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Full text of "The World almanac and encyclopedia"

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Entered atthe NewYork Post Orfice ds second class maner __.,__ 
\/QilYNo40THE WORLD MONTHLY EDITION, JANIJARY 1897 PRICE 25 CENTS. ^ 
Issued monthiy by ttie Press Publ/shing Co.mizeL Building Ne^/Yo rk. Yearly Subscription 35 cen^- 

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rr LEABS WHEM OTHEIRS FOLLOWo 





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(INGORPORATED. ) 

FREDERICK R. BURNHAM, President 



Home Office, 305, M 1 309 BROADWAY, NEW YOR: 




THE nOTTO OF THE nANAGEHEi^T 15 AND WILL 
CONTINUE TO BE : QOOD WORK AT HONEST COST; 
TRUE ECONOny AND NOT ITS SHADOW. . . . . . 






\ 



Smccess Is the Art of Succeedisigo 

The Results of Fifteen Years' Business are: 

Numbef of Policies in Force, 

Income during Fifteenth Year, 

Death Claims Paid during Fifteenth Year, 

Reserve or Emergency Fund, 

Gtoss Assets 

Total Death Claims Paid in Fifteen Years, . 
New Business during Fifteenth Year, ... 
Insurance in Force at End of Fifteen Years, 



10§,8' 

$§,§7§,2} 

4.084,0: 

3,43§,0: 

S,661,7( 

2§,000,0( 

69,02S,8J 

308,6S9,3: 



Will Show .00,0 

AN INCREASE IN GROSS ASSETS, 

AN INCREASE IN NET SURPLUS, 

AN INCREASE IN INCOME, 

AN ING-REASE IN NEW BUSINESS WRlTTEf 

AN INCREASE IN BUSINESS IN, FORCE. 



EXCELLENT POSITIONS OPEN in its Agency Department in every Town, Cit 
and State to experienced and successful business men, who will find the Mutu 
Reserve the very best association they can work for. Further information suppli 
by any of the Managers, General or Special Agents in the United States, Can ad 
Great Britain or Euroi)e. 

THEGL08E OF 1896 WILL SHOW TOTAL DEATH CLAIMS PAID, $29 000,0( 




a 
A 
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15 JOHN STREET, NEW YORK, 

For nearly a Century the Leading Seed House of America. 



We will mail free on application our Catalogue of 

^High Class Seeds, 

(Published on the Ist day of January of each year,) 

CONTAININQ the largest collection in the world, with 
illustrations, descriptions, and full directions for 
culture. 

Fall Bulb Catalogue, published in deptember, 
free on application. 








\ 



JInglo-Amerigan Telegraph Company, Ltd., 

ESTABLISHED 1866. 

\THE PIONEER AT LAN TEC CABLE COMPANY. 
Five Dlireci Cabte R@yteSo— ©ypiex Bymt^mo 




f^A«^fc.Lte5 



THE ONLY DIRECT ROUTE TO QERHANY. 
Telegrams can be forwarded '-VIA ANGLO CABLES," to Europe, Eg-ypt, East 
[nd West Coasts of Africa, Turkey, India, China, Cochin China, Corea, Manila, Japan, 
ustralia, New Zealand, South America, Zanzibar, Mozambique, Arabia, Cape of 
'ood Hope, Cape Verde, Madeira, and the Canary Islands, etc., etc. 

FROM THE FOLLOWING MERICilN STATIONS ; ►- 

( Basement of Stock Exchange, 
' 8 Broad Street, Telephone No. 2431 Cottlandt. 
) 1 6 Beaver Street, " " 870 Broad. 

( 445 Broome Street, " " 691 Spring. 

MONTREAL OFFICE: 62 St. Francois Xavier St., Tele. No. Bell 1027. 



^ 



W YORK OFFICES: 



H OFFICES 

LONDON : 24 Throgmorton Street, E. C. 
109 Fenchurch Street, 
46 Mark Lane, 
" 2 Xorthumberlaud Avenue, 

Charing Cross, W. C. 
Hay's Wharf, Tooley Street, S. E. 
LIVERPOOL: Al The Exchange. 
BRADFORD: 10 Forster Square. 



IN EUROPE: I.- 
BRISTOL: Back Hall Chambers, Baldwin St, 
DUNDEE: 1 Panmure Street. 
EDINBURGH: 106 George Street 
GLASGOW: 29 Gordon Street. 
MANCHESTER: 7 Royal Exchange, Bank St. 
NEWCASTLE- ON- TYNE: 1 Side. 
PARIS AGENCV: 12 Rue de Caumartin. 
HAVRE: 118 Boulevard Strasbourg. 



THE SHORTEST AND QUICKEST ROUTES ACROSS THE flTLMTIC. 

Used by all the Principal stockbrokers of Ncav York, London, Liverpool, etc., to 
whom the QUICKEST OBTAINABLE SERVICE ie Essential. 



THIS COMPANY, whose CARRYING CAPACITY IS DOUBLE THAT. 
OF ANY OTHER ATLANTIC CABLE COMPANY, is naturally favorablej 
to the MAINTENANCE OP A l-OV^ RAm WUH AN INCREASING 
YOLUi^E OP TRAFFIC. r 



W»«W"9iWB 



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Oiftf/'^ort 



am 

rNCORPORHTED 1866. 






;PITAL FOR THE TREATMENT OF 
AID THE OPIUM HABIT, 



President— JOHN NEVILLE. 
Vice-President— M. J. KENNEDY. 
Treasurer— Hon. JOHN COWENHOVEN. 



Secretary and Superintendent— 

samuel a. avila. 
Auditor-franklin coleman. 



Physician— H. LEACH BENDER, M. D. 



We are enabled to ofifer Board, Washing, and Medical Attention at rates varying 
from $10 to $35 per week. Patients are received either on their application, or by 
due process of law. For mode and terms of admission apply to the SUPERINTEND- 
ENT at the "HOME," Eighty-ninth Street and Second Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., or 
at the Office, No. 9 Court Square, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



HOW TO REACH THE INSTITUTION FROH NEW YORK. 

Cross the East River to Brooklyn on Fulton Ferry boat or Bridge, and proceed by Third Avenue 
electric cars to Fort Hamilton; or, cross from South Ferry on Hamilton Avenue boat or by Thirty- 
ninth Street Ferry to Brooklyn, and proceed by electric cars to Fort Hamilton. Request the conductor 
to leave you at Eighty-ninth Street and Third A"';^ue. 



Teleptiorie Corir\ectior\. 



P. 0. Box 42, Statiori N, BrooKlyq, N. Y. 
3 



WMEREIN 



THE "HAMMOND" No, 2 EXCELS: 




^ 



1. It writes in sight. 

2. It uses interchangeable type. 

3. Its impression is uniform ; its 

alignment true. 

4. It writes in fourteen languages. 
§. It writes at the highest speed. 



^ 



6. Its durability is proven. 

7. It is simple in operation and 

construction. 

8. Its touch is light and elastic. 

9. It takes paper of any width. 

10. It weighs only nineteen 
pounds. 



Jl SAMPLE OF " HMMOND" WORK AND ILLUSTRATED CmLOGUE SENT FREE. 



THE 



HAMMOND TYPEWRITER CO., 

NEW YORK CITY. 



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W Y<BRK 



■^MEPAtA' 




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IS West 43d Street, 

Near Fifth Avenue, 

New YiDrk City. 

INGORPORIITED BY THE REGENTS. 




m Streetp 

Cor. Court Street, 

Br(D)(Q)lklyffi, 

ORGANIZED AS A STOCK CORPORATION. 



BOAR© ©^ ODReCTOHf s 
President: Asa O. Gallup, Warren W. Smith, 

Emil E. Camerer, Arthur Williams. 

HENRY L. RUPERT, M.A., Counsel. 

Frofessloffial ScUkdoIs' Preparatory Bepartmeit 

(Principals, W. W. Smith, B. A. -(Yale), and E. E. Camerer, Civil Engi - 
neer) prepares law, medical, dental, and veterinary students for 

RegeitS" ExamifflatidDlS, Day and Evening Sessions. 

Regular courses are held in ancient and modern languages, mathematics, 
physics, chemistry, stenography, etc. Students are prepared for the 
colleges and scientific schools. United States, State, and Municipal civil 
service, teachers' license examinations, etc. 

EigMli Ammial Catalog Ee^ 

with full particulars of courses and Register of Students (1,189 in past 
year), mailed on application to 

15 V/est 43d Street. 

Academic Bepartment lor Bojs . 

is known as DWIGHT SCHOOL, and is a select and limited school of the 
highest grade. Boys are thoroughly prepared for college and business. 

SeYeiteeBtli Affiiiaal Catalegmep 

with description of physical and chemical laboratories, gymnasium, etc. , 
on application to 

Priiclpal. ARTHUR WILLIAMS^ BoA. (Yale), 

IS West 43d Street. 



THE MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE 

COMPANY OF NEW YORK. 



RICHARD A. McGURDY, President. 



zn4 ©ffne 



H^mfW^Uo Cf^dlaiTj, ILe 



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TWENTY-YEAR DISTRIBUTION POLICY 

on continuous life and limited pay- 
ment plans. This affords the maxi- 
mum of security at the minimum 
of cost; 

E-KDO^I^ENntFFWTIOf POLICY 

provides a guaranteed income, a 
secure investment, and absolute 
protection ; 

FIVE PER CENT. DEBENTURES 

provide the best and most effective 
forms of investment, indemnity, and 
fixed annual income to survivots; 

CONTINUOUS INSTALMENT POLICY 

so adjusts the payment of the 
amount insured as to create* a fixed 
income during the life of the bene- 
ficiary. 



HI)mMMI||||IH||||||in|||||ini|||||||ii|l|i|||ii|||||||ii||l||||M||||| l|l|ll"ll|l||MM||rfr^ =^ 

|J|IM||||||M|||||||ll||||{|HM|||{||M|||||||in||||||M|||||||M||||||MI|||||||n|m|||M|||||{|ll||{|^|^ 

■ll||||IMn|l||l'MI||||ini||||HM||{||||ll||||{||ll|q||||llll|||nH|||||||IM|||{||W|||||||ll||{||||ll||||^ 



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For detailed information concerning these exclusive 
forms of insurance policies apply at any of the Company's 
authorized agencies, which may be found in every city 



and town in the United States. 

6 




Nelll 




Sixth Avenue, 20th to 21st Street, 



NEW YORK. 



IMPORTERS AND RETAILERS. 

DRYGOODS, FANGYGOODS, FINE MILLINERY, GLOAKS, 

GOSTUMES, GHILDREN'S GLOTHING, HOUSE 

FURNISHINGS, GROGERIES, ETG., ETG. 




No store in New York is so well equipped to meet the needs of the people of Greater 
New York as this model establishment. Here you'll find at all times the 
choicest desig'ns in 

Millinery, Superb Silks and Dress Goods, Delicate Laces, Rich Velvets, 

Oriental Rugs, and a host of Useful and Ornamental Articles 

necessary to complete the Home or the Toilet 

of the Women of the Day. 



POPULAR PRICES. 



•All paid purchases delivered free to any point within 100 miles of New York 
City. See next page, it interests all out-of-town residents. 

7 




Nelil 




Sixth Avenue, 2otli to 21st Street, 



NEW YORK. 



IMPORTERS AND RETAILERS. 

DRY GOODS, FANCY GOODS, FINE MILLINERY, CLOAKS, 

COSTUMES, CHILDREN'S CLOTHING, HOUSE 

FURNISHINGS, GROCERIES, ETC., ETC. 




THE MOST POPOLAR DEPARTMENT STORE IN MERICll. 



BUYING BY MAIL with "O'Nelirs" comes as near personal shop- 
ping as an infallible mail system can make it. Say what you want to our 
Mail Order Department and you have it by the speediest Postal Delivery in 
the World. A Host of Hints as to quality and price of all manner of House- 
hold and Personal needs will be found in our 

LLUSTRATED CATALOGUE^ 

mailed free to out-of-town residents. Send for it, also for our Special Grocery 
catalogue. 

2^=A11 paid purchases delivered free to any point within 
100 miles of New York City. 

8 



M 



The Otis Elevator is in use 
in World Building, as well as 
nearly every other building of 
importance on the globe. It 
has been the standard for 
thirty-eight years for passen- 
gers and freight. Otis Brothers 
& Co., 3S Park Row, New York. 



9 



LEGAL CORPORATE SUIETYSilP 



- 




THE 



LEGAL SURETY COMPANY 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES, 

150 Broadway, .... NEW YORK. 



MARSHALL S. DRIGGS, President. 

FREDERIC F. NUGENT, . First Vice-President. 
THOMAS F. GOODRICH, Treasurer. 

EXECUTES AS SURETY 

Bonds of Administrators, Assignees, 

Committees of IvUnatics, Contractors, 

Foreign Executors, Exectitors, 

Indemnity to Sheriffs, 

Land Damage, Demurrage, 
Proposals for Contracts, 

Bids, Curators, Conservators, 

Guardians, Guardians ad-litetn, 

To Discharge from Mechanics' Lien, 

Receivers, Trustees, Warehousemen, and any and all bonds 

required, or by law permitted to be executed; 

Undertakings on Appeal, Arrest, Attachment, 
Injunction, Replevin. 

SECURHTY FOR COSTS'. 

Non-Resident Plaintiffs, 

Contracts on Underground Cables, 

Admiralty — Maritime Libel. 

10 



ESTABLISHED 1864 



«(( 





"A 



ZL>/l 



PAPER 



WILLIAM E. SPIER, President. 

FRED'K H. PARKS, Vice-Pres't and Gen'l Mgr. 

GEORGE H. PARKS, Treasurer. 

GEORGE R. HARRIS, Secretary. 

WILLIAM B. DILLON, Manager of Sales. 




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BFIOFB©TOMEM 





KILLS RT 



GLENS falls™ FORT EDWARD, NEW YORK. 



The Largest Prediction in the World, 



Mlj Capacity 275 Tfiis^ 



FURNISHING THE WORLD WITH 
PRINTING PAPER IN ROLLS FOR 
ITS UARIOUS EDITIONS- 




))»> 



NEW YORK OFFICES^ PULITZER BUILDINGc 



11 



Geo. MflTHER'5 Sons, 



Inks 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Printin 




For 

Every 
Known 




IN CONTINUOUS OPERATION SINCE 1816. 



Process 

Of 
Printing 



HAVE ft WORLD-WIDE REPUTATION FOR 

SUPERIORITY MD UNIFORMITY OF THEIR INKS. 



On a special occasion, with but a few Qiv THMQ flC MFW/Q IMV 
moments' notice, MANUFACTURED ami 01 A 1 UIXO Ul IXLllO lllIV 



DELIVERED to a leading newspaper 



IN A FEW HOURS. 




Ouallti and Low Prices. Specimeos, etc., on Application. 

HEAD OFFICE, 29 ROSE STREET, NEW YORK. 



12 



THE FIDELITY AND GftSUflLTY CO. 

OF NEW YORK, 

97 to noj Cedar Street- 

Capital, ----- - $250,000.00 

Assets, ------ 2,643,632.59 

Surplus, ----- 332,102.33 

Losses Paid, ----- - 6,973,402.39 

CASUALTY INSURANCE SPECIALTIES, 

Bonds of Suretyship for Persons in Positions of Trust. 

Personal Accident, Plate Glass, Boiler, Elevator, Ennployers', 

Landlords', Connnnon Carriers' Liability, 

and Burglary Insurance. 

OFFICERS : 

GEORGE F. SEWARD, President. 

ROBERT J. HILLAS, Treas. and Sec'y. EDWARD L. SHAW. Asst. Sec'y. 



MANHATTAN COAL CO., 

DEALERS IN 

Lelaigli a.nd. Wilke^^Barre Coal Co.'q 

COAL -^ 

PRICES LOW. 

WEIGHT, QUALITY. AND PREPARATION GUARANTEED. 




Ill BROADWAY. Telephone Call : 1751 Cortlandt. 

C. R. RUNYON, Manager. 
13 



E. Z. PHRKER, Presiderit ARTHUR W. SIRS, Silperiritei\der\t. 

Dr. PERRY WilLTMB-N, Medical Director. 

WESTCHESTER SANITARIUM, 

WESTCHESTER UILLAGE, 



NEW YORK GITY. 





Mired. 




c><xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx><xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx> 



6<xxxxxxxxxx>o<xxxxxxxxxx><xxxx>o<c><c>c>oo<xxxxxx> 

By the new LANDES-WALTMAN Treatment. 

Cure guaranteed or no remuneration asked. "We will accept the decision of the 
patient's own physician as to whether or not he is cured. 

THIS IS NOT A '' GRABUAL kEBUCTION CURE/' 

Within three weeks the patient is not only entirely freed from the habit, but 
his nervous and g-eneral physical condition are restored. 
"Write for particulars to 



WESTCHESTER SilNlTflRlUM, 



WESTCHESTER, NEW YORK CITY. 



Town Office at 1144 Broadway, corner Twenty-sixth Street. 



Q) 



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vw 







Price per Case oT 12 Lar^e Bottles* 5 to a Gallon. 



1, 

2, 



PORT WINE, No. 
PORT WINE, No. 
DURAND PORT, 
SHERRY WINE, No. 
SHERRY WINE, No. 
DAVIES SHERRY, 



$4.00 
5.00 
6.00 
4.00 
5.00 
6.00 



SWEET CATAWBA WINE, . . 4.00 

ANGELICA WINE . 4.00 

ANGELICA. OLD 5.00 

SWEET MUSCATEL 4.00 

SWEET MUSCATEL, OLD 5.00 

BLACKBERRY BRANDY, No. 3, . . 4.00 

BLACKBERRY BRANDY, No. 4, . . . 5.00 

BLACKBERRY BRANDY, OLD, . . 6.00 

BLACKBERRY BRANDY, VERY OLD, . 8.00 

CIDER BRANDY, . . . $5, f6, and 8.00 



RYE WHISKEY, No. 3. 
RYE WHISKEY, No. 4, , 
SHERWOOD RYE, 
GOLDEN WEDDING BYE, . 
DOUGHERTY RYE, . 
HERMITAGE RYE, . 
BOURBON WHISKEY, No. 3, 
BOURBON WHISKEY, No. 4, 
BOURBON WHISKEY. No. 6, 
MEGIBBEN'S BOURBON, 
OLD CROW BOURBON, 
HOLLAND GIN, No. 3, . 
HOLLAND GIN, No. 4, 
RYE MALT GIN, 
JAMAICA RUMS, . . . $5 
SCOTCH WHISKEY, 



$4.00 

. 5.00 

6.00 

7.50 

10.00 

, 11.00 

4.00 

5.00 

6.00 

8.00 

12.00 

4.00 

5.00 

. 6.00 

$6, $8, and 10.00 

$6, $8, and 10.00 



PRICE PER KEG, CONTAINING 4 1-2 GALLONS. 



Rye Whiskey, No. 3, per ke^. 
Rye Whiskey, No. 4, per keg. 



. . $7.00 J Sherwood Rye, per keg, . . . 
. . 8.00 1 Golden Wedding Rye, per keg, 

Ke^s boxed) 25 cents extra. 



$9.00 



12.00 



We will pack an assortment of Wines and Liquors in Case, if so desired, without 
extra charge. Half case, containing six bottles, at one-half the price of full case. 
Persons wishing goods sent C. O. D. must remit $1 with order to insure good faith. 
All goods packed in plain boxes and shipped to any part of the United States. Com- 
plete price list free. Beautiful lithograph calendar for 1897 now ready. Mailed to 
any address on receipt of 10 cents in stamps. Twenty-five good cigars by mail, 
postpaid, $1. 

Jo Co CHILBS & COop 346 EigMh AyeMCp lew York Citjo 

14 



STEINWAY 



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GRAND 



PIANOS 



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I UPRIGHT 
! PIANOS 

'*. 

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The recognized Standard Pianbs of the world, pre-eminently the best instruments at present made, 
exjKjrted to and sold in all art centres of the globe, endorsed and preferred for private 
and public use by the greatest living artists and scientists. 
Illustrated Catalogues mailed free on Arpplicatiotip 



Nos. 107, 109 and 111 East Fourteenth Street, 

EUROPEAN DEPOTS : 



STEINWAY HALL, 

15-17 Lower Seymour St., PortmanSq.,W. 

London, England. 



STEINWAY'S PIANOFABRIK, 

St. Paul!, Neue Rosen-Strasse, 20-24, 

Hamburg, Germany. 



HARSHALL TRUSS C0», 

506 FULTON STREET, BROOKLYN, N. Y 

TELEPHONE: 1728 BROOKLYN. 



BY MAIL, ON RECEIPT OF PRICE. 




Lady in attendance. 
Open Evenings and Sundaj' mornings 



Elastic Stockings, 
$2.00. 




Trusses from $1. 00 up. 



The best Medical Battery ever made, 
$5.00. No fluids; does not get out of 
order. 



Acbdominal Supporters, Braces for Bowlegs and all de- 
formities. Crutches, Rubber Urinals to 'vvear day or 
night, Hot Water Bags, Syringes, ^nd all kinds 
of Rubber Goods. Send for C^.talogue. 



15 







MANUFACTURE AND SUPPLY 







P 







OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

Printers^ and Lithographers' Materials^ 

INCLUDING 

WroiIg]:\t-Irori C]:\ases, iLead ar[d Rule Cutters, 

Paterit Blocks, Galleys, Mitre Macliiries, 

Cabinets and Stands, Irqposirig Tables Mtti Letter 
Case RacKs, B^^^^g^ 

Rubber and Clotlt BlanKeting. composition Kettles. 
Tape, MolesKm. Molleton and ^^ J 

Flannel for Rollers, i^^roor cresses, 

Roller SKins. ^^^^ andTicKet Presses, 

Card and Paper Cutters, Brass Rules and Daslries, 

Labor-Saving Furniture, ^Coinposing SticKs, Counters. 

ALSO . 

Electrotyplffig ^M Sttrmtj^mg MzcMn&rj, Hydraelic Presses and 
FimpSs, Circimlar Saws, Copymg Presses, EtCo, EtCo 



i(0)4 ffilPSlDOd] ©■tt[P©(B'S 



9 



K!](iM iy(Q)[p[ki 



Also Mansfield St., Borough Road, London, England. 

16 



35 CENTS PER TEAR. 








Vol IV. No. 40. New York January 1897. Monthly Edition. 



fS-h^i^ 



^^?S^.4 i 




le yorld ?(In)ai)ac 



ilKD 



rpc^clopedia 



1897 




: ^t 



ISSUED BY 
THK PKESS PUBLISHING C50., 

PtriilTZKB Bl7niI>IN"0 

Nirw ToKK. 



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piw^^*^i^"ip-^^^^ 








z?^ 346 and 348 Broadway, NEW YORK. 

Z^'^^''*^ '^^^J'l.vw* 4 / tj i\JOHN A. McCALL, President. 



Assets/^ January /, 



9 • 



$174,791,990.54. 



THE NEW YORK LIFE is a purely mutual company, and has been in business over 
half a century. Its policies impose no restrictions upon the instired, and are 
incontestable after beln^ in force one year. They allow days of grace in pay- 
ment of premium, provide for reinstatement, premium return, cash loans, cash sur- 
render values, extended or paid-up insurance, accumulation of surplus during selected 
periods, and for options in settlement, adapting their value to any circumstances of 
the insured. Policies are automatically and absolutely non-forfeitable after three 
years' premiums have been paid ; their insurance value cannot be lost by neglect. 

The NEW YORK LIFE "will consider applications for insurance at the ordinary 
rates upon the lives of persons engaged In occupations apparently in voUang an extra 
hazard, and upon the lives of women, and policies Issued to such persons at ordinary 
rates will contain a clause placing them in classes, and providing that any apportion- 
ment of surplus shall be based on the mortality actually experienced in the respective 
classes. Persons insured on this plan include United States Army and Navy oflScers ; 
miners of gold, silver, copper, and iron ; members of paid fire departments ; police- 
men, prison wardens, sheriffs, constables, marshals, etc.; railroad engineers, foremen 
and freight conductors: harbor pilots and officers of certain vessels; and all women. 

The NEW YORK LIFE began in July, 1896, the issue of an "Adjustable Accumula- 
tion Policy" for sub-standard lives. It is issued at the same premium rates as its 
"Accumulation Policy, with Guaranteed Cash Values and Annual Loans," and pro- 
vides an annually increasing scale of indemnity, which finally reaches the full face 
of the policy at about the fifteenth year. Persons who have been rejected for insur- 
ance upon what they consider insufficient grounds, and persons who have hesitated 
to apply for Insurance through fear of rejection, are invited to examine this policy. 

The NEW YORK LIFE issues, in addition to the ordinary forms of insurance, 
Instu*ance Bonds with Guaranteed Interest, Continuous Installment Policies, rive 
Per Cent Debenture Policies, Ordinary and Survivorship Annuities, Children's Endow- 
ments, and Educational Annuities for Children. Under its authority as a Trust 
Company, the NEW YORK LIFE issues policies upon the Trust Certificate plan, under 
which the proceeds of the policy at death are paid to the beneficiaries named in such 
manner as desired by the insured, unpaid portions remaining at interest. 

18 



General Index. 



10 



GENERAL INDEX. 



A PAGE 

ACABEMiciAKS, National 270 

" RoyaL.. 271 

Academy of Political and 

Social Science 259 

Accidents, Help in 252 

" Eailroad 210 

'• Steamboat 139 

Actors, Birthplaces of 268 

" Fund 267 

Acts of Congress. 128 

Actuarial Society of America,..264 

Admirals, U. S. Navy 399 

Agricultural Statistics 161, 162 

Agriculture Dep't Ollicials 388 

Agriculture, Secretaries of 121 

Alabama Election Returns 425 

Alcohol Statistics 168, 169 

Aldermen, N. Y. City 472 

Aliens Speaking English 376 

Alliance of Reformed Churches318 

Altar Colors 46 

Altitudes, Greatest instates... 69 

Aluminum, Production of 171 

Ambassadors, U. S., Abroad . . 406 
Amendments to tJ. S. Con- 
stitution 87,88 

American Acad, of Medicine., 62 

" and Foreign Shipping 150 

'* Antiquarian Society 259 

" Artists, Society of 271 

" Association for Advance- 
ment of Science 259 

" Authors' Guild 259 

'* Bar Association 260 

" Bible Society 321 

" Chemical Society 263 

'* Christian Convention 325 

'• College of Musicians 269 

'* Dental Association. 263 

" Dialect Society 264 

'• Entomological Society . . .263 

'* Ethnological Society 261 

" Federation of Labor 108 

" Fisheries Society 261 

" Folklore Society 263 

•* Forestry Association 148 

" Geographical Society 261 

" Historical Society 262 

" Ho§ 166 

*• Indian 147 

'* Institute of Architects. ... 260 
" In. Christian Philosophy.. 326 
" Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers 260 

" Institute of Homoeopathy. 262 
" Institute of Instruction. . .296 
" Institutions, League for 

Protection of 346 

" Inst. Mining Engineers.. .260 

" Learned Societies 259-264 

« Legion of Honor 309 

" Library Association 303 

" Mathematical Society ... .263 

" Medical Association- 262 

" Metrological Society 263 

" Microscopical Society 263 

" Naturalists' Society. 281 

" Oriental Society 263 

" Ornithologist Union 263 

" Philological Association. .261 
" Philosophical Society. — 261 

" Protective Association 105 

" Psychological Association.263 

" Railway Union 108 

" Social Science Association.259 
" Society of CivU Engineers 260 
" Soc. Mechanical Engineers 260 
* ' Statistical Aooociation. .... 260 

'• Turf 230-232 

" Unitarian Association 319 

" Whist Laws 253-256 

" Whist League 256 



PAGE 

Amusements, N. Y. City 477 

Ancient and Modern Year 37 

Irish Titles 271 

Animal Fecundity. 219 

Annapolis Naval Academy 392 

Anniversaries, List of 45 

Anti- Blacklisting Laws 108 

Anti- Boycotting Laws. 108 

Antidotes for Poisons 252 

Antimony, Production of 171 

Antiquarian Society, American259 

A. P. A 105 

Apoplexy, Deaths from 218 

Appropriations by Congress . . .140 
Aqueduct Commission, N. Y. C.473 

Arbor- Days 148 

Architects, American Institute.260 

Area, Cities in U. S .383,384 

*• Continents 61 

" Foreign Countries 853 

" of British Empire- 359 

*« of Great Lakes 145 

'• of States and Territories . .385 

Arizona, Bill to Admit 385 

Election Returns 426 

Arkansas Election Returns 426 

Armed Strength of Europe.347,348 

Armenian Question 333 

Arms-Bearing Men in Europe..347 
Arms Used by Military Powers.349 
Army & Navy Union, Regular.341 

" British. 347,362 

" of U. S. at N. Y. City 479 

" of U. S., Distribution of.. . .397 

" of U. S. , Official List. 394 

" of U. S., Strength of 393 

" PayTable 397 

" Rank of Officers. .350, 394-396 
Art Galleries & Schools, N. Y. C.479 

Asbestos, Production of 171 

Asiatic Nations, Military 

Strength of 349 

Asphalt, Production of 171 

Assembly .New YorkState.421, 422 
Assessed Valuation of Prop- 
erty in TJ.S >.....138,383 

Assessors, Board, N. Y. C. 473 

Assistant Treasurers, U. S 389 

Assn., Advancement Science. .259 

Asteroids 42 

Astronomical Constants 88, 39 

" Phenomena for 1897.. ..36,37 

" Signs and Symbols 36 

A^stronomy in 1896 266 

Asylums, N. Y. City 478 

Athletic Grounds, N. Y. City. . .477 
AtlanticOceanPassages,Fastestl92 
Attorney General's Office, Offi- 
cials of 388 

Attorneys, District, U. S 391 

''^ General,U.S.,Listof 121 

Austria^Army and Navy of. 347, 348 
Hungary Royal Family.. 355 
Austrian- Hungarian Gov' t. . .367 

Australian Ballot 110 

Authors' Guild, American. --..259 

Autumn, Beginning of, 1897 33 

Aztec Club of 1847 333 

B 

B A rnx, Production of 166 

Banking Statistics 181-183 

Banks in N. Y. City 480, 481 

" Brooklyn 482 

Baptist Congress 321 

" Young People' s Union. . . .321 

Baptists, Number of 313 

Bar Association. American.... 260 

N. Y. City 483 

Barley, Production of 161 

Barometer Indications 63 

Baseball Records 221-223 



PAGE 

Baths, Public, N. Y. City 484 

Battles of Civil War 340 

Bavarian Royal Family 355 

Beer, Production of 169 

Belgian Royal Family 355 

Belgium, Army and Navy of. .347 

Bell Time on Shipboard 35 

Ben Hur, Tribe of 309 

Bible Society, American 321 

Bicycling Records 244,245 

BUliards Records 238,239 

Biographies of Presidents 116 

Births in European Countries. .218 
Bishops of Religious Denomi- 
nations 316,317 

Blind, Education forthe 274 

B'naiB'rith, Order of 309 

Boards of Trade in New York. 491 

Boat- Racing Records 234-237 

Bonaparte Family 358 

Books, Production of 298 

" of 1896 300,301 

Bourbon- Orleanist Fanoily 358 

Bowling 224 

Boycotting Laws 108 

Brazil, Army and Navy of 349 

Breweries, Number of. 169 

Bridges, N. Y. City 483 

B'rith Abraham Order 309 

British Army & Navy..347,348, 362 

" CourtsofLaw 361 

*• Diplomatic Intercourse. . .363 

" Dukes 364 

" Empire, Statistics of. 359 

" Government 861 

" Holidays 43 

" Ministry 361 

" Parliament 364 

" Royal Family 354, 360 

" Tariff 155 

'• Titles Abbreviated .370 

Bronchitis, Deaths from 218 

Brooklyn Bridge 483 

Brotherh'd of Christian Unity. 328 

" of St. Andrew 324 

•• of Philip and Andrew 324 

•• oftheKingdom 326 

Building & Loan Associations. 249 

Building Dept , N. Y. City 473 

Buildings, Heightof, inN. Y..620 
Bullets Used in Modem Rifles.349 

Bureaus of Labor 109 

Business Failures in U. S 174 

Byzantine Era 33 

C 
Cab Faees, New York City. 495 

Cabinet Officers Since 1789 120 

' ' of President Cleveland. . .387 

Cable Telegraph Rates 189 

Cables, Submarine 541 

Calendar for 200 Years 59 

' ' Greek & Russian, for 1897. 46 

•' Jewish, for 1897 46 

' ' Mohammedan, for 1897 ... 46 

" Ready Reference - 59 

•• Ritualistic 46 

• • Wheat Harvest 161 

Calendars for 1897-1898 45 

" Monthly for 1897 47-58 

California Election Returns... 427 

Canada, Statistics of 368,369 

Canals .214 

Cannon, Army, U.S 419 

Capitals of States 388 

''^ Foreign , 353 

Capital Punishment 216 

Carat Explained 179 

Cardinals, College of 816 

Carpet Bag Debts 1.S6 

Catholic Benevolent Legion . . .309 
'' Mutual Benefit Ass' n..... 309 
" Roman, Hierarchy in U.S.316 



20 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGK 

Catholic Kniffhta of America . .309 

'* Summer School 297 

CathoUca, Numberof. 313 

Cattle, Value of , In U. S 159 

Cement, Production of 176 

Cemeteries, New York City 491 

" United States 520 

Central & So. American Trade.370 
Centre of Population of U. S. . .374 
Cereal Crops & Exports of U. S.163 

Chamber of Commerce 490 

Champagnes Imported 168 

Charities Dep' t, N. Y. C 472 

Chautauqua System 297 

Cheers, College 291-293 

Chemical Composition of Man. 267 

Chemistry in 1896 266 

Chess 257 

Chile, Army and Navy of 349 

China, Army and Navy of 349 

China and Japan MaUs 75 

Chosen Friends, Order of. 309 

Christian Alliance 322 

'* Convention, American 325 

•• Endeavor Society 322 

'• League for Promotion of 
Social Purity 336 

• • Philosophy, Institute of . .326 

•• Science 328 

•• Unity Brotherhood 328 

Christians, Number of. 313 

Chronological Cycles and Eras. 33 

Church Days in 1897 33 

' * Established, of England. .362 

•• Fasts 34 

*• Temperance Society 320 

Churches, New York City .485-489 

Churches in the U. S 314 

Cigars & Cigarettes M' ufact' ed.166 

Cincinnati, Society of 334,335 

Cities, Foreign Born in 377 

" La-gest of the Earth 872 

*• of U.S., Population of. 877-381 

♦ • of U. S. , Statistics of . .383, 384 
Citizenship, Requirements for, 

110-111 

Civil Engineers' Society 280 

• ' Lists of Sovereigns 353 

•• Service U. S. Commiss' rs.388 
•• Service. Rules of, U. S. . . 113 
•• •' N. Y. City.... 472, 476 

•• •• N.Y. State 418 

" War, Statistics of 340 

Clearing- House Statistics 181 

Clubs, New York City 512 

Coal Statistics. 170 

Coffee Statistics 157, 169 

Coinage at U. S. ]SIints 178 

'' ofNations 179 

" U. S., Per Capita 156 

Coins, Foreign, Value of 151 

College Cheers 291-293 

'• Colors 294 

' • Commencement Days.280-284 

" Endowments 289 

'• Secret Societies 284 

'* Tuition Fees 285-289 

Colleges,Earliest European .284 

" First American 284 

" in New York City 493 

•* of U. S. , Statistics of .. . 272-294 
Colonial Dames of America — 838 

" Wars, Society of 331 

Colorado Election Returns, 428 

Colored Masonic Bodies 305 

Comets, Periodic 37 

Commercial Statistics of U. S...157 
Committees, Nat Political. 100- 104 

Commonest Names 235 

Commons, House of. 364 

Commutation RaUroad Rates, 

from New York City 524, 532 

Comrades of the Battlefield .342 

Confederate Veterans' Aps'n..345 
Confederacy, U'ted Daughters.345 
Congregational Nat. CouncU . . .321 



PAGE 

Congress, Acts of 128 

Congress, Appropriations by. . .140 

" Fifty- fourth. 409-412 

" Fifty-fifth - 413-416 

" Party Divisions in 417 

" Ratio of Representation in 

House 416 

Connecticut Election Returns. .429 

" Game Laws 251 

Conservatories. Principal 269 

Constitution of the U. S.„ 83-88 

Consuls, Foreign, in U. S 408 

'■'• " N.Y.City.489,490 

" U. S., Abroad 406 

Consumption , Deaths from . 217 , 218 

Continents, Area of 61 

"• Populationof 61 

Conventions, Political, in 1896.. 89 
Cooperative Banks, Statistics. .249 

Copper Production 170, 171 

Copyright, Foreign 303 

Copyright Law of the U. S.302, 303 

Corn, Consumption of, U. S 157 

" Crop. Statistics 161,162 

Correction Dept.,N. Y. City. . .472 

Cotton, Statistics of 164,166 

Countries of the World 353 

Courts, British 361 

State (see each State Elec- 
tionRetums). 

" of N. Y. City 474, 475 

" of New York State .... 419, 420 

" ofU. S 390,475 

Cows, MUch, Value of,U. S 159 

Creeds, Populationof Earth by.313 

Cremation, Statistics of 312 

Cricket 223, 224 

Crime & Pauperism, Statistics. . 215 

Croquet. 245 

Croup, Deaths from 217 

Cuban Revolutionary Gov't. ..370 
Cumberland, Society of the 

Currency Circulation. U. S 182 

" Question in Party Platf ' ms 89 

Custom-House, N.Y. City 473 

Customs Officials 389 

Customs Tariff, British 155 

" U. S 154, 155 

Customs Receipts 141 

Cycles, ChronologicaL 33 

Cymrodorion Society 830 

D 

Dames of the Revolutiox. .339 

Danish Royal Family 355 

Danubian States, Army of 347 

Dates, Table of Memorable 44 

Daughtersof Am.Revolution. . .338 
"• of Confederacy, United. 345 

" oftheKing 324 

" of the Revolution 338 

Day, Astronomical 34 

Day of Week, How to Find .... 59 

Days Between Two Dates 35 

Deaf, Education for the 274 

Death Percentages 61 

'' Rollforl896 124-126 

" Tests of 252 

Deaths^auses of , in U. S 217 

" in European Countries 218 

" in United States 217 

Debt of United States, Public. .137 

Debts, " Carpet-Bag' ' 136 

" OfNations 138 

" of United States Cities 383 

" State, County & Municipal .136 

" When Outlawed 81 

Declarations of Political Parties 

on Silver and Tariff 89 

Deer,OpenSeasouforShooting.250 

Delaware Election Returns 429 

Democratic Clubs, National 

Association of 100 

Democratic National and State 
Committees 101 



PAGHJ 

Democratic Party (Free Sil- 
ver) Platform _ 90 

Democratic Party, National . . 89 
Denmark, Army & Navy. .347, 348 
Dental Association, American.263 

Derby, English 232 

Diphtheria, Deaths from... 217, 218 
Diplomatic and Consular List. .406 

" Intercourse, British 363 

Distances and Time from N.Y. 76 
" Between European Cities.. 76 

" in New York City 490, 512 

District Attorneys, U. S 391 

DistrictCourtsof U.S 890 

District of Columbia Gov' t 384 

Divisions of Time 34 

Dock Department, N. Y. City. .472 

Dog-Bites, Help in Case of. 252 

Dollar, Silver, Value -..176 

Doorof Hope 320 

Dramatic People 268 

Drowning, Help in Case of 252 

Druids, Order of 309 

Dukes, Table of British 364 

Duration of Life 61 

Dutch Royal FamUy 356 

Duties on Imports 164, 155 

Dwellings in United States 377 

E 
Eakth, Facts About the.. . . 61 

Easterinl897 33 

Easter, Table of, for 100 Years. 42 

Eastern Star, Order of 306 

Eclipses in 1897 86 

Education, Board of, N. Y. 472,492 

" Chautauqua System 297 

J. F. Slater Fund 297 

" Officials in N.Y. City 472 

"• PeabodyFund 297 

" Special Institutions of 274 

" Statisticsof. 272-274 

Educational Assoc' n,NationaL295 

Eight Hour Labor Laws 108 

Elect'on Returns Begin 425 

Elections, Presidential 114,115 

" State, When Next Occur. .386 

Electoral Apportionm' t Df 1891.412 

" Vote, President, 1872-92. . .424 

" Vote for President in 1896 . 423 

" Votes since 1789 114,115 

Electrical Engineers, Institute.360 

■ Progress in 1896 186, 187 

Eleventh Army Corps Ass' n. .342 

Elks, Orderof 309 

Ember Days 34 

Employes in U. S 167 

Engineers, Civil & Mechanical.260 
Elngland, see "'British." 
English Established Church. . .862 

' Holidays, Old 43 

Speaking Religious Com- 
munities 313 

Epiphany in 1897 33 

Episcopal Bishops 817 

Epochs, Beginning of 33 

Epworth League 325 

Equitable Aid Union 309 

Eras, Chronological as 

Erie Canal _ 214 

Estimate, Board of, N. Y. C . ..473 
European Languages Spoken . . 61 

" Sovereigns 353,354 

Universities, Oldest 284 

Events, Record of , 1896 123 

Examinations, Regents 220 

Exchanges In N. Y. City. 491 

Excise Dept., N.Y. City 472 

Executions in United States 216 

Expenditures, U.S. Govemm* tl41 

Exploration and Discovery 266 

Explosives, Strength of. , , 350 

Exports from U. S. , 1896. . . .152, 153 
'^ per capita and pric«s.l56, 157 

Exposition, Paris, 1900 298 

'' Tennessee 299 

Trans- Mississippi-.^.^- 3Sfk 



PAGK 

Expresses, N. Y. City. 492 

"^on Railroads 194r209 

F 

Facts About the Eaeth.... 61 

Failures in Business... 174 

Fainting, Help in Case of. 252 

Families in U. S., Number of ...377 

Famous Old People of 1897 127 

Farms and Farm Products, 

Value of 159 

Farmers' Alliance, National. . .106 ^J- 

Fastest Ocean Passages 192 

Fast and Feast Days 33,84 

Federal Government 387-390 

Ferries from New York City. . .S09 

Fevers, Deaths from 217 

Fifty- fourth Congress 409-412 

Fifty-fifth Congress 413-416 

Financial Statistics of U.S. 176-185 

Fire Dept., N. Y. City 472. 494 

" Help in Case of 252 

" Insurance Statistics 172 

Fires, Loss by,in United States.172 

Fisheries of United States 167 

Fishing, Open Seasons for 250 

Flag, the National 333 

Flags, Storm & Weather Sig. .64, 65 

Flags, Transatlantic Lines 192 

Floriculture in the U. S 158 

Florida Election Returns 430 

Flowers, State 219 

FlT-Casting Records. 229 

FootbaU Records 513, 514 

Foreign-Bom Inhabitants in 

United States 875-377 

Foreign Coins, Value of 151 

" Consuls in N. Y. City.489,490 
*• Consuls in United States . .408 

" Legations in U. S 407 

" Mails '^}>?5 

" Ministers Abroad 3o2 

' ' Missions, American Board 321 
" Population of U. S. Cities..S77 

" Shipping 150 

" Trade of the U. S 152, 153 

Foresters, Order of 309 

Forestry Statistics 148 

Forty Immortals 264 

Founders & Patriots, America .331 
France, Army &Navy..347, 348,366 

" Government of. 366 

" Rulersof. 354 

Fraternal Organizations „...308-311 

Freemasonry 304-306 

Free Silver Party Platform — 90 

French Academy 864 

French Pretenders 358 

' ' Revolutionary Era 42 

Funnel Marks of Steamers J92 

G 

Game Laws 250, 251 

Gas, Illuminating, Inhalation.. 252 
" Natural, Production of — 171 

Generals, U. S. Army 393 

Geographic Names, U.S. Board. 139 
Geographic Society, National..261 
Geographical Soc, American.. 261 
Geological Society of America. 261 

Geological Strata 60 

Geology in 1896 266 

Georgia Election Returns. ..430-432 

German Royal Family 356 

Germany, Army & Navy . .347, 348 

•* Government of 366 

Gifts to Colleges 289 

Gin, Production of 168 

Goitre in France 218 

Gold in European Banks 180 

Gold, Production of. . . .171, 176, 178 

Oold,U. S.,inCirculaton 182 

Golden Cham, Order of 309 

Golf Season 228,229 

Good Fellows, Royal Society. . .309 

r Good Friday in 1897 33 

Good Roads. National Leagae.346 



PAes 
Good Tempkurs, Independent 
Order of 307 

Governments of the Earth..61, 351 
Governors of States and Terri- 
tories 386 

Grain Production of U. S. ..161,162 
Grand Array of the Republic. . .343 

Grange, National 107 

Gravity, Acceleration of 89 

■ Specific 63 

Britain, Army & Navy. .347,362 
Diplomatic Interc' se with. .363 

Measures and Weights 80 

Statistics of 359-365 

Greater New York 496, 523 

Great Lakes in U. S. , Area of . . . 145 

Greek Calendar for 1897 46 

Letter College Societies. . .284 
Royal Family 366 



H 



Hack akd Cab Fabbs, N. Y.495 

Hams, Production of 166 

Harvard Baseball 222 

" Boat Races 234,236 

" Debates 258 

" FootbaU 513,514 

Hay, Production of 161 

Hay Fever Association, U. S. .218 

Heads of Governments 3§1 

Health Dep't,N. Y. City 472 

Heart Disease, Deaths from . . .218 

Height, Buildings, in N. Y 520 

■ PointsinN. Y. City 495 



PAGS 

Interior Department Officials. .388 

Secretaries of the 121 

Internal Revenue Oflacers^N. Y 473 

" " Receipts 140 

Int'nat'l League Press Clubs ...265 

Interstate Commerce Com. 888 

Invention. Progress of 174, 175 

Iowa Election Returns 436 

Ireland, Government of 361 

'' Population of 369, 865 

Irish Catholic Union 310 

" National Organizations.. .330 

*• Titles, Ancient. 271 

Iron^World' 8 Production of 170 

" Tonnage in U.S 160 

Italian Government 367 

Italian Royal Family 356 

Italy, Army & Navy of _347. 348,367 
«l 

Japan, Abmt a^b Navt 349 

Japanese Era 33 

Jewish Calendar for 1897 46 

Era 33 

Jews, Numberof 313 

Judgments, When Outlawed . . 81 

Judiciary of New York City . . .474 

" of New York State . . . .419, 420 

" of States. (See Each State 

Election Returns.) 

'* of United States 390 

JulianPeriod 33 

Jumping Records 237 

Jupiter, Planet 42 

Jury Duty, New York City . . . .496 



Help in Accidents ' 052 Justice, U S. Department of. . .388 

Heptasophs, Order of!!*V.'.!.*.*!31oJ^ticesj)f the^U. S. Supreme 

Hibernians, Order of 310 

Hindooism 313 

Hog Statistics. 166 

" Products, Exports 166 

Holidays, Church 33 

■' Legal 43 

Old English 43 

Home Circle. Order of 810 

Homes and Asylums in N. Y.C.478 

" Soldiers', U.S 832,333 

Homestead Laws 145 

Homicide in U. S 215 

Homing Pigeon Records 514 

Homoeopathy, American Inst. 262 
Hoo-Hoo, Concatenated OrderSU 

Hopping Records 247 

Hops, Production of 161 

Horse- Racing Records 230-232 

Horses, Value of, in U. S 159 

Hospitals, N. Y. City 484 

Hotels, N. Y.City 527 

House Flags Atlantic Steamers.l9"2 

Huguenot Society 330 

Human Fecundity 219 

Hunting, Open Seasons for 250 

Hurdle- Racing Records 231,242 

Hurricane Signals 65 



Idaho EiiECTioN Returns. . .432 

Illinois Election. Returns 438 

Illiteracy, Statistics of 295 

Immigrants into U. S 149 

Immortals, the Forty. 264 

Imports into U. S., 1896 152,153 

" into U. S. per capita 157 

" Prices of 158 

Indebtedness of Nations 138 

" of the States &Territorie3.136 
Independent Knights of Labor . 108 

India, Government of. 363 

Indian, the American 147 

Indiana Election Returns. 434-436 

Indians, Expenditures for. 141 

Insect Stings, Relief for. 252 

Inspection of Steam Vessels 139 

Insurance Statistics 172-174 

Inter - Continental Railway 

Commission 388 

Interest Laws. 80,81 



Court Since 1789 118 

K 
Kansas Election Retuens .437 
KeutuckyElection Returns 438-440 
Kingdom, Brotherhood of the„325 

King's Daughters and Sons 824 

Knights and Ladies of Honor. .310 

" of Golden Eagle 310 

" of Honor 310 

" ofLabor i.,108 

" of Malta 810 

" of Pythias 308 

" of St John and Malta 310 

" Templars^ 306 

Labob Bxteeaus 109 

" Legislation 108,130 

" Organizations, GeneraL 108 

" Party, Socialist 95,103 

" Strikes, Statistics of. 108 

Lakes of U. S.jArea of 145 

Land Claims, U. S. Court 390 

Land Forces of Europe.... 347, 348 

" Offices, U.S 145 

Lands, Public, in U. S 144, 145 

Languages Spoken, European. 61 

Lard, Production of 166 

Latitude and Longitude Table. 62 

Latter- Day Saints 329 

Lawn- Tennis Records 240,241 

Law Examinations, N. Y. State.220 

Law Schools in U. S 274 

Lawyers' Club, N. Y. City 483 

Lead, Production of 171 

League American Wheelmen..346 
Learned Societies, American . .259 

Legal Holidays 43 

Legal Tender, What Is. . . .180, 181 

Legations, Foreign, in U. S 407 

Legion of Honor, American. . .809 
Legislation in 1896, Review . . . .129 
Legislatures, Pay and Terms of 

Members 886 

Legislatures. (See £2ach Stat« 

Election Returns. ) 
Legislatures, State.Wlien Next 

Sessions Begin 886 

Lentinl897 88 

Leprosy in India 218 

Libraries, N. Y. City 494 



iMb^aa^^K^ 



22 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGE 

Library Association .American 803 

Life , Human , Duration of 61 

Life Insurance Statistics 178 

Life-Saving Service 139,473 

Lifting Records 247 

Light, Velocity of 39 

Light- House Establishment ... 98 
Lightning, Help for Persons 

Struck by 252 

" Loss by 67 

Lime, Production of 171 

Limitations, Statutes of 81 

Liquor Statistics 168, 169 

Literature in 1896 300, 801 

Locomotive Dimensions 261 

London City Officials 365 

Long- Distance Throwing.. .. 223 
Longitude and Latitude Table. 62 

Losses by Fire in U. S 172 

Losses by Tornadoes 64,65 

Louisiana Election Returns 440 

Loyal Legion, Military Order of 341 

Luther League of America 319 

Lynchings in U. S 216 

M 

Maccabees, Okdeb of...„ .310 

MaUs, Domestic and Foreigu.71-76 
" U. S., Expenditures for . .128 

Maine Election Returns 441 

Manchester Canal 214 

Malt Liquors, Statistics. 167, 168,169 
Manganese Ore, Production of. 171 

Manufactures in U. S 167 

Maps of Brooklyn Street Rail- 
roads 536-539 

Maps of N. Y. City 522-536 

Maple Sugar, Production of 165 

Marine Corps, United States. . .399 

Markets, New York City 497 

Malarial Fever, Deaths from . .217 

Mars, Planet 42 

Marshals, United States, Listof.391 

Maryland Election Returns 441 

Masonic Degrees, Sovereign 

College of 305 

* • Grand Lodges, U. S 304 

" Information 304-306 

Masons, Knights Templars 305 

" Negro, Lodges of 306 

'• RoyalArch 305 

'• ScottishRite 305 

Masonry, Degrees in 304 

Massachusetts Election Re- 
turns 442 

•' Game I^ws 251 

Mathematical Society, Amer. .263 

Mayflower Descendants 330 

Mayors of New York City 496 

' * of Cities in United States . 383 

Measles, Deaths from 217, 218 

Measures, Domestic ... 80 

••' Metric System of 77-79 

* * Used in Great Britain 80 

Mechanical Engiueers'Society.260 
Mechanics, Order of American. 311 

Medal of Honor Legion 342 

Medical Examinations, N. Y.220 

Medical Schools in U. S 274 

Medicine, American Academy.262 

Memorable Dates 44 

Merchandise Exported & Im- 
ported in 1896 152, 153 

Merchant Navies of the World. 150 

Mercury, Planet 42 

Metals. Precious 178,179 

Methodist Bishops 317 

Metric System 77-79 

Me trological Society, Amer — 263 

Mexico, Army and Navy 349 

" Statistics of 371 

Mica, Production of 171 

Michigan Election Returns 443 

Military Academy of U. S 392 

Military Order Loyal Legion... 341 

* * Order of Foreign Wars 337 



PAGE 

Military Resources of Europe 

In Able- Bodied Men . . .865 
'• Service Regulations in 

Europe 347 

'•* Societies of U. S 336 

" Strength of Nations. . .347, 348 
Militia Ages, Population by — 376 

" iuN. Y. City 498 

•' Naval 398 

•' of the States 398 

Mineral Products of U, S 171 

Mining Engineers, Institute of .260 
Ministering Children' s League.312 

Ministers, Foreign, in U. S 407 

" of European Countries — 352 

'* U.S., Abroad 406 

Minnesota Election Returns. . .445 

Mint Marks Explained 179 

Mints, Deposits at U. S 178 

" Superintendents of 389 

'• U. S., Coinage at 178 

Missions, American Board of 

Foreign 321 

Mississippi Election Returns. . .446 

Missouri Election Returns 447 

Mohammedan Calendar for 1897 46 

Mohammedanism 313 

" Era 33 

Monarchies and Republics 61 

Mouarchs of European Coun- 
tries 353.354 

Monetary Definitions 180,181 

Monetary Statistics 176-180 

Monetary System, Illustrated... 180 

Money, Denominations of 180 

Money in Circulation U. S.. 166, 182 

' ' Orders, Postal 72,75 

" " Express 492 

Monej^, Foreign 151 

Montana Election Returns 448 

Monthly Calendars for 1897. . .47-58 

Months, French Names of 42 

Monuments, N. Y. City. 497 

Moon, Distance from 42 

Moon's Phases in 1897 40 

Moonlight Chart for 1897 41 

" Nightsinl897 41 

Mormons, the 329 

Mortality Statistics 217 

Mortgage Statistics, U. S 160 

Mountains,Highest,on Earth. 61,69 
Mt. Vernon Ladies' Associat'n.l04 

Mules, Value of, inU. S 159 

Municipal League, National... 346 

Murders in U.S 216 

MuKierous Nations 216 

Mu.seums. N. Y, City 477 

Music Halls, N. Y. City 477 

Musical People, Ages, etc 268 

Musicians, College of - 269 

Mystic Circle, Order ot 310 

Mystic Shrine, Nobles of the. . .306 
N 

Names, Commonest 265 

National Academy of Design, 

270, 271 

" Academy of Sciences.. 259 

" Ass' n Democratic Clubs.... 100 

" Bank Statistics 182 

" Cymrodorion Society 330 

" Democratic Party P'tform 89 

** Educational Ass' n 296 

" Encampments „ 343 

" Fanners' Alliance 106 

" Geographic Society 261 

'' Grange 107 

" Guard 398,498 

" League for Good Roads 346 

" League for Protection of 
American Institutions . .346 

" Municipal League 346 

" Party Committees 100-104 

" Party Nat' 1 Cent' 1 Com. . .104 

" Party Platforms 89-97 

" Provident Union 310 

" Republican League 103 



PAGE 

National Sculpture Society 271 

" Statistical Association. . . 260 
" Spiritualists' Association. 328 

" Union, Order of 810 

Nationalities in U. S 377 

Nations, Indebtedness of 188 

Natural Gas Production 171 

Naturalists' Society, American.261 

Naturalization Laws of U. S 135 

Nautical Almanac, U. S 399 

Naval Academy of U. S 392 

" Architects, Society of 262 

" Militia 398 

" Observatory 399 

" Order of the United States.337 

" Retiring Board 399 

" Veterans, National Ass' n. 341 

Navies of Europe 347 

Navigation, Opening and Clos- 
ing of 70 

Navy at New York City 497 

" British 362 

'• Captains and Command- 
ers 405 

" Department Officials 387 

" Rank of Officers 350 

" Secretaries of the 121 

'• U. S. Official List 391 

" United States Stations 404 

" U.S., Vessels 400-405 

" Yards, United States 404 

Nebraska Election Returns 442 

Necrology for 1896 124-129 

Negroes in United States 376 

Neptune, Planet 42 

Netherlands, Army & Navy of. 347 

" Royal Family of 356 

Nevada Elections Returns 460 

New England Order of Protec- 
tion 310 

New Hampshire Election Re- 
turns 451 

New Jersey Election Returns.. 460 

" " Game Laws 250 

New Mexico, BUI to Admit. . . .385 
" " Election Returns451 

Newspaper Statistics 265 

N. Y. City Employes 601 

" " Government 472, 473 

" " Greater 496,523 

" " Information of.. 472-512 

" " Judiciary 474 

" " Maps of 522-535 

" " Vote 464 

New York Game Laws 250 

" Legislature, 1897.. ......421, 422 

" Party Platforms 97 

" State Election Returns, 

452,453 
" State Government... 418-422 

" State Judiciary 419,420 

" State, Population of 373 

Nicaragua Canal 214 

Nobles of the Mystic Shrine 306 

North Carolina Election Re- 
turns 455 

" Dakota Election Returns..456 

Norwegian Royal Family 358 

Numerals, Roman and Arabic. 80 

O 

Oat Ceop Statistics 161,162 

Obituary RoU for 1896 124-126 

Occupations in U. S 382 

Occurrences During Printing.. 25 

Oceans, Depth of 61 

Ocean Steamers 190-192 

Odd Fellowship, Information . .307 
Officers of U.S. Governm' t.387-388 

Ohio Election Returns 467 

Oklahoma Election Returns. . .458 

Old Guard, Order of. 337 

Old People of 1897, Famous 127 

Opera Singers, Ages of 268 

Oregon Election Returns 459 

Oriental Society, American 263 



PAGE 

Orthodox Greek Church. 313 

Oxen,Value of ,ln United States.159 
Oxford- Cambridge Boat Baces.236 

Pacing Eecobds 232 

Painting and Sculpture 270 

Palm Sunday in 1897........ 33 

Panama Canal .214 

Paris Exposition of 1900.....~ 298 

Parks of New York City. . . .472,499 

Parliament, British 364 

Party Divisions 417 

Party Platforms.... 89-97 

Passport Regulations 82 

Patent Office Fees & Statistics. 147 

" " Procedure 146 

Patriotic Order Sons of Anaer .105 
" Women's Societies.... 338, 339 

Patrons of Husbandry 107 

Pauperism 215 

Pawnbrokers' Eegulations^N. Y499 

Peabody Education Fund 297 

Peanuts, Production of 161 

Pennsylvania Elect' n Returns. 459 

" Game Laws 251 

Pension Agents 388 

Pension Statistics 142, 143 

People's Party National Com- 
mittee 103 

People' s Party Platform 94 

Periodic Comets... 37 

Periods, Chronological 33 

Per Capita Statlsticsof U.S.156,157 
Petroleum, Production of.. 170, 171 
Philip & Andrew3rotherhood.324 
Philological Ass'n, American.261 
Phosphate Rock Production . . .171 

Piers, New York City 498 

Pilgrun Fathers, Order of 310 

Plagues, Statistics of 218 

Planetary Configurations, 1897_ 36 
Pneumonia, Deaths from.. 21 7, 218 

Poisons, Antidotes for 252 

Pole Star,Mean Time of Transit 39 
Police Dept, N. Y. City. ..472,501 

Political Committees 100-104 

Political Conventions and Plat 

formsofl896 89-97 

Political Record of 1896 99 

Pool Records inl895-96 239 

Popular Vote for President.423, 424 

Population, All Countries 353 

" by State Censuses of 1895.. 378 

" of Canadian Cities. 369 

" Central &South America. 370 

" Centreof,U. S 374 

" Living in Cities 379 

" of Cities of U. S. . . .377,379-383 
" of Qt Britain &Ireland.359, 365 
" of Largest Cities of Earth.372 

" of Mexico 371 

" of New York State 379 

" of States in 1897, Estimated 

by Governors 515 

" oftheEarth 61 

" of U. S. by Decades 381 

by Each Census.. 373 

" " by Families 377 

by Militia Ages. . .376 
" " by Nationality 375,377 

by Nativity 374 

" byRace 374 

by School Ages. . .376 

bySex 374 

" " by Voting Ages. . .376 

" Indian 147 

" " White and Negro.376 

" Tables, U.S 373-381 

Pork, Production of 166 

Portuguese Royal Family 356 

Port Wardens, N. Y City 473 

Postal Information 71-76 

Postmasters-General, List of. ..121 
Postmasters of Cities in U.S.». .389 

Post-Office Dep't Officials 388 

" " Regulations, N.Y.City.500 



PAGE 

Post-Office Statistics, U. S 128 

Potato Crop in U.S 161 

Potomac, Society of Army of . .842 

Powder, Smokeless 350 

Precious Metals, Statistics. , 178, 179 

Presbyterian Assemblies 318 

' LeagueofN. Y 819 

Presidential Elections 1789 to 

1896 114,115 

Electors, How Chosen — 122 

' Cabinet Officers 120,387 

Succession 118 

' Vote 423 

Presidents of the U. S 116,117 

of the U. S. Senate 119 

Press, Statistics of 265 

Prices of Imports and Kxport3-158 

Princeton Debates 258 

Prison Association, New York.216 
Produce, Minimuna Weights of. 79 

Progress of Invention 174,175 

Prohibition Nat'l Committee.. 104 

Prohibition Party Platform 95 

Property, Assessed Valu ' n . 138, 383 
Protection in Party Platforms. 89 
Protestant Episcopal Bishops. .317 

Protestants, Number of 303 

Provident Loan Society 499 

PubUcDebtof U. S 137 

" Cities in U.S .383 

•♦ LandsofU.S 144.145 

" Porters, New York City. ..495 
•• Works Dept , N. Y. City .472 

Q 

Qualifications for Votins.IIO 
Quicksilver, Production of. 171 



R 

RACE,Population According to. 61 

Racing Records, Horse 230-233 

Railroad Accidents, Statistics. .210 

" Commissions 212 

*• Earnings & Expenses. .193-209 

" Employes in U. S., .210 

" Expresses 194-209 

" Fares from N. Y. City.524,532 

" Maps 536-539 

•• MUeage 193-213 

" Officials 194-209 

•• Passenger Stations, N. Y. .501 

" Speed Records 211 

" Statistics of U. S 193-212 

" •' of World 213 

" Street, in U. S 515 

" Street, Brooklyn 606, 507 

" Stocks, List... 184-185 

" Systems 194-209 

Railroads, Elevated 502, 603 

'• N.Y. City.... 504, 505 
Rainfall, Normal, in the U. S. . 66 

" of Foreign Cities 67 

Rank of Officers, Army &Navy.350 
Rapid Transit Comm' rs,N.Y.C.473 

Rates of Postage 71-76 

Ratio of Representation U. S. 

Congress 416 

Ready Reference Calendar.... 59 
Real Estate Mortgages, U, S. . .160 
Receipts and Expenditures 

U. S. Government 141 

Record of Events in 1896 123 

Redemption of U. S. Notes 179 

Red Men, Order of 310 

Reform Bureau 326 

Reformed Churches, Alliance .318 

" Church in America.-. 319 

" Episcopal Bishops 317 

Regents' Examinations , N. Y. 220 
Regents, University of N. Y. ...418 

Registration of Voters 112 

Regular Army and NavyUnion341 

Reigning Families of Europe.. 355 

Religious Denominations.. 314, 315 

" Information , 313-319 



PAGB 

Religious Societies 818-328 

Representatives in Congr'B.410-414 
Republic, Grand Army of the. .343 
P^epublican National and State 

Committees .102 

" League, National- 103 

" Party Platform 92 

Republics and Monarchies 61 

Revenue Cutter Service- 148 

Revenues, U. S.Govemm't..l40,141 

Revolution, Dames of the 389 

" Daughters of the 338 

" Daughters of American., 838 

" Sonsof the 335 

" Sons of the American 336 

Revolutionary Widows Pen- 
sioned i 143 

Revolver Records ....247 

Rheumatism, Deaths from 218 

Rhode Island Election Returns 461 

Rice, Production of 163 

Rifle Records 246 

Rifles Used by PrincipalArmies349 

Ritualistic Calendar 46 

Rogation Days 34 

Roman Catholic Hierarchy ....316 

Roman Era 33 

Roumanian Royal Family 3fii7 

Rowing Records. 234-237 

Royal Academy 271 

Arcanum 808 

Family of England 360 

Families of Europe 355-360 

Masonic Order of Scotland 806 
Templars of Temperance .810 

Rulers of Nations 851 

Rum, Production of 168 

Running Records 247 

Russia, Army & Navy of. 347,348,367 

Russian Calendar for 1897 46 

" Government 867 

" Imperial Family 367 

Rye, Pioductiou of 161 

8 

Sack-Ractntg Recoeds. 243 

Safe Deposit Companies 482 

Salt, Production of 171 

Salvation Army 327 

Saturn, Planet 42 

Savings BanksStatistics. . . .183,481 

Saxon RoyalFamily 357 

Scarlet Fever. Deaths f rom-217, 218 

Schools in U.S. 274 

New York City 493 

Scientific Associations 259 

Progress in 1896 266, 267 

Scotch-Irish Society 330 

Scotland, Government of 361 

Scottish Clans, Order of 810 

Scrofula, Deaths from 218 

Sculpture 270 

Seasons, the 33 

Secretaries, Cabinet, List.. .120, 887 

Senate, Presidents of 119 

SenatorsJJ. S. 409,413 

Servian Royal Family 358 

Sheep in U.S 163 

Shipping, American <fe Foreign. 150 

Shotgun Performances 514 

Shorthand, Speed in 269 

Sidewalks, New York City.... 484 

Signals, weather 64, 66 

'^ Night, on Steamers 192 

Silver Dollar, Market Prices of. 176 

in European Banks 180 

Party Platform 96 

Production of.... 171, 176, 178 
Product U. S. ^Sources of. .177 

Purchases by tJ. 8 177 

Question in Party Plat- 
forms 89-96 

Ratio to Gtold 177 

U. S. , in Circulation 182 

Single Tax 107 



PAGE 

Skating Records 239, 240 

Slater, J. F.,FuDd 297 

Small- Pox, Deaths from 218 



I 



PAO£ 

Sun' s Declinatiou 

Sunstroke, Help in Case of 262 

Supreme Court of U. S U8,890 



Smokeless Powders 350 Surveyors of Customs 389 

Socialist Labor Party 95, 103 Swedish Royal Tamily 368 

Social Purity ,Christian League. 326lSwimminK Records .243 

Social Science Association 269 Swine, Value of, in U. S 166 

SocietiesinK. Y. City 511 



..310 
.308 

*336 



Solar System, , 42 

Soldiers' Homes, U. S 

Sons of America, Patriotic. . 

'^ of Israel 

" of Temperance 

" of the American Revolu 
tion 

" of the Revolution 335 

" of Veterans, U. S. A 344 

Sorosis 311 

South & Central Amer. Trade 
South Am. Armles«SB Kavies..349 
So. CarolinaElection Returns. .461 

" Dakota ElectionReturns.. 462 

Sovereigns of Europe 353, 354 

Spain, Army and Navy of .347, 348 



332|Tammany, Society or 331 

10.0 TariflF Act of 1894, Rates of. . 154, 165 

" British 155 

" Question in Party Platf ' ms 89 

Tax, Smgle 107 

Taxable Property of U.S. Cities.383 

Tea Statistics 157,169 

Telegraph Information 188,189 

Telephone Statistics 189 

3/0 Temperature, Normal, in II. S. 66 

" of Foreign Cities 67 

Tennessee Election Returns.. . .462 
" Centennial Exposition . . . .299 

" Society of the Army of 342 

Territories of United States 386 



PAOB 

UnlTersity Boat Badng. . . .234-236 

" Extension 296 

Uranus, Planet 43 

Utah Election Betaiiis........v466 



Spanish Royal Family 357 

Speakers oi U.S. House of Rep- 
resentatives 119 

Specie Exportsand Imports. . . ,152 

Specific Gravity. 63 

Speed, Railroad 211 

Speed, Typevyriting 269: Tide Tables'. 68,69 

Spelhng Reform... 269 Time T^ifference BetweenNew 

Spirits, Statistics of. . . . . . .1^| York and Foreign Cities 35 

Spiritual ists',l^ational Ass' n.. 328 •' Divisions of 34 

Spirituous Liquors, Imports... 168 »' MaiLfromKew York...!! 76 
Sporting Records 221-248,51S| " on Shipboard 35 



Texas Election Returns 464 

Theatres, Kew York City 477 

Theosophical Society 312; 

rhermometers. Comparative 

Scales 63 

Throwing Records 241 



Spring, Beginning of, 1897 8S 

Stage, the 26S 

Standard Time, 34 

Star,Nearest to Earth 42 

" Table « 39 

Stars, Morning and Evening. . . 33 
State and Territorial Grovem- 

ments 386 

" and Terri. Indebtedness. .136 
" and Territorial Receipts.. 140 
" and Territorial Statistics. .385 

" Capitals 385 

" Committees, Political . 100-102 

" Department Officials 387 

" Elections 386 

" Flowers 219 

" Legislation in 1896.... 129-134 
'• OMcers. (See Each State 
Election Returns.) 



Tin, Production of 170 

Tobacco, Production of 1S6 

Tonnage, Maritime 150 

Tornado Statistics 64,65 

Trade, Foreign, of U. S 152, 153 

Transatlantic Mails 75,76 

Treasury Department Officials. 387 

" Secretaries of the 120 

Troop.s I\iruished in Civil War.340 

Tropical Year, Length of 38 

Trotting Records.. 231 

Trust Companies 482 

Turf, the American 230-232 

Turkey, Army & Navy of. .347,348 

Twilight Tables 47-58 

Typewriting, Speed in 269 

Typhoid Fever, Deaths from.. 218 

u 



U. S. Secretaries of 120|UnionAbmyCorp8,Socikt'8.342 

States and the Union 385; " Veteran Legion ... 344 

Statistical Association.s 260' " Veterans' Union 345 

Statues,N. Y. City 497 Unitarian Ass' n, American .'!.1!319 

statutes of Limitations 81 United American Mechanics. . ,311 



Steamboat Accidents. 1895-96. . .139 
Steamboats from N. Y. City.... 510 

Steamships from N. Y. City 508 

Steamships,Transatlantlc...l90-192 
Steam Vessels, Inspection . .139,472 
Steel, World's Production of. . .170 

Stings of Insects, Help for. 252 

Stocks, Prices of Leadmg. . .184, 185 

Storm Sigrnals 65 

Street Blocks, N. Y. Citj^ 509 

Street-Cleaning Dept.,N. Y. C-'. 471 

" Directory, N. Y. City 543 

" Railwa>'9iuU. S 515 

Strikes, Labor, Statistics of. 108 

St. Andrew, Brotherhood of.. . ..'524 

St Vincent de Paul Society 320 

Submarine Cables 541 

Suez Canal 214 

Suflfrage.Qualiflcations for.110-112 

" Woman 112 

Sugar, Consumption of, U. S...157 

" Production 166 

Suicide, Statistics of 216 



United Confederate Veterans. .345 

Friends, Order of 311 

States Army 393, 398 

Army Cannon 419 

Assistant Treasurers 389 

Cemeteries 520 

Civil Service Rules 113 

Constitution 83-88 

Courts. 118,390,475 

Customs Duties 154, 155 

Daughters of Conf ederacy..S45 



Valuation, Assessed, of 

Peopekty IV U. S 138,383 

Value of Foreign Coins 161 

Venezuela Boundary Com's'n.888 

Venus, Planet 42 

Vermont Election Returns. . . .466 

Veterans, Sons of , 844 

Vice-Presidents of U. S., List. .119 
Virginia Antiquities, Associa- 
tion for Preservation of 331 

Virginia Election Returns 467 

Vital Statistics, Records. 219 

Volunteers of America .327 

Vote, Popular & ElectoraL.423, 424 

Voters, Registration of 112 

" Qualiflcations for. JlO. Ill 

W 

Wages, Workingjckn's 167 

Walking Records ^.........248 

War, Civil, Statistics of 340 

" Department Officials 387 

" Secretaries of .120 

'• of 1812, Societies of. 339 

'* Veterans, Society of Sons.344 

Wars of U. S., Troops Engaged.332 

Washington, D. C.,Gov'tof....884 

" State Election Returns ... .468 

Water, High, Various Places 68 

Weather, Rules for Foretelling 63 

*• Signals 64,65 

Weight- Throwing Records 241, 243 
Weights and Measures, Metric 

System. 77-79 

Weights, Domestic 80 

" ofOreat Britain 80 

" of Produce 79 

West Point Military Academy.. 392 
W. Virginia Election Returns.. 469 

Wheat Statistics 157,162 

Wheelmen, League Amer'n. . .346 

Whiskey, Production of 168 

Whist, Duplicate 255 

" Etiquetteof 265 

•* Laws, American ..253-256 

*' Leads 256 

" League, Officers of... 256 

White Cross Society 326 

WindSignals 65 

Winds, Velocity of, in U. S 67 

Wine, Statistics of 157,168,169 

Winter, Beginning of, 1897 83 

Wisconsin Election Returns... 469 

Woman'sRelief Corps.... 344 

Woman Suffrage .........112 

Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union 320 

Women'sClubs, Federation of .311 

Wool, Statistics of 157, 163 

Workingmen's Wa^es 167 

Workmen, United Order of 311 

World, Religions of the 313 

" Statistics of Countries of . .853 
Wurtemberg, Roval Family. ..358 
■ 471 



Summer, Beginning of, 1897. ... 33 " Supreme Court 118, 890 

Sunday-School Statistics 315 Universalist Gen' 1 Convention. 314 

Sun on Meridian 47-58 Universities of U. S 272-299 



Daughters, Society of 339. Wyoming Election Returns 

District Attorneys 891 -mr 

Government Receipts and * 

Expenditures 1411 Yachting Records 224-228 

Military Academy 392; Yale^asebalL 222 

Monetary Definitions 180 

Naval Academy 392 

jN"avy 399-406 

Population Tables . . . .873-881 
Post- Office Statistlc3.......,.128 

Public Debt JL87 

Public Lands 144 



Boat Races. 234,236 

" Debates. 268 

'* FootbaU 613,614 

Year, Ancient and Modem 87 

Young Men' s Christ. Ass' ns. . . .823 
" People' s Chri.st' n Union. .821 
" Women' sChrlstAss'ns.... 828 



Zenc, Pkoduction oir 171 



; (J^ctttrrtncrs Bwrfng Jlrintinfl^ 

' SOMB weeks ar© occupied in printing a volume so bulky as The "Wokld Almanac, and it Is neces- 
sarily i)ut to press in parts or "forms." Changes are in the mean time occurring. Advantage is taken 
of the going to press of the last f oran to insert information of the latest possible date, which is done below. 
The readers of the Almanao are requested to observe these additions, corrections, and changes, and it 
would be well to make note of them on the pages indicated, 

U2. Civil Service Reform League: OflScers elected December 11, 1896, at the annual meeting at Phila- 
delphia: President, Carl Schurz, New York; Vice-Presidents, Charles Francis Adams, Boston ; 
Augustus E.. MacDonough, New York; the Right Rev. Henry C. Potter, New York; J. Hall 
Pleasants, Baltimore; Henry Hitchcock, St. Louis; Henry C. Lea, Philadelphia; Franklin Mao- 
Veagh, Chicago; William Potts, New York, and Archbishop P. J. Ryan, Philadelphia. 

129. State legislation in 1896 : The Legislatures of Alabama, Georgia, and Vermont were in session after 
Mr. Storey's address was delivered. A summary of results will appear in next year's issue. 

140. Internal revenue receipts in fiscal year of 1896 : From spirits, $80,670,071 ; from tobacco, $30,711,629 ; 
^i from fermented liquors, $33,784,235; from oleomargarine, $1,219,432. Total receipts, $146,830,616. 

iSl- The highest price of No. 2 winter wheat in Chicago, since the table was printed, 'was 94^ on Novem- 
ber 28. 

212, 388. Charles A. Prouty, of Vermont, has been appointed an Interstate Commerce Commissioner, to 
succeed W. G. Veazey, resigned. 

217. The death penalty is also inflicted in Alabama for treason, and cohabitation with a female under 
10 years of age. Imprisonment may be substituted for some of these crimes, at the discretion of 
tfi-l; . the Court. 
Mn. The Legislature of Nebraska has adopted the Grolden Rod as the State floral emblem of that State. 

260. National Statistical Association : President, Joseph Nimmo, Jr.; Vice-Presidents, "William Law- 
rence, William T. Harris, Frederick C. Waite ; Secretary, Weston Flint. 
American Bar Association : The next annual meeting will be at Cleveland, Ohio, August 25-27, 1897. 

264. Andre Theuriet and M. Vandal were elected to seats in the French Academy December 10, 1896. 

305. The thirteenth triennial convocation of Royal Arch Masons, at which the centennial of the General 
Grand Chapter will bo celebrated, will be held at Baltimore, Md., October 12, 1897. 

316. Edward F. Prendergast has been appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Philadelphia; James E. Quigley, 
Bishop of Buffalo; Edward J. O'Dea, Bishop of Nesqually, Ore. Francis SatoUi, RaefEle Pietro, 
and Guiseppi Prisco have been created Cardinals. Cardinal Boyer died December 16, 1896. 

321. The Vice-Presidents of the Baptist Young People's Union are C. L. Seasholes, F. L. Fowke, and C. 
E. Tingley. The seventh annual convention will be held at Brooklyn, N. Y., July 16-19, 1897. 

324. Daughters of the King : The ofiBce of the order is at the Church Mission House, 281 Fourth Avenue, 
New York. The fifth annual convention will be held at Washington, D. C, in October, 1897, 

$30. Society of Mayflower Descendants : The following new officers were elected at the annual meeting 
in November, 1896 : Governor, Henry E. Howland, of New York City ; Deputy Governor, John T. 

r Terry, of Irvington-on-Hudson ; Captain, Joseph J. Slocum, of New York City; Elder, Roderick 

<- Terry, D. D., of New York City; Secretary, Frederic H. Hatch, of New York City; Treasurer, 

, ■ William Milne Grinnell, of New York City ; Historian, Richard H. Greene, of New York City ; 

Surgeon, J. Dongal Bissell, M, D., of New York City. 

33L Society of Colonial Wars ; Officers of the General Society elected in December, 1896, were : Gov- 
ernor-General, Frederick J, DePeyster; Deputy Governors-General, T. J. Oakley Rhinelander, for 
New York; Richard M. Cadwallader, for Pennsylvania ; Francis E.Abbott, for Massachusetts; 
Joseph L, Brent, for Maryland; Frederick J. Kingsbury, for Connecticut; Malcolm Macdonald, 
for New Jersey; E. A. Chittenden, for Vermont; J. C. Lombard, for Illinois ; Henry O. Kent, for 
New Hampshire; Rear- Admiral F. A Roe, for the District of Columbia ; R. W. T. Duke, Jr., for 

^j -■ Virginia. Secretary-CJeneral, Howland Pell, office comer of William Street and Exchange Place, 
New York; Treasurer-General, Frederick E. Haight, New York; Chaplain-General, Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Whipple, of Minaiesota, 

314. The Sons of Veterans have elected the following new officers : Commander-in-Chief, James L. 
Rake, Pennsylvania; Senior Vice-Commander, Leo. W. Kennedy, Colorado; Junior Vice-Com- 
mander, R. M. Buckley, Kentucky; Adjutant-General, H. F. Hammer, Reading, Pa. 

345. United Confederate Veterans: The Commander of the Army of North Virginia Department is 
Wade Hampton. The next annual reunion will be held at Nashville, Tenn., May 5-7, 1897. The 
number of camps which have joined the association is 870 and 150 more are being organized. 

351. Adolph Deucher has been elected President of Switzerland for 1897. 

360. The wife of Prince Frederick Carl Ludwig of Hesse gave birth to twin sons November 6, 1896. This 
increases the Queen's descendants by two. 

372. A special census of London in 1894 revealed 4,411,271 inhabitants. 

388. The chief examiner of the Civil Service Commission is Abram R. Serven, in place of W. H. Webster, 
deceased, 

390. Circuit Courts of the United States: North and South Dakota should be included in the Eighth 
and Montana and Washington in the Ninth Circuit, 

407. Wu Ting Fang has been appointed Chinese Minister to the United States. 

415. John E. Fowler, Pop., was elected from the Third and A. C. Shuford, Pop., from the Seventh 
District of North Carolina to the Fifty-fifth Congress, instead of Frank Thompson, Dem., from 
the Third and Samuel J. Pemberton from the Seventh, as given by the unofficial list furnished by 
the Clerk of the House of Representatives and printed on pages 414 to 416. 

41S. The changes in North Carolina, as above, make the number of Democrats in the House 120 aiMl 
. Populists 14. 

43& New York Railroad CommissioneH x Frank M. Baker has been appointed a Commissioner, to smo- 
ceed the late Michael Rickard. 

*9ii, The vote of Texas for Governor in 1896 (unofficial) was : Culberson, Dem., 297,974; Kearby, Pop., 
230,999; Clark, Pro., 1,800. Culberson's plurality, 66,»75. The composition of the Texas Legisla- 
ture is as follows : Senate — Democrats, 28 ; Populists, 2 ; Republicans, 1. House of Representa- 
tives — Democrats, 121 ; Populists, 5 ; Republicans, 3, 



26 The World. 



K%t aaaoritr. 



The Wokld's history continues to be that of progress. The year 1896, now closed, was the greatest in 
its existence. The week-day circulation reached, in November, the enormous average of 820,212 copies per 
day, exactly double the figures for the same month in 1892, and the circulation of the great Sunday 
WoKLD (no evening edition), passing the 600,000 mark on October 4, touched the magnificent total of 681,089 
on December 13. Three great octuple presses, the largest ever made, were added to a press equipment 
now unequalled in any daily newspaper office on earth, being the equivalent of fifty-seven single presses, 
designed for an output of 744,000 eight-page papers per hour I 



The World began its work for the presidential campaign months before the assembling of the 
National Convention at Chicago. It warned the unbelieving Democrats of the Eastern and the Middle 
States of the imminent danger of a free-silver control of that body. And it warned the Democrats of 
the South and West that an alliance with the forces of Free Silver and Populism would involve party 
suicide as well as party shame. 

It diligently set forth in extracts from the writings of all the fathers of Democracy, the sound- 
money doctrines that have dominated Democratic thought from the times of Jefferson and Jackson to 
those of Tilden and Cleveland. 

When that unhappy result at Chicago occurred, The World did not neglect any part of its duty as 
a public censor. It condemned the blunder. It showed the folly, the mischievousness, and the falsity of 
the doctrines written into a Democratic platform by Populists in no way in sympathy with the tradi- 
tional teachings of Democracy or with the aspirations of Democrats. But it also pointed out the fact 
that there were beneath and behind this outbreak of Populism real and substantial grievances. It 
recounted the history of the trust oppressions, the insolence of corporate wealth, and the utter failure dur- 
ing two administrations — the one Republican and the other Democratic — to enforce the laws enacted to 
prevent and punish these conspiracies of Greed against Need, or even to make a decent pretence of a desire 
to enforce them. It pointed to pledges broken, to hopes deferred, to legitimate desires defeated, as the 
causes of that popular discontent which had found mistaken and unfortunate expression at Chicago. 

Throughout the campaign it continued both its criticism of the wrongs done and its condemnation of 
the mistaken remedy proposed. It persisted in its advocacy of sound money as a necessity to the 
National honor and to the reputation of American citizenship for integrity and common honesty. In 
open letters to Mr. Bryan, it urged him to take up the Democratic declaration against a revival of the 
McKinley tarifif, to make prominent its opposition to trusts, and to disavow the platform attack upon the 
Supreme Court and its denial of the supremacy of the National authority in enforcing Federal law. 

At the same time, it gave to Mr. McKinley and his party a needed warning against the blunder they 
are about to make — a warning that his election, accomplished, as it was, only with the aid of Democratic 
votes, should not be construed as a verdict of the people in favor of a restoration of excessive tariff 
schedules, or as an invitation to that radical tariif disturbance upon which the extremists of the Repub- 
lican party seem to be determined. And since the election it has steadily urged upon Congress the fact 
that present needs of the country are summed up in the three words : Retrenchment, Revenue, and Rest. 

"THE WORLD" IN PROPHECY. 

The value of absolute independence in a public journal which has for its aim the desire to give to the 
public all the news, and for its highest purpose to tell the truth, has been demonstrated admirably dur- 
ing the year just closed, made memorable by an intensely exciting presidential election. When the first 
significant sign of the trouble that was to follow came in the free-silver capture of the Missouri Demo- 
cratic convention, THE World, on April 17, gave warning that the adoption of the free-silver idea would 
be political suicide, losing to the Democrats the Democratic States of New York, New Jersey, Connecti- 
cut, and every other Northern State that was carried by the Democrats in 1892. How well that warning 
foretold the disaster of November is a matter of history now. 

The World announced, with "prophetic vision," on March 16, 1896, that the Republican National 
Convention, to be held in St. Louis ninety-four days later, would select William McKinley as the candi- 
date for President, The World's " prophetic vision " was really knowledge gotten by a careful poll of 



The World. 



27 



every State in the Union by its 3,000 news correspondents. The announcement was made without " if 8 " 
or "probabilities" or reserve. It said: 

"WHY M'KINLEY WILL BE NOMINATED. 

*'Here are some of the reasons why it is safe to predict that William McKinley will be 
nominated for President by the Republican Convention at St. Louis : 

" 1. Because he is the only National candidate, the only candidate representing a National 
idea and a National issue. He stands for the aggressive radical sentiment of the Republican 
party. His name is linked with a single idea and no matter how mediocre or talentless he 
may really be, the popular imagination sees in him the champion of a great issue, the father 
of protection. 

"2. Because no one else mentioned for the candidacy is linked in the popular mind 
with a National policy, a National idea, a National sentiment, or a National measure. 

"3. Because he is a Western candidate and has behind him the enormous sectional 
pressure of Western sentiment, without the aid of which no Republican has ever been elected 
President. In fact, the Republicans have never chosen any but Western men for their can- 
didates, except in the case of Blaine, and he was beaten. Fremont in 1856, Lincoln in 1860 
and 1864, Grant in 1868 and 1872, Hayes in 1876, Garfield in 1880, and Harrison in 1888 were all 
Western candidates. 

"4. Because the opposing candidates have none of them any strength outside of their 
own State or section. Morton has only New York. Allison has nothing but Iowa. Reed has 
only New England. All combined are impotent against a united West and South. 

"5, Because last, but not least, the very fact that Mr. McKinley is opposed by the two 
most powerful bosses in the East, Piatt and Quay, and the two most odious, despotic political 
machines, is bound to create a reaction in his favor ; bound to give him the sympathy of the 
masses, who hate bosses ; bound to help him in the end. 

"We predict that William McKinley, of Ohio, will be nominated." 

Sunday, April 12, sixty-seven'days before the Convention, The Wokld told that Mark Hanna had 
made a compact with the New Jersey leaders, by which New Jersey was to support McKinley, after 
which Hanna was to throw all the McKinley votes to Hobart for Vice-President. 

On November 18, after the results of the election were finally ascertained, The World printed this 
review of its forecasts, under the heading, "The Value of Freedom :" 

" The official declaration of the result of the election in Wyoming and South Dakota, 
giving those States to Mr. Bryan, leaves the final division as follows : 

STATES FOB M'KINLET. 



California 9 

Connecticut 6 

Delaware 3 

Illinois 24 

Indiana 15 

Iowa 13 

Kentucky 12 

Maine 6 

Maryland 8 

Massachusetts 15 

Michigan 14 

Minnesota 9 

New Hampshire 4 



New Jersey 10 

New York 36 

North Dakota 3 

Ohio 23 

Oregon 4 

Pennsylvania 32 

Rhode Island 4 

Vermont 4 

Virginia 1 

West Virginia . . . '. 6 

Wisconsin 12 

Total 273 



STATES FOK BBYAN, 



Nevada 3 

North Carolina 11 

South Carolina 9 

South Dakota 4 

Tennessee 12 

Texas 15 

Utah 3 

Virginia 11 

Washington. 4 

Wyoming 3 

■^ Total 174 



Alabama 11 

Arkansas 8 

Colorado 4 

Florida 4 

Georgia 13 

Idaho 3 

Kansas 10 

Kentucky 1 

Louisiana 8 

Mississippi 9 

Missouri 17 

Montana 3 

Nebraska 8 

McKinley's majority 99 

" The popular plurality for McKinley is upward of 800,000. The largest plurality ever 
given before was for Grant over Greeley in 1872, which was 762,951. Tilden's plurality in 1876 
was 250,935. Garfield's in 1880 was only 7,018. Cleveland's, on his first election, was 62,683, 
and in 1892 it was 380,810. 

" The Republicans will have a majority of over fifty in the lower house of Congress. 
There will be a sound-money majority of at least ten in the Senate. 

" Now that all these results are determined, we may, perhaps be pardoned for recalling 
the early, specific, and unvarying predictions which we made concerning them They have a 
public interest in view of the extravagant and manifestly insincere or ignorant 'claims ' put 
forth from time to time by the newspaper organs of either party, and the rival political lead- 
ers. Both sides claimed from 300 to 350 electoral votes, and control of the two houses of 
Congress. Having no interest or desire, except to be judicially fair and absolutely accurate, 
we described the situation, and forecasted the results precisely as they appeared to us. The . 
value of perfect freedom and entire independence in a public journal, united with an honest 
purpose to print the news, and tell the truth, was never more clearly demonstrated than by 



28 The World. 



this incident. The readers of The Wobld -vrere led to anticipate precisely the results that 
followed even to the smallest detail. 

" The free-silver capture of the Missouri Convention, in AjM-il, was the first significant and 
alarming sign of what was to follow. On April 17, the day after that triumph, we gave this 
warning: 

" ' We say to the Democrats of the South and West that the party is just as certain to lose 
New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and every other Northern State under the policy approved 
in Missouri, as Election Day is to come. SUCH A COURSE WILL BE PARTY SUICIDE 
IF PERSISTED IN ' 

"Next in order of time was this interview with Mr. Pulitzer by a representative of the 
Chicago Tribune, on June 27 : 

" 'Will you give your views on the money question, and the probable effect of free silver 
on our foreign commercial relations ? ' 

" ' I consider "free silver " absolutely dead. There is not the remotest shadow of a chance 
that free silver can ever become a reality in the United States, without international agree- 
ment, even if our Chicago Convention should adopt it by unanimous vote. The question was 
settled when the last House of Representatives rejected free silver by a most overwhelming 
majority, and is finally settled since the Republican platform has unequivocally and most 
intelligently made opposition to free silver the party creed.' 

" 'Will you give some of your own views on the coming presidential campaign? ' 

" 'That is a pretty hard question. I think the Democrats ought to drop the free-silver 
oraze, as it is perfectly useless, and would only ensure Mr. McKinley's election and their own 
destruction, the triumph of the protectionists, the revival of force bills in the South, general 
profligacy at Washington, centralization, and more and more trusts and monopolies than 
ever With a vigorous attack upon trusts, monopolies, and privileged classes, a fearless 
acceptance of the tariff issue as represented by the McKinley bill, and a united party, the 
Democrats could still make a splendid fight. These are the two lines on which to fight the 
money power and its corrupting influence and oppression. Raising the silver standard will 
not only hurt them, but will in addition divert the public mind from our real trouble, the real 
issue, the real causes of complaint, and tend to a Republican revival beyond precedent on 
an entirely false issue, and to more tariff and trust rings and robbery than before.* 

" On the day after the nominations at Chicago, July 11, we gave reasons for our faith that 
the ticket was doomed to defeat. We said : 

*' ' There is no doubt as to the result of the election except as to the size of McKinley's 
popular and electoral majorities. To question this is to doubt the intelligence, the underlying 
honesty, and the public morality of the people. Opinions as to the result, upon the issue which 
the free-silver monometallists have forced, are a test of faith in the people. Thk Wokld 
believes — it MUST believe — in the abiding good sense and the active conscience of the Amer- 
ican people. It is absolutely confident that the proposal to debase the currency to the standard 
of a few semi-civilized countries, against the standard and the experience of the most 
enlightened and prosperous nations, CANNOT STAND THE TRIAL OF A FOUR MONTHS' 
DISCUSSION.' 

"On September 5 we gave our view of the situation * In a Nutshell,' illustrated with a 
large map: 

'"The result in Vermont makes it certain that every New England State will vote for 
McKinley. Here are six States, with 39 electoral votes. The same influences will give to the 
Republican candidates the other Eastern States of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and Delaware. Here are five more, having 89 electoral votes, or 128 in the East. 
With this start McKinley will need only the votes of six of the Central Western States to 
ensure his election : Illinois 24, Indiana 15, Iowa 13, Michigan 14, Ohio 23, Wisconsin 12. 'These 
States have 101 electors, which would bring the total to 229, or five more than are required 
for an election.' 

"On October 10, after a long review of the Senatorial situation, with a classification of 
the Senators holding over and to be elected, we said : 

" 'The next Senate will have a certain majority for sound money. 

"On October 21, two weeks before the election, we gave 'A Judicial Forecast* of the 
result, which was widely copied and commented upon. We said : 

'"First — Mr. McKinley's election is certain. As The World showed two months ago in 
its "nutshell" illustration and map, he is reasonably sure of the seventeen Eastern and 
Middle States — New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa. They cast 229 electoral votes — five 
more than a majority. 

" {Every one qf these teventeen States went exactly aa predicted.) 

" ' Second — Mr. Bryan is reasonably sure of seventeen States. He will get every State 
that fully or partially entered the Confederacy — South Carolina, Virginia, North Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, and Texas. 
He will get every silver-mining-camp State — Nevada, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Montana. 
These seventeen States cast 145 electoral votes.' 

" {Every one qf these seventeen States tcetit exactly as predicted.) 

"•Third— Of the remaining eleven States, four— Kentucky, Minnesota, West Virginia, 
and North Dakota — are also certainfor Mr. McKinley. They cast 31 electoral votes. They were 
not included with the seventeen McKinley States, because their votes are not needed, and the 
simplicity of the comparison is greater without them. They will increase Mr. McKinley's 
vote from 229 to 260. 'This leaves seven States to be accounted for — California, Oregon, Wash- 
ington, Wyoming, South Dakota, Kansas, and Nebraska. The probabilities are that Mr. 
Bryan will get the most of their 42 electoral votes.' 

" {This result, too, was exactly aa predicted. McKinley earriad the your States named, Bryan 
earried * the moat ' {fina out qf seven) qfthe remainder.) 



*' • Fourth — The next Sonate \rill have a small but secure majority for sound money. The 
next House of Representatives will have a working Republican majority.' 

*(Both these predictions are exactly_ful/illed. The sound-money (not BepuhUcan) majority in 
the Senate is 'small but secure.' The Republican majority in the House is 51, against 133 in ths 
present Congress.) 

" In view of the actual results, and of the broad scope and daring details of these pre- 
dictions, we think it must be admitted that this was the most remarkably accurate forecast 
ever made of a presidential election. Even now, with the ofl&cial determination covering 
every one of the 45 States before us, we would not change a word of the prophecies. They 
stand forever verified by the facts." 

AIC INTERNATIONAL SERVIOK 

That a great, free, fearless, and independent newspaper is a mighty power for good, a moral force in 
th« community and nation, has been given startling proof during the year just closed. When The 
World stayed the passions of two nations, dividing the English-speaking race, and by sheer force of 
its influence and appeal to the conscience of the people restored the Venezuelan question to its place as 
a matter for diplomacy to settle, not bloody war, the old year was dying. It was on Christmas Day, 
189S, that The World published, as responses to its enquiries, messages of peace and good will from 
cthe leading public men, prelates, and statesmen of England. The plaudits and thank-offerings of the 
TfThdle English-speaking race rung out the old year and rang in the new. 

In evidence of the gratitude of that portion of the English-speaking people who live across 
the Atlantic, for Thk World's successful efforts in averting "bloody war," the Peace and Arbitra- 
tion Societies of Great Britain waited on Mr. Joseph Pulitzer, the Director of The World, in 
June, on the occasion of a vacation visit to England, and presented an address in recognition of the 
services of this paper. 

The World had a long and exclusive interview with Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, British 
Secretary for the Colonies, on the day he arrived in Ameriea. It was so imjwrtant that all the next 
morning's papers copied it. In it he said: "The World led public thought when it secured express- 
ions and opinions from leading men of America and Great Britain, and performed an inestimable 
service to the English-speaking people of the whole world. War between the two countries would be a 
terrible calamity, and TSK World i)erformed a patriotic service to this country. It did not wait for 
a leader, but led the people." 

Mr. Gladstone said in The World: " Only common sense is needed." The Prince of Wales so far 
forsook traditions and mediaeval notions of royal etiquette as to address the American people in a 
friendly spirit through The World, expressing his hope for a peaceful settlement of the imbroglio. 
England and the United States joined to establish an international court of arbitration, whose work may 
constitute one of the landmarks of the history of civilization. It was a distinct triumph for publicity, 
publicity, publicity. Grreat Britain is better off for the peaceful settlement. So are the United States. 
So is Venezuela, and so are the British Colonies in Guiana. The Venezulaa Commission will make no 
report. None is necessary. 

RESTORING NATIONAL CREDIT. 

The smashing of the " bond ring " in the first month of the year was a crowning triumph for "Pub- 
licity, the greatest moral force and factor in the universe." New Year's Day, 1896, it was announced 
from Washington that there would be an issue of thirty-year 4 per cent bonds, and that the Government 
had negotiated with the Morgan Syndicate for the sale of the bonds "at about the same price " paid in 
February, 1895, for an issue of $62,300,000 worth of the same kind of bonds, the new issue being made neces- 
sary by *he depletion of the gold reserve. The country was shocked, for The World had pointed out 
that the bonds of the previous issue, sold to the Syndicate for 104^, were quoted on the market at 118 
or more, and the new bonds should surely bring as much. The sale as planned would not only involve an 
immense loss to the Treasury, but the very suggestion of it impaired the nation's credit at home and 
abroad. On January 3, 1896. The World addressed "An Appeal to the President." It sfiowed him the 
nature of the blunder he was about to make, entreated him to cancel the Syndicate arrangement, and 
show his faith in a patriotic people by offering the bonds at public sale. It assured him that the people 
would take the bonds and would pay a much higher price for them ; and as a guarantee of its confidence 
in the Government and in the people. The World pledged itself to take one million on its own account, 
which it afterwards bid for at the highest market price, and was awarded. For days The World 
stood almost alone in defence of the National honor and credit. It never flinched. It 
despatched telegraphic messages to 10,370 bankers in all parts of the country, and received 7,130 replies, 
each speaking encouraging words, and many promising to take a portion of the bonds. The appeal of 
The World was heeded. On January 7 The World was able to announce that the bankers of the 
country, alone, were ready to subscribe for double the amount of the issue, and reluctantly the Adminis- 
tration yielded. The battle was won. It had been demonstrated, as The World had declared, that the 
people were ready and able to respond to any call which the Treasury might make. It smashed the gold 
ring, which had been cornering the yellow metal in preparation for this profitable deal with the country. 
The issue of $100,000,000 bonds was offered to the highest bidder in denominations of $50, as The World 
had suggested. Again The World invoked "Publicity, publicity, publicity," the safeguard of popular 
government. When the last day allowed to bidders had expired and the bids were opened, it was found 
that no less than 6,677 patriotic citizens had rushed to the support of the nation's credit. They had bid 
for $558,269,850 of the bonds, nearly six times the amount of the issue. Over eight hundred bids were at 
110 or better. The head of the smashed Syndicate bid 110.6877 for the whole or any part of the issue— 
$6,000,000 more than his Syndicate would have paid had not The World knocked the bottom out of the 
secret deal and secured a public sale for and to the people. The whole issue was finally disposed of at an 
average price of nearly 112, netting $6,888,836 more to the Treasury than would have come in had the 
secret sale been consummated. If the interest on the saving for thirty years, the life of the bonds, is 
added, the saving to the Treasury was over $20,000,000. But more important than all this was the 
restoration of the credit of the nation. 

ELECTION REPORTING EXTRAORDINARY.' 

After the polls had closed on the most exciting presidential election in a generation, the people 
turned naturally to The World for the earliest news of the result. And their faith in the swiftnesB 
and accuracy of the most powerful news-gatherer on earth was amply justified. 

At four minutes past 8 o'clock in the evening The World announced to the more than three 
million people, whose homes are practically within sight of the dome of the Pulitzer BuildinjTt home of 
Thb World, that McKinley had been chosen by the people. 



30 The World. 



The people of Greater New York and the New Jersey highland towns got the news of the result 
when, at the minute named, powerful lights of golden hue were flashed in brilliant streams across the 
horizon and upward towards the empyrean from the great dome and many towns scattered about the city. 
Other agreed upon signal lights told the news from the larger and more imxKtrtant States. Jersey City 
and Harlem also had their ofificial Wokld signals. 

For those people, and there were countless thousands of them, who wanted more detailed accounts 
of the battle of the ballots, The World provided huge bulletin boards on which returns were flashed 
in giant letters and figures by means of powerful stereopticons. These were at the main office, the 
uptown, Harlem, and Brooklyn offices of The Wokld. 

Fifty thousand people filled Park Row, Printing House Square, and the City Hall Park. In the early 
evening they listened to the music of a band of musicians, stationed on the balcony in front of and 
over The Wobld office. A canvas bulletin, the largest ever naade, one hundred and eighty feet 
high, fifty-nine feet in width, covered the Park Row facade, and on its white surface were thrown from 
30,000 candle-power electric projectors in giant letters the bulletins of the news as it was sent In from 
North, South, East, and West by the faithful and alert news-gatherers of The World. 

No such complete service was ever before provided, and the roar of the plaudits of that mighty mul- 
titude was deafening when, scarcely two hours after the polls had closed in their own nearby districts, 
The World announced the result of the election in nearly all of the forty-five States. The crowd stayed 
until 2 o'clock in the morning, eagerly reading the details of the great National conflict. 

In front of The World's uptown office the crowds watched moving pictures, thrown by a new device, 
of Major McKioley in the door-yard of his Canton home, and received in duplicate all the returns given 
by a wire circuit from the ma,in office to all The World's bulletin and signal points. 

On the day after election the sales of The World reached the stupendous record-breaking aggregate 
of 1,397,129 copies, 

CUBA'S STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM- 

The most complete news of the brave struggle for freedom in Cuba has found publication in The 
World day by day. TiaE World has striven to make good its declaration that liberty cannot be shot 
to death in the dark, nor put to the sword in secret in Cuba. And because it persistently gathered and told 
the truth about the brutal butchery of peaceful citizens and helpless women and children, four of its 
correspondents were exi)elled f rom the island by Captain-General Weyler — for telling the truth. 

* Yet despite all this disagreeable publicity, the Spanish authorities have practically acknowledged 
that The World only seeks and publishes the truth by giving to it their confidence. The Spanish 
Prime Minister, Oanovas, addressed the American people through The World, March 7, stating the 
attitude and policy of Spain ; a new thing in international complications for the head of one government 
to address himself to the people of another through their foremost newspaper 1 

The Princess Eulalie prayed God jn a letter to the American people tlurough The World that cor- 
dial relations between the two countries might never cease. 

General Maximo Gomez, the leader of the revolutionary patriots, sent a three-column authoritative 
statement to The World of the plans, aims, hopes, and strategic position of the revolutionists, in Feb- 
ruary, saying: " Cuba is confident of victory, but is willing to pay $100,000,000 for freedom." 

General Martinez de Campos wrote in defence of the attitude of Spain and deprecation of that of 
America towards Cuba. He said he believed that "Recognition of Cuban belligerency by the United 
States would be an assault on international morals." Weyler, who had been named to succeed Campos, 
told the same correspondent that the rebellion could be suppressed in two months. Twelve months have 
slipped by since then, and The World is still diligently informing the world how Weyler is doing it. 

The wrecking of the Cuban filibuster, J. W. Hawkins, under General Calixto Garcia, off Vineyard 
Haven, with the loss of twelve lives and $70,000 worth of munitions, was first told to the public in a World 
extra. The World told of the second great blow to the Cuban cause, the seizure of the steamer Ber- 
muda by the Government off Liberty Island, February 25, a few hours after it happened and a whole 
day before its morning contemporaries got the news. It gave the full text of Captain-General Weyler's 
proclamation placing Eastern Cuba under martial jnile and ordering every one to come into the city of 
Havana under penalty for disobedience. The World has constantly ajad consistently urged that our 
(Government recognize Cuba's patriots as belligerents. 

A BIRTHDAY GIFT— GREATER NEW YORK. 

Gkjvemor Morton signed the bill consolidating the counties of New York, Kings, Queens, and Rich- 
mond into one great mimicipality the day after The World's birthday. May 11, 1896, The World was 
the first to advocate the creation of a Greater New York out of the cities and towns embraced in this 
territory, one m interest and each part essential to the whole. With the same pertinacious determina- 
tion that has characterized The World in every movement in the onward march of progress, it never 
faltered, never lagged, never flagged in its advocacy of this great advance movement of the3.200,QOO 
people of the natural metropolis and commercial centre of the Western World. The consummation of 
the idea came like a tardy birthday gift to its most earnest advocate, and was received with ineffable 
satisfaction. These words and this prophecy were spoken by The WoRlJ> on the subject: " The central 
glorious fact is that the metropolis is one city, the greatest in the world next to London, and destined to 
surpass even London within the lifetime of persons now living." 

DEBATE OF LABOR, FOR LABOR, BY LABOR. 

The largest and the most representative mass-meeting of labor ever held in New York gathered at 
Cooper Union the evening of September 22, by invitation of The World, to debate the effect on wages 
of the free and unlimited coinage of silver at 16 to 1. Political discussion is forbidden in the trades 
assemblies, yet the wage-earners had more at stake in the decision of that question than any other class 
of voters. The World gave them an opportunity to compare views by hiring Cooper Union, throwing 
open its doors, and inviting the toilers to come and debate. Fifteen thousand men tried to squeeze into 
the hall. Those who failed to get in organized outdoor overflow meetings and listened to debaters from 
their own ranks. The 4,000 who squeezed into the hall, most of whom stood up for four hours, listened to 
a discussion of the financial problem by eighteen workingmen, nine selected by each side, all of whom 
den^oqstrated that the American workingman reads, thinks, and decides for himself. 



AS A MEDIUM OF COMMXINIOATION. 

The "World is Quite tmlversally recognized as the surest medium of communication with the 
American people. This recognition received a striking illustration when Dean Farrar, of Canterbury, 
desiring to communicate with those who by descent or by religious instinct were likely to be interested 
in the efforts to preserve "the mother cathedral of England and birthplace of Christianity," addressed 
an appeal for assistance to all such through its columns. And Spain's Prime Minster, desiring to lay before 
the American people his defence of Spain in her attitude towards rebellious Cuba, found the surest way 
to reach them was through The Wokld. Gomez, the Cuban patriot leader, did the same, and Eulalie 
thanked all America, through The World, for her kindly treatment here. 

Annie Besant, the noted Theosophist, made an appeal on behalf of the famine-stricken people of 
India in The World of December 11 

December 15, The World printed a signed cable from General Weyler giving his version of the 
killing of the Cuban leader. General Antonio Maceo. 

OTHER PUBLIC SERVICES. 

The record of public services performed, accomplished, or consummated by The World during 1896 
is a long one. Those mentioned below are "minor services," only in that they affect a smaller public 
directly, though their moral influence must inevitably extend to and affect a much wider community. 
They are not international like the triumph in the Venezuelan imbroglio, nor National like the smash- 
ing of the gold ring and restoration of credit, but they affect smaller communities. 

The rescue of Fifth Avenue, the finest show street in the world, and its transformation into a fine 
promenade, pleasure drive, and approach to Central Park, from and through the most densely populated 
part of older New York. All the powers opposed it as "class legislation." The World proved that all 
"classes" favored it. A soft, smooth road-bed was ordered in place of the hard and noisy granite, and 
when the Aldermen advance another step in civilization and restrict traffic to pleasure vehicles during 
certain recognized pleasure hours. Fifth Avenue will be the most charming pleasure thoroughfare for 
rich and poor on earth. But this public service goes further. It was the first step in the system of 
regulation of roads and traffic, which has made our Boulevard and other city thoroughfares beautiful. 

The exposure of the practice of petty bribery in the Bail Bond Department of the District Attorney's 
Office led to a reorganization of that department on a plan that makes bribery impossible. 

The World succeeded in getting the Bridge Trustees to make the bridge roadways free to 
bicyclists. 

The opening of the night schools at an hour more convenient for seekers after education whose daily 
employments detained them late. 

The law compelling better lighting of Manhattan Elevated cars, about to go into effect. 

Release of Lizzie Schauer, an innocent girl railroaded to the i)enitentiary through Magistrate Mott's 
Court, for no offence. 

The persistent demand for a lowering of street-car fares, a crusade which seems about to come to a 
satisfactory conclusion, 

When the great city of St. Louis was overwhelmed by the tornado of last June, millions of dollars 
worth of property ruthlessly destroyed, and hundreds of lives lost, The World not only published 
most complete accounts of the calamity, but secured and published complete lists of those who had lost 
their lives or been injured in person or property, thus informing anxious friends and relatives all over 
the country how their friends in St, Louis had fared. The World's check for $5,000 in aid of the 
sufferers was telegraphed to the Mayor of the stricken city. 

WANTON WASTE OP VALUABLE FRANCHISES. 

The World has been a consistent opposer of the practice of giving valuable franchises and monopolies 
to corporations without just compensation to the people. It protested against the proposal of the State 
Superintendent of Public Works to surrender the canals to a syndicate of New York iwliticians, and 
through its efforts the Legislature passed a law forbidding it. But lo ! it was found that while the bill 
was under consideration the Superintendent had given a franchise to the Cataract General Electric Com- 
pany, which gave the corporation a practical control of the State's artificial waterways. This paper 
pointed out that that franchise should yield nearly enough in revenue to pay the expense of the State 
Grovemment. The sequel proves the correctness of The World's contention. The Cataract Company 
received an offer of $3,000,000 from an English syndicate for the control of the electric traction on the 
canals, only a small part of the privileges enjoyed under the franchise. What remains is worth easily 
$5,000,000. An $8,000,000 franchise belonging to thepeople was literally thrown away and that sum lost, 
so far as the taxpayers are concerned. 

The World, ever watchful of the welfare of the municipality in which it lives, turned its powerful 
searchlight on the Aldermanic grant of a fuel-gas franchise worth millions, and demanded that th» 
people be protected. 

CIVIL SERVICE REFORM. 

With fidelity to its ideals, The World has been a constant and urgent advocate of Civil Service re- 
form in every branch of the public service, believing that the constantly increasing number of public 
servants should not be allowed to become a formidable army of political place-holders voting to keep 
themselves in place regardless of the effect on the welfare of the covmtry. On May 7 President Cleve- 
land transferred 30,000 Federal offices from the domain of spoils to the protection of the Civil Service 
rules, crowning The World's efforts with almost complete triumph after years of fighting. 

The long contention of The World for elevated roof gardens on public piers in the great rivers for 
the relief and recreation of the denizens of the tenement-houses in easy access to the water front, has at 
last resulted in the adoption of a system of pier gardens by the Department of Docks under the Walker 
law, passed by the Legislature in response to The World's suggestion and advocacy. 

In the interest of the great National game of baseball, when the New York team was losing its fair 
prestige because of a disagreement between the pitcher, Amos Rusie, and the manager of New York's 
Giants over a heavy fine. The World offered to pay the big pitcher's fine, ia order that his serrioes 
might be enlisted in the championship contest — surely an offer of public servioe. 

BROAD, TRUE CHARITIES. 

The two great charities conducted successfully by The World — the Sick Babies* Fund and the 
Christmas-Tree Fund— have been a power for good. In spite of the hard times, the Christmas-Tree Fund 
grew so great that seven richly laden Christmas trees bore Santa Clans fruit for upward of 50,000 poor 
children, while the Sick Babies' Fund was ample for the work of a small army of physicians, sent out to 



32 The World. 



canvass the tenements and back alleys for suffering babyhood, and leave enough to provide day outings 
en the Floating Playground for more than 26,000 mothers and little children during the hot months. 

NOTABLE ARTIOLES. 

Snsan B, Anthoay's story of her own life, and history of the movement for the suffrage for women. 

Illustrated account of the first experiments in America in taking cathode ray pictures, with pietures 
of the bones of his own hand, by Professor Arthur W. Wright, of Yale. A series of instructive articles on 
the new scientific discovery of Roetgen ray processes. 

Interesting discussion of the question : " Does It Pay to Be Worth 1100,000? " 

A series by Human Failures, on why they failed in the battle of life. 

Dr. G. Fisk Clark's discovery : " The Bacillus of Death." 

Hypnotic dental surgery. 

Mrs. Parkhurst in defence of bicycling. 

The startling expose of the methods in vogue in English prisons, which miide maniacs or imbeolles of 
the Irish political prisoners. 

On poison as a fine art as practised in all ages. 

Description of the dreary lives in solitary confinement of the leper colony on North Brother Island. 

A description of herself, her private and her business life, by Mrs. Hetty Green, the richest woman 
alive. 

Tom Watson on "Wall Street Conspiracies Against the American Nation." 

Rose Hawthorne Lathrop's life work among the stricken i)Oor of the east side. 

"Charlotte Bronte and Her Circle," by Jeannette L. Gilder, and Miss Gilder's scholarly reviews. 

Cecil Rhodes' view of the situation in the Transvaal, where 70,000 new-comers are accorded no polit- 
ical rights by the 14,000 original settlers, though owning half of the soil and nine-tenths of the wealth, 
cabled to The World. 

Signed articles on the real greatness of the nation, by Senator Wilson, of the new State of Washing- 
ton ; Senator Mitchell, of Oregon, and Representative Bartholdt, of Missoviri, together with thoughtful 
views of the Mayors of America's greatest cities, on Greater New York, 

Garrett P. Serviss' papers on astronomical and other scientific topics. 

Dr. Arthur MacDonald's method of measuring the manifestations of the emotions as shown in 
breathing. 

"The Strange Tale of the Man Who Was Hanged at Piroche." a posthumous story, by Alexander 
Dumas. 

Dr. Carlton Simon's paper on "Hypnotic Cures." 

Story of the discovery of a gorilla man in West Africa, by Professor Garner. 

Account of a race of hairy pigmies found in East Africa, by Dr. H. Donaldson Smith, 

EXCLUSIVE NEWS, 

The startling story of the wholesale murder of tramps by brakemen on the New Haven Railroad. 

Extras gave the first publication of news from the Henley regatta, the National and State Conven- 
tions, and first informed the public of the Hilton <fc Hughes failure, that the steamship St. Paul was 
ashore off Long Branch, and of the refutation of the story that Crispi, the Italian Premier, had been 
assassinated. It told exclusively of the wreck of the Cuban filibuster, J. W. Hawkins, and of the 
seizure of the Bermuda by the United States Government; also the killing of Gen. Baratieri's Italian 
army, at Adowa, Abysslnnia. 

WHAT OTHER PEOPLE SAY OP "THE WORLD." 

Naturally a newspaper that tells the truth and fears not makes some enemies. The World has 
won many friends, too. They have expressed themselves warmly at times. Said Senator Peffer in a 
Fourth of July address at Topeka: " The New York World easily leads. Its daring strokes of enter- 
prise have never been equalled, and its facilities for gathering the news of the world are without parallel. 
I will cite three instances," said the Senator, and then he described The World's services to the 
country in the Venezuelan affair, the smashing of the bond ring, and "its third great stroke in showing 
the exact situation of affairs in Cuba, the loyalty of the Cubans, and the justness of their cause. l^E 
World has done more to bring about the existing state of public opinion on the Cuban question than 
any other agency." 

Other newspapers look to The World as the leader, as these expressions indicate : 

Brooklyn Eagle : "The innumerable company of The World's ever-increasing readers." 

T?ie Mexican Herald : "Mr. Joseph Pulitzer has performed services of genuine statesmanship, equal 
to that of Bismarck, and deserves the thanks of humanity for helping to prevent war between two 
English-speaking nations." 

Eeview of JReviews : "It seems to be an undoubted fact that this single newspaper, through its ag- 
gressive energy, made it possible for the Grovemment to succeed in floating the great loan by pubho 
subscriptions." 

Boston Post : " THE WoRLD gave voice to the sentiment of the people. It is a great public service 
which The World has performed." 

Boston Herald : "THE WORLD'S faith in the American Eagle is something both sublime and gen- 
erous." 

Atlantis, New York's Greek paper : " The all-powerful World." 

CWcago iZecord congratulates The World on being "the most conspicuous exponent in American 
journalism of the principle of the highest possible value for the lowest possible price." 

London Land and Water: "Hats off to American journalism. Would any but an American editor 
have had the glorious audacity to do what the New York World has done? It was magnificent joar- 
nalism, but has made diplomats froth at the mouth." 

Brighton (£ng.) Society : "The New York WoRLD in particular has shown what a power for good a 
great newspaper can be." 

Chauncey M. Dep«w: "The penny newspaper, the Bible, and a good dictionary are a milBoient library 
for most men. I believe The World has the strength, and my best wishes are with it." 

John Brisben Walker : "THE WORLD stands in the forefront of American civilization." 

London Chronicle : "THE WORLD is the wonder of the joumalistio world. It is beyond all compari- 
son the most successful newspaper in the United States, if not in ail countries. In any matter of 
American public life The World has played a prominent part ; ita course from triumph to triumph has 
been steady and 8j>eedy." 



THE WORLD ALMANAC FOR 1897. 



33 



M 



The astronomical calculations in this Almanac were expressly made for itby J. Morrison, M. A.. 
D., Ph.D , of Washington, D. C, , and are expressed in local mean time. 



Chronological Eras. 



■ The year 1897 corresponds to the year 7405-6 of the Byzantine era; to 5Go7-8 of the Jewish era, 
the year 5658 beginning at sunset on September,26; to 2650 since the foundation of Rome accord- 
ing to Varro; to 2673 of the Olympiads (the first year of the 669 Olympiad beginning in July 1, 
1897)- to 2557 of the Japanese era, and to the 30th year of the Meiji; to 1314-15 of the Moham- 
medan era or the era of the Hegira, the year 1315 beginning on June 2, 1897. The 122nd year of the 
Independence of the United States of America begins on July 4, 1897. 



Date of Beginning of Epochs, Eras, and Periods. 



Grecian Mundane Era b. ( 

Civil Era of Constantinople ' 

Alexandrian Era.. 

Ecclesiastical Era of Antioch 

Julian Period 

Mundane Era 

Jewish Mundane Era ^ 

Era of Abraham 

Era of the Olympiads 

Roman Era (A. U. C. ) 

Era of Nabonassar ^ 

Metonic Cycle ^ 

Grecian or Syro- Macedonian Era 
Tyrian Era ' 



Began. 

. 5598, Sept. 1 

5508, Sept. 1 

5502, Aug. 29 

5492, Sept. 1 

4713, Jan. 1 

4008, Oct. 1 

3761, Oct. 1 

2015, Oct. 1 

776, July 1 

753, Apr. 24 

747, Feb. 26 

432, July 15 

312, Sept. 1 

125, Oct. 19 



JVame. 

Sidonian Era B.C. 

Cesarean Era of Antioch ' ' 

Julian Year " 

Spanish Era " 

Actian Era " 

Augustan Era " 

Vulgar Christian Era a. d, 

Destruction of Jerusalem " 

Era of Maccabees ' ' 

Era of Diocletian ' ' 

Era of Ascension ' ' 

Era of the Armenians ' ' 

Mohammedan Era ' ' 

Persian Era of Yezdegird ' ' 



Began. 
110, Oct. 

48, Sept 

45, Jan. 

38, Jan. 

30, Jan. 

27, Feb. 14 
. 1, Jan. 1 

69, Sept. 1 
166, Nov. 24 
284, Sept.l7 
295, Nov. 12 
552, July 7 
622; July 16 
632, June 16 



Chronological Cycles. 



Dominical Letter C 1 Lunar Cycle (Golden Number)..17 

Epact 26 I Solar Cycle 2 



Roman ludiction. 10 

Jhlian Period 6610 



The Seasons. 



Vernal Equinox, 
Summer Solstice, 
Autumnal Equinox, 
Winter Solstice, 



Spring begins 
Summer begins 
Autumn begins 
Winter begins 



March 

June 

September 

December 



20 
20 

22 
21 



H. 

3 

11 

2 
8 



M. 

12 A. M. 
12 p. M. 

6 P.M. 

A.M. 



New Yorlc Mean Time. 



Morning Stars. 



Evening Stars. 



Mercury. —January 22 to April 1- May 21 to 
July 15; September 22 to November 8. 

Venus. —April 28 to end of year. 

Mars. —November 21 to end of year. 

JUPITEB.— Jan. 1 toFeb.23;Sept.l3toendofyear 

Saturn. —January 1 to May 18; November 25 
to end of year. 

]Si^oTE —An inferior planet is a morning star from Inferior to Superior Conjunction, and an evening 
star from Superior to Inferior Conjunction. A superior planet is a morning star from Conjunction to 
Opposition and an evening star from Opposition to Conjunction. 



Mercury. —January 1 to January 22; April 1 
to May 21; July 15 to September 22; November 
8 to end of year. 

Venus. —January 1 to April 28. 

Mars. —January 1 to November 21. 

Jupiter. — February 23 to September 13. 

Saturn. —May 18 to November 25. 



January. 

1 Friday. 

3 ii. Sunday aft. Xmas. 

6 Epiphany. 

10 i. Sun. aft. Epiphany, 
17ii. " " ^' 

24iii, " " 
31 iv. " 

February. 

1 Monday 

7v. Sun. aft Epiphany 
14 Septuagesima Sunday 
21 .Sexagesima ' ' 

28 C^uinquagesima ' ' 

March. 

1 Monday. 

2 Shrove Tuesday. 

3 Ash Wednesday. 

7 L Sunday in Lent. 
14ii. " " " 
21iii, " " " 
25Thurs. (Mi-Careme.) 
28 iv. Sunday in Lent. 



Church Memoranda for 1897. 

July. 



April. 

1 Thursday. 

4 V. Sunday in Lent. 
11 Palm Sunday. 
16 Good Friday. 
18 Easter Sunday. 
25 Low Sunday. 

3Iay. 

1 Saturday. 

2 ii. Sunday aft. Easter. 
9iii. 

16 iv. •" 

23 Rogation Sunday. 
27 Ascension Day. 

30 vL Sunday aft. Easter. 

June. 

1 Tuesday. 
6 Whit Sunday. 
13 Trinity Sunday, 

17 Corpus Christi. 

20 i. Sunday aft. Trinity. 

24 St. John Baptist. 

27 ii. Sunday aft. Trinity. 



1 Thursday. 

4iii. Sunday aft. Trinity 

11 iv. 

18 v. " " " 
25 vi. 

August. 

Ivii. Sundayaf. Trinity 

8viii. 
15 ix. 
22 X. 
29 xi. " " 



September. 

1 Wednesday. 

5 xii. Sunday af. Trinity 
12xiii. -"• " 
19xiv. " ' " 
26 XV. ■ " 



October. 
1 Friday. 

3 xvi. Sund. af. Trinity 
lOxvii. " 
17xviii, " 
24xix. " 
31 XX. 

November. 

1 Monday. 

7 xxi. S'nd'yaf. Trinity 
14xxii. " " " 
21xxiii. " 
28 Advent Sunday. 

30 St. Andrew. 

December. 

1 Wednesday. 

5 i. Sunday in Advent. 
12 ii. 

19iii. " " " 
21 St. Thomas. ' 

25 Saturday, Christmas. 

26 i. Sunday aft. Xmas. 

27 St. John Evangelist. 

31 Friday. 



Ember and Rogation Days are certain periods of the year devoted to prayer and fasting. Ember 
Days (twelve annually) are the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after the first Sunday in Lent, 
after the feast of Pentacost (Whit Sunday), after the festival of the Holy Cross (September 14), and 
after the festival of St. Lucia (December 13). Ember Weeks are the weeks in which the Ember Days 
appear. 

Rogation Days are the three days immediately preceding Holy Thursday or Ascension Day. 



The Roman Catholic Days of fasting are the forty days of Lent, the Ember Days, the Wednesdays 
and Thursdays of the four weeks in Advent, and certain vigils or evenings prior to the greater feasts. 
In the American Episcopal Church the days of fasting or abstinence to be observed, according to 
the Book of Common Prayer, are the forty days of Lent, the Ember Days, the three Rogation Days, 
and all the Fridaj's of the year except Christmas Day. In the Greek Church the four principal fasts 
are those in Lent, the week succeeding Whitsuntide, the fortnight before the Assumption, and forty 
days before Christmas. 

Thk interval oetween two consecutive transits of a fixed star over any meridian or the interval 
during which the earth maKes one absolute revolution on its axis is called a Sidereal Day, and is invari- 
able, while the interval between two consecutive transits of the Sun over any meridian is called an 
Apparent Solar Day, and its length varies from daj' to daj' by reason of the variable motion of the 
earth in its orbit, and the inclination of this orbit to the equator, on which time is measured. 

A Mean Solar Day is the average or mean of all the apparent solar daj's in a year. 3Iean Solar 
Time is that shown by a well-regulated clock or watch, while A2rparent Solar Time is that shown by a 
well- constructed sun-dial; the difference between the two at anytime is the Equation of Time, and 
may amount to 16 minutes and 21 seconds. The Astronomical Day begins at noon and the Civil Day 
at the preceding midnight. The Sidereal and Mean Solar Days are both invariable, but one day of the 
latter is equal to 1 day, 3 minutes, and 56. 555 seconds of the former. 

The interval during which the earth makes one absolute revolution round the Sun is called a Side- 
real Year, and consists of 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, and 9. 6 seconds, which is invariable. 

The Tropical Year is the interval between two consecutive returns of the Sun to the Vernal 
Equinox. If this were a fixed point, the Sidereal and Tropical Years would be identical ; but in conse- 
quence of the disturbing influence of the moon and planets on the spheroidal figure of the earth, the 
Equinox has a slow, retrograde mean motion of 50. 26" annually, so that the Sun returns to the Equi- 
nox sooner every year than he otherwise v/ould by 20 minutes, 23. 6 seconds ; the Tropical Year, there- 
fore, consists of ^365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds. The Tropical Year is not of uniform 
length ; it is now slowly decreasing at the rate of . 595 seconds per century, but this variation will not 
always continue. 

Julius Csesar, in B.C. 45, was the first to reform the calendar by ordering that every year whose 
date number is exactly divisible by 4 contain 366 days, and all other years 365 days. The intercalary 
day was introduced by counting the sixth day before the Kalends of March twice; hence the name 
bissextile, from bis, twice, and sex, six. He also changed the beginning of the year from 1st of March 
to the 1st of January and also changed the name of the fifth month (Quiutilis) to July, after himself. 
The average length of the Julian year is therefore 305^ days, which, however, is too long by 11 
minutes and 14 seconds and this would accumulate in 400 years to about three days. The Julian 
Calendar continued in use until a. d. 1582, when the date of the beginning of the seasons occurred 10 
days later than in b. c. 45, wlien this mode of reckoning time was introduced. 

The Gregorian Year was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII. with the view of keeping the Equinox 
to the same day of the month. It consists of 363 days, but every year exactly divisible by 4 and the 
centurial years which are exactly divisible by 400 contain 366 days; and if in addition to this 
arbitrary arrangement the centurial years exactly divisible by 4,000 contain 366 days, the error in the 
Gregorian system will amount to only one day in about 20 centuries. If, however, 31 leap years 
were intercalated in 128 years, instead of 32 as at present, the calendar would be practically exact 
and the error would not amount to more than a day in 100,000 years. The length of the mean 
Gregorian Year may therefore be set down at 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, 12 seconds. The Gregor- 
ian Calendar was introduced into England and her colonies in 1752, at which time the Equinox had 
retrograded 11 days since tlie Council of Nice in a. d. 325, when the festival of Easter was established 
and the Equinox occurred on March 21; hence September 3, 1752, was called September 14, and 
at the same time the commencement of the legal year was changed from March 25 to January 1, so 
that the year 1751 lost the months of January and February and the first 24 days of March. The dif- 
ference between the Julian and Gregorian Calendars is now 12 days. Russia and the Greek Church 
still employ the Julian Calendar for civil and ecclesiastical purposes. 



^tantrartr ^irnr* 



PkimakiIjV, for the convenience of the railroads, a standard of time was established by mutual 
agreement in 1883, by Which trains are run and local time regulated. According to this system, the 
United States, extending from 65° to 125o west longitude, is divided into four time sections, each of 
150 of longitude, exactly equivalent to one hour. The first (eastern) section includes all territory 
between the Atlantic coast and an irregular line drawn from Detroit to Charleston, S. C. , the latter 
being its most southern point. The second (central) section includes all the territory between the last- 
named line and an irregular line from Bismarck, N. D. , to the mouth of the Rio Grande. The third 
(mountain) section includes all territory between the last-named line and nearly the western borders 
of Idaho, Utah, and Arizona. The fourth (Pacific) section covers the rest of the country to the Pacific 
coast. Standard time is uniform inside each of these sections, and the time of each section differs from 
that next to it by exactly one hour. Thus at 12 noon in New York City (eastern time), the time at 
Chicago (central time) is 11 o'clock A. si. ; at Denver (mountain time), 10 o'clock a.m., and at San 
Francisco (Pacific time), 9 o'clock a. m. Standard time is 16 minutes slower at Boston than true local 
time, 4 minutes slower at New York, 8 minutes faster at Washington, 19 minutes faster at Charles- 
ton, 28 minutes slower at Detroit, 18 minutes faster at Kansas City, 10 minutes slower at Chicago, 1 
minute faster at SL Louis, 28 minutes faster at Salt Lake City, and 10 minutes faster at San Francisco. 



JSell Time on Sliiphoard. 



35 



K^%\t Of Ba^is iJetiunn TOdo laateis* 



A TABLE OF THE NUMBER OF DAYS BETWEEN AN^ 


' TWO DAYS WITHIN TWO YEARS. 


d 

ci 


Jan. 
Feb. 




"u 
ft 

< 


^ 

% 


June, 
July. 


to 
< 


m 






274 





d 


6 

>> 

Q 






U 
rt 

S 


< 






a 


>-> 

"3 

t-3 


ti 

p 


ft 
03 






> 




3 


1 32 60 


9ll 


121 


152 


182 


213 244 


305 


335 


1 


366 


897 


425 456 


486 


517 


547 


578 


609 


639! 670 


700 


2 


2 33 61 


92 


122 153 


183 214 245 


275 


306 


336 


2 


367 


398 


426' 457 


487 


518 


548 


579 


610 


640! 671 


701 


8 


3! 34 62 


93 


123; 154 184| 215 246 


276 


807 


337 


3 


368 


399 


427 


458 


488 


519 


549 


580 


611 


641 


672 702 


4 


4 35 63 


94 


124 155 185' 216! 247 


277 


308 


338 


4 


369 


400 


428 


459 


489 


520 


550 


581 


612 


642 


673 703 


5 


6 36 


64 


95 


125 


156 186 217 248 


278 


309 


339' 


5 


370; 401 


429 


460 


490 


521 


551 


582 


613 


643 


674, 704 


6 


6 37 


65 


96 


126 


157 187 218! 249 


279 


310 


340 


6 


371 


402 


430 


461 


491 


522 


552 


583 


614 


644 


675 


705 


7 


7 


38 


66 


97, 


127 


158 188, 219 


250 


280 


811 341 


7 


372 


403 


431 


462 


492 


523 


553 


584 


615 


645 


676 


706 


8 


8 


39 


67 


98' 


128 


159 189 220 


251 


281 


312 342 


8 


873 


404 


432 


463 


493! 524 


554 


685 


616 


646 


677 


707 


9 


9 


40^ 68 


99 


129, 160! 190' 221 


252 


282 


813 343 


9 


374 


405 


433 


464 


494' 525 


555 


588 


617 


647 


678 


708 


10 


10 


41 1 69 


100 


130; 161! 191 222 


253 


283 


314 344 


10 


375 


406 


434 


465 


495 


526 


556 


587 


618; 648 


679 


709 


n 


11 


42! 70 101 


131 


162 192, 223 


254 


284 


315 345 


11 


376 


407 


435 


466 


496 


527 


557 


588 


619 


649 


680 


710 


12 


12 


43; 7l| 102 


132 


163; 193 224 


255 


285 


316 846 


12 


377 


408 


436 


467 


497 


628 


558 


589 


620 


650 


681 


711 


13 


13 


441 721 103 


133 


164 194 225 


256 


286 


317 


347 


13 


378 


409 


437 


468 


498 


529 


559 


590 


621 


651 


682 


712 


14 


14 


45 73 104 


134 


165 195 226 


257 


287 


318 


848 


14 


379 


410 


438 


469 


499 


530 


560 


591 


622 


652' 683 


713 


15 


15 


46, 74I 105: 


135 


166' 196, 227 


258 288 


319 


849 


15 


380 


411 


439 


470 


500 


531 


561 


592 


623 


653 


684 


714 


16 


16 


47! 75I 106 


136 


167! 1971 228 259, 289 


320 


350 


16 


381 


412 


440 


471 


5(il 


532 


562 


593 


624 


654 


685 


715 


17 


17 


48' 76: 107 


137 168 198 229 260; 290 


321 


851 


17 


382 


413 


441 


472 


602 


533 


563 


594 625 


655 


686 


716 


18 


18 


49 77 


108 


138 109 199 230 261 


291 


322 


352 


18 


383 


414 


442 


473 


503 


534 


564 


595 


626 


656 


687 


717 


19 


19 


50 78 


109 


139, 170 200 231 262 


292 


323 353 


19 


384 


415 


443 


474 


504 


535 


565 


596 


627 


657 


688 


718 


20 


20 


5ll 79 


110 


140 171 201 232 263 


293 


824 354 


20 


385 


416 


444 


475 


5(;5 


536 


566 


597 


628 


658 


689 


719 


21 


21 


52 ?0' 111 


14l! 172 202 233) 264 


294 


325 355 


21 


386 


417 


445 


476 


506 


537 


567 


598 


629 


659 


690 


720 


22 


22 53 81 112 


142 173 203 234! 265 


295 


326, 356 


j22 


387 


418 


446 


477 


507 


538 


568 


599 


630 


660 


691 


721 


23 


23 54 82 113 


143 174 204! 2351 266 


296 327' 357 


'23 


888 419 


447 


478 


508 


539 


569 


600 


631 


661 


692 


722 


24 


24 55 83 114 


144 175 2051 236 


267 


297, 328 358 


24 


389' 420 


448 


479 


509 


540 


570 


601 632 


662 


693 


723 


25 


25 56 84 115 


145' 176 203 237 


268; 2981 329 359 1 


25 


390 421 


449 


480 


510 


541 


571 


602! 633 


663 


694 


724 


26 


26 57 85 116 


146 177 207 238 269 299 330 360 


26 


391 422 


450 481 


511 


542 


572 


603 634 664' 695 


725 


27 


27i 58i 86 117 


147 178 203, 239i 270 3C0, 331 361 


27 


392 423 


451 482 


512 


543 


573 


604 635 


665 696 


726 


28 


28 59 87 118 


148 179! 209 


240 271 801 332 362' 


28 


893| 424 


452 483 


513 544 


574 


605 636 


666 697 


727 


29 


29 ..' 88; 119 


149, 180 210 


241 272 302 333 363 


29 


394 





453 484 


514 


545 


575 


606 637 


667 698 


728 


30 


80 .. 89 120 


150 181, 211 


242 273 303 334 864 


30 


395 


. . . . 


454 485 


515 


546 


576 


607i 638 


668 699 


729 


31 


31 ..! 90| 


I51I....I 212 


243 ... . 304 ... . 365 


31 


896 





455' .... 


516 




_577 


6O81 .... 


6691 .... 


730 



The above table applies to ordinary years only. For leap year, one day must be added to each 
number of days after February 28. 

Example. —To find the number of days between June 3, 1893, and February 16. 1894 : The &g~ 
ures opposite the third day in the first June column are 154; those opposite the sixteenth day in the 
second February column are 412. Subtract the first from the second product— t. e. , 154 from 412, and 
the i-esult is 258, tlie number of days between the two dates. 



Kimt IBiUtttntt. 

BETWEEN THE CITY OF NEW YORK AND THE PRINCIPAL FOREIGN CITIES. 



H. M. 

Antwerp 5 13.5 

Berlin 5 49.5 

Bremen 5 31. 

Brussels 5 13.4 

Buenos Ayres . . 1 2. 4 

Calcutta 11 49.2 

Constantinople . 6 51. 9 



LATER THAN NEW YOKK 
H. M, 

Dublin 



EARLIER THAN NEW 
YORK. 

H. M. 



H. M. I 

4 30 5 'Paris 5 5 2 

Edinburgh 4 43. 2 1 Rio de Janeiro". '.'. 2 3! 2 Havana 33. 5 

Geneva 5 20. 5 Rome 5 45. 8 Hong Kong 11 27.4 

Hamburg 5 35.8,81. Petersburg. . . 6 57.1 ---- 

Liverpool 4 43. 6 Valparaiso O 9.3 

London 4 55.9Vienna 6 1.2 



Melbourne 9 24.2 

Mexico, City of. 1 40.5 
Panama 22.2 



Madrid 4 41.l!Halifax O 41.5 Yokohama 9 45,5 



iJell Kimt on.^tiptioartr* 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 



Time, a. m. 



Bell . . 
Bells . 



12. 30 
1.00 
1.30 
2.00 
2.30 
3.00 
3.30 
4,00 



Time. 
Bell . . 
Bells . 



, M. 

4.30 
5.00 
5.30 
6.00 
6.305 
7.00 6 
7.30 7 
8.OOI8 



Time, a. 
Bell. . . , 
Bells . . 



. M. [ 


Time, 


p. M. 


Time 


, P. M. 


Time, P. m. 


8.30 


1 Bell .. 


. . 12. 30 


1 Bell . 


.. 4.30 


1 Bell .... 8. 30 


9.00 


2 Bells . 


.. 1.00 


2 Bells 


.. 5.00 


2 Bells ... 9. 00 


9.30 


3 " .. 


. 1 30 


3 "■ . 


