the plain, in order'd rows : ' 

For elfe the mother's overfliadowing top. 
Or blafts the fruit, or checks the promis'd crop* 70 

All trees from feed advance by flow degrees. 
And for a future race their fliadcs increafe ; 

was fpeaking of a minifter. The charaAcr he gives him is that 
of a perfon, who employs his power and fortune in counte- 
nancing one that could be of ufe to his mailer, and the public. 
Here the poet makes a graceful figure, whilft he (hews his gra- 
titude by owning his obligations, and at the fame time that he 
makes his court to his patron^ he makes his patron's court to 
his prince. Benson. 

59. Fahies *val»,] He points at the truth, and the dignity, 
and the utility of his fubjeA^ exalting it above fubjedb of mere 
fidion, and Grecian talcs. 

6k TJbe trees,] The poet had before mentioned the three 
ways by which wild trees are produced. ^Here he follows the 
fame method, and ihcws by what culture each fort may b» 
meliorated. Martyn. 

R 2 

244 P- ViRG^iii Maronis Gboroica. Lib. 2« 

Pocnaque degenerant foccos oblita priores : 
£t turpis avibus pracdam fert uva racemos. 6o 

Scilicet omnibus eft hhor inpendendus, et omnes 
Cogendae in fulcuniy ac muh^ mercede domandae. 
Sed truncis oleae melius, propagine vites, 
Refpondent, folido Paphiae de robore myrtus. 
Plantis edurae coruli niaicuntur, ec ingens 65 

Fraxinus, Hercukaeque arbos umbrofa coronae, 

80. But qmtefuH-griwn.'] A curioafl diffeitatioiton tlie fub- 
je£t of the(c verfes by Mr. Holdfworth was publilhed Aot long 
ago> of whom I &ave heard many able judges declare^ that he- 
tfnderftood Virgil better than any man living. In my humble 
opinion, fays he, after the genend condufion of planting out. 

Scilicet omnibus eft labor imfendendus^ \i omnes 
Cogemdai in/ulcutn^ ac milta mercede domandie, 

and the fhort remark added, that fome trees thrive beft, not by 
tbe ordinary way of planting, but by layers and truncheons, 

Sed truncis oleae melius, i^c. 

Virgil proceeds next to another fort of planting, fHll more dif' 
ficult ; and tells us» that not only young plants and trunche* 
ons may be removed, but even grown trees. This is methodi- 
cal* and confident with what preceded, the tranfition eafy, and 
the climax juft. We continue dill in the plantation, but we 
are led into a part we had feen nothing of. before, a grove of 
fome confiderable growth, newly planted. And therefore we 
may obferve, all the epithets and decorations, ufed here to en- 
liven the fubjed)) are fuited to trees of an advanced age, 

Plantis edurae coryli, b/c. 

By this interpretation it muft appear already, that the epithet 
ardua, which is a diiRculty with Dr. Martyn, becomes plain 
andeafy : and indeed it was fo far from embarralHng mc, that 
it helped to explain what went before. We advance farther 
in the plantation, and are fhewn, that even the palm too (an 
exotic) may be tranfplanted ^^hen tall, or, in poetic language, 
be born a tree ; and fo likewife the fir, when grown fit for a 

We may very rcafonably imagine, that in Virgil's time, that 
age of luxury, the ereat men of Rome tranfplanted tall trees 
from woods and nurleries, as is frequently done with us, into 
their walks and gardens. Maecenas, to whom this book is de* 


Book 2. STuE Georgics of Virgil. 245 

Fruits of the richeft juice in time decay. 

And birds amid degenerate vineyards prey ; 

All, all, inuft feel the force of toil intenfe, 75 

Be to the trench confin'd, and tam'd with large expence. 

With beft fuccefs, from truncheons olives fpring ; 

Layers of the vine the faireft clufters bring ; 

From fets will bloom the myrtle, plant of love ; 

But quite full-grown tranfplant the hazle grove ; 80 

Aih too, tho' tall, and that fair tree whofe boughs 

Bear the broad crown that binds Alcides' brows, 

dicated^ had a garden, we know» on the EfquUine bill, cele- 
braCed by Horace and others^ and 'tis not improbable^ that 
in order to bring it fooner to perfeftion, this might be prac- 
tised there, perhaps juft at the time when Virgil was writing 
this Gcorgic. If fo, how artfully does the poet here infinuate, 
with his ui'ual addrefs, a compliment to his patron ? I only hint 
this as a conjefture ; but am more inclined to believe, that 
fomething of the wildernefs part of a garden is intended, by 
the palm being placed among tha others; which, tho' a fruit- 
tree in its own countrf, yet is not improperly put here in the 
company of forcft-trces, becaufc it did not bear fruit, nor was 
counted a fruit-tree at that time in Italy ; 'as Pliny informs us 
lib. iii. c. 4. and therefore could be planted only, as the others 
inight, for beauty and ornament to gardens. 

Whether Virgil had any fuch view or not, there can at leaft 
be no doubt but that removing tall trees was pradis'd among 
the Romans. We find by Phny, that the common method of 
making their arhwfta^ or plantations for fupportine vines, was 
by planting out elms, when about ii\'z years old, or about 
twenty foot high : lib. xvii. c. ii. And the fir, mentioned 
above, which rliny tells us had fo deep a root, mud certainly 
have been a tall tree, and yet, he fays, was removed. As to 
the palm, tho' it did npt arrive to fuch perfedion in Italy, as to 
bear fruit, yet we find it was common there ; and a tree which 
not only would bear removing, but thrive the better for it. 

And to put this matter about removing tall trees beyond difl 
putc, Virgil himfelf confirms it in another place, and makes 
his Corycius Senex put it in pradice, Georg. iv. 144, &:ۥ 

llle etiam fsras in verfum diftulit ulmos^ 
Eduramque pirum , W /pinos jam pruna/irentes^ 
Jamqut miniftrantem platanum potantibus umbras* 

'Tis trqe, mod of the commentators and tranflators feem not ta 
have rightly apprehended the meaning of this paiTage, as Dr. 

R 3 Martya 

246 P« ViRGiLii Maronis Georoica. Lib. !• 

Chaoniique patris glandes : etiam ardua palma 

Nafcitur, et cafus abies vifura marinos. 

Inferitur vero ex foetu nucis arbutus horrida j 

£t fteriles platani malos geflfere valentis, 70 

Caftaneas fagus, ornufque incanuit albo 

Flore piri, glandemque fues fregere fub ulmis* 

Nee modus infcrere, atque oculos inponere fimplex. 

Nam qua fe medio trudunt de cortice gemmae, 

£t tenuis rumpunt tunicas : anguftus in ipfo 75 

Fit nodo linus : hue aliena ex arbore germen 

Ineludunt, udoque doeent inolefeere libro. 

Aut rurfum enodes trunei refeeantur, et alte 

Finditur in foHdum cuneis via : dcinde feraees . 

Plantae inmittuntur. nee longum tempus, et ingens 89 

Exiit ad caelum ramis felicibus arbos, 

Miraturque novas frondes, et non fua poma. 

Praeterea genus baud unum, nee fortibus ulmis. 

Nee falici, lotoque, ncque Idaeis ejpariffis : 

Nee pingues unam in faciem nafcuntur olivae, 85 

Orchades, et radii, et amara paufia bacea, 

Martyn obferves, and thereby have loft much of its fpirit. But 
fince he has rendcr'd it juftly, and given it its full force, { 
doubt not, but when he compares the expreflions of both paf- 
fagcs together, he will more cafily agree to my interpretation : 
and will be furpriz'd, as indeed I am, how it before efcap'4 
him. With regard to the verfes following in the original, 

Inferitur *vero ex foetu nucis arbutus horrida ; 
Et fteriles platani malos gejfere 'valentis, 
Caftaneas fagus , ornufque incanuit albo 
Flore piri i glandemque fues fregere fub ulmis. 

Mr. Holdfworth obferves, that Virgil had before fpokcn of 
grafting in the common method, from ver. 32 to 34, 

Et fnepe alter itu ramos impune fvidemus 
Vertcre in alterius, mutatamque infita mala 
Ferre pirum, et prunis lapidofa rubefcere corna. 

As he there grafts only kernel fruit on kernel, and flone on 
(lone, he fhcws plainly that he underftood what was the com- 
mon method, and confoi-ms to it, ^gain, froqi ver. 49 to 51. 
3 under 


Book a. The Georgics op Virgil, 247 

Jove's oak, or palm high-waving o'er the fteep. 

And fir now fit to tempt the dang'row» deep. 

On th' horrid arbute graft the walnut's fpray, 85 

Or bid with apples barren planes look gay : 

Oft has the beech improved, the chefnut bore. 

The wild afh ftood with pear-tree bloflbms hoar. 

And fwine beneath the elm have crack'd the mafty ftore. 

The fwains who graft, employ a different art 90 

Froni thofe, who to the bark a bud impart : 

For thro' the rind where biirfts the tender gem, 

Faft by the knot they wound the taper ftem. 

Then in the flit an alien bud confin'd. 

They teach to knit congenial with the rind ; 95 

Or thro' the polifh'd trunk they wedge their way. 

And in the chafm infert a lufty fpray ; 

Ere long to heaven the foarjng branches (hoot. 

And wonder at their height, and more than native fruit. 

Befides, of fturdy elms a diflFerent kind, 100 

Of willows, and the watery lote, we find. 

Th* Idean cyprefs various looks aiTumes, 

In numerous forms the lufcious olive blooms : > 

Nor Orchite's nor the Radius' kind is one. 

Nor Paufia's by their bitter berries known ; 105 

under the articles of inlprovements, he obferves, that chancc- 
plantSy which are naturally wild> may be civilized by grafting, 
as crabs^ floes^ or wild plums, &c. 

' 7 amen hacc quoque fi quis 

Infer at i aut fcrobibus mandet mutata fuhaSis^ 
Exutrint fyl'vefirem animum. 

Having thus fufficiently mentioned this pra6tice« and there be- 
ing no neceffity to repeat it as he endeavours to be as concife 
as poffible ; he proceeds in the next place to tell us, that trees 
of different kinds may likewife be grafted on each other. And 
as he had before (hewed, in the four preceding verfes, what art 
could do in tranfplanting tall trees ; he advances here to fticw 
what may likewife be done by the help of art in grafting, viz. 
^hat any fcion may be ingrafted on any flock. All th« tranf- 
lators have miflaken this paflage : and I am indebud to Mjt* 
Hold fworth for hi^ clearing it op. 


248 P« VntGitii Maronx« Georgica. Lib. s. 

Pomaque, et Alcinoi filvae : nee furculus idem 

Cruftumiis, Syriifque piris, gravibufque volemis. 

Non eadem arboribus pendet vindemia noftris, 

Quam Methymnaco carpit de palmitc Lelbos. 9a 

Sunt Thafiac vitcs, funt ct Marcotides albae : 

Pinguibus hae tcrris habilcs, levioribus illae, 

£c pafib Pfythia utilior, tenuifque Lageos, 

TeAtatura pedes olim, vinSuraque linguam, 

Purpureae, preciaeque. et quo te carmine dicam^ ^ 

Rhaetica ? nee cellis idco contende Falernis. 

Sunt dtiam Ammineae vites firminiina vina, 

Tmolius adfurgit quibus, ct rex ipfe Phanaeus, 

Argitifque minor : cui non certaverit ulla, 

Aut tantum (lucre, aut totidem durare per annos. lOO 

Non ego te, Dis et menfis accepta fecundis, 

Tranficrim, Rhodi;^) ct tumidis, bumafte, racemis. 

Sed oeque quam multae fpecies, nee nomina quae fint^ 

Eft numerus i neque enim numero conprendcre rcfert : 

Quern qui fcire velit, Libyci velit aequoris idem 105 

Difeere quam multae zcphyro turbcntur arcnae ; 

Aut, ubi navigiis violcntior ineidit eurus, 

Noffe q\iot lonii veniant ad litora fludus. 

Nee vcro terrac fcrrc omnes omnia poffunt, 

Fluminibus falices, craflifque paludibus alni no 

Nafeuntur : ftcriles faxofis montibus orni, 

Litora myrtetis laetiffima. dcnique apcrtos 

Bacehus amat collis : aquilonem et frigora taxi. 

114. P/yibta,'] Pajfum is a wine made from raifias, or drie4 
grapes, common both in Italy and the fouth of France. But 
the grapes are only hupg up to dry, and not fqueczcd into 
barreJs like our common raiiins. 

126. Lihaticns,'] Among the Romans the firft courfc con- 
fided of fltfh, and the fccond of fruit, at which they poured 
out wine to offer to the gods» called a Libation. 

Arbuthnot on Coins. 

127. Plumfeft.\ Bumajlus is the very large red fort of 
grapes, tHat Uiey give )cou fo perpetually in their deferts in 

9 l\aX^\ 

t are J 

Book 2. The Georgxcs of Vjrgjl. . 249 

In feveral hues to fhine the apple loves ; 

How many fpecies deck Alcinous' groves ? 

What vaft varieties each orchard bears. 

In fyrian, bergamot, and pounder pears ? 

Nor the fame grape Hefperia's vintage fills, no 

Which Leibos gathers from Methymnia's bills. 

Of Thafian vines, and Mareotic white. 

One loves a fattened foil, and one a light ; 

Beft are the Pfythian when by Phoebus dry'd ; 

Thin is Lageos' penetrating tide, E^^' 

By which the faultering tongue, and ftaggering feet : 

Pucple there are, and grapes which early fpring. 

But in what ilrains thee, Rhaetic, ihall I fing ? 

Yet dare not thou with Fakrn juice conteft ! 

Ammincan wines for body are the beft ; xao 

To thefe, ev'n Tinolus bends his clufter'd brows. 

And, king of vine-clad hills, Phanaeus bows ; 

By thefe is Argos' leffer grape furpaft, 

Tho' fam'd fo much to flow, fo long to laft. 

Nor thine, O Rhodes, I pafs, whofe ftreams afford X25 

Libations to the Gods, and crown the board : 

Nor thee, Bumaftus, grape of plumpcft fize ; 

But can my fong each various race comprife ? 

He that cou'd each rehearfe, the fands might count. 

That from the Libyan wafte in whirling eddies mount : 

Or tell the billows as they beat the fhorcs, 131 

When all th' Ionian fca with raging Boreas roars. 

Nor every race will thrive in every ground : 

Willows along the river-banks abound j 

While adders bud in wet and weeping plains, 135 

The wild afh on the ridgy mountain reigns : 

Myrtles the fhore, the baleful eugh approves 

Bleak blafts, and Bacchus funny fummits loves. 

Italy : and particularly at Florence. It has its aaaie from its 
fhape, each grape being like the teat of a cow; Varro ha|f lar* 
fimfei the wmlj where he calls it ium^mman HoLDSWOHTJi* 

150 P. ViRGiLii Marokis Georgica. Lib* 2. 

Aipice et extremis domitum cultoribus orbem, 

Eoafque domos Arabum, pidlofque Gelonos. iic 

Divifae arboribus patriae* fola India nigrum 

Fert ebenum : folis eft turea virga Sabaeis. 

Quid tibi odorato rcferam fudantia ligno 

Balfamaque, et baccas Temper frondentis acanthi ? 

Quid nemora Aethiopum molli canentia lana i i2« 

Velleraque ut foliis depeftunt tenuia Seres ? 

Aut quos Oceano propior gerit India lucos, 

Extremi finus orbis ? ubi aera vincere fummum 

Arboris baud ullae ja6lu potuere fagittae. 

£t gens ilia quidem fumtis non tarda pharetris* X25 

Media fert triftis fuccos, t^dumque faporem 

Felicis mali ; quo non praefentius ullum, 

Pocula fi quando faevae infecere novercae, 

Mifcueruntque herbas et non innoxia verba, 

Auxilium venit, ac membris agit atra venena. I3# 

Ipfa ingens arbos, faciemque flmillima lauro^ 

Et, fi non alium late jadaret odorcm, 

Laurus crat. folia baud ullis labentia ventis : 

Flos ad prima fenax. animas et olentia Medi 

Ora fovent illo, et fenibus medicantur anhelis. 135 

Sed ncqiie Medorum filvae ditiffima terra. 

Nee pulcher Ganges, atque auro turbidus Hermus, 

154. Median JieUsJ] Virgil here gives a very high charadcr 
of this tree, both for its beauty and ufcfulnefs : I take it that 
he means orange-trees^ which were brought firil into Italy from 
Media in his time. As the orange- tree was not yet generally 
.known in Italy, he defcribes it by its likenefs to a tree, well 
known there, the laurel-trec. The leaves, fays be, refemble tho 
leaves of that ; but have a finer and more difFufed fmell, and 
it is almoft always beautify'd with flowers. Pliny (Nat. Hift. 
lib. xii. c. 3.) calls the orange-tree malus Medica, and his ac^ 
coant of it agrees extremely with this in Virgil. 


166. Medians gro*ves,'\ We are now come to hb mod beauti- 
ful praifes of Italy; nor is it eafy to determine which is greatcft, 
the poet's (kill, or the patriot's love of his countr}'. He glancqs 
at Greece with fome ironical farcafms, in feveral parts of this 

paflkgc ; 


• Book 2. The Georgics of ViRoit, 2St 

Th' extreme of cultivated lands furvey. 
The painted Scyt)iians, and the realms of day; jaq 

All trees allotted keep their feveral cpafts, 
India alone the fable ebon boafts ; 
Sabaea bears the branch of frankincenfe. 
And fliall I fing, how teeming trees difpenfe 
Rich fragrant balms in many a trickling tear, j^jj 

With foft Acanthus' berries, never fear ? 
From Aethiop woods, where woolly leaves increafe. 
How Syrians comb the vegetable fleece ? 
Or fliall I tell how India hangs her woods. 
Bound of this earth, o'er Ocean's unknown floods? 150 
Where to fuch height the trees gigantic grow. 
That far they leave the founding fliaft below, 
Tho' flcill'd the natives are to bend the bow. 
The Median fields rich citron fruits produce, 
Tho' harfli the tafte, and clammy be the juice j 155 

Bleft antidote ! which, when in evil hour 
The ftcp-dame mixes herbs of poifonous power. 
And crowns the bowl with many a mutter'd fpell. 
Will from the veins the direful draught expelL 
Large is the trunk, and laurel-like its frame, 160 

And 'twere a laurel, were its fcent tl^e fame. 
Its lafting leaf each roaring blaft defies, 
Tenacious of the ftem its flourets rife : 
Hence a more wholefome breath the Medes receive, 
And of pale fires the lab'ring lungs relieve. 165 

But neither Media's groves,* her teeming mold, 
Fair Ganges' flood, nor Hcrmus thick with gold ; 

paflfage ; particularly he feems to laugh at feme of their abfurd 
iiories: in thefe lines, 

Haec loca non tauri fpirantes narihus ipiem 

Jnvertere, fat is inmanis dfntibus bydrt^ 
he alludes to the famous ftory of Jafon. Mr. Thomfon has 
iinely imitated thefe praifcs of Italy in his Seafoos^ where he 
celebrates Gre;it Britain. See his Summer. 

tt52 P* ViRGiiii Marokis Georoica. " Lib. u 

Laudibus Italiae certent : non Ba&ra^ neque Indi, 

Totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis arenis. 

Haec loca non tauri fpiraates naribus ignem 140 

Invertere, fatis inmanis dentibus hydri -^ 

Nee galeis, denfifque vLrum feges horruit baftis ; 

Sed gravidae fruges, et Bacchi Mafficus hunvor 

ioplevere : tenent olcae armentaque laeta. 

Hinc bellator equus campo fefe arduus infert : 145 

Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges, et maxuma taurus 

Viftima, facpc tuo pcrfufi flumine (aero, 

Romanos ad templa deum duxere triumphos. 

Hie ver adfiduum, atque alienis menfibus aeftas : 

Bis gravidae peeudes, bis pomis utilis arbos. 150 

At rabidae tigres abfunt, et faeva leonum 

Semina: nee miferos fallunt aeonita legentis ; 

Nee rapit inmenfos orbis per humum, iieque tanto 

Squamcus in fpiram tradu fe conligic anguis* 

Adde tot egregias urbis, operumque laborcm, 155 

Tot congefta manu praeruptis oppida Taxis ; 

Fluminaque antiquos fubterlabcntia muros. 

An mare, quod fupra, mcmorem, quodque adluit infra, 

181. Clitumnus.'] Now called Clitumno ; it fifes a little below 
the village of Campello in Ombria. The inhabitants near thia 
river (liii retain a notion, that its waters are attended with a 
fupematural property, imagininfi; that it makes the cattle white 
that drink of it ; a quality for which it is likewife celebrated by 
many of the Latin poets. See Melmoth's Pliny, p. 4CS. 

196* W'ith towns — cliffsJ] Among other inftances of the hap- 
pinefs of Italy, Virgil mentions its having fo many towns built 
on craggy rocks and hills. There were more formerly, and are 
fevcrarftill. In the road foom Rome to Naples, you fee no left 
than four in one view, from the hill on which Pipcrno now 
ftands; reckoning that for one of them. Thcfe were very 
nfefui, of old, for defence, among fuch a fighting race of 
people : and are fo dill for their coolnefs, in fo hot a climate, 
that they are generally forced to drive their flocks of fheep up 
upon the mountains for the fummer feafon, as they ufually 
&fd them U the flieltered plains by the fea-fide in the winter. 

HoLDswoRTH and Spence. ^ 

198. Ocean.] Italy is waflicd on the north fide by the Adri- 
atic f|pa, or gulph ot Venice, which is calltd marr/uffrmm, or 


Book 2. The GEORorc« or Viroii. a5j 

Nor all the ftores Panchaia's glel^e expands. 

Where fpices overflow the fragrant fands ; 

Nor Baftrian, nor Arabian fields cart vte 170 

With the Weft fccnes of beauteous Italy. 

Bulls breathing fire her furrows ne'er have known. 

Ne'er with the dreadful dragon's teeth were fown. 

Whence fprung an iron crop, an armed train. 

With helm and fpear embattell'd on the plain. i/j 

But plenteous corn fhe boafts, and gen'rous wine, 

The lufcious olive, and the joyful kine. 

Hence o'er the plain the warrior-fteed elate. 

Prances with portly pace in martial ftatc 5 

Hence fnowy flocks waih'd in thy facred ftream, tfy 

Clitumnus, and of vidims the fupreme 

The mighty bull, have led, thro' (houting traim, 

Rome's pompous triumphs to the lofty fanes« 

The fields here fpring's perpetual beauties crown. 

Here fummer fhines in feafons not her own. 1S5 

Twice teem the cattle each revolving year^ 

And twice the trees theijT blviihing burthen bear« 

Nor here the tygrefs rears her rav'nous breed. 

Far hence is the fell lion's favage feed j 

Nor wretched funplers fpecious weeds invite, 190 

For wholefome herbs, to crop pale aconite : 

Nor fcaly fnakes in fuch vaft volumes glide. 

Nor on a train fo thick, and fpires fo lofty ride. 

Add too around what far-fam'd cities rife. 

What ftately works of daedal artifice ! 19 J 

With tow'red towns here craggy cliffs are crown'd. 

Here rivers roll old mofs-grown ramparts round. 

And (hail my fong her two-fold ocean boaft. 

That pours its riches forth on either coaft i 

the upper fea j and on the fouth fide by the Tyrt^im or Tufcan 
fea, which is qMcA mare infer urn, ^or the lower fea. The La- 
rius is a great lake at the foot of the Alps in the Milanefc, 
now cftUedj Lago di C^mg. The Benacus is another great lake 


^^J^i P. ViROiLii Maronis GeoroicA. Lib. ±4 

An ne lacus tantos ? te, Lari maxime, teque, 

Fludlibus et fremitu adfurgens, 'Benace, marino ? i6o 

An raemorem portus^ Lucrinoque addita clauftra : 

Atque indignatutn magnis ftridoribus aequor, 

Julia qua pbnto longc fonat unda refufo, 

Tyrrhenufque fretis inmittitur aeftus Avernis ? 

Haec eadem argenti rivos, aerifque metalla 165 

Oftcndit venis, atque auro plurima fluxit. 

Haec genus acre virum Marfos, pubemque Sabellam, 

Adfuetumque malo Ligurem, Volfcofque verutos 

Extulit : haec Decios, Marios, magnofque Camillos : 

Scipiadas duros bello : et te, maxime Cacfar : 170 

Q^.i nunc extremis Afiae jam viftbr in oris 

Inbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum. 

Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tcllas ; 

Magna virum : tibi res antiquae laudis et artis 

Ingredior, fan<Slos aUfus recludere fontis^ 175 

Afcraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen. 

Nunc locus arvorum ingeniis : quae robora cuique, 

Quis color, et quae fit rebus natura ferendis. 

Difficiles primum terrae, collefque maligni. 

Tenuis ubi argilla, et dumofis calculus arvis, l8c 

Palladia gaudent filva vivacis olivae. 

in the Veronefe, now called Lago di Garda ; out of which flows 
the Mincius, on the banks of which our poet was born. Lu- 
crinns and Avernus are two lakes of Campania ; the former of 
which was almoil wholly deftroyed by an earthquake, but the 
latter is flill remaining, and now called Lago d*4'vemo, 

114. T^e Scipios,^ The elder Scipio delivered his country 
from the invaiion of Hannibal, by transferring the war into 
Africa ; where he fubdued the Carthaginians, impofed a tri* 
bute upon them, and took hoflages. Hence he had the fur- 
name of Africanus, and the honour of a triumph • The younger 
Scipio triumphed for the conclufion of the third Punic war, 
by the total deftruftion of Carthage. Hence they were called 
the thunderbolts of war — duo fulmina belli Scipiadoi, Aen. 6. 
Virgil borrows the cxpreffion, from Lucretius, Scipiades bdU 

218. Jill hail.] The conclufion of Pliny's Natural Hiftory 
bears a very near refemblance 10 this pafiage^ and is very beau- 

Book 2. The Georgicst of Virgil. ' 255 

Her fpacious lakes; firft mighty Larius, thee ? 200 

And thee, Benacus, roaring like a fea ? 

Her ports and harbours, and the Lucrine mounds. 

From which the beating main indignant bounds ; 

Where Julius* flood of bonds impatient raves. 

And calna Avernus' ftreights confine the Tufcan waves ? 

Her fields with brafs and filver veins have glow'd, 206 

Her pregnant rocks with gold abundant flow'd. 

She birth to many a race, in battle brave. 

The Marfian, and the Sabine foldier, gave. 

Her's are Liguria's fons, untaught to yield, 210 

And her's the Volfci, fkilPd the fpear to wield ; 

The Decian hence, and Marian heroes came. 

Hence fprung thy line, Camillus, mighty name : 

Hence tofe the Scipios, undifmay'd in fight. 

And thou, great Caefar, whofe viSorious might, 215 

From Rome's high walls, on Afia's utmoft plains, 

Aw'd into peace fierce India's rage reftrains. 

All hail, Saturnian foil ! hail, parent great 

Of fruits and mighty men ! my lays repeat 

For thee this argument of ancient art, 220 

Thefe ufeful toils, rever'd of old, impart ; 

For thee, I dare unlock the facred fpring. 

And thro' the Roman ftreets Afcrean numbers fing. 

Next, of each various foil the genius hear ! 
Its colour, ftrength, what beft difpos'd to bear. 225 

Th' unfriendly clifFs, and unprolific. ground. 
Where clay jejune, and the cold flint abound. 
Where bufhes overfpread the ftubborn field. 
Will beft th' unfading grove of Pallas yield : 

tiful. Ergo in toto orhe et fuacunque coeli con*uexitas *uirgif, 
pule her rima eft omnium, rebufque merito principatum ohtinens, 
Italia t reOrix parenjque mundi altira \ 'viris, feeminis, ducibus, 
militibus, /er^iiiis, artium praeftantid, ingeniorum claritatibus, 
jam Jit u ac/alubritate coeli at que temperie, acceffu cunSarum gentium 
facili, littoribus portuofis, benigno <ventorum afflatu. The whole 
paiTage is worth the reader's perufal. 

9t5ft P« ViA^iEir MAROfrrs Georgica. LtK jb 

Indicio eft, frz&vt Alrgens oleafter eodent 

Plurimus, ct ftrati feoecis filvcftribus agri. 

At quae pifiguis hunHf», dulcique uligine laeta, 

Quique freqnens hcrbis et fertilis ubere campus, 185 

Qualem faeper cava momis ccmvsdie fotemus 

Difptcere : buc Aimmis liquontur rupibus amnc^s, 

f'eKcemque trabimt limum : qtitque editus Auftro, 

Et filicem curvis tnvifam paicic aratris : 

Hie tibi praevalidas olkn multoque fluentes 199 

Sufficiet baccho ritis : hie fertiHs txrae^ 

Nk laticis, qcualem paterts libamus et auro^ 

Inflavit cum pinguis cbur Tyrrhenus ad aras, 

Lancibus et pandis fumantta reddimus exta. 

Sin armenta- magi) ftudhim ritulofque tueri, 195 

Aut foetus ovium, aut lu^ntis culta capeHas : 

Si^us, et faturi petito longinqua Tarenti, 

Et qualem infelix amifit Mantua campum, 

Pafcentem niveos herbofo flumine cycnos. 

Non liquidi gregibus fontes, non gramina deerunt : 200 

Et quantum longis carpent armenta dtebus, 

Exigua tantum gelidus ros node reponet. 

Nigra fere, et preffo pinguis fub vomere terra, 

Et cui putre folum, (namque hoc imitamur arando) 

Optuma frumentis. non ullo ex aequorc cernes 205 

Plura domum tardts decedere plauftra juvencis : 

Attt unde iratus filvam devexit arator, 

Et nemora evertit multos ignava per annos, 

Antiquafque domes avium cum ftirpibus tmis 

£ruit : ilhe altum nidis petiere relidlis. 2X0 


&Qok 2» The Georgics of ViRcii*. 257 

Here the wild olive woods luxuriant fhoot, 230 

And all the plains are ftrewn with fylvan fruit. 

But the rich foil with genial force cndu'd, 

All green with grafs, with moifture fweet bedewM^ 

Such as we oft furvcy from caverh'd hills. 

Whence many a ftream defcends in dripping rills, 235 

And with rich ooze the fattening valley fills; 

Or that which feels the balmy fouthern air. 

And feeds the fern unfriendly to the (hare j 

Ere long will vines of luftieft growth produce. 

And big with bounteous Bacchus* choiceft juice, 24O 

Will give the grape, in folemn facrlfice, 

Whofe purple ftream the golden goblet dies ; 

When the fat Tufcan's horn has call'd the god. 

And the full chargers bend beneath the fmoking load. 

But bXillocks would you rear, and herds of cows, 245 

Or fheep, or goats that crop the budding boughs ; 

Seek rich Tarentum's plains, a diftant coaft. 

And fields like thofe my lucklefs Mantua loft ; 

His filver-pinion*d fwans where Mincio feeds. 

As flow they fail among the wat*ry weeds. 250 

There for thy flocks frefli fountains never fail. 

Undying verdure cloaths the grafly vale ; 

And what is crop'd by day, the night renews. 

Shedding refrefliful ftores of cooling dews. 

A fable mold and fat beneath the (hare, 255 

That crumbles to the touchy of texture rare. 
And (what our art eflfefts) by nature loofe. 
Will the beft groyrth of foodful gain produce : 
And from no field, beneath pale evening's ftar 259 

With heavier harvefts fraught, returns the* nodding car. 
Or elfe the plain, from which the ploughman's rage 
Has fell*d the foreft, hoar through many an age. 
And tore the tall trees from their ancient bafe. 
Long the dark covert of the feathery race ; 

Vol. I. S 

25S p. ViRGILII MAROms GfiOROICA. Lib. 2# 

At rudis enituit inpulfo vomere campus. 

Nam jejuna quidem clivofl glarea ruris 

Vix humilis aprbus cafias roremque miniftrat : 

£t tophus fcaber, et nigris exefa chelydris 

Creta, negant alios aeque ferpentibus agros 215 

Dulcem ferre cibum, et curvas praebere latebras* 

Quae tenuem exhalat nebulam, fumofque volucris ; 

£t bibit humorem, et, cum volt, ex fe ij^a remittit* 

Quaeque fuo fempcr viridi fe gramine veftit. 

Nee fcabie et falfa laedit robigine ferrum ; 226 

Ilia tibi laetis intexet yitibus ulmos : 

Ilia ferax oleo eft : illam experiere colendo, 

Et facilem .pecoriy et patientem vomeris unci, 

Talem dives arat Capua, et vicina Vefevo 

Ora jugO| et vacuis Clanius non aequus Accrris. 225 

Nunc, quo quamque modo poflls cognofcere, dicam. 

Rara fit, an fupra morem fi denfa, requiras ; 

Altera frumentis quoniam favet, altera bacchoi 

Denfa magis cereri, rariffima quaeque lyaeo : 

Ante locum capies oculis, alteque jubebis 23^ 

In folido puteum demitti, omncmque rcpones 

Rurfus humum, et pedibus fummas aequabis arenas* 

Si deerunt, rarum pecorique et ritious almis 

Aptius uber erit. fin in fua pofTe negabunt 

272. Roremque miniftrat.] Ros does not in this place HgiHify 
Jew, as Dry den tranflates it, but ro/emary. Virgil favs that 
the dry hungry foil (now under coniidcration) is of \o bar* 
ren a nature, that not even thofe common plants, cafia and 
rofemary> will grow in it. Dr. Martyn has proved the icafix 
here mentioned not to be the celebrated aromatic cafia, but a 
very vulgar herb. Perhaps the epithet kmrnilit, in this place> 
ought to be conflraed mean or in/gnificant, rather than Uw •/ 

288. Demfe.'\ Denfa figoifies fach a foil, as will not eafily ad'^ 
mit the rain, is eafily crack'd and apt to gape, and io let in 
the fun to the root of the vines, and in a manner to ftrangle 
the young plants. This therefore muft be a hard or ftiF fml ; 
vara, lets the fhowers quite through, and is apt to be dry'd up 
with the fan. Therefore this mull be a loofe foil. See Dr. 


Book t. The Georgics of Vxncit. 459 

Baniih'd their bow'rs, abroad they mount in air, 26$ 

While fhines the recent glebe beneath the (hare. 

For the lean gravel of the floping field. 

And mould'ring ftones, where fnakes their manfions build. 

Where in dark windings filthy reptiles breed. 

And find fweet food their lurking young to feed ; 270 

To bees ungenial, fcarcely will fupply 

Their cafia-flow'rs, and dewy rofemary. 

In that bleft ground, which from its opening chinks. 

At will, a {learning mift emits, or drinks ; 

Which blooms with native grafs for ever fair, 075 

Nor blunts with eating ruft the Aiding fhare. 

Round thy tall elms the joyous vines fhall weave j 

And floods of lufcious oil thy olives givd 5 

This, with due culture, thou (halt furely find 

Obedient to thy plough, and to thy cattle kind. 280 

Such fertile lands rich Capua's peafants till. 

And fuch the foil beneath Vefevus* hill ; 

And that, where o*er Acerrae's proftrate towVs 

Clanius his fwelling tide too fiercely pours. 

Rules to know different foils I next difpenfe ; 285 

How to diftinguifh from the rare the denfe. 
This bcft for vines, that golden grain approves, 
Ceres, the denfe ; the rare Lyaeus loves. 
Firft choofe a fpot that's for the purpofe fit, . 
Then dig the folid earth; and fink a pit; 200 

Next, to its bed th' ejefted foil reftore. 
And prefs with trampling feet the furface o'er ; 
If the mold fail, 'tis light ; that foil inclines 
To fatten herds, and fwell thy clufter'd vines. 

Martyn, who grounds this interpretation on JuliiU Graecinns, 
as he is qaoted by Columella. * 

2Sq. Cifoofi.} It is extremely difficult to make this experiment^ 
which is told with great dignity in the Latin, read gracefully 
and agreeably in a tranflauon, particularly the animated ex* 
preffionsy m^abumi irt Iku^ it fuftrabit ttrra* 
S 2 


.Ire loca, ct fcrobibus fupcrabit terra rcpletis, 23$ 

Spifiiis ager : glebas cun^antis crafTaque terga 
ExfpcSa, et validis terrain profcinde juvencis. 
Salfa autem tellus, et quae perhibctur amara, 
Frugibus infclix (ea nee manfuefcit arando, 
Ncc baccho genus, aut pomis fua nomina fervat) 240 
Tale dabit fpecimen. tu fpiffo vimine qualos, 
Colaque praelorum fumofis deripe te£lis. 
Hue ager ille malus, dulcefque a fontibus undae 
Ad plenum calcentur. aqua^lu£labitur omnis 
Seilicet, et grandes ibunt per vimina guttae. 245 

At fapor indicium faciet manifcftus, et ora ^ 
Triftia tentantum fenfu torquebit amaror. 
Pinguis Item quae fit tellus, hoc denique pa£lo 
Difcimus. baud umquam manibus ja6lata fatifcit, 
Sed picis in morem ad digitos lentefcit habendo. 250 

Humida majores alit herbas, ipfaque juflo 
Laetior. ah nimium ne fit mihi fertilis ilia, 
Neu fe praevalidam primis oftendat ariftis ! 
Quae gravis eft, ipfo tacitam fe pondere prodit ; 
Quaequc levis. promptum eft oculis praedifcere nigram, 
Et quis cui color, at fceleratum exquirere frigus 256 
Difficile eft : piceae tantum, taxi que nocentes 
Interdum, aut ederae pandunt veftigia nigrae. 
His animadverfis, terram multo ante memento 
Excoqucre, et magnos fcrobibus concidere montis, 26© 
Ante fupinatas aquiloni oftenderc glebas, 
Quam lactum infodias vitis genus, optima putri 
Arva folo : id venti curant, gelidaeque pruinae, 
Et labcfafta movens robuftus jugera foffor. 

309. Bitter,'] Amaror is in the ftyle of Lucrctios, and the 
true reading ; though many Kad amaro, making it agree with 
fenfu. Sbrvius. 

311. It flicks.] Ad digitos lentefcit habendo, cannot ftartlc a 
delicate ear fo jnuch as mull the tranflation of that expreifion 



Book 2. ' The Georgic? of Virgil. 261 

But o'er the pit replenifliM, if the ground 5195 

Still rife, and in fuperfluous heaps abound. 

O'er the thick glebe let fturdy bullocks toil. 

Cleave the compa£ted clods and fluggiih foil. 

But earth that's bitter, or with fait imbu'd. 

Too wild for culture, for the plough too rude, 300 

Where apples boaft no more their purple hues. 

And drooping Bacchus yields degen'rate juice. 

May thus be known : Of twigs a baflcet twine 

Like that from whence is ftrain'd the recent wine ; 

This with the foil and cryftal water fill, 305 

Then fqueeze the mafs, while thro' the twigs diftil 

The big round drops in many a trickling rill ; 

Soon fhall its nature from its tafte appear. 

And the wry mouth the bitter juice declare. 

We learn from hence a fat and vifcid land ; 310 

It flicks like pitch uncrumbled to the hand ; 

The moifter mold a rank luxuriance feeds, 

Qf Icngthen'd gr^fs, and tall promifcuous weeds ; 

O may be mine no over-fertile plain, 

That (hoots too ftrongly forth its earfy grain ! 315 

The light and heavy in the balance try. 

The black and other colours ftrike the eye j 

Not fo the cold ; lo 1 there dark ivy fpreads. 

Or yews on pitch-trees lift their gloomy heads, 

Thefe rules obferv'd, expofe the clods to dry, 320 
Bak'd and concovSted by the northern (ky. 
Trench deep, and turn the foil, before ye place 
The tender vines, a joy-dlffufing race j 
Fat molds grow mellow by the delver's pains, 
Py fanning winds and frofts, and cooling rains. 325 

from the fingle clrcumftance« of a vulgar idea being quite con- 
cealed in any dead language. 


i62 P* ViRciLXX Marokis Georoxca. Lib. %. 

At fi quos haud ulla viros vigilantia fiigit ; 165 

•Ante locum fimilcm cxquirunt, ubi prima parctur 

Arboribus fcgcs, ct quo mox digcfta feratur, 

Mutatam ignorent fubito ne femina matrem. 

Quin etiam caeli regionem in cortice fignant : 

Ut, quo quaeque modo fteterit, qua parte calores ijm 

Auftrinos tulerit, quae terga obverterit axi, 

Reftituant. adeo in teneris confuefcere multum eft, 

Collibus, an piano melius fit ponere vitem. 

Quaere prius. fi pinguis agros metabere campi, 

Denfa fere : in denfo non fegnior ubere bacchus. ^^5 

iSin, tumulis adcHve folum coUifque fupinos. 

Indulge ordinibus : nee fecius omnis in unguem , 

Arboribus pofitis Cc€to via limite quadret* 

Ut faepe ingenti bello cum longa cohortis 

Explicuit legio, ct campo^etit agmen aperto^ aSo 

Pire£laeque acies, ac late fluduat omnis 

Aere renidenti tellus, nee dum horrida mifcent 

327.1 Colnmella iays the trenches ihoald be dog a year- be^ 
forehand. Mr. Holdfworth afed to fay, that Columella's trea-r 
tife on hufbandry was by much the beft comment on Virgil's 
Georgics, that he knew of. Spencb. 

327. Tivo/oHj,] Having explained the feveral (ons of fc^, 
fays Marcyn, he proceeds to give fome inftru^ons concerniiig 
the planting of vines ; and (peaks of the trenches to be made 
to receive the plants out of the narfery ; of taking care tha( 
the nurfery and the vineyards ihould have a like foii, and that 
the plants ihould be fet with the fame afpeft which they had in 
the nurfery. 

346. Js in juft ranki.'\ Vir^, fays Pr. Martyn, does not 
mean the form of a fiiuincunx in this defcription, but that yoq 
(hQttld plant your vines in a fquare in the following order ; 

% % % % % 

% % % % % 

« * « « « 

^ % % % % 

As Virgil pon^pares the difpoiition of the trees in a vineyard^ 

to an army drawn up in battle-array, *tis evident that he muH 

mean this figure. The Romans «fttally allowed three foot 

10 iquaro 

Book 2* The Giorgics of Virgil. 263 

But hinds of greater diligence and care» 
Two foils^ of genius fimilar prepare. 
Left the fond oiFspring its changed mother mourn, 
And genial lap whence fuddenly 'tis torn : 
Thus plants from infancy to ftrength arrive, 330 

And in a kindred foil, tranfplanted thrive. 
Befides their former fite they nicely mark. 
With fliarpen*d knife upon the yielding bark j 
And place them as before they ftood inclined . 
To the hot fouth, or bluftering northern wind : 335 

Such is the^ftrength of cuftom, fuch appears * 

The force of habits gain'd in tender years. 

Confider, firft, if beft the vine will grow 
On the high hill, or in the valley low. 
If on rich plains extends thy level ground, 340 

Thick fet thy plants, and Bacchus will abound ; 
If on a gentle bill or floping bank. 
In meafur'd fquares exa<Sl your vineyards rank ; 
Each narrow path and equal opening place. 
To front, and anfwer to the croffing fpace, 345 

As in juft ranks, and many an ordered band. 
On fome vaft plain the Roman legions ftand. 
Before the fhouting fquadrons battle join. 
And earth reflects the dazzling armour's fhine, 

fquare for every common foldier to manage his ar^nsy (hat is* 
fix foot between each> which is a proper diflance for the vines 
in Italy* according to Columella^ who fays the rows fhould 
not be wider than ten feet* nor nearer than four. 

549. JttJ iorth refleas.] Aere renidenti uUus, fays the ori- 
ginal. This expreflion is borrowed from Lucretius's aere 
xen'tdefcit tellus. Both thefe pp^ts feem to have ha4 Euripides 
i^i their eye ; 

niJio» ir^avru. fhaenifi. ver. iio. 

Thf fhiDing beauties of the clofters of the vines (fays Dn 
Martyn) is^ finely reprefented by the fplendor of the brazen 
arms. I beg for once to diffent from this learned gentleman* 
and to ohfcrve* that this part of the comparifon feems too 
ininute, ^ni too 91^ Ukc a^ Italian conceit* for Virgil tp have 
thought of, 


264 P- VzROitzi Maronis Georgica. Lib. 2« 

Proelia, fed dubius mediis Mars errat in armis. 

Omnia flnt paribus numeris dimenfa viarum : 

Non animum modo uti pafcat profpeflus inanem : 285 

Sed quia non aliter vires dabit omnibus aequas 

Terra, neque in vacuum poterunt fc extendere rami. 

Forfitan et fcrobibus quae fint faftigia quaeras. 

Aufim vel tenui vitem committere fulco. 

Altior ac terrae penitus defigitur arbo^, 290 

Aefculus in primis : quae quantun^ vertice ad au^as 

Aetherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit. 

Ergo non hicme^ illam, non flabra, neque imbres 

Convellunt. inmqta manet, multofqucnepotes, 

Multa virfim volvcns durando faecula vincit. 295 

Turn fortis late ramos et brachia tendens 

Hue illuc, media ipfa ingentem fuftinet umbram. 

Neve tibi ad folem vcrgant vineta cadentcm : 

Neve inter vites coru^urp fere : neve flagella 

Summa pete, aut fumma deftringe ex lar^ore plantas : 

(Tantus amor terrae) neu ferro laede retufo 301 

Semina, neve oleae filyeftris infere truncos. 

>Jam faepe incautis paftbribus excidit ignis. 

Qui furtim pingui primum fub cortice tedlus 

Robora conprendit, frondefque elabfus in altas 305 

Ingentem caelo fonitum dedit. inde fecutus 

Pec ramos viSor, perque alta cacumina rcgnat, 

Et totum involvit flammis nemus, et ruit atram 

Ad caelum picea craffiis caligine nubcm : 

Praefcrtim fi tempeftas a vertice filvis 310 

Incubuit, glomeratque fercns incendia ventus. 

3 50. Marsflernly, ] This is the only fimile in all this Gcorgic ; 
the rcaron of which fcems to be, that metaphors and (hort de- 
fcriptions, which afc fo frequent in every part of this Gcorgic, 
are of the fame nacure and ufe in poetry, as Amile^. Bej^son. 

370. To the njjefi i/ecitne.] 'Tis worth obferving that the poet 
has brought together here, more precepts than m any part of 
all the Georgics ; but it is likewife remarkable, that he has 
placed them vory artfully betwixt that fine pafiage juil men*- 
tioned, and another equally beautiful. j§£KS02i. 

Book 1. The Georgics of Virgil, 26 f 

Mars fternly ftalks each equal front betwixt, 35© 

Nor yet the fate of either hoft is fixt : 
Ev'n thus, your vines difposM at diftance due, 
Not only ftrike with joy the gazer's view. 
But earth more equal nutriment ftipplics, 
The plants find fpace to fpread, and vigorous rife. 555 
Perhaps the depth of trenches you'll demand ; ' 

The vine I dare to plant in fhallow land ; 
But forcft-trees that rear their branches higher, 
A deeper mold, and wider room require : 
Chief the tall Aefculus, that tow-rs above 36Q 

Each humbler tree, the monarch of the grove j 
High as his head fhoots lofty to the fkies. 
So deep his root in hell's foundation lies ; 
While ftorms and wintry blalls and driving rain 
Beat fiercely on his ftately top in vain ; 365 

Unhurt, unmov'd, he ftands in hoary ftate. 
For many an age beyond frail mortals' date. 
This way and that, his vaft arms widely fpread,* 
He in the midft fupports the thick-furrounding (bade. 
Nor let thy vineyards to the weft decline ; 37# 

Nor hazles plant amid the joyous vine ; 
No fcions pluck a-top, but near the roots ; 
Nor wound with blunted fteel the red'ning flioots ; 
Nor let wild olives (noxious plants !) be found 
Nigh to thofe fpots where lufcious grapes abound. 375 
For oft from heedlefs (hepherds falls a fpark. 
Which lurking firft beneath the unduous bark. 
Seizes the folid tree ; with dreadful roar 
The flames thro' catching leaves and branches foar, 
Swift thro' the crackling wood triumphant fly, 380. 

And hurl the pitchy clouds into the darkened flcy. 
But moft they ravage, if the roaring wind 
With doubled rage fliould rife, with fire combin'd j 

376. Falls a/fari,] This fine defcripdon of a fire raging 
among the vines and their fapporters, judiciouily relieves the 
dryness of the Didaftic lines preceding. 


Hoc ubi I non a ftirpe valent, caefaeque reverti 

Foflunt, atque ima fimiles revirefcere terra : 

Infblix fuperat foliis deafter amaris. 

Nee tibi tain prudens quifquam perfuadeat audoTt 3'5 

Tellurem Borea rigidam fpirante moveri. 

Rura gelu turn claudit hiems : nee Temine jaAo 

Concretam patitur radicetn adfigere terrae. 

Optima vinetis fatio, cum vere rubenti 

Candida venit avis longis invifa colubris : 320 

Prima vel audumni fub frigora, cum lapidus Sol 

Nondum hiemem contingit equis. jam praeterit aeftas« 

Veradeo frondi nemorum, ver utile filvis : 

Vere tument terrae, et genitalia femma pofcunt. 

