(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The World almanac and encyclopedia"


.''.*. 




j'^! 



?;:ii;f;ii;ii!il?;lpf!i!fiJ!f!i!ili!j!f!(Pi!l^^^ 









CM 


r-7 


i.-: 


-T.T-7 


•..Itt,'-'; '.: 


' . T! ; 7 


T ; 


: -1 




















- 









s>.. 



Two liigU«st awards at' St. l.ouis Kxpositioii: <;.>ia J>Ie<lal tor Seeds and another 

m«\A Modn* for Vegetables. 




For over a hundred years have been universally 
recognised as the standard of excellence. J- ^ 




^^esi 



c/wroim0eaut\ 



This is the most vahiable introduction of the past 
half century. During that period we have done more 
for the improvement of the Potato than every one else 
combined. Besinniug with the famous White Peach 
Blow forty years ago the path of progress is marked 
with our introductions, many of which are househnM 
words the whole world over, Beauty Of Hebron. White 
Elephant, Rural New Yorker, Carman Nos. l and 3— 
aliours. The Noroton Beauty, now ottered for the ftrst 
time, eclipses them all. Our Catalogue gives full de- 
scription and testimony of many experts who have 

tried it. , . . ^ ^ 

It is the earliest potato ever grown, bemg sixteen days 
earlier than the Early I'vose, yet it is as productive as 
any main crop or late sort. It is liandsomer in appear- 
ance and more uniform in size and shape than any other 
sort. The tubers are all of marketable size, and they 
ripen all at the same time a fact which combined with 
its extreme earlincss does away with all danger from 
blight or disease or bugs. Its table quality is superb and 
ifrkceps good longerthan any other sort early or late. It 
is far and awav the best all-round potato in existence, 
and the farmer or gardener w)io fails to get stock seed 
of it now will surely feel left a year hence. Even one 
pound will insure a good supply of stock seed, it being so 
enormously productive. 

Price 1 pound 75 cents, or bv mail or express 85 
cents; 2 pounds ^1.3(),or $1.50 express prepaid; 4 
pounds $2.40, or §2.75 express prepaid; 8 pounds 
34.25, or $5.00 express prepaid. 

Price on larger quantities quoted on application. 



' 





OUR CATALOGUE— 
tne 104th successive 
annual edition— con- 
tains a more complete 
assortment and fuller 
cultural directions 
than any other seed 
annual published. It 
is heautifully Illustrat- 
ed with the finest half- 
tones and a superb col- 
ored plate of our great 
new potato "Noroton 
Beauty." It contains 
144 large size pages, 
and is in every respect 
and without exception 
the most complete, 
most reliable, and the 
mostDeautiful of Amer- 
ican Garden Annuals. 
We will mail It FREE 
to all interested in gar- 
dening or farming. 

J, I, THORBURN & CO,. 

3G Cnrtlandt St., 
NEW YORK. 

Over one hundred years in 
business in New York City. 



NEW AND POPULAR PUBLICATIONS 




COURT REPORTING 

Manual of Lesal Dictation 
and Forms. 

This book is designed for stenog- 
raphers and typewriter operators 
who are desirous of becomiirg pro- 
ticient and expert in law work and 
court reporting. 'J'he book con- 
tains ail the various forms of 
legal matter that are dictated to 
ft stenosrrapher in a law office or 
court, and are taken from actual 
business. The highest state of 
proficiency can be attained in 
stenography and typewriting through the practice 
offer.^d l)y this book. The book also contains a 
list of leg^il words and phrases, with their abbrevi- 
ations, which are in constant use in law work, to- 
gether with a full and complete spelling list of 
28,0i.0 words. 12mo., hound in half law sheep. 
Price, $1.00. 

LAW AT A GLANCE 

Or, Every Man His Own t;ouns?lor, is an epitome 
of the Laws of the different States of our Union 
and those of the General Government of the United 
States, and will be found invaluable to those who 
are forced to appeal to the law, as well as to that 
large class who wish to avoid it. The whole is 
alphabetically arranged so as to make references 
to it easy. 317 pages, bound in half sheep. Price, 
$1.00. 

BOOKKEEPING AT A GLANCE 

By Expert J. T. BiiiERLY. A sim- 
ple and concise mi-thoJ of practical 
bookkeeping, with instructions for 
the proper keeping of books of ac- 
counts, and numerous e.\iilanations 
and forms, showing an entire set of 
books based upon actual transac- 
tions, how to take off a trial balance 
sheet, and hnally close and balance 
accounts. Also Catechism of Book- 
keeping, being conversation between 
teacher and student. Containing 
144 pages. Sniail 16mo. Russia, 50 
cts. Russia, gilt, indexed, 75 cts. 

A, B. C OF ELECTR;cAL EXPeRIMENrS 

By W, J. Clarke. 
A practical, ele- 
mentary book, 
adapted to bi- 
^iitnerB and 
stndfiits, writ- 
ten in the most 
simple manner, 
free troni tech- 
nical terms and 
phrases, with 114 
i 1 I u s t r a tions, 
giving i)lnin in- 
struction for the making of Batteries, Magnets 
Teiegraph, Telephone, Electric Bolls, Induction 
Coils, X-Rays, \\ir«>le.ss Triearapliy, Dynamos 
and Motors, and Static Electricity. 

Any 8 udptit, \outik or old, o:iii pri cure themiterinl rr.on 
tinned at sm ill cost, ;ind can m:ike for himself ;iny of ihe n- 
Btriimeits or work out any of tht ■■xperiments jjiv. n iu ilii.s 
booiv — thuB ireltinj; .a tho ongh piactical kiiowl-dce of th- 
pnn iplefl whifh nnderli-' llie t;reat .science of electricity. 
ThIxiMjuot tin- book that cv«Ty Htiiilent< yoiintf 
o" old) fntoroHted in electricity, Iiuh been looking; 
for. l2mo.. cloth. I'rice, $1.00. 



EXCELSIOH WEBSTER POCKET 8PELLEK AND DEFINER 






of the English language. Over 
28,0t0 words. This book gives the 
correct orthography and definition 
of all the words in common use. It 
is not a reprint, but has been care- 
fully prepared to meet the general 
want for a book of this kind; and 
for the space it occupies, has no 
superior in the publishing world; 
containing 320 pages, doublecolumn, 
size 5x2!^ inches, neatly bound in 
Russia Leather and indexed. Price, 
50 Cents. Bound in cloth, indexed, 
price, 25 cents. 



HOYLE'S GAMES 

A new and revised editio i of 
this standard authority on all 
games as played at the present 
time. It includes all card games, 
chess, checkers, dominoes, back- 
gammon, dice, billiards, etc., 
etc. Tlioroughly np>to-(iate, 
1 DO 4. The rules of all the games 
in this book are in accordance 
with the modern practice of ex- 
tuMTJ perts in every case, and tl-.e rules 
^ITIrr' are expressed in clear language so 

'**' as to be easily understood. This 
is the best book for settling dis- 
putes or wagers, being recognized 
as the standard authority. 576 pages. 12rao. Oloth, 
$1.00. Board cover, 75 cents. Paper cover, 50 cents. 

SPANISH AT A GLANCE. 
Gi:i{3rAN AT A GI-ANCE. 
FKENCH AT A til^ANt E. 
ITA J.IAN AT A GLANCE. 

These are conceded to be the best self-instructors 
in .Spanish, German, French, and Italian that have 
ever been made. They enable one, without any 
other aid whatever, to learn more in a week of the 
languages mentioned than be could lenin in a 
month .with an ordinar.v teacher and text-books. 
The pronunciation of every word is shown in Eng- 
lish. Concise, Explicit, Practical, and Thorough. 
9(5 p.iges each, 12mo., paper cover. Price, '..5 cents 
each. 

PRACTICAL USES OF 

THE STEEL SQUARE 

By Fred. T. IIcidoson, 
Architect. Pal)lished May 
1st, 1903, 

The latest practical work 
on the .Steel Square and its 
uses. It is thorough, ac- 
curate, and easily under- 
stood, including a descrip- 
tion of the many S(juares, 
ingenious devices for lay- 
ing out bevels for rafters, 
and other inclined work; 
the Square as a calculating 
machine; rooting and how 

to form them by the aid of the Square. Heavy 

timber framing, sliowing how the Square is used 

for laying out Alortises and similar work. 

Numerous tables; in connection with the Square 

and its uses, with hundreds of illustrations and 

explanatory diagrams. 
Two largo volumes. 500 pages. Price. 2 vols,, 

cloth binding, $2.00. Single volumes can be 

ordered if desired. 




EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE. ^muT ^ ^'^"^'^'^^^ "-"•'' 



irray St., New York 




P'ONVINCE us that you arc, have been, or intend to become a dealer, and 
we will place you in a position to buy from first hands, and send you 
our various publications, including our Big Annual Illustrated 



1 




For 33 years the acknowledged authority in the New York market for 
lowest prices, reliable goods, and latest and staple choice designs in 



fiA:;^^j#d^K iiij :t' )s -t:^^i^ ^^ 



800 BIG PAGES, 30,000 ILLUSTRATIONS, LIST PRICES 



DIAMONDS, 
WATCHES. 
JEWELRY, 
SILVERWARE, 
SILVER NOVELTIES, 
ETC., ETC. 



CLOCKS, 
PIANOS. 
CUT GLASS, 
MUSICAL MDSE., 
OPTICAL GOODS. 
ETC., ETC. 



"1 




ms [?©[n 








Manufacturers. Importers, and Wtiolesale Jewellers, 

I 46 f. 10 52 






T^HE cost of a typewriter is not 
^^ merely the price. Consider the 

^'quality and amount of work it does; 
the time it saves or loses ; how it 
economizes or wastes ribbons and supplies ; 
and, how well it wears. The lowest-price ma- 
chine may be mighty expensive in the end, 
while a higher-price one may pay dividends. A 
little investigation will show that 

Smith Pr emi er 

The World's Best Typewriter 

is the most economical writiiig machine ever 
made. It not only does the best and speediest 
work, but it wears far longer, and in the end 
costs less money, than any other make of writing 
machine. 



Write to-day for our little book which 
explains why. High-Grade Typewriter 
Supplies. Machines Rented. Stenog- 
raphers Furnished. 

THe SmitK Premier 
Type^vriter Company 

&3& Broad-way 
New YorH 



g;^^-J:?JJJ:^MJJJi^^^ 





IV 



* ffi !OUR VALUABLES WORTH 11? ' 

Do you realize as you read this that your home or office may be robbed 
or on fire ? Think of the valuable papers, jewelry, money, priceles^^ keep- 
'sakes, etc.. that you lose. Your daily papers tell you of all kinds of fires 
and all kinds of stealing-. Do you want better evidence of the need and 
value of one of our small safes? Now, honestly, can you aflord f(jr the 
insignificaut amount which will buy 

Meilink's Improved Vault 

to be without one? I' a large safe is necessary for business purposes in 
your office to protect papers and records from fire and thieves, a small 
safe is proportionately more valuable in your home to protect insurance 
policies, notes, deeds, jewelry, and many other valuables yo'ir insurance 
does not cover. The cost is proportionately much less. It is t' e cheapest 
insurance, and you pay but one premium. 




"DEPOSIT VaU I, 



FOR PAPERS. FOR JEWELRY. FOR THE HOME. 
FOR PROFESSIONAL USE. FOR BUSINESS USE. 

The Only Practical and Satisfactory Small Safe Made* 

ESPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR THE HOME, BUSINESS, OR PRIVATE USE. 

We have 19 styles of Meilink's Fire and Waterproof Vaults for the 
Home, Private Office, Doctors, I^awyers, or Small Business Use. 

They are Clieaper than any Safe, and Better. Do not compare by 
weights; compare by inside dimensions and the space they give you to 
use. Tliey are better than the old-fashioned, clumsy, heavy, wall safes. 
They take up less room; are one-half the weiiitit; give you better fire 
protection ; cost less money ; are more handsomely finished ; provided 
with better locks than the old-fashioned heavy wall safes. Twenty thou- 
sand in use to-day, sold in less than three years, proves the satisfaction 
that they are giving to the public and the value that they have proven to 
their owners. The best dealer sells them in every city. We guarantee to 
please you or return your money. 

Send to-day for FRI^'E BOOK, describing all styles and giving price 
to fit every requirement. The information this book contains will be 
valuable to you when buying any kind of safe. 

THE MEILINK MANUFACTURING CO., 



1002 Jackson Street, 



TOLEDO, OHIO. 



STORM KING 

WHISKEY 




^^^yORH ^^^^ 




'"2TliiRi)AVE,„ear54^Sl..N£wVfl» 

.^£^AoENT FOR THE U 5 




RYE or BOURBON 

IN PLAIN CASES, EXPRESS 
PREPAID TO ALL POINTS 
EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI 
RIVER. 

IF YOU WISH GOODS SENT 
C. O. D. KINPLY REMIT $1 
WITH ORDER AND BAL- 
ANCE ON RECEIPT OF 
GOODS. 



I GAL. (X) $3.00 

4 FULL QUAST BOTTLES 3.10 

6 " " " 4.50 
12 " •• " 8 75 



BRANDY FREE. 

Cut out this ad. and mail with your next order and 
I will send you l Bottle Cognac Brandy and l Bottle 
Rock and Rye, 3 ounce size, free; also valuable Pre- 
mium Certificate. 

Write for Catalogue and List of Premiums, 
ESTABLISHED 1877. 



J, C CHILDS, 893 Third Avenue, N.Y. City. 



VI 




Whiskey 



DELIVERED BY EXPRESS PREPAID. 



Guaranteed 

SEVEN 

YEARS 

OLD. 




Shipped 
Direct from 
Distillery to 
Consumer. 



On receipt of $3.00 we will deliver direct to you, free of any other cost, a little 
oak barrel, containing one gallon of FRIEDENWALD'S PURE RYE WHISKEY, or Ken- 
tucky Bourbon, if preferred. FRIEDENWALD'S PURE MARYLAND RYE WHISKEY is 
guaranteed seven years old, and equals any $6.00 whiskey on the market. 

Its perfect purity makes it especially valuable for medicinal use. We ship this 
whiskey just as we receive it from our distillery, in small barrels, holding one gallon 
each. These barrels are made from original oak staves of old whiskey barrels. Each 
has a small brass spigot, a stand, and drinking glass; thus, the consumer continues to 
age the whiskey in wood after purchasing, a decided advantage over bottled whiskey. 
As every one knows, whiskey cannot be aged in glass, and this offer means PURE 
WHISKEY IN GALLON LOTS IN WOOD AT BARREL PRICES. We ship this barrel 
in perfectly plain package, no marks to indicate the nature of the contents, all securely 
packed and impossible for breakage. At this special low price, the consumer buys 
direct from a distiller at wholesale prices. Or we will ship four full quart bottles 
instead of a Baby Barrel. 

Any one purchasing a Baby Barrel, and after receiving same it is not satisfactory, 
can return it to us at our expense and we will refund your money. We also ship in 
our celebrated Baby Barrels thirty-tlve other kinds of wines and liquors. 

Write for full list of goods put up in our Baby Barrels. 

When ordering, state whether you wish a Baby Barrel or four full quart bottles. 

J. H. FRIEDENWALD & CO., 



100-102- J04 N, Eotaw St. 



BALTIMORE, MD. 



REFERENCES : Western National Bank, or any Commercial Ag-ency. 

p. s.— Orders from Arizona, Colorado, California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada. New 
Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, must call for five Baby Barrels, by 
freight ; we pay charges. 



F='OLLOW 





,A 



i & i( fi<> iiii > ii ni i r i iim i infii iii MitoWnin<k i f i '«l iM ir i ( i infe-ft i «te*mf <>i trto ii i) l M i. «ww^ ^,,m^Sk 



'^'m^^/^^- 

-T,- 



r 






vT?.'^":':V 




>' 



■^■iii*Sjiw>iWiHfti8SffaKja 



TO 



Detroit 
Ghlcago 
$t, EJoui's 
Kansas €itv 
Omaha 
Pacific Coast 
And Interme- 
diate Points 




Tast trains 

through ' 
Sleeping Gars 

Dining Cars 

Cafe Cars 

Tree Reclining . 
Chair Cars * 




THE ONLY LINE RUNNING FREE; RECLINING 

CHAIR CARS BETWEEN NEW YORK 

AND CHICAGO. 



FAMOUS "CONTINENTAL LIMITED," leaves Boston, Mass,, 
1 V. M., New York foot of Franklin Street at 2.25 P.M., foot of West 
42il Street 2.45 P M., arrives Detroit 7.30 A. M., Chicago 3.50 P. M.. 
St. Lonis 7.15 P. M., Kansas City 7.00 second morning. 

" LACKAWANNA LIMITED," leaves New York foot of Barclay 
or Chri.stoplicr Street at 10.00 A. M., arrives Detroit2 a.m , Chicago 
10.02 A M., S(. Louis 1,45 p. M., Kansas (;ity 9.30 P. M. next day. 

"ONTARIO & WKS'IERN EXPRESS," leaves New Y'ork foot of 
Franklin Street at 5.40 P. M., foot of West 42(1 Street 6.00 P. M., 
arrives Detroit 2.05 p. m., Chioapo 9.30 P. M. 

Also trains leaving at 2.00 A. M., 1.00 P. M., 6.20 P. M., 7.45 P. M., 
9.20 p. M. 

For information in regard to rates, etc., apply to 

New England P. Aot.. ^•^' McCLELLAN, 
176Wasliinnton St., General Eastern Agent. 
.Boston. Mass.. 387 Broadway. New York. 



'J # 



J. RAMSEY, Jr.. President. )^, ,.,,,, f.. 
C. S. CRANE, G. P. & T. A., J ^''* ^0"'^. MO. 



IT'S A FACT. 



That some makers of job printing presses make more money 
from ttie sale of parts than from the profit on the presses 
sold. It strikes us that this Is a peculiar business policy, 
and that the printer soon finds this out and buys a press that 
does not cost him all he makes on the press for repairs. 
Look at the construction of the 

PERFECTED PROUTY PRESS 

and see If you think 
we are among that class 
of press makers. We 
can prove beyond ques- 
tion that it costs less to 
keep ten Perfected 
Prouty Presses in re- 
pair than one of any 
other make. Does this 
appeal to your pockets ? 




THE BEST IS 
ALWAYS THE 
CHEAPEST 
IN THE END 



MANUFACTURED ONLY BY 

BOSTON PRINTING PRESS MFC. CO. 

176 Federal Street. Boston. Mass.. U. S. A. 

FOR SALE BY 
Hadwain swain Mfg. Co., San Francisco, Cal. 
Chas. Beck Paper Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Boston Printing Press Mfg. Co., Chicago, ill. 

Des Moines Printers' Exchange, Des Moines, la. 
Thomas E. Kennedy & Co., Cincinnati, O, 

Toronto Type Founders Co., Toronto, Canada. 

Gether-Drebert-Perkins Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Parsons Brothers, New York City; south Africa and Australia. 

AGENTS FOR MEXICO 
United States Paper Export Ass'n, Philadelphia, Pa. 

EUROPEAN AGENTS 
Canadian-American Linotype and Machinery Corporation, 

109 Fleet Street, E. C, London, England. 



iz 



Southern Railway, 

IN CONNECTION WITH 

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 



PIIMUt« 



«rMi( 



nCRINAMj 



NENOKIEANS 









«EWYORK^ 




rHIUOUPKIAyr 




■AVTIMORE^^ 




WASHIHGTOiyr 




HOANOCT^ M^^WCHBUWC 


^ 


IRISTOl Jf 


^^^ 


^ybREEW5B0W0 


WWOXVIH.!^^^,^^ 


III J^lill 


^r ASHEVILl^*" 


^^^^ARlOTTt 


^^MnAWOOC* ^ 


1 


L_/^ 


^/cOLUMBI* 


yiATLANTA .. > 


^jf 


>/^y ,>>WS^* 


j 


Cmwwi./ % MACON 


VsAVANNAH 


•tSUP 




1 


JACKSONVILU 




SST.AUCUSTINE 



THROUGH SLEEPING CAR LINES 


NENA/ YORK 


TO -the: 


COMMERCIAL CITIES 


OF- THE 


SOUTH. 



NEW YORK OFFICES. 271 AND 1185 BROADWAY. 

ALEX. s. THWEATT, Eastern Passengor Aoont. 

S. H. HARDWICK, Paisenoer Traffic Manager. ttf AcuiM/^TrvM f\ n 
W. H. TAYLOE, General Passenger Agent. WAonlNUl UN, L». Kj* 



HIGHEST AWARDS NA/ORLD RAIR. 

The Most 



fJ^X* INDIANAPOLIS. 






I NO.. 



''«t 



iM> iWFALLJBLE 



c/>| 



^ %%\ ™'' POLISHING GOLD.SILVER. PLATED 
•i* W.WARE.NICKEL.TIN.BRASS.COPPER.Etc 
® VVv DIRECTIONS: 

^ Vl^sTake a litHe of fhe Polish on a sofrdolh 
•^>oi^ub the Metal hard and then wipe 
" ^^'^ jt off with a dry cloth 



^y* 



3 OUNCE BOX, IOC. | 5 POUND PAIL, $1.00 




SeOURItli. CLCANtHf* Aftft Pdil»HlH« 

iBAR FIXTURES, 
I DRAIN boards! 

AND All 

j Tin, ZIno, Brats, Copper, j 
I Nickel and all Kitchen and { 

Plated Utanails. 

! filass. Wood, Marble. Por« [ 

celaln. Etc. 

CEORCB WM. HOFFMAN, 

tol* MjAnftnom ftad ?ropfl.lor. 
i 206CArrW&«NiMoTOHST.. litoiAKA»oti*. r 



THE BAR-KEEPERS' FRIEND. 



Reliable 
Goods in 
the World. 




! 



Because 

every 

customer 

recommends 

it to his 

friends. 



BUANtHE.s: j pQUND BOX POWDER, 25c. 