.. 5.30 


3 ''.... 9.30 


10.00 


4 " .. 


. 2.00 


4 " . 


.. 6.00 


4 " ....10.00 


10.30 


5 " .. 


. 2.30 


1 Bell . 


.. 6.30 


5 "... 10. 30 


11.00 


6 '' .. 


. 3.00 


2 Bells 


... 7.00 


6 " ....11.00 


11.30 


7 " .. 


. 3.30 


3 '^ . 


.. 7.30 


7 " ....11.30 


Noon 


8 " .. 


. 4.00 


4 " . 


.. 8.00 


8 " Midnight 



On shipboard, for purpose of discipline and to divide the watch fairly, the crew is mustered in two 
divisions : the Starboard (right side, looking toward the head) and the Port (left). The day com- 
mences at noon, and is thus divided : Afternoon Watch, noon to 4 p. m. ; First Dog Watch, 4 p. m. to 
6 p. M. ; Second Dog Watch, 6 p. m. to 8 p. m. ; First Watch, 8 p. m. to Midnight, Middle Watch, 12 
A.M. to 4 A.M. ; Morning Watch, 4 a. m, to 8 a.m. ; Forenoon Watch, 8 a.m. to noon. This makes 
seven Watches, which enables the crew to keep them alternately, as the Watch which comes on duty 
at noon one day has the afternoon next day, and the men who have only four hours' rest one night have 
eight hours the next. This is the reason for having Dog Watches, which are made by dividing the 
hours between 4 p.m. and 8 p.m. into two Watches. Time is kept by means of "'Bells." although 
sometimes there is but one Bell on the ship. —Whifxxke7\ 



36 



Astronomical Phenoinena for the Year 1897. 



Conjunction. 
Quadrature. 
Opposition. 
Ascending Node. 
Descending Node. 



or 



Two heavenly bodies are in 
are on the same meridian, i. e. 



^strontintical J^ijntcimtna itsx tf)r Ytat 1897. 

ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS AND SYMBOLS. 

O The Sim. cf Mars. (5 

(g The Moon. ' % Jupiter. n 

§ Mercury. Vi Saturn. § 

§ Venus. 1^ Uranus. Q 

® The Earth, .l|; Neptune. t3 

' conjunction " ( c5 ) when they have the same Right Ascension, 
when one is due north or sou^/i of the other ; if the bodies are 
near each other as seen from the earth, they will rise and set at the same time ; they are in 
"opposition" (§) when in opposite quarters of the heavens, or Avhen one rises just as the 
other is setting. ' ' Quadrature ' ' is half way between conjunction and opposition. By 
* ' greatest elongation ' ' is meant the greatest apparent angular distance from the sun ; the 
planet is then generallj^ most favorably situated for observation. Mercury can only be seen 
with the naked eye at this time. When a planet is in its ' *■ ascending " ( Q ) or " descending' ' 
(y) node it is crossing the plane of the earth' s orbit. The term "Perihelion" means nearest, 
and ' 'Aphelion ' ' farthest, from the sun. An ' ' occultation ' ' ' ' 
it by some other body, usually the moon. 

I. —ECLIPSES. 

In the year 1897 there will be two Eclipses, both of the Sun 

I. An Annular Eclipse of the Sun February 1, visible as a small partial Eclipse in that portion of 
the United States lying south of a line drawn from Cape St. Lucas (old California), through San 
Antonio, Tex., Memphis, Tenn. , and Marietta, Ohio, to Provincetown near Cape Cod, in Massachu- 
setts. The path of the Annular Eclipse lies chiefly in the Pacific Ocean ; it crosses the northern part of 
South America (Columbia and Venezuela) from Cabita Bay near Cape Corrientes on the Pacific Coast 
to the Island of Trinidad, where it terminates at Sunset at 5 h. 9 m. p. m. , New York mean time. 



ef a planet or star is an eclipse of 



PJOACES. 



Nev/ York.. 
Washington. 
Charleston . . 
Key West... 



Eclipse Begins. 



Eeb. 1. 



4 
4 
4 
3 



M. 

59 
42 
12 

46 



s. 

45 P.M. 

P.M. 

25 P.M. 
60 p. M. 



Eclipse Ends. 



H. M. s. 
Sunsets Eclipsed. 
5 19 28 p.M 
5 29 55 P.M. 
5 34 33 P.M. 



Position at 
Beginning 



o 

160.7 
165.4 
182.7 
197.6 



Mean Local Time. 

The position, angle, is measured from fiie. north point of the Sun's disk toward the east. 

II. An Annular Eclipse of the Sun July 29, visible in the United States, the southern half of the 
Dominion of Canada, Mexico, Central America, the West India Islands, and all that portion of South 
America north of a line drawn from Poracas Peninsula (near town of Pisco), Peru, to Castillos Point 
a little south of San Miguel in Uruguay. The path of the Annular Eclipse passes through the town of 
Tepic, Mexico, a little north of Tampico, Mexico, Havana and Carderas, Cuba, San Juan, Porto 
Rico, and Cape St. Boque, Brazil. 



Pl.4^CES. 



Boston 

New York 

Washington . . . 

Charleston 

New Orleans... 

Chicago 

Key West 

San Francisco. 



Eclipse Begins. 



July 29. 



H. M. S. 

9 44 14 a.m. 

8 52 41a.m. 

8 30 18 a.m. 

8 7 28 a.m. 

7 13 17 a.m. 

7 44 11 A. m. 

7 50 43 a.m. 

5 16 40 a.m. 



Eclipse Ends. 



n. 
12 



M. 





11 15 

11 2 

10 59 

9 59 



9 

10 
6 



57 

58 
58 



s. 

28 p. M. 
15 a.m. 
14 a.m. 
7 a.m. 
55 a.m. 
24 a.m. 

50 A. M. 
43 A. M. 



Position at Be- 
ginning and End. 



254.2 

257.2 

26L5 

274. 

274.8 

253.5 

253.7 

245.4 



o 
156.7 
151. 5 
145.9 
133.2 
123.7 
147.2 
119.2 
14L6 



II. —PLANETARY 

{New York 



Jan. 



Feb. 



D. 


H. M. 




6 


11 12 a 


M. 


6 


2 26p 


M. 


13 12 12 A 


M. 


14 10 33 P 


M. 


16 


2 a2A 


M. 


21 


4 18 p. 


M. 


22 10 12 A. 


M. 


27 


9 5a 


M. 


1 






2 11 12 p. 


M. 


5 


5 55 P. 


M. 


11 


2 55 P. 


M. 


15 11 12 P. 


M. 


16 


2 12 A 


M. 



9 C 



6 cf C 

6 %€ 

6 § O 

6 h € 
O 

I 

6 



5 

cT 



17 7 15p.m. 6 % € 



gr. elong. E. 19o9'. 

stationary. 

stationary. 

superior. 

eclipsed, 
stationary. 



gr. elong. W. 26°. 
greatest elonga- 
tion E. 460 39'. 



CONFIGURATIONS. 
Mean Time. ) 
D. 

Feb. 18 
23 
Mar. 



"^^k. 



A.M. 



4 

7 

9 

11 

16 

18 

20 

21 

April 1 

4 

6 

8 



10 



H. M. 

3 
9 

8 

8 42 A. M. 

P.M. 

6 55 P. M. 
11 34 p.m. 

5 P. m. 

3 
10 
10 

7 
11 

9 12 a.m. 



8 %Q 
■ ? C 



P.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 



6 

h 
6 
6 
n 

o 

I 

6 



d o 



in perihelion, 
stationary. 



13 6 8 a. m. 



enters Aries, 
greatest brilliancy 
§ O superior. 

? C 

stationary. 
cf Epsilon Gem. J* 
south 50'. 

6 %€ 







Periodic 


Comets. 




37 


ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE 


YEAR 1897- 


—Continued. 






II.— PLANETARY < 


CONFIGURATIONS. 










{New Yorh Mean Time 


) 






D. H. M. 






D. 


H. M. 






Aprill7 4 A. M. 


6 


§ ?, 9 N. 50 13'. 


Aug. 30 


2 30 A. M. 


6 


d c 


19 6 14 a.m. 


6 


h C 


Sept. 2 


5 16 P. M. 


6 


H <!L 


26 11 A.M. 


% 


stationary. 


8 


9 





stationary. 


28 10 A. M. 


§ 


ffr.long.E.2007'. 


13 


1 A. M. 


6 


'n € 


2S 1 p. M. 


6 


9 Q inferior. 


22 


7 A.M. 


6 


inferior. 


May 7 4 47 p. m. 


6 


cf C' cf N. 22'. 


22 


2 P. M. 





enters Libra. 


10 2 54 p. M. 


6 


% i 


23 


7 6 P. M. 


6 


9 <£ 


16 2 6 p.m. 


6 


h € 


25 


7 16 p. M. 


6 


-n € 


17 9 P. M. 


9 


stationary. 


27 


6 3 P.M. 


6 


d € 


18 12 12 A. M. 


8 


h 


27 


6 12 p. M. 


6 


5 -y, li N. 20 3^ 


21 1 12 A. M. 


6 


§ inferior. 


30 


2 45 A. M. 


6 h € 


21 11 12 p. M. 


n 


% 


30 


2 P.M. 





stationary. 


22 12 10 A. M. 


cT 


in aphelion. 


Oct. 6 


3 A.M. 


6 


§ T^, N. 12'. 


25 7 A. M. 


6 


cf 1} Caneri cf S. 2f. 


7 


9 12 p.m. 




gr.long. W. I80. 


June 2 7 a.m. 




stationary. 


15 


1 P.M. 


Q 


in i)erihelion. 


4 12 12 a.m. 


9 


greatest brilliancy 


19 


4 P.M. 


6 


9 1/, 9 N. 28'. 


5 6 22 A. M. 


6 


cf C 


23 


3 48 P. M. 


6 


'n c 


7 1 42 A. M. 


6 


% € 


26 10 42 A. M. 


6 


d (£ 


12 9 43 P. M. 


6 


h C 


27 


3 43 P. M. 


6 


h € 


15 7 Op. m. 


§ 


gr. long. W. 230. 


Nov. 8 12 10 A. M. 


6 


§ superior. 


20 11 p. M. 


O 


enters Cancer. 


12 


2 p. M. 


6 


ff , cf N. 22', 


25 3 A. M. 


9 


in aphelion. 


18 


7 P.M. 


6 


5 b, b N. 209'. 


26 1 16 a.m. 


6 


? (£ 


20 11 4 a.m. 


6 % <S. 


28 7 38 a.m. 


6 


(S 


21 


4 12 A. M. 


6 


d hi, dS. 24/. 


July 1 9 P.M. 


e 


in aphelion. 


21 


7 A.M. 


6 


d 


3 8 43 P. M. 


c^ 


6 C 


22 


9 41p.m. 


6 




4 2 36 p. M. 


6 


% € 


24 


4 21 A.M. 




cf <£ 


7 11 P. M. 


9 


greatest elonga- 


24 


7 26 A. M. 


(5 


b & 






tion W. 450 7'. 


25 


1 A. M. 


6 


h 


15 5 P. M. 


6 


cf superior. 


27 


1 P.M. 


6 


cf b, ^2 N. 20 2^ 


25 10 A.M. 


6 


cfl|,l/N. 7' 


Dec. 8 


9 A. M. 


6 


9 111, 9 N. 47'. 


25 2 36 p. M. 


6 


? <S 


12 


3 P. M. 


6 


9 b. h N. 56'. 


28 


O 


eclipsed. 


18 


2 34 a.m. 


6 


'n c 


28 8 P. M. 


h 


stationary. 


20 


4 p. M. 


§ 


gr. elong. E. 20o. 


Aug. 1 5 52 A. M. 


6 


% € 


21 


8 A. M. 





enters Capricorn us 


1 11 27 A.M. 


6 


d € 








winter Ijegins. 


6 10 24 A. M. 


6 


h € 


22 11 39 p.m. 


6 


T^ (g 


13 1 12 A. M. 


6 


§ Tj 


22 


5 13 P.M. 


6 


9 (£ 


16 10 P.M. 


n 


h 


22 


11 46 p.m. 


6 


d ^ 


24 1 36 p. M. 


6 


9 (£ 


24 11 54 p.m. 


6 


^ 


25 7 12 p. M. 


6 


h y. h N. 10 48'. 


28 


2 A. M. 





stationary. 


26 5 p. M. 


§ 


greatest elonga- 


30 


2 P.M. 


n 1/ 






tion E. 27° 3'. 


30 


6 P.M. 


6 


9 cf , 9 N. 40'. 


28 11 33 p. M. 


6 


'H C 











jjjrriotric (tomttu. 



OBSERVED AT MORE THAN ONE PERIHELION PASSAGE, 



Name. 



Encke , 

Tempel , 

Barnard 

Tempel-Swift, 

Brorseu , 

Winnecke 

Tempel 



Perihelion 



1885, Mar. 
1883, Nov. 
1890, Feb. 

1886, May 
1879, Mar. 
1886, Sept. 
1885, Sept. 



7 
20 

9 
30 

4 
25 



1 


Perihel. 




Period 


Dist. 


Eccen- 


(Years) 


Earth's 


tricity. 




Orbit=l. 




3.3 


0.34 


0.846 


5.2 


1.34 


0.553 


5.4 


1.28 


0.582; 


5.5 


1.07 


0.656 


5.5 


0.59 


0.810 


5.8 


0.88 


0.727 


6.5 


2.07 


0.405 



Kame, 



Biela 

D' Arrest 

Faye 

Tuttle 

Pons- Brooks 

Olbers 

Halley 



Perihelion 
Passage. 



1852, Sept. 23 

1884, Jan. 13 
1881, Jan. 22 

1885, Sept. 11 
1884, Jan. 25 
1887, Oct. 8 
1835. Nov. 15 



Period 
(Tears) 



6.6 
6.7 
7.6 
13.8 
71.5 
72.6 
76.4 



Perihel. 

Dist. 

Earth's 

Orbit=l. 



0.86 
1.33 
1.74 
1.02 
0.77 
1.20 
0.59 



Eccen- 
tricity. 



0.755 
0.626 
0.549 
0.821 
0.955 
0.931 
0.967 



^f^t ^Mtitnt antr Jl^^otyern Ytat. 



The Athenians began the year in June, the Macedonians in September, the Romans first in March 
and afterward in January, the Persians on August 11, the ancient Mexicans on February 23, the Mo- 
hammedans in July. The Chinese year, which begins early in February, is similar to the Moham- 
medan in having 12 mouths of 29 and 30 days alternately ; but in every nineteen years there are seven 
years which have 13 months. This is not quite correct, and the Chinese have therefore formed a 
cycle of 60 years, in which period 22 intercalary months occur. 



38 



^1)0 Chun's HecUnation^ 







FOR W^ASHINGTON MEAN NOON. 






1897. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May, 


June. 




O f II- 


O f II 


o r tf 


O 1 II 


o t n 


O 1 II 


1 


22 56 45.5 S. 


16 52 32.8 S. 


7 17 16.4 S. 


4 50 16.4 N. 


15 18 24.0 N. 


22 9 42.8 N. 


2 


22 51 12.1 


16 35 4.5 


6 54 20.1 


5 13 19.2 


16 36 14.5 


22 17 23.7 


3 


22 45 11.4 


16 17 18.8 


6 31 18.0 


5 36 16 3 


15 53 49.5 


22 24 41.3 


4 


22 38 43.7 


15 59 16.4 


6 8 10,4 


5 59 7.6 


16 11 8.6 


22 31 35.5 


5 


22 31 49.0 


15 40 57.5 


5 44 67.8 


6 21 52.6 


16 28 11.6 


22 38 6.9 


6 


22 24 27.4 


15 22 22.6 


5 21 40.5 


6 44 30.9 


16 44 68.1 


22 44 12.5 


7 


22 16 39.6 


15 3 32.2 


4 58 19.3 


7 7 2.2 


17 1 27.7 


22 49 55.1 


8 


22 8 25.4 


14 44 26,6 


4 34 54.1 


7 29 26.2 


17 17 40.3 


22 55 13.8 


9 


21 59 45.3 


14 25 6.4 


4 11 25 6 


7 51 42.4 


17 33 35.6 


23 8.2 


10 


21 50 39.5 


14 5 31.9 


3 47 54.2 


8 13 505 


17 49 13.1 


23 4 38.5 


11 


21 41 8.4 


13 45 43.7 


3 24 20,1 


8 35 60.3 


18 4 32.7 


23 8 44.4 


12 


21 31 12.2 


13 25 41.8 


3 43.8 


8 57 41.5 


18 19 34.2 


23 12 25.9 


13 


21 20 50.9 


13 5 27.1 


2 37 5.7 


9 19 23,7 


18 34 17.2 


23 15 42.7 


14 


21 10 5.2 


12 44 59.7 


2 13 26.1 


9 40 56.5 


18 48 41.3 


23 18 35.4 


15 


20 58 55 2 


12 12 20.0 


1 49 45.3 


10 2 19.7 


19 2 46.5 


23 21 3.3 


16 


20 47 21.3 


12 3 28.4 


1 26 3.6 


10 23 33.0 


19 16 32.4 


23 23 6.5 


17 


20 35 23.8 


11 42 25.4 


1 2 21.5 


10 44 36.0 


19 29 68.8 


23 24 44.9 


18 


20 23 2.9 


11 21 11.3 


38 39.1 


11 5 28.5 


19 43 6.4 


23 25 68.7 


19 


20 10 19.0 


10 59 46.6 


14 57.1 S. 


11 26 10.1 


19 65 62.1 


23 26 47.6 


20 


19 57 12.5 


10 38 11.4 


8 44.5 N. 


11 46 40.6 


20 8 18.3 


23 27 11.8 


21 


19 43 43.6 


10 16 26.4 


32 251 


12 6 59.5 


20 20 24.1 


23 27 11.0 


22 


19 29 52.7 


9 54 31.8 


56 4.7 


12 27 6.6 


20 32 9.0 


23 26 45.6 


23 


19 15 40.0 


9 32 28.0 


1 19 42.7 


12 47 1.6 


20 43 33,0 


23 25 55.3 


24 


19 1 6.1 


9 10 15.6 


1 43 18.8 


13 6 44.1 


20 54 35.6 


23 24 40.2 


25 


18 46 11.3 


8 47 54.9 


2 6 52.6 


13 26 13.8 


21 5 16.8 


23 23 0.3 


26 


18 30 65.8 


8 25 26.1 


2 30 23,9 


13 45 30.4 


21 15 36.1 


23 20 55.7 


27 


18 15 20.1 


8 2 49.8 


2 53 52.2 


14 4 33.5 


21 25 33 5 


23 18 26 5 


28 


17 59 24.6 


7 40 6.4 a 


3 17 17.2 


14 23 22.7 


21 35 8.6 


23 15 32.8 


29 


17 43 9.8 




3 40 38,5 


14 41 57,8 


21 44 21.3 


23 12 14.4 


30 


17 26 35.8 




4 3 65.6 


15 18.3 


21 53 11.4 


23 8 31.6 N. 


31 


17 9 43.4 S. 




4 27 8.5 




22 1 38.5 N. 





1897. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 




O 1 II 


O 1 II 


O 1 II 


O 1 II 


O / II 


O 1 II 


1 


23 4 24.6 N. 


17 50 55.0 N. 


8 1 15.1 N. 


3 28 50.9 S. 


14 41 14.7 S. 


21 56 16.0 S. 


2 


22 59 53.4 


17 35 26.7 


7 39 18.1 ^ 


3 52 6.8 


16 11.2 


22 5 3.4 


3 


22 54 68.0 


17 19 41.3 


7 17 13.8 


4 15 19.9 


16 18 53 


22 13 25.3 


4 


22 49 38.8 


17 3 39.0 


6 65 2.6 


4 38 29.8 


15 37 19.6 


22 21 21.4 


5 


22 43 65.7 


16 47 20.4 


6 32 44.6 


5 1 36.2 


15 65 30.7 


22 28 61.3 


6 


22 37 49.1 


16 30 45.6 


6 10 20.2 


5 24 38.7 


16 13 26.8 


22 35 55 1 


7 


22 51 18.9 


16 13 64.9 


5 47 49.8 


5 47 37.0 


16 31 4.6 


22 42 32.1 


8 


22 24 25.4 


15 56 48.5 


5 25 13.8 


6 10 30,8 


16 48 26.7 


22 48 42.7 


9 


22 17 8.8 


15 39 27.0 


6 2 32.4 


6 33 19.8 


17 6 31.7 


22 54 26.1 


10 


22 9 29.2 


15 21 60.5 


4 39 45.7 


6 56 3.2 


17 22 19.2 


22 59 42 6 


11 


22 1 26.9 


15 3 69.1 


4 16 54.3 


7 18 41.2 


17 38 48.7 


23 4 31.7 


12 


21 53 1.8 


14 45 63.4 


3 53 68.2 


7 41 13.3 


17 65 0.1 


23 8 53.4 


13 


21 44 14.4 


14 27 33.7 


3 30 58.0 


8 3 39.0 


18 10 62.8 


23 12 47,6 


14 


21 35 4.6 


14 8 59.9 


3 7 63.9 


8 25 58.2 


18 26 26.5 


23 16 13.8 


15 


21 25 32.9 


13 50 12.7 


2 44 46.1 


8 48 10.3 


18 41 40.8 


23 19 12.4 


16 


21 15 39.4 


13 31 12.1 


2 21 35.2 


9 10 15.0 


18 56 35,1 


23 21 42.9 


17 


21 5 24.1 


13 11 68.7 


1 58 21,2 


9 32 11.8 


19 11 9.4 


23 23 45.4 


18 


20 54 47.2 


12 52 32.5 


1 35 4,5 


9 54 0.5 


19 25 23.0 


23 25 19.7 


19 


20 43 49.3 


12 32 64.0 


1 11 45,5 


10 15 40.8 


19 59 15.5 


23 26 25.7 


20 


20 32 30.2 


12 13 3.3 


48 24,6 


10 37 12.0 


19 52 46.7 


23 27 3.4 


21 


20 20 60.5 


11 53 0.9 


25 2,1 


10 58 33.8 


20 6 66.2 


23 27 12.9 


22 


20 8 50.2 


11 32 47.1 


1 38.3 ]sr. 


11 19 45.8 


20 18 43.5 


23 26 64.0 


23 


19 56 29 5 


11 12 22.2 


21 46.3 S. 


11 40 47.7 


20 31 8.3 


23 26 6.8 


24 


19 43 48.7 


10 51 46.6 


45 11.5 


12 1 38.8 


20 43 10.3 


23 24 51,2 


25 


19 30 48.4 


10 31 0.5 


1 8 36.8 


12 22 18.9 


20 54 49.0 


23 23 7.5 


26 


19 17 28.3 


10 10 4.2 


1 32 2.0 


12 42 47.6 


21 6 4.2 


23 20 664 


27 


19 3 49.1 


9 48 68.4 


1 55 26.4 


13 3 4.3 


21 16 65.6 


23 18 15.3 


28 


18 49 50.8 


9 27 43.1 


2 18 49.9 


13 23 8.6 


21 27 22.7 


23 15 7.1 


29 


18 35 34.1 


9 6 18.8 


2 42 12.1 


13 43 0.4 


21 37 25.3 


23 11 30.9 


30 


18 20 59.0 


8 44 45.8 


3 5 32.5 S. 


14 2 38.8 


21 47 3.1 S. 


23 7 26.9 


31 


18 6 5.7 N. 


8 23 4.4 N. 




14 22 3.8 S. 




23 2 55.3 S. 



Astronomical (Constants, 

The mean obliquity of the ecliptic for the year 1897 is 23° 27' 9. "42. Mean annual dim- 
inution, 0.46". 

The present accepted value of the solar parallax is 8. 81" at the earth' s mean distance, which 
is 92, 790, 000 miles, with a probable error of about 75, 000 miles more or less. 

The eccentricity of the earth' s orbit is 0. 016771 ; Ave are therefore 3, 112, 560 miles nearer to 
the sun at perihelion (January 1) than at aphelion (about July 1). 

Length of the sidereal year, .365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, 9. 6 seconds of mean time. 

Lengthof the tropical year (from e»iuinox to equinox), 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 46.07 
seconds of mean time. 

Mean distance from earth to moon, 238, 850 miles. 

The length of a second' s pendulum, that is, one which vibrates once in a second, in vacuo, 



Star Table. 



39 



ASTRONOMICAL CONSTANTS— Coyiii/mecZ. 



at any place whose latitude is I, is 39.01254 + 0.20827 sin2 finches. At New York it is 
39. 1013 inches. 

The acceleration of gravity in one second of mean solar time is 32. 086528 + 0. 171293 sin2 1 
feet. The half of this is the distance through Avhich a body falls (in a vacuum) in one second. 

The velocity of light is 186, 330 miles per second. 

Light requires 8 minutes and 18 seconds to pass from the sun to the earth when at its 
mean distance, as given above ; therefore, when we look at the sun we see him, not where he 
actually is, but where he was about 8 minutes and 18 seconds ago ; his true place is then always 
in advance of his apparent place. 



33ole cStar, 



MEAN TIME OF TRANSIT (AT NEW YORK) AND POLAR DISTANCE OF POLE STAR. 



1897 



a o 



1 

n 

21 
1897 



! "ttja 
OS 



January. 



Upper I Polar 
Transit. Distance. 



P. M. 

6 33.8 
5 54.3 
5 14.8 



O f It 



14 3 

14 2 
14 2 



February. 


March. 


Lower 

Transit. 


Polar 
Distance. 


Lower 
Transit. 


Polar 
Distance. 


H. M. 

A. M, 

4 33.4 
3 53.9 
3 14.5 


1 It 

1 14 2 
1 14 4 
1 14 6 


H. M. 

A. M. 

2 42.9 
2 3.5 
1 24.1 


1 It 

1 14 7 
1 14 10 
1 14 13 



April. 



Lower 
Transit. 



A. M. 

12 40.8 

11 57.6 p.m. 

11 18.3 p.m. 



Poiar 
Distance, 



t It 

1 14 16 
1 14 19 
1 14 ?2 



May. 



Lower 
Transit. 



H, 
P. 

10 
9 
9 



M. 

M. 

39.0 
59.8 
20.6 



Polar 
Distance. 



o I n 



14 25 
14 27 
14 30 



JUNB. 



Lower 
Transit. 



Polar 
Distance. 



H. M. 

P. M. 

8 37.5 
7 58.4 
7 19.2 



I It 

1 14 32 
1 14 33 
1 14 33 



1 

11 
21 



July. 



Lower 
Transit. 



H. M. 

P. M. 

6 40.0 
6 1.0 
5 22.1 



Polar 
Distance, 



O t II 



l4 33 
14 33 
14 32 



August. 



Upper 
Transit. 



H. M. 

A. M. 

4 41.1 
4 1.5 
3 22.3 



Polar 
Distance, 



I II 

1 14 30 
1 14 ^3 
1 14 i& 



September. 



Upper 
Transit, 



H. M. 

A. M. 

2 39.2 
2 0.0 
1 20.8 



Polar 
Distance, 



; ;; 

1 14 23 
1 14 19 
1 14 16 



October. 



Upper 
Transit. 



H. M. 
A. M. 

12 41.5 
12 2.3 
11 19.0 p.m. 



Polar 
Distance, 



f ft 

1 14 12 
I 14 8 
1 14 4 



NOVKMBER. 



Upper 
Transit, 



H. M. 

P. M. 

10 35.8 
9 56.4 
9 17.0 



Polar 
Distance, 



/ II 

1 14 
1 13 56 
1 13 53 



Decembkr. 



Upper 
Transit. 



H. M. 
P. m. 

8 37.6 
7 58.2 
7 18.6 



Polar 
Distance. 



t II 

1 13 50 
I 13 47 
1 13 45 



From June 16 to August 1 both the upper and lower transits take place during daylight. 
The azimuth at the time of greatest eastern or western elongation can be easily computed from 
the formula : gjjj j^ _ siup 

cos I 
where A denotes the Azimuth, p the polar distance, and I the latitude of the place. 

DATE OF GREATEST ELONGATION. 
To find the time of greatest eastern or western elongation, let if denote the hour angle, and I 
and p as before, then we shall have 

cos H— tan p tan I. 
And the hour angle in mean time is 

JTm = 11° X 00664846. 
This quantity, i^ni, added to or subtracted from the time of transit given alx)ve, according 
to the elongation required, will give the mean time of the greatest elongation at any place whose 
north latitude is I. 

FOR IDENTIFYING THE PRINCIPAL FIXED STARS. 



Name of Star. 



aAndromediB 

yPegasi (Algenib) 

aCassiopeife 

aArietis 

gPersei (Algol) 

aTauri ( Aldebaran) 

aAurigfe ( Capella) 

cOrionis (Betelguese) . . 

iJOrionis (Rigel) 

aCauis Majoris (Sirius) 
aGeminorum (Castor) . 
jBGeminorum (Pollux). 
aCanis Minor 



Declination 



O t 
N 28 31 
N 14 37 
N 55 58 
N 22 59 
N 40 84 
N 16 18 
N 45 54 
N 7 23 
S 8 19 
S 16 35 
N 32 7 
N 28 16 
N 5 29 



On Meridian. 



Upper. 


H. M. 


— 1 18.0 


- 113. 2 


- 42,2 


+ 40. 


+ 1 39. 9 


--3 8.2 


- - 3 47. 1 


+ 4 27. 6 


-- 3 47.6 


--5 18.4 


+ 6 5.7 


+ 6 16. 6 


+ 6 11. 6 



Lower. 

H. M. 
+10 40. 
+10 44. 8 
+11 15. 8 
+12 38. 0' 
+13 37.9 
+15 6.2! 
+15 45. II 
+16 25, 6| 
+15 45.6 
+17 16,4: 
+18 3,7, 
+18 14.6 
+18 9.6 



Kamk of Star, 



aLeonis (Regulus). 
aVirginis (Spica)... 
aBootis (Arcturus). 

gUrsse Minoris 

aCoronse Borealis. . 
aScorpii (Antares). 

o-Lyrae (Vega) 

aAquilfe (Altair)... 
aCygni (Deneb),... 

aCephei 

aAquarii 

o-Piscis Aus 

aPegasi (Morkab). . 



Declination 



On Meridian. 



1 


N12 28 


S 10 37 


N 19 43 


N 74 35 


N 27 4 


S 26 12 


N 38 41 


N 8 36 


N 44 55 


N 62 9 


S 49 


S 80 10 


N 14 39 



Upper. 

H. M. 

+ 8 40. 1 
+11 56. 5 
+12 47,0 
+13 27.5 
+13 49. 7 
+14 59 3 
+17 9.3 
+18 21. 4 
+19 13. 5 
+19 51. 5 
+20 35. 8 
+21 27. 1 
+21 34. 7 



Lower. 

H. M. 
+20 38, 
+23 54, 
+ 45, 



25. 
47. 
57.3 
7.3 
19.4 
11.5 
49.5 



+ 8 33.8 
+ 9 25. 1 
+ 9 32. 7 



To find the time of the star's transit add or substract, according to the sign, the numbers 
in the second column of figures to the date of the transit of the pole star given above. Thus, 
for a Andromedae February 1st. Lower Transit of Polar Star is 4 h. 33.4 m. a. M., to which add 
10 h. 40 m. and we have 3 h. 13. 4 m. p. m. ; for December 1st, we find 7 h. 19.6 m. p m., etc. 



40 



Astronomical. 



OTjr piotin's iUljases, 1897. 



1897. 


Phase. 


P 


Boston. 


New York. 


Washington. 


Charleston. 


Chicago. 


^ 






H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 




H. M- 




H. M. 


New Moon, 


3 


1 19 A.M. 


1 7 


A. M. 


12 55 


A.M. 


12 44 


A.M. 


12 13' A.M. 


^ 


First Quarter. 


10 


5 2 P.M. 


4 50 


P.M. 


4 38 


P.M. 


4 26 


P.M. 


3 55 P.M. 


a 


Full Moon. 


18 


3 33 p. M. 


3 21 


P.M. 


3 9 


P.M. 


2 57 


P.M. 


2 26 P.M. 


o3 


Last Quarter. 


25 

1 


3 25 P.M. 


3 13 


P.M. 


3 


P.M. 


2 49 


P.M. 


2 18 P.M. 


• 


New Moon. 


3 29 p. M. 


3 17 


P.M. 


3 5 


P.M. 


2 54 


P.M. 


2 23 P.M. 


c3 

5 


I'irst Quarter. 


9 


2 41 p. M. 


2 29 


P.M. 


2 17 


P.M. 


2 6 


P.M. 


1 35 P.M. 


Full Moon. 


17 


5 27 A. M. 


5 15 


A.M. 


5 3 


A.M. 


4 51 


A.M. 


4 21 A.M. 




Last Quarter. 


23 
3 


11 P.M. 


10 48 


P.M. 


10 35 


P.M. 


10 24 


P.M. 


9 53 P.M. 


r1 


New Moon. 


7 12 A. M. 


7 


A.M. 


6 48 


A.M. 


6 37 


A.M. 


6 6 A.M. 


w 


First Quarter. 


11 


10 44 A. M. 


10 32 


A.M. 


10 20 


A.M. 


10 9 


A.M. 


9 38 A.M. 


c3 


Full Moon. 


18 


4 44 p. M. 


4 32 


P.M. 


4 19 


P.M. 


4 8 


P.M. 


3 37 P.M 


^ 


Last Quarter. 


25 

1 


7 16 A. M. 


7 4 


A.M. 


6 52 


A.M. 


6 40 


A. M. 


6 9 A.M. 




New Moon. 


11 40 P. M. 


11 28 


P.M. 


11 16 


P.M. 


11 4 


P.M. 


10 33 P.M. 


^ 


First Quarter. 


10 


3 43 A. M. 


3 31 


A.M. 


3 19 


A.M. 


3 7 


A. M. 


2 36 A.M. 


ft 


Full Moon. 


17 


1 41 A. M. 


1 29 


A.M. 


1 17 


A.M. 


1 6 


A. M. 


12 35 A.M. 


< 


Last Quarter. 


23 


5 4 P.M. 


4 52 


P M. 


4 40 


P.M. 


4 28 


P.M. 


3 57 P.M. 




New Moon. 


1 


4 2 P.M. 


3 50 


P.M. 


3 38 


P.M. 


3 27 


P.M. 


2 56 P.M. 




First Quarter. 


9 


4 53 P. M. 


4 41 


P.M. 


4 28 


P.M. 


4 17 


P.M. 


3 46 P.M. 


Full Moon. 


Ifi 


9 10 A, M 


8 58 


A. M. 


8 46 


A.M. 


8 35 


A.M. 


8 4 A.M. 


1^ 


Last Quarter. 


23 


4 50 A. M. 


4 38 


A.M. 


4 26 


A.M. 


4 15 


A.M. 


3 44 A.M. 




New Moon. 


31 

8 


7 42 A. M. 


7 30 


A. M. 


7 17 


A. M. 


7 6 


A.M. 


6 35 A.M. 


^. 


First Quarter. 


2 18 A. M. 


2 6 


A.M. 


1 54 


A.M. 


1 43 


A.M. 


1 12 A.M. 


0) 


Full Moon. 


14 


4 17 P. M. 


4 6 


P.M. 


3 53 


P.M. 


3 42 


P.M. 


3 11 P.M. 


D 


Last Quarter. 


21 


6 40 p. M. 


6 28 


P.M. 


6 16 


P.M. 


6 4 


P.M. 


5 33 P.M. 


»-: 


New Moon. 


29 

7 


10 11 P. M. 


9 59 


P.M. 


9 47 


P.M. 


9 36 


P.M. 


9 5 P.M. 




First Quarter. 


8 48 A. M. 


d 8 36 


A. M. 


d 8 24 


A.M. 


d 8 12 


A. M. 


d 7 42 A. M. 


>> 


Full Moon. 


14 


12 8 A.M. 


13 11 56 


P.M. 


13 11 44 


P.M. 


13 11 32 


P.M. 


13 11 2 P.M. 


3 


Last Quarter. 


21 


10 24 A. M. 


10 12 


A.M. 


10 


A. M. 


9 49 


A. M. 


9 18 A.M. 


•-s 


New Moon. 


29 
5 


11 14 A.M. 


11 2 


A.M. 


10 60 


A.M. 


10 38 


A.M. 


10 7 A.M. 


■4-5 


First Quarter. 


1 40 p. M. 


1 28 


P.M. 


1 16 


P.M. 


1 5 


P.M. 


12 34 P.M. 


3 


Full Moon. 


12 


9 39 A. M 


9 27 


A.M. 


9 14 


A.M. 


9 3 


A.M. 


8 32 A.M. 


be 


Last Quarter. 


20 


3 45 A. M. 


3 33 


A.M. 


3 21 


A.M. 


3 9 


A.M. 


2 39 A.M. 


3 
< 


New Moon. 


27 


10 45 P. M. 


10 33 


P.M. 


10 21 


P.M. 


10 9 


P.M. 


9 39 P.M. 


JO 


First Quarter. 


3 


6 29 P. M. 


6 17 


P.M. 


6 5 


P.M. 


5 54 


P.M. 


5 23 P.M. 


a 


Full Moon. 


10 


9 28 p. M. 


9 16 


P.M. 


9 4 


P.M. 


S 52 


P.M. 


8 21 P.M. 


?^ 


Last Quarter. 


18 


10 7 P.M. 


9 55 


P.M. 


9 42 


P.M. 


9 31 


P. M. 


9 P.M. 


ft 


New Moon. 


26 
3 


9 2 A.M. 


8 50 


A.M. 


8 38 


A.M. 


8 27 


A.M. 


7 56 A.M. 


I-! 


First Quarter. 


12 47 A. M. 


12 35 


A.M. 


12 23 


A.M. 


12 12 


A.M. 


d 

2 11 41 P.M. 


X5 


Full Moon. 


10 


11 58 A. M. 


11 46 


A.M. 


11 34 


A.M. 


11 22 


A.M. 


10 51 A.M. 


O 


Last Quarter. 


18 


4 25 P. M. 


4 13 


P.M. 


4 1 


P.M. 


3 49 


P.M. 


3 18 P.M. 


S 


New Moon. 


25 


6 44 P. M. 


6 32 


P.M. 


6 20 


P.M. 


6 8 


P.M. 


5 38 P.M. 


u 


First Quarter. 


1 


9 53 A. M. 


■ 9 41 


A.M. 


9 29 


A.M. 


9 17 


A.M. 


8 46 A.M. 


a 


Full Moon. 


9 


5 6 A.M. 


4 54 


A.M. 


4 42 


A.M. 


4 30 


A.M. 


4 A.M. 


Last Quarter. 


17 


9 18 A. M. 


9 6 


A.M. 


8 54 


A.M. 


8 42 


A.M. 


8 12 A.M. 


> 


New Moon. 


24 


4 36 A. M. 


4 24 


A.M. 


4 11 


A.M. 


4 


A.M. 


3 29 A.M. 


o 


First Quarter. 


30 


10 30 p. M. 


10 18 


P.M. 


10 6 


P.M. 


9 55 


P.M. 


9 24 P.M. 


p 






d 




d 




d 




d 


a 


Full Moon. 


9 


12 10 A. M. 


8 11 58 


P.M. 


8 11 46 


P.M. 


8 11 35 


P.M. 


8 11 4 P.M. 


liast Quarter. 


16 


11 38 P. M. 


11 26 


P.M. 


11 14 


P.M. 


11 2 


P.M. 


10 31 P.M. 


New Moon. 


23 


3 11 P. M. 


2 59 


P.M. 


2 47 


P.M. 


2 36 


P.M. 


2 5 P.M. 


ft 


First Quarter. 


30 


2 43 P. M. 


2 31 


P.M. 


2 18 


P.M. 


2 7 


P.M. 


1 36 P.M. 



Moonlight Chart, 1897. 



41 



JHoonligljt i^Datrt, 1897. 



s:! 
o 

;^ 

H-l 

O 
>. 

fl 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 
15 
16 



18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 




Explanation. —The white spaces iudicate the amount of moonlight each night. Thus, January 3, 
February 1, etc. , the time of new moon when for two or three nights there is no moonlight; January 
10, February 9, etc., when ihe moon sets at or near midnight or when the former half of the night is 
moonlight; January 18, February 17, etc., the time of full moon, or when for two or three nights in 
succession, moonlight lasts the whole night; January 24, February 23, March 24. etc., when the 
moon rises at or near midnight or when the latter half only of the night has moonlight 



42 



The French JRevolutionary Era. 



i^rmctpal JBlements t\i t!)g ^olar cSgstem. 



Name, 



Sun , 

Mercury,, 
Venus .... 
Earth .... 

Mars 

Jupiter... 
Saturn.... 
Uranus ... 
Neptune. 



Mean 

Distance 

from Sun, 

Millions of 

Miles. 



36.0 

67.2 

92.8 

141.5 

483.3 

886.0 

1781.9 

2791.6! 



Sidereal 

Period, 

Days. 



87.969 
224. 701 
365. 256 
686. 950 
4332. 58 
10759. 22 
30686. 82 
60181. 11 



Orbit 


Velocity, 


Miles per 


Second. 


23to 35 


21.9 


18.5 


15.0 


8.1 


6.0 


4.2 


3.4 



Mean 
Diameter, 

'Miles. 



Mass, 
Earth =1. 



866,400 

3,030 

7,700 

7,918 

4,230 

86,500 

71,000, 

31,900, 

34,800 



331100 
0.125 
0.78 
1.00 
0.107 
316.0 

94.9 

14.7 

17.1 



Volume, 
Earth =1. 



Density, 
Earth =1. 



1310000 

0.056 

0.92 

1.00 

0.152 

1309 

721 

65 

85 



0.25 
2.23 
0.86 
1.00 
0.72 
0.24 
0.13 
0.22 
0.20 



Gravity 
at Sur- 
face, 
Earth =1. 

27765 
0.85 
0.83 
1.00 
0.38 
2.65 
1.18 
0.91 
0.88 



The number of asteroids discovered up to present date is 423. A number of these small 
planets have not been observed since tlieir discovery, and are practically lost. Consequently it 
is now sometimes a matter of doubt, until the elements have been computed, Avhether the supposed 
new planet is really new, or only an old one rediscovered. 

' 'It is supposed that a Centauri, one of the brightest stars of the Southern Hemisphere, is the 
nearest of the fixed stars to the earth. The researches on its parallax by Henderson and Maclear 
gave, for its distance from the earth, in round numbers, twenty billions of miles. At the incon- 
ceivably rapid i-ate at which light is propagated through space, it would require more than four 
years to reach the earth from this star. ' ' — Whitaker. 



^i)t J^oon. 



The mean distance of the Moon from the Earth is 238, 850 miles ; its mean sidereal revolution round 
the Earth is 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, 11. 46 seconds; its mean synodical revolution, or the period 
from new moon to new moon, is 29 daj's, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 2.87 seconds; the eccentricity of its 
orbit is 0. 0549, and its diameter is 2,162 miles. The Earth being taken as unitj^ the density is . 61 ; 
ma.ss, 1-81; volume,l-50, and gravity, 1-6; that is to say, the Earth would weigh as much as 81 Moons, 
is 50 times larger, and a pound of matter at the Moon's surface would, if transferred to the Earth, 
weigh 6 pounds. -■"— ' 

A Table Showing the Date of Easter Sunday in Each Year of the Nineteenth Century. 



1801- 

1802- 

1803 

1804- 

1805- 

1806 

1807- 

1808- 

1809 

1810- 

1811 

1812- 

1813 

1814- 

1815- 

1816 

1817- 

1818- 

1819- 

1820 



-April 5. 
-April 18. 
-April 10. 
-April 1. 
-April 14. 
-April 6. 
-March 29. 
-April 17. 
-April 2. 
-April 22. 
-April 14. 
-March 29. 
-April 18. 
-April 10. 
-March 26. 
-April 14. 
-April 6. 
-March 22. 
-April 11, 
-April 2. 



1821- 

1822- 

1823- 

1824- 

1825 

1826 

1827- 

1828 

1829- 

1830 

1831- 

1832- 

1833- 

1834- 

1835 

1836 

1837- 

1838 

1839 

1840 



-April 22. 
-April 7. 
-March 30. 
-April 18, 
-April 3. 
-March 26. 
-April 15. 
-April 6. 
-April 19. 
-April 11. 
-Aprils. 
-April 22. 
-April 7. 
-March 30. 
-April 19. 
-Aprils. 
-March 26. 
-April 15. 
-March 31. 
-April 19. 



1841- 
1842- 
1843- 
1844- 
1845- 
1846- 
1847- 
1848- 
1849- 
1850- 
1851- 
1852- 
1853- 
1854- 
1855- 
1856- 
1857- 
1858- 
1859- 
1860- 



April 11. 


1861 


March 27. 


1862 


April 16. , 


1863 


April?. * 


1864 


March 23. 


1865 


April 12. 


1866 


April 4. 


1867 


April 23. 


1868 


April 8. 


1869 


March 31. 


1870 


April 20. 


1871 


April 11. 


1872 


March 27. 


1873 


Anril 16, 


1874 


April 8. 


1875 


March 23. 


1876 


April 12. 


1877 


April 4. 


. 1878 


April 24. 


1879 


■April 8. 


1880 



March 31. 


1881- 


April 20. 


1882- 


April 5. 


1883- 


March 27. 


1884- 


April 16. 


1885- 


April 1. 


1886 


April 21. 


1887 


April 12. 


1888 


March 28. 


1889 


April 17. 


1890 


April 9. 


1891 


March 31. 


1892 


April 13. 


1893 


April 5. 


1894 


March 28. 


1895 


April 16. 


1896 


April 1. 


1897 


April 21. 


1898 


April 13. 


1899 


March 28. 


1900 



-April 17. 
-April 9. 
-March 25. 
-April 13. 
-April 6. 
-April 25. 
-April 10. 
-April 1. 
-April 21. 
-April 6. 
-March 29. 
-April 17. 
-April 2. 
-March 25. 
-April 14. 
-April 5. 
-April 18. 
-April 10. 
-April 2. 
-April 15. 



Vendemiaire rV''intage), Sept. 23 to Oct. 22. 
Brumaire (Foggy), Oct. 23 to Nov. 22. 
Frimaire (Sleety), Nov. 22 to Dec. 21. 
Nivose (Snowj-)) Dec. 22 to Jan. 21. 

Pluviose (Rainy), Jan. 21 to Feb. 20. 
Ventose (Windy) Feb. 20 to Mar. 19. 



Germinal 

Flo real 

Prairial 

]\[essidor 

Thermidor (Hot), 

Fructidor (Fruit), 



(Budding), Mar. 22 to April 21. 
(Flowery), April 21 to May 20. 
(Pasture), May 21 to June 20. 
(Harvest), June 20 to July 19. 
~ July 20 to Aug. 19. 

Aug. 19 to Sept. 18. 



In September, 1793, the convention decreed that the common era should be abolished in all civil 
aflfaii-s, and that the new French era should begin on September 22, 1792, the day of the true 
autumnal equinox, and that each succeeding year should begin at the midnight of the day on which 
the true autumnal equinox falls. The year was divided into twelve mouths of thirty davs each. In 
ordinary yeai-s there were five extra days, from the 17th to the 21st of our September, and at the end 
of every fourth year was a sixth complementary day. This reckoning was first used on November 
22, 1793, and was continued until December 31, 1805, when it was discontinued, and the Gregorian 
calendar, used throughout the rest of Europe, was resumed. The following were the dates for the 
year 1804, the last complete year of this style of reckoning : 



The months were divided into three decades of ten days each, but to make up the 365 five were 
added at the end of September; Primidi, dedicated to Virtue; Duodi, to Genius; Tridi, to Labor; 
Quartidi, to Opinion, and Quintidi, to Revvards. To Leap Year, called Olympic, a sixth day, Septem- 
ber 22 or 23, Sextidi, ' ' the day of the Revolution, ' ' was added. 

The current French names of the months are: Janvier (January), F^vrier (February), Mai's 
(March), Avril (April), Mai (May), Juiu (June), Juillet (July), AoGt (August), Septembre (Septem- 
ber), Octobre (October), No vembre (November), Decembre (December). 



Old English Holidays. 



43 



JLtflal J^oliTJa^s in tfje Uarious estates* 



JanuaHY 1, New Yeak's Day: In all the 
States (including the District of Columbia) except 
Arkansas, Kentucky. Massachusetts, Mississippi, 
New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. 

January 8. Anniversary of the Battle 
OF New Orleans : In Louisiana. 

January 19. Lee's Birthday : In Florida, 
Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and 
Virginia. 

February 12. Lincoln's Birthday: In 
Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, and 
Washington (State). 

February 22. Washington's Birthday : 
In all the States (including the District of Col- 
umbia) except Arkansas, Iowa, and MississippL 

March 2. Anniversary of Texan Inde- 
pendence : In Texas. 

March 2, 1897. Mardi-Gras : In Alabama 
and the parish of Orleans, Louisiana. 

March 4, 1897, Inauguration Day : In 
the District of Columbia. 

April 6. Confederate Memorial Day: 
In Louisiana. 

April 7, 1897. State Election Day : In 
Rhode Island. 

April 16, 1897. Good Friday : In Alabama, 
Loulsiana.Maryland, Pennsylvania, andTennessee 

April 19. Patriots' Day: In Massachusetts. 

April 2L Anniversary OF the Battle of 
San Jacinto : In Texas. 

April 26. Confederate Memorial Day : In 
Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. 

May 10. Confederate Memorial Day : In 
North Carolina and South Carolina. 

May 20. Anniversary of the Signing of 
THE Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence : In North Carolina. 

May 3(). Decoration Day : In Arizona, Cali- 
fornia, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District 
of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, 
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Okla- 
homa, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, 
South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Wis- 
consin, Washington, and Wyoming. 

June 3. Jefferson Davis's Birthday: In 
Florida. 

July 4. Independence Day: In all the 
States and the District of Columbia. 

July 24. Pioneers' Day : In Utah. 

August 16. Bennington Battle Day : In 
Vermont. 

September 4, 1897. Labor Day : In Penn- 
sylvania. 

Septembeb6, 1897. Labor Day: In Alabama, 
Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Col- 
umbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, 
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine. Marj^land, 
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, New York. Ohio, Oregon, Rhode island. 



South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, 
Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and 
Wyoming. 

September 9. Admission Day : In Cali- 
fornia. 

October 4 1897. Labor Day: In California. 

October 15. Lincoln Day: In Connecticut. 

October 31. Admission Day : In Nevada. 

November 1. All Saints' Day: In Louisiana. 

November ^ General Election Day : In 
Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Indiana, 
Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, 
Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, 
New Jerse5\ New York, North Dakota, Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, 
South Dakota. Tennessee, Texas, West Vir- 
ginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, 
in the years when elections are held in these 
States. In 1897 the date is November 2. 

November 25. Labor Day : In Louisiana. 

November 25. 1897. Thanksgiving Day : 
Is observed in all the States, and in the District of 
Columbia, though in some States it is not a statu- 
tory holiday. 

December 25. Christmas Day : In all the 
States, and in the District of Columbia, 

Sundays and Fast Days are legal holidays in all 
the States which designate them as such. 

There are no statutory holidays in Arkansas, 
Mississippi, Kansas, and Nevada, but by common 
consent the Fourth of July, Thanksgiving, and 
Christmas are observed as holidays in the two for- 
mer, and Decoration Day, Labor Day, and Arbor 
Day in addition in Kansas. 

Arbor Day is a legal holiday in Kansas, Min- 
nesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, 
the day being set by the Governor; in Texas, 
February 22; in Nebraska, April 22; Montana, 
third Tuesday in April ; Utah, April 15; Rhode 
Island, first Friday in IMay; Idaho, on Friday 
after May 1 ; Florida, February 7 ; Georgia, first 
Friday in December. 

Every Saturday after 12 o'clock noon is a legal 
holiday in New York, New Jersey^ Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Colum'bia, 
and the cities of New Orleans and Wilmington, Del., 
in Louisiana and Missouri; in cities of 100. 0(K) or 
more inhabitants; in Ohio in cities of 50.000 or 
more inhabitants.; and June 1 to September 30 
in New Castle County, Del. , and Denver, Col. 

There is no national holiday, not even the 
Fourth of July. Congress has at various times 
appointed special holidays. In the second session 
01 the Fifty- third Congress it passed an act mak- 
ing Labor Day a public holiday in the District of 
Columbia, and it has recognized the existence of 
certain days as holidays, for commercial purposes, 
in such legislation as the Bankruptcy act, but 
with the exception named, there is no general 
statute on the subject. The proclamation of the 
President designating a day of Thanksgiving only 
makes it a legal holiday in those States which 
provide by law for it. 



These holidays, with their names, had their origin in medijeval England when the State religion 
was that of the Church of Rome, and they are still observed generally or in some parts of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. 



January 6. Twelfth Day, or Twelfth-tide, sometimes 
called Old Christmas Day, the same as Epiphany. The previous 
evening is Twelfth Night, with whicli many social rites have long 
been connected. 

February 2. Candlemas : Festival of the Purification of the 
Virgin. Consecration of the lighted candles to be used in the 
church during the year. 

February 14. Old Candlemas : St. Valentine's Day. 

March 25. Lady Day : Annunciation, of the Virgin. April 
6 is old Lady Day. 

June 24. MiDsuMifKE Day : Feast of the Nativity of John the 
Baptist. July 7 is old Midsummer Day. 

August 1. Lammas Day : Originally in England the festival 
of the wheat harvest. In the Church the festival of St. Peter's 
miraculous deliverance from prison. Old Lammas Day is August 13. 

Septkmbkb 29. Michaelmas: Feast of St, 'Michael, the 
Archangel. Old Michaelmas is October ] 1. 



November 1. Allhallowmas : All-haUows, or All Saints' 
Dav. The previous evening is All-hallow-e'en, observed by home 
gatherings and old-time festive rites. 

KovEMBEE 2. All Souls' Day : Day of prayer for the souls 
of the dead. 

November 11. Martinmas : Feast of St. Martin. OldMartiu- 
mas is November 23. 

December 28. Childermas: Holy Innocents Day. 

Lady Day, Midsummer Day, Michaelmas, and Christmas are 
quarter (rent) days in England, and Wliitsunday, Martinmas, 
Candlemas, and Lammas Day in Scotland. 

Shrove Tuesday, the day before Ash Wednesday, and Maundy 
Thursday, the day before Good Friday, are observed bv the 
Church. Mothering Sunday is Mid-Lent Sunday, in which the 
old rural custom obtains of visiting one's parents and making them 
presents. 



44 



Table of Memorable Dates. 



^aiJle of J^emoralJle Bates* 



B C 

1183 Fall of Troy. 

1082 Era of the Great Pyramid. 

878 Carthage founded. 

776 Olympic Era began, 

753 Foundation of Rome. 

588 Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar. 

536 Restoration of the Jews under Cyrus. 

609 Expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome. 

480 Xerxes defeated Greeks at Thermopylae. 
55 Caesar conquered Britain. 
4 Birth of Jesus Christ. 

A.D. 

29 The Crucifixion. 

70 Jerusalem was destroyed by Titus. 

313 Constantine converted to Christianitj'. 

410 The Romans abandoned Britain. 

827 Egbert, first king of all England. 
1066 Battle of Hastings. Norman Conquest. 
1096 The Crusades began. 
1172 Ireland was conquered by Henrj' II. 
1215 King John granted Magna Charta. 
1265 First Representative Parliament in Eng. 
1415 Battle of Agincourt. 
1431 Joan of Arc was burnt. 
1453 Constantinople was taken by the Turks. 
1455 The Wars of the Roses began. 
1462 The Bible was first printed at Mentz. 
1471 Caxton set up his printing press. 
1486 The feuds of York and Lancaster ended. 
1492 Columbus discovered America. 
1517 The Reformation began in Germany. 
1519 Cortez began the conquest of Mexico. 
1535 The first English Bible printed. 
1539 Monasteries were closed in England. 
1558 Accession of Queen Elizabeth. 
1565 Revolt of the Netherlands began. 
1572 The St. Bartholomew Massacre. 
1588 The Spanish Armada was defeated. 
1600 East India Company first chartered. 
1603 Union of England and Scotland. 
1605 The Gunix)wder Plot in England. 
1607 Jamestown, Va. , was settled. 
1609 Hudson River first explored. 
1616 Shakespeare died. 
1618 Thirty Years' War in Germany began. 
1620 Pilgrims by the Mayflower landed. 
1623 Manhattan Island settled. 
1634 Marj^land settled by Roman Catholics. 
1636 Rhode Island settled by Roger Williams. 
1640 Cromwell' s Long Parliament assembled. 
1649 Charles I. was beheaded, January 80. 
1653 Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector. 
1660 Restoration of the Stuarts. 
1664 New York was conquered from the Dutch. 
1664 The great plague of London. 
1666 The great fire of London. 
1679 Habeas CorpusAct was passed in England. 
1682 Pennsylvania settled by William Penn. 
1685 Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 
1688 James 11. abdicated. 
1690 Battle of the Boyne. 
1690 First newspaper in America; at Boston. 
1704 Gibraltar was taken by the English. 

1713 Peace of Utrecht. 

1714 Accession of the House of Hanover. 

1715 First Jacobite Rebellion in Great Britain. 
1720 South Sea Bubble. 

1745 Battle of Fontenoy. 

1745 Second Jacobite Rebellion in Gt. Britain. 

1756 The Black Hole Suftbcation in Calcutta. 

1757 Clive won the Battle of Plassey in India. 
1759 Canada was taken from the French. 
1765 Stamp Act enacted. 

1773 Steam engine perfected by Watt. 



A. D. 

1773 Tea destroyed in Boston Harbor. 
1775 Battle of Lexington, April 19. 

1775 Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17. 

1776 Declaration of Independence, July 4. 

1777 Burgoyne' s surrender, Oct. 17. 
1779 Captain Cook was killed. 

.1781 Cornwallis' surrender at Yorkt' n, Oct. 19. 

1788 First settlement in Australia. 

1789 The French Revolution began. 

1789 Washington first inaugurated President. 
1793 Cotton-gin invented by Whitney. 
1793 Louis XVI. of France was executed. 
1796 Vaccination was discovered by Jenner. 

1798 The Irish Rebellion. 

1799 Battle of Seringapatam ; death of Tipix)o. 
1799 Bonaparte declared First Consul. 

1801 Union of Great Britain and Ireland. 

1803 Louisiana purchased from the French. 

1804 Bonaparte became Emperor of the French 

1805 Battle of Trafalgar and death of Nelson. 
1807 Fulton' s first steamboat voyage. 

1812 Second Avar with Great Britain began. 

1812 The French expedition to Moscow. 

1813 Perry' s victory on Lake Erie. 

1814 The printing machine invented. 

1814 Scott' s ' ' Waverley ' ' published. 

1815 Battle of New Orleans, Jan. 8. 
1815 Battle of Waterloo, June 18. 

1819 First steamship crossed the Atlantic. 

1820 Missouri Compromise adopted. 
1823 Monroe Doctrine declared, Dec. 2. 
1828 First passenger railroad in the U. S. 
1830 Revolution in France, Orleanistsucces'n. 
1832 South Carolina Nullification Ordinance. 
1835 Morse invented the telegraph. 

1835 Seminole War in Florida began. 
1837 Accession of Queen Victoria, June 20. 

1845 Texas annexed. 

1846 Sewing machine completed by Elias Howe 
1846 The Irish Potato Famine. 

1846 British Corn laws repealed. 

1846 War with Mexico began. 

1848 French Revolution. Republic succeeded. 

1848 Gold discovered in California. 

1851 Gold discovered in Australia. 

1851 Louis Napoleon became Emperor. 

1851 First International Exhibition, London. 

1853 Crimean War began. 

1857 The Great Mutiny in India. 

1857 The Dred Scott decision. 

1859 John Brown' s raid into Virginia, 

1860 South Carolina seceded, Dec. 20.. 

1861 Emancipation of the Russian serfs, 
1863 Lincoln' s Emancipa' n Proclam' n, Jan, 1. 
1863 Battle of Gettysburg. 

1865 Lee surrendered at Appomattox, April 9. 

1865 President Lincoln assassinated, April 14. 

1866 Battle of Sadowa. Prussia beat Austria. 

1867 Emperor Maximilian of Mexico executed. 
1867 The Dominion of Canada established. 
1870 Franco- German War began. 

1870 Capitulation of the French at Sedan. 

1870 Rome became the capital of Italy. 

1871 The German Empire was re-established. 
1871 The Irish Church was disestablished. 

1871 The great fire in Chicago. 

1872 The great fire in Boston. 

1876 Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. 

1881 President Garfield shot. 

1882 British occupation of Egypt. 
1889 Brazil became a Republic. 

1893 World' s Columbian Exposit' n at Chicago. 

1894 Chinese- Japanese war began. 

1895 Cuban Revolutiou began Feb. 20. 



Aniiiversaries. 



45 



ealtntrars for 1897:=98. 



1897 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. 



May. 



June. 



a 


>-4 

O 






u 


1 


■(J 

m 

2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 
















1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 
















1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


i 


'2 


3 


4 


5 


ti 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


3(1 


31 










, 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


, . 


. . 





July 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec, 



-J} 



1898 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. 



May. 



June. 



s 


d 
o 


m 

0) 

s 






"u 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


26 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 
















i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 
















1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


38 


29 


30 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


'i 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


39 


30 


31 




•• 












i 


'2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 







July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



6 
13 

20 

27 



3 

10 
17 
24 

"i 

8 
15 
22 
29 



5 

12 
19 
26 



3 

10 
17 
24 
31 



^nnii3^rsaries* 



DATES OF HISTORICAL EVKNTS CUSTOMARILY OR OCCASIONALLY OBSERVED. 



Jan. 



Jan. 


6 


Jan. 


8. 


Jan. 


17. 


Jan. 


18. 


Jan. 


19. 


Jan. 


27. 


Feb. 


12. 


Feb. 


22. 


Feb.22-23. 


Marcb 


I 5. 


March 15. 


March 18. 


April 


1. 


April 


9. 


April 


12. 


Anril 


12. 


April 


13. 


April 


14. 


April 


19. 


April 


19. 


April 


23. 


April 


27. 


April 


30. 


May 


13. 


May 


13. 


May 


20. 


May 


24. 


June 


6. 


June 


15. 


June 


17. 


June 


18. 



Emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln, 
1863. 

Franklin born, 1706. 

Battle of New Orleans, 1815. 

Battle of the Cowpen.s, S. C. , 1781. 

Daniel Webster born, 1782. 

Robert E. Lee born, 1807. 

German Emperor born, 1859. 

Abraham Lincoln born, 1809. 

George Washington born, 1732. 

Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. 

Boston Massacre, 1770. 

Andrew Jackson born, 1767_ 

Grover Cleveland born, 1837, 

Bismarck born, 1815. 

Lee surrendered at Appomattox, 1865. 

Fort Sumter fired upon, 1861. 

Henry Clay born, 1777. 

Thomas Jefferson born, 1743. 

Lincoln assassinated, 1865. 

Primrose Day in England, Lord Beacons- 
field died, 1881. 

Battles of Lexington and Concord, 1775. 

Shakspeare born, 1564. 

General Grant born, 1822. 

Washington was inaugurated first Presi- 
dent, 1789. 

First English settlement in America, at 
Jamestown, 1607. 

The Society of the Cincinnati was organ- 
ized by officers of the Revolutionary 
Army, 1783. 

Mecklenburg, N. C, , Declaration of Ip- 
depende'nce, 1775. 

Queen Victoria born, 1819. 

General Nathauael Greene born, 1742. 

King John granted Magna (Jharter at 
Runnymede, 1215. 

Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775, 

Battle Ql WaterlQD, 1815. 



June 


28. 


July 


1. 


July 


1-3. 


July 


4. 


July 


14. 


July 


21. 


Aug. 


16. 


Sep. 


1. 


Sep. 


«. 


Sep. 


10. 


Sep. 


11. 


Sep. 


13. 


Sep. 


14. 


Sep. 


17. 


Sep. 19-20. 


!^ep. 


20. 


Oct. 


7. 


Oct. 


8-11. 


Oct. 


12. 


Oct. 


17. 


Oct. 


19. 


Nov. 


5. 


Nov. 


9. 


Nov. 


10. 


Nov. 


25. 


Dec. 


2. 


Dec. 


14. 


Dec. 


16. 


Dec. 


16. 


Dec. 


22. 


Dec.25-26. 


Dec. 


29. 



1781. 
victory, 

McDon- 



Battle of Fort Moultrie, Charleston, 

S. C. , 1776. 
Dominion Day in Canada. 
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863. 
Declaration of Independence, 1776. 
The Bastile was destroved, 1789. 
Battle of Bull Run, 1861. 
Battle of Bennington, Vt. , 1777. 
Capitulation of Sedan, 1870. 
Battle of Eutaw Springs, S. C. 
Battle of Tjake Erie, Perry's 

1813. 
Battle of Lake Champlain, 

ough's victory, 1814. 
Battle of Chapultepec, 1847. 
City of Mexico taken by the U. S. troops, 

1847. 
Battle of Antietam, 1862. 
Battle of Chickamauga, 1863, 
Italians occupied Rome, 1870. 
Battle of King' s Mountain, N. C. , 1780. 
Great fire of Chicago, 1871. 
Columbus discovered America, 1492. 
Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, 1777. 
Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, 

178L 
Guy Fawkes Day in England. The Gun- 
powder Plot discovered, X604, 
Great fire of Boston, 1872. 
Martin Luther born, 1483. 
British evacuated New York, 1783, 
Battle of Austerlitz, 1805. 
Washington died, 1799. 
Boston ' ' Tea Party, ' ' 1773. 
The great fire in New York, 1835. 
Mayflower pilgrims landed at Plymouth 

Rock, 1620. 
Battle of Trenton, N. J. , 1776. 
William Ewart Gladstooe born, 1809. 



46 



GreeJc Church and Hussian Calendar, 1897. 



Ritualistic Calendar. 

COLOKS TOR THE ALTAE IN USE IN BiTUALISTIC EPISCOPAI, CHUBCHKS IX THE UNITED STATES. 

White.— Fvora. the First Service (First. Vespers) of Christmas Day to the Octave of Epiphany, 
inclusive (except on the Feasts of Martyrs) ; on Maundy Thursday (for the celebration) ; from the First 
Service of Easter Day to the Vigil of Pentecost (except on Feasts of Martyrs and Rogation Days) ; on 
Trinity Sunday, Conversion of St. Paul, Purification, Annunciation, St. John Baptist, St. Michael 
St. Luke, All Saints, Saints who are not Martyrs, and Patron Saints (Transfiguration and Dedication, 
of Church). 

Eed. —From First Vespers of Pentecost to the following Saturday, First Vespers of Trinity Sunday 
(which includes Ember Daj^s), Holy Innocents (if on a Sunday), and Feasts of all Martyrs. 

Fioiei.— From Septuagesima to Mj,undy Thursday (Easter Eve); Advent Sunday to Christmas 
Eve; Vigils, Ember Days (except in Whitsun Week), and Rogation Days; Holy Innocents (unless on 
Sunday). Black, —Good Fridays and at funerals. Green. —All other days. 

These regulations as to colors are general. A more minute code changing with each year is 
published in the church almanacs. 

MABRiAQESshouldnotbecelebrated from Advent Sunday till eight days after Epiphany; Septua- 
gesima till eight days after Easter; Rogation till Trinity Sunday. 



Jewish Calendar, 1897. 



N«w Moon, Fasts, Fkasts, itc. 



5657. 

Sebat 1 
Adar 1 

14 
Veadar 1 
jSTisan 1 

15 
Yiar 1 

14 

Sivan 1 

6 

Tamuz 1 

17 

Ab 1 

9, 

Elul 1 



New Moon. 



Purim 

New Moon. 



Passover 

New Moon 

Second Passover 

New Moon 

Pentecost 

New Moon 

Fast of Tamuz 

New Moon 

Fast of Ab. (Destruction ofl 

Jerusalem)^ 

New Moon 



1897 
Jan. 4 
Feb. 3 
16 
March 5 
April 3 



May 
June 
July 

i b 

Aug. 



17 
3 

16 
1 
6 
1 

17 

30 



Nk'W Moon, Fasts, Fiasts, ktc. 



I 5658. 
iTisri 1 
I " 3 

I " 10 
' " 15 
, " 22 
I " 23 
Hesvau 1 
Ivislev 1 
" 25 
Tebet 1 



7 1 Sebat 
29ll 



7 
10 



New Moon (New Year) 

Fast of Guadaliah 

" Expiation 

Feast of Tabernacles 

" Eighth Day 

' ' Rejoicing with the Law 
New Moon 



I 1897. 
Se^t. 27 



Dedication of the Temple., 
New Moon 



Fast of Tebet . 



Oct. 



Nov. 
Dec. 



29 
G 
11 
13 
19 
27 
26 
20 
26 



liNew Moon. 



1898. 
Jan. 1 
4 
24 



The year 5657 is an embolismic common year of 384 days, and the year 5658 is an ordinary 
perfect year of 355 days. 



Mohammedan Calendar, 1897. 



Ykar. 



13147 



Nam« of JVIonthB. 



Jlonth Begins. 



Rajab 'Dec. 



.Shaaban. 
.Ramadan (Month of Absti- 
nence) , 

ISchawall 

JDulkaadah 

IDulheggee 



Jan. 

Feb. 
Mar. 
April 
May 



6, 1896 
5, 1897 



5; 

i; 



Ybak. 



Name of Months. 



1315. 



Muharram (New Year). 

Saphar 

Rabial 

" II 

Jomadhi I 

II 

Rajab 



Month Begins. 



June 

July 

Aug. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 



2, 1897 

i' 

30, 

28, 
28, 



Greek Church and Russian Calendar, 1897. 

A. D. 1897, A. M. 8006. 



New 

SXYLB. 



Holy Dajg. 



April 



May 



June 



Jan. 13 Circumcision 

' ' 18 Theophany (EpiphanjO 

Feb. 14 Hypapante (Purification) 

' ' 28 Carnival Sunday 

March 3 First Day of Lent (Ash Wedn' y) 

7jFirst Sunday in Lent 

6|Annunciation of Theotokos 

11 Palm Sundav 

lOJGreat Friday (Good Friday) 

18 Holy Pasch (Easter Sunday) 

5[St. George 

21 St. Nicholas 

26iCoronation of the Emperor* 

6 Pentecost (Whit Sunday). 



Old Style. 



Netv 
Sms. 



Holy Days. 



Jan. 
Feb. 



1 

6 

2 

16 

19 

23 

March25 

" 30 

April 4 

6 

23 

9 

14 

25 



May 



June 
July 
|Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



8 
11 
13 
18 
27 
11 
20 
26 
13 
27 
3 

I " 20 
I 1898 
Jan. 6, 



Ascension 

Peter and Paul, Chief Apostles.. 
First Day of Fast of Theotokos .. 

Transfiguration 

Repose of Theotokos 

St. Alexander Nevsky* 

Nativitj' of Theotokos 

Exaltation of the Cross 

Patronage of Theotokos 

First Day Fast of the Nativity... 

Entrance of Theotokos \ 

Conception of Theotokos 



Old style. 



May 
June 
Aug. 



Se^t. 

Oct. 
Nov. 

Dec. 



Nativity (Christmas). 



27 
29 

1 

6 
15 
30 

8 
14 

1 
15 
21 

8 

25 



* Peculiar to Russia. 

In the monthly calendars which follow this page the times of rising and setting of the sun are for 
the upper limb, and of the moon for the centre. Refraction and parallax have been taken into account 
ua both cases. Although computed for Boston, New York, Washington, and Charleston, they will 
serve with sulflcient accuracy for all ordinary purposes, for all other places situated oa or near the 
same parallel of latitude. 



imMXMu*jf>m^m»mm^^m 



.4_ILP«-».AJIUJ. • 





1st Month. 






JANUARY, 


1897. 








31 Bays. 


4 

a 
o 


• 

M 

:S 
o 

ft 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

Ne\v England, N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon, 


Calendar for 
New Yokk City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 


Calendar for 

Chakleston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern California. 


o 

ft 


SUK 

Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 

H. M. 

4 38 


Moon 
B. <fes. 

H. M. 

6 12 


Suw 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. <frS. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 


Sun 
Rises. 

H. M. 

7 3 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

lUAS. 


1 


Fr 


7 30 


H. M. 

7 25 


H. M. 

4 43 


H. M. 

6 5 


H. M. 

7 19 


H. M. 

4 48 


H. M. 

5 59 


H. M, 

5 5 


H. M. 

5 36 


2 


Sa 


7 30 


4 39 


7 15 


7 25 


4 44 


7 8 


7 19 


4 49 


7 


7 


3 


5 6 


6 39 


3 


S 


7 30 


4 40 


sets. 


7 25 


4 45 


sets. 


7 19 


4 50 


sets. 


7 


3 


5 7 


sets. 


4 


M 


7 30 


4 41 


6 22 


7 25 


4 46 


6 27 


7 19 


4 51 


6 31 


7 


3 


5 8 


6 45 


6 


Tu 


7 30 


4 42 


7 34 


7 25 


4 47 


7 37 


7 19 


4 52 


7 40 


7 


3 


5 8 


7 50 


6 


W 


7 30 


4 43 


8 44 


7 25 


4 48 


8 46 


7 19 


4 63 


8 48 


7 


3 


5 9 


8 53 


7 


Th 


7 30 


4 44 


9 50 


7 24 


4 49 


9 61 


7 19 


4 64 


9 61 


7 


3 


5 10 


9 52 


8 


Fr 


7 29 


4 45 


10 49 


7 24 


4 50 


10 48 


7 19 


4 65 


10 48 


7 


3 


5 11 


10 46 


9 


Sa 


7 29 


4 46 


11 61 


7 24 


4 61 


11 49 


7 19 


4 56 


11 47 


7 


8 


5 12 


11 41 


10 


S 


7 29 


4 47 


A.M. 


7 24 


4 62 


A.M. 


7 18 


4 67 


A.M. 


7 


3 


5 13 


A.M. 


11 


M 


7 29 


4 48 


12 53 


7 23 


4 53 


12 50 


7 18 


4 58 


12 46 


7 


3 


5 13 


12 37 


12 


Tu 


7 28 


4 49 


1 55 


7 23 


4 54 


1 51 


7 18 


4 69 


1 47 


7 


3 


5 14 


1 33 


13 


W 


7 28 


4 50 


3 59 


7 23 


4 65 


2 54 


7 18 


5 


2 48 


7 


3 


5 15 


2 31 


14 


Th 


7 28 


4 51 


4 1 


7 22 


4 66 


8 55 


7 18 


5 1 


3 49 


7 


3 


6 16 


8 29 


15 


Fr 


7 27 


4 52 


5 2 


7 22 


4 67 


4 55 


7 17 


5 2 


4 48 


7 


3 


6 17 


4 27 


16 


Sa 


7 27 


4 63 


5 57 


7 22 


4 58 


5 50 


7 17 


5 3 


5 43 


7 


2 


5 18 


6 22 


17 


S 


7 26 


4 54 


6 45 


7 21 


4 59 


6 38 


7 17 


5 4 


6 31 


7 


2 


6 19 


6 11 


18 


M 


7 26 


4 55 


rises. 


7 21 


5 


rises. 


7 16 


5 6 


rises. 


7 


2 


5 19! rises. 


19 


Tu 


7 25 


4 56 


6 7 


7 21 


5 2 


6 11 


7 16 


5 6 


6 14 


7 


2 


5 20 


6 26 


20 


W 


7 25 


4 58 


7 20 


7 20 5 3 


7 22 


7 15 


5 7 


7 26 


7 


1 


5 21 


7 32 


21 


Th 


7 24 


4 59 


8 33 


7 20 5 4 


8 84 


7 15 


5 8 


8 35 


7 


1 


6 22 


8 38 


22 


Fr 


7 23 


5 


9 46: 


7 19 


5 6 


9 45 


7 14 


5 9 


9 45 


7 


1 


5 23 


9 43 


23 


Sa 


7 22 


5 1 


11 


7 19 


5 6 


10 68 


7 13 


5 10 


10 56 


7 





5 24 


10 49 


24 


S 


7 21 


5 2 


A, M. 


7 18 


5 7 


A.M. 


7 12 


5 11 


A.M. 


7 





6 25 


U 57 


25 


M 


7 20 


5 4 


12 15 


7 17 


5 8 


12 12 


7 11 


5 12 


12 8 


6 59 


6 26 


A.M. 


26 


Tu 


7 19 


5 5 


1 32 


7 16 


5 10 


1 27 


7 10 


5 13 


1 22 


6 59 


5 27 


1 7 


27 


W 


7 18 


5 6 


2 49 


7 15 


5 11 


2 42 


7 10 


5 14 


2 36 


6 58 


5 28 


2 17 


28 


Th 


7 17 


5 7 


4 1 


7 14 


5 12 


8 54 


7 9 


5 15 


8 47 


6 57 


5 29 


3 26 


29 


Fr 


7 16 


5 9 


5 5 


7 13 


5 13 


4 58 


7 8 


5 17 


4 60 


6 57 


5 30 


4 28 


30 


Sa 


7 15 


5 10 


5 58 


7 12 


5 14 


5 51 


7 7 


5 18 


5 44 


6 56 


5 31 


5 24 


31 


S 


7 14 


5 12 


6 39 


7 11 


5 16 


6 34 


7 7 


5 20 


6 28 


6 55 


5 32 


6 11 













SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day OF 






Day of 






Day of 




Day of 




Day op 




Month. 


H. 


M. S. 


Month. 






Month. 




Month. 




Month. 








n. 


M. S. 




H. M. S, 




H. M. sj 




H. M. B. 


1 


12 


4 7 


8 


12 


7 14 


14 


12 9 33 


20 


12 11 27j 


26 


12 12 55 


2 


12 


4 35 


9 


12 


7 88 


15 


12 9 54 


21 


12 11 44 


27 


12 13 7 


3 


12 


5 2 


10 


12 


8 3 


16 


12" 10 14 


22 


12 12 


28 


12 18 18 


4 


12 


5 30 


11 


12 


8 26 


17 


12 10 33 


23 


12 12 15 


29 


12 13 28 


5 


12 


5 56 


12 


12 


8 49 


18 


12 10 52 


24 


12 12 29 


30 


12 13 37 


6 


12 


6 23 


13 


12 


9 11 


19 


12 11 10 


25 


12 12 42 


31 


12 18 46 


7 


12 


6 49 





















TWILIGHT. 



Places. 



Boston 

New York. 
Wash' ton . 
Charleston. 



Jan. 


3egins, a. u. 


Ends, p. M. 


Jan. 


Begins, a. u. 


Ends, p. M. 


Jan. 


Begins, A. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


5 48 


6 19 


11 


5 48 


6 28 


21 


5 46 


1 


5 46 


6 21 


11 


5 46 


6 30 


21 


5 44 


1 


5 43 


6 24 


11 


5 44 


6 32 


21 


5 42 


1 


5 35 


6 33 


11 


5 36 


6 40 


21 


5 36 



6 38 
6 39 
6 41 
6 47 








2d Month. 






FEBJRUAKY 


, 1897, 






28 Days. 


C 

■s. 


i 
i 

O 

P 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
NewYokk City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, KentucKy, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

»nd Central California. 


Calendar for 

Chaslkston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern California. 




Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 

S£TS. 


Moon 

S.. AB, 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Skts. 


Moon 

K. <& 8. 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Sets. 

H. M. 

5 21 


Moon 
B. A s. 


SUH 
Risks. 


Sun 
Skts. 


Moon 
£. A s. 


1 


M 


H. M. 

7 13 


H. M. 

5 13 


gets. 


H. M. 

7 10 


H. M. 

5 17 


H. M. 

sets. 


H. M. 

7 6 


H. M. 

sets. 


H. M. 

6 54 


H. M. 

5 33 


H. M. 

sets. 


2 


Tu 


7 13 


5 15' 6 23 


7 9 


5 19 


6 25 


7 5 


5 22 


6 28 


6 54 


5 34 


6 35 


8 


W 


7 11 


5 16 7 29 


7 7 


5 20 


7 31 


7 4 


5 23 


7 32 


6 53 


5 35 


7 35 


4 


Th 


7 10 


5 17 8 33 


7 6 


5 21 


8 33 


7 3 


5 24 


8 33 


6 52 


5 36 


8 33 


5 


Fr 


7 9 


5 19, 9 37 


7 5 


5 22 


9 35 


7 2 


6 26 


9 34 


6 51 


5 37 


9 30 


6 


Sa 


7 '7 


5 20 10 39 


7 4 


5 23 


10 36 


7 1 


5 27 


10 33 


6 51 


5 38; 10 25 


7 


S 


7 6 


5 21 11 41 


7 3 


5 25 


11 37 


7 


5 28 


11 34 


6 50 


5 39 


11 21 


8 


M 


7 6 


5 23 A. M. 


7 1 


5 26 


A.M. 


6 59 


5 29 


A. M. 


6 49 


5 40 


A.M. 


9 


Tu 


7 4 


5 24,12 4A 


7 


5 27 


12 39 


6 58 


5 30 


12 84 


6 49 


5 41 


12 19 


10 


W 


7 3 


5 25 


1 47 


6 59 


5 28 


1 41 


6 57 


6 32 


1 35 


6 48 


5 42 


1 17 


11 


Th 


7 2 


6 27 


2 48 


6 58 


5 30 


2 42 


6 56 


5 33 


2 35 


6 47 


6 43 


2 14 


12 


Fr 


7 


6 28 


3 45 


6 57 


5 31 


3 38 


6 55 


5 34 


3 31 


6 46 


6 44 


3 10 


13 


Sa 


6 59 


5 30 


4 36 


6 55 


5 32 


4 29 


6 54 


5 35 


4 22 


6 45 


5 45 


4 1 


14 


S 


6 58 


5 31 5 18 


6 54 


6 33 


5 12 


6 52 


5 36 


5 6 


6 44 


6 45 


4 48 


15 


M 


6 66 


5 32, 5 54 


6 53 


6 35 


5 50 


6 51 


5 37 


6 45 


6 43 


5 46 


5 19 


16 


Tu 


6 55 


5 34 6 25 


6 51 


5 36 


6 21 


6 50 


5 39 


6 17 


6 42 


5 47 


6 6 


17 


W 


6 54 


5 36 'rises. 


6 50 


6 37 


rises. 


6 48 


5 40 


rises. 


6 41 


5 48 


rises. 


18 


Th 


6 52 


5 37 7 31 


6 49 


5 38 


7 31 


6 47 


6 41 


7 31 


6 39 


5 48 


7 31 


19 


Fr 


6 51 


5 39 


8 44 


6 48 


6 39 


8 44 


6 46 


5 42 


8 41 


6 38 


5 49 


8 39 


20 


Sa 


6 49 


5 40 


10 


6 46 


5 40 


9 57 


6 44 


5 43 


9 53 


6 37 


5 50 


9 44 


21 


S 


6 48 


5 41 


11 20 


6 45 


5 41 


11 15 


6 43 


5 4411 11 


6 36 


5 51 


10 67 


22 


]\r 


6 46 


5 42 


A. M. 


6 44 


5 43 


A. M. 


6 42 


5 45 


A.M. 


6 35 


6 52 


A.M. 


23 


Tu 


6 45 


5 44 


12 38 


6 42 


5 44 


12 32 


6 40 


5 46 


12 26 


6 34 


5 52 12 8 


24 


W 


6 43 


5 45 


1 52 


6 41 


5 46 


1 46 


6 39 


5 48 


1 38 


6 33 


5 53 


1 18 


25 


Th 


6 41 


5 46 


2 59 


6 40 


5 47 


2 52 


6 38 


6 49 


2 44 


6 32 


5 54 


2 23 


26 


Fr 


6 40 5 47 


3 54 


6 39 


5 48 


3 47 


6 37 


5 50 


3 40 


6 31 


5 55 


3 19 


27 


Sa 


6 38 5 48 


4 39 


6 37 


5 49 


4 32 


6 35 


5 51 


4 26 


6 30 


6 56 


4 8 


28 


S 


6 37 


5 49 


5 13 


6 36 5 50; 5 9 

1 


6 34 


5 52 


5 4 


6 29 5 56 

1 


4 49 


























• • • 













•••••••" 



















SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day of 




Day of 




Day of 


^ 


Day of 




Day of 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




h. m. s. 


1 


12 13 54 


7 


12 14 23 


13 


12 14 24 


19 


12 13 57 


25 


12 13 7 


2 


12 14 1 


8 


12 14 25 


14 


12 14 21 


20 


12 13 51 


26 


12 12 57 


3 


12 14 7 


9 


12 14 27 


15 


12 14 18 


21 


12 13 43 


27 


12 12 46 


4 


12 14 12 


10 


12 14 27 


16 


12 14 14 


22 


12 13 35 


28 


12 12 35 


5 


12 14 17 


11 


12 14 27 


17 


12 14 9 


23 


12 13 26' 






6 


12 14 21 


12 


12 14 26 


18 


12 14 31 


24 


12 13 17l 







TWILICHT, 



PLACKS. 

Boston 

New York. 
Wash ' ton. 
Charleston 



Feb. Begins, a. m. Ends, p. m. 



1 
1 
1 
1 



5 37 
5 36 

5 35 

6 30 



6 50 
6 51 
6 52 
6 57 



Feb. Begins, a. m. Ends, P. m 



11 

11 
II 
11 



6 27 

6 27 
5 26 
5 24 



7 1 

7 2 

7 2 

7 5 



Feb. Begins, A. m. Ends, p m 



21 
21 
21 
21 



M. 



6 14 
5 15 
5 15 
5 15 



M. 



7 13 
7 13 
7 13 
7 13 



3d Month. 






MARCH, 1897. 






31 Days. 


§ 


• 

1 

M 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, N. Y. State-, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
Kkw Yokk City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washington. 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 


Calendar for 

Charleston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern California. 


o 

fe- 
ci 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

K. <<bS. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

K, AS. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

S. A S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

B. <kS. 


1 


^6 35 


H. M. 

6 51 


H. M. 

5 41 


H. M. 

6 34 


H. M. 

5 51 


H. M. 

5 37 


H. M. 

6 33 


H. U. 

5 53 


H. M. 

5 34 


6 27 


H. M. 

5 67 


H. H. 

5 23 


2 


Tu 


6 33 


5 52 


6 5 


6 33 


5 52 


6 3 


6 31 


5 54 


6 


6 26 


5 58 


5 53 


o 
O 


W 


6 32 


5 53 


sets. 


6 31 


5 53 


sets. 


6 30 


5 55 


sets. 


6 25 


5 59 


sets. 


4 


Th 


6 30 


5 54 


7 23 


6 30 


5 55 


7 22 


6 28 


5 56 


7 21 


6 24 


6 


7 18 


5 


Fr 


6 28 


5 65 


8 25 


6 28 


5 56 


8 23 


6 27 


5 57 


8 21 


6 23 


6 


8 14 


6 


3a 


6 27 


5 56 


9 28 


6 26 


5 67 


9 25 


6 25 


5 58 


9 21 


6 21 


6 1 


9 11 


7 


S 


6 25 


5 58 


10 32 


6 24 


5 58 


10 27 


6 24 


5 59 


10 22 


6 20 


6 2 


10 8 


8 


M 


6 24 


5 69 


11 34 


6 23 


5 69 


11 29 


6 22 


6 


11 23 


6 19 


6 3 


11 6 


9 


Tu 


6 22 


6 


A. M. 


6 21 


6 


A.M. 


6 21 


6 1 


A.M. 


6 18 


6 4 


A. M. 


10 


W 


6 20 


6 1 


12 36 


6 19 


6 1 


12 30 


6 19 


6 2 


12 22 


6 17 


6 5 


12 4 


11 


Th 


6 19 


6 2 


1 33 


6 18 


6 3 


1 27 


6 17 


6 3 


1 19 


6 15 


6 6 


12 58 


12 


Fr 


6 17 


6 3 


2 26 


6 16 


6 4 


2 19 


6 16 


6 4 


2 12 


6 14 


6 6 


1 51 


13 Sa 


6 15 


6 4 


3 11 


6 15 


6 5 


3 6 


6 15 


6 5 


2 58 


6 13 


6 7 


2 40 


14 


S 


6 14 


6 


3 51 


6 13 


6 6 


3 45 


6 13 


6 6 


3 39 


6 12 


6 8 


3 22 


15 


u 


6 12 


6 7 


4 22 


6 11 


6 7 


4 16 


6 11 


6 7 


4 13 


6 10 


6 8 


4 10 


16 


Tu 


6 10 


6 8 


4 49 


6 9 


6 8 


4 47 


6 10 


6 8 


4 44 


6 9 


6 9 


4 35 


17 


W 


6 8 


6 9 


5 16 


6 8 


6 9 


5 14 


6 8 


6 ,9 


5 13 


6 8 


6 10 


5 8 


18 


Th 


6 7 


6 10 


5 39 


6 6 


6 10 


5 39 


6 7 


6 10 


5 39 


6 6 


6 10 


5 39 


19 


Fr 


6 5 


6 11 


rises. 


6 5 


6 11 


rises. 


6 5 


6 11 


rises. 


6 5 


6 11 


rises. 


20 Sa 


6 4 


6 13 


9 


6 3 


6 12 


8 56 


6 4 


6 12 


8 62 


6 4 


6 12 


8 40 


2l!S 


6 2 


6 14 


10 21 


6 1 


6 13 


10 16 


6 2 


6 13 


10 10 


6 3 


6 13 


9 54 


22 


M 


6 


6 15 


11 39 


6 


6 14 


11 33 


6 


6 14 


11 26 


6 1 


6 13 


11 6 


23 


Tu 


5 58 


6 16 


A. M. 


5 58 


6 15 


A.M. 


5 59 


6 15 


A. M. 


6 


6 14 


A.M. 


24 


W 


5 57 


6 17 


12 51 


5 57 


6 16 


12 44 


5 67 


6 16 


12 36 


5 69 


6 15 


12 15 


25 Th 


5 55 


6 18 


1 51 


5 55 


6 17 


1 44 


5 66 


6 17 


1 37 


5 67 


6 16 


1 15 


26 Fr 


5 53 


6 20 


2 38 


5 53 


6 19 


2 31 


5 54 


6 18 


2 15 


5 56 


6 16 


2 6 


27, Sa 


5 51 


6 21 


3 16 


5 51 


6 20 


3 11 


5 62 


6 19 


3 6 


5 55 


6 17 


2 49 


28 S 


5 50 


6 22 


3 45 


5 50 


6 21 


3 41 


5 61 


6 20 


3 37 


5 63 


6 18 


3 25 


29 M 


5 48 


6 23 


4 10 


5 48 


6 22 


4 7 


5 49 


6 21 


4 5 


5 52 


6 19 


3 66 


30 Tu 


5 46 


6 24 


4 31 


5 47 


6 23 


4 30 


5 48 


6 22 


4 28 


5 51 


6 19 


4 24 


31 W 


5 44 


6 25 


4 53 


5 45 


6 24 


4 62 


5 46 


6 23 


4 52 


5 49 


6 20 


4 52 



SUN ON MERIDIAN. 



Day of 
Month. 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 





Day of 




Day of 




Day op 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 


H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




12 12 23 


8 


12 10 47 


14 


12 9 10 


20 


12 12 11 


9 


12 10 32 


15 


12^ 8 63 


21 


12 11 68 


10 


12 10 16 


16 


12 8 35 


22 


12 11 44 


11 


12 10 


17 


12 8 17 


23 


12 11 31 


12 


12 9 43 


18 


12 7 59 


24 


12 11 16 


13 


12 9 27 


19 


12 7 42 


25 


12 11 2 













12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



7 24 
7 5 
6 47 
6 29 
6 10 
5 52 



Day of 

Month. 



26 

27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



5 33 

6 15 
4 57 
4 38 
4 20 
4 2 











TWII 


_ICHT. 










Places. 


Mar. 


Begins, a.m. 


Ends, P. M. 


Mar. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, P. M. 


Mar. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, P. M. 






H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston 


1 


5 2 


7 23 


11 


4 45 


7 35 


21 


4 27 


7 47 


New York 


1 


5 3 


7 22 


11 


4 47 


7 33 


21 


4 30 


7 45 


Wash' ton. 


1 


5 4 


7 21 


]1 


4 49 


7 31 


21 


4 33 


7 42 


Charleston 


1 


5 6 


7 19 


11 


4 53 


7 27 


21 


4 40 


7 35 



i 


4th Month. 






■ 


APKIL, 1897. 








30 Days. 


• 

■s 

a 
S 

M 

•*^ 


i 

■9 

Th 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England N. Y. State, 

Michi<»an, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
Nbw Yokk City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Centra] California. 


Calendar for 

Chakleston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 

and Southern California. 


ft 


Strn 
Risss. 


Sun 

Skm. 


Moon 

B. A s. 


Suw 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

B. <k S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 


Sun 
Rises. 

H. M. 

5 48 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

B. *3. 


1 


H. M. 

, 6 43 


H. M. 

6 26 


H. M. 

sets. 


H. M. 

5 44 


H. M. 

6 25 


sets. 


B. M. 

6 45 


H. M. 

6 24 


H. M. 

sets. 


n. M. 

6 21 


n. M. 

sets. 


2;Fl' 


5 41 


6 27 


7 18 


5 42 


6 26 7 15 


6 43 


6 25 


7 12 


5 47 


6 22 


7 3 


3Sa 


6 40 


6 28 


8 20 


5 41 


6 27: 8 16 


5 42 


6 26 


8 12 


5 46 


6 22 


8 


4 


S 


5 38 


6 29 


9 23 


5 39 


6 28 9 18 


5 40 


6 27 


9 13 


5 44 


6 23 


8 57 


5 


M 


5 36 


6 30 


10 26 


5 37 


6 2910 20 


5 39 


6 28 


10 14 


5 43 


6 24 


9 55 


6 


Tu 


5 35 


6 31 


11 24 


5 36 


6 30 


11 17 


6 37 


6 29 


11 10 


5 42 


6 24 


10 50 


7 W 


5 33 


6 33 


A.M. 


5 34 


6 31 


A. M, 


5 36 


6 30 


A.M. 


5 40 


6 25 


11 48 


8Th 


5 31 


6 34 


12 18 


5 32 


6 32 


12 11 


5 34 


6 31 


12 4 


5 39 


6 26 


A.M. 


9Fr 


5 30 


6 35 


1 5 


5 31 


6 33 


12 59' 


5 33 


6 32 


12 52 


5 38 


6 26 


12 32 


10 Sa 


5 28 


6 36 


1 45 


6 29 


6 34 


1 89 


5 31 


6 33 


1 33 


5 37 


6 27 


1 16 


11 


S 


5 26 


6 37 


2 19 


5 27 


6 35 


2 14 


5 29 


6 33 


2 10 


5 35 


6 28 


1 65 


12 


M 


6 25 


6 38 


2 48 


5 26 


6 36 


2 45 


6 28 


6 34 


2 41 


5 34 


6 28 


2 30 


13 


Tu 


5 23 


6 40 


3 14 


5 24 


6 37 


3 12 


5 26 


6 35 


3 10 


6 33 


6 29 


3 3 


14 


W 


5 21 


6 41 


3 38 


5 22 


6 38 


3 38 


5 25 


6 36 


3 37 


5 32 


6 30: 3 34 


15 


Th 


5 20 


6 4-z 


4 3 


5 21 


6 39 


4 4 


5 23 


6 37 


4 4 


5 30 


6 30 


4 6 


3GFr 


5 18 


6 43 


4 29 


5 19 


6 41 


4 31 


6 22 


6 38 


4 33 


5 29 


6 31 


4 40 


17 Sa 


5 17 


6 44 


rises. 


5 18 


6 42 


rises. 


5 21 


6 39 


rises. 


5 28 


6 32 


rises. 


IBS 


5 16 


6 45 


9 15 


6 17 


6 43 


9 9 


5 19 


6 40 


9 4 


5 27 


6 32 


8 45 


19 M 


5 14 


6 46 


10 33 


5 15 


6 44 


10 25 


5 18 


6 41 


10 18 


6 26 


6 34 


9 57 


20 


Tu 


5 13 


6 47 


11 40 


5 14 


6 45 


11 33 


5 17 


6 42 


11 25 


5 24 


6 35 


11 4 


21 


W 


5 11 


6 48 


A M. 


5 12 


6 46 


A. M. 


5 15 


6 43 


A.M. 


5 23 


6 35 


A. M. 


22 


Th 


5 10 


6 60 


12 34 


5 11 


6 47 


12 27 


5 14 


6 44 


12 20 


5 22 


6 36 


12 


23 


Fr 


5 8 


6 51 


1 16 


5 10 


6 48 


1 10 


5 13 


6 45 


1 4 


6 21 


6 37 


12. 48 


24 


Sa 


5 7 


6 52 


1 48 


5 8 


6 49 


1 44 


5 11 


6 46 


1 39 


5 20 


6 37 


1 26 


25 


s 


5 5 


6 53 


2 13 


5 7 


6 50 


2 11 


5 10 


6 47 


2 8 


5 19 


6 38( 1 59 


26 


M 


5 4 


6 54 


2 37 


5 6 


6 61 


2 35 


5 9 


6 48 


2 34 


5 18 


6 38 2 28 


27 


Tu 


5 2 


6 65 


2 57 


5 4 


6 62 


2 66 


5 7 


6 49 


2 56 


5 17 


6 39 2 64 


28 


W 


5 1 


, 6 56 


3 16 


5 3 


6 63 


3 17 


5 6 


6 50 


3 18 


5 15 


6 40 3 20 


29 


Th 


4 59 


6 68 


3 37 


5 1 


6 64 


3 39 


5 5 


6 51 


3 41 


6 14 


6 41 


3 46 


30 

• • • 


Fr 


4 67 


6 69 3 68 

*i • ■ * * 'i 


5 


6 65 


4 1 


5 3 


6 52 


4 4 



5 13 


6 41 


4 13 



Day OF 1 
Month. 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 



SUN ON MERIDIAN. 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



3 
3 
3 

2 

2 
2 



44i 

26' 

8 

51 
33' 
16! 



Day of 




Day of 


Month. 




Month. 




H. M* 8. 




7 


12 1 59 


13 


8 


12 1 42 


14 


9 


12 1 26 


15 


10 


12 1 9 


16 


11 


12 63 


17 


12 


12 37 


18 



H. M. S. 

12 22 
12 7 
11 59 52 
11 59 38 
11 69 24 
11 59 10 



Day of 

Month. 



19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



H. 



H. 



11 58 67 
11 68 44 
11 58 31 
11 58 19 
11 58 8 
11 57 57 



Day op 
Month. 



25 
26 

27 
28 
29 
30 



11 67 47 
11 57 37 
11 57 27 
11 57 18 
11 57 10 
11 57 2 



TWILICHT. 



Places. 


Apr. 


Begins, A. M. 

H. M. 


Ends, P. M. 


Apr. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, P. M. 


Apr. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M, 




B. M. 


H. M. 


B. M. 


B. M. 


h. m. 


Boston 


1 


4 6 


8 2 


11 


3 46 


8 16 


21 


3 25 


8 32 


New York. 


1 


4 10 


7 58 


11 


3 60 


8 12 


21 


3 31 


8 26 


Wash 'ton. 


1 


4 14 


7 54 


11 


3 56 


8 7 


21 


3 37 


8 20 


Charleston 


1 


4 24 


7 43 


11 


4 10 


7 52 


21 


3 55 


8 2 





5th Month. 








MAY, 1897. 








31 Days. 


• 

a 
o 

s 

o 

ft 

1 


• 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, N. Y. State, 

Michigran, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
New Yokk City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California, 


Calendar for 

"Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 


Calendar for 

Chaelkston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 

and Southern. California. 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Mock 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

£..feS. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

S. AS. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

B. <fc s. 


Sa 


H. M. 

4 66 


H. M. 

7 


H. M. 

sets. 


H. M. 

4 58 


H. H. 

6 50 


H. M. 

sets. 


H. M. 

5 2 


H. M. 

6 53 


H. M. 

sets. 


H. M. 

6 12 


H. M. 

6 42 


H. M. 

•sets. 


2 


8 


4 64 


7 1 


8 17 


4 57 


6 57 


8 11 


5 1 


6 64 


8 5 


6 11 


6 43 


7 48 


3 


M 


4 63 


7 2 


9 17 


4 56 


6 58 9 10 


5 


6 55 


9 4 


5 10 


6 43 


8 44 


4 


Tu 


4 61 


' 7 3 


10 13 


4 55 


6 69 10 6 


4 59 


6 66 


9 69 


5 10 


6 44 


9 38 


5 


W 


4 60 


7 4 


11 1 


4 54 


7 Olio 55 


4 58 


6 67 


10 48 


6 9 


6 45 


10 27 


6 


Th 


4 49 


7 5 


11 43 


4 63 


7 1 


U 37 


4 57 


6 68 11 31 


5 8 


6 46 


11 12 


7 


Fr 


4 48 


7 6 


A. M. 


4 52 


7 2 


A.M. 


4 56 


6 58 A. M. 


5 7 


6 46 


11 52 


8 


Sa 


4 47 


7 7 


12 18 


4 61 


7 3 


12 14 


4 55 


6 69 12 8 


5 7 


6 47 


A.M. 


9S 


4 46 


7 8 


12 49 


4 60 


7 4 


12 45 


4 54 


7 12 41 


5 6 


6 48 


12 29 


10 M 


4 45 


7 9 


1 15 


4 49 


7 5 


1 12 


4 63 


7 1 


1 9 


5 5 


6 48 


1 1 


11 Tu 


4 44 


7 10 


1 39 


4 48 


7 6' 1 38 


4 62 


7 2 


1 36 


5 4 


6 49 


1 32 


12 


W 


4 43 


7 11 


2 2 


4 47 


7 7 


2 2 


4 61 


7 3 


2 2 


6 4 


6 50 


2 2 


13 


Th 


4 41 


7 12 


2 26 


4 46 


7 8 


2 28 


4 60 


7 4 


2 29 


5 3 


6 50 


2 34 


14 


Fr 


4 40 


7 14 


2 53 


4 45 


7 9 


2 56 


4 49 


7 6 


2 69 


5 2 


6 51 


3 8 


15 


Sa 


4 39 


7 15 


3 25 


4 44 


7 10 


3 29 


4 48 


7 6 


3 34 


5 1 


6 52 


3 48 


16 


S 


4 38 


7 16 


4 5 


4 43 


7 11 


4 11 


4 47 


7 7 


4 17 


5 1 


6 53 


4 34 


17 


M 


4 37 


7 17 


rises. 


4 42 


7 12 


rises. 


4 46 


7 8 'rises. 


5 


6 53 


rises. 


18 


Tu 


4 36 


7 18 


10 21 


4 41 


7 13 


10 14 i 4 45 


7 810 7 


4 59 


6 54 


9 46 


19 


W 


4 35 


7 19 


11 10 


4 40: 7 14 


11 4 


4 44 


7 9 10 56 


4 58 


6 55 


10 38 


20 


Th 


4 84 


7 20 


11 46 


4 39 


7 15 


11 42 


4 43 


7 10 11 37 


4 57 


6 55 


11 22 


21 


Fr 


4 33 


7 21 


A. M. 


4 38 


7 16 


A.M. 


4 42 


7 11 A. M. 


4 57 


6 56 


11 59 


22 


Sa 


4 32 


7 22 


12 16 


4 37 


7 17 


12 13 1 4 42 


7 12 12 9 


4 56 


6 57 


A. M. 


23 


S 


4 31 


7 23 


12 40 


4 36 


7 18 


12 38 


4 41 


7 13 12 36 


4 56 


6 57 


12 29 


24 


IVI 


4 31 


7 24 


1 2 


4 36 


7 18 


1 1 


4 41 


7 13 


1 


4 56 


6 58 


12 57 


25 


Tu 


4 30 


7 24 


1 22 


4 35 


7 19 


1 22 


4 40 


7 14 


1 23 


4 65 


6 59 


1 24 


26 


W 


4 30 


7 25 


1 42 


4 35 


7 19 


1 43 


4 40 


7 15 


1 45 


4 65 


7 


1 50 


27 


Th 


4 29 


7 26 


2 2 


4 34 


7 20 


2 6 


4 39 


7 15 


2 8 


4 65 


7 


2 16 


28 


Fr 


4 29| 7 26 


2 26 


4 34 


7 21 


2 30 


4 39 


7 16 


2 34 


4 55 


7 


2 46 


29 


Sa 


4 28 


7 27 


2 53 


4 33 


7 22 


2 57 


4 39 


7 17 


3 3 


4 54 


7 1 


3 18 


30 


S 


4 28 


7 28 


3 26 


4 33 


7 22 


3 32 


4 38 


7 17 


3 38 


4 54 


7 1 


3 66 


31 


M 


4 27 


7 29 


sets. 


4 32 7 23 


sets. 


4 '38 


7 18 


sets. 


4 64 


7 2 


sets. 









SUN ON 


MERIDIAN* 








Day OF 




Day of 




Day of 




Day op 




Day of 




Month. 




Month . 


H. M. S. 


Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. M. S. 




H. M. 8. 




H. M. 6. 




h. m. b. 


1 


11 56 65 


8 


11 56 19 


14 


11 56 10 


20 


11 66 20 


26 


11 56 51 


2 


11 56 48 


9 


11 56 16 


15 


11 56 10 


21 


11 56 24 


27 


11 56 58 


3 


11 56 42 


10 


11 56 13 


16 


11 66 11 


22 


11 66 28 


28 


11 57 6 


4 


11 56 36 


11 


11 56 11 


17 


11 66 12 


23 


11 56 33 


29 


11 67 13 


5 


11 56 31 


12 


11 56 10 


18 


11 56 14 


24 


11 56 39 


30 


11 57 22 


6 


11 56 26 


13 


11 66 16 


19 


11 56 17 


25 


11 56 45 


31 


11 67 31 


7 


11 56 22i 



















TWILIGHT, 



Places. 



Boston . . . . 
New York. 
Wash ' ton. 
Charleston 



Mav. 



1 
1 
1 
1 



Begins, A. M. Ends, I. M, 



3 6 
3 13 
3 21 
8 42 



M. 



8 48 
8 40 
8 33 
8 12 



May. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, p. M. 


May. 


Begins, A. M. 


H. M. 


H» M« 


R. M. 


11 


2 47 


9 6 


21 


2 31 


11 


2 66 


8 56 


21 


2 42 


11 


3 5 


8 47 


21 


2 52 


n 


3 30 


8 22 


21 


3 21 



Ends, F. M. 

R. M. 

9 22 
9 11 
9 
8 32 



cffiasesssKH 



6th Month. 



JUNE, 1897. 



30 Days. 



n 
ft 



ft 



1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 



Tu 
W 
Th 
Fr 
Sa 
S 
M 
Tu 
W 
Th 
Fr 
Sa 
S 
M 
Tu 
W 
Th 
Fr 
Sa 
S 
M 
Tu 
W 
Th 
Fr 
Sa 
S 
M 
Tu 
30 W 



Calendar for 

Boston. 

New England, K. T. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 



Sun 
Rises. 



H. 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 



27 
26 
26 
25 
25 
24 
24 
23 
23 
23 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
25 
25 
26 



Sun 
Sets. 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



29 
30 
31 
32 
32 
33 
34 
35 
35 
36 
36 
36 
36 
37 
37 
37 
38 
38 
38 
39 
39 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 



Moon 
B. A s. 



8 67 

9 43 
10 20 

10 51 

11 17 

11 42 

A. M. 

12 4 
12 28 
12 52 

1 21 

1 55 

2 39 

3 55 
rises, 

9 42 
10 15 

10 41 

11 5 
11 25 

11 46 

A. M. 

12 7 
12 30 
12 55 

1 26 

2 3 

2 48 

3 40 
sets. 



Calendar for 

New York City, 

Connecticut, Pennsyl- 

T.inia', Ohio, Indiana, 

Illinois, Nehraslca, and 

Northern California, 



Sun 

KiSES. 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



M 

32 
32 
31 
31 
30 
30 
29 
29 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
29 
29 
29 
30 
30 
30 
30 
31 
31 
31 
32 
32 



Sun 
Sets. 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



M. 

24 
25 
25 

26 
27 
27 

28 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
.7 
7 
7 29 



Moon 
R. .it s. 



29 
30 
30 
31 
31 
32 
32 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
35 



H. M. 

8 50 

9 36 
10 14 

10 47 

11 15 

11 40 

A.M. 

12 4 
12 29 
12 55 

1 24 

2 

2 46 

3 42 

9 36 
10 11 

10 39 

11 3 

11 25 

11 47 

A. M. 

12 9 
12 33 



1 
1 
2 
2 
3 





31 
9 

54 
47 



sets. 



Calendar for 

"Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado,' 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 



Sun 

BiSES. 



M. 

37 
37 
37 
36 
36 
36 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 35 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



35 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
35 
35 
35 
36 
36 
36 
37 
37 
38 



Sun 
Sets. 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



19 
19 
20 
21 
21 
22 
22 
23 
24 
25 
25 
25 
26 
26 



Moon 
R. A s. 



8 43 

9 30 
10 9 

10 43 

11 11 

11 38 

M. 

4 

12 30 
12 57 



A. 

12 



1 

2 



7 27 



27 
27 
28 
28 
28 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



28 
6 

2 52 

3 49 
rises. 

9 30 
10 7 

10 36 

11 2 
11 25 

11 48 

A.M. 

12 12 
12 87 

1 4 



1 
2 
3 
3 



37 

15 

1 

54 



sets. 



Calendar for 

Charleston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern California. 



Sun 
Rises. 



H. M. 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



53 
53 
53 
53 
52 
52 
52 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
62 
62 



4 61 



53 
53 
63 
54 
64 
64 
65 
65 



Sun 

Sets. 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
.7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

6 

6 

6 

7 

7 

7 

7 

8 

8 

9 

9 

9 

10 

10 

10 

11 

11 

11 

11 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 



Moon 

R. AS. 



8 23 

9 11 
9 52 

10 29 

11 2 

11 33 

A. M. 

12 2 
12 32 

1 4 



1 
2 
3 
4 



40 
22 
12 
11 



rises. 
9 15 
9 54 

10 28 

10 68 

11 25 

11 52 

A.M. 

12 19 

12 47 



1 
1 
2 
3 

4 



19 
64 
35 
22 
14 



sets. 



SUN ON MERIDIAN. 



Bay of 
Month. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 



H. 



11 57 40 
11 57 49 
11 57 69 
11 58 9 
11 58 20 
11 58 31 



Day of 
Month. 



7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



11 58 42 
11 68 63 
11 69 6 
11 59 17 
11 59 29 
11 59 41 



Day of 
Month. 



13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



11 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



59 63 
6 
18 
31 
44 
67 



Day of 






Day of 


Month. 






Month. 




H. 


M. S. 




19 


12 


1 10 


25 


20 


12 


1 23 


26 


21 


12 


1 36 


27 


22 


12 


1 49 


28 


23 


12 


2 2 


29 


24 


12 


2 14 


30 



B. M. S. 

12 2 27 

12 2 40 

12 2 52 

12 3 5 

12 3 17 

12 3 29 



TWILIGHT. 



Places. 



Boston 

New York.. 
Wash' ton.. 
Charleston. 



Jnue. Begins, a. m. Ends, p. m. June. Begins, A. m, 



1 
1 
1 
1 



H. 
O 



M. 

17 
29 
41 
13 



H. M. 

9 38 

9 26 

9 14 

8 43 



11 
11 
11 
11 



2 9 
2 23 

2 36 

3 9 



Ends, F. M. 



9 51 
9 37 
9 24 
8 51 



June. 


Begins, A. M. 




H. M. 


21 


2 8 


21 


2 22 


21 


2 35 


21 


3 9 



Ends, P. M. 

B. M. 

9 65 
9 41 
9 28 
8 64 



u- 



/ 


7tji Month. 








JULY, 1897. 






< 


51 Days. 


• 

1 


Th 


Calendar for 

Boston-, 

New England, N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
New York City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California, 


Calendar for 

Chakleston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern California, 




SUK 

Risks. 


Sun 
Sets. 

H. M. 

7 40 


Moon 

K. AS. 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

B. <feS. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

B. <£S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
B. i s. 


1 


H. M. 

4 27 


H. M. 

8 54 


H. M. 

4 33 


H. M. 

7 35 


H. M. 

8 49 


H. M. 

4 39 


H. M. 

7 29 


H. M. 

8 45 


H. M. 

4 55 


H. M. 

7 12 


B. M. 

8 30 


2 


Fr 


4 27 


7 39 


9 22 


4 33 


7 34 


9 19, 


4 39 


7 28 


9 15 


4 56 


7 11 


9 5 


3 


Sa 


4 28 


7 39 


9 47 


4 34 


7 34 


9 45 


4 40 


7 28 


9 42 


4 56 


7 11 


9 36 


4 


S 


4 29 


7 38 


10 10 


4 35 


7 33 


10 9 


4 41 


7 27 


10 9 


4 57 


7 11 


10 5 


5 


M 


4 30 


7 38 


10 32 


4 35 


7 33 


10 32 


4 41 


7 27 


10 33 


4 58 


7 10 


10 34 


6 


Tu 


4 31 


7 37 


10 56 


4 36 


7 32 


10 57 


4 42 


7 27 


10 59 


4 58 


7 10 


11 5 


7 


W 


4 31 


7 37 


11 21 


4 37 


7 32 


11 25 


4 42 


7 26 


11 28 


4 59 


7 10 


11 38 


8 


Th 


4 32 


7 30 


11 52 


4 37 


7 31 


11 57 


4 43 


7 26 


A.M. 


4 59 


7 9 


A. M. 


9 


Fr 


4 33 


7 36 


A. M. 


4 38 


7 31 


A. M. 


4 44 


7 26 


12 2 


5 


7 9 


12 15 


10 


Sa 


4 34 


7 36 


12 31 


4 39 


7 30 


12 37' 


4 44 


7 25112 481 


5 


7 9 


1 1 


11 


S 


4 34 


7 35 


1 20 


4 39 


7 30 


1 26 


4 45 


7 25 


1 33 


5 1 


7 9 


1 54 


12 


M 


4 35 


7 35 


2 21 


4 40 


7 30 


2 29 


1 4 46 


7 24 


2 35 


5 1 


7 8 


2 57 


13 


Tu 


4 36 


7 34 


3 32 


4 41 


7 29 


3 40 


4 46 


7 24 


3 46 


5 2 


7 8 


4 6 


14 


W 


4 37 


7 34 


rises. 


4 42 


7 29 


rises. 


4 47 


7 23 


rises. 


5 2 


7 8 


rises. 


15 


Th 


4 37 


7 33 


8 41 


4 42 


7 28 


8 37 


' 4 47 


7 23 


8 34 


5 8 


7 7 


8 24 


16 


Fr 


4 38 


7 33 


9 6 


4 43 


7 28 


9 4 


4 48 


7 23 


9 2 


5 3 


7 7 


8 56 


17 


Sa 


4 39 


7 32 


9 28 


4 44 


7 27 


9 27 


4 49 


7 22 


9 27 


5 4 


7 7 


9 25 


18 S 


4 40 


7 32 


9 49 


4 44 


7 27 


9 50 


4 49 


7 22 


9 50 


5 4 


7 7 


9 52 


19 M 


4 40 


7 31 


10 10 


4 45 


7 26 


10 12 


4 50 


7 21 


10 14 


5 5 


7 6 


10 19 


20|Tu 


4 41 


7 31 


10 32 


4 46 


7 26 


10 35 


4 51 


7 21 


10 38 


5 5 


7 6 


10 48 


21 


W 


4 42 


7 30 


10 57 


4 46 


7 25 


11 1 


4 51 


7 20111 5 


5 6 


7 6 


11 18 


22 


Th 


4 43 


7 30 


11 26 


4 47 


7 25 


11 32 


4 52 


7 2011 36 


5 7 


7 5 


11 52 


23 


Fr 


4 44 


7 29 


11 59 


4 48 


7 24 


A. M. 


4 53 


7 19 A. M. 


5 7 


7 5 


A.M. 


24 


Sa 


4 45 


7 29 


A. M. 


4 49 


7 23 


12 6 


4 54 


7 1812 12 


5 8 


7 4 


12 31 


25 


S 


4 46 


7 28 


12 41 


4 50 


7 23 


12 48 


4 55 


71812 55 


5 9 


7 3 


1 15 


26 


M 


4 47 


7 27 


1 31 


4 51 


7 22 


1 38 


4 56 


7 17 


1 45 


5 9 


7 3 


2 6 


27 


Tu 


4 48 


7 26 


2 29 


4 52 


7 21 


2 35 


4 57 


7 16 


3 42 


5 10 


7 2 


3 2 


28 


W 


4 49 


7 25 


3 33 


4 53 


7 20 


3 38 


4 58 


7 15 


3 44 


5 11 


7 1 


4 1 


29 


Th 


4 50 


7 24 


sets. 


4 54 


7 19 


sets. 


4 58 


7 14 


sets. 


5 11 


7 


sets. 


30 


Fr 


4 51 


7 22 


7 51 


4 55 


7 18 


7 49 


4 59 


7 13 


7 46 


5 12 


7 


7 38 


31 


Sa 


4 52 


7 21 


i 8 13 


4 56 


7 17 


8 11 


5 


7 12 


8 lOl 5 13 


6 59 


8 6 













SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 










Day of 






Day of 






Day of 




Day of 






Day of 




Month. 






Month. 






Month. 




Month. 






Month. 






H. 


M. 8. 




H. 


M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. 


M. S. 




H. M. S. 


1 


12 


3 40 


8 


12 


4 53 


14 


12 5 39 


20 


12 


6 7 


26 


12 6 16 


2 


12 


3 52 


9 


12 


5 2 


15 


12 ^5 45 


21 


12 


6 10 


27 


12 6 16 


3 


12 


4 3 


10 


12 


5 10 


16 


12 5 50 


22 


12 


6 12 


28 


12 6 15 


4 


12 


4 13 


11 


12 


5 18 


17 


12 5 55 


23 


12 


6 14 


29 


12 6 13 


5 


12 


4 24 


12 


12 


5 25 


18 


12 6 


24 


12 


6 15 


80 


12 6 10 


6 


12 


4 34 


13 


12 


5 32 


19 


12 6 4 


25 


12 


6 16 


31 


12 6 7 


7 


12 


4 44 










i 













TWILIGHT. 



Places. 


July. 


Begins, A. M. 
B. M. 


Ends, P. M. 


July. 


Begins, A. M. 

H. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


July. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, p. M. 




B. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


h. m. 


Boston 


1 


2 14 


9 54 


11 


2 24 


9 45 


21 


2 39 


9 34 


New York. 


1 


2 27 


9 40 


11 


2 37 


9 34 


21 


2 49 


9 23 


Wash' ton.. 


1 


2 40 


9 27 


11 


2 49 


9 22 


21 


3 


9 12 


Charleston. 


1 


3 13 


8 54 


11 


3 20 


8 50 


21 


3 29 


843 



8th Month, 






AUGUST, 


1897. 






31 Days. 


• 

■5 
a 
o 

» 


1 

1 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
Xew Yoek City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Wasuington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 


Calendar for 
Charleston, 
Georgia, Alabama, 
Louisiana, Texas, New- 
Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern California. 


rt 




Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
K. *s. 


Sun 
Risks. 


StTN 

Sets. 


Moon 

■R. A S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
R.A s. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

S. A s. 


1 


S 


H. M. 

4 53 


H. M. 

7 20 


H. M. 

8 38 


H. M. 

4 57 


E. M. 

7 16 


H. M. 

8 38 


H. M. 

5 1 


H. M. 

7 11 


E. M. 

8 38 


E. M. 

5 14 


B, M. 

6 58 


E. M. 

8 33 


2 


M 


4 54 


7 19 


9 1 


4 58 


7 15 


9 2 


5 2 


7 10 


9 4 


5 14 


6 57 


9 8 


3 


Tu 


4 55 


7 18 


9 26 


4 59 


7 13 


9 29i 


3 


7 9 


9 82 


! 5 15 


6 56 


9 40 


4 


W 


4 56 


7 17 


9 54 


5 


7 12 9 59 


5 4 


7 8 


10 3 


1 5 16 


6 55 10 16 


5 


Th 


4 57 


7 16 


10 30 


5 1 


7 11 10 35 


5 5 


7 7 


10 41 


5 16 


6 54 10 58 


6 


Fr 


4 58 


7 14 


11 13 


5 2 


7 10,11 20 


! 5 5 


7 6 


11 27 


5 17 


6 5411 47 


7 


Sa 


4 59 


7 13 


A.M. 


5 3 


7 9 


A.M. 


5 6 


7 5 


A.M. 


5 18 


6 53 A. M. 


8 


S 


5 


7 11 


12 8 


5 3 


7 7 


12 15 


5 7 


7 4 


12 23 


5 18 


6 52 12 44 


9 


M 


5 1 


7 10 


1 14 


5 4 


7 6 


1 21 


5 8 


7 2 


1 28 


5 19 


6 51 


1 49 


10 


Tu 


5 2 


7 9 


2 27 


5 5 


7 4 


3 S3 


5 9 


7 1 


2 39 


5 20 


6 50 


3 57 


11 


W 


5 3 


7 7 


3 43 


5 6 


7 3 


3 48 


5 10 


6 59 


3 53 


5 21 


6 49 


4 7 


12 


Th 


5 4 


7 5 


rises. 


5 7 


7 1 


rises. 


5 11 


6 58 


rises. 


5 21 


6 48 


rises. 


13 


Fr 


5 5 


7 4 


7 30 


5 8 


7 


7 29 


5 12 


6 56 


7 28 


5 22 


6 46 


7 24 


14 


Sa 


5 6 


7 2 


7 51 


5 9 


6 58 


7 51 


5 13 


6 55 


7 52 


5 23 


6 45 


7 52 


15 


S 


5 7 


7 1 


8 13 


5 10 


6 57 


8 14 


5 14 


6 53 


8 15 


5 23 


6 44 


8 19 


16 


M 


5 8 


6 59 


8 35 


5 11 


6 55 


8 37 


' 5 14 


6 52 


8 40 


5 24 


6 43 


8 48 


17 


Tu 


5 9 


6 57 


8 59 


5 12 


6 54 


9 2 


5 15 


6 51 


9 6 


5 25 


6 42 


9 18 


18 


W 


5 10 


6 56 


9 25 


5 13 


6 52 9 30 


5 16 


6 49 


9 35 


! 5 25 


6 41 


9 50 


19 


Th 


5 11 


6 54 


9 67 


5 14 


6 51 10 3 


i 5 17 


6 48 


10 9 


5 26 


6 39'10 27 


20 


Fr 


5 12 


6 53 


10 86 


5 15 


6 49,10 43 


5 18 


6 47 


10 49 


5 23 


6 38 11 9 


21 


Sa 


5 13 


6 51 


11 22 


5 16 


6 48 


11 29 


5 19 


6 45 


11 36 


5 27 


6 37 U 57 


22 


S 


5 14 


6 49 


A.M. 


5 17 


6 46 


A. M* 


5 20 


6 44 


A.M. 


5 28 


6 36 


A.M. 


23 


]\I 


5 15 


6 48 


12 18 


5 18 


6 45 12 23l 


5 21 


6 42 


12 30 


5 28 


6 85 


12 50 


24 


Tu 


5 16 


6 46 


1 18 


6 19 


6 43 1 24! 


5 22 


6 41 


1 30 


5 29 


6 34 


1 48 


25 


W 


5 17 


6 45 


3 26 


5 20 


6 42 3 31| 


5 23 


6 39 


3 36 


5 30 


6 32 


2 52 


26 


Th 


5 18 


6 43 


3 33 


5 21 


6 40 


3 37 


5 23 


6 38 


3 41 


5 30 


6 31 


3 53 


27 


Fr 


5 19 


6 41 


4 43 


5 22 


6 39 


4 46 


5 24 


6 37 


4 48 


5 31 


6 30 


4 56 


28 


Sa 


5 20 


6 40 


sets. 


5 23 


6 37 


sets. 


5 25 


6 35 


sets. 


5 32 


6 29 


sets. 


29 


S 


5 21 


6 38 


7 6 


5 24 


6 36 


7 7 


5 26 


6 34 


7 8 


5 32 


6 28 


7 11 


30 


M 


5 22 


6 37 


7 30 


5 25 


6 34 


7 32 


5 27 


6 32 


7 35 


5 33 


6 26 


7 42 


31 


Tu 


5 23 


6 35 


7 58 


5 26 


6 33 8 2 


5 28 


6 31 


8 6 


5 34 


6 25 


8 17 













SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 










Day OF 






Day op 






Day of 






Day OF 






Day of 




Month. 






Month, 






Month. 






Month. 






Month. 






H. 


M. S. 




H. 


M. S. 




H. 


M. S. 




H. 


M. S. 




H. M. S. 


1 


12 


6 4 


8 


12 


5 22 


14 


12 


4 23 


20 


12 


3 4 


26 


12 1 30 


3 


12 


6 


9 


12 


5 13 


15 


12 


4 11 


21 


12 


2 50 


27 


12 1 13 


3 


12 


5 55 


10 


12 


5 4 


16 


12 


3 58 


22 


12 


2 35 


28 


12 56 


4 


12 


5 49 


11 


12 


4 55 


17 


12 


3 46 


23 


12 


2 19 


29 


12 38 


5 


12 


5 43 


12 


12 


4 44 


18 


12 


3 32 


24 


12 


2 3 


30 


12 20 


6 


12 


5 87 


13 


12 


4 34 


19 


12 


3 19 


25 


12 


1 47 


31 


12 1 


7 


12 


5 30 














I 











TWILIGHT. 



Places. 



Boston 

New York 
Wash 'ton 
Charleston.) 



Aug. Begins, A. m. 



1 
1 
1 
1 



2 57 

3 6 
3 15 
8 40 



Ends, p. M. 


1 Aug. 


H. M. 


9 16 


11 


9 6 


11 


8 57 


1 11 


8 83 


11 



3 13 
8 22 
8 29 
8 50 



Ends, P. M, 


Aug. 


H. M. 


8 57 


21 


8 48 


21 


8 41 


21 


8 20 


31 



Begins, a. m. Ends, p. m 



H. 



3 29 
3 35 
3 41 
8 59 



8 37 
8 31 
8 24 
8 7 



V.'>lU.i^B(JLaa^ 



■ f-f^ ^g m* t ^^ w j y 



9th Month. 



SEPTEMBER, 1897. 



30 Days. 



5 
a 
o 


1 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, K. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N, and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
New Yokk City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, nnd 
Northern Calit'oruia. 


Calendar for 

Washington-, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 


Calendar for 

Chakleston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, Now 

Mexico, Arizona, 

and Southern California. 


a 
ft 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

B. A S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
E. i s. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

E. AS. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 

Sets. 


Moon 
E. A s. 


1 


\y 


H. M. 

5 24 


H. M. 

6 33 


H. M. 

8 31 


H. M. 

5 27 


H. M. 

6 32 


H. H. 

8 38 


H. M. 

5 29 


H. M. 

6 30 


H. M. 

8 42 


H. M. 

5 35 


H. M. 

6 24 


H. M. 

8 58 


2 


Th 


5 25 


6 32 


9 14 


5 28 


6 30 


9 20 


5 30 


6 29 


9 27 


5 30 


6 23 


9 45 


3 


Fr 


5 26 


6 80 


10 6 


5 29 


6 28 


10 10 


5 31 


(> 27 


10 17 


5 80 


6 21 


10 38 


4 


Sa 


5 27 


6 28 


11 6 


5 30 


6 27 


11 12 


5 32 


6 25 


11 19 


5 37 


6 20 


11 40 


5 


S 


5 28 


6 27 


A.M. 


6 81 


6 25 


A. M. 


5 33 


6 24 


A.M. 


5 37 


6 19 


A.M. 


6 


M 


5 29 


6 25 


12 15 


6 82 


6 23 


12 21 


5 33 


6 22 


12 27 


5 38 


6 17 


12 46 


7 


Tu 


5 30 


6 23 


1 28 


5 33 


6 22 


1 33 


5 34 


6 21 


1 38 


5 39 


6 16 


1 54 


8 


W 


5 31 


6 21 


2 41 


5 34 


6 20 


2 45 


5 35 


6 19 


2 49 


5 39 


6 15 


3 1 


9 


Th 


5 33 


6 20 


3 53 


6 35 


6 18 


8 56 


5 36 


6 17 


3 58 


5 40 


6 14 


4 6 


10 


Fr 


5 34 


6 18 


rises. 


5 36 


6 17 


rises. 


5 37 


6 16 


rises. 


5 41 


6 12 


rises. 


11 


Sa 


5 35 


6 16 


6 16 


5 37 


6 15 


6 17 


5 38 


6 14 


6 18 


5 41 


6 11 


6 20 


12 


S 


5 36 


6 14 


6 37 


5 38 


6 13 


6 40^ 


5 39 


6 13 


6 42 


5 42 


6 10 


6 48 


18 


I\I 


5 37 


6 13 


7 1 


i 5 39 


6 12 


7 4! 


5 40 


6 11 


7- 7 


5 43 


6 8 


7 17 


14 


Ta 


5 38 


6 11 


7 27 


5 40 


6 10 


7 31' 


5 41 


6 9 


7 36 


5 48 


6 7 


7 51 


15 


W 


5 39 


6 9 


7 57 


5 41 


6 8 


8 2 


5 42 


6 8 


8 8 


5 44 


6 6 


8 24 


16 


Th 


5 41 


6 7 


8 33 


i 5 42 


6 7 


8 39 


5 43 


6 6 


8 46 


5 45 


6 4 


9 4 


17 


Fr 


5 42 


6 5 


9 15 


5 43 


6 5 


9 22' 


5 43 


6 6 


9 29 


5 45 


6 3 


9 49 


18 


Sa 


5 43 


6 4 


10 6 


5 44 


6 3 


10 13 


5 44 


6 3 10 20 


5 46 


6 2 


10 40 


19 


S 


5 44 


6 2 


11 3 


5 45 


6 3 


11 9 


5 45 


6 1 


11 10 


5 47 


6 


11 35 


20 


M 


5 45 


6 


A.M. 


5 46 


6 


A.M. 


5 40 


6 


A.M. 


5 47 


5 59 


A.M. 


21 


Tu 


5 46 


5 59 


12 7 


5 47 


5 58 


12 12 


5 47 


5 58 


12 18 


5 48 


5 58 


12 35 


22 


W 


5 47 


o 57 


1 13 


5 48 


6 57 


1 18 


5 48 


5 56 


1 22 


5 48 


5 56 


1 35 


23 


Th 


5 48 


5 55 


, 2 23 


5 49 


6 55 


2 25 


5 49 


5 55 


2 29 


5 49 


5 55 


■2 88 


24 


Fr 


5 50 


5 53 


i 3 33 


5 50 


5 54 


3 35 


5 50 


5 53 


3 37 


5 49 


5 53 


3 42 


25 


Sa 


5 51 


5 52 


4 44 


5 51 


5 52 


4 45 


5 51 


•5 51 


4 45 


5 50 


5 52 


4 46 


26 


S 


5 52 


5 50 


sets. 


5 52 


5 50 


sets. 


5 52 


5 50 


sets. 


5 51 


5 51 


sets. 


27 


M 


5 53 


5 48 


5 69 


5 53 


5 49 


6 2 


5 53 


5 48 


6 5 


5 52 


5 49 


6 15 


28 


Tu 


5 54 


5 47 


6 31 


5 54 


5 47 


6 86 


5 54 


5 47 


6 40 


5 52 


5 48 


6 55 


29 


W 


5 55 


5 45 


7 10 


5 55 


5 45 


7 16 


5 54 


5 45 


7 22 


5 53 


5 47 


7 40 


30 


Th 


5 50 


5 43 


7 69 


6 56 


5 44 


8 6 



5 55 


5 44 


8 13 


5 54 


5 46 


8 34 









SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day of 




Day op 




Day of 




Day of 




Day op 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






n. M. s. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 


1 


11 59 43 


7 


11 57 44 


13 


11 55 39 


19 


11 53 32 


25 


11 51 27 


2 


11 59 24 


8 


11 57 24 


14 


11 55 18 


20 


11 53 11 


26 


11 51 7 


8 


11 59 4 


9 


11 57 8 


15 


11 54 57 


21 


11 52 50 


27 


11 50 47 


4 


11 58 45 


10 


11 56 42 


16 


11 54 35 


22 


11 52 29 


28 


11 50 27 


5 


11 58 25 


11 


11 56 21 


17 


11 54 14 


23 


11 52 8 


29 


11 50 8 


6 


11 58 5 


12 


11 56 


18 


11 53 53 


24 


11 51 48 


30 


11 49 48 



TWILIGHT. 



Places. 


Sept. 


Begins, X. M. 


Ends, P. M. 


Sept. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, P. M. 


Sept. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, P. M. 






H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston 


1 


3 45 


8 14 


11 


3 59 


7 54 


21 


4 12 


7 34 


New York. 


1 


3 50 


8 9 


11 


4 3 


7 50 


21 


4 15 


7 31 


Wash' ton. 


1 


3 55 


8 4 


11 


4 7 


7 46 


21 


4 18 


7 28 


Charleston 


1 


4 9 


7 51 


11 


4 17 


7 36 


21 


4 20 


7 20 



10th Month. 



OCTOBER, 1897. 



31 Days. 






o 
.4 



<5 

et 



Fr 

3Sa 
3S 



4 
5 
6 

7 
8 



M 
Tu 
W 
Th 
Fr 
9;Sa 
10 s 



11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 



Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon, 



Sun 
Rises. 



57 

58 



1 

2 



5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

6 10 
6 12 
6 13 
6 14 
6 15 
6 16 
6 18 
6 19 
6 20 
6 21 
6 23 
6 24 
6 25 
6 20 
6 27 
6 29 
6 30 
6 31 
6 32 



Sun 
Sets. 



H. M. 



41 
40 
38 
36 
34 
33 
31 
29 
27 
2G 
24 
23 
21 
20 
18 
10 
15 
13 
12 
10 
9 

^- 

/ 

6 
4 

o 
u 

1 





5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 59 

4 57 



UOON 
■R. Jl S. 



8 59 

10 6 

11 20 

A. M. 

12 32 

1 42 

2 50 

3 57 
5 1 

rises. 



5 

5 



29 

58 



6 32 



7 
7 



12 

59 



8 53 

9 53 



10 



5-^ 



4 
4 



56 
54 



A.M. 

12 3 

1 11 

2 21 

3 31 

4 47 
sets. 

5 4 

5 49 

6 49 

7 55 
9 8 

10 23 



Calendar for 
New yonK City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, and Northern 
California. 



Sun 
Rises. 



57 
58 
59 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



5 
5 
5 

6 
6 

6 
6 
6 

G 

6 
6 
6 
6 

6 10 
6 12 
6 13 
6 14 
6 15 
6 16 
6 17 
6 18 
6 19 
6 20 
6 22 
6 23 
6 24 
6 25 
6 2G 
6 27 
6 28; 
6 30 



Sun 
Sets. 



5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



42 
40 
39 
37 

35 
34 
32 
30 

29 

27 

23 

24 

22 

21 
on 

18 
17 
15 
14 



Moon 
B. A s. 



9 6 

10 13 

11 24 

A.M. 

12 36 

1 45 

2 52 

3 57 
5 

rises. 



5 

6 



33 
3 



6 38 

7 18 



5 12 
5 11 
5 9 



8 
9 



9 59 
11 2 



Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 



Sun 
Rises. 



M. 



A. 

12 
1 



M. 

7 
14 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



2 22 



8 
7 
5, 
4 
3 
1 




3 

4 



30 
46 



6 59 
5 57 



sets. 
5 9 

5 56 

6 54 

8 2 

9 14 
10 27i 



57 
58 
59 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5l 

7 
8 
9 



o 
5 

5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 10 
6 11 
6 12 
6 13 
6 14 
6 15 
6 16 
6 17 
6 18 
6 19 
6 20 
6 21 
6 22 
6 23 
6 24i 
6 25\ 
6 26) 



Sun 
Sets. 



H. 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



M. 

42 

41 

39 

38 

36 

35 

33 

31 

30 

28 

27 

26 

24 

23 

21 

20 

18 

17 

16 

14 

13 

12 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

4 

3 

2 





Moon 
B. A s. 



9 13 

10 20 

11 30 

A.M. 

12 40 

1 48 

2 54 

3 58 

4 59 
rises. 

5 37 

6 8 

6 44 

7 25 

8 12 

9 6 

10 5 

11 6 

A.M. 

12 11 

1 19 
3 23 



3 

4 



28 
44 



sets. 
5 14 



Calendar for 

Chahlkston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico. Arizona, 
and Southern California. 



Sun 
Rises. 



H. 

5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 



M. 

54 
55 
56 
56 

57 

58 

59 

59 



1 

2 

2 



Sun 
Sets. 



H. M. 



6 

7 
8 



9 20 
10 32 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

6 9 
6 10 
6 11 
6 11 
6 12 
6 13 
6 14 
6 14 
6 15 
6 16 
6 17 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



44 
43 
42 
40 
39 
38 
36 
35 
34 
33 
32 
31 
29 
28 
27 
26 
25 
23 
22 
21 
20 
19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 



Moon 

B. AS. 



9 34 

10 40 

11 47 

A. M. 

12 53 

1 57 

2 59 



3 
4 



58 
56 



5 13 
5 12 



5 
5 



rises. 

5 40 

6 23 

7 2 

7 45 

8 33 

9 26 

10 23 

11 22 

A. M. 

12 22 

1 23 

2 23 

3 29 

4 38 
sets. 



5 
6 

7 



30 
22 
23 



8 28 

9 36 



11 
lOilO 49 









SUN OK 


MERIDIAN. 








Day of 




Day of 




Day of 




Day OF 




Day OF 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




h. m. s. 


1 


11 49 29 


8 


11 47 25 


14 


11 45 55 


20 


11 44 46 


26 


11 44 


2 


11 49 11 


9 


11 47 9 


15 


11 45 42 


21 


11 44 37 


27 


11 43 56 


3 


11 48 52; 


10 


11 46 53 


16 1 


11 45 30 


! 22 


11 44 28 


28 


11 43 51 


4 


11 48 34 


11 


11 46 38 


17 


11 45 18 


23 


11 44 20 


29 


11 43 48 


5 


11 48 16 


12 


11 46 23 


18 


11 45 7 


24 


11 44 13 


30 


11 43 45 


6 


11 47 59 


13 


11 46 9 


19 


11 44 5Q 


25 


11 44 6 


31 


11 43 43 


7 


11 47 42 



















TWILIGHT. 



Places. 


Oct. 


Begins, A. m. 


Enils, p. M. 


Oct. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


Oct. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 




H, M. 