Tum pater omnipotens fecundis imbribus Aether ; 325 

Conjugis in gremium laetae defcendit, et omnes 

Magnus alit, magno coniiiixtus corpore, foetus. 

Avia tum refonant avibus virgulta canoris, 

£t venerem certis rtpetunt armenta diebus : 

Parturit almus ager, Zephyrique tepentibus auris 350 

Laxant arva Anus, fuperat tener omnibus humor ; 

Inque novos foles audent fe.germina tuto 

Credere : nee metuit furgentis pampinus Auftro$» 

Aut a&um caelo magnis Aquilonibus imbrem : 

Sed trudit gemmas, et frondis explicat omnis, * 335- 

Non alios prima crefcentis origine mundi 

Inluxifle dies, aliumve habuifle tenorem 

Crediderim. ver illud erat : ver magnus agebat 

Orbisy et hibernis parcebant flatibus Euri : 

S9i'^h/j>riMg.] There are few pafiages in the Georgics more 
charming than this defeription ot fpring. He (hives hard to 
excel Lucretius, but I am afraid it cannot be faid that he has 
done it. The eomfa^ in gnmmm is evidently taken from 

In gnmium matris ttrrdi frateifitaivii* 
And the following lines of the fame writer^ to whom Virgil 

Book a. The GEOiiGicff of Vjacii* .267. 

No vines, hereafter, fowM, or prunM, will thrive j 

The bittcr-Icav'd wild olives fole furvivc. ^85 

Let none perfuade to plant, in winter hoar, 

When rigid Boreas* fpirit blufiers frore ; 

Winter the pores of earth fo clofely binds. 

No palTage the too tender fibre finds ; 

Plant beft the vines, in blulhing fpring's frefh bloom, 390 

When the white bird, the dread of fnakes, is come : 

Or in cool autumn, when the fununer's paft, 

£re Phoebus' fteeds to the cold tropic hafte* 

In fpring, in bluihing fpring, the woods refume 
Their leafy honours, and their fragrant bloom ; 395 
Earth fwells with moifture all her teeming lands, 
A genial frudifying feed demands ; 
Almighty Jove defqends, more full of life. 
On the warm bofom of his kindling wife ; 
The birds with mufic fill the pathlefs groves, 4Q9 

Stung by defire the beafls renew their loves ; 
The buried grain appears, the fields unbind 
Their pregnant bofoms to the weftem wind ; 
The fpringing grafs to truft this feafon dares ; 
No tender vine the gathering tempefts fears, 40 j 

By the black north or roaring Aufter roird. 
But fpreads her leaves, and bids her gems unfold. 
Such were the days, the feafon was the fame. 
When fiiik arofe this world's all-beauteous frame ; 
The (ky was cloudlefs, balmy was the air, 410 

And fpring's mild influence made young nature fair : 

is indeed infinitely obliged, are very fine ; he it likewife fpeak* 
ing of the genial influence of the ipripg : 

H/MC Uetoi mriii puerisflwtri vidimus, 
FronJiferafqui nfvis avJitu casur^ muliftii J^lvai. 
Hincfijfae pi€udes pinguis par pahmla laeta . 
Corpora dipauunt, et candnu laBius humor 
Vhiribut mauat difieuiis \ hi ue nova proles 
jirtibus infirmis umras lajctva fir htrbas 
hudit Uaiuuro, nuntts percuffa uovtllas. 
404« The afiaribing boldneis and fear to trees is highly poetical. 

i68 P. Vikcuii Maronis Georgica. Irib. 2. 

Cum primae lucem pecudes haufere, virumque 340 

^rrea progenies' duris caput extulit arvis, 

Inmiflaeque ferae filvis, et fidera caelo. 

Nee res hunc tenerae pofTent pcrfcrre laborem. 

Si non tanta quies iret frigufque caloremque 

Inter, et exciperet caeli indulgentia terras. 34c 

<!^od fupereft, qaaecumquc prcmes virgulta per agrosj^ 

Sparge fimo pingui, et multa memoir occule terra : 

Aut lapidem bibulum, aut Ajualentis infode conchas. 

Inter enim labentur aquae, tenuifque fubibit 

Halltus, atque animos tollentfata. jamque reperti, 35Q 

Qui faxo fuper, atque ingentis pondere teftae 

Urguerent : hoc eiFufos munimen ad imbris : 

Hoc, ubi hiulca ftti findit Canis aeftifer arva. 

Seminibus pofitis, Aipcrcft deduccre terram 

Saepius ad capita, et duros ja£tare bidentis : 35^ 

Aut'prcffo cxerccre folum fub vomcre, et ipfa 

Fle£lere luSantis inter vineta juvencos. 

Turn levis calamos, et rafae haftilia virgae, 

Fraxineafque aptare fudes, furcafque bicornis : 

Viribus eniti quarum, et contcmnere ventos 36Q 

Adfuefcant, fummafque fequi tabulata per ulmos. 

Ac, dum prima novis adolefcit frondibus aetas, 

Parcendum teneris : et dum fe laetus ad auras 

415. S/ars.] This feems to be oddly put together at firft 
fight. The forefls were ftock'd with beafb, and the heavens 
with conilellations. It was not fo in thofe times, when the 
confleilations were generally coniidered as real animals, and 
many of them as men, but mofl of them as beads. The pro- 
logue to Plautus's Rudens is fpoken by Ardiurus, as one of 
the Drama/is Per/onat, S P E N c £ . 

422. Pebbles biJe.] Mr. Evelyn mention? the placing pot- 
fherds, pebbles, or flints near the root of the ftem ; but then 
he adds, remember you remove them after a competent time, 
clfe the vermin, fnails, and infedts, which they produce and 
ihclter, will gnaw and greatly injure their bark ; and therefore 
to lay a coat of moift rotten, litter with a little earth upon it, 
will prerer\'c it moift in fummer, and warm in winter, enrich- 
ing the (howers and dews that ftrain thro' it. 

Evelyn of Forcft Trees. 

Book 2. . Thb Georgics of ViROiLt a69 

When cattle firft o'er new-born mountains fpread, -' 

And man, an iron race, uprcar*d his hardy head-: 

When beafts thro' pathlefs braikes began to prowl. 

And glittering ftars thro' heav'n's blue concave roll. 415 

Nor could this infant world fuftain th' extremes 

Of piercing winter, and hot Sirius' beams. 

Did not kind Heav'n, the fierce exccfs between, *" 

Bid gentler fpring's foft feafon intervene. 

Now, when you bend the layers to the ground, 410 
Caft fatt'ning dung and copious mold around ; 
Or near the roots rough fliells and pebbles hide. 
Thro' which the foftering rains may gently glide ; 
Thro' which may fubtle vapours penetrate, 
And to large growth the tendrils iiiftigate. 425 

There are, with weights of ftone who prefs the roots, 
Beft fafeguard to the plants, and future fruits, 
Poth in immoderate fhowers, or fummer's heat. 
When Sirius' beams on the parcht vineyard beat. 
About the roots oft turn the neighboring foil, 43O 

And urge the drag and hough with frequent toil j 
Or introduce thy plough's unwieldy load. 
And 'twixt thy vines the ftruggling bullocks goad. 
Then the fmooth cane, the forky afli prepare, 
Auxiliar pole, and ftrong fupporting fpear j 435 

Aflifted thus, the lufty plants defpife 
The {battering whirlwinds, and the ftormy ikies. 
And to the tall elm's top by juft gradations rife. 
The new-born buds, the tender foliage fpare; 
The (boots that vigorous dart into the air, 440 

436. AJJifted thus.'X The word talulata in the original fig^ 
nifies the branches of elms extended at proper diftancet to fuf- 
tain the vines. 

440. Dart int^ tin air.] The original fays, laxis ferfurmm 
Immiffiu bahtms: this expreflion is doubtlefir extremely bold 
and ftrongf bat the poet had the authority of his mafter LOf 

Cn/Ktndi mapmm . immJIts cirtamnt iabmf* 

%*f9 p. Vinof txi MARoirai GEoROiciU Lif>. % 

Pa}me» agit» laxis per purum ihraiiTttt habenis^ 

Ipfa acies nondum falcis tentanda, fed uncis 365 

Carpendae manibus frondet^ interque legendae. 

lade ubi jam vattdis ampkxae ftirpibus ulmot 

Exierint, turn ftringe comas» turn bracfaia tonde* 

Ante reformidant ferrum : turn denique dura 

Exerce imperia, et ramos conpefce fluentis. 370 

Texendae fepes edam, et pecus omne tenendum : 

PMecipue dum frons tehera inprudenfque laborum : 

Ctti, fuperindignas hiemes folemque potentemi 

Silveftres uri affidue capreaeque fequaces 

Inludunt : pafcuntur oves avidaeque juvencae. 375 

Frigora nee tantum cana concreta pruina, 

Aut gravis incumbens fcopulis arentibus aeftus. 

Quantum ill! nocuere greges,. durique venenum 

Dentis, et admorfo fignata in ftirpe cicatrix. 

Non aliam ob culpam Baccho caper omnibus aris 389 

Caeditur, et vetcres ineunt profcenia ludj : 

Praemiaque ingeniis pagos et compita circiim 

Thcfidae pofuere, atque inter pocula laeti 

Mollibus in pratis undbs faliere per utres. 

Ncc non Aufonii, Troja gens mifla, coloni 385 

Verfibus incomtis ludunt, rifuque foluto ; 

Oraque corticibus fumunt horrenda cavatis : 

%t te, Bacche, vocant per carmina laeta, tibique 

Ofcilla ex alta fufpendunt mollia pinu. 

460. Hence •fi the Irfty ftmge,'\ The antient theatre was a 
femicircular building, appropriated to the a^ne of pl^A>, the 
hattie bein^ deriTed from ^ifto^ou to behold. It was dirided 
into the following parts. 1. The porticus^ fcaUut /edibai- 
the rows ^ fediUa^ or feats^ were called cnna^ becaufe they 
were formed like wedges, growing narrower, as they came 
nearer the center of the theatre ; and thefe were all difpofed 
about the circumference of the theatre, t. The orcheftra, fo 
called from ^^y^^itAm to dance : it was the inner part, or center 
of the theatre, and the loweft of all, and hollow, whence the 
whole open fpace of the theatre was called cornea. Here fat 
the fenators, and here were t^e dancers and mnfic. 3. The 
pre/cemum, which was a place drawn from one horn of the 


Book 2* The Georgics of Vntciu Hf^ 

Difdaining bonds, all free, and full of likf 

O dare not wound too foon with (harpenM knife I 

Infert your bending fingers, gently cull 

The roving (hoots, and red'ning branches pull : 

But when they clafp their elms with ftrong embrace, 44.5 

Lop the luxuriant boughs, a lawlefs race ; 

Ere this, they dread the fteel j now, now, reclaim 

The flowing branches, the bold wand'rers tame. 

Guard, too, from cattle thy new-planted ground. 

And infant-vines that ill can bear a wound : 4JQI 

For not alone by winter's chilling froft, 

Or fummer's fcorching beam the young are loft ; 

But the wild buffaloes and greedy cows. 

And goats and fportive kids the branches browze ; 

Not piercing colds, nor Sirius' beams that beat 455 

On the parcht hills, and fplit their tops with heat. 

So deeply injure, as the nibbling flocks. 

That wound with venom'd teeth the tender, fearful ftocksif 

Hence is the goat on Bacchus' altar laid. 

Hence on the lofty ftagc are fables play'd. 464 

Th* Athenians firft to rival wits decreed. 

In ftreets and villages the poet's meed ; 

The feaft with mirth and foaming goblets kept. 

And on the g'oat-fkin bladders rudely leapt. 

Nor lefs th* Aufonian fwains derived from Troy, 46^ 

Sport in rough numbers and unwieldy joy ; : 

Their hollow vizards fcoop from barks of trees. 

And ftain their ghaftly malks with purple lees j 

Bacchus, on thee they call, in hymns divine. 

And hang thy ftatues on the lofty pine : 470 

theatre to the other, between the orcheftra and the fcene, be- 
ing higher than the orcheftra^ and lower than tiie fcene: 
here the comic and tragic a^rs i'poke and a^d upon an ele- 
vated place, which was called the fulfitum, or ftage. 4. The 
fcene was the oppoiite part to the audience, decorated whk 
pidlares and columns, and ori^nally with trees, to (hade the 
adors, when they performed in the open air. ;• ProJctm'Mmp 
or part behind the (cencs. Rvaevs. 

%'t% p. VlRGlLII MaRONIS GfiORCItA. Lib. U 

«'*.• * ... ... 

Hinc omnis largo pubefcit yinea foetu : 3^ 

Conplentur vallofque cavae faltufque profundi, 

£t quocumque Deus circum caput egit honeftum. 

Ergo rite .fuos Baccho dicemus honores 

C^minibus patriis, lancefque et liba feremus ; 

£t dudus cornu ftabit facer hircus ad aram, 395 

Pinguiaque in verubus torquebimus exta colurnis. 

£ft etiam ille labor curandis vitibus alter : 

Cui numquam exhaufti fatis eft. namque omne quotannis 

Tcjrquc quaterque folum fcindendum, glebaque verfis 

Aeternum frangenda bidentibus : omne levandum 400 

Fronde nemus. redit agricolis labor a^us in orbem, 

Atque in fe fua per veftigia volvitur annus. 

Ac jam olim feras pofuit cum vinca frondis^ 

Frigidus et fllvis Aquilo decuffit honorem ; 

Jam turn acer curas venientcm extendit in annum 405 

Rufticus, et curvo Saturni dente reli<flam 

Perfequitur vitem adtondens, iingitque putando. 

Primus humum fodito, primus deve<£bi cremato 

Sarmenta, et vallos primus fub teda referto : . 

roftVemus metito. bis vitibus ingruit umbra : 410 

Bis fegetem denfis obducunt fcntibus herbae. 

Durus uterque labor, laudato ingentia rura: 

Exiguum colito. nee non etiam afpera rufci 

yimina per filvam, et ripis fluvialis arundo 

Caeditur, incultique cxercet cura falifti. 415 

Jam vinftac vites : jam falccm arbufta rcponunt : 

Jam canit cfFoetus extremes vinitor antes. 

473. TJbe GoJ.] Virgil fpeaks of feme little heads of Bac-' 
chus, which the countrymen of old hung up on trees, that the 
Ace might turn ev6ry way ; out of a notion that the rcgardi 
of this god gave felicity to their vineyards : and Ovid men- 
tions Bacchus's turning his face towards him, as a bleffing. 
The former, in a paiTage, which is not very cafy to be undcr- 
flood of itfelf ; and for the full underftanding of which, I 
was obliged to a gem in the Great Duke's colledion at Flo- 
rence. Virgil on this occafion fays, that there is plenty whcrc- 
ever this god turns his beautiful face. Mr. Dry den, in his 
Vanflation of the words^i feems to have borrowed his idea of 



fidok 2. The Georoics of Virgil. 273 

Hence plenty every laughing vineyard fiUsj 

Thro' the deep vallies and the floping hills ; 

Where-e'cr the God inclines his lovely face, 

More lufcious fruits the rich plantations grace. 

Then let us Bacchus' praifes duly fmg, 475 

And confecrated cakes, and chargers bring ; 

Dragg'd by their horns let viftim-goats expire. 

And roaft on hazel fpits before the facred fire« , . 

Another toil in dreffing vines remains^ 
Unconquerable ftill by ceafelefs pains ^ 48^ 

Thrice arid four times the foil, each rolling year. 
The ponderous ploughs, and heavy drags muft bear 1 
Leaves muft be thinn'd : ftill following in a ring 
The months frefh labours to the peafants bring. 
Ev'n when the tree its laft pale leaves hath fhed, 485 
And Boreas ftript the honours of its head). 
To the next year the careful farmers look. 
And form the plapt with Saturn's bending hook. 
Dig thou the firft, and (hoots fuperfluous burn. 
And homeward firft the vineyard's flakes return j. 499 
But, uirbetray'd by too impatient hafte. 
To reap thy lufcious vintage be the lafti 
Twice noxious weeds, twice ftiade, o'er-run the land, 
Whofe rank increafe requires the pruner's hand. 
To larger vineyards praife or wonder yield, 495 

fiut cultivate a fmall and manageable field. 
Nor fail to cut the broom and watery reed, 
And the wild willow of the grafly mead. 
The vines now ty'd with many a ftrengthcning band. 
No more the culture of the knife demand. 500 

Glad for his labour paft and long employ. 
At the laft rank the dreiTer fings for joy I 

Bacchus ftom the vulgar reprcfentatiofts of him 60 oar fign- 
poftt, and fo calls it, [in dpn^ttrigbt ingitfi] Bauhtu'i honefi 
f^^9* Po^Y METIS, page 130. 

50 J. At th Ufi rtrnkJ] Mr. Bcnfon coinj>lains, that he 
could not find that the word antes in the orifinal, was ufcd 

Vot.I. T hj 

274 P* ViRGiLii Marokis Gsorgica. lab. 2. 

Sollicitanda tamen tellus, pulvifque movendus, 

£t jam maturis metuendus Juppiter uvis. 

Contra, non ulla eft oleis cultura : neque illae 42e 

Procurvam exfpeiSant ^cem raftrofque tenaces. 

Cum femel haeferunt anris, aurafque tulerunt. . 

Ipfa fatis tcllus, cum Jente recluditur unco, 

Sufficit humorem, et gravidas cum vomere frugcs. 

Hoc pinguem et placitam Paci nutritor olivam. 425 

Poma quoque, ut primum truncos fenfere valentis, 

£t viris habuere fuas, ad fidera raptim 

Vi propria nituntur, opifque baud indiga noftrae. 

Nee minus interea foetu nemus omne gravefcit, 

Sanguindfque inculta rubent aviaria baccis* 430 

Tondentur cytifi, taedas filva alta miniftrat, 

Pafcunturque igncs nodumi, ac lumina fimdunt. 

£t dubitant homines ferere, atque inpendere curam ? 

Quid majora fequar ? falices, humilefque geneftae, 

Aut illae pecori frondem, aut paftoribus umbras, 4^ 

Sufficiunt : fepemquc fatis, et pabula melli. 

£t juvat undantem buxo fpecbure Cytorum, 

Naryciaeque picis lucos : juvat arva ridere, 

Non raftris hominum, non ulli obnoxia curac. 

by any other Reman writer, and f^ys, that he did not know 
what to make of it. Ic UDdoub:edly lignifies ramis o^fits^ aad 
is a metaphor cakes from the army. For Cato de Rg MiBiwri, 
(aySy fid'uu qvaSmcr Agmimihrns, equites dmshus anfi6ms dmm, 

505. Bus tsppifr ci:ves.] We are now come to a new Iceoe. 
Hither CO Virgil aas e:k-patiated on the vine ; but now beentera 
on a very dift'erent fubjeft. He has (hewn what cndlels laboor 
the vine requires, and the uncertainty' of the prodod at liSU^ 
Now, (ays he, quite contrary to the vine, the oiire requires po 
labour at all, after it is once well fettled in the grouiuL All 
you need do, is to plougli the foil :;bott: them, and yoa may 
be fure of a crop of olives. 

After olives, he goes on to fruit trees ; and all the tronblc 
that belongs to thtm u nothiag but -ngraf^ng. Then he pie- 
cecds to the wild fbreft fruits, which require no na&aer of U* 
hour ; aftenvards to the cyiifus, wilio«». :c ze, box, and 
other plants ; kud Uikl), hs declares the otchUncft t>l' eld de- 
cayed uea« 


Book a. Thx GrMiioicd or Virgil. 3175 

Yet ftill muft he fubdue, ftill turn the mold. 
And his ripe grapes ftill fear Jove's piercing cold. 

But happier oi;ves alk nor pains nor care, 505 

When rooted once, they mount into the air. 
Nor harrow's teeth, nor arched knives demand^ 
•But felf-fuftain'd, alone, and vigorous, ftand. 
If crooked teeth juft make her furface loofe. 
The earth alone the plants fupplies with juice ; 510 

But if more deep thy ploughs unlock the foil. 
From the large berries burft rich floods of oil : 
Then ne'er to raife the fruitful olive ceafe. 
The plant of Pallas, and the pledge of peace. 
And when th* engrafted apples feel their ftrength, 515 
Their trunks they ftretch, and doubled is their length j 
While fwift they dart into the lofty flcies, . 
S^lf-nourilh'd ftand, nor afk from man fuppties. 
Nor lefs wild fruits in pathlefs forefts grow ; 
And haunts of birds with blufliing berries glow i 520 
The cytifus of foodful leaves is (horn, 
And prudence finds an ufe in cv'ry thorns 
The pitchy pines afford us heat and light. 
To cheat the tedious gloom of wintry night. . 
And can the fwains ftill doubt, and ftill forbear, 525 
To plant, to dig, and cultivate, with care ? 
Why fing I trees alone, that loftier rife ? 
The lowly broom to cattle, browze fupplies 5 
Willows to panting fhepherds fhadc difpenfe. 
To bees their honey, and to corn defence. 530 

What joy to fee Cytorus wave with box. 
And pines nod aweful on Narycium's rocks ! 
Fields, that ne*er felt or rake or cleaving fliare. 
Wild above art, difdaining human care ! 

Thns he makes this work of univerfal concern. All lands 
will not bear vines^ or corn, or olives ; but every land will 
bear fomething or other^ and by pointine out the produce of 
the feveral kinds of fbil» he applies himfclF to all forts of coun- 
try people'. fiSNSOK. 

T 2 

ijb P..VniciLii Maronis Georcica. Lib. a* 

Ipfae Caucafio fteriles in vertice filvae, 440 

Quas animofi £uri a£Edue franguntque feruntque, 

Dant alios aliae foetus : dant utile lignum 

Navigiis pinus, domibus cedrumque cupreflbfque. 

Hinc radios trivere rotis, hinc tympana plauftris 

A{(ricoIae, et pandas ratibus pofuere carinas. 445 

Viminibus falices fecundae, frondibus ulmi : 

At myrtus validis haftilibus, et bona bello 

Comus : Ituraeos taxi torquentur in arcus. 

Nee tiliae leves aut tornu raiile buxum 

Kon formam accipiunt, ferroque cavantur acuto. 450 

Nee non et torrentcm undam levis innatat alnus, 

Mifla Pado : nee non et apes examina condunt, 

Cortieibufque eavis vitiofaeque ilicis alvo. 

Quid memorandum acque Baccheia dona tulerunt I 

Bacchus et ad culpam cauflas dedit. ille furentis 455 

Ceotauros leto domuit, Rhoctumque, Pholumque, 

£t magno Hylaeum Lapithis cratere minantem. 

O fortunatos nlmium, fua fi bona norint, 

Agricolas ! quibus ipfa, procul difcordibus armis, 

Fundit humo facilem vidlum juftiffima Tellus. 460 

Si non ingcntem foribus domus alta fuperbis 

Mane falutantum totis vomit acdibus undam; 

Nee varios inhiant jiulchra tcuuviine poftes, 

^\l. Elm, podful Iea'ves,'\ The ufe of the very leaves of 
this tree, efpecially of tlic female, is not to be defpifed ; for be- 
ing fuffercd to dry in the fun upon the branches, and the 
fpray ftripped off* about the decreafe in Auguft (as alfo where 
die fuckers and floloncs are fupernumerary, and hinder the 
thriving of their nurfes) thev will prove a great relief to cattle 
in winter, and fcorching (ummers; when hay and fodder is 
dear, they will eat them before oats, and thrive exceedingly 
well with them. Evelyn. 

(J 50. The fierce Ce9teuri>] This happened at the nuptials of 
Pirithous, king of the Lapichse, where a Centaur, aided by his 
brethren^ attempted to ravifli his bride Hippodamia. 

552. Thrice happy /woJms.] The following defcription of the 
pleafures of a country life is celebrated almoft to a proverb; it 
affords the highcft ideas of Virgil's uncorrupt rnind^ as w^ •^ 


Book 1. The Gsorgics of Virgil. ' 277 

£v*n the rough woods on Caucafus fo bleak, 535 

Which ever-roaring whirlwinds bend and breaks 

For (hipping pines aiFord, thrice ufeful trees. 

For houfes, cedars and tall cypreflps : 

Hence peafants turn their fpokes ; hence orb their wheels. 

Hence find for fwift-wingM velfels crooked keels ; 540 

Elms, foodful leaves ; and twigs, the willows bear ; 

Cornels and myrtles give the martial fpcar : 

The yew obedient to the bender's will. 

Forms the ftrong bows with which the Parthians kill. 

And limes and poliih'd box confefs the carver's (kill 

Down Po's fwift torrents the light alders glide, 546 

And bees in hollow oaks their honey hide. 

What gifts like thefe can Bacchus* fruits beftow ? 

To Bacchus crimes and contefts, mortals owe ; 

He, the fierce Centaurs, Rhoctus, Pholus flew, 550 

And Hyleus who enrag'd, a mafly goblet threw. 

Thrice happy fwains I whom genuine plcafures blefs. 
If they but knew and felt their happinefs ! 
From wars and difcord far, and public ilrife. 
Earth with falubrious fruits fupports their life : 555 

Tho' high-arch'd domes, tho* marble halls they want. 
And columns casM in gold and elephant. 
In aweful ranks where brazen ftatues ftand. 
The poli(h'd works of Qrecia*s^(kilful hand ; 
Nor dazzling palace view, whofe portals proud 56^ 

Each morning vomi( out the cringing crowd ; 

of his poetry. He has aiTembled here all the moft (Inking and 
beautiful objedls of nature. No concraft was ever worked up 
more ftronely, than this between the city and country life. 

553. Felt their haffiwfsA Sua/i iona norint, is a tender re- 
proach to the Romans for their infenfibility of being delivered 
a M/c0rMut armis, and reftored to the quiet enjoyment of their 
poilcifions. ^ Benson. 

556. Tko* bigh^etrcPd domes, ^ Vinnl hmth fo evidently taken 
the very turn and manner of expremon in thefe lines from a 
paflage in his mafter Lucretius, that I cannot forbear inferting 
It ; and ibkll leave the reader to judge which of the two is moft 

278 p. VlKCX^n M:A1U3KIS: ^r^BORjOlCA. tdhm %f. 

Inlufafque auro veftis, Ephyreiaque aera; 

Alba neque Aflyrio fucatur lama veneno, 465^ 

Nee cafia liquidi conrumpitar ufus olivi : 

At fecura quies, ct nefcia fallere vita. 

Dives opum varianim ; at latis otia fundis, 

Spclijncac, vivique lacus 5 at frigida Tcmpc, 

Mugitufquc boum, mollefque fub arbore fomni 470 

Non abfunt. illic (altus ac luftra ferarum, 

£t patiens operum, exiguoque adfueta juventus, 

iSac'ra DeAm, fandique patres : cxtrema per illps 

Juftitia^cxcedens terris veftigia fecit. 

Mc vero primum dulces ante omnia Mufae, 475 

Quarum facra fero ingenti percuffus amore, 

Accipiant ; caelique vias, ct lidera monftrcnt : 

Defe£lus foils varies, lunaeque labores : 

Undc trempr terris : qua vi maria alta tumefcant 

Objicibus ruptis, rurfumque in fc ipfa refidant : 480 

Quid tantum Oceano propercntfe tinguere foles 

Hiberni, vcl quae tardis mora noftibus obftct. 

Sin, has ne poflim naturae accedere partes, 

Fxigidus obftiterit circum praecordia fanguis ; 

Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amncs ; 48^ 

Flumina amcm filvafque inglorius. 6, ubi campi, 

Sperchcofque, et virginibus bacchata Lacaenis 

Si non aurea funt jwvenum fimulacra fer aedes^ 
Lampcdas igniferas manibus retincntia dextris, 
Lumlna nohurnis epulis ut Juppeditcntur \ 
Nee dcmus argento fulget ^ auroque renidct : 
J it amen inter fc frvftrati in gr amine molli 
Propter aquae riyum, fuh ramis arScris rJfae, 
Non magnis opihus jucunde corpora curant\ B. 2. 24* 

588/ hie may the lo<u;hf *vales.] Cowley obferves upon thjis 
pillage, that the firH wiih of Virgil was to be a good philo- 
}9pher j the fccond, a good hufhandinan; and God, whom he 
fccnicd taunderftand better than mod of the learned heathens, 
dealt with him juft as he did with 6olomon; bcca«fc he prayed 
fpr wiidom in the firfl place, he added all things elfe whith 
)*ere fobordinatcly to be defircd. He made him one of the 
l^cft philofophcrs, and the beft huftandman ; and to adorn 
nnd communicate both thofe Faculties, the bcft poet : he made 
him bciidcs al] this a rich mar;^ and a man who defircd to be 
jiu riciitr. 6 

Book's. The Georgjcs or Virgil. 279 

Nor wear the tiflu'd garment's cumb'rous pridci 

Nor feek foft wool in Syrian purple dy'd. 

Nor with fantaftic luxury defile 

The native fweetnefs of the liquid oil ; 565 

Yet calm content, fccure from guilty cares, 

Yet home-felt plcafure, peace, and reft, arc. theirs ; 

Leifure and eafe, in groves, and cooling vales. 

Grottoes, and bubbling brooks, and darkfom dales ^ 

The lowing oxen, and the bleating Ihecp, 570 

And under branching trees delicious fleep ! 

There forefts, lawns, and haunts of beaft? abound. 

There youth is temperate, and laborious found -, 

There altars and the righteous Gods are fear'd. 

And aged fires by duteous fons rever'd. 575 

There Juftice linger'd ereihe fled mankind, 

And left fome traces of her reign behind ! 

Take me, ye mufes, your devoted prieft, 

Whofe charms with holy raptures fire my breaft ! 

Teach me the ways of Heav'n, the ftars to know ; 580 

The radiant fun and moon's eclipfes fhew ; 

Whence trembles earth, what force old Ocean fwells 

To burft his bounds, and backward what repells ; « 

Why wintry funs roll down with rapid flight. 

And whence delay retards the lingering night. 585 

But if my blood's cold ftreams, that feebly flow, 

Forbid my foul great nature's works to know. 

Me may the lowly vales, and woodlands pleafe. 

And winding rivers, and inglorious eafe ! 

O that I wandqr'd by Sperchius' flood ! 590 

Or on Taygetus' facred top I ftood ! 

590. O tJbat I'waniler'*d.\ O, uhicamfi^ lie. It cannot poi&bly . 
be liic poet'9 enquiry vviiere cntle places are fituated, tho' moft 
pi the tranilators taKe it 16 ; but it is an ardent -wifh to be 
placed in iuch deiighttul retreats.* Catrou, and the icarned 
m. Huec^ bifhcp ct Avraiicliei, read O uhi Temfe^ infUad of 
^sunfi, which i& molt voniiiteM witi^ tiie pafli:ige. 



Taygeta; 6, qui me gelidis in vallibus Haemi 

Siftat, et ingenti ramonim protegat umbra f 

Felix, qui potuit rerum cognofcere caaflas : 490 

Atque metus omnis et inexorabile fiatum 

Subjecit pedibus, ftrcpitumque Acherontis avari ! 

Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agreftis, 

Panaque, Silvanumque fenem, Nymphafque forores ! 

Ilium non populi fafces, non purpura regum 495 

Flexit, et infidos agitans difcordia fratres ( 

Aut conjurato dcfcendens Dacus ab Hiftro : 

Non res Romanae, perituraque regna. neque ille 

Aut doluit miferans inopem, aut invidit habenti. 

Quos rami frudus, quos ipfa volentia rura 50O 

Sponte tulerc fua, carpfit : nee fcrrea jura, 

Infanumque forum, aut populi tabularia vidit. 

Sollicitant alii rcmis frcta caeca, ruuntque 

In ferrum ; penetrant aulas, ct limina regum : 

Hie petit excidiis urbem, miferofque penatis, 505 

Ut gemma bibat, et Sarrano indormiat oftro. 

Condit opes alius, defoflbque incubat auro. 

592. Haemus.] The very bcft of the Roman poet* copied Co 
much after the Greeks, that they fometimcs give us ideas of 
things, that would be proper enough for a Greek, but found 
quite improper from a Roman. Virgil's and Horace's inftanc- 
ing Thrace, as fo very cold a country, is a ftrong proof of this. 
——Thrace was full north of Greece, and fomc of the Greeks 
therefore might talk of the coldnefs of that country as ftrongly, 
perhaps, as lome among us talk of the coldnefs of Scotland. 1 he 
Komaa writers fpcak jull in the fame llile of the coldnefs of 
Tferjifc, tho* a confiderablc part of Italy lay in as northern 4 
laxikude, and fome of it fven farther norUx t)ian Thrace. 


504. ff^J^py the man.] Thefe noble lines are undoubtedly a 
compliment to Lucretius, to whofe poem Virgil is much in- 
debted, and whofe fyftcm ronft lead him to dcfpifc the fears 
of death and hell : how flrongly and poetically is the latter 
particular expreflcd by the roaring (din or noife) of the infer- 
;iai river Acheron ! 

604. He 'u;eeps ae ivreui^s.] The meaning of nee Mutt mi/t^ 

fans incfem is not, that he looks on diilrefs and mifery with a 

J ftoical 

Book 2. The Georoics or Virgil. - 281 

Who, in cold Haemus* Vales my limbs will lay. 

And in the darkeft thicket hide from day ! 

Happy the man, whofe -vigorous foul can pierce 

Thro' the formation of this univcrfe ! 595 

Who nobly dares defpife, with foul fedate. 

The din of Acheron, and vulgar fears, and fate. 

And happy too, tho' humbler, is the man. 

Who loves Sylvanus old, the Nymphs, and Pan : 

Nor power, nor purple pomp his thoughts engage, 60O 

Nor courts and kings, nor faithlefs brothers' rage. 

Nor falls of nations, nor affairs of Rome, 

Nor Dacians leagu'd in arms, near rapid Ifter's foam ! 

He weeps no wretch's pitiable ftate. 

Nor looks with pining envy on the great : 605 

The loaded trees, the willing fields afford 

Unpurchas'd banquets for his temperate board ; 

The noify people's rage he never faw. 

Nor frauds and cruelties of iron law. 

Some brave the tempefts of the roaring main, 6lO 

Or rufh to dangers, toils, and blood for gain ; 

Some ravage lands, or crowded cities burn. 

Nor heed how many helplefs widows mourn. 

To (atiate mad ambition's wild deflre. 

To quaff in gems, or fleep on filks of Tyre : 615 

This, to follicit fmiles of kings reforts. 

Deep praAis'd in the dark cabals of courts ; 

TJiis, low in earth conceals his ill-got ftore, 

Hov'ring and brooding on his ufelefs ore : 

iloical apathy and indifferencej bat that there is no body in 
the country (fo happy are they) to be pitied. Benson and 
Trapp. fiut I fear this interpretation is groundlefs. 

608. The noij^ peoples ragi,'^ T\kt iabuUrium in the original 
was the place whefe the publick records were kept at Rome, 
it was in the temple of Liberty. Catrou. 

615. To quaff in fems.^ The Romans carried laxary fo &r» 
as tp procure large drinking cups made of cm entire gem. Se6 
inftaoces of this kind in Pliny's Natural Hiilory. Focuia mjr- 
rhina were common among them. Tyre was ancicf .ly called 
Sarra, hence Sarrano oflro. 

2t^ P. ViRGiLii Maronis Georcxca. Lib« a. 

Hie ftupet aidtDi^itus Roftris : hunc plaufus hiantom 

Per cuncos (geminatus enim) plebifque patrumque 

Conripuit : gaudept perfufi fanguine fratruui i 510 

fxfilioque domos et dulcia lin>ina mutant ; 

Atque alio patriam quaerunt iuh fole jacentem. 

Agricola incurvp terrain dimovit aratro : 

H;nc anni labor : hinc patriam parvofque penatts 

Suftinet; hinc armenta boum^ meritofque juvencos. 515 

N^c requies, quin aut pomis exuberet annus, 

Aut foetu pecorum, aut Ccrealis mergite culmi : 

Proventuque oneret fulcos, atque horrea vincat« 

Vcnit hijcms j teritur Sicyonia bacca trapetis, 

Glande fues laeti redeunt, dant arbuta iilvae : 520 

£t varios ponit foetus auAumnus, et alte 

Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia faxis. 

Interea dulces pendent circum ofcula gnati : 

Cafta pudicitiam fervat domus, ubera vaccae 

Ladea demittunt, pinguefque in gramine laeto 525 

Inter fe adverfis ludbntur cornibus haedi. 

Ipfe dies agitat feftos ; fufufque per hcrbam. 

Ignis ubi in medio, et focii cratera coronant, 

Te libans, Lenaec, vocat : pecorifquc magiftris 

Velocis jacuii certamina ponit in ulmo ; 530 

Corporaque agrcfti nudant praedura paleftrae. 

Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini : 

Hanc Remus, et frater : fie fortis Etruria crcvit : 

641, HtJ infants,] Pendent circum ofcula ^ hang aiout his 
kiffes^ is an image mod poetical and well exprefled ; but 
would not bear a literal tranflation. The paffage in Lucre- 
tiu8» from whom this is imitated^ has an image iiiil more 
tender and natural. — He fays, — nee dulces occurrunt ofcula nati 
fraeripere. — r- which laft word, rcprefcnting tne children run- 
nii^g oat to meet their father, and driving which (hall have 
the Jirfi kifs is very beaatiful. 

652, The frugal Sahines.] To raife the praifes of the country 
life ftill higher, he tells us, that this was the life their glorious 
anpeftors, and ihc firfl founders of their city were fo fond of, 
Firum hd/tum cum laudabant, ita laudabant tonum agricolam ho* 
mum colon um. Ampliffime laudari exiflimabatur qui ita laudaha* 
eur, lays the venerable old Caco. 


One doats wUbfeftdA^ osi d^T^i^9i'S:fmCf / Q|^ 

To gain the pxmqf-.tiiQqufa^i, bjfk. s^a^: . ^^ - 

The people's anid)pi»mc^VlDu^acp}w(% 

To crowded thjeatape^.aij^l^r. draj^^;. 

Some (bed a bftD^bei^'s t)lopd>^a|Mlti)ef)p^ j-ujii^ 

To diftant l^pdSft beneath> axiof h^: fuoc^ ^5^ 

Condemned in hopelpfs exile fsur^ to f o$ua. 

From their fj^eet cpiu^ti^) andith^ir faqrcdi homc^ ^ 

The happier pcafenf yearly plpughp Hhc. pbias» 

His country hence, his houfliold hence fuftains ; 

His milky droves^ his much-deferving ftecr» : ^q 

Each feafon brings him, m^ t^e cii:clin^ ycv.h 

Or blufliing apples, or i^cicaiiK of kine, 

Ot burfts his barns with_ Ceres* gifts divinet 

Preft a|:e his Sjicipn olives m, the JIU^S9 

His fwine with, fiit'ning m»% the fottSt fiiU, 635 

IjiVinter wild : and yellow autumn crowns 

With various fruity his farms and fmiling grom)d^» 

While every rocky mountain'* funny fide 

The melting grapes with livid ripehefs hide. 

He feels the father's and the huiband's blifs, 64O 

His infants climb, and ftruggle for a kifs ; 

His modeft houfe An£t chaftity maintains. 

Nor breach of marriage-vows his nup.^L^hi ftains ; 

pat are the kine, with milk o'cr-ftow the pails. 

His kids in fportive battles fkim the vales : ' 645 

The jocund mafter keeps the folemn days. 

To thee, great Bacchus, due libations pays ; 

Around the chearful hearth unbends his foul. 

And crowns amid his friends the flowing bowl ; 

Diftributes prizes to the flrong-ncrv'd fwains, 65^ 

Who befl can dart or wreftle on the plains. 

The frugal Sabines thus their acres till'd, 

l^hus Remus and his brother lov'd the field : 

^4- P. VtRGIItl MaKWIB GuoimCA. Lib. 2»t 

SciHeet et rerum fwBta, eft pulcherrhxia Romty 
Septimque una fibi vkuro circumdedit arces. 535 

Ante etiam fceptntm Didaei regis, et ante 
Inpia quam caefis gens eft epulata juvencis. 
Aureus banc vitam-in terns Saturnus agebat. 
NMdum etiam audierant inflari claffica, necdum 
Inpofitos duris crepitare incudibus enfes. 540 

Sed nos inmenfum fpatiis confecimus aequor : 
£t jam tempus equum fpumantia folvere colla. 

6$4« Tn/caas.] He mentions Etrdria in compliment to 
Maecenas^ who was defcended from the ancient lungs of Tuf- 
cany. Tjrrbgmi ngum progenies ^ ^c. Roa. 

660. U/eful bullock* sgore^l Varro informs us, thatbaadeat 
times it was deemed a capital crime to kill an ox; Hk foetus 
kominum in ruftieo of ere, et Cereris minifter. Ah hoe, emticiu 
manus ita ahftimri 'uohiemni^ ut eafite /anxerst, fi pas ocei^ei.'ald not forbear quoting this pafTage for its great bqmaaity. 

66 1. Old Saturn led.] An author* whoie elegance and clear- 
nefs and chafUty of ftyle and thought approaches neareft to that . 
of Virgil, of any in the AuenfUn age, and who defenres to be 
more univerfally read than he is at prefent, thus defcribes the 
reign of Saturn : a fubjeft which all the poets of that time have 
touched on. 

^uam bene Satumo vivebant rege, prtufquam 

Tellus in longas eft fatefaSa 'vias. 
N^ndum caruleas pinus contempferat undas, 

Effu/um 'vent is prabueratque finum. 
Nee 'uagus ignotis repetens compendia t&ris 

Prefferat externa namita merce ratem. 
JUo non validus fubiit juga tempore taurus, 

Non donuto fnenos ore momordit equus. 



Book 2. The <j£orcics of ViROit. 285 

The Tufcans to thefe arts their greatnefs owe, 

'Twas hence majeftic Rome began to grow, 655 

Rome, nobleft' objed of the things below ; 

Who, while (he Aibjed earth with wonder fills. 

Hath, fmgle, deck'd with towers her fcven hills. 

Ere Cretan Jove a fceptre fway'd, before 

Man dar'd to fpill the ufeful bullock*s gore, 660 

Such was the peaceful life old Saturn led, 

Sut:h was the golden age, from guilt fecure and dread ! 

Ere the loud trumpet founded dire alarms. 

Or impious fwords were forg'd, and clattering arms. 

But we have pafsM a broad and boundlefs plain, 665 

'Tis time the fmoaking courfers to unrein. 

Nen donuis ulla fores haiuit, nonfixus in agris^ 

^i regent certis finibus arva, lapis. 
Jpfa Mulla dahsssU qwrcus, uhr^quifertbamt 

Obvia fecuris ubera laHis pves, 
Non acies, tun irafuit^ non bella ; neque en/es 
Itnmiti firvus duxerat artefaber. 

TiBULL. Lib. I. EI. 5. V. 3^. 
664. Impious fwords,'] Upon naming the fword, the poet 
Teems to ftart, as if all the miferies of the civil war were brought 
afrefli to his fight, and inflantly concludes* Benson. 


C «7 3 


A R G U M E N T. . 

The exordium of this hook is particularly pompous and eU-- 
voted. The pr4cepts of our poet concerning the breeding of 
cattle J thefubjeSf of this book^ are divided into four parts. 
I. Of the heji methods of breeding cows and horfeSj 
with rules to dijlinguijh the befi breeds of each. 11. Of 
/beep and goats. 111. Of dogs. IV. Of things thai dr$ 
pernicious to cattle ; particularly ferpents^ vipers^ fcabs^thi 
murrain^ fevers^ and the plague ; 'Vuith a moving and fub* 
lime defer iption of which lajly this book concludes. Tht 
defcripiions and digrejjions in the book are more frequent 
than in any of the refl. Such is this defer iption of th^ 
chariot'-race ; of the infeff AJilus ; of the loves of the 
heajls i and the Scythian winter. 


G E O R G I C A. 


T£ quoque, magna Pales, et te memorande canemuv 
Paftor ab Amphryfo : vos filvae amnefd^ue Lycaei^ 
Cetera, quae vacuas tenuiflent carmine mentes. 
Omnia jam volgata. quis aut Euryfthea durum, 
Aut inlaudati nefcit Bufiridis aras ? 5 

Quoi nonlliAus Hylas puer, et Latonia Delos ? 
Hippodameque, humeroque Pelops infignis eburilo 
Acer eqms ? tentanda via eft, qua me quoque poffim 
Tollere humo, viftorque virum volitare per ora 
Primus ego in patriam mecum, modo vita fuperfit, lO 
Aonio redrens deducam vertice Mufas : 
Primus Idumaeas referani tibi, Mantua, palmas ; 

Ver. I. Thy fraijts /m, great Paks.] This is the book which 
appears to me the mofl charming of all the Georgics. Mr. 
Addifon's favourite is the fourth, which indeed h more fweec 
and elegant, but the beauties of this are more great, more 
manly, and fnblime. He invokes Pales as the eoddefs of 
ihepherds, and Apollo who fed the herds of king Admetus on 
the banks of the river Amphryfus. 

5. IThc knotws not all the/ongsJ] Virgil here ftrongly ridjculet 
the trite and fabulous fubjedls of the Grecian poets. 'Tis in- 
genioufly conjefturcd by Fulvius Urfinus, that he alludes ta 
particular authors who had treated of the fabulous llories he 
mentions. Thus Homer has related the fable of Eun^fthens 
in the eighteenth Iliad. Athenaeus quotes the Buuris of 
Mnefimachus in his ninth book. Theocritus and Apolloniiu 
finely relate the dory of Hylas and Hercules his grief for hit 
lofs. Callimachus b referred to in Latonia Dilos, and the firft 


[ a89 3 


O F 



THY praifes too, great Pales, will we fmg, 
With thee fam'd (hepherd of Amphryfus' fpring | 
Ye too, Lycaeus' groves, and gufliing ftreams. 
For vain are ancient tales, and vulgar themes ; 
Who knows not all the fongs that once couM pleafc, 5 
Bufiris* fhrines, Euryftheus' dire decrees ? 
Can Dianas ifle, or Hylas, longer charm f 
Or Pclops famous for his ivory arm, 
Whofe fteeds viftorious in the dufty race 
Won him the fair Hippodame's embrace i to 

I too muft find a path untrod before. 
And far from groveling earth, to fame fublimely foar. 

I firft of Romans to th' Hefperian plain, 
Will lead th' Aonian nymphs, if life remain : 
I firft will bid Idumes' palms arife, X^ 

Exchange their foil, and bloom in Mantuan ikies* 

Olympic ode of Pindar is to be underftood by the mention of 
Mippodamia and Pelops. He breaks out at laft into a nobte 
triumph of aflarance^ that he ihall rival thefe Greek poets : 
Tetiidimda *uia ift^ ftta me auoqui poffim 
TolUre kumo, vidorqiu virum voutare per era. 
Mr. Pope ufcd to fay, that this triumph of Virgil over the 
Greek poets, was one of the vainefl things that ever was writ. 

• But farcly iu fublimity makes amends for this imputed 


Vol. I. U 

2go P. ViRGiLii Maronis Georgica. Lib* 2r* 

Et viridiin campo templum de marmore ponam 
Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi- flexibus errat 
Mincius, ac tenera praetexit.arundine ripas» 

19. Spreading' twUe bis lingering luatersJ] This ddcriptioH <jf 
the Mincio is as exadl as poflible^ the force of it lies chiefly in 
the epithets, tardis, ingens ■ ^ tlb wide fpreading and almoil 
ilagnation of the river, which forms the lake of Mantua. 

17. The/e hands J] Mr. Hurd, in his notes on Horace's 
Epiflle to Angudus, hath difcourfed fo entertainingly on the 
intrdduftory lines of this third book, that it was thought pro- 
per to infert the following extract from that judicious work. 

On the idea of the Apotheoiis, which was the ufual mode of 
flattery in the Auguflan age, h^t, a« having the countenance 
of public authority, fometimes inartificially enough employed, 
Virgil hath projeded one of the nobleft allegories in ancient 
poetry, and at the fame time hath given to it all the force of 
jufl compliment, the occafion itfclf allowed. Each of thcfe ex- 
celtencies was to be expeded from his talents. For as his ge- 
, nins led him to t\it Jublime \ ib his exquifite judgment woald 
inftru6l him to palliate this bold fidion, and qualify as much as 
poflible, the fhocking adulation implied in it. So Angular a 
Deauty deferves to be (hewn at large. 

The /^WGeorcic fets out with an apology for the low 
and fimple argument of that work, which yet the poetefteem- 
ed, for its novelty, preferable to the fublimer, but trite, themes ' 
of the Greek writers. Not but he intended, on fome future 
occafion, to adorn a nobler fubjedl. This was the great plan 
of the Aencis, which he now prefigures and unfolds at large. 
For, taking advantage of the noblefl privilege of his art, he 
breaks away, in a fit o^ prophetic enthufiafm, to predid his 
fuccefTes in this projected enterprize, and under the imagery of 
the ancient triumph, which comprehends or fuggeils to the ima- 
gination, whatever is moft augufl in human affairs, to delineate 
the future glories of this ambitious defign. The whole con- 
ception, as we fhall fee, is of the utmoll grandeur and mag* 
dincence; though, according to the ufual management of the 
poet (which as not being apprehended by his critics, hath fur- 
nifhed occafion even to the bed of them to charge him with a 
wane of iht fuhlims) he hath contrived to foften d.nd /ami liar izr 
its ap]>earance to the reader ; by the artful manner in which 
it is introduced. It fbnds thus : 

Tentanda ^via eft, qua me quoque pojfftm 
Toller e humo, viCTORquE 'virum 'volitare per ora* 

Tie ideaof <i;iV?0ry, thus cafually dropped, he makes the bafis 

of his imagery ; which, by means of this gradual preparation, 

effers itfelf eafily to the apprehenfion, though it thereby lofes, 

5 « 


^ook 71 The Georgics of Virgil. 