New York City.Chicago.Ill., San Francisco.Cai: por sale by Druggists and Dealers 
Established 20 Years. I all over the world. 

MAIN OFFICE: 295 WASHINGTON ST., INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

JEWELLERS' MACHINERY. 

ROLLING MILLS 

(Hand or Power), 

DROP PRESSES, 

DRAW BENCHES, 

BENCH DRILLS, 
DRILL CHUCKS, 

POLISHING MACHINERY, 

Etc., Etc. 

We can furnish complete outfits of Machinery and Tools for 
the Manutacturing Jeweller. 

~ THE W, W. OLIVER 
MANUFACTURING CO., 




CODES: 

Atlantic Cable, 

Llebers. 



Cable Address. 
Oliver, 
Buffalo. 



1495-1497 Niagara Street. 
BUFFALO, N. Y., U. S. A. 



XI 






The land of 

big trees, of j 
shining seashores, of orchards I 
and grain fields, vineyards and 
thriving cities is less than three days from 
Chicago via the electric-lighted 

Overland Limited 

Solid through train daily, via the Chicago, 
Union Pacific and North -Western Line, 
over the only double-track railway be-^ 
tween Chicago and the Missouri River. 
Two fast trains between Chicago and 
San Francisco, Los Angeles and Portland. 

The 'Best of Everything. 




All at;ciits sell tiikets via this liiu 

W. B. KNISKERN, 

Pasa'r Traffic Mgr. C. & N.-W. Ry. 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



NW392 



xu 




RECTTOYOU 

AT FACTORY PRICES 

\r! Voii S'Wi- .>?idilU>ineii'-» Prolits. 

We are not jobbers or as- 
semblers of other people's 
•roods — we make them all 
in (ur own factories. By 
l.uyinj; dii-ect from lis you 
get the adv(intji;;c of factory 
prices with no niiiidlemen's 
profit, and you git evcr.v- 
thinff that is latest, bestand 
most durable. If you intend 
buyin<f a vehicle or harness, 
no matti^r where you live or 
what kind you want, don't 
order until you have seen 
our large FREE CATALOGUE. W;- m.nnufaeture ov, r l.'O styles of vehicles from ^23.50 up. and 
100 styles of liarness from .^4 40 up. Why we undersell all others and why we save you money is 
fully explained in our free catalogue, and a postal will bring it to you. All shipments made 
with distinct understanding that, if not entirely satisfactory, can t)^ returned at our expense. 
Our large, free il iustratt'd book tells all about our no money witli or ler plan, freight offer, 
2 years' guaranty, and how we ship anywhere on 

30 DAYS' free: TRIAL. 

IVrte to-day for Free Monry-Saviuq Cafalogu . 

U. S. BUGGY AIVJD CART OO., 

B918 CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



Toledo. 0.. May 20, 1904. 
" THE WORLD ALMANAC shows better results tHan any other publi- 
cation In which our advertisements are inserted." 

THE MEILINK MFG. CO. 



S. 0. BIGNEY k CO 




LEADING MAKERS OF 



;;.• HIGH-GRADE a: 

GOLD FILLED 

CHAINS 

LOCKETS and SEALS 



Factory, : : : : Attlcboro, Mass, 
New York Office, t : 3 Maiden Lane 




THE WEST HOTEL 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 



Under New Ownership and Management. 




ABSOLUTELY FIREPROOF. 



AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN PLAN. 



West Hotel Orchestra, O to S P. M. Daily. 



Prices 
Reasonable, 



CHAS. H. WOOD COMPANY, Proprietor. 



Anglo-American Telegraph CompanyItd.. 



ESTABLISHED 1866. 



THE PIONEER ATUNTIC CABLE COMPANY 




Direct (Jouimunioation Bet^veen America and Europe by Four Cables. 
AUTOMATIC DlIPIiEX SYSTE3I. 



NEW CABLES TO FRANCE, HOLLAND, AND BELaiUM 

GOOD COMMUNICATION WITH GERMANY. 

Telegrnms can be forwarded "VIA ANGLO CABLKS," to Europe, Kgypt, East and West Coasts of 
Africa, Turkey, India, China, Cochin China, Oorea, Manila, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South 
America Zanzibar, Mozambique, Arabia, Cape of Good Hope, Oape Verde, Madeira, and the Canary 
Islands, etc., etc., 

FROM THE FOLLOWING AHERICAN STATIONS: 

f New York, Head Office. 68 Broad Street (Morris 

I Building), Telephone No- 5955 Broad. 

8 Bridge Street (Maritime BIdg.),TeI. No. 870 Broad. 

8 Broad Street (Stock Exchange), Tel. No. 5955 Broad. 

445 Broome Street (Silk Exchange Bldg.), TeI.No.69t 

Spring. 

MONTREAL OFFICE :~ 52 St. Francois Xavier Street, Tel. No. Bell J027. 



NEW YORK OFFICES: i 



I 



LONDON: 24 Throgmorton Street, E. C. 
71 Old Broad Street, 
109 Fenchurch Street, E. C. 
46 Mark Lane, E. C. 
" Baltic Exchange Chambers, 

St. Mary Axe, E. C. 
" Northumberland Avenue, 

Charing Cross, W. C. 
Hay's Wharf, Tooley Street, S. E. 
LIVERPOOL: Al The Exchange. 
BRADFORD : 10 Forster Square. 
BRISTOL: Back Hall Chambers, Baldwin Street. 
DUNDEE: 1 Panmure Street. 



OFFICES IN EUROPE; 



EDINBURGH • 50 Frederick Street. 
GliASGOW ; 29 Gordon Street, 
LEITH: Exchange Buildings. 
MANCHESTER: 31 Brown Street. 
NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE: 1 Side. 
PARIS AGENCY : 37 RueCaumartin. 
CARDIFF " Atlantic Buildings. 
ANTWERP " 19 Rue du Margrave. 
ROME " 49 Via venti Settembre. 

AMSTERDAM AGENCY : 506 Prinsengracht. 
BARCELONA " 56 Paseo de Gracia. 

COPENHAGEN " 2Chr. Wiutersvej. 

HAVRE : 118 Boulevard Strasbourg. 



THE SHORTEST AND QUICKEST RODTES MOSS THE flTLMTig 

Used by all the principal stockbrokers of New York, London, Liverpool, etc., to whom 
the QUICKEST OBTAINABLE SERVICE is essential. 

THIS COMPANY, whose CARRYING CAPAQTY IS FAR IN EXCESS 
OF ANY OTHER ATLANTIC CABLE COMPANY, is naturally favorable 
to the MAINTENANCE OF A LOW RATE WITH AN INCREASING 
VOLUME OF TRAFHC. 

XV 




Uncle Sam sa 

Uncle Sam, in the person of ten of his government officials, is always in 
distillation, after the whiskey is stored in barrels in our warehouses, during 
you get, Uncle Sam is constantly on the watch. We dare not take a gallon of 
And when he does say so, that whiskey goes direct to you, with all its 
REGISTERED DISTILLER'S GUARANTEE of PURITY and AGE, and 
the best for medicinal purposes. That's why it is preferred for other uses. 
YOU should try it. Y'our money back if you' re not satisfied. 

Direct from our 

Saves dealers' profits. 

HAY 



SEVEN YBAROU^ 





'^HAYNLR DISTILLING 




FULL QU 



EXPRESS CHARGES 



We will send vou POUR FULL QUART BOTTLES of 

express charges. Try it, and if you don' t find it all right, and 
then send it back at our expense, and your $3.20 will be 
could it be tairer ? If you are not perfectly satisfied, you are not 
sealed case, no marks to show what's inside. 

Orders for Arizona, ralifornia, Colorndo. Idaho. Montana, 
must be on the basis of 4 Quarts for $4.00 by Express 



CAUTION. 



-1S66 

DAYXOIM, OH O 



We are th« only distillers in the 
wljo claim to bs di'^tiller^. They 
They are simply dealers v/ho mutt water and adulterate 
imitators. WRTTK OUF NEAREST 

THE HAVNER DIS 



XVI 



ST. L.OUIS, IV10. 




PAID BY US 



HAYNER SEVEN-YEAR-OLD RYE for $3.20. and we will pay the 

as good iis you ever dnink or can buy from anybody else at any price, 
returned to you by next mail. Just think that offer over. How 
out a cent. Better let us send you a trial order. We ship in a plain 

Nevada. New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, or Wyoming, 
Prepaid, or 20 Quarts for $16.00 by Freight Prepaid. 

United States selling direct to consumers. We have imitators 
are not distillers, and have no connectjpn with a distillery. 
their goods in order to meet our prices. Beware of our 
OFFICE AND DO IT NO ]V. 

TlLLirslG COMPANY 

ST. RifS^UU, MIIMIM. xvM 



:^HAYNLRD1STIIXING| 



'^Tp, 



'^■'t,'^ /V^y./v-A.'-, 



ati^ 




OISTIUUERV 
TROY, OHIO 

AT|_A^a-^/x, ga. 



QUEEN LOUISE 
MASSAGE CREAM 




Beauty is within the 
reach of all women. 
Why have a poor com- 
plexion when you can 
beautify yourself with 

Queen Louise Face 
Massage Cream? 

It beautifies, soothes 
and invigorates, re- 
freshes, cleanses and 
removes all facial 
blemishes ; eradicates 
wrinkles. 

Price, 50c. and $1.00 per Jar. 

Send five cents in stamps for 
a generous sample and an illus- 
trated book on facial massage. 



N. LOPARD & CO., Inc. 

705 Broadway. New York, N. Y. 



xvin 



15he LENOX HOTEL 




IN BUFFALO 












High-Grade Modern Con- 
struction. Fire-proof through- 








out. European plan 


. Rates 


$1.50 per day and 


upward. 


Room reservations 


can be 


telegraphed at our 


expense. 



r.r.^.J" *-• '4ii. 



Nitrfli St., at l>e!ii«'are Ave. 



George Duchscherer 

PROPRIETOR 



HO 



JOH\ G. DUN, 
Manager. 



EIL HARTMAN, 

^ ^ jt COI-UMBUS, OHIO. 




^ 



The fiuest appointed hotel in the West. Every room has a Lavatory 
and Toilet Room, with hot and cold water connected. 
One visit will insure your continued patronage. 

EUROPEAIM RL-ArsJ EIXCUUSI VEL-Y. 

Parquetry Floors and Elegant Rugs Throughout. 

WRITE FOR BOOKLET, 

TAKE MAIN STREET CAR FROM UNION STATION. 



I&actt autr <ta\i jFatcs in lHanl)attan i3otoufli). 

RATES OF FARE. 

By Distance— CABS. 

For oue mile or any part thereof $0.50 

For each additional half mile or part thereof 25 

For any stop over live minutes in a trijo, for every fifteen minutes or fraction thereof. .25 

By Time— 

For one hour or any part thereof $1.00 

For each additional half hour or part thereof 50 

By Distance- COACHES. 

For one mile or any part thereof $1.00 

For each additional half mile or part tiiereof 50 

For any stop over five minutes in a trip, for every fifteen minutes or fraction thereof. . .40 

By Time— 

For one hour or any part thereof $1.50 

For each additional half hour or part thereof 75 

No hackman shall demand more than the legal rates of fare or charge for one stop not over five 
minutes in a single trip. 

No hack shall be driven by the time rate at a pace less than five miles an hour. 

Line balls, for one or two passengers, $2 for first mile or part thereof, and $1 for each additional 
mile or part thereof. Each additional passenger, 50 cents. 

One piece of baggage, not to exceed 50 pounds in weight, shall be carried on a hack without extra 
charge. i\.dditional baggage carried, 25 cents per piece. 

In all cases where the hiring of a hack is not specified in advance to be by time, it shall be deemed 
to be by distance, and for any detention exceeding fifteen minutes the hackman may demand addi- 
tional compensation at the rate of $1 per hour. 

REGULATIONS. 

Any carriage kept for hire shall be deemed a public hack, and a carriage Intended to seat two 
persons inside shall be deemed a cab, and a carriage intended to seat more than two persons inside 
shall be deemed a coach, and the term hackman shall be deemed to include owner or driver, or both. 

Every licen.se hack, except such as are specially licensed, shall be provided with a suitable lamp 
on each side, and shall have securely fastened across the mirldle of the outside of each lamp a metal 
band not le.ss than two inches in width, out of which the official number of the license shall be cut 
after the manner of a stencil plate, the component figures of such numbers to be not less than one 
and one- half inches in height, and the style of the whole to be approved by the Mayor or Chief of 
the Bureau of Licen.ses. Every licensed hack shall have the official number of the license legibly 
engraved or embossed upon a metal plate and affixed inside, as designated and approved by the 
Mayor or Chief of the Bureau of Licenses, and no licensed hack shall carry or have affixed to it, inside 
or outside, any number except the official number as aforesaid. 

Every licensed hackman, immediately after the termination of any hiring or employment, must 
caretully search such hack for any propertv lost or left therein, and anv such property, unless sooner 
claimed or delivered to the owner, must be taken to the nearest police station and deposited with the 
officer in charge within twenty- four hours after the finding thereof; and in addition a written notice, 
with brief particulars and description of the property, must be forwarded at once to the Bureau of 
Licenses. 

Every licensed hackman shall have the right to demand pavment of the legnl fare in advance, and 
may reluse employment unless .so prepaid, but no licensed hackman shall otherwise refuse or neglect 
to convey any orderly person or persons, upon request, anvwhere in the city, unless previously 
engaged or unable .so to do. No licensed hackman .shall carry any other person than the passenger 
first emploving a hack without the consent of said passenger. 

Battery to City Hall'*^.*™«^« '^ BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN. ^.^^ 

City Hall to Houston Street ' "" 1 " 

City Hall to Nineteenth Street 2 " 

Avenue Blocks, 20 i ^ _ 

Street Blocks, 7 J are deemed 1 

Disputes as to rates and distances may be settled by the police, or complaints may be made to the 

BUREAU OF LICENSES, 

Boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. City Hall, New York. 




Butcher's Boston Rolish 

Is the best finish made for FLOORS, Interior Woodworlt and Furniture. 

Not brittle; will neither scratch nor deface, like shellac or varnish. It is not 
soft and sticky, like beeswax. Pfrfectly transparent, preserving the natural 
color and bsauty of tho wood Without doubt the most economical and satisfac- 
tory POLISH known for HARDWOOD FLOORS. 
For Sale by Dealers in Paints. IIar<Uvare, and Iloiise-P^iirniHliiiiss. 

SEND FOR OUR FREE BOOKLET, TELLING OF THE MANY 
ADVANTAGES OF BUTCHER'S BOSTON POLISH. 



THE BUTCHER POLISH CO., 



356 Atlantic Avenue, 
Boston, Mass. 



/^TTJ? A7/1 3 OTn/n/TTO '« a superior finish for 
UUK JNU* O K£LV1VE.J< kitchen and piazza fioors. 



' pii 

XX 




[ mmii 



No other 
Spreader 
pulverizes 
as thoroughly 
or distributes 
as uniformly. 



To give the greatest value, manure must change to liquid form quickly. The Spreader 
which cuts it into the finest v>iece-; and distributes entirely uniformly is the best invest- 
ment. Our Hood, Special Beater, and Raice enable the Standard to accomplish this. \o 
part of load thrown high into the air. One motion of one lever operates entire machine. Six 
changes of feed made at seat. Automatic return of apron. Apron always locked, avoiding 
racing and making positive feed. Strongest wheels : strongest frame and box ; strongest shaftins ; 
least complicated; most durable. Al.so spreids lime, fertilizer, etc. ASK FOR C.\T.\LOGUE. 

THE STANDARD HARROW CO., 



192=217 Schuyler Street, - 



UTICA, N. Y. 



Makers of Potato Harvesters, Riding Cultivators, Harrows, etc. 




SAVE ^ YOUR FUEL 

D j I BY USING THE 

ROCHESTER RADIATOR 



Satisfaction 
refunded. 



IT WILL DO IT. 

guaranteed, or money 



Over 100,000 of them in use. 

Fits any stove or furnace. 

Price from f 2.00 to f 12.00. 

One stiuare inch of radiating surface 
directly over the hot current is better 
than six in a drum or side heater witli 
perpendicular tubes. 

Easily cleaned. We guarantee oiii- 
radiators not to interfere with oi- 
clioke the draught. 

Write for booklet on heating homes. 

ROCHESTER RADIATOR CO., 

92 FURNACE STREET. = = - ROCHESTER, N. Y. 




HOTEL BROEZBL : : : Buffalo, N. Y. 

THE ONLY FIRST-CLASS AMERICAN 



PLAN HOTEL IN THE CITY. 



Dairy and Garden Supplies from Hotel Broezel Farm. 



\X* JOHN E. BO tor ^^*5p^ 



RATES.$ 3°?. -il" 

PER DAY ^ J_^ 

AND UPWARDS. pirKC 
AMERICAN PUN. 



T 




PROOF 



T 



ONE BLOCK 
PROM PRINCIPAL 
R.R. STATJONS. 



JI5. BERT HENSHAW, 

Manager. 



BUFFAhO, N. Y. 



LOCAL AND LONG-DISTANCE TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS IN ALL 

ROOMS. HOT AND COLD WATER IN EVERY ROOM. 

CONVENIEN1" F^OR NIAGARA F^AI^LS TOURISTS 

WHITGOMB HOUSE. Rochester, N. Y. 

UNDER SAME MANAGEMENT AS HOTEL BROEZEL. 

In tine Business and Theatre Districts of the City. 

UP-TO-DATE ORILL ROOM IM eOMNECTION. 



NT 



JOHN E B 



RATES.$2=? 

PER DAY 
AND UPWARDS, 
AMERICAN PLAN. 




OLDT ^*^^ 



CENTRALLr 
LOCATED. 



E0CHESTEPv,NY^ 



FREn BUS MHETS ALt TRAINS. 
IiOcal and I^ong- Distance Telephones in All Rooms, 

Eleciric CarM I'ass DourM to AU I'oiiits In and Around Rochester. 

xxii 



THE BITTERFIBLD, 

UTICA, N. Y. 

In the Centre of the Business and Theatre District. 

FREE BUS TO ALL STATIONS AND TRAINS. 

SPACIOUS SAMPLE ROOMS. 




A Corner in the Butterfield Cafe. 



FIRST-CLASS RESTAURANT IN CONNECTION. 

AMERICAN— $3.00 a Day and Up. 





tVlSiina^&r 



xxm 



riRC! 



riRE!! 



riRBH! 






The Best Full Line of Hand Chemical 

riRE EXTINQUISnCRS. 



The 




Send 

for 

Circulars* 



The 




''Chi Ids/' 



Wanted, Good Salesmen and Mill Supply Dealers. 



0. J. GHILDS GO., 



-Sole 
Manufacturers, 



UXICA, IM, v., U. S. A. 



»i> ^ »Ji 



XIIV 



I M l u ll II w^MP^iPMpW 



., I. . ' ■. ' ." I .,«>" " 




Autrti^epiic and Disinfectant 



Men and Women 

interested in their tomes 

will appreciate its great value as a 
household necessity As a puri- 
fier of all unsanitary conditions 
it has received endorsement by 
the highest bacteriologists. Ab- 
solutely safe, highly concen- 
trated, used in weak solution, 
and very economical. 



Physicians Endorse It 

for CUTS, BURNS, BRUISES, 
SORES, blood poisoning, insect 
bites and stings,chafed, chapped, 
irritated, and inflamed sur- 
faces. Heals rapidly, leaving 
little or no scar. Very sooth- 
ing and comfortable. Excel- 
lent in the bath and for tender, 
aching feet. 




AfltlKptk. — For Cuti, Bruiiei, fiurofl. 
lorci, ooe lenspoooful to ft quart of hot 
water. Foot-bath oae tftbltipoonfnl to a 
(ool-lnb of water. 

O«ttf«ot.- For floori. woodwork, sink* 
■Dd all ordi Qary cleansing about the 
beofc, out tab IcKpoonfuI to a pail of 
•iter. Should be used in water to clean 
MerythlDg Jot which water is employed. 

iBfMllclde.- Destroys lice and fleas oo 
aoaestic aGltnaN and poultry and all lo. 
Met* that infest veijetation. Cures, mange. 
npei. chicken cholera, etc. Makes the 
«•! and akin clean and healthy. RIdt 
uif home ot cockrooclies, water and buf- 
■■lo bugs^ 

plriolectant and Bacterlclda. - Dcstroyi 

• Ipatrelaciion, the bacteria of all Infec 

oui disease an^ all oJor% araatioHog 

uff.!"*' *°"'" ^^ *^»"e- taectual and 
wie to use anywhere. 

Non>polaonou*. Noo*corroeiv«. 

TheSulpho-NaptholC* 

BOSTON. MASS 
U.S.A. 




Sulpho-Napthol is sold by all dealers, lOc, 25c., 50c., 
and $1.00. The above Trade-Mark should appear on all 
packages. It protects purchase. 



10 & 25c- packages by mail of 
THE SULPHO-NAPTHOL CO., 
57 Haymarket Square, 

Boston, Mass. 



Sold in New York City by 

Acker, Merrall & Condit, 
Park & Tilford, R. H. Macy's, 
Siegel-Cooper's, Wanamaker's. 



XXV 



THE AUTOPLATE. 




THAT THE NEW YORK WORLD 

Should Now Make Its Plates with the Time and Labor- 

Saving Aid of 

THE AUTOPLATE 

IS ALMOST A MATTER OF COURSE. 

The leading newspaper owners of the world are agreed that THE 
AUTOPLATE is as necessary to their equipment as the type-setting 
machines. 

It economizes not in one department only, but in three. 

It saves time, and therefore money, in tlie Press Room and the Mail- 
ing Room, as well as in the Stereotyping Room. 

It makes better plates at less cost than the hand stereotyper. 

To be without THE AUTOPLATE is to be seriously handicapped in 
the newspaper race for supremacy. 