H. M, 


H. M, 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston 


1 


4 24 


7 15 


11 


4 35 


6 58 


21 


4 46 


6 43 


New York. 


1 


4 23 


7 14 


11 


4 36 


6 57 


21 


4 47 


6 43 


Wash 'ton. 


1 


4 27 


7 12 


11 


4 37 


6 56 


21 


4 47 


6 43 


Charleston 


1 


4 32 


7 7 


11 


4 39 


6 54 


21 


4 47 


6 42 



11th Month. 



NOVEMBER, 1897. 



30 Days. 



o 









1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
28 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 



Calendar for 

Boston, 

Ne-w England, N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 



SlTN 

Risks. 



M. 



Sun 
Sets. 



H. M. 



6 34 
6 35; 
6 36i 

6 37j 
6 39' 
6 40i 
6 41 
6 42 
6 44 
6 45 
6 46 
6 47, 
6 49 
6 50, 
6 51 
6 52| 
6 54 
6 55 
6 56 
6 571 
6 59 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
8 
9 



4 
4 
4 
4 



Moon 

B. AS. 



53 
52 

51 
50 



4 49 



4 
4 
4 



48 
47 
46 



4 45 



H. M. 

11 35 

A. M. 

12 43 

1 50 

2 54 

3 67 

3 

rises. 



Calendar for 
New York City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern CaUfomia. 



Sun 
Rises. 



M. 



Sun 
Sets. 



5 
6 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



44 
43 
42 
41 
40 
39 
38 
37 
36 
85 



4 34 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



4 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



5 11 

5 55 

6 47 

7 45 

8 47 

9 51 

10 67 

A.M. 

12 3 



33 
38 
32 
82 
31 
31 
81 
30 



1 
2 
3 

4 
6 



11 
22 
36 

54 
16 
sets. 
6 24 
6 47 

8 4 

9 20 



30 10 33 
30 11 41 



6 31 
6 32 
6 33 
6 34 
6 35 
6 37 
6 38 
6 39 
6 40 
6 41 
6 42 
6 44 
6 45 
6 46 
6 471 
6 48 
6 50 
6 51 
6 52 
6 53 
6 54 
6 55! 
6 56 
6 57 
6 68' 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



M. 

56 
55 
54 
53 
52 
51 
50 
49 



Moon 
s. •& s. 



Calendar for 

Washington. 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 



Sun 
Rises. 



H. M. 1 

11 38 

A.M. 

12 45 

1 61 

2 56 

3 55 

4 57 

5 69 



M. 



Sun 
Sets. 



48 rises. 



4 471 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



46 

46 

45 

44 

43 

42 

41 

40 

39 

38 

38 

37 

87 

37 

36' 

36 

35 

35 

35 

34 



5 

6 



17 

2 



6 54 

7 51 

8 62 

9 65 
10 69 

A 

12 



M, 

4 

1 11 

2 21 



3 
4 
6 



33 

51 
10 



sets. 

5 40 

6 63 

8 9 

9 24 

10 35 

11 42 



6 27 
6 29: 
6 30 
6 31' 
6 32' 
6 33 
6 34; 
6 35 
6 36: 
6 371 
6 38 
6 40 
6 41 
6 42 
6 43 
6 44 
6 45 
6 46 
6 47 
6 48 



6 
6 



50 
51 



4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 



Moon 
K. s s. 



4 

5 



59 
59 

58 

57 

56 

55 

54 

53 

52 

61| 

511 

50 

49 

48 

47 

4611 

45 



11 41 

A. M. 

12 47 

1 62 

2 63 

3 53 



Calendar for 

ChAjBLESTON, 

Georgia, Alabama, 
Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern CaUfomia. 



StTN 

Rises. 



Sun 
Sets. 



54 
65 



rises. 
5 24 



6 

7 
7 



9 


57 



8 57 

9 69 



44 
4 43 
4 43 

42 



6 52 
6 53 
6 54 
6 55 
6 56 
6 57 
6 68 
6 59 



4 
4 



42 



4 41 
4 41 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



A.M. 


12 6 


1 12 


2 19 


3 31 


4 46 


6 6 


sets. 


5 47 


6 69 


8 15 


9 28 


10 88 



41 
40 
40 
40 
89 11 44 



H. M. 

6 17 
6 18 
6 19 
6 20 
6 21j 
6 22 
6 23 
6 24 
6 25 
6 20 
6 26 
6 27 
6 28 
6 29 
6 80 
6 81 
6 32 
6 33 
6 34 
6 35 
6 36 
6 37 
6 88 
6 89 
6 40 
6 40 
6 41 
6 42 
6 43 
6 44 



5 

6 

5 

5 

6 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 



M. 



Moon 

B. AB. 



H. M. 



9 A.M. 

812 2 
812 53 



7 

6 

6 

5 

4 

4 

3 

2 

2 

1 





59 

58 

58 

57 

57 

56 

56 

56 

55 

65 

55 

55 

55 

64 

64 



1 64 

2 61 

3 48 

4 45 

5 42 
rises. 

5 43 

6 29 



7 
8 



20 
15 



9 13 

10 11 

11 11 

A. M. 

12 11 

1 12 

2 16 



3 
4. 
5 



23 
34 

48 



sets. 

6 8 

7 18 

8 30 

9 39 

10 45 

11 47 



SUN ON MERIDIAN. 



Day OF 




Day of 




Day of 


Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




1 


11 43 42 


7 


11 43 51 


13 


2 


11 43 41 


8 


11 43 66 


14 


3 


11 43 42 


9 


11 44 1 


15 


4 


11 43 43 


10 


11 44 7 


16 


5 


11 43 45 


11 


11 44 14 


17 


6 


11 43 48 


12 


11 44 22 


18 





Day of 




Month. 


H. M. S. 




11^44 31 


19 


11 44 40 


20 


11 44 61 


21 


11 45 2 


22 


11 45 14 


23 


11 45 27 


24 





Day of 




Month. 


H. M. S. 




11 45 41 


25 


11 45 66 


26 


11 46 12 


27 


11 46 28 


28 


11 46 45 


29 


11 47 3 


30 



H. 



11 47 21 
11 47 41 
11 48 1 
11 48 22 
11 48 43 
11 49 6 



TWILICHT. 



Places. 



Boston 

New York. 
Wash ' ton. 
Charleston 



Nov. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


Nov. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, P. M 


Nov. 


Begins, A. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


B. M. 


1 


4 58 


6 29 


11 


5 9 


6 19 


21 


5 20 


1 


4 58 


6 29 


11 


5 8 


6 20 


21 


5 18 


1 


4 57 


6 30 


11 


6 7 


6 21 


21 


5 16 


1 


4 54 


6 33 


11 


5 2 


6 26 


21 


6 10 



Ends, p. M. 

H. M. 

6 12 

e 14 

6 16 

6 22 





12th Month 


• 




DECEMBER, 


1897. 






31 Days. 






Calendar for 


Calendar for 


Calendar for 


Calendar for 


• 




Boston, 


New York City, 


WASHINfiTON, 


Chaklkston, 


"S 


4 


New England, N. Y. State, 


Connecticut, Pennsyl- 


Virginia, Kentucky, 


Georgia, Alabama, 


s 


tS 


Michigan, Wisconsin, 


vania, Ohio, Indiana, 


Missouri 


Kansas, Colorado, 


Louisiana, Texas, New 


^ 


^ 


N. and S. Dakota, 


Illinois, Nebraska, and 


Utah, Nevada, 


Mexico, Arizona, 




1 


and Oregon. 


Northern. California. 


and Central California. 


and Southern California. 




Stjn 


Strw 


Moon 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Sun 


Svnn 


Moon 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 




C9 


Rises. 


SliTS. 


s. <ts. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


B. c£ s. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


B. AS. 


Risks. 


Sets. 


B. .£ s. 






n. u. 


H. M. 


B. M. 


B. M. 


B. M. 


B. 01. 


B. M. 


H. M. 


B. M. 


B. M. 


B. M. 


B. M. 


1 


w 


7 10: 4 291 A. M. 


7 5 


4 34i A. M. i 


7 


4 39 


A.M. 


6 45 


4 54 


A.M. 


?/ 


Th 


7 111 4 29 12 47 


7 6 


4 33 12 46 


7 1 


4 39 


12 46 


6 46 


4 54 


12 45 


8 


Fr 


7 12 


4 28 1 51 


7 7 


4 33, 1 49 


7 2 


4 38 


1 48 


6 46 


4 54 


1 43 


4 


Sa 


7 13 


4 28 


2 53 


7 8 


4 33 


2 51 


7 3 


4 88 


2 48 


6 47 


4 54 


2 40 


5 


S 


7 14' 4 28 


8 56 


7 9 


4 33 


3 52 


7 4 


4 88 


3 48 


6 48 


4 54 


8 37 


6 


M 


7 15 4 28 


4 59 


7 10 


4 33 


4 54 


7 4 


4 88 


4 49 


6 49 


4 54 


4 84 


7 


Tn 


7 16 4 28 


6 


7 10 


4 33 


5 54 


7 5 


4 88 


5 48 


6 49 


4 55 


5 31 


8 


W 


7 16 


4 28 


6 58 


7 11 


4 33 


6 52 


7 6 


4 88 


6 45 


6 50 


4 55 


6 26 


9 


Th 


7 17 


4 28 


rises. 


7 12 


4 33 


rises. 


7 7 


4 88 rises. 


6 50 


4 55 'rises. 


10 


Fr 


7 18 


4 28 


5 39 


7 13 


4 33 


5 45 


7 7 


4 89l 5 51 


6 51 


4 55 


6 10 


11 


Ra 


7 19 


4 28 


6 39 


7 14 


4 34 


6 45 


7 8 


4 89 6 50 


6 52 


4 56 


7 7 


12 


S 


7 19 


4 29 


7 43 


7 14 


4 34 


7 47 


7 9 


4 89 


7 52 


6 62 


4 56 


8 5 


18 


M 


7 20 


4 29 


8 48 


7 15 


4 34 


8 51 


7 10 


4 89 


8 54 


6 53 


4 57 


9 3 


14 


Tu 


7 21 


4 29 


9 53 


7 16 


4 34 


9 55 


7 10 


4 40 


9 57 


6 53 


4 57 


10 3 


15 


W 


7 22 


4 29 


10 58 


7 17 


4 34 10 59 


7 11 


4 40 


11 


6 54 


4 58 


11 2 


16 


Th 


7 22 


4 29 


A.M. 


7 17 


4 34 


A.M. 


7 12 


4 40 


A.M. 


6 54 


4 58 


A.M. 


17 


Fr 


7 23 


4 30 


12 6 


7 18 


4 34 


12 4 


7 13 


4 40 


12 4 


6 55 


4 58 


12 2 


18 


Sa 


7 24 


4 30 


1 16 


7 19 


4 35 


1 13 


7 13 


4 41 


1 11 


6 55 


4 59 


1 5 


19 


S 


7 25 


4 30 


2 29 


7 19 


4 35 


2 25 


7 14 


4 41 


2 22 


6 56 


4 59 


2 12 


20 


M 


7 25 


4 31 


346 


7 20 


4 36 


3 42 


7 15 


4 42' 3 87 


6 56 


4 59 


3 22 


21 


Tu 


7 26 


4 31 


5 5 


7 21 


4 86 


4 59 


7 16 


4 42i 4 53 


6 67 


5 


4 35 


22 


W 


7 26 


4 32 


6 22 


7 21 


4 37 


6 15 


7 16 


4 43 6 8 


6 68 


5 1 


5 47 


28 


Th 


7 27 


4 33 


Bets. 


7 21 


4 37| sets. 


7 16 


4 43: sets. 


6 58 


5 1 


sets. 


24 


Fr 


7 27 


4 33 


5 37 


7 22 


4 38 5 42| 


7 17 


4 44 5 48 


6 59 


5 2 


6 5 


25 


Sa 


7 28 4 34 


6 55 


7 22 


4 39 


6 59 


7 17 


444 


7 4 


6 69 


5 2 


7 17 


26S 


7 28 4 34 


8 12 


7 22 


4 39 


8 15 


7 17 


4 45 


8 18 


7 


5 3 


8 27 


27 M 


7 28 


4 35 


9 25 


7 23 


4 40 


9 26 


7 18 


4 46 


9 28 


7 


5 3 


9 33 


28 Tu 


7 28 


4 36 


10 33 


7 23 


4 41 10 34! 


7 18 


4 46 


10 34 


7 1 


5 4 


10 35 


29 W 


7 29 


4 37 


11 38 


7 23 


4 42 11 37i 


7 18 


4 47 


11 36 


7 1 


5 4 


11 32 


80 


Th 


7 29 4 37 


A.M. 


7 24 


4 43 


A,M. 


7 18 


4 48 


A. M. 


7 2 


5 5 


A.M. 


31 


Fr 


7 29i 4 38 


12 44 


7 24 4 48il2 41 


7 19 


4 48 


12 39 


7 2 


5 5 


12 32 









SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day of 




Day of 




Day of 




Day of 




Day op 




Month. 




MONTTI. 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. M. 8. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. 8. 




B. M. S. 




H. 11. 8. 


1 


11 49 28 


8 


11 52 23 


14 


11 55 10 


20 


11 58 7 


26 


12 1 7 


2 


11 49 51 


! 9 


11 52 50 


15 


11 55 39 


21 


11 58 38 


27 


12 1 86 


3 


11 50 15 


10 


11 53 17 


16 


11 56 8 


22 


11 59 8 


28 


12 2 6 


4 


11 50 40 


11 


11 53 45 


17 


11 56 88 


23 


11 59 38 


29 


12 2 35 


5 


11 51 5 


12 


11 54 13; 


18 


11 57 8 


24 


12 7 


80 


12 3 4 


6 


11 51 30 


18 


11 54 41 


19 11 57 87 


25 


12 87 


81 


12 3 33 


7 


11 51 561 

























TWILIGHT. 










Places. 


Dec. 


Begins, a., m. 


Ends, P. M. 


Dec. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, P. M. 


Dec. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, p. If. 






B. M. 


B. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 




B. M. 


B. M. 


Boston 


1 


5 29 


6 9 


11 


5 38 


6 9 


21 


5 45 


6 12 


New York. 


1 


5 27 


6 11 


11 


5 36 


6 11 


21 


5 42 


6 14 


Wash' ton.. 


1 


5 25 


6 13 


11 


5 33 


6 14 


21 


5 39 


6 17 


Charleston. 


1 


5 17 


6 20 


11 


5 25 


6 22 


21 


5 31 


6 26 



A Ready Heference Calendar. 



59 



For ascertaining any Day of the Week for any given Time within 
Years from the introduction of the New Style, 1752, to 1952 



Two Hundred 
inclusive. 



YEARS 1753 TO 1952. 




i 

<-> 

4 
6 
6 

2 
3 
7 
1 
7 
5 
3 
1 
6 
4 
2 


7 
1 
2 
5 
6 

« 

4 

_ 

3 

1 
6 
4 
2 

7 
5 


u 

7 
1 
2 
5 
6 
3 
4 
4 
2 
7 
5 
3 
1 

6 


(-i 

p. 
< 

3 
4 
5 

1 
2 
6 
7 
7 
5 
3 
1 
6 
4 
2 


5 

6 

7 

3 

4 

1 
_ 

2 
2 

7 
5 
3 
1 
6 
4 


a 
■-J 

1 
2 
3 
6 
7 
4 
5 
5 
3 
1 
6 
4 
2 
7 


3 

»-3 

3 
4 
5 

1 
2 
6 
7 
7 
5 

O 
\J 

1 
6 
4 
2 


fee 

< 

6 

7 
1 
4 
5 
2 
3 
3 
1 
'6 
4 
2 
7 
5 


4^ 
Pi 

01 

oo 
2 

3 

4 
7 
1 
5 
6 
6 
4 
2 
7 
5 
3 
1 


o 

O 

4 
5 
6 

12 
3 
7 
1 
1 
6 
4 
2 
7 
5 
3 


> 
o 

7 
1 
2 
5 
6 
3 
4 
4 
2 
7 
5 
3 
1 
6 


6 


1753g: 
1754d 


1781g 
1782d 


1800e 
1801a 


1828q 
1829a 


1856q 
1857a 


1884q 
1885a 


1900g 
1901d 


192811 

1829d 


a. 


2 


1755e 
1756p 


1783e 
1784p 


1802b 
1803c 


1830b 
1831c 


1858b 
1859c 


1886b 

1887c 


1902e 
1903a 


1930e 
1931a 

1932k 
1933f 

1934g 
1935d 


b 


3 


1757c 

1758f 


1785c 
1786f 


1804h 
1805d 


1832h 
1833d 


186011 
1861d 


188811 
1889d 

1890e 
1891a 

1892k 
1893£ 


1904k 
19051 


c 


4 


1759g 
1760q 


1787g 
1788q 


1806e 
1807a 

1808k 
1809f 


1834e 
1835a 


1862e 
1863a 

1864k 
1865f 


1906g 
1907d 


d 


7 


1761a 
1762b 


1789a 
1790b 


183Gk 
1837f 


19081 
1909b 


19361 
1937b 


e 


1 


1763c 
176411 


1791c 
1792h 


1810g 
1811d 


1838g 
1839d 


1866g 
1867d 


1894g 
1895d 


1910c 
1911f 


1938c 
1939f 

1940m 
1941e 

1942a 
1943b 


f 


5 


1765d 
1766e 


1793d 
1794e 


18121 
1813b 


18401 
1841b 


18681 
1869b 


18961 
1897b 

1898c 
1899£ 


1912m 
1913e 


e 


6 


1767a 

1768h: 


1795a 
1796k 


1814c 
1815f 


1842c 
1843f 


1870c 
1871f 


1914a 
1915b 


h 


6 


1769f 

1770g 


1797f 
1798g 


1816in 
1817e 


1844m 
1845e 


1872m 
1873e 




1916a 
1917g 


194411 
1945g 


k 


4 


1771d 
17721 


1799d 


1818a 
1819b 


1846a 
1847b 


1874a 
1875b . 




1918d 
1919e 


1946d 
1947e 


1 


2 


1773b 
1774c 




1820a 
1821g 


1848a 
1849g 


187611 

1877g 




1920p 
1921c 


1948p 
1949c 


m 


7 


1775£ 
1776m 




1822d 
1823e 


1850d 
1851e 


1878d 
1879e 




1922f 
1923g 


1950f 
1951g 


n 


5 


1777e 
1778a 




1824p 
1825c 


1852p 
1853c 


18801) 
1881c 

1882f 
1883g 




1924q 
1925a 


1952q 


P . 


3 


1779b 
1780n 




1826f 
1827g 


1854f 
1855g 




1926b 
1927c 




q 


1 



Note. —The letters In 
the list of ' ' Years from 
1753 to 1952, ' ' refer, to 
the table headed with the 
Ifonths, the figures in 
which refer to the same 
figures at the head of the 
table of Days. For ex- 
ample: To know on what 
day July 4th, 1897, will 
fall; look for 1897 in the 
table of Years. The let- 
ter b is attached. Lock 
for the same letter in the 
table of months and in a 
parallel line under July is 
the figure 4, which di- 
rects to column 4 in the 
table of days below, in 
which it will bo seen 
that July 4 falls on Sun- 
day. 

This improved calendar 
was made for ThkWokld 
Almanac, by Arthur 
Cunningham, of Colum- 
bus, O. 



TABLE OF DAYS. 



I 



Monday 1 

Tuesday 2 

Wednesday 3 

Thursday 4 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednead. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY 14 



Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



SUNDAY 21 



Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesd. 
Thursday 
Friday 
Saturday 
SUNDAY 28 
Monday 29 
Tuesday 30 
Wednesd. 31 



Tuesday 1 
Wednesday 2 
Thursday 3 
Friday 4 

Saturday £ 
SUNDAY 6 
Monday 1 
Tuesday 8 
Wednesd. 9 
Thursday 10 
Friday 1 1 
Saturday 12 
SUNDAY 13 
Monday 14 
Tuesday 15 
Wednesd. 16 
Thursday 17 
Friday 18 
Saturday 19 
SUNDAY 20 
Monday 21 
Tuesday 22 
Wednesd. 23 
Thursday 24 
Friday 25 
Saturday 26 
SUNDAY 27 
Monday 2S 
Tuesday 29 
Wednesd. 30 
Thursday 31 



3 


4 


5 


Wednesday 1 


Thursday 1 


Friday 1 


Thursday 2 


Friday 2 


Saturday 2 


Friday 3 


Saturday 3 


SUNDAY 3 


Saturday 4 


SUNDAY 4 


Monday 4 


SUNDAY 6 


Monday 5 


Tuesday 5 


Monday 6 


Tuesday 6 


Wednesday 6 


Tuesday 7 


Wednesday 7 


Thursday 7 


Wednesday & 


Thursday 8' Friday 8 


Thui^day S 


Friday 9 


Saturday 9 


Friday 10 


Saturday 10 


SUNDAY 10 


Saturday 11 


SUNDAY 11 


Monday 11 


SUNDAY 12 


Monday 1 -2 


Tuesday 12 


Monday 13 


Tuesday 13 


Wednesd. 13 


Tuesday 14 


Wednesd. 14 


Thursday 14 


Wednesd. 15 


Thursday 1 5 


Friday 15 


Thursday 16 


Friday 16 


Saturday 16 


Friday 17 


Saturday 17 


SUNDAY 17 


Saturday 18 


SUNDAY IS 


Monday 13 


SUNDAY 19 


Monday 19 


Tuesday 19 


Monday 20 


Tuesday 20 


Wednesd. 20 


Tuesday 21 


Wednesd. 21 


Thursday 21 


Weduesd. 22 


Thursday 22 


Friday 22 


Thursday 23 


Friday 23 


Saturday 23 


Friday 24 


Saturday 24 


SUNDAY 24 


Saturday 25 


SUNDAY 25 


Monday 25 


SUNDAY 26 


Monday 20 


Tuesday 2G 


Monday 27 


Tuesday 27 


Wednesd. 27 


Tuesday 28 


Wednesd. 28 


Thursday 28 


Wednesd. 29 


Thursday 29 


Friday ' 29 


Thursday 30 


Friday 30 


Saturday 30 


Friday 31 


Saturday 31 


SUNDAY 31 



Saturday 1 
SUNDAY 2 
Monday 3 
Tuesday 4 
Wednesday 5 
Thursday 6 
Friday 7 

Saturday 8 
SUNDAY 9 
Monday 10 
Tuesday 1 1 
Wednesd. 12 
Thursday 13 
Friday 14 
Saturday 1 5 
SUNDAY 16 
Monday 17 
Tuesday 18 
Wednesd. 19 
Thursday 20 
Friday 21 
Saturday 22 
SUNDAY 23 
Monday 24 
Tuesday 25 
Wednesd. 26 
Thursday 27 
Friday 28 
Saturday 29 
SUNDAY 30 
Monday 31 



SUNDAY 1 
Monday 2 
Tuesday 3 
Wednesday 4 
Thursday 5 
Friday 6 

Saturday 7 
SUNDAY 8 
Monday 9 
Tuesday 10 
Wednesd. 11 
Thursday 12 
Friday 13 
Saturday 14 
SUNDAY 15 
Monday 16 
Tuesday 17 
Wednesd. 18 
Thursday 19 
Friday 20 
Saturday 21 
SUNDAY 22 
Monday 23 
Tuesday 24 
Wednesd. 25 
Thursday 26 
Friday 27 
Saturday 28 
SUNDAY 29 
Monday 30 
Tuesday 31 



60 



The Geological Strata. 



®^!)t ^tolofiical strata. 



The strata composing the earth' s crust is divided by most geologists into two great classes : 
1. Those generally attributed to the agency of water. 2. To the action of fire ; which may be 
subdivided as follows: (o) Aqueous formations, stratified, rarely crystalline (sedimentary or 
fossiliferous rocks; metamorphic or unfossiliferous). (h) Igneous formations, unstratitied, 
crystalline (volcanic, as basalt; platonic, as granite). 

The geological record is classified into five main divisions or periods : 1. The Archaean, life- 
less and dawn of life. 2. The Palaeozoic (ancient life). 3. The Mesozoic (middle life). 4. The 
Cenozoic (recent life). 5. Quaternary, the age in which man' s first appearance is indicated. 



Pkrious. 



Period. 



Age of Primeval 
Man. 



^^^T?^^ Age of Mammals. 



Mesozoic 
Period. 



Eras. 



Quaternary or 
Post Tertiary. 



Series. 



3. Recent. 
2. Champlain. 
1. Glacial. 



Tertiary Era. 



4. Pliocene, 

3. Miocene. 

2. Oligocene. 

1. Eocene. 



Cretaceous 
Era. 



Age of Reptiles. 



Age of Coal 
Plants. 



Age of Fishes. 



Palaeozoic 
Period. 



Age of 
I n vertebrates. 



Jura- 
Tria.s. 


Jurassic 


7. Trias- 
sic. 



4. Laramie. 

3. Colorado. 

2. Dakota. 
1. Lower. 



3. Purbeck. 
2. OGlite. 
1. Lias. 



Subdivisions. 



4. Rhaitic. 

3. Upper. 

2. Middle. 

1. Lower. 



Carboniferous 
Era. 



Devonian Era. 



3. Permian. 

2. Carboniferous. 

1. Subcarbonifer- 
ous. 



Pleistocene. 
English Crag. 

Upper Molasse. 

Rupeliau and Tongrian of Belgium. 



Upper Chalk. 

Lower Chalk. Chalk Marl. 

Gault. 

Neocomian. Lower Greensand. 

Wealden. 

Purbeck, Portland, Kimmeridge. 

Oxford Oolites. Lower or Bath Oolite. 

1. Lower Lias. 2. Marlstone. 3. Upper 
Lias. 

Kossen beds, Dachstein beds; Alpine 
Keuper. [Trias, in part. 

Muschelkalk Bunter-Sandstein. 

2. Magnesian Limestone. 

1. Lower Red Sandstone, or Rothli- 

3. Upper Coal -Measures [gendes. 

2, Lower Coal-Measures. 
1. Millstone Grit. 

Lower Carboniferous. Mountain Lime- 
stone. 



5. Catskill and 
Chemung. 
4. Portage. 

3. Hamilton. 
2. Coniferous. 
1. Oriskany. 



Upper 
Silurian. 



Lower 
Silurian. 



3. Lower 

Helderberg. 

2. Onondaga* 
1. Niagara. 



3. Trenton. 

2. Chazj\ 

1 Calciferous. 



Cambrian, 



Archtean Period. 



Eozoic (dawn of life). 
Azoic (lifeless). 



1 



Old Red 
■ Sandstone. 



Catskill Red Sandstone. 
Chemung. , 

Portage. 
Genesee Slate. 
Hamilton beds, 
Marcellus Shale. 
Upper Helderberg, Scho- 
harie, Grit. 
Oriskany Sandstone. 

Lower Helderberg. 

Onondaga Salt Group. Saliua beds. 

Water Lime. 
3. Niagara Group. 

2. Clinton Group. 

1, Medina Sandstone, / Llandovery. 

3. Hudson River beds. Cincinnati 

Group. Lower Llandovery. 

2. Utica Shales. 

1, Trenton Limestone. Caradoc and 

Bala Limestone, 
Black River Limestone, 
Chazy Limestone. 

/Calciferous Sandrock. Magnesian 

\ stone. 

Lower, Middle and Upper Cambrian. 
1. Laurentian. Hurouian. 



Wenlock Group. 
\ Upper 

;-- - 



Facts About the Earth. 



61 



jFacts ^ibout X\)t iSartf), 



According to Clark, the equatorial semi-diameter is 20,926,202 feet=3963. 296 miles, and 
the polar semi- diameter is 20,854,895 feet= 3950. 738 miles. One degree of latitude at the 
pole=69. 407 miles. One degree of latitude at the equator=68. 704 miles. 

POPULATION OF THE EARTH BY CONTINENTS. 
(From Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society for January, 1891. ) 



Conti- 


Area in 
Square Miles. 


Inhabitants. | 


Conti- 
nental 
Divisions. 

Kurope 

Polar Reg... 

Total 


Area in 
Square Miles. 


Inhabitants. 


nental 
Divisions. 


Number. 

127,000,000 
89,250,000 
36,420,000 

850,000,000 
4,730,000 


PerSq. 
Mile. 

11.0 

13.8 

5.3 

57.7 
1.4 


Number. 


Per Sq. 
Mile. 


Africa 


11,514,000 
6,446,000 
6,837,000 

14,710,000 
3.288,000 


3,555,000 

4,888,800 


380,200,000 
300,000 


106 9 


America, N.. 


0.7 


America, S.. 


51,238,800 


1,487,900,000 


29 


Asia 






Australasia 





The above estimate was made by Ernest George Ravenstein, F. R. G. S, , the geographer and 
statistician, and is for 1890. 

An estimate of population of the earth, made by Drs. "Wagner and upan, editors of 
"Bevolkerung der Erde" (Perthes, Gotha, 1891), is a.s follows: Europe, 357,379,000; Asia, 
825,954,000; Africa, 163,953,000; America, 121,713,000; Australia, 3,230,000; Oceanic 
Islands, 7,420,000; polar regions, 80,400. Total, 1,479,729,400. The estimate of area of 
the continents and islands by the same authorities is 52, 821, 684. 

Ravenstein' s estimate of the earth's fertile region, in square miles, is 28, 269, 200 ; stepT)e, 
13,901,000; desert, 4,180,000; polar region, 4,888,800. 

The population of the earth at the death of the Emperor Augustus, estimated by Bodio, was 
54,000,000. The population of Europe hardly exceeded 50,000,000 before the fifteenth 
century. — Mulhall. 

The area and cubic contents of the earth, according to the data of Clark, given above, are : 
Surface, 196, 971, 984 square miles ; cubic contents, 259, 944, 035, 515 cubic miles. 

Murray (Challenger expedition) states the greatest depth of the Atlantic Ocean at 27,366 
feet; Pacific Ocean, 30,000 feet; Indian Ocean, 18,582 feet; Southern Ocean, 25,200 feet; 
Arctic Ocean, 9,000 feet. The Atlantic Ocean has an area, in square miles, of 24,536,000; 
Pacific Ocean, 50,309,000; Indian Ocean, 17,084,(J00; Arctic Ocean, 4,781,000; Southern 
Ocean, 30, 592, 000. The highest mountain is believed to be Deodhuuga, one of the Himalayas, 
29, 002 feet. 

For population of the earth according to creed, see Religious Statistics. 

POPULATION OP THE EARTH ACCORDING TO RACE. 
(Estimated by John Bartholomew, F. R. G. S. , Edinburgh. ) 



Race. 


Location. 


Number. 

545,500,000 

630,000,000 

65,000,000 
150,000,000 


Race. 


Location. 


Number. 


Indo - Germanic or 
Aryan 


Europe, Persia, 
etc 


Hottentot and Bush.. 
Malay and Polynes- 
ian . 


South Africa 
A u s t ralasia 

& Polynesia 
North & So. 

America 


150,000 


Mongolian or Turain- 


Greater part of 
Asia 


35,000,000 


ian 


American Indian 

Total 


Semitic or Hamitic... 


North Africa, 
Arabia 


15,000,000 


Negro and Bantu 


Central Africa.... 


1,440,650,000 



The human family is subject to forty- five principal governments. As to their form they may 
be classified as follows : Absolute monarchies, China, Madagascar, Morocco, Persia, Russia, Siam, 
Turkey; Limited monarchies, Austria- Hungary, Belgium, British Empire, Denmark, Germany, 
Greece, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Roumania, Servia, Sweden and Norway, Spain ; 
Repuhlics, Argentine Republic, Bolivia, Brazil, Chili, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, France, 
Guatemala, Hawaii, Hayti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Orange Free State, Paraguay, Peru, 
Salvador, San Domingo, Switzerland, Transvaal, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela. 
Besides these are the undefined desf)Otisms of Central and South Africa, and a few insignificant 
independent States. 

The average duration of human life is about 33 years. One quarter of the pyeople on the earth 
die before age 6, one half before age 16, and only about 1 person of each lOO-born lives to age 
65. The deaths are calculated at 67 per minute,^ 97, 790 per day, and 35, 639, 835 per year ; the 
births at 70 jxir minute, lOO, 80O per day, and 36, 792, 000 per year. 

EUROPEAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN. 



Lan- 
guages. 


Number of Persons 
Spoken by. 


Propor- 
tion OF 

THE 

Whole. 


Lan- 
guages. 


Number or Persons 
Spoken by. 


Propor- 
tion OF 

THE 

Whole. 




1801. 1 1890. 


1801. 


1890. 1 


3801. 


1890. 


1801. 

4.7 
19.0 


1890. 


English 

French 

German 

Italian 

Spanish 


20, 520, 000 11 1, 100, 000 
31,450,000 51,200,000 
30,320,000 75,200,000 
15,070,000 33,400,000 
26.190,000 42,800.000 


12.7 
19.4 
18.7 
9.3 
16.2 


27.7, 
12.7 
18.71 
8.3 
10.7 


Portuguese 
Russian .... 


7,480,000 
30,770,000 


13,000,000 
75,000,000 


3.2 

18.7 


Total 


161,800,000 


401,700,000 


100.0 


100.0 



These estimates by Mulhall (1891) exhibit the superior growth of the English language in the last 
ninety years. Another authority (see ' 'English Speaking Religious Communities ' ' ) estimates the 
number using the English language iu 1895 at over 124,130,000. English is fast becoming the polite 
tongue of Europe. 



62 



Latitude and Longitude Table. 



(Longitude Beckoned from Greenwich. ) 
Specially prepared for The World Almanac. 



o ; ff 

Acapulco, Mex 16 50 56 

Adelaide, S. Australia*..34 55 34 

Aden, Arabia 12 46 40 

Albany, N. Y. * 4'2 39 49 

Algiers^ 36 45 3 

Allegheny, Pa* 40 27 42 

Alexandria, Kgypt 31 11 43 

Amherst, Mass. *. 42 22 17 

Ann Arbor, Mich. * 42 16 48 

Annapolis, Md. * 38 68 54 

Antipodes Island 49 42 

Apia, Samoa 13 48 56 

Archangel, Ilussia 64 32 6 

Armagh, Ireland* 54 21 13 

Aspinwall,S.A.,L,t 9 22 9 

Astoria, Ore 46 11 19 

Athens, Greece* 37 58 20 

Attu Island , Alaska 52 56 1 

Bahia, Brazil 13 37 

Baltimore, Md 3917 48 

Batavia, Java* 6 7 40 

Belize, Honduras 17 29 20 

Belle Isle, Lt 5153 O 

Berlin, Prussia* 52 30 17 

Bermuda, Dock Yard... 32 19 24 

Bombay* 18 53 45 

Bonn, Germany* 50 43 45 

Bordeaux, France* 44 50 17 

Boston State H6use 42 21 28 

Bridgetown, Barbadoes 13 5 42 

Brussels, Belgium* 50 51 10 

Buenos Ayres 34 36 30 

Calcutta 22 33 25 

Callao, Chill, Lt 12 4 3 

Cambridge, Eng. * 52 12 52 

Cambridge, Mass. * 42 22 48 

Canton, China 23 6 35 

Cape Cod, Mass. . Lt 42 2 21 

C. Hatteras, N. C. , Lt — 35 15 14 

Cape Henry, Va. ,Lt 36 55 29 

Cape Horn 55 58 41 

Cape May, N. J. , Lt 38 55 56 

Cape Good Hope, Lt 34 21 12 

Cape Prince of Wales ...65 33 30 

Charleston, S. C. ,Lt 32 41 44 

Charlottetown, P. E. I...46 13 55 

Cherbourg, France 49 38 54 

Chicago, 111.*. 4150 1 

Christiania, Nor. * 59 54 44 

Cincinnati, O. * 39 8 19 

Clinton, N. Y.* 43 3 17 

Colombo, Ceylon 6 55 40 

Constantinople 41 30 

Copenhagen* 55 41 14 

Demerara(Geo' tovvnLt) 6 49 20 

Denver, Col. * 39 40 36 

Dublin, Ireland* 53 23 13 

Edinburgh* 55 57 23 

Esquimault, B. C. ,Lt 48 25 40 

Father Point, Que. ,Lt... 48 31 25 

Fayal, Azores 38 32 9 

Fernandina, Fla 30 40 18 

Florence, Italy* 43 46 4 

Funchal, Madeira 32 38 4 

Galveston, Tex 29 18 17 

Geneva, S\vitzerland*...4611 59 

Glasgow, Scotland* 55 52 43 

Gibraltar 36 6 30 

Greenwich, Eng. * 51 28 38 

Halifax, N. S. * 44 39 38 

Hamburg, Ger. * 53 33 7 

Hanover, N. H.* 43 4215 

Havana, Cuba 23 9 21 

Hobart Town, Tas 42 53 25 

Hong Kong, China* 221812 

Honolulu (Reef Lt. ) 21 17 55 

Key West, Fla. , Lt 24 32 58 

Kingston, Jam 17 57 41. 

Lisbon, Portugal* 38 42 31 

Liverpool* 53 24 4 



H. M. s. 

N. 6 39 41. 8 W, 

S. 9 14 20. 3 E. 

N. 2 59 55. 8 E. 

N. 4 64 59. 2 W. 

N. 12 11. 4 E. 

N. 5 20 2.9W. 

N. 1 59 26. 7 E. 

N. 4 60 4.7W, 

N. 534 55.1W. 

N. 5 5 56.4 W. 
S. 11 54 52. 3 E. 
S. 11 26 59. 7 E. 

N. 2 42 14. E. 

N. 26 36. W. 

N. 51939.0W. 

N. 8 15 18. 8 W. 

N. 1 34 55. 7 E. 
N. 11 32 49.6 E. 

S. 2 34 8.4W. 

N. 5 6 26.0W. 

S. 7 713.7E. 

N. 5 52 46. 7 W. 

N. 3 41 29. 5 W. 

N. 53 34.9E. 

N. 4 19 18. 3 W. 

N. 51 15. 8 E. 

N. 28 23.3E. 

N. 2 5.4 W. 

N. 4 44 15. 3 W. 

N, 3 58 29. 3 W. 

N. 17 28. 6 E. 

S. 3 53 28. 9 W. 

N. 5 53 20. 7 E. 

S. 5 9 3.0W. 

N. O 22.7E. 

N. 4 44 31.0W. 

N. 7 33 46. 3 E. 

N. 4 40 14. 6 W. 

K. 5 2 5.0W. 

K. 5 4 2.0W. 

S. 4 29 5.0W. 

N. 4 59 50. 7 W. 

S. 1 13 58. E. 
N. 11 11 56. 8 W. 

N. 5 19 32. E. 

N, 4 12 27. 5 W. 

N. O 6 32.5W. 

N. 5 50 26. 7 W. 

N. 42 53. 8 E. 

N. 5 37 41. 3 W. 

N. 5 137.4W. 

N. 5 19 21. 9 E. 

N. 156 3. 7E. 

N. 50 18. 9 E. 

N. 352 46.0W. 

N. 6 59 47. 6 W. 

N. 25 22. W. 

N. 12 43. 1 W. 

N. 8 13 47. 1 W. 

N. 4 33 49. 2 W. 

N. 1 54 16. W. 

N. 5 25 51. 1 W. 

N. 45 1.5E. 

N. 1 7 35.6W. 

N. 619 9.7W. 

N. O 24 36. 8 PJ. 

N. O 17 10. 6 W. 

N. 2123.3W. 

N. O 0.0 — 

N. 414 21.1W. 

N. O 39 53. 7 E. 

N. 4 49 7.9W. 

N. 5 29 26. W. 

S. 9 49 20. 5 E. 

N. 7 36 41. 9 E. 
N. 10 31 28. OW. 

N. 5 27 12. 3 W. 

N. 5 710.7W. 

N. O 36 44. 7 W. 

N, 01217.2W. 



o \ 11 

Madison, Wis.* 43 137 

Madras, India* 13 4 8 

Madrid.Spaiu* 40 24 30 

Manila, Lt 14 35 41 

Marseilles* 43 18 19 

Melbourne, Vic. * 37 49 53 

Mexico (city)* 19 26 2 

Monrovia, Liberia 6 19 5 

Montreal, Que. * 45 30 17 

Moscow* 55 45 20 

Mount Hamilton, Cal. * 37 20 24 

Munich* 48 8 45 

Nain, Labrador 56 32 51 

Naples* 40 51 45 

Nashville, Tenn.* 36 8 58 

Nassau, Bahamas 25 5 37 

Natal, S. Africa* 29 50 47 

New Haven, Conn. * 41 18 36 

New Orleans (Mint) 29 57 46 

New York(Colu. Col. )* 40 45 23 

Nice, France* 43 43 17 

Norfolk, Va. (Navy Yd) 36 49 33 

North Cape 7111 

Northfield, Minn.* 44 27 42 

Odessa, Russia* 46 28 36 

Ogden, Utah* 4113 8 

Oxford, Eng. (Univ.)*.. .51 45 34 

Panama, Colombia 8 57 6 

Para, Brazil 1 26 59 

Paris, France* 48 50 12 

Pensacola, Fla., Lt 30 20 47 

Pernambuco, Brazil, Lt. 8 3 22 
Port au Prince, Hayti...l8 33 54 

Philadelphia, Pa. * 39 57 7 

P. Barrow (H. lat. U. S. )71 27 

Portland, Me 43 39 28 

Port Louis, Mauritius.. .20 8 46 

Port Said, Egypt, Lt 31 15 45 

Port Spain, Trmidad 10 38 39 

P. Stanley, Falkland Is. 51 41 10 

Prague, Bohemia* 60 6 19 

Princeton, N. J.* 40 20 68 

Providence, R. I. * 41 49 26 

Quebec, Que. * 46 48 17 

Richmond, Va 37 32 16 

Rio de Janeiro* 22 54 24 

Rochester, N.Y.* 43 917 

Rome, Italy* 41 53 54 

Saigon, Cochin-China*..10 46 47 

San Diego, Cal 32 43 6 

Sandy Hook,Lt. ,N. J...40 27 40 

San Francisco, Cal. * 37 47 65 

San Juan de Porto Rico. 18 28 56 

Santiago de'Cuba 20 16 

Savannah. Ga 32 4 62 

Seattle, Wash 47 35 64 

Shanghai, China 31 14 42 

Singapore, India 11711 

St. Helena Island 15 65 O 

St. John' s, Newfo' laud..47 34 2 

St. Louis, Mo.* 38 38 4 

St. Petersburg,Russia*..59 56 30 

Stockholm* 59 20 33 

Suakim.E. Africa, Lt 19 7 O 

Sydney, N. S. W. * 33 51 41 

Tokio, Japan* 35 39 17 

Tunis (Goletta Lt. ) 36 48 36 

Utrecht, Netherlands*... 62 510 

Valparaiso, Chili 33 153 

Venice, Italy* 45 25 58 

Vera Cruz, Mex. ,Lt 19 12 29 

Victoria, B. C. , Lt 48 25 26 

Vienna, Austria* 48 13 66 

Warsaw, Russia* 62 13 6 

Washington, D. C. * 38 53 39 

Wellington, N.Z.* 41 16 57 

West Point, N.Y.* 4123 31 

Williamstown, Mass*. ..42 42 49 

Yokohama, Japan 35 26 24 

Zanzibar (E. Consulate) 6 9 43 





H. M. S. 


N. 


5 67 37. 8 W. 


N. 


6 20 59. 4 E. 


N. 


14 45. 4 W, 


N. 


8 3 49.2 E. 


N. 


21 34. 6 E. 


S. 


9 39 64. 1 E. 


N. 


6 36 26. 7 W. 


N. 


43 15. 7 W. 


N. 


4 54 18. 5 W. 


N. 


2 30 16. 9 E. 


N. 


8 6 34.1W. 


N. 


46 26. 1 E. 


N. 


4 6 42.7W. 


N. 


67 0.9 E. 


N. 


5 47 8.0W. 


N. 


5 9 27.8W. 


S. 


2 2 1.2E. 


N. 


4 61 42. 1 W. 


N. 


.6 13. 9 W. 


N. 


4 65 53. 6 W, 


N. 


29 12. 2 E. 


N. 


5 511.0W. 


N. 


1 42 40. E. 


N. 


6 12 35. 8 W. 


N. 


2 3 2.3E. 


N. 


7 27 59. 6 W. 


N. 


5 0.4W. 


N. 


518 8.SW. 


S. 


314 O.OW. 


N. 


9 20.9E. 


N. 


5 49 14. 1 W. 


S. 


2 19 27. 8 W. 


N. 


4 49 28. W. 


N. 


5 038.5W. 


N. 


10 25 00. W. 


N. 


4 41 1.2W. 


S. 


3 49 67. 7 E. 


N. 


2 916 5E. 


N. 


4 6 2.5W. 


S. 


3 61 26. W. 


N. 


57 41.4E. 


N. 


4 58 37. 5 W. 


N. 


4 45 37. 3 W. 


N. 


4 44 49. 3 W. 


N. 


5 9 44.0W. 


S. 


2 52 41. 4 W. 


N. 


5 10 21. 8 W. 


N. 


49 64. 7 E. 


N. 


7 6 48.7E. 


N. 


7 48 38. 7 W. 


N. 


4 66 0.6W. 


N. 


8 9 38.1W. 


N. 


4 24 29. 8 W. 


N. 


5 3 22.0W. 


N. 


6 24 21. 7 W. 


N. 


8 919.9W. 


N. 


8 5 65.7E, 


N. 


6 65 25.0E. 


S. 


22 62. W. 


N. 


3 30 43. 6 W. 


N. 


6 49.1W, 


N. 


2 113.5E. 


N. 


1 12 14. E. 


N. 


2 29 16. 6 E. 


S. 


10 4 49.5E, 


N. 


9 18 68. E. 


N. 


41 14. 6 E. 


N. 


20 31. 7 E. 


S. 


4 46 34. 8 W. 


N. 


49 21. 9 E. 


N. 


6 24 31. 8 W. 


N. 


8 13 33. 8 W. 


N. 


1 52L2E. 


N. 


124 7.4E. 


N. 


6 812.0W. 


S. 


1139 6.5E. 


N. 


4 65 49. 3 W. 


N. 


4 52 53. 4 W. 


N. 


9 18 36. 9 E. 


S. 


2 36 44. 7 E. 



* Observatories. Lt. denotes a lighthouse. 



Specific Gravity. 



63 



Comparative Scai.es. 



Reau- 


Centi- 


mur, 


grade, 


80«. 


100*. 

1 


76 


95 


72 


90 


68 


85 


63.1 


78.9 


60 


75 


66 


70 


62 


65 


48 


60 


44 


55 


42.2 


52.8 


40 


50 


36 


45 


33.8 


42.2 


32 


40 


29.3 


36.7 


28 


35 


25.8 


32.2 


24 


30 


21.3 


26.7 


20 


25 


16 


20 


12.4 


15.3 


10.2 


12.8 


8 


10 


6.8 


7.2 


4 


5 


1.3 


1.7 








-0.9 


- 1.1 


- 4 


- 5 


- 5.3 


- 6.7 


- 8 


-10 


- 9.8 


-12.2 


-12 


-15 


-14.2 


-17 8 


-16 


-20 


-20 


-25 


-24 


-30 


-28 


-35 


-32 


-40 



Fatr- 
enheit, 



203 

194 

185 

174 

167 

158 

149 

140 

331 

127 

122 

113 

108 

104 

98 

95 

90 

86 

80 

77 

68 

60 

55 

50 

45 

41 

35 

32 

30 

23 

20 

14 

10 

5 



— 4 

—13 

—22 

-31 

—40 



Water Boils 
AT S E a- 
Level. 



Alcohol Boils. 



Tallow Melts. 



Blood Heat. 



Temperate. 



Water 
Freezes. 



Zero Fahr. 



Mttlris for JForeUUiiTfl X%t 7m.mt^tx. 

Adapted for Use with Aneroid Barometers. 

A RISING barometer. 

A RAPID rise indicates unsettled weather. 

A gradual rise indicates settled weather. 

A rise with dry air and cold increasing in summer indicates 
wind from the northward; and if rain has fallen, better weather 
may be expected. 

A rise with moist air and a low temperature indicates wind and 
rain froin the northward. 

A rise with southerly winds indicates fine weather. 

a steady barometer. 

With dry airand seasonable temperature indicates a continuance 
of very fine weather. 

A FALLING BAROMETER. 

A rapid fall indicates storm j^ weather. 

A rapid fall with westerly wind indicates stormy weather from 
the northward. 

A fall with a northerly wind indicates storm, with rain and hail 
in summer, and snow in winter. 

A fall with increased moisture in the air, and heat increasing, 
indicates wind and rain from the southward, 

A fall with dry airand cold increasing in winter indicates snow. 

A fall after very calm and warm weather indicates rain with 
squally weather. 

The barometer rises for northerly winds, including from north- 
west by north to the eastward for dry, or less wet weather, for less 
wind, or for more than one of these changes, except on a few 
occasions, when rain, hail, or snow comes from the northward with 
strong wind. 

The barometer falls for southerly wind, including from south- 
east by south to the westward, for wet weather, for stronger wind 
or for more than one of these changes, except on a few occasions, 
when moderate wind, with rain or snow, comes from the north- 
ward. 

The above printed rules are in use by the Seawanhaka-Corin- 
thian Yacht Club of New York. 



Duration of Different Kinds of Weather in the Several 
Storms— Vicinity of New York. 



Critical Winds. 



iSouth to Southwest.. 
South to Southeast.. 
lEast to Northeast.... 



Clear Cloudy Rain Clearing 
Hours. Hours. Hours. Hours. 



9 
14 
20 



8 

13.4 

17.6 



8.3 
15.6 
31 



14 

15.4 

20.6 



LINE OF PERPETUAL, SNOW. 
The line of perpetual snow varies with latitude, and is as follows in feet above sea-level: 



Latitude. 




10 
20 



Feet. 



15,260 
14, 764 
13,478 



Latitude. 



30 
40 
50 



Feet. 



11,484 
9,000 
6,334 



Latitude. 



60. 
70. 



Feet. 



3,818 
1,278 



.Speciitt ^rabits 



COMPARED WITH WATER. 



Liquids. 



Water 100 

Sea- water 103 

Dead Sea .124 



Timber. 



Cork 24 

Poplar 38 

Fir 55 



Alcohol 84 Cedar 61 

Olive oil 92 Pear 66 

Turpentine 99: Walnut 67 

Wine 100 Cherry 72 

Urine 101 Maple 75 

Cider 102 Apple 79 

Beer 102 Ash 84 

Woman's milk... 102 Beach 85 

Cow's " 103 Mahogany 106 

Goat's " 104 Oak 117 

Porter 104 Ebony 133 



Sundries. 



Indigo 77 

Ice 92 

Gunpowder 93 

Butter 94 

Clay 120 

Coal 130 

Opium 134 

Honey 146 

Ivory 183| 

Sulphur 203 

Porcelain 2261 

Marble 270 

Chalk 279 

Glass 289 



3Ietals and Stones. 



Granite 278 

Diamond 353 

Zinc 691 

Cast iron 721 

Tin 729 

Bar iron 779 

Steel 783 

Brass 840 

Copper 895 

Silver 1,047 

Lead 1,136 

Mercury 1,357 

Gold 1,926 

Platina 2,150 



The weight of a cubic foot of distilled water at a temperature of 60o P., is 1,000 ounces Avoir- 
dupois, very nearly, therefore the weight (in ounces. Avoirdupois) of a cubic foot of any of the sub- 
stances in the above table, is found by multiplying tne specific gravities Dv 10, thus:— one cubic foot 
of oak weighs 1,170 ounces; one cubic foot of marole 2,700 ounces, and so on. 



64 



'Weather Signals of the U. B. Weather bureau. 



OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Weather Bureau furnishes, when practicable, for the benefit of the general public and those 
interests dependent to a greater or less extent upon weather conditions, the "Forecasts" which are 
prepared dailv, at 10 a. m. and 10 p. m. , for the following day. These weather forecasts are tele- 
graphed to observers at stations of the Weather Bureau, railway officials, and many others, and are so 
worded as to be readily communicated to the public by means of flags or steam-whistles. The flags 
adopted for this purpose are five in number, and of the form and dimensions indicated below: 



No. 1. 

White Flag. 



EXPLANATION OF FLAG 

No. 2. No. 3. 

Blue Flag. "WHiite and Blue Flag. 



SIGNALS. 

No. 4. 
Black Triangular Flag. 



No. 5. 
White Flag with 
black square in 
centre. 








Clear or fair weather. Rain or snow. Local rains or snow. Temperature signal. Cold wave. 

Ntimber 1, white flag, six feet square, indicates clear or fair weather. Number 2, blue flag, 
six feet square, indicates rata or snow. NiunberS, white and blue flag (parallel bars of white 
and blue), six feet square, indicates that local rains or showers will occur, and that the rainfall 
Avni not be general. Number 4, black triangular flag, four feet at the base and six feet in 
length, always refers to temperature ; when placed above niunber 1, 2, or 3 it indicates Avarmer 
weather ; when placed below number 1, 2, or 3 it indicates colder weather ; when not displayed, 
the indications are that the temperature will remain stationary', or that the change in tempera- 
ture will not vary more than five degrees from the temperature of the same hour of the preceding 
day from June to August, inclusive, seven degrees from November to March, inclusive, and not 
more than six degrees for the remaining months of the year. Number 5, white flag, six feet 
square, with black square in centre, indicates the approach of a sudden and decided fall in tem- 
perature, and is usually ordered at least twenty- four hovu's in advance of the cold wave. When 
number 5 is displayed, number 4 is always omitted. 

A special storm flag, red Avith black square in centre (not shown above), is prescribed for 
use in North and South Dakota, ISIinnesota (except at Lake stations) , Iowa, Nebraska, and Wyom- 
ing, to indicate high Avinds, accompanied by snow, with temperature below freezing. 

When displayed on poles, the signals should be arranged to read downward ; when displayed 
from horizontal supports, a small streamer should be attached to indicate the point from which 
the signals are to be read. 

INTERPRETATION OF DISPLAYS. 

No. 1, alone, indicates fair weather, stationary temperature. 

No. 2, alone, indicates rain or snow, stationary temperature. 

No. 3, alone, indicates local rain, stationary temperature. 

No. 1, with No. 4 above it, indicates fair weather, warmer. 

No. 1, with No. 4 below it, indicates fair weather, colder. 

No. 2, with No. 4 above it, indicates warmer weather, rain or snoAV. 

No. 2, with No. 4 below it, indicates colder weather, rain or snow. 

No. 3, with No. 4 above it, indicates Avarmer weather with local rains. 

No. 3, with No. 4 below it, indicates colder weather with local rains. 

No. 1, with No. 5, indicates fair weather, cold wave. 

No. 2, with No. 5, indicates Avet Aveather, cold Avave. 

Communications Avith reference to the display of these symbols and signals should be ad- 
dressed to the Chief of the Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. (For Avlnd signals, see next 
page.) 

NUMBER OF T0RN.aJ30ES AND MONEY VALUE OF PROPERTY DESTROYED EACH 
YEAR IN THE UNITED STATES, FROM 1889 TO 1896. 

(Prepared by Prof. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the Weather Bureau. ) . 



Years. 



1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 



Storms. 



21 
58 
31 
39 
79 



Loss. 



§173, 500 

4,449,800 

186, 600 

1,118,000 

2, 043, 800 



Years. 



1894, 
1895. 
1896.. 



Total , 



Storms. 



57 
30 
52 



Loss. 



$1, 192, 900 

383, 700 

14,218,900 



$23, 767, 200 



<Storm, smintr-HiCrectton, antr fj^uvvitant .Signals 65 

OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

STORM SIGNALS. 







Northeasterly winds. 



STORM. 
Red, Black Centre 



Southeasterly winds. Northwesterly winds. 

INFORMATIOISr SIGNALS. 

GREAT LAKES. 
White Pennant. Red Pennant. 



Southwesterly winds. 



COAST. 

Red Pennant. 







Westerly Winds. Easterly Winds. 

Storm Signals^— A red flag with a black centre, indicates that a storm of marked violence is expected. 

The pennants displayed with the flags indicate the direction of the wind; red, easterly (from 
northeast to south) ; white, westerly (from southwest to north). The pennant above the flag indicates 
that the wind is expected to blow from the northerly quadrants ; below, from the southerly quadrants. 

By night a red light indicates easterly winds, and a white light above a red light westerly winds. 

Jn/or?naiion,;S'ianaL—Ked or white pennant displayed alone. —When displayed at stations on the 
Great Lakes indicates that winds are expected which may prove dangerous to tows and smaller 
classes of vessels, the red pennant indicating easterly and the white pennant westerly winds. 

When displayed at stations on the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts indicates that the local ob- 
server has received information from the Central Office of a storm covering a limited area, danger- 
ous only for vessels about to sail to certain points, and serves as a notification to shipmasters that 
information will be given them upon application to the local observer. Only the red pennant is dis- 
played on the coasts. No night information or hurricane signals are displayed. 

Hurricane SignaL —Two red flags with black centres, displayed one above the other, indicate the 
expected approach of tropical hurricanes, and also of those extremely severe and dangerous storms 
which occasionally move across the Lakes and Northern Atlantic coast. 

Cornatro <^tatiisttcs» 

Property loss by tornadoes, 1889 to 1896. Prepared by the Chief of the Weather Bureau. 



STATES. 


1889 


1890 


1891 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 


Total 


Alabama 






$7,000 




$125,000 
45,400 


$1,500 

508,600 

2,000 

2,000 


$30,600 
1,000 


$5,000 
200 


$169,100 

559,700 

2,000 

248,000 

947,000 

44,500 

544,000 

957,000 

2,957,000 

76,000 

13,000 

31,500 

60,000 

641,000 

578,200 

304,800 

13,068,900 

663,100 

80,500 

58,000 

21,000 

203,500 

64,300 

622,500 

14,500 

80,900 

90,000 

678,300 


Arkansas 






!J|n^OUvJ 


Florida 








Georgia 


$10,000 
10,000 


$500 

485,500 

500 

29.000 

2,841,506 






212,500 
13,000 
20,000 
274,500 
371,500 
80,000 
70,000 


22,000 
12,000 
12,000 
60,000 
120,000 




Illinois 


9 ,500 
8,500 
7,500 
2,500 


823,500 


103,000 


Indiana 


2,500 

39,000 

9,000 


Iowa 




58,000 
371,500 


75,000 

272,000 

6,000 


Kansas 


28,590 


Kentucky 


Louisiana 






6,000 




Maine 








13,000 






Maryland 


3,500 


15,000 
60,000 


8.000 


10,000 








Massachusetts 










Michigan 








240,000 
12,200 

277,000 
50,000 
29,000 


1,000 
419,500 
8,800 
1.500 
1,900 




400,000 
2,000 


Minnesota 


10,000 

"'10,666 


16,000 

"'i8",56o 

480,000 


15,000 

19,000 

71,000 

6,200 

2,000 


103,500 


Mississippi 

Missouri 


13,000 

90,000 

8,500 

25,000 


(5,666 

70,000 


12,904,900 
50,000 


Nebraska 


New Jersey 




New York 


11,000 




22,000 
20.000 

"""6b',666 

4,000 
13,000 






North Carolina 


1,666 

15,000 










Ohio 


10,000 




27,500 
2,000 
7,000 


51,000 
2,000 




100,000 

300 

106,000 


Oklahoma 


Pennsylvania 


77,500 


427,000 


1,000 

1,000 

400 

"28',666 

4,000 
$186,600 


South Carolina 


500 
15,500 

*" 119,666 




South Dakota 






15,000 

2,000 

54,000 


29,000 

6,000 

15,000 

100 


21,000 


Tennessee 




60,000 


22,000 

290,700 

3,500 

$2,042,300 


Texas 




171,000 


Wisconsin 






7,600 


Total 


$170,500 


$4,449,500 


$1,118,C00 


$1^92,900: 


$383,700 


$14,216,400 $23,759,900 



During the above period the most destructive tornadoes were those of Louisville, Kv. , March 27, 
1890; Little Rock, Ark. , October 2. 1894, and St. Louis, Mo. , May 27, 1896. The latter caused the 
greatest property loss of the period. Lo.sses during period in North Dakota, $300; Virginia, $2,000; 
West Virginia, $3,000. 



6^ formal Tet?iperature and Rainfall in the United States. 

Normal ^cmperatttre ^vCn i^atttfall 

IX THE UNITED STATES 

TaBLiE SHOWIXG the NORilAL TEMPERATURE FOR JANUARY AND JULY, AND THE NORMAIi 

Annual Precipitation at Weather Bureau Stations in each of the States and 
Territories, also the Highest and Lowest Temperatures ever PvEported from 

EACH OF said STATIONS, TO OCTOBER 1, 1896. 

fPrepared in the office of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, U. S. Department of Agriculture, for 

The World Almanac for 1897. ) 



M 

o 

H 

M 

H 
P 

< 

CO 

a 

< 

CO 



Temperature 



Stations. 



Ala... 
Ariz.. 
Ark.. 
Cal... 



Colo. 



Conn.... 

Del I 

Dist. of| 
Col ... 



Florida- 
Georgia- 

Idaho 

Illinois ... 

Indiana.. 
Ind.Ter. 

Iowa 



Kansas 



Ky. 
La. 



Maine . 
Md 

Mass.... 



Mich.. 

Minn. 

Miss.. 
Mo... 



/Mobile 

t Montgomery 

(Grant, Fort* 

\ Prescott* 

(.Yuma 

/Fort Smith 

(Little Rock 

(Red Bluff. 

< Sacramento 

(San Diego 

(Denver 

\ Las Animas* 

(Montrose* 

/New Haven 

(.New London*.... 
Del. Br'kwater^ 



Washington ... 
(Jacksonville... 

\ Key West 

(Pensacola 

(Atlanta 

\ Augusta 

(Savannah 

Bois6 City* 

(Cairo 

< Chicago 

(.Springfield 

Indianapolis... 

Sill, Fort* 

(Des Moines 

< Dubuque 

(Keokuk 

(Dodge City 

< Concordia 

(Leavenworth. 

Louisville 

/New Orleans.., 

IShreveport 

/Eastport 

(Portland 

Baltimore- 

/Boston 

(Springfield* 

(Grand Haven.. 

-< Marquette 

(Port Huron 

(Duluth 

^SL Paul 

(St. Vincent*... 

Vicksburg 

/St. Louis 

(Springfield 



Mean, 



u 
t-s 



50 
48 
43 
32 
54 
34 
40 
46 
46 
54 
27 
22 
23 
27 
28 
33 

33 
55 

70 
52 
43 
47 
51 
28 73 



>> 



82 
82 
78 
73 
92 
80 
81 
82 
72 
67 
72 
76 
72 
72 
71 
73 

77 
82 
84 
81 
78 
82 
82 



34 
24 
25 
28 
35 
17 
17 
23 
25 
19 
24 
34 
54 
45 
20 
23 
34 
26 
26 
24 
16 
21 
10 
11 
-8 
47 
30 
32 



Ex- 
tremes. 



o 



o 



79 
72 
77 
76 
82 
75 
75 
77 
78 
77 
78 
79 
83 
83 
60 
69 
78 
71 
73 
69 
65 
69 
66 
72 
65 
82 
79 
76 



101 
107 
103 
100 
118 
105 
103 
114 
108 
101 
105 
105 
98 
100 
95 
93 

104 
104 
lOO 
101 
100 
105 
105 
107 
103 
100 
102 
101 
107 
104 
102 
104 
108 
104 
107 
105 
99 
107 
91 
97 
102 
102 
94 
92 
100 
99 
99 
100 
103 
101 
106 
102 



CO 

•51=1 

i^ 



u 

-18 

22 

r- 
— I 

- 5 

18 

19 

32 

-29 

-26 

-20 

-14 

—10 

1 



11 62. 2 
552.7 
16.5 
16.4 
3.0 
44.7 
53.6 
26. 1 
20.9 
10.5 
14.5 
13.5 

a9 

50.3 
49.1 
32.6 



tc 

M 

o 

H 

fi 

< 

m 
W 
B 
< 

CO 



3Ion. 



Stations. 



Neb. 



Nevada.. 



N. C 



-14 
14 
41 
11 

— 2 
6 

12 
—28 
-16 
-23 
—22 
—25 

— 9 
-30 
-32 
—24 
—20 
—25 
—29 
—20 

15 

1 

-21 

-17 

— 6 
-13 
-14147. 
-24134. 
—27 32. 
-25 3L 
—41:31. 
-4l!27 



43. 
54. 

38. 
57. 
52. 
48. 
51. 
13. 
42. 
34. 
38. 
43. 
31. 
33. 
35. 
34. 
19. 
25. 
38. 
45. 
60. 
48. 
45. 
42. 
43. 
45 



N. 

N. 



Dak. 
II 



N. J. 



N. Mex. 



N. Y. 



Ohio. 



Pa. 



5 
1 
5 
1 

i: 

9 
2 
8 iOreeon. 

8| 





!1 

5 

5| 

4 Tenn., 

8 
5 
6 
2 
3 

gjUtah.. 

0;Tt. 

8' 



R. I 

i!s. c 

S.Dak.. 



Texas . 



4 
6 

5 
-54116.6 



Fa. 



Wash 



—22 
-17 



55. 
41. 
45. 



792.6 
-10 46.9 

-43'30.7 
69 100—2532.1 
64 89i— 42| 8.7 
67 100-3812.2 

6 7 1001-5411.0 

The minus (— ) sign indicates temperature below zero. * Not now a station of the Weather Bureau, 
and report is therefore for the period preceding its dir-.continuance as a station. 



W. Va.. 

Wis 

Wyo.... 



(Havre 

^Custer, Fort*.... 
(Poplar River*... 
(North Platte 

< Omaha 

(Valentine, 

Winnemucca 

(Charlotte 

< Hatteras 

(Wilmington 

/Bismarck 

(Buford, Fort.. . 

Manchester* 

Atlantic City.... 

Cape May* 

New Brunswick 

/Santa Fe 

(Stanton, Fort*„ 

(Albany 

■I New York City.. 

(Oswego 

(Cincinnati 

-{ Columbus 

(Toledo 

(Portland 

-< Roseburg 

(Umatilla* 

(Erie 

■I Philadelphia 

(Pittsburgh 

/Block Island 

(.Newport* 

Charleston 

Yankton 

(Chattanooga 

< Memphis..- 

(Nashville 

r Elliott, Fort* 

; Brownsville* 

; El Paso 

(.Palestine 

/Frisco* 

\Salt Lake» 

Burlington* 

/Lynchburg 

I Norfolk 

(Dayton* 

-; Olympia 

(Tatoosh Island. 

Morgantown*... 

/La Crosse 

(Milwaukee 

(Bridger, Fort*... 

< Cheyenne 

(Washakie, Fort* 



Temperature 



Mean, 



u 

03 

a 



67 
71 
69 

74 
76 
74 
72 
79 
78 
80 
67 
68 
69 
72 
74 
74 
68 
68 
73 
74 
69 
78 
75 
74 
67 
66 
73 
72 
76 
74 
,69 
30 70 
49 82 
13174 
4178 
40,81 
38 80 



9 
14 
-5 
19 
19 
14 
28 
51 
44 
47 
4 
3 
22 
32 
34 
28 
28 
34 
23 
30 
25 
33 
28 
26 
39 
40 
32 
27 
32 
80 
30 



30 
57 
44 
43 
30 
28 
19 
36 
40 
30 
38 
40 
35 
15 
19 
19 
25 
10 



77 
84 
82 
82 
73 
76 
71 
78 



Ex- 
tremes. 






C 



108 

106 

110 

107 

106 

106 

104 

102 

92 

103 

105 

107 

96 

99 

91 

98 

97 

95 

98 

100 

100 

104 

103 

99 

102 

102 

110 

94 

102 

103 

88 

92 

104 

103 

101 

102 

104 

108 

102 

113 

103 

93 

102 

97 

102 



.2 

n. (v 
" *^ 

d 0) 



--55 14.1 
-4813.0 
-63 10. 8 
-3518.3 
-32 31. 7 
-38 19. 1 
—28 8.5 

— 6 52.0 
8 66.4 
954.3 

—44 18. 4 
-49 14. 
-11 41. 9 

— 7 42.7 
147.2 

-12 46. 8 
-13 14 2 
-1817.3 
-1837.9 

— 6 44. 8 
-2335.0 
-1239.9 
-2038.9 
-16 30.9 

— 2 46.8 

— 635.2 



79,102 



—24 
-16 

— 5 
-12 
_ 4 

- 8 
10 

-34 



9.7 
4L3 
39.8 
36.7 
44.2 
50.0 
56.7 
26.8 



68 
62 
56 
74 
73 



109 
97 
78 
97 

101 



— 7 55.0 

— 853.3 
-1050.1 
—14 24.5 

18 36.9 

— 6 9.3 

— 146.5 
7.6 

-2016.2 
—2528.8 

— 6 
2 

-26 

— 2 



42.8 
52.1 
27.8 
63.1 



Velocity of the Winds in the United States. 



67 



^tmptrature anti Mainfall of jpovtiQxt (Ht^ititn, 



Cities. 



Alexandria 

Algiers 

Amsterdam 

Archangel 

Astrakhan 

Athens 

Bagdad 

Barcelona 

Berlin 

Bermuda 

Berne 

Birmingham 

Bombay 

Bordeaux 

Brussels 

Budapest 

Buenos Ayres 

Cairo 

Calcutta 

Canton 

Cape Town 

Cayenne 

Cherrapongee*.... 

Christiania 

Constantinople .. 

Copenhagen 

Delhi 

Dublin 

Edinburgh 



Mean 


Annual 


Annual 


Average 
Rainfall, 


Temper- 


ature. 


Inches. 


69.0 


10 


64.3 


27 


49.9 




33.0 




50.1 


6 


63.0 




74.0 




63.0 




48.2 


24 


72.0 


55 


46.0 


46 


48.2 




81.3 


75 


57.0 


30 


50.0 


29 


51.9 


17 


62.8 




72.2 




82.4 


76 


71.0 


39 


62.0 


23 




116 




610 


41.5 




56.5 




46.6 


19 


77.0 


24 


50.1 


29 


47.1 


38 



Cities. 



Mean Annual 
Annual Average 



Temper- 
ature. 



Florence 59.2 

Frankfort 50.0 

Geneva 52.7 

Genoa 01.1 

Glasgow 49.8 

Hague 52.0 

Hamburg 47.0 

Havana 79.1 

Hong Kong 73.0 

Honolulu 75.0 

Iceland 39.0 

Jerusalem 62.6 

Lima 73.3 

Lisbon 61.4 

London 50.8 

53.0 
66.0 
58.2 
66.0 
48.8 
78.4 



Lyons 

Madeira 

Madrid 

Malta 

Manchester . 

Manila 

Maranham ... 
Marseilles.... 
Melbourne .. 

Mexico 

Milan 

Montevideo . 

Montreal 

Moscow 



58.3 
57.0 
60.9 
55.1 
62.0 
44.6 
40.0 



Rainfall, 
Inches. 



41 

32 

47 
44 



91 
101 



30 
16 

"27 
25 
28 
25 
9 
20 
36 

277 
23 
29 

■'38 
44 



Cities. 



Munich 

Naples 

Nice 

Odessa 

Para 

Paris 

Peking 

Port Said 

Prague 

Quebec 

Quito 

Rio de Janeiro., 

Rome 

Rotterdam 

San Domingo 

Shanghai 

Smyrna 

St. Petersburg.., 

Stockholm 

Sydney 

Tobolsk 

Trieste 

Valdivia 

Valparaiso 

Venice 

Vera Cruz 

Vienna™ , 

Warsaw 



Mean 
Annual 
Temper- 
ature. 



48.4 
60.3 
58.0 
48.0 
81.0 
51.3 
53.0 



50.2 
40.3 
60.9 
77.2 
60.5 
51.0 
81.3 
59.0 
60.0 
39.6 
42.3 
65.8 
32.0 
55.0 
52.0 
64.0 
55.4 
77.0 
51.0 
56.2 



Annual 
Average 
Rainfall, 

Inches. 



30 
29 

"i'i 

22 

27 

2 

14 



29 
31 

23 
108 



24 
17 
20 
49 

■43 
106 



180 
19 



■* In Southwestern Assam. It is the wettest place in the world. 
905 inches. 

Note. —The mean annual temperature of the globe is 50° Fahr. 



In 1861 the rainfall there reached 
The average rainfall is 36 inches. 



The "Weather Bureau of the United States Department of Agriculture in 1895 issued a bulletin 
giving these facts: That for the five years ending December 31, 1894, there were 1,120 lives lost from 
lightning in the United States, an average of 224 per year, nearly all in the five months from April to 
September, the maximum death rate being in June and July. 

In the nine vears ending December 31, 1893, there were 4,175 fires caused by lightning, with a 
property loss of $14, 309, 180. 

VtUtit^ of ffiltntrs in tl)t mnttttr states. 

Average hourly velocity of the wind at selected stations of the United States Weather Bureau, also 
the highest velocity ever reported for a period of five minutes. (Prepared by W. L. Moore, Chief of 
the Weather Bureau. ) 



Stations. 



Abilene, Texas 

Albany, N. Y 

Alpena, Mich 

Altanta, Ga 

Bismarck, N. D 

Boise City, Ida 

Boston, Mass 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Charlotte, N.C 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio — 
Cleveland, Ohio.... 

Custer, Mont 

Denver, Col 

Detroit, Mich 

Dodge City, Kan.... 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 

Eastport, Me 



(^ Average 
S Honrly 
• Velocity. 


Highest 

Ever 
Reported. 


Mi. 


11 


66 


6 


70 


9 


72 


9 


49 


8 


74 


4 


40 


11 


72 


11 


90 


5 


49 


6 


48 


9 


84 


7 


59 


9 


64 


7 


72 


7 


96 


9 


74 


11 


75 


5 


60 


7 


78 


9 


78 



Stations. 



El Paso, Texas 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Galveston, Tex..v 

Havre, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Huron, S. D 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Leavenworth, Kan... 

Louisville, Ky 

Lynchburg, Va 

Memphis, Tenu 

Montgomery, Ala 

Nashville, Tenu 

New Orleans, La 

New York Citv, N. Y 
North Platte, Neb.... 

Omaha, Neb 

Palestine, Texas 



5j Average 
2 Hourly 
• 1 Velocity. 


Highest 

Ever 
Reported. 


Mi. 


5 


68 


5 


49 


10 


72 


11 


76 


6 


60 


10 


69 


6 


62 


8 


60 


5 


84 


7 


60 


7 


52 


4 


50 


6 


54 


5 


48 


6 


75 


7 


60 


9 


72 


9 


96 


8 


60 


8 


60 



Stations. 



Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Me 

Red Blutf, Cal 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Vincent, Minn.... 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

San Diego, Cal 

San Francisco, Cal... 

Saute Fe, N. M 

Savannah, Ga 

Spokane, Wash 

Toledo, Ohio 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Washington, D. C 

Wilmington, N, C 



?r>>,b 


•♦a 'O 
<ii ^ ^ 


Avers 

Houi 

Veloc 


n 1> U 


Mi. 


Mi. 


10 


75 


6 


42 


5 


54 


7 


60 


11 


78 


11 


72 


7 


60 


9 


65 


5 


60 


6 


40 


9 


60 


6 


51 


7 


80 


4 


48 


9 


72 


6 


60 


5 


60 


7 


68 



68 



High-Tide Tables. 



fj^iQ'^^^Viit ^aMtH. 



FOB GOVERNOR'S ISIiA]S"D, NEW YORK HARBOR. 
(Specially prepared from the Tide- Tables of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey for 

The World Almanac. ) 
New York Mean Time. To express in Eastern Standard Time, subtract 4 minutes. 



1897. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


Day of 
Month. 


A. M. 


P. K, 


A, M, 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. IT. 


A. M. 


P. M. 




H. M. 


H. ir. 


H. JI. 


H, M. 


H. M. 


H. ir. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


n. M. 


H. M. 


1 


6 2 


6 39 


7 41 


8 18 


6 44 


7 20 


7 48 


8 6 


7 54 


8 7 


2 


668 


7 36 


8 26 


9 2 


7 28 


8 1 


8 20 


8 38 


8 19 


8 32 


3 


7 49 


8 29 


9 8 


9 41 


8 9 


8 36 


8 48 


9 6 


8 44 


8 59 


4 


8 38 


9 18 


9 48 


10 22 


8 44 


9 10 


9 11 


9 34 


9 12 


9 29 


6 


9 25 


10 9 


10 21 


10 56 


9 17 


9 42 


9 36 


10 2 


9 44 


10 4 


6 


10 10 


10 54 


10 54 


1134 


9 45 


10 12 


10 4 


10 35 


10 26 


10 48 


7 . 


10 54 


1189 


11 25 




10 11 


10 44 


10 46 


11 16 


11 14 


11 31 


8 


1139 




12 11 


12 4 


10 40 


11 16 


1131 







12 11 


9 


12 26 


12 21 


12 54 


12 44 


11 16 


1159 


12 4 


12 29 


12 25 


1 14 


10 


1 12 


1 4 


1 42 


1 38 




12 2 


12 58 


1 36 


1 26 


2 19 


11 


2 4 


151 


2 38 


2 48 


12 46 


12 55 


2 2 


2 51 


2 30 


3 24 


12 


2 62 


2 47 


3 38 


3 69 


1 42 


2 4 


3 10 


3 58 


3 35 


4 21 


13 


3 42 


3 49 


4 34 


6 8 


2 47 


3 23 


4 14 


4 64 


4 36 


5 16 


14 


4 29 


4 48 


5 26 


6 1 


3 52 


4 32 


6 11 


6 46 


6 32 


6 8 


15 


5 59 


5 43 


6 16 


6 48 


4 51 


5 29 


6 6 


635 


6 29 


6 57 


16 


5 59 


6 31 


7 2 


7 32 


5 44 


6 16 


6 54 


7 22 


7 22 


7 46 


17 


6 44 


7 15 


7 48 


8 16 


6 36 


7 5 


7 44 


8 10 


8 15 


8 39 


18 


7 24 


7 68 


8 29 


8 68 


7 22 


7 49 


8 32 


8 59 


9 12 


9 31 


19 


8 7 


8 42 


9 13 


9 44 


8 6 


8 32 


9 21 


9 48 


10 8 


10 26 


20 


8 50 


9 24 


9 68 


10 29 


853 


9 19 


10 16 


10 41 


1111 


11 23 


21 


9 32 


30 6 


10 44 


11 18 


9 39 


10 7 


11 13 


11 39 




12 15 


22 


10 16 


10 61 


11 34 




10 28 


10 69 




12 25 


12 24 


121 


23 


11 1 


1140 


12 14 


12 29 


11 21 


11 66 


12 45 


1 44 


1 29 


2 26 


24 


11 49 




1 16 


1 41 




12 26 


1 58 


268 


2 36 


3 24 


25 


12 34 


12 42 


2 28 


3 12 


1 2 


1 48 


3 10 


4 1 


3 39 


4 18 


26 


1 35 


1 46 


344 


4 38 


2 16 


3 16 


4 16 


4 54 


4 38 


5 4 


27 


2 42 


3 4 


4 62 


5 42 


3 34 


4 28 


5 12 


5 42 


6 29 


5 46 


28 


3 52 


4 29 


560 


6 35 


4 39 


6 25 


6 2 


6 22 


6 16 


6 25 


29 


4 58 


644 






6 36 


6 12 


6 46 


6 59 


6 64 


7 1 


30 


5 57 


6 42 






6 26 


664 


7 22 


7 32 


7 28 


7 35 


31 


6 50 


7 32 






7 11 


7 32 


.... 




7 68 


8 3 



June. 



A. M. 


P. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


8 24 


8 32 


854 


9 5 


9 33 


9 44 


10 17 


10 24 


11 2 


1111 


11 64 


12 




12 48 


12 65 


1 47 


1 54 


2 49 


2 58 


3 51 


4 3 


4 48 


5 9 


5 45 


6 11 


6 39 


7 14 


7 32 


8 6 


8 25 


9 4 


9 17 



9 58 
30 54 
11 51 



2 60 


1 48 


2 48 


3 48 


4 46 


6 38 


6 22 


7 


7 36 


8 9 



10 9 

11 2 

11 56 

12 47 



44 
39 
33 
32 
9 
49 

6 29 

7 4 

7 38 

8 11 



1897. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Day of 
Month. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. 11. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. U. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


BC. M. 


1 


8 44 


8 50 


9 42 


9 62 


10 48 


11 


11 22 


11 49 


1 6 


1 19 


1 62 


2 2 


2 


9 20 


9 26 


10 24 


10 34 


1139 


11 53 




12 19 


2 19 


2 32 


2 53 


3 9 


3 


10 2 


10 10 


11 30 


11 18 




12 36 


1 2 


1 34 


3 28 


3 43 


3 60 


4 12 


4 


10 44 


10 52 


11 69 




12 56 


1 44 


2 32 


253 


4 25 


4 44 


4 41 


5 10 


6 


1133 


1138 


12 6 


12 55 


2 18 


2 2 


3 60 


4 


5 15 


6 39 


6 26 


6 2 


6 




12 24 


1 4 


159 


364 


4 16 


453 


5 9 


6 1 


6 26 


6 12 


6 48 


7 


12 28 


119 


2 12 


3 10 


5 6 


5 19 


5 44 


6 2 


6 42 


7 9 


6 62 


7 25 


8 


124 


2 20 


3 38 


4 21 


6 4 


6 15 


6 29 


6 47 


7 19 


7 46 


7 26 


7 59 


9 


2 29 


3 26 


5 2 


5 25 


6 61 


7 4 


7 10 


7 29 


7 54 


8 18 


7 68 


8 29 


10 


3 41 


4 31 


6 9 


6 22 


7 32 


7 44 


7 46 


8 6 


8 24 


8 44 


8 28 


8 66 


11 


4 69 


5 32 


7 4 


7 13 


8 14 


8 28 


8 21 


838 


8 53 


9 10 


8 58 


9 27 


12 


6 6 


6 29 


7 52 


8 4 


8 51 


9 2 


854 


9 6 


9 21 


9 40 


9 29 


30 6 


13 


7 6 


7 24 


8 38 


8 46 


9 25 


9 35 


9 24 


9 31 


9 52 


10 17 


10 8 


10 46 


14 


8 2 


8 14 


9 21 


9 28 


10 


10 4 


9 54 


10 2 


10 30 


11 2 


30 49 


1132 


15 


863 


9 4 


9 59 


10 5 


10 33 


10 36 


10 26 


10 36 


1116 


11 66 


11 36 




16 


9 41 


9 49 


10 39 


10 42 


31 8 


31 10 


11 4 


1122 




12 4 


12 22 


12 28 


17 


10 29 


10 36 


11 18 


11 18 


1146 


1152 


1146 




12 52 


12 58 


1 17 


1 20 


18 


11 17 


1121 


1159 


1155 




12 32 


12 16 


12 38 


1 52 


158 


2 16 


2 21 


19 




12 4 




12 43 


12 44 


1 24 


121 


136 


2 54 


3 


3 38 


3 25 


20 


12 6 


12 52 


12 36 


131 


1 54 


2 25 


2 29 


2 42 


3 62 


4 2 


4 18 


4 32 


21 


12 51 


1 46 


1 32 


2 26 


3 11 


3 29 


3 34 


3 46 


4 46 


5 2 


5 16 


6 38 


22 


1 41 


238 


2 39 


3 35 


4 16 


4 33 


4 31 


4 42 


5 40 


558 


6 12 


6 42 


23 


2 41 


3 29 


358 


4 22 


5 9 


6 22 


5 21 


6 36 


6 31 


654 


7 6 


7 39 


24 


348 


4 21 


6 2 


5 14 


5 58 


6 12 


6 9 


6 26 


7 22 


7 49 


8 


8 36 


25 


4 54 


5 9 


5 62 


6 59 


6 42 


6 68 


6 56 


7 16 


8 12 


8 44 


8 62 


9 31 


26 


545 


5 52 


6 34 


6 46 


7 25 


7 40 


7 44 


8 6 


9 6 


9 41 


9 44 


10 26 


27 


6 28 


633 


7 16 


728 


8 9 


8 28 


8 32 


8 66 


9 58 


10 39 


10 36 


11 22 


28 


7 11 


7 12 


7 66 


8 8 


8 54 


9 12 


9 20 


948 


10 64 


11 42 


11 29 




29 


7 46 


7 51 


8 36 


8 49 


9 42 


10 1 


10 12 


10 44 


1152 


■••■>• 


12 16 


12 26 


30 


8 24 


8 32 


9 18 


9 32 


10 28 


10 61 


11 8 


11 49 


12 47 


12 56 


113 


121 


31 


9 2 


9 11 


10 1 


10 14 






.... 


12 11 






2 13 


2 32 



Greatest Altitude in Each State. 



69 



HIGH- TIDE TABUSS,— Continued. 



TIME OF HIGH WATER AT POINTS ON THE ATLANTIC COAST, 

The local time of high water at the following places may be found approximately for each day by 
adding to or subtracting from the time of high water at Governor's Island, N. Y. , the hours and 
minutes annexed. 



Albany, N. Y add 

Annapolis, Md add 

Atlantic City, N. J ~sub. 

Baltimore, Md add 

Bar Harbor, Me add 

Beaufort, S. C sub. 

Block Island, B. I sub. 

Boston, Mass add 

Bridgeport, Conn add 

Bristol, R. I sub. 

Cape May, N. J add 

Charleston, S. C sub. 

Eastport^ Me add 

Fernandma, Fla sub. 

Gloucester, Mass add 

Hell Gate Ferry, East River, N. Y..add 

Isles of Shoals, N. H add 

Jacksonville, Fla add 

Key West, Fla add 

League Island, Pa add 

Marblehead, Mass add 

Nahant, Mass add 

Nantucket, Mass add 

Newark, N. J add 

New Bedford, Mass sub. 

Newburyport, Mass add 



H. 


M. 


9 


31 


8 


57 




20 


10 


52 


2 


46 




8 




34 


3 


22 


3 


2 




14 




10 




42 


3 







18 


2 


55 


1 


53 


3 


11 




37 


1 


24 


5 


23 


3 


2 


3 


2 


4 


21 




54 




10 


3 


16 



New Haven, Ct add 

New London, Ct_ add 

Newport, R. I», sub. 

Norfolk, Va add 

Norwich, Ct add 

Old Point Comfort, Va add 

Philadelphia, Pa add 

Plymouth, Mass add 

Point Lookout, Md add 

Portland, Me add 

Portsmouth, N. H add 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y add 

Providence, R. I add 

Richmond, Va add 

Rockaway Inlet, N. Y„ sub. 

Rockland, Me add 

Rockport, Mass add 

Salem, Mass add 

Sandy Hook, N. J sub. 

Savannah, Ga add 

Southport (Smithville), N. C sub. 

Vineyard Haven, Mass add 

Washington, D. C add 

Watch Hill, R. I add 

West Point, N. Y add 

Wilmington, N. C add 



H. M. 



3 


1 


1 


22 




22 




58 


2 







39 


5 


41 


3 


12 


4 


49 


3 


10 


3 


16 


3 


51 




7 


8 


48 




25 


3 


1 


2 


50 


3 


9 




32 




7 




43 


3 


36 


12 


1 




42 


2 


47 


1 






EXAMPI.E. —To find the approximate time of high tide at Atlantic City, N. J. , on any day, find 
first the time of high water at New York under the desired date, and then subtract 20 minutes, as in 
the above table ; the result is the time of high water required. 



iffirtaUst ^Ititu^e in IHacf) .State* 

FROM THE RECORDS OF THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



State or 
Tkrritort. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

D. of Columibia.. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Terrify 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts.. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi ... 
Missouri 



Name of Place. 



CheauhaMt. (.TalladegaCo. ) 

'(Not named) 

San Francisco Mt 

Magazine Mt 

Mt. Whitney 

Blanca Peak 

Bear Mt 

Dupont 

Tenley 

Highland 

Enota Mt 

Meade Peakt 

Warren 

Haley 

Wichita Mts 

Ocheyedan 

Kanarado 

Big Black Mt. (Harlan Co. ) 

Mansfield 

Katahdin Mt 

Great Backbone Mt 

Mt. Greylock 

Porcupine Mt 

Woodstock 

Pontotoc Ridge... 

Cedar Gap 



Heig' t 



2,407 

19,500 

12,794 

2,800 

14,898 

14,464 

2,355 

282 

400, 

210 

4,798j 

10.5411 

1,009 

1,140 

2,500 

1,554 

3,908 

4,100 

321 

5,200 

3,400 

3,535 

2,023 

1,826 

566 

1,675 



State or 
Territory. 



Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

N. Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 
North Dakota . 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 
Rhode Island.. 
South Carolina.. 
South Dakota... 

Tennessee , 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia., 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Name of Place. 



Mt. Douglas 

White River Summit 

Wheeler Peak 

Mt. Washington 

Kittatinny Mountain 

Cerro Blanco 

Mt. Marcy(Adirondack) 

,Mt. Mitchell 

'Sentinel Butte 

Ontario 

Goodwin 

Mt. Hood 

Negro Mt 

Durfee Hill 

jRocky Mt. (Pickens Co. ) 

Harney Peak 

Mt. Lc'conte 

North Franklin Mt 

Mt. Emmons 

Mt, Mansfield 

Mt. Rogers (Grayson Co, )... 

Mt. Rainier 

Spruce Mt. (Pendleton Co. ) 

Summit Lake 

FremontPeakt 



Heig't 



11,300 
4,876 

13,036 
6,286 
1,630 

14,269 
5,379 
6,703 
2,707 
1,376 
2,536 

11,225 
2,826 
805 
3,600 
7,368 
6,612 
7,069 

13,694 
4,430 
5,719 

14,444 
4,860 
1,732 

13,790 



Note.— The above table was prepared for The World ALMA>fAC by the Geographic Branch of the 
United States Geological Survey. It should be stated in connection with this taole that it presents 
only points whose heights are matters of record, and that in several cases in the high mountain region 
of the far West and the Pacific Slope it is well known that there are higher points withiuthe State or 
Territory whose heights are not yet known with accuracy, and consequently cannot be given. 

*Two or three peaks in the St. Elias region of Alaska are now known to be higher than St. Elias 
itself, the highest being about 19,500 feet and called by some Mount Logan. 

t Salmon River Mountains, known to be much higher, but elevation not definitely known. 

i Recent surveys by independent observers demonstrate that the Grand Teton, in the T6ton range 
just south of the Yellowstone National Park, measures 14, 150 feet, and is the highest point in Wyoming, 



70 



Opening and Closing of Navigation. 



ON THE HUDSON BIVER AND THE ERIE CANAL,, AND OPENING OF lAKE ERIE 

NAVIGATION. 



Navigation of thb Hudson Kivkh. 



River Open. 



Mar. 3 
Mar. 6 
Feb. 25 
Mar, 20 
Feb. 8 
April 1 
Mar. 15 
Mar. 15 
Mar. 25 
Mar. 21 
Feb. 29 
Mar. 25 
April 4 
Mar. 27 
Mar. 19 
Mar. 25 
Feb. 25 
Mar. 24 
Feb. 4 
April 13 
Mar. 18 
Feb. 24 
Mar. 18 
April 7 
Mar. 22 
Mar, 19 
Mar, 10 
Feb. 25 
Mar. 28 
]Mar. 23 
Mar. 17 
Mar, 27 
April 11 
Feb. 27 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 13 
Mar. 6 
Mar. 5 
April 4 
AprU 3 
Mar. 11 
Mar. 22 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 26 
Mar, 24 
April 5 
Mar. 31 
Mar. 12 
April 7 
AprU 16 
Mar. 19 
April 13 
April 1 
Mar. 30 
Mar. 14 
April 4 
Mar. 5 
Mar. 21 
Mar. 8 
Mar. 29 
Mar. 25 
April 7 
Mar. 30 
April 6 
April 7 
Mar. 19, 
Openenti 
Mar. 24 
April 1 
April 1 
Mar. 18 
April 2 



1824... 
1825... 
1826... 
1827... 
1828... 
1829... 
1830... 
1831... 
1832... 
1833... 
1834... 
1835... 
1836... 
1837... 
1838... 
1839... 
1840... 
1841... 
1842... 
1843... 
1844... 
1845... 
1846... 
1847... 
1848... 
1849... 
1850... 
1851... 
1852... 
1853... 
1854... 
1855... 
1856... 
1857... 
1858... 
1859... 
1860... 
1861... 
1862... 
1863... 
1864... 
1865... 
1866... 
1867... 
1868... 
1869... 
1870... 
1871... 
1872... 
1873... 
1874... 
1875... 
1876... 
1877... 
1878... 
1879... 
1880... 
1881... 
1882... 
1883... 
1884... 
1885... 
18S6... 
1887... 
1888... 
1889... 
re year 
1891... 
1892... 
1893... 
1894... 
1895... 



River Closed. 



Jan, 5, 1824 
Dec. 13, 1825 
Dec. 13, 1826. 
Nov. 25, 1827. 
Dec. 23, 1828. 
Jan. 14, 1829. 
Dec. 25, 1830. 
Dec. 6, 1831. 
Dec, 21, 1832. 
Dec. 13, 1833. 
Dec. 15, 1834. 
Nov. 30, 1835. 
Dea 7, 1836. 
Dec. 14, 1837. 
Nov. 25, 1838. 
Nov. 18, 1839. 
Nov. 5, 1840. 
Nov. 19, 1841. 
Nov, 28, 1842. 
Dec. 10, 1843. 
Dec. 17, 1844. 
Dec, 3, 1845. 
Dec. 14, 1846. 
Dec 25, 1847- 
Dec. 27, 1848. 
Dec. 26, 1849. 
Dec, 17, 1860. 
Dec. 14. 1851. 
Dec. 23, 1852. 
Dec. 21, 1853. 
Dea 8, 1854. 
Dec. 20, 1855. 
Dec. 14, 1856. 
Dec. 27, 1857. 
Dec. 17, 1858. 
Dec. 10, 1859. 
Dec. 14, 1860. 
Dec. 23, 1861. 
Dec, 19, 1862. 
Dec. 11, 1863. 
Dec. 12, 1864. 
Dec. 16, 1865. 
Dec. 15, 1866. 
Dec. 8, 1867. 
Dec. 5, 1868. 
Dec. 9, 1869. 
Dec. 17, 1870. 
Nov. 29, 1871. 
Dec. 9, 1872. 
Nov. 22, 1873. 
Dec. 12, 1874. 
Nov. 29, 1875. 
Dea 2, 1876. 
Dea 31, 1877. 
Dec. 20, 1878. 
Dea 20, 1879. 
Nov. 25, 1880. 
Jan. 2, 1881. 
Dea 6, 1882. 
Dea 15, 1883. 
Dea 19, 1884. 
Dec, 7, 1885. 
Dea 3, 1886. 
Dea 20, 1887. 
Dea 14, 1888. 
Open all winter 
Dea 2, 1890. 
Dea 24, 1891. 
Dea 22, 1892. 
Dea 6, 1893. 
Dea 24, 1894. 
Dea 9, 1895. 



Days 
Open. 



309 
283 
302 
251 
220 
286 
283 
262 
289 
277 
291 
268 
244 
261 
257 
286 
285 
286 
308 
242 
278 
283 
275 
263 
292 
286 
282 
293 
270 
274 
266 
268 
248 
303 
273 
273 
283 
294 
259 
252 
277 
270 
270 
257 
252 
248 
261 
263 
247 
221 
269 
229 
245 
277 
282 
261 
266 
288 
273 
261 
269 
247 
248 
258 
252 
286 
337 
277 
266 
250 
281 
252 



Kavigation of the Ekik Canal. 



Canal open. 



April 30, 
April 12, 
April 25, 
April 22, 
Mar, 27, 
May 2, 
April 30, 
April 16, 
April 25, 
April 19, 
April 17, 
April 15, 
April 25, 
April 20, 
April 11, 
April 20, 
April 20, 
April 24, 
April 20, 
May 1, 
April 18, 
April 15, 
April 16, 
May 1, 
May 1, 
May 1, 
April 22, 
April 15, 
April 20, 
AprU 20, 
May 1, 
May 1, 
May 5, 
May 6, 
April 28, 
April 15, 
April 25, 
May 1, 
May 1, 
May 1, 
April 30, 
May 1, 
May 1, 
May 6, 
May 4, 
May 6, 
May 10, 
AprU 24, 
May 13, 
May 15, 
May 5, 
May 18, 
May 4, 
May; 8, 
April 15, 
May 8, 
AprU 20, 
May 17, 
April 11, 
May 7, 
May 6, 
May 11, 
May 1, 
May 7, 
May 10, 
May 1, 
April 28, 
May 5, 
May 1, 
May 3, 
May 1, 
May 3, 



1824.. 

1825.. 
1826.. 
1827.. 
1828.. 
1829.. 
1830.. 
1831.. 
1832.. 
1833.. 
1834.. 
1835.. 
1836.. 
1837.. 
1838.. 
1839.. 
1840.. 
1841.. 
1842.. 
1843.. 
1844.. 
1845.. 
1846.. 
1847.. 
1848.. 
1849., 
1850.. 
1851.. 
1852.. 
1853.. 
1854., 
1855.. 
1856.. 
1857.. 
1858.. 
1859., 
1860.. 
1861.. 
1862.. 
1863.. 
1864.. 
1865.. 
1866.. 
1867.. 
1868.. 
1869.. 
1870.. 
1871.. 
1872.. 
1873.. 
1874.. 
1875.. 
1870.. 
1877.. 
1878.. 
1879.. 
1880.. 
1881.. 
1882.. 
1883.. 
1884.. 
1885.. 
1886.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1889.. 
1890.. 
1891.. 
1892.. 
1893.. 
1894.. 
1895.. 



Canal closed. 



Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec 

Dec, 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec, 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dea 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Nov, 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Nov, 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dea 

Dea 

Dea 

Dec. 

Dea 

Dec. 

Dea 

Dec. 

Dea 

Dea 

Dea 

Dea 

Dea 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dea 

Dec. 

Dea 

Dec. 

Dea 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Dea 

Dec. 

Dea 

Dea 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Dea 

Dea 

Dea 

Dea 

Dea 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Dea 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



4.. 

5. 
18.. 
18., 
20.. 
17.. 
17.. 

1.. 
21., 
12., 
12.. 
SO. 
26., 

9. 
25.. 
16., 

9., 
30., 
28., 
30., 
26., 
29., 
25.. 
30., 

9. 

5.. 
11.. 

6.. 
16.. 
20.. 

3.. 
10. 

4.. 
15.. 

8.. 
12.. 
12.. 
10.. 
10.. 

9.. 

8.. 
12.. 
12.. 
20.. 



V 

10 

8 

1 

1 

5 

6 

30(bylce) 



I 

6 

21(byice) 

8 

7 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

30 

30, 1890- 

5, 1891.. 

6, 1892.. 
30. 1893.. 
30, 1894.. 

5, 1895.. 



Navigable 
Days. 



219 
238 
243 
241 
269 
230 
242 
230 
241 
238 
240 
230 
216 
234 
228 
241 
228 
221 
222 
214 
222 
228 
234 
214 
223 
219 
234 
235 
239 
245 
217 
224 
214 
223 
225 
242 
232 
224 
224 
223 
223 
226 
226 
229 
217 
218 
213 
220 
202 
205 
215 
297 
211 
214 
237 
212 
216 
206 
241 
208 
209 
205 
214 
209 
208 
214 
217 
216 
219 
212 
214 
216 



Opening of Lake 
Erie.* 



April 21, 
April 1, 
May 10, 
May 5, 
May 8, 
April 27, 
April 23, 
April 6, 
May 8, 
April 27, 
May 16, 
Mar. 31. 
April 11, 
AprU 27, 
April 14, 
March 7, 
May 6, 
Mar. 14, 
April 3, 
April 11, 
AprU 23, 
April 9, 
Mar. 25, 
Mar. 25, 
April 2, 
April 20, 
April 14, 
April 29, 
AprU 21, 
May 2, 
April 27, 
April 16, 
AprU 7, 
April 17, 
April 13, 
April 15, 
April 3, 
April 13, 
April 26, 
April 28. 
April 21, 
April 19, 
May 1, 
April 16, 
April 1, 
May 6, 
April 29, 
April 18, 
May 12, 
May 4, 
AprU 17, 
Mar. 24, 
AprU 24, 
Mar. 19, 
May 1, 
Mar. 26. 
May 4, 
April 25, 
May 2, 
April 25, 
April 17, 
April 14, 
April 10, 
Mar. 31, 
April 13, 
April 10, 
April 15, 
April 28, 
AprU 4, 



1827 

1828 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 

1836 

1836 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1846 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1856 

1856 

1857 

1858 

1859 

1860 

1861 

1862 

1863 

1864 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1896 



* At Buffalo. The record in the above table is kept by the State Superintendent of Public "Works, 



Postal Infovmation. 



71 



postal l^nfortnatton* 



{Revised December, 1896, at the New York Fost- Office, for The World Almanac. ) 
DOMESTIC RATES OF POSTAGE. 

All mailable matter for transmission by the United States mails within the United States is 
divided into four classes, under the following regnlations : 

FIRST-CLASS MATTER. 

This class includes letters, x>ostal cards, and anything sealed or otherwise closed against in- 
si)ection, or anything containing writing not allowed as an accompaniment to printed matter 
under class three. 

Rates of letter postage to any part of the United States, two cents per onnce orjraction thereof. 

Rates on local or drop letters at free delivery offices, two cents per ounce or fraction thereof. 
At offices where there is no free delivery by carriers, one cent per ounce or fraction thereof. 

Rates on postal cards, one cent (double or ' ' reply ' ' cards, 2 cents). Nothing must be added 
or attached to a postal card, except that a printed address slip may be pasted on the address or 
message side. The addition of anything else subjects the card to letter postage. A card con- 
taining any offensive dun or any scurrilous or indecent communication will not be forwarded. 
Nothing but the address must be placed on the face, or stamped side. Cards that have been 
spoiled in printing or otherwise will not be redeemed. Cards issued by private persons are not 
' ' postal cards, ' ' and if bearing written or partly written messages must be prepaid 2 cents. 
Double or * 'reply' ' postal cards must be folded before being mailed, 

Rates on specially delivered letters, ten cents on each letter in addition to the regular postage. 
This entitles the letter to immediate delivery by special messenger. Special delivery stamps are 
sold at post- offices, and must be affixed to such letters. An ordinary ten- cent stamp affixed to a 
letter will not entitle it to special delivery. The delivery, at carrier offices, extends to the limits 
of the carrier routes. At non- carrier offices it extends to one mile from the post-office. Post- 
masters are not obliged to deliver beyond these limits, and letters addressed to places beyond 
must await delivery in the usual way, notwithstanding the special delivery stamp. 

Prepayment by stamps invariably required. Postage on all letters should be Jvlly prepaid, 
but if prepaid one full rate and no more, they will be forwarded, and the amount of deficient 
postage collected on delivery ; if wholly unpaid, or prepaid with less than one full rate and 
deposited at a post-office, the addressee will be notified to remit postage ; and if he fails to do so, 
they will be sent to the Dead Letter Office ; but they will be returned to the sender if he is located 
at the place of mailing, and if his address be printed or written uiK>n them. 

Letter rates are charged on all productions by the typewriter or manifold process, and on all 
printed imitations of typewriting or manuscript that cannot be easily recognized as such. 

Letters (but no other class of mail matter) will be returned to the sender free, if a request to 
that effect is printed or written on the envelope. There is no limit of weight for first- class matter. 

Prepaid letters will be re forwarded from one post-office to another upon the written request of 
the person addressed, Avithout additional charge for postage. The direction on forwarded letters 
may be changed as many times as may be necessary to reach the person addressed. 

SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 

This class includes all newspapers, periodicals, or matter exclusively in print and regularly 
issued at stated intervals as frequently as four times a year, from' a knoAvn office of publication or 
news agency, to actual subscribers or news agents, and transient newspapers and publications of 
this character mailed by persons other than publishers. Also periodical publications of benevolent 
and fraternal societies, etc. This applies to all reports and tne like made by officers of societies 
organized under the lodge system and having a membership of a thousand persons, and of the 
bulletins and proceedings of strictly professional, literary, historical, and scientific associations 
and institutions, trade- unions, etc., provided only that these be published not less often than 
four times a year, and that they be printed on and be bound in paper. Publishers who wish to 
avail themselves of the privileges of the act are required to make formal application to the 
department through the postmaster at the place of publication, producing satisfactory evidence 
that the organizations represented come within the purview of the law, and that the object of the 
publications is to further the objects and purposes of the organizations. 

Rates of postage to publishers, one cent a pound or fractional part thereof, prepaid by special 
stamps. Publications designed primarily for advertising or free circulation, or not having a 
legitimate list of subscribers, are excluded from the pound rate, and pay third- class rates. 

Whenever the general character and manner of issue of a periodical publication is changed 
in the interest of the publisher, or of an advertiser or other person, by the addition of unusual 
quantities of advertisements, or of matter different from that usually appearing in the publica- 
tion, or calculated to give special prominence to some particular business or businesses, or 
otherwise — especially where large numbers of copies are circulated by or in the interest of par- 
ticular persons, or where there is to be an excessive number of alleged sample copies mailed, or 
where the issue is to be sold at a special and different price than that charged for the customary 
issues, the second-class rates or postage will be denied that issue; and if there be repeated 
instances of such irregularities, the publication will be excluded front?, the mails as second-class 
matter. 

Such "Christmas," "New Year's," and other special issues, including "Almanacs," as 
are excluded from second- class privileges by the terms above specified may be transmitted by 
mail only when prepaid by postage- stamps at the rate applicable to third-class matter — one cent 
for each two ounces or fraction thereof. 

Publications sent to actual subscribers in the county where published are free, unless mailed 
for local delivery at a letter- carrier office. 

Rates of postage on transient newspapers, magazines, or periodicals, one cent for each four 
ounces or fraction thereof. It should be observed that the rate is one cent for each four ounces, not 



72 Postal Information. 



one cent for each paper contained in the same wrapijer. Second- class matter will be entitled to 
special delivery when special delivery ten- cent stamps are affixed in addition to the regvdar 
postage. 

Transient second- class matter must be so "wrapped as to enable the postmaster to inspect it. 
The sender' s name and address may be written in them, but any other -writing subjects the mat- 
ter to letter postage. The name and address of the sender may also be -written on the wrapper. 

THIRD-CLASS MATTER. 

Mail matter of the third class includes printed books, pamphlets, engra-vings, circulars (in 
print or by the hectograph, electric- pen, or similar process ) , and other matter wholly in print, 
proof-sheets, corrected proof-sheets, and manuscript copy accompanying the same. 

The rate on matter of this class is one cent for each tico ounces or fraction thereof. 

Manuscript unaccompanied by proof-sheets must pay letter rates. 

Third-class matter must admit of easy inspection, otherwise it will be charged letter rates on 
delivery. It must be fully prepaid, or it will not be forwarded. Its wrapper must bear no -writ- 
ing or printing except the name and address of the sender, and a return request. 

The limit of weight is four pounds, except single books in separate packages, on which the 
weight is not limited. It is entitled, like matter of the other classes, to special delivery when 
special delivery stamps are affixed in addition to the regular postage. 

The name and address of the sender, preceded by the word ' 'from, ' ' may be -written upon 
the package, and a simple manuscript dedication may apjiear in a book or other third-class 
matter. 

FOURTH-CLASS MATTER. 

Fourth- class matter is all mailable matter not included in the three preceding classes which 
Is so prepared for mailing as to be easily -\vithdra^vn from the wrapper and examined. It em- 
braces merchandise and samples of every description, and coin or specie. 

Kate of postage, one cent for each ounce or fraction thereof (except seeds, roots, bulbs, cuttings, 
cions, and -plants, the rate on which is oiie cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof). This matter 
must be fully prepaid, or it will not be forwarded. The affixing of special delivery ten- cent 
stamps in addition to the regular postage entitles fourth- class matter to si)ecial delivery. (See 
remarks under ' ' first-class matter. ' ' ) 

Articles of this class that are liable to injure or deface the mails, such as glass, sugar, needles, 
nails, pens, etc. , must be first wrapped in a bag, box, or open envelope and then secured in an- 
other outside tube or box, made oi metal or hard wood, without sharp corners or edges, and 
ha\ing a sliding clasp or screw lid, thus securing the articles in a double package. The public 
should bear in mind that the first object of the department is to transport the mails safely, and 
every other interest is made subordinate. 

Such articles as poisons, explosives, or inflammable articles, live animals, insects, or sub- 
stances exhaling a bad odor will not be forwarded in any case. 

The regulations respecting the mailing of liquids are as follows : Liquids, not ardent, -vinous, 
spirituous, or malt, and not liable to explosion, spontaneous combustion, or ignition by shock or 
jar, and not inflammable (such as kerosene, naphtha, or turi)entine), may be admitted to the 
mails for transi)ortation -within the United States. When in glass bottles or vials, such bottles 
or vials must ife strong enough to stand the shock of handling in the mails, and must be en- 
closed in a metal, wooden or papier mache block or tube, not less than three- sixteenths of an 
inch thick in the thinnest part, strong enough to support the weight of mails piled in bags and 
resist rough handling ; and there must be provided, oetween the bottle and said block or tube, 
a cushion of cotton, felt, or some other absorbent sufficient to protect the glass from shock in 
handling ; the block or tube to be closed by a tightly fitting lid or cover, so adjusted as to make 
the block or tube water tight and to prevent the leakage of the contents in case of breaking 
the glass. When enclosed in a tin cylinder, metal case or tube, such cylinder, case, or tube 
should have a lid or cover so secured as to make the case or tube water tight, and should be 
securely fastened in a wooden or papier mache block (open only at one end), and not less in 
thickness and strength than above described. Manufacturers or dealers intending to transmit 
articles or samples in considerable quantities should submit a sample package, shomng their 
mode of packing, to the postmaster at the mailing office, who -will see that the conditions of this 
section are carefully observed. The limit of admissible liquids and oils is not exceeding four 
ounces, liquid measure. 

Limit of weight of fourth-class matter (excepting liquids), four pounds. 

The name and address of the sender, preceded by the word ' 'from, ' ' also the names and num- 
ber (quantitv) of the articles enclosed, maybe written on the Avrapper of fourth- class matter 
-without additional postage charge. A request to the delivering postmaster may also be "written 
asking him to return the package if not delivered. 

REGISTRATION. 

All kinds of -postal matter may be registered at the rate of eight cents for each package in addition 
to the regular rates of postage, to be fully prepaid by stamps. Each package must bear the 
name and address of the sender, and a receipt will be returned from the person to whom ad- 
dressed. Mail matter can be registered at all jxjst- offices in the United States. 

The Post- Office Department or its revenue is not by law liable for the loss of any registered 
or other mail matter. 

DOMESTIC MONEY ORDERS. 

Domestic money orders are issued by money- order post-offices for any amount up to $100, at 
the follovving rates : 

For sums not exceeding $2. 50, 3 cents ; over $2. 50 to $5, 5 cents ; over $5 to $10, 8 cents ; 
over $10 to $20, 10 cents ; over $20 to $30, 12 cents ; over $30 to $40, 15 cents ; over $40 to 
$50, 18 cents ; over $50 to $60, 20 cents ; over $60 to $75, 25 cents ; over $75 to $100, 30 cents 

Postal Notes are no longer issued. 



JPostal Information. 73 



STAMPED ENVELOPES. 

Embossed stamped envelopes and newspapyer wrappers of several denominations, sizes, and 
colors are kept on sale at post-oflaces, singly or in quantities, at a small advance on the postage 
rate. Stamps cut from stamped envelopes are valueless ; but postmasters are authorized to give 
good stamps for stamped envelopes or newspaper -wrappers that may be spoiled in directing, if 
presented m whole condition and with satisfactory evidence. 

All matter concerning lotteries, gift concerts, or schemes devised to defraud the public, or 
for the purpose of obtaining money under false pretences, is denied transmission in the mails. 

Applications for the establishment of post- offices should be addressed to the First Assistant 
Postmaster- General, accompanied by a statement of the necessity therefor. Instructions will 
then be given and blanks furnished to enable the petitioners to provide the department with the 
necessary information. 

The franking privilege was abolished July 1, 1873, but the following mail matter may be 
sent free by legislative saving clauses, viz. ; 

1. All public documents printed by order of Congress, the Congressional Record and 
si>eeches contained therein, franked by Members of Congress, or the Secretary of the Senate, or 
Clerk of the House. 

2. Seeds transmitted by the Secretary of Agricultvure, or by any Member of Congress, pro- 
cured from that Department. 

3. All periodicals sent to subscribers within the county where printed. 

4. Letters and packages relating exclvisively to the business of the Government of the 
United States, mailed only by officers of the same, publications required to be mailed to the 
Librarian of Congress by the Copyright law, and letters and parcels mailed by the Smithsonian 
Institution. All these must be covered by specially printed ' ' penalty ' ' envelopes or labels. 

5. The Vice- President, Members and Members- elect and Delegates and Delegates- elect to 
Congress may frank any mail matter, not over one omice in weight, upon official or depart- 
mental business. 

All communications to Government officers and to Members of Congress are required to be 
prepaid by stamps. 

SUGGESTIONS TO THE PUBLIC. 
{From the Vnited States Official Postal- Guide. ) 

Mail all letters, etc. , as early as practicable, especially when sent in large numbers, as is 
frequently the case with newspapers and circulars. 

All mail matter at large post-offices is necessarily handled in great haste and should there- 
fore in all cases be so plainly addressed as to leave no eoom for doubt and no excuse for 
ERROR on the part of postal employes. Names of States should be written in full (or their 
abbreviations very distinctly written) in order to prevent errors which arise from the similarity 
of such abbreviations as Cal. , Col. ; Pa. , Va. , Vt. ; Me. , Mo. , Md. ; loa. , Ind. ; N. H. , N. M. , 
N. Y. , N. J. , N. C. , D. C. : Miss. , Minn. , Mass. ; Nev. , Keb. ; Penn. , Tenn. , etc. , when hastily 
or carelessly written. This is especially necessary in addressing mail matter to places of which 
the names are borne by several post-offices in difi'erent States. 

Avoid as much as possible using envelopes made of flimsy paper, especially where more 
than one sheet of paper, or any other article than paper, is enclosed. Being often handled, and 
even in the mail- bags subject to pressure, such envelopes not infrequently split open, giving 
cause of complaint. 

Never send money or any other article of value through the mail except either by means of 
a money order or in a registered letter. Any person who sends money or jewelry in an unregis- 
tered letter not only runs a risk of losing his propert>^ but exposes to temptation every one 
through whose hands his letter passes, and may be the means of ultimately bringing some clerk 
or letter- carrier to ruin. 

See that every letter or package bears the fiill name and post-office address of the ^vriter, in 
order to secure the return of the letter, if the person to whom it is directed cannot be found. A 
much larger portion of the undelivered letters could be returned if the names and addresses of 
the senders were always fully and plainly written or printed inside or on the envelopes. 
Persons who have large correspondence find it most convenient to use ' ' special request envel- 
opes ;' ' but those who only mail an occasional letter can avoid much trouble by writing a 
request to ' ' return if not delivered, ' ' etc. , on the envelope. 

When dropping a letter, newspaper, etc., into a street mailing- box, or into the receptacle at 
a post- office, always see that the packet falls into the box and does not stick in its passage; 
observe, also, particularly, whether the postage stamps remain securely in their places. 

Postage stamps should be placed on the upper right hand corner of the address side of all 
mail matter. 

The street and number (or box number) should form a part of the address of all mail matter 
directed to cities. In most cities there are many persons, and even firms, bearing the same 
name. Before depositing any package or other article for mailing, the sender should assure him- 
self that it is wrapped and packed in the manner prescribed by postal regulations ; that it does 
not contain nnmailable matter nor exceed the limit of size and weight as fixed by law ; and that 
it is fully prepaid and properly addressed. The postage stamps on all mail matter are necessarily 
cancelled at once, and the value of those affixed to packages that are afterward discovered to be 
short-paid or otherwise nnmailable is therefore liable to be lost to the senders. 

It is unlawful to send an ordinary letter by express or otherwise outside of the mails unless 
it be inclosed in a Government- stamped envelope. It is also unlawful to inclose a letter in an 
express package unless it pertains wholly to the contents of the package. 

It is forbidden by the regulations of the Post- Office Department for postmasters to give to any 
person information concerning the mail matter of another, or to disclose the name of a box- 
nolder at a ix)st- office. 



Letters addressed to persons temporarily sojourning in a city where tlie Free Delivery System 
is in operation should be marked ' ' Transient " or " General Deliverj-, ' ' if not addre'ssed to a 
street and number or some other designated place of deliverj'. 

Foreign books, etc , infringing United States copyright are unddiverable if received in foreign 
mails, or mailed here. 

The foregoing rates, rules, and suggestions apply to postal mazters in the United States. 



POSTAGE RATES AND CONDITIONS. 

The rates of postage to all foreign countries and colonies (except Canada and Mexico) are as follows: 

Letters, per 15 grams {^ ounce) 5 cents. 

Postal cards, each 2 cents. 

Newspapei-s and other printed matter, per 2 ounces „ l cent. 

Commercial papers (such as legal and insurance (Packets not in excess of 10 ounces 5 cents. 

papers, deeds, bills of lading, invoices, -( Packets in excess of 10 ounces, for each 2 

manuscript for publication, etc.) _ (, ounces or fraction thereof...- 1 cent. 

Knmr.iPQnfmprchanrii'^p / Packets not in excess of 4 ounces 2 cents. 

oampies oi mercnauuioe. | packets in excess of 4 ounces, for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof 1 cent. 
Registration fee on letters or other articles 8 cents. 

Ordinaiy letters for countries of the Postal Union (except Canada and Mexico) will be forwarded, 
whether any postage is prepaid on them or not. All other mailable matter must be prepaid at least 
paitially. 

CANADA. 

Letters, per ounce, prepayment compulsory 2 cents. 

Postal cards, each 1 cent. 

Newspapers, per 4 ounces 1 cent. 

Merchandise, not exceeding 4 pounds, (samples Ic. per2oz.), per ounce 1 cent. 

Commercial papere, same as to other Postal Union countries. 

Registration fee Scents. 

Any article of correspondence may be registered. Packages of merchandise are subject to the 
regulations of either country to prevent violations of the revenue laws; must not be closed against in- 
spection, and must be 60 wrapped and enclosed as to be easily examined. Samples must not exceed 
^i ounces iu weight. No sealed packages other than letters in their usual and ordinary form may be 
sent by mail to Canada. 

MEXICO. ~ 

Letters, newspapers, and printed matter are now carried between tbe United States and Mexico at 
same rates as in the L^nited States. Samples are 1 cent for 2 ounces; limit of weight, 8^ ounces. 
Merchandise other than samples may only be sent by Parcels Post. No sealed packages other tban 
letters in their usual and ordinary form may be sent by mail to Mexico, nor auy package over 4 pounds 
6 ounces in weight. 

SAMPLES. 

General limit of weight, 8^ ounces; but by special agreement between the United States and 
France, Great Britain, Belgium. Switzerland, the Argentine Republic, Italy, Hawaiian Republic, 
Egn5t,and the British Colonies, except India, Canada, and tbe Australian Colonies, the Netherlands, 
Austria and Hungary, packets of samples or merchandise are admissible in the mails between the 
two countries up to 350 grams (12 ounces) in weight, and the following dimensions apply to all Postal 
Union countries: 30 centimeters (12 inches) in length, 20 centimeters (8 inches) in width, and 10 cen- 
timeters (4 inches) in depth, or if they are in the form of a roll, 12 inches in length and 6 inches in 
diameter. Merchandise of salable value and goods not in execution of orders, or as gifts, must be paid 
at full letter rate. 

PARCELS POST. 

Unsealed packages of mailable merchandise may be sent by Parcels Post to Jamaica (including 
Turk's Island), Barbadoes, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Mexico, the Hawaiian Republic (Sand- 
wich Islands), the Leeward Islands, the Republic of Colombia, Costa Rica, Salvador, British Guiana, 
Danish West Indies (St. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John) and the Windward Islands (St. Lucia, St. 
Vincent, Grenada, and the Grenadines), and Newfoundland, at the following postage rate: For a 
parcel not exceeding one pound in weight, 12 cents; for each additional pound or fraction thereof, 12 
cents. The maximum weight allowed is eleven pounds — the extreme dimensions allowed for Mexico, 
Costa Rica, and Colombia being two feet length by four feet girth, and for the other countries not more 
than three feet six inches in length, nor more than six feet in length and girth combined. Parcels 
must be wrapped so as to permit their contents to be easily examined by postmasters. Poisonous, 
explosive, and inflammable substances are excluded. Parcels may be registered for 10 cents each to 
any of the above places, except Barbadoes. 

Hates and conditions to countries not in the Universal Postal Union are now the same as those to Uni- 
versal Postal Union countries, 

GENERAL REGULATIONS RESPECTING FOREIGN MAILS. 

Postage can be prepaid upon articles only by means of the postage stamps of the country in which 
the articles are mailed. Hence articles mailed in one country addressed to another country which 
bear postage stamps of the country to which they are addressed are treated as If they had no postage 
stamps attached to them. 

Unpaid letters received from the Postal Union are chargeable with 10 cents per 15 grams (J^ 
ounce). Insufficiently prepaid correspondence of all kinds is chargeable with double the amount of 
the deficient postage. 

Matter to oe sent in the mails at less than letter rates must be so wrapped that it can be readily 
examined at the office of deliverj', as well as the mailing office, without destroying the wrapper. 

Newspapers and periodicals sent in the mails to foreign countries other than those or the Postal 
Union should be wrapped singly. Those sent by publishers to regular subscribers in Canada and 
Mexico are transmissible as in domestic mails, except that packages addressed to Mexico must not 
exceed 4 pounds 6 ounces in weight. 

The United States two-cent postal card should be used for card correspondence with foreign coun- 
tries (except Canada and Mexico, to which countries the one-cent card is transmissible), but where 
these cards cannot be obtained, it is allowable to use for this purpose the United States one-cent postal 
card with a one-cent United States adhesive postage stamp attached thereto. 



JPostal Information. 



75 



FOREIGN 'i!.lMl&— Continued. 



Mail matter of all kinds received from any country of the Postal Union is required to be refor- 
warded at the request of the addressee, from one post-otfice to another, or to any foreign country em- 
braced in the Postal Union, without additional charge for postage. 

All articles prohibited from domestic mails are also excluded from circulation in the mails to and 
from foreign countries. Postal cards or letters addressed to go around the world will not be for- 
warded, being prohibited. 

The act of March 3, 1883, imposes a duty of 25 per cent ad valorem on all printed matter not 
therein otherwise provided for, without regard to mode of importation. Under said act all printed 
matter, except newspapers and periodicals, and except printed matter other than books imported in 
the mails for personal use, is subject to the regular duty of 25 per cent ad valorem. 

FOREIGN (INTERNATIONAL) MONEY- ORDERS. 

There are now in operation postal conventions for the exchange of money-orders between the 
United States and the following countries, viz. : Switzerland, Great Britain and Ireland, Germany, 
France, Italy, Canada and Newfoundland, Jamaica, New South Wales, Victoria, New Zealand, 
Queensland, the Cape Colony, the Windward Islands, the Leeward Islands, Belgium, Portugal, Tas- 
mania, Hawaii, Sweden, Norway, Japan, Denmark, Netherlands, Dutch East Indies, the Bahamas, 
Trinidad and Tobago, British Guiana, Republic of Honduras, Austria, and Hungary. 

Upon receiving an international money-order from the issuing postmaster the remitter must 
send it, at his own cost, to the payee, if the latter resides in Canada, Great Britain and Ireland, 
Queensland, Cape Colony, France and Algeria, New Zealand, New South Wales, Victoria, Tas- 
mania, Hawaii, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands and Constantinople, Bahamas, Trinidad 
and Tobago, and British Guiana. 

But the order should be retained by the remitter if the intended beneficiary live in any of the fol- 
lowing named countries : Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Belgium, Portugal, 
Sweden, Norwav, Denmark, British India, Egypt, Japan, Hong Kong, in which case it is of no value 
except as evidence of deposit of the sum therein mentioned. Another and different form of order will 
be forwarded to the payee by the exchange office in the country of payment. 

Theratesof commission or fees charged for the issue of all international money-orders are as fol- 
lows : For sums not exceeding $10, 10 cents ; over $10 and not exceeding $20, 20 cents ; over $20 
and not exceeding $30, 30 cents ; over $30 and not exceeding $40, 40 cents ; over $40 and not exceed- 
ing $50, 50 cents ; over $50 and not exceeding $60, 60 cents ; over $60 and not exceeding $70, 70 
cents ; over $70 and not exceding $80, 80 cents ; over $80 and not exceeding $90, 90 cents ; over $90 
and not exceeding $100, one dollar. 



JItitrta, (tiyiWiiy Japan> atitr Australia jPails. 

FiGTTKES in parenthesis indicate number of daj'S in transit from port of embarkation. 

The Post-Offlce Department allows 6 days for transmission of mails from New York to San Fran- 
cisco, and 7 days from New York to Vancouver, B. C. , and Tacoma, Wash. , and 9 days from New- 
York to London, Eng. 
Leave London, Eng., every Friday for Aden (11-13), Bombay (17), Colombo (18), Singapore (26), 

Hong Kong (33), Shanghai (38), Yokohama (44). By Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation 

Co. and Messageries Maratimes. 
Leave San Francisco, Cal. , about every 9 to 12 days for Singapore (31-35), Hong Kong (25), 

Shanghai (25-28), Yokohama (17). By Pacific Mail and Occidental and Oriental Steamship lines. 
Leave Vancouver, B. C. , about every 28 days for Hong Kong (22), Shanghai (19), Yokohama (14). 

By Canadian Pacific Steamship Line. 
Leave Tacoma, Wash. , about every 17 days for Hong Kong (25) , Yokohama (16). By Northern 

Pacific Steamship Co. 

AUSTRALIA MAILS. —Mails for West Australia are all sent via London, Eng. 
Leave San Francisco, Cal. , every 9 to 19 days for Honolulu, Sandwich Islands (7) ; and every 28 days 

for Auckland, New ZealandJ21), Sydnej, New South Wales (26). _ By Oceanic Steampship Co. 



Leave 



Mails also leave Vancouver, B. C. , on the 8th of each month, and must be marked ' 'via Vancouver, ' ' 
ive London, Eng. , every Friday for all parts of Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, etc. 



STrani^portation of transatlantic J^atls* 

The Post-Office Department reports the average time (in hours) occupied per trip by mail steamers 
of the transatlantic service, during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1896, as follows: 



North German Lloyd 
— New York to London 
via Southampton : 

Havel 

Lahn 

Aller 

Spree 

Trave 

Saale 

Ems 

Fulda 

Kaiser Willielm II 

Werra 

Hamburg-American — 
New York to London 
via Southampton : 

Fuerst Bismarck 

Normannia 

Augusta Victoria 

Columbia 



No. of 
Trips. 

12 
10 

9 
12 

8 

9 

5 

4 

1 

1 



Average 
Time 

per Trip. 

Hours. 

184.6 

183.1 

190.5 



186. 
191. 
196. 
199. 
201. 
219 
226, 



170.3 
174.7 
178.1 
177.1 



American — New York 
to London via Queens- 
town or Southampton 

New York 

St. Louis 

St. Paul 

Paris 

Berlin 



CuNARD — New York to 
London via Queens- 
town : 



Lncania., . 
Campania. 
Etruria . . . 
Umbria. . . 
Servia . . . . 
Aurania . . 



1 


Average 


No. of 


Time 


Trips. 


per Trip. 




Hours. 


15 


172.1 


13 


168.6 


10 


169.7 


12 


179.2 


3 


213.4 


11 


157.1 


12 


158.1 


12 


169.5 


13 


174 


2 


201 


7 


201.9 



General Transatlan- No. of 
TIC — New York to Trips. 
Paris via Havre: 



La Touraine . . . 
La Bretagne... . 
La Bourgogne . . 
La Champagne. 
La Gascogne . . . . 
La Normandie.. 



White Star — New 
York to London \'ia 
Queenstown : 



Teutonic. 
Majestic . 
Gerniauic , 
Britannic. 
Adriatic . . 



10 
6 

12 
7 

10 
7 



13 
12 
11 
13 
2 



Average 

Time 

per Trip. 

Hours. 

186.3 

194.1 

199.5 

196.9 

200 

201.6 



170.2 

173.6 

197 

210.4 

232.3 



The number of hours stated shows the time elapsing between the actual receipt of the mails at 
the Post-Office in New York and their delivery at the Post- Offices in London or Paris. 



76 



Distances Betioeen European Cities. 



postal Wy%Xu\\tt% antf Kimt from tlSTett) ¥orife (tit^. 



As indicated by the OflBcial 


Postal Guide, showing the distance by shortest routes and time in 


transit by fastest trains from New York City. 










Cities in United States. 


MUes. 


Hours. 


CriTKS IN United States. 


MUes. 


Hours. 


Cities in Unitkd States. 


Miles. 
325 


Hours. 


Albany, N. Y 


142 


4/^ 


Des Moines, la 


1,257 


37Jig 


Portland, Me 


12 


Atlanta, Ga 


882 
188 


24^ 
6 


Detroit, Mich 

Galveston, Tex 


743 
1,789 


25 
561^ 


Portland, Ore 

Prescott, Ariz 


3,181 

2,724 


114;^ 


Baltimore, Md 


94 


Bismarck, Is. Dak.. 


1,738 


60^ 


Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Ct 


182 


6 


Providence, R^ I 


189 


6 


Bois6 City, Idaho. . . 


2,736 


921^^ 


112 


4 


Richmond, Va 


844 


\VA 


Boston, Mass 


217 


7 


Helena, Mont 


2,423 


89 


St. Louis, Mo 


1,048 


29 


Buffalo, N. Y 

Cape May, N. J — 


410 


llV^ 


Hot Springs, Ark... 


1,367 


55 


St. Paul, Minn 


1,300 


37 


172 


6 


Indianapolis, Ind... 


808 


23 


Salt Lake City, Utah. 


2,452 


71J^ 


Carson City, Kev... 


8,036 


109 


Jacksonville, Fla... 


1,077 


%VA 


San Francisco, Cal. . . 


3,250 


124^ 


Charleston, S. C... 


804 


21M 


Kansas City, Mo — 


1,302 


38»| 


Savannah, Ga 


905 


26 


Chattanooga, Tenn. 


853 


32 


Louisville, Ky 


8M 


S4 


Tacoma, Wash 


3,209 


127 


Cheyenne, Wyo. . . . 


1,899 


56 


Memphis, Tenn 


1,163 


40 


Topeka, Kan 


1,370 


40 


Chicaero. Ill 


900 

744 


25 
23^ 


Milwaukee, Wis 

Montgomery, Ala.. 


985 
1,057 


•au 


Trenton, N. J 

Vicksbur^, Miss 


57 

14288 


2 


Cincinnati, O 


50 


Cleveland, O 


568 


19J^ 


Montpelier, Vt 

New Orleans, La 


327 


icft4 


Vinita, Ind. Ter 


1,412 


42 


Columbus, O 


624 


20 


1,344 


40 


Washington, D. C... 
Wheeling, W. Va... 
Wilmington, Del 


228 


63>^ 


Concord, N. H 


292 


^ 


Omaha, Neb 


1,383 


43 


496 


16Ji 


Deadwood, S. Dak. . 


1,957 




Philadelphia, Pa 


90 


3 


117 


6 


Denver, Col 


1,930 


60^ 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


. 431 


13 


Wilmington, N. C... 


593 


20 



DISTANCES AND MAIL TIME TO FOREIGN CITIES FROM THE CITY OF NE \V YORK. 



By Postal Route to— 

Adelaide, via San Francisco 

Alexandria, via London 

Amsterdam, " " 

Antwerp, " "• 

Athens, '' " 

Bahia, Brazil 

Bangkok, Siam, via San Francisco.. 

Batavia, Java, via London 

Berlin, via London 

Bombay, " 

Bremen, " 

Buenos Ayres 

Calcutta, via London 

Cape To\\'n, via London 

Constantinople, via London 

Florence, " "• 

Glasgow 

GreytowTi, vfo New Orleans 

Halifax, N. S 

Hamburg, via London 

Hamburg, Directs. 



Miles. 
12,845 


Days 


34 


6,150 


15 


3,985 


10 


4,000 


10 


5,655 


14 


5,870 


21 


12,990 


43 


12,800 


41 


4,385 


10 


9,765 


27 


4,235 


10 


8,045 


29 


11,120 


80 


11,245 


30 


5,810 


14 


4,800 


11 


3,375 


10 


2,810 


7 


645 


2 


4,340 


10 


4,820 


12 



By Postal Route to— 

Havana 

Hong Kong, xna San Francisco. 
Honolulu, " '' 

Liverpool 

London, wVxQueenstown 

London, via Southampton 

Madrid, via London 

Melbourne, via San Francisco. . 

Mexico City (Railroad) 

Panama 

Paris 

Rio de Janeiro 

Rome, via London 

Rotterdam, ria London 

St. Petersburg, ria London 

Shanghai, via San Francisco . . . 

Stockh olm, via London 

Sydney, via San Francisco 

Valparaiso, via Panama 

Vienna, via London 

Yokohama, via San Francisco. . 



Miles. 



1,413 

10,590 
5,645 
3,540 
3,740 
3,760 
4,925 

12,265 
3,750 
2,355 
4,020 
6,204 
5,030 
8,935 
5,370 
9,920 
4,975 

11,570 
5,910 
4,740 
7,348 



Days 



3 

25 

13 

8 

8 

8 

11 

32 

7 

7 

8 

25 
11 
10 
12 
25 
12 
31 
37 
12 
20 



JBistancts Uctiueen ISuroptan (tiiitn. 



London 



Liverpool 

PabisJ 489 

Madrid; 908 1397 



TRAVELING DISTANCES 

BETWEEN THE 

PRINCIPAL CITIES IN EUROPE, 

IN MILES. 



Lisbon 
Antwerp 



Hamburg 



Berlin 
Berne 
Turin 



Vienna 
Munich 
Rome 



Trieste 

Warsaw! "806 



Constantinople 
Odessa 



Moscow 
St. Petersburg 
Stockholm 
Copenhagen! 416 



430 



846 



406 
836 



1252 



950 



1356 
1510 
1510 



363 



1339 
1733 
2408 
1510 



1205 



842 
^11 

693 
lt«2 

668 



1725 



1330 
1617 
1769 
1171 
1067 



510 



1276 
2138 
1800 
2087 
2^ 
1731 
1318 



647 

487 



702 
1564 
12^ 
1513 



1^5 
1084 



671 



266 
840 
370 
436 
1298 



960 

1247 

399 



mo 

697 



720 



47j) 
414 

m. 

1156 
2018 
1^ 
1967 
2119 
1337 



1047 



297 

535 

295 

689 

533 

1021 

1883 

1545 

1832 

1714 

1176 

885 



Jll 
_837 
_427 
_401 
1048 
_888 
J98 
1699 
1240 



12^ 

1091 

685 



270 



178 



678 



839 



579 



1180 
1066 



676 
1903 
1418 



1^7 
1269 



580 



208 



J12 
497 
460 
J19 

727 



522 
10^ 
1009 
^96 
2026 



1737 



1706 
1588 



993 



620 



1530 
1804 
1889 
1602 
1506 



2157 
1897 
1746 
1828 
2593 



3345 



3117 
3414 



3286 
2^ 
2012 



415 1323 1812 
1119 



1495 



1582 
1183 
1073 
1668 



1477 

m3 

1416 
1925 
2718 
2625 



2904 
^4 
1972 
1600 



211 



587 
674 
859 



500 



472 



859 

848 



989 



849 j 1182 

582 970 

907 j 1397 

8631352 

1067 j 1557 

1899,2232 

1760 2119 

1843 2117 

1699 1976 

1491 



1219 



812 



1181 



202 

287 

1195 

1610 

270 

657 

746 

646 

787 

980 

768 

1195 

1150 

1355 

2030 

1917 

1915 

1774 

1289 

979 



Metric System. 



77 



The Metric System has been adopted by Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Peru, etc., and except Hussia 
and Great Britain, where it is permissive, by all European nations. Various names of the preceding 
systems are, however, frequently used : In Germany, X^ kilogram = 1 pound ; in Switzerland, 3-10 
of a metre = 1 foot, etc. If the first letters of the prefixes aeka, hecto, /cilo, myrla, from the Greek, 
and deci,centi,mili, from the Latin, are used in preference to our plain English, 10, 100, etc. , it is best 
to employ capital letters for the multiples and small letters for the subdivisions, to avoid ambiguities 
in abbreviations : 1 dekametre or 10 metres = 1 Dm. ; 1 decimetre or 1-10 of a metre = 1 dm. 

The Metre, unit of length, is nearly the ten-millionth part of a quadrant of a meridian, of the 
distance between Equator and Pole. The International Standard Metre is, practically, nothing else 
but a length defined by the distance between two lines on a platinum- iridium bar at 0° Centigrade, 
deposited at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, Paris, France. 

The Litre, unit of capacity, is derived from the weight of one kilogram pure water et greatest 
density, a cube whose edge is one-tenth of a metre and, therefore, the one- thousandth part of a 
metric ton. 

The Gram, ixnit of weight, is a cube of pure water at greatest density, whose edge is one- hundredth 
of a metre, and, therefore, tne one- thousandth partoi a kilogram, and the one- millionth part of a 
metric ton. 

One silver dollar weighs 25 grams, 1 dime =• 2^ grams, 1 five- cent nickel = 5 grams. 



The Metric System was legalized in the United States on July 28, 1866, when Congress enacted as 
follows : 

' ' The tables in the schedule hereto annexed shall be recognized in the construction of contracts, 
and in all legal proceedings, as establishing, in terms of the weights and measures now in use in the 
United States, the equivalents of the weights and measures expressed therein in terms of the metric 
system, and the tables may lawfully be used for computing, determining, and expressing in custom- 
ary weights and measures the weights and measures of the metric system. ' ' 

The following are the tables annexed to the above: 

Measures of Length. 



Metric Denominations and Values. 



Myriametre 10,000 metres. 

KUometre 1,000 metres. 

Hectometre 100 metres. 

Dekametre 10 metres 

Metre 1 metre. 

Decimetre 1-10 of a metre. 

Centimetre 1-100 of a metre. 

Millimetre 1-1000 of a metre. 



Equivalents in Denominations in Use. 



6. 2137 miles. 

0.62137 mile, or 3. 280 feet 10 inches. 

328 feet 1 inch. 

393. 7 inches. 

39. 37 inches. 

3. 937 inches. 

0. 3937 inch. 

0. 0394 inch. 



Measures of Surface. 