Thefe hands a fane of Parian ftone (hall build. 
Where Mincio's ftream bedews the verdant field ; 
And fpreading wide his ling'ring waters^ feeds 
Around his winding fhores the tender reeds. 2Q 

as the poet defigned it fliould, much of that iroad glare, m 
which writers of lefs judgment love tofhcw their ideas, as tend- 
ii)g to fet the common reader at a gaze. The allegory theli 
proceeds : 

Primus ego in fatriam mecam, modo 'vitafuptrfit^ 
Aonio rediens deducam vertici Mufas^ 

The projected conquell was no Icfs than that of all the Grecian 
Mufes at once ; whom, to carry on the decorum of the allegory, 
he threatens, i. to force from their high and advantageous 
iitaation on the f)immit of the Aonian Mount ; and 2. to bring 
captive with him into Italy ; \\it former circumftance intimating 
to us the difHcuIty and danger of the enterprize ; and the latter, 
his complete execution of it. 

Tht palmy, triumphal entry, which was ufual to vidors on 
their return from foreign fuccefles, follows: 

Primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmate 

Bat ancient conquerors did not hold it fufficient to reap this 
tranfient fruit of their labours. They were ambitious to confe-^ 
crate their glory to immortality, by a temple, or other public 
monument, which was to be built out of the fpoils of the con- 
quered cities or countries. This the reader fees is fuitable to 
the idea of the great work prgpofed ; which was, out of the old 
remains of Grecian art, to compofe a new one that ihould com- 
prize the virtues of all of them :- as, in fad, the Aeneid it 
Known to unite in itfelf whatever is mod excellent not in' Ho- 
mer only, but, univerfally, in the wits of Greece. The ever- 
lailing monument of the marble temple is then reared; 

Et <viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam. 

And becaufe ancient fuperftition ufually preferred, for the/e 
purpofes, the banks of rivers to other utuations, therefor^ 
the poet, in beautiful allufioti to the fite of fome of the moft 
celebrated pagan temples, builds >&// on the Mincivs. W« 
fee with what a fcrupulous propriety the allufion is carried on* 

Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 
MiNCius, et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 

Next, this temple was to be dedicated, as a monument of 
the victor's piety, as well as glory, to fome propitious, tutelary 
deity, under whofe aufpices the great adventure had beea 

U 2 atchicvf4». 

292 P. ViRciLii Maronis Georcica. Lib. 3* 

In medio mihi Caefar erit, templumque tenebit. 

atchieved. The dedicaiion is then made to the poet^s ii*vlniiy^ 
Auguilas : 

In medio mihi Caesar erit^ temflumque tenehii. 

Templum Tenebit. The cxpreffion is emphatical; as inti- 
mating to as, and prefiguring the fccret purpofe of the Aeneis, 
which was, in the perfon of Aeneas, to ihadow forth and 
confecrate the chorader of AuguHus. His divinity was to fill 
and occupy that great work. And the ample circuit and magni- 
ficence of the epic plan was projeded only, as a more awefol 
endofure of that auguft prefence, which was to inhabit and 
iblemnize the vail round of this poetic building. 

And now the wonderful addrefs of the poet's artifice appears. 
The mad fervilicy of his country had deified the emperor in 
l^ood earneft : and his brother poets made no fcruple to nmrfirip 
m his temples, and to come before him with handfuls oirud 
incenfe, fmoking from the altars. But the fobriety of Virgirt 
adoration was ofanother cafl. He feizes this drcumflance only 
to embody a poetical fidion ; which, on the fuppofition of an 
adual deification^ hath all the force of compliment, which the 
fad implies, and yet, as prefented through the chafte veil of 
allegory, eludes the monlbous oiFence, which the ffai^/ recital 
muft needs have given to decency and common fenfe. Had 
the emperor's popular divinity been flatly acknowledged, and 
adored, the praile, even under Virgil's management, had been 
infufferable for its extravagance ; and without fome fupport for 
his poetical numen to reli upon, the figure had been more 
forced and ilrained, than the rules of jufl writin? allow. As 
it is, the hiilorical truth of his apotheofis authorizes and fup- 
ports the fi3ion, and the iidion, in its turn, ferves to refine and 
palliate the hifiory. 

The Aeneis being, by the poet's improvement of this cir- 
cumftance, thus naturally predicted under the image of a 
temple, uc c:r,' expeft to find a clofe and ftudied analogy be- 
twixt them. The great, component parts of the one, will no 
doubt be made, very faithfully, to reprefent and adumbrate 
thofe of the other. This hath been executed with great art 
and diligence. 

. I . The temple, we obferved, was ereftcd on the banks of a 
river. This lite was not only proper for the reafon already 
mentioned, but alfo, for the further convenience of inftituting 
public games, the ordinary attendants of the confecration of 
temples. Thefe were generally, as in the cafe of the Olympic 
and others, celebrated on the banks of livers. 

//// inQor ego, et Tyrio confieSus in oftro 
Centum quadrijttgos agitato adfiumina curtiit. 


Book 3. The Georgics of Virgil. 293 

In the mid dome (hall Cacfar's form divine 
Superior ftand the godhead of the ihrine. 

Cun^a mi hit Alpheum linquens luco/que Molorchi, 
Curjibus et crudo dicwmet Gratcia caeftu. 

To fee the propriety of t\it figure in this place, the reader needt 
only he reminded of the b^ ef games in the Aeneid, which 
was purpofely introduced in honour of the emperor* and not« 
as is commonly thought, for a mere trial of ikill between the 
poet and his mafler. The emperor was pa£ionate]y fond of 
thefe fports, and was even the author or reflorer o£ one of them. 
It is not to be doubted, that he alludes alfo to the quinquennial 
gamesy adually celebrated, in honour of his temples, through 
many parts, of the empire. And this the poet undertakes in 
the f/wV office of victor. 

2. What follows is in the religious office of priist. For 
it is to be noted, that, in afTuming this double chara^er, which 
the decorum of the folemnities, here recounted, prefcribed, 
the poet has an eye to the political defign of the Acneis, which 
was to do honour to Caefar, in either capacity of a ci'vil and re^ 
ligious perfonage ; both being eHential to the idea of the per- 
fcft legiflator, he was to adorn and recommend. The account 
of his Jacerdotal funSions is delivered in thefe words : 

Ipfe caput tonfaefoliis ornatus olivae 
Dona feram . Jam nunc follemnis ducere pompas 
Ad delubra jwvat t cae/o/que fvidcre jwvencos : 
Velfcaena ui 'uerfis difcedat frontibus ; utqjue 
Purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britannia 

The imagery in this place cannot be underftood, without re- 
ceding ou the cuflomary form and difpoiition of the pagaa 
temples. Delubrum, 0/ Delubra, for either number is 
ufed indifferently, denotes the ihrine, or fandtuaa-y, whereia 
the flatue of the presiding God was placed. This was in the 
center of the building. Exaftly before the delubrum, and at 
no great diftance from it, was the altar. Furthtr, the 
ftiriiie, or delubrum, was inclofed, and (hut up on all fides by 
doors of curious carved work, and dudlile a;^//f, embellifhed by 
the rich embroidery oi floiMers, animals, or human figures. This 
being obferved, the progrefs of the imagery before us will be 
this. The proceffion ad delubra, or (hrine : the facriEce on the 
altars, eroded before it: and, laftly, the painted, or rather 
Viro\xg\it fcenery of the purple *veils, inclofing the image, which 
were ornamented, and feemed to be fuftained or held up by 
the figures of in<wo^en Britons. The meaning of all which 
is, that the poet would proceed to the celebration of Caefar's 
praife in all the gradual, folemn preparation of poetic pomp : 
il^at he would render the moft grateful offerings to his divinity 

U 3 i* 

49+ P- ViRGiLii Maronis Georgica. Lib. 3, 

Illi viftor ego, ct Tyrio confpcdus in oftro 

in thofe occafional epifodes^ which he fhould confecrate to \i\\ 
more immediate honour ; and finally, that he would prpvide 
the richefl texture of his fancy, for a covering to that admired 
image of his virtues, which was to make the fovereign pride 
and glory of his poem. The choice of the imvvutn Britons^ 
for the fupport of his 'veil, is well accounted for by thofc, who 
tell us, that Auguilus was proud to have a number of thefe to 
ferve about him in quality of flaves. 

The ornaments of the Doors of this diluhrumy on which 
the fculptor ufed to laviih all the riches of his art» are next dc^ 

Jn foribus pugnam ex auro foil deque elephant o 
Cangariditmfaciam, *viSlQrifqut arma ^uirini : 
jit que hie unddntem hello, magnumfiue fitientem 
Nilum, ac navali furgentis acre cclurnnas, 
Addam urbis AJiae domitas, pvlfumque Niphate/tf 
Fidentemque fuga Fartbum 'verjifque fagittist 
Et duo rapta manu diuerfo ex hojle trcpaea, 
Bi/que triumphatas utroque ah litore gent is. 
Here the covering of the figure is too thin to hide the literal 
meaning from the commonell reader, who fees, that the fevcral 
'triumphs of Caefar, here rtcov^t^ in fculpture, are thofe, which 
the poe^ hath taken fo much pains to Jinijb^ and hath occafion- 
ally infcrted, as it were, in miniature, in feveral places of his 
foem. Let him only turn to the prophetic fpeech of Anchifcs* 
ihade in the Vlth, and to the dcfcription of the (hield in the 

Hitherto we have contemplated the decorations of the^rw, 
i. e. fuch as bear a more diredl and immediate reference to the 
iionour of Caefar. We are now piefented with a view of the 
remote furrbundipg ornaments of the temple. Thefe are the 
illuftrious Trojan chiefs, whofe flory was tofurnifh the materi- 
als, or, more iproperly, to form the body and caie, as it were, 
of this augufl ttrufture. They are alfo connrfted with the idol 
deity of the place by the clofelt tics of relationlhip, the Julian 
family afTeding to derive its pedigree from this proud original, 
The poet then, in his arrangement of thcfc additional figures, 
with admirable judgment, completes and rounds the entin; 

Stahunt ^ Far a lapides, fpiranlia figna^ 
AJfaraci proles, dcmijfacque ah J eve gcntis 
Nomina, Trojque parens^ ^ Trrjae Cjnthius quSoTn 
Nothing now remains but for fame to eternize the glories of 
what the great architect had, at the expence of io much art 
and labour, completed ; which is predicted, in the highcft 
fublime of ancient poetry, under the idea of fcNVV, whom 
the poet perfonalizcs, fhuddering at the view oi fuch tran- 

Bcok 3/ The Georgics of Vtrgil. 295 

For him, myfelf to grace the folemn feaft. 
Chief of the iports, in Tyrian purple dreft, 

fcendent pcrfedlion; and tailing, beforehand, the pains of a 
Eeraedilcfs vexation, ftron^ly pictured in the ima^c jof liie woril, 
iniernal tortures. 

I N V I » I A infelix furias amnemque fe^yerum 
Cocyti metuet, torto/que Ixionis orhes, 
Immanemque rot am, et non ex/uperabile /axum. 

Thus have I prefumed, but with a religious awe, to infped 
and declare the myfleries of. this ideal temple. The attempt 
after all might have been cenfured, as profane, if the great 
Myftagogue himfelf, or foraebody for him*, had not given us 
the undoubted key to it. Under this encouragement I could 
sot withitand the temptation of difcloiing thus much of one of 
the nohlefl fidion^ of antiquity^ and the rather, as the propri- 
ety of allegoric compofition, which made the diHinguiihed pride 
of ancient poetry, feems but little known or attended to by 
mtidern proftfTors of this fine art;. 

• In thefe lines. 

Max tamen ardentis aecingar dicere pugnas 
Cae/aris, tff nomen fama tot f em per annos^ 
Titboni prima quot abefi ab prigine Caefar. 

Which I fufpedl not to have been from the hand of Virgil, 

1. On account of feme peculiarities in the exprejpon. 
Aecingar is of frequent ufe in the beft authors, to denote a 

fieadine/s and re/ciution to de any thing ; but as joined with an 
uifiniti'ut mood J acdngar dicert, I do not remefnber to have ev^r 
feen it. 'Tis often ufed by Virgil ; but, if the feveral places 
be confulted, it will always be found with an accufati^e an4 
frepojition, cxprefled or underftood^ as magicas accingier artes^ 
or with an accu/ative and dative, as accingere fe praedae, or 
laftly with an ablative, expreffing the injlrument, as accingor 
ferro. La Cerda, in his notes upon the place, feenfed fenfible 
of the objedion, and therefore wrote, Graeca locutio: the com- 
mon, but paltry, fhift of learned critics, when they determine, 
at any rate, to fupport an ancient reading. 

2. Ar dent es pugnas, burning batiks , founds well enough to a 
modern ear ; but I much doubt if it would have paffed in the 
times of Virgil. At lead, I recolledi no fuch expreflion in all 
his works; ardens being conftantly joined to a word, denoting. 
z,fubftance of apparent Tight, heat, ox flame, to which the alla- 
iion is eafy, as ardentes gladios, ardentes ocuhs, campos armis 
Jublitmbtu ^rdofiiSf and by an eafy mt (aphor« ardttuet hpjks. 

296 ' p. VmciLii Marokis Georcica.. Lib. 3. 

Centum quadrijugos agitabo ad flumina curnis. 
CunAa mihi, Alpheum linqucns lucofque Molorchi, 
Curfibus et crudo decernet Graecla cacftu, 20 

but no where^ that I can find, to Co abftradt a nodon, as that 
^C fight. It feems to be to avoid this difficulty , that fome 
have chofen to read ardentis, in the geuiti've, which yet Servios 
reje^s as of no authority. 

3% But the moil glaring note of illegitimacy is in the line» 
TitkoMt frtma quot abeft ab origine Caefar* 

' It has puzzled all the commentators from old Servius doivn to 
Mr. Martyn, to give any tolerable account of the poet's choice 
of Titbonus, from whom to derive the anceftry of Auguflus, 
rather than Juchi/es, or AJfaracus, who were not only more 
famous, but in the dirtd line. The pretences of any or all of 
them are too frivolous to make it neccflary to fpend a thought 
about them. The inflance flands fingle in antiquity ; much lefs 
is there any thing like it to be found in the Auguftan poets. 

ir. But tht pbra/eokgy of thefe lines is the leaft of my ob- 
jeftion. Were it ever io accurate, there is, befides, on the 
firft view, a manifcft abfurdity in the fubjeS-matttr of them. 
JPor would any writer, of but common Ikill in the art of com- 
pofition, clofe a long and elaborate allegory, the principal 
^ace of which confifls in its y^vf myilery, with a cold, and 
iormal explanation of it ? Or would he pay fo poor a compli- 
jnent to his patron, as to fuppofe his fagacity wanted the af- 
iiflance of this additional triplet to lead him into the true 
meaning ? Nothing can be more abhorrent from the ufual ad* 
drcfs and artifice of Virgirs manner. Or, 

III. Were the Juhje^-matter itfelf paflable, yet, how, in 
defiance of all the laws of dijpofition, came it to be forced in 
here ? Let the reader turn to the paifage, and he will foon 
perceive that this could never be the place for it. The allego*> 
Xy being concluded, the poet returns to his fubjcft, which 1$ 
pppofed in the {i\ following lines : 

Inter ea Dryadum Jyl'vas faltufque fiiquamur 
Jntados, tua, Maecenas y baud tnoUia jujfa, 
define nil ahum mens inckoat, en age fegnis 
Rumpe moras : ^ocat ingenti clamor e Citbaer$9, 
Taygetique canes, domitrixque Epidaurus equorum : 
Et *vox adjenju ncmorum ingeminata remugit. 

Would now any one cxpedl, that the poet, after having con- 
dofled the a-eader thus refpedfully, tO the very threfliold of his 
fubje£t, (hpuld immediately run away again to the point, 
from which he had fet out, and this on fo needlefs an errand^ 
fis the letting him into the fecret of his allegory ? 
9 14 this infer ted triplet agrees as ill with what follows , aa 


Book 3. Th£ Georgics of. Virgii- 297 

Will lafli an hundred cars, like chiefs of yore, 25 

By four-yok'd horfts whirl'd along the founding ihore. 

All Greece {hall leave her feats of ancient fame. 

To try on Roman ground, th' heroic game ; 

With manly arm the weighty gauntlet wield j 

Or lightly Ikim with winged feet the field : o© 

with what precedes it. For how abrupt is the tranfition, and 
unlike the delicate conne^ionj fo fludioufly contrived by the 
Auguflan poets, from 

T'tthoni prima quot aheft ah origine Caefar^ 

Seu quis Olympiacae miratur praemia palmae, He* 
When omit but thefe interpolated lines, and fee how gracefully^ 
and by how natural a fucceflion of ideas, the poet Aides into 
the main of his fubjeft 1^— 

Inter ea Dryadum fylvas Jaltufque fequamuf 
Intados *— 

Te fine nil 

Rumpe moras : *vocaf ingenti clamore Cithaeron, 
Taygetique canes, domitrixque Epidaurus EQUORVM S • 
Et 'VOX adjenfu nemorum ingeminata R E M u c I T . 

Seu quis Olympiacae miratus praemia palmae, 
Pa/cit E Qu o s ; Jeu quis fori is ad aratra juvencos. 

On the whole, 1 have not the leall doubt, that the lines be- 
fore us are the fpurious offspring of feme later pi>et\ if indeed 
thd writer of them dcfervc that name ; for, whoever he was, 
he is fo far from partaking of the original fpirit of Virgil, that 
at moft, he app'»ars to have been but a fervile and paltry mi- 
mic of Ovid ; from the opening of whofe Metamorphofis the 
dcfign was clearly taken. The turn of the thought is evidently 
the fame in both, and even the exprejpon, Mutatas dicere formal 
is echoed by ar denies dicere pugnas : dicere fert animus , is, by 
an afFedled improvement, accingar dicere : «»nd Tit boni prima ai 
crigine is almoft literally the fame as primaqueah origine mundi. 
For the injertion of thefe lines in this place I leave it to the ca- 
rious to conjedure of it, as they may \ but in the mean time, 
muft efleem the office of the true eriiic to be fo far refembling 
that of the poet himfelf, as within fome proper limitations, to 
juftify the bonefl liberty here taken. 

Cum tahulis animum cenforis fumet honefti\ 
Audebit quaecunque parum JpUndoris habehunt 
Eifimpondere eruni, \i bonore indignaferuntur, 


[^ £p. ii. 110.] 

I98 p. ViRGiLii Maronis Georgica. . Lib. 3, 

Ipfe caput tonfae foliis ornatus olivae 

Dona feram. jam nunc follemnis ducere pompas 

Ad delubra juvat, caefofque videre juvencos : 

Vel fcaena ut verfis difcedat frontibus ; utque 

Purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni. 25 

In foribus pugnajn ex auro folidoque elephanto 

Gangaridum faciam, viftorifque arma Quirini : 

Atque hie undantem bello, magnumque fluentem 

Nilum, ac navali furgcntis acre columnas. 

Addam urbis Afiae dpmitas, pulfumque Niphaten, 30 

Fidentemque fuga Parthum vcrfifque fagittis, 

Et duo rapta manu diverfo ex hofte tropaea, 

Bifque triumphatas utroque ab litorc gentis. 

Stabunt et Parii lapides, fpirantia figna, 

Aflaraci proles, demifiacque ab Jove gentis 35 

Nomina, Trofque parens, et Trojae Cynthius auQor. 

Invidia infelix Furias amnemquc feverum 

Cocyti metueti tortofque Ixionis orbes, 

Inmanemque rotam, et non cxfuperabile faxum. 

Interea Dr)'^adum filvas faltufque fequamur 40 

Intadlos, tua, Maecenas, baud mollia jufTa. 

35. I fee the turning fcenc*'] The commentators fcem not fuf- 
ficiently to have explained the expreflion of, ut *verfis difcedat 
frontibus in the original. The ancient fcenes were painted on 
a triangular machine, marked in the plate, D ; which was fo 
formed as to turn upon an axle or pin ; each- of its three fides, 
mark'd in the ground-plan of the plate, i. 2. 3. reprefcnted a 
different fubjedlj viz. i. a city. 2. a palace or magnificent 
portico. 3. a wild foreft, cave, or meadow. When a comedy 
was play'd, the firll of thefe three frontifpieccs was turned to- 
wards the fpeftators ; when a tragedy, the fecond ; when a 
(atyrical piece (fuch for inftance, as the Cyclops of Euripides) 
the third was expofed to view. And thefe triangular machines 
were placed under the arches of the theatre, marked in the 
plate. A, B, C. See Vitruvius, B. 5. and L^Anti^uite «r- 
fUquee par D. Ber. Montpaucon, torn. 3. p. 235. 

54. £n*ty.] The perfons he is fpeaking of are the enemies 
cf the Julian family ; or the faction, as he calls it, againft the 
Caefars, Thefe, he fays, fhould be reprefented on the temple 

T^.-iJ^ W 

-/ i^J.^^t'/H\4» %/n*/it. 


Book 3. The Georgics of ViRcit, 299 

While I, my brows with olive-chaplet bound. 

The meed of each yi6lorious toil propound. 

£v'h now rfeeni the.ftately poii^p to lead. 

Now, now, beneath niy fteel the victims bleed : 

I fee the turning fcene fwift change its face, 35 

The piflur'd Britons in the curtains trace. 

Which feem to lift the tapeftry they grace. 

High on the gates, the fell Gangarian fight 

In gold and ivory wrought, fliall ftrike the fight. 

Here fwoln with war, majeftic Nile fliall pafs, 40 

And the tall columns rife in naval brafs : 

Proftrate in duft, there Afia's cities weep. 

And huge Niphates bend his mountain fteep ; 

The Parthians there the backward arrow ply. 

And vainly ftrivc to conquer as they fly : 45 

jCaefar fhail here a double triumph boaft. 

And conqucr'd nations kneel from either coaft. 

Around in ordcr'd ranks an aweful band, 

Rome's anceftors in breathing ftone fliall ftand : 

Thy feed, Aflaracus, the mighty line 50 

That drew from Jove its origin divine: 

Next Tros, whom Troy her ancient father calls. 

With him, the God who rais'J her lofty walls. 

Envy, foul fiend, fliall view with baleful eyes 

Cocytus' billows black around her rife ; 55 

The ftings of mad Ixion's fnakes fliall feel, 

Qiiake at th' unconqucr'd fl-one, and ever-whirling wheel. 

Mean time, Maecenas, we'll the woods purfiie^ 

The taflc is arduous, but enjoin'd by you. 

he would build to Auguftus^ as in the tortures of Tartarus ; tnd 
more particularly as punifhed in the fame manner as Ixiqn and 
Sifyphus. Ixion was punifhed there for his ingratitude and im* 
piety : Sifyphus as a' villain and a robber. So that this- it c«U- 
ing all the party againfl Augudus, rafcals and ingrates ; and 
inters the highefl compliment to that prince, at the fame time 
that it is the mofi cruel of invectives againfl his enemies. 

PoLYM^TiSj pag. 2o8« 

5ce P. V1J161L11 Maronis Georgica. Lib. j, 

Tc fine nil altum mens inchoat. en age fegnis 

Rumpe moras : vocat ingenti clamorc Cithaeron, 

Taygetique canes, domitrixquc Epidaurus equorum : 

£t vox adfenfu nemorum ingeminata remugit. a^ 

Mox tamen ardentis accingar dicere pugnas 

Cacfaris, et nomen fama tot ferre per annos, 

Tithoni prima quot abeft ab origine Cacfar, 

Seu quis, Olympiacae miratus praemia palmae, 

Pafcit equos, feu quis fortis ad aratra juvencos ; 5^ 

Corpora praecipue matrum Icgat. optuma torvae 

Forma bovis, cui turpe caput, cui plurima cervix, 

£t crurum tenus a mcnto palearia pendent. 

Tum longo nullus lateri modus : omnia magna : 

Pes etiam, ct camuris hirtae Tub cornibus aures. 55 

Nee mihi difpliceat maculis iiu.gnis et albo, 

Aut juga detra£tans; interdumque afpera cornu, 

£t faciem tauro propior, quaeque ardua tola, 

£t gradiens ima verrit vefligia cauda. 

Aetas Lucinam, juftofque pati hymenaeos 60 

Deiinit ante decem, poft quatuor incipit annos : 

Cetera ncc foeturae habilis, nee fortis aratris. 

Interea, fuperat gregibus dum lacta juventas. 

Solve marcs : mitte in venerem pecuaria primus, 

Atque aliam ex alia generando fuffice prolcm, 65 

75. A climfy bead,'\ Varro and Columella fay that a good 
pow's head (hould be large, latisfrontiLus, her neck long and 
broad, her dew*laps hanging low, and in general, that her 
body ihould be long and large. Ut fint bene compofitae^ ut in- 
tegris membris ablongaet amflaC'-^corpore amploy bene ^ojiatos, 
largis humeris, bonis f/«ii/^«/.— Virgil feems to have had hit 
eye on this paiTage. Varro likewife mentions the Ifngtl^ 
pf the tail. 

Book 3. The Georgics op Viroh. oci 

Without thine aid no fancy fires my breaft | Co 

Hafte, let us burft the bands of idle reft. 

Hark, from afar Cythaeron*s voice I hear, 

Taygetus' opening dogs my fpirits chear $ 

With neighing fteeds tall Epidaure refoands ; 

From the deep groves the doubling din rebounds. 65 

The time may come, when my maturer mufe 

Auguftus* glowing fights her theme (hall choofe ! 

And thro' more ages bid his glory laft. 

Than have from Tithon's birth to Caefar paft. 

The youth, who ftudious of th' Olympic meed, jor 
And fond of fame, would rear the ftately ftccd j 
Or bend the fturdy bullock to the fhare, 
Muft choofe the dam with nice fagacious care. 
Firft, by thefe marks feled thy mother-cow, 
A clumfy head, broad neck, and lowering brow ' 7< 
Her double dew- laps from her chin muft rife. 
In fpacious folds dcfcending o*er her thighs : 
Be her's a difproportion'd length of fide. 
Her limbs all fram'd with vaft unwieldy pride : 
Let tufts of hair her ample feet adorn, $• 

Rough be her ear, and wreath'd her bending horn : 
Nor lefs her worth, if o'er her jetty Ikin, 
Some random fpots of fnowy white be feen 5 . 
Or if fhe aim a blow, or fpurn the yoke. 
Or wear a ftern-brow'd bull's rough threatening look. 85 
Majeftic fhe muft walk with lofty mien. 
And proudly fweep with length of tail the green. 
When now four years have ftee^'d her lufty frame. 
Then let her prove kind Hymen's mutual flame : 
At ten releafe her ; now no more to prove g^ 

The toils of culture, or the joys of love. 

Mean time, while warmth of youthful blood prevails. 
To the foft blifs admit thy fprightly males : 
Let their firft vigour try the fierce embrace 5 
$0 befds fhaX rife on herds, and race on rac«» ^ 

joz p. ViRGiLii Maronis Georgica. Lib. 3* 

Optima quaeque dies miferis mortalibus aevi 

Prima fugit : ifubeunt morbi, triftifque fenedlus ; 

Et labor, et durae rapit inclementia mortis. 

Semper erunt, quarum mutari corpora malis. 

Semper enim refice : ac, ne poft amiffa requiras, 70 

Anteveni, et fubolem armento fortirc quotaiinis« 

Nee non et pecori eft idem diledlus equino. 

Tu modo, quos in fpem ftatues fubmittere gentis, 

Praecipuum jam inde a teneris inpende laborem. 

Continue pecoris generofl pullus in arvis 75 

Altius ingreditur, et mollia crura reponit. 

Primus et ire viam, et fluvios ten tare minaces 

Audet, et ignoto fefe conmittere ponti : 

Nee vanos horret ftrepitus. (illi ardua cervix, 

Argutumque caput, brevis alvus, obefaque terga : . 80 

liuxuriatque toris animofum pe&us : honefti 

Spadices, glaucique ; color deterrimus albis, 

£t gilvo) turn, fi qua fonum procul arma dedere^ 

Stare loco nefcit : roicat auribus, ac tremit artus j 

Conleftumque premens volvit fub naribus ignem : 85 

X)enfa juba, et dextro jaftata recumbit in armo. 

At duplex agitur per lumbos fpina, cavatque 

Tellurem, et foHdo graviter fonat ungula cornu. 

Talis Amyclaci domitus Pollucis habenis 

Cyllarus, et, quorum Graii meminere poetae, 90 

96. Our heft of days.'] This tender moral refleaion throwa 
in, diverfifies and exalts the low fubjcdl the poet is treating of. 

108. E<v^n nonuthe eok,] Having fpoken of the marks of 
good cows, the poet proceeds to fpeak of horles, and gives a 
beautiful defcription of a colt that is fit to be chofen for a 
ftallion. There is fome difficulty concerning the meaning of 
fpadices: but after much enquiry Dr. Martyn thinks it is the 
colour we call bay, cheinut, or forrel. 

116. Grey.] Glaucusy when fpoken of the colour of an horfe, 
fignifies a dark or iron-grey; our people in Wales, ftill call a 
grey horfe kepbai glauce. Holdiworth. 

1 10. Reftlejs he faius.] This is a beautiful dercription of a 
mettlefome horle ; but it is far excelled by that noble one .in 
4^ book of Job. Particularly, ♦«• He fwalloweth the ground 


Book 3. ' The Georgics of Virgil. 303 

Our befl: of days advance with double fpeed, 

Difeafes, pains, a ghaftly troop ! fucceed; 

With care, and labour, and complaining age. 

And ruthlefs death's inexorable rage. 

For frefli fupplies thy weary'd race remove ; lOO 

Nor place on one alone the weight of love. 

Still propagate thy breed with annual care. 

And with new births the fleeting race repair; 

Nor lefs with equal care feleft the fteed j 
Thou who refolv'ft to rear a generous breed, 105 

Nurfe from his earlieft youth the chofen fire. 
And feed with careful hand his native fire. 
Ev'n now the colt treads high with ftately pace. 
And moves his pliant limbs with eafy grace; 
Outftrips the reft ; tht firft that dares to brave no 

The unknown bridge, or tempt the threatening wave : 
No fudden founds alarm his foul with dread ; 
Sublime his arched neck, and fmall his head : 
Short paunch, and breadth of back his might atteft. 
And prominent with brawn his fearlefs brcaft. 115 

Of colours choofe the dapple or the grey. 
For white and dun a daftard race betray. 
Lo ! when the battle's diftant din he hears, 
Reftlefs he paws ; crefts his eager ears j 
With generous fury glows his quivering frame, 120 

And from his noftril burfts the fierce, collected flame. 
O'er his right fhoulder his redundant mane 
Waves to the zephyr as he (kims the plain. 
Thro' his broad back fhoots a divided fpine. 
And arms with double force his mighty chine. 125 

While o'er the green as his fleet hoof is borne. 
Echoes the trembling ground beneath the folid horn. 
Such Cyllarus, by Spartan Pollux tam'd. 
And fuch the ftecds, in Grecian ftory fam'd, 

with fierccncfs and rage, neither belicveth he (ibr joy !) that 
it is the (bund of the trampety" is more (pirited and ftrong than* 
any circumftance in Virgil's picture. 

3^4 P. ViRditri Maronis Georgica. Lib. 3. 

Martis equi bijuges, et magni currus Achillis. 

Talis et ipfe jubam cervice cfFudit equina 

Conjugis adventu pernix SaturAus, et altum 

Pelion hinnitu fugiens inplevit acuto. 

Hunc quoque, ubi aiit morbo gravis, aot jam fegnior annis 

Deficit, abde domo ; nee turpi ignofce rene<5tae. 96 

Frigidus in vencrem fenior, fruftraque laborcm 

Ingratum trahit : et, fi quando ad proelia ventum eft, 

Ut quondam in ftipula magnus fine viribus ignis, 

IncafTum furit. ergo animos aevomque notabis lo^ 

Praecipue : hinc alias artis, prolemque parentum, 

Et quis cuique dolor vido, quae gloria palmae.. 

Nonne vides, cum praecipiti certamine campum 

Corripuere, ruuntque efFufi carcere currus, 

Cutn fpes arreftae juvcnum, exfultantiaque haurit 105 

Corda pavor pulfans : illi inflant vcrbere torto, 

Et proni dant lora : volat vi fervidus axis. 

Jamque humiles, jamque elati fublime videntur 

Aera per vacuum fcrri, atque adfurgere in auras. 

Kec mora, nee requies. at fulvac nimbus arenae lit 

ToUitur : humefeunt fpumis, flatuque fequentum. 

Tantus amor laudum, tantac efl viftoria curae. 

Primus Erichthonius currus et quatuor aufus 

Jungere equos, rapid ufquc rotis infiflcre viSor. 

132. Such Saturn.] Fleyne well obfcrvcs on this pafTagc; 
.iaUm fortnam bahebat (at quam ornate hoe foeta extulit) Satur* 
nt(j, eum equi fpeciem affmnjijfet^ ut furta fua cum Phi lyre, mr- 
ile Chiron natus, in Pclio op cm celaret, 

148. Doft th9u not fee,"] No defcription was ever more fpi- 
rSted and lively than this of the chariot race. The poet has 
crowded into a few lines all the circumllances that are jnoft 
flriking in the famous defcription of Homer, and it muft be 
owned has here excelled the Greek poet. One may fay, as 
Longinus does on almoU a fimilar occafion, that the foul of the 
reader is, as it were, moutited in the chariot, and whirled 
along in the race with it. 

• 160. Erichthonius.] Bigas prhnum jtmxit Phrygum natio, qua-' 
dHjgiu Erichthonius. Pliny, He kkewife fay4» that fielle. 




Book 3* The Geohgics of Vaotu 305 

That to the battle bore the god of war, 130 

And whirled the fierce Achilles' thundering car : 

Such Saturn too, when from the guilty bed, 

CloathM ill a flowing mzne^ his queen he fled, [head. 

And pierc'd with neighings (hrill hoar Pelion*s piny , 

When now his ftrength and youthful years decay, 135 

With no inglorious eafe his pains repay ; 

But grant him, of thy gratitude, to dofe 

His honour^ age at home in fafe repofe. 

When genial warmth forfakes his frozen veins. 

Love is a foil, and barren are his pains i 140 

In all the rage of impotent defire. 

As o'er the ftubble flies the catching fire, 

His fparks are fpent, and in a flafh expire. 

Be careful then to mark thy ftallion's age. 

His feats, his offspring, and his native rage ; 145 

Whether he grieve, when in the race outdone. 

Or proudly triumph in the trophy won. 

Doft thou not fee the cars, a rival train. 

Shoot from the goal, and pour along the plain ? 

By varying fits, each trembling charioteer, 150 

Now fluih'd with hope, now pale with panting fear. 

Plies the loud laih, hangs headlong o'er the reins; 

Swift bounds the fervid axle o'er the plains : 

Now deep in duft obfcur'd the chariot flidf , 

Now mounts in air, and gains upon the (kies. 15^ 

The ftrife runs high, too fierce for dull delay. 

The fandy volumes darken all the way : 

Bath'd in their followers' foam appear the firft : 

Such is the love of praife, and glory's thirft. 

Firft Erichthonius dar'd with dauntlefs jOdll t€6 

To yoke four fteeds, and guide the vi£h>r's wheel. 

rophon invented the bad^iag of horfes, Pelethnmiiis bridlet 
and fumitare, and the centanrs of Thcfidy the fighting oa 

Vot. I. 

3o6 P. ViRcitu Mahokis Georqica. Lib. j*' 

Frena Pelcthronii Lapithae, gyrofque dedere '115 

Inpofiti dorfo, atque equitiem docucre Tub aimis 

Irifultare folo, ct greffus glomcrare fupcrbos. . 

Acquus utcrque labor : aeque juvenemque magiftri * 

Exquirunt, calidumque animis et curflbus acrcm. 

Qiiamvis faepe fuga verfos ille egerit hoftis, 12a 

Et patriam Epirum reftrat, fortifque Mycenas ; 

Neptunique ipfa deducat origine gen tern. 

His animadverfis inftant Tub tempus, et omnis ; 

Inpendunt^uras denfo diftendei'e pingui, 

Qu^m legere ducem, ct pecori dixere maritum : 125 

Pubentefque fccant herbas, fluviofque miniftrant, 

Farraquc ; ne bl^ndo nequeat fuperefTe labori ; . 

Invalidique pat^um referant j&juAia gnaci : 

163. Form hti pliant feet. ^ There are ftvcral lines in this 
tliird Georgic; which fhew that' the manege v/At found cue 
much earlier, than feme woold imagine, .Witncf* the follow- 
ing paflage : 

Gyreffui desert 

Inpo/iti, dorfo. 
And that other, 

Carpere t^ox gyrufti incipiat^ he. 
The fimile JnifV after was meant to (hew, a violently fwifti b6« 
at the fame time ii level and uniform motion. Holds worth. 

170. Without thefe ^virtues.] 1 received the following ob- 
fervations on this pafTagc from a very ingenious gentleman. 

I have always been abfolutely at a lois to make oat the con- 
nexion of th<^ three lines [in the original] with the foregoing. 
Tranflators and commentators make ^uamvis refer to fomc- 
thine which is certainly not exprciled there, nor I think im*- 
plied, or infinuated ; nor indeed confillent with what is thcit 
exprefled. . ..How can the horfe be fupj^oled /aepe yer/e9 
hoftes egijfe'f if he was not caliJus animis ? ^i\ni-/n implies aii 
oppofition between thefe two, whereas no two thin^ can be 
IDOre naturally Connected. Yon have got over the .^iithcnlty as 
well as ygur jieigJibours, but I think it is infuperable, as the 
text no\V Hands. Bcfidcs, quomvis implies that the horfe aboVb 
defcribed was reje^ed, not that hr w»s /ought out, and chc/en. 
In (hprt I am perfuadcd, ihcfe three lines arc not in their 
right place. Suppofe them placed as follows : ■ 

Hune quoque, uli aut mor bo gravis^ cut jam fegnioranni's 
Dffiiit, aide demo ; nee turpi igncfi:e JtnaHue, 

.. ^^»m^is 

Book 3. The Georgics of Virgil. 307 

Thefililia taught the conducSl of the bit. 
To mount the fteed, and form his pliant feet. 
To pavr the ground,, to wheel, to turn with grace. 
And tread the plain with more majeftic pace. 165 

The fame the labour and the praife to breed. 
Or for the bit or car, the vigorous fteed : 
,In each is rcquihte. a generous rage, 
A fwiftnefs in the courfe, and blooming age. 
Without thqfc virtues, vain all former boaft, 170 

That erft he chas'd in fight a trembling hoft ; 
Tho' Argos, or Epirus gave him birth, 
Or Neptune's tridcnt-ftroke, that op'd the pregnant earth. 
Thcfe rules obferv'd, with copious grain tliey feed 
The huftand of the herd, and father of the breed : 175 
With gcnijil herbs his amorous heat fuftain,. 
And give the copious ftream, and golden grain i 
Left weak h^ faint amid the foft embrace. 
The famiih'd father of a p ny race. 

^amvis faepe fuga 'ver/os ille egerJt hoJliSf 
. EtpatriamEfirumrefirat,fortifquiMyctnas\ 

Nep turn que ipfa lieducat origine geniem* 

Frigid us in ^tnerem Jenior'^-^^ 

Hunc quoque ahde domo —^-^ quam*ins Obferve that thfi 

horfcs here abovemcntioncd are war horfes ; Pollux', Mars* 
and Achilles' his horfes ; qui ver/os boftes egerint \ now fee hovy 
well the other pitfl'agc goes on without the lines in queilion. 

Aequus utfrque labor : aequeju*venemque magijiri 

Ex qui runt, calidumque animis it curjlbus acram* 

His aninuidverjis — — 

Nimirum, juventute^ animisy pernicitate ■ ■ ' ■ 

By way of precedent, there arc two repiarkablc tranCpofitions 
of this kind in the Aeneid, which the critics have redified 
againft all authority of manufcrlpts—Aencid 6. 745. Donee 
hnga dies and the two next lines, which ihould follow, af- 
ter exuritur igni. 

Aoneid 10. 717. //// autem imp/x*vidus'^ — and the next, 
which fhould come after clamor ih us inftant, 

176. TViih geKtal herhs.'\ V.nrro and Columella fpeak of 
"the ncceflity of feeding the bulls amply for two months bci- 
T<Sfre the time. Tauros duohus menjibus a»te admij/itrcm berbtl^ 
Ht paltd. it fotrsQ facio pleniores et a faevzi-nis feecrno. . V A A no •• 

X a 

308 P. ViRcitn Maronis Gieoagica. Lib. j. 

Ipfa autem macie tenuant armenta volentcs. 

Atque, ubi concubitus primos jam nota voluptas 13B 

Sollicitat, frondifque negant, et fontibus arcent : 

Saiepe etiam curfu quatiunt,.et fole fatigant. 

Cum graviter tuniis gemit area frugibus, et cum 

Surgentem ad Zcphyrum paleae ja£tantur inanes. 

Hoc faciunt, nimio ne luxu obtufior ufus 135 

Sit genitali arvo, et fulcos bblimet inertis : 

^cd rapiat fitiens venerem, interiufque reccmdat. 

Kurfus cura patrum cadere, et fuccedene matrum 

Incipit. exa£tis gravidae cum menfibus errant, 

Non illas gravibus quifquam juga ducere plaoftris, i^ 

Non faltu fuperare viam fit paflus, et acri 

.Carpere prata fuga, fluviofque innare rapaces. 

Saltibus in vacuis pafcant, et plena fecundum 

Flumina : mufcus ubi, et viridifflma gramine ripa, 

Speluncaeque tegant, et faxca procubet umbnu 145 

Eft lucos Silcri circa ilicibufque virentem 

Plurimus Alburnum vol! tans, quoi nomen afilo 

Romanum eft, oeftron Graii vertere vocantes ; 

Afper, acerba fonans : quo tota exterrita filvi^ 

Diffuglunt armenta ; furit mugitibus aether 15^ 

ConcuiTus, filvaeque et ficci ripa Tanagri. 

l8a. New Je/tra,] Vuluftas nota in the original, docs not 
'fignify the experienced picarurc, fays Dr. Martyn, but the 
Jefin which nwifirft begins to be known by the young mare. 
Jam n9tat juft now (and not before) known, 

203, JJilus.'\ This infca is a dreadful jplague to the cows 
of Italy. An Italian writer quoted by Dr. Martyn informs 
OS, that it refcmbles a wafp, has two membraneous wiags» 
with which it makes a moil horrible whizzing. The belly it 
terminated by three long rings, one within another, from the 
laft of which proceeds a formidable fling. This lling is com- 
pofed of a tube, through which the t%% is emitted, and two 
aogres, which make way for the tube to penetrate into the fkin 
of the cattle. Thefc augres are armed with little knivesj 
which prick with their points, and cut with their edges^ 
caufing intolerable pain to the wounded animal. The flien-* 
tion of thefe infedls put me in mind of an elegant rural com<-^ 
parifon in, Spenfer. . ^ 


Book 3. The Gborgic^ of Vi&gzl. 309 

But to the mares deny they foftering food, 180I 

And drive them from the browze and cooling flood. 

When now the new defires invade the boiling blood ; 

Oft bid them glow beneath the funny ray» 

And oft fatigue them thro* the dufty way : 

When groan the floors beneath, the trampled corn, 185 

And light in air the fluttering chaff is borne i 

Left too luxurious eafe and -plenty cloy. 

Blunt the keen fenfe, and choak the paths of joy : 

So IbaU the female feel the flowing feed. 

And fuck with greedy rage the ruihing fteed. 190 

We now forfake the fures, transfer our care, 

From the ftout ftallion, to the teeming mare. 

Let her no more, along the laboring ground. 

Draw the flow car, or leap the rifing mound : 

Nor tempt the flood, nor flcim the level mead. 

But turn her lonefome in the lawns to feed, 

Soft with the greeneft grafs, and many a moflTy bed ; 

Where fome full river rolls bis plenteous waves. 

Mid' (hades of ridgy rocks, and cooling caves. 

Along the forefts dark where Selo flows, 200 

And old Albumus lifts his ilex-crowned brows. 

Of winged infe£b fwarms a frequent flight, 

Acftron in Greece ; at Rome Afilus bight -, 

Soon as their ifliiing hofts, with humming found 

Approach, the cattle quit the groves around } aP5 

The (kies re-echo to the mingling roar. 

The groves, and dry Tanager's fultry fhore ! 

As when a fwanne of gnats, at eventidey 

Out of the fennes of Allan doe arife» 
^heir mormaring fmall trumpets foandenwidei 

Whiles in the air their dnoering armie flies» 

That as a cloud doth ieeme to din the ikies ; 
Ne man nor beaft may reft, or take repaft. 

For their fliarpe woonds, and noyoos injuries; 

'Till the fierce northern wind with bluftring blaft 
Doth blowne them quite away« and in the ocean cafl. 

Fa. (^B.a.l^. f. 101 


; J 

310 P. ViRGiLii Mar(5nis Georcica. Lib. ji 

Hoc quondam m'onilro horribilis exercuit iras 

liiacfaiae Juno pcftem mcditata juvcncae. 

Hunc quoquc, nam mediis fervoribiis acrior inftat, 

Arcfebis gravido pccori, armentaque pafces 155 

Sole reccns orto, aut no£lcm duccntibus aftris. 

Poft partum cura in vitulos traducitur omnis : 

Continuoque notas et nomina gcntis inurunt : 

£t quos aut pecori malint fubmittcrc habendo, 

Aut aris fervare facros, aut fcinderc tcrram, 160 

Et campum horrcntem fraftis inverterc glebis. 

Qetera pafcuntur viridis armcnta per herbas. 

Tu quos ad ftudiuno atquc ufuni formabis agrcftcm, 

Jam vitulos hortare, viamquc infifte domandi, 

Dum /acilcs animi juvenum, dum mobilis aetas. 165 

Ac primum laxos tenui dc vimine circles 

Cervici fubncfte : dchlnc, ubi libera colla 

S'ervitip adfuerhit, ipfis e torquibus aptos 

Junge pares : et cogc graclum confer re juvencos : • 

Atquc ill is jam faepe roiac ducantur inanes 170 

Per tcrram, et fummo veftigia pulvcrc iignent* 

Poft valido nitcns fub ponderc faginus axis 

Inftrcpat, et junftbs tcmo trahat aereus orbis. * 

Interca pubi indomitac non gramina tant'um. 

Nee vefcas falicum frondes, ulvamque pdullrem, 175 

Sed frumcnta manu carpcs fata ; ncc tibi foctae, 

More patrum, nivea inplebunt.mul£lraria vaccae, 

Sed tota in dulcis confunient ubcra gnatos. 

Sin ad bclla magis ftudiuin, turmafquc feroccs. 

226. Correcitcn Itar.] Mr. Dr)'dcn talks here ot fending 
the calf to (chool, rt-flrainirg him from the bad examples ot" 
the world, and inftru^tlng him in morn! precepts. Virgil fa^s 
only, cJjiuMttitt et ujitm a^rcjhm dum faciles animi % 

Book 3. The GEOncrcs of Virgil. 311 

This plague, the juft revenge of guilty love, 
To frantic rage th' Inachian heifer drove. 209 

More thick they fwarm, when glows the noon-tide heat. 
Then {hift thy pregnant herd to fome fequefter'd feat ; 
Or drive them forth, when dawns the purple light. 
Or Hefper gilds with glittering ftars the night. 

When now. the dam has felt Lucina's pains, , 
A farther care to rear the calf remains j 215^ 

On each betimes, they print the branding fire. 
To note the name, the lineage, and the fire. 
Let this be doom'd to propagate the breed 5 
This at the facred fhrine a viftim bleed : 
But that be deftin'd in the field to toil, 220 

Break the ftifF clojis, and cleave the ftubborn foil j 
The reft unmark'd, as frolic leifure leads. 
Wanton, inglorious, o'er the grafly meads. 