Oiher papers iiaving Autoplates in use or under orders are the New 
York Herald. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, New York Times, New York Sun, 
( hicago Tribune, Chicago Daily News, Boston Globe, Boston Post, Piiiia- 
delphia Bulletin, Philadelphia Telegraph, St. Louis Globe Democrat, 
Cincinnati Enquirer, Kansas Citj' Star. 

THE CAMPBELL COMPANY. 

HENRY A. WISE WOOD. ^x No. 1 Madison Avenue. New York. 
President. T No. 334 DearDorn Street. Chicago. 



X X \ I 



R. HOE & CO.'S 

IMPROVED METAL FURNACE AND PUMPS 

Used in Connection with the New "Equipoise" 
Curved Casting Moulds for Stereotype Plates. 




AFFORDS THE QUICKEST AND MOST CONVENIENT METHOD FOR 
PRODUCING PERFECT STEREOTYPE PLATES. 

A Valuable Time and Labor Saving Apparatus, Which Will Soon 

Repay the Cost of Installation. 



Prices and other particulars desired will be promptly given npon application to 

R. Hoe & Co., Irltiii' New York. 

Also: 192 Devonshire St., BOSTON, MASS. 143 Dearborn St., CHICAGO, ILL. 
Borough Road, LONDON, S. E., ENGLAND. 



t 

t 

T 
? 



^ 



v;<sigi5v:; 



•4 



Gi 



(5 

I 






^•Ni' 



ta'.l'K' 



It 



!■ 



f 



,SL515lPnSlSV~k 









■ysi 



K'5l&i5ig'igrigg,^ 




Tfflglfflglglg} ;; 



/ '• A 'V 






Slbl' 



"•^ 



ELEVATOR CARS 

AND 

ENCLOSURES. 

We manufacture everything in 
the way of fine elevator cars and 
enclosures. Also ornamental 
bank ana office grill work In 
Drass, steel, and oxidized. We 
are always pleased to furnlsn 
estimates or send catalogue. 

LET us HEAR FROM YOU. 

1 \m I 



•» 



HAMILTON, OHIO, U. S. A. 



■•••••-••••••••• 



-•-••4> 



■••~*»*»«.-«~»~«»«»*'<*«*-*~«~«.- 



GREATER NEW YORK 
DETECTIVE AGENCY 

835 BROADWAY. NEW YORK CITY 

Telephone, 836 Gramercy 



I. VV. KOlJlfrK 

Manager 



J. E. McKENNA 

Principal 



H.S. RAT.EIGII 

Superintendent 



CORRESPONDENTS IN ALL THE PRINCIPAL 
CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

Prepared For All 

KINDS OF LEGITIMATE DETECTIVE WORK 

We Make a. Specialty of 

R.ail\iray Secret Service 

Licensed and Bonded under the 
Laws of the Stane oi New York 

OITR OPERATIVES ARE ALL BONDED MEN 




xxviu 



THE FIDELITY AND GftSUflLTY GO 

OF NEW YORK. 

Principal Office, Mos. 97-J03 Cedar Street, New York. 



Fidelity Bonds . . 
Emplayers' Liability 
Personal Accident . 
Health . . 
Steam Boiler 
Plate Glass 
Burglary 
Fly Wheel . 
Bonded List 



This Company has been in business twenty-seven years. 

Its assets on June 30th, 1904, were . $6,397,004.50 

These assets are held for the protection 
of Policy Holders, as follows : 



. I Capital 

(Net Surplus . . 
' I Premium Reserve 
• jfLoss Reserve 
. ' Special Reserve . 
. ! Total so held 



$500,000.00 
1,412,107.72 
2,654,181.01 
1,573,630.83 
257,084.94 



$6,397,004.50 



These proofs of long experience, of prudence, of success, and of careful regard for 
clients, we offer with the statement that we give 

INSURANCE -TMAX INSURES. 



DIRECTORS: 



liEOIKJE E. IDE, 

W. <;. LOW, 

r. (;. McCur.Lolir.u, 

WM. J. MAIHESON, 
GEO F. SEWARD, President. 
ROBT. J. HILLAS, Vice-President, Secretary. 



DL'MONT Cr.AUKE, 
WM. P. DIXON, 
ALFKED W. HOYT, 
A. B. llfl.L, 



ALEXANDER E. OKU. 
HENKV E. I'IEHKEI'(JXT, 
ANTON A. KAVEN. 



KIHN L. HIKEK. 
W. E. UodSEVELT, 
OEo. V. SEWAIID. 



EDWARD C. LUNT, 3d Asst. Sec'y 



HEXRY CROSSLEV, 1st Asst. Sec'y. 
FRANK K. LAW, 2d Asst. Sec'y. 



CHAS. A. SCHIEl 



w vU*y 



MANUFACTURERS AND TANNERS OF 



Oak 
Leather 
Belting 




^^X^Tw^^ 



and 
Leather 



' NEW YORK. 

j CHICAGO, 

; PITTSBURGH, 

j BOSTON, 

j PHILADELPHIA, . 
DENVER. 

HAMBURG, GERMANY, 
BRISTOL, TENN., 



OOR. FERRY AND CLIFF STREETS. 

84-86-88 FRANKLIN STREET. 

. 240 THIRD AVENUE. 

. 186-188 LINCOLN STREET. 

226 NORTH THIRD STREET 

1526 SIXTEENTH STREET. 

AUF DEM SANDE 1. 

OAK LEATHER TANNERIES. 



''THE WHOLE THING IN A N UTSHELL." 

200 EGGS A YEAR PER HEN 

HONAZ TO GET THEIVI. 

The fourth edition of the book "200 Eggs a Year Per Hen" is now ready. Ke- 
vised, enLarged. and in part rewritten. 96 pages. Contains among other things the 
method of feeding by which Mr. S. D. Fox. of Wolfboro, N. H.. won the prize 
of $100 in gold offered by the manufacturers of a well-ltnown condition powder 
for the best egg record durinjr the Winter months. Simple as a. b. c— and yet we 
guarantee it to start hens to laying t.arlier, and to induce them to lay more eggs 
than any other method under the sun. The book also contains recipe for egg 
food and tonic used by Mr. Fox, which brought him in one Winter day 68 eggs 
from "2 liens, and for five days in succession from the same flock 64 eggs a day. 
.Mr. E F. Chamberlain, of ^Vblfboro, N. H.. says- "By following the methods 
outlined in your book, I obtained 1.496 eggs from 91 R. I. Reds in the month of 
January. 1902." From 14 pullets picked at random out of a farmer's flock the 
author got 2,999 eggs in one year— an average of over 214 eggs apiece. It has 
been my ambition in writing "200 Eggs a Year Per Hen" to make it the stand- 
ard book on egg production and profits in poultry. Tells all there is to know, 
and tells it in a plain, common-sense way. Price, 50 cents, or with a year's 
subscrlptloiu 60c.; or given as a premium for four yearly i^ubscrip- 
tioiiH to the American Poultry Advocate at 25c. each. 

Our Paper is handsomely illustrated, 40 to 64 pages, 25 cents per year. 4 
months' trial, 10 cents. SAMPLE FREE. 

CATATiOUUE OF POULTRY BOOKS FKKE. 




MERICAN POULTRY ADVOCATE, 11 Hogan BlocK. Syracuse, N. Y. 



///■my The steeper the hill, the greater the sport 

ALL HILLS ARE SAFE 



JT 






,^ 



You do not stand at the top and quake 
When your wheel's equipped with a 
MORROW BRAKE. 

There is absolute safety on steep grades 
when you use 

The Morrow Coaster Brake 

It also insures easy riding everywhere, as the feet 
may rest, while the wheel is in motion, during thirty 
miles out of every hundred traveled. Perfect your 
cycle joy by attaching a Morrow Brake— $5.50 put 
on ; $5.00 separate. Of all dealers, or the makers 

ECLIPSE MACHINE CO., IM.ZH'^V.r^X 

Ask or send for booklet, "It Coasts Up //til." 



SYSTEMATIC INVESTMENT. 

SUGAR, 

THE GREAT STOCK EXCHANGE COMMODITY, 

And Its Wonderful Influence Upon Market Values. 



Ho w Money Can Continually Be Made by Trading in the 
Rise and Fall of Its Daily Fluctuations. 

A SCIENTIFIC DffiOPiNT OF YEARS OF PATIENT STOPy M RESEARCH . 

THE BACKBONE OF MODERN FINANC 

And How It May Be Employed for Your 

dividual Benefit. 



' of the Stock Exchange, an institution of national 
.v,^,u>^v.u.ulI. iius^ such means for making money before been made 
public. 

Conservative, unalterable in its law, the method employed to add to 
the surplus energy of each individual investor stands without parallel. 

For the past seven years we have been prominently and favorably 
known to a large class of traders, and our market letters and telegrams 
have continually made it possible for them to profitably follow the big 
campaigns of the big operators. We were the originators six years ago of 
the now widely known System of Supply and Demand, but never until 
within the past twelve months have we been enabled to gauge the tem- 
porary changes of five to ten points in price values with a satisfactory 
degree of certainty. 

Our terms are TEN DOLLARS per month for our daily letters and 
the few telegrams which we send out as night messages to parties located 
at a distance. Become one of our subscribers and learn to appreciate the 
remarkable earning power of your idle capital operated in accordance 
with our advices. 



FINANCIAL INDEX COMPANY, '" '^""'"^ '» 



Boston. Mass. 




Shave Yourself with the Original and Mechanically Perfect 

STAR SAFETY RAZOR. 

You can do it with ease and comfort. 

A tender face with a strong wiry beard will find an absolute 
friend in our STAR SAFETY RAZOR. 

Razors Complete, $2.00* 
Handsome Sets, $3.50 and up, 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

KAIPFt BB0THER8, 8-12 Reade St, NEW YORK, 

Or all leading dealers in high-class cutlery. 

Please mention The 'V\orld Almanac. 



POINTS OF e:xce:ll.e:inige: 

EIVIBODIED IN THE BRENNAN STANDARD MOTOR: 




RENNAN MOTOR CO., = = 



Extreme simplicity of construction. Sub- 
stantial and large bearings, thereby increasing 
the life of the motor and reducing wear to a 
minimum. So constructed that bearings are 
easily adjusted. All parts easily accessible at 
all times for inspection. Will develop over 
40 per cent above their rated power on actual 
brake test. Built in sizes 6, 8. 12, 14, 16 H. P. 
and 20 H. P. Investigation solicited. Inquiries 
promptly attended to. 

102 GRAPE STREET, 
Syracuse, N. Y., U.S.A. 



Knuckle Joint, Hydraulic, OO |^QQP?Q 
and Power Screw '^ IxCf^O L^^ 




By Hand or 
Power, from 
60 to 500 tons. 

For almost 
every 
purpose requiring pressure. 

BEND FOR CATALOGUE. 




Cider, Wine, Paper, Cloth. Leather 

Belting, Veneers, Lard, Tallow, Oleo, 

Herbs. 

Fertilizers, 

Glue 

Stock, 

etc.. 

«tc. 



BOOMER &BOSCHERT PRESS CO., 

457 West Water St., SYRACUSE, N. Y., U. S. A. 




(Established in iS82) 

FRANKLIN H. HOUGH 

Attorney at Lnw and 
Solicitor of Patents 
Rooms 56, 58. and 60 Atlantic Bldg. 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Practice in the Supreme Court of the United States and in the District Courts. 
Patents secured in the United States and in ail foreign countries. Examinations as 
to patentability. Opinions furnished as to scope and validity of Patents, etc. 

NO CHARGE ri »K OPINION AS TO PATbNTABILITY OF INVI:NT10NS. Write 
for " Inventors' Guide." xx.xii 




ST. LOUIS 

POST- DISPATCH 

WITHOUT A REAL COMPETITOR IN CIRCULATION 
OR ADVERTISING WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



CIRCULATION ' 

Average for 1 months ending Nov. 1 , 1 904 



SUNDAY 
DAILY - 



227,243 
1 49,642 



The FOST-DISFATCH sells 25.000 more papers in 
the city of St. Louis every day than there are homes in 
this Western metropolis. 

Its St. Louis sales are greater than the combined sales of 
any other three dailies in the same field. 

It holds unchallenged supremacy in commercial and 
"want" advertising. 



EASTERN AGENTS 

S. C BECKWITH SPECIAL AGENCY 

NEW YORK CHICAGO 



XXXUl 




Railroiai 



«S^3s2" 



BEST Way 

BETWEEN 



NEW YORK and BUFFALO 



Through service without change between 
NEW YORK, CHICAGO, and ST. LOUIS 



Dining Car Service a la carte 



T. W. LEE 

General Passenger Agent 

26 Exchange Place 

NEW YORK 



GEO. A. CULLEN 

General Western Passenger Agent 

103 Adams Street 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



XXXIV 



Chicach> 
Great 



Maple Leaf 

ROUTE 



WESTERN 



F^ AlLWAY^ 




CHIG/V(jO 

Western 



'^BRIGHT ROAD' 

ETWEENCHICACO, 
o)^ ST PAUL, 



-^rtlNNEAPOLIS, 
KANSAS CITY, 
^4? OMAHA. 

Equipment Right, 
Service Right, 
Time Right, 
Its all Right; 



XXXV 



Book On IDEAL Steam Cookers 

It costs you nothing whatever to know more 
about the wonderful results you can get from 



FREE 



THFAT S;TFAM combination 

llil^/iL. 3 1 JL./ii*i COOKERS AND BAKERS 





Cooks nn entiremealoveronebiirncr of any 
stove; reduces fuel bills fully one-half; saves 
heat in the kitchen. Meats are made tender 
andsavorj; vegetables retain their natural 
flavor. Holds twelve one-quart jars in can- 
ning fruit. Patented whiiitles on both 
round and square call cook twenty min- 
utes before water is needed. Seamless dome 
topsandallcoppertank bottoms. Thoroughlv — 

^'■^-class material md skilled workmen only eraployed. 

We are positive if you knew the convenience, economy, and surpass- 
ing cooking an Ideal Steam Cooker means, you would surely buy at 
once; hence we are anxious to send you our free book of 36 pages now. 

Extraordinary Otter. We are paving the way to have 
' **'* l iig g THE BEST DEAl.EKS fSEI.L, THEM, 

: so if you will, in writing us, send the name of the hard- 
ware or h.ouse-furnishing dealer with whom you trade, 
,, we will make you a special net price on a Cooker for your 
" own use. 



m 



Toledo Cooker Company 



i 1337 w. Bancroft street. Toledo, Ohio 

_^ Largest manufacturers of steam cookers in the world. 
AGENTS WANTED 



CRESSAVON 




Keeps Flies off Oattle. Keeps Fleas off Dogs and Sheep. 



The Ideal Disinfectant. 

Germ Destroyer, and 

5 Purifier. ^ ^ ^ 

CHEAP AND EFFECTIVE. 

1 gallon mixed with 100 gallons of 
water makes a powerful disinfectant. 
Write for Cireulav and Price. 

H. BRAUN. SONS & CO.. 

COLUMBUS, O. 



PIT AND PITLESS SCALES, 

For Steel of Wood Frames. 

$25 and Up. 
Also B, B. Pumps and Wind Mills. 




Write us for i)ric(;s before you 
buy. We can save you money. 

BECKMAN BROTHERS, 

1>ES MOINES IOWA, U. «. A. 



-FT'TTTTTm,' 



b 



XXX VI 




The BooKwaltcr Hotel, ^p""^"^"' ""^ 

The Springfield Hotel Company, Lessee 



ifiiiii^pipiiwfpi 




AMERICAN PLAN 
Rates. $2.50 to $3.50 

Absolutely one of tne best 
Hotels in Central Ohio 

New House, just recently 
opened to the public, 
with everything fur- 
nished up to date 

Rooms with Bath and en Suite 

Hot and Cold Water in every 

Room 

SERVICE UNEXCELLED 

Howard W, Miller 

Manager 



A FOUNTAIN PEN FOR MAKING SIGNS. 




A necessity in every store. Pays for itself in one waek. Any one can make signs and price cards. 

Used same as common lead pencil. Absolutely perfect in construction. No complicated 

parts to get out of order. Made in five sizes. 

PRICE $1.00 EACH, INCLUDING A TWO-OUNCE BOTTLE OF SIGNOGRAPH INK. 

Carrieil by Lieatling Stationers, or expressed direct on receipt of price. 



., 



Write for fre'S book, of instructions. 



Agents wanted in all parts of the world. 



\l NATIONAL PEN CO,,^^^ 'Kt^^'^"^ Minneapolis. Minn. 



xxxva 



S1,000.00 FOR S2, 




- ■ uri i ■.^■.. 



COMMERCIAL INDEMNITY COMPANY, 



This handsome Leather Pocket Case and a 
Special Accident Insurance Policy for 
$1,000.00 Death Benefit, and $10.00 weekly 
for Disablinij Injuries and our guarantee to 
stand expense up to $50.00 for medical atten- 
tion in case of an emergency. All this for $2 
per year. Money refunded if not satisfactory. 
Write to-day— to-morrow may be too late. 
AGEIMXS W/AMTED. 

433 GRANITE BUILDING, 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



RIBBON BAOGE3 

FOR LODGES. UNIONS. AND CONVENTIONS. 

Original Designs or Duplicates of any Badge 
made in this Country. 

SPECIAL BOOKS AND BLANKS FOR ALL SOCIETIES. 



UEGALIA, BUTTONS, SEALS. BALLOT BOXES. WIGS, 
SOUVENIK miRRORS, GAVELS, AND LODGE SUPPLIES. 



CHARI^MS J. BAINBRIDGE, 

100 Clinton Street, - - SYRACUSE, N. 



F. 



|C:J BAIINBRIDGE. 

MAftbfACTURERfOF"^ 

BADGES, 

yLODGES.rUNIONS.// 



UNIFORM CLOTHS 

In various weights and qualities specially designed for 

ARMY and NAVY, POLICE and FIRE, RAILROAD and TRACTION PURPOSES . 

^ Also INDIGO GREEN CLOTHS in all weights from 5 to 20 oz. 

Specially designed for CARRIAGE and LIVERY PURPOSES. 

BROADCLOTHS, TRICOTS, DIAGONALS, GRANITES, DOESKINS, CASTORS, 

AND KERSEYS. 

The Product of the Mills of S. SLATER & SONS (Iiicorporatert), Webster. 

S LATER & 30JMS (Incorporated), 

SELLING AGENTS, 
47 and 49 WORTH STK^^r, NI^W YORK. 



BOSTON. 



CHICAGO. 



ST. LOUIS. 




M^nufactur^^ h 









'■^^^^^ 








$20,000.00 fn a season 
Is the report of an owner 



of 



one 



of 



our 



MERRY-GO-ROUNDS 

MANUFACTURED BY 

GILLIE ENGINE AND 
MACHINE COMPANY 

Tonawanda, N. Y., U. S. A. 

SpRnisli and Knglish circulnis upon 
request. 



XXXVIll 



FISHING RODS. 

The (/'elebrated DIVINK Fishing Rods. Made 
of SPLIT BAMBOO, BETHABARRA.MALTESE 
WOOD, GREENHART, DAGAMA. LANCE- 
WOOD. 

THE BEST ROD MADE IS SPIRAL OR 
TWISTED SPLIT BAMBOO. Stronger, stiffer, 
and holds its shape the best of any Rod made. 

In any size and weight. All Rods first class. 

Send for catalogue, free. 

Mention World Almanac. 

THE FRED. D. DIVINE CO.. 10 Roberts St., Utica, N. Y.. U. S. A. 

mTe: e: k reels 

are made for the best possible service, and possess features not obtainable in other reels. They are 
gruaranteed to be perfect in material, workmanship, action, and durability, and to give complete satis- 
faction to every purchaser. Compare our reels with the best of other makes and be convinced, or ask 
an.v owner of a Meek reel he knows Complete catalogue AV. A. free. 





FOlt ALL, FI?-illlNG-FKO-»l TKO[ T TO TINA. 

B. F. M^BK & SONS, - - - I^ouisviUe, Ky., Z7. S. A. 

Sole Alaiiufacturers of 31eek and Blue Grass Kciitiick.v Ueels. 

New York Camera Exchange 

J, H. & J. ANDREWS, Proprietors. 

Our Business '^ buying, sellmg, and exchanging 

Cameras and Lenses. 

Vnil f* RllsinPQ< *° know where you can SAVE MONEY, get what you 
iv^ui i^u^iut;3<5 ^gg J .^ jj^g Photographic Supply line at LOWEST prices. 
We save you from 10 to 50 per cent on prices of other dealers ON NEW GOODS, 
Send 2-cent stamp for 72-page Bargain List, and mention '* World Almanac." 

Telephone, 2387 John. Dept. A. 1 14 FULTON STREET. 





GOLD MEDAL CAMP FURNITURE MFG. CO., 

RACINE, WIS., U. .S. A. 

We manufacture the celebrated Gold Medal Oamp Furniture, adopted by the 
United States Army and Navy. In addition to our Cots, of which we have fur- 
nished 250,000 for the Army, our Tables, Chairs, and Bath Tubs have been adopted 
by the Medical Department 

of the U. S. Army. «»— <^ttc,. .. ^ ^ 

We manufacture Com- ^8i' -t™.^^^BSb^i 

plete Camp Outfits, and sell our product through 
dealers. We solicit correspondence. Catalogue 
W. free. 

We publish four books of about 140 pages ^rv -' , ._'^ '^s 

each, The Complete Camper's Manual. The Com- ^}0w--rir^'i:-^'^'-'ii^--"^'i^ ^Ji-^:-..: .^ r:,^^^ .^ 

plete Fisherman's and Angler's Manual, The Com- <a\>\'rWi.T^^o'\o Su??o ro 0>n^RV\fc\j t.'ToH 

plete Sportsman's Manual and Trapper's Guide, ^^^^FC^^^Bl,n - 

and the Big Game Hunter's Manual, which we ^IBb'^t^^B BHH MK 

sell for 10 cents per copy, in postage or coin. ^w^sliHjui r^ST^^ y 

xxxix 




t'fABSRSlU'FVttep 



TOUDO. afAtJuLYM:l303,_ 




The Fabcr 



Self-Filling and 
Self-Clezining:: 



Fountain Pens 






The Ideal has 
reached Perfec- 
tion in the FA- 
BER. 