Metric Denominations and Values. 



Hectare 10, 000 square metres. 

Are 100 square metres. 

Centare 1 square metre. 



Equivalents in Denominations in Use. 



2. 471 acres. 
119. 6 square yards. 
1,550 square inches 



Measures of Capacity. 



Metric Denominations and Values. 


Equivalents in Denominations in Use. 


Names, 


Num- 
ber of 
Litres. 


Cubic Measure. 


Dry Measure. 


Liquid or Wine Measure. 


TTilnlitrp ov stprp 


1-000 

100 

10 

1 

1-10 

1-100 

1-1000 


1 cubic metre 


1 308 cubic vards 


264. 17 gallons. 
26. 417 gallons. 


Hectolitre 


1-10 of a cubic metre 

10 cubic decimetres 


2 bush, and 3. 35 pecks... 
9 08 Quarts 


Dekalitre 


2. 6417 gallons. 


Litre 


1 cubic decimetre- 


908 quart 


1. 0567 quarts. 


Decilitre 


1-10 of a cubic decimetre. 
10 cubic centimetres 


6. 1022 cubic inches 

0. 6102 cubic inch 

061 cubic inch 


0. 846 gill. 


Centilitre 


0. 338 fluid ounce. 


Millilitre 


1 cubic centimetre 


0. 27 fluid dram. 













J 



78 



Metric System^ 



METRIC SYSTEM— Conttwwed. 



WEIGHTS. 



Metric Denominations and Vai^ues. 


Equivalents in De- 
nominations IN Use. 


Names. 


Number 

of 
Grams. 


Weight of what Quantity of Water 
at Maximum Density. 


Avoirdupois Weight. 




1,000,000 

100,000 

10,000 

1,000 

100 

10 

1 

1-10 

1-100 

1-1000 


1 cubic metre 


2204. 6 pounds. 

220. 46 pounds. 

22.046 pounds. 

2. 2046 pounds. 

3. 5274 ounces. 

3527 ounce 


Oiiintiil ...... 


1 hectolitre. 


AT vfiajTTfl m 


10 litres 


T^ilnoTfiT^T or Iciln 


1 litre 




1 decilitre 




10 cubic centimetres 




1 cubic centimetre 


15. 432 grains. 
1.5432 grains. 
0. 1543 grain. 
0. 0154 grain. 


Decip:ram 

Opntioram 


1-10 of a cubic centimetre 


10 cubic millimetres 


Milligram 


1 cubic millimetre 



TABLES FOR THE COIvTVEKSION OF METRIC WEIGHTS AXD MEASURES INTO 

CUSTOMARY UNITED STATES EQUIVALENTS AND THE REVERSE. 

From the legal equivalents are deduced the following tables for converting United States weights 
and measures: 



METRIC TO CUSTOMARY. 



CUSTOMARY TO METRIC. 



Linear Measure. 



Me- 




Me- 


, Kilome- 


Ins. =CS??i- 




Yards = Me- 


Miles=Kilo- 


tres=Ins. 


3fetres=Feet 


tres= Yards. 


tres= Miles. 


timetres F 


eet=Metres. 


tres. 


metre-s. 


1_ 39.37 


1= 3.2808c 


1-1.09361 


1 1-0.62137 


1=, 2.54 1 


=0.304801 


1-0.914402 


1=, 1.60935 


2- 78.74 


2= 6.56167 


2-2. 18722 


2 2-1.24274 


2=, 5.08 2 


=0.609601 


2=1.828804 


2= 3.21869 


3-118.11 


3- 9.8425C 


3—3. 28083 


3 3=1.86411 


3= 7.62 3 


=0. 914402 


3=2. 743205 


3= 4.82804 


4=157. 48 


4=13. 123:33 


4-4. 37444 


4 4-2.48548 


4-10. 16 4 


=1. 219202 


4=3.657607 


4= 6.43739 


5-196. 85 


5-16. 40417 


5=5. 46805 


8 5-3.10685 


5=12.70 6 


=1. 524003 


5=4. 572009 


5- 8.04674 


6-236. 22 


6-19.6850C 


► 6=6.56166 


7 6=3.72822 


6=15.24 6 


=1. 828804 


6=5. 486411 


6- 9.65608 


7-275. 59 


7—22. 96582 


7=7.65527 


8 7-4.34959 


7=17.78 7 


=2. 133604 


7=6. 400813 


7=11. 26543 


8 314.96 


8-26. 24667 


' 8=8.74888 


9 8—4.97096 


8=20.32 8 


=2. 438405 


8=7. 315215 


8—12. 87478 


9=^354. 33 


9=29. 5275C 


» 9=9.84250 


9=5.59233 


9=22.86 9 


=2. 743205 


9=8. 229616 


9=14.48412 


.Square Measure. 


Cubic Measure. 


1 

1 Square Measure. 

i 






<0 e, ^ . 






CO 


J3 f^ 


i! ii 


g.5=s u 






a^-a^ 


a'^ a^ 






|s"li 


1 0.155 


1-10. 764 


1_ 1.196 


1= 35.314 


1-0. 02832 


1- 6.452 


1-0. 09290 


1-0. 836 


2 0.310 


2=21. 528 


2= 2.392 


2- 70.629 


2-0. 05663 


2-12. 903 


2-0.18581 


2=1.672 


3-0. 465 


3=32. 292 


3- 3.588 


3=105.943 


3=0. 08495 


3-19.355 


3-0. 27871 


3-2.608 


4-0. 620 


4-43. 055 


4- 4.784 


4=141. 258 


4=0.11327 


4-25.807 


4=0.37161 


4-3. 344 


5-0. 775 


5=53. 819 


5= 5.980 


5=176.572 


5=0.14158 


5-32. 258 


5=0. 46452 


5-4. 181 


G_0. 930 


6=64. 583 


6= 7.176 


6=211. 887 


6=0. 16990 


6=38. 710 


6=0. 55742 


6-5. 017 


7-1. 085 


7=75. 347 


7= 8.372 


7=247. 201 


7=0.19822 


7=45. 161 


7=0. 65032 


7-5.853 


S-L 240 


8-86. Ill 


8= 9.568 


8=282. 516 


8=0. 22654 


8=61. 613 


8=0. 74323 


8—6. 689 


9=1. 395 


9-96. 874 


9=10. 764 


9=317.830 


9=0. 25485 


9=58. 065 


9=0.83613 


9=7. 525 


I 

Liquid Measure. I 

i 


Dry Measure. 


Liquid Measure. 


^litres 

II 

uid 

nces. 


2 ^ 
^=1 






« 1 

01= o 






LI 


1^6 






1- 2.8375 


^ 1 






1 ^ 


1-0. 338 


1-1.0567 


1-0. 26417 


1-0. 35242 


1_ 2.957 


1-0. 94636 


1= 3.78544 


2-0. 676 


2-2.1134 2-0.52834 | 


2- 5.6750 


2-0. 70485 


2_ 5.915 


2-1. 89272 


2- 7.57088 


3-1.014 1 


3-3.1700 


3-0. 79251 


3= 8.5125 


3-1.05727 


3= 8.872 


3-2. 83908 


3=11. 35632 


4-1.352 j 


4-4. 2267 


4-1.05668 


4=11. 3500 


4-1. 40969 


4=11.830 


4-3. 78544 


4=15. 14176 


5-1.691 ' 


5-5. 2834 


5=1. 32085 


5=14. 1875 


5-1. 76211 


5=14. 787 


5=4. 73180 


5=18. 92720 


6-2.029 1 


6-6. 3401 


6-1.58502 


6=17. 0250 


6-2. 11454 


6=17.744 


6=5.67816 


6-22. 71264 


7-2.368 


7-7. 3968 


7-1. 84919 


7=19.8625 


7-2. 46696 


7=20. 702 


7=6.62452 


7-26. 49808 


8=2.706 


8-8. 4534 


8=2. 11336 


8=22. 7000 


8-2. 81938 


8-23. 659 


8=7.57088 


8-30. 28352 


9=3.043 : 


9=9. 5101 


9=2.37753 


9=25. 5375 


9-3.17181 


9-26.616 


9=8. 51724 


9-34. 06896 



Mlniinuni Weights of Produce. 



79 



METRIC SYSTEM— Co?ii;mMed. 



Weight (Avoirdupois), 



C5 ^ 



iS 



1=0. 1543 
2=0. 3086 
3=0. 4630 
4=0. 6173 
5=0. 7716 
6=0. 9'259 
7=1. 0803 
8=1. 2346 
9=1. 3889 



. *5 



60 CO 



5^ 



1= 35.274 
2= 70.548 
3=105. 822 
4=141. 096 
5=176.370 
6=211. 644 
7=246. 918 
8=282. 192 
9=317.466 



60 

o S 



1.^ 



1= 2.20462 
2= 4.40924 
3= 6.61386 
4= 8.81849 
5=11. 02311 
6=13. 22773 
7=15. 43235 
8=17. 63697 
9=19. 84169 






S'c- 






1=0. 9842 
2=1.9684 
3=2. 9526 
4=3.9368 
5=4. 9210 
6=5. 9052 
7=6.8894 
8=7,8736 
9=8. 8578 



1= 6.4799 
2=12. 9598 
3=19. 4397 
4=25. 9196 
5=32. 3995 
6=38. 8793 
7=45. 3592 
8=51. 8391 
9=58. 3190 









S „^ — :<- s 



1= 28. 
2= 56. 
3= 85. 
4=113. 
5=141. 
6=170. 
7=198. 
8=226. 
9=255. 



3495 
6991 
0486 
3981 
7476 
0972 
4467 
7962 
1457 




1=0.45359 
2=0. 90719 
3=1.36078 
4=1.81437 
5=2. 26796 
6=2. 72156 
7=3. 17515 
8=3. 62874 
9=4.08233 



1=1. 

2=2. 
3=3. 

4=4. 
5=5. 
6=6. 

7=7. 
8=8. 
9=9. 



0161 
0321 
0482 
0642 
0803 
0963 
1124 
1284 
1446 



THE METRIC SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED. 

The following tables of the metric system of weights and measures have been simplified as much 
as possible for The World Almanac by Mr. John Wilkes, of Nashville, Tenn. , by omitting such 
denominations as are not in practical, everyday use in the countries where the system is used 
exclusively. 

TABLES OF THE SYSTEM. 

liCnffth.— The denominations in practical use are millimetres (mm. ), centimetres (cm. ), metres 
(m. ), and kilometres (km. ). 

iO mm. = 1 cm, ; 100 cm. = 1 m. ; 1, 000 m. = 1 km. Note. —A decimetre is 10 cm. 

Weiffht.— The denominations in use are grams (g. ), kilos* (kg. ), and tons (metric tons). 

l.OOag. = 1 kg. ; 1,000 kg. = 1 metric ton. 

Capacity.— The denominations in use are cubic centimetres (c. c. ) and litres (1). 

1, 000 c. c. = 1 1. Note. —A hectolitre is 100 1. (seldom used). 

Belation of capacity and weight to length: A cubic decimetre is a litre, and a litre of water weighs 
a kilo. 

APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS. 

A metre is about a yard ; a kilo is about 2 pounds; a litre is about a quart; a centimetre is about 
\i inch ; a metric ton Is about same as a ton ; a kilometre is about \^ mile j a cubic centimetre is about a 
thimbleful ; a nickel weighs about 5 grams. 



PRECISE EQUIVALENTS. 



lacre =» .40 

1 bushel ^aS 

1 centimetre = .39 

1 cubic centimetre =» .061 

1 cubic foot =■ .028 

1 cubic inch -=16 

1 cubic metre = 35 

1 cubic metre =• 1.3 

1 cubic yard = .76 

Ifoot = 30 

1 gallon « 3.8 

1 grain = ,065 

Igram -= 15 

Ihectar = 2.5 

linch «=25 

Ikilo «= 2.2 

Ikilometie <= .62 

llitre = .91 

llitre — 1.1 

1 metre — 3.3 



hectar 4047, 

litres 35.24 

inch 3937! 

cubic inch... .0610: 
cubic metre. . 0283 
cubic cent. 1 16. 39 

cubic feet 35.31 

cubic yards... 1.308 
cubic metre... 7645 
centimetres 30. 48 

litres 3.785 

gram 0648 

grains .15. 43 

acres 2.471 

millimetres. 26. 40 

pounds 2.205 

mile .6214 

quart (dry)... .9081 
quarts (liq'd) 1.057 
feet 3.281 



1 mile ' 

1 millimetre •■ 

1 ounce (av'd)... ' 
1 ounce (Troy)...' 

Ipeck = 

1 pint ' 

1 pound = 

1 quart (dry) = 

1 quart Hiquid).. ■ 
Isq. centimetre. 

Isq. foot ' 

Isq. inch ^ 

Isq. metre ■ 

Isq. metre 

Isq. yard. 



1 ton (2, 000 lbs. 
1 ton (2, 240 lbs. 
1 ton (metric)... 
Iton (metric)... 
lyard 



■ 1.6 kilometres 1. 

.039 inch 

= 28 grams 28. 

31 grams 31. 

■ 8.8 litres '8. 

.47 litre 

.45 kilo 

' 1.1 litres 1. 

.95 litre 

" .15 sq. inch 

' .093 sq. metre 

= 6.5 sq. c'timetr's. 6. 

1.2 sq. j'ards 1. 

= 11 sqfcet 10. 

.84 sq. metre 

.91 metric ton 

= 1 metric ton 1. 

= 1.1 ton (2,000 lbs. ) 1. 

.98 ton (2, 240 lbs. ) . 

.91 metre 



609 

0394 

35 

10 

809 

4732 

4536 

101 

9464 

1560 

0929 

452 

196 

76 

8361 

9072 

017 

102 

9842 

9144 



* Contraction for kilogram, t Centimetres. 



J^mimutu smnfi|)ts of S^rotmct, 



The following are minimum 
United States : 

Per Bushel. 

Wheat 60 lbs. 

Corn, in the ear 70 

Corn, shelled 66 

Rye 56 

Buckwheat 48 

Barley 48 

Oats 32 

Peas 60 

White Beans 60 

Castor Beans 46 



weights of certain articles of produce according to the laws of the 



Per Bushel. 

White Potatoes 60 lbs. 

Sweet Potatoes 55 " 

Onions 57 " 

Turnips 65 " 

Dried Peaches 33 " 

Dried Apples 26 " 

Clover Seed 60 ' ' 

Flax Seed 56 ' ' 

MUlet Seed £0 " 



Per Bushel. 

Hungarian Grass Seed 50 lbs. 

Timothy Seed 45 " 

Blue Grass Seed 44 " 

Hemp Seed 44 " 

Salt (see note below). 

Corn Meal 48 " 

Ground Peas 24 " 

Malt 38 " 

Bran 20 " 



Salt. — Weight per bushel as adopted by different States ranges from 60 to SO pounds. Coarse salt 
in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 80 pounds, and in Illinois at 60 pounds per bushel. Fine salt in Penn- 
sylvania is reckoned at 62 pounds, in Kentucky and Illinois at 55 pounds per bushel. 



80 



Cortipound Interest Table. 



J^rajstirrs antr sraeijai&tjs of (Srreat iJritian* 

The measures of length and the weights are nearly, practically, the same as those in use in the 
United States. The English ton is 2,240 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the long ton, or shipping ton 
of the United States. The English hundredweight is 112 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the long 
hundredweight of the United States. The metre has been legalized at 39. 37079 inches, but the length 
of 39. 370432 inches, as adopted by France, Germany, Belgium, and Russia, is frequently used. 

The Imperial gallon, the basis of the system of capacity, involves an error of about 1 part in 1,836: 
10 lbs. of water = 277. 123 cubic inches. 

Measuees or Capacity. 



Pounds of 
Water. 



Names. 



4 gills 
2 pints 
2 quarts 
2 pottles 
2 gallons 
4 pecks 
4 bushels 
2 coombs 



1 pint 

1 quart.... 
1 pottle ... 
1 gallon... 

1 peck 

1 bushel... 
1 coomb... 
1 quarter. 



1.35 

2.5 

5 



10 

20 

80 

320 

640 



Cubic Inches. 



34.66 

69.32 

138.64 

277. 27 

554.55 

22ia 19 

8872. 77 

17745.54 



Litres. 



0.56793 

1. 13586 

2.27173 

4.54346 

9. 08692 

36. 34766 

145.39062 

290. 7813 



United State Equivalents. 



1. 20032 liquid pints. 

1. 20032 ^ ' quarts. 

2.40064 " 

1. 20032 ' ' gallons. 

1. 03152 dry pecks. 

1.03152 " bushels. 

4,12606 " 

8. 2521 " " 



Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains — 1 scruple: 3 scruples =-1 dram: 8 drams — 1 ounce : 12 
oimces= 1 pound. 

Avoirdupois Weight (short ton) : 27 11-32 grains = 1 dram ; 16 drams — 1 ounce ; 16 ounces — 1 
pound; 25 pounds = 1 quarter; 4 quarters = 1 cwt. ; 20 cwt. = 1 ton. 

Avoirdupois Weight (long ton): 2711-32 grains => 1 dram ; 16 drams = 1 ounce; 16 ounces — 1 
pound; 112 pounds = 1 cwt. ; 20 cwt. =1 ton. 

Troy VV eight : 24 grains = 1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce; 12 ounces — 1 pound. 

Circular Measure : 60 seconds = I minute ; 60 minutes = 1 degree ; 30 degrees =■ 1 sign ; 12 signs 
= 1 circle. 

Cubic Pleasure : 1, 728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot ; 27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard. 

Dry Measure; 2 pints ==■ 1 quart ; 8 quarts = 1 peck ; 4 pecks = 1 bushel. 

Liquid Measure : 4 gills = 1 pint ; 2 pints — 1 quart ; 4 quarts = 1 gallon ; 31}^ gallons — 1 barrel ; 
2 barrels = 1 hogshead. 

Loug Measure: 12 inches = 1 foot; 3 feet — 1 yard; 5J^ yards — 1 rod or pole ; 40 rods — 1 fur- 
long ; 8 furlongs = 1 statute mile ; 3 miles = 1 league. 

3Iariner's Measure: 6 feet=l fathom: 120 fathoms = 1 cable length; 73^ cable lengths =• 1 
mile; 5,280 feet— 1 statute mile; 6,085 feet— 1 nautical mile. 

Square Pleasure : 144 square inches — 1 square foot ; 9 square feet — 1 square yard ; 30}^ square 
yards — 1 square rod or perch; 40 square rods — 1 rood; 4 roods = 1 acre; 640 acres— 1 square mile; 
36 square miles (6 miles square) = 1 township. 

Time i>Ieasure: 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes — 1 hour; 24 hours — 1 day; 7 days — 1 
week ; 365 days — 1 year; 366 days 1 leap year. 

FOREIGN MONEYS. 

^English Money : 4 farthings =» penny (d) ; 12 pence — 1 shilling (s) ; 20 shillings — 1 pound (£). 

French Money : 10 centimes — 1 decime ; 10 decune — 1 franc. 

German Money: 100 pfennig = 1 mark. 

Russian I>Ioney: 100 copecks = 1 rouble. 

Austro-Hungarian ]>Ioney: 100 kreutzer — 1 florin. 

For United States equivalents, see tables of ' ' Value of Foreign Coins in U. S. Money. ' ' 

Note. —France, Belgium, Greece, Italy, and Switzerland constitute what is known as the ' 'Latin' ' 
Union, and their coins are alike in weight and fineness, occasionally dilTeriug, however, in name. 
The same system has been in part adopted by Spain, Servia, Bulgaria, Russia^ and Roumania, but they 
have not joined the Union. Francs and centimes of France, Belgium and Switzerland are respectively 
designated lire and centissimi in Italy; drachma! and lepta in Greece; dinars and paras in Servia; 
peseta and centimos in Spain ; leys and banis in Roumania; leya and stotinkis in Bulgaria. Similarly 
the Scandinavian countries, Norsvay and Sweden and Denmark, employ coins of the same weight and 
fineness, their names being also alike. Most of the South American States possess a standard coin, 
equal in weight and fineness to the silver 6- franc piece generally termed a ' ' peso. " — Whitaker. 



Moman unti ^raiJtc tlSTumerals* 



1 


1 


XI 


11 


XXX 


.. 30 


CCCC 


. 400 


n 


2 


XII 


12 


XL 


.. 40 


D 


. 500 


Ill 


3 


XIII 

XIV 


13 

14 


L 

IjX. 


.. 50 
.. 60 


DC 

UCC 


. 600 


IV 


4 


. 700 


V 


5 


XV 

XVI 


15 

16 


IiXX 

LXXXor'xXC." 


.. 70 
... 80 


DCCC 

CM 


. 800 


VI 


6 


. 900 


VII 


7 


XVII 


17 


xc 


.. 90 


31 


.1000 


VIII 


8 


XVIII 


18 


C 


..100 


M3I,. 


.2000 


IX 


9 


XIX 


19 


cc 


..200 


aiDCCCXCVU 


.1897 


X 


10 


XX 


20 


ccc 


..300 







i^ompoun'tr Knttrrst ^aUt, 

COMPOUND INTEREST ON ONE DOLLAR FOR 100 YEARS. 



Amount 


Years. 


Per 
cent. 


$1 


100 


1 


1 


100 


2 


1 


100 


2^ 


1 


100 


3 


1 


100 


Si4 


1 


100 


4 



Accumula- 
tion. 

^2.75 
7.25 
11.75 
19.25 
31.25 
60.50 



Amount 


Years. 


Per 
cent. 


§1 


100 


4^ 


1 


100 


5 


1 


100 


6 


1 


100 


7 


1 


100 


8 


1 


100 


9 



Accumula- 
tion. 

$81.25 
131. 50 
340.00 
868.00 
2,203.0i) 
5,543.00 



Amount 


Years. 


Per 
cent. 


§1 


100 


11 


1 


100 


12 


1 


100 


15 


1 


100 


18 


1 


100 


24 



Accumulation. 



813,809.00 

84,675.00 

1,174,405.00 

15,145,007.00 

2,551,799,404.00 



Knttrest aatos antr statutes of Himitattons* 8i 



States and 
Tkrbitories. 



Alabama .... 
Arkansas — 

Arizona 

California . . . 

Colorado 

Connecticut . 

Delaware 

D. of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky (o).. 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 



Interest Laws. 



Legal 
Rate. 



Per ct. 
8 
6 
7 
7 
8 
6 
6 
6 
8 
7 
10 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
6 
10 



Rate AUowed 
by Contract. 

Per ct. 

8 

10 

Any rate. 
Any rate. 
Any rate. 
Any rate. 
6 
10 
10§ 
8 
18 
7 
8 
8 
10 
6 
8 
Any rate. 

6 
Any rate. 
105 
10 
10 
8 
Any rate. 



Statutes 


OF 1 


Limitations. | 


Judg- 
ments, 


Notes, 


Open 


Years. 


Years. 

6* 


counts, 
Years. 

3 


20 


10 


5 


3 


5 


5 


3 


5 


4t 


2 


lOtt 


6 


6 


t 


(e) 


6 


(c) 


6 


3 


12 


3 


3 


20 


5 


2 


7tt 


a 


4 


6 


5 


4 


20 


10 


5 


10'* 


10 


6 


20 


10 


5 


5 


5 


3 


15 


15 


5(a) 


10 


5 


3 


20 


611 


6 


12 


311 


3** 


20 


611 


6 


6(o) 


<; 


6 


i6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


3 


CO 


10 


5 


10 


8 


5 



States and 
Territories. 



Nebraska 

Nevada 

N. Hampshire 
New Jersey ... 
New Mexico.. 

New York 

North Carolina 
North Dakota. 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . 
Rhode Island. 
South Carolina 
South Dakota. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington .. 
West Virginia. 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Interest Laws. 



Legal 
Rate. 



Per ct. 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
7 
8 
6 
6 
7 
7 
6 
6 
8 
6 
6 
7 
6 
6 
8 



Rate Allowed 
by Contract. 



Per ct. 

10 

Any rate. 

6 

6 
12 

6tt 

6 
12 

8 
Any rate. 
10 

6 
Any rate. 

8 
12 

6 
10 
Any rate. 

6 

6 
12 

6 
10 
12 



Statutes of 
Limitations. 



Judg- 
ments, 
Years. 



5 

6 
20 
20 

7 

20 

10 

10(f) 

5:tt 

1 
10 

6 
20 
10 
10 
10 
10 

8 

8 
10 

6 
10 
20 
21 



Notes, 
Years. 



5 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

3 

6 
15 

5 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

4 

4 

6§§ 

5 

6 
10 

6 

5 



Open 

Ac- 
counts, 
Years. 



4 
4 
6 
6 
4 
6 
3 
6 
6 
3 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
2 
2 
6 
2 
3 
6 
6 
5 



* Under seal, 10 years, t If made in State ; if outside, 2 years, t No law and no decision regarding 
judgments. §Not to exceed 10 per cent. || Under seal, 20 years. IT Under seal, 12 years. ** Real 
estate, 20 years, tt New York has by a recent law legalized any rate of interest on call loans of $5,000 
or upward, on collateral security, tt Becomes dormant, but may be revived. §§ Under seal, 14 years. 
(«) Building and Loan Associations may charge 12 per cent interest and premium together. Actions 
on merchants' accounts mu.st be commenced in two years, (c) Ten years in Newcastle County, 
twenty years in Kent and Sussex counties, Del. (e) Negotiable notes 6 years, non»negotiable 17 
years. (/) Ten years in new law, 20 yeai's in old law. (g) Not under seal. 



YEARS IN WHICH A GIVEN AMOUNT WILL DOUBLE AT SEVERAL RATES OF INTEREST. 





At Simple 
Interest. 


At Compound Interest. 


Rate. 

6 

6^ 

7 

l"* 

8}4 
9 

9}4 
10 
12 


At Simple 
Interest. 


At Compound Interest. 


Rate. 


Compounded 
Yearly. 


Compounded 

Semi-Annu- 

ally. 


Compounded 
Quarterly. 


Compounded 
Yearly. 


Compounded 
Semi-Annu- 

ally. 


Compounded 
Quarterly. 


1 
2 

3^ 
4 

5^ 


100 years. 
66.66 
60.00 
40.00 
33.33 
28.57 
25.00 
22.22 
20.00 
18.18 


69. 666 
46. 556 
35. 004 
28. 071 
23. 450 
20. 150 
17. 673 
15. 748 
14. 207 
12. 946 


69. 487 
46. 382 
34. 830 
27. 899 
23. 278 
19. 977 
17. 502 
15. 576 
14. 036 
12. 775 


69.400 
46. 298 
34. 743 
27. 812 
23. 191 
19. 890 
17. 415 
15. 490 
13. 946 
12. 686 


16.67 
15.38 
14.29 
13.33 
12.50 
11.76 
ILll 
10. 52 
10.00 
8.34 


1L896 
11.007 
10. 245 
9.585 
9.006 
8.497 
8.043 
7.638 
7.273 
6.110 


11.725 
10. 836 
10. 075 
9.914 
8.837 
8.346 
7.874 
7.468 
7.121 


11.639 
10.750 
9.989 
9.328 
8.751 
8.241 
7.788 
7.383 
7.026 



SIMPLE INTEREST TABLE. 
(Showing at Different Rates the Interest on $1 from 1 Month to 1 year, and on $100 from 1 Day to 1 Year. ) 







4 Per Cent. 


5 Per Cekt. 


6 Per Cent. 


7 Per Cent. 


8 


Pkk Cent. 


TiMB. 


a 












, 






• 1 






1 




1 


i 

c 


m 


.2 


a 


.2 


£ 
c; 


i 

a 


jn 


liars 
nts. 


-2 


^ 


i 


4S 




Q 


O 


3 


G 


O 


4 


a 




6 


S » 


6 








S 


One Dollar 1 month 


6 


" "2 "• 








7 








8 






1 




1 


1! 

5 




1 

2 

4 
8 


3 




' 3 " 






1 

2 

4 


2 






1 

2 
5 


6 
5 






1 

3 
6 


5 


1 
3 

7 




'' 6 " 




12 '' 


" ' 


One Hundred Dollars 1 dav . . . 






1 


i 






1 


3 






1 


6 


1 


■9 




2 


2 






2 


2 






2 


7 






3 


2 


.. 3 


8 




4 


4 




' 3 " .. 






3 


4 






4 


1 






5 




.. 6 


8 




6 7 




.. 4 " .. 






4 


6 






5 


3 






6 


(6 


7 


7 




8 9 




" 5 " .. 






6 


6 






6 


9 






8 


2 


.. 9 


7 




. 11 1 




" 6 " .. 






6 


7 






8 


3 






10 




.. 11 


6 




. 13 3 




' ' 1 month 






33 


4' 






41 


6 






50 




.. 68 


^i 




. 66 7 




- 2 " 






66 


7, 






83 


2 


1 






1 16 


6 




1; 33 3 




" 3 " 


1 


, ^ 


..1 


1 


25 




1 


60 


..1 


1 76 






2| .. 






.. 6 '' 


2 


, 


. .1 


2 


50 




3 






3 60; 






4 






" 12 '' 




4 


.. 


• • 




5 








6 




• • 


7 ..1 






8! .. 


. , 



82 J3assport ^tQulationn. 



The following rules are prescribed by the Department of State for applications for passports by 
citizens of the United States: 

1 . To Citizens Only.— The law forbids the granting of a passport to any person who is not a 
citizen o the United States. —lievised Statutes, sec. 4070. 

2. Who are Citizens.— All pei-sous boru in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof are citizens of the United States. 

So are all children born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States whose fathers were 
at the time of their birth citizens thereof. 

An alien woman, with certain exceptions, who marries a citizen of the United States acquires his 
citizenship. 

An alien, having complied with the requirements of law, may become a citizen by naturalization 
before a court having competent jurisdiction. 

Minor children, resident of the United States, become citizens by the naturalization of their 
father. 

The widow and minor children of an alien who dies after he has declared his intention of becoming 
a citizen of tne United States and before he has secured naturalization are considered as citizens of 
the United States upon taking- the oaths prescribed by law. 

3. Who May Issne Passports.— Under the law passports can be isaued in the United States 
only by the Secretary of State. In a foreign country they maybe issued by the chief diplomatic 
representative of the United States; or, in tloe absence of a diplomatic representative, by a consul- 
general; or, in the absence of both, by a consuL —lievised Statutes, sees. 4075, 4078. 

4. Applications.-A citizen of the United States desiring to procure a passport must make a 
wiitten application, in the form of an affidavit, to the Secretary of State. 

If he IS temuorarily abroad, he must apply to the nearest diplomatic representative of the United 
States; or, in tne absence of a diplomatic representative, to tbe highest consular officer of the 
United States. The necessary affidavit may be made before a consular officer of the United States. 

In tbia country the affidavit must be attested by an officer duly authorized to administer oaths. 
If he has no seal, his official character must be authenticated by certificate of the proper legal 
officer. 

If the applicant signs by mark, two attesting witnesses to his signature are required- 

Every applicant is required to state tue date and place of his birth, his occupation, and the place 
of his permaicnt residence, and to declare that he goes abroad for temporary sojourn and intends to 
return to the United States with the purpose of residing and performing the duties of citizenship 
therein. 

Every applicant must take the oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States. 

Every application must be accompanied by a description of the person applying, stating the 

oil owing particulars, viz.: Age, years ; stature, leet iDches (.English measure); forehead, 

; eyes, ; nose, ; mouth, ; chin, ■; hair, ; complexion, , face, . 

f Every application must be accompanied by a certificate from at least one credible witness that 
the applicant is the person he represents himself to be, and that the facts stated in the affidavit are 
true to the best of the witness's knowledge and belief. 

5. Na*^ive Citizens.— The application containing the information indicated by rule 4 will be 
sufficient evidence in the case of native citizens. 

6. A Person Born Abroad Whose Father was a Native of the United States.— In 
addition to the statements required by rule 4, his appliCHtion must show that his fatner was bom in 
the United States, has resided therein, and was a citizen at the time of the applicant's birth. The 
Department may require that this affidavit be supported by that of one other citizen acquainted with 
the facts. 

7. Naturalized Citizens.— In addition to the statements required by rule 4, a naturalized 
citizen must transmit his certiflcate of naturalization, or aduly cerafied copy of the court record 
thereof, with bis application. It will be returned to him after inspection. He must state in his 
affidavit when and from what port he emigrated to this country, what ship he sailed in, where he has 
lived since his arrival in the United States, when and before what court he was naturalized, and 
that he is the identical person described in the certificate of naturalization. The signature to the 
application should conform in orthography to the applicant' s name as written in the naturalization 
paper, which the Departmenf follows. 

8. The Wife or Wido^v of a Naturalized Citizen.- In addition to the statements 
required by rme 4, she must transmit for inspection her husband's naturalization certificate, must 
state that she is the wife or widow oi the person described therein, and must set forth the facts of 
hia emigration, naturalization, and residence, as required in the rule governing the application of a 
naturalized citizen. 

9. The Child of a Naturalized Citizen Claiming Citizenship through the Natural- 
ization of the Father.— In addition to the statements required by rule 4, tne applicant must 
state that he or she is the son or daughter, as the case may be, of the person described in the natural- 
ization certificate, which must be submitted for inspection, and must set forth the facts of his emi- 
gration, naturalization, and residence, as required in the rule governing the application of a natural- 
ized citizen. 

10. Expiration of Passport.— A passport expires two years from the date of its issuance. A 
new one will be issued upon a new application, and if the applicant be a naturalized citizen, the old 
passport will be accepted in lieu ot a naturalized certificate, if the application upon wnich it was 
issued is found to contain sufficient information as to the emigration, residence, and naturalization of 
the applicant, 

11. Wife, Minor Children, and Servants.- When an applicant is accompanied by his 
wife, minor children, or servant, oeing an American citizen, it will be sufficient to state the fact, 
giving the respective ages of the children and the citizenship of theservaiit, when one passport will 
cover the whole. For any other person in the party a .separate pas port will be required. A woman's 
passport may include hor minor children and servant under the above-named conditions. 

12. Professional Titles.— They will not be inserted in passports. There are no exceptions to 
thi3 rule. 

13. Fee.— By act of Conarress approved March 23, 18S8, a fee of one dollar is required to be col- 
lected for every citizen's passport That amount in currency or postal money order should accom- 
pany each application. Orders should be payable to the Disbursing Clerk ot the Department of State 
Drafts or checks will not be received. 

14. Blank Forms of Application.— They will be furnished by the Pepartment to persons 
who desire to appl J' for passports, upon their stating whether they are native or naturalized citizens 
or claim through the natural izatlo'n of husband or father. Forms are not furnished, except as 
samples, to those who make a business of procuii.g passports. 

Dkpabtment of Statb, Washington, Sepiemher 15, 1896. 



Constitution of the United States. 83 

(j^onstitution df tf)e SEnitetJ estates. 

Preamble. We, the people of the United States, in order to form, a more perfect Union, establish 

justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the gen- 
eral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do 
ordain and establish this Coxstitution for the United States of America. 

ARTICIiE I. 

Legislative Sectiox I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the 

powers. United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. 

House of Repre- SECTION II. 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen 
sentatives. every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall 
have the qualificatibns requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State 
Legislature. 
Qualifications of 2. No person Shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of 
Kepresenta- twenty- five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
tives. when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Apportionment 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned amonj°- the several States 
of Represen- which may be included within this Union according to their respective numbers, which 
tatives. shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those 

bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three- fifths of all 
other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten 
years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall 
not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Repre- 
sentative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall 
beentiltedto choose 3; Ma-ssachusetts. 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1; 
Connecticut, 5; New York. 6: New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; Mary- 
land, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5, and Georgia, 3.* 
^^n°^^*^' ^- When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive 

failed. Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

Officers, how 5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and 

appointed. shall have the sole power of impeachment. 
°*°^'®* Section III. 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators 

from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall 
have one vote. 
Classification of 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they 
Senators, shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the 
first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the 
expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of tiie sixth year, 
so that one- third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resigna- 
tion, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive 
thereof may make temporary appointment until the next meeting of the Legislature, 
which shall then fill such vacancies. 
Qualifications of 3. No person Shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years. 
Senators. and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be 
an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 
P.esident of the 4. The Vice- President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall 
Senate. have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the 
absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the oflSce of President of the 
United States. 
Senate a court 6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for 
for trial of im- that purpose, they Shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United 
peachments. States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside ; and no person shall be convicted without 
the concurrence of two- thirds of the members present. 
Judgment in 7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from 
caseof con vie- office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under 
tion. the^nited States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to in- 

dictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 
Elections of SECTION" IV. 1. The times, places, and manner of holding eleetions for Senators and 
Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof ; but the 
of Represen- Congress may at any time by law m.ake or alter such regulations, except as to the places 
tatives. of choosing Senators. 

Meeting of Con- 2. The Congress shall a,ssemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be 

gress. on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a diflierent day 

Oi^anization of SECTION V. 1. Each House Shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifi- 
Congress. cations of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do busi- 
ness; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to 
compel the attendance of absent membere in such manner and under such penalties as 
each House may provide. 
Rule of pro- 2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for 

ceedmgs. disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two- thirds expel a member. 
Journals of 3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish 
each House, the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas 
and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one- 
fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. 
Adjournment of 4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the 
Congress. Other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the 
two Houses shall be sitting. 



* See Article XTV., Amendments. 



84 Constitution of the United States. 

Pay and privi- SECTION' VI. 1. The Senators and Kepresentatives shall receive a compensation for 
leges of mem- their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury or the United 
''^f^' States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privi- 

leged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and 
in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House 
they shall not be questioned in any other place. 
'^^ t-K*".! "^ 2. No Senator or Bepresentative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be 
prohibited. appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have 
been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time ; 
and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either 
House during his continuance in office. 

Kevenue bills. SECTION" VII. 1. All biUs for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Repre- 

sentatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. 

How bills be- 2. Every bill w^hich shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate 
come laws. shall, before it become a law. be presented to the President of the United States; if he 
approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House 
in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at largo on their journal, 
and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two- thirds of that House shall 
agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, 
by which it shall likewise be reconsidered ; and if approved by two- thirds of that House 
it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined 
by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be 
euterwd on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by 
the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to 
him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by 
their adjournment prevent its return ; in which case it shall not be a law. 

Approval and 3. Every Order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House 
V*S ^tT^" ^^ Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be pre- 
of the Presi- gented to the President of the United States ; and before the same shall take effect shall 
dent. -^Q approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two- thirds of the 

Senate and the House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed 

in the case of a bill. 

Powers vested SECTION "VIII. 1. The Congress shall have power: 
in Congress. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide 

for the common defence and general welfare of the United States ; but all duties, imposts, 
and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States. 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States. 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and 
with the Indian tribes. 

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws on the subject of 
bankruptcies throughout the United States. 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard 
of weights and measures. 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of 
the United States. 

7. To establish post-offices and post- roads. 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to 
authors and inventors the exclusive rights to their respective writings and discoveries. 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court. 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and 
ofiTences against the law of nations. 

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning 
captures on land and water. 

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be 
for a longer term than two years. 

13. To provide and maintain a navy. 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces. 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress 
insurrections, and repel invasions. 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing 
such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to 
the States respectively the appointment of the officers, and the authority of ti-aining the 
militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress. 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States and the acceptance of 
Congress, become the seat of Government of the United States, and to exercise like 
authority overall places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which 
the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dry-docks, and other 
needful buildings. And 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution 
the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government 
of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. 

Immigrants, SECTION IX. 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States 

how admitted, now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to 

the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on 

such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

Habeas corpus. 2, The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in 

cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 
Atteinder. 3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

Direct taxes. 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or 

enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 
Regulations re- 5. No tax or duty Shall be laid on articles exported from any State, 
garding cus- 6. Ko preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the 
toms duties, ports of One State over those of another, nor shall vessels bound to or from one State be 
obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 



Constitution of the United States. 85 

Moneys, ho-w 7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations 
drawn. made by law ; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all 

public money shall be published from time to time. 
Titles of nobil- 8. No title of nobility Shall be granted by the United States. And no person holding any 
ity prohibited. ofiBce of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept or any 
present, emolimaent, office, or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign 
state. 
Powers of Skction X. 1. No State Shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation, grant 
States defined, letters of marque and reprisal, coin money, emit bills of credit, make an>-thing but gold and 
* silver coin a tender in payment of debts, pass any bill of attainder, ex post fcicto law, or 
law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost or duties on 
imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection 
laws ; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on impoi'ts or 
exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall 
be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. 

3. jSTo State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep 
troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another 
State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such 
imminent danger as will not admit of delay. 

ARTICLE n. 

Executive pow- Skction I. 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States 
er, in whom of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with 
vested. the Vice- President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows: 

Electors. 2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a 

number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which 
the State may be entitled in the Congress ; but no Senator or Bepresentative or person 
holding an oince of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an elector. 
Proceedings of 3. [The electors Shall meet in theirrespective States and votebvballotfortwo persons, 
electors, of whom One at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. 

And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for 
each, which list they shall sign and certify and transmit, sealed, to- the seat of the govern- 
ment of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number 
of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
electors appointed, and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an 
Proceedings of equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by 
the House of ballot One of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five 
Kepresen- highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. Rutin 
tatives. choosing the President, the vote shall be taken by States, the representation from each 

State having one vote. A quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or members 
from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a 
choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest 
number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain 
two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice- 
President.]* 
Time of choos- 4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on which 

ing electors, they Shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States. 
Qualifications of 5. No persou except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the 
the President, time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither 
shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty- 
five years and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. 
Provision in 6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or 
ca^e of his dis- inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on 
ability. ^jjg Vice- President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, 

resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what 
officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability 
be removed or a President shall be elected. 
Salary of the 7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which 
President. shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been 
elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United 
States, or any of them. 
Oath of the 8. Before he enter on the execution of his office he shall take the following oath or 
President. affirmation: 

' I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President 

of the United States, and will, to the Best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend 

the Constitution of the United States." 

Duties of the SECTION II. 1. The President Shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy 

President. of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when caUed into the actual 

service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal 

officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the duties of 

their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for 

offences against the United States except in cases of impeachment. 

May make trea- 2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make 

ties, appoint treaties, provided two- thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and 

ambassadors, by and With the advice and consent of the Senate shall appoint ambassadors, other public 

judges, etc. ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United 

States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 

established by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior 

officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads 

of departments. 

May fill vacan- 3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the 

c:e8. recess of the Senate by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next 

session. 



* This clause is superseded by Article XII., Amendments. 



M.-iy make reo Section^ III. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the 
ommendations state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge 
to and con- necessarv and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or 
vene Congress, either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of 
adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall 
receive ambassadors and other public ministers: he shall take care that the laws be faith- 
fully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. 
How officers SECTION' IV. The President, Vlce- President, and all civil officers of the United States 
may be r©- Shall be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or 
mored. Other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

AKTICLE III. 

Judicial power, SECTION I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme 

how invested. Court. and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordam and 

establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices 

during good behavior, and shall at stated times receive for their services a compensation 

which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 

To what cases it SECTION II. 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising 
extends. Under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall 
be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, 
and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to 
which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States, 
between a State and citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between 
citizens of the same State claiming lauds under grants of different States, and between a 
State, or the citizens thereof , and foreign States, citizens, or subjects. 

Jurisdiction of 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, and those in 

the Supreme which a State shall be partj', the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all 

Court. the other cases before-mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction 

both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress 

shall make. 

Rules respecting 3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such 
trials, trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but 

when not committed within any State the trial shall be at such place or places as the 
Congress may by law have directed. 

Treason defined. SECTION III. 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war 
against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person 
shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt 
act, or on confession in open court. 

How punished. 2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no 
attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the life 
of the person attained. 

ARTICIiE IF. 

Righte of States SECTION I. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, rec- 

and records, ords, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general 

laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, 

and the effect thereof. 

Privileges o f SECTION II. 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and 

citizens. immunities of citizens in the several States. 

Executive requi- 2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee 
sitions. from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive authority 

of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having juris- 
diction of the crime. 
Laws regulating 3. No person held to service or labor in oue State, under the laws thereof, escaping 
service or la- into another shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from 
bor. such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such ser- 

vice or labor may be due. 
New states how SECTION III. 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but 
formed and no new State Shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any 
admitted. State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the con- 
sent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. 
Power of Con- 2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regula- 
gress over tious respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States ; and noth- 
pubiic lands, ing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United 
States, or of any particular State. 
Republican gov- SECTION IV. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a repub- 
ernmentguar- lican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and, on 
anteed. application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be 

convened), against domestic violence. 

ARTICIiE V. 

ConBtitution, The Congress, Whenever two- thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall pro- 
hon- amended, pose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two- 
thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in 
either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when 
ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in 
three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by 
the Congress ; provided that no amendment which maybe made prior to the year one 
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses 
in the Ninth Section of the First Article ; and that no State, without its consent, shall be 
deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Validity of 1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Con- 
debts recog- stitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution as under the 
nlzed. Coufederation. 



Supreme law of 2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pur- 
the land de- suance thereof and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the 
fiaed. United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall 

be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not- 
withstanding. 
Oath- of whom 3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the sev- 
req'nired and eral State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial oflScers, both of the United States 
for what. and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitu- 
tion ; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public 
trust under the United States. 

ARTICIiE VII. 

Ratification of The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establish- 
the Constitu- mgnt of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same, 
tion. 

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 
ARTICIiE I. 

Religion and Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the 
free speech, free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of 
the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of griev- 
ances. 

A11T1CL.E II, 

Right to bear A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of 
anna. the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

ARTICLE III. 

Soldiers n time No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of 
of peace. the owuer, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE IV. 

Right of search. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall 
issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly 
describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 

ARTICLE V. 

Capital crimes No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime unless on a 
and arrest presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval 
therefor. forces, or in the militia, when In actual service, in time of war or public danger ^ nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of liteorlimb; 
nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness agamst himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law ; nor shall private prop- 
erty be taken for public use without just compensation. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Right to speedy In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public 
trial. trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been 

committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be 
informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to oe confronted with the witnesses 
against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defence. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Trial by jury. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, 

the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise 
re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the com- 
mon law. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Excessive bail. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and 

unusual punishments inflicted. 

ARTICLE IX. 

Enumeration of The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny 
rights. or disparage others retained by the people. 

ARTICLE X. 

Reserved rights The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by 
of states. it to the States, are reserved to thB States respectively, or to the people. 

ARTICLE XI. 

Judicial power. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in 

law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States, by citizens of 
another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State. 

ARTICLE XII. 

Electors in The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot fof President and 
Presidential Vice-President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with 
elections. themselves ; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in 
distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists 
of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- President, and of 
the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, 
to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate ; 
the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted ; the person having 
the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a 
majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; andif no person havesuch majority, 
then from the person having the highest numbers notexceeding three, on the list of those 
voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot. 



88 Constitution of the United States. 

the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the 
representation from each State having one vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist 
of a member or members from two- thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States 
shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Bepresentatives shall not choose a 
President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before th 8 fourth day 
Vice-President, of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of 
the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person havingthe 

freatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President, if such number 
e a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a major- 
ity, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice- 
President ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two- thirds of the whole number of 
Senators, and a majority ofthe whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no 
person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of 
i . Vice-President of the United States. 

ART1CL.E XIII. 

Slavery pro- -^ Neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime 
hibjted. whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or 

any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

Protectiou for 1. AH persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction 
all citizens, thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State 
shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens 
of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal pro- 
tection of the laws. 
Appointment of 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their 
Kepresenta- respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding 
tives. Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors 

for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the 
executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is 
denied to any of the male members of such State being of twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion 
or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion 
which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twenty- one years of age in such State. 
B e b e 1 1 i o n 3. No peraon shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President 

against the and Vice- President, or holding any office, civil or military, under the United States, or 
UmtedStates. uj2(jer any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as 
an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall 
have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid and comfort to 
the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two- thirds of each House, remove 
such disability. 
The public 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized bylaw, including 
debt. debts incurred for pajTQent of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrec- 

tion or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave ; but all 
such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions 
of this article. 

ARTICIiE XV. 

Right of sii£- 1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not de denied or abridged 
frage. by the United States or by any State, on account of race, color, or previous condition of 

servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 

The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in the following order: 



Delaware, December 7, 1787, nnanimously. 
Pennsylvania, December 12, 178/. vote 46 to 23. 
New Jersey, December 18, 1787, unanimously. 
Georgia. January 2, 1788, unanimouslj'. 
Connecticut, January 9, 1788, vote 128 to 40. 
Massachusetts, February 6, 1788, vote 187 to 168. 
Maryland. April 28, 1788, vote 63 to 12. 



South Carolina, May 23, 1788, vote 149 to 73. 

New Hampshire, June 21, 1788, vote 57 to 46. 

Virginia, June 25, 1788, vote 89 to 79. 

New York, July 26, 1788, vote 30 to 28. 

North Carolina, November 21, 1789. vote 193 to 75. 

Rhode Island, May 29, 1790, vote 34 to 32. 



RATIFICATION OF THE AMENDMENTS. 

I. to X. inclusive were declared in force December 15, 1791 

XI. was declared in force January 8, 1798. 

XII. , regulating elections, was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, 
and New Hampshire, which rejected it. It was declared in force September 'J.S, 1804. 

XIJI. The emancipation amendment, was ratified by 31 of the 36 States; rejected by Delaware and 
Kentucky, not acted on by Texas; conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi. Pro- 
claimed December 18, 1865. 

XIV, Reconstruction amendment, was ratified by 23 Northern States; rejected by Delaware, Ken- 
tucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern States, and not acted on by California, The 10 Southern States 
subsequently ratified under pressure. Proclaimed July 28, 1868. 

XV. Negro citizenship amendment was not acted upon by Tennessee, rejected by California, Delaware, 
Kentucky^ Maryland, New Jersey, and Oregon- ratified by the remaining 30 States. New York 
rescinded its ratification January 5, 1870. Proclaimed March 30. 1870. 



Natfonal partg platforms of 1896* 

PLATFORM OF THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY. ADOPTED AT INDIAN- 
APOLIS, IND., SEPTEMBER 3, 1896. 

This Convention has assembled to uphold the principles upon which depend the honor and wel- 
fare of the American people, in order that Democrats throughout the Union may unite their patriotic 
efforts to avert disaster from their country and ruin from their party. 

Standard Democratic Principles.— The Democratic party is pledged to equal and exact 
justice to all men of every creed and condition ; to the largest freedom of the individual consistent 
with good government; to the preservation of the Federal Government in its constitutional vigor, and 
to the support of the States m all their just rights; to economy in the public expenditures ; to the 
maintenance of the public faith and sound money; and it is opposed to paternalism and all class 
legislation. 

The Chicago Convention Arraigned.— The declarations of the Chicago Convention attack 
individual freedom, the right of private contract, the independence of the judiciary, and the 
authority of the President to enforce Federal laws. They advocate a reckless attempt to increase the 
price of silver by legislation to the debasement of our monetary standard, and threaten unlimited 
issues of paper money by the Government. They abandon for Kepublican allies the Democratic 
cause of taritf reform to court the favor of protectionists to their fiscal heresy. 

In view of these and other grave departures from Democratic principles we cannot support the 
candidates of that Convention nor be bound by its acts. The Democratic party has survived many 
defeats, but could not survive a victory won in behalf of the doctrine and policy it proclaimed in its 
name at Chicago. 

The Republican Party Responsible.— The conditions, however, which make possible such 
utterances from a National Convention are the direct result of class legislation by the Republican 
party. It still proclaims, as it has for years, the power and duty of government to raise and main- 
tain prices by law, and it proposes no remedy for existing evils except oppressive and unjust tax- 
ation. 

The Tariff Issue.— The National Democracy here convened therefore renews its declaration 
of faith in Democratic principles, especially as applicable to the conditions of the times. Taxation, 
tariff, excise or direct, is rightfully imposed only for public purposes and not for private gain. Its 
amountis justly measured by public expenditures, which should be limited by scrupulous economy. 
The sum derived by the Treasury from tariff and excise levies is affected by the state of trade and 
volume of consuHiption. The amount required by the Treasury is determined by the appropriations 
made by Congress. 

The demand of the Republican party for an increase in tariff taxation has its pretext in the 
deficiency of revenue, which has its causes in the stagnation of trade and reduced consumption, due 
entirely to the loss of confidence that has followed the Populist threat of free coinage and depreci- 
ation of our money and the Republican practice of extravagant. appropriations beyond the needs of 
good government. We arraign and condemn the Populistic Conventions of Chicago and St. Louis for 
their co-operation with the Republicanparty in creating these conditions which are pleaded in justi- 
fication of a heavy increase of the burdens of the people by a further resort to protection. 

Protection and Its Ally.— "We therefore denounce protection and its ally, free coinage of 
silver, as schemes for the personal profit of a few at the expense of the masses, and oppose the two 
parties which stand for these schemes as hostile to the people of the Republic, whose food and shelter, 
comfort and prosperity, are attacked by higher taxes and depreciated money ; in fine, we reaffirm the 
historic Democratic doctrine of tariff for revenue only, 

American Shipping-.— "We demand that henceforth modern and liberal policies toward Amer- 
ican shipping shall take the place of our imitation of the restricted statutes of the Eighteenth Century, 
which have been abandoned by every maritime power but the United States, and which, to the 
nation's humiliation, have driven American capital and enterprise to the use of alien flags and alien 
crews, have made the Stars and Stripes an almost unknown emblem in foreign ports, and have 
virtually extinguished the race of American seamen. 

We oppose the pretence that discriminating duties will promote shipping; that scheme is an 
invitation to commercial warfare upon the United States, un-American in the light of our great com- 
mercial treaties, offering no gain whatever to American shipping, while greatly increasing ocean 
freights on our agricultural and manufactured products. 

The Currency.— The experience of mankind hao shown that by reason of their natural qualities, 
gold is the necessary money of the large affairs of commerce and business, while silver is conveniently 
adapted to minor transactions, and the most beneficial use of both together can be insured on it by 
the adoption of the former as a standard of monetary measure, and the maintenance of silver at a 
parity with gold by itslimited coinage under suitable safeguards of law. 

Thus the largest possible enjoyment of both metals is gained with a value universally accepted 
throughout the world, which constitutes the only practical bimetallic currency, assuring the most 
stable standard, and especially the best and safest money for all who earn their livelihood by labor or 
the produce of husbandry. They cannot suffer when paid in the best money known to man, but are 
the peculiar and most defenceless victims of a debased and fluctuating icurrency, which offers con- 
tinual profits to the money changer at their cost. 

Realizing the truths demonstrated by long and public inconvenience and loss, the Democratic 
party, in the interest of the masses and of equal justice to all, practically established by the legislation 
of 1834 and 1853 the gold standard of monetary measurement and likewise entirely divorced the 
Government from banking and currency issues. 

Gold Must be the Standard.— To this long-established Democratic policy we adhere, and 
insist upon the maintenance of the gold standard and of the parity therewith of every dollar issued by the 
Government, and are firmly opposed to the free and unlimited coinage of silver and to the com- 
pulsory purchase of silver bullion. 



Government Must Cease the Banking- Business.— But we denounce also the further 
maintenance of the present patchwork system of National paper currency as a constant source of 
injury and peril. V^ e assert the necessity of such Intelligent currency reform as will confine the 
Govemmenftoits legitimate functions, completely separated from the banking business, and afford 
to all Kectionsof ourcountry a uniform safe, and elastic bank currency under go vermental super- 
vision, measured in volume by the needs of business. 

The Cleveland Democratic Administration.— The fidelity, patriotism, and courage with 
which President Cleveland has fulfilled his great public trust, the high character of his Administra- 
tion, its wisdom and energy in the maintenance of civil order and the enforcement of the laws, its 
equal regard for the rights of every cla,':s and every section, its firm and dignified conduct of foreign 
affairs, and its sturdy persistence in upholding the credit and honor of the nation, are fully recognized 
by the Democratic party, and will secure to him a place in history beside the fathers of the Kepublic. 

Civil Service Reform.— "We also commend the Administration for the great progress made in 
the reform of the public service, and we endorse its effort to extend the merit system still further. 
AVe demand that no backward step betaken, but that the reform be supported and advanced until 
the un- democratic spoils system, of appointments shall be eradicated. 

Economy in Public Expenditures.— We demand strict economy in the appropriations and in 
the administration of the Government. 

Arbitration of International Disputes.— We favor arbitration for the 'settlement of inter- 
national disputes. 

Pensions.— We favor a liberal policy of pensions to deserving soldiers and sailors of the United 
States. 

Integrity of the Supreme Court.— The Supreme Court of the United States was wisely 
established by the framers of our Constitution as one of the three coordinate branches of the Gov- 
ernment. Its independence and authority to interpret the law of the laud without fear or favor 
must be maintained. 

We condemn all efforts to degrade that tribunal or impair the confidence and respect which it has 
deservedly held, 

The Maintenance of Public Order.— The Democratic party ever has maintained, and ever 
will maintain, the supremacy of law, the independence of its judicial administration, the inviolability 
of contract and the obligations of all good citizens to resist every illegal trust, combination, or attempt 
against the just rights of property, and the good order of society, in which are bound up the peace and 
happiness of our people. 

Believing these principles to be essential to the well-being of the Bepublic, we submit them to the 
consideration of the American people. 



PLATFORM OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY (FREE SILVER). ADOPTED AT 

CHICAGO, JULY 9, 1896. 

We, the Democrats of the United States in National Convention assembled, do reaffirm our allegi- 
ance to those great essential principles of justice and liberty, upon which our Institutions are founded, 
and which the Democratic party has advocated from Jefl'erson's time to our own— freedom of speech, 
freedom of the press, freedom of conscience, the preservation of personal rights, the equality of all 
citizens before the law, and the faithful observance of constitutional limitations. 

Durins: all these years the Democratic party has resisted the tendency of selfish interests to the 
centralizationof governmental power and steadfastly maintained the integrity of the dual scheme of 
government established by the founders of this Bepublic of republics. Under its guidance and teach- 
ings the great principle of local self-government has found its best expression in the maintenance of 
the rights of the States and in its assertion oi the necessity of confining the General Government to the 
exercise of powers granted by the Cons', itution of the United States. 

The Constitution of the United States guarantees to every citizen the rights of civil aud religious 
liberty. The Democratic partj^ has always been the exponent of political liberty and religious Iree- 
dom, and it renews its obligations and reaffirms its devotion to these fundamental principles of the 
Constitution. 

The Money Question.— Becognizing that the money question is paramount to all others at this 
time, we invite attention to the fact that the Constitution names silver and gold together as the money 
metals of the United States, and that the first coinage law passed by Congress under the Constitution 
made the silver dollar the money unit of value aud admitted gold to free coinage at a ratio based 
npon the silver dollar unit. 

Demonetization Act of 1 873 Condemned.— We declare that the Act of 1873 demonetizing 
silver without the knowledge or approval of the American people has resulted in the appreciation of 
gold and a corresponding fall in the prices of commodities produced by the people; a heavy increase 
in the burden of taxation and of all debts, public andpi'ivate; the enrichment of the money-lending 
class at home and abroad ; the prostration oi industry and impoverishment of the people. 

Opposed to Gold Monometallism— Weare unalterably opposed to monometallism which has 
locked last the prosperity of an industrial peop.e iu the paralysis ot hard times. Gold monometallism 
is a British"policy, and its adoption has brought other nations into financial servitude to London. 
It Is not only un-American, but anti-American, and it can be fastened on the United States only by 
the stifling of that indomitable spirit and love of liberty which proclaimed our political independence 
in 1776 and won it in the War of the Bevolution. 

Free Silver Coinage.— We demand the free and unlimited coinage of both silver and gold at 
the present legal ratio of 16 to 1 without waiting for the aid or consent of any other nation. We de- 
mand that the standard silver dollar shall be a full legal tender equalb' with gold for all debts, public 
and private, and we favor such legislation as will prevent for the future the demonetization of any 
kind of legal tender money by private contract. 

We are opposed to the policy and practice of surrendering to the holders of the obligations of the 
United States the option reserved by law to the Government of redeeming such obligations in either 
silver coin or gold coin. 

The Bond Issues.— We are opposed to the issuing of interest-bearing bonds of the United States 
In time of peace and condemn the trafficking with banking syndicates which in exchange for bonds 



National JParty Platforms of 1896. 91 



and at an enormous profit to themselves, supply the Federal Treasury with gold to maintain the pol- 
icy of gold monometallism. 

National Bank Currency Opposed.— Congress alone has the power to coin and issue money, 
and President Jackson declared that this power could not be delegated to corporations or individuals. 
We therefore denounce the issuance of notes intended to circulate as money oy National banks as in 
derogation of the Constitution, and we demand that all paper which is made a legal tender for public 
and private debts, or which is receivable for duties to the United States shall be issued by the Govern- 
ment of the United States, and shall be redeemable in coin. 

The Tariff.— "We hold that tariff duties should be levied for purposes of revenue, such duties to 
be so adjusted as to operate equally tliroughout the country and not discriminate between class or 
section, and that taxation should be limited by the needs of the Government, honestly and economi- 
cally administered. We denounce as disturbing to business the Republican threat to restore the Mc- 
Kinley law, which has twice been condemned bv the people in National elections, and which, enacted 
under the false plea of protection to home industry, proved a prolific breeder of trusts and monopo- 
lies, enriched the few at the expense of the many, restricted trade, and deprived the producers of the 
great American staples of access to their natural markets. 

The Supreme Court Criticized.— Until the money question is settled we are opposed to any 
agitation for further changes in our tariff laws, except such as are necessary to meet the deficit in 
revenue caused by the adverse decision of the Supreme Court on the income tax. But for this de- 
cision by the Supreme Court, there would be no deficit in the revenue under the law passed by a 
Democratic Congress in strict pursuance of the uniform decisions of that court for nearly 100 years, 
that court having in that decision sustained Constitutional objections to its enactment which had pre- 
viously been overruled by the ablest judges who have ever sat on that bench. We declare that it is 
the duty of Congress to use all the Constitutional power which remains after that decision, or which 
may come from its reversal by the court as it may hereafter be constituted, so that the burdens of 
taxationmay be equally and impartially laid, to the end that wealth may bear its due proportion of 
the expenses of the Government. 

Reg-ulation of Inimigration.- We hold that the most efficient way of protecting American 
labor is to prevent the importation of foreign pauper labor to compete with it in the home market, and 
that the value of the home market to our American farmers and artisans is greatly reduced by a 
vicious monetary system which depresses the prices of their products below the cost of production, 
and thus deprives them of the means of purchasing the products of our home manufactories; and as 
labor creates the wealth of the country, we demand the passage of such laws as may be necessary to 
protect it in all its rights. 

Arbitration in Ilail\%'ay liabor Disputes.— We are in favor of the arbitration of differ- 
ences between employers engaged in interstate commei'ce and their employees, and recommend such 
legislation as is necessary to carry out this principle. 

Trusts and Pools.— The absorption of wealth by the few, the consolidation of our 
leading railroad systems, and the formation of trusts and pools require a stricter control by the 
Federal Government of tnose arteries of commerce. We demand the enlargement of the powers of 
the Inter-State Commerce Commission and such restrictions and guarantees in the control of railroads 
as wUl protect the people from robbery and oppression. 

Economy in Public Expenditures.— We denounce the profligate waste of the money wrung 
from the people by opp.esaive taxation and the lavish appropriations of recent Kepublican Con- 
gresses, which have kept taxes high, while t he labor that pays them is unemployed and the products 
of the people's toil are depressed in price till they no longer repay the cost of production. We de- 
mand a return to that simplicity and economy which befit a democratic Government and a reduc- 
tion in the nimiber of useless offices, the salaries of which drain the substance of the people. 

Federal InterTention in Local Affairs.— We denounce arbitrary Interference by Federal 
authorities in local affairs a.s a violation of the Constitution of the United States, and a crime against 
free institutions, and we especially object to government by injunction as a new and highly dangerous 
form of oppression by which Federal judges, in contempt of the laws of tiie States and rights of 
citizens, becomeatonce legislators, judges, and executioners, and we approve the bill passed at the 
last session of the United States Senate, and now pending in the House ot Kepresentatives, relative to 
contempts in Federal Courts and providing for trials by j ury in certain cases of contempt. 

The Pacific Railroad.— No discrimination should be indulged by the Government of the 
United States in favor of any of its debtors. We approve of the refusal of the Firty- third Congress to 
pass the Pacific Railroad Funding Bill, and denounce the efforts of the present Republican Congress 
to enact a simUar measure. 

Soldiers Pensions.— Recognizing the just claims of deserving Union soldiers, we heartily 
indorse the rule of the present Commissioner of Pensions that no names shall be arbitrarily dropped 
from the pension roll; and the fact of enlistment and service should be deemed conclusive evidence 
against disease and disability before enlistment. 

Admission of Territories. —We favor the admission of the Territories of New Mexico, 
Oklahoma, and Arizona into the Union as States, and we favor the early admission of all the Terri- 
tories having the necessary population and resources to entitle them to Statehood, and, while they 
remain Territories, we hold that the officials appointed to administer the government of any Territory, 
together with the District of Columbia and Alaska, should be bona fide residents of the Territory or 
District in which the duties are to be performed. The Democratic party believes in home rule and 
that all public lands of the United States should be appropriated to the establishment of free homes 
for American citizens. 

We recommend that the Territory of Alaska be granted a delegate in Congress, and that the 
general land and timber laws of the United States be extended to said Territory. 

The Monroe Doctrine.— The Monroe doctrine, as originally declared and as interpreted by 
succeeding Presidents, is a permanent part of the foreign policy of the United States, and must at all 
times be maintained. 

Syinpathy for Cuba.— We extend our sympathy to the people of Cuba in their heroic struggle 
for liberty and independence. 

Rotation in Office.— We are opposed to life tenure in the public service. We favor appoint- 
ments based upon merit, fixed terms of office, and such an administration of the civil service laws as 
will afford equal opportunities to all citizens of ascertained fitness. 



92 National Party Platforms of 1896. 



Presidential Third Term.— We declare it to be the unwritten law of this Republic, established 
by custom and usage of 100 years and sanctioned by the examples of the greatest and wisest of those 
who founded and have maintained our Government, that no man should be eligible for a third term 
of the Presidential office. 

Improvement of Waterways.— The Federal Government should care for and improve the 
Mississippi River and other great waterways of the Republic, so as to secure for the interior States 
easy and cheap transportation to tide water. When any waterway of the Republic is of sufficient im- 
portance to demand aid of the Government, such aid should be extended upon a definite plan of con- 
tinuous work until permanent improvement is secured. 

Confiding in the justice of our cause and the necessity of iis success at the poUs, we submit the 
foregoing declarations of principles and purposes to the considerate judgmentof the American people. 
We invite the support of all citizens who approve them and who desire to have them made effective 
through legislation for the relief of the people and the restoration of the country' s prosperity. 



PLATFORM OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY. ADOPTED AT ST. LOUIS, MO., 

JUNE 18, 1896. 

The Republicans of the United States, assembled by their representatives in National Convention, 
appealing for the popular and historical justification oi their claims to the matchless achievements of 
thirtv years of Republican rule, earnestly and confidentially address themselves to the awakened 
intelligence, experience, and conscience of their countrymen in the following declaration of facts 
and principles: 

Tlie Democratic Admiuistration.— For the first time since the Civil War the American 
people have witnessed the calamitous consequences of full and unrestricted Democratic control of the 
(iovernment. It has been a record of unparalleled incapacity, dishonor, and disaster. In adminis- 
trative management it has ruthlessly sacrificed indispensable revenue, entailed an unceasing deficit, 
eked out ordinary current expenses with borrowed money, piled up the public debt by $262,000,000 
in time of peace, forced an adverse balance of trade, kept a perpetual menace hanging over the redemp- 
tion fund, pawned American credit to alien syndicates, and reversed all the measures and results of 
successful Republican rule. In the broad effect of its policy it has precipitated panic, blighted in- 
dustry and trade with prolonged depression, closed factories, reduced work aud wages, halted 
enterprise.and crippled American production while stimulating foreign production for the American 
market Every consideration of public safety and individual interest demands that the Government 
shall be rescued from the hands of those who have shown themselves incapable to conduct it without 
disaster at home and dishonor abroad, and shall be restored to the party which for thirty years ad- 
ministered it with unequaled success and prosperity. And in this connection we heartily indorse the 
wisdom, patriotism, and the success of the Administration of President Harison. 

Tbe Tariff.— We renew and emphasize our allegiance to the policy of protection as the bulwark 
of American industrial independence and the foundation of American development and prosperity. 
Thistrue American policy taxes foreign products and encourages home industry; it puts the burden 
of revenue on foreign goods ; it secures the American market for the American producer; it upholds 
the American standard of wages for the American workingman ; it puts the factory by the side of the 
farm and makes the American farmer less dependent on foreign demand and price ; it dilTuses g'eneral 
thrift and founds the strength of all on the strength of each. In its reasonable application it is just, 
fair, and impartial, equally opposed to foreign control and domestic monopoly, to sectional discrimi- 
nation, and individual favoritism, 

We denounce the present Democratic tariflFas sectional, injurious to the public credit, and destruct- 
ive to business enterprise. We demand such an equitable tariif on foreign imports which come into 
competition v.'ith American products as wiU. not only furnish adequate revenue for the necessary ex- 
penses of the Government, but will protect American labor from degradation to the wage level of 
other lands. We are not pledged to any particular schedules. The question of rates is a practical 
question, to be governed by the conditions of the time and of production; the ruling and uncomprom- 
ising principle is the pcotection and development of American labor and industry. The country 
demands a right settlement, and then it wants rest. 

Reciprocity and Protection.— We believe the repeal of the reciprocity arrangements ne- 
gotiated by the last Republican Administration was a I><ational calamity, and we demand their 
renewal and extension on such terms as will equalize our trade with other nations, remove the 
restrictions which now obstruct the sale of American products in the ports of other countries, and 
secure enlarged markets for the products of our farms, forests, and factories. 

Protection and reciproc/ty are twin measures of Republican policy, and go hand in hand. Demo- 
cratic rule has recklessly struck down both, and both must be re-established. Protection for what 
we produce ; free admission for the necessaries of life which we do not produce ; reciprocal agreements 
of mutual interests which gain open markets for us in return for our open market to others, Protectiou 
builds up domestic industry and trade and secures our own market for ourselves; reciprocity buUds up 
foreign trade and finds an outlet for our surplus. 

Protection for Sugar Growers.— We condemn the present Administration for not keeping 
faith with the sugar producers of this country. The Republican party favors such protection as will 
lead to the production on American soil of all the sugar which the American people use, and for which 
they pay other countries more than $100, 000, 000 annually. 

Wool and Woolens.— To all our products— to those of the mine and the field as well as those of 
the shop and the factory— to hemp, to wool, the product of the great industry of sheep husbandry, as 
well as to the finished woolens of the mills, we promise the most ample protection. 

Tlie Merchant Marine.— We favor restoring the early American policy of discriminating 
duties for the upbuilding of our merchant marine and the protection of our shipi)ing in the foreign 
carrvlng trade, so that American ships— the product of American labor employed in American ship- 
yaras, sailing under the stars and stripes, and manned, officered, and owned by Americans— may regam 
the carrying of our foreign commerce. 

The Currency Question. —The Republican party is unreservedly for sound money. It caused 
theenactmautof the law providing for the resumption of specie payments in 1879: smce then every 
doUar has been as good as gold. We are unalterably opposed to every measure calculated to debase 
ourcurrency or impair the credit of our country. We are therefore opposed to the free coinage of 
silver except by international agreement with the leading commercial nations of the world, which 



National Party Platforms of 1896. 93 



we pledge ourselves to promote, and until such agreement can be obtained the existing gold standard 
must be preserved. All our silver and paper curiency must be maintained at parity with gold, and we 
favor all measures designed to maintain inviolably the obligations of the United States, and all our 
money, whether coin or paper, at the present standard, the standard of the most enlightened nations 
of the earth. 

Liberal Pensions for Soldiers.— The veterans of the Union armies deserve and should receive 
fair treatment and generous recognition. Whenever practicable they should be given the preference 
in the matter of employment, and they are entitled to the enactment of such laws as are best calcu- 
lated to secure the fulfillment of the pledges made to them in the dark days of the country' s peril 
We denounce the practice in the Pension Bureau, so recklessly and unjustly carried on by the present 
Administration, of reducing pensions and arbitrarily dropping names from the rolls, as deserving the 
severest condemnation of the American people. 

Foreign Relations.— Ourforeign policy should be at all times firm, vigorous, and dignified, 
and all our interests in the Western Hemisphere carefully watched and guarded. The Hawaiian 
Islands should be controlled by the United States, and no foreign power should be permitted to inter- 
fere with them; the Nicaraguan Canal should be built, owned, and operated by the United States, and 
by the purchase of the Danish Islands we would secure a proper and much- needed naval station in the 
West Indies. 

The Armenian Massacres.— The massacres in Armenia have aroused the deep sympathy and 
just indignation of the American people, and we believe that the United States should exercise all the 
influence it can properly exert to bring these atrocities to an end. In Turkey, American residents 
have been exposed to the gravest dangers and American property destroyed. There and everj'Avhere 
American citizens and American property must be absolutely protected at all hazards and at any 
cost. 

The Monroe Doctrine.— We reassert the Monroe Doctrine in its full extent, and we reafErm 
the right of the United States to give the doctrine eiiect by responding to the appeal of any American 
States for friendly intervention in case of European encroachment. We have not interfered, and 
shall not interfere, with the existing possessions of any European power in this hemisphere, but these 
possessions must not, on any pretext, be extended. We hopefully look forward to the eventual with- 
drawal of the European powers from this hemisphere, and to the ultimate union of ail of tlie English- 
speaking part of the continent by the free consent of its inhabitants. 

Sympathy for Cuba.— From the hour of achieving their own independence the people of the 
United States have regarded with sympathy the struggles of other American peoples to free them- 
selves from European domination. We watch with deep and abiding interest the heroic battle of the 
Cuban patriots against cruelty and oppression, and our best hopes go out for the full success of their 
determined contest for liberty. 

The Government of Spain, having lost control of Cuba, and being unable to protect the property or 
lives of resident American citizens, or to comply wi^h its treaty obligations, we believe that the Gov- 
ernment of the United States should actively use its influence and good oflaces to restore peace and 
give independence to the island. 

Enlargement of Ithe Navy.— The peace and security of the Hepublic and the maintenance of 
its rightiUl iutiueuce among the nations of the earth demand a naval power commensurate with its 
position and responsibility. We therefore favor the continued enlai^ement of the navy and a com- 
plete system of harbor and seacoast defenses, 

X<'oreign Imnsigration. —For the protection of the quality of our American citizenship, and of 
the wages of our workingmen against the fatal competition of low-priced labor, we demand that the 
immigration laws be thoroughly enforced, and so extended as to exclude from entrance to the United 
States those who can neither read or write, 

Civil Service Reform.— The civil service law was placed on the statute book by the Republican 
party, which has always sustained it, and we renew our repeated declarations that it shall be thor- 
oughly and honestly enforced and extended wherever practicable. 

Free and Unrestricted Ballot.— We demand that every citizen of the United States shall be 
allowed to cast one free and unrestricted ballot, and that such ballot shall be counted and returned as 
cast 

Lynehings.— We proclaim our unqualified condemnation of the uncivilized and barbarous prac- 
tice, well known as lynching or killing of human beings, suspected or charged with crime, without 
process of law. 

Labor Arbitration.— We favor the creation of a National Board of Arbitration to settle and 
adjust differences which may arise between employers and employed engaged in interstate com- 
merce. 

Free Homesteads.— We believe in an immediate return to the free-bomestead policy of the 
Republican party, and urge the passage by Congress of a satisfactory free- homestead measure such 
as has already passed the House and is now pending in the Senate. j 

Admission of Territories.— We favor the adihissionof the remaining Territories at the earliest 
practicable date, having due regard to the interests of the people of the Territories and of the United 
States. All the Federal officers appointed for the Territories should be selected from bona fide resi- 
dents thereof, and the right of self-government should be accorded as far as practicabla 

Alaska in Congress.— We believe the citizens of Alaska should have representation in the 
Congress of the United States, to the end that needful legislation may be intelligently enacted. 

The Liquor Traffic.— We sympathize with all wise and legitimate efforts to lessen and prevent 
the evils of intemperance and promote morality, 

Woman's Rights.- The Republican party is mindful of the rights and interests of women. 
Protection of American industries includes equal opportunities, equal pay for equal work, and pro- 
tection to the home. We favor the admission of women to wider spheres of usefulness, and welcome 
their co-operation in rescuing the country from Democratic and Populistic mismanagement and mis- 
rule. 

Such are the principles and policies of the Republican party. By these principles we will abide, 
and these policies we will put into execution. We ask for them the considerate judgment of the 
American people. Confident alike in the history of our great party and in the justice of our cause, we 
present our platform and our canditatesin the full assurance that the election will bring victory to the 
Republican party and prosperity to the people of the United States. 



94 National Party Platforms of 1896. 



PLATFORM OF THE PEOPLE'S PARTY. ADOPTED AT ST. LOUiS, MO., 

JULY 24, 1896. 

The People' SPal"ty, assembled in National Convention, reaffirms its allegiance to the principles 
declared by the founders of tiie Republic, and also to the fundamental principles of just governnaent 
as enunciated in the platform of the party in 1892. 

We recognize that through the connivance of the present and preceding Administrations, the 
country has reached a crisis in its National life, as predicted in our declaration four years ago, and 
that prompt and patriotic action is the supreme duty of the hour. 

We realize that, while we have political independence, our financial and industrial independence 
is yet to be attained by i-estoring to our country the Constitutional control and exercise of the func- 
tio'us necessary to a people's government, which functions have been basely surrendered by our pub- 
lic servants to corporate monopolies. The influence of European moneychangers has been more po- 
tent in sbaping legislation than the voice of the American people. Executive power and patronage 
have been used to corrupt our legislatures and defeat the will of the people, and plutocracy has there- 
b;'' been enthroned upon the ruins of democracy. To restore the Government intended by the fathers, 
and for the welfare and prosperity of this and future generations, we demand tlie establishment of an 
economic and financial system which shall make us masters of our own affairs and independent of 
European control, by the adoption of the following declaration of principles : 

Tbe Finances.— 1. We demand a National money, safe and sound, issued by the General Gov- 
ernmeutonly, without the intervention of banks of issue, to be a full legal tender for all debts, pub- 
lic and private; a just, equitable, and efficient means of distribution, direct to the people, and 
through the lawful disbursements of the Government. 

2. We demand the free and unrestricted coinage of silver and gold at the present legal ratio of 
16 to 1, without waiting for the consent of foreign nations. 

3. We demand that the volume of circulating medium be speedily increased to an amount suffi- 
cient to meet the demands of the business and population, and to restore the just level of prices of 
labor and production. 

4. We denounce the sale of bonds and the increase of the public interest-bearing debt made by the 
present Administration as unnecessary and without authority of law, and demand that no more 
bonds be issued, except by specific act of Congress. 

5. We demand such legislation as will prevent the demonetization of the lawful money of the 
United States by private contract. 

6. We demand that the Government, in payment of its obligations, shall use its option as to the 
kind of lawiul money in which they are to be paid, and we denounce the present and preceding 
Administrations for surrendering this option to the holders of Government obligations. 

7. We demand a graduated income tax, to the end that aggregated wealth shall bear its just pro- 
portion of taxation, and we regard the recent decision of the Suprerhe Court relative to the income 
tax law as a misinterpretation of the Constitution and an invasion of the rightful powers of Congress 
over the subject of taxation. 

8. We demand that postal savings banks be established by the Government for the safe deposit of 
the savings of the people and to facilitate exchange. 

Railroads and Telegraphs.— 1. Transportation being a means of exchange and a public 
necessity, the Government should own and operate the railroads in the interest of the people and on 
a non-partisan basis, to the end that all may be accorded the same treatment in transportation, and 
that the tyranny and political power now exercised by the great railroad corporations, which result 
in the impairment, if not the destruction of the political rights and personal liberties of the citizen, 
may be destroyed. Such ownership is to be accomplished gradually, in a manner consistent with 
sound public policy. 

2. The interest of the United States in the public highways built with public moneys, and the 
proceeds of grants of land to the Pacific railroads, should never be alienated, mortgaged, or sold, but 
guarded and protected for the general welfare, as provided by the laws organizing such railroads. 
The foreclosure of existing liens of the United States on these roads should at once follow default in 
the payment thereof by the debtor companies; and at the foreclosure sales of said roads the Govern- 
ment shall purchase the same, if it becomes necessary to protect its interests therein, or if they can 
be purchased at a reasonable price; and the Government shall operate said railroads as public high- 
ways for the benefit of the whole people, and not in the inierest of the few, under suitable provisions 
for protection of life and property, giving to all transportation interests equal privileges and equal 
rates for fares and freights. 

3. We denounce the present infamous schemes for refunding these debts, and demand that the 
laws now applicable thereto be executed and administered according to their intent and spirit. 

4. The telegraph, like the Post Office system, being a necessity for the transmission of news, 
should be owned and operated by the Government in the interest of the people. 

The Public Lands.— 1. True policy demands that the National and State legislation shall be 
such as will ultimately enable every prudent and industrious citizen to secure a home, and therefore 
the land should not be monopolized for speculative puri^oses. All lands now held by railroads and 
other corporations in excess of their actual needs shuuld by lawful means be reclaimed by tbe Gov- 
ernment and held for actual settlers only, and pi-ivate land monopoly, as well as alien ownership, 
should be prohibited. 

2. We condemn the land grant frauds by which the Pacific railroad companies have, through 
the connivance of the Interior Department, robbed multitudes of bona Jide settlers of their 
homes and miners of their claims, and we demand legislation by Congress which will enforce the ex- 
ception of mineral land from such grants after as well as before the patent. 

3. We demand that lonaflde settlers on ail public lands be granted free homes, as provided in the 
National Homestead Law, and that no exception be made in the case of Indian reservations when 
opened for settlement, and that all lands not now patented come under this demand. 

The Referendum. —We favor a system of direct legislation through the initiative and refer- 
endum, under proper Constitutional safeguards. 

Direct Election of President and Senators by the People.— We demand the election 
of President, Vice-President, and United States Senators by a direct vote of the people. 

Sympathy for Cuba.— We tender to the patriotic people of Cuba our deepest sympathy in 
their heroic struggle for political freedom and independence, and we believe the time has come when 
the United States, the great Republic of the world, should recognize that Cuba is, and of right ought 
to be, a free and independent state. 



National Party Platforms of 1896. 95 

The Territories.— We favor home rule in the Territories and the District of Columbia, and the 
early admission of the Territories as States. 

Public Salaries.— All public salaries should be made to correspond to the price of labor and its 
products. 

Employment to be Fiirnisbed by Government.— In times of great industrial depression 
idle labor should be employed on public works as far as practicable. 

Arbitrary Judicial Action.- The arbitrary course of the courts in assuming to imprison citi- 
zens for indirect contempt and ruling by injunction should be prevented by proper legislation. 
Pensions.— We favor just pensions for our disabled Union soldiers. 

A Fair Ballot.— Believing that the elective franchise and untrammelled ballot are essential to a 
government of, for, and by the people, the People's party condemn the wholesale system of disfran- 
chisement adopted in some States as unrepublican and undemocratic, and we declare it to be the duty 
of the several State Legislatures to take such action as will secure a full, free and fair ballot and an 
honest count. , 

The Financial Question **the Pressing l8sue."—While the foregoing propositions consti- 
tute the platform upon which our party stands, and for the vindication of which its organization will 
be maintained, we recognize that the great and pressing issue of the pending campaign, upon which 
the present election will turn, is the financial question, and upon this great and specific issue between 
the parties we cordially invite the aid and co-operation of all organizations and citizens agreeing with 
us upon this vital, question. 

PLATFORiVI OF THE PROHIBITION PARTY. ADOPTED AT PITTSBURGH, PA., 

MAY 28, 1896. 

W^e the members of the Prohibition party, in National Convention assembled, renewing our 
acknowledgment of allegiance to Almighty God as the rightful Ruler of the Universe, lay down the 
following as our declaration of political purpose, 

PLATFORM. 

The Prohibition party, in National Convention assembled, declares its conviction that the manu- 
facture, exportation, importation and sale of alcholic beverages has produced such social, commer- 
mercial, industrial, and political wrongs, and is now so threatening the perpetuity of all our social and 
political institutions that the suppression of the same by a National party, organized therefor, is the 
greatest object to be accomplished by the voters of our country, and is of such importance as that it, 
of right, ought to control the political action of all our patriotic citizens until such suppression is 
accomplished. 

The urgency of this cause demands the union without further delay of all citizens who desire the 
prohibition of the liquor traffic; therefore, 

Resolved, That we favor the legal prohibition by State and National legislation of the manufacture, 
importation, exportation, and interstate transportation and sale of alcoholic beverages; that we 
declare our purpose to organize and unite all the friends of prohibition into one party, and in order to 
accomplish this end we deem it but right to leave every Prohibitionist the freedom of his own convic- 
tions upon all other political questions, and trust our representatives to take such action upon other 
political questions as the change occasioned by prohibition and the welfare of the whole people shall 
demand. 

PLATFORM OF THE SOCIALIST LABOR PARTY. ADOPTED AT NEW YORK, 

JULY 9, 1896. 

The Socialist Labor party of the United States, in Convention assembled, re-asserts the inaliena- 
ble right of all men to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 

With the founders of the American Republic, we hold that the purpose of government is to 
secure every citizen in the enjoyment of this right; but in the light of our social conditions, we hold 
furthermore, that no such right can be exercised under a system of economic inequality, essentially 
destructive of life, of liberty, and of happiness. 

With the founders or this Republic we hold that the true theory of politics is that the machinery 
of government must be owned and controlled by the whole people; but in the light of our Industrial 
development we hold, furthermore, that the true theory of economics is that the machinery of pro- 
duction must likewise belong to the people in common. 

To the obvious fact that our despotic system of economics is the direct opposite of our democratic 
system of politics, can plainly be traced the existence of a privileged class, the corruption of govern- 
ment by that class, the alieniation of public property, public franchises and public functions to that 
class, and the abject dependence of the mightiest nations upon that class. 

Again, through the perversion of democracy to the ends of plutocracy, labor is robbed of the 
wealth which it alone produces, is denied the meahs of self- employment, and, by compulsory idleness 
in wage slavery, is even deprived of the necessaries of life. 

Human power and natural forces are thus wasted, that the plutocracy may rule. 

Ignorance and m.isery, with all their concomita-nt evils, are perpetuated, that the people may be 
kept in bondage. 

Science and invention are diverted from their humane purpose to the enslavement of women and 
children. 

Against such a system the Socialist Labor Party once more enters its protest. Once more it re- 
iterates its fundamental declaration tha.t private property in the natural sources of production and in 
the instruments of labor is the obvious cause of all economic servitude and political dependence. 

The time is fast coming, when, in the natural course of social evolution, this system, through the 
destructive action of its failures and crises on the one hand, and the constructive tendencies of its 
trusts and other capitalistic combinations on the other hand , shall have worked out its own downfall. 

We, therefore, call upon the wage workers of the United States, and upon all other honest citi- 
zens, to organize under the banner of the Socialist Labor Party into a class- conscious body, aware of 
its rights and determined to conquer them by taking possession of the public powers; so that, held 
together by an Indomitable spirit of .solidarity under the most trjing conditions of the present class 
struggle, we may put a summary end to that barbarous struggle by the abolition of classes, the res- 



96 National Party Platforms of 1896. 

toration of the land and of all the means of production, transportation and distribution to the people 
as a collective body, and the substitmion of the Co-operative Common weaith lor the present state of 
planless production, industrial war. and social disorder; a commonwealth in which every worker 
shall have the free exercise and full benefit of his faculties, multiplied by all the modern factors of 
civilization. 

EESOLUTIONS. 

With a view to immediate improvement in the condition of labor we present the followiug 
deniands: 

1. Reduction of the hours of labor in proportion to the progress of production. 

2. The United States to obtain possef=sion of the mines, railroads, canals, telegraphs, telephones, 
and all otber means of public transportation and communication; the employees to operate the 
same co-operatively under control of the Federal Government and to elect their own superior offi- 
cers, but no employee shall be discharged for political reasons. 

3. The municipalities to obtain possession of the local railroads, ferries, water works, gas works, 
electric plants, and all industries requiring municipal franchises; the employees to operate the same 
co-operatively under control of the municipal administration and to elect their own superior officers, 
but no employee shall be discharged for political reasons. 

4. The public lands to be declared inalienable. Eevocationof all land grants to corporations or 
individuals, the conditions of which have not been complied with. 

5. The United States to have the exclusive right to issue money. 

6. Congressional legislation providing for the scientific management of forests and waterways, 
and prohibiting the waste of the natural resources of the country. 

7. Inventions to be free to all ; tne inventors to be remunerated by the nation. 

8. Progressive income tax and tax on inheritances ; the smaller incomes to be exempt. 

9. School educHtion of all children under fourteen years of age to be compulsory, gratuitous and 
accessible to all by public assistance in meals, clothing, booKs, etc. , where necessary. 

10. Bepeal of all pauper, tramp, conspiracy and sumptuary laws. Unabridged right of combi- 
nation. 

11. Prohibition of the employment of children of school age and the employment of female 
labor in occupations detrimental to health or morality. Abolition of the convict labor contract 
system. 

12. Employment of the unemployed bythe public authorities (county, city. State and IS^ation). 

13. All wages to be paid in lawful money of the United States. Equalization of woman ' s wages 
with those of men where equal service is performed. 

14. Laws for the protection of life and limb in all occupations, and an efficient employers' liability 
law. 

15. The people to have the right to propose laws and to vote upon all measures of importance, 
according to the referendum principle. 

16. Abolition of the veto power of the Executive (National, State and Municipal), wherever it 
exists. 

17. Abolition of the United States Senate and all upper legislative chambers. 

18. Municipal sell -government. 

19. Direct vote and secret ballots in all elections. Universal and equal right of sufirage without 
regard to color, creed, or sex. Election days to be legal holidays. The principle of proportional repre- 
sentation to be introduced. 

20. All public officers to be subject to recall by their respective constituencies. 

21. Uniform civil and criminal law throughout the United States. Administration of justice to be 
free of charge. Abolition of capital punishment. 



PLATFORM OF THE SILVER PARTY. ADOPTED AT ST. LOUIS, MO., 

JULY 23, 1896. 

First, the paramount issue at this time in the United States is indisputably the money question . 
It is between the British gold standard, gold bonds, and bank currency, on the one side, and the bi- 
metallic standard, no bonds, government currency (and an American policy), on the other. 

Reinstatement of SSilver.— On this issue we declare ourselves to be in favor of a distinctively 
American financial system. We are unalterably opposed to the singlei gold- standard, and de- 
mand the immediate return to the Constitutional standard of gold and silver, by the restoration by 
this Government, independently of any foreign power, of the unrestricted coinage of both gold and 
silver into standard money at the ratio of 16 to 1 and upon terms of exact equality, as they existed 
prior to 1873; the silver coin to be of full legal tender, equally with gold, for all debts and dues, pub- 
lic and private, and we demand such legislation as will prevent for the future the destructiou of the 
legal tender quality of any kind of money by private contract. 

We hold that the power to control and regulate a paper currency is inseparable from the power to 
coin money, and hence that all currency intended to circulate as money should be issued and its vol- 
ume controlled by the General Government only, and should be a legal tender. 

Opposed to Bond Issues. —We are unalterably opposed to the issue bythe United States of 
interest- bearing bonds in time of peace, and we denounce as a blunder, worse than a crime, the pres- 
ent Treasurv policy, concurred in by a Republican House, of plunging the country into debt by hun- 
dreds of millions in the vain attempt to maintain the gold standard by borrowing gold; and we de- 
mand the payment of all coin obligations of the United States, as provided by existing laws, in either 
go'.d or silver coin, at the option of the Government and not at the option of the creditor. 

No Over Production.— The advocates of the gold standard persistently claim that the real 
cause of our distress is over production— that we have produced so much that it made us poor— which 
implies that the true remedy is to close the factory, abandon the farm and throw a multitude of people 
out of employment; a doctrine that leaves us unnerved and disheartened and absolutelj' withouthope 
for the future. We affirm to be unquestioned that there can be no such economic paradox as over 
production and at the same time tens of thousands of our fellow citizens remaining half clothed and 
half fed and who are piteously clamoring for the common necessities of life. 

Bimetallism.— Over and above all other questions of policy we are in favor of restoring to the 
people of the United States the time-honored money of the Constitutior.— gold and silver, not one, but 
both— the money of Washington and Hamilton, and Jefferson and Monroe, and Jackson and Lincoln, 
to the end that the American people may receive honest pay for an honest product; that the American 



New York Party Platforms on the Financial Issues, 97 

NATIONAL PARTY PLATFORMS OF rmO—ConUnue'l . 

debtor may pay his just obligations in an honest standard, and not in a dishonest and uasound stand- 
ard, appreciated one hundred per cent in purchasing power and no appreciation in debt-paying 
power, and to the end, further, that silver standard countries may be deprived of the unjust advantage 
1 hey now enjoy in the difference in exchange between gold and silver— an advantage which tariff legis- 
lation cannot overcome. 

Bryan and Sewa!!.— Inasmuch as the patriotic majority of the Chicago Convention embodied 
in the financial plank of its platform the principles enunciated in the platform of the American bi- 
metallic party, promulgated at Washington, D. C. , January 22, 1896, and herein reiterated, which is 
not only the paramount but the only real issue in the pending campaign, therefore, recognizing that 
their nominees embody these patriotic principles, we recommend that this Convention nominate 
William J. Bryan, of Nebraska, for President, and Arthur Sewall, of Maine, for "Vice-President, 

PLATFORM OF THE NATIONAL PARTY, ADOPTED AT PITTSBURGH, PA., 

MAY 29, 1896.* 

The National party, recognizing God as the author of all just power in government, presents the 
following declaration of principles, which it pledges itself to enact into effective legislation when 
given the power to do so. 

1. Prohibition. —The suppression of the manufacture and sale, importation, exportation, and 
transportation of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes. We utterly reject all plans for regulating 
or compromising with this traffic, whether such plans be called local option, taxation, license, or 
public control. The sale of liquors for medicinal and other legitimate uses should be conducted by the 
State, without profit, and with such regulations as will prevent fraud or evasion. 

2. Woman t^nnra^e.- No citizen should be denied the right to vote on account of sex. 

3. Free Silver Coinage.— All money should be issued by the General Government only, and 
without the intervention of any private citizen, corporation, or banking institution. It sliould be 
based upon the wealth, stability, and integrity of the nation. It should be a full legal tender for all 
debts, public and private, and should be of full volume to meet the demands of the legitimate business 
interests of the country. For the purpose of honestly liquidating our outstanding coin obligations, we 
favor the free and unlimited coinage of both silver and gold, at a ratio of 16 to 1, without consulting 
any other nation. 

4. The Public Ijands.— Land is the common heritage of the people and should be preserved 
from monopoly and speculation. All unearned grants of land, subject to forfeiture, should be re- 
claimed by the Government, and no portion of the public domain should hereafter be granted except 
to actual settlers, continuous use being essential to tenure. 

5. Government Control of Railroads.— Railroads, telegraphs, and other natural monopolies 
should be owned and operated by the Government, giving to the people the benefit of the service at 
actual cost, 

6. Income Tax.— The National Constitution should be so amended as to allow the National reve- 
nues to be raised by equitable adjustment of taxation on the properties and incomes of the people, and 
import duties shouWhe levied as a means o f securing equ itable commercial relations with other nations . 

7. Convict Liabor.— The contract convict labor system, through which speculators are enriched 
at the expense of the State, should be abolished. 

8. Sunday.— All citizens should be protected by law in their right to one day of rest in seven, 
without oppressing any who conscientiously observe any other than the first day of the week. 

9. The Public Schools.— The American public schools, taught in the English language, 
should be maintained, and no public funds should be appropriated for sectarian institutions. 

10. Election of President and Senators by the People.— The President, Vice- President, 
and United States Senators should be elected by direct vote of the people. 

11. liiberal Pensions.— Ex-soldiers and sailors of the United States Army and Navy, their 
widows and minor children, should receive liberal pensions, graded on disability and term of service, 
not merely as a debt of gratitude^ but for service rendered in the preservation of the Union. 

12. Restriction of Immigration an 1 Alien Suffrage.— Our immigration laws should be 
so revised as to exclude paupers and crimiimls. None but citizens of the United States should be 
allowed to vote in any State, and naturalized citizens should not vote until one year after natural- 
ization papers have been issued. 

13. The Referendum.— The initiative and referendum, and proportional representation, 
should be adopted. 

14. Having herein presented our principles and purposes, we invite the co-operation and support 
of all citizens who are with us substantially agreed. 

* By delegates to the National Prohibition Convention at Pittsburgh, who withdrew because the 
majority voted to confine the party issues to Prohibition. The seceders organized the National party. 

!U<rttu ¥tirife Patrtg J^latftirms on tje jFinancial ?kn%\xtn. 

RESOLUTIONS OF THE DEMOCI^ATIC STATE CONVENTION, 

At Saratoga, June 24, 1896. 

Senatob Hill, Chairman of the Committee on Resolutions, reported the platform, a part of which 
was as follows: 

We are in favor of gold and silver as the standard money of the country. We are opposed as a per- 
manent financial policy to gold monometallism on the one hand, or to silver monometallism on the 
other hand. The pledge contained in the repeal of the Sherman law, which repealing act was passed by a 
Democratic Congress and approved by a Democratic President, should be faithfully carried out, wherein 
it was declared that "the efforts of the Government should be steadily directed to the establishment of 
such a safe system of bimetallism as will maintain at all times the equal power of every dollar coined or 
issued by the United States in the markets and in the payment of d9bts. 

We believe that such bimetallism, to which the nation is solemnly pledged, can only be safely se- 
cured and permanently maintained through the concurrent action of the leading nations of the world. 
Neither this country nor any other country, independent and alone, is able to maintain it, and it would 
be folly to attempt it. Being so convinced, v.'S are opposed to the free and unlimited coinage of silver in 
the absence of the co-operation of other great nations. We declare our belief that any attempt upon the 
part of the United States alone to enter upon the experiment of free silver coinage would not only prove 
disastrous to our finances, but would retard or entirely prevent the establishment of international bi- 
metallism. Until international co-operation for bimetallism can be secured — to which end all our 
efforts as a Government and as a people should be in good faith directed — we favor the rigid maintenance 



98 The United States Light-House Estahlishinent, 

NEW YORK PARTY FLATF0RM8 ON THE FINANCIAL ISSUE8— Co?i^mMerf. 

of the present gold standard as essential to the preservation of our National credit, the redemption of our 
public pledges, and the keeping inviolate of our country's honor. We insist that all our paper and silver 
currency shall be kept absolutely at a parity with gold. 

RESOLUTION OF THE DEMOCRATIC STATE CONVENTION, 

At Buffalo, September 17, 1896. 
The Democratic party of the State of New York, in convention assembled, unreservedly endorses the 
platform adopted by the Democratic party at the National Convention held in Chicago on July 7, 1896; 
cordially approves the nominations there made; pledges to William J. Bryan and Arthur Sewall its 
hearty and active support, and declares as its deliberate judgment that never in the history of the Demo- 
cratic party has a platform been written which embodied more completely the interests of the whole 
people as distinguished from those who seek legislation for private benefit than that given to the coun- 
try by the National Democratic Convention of 1896. 

RESOLUTIONS OF STATE CONVENTION OF THE NATIONAL DEMOCRACY, 

At Syracuse, August 31, 1896. 

In proposing to open the mints of the United States to the free coinage of silver at the ratio of It^ to 1 
when the relative market value of silver and gold is now in the proportion of about 32 to 1, the Chicago 
platform threatens a partial repudiation of that public debt the validity of which the Constitution de- 
clares "shall not be questioned. " It reaches a climax of arbitrary interference with individual rights 
when it seeks to force its debased money upon the public by forbidding contracts which provide for pay- 
ment in any medium more valuable than the depreciated legal tender which it proposes to establish. 

We repudiate the Chicago platform because it proposes to substitute for our present standard of 
value, which is equal to the best in the world, an unstable and depreciated standard, which has been 
rejected by every civilized and prosperous nation, and which would put us on a monetary level with 
China, Mexico, and other countries where labor is notoriously underpaid. The Chicago platform declares 
against gold monometallism, and advocates legislation which must inevitably lead to silver monometal- 
lism ; it advocates a monetary system which would offer an unlimited field of speculation to the capitalist, 
but would materially reduce the purchasing power of every dollar paid to the wage-earners, and punish 
honest thrift by depreciating the value of every savings bank deposit and every life insurance policy. 

It advocates liberal pensions, and at the same time seeks to impair the value of every pension paid 
by the Government; it condemns the only method provided for keeping inviolate the National credit, and 
favors a policy which must result in partial repudiation of the public debt ; it disapproves of the issue of 
National bank notes secured by the pledge of Government bonds, and suggests no substitute therefor, ex- 
cept unlimited paper money redeemable in debased and fluctuating coin. 

RESOLUTIONS OF THE REPUBLICAN STATE CONVENTION, 

At Saratoga, August 25, 1896. 

The Republican party says that the present gold standard must be maintained, and that the way to 
recover our lost prosperity is to return to the wise industrial policy by which, under Republican rule, 
prosperity was achieved. 

The attempt to make an ounce of gold equal in value to only sixteen ounces of silver, when it is now 
worth thirty ounces, is hopeless and absurd. The United States could neither take nor use one-half the 
silver that a free-coinage law would bring to their mints. This fact is so plain to the world of commerce 
and business, that the mere announcement of the success of the Democratic ticket would send gold at 
once to a premium, drive debtors into cruel liquidation, and cause a further withdrawal of capital from 
investment, and a further suspension of industry. 

No injury could be inflicted upon trade and commerce, no fraud perpetrated upon labor, no shame 
visited upon the National reputation more hurtful than would be the enactment of a law compelling the 
people to accept, in the payment of debts, a coin for one dollar which they could spend for not much 
more than half that sum. 

To allege that our stock of money is not now suflBcient for the transaction of business is mere asser- 
tion, but if it were true, the evil it implies would not be cured by a law the first and instantaneous 
effect of which would be to drive out of circulation our entire supply of gold money, more than one-third 
of the whole. The employment of all the minting resources of the Government in the coinage of silver 
dollars only could not, in a period of fifteen years, make up for the deficiency of circulation that would 
result from the retirement of gold. The currency per capita is to- day greater than it ever has been. 
The people can take no more money than they can buy with their labor, and what they can buy is value, 
and not mere denomination. 

To the maintenance of a pure circulation of dollars, of full and equal value, the Republican party is 
resolutely pledged, and for the firm establishment of that policy it asks the support of every citizen who 
wishes neither to cheat nor to be cheated. 



The following are the members of the Light-House Board: 
Hon. J. G. Carlisle, Secretary of the Treasury and ej; o#cio President of the Board, Washington, D. C. 
Rear- Admiral John G. Walker, U. S. Navy, Chairman, Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Walter S. Franklin, Baltimore, Md. 
Colonel John M. Wilson, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. W. W. Duflield, Superintendent U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. O. 
Captain John R. Bartlett, U. S. Navy, Washington, D. C. 

Lieutenant-Colonel A. Mackenzie, C'oips of Engineers, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 
Commander George F. F. Wilde, U. S. Navy, Naval Secretary, Washington, D. C. 
Captain John Millis, Cori^s of Engineers, U. S. Army, Engineer Secretary, Washington, D. C. 

At the close of the fiscal year there were under the control of the Light-House Establishment the 
following named aids to navigation: Light-houses and lighted beacons, including post-lights in the 
third, fourth, fifth, sixth, eighth, twelfth, and thirteenth districts, 1,475; light- vessels in position, 41; 
light-vessels for relief, 6; electric and gas buoj's in position, 33; fog-signals operated by steamer hot 
air, 137; fog-signals operated by clock-work, 188; post-lights on Western rivers, 1,414; day or un- 
lighted beacons, 417; whistling- buoys in position, 70j bell-buoys in position, 107; other buoys in posi- 
tion, including pile-buoys and stakes in the fifth district and the buojs iu Alaskan waters, 4,664. 

In the construction, care, and maintenance of these aids to navigation there were employed : Steam 
tenders, 32; steam launches, 5; sailing tenders, 2; li°:ht- keepers, 1,253; other employds, including 
crews of light-vessel3 and tenders, 1,108; laborers in charge of post-lights on rivers, 1,369. 



^f)e National JloICtical dtoniytntionn of 1896. 99 

BALLOTS FOR CANDIDATES FOR PRESIDENT. 

REPUBLICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION. 

The Republican National Convention, at St. Louis, June 18, nominated William McKIinley, of Ohio, 
for President on the first ballot, as follows : 



States and 
Territories. 


Mc- 
Kinley 


Reed 


Quay 


Mor- 
ton. 


Alli- 
son. 

\[ 

26 

'k 


States and 
Territories. 


Mc- 
Klnley 


Reed 


Quay 


Mor- 
ton. 


Alli- 
son. 


States and 
Territories. 


Mc- 
Kinley 


Eeed 


Quay 


Mor- 
ton. 


Alli- 
son. 


Alabama 
Arkansas 
Cal 

Colorado. 
Conn'cut. 
Delaware 
Florida . . 
Georgia.. 
Idaho.... 
UlinoLs .. 
Indiana.. 

Iowa 

Kansas .. 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 
Maine.. .. 
Maryland 
Mass 


19 
16 
18 

• • 

1 
6 
6 

22 

46 
30 

20 
26 
11 

15 
1 


2 

5 

2 
2* 

4' 

12 

1 

29 


'k 


1 

2' 


Michigan 

Minn 

Miss 

Missouri . 
Mont.*... 
Nebraska 
Nevada . . 

N.H 

N.J 

N.Y 

N.C 

N. Dak. . . 

Ohio 

Oregon .. 

Penna 

R. I 

S.O 

S.Dak.... 


28 
18 
17 
34 

16 
3 

19 
17 
19M 

6 
46 

8 

6 

18 
8 


B 
1 

2k 
8 


58' 


• • 

55 




Tenn 

Texas.... 

Utah 

Vermont. 
Virginia.. 
Wash .... 
W. Va. .. 

Wis 

Wyoming 
Arizona. . 
New Mex. 
,Oklah'ma 
Ind. Terr. 
Dist. Col. 
Alaska. . . 

Total t. 


24 

21 

3 

8 

23 

8 

12 

24 

6 

6 

5 

4 

6 

4 


5' 

i* 

i' 
i' 

84>^ 






"3 
3 

"i 

1 

i 


661}^ 


6014 


58 


353^ 



* One vote for J. Donald Cameron. t There were 24 delegates absent. 

Total vote of the convention, 922 ; necessary to a choice, 462. 

There was one ballot only for a candidate for Vice-President, resulting as follows : Hobart, N. J., 
533M; Evans, Tenn., 277J^; Bulkeley, Ct., 39; Walker. Va., 24; Lippitt, R. I., 10 ; Depew, N. Y., 3 ; 
Reed, Me,, 3; scattering, 6. (! arret A. Hobart was nominated. 

DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION. 

The Democratic National Convention, at Chicago, July 10, nominated William J.Bryan, of Nebraska, 
for President on the fifth ballot. The first ballot was as follows: Bland, Mo., 235; Bryan, Neb., 119; 
Pattison, Pa., 95; Boies, la., 85; Blackburn, Ky.,83; McLean, O., 54; Matthews, Ind., 37; Tillman, S. C, 
17; Pennoyer, Ore., 8; Teller, Col., 8; Stevenson, 111,, 1; Russell, Mass., 2; Hill, N. Y., 1; Campbell, O., 
1 ; not voting, 178. The fifth and final ballot was as follows : 



states and 
Territories. 

Ala 

Ark 

Cal 

Col 

Conn .... 

Del 

Florida . 
Georgia . 
Idaho.. .. 
Illinois.. 
Indiana . 

Iowa 

Kansas.. 

Ky 

La 

Maine . . . 

Md 

Mass 

Mich.... 
Minn.. .. 

Miss 

Missouri. 
Montana 

Neb 

Nevada . 
N. Hamp. 



Bland^ 


Boies. 


Mat- 
thews. 


Bryan, 


Pat- 
tison. 


Stev- 
enson, 


Not 
Voting 


.. 


. . 




22 


, , 




. • 


16 








, , 








.. 




18 


, , 




.. 




.. 




8 


.. 








•• 




'i 


2 
3 




10 
2 




•• 




7 

26 






•• 




, , 




6 






, , 




, , 




48 






, , 




• • 


30 


, , 






, , 




26 




, , 






• • 




, , 




20 






.. 




,. 




26 










.. 




16 






.. 








4 


4 




4 




.. 




5 


10 




1 




.. 




6 


3 




18 




.. 




28 


, , 




.. 




•• 




11 
18 






2 


5 


34 


, , 












, , 


6 


, , 




, , 








, , 


•• 


•• 




16 
6 








•• 


, , 


, , 








1 




7 



states and 
Territories. 


Bland 


Boles. 


Mat- 
thews, 


Bryan, 


Fat- 

tison. 


Stev- 
enson. 


N. Jersey 


.. 








2 




N. York. 










.. 






N. C 










22 






N. Dak., 










4 




2 


Ohio 










46 






Oregon . . 










8 






Penna ... 












64 




R. Island 












6 




S, C 










18 


, , 




S, Dak,, 










8 






Tenn , , , , 










24 


, , 




Texas . . . 


30 












Utah..,, 


3 






3 






Vermont 


, , 






4 






Virginia, 


, , 






24 






Wash,... 


4 






4 






W. Va.,. 


7 






2 




2 


Wis 


, , 






6 






Wy 


, , 






6 






Alaska . . 


6 












Arizona . 


, , 






6 






Dist, Col. 


, , 






6 






N. Mex,, 


, ^ 






6 






Okla 


• • 






6 






Ind. Ter. 
Total,, 








6 






1( 


)6 


26 


31 


500 


95 


8 



Not 
Voting 

18 
72 



19 



162 



Ohio changed from McLean to Bryan during the ballot, Oklahoma changed from Bland to Bryan. 
Hill received one vote from Massachusetts, and Turpie one vote from Wisconsin. The above was the 
ballot as announced. Changes were made thereafter, giving Bryan more than the 512 necessary votes to 
a choice. 

There were five ballots for a candidate for Vice-President. The fourth ballot was : McLean, 0„ 
296; Sewall, Me,, 262; Daniel, Va., 54; Clark, N. C, 46; Williams, Mass., 19; Harrity, Pa., 11; Pattison, 
Pa., 1 ; not voting, 252. No record was kept of the fifth ballot, aa the States began to change to Sewall 
before the result could be ascertained, and finally the nomination was made unanimous. 

PEOPLE'S PARTY NATIONAL CONVENTION. 

The People's Party National Convention, at St. Louis, July 25, nominated William J. Bryan for 
President on the fii-st ballot, which was: Bryp.n, 1,042; Norton, 321; Debs, 8; Donnelly, 1; Coxey, 1. 

There was one ballot for a candidate for Vice-President, as follows : Watson, 561 6-9 ; Sewall, 256 3-6 , 
Mimms, 127 5-16 ; Burkett, 193M ; Skinner, 142H ; Page, 89 5-16. Changes were then made to Watson 
giving him 721 votes. Necessary to a choice, 699. 



100 The National Political Conventions in 1896.— Continued. 

NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION. 

The National Democracy, at their National Convention at Indianapolis, September 3, nominated 
Senator John M. Palmer for President on the first ballot. There were but two candidates, and the re- 
sult of the ballot was as follows: John M. Palmer, 763J^; Edward S. Bragg, of Wisconsin, ViA}^. 
Necessary to a choice, 592. 

General Simon B. Buckner, of Kentucky, was nominated for Vice-President by acclamation. 

OTHER NATIONAL CONVENTIONS. 

The Socialist Labor National Convention, at New York, July 9, nominated Charles H. Matchett for 
President on the first ballot, which was as follows : Matchett, New York, 43 ; Maguire, New Jersey, 23; 
Watkins, Ohio, 4 ; Pease, Massachusetts, 1. 

Matthew Maguire, of New Jersey, was nominated for Vice-President by acclamation. 

The Prohibition Party National Convention, at Pittsburgh, May 28, nominated Joshua Levering, of 
Maryland, for President and Hale Johnson, of Illinois, for Vice-President, The members of the conven- 
tion who favored free silver and a broader platform than that adopted by the convention, which was 
restricted to the liquor prohibition issue, withdrew and organized another convention, at which they 
nominated Charles E. Bentley, of Nebraska, for President, and James H. Southgate, of North Carolina, 
for Vice-President. 



!I?(rattonal Bttnocratic Katitinal antr State (ttymnxittttn. 



NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE. 

Appointed by the National Convention at Indianapolis, Ind., September 2, 



Chaifmavt. Wm. D. Bynttm. 

Secretary John P. Frenzel. 

Alabama J. M. Falkner. 

Arizona P. J. Cole. 

Arkansas C. B. Moore. 

California E. B. Pond. 

Colorado Louis R. Ehrich. 

Connecticut Joel A. Sperry. 

Delaware John S. Rossell. 

Florida D. G. Ambler. 

Georgia Thos. F. Oorrigan. 

Illinois Ben. T. Cable. 

Indiana John R. Wilson. 

Iowa L. M. Martin. 

Kansas,, .„,,«, .Eugene Hagan. 



Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

NewHampshire, 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 



Zack Phelps. 
M. R. Spelman. 
C. Vey Holman. 
Wm P. Whyte. 
N, Mathews, Jr. 
Thos. A. Wilson. 
F.W. M.Cutcheon. 
H. M. Street. 
L. C. KrautholT. 
A. H. Nelson. 
Euclid Martin. 
Gordon Woodbury 
William J. Curtis. 
Wm. B. Childers. 
Charles Tracejr. 



North Carolina. 
North Dakota . . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . 
Rhode Island.. 
South Carolina. 
South Dakota . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington . . . 
West Virginia. 
Wisconsin 



, 1896. 

Louis de Lacroix. 
H. L. Whithed. 
Talfourd P. Linn. 
C. E. S. Wood. 
S. T. McCormick. 
C. C. Mumford. 
W. R. Davie. 
John B. Hanten. 
Michael Savage. 
M. L. Crawford. 
W. H. Creamer. 
Joseph Bryr.n. 
Hugh O.Wallace. 
R. Stalnaker. 
EUis B. Usher. 



STATE COMMITTEES. 

Chairmen and Secretaries of State Committees. 



States. 


Cliainnen- 


Post-Offices. 


Secretaries. 


Post-Offices, 


Alabama 


Thomas H. Clark 

William J. Mills 

John S. Dobbs 


Montgomery 

New Haven 

Wilmington 

Jacksonville 

Atlanta 


George W. Jones 

Fred. J. Brown 

John Dunnine 


Montgomery. 


Connecticut 

Delaware . 


Waterbury. 

Wilmington. 

Jacksonville. 


Florida 


Arthur Meigs 


James I. Munoz 

Hooper Alexander 

R. E. Spangler 

George W. McDonald . 
Vacant. 

Charles J. Lantry 

A. J. Carroll 


Georgia 


Thomas P. Corrigan. . . 

A. A. Goodrich 

Samuel C. Pickens 

W. C. Mullin 


Atlanta. 


Illinois 


Chicago 


Chicago. 
Indianapolis. 


Indiana 


Indianapolis 

Marshalltowu 

Topeka 


Iowa 




Kansas 


Eugene Hagan 


Topeka. 


Kentucky 


George W. Davie 

Donelson CafEery 

C. Vey Holman 

John J. Donaldson 

Nathan Mathews, Jr. . 
W.R. Shelbv 


Louisville 


Louisville. 


Louisiana 


Franklin. .......... 


E. J. Faure 


New Orleans. 


Maine. 


Rockland 


Vacant. 

Leigh Bonsai 




Marvland 


Baltimore 


Baltimore. 


Massachusetts. 


Boston 

Grand Rapids 

St. Paul 


John C. Lane 


Boston. 


Michifiran ... 


J. C. Holt 


Grand Rapids. 
St. Paul. 


Minnesota 


Robert A.Smith 

Thomas Campbell 

T. J. Mahoney 


Jarcd How 


Missouri 


St. Louis 


Ed. Cunningham 

Frank Haller 


St. Louis, 


Nebraska 


Omaha 

Manchester 

Hackensack 

Albuquerque 

New York 


Omaha. 


New Hampshire . . . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 


Gordon Woodbury 

Henry D. Winton 

W. B. Childers 

Robert A. Widemann. 
W.E. Ashley 


E.J. Burnham 

A T Holly 


Manchester. 
Hackensack. 


William C. Meehan 

Calvin Tomkins 

Louis de Lacroix 

H. H. McMahon 

Thomas G. Greene 

J. P. J. Sensendorfer. . 

Samuel H. Bullock 

W. D. Morris 


Albuquerque. 
New York^ 


North Carolina. . 


Raleieh.. 


Raleigh. 


Ohio 


James Caren 


Columbus 


Columbus. 


Oregon 


Walter E. Carll 

W. B. Given 

Augustus S. Miller 

JohnB. Hanten 

Michael Savage 

John N. Simpson 

John D. Johnson 

T. M. Logan 


Oregon City 

Philadelphia 

Providence 

Watertowu 

Nashville 


Oregon Oity. 
Philadelphia. 
Providence. 
Watertowu. 


Pennsylvania 

Rhode Is land 

South Dakota 


Tennessee 


Vacant. 

J. A. Reed 




Texas 


Dallas 


Dallas. 


Vermont ....... 


Northfield 

Richmond 


C. F. Childs 


Brattleboro. 


Virginia 


Harvey L. Wilson. .... 
J. T. Waters 


Richmond. 


West Virginia. 

Wisconsin 


Z. T. Vinson 


Hunti ngton 

Milwaukee 


Himtington. 


Ellis B. Usher 


JohnB. Webb 


Milwaukee. 



In the States in which the party isnot yet organized, all communications should be addressed to, and 
business transacted through, the National Committeemen thereof. 



DemoGratic N^ational and State Committeesi 



101 



democratic National antr <Statc (^ommittrcjs* 



DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE. 

Appointed by the Democratic National Convention at Chicago, July, 1896. 



ChairrMtn James K. Jones . . Wash'gt'n, Ark 

Secretary, O. A. Walsh Ottumwa, la. 

I¥easurer.\, ...„.Wm. P. St. John. . .N Y. City. 

Alabama Henry D. Clayton.. Euf aula. 

Alaska Chas. D. Rogers — Sitka. 

Arizona Marcus A. Smith .. Phoenix. 

Arkansas Thomas O. McRae.Prescott. 

California J. J. Dwyer San Francisco. 

Colorado Adair Wilson Durango. 

Connecticut, Alexander Troup. ..New Haven. 

Delaware Richard R.Kenney. Dover. 

Dis.of Columbia. Lawrence Gardner. Washington. 

Florida Samue 1 Pasco Monticello. 

Georgia Clark Howell, Jr.. .Atlanta. 

Idaho George Ainslie Boise City. 

Illinois Thomas Gahan Chicago. 

Indiana John G. Shanklin..Evansville. 

Indian Territory. Thomas Marcum . , Muscogee. 

Iowa C. A. Walsh Ottumwa. 

Kansas J. G. Johnson Peabody. 

Kentucky Urey Woodson Owensboro. 

Louisiana N. O. Blanchard. ..Shreveport. 

Maine Seth 0. Gordon, ...Portland. 

Maryland Arthur P. Gorman. Laurel. 

Massachusetts. . .John W. Corcoran. Boston. 

Michigan D. J. Oampau Detroit. 

Minnesota T. D. O'Brien St. Paul. 



Mississippi W.V.Sullivan 

Missouri William J. Stone.. 

Montana John J. McHatton. 

Nebraska W. H. Thompson . 

Nevada Clayton Belknap.. 

New Hampshire. True L. Norris. . . . 

New Jersey Phil ip D. Baker . . 

New Mexico F. A. Manzanares. 

New York Frank Campbell.. 

North Carolina. .Josephus Daniels. 

North, Dakota ... I. P. Baker 

Ohio John R. McLean. . 

Oklahoma White M. Grant. .. 

Oregon J. H. Townsend... 

Pennsylvania. . . .William F.Harrity 

Rhode Island Rich. B. Comstock 

South Carolina.. B. R. Tillman 

South Dakota.. . .James M. Woods. . 

Tennessee James M. Head 

Texas James G. Dudley . . 

Utah A. W.McCune 

Virginia Peter J. Otey 

Vermont BradleyB.Smalley 

Washington Wm. H. White 

West Virginia. . .John T. McGraw. . 

Wisconsin E. C. Wall 

Wyoming Wm. H. Holliday,, 



Oxford. 
Jefferson City. 
.Butte City. 
.Grand Island. 
.Virginia City. 
. Portsmouth. 
. Bridgetown. 
.E. Las Vegas. 
.Buffalo. 
.Raleigh. 
.Bismarck. 
.Cincinnati. 

Oklahoma City 

Dallas. 

Philadelphia. 

Providence. 

Trenton. 

Rapid City. 

Nashville. 

Paris. 

Salt Lake City. 

Lynchburg. 

Burlington. 

Seattle. 

Grafton. 

Milwaukee. 

Laramie. 



STATE COMMITTEES. 



States. 


Chairmen. 


Post-Offices. 


Secretaries. 


1 Post-Offices. 


AliLhtAina 


John B. Knox 


Anniston 


Nathan L. Miller 

Reese M. Ling 

Gray Carroll 

R. P. Troy 

Rod. S. King 

George A. Smith 

William Saulsbury. . . 

John C. Cooper 

Douglas Glessner. . . . 

W.O. Critter 

Theodore Nelson 

S.L.Wallace 

E. M. Carr 

W. H. L. Pepperell... 

R. O. Cochran 

R. S. Landry 


. Birmingham. 
Prescott 


A H zona 


W. A Rowe 


Prescott 

Morrillton 


A rk Ansas .......... 


Carroll Armstrong. . . . 
W. H. Alford 


Little Rock 


Dalifornia ... ... 


Visalia 


- San Ttafafll 


Colorado 


Vacant 




. Lead vi lie 


Connecticut 

Del aware ...... .... 


Alexander Troup 

John Brifirers . 


New Haven 

Wilmington 

Tallahassee 

Marietta 


. Wallingford. 
Dover 


Florida 


W. A. Rawls 

A. S. Clay 


. Jacksonville. 


Georeia 


. Americus. 


Idaho 


James A. McGee 

W. H. Hinrichsen 

Parks M. Martin 

Vacant • .... 


Boise 

Jacksonville 

Spencer 


. Boise. 


Illinois . . 


. Chicago. 

. Indianapolis. 

. Manchester. 


Indiana 


Iowa 


Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 


J. M. Love , 

P. P. Johnston 

E. B. Kruttschnitt 

Geo. E. Hughes 

H. W. Talbott 


Arkansas City 

Lexington 

New Orleans 

Bath 


. Concordia. 
. Normandy. 
. 'New Orleans. 


Maine 


Fred. E. Beane 

Spencer Watkins 

N. G. Robinson 

G.Walter Mead 

Thomas J. MuUane.. . 

C. M. Thurman 

F.B.Love 

John G. Morony 

Lee Herdman 

Thomas H. Crane 

Daniel M. White 

William K.Devereux. 

Rafael Romero 

John B. Judson 

John W. Thompson. . 

E. C. Carruth 

W. A. Taylor 

Frank Stevens 

George E. Stout 

Matt. Savage 

John E. Conley 

U. X. Gunter, Jr 

E. M. O'Brien 

S. B. Williamson 

A. M. Kennedy 

E. A. McDaniel 

John H. Senter 

Joseph Button 

Vacant. 

William A, Ohley 

C.J.Noel 

LS. Bartlett 


. Hallowell. 


Maryland 


Rockville 


. Bethesda. 


Massachusetts 


John W. Corcoran 

Fred. A. Baker 

Thomas J.McDermott. 

C. M. Williamson 

S. B.Cook 

Wm M. Cockrill 

James 0. Dahlman. . . 

Joseph R. Ryan 

John T. Amey 


Clinton 


. Boston. 


Michigan 


Detroit 


Detroit 


Minnesota 


St. Paul 


St. Paul. 


Mississippi 


Jackson 


. Jackson. 


Missouri 


Mexico 


. Springfield. 
. Deer Lodge. 
Omaha 


Montana 


GreatFalls 

Chadron 


Nebraska 


Nevada 


Virginia City 

Lancaster 

Newark 


. Virginia City. 
. Peterborough. 


New Hampshire. . . 


New Jersey 


Edward L. Price 

J. H. Crist 


. Asbury Park. 


New Mexico 


Santa Fe 


. Santa Fe. 


New York 


Elliot Danforth 

Clement Manly 

Thomas Kleinogle 

Daniel McConville 

J J. O'Rourick 

F. A. E. Starr 


NewYorfeCity.... 
Winston 


. Johnstown. 


North Carolina. . . . 


. Raleigh. 


North Dakota 


Fargo 


. Grand Forks. 


Ohio 


Washington, D. C. 
El Reno 


Columbus. 


Oklahoma 


Waukomis. 


Oregon 


Portland 

Wilkes-Barre 

Providence 

Columbia 

Groton 


. Portland. 


Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 


John M. Gorman 

Franklin P. Owen 

D. H. Tompkins 

John A. Bowler 

James M. Coleman 

J. W. Blake 


. Clearfield. 
. Providence. 
. Columbia. 
Yankton. 


Tennessee 


Memphis 


. Nashville. 


Texas l 


Mexia 


. Mexia. 


Utah 


Orlando W. Powers . . . 

H. F. Brigham 

J. Taylor Ellyson 

Henry Drum 


Salt Lake City 

Bakersfield 

Richmond 


. Salt Lake City 


Vermont 


. Montpelier. 


Virginia 


. Appomattox. 


Washington 


Tacoma 




West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 


Andrew Edmiston 

George W. Peck 

Chas. E. Blydenburgh. 


Charleston 

Milwaukee 

Rawlins 


Charleston. 

Marinette. 

Cheyenne. 



102 iacpuitJlican National antr ^tutt (H^ommitUtH. 

REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE. 
Appointed by the National Republican Convention at St. Louis, Mo., June, 1896, 



Chairman Mark Hanna Cleveland, O. 

„ ^ . (Charles Dick Chicago, 111. 

Secretaries |william Osborne. .New York. 

Treasurer C. N. Bliss New York. 

Alabama Wm. Youngblood.. Birmingham. 

Alaska S. C. Johnson Juneau. 

Arizona W. Griffith Florence. 

Arkansas Powell Clayton Eureka Springs 

California J. D. Spreckels San Francisco. 

Colorado J. F. Saunders Denver. 

Connecticut S. Fessenden Stamford. 

Delaware James H. Wilson. .Wilmington. 

Dist. Columbia. .Myron M. Parker. .Washington. 

Florida J. O. Long St. Augustine. 

Georgia Judson W. Lyon. ..Atlanta. 

Idaho George F. Shoup. ..Salmon City. 

Illinois T.N. Jamieson Chicago. 

Indiana W. T. Durbin Anderson. 

Indian Ter J. S. Hammer Ardmore. 

Iowa A. B. Curamins Des Moines. 

Kansas Cyrus Lei and, Jr... Leavenworth. 

Kentucky John W, Yerkes. . .Danville. 

Louisiana A, T, Wimberleg. .New Orleans. 

Maine J. H. Manley Augusta. 

Maryland G. L. Wellington. .Cumberland. 

Massachusetts. . .George H. Lyman.. Boston. 

Michigan George L. Maltz Detroit. 

Minnesota F. L. Hubbard Red Wing. 



Mississippi James Hill Vicksburg. 

Missouri R. C. Kerens St. Louis. 

Montana Ohas. E. Leonard . . Butte. 

Nebraska J. M. Thurston Omaha. 

Nevada C. H. Sproule Elko. 

New Hampshire. P. C Cheney Concord. 

New Jersey G. A. Hobart Paterson, 

New Mexico Thos. B. Catron . . .Santa Fe. 

New York Fred. S. Gibbs New York. 

North Carolina. .J. E. Boyd Greensboro. 

North Dakota W. H. Robinson Mayville. 

Ohio Charles L. Kurtz. .Columbus. 

Oklahoma Henry E. Asp Guthrie. 

Oregon G«orge A. Steele. . . Portland. 

Pennsylvania.. . .Matthew S. Quay. .Beaver. 

Rhode Island Charles Brajrton. . .Providence. 

South Carolina.. E. A. Webster Orangeburg. 

South Dakota A. B. Kittredge Sioux Falls. 

Tennessee W. P. Brownlow. . . Jonesboro. 

Texas John Grant Sherman. 

Utah L. R, Rogers Salt Lake. 

Vermont Geo. W. Ohilds .... St. Albans. 

Virginia G. E. Bowden Norfolk. 

Washington P. O. Sullivan Tacoma. 

West Virginia. . . N. B. Scott Wheeling. 

Wisconsin Henry O. Payne Milwaukee. 

Wyoming W. Vftudevanter. , .Oheyenne. 



REPUBLICAN STATE COMMITTEES. 



Chairmen and Secretaries of the Committees appointed by the last Republican State (and Territorial) 

Conventions. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Lousiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire. 

New Jjrsey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina.. 
North Dakota.... 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 



Pennsylvania. . . 

Rhode Island... 
South Carolina. 
South Dakota... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington. ... 
West Virginia. . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Chairmen. 



William Vaughan 

J.M. Ford. 

Henry Ijfl.. Cooper , 

Frank McLaughlin 

Richard Broad, Jr 

O. R. Tyler 

Hugh O, Bowne 

John E. Hillman 

Alfred E. Buck 

Mart. Patrie 

Charles P. Hitch 

John K. Gowdy 

H. G. McMillan 

James M. Simpson.... 

O. M. Bamett 

W. E. Howell 

Joseph H. Manley 

Georg.9 L. Wellington. 

Geo. H. Lyman 

Dexter M. Ferry 

ElyS. Wirner 

Sam. P. Hurst 

Chauncey I. Filley 

Louis H. Hershfield. . , 

E. J. Hainer 

R K. Colcord 

John A. Spalding 

Frank! in Murphy 

E. L. Bartlett 

Charles W. Hackett. . . 

Albert E. Holton 

E. C Cooper 

Charles L. Kurtz 

Wm. Grimes 

Solomon Hirsch 

John P. Elkin 



Post-Offices. 



Hunter O. White... 
R. R. Tolbert, Jr... 
J. D.Elliot 

D. B. Ciiffe 

E. H. R. Green 

Olin Morrill 

William Lamb 

Scott Swetland 

W. M. O. Dawson... 

Edwin D. Coe 

Francis E. Warren. 



Birmingham 

Phoenix 

Little Rock 

Oroville 

Golden 

Torrington 

Wilmington 

Jacksonville 

Atlanta 

Market Lake 

Rushville 

Rock Rapids 

McPherson 

Hartford 

Thibodeaux. 

Augusta 

Cumberland 

Boston 

Detroit 

St. Paul 

Clarksdale 

St.Louis 

Helena 

xxUrora .....•■•••■• 

Carson City. 

Nashua 

Newark 

Santa Fe 

Utica 

Winston 

Fargo 

Columbus 

Kingfisher 

Portland 

Indiana < 

Providence 

Greenwood 

Tyndall 

Franklin 

Terrell 

Enosburg Falls 

Norfolk 

Vancouver 

King^vood 

Whitewater.. ...... 

Cheyenne 



Secretaries. 



C. F. Johnson , 

W. O. Barnes , 

M. W. Gibbs , 

M. R Higgins , 

Wm. R. Freeman , 

Samuel A. Eddy , 

W. O. R. Colquhoun. . 

Joseph E. Lee 

John H. Deveaux 

C. J. Bassett , 

J. R. B. Van Cleave. . 

R. E. Mansfield , 

I. M. Treynor ,. 

J. L. Bristow 

William E.Riley.:.... 

John S. Dennee 

Byron Boyd 

Henry Lingenf elder. . 
Thomas Talbot 

D. E. Alward , 

E. M. Johnson 

T. V. McAllister 

Albert Griff en 

Thomas B. Miller 

T. E. Sedgwick 

E. D. Vanderlieth 

James O. Lyf ord 

John Y. Foster 

Max Frost 

John S. Kenyon 

W. S. Hyams 

A. B. Guptill 

William S. Matthews. 

H. F. Ardery 

O. N. Denny 

Jero. B, Rex 

W. R. Andrews 

Eugene F. Warner 

James H. Johnson 

R. S. Person 

A. M. Tillman 

W. Edgar Easton 

Frederick E. Burgess.. 

Asa Rogers 

Frank J. Kmghom 

A. B. White 

John M. Ewing 

B. F. Fowler 



Post- Offices. 

Mobile. 

PhcBnix. 

Little Rock. 

San Francisco. 

Denver. 

Canaan. 

Wilmington. 

Jacksonvill*. 

Savannah. 

Blackfoot. 

Chicago. 

Muncie. 

Council Bluifs. 

Ottawa. 

Louisville. 

New Orleans. 

Augusta. 

Baltimore. 

Billerica. 

Clare. 

MinneapoliB. 

Vicksburg. 

St. Louis. 

Helena. 

York. 

Carson City. 

Concord. 

Newark. 

Santa Fe. 

Syracuse, 

Bakersville. 

Fargo. 

Columbus. 

Guthrie. 

Portland. 

Huntingdon. 

Meadville. 

Providence. 

Charleston. 

Yankton. 

Nashville. 

San Antonio. 

Burlington. 

Petersburg. 

Vancouver. 

Parkersbury. 

Milwaukee. 

Cheyenne. 



National Itepuhlican League of the United States. 103 

' J^ttMj^Wn parts National (tumvxiitu. 

0hminnan Maeion Butler, Raleigh, N. 0. 

t, ^ i 5 J. A. Edgskton, Lincoln, Neb. 

Secretaries |jyj c. Rankin, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Ala R. F. Kolb Birminprham.R. H.Seymour Livingston ..K. S. Woodi-ufE Anniston. 

Ariz ...W. O. O'Neill Prescott Dr. A, H, Noon Oro Blanco.. Kesn St. Charles.. Kingman. 

Ark.... J. R. Sovereign Sulphur SpgsA. W. Files Little Rock.. J. O. A. Bush Prescott. 

Oal John S. Dore Fresno E.M.Hamilton Los Angeles. F. Houghton Corning. 

Ool John O. Bell Montrose H.S.Tompkins J. H. Voorhees Pueblo. 

Conn ..W. W. Wheeler Meriden Dr. J. Perkins Danielson H. C.Baldwin Naugatuck, 

Del Benj. L. Kent Wilmington. C. Beadenkopf Wilmington. Geo. L, Norris Wilmington. 

D. of O.J. H. Turner Washington. Rev. A. Kent Washington . H. B. Martin Washington. 

Flor S. S. Harvey Quintette.... F. H. Lytle Stanton J. F. Rhoads Jacksonville. 

Ga J. L. Sibley Marietta H. W. Reed Brunswick. .. Cary J. Thornton.. Columbus. 

Idaho.. J. H. Anderson Weiser A. J. Cook Fayette Ed. Boyce Wallace. 

Illinois H. E. Taubeneck . . Marshall .... J. D. Hess Pittsfield Eugena Smith Chicago. 

Ind Joshua Strange.. ..Arcana D. H. Fernandes. .Anderson W. S. Austin New Albany. 

Ind.T..W. H.Watkins Alton G. W. Payne Whitefield. ..A.B.Weakley Comanche. 

Iowa...W. H. Robb Creston S. B. Crane Des Moines. .J. E. Anderson Forest City. 

Kansas J. W. Breidenthal.Topeka J. M.Allen Erie W. D. Vincent Clay Centre. 

Ky A. H. Cardin Marion John G.Blair Carlisle W. B. Bridgeford.. Frankfort. 

La A. A. Gunby Monroe J. T. Howell Baton Rouge.E. O. Dillon Many. 

Maine.. L. C. Bateman Auburn L. W. Smith Vinalhaven. Henry Betts Ellsworth. 

Md CM. Kemp Baltimore.. .Hiram Vrooman... Baltimore T. C.Jenkins Pomonkey. 

Mass. ..G. F. Washburn. ..Boston E. Gerry Brown Brockton P. J. Gardener Danvers. 

Mich ..John O. Zabel Petersburg... Jas. E. McBride. ..Gr'ndRapidsBenj. Colvin St. Charles. 

Minn. ..W. R. Dobbyn Minneapolis. T. J. Meighen Forestville..J. M. Bowler Bird Island. 

Miss R. K. Prewitt Ackerman. ..Frank Burkitt Okolona T. L. McGehee Summit. 

Mo P. J. Dixon Chillicothe . . J. H. Hillis McFall Dr. DeWitt Eskew.Poplar Bluffs 

Mont. ..A. E. Spriggs Townsend M. L. Stewart Mason Mrs. E.K. Haskell. Helena. 

Neb....Wm. V. Allen Madison J. H. Edmisten.... Lincoln D. Clem. Deaver.. Omaha. 

Nev J. B. McCullough.Reno C. E. Allen Eureka J. C Doughty Deeth. 

N. H...D. B. Currier Hanover G. J. Greenlief Portsmouth . George D. Epps. . .Francistown. 

N.J J. R. Buchanan Newark John Wilcox Bridgeton, . .Eltweed Pomeroy, Newark. 

N. M. ..M, P. Stamm AlbuquerqueT. B. Mills Las Vegas — Thos. F. Kelcher.. Albuquerque 

N. Y. ..O.R. White Miller Crnrs.Lafe Pence N. Y. City. ..L. J. McParlan. ...Lockport. 

N. O Marion Butler Raleigh Z. T. Garrett Henderson. . .J. L.Ramsey Raleigh. 

N. Dak. Walter Muir Hunton Dr W. A. Bentley. Bismarck. . ..N. O. Noben Grafton. 

Ohio... J. S. Ooxey Ma8sillon....Hugh Preyor Cleveland. ..D. D. Chidester N. Waterford 

Okla...J. S. Soule Guthrie R. E. Bray Enid W. H. French Chandler. 

Oregon. J. W. Marksbury. .Gold Hill John O. Luce John Day... .John W. Jory Salem. 

Penna.. Jerome 1 B. Aiken. Washington, W. M. Deisher Reading V. A. Lotier Danville, 

S. Dak. A. J. Plowman Deadwood...H. S. Volknar Milbank H. P. Smith Madison. 

Tenn ..J. H. McDowell. ..Union City. .J. P. Buchanan.. . .Wayside J.W.James Chattanooga. 