The fteers allotted to the ihining (hare, 
Obferve to teacl>»nd tame with timely care j 225 

While now their tender years corrcSion bear. 
Bind them with collars from the tender fpray. 
And when their necks the fervile band obey 5 
Coniicit two well-match'd bullocks in the trace. 
And bid them learn in pairs the plain to pace j .. 230 

Oft let them draw the v/aggon's empty load, 
Whofc wheels fcarce print the duft, or mark the road : 
Next let them fmoke beneath th' incumbent mafs, 
Join'd to the bcechen axle, bound with brafs. 
Mean time thy unyok'd young not only feed 235 

With grafs and willow-leaves, or marftiy weed j 
But crop with careful hand the nodding ears ; 
Nor let the dam, as crft in ancient years. 
Contribute to the pail her milky load; ' ' 

Be all her udder on her calf bcftow'd- .24O 

But if thy bofom burn in ranks of war 
Ta lead the marfliall'd hoft, or urge the car, 

. X-4 ' 


311 P* ViMfiitii Marokis Gborgxca. Lib. 3*' 

Aut Alphea rotis praelabi flumina Pifae, 180 

Et Jovis in luco currus agitare volantis; 
Primus equi labor eft, aaimos atque anna Tidcre 
Bellantum, lituoTque pati ; traduqoe gementem • 

Fetre rotam, et ftabulo firnos audire fonantis. 
Turn magis atque magis blandis gaudere magiftri 185 
Laiidibus, et plaufae fonitum cenricis amare. 
Atque haec jam primo depulAis ab ubere matris 
Audiat, inque vicem det moUibus ora capiftris 
Invalidus, et jamque tremens, et jam infcius aevi. 
At, tribus exa^s, ubi quarta acceperit aeftas, i^t^ 

Carpere mox gyrum incipiat, gradibufque fonare 
Conpofitis, finuetque alterna ^olumina crunim ; 
SitqUe laboranti fimilis : tum curfibus auras 
Provocet, ac per iq>erta volans, ceu liber habenis, 
Aequora, vix fumma veftigia ponat arena r- ^95 

Qualis, Hyperboreis Aquilo cum denfus ab oris 
Incubuic, Scythiaeque hiemes atque arida difiert 
Nubila : tum fegetes altae campique natantes 
Lenibus horrefcunt flabris, fummaeque fonorem 
Dant filvae, longiquc urguent ad litora flufius : 200 

Hie volat, fimul arva fuga, fimul aequora vcrrcns. 
Hie vel ad Elei metas et maxima campi 
Sudabit fpatia, et fpumas aget ore cruentas : 
Belgica vel molli melius feret eiTeda collo« 
Tum demum craiTa magnum farragine corpus SO^ 

Crefcere jam domitis fmito. namque ante domandtmi 
Ingentis tollent animos, prenfique negabunt 
Vcrbcra lenta pati, et duris parere lupatis* 

263 • L tie Boreas,} It cannot be imagined, by the fevereft 
critics, who think luch beauties of ftyle in the ancients chi* 
merical, that Virgil did not intend to rcprcfcnt by this fwift 
line of dadlyles the courfe of the wind : 

Jlle 'volattjzmul ar^a fuga ^ fimul aequora fverrens, 

270. Elea/t plain.] This alludes to the Olympic games ce- 
lebrated about Olympia in the region of Elis. Whoever 
would have a jud notion of the gre^t political ufefulnefs of 
thcfe celebrated games of Greece, will meet with much plea- 


Book 3* Th€ Gboroics op Vikgil. 313*: 

Where ftrays thro' Pifa's plaia th' Alphaew flood. 

Or whirl ^long the Thunderer's olive wood j 

To trumpets flirill^ to many a martial dced^ 245 

And glare of glittering arms inure the fleed : 

Oft let him toil the flow car's load to bear. 

The ruftling ijcins oft rattle in Jiis ear : . 

With flattery footh him, while with confcious pride. 

He feels his mafter clap his founding fide. a50 

Begin betimes ; while weak and youthful ytt^ 

Bend his foft mouth to brook a flender bit ; 

Juft wean'd and trembling from his mother's fide; 

New to the curb, and in the courfe untry'd. 

But when to four full fprings bis 3rears advance, tSf 

Teach him to run the ring, with pride to prance | 

The plain in meafur'd fleps and time to beat^ 

And in alternate paces ihift bis feet ) 

Oft let him feem to fpring with laboured might; 

Then challenge whirlwinds in his airy flight : l6# 

While as he pours abroad with loofen'd reins. 

His lightfome feet fcarce touch the printlefs plAint* 

Like Boreas in his courle, when ruihing forth 

He calms the Scythian flcies, and clears the cloudy tuorA : 

Refound the tall tops of the trembling trees, 165 

The heavy harvefts nod beneath the breeze : 

O'er plains, o'er feas, the driving tempeft fweeps. 

And to the founding (bore purfues the boiling deeps< 

A fteed like this, with conquering ileps will ftrain. 

And foam with blood acrofs th' Elean plain } 270 

Or with obedient neck the Belgic car fuftain. 

When now the colt is broke to bear command. 

Feed him with kindly care, and plenteous hand : 

For yet untam'd, his pamper'd pride difdain^ 

To feel the founding laih, and galling reins. ZJS 

fare and inftrudUon from tb^ learned and ingenioas Mr. 
Wed's diflertation prefixed to bis tranflation of an aotbor, to 
whom he alone, pf all the modems, has done jniUct, in' a ^ 
fpirited and elegant franfiation of bis odes* 


yj^ P. ViRGiui Maronis Georgica. Lib* 3. 

S^d noa ulla tnstgh viris induftria firmat, 

Quam vcnercm ct cacci ftimulos avertcre amoris, ' 210 

SiTC bourn, five eft cui gratior ufus equoruin. 

wAtque ideo tauros procul atque in foia relegant 

Fafcua, poft montem oppofitum, et trans flumina lata : 

Aut intus claufos fatura ad praefepia fervant. 

Carpit enim viris paullatim, uritque videndo 215 

Fcniina: nee nemorum patitur meminifle, ncque herbac.« 

Dulcibus ilia quidem inlecebris et faepe fuperbos 

Cornibus inter fe fubigit decernere amantis : 

Pafcitur in magna filva formofa juvcnca :• 

Illi alternantes multa vl proelia mifcent 220 

Volneribus crebris : lavit atcr corpora fangurs^ 

VerOiquf in obnixos urguentur comia.vafto 

Cum gemitu. reboant (ilvaeque et magnus Olympus. 

Nee mos bellantis una ftabulare : fed alter 

Vidus abit, longeque ignotis exfulat oris ; 225 

Muita gcmcns ignominiam piagafque fuperbi' 

Vidoris ; turn, quos amifit inultus, amores ; 

Et flabula afpeftans regnis exceflit avitis. 

Ergo omni cura viris excrcet,- ct inter 

Dura jacet pernix iuftrato faxa cubili, 230 

Frondibus hirfutis ct carice partus acuta : 

Et tentat fcfc, atque irafci in cornua difcit 

Arboris obnixus trunco : vcntofque laceiTit 

Iclibu^, et fparfa ad pugnam proludit arena. 

Poft, ubi conlc6tum robur, virefque refe£tae, 233 

S^na movet, praccepfquc oblitum fertur in hoftem: 

Fluclus uti, msdio coepit cum albefcerc ponto, 

Longius, cx»aItoque fmum trahit 3 utque volutus 

285. Tie mighty ri'vah.'] The defcription of the bulls con- 
tending for the female is admirable ; particularly, that fine 
cirQUinilance of the vanouirnM bull lookLiig back on his old 
accoftomed Hall arid psllurcs when he is forccJ to retreat. And 
ftill more fo,. the circumilance of his lying down, fuilenly 
difconiblate^ on the llones, feeding upon ruftics and prickly 
leaves, and exercifing his horns againil the trunks of trees, to 
enable hilnfeif to contend again with his hated rival. All 

• ' thcfe 


Book 3. ' The Georoics of Virgil. 315- 

But nought will keep their vigour more entire. 
Than from their breafts to turn the ftings of blind dcfirc : 
Their bulls they banifh to fome lonely fcene. 
Where vaft rocks, and wide rivers in^tervene : ** 

Or to the plenteous ftall the bcaft remove, 280 

Far from the tender fex, and- lure of love. 
For while the female charms his fickcning fight. 
No more the groves, or fpringing grafs invite. 
She vers'd in wanton looks, and winning wiles. 
The mighty rivals to the fight beguiles. 285 

The beauteous heifer ftrays the darkfome wood ; 
With mutual rage they rufli 5: thick ftreams the fable blood ) 
From their btoad brows the clafhing horns rebound. 
With bellowings loud the groves and fkies refouod. 
Nor, when the wv is o'er^ their rage expires ; 290 

To diftant vales the vanquifli'd wretch retires ; 
Weeps his difgrace, his conquering rival's boaft j 
Yet more the fair, that unreveng*d he loft : 
And oft with pcnfive looks, as he retreats^ 
The parting exile views his ancient feats. 295 

Then fteels his limbs to toil, improves his might. 
And roughly refts on craggy flints the night : 
On prickly leaves and pointed rufhes fed. 
He feigns to gore a tree with butting head, 
3cnds his ftern brows and pufhes at the air, 30^ 

And fpurns the fcatter'd fand, a prelude of the war. 
Now when his nerves with new-felt fury glow. 
Headlong he feeks his unexpefling foe : 
As when a rifing billow by degrees. 
Begins to boil amid the whitening feasj ^05 

tbefe beaotifal fh-okes are concluded by the noble fimile of a 
vaft wave ro]lin|; towards a rocky fhore. The pauie st fn^ 
cumhit in the onginal 

Monte minor procumbiif 
U very expreflive of the thing intended. ... ^ 

286. HiiferJ] This line in the original is fuppofed to be 

jyfr P- VntciLix Ma&onxs Gcorqxca. jLib. >' 

Ad terrasy imnane fonat per faxa, neque ipfa 

Monte minor procumbit : at ima exaeftuat uoda . 149 

Verticibus, i^igramque alte fubje£bt arenam. 

Omne adeo genus in terris hominumque ferarumque, 

£t genus aequoreum^ pecudes, piAaeque vducres. 

In furias ignemque ruunt. amor omnibus ideou 

Tempore aoo alio catulorum oblita leaena 245 

Saevior errayit campis : nee funera volgo 

Tarn multa informes urfi ftragemque dedere 

Per filvas. tum faevus aper, turn peffima tigris. 

Heu, male tum Libyae folis erratur in agris« 

Nonne vides, ut tota tremor pertentet equorum ^50 

Corpora^ fi tantum notas odor adtulit auras i 

Ac neque eos jam frena viriim) neque verbeia ftevftt 

Non fcopuli, nipefque cavae^ atque objeAa rctardaot 

Flumina correptos unda torquentia montis. 

Ipfe ruit» dentifque Sabellicus exacuit fus, %$$ 

£t pede profubigit terram» fricat arbore coihs 

Atque hinc atque illinc^ humcrofque ad vplnera durat. 

Quid juveniSf magnum cui verfat in offibus ignem 

Durus apior i nempe abniptis turbata procellis 

No&e natat caeca ferns freta : quern fuper ingens 260 

Porta tonat caeli, et fcopulis inlifa reclamant 

Aequora ; nee miferi poflTunt revocare parentes, 

Ncc moritura fuper crudeli funere virgo. 

Quid ? lynces Bacchi variae, et genus acre luporum. 

332. How fattt tii youth.'] The poet alludes to the cele- 
brated ftory of Hero and Leandcr, perhaps the moft enter- 
taining of all the ancient love-tales ; the Mufaens who has 
written an elegant poem on this fabjeA, was not the ancient 
Muiaeua ; for (everal falfe conceits and thoughts, rather pretty 
than folid» and contrary to the fimplicity of the older Gredan 
writers, evidently betray the later age of the piece* See 
Vol. 3. B. 6. N. ver. 028, *Tis obfervablc Virgil hints, that 
the whole fpedes wonla encouQter the fame dangers as Leander 
did for the fake of love. 


Book 3. The Gborgics of Vntoxtr 317- 

Loud o'er the rocks then rolh with horrid rmr^ 

And mountain-like burfts on the fubje& ihore : 

The troubled depths in circling eddies rife. 

And heare the (able fand in whirlwinds to the fties. 

Thus man and beaft, the tenants of the flood, 3m 

The herds that graze the plain, the feathery bfood, 

Rufh into love, and (eel the general flame j 

For love is lord of all, and is in all the fiuae* 

'Tis with this rage the mother Itoa ftuag^ * 

Prowls o'er the plain, regardlefii of her young. 3ii( 

'Tis then the ihapelefs bear with fcenes of bloody 
With murderous deeds pollutes th' aflTrigfated wood : 
Then boars in fight with double warmth engage, ^ 

And the grim tygrefs calls fbrth all her rage. 
Ah ! wretched then the traveller who ftrays 3M 

Forlorn o'er Libya's unfrequented ways! 
See, what thick pants the ftallion's fires dectarey 
Whene'er in tainted gales he fcents the maoe ; 
Nor curbs, nor torturing whips bis rage reftram^ 
And mountains rife to check his flight in Jvain ; 325 

In vain the torrent rolls, that tumbling fweeps 
The maflTy fragment from the craggy fleeps. 
Rufhes the Sabine boar, and renis the ground. 
And whets his tufks to ftrike the furer wound : 
Rubs his rough fides agunft th' accuftem'4 cuk, 330 
And disciplines his brawn to bear the rival's ftroke* 
How fares the youth, who feels the pleafing pain 
His marrow pierce, and throb in every vein ? 
In darknefs drear he fwims the ftormy main : 
Above from heaven's high gate the thunder roars, 335 
The dafhing waves re-echo round the fhores. 
Nor weeping parents, nor the fated fair 
Retards his courfe, too foon his cruel death to Ihare f. 
Why (hould I fing how hungry wolves engage. 
How beails oC Bacchus' car, bow maftifis rage i ^ 


-ji8 P. ViROttii Maronis Georcica. Lib. J* 

Atque canum,'quid? quae inbelles dant praelia cervi ? 265 

Scilicet ante omnis furor eft infignis equarum : 

£t mentem Venu& ipfa dedit, quo tempore Gla'uct 

PoCniades malis membra abfumfcre quadrigae. . . 

Illas ducit amor trans Gargara^ tranfque fonantem- . 

Afcanium : fuperant montis, et flumtna tranant. 27a 

Continuoque avidis ubi fubdita flamma medullis, 

Vere magis (quia vere calor redit offibus) illae . 

Ore omnes verfae in Zephyrum ftaiit rupibus altis, 

ipEyceptantque levis auras : et faepe fm^ uUis 

Conjugiis rento gravidae (mtrabilediAu) 275 

Saxa; per et fcppulps et depreflas cohvallis 

DifFugiunt) noDt Eure^ tuos, ncque folis ad ort(i9 ; . 

In Borean Caurumque, aut unde nigerrimus Aufter . 

ij^'afcitur, et pluvio contriftat frigore caelum. 

Hie demum, hippomailes vero qUod nomine dicunt . 280 

PaftoreSy lehtiim deftillat ab inguine virus. . 

Hippomanes, quod faepe malae legere novercae^. 

Mifcueruhtque.herbas et non innoxia verba. 

Sed fugit inteije^, fugit inreparabile tempus^ 

Singula dum capti circumve6lamur amore. 285 

Hoc fatis armentis. fuperat pars altera curae, 

Lanigeros ^gitare greges, hirtafque capellas. 

Hie labor : bine laudem fortes fperate coloni. 

Nee fum animi dubius, verbis ca vii>cere magnum. 

Quam fit, et angujftis hunc addere rebus. honorem. 29% 

8ed me Parnafl deferta per ardua dulcis 

Raptat amor, juvat ire jugis, qua nulla priorum 

Caftaliam molli dcverci(ur orbita clivo. . 

358. HifpomMiii,] The hiDpomnnes Signifies two thinw. 

1. A certain liquor that flows from a mare ready to take horie. 

2. An excrefcetice of fiefli which the new-foaled colts ha^ 
upon their foreheads. It is black, round, and of the bignefi 
of a dried fig. It is pretended that thcfe two hippomancs'i 
haVe a pecttuar virtue m philtre«, and other fuch compofittotis 


Book 3. Th£ Geoi^oics of Virgil. J19 

Ev*n timorous flags provoke the wdodlinid war j^ 
But far above the relt tho paffion of -the mare. 
Ev'n Vfcnus here a ftronger luft: infi)ir'd, ^ 

When to revenge the Potnian mares fhc'fir'd, L 

Wing'd »irith defire they. bound o'er Gargarus* height, 
Nor loud Afcanius* torrents ftay their- flight : 34^ 

When now their veins the vernal mil4ners warms, ' 

And with kind heat their lufty Iimb$ informs i . 

To the tall cliffs impatient they repair, ^ 

And from the weflward fnuiFthe fleeting air : 350 

Where, wonderous poyrer ! without th' aflifling fteed^ • «, 
Made pregnant by the parent-breeze thay breed. 
Thence wild o'er rocks ajid deep-funk vallies ifaray. 
Far from the northern blaft, or fburce of day j 7 

Or whence wet Aufter's gloomy damps arife 355 

To hang with fable clouds the fakldcn^-flties. ..» 

Hence from their wombs, what th' artleTs flxcphexd calU 
Hippomanes, a trickling poifon falls : - -*'.:: ' -.: . - -'K 
Which baleful ftep-dames in the bowl infule,- ' i' * 
With many murmurs mix'd, and herbs- of- magic juice. 
But time is on the wing^j t66 far we rove . 36 ii 

Bewilder'd with an argument we love#^- c . : - • . . ; :ii 
Enough of herds: fr^fh labours nowfticcecd, . -A 

The ftiaggy goats and fleecy flocks to^d, " . : J 

Hence ihall the hulbafndmahnew glory raifc,* - 36J 
Whil,' his low cares I lift in labour*d4a]^s:- ' ■ : V 

iiov ilight, to grace fomedit a theme, (hiS toil, 
And beautify with flow'rs a barren foil. ■-. 
But mc the fwect defire of facred praifc 
Leads forth to trace ParnafTus' pathlcfs ways, 370 

Di)wn to Caftalia's fpring my c^r to guide. 
Where never poet marked the mountain's fide. 

defigned for fafcinations. And that the lad is of fach a nature* 
that a mare ha« no fooaef dropped her colt, but fhc eats thi« 
piece of flefh, without whirh {hr would not facfclc it. A cu- 
rious reader may fee a learned diliV .cation on this fubjedk, at the 
end of Mr. Bay'le's Didionary : ia auihor fond of treating uo- 
co:n:non fubjccls. 

3^ P. Vnciux Ma&ovis Gsokgica. Lib. ^ 

Nunc, veneranda Pales^^magno nunc orefonandum. 

Incipiens ftabuUs edko in molUbtts herbam 295 

Carpere ovis, dum mox frondoia reduckur aeftas : 

£t multa duram ftipula filiciunque maniplis 

Ste|:iiere fubter humum» glacies ne frigida laedat 

M^le pecusy fcabiemque fierat, turpifque podagrai^ 

Poft bine digfefibs jubeo frondentia capris 300 

Arbuta fufiicere, et fluvios praebere racentb ; 

£t ftabula a ventis hiberno opponere foli ' 

Ad medium convcrfa diem : cum frigidus olim 

Jam cadity extremoque inrocat Aquarius anno. 

Haec quoque non cura nobis leviore tuendae ; 305 

Nee minor ufu8 erit : quamvis Mikila magno 

Vellera m^tentur Tyrios incoda rubores. 

ptaiior hinc fuboles : hinc largi copia ladis* 

Quam magis exbattfto fpumaverit uhere mul&rai 

I^ieta magis preffis manabunt flumina mammis* 3x0^ 

Nee minus interea barbas incanaque menta 

Cinyphii tond^nc hirci, faetafque comantis, 

UjButi in caibrorum^ et miferi^ velamina nautis* 

Pafcuntur vero filvas, et fumma Lycaei^ 

Horrentifque rubos, et amanth -ardu^ dumos. 315 

Atque ipfke memores redeunt in te£U, niofque 

Ducunt^ et gravido fupen^nt vix ubere limen. / 

^fgo omni ftudio glaciem ventofqiH^ivalis^ 

Quo minus eft illis curae mortalis egeftas, 

Avertes : vidumque feres, et virgea laetus 339. 

Fabula ; nee tota Claudes foenilia bruma. 

37a. men ntvirfoet.] This is an imitation of Lucredut^i 

JVirr mi awtmus/aHit, ^uamfimt dhfatra, fidacri 
ftrtuffit thyrfo laudisfpts magna nuum cor ■ 

■^ j mvat inugros actedenfmtis 

Atfut kaurifi, jnwatque no'uos Jtctrptrejlcrtt^ 
iJndiffim mtlU sfilarint Umporajmifai. 

fiook 3. TrtE GEORGtcs OP Virgil* jaiT 

Now, hallowed Pales, I refound thy reign, 
O grant thine aid ! in more raajeftic llrain. 
Firft, I command, beneath the foftering fhed, 37J 

Till fpring returns, thy fliecp with grafe be fed : 
Strew fern beneath, left from the piercing ice 
O'er their foft fkins the loathfome fcabs arifc. 
Nor Icfsj thy goats with leafy fodder fill. 
And give them water recent from the rill. jgo 

Safe from the ftormy north, their ftalls prepare 
To catch the Wintry fun, and fouthern air ; 
When cold Aquarius, from his cloudy fpherc, 
Pours his laft drops upon the parting year. 
Nor lefs the toil the (haggy goat to raife, 385 

Nor lefs the profit that the goat repays. 
Let Caria boaft her Tyrian-tin£lur'd fleece ; 
Vet thefe afFord more numerous increafc j 
And, as their fwelJing dugs you drain the more. 
In fuller plenty ftreams.the milky ftore. 390 

Befides, their hairy beards the fhepherds (hear. 
To cover tents, or cloath the mariner. 
At will they graze Lycaeus' fhrubby top. 
And the rough thorn or prickly bramble crop; 
Return untended with their bleating train, 39J 

And o'er the threfhold fcarce their ftrutting dugs fuftaim 
Since then fo little of thy care they know. 
Guard them from freezing blafts, and icy fnow : 
Gladly fupply them with the leafy fpray. 
Nor in bleak winter's reign refufe thy hoarded hay. 400 

373. PalisA The third is the moft epic of all the Georgics ; 
and the introdadlion to it, as well as feveral pafTages in it, par- 
ticularly this, (hew that Virgil regarded it as fuch himfelf. 


392. 7V«//.] Varro, fpeakirig of the ufefulnefs of goats, fajr«, 
they arc ihorn for the ufc of failors and war. 

Vei. I. Y 

2f% p. ViRGiLii Maroni9 Georgica. Lib. 3* 

At vero, Zephyris cum laeta vocantibus aeftas. 
In faltus utrumque gregem atque in pafcua mittes. 
1/Uciferi primo cum fidere frigida runt 
Carpamus, dum mane novum, dum gramina canent, 325 
£t ros In tencra pccori gratiffimus herba eft. 
Indc, ubi quarta fitim caeli conlegerit bora, 
Et cantu querulae rumpent arbufta cicadae ; 
Ad puteos, aut alta greges ad ftagna jubeto 
Currentcm ilignis potare canalibus undam : 221^ 

Aeftibus at mediis umbrofam exquirere vallem, 
Sic^bi magna Jovis antique robore quercus 
Ingentis tendat ramos : aut ficubi nigrum 
Ilicibus crebris facra nemus adcubet umbra. 
Turn tenuis dare rurfus aquas, et pafcere rurfus 335 

Solis ad occafum. cum frigidus aera vefper 
Temperaty et faltus reficit jam rofcida luna, 
Litoraque Alcyonen refonant, acalanthida dumi. 
. Quid tibi paftores Ltbyae, quid pafcua vcrfu 
Profequar, et raris habitata mapalia tedis ? 340 

Saepe diem noftemque, et totum ex ordine menfem 
Pafcitur, itqu6 pccus longa in dcferta fine ullis 
Hofpitiis : tantum campi jacet. omnia fccum 
Armentarius Afer agit, tcftumquc, Laremque, 
Armaque, Amyclaeumque canem, Creffamque pharetram. 

405. The frefhnefs of the morning is painted in the livelieft 
colours. We mull remember that 'tis a mornisg in Italy: a 
morning in a hot climate. 

408. S/fri/I cicada's laj,] Several of the modern Italian poets 
mention the fmging of the cicada, as very loud and trouble- 
fome in the great heats of fummer. Per gli ombrofi rami U 
argute cicale cantando fi ajfatica *vano fctto al gran caldo* Arca- 
dia del Sannazaro, Proia 10. 

41 3. Or Hxkere.^ How beautifully has the poet enlivened thcfe 
dry precepts concerning the time of wattrine cattle by this dc- 
fcription of a little landfcape ! of a vail old oak {landing in a 
valley, or an ilex of ever-green oak, fpreading a thick and fo- 
lemn (hade ! The dcfcription of the cool of the evening b de- 

413. Uexforefty dark and deep.] We have not a full idea of 
this image, from our not knowing of how deep a green the ilex 


Book J. THfe Georoics of Virgil^ 323 

But when the frolic Zephyrs breathe the fpring, 
both flocks abroad to verdant paftures bring. 
When now the morning-ftar but dimly dawns. 
Lead them to tafte the coolnefs of the lawns ; 
When hoar with virgin dew the grafs appears, 405 

Hafte, let them drink the morning's earlieft tears. 
When the fierce fun grows hot with parching ray. 
And woods refound the fhrill cicada's lay ; 
Then drive them to frefli fprings, their thirft to flake ; 
To troughs of oak, or to the fpreading lake : 410 

But at mid-noon, to green and gloomy glades ; 
Where fome tall oak uprears his aged (hades i 
Or where the ilex-foreft, dark and deep 
Sheds holy horrors o'er the hanging fteep. 
Again refrefh them, with their verdant food, 415 

When finks the fun, and with <hc cryftal floods 
When evening airs their cooling damps diffufe. 
And Cynthia bathes the groves in balmy dews j 
When thro' the brakes is heard th' acanthis* fong. 
And halcyons .ehaunt the hollow fhores among. 420 

Why fliould I fing of Libya's artlefs fwains ; 
Her fcatter'd cottages, and tracklcfs plains ? 
By day, by night, without a deftin'd home. 
For many a month their flocks all lonely roam ; 
So vaft th' unbounded folitude appears. 425 

While, with his flock, his all the flicpherd bears : 
His arms, his houfliold gods, his homely flied. 
His Cretan darts, and dogs of Sparta bred. 

is, and what a vaft fhade it cafts in Italy, where there are ^tezt 
numbers of this tree. It abounds alfo in Sicily ; Mount Etna 
is covered with them. 

^z^. By i/ay.] This digreflion to the fljephcrds of Africa c?.n- 
not be fufficicntly praifed ; one fees them 

Pillaring on from verdant flage to (Inge. 

Thomson, Caft. of Ind. 
The raftnefs of thofe plains arc rcprcfcnted by the very tiow of 
liiis line in the oriofinaL ' • 

•u^ue pectts ion^a in defcrtajtnt ullis 

Hojfitiii tanium ccmti mat. 

'Y 2 

3^4 ^' VlRGlLII MAftONIS GEOkOlCA^ Lib. ^ 

Non fecus ac patriis acer Romanus in armis 346 

Injufto fub fafce viam cum Carpit, et hofti 

Ante exfpetStatum poAtis flat in agmine caftris. 

At non, qua Scythiae gentes, Maeotiaque unda, 

Tifrbidus ac torquens flaventis Hifter arenas, 35a 

Quaquc rcdit medium Rhodope porrefta fub axem, 

Illic claufa tenent ftabulis armenta ; ncque ullae 

Aut herbae campo adparent, aut arbore frondcs : 

Sed jacet aggeribus niveis informis, ct alto 

Terra gelu late, feptemquc adfurgit in ulnas. 355 

Semper hiems, fcmper fpirantes frigora Cauri. 

Turn fol pallentis baud umquam difcutit umbras : « 

Nee cum inveftus equis altum petit acthera : nee cum 

Praecipitem Oceani rubro lavit aequore currum. 

Concrcfcunt fubitae current! in flumine cruftac, 36a 

Undaque jam tergo ferrat6s fuftinet orbis, 

Puppibus ilia prius patuli^, nunc hofpita plauftris* 

Acraque diffiliunt volgo, veftefque rigefcunt 

Indutae, caeduntque fecuribus humida vina, 

Et totae folidam in glaciem vertere lacunae, 365 

Stiriaquc inpexis induruit horrida barbis. 

429. So Rome*!.] The Roman foldiers were wont to cany ift 
their campaigns, not only their iWords, helmets, and (hields, 
but likewife provisions for a fortnight, and flakes and utenfils. 

433. Noi/o.] The contrail is very Ilrong between the fcenes 
of Africa and Scythia, and has a fine effed. This variety, thi^ 
magic art of conveying the reader from one climate to another, 
conllitutes one of the greateil beauties of poetry. 

M. dc Maupertuis, who, with feme other academicians, was 
font by the king of France, in 1736, to mcafure a degree of 
the meridian, under the arflic circle, fays, that brandy was 
the only liqaor, which could bs kept fufHciently fluid for them 
to drink : Pendant un f void ft grand ^ que lalangut et let U*vres/e 
gehient fur le champs centre le tafe, tf^r And a little afterwards 
ne tells us, that the fpirits of wine froze in their thermometers. 

442. Nor the fun^i ^^ys.] In the original this is a verfe con- 
fining wholly of flow fpondees, which by their melancholy 
flow reprefcnt the difmalnefs of the obje£l defcribed. 

443. Whenfirft be climbs.] This winter piece has ever been 
admired as oue of the capital paintitigs of Virgil. Thomfon 


Book 3. The GEORaics of Virgil. 325 

So Rome's brave fons, beueath th* oppreflive load 
Of arms and baggage, trace the deftiji'd road 5 430 

And while he ne'er fufpeils th* impending bioWf 
Sudden unfurl their ftandards on the foe. ' 
Not fo the Scythian fliepherds tend their fheep ; 
Where fad Mocotis fpreads his fable deep ; 
Thick yellow fands where Ifter's torrents roll, 435 

And Rhodope returns to meet the pole. 
Their flocks they ftall ; for o'er th' unfruitful fcene. 
Nor fields, nor trees arc cloath'd in lively green. 
' One wafie of fnow the joyjcfs landfcape lies. 
Seven ells in height the ridgy drifts arifc. 440 

There ftill the bitter blafts of winter dwell; 
^Nor the fun's rays the paly (hade difpel, 
When firft he climbs his noon-tide courfe, or laves 
His headlong car in ocean's purple waves. 
Th' encroaching ice the loitering current feels, 445 

And on its bofom bears the ftudded wheels : 
Where erft the ftately bark was wont to ride. 
Waggons, thro' pajths unknown, fecurely glide. • 
Oft from the veffel burfts the brazen band. 
Stiff round their fides their frozen garments ftand. 45a 
With Oiarpen'd ftecl they cleave the humid wine. 
And .chains of folid ice whole lakes confine ; 
Their matted beards, by the keen climate frorc, 
With hanging icicles are hard and 'hoar, 

has given us 9 noble imitation of it, in hb view of winter 
within the polar circle ; and has added fome ftriking circum- 
ilances, not to be found in Virgil, which modern travellers, 
have obferved. 1 cannot forbear tranfcribing his concluiion^ 
where he def^pribes winter perfonally. The image is fubhmc, 

Here Winter holds his unrejoicing court. 

And thro' his airy hall the loud mifrule 

OF driving icmp^St is for ever heard j 

Here the grim tyrant meditates his wrath. 

Here arms his winds with aU-fubduing froft ; 

Moulds his fierce hail, and treasures up his fnows« 

With wiich he now oppreiTes half the globe, 

^ 3 

326 p. ViRciLii Maronis Gborgica. Lib. 3f 

Int^ea toto non fecius aere niRguit : 

Intereunt pecudes, ftant circumfufa pruinis 

Corpora magna bourn ; confertoque agmine cervi 

Torpent mole nova, et fummis vix cornibus exftant. 37^ 

Hos non inmiffis canibus, non caffibus ullis 

Puniceaeve agitant pavidos formidine pinnae : 

Sfid fruftra oppofitum trudentes pedore montem 

Comminus obtruncant ferro, graviterque rudentes 

Caedunt, ct magno laeti clamorc reportant. 375 

Ipfi in defoffis fpecubus fecura Aib alta 

Otia agunt terra, congeftaque robora, totafque 

Advolvere focis ulmos, ignique dedere. 

Hie noftem ludo ducunt, et pocula laeti 

Fcrmento atque acidis imitantur vitea forbis. 380 

Talis Hyperboreo feptem fubjcfta trioni 

Gens cfFrena virum Rhipaco tunditur euro, 

Et pecudum fiilvis vclatur corpora fetis. 

Si tibi lanitium curae ^ primum afpera filva, 

Lappaequc tribulique abfint : fuge pabula laeta : 385 

Continuo'^ue grc ges villis lege mollibus albos. 

Ilium autem, quamvis arics lit candidus ipfe. 

Nigra fubeft udo tantum cui lingua palato, 

Rejice, ne maculis infufcet vellcra pullis 

Nafcentum ; plenoque alium circumfpice campo. 390 

Munere iic niveo lanae, fi credere dignum eft. 

Pan deus Arcadiae captam te, Luna, fefellit. 

In nemora alta vocans : nee tu afpcrnata vocantem. 

At cui lafiis amor, cytifum, lotofquc frequentis 

lUe manu, falfafque ferat pracfcpibus herbas, 395 

479. Tho" njL'hite thy ram.] If the tongue of the ram be black 
©r fpeckled (fays Varro) the lambs will be of rhc fame colour. 
Sec Ariilotlc of animals to the fame purpofe. 

Book 3. The Georgics of Virgil. 3^7 

Mean time the (kies are dim with falling fnows ; 455 

Thick clouds of fleet th' unwieldy ox enclofe : 

In growing heaps benumb'd, tlie crowding deer 

Scarce from beneath, their branching antlers rear : 

Nor thefe with hounds the hunter-train furprize. 

With nets, or feathers dipt in purple dies ; 460 

But with the fword invade them, while in vain 

Againft the huge reluftant load they ftrain. 

While void of help, in piteous founds they bray ; 

Then home, with (houts of triumph bear the prey. 

In caverns deep, with oak uppil'd, they raife, 465 

And many a branching elm, the crackling blaze ; 

From cold fecur'd, around the flaming hearth, 

Wafl:e the long dreary night in focial mirth : 

Guiltlefs of wine, the goblet ftill goes round. 

With Ceres* juice, and fparkling cyder crown'd. 470 

Such is the race of favage fwains that lie 

Beneath the rigours of the polar fky ; 

And fore zSli&td by the piercing eaft. 

Their limbs with furs and brinded (kins invcft. 

Is wool thy care ? avoid the (haggy ground, 475 

Where thiftles and the prickly bur abound. 
Nor let too fat a foil thy choice invite ; 
Choofe firfl: a flock with fleeces foft and white. 
Tho* white thy ram, yet if a fwarthy tongue 
Appears beneath his humid palate hung, 480 

Rejeft him, left he blacken all the breed, 
And let another to the taflc fucceed. 
Thus by a fnowy fleece, th' Arcadian god 
Drew down pale Cynthia from her bright abode ; 
Nor did'ft thou, queen of night, difdain his love, 485 
Pleas'd with the cheat, thou met'ft him in the grove. 
If milk thou lov'ft, with lillies from the brook, 
^oft leaves, and falted herbage feed thy flock : 


yt9 '?• ViRGiLii Maronis Georgic^a. Lib. ^ 

Hinc et amant fluvios magts, ac magis ubera tendunt^ 

£t falls occultum referunt in la^e faporem. 

Multi jam excretos prohibent a matribuft haedos, 

Primaquc ferratis pracfigunt ora capiflfist 

Quod furgente die raulfere horifque diurnis, 406 

Node premunt ; quod jam tenebris et fole eadente. 

Sub luccm ; exportans calathis adit oppida paftor : 

Aut parco falc contingunt, hiemique reponuilt, 

Ncc tibi cura canum fucrit poftrema : fed una 

Velocis Spartae catulos acremque MolbflTum 465 

Pafce fero pingui : numquam cuftodibus illis 

No6lurnum ftabulis furem, incurfufque lupotum, 

Aut inpacatos a tergo horrebis Hiberos. 

Saepe etiam curfu timidos agitabis onagros, 

Et canibus leporem, canibus venabcre damos, 416 

Saepe volutabris pulfos filveflribus apros 

Latratu turbabis agens, montifque per altos 

Ingcntem clamore premes ad retia cervom. 

Difce et odoratam ftabulis accendere cedrum^ 

Galbaneoque agitare gravis nidore chelydros. 4^5 

Saepe fub inmotis praefepibus aut mala ta£tu 

Vipcra delituit, caelumque exterrita fugit : 

Aut teclo adfuetus coluber fuccedere et umbrae^ 

Peftis acerba bourn, pecorique adfpergert virus^ 

498 Nor he it thy loft fdfi, ] The poet fays but little concerDing 
the care of breeding of dogs, or of" hunting. Mr, Somervillc, 
in his poem entituled the Chace, one of the bed produ^tons of 
this age, has in fomemeafure Supplied the defed. 

498. Nor he it thy lafi care,] Tihicura, fays the original. Tihi, 
to you, Mecaenas ; putting the reader in mind, that the poem 
as didadlic pieces Ihould be) is addreffed to a particular per- 


513. Serpent.] This is from Nicander, Theriac. 35- Si* 53. 
See Columella alfo, 7. 4. . ' 

J 14. The viper too,] Dr. Martyn thinks the ferpent here dc- 
fcnbed to be that which Pliny calls hoas. This author affirms 
they grew to a prodigious b^gnefs, and that a child was found 
in the belly of one of theiQ in the reign of Claudius : that they 



Book 3* Ti^B GsoRGics or Virgil. 3^9 

Hence ftung with thirft to the clear xills they hafte. 
Hence are their fwelling dugs more tightly brac'd, 490 
While in the milk remains the favoury tafte-. 
Some, when the kids their dams too deeply drain. 
Their tender mouths with fteely bits reftrain. 
Their morning«milk the peafants prefs at nighlt. 
Their evening bear to town, when dawns the light j 495 
Or in the mafs, with fparing hand, they pour 
The tafteful fait, and keep for winter ft ore. 

Nor be it thy laft care thy dogs to breed 1 
With fatt'ning whey the vigorous maftiff feed^ 
And Sparta's race : thus fbould the thief invade, 50a 
Or wolf, thy fold, when* night extends her ihade. 
Or roving robber from th* Iberian rocks 5 
Thefe (ball repel their rage^ and guard thy flocks : 
Thy hound, the wild^afs in the fylvan chace. 
Or hare, or hartj with faithful fpeed will trace ; 50J 
AiTail the muddy cave, with eager cries, 
Where the rough boar in fallen ambufli lies ; 
prefs the tall ftag with clamours echoing ihrill. 
To fecret toils, along th* aerial hill. 

And learn to biirn within thy fheltcring rooms, 510 
The fpicy cedar, and Galbanean gums -, 
Beneath th' unfhifted fheds, in winding cells 
Oft fhut from day, the bloated ferpent dwells : 
The viper too that loves a fhady feat. 
That feeks beneath thy roofs a fafe retreat, 515 

Of herds the ftane, of fheep the poisonous peft 
Battens in fecret o'er her darkfome neft. 

feed on cow*8 milk» whence they have their name. The linen 
little below in the originalj 

Cafe/axa manu, cafe roiora, pafior^ 

Kadly exprei&ve of hurry and eageni< 
es in it 3 fo in the fourth Aeneid, 

Firtichijiammaf, date feh, imf^lUu Jtommat. 

is exadly exprei&ve of hurry and eagemefi : there arc no ptr- 
Ucles in it 3 fo in the fourth Aeneid, 

33© P- VmoiLii Maronis Ohorgica. Lib, 3. 

Fovit humum. cape faxa manu, cape robora, paftor, 420 
Tollentemque minas et fibila colla tumentem 
D^ice. jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte. 
Cum medii nexus, extremaeque agmina caudae 
Solvontur, tardofque trahit finus ultimus orbis.' 
Eft etiam ille malus Calabris in faltibus anguis, 425 

Squamea convolvens fublato pedore terga, 
Atque notis longam maculofus grandibus alvom : 
Qui dum amnes ulli rumpuntur fontibus, et dum 
Vere madent udo terrae, ac pluvialibus auftris, 
Stagna colit, ripifque habitans, hie pifcibus atram 430 
Iftprobus ingluviem ranifque loquacibus explet. 
Poftquam exufta palus, terraeque ardore dehifcunt, 
Exfilit in flccum, 'et flammantia lumina torquens 
Saevit agris, af^erque fiti atque extorridus aeftu. 
Ne mihi turn mollis Tub dio carpere fomnos, 435 

Neu dorfo nemoris libeat jacuifle per herbas : 
Cum pofitis novus exuviis nitidufque juventa 
Volvitur, aut catulos tedis aut ova relinquens, 
Arduus ad folem et linguis micat ore trifi^lcis. 
Morborum quoque te cauflas et figna docebo. 440 

Turpis ovis tentat fcabies, ubi frigidus imber 
' Altius ad vivom perfedit, et horrida cano 
Bruma gelu : vel cum tonfis inlotus adhaefit 
Sudor, et hirfuti fecuerunt corpora vepres. 
Dulcibus idcirco fluviis pecus omne magiftri 445 

524. Calabria's luoeds,] The poet here fpe^ks of another 
ferpent called cberfydrus, from its living both in water, and on 

540. Brandijbes.'] Micare in its true and natural Signification 
relates to any quick motion. So Virgil^ micat auribus ; and 
Cicero, digitis micare ; of that old game fo common in Italy of 
darting out their fingers, ^and gucffing at the number of thcfe 
darted out each time, fo often mentioned by ochers of the Ro- 
man writers. Holds worth. 

543, Scabs oft tbejieck,] Columella remarks, that a iheep as 
foon as it is fhcarcd, (hould be anointed with a mixture of the 
juice of lupines, the lees of old wine, and the dregs of oil, in 
equal quantities'; and be walhed four days afterwards in the 



B^k 3. The Georgics of Virgil. 351' 

JSnatch, fhepherd, ftones> quick fnatch the knotted oak. 

And quell his ftately creft with many a ftroke ; 

Affail his hifling throat, and fwelling fpires ; 520 

Lo ! by degrees his timorous head retires. 

And the laft orbs of his unfolded tail 

A lingering length of loofen'd volumes trail. 

Calabria's woods too breed a baleful fnake. 

With lofty breaft elate, and fcaly back,' 525 

And widi broad fpots his winding belly black : 

Who when the rivers burft their rocky bounds. 

And fouthern fliowers bedew the vernal grounds. 

Haunts the moift bank, and in the wat'ry bogs 

Gluts his foul paunch with fifh, and croaking frogs : 530 

But when keen heat the fens of moifture drains. 

He leaps on earth, and hifies o'er the plains. 

While mad with thirft, and fiird with drear amaze 

At the fierce beam, his rolling eye-balls blaze. 

May ne'er foft fleep, on a green bank, furprize, 535 

Faft by fonie foreft-fide, my drooping eyes. 

When caft his (kin, and fleek in youthful prime. 

Recent he rides, before the fun fublime ; 

Regardlefs of the neft, deferts his young. 

And brandiflies abroad his triple-forked tongue. 540 

I'll teach thee too the figns and caufes all. 
Of dire difeafes on the folds that fall : 
Scabs oft the flock, a foul contagion, feize. 
When winter hangs with icicles their fleece 5 
Or cold rains pierce, or unwa(h*d fweats adhere 545 

To their fhorn ikins, or prickly brambles tear. 
Hence in frefli currents of the cryltal wave, . 
With careful hands their flocks the fhepherds lave : 

fca, or in rain water faltcd ; and quotes the authority of Cclfoa, 
who affirms that a (heep treated after this manner, will be free 
fromnhe fcab a whole year, and that the wool will be the fotccr, 
and the longer for it. ^ 


3|S p. ViRGiLii Maronis Georgjca. Lib. f, 

Peffundunt, udifque aries in gurgite villis 
Merfatur, miirufque (bcundo defluit amni : 
Aut tonfum trifti condngunt corpus amurca, 
Et fpumas mifcent argenti, vivaque fulfura, 
Idaeafque pices, et pinguis unguine ceras, 450 

Sciilamque, elleborofque gravis^ nigrumque bitumen. 
Non tamen ulla magis praefens forcuna laborum eft, 
Quam fi quis ferro potuit refcindere fummum 
' Ulceris os. alitur vitium, vivitque tegendo : 
Dum medicas adhibere manus ad yoinera paftor 455 

Abnegat, et meliora deos fedet omina pofcens. 
Quin etiam ima dolor balantum labfus ad oiTa 
Cum furit, atque artu^ depafcitur arida fcbnsj, 
Profuit incenfos aeftus avertere, et inter 
Ima ferire 'pedis falientem fangxiinc venam ; 4.60 

Bifaltae quo more folent, ac€n|ue Geioaus, 
Cum fugit in Rhodopen, atque in deferta Getarum^ 
£t lac concretum cum fanguine potat equine 
Quam procul aut moUi Cuccedere faepius umbrae 
Videris, aut fummas carpentem ignavius herbas^ 465 
Extremamque fequi, aut medio procumbere campo 
Pafcentem* et ferae folam decedere no&i ; 
Continuo culpam ferro conpcfcc, prius quam 
Dira per incautum ferpant contagia volgus. 
Non tarn creber agens hiemem ruit aequore turbo, 470 
Quam multae pecudum peftes. nee fingula moibi 
Corpora corripiuiit : fed tota aeftiva repente, 
Spemque gregemque fimul, cuniStamque ab origine gentem* 
Tum fciat, aerias Alpis, et Norica fi qui? 

^ 568. And fierct Gehnlan.'^ Several northern cation^ at thij 
time drink mare's milk mixed with blood. Pliny fays, they 
mixed millet with it. The Tartars ufe it to this day, 

580. This truth to kn(rMJ\ The fenfe is, if any one knows 
what fort of places thefe were, when they were full of cattle, 
he may now fee them empty, though it is a long time fines tho 
peftilence, t>Eavius«' 


6cx>k 3. TjMfe Gsokotes op Vtucii. ^ 

And firft the father of the bleating crowd. 

Floats with his moiften'd fleece along the flood : 556 

Or bathe their limbs in bitter lees of oil. 

With hubbies that from molten filver boil ) 

Live fulphur mix, with tar's black-ftreaming juice. 

Or temper pitch that Ida's pines produce ; 

Or mingle, fraught with fat, the waxen ftor©, 555 

Or fea-bom fquills, with potent hellebore. 

But the beft cure which fegc experience knows. 

Is with a lance the ulcer to difclofe. 

Still grows the fore, while yet the (bepherd ftands, j 

Doubtful, nor dares exert his healing hands, 560] 

And anxious happier figns of heav'n demands. 

But when o'er th' inmoft bones the pain hath fjpread. 

On their parch'd limbs a raging fever fed. 

To quell the bleating fufferer's torrid pain. 

Pierce in the bottom-foot the throbbing vdn : 565, 

This praftife the Bifaltae, when they hafte 

To Rhodope, or roam the chearlefs Dacian wafte : 

And fierce Gelonian, when, for favage food. 

He blends the milky ftream with horfe's blood. 

If one thou fecft afFeft the cooling ihade, 570 

Or cropping liftlefsly the topmoft blade ; 
Droop on the plain, with ling'ring paces wait 
Behind, and home return alone and late ; 
Soon let thy fteel remove th' infefted (heep. 
Left o'er th' unwary flock contagion creep. 57S 

Lefs fierce and frequent on the wintry main 
Black whirlwinds rufli, than plagues that wafte the plain : 
Nor fingle deaths fuffice, at once they prey 
On young and old, and fweep whole herds away. 
This truth to know, th' aerial Alps behold, 580 

And meads thro' which Timavus' ftreams are roU'd i 

581. Anil mtads thro* 'which TmavMs^l Timavw is a river ©f 

^4 P* ViRGiLii Mahokis Osoagica. Lib. j* 

Caftella in tumulis, et lapidis arva Timavi^ 475 

Nunc quoque poft tan to videat defertaque regna 
Pa3loruin et longe faltus lateque \racantis. 
Hie quondam morbo caeli miferanda coorta eft 
Tempeftas, totoque au^mni incanduit aeftu, 
Et genus omne neci pecudum dedk, omne ferarum ; 480 
.Corrupitque lacus : infecit pabula tabo. 
Nee via mortis erat fimplex : fed ubi ignea venis 
Omnibus zStz fitis miferos adduxerat artus, 
Rurfus abundabat fluidus liquor ; omniaque in fe 
OfTa minutatim morbo conlabfa trahebat. 485 

£aepe in honore deum medio ftans hoftia ad aram» 
Lanea dum nivea circumdatur infula vitta. 
Inter eundantis cecidit moribunda miniftros. 4 

Aut fi quam ferro ma£laverat ante facerdos, 
Inde neque inpofitis ardent altaria fibris ; 49O 

;Nec refponfa poteft confultus reddere v2Jks : 
Ac vix fuppofiti tinguuntur fanguine cultri, 
Summaque jejuna fanie infufcatur arena. 
Hinc laetis vituli volgo moriuntur in herbis, 
£t dulcis animas plena ad praefepia reddunt. 495 

. Hinc canibus blandis rabies vcnit, et quatit aegros 
Tuffis anhela fues, ac faucibus angit obefis. 
Labitur infelix, ftudiorum atque inmcmor herbae, 
Viftor equus, fontifque avertitur, et pede terram 

582. J/id None cliffs,^ Noricum was a region of Germany 
bordering on the Alps. 

586. Here/prung of oU.'] We now enter upon the celebrated 
defcription of the plague. Virgil puts forth all his ftrcngth to 
endeavour to excel Lucretius's fixth book on the plague at 
Athens. Neither can I think he has fo far excelled his mafter 
(for fuch he was) as feme critics imagine. Many hints in this 
defcription are borrowed from Thucydides's accurate and cir- 
cumftantial account of the plague at Athens. 