This Pen is be- 
yond criticism in 
every respect. 

It cannot be 
distinguish e d 
from a n o n- 
self-filler. It is 
ink-tight. 

The simplicity of 
its self=filling de° 
vice makes it 
practical. 

Absolutely 
non-leaking. 

No unsightly lock to annoy 
the writer or interfere with 
finger movements. No twist- 
ing of ink reservoir, thereby 
avoiding breaking or pulling 
reservoir loose. 

The FABER PEN is sweepinz 
over the world like a whirlwind 
and everywhere displacing the 
old-fashion pens and other self= 
fillers. 

Ask your dealer if he cannot furnish you these 
pens. Accept no substitute. 

Just let us send you one of our booklets and 
we know we will put one of the FABER PENS 
in your hands to your entire satisfaction. 



Fabcr Self-Filling Pen Co. 

2051 Ashland Ave, - Toledo, Ohio, U. S. A. 

xl 







L 



15 West 43(1 Street 

Near Fifth Avenue 

NEW YORK 

Telephone 4696 38th St 




200 Joralemon Street 

Cor. Court Street 

BROOKLYN 



Law, Medical, Dental, Veterinary Students, Certified Public Accountants, 
thoroughly and rapidly prepared for 

REGENTS EXAMINATIONS 

DAY and EVENING SESSIONS for Young Men and Women 

College Preparatory Course. Students range in age from 15 to 50 years. 
CIVIL SERVICE, FEDERAL. STATE, MUNICIPAL 

ANNUAL CATALOGUE AND PAMPHLET, "SUCCESS IN REGENTS EXAMINATIONS," 

sent on application to the registrar. 

SAMUEL F. BATES, Registrar 
f ASA O. GALLUP, B. A., President 
Board of Directors-^ EMIL E. CAMERER. M. A., Secretary 
, [ARTHUR WILLIAMS, B. A., Treasurer 



An Agency 



is valuable in proportion to its 
influence. If it merely hears of 
vacancies and tells.* .is something, but if it is 
you about them lUdil asked to recommend a 
teacher and recommends Tf^mmmcnA^ 
you, that is more. Ours JVCCOmmenai* 

C. W. BARDEEN, 

Syracuse, N. V. 



Kirkwood Military Academy. 

KIKKVVOOD, MISSOURI. 

Twenty-third year, beautiful location, within 
one-half hour of World's Fair. Prepares for Col- 
lege, West Point. Business Send for Catalogue. 

COL. EDWAltO A. HAIUHT, A. 31., 

Supt. 




GLENDALE COLLEGE, 

GLENDALE, OHIO. 

A HOME SCHOOL FOR. YOUNG WOMEN. 

Fifty-first year began Sept. 21, 1904. 

College Preparfltory, Collegiate and Special 
Courses, Art, Music, Elocution. Large campus. 

MISS it. J. DEVOKE, President. 

RIDLEY COLLEGE, 

ST, CATHARINES, ONTARIO, CANADA. 

. An educational institution of highest merit. 

For particulars, address 

/ Rev. J. O. M1L.LER, Principal. 



: A C H V o u 

St Position for Volj 



FREE. 



Would you like to succeed in business ; to obtain a ^ooil paying position ; to Sfcur«^ 
an increase in salary ? Would you po88e>s the capacity tliat directs and controls large 
business enterprises ? If so, you should follow thu example of Mr.Edw. Chai-man, of 
No, 606 S. nth St., Goshen, Ind., who largely ioweased his salary after taiting our 
course. A knowledge of accouuts increases your opportunities a hundred fold. Our 
method excels all others. You can learn quickly at home, without loss of time or money. 
We guarantee it. 

A VALUABLE BOOK FREE- 

'*lIow to Succeed tu Biielnesft" is the title of an interisting treatise on 
Bookkeeping and Business. It tells of the best system of accounts ever deviseH, and 
explains how yon can make more money aud better >our po.sition in life. flJiQcfa tfaT^ 
It is jnst the book for beginners aud experts alike. To advertise our sys- - - " - 
tem we will give away 5,000 copies absolutely free, without any condition 
whatever. Simply send your name and address and receive the book 
witlmut cost. Address 



COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS, \s 
114 Commercial Bide.. Rochester, H. T. *^ 




xli 






1 

• <■ 



NOTBL SOMERSET 

COMMONWEALTH AVE., BOSTON, MASS. 



*m mi i 




The fashionable centre of the famous Back Bay 
and one of the world's most luxurious hostelries. 
Thoroughly fireproof. Delightfully located at en- 
trance to Park and Fenway. Only ten minutes 
from R. R. Station, Theatres, and Business Centres. 

Send for Illustrated Booklet. 



ALPRED S. AMER, Manager 



xlli 



r^ 




-I'-c ^T^i i.'f 1 rucifr'i'i'i' '""'^'^ 



HOTEL 
JEFFERSON 

ST. LOUIS. MO. 

Situated on I2th Street, be- 
tween Locust and St. Charles 
Streets- The largest and most 
fashionable hotel in St. Louis. 
Operated on the European 
plan and thoroughly fire- 
proof. Rates : Rooms with- 
out bath, $2.00 per day and 
up; Rooms with bath, $2.50 
per day and up. Spacious 
Sample Rooms. 

Opened April 7th, 190 4, 
under the management of 
LYMAN T. HAY. 



THE HOT SPRINGS OF ARKANSAS 

Owned and operated by the United States Government 



Arlington Hotel 

Open all the year. Only hotel situated 
on United States Reservation at foun- 
tain head of Hot Water Springs. 




Elegantly appointed Batn Houses, equipped with royal porcelain tubs, 

connected with both hotels and under the same roofs. 

LYMAN T. HAY. General Manager 



Eastman Hotel 

Open from January 20. Situated 
opposite United States Reservation. 




Descriptive booklet sent on application 

xliii 



,^^^ g:g 3 rfS%^% .^^^fr^^^ftt Telephone Sll-Gramercy. 




96 E. lO^^ST. 



/^Mwfmm 



n:^ 



We would be pleased to estimate on any work in the Building line. 



TKe R 



acme 




is the simple, sure, dependable kind. Used by thousands of successful 
poultry men and women. 

Automatic heat regulator; 14 oz. copper tank and boiler; white pine 
case, double walled; self-ventilated; nursery; no moisture. Built by a man 
who devoted 23 years to the problem — who knows most about incubators. 
It can be operated by any one, anywhere. There lies the great value of the 
Racine. 

If you seek an incubator or brooder and wish to know about all kinds, 
please send for our remarkable Book About Incubators —written by the 
man who made the Racine. It is a complete education on incubators. It 
tells facts that you need to know before buying 
— facts you would not think of. It tells, too, how 
to make poultry pay — 23 years experience. 
Don't buy without reading it. The book is free. 
Write to-day for it. Address 

Racine Hatcher Co. 

Box 76, Racine. Wis. 

We have Warehousos at Buffalo, Kansas Oity, and St. Paul. 



xliv 





THE TELEPHONE 

IS A POSITIVE NECES= 
SITY TO THE FARMER. 




Organize a com- 
pany on the mutual 
plan and secure 
service at cost. 
We make a spe- 
cialty of furnishing 
equipment and so- 
licit correspon- 
dence. Send for 
catalogue and free 
instruction book. 

[THE WILLIAMSreSroilE 
AND SUPPLY CO. 

61 Central Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 



ELECTRIC MOTORS 

—FOR— 

EVERY SERVICE 




Motors to drive anything from 
a Linotype Machine to an 80- 
ton Locomotive crane. : : 



•> 



Crocker - Wheelcp Co 

Manufacturers of Generators 
aud Motors. :: :: :: :: 

Fifteen Branch Offices. AMPERE, N.J. 



UnderYourThumlx 

is the instantaneous clean- 
ing and filling device! 
which puts this pen into 
a distinct class by itself 





Self-FlliinoPeft 






I ^m 




^ 

;.'^. 



Before you 
turn this page 
decide to send 
for the beau- 
iifully lllus- 
^^ (rated 32 page 
Caralogue which 
gives clear and con- 
vincing proof that 
vou cannot afford 



Vffii^^ '° ''* without the 
i^^i^ "CONKLIN" 



Conklin's 

Self = Filling Pen 

Is literally unlike any other 
fountain pen on earth. You 
can't make comparisons any 
more than you can compare 
electricity to candle light. 
Every day you delay buying 
and trying the S E L F- 
FILLING CONKLIN, 
you're simply losing so 
many hours of comfort and 
convenience which cannot 
be secured in any other 
way. Three hundred thou- 
sand users the world over, 
Including such notables as 
General Lew Wallace, 
Mrs. Grover Cleveland, 
Mark Twain, George B. 
Corielyou, and many oth- 
ers, echo heartily everything 
we claim for the "Conklio." 



SOLD BY DEALERS EVERYWHERE 

The Conklin Pen Co. 211 Jefferson Ave. Toledo, O. 

New York; 12 West Broadway 

Gr.lt Britain : AiDcrjun Agencies, Ltd., 38 Shoe Lane. Farringdoa St., Lond«D, 6. C Cof. 
AQUnlU : Ra., Muon * Cilben, 37 Market St., McUnoro. Aoamll.. 




xlv 




i^ 



OLIVE'R 

The Standard 
Visible Writer. 

Its Record Has Never 
Been Equaled. 



i^ 



^ 




THE OLIVER TYPEWRITER CO., 

Branches and Sales Agencies Everywhere. General Offices : CHICAGO. 




W. S. SIMPSON, 



Peerless Disc Records 30g 

$S.SO PER DOZHN. EACH 

These regular new process, extra loud iudestructible 7-inch disc records, wliicli will fit 
and work on any disc taHiing niacliiue made, were never before offered by any one at less 
than 60c. each . Our new price, 30c. each; $3.5U per dozen. Hundreds of ii.-Iections to 
choose from. All lumls, the latest up-to-date musical and talking disc records, guar- 
.inteed the liigliest qualily and tlie same as any SOc. record, at our new price 30c eich 
These records, representing the highest adv:iuce in the reproduction of sound, are so per' 
feit they are often mistalien for actu.il talking and singing; they give the gr.;Uest volume 
of sound, the niost musical qualily and naturalness of tone. Made of hard, wem -resist- 
ing composition ; can be used over and over again ; practically indestrnclible easy and 
convenient to handle; the only records ever made that are loiul enough for use out of 
donrs. Send Hbc. for a sample record by mail postpaid. Write for lie complete list 
of the hundreds of selections we furnish in these St-ceut disc records. Address at once 

- - No. 7 Warren Street, New York, 



THB ROSENTHAL CORN HUSKER 




xlvi 



llu.sks corn better, cleaner, itml quicker 
than is possible by hand. 'J'he old method 
is expensive — the new method, using tlie 
Rosenthal, means economy. No farm is 
complete without a Rosenthal Corn 
Husker. Built in two sizes. Small ma- 
chine for farm use. Large machine for 
threshermen. Write for Prices, Terms, 
Circulars, etc. Agents wanted. 

ROSENTHAL CORN HUSKER CO., 

Box 365, Milwaukee, Wis. 



THE DYKEMA HOLLOW CEMENT STONE 

possesses all the good qualities of 
brick and wood and many more. They 
are moisture proof and fireproof, and 
by variation in texture and color in 
finish, unlimited architectural effects 
are possible. 

The business of manufacturing 
these stone is one with great possi- 
bilities. The investment required is 
only fifteen per cent of that involved 
in a brick plant of the same capacity. 

Booklet D4 tells of the Dykema 
System. 

The quality of the material, the beauty of finish, the growing demand, and 
small investment unite to make the manufacture of hollow cement stone an attractive 
proposition. 

We furnish plans for prospective builders, and our book of plans will be 
sent for 25 cents coin and 6 cents in stamps. 

He manufacture cemeut-briek machines. 

K. DYKEMA & SON ~ 

1025 Michigan Trust Bidg., :: :: :: Grand Rapids, Mich. 




THINGS 



»,t*^ 




NEEDS 




Because they save him much 
trouble, annoyance, time, and mont\ 

The SAGENG PATENT MACHINE TONGUE allows 
you to back separator without cramping wheel— to turn 
sharp corners without overturnlnisr separator— and to turn 
in space where the ordinary tongue couldn' t. 

With the FOSSTON CYLINDER WRENCH you can 

remove the hardest "get-at-able" nut on a machine in 
a jiffy and save your temper besides. 

Write us for full details of these great time andmotiey 
saving inventions for threshermen. 

FOSSTON WIND STACKER CO. 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Maniif.icturers of the famous Fosston Wind Stacker 

-the lightest running, strongest, and best wind stacker 
on the market. 

3 



Write for our booklet, ".Stacker Sense." 



aamm 



xlvii 




tmm 



xivJU 



The Best of Everything in Loose Leaf 

BE SYSTEMATIC 

Use "UNIMATIC" (one movement) Flat- 
Opening Loose-Leaf Books for all purposes. 

Made in all sizes for the Vest pooKet, for the Coat pocket, and for the Desk. 




Pull the Slide, Opens Arches. 
Push the Slide, Closes Arches. 



Self Indexing and Perpetual, 

and the only way to keep data up to date. 



In stock at all Stationers 
in all parts of the world 



If not convenient to dealer write us for free Catalogue. 



HOTEL GAYOSO 



MEMPHIS. 









n'n !i 







^v w ' iom W" 



jR u:^ u 









^11 




JV*)MIS&.^ 



L.^;^-'. 









A Modern Fireproof Hotel, I 

WITH LONG-DISTANCE TELEPHONES. HOT AND COLD | 
WATER, STEAM HEAT in every room. Headquarters in 
Memphis for the Railroad. Lumber. Cotton, and Manufac- 
turing Interests, and those interested in the Harness and 
Running Races. 

If you contemplate visiting Memphis upon business or 
pleasure we shall be glad to be of service to you. 

WR/TE FOR SOUVENIR. 



Why Don*t You Have Your 
Own Water Works ? 

Country homes, farm residences, detached houses, factories, mills, 
ranches, stock farms, etc., all need water and with our wonderfully SUC- 
CESSFUL WATER SYSTEM it is so easy to supply them with water 
that there is no longer any reason for not having every sanitary conven- 
ience in your homes. 

Put in Baths, Closets, Hydrants, and have a city place in all its 
appointments and comforts. 

Plumbing of all kinds can now be had and the luxuries of comfortable 
living are extended to the country as w9ll as to the city home. 




Send for our book "An Interesting Tale Simply Told," and it will tell 
you the full particulars. 

Systems are guaranteed to be a success. There are upward of 2,500 
plants in use and you might just as well enjoy them as those who have them. 

Do you know you can have these plants for $75.00 and upward? 
It is true. 

C. A. BURTON MACHINERY CO,. 

300 Delaware St., KANSAS CITY, MO. 



11 



imBmmegmsmstmamsai 




ONLY $1.00 AN AC 
and 10c. an acre 




DOWN 
month 







J 



AFTER A FEW YEARS A COMFORTABLE HOME 



GOOD SOIL. FINE CLIMATE. PURE WATER. 

These lands are in the Park Region of Central Minnesota — 10,000 acres to 
select from — raising wheat, corn, oats, rye, and the finest vegetables you 
ever saw. Clover grows without reseeding; a perfect dairy and sheep 
country, with the markets of Minneapolis and Duluth near at hand, j^ ^ 
Don't pay rent any longer. You can own a farm. This land now 
sells for $7.00 to $10.00 an acre. 

You can begin with 40 acres; but if you can pay more you 
should take 89 or 160 acres; 80 acres would cost you $80.00 
cash and $8.00 a month. Why not begin to-day, if you 
want a farm? Cut out the coupon, write your name 
and address, and I will send you the booklet that will 
tell you how. 



rrnnkllii 
Bennor, 
Miiinenpulis, 
3Iiun. 



If you want to buy an improved farm, tell 
me how much you have to invest and I 
will submit a list to select from. 



FRANKLIN BENNER 

559 Bank of Commerce Building 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 




Send me your 
l)OokIct tolling 
liow I can buy a 
farm in the timl)er 
country of Minne- 
sota, worth !*i7.00 to 
§ll(). OO an a(!re, liy pay- 
ing $1.00 an acre cash 
and 10c. an acre monthly, 
IS arlvertise<l in Thu World 
Almanac. 



Name 



Address 

(Cut tills Coupon out and mall to>day.) 



lij 




FREE 



THIS PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN WHEN DAN WAS GOING AT HIS HIGHEST 

UATE OF SPEED AND SHOWS ALL FOl R FEET OFF THE GROUND. 
L»rge Colored Lithograph Of This PIctare Mailed Free If Yon State Where You Saw 
This Offer Aud Tell Vs How Ilauf Horses Yon Own Or Feed. 



DO YOU 

morFspeed 1 

The former owner of Dan Patch 
tried to break the pacing record 
tho entire season, before wo 
bought him, and failed. Dan 
hag eaten "InterDational Stock 
Food" every day since January, 
1903, and duringthatseason he 
easily secured six world records. 
Attheclose of 1903 Horse Papers 
commented on the remarkable 
arpearance of Dan Patch after 
being shipped 10,000 miles and 
his season of fast milei. 
Dan Patch !a in much better 
condition this year than ever 
before. If "International Stock 
Food" is good for Dan Patch it 
certainly will be beneficial for 
yourhorse. A large majority of 
tho greatest trainers are con- 
stant nsei-9 of "Internatioual 
Stoeb Food" this season. 
Its use only costB 

3 F£E!)SS«flNEtEIIT 

Wo positively guarantee that it 
will give your horse from two 
to five seconds more speed and 
also more endurance. It makes 
a delicate feeder eat heartily . 
It greatly aids digestion and 
assimilation and permanently 
"tones up" and strengthens tho 
entiro system. You will keep 
your horses in better condition 
during the hot racingseason and 
win more races if yoa use 
•'International Stock Food" 
every day as an addition to 
their feed of oats. It is equally 
good for Stallions, Race Horses, 
Brood Uares, Colts or Show 
Horses. It is absolutely harm- 
less even for the human system 
and can bo fed at all times in 
perfect safi^ty. Horses that are 
given '^International Stock 
Food" every d ay are hard propo- 
sitions to heat. Writ* os for 
testimonials or any further in- 
formation . Special Introdnctory 
Offer entirely at our risk. 

loferoad'ooalSiockFoodCo. 

Minneapolis, Minn., U. S. A. 



A BEAUTIFUL LITHOGRAPH OF DAN PATCH 

Size 24x34 fa. and Printed In Six Brilliant Colors Will be Nailed to You FREE il yoo write 
and Answer the Two Questions. The Lithograph is made from the photograph shown aboye 



WfitetolNTERISATIOrtAL STOCK FOOD CO., PHinneapoiis. IVIi 



nn» 



liii 



THROUGH SLEEPING CARS 
DINING CARS (Meals a la carte) 
FREE REC LINING-CHAIR CARS 
E L E C T R I C-L IGHTED TRAINS 
FASTEST AND BEST SERVICE 
via 



The 

Missouri PAanc 

Railway 

from 

St. Louis and Kansas City 

to 

KANSAS, COLORADO, UTAH 

and the 

PACIFIC COAST 



The 

Iron Mountain 

Route 

from 

St. Louis and Memphis 

to 

ARKANSAS, TEXAS, MEXICO 

and 

CALIFORNIA 



The Best Route to Hot Springs, Ark. 



For rates and all information apply to 

WM. E. H.OYT, General Eastern Passenger Agent 
335 Broadway, : : : : NEW YORK 

H. C. TOWNSEND, Gen'l Passr. and Ticket Agent 
ST. LOUIS, ::::::: MO. 



H 



liv 



LONG ISLAND new york 




CAdP SHOWING \ 

LONG ISLAND R R. \ 

SYSTEM '■ 

AND 

MONTAUK $TE/tMBO«T CD'S LINE' 



MOST ATTRACTIVE TERRITORY ON THE ATLANTIC COAST 



TOPOGRAPHIC 
VARIATIONS 

CLIMATE 

NATURAL AND CULTI- 
VATED PRODUCTS 

TRANSPORTATION 



HOTEL SITES AND IN- 
DUSTRIAL LOCATIONS 



PERMANENT HOMES 
AND THE SUM- 
MER'S SOJOURN 



A few of the reasons why: 

250 miles of coast line on the Atlantic Ocean and Long Isl- 
and Sound. Magnificent beaches and sloping uplands of the 
Ocean Shore. Bluffs, Hills, and Forest Lands on the Sound 
Shore. Rolling country of the Central Section off rs un- 
equalled opportunities for farming and poultry raising. 

10 to 15 degrees cooler in Summer and warmer in Winter 
than any territory of easy access from New York City, being 
tempered by the water surfaces. 

Fruits, berries, vegetables, and flowers. Oysters, clams, scal- 
lops, and lobsters — great variety of both salt and fresh- water 
fish. In close proximity to the greatest market of the world. 

Remarkable facilities — the Long Island Railroad reaches every 
section with its 400 miles of track. The Montauk Steamboat 
Company with its fine Sound Steamers offers excellent service, 
both freight and passenger, to the East end of the Island. 

Not only at the West end near the great cities of New York 
and Brooklyn, but through to Montauk at the extreme Eastern 
end, hotel sites are many, possessing attractions varied to a 
striking degree. For large or small industries unsurpassed 
openings exist about every town or village. 

For the home seeker no territory offers as much. Many points 
easily accessible and quickly reached from the city, possessing 
the manifold advantages of country life. Modern schools, 
many churches, and clubs of all descriptions established through- 
out the Island. Local trolley service, water works, gas and elec- 
tric lighting. For the Summer residents no territory from 
Maine to Florida offers the diversity of natural attractions com' 
bined with accessibility. 
Pure air. Pure water, and Perfect drainage. 