Texas . 0. S. Granberry Austin H. L. Bentley Abilene Harry Tracy Dallas. 

Utah ..James Hogan Ogden Mrs. K.S. Hilliard.Ogden H. W. Lawrence. . .Salt Lake Cty 

Va G. W. B. Hale Rocky Mount J. H. Hobson Belona J. W. McGavock.. Graham Frge 

Vt A. J. Beebe Swanton A. T. Way Burlington ..C. S. Louis So. Reading. 

Wash..E. W, Way Seattle A. P. Tugwell Chehalis C. W. Young Pullman. 

W.Va..N. W. Fitzgerald.. Terra Alta...W. R. Neale Parkers burg. H. T. Houston Alderson. 

Wis....Robt. Schilling Milwaukee ..CM. Butt Viroqua William Munro W. Superior. 

Wyo t . .L. 0. Tidball ,,,,, .Sheridan Earl Hotfer Sundance. . . .Peter Espersou, , . . Cheyenne. 



<SottaliJSt Hatjor J^art^. 

NatUynal Corresponding and Financial Secretary— ^enrj Kuhn, 184 William Street, New York 
City. Recording Secretary — Charles B. Copp. TVeot-swrer— Henry Htahl . National Executive Coinmittee— 
The preceding and William N. Reed, L. A. Malkiel, Charles Franz, Theodore Retzlaff, and August 
Waldinger. 

The party i3 organized in local organizations known as "sections," such sections existing in 
twenty-seven States of the Union. Any ten persons in any city or town of the United States may form 
a section, providing they acknowledge the Platform and Constitution of the Socialist Labor Party and 
do not belong to any other political party. In places, where no section exists, or where none can be 
formed, any person complying with the aforesaid provisions may become a member-at-large upon 
application to the National Executive Committee. Sections are not permitted to charge initiation 
fees. All questions of importance arising within the party are decided by general vote. At each 
meeting of the section a chairman is elected, and the same rule holds good with all standing committees. 



"National i^tputilican ILtasue of tf)r Winitfn ^tattn. 

The National Republican League of the United States was organized in Chickering Hall, New 
York City, December 15-17, 1887, by delegates from about 350 Republican clubs of the United States, 
assembled in national convention, pursuant to a call issued by the Republican Club of New York 
City. It is composed of the Republican clubs of the United States, organized by States and united in a 
national organization. Its purpose is "Organization and Education." It aims to enlist recruits for 
the Republican party, particularly the younger men and the "first voters. " National conventions 
have since been held at Baltimore, Md. , February 28, ,889; Nashville, Tenn., March 4, 1890; Cin- 
cinnati, O. , April 23. 1891; Buffalo, N. Y. , September 16, 1892; Louisville, Ky. , May 10, 1893; 
Denver, Col., June 26, 1894; Cleveland, O. , June 19, 1895, and Milwaukee, Wis., August 25, 1896. 
Officers— I^esident, D. D. Woodmansee, Ohio; T)-easurerJ^.T. Bliss, Michigan; Secretary, M. J. Dow- 
Ung, Minnesota. Headquarters, Auditorium Hotel, Chicago. Next annual convention, Detroit, 
Mich., second Tuesday in July, 1897. 



104 



ProJitJitton tlSTational (tommitUt. 



Florida. , 



Chairman 

Vice- Chairman 

Secretary 

Alabama J. C. Orr 

Arkansas Geo. C. Christian . 

California J. A. B. Wilson... 

J. W. Webb 

Colorado John Hipp 

Connecticut F. C. Bradley 

J. N. Stanley 

Dist. Columbia. H. B. Moulton .... 

J. R. Maloney 

Delaware J. R. Jewell 

Aloysius Green . . 
W. F. Alexander, . 

J. R. Finch 

Georgia Frank J. Sibley... 

A. A. De Loach... 
Illinois O. W. Stewart.... 

C. M. Whipple .... 
Indiana F. T. McWhirter . . 

Miss Mary Hadley 
J. A. Harvey 

W. L. Ferris 

Kentucky Geo. W. Bain 

J. H. Moore 

Maine Volney B. Gushing 

N. F. Woodbury . . . 
Maryland Edwin Higgins.... 

Levin S. Melson. .. 
Massachusetts.. Frank M. Forbush 

A. W. Richardson . 
Michigan Chas. P. Russell . . 

Fred. E. Britten . . 
Minnesota B. B. Haugan 

W, J. Dean 



Iowa 



Hartzell. 

Eureka Springs. 

Los Angeles. 

Fresno. 

Denver. 

North Haven. 

Highland Park. 

Washington. 

Washington. 

Smyrna. 

Whitesville. 

Waldo. 

Palatka. 

Atlanta. 

Atlanta. 

Mackinaw. 

Rockford. 

Indianapolis. 

Bloomingdale 

.Dallas. 



Lexington. 
Covington. 
. Bangor. 
, Auburn. 
Baltimore. 
Bishopville. 
Boston. 
Springfield. 
Detroit. 
Albion. 
Fergus Falls. 
Minneapolis. 



Samuel Dickie, Albion, Mich, 

James H. Tate, Nashville, Tenn, 

W. T. Wakdwell, 26 Broadway, New York. 

Mississippi Henry Ware Pass Christian. 

Missouri R. T. Bond. . Fayette. 

C. E. Stokes St. Louis. 

Montana E. M. Gardner Bozeman. 

NewHampshire H. O. Jackson Littleton, 

Isaac B. Vale Manchester. 

New Jersey W. H. Nicholson .. .Haddonfield. 

R. J. S. White Montclair. 

New York Wm. T. Wardwell. .New York City. 

Fred. F. Wheeler ..Albany. 
North Carolina. T. P. Johnson Salisbury. 

N. W, Newby Farmers. 

North Dakota. .H. M. Kiff Tower City. 

H. H Mott Grafton. 

Pennsylvania ..A. A. Stevens Tyrone. 

H. D. Patton Lancaster. 

Rhode Island ..H. B. Metcalf Pawtucket. 

Smith Quimby Providence. 

South Dakota. .J. A. Lucas Sioux Falls. 

J. F. Hanson Mt. Vernon. 

Tennessee J. A. Tate Nashville. 

R. S. Cheves Unicoi. 

Texas J. B. CranfiU Waco. 

E C. Heath Rockwall. 

Vermont O. W, Wyman Brattleboro. 

H. C. Barnes Swanton. 

Virginia J. W. Bodley Staunton. 

Washington C. Davis Seattle. 

West Virginia . T. R. Carskadon . . . Keyser. 

Frank Burt Mannington. 

Wisconsin S. D. Hastings Green Bay. 

O. B. Olsen Eau Claire. 



TSrational J^artg t^ational (JTcntral (tommitttt. 



Chairman 

Vice- Chairman. 
Secretary 



.L. B. Logan, Alliance, O. 
.John P. St. John, Olathe, Kan. 
.D. J. Thomas, Alliance, O. 



Arkansas Alex McKnight . . 

W. H. Smith 

California J. M. Glass 

C. H. Dunn 

Colorado David Tatum 

Frank H. Rogers . . 
Connecticut D. P. Lindley 

Joel Fox 

Delaware W. Wright Fisher.. 

Georgia John B. Stevens . . . 

Illinois Miss Lena Morrow . 

J. H Hoofstitler . . 
Indiana Mrs. H. M. Gougar. 

S. V. Wright 

Iowa Watson Roberts . .. 

H. C. Parker 

Kansas I. O. Pickering 

W. S. Hanna 

Kentucky S. J. Moore 

D.J. Thomas 

Maryland A. G. Eichelberger. 

W. Frank Mitchell. 
Massachusetts . Geo. Kempton 

Michigan Henry A. Reynolds. 

D. W. Grandon 

Minnesota D. H. Evans 

C. W, Howe 



Arkadelphia. 

Arkadelphia. 

Pasadena. 

Sacramento. 

Denver. 

Golden. 

Springdale. 

Willimantic. 

Drawbridge. 

Fitzgerald. 

Freeport. 

Sterling. 

La Fayette. 

Greensburg. 

Marshalltown. 

Marshalltown. 

Olathe. 

Kansas City. 

Lexington. 

Hodgenvillo 

Baltimore. 

Towson. 

Pawtucketville, 

Lowell. 
Pontiac. 
Adrian. 
Tracy. 
Minneapolis. 



Missouri 



Montana . 

Nebraska 



NewH'mpshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania . 

Rhode Island . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 



D. Ward King 

John E. Fessler 

Wilder Nutting 

Frank G. Odell .... 
Geo. W. Woodbey. . 
.Charles E. Doying. 

Chas. E. Drury 

Geo. H. Strobell ... 

W. F. Tower 

JohnLloyd Thomas 
Henry B. Hudson. . 

, J. H. Southgate 

J. M. Templeton. . . 

L. B. Logan 

Henriette G. Moore. 

J. A. Guss 

Amos Steelsmith . . 
.John H. Larry 

E. P. Durfee 

C. L. Brewer 

.Ed. S. Rodgers.... 

M. W Hall 

W. H. Gilstrop 

J. W. Range 

,W. E. Hensen 

A. P. Howard 

E. E. Dunn 

E. B. Knowlton .... 



Maitland. 

Springfield. 

Butte. 

Lincoln. 

Omaha. 

Nashua. 

Bath. 

Newark, 

Vineland. 

New York City. 

Ro'kvilleCenter 

Durham. 

Cary. 

Alliance. 

Springfield. 

Spring City. 

Butler. 

Providence. 

Arlington. 

Lancing. 

Hillsboro. 

Meltons, 

Tacoma. 

Seattle. 

Lewiston. 

Congo. 

Apple ton. 

Manstou. 



J^ount Vtvnon Hatrirs* ^sjsociation. 



TlTE "Washington estate at Mount Vernon, Va , is under the care and direction of the Mount 
Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union. The founder of the As.sociation, in 1854, \va.s Miss Ann 
Pamela Cunningham, of South Carolina. She was the first Regent, and was succeeded in 1873 in that 
position by Mrs. Macalester Laughton. She died in 1891, and the present Re§:ent is Mrs. Justine Van 
Rensselaer Townsend, of New York (a great-granddaughter of General Philip Schuyler, and great- 
great-granddaughter of Philip Livingston, the signer of the Declaration of Independence). There are 
Vice- Regents for thirty-two States. 

The Advisory Committee is composed of Mr. Justice Field, of the Supreme Court; T. N.McCarter, 
LL. D. , of New Jersey, and James C. Carter, of New York. The resident Superintendent at Mount 
Vernon is Harrison H. Dodge. 



Patriotic Order Sons of America. 105 

OFFICERS AND PLATFORM OF THE AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION. 

OFFICEES OF THE SUPREME COTHSTCIL, 

Past Supreme President and Founder— H.. F. Bowers, Clinton, la. 
Supreme President~W. J. H. Traynor, Detroit. I iSupreTTierreasMrer—H.M. Stack, So. Superior, "Wis. 
Sup. Vice-President— AdeimFa,wcett, Columbus, O. j Supreme ^S'ecretorjr—C.T.Beatty, E.Saginaw, Mich. 

Ttiere is an Advisory Board, composed of the State presidents and one delegate from each State 
CouuciL 

The founder of the A. P. A. is H. T. Bowers, of Clinton, la. , and the association was organized at 
that place March 13, 1887. It is a secret order, its members being bound by oath not to reveal its pro- 
ceedmgs. It claimed two years ago a membership of nearly 2,000,000 throughout the States and 
Territories and in Canada, but it is believed that the membership, and with it the influence of the asso- 
ciation, has greatly declined. Information as to its present status and organization is now refused to 
enquirers at headquarters. 

PliATFORM OF THE A. P. A, 

The following official declaration of principles was made at the annual meeting at Des Moines, in 
May, 1894 : 

Loyalty to true Amencanism, which knows neither birthplace, race, creed, nor party, Is the first requisite for membership in 
the American Protective Association. 

The American Protective Association is not a political party and does not control the political affiliation of its members, but it 
teaches them to be intensely active in the discharge of their political duties in or out of^ party lines, because it believes that all 
problems confronting our people will be best solved by a conscientious discharge of the duties of citizenship by every individual. 

While tolerant of all creeds, it holds that subjection to and support of any ecclesiastical power not created and controlled 
by American citizens and which claims equal if not greater sovereignty than the Government of the United States of America is 
irreconcilable with American citizenship. It is, therefore, opposed to the holding of offices in National, State, or municipal govern- 
ment by any subject or supporter of such ecclesiastical power. 

We uphold the Constitution of the United States of America and no portion of it more than its guaranty of religious liberty, 
but we hold this religious liberty to be guaranteed to the individual and not to mean that under its protection any un-American ec- 
clesiastical power can claim absolute control over the education of children growing up under the Stars and Stripes. We consider 
the non-sectarian public school the bulwark of American institutions, the best place for the education of American children. To 
keep them such we protest against the employment of subjects of any un-American ecclesiastical power as officers or teachers of our 
public schools. 

We condemn the support out of the public Treasury by direct appropriation, or by contract, of any sectarian school, reformatory, 
or other institution not owned and controUed by public authority. 

Believing that exemptioa from taxation is equal to a grant of public funds, we demand that no real or personal property be 
exempt from taxation the title to which is not vested in the National or State governments or in any of their subdivisions. 

We protest against the enlistment in the United States army, navy, or the militia of any State of any person not an actual 
citizen of the United States, 

We demand for the protection of our citizen laborers the prohibition of the importation of pauper labor and the restriction of all 
immigration to persons who can show their ability and honest intention to become self -supporting American citizens. 

We demand the change of naturalization laws by a repeal of the act authorizing the naturalization of minors without a previous 
declaration of intention, and by providing that no alien shall be naturalized or permitted to vote in any State in the Union who can- 
not speak the language of the land, and who cannot prove seven years' continuous residence in this country from the date of his 
declaration of intention. 

We protest against the gi-oss negligence and laxity with which the judiciary of our land administer the present naturalization 
laws and against the practice of natuializing aliens at the expenbeof candidates and coromittees as the most prolific cause of the 
present prostitution of American citizenship to the basest use. 

"We demand that all hospitals, asylums, reformatories, or other institutions in which people are under restraint be »t all times 
subject to public inspection, whether they are maintained by the public or by private corporations or individuals. 

We demand that all National or State legislation afEecting financial, commercial, or industrial interests be gen«r«l in character 
and in no iostsuce in favor of any one section of the country or of any one class of people. 



I^ational President— James A. Kilton, Denver, Col. National Vice-President— Chaxles F, Schaale, 
Mt. Carroll, 111. National Master of Forms— J. G. Horner, Palmyra, N. J. National Secretary- 
Frederick E. Stees, 524 North Sixth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. National Treasurer— John H. Hofier, 
Lebanon, Pa. National Chaplain— Hev. D. E. Bupley, Espy, Pa. 

This Order was organized in Philadelphia in 1847, as the ' ' Junior Sons of America, ' ' and was 
composed entirely of young men under twenty-one years of age. It had extended through several 
Eastern and Southern States when the Civil War broke out. After the restoration of peace the Order 
was reorganized . and is now established in nearly every State and Territory, with a claimed mem- 
bership of about 100 000. 

The Order has for its objects: ' ' To inculcate pure American principles; to teach loyalty to Ameri- 
can institutions; to cultivate fraternal affection; to- oppose foreign interference in State or National 
affairs; to oppose all appropriations of public moneys for sectarian purposes ; to preserxe the Constitu- 
tion of the United States; to defend and maintain the American system of public schools. Its im- 
mediate benefits are home benevolence, the care of its sick, the burial of its dead, the protection of 
and assistance to aU connected with it who may be m need. ' ' 

It is non-sectarian and non- political, and in the choice of church and party every member is free 
to exercise his individual right; but his duty is to insist that the acts of that church and party shall 
always be so directed as to promote our country' s welfare and protect its institutions. 

To be a member, one must be a male person " of good, moral character, sixteen years of age, a 
believer in the existence of a supreme being as creator and preserver of the universe, born on the 
soilor under the jurisdiction of the United States of America, in favor of free education, opposed to 
anyunion of Church and State, and to the interference of any foreign power, directly or indirectly, 
with the Government. ' ' 

The organization of the Order consists of a supreme body, styled the National Camp, with State 
Camps and Subordinate Camps. Subordinate Camps are under the jurisdiction of the National Camp 
until the number of Camps in the State warrants their being granted separate local management, 
when a State Camp is chartered and assumes control of all Camps in the State. The National Camp 
consistsof representatives from each State Camp and each subordinate jurisdiction under National 
Camp management. State Camps consist of delegates from each Subordinate Camp in the jurisdic- 
tion. Subordinate Camps are chartered by the National or State Camps having jurisdiction, and are 
I all named in honor of "Washington, being numbered separately in each State or Territory. 



106 National Farmers^ Alliance and Industrial Union. 

National iFarmers^ Alliance* 



T, Bedard, Frenchtown, Mont. ; J. Burrows, 

Lincoln, Neb. 
Secretary and 2V«amrer— August Post, Moulton, 

Iowa. 
Lecturer— OtQorge E. Lawrence, Marion, Ohio. 



iVesideni— Edward Furnas, Nevada, Iowa. 
Vice-Presidents— ¥..3. Bye, West Branch, Iowa; F. 

E. Fitch, Bellevue, Ohio ; Wm. Toole, Barraboo, 

Wis. ; T. J. Meighen, Forestville, Minn. ; A, 

S. Brewer, Tampico, 111. ; W. A. Kelsey, 

Dunfee. Ind. ; J. W. Arrasmith, Colfax, Wash. ; 

The following resolutions were adopted by the Nationa Alliance at the sixteenth annual meeting:, 
held at Chicago, 111. , December 18, 1895: 

Whereas, The farmers of the United States outnumber any other class of citizens, furnish three- 
fourths of the commerce of the country, and the largest proportion of our export trade, and are com- 
pelled to pay the lion's share of the taxes of the country, and have always been loyal and faithful to 
the Government in time of war as well as in peace ; and, 

Whereas, We recognize the supremacy of law, the necessity of being subject to the sam^e, and of 
having persons duly authorized, to frame and enact them ; and. 

Whereas, We believe the people to be sovereign and the public officials are the servants of the 
people; and, 

Whereas, That the evils that now confront the farmer are the result of unfriendly legislation to 
the interest of agriculture; therefore, belt 

Resolved, 1. We demand in our monetary system a regular and equitable distribution Indepen- 
dent of selfish and greedy combinations, free from private manipulations, with stability as well as flex- 
ibility, and value as well as volume. 2. We demand that taxation, State, National, or municipal, 
shall not be used to build up one interest at the expense of another. 3. We demand the nationaliza- 
tion of the means of transportation and communication to the extent that the State and Interstate 
Commerce laws shall be made mutually cooperative and harmonious for the strict and absolute con- 
trol of the same in the interest of the people ; that the pooling clause of the Interstate Commerce law 
should be retained, as it promotes that healthy competition which tends to reduce freight charges to 
aminimum,whilepoolingsustaiusthematthe maximum. 4. Thatthe National Farmers' Alliancewill 
adhere to the principles set forth in our declaration of purposes, and maintain the order as the opponent 
of unjust trusts and combines, and favor the education of our membership in political sentiment, in 
harmony with our principles^ controlling no political party and being controlled by none, but each 
individual may use his own judgment in the exercise of his right of franchise and in his choice of 
methods by which our demands may be secured. 5. That we recommend to the Alliance the pro- 
gressive reading course for farmers, and the same be under full control of an advisory committee of the 
various organizations of the farmers, agricultural colleges, and experimental stations. 6. That a 
restricted franchise has ever been an instrument of oppression; that the right of elective franchise 
should be exercised without regard to sex, and there should be equal pay for equal work. 7. That the 
anti-option bill now pending in the United States Senate should be enacted into law. 8. That we favor 
such strict legislation, both State and National, as will prohibit the adulteration of all food products. 

The National Alliance is the general representative of the State alliances, which are organized in 
the States of Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Missouri, Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. 

The ZS^ational Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, a statement in reference to which appears 
below, is a separate organization covering all of the SoutherUj most of the Western, and some of the 
Eastern States, At its annual meeting in 1890, at Ocala, Fla., it adopted what is known as the Ocala 
platform. (See The World Almanac for 1891, page 93. ) 

tiSTational jFatmers* ^(Itance antr Kutrustrial 5In(on* 



President — Mann Page, Brandon, Va. 
Vice-President — Henry 0. Snavely, Lebanon, Pa. 
Secretary — R. A. Southworth, Denver, Ool. 
Lecturers — C Vincent, Indianapolis, Ind.; J. F. 
Willetts, Topeka, Kan.; Evan Jones, Dublin, Tex. 



National Executive Committee — Mann Page, Chair- 
man, Brandon, Va.; W. P. Bricker, Secretary, 
Cogan Station, Pa.; H. L. Loucks, Alturia, S. 
Dak.; J. F. Willetts, Topeka, Kan.; W. L. Peek. 
Conyers, G». 



PLATFORM. 

We demand a National currency, safe, sound, and flexible; issued by the General Government only; 
a full legal tender for all debts and receivable for all dues, and an equitable and efficient means of dis- 
tribution of this currency, directly to the people, at the minimum of expense and without the interven- 
tion of banking corporations, and in sufficient volume to transact the business of the country on a cash 
basis, (a) We demand the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the legal ratio of 16tol. 
(6) We demand a graduated income tax, (c) That our National legislation shall be so framed in the 
future as not to build up one industry at the expense of another, (d) We believe that the money of the 
country should be kept as much as possible in the hands of the people, and hence we demand that all 
National and State revenues shall be limited to the necessary expenses of the Government economically 
and honestly administered, (e) We demand that postal savings banks be established by the Govern- 
ment for the safe deposits of the savings of the people, and to facilitate exchange, {f) We are unalter- 
ably opposed to the issue by the United States of interest-bearing bonds, and demand the payment of 
all coin obligations of the United States, as provided by existing laws, in either gold or silver coin, at 
the option of the Government and not at the option of the creditor. 

The Government shall purchase or construct and operate a sufficient mileage of railroads to effec- 
tually control all rates of transportation on a just and equitable basis. The telegraph and telephone, like 
the post-office system, being a necessity for the transmission of intelligence, should be owned and oper- 
ated by the Government in the interest of the people. We demand that no land shall be held by corpo- 
rations for speculative purposes or by railror.ds in excess of their needs as carriers, and all lands now 
owned by aliens should be reclaimed by the Government and held for actual settlers only. 

We demand the election of United States Senators by a direct vote of the people. "That each State 
shall be divided into two districts of nearly equal voting population, and that a Senator from each shall 
be elected by the people of the district. 

Relying upon the good, common sense of the American people, and believing that a majority of 
them, when uninfluenced by party prejudice, will vote right on all questions submitted to them on their 
merits, and further to effectually annihilate the pernicious lobby in legislation, we demand direct legis- 
lation by means of the initiative and referendum. 

The Union is in active operation in all the Southern and Western states (except Ohio and Wyoming), 
and in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 



The Single Tax. 107 



Natitinatl €rr«nir, jpatrcins of J^ustiantrrg* 

OFFICERS FOB 1895-97. 

Maiter-S. H. Brigham, Ohio. Overseer— Aaxon Jones, Indiana, iec^wrer— Alpha Messer, Ver- 
mont. Steward— lohn T, Cox, New Jersey. Assistant Steward— 1. A. Newcomb, Colorado. Cliaplain— 
O. H. Hale, New York. Treasurer— Mr^. E. S. McDowell, New York. /Secretory— John Trimble, Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Qate-Keepei — W. E. Harbaugh, Missouri. Ge?-es— Mrs. Lucy G. Smith, Ohio. 
J°icmwma— Mrs. Sarah G. Baird, Minnesota, i^ora— Mrs. E. L. A. Wiggin, Maine. L. A. Steward— 
Mrs. S. G. Knott, West Virginia. Executive Committee— L,. Rhone, Pennsylvania; J. J. Woodman, 
Michigan; N. J. Bachelder,New Hamipshire, and J. H. Brigham, Ohio, ex officio. Secretary' s Address 
—John Trimble, 514 F Street, Washington, D. C. 

The above were elected at the biennial meeting of the National Grange, held at Worcester, Mass., 
November 13, 1895. 

At the twenty-fifth annual meeting of the National Grange, held in 1891, the following statement 
of the results of the Grange movement in the first quarter centennial of its existence was adopted: 

1. The Grange has organized the farmers of America, who never before were organized. 

2. From a few scattered meetings held in valley, on mountain, or prairie, years ago, ithasgrown, 
until now, in a year at least a million and a half meetings are held. 

3. It has broadened the field of usefulness of woman, and has prepared her for her place in the 
true Republic, the full equal of man as a citizen. 

4. It has brought light, recreation, and good cheer to hundreds of thousands of rural homes. 

5. Prevented the renewal of patents on sewing miachines, thus saving to the people 50 per cent of 
their cost, which amounts to millions annually. 

6. Transportation companies were taught that the Creator is greater than the creature. See 
Granger cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States. 

7 . Had passed and have enforced the Oleomargarine law. 

8. Had passed laws somewhat restricting alien landlords and corporations from getting ffovern- 
ment land. 

9. Had Interstate Commerce law passed. 

10. Had Cabinet position created for Agriculture, thus giving the President's Cabinet a repre- 
sentative of the parent of all vocations. 

11. Has had agricultural colleges, experiment stations and farms, and farmerg' institutes estab- 
lished in many States of the Union. 

12 Has had some eflect on local and State tax levies, and established State Arbor Day. 

13. Has caused the Reform Ballot law to be passed in many States. 

14. Has increased State appropriations for public schools. 

15. Has at all times fostered the cause of free education. 

16. Has had passed the Filled Cheese bill. 

17. Local achievements, such as building halls, making roads, planting trees and vines, establish- 
ing libraries, reading rooms, banks, fire insurance companies, cooperative enterprises, trade card 
system, etc. , too numerous to mention, might be cited, 

18. Has established 27,379 subordinate Granges in forty- four States and Territories. 



Kfjt ^UxqU ^a^. 



The following has been adopted as the official statement of the single tax principle by the advocates 
thereof, Henry George, Chairman : 

We assert as our fundamental principle the self-evident truth enunciated in the Declaration of Amer- 
ican Independence, that all men are created equal and are endowed by their Creator with certain in- 
alienable rights. 

We hold that aU men are equally entitled to the use and enjoyment of what God has created and of 
what is gained by the general growth and improvement of the community of which they are a part. 
Therefore, no one should be permitted to hold natural opportunities without a fair return to all for any 
special privilege thus accorded to him, and that that value which the growth and improvement of the 
community attaches to land should be taken for the use of the community ; that each is entitled to all 
that his labor produces ; therefore, no tax should be levied on the products of labor. 

To carry out these principles, we are in favor of raising all public revenues for National, State, 
county, and municipal purposes by a single tax upon land values, irrespective of improvements, and 
all the obligations of all forms of direct and indirect taxation. 

Since in all our States we now levy some tax on the value of land, the single tax can be instituted 
by the simple and easy way of abolishing, one after another, all other taxes now levied and commen- 
surately increasing the tax on land values until we draw upon that one source for all expenses of gov- 
ernment, the revenue being divided between local governments. State government, and the general 
government, as the revenue from direct tax is now divided between the local and State governments, 
or by a direct assessment being made by the general governmeut upon the States and paid by them 
from revenues collected in this manner. 

The single tax would : 

lat. Take the -weight of taxation off the agricultural districts where land has little or no value Irrespective of improvements and 
put it on towns and cities where bare land rises to a value of millions of dollars per acre. 

2d. Dispense with a mnltiplicity of taxes and a horde of tax-gatherers, simplify government and greatly reduce its cost. 

3d. Do away with the fraud, corruption and gross inequality inseparable from our present methods of taxation, which allow the 
rich to escape wnile they grind the poor. 

4th. Give us with all the world as perfect freedom of trade as now exists between the States of our Union, thus enabling our 
people to share through free exchanges in all the advantages which nature has given to other countries, or which the peculiar skill of 
other peoples has enabled them to attain. It would destroy the trusts, monopolies and corruptions which are the outgrowth of the 
tarifE. 

5th. It would, on the other hand, by taking for public use that value which attaches to land by reason of the growth and im- 
provement of the community, make the holding of land unprofitable to the mere owner and profitable only to the user. It would thus 
make it impossible for speculators and monopolists to hold natural opportunities unused or only half used, and would throw open to 
labor the illimitable field of employment which the earth offers to man. It would thus solve the labor problem, do away with mv«l- 
untary poverty, raise wages in all occupations to the full earnings of labor, make overproduction impossible until all human wants are 
satisfied, render labor-saving inventions a blessing to all, and cause such an enormous production and such an equitable distribution of 
wealth as would give to all comfort, leisure and participation in the advantages of an advancing civilization. 

With respect to monopolies other than monopoly of land, we hold that when free competition be- 
comes impossible, as in telegraphs, railroads, water and gas supplies, etc. , such business becomes a 
proper social function which should be controlled and managed by and for the whole people concerned 
through their proper government, local. State, or National, as may be. 



108 



Labor Legislation. 



Enteral iLatitir i^^r^aniiations* 

American Federation of Labor.— President. Samuel Gompers, New York; Secretai^'i 
A. McCraith, Boston, Mass. About eighty national labor organizations, composed of about 7,000 
local unions, with an aggregate membership of over 650,000, affiliate under the above title and 
usually act together, although reserving the right to independent action. Organized at Columbus, 
Ohio, m December, 1886. 

Trades Union Alliance was organized in New York June 29, 1896, by labor unions se- 
ceding from the American Federation of Labor. Daniel De Leon was the first Chairman, and 
Ernest Bohm the Secretary at t.e organization meeting. 

Knights of Labor. —General Master Workman, Janaes R. Sovereign, Des Moines, Iowa; Gen- 
eral Worthy Foreman, Michael J. Bishop, Boston, Mass. ; General Secretary-Treasurer, John W. 
Hayes, Philadelphia, Pa. Headquarters, No. 814 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. This 
organization claims a membership of 200,000. General Assembly organized at Reading, Pa., in 1878. 

Independent Knights of Labor. - General Master Workman, William B. Wilson, Blossburg, 
Pa. ; General Worthy Foreman, James L. Michaels, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; General Secretary-Treasurer, 
Charles P. Martin, Tiffin, Ohio. Organized at Columbus, Ohio, February 14, 1895. 

American Kai'way Union.— President, Eugene V. Debs, Terre Haute, Ind. ; Vice-President, 
James Hogan; Secretary, Sylvester Keliher; Directors, William E. Burns, Martin J. Elliott, and 
Roy M. Goodwin. Organized in 1893 by the employes' unions of western and northwestern railroads. 

The larger trades unions, some of which are in affiliation with the American Federation of Labor, 
are the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, 60, 000; Associationof Iron and Steel Workers, 40, 000; 
International Typographical Union, 40,000; Bricklayers and Stonemasons' Union, 35,000; Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Engineers, 32,000; Cigar-makers' International Union, 30,000; Iron Moulders' 
Union of North America, 30,000; Brotherhood of Locomotive Trainmen, 25,000; Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Firemen, 22, OOO; International Association of Machinists, 20,000; United Mineworkers 
of America, 20,000; Journeyman Tailors' Union of America, 20,000. 

Statistics of ILaibor .Strifefs* 

From a report on the strikes in the United States from January 1, 1881, to June 30, 1894, com- 
piled by the United States Commissioner of Labor and completed in October, 1895, the following 
statistics are taken: 



Years. 


No. of 
Strikes. 

471 

454 

478 

443 

645 

1,432 

1,436 

906 

1,075 

1,833 

1,718 

1,298 

1,305 

896 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments 
AfEected 


Employes 
Thrown Out 
of Employ- 
ment. 


Per Cent 
of Estab- 
lishments 
Where 
Strikes Suc- 
ceeded. 


Wage Loss of Employes. 


Business Loss to Employers. 




Strikes. 


Lockouts. 


Strikes. 


Lockouts. 


1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894* 


2,928 
2,105 
2,759 
2,367 
2,284 
10,053 
6,689 
3,506 
3.786 
9,424 
8,117 
5,540 
4,555 
5,154 


129,521 
154,671 
149,763 
147,054 
242,705 
508,044 
379,726 
147, 704 
249,559 
251,944 
299,064 
206,671 
265,914 
482,066 


6L37 
53.59 
58.17 
51.50 
62.80 
34.45 
45.64 
52.22 
46.49 
62. 64 
37.87 
39.31 
60.82 
23.83 


$3,372,678 

9,864,228 

6,274.480 

7,666,717 

10,663,248 

14,992,453 

16,560,634 

6,377,749 

10,409,686 

13,876,338 

14,801,714 

10,772,622 

9,938,048 

28,238,471 


$18,619 

466,345 

1,069,212 

1,421,410 

901,173 

4,281,058 

4,233,700 

1,100,067 

1,379,722 

967,960 

883,709 

2,856,013 

6,659,401 

457,231 


$1,919,483 
4,269,094 
4,696,027 
3,393,073 
4,388,893 

12,357,808 
6,696,495 
6,609,017 
2,936,752 
5,133,404 
6,177,288 
6,146,691 
3,406,195 

16,567,166 


$6,960 

112,382 

297,097 

6-i0,847 

455,477 

1,949,498 

2,819,736 

1,217,199 

307,125 

486,268 

616, 888 

1,695,080 

1,034,420 

596,484 


Totals .... 


14,390 


«9,167 


3,714,406 


44.49 


$163,807,866 


$26,685,616 


$82,690,386 


$12,236,451 



* First six months. 



Hatior aefiislation. 



ANTI- BOYCOTTING AND ANTI- BLACKLISTING LAWa 

The States having laws prohibiting boycotting in terms are Illinois and Wisconsin. 

The States having laws prohibiting blacklisting in terms are Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

The following States have laws which may be fairly construed as prohibiting boycotting: Alabama, 
Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, 
Missouri, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, 
Vermont, and Wisconsin. 

The following States have laws which may be fairly construed as prohibiting blaeklisting : Con- 
necticut, Georgia, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, and 
South Dakota. 

In the following States it is unlawful for any employer to exact an agreement, either written or 
verbal, from an employe not to join or become a member of any labor organization, as a condition of 
employment: California, Idaho, Indiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New 
York, and Ohio. 

The World Almatstac is indebted to Commissioner Wright, of theU. S. Department of Labor, for 
the summary of eight hours, anti-boycotting, and anti- blacklisting laws, and the table on page 109. 

EIGHT HOUR LAWS. 

California.— Eight hours of labor constitute a day's work, unless it is otherwise expressly stipu- 
lated by the parties to a contract. A stipulation that eight hours of labor constitute a day's work must 
be made a part of all contracts to which the State or any municipal corporation therein is a party. But 
ia the case of drivers, conductoi'S, and grip- men of street-cars for the carriage of passengers, a. (Iziy'a 
work consists of twelve hours. Employment of minor children for iur:re liian eight houi-s per day is 
absolutely prohibited, except in vinicultural or horticultural pursuits, or in domestic or household oc- 
cupations. 



Labor Legislation. 



109 



LABOR LEGISLATION— Con^mwed. 



Colorado.— Eight hours constitute a day's work for all workingmen employed by the State, or 
any county, township, school district, municipality, or incorporated town. 

Connecticut.— Eight hours of labor constitute a lawful day's work unless otherwise agreed. 

District of Columbia.- Eight hours constitute a day's work for all laborers or mechanics em- 
ployed by or on behalfof the Distn ct of Columbia. 

Idaho.— Eight hours' actual work constitute a lawful day's work on all State and municipal works. 

lilinois.-Eight hours are a legal day's work in all mechanical employments, except on farms, 
and when otherwise agreed; does not apply to service by the day, week, or month, or prevent con- 
tracts for longer hours. 

Indiana.— Eight hours of labor constitute a legal day's work for all classes of mechanics, work- 
ingmen, and laborers, excepting those engaged in agricultural and domestic labor. Overwork by 
agreement and for extra compensation is permitted. The emplojTnent of persons under fourteen 
years of age for more than eight hours per day is absolutely prohibited. 

Kansas.— Eight hours constitute a day's work for all .laborers, mechanics, or other persons em- 
ployed by or on behalf of the State or any county, city, township, or other municipality. 

"Nebraska.— Eight hours constitute a legal day's work for all classes of mechanics, servants, and 
laborers, except those engaged in farm or domestic labor. 

.>Ii8SOuri.— Eight hours constitute a legal day's work. The law does not prevent an agreement 
to work for a longer or a shorter time and does not apply to laborers and farm hands in the service of 
farmers or others engaged in agriculture. 

Montana.— Eight hours constitute a legal day's work for persons engaged to operate or handle 
any first-motion or direct-acting hoisting engine, or any geared or indirect-acting hoisting engine at 
any mine employing fifteen or more men underground when the duties of fireman are performed by 
the person so engaged; also for any stationary engineer operating a stationary engine developing fifty 
or more horse-power when such engineer has charge or control of a boiler or boilers in addition to his 
other duties. The law applies only to such steam plants as are in continuous operation or are operated 
twenty or more hours in each twenty- four houi-s, and does not apply to persons running any engine 
more than eight hours in each twenty-four for the purpose of relieving another employe in case of 
sickness or other unforeseen cause. 

New Jersey.— Eight hours constitute a day' s labor on any day whereon any general or municipal 
election shall be held. 

New York.— Eight hours constitute a day's work for mechanics, workingmen, and laborers, ex- 
cept in farm or domestic labor, but overwork for extra pay is permitted. The law applies to those em- 
ployed by the State or municipality, or by persons contracting for State work. 

Ohio.— Eight hours shall constitute a day's work in all engagements to labor in any mechanical, 
manufacturing, or mining business, unless otherwise expressly stipulated in the contract. But in case 
of conductors, engineers, firemen, or trainmen of railroads, a day's work consists of ten hours. 

Pennsylvania.— Eight hours, between rising and setting of sun, constitute a day's work in the 
absence of an agreement for longer time. The law does not apply to farm labor or to service by the 
year, month, etc. ; but in case of employes of street railroads a day's work consists of twelve hours. 

Utali.— Eight hours constitute a day's work upon all public works and in all underground mines or 
workings, smelters, and all other institutions for the reduction or refining of ores. 

Wisconsin.— In all engagements to labor in any manufacturing or mechanical business, where 
there is no express contract to the contrary, a day's work shall consist of eight hours; but the law does 
not apply to contracts for labor by the week, month, or year. In all manufactories, workshops, or 
other places used for mechanical or manufacturing purposes, the time of labor of children under the 
age ofeighteen, and of women employed therein, shall not exceed eight hours in the day. 

Wyoming.— Eight hours' actual work constitute a legal day' s work in all mines and public works. 

United States.- Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and 
mechanics who may be employed by or on behalf of the United States. 

LIST OF BUREAUS OF LABOR AND LABOR STATISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES 



Title of Buheau. 



United States Department of Labor 

Bureau of Statistics of Labor 

Bureau of Industrial Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Statistics of Labor & Indust's 
Bureau of Labor Statistics & Inspection 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor & Industrial Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Statistics of Labor 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor & Industrial Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Bureau of Labor 

Department of Agriculture and Labor . . 
Bureau of Labor Statistics and Mines. . . 
Bureau of Agriculture, Lab. & Statistics 
Bureau of Agriculture, Lab. & Industry 
Bureau of Labor 



Where Located. 



Washington, D. C 

Boston, Mass 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Ct 

Columbus, Ohio. . , 

Trenton, N. J 

Jefferson City, Mo. 

Springfield, 111 

Indianapolis, Ind., 

Albany, N. Y 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Lansing, Mich 

Madison, Wis 

Des Moines, la 

Baltimore, Md 

Topeka, Kan 

Providence, R. I. . . 

Lincoln, Neb 

Raleigh, N. C 

Augusta, Me 

St. Paul, Minn 

Denver, Col 

Charleston, W. Va. 

Bismarck, N. D 

Nashville, Tenn... 

Frankfort, Ky 

Helena, Mont 

Concord, N. H 



Organ- 
ized. 



1885 
1869 
1872 
1873 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1879 
1879 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1884 
1884 
1885 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1893 



Chief Officer. 



Carroll D. Wright..,. 
Horace G. Wadlin... 

James M. Clark 

Samuel B. Home 

William Ruehrwein. . 
Chas. H. Simmerman 

Lee Meriwether 

George A. Schilling.. 
Simeon J. Thompson. 
John T. McDonough. 

E. L. Fitzgerald 

Charles H. Morse 

Halford Erickson 

W. E. O'Bleness 

Chas. H.Myers 

Wm. G. Bird 

Henry E. Tiepke 

J. H. Powers 

B. R. Lacy 

Samuel W. Matthews 

L. G. Powers 

W. H. Klett 

J. M. Sydenstricker. . 

A. H. Laughlin 

A. H. Wood 

Lucas Moore 

.Tames H. Mills 

Julian F. Trask 



Title. 



Commissioner 

Chief. 

Chief. 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Chief. 

Commissioner 

Secretary. 

Chief. 

Commissioner 

Commissionei 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Chief. 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Deputy Com, 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 



The Idaho State Constitution authorizes a Bureau of Immigration, Labor, and Statistics, but the 
Legislature has never made appropriations for its support or enacted laws therefor. 



110 



Qualifications for Voting. 



<auaUfications Cor Uotiufl in 32acfj <^tatt of t^t SEuion, 

(Communicated to Thb "Wobld Almanac and corrected to date by the Attorneys-General of the respective States.) 
In all the States except Colorado, Utah, and "Wvoming the right to vote at general elections is restricted to males of 21 years of 
age and upward. Women are entitled to vote at school elections in several States. They are entitled by local law to full suffrage in 
tBe States of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. (See article entitled "Woman^uffrage.") 



States. 



Alabama* 



Requirements as to Citizenship, 



Citizen of United States or alien 
who has declared intention. 



Peevious Rksidenck Required.! 



In I In 
State. County. 



1 yr... 3 mo. 



ArizonaTr Citizen of United States (a). 
Arkansas* 



Calif' mia* 



Colorado*. 



Conn. 



Delaware* 



Florida* 
Georfi:ia . 



Citizen of United States or alien 
who has declared intention. 

Citizen by nativity, naturaliza- 
tion, or treaty of Queretaro. 

Citizen or alien who has de- 
clared intention. 

Citizen of United States who 
can read English language. 

Citizen who shall have paid a 
county tax within two years 
of the election. 

Citizen of the United States, 

Citizen of the United States 
who has paid all his taxes 
since 1877. 



Idaho * -.. 
Illinois*.. 

Indiana*.. 



Iowa * ., 

Kansas* 



Kent'ky*. 



liOUisiana. 



6 mo. 
1 yr.. 



1 yr.., 

6 mo. 
1 yr.. 
1 yr.. 



jlOdys 
6 mo.. 



90dys 
90dys 



In 
Town. 

SOdys 



lOdys 
SO.dys 



In Pre- 
cinct. 



1 yr., 
1 yr.. 



Citizen of the United States 

Citizen of the United States' (ft) 



Citizen or alien who has de- 
clared intention and resided 1 
year in United States. 

Citizen of the United States. ... 

Citizen of United States or alien 
who has declared intention. 



Citizen of the United States^... 



Citizen of United States or alien 
who has declared intention, 



6 mo. 
1 yr.. 



Maine* 

Maryla' d* 



Mass. * 

Michigan* 

Minn. • 

Miss. * 

Missouri*.. 



Citizen of the United States , 
Citizen of the United States , 



Citizen who can read and 
writa 

Citizen or inhabitant of foreign 
birth who has declared inten- 
tion 6 months before elec- 
tion and lived in State 2)4. 
years prior to Nov. 8, 1894. 

Citizen of United States or alien 
who has declared intention, 
and civilized Indians. 

Citizen of the United States 
who can read or understand 
Constitution. 

Citizen of United States or alien 
who has declared intention 
not less than one year or 
more than five before oflFer- 
ing to vote. 



1 mo- 

6 mo. 
6 mo.. 



SOdys 
6 mo.. 
1 mo.. 



SOdys 
60dys 



30 dys 



10 dys 
30 dys 



30 dys 
10 dys 



M*»*«***«l 



Persons Excluded from Suffrage. 



Convicted of treason or other 
crime, involving moral turpi- 
tude, idiots, or insane. 

Indians and Chinamen. 

Idiots, insane, convicted of fel- 
ony, until pardoned, failure 
to pay poll-tax. 

Chinese, idiots, insane, embez- 
zlers of public moneys, con- 
victed of infamous crime, t 

Persons convicted of bribery in 
public office. 

Convicted of crime. 



15 dys Insane persons and paupers. 



6 mo.. 60 dys 
6 mo.. 60 dys 



6 mo., 

1 yr... 

1 yr.., 

3 mo. 

1 yr.., 

1 yr... 



6 mo. 



6 mo. 



6 mo. 



4 mo. 



2 yrs. 



1 yr.. 



SOdys 
60 dys 
10 dys 



6 mo. 



6 mo. 



1 yr, 

60 dys 



3 mo. 



6 mo.. 
20 dys 



30 dys 

30 dys 

10 dys 
30 dys 

60 dys 
30 dys 



1 yr... 
60 dys 



6 mo.. 
20 dys 

10 dys 

lyr(c) 
60 dys 



Idiots, tramps, convictedof fel- 
ony or any infamous crime. 

Convicted of embezzlement of 
public funds, malfeasance in 
office, bribery, or larceny, or 
of any crime Involving moral 
turpitudepunishable with im- 
prisonment in the peniten- 
tiary. 

Idiots, insane, convicted of fel- 
ony or treason. 

Convicted of larceny or of any 
crime punishable by impris- 
onment in the penitentiary. 

United States soldiers, sailors, 
and marines, and persons 
convicted of infamous crime. 

Idiots, insane, convicted of in- 
famous crime. 

Felons, insane, rebels not re- 
stored to citizenship, under 
guardianship, public embez- 
zlers, guilty of bribery or dis- 
honorably discharged from 
the United States service. 

Treason, felony, bribery at 
election, idiots, and insane 
persons, and persons confined 
lti.Jail or workhouse under a 
judgment for misdemeanor. 

Idiots, insane, convicted of trea- 
son, embezzlement of public 
funds, all crime punishable by 
imprisonment in penitentiary 

Paupers, aliens, and Indians 
not taxed. 

Convicted of larceny or other 
infamous crime, unless par- 
doned, lunatics, and persons 
non compos mentis. 

Paupers and persons under 
guardianship. 

Indians, duelists and acces- 
sories. 



Convicted of treason or felony, 
unless pardoned, persons un- 
der guardianship or insane. 

Insane, idiots, Indians not tax- 
ed, felons, persons who have 
not paid taxes. 

Persons in poorhouses or asy- 
lums at public expense, those 
in prison or who have been 
convicted of infamous crimes. 



* Australian Ballot Law or a modification of it iu force. + Or a person unable to read the Constitution in English and to 
write his name, (a) Or citizens of Mexico who shall have elected to become citizens under the Treaties of 1848 and 1854. (b) Women 
can vote in school elections, (c) Clergymen are qualified after six months' residence in precinct. 



Qualifications for Voting. 



Ill 



QUALIFICATIONS FOR VOTING— Co?^<^nMed. 



States. 



Montana*. 

Nebraska* 



Nevada * . 



Requirements as to Citizenship. 



Citizen of the United States (o) 

Citizen of United States or alien 

who has declared intention 

thirty days before election. 

Citizen of the United States 



Previous Residence Required. 



In 
State. 



yr... 
mo. 



In 
Coimtv. 



In In Pre- 
Town.' cinct. 



N. Hamp* Inhabitants, native or nat- 
uralized. 
Citizen ot the United States. 



N. Jersey* 

N. M. Ter. 

N. York*.. 
N. Car 



Citizen of the United States... 



Citizen who shall have been a 

citizen for ninety days. 
Citizen of the United States.. 



N. Dak.'. 



Ohio. * .... 
Oregon * . 



Penna. 



Bhode I.* 



S. Car 

S. Dak.*... 

Tenn. * ., 



Texas*. 



Utah*. 



6 mo. 
6 mo. 
1 yi... 

1 yr... 
1 yr.. 



30dys30dys 

eOdj'slOdyslO dys 



30dys30dys 30 dys 



6 mO" 



5 mo. 



6 mo. 



4 m^o.. 



1 yr.... 90 dys 



Citizen of the United States, 
alien who has declared in- 
tention one year.and not more 
than six years prior to elec- 
tion, and civilized Indian. t(a) 

Citizen of the United States (o 

White male citizen of United 
States or alien who has de- 
clared intention. 

Citizen of the United States at 
least one month, and if 22 
years old or more must have 
paid tax within two years. 

Citizen of the United States.. . . 



Citizen of the United States (e) 

Citizen of the United States or 
alien who has declared inten 
tion. 



1 yr.... 



6 mo. 



Vermont * 



Virginia* .. 
Wash'n* .. 



West Va. * 



Citizen of the U. S. who has paid 
poll tax of preceding year. 

Citizen of the United States or 
alien who has declared inten- 
tion. 

Citizen of the United States, 
male or female, who ha.s 
been a citizen ninetj' days. 

Citizen of the United States... 



Wis.* , 

Wyom. *. 



Citizen of the United States. 
Citizen of the United States.. 



Citizen of the State.. 



Citizen of United States or alien 
who has declared intention. . 

Citizen of the United States, 
male and female. 



yr... 
nao. 



30 dys 20 dys 
30 dys 30 dys 



1 yr.t 
2yr(6) 

2yr(c) 
6 mo 5 

1 yr... 
1 yr... 

I yr.... 

1 yr... 



1 yr.. 
1 yr. 



1 yr.. 

1 yr.. 
1 yr.. 



30 dys 



30 dys 30 dys 



90 dys 



20 dys 



1 yr. 

30 dys 

6 mo 
6 mo.. 



4 mo. 



3 mo.. 
90dyi 



60 dys 

1 yr. 
60 dys 



6 mo. 



4 mo.. 
10 dys 



6 mo. 



3 mo. 



3 mo 
30 dys 



10 dys 



2 mo. 



4 nao. 
10 dys 



6 mo. 
60 dys 
30 dys 



30 dys 

(d) 
10 dys 



Persons Excluded from Suffrage. 



Indian,?. 

Convicted of felony unless re- 
stored to civil rights. 

Idiots, insane, unpardoned con- 
victs, Indians, Chinese. 
Paupers. 

Idiots, paupers, persons con- 
victed of crimes (unless par- 
doned) which exclude them 
from being witnesses. 

Soldier of U.S. Army or camp 
follower, persons convicted 
of felony unless pardoned. 

Convicted of felony. 

Convicted of felony or other in- 
famous crime, idiots, lunatics. 

Under guardianship, persons 
non compos inentis, or con- 
victed of felony and treason, 
unless restored to civil rights. 

Idiots, insane, and felons. 

Idiots, insane, convicted of fel- 
ony punishable by imprison- 
ment in the penitentiary. 

Convicted of perjury and fraud 
as election officers. 



Paupers, lunatics, persons non 
compos mentis, convicted of 
bribery or infamous crime un- 
til restored to ri^'ht to vote, 
under guardianship. 

Felony until pardoned, paupers, 
insane, idiots. 

Insane, convicted of treason or 
felony, soldiers, seamen, and 
marines of United States sta- 
tioned temporarily in the 
State. 

Convicted of bribery or other 
infamous offence. 

Idiots, lunatics, paupers, con- 
victed of felony. United States 
soldiers marines, and seamen. 

Idiots, insane, convicted of 
treason or violation of elec- 
tion laws unless pardoned. 

Those who have not obtained 
the approbation of the board 
of civil authority of the town 
in which they reside. 

Idiots, lunatics (/). 

Idiots, insane, persons con- 
victed of infamous crimes un- 
less pardoned. 

Paupers, idiots, lunatics, con- 
victed of treason, felony, or 
bribery at elections. 

Indians and criminals. 

Idiots, insane, persons con- 
victed of infamous crimes, 
unable to read State Constitu- 
tion. 



*Australian Ballot Law or a modification of it in force, t Indian must have severed tribal relations 
two years next preceding election. t Or if, having previously been a qualified elector or native, he 

shall have removed and returned, then six months. § One year' s residence in the United States prior 
to election required. (a) Women can vote in school elections. (b) Owners of real estate, one year, 
(c) Ministers in charge of an organized church and teachers of public schools are entitled to vote afier 
six months' residence in the State. Cti) Actual residence in the pi'ecinct or district required. (e) Who 
has paid six months before election any poll tax then due, and can read, understand,or explain any 
section of State Constitution. (/) And those convicted of bribery at election, embezzlement of 
public funds, treason, felony, and petty larceny, duelists and abettors, unless pardoned by Legislature. 

For law3 requiring Registration of Voters, see next page. 



112 United States Civil Service Mules. 

(Continuation of ' ' Qualifications for Voting, ' ' on preceding pages. ) 
The registration of voters is required in the States of Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, 




In Iowa in cities having 2, 500 inhabitants. 

In Kentuclcy in cities and towns having a population of 5,000 or more, in Kansas m cities of the 
first and second class, in North Dakota in cities and villages of 1,000 inhabitants and over, in Ohio 
in cities having a population of 10,000 and over, in Maine in all cities and in towns having 500 or 
more votei*s. 

In Missouri it is required in cities of 100,000 inhabitants and over, and in "Wisconsin in cities. In 
New York it is required in cities and villages containing upwards of 5,000 population. Personal ap- 
pearance not required in towns or villages of less than 5,000 inhabitants. In Rhode Island non- 
taxpayers are required to register yearly before December 31. lu Texas in cities of 10, 000 inhabitants 

or over 

In the State of Washington all voters in all cities and towns and all voting precincts having a vot- 
ing population of 250 or more must be registered. 

The registration of voters is not required in the States of Indiana, New Hampshirej Oregon, ana 
South Dakota. It is •nrohibited in Arkansas and West Virginia by constitutional provision. 



Oman .Stt^rafie^ 



The iGgislaturei? of Connecticut and New York in their sessions of 1893 passed laws permitting 
women to vote for school otficers. The privilege was used to a limited extent ia both States, but in 
the November election a Supreme Court Judge in New York decided that the act of that State was 
unconstitutional. The Iowa and Ohio legislatures in 1894 granted suflrage in school elections to women. 

In the New York State Convention in 1894 to revise the Constitution a woman suffrage amendment 
was defeated by a vote of 97 to 58. 

In Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming women have full suffrage and vote for all officers, including 
Presidential electors. The Woman Suffrage Law \s^as adopted in Wyoming in 1870,and ia Colorado in 
1893, and woman suffrage is a constitutional provision in Utah. 

In Kansas women exercise the suffrage largely in municipal elections. In November, 1894, the 
people voted upon a constitutional amendment providing for woman suffrage. It was defeated. 

In 1895 woman suffrage was defeated in the South Carolina Convention to frame a new Constitu- 
tion. On the question of granting municipal suffrage to women JVIassachusetts in 1895 voted ad- 
vGrsolv t)V 2i \2lv^q iHciioritv. 

A Woman Suflrage Amendment to the State Constitution was adopted ui Idaho In 1896, but a 
question as to its constitutionality has been raised. 

Women formerly voted in the Territory of Washington, and until they were excluded byadecision 
of the Territorial Supreme Court. In adopting a State Constitution the question of allowing women to 
use the ballot was submitted to a separate vote of the electors and was defeated. 

But in some form, mainly as to taxation or the selection of school officers, woman suffrage exists 
in a limited way in Arizona, Delaware. Idaho, Illinois, Indiana. Iowa, Kentucky, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, 
Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin. 

In many European countries, in Australia and New Zealand, in Cape Colony, m Canada, and in 
parts of India women vote on various terms for municipal or school officers. 

The following are the officers of the National American Woman Suffrage Association: Honorary 
President, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, New York; President, Susan B. Anthony, Rochester; Vice- 
President-at^ Large, the Rev. Anuall. Shaw% Philadelphia; Corresponding Secretary, Rachel Foster 
4. very, 1341 Arch Street, Philadelphia; Recording Secretary, Alice Stone Blackwell, Boston; 
Treasurer, Harriet Taylor Upton, Warren, Ohio; Chairman Committee on Organization, Carrie 
Chapnaau Catt, '^gv/ York. 

(^Revised for this issue of The World Almanac by the Secretary of the Civil Service (Commission.) 
The purpose of the Civil service Act, as declared in its title, is " to regulate and improve the civU 
service of the United States. ' ' It provides for the appointment of three Commissioners, a Chief Ex- 
aminer, a Secretary, and other employes, and makes it the duly of the Commission to aid the Presi- 
dent as he may request in preparing suitable rules for carrying the act into effect ; to make regulations 
for and control the examinations pi-ovided for, and supervise and control the records of the same; 
and to make investigations and report upon all matters touching the enforcement and effect of the 
rules and regulations. The address of the Commission is Washington, D. C. The President of the 
Commission is John R. Procter; the Secretary is John T. Doyla 

The service classified under the act, and to which it and the rules apply ,embraces the employes in the 
Executive Departments at Washington, the employes at the Executive Mansion, and the employes at 
the Civil Service Commission, the Department of Labor ,the Commission of Fish and Fisheries, the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, under the Superintendent of the State. War, and Navy Building, the 
Smithsonian Institution, the Library of Congress and the Government Printing Office, the employes in 
the Weather Bureau, and all officers and employes of whatever designation, except persons merely em- 

gloyed as laborers or workmen, and persons whose appointments are subject to confirmation by the 
enate. however or for whatever purpose employed, whether compensated by a fixed salary, or other- 
wise, who are serving in, or on detail from, the several Executive Departments, the commissions and 
offices in the District of Columbia, the Railw\ay Mail Service, the Indian Service, the several pension 
agencies, the Steamboat Inspection Service, the'Marine'Hospital Service, the Light- House Service, the 
Life-Saving Service, the several mints and assay offices the Revenue Cutter Service, the force em- 
ployed under custodians of public buildings, the several sub-treasuries, the Engineer Department at 
large and the Ordnance Department at large, all executive officers and employes outside the District 
of Columbia not covered in (a), of whatever designation, except persons merely employed as laborers 
or workmen, and pei*sons whose appointments are subject to confirmation by the Senate, whether 
compensated by a fixed salary or otherwise; who are servingin a clerical capacity, or whose duties are 
in whole or in part of a clerical nature; who are serving iu the capacity of watchman ormessenger.- 
who are serving in the capacity of physician, hospital steward, nurse, or whose duties are of a medical 



United States Civil Service Mules.— Continued. 113 

nature ; who are serving iu the capacity of draughtsmau, civil engineer, steam engineer, electrical en- 
glneer, computer, or fireman; who are in the service of the bupervising Architect' s Office in the 
capacity of superintendent of construction, superintendent of repair, or foreman ; who are in the ser- 
vice of the Treasury Department in anj^ capacity, and who are employed in the Department of Justice 
under the annual appropriation for tlie investigation of ofBcial acts, records, and accounts of officers of 
the courts; all free-delivery post-offices, the Indian School and Agency Service the customs districts 
in each of which there are five or more employes, and the Internal Kevenue Service at large. 

All that part of the executive civil service of the United States which has been, or may hereafter 
be, classified under the Civil Service Act shall bearranged in branches, as follows: The Departmental 
Service, the Custom-Kouse Service, the Post-Office Service, the Government Printing Service, and 
the Internal llevenue Service. 

The force at navy- yards, naval stations, and places under the Navy Department outside Wash- 
ington are under a board of labor employment, approved by the Commission and the President. 

The rules which pertain to the Post-Office Service contain the provision that whenever, by order of 
the Postmaster-General, any post-office shall be consolidated with, and made a part of, a free-delivery 
post^-office, the Postmaster-General shall at once notify the Commission of such consolidation, and 
from the date of said order the employes of the office thus made a part of the free-delivery office 
whose names appear on the roster of the Post-Office Department shall oe employes of said free-deliv- 
ery office, and the person holding, on the date of said order, the position of postmaster at the office 
thus made a part of said free-delivery office may be made an employe in said free-delivery office, and 
may at the time of classification be assigned to any position therein and given any appropriate desig- 
nation which the Postmaster-General may direct. 

For places in the Classified Service where technical qualifications are needed special examina- 
tions are held. In the Departmental Service they are held for the State Department, the Pension, 
Patent, and Signal Offices, Geological and Coast Surveys, and other offices. 

APPLICATIONS. 

Applicants for examination must be citizens ot the United States of the proper age. No person 
habitually using intoxicating liquors can be appointed. Is o discrimination is made on account of sex, 
color, or political or religious opinions. The limitations of age vary with the diflferent services ; but 
the age limitations do not apply to any person honorably discharged from the military or naval ser- 
vice of the United States by reason of disabilitj' resulting from wounds or sickness incurred in the 
lineof dutv. Such persons are preferred in appointments under §1,754, R. S., and certified to ap- 
pointing officers before all others of higher grade. 

Every one seeliing to be examined must first file an application blank. The blank forthe Depart- 
mental, Railway Mail, Indian School, or Government Printing Office Service should be requested 
directly of the Civil Service Commission, at Washington. The blank for the Customs, Postal, or 
Internal Revenue Service must be requested in writing by the persons desiring examination of the 
Customs, Postal, or Internal Revenue Board of Examiners at the office where service is sought. 
These papers should be returned to the officers from whom they emanated. 

EXAMINATIONS. 

The applicants to enter the services designated are examined as to their relative capacity and fit- 
ness. The ordinary clerical examinations are used only in the Customs, Departmental, and Internal 
Revenue Services for clerkships requiring no peculiar information or skill. They are limited to 
the following subjects: First, ci-thography, penmanship, and copying; second, arithmetic— funda- 
mental rules, fractions, and percentage ; third, interest and discount, elements of bookkeeping, and 
accounts; fourth, elements of the English language, letter- writing, and the proper construction of 
sentences. For places in which a lower degree of education suffices, as for employes in post-offices, 
compositors and other trade employes, and those below the grade of clerks in custom-houses and in 
the Departments at Washington, the Commission limits the examination to less than these four sub- 
jects, omitting the third and parts of the fourth subject. The examinations relate as nearly as possi- 
ble to the duties to be performed, and wherever applicable include experience and practical tests. No 
one is certified for appointment whose standing in the examination is less than 70 per centum of com- 
plete proficiency, except that applicants claiming military or naval preference under §1,754, R. S., 
need obtain but 65. The law also prescribes competitive examinations to test the fitness of persons 
in the service for promotion therein. The Commission gives a certificate to the person examined, 
stating whether he passed or failed to pass. 

APPOINTMENTS. 

When thereisa vacancy to be filled, the appointing officer applies to the CommibSion or proper 
examining board, and it reports to him the names of the three persons of the sex called lor graded 
highest on the proper register of those in his branch of the service and remaining eligible, and from 
the three a selection must be made. In the Departmental Service appointments are apportioned 
among the States on the basis of population. 

Every appointment is made for a probationary period of six mouths, at the end of which time, 
if the conduct and capacity of the person appointed have been found satisfactory, the appointment is 
made absolute. There is a constant demand for men stenographers and typewriters, meat inspectors, 
patent examiners, compositors, fish culturists,and persons of technical qualifications of various kinds. 
The number of women applying lor clerical places is greatly in excess of the needs of the servica 

The following are excepted from examination for appointment: 
Departmental Skrvice: 

(o) Private secretaries or confidential clerks (not exceeding two) to the President or to the head 
of each of the eight Executive Departments. 

(6) Indians employed in the Indian service at large, except those employed as superintendents, 
teachers, teachers of industries, kindergartners, and phj'sicians. 

(c) Attorneys or assistant attorneys in any Department whose main duties are connected with the 
management of cases in the courts. 
Custom- House Service: 

(a) One cashier in each customs district. 

lb) One chief or principal deputy or assistant collector in each customs district whose employes 
number as many as 150. 
Post-Oefice Service: 

(a) One assistant postmaster, or chief assistant to the postmaster, of whatever designation, at 
each post-office. 

(&) One cashier of each first-class post-office when employed under the roster title of cashier only. 
Internal Revenue Service: 

One employe in each internal revenue district, who shall act as cashier or chief deputy or assistant 
collector, as may be determined by the Treasury Department. 

All officers and employes who have heretofore been classified under the CivU Service Act shall be 
considered as still classified and subject to the provisions of these rules. 



114 



}3rrsttrrntial ISUctions* 



FROM 1789 TO 1896. 

AGQBEGATE POPTTLAB VOTE AND ELECTORAL VOTE FOR CANDIDATES FOR PRESI- 
DENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT AT EACH ELECTION. 

Note. —There is, properly speaking, no popular vote for President and Vice-President; the people 
vote for electors, and those chosen in each State meet therein and vote for the candidates for President 
and Vice-President. The record of any popular vote for electors prior to 1824 is so meagre and imper- 
fect that a compilation would be useless. In most of the States, for more than a quarter century fol- 
lowing the establishment of the Government, the State Legislatures "appointed" the Presidential 
electors, and the people therefore voted only indirectly for them, their choice being expressed by their 
votes for members ot the Legislature. In this tabulation onlj' the aggregate electoral votes for candi- 
dates for President and Vice-President in the first nine quadrennial elections appear. 

ELECTORAL VOTES. 

1789. Previous to 1804, each elector voted for two candidates for President. The one who 
received the largest number of votes was declared President, and the one who received the next largest 
number of votes was declared Vice-President. The electoral votes for the first President of the United 
States were: George Washington, 69; John Adams, of Massachusetts, 34 ; John Jay, of New York, 9; 
R. H. Harrison, of Maryland, 6; John Rutledge, of South Carolina, 6; John Hancock, of Maasachu- 
setts, 4; George Clinton, of New York, 3; Samuel Huntingdon, of Connecticut, 2; John Milton, of 
Georgia, 2; James Armstrong, of Georgia; Benjamin Lincoln, of Massachusetts, and Edward Telfair, 
of Georgia, 1 vote each. Vacancies (votes not cast), 4. George Washington was chosen President 
and John Adams Vice-President. 

1793. George Washington, Federalist, received 132 votes ; John Adams, Federalist, 77; George 
Clinton, of New York, Republican (a), 50; Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, Republican, 4; Aaron 
Burr, of New York, Republican, 1 vote. Vacancies, 3. George Washington was chosen President 
and John Adams Vice-President. 

1796. John Adams, Federalist, 71; Thomas Jefferson, Republican. 68; Thomas Pinckney, of 
South Carolina, Federalist, 59; Aaron Burr, of New York, Republican, 30; Samuel Adams, of Massa- 
chusetts, Republican, 16; Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut, Independent, ll; George Clinton, of New 
York, Republican, 7: John Jay, of New York, Federalist, 5; James Iredell, of North Carolina, Fed- 
eralist, 3; George Washington, of Virginia; John Henry, of Maryland, and S. Johnson, of North 
Carolina, all Federalists, 2 votes each ; Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, of South Carolina, F^ederalist, 1 
vote. John Adams was chosen President and Thomas Jefferson Vice-President. 

1800. Thomas Jefferson, Republican, 73; Aaron Burr, Republican, 73; John Adams, Federal- 
ist, 65; Charles C. Pinckney, Federalist, 64; John Jay, Federalist, 1 vote. There being a tie vote 
for Jefferson and Burr, the choice devolved upon the House of Representatives. Jefferson received 
the votes of ten States, which, being the largest vote cast for a candidate, elected him President. Burr 
received the votes or four States, which, being the next largest vote, elected him Vice-President. 
There were 2 blank votes. 

1804. The Constitution of the United States having been amended, the electors at this election 
voted for a President and a Vice-President, instead of for two candidates for President. The result 
was as follows: For President, Thomas Jefierson, Republican, 162; Charles C. Pinckney, Federalist, 
14. For Vice-President, George Clinton, Republican, 162; RufusKing, of New York, Federalist, 14. 
Jefferson was chosen President and Clinton Vice-President. 

1808. For President, James Madison, of Virginia, Republican, 122; Charles C. Pinckney, of 
South Carolina, Federalist, 47: George Clinton, of New York, Republican, 6. For Vice-President, 
George Clinton, Republican, 113; Bufus King, of New York, Federalist, 47; John Langdon, of New 
Hampshire, 9; James Madison, 3; James Monroe, 3. Vacancy, 1. Madison was chosen President 
and Clinton Vice-President. 

1813. For President, James Madison, Bepublican, 128; DeWitt Clinton, of New Y'ork, Fed- 
eralist, 89. For Vice-President, Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, Bepublican, 131; Jared Ingersoll, 
of Pennsylvania, Federalist, 86. Vacancy,!. MadisonwaschosenPresident and Gerry Vice-President. 

1816. For President, James Monroe, of Virginia, Bepublican, 183; Bufus King, of New York, 
Federalist, 34. For Vice-President, Daniel D. TompJsins, of New York, Bepublican, 183; John Eager 
Howard, of Maryland, Federalist, 22; James Boss, of Pennsj'lvania, 5; John Marshall, of Virginia, 
4; Bobert G. Harper, of Maryland, 3. Vacancies, 4. Monroe was chosen President and Tompkins 
Vice-President. 

1830. For President, James Monroe, of Virginia, Bepublican, 231; John Q. Adams, of Massa- 
chusetts, Bepublicaii, 1. For Vice-President, Daniel D. Tompkins, Bepublican, 218; Bichard Stock- 
ton, of New Jersey, 8; Daniel Boduey, of Delaware, 4; Bobert G. Harper, of Maryland, and Bichard 
Bush, of Pennsylvania, 1 vote each. Vacancies, 3. James Monroe was choseu President and Daniel 
D. Tompkins Vice-President. 





ELECTOBAL AND POPULAR VOTES. 








Year of Election. 


Candidates for 
President, 


SUtes. 


Polit- 
ical 
Party. 


Popular 
Vote. 


Plu- 
rality. 


Elec- 
toral 
Vote. 

(h)99 
84 
37 
41 

178 
83 


Candidates for 
Vice-President, 


States. 


Polit- 
ical 
Party. 


Elec- 
toral 
Vote. 


1834 


Andrew Jackson 

John Q, Adams*. 

Henrv Clay 


Tenn.. 
Mass.. 
Ky ... 
Ga.... 


Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 


155,872 

105,321 

46,587 

44,282 


50,561 

■ • » • 
• • • • 


John C. Calhoun* 

Nathan Sanford 

Nathaniel Macon 

Andrew Jackson 

M. Van Buren 

Henry Clay 


S.C... 
N. Y.. 
N. C. 
Tenn.. 
N. Y.. 
Ky ... 

S. C... 
Pa.... 
S.C... 

N. Y.. 
Pa.... 
Mass .. 
Pa ... . 
Pa ... . 


Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep . . . 


182 
30 
24 




Wni."H. Crawford 


13 
9 
2 


18*8 


Andrew Jackson* 

John Q. Adams 


Tenn.. 
Mass.. 


Dem .. 
Nat. B. 


647,231 
509,097 


138,134 


John C. Calhoun* 

Richard Rush .......... 


Dem .. 
Nat.K. 
Dem .. 


171 
83 




William Smith 


7 


Xoo/S • ••«*••• 


Andrew Jackson* 

Henry Clay 


Tenn.. 
Ky.... 

Ga 

Md.... 


Dem . . 
Nat. R. 
Ind,... 
Auti-M 


687,502 
530,189 

\ 33,108 


157,313 

• ■ • • 

• • • • 


219 
49 

i'i 

170 
73 
26 
14 
11 


M. Van Buren*.... 


Dem .. 
Nat. R. 
Ind ... 
Anti-M 
Dem .. 


189 
49 




John Floyd 




11 




William AVirt(c) 


Amos Ell maker (c).... 
Wm. Wilkins 


7 
30 


1 ft3^ 


Martin Van Buren* .... 

W.H.Harrison 

Hugh L. White 

Daniel Webster 

Willie P. MangTim 


N. Y.. 



Tenn.. 
Mass.. 
N. C. 


Dem .. 
Whig.. 
Whig.. 
Whig.. 
Whig.. 


761,549 
■ 736,656 


34,893 


R. M. Johnson (d)* 

Francis Granger 

John Tyler 


Ky.... 
N. Y.. 

Va 

Ala ... 


Dem .. 
Whig.. 
Whig. 
Dem .. 


147 




77 
47 




William Smith 


23 









Fresidential Elections, 115 


PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS— Cbnfmtigf?. 


Year of Election. 


Candidates for 
President, 


States. 


Polit- 
ical 
Party. 


Popular 
Vote. 


Plu- 
rality. 


Elec- 
toral 
Vote. 

234 
60 

*• 

170 
105 

"163 
127 

a • 

254 
42 

174 
114 

8 

180 
12 
72 
39 

e212 
21 

£214 

80 

280 
g .. 

*42 

18 
2 

1 

184 
hl85 

-« • 

• • 

214 
155 

• • 

• • 

219 
182 

a a 

168 
233 

• • 

277 

145 

22 


Candidates for 
Vice-President. 


States. 


PoUt- 

ical 

Party, 


Elec- 
toral 
Vote. 


1840 


W.H.Harrison* 

Martin Van Buren 

James G. Bimey 




N. Y.. 
N. Y.. 


Whig.. 
Dem .. 
Ub .., 


1,276,017 

1,128,702 
7,059 


146,315 

* • • • 

• ■ • • 


John Tyler* 


Va 

Ky.... 
Va.,.., 
Tenn.. 

Pa.... 
N.J... 



Whig. 
Dem., 
Dem.. 
Dem,. 


234 




R, M. Johnson 

L.W.Tazewell 

James K.Polk 


48 
11 

1 


1844 


James K.Polk* 

Henrv Clav 


Tenn., 
Ky.... 
KY.. 


Dem ., 
Whig.. 
Lib ... 


1,337,243 

1,299,068 

62,300 


38,175 

• • • • 


George M, Dallas* 

T. Frelmghuysen 

Thomas ftlorris 


Dem,, 
V^g, 
Lib.... 


170 




105 


James G. Bimey 




1848 


Zachary Taylor* 


La..,. 
Mich.. 
N. Y.. 


Whig. 
Dem ,. 
F.SoU. 


1,360,101 

1,220,544 

291,263 


139,557 

• a • • 


MiUard Filhnore.* 

William O. Butler 

Charles F. Adams 

William R. King* 

WOliam A. Graham. . . . 
George W. Julian 

J. C. Breckinridge* 

WUliam L, Dayton.... 
A, J, Donelson 

Hannibal Hamlin* 

H. V. Johnson 


N, Y.. 

Ky.... 

jNIass.. 


Whig. 
Dem .. 
F. Soil. 


163 




127 


Martin Van Buren 




1852 


Franklin Pierce* 

Winfield Scott 

Jolm P.Hale 


N.H.. 
N. 3.. 
N.H.. 


Dem .. 
Whig. 
F,D.(i) 


1,601,474 

1,380,576 

156,149 


220,896 

• • • • 


Ala... 
N. C. 
Ind,... 


Dem .. 
Whig . 

f,d:.. 

Dem ., 

Rep .. 
Amer.^ 

Rep,.. 
Dem.. 
Dem.. 
Union . 


254 




42 

• ♦ 


1856 


James Buchanan* 

John C. Fremont 

Millard Fillmore 


Pa.,,. 
Cal,,,. 
N. Y.. 


Dem ,, 
Rep,,. 
Amer.. 


1,838,169 
1,341,264 

874,538 


496,905 

• • • • 

• ■ • a 


Ky.... 
N.J... 

Tenn. . 


174 




114 
8 


1860 


Abraham Lincoln* 

Stephen A. Douglas . . . , 

J. C. Breckinridge 

John Bell 


ni.... 
111.... 

Ky.... 
Tenn.. 


Rep,., 
Dem ,, 
Dem ,, 

Union . 


1,866,352 

1,375,157 

845,763 

689,581 


491,195 

• ■ • • 

• • • a 


Me.... 
Ga.... 
Ore.... 
Mass . . 


180 




13 


Joseph Lane 


73 


Edward Everett 


89 


1864 


Abraham Lincoln* 

George B. McCleUan... 


m,.,, 

N.J.., 


Rep.,, 
Dem ,. 

Rep,,, 
Dem .. 


2,216,067 
1,808,725 


407,342 


Andrew Johnson* 

George H, Pendleton... 

Schuyler Colfax* 

F, P. Blau-,Jr 


Tenn.. 



Rep .. 
Dem.. 


212 




21 


1868 


Ulysses S. Grant* 

Horatio Seymour 


m.... 

N, Y.. 


3,015,071 
2,709,615 


305,456 

• 9 9 » 


Ind.... 
Mo,... 


Rep .. 
Dem.. 


214 




80 


iSTS 


Ulysses S. Grant* 

Horace Greeley 

Charles O'Conor, 

James Black 

Thomas A. Hendricks. . 

B. Gratz Brown 

Charles J. Jenkins 

David Davis 


111,,.. 
N. Y., 
N. Y., 
Pa.... 
Ind.... 
Mo ... 
Ga.... 
HI.... 


Rep... 
D.&L. 
Dem .. 
Temp. 
Dem ,. 
Dem., 
Dem .. 
Ind,... 


3,597,070 

2,834,079 

29,408 

5,608 

• • • • 

• • a • 
''-•• • • • • 


762,991 

• a ■ a 
a • • • 

• a a a 

• • • • 
a • a • 


Henry WUson* 

B. Gratz Brown 

John Q. Adams 

John Russell 


Mass.. 
Mo.,.. 
Mass.. 
Mich.. 
Ind,... 
Ga.... 
m .... 
Ky.,.. 



Ky.... 
Mass.. 


Rep .. 
D.L... 

Dem.. 
Temp. 
Lib.... 
Dem.. 
Dem.. 
Dem.. 
Dem.. 
Dem.. 
Lib.... 


286 




47 


George W. Julian 

A, H, Colquitt 

John M, Palmer 

T, E. Bramlette 

W. S. Groesbeck 

WiUis B. Machen 

N. P.Banks 


S 
5 
3 
% 


i 


1 
1 
1 


1816 


Samuel J. Tilden 

Rutherford B. Hayes*.. 
Peter Cooper 


N. Y.. 


N. Y.. 

Ky..,. 
111.... 


Dem .. 
Rep... 

Gre'nb 
Pro.... 

Amer. . 


4,2&4,885 

4,033,950 

81,740 

9,522 

2,636 


250,935 

• • • • 


T, A. Ilendriclcs 

WiUiam A. W^heeler*. . 

Samuel F. Gary 

Gideon T. Stewart 

D. Kirkpatrick 


Ind,... 
N. Y.. 





N. Y.. 


Dem.. 
Rep .. 
Gren'b 
Pro.... 

Amer.. 


184 




185 


Green ClaySmith 

James B. Walker 


•• 


1880 


James A. Garfield*. .... 

W, S, Hancock 

James B, Weaver 

Neal "Dow 




Pa..., 
Iowa.,, 
Me,,,, 
Vt 


Rep,.. 
Dem .. 
Gre'nb 
Pro.... 

Amer. . 


4,449,053 

4,442,035 

307,306 

10,305 

707 


7,018 

• • a • 
» • m » 

• • a • 
a a a • 


Chester A. Arthur* 

William H.English.,,. 

B.J. Chambers 

H. A. Thompson 

S. C. Pomeroy 


N. Y.. 

Ind.... 
Tex... 


Kan... 


Rep .. 
Dem .. 
Gre'nb 
Pro,,,. 

Amer. . 


214 




155 

• ♦ 


John W.Phelps 


• • 


1884 


Grover Cleveland* 

James G. Blaine 

John P. St, John 

Benjamin F. Butler. , , . 
P. D, Wigr^nton 


N, Y.. 

Me.,.. 
Kan... 
Mass.. 
Cal ... 


Dem .. 
Rep... 
Pro,... 
Peop . . 

Amer. . 


4,911,017 

4,848,334 

151,809 

133,825 

5,538,233 

5,440,216 

249,907 

148,105 

2,808 

1,591 


62,683 

a a a • 
a a • • 

• » • m 

• ■ ■ a 


T. A. Hendricks* 

John A, Logan 

WiUiam Daniel 

A, M, West 


Ind,.,, 
Ill ,,.. 

Md.... 
Miss... 


Dem.. 
Rep .. 
Pro.... 
Peop . . 


219 


• 


182 

• • 


1888 


Grover Cleveland 

Benjamin Harrison* . , , 

Clinton B, Fisk 

Alson J. Streeter 

R, H. Cowdry 

James L, Curtis 


N. Y., 
Ind ,,, 
N,J.,. 

m ..., 

m.... 

N. Y.. 

X. Y.. 

Ind ... 
Iowa,, . 
Cal ,,. 
Mass , . 


Dem .. 
Rep,.. 
Pro.... 
U. L.. 
U'd.L. 
Amer. . 


98,017 

• • • • 

• • a • 

• • •% 

• a • • 
» m 9 • 


AJlen G, Thurman 

Levi P, Morton* 

John A, Brooks 

C, E, Cunningham 

W.H. T. Wakefield,,, 
James B, Greer 




N. Y.. 

Mo.... 
Ark... 
Kan... 
Tenn. . 


Dem,, 
Rep .. 
Pro.,,, 
U'dL., 
U'dL, 
Amer,, 


168 




233 

• • 
a a 

• • 


1893 


Grover Cleveland* 

Benjamin Han'ison 

James B, Weaver 

John Bidwell 


Dem ,. 
Rep,,, 
Peop . , 
Pro..,. 
Soc, L. 


5,556,918 

5,176,108 

1,041,028 

264,133 

21,164 


380,810 


Adiai E. Stevenson*... 

Whitelaw Reid 

James G. Field 

James B. CranfiU 

Charles H. Matchett. . . 


m .... 
N. Y.. 
Va 

Tex.... 

N. Y.. 


Dem ,, 
Rep ,, 
Peop , , 
Pro.,,. 
Soc. L, 

Kep. .. 
Dem .. 
Pop. ., 
Pro..,, 
N,Dem 
Soc. L. 
Nat. (j) 


277 




145 

22 


Simon Wing 


.. 


1896 


William MclCinley*, . . , 

William J, Bryan 

William J. Bryan 

Joshua Levering 

John M. Palmer 

Charles H. Matchett. , . . 
Charles E. Bentley 


O 

Xeb,,, 

Neb,,. 
Md... 

m.,., 

N, Y,. 

Neb... 


Rep... 
Dem. 
Pop. 
Pro..,. 

N.Dem 
Soc, L. 
Nat. (j) 


7,105,959 

6,454,943 

131,748 

132,870 

36,260 

13,873 


651,016 

• • •• 

• • a • 

• • • • 

• • • ■ 


271 
176 

• • 
■ , 


Garret A. Hobart* 

Arthur Sewall 

Thomas E . Watson 

Hale Johnson 

Simon B. Buckner 

Matthew Maguire 

James H. Southgate. . . . 


N.J... 

Me.... 
Ga.. .. 

Ill 

Ky.... 
N.J... 
N.C. 


271 
176 

• • 
a a 

• • 

• a 


* The candidates starred were elected, (a) The first Bepublican Party is claimed by the present 
Democratic Party as Its progenitor, (b) No candidate havmg a majority of the electoral vote, the 
House of Representatives elected Adams, (c) Candidate of the Anti-Masonic Party, (d) There being 
no choice, the Senate elected Johnson, (e) Eleven Southern States, being within the Delligerent ter- 
ritory, did not vote, (f) Three Southern States disfranchised, (g) Horace Greeley died after election, 
and Democratic electors scattered their vote, (h) There being a dispute over the electoral votes of 
Florida, Louisiana, Orecfon, and South Carolina, theywei'e referred by Congress to an electoral com- 
mission composed of eight Republicans and seven Democrats, which, by a strict party vote, awarded 
185 electoral votes to Hayes and 184 to Tiklen. (i) Free Democrat, (j ) Free Silver Prohibition Party. 

Note, —For popular and electoral vote by States in 1892 see page 424 ; in 1896 see page 423. 



116 



The Presidents of the United States. 



THE PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES-THEIR BIOGRAPHIES IN BRIEF. 

(Compiled for The World Almakao from published memoirs, newspaper records, and personal corre- 
spondence with the families of the ex-Presidents. The references will be found on page 118.) 



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IM 



118 



Justices of the United States Supreme Court. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES— Omft'-ttcd. 



NOTES TO THE TABLES OP THE PRESIDENTS, ON THE TWO PRECEDING PAGES. 

♦Monroe abandoned the profession of law when a young man, and was afterwards, and until his elec- 
tion, always holding public ofi&ce. t Jackson called himself a South Carolinian, and his biographer, 
Kendall, recorded his birthplace in Lancaster Co., S. C; but Parton has published documentary evidence 
to show that Jackson was born in Union Co,, N. C, less than a quarter mile from the South Carolina 
line. tOr of departure from col lege. 

§ Widows. Their maiden names are in parentheses. H She was the divorced wife of Captain 
Robards. (a) The Democratic party of to-day claims lineal descent from the first Republican party, 
and President Jefferson as its founder. (6) Political parties were disorganized at the time of the elec- 
tion of John Quincy Adams. He claimed to be a Republican, but his doctrines wpre decidedly Federal- 
istic. The opposition to his Administration took the name of Democrats, and elected Jackson President. 

(c) Randall, the biographer of Jefferson, declares that he was a believer in Christianity, although 
not a sectarian, {d) While President Johnson was not a church-member, he was a Christian believer. 
His wife was a Methodist. 

Washington's first inauguration was in New York, and his second in Philadelphia. Adams was 
inaugurated in Philadelphia, and Jefferson and the Presidents following elected by the people, in the 
city of Washington. Arthur took the Presidential oath of office first in New York City. John Adams 
and Jefferson died on the same day, the Fourth of July, 1826, and Monroe died on the Fourth of July five 
years later. John Quincy Adams was a Representative and Andrew Johnson a Senator in Congress after 
the expiration of their Presidential terms, and both died while holding those offices. Tyler was a 
Representative in the Confederate Congress from Virginia, and died in ofl&ce. 

Washington, Monroe, and Jackson were soldiers in the Revolutionary War; Jackson, W. H. Har- 
rison, Tyler, Taylor, and Buchanan in the War of 1812-15; Lincoln in the Black Hawk War; Taylor, 
Pierce, and Grant in the Mexican War, and Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, B. Harrison, and McKinley 
in the Civil War. Adams and Jefferson were signers of the Declaration of Independence, and Washing- 
ton and Madison of the Constitution. 

Grant was christened Hiram Ulysses and Cleveland Stephen Grover. W. H. Harrison was the 
oldest man elected to the Presidency, and Grant the yoimgest. Cleveland was the only President mar- 
ried in the White House, and his second daughter the only President's child born therein. Grant's 
daughter was the only child of a Piesident married therein. Wives of Tyler and Benjamin Harrison 
died in the White House. 

Virginia was the mother of seven Presidents, Ohio of four (and will be of five), North Carolina of 
three, Massachusetts and New York of two each, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
and Vermont of one each. The Presidential elections occur in the leap years (except 1900, which is not a 
leap year). 

THE PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION. 

The Presidential succeesion is fixed by chapter 4 of the acts of the Forty-ninth Congress, first session. 
In case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability of both the President and Vice-President, then 
the Secretary of State shall act as President imtil the disability of the President or Vice-President is 
removed or a President is elected. If there be no Secretary of State, then the Secretary of the Treasury 
will act; and the remainder of the order of succession is: Secretary of War, Attorney-General, Post- 
master-General, i Secretary of the Navy, and Secretary of the Interior (the ofi&ce of Secretary of Agri- 
culture was created after the passage of the act). The acting President must, upon taking office, con- 
vene Congress, if not at the time in session, in extraordinary session, giving twenty days' notice. This 
act applies only to such cabinet officers as shall have been appointed by the advice and consent Of th© 
Senate and are eligible under the Constitution to the Presidency. 

Jjfustiais ni i^t ^Initttr states ^upttmt ^i^uxt. 

(Names of the Chief Justices in italics. ) 



NiLME. 



John Jay, N. Y„ 

John Rutledge, S. C 

William Gushing, Mass- 
James Wilson, Pa 

John Blair, Va 

Robert H. Harrison, Md» 

James Iredell, N. C 

Thomas Johnson, Md 

William Paterson, N. J.... 

John Eutledge, S. C 

Samuel Chase, Md 

Oliver Ellsxvorth, Ct 

Bushrod Washington, Va 

Alfred Moore, N. C_ 

John Marshall, Va 

William Johnson, S. C 

Brock. Livingston, N. Y.. 

Thomas Todd, Ky 

Joseph Story, Mass 

Gabriel Duval, Md 

Smith Thompson, N. Y... 

Robert Trimble, Ky 

John McLean, Ohio 

Henry Baldwin, Pa 

James M. Wayne, Ga 

Roger B. Taney, Md 

Philip P. Barbour, Va 

John Catron, Tenn 

John McKinley, Ala 



Skevicb. 



Term. 



1789-1795 
1789-1791 
1789-1810 
1789-1798 
1789-1796 
1789-1790 
1790-1799 
1791-1793 
1793-1806 
1795-1795 
1796-1811 
1796-1800 
1798-1829 
1799-1804 
1801-1835 
1804-1834 
1806-1823 
1807-1826 
1811-1845 
1811-1836 
1823-1843 
1826-1828 
1829-1861 
11830-1844 
1835-1867 
1836-1864 
1836-1841 
1837-1865 
11837-1852 



6 
2 

21 
9 
7 
1 
9 
2 

13 



15 
4 
31 
5 
34 
30 
17 
19 
34 
25 
20 
2 
32 
14 
32 



Bom, 



Died. 



1745 1829 
1739 1800 
1733 1810 
1742 1798 
1732 1800 
17451790 
17511799 
1732 1819 
1745 1806 
1739 1800 
1741 1811 
1745 1807 
1762 1829 
1755 1810 
1755 1835 
1771 1 1834 
1757 1823 
17651826 
1779 1845 
1752 1844 
1767 1843 
1777 1828 
1785 1861 
1779 1844 
1790 1867 
28 1777 1864 
5 1783 1841 
28 1786 1865 
ISl 1780 1852 



Namb. 



Peter V. Daniel, Va 

Samuel Nelson, N. Y 

Levi Woodbury, N. H 

Robert C. Grier, Pa 

Benj. R. Curtis, Mass 

John A. Campbell, Ala... 
Nathan Clifford, Maine... 

Noah H. Swayne, Ohio 

Samuel 1. Miller, Iowa... 

David Davis, 111 

Stephen J. Field, Cal.... ... 

Salmon P. Chase, Ohio 

William Strong, Pa 

Joseph P. Bradley, N. J... 

Ward Hunt, N. Y 

Morrison B. TT'aite, Ohio... 

John M. Harlan, Ky 

William B. Woods, Ga 

Stanley Matthews, Ohio... 

Horace Gray, Mass 

Samuel Blatchford, N. Y.. 
Lucius Q. C. Lamar, Miss... 

Melville W. Fuller, 111 

David J. Brewer, Kan„... 
Henry B. Brown, Mich... 

George Shiras, Jr. , Pa 

Howell K. Jackson, Tenn 

Edward D. White, La 

Rufus W. Peckham,N.Y. 



Servicb. 



Term. 



1841-1860 
1845-1872 
1845-1851 
1846-1870 
1851-1857 
1853-1861 
1858-1881 
1861-1881 
1862-1890 
1862-1877 

1863- 

1864-1873 
1870-]880 
1870-1892 
1872-1882 
1874-1888 

1877- 

1880-1887 
1881-1889 

1881- 

1882-1893 
1888-1893 

1888- 

1889- 

1890- 

1892- 

1893-1895 

1893- 

1895- ... 



Bom, 



191785 

27 1792 
6 1789 

23 1794 

6 1809 

8 1811 
23 1803 
20 1804 

28 1816 
15 1815 

... 1816 

9 1808 
10 1808 
22 1813 

10 1811 
14 1816 

... 1833 

7 1824 

8 1824 
... 1828 

11 1820 
6 1825 
... 1833 
...1837 
..,1836 
... 1832 
2 1832 

,., 1845 
..1837 



Died. 



1860 
1873 
1851 
1870 

1874 
1889 
1881 
1884 
1890 
1886 

1873 
1895 
1892 
1886 
1888 

1887 
1889 

1893 
1893 



1895 



Speakers of the United States Souse of Representatives, 119 



Namx. 



1 
S 

s 

4 

C 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

SI 

22 

23 



Jokn Adams 

Thomas Jefferson . . . . 

Aaron Burr. 

George Clinton 

Elbridge Gerry 

Daniel D. Tompkins. . 

Jolin C. Calhoun 

Martin Van Buren.. . . 
Richard M. Johnson. . 

John Tyler 

Gteorge M. Dallas 

Millard Fillmore 

WiUiam R. King 

John C. Breckinridge. 
Hannibal Hamlin . . . . 

Andrew Johnson 

Schuyler Colfax 

Henry Wilson 

William A. Wheeler. . 
Chester A. Arthur. . . . 
Thos. A. Hendricks . . 

Levi P. Morton 

Adlai E. Stevenson. . . 



Birthplace. 



Quincy, Mass 

ShadweU, Va 

Newark, N.J 

Ulster Co., N. Y 

Marblehead, Mass. . . , 

Scarsdale, N. Y 

Abbeville, S. C 

Kinderhook, N.Y 

Louisville, Ky 

Green way, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Summer HiU, N.Y... 
Sampson Co^ N. C. . . 

Lexington, Ky 

Paris, Me 

Raleigh, N. C 

New York City, N. Y. 
Farmington, N. H. . . . 

Malone, N. Y 

Fairfield, Vt 

Muskingum Co., O. . . . 

Shoreham, Vt 

Christian Co., Ky. . . . 



1735 
1743 
1756 
1739 
1744 
1774 
1782 
1782 
1780 
1790 
1792 
1800 
1786 
1821 
1809 
1808 
1823 
1812 
1819 
1830 
1819 
1824 
1835 



Paternal 
Ancestry. 



English 

Welsh . . . . , 

English 

ExQglish 

English 

English 

Scotch-Irish . 

Dutch 

English 

English 

English 

English 

English 

Scotch 

English 

English 

English 

English 

English 

Scotch-Irish. 
Scotch-Irish . 

Scotch 

Scotch-Irish , 



-1 *> 

^T3 




Mass.. 


1789 


Va.... 


1797 


N.Y.. 


1801 


N.Y.. 


1805 


Mass.. 


1813 


N. Y.. 


1817 


S. C. 


1825 


N.Y.. 


1833 


Ky .. 

Va . . . 


1837 

1841 


Pa... 


1845 


N.Y.. 


1849 


Ala... 


1853 


Ky .. 
Me... 


1857 
1861 


Tenn. 


1865 


Ind... 


1869 


Mass.. 


1873 


N.Y.. 


1877 


N.Y.. 


1881 


Ind... 


1885 


N.Y.. 


1889 


111.... 


1893 



Fed 

Rep... 

Rep... 

Rep... 

Rep... 

Rep... 

Rep.. . 

Dem.. 



Dem. . 
Whig, 
Dem.. 
Dem.. 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep.. . 
Rep... 
Dem.. 
Rep... 
Dem.. 



Place of Death. 



Quincy, Mass 

Monticello, Va 

Staten Island, N.Y. . 
Washington, D. C. .. 
Washington, D. C... 
Staten Island, N.Y. . 
Washington, D. C . . . 
Kinderhook, N.Y... 

Frankfort, Ky 

Richmond, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa ... . 

Buffalo, N.Y 

D.illas Co., Ala 

Lexington, Ky 

Bangor, Me , 

Carter Co., Tenn 

Mankato, Minn 

Washington. D. C. . . 

Malone, N. Y 

New York City, N.Y, 
Indianapolis, Ind. . . . 



>H 



1826 


90 


1826 


83 


1836 


80 


1812 


73 


1814 


70 


1825 


51 


1850 


68 


1862 


79 


1850 


70 


1862 


72 


1864 


72 


1874 


74 


1853 


67 


1875 


64 


1891 


81 


1875 


66 


1885 


62 


1875 


63 


1887 


68 


1886 


56 


1885 


66 



1 



J^resitrrnts pro tempore of i%z 2Inttetr States .Senate. 



Congress. 



1, s 
3 

%' 

8, 4 
4 

4, « 

6 
C 
5 
S 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
8 
£ 
8 

9, 10 
10 

10, 11 
11 
11 

11, 12 

12, 13 
13 

13-15 
16, 16 
16-19 



Years. 



1789-92 

1792 
1792-94 
1794-95 
1795-96 
1796-97 

1797 

1797 
1797-98 

1798 
1798-99 

1799 
1799-1800 

1800 
1800-1801 

1801 
1801-02 
1802-03 
1803-04 
1804-05 

1805 
1805-08 
1808-09 

1809 
1809-10 
1810-11 
1811-12 
1812-13 
1813-14 
1814-18 
1818-19 
1820-26 



Name. 



John Langdon 

Richard H. Lee 

John Langdon 

Ralph Izard 

Henry Tazewell 

Samuel Livermore. . . . 
William Bingham. . . . 
William Bradford . . . . 

Jacob Read 

Theo. Sedgwick 

John Laurence 

James Ross 

Samuel Livermore . . . 

Uriah Tracy 

John E. Howard 

James Hillhouse 

Abraham Baldwin.. . . 
Stephen B. Bradley.. 

John Brown 

Jesse Franklin 

Joseph Anderson 

Samuel Smith 

Stephen B.Bradley.. 

John Milledge 

Andrew Gregg 

John GaUlard 

John Pope 

Wm. H. Crawford . . . 

Jos. B. Vamum 

John Gaillard 

James Barbour 

.John Gaillard 



State. 



N.H. 
Va.... 
N.H. 
S.C... 
Va.... 
N.H. 
Pa... 
R. I.. 
S.C. 
Mass.. 
N.Y., 
Pa... 
N. H. 
Ct.... 
Md ., 
Ct.... 
Ga... 
Vt... 
Ky... 
N.C.. 
Tenn. 
Md... 
Vt ... 
Ga.... 
Pa... 
S.C. 
Ky... 
Ga.... 
Mass.. 
S. C. 
Va.... 
S. C. 



Bom. Died. 



1739 
1732 
1739 
1742 
1753 
1732 
1751 
1729 
1752 
1746 
1750 
1762 
1732 
1755 
1752 
1754 
1754 
1754 
1757 
1758 
1757 
1752 
1754 
1757 
1755 

vm 

1772 
1750 

i775 



1819 
1794 
1819 
1804 
1799 
1803 
1804 
1808 
1816 
1813 
1810 
1847 
1803 
1807 
1827 
1832 
1807 
1830 
1837 
1823 
1837 
1839 
1830 
1818 
1835 
1826 
1845 
1834 
1821 
1826 
1842 
1826 



Congress. 



19, 20 
20-22 

22 
22, 23 

23 

24 
24-26 
26, 27 
27-29 
29, 30 

31, 32 

32, 33 

33, 34 
34 

35, 36 
36-38 

38 

39 

40 
41, 42 

43 
44, 45 

46 

47 

47 

48 

49 
49-51 

52 

53 

64 



Years. 



1826-28 
1828-32 

1S32 
1832-34 
1834-35 
183.=i-36 
1836-41 
1841-42 
1842-46 
1846-49 
1850-52 
1852-54 
1854-67 

1857 
1857-61 
1861-64- 
1864-65 
1865-67 
1867-69 
1869-73 
1873-75 
1875-79 
1879-81 

1881 
1881-83 
1883-85 
1885-87 
1887-91 
1891-93 
1893-95 

1895 



Name. 



Nathaniel Macon.. . . 

Samuel Smith 

L. W. Tazewell 

Hugh L. White 

Geo. Poindexter 

John Tyler 

William R. King 

Saml. L. Southard. . . 

W. P. Mangum 

D. R. Atchi-son 

William E. King 

D. R. Atchison 

Jesse D. Bright 

James M. Mason 

Benj. Fitzpatrick. . . . 

Solomon Foot 

Daniel Clark 

Lafayette S. Foster.. 

Benj. F. Wade 

Henry B. Anthony. . 

M. H. Carpenter 

Thomas W. Ferry. . . 

A. G. Thurman 

Thomas F. Bayard. . 

David Davis 

Geo. F. Edmunds... 

John Sherman 

John J. Ingalls 

C. F. Manderson. . . . 
Isham G. Harris . . . . 
William P. Frye 



State. 


Bom. 


N.C.. 


1757 


Md... 


1752 


Va... 


1774 


Tenn. 


1773 


Miss.. 


1779 


Va... 


1790 


Ala... 


1786 


N.J.. 


1787 


N.C.. 


1792 


Mo... 


1807 


Ala... 


1786 


Mo... 


1807 


Ind... 


1812 


Va... 


1798 


Ala... 


1802 


Vt.... 


1802 


N.H. 


1809 


Ct.... 


1806 


Ohio . 


1800 


R. I.. 


1815 


Wis.. 


1824 


Mich. 


1827 


Ohio . 


1813 


Del... 


1828 


111.... 


1815 


Vt ..- 


1828 


Ohio. 


1823 


Kan. 


1S33 


Neb. 


1837 


Tenn. 


1818 


Me... 


1831 



1837 

1839 
1860 
1840 
1853 

1862 
1853 
1842 
1861 
1886 
1853 
1886 
1875 
1871 
1869 
1866 
1891 
1880 
1878 
1884 
1881 
1896 
1895 

i886 



Speafeeris of ti&e gj. S> ll^ouse of i^epresentatibes. 



Congress. Years, 



1 

S 
8 

\' 

7-9 
10, 11 
12, 13 

13 
14-16 

16 

17 

18 

19 
20-23 

23 
24, 26 

S6 

27 



1789-91 
1791-93 
1793-95 
1795-99 
1799-1801 
1801-07 
1807-11 
1811-14 
1814-15 
1815-20 
1820-21 
1821-23 
1823-25 
1825-27 
1827-34 
1834-35 
1836-39 
1839-41 
1841-43 



Name. 


State. 


F. A. Muhlenburg.. . . 


Pa... 


Jonathan Trumbull.. 


Ct.... 


F. A. Muhlenburg. . . . 


Pa... 


Jonathan Dayton .... 


N.J.. 


Theo. Sedgwick 

Nathaniel Macon 


Mass.. 


N.C.. 


Joseph B. Vamum... 


Mass.. 


Henry Clav 


Kv... 


Langdon Cheves 


S.C. 


Henry Clay 


Ky... 
N.Y.. 


John W. Taylor 


Philip P. Barbour 


Va.... 


Henry Clay 


Ky... 

N.Y.. 


John W.Taylor 


Andrew Stevenson ... 


Va.,.. 


John Bell 


Tenn. 
Tenn. 


James K. Polk 


R. M. T. Hunter 


Va.... 


John White 


Ky... 



Bom. Died. Congress 



1750 

1740 

1750 

1760 

1746 

1757 

1750 

1777 

1776'! 

1777 

1784 

1783 

1777 

1784 

1784 

1797 

1795 

1809 

1805 



1801 
1809 
1801 
1824 
1813 
1837 
1821 
1852 
1857 
1862 
1854 
1841 
1862 
1854 
1857 
1869 
1849 
1887 
1845 



28 

29 

30 

31 
32, 33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

•38-40 

41-43 

44 
44-46 

47 
48-50 

51 
52, 63 

64 



Years. 



1843-45 
1845-47 
1847-49 
1849-51 
1851-55 
1865-57 
1857-59 
1859-61 
1861-63 
1863-69 
1869-75 
1875-76 
1876-81 
1881-83 
1883-89 
1889-91 
1891-95 
1895- 



Name. 



John W. Jones 

John W. Davis 

Robert C. Winthrop. 

Howell Cobb 

Linn Boyd 

Nathaniel P. Banks . 
James L. Orr. ...... 

Wm. Pennington . . . 
Galusha A. Grow . . . 

Schuyler Colfax 

James G. Blaine . . . . 

Michael C. Kerr 

Samuel J. Randall.. 

John W. Keifer 

■Tohn G. Carlisle .... 
Thomas B. Reed ... . 

Charles F. Crisp 

Thomas B. Beed 



State. 



Va... 
Ind.. 
Mass. 
Ga.. 
Ky.. 
Mass. 
S. C. 
N.J. 
Pa... 
Ind... 
Me... 
Ind... 
Pa... 
Ohio. 
Ky... 
Me... 
Ga.... 
Me... 



Born. Died. 



1805 
1799 
1809 
1815 
1800 
1816 
1822 
1796 
1823 
1823 
1830 
1827 
1828 
1836 
1835 
1839 
1845 
1839 



1848 
1850 
1894 
1868 
1859 
1894 
1873 
1862 

1885 
1893 
1876 
1890 



1896 



120 



Presidential Cabinet Officers. 



SECRETARIES OF STATE. 



Pbksidents. 



Washington 

Adams 

Jefferson 

Madison 

Monroe 

J. Q. Adams 
Jackson. 

4 4 

< i *" 

<i 

Van Buren. 

Harrison 

Tyler 

4 4 

< > 



Cabinet OflBcers, 



Thomas Jefferson 

Edmund Randolph.. 
Timothy Pickering.. 

( 4 

John Marshall 

James Madison 

Robert Smith 

James Monroe 

John Quincy Adams 

Henry Clay 

Martin Van Buren. .. 
Edward Livingston.. 

Louis McLane 

John Forsyth 

4 4 

Daniel "Webster 

4 4 

Hughs. Legar6 

Abel P. Upshur 

JohnC. Calhoun 





Date 


Resi- 


of Ap- 


dences. 


point- 




ment. 


Va 


1789 


1 ( 


1794 


Mass... 


1795 


4 4 


1797 


Va 


1800 


4 4 


1801 


Md. ... 


1809 


Va 


1811 


Mass... 


1817 


Ky 


1825 


N. Y... 


1829 


La 


1831 


Del. ... 


1833 


Ga. 


1834 


4 4 


1837 


Mass... 


1841 


4 4 


1841 


s. c 

Va 

S. C 


1843 

1843 
1844 



PaESISKNTS. 



Polk 

Taylor 

Fillmore.... 

i 4 

Pierce 

Buchanan . 

4 4 

Lincoln 

Johnson .... 
Grant 

4 4 

Hayes 

Garfield .... 

Arthur 

Cleveland ., 
Harrison.... 

4 4 

Cleveland... 



Cabinet Officers. 



James Buchanan 

John M. Clayton 

Daniel Webster 

Edward Everett 

William L. Marcy..., 

Lewis Cass 

Jeremiahs. Black.... 
William H. Seward 

4 4 

Elihu B. Washburn , 

Hamilton Fish 

William M. Evarts 

James G. Blaine 

F. T. Frelinghuysen 
Thomas F. Bayard.. 

James G. Blaine 

John W. Foster 

Walter Q. Gresham 
Richard Olney 



Resi- 
dences. 



Dat« 
of Ap- 
point- 
ment. 



Pa 

Del..., 
Mass , 

4 4 

N. Y 
Mich 
Pa 

N. Y 

ni 

N. Y 

4 ( 

Me... 
N. J.. 
Del... 
Me... 
Ind... 

Ill 

Mass 



1845 
1849 
1850 
1852 
1853 
1857 
1860 
1861 
1865 
1869 
1869 
1877 
1881 
1881 
1885 
1889 
1892 
1893 
1895 





SECRETARIES OF 


THE TREASURY. 






Washington 


Alexander Hamilton... 
Oliver Wolcott 


N. Y... 
Ct 

4 4 

Mass.M 

4 4 

Pa.....!!! 

4 4 

Teiin'.. 

Pa 

Ga 

4 4 

Pa!!!!!!!! 

4 4 

Dei!!!!!! 

Pa 

Md _ ... 
N. H... 

4 < 

Ohio. !!! 

4 4 

Pa....!!!!! 

N. Y... 

Ky 

Miss 


1789 
1795 
1797 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1809 
1814 
1814 
1816 
1817 
1825 
1829 
1831 
1833 
1833 
1834 
1837 
1841 
1841 
1841 
1843 
1844 
1845 


Taylor. 

Fillmore 

Pierce 


William M. Meredith 
Thomas Corwin 


Pa- 

Ohio ... 

Ky 

Ga 

Md 

N. Y... 
Ohio ... 

Me 

Ind 

4 4 

Mass... 

4 4 

Ky ...:.! 

Me 

Ohio 

Minn... 
N. Y... 
Ind 

4 4 

N. Y.!! 

4 4 

Minn... 
Ohio ... 
Ky 


1849 
1850 


Adams 

i 4 


4 4 


James Guthrie 


1853 


Samuel Dexter 

4 4 


Buchanan.. .. 

4 4 
4 4 

Lincoln 

4 4 
4 4 

Johnson 

Grant 


Howell Cobb 


1857 


TpflTpTKinn 


Philip F. Thomas 

John A. Dix 


1860 


4 4 


Alhprt Oallatin 


1861 




4 4 


Salmon P. Chase 

William P. Fessenden 
Hugh Mcculloch 

4 4 

George S. Boutweil. - 
Wm. A. Richardson .. 
Benjamin H. Bristow 
Lot M Morrill 


1861 


4 4 

( i 

14 

•••••• 

Monroe 

J. Q. Adams 


George W. Campbell... 

Alexander J. Dallas 

WiUiam H. Crawford.. 

4 4 

Richard Rush 


1864 
1865 
1865 
1869 


4 4 


1873 


Samuel D. Ingham 

Louis McLane 


4 I 


1874 


4 4 


4 ( 


1876 


i 1 


William J. Duane- 

Roger B. Tanev- 


Hayes 


John Sherman 


1877 


t t 


Garfield 

Arthur 


William Windom 

Charles J. Folger 

Walter Q. Gresham... 

Hugh McCulloch 

Daniel Manning 

Charles S. Fairchild.... 

William Windom 

Charles Foster 


1881 


< 4 


Levi Woodbury 


1881 


Van Bnren.. 




4 4 


1884 


Harrison 


Thomas Ewing 


4 ( 


1884 


Tyler .. 


4 4 " 


Cleveland ... 

4 4 

Harrison 

4 4 

Cleveland ... 


1885 


4 4 


Walter Forward 


1887 


1 4 


.John C Snencer 


1889 


4 > 


Georere M. Bibb 


1891 


Polk 


Robert J. Walker- 


John G. Carlisle 


1893 



SECRETARIES OF WAR. 



Washington 

4 4 
4 4 

Adams 

4 4 
4 4 
4 4 

Jefferson 

Madison 

4 4 
t » 
t 4 

Monroe 

4 4 
4 4 

J. Q. Adams 

4 4 

Jackson 

4 4 
4 4 

Van Buren 
Harrison .... 
Tyler 

4 4 
4 4 
4 t 
It " 



Henry Knox 

Timothy Pickering. 
James McHenry 



John Marshall Va .... 

.Samuel Dexter Mass.. 

Roger Griswold Ct 

Henry Dearborn Mass.. 

William Eustis " . 

John Armstrong N. Y. 

James Monroe Va .... 

Williaii. H Crav%'ford.. Ga 

Isaac Shelb> Ky .... 

Geo. Graham((7(i. in.).. Va .... 

JohnC. Calhoun S. C... 

James Barbour Va .... 

Peter B. Porter N. Y. 

John H. Eaton Tenn. 

Lewis Cass Ohio . 

Benjamin F. Butler IN. Y. 



Mass. 

4 4 

Md...! 



Joel R. Poinsett 
John Bell.. 



S. C... 
Tenn. 



John McLean Ohio 

John C. Spencer N. Y. 

James M. Porter Pa.. 

WiUiam Wilkms 



1789 
1795 
1796 
1797 
1800 
1800 
1801 
1801 
1809 
1813 
1814 
1815 
1817 
1817 
1817 
1825 
1828 
1829 
1831 
1837 
1837 
1841 
1841 
1841 
1841 
1843 
1844 



Polk .... 
Taylor . 



Fillmore..., 

Pierce 

Buchanan , 



Lincoln... 

4 4 

Johnson . 



Grant . 



4 4 

Hayes . 



WiUiam L. Marcv , 

George W. Crawford. 

Edward Bates 

Charles M. Conrad...., 

Jefferson Davis , 

John B. Floyd , 

Joseph Holt , 

Simon Cameron 

Edwin ]\L Stanton 



Garfield 

Arthur 

Cleveland .. 
Harrison .... 



U. S. Grant (ad. in.)... 
Lor. Thomas {ad. in. ) 

JohnM. Schofield 

John A. Rawlins 

William T. Sherman.. 
William W. Belknap.. 

Alphonso Taft 

James Don Cameron.. 
George W. McCrary... 

Alexander Ramsey 

Robert T. Lincoln 



■N, Y.. 

Ga 

Mo 

La 

Miss... 

{Va 

Ky 

IPa 

Ohio.. 

111-...!! 



.Cleveland... 



'William C. Endicott- 

Redfield Proctor 

Stephen B. Elkins 

Daniel S. Lamont 



N. Y. 

lU , 

Ohio . 

la 

Ohio . 

Pa 

la 

Minn, 
ni 



Mass... 

Vt 

W. Va 
N. Y... 



1845 

1849 
1850 
1850 
1853 
1857 
1861 
1861 
1862 
1865 
1867 
1868 
1868 
1869 
1869 
1869 
1876 
1876 
1877 
1879 
1881 
1881 
1885 
1889 
1891 
1893 



Presidential Cabinet Officers, 



121 



SECRETARIES OF THE INTERIOR. 



Pbxszdsntv. 


Cabinet Officers. 


Resi- 
dences. 

Ohio ... 

Md 

Pa. 

Va 

Mich... 
Miss ... 
Ind 

Iowa... 
Ill 


Date 1 
of Ap- 
point- 
ment. 


Peksidknts. 


Cabinet OfScers. 


Resi- 
dences. 


Date 
of Ap- 
point- 
ment. 


T^iivloT .--— , 


Tliomfl5i "Rwinc 


1849 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1853 

1857 

1861 

1863; 

1865 


Grant- 


Jacob D Cox 


Ohio ... 

Mich... 

Mo 

Iowa... 

Colo 

Miss ... 

Wis 

Mo 

Ga 

Mo 


1869 


Fillmore 


.Tj^mpR A T*parcp .••••»> 




Columbus Delano 


1870 


Thos. M. T. M'Kernon- 
Alexander H.H. Stuart 

Robert McClelland 

Tnonh TliOTYrnson ......... 


Zachariah Chandler 

Carl Schurz 


1875 


(t 


Hayes 


1877 


Pierce 

Buchanan... 
Lincoln 


Garfield 

Arthur 


Samuel J. Kirkwood»... 

Henry ]M. Teller 

Lucius Q. C. Lamar 

William F. Vilas 


1881 

1882 


Caleb B Smith 


Cleveland ... 

TTaT^snn ... 


1885 


John P Usher 


1888 


TnTi n son 


t ( 


John W. Noble 


1889 


i i 


TflmpsTTarlan 


1865 Icievpland ... 


Hoke Smith 


1893 


t ( 


Orville H. Browning-... 


1866 




David R. Francis 


1896 



SECRETARIES OF THE NAVY. 



Adams 

4 ( 

Jefferson «. 



1 ( 
Madison . 

Monroe «. 



J. Q. Adams 
Jackson 



Van Buren.. 



Harrison , 
Tyler 



George Cabot 

Benjaminsfetoddert.. 



Robert Smith ... 

Jacob Crowninshield... 

Paul Hamilton 

William Jones 

B. W. Crowninshield. 



Smith Thompson-.... 
Samuel L. Southard. 



John Branch , 

Levi Woodbury 

Mahlon Dickerson., 



James K. Paulding-. 
George E. Badger 



Abel P. Up shur , 
David Henshaw . 



Mass. 
Md.... 



Mass.. 
S. C... 

Pa- 

Mass.. 

N. J.. 

N. C ■■ 
N. H. 
N. J„. 

N. Y*. 

N. C. 



Va .... 

Mass. 



1798 
1798 
1801 
1801 
1805 
1809 
1813 
1814 
1817 
1818 
1823 
1825 
1829 
1831 
1834 
1837 
1838 
1841 
1841 
1841 
1843 



Tyler 
Polk .. 



Taylor 

Fillmore 

Pierce 

Buchanan — 

Lincoln- 

Johnson 

Grant- 



Ha^r, 



es 



Garfield- 

Arthur 

Cleveland ... 

Harrison 

Cleveland ... 



Thomas W. Gilmer . 

John Y. Mason 

Gteorge Bancroft 

John Y. Mason 

William B. Preston . 
William A. Graham. 
John P. Kennedy .... 
James C. Dobbin- .... 

Isaac Toucey 

Gideon Welles 



Va. 

Mass. 
Va .... 



Adolph E. Borie 

George IsL Robeson 

Richard W. Thompson.. 

Nathan Goflf, Jr 

William H. Hunt 

William E. Chandler 

William C. Whitney 

Benjamin F Tracy 

Hilary A. Herbert - 



N.C . 
Md.... 

N. C. 
Ct-..., 



Pa 

N. J ... 

Ind 

W.Va. 
La 

N. H.. 

N. Y.. 
it 

Ala .'.'.. 



1844 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1849 
1850 
1852 
1853 
1857 
1861 
1865 
1869 
1869 
1877 
1881 
1881 
1882 
1885 
1889 
1893 



SECRETARIES OF AGRICULTURE. 



Cleveland . 
Harrison - . 



Norman J. Colman [Mo.. 

Jeremiah M. Rusk , Wis . 



1889. 
18891 



Cleveland 



J. Sterling Morton.. 



Neb.... 



1893 



POSTMASTERS-GENERAL.* 



Washington 

Adams 

Jefferson 



Madison , 
Monroe-. 



J. Q. Adams 
Jackson- 



Van Buren- 



Harrison. 
Tyler. ... 



Polk 

Taylor 

Fillmore. 



Pierce. 



Samuel Osgood 

Timothy Pickering.. 
Joseph Habersham. , 



Gideon Granger.. 



Return J. Meigs, Jr. 
John McLean. 



William T, Barry. 
Amos Kendall 



John M. Niles. ... 
Francis Granger.. 



Charles A Wickliffe. 

Cave Johnson. 

Jacob Collamer. 

Nathan K. Hall 

Samuel D. Hubbard... 
James Campbell 



Mass... 


i;89 


> ( 


1791 


Ga. 


1795 


1 1 


1797 


(( 


1801 


Ct 


1801 


6 4 


1809 


Ohio ... 


1814 


i t 


1817 


<( 


1823 


(( 


1825 


^7 

...... 


1829 
1835 


(t 


1837 


Ct 


1840 


N. Y... 


1841 


«( 


1841 


Ky 


1841 


Tenn... 


1845 


Vt. 


1849 


N. Y... 
Ct 


1850 

1852 


Pa 


1853 



Buchanan .. 

t< 
Lincoln 



Johnson . 

4 k 

Grant.... 



i c 

Hayes , 



Garfield 
Arthur... 



Clfeveland . 

4 4 

Harrison. . 
Cleveland . 



Aaron V. Brown,.. 

Joseph Holt. 

Horatio King 

Montgomery Blair.. 
William Dennison.. 



Alexander W. Randall 
John A. J. Cresswell- 
James W. Marshall... 

Marshall Jewell 

James N. Tyner 

David McK. Key 

Horace Maynard 

Thomas L. James 

Timothy O. Howe 

Walter Q. Gresham... 

Frank Hatton , 

William F. Vilas , 

DonM. Dickinson , 

John Wanamaker „_..., 

Wilson S. Bissell. , 

William L. Wilson,. . . 



Tenn.. 

Ky 

Me 

Md 

Ohio .. 

4 i 

Wis.!! 

Md 

Va 

Ct 

Ind . ... 
Tenn.. 

N. y!!! 

Wis.... 
Ind.... 
Iowa... 
Wis.... 
Mich..- 

Pa 

N. Y.._ 
W.Va. 



1857 
1859 
1861 
1861 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1869 
1874 
1874 
1876 
1877 
1880 
1881 
1881 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1888 
1889 
1893 
1895 



* The Postmaster-General was not considered a Cabinet ofllcer until 1829. 

ATTORNEYS-GENERAL. 



Washington 



Adams 

4 4 

Jefferson . 



Madison . 



Edmund Randolph.. 
William Bradford... 
Charles Lee 



Theophilus Parsons.. 

Levi Lincoln 

Robert Smith 

John Breckinridge... 
Caesar A Rodney 



William Pinkney.. 



Va 


1789 


Pa 


1794 


Va 


1795 


4 4 


1797 


Mass... 


1801 


4 4 


1801 


Md 


1805 


Ky 


1805 


Del 


1807 


i ( 


1809 


Md 


1811 



Madison Richard Rush- 
Monroe " 

" WiUiam Wirt., 

J. Q. Adams] 
Jackson . 



Van Buren.. 
Harrison 



John M'P. Berrien.... 

Roger B. Taney- 

Benjamin F. Butler.. 



Felix Grundy 

Henry D. Gilpin 

John J. Crittenden.. 



Pa- 


1814 


( ( 


1817 


Va 


1817 


i ( 


1825 


Ga 


1829 


Md 


1831 


N. Y... 


1833 


( « 


1837 


Tenn... 


18;W 


Pa 


1840 


Ky 


1841 



122 



The Presidential Election. 



ATTORNEYS-GENEEAIj— CbTifmued. 



PSSSISXNTS. 


Cabinet Officers. 


Resi- 
dences. 


Date 
of Ap- 
point- 
ment. 


Pbksldsnts. 


Cabinet Officers. 


Resi- 
dences. 


Date 
of Ap- 
point- 
ment. 


T^v1(»r „ 


John J. Crittenden 

Hueh S I/eerare 


Ky - ... 

a c 

Md 

Va 

Me 

Ct 

Md 

Ky 

Mass... 

Pa 

Ohio ... 

Mo 

Pa 

Ky..... 
Ky 


1841 
1841 
1843 
1845 
1846 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1853 
1857 
1860 
1861 
1863 
1864 
1865 


Johnson 

Grant 


Henry Stanbery 


Ohio... 
N. Y... 
Mass... 

Ga 

Ore 

N. Y... 
Ohio ... 
Mass... 
Pa 

Ark"!." 

Ind„ ... 
Mass.... 
Ohio . 


1866 


^^\f^- 


William M. Evarts.. 

Ebenezer R. Hoar 


1868 


(( 


.Tohn Nelson 


1869 


Polk 


John Y. Mason.. 


( 1 


Amos T. Ackerman 

George H. Williams 

Edwards Pierrepont 

Alphonso Taft 


1870 


( & 


Nathan Clifford ....... 

Isaac Toucey » 

Reverdv Johnson 


(( 


1871 


tc 


4( 


1875 


Taylor., ««.. 


(( 


1876 


John J. Crittenden 

Caleb CushinsT - 


Hayes 


Charles Devens 


1877 


PiercG 


Garfield 

Arthur 

Cleveland ... 
Harrison .... 
Cleveland ... 

C i 


Wavne MacVeaeh 


1881 




Jeremiah S Black 


Benjamin H. Brewster.. 
Augustus H. Garland... 
William H. H. Miller... 
Richard Olnev 


1881 


( ( 


TCdwin ]Vf Stanton 


1885 


liincoln 


Edward Bates 


1889 


( ( 


Titian J. Coffey(ad. in. ). 
James Soeed 


1893 


( ( 


Judsnrt TTnrTnoni t ,,». 


1895 


Johnson 


James Speed 


• 







Note. —Since the foundation of the Government, the individual States have been represented the 
following number of times in Cabinet positions : Massachusetts, 29; New York, 28; Pennsylvania, 25; 
Virginia, 22; Ohio, 19; Kentucky, 15; Maryland, I55 Connecticut, 9; Indiana, 9; Georgia, 8; Ten- 
nessee, 8; Illinois, 6; Maine, 6; bouth Carolina, 6; Missouri, 6; Delaware, 5; Wisconsin, 5; Iowa, 4; 
Michigan, 4 ; Mississippi, 4; Isew Jersey, 4: North Carolina, 4; Louisiana, 3; Minnesota, 8; New 
Hampshire, 3; West Virginia, 3; Vermont, 2; Alabama, 1; Arkansas, 1; Colorado, 1; Nebraska, 1; 
Oregon, 1. The States which have not been represented in the Cabinet are: California, Florida, Idaho, 
Kansas, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Wasiiuigtoa, Wyoming 



HOW THE PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT ARE CHOSEN. 

The next Presidential election will take place on Tuesday, November 6, 1900. 

The President and Vice-President of the United States are chosen by oincials termed ' ' Electors * ' 
in each State, who are, under existing State laws, chosen by the qualified voters thereof by ballot, on 
the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November in every fourth year preceding the year in which 
the Presidential term expires. 

The Constitution of the United States prescribes that each State shall "appoint,' ' in such m.anner 
as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of Senators and 
Representatives to which the State may be entitled in Congress; but no Senator or Representative or 
person holding an ofUce of trust or profit under the United States shall be an elector. The Constitu- 
tion requires that the day when electors are chosen shall be the same throughout the United States. 
At the beginning of our Government most of the electors were chosen by the Legislatures of their 
respective States, the people having no direct participation in their choice ^and one State, South Carolina, 
continued that practice down to the breaking out of the Civil War. But in all the States now the 
electors are, imder the direction of State laws, chosen by the people on a general State ticket. 

The manner in which the chosen electors meet and ballot for a President and Vice-President of the 
"United States is provided for in Article XII. of the Constitution, and is as follows: 

The electors stall meet In their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, 
shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves ; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and 
in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and 
of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they snail sign and certify, and transmit, 
sealed, to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. 

The same article then prescribes the mode in which the Congress shall count the ballots of the 
electors, and announce the result thereof, which is as follows: 

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the 
votes shall then be counted ; the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be President, if such nimiber be a 
majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest 
numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose inmiediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes sliaU be taken by States, the representation from each State having 
one vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the 
States shall' be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of 
choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next follo-w-ing, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in 
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President, The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have 
a majoritv, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose 
shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 

The procedure of the two Houses, in case the returns of the election of electors from any State are 
disputed, is provided in the ' ' Electoral Count ' ' Act, passed by the Forty-ninth Congress. 
The Constitution also defines who is eligible for President of the United States, as follows: 
No person except a natural-bom citizen or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall be 
eligible to the office of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty- 
five years. 

The qualifications for Vice-President are the same. 

The ' ' Electoral Count ' ' Act directs that the Presidential electors shall meet and ^ve their votes 
on the second Monday in January next following their election. It fixes the time when Congress shall 
be in session to count the ballots as the second Wednesday in Eebruary succeeding the meeting of the 
electors. 

For a statement of the succession to the Presidency, in case of the death, inability, etc., of both 
President and Vice-President, as fixed by law, see note following table of Presidents (page 118). 



Mecortr of 25btnts in 1896. 



Jan. 1, President Cleveland announced the 
members of the Venezuelan Boundary Commission. 
Jan, 1. Dr. Jameson and his raiders in the 
Transvaal Tlepublic were defeated in battle. 

Jan. 3. The German Emperor congratulated 
President Kruger upon the defeat of the British 
raiders. 

Jan. 5. Cecil Rhodes resigned the premiership of 
Cape Colony. 

Jan. 6. Secretary Carlisle issued a call for bids 
for $100,000,000 bonds as a popular loan. 

Jan. 17. Gen. Martinez Campos resigned the 
Captain-Generalship of Cuba. He was succeeded 
by Gen. Weyler. 

Jan. 20. Prince Henry of Battenberg, husband 
of Princess Beatrice of England, died from 
African fever on a British virar vessel. 

Jan. 23. The formal annexation of Madagascar 
by France vras announced. 

Jan. 24. The American liner St. Paul went 
ashore off Long Branch, N. J. She was released 
Feb. 4. 

Jan. 31. The yacht Defender investigating com- 
mittee of the New York Yacht Club dismissed 
Earl Dunraven's charges of unfairness against the 
owners, 

Feb. 5. Ex-Queen Liiiuokalani, of Hawaii, was 
pardoned by the government. 

Feb, 11. "Bat" Shea, murderer of Robert Ross at 
Troy, N. Y., was electrocuted. 

Feb. 22. The Confederate States' Museum at 
Richmond, Va., was dedicated. 

Feb. 24. Ballington Booth, who was displaced 
from the command of the American Salvation 
Army, declared his independence. 

Feb. 27. Earl Dunraven was expelled from the 
New York Yacht Club. 

Feb. 29. Receivers for the Baltimore <fc Ohio 
Railroad were appointed. 

March 2. Mobs assailed the United States con- 
sulate at Barcelona, Spain. 

March 2. The Italian army was disastrously de- 
feated by the King of Abyssinia. 

March 23. Gov. Morton, of New York, signed the 
Raines liquor bill. 

March 26. The New York Assembly passed the 
Greater New York Consolidation bill, it having 
previously passed the Senate. 

April 6. Ex-President Harrison married Mrs. 
Mary Scott Lord Dimmick at New York. 

April 6. American college athletes in the games 
in Greece won many victories. 

April 22. The International Arbitration Con- 
gross met at Washington. 

April 22. Princess Marguerite of Orleans and 
the Duke of Magenta were married at Paris. 

April 23. The Bourgeois ministry in France re- 
signed. The Meline ministry succeeded April 28. 

April 28. John Hays Hammond and other 
Johannesburg reformers were convicted of high 
treason in the Transvaal Republic and sentenced 
to death. They were subsequently banished. 

May 1. The Persian Shah Nasir-ed-Din was 
assassinated at Teheran. 

May 1. The new Canadian ministry under Sir 
Charles Tupper assumed office. 

May 1. H. H. Holmes, the naulti-murderer, was 
executed at Philadelphia. 

May 26. Coronation of the Emperor and Em- 
press of Russia at Moscow. 

May 27. A cyclone wrecked a part of St. Louis, 
Mo., causing the loss of several hundred lives and 
a great destruction of valuable property. 

May 29. A disaster at Moscow during the corona- 
tion festivities caused the death of 2,000 people. 

June 3. The Prince of Wales' horse Persimmon 
won the Derby. 

June 15. A tidal wave swept the northeast coast 
of Japan and destroyed many thousand people 
and houses. 
June 16. The Cape Colony steamship Drummond 



Castle was wrecked on the French, coast with a loss 
of 250 lives. 

July 1. Harriet Beecher Stowe died. 

July 7 The Yale crew was defeated at Henley 
by the Leander. 

July 8. The Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company of Boston an-ived in England on a visit. 

July 13. Porfirio Diaz was re-elected President 
of Mexico without opposition. 

July 14. An attempt to assassinate President 
Faure, of France, was made in Paris. 

July 17. The Venezuelan arbitration correspond- 
ence between Secretary OIney and the Marquis of 
Salisbury was made public. 

July 20. The trial of Dr. Jameson and his fellow 
raiders in the Transvaal was begun in London. 
They were convicted July 28 and sentenced to 
various terms of imprisonment. 

July 21. A commercial treaty between China 
and Japan was signed. 

July 21. The one hundredth anniversary of the 
death of Robert Burns was celebrated at Dumfries, 
Scotland, where he is buried. 

July 21. Princess Maud of Wales was married to 
Prince Charles of Denmark in London. 

July 22. The centenary of the settlement of 
Cleveland, Ohio, was celebrated. 

July 30. President Cleveland issued a proclama- 
tion of warning to Cuban filibusters. 

July 30. The Pope appointed Rev. Sebastian 
Martinelli papal delegate in the United States. 

July 23. The Appellate Division of the New 
York Supreme Court declared the rapid transit act 
constitutional. 

July 31. A railroad disaster near Atlantic City, 
N. J., killed forty-seven and injured seventy per- 
sons. 

Aug. 13. Dr. Nansen, the Arctic explorer, ar- 
rived at Vordoe, Norway, on his return. 

Aug. 18. The German Emperor's yacht Meteor 
collided with the yacht Isolde at the South Sea 
regatta, England. The owner of the latter yacht 
was killed. 

Aug. 22. Hoke Smith, Secretary of the Interior, 
resigned. David R. Francis was appointed his 
successor. 

Aug, 22. The rebellious Matabeles in South 
Africa submitted to the British. 

Aug. 27. The British fleet bombarded Zanzibar 
and deposed the usurping Sultan. 

Aug. 28. Li Hung Chang, the Chinese states- 
man, arrived in New York. He was received by 
President Cleveland Aug. 29. 

Aug. 23. Rising and massacre of Armenians in 
Constantinople. 

Aug. 31. Fresh outbreak of the rebellion against 
Spanish rule in the Philippine Islands. 

Aug. 31. Hilton, Hughes & Co., New York, 
failed. 

Sept. 12. P. J. P. Tynan, the Fenian agitator, 
known as No. 1, was arrested at Boulogne. 

Sept. 19. Dongola, in the Soudan, was captured by 
the Anglo-Egyptian expedition. 

Sept. 22. The Russian Emperor and Empress ar- 
rived in Scotland on a visit to the Queen. 

Sept. 26. The Peary expedition arrived at Syd- 
ney, C. B., from Greenland. 

Oct. 2. A hurricane across Florida destroyed 
many lives and much property. 

Oct. 5-9. The Emperor and Empress of Russia 
visited France. 

Oct. 7. The Earl of Rosebery resigned the 
leadership of the Liberal party. 

Oct. 24. The Prince of Naples, heir to the 
Italian throne, married Princess Helene of Mon- 
tenegro at Rome. 

Dec. 7. General Maceo, Cuban leader, was, ac- 
cording to Spanish reports, killed in a skirmish. 

Dec. 10. Marie Barberi, tried a second time in 
New York for the murder of her lover, was 
acquitted. 



124 



Death Boll of 1896. 



mtm) mou m isse. 



Age at death is given in parentheses ; vocation, place, cause, and time of death when known follow. 



Abbey, Henry E., operatic and theatrical man- 
ager. New York City, heart disease, Oct. 17. 

Abbott, Austin (65), Dean New York University 
Law School, writer on law, New York, April 19. 

Albrecht, Salvator (24), Austrian Archduke, Vi- 
enna, consumption, Feb. 27. 

Alley, John B. (78), ex-Member of Congress, mill- 
ionaire, Boston, paralysis, Jan. 19. 

Anthony, George T. (72), ex-Govemor of Kansas, 
Superintendent of Insurance, Topeka, Kan., Aug. 5. 

Arago, Francois V. E. (84). advocate and poli- 
tician, Paris, Nov. 26. 

Armitage, Edward (79), painter, member Royal 
Academy, England, May 25. 

Armitage, Thomas (76), Baptist clergyman, Yon- 
kers, N. Y., Jan. 20. 

Ashley, James M. (71), ex-Member of Congress, 
railroad president, Alma, Mich., heart failure, Sept. 
16. 

Barlow, Francis 0. (61), lawyer and publicist, ex- 
Union Brigadier-General, New York, Jan. 11, 

Bamby, Sir Joseph (58), musician, England, Jan. 
28. 

Barre, Jean Auguste (84), French sculptor, France, 
Feb. 9. 

Battenberg, Prince Henry (37), husband of Prin- 
cess Beatrice of England, on board British cruiser 
"Blonde," African fever, Jan. 21. 

Belknap, Robert Lenox (48), financier. New York, 
Bright's disease, March 13. 

Blackburn, Colin, (83), English jurist, England, 
Jan 9. 

Blair, John B. (95), artist and inventor, Chicago, 
paralysis, Jan. 2. 

Bliss, George (79), banker, New York, paralysis' of 
the heart, Feb. 2. 

Bloodgood, John, New York banker, Lenox, Mass., 
Aug. 16. 

Boreman, Arthur I., ex-Govemor of West Vir- 
ginia, Parkersburg, W. Va., April 19, 

Borrowe, Samuel, Vice-President of the Equitable 
Life Assurance Society, New York, May 3. 

Bowen, Henry Chandler (82), Editor of The Inde- 
pende?it, Brooklyn, N. Y., heart failure. Fob. 24. 

Boyer, Jean Pierre(67),Cardinal, Bourges, France, 
Dec. 16. 

BristOTV, Benjamin H. (64), ex-Secretary of 
the Treasury, financier. New York, appendicitis, 
Jime 23. 

Broome, Sir Frederick N, (54), author, Australian 
statesman, England, Nov, 26, 

Bunner, Henry O. (40), editor of PucTe, poet and 
novelist, Nutley, N, J., consumption. May 11. 

Campauini) Italo (51), tenor, near Parma, 
Italy, Nov. 23. 

Camphausen, Otto (83), ex-Prussian Minister of 
Finance, Berlin, May 17, 

Casey, Thomas L. (65), Brigadier-General, U.S.A., 
retired, Washington, apoplexy, March 25. 

Cecil, Axthur, actor, Brighton, England, April 16. 

Challemel-Liacour, Paul Armand (71), 
statesman, ex-Minister of Foreign Affairs in France, 
Oct, 26, 

Chamberlain, John (55), hotel proprietor, sport- 
ing man, Saratoga, N. Y., heart disease, Aug. 23. 

Chandler, Peyton R., financier, founder of the 
Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Nov. 10. 

Charles Louis, Archduke of Austria (63), heir 
presumptive to the throne of the empire, Vienna, 
May 19. 

Charlier, Elie (70), New York, educator, Geneva, 
Switzerland, Aug. 30. 

Oheeseman, Joseph J., President of Liberia, Mon- 
rovia, Nov. 11. 

Child; Francis James (71), Professor of Har- 
vard University, Boston, Sept. 11. 

Cleveland, Orestes (67), ex-Mayor of Jersey City, 

Norwich, Vt., March 30. 

OoflRn, Charles C. (73), author, March 2. 



Cockerill, John A (51), journalist, Cairo, Egypt" 
apoplexy, April 11. 

Coe, George Simmons (79), banker, Englewood, 
N, J., May 4. 

Colston, Raleigh E, (72), ex-Confederate general 
officer, Richmond, Va., July 29. 

Corbin, Austin (69), lawyer and financier, New»- 
port, N. H., killed by accident, June 4. 

Coxe, Arthur Cleveland (78), Bishop P.E, Diocese 
of Western New York, Clifton Springs, N. Y., ner- 
vous dyspepsia, July 20. 

Crain, William H. (47), M. C, Washington, D.O., 
Feb. 10. 

Crisp, Charles Frederick (51), statesman, 
ex-Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives, 
Atlanta, Ga., heart disease, Oct. 23. 

Crouch, Frederick William Nicholas (88), musi- 
cian, composer of "Kathleen Mavourneen," Port- 
land, Me., Aug. 18. 

Crowe, Sir Joseph Archer (71), diplomat, journal- 
ist, author, England, July 21. 

Darling, Alfred B. (75), hotel proprietor, Rich- 
field Springs, N. Y., fall from carriage, Sept. 6, 

Dasent, Sir George Webb (79), author, Ascot, 
England, June 11. 

Davis, George (76), ex-Attorney-General of the 
Confederate States, Wilmington, N, C, Feb. 23. 