608. The 'uiaor hor/e.^ Infelix ftudiorum in the original is 
an exprellion refcmbling laeta laborwn^ qjiSlus animi , firtuna-' 
tus labortm. Read the defcription of thefe fymptoms frofll this 
line to fauces f remit effpera lingua: fee how nobly the pOct ac- 


eld or woody 1 

raffy food, 590 j 

Book 3. The Gborcics or Virgil. . 33s 

And Noric cliffs with fpiry caftlcs crown*d j 

Lo ! wafte and wild the plains appear around : 

Ev'n now deferted ftands the (hepherd's ftate. 

And far and wide the lawns arc defolate. 585 

Here fprung of old by fickly gales begot, 

A plague with all the fires of autumn fraught. 

Which flew the beafts that range the field 

Defird the freflinefs of the cryftal flood! 

And fcorch'd with baleful breath the gral 

Strange kind of death ! for when the parching pain 

Had (hrunk the limbs, and throbb'd in every veiu^ 

A pois'nous humour flow'd from all the frame« 

Till every bone one putrid mafs became. 

Before the fhrine, in fnowy fillets dreft, . 595 

And holy bands, the confecrated beaft 

Fell, and prevented oft the lingering priefl:. 

Or if he funk beneath the fatal ftroke, 

Lo ! on the fhrine, his entrails fail to fmoke. 

No more, mifled by many a doubtful fign, 600 

The prophet can the dark event divine ; 

While fcarce the knife with the faint tindure reeks. 

Nor the thin gore the fandy furface ftreaks. 

O'er flow'ry meads, or at the plenteous ftall. 

In lifelefs heaps, the calves and hoifers fall. 60^ 

The gentle dogs run mad ; the fick*aing fwine 

Pant with thick coughs, with fwelling quinfies pine. 

The vidor horfe, forgetful of his food. 

The palm renounces, and abhors the flood : 

quits himfelf on a fubjedl^ fq exceedingly difliciilt to be defcribo 
td, and let us compare it with a finguUrly fine one in Lucretius 
of the fame kind : 

Periurbata animi mens in moerore nutuque ; 
Trifle fvpercilium, furiofus 'vultus^ W acer^ 
SoUicitae porro^ plenaeque fonoribm awrer: 
Creber fpiritut^ cut ingens, raroque ceortutf 
Tenuia fputa^ minutay croci continBa colers, 
Sal/aque per fauces rsuscas t/ix ediia tujji^ 


Crebra ferit : demiiTae aures : inqertus ibidem 500 

Sudor ', et ille quidem i^orituris irigidus ; aret 
Pellis, et ad tadum traAanti dura fefiftit. 
Hare ante exitium primis dant figna diebus^ 
Sin in procefTu coepit crudefcere morbus. 
Turn vero ardentes oculi atque adtra£tus ab alto 505 

SpirituSy interdum gemitu gravis, imaque longo 
' Ilia iingultu tendunt : it naribus ater 
Sanguis, et obfefias fauces premit afpera lingua« 
Profuit iofertolatices infunderexomu 
Lenaeos : ea vifa falus morientibus una* 510 

Mox erat hoc ipfum exitio, furiifque refefii 
Ardebant, ipiique fuos, jam morte fub aegra, 
(Di meliora piis, erroremque hoftibus ilium I) 
DifcifTos nudis laniabant dentibus artus* 
£cce autem duro fumans fub vomere taurus 515 

Concidit, et mixtum fpumis vomit ore cruorem, 
Extremofque ciet gemitus. it triftis arator,' 
Maerentem abjungens fraterna morte juvencum : 
Atque opere in medio defixa relinquit aratra, 
Non umbrae altorum nemoruro, non moUia poffunt 520 
Prata movere animum, non qui per faxa volutus 
Purior ele£lro campum petit amnis : at ima 
Sclvontur latera, atque oculos ftupor urguet inertis^ 
Ad terramque fluit devexo pondere cervix. 
Quid labor, autbenefaAajuvant? quid vomere terras 525 

629. The bullock Jtnks.l How exquifitely beautiful is the 
paufe in this verfe at the word gemitus ! it triftis orator, by the 
very-melancholy flow of the words places the aftion of the 
ploughman full in our fight : the next line proceeds as flow as 
poflible^ confiding of all fpondee^, 

Moirentem abjungens fraterna morte juvnuam* 

The circumflance of the brother heifer grieving is Qioft ten*- 
derly imagined. Nen umbrae aUarum nemorum is an imitation 
of Lucretius, where the dam is lamenting her oslf that wai 

Nee teneroi falices, atque berbae ron nngenfes, 
Fluminaque ulla queunt fummis labentia rifts 
ObkQan animum fubitamque averten cttnm* L# t. 

Book 3. The Gjborgics of Vircil. 337 

By fits, he ftamps the ground with eager fctt^ 6lo 

While from his body burfts a doubtful fweat. 

That ftood in icy drops, as death appear'd ; 

His parch'd hide to the touch is rough and hard. 

Thefe figns at firft his future fate prefage ; 

But as the fpreading peft improved its rage, 615 

With fanguinc beams fierce glqw'd his ardent eyes, 

And heav'd his ftruggling breath with groans and fighs; 

Of bloqd black torrents from his noftrils fprungy 

To the fwoln palate clove bis furry tongue. 

Some have at iiri^ with fhort fuccefs apply'd^ 6aO 

Pour'd thro' an horn, Lenaeus' purple tide j 

But foon frefh fuel to the growing flame 

It gave, and death the medicine became : 

While, with bare teeth, their limbs all bath'd In gore^ 

£v'n in the bittereft dying pangs they tore. 615 

O crown, ye gods, a pious people's pray'r. 

And let the bad alone fo dire an error (hare I 

Lo ! while he toils the galling yoke beneath. 

Foaming black blood, the bullock finks in death : 

The penfive hind the brother-ftcer relieves, 630 

Who faithful for his loft companion grieve3. 

And the fix'd (hare amid the furrow leaves. 

Nor grafTy mead, nor (hade of lofty grove. 

The mournful mate's afflicted mind can move : 

Nor yet from rocks delicious ftreams that roll , 635 

As amber clear, can footh his forrowing foul : 

His flanks flow loofe ; his eyes grow dim and dead ^ 

And low" to eaitth he bears his heavy head. 

Ah f what avails tlieir ceafelefs u(eful toil I 

What boots it to have turn'd the ftubbom foil i 640 

it was upon reading thefe exqulfite Utits» that Sc^ger de- 
clared, he had rather have been the author of them, than to 
have been the firfl favourite of Croefos or Cyruf . I wifh therf 
was no fentiment in Scidi^i works more extravagaxit Uuui 

Vol. I. 2S 


338 p. VikoiLH Maronis GeorgIca. Lib. 3. 

Invcrtifle gravis ? atqui non Maflica Baccht 

Munera, Hon illis epulae nocuere repoftae : 

Frondibus et viftu pafcuntur fimplicis herbae : 

Pocula funt fontes liquidi, atquc exercita curfu 

Flumina, nee fomnos abrumpit cura falubres. 530 

Tempore non alio dicunt regionibus illis 

Quaedtas ad facra boves Junonis, et uris 

Inparibus du£tos alta ad donaria currus* 

Ergo aegre raftris terram rimantur, et ipfis 

Unguibus infodiunt fruges, montifque per altos 535 

Contenta cervice trahunt ftridentia plauftra. 

Non lupus infidias explorat ovilia circum^ 

Nee gregibus nofturnus obambulat : aerlor ilium 

Cura domac : timidt damae eervique fugaces 

Nunc interque eancs et eireum tcfta vagantur. 540 

Jam maris inmenfi prolcm, et genus omne natantum 

Litore in extrcmo, ecu naufraga eorpora, fludus 

Proluit : infolitae fugiunt in flumina phocae. 

Interit et curvis fruftra defenfa latebris 

Vipera, et adtoniti fquamis adftantibus hydri. 545 

Ipfis eft acr avibus non acquus, et illae 

Pra xipites dta vitam fub nubc relinquunt. 

Practcrca jam'nec mutari pabula refert, 

Quaefitacque nocent artes : ceflfere magiftri 

Phillyridc^ Chiron Amythaoniufque Melampus. 550 

'Saevit et in lucem Stygiis emifla tenebris 

Pallida Tifiphone, Morbos agit ante Metumque, 

653. The ivily ivoi/,] Obfcrve thcfc drcumftanccs of the 
wolves prowling no more, becaufe acrior ilium cura domat^ and 
the deer wandering near the dwellings of men. 
' ' 657. Oiithe/hores,] Virgil, 'tis obferved, exprcfsly contra- 
didts Ariftotlc, who aflerts, that peftilcntial difcafcs never afFcd 

661. W apnijh'd hydra.] I know not a ftronger image in 
any poet whatever, than thi^ of the ferponts dying with their 
fcales creft and ftiffcned : attoniti (which is a moft cxpreflive 
•word in this place) fquamis aftantibus hydri! - 

The poet brings into his fubjcft the inhabitants of every 
clement, making as it were all nature aifeftcd with, this dreacU 
ful plague. 

Bbok 3i The G£piigics of ViKCit. 3^^ 

Yet ne'er choice Maffic wines debauched their tafte. 

Ne'er did they riot in the rich repaft j 

Their food is leafy browze, and nature's grafs. 

Their draught frefh rills that thro* the meadows pafs. 

Or torrents rufting from the rocky ftcep j 645 

Nor care difturbs their falutary fleep. 

Then cars were drawn, while fail'd th' accuftom'd kinc, 

By ill-pair'd buffaloes, to Juno's ihrine. 

And men with harrows toil'd to till the plain, 

Ev'n with their nails dug in the gbldcn grain ; 65a" 

The rattling waggon's galling yoke fuftain'd. 

And up the rocky fteep laborious ftrain'd* 

The wily wolf, no more by hunger boldj 

With fccret ftcp explores the nightly fold. - 

Deers herd with hounds, and leave their fylvan feat, 655 

And feel with man to find a fafe retreat : 

Thick on the (hores, like ibip-Wreck'd corfes caft. 

Appear the finny race of ocean vaft ; 

Th' affrighted Phocae to the rivers hafte. 

His cave no more to fhield the fnake avails; 660 

Th' aftohifh'd hydra dies, ere&ing all his fcales, 

Ev'a their own (kies to birds unfaithful prove. 

Headlong they fall, and leave their lives above j 

Nor change of pafture could relief impart ; 

DeftruSive proves each vain attempt of art : 665 

Chiron, Melampus healing herbs, no more. 

Fathers of facred medicine explore : 

TisiPHONE, from hell let loofe to light. 

Before her drives Diseases and Affright ; 

666. Chiron, Melampus, "] The poet does not mean that tht 
plague happened in the days of Chiron and Melampus, but 
that the very bcft phyficians acknowledged their /kill ufelefs in 
this cafe. Particulars are named for generals. Lucretius (peaks 
pcrfonally of the art of phyfic, which has a fine effcd. 

Mujfabat tacit M E D i ci N A iimore, 

668. Tt/iphone from helL] The figure of Tifiphone driving 
beicrc hw-r a train ofdiicaies and fear, is nobly conceived. Ji 

Z a puts 


3^ P. Vncuu Mahoni^ Gborgica, Lib* j^ 

Inque dies avidimi' ijirgens caput altius effeit.^ 

Balatu pecorum et crebris mv^ibiis amnes, 

Arentefque fimant ripae,. collefque. (upini. 55; 

Jamque catervatjm dat fifagenit. atqoc aggnat ipfis 

In ftabulis turpi dtlabfa^cadavena taba: 

Donee humo tegere, ac foveis abfcondcre df£cuiit« 

I^^ain neqiK! erAt coriis ufus ; nee vjicenu quUqju^oL 

Aut undis abolere. potfift, aut Tincersflaouxu : 560^ 

Nee tondere quidcm morbo illuvieque pereTa 

VeUera, nee telas poflunt adciiKg^re.pujtri$. 

Verum etiamiiuvifoiifi qpis tcjotarat amifius^ 

Ardentes papulae, atque inmundus olffncia fudor 

Membra fequebatur* nee longu deinde moranti 565 

Tempore eontaAos facer artus ignis edebat* 

pats one in mind of that exalted imzfe in Habakknl^ when 
the prophet fpeaking of Jehovah in hu wrath» fays, '* Beferr 
him went the peftiknce.'* The circiunftance of the fniy Ti* 
fiphone's growing eveiy da^ larger and larger, is tmlx ad- 
jxiirable, as it fo juftly alludes to the daily increafe of the 

673. TIfg 'witbgriug kaktJ] What can be more pathedc thaa 
the circumftance of the hills perpetually echoing with the 
mournful bleatings of the (heep ? &c. 

675, She piles J] That is Tifiphonc ; making this Fury tk» 
agents and continuing to perfo^ify faer,^ 

Book 3* Thk Georcics of Vihgil* 341 

Still day by day more huge the fiend appears, 6j% 

Till high to heav*n her horrid hetd fhe rears : 
While lowings loud, and many a mournful bleat. 
The withering banks and hanging hills repeat : 
At length whole herds to death at once She fweeps. 
High in the ftalls (he piles the loathfome heaps ; 675 

Dire fpedacle ! till fage experience found 
To bury deep the carrion in the ground. 
Ufelefs their hides ; nor from the fleih the flame 
Could purge the filth, nor ftrcams the favour tame. 
Nor could their (kins fupply the woolly (lore, 68# 

0*ergrown with fcabs, and ftifF with many a fore : 
Wove from fuch fleeces thofe who wore a veft. 
Were with foul fweats, and burning fpbts opprefsM j 
Till thro' the limbs diffused, th* infatiate flame 684 

With dire contagious touch confum'd the putrid frame. 

684. n* in/atioti flame.'] Some imagine that by facer i^nis 
an eryflpelas or St. Anthony^s fire may be meant. But per- 
haps /acer may mean aecurjed^ or direful ^^auri facra fames -^^ 
facer eft: I cannot agree with many critics, that Virgil hath 
on the whole excelled his mafler Lucretius in his defcrip* 
tion of the plague* There are feveral ftrokes of the ftrongeft 
paintinj;, and the' deepeft pathetic in Lucretius's fixth book ; 
which fixth book, by tne way, feems but an odd and imperfed 
eoQclufion of his work. 




[ 343 ] 



Having treated of many other animals together in the fore^ 
going hook^ the poet fele£ls a Jingle creature for the fuhje£l 
of thls^ and devotes a whole book to the defcription of 
the wonderful bee. It is divided into eight parts. I. Of 
a proper Jlation for bees. II. Of their gathering honey j 
their fwarms^ and their battles. III. Of two fpecies of 
bees. IV. Of their wifdom^ civil prudence ^ government j 
and republic. V. Of the time of taking their honey. 
VI. Of the difeafes incident to beesy with the ftgns and 
the remedies of fuch difeafes. VII. Of the method of rer 
pairing the race of bees when the whole breed is lojl. 
VIII. Of AriJtauSj the author of this method of repair^ 
ing a flock of bees \ his adventure with Proteus \ the rea^ 
fons Proteus ajjigns to Arijiaus for his lofsy which artfully 
introduce the Jlory of Orpheus and Eurydice : with whofi, 
unhappy fate the poet concludes his confummate work. 


C J44 ] 


G E O R G I C A. 


PR O T I N U S aerii mellts coeleftia dont 
Exfequar. hanc ctiam, Maecenas, adfpice partem. 
Admiranda tibi Icvium fpe<3acula rcruin, 
Magnanimofque duces, totiufque ordine gentis 
Mores, et ftudia, et populos, et praeiis^ dicam* 5 

in tenui labor: at tenuis non gloria; fi qucm 
Nomina laeva finunt, audicque vocatus Apollo* 
Principio fedcs s^pibus ftatioque pctenda, 
Quo neque fit ventis aditus, (nam pabula venti 
Fcrrc domum prohibent) nequc oves haedique petulci !• 
Floribus infultent, aut errans bucula campo 

Vcr. I. Honey.] The poet calls honey aerial and J^eavtafy, 
according to the opinion of the old philofophers, who believed 
that it Wis derived from the dew of heaven, 'i'bis heavenly 
dew they thought was received by the flowers, and thence ga- 
thered by the bees. Every reader of tafte perceives how Virgil 
exalts and dignifies thefe wonderful infc6ls, by afcribing to 
them thro' this whole book, the manners, pafiions, and adiont 
of men. I have before faid, that the charaderiftic of this 
book is elegance, and of the former, fublimity. Virgil has 
borrowed moft of his obfervations upon bees from Varro, and 
Ariflotle's treatife of animals. Modern philofophy has cleared 
up many millakes which thefe ancients fell into> with regard 
to bees and other animals. 

r 345 3 

G E O R G I C S 

O F 



NEXT heaivenly honey, and amhrofial dewsj 
This too Maecenas hear ! my fong purfues i 
Great wonders of an infedl-race imparts. 
Their manners, mighty leaders, arms, and arts; 
The fubje£t trivial, but not low the praife, f 

If Heav'n fhould fmile, and Phofhus aid the lays. 

Firft for your bee^ a Ihelter'd ftttion find. 
Impervious to the gufU of ruibing wind ^ 
Rude blafts permit them not, as wide they roam. 
To bring their food and balmy treafures home, i^ 

To tread the fweets of neighb'ring flow'rs forbid 
The fportful lambkin, and exulting kid ; 

12. Sportful lambkinJ] Which putsme in nund of thofe fwett 
lines of Euripidcf^ UippoL Coron. 73. 

Ovf nXdf ^ai at^u «^' «»«(«('»« 

An author (wbofc mcaneft praife is hi$ cri^teal tafte and judg- 
ment) inft^d of n^wr in the la& verfe« would read ^^mo^ . Mi- 

Jortin on EcdefialUcal Hifi. 387. vol. %$ 

346 p. ViRGiLii Maronis Georcica. ■ Lib. 4^ 

Decutiat rorem, et furgentis adterat herbasi 
Abfint et pi^Sli fqualentia terga lacerti 
Pinguibus a ftabulis, meropefque, aliaequc volucres ; 
Et manibus Procne peSus fignata cruentis. jr 

Qmnia nam late vaftant, ipfafque volantis 
. Ore ferunt dulcem nidis inmrtibus efcam. 
At liquidi fontes et ftagna virentia mufco 
Adfint, et tenuis fugiens per gramina rivus, , 
Palmaque veftibulum aut ingens oleafter iuumbret. 20 
Ut, cum prima novi ducent examiiia regcal 
Vere fuo, ludetque favis emifla juventus, 
Vicina invitet decedere rlpa calori 5 
Obviaque hofpitiis teneat frondentibus arbos. 
In mcdiu.m, feu ftabit iners, feu profluet humor, 25 

Tranfverfas falices, et grandia conjicc faxa : 
Pontibus ut crcbris poflint confiftere, et alas 
Pandere ad aeftivorti folem'; fi forte morantis 
Sparferit, aut pracceps Neptuno inmerferit Eurus. 
Haec circum cafiae virtdcs, et olentia late 30 

Serpulla, et graviter fpirantis copia thymbrae 
Floreat, inriguumque bibant violaria fontem. 
Ipfa autcin, feu corticibus tibi futa cavatis, 
Seu lento fuerint alvearia viminc texta, 
Anguftds habcant aditus. nam frigore mella 35 

Cogit hiems, eademque calor liquefafta remittit. 

16. The merops:'] Apiaftety or Bee-eatery is (haped like a king- 
filher. It is abouc the fize of a black-bird. Progne the daugh- 
ter of Pandion was turned into a.fivallow> which has the fea- 
thers of its breaft ftained with red. 

23. Palm.^ Dr. Martyn obfervcs that the palm-tree is of 
feveral forts ; but believes the fpecies cultivated in Italy (and 
confequently that 'meant in this place) to be the date-tree. 

27. This cool retreat. '\ Milton has an expreffion of the fame 
nature with bo/pitih frondentibus in Comus, 

To lodge 

't Under the >^r^a^/>j- y«<i;o»r of thele pines. 

30. WiJio^s.^ In the original tranfverfas falices. Varro 
would have a fmall fh-eam near the apiary not above 2 or 3 


Bopk 4« The Georgics of Virgil, 347 

Nor fpringing herbs let roving heifers cruihy 

Nor nibbling iheep the morning dew-drops brufli, 

Nor fcaly lizards near their walls be found, 15 

Nor ravenous birds^ nor merops flit around. 

Nor Progne, markt her brcaft with Jiands of. blood ; 

Each wandering infe£t they dcftroy for food, 

Arreft the lab'ring bees, a lufcious prey. 

And to th* expcftant hungry nefts convey, ao 

But near, let fountains fpring, and rivulets pafs, 

Meand'ring thro' the tufts of mofs and grafs ^ 

Let fpreading palm before the portal grow. 

Or olive wild his fheltering branches throw > 

That when the youthful fwarms come forth to play, 25 

Beneath the vernal fun's unclouded ray, , 

The^kings may lead them to this cool retreat. 

Where flow'ry banks invite, and boughs defend from heat. 

Haft thou a living rill, or ftagnant lake ? 

With willows and huge ftones the waters break j / 30 

On which the wanderers fafely may alight. 

When rains or winds retard their dcftin'd flight j 

On which emerging from the waves, may land. 

And their wet wings to tepid funs expand. 

Let caffia green and thyme (bed fweetnefs round, 35 

Savoury, and ftrongly-fccnted mint abound, 

Herbs that the ambient air with fragrance fill ; 

While beds of violets drink the frefhening rill. 

Whether your hive you frame of woven boughs, 
Or rear with pliant bark the concave hoiife, 40 

Strait be its entrance ; left the varying year 
Congeal the golden combs with froft fevere. 

■fingers deep^ with feveral fhells or fmall flones Handing a Httle 
above the iarface of the water, that the bees may drink. 

36^ Savoury.] The tbymbra of. the ancients is generally 
thought, fays Dr. Martyn, to be feme fpecies of /atureia, or 
^a^owy, Serpyllum is njnild ifyme. Caffia is not rojemary^ as 
^e have fuppofed. 6 

j4' P* ViRGiLii Mauokis ClOltCtCA. Llbw ^m 

Utraque vis apibus pariter metuenda: ne^ue illae 

Nequidquam in tcQAs certatim tenuia cent 

Spiramenta linunt, fucoque et floribus oras 

Explent^ conle£himque haec ipfli ad fnuiiera gluten ^ jfi 

Et yifco ct Phrygiac fcrvant pice lentias Idae. 

Saepe etiam eflbffis (fi vera eft Tama) latebris 

Sub terras fovere larem, penitufque repertae 

Pumicibufque cavis, exefaeque ai1>oris antro. 

Tu tamen e levi rimofa cuVilia limp 45 

Ungue fovens circum, et raras fuperinjicefrondis. 

Neu propius tedis taxum fine, neve nibentis 

Ure foco cancros, altae neu crede paludi : 

Aut ubi odor coeni gravis, aut ubi concava pulfu 

Saxa fonant, vocifque ofFenfa refultat imago. 50 

Quod fupereft, ubi pulfam biemem fol aureus egit 

Sub terras, caeiumqoe aeftiva luce rcclufu^ 

Illae continuo faltus filvafque'peragrant, 

Purpureofque metunt flores, et flumina libant 

Summa leves. hinc nefcio qua dulcedine laetae 55 

Progenicm nidofque fovent : hinc arte recentis 

Excudunt ceras, et mclla tcnacia fingunt. 

Hinc ubi jam emiflTum caveis ad fidera cacli 

Narc per aeflatem liquidam fufpcxeris agmen^ 

Obfcuramquc trahi vcnto mirabere nubem'; 60 

Contemplator : aquas dulcis, et frondea Temper 

Tefta petunt. hue tu juffos adfperge fapoes. 

56. TJ^e red^ning €rah$,^^ This mull foond very odd to no- 
dcrn readers. The Romans were wont to burn crabs to aibei, 
and ufed them as a remedy for fcalds and burns. 

61. The poet proceeds to fpeak of the fwarming of beet, 
and points out the method of making them fettle. 

Book 4i! Thui Giqrgi€s 09 Vikgiu 349^ 

Or melt the^ maft in Aimmer's rcorchiog beams ; 

Baneful ^ikato bees ar<e botlv extffemc»» 

For this, around tbe cfainJ^ hf nature led^ 45 

Soft wax and flow'rs and fuoua thick tiiey fpread : 

For this, their ftores with potent glewsem?icht 

More tough than birdrlime or Uean pitch. 

And oft in caverns, as tradition tells, 

They fix their bower, andr form their iecret cells ;; 5# 

Oft in cleft ftones their hoarded fweets- are laid^^ 

Or mofs-green oaken, trunks with, age decay'd^ 

Thou too. Wiithr mu4 th^ cl>ink>; (ides overlay. 

And thinly ibade them with^ the leafy fpray. 

Nor by their walls let yews- unwholefomo grow^ $$ 

Nor let the ned'ning crabs in -embers glow. 

Ne'er trufl them near tbo-f^H) or ftagnate flood. 

Nor rank pernicious- flench of reeking mud. 

Nor where the voice from hollow rocks rebounds^ 

And hill to* hill returns the mimic founds. 69 

For what remains, when the bright fun hath driven 
Pale winter down, and opM the imiling heav'n 
With cloudlefs luftre, ftrait abroad they rove. 
Around each lawn, around each verdant grove. 
And fip the purple flowers,, and lightly fkim (5 

Acrofs the dimpled brook and river's brim : 
Hence inexpreffive fondnefs fills their breaft. 
For their young progeny and rifing neft i 
With joy their waxen labours they renew,' 
Thickening to honey their ne^areous dew. 79 

Burft from their caells i^ a young troop be feen. 
That fails exulting through the blue fenene, 
Driv'n by the winds, in clouds condens'd and dark, 
Obferve them clofe, the paths they fteer remark ; 
They feek frefh fountains, and thick ihady bowers, ^5 
*Tis then the time to fcatter fragrant flowers^ 

350 P. VikGiLii Maronw GEOKGitA. Lib. 4« 

Trita melirphylla, et cerinthae ignobile gramen : 

Tinnitufque cie, et Matris quate cjmbala cireum* 

Ipfae confident medicatis fedibus : ipfae 65 

Intuma more fuo fefe in cunabula condent. 

Sin autem ad^ugnam exierint^ (nam faepe duobus 

Regibus inceffit magno difcordia motu) 

Continuoque animos volgi et trepidantia bello 

Corda licet longe praefcifcere : namque morantis 70 

Martius ille aeris rauci canor increpat, et tox 

Auditur fra6lo8. fonitus imitata tubarum. 

Timi trepidae inter fe coc^unt, pennifque corafcaht,' 

Spiculaque exacuunt roftris, aptantque lacertos, 

£t circa regem atque ipfa ad praetoria denfae j^ 

Mifcentur, magnifque vocant clamoribus hoftem. 

Ergo, ubi ver na£fae fudum campoTque patentis, 

Erumpunt portis ; concurritur ; aethere in alto 

Fit fonitus, magnum mixtae glomerantur in orbem, 

Praecipitefque cadunt. non dehfior acre grando. So 

Nee de concuiTa tantum pluit ilice glandis. 

Ipfi per medias acies, infignibus alis, 

Ingentis animos angufto in pecftore verfant. 

Ufque adeo obnixi non cedere, dum gravis aut hos, 

Aut hos verfa fuga victor dare terga fubegit, 85 

77. Cert nth. Sec] Trita melifphylla, et cerinthae tgmohile 
gramen, fays the original. Dr. Martyn, who is very accurate 
and full in explaining the botanical part of the Georglcs, fays, 
that the firll plant leems to be a contra^iion of mclTjfpphyllon ; 
and that the defcription of it agrees very well with the meliffa 
or baum, a common herb in the Engliib gardens* Ceriothe 
(which is derived from xn^»o;i, a honey -comb) is the cerintbe Jiai/o 
flare afperior, or yello^W'flo'wered honey-^wort. The ftalks arc 
about the thicknefs of one's finger, round, fmooth, whiteifh, 
and divided into feveral branches. The leaA'es embrace the 
ilalks and branches with their bafes, and dimii^iH) gradually to 
a point. They are of a blueifh colour nr.rkcd with white 
fpots, fet on ^oth fides with prickles; and neatly indented. 
j3r. Martyn in his quarto edition has given a beautiful print of 
the cerinthe finely coloured. 

Sook 4. The Georgics of Virgil. 351 

Bruis'd baum, and vulgar cerinth fpread around. 

And ring the tinkling brafs, and facrcd cymbals found: 

They'll fettle on the medicated feats, 

And hide them in the chambers* laft retreats* 80 

But if intent on war they feek the foe, 
'Twixt two contending kings when difcords glow. 
The peoples' troubled minds you foon prefage, 
Burning for battle, fwoln with eager rage; 
Hark ! a rough clangor calls the hofls to arms, t5 

A voice, like the deep trumpet's hoarfe alarms ! 
Furious they meet, and brandifhing their wings. 
Fit all their claws, and (harpen all their ftings ; 
Around their monarch's high pavilion crowd. 
And call the lagging foe with fhoutings loud. ^0 

Now when a day ferene and bright they gain. 
From the vcxt city nifh both battles main ; 
Dire is the conflift, loud refounds the (ky, 
Clofe in one clufter they contend on high, 
And headlong fall, as thick as clattering hail, 95 

Or acorns ftrew^ from (haken oaks, the vale. 
The kings fhine glorious 'mid the thickeft war, 
And mighty fouls in narrow bofoms bear : 
Stedfaft in fight, unknowing how to yield. 
Till thefc or thofe forfake the deathful field. loo 

78. Cymbals,] Tinntiufque cie» Sec. This cuftom is ftill ufed. 
Ariflocle mentions it likewife, and queflions whether they hear 
or not, and whether it be delight or fear that caufes the beet 
to be quieted with fuch noifes. For my own part I believe ic 
to be of no manner of fervice in this cafe. Martym. 

85. Ho/Is to arms.] This battle is defcribed with as much 
fpirit and drengthy and the fury of the combatants is painted 
in terms as bold and majeitic, as if it were an engagement 
between the-greatefl heroes. One cannot but obicrve how 
Virgil exalts his bees by giving them all the warlike appa* 
fatus of an army. Such are the expreflions 
j^eris rauci canor, /pUula^ and praetoria, magnifque 'uocaitt 
clamoriius hojiem, per metitas ccics, crumpunt pcrtit » 

25* P* ViRGILII MaRONIS GfiOROKA. Lib. 4. 

Hi motus animorum atque haec certamina tanU 

Folveris exigui ja£hi conprefla quiefcunt. 

Verum ubi du£lores acie revocaveris ambo ; 

Deterior qui vifus, eum^ ne prodigus obfit, 

Dede neci : mclior vacua fine regnet in aula. g« 

Alter erit maculis auro fqualentibus ardens : 

(Nam duo funt genera) hie melior, infignis et ore^ 

£t rutilis clarus fquamis ; illc horridus alter 

Defidia, latamque trahens inglorius alvom. 

Ut binae regum facieSy ita corpora plebis. ^^ 

Namque aliae turpes horrent : ceu pulvere ab alto 

Cum venity et ficco terram Tpuit ore viator 

Aridus : eluc^nt aliae, et fulgore corufcant 

Ardentes auro, et paribus lita corpora guttis. 

Haec potior fuboles. hinc caeli tempore certo io# 

Dulcia mella premes : nee tantum dulcia, quantum 

£t liquida, et durum bacchi domitura faporefcn. 

At cum incerta volant, caeloque examina ludunt, 

Contemnuntque favos, et frigida te£la relinquunt ; 

Inflabilis animos ludo prohibebis inani. 10^ 

Nee magnus prohibere labor, tu regibus alas 

Eripe. non illis quifquam cund^antibus altunv 

Ire iter, aut caftris audebit vcllere figna. 

Invitent croceis halantes floribus horti. 

lie. Spits from parched lips, 1 'Tis obfervable that this is the 
only low, or droll image, that Virgil hath admitted into the 
Georgic5 ; fo cartful was he oi keeping up a dignity and ma- 
jefty throughout his poem. Philips in his Cyder, has not 
always followed this judicious example : wituefs the fbilowrin^ 
paHages, bordering on burlefque. 

AIIoo thy furioas maftifiT 

Blind bayard rather Add to thefe inftanccs, 

the bag* piper, and the defcription of a fwain eating a beantifal 
apple whole in fide is decayed ; whole furprize, to heighten tbc 
naicule by a pompous fimilc, is compared to an amty marchiii^ 
^ftT flowery meaclows under which are caverm* fitted "with gnn« 

ISook 4* The Georgics of Virgil, 353 

Thefe fierce contentions, this pernicious fray, 

A little duft flung upwards will allay. 

When now both chiefs have left the doubtful ftrifc, 

*rhe vanquifh'd wretch muft yield his forfeit life 5 

Left he confume the ftores, an ufelefs drone 5 105 

While uncontroird the viftor mounts the throne* 

Two diff'rent kinds of regal bees behold ! 

The better bears a coat that glows with gold 5 

More delicate proportions grace his frame. 

And radiant fcales o'er all his body flame : iio> 

While in the other, floth's foul hues prevail, 1 

Groveling he fcarce his breadth of paunch can trail. 

Alike a different form the people wear, 

Thefe fqualid to the fight, and rough appear : 

As when the traveller, all fpent with thirft, 115 

Spits from parch'd lips the froth-attemper'd duft. 

The better race refulgent hues unfold, 

Bedropt with equal fpots of gliftening gold ; 

At ftated feafons, thefe fliall plenteous pour 

From their fwoln combs the fwcct ne£tareous fliow*r I 120 

Yet pure as fweet, and potent to difFufe 

New flavours mild o'er Bacchus' harflier juic9. 

But when the fwarms in aether idly play. 

And from their emptied hives uncertain ftray; 

From the vain fport their giddy minds reftrainj 12c 

Nor great, to check the fugitives, the pain : 

Be it thy care, from thefe high reverenc'd kings. 

Conductors of their flight, to clip the wing.^ s 

The troops to march without their leaders fear, 

Nor dare the ftandard from the camp to bear, 130' 

Let gardens gay, with fafFron flowers, invite 

The fickle wanderers, and retard their flight : 

Sowder. This is more like Cervantes than Virgil : and in- 
eed there is an air of burlefque poetry throughout the wholp 
jpoem of Cyder^ much refexnbling his Splendid Shillino. 

Vov L A a 

J54 ^' Vjrgilii Maronis Georgica. Lib. 4^ 

Et cuftos furuin atque avium cum falce faligna no 

Heltefpontiaci fervet tutela Priapi^ 

Ipfe tbymum pinofque fereas de montibus altis 

Teda fiscal late circum^ cui talia curae : 

Ijpfe labore manum duro terat : ipfe feracis 

Figat humo plantas, et amicos inriget imbris» 115 

Atque equidem, extreme ni £iib fine laborum 

Vela trahan^y ac terris feftincm advertcre proraoa ^ 

Forfitan et, pinguis hortos quae cura colendi 

Omzrety canerem^ biferique rofavia Paefti : 

Quoque modo potis gauderent intuba rivis ; 120 

£t virides apio ripae^ tortufque per herbam 

Crefceret in ventrcm cucumis r nee fcra comantent 

NarcifTum, aut flexi tacuiiTem vimen acanthi, 

Pallentifque ederas, et amantis litora myrtos, 

Namque Tub Oebaliae memini me turribus altis, 22$ 

Qua nigcr humeftat flaventia culta Galefus, 

Corycium vidifle fenem : cui pauca reli&i 

Jugera ruris erant : nee fertilis ilia juvencis^ 

Nee pccori opportuna feges, nee commoda baccho* 

Hie rarum tamen in dumis olus, albaquc circum 13a 

Lilia, verbenafque premens, vefcumque papaver, 

145. Hoiv celeri.] Thcfe exqaifitc lines make as wiih the 
poet^ had enlarged upon the lubjeft of gardeniog. We have 
no poem on it but an infipid one of F. Rapin, written in pure 
Latin indeed, but with no poetical fpirit, and indeed I think 
not comparable to an old fragment of Columella on this fub- 
je6k. Confidcriu^ the many great improvements made in this 
fcience, perhaps the garden h the propereft and moft fruitful 
fubjed for a didadic poem of any whatfoever. Efpecially as 
tbis art hath been lately fo much improved by Mr. Kent, who 
with great tafte hath banilhed the regular, (Irait walks, Dutch 
work, and unnatural imiformiLy formerly fo much admired.^ 

151. Once,) Who that reads this, fays Dr. Trapp, defpiiea 
not the wealth, and pities not the perfbns of all the great ones 
nppn earth? 

154. Hereilitary JieU,) Some interpreters fay, relOH ruris 
means acres of waile, or neglected land. 

'158. Lillies.] The original is, albaque circum HHa, Tho* 
the white lilly be the molt common fpecies of that flower, 


JJdak4v The Georgics of Virgil. 355 

Safe let them live beneath Priapus' eye, 
Whofe hook rapacious birds and robbers fly. 
And let the fwain who makes the hive his care, 13^5 

Sweet thyme and pines from the fteep mountains bear. 
Nor fliould himfelf refufe, their ftraw-built houfe 
Far round to fhade with thickly-woven boughs ; 
Himfelf fliould plant the fpreading greens, and pour 
Thick o'er the thirfting beds the friendly (howV. 14a 

And here, but that I haften to the fliore, 
Prepar'd to ftrike my fails, and launch no more j 
Perhaps the gardens' culture I might praife. 
Teach doubly-fruitful Paeftum's rofe to raife ; 
How celeri and endive love to grow I45 

On verdant banks where gufliing rivulets flow ; 
How beft the creeping cucumber may fwell j 
Nor dafFadil's late bloom would fail to tell j 
Acanthus' bending ftalks, nor ivy hoar. 
Nor myrtles green, that love the breezy fliore. 150 

For once beneath Oebalia's lofty towers, 
Where black Galefus thro' rich pafturcs pours. 
An old Corycian yeoman I beheld. 
Lord of a fmall hereditary field. 

Too poor to nourifli flieep, or fatning kine, 155; 

The golden corn, or Bacchus' joyous vine ; 
Yet he thin £allads 'mid the bufhy ground, 
And vervain planted, and white lillies round ; 

among us, yet it was the moft celebrated, and bcft known 
among the ancients. Thus Virgil does not produce the epi- 
thet o/^/z in this place, without reafon. In other paflages our 
poet has taken care to inilil on the whitenefs of the UDy ; at 
m Aen. lib. 12. 

— Mixta rubent ubi iiii0 muifa 
Alha rofa 

And Aen. 6. 

■— Candida circum, 
hilia funduntur. 

A a 2 

356 P« VzRciLix Ma&onis Georgica. Lib. Ifi 

Regum aeqaabat opes animis ; feraque revertens 

Node domum dapibus menfas onerabat inemtis. 

Primus vcre rofam atque auflumno carperc poma, 

Et cum triftis hiems etiamnum frigore faxa 135 

Humperet, et glacie curfus frenaret aquarum^ 

Ille comam mollis jam turn tondebat acanthi, 

Aeftatem increpitans feram Zephyrofque morantis. 

Ergo apibus foetis idem atque examine multo 

Primus abundare, et fpumantia cogerc preiEs 140 

Mella favis : illi tiliae, atque uberrima pinus : 

Quotque in flore novo pomis fe'fertilis arbos 

Induerat, totidem audumno matura tenebat. 

Ille etiam feras in verfum diftulit ulmos, 

Eduramque pirum, et fpinos jam pruna ferentis^ 14^ 

Jamque miniftrantem platanum potantibus umbras. 

Verum haec ipfe equidem fpatiis exclufus iniquis 

Praetereo, atque aliis poft me memoranda relinquo* 

Nunc age, naturas apibus quas Juppiter ipfe 

Addidit, expediam : pro qua mercede, canoros 150 

Curetum fonitus crepitantiaque aera fecutae^ 

Didtaeo caeli regem pavere fub antro. 

S^olae communis gnatos, confortia te£ta 

170. Piuts.'] Columella obfenres that limes are hurtful to 
bees, but mentions the pine as agreeable to them. 

175. Planes,'] This relates to the Corycians having the art 
of removing even large trees. 

179. fFonJ^rous powers.] There are many pafTagcs in the 
Gcorgic, where Virgil manages his prince's caufe with great 
dexterity, and at the fame time (hews an equal regard for the li* 
berty and intereft of his country ; but certainly nothiDe; can 
come up to the fourth book, on this head. What wonderful 
knowledge muft that writer have had, who could ranfack all 
nature to find out a fpecies of infedts whofe conltitutioa might 
be fuppofed to be made up of a republic governed by a mo-* 
aarch f 

This was one of the principal reafons of Vifgirs chooCng tli« 
bees for his finiihing piece ; and this 0l|Js.Cf hw. ^y to Maece^ 
nas in his ix^trod^ft^n to it. 



Book4« The Georgics op Virgil. 357 

And late at eve returning home to reft. 
His frugal board with unbought dainties bleft, 160. 

Nor wifliM to be the richeft monarch's gueft. 
When fpring with flowers, with fruits when autuma 
He firft could pull the apple, crop the rofe ; [glows. 

When winter drear had cloVe the rocks with cold. 
And chained in ice the rivers as they roirdj^ 165 

Ev*n then acanthus* tender leaves he fliear'd, 
'Slow zephyr blamM, and a late fummer fear*d. 
He the firft fwarms could boaft and pregnant bees. 
From the full combs could richeft honey fqueeze : 
Tall were his pines and limes, and fruitful all his trees 
Whatever buds the bending branches wore, 171 

So many fruits in autumn fwell'd his ftore. 
He too could high-grown elms tranfplant in rows. 
Or hardened pear-trees from their place tranfpofe. 
Or plumbs with all their fruits, or lofty planes 175 

That flielter'd with broad fliades the quaffing fwains. 
But fince too narrow bounds my fong confine. 
To future bards thefe fubjefls I refign. 

Now liften while the wond'rous powers I fing. 
And genius giv*n to bees by heav'n's almighty king, 180 
Whom in the Cretan cave they kindly fed. 
By cymbals' found, and claihing armour led. 
They, they alone a general intcreft fhare. 
Their young committing to the public care 5 

Admiranda tibi len)ium fyeSacula rerum* 

Yea will foon fee to whom the wonders are applicable, which 
I relate of thefc little creatures. How fine a compliment was 
it to the Roman people, and their prince, to ihew that the bees 
had their laws (upon which all their happinefs was founded) 
by inrplratioQ from Jupiter, and their prince from the fame 
fourcel Benson. 

i8o. King.'\ The poet hero infinuates, that Jupiter gave the 
bees a degree of realbn, as a reward for their feeding him, 
when an infant, with honey, while he was concealed in a cavo 
frgm his father Saturn, 

A a 3 

358 P* ViRGiLii Maronis Grorcica. Lib* 4^ 

Urbis habent, magnifque agitant fub leglbus aeyom : 

Et patriam folae, et certos novere penatis : X55 

Venturaeque hicmis memores aeilate laborem 

Experiuntur, et in medium quaefita rcponunt. 

Namque aliae viftu invigilant, et foedere pa<^o 

Exercentur agris : pars intra fepta dombrum 

JJarciffi lacrimam, et lentum de cortice gluten, 160 

Prima favis ponunt fundamina. deinde tenacis 

Sufpendunt ceras : aliae fpem gentis adultos 

'Educunt foetus : aliae purifllma mella 

Stipant, et liauido diftcndunt nedare cellas. 

Sunt, quibus ad portas cccidit cuilodia forti : 165 

Ii^que vicem fpeculantur aquas, et nubila caeli : 

Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut.agmine fado 

Ignavom fucos pecus a praefepibus aircent. 

Fervit opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. 

Ac veluti, lentis Cyclopes fulmina maffis I70 

Cum properant, alii taurinis follibus auras 

Accipiunt rcdduntque, alii ftridentia tinguunt 

Aera lacu : gemit inpofitis incudibus antrum. 

198. Inttvt, and if:aichfuL'\ Vaniere, in his book on the 
snanagemenc of bees, relates the following extraordinary cir- 
cumllAnce, which he fays he takes from M. Maraldi, Hijieire 
de V Academie Royale de Sciences, 16 Nov, ijiz. fur Us aheu-i 
Its, p. 299. 

Excuhias 'vigilum fallens f impune penates 
Cum femel intraffet Umax cornutus, eofque 
^urparet Jlutdae crajfo lentore Jalinjae ; 
Obftupuere dvmi gerulum, fiimuli/que frequefttes 
Jnnja/ere fero retrahentem corpus ai idu, 
Seque/uae <vallo feftae, fpumifque tegentem ; 
Jrritajam cum tela for ent ; apis advocat arte^ 
Ingeniofa fuas \ et cerae prodiga tot am 
Incrufiat cocbleam ; monjtrum fatale recondens 
Hoc veluti tumulo, ne teirum afflaret odorem, 

Praedii Ruflici, lib. 14. p. 257. 

This IS an inilancc, if it be true, of more aflonifhing fagacity 
than any mentioned by Virgil. 

205. CyclopsA Pope obterves with fine tafte on this pai&ge: 
•* That the ulc of the grand Aylc oi^ little, iiibje<^a is aoi 


Book 4^ The Georgic^ of^ Virgil« ^59 

And all concurring to the common caufe, 185 

Live in fixt cities under fettled laws : 

Of winter mindful and inclement (kies, 

In fummer hoard, for all the ftatc, fupplies': 

Alternate fome provide the nation's food, 

And fearch it o'er each foreft^ fidd, and flood : iQt 

Some for the comb's foundations gather glcw. 

And temper gums with dafFadil's rich dew ; 

Then with nice art the waxen arches bend. 

Or with oieftareous fweets the fret-work celJs diftend. 

CommilEon'd fome, th' important office bear, 195 

To form the youth, the nation's hope, with care 5 

Some, by joint compad, at the city's gate 

Intent, and watchful of heav'n's changes, wait. 

Examine ev'ry motion of the (kies. 

What fhow'rs approach, what ftorms or winds arifc ; 

Or eafe the burden'd lab'rers limbs, or drive 20f 

The drones, a race of fluggards, from the hive ; 

The crowded dome with toil intenfely glows. 

And from the breathing fweets a blended fragrance flows. 

As when Jove's bolts to frame, the Cyclops fweat, 205 

The rough and ftubborn ore fubdue with heat. 

While chiming hammers in juft order beat ; 


only ludicrous, but a fort of tranil^rei&on againft the roles of 
proportion and mechanics : I believe, now | am upon this 
head, it will be found a juft obfervation , that {he low aflions 
of life cannot be put into a figurative flyle without being ridicu- 
lous, but things natural can. Metaphors raife the latter into 
dignity, as we fee in the Georgics ; but throw the former into 
ridicule, as in the I,.utrin. T think this may be very well ac- 
counted for ; laughter implies ccnfure ; inanimate and ir- 
rational beings are not objeds of cenfure ; therefore thefe ma^ 
be elevated as much as you pleafe, and no ridicule follows : but 
when rational beings are repreiented above their real character, 
it becomes ridiculous in an, becaufe it is vicious in morality. 
The bees in Virgil, were they rational beings, would be .idi- 
cqlous, by having their a&ions reprefentcd on a level with 
creatures fo fuperior as men ; ijnce it would imply folly or 
pride, which are the proper objeds of ridicule." 

Popi, Poftfcript to the Odyfley. 

A a 4 

36a p. ViRGiLii Marokis Georgica. Lib. 4m 

Illi inter fefe magna vi brachia tollunt 

In numerum, verfantque tenaci forcipe ferrum. 175 

Non aliter, fi parva licet conponerc magnis, 

Cecropias innatus apes amor urguet habcndi, 

Munere quamque fuo. grandaevis oppida curae, 

£t munire favos, et daedala fingcre te£ba. 

At feffae multa referunt fe node minores, i8a 

Crura thymo plenae : pafcuntur et arbuta paffim, 

£t glaucas faliccs, cafiamquc, crocumque rubentem 

Et pinguem tiliam, et ferrugineos hyacinthos. 

Omnibus una quies operum, labor omnibus unus. 

Mane ruunt portis ; nufquam mora, rurfus eafdem 185 

Vefper ubi e paftu tandem decedcre campis 

Admonuit, turn tecfta petunt, tum corpora curant. 

Fit fonitus, muflantque oras et limina circum. 

Poft, ubi jam thalamis fe conpofuere, filetur 

In noflem, fefTofque fopor fuus occupat artus. i^ 

Nee vero a ftabulis pluvia inpendcnte recedunt 

Longius, aut credunt caelo adventantibus euris . 