A territory without a peer for yachting, canoeing, bathing, fish- 
ing, hunting, golfing, riding, driving, automobiling, or cycling. 



SPORTS AND PASTIMES 

Descriptive and Illustrative Kooks '«vitli full iuforniatioii issued by 



LONG ISLAND RAILROAD COMPANY 



263 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW 



HOWARD M. SMITH, 

General Passenger Agent. 



Iv 



YORK CITY 

H. B. FULLERTON, 

Spl, Agt. Pass'rDep't. 



MONTHLY INCOMES 



Monthly Income Policies 
a Specialty. 



We will guarantee your wife or other beneficiary a monthly 
income after your death. 

Amount of policy is increased with 
4% Compound Interest* 



It will pay you to write for full particulars to 

The Northwestern 
National Life Insurance Company. 

W. F. BECHTEL. President. 

MINNEAPOLIS. : : : MINN. 



Ivl 




^^*^, 



^JL X JIa£JL 



No matter -wHere y oti live 
yoii can doyotirbaxiKin^ 
'vtritb tis by mail as safely 
and as cofiveniently as in 
person. "We Have depos" 
iters in almost every part 
of tbe world. 



THe U» S, Mails bring our 



BanK 



to yotir Fost-Office, and tbe safety 
of your money in transit by BanK 
Draft, Post-Off ice, or E-xpress 
Money Order is guaranteed by us. 

Deposits received at any time, and in any 
amount from $1.00 up. Four per cent inter«. 
terest paid, compounded twice yearly, -whicH 
is tHe same rate tHis banh. Has paid for over 
25 years of its 4'3 years' existence. Write for 
BooKlet No. X2 — telling about our banh. and 
tHis 20th Century metHod of banKing'. 

Assets: $14,000,000,00« 



HISBDRGHBMKMSAWffiS! 

SMITHFSELD ST & FOURTH AVE 

ES1ABLI5HED 1862 PITTSBUR6H PAl 



I 

I 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

t 



GUARDIAN TRUST COMPANY 

170 BROADWAY. NEW YORK 

Capital and Surplus, $1,000,000. 

FRANK W. WOULWORTH, PkeSIDENT. 



Transacts a General Banking and Trust Business. 

Designated Depository for the City and State of New York, for 
reserves of State Banks, and Court and Trust Funds. 



Authorized by law to act as Executor, Trustee, Administrator, 
Guardian, etc. 

We will take entire charge of your securities, collect your dividends, 
coupons, rents, etc., and co-operate with you in the reinvestment of funds. 
' CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED 



C, H. VAN BUREN (Si COMPANY 

Members N. Y. Consolidated Stock Exchange 

MAIN OFFICE. 60 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 

Branch Offices 
415 BROADWAY 24 EAST 42d ST. 

StocKs— Bonds— Grain 

Dought and sold on margin or investment. 

Stock Quotation Record and Market Letter on Request. 




THE BEST 

Coin Wrapper. 



In 10,0110 lots, $1.50 per M. Assorted 
free. Sold by lending staticuiers 

COIN J>IAinNG CARDS. 

6 holes like lUt, any priulinK you wish, 1,000, $8,75; 1 hole, nuy printing 
l,Oi>0, $8.00. 

Write for aamples anil quotatiouB in larger quantities. 

Newspapers will find tliese cards of great value in their " CIRCULATION " 
or " WANT AD" Departments. 

THE DETROIT COIN WRAPPER CO.. ^"iFvi'u.^' 

IvJii 



IThe '* Petroit," m.ide of heavy nrcssed 
p»p r, with self-se.iliiig flap. 'I'heih'eapesl, 
as time sav.-d in applying offsets the liifTer- 
ence in cost over liat paper onew. Ends are 
smooth, hence prevent small coins from 
catching in tneni and so tlirowing your cash out of balame. Cannot be 
" tampered " with, when once sealed. Ketaiu their shaje in damp or wsirin 
climate. Won't scratch vour fingers or desk, no. niroll when once sealed. 
They liolil all coins securely. Can be written on with either pen. pencil, or 
stamp. Made in 9 sizes to tit l'. S. coin, though we sell thousands in Canada, 
as they fit much "f that coin. Millions used annually by large hindlers of 
coin. i>rIceH- $Si.OO per M. 
sizes, 1.000 iu carton. SuiiiploH 








The Insurance Press 

Foremost Insurance Newspaper in the United States. Largest paid cir- 
culation of ANY Insurance Newspaper in the world. Direct medium for 
reaching Insurance Companies. Valuable to Business Men. 

Weekly. $5.00 a Year. 



Insurance Engineering 

Devoted to the new science of insurance engineering — diminishing hazards 
to Property and Life. This means Public Safety. A Business Man's Mag- 
azine. Pioneer and only publication in this field. Its articles, discussions, 
and illustrations are reproduced by the technical and lay press all over the 
world. EVERY Architect, Builder, Property Owner, Manufacturer, Public 
Official, and Fire Underwriter should be a subscriber. MOST OF 
THEM ARE! 

Monthly. $3.00 a Year. 

Industrial Insurance Monthly 

Reaches the families of 20,000 Industrial Insurance Agents — the best- 
disciplined canvassing force in the world. A SPLENDID MEDIUM FOR 
HOUSEHOLD ADVERTISERS. 

Montniy. $3.00 a Year. 



Investment Directory of Insurance 
Companies— 1904 

Description and classification of $1,300,000,000 of bonds and stocks 
(par value) owned by Insurance Companies. Used by all Financiers. 
Valuable guide for Investors- Digest of Laws Relating to Insurance Invest- 
ments. Compiled by S. H. Wolfe, Actuary. 

Annual, cloth, 1.069 pages. $7.50 a Copy. 

THE INSURANCE PRESS, Publishers 

120 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK 

lix 



o 



u 

2 

2 

Q 
2 

U 

C/3 

< 

U 

>• 

>" 
H 
2 
U 

Qf 

O 
a. 

2 

>- 

O 
o 

OS 
CQ 

Q 
2 

< 

:»: 

OS 

O 
>" 

u 

2 



t/3 

2 

< 

oa 



lOO o o 

oo oo 

■ cTo" IcTo" 

o o , o to 



oo o oo 

• o o • -oo o 






i_i ^ -= ^3 O 

• o o o o o 

" o cTcTo" cT 

. O O O IT' 145 

. o o to o «- 



• o o o o o 
.' o cTo cTcT; 
. o o - o o '■ 
. f oo o o . 



o o 

o o 
o o 



oeooc coo 

OOOOOOOO 

■ o o o o o o o o 
• ^ cT o*" cT o' o' o o' 

.t-l-H^OlOTj.^^ 

■O 0> O 17* t- 2^ 



oo 
oo 

• o o 

loo*" 

-O O 

.oo 



o o oo O O 

o O O O O O 

;00_0000 ■ 

• oo'o'o'o'er ■ 

. « O O O O o : ■X' 

. CO M5 ^ (-* O ci . J-. 




:S|| iliiifs iiiliiiWii 



o o o 
o o o 
o o o 



o o o 
o o o 
o o o 

3 cTo o' 

5 o o x> 
> to o 



o o o 
o o o 
oo 5 

o'o'o"' 
<?* o o .; 

*— O U5 I- 



O O r:- o 

o = o o 
o o o o 



o o 
o o 

o o 



ooooooooo 

ooo>oooooo 
o_o o o o o o o o 
o o o o o"o"o o o" 

OOUSOiL-iOiOOO 
OlOi—iaO G-l<MOw 



O O O O o o 
o o o o o o 
■ o o^o o o o 
'. o' o" o" o" o*" o" 
. oo o o o >o 

, -* O QO O C* 



Mmmmmmmm 

ijspisiij|siii|giii§ii 



— .-. 40 



3« <-"* 



o - 

=> o 

■ o o 



o oo o 

^ 2<=' o 

o ;Oo .o 

o ' — o" ' .-T 

o .oo o 

. "5 o : ™ 



o o o 
o o o 
o o o 
o o"©" 
O O- o 

to Q4 lO 






OOOOOOOOO 

o^ooooooo 
oo^ooooooo 

^ooowiooooo 
OOO^ :c^»ocio 

0_— ■ C* to iTJ 1* o 



O O o o o o 

O =^0000 

■ o_oo^o o o 

o -'o"o"=~cr 

0*000.0 
"T lO »0 O ■?* 



Mi||liiII§IlliIliIIP~i 

jpiijisiijr^iiij'iiiiw 



o o o 
O O o 

o o o 



O O O ::= 

o o o o 
• oo^oo 
'. cTo'io'r; 
. O'V CO Tf 
.C* CO 



SSililfiiflllli'iisIiiiillillffoiiio 



.|g § § g g s § g g i g g i i ggiiiiiiiiiiii iiiilpiF 
iiis|iiiis|g^§|g|.-|iilgg;ggo^^^ 



SJ:KSS-Sg-SS2§-s? = °f2glgs: 



cc 



C* 04 ?0 — • 




oo 
oo 
oo 

o'o 
oo 
o o 



o o o o 

o o o o 

■ o o o • o 

'ooo" lo' 

. O « O . U3 

. O Tj« cc . o* 



DOO OOOOOo^ 

= oo oooo::;oo 
:5_o o -o o^o o o o o 



— r-CO -. « 



o lcooooo-;^ci 



oooooooo 

OOOOOOOO 

•o o_o o o o o o 
. o o o o o cTcT — * 
.oooooooo 
.00 »o o o O C< O O 

; c*"»o'"co*»-'' ^~ 



a a 



- o o o 

- o o o 
O D . o o 

o o Too ; o 

O O . O O . lO 

>0 CO .O Gt ,f 



> o o 

so o 

>_o o 

"oo 

o o 

o o 



.O O =: O r O 
. O O lO O O lO 
. O O -^ CO o ■■?* 



mmsmuMminimmi 



oo 
o o 

• o o 



o o ooo o 
o = o o O O 
o o oo 



OOO C 
oo ir^C 

^o_^o oc 

ro^o^o' 

. «o o o 

.M lO o 



^ O _ CTl O 

O o r ro o 

X o ?. -; fo 



o o 
o o' 



o ooo 
o oo o 
m to o ^ 



o o o o o 
ooo oo 
o o o O^O 
o"o''o"o"o"c 
o o o o o -; 
»0 CO — c* c» c 



oo 
o o 
oo 



oo 
o o 

o o 
so o 
so o 

- o o 



o ooo = o 
O !0 o o o o 
■ooo = 

'. oo'zro'"d'o'' 
, o o lo :r' o to 

, O to ^ CO o -^ 



JlfiggiiiiiiiiiillfPIT 
lililliilllliiiiiiili 

c* ™ c* to -. ™ ^"oT— * ^•■ 



.OOO: 



.o o 
. oo 

. lO « 



! O '5 o O O o § O 
. ^O -- 7. to iO ?. cJ .n 



< 
z 

o 

< 

o 

Q 

o 

O : 
CO 

a: 



«3i 

CSOD 



o o o c 
oo o <: 
ooo c 
cTo'o'c 
oo o c 

to CO o c 



:- o o 

3 oo 
5 oo 



soot 

5 O toe 
-■ C4 t- C 



O O O <3 O O 

o o o o o o 
■ o O O O O o 
'. o'o'o'o'o' o" 
. o ::^ to r o to 
. o to -3" CO o ;j 






:o|ss§ga.ggggIliliiiiiiii " 

•:iiiliiisigi| I g I g g g g g g g I 

. 1^ -^ •• *^ '^I'-^'^'-o o u3 oro t£> o o toct roS 
; " '^ " c?i — 7* to ^'■^* ^'cT .-T 



Soo o oo 
o o o o o 

• O O O o o _ 

• '^Z^'^ ='<=>* 

. c: oo O O O 
. to CC CO CO to '^ 



03 33 



o_o o o_ 
o oo' o' 



,^.«.=,'=i.^.=t<=>,o.= ooS_^gggggggg5gg§§oooooo 

^■^gffggggggggggagggg'gggggggoor^o 

pOG.OCO^COO^C.SSg§ggggggggggOOOOO 

c« ■— — . — _r *r_*-," - ' - - 



iO<M 



e< — c< ^'to'—'^" ^"(n" 



oo oo 

oo o o 
o o_o__o 

o'zrQ'o 

o o o o 

O to C^ CO 



ooo oo 
o o o o o 
o o o o o 

= cToo'cT 
o o o o o 

O CO O C< lO 



fcu 



2!^ 

>5 



k. » H (i< Bun 



u t ■ 

az; ■■ 

a c c t* 

I— fc efl o 



« c 

oo 



So**-" 

e3 a> C3 03 — ^ 

J2M O M C3 rt 

OOOWfcO 



0X£ 



'C « a 



r 00 * 
« cS S 







■ w : 



I'. i?>'. 



:e — 



]x 



I1 1 31^ s|j! K-S i :^= ill £=| xg- 

^. >-. V'. ^, •/■, >^ J^ t; i^ £ t? i 2 :i „>° ;J? jl; > £ £ 2 ►" 



St ■ 

.£-*^ - 



a • E3 

--13 1 ^ 

a)<a o 

If ■" fc. a 

<u a o o 



►. = £ 



P:^-3 









to 00 . 

SOS 



OS © 






CO t- 

O OS 



« © lO ff« 

<3S ^ "^ ""1, 

^ liS 5 .■^ 



Tj'^S'iooD©'-' r-r-^?otDC* 

■ lO lO t- OS O --^ • <7* M ■» [?* W5 r— 

- C^ CC Oj Oi^ 
. CO -X> lO — t- t- 

, f" O •-■ CO (O o» 



rf to © O in '-' 
. to ro "5 lO ■'". O* 
, »o r- ^ "3 c^ c* 



•<CHfi) t 



. _ _a «0 CO 



«Ci •* CO t- CO »* 
r-ti-i CO 



©t-os — ©oor--* 
t-oc-.— ■*>.— cca> 

lOiQ(D01i— C^00<5> 



4 >00 O 



Tf »fc iC (O «S r- C* t- (O 0> 

• co<0 » . ,-. ^^ CO — • eo — to to 

'laiO • Ip—O-Oi— -as'-jo::^ 

.^^ t ,'X — ©c*as'O-1'P0 







OOD 






•f Oi ' 










o t^ 


eo c* . 


OS 


t- c* 


=.4 : 


00 


<-«x 




r-t 


«fr 





-^ lO — • lO -jC oo . 

** CM r-t oo ^ a> 

^ tC .— lO »0 CO 



totOOC-r-OJOsiO— 't-0it0©C"<:00i©O«JC0i?*t-.— 
xOC*'-iCO00iO©O*O*C^»-'f— t-*o»o«oto aOOlOltOtOtO 

Oo'c-risJ'tCrjrco"© »0 t- O OS -^C^t-- CO»©^CO'^— • — ^o 

._ ■^to_o^c- ~_~1'^ "_ ""_~" " 

rf-^'co *j^co -s^to 



',iOt~-£>n<^ "3 ■•£> ■^ '-D O 00 Ji Ct O © CO_^ -— _co »o 'X:_C»_?0 
'00^'-"0^co^^iOOs^»flC~tr-os*a' 



to e< f -I" e» c- c* 

»» CO c- *o » •-* o* 

1 . CO kO •cococ^co — 

■ ^GO^ lS«'©o"-»' 

■ . CO "V ,c*»ooit- 
« . © GO .00 C4 Tf <0 

• ; tc" oi ; — CO c- ^ 



io©»coe*co — ^^5— * 
l(-<^-o©t-'^ao©co 
rr © Oi O CO t-^ ?* "%.^ 

■ Co''-^'-''-^CO 03 00 Ol 'S* 
-* oO'-^OO'—Oi'- r-"* 
2 :i-- r- Oi "'^:.-;.'-*^,"=.'-^„'° 



(W — ^ -js c; ■^ 

CO ^ "* © CO — 

t- t- to ^- "^^ 

■trcg-^ © o* © 
(£) t— Tf ..-:■— u= 
to c< to © "^^o* 

OtT^ lO o ^ 



oiOltOiC ■X'J' <— '?»»0^-t-C*>-CO*0"-'00©CC»Oi'— '"3 

oit-o>o>xi»0'^c---oco^u3C*'— ooeo — t-"*oiT^^'A 

tOCOOOOOat— C^COOl ?«0»©**'^©^^?tOi'0(— t-i-> 



T 00 OS t~ 'M Oi 
tc r- ..- © r- -X- 

— '-D CO CO OS ■— ' Ol 



tctoi— '<o-:jioc-©eo^-o>ao-T— *^ -' 
tO'Xiirtr-oO-TiOiCi?* 









CO 


OS © 


*fiO©uSCO^'—-T 






































." 


. -' -• . 


;gs 00 — ^-^ r- Gs 



^ .a = -?' — :■: -^ '-0 

.— — OS X' -O C^ r- iO 

to c* "V r- *-o__os^'J5_'^^ 

"^CO lO © t- X) o © 

■^ 1-. -^ .— o* © '-0 ; * 

-tOOsOSOCOt"'^ 



^ CO cc ■^ X © 
© C^ CS OS = t- 
. X^-— COT '-^'■*, 
■ CO C^CO C- CO »o 

, :■; OS "'J' ^ OS © 

.CO to GO to 00 "3 



rir>'r:*i'T-<<rtco'-o« ^lo-^^o^tor-i 



^-Xio*c* — Oi --0'^©**©^o n© :r<iftososi^iocooio; 

-D»-"©C000^'O^"O"-©©t~'X'C^0S»O»O'*C0OS''i x»o 

^nr-oo^-*oosio©cotoC4>--c^:'0'--^ ost-t^'TODO- 



n'to iA©moicO'Xi3D;o 
r- t- OS r. c* © © :o xi '-0 

OOTOS<— '©lOXi" 



e- to »-< ^ ^ c-i iC fi «- I- --O to 
_ost'Oico©:: — 'omcotox- 
osODOs'^oasi-''— *-— ~'^ ;<io:o 



tOCOC-©COC<CO'^©COiOG40»»0*0'-'eOOSCOCSCO'- 



■30 •— CO iQ ■T^ ~ 
t- ~. © C^ -iJ .-■ 

•M '30 I - CO 30 CI - 

Os"oO in't-"'^' •!•" I 

OS — OS 'X> -- J" . 

OS t- t?» us so Oi . 

i-.'»-rr-:' w'oo" • 




Pi B 



tc c* 



eo • — 



to to 

** GO 
OO lO 



O OS to 

o o* »o 



<J0 to OS - — 
OS to — TO o 
' CO co^x c»_<». 

-^ OO © -js ii 

0-* (-* O* t~ CO 



1- X — «> "^ s^ — 

eo ^^ © to CO t- ^ 

. (M 0» OO «0 •* OS OS 

(O^oT^eo 00 f--"«o 

rj> C< 00 ^- "5 -^ OO 

eo eo C-: "O ■v C4 t- 



>i .-■ oa .-■ a 



>r. GO "O © © ?r CO '3' 

»j':':ooos'-'C^<noo 

.— c- © >— © " 



































-^TJ- 00 




M3 CO to 00 








































•^ 























-T< (M 


























rTj 


to t- 




a 


'"^"^ 




H 


% 





to OO 00 

oT oo"^ 
^"5 as 



D — — m X) >0 



oTeo'o'Qrr'a' t~^ 

•— > OO OS OS ^ OS 



0-*c^iO^©-TGC--0©'Xr-i 

T OS OS <— ■— '-0 •* eo OS "-^ '— CO CO i* ji^ •• -■- ,»^ . . 

U-, — us o c^ O — '— O* "' eo ro ^ t- •^ S-* X^^-O 1 . , •^~^- ^ 

oT to' Oo"Tf'oo"os"^>^Qo"c*"«- ©U5 0»i— lOC^QO-— 'S^-©0»CO 

uSC<t-COCOOO^-'0»'^"=J'OOOsCOcOaO<-<»0'-'<^»Or->-<'* 

c-^-C-jf"-' i^ i-«»-«Ui eOrftO O^GOt- CO 

















• m tA 










• • • .eo 


.lOCO 


.O© t- 00 


. • . .O^ 




.OS — -COCO . 










I '^ 





-tC-OTDf-COC^ff'--' 

r- •* © OS iO "* 00 OO © 
C* •— — Xi C* OS '^"^'°, 

T* lO O QO OS »0 f lO ^ 
t-t-USC-iQCO — lOt- 





la <T. 




















•^ ©© CI 
^ ©CO OS 






T^ 


OS 


c*-- 













c^-rto — ■^oi'-OT^ioo-. o*'?st-Tf'j»c-© — comco--'C< 

^,-HOOt— eO©t— ©COOS-^iOiOOS©"-"©"--*™ OS<7^-TC* 

uSiMO^oooi 'T'~*?*'>i ^cir-'a*^ '1** ■;: c* OS to CO f^© 
*"io'"r-^r'ooi-''ooOS rc^co C* OO © 

t-C0C0--0^-iOOSt-eOC*C0© 
lO Tf lo c* o; »o ta 



SiOiOt--rTj'?0TCOCO^ 



O* OS 

tr, U5 
•CO OS 



--coeor-cicoeoc- 
t-^teoar-oreoop 

•C4tO©CO X'^QO'T 



--oec©^©^^'"'® 

•rt^-OS'f^O'^OsC^OO 
C0eOO*'-OiO*O*T *^*0 

3-r d" co" © "x" r^© .— — ■ 
oo©osr-cO'^»n'-'-; 



t— f-iico* '30 c^'M^iojcc* «-■*-© c*t-«-«^-"t:rj 

0©©t-^*0©©:00»tDtOOlCO©00>OOO^OS 
30C*e-eoc-!?*»f;eOi~«eoiOOscOt^^O*C^^-'C-i'> 

*-'C0'O t~**»OOSOS'i©30^^^'-'©C* 



Cf -x X- Ul © -x 
T kO CO ;7s t- *:- 

c-?osoooC'OqTj»^ 

00 -*"io vT-f o 'otTco^'-^eo r- oT— . .. ~, . V 

OC^'^^OOO .t-CO»O^00C*i-iC<OlCCr- 

r- O* O"— .CO C<^— ■!-« .-it-Ct^ 



XIJO'-' C- «-O-^0t©0Ci 

'ju«jijL'^fc'«'*~'t~QO CO OS f-t O O OS O 



, . — .-■ooaoc-to *co 

Gt ^ to ^- »-■ . 



to 

IN 

in 

u 
o 
< 

a. 