De Grimm, Constantin (51), artist and carica- 
turist, New York, pneumonia, April 16, 

Delano, Columbus (87), lawyer, ex-Secretary of 
the Interior, Lake Howe, Ohio, Oct, 22, 

Denman, Right Hon. George (77), jurist, England, 
Sept, 21 

Dickens, Charles (59), son of the novelist, writer 
for periodicals, Kensington, England, paralysis, 
July 20. 

Disston, Hamilton (51), millionaire manufac- 
turer, Philadelphia, heart disease, April 30. 

Dodge, Mary Abigail (66), "Gail Hamilton," 
author, Hamilton, Mass., paralysis, Aug. 17. 

Dodworth, Allen T. (74), nausician, Pasadena, 
Cal., Fob. 13. 

Doe, Charles, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 
of Now Hampshire, Rollingsford, N. H., paralysis, 
March 9. 

Ducat, Arthur 0. (65), Chicago fire underwriter, 
ex-general officer of the Civil War, Downer's Grove, 
111., Jan, 29. 

Da J>Iaurier, Georg-e (62), artist and novelist, 
author of " Trilby," London, heart disease, Oct. 8. 

Dundy, Elmer S. (66), Judge United States Dis- 
trict Court for Nebraska, Omaha, Neb., Oct. 28. 

Duprez, Gilbert Louis (89), tenor and composer, 
France, Sept. 23. 

Duryee, George Sharpe (46), Commissioner of 
Banking and Insurance of New Jersey, Newark, N. 
J., Oct. 29. 

Eaton, Wyatt (47), painter, Newport, R. I., Juno 7. 

English, William Haydcn (74), ex-Membor of Con- 
gress, lawyer, banker. Democratic candidate for 
Vice-President in 1880, Indianapolis, Ind., Feb. 7. 

Ewing, Thomas (67), lawyer, ex-general officer of 
the Civil War, New York, cable-car accident, Jan. 
21. 

Fairchild, Lucius (64), ex-Govemor of Wisconsin, 
ex-gcnoral officer of the Civil War, Madison, Wis., 
heart failure. May 23. ' --• 

Folch, Alphous (90), ex-Governor of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich,, Juno 13. 

Follows, John R, (64), District Attorney of Now 
York City, orator. New York, cancer of the stomach, 
Dec. 7. 

Ferry, Thomas W. (69), ex-United States 
Senator, ex-President of the Senate, Grand Haven, 
Mich., apoplexy, Oct. 14. 

Field, Kate, journalist, author, Honolulu, Hawaii, 
pneumonia. May 19. 

Fitz Roy, Sir Robert O'Brien, Vice- Admiral Brit- 
ish Navy, England, May 7. 



Death Roll of 1896. 



125 



DEATH ROLL OF 1.^90— Continued. 



Floquet, Charles Thomas (68), French statesman, 
France, Jan. 18. 

Fowler, Lorenzo N. (85), phrenologist. West 
Orange, N. J., paralysis, Sept. 2. 

Frere-Orban, Hubert Joseph Walther (84), Belgian 
lawyer and politician, Brussels, Jan. 2. 

Fuller, Andrew S. (68), horticulturist and ento- 
mologist, near Ridgewood, N. J., heart disease, 
May 4. 

Furness, William Henry (94), Unitarian clergy- 
man, oldest living graduate of Harvard University, 
Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 30. 

Galimberti, Louis (58), Cardinal, Rome, May 7. 

Garrett, Robert (49), ex-President of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad, Deer Park, Md., July 29. 

Gatlin, Richard S. (87), ex-Confederate General, 
veteran of Seminole, Mexican, and Civil Wars, 
Mount Nebo, Ark., Sept. 8. 

Geffcken, Frederick Henry (65), professor, diplo- 
mat, Munich, suffocation, April 30. 

Gibbon, John (68), Brigadier-General, U.S.A., re- 
tired, Baltimore, Md., Feb. 6. 

Gillam, Bernard (38), cartoonist, Canajoharie, 
N. Y., Jan. 19. 

Goldsmid, Sir Julian (58), banker, philanthropist, 
London, Jan. 1. 

Goode, George Brown (45), scientist. Assistant Sec- 
retary of the Smithsonian Institute, near Wash- 
ington, D. 0., Sept. 6. 

Gould; Benjamin Apthorp (72), astronomer, 
professor at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 
Nov. 26. 

Graniello, Giuseppe Maria (62), Cardinal, Rome, 
Jan. 8. 

Greenhalge, Frederick Thomas (54), Governor of 
Massachusetts, Lowell, Mass., paralysis, March 5. 

Grove, Sir William Robert (85), electrician, Lon- 
don, Aug. 2. 

Gylden, John Augustus Hugo (55), astronomer, 
Stockholm, Sweden, Nov. 10. 

Hain, Frank K. (55), Manager of the Manhattan 
Elevated Railroad, of New York, Clifton Springs, 
N. Y., suicide. May 9. 

Hamid bin Thwain bin Said (40), Sultan of Zan- 
zibar, Aug. 25. 

Harper, Joseph Wesley (66), of Harper <fc Bro- 
thers, book publishers. New York, July 21. 

Harper, Philip J. A. (71), publisher, Hempstead, 
Long Island, March 6. 

Harris, Sir Augustus (44), operatic and theatrical 
manager, Folkstone, England, June 22. 

Harter, Michael £). (50), publicist, Fostoria, O., 
suicide, Feb. 22. 

Haygood, Atticus G. (57), IBishop of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, Oxford, Ga., Jan. 19. 

Herrmann, Alexander (52), magician, near Sala- 
manca, N. Y., heart dsease, Dec. 17. 

Hicks-Lord, Annette Wilhelmina Wilkens (69), 
New York society leader. New York, cerebral apo- 
plexy, Aug. 5. 

Hinckley, Thomas H. (83), artist, Milton, Mass., 
Feb, 15. 

Hirscli, Baron Maurice (63), financier, 
philanthropist, Presburg, Hungary, heart disease, 
April 20. 

Hoey, Josephine (75), actress, widow of John 
Hoey, Hollywood, N. J., cancer, July 21. 

Houssaye, Arsene (80), poet, novelist, his- 
torian, France, Feb. 26. 

Houston, John W. (82), jurist, ex-Member of 
Congress, Georgetown, Del., April 26. 

Howard, Harry (73), Chief of the old New York 
Volunteer Fire Department, New York, Feb. 6. 

Howe, Henry (84), actor, Cincinnati, Ohio, heart 
disease, March 9. 

HugheS) Thomas (73), author of "Tom Brown's 
School Days," Brighton, England, March 22. 

Hunt, Alfred William (66), painter, England, 
Mays. 

Hurd, Frank H.l (54), lawyer, publicist, Toledo, 



Ohio, apoplexy, July 10. 

Hyppolite, Louis Mondestin Florvil, President of 
Hayti, March 24. 

Inman, John H., New York cotton merchant, 
Connecticut, heart disease, Nov. 5. 

Jerome, David H. (61), ex-Governor of Michigan, 
Watkins Glen, N. Y., April 21. 

Jones, George W. (92), statesman, first U. S. Sen- 
ator from Iowa, Dubuque, Iowa, July 22. 

Jones, John E. (56), Governor of Nevada, cancer 
of the stomach, San Francisco, Cal., April 10. 

Joy, James F. (85), railroad president, Detroit, 
Mich., Sept. 24. 

Judge, William Q., President of the Theosophical 
Society in America, New York, Feb. — . 

Kennedy, John D., ex-Confederate General, ex. 
U. S. Consul-General to Shanghai, Camden, S. 0., 
April 14. 

Kenrick, Peter Richard (90), formerly Archbishop 
Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Louis, St. Louis, 
March 4. 

Killinger, John W. (71), ex-Member of Congress, 
Lebanon, Pa., June 30. 

Knox, Thomas Wallace (61), author, journalist, 
New York, Jan. 6. 

La Valletta, Raphael Monaco (69), Cardinal, Oas- 
tellamaro, Italy, July 14. 

Law, George (53), millionaire, railroad president. 
New York, meningitis, July 7. 

Lawler, Frank (54), ex-Member of Congress, Chi- 
cago, apoplexy, Jan. 17. 

Lawler, John D., banker, ex-Governor of Dakota 
Territory, Sioux City, Iowa, Feb. 18. 

Lawrence, John (52), New York clubman, South- 
ampton, L. I., apoplexy, Sept. 6. 

Leggett, Mortimer D. (75), educator, lawyer, ex- 
United States Commissioner of Patents, Cleveland, 
Ohio, Jan. 6. 

liCighton, Sir Frederick (66), painter. Presi- 
dent of the Royal Academy, England, Jan. 25. 

Lewis, James (58), comedian. West Hampton, L. 
I., paralysis of heart, Sept. 10. 

Lobanoff-Rostovsky, Prince, Russian Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, Aug. 31. 

J>Iaceo, Autouio; Cuban General, killed in bat- 
tle, Dec. 7. 

Macmillan, Alexander (81), publisher, England, 
Jan. 25. 

Magoun, George F., founder of Iowa College at 
Grinnell, Iowa, Des Moines, Iowa, Jan. 30. 

I>Ianabrea, I^ouis Frederick, Marquis de 
Val-Dora (87), Italian General and statesman, 
Chambery, France, May 25. 

Maynard, Isaac H. (57), politician and ex-jurist, 
Albany, N. Y., June 12. 

Mayo, Frank (57), actor, on train between Denver 
and Cimaha, heart disease, June 7. 

McVicker, James H. (74), theatrical manager, 
Chicago, paralysis, March 7. 

Meignan, Guillaume Ren6 (79), Archbishop of 
Tours, Tours, France, Jan. 20. 

Mellette, Arthur C., ex-Governor of South Da- 
kota, Hillsboro, Kan., heart failure. May 25. 

Mercier, James, professor at West Point Military 
Academy, Fort Monroe, Va., Apri 1 21. 

i^Iillais, Sir John (67), painter. President of 
the Royal Academy, England, Aug. 13. 

Morgan, James D. (86), general officer, veteran 
of Mexican and Civil Wars, Chicago, 111., Sept. 12. 

Morris, William (62), poet, artist. Socialist, 
England, Oct. 3. 

Mott, Henry A. (44), expert chemist, New York, 
heart disease, Nov. 8. 

Munro, George (70), publisher. Pine Hill, N. Y., 
heart disease, April 23. 

Megri, Cristophe (86), Italian economist, author, 
Florence, Feb. 18. 

Nemours, Duke of— Prince Louis Oharles 
Philippe Raphael d'Orleans — (81), Versailles, 
France, June 25. 



126 



Death Roll of 1896. 



DEATH ROLL OF 1Q9Q— Continued. 



Nelson, Thomas H. (7G), ex-Minister to Chili and 
Mexico, Terre Haute, Ind., March 14. 

Newton, Hubert A. (66), mathematician. New 
Haven, Ct., Aug. 12. 

North, John Thomas (53), millionaire miner, the 
"Nitrate King," London, heart disease. May 5. 

Novello, Joseph Alfred (86), music publisher, 
scientist, Genoa, Italy, July 17. 

Nye, Edgar Wilson (45), "Bill Nye," humorist, 
author, journalist, Asheville, N. 0., Feb. 22. 

Oldenburg, Elizabeth, Grand Duchess of (70), 
Germany, Feb. 2. 

O'Sullivnn, Jeremiah, R. 0. Bishop of Mobile, 
Ala., Aug. 10. 

Palmieri, Luigi (89), meteorologist, Italy, Sept 10. 

Patmore, Coventry K. D. (73), poet, Lymington, 
England, Nov. 26. 

Park, John Duane (77), ex-Chief Justice of Con- 
necticut, Norwich, Ct., in August. 

Parker, Henry E. (65), professor emeritus, Dart- 
mouth College, died at Boston, Mass., Nov. 7. 

Parkes, Sir Henry (81), statesman, ex-Premier of 
New South Wales, New South Wales, April 26. 

Payne, Henry B. (85),5millionaire,ex-U.S. Senator, 
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 9. 

Pender, Sir John (80), submarine cable magnate, 
England, July 7. 

Perry, Nora, author, poet, Dudley, Mass., May 13. 

Persia, Shall of— Nasir-ed-Din— (65), Teheran, 
Pei-sia, assassinated. 

Pierson, Job (72), Presbyterian clergyman, phil- 
ologist, Stanton, Mich., paralysis, Feb 3. 

Postlethwaite, W. M., Professor U. S. Military 
Academy, West Point, N. Y., Jan. 10. 

Pratt, Calvin E. (68), New York jurist, Rochester, 
Mass., Aug. 3. 

Pratt, Enoch (88), banker and merchajit, near 
Baltimore, Md., Sept. 17. 

Prestwich, Joseph (84), geologist, England, 
June 23. 

Quesada, Rafael de (61), Cuban statesman and 
soldier. New York, cancer, June 6. 

Randolph, Anson Davies Fitz (76), publisher. 
West Hampton, Long Island, July 6. 

Reinhart, Charles Stanley, artist, Bright's dis- 
ease. New York, Aug. 30. 

Reinkens, Joseph Hubert (75), Bishop, theologi- 
cal writer, Prussia, Jan. 5. 

Rohlfs, Gerard (62), traveler and explorer, Godes- 
berg, Prussia, June 3. 

Riljeiro, Thomas Antoine Fereiro (44), Portuguese 
statesman, author, poet, Portugal, June 15. 

Richards, Sir Frederick William (63), Admiral of 
the British Navy, Bath, England, Nov. 16. 

Richardson, William Adams (75), Chief Justice 
United States Coui-t of Claims, Washington, D. C, 
cancer, Oct. 19. 

Richmond, George (87), portrait painter, London, 
March 19. 

Ripley, Philip (69), journalist, New York, Bright's 
disease, Jan. 25. 

Robinson, George Dexter (62), ex-Member of Con- 
gress, ex-Governor of Massachusetts, Springfield, 
Mass., Feb. 22. 

Robinson, John M. (68), Chief Judge of the Court 
of Appeals of Maryland, Annapolis, Md., Jan. 14. 

Rossi, Ernesto (67), Italian actor, Pescara, Italy, 
June 4. 

Runyon, Theodore (73), United States Ambassa- 
dor to Germany, Berlin, heart failure, Jan. 27. 

Russell, Charles Theodore (80), lawyer, Boston, 
pneumonia, Jan. 16. 

Russell, William Eustis (39), statesman, ex- 
Governor of Massachusetts, St. Adelaide, Quebec, 
heart disease, July 16. 

Ryan, Stephen Vincent (71), Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y., April 10. 

Salmon, William (106), oldest surgeon and Free- 
mason in the world, England, May 11. 

Salvini, Alexander (35), actor, Florence, Italy, 
consumption, Dec. 15. 



Sarony, Napoleon (76), photographer, New Yorki 
heart disease, Nov. 9. 

Say, Jeau Baptiste Lieon (70), statesman, po- 
litical economist, Paris, April 21. 

Schuyler, Montgomery (82), Episcopal clergyman, 
St. Louis, Mo., March 19, 

Scott, John (74), lawyer, ex-United States Senator 
from Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 30. 

Scott-Siddons, Mary Frances, actress, Paris, Nov. 
19. 

Shafer, Ira (65), lawyer. Highland, N. Y., Nov. 30. 

Shakespeare, Joseph (58), ex-Mayor of New 
Orleans, Jan. 23. 

Shaw, Elijah (76), founder of Shaw University, 
Raleigh, N. C, Wales, Mass., Jan. 29. 

Shellabarger, Samuel (78), jurist, Washington, 
general debility, Aug. 6. 

Sheridan, George A. (56), general officer in the 
Civil War, political speaker, Hampton, Va., Oct. 8. 

Shumann, Clara (76), musician, Frankf ort-on-the- 
Main, May 21. 

Silliman, Justus M. (54), professor of engineering 
at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., April 15. 

Simon, Jules (82), French statesman and au- 
thor, France, June 8. 

Sims, Clifford Stanley, jurist. President of the 
New Jersey Cincinnati, Trenton, N. J., March 3. 

Smith, GustavusW. (75), ex-Confederate Major- 
General and Corps Commander, New York, heart 
disease, June 25. 

Smith, Russell, scenic artist, Glenside, Pa., 
oedema of the lungs, Nov. 7. 

Smith, William Henry (63), journalist, ex-mana- 
ger of the Associated Press, Lake Forest, 111., 
pneumonia, July 27. 

Spuller, Seraphim Engene (61), journalist, states- 
man, ex-Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dijon, France, 
July 23. 

Steinway, William, (60), piano manufacture, pub- 
lic-spirited citizen. New York City, typhoid fever, 
Nov. 30. 

Stetson, John (60), theatrical manager, Boston, 
pneumonia, April 18. 

Stevens, Thomas H. (77), Rear-Admiral, U. S. N., 
retired, Rockville, Md., May 15. 

Stoive, Harriet Beecher (84), author of 
"Uncle Tom's Cabin," Hartford, Ct., congestion of 
the brain, July 1. 

Sturtevant, Thomas M. (96), veteran of the War 
of 1812, Madison, N. J., Sept. 26, 

Talleyrand-Perigord, Charles Angelique (74), 
French diplomat, France, March 1. 

Tappen, Abraham B. (73), jurist, politician. Ford- 
ham, N. Y., paralysis, June 1. 

Tennyson, Lady Emily, widow of Tennyson, the 
poet, England, congestion of the lungs, Aug. 10. 

Thompson, Wordsworth (56), painter, member 
National Academy, Summit, N. J., Aug. 28, 

Tilgner, Victor Oscar (52), sculptor, Vienna, apo- 
plexy, April 16. 

Tilley, Sir Samuel Leonard (78), statesman, St. 
John, N. B., Jime 25. 

Thomas, Charles liOuis Ambrose (84), com- 
poser, France, Feb. 12. 

Tooker, Joseph Henry (65), theatrical manager, 
New York, July 7. 

Trochu, Louis Jules (81),French (jreneral. Governor 
of Paris in 1870, Oct. ?. 

Trumbull, Lyman (83), jurist, ex-United States 
Senator, Chicago, 111., J\me 25. 

Tyler, George Palmer (86), Presbyterian clergy- 
man, Lansingburg, N. Y., Jan. 19. 

Van Cott, Joshua M. (82), jurist, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Aug. 13. 

Vanderbilt, Maria Louisa (78), widow of William 
H. Vanderbilt, Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y., 
Nov. 6. 

Verlaine, Paul (51), poet, Paris, France, Jan. 8. 

WTiitney, Josiah D. (77), geologist, professor 
at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 19. 



75. 



The Famous Old People of 1897. 127 

Wje jFamows ^Itr }pcople of 1897, 

Age. (Age at the last birthday is given. The list was made up for January 1, 1897.) 

95. General George S. Greene, late U. S. A. 

94. C. P. Villiers, M. P. , ' 'Father of the House of Commons ;' ' ex-Senator Bradbury, of Maine. 
92. Neal Dow, Prohibitionist. 

91. Francis William Newman, James Martineau, philosopher; George Muller, orphanage founder; 
Cardinal Mertel, Mrs. Keeley, actress. 

89. Ernest W. G. B. Legouvc, oldest French Academician. 

87. William Ewart Gladstone, Cassius M. Clay, Dr. Nathanael Greene, President of the Rhode Island 
Cincinnati; Admiral Keppel, R. N ; ex-Secretary of the Navy Thompson. 

86. Pope Leo XIII., Senator Morrill. 

84. Samuel Smiles, biographer; Bishop Clark, of Rhode Island; Charles L. TiflEany, jeweler; Mrs. 
Henry Ward Beecher. 

83. Sir H. Bessemer, inventor. 

82. ErnestCurtius, Greek scholar; "Verdi, the composer; Baroness Burdett-Coutts. 

81. Bismarck, C. W. Couldock, comedian ; Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Adolf Menzel, German painter. 

80. Justice Field, ex-Senator Dawes, Rev. Newmaji Hall, Daniel Huntington, painter; Philip James 

Bailey, poet; Parke Godwin, Russell Sage, Bishop Wilmer. 
79. Professor Mommsen, historian ; King Christian of Denmark, Sir John Gilbert, R A. ; Sir Joseph 

Hooker, botanist; Senator John INI. Palmer, Bishop Williams, of Connecticut. 
78. Ex-Senator Evarts, Prince de Joinville, ex-Senator Hampton, Professor Bain, Baron Renter, 

news-gatherer; Mrs. John Drew, actress. 
77. Queen Victoria, ex-Prime Minister Crispi, General Longstreet, John Ruskin, Lord Playfair, Duke 

of Cambridge, Sir Monier- Williams, Sanscrit scholar; Julia Ward Howe, Bishop Huntington 

76. Herbert Spencer, John Tenniel, cartoonist; Florence Nightingale, Mrs. G. H. Gilbert, actress; 
Jean Ingelow, poet; Princess Mathilde Bonaparte, General Rosecrans, Susan B. Anthony. 

Professor Virchow, Due de Broglie, Sir William H.Russell, journalist; Rev. Dr. Storrs, Sir Charles 
Tupper, Ristori, tragic actress ; Dr. Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury; Sims Reeves, singer; 
Chancellor Prince Hohenlohe-Schillingfuerst. 

74 Due d'Aumale, Rosa Bonheur, Bishop Whipple, Got, French comedian; Edward Everett Hale. 
Professor Alfred R. Wallace, Abram S. Hewitt, Rev. Henry M. Field, Donald G. Mitchell. 

73. Duke of Argyll, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Max Muller, Senator Sherman, Professor Gold- 
win Smith, ex-Speaker Grow, lA Hung Chang, Chinese statesman; Rev. Dr. Robert Collyer, 
Miss Yonge, novelist. 

72. Professor Huggins, astronomer; Eastman Johnson, painter; Levi P. Morton, George Macdonald, 
novelist; Judge T. M. Cooley, constitutional lav/yer. 

71. Sir William Aitken, pathologist; Richard H. Stoddard, poet; Professor March, philologist. 

70. Karl Blind, Marquis of Dufferin, ex- Empress Eugenie, Senator Hoar. 

69. Sir William Haroourt, statesman ; Pere Hyacinthe, Professor St. George Mivart, Sagasta, Spanish 
statesman; J. H. Stoddart, comedian ; Senator Voorhees, Marquis of Ripon. 

68. Sir Henry James, lawyer ; De Freycinet, French statesman ; ex-S.enator Edmunds,General Gourko, 
Russian commander ; Ibsen, dramatist; Mrs. Oliphant, novelist; Ambassador Thomas F. Bayard, 
President Dwight, of Yale; Jules Verne, Count Tolstoi, Justice Gray, of the Supreme Court; 
King Albert of Saxony, Berthelot, French statesman; Mayor Strong, of New York ; Sir Julian 
Pauncefote. 

67. General Booth, Salvation Army leader; Joseph Jefferson, comedian; Carl Schurz, Senator Alli- 
son, Senator Cullom, King Oscar of Sweden and Norway, Viscount Peel, Cherbuliez, French 
novelist. 

66. President Diaz, of Mexico ; Emperor Francis Joseph, ex-Queen Isabella, J. Q. A. Ward, sculptor; 
Rev. Joseph Parker, English pulpit orator; James Payn, novelist; Marquis of Salisbury, 
Albert Bierstadt, Louise Michel, French agitator; Salvini, tragedian; ex-Secretary Tracy, 
Mme. Jauauschek, actress ; General Oliver O. Howard, Canovasdel Castillo, Spanish statesman. 

66. Ex-Chancellor Von Caprlvi, Archdeacon Farrar, General Gilliffet, French soldier; President Gil- 
man, of Johns Hopkins; George J. Goschen, British statesman; Frederick Harrison, positivist; 
Henry Labouchere, journalist ; Professor Marsh, of Yale, palaeontologist; Henri Rochefort, Vic- 
torien Sardou, General Schofield, Senator Frye, Joachim, violinist; Sir George Nares, Arctic 
explorer, 

64. Field Marshal Lord Roberts, British Army; Rev. Dr. Talmage, Maggie Mitchell, actress; Sir Edwin 
Arnold, poet ; Castelar, Spanish statesman ; Count Kalnoky, Austrian statesman ; Professor Vam- 
bery, Andrew D. White, Justice Shiras, Professor William Crookes, Senators Gordon, of Georgia; 
Cameron, and Quay; General Ignatiefit, Bishop Perry, of Iowa ; Edward Burne- Jones, George 
H. Boughton, R. A. 

63. Chief Justice Fuller, Field Marshal Lord Wolseley, Denman Thompson, actor ; Justice Harlan, ex- 
President Harrison, Duke of Devonshire (Lord Hartington), Clarence Edmund Stedman, poet; 
John L. Toole, comedian; Lewis Morris, poet; Frank Stockton, novelist. 

62. Chauncey M. Depew, President Eliot, of Harvard University; Augustus J. C. Hare, author; 
Sir John Lubbock, Cardinal Gibbons. 

61. Leopold II., King of the Belgians; Whistler, painter; Rev. Lyman Abbott, President Charles K. 
Adams, Bouguereau, French painter ; Secretary Carlisle, Andrew Carnegie, Bishop Potter, Theo- 
dore Thomas, Paul Du Chaillu, " Mark Twain," Herve, French journalist; Charles Francis 
Adams, Alfred Austin, poet 

60. Edward John Poynter, President of the Royal Academy; Profes«orC. F. Chandler,Thomas Bailey 
Aldrich, Alma-Tadema, painter; W. S. Gilbert, dramatist 

At what age does one bicome " old "? Five centuries agt> a man was old at fifty. But the hale and hearty gentleman of to-day 
who ha« just turned sixty tcould probably protest against being classed among old people, even if famous. That his susceptibilities 
may not be wounded, therefore, a separating dash has been discreetly introduced after age sixty-five. 



128 



United States Post-Office Statistics. 



FIRST SESSION. 

The principal bills of a public nature which became laws during the first session of the Fifty-fourth 
Congress were as follows : 

Chapter 1. An act making an appropriation for the expenses of a commission to investigate and 
report upon the true divisional line between the Republic of Venezuela and British Guiana. 

Chapter 9. An act to reconvene the delegates of the United States to the International Marine Con- 
ference of 1889. 

Chapter 12. An act to prohibit prize-fighting, and pugilism, and fights between men and animals, 
and to provide penalties therefor, in the Territories and District of Columbia. 

Chapter 39. An act to provide for the extension of the time within which suits may be brought to 
vacate and award land patents, and for other purposes. 

Chapter 120. An act providing for a naval training station on the island of Yerba Bena (or Goat 
Island), in the harbor of San Francisco. 

Chapter 161. An act to provide for the fulfilment of the stipulations of the treaty between the 
United States and Great Britain signed at Washington on February 8, 1896. (Fur-seal fishery claims.) 

Chapter 177. An act to regulate marriages in the District of Columbia (requiring consent of parent 
or guardian of female under eighteen years of age). 

Chapter 182. An act authorizing the Secretary of War to make certain uses of the National military 
parks (for military manoeuvres). 

Chapter 241. An act making one year's residence in a Territory a prerequisite to obtaining a divorce 
there. 

Chapter 337. An act defining cheese, and also imposing a tax upon and regulating the manufacture, 
sale, importation, and exportation of "filled cheese." 

Chapter 381. An act to expedite the delivery of imported parcels and packages, not exceeding $500 
in value. (Customs — Special delivery of imported articles.) 

Chapter 402. An act to authorize and encourage the holding of a trans-Mississippi and international 
exposition in the city of Omaha, in the State of Nebraska, in 1898. 

Joint Resolution No. 24. Authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to distribute the medals and 
diplomas awarded by the World's Columbian Commission to the exhibitors entitled thereto. 

Joint Resolution No. 27. Authorizing and directing the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase and dis- 
tribute seeds, bulbs, etc., as has been done in preceding years. 

Joint Resolution No. 30. Relating to the Federal census. (Directing the Commissioner of Labor to 
correspond and confer with the census officers of other Governments for the purpose of securing uniform- 
ity in the enquiries relating to the people, to be used in future censuses. The Commissioner is also di- 
rected to report to Congress for its consideration, as soon as practicable, a plan for a permanent census 
service.) 

Joint Resolution No. 53. Relating to the Tennessee Centennial Exposition, at Nashville, in 1897. 



WLniWn ^UUn post^#m'cr c^tattsticis. 



Fiscal 


No.ofPost- 
Offices. 


Extent of 

Post Routes 

in Miles. 


Revenue of the 
Department. 


Expenditure 

of the 
Department. 


Amount Paid poe 


Yeaes. 


Salaries of 


Transportation 












Postmasters. 


of the Mail. 


1865 


20,550 


142,340 


$14,556,159 


$13,694,728 


$3,383,382 


$6,246,884 


1866 


23,828 


180.921 


14,386.986 


15,352,079 


3,454,677 


7,630,474 


1867 


25,163 


203,215 


15,237,027 


19,235,483 


4,033,728 


9,366,286 


1868 


26,481 


216,928 


16,292,601 


22,730,593 


4,255,311 


10,266,056 


1869 


27,106 


223, 731 


18,344,511 


23,698.131 


4,546,958 


10,406,501 


1870 


28,492 


231,232 


19,772,221 


23,998.837 


4,673,466 


10,884,653 


1871 


30,045 


238.359 


20,037,045 


24,390.104 


5,028,382 


11,529,395 


1872 


31,863 


251,398 


21,915,426 


26,658,192 


5,121,665 


15,547,821 


1873 


33,244 


256,210 


22,996,742 


29,084,946 


5,725,468 


16,161,034 


1874 


34,294 


269,097 


26,477.072 


32,126,415 


6,818,472 


18,881,319 


1875 


35,547 


277,873 


26,791,360 


33,611,309 


7,049,936 


18,777,201 


1876 


36,383 


281,798 


27,895,908 


33,263,488 


7,397.397 


18,361,048 


1877 


37,345 


292,820 


27,468,323 


33,486,322 


7,295,251 


18,529,238 


1878 


39,258 


301,966 


29,277.517 


34,165,084 


7,977,852 


19,262,421 


1879 


40,855 


316,711 


30.041.983 


33,449.899 


7,185,540 


20.012.872 


1880 


42,989 


343.888 


33,315.479 


36,542.804 


7,701.418 


22,255,984 


1881 


44,512 


344,000 


36,785.398 


39,251.736 


8,298,743 


23.196,032 


1882 


46,231 


343.618 


41,876,410 


40,039,635 


8,964,677 


22,846,112 


1883 


47,863 


353,166 


45,508,693 


42,816.700 


10,319.441 


23.067,323 


1884 


50,017 


359.530 


43,338,127 


46,404,960 


11,283,831 


25,359,816 


1885 


51,252 


365.251 


42,560,844 


49,533.150 


11,431.305 


27,765,124 


1886 


53,614 


366,667 


43,948,423 


50,839.435 


11,348,178 


27,553,239 


1887 


55,157 


373.142 


48,837,610 


52,391.678 


11,929,481 


28.135.769 


1888 


57,281 


*403.977 


52,695.176 


55,795.358 


12,600.186 


29,151,168 


1889 


58,999 


'416.159 


56,175,611 


61.376.847 


13,171.382 


31,893.359 


1890 


62,401 


427.991 


60,882.097 


65,930,717 


*13,753,096 


33.885,978 


1891 


64,329 


439.027 


65.931.786 


71,662,463 


14,527,000 


36,805,621 


1892 


67,119 


447.591 


70.980,475 


76,323,762 


15,249,565 


38,837.236 


1893 


68,403 


453.832 


75.896,933 


81,074,104 


15,862.621 


41,179,054 


1894 


69, 805 


454, 746 


75,080,479 


84,324,414 


15,899,709 


45,375,359 


1895 


70,064 


456, 026 


76,983,128 


1 86,790,172 


16,079.508 


46.336,326 



* Includes mail messenger and .special office service. 
Of the vFhole number of post-offlces at the close of the fi.scal year, June 30, 1895, 3,504 were Presi- 
dential offices and 66,560 were fourth-class offices. 



Mtatt ILtQiulution in 1896* 

Tfljfi following summary of the more important legislation effected by State Legislatures in 1896 
is compiled from the address of President Moorefield Storey, before the American Bar Association in 
August, 1896. The Legislatures in session in 1896 were those of Georgia, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi New Jersey, New York, Ohio, South Carolina, "Utah, and Virginia. 

Constitutional Law.— The Legislature of Louisiana made a new departure in submitting to 
the electors a proposition for a constitutional convention to frame a new Constitution for the State, but 
without power to change the existing Constitution so as to affect or impair the bonded indebtedness of 
the State, or of any municipal, parochial, or levee corporation thereof; or to shorten or terminate 
before the year 1900 the tenure of any existing State, parochial, or municipal office except by abolish- 
ing the ofl&ce, or to make any change in the present rate of taxation, the present seat of government, 
or the law relating to the levee system of the State. 

In Virginia provision was made for a convention with unlimited powers. 

Alunicipal Government.— Questions connected with the government of our great cities have 
occupied recently a large share of public attention. "We have begun to realize that the prosperity of 
the country depends in no small part upon good city government, and that we are far behind other 
nations in this matter. 

South Carolina passed a statute which provides a uniform method of incorporating and governing 
towns with between one thousand and five thousand inhabitants, and has in like manner provided 
for towns .of smaller size. General statutes applying to all cities and towns authorize them also to 
build and manage water works and plants for electric lighting, to refund existing indebtedness, 
and to increase or diminish their corporate limits. 

Iowa, also, by general act enabled cities of the first class to construct and manage water works. 

New Orleans secured from the Legislature of Louisiana a charter prepared by a committee of the 
Citizens' League, and drawn on the approved lines of municipal reform. The power is concentrated in 
the hands of the Mayor, who has the right to appoint and rem.ove all heads of departments, while aU 
the other officers of the city are appointed after competitive examination according to the principles 
of civil service reform. The classified service not only includes every officer except the Mayor, the 
Councilmen, and the heads of departments, but it extends to the laborers in the employ of the city. 
The whole system is placed under the charge of a civil service commission consisting of three mem- 
bers, no one of whom has held or been a candidate for any municipal office during four years before 
his appointment, and who hold office for twelve years, one going out every four years. The civil service 
features of the charter are largely drawn from the Illinois statute, with a few changes intended to 
make it more effective. The charter further provides that no franchise shall be granted unless the 
Mayor and the executive officers of the city approve the ordinance of the Common Council, and that 
all street railway franchises shall be sold to the person bidding the highest percentage of the gross in- 
come to be derived from the exercise of tlie franchise. The Legislature supplemented its action in this 
matter by an act creating a drainage commission and authorizing the borrowing of $5, 000, 000 for the 
purpose of providing an efficient system of drainage, and by another act creating a dock com.mission, 
regulating wharfage and making New Orleans practically a free port. 

Civil Service Reform.— In Utah the Legislature passed a law applying to all cities of 12,000 
inhabitants or more, which places the fire and police departments under civil service rules, and 
requires that the highest on the list determined by competitive examination shall always be 
appointed to office unless there is some good reason to the contrary. No fire or police commissioner 
and no officer of either department is permitted to take any part in politics, and the law forbids any 
attempt to influence the vote of any officer, and the levy or payment of any contribution for political 
purposes, or in order to make a present to any officer of the department. 

Elections.- In Virginia an act was passed regulating primary elections in a single county. It 
authorizes any political party to hold a primary election and regulates the method in which it shall 
be held, and the votes printed, cast, and counted, leaving the local county committee to make any 
rules consistent with the act, and punishing severely violations of the act, fraudulent registration, 
and bribery, or attempt at bribery. The expense of this primary election is to be paid by the party, 
and the committee is authorized to raise the money either by voluntary subscription or by assessing 
it equitably against the candidates, it being expressly provided that no candidate failing to pay his 
assessment shall have his name printed on the ballot. A somewhat similar act relating to another 
county contains no provision for assessing candidates. 

The Australian ballot law of this State was amended in various particulars, the most important 
being a requirement that with the names of the presidential electors the names of the candidates for 
whom they are expected to vote shall be furnished to the Secretary of the Commonwealth. The names 
of the electors are to be grouped under the names of the candidates and the voter may indicate his 
choice of electors by marking the names of the candidates. 

New Jersey supplemented her registration law by stringent provisions requiring registration by 
streets and houses in the larger cities. Among other provisions is one for the protection of candi- 
dates. This makes it a misdemeanor to solicit from a candidate money or other property or to urge 
him to purchase any ticket to a ball or other entertainment, with a proviso that this shall not apply 
to a request for a contribution from an authorized representative of the party nominating him, 

Ohio has passed a very stringent law against corrupt practices which forbids any candidate for 
representative in Congress or any office created by the Constitution or laws of the State to contribute 
or promise for campaign purposes, directly or indirectly, more than one hundred dollars for any 
number of voters up to five thousand, one dollar and a half for each additional one hundred voters 
up to twenty- five thousand, one dollar for each additional one hundred voters between twenty-five 
thousand and fifty thousand, and nothing for any number of voters above the larger number. This 
makes six hundred and fifty dollars the maximum contribution which any candidate can make. 
Returns of receipts and exnenditures in great detail with names, dates and amounts are required 
from every candidate for nomination or election, and from every committee, or person receiving 
or expending money or contracting obligations for a committee. No officer elected can receive his 
commission or enter upon his duties till his return has been made. Any violation of the statute, or any 
other act forbidden by law, committed by the candidate or his agent, or any political committee or 
party or their agent, with his connivance or that of his agents, makes his election void, and proceedings 



130 State Legislation in 1896. 

to vacate his office on these grounds may be brought at any time during the incumbent's term. Such 
proceedings are in every way made easy and are given precedence in the courts. 

Utah passed a law, forbidding every Icind of electoral corruption and punish ing both the giver 
and taker of a bribe. 

South Carolina passed a registration law which requires of the voter ability to read any section in 
the Constitution or " to explain ' ' it when read to him by the registering officers. This State has not 
adopted the Australian law, but requires separate ballots and ballot boxes for different candidates, a 
system which insures a deliberate if not a full vote. After January 1, 1898, residence for a certain 
time in State, county, and precinct, the ability to read and write any section of the Constitution, 
or, in the alternative, proof that the applicant owns and has paid all taxes collectible during the year 
on property worth $300 are required. 

Maryland passed a new law to regulate registration and elections which contain elaborate provisions. 

Massachusetts passed an act to prevent false registration in Boston, and another to regulate 
caucuses in that city, while a third amends the general caucus act so as to make it more effective. 
Another law provides for the use of a stamp by the voter in marking the ballot, and also for the grad- 
ual introduction of the "■ McTammany voting machine." 

The Legislature of Louisiana passed a ballot act which applies the Australian system in its strictest 
and purest form to the city of New Orleans and in a somewhat modified form to the country parishes, 
a concession apparently to the principle of local option. This act, in prohibiting any person from as- 
sisting another in the preparation of his ballot unless the voter is physically unable to do it himself, 
virtually imposes an educational qualification under guise of an election regulation. 

Louisiana has also adopted a stringent registration law which will make fraudulent registration 
nearly impossible. 

Education.— Kentucky provided for a very careful examination of teachers under a system which 
commits the preparation of the questions to the State Board of Education, and guards very carefully 
against any possible collusion between examiners and applicants. Among other required subjects are 
physiology and hygiene, including ' ' the effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics on the human 
system. ' ' 

Kentucky also passed an act requiring every parent, or person in charge of a child between seven 
and fourteen years old, to send such chUd to school for at least eight consecutive weeks every year 
with certain exceptions. 

Ohio created a pension fund for teachers in certain cities by providing for a deduction from their 
salaries, and placing the fund thus created under the control of seven trustees, to wit., the superintend- 
ent of schools, three elected by the teachers, and three by the Board of Education. 

Mississippi created a State Board of Examiners to prepare questions and superintend the examina- 
tions of all who seek appointment as teachers and superintendents of schools. 

South Carolina provided a system of free schools under a State Superintendent and a Board of 
Education empowered to prescribe rules for the government of the schools and the examination of 
teachers, to define courses of study and select text books, and also as in Ohio, to deal with publishers. 

Liabor Liegislation.— New Jersey requires every corporation or establishment engaged in man- 
ufacturing, mining, quarrying or lumbering to pay its employees at least once in two weeks, each 
payment to be of all wages due to within twelve days. All contracts for other payments, except at 
shorter intervals, are declared void. 

Marj'land made a similar provision, restricted, however, to laborers employed by coal mining 
corporations in Allegheny county, while Massachusetts compels persons engaged in manufacturing 
and employing twenty- five persons to make weekly payments and forbids any special contract to the 
contrary. In Utah the wages of employees for one year are preferred in case of the employer's 
insolvency, 

Utah requires a quarterly inspection of coal mines, safety appliances and proper construction, 
and prohibits the employment of any woman or any child less than lourteen years old in any mine or 
smelter. Eight hours also is m^ade the period of employment in underground mines and in smelters 
and reduction works. 

The arbitration of labor questions was the subject of legislation in Ohio and Utah. The first extends 
the provisions of its statute to cases where several employers on one side are opposed to aggregations 
of their employees on the other, and directs the Board of Arbitration, at the request of either party, 
to investigate and publish a report assigning the blame, if neither a settlement nor arbitration is had 
by reason of the other party's opposition. Utah creates a Board of Arbitration, consisting of one 
employer, one employee, and a third person who is neither, provides for an investigation of 
and report on labor questions, and makes the decision binding on parties who join in requesting 
action or appear before the Board, until either party has given the other notice of his intention not to 
be bound and for ninety days thereafter. 

This State also made the blacklisting of any employee, whether discharged or leaving voluntarily, 
a felony punishable by imprisonment and fine. 

Mississippi gave an employee the same right to recover as any other person, not only where the 
injury results from the negligence of a person charged with the duty of control, but when it results 
from the negligence of a fellow servant engaged in another department of labor or on another piece of 
work, or in case of a railroad on a different train of cars. The law further provides that knowledge by the 
injured party of the unsafe or defective character or condition of any machinery, ways or appliances 
shall not affect his right to recover except in case of engineers or conductors in charge of unsafe cars or 
engines voluntarily operated by them. 

Mississippi provided that where death occurs from negligence under such circumstances that the 
deceased, ijhe had survived, could have i-ecovered damages for the injury, the fact of instantaneous 
death shall be no bar, and an action for such damages may be brought by "the widow for the death 
of her husband, or by a husband for the death of his wife, or by a parent for the death of a chUd, 
or by a child for the death of a parent, " or by brother or sister for the death of brother or sister, or 
' ' all parties interested may join in the suit, and there shall be but one suit for the same death, which 
shall enure to the benefit of all parties concerned, but the determination of such suit shall not bar 
another action, unless it is decided upon its merits. ' ' In such action the party or parties shall recover 
such damages as the jury may assess," takin? into consideration all damages of every kind to the 
decedent, and all damages of every kind to any and all parties interested in the suit." The act pro- 
vides, however, that no part of the sum recovered shall go to the creditors of the deceased, and 
prescribes rules for the distribution of the damages, which, if the deceased leave husband, wife, or 
children, go wholly to them, although many other relatives may have joined in the suit and helped 
to inflate the verdict. Only in case the deceased leaves none of the relatives named can the legal 
representatives of the deceased sue, or the creditors profit by the recovery. 

Trusts and Corporations.— Mississippi passed an act which allows the producer or owner of any 



State Legislation in 1896. 131 



commodity whose cost or price is affected by " any unlawful trust or combine,' ' to recover the sum of 
$500 and all actual damages in a suit against any party to the -'combine" or any of its attorneys, 
officers, or agents, whether or not all the parties to the trust are known, and whether or not it was made 
or exists in Mississippi. This remedy is extended to any person if the cost or price of his labor is 
injured by any such combination. In any such action, evidence that the combmation intended to 
affect cost or price is made conclusive evidence that it was affected, and the same penalty and dam- 
ages may be recovered from any railroad, transportation, telegraph, or telephone company which is a 
party to such trust, or by reason of it refuses to transmit any message or comnaodity from one place in 
the State to another. 

"Utah forbade any combination of persons to control or affect the price of professional services or 
any commodities, prescribes a penalty of fine, imprisonment, or both, for any violation of the act, 
makesany person violating it liable to any injured party for the damages sustained, and makes all 
contracts void which contravene the law. 

Kentucky required every corporation or person running a railroad more than five miles long to 
run at least one passenger train each way every day but Sunday. 

Iowa declared express companies to be common carriers and placed them under the control of the 
Bailway Commissioner, 

New Jersey provided for the abolition of all crossings by a highway and railroad at grade in certain 
cities upon terms more liberal to the railroad corporation than have been imposed in some other 
States. The court must first hear the application, which may be made either by the city or the 
railroad company, and if satisfied that the change is proper and feasible without unreasonable 
expense, may appoint a commission to report a plan with full details, which the court may alter or 
reject. Of the expense t he city is required to pay so much as arises from changes in pipes, sewers, the 
grade or location of streets, or anything done to them outside the railroad location, and also all claims 
for damages caused thereby, and the railroad company pays the rest. 

Ohio required interlocking switches wherever an electric street railway crosses a steam railroad, 
or else a full stop before the crossing, and forbids the construction of any future crossing without such 
a switch. Another act required railroad corporations gradually to equip all passenger cars with 
portable chemical fire extinguishers. 

South Carolina authorized its railroad commissioners to require connecting roads to run their 
trains so that connections shall be close, if this can reaso ably be done. The Legislature also fixed 
passenger rates, ordered first and second class tickets, required railroad companies to pay the charges 
of all previous carriers on freight delivered to them, whenever they can be collected from the con- 
signee and do not exceed half the value of the freight, and forbade all discrimination between carriers 
at common or junction points and all failure to afford equal facilities to all. The act provides that any 
consignor may designate the route by which his freight shall be shipped and that the routing shall not 
be varied. 

Iowa placed the burden of proof on telegraph companies in suits for damages caused by errors in 
the transmission of messages; but no suit can be maintained unless the claim is presented within 
sixty days after the error. 

Maryland fixed the maximum charge for telephone service between any two cities, town or villages 
in the State, the rate varying with the distance, and enacted that the steam heating law shall not apply 
to trains carrying passengers to participate in the ceremonies attending the inauguration of the Presi- 
dent. 

Georgia provided that a bank whose capital is impaired must at once make it good by transfer from 
its surplus or undivided profits, or if these are not sufficient, by assessing its shareholders. Another 
act provided that circulating notes shall be issued to any bank which deposits with the treasurer of the 
State, bonds of the United States or of Georgia in double the amount of the notes issued. 

Agriculture.— Virginia forbade the imposition of any tax or penalty on anyone selling his own 
products outside of regular market houses. 

Maryland and Utah, in different ways, provided for the holding of "institutes" at least once a 
year in each county, where skillful teachers shall instruct the farmers and lay before them the results 
of the most recent investigations in theoretical and practical agriculture. 

Severe laws were passed to protect the farmer from insects and diseases fostered or spread by his 
neighbor' s carelessness. Utah created a State Board of Horticulture, and requires each owner or 
person in charge of any vineyard, orchard, or nursery to disinfect all fruit trees or vines by spraying 
them with a poisonous solution strong enough to kill all fruit-destroying insects and their young. The 
Board of Horticulture and their deputies are to be inspectors of trees, and to serve notice on every 
person in charge of trees stating the time when the disinfection should be done, and giving foronulas 
for the preparation of the disinfecting solution. 

In Ohio a similar act was aimed at the diseases of trees known as ' ' yellows, " " black knot ' ' and 
"San Jose scale." It requires the destruction of every diseased tree and all infected fruit by the 
owner or person in charge, and imposes a penalty on the keeping or sae of either. It further provides 
for the appointment of fruit commissioners in any township on the application of five freeholders. 
The commission is required to find out ail cases of disease, to mark the trees and to order their des- 
truction, and, failing obedience, to destroy the trees themselves. In cases where the diagnosis of the 
commissioners is questioned, an appeal is allowed to the professor at the Ohio Experiment Station, 
who is declared by the statute to be an expert. 

Ohio provided by law for the dipping of sheep every year as a preventive of scab, 

Virginia passed a very careful statute to protect domestic animals from contagious disorders, among 
which tuberculosis is especially named. 

Mississippi imposed fine and imprisonment on the person in charge of any horse affected with 
glanders who does not kill or confine it apart, and in such case directs the sheriff to kill it. 

Utah offered bounties to cultivators of the silk- worm and canaigre root, a vegetable used in 
tanning leather. 

Ohio, Georgia, South Carolina, and Utah passed laws to prevent the sale of any substitute for 
butter or cheese, unless it is distinctly declared to be an imitation. 

Massachusetts, Mississippi, and Virginia agreed in laws to prevent the sale of fraudulent fertilizers. 

The Public Health.— Ohio passed a statute to prevent the adulteration of vinegar, Massachu- 
setts to insure the purity of condensed milk, while the Legislature of Rhode Island attacked those who 
would sell adulterated candy. 

Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Ohio passed laws to secure the purity of bread and to 
prevent its becoming the means of carrying the germs of disease. 

Anotheractof Ohio provided for the examination and licensing of plumbers and the inspection of 
their work, and forbids the doing of any plumbing except small repairs and the stopping of leaks 
^dthout a permit from the proper officers. 

Massachusetts incorporated the American Hotel Institute " for the purpose of promoting the study 



132 State Legislation in 1896. 

and practice of the culinary art and other duties appertaining thereto by the establishment of a school 
of hotel and home science,' ' with the right to grant certificates of proficiency. 

Maryland directed the proprietors of shops to provide '^'•female help employed for the purpose of 
serving the public as ' clerks or salesladies ' ' ' with chairs, on which to rest as opportunity offers. 

Iowa authorized cities to prohibit and remove barbed wire fences within their limits. 

Taxation.— Iowa and Virginia followed the examples of other States and imposed a collateral 
inheritance tax of five per centum on all property passing at the death of a person to his collateral 
kindred. Iowa imposed her tax only on sums exceeding $1,000, while Massachusetts amended her 
law by exempting legacies or shares not exceeding $500 m value. 

Iowa exempted crematories from taxation if no profit accrues to their owners. 

Ohio provided for the levy of a State tax on the gross receipts of electric light, gas, natural gas, 
pipe line, water, street railway, railroad, telegraph, telephone, messenger and express or like com- 
panies, and also upon freight line and equipment companies doing business over railways wholly or 
partly in Ohio, which are to be assessed upon the proportion of their capital stock representing capital 
and property owned and used in Ohio. Iowa taxed express companies upon their gross receipts from 
business done in the State. 

Utah gave the taxpayer four years within which to redeem his property from a tax sale, but he 
to pay interest at the rate of eighteen per cent, a year. 

ETentucky submitted to the people an amendment to the Constitution which authorizes the passage 
of general laws to "provide for the taxation by municipalities of property, other than lands and im- 
provements thereon, based on income, licenses, or franchises which may be either in addition to or in 
lieu of ad valorem taxes thereon.' ' 

Ohio and South Carolina required every able-bodied man, with a few exceptions, to labor on the 
roads a certain number of days in each year, but with a proviso that a certain payment will be accepted 
instead. In Ohio this is two days or three doUars, In South Carolina it is four days or two dollars. 

Aliens.— Massachusetts passed a law requiring that when mechanics or laborers are to be 
employed on any public work by the State or any municipal corporation or by contractors with either, 
citizens shall be preferred to foreigners^ and every contract must contain this requirement, a penalty 
being imposed on any contractor who disregards it. 

South Carolina forbade the holding by any alien of more than five hundred acres of land, unless it 
is bought at foreclosure sale ; and Iowa provided that no non-resident alien, corporation created by the 
law ofa foreign country, or domestic corporation whose stock is controlled by non-resident aliens 
shall hold real estate within its bounds. 

Criminal Liaw.— Kentucky and Virginia made prize fighting a felony, punishable by imprison- 
ment for from one to five years. The latter State brushed away the fiction that the use of gloves 
changes the character of the contest. 

South Carolina directed the punishment not only of principals but any persons who whether as 
individuals or as officers of a club offer a prize or furnish a place for the encounter, while Massachu- 
setts provided for the punishment of all who engage in or promote any public or private boxing match 
where the contestants are given or promised any reward. 

Virginia prohibited any betting or pool selling on any trial of speed or endurance, and forbids any 
racing in winter. 

Maryland provided that if a man deserts or wrongfully neglects to support his wife or minor child, 
he is a criminal, punishable by fine and imprisonment. Here also written or oral threats to accuse a 
person of something, which, if true, would bring the person into disrepute, are made criminal. 

Louisiana fixed the age of consent at sixteen years, Virginia and South Carolina at fourteen, while 
Utah made consent impossible in law between thirteen and eighteen. 

Rhode Island followed the lead of other States in two statutes. The first authorizes the measure- 
ment and description of criminals according to the Bertillon method. The other defines an habitual 
criminal as one who has been sentenced for crime for two or more terms of imprisonment and directs 
that upon any subsequent conviction such person shall in addition to the sentence for the last offience 
be imprisoned for twenty-five years. This is tempered by a provision which enables the Governor if 
satisfied that the convict has reformed to set him at liberty for the rest of his term on such conditions 
as he thinks wise. If these are violated the leave is avoided. 

Utah also provided lor the detention of habitual criminals for periods of not less than fifteen 
years, and autho rizes the release of reformed prisoners on parole. 

Ohio and South Carolina legislated against mob violence. Ohio defines " a mob " as " any collec- 
tion of ind ividuals assembled for any unlawful purpose intending to do damage or injury to anyone, or 
pretending to exercise a correctional power over other persons by violence and without authority of 
law," and raises "lynching" to an established position in the law, by giving it also a legal definition 
in a provision that "any act of violence exercised by a 'mob ' upon the body of any person shall constitute 
a ' lynchi ng. ' ' ' The act gives the sufferer by any lynching right to recover of the county from 
$500 to $5 ,000. In case of death the legal representatives of the deceased shall recover $5, 000, which 
is not to be treated as a part of his estate but is for the benefit of wife, children, or relatives. The 
county is given a remedy over against any persons in the mob, and in case the mob brings the prisoner 
from one county into another, or starts in one and commits violence in the other on a prisoner i)rought 
from the first, the second county is given a remedy over against the first, unless it has been guilty 
of contributory negligence. 

South Carolina in case of a lynching which causes death made the county liable for $2,000 with a 
remedy over against the parties concerned, and it also directed the reraoval of any offices whose 
neglect made the lynching possible and makes him ineligible for any ofiice, 

Georgia provided that the recommendation of a jury naay make a felony for purposes of sentence 
only a misdemeanor, if the court approves. 

Ohio substituted electricity for the usual method of executing the death sentence. 

Prison Reform.— Kentucky provided for the establishment of two distinct Houses of Reform, 
one for boys and one for girls, under the charge of a board consisting of three men and three women of 
different parties and religious denominations. For these institutions healthy locations are to be pro- 
cured and the buildings are to be constructed on the "Cottage Family Plan," cells and bars being 
omitted as far as practicable. In each cottage there are to be from eighteen to twenty- five occupants, 
selected so as to be of about the same degree of criminality. Each cottage is to have a matron, a 
housekeeper and a teacher, and to resemble in general arrangement and discipline " as nearly as 
practicable a well-ordered and regulated home.' ' The object of these institutions is declared to be the 
reformof the prisoners, and the officers are enjoined "to see that a kind and proper tone of feeling is 
observed among the inmates and to do everything in their power to reclaim and improve the moral 
character of the boys and girls under their care, fitting them to become good citizeus and useful mem- 
bers of society.' ' The trustees are required, by frequent visits and otherwise, to see that the object of 
the act is secured. "» 



State Legislation in 1896. 133 



rowa provided for the separation of juvenile from older oflFenders. 

Evidence, Procedure, and Practice.— Iowa amends her jury law and makes anyone a com- 
petent juror who can hear, see, and read, write, and speak English. 

Georgia made it barratry for an attorney, in consideration of a fee to be afterwards received, to 
offer his services without solicitation in order to institute a suit or act in the enforcement of a claim or 
suggest or urge the bringing of suit, or without solicitation to seek out and propose to act for another 
in the collection of any claim, for which he would charge a fee. The offense is made indictable, and 
the offender on conviction is disqualified from practicing his profession. 

Massachusetts passed a law that at the trial of any action against the legal representatives of a 
deceased person, in which the cause of action is supported by oral testimony of any promise or state- 
ment made by the deceased, evidence shall be admissable of statements written or oral made by him, 
entries or memoranda written by him and evidence of his acts and habits of dealing tending to disprove 
or show the improbability of his having made the promise or statement relied upon. 

Mississippi adopted an opposite course to meet a similar danger by providing that a person cannot 
testify in his own behalf to support a claim against a person of unsound mind which originated while 
the defendant was sane. 

Maryland allowed the parties to have witnesses in an equity suit examined orally in open court. 

New Jersey repealed an act passed two years ago which made the deposition of a witness, taken 
stenographically and returned to court with the certificate of a magistrate that it was correctly 
transcribed, as competent as if officially written in longhand and signed by the witness. 

Ohio provided on the other hand that written wills may be hand-written or type- written. 

Mississippi to protect the rights of parties and insure justice even at the risk of prolixity provided 
that the stenographer' s minutes of testimony and rulings given at the trial, when approved by the 
judge, shall be sent to the appellate court as part of the record, unless the parties can agree on an 
abridgment. 

Massachusetts made a contribution to procedure by a statute which allows several persons having 
claims for manual labor, each less than twenty dollars, to join in one suit against the same defendant 
or defendants, each claim being stated in a separate count, and empowers the court to make such 
order for the trial of issues and the payment of costs as it thinks proper, and to enter separate judg- 
ments and issue one or more executions. 

New Jersey enacted that in suits on sealed instruments a partial failure of consideration maybe set 
up in defense, or damages growing out of the same transactions may be recouped. 

Mississippi permited the heirs of persons who have died intestate leaving property in Mississippi 
to establish their title and obtain possession of their shares by proceedings in chancery. The same 
State provided a summary method of enabling a surety on the bond of any State officer to secure his 
release from future responsibility, by directing the Governor to declare the office vacant if the incum.- 
bent does not within a reasonable time after notice file a new bond. 

Utah exempted property from liability to be taken on execution, and among other excepted 
articles may be found " all family hanging pictures, oil paintings and drawings, portraits and their 
necessary frames ' ' and the professional libraries and office furniture of lawyers, physicians and 
ministers. 

Maryland has passed an act which entitles a party to remove his case from a court of law to a court 
of equity or vice versa at any time before the jury retires in the discretion of the judge, 

Kentuckj^ provided that no proceeding but forcible detainer or entry and detainer, in which title, 
possession, lien, tax or charge on real estate or any interest therein is claimed, land no judgment or 
sale in such suit or proceeding shall affect a subsequent purchaser or incumbrancer for value without 
notice, unless a memorandum required by the statute is filed in the clerk' s office of the county court, 

Virginia followed a law already adopted in Massachusetts and provided a summary method of 
obtaining judgment for an uncontested debt by motion supported by affidavit after notice. 

Domestic Relations.— The New York Legislature passed the "Domestic Relations Law," 
which, like the law relating to real estate, is a codification. It carries to its completion the movement 
to establish the control of married women over their property and permits the wife to enjoy every 
right to acquire, use, and dispose of property, that she would have if unmarried, including the right to 
carry on business and to contract with anyone, including her husband, she being alone liable on such 
contracts. She cannot, however, make any contract with her husband which alters the marriage or 
relieves him from his liability for her support. The wife may sue for an injury to her person, prop- 
erty, or character, or for an injury arising out of the marital relation as if sole, and is liable for her own 
tortious acts, the husband being not liable unless it is proved that they were done by his coercion or 
instigation. The statute also permits husband and wife to transfer property directly to each other as 
they have long done indirectly. Rhode Island authorized married women to contract as if unmarried 
with the same rights and liabilities. 

Virginia, by two statutes, fixed the degrees of kinship within which marriage is prohibited. One 
act provides that it shall not be construed to prevent a man "from marrying an auntof his first wife,' ' 
and tliat "if any man has married either his brother's widow, the widow of his brother' s or sister' s 
son or his uncle's widow the marriage shall be valid," and the other that "if any woman have mar- 
ried her brother's or sister's deceased daughter's husband" the marriage is legal. 

Virginia also amended the law so as to make the separate estate of any married woman liable fully 
for her contracts, and passed .an act to prevent cruelty to children. 

Utah made legitimate the children of all polygamous marriages made before January 4, 1896. 

Liiquor Liesislation. —The " Liquor Tax Law," commonly known as the "Raines Law," in 
New York, attracted widespread attention throughout the country, partly perhaps by reason of the 
political importance attached to it. It is a license law pure and simple which throws the traffic open 
loall who are willing to pay the tax imposed, which varies with the population of the city or town. 
It creates a system of State supervision in place of local regulation, and takes for the State a portion of 
the revenue heretofore devoted entirely to local purposes. It provides for local option in towns, gives 
persons injuredby the gift or sale of intoxicating liquors to any person the right to recover damages 
against the person giving or selling the liquor, and against the owner or lessor of the building where 
the gift or sale occurs, provided notice not to sell has been given to them or their agents. It forbids 
sales on Sunday or between one o' clock and five o' clock in the naorning of any day, or on election day, 
and prohibits the use of screens. It protects the neighborhood of schools and churches and by various 
careful provisions seeks to prevent the granting of licenses to improper persons and improper conduct 
by licensees. It makes any employer engaged in the business of conveying passengers or property 
forhire, guilty of a misdemeanor if he retains in his service, after notice, an employee who is habitu- 
ally intemperate, in any place where his neglect of duty might imperil life or property. 

South Carolina re-enacted its "dispensary law," which prohibits the sale, keeping, or transporta- 
tion of any alcoholic liquor in the State under penalty of fine and imprisonment, and vests in the 
Statethesolepowerof buying and selling through a board of control and dispensers appointed by it. 



134 State Legislation in 1896. 

To accomplish this main purpose, the act is carefully drawn and contains provisions calculated to 
make any attempt to sell in violation of its prohibition ditflcult and dangerous. 

Insurance.— Iowa forbade any combination between fire insurance companies to fix rates, and 
authorized the iState Auditor to examine any officer of such company and to decide whether the law 
has been violated. 

Virginia, for the purpose of preventing any evasion of its tax laws, forbade any foreign insurance 
company licensed to do business in that State from making contracts of insurance except through reg- 
ularly constituted agents. 

Mississippi and South Carolina provided that in suits upon policies made or renewed after the 
statute, the insurer shall not be allowed to deny that the insured property was worth the value on 
which the insurance was calculated, and that in cases of total loss the insurer must pay the full 
amount of the policy. In Mississippi the act also requires the insurer on notice of loss to furnish blank 
forms for proot with full instructions. 

South Carolina provided that "No statement in the application for insurance shall beheld to 
prevent a recovery before a jury on said policy in case of a partial or total loss, provided after the 
expiration of sixty days the insurer shall be estopped to deny the truth of thesiatement in the appli- 
cation for insurance which was adopted except for fraud iu making their application for insurance. ' ' 

Georgia provided that the insurer must pay the insured the full amount of loss up to the amount of 
the policy, and that any stipulation to the contrary shall be void, except that where the property 
insured is a stock of goods which is constantly changing, only the value of the property at the time of 
the loss can be recovered. 

Massachusetts repealed the law Avhich allows life insurance companies to deduct five per cent, 
from the net surrender vaiue of endowment policies. 

New Jersey provided that when a policy is taken by one person for the benefit of another who has 
an insurable interest in the life insured, the beneficiary shall be entitled to the policy and its proceeds, 
but the amount of premiums paid in fraud of creditors with interest shall be paid to them out of the 
proceeds of the policy. The same provision is made iu case of a policy held by a married woman, 
whether issued originally in her favor or subsequently assigned to her. This returns to the creditors 
the contribution to the result which is made at their expense, and leaves the beneficiary the rest. 

Amusements. — Marj-land and Ohio made it a penal offense to put upon the highway tacks, nails, 
iron, glass, or any substance which can puncture or injure a bicjxle pneumatic tire. 

New Jersey passed a similar statute, but recognizes other uses of the highway by forbidding the 
deposit of any substance likely to injure travelers, or pedestrians, bicycles, or other vehicles, adding a 
special reference however to the pneumatic tire, which was the legislator' s real care. This statute 
goes further, and makes liable to any person injured, the overseer of highways, contractor, or other 
person who lawfully aud for the purpose of repairing the way puts broken stones upon it, and does not 
as soon &>. possible cover them with fine stone, earth or screenings. 

New Jersey empowered towns to build bicycle paths. Ohio and Rhode Island gave bicycles the 
position of a passenger's baggage, and required carriers to transport one for each passenger; in 
Rhode Island the law expressly provided that there shall be no additional charge ; in Ohio it made 
them subject to the same charges and liabilities as passengers' baggage, but exempts the passenger 
from all obligation to cover or in any way protect them. 

New Jersey authorizes towns to regulate bicycling by requiring their riders to carry bells audible 
for one hundred feet and lamps visible for one hundred yards ahead, to be kept lighted when the 
bicycle is in use at any time from an hour after sunset till sunrise. Speed also maybe regulated by 
ordinance applying to all vehicles alike. These ordinances may forbid riding on any sidewalk, and in 
this prohibition Maryland concurs so far as Baltimore county is concerned. 

Virginia passed a law providing that every rider of a bicycle shall use all proper care in passing a 
vehicle or person on horseback to avoid frightening the horse, and if the horse shows signs of terror, 
the bicyclist must dismount and stop to prevent accident. 

Ohio made every Saturday after twelve o' clock noon a holiday in cities having over 50,000 people. 

Ohio and Louisiana passed laws intended to prevent women from wearing hats at theatres. The 
latter State exempts an opera bonnet. 

Uniform Ijegislation.— Maryland, Rhode Island, and Virginia each provided for the appoint- 
ment of commissioners to act with those named by other States in the effort to promote uniformity. 

Ohio, Maryland,^ and Massachusetts abolished days of grace on commercial paper with the single 
and singular exception in Massachusetts of drafts payable at sight. 

Among the uniform laws were statutes of New Jersey, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Virginia forbidding 
under penalties the sale of articles marked " sterling," ''sterling silver," "coin"' or " coin silver," 
unless containing certain specified proportions of pure silver. 

The Reorganization of Railw^ay and other Corporations.— This is the statute of 
Kentucky "to provide for the reorganization of railroad and bridge companies,' ' which is, says Mr. Story, 
"unless I am mistaken, the first attempt to deal with asubject of great pubi icimportance by legislation.' ' 
This act in substance provides that when a corporation belonging to the classes named is insolvent 
and in the hands of a court under proceedings to enforce any mortgage or for the payment of debts 
" the holders of a majority of any class of securities issued by such company, or any class of creditors' ' 
may prepare and submit to the court a plan of reorganization, whidi shall conform to certain require- 
ments, and shall provide j^jy-sf for the payment of taxes and of all debts for labor, materials, and supplies 
entitled to a lien, ?iea;< for the payment or assumption of debts secured by a lien prior to that of the 
creditors proposing the plan, and last, for the issue of new securities and their distribution among 
security holders of the class to which the proposers belong and those holding subordinate claims, in 
such manner as shall regard their relative rights. 

When such a plan is proposed, the court is directed to give notice, the creditors are allowed to file 
objections and upon a hearing the court may approve, amend, or reject the plan. If it is finally 
approved by the court and receives the assent ot persons nolding three- fourths of the claim belonging 
to the class proposing it, and a like proportion of the classes holding subordinate claims, the court is 
directed to declare the plan adopted and provide for its execution. 

If no such plan is proposed the court may order a sale, and if security holders buy, they may pay in 
part b^ surrendering their securities as the court may order. In that case all holders of securities 
belonging to the same class as the purchasers are given the same rights as the purchasers, and 
the latter, before adopting any article of incorporation or transferring the property to any corporation 
are required to present a plan of reorganization with substantially the provisions already stated, and 
to secure its approval by the court. 

" This legislation is well worthy of careful consideration,' ' says Mr. Storj^, "as a step in the ri§:ht 
direction, for it enables the court to protect the interests of investors by making every reorganization 
the subject of judicial investigation and securing for every interest a hearing. J 



Naturalization Laws of the United States. 135 

Katuraliiatton Hatos of tfje Slnitttr <^tates» 

The conditions under and the manner in which, an alien may be admitted to become a citi- 
zen of the United States are prescribed by Sections 2, 165-74 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States. 

DECLARATION OF INTENTIONS. 

The alien must declare upon oath before a circuit or district court of the United States or a 
district or supreme court of the Territories, or a court of record of any of the States having 
common law jurisdiction and a seal and clerk, two years at least prior to his admission, that it 
is, bona fide, his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever 
all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince or State, and particularly to the one of which 
he may be at the time a citizen or subject. 

OATH ON APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION. 

He must at the time of his application to be admitted declare on oath, before some one of the 
courts above specified, ' 'that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he 
absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign prince, 
potentate, State, or sovereignty, and particularly, byname, to the prince, potentate, State, or 
sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or subject," which proceedings must be recorded 
by the clerk of the court. 

CONDITIONS FOR CITIZENSHIP. 

If it shall appear to the satisfaction of the court to which the alien has applied that he has 
made a declaration to become a citizen two years before applying for final papers, and has re- 
sided continuously within the United States lor at least five years, and within the State or Ter- 
ritory Avhere such court is at the time held one year at least ; and that during that time ' ' he has 
behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the 
United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same, ' ' he will be ad- 
mitted to citizenship, . 

TITLES OF NOBILITY. 

If the applicant has borne any hereditary title or order of nobility he must make an express 
renunciation of the same at the time of his application. 

SOLDIERS. 

Any alien of the age of twenty- one years and upward who has been in the armies of the 
United States, and has been honorably discharged therefrom, may become a citizen on his peti- 
tion, without any previous declaration of intention, provided that he has resided in the United 
States at least one year previous to his application, and is of good moral character. (It is 
judicially decided that residence of on^ year in a particular State is not requisite. ) 

MINORS. 

Any alien under the age of twenty- one years who has resided in the United States three 
years next preceding his arriving at that age, and who has continued to reside therein to the 
time he may make application to be admitted a citizen thereof, may, after he arrives at the age 
of twenty- one years, and after he has resided five years within the United States, including the 
three years of his minority, be admitted a citizen ; but he must make a declaration on oath and 
prove to the satisfaction of the court that for two years next preceding it has been his bona fide 
intention to become a citizen. 

CHILDREN OF NATURALIZED CITIZENS. 

The children of persons who have been duly naturalized, being under the age of twenty- one 
years at the time of the naturalization of their parents, shall, if dwelling in the United States, 
be considered as citizens thereof. 

CITIZENS' CHILDREN WHO ARE BORN ABROAD. 

The children of persons who nov/ are or have been citizens of the United States are, though 
bom out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, considered as citizens thereof. 

CHINESE. 

The naturalization of Chinamen is expressly pKohibited by Section 14, Chapter 126, Laws 
of 1882. 

PROTECTION ABROAD TO NATURALIZED CITIZENS. 

Section 2, 000 of the Revised Statutes of the United States declares that " all naturalized 
citizens of the United States while in foreign countries are entitled to and shall receive from 
this Government the same protection of persons and property which is accorded to native-born 
citizens. ' ' 

THE RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE. 

The right to vote comes from the State, and is a State gift. Naturalization is a Federal right 
and is a gift of the Union, not of anyone State. In nearly one- half of the Union aliens (who 
have declared intentions) vote and have the right to vote equally with naturalized or native- 
iDorn citizens. In the other half only actual citizens may vote. (See Table of Qualifications for 
Voting in each State, on another page. ) The Federal naturalization laws apply to the whole 
Union alike, and provide that no alien may be naturalized until after five years' residence. 
Even after five years' residence aL-d due naturalization he is not entitled to vote unless the laws 
of the State confer the privilege upon him, and he may vote in several States six months after 
landing, if he has declared his intention, under United States law, to become a citizen. 



186 Indebtedness of the States and Territories in 1890. 

Kntrei)tftruesj3 of t^t ^t^ttu antr Ktxxittyxitn in 1890. 

COMPILED FROM THE ELEVENTH UNITED STATES CENSUS. 



Geograph- 
ical 
Divisions. 


Total Combined 

Debt Less 
Sinking Fund. 


Per Capita of 

Combined 

Debt. 


State Debt. 


County Debt. 


Municipal 
Debt. 


School 

District 

Debt. 




1890. 


1890. 


1880. 


1890. 


1890. 

$27,585,070 

$434,346 

556,987 

5,108 

4,051,830 

3"0,*547 

10,936,638 

3,728,130 

7,841,484 

7,825,561 


1890. 


1890. 


North Atlantic 


$467,968,615 


$26. 89 

$23. 60 
21.64 
11.39 
36.42 
37.75 
31.76 
33.64 
34.14 
13.51 

18.64 

$17.32 

40.46 

85.86 

30.70 

3.32 

6.87 

11.55 

11.03 

5.56 

14.32 


$37.28 

$35.81 
3L10 
33.54 
5L55 
46.91 
35.33 
43.06 
43.66 
25.03 

22.10 

$16. 17 

44.31 

126.66 

30.09 

2.65 

12.83 

14. 25 

12.74 

9.89 

14.17 

$16.59 

9.28 

15.07 

7.36 

9.19 

14.51 

5. 01 

27.79 

3.57 

8.82 

16.56 

15.97 

16.14 

$9.09 
26. 42 
14.26 

4.38 
45.60 

7.34 

13.37 

13.85 

$19. 54 

9.88 

18.67 

0.71 

9.33 

0.81 

22.48 

7.05 

3.19 

4.86 

19.18 


$25,140,357 

$3,470,908 
2,691,019 

148,416 
7,267,349 

422,983 
3,740,200 
2,308,230 
1,022,642 
4,068,610 

89,652,873 


$405,572,083 

$11,695,523 

4,718,025 

3,529,014 

70,230,848 

12,499,254 

18,322,371 

187,348,163 

42,990,338 

54,238,547 

67,610,380 


$9,671,105 


Maine 


$15,600,777 

8,148,362 

3,785,373 

81,550,027 

13,042,117 

23,703,478 

201,763,217 

49,333,589 

71,041,675 

165,107,113 

$2,919,084 
42,175,408 
19,781,050 
50,837,315 

2,532,460 
11,117,445 
13,295,637 
20,272,095 

2,176,619 

320,238,281 




N. Ham' shire 

Vermont 

Mass' ch' setts 
Rhode Island- 
Connecticut... 

New Yorli 

New Jersey... 
Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic 


$182,331 
102,835 

il9,'880 
1,610,360 
1,170,186 
1,592,479 
4,893,034 

18,299 


Delaware 

Maryland 

Dist. of Col 

Virginia 


$887,573 

8,434,388 

19,781,050 

34,227,234 

184,511 

7,703,100 

6,953,582 

10,449,542 

1,031,913 

41,656,112 


$618, 400 
893,776 

1,774 .'535 
1,197,462 
1,514,600 
1,062,750 
429,380 
334,658 

69,110,453 


$1,413,111 

32,847,264 

14, 835,' 546 
1,132,188 
1,899,745 
5,279,305 
9,393,173 
810,048 

184,219,923 

$52,888,263 
9,498,333 

26,456,965 
8,510,439 
6,303.605 

18,427,368 
6,391,772 

28,092,103 

711,665 

1,197,520 

7,124,506 

18,617,384 

52,576,623 




W. Virginia... 
N. Carolina.... 
S. Carolina.. ».. 
fTPoreria 


$18,299 


Florida 

North Central- 


25,251,793 


Ohio 


$71,065,386 


$19.35 

11.15 

10.94 

8.09 

6.19 

20.01 

5.90 

19.24 

21 03 

20.11 

14.67 

28.47 

12.60 

$10.46 

16.71 

12.51 

4.66 
29.80 

9.02 

9.60 

14.41 

$22. 09 

27.14 

20.41 

18.44 

49.28 

3.69 

29.23 

18.89 

9.00 

7.00 

12.89 


$7,135,806 

8,538,059 

1,184,907 

5,308,294 

2,295,391 

2,239,482 

245,435 

11,759,832 

703,76£f 

871,600 

253,879 

1,119,658 

66,281,194 

SI. 671, 133 
19,695,974 
12,413,196 

3,503,009 
16,008,585 

4,317,515 

8,67i;782 

6,266,853 

$167,815 
320,000 
599,8.51 
870,000 
757,159 

569','525 

218,493 

300,000 

1,685 

2,522,325 

$228,997,389 


$7,797,005 
6,406,239 

11,016,380 
1,257,698 
1,529,681 
3,317,657 
3,416,889 

10,240,082 
1,372,261 
2,441,334 
5,510,175 

14,805,052 

19,177,151 


$3,244,312 


Indiana 


24,442,631 
41,841,649 
16,941,928 
10,440,580 
26,050,929 
11,275,319 
51,557,568 
8,842,790 
6,613,707 
15,536,772 
40,629,022 

138,255,311 


Illinois 


3,183,397 
1,865,497 
311,903 
2,066,422 
1,221,223 
1,465,551 
1,055,095 
2,103.253 
2,648.212 
6,086,928 

220,343 


Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 


Missouri 

N. Dakota 

S. Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 


South Central- 


Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 


$19,432,885 
29,543,843 
18,930,867 
6,011,347 
33,335,497 
20,172,063 

lO', 828, 809 

43,641,122 

$2,918,893 
1,647,381 
8,411,027 
2,831,538 
2,937,971 
767,501 
1,337,501 
1.594,333 
3,145,658 
2,479,860 

15,569,459 

$1,135,210,442 


$5,712,463 
2,172,059 
1,433,321 
1,230,299 
177,798 
6,891,714 

1,55'9*497 

21,349,810 

$2,004,513 
1,083,790 
4,601,588 
1,815,083 
1,954,414 
49,859 

812,676 
1,234,987 
1,507,786 

905,711 
5,379,403 


$11,880,417 
7,675,810 
5,084,350 
1,278,039 
17,149,114 
8,928,852 

586*041 

14,484,051 

$614,519 
243,591 
2,955,962 
127,085 
200, 165 
717,642 

'29,'211 
1,046,510 
1,386,444 
7,162.922 


$168,872 

33,982 

i7,"489 

1,540,408 


Oklahoma 

Arkansas 

Western 




Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico .. 

Arizona 

Utah 


$132,046 

253,'626 
19,370 
26,233 


Nevada 


15,300 
111,642 
291,362 
186,020 
504,809 


Idaho 


Washington... 
Oregon 


California 


Total 


$18. 13 


$22. 40 


$145,048,045 


$724,463,060 


$36,701,948 





THE CARPET-BAG DEBTS OF THE SOUTHERN STATES. 

The ' ' carpet-bag ' ' debts of the Southern States, under which some of them are still suffering, 
were created during the reconstruction period, when the South was at the mercy of adventurers from 
the North and the ranks of the negro population.supported and protected by the Federal Government. 
These burdens on the helpless people aggregated in 1871 some $291,626,015, distributed among the 
reconstructed States as follows: Alabama. $52,761,917; Arkansas, .$19,398,000; Florida, $15,797,- 
587; Georgia, $42,560,500; Louisiana, $40,021,734; North Carolina, $34,887,464; South Carolina, 
$22,480,516; Texas, $14,930,000; Virgmia, $47,090,866. It must be borne in mind that the debts 
of the Southern States contracted from 1861 to 1865 were repudiated by the enforcement of the XI Vth 
Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, so that the indebtedness above shown was due 
almost wholly to ' ' carpet-bag ' ' financiering. 



Principal of the PuhliG Debt. 



137 



OFPICIAL STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 1, 1896, 



INTEREST-BEAEESTG DEBT. 

Funded loan of 1891 $25,364,500.00 

Funded loan of 1907 559,638,300.00 

Refunding certificates 46,260.00 

Loan of 1904 100,000,000.00 

Loan of 1925 162,315,400.00 

Aggregate of interest-bearing debt, 
exclusive of United States bonds 
issued to Pacific railroads $847,364,460.00 

Debt on which Interest has Ceased since 
Maturity, 

Aggregate debt on which interest has 
ceased since maturity $1,607,010.26 

Debt Bearing no Interest. 

United States notes $346,681,016.00 

Old demand notes 54,347.50 

National bank notes: 

Redemption account 18,474,380.00 

Fractional currency 6,890,504.14 



Aggregate of debt bearing no interest. $372,100,247 .64 

Certificates and Notes Issued on Deposits 
OF Coin and Legal-tender Notes and 
Purchases of Silver Bullion. 

Gold certificates $39,588,139.00 

Silver certificates 366,463,504.00 

Certificates of deposit 35,060,000.00 

Treasury notes of 1890 123,229,280.00 

Aggregate of certificates and Treasury 
notes, ofiset by cash in the Treasurj-. $564,340,923. 00 



Classification of Debt November 1, 1896 

Interest-bearing debt $847,364,460.00 

Debt on which interest has ceased 

since maturity 1 ,607 ,010 . 26 

Debt bearing no interest 372,100,247.64 

Aggregate of interest and non- interest 

bearing debt 1,221,071,717.90 

Certificates and Treasury notes offset 

by an equal amount of cash in the 

Treasury 564,340,923.00 



Aggregate of debt, including certifi- 
cates and Treasury notes 1,785,412,640.90 

Cash in the Tre.\sury. 

Gold certificates $39,588,139.00 

Silver certificates 866,463,504 . 00 

Certificates of deposit, 
act June 8, 1872 35,060,000. 00 

Treasury notes of 1890.. . . 123,229,280 . 00 

$564 ,340,923 . 00 

Fund for redemption of 
uncurrent National 
bank notes $8,773,078.01 

Outstanding checks and 
drafts 1,881,939.67 

Disbursing officers' bal- 
ances 23,715,489.58 

Agency accounts, etc. . . 4,392,030.03 



Gold re- 
serve .... $100,000,000. 00 

JSTet cash 

balance. . . 133.572,761.63 



38,762,537.29 



233,572,761.63 



Aggregate $836,676,221.92 

Cash balance in the Treasury Novem- 
ber 1,1896 $233,572,761.63 



statement of outstanding Principal of the Public Debt of the United States an January 1 of each Year from 
1791 to 1842, inclusive; on July 1 of each Year from 1843 to 1886, inclusive; on December 1 of each Year 
from 1887 to 1892, inclusive, and on November 1, from, 1893 to 1896, inclusive. 



1791Jan. 1 $75,463,476.52 



1792 
1793 
1794 

1795 
1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1808 
1809 
1810 
1811 
1812 
1813 
1814 
1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 



77,217,924.66 
. 80,352,634.04 
. 78,427,404.77 
. 80,747,587.39 
. 83,762,172.07 
. 82,064,479.33 
, 79,228,529.12 
. 78,408,669.77 
. 82,976,294.35 
. 83,038,050.80 
, 86,712,632.25 
. 77,054,686.30 
. 86,427,120.88 
. 82,312,150.50 
, 75,723,270.66 
. 69,218,398.64 
. 65,196,317.97 
. 57,023,192.09 
. 53,173,217.52 
. 48,005,587.76 
. 45,209,737.90 
. 55,962,827.57 
. 81,487,846.24 
. 99,833,660.15 
.127,334,933.74 
.123,491,965.16 
.103,466,633.83 
. 95,529,648.28 
. 91,015,566.15 
. 89,987,427.66 
. 93,546,676.98 
, 90,875,877.28 
. 90,269,777.77 
. 83,788,432.71 
- 81,054,059.99 



1827 Jan. 1 $73,987,357.20 1863 July 1 $1,119,772,138.63 



1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 



1843 July 1 32, 742, 922. 00 



1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 



67,475,043. 87 i 1864 

58.421.413.67 1865 
48,565,406.501866 

39.123.191.68 1867 
24,322,235.18 1868 

7,001,698.831869 
4,760,082.081870 
37,513.05 1871 



336,957.83 

3,308,124.07 

10,434,221.14 

3,573,343.82 

5,250,875.54 

13,594,480.73 

26; 601, 226. 28 



23,461,652.50 
. 15,925,303.01 
. 15,550,202.97 
. 38,826,534.77 
. 47,044,862,23 
. 63,061,858.69 
. 63,452,773.55 
. 68,304,796.02 
, 66,199,341.71 
. 59,803,117.70 
. 42,242,222.42 
, 35,586,858.56 
. 31,972,537.90 
. 28,699,831.85 
. 44,911,881.03 
. 58,496,837.88 
. 64,842,287.88 
. 90,580,873.72 
.524,176,412.13 



1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 



1,815,784,370.57 
2,680,647,869.74 
2,773,236,173.69 
2,678,126,103.87 
2,611,687,851.19 
2,588,452,213.94 
2,480,672,427.81 
2,353,211,332.32 
2,253,251,328.78 
2,234,482,993.20 
2,251,690,468.43 
2,232,284,531.95 
2,180,395,067.15 
2,205,301,392.10 
2,256,205,892.53 
2,340,567,232.04 
2,128,791,054.63 
2,077,389,253.58 
1,926,688,678.03 
1,892,547,412.07 
1,838,904,607.57 
1,872,340,557.14 
1,783,438,697.78 



1887Dec. 1 1,664,461,536.38 

1888 "■ 1,680,917,706.23 

1889 '' 1,617,372,419.53 

1890 " 1,549,206,126.48 

1891 " 1,546,961,695.61 

1892 " 1,563,612,455.63 

1893 Nov. 1 1,549,556,353.63 

1894 '' 1,626,154,037.68 

1895 " 1,717,481,779.90 

1896 " 1,785,412,640.90 



138 Assessed Yaluation of Meal and Personal Property. 



Ku^elJtrtrntss of titrations* 

COMPILED FROM THE ELEVENTH UNITED STATES CENSUS. 



Countries. 



Argentine Republic 

Austria- Hungary 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chili 

Colombia 

Denmark 

France 

Madagascar 

Tunis 

German Empire 

Alsace- Lorraine 

Baden 

Bavaria 

Bremen 

Brunswick 

Hamburg 

Hesse 

Lippe 

Llibeck 

Oldenburg 

Prussia 

Beuss, E. B 

Reuss, Y. B 

Saxe- Weimar 

Saxony 

Schaumburg- Lippe 

Saxe- Altenburg 

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 

Saxe-Meiningen 

Scbwarzb' g- Rudolstadt. 
' ' Sondershausen. 

Waldeck 

Wiirtemberg , 

Great Britain and Ireland. 

Ceylon 

India 

Cape of Good Hope 

Mauritius 

Natal 



Debt Less 

Sinking 

Fund,:1890. 



$284,867,069 

*2, 866, 339, 539 

380,504,099 

14,763,367 

585,345,927 

85,192,339 

63,451,583 

33,004,722 

t4, 446, 793, 398 

2,827,900 

34,881.500 

77,577,719 

3,837,373 

71,165,252 

335,503,105 

16,217,400 

4,876,174 

59,202,946 

7,562,763 

220,725 

3,295,709 

9,211,095 

1,109,384,127 

70,687 

63,540 

425,662 

143,897,747 

150,000 

158.853 

955,311 

2,550,698 

743,800 

842,631 

568,200 

107,735,500 

3,350,719,563 

11,184,400 

$881,003,592 

110,817,720 

8,464,662 

22,028,424 



Debt 

per 

Capita 



$70. 40 

70.84 

63.10 

12.38 

41.80 

31.96 

16.36 

15.66 

116.35 

0.81 

23.25 

1.57 

2.39 

42.95 

60.03 

89.94 

12. 10 

94.85 

7.60 

1.72 

43.10 

25.95 

37.03 

1.13 

0.53 

1.31 

41.11 

3.83 

0.93 

4.63 

11.39 

8.67 

11.16 

9.92 

52.93 

87.79 

3.86 

3.27 

77.56 

22.92 

45.76 



COUNTEIES. 



Bermudas 

Canada 

Fiji 

New South Wales. . 

New Zealand 

Queensland 

South Australia 

Tasmania 

Victoria 

Western Australia. 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Hay ti 

Hawaii 

Honduras 

Italy 

Japan 

Liberia 

Mexico 

Montenegro 

Netherlands 

Dutch East Indies. . 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Roumauia 

Russia 

Salvador 

Santo Domingo 

Servia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

Egypt 

United States 

Venezuela 



Total 



Debt Less 

Sinking 

Fund, 1890. 



237, 

233, 

184, 

129, 

102, 

22, 

179, 

6, 

107, 

10, 

13, 

2, 

63, 

2,324, 

305, 

113, 

430. 

^l: 

13, 

19, 

382, 

180, 

3,491, 

6, 

9, 

60, 

1,251, 

64, 

10, 

821, 

517. 

915, 

22, 



Debt 

per 

Capita 



$41,864 
533,212 
678,800 
289,245 
898,305 
204,750 
177,500 
235,345 
614,005 
509,736 
306,518 
825,836 
500,000 
302,235 
394,267 
826,329 
727,816 
972,000 
606,675 
740,200 
589,858 
381,509 
711,206 
973,752 
633,013 
175,655 
145,800 
018,074 
013,300 
865,256 
811,330 
453,696 
220,807 
912,925 
000,000 
278,-^00 
962,112 
517,437 



$2.6'9 

47.51 

5.41 

214.87 

298. 01 

333.46 

321.00 

147. 46 

161. 63 

150. 23 

49.06 

7.59 

14.06 

26.57 

146. 77 

76.06 

7.83 

0.91 

9.98 

3.14 

95.56 

0.64 

4.28 

7.13 

59.56 

145. 77 

32.75 

30.79 

9.05 

16.17 

30.20 

73.85 

13.53 

3.72 

37.20 

75.88 

14.63 

11.00 



$27,396,055,389 



♦ In these amounts there is included debt of Hungary for 1880, $536,051,184: for 1890, $837,- 
928,836. Florin reckoned at 50 cents, t Inclusive of floating debt, but exclusive of annuities, whose 
capitalized value is estimated by good authority to be not less than $2,000,000,000. t The rupee is 
reckoned at 50 cents. Its exchange value in 1890 was about 35 cents, making the actual face value 
of the debt about 30 per cent less than stated. 



^ssessetr Valuation of 2^tal autr Jlersonal Jlropertg* 



states and Terri- 
tories. 


Total Assessed 

Valuation. 
Census of 1890. 


Assessed 

Valuation 

per Capita. 


States and Terri- 
tories. 


Total Assessed 

Valuation. 
Census of 1890. 


Assessed 

Valuation per 

Capita. 




1880. 


1890. 


1880. 


1890. 


1880. 


1890. 


1880. 


1890. 




$235,978,716 

205,586,805 

86,806,775 

1,584,756,802 
252,536,673 
327,177,385 

2,651,940,006 
702,518,361 

1,683,459,016 

59,951,643 

497,307,675 

99,401,787 

318,331.441 

146,99:,688 

156,100,202 

133,560,135 

251,963,124 

30,938,309 

1,534,360,508 
727,815,131 
786,61 6,.'594 
517,666,.359 
406,303,185 
258,028,687 
398,671,251 


$309,129,101 
263,059,798 
162,098,513 

2,154,134,626 
321,764,503 
358,913,956 

3,785,910,313 
893,859,866 

2,659,796,909 
66,210,519 
529,494,777 
153,307,541 
415,249,107 
186,964,770 
235,300,674 
168,262,669 
415,828,945 
91,761,711 

1,778,138,477 
856,838,472 
809,682,926 
898,155,532 
577,066,252 
688,820,213 
619,246,110 


$363.64 
592.48 
261.24 
888.77 
913.23 
525.42 
521.74 
621.08 
393.07 
408.92 
531.91 
559.62 
210.46 
237.67 
111.52 
134.15 
163..38 
114.80 
479.78 
S67.90 
255.57 
316.24 
308.86 
330.48 
245.39 


$467.61 
698.64 
487.63 
962.12 
931.28 
480.95 
631.21 
618.62 
505.86 
392.96 
507.96 
665.42 
250.76 
245.11 
145.43 
146.17 
226.32 
234.43 
484.20 
S90.82 
211.61 
428.94 
342.09 
452.30 
271.59 


Missouri 

North Dakota... 
South Dakota. . . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 


$561,939,771 

1 20,321,530 

90,585,782 

160,891,689 

370,743,384 

228,154,432 

122,867,228 

110,628,129 

160,162,439 

320,364,515 

86,409,364 

18,609,802 

13,621,829 

74,471,693 

14,675,209 

9,270,214 

24,775,279 

29,291,459 

6,440,876 

23,810,693 

52,522,084 

684,578,036 


$887,975,928 

( 88,203,054 

\ 140,154,930 

184,770,305 

347,717,219 

547,596,788 

382,760,191 

258,979,575 

166,772,279 

234,320,780 

780,898,605 

174,737,755 

112,937,384 

32,536,401 

220,554,064 

43,227,686 

28,050,234 

106,110,370 

25,350,094 

25,748,437 

217,612,897 

166,025,731 

1,101,136,431 


$259.15 

1 150.33 

200.23 
161.52 
224.87 
147.93 
97.32 
97.76 
170.40 
201.27 
107.67 
475.24 
655.24 
383.23 
122.74 
229.23 
172.09 
470.42 
197.51 
316.99 
300.52 
676.05 


$331.44 

( 482.73 

\ 426.25 

174.49 

243.65 


New Hampshire. . 
Vermont 


Massachusetts. . . . 
Rhode Island. . . . 


Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Marj-land 


Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

.Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 


294.62 
216.55 
171.17 
129.32 
209.48 
349.31 


Dis. of Columbia. 
Virginia , . 


Arkansas 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico.... 


154.88 
854 56 


West Virginia.. .. 
North Carolina... 
South Carolina.. . 
Georgia 


635.98 
635.07 
281.44 
470.48 


Florida 


Ut.ih 

Nevada 


610.38 


Ohio 


553.97 


Indiana 


Idaho 


305.13 


Illinois 

Michigan 


Washington.. .. 

Oregon 

California 

ToUl 


622.84 
529 14 


Wisconsin 

Minnesota. 


911.44 


Iowa 


$17,139,903,495 


$25,473,173,418 


$341.73 


|407.1t 



The United States JBoard on Geographic JSTames. 



139 



inspection of .Steam HJtnntln. 

The Supervising Inspector- General ot the Steamboat Inspection Service, James A. Dumont, 
reported to the Secretary of the Treasury, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1896: Total number of 
annual certificates of inspection issued to steam vessels, foreign and domestic, 8,297; number of 
certificates issued to foreign steam vessels, 300; number of certificates issued to domestic steamers, 
7,997; increase in number of certificates to foreign steamers over previous year, 19; increase in num- 
ber of certificates to domestic steamers, 66; total increase in number of certificates issued to foreign 
and domestic steamers, 85; net tonnage, 2,238,020. 56 foreign and domestic; increase in tonnage, 41,- 
721.94; ofiO-cers licensed, 39,917- increase in number of officers licensed, 741. 

ISrUlNIBER OF STEA]\rBOAT ACCIDENTS TTST THE UNITED STATES DUBING THE FISCAL 
. YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1896, RESULTING IN LOSS OF LIFE, &c. 



Cause. 



Fire 

Collisions 

Explosions (2), breaking of steam- pipes and mud-drunas, or accidental 

escape of steam 

Snags, wrecks, and sinking 

Accidental drowning 

Miscellaneous 



Total 



Number of 
Accidents. 



1 
16 

13 
12 



42 



Number of 
Lives Lost. 



1 
35 

35 
43 

*77 
30 



t221 



* Several of these were undoubtedly suicides. 

t Decrease from previous year, 173. 

Of the number of lives lost, 68 were passengers and 153 belonged to the crews of the vessels. 

It is estimated that 600, 000, 000 passengers were carried on steam vessels during the fiscal year. 



The ocean and lake coasts of the United States are picketed with the stations of the Life-Saving 
Service attached to the United States Treasury Department. Sumner I. Kimball is general superin- 
tendent, with headquarters at Washington, and there is a corps of inspectors, superintendents, 
station keepers, and crews, extending over the entire coast line, together with a Board on Life-Saving 
Appliances, composed of experts selected from the Revenue Marine Service, the Army, the Life-Sav- 
ing Service, and civilians. 

At the close of the last fiscal year the life-saving establishment embraced 256 stations, 186 being 
on the Atlantic coast, 55 on the lakes, 14 on the Pacific coast, and 1 at the falls of the Ohio, Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

In the following table the statistics of the service for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896, and 
since introduction of present system in 1871 to June 30, 1896, are stated separately: 



Ntunber of Disasters 

Value of Property Involved 

Value of Property Saved 

Value of Property Lost 

Number of Persons Involved 

Number of Persons Lost 

Number of Shipwrecked Persons Succored at Stations 

Number of Days' Succor Afforded 

Number of Vessels Totally Lost on the United States Coasts. 



Year Ending 
30, 1896 



June 



Since Introduction 
of Life-Saving Sys- 
tem in 1871, to 
June 30, 1896. 



437 

$12,726,520 

11,293,770 

1,432,750 

4,608 

13 

*613 

1,436 

67 



8,982 

§146,487,759 

113,750.732 

32,737.027 

72,531 

770 

12,626 

32,787 



* Including castaways not on board vessels embraced in tables. 

In addition to the foregoing, there were 243 casualties to smaller craft, such as sailboats, row- 
boats, etc. , on which there were 594 persons, of whom 587 were saved and 7 lost. In addition 
to persons saved from vessels, there were 82 others rescued who had fallen from wharves, piers, etc. , 
and who would probably have perished without the aid of the life-saving crews. The cost of the main- 
tenance of the service during the year was §1,401.805. 97. 



K\^t sanitetr .States 23oartr on i^eograpjic Kamts. 

An Executive Order issued by President Harrison Sept. 4, 1890, requires that uniform usage 
in regard to geographic nomenclature and orthography shall obtain throughout the Executive Depart- 
ments of the Government, and particularly unon maps and charts issued by the various departments 
and bureaus. To this Board must be referred all unsettled questions concerning geographic names 
which arise in the departments, and its decisions are to be accepted by the departments as the standard 
authority in such matters. 

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD. 

Chairman— 'n.erwj Gannett, United States Geological Survey. 

^Secretory— Marcus Baker, United States Geological Survey. 

Andrew H. Allen, Department of State; A. B. Johnson, of the Light-House Board; Commander 
C. D. Sigsbee, Hydrographic Office, Navy Department; (vacancy), Post- Office Department; 
OtisT. Mason, Smithsonian Institution ; Herbert G. Ogden, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey ; 
Harry King, General Land Office ; Capt G. W. Goethals, Capt. of Engineers, U. S. A. 



140 mmu^ ^tattu internal JXti)tnu2 Receipts. 

SUMMARY OF INTERNAL REVENUE RECEIPTS FROM 1865 TO 1895, INCLUSIVE. 



Fiscal Teaks. 



1865. $18,731,422 

1866 334268,172 

1867 33,M2,952 

1868 18,655,531 

1869 45,071,231 

1870 55,606,094 

1871 46,281,848 

1872 49,475,516 

1873 52,099,372 

1874 49,444,090 

1875 52,081,991 

1876 56,426,365 

1877 57,469,430 

1878 50,420,816 

1879 52,570,285 

1880 61,185,509 

1881 67,153.975 

1882 69,873,408 

1883 74,368,775 

1884 76,905,385 

1885 67,511,209 

1886 69,092,266 

1887 65,766,076 

1888 69,287,431 

1889.. 74,302,887 

1890 81,682,970 

1891 83,335,964 

1892 91,309,984 

1893 94,712,938 

1894 85,259,252 

1895 79,862,627 

Total 31 Years. $1,884,755,870 



Spirits. 



Tobacco. 



$11,401,373 
16 531,008 
19,765^48 
18,730,095 
23,430,768 
31,350,708 
33,578,907 
33,736,171 
34,386,303 
33,242,876 
37,303,462 
39,795,340 
41,106,547 
40,091,755 
40,135,003 
38,870,149 
42,854,991 
47,391,989 
42,104,250 
26,062,400 
26,407,088 
27,907,363 
30 083,710 
30,636,076 
31,862,195 
33,949,998 
32,796,271 
31,000,493 
31,843,556 
28,617,899 
29,707,908 



$986,681,730 



Fermented 
Liquors. 



$3,734,928 

5,220,553 

6.057,501 

5,955,869 

6,099,880 

6,319,127 

7,389,502 

8,258,498 

9,324,938 

9,304,680 

9,144,004 

9,571,281 

9,480,789 

9,987,052 

10,729,320 

12,829,803 

13,700,241 

16,153,920 

16,900,616 

18,084,954 

18,230,782 

19,676,731 

21,918,213 

23,324,218 

23,723,835 

26,008,535 

28,565,130 

30,037,453 

32,527,424 

31,414,788 

31,640,618 



$481,253,954 



Banks and 
Bankers. 



$4,940,871 
3,463,988 
2,046,562 
1,866,746 
2,196,054 
3,020,084 
3,644,242 
4,628,229 
3,771,031 
3,387,161 
4,097,248 
4,006,698 
3,829,729 
3,492,932 
3,198,884 
3,350,985 
3,762,208 
5,253,458 
3,748,995 



4,288 

4,203 

6,179 

69 



$67,719,947 



Penalties, 
Oleomarga- 
rine, etc. 



Adhesive 
Stamps. 



$520,363 
1,142,853 
1,459,171 

1,256,882 

877,089 

827,905 

636,980 

442,205 

461,653 

364,216 

281,108 

409,284 

419,999 

346,008 

578,591 

383,755 

231,078 

199,830 

305,803 

289,144 

222,681 

194,422 

219,058 

154,970 
83,893 

135,555 

256,214 

239.532 

166,915 
1,876,509 
1,960,794 

$16,944,660 $197,838,124 



$11,162,392 

15,044,373 

16,094,718 

14,852,252 

16,420,710 

16,544,043 

15,342,739 

16,177,321 

7,702,377 

6,136,845 

6,557,230 

6,518,488 

6,450,429 

6,380,405 

6,237,538 

7,668,394 

7,924,708 

7,570.109 

7,053,053 



Collections 

Under Bepealed 

Laws. 



$160,638,180 

236,236,037 

186,954,423 

129,863,090 

65,943,673 

71,567,908 

37,136,958 

19,053,007 

6,329,782 

764,880 

1,080,111 

509,631 

238,261 

429,659 



152,163 

78,559 
71,852 
265,068 
49,361 
32,087 
29,283 
9,548 



$1,207,070,330 



Aggregate receipts, 1865-95 inclxisive, including commissions allowed on sales of adhesive stamps, $4,842,348,766. 
Aggregate receipts from all sources in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1895, $143,246,078. 

RECEIPTS BY STATES AND TERRITORIES. 

FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1895. 



States and Tekritobies. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California and Nevada 

Colorado and Wyoming 

Connecticut and Rhode Island 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas, Indian Ter.,and Oklahoma 

Kentucky 

Louisiana and Mississippi 

Maryland and Delaware* 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 



Aggregate 
Collections. 



$88,719.83 

84,952.64 

2,090,720.25 

300,211.63 

1,066,176.44 

470,763.03 

393,417,72 

30,604,069.60 

6,804,164.98 

465.105.87 

277,633.81 

19,947,823.67 

1,173,368.80 

3,771,282.40 

2,687,178.35 

2,173,888.01 

2,169,344.78 

7,830,900.70 



States and Territories. 



Montana, Idaho, and Utah 

Nebraska and N. and S. Dakota 

New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont. 

New Jersey 

New Mexico and Arizona 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon, Washington, and Alaska... 

Pennsylvania 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Total. 



Aggregate 
Collections. 



$175,432.53 

1,146,947.88 

500,906.92 

4,088,666.53 

41,308.22 

19,090,722.70 

2,632,779.96 

12,477,148.01 

331,890.52 

10,981,086.12 

87,419.32 

897,302.88 

392,129.07 

2,607,181.90 

688,991.06 

4,706,441.62 



$143,246,077.75 



* Including also the District of Columbia and two districts in Virginia. 

Hist oi Appropriations tsi (tomttun, 1890^97. 

The following have been the annual appropriations made by the United States Congress for the 
expenses of the Government for each fiscal 3^ear ending June 30, from 1890 to 1897, inclusive: 



Deficiencies 

Legislative, Executive, aud 

Judicial 

Sundry Civil 

Support of the Army 

Naval Service 

Indian Service 

Rivers and Harbors. .* 

Forta and Fortifications 

Military Academy 

Post-Office Department 

Pensions 

Consular and Diplomatic... 
Agricultural Department .... 

District of Columbia 

Miscellaneous 

Totalfl 



1890. 



$14,239,180 

20,865,220 

25,527,642 

24,316,616 

21,675,375 

8,077,453 

None. 

1,233,594 

902,767 

Indefinite. 

81,758,700 

1,980,025 

),6'69,770 

5,682,410 

10,186,689 



$218,115,440 



1891. 



$34,137,737 

21,073,137 

29,760,054 

24,206,471 

23,136,035 

7,256,758 

25,136,295 

4,232,935 

.435,296 

Indefinite. 

98,457,461 

1,710,725 

1,796,502 

5,762,236 

10,620,840 



$287,722,488 



1892. 



$38,516,227 

22,027,674 

35,459,163 

24,613,529 

31,541,645 

16,278,492 

2,951,200 

3,774,803 

402,070 

Indefinite. 

135,214,785 

1,656,925 

3,028,153 

6,597,125 

2,721,283 



$323,783,079 



1893. 



$14,934,158 

21,901,066 

26,854,625 

24,308,500 

23,543,267 

7,664,068 

22,068,218 

2,734,276 

428,917 

Indefinite. 

146,737,350 

1,604,312 

3,233,061 

6,317,361 

3,381,019 



$304,710,198 



1894. 



$21,226,495 

21,866,303 

27,550,158 

24,225,640 

22,104,061 

7,884,240 

14,166,153 

2,210,055 

432,556 

Indefinite. 

166,531,350 

1,557,445 

3,323,500 

5,413,224 

520,666 



$319,011,847 



1895. 



$9,450,820 

21,343,977 

25,856,432 

23,592,885 

25,366,827 

10,754,733 

20,043,180 

2,427,004 

406^535 

Indefinite. 

151,581,570 

1,569,787 

3,226,915 

6,544,297 

623,858 



$301,788,820 



1896. 



$8,519,981 

21,885,818 

35,096,045 

23,252,608 

29,416,077 

8,762,751 

11,452,115 

1,904,558 

464,262 

Indefinite 

141,381,570 

1,574,459 

3.303,750 

6,745,443 

297,668 



1897. 



$13,900,106 

21.519,751 

29,812,113 

23,278,403 

30.562,661 

7,390,497 

15,944,147 

7,377,888 

449,526 

Indefinite.. 

141,328,580 

1,643,559 

3,255,532 

6,900,319 

423.304 



$293,057,106 $302,786,386 



Meceipts and Expenditures of U. S. Government. 



141 



iiecnpts antr Sxpentrttutts of 31. <S. (^obtrntntnt, 1864:=96. 

REVENUE BY FISCAL YEARS. 



Ykaks. 



1864.. 
1865.. 
1866.. 
1867,. 
1868.. 
1869.. 
1870.. 
1871.. 
1872., 
1873.. 
1874.. 
1875.. 
1876.. 
1877.. 
1878. . 
1879.. 
1880.. 
1881.. 
1882.. 
1883.. 
1884.. 
1885.. 
1886.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1889.. 
1890.. 
1891.. 
1892.. 
1893.. 
1894.. 
1895.. 
1896.. 



Customs. 



Internal 
Revenue. 



$102,316,153 

84,928,261 
179,046,652 
176,417,811 
164,464,600 
180,048,427 
194,538,374 
206,270,408 
216,370,287 
188,089,523 
163,103,834 
157,167,722 
148,071,985 
130,956,493 
130,170.680 
137,250,048 
186,522,065 
198,159,676 
220,410,730 
214,706,497 
195,067.490 
181,471,939 
192,905,023 
217,286,893 
219,091,174 
223,832,742 
229,668,585 
219,522,205 
177,452,964 
203,355,017 
131,818,531 
152,158,617 
160,021.752 



Direct 
Tax, 



$109,741,134 

209,464,215 

309,226,813 

266,027,537 

191,087,589 

158,356,461 

184,899,756 

143,098,154 

130,642,178 

113,729,314 

102,409,785 

110,007,494 

116,700,732 

118,630,408 

110,581,625 

113,561,611 

124,009,374 

135,264,386 

146,497,595 

144,720,369 

121,586,073 

112,498,726 

116,805,936 

118,823,391 

124,296,872 

130,881,514 

142,606,706 

145,686,249 

153,971,072 

160,296,130 

147,111,2'" 

143,421,6' 

146.762,865 



Sales 

of Public 

Lands, 



$475,649 
1,200,573 
1,974,754 

4,200,234 

1,788,146 

765,686 

229,103 

580,355 

3i5!255 



93,799 



31 
1,517 

160,142 

108,157 

70,721 

ios^o 

32,892 
1,566 



Miscellaneous Sources. 



Premiums 
on Loans & 

Sales of 
Gold Coin. 



$588,333 

996,553 

665,031 

1,163,576 

1,348,715 

4,020,344 

3,350,482 

2,388,647 

2,575,714 

2,882,312 

1,852,429 

1,413,640 

1,129,467 

976,254 

1,079,743 

924,781 

1,016,507 

2,201,863 

4,753,140 

7,955,864 

9,810,705 

5,705,986 

5,630,999 

9,254,286 

11,202,017 

8,038,652 

6,358,273 

4,029,535 

3,261,876 

3,182,090 

1,673,637 

1,103,347 

1,005,523 



Other Mis- 
cellaneous 
Items. 



$21,174,101 
11,683,447 

38,083,056 

27,787,330 

29,203,629 

13,755,491 

15,295,644 

8,892,840 

9,412,638 

11,560,531 

5,037,665 

3,979,280 

4,029,281 

405,777 

317,102 

1,505,048 

110 



Total 
Revenue. 



$30,331,401 $264,626,772 



25,441,556 

29,036,314 

15,037,522 

17,745,404 

13,997,339 

12,942,118 

22,093,541 

15,106,051 

17,161,270 

17,075,043 

15,431,915 

17,456,776 

18,031,655 

15,614,728 

20,585,697 

21,978,525 

25,154,851 

31,703,643 

30,796,695 

21,984,882 

24,014,055 

20,989,528 

26,005,815 

24,674,446 

24,297,151 

24,447,420 

23 374,457 

20,251,872 

18,253,898 

17,118,618 

16,706,438 

19,186.061 



Excess of 
Revenue over 

Ordinary 
Expenditures. 



333,714,605 

558,032,620 

490,634,010 

405,638,083 

370,943,747 

411,255,478 

383,323,945 

374,106,868 

333,738,205 

289,478,755 

288,000,051 

287,482,039 

269,000,587 

257,763,879 

273,827,184 

333,526,611 

360,782,293 

403,525,250 

398,287,582 

348,519,870 

323,690,706 

336,439,727 

371,403,278 

379,266,065 

387,050,059 

403,080,983 

392,612,447 

354,937,784 

385,818,629 

297,722,019 

313,390,075 

326,976,200 



$*600,695,870 
*963,840,619 
37,223,203 
133,091,335 
28,297,798 
48,078,469 
101,601,917 
91,146,757 
96,588,905 
43,302,959 
2,344,882 
13,376,658 
29,022,242 
30,340,578 
20,799,552 
6,879,301 
65,883,653 
100,069,405 
145,543,811 
132,879,444 
104,393,626 
63,463,771 
93,956,589 
103,471,098 
111,341,274 
87,761,081 
85,040,272 
26,838,542 
9,914,454 
2,341,674 
*69,803,261 
*42,805,223 
*25,203,246 



EXPENDITURES BY FISCAL YEARS. 



Ybaks. 



1864., 

1865., 

1866.. 

1867. 

1868., 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893, 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 



Premium on 
Loans and 

Purchase of 
Bonds, etc. 



Other Civil 

and 
Miscellan'ous 

Items. 



$1,717,900 
58,477 

10,813^49 
7,001^51 
1,674,680 

15,996,556 
9,016,795 
6,958,267 
5,105,920 
1,395,074 



2,795,320 
1,061,249 



8,270,842 
17,292,363 
20,304,244 
10,401,221 



War 
Department, 



$27,505,599 
43,047,658 
41,056,962 
51,110,224 
53,009,868 
56,474,062 
53,237,462 
60,481,916 
60,984,757 
73,328,110 
69,641,593 
71,070,703 
66,958,374 
56,252,067 
53,177,704 
65,741,555 
54,713,530 
64,416,325 
57,219,751 
68,678,022 
70,920,434 
87,494,258 
74,166,930 
85,264,826 
72,952 J261 
80,664,064 
81,403,256 
110,048,167 
99,841,988 
103,732,799 
102,165,471 
93,279,730 
87,216,235 



Navy 
Department. 



$690,791,843 
1,031,323,361 

284,449,702 
95,224,416 

123,246,649 
78,501,991 
57,655,675 
35,799,992 
35,372,157 
46,323,138 
42,313,927 
41,120,646 
38,070,889 
37,082,736 
32,154,148 
40,425,661 
38,116,916 
40,466,461 
43,570,494 
48,911,383 
39,429,603 
42,670,578 
34,324,153 
38,561,026 
38,522,436 
44,435,271 
44,582,838 
48,720,065 
46,895,456 
49,641,773 
54,567,930 
51,804,759 
50,830,921 



Indians. 



$85,725,995 
122,612,945 
43,324,119 
31,034,011 
25,775,503] 
20,000,758 
21,780,230 
19,431,027 
21,249,810 
23,526,257 
30,932,587 
21,497,626 
18,963,310 
14,959,935 
17,365,301 
15,125,127 
13,536,985 
15,686,672 
15,032,046 
15,283,437 
17,292,601 
16,021,080 
13,907,888 
15,141,127 
16,926,438 
21,378,809 
22,006,206 
26,113,896 
29,174,139 
30,136,084 
31,701,294 
28,797,796 
127,147,732 



Pensions, 



$2,629,859 
5,116,837 
3,247,065 
4,642,532 
4,100,682 
7,042,923 
3,407,938 
7,426,997 
7,061,729 
7,951,705 
6,692,462 
8,384,657 
5,966,558 
5,277,007 
4,629,280 
5,206,109 
5,945,457 
6,514,161 
9,736,747 
7,362,590 
6.475,999 
6,552,495 
6,099,158 
6,194,523 
6,249,308 
6,892,208 
6,708,047 
8,527,469 
11,150,578 
13,345,347 
10,293,482 
9,939,754 
12465,528 



$4,983,924 

16,338,811 

15,605,352 

20,936,552 

23,782,387 

28,476,622 

28,340,202 

34,443,895 

28,533,403 

29,359,427 

29,038,415 

29,456,216 

28,257,396 

27,963,752 

27,137,019 

35,121,482 

56,777,174 

50,059,280 

61,345,194 

66,012,574 

55,429,228 

56,102,267 

63,404,864 

75,029,102 

80,288,509 

87,624,779 

106,936,855 

124,415,951 

134,583,053 

159,357,558 

141,177,285 

141,395,229 

139,434,001 



Interest on 
Public Debt. 



$53,685,422 

77,397,712 

133,067,742 

143,781,592 

140,424,046 

130,694,243 

129,235,498 

125,576,566 

117,357,840 

104,750,688 

107,119,815 

103,093,545 

100,243,271 

97,124,512 

102,500,875 

105,327,949 

95,757,575 

82,508,741 

71,077,207 

59,160,131 

54,578,378 

51,386,256 

50,580,146 

47,741,577 

44,715,007 

41,001,484 

36,099.284 

37,547,135 

23,378,116 

27,264,392 

27,841,406 

30,978,030 

35,385,029 



Total 

Ordinary 

Expenditures. 



$865,322,642 
1,297,555,224 
520,809,417 
357,542,675 
377,340,285 
322,865,278 
309,653,561 
292,177,188 
277,517,963 
290,345,245 
287,133,873 
274,623,393 
258,459,797 
238,660,009 
236,964,327 
266,947,883 
267,642,958 
260,712,888 
257,981,440 
265,408,138 
244,126,244 
260,226,935 
242,483,138 
267,932,180 
267,924,801 
299,288,978 
318,040,711 
365,773,905 
345,023,330 
383,477,954 
367,746,867 
356,195,298 
352,179,446 



\~ 



The total receipts of the United States from the beginning of the Government, 1789, to 1896 have been : From customs, $7,575,- 
893,261; internal revenue, $4,863,523,769; direct tax, $'28,131,994; public lands, $290,722,114; miscellaneous, $782,388,190; total, ex- 
cluding loans, $14,250,920,956. 

The total expenditures of the United States from the beginning of the Government, 1789, to 1896 have been: For civil and mis- 
cellaneous, $2,854,785,519; war, $5,031,604,180; navy, $1,364,555,521; Indians, $321,365,929; pensions, $2,089,837,064; interest, 
$2,826,922,743; total, $14,479,070,956. * Expenditures in excess of revenue. 



142 



United States Pension Statistics. 



sauitttr cStatts J^rnsian .Statistics* 

NUMBER OF PENSIONERS ON THE ROLL JUNE 30. 1896. 





General Law. | 


Act op June 27, 1890. | 


Number of 

pensioners 

>n the roll 

June 30, 

1896. 


Number of 


Location of 


Army. | 


Navy. 1 


Army. | 


Navy. 


on the roll 


Agency. 


Invalids. Nurses. 


Widows, 
etc. 

6.452 
11,276 
7,806 
8.486 
6,595 
4,290 
4,179 
7,429 
4,453 
6,156 
4,574 
4,388 
6,512 
4,406 
3,263 
852 
2,951 
3,064 


Invalids. 


Widows, 
etc. 

'358 
346 

660 

672 
418 

■35 

2,389 


Invalids. 

62,831 
42,695 
23,341 
17,318 
24.296 
23,264 
22,807 
16,321 
22,193 
17,209 
19.766 
22,673 
15,573 
16,832 
11,945 
11,407 
5,299 
5,017 


Widows, 

etc. 

10,586 
9,431 
6,457 
4,941 
9,641 
6,673 
3,927 
8,861 
5,354 

10,607 
3,633 
5,453 
4,504 
3,432 
3,515 
1,954 
1,375 
1,505 

101.639 


Invalids. 


Widows, 
etc. 


June 30, 
1895. 


Topeka 

Columbus . . 

Chicago 

Indiana' olis 
Philadelp' ia 
Knoxville . . 
Des Moines. 

Boston 

Washington 
New York . . 
Milwaukee . 
Pittsburgh . 

Buffalo 

Detroit 

Louisville . . 
San Fran. .. 

Augusta 

Concord 


1 32,162 

40, 132 

29,313 

39,127 

14,801 

10,028 

24,905 

15. 790 

15,896 

13,138 

22,493 

14,210 

19,081 

20.025 

8,729 

5,238 

9,962 

9,773 


52 
52 
46 
22 
37 
31 
45 
43 
60 
31 
19 
5 
14 
15 
11 
49 
4 
4 


1,06'4 

721 

1,'272 
890 
693 

isi 


3,142 
1,726 

2,753 
2,650 

2,378 

682 


757 
'921 

1,353 

846 

1.445 

142 


105,041 
104,492 
74,149 
70,977 
59, 686 
66,935 
56,668 
54,960 
54,724 
52,696 
50,974 
47, 049 
46,137 
46,089 
28,606 
23,098 
19,868 
19,529 


104,558 
104,034 
74,155 
72,100 
68,922 
57,402 
56,665 
64,832 
54,949 
63,156 
60,899 
46,461 
46,304 
46,308 
28,940 
22,313 
19,715 
19,811 


Total 


344,803 


540 


97,131 
3,101 


4,821 


370,487 


13.331 


5.464 


970,678 


970,524 


Inc. during 
year 




41 


51 




5,869 


5,943 


334 


360 


154 




Dec. during 
year 


7,650 


.... 


42 


.... 


.... 




.... 





Pensioners of the War of 1812— survivors, 7; widows, 3,287. Pensioners of the war with Mexico 
-survivors, 11,800; widows, 8,017. Indian wars— survivors, 2,718; widows, 4,237. 

NUMBER OF PENSION CLAIMS, PENSIONERS, AND DISBURSEMENTS, 1861-96. 





Ajemy and Navy. 


Total 
Number of 

Applica- 
tions Filed. 


Total 

Number of 

Claims 

Allowed. 


Number of Pensioners on the 




Fiscal Ykak Eni>- 


Claims Allowed. 


Roll. 


Diibaraements. 




Invalids. 


Widows, 
etc. 


Invalids. 


Widows, 
etc. 


Total. 




1861 


""413 

4,121 

17,041 

16,212 

22,883 

16,589 

9,460 

7,292 

6,721 

7,934 

6,468 

6,551 

5,937 

5,760 

5,360 

7,282 

7,414 

7,242 

10,176 

21,394 

22,946 

32,014 

27,414 

27,580 

31,937 

35,283 

35,843 

36,830 

60,395 

41,381 

17,876 

10,232 

6,129 

5.415 

3,864 


49 

3,763 

22,446 

24,959 

27,294 

19,893 

19.461 

16,904 

12,500 

8,399 

7,244 

4,073 

3,152 

4,736 

4,376 

3,861 

3,650 

3,379 

4,465 

3,920 

3,999 

5,303 

6,366 

7,743 

8,610 

11,217 

10,816 

11,924 

14,612 

11,914 

7,287 

7,295 

4,225 

3,627 

3,912 


"2,487 
49,332 
63,599 
72,684 
65.256 
36,753 
20,768 
26,066 
24,861 
43,969 
26,391 
18,303 
16,734 
18,704 
23,523 
22,715 
44,587 
57,118 
141,466 
31,116 
40,939 
48,776 
41,785 
40,918 
49,895 
72,465 
76,726 
81,220 
105,044 
363,799 
198,346 
119,361 
40,148 
37.060 
33,749 


462 

7,884 
39,487 
40,171 
50,177 
36,482 
28,921 
23,196 
18,221 
16,562 
34,333 
16,052 
10,462 
11,152 
9,977 
11,326 
11,962 
31,346 
19,546 
27,394 
27,664 
38,162 
34,192 
35,767 
40,857 
55,194 
60,252 
51,921 
66,637 
156,486 
224,047 
121.630 
39,085 
39, 185 
40,374 


4,337 

4,341 

7,821 

23,479 

35,880 

55,652 

69,565 

75,957 

82,859 

87,521 

93.394 

113,954 

119,500 

121,628 

122,989 

124,239 

128,723 

131,649 

138,615 

145,410 

164,110 

182,633 

206,042 

225,470 

247,146 

270,346 

306,298 

343,701 

373,699 

415,654 

536,821 

703,242 

759.706 

754,382 

750,951 


4,299 

3,818 

6,970 

27,656 

50,106 

71,070 

83,618 

93,686 

105,104 

111,165 

114,101 


8,636 
8,159 


$1,072,461.55 
7pn asd. 7fi 


1862 


1863 

1864 


14,791 1,625; 139: 91 
51 , 136 A f^C\X (K\e, 9)1 


1865 


86,986 
126,722 
153,183 
169,643 
187,963 
198,686 
207 495 


8,525,153.11 
13,459,996.43 
18,619,956.46 
24,010,981.99 

28 422 884 08 


1866 


1867 


1868 


1869 


1870 


27 780 811 81 


1871 


33,077,383.63 
30,169.341.00 
29 185 289 62 


1872 


118,276 2.^2^299 


1873 


118,911 

114,613 

111,832 

107,898 

103,381 

92,349 

104,140 

105,392 

104,720 

103,064 

97,616 

97,286 

97,979 

95,437 

99,709 

108,856 

116,026 

122,290 

139,339 

172.826 

206,306 

216, 162 

219.567 


238.411 
236.241 
234,821 
232,137 
232.104 
223,998 
242,755 
250.802 
268,830 
286,697 
303,658 
323,756 
346,125 
365,783 
406,007 
452,557 
489,725 
537.944 
676,160 
876,068 
966,012 
969.544 
970,624 


1874 


30,593,749.56 
29,683,116.63 
28 351 599 69 


1875 


1876 


1877 


28 580 157 04 


1878 


26,844,415.18 
33,780,526 19 


1879 


1880 


57,240 540 14 


1881 


50,626,538.61 


1882 


64,296,280.54 


1883 


60,431,972 85 


1884 


67,273,536 74 


1885 


65,693,706.72 
64,684,270.46 


1886 


1887 


74,815,486 85 


1888 


79,646,146 37 


1889 


89,131,968.44 


1890 


106, 493, 890. 19 


1891 


118,648,959.71 


1892 

1893 


141,086,948.84 
158,155,342.51 


1894 


140,772,163.78 


1895 


140.959.361.00 


1896 


139,280,075.00 






Total 


575,389 


316,310 


2,145,569 


1,476,665 


« • • « > ■ 






$1,997,515,154.72 



Pension Statistics. 



143 



UNITED STATES PENSION STATISTICS— Con^nued. 
Pension Agencies, Pension Agents, and Geographical Limits, June 30, 1896. 



AaKNcn*. 



Augusta 

Bostxjn 

Buffalo 

Chicago 

Columbus 

Concord 

Des Moines.. 

Detroit 

Indianapolis . 
Knoxville — 

Louisville 

Milwaukee. .. 
New York. .. 
Philadelphia . 
Pittsburgh . . . 
San Francisco 

Topeka 

Washington . . 

Total 



Agents.* 



Richard W. Black 
H. B. Levering.... 
Sam'l E. Nichols 
W. B. Anderson. 
AmericusV. Rice 
Thos. Cogswell... 

C. H. Robinson. . . 
H. H. Wheeler. . . 
M.V. B. Spencer. 

D. A. Carpenter. 
Geo. M. Adams. 
J. H. Woodnorth 
Sam'lTruesdell.. 
S. A. Mulholland. 
Geo. W. Skinner 
Patrick F. Walsh 
George W. Glick. 
Sidney L. Wilson 



Geographical LimiU. 



Maine 

Connecticut, Mass., Rhode Island 

Western New York 

Illinois 

Ohio 

New Hampshire, Vermont 

Iowa, Nebraska 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Southern States* 

Kentucky 

Minnesota, Dakotas, Wisconsin.. 
East New York, East New Jersey 

East Pa. , West New Jersey 

West Pennsylvania 

Pacific Coast 

Colorado, Kansas, Mo. , N. Mexico. . 
DeL , Md. , Va. , W. Va. , D. C. , Foreign 



Pay Places Naval 
Pensioners. 



Boston 

Boston 

New York City 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Boston 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Washington . . . 

Chicago 

Chicago 

New York City 
Philadelphia . . 
Philadelphia . . 
San Francisco. 

Chicago 

Washington . . . 



Disbursements. 



$3,002, 
7,363, 
6,557, 

10,651, 

15,327, 
3,016, 
8,271, 
6,848, 

10,893, 
7,427, 
4,181, 
7,326, 
7,106. 
7,798, 
6,677, 
3,134, 

14,670, 
8,852, 



875.53 
104.24 
432.44 
590.11 
467. 32 
386.57 
002.61 
691.78 
123. 76 
514.44 
236. 62 
204. 47 
483.94 
790. 14 
339. 25 
100.29 
078. 65 
669.77 



139,106,091.93 



* For list of agents at the close of the year, see ' ' The Federal Government. 

t Excepting the States in the Louisville and Washington districts. The expenses of pension agen- 
cies in disbursing the pension fund during the fiscal year were $1,237,615. This is independent of the 
expense of maintaining the pension bureau at Washington, 



PENSIONERS IN EACH STATE AND TERRITORY. 



Alabama... 
Alaska T... 
Arizona T . 
Arkansas. 
California. 
Colorado ... 

Conn 

Delaware. . 

D.of Col 

Florida 

Georgia 



3,925 

28 

559 

10,014 

15,308 

6,247 

11,837 

2,709 

8.236 

3,145 

3,854 



Idaho 


1,070 


Illinois... 


68,688 


Indiana - 


68,836 


Indian T. 


2,488 


Iowa 


37,798 


Kansas... 


42,433 


Kentuc'y 


28,457 


Louis' a... 


4,431 


Maine 


20,717 


Maryla'd 


12,683 


Mass 


38,340 



Michigan 

Minn 

Miss 

Missouri.. 
Montana 
Nebras'a 
Nevada .. 
N. Hamp 
N. Jersey 
N. Mex... 
N. York.. 



45.335 
16,194 

3,796 
53,812 

1,213 

16,625 

273 

9,169 
20,017 

1,200 
87,0t;6 



N.Car'a.. 
N. Dak... 

Ohio- 

Okla. T.. 
Oregon ... 

Penn 

R. Island 
S.Car'a. 
S. Dak... 
Tenn .... 
Texas ... 



3,954 

1,677 

103,921 

4,9.59 

4,577 

98,837 

4,402 

2,669 

4,702 

17,918 

7,863 



Utah 

Vermont... 
Virginia.... 
Washing' n 
WestVa.... 
Wisconsin 
Wyoming . 
Foreign .. . . 

Total 



766 

9,734 

8,139 

4,963 

12,932 

27,775 

666 

3,781 



970,678 



The oldest pensioner on the rolls, June 30, 1896, was Hosea Brown, of Grant's Pass, Ore., aged 
104 years. 

WIDOWS OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS ON PENSION ROLLS JUNE 30, 1896. 



Name of Widow. 

Aldrich, Lovey 

ninnd T^anov 


Age. 

96 

83 
82 
82 
83 
80 
86 


Name of Soldier. 
Aldrich, Caleb 


Service of Soldier. 

N. H. and R. I. troops . . 
Virginia troops 


Widow's Residence. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
Chum, Va. 


Cloud, William 

Dainon, Noah 


Damon. Esther S 


Massachusetts troops.. 
North Carolina troops . . 
Virginia troops 


Plymouth Union, Vt. 


Jones, Nancy 

Mayo, Rebecca 

Snead. Marv 


Darling, James 

Mayo, Stephen 

Snead, Bowdoin 

Glascock, Robert 


Jonesboro, Tenn. 
Newbern, Va. 


Virginia troops 


Parksley, Va. 


Weatherman, Nancy.. 


Virginia troops 


Lineback, 'Tenn. 







It will be seen that it is possible that the widow of a Revolutionary soldier may be drawing a pen- 
sion in the year 1916. For a similar reason the widow of a veteran of the late Civil War may be living 
in 2002. 

SURVIVORS OF THE WAR OF 1812 ON PENSION ROLLS JUNE 30, 1896. 



Name. 



Brown, Hosea 

Coffman, Joseph 

Cronk, Hiram 

Curl, Jarrot 

Glenn, Elijah 

Hooper, James 

Jones, George W 

Lumberson, John 

Lejeune, Laman 

Moss, William C 

Smith, Eleazor 

Sturtevant, Thomas M. 

Sexton, Isaiah B 

Yancey, William R 



Age. 

104 
94 
96 

100 

100 
93 
93 
90 

100 
93 

100 
96 
91 
95 



Service (trodI)s). 



New York 

United States.... 

New York 

Tennessee 

Marylana 

U. S. (Navy) 

United States 

United States 

Louisiana 

Connecticut 

New Hampshire. 

New York 

New York 

United States 



Town. 



Grant's Pass 

Milsaps 

North Western. 

Pine Wood 

Newark 

Baltimore 

Dubuque 

Baltimore 

Thibodeaux 

Stonington 

Alexandria 

Madison 

Sparta 

Daphne 



State 



Oregon, 

Texas. 

New York. 

Tennessee. 

New Jersey. 

Maryland. 

Iowa. 

Maryland, 

Louisiana. 

Connecticut, 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey. 

Michigan. 

Alabama. 



The younger of these survivors of the war of 1812 were drummer boys, or served in some like 
capacity in the last years of the war. 



144 



The Public Lands of the United States. 



^i)e JIutlic ILantrs of t^t WLxtiWn estates* 

(Prepared for The WobLiD AI/Majstac by the General Land Office, November, 1896.) 
The following is a tabular statement showing the number of acres of public lands surveyed in the 
following land States and Territories up to June 30, 1896; also the total area of the public domain 
remaining unsurveyed within the same, etc. 



Land States 

AND 

Tkkbitokibs. 



Alabama . . 
Arkansas. . 
California. . 
Colorado . . 

Florida 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Idaho 

Kansas 

Louisiana . 
Michigan . . 
Minnesota. 
Mississippi , 
Missouri . . 
Montana . . 
Nebraska. . 



Acres. 



32,462,115 

33,410,063 
100,992,640 
66,880,000 
37,931,520 
35,465,093 
21,637,760 
35,228,800 
55,228,100 
51,770,240 
28,731,090 
36,128,640 
53,459,840 
30,179,840 
41,836,931 
92,016,640 
47,468,800 



Square 
Miles. 



o »- o 
am 

« a 



50,722 
52,203 
157 ,801 i 
104,500 
59,268 
55,414 
33,809 
55,045 
86,294 
80,891 
44,893 
56,451 
83,531 
47,156 
65,370 
143,776 
74,170 









< £ -S "S -s 



32,462 115 
33,410,063 
73,652,172 
61,186,201 
30,830,668 
35,465,093 
21,637,760 
35,228,800 
13,980,946 
51,770,240 
27,174,005 
36,128,640 
45,916,148 
30,179,840 
41,836,931 
25,462,040 
47,256,619 



26,027,702 
5,664,619 
7,100,391 



40,687,257 
i',557,085 
7,316,411 



64,072,969 
212,038 



Land States 

AND 

Teebitokies. 



Nevada 

N. Dakota. 

Ohio 

Oregon 

S. Dakota.. 
Wisconsin . 
Washingt ' n 
Wyoming. . . 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Indian Ter.. 
N. Mexico.. 
Oklahoma . . 
Utah 



Acres. 



71,737,600 
45,561,600 
25,581,976 
60,975,360 
50,643,200 
34,511,360 
44,796,160 
62.645,120 
369,529,600 
72,906,240 
19,575,040 
77,568,640 
24,499,680 
54,064,640 



Total 1,815,424,388 



Square 
Miles. 



112,090 
71,190 
39,972 
95,274 
79,130 
53,924 
69,994 
97,883 

577,390 

113,916 
30,586 

121,201 
38,437 
84,476 



SCO 

£ § 

V.^ ft 
''Sri 
III-' 



35,026,574 
30,862,190 
25,581,976 
42,848,672 
37,753,506 
34,511,360 
24,230,752 
51,050,358 
598 
16,082,194 
10,800,640 
49,980,824 
24,499,680 
16,036,429 



2,836,757il,042,844,034 






2^ ^.S'^ 

■< a .9 ■« -2 



36,003,636 
13,910,976 

' i7,757',6i9 

11,918,877 

' 19,993 ^394 

17,327,737 

369,528,615 

55,966,794 

8,774,400 

27,484,975 

'37,772^650 



^763,671,546 



* This estimate is of a very general nature, and affords no index to the disposable volume of land 
remaining nor the amount available for agricultural purposes. It includes Indian and other public 
reservations, unsurveyed private land claims, as well as surveyed private land claims, in the districts 
of Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico; the sixteenth and thirty- sixth sections reserved 
for common schools ; unsurveyed lands embraced in railroad, swamp land, and other grants ; the great 
mountain areas ; the areas of unsurveyed rivers and lakes, and large areas wholly unproductive 
and unavailable for ordinary purposes. The area of land in the unsurveyed portion of the public 
domain suitable for homes and subject to settlement under the laws of the United States is of com- 
paratively small proportions. 



PUBLIC LANDS VACANT AND SUBJECT TO ENTRY IN THE PUBLIC-LAND STATES 

AND TEEBITORIES, JUNE 30, 1896, 



States and 
Tebkitokies. 


Surveyed 
Land, 


Unsur- 
veyed 
Land. 


Total 
Area. 


States and 
Tekkitobies. 


Surveyed 
Land. 


Unsur- 
veyed 
Tiand, 


Total 
Area. 


Alabama 


601,813 

12,026,187 

4,122,023 

35,397,929 

35,608,795 

1,653,863 

9,322,770 

1,012,213 

852,623 

527,137 

3,441,772 

529,313 

617,245 

16,518,400 


43,841,954 

9,841,573 

4,600,483 

164,382 

36,955,707 

65,018 

3,711,088 

55,243,687 


601,813 

55,868,141 

4,122,023 

45,239,502 

40,209,278 

1,818,245 

46,278,477 

1,012.213 

917,641 

527,137 

7,152,860 

529,313 

617,245 

71,762,087 


Nebraska 


10,707,426 
28,781,748 
42,702,550 
12,370,554 


121,600 

32,832,050 

14,525,868 

9.982.5.52 


10,829,026 


Arizona ...... ...... 


Nevada 


61,613,798 


Arkansas 


New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Oklahoma 


57,228,418 


California 


22,353,106 


Colorado 


6,886,274 


6,886,274 


Florida 


Oregon 

South Dakota 

Utah 

Washington 

Wisconsin 


24,066,307 

11,029,963 

9,317,909 

5,270,430 

544,699 

42,741,918 

316,651,861 


12,426,336 

2,359,390 

35,942,889 

12,984,647 

7,789,586 


36,492,643 


Idaho 


18,389,353 


Kansas 


45,260,798 


Louisiana 

Michigan 


18,255,077 
544,699 


Minnesota 


Wyoming ,, 


50,531,504 


Mississippi 

Missouri 


Grand total 




283,388,810 


*600,040,671 


Montana 





* This aggregate is exclusive of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, in which, if any public land remains, it 
consists of a few small isolated tracts. It is exclusive of Alaska, containing 577,390 square miles, or 
369,529,600 acres. It is also exclusive of military and Indian reservations, reservoir sites, and timber 
reservations, and tracts covered by selections, filings, railroad grants, and claims as yet unadjudicated, 
a part of which may in the future be added to the public domain. 

The area in railroad selections in each State and Territory, year ending June 30, 1894, was, in acres: 
Alabama, 5,945.73; Arizona, 163,340.52; Arkansas, 9,089.44; California, 90,562.16; Colorado, 
88,502.59; Florida, 350.30; Idaho, 216.26; Kansas, 160; Louisiana, 150,603.37; Minnesota, 
376.73; Montana, 1,142.63; New Mexico, 84,833.42; North Dakota, 280; Oregon, 32,299,60; Utah, 
156. 50 ; Washington, 45. 625. 74 ; Wisconsin, 603. 83 ; Wyoming, 145, 157. 99. Total, 819, 246. 81. 



Area of the Great Lakes of the United States. 



145 



PUBLIC LANDS OF THE UNITED STATES— OmiinMed 



STATEMENT OF NUMBER OF ACRES ENTERED ANNUALLY UNDER THE HOMESTEAD 
AND TIMBER CULTURE ACTS, FROM JULY 1, 1866, TO JUNE 30, 1896, INCLUSIVE. 



Year 
Ending 
June 30. 


Homestead 
Entries. 


Timber 
Culture. 


Yeae 
Ending 
June 30. 


Homestead 
Entries. 


Timber 
Culture. 


Yeas 

Ending 
June 30. 


Homestead 
Entries. 


Timber 
Culture. 


1867 .... 

1868 . . 


1,834,513 
2,332,151 

2,698,482 
3,754,203 
4,657,355 
4,595,435 
3,760,200 
3,489,570 
2,369,782 
2,867,814 




1877 . . . 