Sed circum tutae Tub moenibus urbis aquantur, 

Excurfufque brevis tentant, et faepe lapillos, 

Ut cymbae inftabiles flu£tu ja£tante faburram, jge 

Tollunt : his kk per inania nubila librant. 

Ilium adeo placuifle apibus mirabere morem. 

Quod neque concubitu indulgent, nee corpora fegnes 

In vcnercm folvont, aut foetus nixibus edunt : 

Verum ipfae e foliis gnatos et fuavibus herbis 200 

236. Enfeebling joys of lo<ve.^ Vaniere, who received new 
lights on this lubjecl from the obfervations of modern philo- 
fophers, defcribes the queen laying her tggs in Uic following 
manner : 

Explorans paritura toros rtgina paratos ; 
iT'ferit al'veUs caputs ut quae nixibus edet^ 
Vnts o*va parens ieponat fingula nidis. 
Circumfia: fiipata cchors, uteroque dolentim 
Reginam tnulcet pennis ; et murmure blonde 
h'ortatur duros partus tolerare labores. 
Ilia retro gradiens, a*verfo corpore nido9, 
hgreditur ; parientetn abdtt fexangula cira\ 

9 rurim 

Book 4. The Georgxcs of Virgil. 361 

Some turn the weighty mafs with griping tongs, 

While others heave the puffing bellows' lungs. 

Or the red bars in hiding water lave, aiO 

Deep Aetna groans below, thro' many an echoing' cave ; 

No lefs (fipall things with greater to compare) 

Toil the Cecropian bees with ceafelefs care ; 

Each knows his talk : the old-their towns attend, 

Shape their nice cells, their daedal works defend ; 215 

But late at evening thofe of youthful prime 

Return fitigu'd, their thighs furcharg'd with thyme j 

They prey on arbutes, willow buds devour, 

Sweet caffia, and the faffron's glowing flow'r ; 

From fruitful limes fip rich mellifluous dew, 220 

And fuck foft hyacinths of purple hue. 

All reft together, all together toil : 

At morn they ru(h abroad, the flow'rs to fpoil 5 

When twilight evening warms them to their home. 

With weary wings and heavy thighs they come, 225 

And crowd about the gate, and mix a drowfy hum. 

At laft, into their inmoft chambers creep. 

And filent lie diiTolv'd in balmy fleep. 

When Eurus blows, or gathering winds impend. 

The fkies they truft not, nor their flights extend j 23O 

But drink of ftreams that flow their city nigh. 

Work near the walls, and fliort excurfions try ; 

Poize their light bodies like a ballanc'd boat. 

With fands, as through tempeftuous air they float. 

But chief, this circumftance may wonder move, 235 

That none indulge th' enfeebling joys of love. 

None pangs of child-birth feel, but leaves among, 

And fragrant flow'rs, they gather all their young 5 

^urba mintflrat tamen pewtas limina ttnfas 
Explicate obducens fattae quafi 'ueia parentis 
y^rginibuj tantum pudor atque modeftia emrdi eft* 

Praedii Raftici, lib. 14. pag. 260. 

237. fetl^ The modern philofophers are much better ac- , 
^iminted wiui die nacqre of infe^j than were Ariftotle or 



g6dt ?• ViRGiLii Maronis Georgica. Lib. 4. 

Ore legunt : ipfae regcm parvofque Quirites 
Sufficiunt, aulafquC) et cerea regna refingunt. 

Theophrafbis, from whom Virgil borrowed largely in his ac- 
count of bees. They aiTert and prove that no animal (nay no 
plant) is produced without a concurrence of the two fcxts, and 
that conlequently equivocal generation is an idle and moft 

froundlefs opinion. See Reiii de infects ^ and the works of 
innxus. With regard to the generation of bees, I (hall pre- 
sent the reader with a large but entertaining extradl from a 
t'rench author lately publifhed. The matter of the treatife it 
taken from the works of the learned Mr. Maraldi, and Mr. 
de Reaumur, and is flung into a fpnghtly dialogue. 

It begins with a general view of the hive. The glafs hive 
reprefcnts a city of iixteen or eighteen thoufand inhabitants. 
This city is a monarchy, confiding of a queen, of grandees, 
Ibldiers, artizans, porters, houfes, flreets, gates, magazines* 
and a mod dridk civil policy. The queen dwells in a palace in 
the inner part of the city ; fome of the cells (which run per- 
pendicular from the top of the hive) are larger than the reft, 
and belong to thofe, who after the queen, hold che firft rank 
in the commonwealth ; the others are inhabited by the com* 
xhon people. The cells .are all publick buildings, which be« 
long to the fociety in common ; for among this |>eople there is 
no meum nor tuum. Some cells are clofe magazmes for a fiore 
of honey ; others for the daily nourifhment of the labouring 
bees ; others are deftin'd to receive eggs, and to lodge the 
worm from which the young bee fprings. 

In the hive there is ufually but one queen, fix or eight hun« 
dred, or even a thoufand males called drones, and from fif- 
teen to fixtecn thoufand, or upwards, of bees without fex, who 
carry on the whole policy and man u failure of the hive. The 
mother- bee, or the queen-mother, is the foul of the commu- 
nity, and but for her, every thing would Innguifti ; when fhc 
is fecreted foom the hive, the other bees lofe all care of pof- 
terity, and make neither honey nor wax, fo that the city loon 

becomes defolate and empty. The reft of the bees pay her 

the mod dutiful refpeft, and follow her wherever flie goes, or 
IS carried from home. Her fubjefts perform their feveral func-. 
tions without any indrudions, and without giving her the leaft 
trouble. Her only bufinefs is to people the hive ; and this die 
fulfils fo perfedlly, as well to deferve the mod honourable of 
all political titles, that of Parent of her country. To merit the 
love of her fubjedb, 'tis neceffary die diould produce from ten 
to twelve thoufand children in the fpace of fcven weeks, and 
one year with another, from thirty to forty thoufand. She is 
cafily didin^uidi'd from the other bees, by the form of her 
body, which is longer and flenderer. Her wings arc ihorter, 


Bopk 4* Th£ Gfioacics of Virgin. 363 

Hence their great king and citizens create. 

And build their waxen realms, and courts of ftate. 240 

in proportion to her length : in the other bees, they cover the 
whole body ; in her they terminate about half way» at the 
third ring of her trunk. She has» like the reft, a fting and 
bladder of poifon ; but is with much more difficulty provoked 
to ufe them ; though when ihe does, the wound is larger and 
much more painful. 

The drones, or the thoufand hufbands of this Angle queen, 
arc found in ihc hive only from the beginning of May to the 
end of July. Their number increafes every day during that 
fpace of time, and is greateft when the c^ueen is breeding ; 
in a few days after which period they die a violent death. 
Their way of living is very oifFerent from the reft : for except- 
ing the fmgle moment when they pay their duty to the queen^ 
they are . quite idle, and enjoy a mod luxurious fare ; being 
fed only with the fined honey, whereas the common bees live 
in a great meafure upon wax. Thefe go out early in the 
morning, and don't return till they are loaded with honey and 
wax, for the good of the fociety. The drones, on the con- 
trary, don't go abroad till about eleven o'clock to take the 
air, and return pundtually nbouc fix at night. They have no 
ftings, nor thofe long elail.c teeth wiih which the other beca 
work up the honey ; nor tho.'j kind of hollows, which ferve 
them for bafkets to bring it home to the hive. The other 
bees, or the manufadurers (as we may call them) have an infi- 
nite number of ilrange particularities about them, of which 
we can only impart a few to the reader. 

Their head feems triangular, and the point of the triangle 
is formed by the meeting of two long elaltic i.-v-th, which arc 
concave on the infjde. In the fecond and x\v\\\ pair of their 
legs, is a part called the brufh, of a fquare l:;-'ire, with its 
outward furface poliih'd and fleck, and its inward hairy, like 
a common brufh. With thefe two inftruments they prepare 
their wax and honey. The materials of their wax lie in the 
form of duft, upon the lamina of flowers. When the bee 
would gather this dud, (he enters into the flower, and takes it 
up by means of her brufli, to which it eaflly adheres. She 
comes out all covered with it, fometimes yellow, fomctimes 
red, or according to the native colour of the dud. If this duft 
be inclofed in the Caf/ulae of a flower, fhe pierces the Cap/ulae^ 
with her long moveable teeth, and then flie gathers it. When 
it is (|nite loaded with duft, fhe rubs herfelf to colled it, and 
rolls It up in a little mafs. Sometimes ihe performs this part 
of her bufineis by the way ; fometimes fhe ftays till fhe comes 
to the hive. As foon as it is formed into a ball about the^fize 
of a grain of pepper, fhe lodges it in her bafket, and returns 
home with a joy proportionable to the quantity fhe brings. The 
honev of .the bees is found in the fame place with the wax. It 
is lodged in little refennnrs, placed at the bottom of the flower. 


j£4 P* ViRGiLii Makokis Oeorcica. ' Lib. 4i 

Saepe etiam duris errando in cotibus alas 

Adtrivcre, ultroque animam fub fafce dedere. 

Tantus amor flonim, et generandi gloria mellis. ao5 

Ergo ipfas quamvis angufti terminus aevi 

Excipiat : (neque enim plus feptima ducitur aeftas) 

At genus inmortale manet, multofque per annos 

Stat Fprtuna domus, et avi numerantur avorum. 

Praeterea regem non fie Aegyptos, et ingens 2i# 

Lydia, nee populi Parthorum, aut Medus Hydafpes 

Obfervant, rege incolumi mens omnibus una efl : 

AmifTo rupere fidem ; conftru6laque mella 

Diripuere ipfae, et crates folvere favorum. 

Hie opcrum cuftos : ilium admirantur, et omnes 215 

Circumftant fremitu denfo, ftipantque frcquentes j 

Et faepe adtollunt humeris, et corpora bello 

Objeftant, pulchramque petunt per volncra mortem. 

His quidam fignis atque haee exempla fecuti, 

EiTc apibus partem divinae mentis, et hauftus 220 

Aetherios dixere. deum namque ire per omnis 

Terrafque, traftufque maris, caelumque profundum. 

Hine pecudes, armcnta, viros, genus omne ferarum, 

Qiiemque fibi tenuis nafcentem arcefferc vitas. 

Scilicet hue reddi deinde ac refoluta referri 225 

Omnia : nee morti effe locum, fed viva volare 

Sideris in numerum, atque alto fuccedere caelo. 

Si quando fcdcm auguflam fervataque mclIa 

Thefauris relines ; prius hauftu fparfus aquarum 

Ora fove, fumofque manu praetende fequacis. 23s 

Bis gravidos cogunt foetus, duo tempora mcffis, 

Taygcte fimul os terris oftendit honeftum 

Plias, et Oceani fpretos pcde repulit amnis : 

241. Ruggeii rocks,] Thefe lines in the original arc certainly 
inifplaced ; they feem to come in more properly, fays Martyn^ 
after vcr. 196 of the original. I am indebted for this oblcr* 
vation to the learned Sir Daniel Molyneux, Bart. F. R. S. 

272. Taygcte.] Virgil in fpeaking of the rifing of tho 
Pleiades, fpeaks of them in the lingular number, and that peiv 

Taygeli fimul os tinris oftepjit bwefiurtk 

PUias »Tis 


Book 4% The Georoics of Vntottt 365 

On rugged rocks, oft as abroad they fly 

They tear their wings, fink with their loads and die^ 

Such love of flow*rs inflames their little hearts. 

So great their glory in thefe matchlefs arts. 

Tho' feven (hort years are to one race decreed, 245 

Still they continue an exhauftlefs breed. 

From age to age increafe, and fires to fires fucceed« 

Lydians, nor Medes, fa much their king adore, 

Nor thofe on Nilus* or Hydafpes* fhore : 

The ftate united ftands, while he remains, 230 

But (hould he fall, what dire confufion reigns ! 

Their waxen combs, and honey late their joy. 

With grief and rage diftrafted, they deftroy : 

He guards the works, with awe they him furround, 

And crowd about him with triumphant found i ^55 

Him frequent on their duteous fhoulders bear. 

Bleed, fall, and die for him in glorious war. 

Led by fuch wonders, fages have opin'd. 

That bees have portions of an heavenly mind : 

That God pervades, and like one common fqul, 26% 

Fills, feeds, and animates the world's great whole ; 

That flocks, herds, beafts, and men from him receive 

Their vital breath, in him all move and live i 

That fouls difcerpt from him fliall never die. 

But back refolv'd to God and heaven fhall fly, 265 

And live for ever in the ftarry iky. 

When of its fweets the dome thou would'ft deprive, 
Diffufe warm-fpirted water thro' the hive. 
Or noxious fmoke thro' all their dwellings drive. 
Twice the fweet artifts plenteous honey make, 27(jr 

Thou twice each year th' ambrofial treafures take 5 
f irft when Taygete fhews her beauteous head, 
Difdaining Ocean's melancholy bed j 

'Tis probable, tbat on the ancient globes this was a diHidft 
confleilation from Taurus, and reprefented by one of the 
fleers only, that named by Virgil. Aratas and Eratoflheoet 
both fpeak of it as diftinft from Taurus ; and the latter calls it 
TDma^, and not IIAiia^K* Spbkci. 


3)Mk p. ViKGttn Maronx^ Georgica. Lib. 40 

Aut eadem fidus fagiens nbi Pifcis aquoil 

Triftior hibcrAas caelo defcendit in undas. 235 

Illis ira modttitt Aipra eft, laefaeque venenum 

Morfibus infpirant, et fpicula caeca relinquunt 

Ad'fixae venis, animafqiie in volnera ponunt. 

Sin duratn metues hiemem, parcefque future, 

C^tufofque animos, et res miferabere fra&as; ^^ f> 

At fuffire thymo, cerafque recidere inanis 

Quis dubitet ? nam faepe £avos ignotus adedit 

StelUo, lucifugis congefta cubilia blattis : 

Inmunifque fedens aliena ad pabula fucus, 

Aut afper crabro inparibus fe inmifcuit armis ^ 245 

Aut dirum tineae genus, aut invifa Minervae 

Laxos in foribus fufpendit aranea cafles. 

Qiio magis exhauftae fuerint, hoc acrius omnes 

Incumbent generis lapfi farcire ruinas, 

Conplebuntque foros, et floribus horrea texent. 250 

Si vero (quoniam caAis apibus quoque noftros 

Vita tulit) trifti languebunt corpora mdrbo. 

Quod jam non dubiis poteris cognofcere fignis j 

Continuo eft aegris alius color : horrida voltUm 

Deformat macics : turn corpora luce carentum 255 

Exportant teftis, ac triftia funera ducunt : 

Aut illae pedibus connexae ad limina pendent, 

Aut intus claufis cundlantur in aedibus omnes, 

Ignavaeque fame et contrafto frigore pigrae. 

Turn fonus auditur gravior, tra6):imque fufurrant *. 260 

Ffigidus ut quondam filvis inmurmurat aufter: 

Ut mare follicitum ftridit refluentibus undis; 

Aeftuat ut claufis rapidus fornacibus ignis. 

279. Die upon,] It is faid to be a vulgar error, tKat bees 
lofe their Jives with their flings. 

2%o. ff^inter,] He now proceeds regularly to tell os, how to 
manage thofe hives in which the honey is left for foppordng 
the bees through the winter, and likewife enumerates the par- 
ticular vermin, and plagues that infeft them* 

Bode 4- Thb Georgics of Virgul. jftj). 

And when wijth fudden flight the fifli &e kaves, 

Defcending penfive to the wintry waves- ... %^ 

Fierce rage. and choler in their bofoms glow^ 

With venom'd ftings they dart upon theix foe, .'^ 

Their fubtle poifon creeps the veins around. 

In fweet revenge they die upon the wound. 

But if in winter bleak, their broken ftate, 28O' 

And drooping fpirits you commiferate. 

Who doubts, regardful of the pinching time. 

To fumigate their hives with fragrant thyme. 

And pare their empty wax \ The lizard lurks. 

Or flow-p?x'd beetle in their inmoft works, 285 

Or oft their golden hoards the fat drones fpoil, 

A racL that riots on another's toil ; 

Or the fierce hornet, founding dire alarms. 

Provokes the lab'rers to unequal arms ; 

Or baneful moths', or flie whom Pallas hates, -agOi 

Sufpends her filmy nets before their gates. 

The more they lofe, the more with ceafelefs care. 

They ftrive the ftate's deftrudion to repair; 

Their plunder'd wealth and wafted combs renew. 

And fwell their granaries with thickcn'd dew. , 095 

But when, as human ills defcend to bees. 

The pining nation labours with difeafe ; 

Chang'd is their glittering hue to ghaftly pale, 

Roughnefs and leannefs o'er their limbs prevail ; 

Forth the dead citizens with grief are borne, 300 

In folemn ftatq the fad attendants mourn. 

Clung by the feet they hang the live-long day 

Around the door, or in their chambers ftay. 

Hunger and cold and grief their toils delay. 

'Tis then in hoarfer tones their hums refound, 305 

If ike hollow winds the ruftling forcft round. 

Or billows breaking on a diftant fhore j 

Qr flames in furnaces that inly roar. 


jlb$ P. ViRGILli MaA0)/I3 GlOHGItA. tik 4i 

Hie jam galbaneos fuadebo incendere odores, 

Mellaque arundineis inferre canalibus, ultro 26j 

Hortantem^ et feflas ad pabula nota vocantein« 

Proderit et tunfum gallae admifcere faporem, 

Arentifque rofas, aut igni pinguia multo 

Defruta» vel Pfythia paiTos de vite racemos, 

Cecropiumque thymum, et grave olentia centaurea. 270 

Eft etiam flos in pratis, cui nomen amello 

Fecere agricolae, facilis quaerentibus herba. 

Namque uno ingentem tollit de ccfpite filvam. 

Aureus ipfe : fed in foliis, quae plurima circum 

Funduntur, violae fublucet purpura nigrae. 27c 

Saepe deum nexis ornatae torquibus arae. 

Afper in ore fapor. tonfls in vallibus ilium 

Paftores, et curva legunt prope flumina Mcllae« 

Hujus odorato radices incoque baccho, 

Pabulaque in foribus plenis adpone caniftris« ^Scj 

Sed fi quem proles Aibito defecerit omnis. 

Nee, genus unde novae ftirpis revocetur, habebit 5 

Tempus et Arcadii memoranda inventa magiftri 

Pandere, quoque modo caefis jam facpe juvencis 

Infincerus apes tulerit cruor, altius omnem 28c 

Expediam prima repetens ab origine famam. 

Nam qua Pellaei gens fortunata Canopi 

Adcolit efFufo ftagnantem flumine Nilum, 

Et circum pidlis vehitur fua rura fafelis; 

Quaque pharetratae vicinia Periidis urget, 296 

Et viridem Aegyptum nigra fecundat arena, 

Et diverfa ruens fcptem difcurrit in ora 

Ufque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis : 

326. Butfl?ouU.] The poet having already fpoken of th» 
ways of driving noxious animals from the bees, and of the. 
method of curing their difeafes ; now proceeds to defcribe the 
manner after which the total lofs of them may be repaired f 
which, he tells us, was pradifed by the Egyptians. MAaryir. 

333. Canofus,] The commentators are divided about^ the^ 
meaning of thefe four verfes. Dr. Martyn takes Virgil to' 
mean only a defcrijption of the Delta or lower Egypt. Canopot 
is the weft angle of that triangular region ; Pclufium is the eaft 
4Dgle« bebg oear^fi to Pexfia ; and the ibutb angle is the point 


flook 4* Thb GioRCics op ViRdit; 369 

Galbanean odours here I fhall advife ; 

And thro* a reed to pour the fweet fupplieS 3IO 

Of golden honey, to invite the-tafte 

Of the fick nation, to their known repaft * 

Bruis'd galls, dry'd rofcs^ thyme and centuary join. 

And raifms ripen'd on the Pfithian vine. 

Befides^ in meads the plant Amellus grows, 315^ 

And from one root thick ftalks profulely throws. 

Which eafily the wandVing fimpler knows : 

Its top a flow'r of golden hue difplays. 

Its leaves are edg'd with violet-tindlurM rays ; 

Rough Is the tafte } round many an holy (brine 320 

The facred priefts its beauteous foliage twine : 

ThiSi where meand'ring Mella laves the plains, 

Or in the new-ihorn valley, feek the fwaihs j 

Its roots infufe in wine, and at their door 

In bafkets hang the medicated ftore* 32^ 

But ihould your ftock decay thro' dire difeafe. 
Nor hope remain new families to raifc. 
Hear the ftrange fecret I (hall now impart, . 
The great Arcadian mafter's matchlefs art j 
An art to reproduce th' exhaufted ftore 
From a flain bullock's putrifying gore : 
ril to its diftant fource the wond'rous tale explore* 

Where happy the Canopian nation dwells. 
Where Nile with. genial inundation fwells. 
Where fwains, the meadows while he largely floats, 33$ 
Around his paftures glide in painted boats. 
From tawny India while he rolls his tides. 
And into feven huge mouths his ftream divides^ 
And preffing clofe on quiver'd Perfia's clime 
Green Egypt fattens with prolific flime : 340 

where the Nile is divided to form the Delta. A. The circum- 

CircumpiSlu *vebiturfua rura pba/elis, 
is a very agreeable pidlure of that country, which dorijig the 
inundation of the Nile rcfembles a vaft level lake. 
• 34*: Green Egypt J] The Nile is thegreateft wonder of Egypt* 
Vol. I, B b A$ 

e. J 

370 P. Vi&Gitii Maronis Gsoroxca. Lib. f» 

Omnis in hac certain regio jacit arte falutem. 
Exiguus primum, atque ipfos contradus ad ufus 295 

Eligitur locus, hunc anguftique imbrlce tcdti. 
Parietibufque premunt artis, et quatuor addunt, 
Quatuor a ventis obliqua luce feneftras. 
Turn vitulus, bima curvans jam cornua frontc, 
Quaeritur : huic geminae nares, et fpirltus oris 300 

Mult^ reludanti obftruitur, plagifque peremfo 
Tunfa per integram folvuntur vifcera pellem. 
Sic pofitum in claufo linquunt, et ramea coftis 
Sabjiciunt fragmenta, thy mum, cafiafque recentis. 
Hoc geritur, zephyris primum inpellentibus undas, 305 
Ante novis rubeant quam prata coloribus, ante 
Garrula quam tignis nidum fufpendat hirundo. 

As it feldom rains there, this river, which waters the whole 
country by its regular inundations, fupplics that defe£l, by 
bringing, as a yearly tribute, the rains ot the other coon tries ; 
which made a poet fay ingenioufly, the Egyptian paftnres* bow 
great foever the drought may be, never implore Jupiter for 

Te propter nullos tellus tua pojlulat imhres. 
Art da nee plwvio fupplicat herb a Jovi. 

Tibull. B. I. 7. a5. 

To multiply fo beneficent a river, Egypt was cut into nam- 
berlefs canals, of a length and breadth proportioned to the 
different ii tua tion and wants of the lands: the Nile brought 
fertility every where with its falutary ftreams ; united cities one 
with another, and the Mediterranean with the Red Sea ; main- 
tained trade at home and abroad, and fortified the kingdom 
againU the enemy ; fo that it was at once the nouriiher and 
protedlor of Egypt. I'he fields were delivered up to it ; but 
the cities that were raifed with immenfe labour, and flood like 
iflnnds in the midfl of the waters, look down with joy on the 
plains which were overflowed, and at the fame time enriched 
by the Nile. 

This is a general idea of the nature and effects of this river, 
io famous among the ancients. 

There cannot be a finer fight than it aFords at two feafbns of 
tile year. For If a man afcends fome mountain, or one of the 
largeft pyramids of Grand Cairo, in the months of July and 
Auguil, he beholds a vafl fea, in which numberlefs townsand 
villages appear, ^ith feveral caufeys leading from place to 


^ook 4^ The Gfeokoic^ o^ Viitoii; 371 

Thefc fwains, when grows extinS their honied race. 

Sure hope and refuge in this pradice place. 

Firft for the work they choofe a narrow ground. 

With ftreigthen'd walls artd roof cmbracM around i 

Fronting the winds four windows add, to ftrike 345 

Athwart the twilight fpace their beams oblique : 

Then feek in prime of youth a lufty fteer, 

Whofe forehead crooked horns begins to wear i 

His mouth and noftrils ftop, the gates of breath. 

And buiFet the indignant beaft to death ; 350 

Till the bruisM bowels burft with many a ftroke. 

But ft ill th* external (kin remains unbroke ; 

Then leave him dead j his putrid limbs below, 

Green twigs and thyme, and recent caffia ftrew. 

Be this performed when zephyr's balmy breeze 355 

Firft curls the furface of the fmiling feas. 

Ere bloom the meads in crimfon vefture dreft. 

Ere fwallows twitter o'er the new-built neft. 

place, the whole interfperfed with groves and fruit-trees, whofis 
tops are only vifible, all which torms a delightful prolped. 
This view is boiinded by mountains and wQods, which terxni- 
aate, at the ntmoft dinance the eye can difcovcr, the mod 
beautiful horizon that can be imagined. On the contrary, in 
> winter, tharis to fay, in the months of January and February^ 
the whole country is like one continued fcene of beautiful 
meadows, whofe verdure enamelled with flowers charms the m. 
The (peAator beholds, on every fide, flocks and herds dif' 
perfed over all the plains, with infinite numbers of hufl>and- 
men and gardeners. The air is then perfumed by the great 
quantity of bloflbms on the orange, lemon, and other trees | 
and is fo pure, that a wholfomer and more agreeable is not 
found in the world : fo that nature, bein^; then dead, as it 
were, in all other climates, feems to be alive only for fo de- 
lightful an abode. 

Rollin's Ancient Hiflory» page 1$, Svo, 1749* 

35$. Z^lyris primwn in the originah] This little deiaription 
dP the fpring diverfifies the fubje£t, and enlivens the drynefsof 
the preceding* paragraph. 

Bb 2 

ffl2 P. ViRciLii Marokis Gso&gica. Lib. 4m 

Jnterea toneris tepcfat^s in offibus humor 
Aeftuat, et viienda modi» animalia mtrit, 
Trunca pedum prima, mox ct ftridentia peanis yo 

Mifcentur^ tenuem magis ac magts aera carptuit : 
Donee, ut aeilivis efFufus nubibus imbcr, 
Erupcre j aut ut, nervo pulfente fagittae^ 
Prima leves incunt fi quando proelia Partbi. 
Qiiis dcus banc, Mufac, quis nobis extudit artem ? 315 
Unde nova ingrciTus hominum expericntia ccpit I 
Paftor Ariftaeus fugiens Pcne'ia Tcmpc, 
AmifHs (ut fama] apibus morboque fameque^ 
Triftis ad cxtrcml facrum caput adftitit amf|is» 
Multa querens, atque hac adfatus voce parejitem : 320 
Mater Cyrcne, mater, quae gurgitis bujus 
I ma tenes, quid me praeclara ftirpe deorum» 
(Si modo, quern perhibes^ pafier ^ft Thymbraeus Apollo) 
Invifum fat is gcnuifli ? quo tibi noftrt 
Pulfusamor? quid me caelum fperare jubebas ? 325 

En etiam hunc ipfum vitae mortalis honorem, 
Quern mihi vix frugum et pccudum cuftodia follers 
Omnia tentanti extudcrat^ tc matre, rclinquo. 
Quin age, ct ipfa manu fcliccs cruc filvas : 
Fcr ftabulis inimicum ignem, atque interficc meflis : 330 
Ure fata, et validam in vitis molirc bipcnnem j 
Tajita meae H te ccperunt taedia laud is. 
At maCer foiiitum thalamo fub fluminis atti 

j6o. Begin to hcil,^ Nothing can be exprefled in a livelier 
manner, than this generation of the bees ; 

Intena tmris tefefa^us in offthiu hmmer. 

Such lines as thefe on a low and indeed a grofs Aibje£k, fliew 
Virgirs command of language ; the two fi miles at the end add 
an ornament and an elegance hkewife eo the paiTage. It muft 
be obfcrved, that infcdlt cannot be generated by putrefadion ; 
carcafes are only a proper «fV«/ and receptacle for their yoaog: 
and therefore the female parent choofes there to lay her eggs, 
that the warmth of the fermenting juices may help to hatch. 
them* Sec Reds delnfc^v 

Book 4. The Gboroics bF Virgil. 373 

The tainted juices, in this prifon pent. 

Begin to boil, and thro' the bones ferment ; 360 

A wond'rous fwarm ftrait from the cftrcafe crawls. 

Of feetlefs and unfinifli^d animals ; 

Anon their infant buzzing wings they try, 

^nd more and more attempt the boundlefs fky : 

At laft embod/d from their birth-place pour, 365 

Thick as from copious clouds a fummer-fhowV, 

Or flight of arrows, when with twanging bows, 

The Parthians in fierce onfet gall their foes. 

What God,' ye nine, this art difclos'd to man. 
Say whence this great experiment began ? 370 

Sad Ariftaeus from fweet Tempe fled. 
His bees with famine and difeafes dead. 
And at the fpring of facred Pcneus* flood. 
Thus plaining to his fea-green parent flood. 

Mother, Cyrcne ! mother, you who keep 375 

Your wat'ry court beneath this cryftal deep. 
Why did you bear me of a race divine. 
Yet (lain with forrows my celeftial line i 
If Phoebus be my fire, as you relate. 
Why am I doom'd the fport of angry Fate ? 380 

How have I loft, O how f your former love ? 
Why did you bid me hope to rife to heav'n above ? 
Lo ! all I gain'd, by cattle, fields and corn, 
(Thofe works which beft this mortal ftate adorn) 
The fruits of toil and thought intenfe arc loft, 385 

Tho' for my mother I a goddefs boaft ! 
Come then, with your oWn hand uproot my groves,* 
My ftalls and ftables burn, infed my droves. 
My harvefts murder, cut each blooming vine. 
Since at my rifing honours you repine. 390 

His wondering mother heard the mournful found, 
l^ow in the chambers of the wave^ profound. 

Bb 3 

374 P* ViRcyirix Ma&onis Gboroica. lAh* 4^ 

Senfit.. cam circum Milefia vcllera Nymphae 

Carpcbant, hyali faturo fucata colore : 335 

Drymoque, Xanthoque, Ligeaque,. Phyllidoceque, 

Caefariem efFufae nitidam per Candida colla : 

Nefaee, Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoccque, 

Cydippeque, ct flava Lycorias j altera virgo, 

Altera turn primos Lucinae experta labores ; 340 

Clioque et Beroe foror^ Oceanitides ambae, 

Ambae auro, pi£tis incindiae pellibus ambae ; 

Atque Ephyre, atque Opis, et Afia Dei'opeai 

Et tandem ,poilti8 yelox Arethufa fagittis. 

Quas inter curas Clymene narrabat inanes 3^^.^ 

Volcani, Martifque dolos, ct dulcia furta : 

Aque Chao denfos divom enumerabat amcres. 

Carmine quo captae, fufts dum moUia penfa 

Devolvont, itcrum maternas inpulit auris 

l>u£lus Ariftaei, vitreifque fcdilibus omne^ 350 

Obftupuere : fed ^te alias Arethufa forores 

Profpicicns, fumma flavom caput extulit unda, 

Et procul : O gcmitu non fruftra cxtcrfita tanto, 

Cyrene foror ^ ipfe tibi tua maxima cura 

Triftis Ariftaeus Pcnci gcnitoris ad undam ^5$ 

Stat lacrimans^ et te crudelem nomine dicit. 

Huic pf rcufTa nova mentem formidine mater. 

Due age, due ad nos ; fas illi limina divom 

Tangere, ait : fimul alta jubct difcedere l;^tc 

595. Ligea, Xantho.] There are but eighteen nymphs men* 
tioncd by Virgil in this account of C^rene's grotto; including 
Clymene and Cyrcnc herfelf j gf which paffage Mr. Dryden 
fays. The poet here records the names of fifty river nymphj^ 
and for once X have tranflated them all. 

PoLYMKTiSj page 316. note 46* 

406. Vulcan's fruitkfs cares, '\ Some of the graver critics mak^ 
an obfervation^ which the ladies mufl needs think unjoft and 
ifatyrical. When Pido gives a feaft to Aeneas, her phyiician 
lopas entertains the (;9;npany, which were chiefly compofed of 
nJen and flrangers, with a fcng on a philofophical fubjcA. But^ 
fay they, where Virgil introduces a n)mph fingine to her 
fd^ftrefs Cyrene, and to her fellow virgins, ihe deicribes tp 



Book 4. The Gsoiigics of Virgil. 375 

The nymphs around her plac'd, their fpindles ply'd. 

And fpun Milefian wool, in verdure deeply dy'4# 

Ligea, Xantho^ Drymo, Spio, fair; 39$ 

Thalia, and Phyllodoce, whofe hair 

WavM o'er their fnowy fhoulders in the air j 

Nefaea, Ephyre, with Opis, thee ! 

And, her that calms the waves, Cymmodoce i 

The yellow maid, Lycorias, and the bride 400 

Cydippe, who Lucina's pangs had try'd ; 

Clio, and Beroe, fea-born both, behold, 

Bo^h clad in fpotted (kins and radiant gold i 

Dei'ope, and Arethufe, the chafte. 

No more intent to pierce the flying beaft. 405 

There Clymene fung Vulcan's fruitlefs cares. 

The lufcious thefts, and foft deceits of Mars ; 

And how from Chaos old, all-mighty Love 

Had fill'd the bofom of each god above» 

While thus they toil'd, enchanted with the ftrain, 410 

His voice alarm'd his mother's ears again ; 

The liftening fUlers heard unufual groans 

Amaz'd, and ftarted from their cryftal thrones : 

But Arethufe firft heav'd her beauteous head 

Above the waves ; and, O Cyrene, faid, 415 

Well might'ft tbpi; fear thefe echoing founds of woe, 

Thcfe forrows from thy Ariftaeus flow ; 

Thy darling care mourns by thy father's flood. 

And calls thee cruel, and complains aloud. 

Pitying the youth, the fear-ftruck mother fajd, 420 

My fon, O quickly, quickly hither lead, 

To him 'tis ^iven the courts of Gpds to tread. 


ihem the loves of Mars and Venus i the duUiafurta were the 
iubjed that fweeteoed their labours at the loom. The poet 
hints at the topics which employ the ccmverfation of the ladies 
when they are alone by themfelves. The commentators, who 
make fuch unfair reflexions, muft dpubtlefs be a let of ill-bred, 
abu^ve fellows, that know \tiy little of the world, and lefs of 
the ladiest 

Bb 4 

376 P* ViRGlLU MAAONiS OtO&GIt A, tiib. 4. 

Flumina, quajuvenis greQus inferret. atUliim jte 
Curvata ia montis facicm circumftetit unda^ 
Accepitque ilnu yafto, mifitque fub amneaif 
Jamque domum mirans genetri^is, et humida regna^ 
Speluncifque Isu:us claufoS| l^cofque fonantis, 
Ibat, et ingenti motu ftupe&dus aquarum» • 36 J. 

Omnia fub magna labentia flumina terra 
jSpeflabat diverfa locis, Phalinquey I/ycymque, 
Et caput, unde altus primum fe erumpit Enipeus, 
Unde pater Tiberinua, -et unde Antena fluentat 
jSaxofufque fonans Hypanis, Myfufque Caucus, }7# 

£t gemina auratus taurino cornua voitu 
Eridanus : quo non alius per piiiguia culta 

429. Ri'virs,] The defcent of Ariftaens into the earth, 19 
foanded on an ancient faperflicion of the figyptiana. Serviot 
tells Ds, that on certain days facred to the Nile, boys bora of 
holy parents, were delivered to the nymph's by the priefU; 
who, when they were grown vp> and returned back, reponed, 
that there were proves unddr the earth, and an immenfe water 
containing all wings, and from whence tvtry thing is pro- 

432. Diff.] This is one of the mofl fublime paflages in Vir- 
gU. Nothing can ftrike the imagination more flronglyi than 
to conceive a perfon entering the bowels of the earth, and at 
once hearing and feeing the moll celebrated rivers in the world 
burlHng forth from their feveral iburces. The rough and hor- 
rible fcenes of rocks, caves, and waters which Ariftaeus paiTes 
through, are at laft finely foftened by the kind reception he 
meets with from his mother, and the graceful appearance of 
the nymphs fpinning and ^ging the loves of the Gods. Pra* 
caflorius ha^ a dcfcent into the earth in fcarch of metals, where, 
no doubt, he had Virgil in his eye ; and in which he has beei^ 
followed by Dr. Garth, in the Difpenfary. 

438. Eridatms^the Po,'] This paflage cannot be better ex- 
plained than by quoting the following words from Mr. Spence, 
m his Polymetis : 

•'But there is another thing in it, with which I am not yet 
fatisfied : and that is, Virgil's calling the Po here, the raoft 
violent of all rivers. I know one of the moft celebrated and 
moll ingenious writers of owv age has encicavourcd to foften 
this, by underftanding it only of the rivers in Itsly. But (not 
to enquire at all whether the Po be really the mofl violent of 
all the rivers in Italy) how can Virgil be underilood of the 



Book 4# T»t GioROics or Viroi£» jfff 

At once (he bift the ftrclKiig rivws cleave, 

Th' obedient floods ah aiAple entrawcc' leave ; 

Down thro' the deeps he goes, on either hand 415 

The congregated waves Hfce moiui^A» ftand. 

Now wondering at th« wat'ry realms he went^ 

At dafhing lakes in hollow caverns pcht. 

His mother's palace, and the founding w^ood^y 

And deaPning roar of fitbtcrraneous floods. 430 

Amaz'd he faw, this fpacious globe below. 

Deep in its bed each mighty river flow, 

Phafis, and Lycus, and the fruit Ail headf [fpread; 

Whence burfl: Enipeus' ftrcanrt, whence father Tiber^i 

Whence Hypanis, that fwiftly-pouring roars 435 

With thundering billows on his rocky ihores ; 

Whence Anio's and Caicus* copious urns. 

Whence buH-fac'd Po adorn'd ^nth gilded horns, 

rivers of one country only> where he is exprefsly fpeaking of 
all (he riveis of tl>e worU f and of one cooiiDon pointy tram 
whence all their fources were anciently fuppofed to be de« 
rived ? 

<M am not qnite clear at to that exprefioft» replied Polymetis: 
but to anfwer you as far as I can« 1 mufi give you the opinion 
of a man whom you both know ; and whofe name I need not 
mention to you, when I have xAd you it is the perfon who un« 
derftands Virgil in a more mafterly manner, than perhaps anv 
one in this age. |t is his opinion, (with all that modefty, .wita . 
which he generally offers his opinions) that the difEiculty you 
mention may poffibly be got over, by the expreffion joined widi 
it ; fer pingma cuUa. The noft violent rivers in the world ans 
fuch as run, or fall, through a chain of mountains ; and ^noe 
to fpeak of any of the Apennine rivers, or rather torrents, in 
Jtaly itfelf ) the Ifar which we crofs fo often in the two or three 
lafi days journey belbre we enter Italy, is (in all that part of 
its courfe) much more violent and more difturbed than the . 
Po : but the Po, you know, very (boa afoer its fource, flows on 
thro' the vale of Piedmont, and afWrwards traverses all the 
rich vale of Lorn hardy. Thefe ^e the ftwgma tdtm which 
Virgil fpeaks of: almoil the whole courie of the Po is through 
fuch rich low ground : and perhaps there may not be any river 
in the world, which has almoft all its courfe through fo fat and 
rich a foi]^ which is fo violent as the Po is." 

P01.YMETI8, Dial. 14. p. 232. 

37^ P« ViRGILII Ma&ONIS GlORGICA. Lib. 4» 

In mare purpureum violentior effluit amnis* 

Poftquam eft in thalami pendentia pumice tt&z 

Perventimiy et gnati fletus cognovit inanis ^5 

C^jrrene ; manibus liquidos dant ordine fontis 

Gennanae, tonfifque ferunt mantelia villis. 

Pars epulis onerant menfas» et plena reponunt 

pocula. Panchaets adolefcunt ignibus arae. 

I)t mater. Cape Maeonii carchefiii bacchi : 39^ 

Oceano libemus, ait. fimul ipfa precatur 

Oceanumque patrem rerum Nymphafque forores. 

Centum quae filras» centum quae flomina fervapt* 

Ter liquido ardentem perfudit nedare Veftam ; 

Ter flamma ad fummum tedi fubje&a reluxit. 385 

Omine quo firmans animum, fie incipit ip(a : 

Eft in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite vates 

Caeruleus Proteus^ magnum qui pifcibus aequor 

Et j\m£to bipedum curru metitur equorum. 

Hie nunc Emathiae portus patriamque revifit 29% 

Pallenen. hunc et Nymphae veneramur, et ipfe 

Grandaevus Nereus. novit namque omnia vates. 

Quae (mtj quae fuerint, qu^ mox venture trahantur« 

<^ippe ita Neptuno vifum eft : inmania cujus 

Armenta, et turpis pafcit Tub gurgite phocas. 395 

Hie tibi, gnate; prius vinclis capiundus, ut omnem 

Expediat morbi caufTam, eventufque fecundet. 

Nam fine vi non ulla dabit praecepta, neque ilium 

Orando vinces : vim duram et vincula capto 

Tende* doli circum haec demum frangentur inanes. 400 

454* J9 hundred irotnsJ] I follow the fenfe given to thi^ 
pailage in the Arcadia del Sannazaro, Pro/a 10. 

459. Prouui,] This fable of Froceus is imitated by Virgil, 
from the fourth book of the Odyfley ; where Menelaos is lent 
to confalt the fame deity, by the advice and affiAance of his 
own daughter Eidothea. 

Boot 4« The Georoics of Vmcxt. 379 

Than whom no river, thro' fuch level meads 

Down to the Tea with fwifter torrents fpeeds. 440 

Now to the vaulted chamber was he come. 

Where hanging pumice fonnM an aweful dome; 

When fond Cyrene afkM him of his woe, 

And whenoe thofe bitter tears began to flow. 

The fifters, water from the puretf fpring^ 445 

And towels foft, with hafle officious bring ; 

Prepare full bowls, and heap up choiceft meats ; 

The altars blaze with rich Arabian fweets. 

Of Lydian wine, fhe cry*d, thefe goblets take. 

To Ocean let us due libations make ; 450 

At once to Ocean old, in ritual lays. 

Parent of all things, ihe devoutly przyi ; 

And ta the fifter nymphs, whofe gentle fway 

An hundred groves, an hundred ftreams obey ; 

Thrice o*er the fire the liquid neAar throws, 455 

Thrice to the (hining roof the 'flames arofe. 

She thus, with that aufpicious omen flr'd ; 

In ^e Carpathian gulf there dwells retired 

The "prophet Proteus ; o'er the wat'ry way, 

Whofe car the finny, two-legg*d fteeds convey : 460 

Now to his diftant country he reforts, 

Emathia feeking, and Pallene's ports ; 

Th^ fea-nymphs this caemlean feer adore. 

And him reveres ev'n hallow'd Nereus hoar ; 

All things he knows, tho' hid in time's dark womb, 465 

What is, what long is paft, and what fhall come ; 

So Neptune will'd ; whofe monftrous herds he keeps. 

Of fqualid calves, beneath the rolling deeps. 

Him muft thou chain, and force him to difclofe 

The caufc and cure of thy diftrading woes.. 470 

Nought he'll unfold, except the god thou bind. 

Nor prayers, nor tears can move his ftedfaft mind. 

With force and chains, my fon, his limbs furround,' 

Thefe can alope his treach'rous wile$ confound. 

^ p. Vi&sitii Majlovxs Georoica. Lib* 4* 

Ip(k ego tCy medios cum fol accenderit aeftus^ 
Cum fitiunt herbae, et pecori jam grotior umUa eft^ 
In fecreta fenis ducam^ quo Idius ab indis 
Se recipit ; facile ut ibmno adgrediare jaceotem. 
Verum ubi conreptum manibus Txncliique fienebis^ 40 j 
Turn variae eludent fpecies at%«ie ora fenurum. 
Fiet enim fubito fus horridus, aCraque tigriii 
^quamofufque. draco, et fulva cervice kaefta : 
Aut acrem flammae fonitum dabit, atque tta vtiicUs 
Excidet, aut in aquas tenues diiabfi(6 abibk* 41O 

Sed quaiito ille magis formas fe ver^et ki omnia, 
Ta^to, gnate, magis contende tenacia vincla : 
Donee talis erit mutato corpore, qualem 
Videris, incepto.tegeret cum lumina fomno. 
Haec ait, et liquidum ambrofiae diffundit odorem : 415 
Quo totum gnati corpus perduxit. at illi 
Dulcis conpofitis fpiravit crinibus aura, 
Atque habilis membris venit vigor, eft fpecus ingens 
Exefi latere in montis, quo plurima vento 
Cogitur, inque fuius fcindit fefe unda reduAos i 420 

Deprenfis olim flatio tutiflima nautis. 
• Intus fe vafti Proteus tegit objice faxi. 
Hie juvcnem in latebris averfum a lumine Nympha 
Conlocat : ipfa procul nebulis obfcura refiftit» 
Jam rapidus, torrcns fitientis, Sirius, Indos 425 

Ardebat ; caelo et medium fol igneus orbem 
Hauferat. arebant hcrbae, et cava flumina ficcis 
Faueibus ad limum radii tepefaSa coquebant : 
Cum Proteus confueta petens e flu£Ubus antra 

494. Dtep in the m§untainJ] The reader may compare this 
defcripcion of the cave of Proteus, with the following one in 

His bowrc is in the bottome of the maine> 
Under a mighty rock, gainfl which do rave 

The roring billows in their proud difdaine ; 
That, with the angry working of the wave. 



Bock4« Tab GUC0AGIC5 Of ViAox&r 3tf 

When the parchM hc|ijage fades with mid-daj heat, 475 

And fainting cattteto cool fhades retreat, 

Myfelf will lead thee to t*e clofe abodiCj 

Where ftretcht in fltimber, thou may^ fme the god. 

Inftant he'll trj, clufive of the rapcj 

The varied force of every favage Ihape^ 480 

Become a briftly boar, or tyger fell. 

Or like a fcaly bteated dragon fwcll ; 

Like a gaunt lion fliake a tawny mane^ 

Or in loud crackling firs efcape thy chain ; 

Or while thou clofely grafp'll thy fraudf at prey, 4^^ 

Changed to a itowing ftrcam glide fwift away. 

Yet ftill retentive with* redoubled mi^t. 

Thro* each vain fleeting form conftrain his flight j 

Till the fame (hape, all changes paft, appear. 

That ere the fenior flcpt, tKou faw^hhn wear. 490 

She fpoke, and o'er him rich ambrofia flied. 

With liquid odours bath'd his breathing head. 

And thro' his glowing limbs celeftial vigour fpread. 

Deep in the mountain lies a fpacioits cave, 
Worn by the w<nicings of the relHcfs ware, 495 

Whither vaft waters drive before the wind. 
And fhatter'd (hips commodious flielter find. 
There, far within a grot, old Proteus dwells. 
And draws a vaft rock o^cr his fecret celis. 
She plac'd her fon beneath the darkfome roof, 500 

Herfelf, involved in clouds, retires aloof. 

Now rabid Sirius fcorcht the gafping plains. 
And burnt intcnfc the panting Indian fwains ; 
In his 'mid courfe the fun all fiery flood, 
Parcht was the grafs ; die rivers. bak'd to mud ; 505. 

When Proteus, weary of the waters', fought 
The cool retirement of his 'cuftom'd grotty. 

Therein is eaten out an hollow cave. 
That feemes roagh mafons hand with engines keene 
Had loog while laboured it to engrave. 

F. Q^^. C. 8. S. 57. 



. Ipl p. VlRGllII MaKONIS GEO&GiCA. Utufi 

Ibat. eum vafti cjrcum gens humida ponti 439 

^xfultans rorem late difpergit amarum. 

Stemunt fe fomno diverfae in litore phocae# 

Ipfe, velut ftabuli cuftos in montibus olim^ 

Vefper ubi e paftu vitulos ad ttStSL reducit, 

Auditifque lupos acuunt balatibusagni, ^^S 

Confidit fcopulo medius^ numerumque recenfet : 

Cujus Ariftaeo quoniam eft oblaU facultas; 

Vix defefla fenexn paiTus conponere membra^ 

Cum clamore ruit magno, manicifque jaceatem 

Occupat. ille fuae contra non inmemor artis^ 440 

Omnia transfonnat fefe in miracula rerum^ 

Ignemque, horribilemque feram, fiuviumque liquentem, 

Venim^ ubi nulla fugam reperit pellacia, vi&vts 

In fefe redit, atque hominis tandem ore locutus : 

Nam quis te, juvcnum confidentii&me, noftras 445 

Juifit adire domos ? quidve hinc petis ? inquit. at ille : 

Sets, Proteu, fcis ipfe : neque eft te fallere cuiquanu 

Sed tu define velle. deum praecepta fecuti 

Venimus hinc labfis quaefitum oracula rebus. 

Tantum effatus, ad haec vates vi denique multa 450 

Ardentis oculos intorfit lumine glauco, 

£t graviter frendens^ fie fatis ora refolvit : 

Non te nullius exercent numinis irae. 