H 

o 

u 
z 

z 

O 
O 



_ iQ OS 'X »* OO 00 0» 

rf 5«eooo ~'Os *" ^ " 

-^ ^^^ fw hr^ v4l w4t 



t- © 



_*^-* ^ . -T*-^-—' .*J ,— ^^.^ ,^1 ^— ^ J— \ ,^ fv-'i j"^ ^^A .^ *v /?« p^. fr<v c?j fo nf f'^ rts ?t^ ^^ C] 



O* © ^- © to 00 OO 



I ^- t- © CO 



^ .^'ers'.-r uTeo" -x' lo' ©"© C*^©"© cTco © oi"u5 r- o^eor•l^^coocr-Os^3©ec©©eoo*o:c-•^^lO^— t-ap 
■^SS^^^^i-Siof-osXJOOCO'X^c-tOOt- WSC><00«*CO©0-. C2©«O:;t00CO 0*0>«e02=^ 



-J.,-. -ef eo ' 






to o.t: -J 






« n a> ■ ri 



5^ , . .Q^j." .. : c '' ;K.3;-i3'?a — — — — 

jaji'S tj< *£ S5 S~!l <? «« ° o c:s 8-^-a 5^ 0.2 2.2 ^ 
,£ 2 ° S § I £J J s § S.-S=3 S| g-f g.23 1^ » t St S';s 

Ixi 



"5 






— - Q^ i 
a ^ rO I 

5; > rt ■: 



: 2(0 

• o — .^ 

a t: * ^ - 

2 =i a ce t- 

= S § 9 - 

c o <?; x ? 



O • 

• • » ■ 3 a 

: :■- :«D 






3 = 

„ a ^ 



,_ - rt * s 



• s 
;< 

It 



: : s~ a £ 

. . ■« s rt — 

s ?: i;^ f- S r. 



t;_ f- 



rTHE: 



<5.- 



NATIONAL PARK BANK 
^ OP NEW YORK ^ 



OROANIZEIO 1SS6. 



Capital and Surplus, 
$10,000,000. 



t 

RICHARD DELAFIELD. 

President. 

STUYVESANT FISH, GILBERT G. THORNE, 

Vice-President. Vice-President. 

JOHN C. MCKEON. JOHN C. VAN CLEAF. 
Vice-President. Vice-President. 

EDWARD J. BALDWIN. Cashier. 

WILLIAM O. JONES. WILLIAM A. MAIN. 

Assistant Cashier. Assistant Cashier. 

FREDK O. FOXCROFT, MAURICE H. EWER, 

Assistant Cashier. Assistant Cashier. 

DIRECTORS: 

JOSEPH T. MOORE. FRANCIS R. APPLETON. 

STUYVESANT FISH, JOHN JACOB ASTOR. 

GEORGE S. HART. ^J^ GEORGE FREDK VIETOR, 

CHARLES SCRIBNER, /^ CORNELIUS VANDERBILT, 

EDWARD C. HOYT. V?/ ISAAC GUGGENHEIM, 

W. ROCKHILL POTTS, ^^ JOHN E. BORNE, 

AUGUST BELMONT. ^ LEWIS CASS LEDYARD, 

RICHARD DELAFIELD. GILBERT G. THORNE. 

JOHN C. McKEON. 

Ixii 



Burglar Proof Vaults for Securities and Silver Plate, 
Fire Proof Warehouses for Household Furniture : : 
Moth Proof Cold Storage for Furs, Carpets^ Clothing, eta 



The Lincoln 
Safe Deposit 
Company 



^^^^ 



32 to ^2 East ^2d Street and } ]\l>w Vnrk 
4S to 55 East ^Ist Street S ^^^^ ^ i/i -a 



TELEPHONE CONNECTION 
CABLE ADDRESS " LlNSAFDECO" 



OFFICERS 

THOMAS L. JAMES President 

E. V. W. ROSSITER Vice-President 

JOHN R. VAN WORMER .. Secretary and General Manager 

TRUSTEES 

THOMAS L. JAMES, W. K. VANDERBILT. JR.. PERCIVAL KUHNE, 

JAMES STILLMAN, E. V. W. ROSSITER. E. E. OLCOTT. 

M. C. D. BORDEN. JAMES D. LAYNG. JOSEPH P. GRACE. 

F. W. VANDERBILT, F. EGERTON WEBB. 

WALTER C. REID Warehouse Superintendent. 

Ixiii 



OLDSMOBILE. 

For 1905 — as ever — the Best Thing on Wheels. 

The Public is never in doubt about the Oldsmobile "policy" 
from season to season. 

Each season testifies to the enduring soundness of the me- 
chanical principles upon which the first Oldsmobile was built. 

Evolution — sound natural development — makes the 1905 
Oldsmobile — the 1905 leader. 




■^*^^#t:4«m^^ 



tiil^';:^:^^i$ ^i: 3 



Oldsmobile Standard Runabout, - 
Oldsmobile Light Tonneau Car, - 
Oldsmobile Touring Runabout, - 



Price, $650. 
Price, $950. 
Price. $750. 



AWARDED GOLD MEDAL AT THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION. 

Winner of Medal for Details of Construction 
AND Ease of Manipulation at Hereford, England. 



-Write for "Book of Particulars."- 



Olds Motor WorKs, Detroit. U. S. A. 

Jfi/iibcr of llir Association of Licensed AutomoliK" ^falntJ'(lC/tlrrrs. 



Ixiv 



mii 





^\\:f({^ 



Price 25 Cents. New York January 1905. By Mail 35 Cents. 



/ 






/ 



The World Almanac 



. P.ND 



EnGydopedia 

6 



/vv^/wv/v^v/v/wvrt 



r|3 



io5^ 



cy 



ISSCBD BY 

THE PKESS PUBLISHING CO., NEW YOKK WORLD, 

Pulitzer Building, 

New York. 

Copyright, 1904, by the Press Pxiblishing Ca , New York. 



A BOND ' '-' v/ <i.,.v ^^'1 



EACH YEAR 



I ■ ij<i9iMmea^^maxmiK 



FQR 20 YEARS 

Delivered AT ONCE (upon receipt 
of second and every subsequent 
premium) is the IMMEDIATE- re- 
turn you receive under THE 
MUTUAL. LIFE'S new 

YEARLY BOND 
CONTRACT 

Each Bmd ImA Pi^ef^f, hatjabh \^l^iin\SaUy in gold coin, 
in accordance With 'f of h/'clfilpons tk^et^kitthe^d.- 

If the insured die tvhik^the contract is in force, the Com- 
pany will thereupon deliver all ot said 20 Bonds not already 

delivered. I/i^'^l^lIs^^Ci -l^^^Xni''^ 

Suppose-' 3?oulSuyc-^0'$l;OOC»''BoGds; yoii receive a Bond 
each year and are insured for 20 years. 

The total guarantees on these Bonds are : 

1. Twenty Years' Insurance. 

2. Principal of 20 Bonds. . . . $20,000.00 

3. Interest on 20 Bonds 14,000.00 

Total Cash Guaranteed. . . $34,000.00 

For information regarding this absolutely new contract address: 

The Mutual Life 

Insurance Co. of Neiv York 
RICHARB A. McCURDY, President, New York City 



General Index. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



A PAeEj 

ACADEMICIANS, NATIONAI-.. . .282 

" Royal 283 

Academy of Design, Nat'l. 282,283 

" Science, Natioual 292 

Accidents, Help in 25 

" Railroad 219 

" Steamboat 170 

Accounts, When Outlawed — 77 
Acknowledgment of Deeds 244,245 

Actors, Birthplaces, etc 280 

Acts of 58th Congress 176 

Actuarial Society of America. .290 

Africa, Areaand Population 367 

" Division of 379 

Agricultural Statistics 230i 

" Science, Society for Pro- | 

motion of ...293| 

Agriculture Dep't Officials 400 

" Secretaries of 119! 

Alabama Election Ret urns. 447, 448 
Alaska Geographical Society.. 290 

Alcohol Statistics 235, 236 

Aldermen, N. y. City 495 

Alfred Bernhard Nobel Prizes. 148 
A lliance of Reformed Churches339 

Altar Colors 36 

Altitudes, Greatest in States. .. 65 

Aluminum, Production of 229 

Amateur Athletic Union 268, 

A nibassadors.U.S., Abroad 120, 424 
Amendments to U. S. Con- 
stitution 82, 83 

America, Area and Population. 63 

" British, Area, etc 367 

American Acad, of Medicine.290 
" Academy Political and 

Social Science 290 

" Anatomists' As.socialioii . .292 

" and Foreign Shipping 166 

" A n t i - T u b e r c u 1 o s i s 

League 290 

" Antiquarian Society 290 

" Artists, Society of 283 

" Asiatic Association 290 

" Association for Advance- 
ment of Science 290 

" Bar Association 290 

" Benefit Society 330 

" Bible Society 341 

" Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions 342 

" Chemical Society 290 

*' Civic .Association 3901 

*' Climatological Ass'u 290 

•' Derby 2.58| 

" Derniatological Ass'u 290 

" Dialect Society 290; 

" Kconomie Association — 290: 
'• Electro- Therapeutic As- 
sociation 290 



PAGE 

American Entomological So- 
ciety 290 

" Federation of Labor 15,88 

" Fisheries Society 290 

" Flag Association 355 

" Folklore Society 290 

" Forestry Association . . 182, 290 

" Genealogical Society . .290, 291 

" Geographical Society 291 

" Guild ." 330 

" Gynecological Society 291 

" Historical Association 291 

" Hog 231 

" Indian 15,175 

" Institute of Architects. .. ,291 

" Inst, of Electrical Eng'rs. 291 

" Instituleof Homoeopathy. 291 

" Inst. IMining Engineers... 291 

" Inst. Social Service 299 

" Irisli Historical Society. . .346 

" Laryngological Ass'n 291 

" Learned Societies 290-293 

" Legion of Honor 330 

" Mathematical Society 291 

" Mechanics, United a32 

" Medical Association 291 

" Medico - Psychological 

Ass'n 291 

" Microscopical Society 291 

" Multi- Millionaires 141-148 

" Municipalities League 39i) 

" Neurological Association. .'J31 

" Numismatic and Arclueo-. 

logical Society .291 

" Ophlhalmological Society. 291 

" Oriental Society.., 291 

" Ornithologists' Union 291 

" Orthopedic Association . . .291 

" Osteopathic Society 291 

' ' Pediatric Society 291 

" Philological A.ssociation..291 

" Pliilosophical Society 292 

" Physical Society 292 

" Physicians, Ass'n of 292 

" Psycholiigical Associatiou.292 

" Public Health Ass'n 292 

" Revolution, Daughters of.. 351 

" Re volution. Sons of 349 

" Social Science Associatioii.292 
" Society of Civil Engineers292 
" Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers 292 

■' Society of Naturalists 292 

" Statistical A.ssociation 292 

" Surgical Association 292 

" Therapeutic Society 292 

•' TractSociety ...341 

" Turf 258i 

" Unitarian Assoeialion 3.38 

'•• Urolrtgical .Association 292 



PAGE 

Amu-senments, N. Y. City . ..499, 543 

Ancient and Modern Year 60 

Andrew and Philip, Brother- 
hood of 343 

Animals, Domestic, in U. S. ..234 

" Farm 2-31 

Annapolis Naval Academy 404 

Anniversaries, IJst of 33 

Antarctic Exploration 287 

Antidotes for Poisons 25 

A iitimony Production 229 

Antiquarian, A mericanSoclet.v.290 

A poplexy , Deatlis from 238 

Apothecaries' Weight 76 

Appellate Diyisiou, Supreme 

Court, N.Y. City 497 

A pple Crop 231 

Apportionment of Represen- 

! tatives 113 

Appraisers, U. S. General 541 

A i)propriations \>y Congress . . .160 

Arabic Numerals 78 

.Arbitration and Mediation 

Board, N.Y. State 439 

" Treaties 130 

-Arbor Day 183 

Arclueological J nstitute 292 

Archajology 289 

Arctic Club 292 

" Exploration 286,287 

Area, Cities in U.S.. 395,396 

" Continents 63 

" Foreign Countries 359 

» " of Africa 379 

" of British Empire 367 

" of Canada 376 

" of London 373 

" of INfexico 378 

" of United States. .172, Zh^, 397 
Argentine Republic, Army and 

Navy 356, 357 

Arizona Election Returns 448 

A rkansas ]<;iecliou Rpturns.448,449 

Armed Strength of World 356 

Armories, N. V. City 522 

Army and Navy of Confeder- 

ateStates, .Society ...355 

Army and Navy Uiiion 347 

" British 356,370 

" Generals, U.S 405,413 

" of Cumberland Society 354 

" of Potomac Society 354 

" of Santiago Society 353 

" of 'I'ennessee Society 354 

" of t.T. S. , Distribution of. . .407 
" of U. S.,<Jpneral Staff. ...405 
" of U. a. in New York City.544 

" Pay Table 413 

" Rank of Ollicers 408,412 

" Recruiting Requirenjenta.413 



SEE ADVERTISING INDEX ON PAGES 546, 54/ AND 543. 



Ge neral Index — Vontimi ed. 



Book Postage 68 

Books, Pioductiou of "297 

of 1904 294,295 



.1,: PAGK 

Army Salutes 413 

" U. S. , Organization 413 

Art Galleries, N.Y 522 

Artillery Corps, Field Oflicers.412 
Artists, American, Society ....283 

Ash Wednesday, 19U5 27 

Asia, Statistics of 367 

Assembly Districts, N. V. City.571 

" New York Stale 440,441 

Asse.ssed Valuation of Prop- 
erty in U.S 160,395 

Assessors, Board of, N. Y. City. 496 

Assistant Treasurers, U. S 401 

Associated Press 298 

Associations in New York City .528 

Astor Library, N. Y. City 519 

Astronomical and Astrophysi- 

cal Society of America 292 

Astronomical Constants 56,57 

" Plienomeiia for 1905 52,53 

" Signs and Symbols 52 

Astrouomy iu 1904 288 

Asylums, N. V. City 500, 501 

Athletic Sports 267-270 

Atmosphere of tlie Earth 49 

A ttoruey-iienerals, U. S. ...119, 120 

Australiisia 367 

Australia Mails 518 

A ustria,Anny and Navy 356,357 

" Diplomatic Intercourse. ..121 

" Hungar}',Armyand Navy, 
356, 357, 3 
Roval ViUHtly .363 

" " Miiiistry 360 

Austrian- Hungarian (iov' t 375 

Austro- Hungarian Empire 359 

Automobile Industry 552 

" Records 15,265,266 

Autumn, Heginning 01,1905 27!BuildingaudLoanAssociations226 

Aztec Club of 1847 349 Buildings, Height of, inN. Y..539 

Bulgarian Army 356 



PAGE 

Catholics, Number of. 333,334 

Cattle, Value of, in U. S 234 

Cavalry Society of U. S 15 



Borough Presidents, N. Y^ 495 Cement Production. 

Botanical Society 292! Cemeteries, New York City. ..537 

Bourbon-Orleanlst Family 366 Cemetery Population.! 15, 239 

Bowling 264 Census, U. S 175 

Boxing 270, 277, 278|CeutraI & So. American Trade. 379 

Boycotting Laws 87Centreof Population in U.S. ..389 

Brandy, Production of 235| Cereal Crops and E.\ports..230,231 

Brazil, Area and Population. ...359' Chamber of Commerce 506 

" Army and Navy of. ..356, 357;ChampagneSta;isiiC'* 236 

Bridges, N. Y. City 636|charitiesandCorret i on,N. Y..496 

Brighton Handicap 259, Chautauqua Insiituiion 325 

Brith Abraham Order 33Ul checks 245 

British A rmy 356, 370'Clieese l^rocluction 231 

Colonies 367,371 Chemical Industry Society 2!M 



Courts of Law 369 

Diplomatic Intercourse, 

120.371 
Dukes 372 



" Empire, Statistics. 359, 367-3 

" Government 15.369 

" Holidays 31 

" Measures and Weights 76 

" Navy 15,357,370 

" Parliament 372 

" Population 367,373 

" Royal Family 362,368 

Bronchitis, Deaths from 238 

Brooklyn Churches 512 

" Handicap il-» 

" Navy Yard 540 

Brotherhood of Am. Yeomen.. 330 

"■ of Andrew and Philip 343 

" of St. Andrew 342 

Buckwheat, Production of 2.30 

Buddhism 333 



B 



.231 



Bullion Value of Silver 151 

Bureau of Buildings, N. Y' 496 

Bureaus of l,abor 183 



Bacon, Productio.n' of...., 

Bahlwin-Ziegier Expedition. .. 2861 Bushel Weights ..., 75I 

Banking Statistics 154-l.i6lBusine.s8 Failures in U. S 188 



of Europe... 155 

Bankruptcy I;aw, U. S 188 

Banks In NY. City 502,503,505 

Baptist (;i)urches,5f . Y'. City507,612 
" Young People's Union.,. .342 

Bai)tist.s, Number of 333,334 

Bar Assuciation, American 290 



N. Y. City.. 

Barley, Produclion of 

Barometer Indications 

Basebal 1 Records 

Basket Ball 

Baths, Public, N. Y. City.. 
Battle-Shii)S, U. s 



Pursuits in U. S 388,389 

Butter Production 231 

C 

Cabinkt Officers 
1789. . . 



Since 
.118-120 
..399 
,.xx 
..199 
,.201 
.. 35 
36 



of President Roosevelt 

. . . ..541 Cab Fares, N. Y'. City 

230 Cable Telegraph Rates 

-■ ■ .38 Cables, .Siihmarine 

271-273 Calendar for 200 Years 

?i>a " Greek* Russian, lor 19U5. 

3-*- " Gregorian 

418 " Jewish, for 1905 

Bavarian Royal Family 363 " Mohaminedau, for 1905 .. 36 

Beei.- 236 " Head V- Reference 34,35 

Belgian Royal lamily 363 " Ritualistic ..36 

Belguim, Army and Navy..356,357 Calendars for 1905 and 1906. 

' Ministry 360 " Monthlv iorl905 37-48 

Benefactions of 1904 13, 322,,323 Calilornia Klectioii Returns.... 449 

Beii-Hur,Tribeof 330 Caiiiida. Dominion of 3',6,377 

Benzine Production 227 Canal Board, N. Y.iState 439 

Bible Society, .American 341 Canals 200 

Bicycling Records 262, 263, 279 Capitals, Foreign 359 

Billiard Records 254 " of. states .. 347 

Births 24lCapitol, U. S '.'..'. '.'. 83 

Bishops. English .37u|Captains, U.S. Army 405 

ol Religious Denomiiia- | >• " Navy 416 



Society, American 290 

Chemistry i n 1904 288 

Chess 276,277 

Cliile, Army and Navy 356,357 

China and Japan Mails 518 

" Area and Pojuilation 359 

" Army and Navy 3.56,357 

Chinese < onimercial Treatv. . . .128 

'• iu U. S 382 

Christian is. Mission. Alliance. .340 

" Endeavor Society 342 

" Science 334,344 

Christians, Number of 333 

Clirouological Cycles and Era.s. 27 

Church Days in 1905 27 

" Established, of England.. 370 

" Fasts 28 

' ' Temperance Society 340 

Chiircties, N. Y. City 507-517 

" in the U. S 334,335 

" iu the World 333 

Cigars and Cigarette.s 168,229 

Cincinnati, Society of 348.349 

Circuit Courts of U. S 402,498 

Cities, Largest of the Earth 380 

' • of U. S., Population of 391 

" of U. S., Statistics of. .395.396 

Citizens' Industrial Ass'n 130 

Civic A.ss' n. American 390 

'' Federation, National 15 

*' Organizations in U.S 39o 

Civil Engineers' Society 292 

" Lists ot Sovereigns 359 

'* ServiceComm'rs, U. S.... 400 

" " N. Y.City 196 

'• " Rules 01, U.S 194 

" WarofU.S 357 

Clay Products 228 

Clearing- House Statistics. .165, 602 

Clut)s, New York City 520 

"• Railroad , 219 

28!Ci.<al Statistics 226,228 

36 t'ollee Production 2;J3 

Coinage at 11. S. Minis 153 



" of Nations 150 

Coins, Korei(<ii. Value of 167 

33' Coke Product ion 228 

48 Collectors of Customs 401 

College t::iieers 319-321 

" Comiuencemenl,-5 308-312 

"• Population 302 

" Reference Marks 318 

*' Tuition I'ees.etc 312-317 

Colleges in X. Y. (.Mty .531 

of U. S.Statisticsof... 300-321 



tions 336,337 

Blai;klisting Ijjiws 87 

Blind Persons in U. ,s 241 

B'nai B'ritli, Order of :i:!0 

Board of Kiluc;ilioii, N. V 
" ol Estimate and Appor- 
tionment, .N. Y. (!ity 496 

Boards of Trade, N. Y .521 

Boat- Racing Records 249,250 

Bonaparte l''amil v 366 

Bonded Debts of States .160 



Car Mnes, N. \'. City 550,551 

Cardinals, College of ;!;i6 

Carnegie Institution 15,298 

Casualty Disurance in U.S.,. 
. .531|CHtbolic Benevolent Legion. 

Bishops 

Churches ill N. Y.City. 