1878 . . . 

1879 . . . 

1880 . . . 

1881 ... 

1882 . . . 
1883... 
1884 . . . 
1885... 
1886 . . . 


2,176,257 
4,496,855 
5,267,385 
6,054,708 
5,028,101 
6,348,045 
8,171,914 
7,831,510 
7,415,886 
9,145,136 


524,552 
1,902,038 
2,775,503 
2,169,484 
1,763,799 
2,546,686 
3,110,930 
4,084,464 
4,755,006 
5,391,309 


1887 . . . . 

1888 . . . . 

1889 . . . . 
1890.... 
1891 .... 
1892.... 
1893.... 

1894 . . . . 

1895 . . . . 

1896 . . . . 


7,594,350 
6,670,616 
6,029,230 
5,531,678 
5,040,393 
7,716,062 
6,808,791 
8,046,968 
5,009,491 
4,830,915 


4,224,397 
3,735,305 


1869.... 
1870 




2,551,069 

1,787,403 

969,006 

41,375 

10,989 

4,209 

3,589 

1,226 


1871 




1872.... 
1873.... 
1874.... 

1875 .... 

1876 .... 


"ho,* 246 
851,226 
473,694 
599,918 



Lands patented by the United States up to June 30, 1893: To States for wagon roads, 1,782,730. 83 
acres; to States for canal purposes, 4,424,073.06 acres; to States and corporations for railroad pur- 
poses, 55, 124, 079, 95 acres ; under river improvement grants, 1, 406, 210. 80 acres ; total, 62, 737, 094. 49 

acres. 

UNITED STATES LAND OFFICES. 



State ok 
Tekkitoby. 



Alabama. 

Alaska ... 
Arizona . . 

Arkansas. 



California 



Colorado 



Florida 
Idaho.. 

n 

Iowa. . . 



Land Office. 



Huntsville. 

Montgomery. 

Sitka. 

Prescott. 

Tucson. 

Camden, 

Dardanelle. 

Harrison. 

Little Rock. 

Humboldt. 

Independence. 

Los Angeles. 

Marysville. 

Redding. 

Sacramento. 

San Francisco. 

Stockton. 

Susanville. 

Visalia. 

Akron. 

Del Norte. 

Denver. 

Durango. 

Glenwood Springs. 

Gunnison. 

Hugo. 

Lamar. 

Leadville. 

Montrose. 

Pueblo. 

Sterling. 

Gainesville. 

Blackfoot. 

Bois6 City. 

Cceurd'Alene. 

Hailey. 

Lewiston. 

Des Moines. 



State ob 
Tekbitoky. 



Kansas , 



Louisiana . . 
Michigan... 
Minnesota. 



Mississippi 
Missouri... 

Montana . . 



Nebraska. 



Land Office. 



Nevada 

New Mexico. 



No. Dakota. 



Colby. 

Dodge City. 

Topeka. 

Wa Keeney. 

Natchitoches. 

New Orleans. 

Grayling. 

Marquette. 

Cookston. 

Duluth. 

MarshalL 

St. Cloud. 

Jackson. 

Boonville. 

IrontOQ. 

Springfield. 

Bozeman. 

Helena. 

Lewistown. 

Miles City. 

Missoula. 

Alliance. 

Broken Bow. 

Lincoln. 

McCook. 

North Platte. 

O'Neill. 

Sidney. 

Valentine. 

Carson City. 

Clayton. 

Las Cruces. 

Roswell. 

Santa F^. 

Bismarck. 

Devil,' s Lake. 

Fargo. 

Grand Forks. 



State oe 
Tekkitoby. 



No. Dakota. 
Oklahoma. . 



Oreg 



on 



So. Dakota. 



Land Office. 



Utah 

Washington. 



Wisconsin. 
Wyoming . 



Minot. 

Alva. 

Enid. 

Guthrie. 

Kingfisher. 

Oklahoma. 

Perry. 

Woodward. 

La Grande. 

Lakeview. 

Oregon City. 

Burns. 

Roseburgh. 

The Dalles. 

Aberdeen. 

Chamberlain. 

Huron. 

Mitchell. 

Pierre. 

Rapid City. 

Watertown. 

Salt Lake City. 

North Yakima. 

Olympia. 

Seattle. 

Spokane Falls. 

Vancouver. 

Walla Walla. 

Waterville. 

Ashland. 

Eau Claire. 

Wausau. 

Buffalo. 

Cheyenne. 

Douglas. 

Evanston. 

Lander. 

Sundance. 



^rea of i^t ^rtat Haifeeis ni ii^t Slnitttr .States* 



Greatest length in miles 

Greatest breadth in miles 

Greatest depth in feet 

Area in square miles 

Drainage in square miles 

Height above sea- level in feet 

Latitude, degrees north | 

Longitude, degrees west | 

Boundary line in miles 

United States shore line in miles 



Superior. 



390 

160 

900 

32,000 

85,000 

600 

460 45' 

480 50' 

840 30' 

920 16' 

300 

955 



Michigan. 



345 


270 


84 


105 


1,800 


1,000 


22,400 


23,000 


70,040 


74,000 


578 


574 


410 15' 


430 20' 


450 55' 


460 10' 


840 40' 


8O0 10' 


870 08' 


840 30' 


None 


220 


1,320 


510 



Huron. 



Erie. 



Ontario. 



250 


190 


60 


52 


204 


412 


10,000 


6,700 


39,680 


29,760 


564 


234 


410 20' 


430 lOr 


420 50' 


440 10' 


780 35' 


760 20' 


830 10' 


790 50' 


200 


160 


370 


230 



146 Patent Office Procedure. 

Patents are issued in the name of the United States, and under the seal of the Patent Office, to 
any person who has invented or discovered any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or com- 
position of matter or any new and useful improvement thereof, not known or used by others in this 
country, and not patented or described in any printed publication in this or any foreign country, be- 
fore his invention or discovery thereof, and not in public use or on sale for more than two years prior 
to his application, unless the same is proved to have been abandoned ; and by any person who, by his 
own industry, genius, efforts, and expense has invented and produced auy new and original design 
for a manufacture, bust, statue, alto-relievo, or bas-relief ; any new and original design for the print- 
ing of woolen, sUk, cotton, or other fabrics; any new and original impression, ornament, pattern, 
prmt, or picture to be printed, painted^ cast, or otherwise placed on or worked into any article of 
manufacture; or any new, useful, and original shape or configuration of any article of manufacture, 
the same not having been known nor used by others before his invention or production thereof, nor 
patented nor described in any printed publication, upon payment of the fees required by law and other 
due proceedings had. 

Every patent contains a grant to the patentee, his heirs or assigns, for the term of seventeen years, 
of the exclusive right to make, use, and vend the invention or discovery throughout the United States 
and the Territories, referring to the specification for the particulars thereof. 

If it appear that the inventor, at the time of making his application, believed himself to be the 
first inventor or discoverer, apateut will not be refused on account of the invention or discovery, or 
any part thereof, having been known or used in any foreign country before his invention or discovery 
thereof, if it had not been before patented or described in any printed publication. 

Joint inventors are entitled to a joint patent; neither can claim one separately. Independent in- 
ventors of distinct and independent improvements in the same machine cannot obtain a joint patent 
for their separate inventions ; nor does the fact that one furnishes the capital find another makes the 
invention entitle them to make application as joint inventors; but in such case they may become joint 
patentees. 

The receipt of letters patent from a foreign government will not prevent the inventor from obtain- 
ing a patent in the United States, unless the invention shall have been introduced into public use in 
the United States more than two years prior to the application. But every patent granted for an in- 
vention which has been previously patented by the same inventor in a foreign country will be so lim- 
ited as to expire at the same time with the foreign patent, or, if there be more than one, at the same 
time with the one having the shortest unexpired term, but in no case will it be in force more than sev- 
enteen years. 

APPLICATIONS. 

Applications for a patent must be made in writing to the Commissioner of Patents. The applicant 
must also file in the Patent Oflfice a written description of the same, and of the manner and process of 
making, constructing, compounding, and using it, in such full, clear, concise, and exact terms as to 
enable any person skilled in the art or science to which it appertains, or with which it is most nearly 
connected, to make, construct, compound, and use the same; and in case of a machine, he must ex- 
plain the principle thereof, and the best mode in which he has contemplated applying that principle, 
so as to distinguish it from other inventions, and particularlj' point out and distinctly claim the part, 
improvement, or combination which he claims as his invention or discovery. The specification and 
claim must be signed by the inventor and attested by two witnesses. 

When the nature of the case admits of drawings, the applicant must furnish a drawing of the re- 
quired size, signed by the inventor or his attorney in fact, and attested by two witnesses, to be filed in 
the Patent Office. In all cases which admit of representation by model, the applicant, if required by 
the Commissioner, shall furnish a model of convenient size to exhibit advantageously the several 
parts of his invention or discovery. 

The applicant shall make oath that he verily believes himself to be the original and first inventor 
or discoverer of the art, machine, manufacture, composition, or improvement for which he solicits a 
patent; that he does not know and does not believe that the same was ever before known or used, and 
shall state of what country he is a citizen. Such oath may be made before any person within the 
United States authorized by law to administer oaths, or, when the applicant resides in a foreign coun- 
try, before any minister, charge d'affaires, consul, or commercial agent holding commission under the 
Government of the United States. 

On the filing of such application and the payment of the fees required by law, if, on such exami- 
nation, it appears that the claimant is justly entitled to a patent under the law, and that the same is 
sufficiently useful and important, the Commissioner will issue a patent therefor. 

Every patent or any interest therein shall be assignable in law by an instrument in writing ; and the 
patentee or his assigns or legal representatives may, in like manner, grant and convey an exclusive 
right under his patent to the whole or any specified part of the United States, 

REISSUES. 

A reissue Is granted to the original patentee, his legal representatives, or the assignees of the entire 
interest when, by reason of a defective or insufficient specification, or by reason of the patentee claim- 
ing as his invention or discovery more than he had a right to claim as new, the original patent is inop- 
erative or invalid, provided the error has arisen from inadvertence, accident, or mistake, and without 
any fraudulent or deceptive intention. In the cases of patents issued and assigned prior to July 8, 
1870, the applications for reissue may be made by the assignees; but in the cases of patents issued or 
assigned since that date, the applications must be made and the specifications sworn to by the invent- 
ors, if they be living. 

CAVEATS. 

A caveat, under the patent law, is a notice giveii to the office of the caveator's claim as inventor, 
in order to prevent the grant of a patent to another for the same alleged invention upon an application 
filed during the life of a caveat without notice to the caveator. 

Any citizen of the United States who has made a new invention or discovery, and desires further 
time to mature the same, may. on payment of a fee of ten dollars, file in the Patent Office a caveat 
setting forth the object and the distinguishing characteristics of the invention, and praying protection 
of his right until he shall have matured his invention. Snch caveat shall be filed in the confidential 
archives of the office and preserved in secrecy, and shall be operative for the term of one year from 
the filing thereof. 

The caveat must comprise a specification, oath, and, when the nature of the case admits of it, a 
drawing, and, like the application, must be limited to a single invention or improvement. 



The American Indian. 



147 



PATENT OFFICE PROCEDURE— Cbniini^sd. 



FEES. 

Fees must be paid in advance, and are as follows: On filingeach original application for a patent, 

?!15. On issuing each original patent, $20. In design cases: For three years and six months, $10; 
or seven years, $15; for fourteen years, $30. On filing each caveat, $10. On every application for 
the reissue of a patent, $30. On filing each disclaimer, $10. For certified copies of patents and other 
papers in manuscript, ten cents per hundred words; for certified copies of printed patents, eighty- five 
cents; for uncertified copies of printed patents, ten cents. For uncertified printed copies of speci- 
fications and drawings or patents for single copies, or any number of unclassified copies, five cents 
each; for copies by subclasses, three cents each; by classes, two cents each, and for the entire set of 
patents issued, in one order, one cent each. For recording every assignment, agreement, power of 
attorney, or other paper, of three hundred words or under, $1; of over three hundred and under one 
thousand words, $2 ; of over one thousand words, $3. For copies of drawings, the reasonable cost of 
making them. The Patent Office is prepared to furnish positive blue-print photographic copies of any 
drawing, foreign or domestic, in the possession of the office, in sizes and at rates as follows: Large size, 
10x15 inches, twenty- five cents; medium size, 7x11 inches, fifteen cents; small size, 5x8 inches, five 
cents. An order for small-sized copies can be filled only when it relates to the drawings of an appli- 
cation for patent. 

PATENT OFFICE STATISTICS. 
The receipts of the Patent Office during the year ending December 31, 1895, were $1,245,247, and 
expenditures, $1,084,496.51. Receipts over expenditures, $160,750. 

The following is a statement of the business of the office for the year ending December 31, 1895: 



Number of applications for patents 39,145 

Number of applications for design patents 1, 463 

Number of applications for reissue patents 72 
Number of applications for registration of 

trade marks 2, 112 

Number of applications for registration of 

labels 293 

Number of applications for prints 13 

Number of caveats filed 2,415 



Number of patents granted, including re- 
issues and designs 22,057 

Number of trade marks registered 1, 829 

Number of labels registered None 

Number of prints registered 3 

Total 23, 889 

Number of patents vvithheld for non-pay- 
ment of final fees 3, 428 

Number of patents expired 12,345 

Total 45,513 

The total number of applications filed at the Patent Office in sixty years, 1837-96, was 993,953; 
number of caveats filed, 105,144; number of patents issued, 566,013. Receipts, $31,609,629.- 
51; expenditures, $27,035,522.50; net surplus, $4,574,107,01. The largest number of patents 
granted for an article prior to January, 1895, has been for carriages and wagons, 20,000, and for 
stoves and furnaces, 18,000. The next largest has been for harvesters, 10,000; lamps and gas 
fittings, 10,000; boots and shoes, 10,000, and packing and storing vessels, 10,000, approximately. 



W^t American Kntrian. 

The care of the Indians is reposed in the Commissioner of Indian AflFairs, whose bureau is under 
the direction of the Secretary of the Interior. The present Commissioner is Daniel M. Browning, of 
Illinois. The appropriations by Congress the fiscal year 1896, for the Indian service, and the 
different objects of the appropriations, were as follows: 



Current and contingent expenses... 
Treaty obligations with Indians.... 
Miscellaneous support, gratuities. 

Incidental expenses 

Miscellaneous 

Support of schools 



$727,640.00 

2,982,147.19 

695,625.00 

82,050.00 

549,903.63 

2,056,515.00 



Trust funds, principal. 
Trust funds, interest.. 
Pay men t f or land 



Total 



$9,870.42 
1,660,000.00 



$8,763,751.24 



(Population in 1890 as Reported by the Census. ) 



Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indi' n Ter' tory 
Five Civ. Tribes 
Iowa 



16,740 

15,283 

1,034 

24 

215 

2 

3,909 

1 

71 

8,708 

66,289 

397 



Kansas 

Louisiana 


1,437 
132 


Maine 


140 


Massachusetts 


145 


Michigan 


6,991 


Minnesota 


7,065 


Mississippi 


1,404 


Missouri 


14 


Montana 


10,573 


Nebraska 


3,864 


Nevada 


4,956 


New Mexico... 


20,521 



Pueblos 

New York 

Six Nations , 

North Cai'olina. 

Cherokees , 

North Dakota .. 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

South Dakota.... 

Tennessee 

Texas 



8,278 

28 

5,304 

231 

2,885 

7,952 

5,689 

4,282 

19,845 

10 

258 



Utah 

Washington 

Wisconsin „ 

Wyoming 

War Department 
Apaches, Mt. 
Vernon Bar- 
racks 

Indians in prison 



Total. 



2,489 

10,837 

8,896 

1,806 



384 
184 



249,273 



IXDIAK POPUIuATIOK IN DETAIL. 

The total Indian population of the United States, exclusive of Alaska, but including 32,567 
counted in the general census, being the taxed or taxable Indians, numbers 249,273. The following 
table gives the division of the Indians in detail: 

Indians on reservations or at school, under control of the Indian office (not taxed or taxable).. 133,382 
Indians incidentally under the Indian office, and self-supporting: 

The five civilized tribes, Indians and colored— Cherokees, 29,599; C'hickasaws, 7,182; 

Choctaws, 14,397; Creeks, 14,632; Seminoles, 2,561; total, 68,371. Total Indians, 

52,065; total colored Indian citizens and claimants, 14,224; grand total 66,289 

Pueblos of New Mexico 8,278 

Six Nations, Saint Regis, and other Indians of New York 5,304 

Eastern Cherokees of North Carolina„ 2,885 

Indians taxed or taxable, and self-sustaining citizens, counted in the general census (98 per 

cent not on reservations) 32,567 

Indians under control of the WarDep'ment, prisonersof war (Apaches at Mt. Vernon Bar' cks) 384 

Indians in State or Territorial prisons 184 

Total 249,273 



148 



United States Forestry Statistics. 



STfje santUtr .^tateis lXt\^tviut Qtutitx .Strbtct* 

The United States Revenue Cutter Service is an arm of the Treasury Department, and is 
under the direction and control of the Secretary of the Treasury, and its purpose is, principally, to 
enforce the revenue laws. Its immediate supervision resides in a bureau of the department known as 
the Division of Revenue Cutter Service, which is in charge of a chief and a number of assistants. The 
present chief of the division is Captain C. F. Shoemaker, R. C. S., Washington, D. C. 
DIST OF VESSELS IN THE REVENUE CUTTER SERVICE. 



Names. 


Commander. 


Class 


03 

n 


2 
1 
1 
7 
3 


Stations. 


Names. 


Com.ma,nder. 


Class 


03 

c 
p 

o 


Stations. 


Boutwell.. 
Calumet . . 
Chandler., 

Chase 

Colfax 

Crawford. 


U. F.Kilgore... 
John Dennett.. 

A. Buhner 

0. C. Hamlet. . . 
W.J. Herring.. 


P.... 
P.... 
P.... 
B.... 
S.W. 


Savannah. 

Chicago. 

New York. 

(Cadet Prac.) 

Charleston. 

Out of Com' n, 

Boston. 

New Bedford. 

Detroit. 

Mobile. 

Galveston. 

Baltimore. 

Philadelphia. 

Boston, 

San Francisco, 

New York. 

Sauit St. Marie 

Key West. 

New York. 


Morrill 

Penrose. . . 
Seward.. . . 

|Smith 

Sperry..,. 

iTybee 

i Wash' ton, 
Woodbury 
Windom.. 
Winona. . . 


J, C. Mitchell, . . 
N, E. Cutchin.. 

H,T, Blake 

E, C, Chaytor. . . 
W. A, Failing.. 
G.B. Maher.... 
0, S. Willey. . . . 
J. A. Henriques 
W.H.Hand.... 
G.H.Gooding,. 


P.... 

P.... 

S.W. 

P.... 

SI... 

S,L.. 

P.... 

P.... 

P.... 

P.... 


1 
1 

4 
3 

1 


Wilmington. 

Pensacola. 

Shieldsboro.* 

New Orleans. 

Patchogue,NY 

Savannah 


Dallas 

Dexter 

Fessenden 
Forward .. 
Galveston. 
Guthrie. . . 
Hamilton. 
Hamlm. . . 
Hartley. . . 
Hudson. . . 
Johnson . . 
McLane. . . 
Manhat ' n 


J.H.Rogers,... 

C. A. Abbey.... 

D. B. Hodgsdon 
C, H. McLellan 

R. M. Clark 

J. W. Howison. 
S. E. Maguire.. 
W. C. DeHart.. 

J, B. Butt 

H. B. Rogers. . 

A. B. Davis 

W. E. Reynolds 
S. E. McConnell 


P . . . . 
P.... 
S.W. 
P.... 
P.... 
P.... 
P.... 
P.... 
P.... 
P.... 
S.W. 
S.W. 

p.... 


3 
2 
4 
2 
3 

i' 

1 


Philadelphia. 
Portland, 
Baltimore. 
Newburn. 


VESSET,S ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 


Bear 

Corwin.. . . 

Grant 

Perry 

Rush 

Wolcott, . . 


F. Tuttle 

B.L.Reed 

J. A. Slamm 

W. D, Roath,,.. 
W, H, Roberts,, 
M, L, Phillips.. 


P.... 
P.... 
P.... 
P.... 
P.... 
P.... 


4 
3 
4 
2 
3 
2 


Pt, Towmsend, 
San Diego. 
Pt. Townsend, 
Astoria, Ore. 
San Francisco. 
New Whatcom 



*Shieldsboro, Miss. P., PropeUer; S. W,, Side Wlieel; S, L., Steam Launch; B,, Bark; SI., Sloop. 

mnitttf .States Sfzttntx^ statistics. 

(Corrected for this year' s Almanac by the Chief of the Forestry Division, Department of Agriculture. ) 

Total forest area in the United States is estimated at round 495, CKX), (XK) acres, or 26 per cent of total 
area. Alaska and Indian reservations are not included. 

The present annual requirements for consumption of forest products in the United States are, 
approximately, over 24 000, 000, (XK) cubic feet, made up of the following items : Lumber market 
and manufactures, 6,000,000,000 cubic feet- railroad construction, 600,000,000 cubic feet; charcoal, 
250,000,000 cubic feet; fences, 5(X), 000, 000 cubic feet; fuel, 18,000,(X)0,000 cubic feet; mining 
timfcer 150, 000, 000 cubic feet. 

At {he present rate of cutting, the remainder of forest land in the United States cannot long meet 
the enormous demands on its resources. Of the two most important timbers for building purposes, the 
merchantable White Pine of the Northwest and of New England is practically gone, very little re- 
maining, and there remains of the merchantable Long- leaf Pine of the South only about 1,500,000,000 
cubic feet. The valuable Ash will probably be the first to be exhausted. Walnut and Tulip trees are 
also on the "wane. 

Forest fires are estimated to destroy values of about $12, 000, (XX) annually, but during the year 
1894 that amount appears to have been lost in Minnesota and Wisconsin alone. 

Forest Preservation. 
For the preservation of the forests, the State of New York instituted a Forest Commission in 1885, 
with extensive powers, and a new commission, with new powers, was legislated in 1893, but was 
abolished after the vote of the people engrafted upon the Constitution a "let alone' ' policy. The State 
of California has also created a Forest Commission (which after several years' work was abolished in 
1893 on account of political incompetency), the forest experiment stations being placed in charge of 
the University of California, and Colorado, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and New Hampshire have 
Forest Commissions. Minnesota and Wisconsin have a Forest Fire Warden. Ohio has a Forestry 
Bureau, Maine a Forest Commissioner, and in New Jersey and North Carolina the Geological Survey 
is specially charged with the forestry interests. 

A national organization known as the American Forestry Association (formerly Congress), com- 
posed of delegates from all the States, meets annually. The fourteenth annual meeting was held at 
Washington. D.C., in January, 1896. F. W. Newell, Washington, D. C. , is Corresponding Secretary. 
Local or State Associations have been formed in Colorado, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, 
Minnesota, Texas, South Carolina, North Dakota, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. 

By act of March 3, 1891, the President is authorized to make public forest reservations. Seven- 
teen such, comprising 17,500,000 acres, have been established in Colorado, New Mexico, California, 
Arizona, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, and others are under consideration. A bill to provide a 
systematic forest administration for these was passed in both houses of the 53d Congress, but failed 
to become law. It passed the House of Representatives again in 1896, 

Arbor Day. 
The individual States have striven to encourage tree- planting by appointing a certain day in the 
year, to be known as Arbor Day, for the voluntary planting of trees by the people, and latterly the 
interest has been widened by inducing the pupils of the public schools to take part in the observance. 
The credit of inaugurating Arbor Day belongs to the Nebraska State Board of Agriculture, which in 
1874 recommended the second Wednesday of April in each year as a day dedicated to the work of 
planting trees. The following States and Territories have since then, by legislative enactment or 
otherwise, established an annual Arbor Day: Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, 
Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, 
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, 
Oregon. Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, 
West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming— 44 in all; in twenty-one States, by act of legislature; in six 
States, as legal holidays ; in five as holidays for schools. (See Legal Holidays, ) 



Immigration Into the United States, 1820 — 1896. 149 



Knttttifltation ^ntts i%z Winiitn <StaUs> 1820=1896. 



Ykae. 



1820 8 



9 
6 
6 

7 
10 



1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 

1826 lO 

1827 18 

1828 27 

1829 22 

1830 23 



1831. 

1832. 
1833. 
1834. 
1835. 
1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 



Total Alien 
Passengers. 

^85 
,127 
,911 
,354 
,912 

199 
,837 
,875 
,382 
,520 
,32-2 
,633 

482 
;640 
,365 
,374 
,242 
,340 
,914 
,069 



22 
60 
58 
65 
45 
76 
79 
38 
68 



Ykae. 



Total Alien 
Passengers. 



1840 84,066 

1841 80,289 

1842 104,565 

1843 52,496 

1844 78,615 

1845 114,371 

1846 154,416 

1847 234,968 

1848 226.527 

1849 297,024 

1850 369,986 

1851 379,466 

1852 371,603 

1853 368,645 

1854 427,833 

1855 200,877 

1856 195,857 

1857 246,945 

1858 119,501 

1859 118,616 



Yeab. 



Total 
Inamigrants. 



1860 

1861 

1862 

1863 

1864 

1865 

1866 

Fiscal year end' 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 



150,237 
89,724 
89,207 
174,524 
193,195 
247,453 
163,594 
g June 30 
298,967 
282,189 
352,569 
387,203 
321,350 
404,806 
459,803 
313,339 
227,498 
169,986 
141,857 
138,469 



Yeae. 



Total 
Immigrants. 



1879 177,826 

1880 457,257 

1881 669,431 

1882 788,992 

1883 603,322 

1884 518,592 

1885 395,346 

1886 334,203 

1887 490,109 

1888 546,889 

1889 444,427 

1890 455,302 

1891 560,319 

1892 623,084 

1893 502,917 

1894 314,467 

1895 279,948 

1896 343,267 

Total »17,544,692 

1789 to 1820 est. 250, 000 



Of the whole number of immigrants in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896, 263, 709 came through 
the customs district of Newlork; 13, 374 through Baltimore; 21,846 through Boston; 24, 977 through 
Philadelphia, 1,411 through San Francisco, and 17,950 through other ports; total, 343,267. 

The reported occupations of i m migrants arriving during the fiscal year 1896, were as follows: 
Laborers, 91,262; farmers, 29,251; servants, 38,926; carpenters, 3,676; miners, 2,698; clerks, 
2,186; tailors, 4,021; shoemakers, 3,952; blacksmiths, 1,393. The total number of professional 
immigrants was 2,324; of skilled laborers, 46,807; of miscellaneous, 170,940; of no occupation (in- 
cluding women and children), 123,028; occupation not stated, 168; total, 343,267. 

* Immigrants from the British North American possessions and Mexico are not included since 
July 1, 1885. 

NATIONALITY OF IMMIGRANTS BY DECADES, 1841 TO 1890. 
(Compiled by the Superintendent of the Census. ) 



COUNTKIKS. 



England 

Ireland 

Scotland 

Wales 

Great Britain, not specified. . 
Total United Elingdom . . . 

Austria 

Belgium , . 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Hungary 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Norway and Sweden 

Russia and Poland 

Spain and Portugal 

Switzerland 

All other countries in Europe 
Total Europe 

China 

Total Asia 

Africa 

Canada 

Mexico 

Central America 

South America 

West Indies 

Total America 

All other countries 

Aggregate 



1841 to 1850. 



32,092 

780,719 

3,712 

1,261 

229,979 

1,047,763 



5,074 

639 

77,262 

434,626 

" 'i.'870 

8,251 

13,903 

656 

2,759 

4,644 

155 

,597,502 



35 

82 



55 



41,723 

3,271 

368 

3,579 

13,528 

62,469 



53,143 



1,713,251 



1851 to 1860. 



247,125 

914,119 

38,331 

6,319 

132,199 

1,338,093 



4,738 

3,749 

76,358 

951,667 

■9 ,231 

10,789 

20,931 

1,621 

10,353 

25,011 

116 

2,452,657 



41,397 
41,458 



210 



59,309 

3,078 

449 

1,224 

10,660 

74,720 

29,169 



2,598,214 



1861 to 1870. 



251,288 

456,593 

44,681 

4,642 

349,766 

,106,970 



9,398 

7,416 

17,885 

37,749 

822,007 

448 

12,982 

9,539 

117,798 

5,047 

9,047 

23,839 

234 

2,180,399 



68,059 
68,444 



324 



184,713 

2,386 

96 

1,443 

9,698 

198,336 



19,249 



2,466,752 



1871 to 1880. 



440,961 

444,589 

88,925 

6,779 

7,908 

989,163 



69,558 

7,278 

34,577 

73,301 

757,698 

13,475 

60,830 

17,236 

226, 488 

54,606 

9,767 

31,722 

1,265 

,346,964 



122,436 
123,068 



221 



430,210 
5,164 

229 \ 
1,152/ 
14,461 
451,216 



23,226 



2,944,695 



1881 to 1890. 



649,052 

655,381 

149,856 

11,990 

147 

1,466,426 



4,7 



226,020 

17,506 

88,108 

50,460 

452, 952 

127,678 

307,095 

53,701 

560,483 

265,064 

5,564 

81,987 

22,770 

725,814 



*59,995 
03,932 



»375 



392,802 
tl,913 

1,646 

•i26,487 
422.848 

25,759 



5,238,728 



* Not given in 1890. t Reports discontinued after 1885. t Includes Central and South America 
for 1889. 

As the reports for British North American Provinces and for Mexico have been discontinued since 
1885 by the Treasury Department, the figures here represented only cover five years of the decade. 
An estimate based upon the immigration of the years from 1881 to 1885, inclusive, would give 785,604 
to British North America for the decade from 1881 to 1890, and 3,826 to Mexico, making the aggre- 
gate for America 817,563, instead of 422,848. 

Mulhall estimates the number of individuals who emigrated from Europe in 73 years, 1816 to 
1888, at 27,205,000. Of these, 15, 000, CKX) came to the United States. 



150 



American and Foreign Shipping. 



UNITED STATES VESSELS, 1896. 



CI.A88 



steamers 

SailingVessels. 

Canal Boats 

Barges 

Total 



Engaged in Foreign 
Trabe. 



Number. 



234 
942 

* 17 



1,193 



Tonnage. 



260,226 
563,018 



6,690 



829,833 



Engaged in Coastwise 
Trade. 



Number. 



6,351 
11,667 

682 
1,340 



20,030 



Tonnage. 



2,042,326 

1,286,149 

75,224 

386,597 



3,790,296 



Tlie entire number of documented vessels is 22,908, of which 6,595 were steamers and 16,313 
were vessels other than steamers, all aggregating 4,703,880 tons. 

The estimated value of the whole amount of floating property under the flag, according to the last 
census, was §215, 069, 296. The statistics of the above table are for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1895. 

SHIPBUILDING IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The following table shows the class, number, and tonnage of the documented vessels built in this 
country during the last four years reported: 





1893. 


1894 


1895. 


1896. 


Ct.ahs. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Sailing Vessels „... 

Steam Vessels 

Canal Boats 


493 

380 

28 

66 

956 


49,348.24 

134,367.97 

3,791.09 

24,132.05 


477 

293 

14 

54 

838 


37,827 

83,720 

1,522 

8.126 

131,195 


897 

248 

11 

38 


34,900 

69,764 

1,225 

6,723 


369 

286 

13 

55 

723 


65,237 

138,028 

•1 496 


Barges 


22,337 


Total 


211,639.35 


694 


111,602 


227,097 





IRON AND STEEL TONNAGE BUILT IN THE UNITED STATES. 1870-1896. 


Years. 


Sailing 
Vessels 

and 
Barges. 


Steam 
Vessels. 


Total 


Years. 


Sailing 
Vessels 

and 
Barges. 


Steam 

Vessels. 


Total. 


1870 


679 
2,067 

44 

36 

2,033 


7,602 
13,412 
12,766 
26,548 
33,097 
21,632 
21,346 

5,927 
26,960 
22,008 
25,538 
28,356 
40,097 
37,613 


8,281 
15,479 
12,766 
26,548 
33,097 
21,632 
21,346 

6,927 
26,960 
22,008 
26,582 
28,392 
40,097 
39,646 


1884 


4,432 

731 

692 

93 

747 

33 

4,975 

4,979 

5,281 

13,104 

4,649 

6,975 

16,832 


31,199 
43,297 
14,216 
34, 261 
35,972 
53,480 
75,403 
100,639 
46,093 
81,428 
46,821 
42,620 
96,388 


35,631 
44,028 
14,908 
34,354 
36,719 
53,513 
80,378 
105,618 
51,374 


1871 


1885 


1872 „ 


1886 


1873 


1887 .....^ 


1874 


1888 


1876 


1889 


1876 


1890 


1877 


1891 


1878 


1892 


1879- 


1893 


94,532 
51,470 


1880 


1894 


1881 „ 


1895 


48.595 


1882 


1896 


113, 220 


1883 









COMPARATIVE GROWTH OF THE TONNAGE OF THE MERCHANT NAVIES OF THE 

UNITED STATES AND OF THE PRINCIPAL MARITIME COUNTRIES 

OF EUROPE FROM 1850 TO 1896. 



COUNTBIBS. 



American 

British 

French. 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Danish 

German 

Dutch 

Belgian 

Italian 

Austro-Hungarian, 
Greek 



1850, 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


3,485,266 


6,299,176 


4,194,740 


4,068,034 


4,424,497 


4,764,921 


4,825,071 


4,684,029 


4,635,960 


4,232,962 


6,710,968 


7,149,134 


8,447,171 


11,597,106 


12,455,687 


12,788,282 


13,192,566 


13,424,146 


688,153 


996,124 


1,072,048 


919,298 


1,045,102 


1,057,708 


1,052,022 


1,128,369 


1,154,783 


298,316 


658,927 


1,022,515 


1,518,655 


1,584,355 


1,681,759 


1,710,313 


1,703,920 


1,713,611 






346,862 


542,642 


475,964 


498,505 


505,711 


605,669 


615,010 






178,646 


249,466 


280,065 


310,676 


323,801 


362,358 


366,585 






982,355 


1,182,097 


1,569,311 


1,703,754 


1,735,683 


1,841,014 


1,865,490 


292,576 


'433,922 


389,614 


328,281 


378,784 


435,791 


442,071 


467,H72 


469,695 


34,919 


33,111 


30,149 


75,666 


110,571 


112,541 


115,709 




116,331 






1,012,164 


999,196 


816,567 


818,840 


796,247 


835,274 


838,101 






329,377 


290,971 


269,648 


273,812 


298,674 


302,656 


306,119 




263,075 


404,063 




307,640 


356,483 


379,699 


373,623 


381,180 



1896. 



4,703,880 
13,563,597 

1,148,970 

1,705,722 
552,888 
388,540 

1,930,460 
497,461 
132,464 
821,953 
295,805 
385,935 



Th^ above tables have been compiled from the last annual report of the Commissioner of Navigation of the United States, except 
that ^b^ Bure«a Veritas famished the figures for the shipping of European nations in 1896 and 1896. 



Values of Foreign Coins in United States Money. 151 



TJalues of iFortiflu <a:otnis in SlniUtr .states J^ones- 





(Proclaimed by the Secretary of the Treasury, October 1, 1896. ) 


COUIJTRY. 


Staad&rd. 


Monetary Unit. 


Value in 

U. S. Gold 

Dollar. 


Coins. 


Argent. E. 
Austria -H. 


Gld&Sil 

Gold 

Gld&Sil 
Silver... 
Gold-... 

Gold 

Silver... 
Gold 

Silver... 

Silver... 

Gld&Sil 
Gold-... 
Silver... 

Gold-... 

Gold 

Gld&Sil 

Gold 

Gold.... 
Gld&Sil 

Gld&Sil 
Silver... 
Gld&Sil 

G. &S.* 

Gold -... 

Silver... 

Gld&Sil 

Gold 

Gold 

Silver... 
Gold 

Silver X 

Gld&Sil 

Gold 

Gld&Sil 
Silver... 

Gold 

Gld&Sil 


Peso 


.20,3 

.19,3 
.49,0 
.54,6 

1.00 
.49,0 
.36,6 

.72,4 
.80,6 
.76,8 
.75,8 
.49,0 

.92,6 
.26.8 
.49,0 

4.94,3 

.19,3 
.19,3 

.23,8 

4.86,6^^ 

.19,3 

.96,5 
.23,3 
.19,3 
.99,7 
.52,8 
1.00 
.53,2 

.40,2 
1.01,4 
.26,8 
.49,0 
1.08 
.77,2 
.39,2 
.19,3 
.26,8 
.19,3 
.44,2 
.04,4 
.19,3 


Gold: argentine (S4.82,4) and J^ argentine. 
Silver: peso and divisions. 
(Gold: former system— 4 florins ($1.92,9), 8 
florins ($3.85,8), ducat ($2.28,7) and 4 
■ ducats (.$9.14,9). Silver: 1 and 2 florins. 
Gold : present system— 20 crowns ($4. 05, 2) 
L and 10 crowns ($2. 02,6). 
Gold: 10 and 20 francs Silver: 5 francs 


Crown 


Belgium-... 


Franc 


Bolivia 


Boliviano.. 
Milreis 




Silver: boliviano and divisions 


Brazil 




Gold: 5, 10, and 20 milreis. Silver: J^, l.and 
2 milreis. 


Canada. 


Dollar 


Cent Am^ 


Peso 


Silver: peso and divisions. 

Gold: escudo ($1.82, 5), doubloon ($3.65,0), and 
condor ($7. 30,0). Silver: peso and divisions. 

Gold: condor ($9.64,7) and double- condor. 

Silver: peso. 
Gold: doubloon ($5.01,7). Silver: peso. 
Gold: 10 and 20 crowns 


Chile 


Peso 


China 

Cnlnmhia... 


Tael 

Peso- 


Shanghai 

Haikwan 

Tientsin.. 

.Cheefoo.. 


Cuba 


Peso 


Denmark-.. 


Crown 


Ecuador 


Sucre 


Gold: condor fiS9 64 7') and dnnhlp-iinndnr 


Egypt 

Finland - ... 


Pound (100 piasters)... 
Mark 


Silver: sucre and divisions. 
Gold: pound (100 piasters), 5, 10, 20, and 50 

piasters. Silver: 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 piasters. 
Gold: 20 marks ($3.85,9), 10 marks ($1.93). 
Gold: 5. 10, 20. 50 and 100 francs Silver- 5 


France 


Franc 


Germnny ,,. 


Mark - 


francs. 
Gold • 5 10 and 20 marks 


Gt. Britain 
Greece 


Pound ster 
Drachma .. 

Gourde 


Img 


Gold: sovereign (pound sterling) and }4, sov'gn. 
Gold: 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 drachmas. Silver: 

5 drachmas. 
Silver: gourde. 

Gold : mohur ($7. 10, 5). Sil. : rupee and div' ns. 
Gold: 6, 10, 20, 50, and 100 lire. Silver: 5 lire. 
Gold: 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 yen. 
Silver: yen. 


BCayti 




India 


Rupee 


Italy 


Lira ---. 


Japan 

Liberia 


Yen 

Dollar 


/Gold .. 
•••* (.Silver 


Mexico 


Dollar 


Gold: dollar ($0.98,3), 23^, 5, 10, and 20 dol- 
lars. Silver: dollar (or peso) and divisions. 
Gold: 10 florins. Silver: J^, 1, and 2>i florins. 
Gold: 2 dollars ($2.02,7). 
(rold • lO and 20 f^ro^vnc; 


Neth' lands 


Florin 


N'foundl'd 


Dollar 


Norway 


Crown 


Peru 


Sol 


SilvPT' sol find divi^inn<a 


Portugal 


Milreis 


Gold* 12 5 and 10 milreis 


Eussia- 

Spain 


Rouble 

Peseta 


/Gold - 
•— (.Silver 


Gold: imperial ($7. 71,8) & M imperialt($3.86). 

Silver: J4, J^, and 1 rouble. 

Gold: 25 pesetas. Silver: 5 pesetas. 

Gold • 10 and 20 crowns 


Sweden 


Crown 


Switz' land 


Franc 


Gold: 5, 10, 20, 50, & 100 francs. Silver: 5fr's. 

Gold: 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 piasters. 
Gold: 5. 10. 20 50 and 100 bolivars Silver- 


Tripoli 

Turkey 


Mahbub of 20 piasters 
Piaster 


Venezuela- 


Bolivar 






5 bolivars. 



* Gold the nominal standard; silver practically the standard. + Coined since January 1, 1886; old half-imperial = 
X Silver the nominal standard ; paper the actual currency, the depreciation of vehich is measured by the gold standard. 



$3.98,6. 



TABLE SHOWING THE VALUE OF FOREIGN COINS AND PAPER NOTES IN AMERICAN 
MONEY BASED UPON THE VALUES EXPRESSED IN THE ABOVE TABLE. 



NUMBKB. 


British £. 


German 


French Franc. 


Chinese Tael 


Dutch 


Indian 


Russian 


Austrian 


Sterling. 


Mark. 


Italian Lira. 


(Shanghai). 


Florin. 


Rupee. 


Gold Rouble. 


Crown. 


1 


$4.86,61^ 


$0.23,8 


$0.19,3 


$0.72,4 


$0.40,2 


$0.23.3 


$0.77,2 


$0.20,3 


2 


9.73,3 


0.47,6 


0.38,6 


L44,8 


0.80,4 


0.46,6 


1.54,4 


0.40,6 


3 


14.59,93^ 


0.71,4 


0.57,9 


2.17,2 


1.20,6 


0.69,9 


2.31,6 


0.60,9 


4 


19.46,6 


0.95,2 


0.77,2 


2. 89, 6 


1.60,8 


0.93,2 


3.08,8 


0.81,2 


5 


'24.33,2}4 


1.19 


0.96,5 


3.62,0 


2.01 


1.16.5 


3.86 


1.01,5 


6 


29.19,9 


1.42,8 


1.15,8 


4.34,4 


2.41,2 


L39,8 


4.63,2 


1.21,8 


7 


34.06,5^ 


1.66,6 


1.35,1 


5.06,8 


2.81,4 


L63,l 


5.40,4 


1.42,1 


8 


38.93,2 


1.90,4 


1.54,4 


5.79,2 


3.21,6 


L86,4 


6.17,6 


1.62,4 


9 


43.79,81^ 


2.14,2 


1.73,7 


6.51,6 


3.61,8 


2.09,7 


6.94,8 


1.82,7 


10 


48.66.5 


2.38 


1.93 


7.24 


4.02 


2.33,0 


7.72 


2.03 


20 


97.33 


4.76 


3.86 


14.48 


8.04 


4.66,0 


15.44 


4.06 


30 


145.99,5 


7.14 


5.79 


2L72 


12.06 


6.99,0 


23.16 


6.09 


40 


194. 66 


9.52 


7.72 


28.96 


16.08 


9.32,0 


30.88 


8.12 


60 


243.32,5 


11.90 


9.65 


36.20 


20.10 


11.65,0 


38.60 


10.15 


100 


486.65 


23.80 


19.30 


72.40 


40.20 


23.30,0 


77.20 


20.30 



152 



Foreign Trade of the United States. 



(Prepared for The WoBiiD Almanac by the Bureau of Statistics of ttie Treasury Department.) 

EXPORTS. 

Domestic Merchandise and Specie Expokted from the United States During the Fiscal 

Year Ended June 30, 1896. 



ASTICLIS. 



Merchandise. 

Agricultural Implements ... 

Animals 

Books, Maps, Engravings, and other 

Printed Matter 

Breadstuffs : Corn bush. 

" Wheat bush. 

" Wheat Flour bbls. 

Carriages, Horse and Railroad Cars. . . 
Chemicals. Drugs, Dyes, and Medi- 
cines 

Clocks and Watches 

Coal : Anthracite tons 

" Bituminous tons 

Copper Ore tons 

' Manufactures of 

Cotton, Unmanufactured lbs. 

" Manufactures of 

Fish 



Flax, Hemp, and Jute, Manufactures of 
EVuits, Apples, Green or Ripe. . . .bbls. 

Fruits and Nuts, all other 

Furs and Fur Skins 

Hops lbs. 

Instruments for Scientific Purposes.. . . 

Iron and Steel, Manufactures of 

Leather, and Manufactures of 

Musical Instruments 

Naval Stores 

OU Cake, OU Cake Meal ,Ibs. 



Quantities. 



99,992,835 
60,650,080 
14,620,864 



1,394,381 

2,246,284 

15,935 



2,335,226,385 



360,002 
Y6',765',264 



798,366,723 



Values. 



$5,176,775 
41,840,969 

2,338,722 
37,836,862 
39,709,868 
52,026,217 

2,887,598 

9,063,358 
1,460,375 
6,717,246 
4,928,816 
2,033,858 

19,720,104 
190,056,460 

16,837,396 
6,448,768 
1,868,601 
930,289 
4,748,777 
3,800,168 
1,478,919 
2,622,217 

41,160,877 

20,242,756 
1,271,161 
8,843,564 
7,949,647 



ASTICLXS. 



Merchandise. 

Oils : Animal , .galls. 

" Mineral, Crude galls. 

" Mineral, Refined or Manufac 

tured 

'* Vegetable 

Paper, and Manufactures of 

Paraffine, Paraffine Wax lbs. 

Provisions : Beef Products lbs. 

" Hog Products lbs. 

" Oleomargarine lbs. 

" Other Meat Products. . . 

" Dairy Products 

Seeds: Clover lbs. 

" All other 

Spirits, Distilled proof galls . 

Sugar, Molasses, Syrup galls. 

^' Refined lbs. 

Tobacco, Unmanufactured lbs. 

" Manufactures of 

Vegetables 

Wood, and Manufactures of 

All other Articles 



Total Rxports, Domestic Merchan- 
dise 



Specie : Gold. . 
" Silver. 



Total Domestic Exports. 



Quantities. 



1,778,994 
110,923,620 



105,882,575 

412,464,129 

1,134,165,823 

109,340,455 



6,539,789 



1,789,229 

6,953,307 

9,106,259 

295,539,312 



Values. 



$673,941 
6,121,836 

66,261,567 

6,097,022 

2,713,876 

4,406,841 

30,969,308 

83,719,661 

8,675,174 

1,839,877 

6,299,670 

437,493 

1,154,524 

1,730,804 

737,870 

450,763 

24,571,362 

4,380,361 

1,655,060 

31,947,108 

57,158,146 



$863,200,487 



$112,409,947 
60,541,670 



$1,036,152,104 



IMPOBTS. 

Merchandise and Specie Imported Into the United States During the Fiscal Year 

Ended June 30, 1896. 



ASTICLM. 



Merchandise. 

Animals 

Art Works 

Books, Maps, etc 

Bristles lbs, 

Breadstuffs 

Chemicals, Drugs, Dyes, and Medicines 

Clocks and Watches 

Coal, Bituminous tons. 

Coffee lbs. 

Cotton, and Manufactures of 

Earltienware and China 

Fish 



Flax, Hemp, Jute, etc., and Manufac- 
tures of 

Fruits and Nuts 

Furs, and Manufactures of 

Glass and Glassware 

Hats and Bonnets, Materials for 

Hides and Skins 

Hops lbs. 

India Rubber and Gutta-Percha, and 
Manufactures of 

Iron and Steel, and Manufactures of. . 

Jewelry, and Manufactures of Gold 
and Silver 

Lead, and Manufactures of 

Leather, and Manufactures of 

Liquors, Spirituous and Malt 

Molasses galls. 



Quantities. 



1,672,530 



1,243,835 
580,597,916 



2,772,046 



4,687,664 



Values. 



$3,252,447 

4,819,840 

3,493,011 

1,435,34« 

2,780,814 

48,310,866 

1,623,222 

3,659,283 

84,793,124 

39,220,731 

10,605,861 

6,366,226 

39,990,334 

19,032,439 

9,303,398 

7,528,420 

2,769,993 

30,520,177 

600,419 

17,160,992 
25,338,103 

1,123,328 

2,447,576 

13,460,142 

4,742,710 

737,265 



ASTICLKS. 



Merchandise. 

Musical Instnmients , 

Paints and Colors 

Paper, and Manufactures of.. 

Paper Stock , 

Precious Stones, and Imitations of, not 
set, including Diamonds, Rough or 
Uncut 

Salt lbs 

Seeds 

Silk, Manufactures of 

" Unmanufactured 

Spices 

Sugar 

Tea 



lbs. 

lbs. 

Tin, in Bars, Blocks, Pigs, or Grain, 

etc lbs. 

Tobacco, and Manufactures of 

Toys 

Wines 

Wood, and Manufactures of 

Wool, and Manufactures of 

All other Articles. . , 



Total Merchandise. 



Specie: Gold.. 
" BUver. 



Total Imports. 



Quantities. 



553,279,500 



3,896,338,557 
93,998,372 

49,952,967 



Values. 



$1,307,154 
1,309,041 
3,169,480 
3,445,723 



6,712,416 
759,696 

2,683,154 
26,652,768 
26,763,428 

2,378,519 
89,219,773 
12,704,440 

6,761,716 
18,703,942 
2,516,410 
7,107,006 
20,667,967 
86,945,642 
76,010,293 



$779,724,674 



33,626,065 
28,777,186 



$842,026,92fi 



Foreign Trade of the United States. 



153 



FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED ST A.T'E'S,— Continued. 





VALUE OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE, 1873-96. 




Tkab 


Exports. 


Total Exports. 


Imports. 


Total Exports 

and 

Imports. 

$1,104,616,132 


Excess of Exce 
Exports. Imp 


33 of 


Ending 
Junk 30. 


Domestic. 


Foreign. 


5rts. 


1873 


$505,033,439 


$17,446,483 


$522,479,922 


$642,136,210 


$119,656,000 


1874 


569,433,421 


16,849,619 


586,283,040 


567,406,342 


1,153,689,382 


$18,875,698 




1875 


499,284,100 


14,158,611 


513,442,711 


533,005,436 


1,046,448,147 


19,562,725 


1876 


525.582,247 


14,802,424 


540,384.671 


460,741,190 


1.001,125,861 


79,643,481 




1877 


589,670,224 


12,804,996 


602,475,220 


451,323,126 


1,053,798,346 


151,152,094 




1878 


680,709,268 


14,156,498 


694,865,766 


437.051,532 


1,131,917,298 


257,814,234 




1879 


698,340,790 


12,098.651 


710,439,441 


445,777,775 


1,156,217,216 


264,661,666 




1880 


823,946,353 


11,692,305 


835,638,658 


667,954,746 


1,503,593,404 


167,683,912 




1881 


883,925,947 


18,451,399 


902,377,346 


642,664.628 


1,545,041,974 


259,712,718 




1882 


733,239,732 


17,302,525 


750,542,257 


724,639,574 


1,475,181,831 


25,902,683 




1883 


804,223,632 


19,615,770 


823,839,402 


723,180,914 


1,547,020,316 


100,658,488 




1884 


724,964,852 


15,548,757 


740,513,609 


667,697,693 


1,408,211,302 


72,815,916 




1385 


726,682,946 


15,506,809 


742,189,755 


577,527,329 


1,319,717,084 


164,662,426 




1886 


665,964,529 


13,560,301 


679,524,830 


635,436,136 


1,314,960,966 


44,088,694 




1887 


703,022,923 


13,160,288 


716,183,211 


692,319,768 


1,408,502,979 


23,863,443 




1888 


683,862,104 


12,092,403 


695,954,507 


723,957,114 


1,419,911,621 


28,002,607 


1889 


730,282,609 


12,118,766 


742,401,375 


745,131,652 


1,487,533,027 


2,7 


30,277 


1890 


845,293,828 


12.534,856 


857,828,684 


789,310,409 


1,647,139,093 


68,518,275 


, , 


1891 


872,270,283 


12,210,527 


884,480,810 


844,916,196 


1,729,397,006 


39,564,614 


, , 


1892 


1,015,732,011 


14,546,137 


1,030,278,148 


827,402,462 


1,857,680,610 


202,875,686 


, . 


1893 


831,030,785 


16,634,409 


847,665,194 


866,400,922 


1,714,066,116 


18,735,728 


1894 


889,204,937 


22,935,635 


892,140,572 


654,994,622 


1,547,135,194 


237,145,950 


, , 


1895 


793,392,599 


14,145,566 


807,538,165 


731,969,965 


1,539,508,130 


75,568,200 


, , 


1896 


863,200,487 


19,406,451 


882,606,938 


779,724,674 


1,662,331,612 


102,882,264 





The imports and exports of specie are not included in the above table. 



VALUE OF UNITED STATES EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE TO AND IMPORTS OF MER- 
CHANDISE FROM FOREIGN COUNTPIES, YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1896. 



Countehb. 



Austria-Hungary 

Azores & Madeira Islands 

Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Gibraltar 

Greece 

Greenland, Iceland, etc. . 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Portugal 

Iloumania 

Russia, Baltic, etc 

Russia, Black Sea 

Servia 

Spain 

Sweden and Norway. . . . 

Switzerland 

Turkey in Europe 

Gt. Britain and Ireland.. 

Bermuda 

British. Honduras 

Dominion of Canada : 

Nova Scotia, N. Bruns- 
wick, etc 

Quebec, Ontario, etc.. 

British Columbia 

Newfoundland and Lab- 
rador 

Central American States : 

Costa Rica 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Salvador 

Mexico 

Miquelon, Langley, etc.. 
West Indies : 

British 

Danish 

Dutch 

French 

Hayti 

Santo Domingo 

Spanish — Cuba 



EXPOKTS. 



Domestic. 



$2,370,901 
204,297 

26,391,925 
6,534,393 

45,352,724 

96,364,308 
402,180 
190,946 

19,040,558 

38,092,901 

3,156,991 

47,305 

6,180,422 

1,197,668 

11,45*3,019 

6,019,486 

32,885 

31,820 

401,145,205 

894,024 

655,333 



4,065,480 

46,617,508 

2,380,259 

1,391,207 

1,157,840 
3,092,323 

556,893 

1,089,320 

1,582,217 

18,686,797 

141,916 

8,566,965 
535,974 
619,118 
1.518,644 
4,104,161 
1,019,242 
7.312,348, 



Foreign. 



$68,750 

503 

678,700 

23,065 

1,687,936 

1,532,829 

6,384 

100 

'103,048 
929,998 



118,105 
655 

" '39,409 

11,516 

69 

3,085 

4,696,134 

30,023 

16,282 



329,490 

6,186,668 

108,516 

6,918 

40,772 
65,736 
53,728 

179,695 
26,356 

763,459 
3,531 

167,188 

1,399 

3,643 

11,782 

319,341 

44,874 

218,632 



Imports. 



17,644,154 

22,121 

13.776,014 

334,586 

66,266,967 

94,240,833 

31,114 

720,336 

93,198 

22,142,487 

13,295,767 

2,255,731 

2','ri"6,427 

1,510,507 

17,314 

4,131,184 

3,320,321 

14,080,033 

2,665,127 

169,963,434 

622,674 

200,212 



6,669,496 

30,681,387 

3,636,682 

324,435 

3,835,187 
2,080,027 

776,644 

1,268,922 

1,166,970 

17,456,177 

164,366 

10,800,818 

310,339 

163,134 

12,786 

1,697,618 

2,895,069 

40,017,730 



COTTNTBIBS. 



West Indies — Continued: 

Spanish — Puerto Rico.. 

Argentine Republic 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guianas : 

British 

Dutch 

French 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

ChinU 

East Indies: 

British 

Dutch 

French 

Hong K-ong 

Japan 

Korea 

Russia, Asiatic 

Turkey in Asia 

All other Asia 

British Australasia 

French Oceanica 

Hawaiian Islands 

Philippine Islands 

British Africa, etc 

Canary Islands 

French Africa 

Liberia 

Madagascar 

Portuguese Africa 

Turkey in Africa : 

Egypt 

Tripoli 

All other Africa 

All other British 

All other Islands and 

Ports 

Total 



EXPOBTS. 



Domestic. 



12,080,400 

5,491,216 

21,839 

14,222,934 

3,424,912 

3,310,167 

688,042 

1,719,705 

360,282 
100,697 

"995,617 
1,401,073 
3,780,715 
6,921,136 

3,219,296 
1,576,316 
163,955 
4,681,380 
7,640,250 



216,640 

" '518,434 
53,971 

63,133 



$863,200,487 



Foreign. 



$21,694 

487,830 

68 

35,253 

6,896 

72,421 

1,374 

29,488 
1,375 
3,157 

"'3,764 

80,127 

68,081 

797 

6,072 



9,821 
49,435 



666,512 


1,490 


40,912 


336 


752,321 


• a ■ ■ 


12,674,001 


74,073 


209,781 


9,470 


3,9-8,187 


67,520 


162,341 


105 


11,288,909 


2,086 


251,501 


14,691 


266,201 


12 


22,653 


36 


489,139 


• ■ ■ • 


799,556 


1,102 



900 



18 



$19,406,451 



Imports. 



$2,296,653 
9,313,385 

71,b'6b,046 

4,709,017 

4,970,092 

763,643 

3,418,578 

957,247 

31,419 

'712,696 

3,242,428 

9,649,911 

22,023,004 

20,370,658 

14,854,026 

78,158 

1,419,124 

25,537,038 

82 

346,649 

3,266,205 

1,697,474 

7,579,259 

261,312 

11,757,704 

4,982,857 

1,732,147 

44,979 

406,916 

11,647 

19,637 

16,006 

8,043,797 

71,014 

826,936 

11,416 

43,536 



$779,724,674 



154 



United States Customs Duties. 



A TABLE OF I.EADINQ ARTICLES IMPORTED, GIVING RATE AT ENTRY BY THE 

TARIFF ACT OF 1894. 

N. e. s. indicates " when not elsewhere specified.' ' Tables showing comparison with the Rates by 
the Tariff of 1883 and the McKinley Tariff of 1890 were printed in The World Almanac for 1895. 



Articlks. 



Alcohol, amylic 

Aniline colors or dyes 

Animals for breeding purposes 

Bagging for cotton 

Barley, bushel of 48fi)S 

Beads, glass 

Beef, mutton, and pork 

Beer, ale, not in bottles 

Beer, porter, and ale, in bottles 

Bindmgs, cotton 

Bindings, flax 

Bindings, wool 

Blankets, value not over 30c. per ft . . 
Blankets, value 30c. and not over 40c. 
Blankets, value over 40c. and not 

over 50c 

Bonnets, silk 

Books, charts, maps 

Books, over 20 years old, for public 

libraries 

Bronze, manufactures of 

Brushes 

Butter, and substitutes for 

Buttons, sleeve and collar, gilt 

Buttons, wool, hair, etc 

Canvas for sails 

Caps, fur and leather 

Carpets, treble ingrain 

Carpets, two-ply 

Carpets, tapestry Brussels 

Carpets, Wilton, Axminster, velvet 

Cattle (over one year old) 

Cheese, all kinds 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Clocks, n. e. s 

Clothing, ready-made, cotton, n.e.s. 

Clothing, ready-made, linen, silk, 
and woollen 

Coal, anthracite 

Coal, bituminous 

Coffee 

Confectionery, all sugar 

Copper, manufactures of 

Cotton trimmings 

Cotton gloves 

Cotton handkerchiefs, hemmed 

Cotton handkerchiefs, hemstitched. 

Cotton hosiery 

Cotton shirts and drawers 

Cotton plushes, velvets, etc. , un- 
bleached 

Cotton Swiss muslLn 

Cotton webbing 

Cotton curtains 

Cutlery, more than $3 per dozen 

Cutlery, razors 

Cutlery, table knives 

Cutlery, table knives, over $3 per 
dozen 

Diamonds (uncut, free), cut and set 

Diamonds cut, but not set 

Drugs (crude, free), not crude 

Dyewoods, crude 

Dyewoods, extracts of 

Earthenware, common 

Earthenware, china, porcelain, plain 

Earthenware, china, porcelain, etc., 
decor 

Eggs.... 

Engravmgs 

Extracts, meat 

Fertilizers, guanos, manures 

Firearms 



Tariff Rate. 



P^fal. 
c. ad vaL 



10 p. c. ad val. 

25 p. c. ad val. 

Free. 

Free. 

80 p. c. ad val. 

10 

20 

15c.' 

30c. 

45 p. 

35 

50 

25 

30 

35 
50 
25 

Free. 

35 p. c. ad vaL 
35 " 
4c. ^ ft. 
35 p. c. ad val. 
50 
35 
30 
32>^ 
30 

42J^ " 
40 
20 
4c. 
$4' 
P- 



ft. 

ft and 25 

c. ad val, 

25 p. c. ad val 

40 



50 

Free. 

40c. '^ ton. 

Free. 

35 p. c. ad val. 

35 

;50 

40 

40 

50 

50 

50 

40 
50 
45 
50 
50 
45 
35 

45 

10 

25 

10 

Free. 

10 p. c. ad val. 

20 

30 

35 " 

3c. fidoz. 

25 p. c. ad val. 

15 

Free. 

30 p. c. ad val. 



Abticles. 



Fish, American fisheries 

Fish, smoked, dried 

Flannels, value not over 30c. per lb. 

Flannels, value 30c. to 40c 

Flannels, value 40c. to 50c 

Flax, manufactures of, n. e. s 

Flowers, artificial 

Fruits, preserved in their own juice 

Fru its, apples 

Fruits, oranges, lemons, n. e, s 

Fur, manufactures of 

Furniture, wood 



Tariff Rate. 



Glassware, piain and cut 

Glass, polished plate, not over 16x24 

Glass, silvered, not over 16x24 

Glass bottles, over 1 pint 

Gloves, ladies' and children's 

Gloves, men's 

Glucose 

Glue, value not over 7c. per lb 

Gold, manufactures of, not jewelry 
Hair of hogs, curled for mattresses 

Hair manufactures, n. e. s 

Hair, human, unmanufactured.... 



Hams and bacon 

Hay 

Hemp cordage 

Hides, raw, dried, salted, pickled. 

Honey 

Hoops, iron or steel, baling pur 

poses (cut) 

Hops 

Horn, manufactures of 

Horses, mules 

India-rubber, manufactures of 

India-rubber, vulcanized 

India-rubber, wearing apparel 

Instruments, metal 

Iron, manufactures of, n.e.s 

Iron screws, J^ inch or less in length 

Iron, tinned plates 

Ivory, manufactures of, n. e. s 

Jewelry 

Knit goods, wool, value not over 

30c. ^ft 

Knit goods, woollen apparel, 30 to 

40c.^ft 

Knit goods, woollen apparel, over 

40c.^ft 

Knit goods, silk 

Lard 

Lead, pigs, bars 

Lead , type metal 

Leather manufactures, n. e. s 

Linen manufactures, n. e. s 

Linen, wearing apparel 

Macaroni 

Malt, barley 

Matches, friction, boxed , 

Matting, cocoa and rattan 

Meerschaum pipes 

Milk, fresh 

Milk, condensed 

Molasses, n. e. s 



Muffs, fur 

Musical instruments 

Nails, cut 

Nails, horseshoe 

Newspapers, periodicals 

Oilcloth for floors, value over 25c. sq. 

^.yd 

Oil, olive 



Free. 

Mc. ^ ft. 

25 p. c, ad val. 

30 

35 

35 

35 

20 

20 



80 p. 

25 
40 

oc. ^ 
6c. 



« 
c. ad vaL 

( i 

i ( 

^ sq. foot. 

^ft. 
t 
t 

ad val. 



15 p. 
25 
35 
10 
30 

Drawn,20p.c. ; 
not dr' n free. 
20 p. c. ad val. 
.$2 ^ ton. 
10 p. c. ad val. 
Free. 
10c. ^ gal. 

30 p. c. advaL 

8c. f. ft. 

25 p. c. ad val. 

20 

25 

30 

40 

35 

35 

10c. f, ft. 

1 l-5c. ^ ft. 

35 p. c. ad vaL 

35 

35 

35 

40 

50 

Ic. ^ ft. 

Ic. " 

Mc. " 

30 p. c. ad val. 

35 

50 

20 

40 

20 

20 

50 

Free. 

2c. ^ ft. 

40O to 560: 2c. 

^gaLt 
30 p. c. ad val. 
25 

22}^ " 
30 
Free. 

40 p. c. ad val. 
35c. ^ gal. 



* In packages: 8c. per cubic foot; in bulk: $1.50 per M; 30 per cent ad valorem on barrels or boxes 
exclusive of contents, t Estimated rate on all gloves imported about 40 per cent ad valorem, t Above 
560, 4c. per gallon. 



The Uritish Customs Tariff. 



155 



UNITED STATES CUSTOMS DUTIES— CbntoiMed. 



ASTICLKS. 



Tariff Rate. 



OiljWhaleand seal, foreign fisheries, 
. Onions 



Opium, liquid preparations 

Opium, crude and unadulterated. 

Paintings and marble statuary 

Paper manufactures, n. e. s 

Paper stock, crude 

Pepper, cayenne, unground 

Perfumery, alcoholic 



Photograph albums 

Photograph slides 

Pickles 

Pins, metallic 

Pipes of clay, common. 

Poultry, dressed 

Potatoes 

Pulp wood, for paper-makers' use. 

Quicksilver 

Quinine, sulphate, and salts....... 

Railroad ties, cedar 

Robes, buffalo, madeup 

Rugs, Oriental 

Salmon, dried or smoked 

Salmon, prepared or preserved 

Salt 



■• ••••>•••• 



Sauces, n. e. s 

Sausages, bologna.. 

Sausages, all other 

Sealskin sacques 

Silk, raw 

Silk, spun in skeins 

Silk laces, wearing apparel 

Skins, uncured, raw 

Skins, tanned and dressed 

Slates, manufactures of, n. e. s 

Smokers' articles, except clay pipes. 

Soap, castile 

Soap, toilet, perfumed 

Spirits, except bay rum 



25 p. c. ad vaL 
20c. ^bushel. 
20 p. c. ad vaL 
Free, 

20 p. c. ad val. 

Free. 

2J^c. ^ H>. 

$2 ^ gal. and 

50 p. c. ad val. 

30 p. c. ad vaL 

25 

30 

25 

10 

3c. ^ ft. 

15c. ^ busheL 

10 p. c. ad vaL 

7c. ^ ft. 

Free. 

(I 

30 p. c. ad vaL 
40 

He. IB ft. 

20 p. c. ad vaL 

Free. 

30 p. c. ad vaL 

Free. 

20 p. c. ad vaL 

25 

Free. 

30 p. c. ad vaL 

50 

Free. 

20 p. c. ad vaL 

20 

50 

20 

35 " 

$1.80 f^ proof g 



Articles. 



Stereoscopic views, glass 

Straw manufactures, n. e. s 

Sugars, not above 16 Dutch standard 
Sugars, above 16 Dutch standard 



Tariff Rate. ! 



35 p. c. ad val. 

25 

40 '• 

40 p. c. ad val. 
and yic. ^ ft 
additionaL 

Free. 



Tea 

Tin, ore or metal 

Tin plates ll-5c. ^ ft. 

Tobacco, cigar wrappers, not stem- 
med $1.50 " 

Tobacco, if stemmed $2.25 " 

Tobacco, all other leaf, stemmed. ., 50c. " 
Tobacco, unmanuf., not stemmed.. 35c. " 

Umbrellas, silk or alpaca 45 p. c. ad vaL 

Vegetables, natural, n. e. s 10 " 

Vegetables, prepared or preserved. 30 " 

Velvets, silk, 75 p. c. or more silk. . . $1.50 fi ft. 

Watches and parts of 25 p. c. ad val. 

Wheat, bushel of 60ft 20 

Willow for basket- makers 30 *' 

Willow manufactures, n. e. s 25 " 

Wines champ. , in ^^-pt. bottles or 

less I $2 ^ doz. 

Wines, champ. ,inbottles,J^-pt.tolpt. $4 " 
Wines, champ. , in bottles, 1 pt.tolqt. $8 



Wines, still, in casks 

Woods, cabmet, sawed 

Wool, first and second class 

Wool, third class, n. e. s. , above 

13c.^ft 

Wool or worsted yarns, val. not over 

30c.^ft 

Wool or worsted yams, val. 30 to 

40c. ^ ft 

Wool or worsted yams, val. over 

40c. ^ft 

Woollen or worsted clothing 

Woollen manuf . ,n.e s 

Woollen manuf., 40 c. and over ^ ft 



50c. ^ gal. 
Free. 



30 p cad vaL 

30 

40 
50 
40 
50 



Cfje JJritisJ (Customs ^ariC 

FoRMBBLT almost every article imported into the United Kingdom, whether manufactured or raw material, wag in the tariff. 
In 1842 the Customs Tariff numbered no fewer than 1,200 articles. Now it contains but twenty. The following are the duties on 
importations : 



£ s. d. 



8 
12 10 



7 






3 


9 


13 


3 








2 








2 





1 


3 





3 


1 








1 





2 











2 


14 











2 


1 


5 








0^ 





1 10 


15 


8 


1 


6 


2 


13 


7 





2 








7 






Beer, mum and spruce, the original specific 
gravity not exceeding 1215°, per 

barrel of 36 galls 1 

' • exceeding 1215°, per barrel of 36 galls. 1 
' ' and ale, worts of which were before 
fermentation of a specific gravity of 

1055O , per barrel of 36 galls 

And so in proportion for any difference 
in gravity. 

Cards (playing) per doz. packs 

Chicory, raw or kiln-dried cwt. 

" roasted or ground i lb 

" and coffee mixed " 

Chloral hydrate " 

Chloroform " 

Cocoa " 

" husks and shells cwt. 

' ' or chocolate, ground, prepared, or in 

any way manufactured lb. 

Coffee, raw cwt. 

"• kiln- dried, roasted, or ground... lb. 

Collodion gall. 

Confectionery, in the manufacture of 

which spirit has been used lb. 

Ether, acetic lb. 

" butyric gall. 

" sulphuric " 

Ethyl, iodide of " 

Fruit (dried): Currants cwt. 

" Figs, prunes, raisins " 

Naphtha or methylic alcohol (puri.) proof 

gaU. 10 10 

There are drawbacks for roasted coffee shipped as stores, and for tobacco and snuff manufactured in the United Kingdom. 
The receipts from customs in the United Kingdom, year ending March 31, 1895, wereJ£20,115,000, or about $98,000,000. The total 
revenue of the Government from all sources was X101,697,304, so that the receipts from customs were about 20 per cent. The other 
lources of revenue were : From excise, j£26,050,000 ; from stamps, £14,440,000; from income and property taxes, £15,600,000; from 
po«Voffic«, j£10,760,000 ; from telegraphs, £2,680,000. The remainder from land tax, house duty, crown lands, and miicellaneous. 



£ S. d. 

Soap, transparent, in the manufacture of 

which spirit has Deen used lb. 3 

Spirits, or strong waters proof gall. 10 10 

"■ Perfumed spirits and cologne wa- 
ter liquid gall. 17 3 

*' Diqueurs, cordials, or other prepa- 
rations containing spirit in oottle, 
if not to be tested for ascertaining 

the strength liquid gall. 

Tea lb. 

Tobacco, unmanuf., containing 10 per cent 

or more of moisture lb. 

" containing less than 10 per cent' ' 

' ' cigars " 

' ' Cavendish or negrohead " 

' ' snuff not more than 13 lbs. (in 

100 lbs.) moisture lb. 

"" " • ' cont. more than 13 lbs . . "• 

" other manufactured " 

" Cavendish or negrohead manu- 
factured in bond from unman- 
ufactured tobacco lb. 

Varnish (cont. spirit), same as spirits. 
Wine, not exceeding 30° proof spirit, .gall. 
" exceeding 30°, but not exceeding 

420 gall. 

" for each additional deg. of strength 

beyond 420 gall. 3 

Sparkling wine imported in bottle — "''' 2 
These duties are in addition to the duty in respect 
of alcoholic strength. 



14 



8 
4 


3 
3 
5 
4 


2 
6 

6 


4 
3 
4 


6 
9 




4 
10 
2 6 



156 Per Capita Financial Statistics of the United States. 

H^tx <a:apita jFinancial .statistics of tije Slnitetr States* 

FROM 1867 TO 1896, INCLUSIVE. 
(Compiled by the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department. ) 



Years. 



1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871 . 
187'2 . 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880, 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890, 
1891. 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 
1895, 
1896, 



Estimated 
Population 
June 30. 



36, 
36, 
37, 

38, 
39, 
40, 
41, 
42, 

4o, 
46, 
47, 
48, 
50, 
51, 
52, 
53, 
54, 
56, 
57, 
58, 
59, 
61, 
62, 
63, 
65, 
66, 
68, 
69, 
71, 



211,000 
973,000 
756,000 
558,371 
555,000 
596,000 
677,000 
796,000 
951,000 
137,000 
353,000 
598,000 
866,000 
155, 783 
316,000 
495,000 
693,000 
911,000 
148,000 
404,000 
680,000 
974,000 
289,000 
622,250 
975,000 
403,000 
826,000 
275,000 
753,000 
263,000 



Debt, 
less 
cash in 
Treas- 
ury. 



$69. 26 
67.10 
64.43 
60.46 
56.81 
62.96 
50.52 
49.17 
47.55 
45.66 
43.56 
42.01 
40.86 
38.27 
35.46 
31.91 
28.66 
26.20 
24.50 
22.34 
20.03 
17.72 
15.92 
14.22 
13.32 
12. 86 
12.55 
13.17 
12.93 



Interest 
paid. 



$3.84 
3.48 
3.32 



08 

83 

56 

35 

31 

20 

11 

2.01 

1.99 

1.71 

1.59 

1.46 

1.09 

.96 

.87 

.84 

.79 

.71 

.65 

,53 

.47 

.37 

.35 

.34 

.37 

.44 

.50 



Net 

ordinary 

receipts. 



$13. 55 
10.97 
9.82 
10.67 
9.69 
9.22 
8.01 
7.13 
6.55 
6.52 
6.07 
5.41 
5.60 
6.65 
7.01 
7.64 
7.37 
6.27 
5.77 
5.76 
6.20 
6.32 
6.01 
6.44 
6.14 
5.43 
5.77 
4.36 
4.49 
4.59 



Net 
ordinary 
expen- 
ditures. 



S9.87 
L0.21 
8.55 
8.03 
7.39 
6.84 
6.97 
7.07 
6.25 
5.87 
5.21 
4.98 
5.46 
5.84 
5.07 
4.89 
4.90 
4.39 
4 64 
4.15 
4.47 
4.33 
7.88 
4.75 
5.55 
5.28 
6.87 
6.48 
5.11 
4.94 



Dis- 
burse- 
ment for 
pen- 
sions. 



$0.51 

.65 

.78 

.72 

.84 

.74 

.70 

.71 

.68 

.63 

.62 

.56 

.69 

1.14 

.98 

1.03 

1.13 

1.04 

1.17 

1.13 

1.27 

1.33 



45 
71 
85 
16 
2.37 
2.07 
2.03 
1.96 



Coinage, Per 
Capita of 



Gold. 



$0.66 
.52 
.47 
.60 
.53 
.54 

1.37 
.82 
.75 

1.03 
.95 

1.05 
.80 

1.24 

1.89 

1.26 
.54 
.44 
.49 
.50 
.41 
.52 
.35 
.33 
.46 
.53 
.85 

1.17 
.85 



Silver. 



$0.03 
.03 
.03 
.04 
.08 
,06 
.10 
.16 
.35 
.54 
.61 
.60 
.56 
.55 
.54 
.53 
.54 
.52 
.51 
.56 
.60 
.57 
.58 
63 
.43 
.19 
.13 
.13 
.08 





Internal Rev- 
enue. 


A mnnn t, 


4 






Customs Revenue. 






Average ad 

valorem rate of 

duty. 




Ybiars 


Col- 
lected. 


Ex- 
penses of 
collect- 
ing. 


of 
naoney 
in the 
United 
States. 


Money 
in circu- 
lation. 


Coin 

value of 

paper 

money 

Julyl. 


Com- 
mercial 
ratio of 

silver 
to gold. 


Duty 
col- 
lected 
per 
capita. 


Ex- 
penses 




On duti- 
able. 


On free 

and 
dutia- 


of col- 
lecting 
customs 




















ble. 


revenue. 






Per ct. 






Cents. 


Ratio. 




Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


1867... 


$7.34 


2.77 


$20. 11 


$18. 28 


71.7 


15.57 


$4.65 


46.67 


44.56 


3.26 


1868... 


5.17 


4.55 


19.38 


18.39 


70.1 


15.59 


4.34 


48.63 


46.49 


4.65 


1869. . . 


4.19 


4.59 


18.95 


17.60 


73.5 


15.60 


4.68 


47.22 


44.65 


2.99 


1870. . . 


4.79 


3.92 


18.73 


17.50 


85.6 


15.57 


4.96 


47.08 


42.23 


3.20 


1871... 


3.62 


5.30 


18.75 


18.10 


89.0 


15.57 


5.12 


43.95 


38.94 


3.18 


1872... 


3.22 


4.36 


18.79 


18.19 


87.5 


15.63 


5.23 


41.35 


37.00 


3.21 


1873. . . 


2.75 


4.69 


18.58 


18.04 


86.4 


15.92 


4.44 


38.07 


26.95 


3.76 


1874... 


2.39 


4.40 


18.83 


18.13 


91.0 


16.13 


3.75 


38.53 


26.88 


4.49 


1875. . . 


3.52 


3.89 


18.16 


17.16 


87.2 


16.59 


3.51 


40.62 


28.20 


4.47 


1876. . . 


2.59 


3.38 


17.53 


16. 12 


89.5 


17.88 


3.22 


44 74 


39.19 


4.53 


1877... 


2.56 


2.99 


16.46 


15.58 


94.7 


17.22 


2.77 


42.89 


26.68 


4.96 


1878. . . 


2.32 


2.96 


16.62 


15.32 


99.4 


17.94 


2.67 


42.75 


27.13 


4.48 


1879... 


2.32 


3.10 


21.52 


16.75 


100 


18.40 


2.73 


44.87 


28.97 


3.99 


1880. . . 


2.47 


2.95 


24.04 


19.41 


100 


18.05 


3.64 


43.48 


29.07 


3.23 


1881... 


2.64 


3.20 


27.41 


21.71 


100 


18.16 


3.78 


43.20 


29.75 


3.22 


1882... 


2.79 


2.80 


28.20 


22.37 


100 


18.19 


4.12 


42.66 


30.11 


2.95 


1883. . . 


2.69 


3.06 


30.61 


22.91 


100 


18.64 


3.92 


42.45 


29. 92 


3.07 


1884. . . 


2.21 


3.47 


31.06 


22.65 


100 


18.57 


3.47 


41.61 


28.44 


3.44 


1885. . . 


2.00 


3.42 


32.37 


23.02 


100 


19.41 


3.17 


45.86 


30.59 


3.58 


1886. . . 


2.03 


3.06 


31.51 


21.82 


100 


20.78 


3.30 


45.55 


30.13 


3.33 


1887. . . 


2.02 


3.22 


32. 39 


22. 45 


100 


21.13 


3.65 


47.10 


31. 02 


3.16 


1888. . . 


2.07 


2.92 


34.40 


22.88 


100 


21.99 


3.60 


45.63 


29.99 


3.27 


1889. . . 


2.13 


2.88 


33.86 


22.52 


100 


22. 09 


3.60 


45.13 


29.50 


3.14 


1890. . . 


2.28 


2.65 


34.24 


22-82 


100 


19.76 


3.62 


44.41 


29.12 


2.99 


1891... 


2.28 


2.75 


34.31 


23.41 


100 


20.92 


3.38 


46.28 


25.25 


3.17 


1892... 


2.35 


2.52 


36.21 


24.44 


100 


23. 72 


2.66 


48.71 


21.26 


3.75 


1893. . . 


2.41 


2.57 


34.75 


23.87 


100 


26.49 


2.97 


49.58 


23.49 


3.32 


1894... 


2.15 


2.55 


35.44 


24.33 


100 


32.56 


1.90 


50.06 


20.25 


5.16 


1895. . . 


2.06 


2.62 


34.88 


22.96 


100 


31.60 


2.14 


41.75 


20.23 


4.43 


1896... 


2.00 


2.62 




21.15 






2.20 


40.18 


20.67 


4.52 



The aggregate amount of imports into the United States from each quarter of the globe in the year 
ending June 30, 1894, was as follows: From Europe, $295,059,590; North America, $166,997,411; 
South America, $100,147,107; Asia, $66,146,944; Oceanica, $21,454,215; Africa, $3,476,642; all 
other countries, $1,554,064; total, $654,835,873. 



Per Capita Commercial Statistics of the United States. 157 

H^tx (Capita (Commercial <Statisttcs of tije dnitetr ^tateisi. 

FROM 1867 TO 1896, INCLUSIVE. 
(Compiled by the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, ) 





Merchan- 


Domestic 


Merchandise. 


1 

Imports and 

Exports of 

Merchandise 

Carried in 

American 

Vessels. 


Consumption of Wool.^ 


Per Cent of Domestic Production 


Exported. 




dise 
Imported 
for Con- 
sumption, 
per capita. 


Exports, 
p. c. 


Exports of 
Agricultural 

Products (per 

cent of total 

exports). 














YiAHS. 


Total, 
per capita. 


Per Cent 
Foreign. 


Cotton. 


Wheat. 


Com. 


Mineral 
OU. 










Per cent. 


Pounds. 












1867 . . 


$10. 44 


$7.73 


75.34 


33.87 


5.45 


19 


68.32 


12.50 


1.86 


46.58 


1868 . . 


9.33 


7.29 


70.19 


35.11 


6.14 


11.9 


66.90 


13.45 


1.63 


62.34 


1869 . . 


10.45 


7.29 


75.35 


33.18 


5.78 


17.8 


67.01 


20.92 


.94 


60.01 


1870 . . 


11.06 


9.77 


78.40 


35.59 


6.43 


22.7 


65.98 


22.50 


.24 


61.37 


1871 . . 


12.65 


10.83 


70.74 


31.87 


5.73 


29.4 


72.39 


22. 30 


.98 


69. 62 


1872.. 


13.80 


10.55 


74.13 


29.15 


6.75 


45 3 


67.44 


16.88 


3.60 


64.60 


1873.. 


15.91 


12.12 


76.10 


26.37 


5.67 


33.2 


65.47 


20.80 


3.68 


67.85 


1874 . . 


13.26 


13.31 


79.37 


27.17 


4.81 


17.5 


70.03 


32. 54 


3.86 


61.23 


1875 . . 


11.97 


11.36 


76.95 


26.21 


5.28 


23.1 


70.69 


23.60 


3.53 


46.50 


1876 . . 


10.29 


11.64 


71.67 


27.67 


6.21 


18.3 


70.75 


25.34 


3.86 


68.69 


1877 . . 


9.49 


12.72 


72.63 


26.91 


5.16 


16.3 


68.97 


19.73 


5.66 


64.54 


1878 . . 


9.21 


14.39 


77.07 


26.31 


5.28 


16.9 


71.23 


25.29 


6.49 


54.02 


1879 . . 


8.99 


14.29 


78.12 


22.99 


5.03 


14.2 


67.74 


35.16 


6.33 


60. 42 


1880 . . 


12.51 


16.43 


83.25 


17.43 


6.11 


34.9 


65.73 


40.18 


6 43 


31.41 


1881.. 


12.68 


17.23 


82.63 


16.49 


6.66 


17.3 


68.47 


37.38 


6.46 


44.29 


1882 . . 


13.64 


13.97 


75.31 


15.77 


6.36 


19 


67.23 


31.82 


3.71 


39.21 


1883 . . 


13.05 


14.98 


77 


16.04 


6.62 


18.7 


67.20 


29.33 


2.68 


64.13 


1884 . . 


12. 16 


13.20 


73.98 


17.16 


6.86 


20.6 


67.66 


26.49 


2.99 


53.65 


1885.. 


10.32 


12.94 


72.96 


15.29 


6.69 


18 


68.96 


26.86 


2.95 


61.11 


1886 . . 


10.89 


11.60 


72.82 


15.52 


7.39 


28.9 


64.68 


26.48 


3.35 


60.21 


1887 . . 


11.65 


11.98 


74.40 


14.30 


6.68 


27.4 


68.71 


33.66 


2.48 


50.67 


1888 . . 


11.88 


11.40 


73.23 


13.98 


6.31 


28.9 


65.83 


26.23 


1.74 


49.37 


1889 . . 


12.10 


11.92 


72.87 


14.34 


6.33 


31.8 


69.33 


21.31 


3.57 


46.09 


1890 . . 


12.35 


13.50 


74.51 


12.87 


6.03 


27 


68.15 


22.31 


4.85 


36.06 


1891 . . 


13.36 


13.63 


73.69 


12.46 


6.43 


30 8 


67.36 


26.60 


2.16 


29.73 


1892 . . 


12.44 


15.53 


78.69 


12.34 


6.72 


33.1 


65.13 


36.88 


3.72 


37.35 


1893 . . 


12.64 


12. 44 


74.05 


12.20 


7.05 


35.7 


65.99 


37.20 


2.89 


45.10 
53.26 


1894 . . 


9.32 


12.73 


72.28 


13.30 


5.08 


14.2 


71.20 


41.47 


4.11 


1895 . . 


10.48 


11.37 


69.73 


11.70 


6.32 


46.1 


69.83 


31.46 


2.36 


50 76 


1896.. 


10.66 


.... 


66.02 


12.00 






— 


27;10 


8.78 


43.34 





Consumption per capita of— 


Tonnage 
of Vessels 


YSABS. 


Raw 

Cotton 


Wheat 


Com. 


Sugar. 


Coffee 


Tea, 


Dis- 
tilled 
Spirits 


Malt 
Liq' rs. 


Wines 


Per cent 
annual in- 
crease or 
decrease 
(+or-). 


1867 


Lbs. 

8.48 
10.61 
12.88 
12.82 
14.10 
11.10 
15.19 
13.60 
11.90 
14.77 
14.03 
13.71 
15.90 
18.94 
19.64 
16.16 
20.80 
16.30 
15.16 
19.59 
16.84 
19.69 
17.22 
18.50 
22.02 
24.03 
17.07 
15.91 
22.48 


Bush, 

3.92 
5.36 
5.21 
5.41 
4.69 
4.79 
4.81 
4.46 
5.38 
4.89 
5.01 
6.72 
5.68 
5.35 
6.09 
4.98 
6.64 
5.64 
6.77 
4.67 
6.17 
5.62 
5.34 
6.09 
4.58 
5.91 
4.85 
3.41 
4.54 
4.78 


Bush. 

23.52 
20.44 
23.79 
22.62 
27.40 
21.09 
22. 86 
20.95 
18.66 
28.14 
26.13 
26.37 
26 61 
28.88 
31.64 
21.92 
29.24 
27.40 
81.04 
32.60 
27.68 
23.86 
31.28 
32.09 
22.79 
30.33 
23.66 
22.76 
16,98 
14.73 


Lbs. 

24.1 

30.9 

35 

33 

36.2 

40.4 

39.8 

41.5 

43.6 

35.2 

38.9-, 

34.3 

40.7 

42.9 

44.2 

48.4 

51.1 

53.4 

51.8 

56 9 

52.7 

56 7 

51.8 

52.8 

66.1 

63.5 

63.4 

66.4 


Lbs. 

5.01 

6.52 

6.45 

6 

7.91 

7.28 

6.87 

6.69 

7.08 

7.33 

6.94 

6.24 

7.42 

8.78 

8.25 

8.30 

8.91 

9.26 

9.60 

9.36 

8.53 

6.81 

9.16 

7.83 

7.99 

9.63 

8.25 

8.01 

9.22 

8.04 


Lbs. 

1.09 
.96 
1.08 
1.10 
1.14 
1.46 
1.53 
L27 
1.44 
1.35 
1.23 
1.33 
1.21 
1.39 
1.54 
1.47 
1.30 
1.09 
1.18 
1.37 
1.49 
1.40 
1.29 
1.33 
1.29 
1.37 
1.32 
1.34 
1.38 
1.31 


Proof 
galls. 

i.'69 
2.07 
1.62 
1.68 
1.63 
1.61 
1.60 
1.33 
1.28 
1.09 
1.11 
1.27 
1.38 
1.40 
1.46 
1.48 
1.26 
1.26 
1.21 
1.26 
1.32 
1.40 
1.42 
1.50 
1.51 
1.33 
1.12 


Galls. 

6.31 
6.15 
5.21 
6.31 
6.10 
6.66 
7.21 
7 

6.71 

6.83 

6.68 

6.68 

7.06 

8.26 

8.65 

10.03 

10.27 

10.74 

10.62 

11.20 

11.23 

12.80 

12.72 

13.67 

16.28 

15.10 

16 08 

15.18 

14.95 


Galls. 

■.32 
,40 
.41 
.45 
.48 
.45 
,45 
.47 
.47 
.50 
.56 
.47 
.49 
.48 
.37 
.39 
.45 
.55 
.61 
.56 
.46 
.45 
.44 
.48 
.31 
.28 


-14 


1868 


-fl.lO 


1869 


+4.76 


1870 


+2.41 


1871 


+.85 


1872 


+3.62 

-1-5.82 


1873 


1874 


+2.23 


1875 


+1.10 


1876 


-11.83 


1877 


-.86 


1878 

1879 


-.70 
-1.02 


1880 


-2.43 


1881 


-.25 


1882 

1883 


+2.66 
+1.67 


1884 


+.84 


1885 


-.12 


1886 


-3.16 


1887 


-.60 


1888 


+2.10 


1889 


+2.74 


1890 


+2.71 


1891 


+5.88 


1892 


+1.71 


1893 

1894 


+ 79 
-2.90 


1895 

1896 


-1.03 
+1,47 



158 



Floriculture in the United States. 



AVEBAGK annual prices of merchandise in foreign countries whence shipped or imported into the 
United States, from 1879 to 1896. Compiled by the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department. 



Fiscal Tiax. 



1879. 

1880. 

1881. 

1882 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 



9 

E 



Dol. 
830.30 
285.27 
268.51 
270. 11 
282. 16 
277.35 
266.20 
283.70 
269. 21 
316.66 
262.25 
271. 87 
261.69 
251. 43 
280.63 
307. 18 
284.71 
230. S6 



Ma 




>; 






4 


S 


•d 






-JS 


.o 


a o 


, 


01 a 


x> 




ij 




J^ 






O)-] 


-1-5 




a 


Railw 
Bel or I 
t, Ton. 


1 


d 




°3 

03 v 






* 


^ 

bB 


.a 

o 

1 




2 

s 


Bars, 
of St 
Par 


s 

a 


Cts. 




«-3 

to 

Cts. 


1 

a 


;3 


i 

eg 


o 

3 


-♦a 


Dol. 


Dol. 


Dol. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


Cts. 


103.27 


21.97 


26.80 


3.7 


12.5 


11.6 


4.43 


12.7 


24.2 


3.9 


21 


12 


123.20 


19.42 


32.60 


4.5 


13.5 


15.6 


4.69 


11.7 


27.4 


4.3 


23 


14 


126.31 


20.98 


36.15 


3.8 


12.5 


12.3 


4.27 


11.9 


25.7 


4.4 


23 


14 


166.58 


18.57 


33.35 


3.8 


10.0 


12.2 


4.48 


11.9 


24.6 


4.4 


22 


14 


169. 54 


18.32 


32.60 


3.7 


8.2 


11.0 


4.31 


13.1 


23.5 


4.2 


22 


14 


163.08 


17.43 


31.79 


3.6 


9.3 


10.7 


3.88 


til. 2 


20.2 


3.5 


23 


12 


152. 12 


17.70 


24.80 


3.3 


8.2 


7.7 


3.62 


tlO.9 


19.5 


2.5 


20 


11 


133.22 


15.50 


26.21 


3.1 


7.6 


7.7 


3.62 


til. 7 


19.6 


2.9 


16 


11 


123.45 


15.59 


19.32 


3.0 


10.7 


5.7 


4.06 


tl2.2 


18.7 


2.4 


19 


12 


144.64 


15.49 


23.53 


3.0 


14.0 


7.7 


3.70 


tl2.7 


15.8 


2.6 


20 


12 


168.96 


16.19 


23.96 


3.0 


13.0 


7.0 


3.48 


tl3.0 


16.0 


3.0 


20 


12 


200. 63 


25.09 


23.47 


3.0 


16.0 


7.0 


3.92 


tl3.0 


15.0 


3.0 


23 


12 


150. 76 


24.65 


25.96 


3.0 


19.0 


8.0 


3.66 


tl4.0 


17.0 


t3.0 


23 


11 


131. 45 


21.87 


33.49 


2.9 


20.0 


8.7 


3.23 


tl4.0 


16.0 


$2.7 


21 


9 


142.30 


23.83 


24.08 


2.8 


§14.0 


8.1 


3.90 


tis.o 


16.0 


i3.i 


18 


9 


146. 74 


22.74 


19.43 


2.6 


16.4 


8.8 


3.16 


tl2.5 


15.1 


:t2.9 


16 


9 


126.94 


27.27 


14.33 


2.4 


14.7 


7.8 


2.76 


12.0 


ia5 


2.14 


15 


9 


126. 57 


23.05 


20.52 


2.3 


14.6 


8.9 


3.28 


11.8 


13.5 


2.29 


17 


10 



is 






Dol. 
1.44 
0.86 
1.08 
1.33 
1.26 
1.37 
1.41 
1.35 
1.46 
1.46 
1.21 
1.23 
2.09 
2.06 
2.30 
2.28 
1.95 
1.43 



* Meleda, etc., not above No. 13, D. S. t Bleached, dyed, colored, stained, painted, or printed cot- 
ton only. $ Includes sugar not above No. 16, D. S. § Overvalued by reason of depreciation of 
Brazilian paper milreis. 



'iBxpott ^vittu of Homrstic (tommo^itiru. 



AVEKAGE export prices of commodities of domestic production from 1867 to 1896. 
the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department. 



Compiled by 



Fiscal 
Yjcah. 


2 


4 

a 
1 


§ 
E . 


a 
o 

-*^ 
o 


h3 
1-1 

1 


5 3 
If 


X 

Id 

a 


5 
1 


i 

■a 

■i 


.2 

A 


d 

ii 

3 


d 

i 


ID 


d 


s 

63 J=| 
--) 
u 
eS 

bo 

3 


• 

■a 

o 
o 




o 


> 


^ 


p 


hJ 


1— 1 


PQ 


h) 


Ph 


» 


PQ 


o 


H 


tfl 


M 


H 




Dol. 


Dol. 


Dol. 


cts. 


cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


1867.... 


1.00 


1.27 


8.85 


30.1 


34.6 


35.8 


12.8 


14.5 


13.1 


12.2 


24.1 


15.1 


35.8 


8.5 


10.4 


10.6 


1870.... 


.925 


1.29 


6.11 


23.5 


28.5 


30.5 


15.7 


16.6 


13.2 


7.3 


29.3 


15.5 


39.6 


8.2 


12.6 


11.4 


1875.... 


.848 


1.12 


5.97 


15.0 


26.0 


14.1 


11.4 


13.8 


10.1 


8.7 


23.7 


13.5 


25.6 


6.0 


10.8 


11.3 


1879.... 


.471 


1.07 


5.25 


9.9 


20.4 


10.8 


6.9 


7.0 


5.7 


6.3 


14.2 


8.9 


15.5 


4.2 


8.5 


7.8 


1880.... 


.543 


1.25 


5.88 


11.5 


23.3 


8.6 


6.7 


7.4 


6.1 


6.4 


17.1 


9.5 


16.5 


4.3 


9.0 


7.7 


1881... 


.552 


1.11 


5.67 


11.4 


22.6 


10.3 


8.2 


9.3 


7.7 


6.5 


19.8 


11.1 


17.2 


4.7 


9.2 


8.3 


1882.... 


.668 


1.19 


6.15 


11.4 


20.9 


9.1 


9.9 


11.6 


9.0 


8.5 


19.3 


11.0 


19.2 


4.8 


9.7 


8.5 


1883.... 


.684 


1.13 


5.96 


10.8 


21.1 


8.8 


11.2 


11.9 


9.9 


8.9 


18.6 


11.2 


20.9 


4.6 


9.2 


8.3 


1884.... 


.611 


1.07 


5.59 


10.5 


20.6 


9.2 


10.2 


9.5 


7.9 


7.6 


18.2 


10.3 


21.2 


4.5 


7.1 


9.1 


1885.... 


.540 


.86 


4.90 


10.6 


19.8 


8.7 


9.2 


7.9 


7.2 


7.5 


16.8 


9.3 


21.5 


4.0 


6.4 


9.9 


1886.... 


.498 


.87 


4.70 


9.9 


19.9 


8.7 


7.5 


6.9 


5.9 


6.0 


15.6 


8.3 


18.3 


4.1 


6.7 


9.6 


1887.... 


.479 


.89 


4.51 


9.5 


18.7 


7.8 


7.9 


7.1 


6.6 


5.4 


15.8 


9.3 


16.3 


3.8 


6.0 


8.7 


1888.... 


.550 


.85 


4.58 


9.8 


17.3 


7.9 


8.6 


7.7 


7.4 


5.3 


18.3 


9.9 


15.9 


3.5 


6.3 


8.3 


1889.... 


.474 


.90 


4.83 


9.9 


16.6 


7.8 


8.6 


8.6 


7.4 


5.5 


16.5 


9.3 


13.9 


3.8 


7.6 


8.8 


1890.... 


.418 


.83 


4.66 


10.1 


16.0 


7.4 


7.7 


7.1 


6.0 


5.4 


14.4 


9.0 


15.4 


4.1 


7.0 


8.6 


1891.... 


.574 


.93 


4.82 


10.0 


16.4 


7.0 


7.6 


6.9 


5.9 


5.6 


14.5 


9.0 


17.7 


3.7 


5.7 


8.7 


1892.... 


.55 


1.03 


4.96 


8.7 


16.0 


5.9 


8.1 


7.2 


6.0 


5.7 


16.0 


9.4 


18.0 


3.1 


4.6 


8.4 


1893.... 


.53 


.80 


4.54 


8.5 


15.0 


4.9 


9.1 


9.5 


7.8 


5.4 


19.0 


9.4 


23.2 


3.2 


4.7 


9.0 


1894.... 


.467 


.67 


4.11 


7.8 


15.1 


4.2 


9.6 


9.0 


8.0 


5.7 


17.6 


9.7 


16.9 


3.2 


4.4 


8.5 


1895.... 


.53 


.58 


3.38 


6.8 


15.3 


4.9 


8.7 


7.8 


7.1 


5.7 


16.4 


9.1 


16.8 


3.2 


4.6 


8.7 


1896 


.38 


.65 


3.56 


8.1 


17.9 


6.8 


&3 


6.6 


6.7 J 


5.6 


15.2 


8.4 1 


14.7 


2.7 


4.9 J 


8.5 



fflovitnltuvt in tijt sanitrtr .Statts* 

The floriculture industry in the "United States in the census year was made the subject of a special 
investigation by the Census Bureau, with the following results, the statistics applying solely to the 
business of flower merchants or florists: 



Number of estaDlishments 4,659 

Square feet of glass covering 38,823,247 

Value of establishments $38,355,722 

Men employed 16,847 

Women employed 1,958 



Product of year: Rosebushes 49,056,253 

" " Hardy plants and shrubs 38,380,872 

" " All other plants 152,835,292 

Total value of product $12,036,477 

Cut flowers in addition 14,175,329 





Farms and 'Value of Farm Products. 


159 


jFarms antr Valut of iFarm Jlrotructs 

IN THE UNITED STATES, CENSUS OF 1890. 


Statxi aud 
Tbkbitobiks. 


Total 
Number 

of 
Fanru. 


AcKxs IN Fasms. 


Valdation. 


Estimated 


Total. 


Improved. 


Unim- 
proved. 


Land, Fences, 

and 

Buildings, 


Implements 

and 
Machinery. 


Live Stock 

on hand June 1, 

1890, 


Value of Farm 
Products, 

1889. 


Maine 


62,013 
29,151 
32,573 
34,374 
5,500 
26,850 

226,223 
30,828 

211,557 


6,179,925 
3,459,018 
4,395,646 
2,998,282 
469,281 
2,253,482 

21,961,562 
2,662,009 

18,364,870 


3,044,666 

1,727,387 
2,655,943 
1,657,024 
274,491 
1,379,419 

16,389,380 
1,999,117 

18,210,597 

42,838,024 

762,655 
3,412,908 
9,898 
9,125,545 
4,554,000 
7,828,569 
5,255,287 
9,582,866 
1,145,698 


3,135,259 
1,731,631 

1,739,708 

1,841,258 
194,790 
874,013 

5,572,182 
662,892 

5,153,778 


$98,567,730 

66,162,600 

80,427,490 

127,538,284 

21,878,479 

95,000,595 

968,127,286 

159,262,840 

922,240,233 


$5,499,413 
3,594,850 
4,738,560 
5,938,940 
941,080 
3,075,495 

46,659,465 
7,878,644 

39,046,855 

$116,868,252 

1,835,570 
6,540,090 
79,760 
6,593,688 
3,116,420 
7,183,210 
4,172,262 
5,764,978 
1,158,040 


$18,280,140 

10,450,125 

16,644,320 

14,200,178 

2,364,970 

9,974,618 

124,523,965 

15,811,430 

101,652,758 


$22,049,220 


N.Hampshire.. 

Vermont 

Massach' setts . 
Rhode Island . . 
Connecticut . . . 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania . 

N. Atlantic Div 

Delaware 

Maryland 

D. of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia. 
North Carolina 
South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

S. Atlantic Div 

Ohio 


13,761,050 
20,364,980 
28,072,500 
4,218,300 
17,924,310 

161,593,009 
28,997,349 

121,328,348 


658,569 

9,381 

40,798 

382 

127,600 

72,773 
178,359 
115,008 
171,071 

34,228 


62,743,525 

1,055,692 

4,952,390 

11,745 

19,104,951 

10,321,326 

22,651,896 

13,184,652 

25,200,435 

3,674,486 


20,405,501 

293,037 

1,539,482 

1,847 

9,979,406 

5,767,326 

14,823,327 

7,929,415 

15,617,569 

2,528,793 


$2,539,200,537 

39,586,080 
175,058,550 
6,471,120 
254,490,600 
151,880,300 
183,977,010 

99,104,600 
152,006,230 

72,745,180 


$313,902,504 

4498,810 
19,194,820 
129,120 
33,404,281 
23,964,610 
25,547,280 
16,572,410 
31,477,990 

7,142,980 


$418,309,066 

6,481,590 
26,448,364 
373,070 
42,244,458 
20,439,000 
50,070,530 
51,337,985 
83,371,4b2 
12,086,330 


749,600 

251,430 
198467 
240,681 
172,844 
146,409 
116,851 
201,903 
238,013 
27,611 
50,158 
113,608 
166,617 

1,923,822 

179,264 
174,412 
157,772 
144,818 
69,294 
228,126 
8,826 
124,760 


100,157,573 

23,352,408 
20,362,516 

30,498,277 
14,785,686 
16,787,988 
i 18,663,645 
30,491,541 
30,780,290 
7,660,333 
11,396,460 
21,593,444 
80,214,456 


41,677,871 

18,338,824 

15,107,482 

25,669,060 

9,865,350 

9,798,931 

11,127,953 

25,428,899 

19,792,313 

4,658,015 

6,959,293 

15,247,705 

22,308,301 


58,480,202 

5,013,584 
5,255,034 

4,829,217 
4,920,286 
6,994,057 
7,535,692 
5,062,642 
10,987,977 
3,002,318 
4,487,167 
6,345,739 
7,911,155 

72,294,868 

9,593,347 

10,879,028 

12,154,657 

10,723,157 

5,769,551 

30,660,722; 

1,042,695 

9,416,318 

90,159,470 

1,048,680 
1,353,601 
2,775,421 

524.776 
1,192,905 

775.482' 


$1,185,819,670 

1,050,031,828 
754,789,110 

1,262,870,587 
556,190,670 
477,524,507 
340,059,470 
857,581,022 
625,858,361 
75,310,305 
107,466,335 
402,358,913 
559,726,046 


$86,444,018 

29,475,846 
21,172,255 
34,456,938 
22,182,600 
19,167,010 
16,916,473 
36,665,815 
21,830,719 
6,648,180 
• 8,371,712 
16,488,977 
18,869,790 


$161,631,801 

116,181,690 
93,361,422 

180,481,662 
69,564,985 
63,784,377 
57,725,683 

206,486,242 

138,701,173 
18,787,294 
29,231,509 
92,971,920 

128,068,305 


$292,847,809 
133,232,498 


Indiana 

Illinois 


94,759,262 
184,759,013 


Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 


83,651,390 

70,990,645 

71,238,230 

159,347,844 


Missouri 

North Dakota. 
South Dakota.. 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

N. Central Div. 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 


109,751,024 
21,264,938 
22,047,279 
66,837,617 
95,070,080 


256,586,994 

21,412,229 
20,161,583 
19,853,000 
17,572,547 

9,544,219 
51,406,937 

1,606,423 
14,891,856 

156,448,294 

1,964,197 
1,830,432 
4,598,941 
787,882 
1,297,033 
1,323,705 
1,661,416 
1,802,256 
4,179,190 
6,909,888 
21,427,293 

47,282,283 

623,218,619 


184,292,126 

11,818,882 
9,362,555 
7,698,343 
6,849,390 
3,774,668 

20,746,215 

563,728 

5,475,043 

66,288,824 

915,517 

476,831 
1,828,520 
268,106 
104,128 
548.223 


$7,069,767,154 

346,339,360 
242,700,540 
111,051,390 
127,423,157 
85,381,270 
399,971,289 
8,581,170 
118,574,422 


$252,225,315 

10,906,506 
9,936,88'0 
4,511,645 
5,968,865 
7,167,855 

18,746,541 

433,580 

5,672,400 


$1,195,246,262 

70,924,400 
60,254,230 
30,776,730 
33,936,435 
17,898,380 
103,259,503 
3,206,270 
30,772,880 


$1,112,949,820 

65,948,485 
55,194,181 
66,240,190 
73,342,995 
54,343,958 
111,699,430 


Oklahoma 

Arkansas 

S. Central Div. 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico. . . 

Arizona 

Utah 


440,375 
53,128,155 


1,086,772 

5,603 

3,125 

16,389 

4,458 

1,426 

10,517 

1,277 

6,603 

18,056 

25,530 

52,894 


$1,440,022,598 

25,512,340 
14,460,880 
85,035,180 
8,140,800 
7,222,230 
28,402,780, 


$58,343,772 

1,356,010 
522,250 

2,728,850 
291,140 
196,580 

1.164.660 


$351,028,828 

21,620,687 

15,348,331 

22,594,010 

7,247,180' 

3,257,660 

6,813,830; 

5,801,820! 

7,253,490 

14,113,110, 

22,648,830 

60,259,230} 

$186,958,178 

$2,208,767,573 


$480,337,764 

6,273,415 

2,241,590 

13,136,810 

1,784,820 
1,045,970 
4,891,460 


Nevada 

Idaho 


728,052! 938,364 
606,362, 695-894* 


12,389,410 587,480 
17,431,580 1,172.460 


2,705,660 
3,848,930 


Washington... 

Oregon 

California 

Western Div.. 

Grand total . . 


1,820,832 

3,516,000 

12,222,839^ 

23,020,410' 

357,616.755 


2,358,358 
3,393,888 
9,204,454 


83,461,660 
115,819,200 
697,116,630 

$1,094,942,690; 

$13,279,252,6491 


3,150,200 

4,556,770 

14,689,710 


13,674,980 
19,026,120 
87,033,290 


145,878 
4,564,641 


24,261,823 
265,601,864 


$30,366,110j 
$494,247,4671 


$155,662,995 
$2,460,107,454 


There were : 

were reported f] 

! ing to 128,590,434 


161,312 acres in the United States iu 188 
"om ten States, principally from Louis 
pounds. 


9 devoted to the cultivat 
iana and South Carolina, 


ion of rice, a 
theproducti 


11 of which 
on amount- 



160 



Statistics of Heal Estate Mortgages. 



<Stattsttts of 3^fal ISstate J^ottflafits* 

NUMBER AND AMOUNT OF BEAL ESTATE MORTGAGES IN FORCE JANUARY 1, 1890, 

BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 
(Compiled from the Census Report of 1890. ) 



States and 
Tekkitokies. 



TOTAIi. 



Number; 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Dis'tof Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

I/Ouisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire^.. 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



35 

1 

25 

112 

54 

57 

9 

23 

20 

48 

3 

297 

171 

252 

298 

60 

20 

58 

53 

178 

222 

195 

30 

192 

5 

155 

1 

25 

141 

1 

579 

47 

38 

271 

22 

518 

20 

27 

60 

39 

93 

5 

34 

34 

29 

29 

164 

3 



,732 
,474 
,138 
,637 
,600 
,996 
,641 
,923 
,681 
,519 
,143 
,233 
,420 
,559 
,884 
,284 
,372 
,851 
,908 
,202 
,761 
,580 
,767 
,028 
,937 
,377 
,256 
,189 
,704 
,523 
,472 
,404 
,767 
,055 
553 
,165 
,999 
,065 
,221 
,470 
,877 
,908 
,388 
,192 
,632 
,357 
,826 
,028 



Amount. 



$39, 

il; 

241, 

85, 

79, 

16, 

51, 

15, 

27, 

3, 

384, 

110, 

199, 

243, 

45, 

28, 

32, 

64. 

323, 

150, 

197, 

19, 

214, 

, ^' 
132, 

2, 

18, 

232, 

6, 

1,607, 

21, 

25, 

259, 

22 

a 613,' 

36, 

13, 

36, 

40, 

93, 

8, 

27, 

28, 

44, 

19, 

121, 

4, 



027,983 
348,519 
366,595 
050,181 
058,793 
921,071 
122,696 
986,589 
505,119 
387,590 
167,249 
299,150 
730,643 
774,171 
146,826 
693,749 
513,900 
627,208 
577,803 
277,668 
472,700 
745,989 
075,980 
609,772 
729,907 
902,322 
194,995 
968.259 
565; 919 
644,673 
874,301 
471,428 
777,480 
842,188 
928,437 
105,802 
778,243 
780,302 
115,773 
421.396 
864,178 
040, 829 
907,687 
691,726 
078,449 
702,505 
838,168 
967,065 



Ox Acres. 



Number. 



Araount. 



27,424 

715 

17,818 

45,127 

20,484 

12,311 

2,768 

319 

14,094 

34,731 

2,506 

128,986 

106,155 

171,452 

203,306 

34,612 

11,352 

30,985 

21,139 

33,385 

144,023 

97,078 

26,186 

103,161 

2,385 

107,175 

928 

14,557 

25,19" 

667 

156,814 

36,143 

33,734 

119,730 

16,250 

a 140, 127 

2,640 

19,900 

50,151 

17.196 

72,922 

2,059 

22,294 

20,123 

18,449 

20,450 

111,735 

1,418 



Total 4,777,698 $6,019,679,985 2,303,061 $2,209,148,431 2,474,637 $3,810,531,554 



$28,762,387 

1,580,3011 

9,051,117 

120,890,877 

30,195,056 

13,176,736 

5,649,705 

2,226,277 

10,629,142 

16,969,687 

2,811,130 

165,289,112 

74,553,217 

149,457,144 

174,720,071 

23,779,911 

15,750,153 

14,150,646 

27,828,999 

42,441,247 

95,753,329 

75,355,562 

15,829,914 

101,718,625 

5,094,329 

90,506,968 

1,836,655 

9,430,540 

54,025,990 

5,839,416 

217,813,055 

14,537,449 

22,098,092 

134,107,706 

15,983,361 

a 121, 844, 907 

5,262,243 

9,060,351 

29.356,865 

16,425,144 

75,131,355 

2,426,018 

19,439,988 

16,564.282 

24,727,245 

14,517,092 

81,535,361 

3,013,674 



On Lots. 



Number. 



Amount. 



8,308 

759 

7,320 

67,510 

34,116 

45,685 

6,873 

23,604 

6,587 

13,788 

637 

168,247 

65,265 

81,107 

95,578 

25,672 

9,020 

27,866 

32, 769 

144,817 

78,738 

98,502 

4,581 

88,867 

3,552 

48,202 

328 

10,632 

116,507 

956 

422,658 

11,2611 

5,033 

151,325 

6,303 

a 378, 038 

18.359 

7,165 

10,070 

22,274 

20,955 

3,849 

12,094 

14,069 

11,183 

8,907 

53,091 

1,610 



$10, 

5, 
120, 
54, 
66, 
10, 
49, 

4, 
10, 

219, 
36, 
50, 
68, 
21, 
12, 
18, 
36, 

280, 
54, 

122, 
3, 

112, 

3, 

42, 

9, 

178, 

1,390, 

6, 

3, 

125, 

6, 

a 491, 

31, 

4, 

6, 
23, 

^5' 
o, 

8, 
12, 
19, 

5, 
40, 

1, 



265 
768 
315 
159 
863 
744 
472 
760 
875 
417 
356 
010 
177 
317 
426 
913 
763 
476 
748 
836 
719 
390 
246 
891 
635 
395 
358 
537 
539 
805 
061 
933 
679 
734 
945 
260 
516 
719 
758 
996 
732 
614 
467 
127 
351 
185 
302 
953 



,596 
,218 
,478 
,304 
,737 
,335 
,991 
,312 
,977 
,903 
,119 
,038 
,426 
,027 
,755 
,838 
,756 
,562 
,804 
,421 
,371 
,427 
,066 
,147 
,578 
,354 
,340 
,719 
,929 
,257 
,246 
,979 
,388 
,482 
,076 
,895 
,000 
,951 
,908 
,252 
,823 
,811 
,699 
,444 
,204 
,413 
,807 
,391 



a The records of confessions of judgment in this State, which have been taken as mortgages, do not 
disclose whether they encumber acres or lots, but in the summary for the State, in the table below, 
the figures for these two classes of mortgages have been estimated by using ratios derived from the 
figures for New York. 

NTHMBER AND AMOUNT OP REAL ESTATE MORTGAGES MADE— 1880 TO 1889. 







Mortgages Stating Amount of 


Debt. 




Ykabs. 


Total. 


On Acres. 


On Lots. 




Number. 


Amount. 


Number. 


Amount. 


Number. 


Amount. 


1880 


643,143 

729,767 


$710,888,504 
864,319,429 


370,984 
403,892 
446,250 
468,004 
472,676 
503,404 
525,769 
531,925 
499,080 
525,094 


$342,566,477 
388,946,066 
462,253,046 
495,433,962 
485,188,747 
481,167,109 
523,576,084 
600,997,068 
530,912,834 
585,729,719 


272,159 
325,875 
374,559 
409,313 
434,905 
472,416 
522,082 
635,080 
623,051 
701,229 


$368,322,027 


1881 


475,373,363 


1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 


820,809 

877,317 

907,581 

975,820 

1,047.851 

1,167,005 

1,122,131 

1,226,323 


1,035,535,000 
1,090,857,825 
1.113,804,603 
i; 136, 067. 726 
i; 300, 808, 911 
1.571,982,665 
1.518,044,856 
1,752,568,274 


573,281,954 
595,423,863 
628.615,856 
654,900,617 
777,232,827 
970,985,597 
987,132.022 
1,166,838,555 


Total 9,517,747 


$12,094,877,793 


4,747,078 


$4,896,771,112 


4,770,669 


$7,198,106,681 



Agricultural Statistics. 



161 



^grictiltitral <Stattsttcs» 

GRAIN PRODUCTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The following are the United States census reports of the production of the principal cereals in the 
United States in the several census years, together with the reports of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture for 1885-95. 



Yeaks. 


Indian Corn. 




Bushels. 


1850 


592,071,104 


1860 


838,792,742 


1870 


760,944,549 


1880 


1,754.861,535 


1885 


1,936,176,000 


1886 


1,665.441.000 


1887 


1,456,161.000 


1888 


1,987,790.000 


1889 


2,112,892.000 


1890 


1,489,970.000 


1891 


2,060,154,000 


1892 


1,628,464.000 


1893 


1,619,496.131 


1894 


1,212,770,052 


1895 


2,151,139.000 



Wheat. 



Oats. 



Bushels. I 
100,485,940 
173,104,9241 
287,745,626 
459,479.503 
357.112,000 
457,218,000 
456,329.000 
415, 868; 000 
490.560.000 
399.262.000 
611,780,000; 
515.949,000 
396,131,725 
460,267,416 
467.103,000' 



Bushels. I 
146,584,179 
172.643,185, 
282,107.157 
407,858.900; 
629,409.000 
624,134.000 
659,618,000 
701,735.000 
751,515,000 
523,621,000 
738,394.000 
661.035.000 
638,854,859 
662,086,928 
824,444,000 



I Barley. 



Bushels. 

5,167,015 

15,825,898 

29,761,305 

44,113,495 

58,360.000 

59,428.000 

56.812,000 

63,884.593 

*78,000.000 

*68,000.000 

*80,000,000 

*72,000,000 

69,869,495 

61,400,465 

87,373,000 



Rye. 



Bushels. I 

14,188,813 

21,101,380 

16,918,795' 

19,831.595 

21,756,000 

24,489.000 

20,691.000 

28,412.011 

*30.000,000 

*28,000,000 

*33,000,000 

*30,000,000 

26,555,446 

26,727,615' 

27,210,000 



Buckwheat. 

Bushels. 

8,956,912 

17,571,818 

9,821,721 

11.817,327 

12,626,000 

11,869,000 

10,844,000 

12,000,000 

'11,000,000 

*11,000.000 

*12, 000.000 

*11,000,000 

12,132,311 

12,668,200 

15,341,000 



* Estimated by the Cincinnati Price Current. 

The hay crop of the United States in 1895 was estimated at 47,078,000 tons, potato crop 
297, 237, 000 bushels. The last officially reported estimate (1888) of the hop crop was 1, 987, 790, 000 
pounds, of peanuts 2,600,000 bushels. 

THE WHEAT CROP OF THE WORLD, IN BUSHELS, 1895. 



COUNTKIES. 



United States 

Canada 

Mexico 

Argentina 

Uruguay 

Chile 

Austria 

Hungarj^ 

Roumania. . . . 



1895. 



467,103,000 
57,460,000 
14, 000, 000 
60,000.000 
10.000,000 
15,000,000 
41,200,000 

146.000,000 
68,503.000 



Countries. 



Turkey in Europe. 

Bulgaria 

Italy 

Spain 

France 

Germany 

Belgium 

Great Britain ..... 
Russia in Europe . 



1895. 



21,500,000 
37,000,000 

106,181,000 
92,000,000 

339,129,000 

110,000,000 
18,000,000 
38,348,000 

376,885,000 



Countries. 



Russia in Asia.. 
British India..., 
Asiatic Turkey 

Persia 

Japan , 

Egypt 

Algeria 

Australasia 

The World 



1895. 



83,499,000 
234,379,000 
46,000,000 
22,000.000 
16,500.000 
14,000,000 
24,800.000 
32,461,000 
2,552,677,000 



The rve crop of principal countries in 1890-91 was: Austria, 63,000,000 bushels; Hungary, 
32, 760,00"0 bushels ; United States, 33, 000, 000 bushels ; Russia, 539, 000, 000 bushels. 

WHEAT HARVEST CALENDAR. 



January — Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argen- 
tine Republic. 

February and March— Upper Egypt, India 

April— Lower Egypt. India, Syria, Cyprus, 
Persia, Asia Minor, Mexico, Cuba. 

May— Texas, Algeria, Central Asia, China, Japan, 
Morocco. 

June— California, Oregon, Mississippi, Alabama, 
Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennes- 
see, Virginia, Kentucky, Kansas, Arkansas, Utah, 
Colorado, Missouri, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, 
Portugal, South of France. 



July— New England, New York, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Indiana, Michigan. Illinois, Iowa, Wiscon- 
sin, Southern Minnesota, Nebraska, Upper Canada, 
Roumania, Bulgaria, Austria- Hungary, South of 
Russia, Germany, Switzerland, South of England. 

August— Central and Northern Minnesota, the 
Dakotas, Manitoba, Lower Canada, Colombia,Bel- 
gium, Netherlands, Great Britain, Denmark, Po- 
land, Central Russia. 

September and October— Scotland, Sweden, Nor- 
way, North of Russia. 

November— Peru, South Africa. 

December— Burmah, New South Wales. 



The tables of wheat harvest calendar and of prices of wheat in the Chicago market from 1860 to 
1896 inclusive were compiled by Charles B. Murray, editor of the Cincinnati J^'ice Current. 

PRICES OF WHEAT (CHICAGO MARKET), 1860-96.* 



Years. 



Months of Yearly Rang 
Lowest Price. of Prices. 



1860 . . 

1861 . . 

1862 . . 

1863 . . 

1864 . . 

1865 . . 

1866 . . 

1867 . . 

1868 . . 

1869 . . 

1870 . . 

1871 . . 

1872 . . 

1873 . , 

1874 . , 

1875 . . 

1876 . . 

1877 . . 

1878 . 



Months of 

Price. 



[Highest 



December 

June and July, 

January 

August I 

March 1. 

December I 

February I 

August 1. 

November . . . 1. 

December ^ 

April I 

August ' 

November...!. 
September . 
October .... 
February .. 

July ^ 

August 1 

October i 




13 April. 

25 JMay. 
921^ August. 
123^ December. 

26 June. 



043^(S2, 
73M#1. 

01 (|a 

89 @1, 
81M^'l 
83M#1. 
83 (ai 
OlJ^^l 
77 @1 



55 
03 

85 
20 
46 
313^ 



January. 

November. 

May. 

July. 

August. 



July. 



[Sept. 



32 Feb. , April, and 
61 August. 
46 July. 
28 AprU. 
301^ August. 
26M December, 
76^,lMay. 
14 lApril. 



Years. 



Months of 

Lowest 

Price. 



1879 . . 

1880 . . 
J.881 . . 
1882 . . 

1883 . . 
1884.. 
1885 . . 
1886., 

1887 . , 

1888 . , 

1889 . 

1890 . 

1891 . 

1892 . 

1893 . 

1894 . 
1895. 
1896t 



Yearly Range Months of 
of Prices. Highest Price. 



January. . 
August . . 
January.. 
December 
October . 
December 

March 

October . . 
August . . 
April .... 

June 

Febriary 
July...... 

October . . 

July 

Septe'ber 
January . . 
June 



81%(o'l. 33>^ 
861^(1 1. 32 
95%ral.43J^ 
91i^(a 1. 40 
90 @1.13i^ 
69^(0', 96 
73%# 91M 
m%@ 84M 
66^@ 94^ 
71i^®t2.00 
753£'21.08M 
14Ai&\. 08j| 
85 (Si. 16 
69^# 91M 
54%@ 88 
50 @ 651^ 
4834@ 85% 
53^@ 90 



'December. 

January. 

October. 

April and May 

June. 

February. 

April. 

January. 

June. 

September. 

February. 

AugTist. 

April. 

February. 

ApriL 

April. 

May. 

November. 



*No. 2 Cash wheat, t The Hutchinson "comer" figure; $1. 04i^@l. 05^ the following day. 
, X Quotations to November 10. [See page 25 for latest quotations in 1896. ] 



162 



The Main Cereal Crops of the United States. 



^i)e iWain i^trtal (^rops of ti)r WLnittn States. 

STATISTICS OF PBODUCTION OF INDIAN COKN, WHEAT, AND OATS IN 1895. 
(Compiled from the Report of the Department of Agricxilture. ) 



States and 
Tebeitoeiks. 



Maine 

New Hampshire., 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . . . 
Rhode Island . . . . 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina.. 
South Carolina. . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia. . 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

South Dakota... 

North Dakota.. 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico. ... 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 

Oklahoma 



COBK. 



Acres. 



Bushels. 



14,212 

26,854 

47,225 

42,078 

9,217 

46,658 

506,016 

279,788 

1,298,886 

203,871 

616,836 

1,753,073 

2,508,856 

1.789,271 

3,241,037 

652,379 

2,790,974 

2,277,036 

1,J47,198 

4 087,332 

2.342,305 

3,325,321 

688,545 

3.010,876 

2,846,110 

994,090 

3.702,310 

6,821,833 

1,040,676 

1,152,458 

8,504,349 

6,613,118 

8,426,327 

7,806,526 

1,119,229 

30,938 

1,331 

2,483 

178,308 

26,956 

5,105 

8,918 

" 1*656 

5,464 

13,395 

65,416 



596,904 

1,079,531 

2,153,460 

1,847,224 

284,805 

1,768,338 

18,014,170 

9,233,004 

43,512,681 

4,281,291 

16,531,105 

32,607,158 

36,378,412 

19,860,908 

42,172,481 

6,186,645 

44,376,487 

35,977,169 

22,574,284 

107,905,565 

60,359,558 

83,133,026 

16,662,789 

93,939,331 

92,783,186 

33,600,242 

121,435,768 

255,136,554 

33,093,497 

35,956,690 

298,602,650 

238,072,248 

204,759,746 

125,685,069 

12,423,442 

658,979 

33,975 

68,283 

3,690,976 

733,203 

132,730 

181,035 

50,839 

93,263 

353,628 

2,256,852 



Value. 



Wheat. 



$322,328 

650,561 

1,033,661 

960,666 

169,491 

901,852 

8,106,377 

3,877,862 

16,969,946 

1,455,639 

6,116,546 

12,064,648 

13,823,797 

9,l:;6,018 

17,290,717 

2,907,723 

16,419,300 

13,311,653 

9,029,714 

33,450,725 

16,115,059 

22,445,917 

6,665,116 

25,363,619 

25,051,460 

10,762,077 

27,930, L>27 

56,130,02J 

9,928,049 

7,191,338 

63,730,477 

47,614,450 

38,004,352 

22,623,312 

2,857,392 

158,155 

24,956 

38,921 

1,513,300 

410,594 

99,548 

88,707 

'3i,620 

37,30i 

194,496 

1,196,132 



Acres. 



4,365 
2,494 
6,382 



403,374 
108,139 
1,232,315 
92,181 
458,868 
699,526 
688,196 
134,160 
214,630 

" 49",771 

4,648 

se'sjioo 

164,500 

655,310 

406,017 

871,672 

2,422,224 

1,154,379 

2,206,923 

1,732,792 

555,885 

2,851,485 

700,245 

1,541,664 

2,976,667 

1,232,252 

2,43s,424 

2,907,510 

44,670 

7,623 

119,500 

39,669 

12,227 

109,086 

5,651 

68,646 

464,266 

593,136 

3,084,446 

227,426 



Bushels. 



Total 82,075,830 2,151,1,^,580 $644,985,534| 34,047,332 467,102,947 $237,938,998 27,878,406 824,443,537 $163,655,068 



83,808 

48,134 

185,078 



7,301,069 
1,340,924 
20,456,4'.'9 
1,069,300 
7,800,756 
6,505,583 
4,748,552 
858,624 
1,330,706 

373J283 
37,184 

2,08l',640 

1,452,300 

5,766,728 

4,303,780 

9,501,226 

32,216,579 

15,237,803 

20,294,492 

19,060,712 

8,616,218 

65,684,155 

13,654,778 

18,499,968 

22,919,566 

14,787,024 

29,261,088 

61,057,710 

1,065,223 

198,198 

2,808,250 

809,248 

250,654 

2,443,526 

122,627 

1,221,899 

7,195.962 

11,862,720 

40,097,798 

2,592,656 



Value. 



Oats. 



Acres. 



$68,723 

36,582 

127,704 



4,964,727 

952,058 

13,296,679 

684,352 

4,992,484 

4,228,629 

3,418,957 

755,589 

1,091,179 

'298,626 
22,682 

l",373,882 

856,857 

3,575.371 

2,969,608 

5,795,747 

19,329,347 

9,142,682 

11,567,860 

10,102,177 

4,394,271 

28,857,023 

6,281,198 

9,434,984 

10,313,805 

6,914,810 

11,119,213 

23,201,930 

777,613 

126,847 

1,572,620 

590,751 

162,925 

1,075,151 

60,087 

674,293 

2,950,340 

5,575,478 

24,058,679 

1,244,475 



Bushels. 



138,441 
29,651 
116,452 
15,274 
3,765 
23,267 
1,440,679 
107,561 
1,152,565 
24,544 
88,550 
459,043 
506,777 
288,837 
460,624 
39,836 
349,676 
132,281 
38,383 
703,825 
327,027 
454,887 
151,253 
506,819 
990,678 
973,439 
1,130,812 
3,020,784 
1,864.505 
1,954,764 
3,960,332 
1,102,806 
1,680.223 
1,676,962 
717.580 
594,016 
68,326 
14,175 
98,812 
9,869 

' 27,407 

"31,317 
91,116 

251,423 
60,144 



Value. 



6,551,484 

1,094,122 

5,100,598 

549,864 

121,986 

742.217 

45,666,354 

3,818,416 

36,536,311 

468,790 

2,320,010 

8,125,061 

7,652,333 

4,:i90,322 

6,679,048 

406,327 

5,210,172 

2,076,812 

575,745 

14,669,178 

8,306,486 

10,234,958 

3, 539,. 320 

13,252,458 

31,404,493 

23.265,192 

25,895,595 

73,707,130 

63,020,269 

77,995,084 

182,967,338 

30,547,699 

30.075,992 

39,911,696 

18,154,774 

19,067,914 

2,446,071 

581,175 

3,389,262 

393,773 

9'26,357 

1, '102, 358 
3,671,975 
7,240,982 
1,690,046 



$1,887,505 

382,943 

1,683,197 

186,954 

47,5-5 

230,087 

12,786,579 

1,107,341 

9,864,804 

135,949 

626,403 

2,437,618 

2,907,887 

2,151,258 

3,072,362 

264,113 

2,188,272 

809,957 

207,268 

3,787,986 

2,658,076 

2,763,4.39 

1,132,5S2 

3,445 639 

6,908,988 

5,350,994 

5,179.119 

12,530,212 

11,343,648 

10,919,312 

25,615.427 

5,498,586 

5,112,919 

5,587,637 

3,122,621 

3,050,866 

1,076,271 

226,658 

948,991 

177,198 

'277,907 

'3i9,684 

1,028,163 

1,956,065 

669,11b 



EXPORTS OF THE MAIN CEREALS FROM THE UNITED STATES. 



Fiscal. Yeaks 
July 1 to 3vs% 30. 



1875-76, 
1876-77, 
1877-78. 
1878-79, 
1879-80, 
1880-81, 
1881-82, 
1882-83 
1883-84 
1884-85 
1885-86 
1886-87 
1887-88 
1888-89 
1889-90 
1890-91 
1891-92 
1892-93 
1893-94 
1894-95 





CoKX. 






Wheat. 






Oats. 




Bushels. 


Aggregate 
Value. 


Average 

Value 
per Bush 


Bushels. 


^flt!t 


Average 

Value 

per Bush 


Bn.shels. 


Aggregate 
Value. 


Av'ge 

Value 

pr Bush 


49,493,572 


$33,265,280 


$0.67.2 


55,073,122 


$68,382,899 


$1.24.1 


• • • • 


• > • • 


.... 


70,860,983 


41,621,275 


58.7 


40,325,611 


47,135,562 


1.16.9 


• ■ ■ • 


• • • • 


.... 


85,461,098 


48,033,358 


56.2 


72,404,961 


96,872,016 


1.33.8 


3,716,479 


$1,177,926 


$0.34.4 


86,296,252 


40,656,120 


47.1 


122,353,9.36 


130,701,079 


1.06.8 


5,452,136 


1,618,644 


29.6 


98,169,877 


63,298,247 


64.3 


15.3,252,795 


190,646,305 


1.24.3 


766,366 


308,129 


40.2 


91,908,175 


50,702,669 


65.1 


150,565,477 


167,698,485 


1.11.3 


402,904 


186,899 


46.3 


43,184,915 


28,845,830 


66.7 


95,271,802 


112,929,718 


1.18.5 


625,690 


298,349 


47.6 


40,586,825 


27,756,082 


68.3 


106,385,828 


119,879,341 


1.12.6 


461,496 


233,843 


50.6 


45,247,490 


27,648,044 


61.1 


70,349,012 


75,026,678 


1.06.6 


1,760,376 


700,694 


30.9 


51,824,416 


28,003,863 


54.0 


84,653,714 


72,933,097 


86.2 


4,191,692 


1,589,640 


37.9 


63,655,433 


31,730,922 


49.8 


57,769,209 


50,262,715 


87.0 


5,672,694 


1,944,772 


34.3 


40,307,252 


19,347,361 


47.9 


101,971,949 


90,716,481 


89.0 


440,283 


179,634 


40.8 


24,278,417 


13,355,950 


55.0 


65,789,261 


56,241,168 


86.3 


332,564 


143,284 


43.4 


69,692,929 


32,982,277 


47.4 


46,414,129 


41,652,701 


89.7 


624,226 


246,562 


39.3 


101,973,717 


42,658,016 


41.8 


54,387,767 


45,275,906 


83.2 


13,692,776 


4,510,055 


32.9 


30,768,213 


17,662,687 


67.4 


55,131,948 


51,420,272 


93.2 


953,010 


405,708 


42.6 


75,451,849 


41,590,460 


65.1 


157,280,351 


161,.399,132 


1.02.6 


9,435,078 


3,842,569 


40.7 


46,037,274 


24,587,511 


63.4 


117,121,109 


93,5.34,970 


79.8 


2,380,643 


951,920 


39.0 


65,324,841 


30,211,164 


46.2 


88,415,230 


59,407,041 


67.2 


6,760,266 


2,027,935 


36.2 


1 27,691,137 


14,650,767 


62.9 


76,102,704 


43,805,663 


67.6 


669,977 


200,793 


30.4 



^tatiutitu of SKool in tje mnittti ^tattu. 163 



Year 
Ending 
June 3( 



Production. 



1870. 

1880. 

1881 . 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895, 



Imports. 



Pounds. 
162,000,000 
232,500,000 
240,000.000 
272,000,000 
290,000,000 
300,000,000 
308,000,000 
302,000,000 
285,000,000 
269,000,000 
265,000,000 
276,000,000 
285,000,000 
294,000,000 
303,000,000 
298,000,000 
310,000,000 



Total Pro- 
duction and 
Imports. 



Pounds. 

49,230,199 

128,131,747 

55,964,236 

67,861,744 

70,575,478 

78,350,651 

70,596,170 

129,084,958 

114,038,030 

113,558,753 

126,487,929 

105,431,285 

129,303,648 

148,760,652 

172,435,838 

i 55,152,558 

206,033,906 



Domestic 

Wool 
Exported 



Pounds. 
211,230,199 
360,631,747 
295,964,236 
339,861,744 
360,575,478 
378,350,651 
378,596,170 
431,084,958 
399,038,030 
382,558,753 
391,487,729 
381,431,285 
405,303,648 
442,670,652 
475,433,838 
353,152,558 
516,633,906 



Foreign 

Wool 

Exported 



Pounds. 

152,892 

191,551 

71,455 

116,179 

64,474 

10,393 

88,000 

2,138,080 

257,940 

22,164 

141,576 

231,042 

292,922 

202,456 

91,858 

520,217 

4,279,109 



Total 

Wool 

Exported 



Pounds. 
1,710,053 
3,648,520 
5,507,534 
3,831,836 
4,010,043 
2,304,701 
3,115,339 
6,534,426 
6,728,292 
4,359,731 
3,263,094 
3,288,467 
2,638,123 
3,007,563 
4,218,637 
5,977,407 
2,343,081 



Retained for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 



Pounds. 
1,862,945 
3,840,071 
5,578,989 
3,948,015 
4,074,517 
2,315,093 
3,203,345 
8,672,506 
6,986,232 
4,381,895 
3,404,670 
3,519,509 
2,931,045 
3,210,019 
4,310,495 
6,494,654 
6,622,190 



Pounds. 
209,367,254 
356,791,676 
290,385,247 
335,913,729 
356,500,961 
396,035,558 
375,392,825 
422,412,452 
392,051,998 
378,176,858 
388,083,059 
377,911,776 
402,372,603 
439,460,633 
471,123,343 
346,654,904 
509,411,716 



Per Cent 
Imp' ted 

23.3 
35.5 
18.9 
20.0 
19.7 
20.8 
18.8 
30.6 
29.1 
30.0 
31.7 
28.4 
31.8 
33.6 
36.2 
15.6 
39.8 



The above was prepared by the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department. 

THE WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF WOOL IN 1896. 

(Estimated from the latest returns. ) 



COUNTEIES. 



North America: 

United States 

British Provinces . 
Mexico 



Total. 



Central America 
and West Indies.. 

South America: 

AiKentina 

Brazil 

Chile 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

All other South 
America 



Total. 



Pounds. 



272,474,708 

12,000,000 

5,000,000 



289,474,708 



5,000,000 



280,000,000 

1,500,000 

7,500,000 

49,000,000 

15,000,000 

15,000,000 



368,000,000 



Countries. 



Europe : 

Great Britain*. 

France 

Spain 

Portugal 

Germany 

Italy 

Austria- Hungary. . 
Russia, inc. Poland, 

etc 

Sweden <fe Norway. 
Turkey and Balkan 

Peninsula 

All other Europe . . 

Total Europe 



Asia: 

Russia 

Central Asia. . 
British India. 



Pounds. 



135,000,000 
103,610,000 
102,600,000, 
13,410,000 
54,358,500 
29,000,000 
64,300,000j 

290,000,000 
8,200,000 

67,500,000 
14,000,000 



Countries. 



Asia — Continued. . 

Asiatic Turkey 

All other Asia.... 



746,978,500 



60,000,000 
46,000,000 
85,000,000! 



Total. 



Africa: 

Algeria, Tunis, etc. . 

Cape Colony, Natal, 

etc 

Egypt 

All other Africa 



Total. 



Australasia. 
Oceania 



Total 

Grand total. 



Pounds. 



39,000,000 
35,000,000 



265,000,000 



32,200,000 

93,000,000 
3,000,000 
1,000,000 



129,200,000 



643,000,000 
50,000 



643,050,000 



2,582,103,000 



* Fleece washed, 1895. 

The statistics of this and the following table are from "The Wool Book, " compiled for the Na- 
tional Association of Wool Manufacturers by S. N. D. North, Secretary. 

THE WORLD'S WOOL SUPPLY SINCE 1860. 



Countries. 