Magna luis conmifia: tibi has miferabilis 'Orpheus 

Haudquaquam ob meritum poenas^ ni fata refiftant, 455 

Suicitat i et rapta graviter pro conjuge faerit. 

J09. Sfray,] The circmnAance of thefe mongers fcatterine 
the fpray of the fea about them, greatly enlivens this beautiful 

512. Liie a pea/mtt.'] Virgil has imitated Homer fo nicely in 
his adventure with Proteus, that he has not forgot this fimilc 
of the fhepherd, in his cop/. Lufos acuunt is wonderfully cat* 
preffive^ and fliort. 


Book 4« ThB GaORGICS OF VxftGIL. 3S3 

The finny race exulting round him play. 

And in wild gambols dafli the bitter fpray ; 

The fcaly phocae, funk in fleep profound, 510 

Along the (bore their guardian god furround ; 

He (like a peafant fkill'd the herds to keep. 

When evening homeward warns the calves and iheep. 

When hungry wolves, with pleafure liftcning, hear. 

And mark for prey, the lambs that bleat from far) 515. 

With watchful eyes, high-feated on a rock. 

Reviews and. counts the numbers of his flock. 

The lucky youth with this occafion bleft, 

Juft as the feer compos'd his limbs to reft, 

Rufli'd on him with a mighty threatening found, 520 

And faft, the weary, flumbering fenior bound. 

He, every various art diflTembling tries. 

And many a monfter's direful ihape belies ; 

Roars horrid like a prowling favage, glows 

Like crackling fire, or like a river flows ; 525 

But when no fraud could further his efcape. 

He fpoke, return'd to human voice and Ihape : 

Raih youth ! who bade thee to my court repair 

With impious boldnefs ? what thou fi^k'ft, declare ! 

O Proteus ! well thou know'ft the caufe, he cry'd, 530 
Nought from thy piercing eyes, can mortals hide i 
Obedient to the. Gods, I feek to know 
What fate decrees, and how to heal my woe. 
The prophet, while his bofom boil'd with ire. 
And while his green eyes ihot indignant fire, 535 

Gnaihing his teeth, with fury in his look, 
Compell'd, at length, the fates difclofing, fpoke; 
Thou fuflfer'ft for atrocious crimes ; on thee 
Falls the juft vengeance of a deity ; 
Unhappy Orpheus on thy guilt hath fent, 54^ 

And more doft thou deferve, this punifhment ; 
And more fhalt feel, unlefs by fate dcny'd. 
For ftill he rages for his murder 'd bride« 

fH^ p. VsJtciLii Marokis Gitoft<»iCA. Lib* 4^ 

Ilia quidem, duA te fugeret per fluiiiina praeceps^ 

Inmanem ante, pedes hydrum moritura puella 

S^rvantem ripas alta non vidit in herba. 

At chorus aequalis Dr^um clamore fupremos 460 

Inplerunt montis* flerunt Rhodopeiae arces, 

Altaque Pangaea, et Rbefi Mavonia tellus^ 

Atqud Getae,* atque Hebrus, et Aitias Orithyia. 

Xpfe cava ibians aegrum teftudine amorem^ 

Te, dulcis conjux, te folo ia litore lecum, 465 

Te veniente die, te decedente canebat. 

Taenarias etiam fauces, aita oftia Ditis^ 

Et caligantem nigra fortnidine lucum 

IngreiTus, Manifque adiit, regemque tnooieadum, 

Nefciaque bumanis precibus manfuefcere corda. 470 

At cantu conmotac Erebi dc fedibus imis 

Umbrae ibant tenues, fimulacraquc luce carentum r 

548. But *whb Itmdjhrieks.^ Virgil does not at length de- 
fcribe the ferpents flinging and killing Earydice. This horn 
the pen of a lower genius, would hare taken up twenty linct^ 
He contents kiisrelf with fayiag— «/m m» ^Idit bnta ; aad 

adds immediately. 

At chorus aequalls Dryaditm* 

554. Tetbee.] There are few things is the ancient poetry 
more moving than the ftory of Orpheus and Eurydice. It hath 
acquired new beauties by falling into the hands of the tender 
ai\d padlonate Virgil y and is told by him in fo melting a ftrain^ 
that fome of the touches he hath given it can hardly be read 
without tears. When we are wrought up to fuch a temper^ 
it naturally leads us to compalfionate the hard fate of the on- 
happy lovers ; and we begu to feel fbme indignation at the 
captious condition, upon which he was to pofTefs his beaoty» 
or lofe her for ever : not to look at his loved Eurydice. Ar- 
bitrary and capricious ! unbefitting the }«ft brother of Jove, 
and unlike the bounties of a divine, unenvious nature : unlefs 
indeed there be fomething elfe underflood than appears: (am^ 
truth in life or morals that lies latent under this circomibuice of 
the tale. 

The great and unhappy Lord Vcrulam, who was feniible of 
the incongruity, has given an explication of the fable ; but 
fccms not to have liit upon the real meaning. What he iays is 



fiook 4. Ttth GieoiiGicS of Virgil. 385 

She from thy arms, by headlong fear mifled, 

Swift o'er the river's verdant margin fled j 545 

Nor at her feet the fated maid defcryM 

The dreadful fnake that kept its grafly fide. 

Biit with loud ihrieks her fifter-dryads moan*d. 

And high Pangaea's utmoft mountains groan'd ; 

Their cries to Rhodope and Thrace were borne, 550 

The Getae, Hebrus, Orithyia mourn. 

He on the defart fhore all lonely griev'd. 

And with his concave (hell his lovc-fick heart feliev*d ; 

To thee, fweet wife, ftill pourM the piteous lay. 

Thee, fung at dawning, thee at clofing day ! 555 

Ev*n hell's wide jaws he ventur'd to explore. 

Deep gates of Dis, and Death's tremendous fhore ; 

Down to the Manes went, and chearlefs plains, [reigns I 

The grove where horror frowns, and hell's dread monarch 

Obdurate hearts ! to whom unmov'd by woes 560 

Pray'rs plead in vain, and forrow ufelefs flows. 

Struck with his fong, from Erebus profound. 

Light flitting ghofls, and fpirits flock'd around ; 

entertaining and beautiful i for he was a fpirit of that high 
order that go ingenioufly wrong, and who cannot err withouc 
inib-u^on. But I incline to think that the moral of the BSdon 
is rather to be learhed at an ordinary mufic-^meetingy or an un- 
meaning opera, than, where his lordfhip diredts us, in the re- 
ceifes of an abftrufe philofophy. 

Orpheus's miftrefs was mufic. The powers of it are en* 
chanting. It lulls the reafon, and raifes the fancy in fo agree- 
able a manner, that we forget ourfelves while it lafls. The 
mind turns di/Tolute and gay, and hugs itfelf in all the deluding 
profpedts and fond wilhes of a golden dream. Whilfl ever/ 
accent is warbled over by a charming voice, a filly fong ap- 
pears found morality, and the very words of the opera pais for 
fenfe, in prefence of their accompagnenient. But no foonev 
does the raufic ceafe^ than the charm is undone, and the fan- 
cies difappear. The £ril fober look we take of it breaks the 
fpcU ; and we are hurried back with fome regret to the com- 
mon dull road of life, when the florid illuuon is vaniflx'd. 
Blackwell's enquiry concerning the life and writings of 
Homer, Sedl. 1 1 . 

Vol. I. C c 

386 p. ViRGiLXi Makonis Gsohcica. X^ib. 4« 

Qyam multa in foliis avium fe millia condunt^ 
Vefper ubi, aut hibcrnus agit de montibus imber : 
Matres, atque viri, defundaque corpora vita 4.75 

Magnanimum heroum, pueri, innuptaeque puellae^ 
Inpofitique rogis juvenes ante ora parentum, 
Quos circum limus niger, et deformis arundo 
Cocyti, tardaque palus inamabilis unda 
Adligat, et novies Styx interfiira coercet. 48a 

Quin ipfae ftupuere domus^ atque intuma Lethi 
Tartara, cacruleofque inplexae crinibus anguis 
Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tria Cerberus ora, 
Atque Ixionii vento rota conftitit orbis. 
Jamque pedem referens cafus evaferat omnis, 485 

Redditaque Eurydice fuperas veniebat ad auras, 
, Pone fequens ; namque banc dederat Proferpina legem : 
Cum fubita incautum dementia cepit amantem, 
Ignofcenda quidem, fcircnt fi ignofcere Manes. 
Reftitit, Eurydicenque fuam jam luce fub ipfa 4^ 

Inmemor, heu, vidufque animi refpexit. ibi omnis 
EiFufus labor, atque inmitis rupta tyranni 
Foedera, terque fragor ftagnis auditus Avernis. 
Ilia, Quis et me, inquit, miferam, et te perdidit, Orpheu? 
Quis tantus furor ? en iterum crudelia retro 495 

Fata vocant, conditque natantia lumina fomnus. 

585. Hiftopt^anduift.] Thephilbfophicgoddeisof Boetluiu 
having related the ftory of Orpheus» who, when he had reco- 
vered his wife from the dominions of death, loft her again hf 
looking back upon her in the confines of light, condodes with 
a very elegant and forcible application ; Whoever yoa are that 
endeavour to elevate your mind to the illuminations of Heap> 
ven, cohfider yourfelves as reprefented in this fable ; for he 
that is once fo far overcome, as to turn back his eye towards 
the infernal caverns, lofes, at the firft fight, all that influe&OB 
that attracted him on high. 

Fes bate fabula re/picitt 

^icunque in fuperum diem* 

Mentem ducere quaerilis. 

Nam fui tartar cum ia/ptcus, 



Book 4i T*ilB CjEoitGic* o^ ViAGiti 387 

^hick as the birds to leafy groves defcend^ 
When evening clouds, or wintry ftorms impend | 565 
Mothers and hu(bands, heroes' aweful fhades. 
Sweet infant boys, and pure unmarried maids. 
Youths whofe fpnd parents faw their bloom expire^ 
And forrowing plac*d them on the funeral pyre j 
Whom black Cocytus' fullen waters bound, 570 

Foul fhores of mud with reeds unfightly crownM^ 
And the nine ftreams of winding Styx furround ^ 
Ev'n thefe dread manfions liften'd with amaze ; 
With awej death's deepeft dungeons heard his lays ; 
Struck were the fnake-crown'd Furies j Cerberus fhews 
His jaws wide-gaping, yet in aS to clofe j 576 

A paufe of reft the fad Ixion found. 
His wheel ftopt fudden at the powerful founds 
And now at length no farther toil remain'd^ 
The upper air £urydit:e regain*dj 580 

Behind (he. came, fo Proferpine ordain'd : 
When ftrait a frenzy the fond lover caught, 
(Could Hell forgive, 'twas fure a venial fault) 
Ev'n on life's confines, impotent of mind, 
%He ftopt^ alas ! and caft one look behind. * 58^ 

Fell Pluto's terms he broke ! his hopes were loft ! 
A groan thrice echoed o'er Avernus' coaft. 
Ah ! who deftroys us both, fhe fadly cry'd. 
What madnefs, Orpheus, tears thee from thy bride t 
The cruel fetes force me again away ! 590 

Kly fwimming eyes no more difcem the day i 

ViBus luMiuaJUxtrit^ 

^jacquid praicipuum trdhit, 

Ffrdit, dum *vidit inferos. The ftainbl<*r. No. I?i. 

587 -^ Thrice echoed,] ^TcrqMe fragbr ftagnis audituf 

Jiifermis^ fays the original very finely. A ceruin difmal and 
hollow found was heard through die vaults of hell. Some 
imagine^ bat .1 think groandlefsly^ that it was the fboai of 
^hofts rejoicing for Eurydicc's return. Surely the other fcnife 
u far the more poetical and more forcibly imagined^ 

C c a 


388 p. ViRGiLii Maronis Georgica. Lib. 4* 

Jamque vale, feror ingenti circumdata no6le, 

Invalidafque tibi tendens, heu non tua, palmas. 

Dixit, et ex oculis fubito, ceu fumus in auras ' 

Conmixtus tenuis, fugit diverfa : neque ilium, coo 

Prenfantem nequidquam umbras, et multa volentem 

Diccrc praeterea, vidit : ncc portitor Orci 

Amplius objedam paiTus tranflre paludem* 

Quid faccret ? quo fe rapta bis conjuge ferret f 

Quo fletu Manis, qua numina voce moveret ? 505 

Ilia quidem Stygia nabat jam frigida c/mba.^ 

Septem ilium totos perhibent ex ordine mends 

Rupe Tub aeria deferti ad Strymonis undam 

FleiFe fibi, et gelidis haec cvolviffe fub aftris, 

Mulcentem tigris, et agentem carmine quercus. ^iq 

Qualis populea maerens philomela fub umbra 

Amiflfos queritur foetus ; quos durus arator 

Obfervans nido inplumis detraxit : at ilia 

Flet no&em, ramoque fedens miferabile carmen 

Integrat, et maeftis late loca queftibus inplet. ^i^ 

Nulla Venus, nulHque animum flexere hymenaei. 

Solus Hyperboreas glacics, Tanainque nivalem, 

Arvaque Rhipacis numquam viduata pruinis 

Luflrabat, raptam Eurydicen atque inrita Ditis 

Dona querens. fpretae Ciconum quo munere matres, ji* 

Inter facra deum, nofturnique orgia Bacchi, 

Difccrptum latos juvenem fparferc per agros. 

Tum quoque marmorea caput a cervice revolfum^ 

Gurgite cum medio portans Oeagrius Hebrus 

610. As PbilomeL'] Is not Proteus too great a poet in this 
funiie ? But the lines are fome of the mod exquifite in Virgil. 
To heighten the pathetic, the birds are not only inplumis, but 
taken from the nell. Nor arc they iingly taken, but dragged 
out of the nell ; to which they clung hack : which is fhx>ngly 
implied by the word Retraxit, The vcrfe cannot be read witb« 
out laying a particular empbafis on this word^ as well as oa 

Sook 4* Thb Georgics op Virgil. 389 

Adieu ! no longer muft thou blefs-my fight—— 
I go 1 I fink ! involvM in thickeft night ! 
In vain I ftretch my feeble arms to join 
Thy fond embrace j ah ! now no longer thine ! 595 

Swift from his ardent gaze, while thus fhe fpoke. 
She vaniihM into air, like fubtile fmoke. 
And left him catching at her empty ghoft, 
Defiring much to fay, in fpeechlefs forrow loft : 
The rigid ferryman of hell no more 600 

Would deign to waft him to the gloomy fhore : 
What fhould he do ? where turn ? how feek relief ? 
Twice loft his confort, how appeafe his grief ? 
How move the Manes, with what doleful note i 
She fail'd, already cold, in Charon's boat. 605 

For feven long months, by defart Strymon*s fide. 
Beneath a lofty rock, he mourn'd his bride. 
And ftretcht in gelid caverns, with his fong 
Made tygers tame, and drew hard oaks along- 
As Philomel in poplar fhadcs, alone, 610 

For her loft offspring pours a mother's moan. 
Which fome rough ploughman marking for his prey. 
From the warm neft, unfledg'd, hath dragg'd away ; 
Percht on a bough, (he all night long complains. 
And fills the grove with fad repeated ftrains. 615 

No fecond fair, no nuptial rites could move. 
Nought foften his diftradled mind to love : 
The Hyperborean ice he wander'd o'er. 
And folitary roam'd round Tanais' fliore. 
And Scythia's defarts of eternal froft, 620 

Lamenting his loft bride, and Pluto's favours loft. 
The Thracian dames enrag'd to be defpis'd. 
At Bacchus' midnight feafts they folemniz'd, 
Infpir'd with frantic fury feiz'd the fwain. 
And ftrew'd his mangled carcafe o'er the plain : 6z$ 

His pale head from his ivory flioulders torn, 
Adown Oca^rian Hebrus' tide was borne j 

J90 P. VjRGILIX MARomt OsOROtC^Af Lib« 4# 

Volverct, Eurydicen vox ipfa et frigida lingtU^ 51J 

Ah miferaai Eurydicen aninu fugiente rocabat : 

Eurydicen toto rpfercbant flumine ripae^ 

Haec Proteus, et fe jz&a dcdit aequor in altum. 

Quaque dedit, fpumantem i^ndam fub yertice torfit* 

At non Cyrene : namque ultro adfata timenteol : jfjt 

Nate, licet triftis animo deponere curas. 

Haec omnis morbi cauiTa : hJnc miferabile Nymphie, 

Gum quib'us ilia chores lucis agitabat in altis, 

Exitium mi fere apibus^ tu munera fupplex 

Tende petens pacem, et faciles yenerare Napaets. 5^5 

Namque dabunt veniam votis, irafque remittent^ 

Sed, modus prandi qui fit, prius ordine dicatxi. 

Quatuor eximios praeftanti corpore tauros, 

Qui tibi nunc viridis depafcunt fuipma Lycaety 

pelige, et intaftfi totidem ceryicc juvencas* 5^ 

Quatuor his aras alta ad delubra dcarum 

Conilitue, et facrum jugulis demitte cruorem : 

Corporaque ipfa bourn frondofo defere luco. 

Poft, ubi nona fuos Aurora oftenderit ortus, 

Inferias Orphi Lethaea papavera mittes, c^j 

Fiacatam Eurydicen vitula yenerabere caefa, 

Et nigram maftabis oyem, lucumque revifes. 

Haud mora : continuo matris praecepta faceffit : 

Ad delubra venit ; monftratas excitat aras 5 

Quatuor eximios praeftanti corpore tauros j^p 

Ducit, ct intacta totidem eery ice juvencaSr 

633. He /poke, ^ Though the cpifcdct)f Orpheus and Ea- 
rydice be ib admirable iu icfetf^ that we thank the poet for 
having introduced it at any rate ; yet, after all, is it not Aitch'd 
in a liitiC inartificially } Is it to be conceived that Proteus, 
who, being made a prifoner, and fpcaking by conilraint, is 
in no v<;ry good humour, fliould tell this long ftory (which is 
not very n;^;terii^l 10 the point neither) to entertain Ariilacus, 
Who has olTered that violence to him ? Was it not enough to 
inform him, that his misfortune was occaiioned by Eurydice^s 
death, without telling all thefe circumflances confequent of 
ft I Perhaps it may be reply 'd, that it is more material to the 



Book 4. The Gborgics of Virgil. 391 

As in the rapid waves it roll'd along, 

Ev'n then with faultering voice and feeble tongue, 

To name his poor Eurydice he try'd, 6jo 

Eurydice, with parting breath he cry'd, 

Eurydice ! the rocks and echoing fliores reply'd. 

He fpoke ; and *inid the waves. his body hurl'd. 

About his head the foaming waters curl'd. 

Not fo Cyrene ; to affwage his fears, 635 

My fon, flie cries, allay thy reftlefs cares ; 

Behold the caufe of all this dire difeafe ; 

The nymphs have fent deftruftion on thy bees. 

With whom Eurydice was wont t* advance. 

And lead in lofty groves the facred dance, 640 

Thou fuppliant offer gifts, and fue for peace. 

The mild Napaeans will their anger ceafe; 

But hear me firft in order due declare. 

The means to footh their rage, and frame thy pray'r : 

Sele£i: four large and beauteous bulls that crop 645 

Thy verdant paftures on Lycaeus' top, 

Four heifers too, that ne'er have ploughed the field. 

Four altars in the Dryads' temples build ; 

From the flain victims pour the facred blood. 

And leave their bodies in the fliady wood : 650 

When the ninth morn o'er dewy hills ihall fpring. 

To Orpheus' ghoft Lethean poppies bring ; 

With a black ewe Eurydice adore. 

And flied for her a vi Aim-heifer's gore : 

Revifit then the grove. Without delay 655 

He fpeeds his mother's precepts to obey ; 

Haftes to the temple, there his altars builds, [fields : 

Four bulls, four heifers leads, that ne'er had plough'd the 

point than is commonly imagined. Thefe confeqaences greatly 
aggravate the guilt of Ariftacus ; and fo it was proper enough, 
if not abfolutely neceffary, to recite them. Whether Uiis 
anfwer be fufficient, or not, I neither know, nqr roach care. 
Be it as it will, I would not lofe this epifode, to be the author 
of all the beft critidihis that ever were, or ihall be, writtea 
upon the claffics, Trapp. 


^z p. ViRCiux Maromis Georgica. Lib* 4. 

Poft, ubi nona fuos Aurora induxerat ortus, 
Inferias Orphi mittit^ lucumque revifit. 
Hie vero fubitum ac di£lu mirabile monftrum 
Afpiciunt, liquefafta bourn per vifcera toto 555 

S^ridere apes utero, et rupds efFervere coftis 9 
Inmcnfarque trahi nubes ; jamque arbpre fanuna 
Confluere, et lentis uvam demittere ramis, 

Hlec fuper arvorum cuitu pecorumque canebam^ 
Et fuper arboribus : Caefar dum magnus ad altum 560 
Fulminat Euphraten bello, vi(9:orque volentis ' 

Per populos dat jura, viamque adfefiat 01]rmpo. 
Illo Virgilium n\t tempore dulcis alebat 
P^rthenope, ftudiis florentem ignobilis oti : 
Carmina qui lufi paftorum, audaxque juventa, 565 

Tityre, te patuUc c^cini fub tegmine fagi, 

663. Putri^f ionjuels.] Obferve how the poet has varied his 
expreffions on a fubjed fo difficult to be ornamentally exprefied 
48 this birch of the bees, for 

"—^liquefaBa bourn ptr vifctro. tot9 ■ 
pt rupth effer*uer€ coftis 
is quite newly expreifed frpm what it was before in the paiTage 
above, Interea teneris tepefaSlus in ojjihm humor. 

673. Parthe^opeJ] There may be a propriety in this that is 
ijpt generally remarked. Naples was a town of indolence and 
pleafurc, and was therefore, as fome fuppofc, faid to have 
been founded by Parthenope one of the Sirens, who were god- 
defTes of indolenpe and pleafure : 

Improba Jiren 


Oiio/a Neapolis» Ho a. 

This idea too makes the contrail between Auguftus and Virgil 
mi|ch the llrongcr. Spenc?. 

Book 4. The Gborgics or Virgii. 393 

At the ninth morning's dawn to Orpheus bears 

Th* appointed gifts, and to the grove repairs : 660 

When lo ! a wondVous prodigy they found. 

An hoft of bees rufli'd forth with humming found. 

By the flain bullocks' putrid bowels form'd. 

From whofe burfl fides, in clouds immenfe they fwarmMj 

Then from a tree's high top, conglob'd depend, 665 

Whofe branches with the bellying clufter bend. 

Thus have I fung the labours of the fwain. 
Of trees, of flocks, of cattle, and of grain ; 
While mighty Caefar to Euphrates bears 
His conquering arms, the thunder of his wars ; 670 

To all the willing world new laws decrees ; 
And ardent preffes on, th' Olympian heights to £bize. 
Then me, Parthenope's calm pleafures bleft. 
And ftudious leifure and ignoble reft ; 
Who bold in youth, once fung the fbepherds loves, 675 
Sung thee, O Tityrus, ftretcht beneath the beechen groves. 

673. Then meJ] I cannot forbear bein? of opinion that the 
four concluding lines of the Georgics, tik VirgtUum^ &c. &c. 
are of the fame ftamp and charader with the foar juftly-ex- 
ploded ones» which are prefixed to the Aeneid. Audax^ne 
jwventa is, I think, an exprefiion entirely unworthy of Virril, 
and a mere botch. Befides nothing can be a more complete 
and fublime condufion than that compliment to Auguftas 
'^Viamqui affeSai OljmpOm 

676. Groves. "^ Each bock of Virgil's Georgics is in a diife* 
rent llile (or has a diiferent colouring) from all the reft. That 
pf the firfl is plain ; of the fecond various ; of the third, grand i 
^nd of the fourth pleafing. Holdsworth. 




C i9S 1 


O N 


THE ancients have left us no rules or.obfervationt 
concerning this fpecies of poetry. Ariftotle, chiefly 
intent on giving laws to dramatic write^, advifes the 
true poet to difappear as much as poffible, to write only 
in dialogue, and never to fpeak in his own perfon } be- 
caufe, fays he, it 'may be laid down as a general rule in 
this art, that when the poet fpeaks in his own perfon, he 
is no longer an imitator. In conformity to this opinion, 
Cailelvetro, the learned Italian commentator on Ariftotle^s 
Poetics, has declared, that if Virgil had written nothing 
but the Georgics, he ought not to have been enrolled 
among the number of the poets. For, fays he, p. 29. 
;iot very much to the honour of the art he is teaching, 
phyfiology can never be the fubjeft of poetry, which 
yms invented not to injftriift, but barely to amufe and 
entertain the minds of the multitude. And what was 
the general opinion of the ancients on this fubje£l, may 
be eafily known from tkat ftory of SocrateS related in 
Che Phaedon of Plato : who being admonifhed in a dream 
to apply himfelf to mu(}c, began to compofe an hymA 
to 'Apollo, whofe feaft was then celebrating. But upon 



afterwards refleding, that a perfon who would be a tn» 
poet, muft make fables (muft create) and not Write mere 
difcourfes in metre ; he at once took a common fable tana 
Aefop, not having any inventive faculty himfelf. And 
'tis obfervablc, that Plutarch, after quoting this ftory of 
Socrates, excludes Empcdoclcs, Parmenides, Nicander, 
and Theognis, out of the number of legitimate poets i 
becaufe, adds he, we know there may be facrifices with- 
out muAc and dancing, but there can be no true poetrf 
or imitation, without fiSion and fables. This fevcre re- 
mark, which feems not to be founded on nature and 
fj-uth, would .efFe£lually exclude all didadic and de- 
fcriptive poetry. Surely the poet is an imitator, when 
he paints any objed of univerfal nature, animate or in- 
animate, whether he fpeaks in his own perfon or intro- 
duces fpeakers ; tho' indeed imitations of the latter fpe- 
cics have not the fame dignity or utility with thofe of 
human mannejFS, pailions, and charaf^ers. 

To render inftruftion amiable, to foftcn the fcverity 
of fcience, and to give virtue and knowledge a captivat- 
ing and engaging air, is the great privilege of the didadic 
mufc ; 'tis fhe, who 

— — — praefpergens ante Fsm 

Cun£la coloribus egregiisy et odoribus applet. 

ProfefsM teaching is highly difagrecable to the natural 
pride of man, as it implies a fuperiority of underftanding 
over the perfon inftruded. That precepts may gain zi\ 
eafy admiffion into the heart, it is neccflary to deliver 
them in a concealed indire£l manner, diverted of all pre- 
tcnfions to a larger fhare of rcafon, and of all dogmati- 
cal ftiffnefs. A man who perufps any fyftem, written in 
this modeft unafTuming method, and adorned moreoyer 
with ftriking images and harmonious numbers, 

-▼— - Ji/cit citiusj meminltque libentius. Hoh» 



As material objc£ls are moft fufccptible of poetical or- 
naments,, fo perhaps, the various employments, bufinelTes, 
and amufements of life, together with the elegant arts 
and fciences, are more proper fubjedls for didadic poc* 
try, than fuch as are purely fpeculative and metaphyilcal. 
Abftra£l ideas admit but of few embelli/hments. All 
parts of natural philofophy in particular, as being con- 
verfant about fenfible images, feem the beft calculated to 
Ihine in this way of writing ; 

Coilique vias it Jidera monftrent^ 

DefeSfus foils varios^ lunaeque labor es : 
Unde tremor terris^ qua vi maria alta tumefcanf 
Objicibus ruptisj rur/ufque infeipfa reftdent\ 
^uid tantum oceano properent fe tingere files 
Hybernty vel quae tardis mora noifibus obftet* 

We have fome elegant but fhort fpecimens of this fort in 
the Mufae Anglicanae : fuch are the poems on a barome- 
ter, on the circulation of the blood, on the telefcope, 
and on Dr. Hales's vegetable ftatics. 

In making choice of a proper fubje(^, regard (hould be 
had, to fix, if poffible, upon one of an important and 
univerfal -.nature j and which may deeply intercft all 
mankind. Such is Dr. Armftrong's poem on the art of 
preferving health. And after this interefting fubje^ is 
chofen, only fuch rules relating to it fhould be fele<5led, 
as will bear to be delivered gracefully j and to be en- 
livened with poetical imagery. It is not required or cx- 
peded of a poet, to enter into a minute detail of dry 
precepts, but to fingle out thofe precepts, that wijl en- 
tertain as well as inftrud his reader. 

— ' " et quae 
Dejperat traSiata nitefiere pojfiy relinquit* HoR. 

Mr. Addifon obferves, that there are feveral ways of con- 
veying the lame truth to the mind of man ; and to cfioofe 
the pleafanteft of tbefe ways, is that which chiefly dif- 



tinguiflies poetry from profe, and makes Virgil's rtsiti 
of buibondry pleafanter to read than Varro's* Wheitf 
tli9 profis writer tells us plainly what ought to be done^ 
the poet often conceals the precept in the defcription^ 
and reprefents his countryman performing the zBdon in 
i;i^ich he would inftrud his reader. Where the one firts 
out as fully and diftinAly as he can^ all the parts of die 
truth which he would conmuinicate to us, the other fin^es 
out the moft pleafing circum(hmce of this truths and (b 
conveys the whole in a more diverting manner to the 

The delicate addrefs of Virgil in this particular is 
worth our attention ; of which the following inftances 
may be given* loftead of telling his huibandman plain* 
ly, that his crops will fail by bad management; he (siys^ 

Hiu magnum alterius fruftra fptifabis aarvum^ 
CoH€uJfaqui famim in filvis folabere quercu* 

Inftead of faying, that elms by engrafting have bomtf 
acorns, he fpeaks of that operation in this lively manner s 

— — Glandemqui fues frigire fub ulmis. 
Inftead of informing us that the farmers often foot up an 
old foreft, he adorns this proceeding with the following 
pi£turefque circumftances : 

Antiquafque dcm$i aviUTii cumjiirpibus imtt 

Emit i illae ahum nidis petiere reliSfis. 

He does not call the plane a largd tree, but fays, 

Jamque miniJiranUm platanum potantibus umbrain* 

And inftead of ordering the farmer to water his grounds^ 
what a landfcape does he prefent us with ! 
Bccey fupgrcilio clivofi tramitis undam 
Elicit : ilia cadens raucum per laevia Murmur 
Saxa ditj fcattbrifqUe arentia Umperat arva / 
After this manner fhould the didaftic poet raife and 
enliven every precept he gives \ he fliould turn rules into 
3 images \ 


images \ he Ihould defcribe things by their efte£ls; and 
/peak of them as already done, inftead of regularly or- 
dering the manner iri which they (hould be done ; and 
throw in circumftances and adjunfts, that m?y forcibly 
firike the imagination, and embelliih and conceal the dry- 
nels of the fubjed* 

But altho' the poet delivers his precepts in the mott 
artful manner imaginable, and renders them as palatable 
as poffible, yet the reader will foon be difgufted with a 
continued feries of inftrudion, if his mind be not re- 
lieved at proper intervals by pleafing digreffipns of various 
kinds, naturally arifing from the main fubjed, and clofely 
conned»d with it. If Virgil had confined himfelf merely 
to agriculture, and had never inferted in his poem the 
prodigies that attended the death of Julius Caefar, the 
praifes of Italy ; the chariot-race, the Scythian winter- 
piece, the happinefs of a country-life, the loves of the 
beafb, and the pathetic defcription of the plague among 
the cattle ; his Georgics, tho' abounding in moft ufefiil 
rules, delivered with dignity and grace united, would 
never ha^e been the delight and admiration of his own, 
and all fucceeding ages. His art is no where more re-« 
markable than in thofe paflages, where, after feeming to 
have left his fubjed and his hufbandmen, he fnddenly 
returns to them, and conneds all he has been &ying, 
though he appears to have wandered far from his piir- 
pofe, by adding fome rural circumftance; thus having 
fpoken of the battle of Pharfalia, he fubjoins immediately 
with great addrefs. 

Scilicet & tempus vtniet cumfinibus illis 

Agricolacy incurvo terram molitus aratro 

Exefa inveniet fcabra rubigine pi la ; . 

Aut gravibus rajiris galeas pulfabit inauiSf 

Grandiaqui effoffis mirabitur ojfa fipulcbris» 
And again, after faying the world was diihafied witt^ 
many wsKrs> he inftantly adds. 


— — — Non ullus aratr9 
Dignus bonos — — — 

— — Thus Maro's mufe. 

Thrice facred mufe ! commodious precepts gives^ 
InftruSive to the fwains ; not only bent 
On what is ^inful, fometimes (he diverts 
From folid counfels, fhews the force of love 
In favage beafts i how virgin face divine 
Attracts the haplefs youth thro' florms and waves. 
Alone in deep of night ; then fhe dcfcribes 
The Scythian winter, nor difdains tp fing 
How under ground the rude Riphaean race. 
Mimic briflc cyder with the brake*s pfoduft wild, 
• Sloes pounded, hips, and fervis' hariheft juice, 

Philips's Cyder, B. i. 

This laft mentioned author, among other clafficaf 
beauties, hath clofely copied Virgil in throwing many 
artful digreffions into his poem. He opens his fecond book 
with an addrefs to Lord Harcourt's fon, then abroad upon 
his travels in Italy, and afterwards returns to his fubje& 
with great dexterity in the following lines : 

Mean while (altho* the Maf&c grape delights. 
Pregnant of racy juice, and Formian hills 
Temper thy cups, yet) wilt thou not rejcck 
Thy native liquors ; lo ! for thee my mill 
Now grinds choice apples, and the Britifh vat& 
O'erflow with generous cyder. Book 7.* 

This poet, fpeaking afterwards of the pernicious cfFefii 
of drunkennefs, and of the difcords and quarrels arifing 
from this vice, Aides with great art and addrefs into a de- 
fcription of the civil wars and diflenfions that have fre- 
quently troubled the rcpofe of this kingdom. And when 
he comes to mention the laft great rebellion, very dex- 
tcroufly flings in the following line : 

Yet was the cyder land unftain'd with guilt. 



1)16 AC tic POfeTfeV. 45t 

this at once recalls the mind of the reader to the fub- 
jeft, which the author /ecmed to have forfakeft, during 
fo long a digreffion. Of the fame kind are his defcriptibns 
of the deftruAion of old Ariconium, the praifes of 
Herefordihn^; the moral charadters of the mbft cele- 
brated poet^, at the concluilon of the firft, and the ef- 
(eSts of the Union at the end of the fecond book : where^ 
after faying^ that 

-: : — Wherever the Britifli fprcad 

Triumphant bahners, or their fame has reachM 
Diffufive to the utmoft bounds of this 
"l^ide univerfe, ■ 

be concludes fully and appofitely to his fubje^l^ 
, ■■ Sijurjan cyder borne. 

Shall pleafe all taftes, and triumph. o'er the vine* 

But of all the various kinds of digreffions^ thofe of i 
pathetic nature, if they can be introduced with pro- 
priety, will have the beft cfFeft. A moving tale, fuch 
as the hiftory of Orpheus and Eurydice in the fourth 
book of the GeorgiCs, is moft likely to render a dida£lie 
poem intei'efting. A ftroke of paffion is worth a htindrcd 
of the moft lively and glowing defcriptions^ Men love 
to be moved, much better than to be inftrufted. Sup- 
pbfing (fays the A6b€ du Bos) that the fubjcfl of a di-^ 
dadic poem is fo exceedingly curious, as to induce you 
to read it once over with great pleafure ; yet you will 
never perufe it a fecocul time with the fame fatisfa<Etion 
you tafte even from an eclogue. The undcrftanding feels 
no pleafure in beings inftnided twice in the fame thing ; 
but the heart is capable of feeling the fame emotion 
twice, with great pleafure* This amiable and ingenious 
writer, who hath fthick out many new obfcrvationsupon 
poetry, illuftrates his opinion, that a poem abounding in 
the beft^written dtfcription* will never deeply affeA a 

Vol. I. D d reader. 


reader, except fomething of the patbetic be added^ hj 
the following remarks on a lifter art. 

** The fineft landfcape of Titian or Canache, docsf not 
intereft the beholder more than would the real profped of 
a village in a difagreeable or pleafant country. There is 
nothing in fuch a pi^re that fpeaks to onCf if I may 
be allowed the expreffion. .And as it does not touch the 
heart, it cannot gain the attention. (The beft painteis 
^vere fo well convinced of this truth, that tbey have very 
feldom given us landfcapes wholly defert, and without 
human figures ♦. They have peopled their pidurcs ; 
they have introduced into them pcrfons employed in fixne 
action capable of moving, us, and by confequence of en- 
gaging our attention. This is the conftant pradice of 
Pou£n, Rubens, and the other great mailers, who do 
not think it fufiicient to place in their landfeapes a man 
pai&ng on the road, or perhaps a countrywoman carrying 
her fruits to market. They introduce men agitated with 
pai&ons, in order to excite ours, and by fuch an emotioa 
to intereft us and engage our attention. In effed, the 
figures introduced in thcfe pi<5lures, arc more frequently 
nicnticnc'J and talked of, than their trees or terrafics. 

* This obfcnraiion may be illuflrated by that fine fimilc of 

Ah one who long in populous city pent. 
Where houfes thick and (ewers annoy the :ur, 
Porth ifiuing on a fummer's morn to breathe 
Among the pleafanc villages and farms 
Adjoin'd, from each thing met conceives delight. 
The fmell of grain, or tedded grafs, or kinc. 
Or dair)', each rural fight, each rural found ; 
If chance with nymphlike ilep fair \irgin pafs. 
What pleafing feem'd, for Her now pleafes more ; 
She moil, and in her look fums all delight. 

Paradife Lou, B. 9. v. 44;. 

The beholder's delight is doabledj at the appearance of this 
living beauty. 


b I D A G T I C POETRY. 40J 

The landfcape which Poui&n painted feVeral times' Over^ 
and which is commonly called his Arcadia, l^ould never 
have been fo celebrated^ If it had contained no human 

Who has not heard of that famous courttry, which is 
(aid to have been inhabited by the happieft men that evef 
cxifted on earth ? Men employed only on their pleafures, 
and who knew no other difquietudes^ than thofe which- 
bcfel the imaginary- (hepherds in romances^ whofe con- 
dition is fo much to be envied. The piAure of which I 
am fpeaking, reprefents a landfcape in thi^ delightful 
country. In the midft y^ fee the monument of a yoUng 
virgin, dead in the flower of her age : this we know by 
means of her ftatue laid at length on her tomb after the 
manner of the ancients. The fepulchral infcription is 
but four Latin words : and yet I lived in Arcadia* Et in 
Arcadia ego. But this infcription, fhort as it is^ gives 
occafion for very ferious reflections, to two young men 
and two young maidens, crowned with charplets of flowers^ 
who feem to have met accidentally with this mournful 
monument, in a place where they might well imagine no 
melancholy objed was to be found. One of their com-^ 
pany makes the reft take notice of this infcription, by 
pointing to it with his finger. And one may perceive, in 
the midft of the affli£tion and pity that begin to fpread 
thcmfelyes over their features, fomething of the remains 
of an expiring joy. We imagine we hear the fefleftions 
of thefe young perfons on the power of death, who 
fpares neither age, nor beauty; and againft whom the 
happieft climates can aiFord no protection* We figure to 
ourfelves what touching things they would fay to on 
another, when they recovered from their firft furprize, 
and wc apply thefe things to oiirfelvcs, and to thofe for. 
whom we are concerned. It is in poetry as in painting ; 
and tJ.e imitations which pofctry makes of nature, touch 
and afFcCl us, only in proportion to the impreffion, which 
Dda tho 


tifee dLirx laricxteii wsiuii axaks oa oar fc mm^ if i 
SIX pealirr.* "* 

TsctKs c^itfi 'i fccns^ «Li.jiu. Slvb Ac air of 

ts be xnmcei ^a x kiwwS eije ct car 

T!tgi^ PLdfc urac' T evince 

Kauas« 30 i~4UfidlDC pucn cas laCUr Vc i 

erf Vr pciro Tc aum^civ ^ 

XBii rx j -: mg rtjr:!fii* ics> CHar WBCf idt£^ caoc 3x av *-«» 
er jc e t. ^ T.rr icc evcax 5k oe ^^^""^ die" is x 1010 
ikT gT .iufia ni 37 irart s ic ^ r ^j to L ss^ bL aik. Tar :ar 

n r.~e fiAT.ti & HiLTrrcr of ssraiEnL; g umjait l'r xt 

**- -I IKSf ^Sr 2lf il!U*UIIC s 

-arts; res ic 3e .Liii^iix^ .-r iwrnmB-n^ hie^ ztx »Tir,Tr* x*^ 
uT^tami ma r:^?=i*-- TTsci Ijse? jbls.-'^ fas xses^^s^ 

S3. sL^m- s' ZTSTL. n nnrr'Tr '*- Tsmse^ s amoK unrf h 
liz nr ur— r . ir -g: - ^^liLs r^ ^fxlc 'ms. pJf^ c- ai sad: sc- 
zxrz TT 3e ^-^,rg,--:r- . ^^- ^"^^ vr.nir le i. fifc.ri' xi _pc*- 

saKuT % xb-^.^:^. 9msm ae . "-TirrT,. 


pompous epithets^ ftudied phrafes, and high-flown meta- 
phors, into the mouths of his chara£lers. But as the didac- 
tic poet fpeaks in his own perfon, it is necelTary and proper 
for him to ufe a more lufcious colouring of flyle, and to 
be more ftudious of ornament. And this is agreeable to 
an admirable precept of Ariftotle, which no writer in any 
kind of compofitidn, be it profe or poetry, fhould ever 
forget,— —that diftion ought moft to be laboured in the 
una£live, that is, the defcriptive parts of the poem, in 
which the opinions, manners and parens of men are not 
reprefented ; for too glaring an eXpreffion obfcures the 
manners and the fentiments.*** Tnt h xi|(y hi^xirofuv u ro»( 

% Xmm XafAW^ ^4k t« ufe, xai raq }i«»oi«f. Poetics, cha(T. 24. 

Accordingly Virgil hath ufed every poffible method of 
exalting his ftyle into^ dignity and grace, by bold meta- 
phors, grecifms, ftriking epithets, and poetical circum** 

Hence it is thai he will not fay quo ttmpon^ h\xt,fydiriy 
in the very firft line of his poem. Hence he fays, fciri' 
dimus aquor for ploughing, and Satumi dente for the 
pruning hook. Hence is it that he afcribcs human pro- 
perties and paffions to plants and animals. 

And in his needy (hop a tortoife hung. 

An alligator ftuft, and other (kins 

Of ill-map'd £(hes ; and about his (helves 

A beggarly account of empty boxes ; 

Green earthen-pots, bladders and mafty feeds. 

Remnants of packthread, and old cakes of rofes. 

Were thinly fcatter'd to make up a (hew. 

AGi 5. Scene 3. 

I appeal to thofe who know any thing of the human heart, 
whether Romeo in this diftrefsfal fitaation, could have leifure 
to think of the alligator, empty boxes, and bladders, and other 
furniture of this beggarly (hop, and to point them out fo dif-r 
tinftly to the audience. The defcription is indeed very lively 
gnd natural, but very improperly pat into the motfih of a per- 
fon agitated with fuch palOion as Romeo is reprefented to be. 

D d 3 Exuerint 


ExuertHt fylveftrem animam, cubufUi frequenti^ 
f In fuftfcunque voces artis^ baud tarda fiquimtur. 

Georg. ii. t. 51* 

MoerenUm abjur.gens^ fraterni morti juvencum. 

Gcorg. ill. 518. 

Miraturqui novas frondes et non ftia poma. 

Georg. ii. 82. 
Et quls cuique dolor vi£iOj quae gloria palmae, 

Georg. ill. 101. 

Tardaque Eleufimt matrls volventia plauftra. 

Gcorg. i. V. X63. 

'Tis after this manner Virgil judicioufly conceals the 
nakednefs and barrennefs of his fubjed, by the luftre of 
his langua^, and gives to Ceres the ceftus of Venus. 
*Tis thus (to ufe Addifon's words) that he breaks the 
clods, and toflfes the dung about with an air of graceful- 
nefs. Or, as Boileau fpeaks of another, it is thus that 
he turneth every thing he touches into gold. 

I fliall now endeavour to point the merit or iraperfedion 
of the moft celebrated didaftic poets, ancient and mo- 
dern, by giving a fliort and I hope impartial account of 
each. I fliall begin with Hefiod, whofe chara&er has 
been drawn by Mr. Addifon in the following words. 
** If we may guefs, fays he, at Hefiod's charaftcr from 
his writings, he had much more of the hufbandman than 
the poet in his temper : he was wonderfully grave, dif- 
crcet and frugal j he li^'^^d altogether in the country, and 
was probably, for his great' prudence, the oracle of the 
whole neighbourhood. Thefe principles of good hufban- 
dry ran thro' his works, and direfted him to the choice 
of tillage and merchandize, for the fubjeft of that which 
is the moft celebrated c»f them. He is every where bent 
on inftruction, avoids all manner of digreiSons, and docs 
not ftir out of the field c>nce in the whole Gcorgic. His 
method in dclcribing month after month with its proper 



feafons and employments, i$ too grave and Ample; it^ 
takes ofF fron> the furprize and variety of the poem, and 
makes the whole look but like a modern almanack in 
rerfe. The reader is carried through a courfe of weather, 
and may beforehand guefs, whether he is to meet with 
fnow or rain, clouds or fun-fhine, in the next defcrip- 
tion. The defcriptions indeed have abundance of nature 
in them ; but then it is nature in her fimplicity and un- 
drefs. — — Nor has he fhewn more of art or judgment in 
the precepts he has given us, which are fown fo very 
thick, that they clog the poem too much, and are often 
fo minute and full of circumftances, that they weaken and 
unnerve bis verfe. But after all, we are beholden to him 
for the firft rough Iketch of a Georgic, wher^ we may 
ftill difcovcr fomething venerable in the antiquenefs of the 
work; but if one would fee the defign enlarged, the 
figures reformed, and the colouring laid on, and the 
whole piece finiihed, we muft expert it from a greater 
matter's hand." 

I cannot help thinking, but that Mr. Addifon hath 
placed the merit of this venerable father of didactic poetry 
rather too low. There is a great beauty in his natural 
and artlefs way of writing ; and fuch primaeval fimpli- 
city, tho' it does not ftrike us at firft fight fo forcibly, as 
a more laboured and artificial ftyle, yet is infinitely pleaf- 
ing to one of a juft tafte, zndjBJty real lover of nature. 
However Hefiod fometimcs rif^Hnto great dignity of ex- 
preflion, and has given many inftances of true poetry. 
Of this kind is his account of the iron age, where the 
goodnefs of his heart appears in every line j and which 
concludes with the following admirable verfes, defcribing 
with a lofty profopopoeia. Envy, like a conftant com- 
panion following all the fons of men, and Modesty and 
Nemesis, retreating from the earth. 

D d 4 ZnXH 


E^. J|; H/Mf. a. 194, 

The four laft of thefe lines, in which the goddefles Mo^ 
defty and Nemeiis are defcribed ^ beautiful perfonagcSa 
arrayed in white robes, are J think more poeticsU than 
even Virgil's imitation of them, 

■■' ■- ixtrepia.per ilbs 

yujiiiia excidens t$rrts vejligia fmU Geotrg. ii. 

Neither hath Mr. Addifon juflly reprcfented our au^ 
thor's defcrjptipn of the cold in the month of January. 
** The wild beafts, fays he, ruii fliivering through the 
woods with their heads ftooping to the ground, and their 
tails clapt between their legs ; the goats and oxen are 
almoft flayed with cold." In this tranflation of Mr. Ad- 
cjifon the following fine defcription of Boreas rufhing 
from the kingdom of Thrace, throwing down the tailed 
oaks, and fpreading the valleys with uprooted beeches, is 
totally and unfairly omitted. 

As to the paffage which Mr. Addifqn tranflates, ** The 
old men too are bitterly pincht with the weather ;** I be"- 
leave to think that the words in the original have great 
dignity, and that it is a ftroke of nature, very artfully 
jntroduccd into the defcription. 



Our old poet* s pidure of the Iprirtg, and the pleafures t6 
be enjoyed at that delicious feafon, is indeed not fq high- 
ly finilhcd as Virgir« (Gcorg. ii, 313-) yet is very plcaf* 
ing Ito the mind, as it gives one fo lively an idea of the 
fimple and natural manners of thofe early ages. 

I fhall conclude diefe remarks on Heiiod with his cha« 
rafter, as drawn by Paterculus, lib. i. c. 7. Fir penli-- 
fantis inginiiy et molUJJima dulcedim cartmnum numoraHJiif 
9tii quiitifque cupidijjimus^ ut tempore tanto vir§ [Hemir$ 
JiiL] ita eperis auQeritate proximus. 