Knights of .America 

Mutual Benelil Ass' n 



Colonels of U. S. Army 405 

Colonial Dames 01 America.. .350 

" Governors, British 371 

" Wai-s, Society of 346 

Colorado Election Returns 450 

;i90 C'lilmid Popnl:itloii in U S. 382.:»7 

.330:Commaiideis, U.S iVavy 416 

.:{;!6''Jommeiee and Labor, l)ei)iUt- 

..5101 melll ol 120.400 

.330 Commission lo (.'odify Penal 

.330| Ijaws ...400 

Roman, 1 1 icraichy ill U.S.336I Committees, Politi(?al 97-100 

Summer .Sehool 299 Com n ion Siliools, U. S> 303 



SEE ADVKRTISINO INDEX ON PACES 546. 547 AND 548. 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGE 

Commons, House of 373 

Comptroller's Office, N. Y 495 

Coufederacv, U'ted Daaghters.355 
Confederate States, Army and 

Navy Society 355 

" Veterans 355 

Conf uciaulsm 333 

Cougregatiomil CUurches,N. Y 

City 507 

" National Conucii 338 

Congregationalists 333 

Congress, Actsofl^ifty-eighlh.. 176 

" Appropriations by 16U 

" Fifty-eighth 431-434 

" Fifty-uinlh 433 

" Lilirary of 438 

" Party Divisions in 430 

Couuecticut Election Returns. 451 

Coustitntiou of the U. S 79-83 

Consuls, Foreign, in U. S. ..428,429 

N. V.City 537 

" U. S., Abroad 424-426 

Consumption, Deaths from 238 

Coutiuents, Statistics of 63 

Continental Party Nat'l t'oni..lOO 
" Platform 111,112 

Contract's, Law of 244 

Conventions, Political Wl-lll 

Copper Production — 227, 229 

Copyright Law 296 

Corn Crop, Statistics of 230 

Coroners, N. Y. City 495 

Corporate Schools, N. Y. City..5r!l 

Corporation Counsel, N. V 49:> 

Cost of Living 189 

Cotton, Supply 15,232.233 

Countries of llie World 359 

Counlv ()mcers,N. Y.City 496 

Court "of Arbitration, N. Y 498 

" of Honor 330 

Courts, Britisli 369 

" State (see eacli State Elec- 
tion Returns). 

" of New Yoi-k City 497, 498 

" of New Yorli State 442 

" of United States.... 116,402, 498 

Cow.s, Value of, U. S 234 

Creeds, Population of Earth by.333 

Cremation. Human 239 

Cricket 255 

Crime& Pauperism, Statistics.. 240 
Criminal Courts in N. Y. City. .497 

Crops, Statistics of 230,233 

Crude oil Statistics 227,228 

Cruisers, United States 419 

Cuba, Commerce 165 

Cuban Government 130 

Cubic Measure 76 

Cuml)erland Society, Army 354 

Curling Records 257 

Currency Circulation, U. S.. 154, 155 

Custom- House, N. Y.City 541 

Customs OITicials ,. .401 

" Receipts 169 

" Tariff, U.S 91,92 

D 

Dairy Prodiicts 231 

Dates, Memorable 32 

Daughters of Revolution 351 

" of the Amer. Revolution. .351 
" of Confederacy, United.. 355 

" of theKing 343 

Day of Week, How to Find. .34,35 

J>a'vs Between Two Dates 29^ 

Deaf Mutes in T'. S 241 

Denlli Roll of 1904 1.'i7-13!t 

" Statistics 237,2::h 

Debt of I'nited States, Public. .161 

l>el(ts of .Nations 162 

" of States in United States. 160 
" of United States Cilies.395, 396 

" When Outlawed 77 

Declaration of Independeiice85, 86 
Deeds, Ackuowledgm' t of 244.245 



Deer, 3ea«ou for Shooting: 246 

Defective Classes 241 

Delaware Election Returns.451,452 
Democratic Clubs, National — 113 

•' National and State Corns.. 97 

" Party Platforms 101-103 

Denmark and Colonies 359 

" Armv and Navy 356,357 

" Royal Family 363 Epiphany in 1905 

Denominations, Religious 3341 Episcopal Bisho|)S — 

Density of Population in U. S. .385 Episcoiialians 

DentafExaminations, N. Y.... 197>l';p<i<'lis, Reginningol. 

Deposi ts in Banks 156, 503,505' Ep worth l^eague 

Derbv, American 258! Eras, Chronological .. 

English 259] Etiquette, Practical 



FAGB 

England, see "British." ' 
" Areaaud Population. .367,373 

English Derby 259 

" Established t:hurch 370 

" Holidays, Old 31 

" Speaking Religious Com- 

muuitie.s 333 

Entomological Society, Amer. 290 

" ■" . ... 27 

337 

.333,335 



27 

.343 

. 27 

..324,325 



Dialect Society, American 290' Eurupe.Areaand I'opulatioii 63,359 



Diplomatic and Consular List. .424 

" Intercourse 120-123, 371 

Disfranchisement of Negroes. .105 

Dispen.saries, Brooklyn 543 

Distance to Moon 56 

"■ from Sun 49 

" Sun's 54,55 

Distances Between Cities 72 

" in New York City 544 

Distilled Spirits 235 

Dl.stribution of Population in 

U. S 386 

District Att' y"s Oflice, N. Y. . . .497 

District Attorneys, U. S 403 

" Courtsof U.S 402 

" of Columbia Gov' t . . 396 

Division of Africa 379 

Divisions of Time 28 

Divorce Law.s 242,243 

Divorced Per.sons in U. S 384 

Dock Dept. , N. Y. City 496 

Domestic .Annuals in U. S 234 

" Rates of Postage 67.69 

" Weights & Measures 76 

Dramatic People 280 

Druids, Order of 330 

Dukes, Table of British 372 

Duration of I^ife 63 

Duties, Customs, U.S 91, 92 

Dwellings in U.S 385 



European Btuiking Statis- 
tics 155 

" Cities, Distances Between. 72 

" Languages Spoken 63 

" ."Vfilitary Resources 356 

" Ministries 360 

■' Sovereigns 362 

" " Civil List 359 

Events, Historical 33 

" Record of, 1904 131.132 

Exchanges, N. Y. City 521 

Exci.se Dept. N. Y. City 496 

Executions, Legal 240 

Expenditures. U.S. ciovernin' 1.169 

Exploration in 1904 286,287 

Exports 15,162-165,193 

Express Ollices, N. Y. Citv .534 

" on Railroads ". .203-218 



Eagles, Ordek of 330 

Earth, Facts About 63 

Earth's Atmosphere 49 

■' Population... 63 

Easter in 1905 27 

" Table of Dates 29 

Eclipses in 1905 52 

Economic Ass' n, American 290 

Education, Dept. of, N. Y. .496,531 

" General Board 299 

" John F.SIater Fund 299 

" Peabody Fund 299 

" Southern Board 299 

" Statistics of 300,301 

Egypt, Area, etc .359,379 

Eight-Hour Labor Laws 8 

Election Returns Begin 44 

Elections Bureau, N.Y'. City.. 496 

" Presidential 114, 115 

" State, When Next Occur. .398 
Electoral Vote for President. 

114, 115, 445, 446 
"of the States... 113 

Electric Lighting 284 

" Railway Progress 285 

Electrical B^ngineers, American 

Institute 291 

lOlectrical Progress in 1904 284 

Eleotrochenii.stry 284 

Elevated Rlts. in N. Y 561, 5112 

Eleventh Army Corps Ass'n. .3.54 

Elks, Order of 330 

Ember D.ays 28 

Rniigrruits. set.- "Immigration." 

Engineering 289 

Engineering Education, Soei- 
I ety for Promotion of 293 



If 

Facts aboitt tms. Earth 63 

Failures in U. S ,..188 

Fair. St. Louis World's 16 

Families in U. S 385 

lamous < )l(l I'eojile of 1905 140 

" Universities 317 

Farm Productions in U.S. 173,231 

Fast r:)ays.- ..28 

, Kas'test Oceai i Passages 223 

'Federal (Jovermnent 399-402 

' ' Olticers in N. Y. City .541 

Federation of Labor, .Amer.. .15,88 

Feeble-Minded 241 

Fencing 253 

Fermented Liquors 235 

Ferries from New York City. . .527 

Fiction in 1904 294 

Field OfHcers U.S. Arniv 412 

Fifty-eighth Coiiyi-ess 176, 431-434 

Fifty- ninth Congress 435 

Finance Dep't, N. Y. City 495 

Finances of Nations 162 

Fire Dept.,N. \. City . .501,535,544 

" Insurance Statistics 191 

" Rules in ('aae of 25 

Fires, Loss by, in United States.191 

Fisheries of U. S 130 

Fishing, 0|)en Sea.sons for 247 

Flag, National 1'23 

Flags, Storm & Weather Sig.. 60,61 

" Transatlantic Lines 223 

Flaxseed Crop 231 

Florida Election Returns 452 

Flowers. State 183 

Folklore Society, American. ..^90 

Foods, Nutritiveness of 189 

Football Records 274.275 

Foreign Bank Statistics 155 

" Cuius, Value of 167 

'• Consnlsjn .\. Y.City 537 

" Consuls in U. S 4il8, 429 

" C'ountries. Kxports and 

Imports 162 

" Legations in [T. R 427 

" Mails 70,72 

" M i n ist ries 15, 360 

■' Missions,American Botird 342 
" Moneys 76,167 



S£iS ADVERTISING INDEX ON PAGES 546, 547 AND 54& 



General Index — Continued. 



Foreign I'opulatiou iu U.S.386,39'» 

" shipping Ifci6 

" Trade of the U. S 163-165 

" Wars, Military Order or.. 347 

Forest Reserves in U. S 182 

Foresters, Order of 330 

Forestry Statistics 182 

Fort J' Immortals 293 

France and Colonies 359 

" Army and Xavy. . .356,357,374 
" Diplomatic Intercourse.. .121 

" Uovernmeut of 374 

" Rulers of ...362 

Fraternal Brotherhood 330 

" Organizations 329-332 

" Union of America 330 

Free Baptist Voung l>eoi)Ie 342 

" Sons of Israel 331 

Freemasonry 326,327 

Freezing and Fusing Roiuts ... 30 

French A cademy 293 

" Ministry 36o 

" l^retenders 366 

" Revolutionary Era 32 

Funnel Marl<sof Steamers... 223 
Futurit}', the , 259 

G/i.ME Laws 246,24 

(Gasoline Production 227 

(Genealogical Society, Amer'u..290 

General Education Board 299 

Generals, U. S. Arm.v 405,413 

Oeogi-aphic Names, U.S. Board. 8t'. 

" Society. National 29:; 

Geograoh ical Discovery 289 

" Society, American 291 

Geological Society of America. 292 
Georgia Election Returns. ..452-454 

Geology 289 

German Empire 359 

" Ministry 360 

"• Royal Family 364 

German"y , Armv and Navy, 

356,357.374 
" Diplomatic Intercourse. ..122 

" (Government of 374 

(Gin, Production of 2;;.'i 

(Joatsin IJ. S., Value of 234 

Gold Certificates, U.S 153 

" in Circulation.. . ,.\ 154 

" Production of 150,229 

" Source of, in U. S 151 

Golden Cro.ss, Order of 331 

(Golf 264,265 

(Good Fellows, Roval Society. . .331 

" Friday in 1905 27 

" Roads Ass'u, Nat'l 390 

" Templars, Orderof 32^ 

(iovernments of the Earth ..15,361 

(Governors of New York 444 

" of States in II. S 398 

Grain Production of U. S 230 

(Grand A rmy of the Republic. . .352 

Gravity, Sp'ecific 30 

oreat Britain, see "■Hritisli.' 
(Greece, Army and Navy of. 356,357 

(Greek Calendar for 1905 36 

" Church Adherents 333 

" Royal Family 364 

(Gregorian Calendar 28 

(Guam 125 

li 

ITack- Fauks.N. V.ClTY , .v.\ 

Hull of Fame 323 

Hammer Records 267 

Hams, rroiliicUoii of 2.31 

Harness Kacing 260,261 

Harvard Boat Races — 249 

Hawaii 125426,359 

'• f 'Dtiimerce 165 

" Pnpulation 381 

lln.V, Prodiiclion of 231 



Heads of OoTernments 15, 361 

Health Dept., N. Y.City 495| 

Heart Disease, Deaths from . ..238 
Height and Weight of Men 

and Women 78 

■ of Buildings in N. Y 539 

' of Mountains 63,65 

' of Prominent Points in 

N. Y.City 504 

Help in Accidents 25 

Hemp Crop 231 

Hepta-sophs, Order of 331 

Hibernians, Order of 331 

Hierarchy, Roman (_'atholic...336 
Highways, Bureau of, N.Y. C...495 

Hindooism 333 

Historical Ass' n. Amerlcau .- .291 

" Kvents, Dales of 32, 33 

" Society, American- Irish . .346 

Hockey Records 261 

Hog Statistics. 231 

Holidays 31 

Home Circle, Order of 331 

Homes and Asylums iu New 

York City 500, 501 

Homes for Soldiers 15,358 

" in United States ,385 

Homicide in United states.... 240 

Homing Pigeon Records 250 

Homceopalhy, American Inst. 291 

Hops, Production of 231 

Horse-Racing Records 258 

Horses, Value of. in U. S 2.34 

Hospitals, N. Y. City 542,543 

Hotel Liquor Licenses, N. Y ..23o 

Hotelsin N. Y. City 538 

House Flags on Steamers. 223 

"■ of Commons 372 

" of Lords 37; 

" of Representatives 432-436 

Huguenot Society 346 

Human Cremation 239 

"• li'amily 63 

Hunting arid Game Laws.. 246,24' 

Hurdle- Racing Records 26' 

Hurricane Warnings 61 



rCE HOCKKY ?61 

Ice Yacht Club Kaoes 257 

Idaho Election Returns 454 

Illinois Election Returns. . .455,456 
Illiterate Population in U. S. . .384 

Immigration into U. S 171 

"■ Commissioner, N.Y 541 

1 mmortals, the Forty 293 

tm ports 15, 162-165 

Indebtedness of Nations 163 

Independence Declaration ... 85, 86 

India, (Government of 371 

" Mails 518 

Indian CJommissioners, Board. 400 

" Corn Production 230 

" Population in U. S 176,382 

" Wars .357 

" Wars. Order of 350 

Indiana Eleclion Bet urns 456 

Indians, Expenditure, IT.s.. . .169 
Industrial I'rogress, U. S. .172, 192 

Inhabitants of Earth 63 

fnhabilants of U.S. (See "Pop- 
ulation.".) 

Insanity Slatisti(.-s 241 

Inspection of Steam Vessels... .541 
Insular Possessionsot U. S. 124-126 

Insurance Statistics 190,iyi 

Interborough Rapid Transit, 

S62-564 
Interest Rates in N. Y. Sav- 
ings P.anks .503, 505 

" Tables and Laws 77,78 

Interior neparlment olTicials. .400 
" Sei;relaries of the 119 



PAGK 

Internal Revenue OfRcers, 

N. Y 541 

•' Revenue Receipts 168,169 

International Boat Races 249 

" Bureau of American Re- 
publics 379 

" Reform Bureau 390 

" Yacht Races 251 

interstate Commerce Com 400 

Iowa Election Returns 458,459 

Ireland, Area and Population, 

367, 373 

' Governmentof 369 

Irish Catholic Benev. Union. . .331 
Iron and Steel Tonnage in U. S. 166 

• World's Production of j227,229 

Israel, Free Sons of 331 

Italian (Government 375 

" Jliuistry 360 

"■ Royal Family 364 

Italy and Colonies 359 

" Army and Navy of. 356.-357,375 

" Diplomatic Iutercoursel22,123 



Jamestown Tekcentenniat. 

Exposition 16 

Japan, Area and Population. ..359 

" A rmy and Navy ,356,357 

" Mails .......518 

Japanese in the U. S 382 

" War 133-136 

Je wi.sli Calendar for 1905 .36 

" Churches in N.Y. City. . . .507 

" Era , 27 

J e ws. Number of 333,334 

Judgments, When Outlawed.. 77 
Judiciary of New York City. . . .497 

" of New York State.. ".442,443 

' ' of States. (See Each State 
Election Returns.) 

" of United States 402 

Julian Calendar 28 

'• Period and Year. *J7 

Jumping Records 267 

.lupiter, Planet 27, 49 

Jury JJuty,New York City 523 

Justice, U. S. Department of. . .400 
Justices of the tJ. S, .Supreme 

Court Since 1789 116 



K 

Kans.^s Election Betubns, 

459, 460 

Kentucky Derby 269 

' ' Election Returns 460-462 

King's Daughters and Sons 343 

Knights and Ladies of Honor. .3.31 

'■ of Columbus SSl 

" oftGolden Eugle :»1 

" of Honor 331 

" of Maccabees 331 

" of Malta 331 

" of Pythias 829 

" ofStl Johnand Malta 331 

" Templar^ 327 



1. 



Labor Commission, N. V. 

State 4:!9 

Labor Information . ...15, 8&-90, 183 
Ladies' Catholic Benev. .Ass'n 331 
Ladies of Hie Maccaheesof the 

World 331 

Land Forces of Europe ;!56 . 

r.,ands, Public, hi II. S 181 

Languages Spoken, iMiropean. 63 

Lard, Production ol 2.31 

l.atin- American Republics ..'579 

LatiUldeand Longilude ilH 

Latter- Day .Saint.s 334 



8EB ADV£R TISINO INDEX ON PAGES 5441, 547 AND 548. 



General In dex — Con tin ued. 



PAGE 

Law Courts, N.y. City 497 

" Examiuations, N.Y 245 

" Sclioolsin U.8 302 

Lawn-Tennis Kccords 278, 279 

T,a\vyers' Club, N. Y. City 541 

I-ead, Production of 228,229 

League of American Muuici 

palities 390 

Leap Years 34 

Learned Societies. American. .290 
Legal Executions 240 

•' Holidaj's 31 

Legations, Foreign, in U. S 427 

Legion of Honor, American.. .330 

Legislation, State 177-180 

Legislature, N. Y. State 440 

Legislatures, Pay and Terms of 

Members 398 

Legislatures. (See Eacli State 

Election Keturns.) 
Legislatures, State.When Kext 

Sessions Begin 398 

Lenox Library 519 

Lent in 1905 27 

Letter Carriers, N. Y. City . . . .525 

•' Postage t57. 71 

Lewis and Clark Centennial 

Exposition 12 

Libraries, N. Y. City.. . .518,519,543 

" of the World 297 

Licenses, Bureau of, N.Y. City. 495 
Life, Human, Duration of. ... 63 

" Insurance Statistics 15,190 

Life-Saving Service 170,529.541 

Lifting Records 270 

Light, Velocity of 57 

Light-House Establishment . . .387 

Lightning, Loss b.v 61 

Limitations, Statutes of 77 

Liquid Measure 76 

Liquor Statistics 235.23d 

Literature in 1904 294,295 

Living, Cost of 189 

London Officials & Populatiou.S' 

Long Measure 76 

Longitude Table 66 

Lords, House of 372 

Losses by Fire in U. S 191 

Louisiana Election R8turns.462, 463 

" Purchase Exposition 16 

Loval Legion , Military Order of 354 

Lumber in U. S 182 

Luther League of America 343 

• Lutheran Churches in N. Y. 