1860. 
Pounds. 

140,000,000 
500,000,000 
110,000,000 
60,000,000 
26, 000, 000 
43,000,000 
76,000,000 


1870. 
Pounds. 


1880. 
Pounds. 


1891. 
Pounds. 


1896. 
Pounds. 


Unitrf^d Kinerdom 


150,000,000 
485,000,000 
176,000,000 
175,000,000 

43,000,000 
197,000,000 

69,000,000 

1,295,000.000 


149,000,000 
450,000,000 
270,000,000 
308,000.000 
60,000,000 
256,000,000 
133,000,000 

1,626,000,000 


147,475.000 
639.917,000 
319,100,000 
550,000,000 
128,681,600 
376,700,000 
294,900,000 

2,456,773,600 


»135,000,000 


Continent of Europe 

North America 


611,978,500 
289,474,708 


Australasia 


643,000,000 


Cane Good Hone 


93,000,000 


River Plate 


329,000,000 


Other countries 


345,649,792 






Grand totals 


955,000,000 


2,582,103,000 



* Fleece washed, 1895. 

SHEEP IN THE 


UNITED 


STATES 


IN 1896 


>. 




States. 


Number. 


Value. 


States. 


Numberl 


Value. 


States. 


Number. 


Value. 


Maine 

N. Hamp 
Vermont 

Mass 

Rhode I. 

Conn 

New Y'k 
New Jer. 

Penna 

Delaw' re 
Maryla' d 
Virginia. 
N. Car. ... 
S. Car. ... 
Georgia... 
Flor da.... 
Alab'ma 


258,836 

87,111 

181,550 

48,395 

11,279 

34,520 

899,179 

45,089 

907.672 

12,358 

129,884 

426,889 

343,194 

74,465 

378,769 

101,777 

271,111 


$536,438 

184,849 

349,593 

159,703 

38,067 

91,892 

2,137,798 

182,340 

1,957,667 

35,739 

348,375 

894,760 

478,069 

109,762 

519,368 

188,573 

311,534 


Miss 

Louis' a... 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tenn 

WestVa. 
Kent'y... 

Ohio 

Michigan 
Indiana . 
Illinois ... 
Wiscon'n 

Minn 

Iowa 

Missouri.. 
Kansas ... 
Neb 


343,996 
146,571 
3,065,256 
188,972 
439,466 
514,783 
858,366 
2,754,613 
1,491,079 
727,509 
694,470 
770,350 
435,381 
565,137 
774,738 
258,390 
192,620 


$423,115 

203,353 

3,839,540 

244,662 

651,068 

894,281 

1,603,257 

5,247,538 

2,843,189 

1,669,779 

1,670,687 

1,498,176 

844,290 

1,399,279 

1,475,953 

413,966 

417,234 


S. Dak. ... 
N. Dak... 
Montana. 
Wyom'g. 
Colorado. 
N. Mex... 
Arizona . 

Utah 

Nevada . 

Idaho 

Wash'n. 
Oregon ... 
Califor' a. 
Oklah'a.. 

Total.. 


320,247 

359,828 
3,061,502 
1,393,693 
1,319,049 
2,738,030 

746,546 
1,998,441 

544,077 
1,011,852 

756,346 

2,630,949 

2,962,126 

22,322 

38,298,783 


$624,354 

710, 732 

4,740,429 

2,513,944 

2,251,881 

2,732,554 

930,196 

3,157,537 

930,372 

2,281,726 

1,318.462 

3,590,983 

6,483,784 

36,887 

65,167,735 



164 



The Cotton Supply. 



Ki^t i^dtton .Supplg* 



CROP OF THE UNITED STATES FOR SIXTY-EICHT YEARS. 

The following statements are furnished by the New York ' 'Commercial and Financial Chronicle' ' 



Yeab, 



1829.... 
1830..., 
1831.... 
1832... 
1833... 
1834..., 
1835... 
1836... 
1837... 
1838-. 
1839.. 
1840... 
1841... 
1842... 
1843... 
1844... 
1845... 



1, 

1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
2, 
1, 
1, 
2, 
2, 
2, 



Bales. 

"870;415~ 

976, 845 
038,848 
987,487 
070,438 
205,324 
254,328 
360, 752 
422,930 
801,497 
360,532 
177,835 
634,945 
683,574 
378,875 
030,409 
394.503 



Year. 



1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1858 

1859 

3860 

1861 

1862-1865 



Bales. 



2,100,537 
1,778,651 
2,347,634 
2,728,596 
2,096,706 
2,355.257 
3,015,029 
3,262,882 
2,930,027 
2,847,339 
3,527,845 
2,939,519 
3,113,962 
3,851,481 
4,669,770 
3,656,006 
No record 



Yeae. 



1866. 

1867. 
1868. 
1869., 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876., 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880., 
1881. 
1882. 



2, 
2, 
2, 
2, 
3, 
4, 
2, 
3, 
4, 
3, 
4, 
4, 

I 

6, 
5, 



Bales. 

"1937987' 
019,774 
593,993 
439,039 
154,946 
352,317 
974,351 
930,508 
170,388 
832,991 
669,288 
485,423 
811,265 
073,531 
757,397 
589,329 
435,845 



Year. 



1883. 
1884., 
1885., 
1886.. 
1887., 
1888. 
1889., 
1890. 
1891.. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894.. 
1895.. 
1896. 



Bales. 



i: 

5, 

6, 
6, 

I 

7, 
9' 

i: 

7, 
9, 
7, 



992,234 
714.052 
669,021 
550,215 
513,624 
017,707 
935,082 
313,726 
655,518 
038,707 
717,142 
527,211 
892,766 
162.473 



The returns are for the years ending September 1. The average net weight, per bale, for 1896 is 
482 pounds. 



EXPORTS AND DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION OF AMERICAN COTTON. 





1895-96. 


1894-95. 


1893-94. 


1892-93. 


1891-92. 


1890-91. 


1889-90. 


1888-89. 


Exp. to Europe.. 

Consumption U. 

S., Canada, etc.. 

Total 


Bales. 
4,565,014 

2,843,708 
7,408,722 


Bales. 
6,630,272 

3,081,825 
9,712,157 


Bales. 
5,183,645 

2,508,850 
7,692,495 


Bales. 
4,354,790 

2,786,077 
7,140,867 


Bales. 
5,815,365 

2,832,908 
8,648,273 


Bales. 
5,750,443 

2,642,912 
8,393,355 


Bales. 
4,885,326 

2,431,757 
7,317,083 


Bales. 
4,700,198 

!2, 372, 641 
7,072,839 



COTTON CONSUMPTION OF THE WORLD. 



CONSTTMPTIOX, BaLES, 500 I>BS. 



1886-87 
1887-88 
1888-89 
1889-90 
1890-91 
1891-92 
1892-93 
1893-94 
1894-95 
3895-96 



Great 
Britain. 

2.955,000 
3,073,000 
3,016,000 
3,227,000 
3,384,000 
3,182,000 
2,866,000 
3,232,000 
3,250,000 
3,276,000 



Continent. 



2,912,000 
3,037,000 
3,255,000 
3,432,000 
3,631,000 
3,619,000 
3,661,000 
3,827.000 
4,030,000 
4,160,000 



United 

States. 



1,938,000 
2,024,000 
2,148.000 
2, 285; 000 
2,430,000 
2,587,000 
2,576,000 
2,288,000 
2,818,000 
2,591,000 



India. 

5707000 
617,000 
697,000 
791,000 
924,000 
914,000 
918,000 
959,000 
1,052,000 
1,105,000 



Total 
World. 



8,375,000 

8,751,000 

9,116,000 

9,635,000 

10,369,000 

10,302,000 

10,021,000 

10,306,000 

11,150,000 

11,132,000 



Note.— The above does not include American cotton consumed in Canada, in Mexico, and burnt. 



SOURCES OF COTTON SUPPLY, 1896-97. 

The following is the estimate of Ellison & Co. for 1896-97: 



America 

East Indies 

Other Countries... 

Total 

Average Weight. 
Bales of 500 lbs . 



Total 



Bales. 
8,853,000 
830,000 
1,043,000 



10,726,000 

482.7 

10,355,000 



SPINDLES IN OPERATION. 





1896. 


1895. 


1894. 


1893. 


1892. 


1891. 


Great Britain.. 

Continent 

United States.. 
East Indies 


44,900,000 

29,350,000 

16,811,000 

3,933,000 


45,400,000 

28,250,000 

16,133,000 

3,810,000 


45,270,000 

27,350,000 

15,841,000 

3,650,000 


45,270,000 

26,850,000 

15,641,000 

., 3,576,000 


45,350,000 

26,405,000 

15,277,000 

3,402,000 


44,750,000 

26,035,000 

14,781,000 

3,351,000 


Total 


94,994,000 


93,593,000 


92,111,000 


91,337,000 


90,434,000 


88,917,000 



Sugar Production. 



165 



THE COTTON CROP OF THE UNITED STATES BY STATES. 

The following compilation by the Commercial mid Financial Chronicle covers estimates for the five 
seasons from 1890 to 1895, The returns for 1889-90 are by the United States Census, 



States. 



1889-90. 



North Carolina 
South Carolina, 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas , 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

All others 



Total crop. 7,471,116 



Bales. 

336, 245 

746, 798 

1,191,919 

57,928 

915, 414 
1,154,406 

659,583 
1,470,353 

691,423 

189,072 
57,975 



1890-91. I 1891-92. 1892-93 



Bales. 
588, 000 
859,000 

1,310,000 
53,000 

1,011,000 

1,209,000 
736, 000 

1, 708, 000 

760, 000 

345,000 

76,000 



Bales. I 
518,000 
773,000 

1,245,000 
50,000 

1,016,000 

1,330,000 
798,000 

2, 032, 000 

825, 000 

365,000 

87,000, 



Bales. 
388,000 
587,000 
934,000 

45,000 
660,000 
851,000 
509,000 
1,850,000 
574,000 
255,000 

64.000 



8,655.000 9,039, 000 6, 717, 000 



1893-94. 



Bales. 

447,000 

675,000 

1,046,000 

56,000 

792,000 
1,021,000 

529,000 
1,966,000 

632,000 

280.000 
83; 000 



7,527,000 



1894-95. 



Bale.s. 

465,000 

750,000 

1,200,000 
65,000 

1,000,000 

1,200,000 
650,000 

3,114,000 
875,000 
400,000 
173.000 



9,892,000 



<Su0ar protruttton* 



Mulh:ai.Ij gives the following estimates of the production of caue and beet sugar in the world in 

English tons: 



Years. 


Cane. 


Beet. 

Tons. 
50,000 
200,000 


Total. 


Yeahs. 


Caue. 


Beet. 


Total. 


Yeaes, 


Cane. 


Beet. 


Total. 


1840... 
1850. . . 


Tons. 
1,100,000 
1,200,000 


Tons. 
l,150,O0Qi 
1,400,005 


11860... 
11870... 


Tons. 
1,830,000 
1,850,01X11 


O O Cj 


Tons. 
2,200,000 
2,750,(KK) 


1880. . . 
1889. . . 


Tons. 
1,860,000 
2,580,000 


Tons. 
1,810,000 
2,780,000 


Tons. 
3,670,000 
5,360,000 



The estimate of Licht of the beet sugar production of European countries in the season of 1893-94 Is, 
in metric tons, as follows: Germany, 1,350,000; Austria-Hungary, 845,000; France, 575,000; Russia, 
650,000; Belgium, 235,000; Netherlands, 75,000; other coimtries, 111.000; total, 3,841,000 metric tons. 

The estimate by the same authority of cane sugar production in the countries of the world in the 
season of 1893-94 is, in metric tons, as follows: Cuba, 850,000 ; Java, 480,000; United States, 265,000; Philip- 
pine Islands, 265,000; Brazil, 260,000; Hawaiian Islands, 135,000; Mauritius, 155.000; Demerara, 110,000: 
Egypt, 70,000; Barbadoes, 65,000; Peru, 65,000; Puerto Rico, 60,000; Trinidad, 50,000; Guadeloupe, 40,000; 
Reunion, 37,000; Martinique, 32,000; Jamaica, 25,000; Lesser Antilles, 25^000 ; total, 2,960.000 metric tons. 

According to these estimates^ the aggregate production of beet and cane sugar in 1893-94 was: Beet, 
3,841,000 metric tons ; cane, 2.960.000 metric tons; total, 6,801,000 metric tons. 

One metric ton is equal to 2,204.6 pounds, only a few pounds less than our long ton of 2,240 pounds. 



SUGAR PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES, 1892- 

(Compiled by the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.) 



94. 



States 


1892. 


1893. 


1894, 


Total for Three Years. 


Whbek Pkoducbd. 


Pounds. 


Bounty Paid 


Pounds. 


Bounty Paid 


Pounds". 


Bounty Paid 


Pounds. 


Bounty Paid 


CANK. 

Louisiana , 

Texas 

Florida 


357,816,014 

8,997,231 

929,518 

9,543 


Dollars. 

6,882,589.83 

176,301.73 

18,233.79 

190.86 


445,854,797 

9,068,077 

215,464 

3,043 


Dollars. 

8,584,865.54 

174,943.90 

3,960.45 

60.86 


597,963,187 

11,882,852 

1,304,325 

6;558 


Dollars. 

10,869,205.84 

223,165.92 

22,113.37 

114.76 


1,401,634,998 

29,948,160 

2,449,307 

19,144 


Dollars. 

26,336,661.21 

574,411. S5 

44,307.61 

366.48 


Mississippi.. . 


Total Cane 


367,752,306 


7,077,316.21 


455,141,381 


8,763,830.75 


611,156,922 


11,114,599.89 


1,434,051,609 


26,955,746.85 




Kansas •••.. 


1,136,086 


22,197.28 


1,026,100 
950 


19,798.00 
19.00 


882,572 


17,312.26 


3,044,758 
950 


'\<* .^(17 Id 


Minnesota 


19.00 


Total Sjrghmn 


1,136,086 


22,197.28 


1,027,050 


19,817.00 


882,572 


17,312.26 


3,045,708 


59,326.54 


California 


8,175,438 
2,734,500 
1,094,900 


163,510.56 
54,690.00 
21,898.00 


21,801.288 
3,808,500 
1,473,500 


4J5, 723.81 
76,170.00 
29,470.00 


35,088.969 

5,943,200 

4,108,500 

50,627 


655,768.84 

118,864.00 

77,542.00 


65,065,695 

12,486,200 

6,676,900 

50,627 


1,245,003.21 
249,724.00 
12S 110 00 


Nebraska ,••••••••,••,, 


Utah 


Virginia 




Total Beet 


12,004,838 


240,098.56 


!^7.083,28S 


531,563.81 


45,191,296 


852,174.84 


84,279,422 


1,623,637.21 


Maine 


3,246 

82,503 

2,416,478 

7,013 
753,117 
245,222 
117,600 

8,968 
271,867 

1,300 


12r.58 

1,151.15 

142.15 

'1,050.86 


4,348 

174,544 

4,660,720 

54,589 

1,586,483 

454,260 

150,915 

9,017 


" 51.42 

1,127.36 

36,225.23 

11, 703'. 90 

4,234.57 

2,131.28 

1.^3.4S 


1,042 

147,790 

5,074,178 

48,996 

1,578,580 

327,486 

143.160 

12,000 

215,287 

"7'3',464 
11,053 


57.70 

2,480.13 

68,267.80 

865.94 

25,401.06 

8,090.39 

2,763.39 

156.26 

6,153.94 

'l,66'8".65 
216.64 


8,636 

404,837 

12,151,376 

110,598 

3,918,180 

1,026,968 

411,675 

29,985 

912,444 

1,300 

261,268 

32,838 


109.12 


New Hampshire 

Vermont 


3,607.49 

104,493.03 

987.52 

38,256.11 

12.467.11 

4,894.67 

309.74 

10,706.43 

11.51 

2,577.64 

286.59 


Massachusetts 


New York 

Pennsylvania 


Maryland 

West Virginia ,••,, 


Ohio 


425,290 3,501.63 
11.51 

119,778 908.99 
15,172 69.95 




Michigan , . 

Minnesota 


68,026 

6,613 


Total Maple 


3,981.9531 2.465.74 


7.665,1161 60,119.32 


7,633,036 116,121.901 


19,270,105 


178,706.96 



Note 1. — $965,185.84 was paid as bounty from July 1, 1894, to August 28, 1894, when the bounty law was repealed. The sugar 
covered by these payments was produced in the fiscal years ended June 30, 1893, and June 30, 1894. 

Note 2. — It will be observed that bounty payments by fiscal years do not correspond to the sugar produced each fiscal year, for 
the reason that the pajTnents on one year's product have, to a large extent, been made in a subsequent year. 

The importation of sugar into the United States in the fiscal year 1894 was 3,834,843,605 pounds of cane sugar, valued at $111,- 
078,848, and 610,350,276 pounds of beet sugar, valued at $15,793,041. The exports for the same period were 14,778,416 pounds of 
refined sugar, valued at $653,052. The importation of molaies for the same period was 19,670,663 gallons, valued at $1,984,778, 
and the exports were 9,385,359 gallons, valued at $1,038,680. 



166 



Production of Tobacco. 



K%t American ?l^ofi. 

HOGS PACKED AND MARKETED, YEAR ENDING MARCH 1, 1896. 



Cities. 


Number of 
Hogs. 


Cities. 


Number of 
Hogs. 


Cities. 


Number of 
Hogs. 


CMcaffO 


5,490,410 
2,104,213 
1,002,800 
837,377 
675,346 
717,314 
190,000 
559,780 
348,035 


Cedar Rapids 

Cleveland 


347,904 
432,752 
238,162 
335,053 
125,590 
215,500 
185,831 
1,204,574 
1,290.000 


BuflFalo 

Other Places East. .. 

Receipts at New 
York, PhUadel- 
phia, and Balti- 
more 

Total 


463,000 


Kansas City 


850,000 


Omaha 


Louisville 


St Louis 


Ottumwa 




Indianapolis 

Milwaukee 


Nebraska City 

St. Joseph 


.2,867,000 


Sioux City 


Detroit 


Cincinnati 


Other Places West. . 
Boston 


20,480,000 


St. Paul 







DISTRIBUTION OF HOG PRODUCTS EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES. 



Countries. 
1894-95. 



United Kingdom 

France 

Germany , 

Belgium , 

Netherlands 

Denmark 

Sweden and Norway. . . 

Spain 

Italy 

Cuba 

Hayti 

Porto Rico 

Britist "West Indies. . . . 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Venezuela 

British. Guiana 

Peru 

Quebec, Ontario, etc.*. 

Nova Scotia, etc 

Newfoundland, etc 

AU other 



Bacon. 
Pounds. 



346,'J10,100 

9,296,962 

13,160,325 

38,323,194 

8,200,198 

422,322 

2,263,290 

49,783 



Hams. 
Pounds. 



Pork. 
Pounds. 



Year, to June 30. 
Value 



6,137,535 

1,625 

399,222 

184,252 

86,451 

22,564,112 

6,097 

34,895 

8,487 

2,983 

5,260,780 

35,012 

84,700 

817,651 



89,800,462 

545,086 

1,977,568 

1,703,769 

1,430,994 

35,697 

355,634 

10,533 

20,915 

3,929,994 

330,407 

680,411 

412,126 

211,148 

18,470 

92,805 

645,656 

255,316 

15,333 

1,863,646 

31,786 

118,528 

1,007,839 



14,268,862 

236,600 

2,149,850 

268,000 

491,282 



Total 

Meats. 
Pounds. 



167,900 



452,549,976 105,494,123 
$37,776,293 $10,960,567 



462,640 

13,507,550 

3,285,200 

7,460,033 

2,068 

1,128,292 

83,314 

25,200 

2,885,190 

15,100 

4,757,080 

1,208,443 

2,020,340 

3,849,949 



58,206,893 
$4,138,400 



450,279,424 

10,078,648 

17,287,743 

40,284,963 

10,122,474 

458,019 

2,786,824 

60,316 

20,915 

9,530,169 

13,839,582 

4,364,833 

8,065,411 

299,667 

23,705,874 

182,216 

705,751 

3,148,993 

33,416 

11,881,506 

1,275,241 

2,223,568 

5,675,439 



Lard. 
Pounds. 



616,310,992 

$52,875,260 



184,251,911 

34,665,860 

104,121,137 

38,163,335 

28,456,561 

6,952,467 

3,357,535 

70,134 

625,760 

30,672,512 

.3,267,090 

3,414,798 

2,430,443 

1,908,076 

12,556,491 

1,928,235 

6,754,790 

395,347 

89,851 

2,139,740 

71,112 

187,081 

8,415,008 



Aggregate, 
1894-95. 



474,895,274 
$36,821,508 



634,531,356 

44,744,508 

121,408,880 

78,448,298 

38,579,035 

7,410,486 

6,144,359 

130,450 

646,675 

40,202,681 

17,106,672 

7,779,631 

10,495,854 

2,207,743 

36,262,365 

2,110,451 

7, 460,. 541 

3,544,340 

123,267 

14,021,246 

1,346,353 

2,410,649 

14,090,447 



Aggregate, Aggregate, 
1893-94. 1892-93. 



1,091,206,266 
$89,696,768 



571,803,803 

30,784,061 

112,273,417 

69,792,329 

49,117,563 

8,723,986 

7,087,845 

308,582 

868,240 

54,393,328 

16,323,240 

9,490,972 

12,008,851 

1,693.287 

24,951,934 

1,954,456 

8,725,171 

4,904,088 

99,643 

20,057,573 

1,470,183 

2,982,523 

14,955,821 



1,014,770,896 
$93,341 ,4S7 



653,395,332 

16,465,492 

79,885,523 

63,602,018 

32,785,746 

7,435,986 

3,904,062 

371,867 

1,482,100 

56,181,046 

14,111,412 

7,539,903 

10,779,691 

4,287,257 

7,547,164 

1,415,357 

7,858,455 

3,585,023 

554,174 

10,842,421 

1,118,112 

2,697,114 

14,244,297 



892,089,552 
$84,475,505 



* Includes Manitoba, Northwest Territories, and British Columbia. 

The tables of statistics of hog products were compiled by the Cincinnati I^ice Current. 

The Department of Agriculture reported the following farm animals in the United States in 1896: 
Horses, 15,124,057, value, 8500,140,186; mules, 2,278.946, value, $103,204,457; mUch cows, 
16,137,586, value, $363,955,545; oxen and other cattle, 32,085,409, value, $508,928,416; sheep, 
38,298,783, value, $65,167,735; swine, 42,842,759, value, $186,529,745. 

j^rotructton of S^tiibaccd* 

STATEMENT OF PEODXJCTION IN THE UNITED STATES IN THE YEAR ENDING JANTJAItY 1, 1895, 
FROM THE REPORT OE THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 



States. 


Acres. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


States. 


Acres. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Arkansas 

Connecticut. . . . 


1,932 

6,731 

2,980 

5,369 

236,927 

11,822 

2,323 

11,581 

5,530 


1,195,908 
10,176,908 
1,790,980 
3,841,952 
183,618, 425 
7,010,380 
3,449,655 
8,296,749 
6,934,620 


$131,550 

1,628,305 
132,533 
199,782 
10,099,013 
420,623 
344,966 
755,004 
554,770 


N. Carolina 

Ohio 


63,510 
37,493 
21,341 
39,300 
54,592 
3,737 
18,066 


42,043,620 

32,468,938 
26,228,089 
26,724,000 
35,593,984 
2,634,585 
14,669,592 


$3,783,926 
1,753.323 


Illinois 


Pennsylvania. . 

Tennessee 

Virginia 

West Virginia. . 
Wisconsin 

Total 


2,360,528 


Indiana 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . 

Missouri 

New York 


2,405,160 

2,135,639 

263,459 

792,158 


523,103 


406,678,385 


$27,760,739 



The number of cigarettes manufactured in the United States in 1890-91 was, according to the 
Internal Revenue returns, 2,877,799,440. The value of domestic leaf tobacco exported from the 
United States, year ending June 30, 1895, was $25,622,776; value of leaf tobacco imported same 
period, $14,745,720. 

The broduct of tobacco in Europe is nearly eoual in quantity to the average production of the 
United States. Neumann-Spallart has usually made it about 500, 000, 000 pounds. Austria- Hungarj' 
produces about one- third of it, Russia one- tenth, Germany nearly as much, France about 35, 000, 000 

Eounds, and the other countries a small quantity. Europe can easily produce all the tobacco required, 
ut two reasons are prominent for importation of tobacco from this country. It is very cheap, and it 
Is very desirable for mixing with and fortifying European leaf. 



Fisheries of the United States. 



167 



Census of 1890. 



Statbs and Tkkbi- 

TORtES. 



AvBRAGK Number of 

Employes and Total 

Wages. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut. 

Dakota 

Delaware 

Dist. of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Ter. 

Iowa 

Kansas. 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 



Employes Wages. 

33,821 

86 

528 

15,972 

83,642 

17,067 

149,939 

4,269 

21,906 

23,404 

13,927 

56,383 

774 

312,198 

124,349 

175 

59,174 

32,843 

65,579 

31,901 

75,780 
107,054 
485,182 
163,941 

79,629 

15,817 
143,139 



$12,676,029 

22,173 

358,127 

5,749,888 

51,538,780 

12,285,734 

75,990,606 

2,101,299 

9,892,387 

14,622,264 

6,513,068 

17,312,196 

324,202 

171,523,579 

51,749,976 

79,830 

25,878,997 

16,328,485 

27,761,746 

13,159,564 

26,526,217 

41,526,832 

239,670,509 

66,347,798 

38,189,239 

4,913,863 

76,417.364 



Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Receipts from 
Custom Work 
and Repairing. 



$51,226,605 

58,440 

947,547 

22,659,179 

213,403,996 

42,480,205 

248,336,364 

10,710,855 

37,571,848 

39,8.31,437 

18,222,890 

68,917,020 

1,396,096 

908,640,280 

226,825,082 

248,932 

125,049,183 

110,219,805 

126,719,857 

57,806,713 

95,689,500 

171,842,593 

888,100,403 

277,896,706 

192,033,478 

18,705,834 

324,561,993 



States and Terri- 
tories. 



Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina. . 
North Dakota... 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . 
Rhode Island... 
South Carolina. . 
South Dakota... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia., . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Average Number of 

Employes and Total 

Wages. 



Employes Wages. 



Total 



2,696 

23,876 

620 

63,361 

187,398 

944 

850,084 

36,214 

1,847 

331,548 

195 

18,798 

620,562 

85,976 

24,662 

2,422 

42,759 

39,475 

4,980 

24,894 

59,591 

20.366 

21,969 

132,031 

1,144 



Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Receipts from 
Custom Work 
and Repairing. 



$1,948,213 

12,984,571 

445,503 

24,248,054 

96,778,736 

532,727 

466,846,642 

7,830,536 

1,002,881 

158,768,883 

71,918 

11,535,229 

305,591,003 

37,927,921 

6,590,983 

1,098,418 

16,899,351 

18,586,338 

2,715,805 

10,096,549 

19,644,850 

12,658,614 

8,330,997 

51,843,708 

878,646 



4,712,622 $2,283,216,529 $9,372,437,283 



$5,507,573 

93,037,794 

1,105,063 

85,770,549 

354,573,571 

1,516,195 

1,711,577,671 

40,375,450 

5,028,107 

641,688,064 

180,445 

41,432,174 

1,331,794.901 

142,500,625 

31,926,681 

5,682,748 

72,355,286 

70,433,551 

8,911,047 

38,340,066 

88,363,824 

41,768,022 

38,702,125 

248,546,164 

2,367,601 



Number of establishments reporting, 322,638; capital, $6,139,397,785; miscellaneous expenses, 
$615,337,620. OflBcers, firm members, and clerks, average number, 426,099; total wages, $372,078,691. 
All other employes, average number, 4,050,785; total wages, $1,799,671,492. Cost of materials used, 
$6,021,453,326; value of products, $9,056,764,996, 



jFtisJrriejs of t^t 5iHitetr .States, 

Census of 1890. 
Value of the Fishing Industry, Census Year, by States. 



States. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland* 

Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . . . 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina... 

Texas 

Virginia 

Washington 

Wisconsin 



General 
Food-Fish 
and Bait 

Fisheries. 



Menha- 
den Fish- 
ery. 



$46,119 

2,301,055 

687,902 

244,925 

163,443 

702,090 

66,495 

23,836 

21,693 

239,449 

1,410,428 

765,199 

5,848,932 

933,005 

6,238 

64,368 

77,364 

1,393,151 

1,153,189 

806,560 

615,609 

817,828 

393,303 

283,926 

150,690 

164,200 

812,870 

649,817 

399,272 



$28,622 



60,533 



27,609 

291,165 

15,920 



28,771 



186,048 



Molluscan 


Crustacean 


Fisheries. 


Fisheries. 


(Oysters, 
Clams, 


(Crabs, 


Lobsters, 


Scallops.) 


Shrimp.) 


$107,812 




782,627 


$■353,547 


1,476,435 


101,318 


75,910 


8,081 


109,649 


2,742 


40,820 


7,141 


"299,896 


■ "ll6,911 


• 165,487 


649,891 


5,304,092 


308,371 


343,171 


206,338 


' 166,672 


14,659 


975 


13,142 


2,142,444 


61,639 


3,570,211 


26,694 


188,457 


6,620 


■■"3,887 


i65 


101,850 




359,216 


"53,762 


23,204 


20,332 


127,990 


10,765 


2,556,098 


62^14 


153,695 


4,050 

$2,028,282 


$18,100,598 



Reptilian ' 
Fisheries. Whale 
(Turtle, Fisheries. 
Terrapin; 



Seal and 
Sea-Otter 
Fisheries. 



$9401 



8,050 $1,006,662 
.... I 1,723 

3,431' 

86,706: 

9,107 



25,028 
22,564 
' 1,000 

' 1,047 

' 5,714 
3,074 



8,376 
10,877 
24,152 

5,250 



1,132,753 



4,398 



600 



$109,793 
205,943 
18,390 



46,526 



121,528 



Sponge 
Fishery, 



$438,682 



Total, 



$154,871 

2,410,848 

3,044,731 

1,871,413 

250,865 

1,339,869 

123,563 

23,836 

21,693 

681,284 

2,225,806 

6,460,759 

7,531,194 

934,005 

6,238 

245,699 

91,481 

3,625,890 

5,041,259 

1,027,669 

618,683 

868,406 

495,153 

725,675 

202,602 

313,832 

3,641,282 

934,940 

399,272 



Total $21,242,956 $638,688 $18,100,598 $2,028,282 $215,316 $2,146,136 $502,180 $438,682 $45,312,818 

* Includes District of Columbia. 



168 


Consu7nptio7i of Spirits, Malt L 


dquors, 


and Wines. 


J^rotrttcticn of Hiquovn ants Winuu in ti) 


t sanitttr ^taUs, 


PRODUCTION OF FERMENTED L! 


QUORS 


AND DISTILLED SPIRITS. 




Fermented 
Liquors. 


Production of Distilled .Spirits, Exclusive of Brandy Distilled from Fruit. | 


Production 

of Fruit 

Brandy. t 


Total Pro- 


Year 

Ending 
Junk 30. 


Bourbon 
Whiskey. 


Rye 

Whiskey. 


Alcohol. 


Rum. 


Gin. 


PureNeutral 
Spirits. 


duction of 
Distilled 
Spirits. 




Barrels.* 


Gallons. 


Gallou.s. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


1878 


10,241,471 


6,405,520 


2,834,110 


10,277,725 


1,603,376 


364,963 


11,108,023 


1,239,403 


57,342,456 


1879 


11,103,084 


8,587,081 


4,001 ,04s 


19,594,283 


2,243,455 


372,776 


13,459,486 


996,750 


72,888,373 


1880 


13,347,111 


15,414,148 


6,341,991 


21,631,009 


2,439,301 


394,668 


20,657,975 


1,023,147 


91,378.417 


1881 


14,311,028 


33,632,615 


9,931,609 


22,988,969 


2,118,506 


549,596 


23,556,608 


1,799,861 


119,528,011 


1882 


16,952,085 


29,575,667 


9,224,777 


15,201,671 


1,704,084 


669,134 


27,871,293 


1,430,054 


107,283,215 


1883 


17,757,892 


8,662,245 


4,784,65-! 


10,718,706 


1,801,960 


545,768 


28,295,253 


1,281,202 


75,294,510 


1884 


18,998,619 


8,896,832 


5,059,958 


12,385,229 


1,711,158 


641,724 


28,538,680 


1,095,428 


76,531,167 


1885 


19,185,953 


12,277,750 


5,328,043 


13,436,916 


2,081,165 


639,461 


27,104,382 


1,489,711 


76,405,074 


1886 


20,710,933 


19,318,819 


7,842,540 


11,247,877 


1,799,952 


656,607 


26,538,581 


1,504,880 


81,849,260 


1887 


23,121,520 


17,01 5,0.']4 


7,313.640 


10,337,035 


1,857,223 


747,025 


27,066,219 


1,601,847 


79,433,446 


1888 


24,680,219 


7,463,609 


5,879,690 


11,075,639 


1,891,246 


872,990 


29,475,913 


1,408,782 


71,688,188 


1889 


25,119,853 


21,960,784 


8,749,768 


10,939,135 


1,471,054 


1,029,968 


30,439,354 


1,775,040 


91,133,550 


1890 


27,561,944 


32,474,784 


13,355,577 


11,354,448 


1,657,808 


1,202,040 


34,022,619 


1,825,810 


111,101,738 


1891 


30,497,209 


29,931,415 


14,345,389 


12,260,821 


1,784,312 


1,293,874 


35,356,126 


1,804,712 


117,767,101 


1892 


31,856,626 


29,017,797 


13,406,827 


14,490,987 


1,956,318 


1,338,617 


37,690,335 


3,667,465 


118,436,506 


1893 


34,591,179 


4fi,835,873 


16,702,240 


12,250,380 


2,106,765 


1,424,490 


37,577,052 


2,358,548 


131,010,330 


1894 


33,362,373 


15,518,349 1 10,026,544 


10,570,070 


1,864,695 


1,287,977 


35,377,115 


2,948,158 


92,153,650 


*0f no 


t more than 3 


1 gallons. tlncluding ap 


pie, peach, ar 


d grape. Illinois produced the largest amount of distilled spirits in 


1894, being 


' 30,805,317 gs 


illons ; Kentucky was secc 


nd with 20,159,02:; gallons ; Ohio, 8,712,704 gallons ; Pennsylvania, 5,499,448 


gallons ; K 


ew York, 4,2£ 


)6,S57 gallons. 

















Indiana, '224,500; Kansas,' 136,99(5; 
2,628,250; North Carolina, 388,833; 
other States and Territories. 1,875,000. 



PRODUCTION OF WINES. 

The census of 1890 reported the following production of wines in the United States in the census 
vear, by gallons: Arizona, 25,000; California, 14,626,000; Georgia. 107,666; Illinois, 250,000; 
^ -- s.^. _„„ „ -„A „„^ Missouri, 1,2.50,000; New Mexico, 296,500; New York, 

Ohio, 1,934,833; Tennessee, 208,333; Virginia, 461,000; 
Total, United State.s, 24,306,905. 

MALT LIQUORS. 

The brewers of the United States, according to the Brewers' Journal^ sold in the revenue year 
ending June 30, 1895, 33,469,661 barrels of malt liquors. The sales in the largest cities in the United 
States in the year ending June 30, 1895, were as follows, in barrels: New York City, 4,691,464; 
Chicago, 2,648,335; Milwaukee, 2,037,024; St. Louis, 1.912,869; Philadelphia. 1,819,113 ; Brooklyn, 
1,814,553; Cincinnati, 1,224 372 ; Is^ewark, 1,126,319 ; Boston, 1,092.379. By States the largest sales 
in the same period were : New York, 9,659,215; Tennsylvania, 3,599,949; Illinois, 3,294,495; Wis- 
consin, 2,794,866. 

^Importation of Spirits, J^alt ILiqttorgs, antr fSIines 

INTO TSB UNITED STATES, IN QUANTITIES. 



Malt Liquors, in bottles or jugs, gallons 

' ' not in bottles or jugs, gallons 

Spirits, Distilled and Spirituous Compounds, Brandy, 

proof, gallons 

Spirits, Distilled and Spirituous Compounds, aU other, 

I) roof , gallons 

Wines, still wines in casks, gallons 

" still wines in bottles, dozen 

^ ' Champagne and other sparkling, dozen 



1893. 



1,296,586 
2,068,803 

326,303 

1,024,751 

3,525,625 

413,860 

374,124 



1894. 



931,172 
1,979,368 

201,433 

893,131 

2,599,693 

296,097 

237,360 



1895. I 1896. 



943,939 

2,027,737 

313,327 

1,139,710 

2,789,153 

296,779 

257.757 



1,038,641 
2,244,763 

259,704 

1,249,895 

2,834,898 

314,190 

246,393 



VALUES. 



Malt Liquors 

Spirits, Distilled, and Compounds. 
Wines 



SI , 940. 370 $1 , 510, 767 1 

2,000,319 1,499,604| 

10.205.353 6,739.478 



i^l , 514, 845 1 $1 , 665, 016 
2,060,449 2,137,634 
7,183,5371 7,107,005 



^onjsttmptton of Spirits, JBalt ILiquors, antr WiinzH 

IN THE UNITED STATES, IN GALLONS. 



Year 
Ending 
JhnkSO. 


Distilled Spikits Consumed. 


Domestic Spirits. 


Imported 
Spirits. 




From Fruit. 


All Other. 


1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884.... 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 


1,005,781 
1,701,206 
1,216,850 
1,253,278 
1,137,056 
1,468,775 
1,555,994 
1,211,532 
888,107 
1,294,858 
1,508,130 
1,219,436 
1,961,062 
1,687,541 
1,430,553 


61,126,634 

67,426.000 
70,759,548 
75,508,785 
78,459,845 
67,689,250 
69,295,361 
68,385,504 
73,313,279 
77,802.483 
84,760,240 
88,335,4^3 
95,187,385 
98,202,790 
88,046,771 


1,394,279 
1,479,875 
1,-580,578 
1,690,621 
1,511,680 
1.442,067 
1,410,259 
1,467,697 
1,643,966 
1,515,817 
1,561,192 
1.602,646 
1,179,671 
1,307,422 
1,063,885 



Wines Consumkd. 


Domestic 


Imported 


Wines. 
23,298,940 


Wines. 


5,030,601 


18,931,819 


5,231,106 


19,934,856 


5,628.071 


17,406,028 


8,372,152 


17,402,938 


3,105,407 


17,404,698 


4,495,759 


20,866,393 


4,700,827 


27,706,771 


4,618,290 


31,680,523 


4,654,545 


29,610,104 


4,534,373 


23,896,108 


5,060,873 


23.736,232 


5,297,560 


23,033,493 


5.434,367 


26,391,235 


5,596,584 


18,040,385 


3,252,739 



Malt Liquors 


Consumed. 


Domestic 


Imported 


Malt Liquors. 


Malt Liqnor8 


413,208,885 


1,011.280 


442,947,664 


1,164,505 


524,843,379 


1,536,601 


549,616,338 


1,881,002 


588,005,609 


2,010,908 


594,063,095 


2,068,771 


640,746,288 


2,221,432 


715,446,038 


2,302,816 


765,086,789 


2,500,267 


777,420,207 


2,477,219 


853,075,734 


2,716,601 


974,427,863 


3,051,898 


984,515,414 


2,980,809 


1,071,183,827 


3,362,509 


1,033,378,273 


2,940,949 



Total 
Consumption. 



506,076,400 

538,882.175 

625,499,883 

655,728,207 

691,653,443 

688,632,415 

740,796,554 

821,138,648 

879,767,476 

894,655,061 

972,578,878 

1,097.671,118 

1,114,292,201 

1,207,731 908 

1.148,163,566 



Tea and Coffee. 



169 



S2aine l^rotruction of tiftr ®3aorltr* 

The following table shows estimates of wine production by the principal wine-producing countries 
of the world in 1891 and 1894, the authority for the first estimate being Consul Chancellor, of 
Havre, in the United States Consular report for September, 1895; the second by the French publica- 
tion the Moniteur Vinicole: 



COUNTKIES. 


Chancellor, 
1891. 


Moniteur 

Vinicole, 

1895. 


Countries. 


Chancellor, 
1891. 


Moniteur 

Vinicole, 

1895. 


Italy 


Gallons. 
923,250,000 
897,654,000 
789,425,000 
115,300,000 
98,000,000 

75"6b6,"6oo 


Gallons. 
469,555,000 
379,500,000 
587,127,000 

43,890,000 
129,030,000 

83,549,000 


Turkey 

Bulgaria 


Gallons. 
73,000,000 
70,000,000 
38,000,000 
23,724,000 
13,500,000 

■ 'sod", 000 


Gallons. 
52,800,000 


Spain 

France 

Portugal 

Austria- Hungary . . . 
Alereria 


26,400,000 
35.200,000 
89,700.000 
80,190,000 
68,640,000 


Greece 

United States 

Germany 


Roumania 


Russia 


Switzerland 


27,500,000 



Consul Chancellor, quoting from the report of the French Minister of Agriculture (1895), gives the 
following as the wine production of France for aseries of j^ears, in gallons: 1887, 546,797,000; 1888, 
677.289,000; 1889, 646,822,342; 1890. 726,519,665; 1891, 789,425,247; 1892, 645,571,600; 1893, 
1,334,616,191. Although there was such a great increase in the quantity of wine made in 1893 over 
that of the six preceding years, that increase was confined to forty departments of the seventy* seven 
in whicll wine was made. 

l^ttv protructton of f^t Mlocltr. 

The Brewers' Journal of New York, quoting from the Vienna publication, Gambrinus, gives the 
following estimate of the production of malt liquors by countries in 1895, by hectoliters (a hectoliter 
is equal to 26. 414 gallons) : 



COUNTEIES. 



German Empire 

Great Britain and Ireland. . . 

United States 

Austria-Hungary 

Canada, Central and South 

America, and Mexico 

Belgium 

France 

Russia 

Denmark 

Switzerland 



No. of 
Brew- 
eries. 



21,395 

8,937 

* 2,112 

1,747 



2,914 

2,627 

1,148 

332 

321 



Hectoliters. 



55,243,753 

53,003,945 

t38,500,000 

19,448,993 

6,088,232 
9,539,581 
8,867,320 
4,578,260 
1.976.781 
1,578,836 



Countries. 



Netherlands.. 

Sweden 

Norway 

Roumania.... 
British India. 

Spain 

Luxembourg . 

Servia 

Italy 

Greece 

Bulgaria 



No. of 




Brew- 


Hectoliters. 


eries. 




467 


1,482,360 


548 


1,448,475 


45 


537,260 


30 


308,965 


35 


289,200 


49 


128,375 


12 


119,884 


11 


102,675 


113 


96,750 


8 


64,260 


21 


56,216 



The total number of breweries in the world in 1895 was 42, 988, and their output 214, 269, 958 hec- 
toliters, or 5, 659, 726, 670 gallons of beer. * Includes other American, t Returns of 1894. 



^^tvaQt Jlercentase of ^Icolj 


ol 


lit ^Hines 


antr iLiq[iioriS» 




P.c. 

4.0 
4.5 
7.4 
8.6 
8.8 
9.3 
^9.6 




P.c. 

10.2 
11.0 
11.2 
11.5 
11.6 
11.8 
12.2 




P.c. 

13. a 

13.6 
17.3 
18.8 
19.0 
19.0 
19.7 




P.c. 

20.2 
21.0 
23.2 
27.0 
33.0 
34.0 
43.0 




P.c. 


Beer 


Tokay 

Rhine 

Orange 

Bordeaux . . . 

Hock 

Gooseberry . 
Champagne . 


Claret 

Burgundy . . . 

Malaga 

Canary 

Sherry 

Vermouth. . . 
Malmsey 


Marsala 

Madeira 

Port 


Gin 


51.6 


Porter 


Brandy 


53 4 


Ale 


Rum 


53.7 


Cider 

Perry 

Elder 

Moselle 


Cura^oa 

Aniseed 

Maraschino. . 
Chartreuse . . 


Whiskey, Irish 

Whiskey, Bourbon. 

Whiskey, Rye 

Whiskey, Scotch. . . 


53.9 
54.0 
54.0 
54.3 



The percentage as above indicated is by volume. ' ' Proof spirit ' ' contains 49, 24 per cent by 
weight, or 57. 06 per cent by volume, of absolute alcohol. 

Mulhall gives the average percentage of alcohol in Burton's ale as 8.2; Bass' ale, 8.4; Edinburgh 
ale, 4.4; Guinness' ale, 6,8; London porter, 4.1; London beer, 3.9; lager beer, 3.2. 



Cea aittr (Scoffer* 

TEA. 

The production of tea in 1888, by countries, according to Mulhall, was, in pounds: China, 
290,000,000; India, 90,000,000; Japan, 40,000,000; Ceylon, 19,000,000; Paraguay, 10,000,000; 
Java, 7,000,000. 

The consumption of tea is estimated by the same authority as follows, in pounds: Great Britain 
and Ireland. 184,500,000; United States, 80.000.000; Russia, 37,000,000; Canada, 22,000,000; 
Australia, 20,000,000; various other countries, 106,500.000. 

The importation of tea into the United States in the fiscal year of 1895 was 97,253,458 pounds, 
valued at $13,171,379. 

COFFEE. 

The total production of coffee in the world in 1889 was 1,249,000,000 pounds, of which Brazil 
produced 812,000,000 other parts of America 253,000.000, East Indies and Africa 184,000.000. 

The consumption by countries, according to Mulhall, is, in tons: United States, 215,000; Ger- 
many, 105,000; Brazil, etc. , 78,000: France, 65,000; Netherlands 40, 000 ; Austria, 36,000; Bel- 
gium, 25, 000; Scandinavia, 25,000; Italy, 14,000; Great Britain, 15,000- Russia, 8.000; Spain and 
Portugal, 5.000. The importation of coffee into the United States in 1895 was 652, 208, 975 pounds, 
valued at $96, 130, 717. 

The English are the greatest tea drinkers among western nations, the Americans the greatest 
coifee drinkers. 



170 


Iron and /Steel J*roduction of 


the World. 




Jlrotruction ot ^vutft l^tttoltum in tf)e mnittti States. 


Ykak 
Ending 


Pkoduction. 


Exportation Minesal Refined, ok Manufactukkd. 


Total. 






Mineral 


Naphthas, 




Lubricating 






Dec. 31. 


Barrels (of 


Gallons. 


Crude. 


Benzine, Gas- 


ninminating. 


(Heavy Paraf- 


Gallons. 


Value. 




42 gallons). 




Gallons. 


oline. 
Gallons. 


Gallons. 


fine, etc.). 
Gallons. 






1883.... 


30,510,830 


1,281,454,860 


52,712,306 


17,070,637 


419,821,081 


10,182,34-' 


505,931,622 


$44,913,079 


1884.... 


23,449,633 


984,884,586 


67,186,329 


16,045,411 


415,615,693 


10,515,535 


613,660,092 


47,103,248 


1885.... 


24,218,438 


1,017,174,396 


81,037,992 


15,822,853 


458,243,192 


13,002,483 


674,668,180 


50,257,947 


1886.... 


21,847,205 


917,582,610 


80,246,763 


12,311,197 


469,471,451 


12,526,069 


677,781,762 


50,199,844 


1887.... 


28,064,841 


1,178,723,322 


76,062,878 


15,735,239 


480,846,811 


16,910,613 


592,803,267 


46,824,916 


1888.... 


28,278,866 


1,187,712,372 


85,538,725 


12,066,921 


456,487,221 


22,889,529 


678,351,638 


47,042,409 


1889.... 


27,612,025 


1,159,705,050 


72,987,383 


14,100,054 


502,257,455 


25,166,913 


616,195,459 


49,913,677 


1890.... 


35,163,513 


1,476,867,646 


95,450,653 


12,937,433 


623,296,090 


30,162,522 


664,068,170 


61,403,089 


1891.... 


45,822,672 


1,924,552,224 


91,415,095 


12,171,147 


571,119,805 


33,514,730 


709,819,439 


69,026,734 


1892.... 


53,986,313 


2,267,425,146 


103,592,767 


12,727,978 


664,896,658 


33,591,076 


715,306,819 


44,805,992 


1893.... 


50,509,136 


2,121,383,712 


111,703,508 


17,304,005 


642,239,816 


32,432,857 


804,221,230 


42,142,068 


1894.... 


4S,412,666 


2,033,831,972 


121,926,349 


15,555,754 


• 730,368,626 


40,190,577 


908,262,314 


41,499,806 


■ The 


above is compL 


ed from the Report of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasurj' Department. 







j^rotruction of <^(iaL 



AREA OF THE WORLD'S COAL-FIELDS, IN SQUARE MILES. 

China and Japan, 200,000; United States, 194,000; India. 35, 000 ; Russia, 27,000; Great Britain, 
9,000; Germany, 3,600; France, 1,800; Belgium, Spain, and other countries,l, 400. Total, 471,800. 

The coal-fields of China, Japan, Great Britain, Germany, Russia, and India contain apparently 
303,000,000,000 tons, which is enough for 700 years at present rate of consumption. If to the above 
be added the coal-fields in the United States, Canada, and other countries, the supply will be found 
ample for 1,000 .years. Improved machinery has greatly increased the yield per miner, and thus 
produced a fall in price to the advantage of all industries. 

COAL PRODUCTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

CompUed from the Report of the United States Geological Survey, covering product of 1895. 
Weight expressed in short tons of 2,000 pounds. 



States. 



Alabama ... 
Arkansas . . 
California... 
Colorado ... 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana, 

Indian Terr. 
Iowa 



Tons. 



States. 



Tons. 



States. 



5,679,7751 

598,322 

75,453 

3,076,900 

260,998 

17,735,864 

4,010,554 

1,209,98.5 

4,192,659 



Kansas 

Kentucky . . . 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri .... 

Montana 

NewMexico. 
No. Carolina. 
N.&S.Dak'ta 



2,534,356 

3,207,770 

3,915,585 

112,322 

2,360,350 

1,489,193 

718,954 

24,900 

39,197 



Ohio , 

Oregon 

Pennsylv'nia 
Tennessee . . 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 
W. Virginia 



Tons. 



13,376,137 

73,685 

50,017,446 

2,533,304 

484,969 

459,136 

1,340,576 

1,191,410 

11,424,863 



States. 



Wyoming. . 



Tons. 



2,277,321 



Total bitumi- 
nous 134,421,974 

Pennsylv'nia 
anthracite. . 57,999,337 



Grand total. . 192,421,311 



Total value of product of 1895: Bituminous, $107,653,501; anthracite, $78,488,063. 

j^rotructton df Qtopptt antr Kin. 

The following is a statement by Henry R. Merton & Co. , of London, of the production of copper 
by countries in 1889, in tons: Algiers, 160; Argentine, 190; Australia, 8,300; Austria, 800; Bolivia, 
1,200; Canada, 2,500; ChUe, 24,250; Cape of Good Hope, 7,700; England, 1,500- Germany, 
17,356; Hungary, 300; Italy, 3,500; Japan, 15,000: Mexico, 3,780; Newfoundland, 1,815; Nor- 
way, 1,257; Peru, 275; Russia, 4,070; Sweden, 1,000; Spain and Portugal, 57,000; United States, 
105,774; Venezuela, 5,563; total, 263,290. 

The copper production of the United States in 1893, in pounds, was distributed as follows: Ari- 
7,ona, 43,717,425; California, 2,825,773; Colorado, 7,121,257; Michigan, 113,462,129; Montana, 
150,092,711; NewMexico, 273,515; Utah, 1,312,171; East and South, 415,025; all others and un- 
distributed, 3,365,494; total, 322,585.500. 

The tin production of the world in 1894 was estimated by the U. S. Geological Survey at 83,387 
tons of 2, 240 pounds, of which more than half was produced in the Straits Settlements of the Malay 
Peninsular. The output in the United States was practically niL 

Xron antr ^Utl J^rotruttion of tf)e nmovtti. 



COUNTKIES. 



United States 

Great Britain 

Germany and Luxembourg . 

France 

Belgium 

Austria- Hungary 

Russia 

Sweden 

Spain 

Italy 

Canada 

All other countries 

Total 



Ikon Ore. 



Pig Ikon. 



Years. 



1893. . 
1893. . 
1893. . 
1891. . 
1892. . 
1892.. 
1892. . 
1892. . 
1893. . 
1892. . 
1893. . 
1893. . 



Tons. 



Years. 



11,587,629 

11,203,476 

11,457,491 

3,579,286 

209,943 

2,050,000 

1,577,015 

1,293,583 

5,497,540 

214,487 

99,412 

1.800,000 



1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 



50,569,862 



Tons. 



9,597,449 

8,022,006 
5,788,798 
2,005,889 

829,135 

1,075,000 

1,454,298 

* 465,000 

206,430 

•10,500 
38,434 

375,000 



29,868.239 



Steex,. 



Years. 



1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. , 
1895. , 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 
1895. . 



Tons. 



6,212,671 

•3,150,000 

•2,825,000 

716,931 

465,650 

•495,000 

574,112 

•230,000 

65,000 

♦55,000 

J^275,000 
16,053;864 



* Estimated. 

For iron ore, English tons of 2,240 pounds are used for the United States, Great Britain, and 
Canada, and metric tons of 2,204 pounds are used for all the continental countries of Europe. For pig 
iron and steel, metric tons are used for all. The returns of pig iron and steel production are from the 
^Engineering and Mining Journal, New York. 



Mineral Products of the United States. 171 


j^tneral J^trotructs of tjr mnitttr States* 


Products. 


Cus- 
tom- 
ary 
Meas- 


1894. 


1895. 


Quantity. 


Value,Place Prod'c'n 


Quantity. 


Value,Place Prod'c'n 


Customary 


Metric 


Totals 


Per 


Customary 


Metric 




Per 




ures. 


Measures. 


Tons. 




M Ton. 


Measures. 


Tons. 




M Ton. 


Non-Metallic. 






1 












C!orundum and emery 


S.T.. 


1,220 


1,106 $109,500 


$99.00 


385 


349 


$56,400 $16L 60 


Grindstones 


S.T.. 


29,989 


27,200! 257,596 


9.50 


36,389 


33,004 


290,378 


8.49 


"WTietstones 


S.T,. 


1,735 


1,574 84,450 


54.29 


1,609 


1,459 


78,303 


53.67 


Alum 


S.T.. 


72,000 


65,304 2,160,000 


33.00 


75,000 


68,025 


2,225,000 


32.70 


Antimony ore 


S.T.. 


165 


150 9,075 


60 50 


1,083 


982 


37,905 


38.60 


Asbestos 


S.T.. 


265 


240 4,300 


18.91 


1,010 


916 


11,400 


11.35 


Fibrous talc 


S.T.. 


50,500 


45,804' 505,000 


U.03 


66,500 


60,316 


665,000 


11.03 


Talc and soapstone . . . 


S.T.. 


21044 


19,0871 401,892 


21.00 


18,885 


17,120 


361,353 


2L00 


Asphalt 


S.T.. 


4,198 


4,080 75,654 


18.50 


14,300 


12,970 


300,000 


23.13 


Bituminous rock 


S.T.. 


34,199 


31,018 148,120 


4.77 


43,778 


39,707 


143,456 


3.61 


Barytes 


S.T.. 


23,758 


21,548, 95,032 


4.41 


20,255 


18,371 


90,020 


5.39 


Bauxite 


L. 1'.. 


10,732 


10,908, 42,928 


3.94 


14,145 


14,371 


56,580 


4.00 


Borax 


Lb... 
Lb... 
Bl.a. 


13,140,534 

379,444 

7,813,766 


5,962| 919,841 

172' 98,655 

1,064,297| 4,455,928 


154.28 

573.53 

4.20 


13,506,356 

394,854 

7,694,053 


6,126 
179 

1,047,006 


742,850 

102,662 

4,597,285 


121.09 


Bromine 


573.53 


Cement, nat. hydr' lie. 


4.30 


Cement. Portland 


Bl. 6. 


611,229 


110,8771 1,209,446 


11.00 


749,059 


135,879 


1,430,089 


10.53 


Clay, refractory ... 


S. T.. 


3,375,738 


3,061,794 4,050,885 


1.32 


i 3,730,000 


3,401,250 


4,500,000 


1.35 


Clay, Kaolin 


S.T.. 


24 552 


22,246 185,169 


8.32 


30,910 


28,035 


258,431 


9.22 


Coal, anthracite 


S. T'.. 


52,010433 


47,183,345 80,879,404 


1.71 


58,362,985 


52,965,538 


89,948,699 


1.69 


Coal, bituminous . ... 


S.T.. 


7i 117,865,348 


106.813,171103,758,967 


.97 


/il37, 398,347 


126,627,141 


125,344,248 


LOO 


Coke 


S. T.. 


8,495,295 


7,706 8461 12,654,558 


1.64 


9,927,348 


9,006,090 


15,258,935 


1.69 


Cobaltoxide 


Lb... 


6,550 


3I 8,843 


2937.66 


6,400 


3 


8,641 


2880.00 




S.T.. 


14,897 


13,511 104,100 


7.72 


14,118 


12,805 


69,846 


5.46 


Copper sulphate 


Lb... 


i 60,000,000 


27,215; 2,016,000 


74.07 


45,000,000 


20,412 


1,350,000 


66.13 


Chrome ore 


L.T.. 


2,653 


2,697 35,125 


13.02 


1,450 


1,473 


16,795 


n.39 


Feldspar 


L. T.. 


18,704 


19,003, 83,465 


4.39 


22,195 


22,550 


104,082 


4.67 


Fluorspar 


S.T.. 


6,400 


5,805 58,304 


10.04 


4,000 


3,628 


36,440 


10.04 


Graphite ... 


Lb... 


770,846 


349 34,689 


9.94 


392,008 


178 


17,640 


9 95 


Gypsum 


S.T.. 


301,536 


273,493, 910,831 


3.33 


298,572 


270,804 


974,219 


3.60 


Iron ore 


L.T.. 


11,880,000 


12,070,080 


20,790,000 


1.72 


16,950,000 


17,221,200 


29,662,500 


1.72 


Lime 


BLc. 
S.T.. 


156,750,000 
1,370 


5,148,320 
1,243 


28,375,000 
7,864 


5.52 
6.32 


160,000,000 
2,200 


5,443,164 
1,995 


30,000,000 
14,700 


5.50 


Magnesite 


7.39 


Manganese ore 


Ii.T.. 


11,735 


11,924 


74,890 


6.28 


14,803 


15,121 


92,044 


6.12 


Mica around..... . 


Lb. .. 


829,500 


377 


35,957 


96.65 


750,000 


340 


31,956 

6,400 

69,481 


94 00 


Mica sheet............ 


Lb... 

S.T.. 


9,900 
5,776 


4 

5,239 


11,103 

58,936 


2766.00 
11.25 


6,200 
6,742 


3 
6,115 


2133.00 


Mineral wool 


11.36 




Lb... 


750,000 
*'* 47,593 


3401 45.000 


132.41 

23.43 


1,900,000 
""47',084 


862 
■'4^',705 


114,000 

]2,000,00{. 

1,086,767 


132.40 


"N^atiiral eras 


"'43,i67 


13,000,000 
1,011,182 






S.T.. 


25,40 


Paints, vermilion 


S.T.. 


91 


83 


111,209 


1340.00 


118 


107 


118,190 


1105.00 




S.T.. 


87,242 


78,155 


8,445,174 


108.00 


95,389 


86,537 


9,061,965 


104.00 


Paints, zinc oxide 


S. T.. 


22 814 


20,697 


1,711,276 


82.60 


22,690 


20,498 


1,588,30C 


77.43 


Petroleum (crude) 


BLd. 


48,527,366 


6,158,119 


40,762,962 


6.62 


50,652,025 


6,420,742 


42,547,701 


6.60 


Phosphate rock 


L. T.. 


952,155 


967,485 


2,856,465 


3.05 


831,498 


844,802 


2,577,643 


3.00 


Marls 


L. T.. 


225,000 


228,622 


607,500 


2.66 


217,700 


221,183 


587,790 


2.67 


Precious stones 


•••••■ 






150,000 




• • • ■ ■ > 




250,000 




Pyrites 


L. T.. 


107,462 


109,192 


466,466 


4.27 


81,000 


82,296 


353,161 


4.29 


Salt, evaporated 


Bl. e. 


11,798,659 


1,498,193 


5,586,326 


3.73 


12,521 498 


1,539,178 


5,844,348 


3.78 


Salt, rock 


BLe. 


2,341,922 


297,376 


784,063 


2.64 


1,367,638 


173,662 


518,74C 


2.99 


Silica, sand & quartz . 


L. T.. 


477,670 


485,313 


418,612 


.86 


523,640 


532,018 


553,128 


L04 


Slate, roofiner 


Sq. .. 
Sq.ft. 


611,776 
4,395,125 


180.474 
12,966 


2,007,321 
399,758 


11.12 
30.90 


645,361 
3,786,599 


190,277 
11,170 


2,062,239 
369,062 


10.83 


Slate, manufactures.. 


33.00 


Soda, natural 


S.T.. 


1,500 


1,361 


20,000 


14.70 


1,900 


1,724 


47,500 


27.56 


Soda, manufactured.. 


M.T. 




120,000 


2,760,000 


23.50 




167,000 


3,841,00C 


23.00 


Stone, limestone(flux) 


S.T.. 


3,544 ,.393 


3,601,458 


2,126,636 


.59 


3,390,000 


3,444,240 


2,542,509 


.74 


Stone, marble 


S.T.. 


6,331,279 


518,532 


3,576,853 


6.89 


6,942,533 


568,522 


4,086,261 


7.18 




C. tt. 


1,450 


110 


29,000 
i 30,000,000 


263.63 


800 


66 



10,750 
33,000,000 


163.00 


Other building stones. 




Sulphur 


L. i'.. 


441 


488 


7,056 


15.75 


1,650 


1,676 


126,950 


15.75 


Unspecified 


■ . . . 






5,563,524 


.... 






5,132,624 





Metals. 




















Aluminum 


Lb. ... 
S.T.. 


817,600 
220 


371 

205 


490,560 1322. 24 


900,000 
433 


408 
393 


495,000 
68,847 


1213.23 


Antimony 


39,200 


191.22 


175.28 


Copper 


Lb... 


353,504,314 


160,349 


33,540,489 


209.00 


386,453,850 


175,294 


36,944,988 


210.76 


Gold 


Oz. ... 


1.923,619 


3 59,824 


39,761,205 


^'664.60 


2,265,612 


j 70,470 


46,830,200 


i664.60 


Iron pig 

Lead, value N. Y 


L.T.. 


6,657 388 


6,764,572 


71,966,364 


13.44 


9,446,308 


9,597,449 


108,632,542 


10.77 


S.T.. 


160,867 


145,906 


10,585,048 


72.55 


156,854 


142,298 


10,132,768 


71.20 


Platinum 


Oz./. 
Fk. Q 


100 
30,440 


*"■ 1,056 


1,200 
1,095,840 


1037 .'73 


150 
33,978 


"*l,i79 


2,250 
1,313,589 




Quicksilver 


1114.00 


Silver, comm' 1 value. 


Oz./. 


49,846.875 


.;• 1,550,387 


31,403,531 


20.26 


46,331,235 


j 1,441,087 


30,254,296 


20.99 


Zinc (spelter) 

Grand totals 


S. T. . 


74,004 


67a35 


5,209,882 


77.60 


81,858 


74,245 


5,942,890 


80.04 






581,211,258 








678, 000,734 


.... 



(a) Barrels of 300 lbs. ; (6) 400 lbs. ; (c) 200 lbs. ; (d) 42 gals. ; (f ) 280 lbs. if) Troy ounces, ig) Flasks 
of 7^ lbs. (/i) Bituminous coal iucludes brown coal and lignite. The anthracite production is the 
total for Pennsylvania, Arkansas, and Colorado. (0 Estimated. U) Kilograms. 

Abbreviations: S. T., short tons (2,000 lbs.); L. T.,long tons (2,240 lbs.); M. T., metric tons (2,204.6 
lbs.); Sq., squares (100 sq. ft., lapped and laid) ; Bl., barrels; Lb., pounds; C. ft., cubic.feet; Fk., flasks. 

These statistics were compiled by R. P. Rothwell, C. E., M. E., and are from ' ' The Engineering and 
Mining Journal ' ' For ten years' (1880 to 1889) product reported by U. S. Census see Almanac for 18M. 



172 



Fire Insurance Statistics. 



jFire Knsttrana .Stattsttcs* 



CONDITION AND TRANSACTIONS OF COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS IN THE 

UNITED STATES JANUARY 1, 1896. 



Number ofCo:jpanies. 


Capital. 


Assets Exclusive of 
Premium Notes. 


Net Surplus. 


Cash Premiums Re- 
ceived during Year. 


Total Cash Income 
during Year. 


293 Stock \ 

262 Mutual J 


$70,225,220 


$347,563,824 


$118,228,340 


$161,446,603 


$175,749,635 



Number of Companies. 


Paid for Losses 
during Year. 


Paid for Dividends 
during Vear. 


.'Expenses other than 

Losses and Divi- 
dends during Year. 


Total Disburse- 
ments during 
Year. 


Risks Written 
during Ye.ir. 


293 Stock \ 

262 Mutual J 


$89,212,971 


$14,665,921 


$54,203,408 


$158,237,759 


*$16,000,000,000 



* Approximation. These statistics of fire insurance business in the United States are, with the 
exception of the estimate of risks written during the year, compiled from ''The Insurance Year- 
Book, ' ' published by The Spectator Company. They do not include the returns of a few stock com- 
panies and some 600 mutuals and town and county mutuals, whose transactions are purely local and 
individually of small volume. 



CONDITION 



OF THE PRINCIPAL JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES DOING BUSI- 
NESS IN THE UNITED STATES JANUARY 1, 1896.'' 



COMPAKIKS. ■ 



.Etna, Ct 

Home, New York 

Ins. Co. of N. America 

Hartford Fire, Ct 

Liverp., London & Globe 

Royal, England 

Continental, New York 
German- American, N. Y 
Phenix, New York.. 
Fire Association, Pa. 

Phoenix, Ct....'. 

Pennsylvania Fire, Pa.. 

National Fire, Ct 

Springfield F. & M. , Mass 
N. British & Mercantile. 

Germania Fire, N. Y 

Commercial Union, Eng. 

Fireman's Fund, Cal 

Scottish U.& N., Scotland 

Connecticut Fire, Ct 

Franklin Fire, Pa 

German, Freeport, 111. . 

Palatine, England 

London & Lancashire. . 

Phoenix, England , 

Glens Falls, N. Y , 

American, N. J 

Hanover Fire, N. Y , 

Sun, England 

American Fire, Pa 

N. Hampshire Fire, N.H 



Assets. 



$11,055,514 

9,853,629 

9,487,674 

9,229,213 

8,670,434 

7,454,943 

7,216,825 

6,580,069 

5,739,044 

5,581,243 

5,246,520 

4,461,323 

3,860,142 

3,845,145 

3,833,133 

3,713,546 

3,506,031 

3,449,096 

3,323,522 

3,192,00: 

3,169,552 

3,012,329 

2,836,286 

2,691,571 

2,655,916 

2,646,694 

2,603,799 

2,533,62 

2,479,448 

2,409,585 

2,342,918 



Capital. 



$4,000,000 

3,000,000 

3,000,000 

1,250,000 

1 200,000 

t 200,000 

1,000.000 

1,000^000 

1,000,000 

500,000 

2,000,000 

400,000 

1,000,000 

1,500,000 

1 200,000 

1,000,000 

t 200,000 

1,000,000 

t 200,000 

1,000,000 

400,000 

200,000 

1 200 ,000 

1 200,000 

t 200,000 

200,000 

600,00!) 

1,000,000 

1 200,000 

500,000 

800.000 



Net 
Surplus. 



■f3,412,862 

1,705,455 

2,022,016' 

2,900,894 

3,114,117 

2,668,493; 

2,025,808' 

2,413.087: 

615,581 

798,809i 

412,2811 

1,783,582 

713,198' 

614,610 

1,377,102 

1,328,377 

938,903 

947,520 

1,248,766 

506,409 

1,070,494 

975.115 

368,320 

780,024 

508,163! 

1,532,578, 

1,453,431} 

217,865] 

626,4931 

309,liaj 

518,009' 



COMPANreS. 



Lancashire, England 

Agricultural, N. Y 

Orient, Ct 

Mil wan. Mechanics' ,Wis. 

Niagara Fire, N. Y 

Manchester Fire, Eng 

Norwich Union, England 
St. Paul F. & M. , Minn.. . 
Westchester Fire, N. Y.. 

Caledonian, Scotland 

Northern^. England 

Firemen's, N. J 

Northwestern Nat' 1, Wis 

Imperial, England 

GirardF. &M. ,Pa 

Butfalo German,N. Y. . 

Traders', 111 

American Central, Mo. . . 
London Assurance, Eng. 

Western, Canada 

Williamsb' h City F.,N.Y 

Delaware, Pa 

Providence Wash' n, 11.1. 

Merchants', N.J 

Hamburg Bremen, Ger. . 

Greenwich, N. Y 

United Firemen' s. Pa. . . . 

Spring Garden, Pa 

Eagle Fire, New York... 
Detroit F. & M. , Mich.. . . 
Lumbermen' s, Pa 



Assets. 



CapitaL 



^,307,856 
2,301,581 
2,242,203 
2,235,649 
2,189,880 
2,180,630 
2,170,234 
2,164,959, 
2,032,445' 
2,015,904 
2,012,119 
2.004,957 
1,956,852 
1,900,221 
1,897,257 
1,778.412 
1,747,260 
1,661,187 
1,653,158 
1,651,130 
1,536,636 
1,513,590 
1,479^281 
1,452,284 
1,422.724 
1,373,318 
1,368,630 
1,357,185 
1,201,258 
1,200,709 
1,089,937 



Net 
Surplus. 



1 200,000 

500,000 

500,000 

200,000 

500,000 

1 200,000 

1 200,000 

500,000 

300,000 

1 200,000 

1 200,000 

600,000 

600,000 

1 200.000 
300,000 
200,000 
500,000 
600,000 

1 200 .0001 
t200,000[ 

250,000i 
702,875' 
400,0001 
, 400,000, 
it 200,000! 
200,000; 
300,000 
400,000 
300,000; 
400,0001 
250,0001 



$570,041 
310,172 
513,838 

1,141,809 
302,113 
520,101 
549,741 
631,457 
474,181 
510,147 
584,950 

1,108 545 
504,682 
726,825 
588,679 

1,192,425 
657,690 
251,242 
608,900 
321,769 
708,970 
164,179 
200,862 
250,594 
321,090 
201,098 
159,091 
177,460 
659,839 
609,096 
461,637 



* Annual statements of the fire insurance companies are rendered toithe insurance departments 
during the mouth of January; therefore the statistics of condition in 1896 were not ready when this 
publication went to press. 

t The New York law requires a deposit of $200,000 from foreign companies with the insurance 
department. This is treated by the department as ' ■■ deposit capital, ' ' and the surplus stated in the 
next column is *■ ' surplus beyond deposit capital ' ' and other liabilities. 



ANNUAL PROPERTY LOSSES IN THE 


UNITED STATES BY FlRES-1 875-96. 


Yeahs, 


Aggregate Property 
Loss. 


Aggregate Insur- 
ance Loss. 


Years. 


Aggregate Property 
Loss. 


Aggregate Insur- 
ance Loss. 


1875 


$78,102,285 

64,630,600 

68,265,800 

64,315,900 

77,703,700 

74,643,400 

81,280,900 

84,505.024 

100,149,228 

110,008,611 

102,818,796 

104,924,750 


$39,325,400 
34,374,500 
,37,398,900 
36,575,900 
44,464,700 
42,525,000 
44,641,900 
48,875,131 
54,808,664 
60,679,818 
57,430,789 
60,506,567 


1887 


$120,283,055 
110,886,665 
123,046,833 
108,993,792 
143,764,967 
151,516,098 
167,544,370 
140,006,484 
142,110,233 

*102,000,000 


$69,659,508 


1876 


1888 


63.965 724 


1877 


1889 


73,679,465 
65,015,465 
90.576 918 


1878 


1890 


1879 


1891 


1880 


1892 


93,511,936 


1881 


1893 


105,994,577 


1882 


1894 


89,574,699 


1883 


1895 


84.689 030 


1884 


1896 


*60 ,000,000 


1885 


Total 22 years... 


$2,321,500,491 


$1,358,276,608 


1886 



* Estimated. 

The figures in the last table, from 1875 to 1895, inclusive, are taken from The Chronicle Fire Tables. 



Life Insurance Statistics. 



173 



Hifr ^wnnx^vitt .statistics* 

CONDITION OF REGULAR LEVEL PREMIUM COMPANIES JANUARY 1, 1896, 

AND BUSINESS THE PRECEDING YEAR."" 



No. 

OF 

Cos. 


Assets. 


Premiums 
Received. 


Total 
Income. 


Payments to 
Policyholders 
(Losses, Div- 
idends, Sur- 
renders, etc.) 


Total Ex- 
penditures. 


New Polictes IsstrKD. 


POUCTKS IN FOBCI. 




No. 


Amount. 


No. 


Amount. 


56 


$1,159,873,889 


$219,713 ,308l$271,928,709 


$125A36,443l$189,784,199 


3",530,204 $1,276,639,856 


8,893,702 $5,738,434,972 



CONDITION AND BUSINESS OF ASSESSMENT COMPANIES AND ORDERS.t 



No. 


Assessments 

Collected. 


Total Payments to 
Income. Policyholders 


1 otal Ex- 
penditures. 

$85,647,250 


Membership. 


Insurance in Force. 


OF Assets. 
Cos. 


Admitted During 
the Year. 


No. of 
Members. 


Amonnt. 


407 $59,370,745 


$85,647,250 $94,981,440 1 $67,095,166 


896,615 


3,767,682 $7,662,952,000 



Including industrial policies, t According to the report made at the annual meeting of Mutual 
Benefit Life Associations, at Kansas City, Mo. , November, 1896. It includes the returns of the 
fraternal orders. 

The returns of life insurance in the first and third tables are from ' ' The Insurance Year-Book. ' ' 

INCOME AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR A QUARTER CENTURY. 

The following table shows the receipts and disbursements of the ' ' old- line ' ' life insurance com- 
panies reporting to the New York Insurance Department for twenty- five years: 



Year 


No. of 


Ending 


Com- 


Dec. 31. 


panies. 


1871.... 


68 


1872.... 


59 


1873.... 


56 


1874. .. 


50 


1875.... 


45 


1876.... 


38 


1877.... 


34 


1878.... 


34 


1879.... 


34 


1880.... 


34 


1881.... 


30 


1882.... 


30 


1888.... 


29 


1884.... 


29 


1885.... 


29 ' 


1886.... 


29 i 


1887.... 


29 1 


1888.... 


80 


1889.... 


80 


1890.... 


30 


1891.... 


29 


1892.... 


31 


1893.... 


32 


1894.... 


33 


1895.... 


35 



Total Income. 



$113,490,562 

117,306,029 

118,396,502 

115,732,714 

108,645,084 

96,358,583 

86,162,144 

80,462,999 

77,700,403 

77,403,445 

79,820,513 

85,070,134 

92,562,763 

96,974,376 

105,527,865 

116,961,315 

130,657,526 

147,024,431 

168,184,699 

187,424,959 

201,931,425 

223,024,998 

236,683,206 

256,624,478 

266,897,200 



Total Pay- 
ments for 
Losses, Endow- 
ments, and 
Annuities. 



Total Payments I rr . i 

for Lapsed, -^^ K a * 

Surrendered, and .?',T"^r u 
Purchased Policies. Policyholders. 



$28,773,041 
25,673,380' 
27,232,435 
25,797,860 
27,174,631 
25,567,850 
26,103,286' 
29,153,226 
31,684,522 
30,032,174 
31,068,144 
29,826,874 
33,894,306 
35,602,544 
38,624,822 
38,276,390 
42,827,054 
48,569,964 
53,081,834 
58,606,615 
62,731,497 
72,576,866 
75,903,820 
78,313,162 
84,791,622 



$13,263,390 

13,922,009 

16,669,594 

22,453,955 

20,414,574 

21,354,376 

11,152,318 

17,095,994 

12,207,823 

9,923,026 

8,497,354 

9,255,077 

8,837,857 

9,503,530 

9,630,269 

9,433,379 

10,413,379 

11,234,569 

12,240,142 

13,827,225 

16,230,891 

15,658,759 

19,839,418 

23,164,108 

22,889,493 



$14,624,608! 
20,077,999: 
22,938,235 
16,617,018 
17,900,605 
16,187,128 
15,397,370 
14,637,4491 
13,479,613 
13,171,992 
12,579,151 i 
13,555,105 
13,417,464: 
13,043,498, 
12,963,660 
13,218,286 
14,852,624 
14,324,827 
13,951.069 
14,271,501' 
13,991,226; 
14,-386,195' 
14.823,176 
14,577,455; 
15,297,6041 



Total 
Payments to 
Policyholders. 

I 

$56,661,039 
59,672,388 
66,840,264 
64,868,833, 
65,489,810 
63,109,354 
60,652,974 
60,886,669; 
57,371,958! 
53,127,192; 
52,144,649 
52,637,056 
56,149,627 
58,149,572 
61,218,751 
60,928,054 
68,003,557 
74,129,360 
•79,273,667 
86,707,341 
92,953,614 
102,621,820 
110,566,414 
116,054,725 
122,978,718 



Taxes, Com- 
missions, and 
other Expenses. 

$20,242,707 
18,006,861 
17,208,206 
15,986,881 
14,128,594 
13,174,419 
13,327,565 
10 992,051 
li;208,133 
12,851,312 
13,089,414 
13,338,788 
15,295,264 
18,153,435 
18,715,2" 
21,066,540 
25,031,101 
27,905,878 
34,898,168 
39,616,782 
42,350,372 
49,665,730 
55,205,336 
61,073,545 
62,052,872 



Total Dis- 
bursements. 



$77,536,280 

78,207,257 

84,501,446 

81,232,333 

79,982,466 

76.618,183 

74,337,324 

72,128,070 

68,858,363 

66,317,859 

65,484,687 

66,242,344 

71,743,588 

76,632,098 

80,259,549 

82,319,096 

93,447,289 

103,369,145 

114,503,360 

126,653,530 

135,792,048 

152,890,333 

166,512,254 

177,863,333 

185,772,902 



Total assets of the 35 companies last reported, $1,142,419,926; surplus as to policy holders, $159,750,174. 
ASSETS OF AMD AMOUNT INSURED BY THE PRINCIPAL AMERICAN COM- 
PANIES, JAfJUARY 1, 1896. 



Companies. 



Equitable, N. Y 

Mutual, N. Y 

New York, N. Y 

Metropolitan, N. Y 

Northwestern Mutual, Wis. 
Mutual Besei-ve Fund, N. Y.* 

Prudential, N. J 

Mutual Benefit, N. J 

Connecticut Mutual, Ct 

^tna, Ct 

Penn Mutual, Pa 

Northwestern Life, 111.* 

John Hancock Mut.,MaPs.. 



Insurance 
in Force. 



Gross 
Assets. 



$912,509,553 

898,458,857 
799,027,329 
442,632,913 
364,259,235 
308,659,371 
303,130,155 
218,274,518 
158,042,056 
140,027,261 
130,146,317 
129,434.500 
120,955,471 



$199,757,171 
219,704,053 
174,791,991 
25,592,004 
82,£)O2,390 
4,129,517 
15,780,154 
58,269,197 
62,764,675 
43,539,797 
27,176,240 
872,449 
7,664,909 



Companies. 



Insurance 
in Force. 



Massac'setts Benefit, Mass.* 
Provident Life & Trust, Pa. 
New England Mutual, Mass. 
Massach' setts Mutual, Mass. 

Covenant Mutual, 111.* 

Hartford L. & A. , Ct. * 

Travelers', Ct 

Union Central, Ohio 

Provident Savings, N. Y. . . 

National, Vt 

Germania, N. Y 

Manhattan, N. Y 

State JSrntual, Mass 



$112,568,780 
108,822,534 
98,597,056 
97,071,661 
92,810,750 
89,486,700 
87,355,158 
84,250,278 
81,814,921 
69,723,642 
69,703,350 
61,612,174 
60,291,450 



Gross 
Assets. 



$1,165,411 

29,476,403 

25,297,584 

17,005,292 

578,432 

1,583,382 
16,240,715 
14,342,154 

1.914,186 
12,144,839 
21,172,368 
14,199,621 
11,122,984 



LIFE INSURANCE IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES.t 



Countries. 



United States^. 
Great Britain.. 

Germany 

France 



Insurance in 
Force. 



$13,401,386,972 

3,628,365,000 

980,935,375 

689,180,205 



Year's 
Premiums, 

$305,360,558 

113,119,055 

34,502,390 

34,077,350 



Year's 
Losses. 



$151,886,788 

92,525,050. 

13,013,601) 

8,579,420 



COUNTEIES. 



Austria 

Scandinavia 

Russia 

Switzerland . 



Insurance in 
Force. 



$191,843,009 
53,011,561 
47,925,979 
38,908,928 



Year's 
Premiums. 



$12,507,691 
1,722,207 
1,757,681 
1,317,467 



Year's 
Losses. 



$2,828,842 
415,637 
584,707 
923,679 



niro Assessment companies. tFrom most recent reports, t Including assessment business ($7,662,- 
952,000 msurance in force) , on which no part of the future premium is collected in advance. 



174 



Progress of Invention. 



(Kasualtg antr .Surrts Knsurancr, 

The following is a statement of the business transacted in 1894 and 1895 hj joint stock companies 
doinR business of casualty insurance, employers' liability insurance, and the insurance of the fidelity of 
public and private officials and employes, in -whole or in part, and reporting to the New York State 
Insurance Department : 





1S94. 


1895, 




1894. 


1896. 


Nunaber of companies 

Assets 


20 
$19,383,822 


24 
$26,091,860 


Premiums receiTed. ...... . 


$11,985,213 
698,684 


$14,330,651 
1,003,136 


All other receipts 


Unearned premiums 


$6,456,683 
2,631,287 

$8,987,970 


$7,585,422 
4,137,660 


Total income 


$12,683,897 


$15,333,787 


A 11 other liabilities ...... 


K 406, 900 

329,207 

6,324,521 






$5,600,102 


Total liabilities 


$11,722,982 


Dividends to stockholders. . . . 
Hzpenses 




526,025 




$7,379,600 
3,016,262 


$9,679,600 
4,689,278 


7,389,659 


n«mi + iil «+ApV 


Total disbursements 




Surplus 


$11,060,628 


$13,415,786 







"Bunintnn jFailurrs in tjr SEnttrtr Statts. 











Per cent 










Par cent 










Assets 










AsseU 


TsAmi. 


Wnmber. 


Aotnal Ajseto. 


Liabilities. 


to 
Liabili- 
ties. 


YiAss. 


Number. 
15,608 


Actual Assets. 


Liabilities. 


to 
Liabili- 
ties. 


1889 


11,719 


$70,599,769 


$140,369,490 


50 


1893 


$231,486,730 


$382,153,676 


60.4 


1890 


10,673 


92,775,625 


175,032,836 


53 


1894 


12,082 


73,496,920 


131,179,707 


66.7 


1891 


12,394 


102,893,000 


193,178,000 


63 


1895 


13,013 


88,125.530 


158,842,445 


66.4 


1892 


10,270 


54,774,106 


108,595,248 


603 


1896 9m 


11,280 


99,613.765 


171,350,292 


68 



The returns include those of Canada 
reports by " Bradstreets, 



and Newfoundland. The table was compiled from the annual 



Jlrofirtss of Knijention 

IN THE PAST DECADE AND IN 1896. 

Theke is no other Bureau of the Federal Government which exhibits so much brain work as the 
Patent Office. In its capacious halls the number of models of machines and other devices and products 
required in the various industrial arts is simply prodigious. It is the best index of the mental activity 
of the American people, who excel all others in inventive genius. To give in detail an account of the 
vast number of inventions patented by our Government would be a labor of years and would fill many 
volumes. The following is a very brief review of some of the recent most important inventions : 

In the calendar year 1895, 39,145 applications for patents were received, of which 21,998 were granted, 
and in the same year 12,345 patents expired and 3,428 were forfeited for non-payment of fees. Patents 
were issued to citizens of every State in the Union, and in proportion to population Yankee genius pre- 
vailed, more patents having been issued to citizens of Connecticut than to those of any other State — one 
to every 927 inhabitants. Next in order came the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
New York, Montana, and Colorado. The total number of patents issued by the United States up to De- 
cember 31, 1895, was 562,458, and the total number issued by all the rest of the world was 981,961. 

During the last quarter of a century twenty-five inventors have secured no fewer than 4,894 patents, 
and among these Thomas A. Edison takes the lead with 712 patents, and next comes Elihu Thomson with 
394, then Francis H. Richards with 343, the lowest among these twenty-five being George H. Reynolds 
with 101. 

DEMAND AND SUPPLY. 

During the last year the patents issued may be divided into about 214 classes, many of which, how- 
ever, are of a trivial character. Invention does not flow on uniformly, but appears to go in waves, with 
unequal intervals between. A tolerably close relation appears to exist between industrial demand and 
inventive activity. Each appears to be, to a certain extent, dependent on the other. Thus, where there 
is little or no demand in any of the industrial arts, there will be but little inventive effort put forth. On 
the other hand, when any advance in industrial conditions requires a certain article, the means for pro- 
ducing that article will be rapidly created in the brains of ambitious inventors. As an illustration, it 
may be mentioned that a few years ago there appeared in various journals articles setting forth the 
utility of a bottle which could not be refilled after it was once emptied. This idle idea called forth about 
a thousand applications. 

During 1895 and 1896 there was unusual inventive activity displayed in baling cotton in cylindrical 
bales, instead of in rectangular bales ; in pneumatic straw packing and in the treatment of wool-fat, re- 
cently regarded as a waste product. There was also exceptional activity in the invention of excavators 
and to the extraction of aluminum by electrolysis, and also of gold by the use of cyanide of potassium. 
The first has probably derived an impetus from the beginning of several large enterprises, such as the 
Nicaragua and Chicago canals. In the extraction of gold by the cyanide process, cyanide of gold is 
formed which is easily decomposed by heat. Considerable interest was displayed in the invention of 
pneumatic drills for cutting rock. Quite recently the greatest activity has been shown in the invention 
of accessories to bicycles and in the machines and processes for manufacturing them. Pneumatic tires 
attracted more than usual notice from inventors. Most of the patents issued on the bicycle relate to 
brakes, saddles, pedals, electric lamps, and other parts of the machine, many of which are of very trifling 
value. Great activity has also been displayed in the invention of telephones and of electric locks, 
the latter a new art. Car fenders and car couplers, especially those of the automatictype, received more 
than usual attention. Burglar-proof safes for express cars have been invented. Such safes can only be 
opened by ponderous machinery at the end of the line. No small amount of inventive genius has been 
expended in games and toys, wire glass for skylights, match-making machines, calculating machines, 
and voting machines, the last receiving an impulse from the Australian mode of voting. The artificial 
carbonization of beer, based on the recent discovery that beer can be carbonized by artificially injecting 
carbonic acid gas and a second fermentation dispensed with, has stimulated a variety of applications 
from inventors. 



Progress of Invention. 176 

PROGRESS OF INVENTION— Continued. 

AGRICULTURAL DEVICES. ~~~~~ 

As before intimated, the expansion of the industrial arts has given a great stimulus to the patent 
system. In the art of agriculture no fewer than 10,342 patents have been granted for plows alone, and of 
this number 191 are for steam plows and one for an electric plow. A very ingenious instrument was 
patented in 1895 for planting sugar cane. A plow digs the trench, a knife cuts the cane in proper lengths, 
which drop into the trench, and scraping blades in the rear of the machine cover them. In the case of 
harvesters and threshers, single or combined, about 10,400 patents have been issued since the patent sys- 
tem was established. Many of these are very complicated, and a description of them without an exten- 
sive set of drawings or models would hardly be intelligible. Some are drawn by horses ; others by a 
portable engine mounted on the same truck with the harvester, propelling the machine while furnishing 
power to drive the mechanism at the same time. Among other devices in this department is a new in- 
cubator in which the temperature is regulated by a thermostat and an electric circuit. 

Flour milling has been wholly transformed lately by the substitution of the roller, instead of the 
burr millstone. A dust collector for clearing the air of the flour-dust has been invented since the disas- 
trous flour-dust explosions at Minneapolis, in 1878. Cotton-seed oil— a very important product — is now 
extracted by the aid of volatile solvents, which are afterwards removed by distillation. 

IMPROVEMENTS BY AID OF CHEMICALS 

include the utilizing of air for making ammonia, the peroxides of hydrogen, barium, sodium, and calcium, 
the preparation of aluminum and ferric salts and smokeless powder, the last made by taking highly 
nitrated collodion and dissolving it in a mixture consisting of sixty-six parts of sulphuric ether and 
thirty-four parts of alcohol. A pasty mass is thus formed, which is rolled out into strips about one-tenth 
of a millimetre in thickness, and then cut and dried. 

ELECTROLYSIS. 
The use of electrolysis during the last decade has worked an entire revolution in metallnrgic opera- 
tions, among which may be mentioned the extraction from their ores of copper, zinc, manganese, chro- 
mium and aluminum. The price of the last, reduced from |12 per pound in 1878 to 40 cents in 1895, is 
due to its production by electrical methods. All the copper now produced, except that from Lake Supe- 
rior, is refined electrolytically. Metallic sodium and potassium are now obtained by electrolysis of 
fused hydroxides or chlorides. Chlorates are now manufactured by thousands of tons by the electrolysis 
of chlorides. Carborundum or silicide of carbon— a compound of silex or flint and carbon — is now pro- 
duced by passing a current of electricity through a mixture of silica and carbon. This compound is now 
largely superseding the use of emery and diamond dust for abrading and polishing. Calcium carbide, 
another heretofore rare compound used in the manufacture of acetylene gas, is now cheaply produced by 
the action of an electric arc on a mixture of lime and carbon, as first described in a patent issued last 
June, In the matter of 

ENGINEERING AND TRANSPORTATION, 
several new patents have been issued. A system of dredging by what are called clamshell dredges has 
been improved by the direct application of fluid pressure to close the bucket. The wheeled scoop for ex- 
cavating and removing earth has been improved on by a recent patent. The bear- trap canal lock is a 
signal advance on the old locks hitherto used. In railway construction nearly one thousand patents have 
been granted, the more important, relating to the wear-plate to arrest the destruction of the wooden tie 
by the rail, is a very valuable improvement, and the union of the rail ends by fusing or casting an iron 
jacket about the joint under conditions involving a surface welding of the metal. Railway switches have 
received great attention. The spring rail frog at the intersection of crossing rails makes the main track 
practically continuous. Improved signalling devices and an elaborate pneumatic system of controlling 
switches and signals have just been patented, and promise to be of immense utility. 

ELECTRIC APPLIANCES 
cover electric heating, electric motors, railways, meters, switches, and self-winding clocks, and electric 
lighting and signaling. The railroad car telegraph is one of the recent wonders in this line. Aji elec- 
tric circuit on the car extends from the metallic roof of the car to the rails with transmitting and receiv- 
ing devices. This has been improved by using induction impulses from the train to the line wire, so as 
not to interfere with the ordinary Morse signal sent between stations. 

THE HORSELESS CARRIAGE. 
In 1895 a patent was issued for a horseless carriage. This was the pioneer invention in this line. It 
consists in the application of the compression gas engine to the propulsion of wagons and carriages. A 
new breech-loading mechanism has been invented. It is operated by a single movement of a lever to 
open or close the breech, the exploded shell being expelled by the same mechanism. It is the simplest 
and most efficient instrument of its kind yet patented. Projectiles have received no small amount of 
attention. A shell recently patented carries high explosives, and does not explode until it has penetrated 
the armor-plates of ships. Firearms and smokeless powder have been improved. A gun patented in 
1895 has been adopted in our Army. It is a magazine gun, somewhat after the Krag-Jorgensen rifle. 
There is also a new smokeless powder, composed of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine, which may be 
used in rods or in free running powder. 

METALLURGIC DEVICES 
have been patented in great numbers. The extraction of gold and silver is accomplished by lixiviating 
or leaching them in an aqueous solution of double hyposulphite of sodium and copper. The precious 
metals are thus dissolved out, and then precipitated from the clear solution by means of sodium or cal- 
cium sulphide. Another way of cheapening the production of gold and silver is to treat the crushed ore 
with a weak cyanide solution, thus forming a cyanide of gold or silver, which is easily decomposed by 
the electric current. These methods will prove exceedingly valuable where water is scarce. In the case 
of artesian and oil wells, a patent was issued for a process of enlarging the hole in the rock below the 
casing, so that it may be sunk to a lower depth when, for any reason, this becomes necessary. This is 
accomplished by an expansible cutting device, which can be passed through the casing, and, by proper 
manipulation, can be made to enlarge the bore of the well below. Another device belonging to this 
class is intended to recover lost drilling tools from oil or gas wells. 

A scientific invention called the solarometer was patented in 1895. It relates to taking observations 
of the heavenly bodies, and solving mechanically the parts of the astronomical spherical triangle used 
in navigation aqd other similar work, the principal feature and object of which are to determine the posi- 
tion or the compass error of the ship at sea, independently of the visibility of the horizon. If the horizon 
is not visible, but the sun or a known star is visible, the ship's position can still be determined. 



176 



^onttavs statistics* 



(Compiled from the Keport of the Director of the Mint. ) 
APPROXIMATE AMOUNT OF MONEY IN THE WORLD, 1895-96. 



CoUNTXIl 



United States*. . . . 
United Kingdom. 

France 

Germany 

Belgium 

Italy 

Switzerland 

Greece 

Spain 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Servia 

Austria-Hungary . 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Sweden 

Denmark 

Russia 

Turkey 

Australia 

EpT' 

Alexicc, 



Central American States. 
South. American States . . 

Japan 

India 

China 

Straita Settlements 

Canada 

Cuba 

Hayti 

Bulgaria 



Ratio Be- 
tweenGold 
and Full 
Legal Ten- 
der Silver. 



Ratio Be- 
tweenGold 
and Limit- 
ed Tender 
Silver. 



Ito 15.98 



1 to 15 1-2 



to 15 1-2 
to 15 1-2 
to 15 1-2 
to 15 1-2 
to 15 1-2 



Ito 15 5-8 



to 15 1-2 
to 15 IS 



to 16 1-2 
to 15 1-2 
to 15 1-2 
to 16.18 
to 15 



to 15 1-2 

to 15 1-2 

to 15 1-2 



1 to 14.95 
1 to 14.28 
1 to 14.38 
1 to 13.957 
1 to 14.38 
1 to 14.33 
1 to 14.38 
1 to 14.38 
1 to 14.38 
1 to 14.08 



1 to 13.69 
Ito 15 
1 to 14.88 
1 to 14.88 
1 to 14.88 
1 to 12.90 
Ito 15 7-8 
1 to 14.28 
1 to 15.68 



1 to 14.28 



Geld Stock. 



1 to 14.38 



$600,100,000 

580,000,000 

850,000,000 

625,000,000 

55,000,000 

98,200,000 

14,900,000 

500,000 

40,000,000 

38,000,000 

38,600,000 

3,000,01 lO 

140,000,000 

29,200,000 

7,500,000 

8,000,000 

14,500,001) 

480,0lj0,00ti 

50,000,000 

115,000,000 

120,000,0011 

5,000,001 

500,000 

40,000,001. 

80,000,000 



14,000,000 

18,000,000 

3,000,000 

800,000 



SUver Stock. 



1625,600,000 

115,000,000 

487,900,000 

215,000,000 

54,900,000 

41,400,000 

15,000,000 

1,500,000 

106,000,000 

24,800,000 

10,600,000 

1,900,000 

120,000,000 

56,200,000 

2,000,000 

4,800,000 

5,400,000 

48,000,000 

40,000,000 

7,000,000 

15,000,000 

£5,000,000 

12,000,000 

30,000,000 

84,300,000 

950,000,000 

750,000,000 

116,000,000 

6,000,000 

1,500,000 

2,900,000 

6,800,000 



Uncovered 
Paper. 



Per Capita. 



Gold. 



$383,300,000 

113,400,000 

32,100,000 

60,400,000 

65,400,000 

191,800,000 



22,400,000 

83,700,000 

55,100,000 

11,700,000 

3,800,000 

204,300,000 

28,600,000 

3,800,000 

2,100.000 

6,400,000 

639,000,000 



2,000,000 

8,000,000 

650,000,000 



37,000,000 



29,000,000 
' 4,2'ob,000 



$8.41 

14.91 

22.19 

12.21 

8.73 

3.20 

4.9 

.23 

2.28 

7.45 

6.65 

1.30 

3.22 

6.21 

3.75 

1.66 

6.30 

3.80 

2,27 

24.4 

17.65 

.41 

.09 

1.11 

1.95 



2.92 

10.00 

3.00 

.18 



Silver. 



Paper. 



Total $4,068,800,000 $4,070,600,000 $2,438,600,00 

* July 1, 1896; all other couutries, January 1, 1896. 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION OP GOLD AND SILVER IN 1894. 



$8.77 
2.06 
12.94 
4.20 
8.71 
1.35 
6.00 

.68 
9.49 
4.86 
1.83 

.83 
2 76 
11.96 
1.00 
1.00 
2.35 

.38 
1.82 
1.49 
2.20 
4.64 
2.14 

.83 
2.06 
3.21 
2.08 
30.26 
1.04 

.83 
2.90 
1.58 



Total. 



$5.37 

2.91 

.84 

1.18 

10.38 
6.24 

10.18 
4.78 

10.80 
2.02 
1.65 
4.69 
6.08 
1.90 
.43 
2.35 
4.28 



1.43 
15.28 

'"".12 



6.04 
' 4.20 



$22.55 

20.78 

36.77 

17.59 

27.82 

10.79 

9.97 

11.09 

16.65 

23.11 

10.50 

3.78 

10.67 

24.25 

6,65 

3.10 

11.00 

8.46 

4.09 

25.96 

19.85 

4.95 

3.66 

17.22 

4.00 

3.33 

2.08 

80.26 

10.00 

10.83 

10.10 

1.76 

•••• 



CotTMTRIBS. 



United StaUs. 
Australasia. . . 

Mexico 

Russia 



Germany 

Austria-Hungary 

Sweden 

Norway 

Italy 

Spam 

Greece 

Turkey 

France 

Great Britain. . . . 

Canada 

Argentine Rep.. 

Colombia 

Bolivia 



(Bold. 



Oz., fine. 

1,910,813 

2,020,179 

217,688 

1,167,453 

103,671 

87,423 

3,024 



6,660 



38 
8,964 
3,183 
60,411 
4,596 
139,939 
3,241 



Dollars. 

39,500,000 

41,760,800 
4,600,000 

24.133,400 

2,141,000 

1,807,200 

62,600 



117,000 



8,000 

185,300 

65.800 

1,042,100 

95,000 

2,892,800 

67,000 



Silvtr. 



Oz., fine. 

49,600,000 

18,073,465 

47,038,381 

276,808 

6,610,272 

2,684,624 

92,194 

151,207 

928,512 

2,044,505 

1,139,041 

43,727 

3,162,609 

255,002 

847,687 

1,200,066 

1,687,950 

21,999 96j 



Dollars. 

64,000,000 

23,367,700 

60,sl7,r,00 

366,600 

8,805,100 

3,470.900 

119,200 

J95.500 

1,200.500 

2,643,400 

1,472,700 

63,000 

4,076,100 

329,700 

1,096,000 

1,661,600 

2,182.400 

28,444,400 



CoUMTmiKI. 



(Sold. 



Ecuador 

Chile 

Brazil 

Venezuela 

Guiana (British). 
Guiana (Dutch).. 
Guiana (French). 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Central America. 

Japan 

China 

Africa 

British India. . . . 
Korea 



Total. 



Oi, 



fine. 

3,309 

22,466 

107,368 

41,196 

111,751 

31,482 

64,.'^00 

3,599 

6,860 

22,760 

23,694 

413,937 

1,948,109 

187,836 

22,600 



8,737,788 



Dollars. 
68,400 

464,400 
2,219, ."iOO 

861,600 
2,310,100 

650,800 

1,329.200 

74,400 

141,600 

470,500 

489,800 

8,656,800 

40,271,000 

3,882,900 

467,200 



180,626,100 



SUtot. 



Oz., fine. 
7,784 
2,850,603 



3,460,978 



1,546,876 
1,966,665 



167,752,661 



Dollars, 

10,000 
3,686,600 



4,474,800 



2,000,000 
2,629,700 



216,892,200 



VALUE OF A UNITED STATES SILVER DOLLAR, MEASURED BY THE MARKET PRICE 
OF SILVER, AND THE QUANTITY OF SILVER PURCHASABLE WITH A DOLLAR AT 
THE AVERAGE LON DON PRIC E OF SI LVER, EACH YEAR SINCE 1 873. 

Grains of Pure 
Silver, at Aver- 
age Price, Pur- 
chasable with a 
United States 
Silver Dollar.* 



Caliudar 

YlABS. 



1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 



Bullion Value of a Silvbk | 




Dollar. 




Highest. 


Lowest. 


Average. 
§1. 004 


§1.016 


§0. 981 


1.008 


.970 


.988 


.977 


.941 


.964 


.991 


.792 


.894 


.987 


.902 


.929 


.936 


.839 


.891 


.911 


.828 


.868 


.896 


.875 


.886 


.896 


.862 


.881 


.887 


.847 


.878 


.868 


.847 


.858 


.871 


.839 


.861 



Grains of Pure 
Silver, at Aver- 
age Price, Pur- 
hasable with a 
United States 
Silver Dollar.* 



369.77 
375.76 
385.11 
415.27 
399.62 
416.66 
427.70 
419.49 
421.87 
422.83 
432.69 
431.18 



Calendar 
Ykars. 



1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896(6 mos.) 



»•* .OiX . OOC7 , OVIJ. rtOJ LO J.OC7V/V.TJ lllU^.^ 

* 371. 25 grains of pure silver are coutaiue''l ia a silver dollar. 



Bullion Valub of a Silver | 




Dollar. 




Highest. 


Lowest. 


Average. 


$0,847 


!^.794 


$0,823 


.797 


.712 


.769 


.799 


.733 


.758 


.755 


.706 


.727 


.752 


.746 


.724 


.926 


740 


.810 


.827 


.738 


.764 


.742 


.642 


.674 


.655 


.513 


.604 


.538 


.457 


.491 


.690 


.600 


.658 


.539 


.517 


.528 



451.09 
482.77 
489.78 
510.66 
512.93 
458.83 
485.76 
550.79 
615.10 
756. 04 
733.87 
704.03 



Monetary Statistics. 



Ill 



MONETARY STATISTICS— CoTifmwerf. 







COMMERCIAL 


RATIO OF SUiVER TO GOLD. 






1687 


14.94 
14.81 
14.65 
15.68 
15.17 
15.70 
15.29 
15.50 
15.35 


1863 


15.37 
15.37 
15.44 
15.43 
15.57 
15.59 
15.60 
15.57 
15.57 


1872 


15.63 
15.92 
16.17 
16.59 
17.88 
17.22 
17.94 
18.40 
18.05 


1881 


18.16 
18.19 
18.64 
18.57 
19.41 
20.78 
21.13 
21.99 


1889 

1890 


22.09 


1700 


1864 

1865 


1873 


1882 


19.76 


1750 


1874 


1883 


1891 


20.92 


1800 . . . . 


1866 


1875 


1884 


1892 


23.72 


18i5 


1867 


1876 


1885 


1893 


26.49 


1850 


1868 


1877 


1886 

1887 


1894 


32.56 


1860 


1869 


1878 

1879 


1895 


31.60 


1861 


1870 


1888 


1896 (6 mo.) . . . 


30.32 


1862 


1871 


1880 







BULLIOI!^ VALUE OF STLU 



GRAINS OF PURE SILVER AT THE ANNUAL AVERAGE 
PRICE OF SILVER. 



Yeak. 


Value 


Year. 


Value. 


Yeas. 


Value. 


Year. 


Value. 


Year. 


Value. 


1837 


!jil.009 


1873 


$1. 004 


1879 


$0. 868 , 


1885 


$0,823 


1891 


$0. 764 


1840 


1. 023 


1874 


.988 


1880 


.886 


1886 


.769 


1892 


.673 


1850 


LOIS 


1875 


.964 


1881 


.880 


1887 


.756 


1893 


.603 


1865 


1.035 


1876 


.894 


1882 


.878 


1888 


.727 


1894 


.491 


1870 


1. 027 


1877 


.929 


1883 


.858 


1889 


.723 


1895 


.505 


1871 


L025 


1878 


.891 


1884 


.861 


1890 


.809 


1896 (6mo. 


.528 


1872 


1.022 



















PURCHASES OF SILVER BY THE UNITED STATES. 



Act Authorizing. 



February 12, 1873 

January 14, 1875 

February 28, 1878 

July 14, 1890 (to November 1, 1893, date of the repeal of 
the purchasing clause of the act of July 14, 1890) 

Total 



Fine Ounces. 



5, 434, 282 

31,603,906 

291,292,019 

168.674.682 



497,004,889 



Cost. 



$7,152,564 

37,571,148 

308,199,262 

155,931,002 



$508,853,976 



Average Price 



$1. 314 
1.189 
1.058 

.924 



!$1.024 



The following table exhibits the number of fine ounces purchased, the cost of the same, and the 
average price paid each calendar year from April 1, 1873, to November 1, 1893: 



Years. 


Fine Ounces. 


Cost. 


Annual 

Average 

Cost per 

Fine 

Ounce. 


Years. 


Fine Ounces. 


Cost. 


Annual 
Average 
Cost per 

Fine 
Ounce. 


1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 


3,027,111 
2,407,171 
6,453,262 
14,059,420 
11,091,224 
24,358,025 
16,594,639 
22,742,634 
19,612,742 
21,878,489 
23,169,950 
21,683,798 


§4,003,503 
3,149,061 
7,989,174 
16,462,231 
13,119,744 
28,298,061 
18,660,088 
25,718,215 
22,095,571 
24,877,254 
25,468,677 
24,020,064 


$1.3225 
1.3082 
1.2380 
1. 1709 
1. 1826 
L1617 
1. 1244 
L 1396 
1. 1265 
1.1370 
1. 1012 
1.1077 


1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 to 
Nov. 1. 

Total... 


22,147,366 
25,699,898 
24.611,243 
25,028,358 
27,125,358 
37,895,200 
54,393,913 
54,129,728 

38,895,360 


$23,522,646 
25,504,467 
24,020,566 
24,491,341 
25,379,511 
40,269,608 
53,796,833 
47,394,292 

31,278,573 


$1.0620 
.9923 
.9760 
.9785 
.9356 
1.0626 
.9890 
.8755 

.8041 


489,388.102 


$516,470,765 





Since November 1, 1893, the date of the repeal of the purchasing clanse of the act of July 14, 1890, the purchase of silver 
bullion by the Government has consisted of the silver contained in gold deposits, the small fractions of silver for return in fine 
bars, the amount retained in payment of charges, surplus silver bullion returned by the operative officers of the mints at the annual 
settlement, and mutilated domestic silver coin, purchased for the subsidiary silver coinage under the provisions of section 3,526 of the 
Kevised Statutes. 

SOURCES OF THE SILVER PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1893. 





Fixe Ounces Silver in— 




State or Territory. 


Quartz and 
Milling Ore.s. 


Lead Ores. 


Copper Ores. 


Total. 


Arizona 


1,852,200 

420,200 

11,627.400 

1,035,000 

9,016,900 

1,436,300 

153,100 

1,800,000 

300,000 


812.900 

49:900 

12, 6601900 

2,884,600 

2,427,200 

125,000 

306,300 

5,146.300 

300,000 


270,000 
1,5"50,300 
5,5b6'900 

350,000 
74,000 


2,935,700 


California 


470,100 


Colorado 


25,838,600 


Idaho 


3,919,600 


Montana 


16,945,000 


Nevada 


1,561,300 


New Mexico 


459,400 


Utah 


7,196,300 


AU others 


674,000 


Total 


27,641,100 


24,713,100 


7,645.800 


60.000.000 



From an examination of the above table It win be seen that of the 60, 000, 000 ounces of silver pro- 
duced in the United States during the calendar year 1893, about 27,600,000 ounces were extracted 
from milling ores— that is, silver ores proper— while 24,700,000 ounces came from lead ores, and 
7,600,000 ounces from copper ores. 

It would appear, therefore, that less than one-half of the silver product of the United States is 
derived from mines producing silver ores proper, and that considerably more than one-half of the 
entire silver output of the United States is an incidental product from the smelting of lead and copper 
ores, although this incidental product is frequently more valuable than the other metals contained. 



178 



Monetary Statistics. 



MONETARY STATISTICS— Continued. 



STATEMENT OF DEPOSITS AT IMTNTS AND ASSAY OFFICES OF THE GOLD AND SILVEK 


PRODUCED IN THE SEVEEAD STATES FROM 1793 TO DECEMBER 31, 


1894. 


LOOAIJTY. 


Gold, 


SUver. 


Total. 


Locality. 


Gold. 


SUver. 


Total. 


Aiabama 


1246,356.98 


$253.76 


$246,610.73 


South Carolina 


$2,319,436.73 


$3,969.82 


$2,323,406.65 


Alaska 


1,483,636.88 


15,529.64 


1,499,066.52 


South Dakota.. 


60,923,627.71 


1,051,824.45 


61,975,462.16 


Arizona 


6,951,793.19 


14,085,176.88 


21,036,969.07 


Tennessee 


107,177.22 


14.15 


107,191.37 


California . . . 


767,568,763.99 


4,241,156.90 


771,809,920.89 


Texas 


7,910.56 


3,447.01 


11.357.67 


Colorado 


68,246,222.38 


24,800,914.45 


93,047,136.83 


Utah 


1,477,262.74 


19,920,438.78 


21,397,701.52 


Georgpa 


9,210,074.50 


6,861.56 


9,216,926.06 


\ ermont 


78,647.87 


84.65 


78,732.52 


Idaho 


36,201,629.69 


1,960,383.64 


37,162,013.33 


Virginia 


1,760,135.87 


438.02 


1,760,573.89 


Maine 


6,311.06 


22.90 


6,333.96 


Washington... 


927,925.42 


12,959.31 


940,884.73 


Maryland . . . 
Michigan .... 


17,578.38 


40.91 


17,619.29 


Wisconsin 


326.73 


7.02 


332.76 


418,294.12 


4,063,364.04 


4,481,648.16 


Wvoming 

Other sources . 


848,335.02 


13,060.55 


861,395.57 


Missouri 

Montana .... 
Nebraska .... 


96.71 

73,490,543.57 

1,921.79 


359.11 

21,982,919.05 

273,226.13 


455.82 

95,473,462.62 

275,147.92 


41,943,089.28 


42,908,216.05 


84,851,303.33 


Total unrefined 


$1,136,769,441,04 


$246,756,101.41 


$1,383,525,542.45 


Nevada 


33,678,267.56 


104,191,259.88 


137,869,527.44 










N. Hampshire 
New Mexico. 
N. Carolina.. 


481.34 

6,080,775.90 

11,773,222.35 


1.75 

7,059,260.62 

66,441.54 


483.09 
13,140,026.42 
11,839,663.89 


Refined bullion 


450,641,481.96 


526,943,607.40 


977,585,089.36 


Grand totaL... 


$1,587,410,923.00 


$773,699,708.81 


$2,361,110,631.81 


Oregon 


21,999,696.50 


94,499.95 


22,094,196.45 











PRODUCT OF GOLD AND SILVER FROM MINES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1873-1895. 





Gold. 


BiLVKR. 


Cai.kndab Ykab. 


Fine Ounces. 


Value, 


Fine Ounces. 


Commercial Value. 


Coining Value. 


1873 


1,741,600 
1,620,563 
1,615,726 
1,930,162 

2,268,788 
2,476,800 
1,881,787 
1,741,500 
1,678,612 
1,572,187 
1,451,250 
1,489,950 
1,538,325 
1,693,125 
1,596,375 
1.604,841 
1,587,000 
1.688,880 
1,604,840 
1,596,375 
1,739,323 
1,910,813 
2,254.760 


$36,000,000 
33,600,000 
33,400,000 
39,900,000 
46,900,000 
51,200,000 
38,900,000 
36,000,000 
34,700,000 
32,500.000 
30,000,000 
30,800,000 
31,800,000 
35,000,000 
33,000,000 
33,175,000 
32,800,000 
32,845,000 
33.175,000 
33,000,000 
35,955,000 
39,500,000 
46,610,000 


27,660,000 
28,849,000 
24,618.000 
30,009,000 
30,783,000 
34,960,000 
31,650,000 
30,320,000 
33,260,000 
36,200,000 
35,730,000 
37,800,000 
39,910,000 
39,440,000 
41,200,000 
45,780,000 
50,000.000 
54,500,000 
58,330,000 
63,600,000 
60,000,000 
49,500,000 
56,727,000 


$35,890,000 
36,869.000 
30,549,000 
34,690,000 
36,970,000 
40,270,000 
36,430,000 
34,720,000 
37,850.000 
41,120,000 
39,660,000 
42,070,000 
42,500,000 
39.230,000 
40,410,000 
43,020,000 
46,750,000 
57,225,000 
57,630,000 
55,563,000 
46,800,000 
31,422,000 
36,445,000 


$35,760,000 
37,300,000 


1874 


1875 


31,700,000 


1876 


38,800,000 


1877 


39,800,000 


1878 


45.200.000 


1879 


40,800,000 


1880 


39,200.000 


1881 


43.000,000 


1882 

1883 


46,800.000 
46,200,000 


1884 


[48,800,000 


1886 


51,600.000 


1886 

1887 


51,000,000 
63,350,000 


1888 


59,195,000 


1889 


64,646.000 


1890 


70,465,000 


1891 


76,417.000 


1892 


82,101,000 


1893 


77,576,000 


1894 


64,000,000 


1895 


72.051.000 



COINAGE AT UNITED STATES MINTS. 
The total coinage of t he minta since their organization, 1793 (Philadelphia), to 1896, is a a f ollows; 

Silver Coins.* 



Gold Coins, 



Dble. Eagles .$1,255,866,820. 00 

Eagles 266,275,490.00 

H^f Eagles . . 220, 211, 355. 00 
3 dollar pieces 1,619,376.00 

Quar. Eagles. 28, 696, 302. 50 

DoUars 19,499,337.00 



Dollars $431,320,867. 00 

Trade Dollars . . 36, 966, 924. 00 
Half Dollars... 132.112,650.50 
Quarter Dollars 60, 428, 563. 76 
20 cent pieces . . 271 , 000. 00 

Dimes 28,835,259.30 

Half Dimes.... 4,880,219.40 
3 cent pieces... 1,282,087.20 



Nickel, Copper, and Bronze. 



Total 



..$685,096,671.15 



5 cent pieces, nickel. $14, 052, 724. 70 

■ ■ 941,349.48 

912,020.00 

1,562,887.44 

2,007,720.00 

7,847,334.42 

39,926.11 



3 cent pieces, nickel. 
2 cent pieces, bronze 
1 cent pieces, copper 
1 cent pieces, nickel. 
1 cent pieces, bronze 
% cent pieces, copper 



Total $27,363,962. 35 



Total $1,792,168,680. 50 

* Not including $2,601,062.50 Columbian souvenir half dollars and $10,006.76 Columbian souvenir q^uarter dollars issued in 1893. 



PRODUCTION OF THE PRECIOUS METALS SINCE 1492. 
The following table exhibits the production of gold and silver for periods since the discovery of 
America and the commercial ratio of silver to gold at the end of each period : 



Y^AXA. 


Gold. 


Silver-Coining 
Value. 


Eatio. 


Ykaes. 


Gold, 


Silver-Coining 
Value. 


Ratio. 


1492-1620 


$107,931,000 
204,697,000 
189,012,000 
223,572.000 
239,665,000 
313,491,000 
680,727,000 
611,676,000 
118,152,000 
76,063,000 
94,479,000 
134.841.000 


$54,703,000 
297,226,000 
697,244,000 
678,800,000 
684,691,000 
579,869,000 
801,712,000 
1,273,468,000 
371,677,000 
224,786,000 
191,444,000 
247,930,000 


10.75 
11.30 
11.80 
14.00 
15.00 
15.21 
14.75 
15.09 
15.61 
15.51 
15.80 
15.76 


1841-1850 

1851-1860 

1861-1870 

1871-1880 

1881-1890 

1891 


$363,928,000 

1.332,981,000 

1,263,015,000 

1,150,814,000 

1,059,892,000 

130,650,000 

146,298,000 

155.522,000 

180,626400 

203,000,000 


$324,400,000 
372,261,000 
507,174,000 
918,578,000 

1,298,820,000 
177,352,000 
197,741,000 
208,371,000 
216,892,200 
226,000,000 


15.83 


1621-1660 


15.29 


1561-1600 


15.66 


1601-1640 


18.05 


1641-1680 


19.76 


1681-1720 


20.02 


1721-1760 


1892 


23.73 


1761-1800 


1893 


26.49 


1801-1810 


1894 




1811-1820 


1895* 




1 ft9i _ 1 R'tn 


Total 




1831-1840 


$8,781,021,100 


$10,361439.200 


.... 



* Estimated, 



Monetary Statistics, 



179 



MONETARY STATISTICS— Con^nwecZ. 







COINAGE OF NATIONS. 






COUNTKIES. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


Gold, 


Silver. 


Gold. 


SUver. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


United States.... 
Mexico 


$34,787,223 

275,203 

67,682,508 

30,784,262 

"871^225 
8,863,874 

555,909 
14,038,714 

130,105 
9,381,062 
1,319,525 

245 

sse^ooo 

140,672 
3'256'602 


$12,641,078 

26,782,721 

3,790,673 

52,258,"747 

1,'23'7,"864 

2,920,484 

i5, 315, 069 

22.997 

8,917,860 

12,307,062 

3,075,840 

1.567,800 

120, 600 

78,996 

242,207 

*883,'464 

1,100,000 

3,500,000 

6,488,763 

12,023,059 

$155,517,347 


$56,997,020 

493,167 

45,094,210 

32,059,354 

9,' 832, 068 

26,280,188 

2,315,493 

§55,867,730 

159,086 

l,3b6.'070 

386,*000 
736,989 

* 

■759; 138 
$232,420,517 


S8, 802, 797 

28,005,396 

5,296,728 

39,'544i591 

2,*693,'713 

2,499,874 
§18,468,664 

3 '296! 591 

12,300,705 

1,412,640 

562,800 

134,000 

26,171 

874^628 
1,500,000 
4,249,960 
5,445,667 
3,417,818 


$79,546,160 

554,107 

27,633,807 

35,203,648 

1.897; 395. 

87,433,154 

2,315,481 

§40,395,456 

1,576;440 

"76; 897 

*i65,"239 

465; 516 
84,403 

579,'329 
$227,921,032 


$9,200,351 
29,481,033 


Great Britain.... 

Australasia 

India* 

France 


4,002,657 

2,'288;504 

772,000 


Germany 


1,067,945 


Russia + . 


233,861 


Austria-Hungary 
Italy 


§10,742,232 


Spain 


3,946,225 


Japan 


24,131,363 


Portugal 


478,440 


Netherlands 

Norway 


160,800 
120,600 


Sweden 


46,443 


Denmark 


121, 593 


Switzerland 

Turkey. 

Hong Kong 

China 


579,000 

450,018 

2,100,000 

6,000,000 


South America.. 
All others 


4,766,492 
12,406,231 


Total 


$172,473,124 


$137,952,690 


$113,095,788 



* Rupee calculated 
coining rate, $0,482. § 



at coining rate, $( 
Florin calculated 



).4737. t Silver rouble calculated at coining rate, $0.7718. % Silver florin calculated at 
at coining rate, $0.4052, under the Coinage Act of August 2, 1892. 



PRECIOUS METALS CONSUMED IN THE ARTS. 
Average annual consumption, estimated by the Director of the Mint, 1895: 



Countries. 



United States... 

France 

Sweden 

Netherlands. ... 

Switzerland 

Austria 

Russia 

Portugal 

England 

Germany 

Belgium 

Other countries. 



Total. 



Year. 

"1894" 
1894 
1894 
1894 
1894 
1894 
1893 
1893 
1890 
1890 
1885 
1885 



Authority. 



Official . 



<« 

<< 
i < 

t < 



Haupt . . . 

Soetbeer. 



Silver. 



Weight, 
Kilograms. 



232,480 

131,250 

2,500 

5,600 

55,000 

40,000 

75,000 

23,000 

80,000 

100,000 

17,400 

40,000 



Value. 



$9,661,871 
5,454,7.50 

103,900 

232,736 
2,285,800 
1,662,400 
3,117,000 

955,880 
3,324,800 
4,156,000 

723, 144 
1,662,400 



802,230 I $33,340,681 



Gold. 



Weight, 
Kilograms. 



12,750 

14,400 

272 

336 

7,000 

5,' 331 
1,960 
17,000 
15,000 
2,070 
2,400 



78,519 



Value, 



$8,473,668 

9,570,240 

180,771 

223,306 

4,652,200 

3, 542,' 983 
1,302,616 
11,298,200 
9,969,000 
1,376,722 
1,595,040 



$52,183,736 



REDEMPTION OF UNITED STATES NOTES IN GODD. 

The total redemptions of notes in gold and the exports of that metal during each fiscal year since 
the resumption of specie payments have been as follows: 



Fiscal 
Year. 


United States 

Notes. 


Treasurv Notes 
of 1890. 


TotaL 


Exports of 
Gold. 

$4,587,614 
3 639 025 


Fiscal 
Year. 

1889... 


United States 
Notes. 


TreasuryNotes 
of 1890. 


Total. 


Exports of 
Gold. 


1879... 


$7,976,698 

3,780,638 

271,750 

40,000 

75,000 

590.000 

2,222,000 

6,863,699 

4,224,073 

692,596 




$7,976,698 

3,780,638 

271,750 

40,000 

75,000 

590,000 

2,222.000 

6,863,699 

4,224,073 

692,596 


$730,143 

732,386 

5,986,070 

5,352,243 

55,319,125 

68,242,408 
109,783,800 
153,307,591 

$426,190,220 




$730,143 

732,386 

5,986,070 

9,125,843 

102.100,345 

84,842,150 

117,364,198 

158,656,956 


$59,952,286 


1880 






17,274,491 
86,362,654 
50,195,327 

108,680,844 
76,978,061 
66,131,183 

112,309,186 


1881... 




2,565,132 1891... 


$3;773,600 

46,781,220 

16,599,742 

7,570,398 

5,348.365 


1882... 




32,587,880 
11,600,888 
41,081,957 

8,477,892 
42,952,191 

9,701,187 
18,376,234 


1892... 
:i893... 
;1894... 
!1895... 

jl896... 

Total 


1883... 




1884... 




1885.. 




1886... 








1887... 
1888... 




$80,073,325 


$506,263,545 


$753,453,981 











' ' Fineness, ' ' the term used in treating of bullion mints, coinage, and money, indicates the propor- 
tion of pure metal contained in a piece of gold or silver. Fineness is expressed in thousandths, that is, 
pure metal is 1,000. United States coin is 900-1000 fine, or decimally, ,900 fine. Fineness is esti- 
mated by jewelers and workers in the precious metals by "carats,'' pure metal being 24 carats. 
Thus, 22 carats, the British standard for gold coins, is 22-24 carats, or decimaUy, . 916% fine, 

' ' Mint Mark ' ' means the letter or mark on the coin designating the mint at which it was struck, 
as " S. , " for San Francisco ; " C. C. , " for Carson City ; " O. , " for New Orleans. The coins struck at 
the parent mint in Philadelphia bear no mint mark. —Evans' ' 'History of the United States Mint. ' ' 



180 



Monetary Statistics. 



MONETARY STATISTICS. —ConHnued. 



PRESENT MONETARY SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES ILLUSTRATED. 



Weight 

Fineness 

Ratio to gold. . 
Limit of issne. 



Denominations 

Legal tender. . 

Keceivable.... 
Kzchangeable. 

Redeemable. . . 



25.8 grs. to the dollar 
900-1000. 



Gold Coin. 



Unlimited; coinage 
free. 



$20, $10, $5, $2.50. 

Unlimited. 

For all dues. 
For certificates under 
the limitation. 



Gold Certificates. 



Issne suspended so long 
as free gold in Treas- 
ury is below $100,000- 
OOO. 

$10,000, $5,000. $1,000, 
$500, $100, §50, $20. 

Not a tender. 

For all public dues. 
For gold coin at the 

Treasury or any other 

moneys. 
La gold coin at the 

Treasury, 



Silver Dollars. 



412.5 grains. 
900-1000. 
15.988 to 1. 

Requirement to redeem 
Treasury notes. 



$1.00. 

Unlimited unless other- 
wise contracted. 

For all dues. 

For silver certificates or 
smaller coin at the 
Treasury. 

And may be deposited 
for silver certificates. 



Silver Certificates. 



Silver dollars in use. 



$LOOO,$500,$100,$50 
$20, $10, $5, $2, $1. 
Kot a tender. 

For all public dues. 

For dollars or smaller 
coin at the Treas- 
ury. 

In silver dollars. 



United States Notes. 



$346,611,016. 



$1,000, $500, $100, $50, 
$20,$10,$5, $2, $1. 

Unlimited unless other- 
wise contracted. 

For all dues.* 

For all kinds of moneys 
except gold certificates. 

In coin at Sub-Treasury 
in New York and San 
Francisco in sums of 
$50 and over. 





Currency Certificates. 


Treas'y Notes of 1890 


National Bank Notes. 


Subsidiary Silver Coin. 


Minor Coin. 


Weight 









385.8 grains to the 1 
dollar. 


5c. piece: 77.16 grs. 75 p. c. 
copper, 25 p. c. nickel. 


Fineness 








900-1000. 


Ic. piece; 48 grs., 95 p. c. 


Ratio to gold 









14.953 to 1. 


copper, 5 p.c. tin and zinc. 


Limit of is'ue 


The same as United 


$156,044,615. 


Volume of U. S. bonds 


Needs of the country. 


Needs of the country. 


Denomina- 


States notes. 




and their cost. 






tions 


$10,000. 


$1,000, $10O,$50,$2O, 


$1,000, $500, $100, $50, 


50 cents, 25 cents, 10 


5 cents, 1 cent. 






$10, $5, $2, $1. 


$20, $10, $5. 


cents. 




Legal tender 


Not a tender. 


Unlimited unless 
otherwise contracted 


Not a tender. 


Not to exceed $10. 


Not to exceed 25 cents. 


Receivable .. 


Not receivable. 


For all dues. 


For all dues except du- 


To the amount of $10 


To the amount of 2S cents 








ties on imports and in- 


for all dues. 


for all dues. 


Exchange- 






terest on public debt. 






able 


For United States 


For all kinds of 


For silver and minor 


For minor cois. 






notes. 


moneys except gold 
certificates. 


com. 






Redeemable. 


In United States notes 


In coin at the Treas- 


In "lawful money " at 


In '-lawful money" at 


In " lawful money" at the 




at Sub - Treasury 


ury. 


the Treasury or bank 


the Treasury in sums 


Treasury in sums of $20 




where issued. 




of issue. 


of $20 or any mul- 
tiple. 


or more. 



* Duties on imports by regulation only. 

The above table is frona "Monetary Systems of the World" by Maurice L. Muhleman, Deputy 
Assistant United States Treasurer, New York, 1895. 

COLD AND SILVER IN EUROPEAN NATSONAL BANKS. 





Year 

1880 
1896 
1875 
1896 
1875 
1896 
1884 
1896 
1888 
1896 
1873 
1894 


Millions of Dollars, | 


Banks. 


Year 

1876 
1896 
1881 
1896 
1878 
1896 

tes. 
'2i5 


Millions of Dollars. 


Banks. 


Gold. 


Gold. 


Sil- 
ver. 

244 

248 

*36 
51 
14 
11 
55 
51 
13 
10 


Silver, 


Gold, 


Gold. 


Sil- 
ver. 

34 
64 
45 
34 
13 
4 

$454 
473 

$19 
ot. 


Silver. 


Bank of France. . . 

Bank of England. 

Prussian Bank 

Reichsbank 


no 

395 

133 

230 

25 

170 

68 

66 

15 

42 

8 

21 


Inc. "285 
Iiic. "97 
Inc. 145 
Inc. 7 
Inc.""'27 
Inc."'l3 


Inc. 4 
Nominal 
Nominal 

Inc.' 15 

Dec.' 3 

Dec.* 4 

De'c.* 3 


Austria^ Hungary. 
Bk of Netherlands 
Bank of Russia 

Totals, earlier da 
Totals in 1896 .... 

Increase of gold ... 


20 

145 

9 

13 
100 
425 


Inc."i25 
Inc. 4 
Inc'"325 

IncSil. 
4.2 p. 


Dec." 30 
Dec." 11 
Dec. 9 


Bank of Italy. — 
Bank of Spain 


$478 
1,506 




Bank of Belgium. 


$1,028 
p. ct. 





•These figures are estimated, i n the absence of specific data; qu ite possiblj' they may be too low. 

UNITED STATES MONETARY DEFINITIONS. 

[From United States Treasury Circular M>. 123. J 

SIXTEEN TO ONE. 

The phrase " 16 to 1^" as applied to coinage, naeans that the mint value of sixteen ounces of silver 
shall be equal to the mmt value of one ounce of gold ; that is, that sixteen ounces of silver shall be 
coinable into as many silver dollars as one ounce of gold is coinable into standard silver dollars. 

STANDARD BULLION. 

Standard bullion contains 900 parts of pure gold or pure silver and 100 parts of copper alloy. 

The coining value of an ounce of pure gold is $20. 67183, and the coining value of an ounce of 
standard gold is S18. 60465. 

The coining value in standard silver dollars of an ounce of pure silver is $1.2929, and the coining 
value of an ounce of standard silver is $3, 1636. 

SEIGNIORAGE. 

This t«rm, as used in the United States, means the profit arising from, the coinage of bullion. The 
Government does not purcha.se gold bullion, but coins it on private account. There is no profit from 
the coinage of gold bullion, the face value of gold coins being the same as their bullion value; but at 
the present ratio of 16 to 1, the face value of the silver dollar is greater than its bullion value ; there- 
fore, when silver bullion is purchased and coined into dollars there is a profit arising from such coin- 
age^ the amount of which depends upon the price paid for the bullion. For example, there are 371^ 
grams of pure silver in a dollar, and there are 480 grains of pure silver iu a fine ounce. The coinage 



JBanTcing Statistics. 



181 



UNITED STATES MONETAHY DEFINITIONS— Cbni!init€d. 



value of a fine ounce is therefore $1. 2929—. If the fine ounce can be purchased for 70 cents, the profit 
of its coinage (the seigniorage) is $0. 6929—, and the profit on the 371^ grains of pure silver in the 
single dollar is $0.4586—, which is the difiference between the actual cost of the bulhon in the dollar 
and the nominal value of the coin. 

The silver purchased by the Government is carried on the books of the Treasury at its actual cost, 
and the seigniorage is declared on the coinage of each month and paid into the Treasury. 

COINAGE OF GOLD, 

In the United States there is free and unlimited coinage of gold ; that is, standard gold bullion may 
be deposited at the mints in any amount, to be coined for the benefit of the depositor, without charge 
for comage ; but when other than standard bullion is received for coinage a charge is made for parting, 
or lor refining, or for copper alloy, as the case may be. Refining is the elimination from the bullion of 
all base metals. Parting is the separation of any silver which may be contained in the bullion. The 
charges for these operations vary according to the actual expenses. When copper is added for alloy 
a charge of 2 cents per ounce is made for the amount actually added. The depositor receives in gold 
coin the full value of the gold in his bullion, less such charges as are indicated above. 

The mints may lawfully refuse to receive gold bullion of less value than one hundred dollars, or 
when it is too base for coinage; but in practice deposits of gold bullion are accepted without regard to 
amounts, and rejected only when too base for coinage. 

COINAGE OF SILVER. 

Under existing law in the United States subsidiary silver and standard silver dollars are coined 
only on Government account. They are coined from bullion purchased by the Government and the 
profits of such coinage belong to the Government There is at present no authority for the purchase 
of bullion for the coinage of standard silver dollars, but, if necessary, sufficient bullion may be pur- 
chased to maintain the stock of subsidiary silver. 

The Government is still coining standard silver dollars from the bullion purchased under the act 
of July 14, 1890. The amount of DUllion on hand November 1, 1893, when the purchasing clause of 
that act was re_pealed, v^as 140,699,852.67 fine ounces, costing $126,758,280, the coining value of 
which was $181, 914,961. Between November 1, 1893, and September 1. 1896, there were coined 
from this bullion 15, 169, 491 standard silver dollars, of which $10,410,528 represent the cost of the 
bullion coined, and are held in the Treasury for the redemption of Treasury notes of 1890, while the 
remainder, $4,758,433. constitute the gain or seigniorage, and^ being the property of the United 
States, have been paid into the Treasury to be used like other available funds. 

The seigniorage is an addition to the volume of money in the country, while the silver dollars 
representing the cost of the bullion are not, since they are only paid out in redemption of the Treasury 
notes of 1890, whereupon the latter are cancelled and retired, as prescribed by the act of July 14,1890. 

FOREIGN COINS NOT LEGAL TENDER. 
Section 3,584 of the Revised Statutes of the United States provides that no foreign coins shall be a 
legal tender m th« United States. 

TRAFJSACTIONS OF THE NEW YORK CLEARING-HOUSE. 



YkaB, 



1880 


67 


1881 


60 


1882 


61 


1883 


63 


1884 


61 


1885 


64 


1886 


63 


1887 


64 


1888 


63 


1889 


63 


1890 


64 


1891 


63 


1892 


64 


1893 


64 


1894 


65 


1895 


66 



No. of 
Banks. 



Capital. 



$60,475,200 
61,162,700 
60, 962, 700 
61,162,700 
60,412,700 
58,612,700 
59.312,700 
60,862,700 
60,762,700 
60,762,700 
60,812,700 
60.772.700 
60.422,700 
60.922,700 
61,622,700 
62.622,700 



-Clearings. 



$37, 
48, 

^^' 
40, 

34, 

25, 

33, 

34, 

30. 

34, 

37, 

34, 

36. 

34, 

24, 

28, 



182,128,621 
565,818,212 
552,846,161 
293,165,258 
092,037,338 
250.791,440 
374,682,216 
872,848,786 
863,686.609 
796,465,529 
660,686,572 
053,698,770 
279.905,236 
421,380,870 
230,145,368 
264,379,126 



Balances Paid in 
Money. 



$1,516,538,631 
1,776,018,162 
1.595.000,245 
1.568,983,196 
1.524.930,994 
1,295,355,252 
1,519,565,385 
1,569,626,325 
1,570,198,528 
1,757,637,473 
1,753,040,145 
1,584,635,500 
1.861,500,575 
1,698,207,176 
1,585,241,634 
1,896,574,349 



Averagre Paily 
Clearings. 



ijil21,510,224 
159,232,191 
151,637,935 
132.543.307 
111.048,982 
82,789,480 
109,067,589 
114,337,209 
101,192,415 
114,839,820 
123,074.139 
111,651,471 
118,561,782 
113,978,082 
79,704,426 
92,670,095 



Average Daily 

Balances Paid 

in Money. 



$4,956,009 
5,823,010 
5,195,440 
5,161,129 
4.967,202 
4,247.069 
4,965,900 
5,146,316 
5,148,192 
5,800,784 
6,728,889 
5,195,526 
6,083,335 
5,616,580 
5,254,611 
6,258,276 



Balances 

to 
Clearings. 



4.1 
3.5 
3.4 
3.9 
4.6 
5.1 
4.6 
4.5 
5.1 
5.0 
4.7 
4.6 
5.1 
4.9 
6.5 
6.7 



The clearings in the first eleven months of 1896 were $>26,214,835,954. 



EXCHANGES OF 


CLEARING-HOUSES OF UNITED STATES 


CITIES. 


Cleaeing- House at— 


Exchanges e.ob Years Ended September 30— 


1896. 


1894. 


1893. 


1892. 


New York 


$28,264,379,126 

4,629.303.920 

4,541,435,624 

3,395,864.543 

1,218.425,682 

671,892.105 

686,004,866 

711,773.043 

653,228.500 

507,806,333 

461,679,488 

337.201,924 

338,343,365 

309,894,324 

4,395,360,095 


$24,230,145,368 

4,095,997,060 

4,263.560,459 

2.962,542,206 

1,106.770,443 

647,848,503 

663,214,301 

630,268,354 

630,364,300 

464,394,146 

446,671,170 

298,085,090 

282,755,354 

308,993,881 

4,007,886,111 


.^4,421,379,870 

4,864,779,750 

4,970,913,387 

3,656,677.140 

1,188,378,467 

762,949,766 

737,668,241 

711,547,291 

679,051.000 

607,464,919 

623,996,645 

377,785,380 

353,558,369 

356,361,823 

4,778,280,417 


.$36,279,905,236 


Boston 


4,901,096,976 


Chicago 


4,959,861,142 


Philadelphia 


2,671,149.047 


St. Louis 


1,211,370,719 


San Francisco 


833,617,126 


Baltimore 


772,436,133 


Pittsburgh 


743,636,356 


Cincinnati 


728,711,350 


Kansas Citv 


494,906,132 


New Orleans 


488,931,005 


Minneapolis 

Detroit 


427,287,201 
347,737,532 


Louisville 


368,698,812 


Other cities 


4,654,229,671 






Total 


$51,111,591,928 


$45,028,496,746 


$68,880,682,455 


$60,883,572,438 



182 



iJanfeing .Statistics* 

THE NATIONAL BANKS OF THE UNITED STATES. 
(From the annual report of the Comptroller of the Currency. ) 



Year 
Ending 
Sept. 1. 

18727. 
1875.. 
1880.. 
1881.. 
1882.. 
1883.. 
1884.. 
1885.. 
1886.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1889.. 
1890.. 
1891.. 
1892.. 
1893.. 
1894.. 
1895. 



No. of 
Banks. 



1,852 
2,047 
2,072 
2,100 
2,197 
2,350 
2,582 
2,665 
2,784 
3,049 
3,093 
3,170 
3,353 
3,577 
3,701 
3,759 
3,755 
3.716 



Capital. 



$465,676,023 
497,864,833 
454,215,062 
458,934,485 
473,947,715 
494,640,140 
518,605,725 
524,599,602 
532,459,921 
578,462,765 
583,539,145 
596,302,518 
625,089,645 
660,108,261 
679,076,650 
684,342,024 
672,951,450 
660,287.065 



Surplus. 



$105,181, 
134,123, 
120,145, 
127,238, 
133,570, 
141,232, 
147,721, 
146,903, 
155,030 
173,913, 
184,416, 
194,818, 
208,707, 
222,766, 
237,761, 
246,918, 
246,001, 
247, 466. 



942.00 
649.00 
649.00