Empedocles flourifhed about the 80th olympiad : he 
was a native of Sicily, and wrote a poem on the nature 
of things, and the four elements ; the lofs of which, if 
wc may judge from fome few noble fragments that remain, 
we have great reafon to regret. Even the fevcre Ariftotle 
fpeaks of him with great refpeft, and fays, * that he was 
very Homer! cal in his manner ; that Jiis ftyle was forcible, 
well laboured, and full of metaphors ; and that be made 
!ufe of all the proper methods thlt could conduce to the 
beauty of his poetry. One of his fragmehts is well 



worthy our attention, as it contains fome of the moft ex- 
alted and fpiritualized notions of the Deity that are any 
where to be found in the poetry of the ancient Greeks* 
ife ieems to have been ridiculing the abfurd notions that 
prevailed of corporeal gods ; and exprefsly affirms, that 
it is impoffible God can have any parts or members, or 
any thing refembling thv human (hape. I hope it will 
not be deemed pedantry to fet down at length fo extra- 
ordinary a fragment. 

Ov fu» mnM Nrrwv yt httf xAjiISm tiM^ma^u 

But what may juftly give us the higheft idea of thft 
poet, and of the lofs the learned world has fuftained by 
the want of his work, is the noble and affedionate cha* 
n£ler given of him by Lucretius, in a paffage, in which 
the poetry and the panegyric arc equally great. Where 
after fpeaking of the wonders of Sicily in very fuUime 
terms, he adds, that nothing which that country had 
produced was fo worthy of attention and admiration, or 
fo truly valuable and illuftrious as tliis incomparable 

^orum Acragantinus cum primis Emptdoclis ejf^ 
Infula quern Triquetris terrarum gejjit in orisy 
. . ^uamfluitans circum tnagnis amfraliibus aequor^ 
Ionium glaucis affergit virus ab undis ; 
Angujloque fretu rapidutfi mare dividit undis 
Aeoliae terrarum oras a finihus ejus* 
. Hie eft vajia Cbarybdis^ et hie Aetnea minantur 
Murmura flammarum rurfumfe coUigere in iras 
Faucibus eraptos iterum ut vis evomat ignes ; 
Ad coelumque ferat fiammai fulgttra rurfum ; 
^uOy quern magna modis multis'miranda videtur 



Gintibtis httmanis regioj vifendaque feriur^ 
Rebus opima bonis ^ multa munita virUm vi ; 
Nil tamen hoc habuijji vir/i praeclarius inft^ 
NtcfanRum magis^ it mirunty carumqui viditur^ 
Carmina quin etiam divini pe^oris ejus 
VociferantuTj et exponunt praeclara reperta % 
Vt vix bumana videatur Jlirpe creatus. 

Lucretius, L i. 717. 

Aratus, who flourifhed in the reign of Ptolomy 
Philadelphus, was the cotemporary and friend of Theo-. 
critus*: he compofed an aftronomical poem on theiu* 
cure and motion of the ftars. Cicero (not probably the 
moft able judge of poetry, and who trsmflated this work 
into Latin) fays, he writes omatiffimos atqut optimos virfusi 
but he certainly wants fpirit and elevation. Virgil has 
manifeftly borrowed many of his prognoftics in the firft 
book, from this writer's phaenomena ; and it may be no 
unpleafmg amufement to fee how the Roman has improved 
and heightened the images he took from the Greeks 

The loud refounding of the fea-coafts, and the noife 
among the mountains, are mentioned as prognoftics of 
wind by Aratus in the following lines ; 

Xrfia & ro» aniiAi9f x«i ^hiamo'a haXotcvm 
T^n^Uf ftou fjMit^f Mr' tuytmXot /?oo*irrf(. 

Which circumfUnccs Virgil hath plainly borrowed ; 


* Who addrefles his fixth Idylliam to him ; 

T«» ayt?M9 99% Af ATI } ■ ■■ — 

and is imagined to fpeak of his loves in the fevent^* This is 
the poet whom the polite apoiUe St. Paul quotes to . the Athe- 
nians, Adts xvii. 28. Tn ya^ %m /tvo; i^ftiv, Wt krt djo bit 



Ima^ima sgitaU tmmefi€rej a mridm wke 
Mtmiiims ma^rifrupir: mmi nfnmmiim 
I^iUtrm mfceri^ it mwarvm ijunkjcare 

It is obvious that the Ro!r.2n pset hiih .added mmr 
beauties to his Origica! : fach is, the heaving and fw^D- 
ing,of the fea, fo ftrongly exprefild in wards that life 
one abore another like the waves i 

■ Fretafnai 

. irndpiutU agitata tumejcen^''^ 

StKrll i^iti^ arUka frag^r^ not to befbvnd in tiie Greek; 
llid Armftling monniir of the woods, repnefented bj jmhv- 
rwm tncrtbtfure mmrmwr. Again, Aratus mentions the pror- 
Mftic of the water-fowl ducidng themfelvet before rain : 

AwAvrvy xXv^firal ttUjUMu ihvrwovit. 

But fee what lively and pi&urefque circumflanccs Virgil 
bath added of his own ! 

Certatim larg$s humeris infvndere rres ; 

Nunc caput cbjeffare frefis^ nunc currere in mndasy 

EtJiudiQ tncajfum vidtas gejlin lavandi. 

AvTCL^ or* l| tr^»M un ne Mrm ftrfavWiv 
AXXoTi y tz (if v^iOy fuu aXXon wa^* ff^^a^p 


At Boreae de parte trucis cum fulminate ft cum 
Eurique Zephyrique tonat domusj omnia plenis 
Rura natanifojisy at que omnis navita pontQ 
Humida vela legit. 

The expreflions of trudfj of Zephyri dofnusj and plenis 
rnra natant fojjis^ are poetical additions. Even the cele- 
brated dcfcription of the crows is taken from Aratus. 



Turn §fuidas carvJ pnj^ ter guHun vo€is 
jfut fuater ingeminant \ et fatpe cuhilibut abh^ 
Nefch qua praeter foliiiim dulcedine laetl 
Inter fefoliisjhrepitant ; juvat imbribm aMr 
Progeniem parvanty dukifqui revifiri md^s. 

And it mitft be granted that the Greek verfes arc cxtpcmcly 
Ifood, and indeed little inferior to Virgirs ; 

JlAiMTffai ^' ttyiXsi&r. fsmf «oiTO*o /tfiKxroit. . 

But what Virgil adds is purely his emu: when he- ia^ 
counts for this unufual joy,, by die- various eSe&s w^h^ 
the alteration of the air will have on thtir-biDdte^ iftjlhe^ 

moft porfpicuous and b^i^utifiil terms : * m- ■ 

" . . » f •• • ■ 

Haud iquidtm crsdo quia Jit divinisus iliis. 
Ingeniumj aut rerum fata, prHd€n^ia^ major ^. 
Verum^ ubi tempejiasit coeli mobilis hufftpTf 
Mutavere vias^ et Jupiter humiduf dufiris. . . ; .. 
Denfatj erant quae rara modo^ et quae denfr relaxMt ; 
Vertuntur fpecies animorum^ et pe^or^ moiuf . ,, 

Nunc alios y alios ^ dum nubila ventus agebatj - :,, 

To exprefs fuch aUlrufe notions with fo much clearneft- 
and grace, is a great infl?ancc of Virgil V fiiprcmc ratf*^' 
teryof language, •- * 

On the whole, Aratus appears to have a greardeal^oP 
nature, but not much dignity and vivacity in his manner. 
His chara&er is fo finely and £> juftly drawm by Quia-, 
tilian, and is applicable to fo many didactic poetS9.tb2it I 
fliall give it to the reader without; ap<»logx:fiE>jr4b.QMUa]N 
3 ** quoUtions : 


qooCatiaos : Jrm wmUrim wmiu cmra^ mi im qmm maSm i 
riiUu^ muUms mfiSmt^ mmllm perfrma^ mmllm atjmfymmm Jk \ 

0rmtU% fuffidt tmmem 9fen ad ft fmrtm credS^u Inftit. 
Oral. L. lo. 

I bdievc it is tanct poShlc for a pi^^ge of cqoal 
leDgdi to contain more tafte and judginent in it than 
diis : infomuch diat there is hardly a Suilt, wludi a di- 
daAic poet can commit, that Is not here hinted at. 

Oppiam lired in the beginning of Conunodus's 
irign^ and was afterwards greatly patronized by Sevcms. 
He wrote two didaAic poems, one upon fifliing, called 
Halieutica ; the other on hunting, cntituled Cynqgetica. 
The former is the moft celebrated of the two. Rapin 
teUs us, he is a dry profaic writer. But it is obferrable, 
that this critic -feldom fpeaks favourably of the Greek 
authors :. thc;/eafon of which may probably be, that like 
nsaiiy a modem critic he did. not imderftand that Ian* 
guage ; and.M. Menage aflbres us he did not. Scaliger, 
a much abler * judge, lays bf Oppian, that he is an ex- 
cellent poet; eafy, eloquent, fublime and harmonious; 
that he not only far furpafles Gratius and Nemcfianus, 
who have written on the fame fubjed, but that he feems 
to have the very air of Virgil, whom he endeavoured par- 
ticularly to imitate ; and that he has given us the trueft 
and livelieft image of that divine poet. Though the 
cenfures and praifes of Scaliger are generally extravagant; 
and though in the prefent cafe, he feems to have beftowed 
his encomiums on Oppian a little too lavilhly, yet I be- 
lieve this writer is well worthy the learned reader's per- 
ufal, for many of his defcriptions (for inftance one of a 
horfe and a battle of furious bulls) are well worked up 
and extremely natural and lively. 


• The Jcfttit Vavajfor^ in his famous trcatife it hiicri 
4U^$ni, greatly commends Oppian. 


Thus much may fuffice for the Greek didadicpoets : ai 
Nicander, who flourifhed in the 158th olympiad^ is biif a 
flat and profaic writer, ia his Theriaca, though copied 
by Virgil. 

■ Majsr nrum mibi nafcliur ordo* 

For I am next to fpeak of Lucretius, whofe merit as 
a poet has never yet been fufficiently difplayed, and who 
feems to have had more fire, fpirit, and energy, more of 
the vivida vis animij than any of the Roman poets, not 
excepting Virgil himfelf. Whoever imagines, with 
Tully, that Lucretius had not a great genius, is defired 
to call his eye on two piftures he has given us at Ac 
beginning of his poem; the firft of Venus with he? 
lover * Mars, beautiful to the laft degree, and mor^ 
glowing than any figure painted by Titiaii'j the t fecbnd 
of the terrible and gigantic figure, the daemon of Super- 
ftition, worthy the energetic pencil of Michael Angelo. 
Neither do I think that the defcription that immediately 
follows of the facrifice of Iphigenia, was excelled by the 
famous pifture of Timanthes on the fame fubjeft, of 
which Pliny fpeaks fo highly in the 35th book of his 
Natural Hiftory : efpecially the minute and moving cir- 
cumftances of her perceiving the grief of her father Aga* 
memnon, and of the prieft's concealing his facriiicing 


ingnmium qui foipe tuumfi 

Rijicitf oitemo di*vin3us 'voluere amoris ; 

jitque ifa/u/piciens tereti ceruia repcfld ' * * 

fii/cit MMTi awdos imhiiUis in ti, dia^ 'ui/us | 

Eque tuo pendtt nfupini ffiritu$ oris. L* !• 33t 

f Humana ante ocuUsfoede cum *vitaJ4Utnig 
In terris eppreffa gravi /ub Rellioionb* 
^uoi caput $ coili rigionibus offgndebat 
Horribili/uper a/peSu mtrtahbus inftans ; 
Primum Graius homo mwrtaki toUnt €9»tra 
Efi oculos au/us - 


|r^*^j jod Of ube fpeSaoon Iwiiuing zbid fean^ ggJ ktf 
UXutgon her kncct* 

Ctufemsl infula vlrginest arcmmd^tm ctrnftms 
Ex uirofue pari mslarum faru p'^fafo j^, 
£r m^JtmrnfimJ ante mras mjimrt fmrtrntemy 
itmjk^ H buMC fTfpter fgrrmm alart mimjh^^ 
JJpeSlmpufm latrjtnas effmien cms; 
MiUa meii terram gemius Jimamjm peuim. 

Lib. i. St. 

Few paflages even in Virg I himfelf are (o highlj fiaiflH 
cdy contain fuch lively dcfcriptions, or aie fo harBonknif 
in their verlification, as where our poet fpeaks of the 
fruitfulnefs occafloned throughout all nature by Temal 
ihowers, lib. u 251 to ver. 293 ; of the ravages com* 
mitted by tempeftuous winds, lib. i. 272 to ver. 295 ; of 
the difficulty of his undertaking, and of his afibSioii 
to his patron Mcmmius, lib. u 920 to ver. 950$ where 
after mentioning the great obfcurity of his fubjed, he 
breaks out into that enthufxaftic rapture ; 

■ Sed acri 
PercuJJit thyrfo laudls /pes magna mcum ccr, 
Etfimul incujftt fuavem mt in pe^us amor em 
Mufarum, quo nunc ifiJlinSlus mente vigentt 
Avia Pieridum peragro loca^ nuUius ante 
TritafoU\ J9tva4 iniegrot accedere fontes^ &ۥ 

The fccond book opens with a fublime dcfcription of a 
true philofophcr. Handing on the top of the temple of 
Wifdom, and looking down with pity and contempt on 
the bufy hum of men. This is followed by a forcible ex- 
hortation to temperance of each kind, and by that ac- 
count of the plcafurcs of a country life (vcr. 24 to ver. 
36.) which Virgil hath cxadly copied at the end of his 
fccond book of the Georgics. The fears and the cares 



iikit ihfeft humto life ace afterwards perfonified in the 
ifoUowing maimer; 

Hi verdfue METUd hdminumj CvKAk^t/ejuacet 
if€cmituuntf$nitusarmorumy necferaftlai 
JIuiaihrqui inter regit ^ rerumque potentet 
VerJarAuty neque ful^orem reverentur at aurei 

Thefe iinlges are Turely far fuperior to thofe admired ones 
bf Horaci, 

— ^— Nn Coras laqueaiu arcum 

Te&m v$lantes'^ 

Scahdit iaetaids viliofit nabes 

CUR A ■ 

I know not how to refift the temptation of giving the . 
hreadet the following lahdfcape df a diftaht mountain with 
JSocks fieediiig on the fide of it. 

Namfaepe in colli tondentes pabula laetd 
Lanigerat repfant pecudes^ quo quamque vocantes 
' Invkiiht hertaoj gemmantes rore recently 
Etfatiati agni luduntj hhndeque conifcant^ 
Omnia qkae nobis ionge tonfufa videntur^ 
Ef veluti in viridi candor confiftere colli. 

L. ii. 3x7. 

And I could wifli to have room to fet down the de^ 
fcription that immediately follows^ lib. ii. 324 to 33O9 
of a field of battle, or the fubfequent oiie of a cow's 
lamenting her calf that was facrificed. There is fome- 
thing fo truly pathetic, that I muft trefpafs on the reader's 
patience, and give it him^ 

Jtt mater virides fdltus orhata petagrdns 
Linquit humi pedibus veftigia prejfa bifulcis^ 
Omnia convifens oculis loca^ ^-queat ufquam 
Confpicere amijfum foetum^ completque querelis 
Frondiferum nemus adfiftens ; et crebra revifit 
Adjiabulum^ dejiderio perfixa juvenci* 

!*• ii» 355. 
Vol. L S e In 

4iS REFLECflONt Oil 

in the beginning of tho third boak,^ which opens witi 
the praifes of Epicurus, is a pailage tbtf c|f itfidf, widh 
out alledging other inftances, is fufident to ihcw the 
ftrength and fublim^ty of our 9\itl\<>r's ima^nation. At 
the found of thy vGfice (fays (le, a^ctf effing himfelf ta 
the father of his pbilofophy) thfi Terrors of the. mind 
(here perfpnified) Ry away ^itb fear and aftonilhment* 

Namjimul ac \ Ratio tua coipit veciferari 
Naturam mum baud divm& minU mriam 
Diffugiunt animi \ TerrorES. 

The walls of the world fuddcSnly psut Hfuxidev f X Took 

down into the immenfe void! and diftia^y. fee all it 

contains i 

— — r- Ji/^ointa mundi 

Difcedunt^ totum video per inane geri res* 
This image always puts me in mind of tb^t eifzltfd one 
in Milton, which is fo ftrongly conceived. 

On heavenly ground they ftood, and (tom tUf^tbof 
They view'd the vaft immeafurable abyft 
Outrageous as a fea, dark, wsUftef^l, \nl^ 
Up from the bottom turn'd by furious vixi^ 
And forging waves, as mountains to affault 
Heav'n's height, and with the center mix the pole* 

Par* Loft, B. vii. 210* 
Our poet ad(!s, in lines as finiihed and as fmooth as 
Virgil's, that he there j^w the happy aa4 un4ifturbed fiatt 
0{ the gods. 

Jpparet divum numeftj fedefque quiefaey 
^as neque concutiunt ventij neque Hubila nimUs 
jffpergunt^ neque nix acri concreta pfuina 
Carta cadens violat ; femperque imubilus aether 
Integit^ et large diffufo lumine ridet .•— — 
jft contra nufquam apparent Acberufta templa^ 

L. iii* 25* 

t P«rfov. 


t)lt)ACTlC POETRY. 419 

On the perufal of this {>aflage, can one forbear crying 
but with the author i 

His tibi the rehuSj quaidant divlna ifolkptas 
Ptrcipit atque horror ! 

The defcriptions of a pcrfon in si deep lethargy, lib. iii. 
Ver. 465 i of the effefts of drunkcnnefs, vtfr. 475 ; of 
the falling ficknefs, ver. 486 ; and the noble profopopoeia, 
Ver. 944, where Nature i^ introduced chiding her un-« 
grateful fons for their folly and difcontent, are equal to 
any thing in the Roman poefy ^ as is likewife the con-* 
clufion of this book, where the poet allegorizes all the 
punilhments Of hell, from ver. 991 to 1036. 'Tis hard 
to determine whether the poetry or impiety of this third 
1>ook (where many weak arguments are brought againft 
the immortality of the foul) be greateft. 

In the fourth book our author hath painted the evils 
and inconveniences attending the paffion of love in the 
livelieft terms* No poet feems to have felt more ftrongly 
than Lucretius. For this fee the following defcription 
of jealoufy, and obfervo the minute circumftances it 

Jut quod in amhiguo verbum j,aculata reliquitj 
^od eupido adfixum cordi vivefcit ut ignis j 
Jtut nimium jaSfan oculos^ aliumve tuiri 
^od putatj in vultuqui vidtt vefligia rifus. 

L. iv- li^t* 
I know not what apology to make to the reader for 
fuch a number of quotations : but I have always thought 
that general criticifm, without producing particular paf- 
fages, was both ufekfs and unentertaining. Befides, I 
look upon the giving him thefe defcriptions, to be like 
leading him through a gallety adorned with the moft ex- 
quifite paintings. I am fure there is no piece by the 
hand of Guido or Carrache, that exceeds the following 
groupe of allegorical perfonages. 

E e 2 6i 


• « 

// ViTy it Venus^ et Veneris pratnuniius ant^ 
Pinnatus graditur Zephyrusj vijfigia propter m 
Flora quibus mater ^ praefpergens ante via'i 
Cun£fa coloribus egregiisj et odoribus oppletm 
fnde locifequitur Color aridus^ et Comes una 
Pulveruknta Ceret^ et Etefia Flabra Aquihnum^ 
Inde Autumnm aditj graditur fmul Evlus EvemTt 
Inde altae Tempejlates^ Ventique fequuntur^ 
Altitonans Volturnuif^ et Aujier fulmine potlens : 
Tandem Bruma nives adfert^ pigrumque rigdrem 
Reddity Hyems fequitury crepitans ac dentibus Algusm 

L. V. 736. 

This fifth book concludes with a defcription of the un.- 
civilized ftate of man, together with the origin and pro- 
gyefs of government, arts, and fciences. The poetical 
beauties it contains are fo many and {o various, that 
they will merit a particular difcuffion j but intending to 
publifli a tranflation of this part of Lucretius with crf- 
tical obfervations, I wave all farther mention of it at 

The fixth book is the leaft obfcure and abftrufe of any, 
being wholly taken up with defcribing the appearances 
of nature, and accounting for fome feeming prodigies. 
The plague with which the whole poem concludes being 
more known and perhaps more read than any other part of 
it, I fliall not point out any particular paffagcs. ^ 

I could not forbear faying thus much of an author, 
whofe fejtile and ftrong imagination, whofc nervous and 
forcible exprcllion feem not fufficiently regarded. The 
arguments of impiety which the poem contains, arc in- 
deed fo fophiftical and weak, and have been fo many 
times folidly confuted, th;:t I do not fee the danger fomc 
arc apprehenfive of from a diligent perufal of this noble 

It were much tobewifhed that the cardinal dePoLiCNAC 



Itad any of the force and fire of Lucretius, whom he has 
endeavoured to anfwer : his arguments are indeed ftrong, 
1>ut he has not a fpark of poetry : his verfification is 
fmooth, but not enough varied with different paufes ; 
and he is generally too verbofe and diffufe. One merit 
muft be allowed him, that of perfpicuity in expreffing 
and explaining the moft difficult fubjeAs: for perhaps 
there are few accounts of the nature of free-will fo clear 
and convincing, as what he hks given us in the fifth book 
of his Anti-Lucretius, ver. 1164 et feq. *Tis' great pity 
he did not follow the found philofophy of Newton, iti^ 
ftead of that of his whimfical countryman. Why, fays, 
Voltaire, (hould we ftill continue to fubftitute the re-» 
veries of Defcartes, in the place of the reveries of Lu* 
cretius ? Oeuvres de Voltaire^ torn* io« 304. 

So much hath already been faidof Virgii. (who fliould 
next be mentioned) both in thefe refledlions, in the fore- 
going notes, and particularly in the prefatory dedica- 
tion, that any farther obfervations on him in this place 
are fuperfluous. 

Horace's Epiftle to the Pifo*s, commonly called his 
Art of Poetry, feems never to have been fo fully under- 
ftood, and fo judicioufly explained, as lately by the au- 
thor of Notes and a Commentary upon it. He hath en- 
deavoured to prove, that there is an artful concealed me- 
thod obferved throughout the whole $ and that it is not a 
general fyftem of poetry, as hath ufually been imagined, 
but is confined merely to the ftate and defers of the 
drama in the age of Auguftus^ The Romans feem to 
have ftood in need of fuch ai) inflruAor, for they had no 
extraordinary talents or tafte for the ftage. In eomoedid 
maxime claudicamusy fays the impartial Quintilian : not- 
withftanding Varro's opinion, that if the Mufes were to 
fpeak Latin, they would fpeak in Plautus's language j 
potwithftanding our forefathers talk fo highly of Cae- 

£ e 3 cilius { 


cilius ; and notwithftanding Terence's writings were at* 
tributed to Scipio Africanus. He adds the rcafim with 
his ufual elegance ; Vix Uvem confiquimur umbramj adi$ 
ut mihifirmo ipfe Romanus non recipin videatur^ lllamfilit 
^onceffam Atticis Ven(remj quando earn ns Gritici ptidem in 
alio genere linguae obtinuerint. Inftit. Orat. lib. ii. And 
as to tragedy the Romans have made na confiderabk fir 
gure in it ; but Quintilian aflures us (and in this one inr 
ftance I can with difficulty give credit to him) that the 
Thyeftes of Varius was comparable to any tragedy of 
the Greeks ; and that the Meds^ea of Ovid evidently 
ibewed, how much he could have excelled, if he had 
c;hofen to rcftrain, rather than give a loolb to his genius, 
Inft. Orat. 1. ii. The unnatural and afie^ed Seneca 
cannot be mentioned without diftafte. It is needlefs to 
add what almoft every fchool-boy is acquainted with, 
that the precepts of Horace are chiefly drawn from Arif- 
totle*s Poetics, are indeed the moft nfeful commentary on 
that inelUmable treatife, and will beil enable us to jud^ 
of the ancient ftage : but he bath likewife inferted many 
precepts, peculiarly adapted to the ufe of his country- 
men ; and hath delivered the whole with that gracefyl 
negligence that ought tp be the predominant quality of 
cpiftolary writings both in verfe and profe \ while they 

■ ■ . ■ familiarly convey 

The trucft notions in the e^eft way. 

He who fupreme in judgment as in wit. 

Might boldly cenfure, as he boldly writ. 

Yet judg'd with coolnefs, tho' he fung with fire s 

His precepts teach but what his works irifpire. 

Pope's EJfay on Criticifin^ ver. 656. 

Under this head (in which I ihall include all the 
writers on this fubje<ft) it will be unpardonable to omit 
Marcus Hieronymus Vida, one of the firft reftorers 



#f polite literature add juft criticifm. His Poetics have 
been always defervedljr tesid and admired as- a fine didadic 
poem, and confidering the time in which he wrote, were 
of great ufe in diffufing a good tafte among his country* 
men ; and from thence over all Europe. The higheft 
panegyric he ever received was from Mr. Pope in the 
following paflage, which gave occafion to the reading 
and publiihing him in England^ where formerly he was 
but little known : 

But fee I each Mufe in Leo's golden days. 
Starts from her trance, and trims her withered bays ; 
Rome's ancient Genius, o'er its ruins fpread. 
Shakes off the duft and rears his reverend head ; 
Then Sculpture and her fifter alrts revive. 
Stones leap'd to form, and rocks began to live ; 
With fweeteft notes each riling temple rung, 
A Raphael painted, and a Vida fung. 
Inunortal Vida f on whofe honoured browy 
The poet's bays and critic's ivy grow : 
Cremona now ihall ever boaft thy name. 
As next in place to Mantua, next in fame ! 

The charaderiftics of Vida fccm to be elegance, per- 
fpicuity, and purity j but He frequently wants majefty 
and force. He rifes however into poetry at the end of 
his firft book, and in the middle of his fecond, where 
he defcribes the poet under the influence of infpiration 
returning upon him powerfully after a languid interval, 
$md an abfence of the poetic inclination ; 

' ■ ' i- ■ Unde haec tarn clara repente 
Tempefidsf Deasy ecee Dens ! jam coria fatigat^ 
Altius injinuat venis^ penitufque per artus 
Diditury atque faces faevat fuh pe&ere verfat. 
Nee fe jam capit aeet agens ealoTj igmaque intus 
Visfaevity totoque agitat fe corpore numen. 
file auUm exubans ja^at jam nonftta verba ^ 

£ e 4 Oblitufqu€ 



OblituffMi bommm mirumfinat: baud f§tis igmm^ 
Mx cut ire J invitum mhraturfe ire^ rapifu^ 
Pra^jcipiiem^ tt Phueti uaamSf U Ph§ihi /rgmmi^m 
Veciferansj pUuufyui Dio^ JiimuUfpu fuhaSftu 
Hmu4placidh > non ilU dapuntj nm UU quietis^ 
4utfinmi mitnoT hone potts eft iipmne iurapi^ 

Whence (hot this fudden flafh that gilds the pole? 
The god, the god comes rufliing on his foul i 
Fires with aethereal vigor every part. 
Thro* ev*ry trembling limb he feems to dart. 
Works in each vein, and fwells his rifing heart. 
Deep in his breaft the heaV'nly tumult plays^ 
And fets his mounting fpirits on a blaze. - 
Nor can the raging flames themfelves contain. 
For the whole god defcends into the man* 
He quits mortality, and knows no bounds. 
But ftngs infpir'd with more than human (bunds. 
Nor from his breaft can (hake th* immortal loadL 
But pants an4 raves impatient of the god ; 
And, rapt beyond himfelf, admires the forco 
That drives him on reluftant to the courfc. 
Jit calls on Phoebus, by the god oppreft. 
Who breathes exceffive fpirit in his breaft ; 
No force of thirft or hunger can cpntroul 
The fierce, the ruling tranfport of his foul. 

Pitt's Tranjlation of Vidaj p. 49. 
2d Edit. 

The precepts of Vida principally refpefi the Epopoeia,. 
\>\xt are moft of them applicable to every other fpecies of 
poetry. In his third and laft book he hath treated of po- 
etical ftyle in general ; hath examined the force and pro- 
priety of every figure of fpeech with great accuracy and 
true tafte j hath laid down fome judicious rules, on that 
difficult and delicate ta(k, correcSllon 5 and concludes 
with a panegyric on the poems of Virgil. It ought to 



ifi obferved, that all fucce^ing writers on this fubje^ 
9^ more indebted to Vida, than I»e yn^ tp his predecef* 
fors in the fame w&y* 

BoiLEAu's Art of Poetry has a brevity in its precepts, 
a perfpicacity in its obfervations, and an energy in its 
ftyle, feldom to be found in the diffufiye writings of his 
countrymen. He hath delivered rules for every fpecies 
of poetry in its regular gradations from the paftoral tQ 
the epic : only 'tis obfervable that he fpeaks not a fylla- 
jble of the didadic* We have in this highly-finifh'd 
work^y which however coniifts but of four fhort canto's, 
all that could be expeded from a man of ftrong fenfe and 
keen obfervation (tho' perhaps of no warm poetical ge- 
nius) who had fpent his life in ftudying and defending 
the ancients, had formed his tafle upon the Greek and 
Roman models alone, and therefore always pra£lifed and 
recommended a manly fimplicity of ftyle and fentiment. 

I choofe to fpeak of 1^1 r. Popb's EflTay on Criticifm in 
the words of his friend and commjentator. ^^ When the 
reader confiders the regularity of the plan, the mafterly 
/:ondu& of each part, the penetration into nature, zni 
the compafs of learning fo confpicuous throughout, he 
il^ould at the fame time know it was the work of an au- 
thor who had not attained to the twentieth year of hi« 

Altho' there are fome fcnfible obfervations, and per- 
haps a few fparks of poetry in the Duke of Bucking- 
j^am's Eflay on Poetry, and in that of Lord RoscoMr 
MON on tranflated verfe, yet I muft prefume to ^ink, 
jthat the reputation they have gained, is in a great mea- 

• Ou Corneille eut trcftve beattfoup afpnndrt^ fays M. dc 
yoltaifc, ' Loiiisxiv. T. ^. 187. 



fure owing to the rank Of thek authors, and to die i^ 
in which diej ymrt written; when criticifin had not 
fpread (o widely, nor was fo well uadetftood, at appa^ 
rently it hath been finoe their times. 

I am doubtful whether I ought to mention Orio'f 
Art of Love in this lift of didadic poems, from the li- 
bertine nature of its fubjed. With refped both to hii 
ftyle and mattery one.may apply to him what Quintiliaa 
fays of another, abuniat dulcibus vitiis. 

There is great difpute among the critics, whether 
Manilius wrote his aftronomical poem in the age of Au- 
gufttis, as he himielf affirms he did. Many inftances of 
fuch language, and fuch verfiiication as cannot be met 
with in any other poet of that time, may be found in his 
work: for which the curious reader may fpt the third 
dialogue of Mr. Spence's Polymetis, page ^5* What- 
ever ufe his poem may be of to aft^fonomers,^ who arc in- 
clined to confider the fyftems of the ancients, 'tis cqrtaiii 
that there is not a grain of genius ox poetical fpirit to be 
difcovered throughout the whole, tho' on a fubjed fo 
fiifceptiblc of poetry. Aijd indeed, what could one ex- 
pert from a writer who m^de the following cpld declara- 
tion at the very beginning of his work, a^d which be 
ftriftly verifies in the courfe of it : 

Ornqri res ipfa negaty contenta doart^ 

At the reftoration of literature under the glorious pon«« 
tificate of Leo X. feveral true geniufes arofe. Among 
the reft Fracastorius, who wrote the S^hilis. He 
was unfortunate in the choice of a fubjcft, very difficult 
to be treated in an ornamental manner; yet 'tis furprizing 
to fee how he has enlivened fo unpromifing a theme by 
the beauty and dignity of his language. See how he 
hath defcribed a blooming and beautiful youth, labouring 
under this dreadful diftemper : 



fa^latim vtr id nitidumj JUs iUejwitHai 
^ Pi)f^ii/, vis iUu animii $umffualida iaiis 

^rtus (b^rrendum!) mfern ohduxitj it ^ti 
GraruUa turgihant faedis ahfiiJliim$ offi. 
Vlara (frele divum pietatemf) infirmU fuUhr$$ 
Pafakmt oculos^ it diai lucis avwnm^ 
Pafcibaniqui acri corrofas vulmrt nans. 
Ilium Alpis vidnai^ ilkm vaga fimina fierttm ^ 
Ilium wmus OUipu DiOiy Eridaoqut pudks 
FleviTuuij mmirumqui Diafrurifquepuillaei 
Sibinufpm altg gmitum locus ididit amne. 

Syphilis, L. i. 

The ftyle of Fracaftorius * is not made up of ihreds 
and patches, a|id e^ds of lines qollefied from Virgil and 
Horace ; (as are federal copies of yerfes in our Mujaij/n^ 
jglicanae) i but it is one continued thread equally woven 
thro' the whole piece. There is a good dc9i of imagina- 
tion in the third book, where he deiicribes the manner of 
finding the Hyacus in America. In a word, the Syphilis 
is perhaps the beft conduQsed and moft finiihedL of modem 
dida£lic poems in Latin verfe. \% doubtlefs eminently 
exceeds the Silk- worms of his countrjrman and cotempo- 
^ary Vidafj (who hath too clofely and fervilely copied 
Che Bees of Virgil) and the Gardens of Rapin, of whom 

* See his beaadfal epiftle to Baptifta Toiianos of Verona* 
concerning his way of life and method of pafliqg his time with 
his family ; together with that to J.Turrianus on the death of his 
fons. The two books of his Jos e p h are not equal to the Sypbilb. 

t However the following lines ^ue elegant and prett/, oa 
fhe worms being turned into butterflies. 

Haerent attonitaf rerwmnovitate, nee 4mdn$ 
Remigio alarum ft aftrto credere coelo, 
Diffimile/que fui tacit} nova cerfora/ecmm 
Mirari, forma nee fefe agnofctre in iUi ; 
Cornua mirantur fronti , mirantur et alsi4» 
Et 'vires nil fupra undent 'tentare priores 
P'Jifip memorefque fui^r-m^^ 

3 tb« 


the French after their maimer boaft fo highly ; who is t 
feeble and flegmjatic poet, and hath filled his work, under 
the notion of digreffions, with many puerile and extras 
vagant fables, the Caricatura^s of Ovid ; wfaofe idle 
turns and witticifms he hath likewife frequently imitated. 
** There is more pleafure, fays Addifon, in the little plat- 
form of a garden which Virgil gives us about the middle 
of the fourth Georgic, than in all the fpacious walks and 
water-works of Rapin/' 

The art of painting feems to be the fineft and fruit- 
fuUpft fubjeA for a didadic poem. What Frisnoy has 
^itten on that fubjeft is exceedingly dry, profaic, and 
^entertaining i for he has only given the mechanic 
rules of ^ painter ; it is to be wifhed that fpme true ge- 
nius would undertake to treat it as a poet. 

The Praedium Rujiicum of the Jcfuit Vanibre, is a 
Jong and languid produSion -y but from the labour of the 
writer, who has coHe£led fome curious particulars re- 
lating to the management of the farmers of his county, 
it may perhaps anfwer one perufal. 

The Italians boaft much of a poem on Agriculture, Lm 
Coltivazione di Luigi Alamanni. He wrote it in France 
under the protcftion of Francis I. It is in fix books, 
and in blank verfe ; and is efteemcd pure Italian. But 
the fubje<a is very little divcrfified with digrcijons, and 
not very poetically treated. 

They have likewife a dida£Hc poem on the manage-t 
ment of bees, but it is little more than a tranflation of 
Virgil's fourth book, omitting the ftory of Ariftaeus, 
with a few additional precepts of the author. It was 
written by Giovanni Ruccellai, and ends with an 
addrefs to his intimate friend Trifllno, the author of that 
cool and infipid epic poem, Jtalia Liberata j but whofe 
memory ought to be reverenced for having given us the 



firft regular modern tragedy, in blank verfe, his Sophonif^ 
ha; as Ruccellai himfelf produced the fecond that was feen 
iA Italy^ entituied^ Rofmunda* 

Before I conclude thefe refle&ions» it Will, I prefumciy 
be expe£ted that I fpeak a few words on the didaftie. poets 
of our own nation. 

Philips's Cyder is a very clofe afld happy ii!nits(tidn of 
the Georgic, and conveys to us the fulleft idea of 
Virgil's manner: whom he hath exadlly followed in a 
pregnant brevity of ftyle, in throwing in frequent moral 
refie£lions, in varying the method of giving his precepts^ 
in his digreffions, and in his happy addrefs in returning 
again to his fubjed ; in his knowledge and love of philo-* 
fophy, medicine, agriculture and antiquity, and in a cer- 
tain primaeval fimplicity of manners, which is ib con- 
fpicuous in both. 

If there be any fault in Philips, it is, perhaps, his in- 
fertion of many images that excite laughter, and are con- 
trary to the majefty of the didadic Mufe ; and his having 
ufed too manyeliflons, exotique and antique expreffions, and 
tranfpofitions, under the notion of ftrengthening his verfe, 
and of refembling Milton ; who, by the way, is not fo 
uniformly obfolete and difficult in his didion, as is fome- 
times imagined ; but makes ufe of thefe uncommon and 
unfamiliar phrafes chiefly when he is defcribing things . 
that lie out of the compafs of nature, and that are mar- 
vellous and ftrange, fuch as hell, chaos, and heaven, 

SoMERViLLE in his Chace, writes with all the fpirit 
and fire of an eager fportfman. 

Farewell, Cleora ! here deep funk in down 
Slumber fecure with happy dreams amus'd— — 

———Me other joys invite. 
The horn fonorous calls, the pack awak'd 
Their mattins chant, nor brook my long delay. 
My courfer hears their voice; fee there with ears 


43* RfcFLECTiONS (J N 

And tail erefii, neighing he paws the ground ; 

Fierce rapture kindles in his red'ning eyes. 

And boils in every vein.—— B. il. 84* 

Yhe defcriptions of hunting the lure, the fox, and the 
Aag, ate extremely fpirited, and place the very objeds 
l>efore 6iu: eyes ; of fuch conTequence is it for a man to 
ifmte on that which he hath frequently felt withrplea- 
fure« He negleds his.verfiiication fometimes, and there 
are doubtlefs great inequalities, both with reaped to har- 
mony and expreffion, in the poeta^ He hath failed in de» 
fcribing the madnels that fometimes fages among hounds, 
and parti<:iilarly in his account of the effeds of the bite 
of a mad dog on a man* 

To ^efcribe fo dificult a thing, gracefully and poeti- 
cally, as the effeds of a diftemper on the human bodj, 
was referved for Dr^ Armstrong; Who accordingly 
hath nobly executed it, at the end of the third book of 
his Art of preferving health, where he hath given us that 
pathetic account of the fweating-fickhefs. There is a 
claifical corrednefs and clofenefs of ftyle in this poem, 
that are truly admirable, and the fubjed Is raifed and 
adorned by numberlefs poetical images. What can be 
more pleaiing than his defcription of a healthy fituatioi> 
for a houfe I 

See ! where enthroned in ada:mantine ftate. 
Proud of her bards imperial Windfor fits ; 
There choofe thy feat, in fome afpiring grove 
Faft by the flowly-winding Thames ; or where 
Broader (he laves fair Richmond's green retreats ; 
(Richmond that fees an hundred villas rife 
Rural or gay), O from the fummer's rage 
O wrap me in the friendly gloom that hides 
Umbrageous Ham. 

Thia ends wiich a weIl-condu£led profopopoeia. 



Green rife the Kentifh hills in chearful air ; 
But on the marihy plains that Eflex fpreads ' 
Build liot, nor reft too long thy wandVing feet* 
For on a ruftic throne of dewy turf^ 
With baneful fogs her aching temples boundf 
Quartana there prefides ;. a meagre fiend 
Begot by Eurus, when his brutal force 
Comprefi'd the flothful Naiada of the fens* 

B. i* io9# 

In how lofty a manner hath he introduced his precepts 
concerning drinking water I 

Now come^ ye Naiads» to the fountains lead ! 
Now let me wander through your gelid reign; 
I I turn to view th' enthufiadftic wilds 
By mortal elf untrod* I hear the din 
Of waters thundering o'er the ruin'd clifB« 
With holy reverence I approach the rocks 
Whence glide the ftreams renowned in ancient long* 
Hence from the deikrt down the rumbling fleep 
Firft fprings the Nile ; here burfts the foundii^ Pq 
In angry waves } Euphrates hence devolves 
A mighty flood to water half the Eaft ^ 
And there in Gothic folltude reclin'd 
The chearlefs Tanais pours his hoary urn# 
What folemn twilight ! what ftupendous (hades 
Enwrap thefe infant floods I Thro' every nerve 
A facred horror thrills i a pleafing fear 
Glides o'er my frame I B. ii. 352, &c« 

In Ihort, this author hath evidently (hewn, that there 
Is no fubjed but what is capable of being exalted into 
poetry by a genius. 

There is a fublimity of fentiment ♦, an energy of 


* See partkolarly £p. i. ver. 267 to the end« If there be 
any fault in this poeiD> it u perhaps the miidng droll and 


43» IlEFLi:cti6N§ 6 ft 

diftion, a fpirit uncxtinguiflicd by corrcancfs and rhjinci 
to be found in Mr. Popfc's Effay on Man^ that will ever 
render* it tlie honour of our nation and language. And 
it is not my province at prefent to determirrc,* what fome 
are apt to difpute. Whether or no this pofctn (in the 
words of Dr. Warburton) ** hath a precifion, force, and 
^^ clofenefs of connexion, rarely to be met with eveix 
** in the moft formal tiMtifes of philofophy ?" 

The Plsasurbs of Imagikation are, in thefr ycrf 
nature, a moft proper and pregnant fubjed for a didadfc 
poem. The amiable author who happily fixt on thele 
its his fubjed, it muff be allowed by the fcvereft critic^ 
hath done them ample juftice $ whether we confider his 
glowing and animated ftyle, his lively and pi£hirefque 
images f ; the graceful and harmonious flow of his 
humbers; or the noble fpirit of poetical enthufiafm,- 
which breathes through his whole work* But that I 
may hot lofe myfelf iit a wide field of panegyric, I will 
produce- the following three pafiageS,' in which images 
of Greatncfs, Wonderfulnefs, and Beauty (from the 
perception of which all the pleafures of poetry and the 
imagination principally flow) are thus nobly exemplify'd. 


■ ■ ■ The high-born foul 
Difdains to reft his heav'n afpiring wing 
Beneath its native quarry, Tir'd of earth 
And this diurnal fcene, (he fprings aloft 
Through fields of air ; purfues the flying ftorm ; 

burlefque images with fcrioos doArines : fuch is that lintf 
j( taken from Charron, Book i. on Wifdom) 

** Sec man for mine, replies a pamper'd goofe," 
f See particularly the dcfcription of Pleasure, Virtui, 
and Pain, Book ii. 409, &c. of a folcmn wood, and particiH 
Jarly ver. 290- B. iii. and of a poet at the time of his firft con- 
ceiving fome great dcfign, B. iii, ver. 373. 



kidcs on the volley'd lightning thro* the heavens ; 

Or yok'd with whirlwinds and the northern blaft. 

Sweeps the long tmA of day. Then high Ihe foars 

The blue profound, and hov'ring o'er the fun 

Beholds him pouring the redundant ftrcam 

Of light; beholds his unrelenting fway 

Bend the reludant planets and abfolve ^ 

The fated rounds of time. Thence far effus'd 

She darts her fwiftnefs up the long career 

Of devious comets ; through its burning figns 

Exulting circles the perennial wheel 

Of nature, and looks back on all the ftars, 

Whofe blended light, as with a milky zone, 

Invefts the orient. Now amaz'd (he views 

Th' empyreal waftc, where happy fpirits hold. 

Beyond this concave heav'n, their calm abode j 

And fields of radiance, whofe unfading light 

Has traveird the profound fix thoufand years. 

Nor yet arrives in fight of mortal things ; 

£v*n on the barriers of the world untir'd 

She meditates th' eternal depth below j 

Till^ half recoiling, down the headlong ftecp 

She plunges 5 foon o'erwhelm'd and fwallow'd up 

In that immenfe of being. There her hopes 

Reft at the fated goal,— — 


■ What need words 
To paint hs power ? For this, the daring youth 
Breaks from his weeping mother's anxious arms, 
In foreign climes to rove : the penfive fage 
Heedlefs of fleep, or midnight's harmful damp. 
Hangs o'er the fickly taper ; and untir'd 
The virgin follows, with inchanted ftep. 
The mazes of fomc wild and wond'rous talc 

V#i.. I. F f Froa 


From morn to eve ; unmindful of her form, 

Unmindful of the happy drcfs that ftolc 

The wiflies of the youth, when every maid 

With envy pin'd. Hence finally, by night 

The village-matron, round the blazing hearth^ 

Sufpends the infant^audicnce with her tales. 

Breathing aftonifliment ! of witching rhymes. 

And evil fpirits of the death*bed call 

To him who robb'd the widow and devour'd 

The orphan's portion ; of unquiet fouls 

Ris'n from the grave to eafe the heavy guilt 

Of deeds in life conceal'd i of (hapes that walk 

At dead of night, and clank their chains, and ware 

The torch of hell about the murd'rer's bed. 

At ev'ry folemn paufe the croud recoil 

Gazing each other fpeechlcfs, and congeal'd 

With (hiv'ring fighs : till eager for th' event. 

Around the beldame all ertSt they hang, 

Each trembling heart with grateful terrors qucllM^ 


Brightcft progeny of hcav*n I 

How fhall I trace thy features ? where feledl 
The rofeate hues to emulate thy bloom ? 
Hafte then, my fong, thro' nature's wide cxpanfe, 
Haftethcn and gather all her comelicft wealth, 
Whate'cr bright fpoils the florid earth contains. 
Whatever the waters, or the liquid air, 
ToUpck thy lovely labour. Wilt thou fly 
With laughing Autumn to th' Atlantic iflcs 
And range with him th' Hcfpcrian field and fca^ 
Where'er his fingers touch the fruitful grove. 
The branches flioot with gold j where'er his ftep 
Marks the glad foil, the tender clufters glow 
With purple ripenefs, and inveft each hill 


As with the blulhcs of an evening flcy ? 
Or wilt thou rather ftoop thy vagrant plume. 
Where, gliding thro* his daughter's honour'd ihade. 
The fmooth Pcneus from his glafly flood 
Refleds purpureal Tempe's pleafant fcene ? 
Fair Tempe ! haunt belov*d of fylvan pow'rs, 
Of nymphs and fauns ; where in the golden age 
They play'd in fccret on the fhady brink 
With ancient Pan^ while round their choral fteps 
Young hours and genial gales with conftant hand » 
Shower'd blofibms, odours, fhower'd ambrofial dews> 
And Spring's Elyfian bloom. 

I muft beg the reader's leave to lay before him one 
palTage more, with which I (hall conclude, both becaufe 
it is a proper Inftance of our author's genius, and becaufe 
it contains a ftrong and feafonable exhortation to the 
ftudy of the Grecian literature, which is at prefcnt fo 
ftrangely ncglefted among us, that perfons are not want- 
ing who fet up for fcholars and critics, without even 
pretending ever to have perufed the Greek claffics. 

Genius of ancient Greece ! whofe faithful fteps 
Well-plcas'd I follow thro' the facred paths 
Of nature and of fcience ; nurfe divine 
Of all heroic deeds and fair defires ! 

! let the breath of thy extended praife 
Infpire my kindling bofom to the height 

Of this untemptcd theme. Nor be my thoughts 
Prefumptuous counted, if, amid the calm 
That foothes this vernal evening into fmiles, 

1 (leal impatient from the fordid haunts 
Of ftrifc and low ambition to attend 
Thy facred prcfcnce in the fylvan fhade. 
By their malignant footftcps ne'er profan'd. 
Dcfcend, propitious! to my favour 'd eye; 
Such in thy mien, thy warm, exalted air. 



4^ K IS PL Actio MS, fcc. 

As when the Perfian tyrant^ fcnlM and ftung 

With (hame and defpention, gntfh'd his teedi 

To fee thee rend the pageants of his throne ; 

And at the lightning of thy lifted fpear 

CrouchM like a flave. Bring all thy martial fpoils, 

1*hy palms, thy laurels, thy triumphant fongs. 

Thy fmiling band'of arts, thy godlike fires 

Of civil wifdom, thy heroic youth 

Warm from the fchools of glory. Guide my way 

Thro* fair Lyceum's walk, the green retreats 

Of Academus, and the thymy vale. 

Where oft enchanted with Socratic founds, 

IliiTus pure devolved his tuneful ftream 

In gentler murmurs. From the blooming (lore 

Of theie aufpicious fields, may I unblam'd 

Tranfplant fome living bloflbms, to adorn 

My native clime : while far above the flight 

Of fancy's plume afpiring, I unlock 

The fprings of ancient wifdom ; while I joiit 

Thy name, thrice honoured ! with th' immortal praifc 

Of nature ; while to my compatriot youth 

I point the high example of thy fons. 

And tune to Attic themes the Britiih lyre. 

Beok i. ver. 567* 


APR 2 6 1918 




HOV 161922 


3 9015 01375 1469