City 508 

Lutherans. Number of 333,334 

Lynchings iu U. S 240 

Maccabees, Knights op S31 

Magnetic Declinations 59 

Magistrates, N. Y. City 497 

Mails, Domestic and Foreign.67-72 

" India, China, etc 518 

Maine Election Returns 463 

Major-Generals, U. S. Army.. 405 

Malt Liquors, Statistics 235,236 

Jlanhattan El. R. R 561-563 

Manufactures 173, 192, 193 

Map Elevated Ry., N. Y 562 

" N. Y. City Assembly Dis- 
tricts and Wards.... 570, 571 

" ofSubway,N. Y 552,563 

Marine Corps, United States. . .416 

" Engineers. Society 293 

Markets, New York City 531 

Marriage & Divorce r.aws. .242.243 
Married Persons in U. S 384 



PAGK 



N 



Mars, Planet 27,49 

Marshals, United States 403 

Maryland Election Returns. . . .463 Murdei-s in U. S 
Ma.sonic Grand Lodges, IT. S. .326 Museums & Music Halls 



Masons, Royal Arch ....327 

" Scottish Rite 336 

Massachusetts Election Ret' us. 464 
Mathematical Society, Auier. .291 

Mayflower Descendants 346 

I\(ayors of New York I 'ity 444 

" of Cities in United States. 395 

Measures, Domestic 76 

" Metric System of 73 

" Used in Great Britain 76 

Mechanical Engineers, Ameri- 
can Society 292 

Mechanics, United American.. 332 

Medal of Honor Legion 351 

Medical Association, Amer. . ..291 

Examinations, N. Y 197 

Schools in U. S 302 

Medicine, American Academy. 290 

Medico- Legal Society 292 

Medico- Psychological Ass' n.. 291 

Memorable Dates 32 

Men, Height and Weight 
Merchant Navies of the World. 166 

Mercury, Planet 27,49 

Metals, Production of 152,229 

Methodist Bishops 337 

•' Churches iu N. Y. City.... 608 
Methodists, Number of.333,334,3.S5{ 

Metric System 73-751 

Mexico, Army of 356,378 

■ Statistics of 359, 

Mica, Production of 228 

Jlichigan Election Returns. 465, 466 

Military Academy of U. S 404 

" Departments, U. S 407 

" Order Foreign Wars S47 

" Order liOyal Legion 354 

" Order of the French 

Alliance 347 

" Resou rces of Eu rope 356 

Militia in N. Y. City 522 

" Naval 414,522 

" or the States 414 

Milk Production 231 

Mineral Productsof U.S. 227 ,228 ,229 
Mining Engineers, Institute or.291 

Ministers, Foreign, in U.S 120 

" of European Countries. .15, .36C 

" U.S., Abroad 120 

MinnesntaE!ectionReturns467,468 

Mints, Coi nage of 153 

" Superintendents of 401 

Missions, Am. Board Foreign. 342 

" Statistics 335 

Mississippi Election Returns. ..468 
Missouri Election Returns. 469, 470 

Mohammedan Calendar 36 

Mohammedanism 333 

Molasses Production 233 

Monarchies and Republics 63 

Monetary Statistics 150-153 

Money Orders, Postal 69,71, 149 

Moneys, Foreign 76, 167 

Monroe Doctrine 176 

Montana Election Returns 470 

Monthly Calendars for 1905. . .37-48 

Monuments, N. Y. City 521 

Moon, In formation About. 37, 49,51 

Moon's Pha.sesin 1905 .50 

Moonlight Chart for 1905 51 

Moravians in U. S 335 

Mortality Statistics 237, 238 

:\ronntains. Highest 63.65 

Mules, Value of, in U. S 234 

Multi-Millionanes, American, 

141-148 

Municipal Civil Service, N. Y.496 

•* and Civic Organizations . .390 

" Courts, N. Y. City 498 

Municipalities, Amer. League 390 

■ • 240 

N.Y..499 



Masonry, Sovereign Sanctuary 327, Musical People, Ages, etc 280 

Masons, Colored 327 Mystic Circle, Order of 331 

" Knights Templars '"'I '^ "^^ 



..327 



Shrine, Nobles of the 



Naphtha Pbojjuctton 227 

National Academy of Design, 

282,283 

Academy of Sciences 292 

Arts Club 283 

Ass'u Democratic Clulis.llS 

Bank Examiner .,^4} 

Bank Statistics. Ix, 154, 502, 

.005. 575 

Civic Federal ion 15, 86 

Encampment.s 352 

Flag 123 

Geographic Society 292 

Good Roads Ass' n i!90 

Grange 100 

Guard 414,522 

Home Disabled Volunt's 15 

Liberty Party loO 

" " Platform... 109 

Municipal and Civic Or- "^ 

ganizations ',90 

Municipal Ijeague 390 

Party I'latforms of 1904, 

101-112 

Provident Union 331 

Republican League 15.118 

Salutes 413 

Sculpture Society 283 

Spiritualists' Association .344 

Union 332 

359,' 378 Natural Gas 228 

Naturalists' Society, A snei'ican. 292 

Naturalization Laws of U. S 93 

Nautical Almanac, U. S 416 

Naval Academy of U. S 404 

" and Milita,ry Order, Span- 
ish-American War 3.53 

Architects, Society of 293 

Enlistment 418 

Examining and Retiring 

Boards 416 

Militia '..414, 522 

Observatory 416 

Otticers, t'ustoms 4ol 

Orderof the United States.347 

Navies of the World .357 

Navy at New York City 540 

" British 15,370 

" Captains and Command- 
ers 416,417 

" Dep't Expenditures 169 

" Department Officials 399 

" Flag Officers 415 

" Pay Table 417 

" Rank of Officers 423 

" Retired List 415 

" Secretaries of the 119 

" U. S. Official List 415 

" United States Stations 422 

" U.S., Vessels 418-423 

" Yards, United States 422 

Nebraska Election Returns. ...471 

Necrology of 1904 137-139 

Negro Disfranchisement lo5 

Negroes in U. S 382,387 

Neptune, Planet 49 

Netherlands and Colonies 359 

" Army and Navy 356,3.57 

'• Ministry 360 

" Royal Family of 364 

Nevada Election Returns 472 

New Eng. Order Protection . . . 332 
New Hamp. Election Returns. 473 
New Jersey Election Returns, 

472,473 
New Mexico Election Re- 
turns 478 

Newspaper Postage 67, 70 

" Statistics 298 

N. y. City Civil Service 196 

" " Clearing-House 502 

" " Government 495,496 

" " Information Begins.499 

" " Judiciary 497,498 

" " NationalGuard 522 



..327 



SEE ADVERTISING INDEX ON PAGES 546, S47 AND 548. 



8 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGE 

IV Y. City J'opulation. . .398,534,541 

" " Public'Libiary 519 

" " Tax Rate 396 

" " Vote 476,477 

" " Wards and Assem- 
bly Districts. ..5705.71 
^' State Civil Service Cum- 

mis.siouer.s 439 

" " Counties, Political and 

Judicial Divisioii.s. ..44; 
" " Election Returns.. 474-477 

" " Goverumeut 439 

" " Judiciary 442,443 

" " Legislature, 19U5... 440, 441 

Kailroad Com' rs 439 

" Jioological Society 29- 

Nickel Production 229 

JMiglit Signals on Steamers 223 

Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. . .327 
No. Carolina Election Return.s. 478 
NortbDakotaElection Returus.479 

Norwegian Royal Familj' 366 

Notes, Promissory 245 

" When Outlawed " 

Novels o£ 19U4 294 

Numerals, Roman and Arabic. 78 
Numismatic and ArcliEeologi- 

cal Society — 291 

Nurses, Registration of 197 

Nutritiveness of Foods 189 

O 

Oat Crop Statistics 230 

Obituary Roll of 1904 137-139 

Occupations in U. S 388,389 

Occurrences During Printing.. 15 

Ocean Steamers 224, 225, 526 

Oceans, Depth of 63 

Odd Fellowship, Information. 328 

Ohio Election Returns 480,481 

Oklahoma Election Returns. . .481 
Old Age Pension Order, the. ..195 

" People of 1905, Famous 140 

Olympic Championshi ps 267 

Opera Honses'in N. Y. 'City. ...499 

Order of (Cleaners 332 

Oregon Election Returns 482 

Oriental Society, American. ... 291 
Ornithologists' Union , Amer. . .291 



Pactng Recobds 261 

Painting and Sculpture 282,283 

Palm Sunday in 1905 27 

Panama Canal 15,126-128 

" Zone 174 

Parcels Post 71 

Parks, New York City 523,540 

Parliament, British 372 

Party Di visions in Congress 430 

" Platforms 101-112 

Passenger Traffic in U. S., Sub- 
urban 635 

Passport Regulatious 84 

Piisiors of Churches in N. Y. 

City 507 

Patent Office 186, 187 

Pauperism 240 

Pawnbrokers' Regulations.N. Y501 

Peal)0dy Education Fund 299 

Peace Conference 129 

Peach and Pear Crop 231 

Peanut Crop 231 

Peary's Exploration 286,387 

Penalties for Usury 78 

Pennsylvania Elect' n Return.s, 

482,483 

Pension Agencies 400,541 

" Statistics 169,184,186,195 

People's Party National Com- 
mittee 99 



PAGE 

People's Party Platform. . .106,107 

Periods, Chronological 27 

Permanent Board to Settle 

Labor Disputes 15,86 

Personal Memoranda 26 

Personalty in U.S 160,395,396 

Peru, Army of 356 

Petroleum, Production of. .227,228 

Phi Beta Kappa 325 

Philippine Commerce 165 

" islands 124,359 

" Mail 518 

" Population 381 

Philologicali Association Amer- 

uan 291 

Philosophical Soc, American. .292 
Physical Society. American.. ..292 
Physicians,' A merican t Ass' n . .292 

Piers, New York City 5; 

Pig Iron Production 227, 229 

Pigeons, Homing 2.50 

Pilgrim Fathers, Order of 332 

Pilot Commissioners 496 

Pistol Records 256 

Planetary Configurations, 

1905 53 

Platinum Production 229 

Plays of 1904 ;j81 

Pneumonia, Deaths from 238 

Poisons, Antidotes for 25 

Polar Exploration 286,287 

" Regions, Area and Popu- 
lation 63 

PoleStar,Mean Timeof Transit 57 

Police Dept.,N.Y. City 506.540 

Political and Social Science 

Academy 290 

" Committees 97-100 

" Conventions 102-111 

" Divisions in Congress 430 

" Platforms 101-112 

Polo 254 

Pool Records 254 

Popular Vote, President, 

114,115,445,446 
Population, According to 

School Age & Voting. .383 
' According to Sex, Na- 
tivity, and Color. ...382,387 

• According to Age,Con]'ugal 
Condition, Illiteracy 384 

' According to Vote Cast, .386 

' All Countries 150,359 

' by Dwellings, Families,, 

Density, etc 385 

' by Topographic Divs 386 

' Centre of 389 

' Each Census, 1790 to 1900.. 381 

• Foreign in U.S 386,394 

' Indian 175,382 

' of Africa 359,367,379, 

' of America (British) 367 

' of Asia 367 

' of Australia 367 

' of British Empire 367 

' of Canada 376 

' of Cities of U. S 391-395 

' of Earth According to 

Race 63 

' of Earth, bv Continents.. 63 
" of Foreign Countries. ..150, 359 
' of Gt. Britain and Ireland, 

.367,373 
' Of Incorporated Places in 

U. S 391-393 

' of Largest Cities of hearth. 380 
' of Latin- Amer. Republics 379 
' of London 373 

• of Mexico 378 

' of New England Towns. ..393 
' of New York Citv.396,534,!>41 

' of U.S ir.0, 172,381, 385,391 

' Rank of States 389 

' Urban, in U. S ,389 

Pork, Production of 231 



PAGK 

Porto Rico 124 ,125,359 

" " Commerce 165 

" Population 381 

Portugal and Colonies 359 

Portugue.se Royal Family 364 

Port Wardens, N, Y. City 496 

Postal 1 nlormation 67-72 

Postmasters of Cities in U.S. ..4(il 

Postmaster.s-General,ljistol' 119 

Post-OfliceDep't Officials 4(io 

" N.Y. City 524,525 

" •• Statistics, U. S. 149,173 

Potato Crop in U. S 231 

Potomac, Society of Army 3.54 

Practical Etiquette 324,325 

Precious Metals, Statistics 152 

" Stones, Production 228 

Presbyterian Assemblies 339 

" Churches inN. Y.City 509 

Presbyterians, Number o i .. 333, 335 
President Roosevelt's Admin- 
istration 105 

President Roosevelt's Call for 

Peace Conference 129 

Presidents of the U. S 116 

" of the U. S. Senate 117 

Presidential Cabinet OflRcers, 

118-120. 399 
" Elections, 1789 to 1900. .114,115 

" Succe.ssion. 116 

" Vote 114, 115, 445, 446 

Press CI ubs. League 298 

" Statistics of. 298 

Prices of Commodities 189 

Printed Matter, Postage 67 

Prisoners in U. S 240 

Produce, Minimum Weights of. 75 

Professional Schools in U. S 302 

Progress of United States 172 

Prohibition Nat'l Committee.. 99 

" Party Platform 110,111 

Promissory Notes and Checks .245 
Property, Asse.ssed Valuation 

in U.S 160,395 

" Losses by Fire 191 

Protected Home Circle 332 

Protective Tariflin Party Plat- 
forms 102, 104 

Protestant Episcopal Bishops. .337 
Protestant Episcopal Churches, 

in N.Y. City 609 

Protestants,, Number of 333,335 

Provident Loan Society 501 

Public Administrator, N.Y 496 

" Buildings, N.Y, City 542 

" Dehtof U. S..., 161 

Cities in U. S 395 

" Health Ass'n, American 292 

" LandsofU. S 169,181 

" Library, N. Y. Citv .519 

" Porters 504 

' ' Works Dept., N. Y. Citv . .495 

Pugilism 277,278 

Pupils, School, in U. S 302 

Pythias, Knights of 329 



Qualifications fob Voting, 

94.95 

Quarantine Commissioners 496 

Quicksilver, Production of 229 

R 

Race, Population Accoud- 
iNo to 63 

Racquets 263 

Kailroad Accidents 'J19 

" Clubs 219 

" Comiuissioners 221 

" l<)ariiiii,;;s& Expen.ses. ,202-218 

" Employes iu U.S 219 

" Expresses 203-218 



SEB ADVERTISING INDEX ON PAGES 546, 547 AND 548. 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGE 



Railroad, Manhattan Elevated, Russian Calendar for 1905 



561-564 

" Mileage 202-222 

" Officials 203-218 

" Passenger Stations, N. Y. .539 

" Speed Records 220 

" Statisticsof U. S 202 

" Stocks, List 157 

" Traffic 202-218,222 

Rai 1 roads i n N. Y. Ci ty . 550, 551, 561 
Rainfall, Normal, iutlie U.S.. 62 
Rank of Officers, Army and 

Navy 408,423 

Rapid Transit Railroad Com- 
mission, N.Y. City 496 

Ratesof Postage 67 

Ratio of Silver to Gold 151 

Ready-Reference Calendars. 34, 3o 

Realty and Pei-soualty 160, 395 

Rear- Admirals, U. S. Navy. . . .415 
Receipts & Expenditures, U. S.169 
Receiving Ships, TJ. S. Navy.... 423 
Recliabites, Order of 332 



PASE PAGE 

36 Solar Parallax 54, 65 



^^^^i:^I^^.^r-^^'^.^=^^tr^ 



Japanese War 133-136 

" Ministry 360 

Rye, Production of 230 



Empire, Population, etc.. 3591 " System 49 

Government 375, Soldiers' Homes 15, 358 

Imperial Family 365 Sons of Temperance 329 

"~ " oftheAmer. Revolution. ..349 

" of the Revolution 349 

" of Veterans, U. S. A 3.53 

South & Central Amer. Trade . .379 
" American Armies and 
Navies 356,357 

c „ T^^„„o^», e^^^ »,.T -KT V S. Carolina Election Returns, 
Safe Deposit Cos. in N. Y. , _ 484,485 

Salariesof.U.S.CaI)inetOfflcers.399S. Dakota ElectipnRetnrns.... 485 
of U.S. Senators 431 Southern Education Board. ...299 



of Representatives in U.S 
Congress 434 

of Governors of States in 
U.S 398 

of Members of State Legis- 
latures'in U. S 398 



Saloons in N. Y. City. 



.236 



Record of Events in 1904. 
Red Men, Order of. 



131,132 



Salt, Production of 228 

Salute.s, Nat'land Internat'1...413 
..335,345 



oo'Sautiago, Society of Army of. . .3531 



Sovereigns of Europe 362 

Spain, Area and Population. ...359 

^^ Army and Navy 356,357 

" Diplomatic Intercourse. ..123 

Spanish- American Claims 400 

" Naval and Military Order..353 

Spanish Ministry 360 

•' Royal Family 365 

' ' War Veterans 353 

Speakers of U.S. House of Rep- 
resentatives 117 



Kea ^^len uneror^.. .... ...... -^f- gat urn. Planet 27.49 Special Sessions, Court 497 

Reformed Churches, Alliance .|}9 yaviugs Banks. N.Y. City. .503,505!specitic Gravity. 30 

Churchill America, dds .. j^anks Statistics 1.56\Kpeed ol Railroad Trains 220 

T<^..,..nn«i T^,«hons ^« Saxou Royal Family 365 •' ofSteamships 223 

School Pupils in U.S 301,3u2 Spiudles in Operation 232 

Schools in U. S 302|apirits, Statistics ot 235 



Epi.scopal Bishops 338 

•' Numberof 335 

Regents' Examinations, N. Y. .197 

Regents of University, N. v.. ..439 i,f.w , .i.u^ , .i> 

Regiments,U. S., Field Officers.412U„^„t;,^^*^l„V st_V''<j- • „ 
r>„„i<=ffc..inM fif i\rnii Mntf^:- KQ 70 ocnooisnipj, oiaie iNauiicai 

, Sciences, Nat' 1 Academy 



Registration of Mail Matter.. 69. 70 

" of Voters. 96 

Regular U. S. Army and Navy 

Union 347 

ReigniugFamiliesofEurope363-366 

Religions Statistics.... 333-335 

Representatives in Congr's.432,436 

" Apportionment of 113 

" Salary of 434jSculp(nre 

Bepul)lic, Grand Army of the. .352 " National Society. 

Republican National and State Seasons, the 

Committees 98lsecret Service, U. S 



iSpi 

New York Citv 630, 532 Spiritualists, National A.ss'n. . .344 

„,..v,:., c._.._ TVT. ...:„., ..423:Sportiiig Records Begin 248 



priiig. Beginning of, 1905 27 

Scientitic Alliance of N. Y 292'squaie Measure 76 

" Progressin 1904 288,289 stage, the 280,281 

Scotland, Government of 369istandard Time 28 

" Area and Population of, Istar Table.... 57,58 

367,3731 " of Bethlehem Order 332 

Scottish Clans, Orderof 332 stars. Morning and Evening. . . 27 

Rite Masons 326 state and Terri. Governments .398 



.28; 
.283 
. 27 
.195 

Jjeague, National 1.5,113iSecretaries, Cabinet, List 118 

Party Platforms. .. ..103-106iSeismic Disturbances 289 



Republics and Monarchies. ... 63 

Revenue Cutter Service 170 

Revenues,U.S.GovernmeutlP8,169 
Revolution, Daughters of the.. 351 



I Senate, N. Y. State 440 

Presidents pro tempore. . .117 
I Senators,U. S 431,435 

U. S., Salary of 431 

American, Daughters of. .351 Servian Army 356 

" American, Sons of .349 " Royal Family 366 

" Sous of the 349 Sewers, Bureau of, N.Y. Citj-..495 

Rhode Island Election Returns 484 Sheep in U. S 234 

Rice Crop 231 sheritt", N. Y. City 496 

Rifle Ji Revolver Shoo ting. 256, 257 [Shield ot Honor 332 

Ritualistic Calendar 36;Siiipbuilding in U. S 166 

Rod and Reel-Casting Records. 248ishipping, American & Foreign. 166 States and the Union 397 

Rogation Days 28iShol- Putting Records 267,269 " Debts of 160 

Roman Catholic Churches in [Sidereal Year 28'statistical A.ss'n, American. ...292 

..510|Sidewalks, New York City... .527|Statues in N. Y. City 621 

..3;i6tsignals, Weather 60, 61 Statutesof Limitations. 



and Territoi'ial Statistics.397 
Banks, Loan &TrnstCos. ..154 

" in N.Y. City 502 

Caiiitals ,;97 

Conmiittees, Political. ..97,98 

Department Officials 399 

^:lections 398,447 

Flowers 183 

Labor Bureaus 183 

Legislation 177-180 

Legislatures. 398 

Militia 414 

Officers in N. Y. Cit.v 496 

Officers. (See Each State 

Election Returns.,! 
Rank According to Popu- 
lation 389 



N.Y. City. 

** Catholic Hierarchy — 

" Catholics, Numberof... 
Era .......••**•«■•■ 

" Numerals 

Roque 275 

Rough Riders' Association 353 

Roumanian Army 356 

" Royal Family 365 

Rowing"Kecords 249,250 

Royal Academy 283 

" Arcanum 329 

" Arch Masons 327 

•' Circle 332 

" Families of Europe 363 

" Family ot England . . . .362, 368 

" League 332 

" Society Good Fellows 331 

" Templars of Temperance. 332 

Rulers of Nations .15,361 

Rum, Production of 2.35:Societies iu N. V. CMty. 

Running Records 267| " of War of 18r 



. .333 Silica 228|Steamboat Inspection, U.S. 170,541 

.. 27 Silver Certificates, U.S 153'Steamboatsfrom N. Y. Citv... .533 

.. 78 " in Circulation 154 Steamships from N.Y. .224!225,526 

"" " Production of 150, 229|steel, Production of 227,228 

Purchases by U. S 151 " Tonnage in U. S 166 



Ratio toGold 151 

Source of,in U. S 151 

Skating Records 270 

Slate. Production of 228 

Slater, .1. F., Fund 299 

Slaves in U. S. in 1790 387 



Stocks.Prices of Leading 157-159 

Stone Production 228 

Storm Warnings 61 

Street-Cleaning Dept.,N. Y — 496 
Street Openings, Bureau of, 
N. Y. Citv 495 



Snutr Production 229 St. Andrew. Brotherhood of.. . .342 

Social ScienceAss'n,American.292!st. Louis World's Fair 16 

Service Inst., Ainericau..299JSt. Vincentde Paul Sooietv ,'540 

Socialist Labor Committee. . . . loot Students in U. S 301,308 

Labor Party Platforni.l(«, lot) Submarine Cables 2iil 

Party Platform 107, 108|Sub Trea-surv, N.Y. City 541 

Party Nat'l Committee. looiSuburbau Handicap 259 

528,5291 '■ Passenger Traffic, U. S. . .635 
350 Subway in New Y'ork.535, 562, 665 



Russia, Army and Navy.3a6,357,375:Society of The Cincinnati.. 348, 349jSnrtrage Qualifications 94,95 

*' Diplomatic Intercourse... 122'Soda, Production of 228 " Right of S3 



SEE ADVERTISING INDEX ON PAGES 546, 547 AND 543. 



10 



General Index — Con tinued. 



PAGE 

butriage,Woiuau «15, 96 

Sugar Productiou 281. 23B 

Suicide, Statistics of 238, 241 

Sulphur Production 228 

Summer, Begianiug of, 1905 — 27 

Sun, Eclipse of 52 

" Mean Distance of 49 

" on Meridian 37-48 

" KisesandSets 37-48 

Sun's Declination 56 

" Distance 54,55 

Sunday-School Statistics S3a 

Supreme Court of U. S 116, 4U2 

N. Y 442,497 



U PAGE 

Union Army Societies 354 

" Fraterual League 332 

Unions, Labor. 88-90 

Unitarian Ass' n, American — 338 

Unitarians, Number of 333,335 

United A merican Mechanics. . 332 

" Christian Party 100 

" Christian Party Platform.109 

" Confederate Veterans 355 

" Daughters of Coiifederacy.355 
" Sons Confederate Vets.... 355 

" Spanish War Veterans 353 

" Volunteer Ass' u 853 

Worlimen, Order of %'i'l 



Surgical Ass' n, American 292 United States Area 172,359 



Surveyors of Customs 401 

Survivor War of 1812 185 

Sweden, Ministry of 360 

" and Norway, Area, etc.. .359 
" " " Army and 

Navy of 356,357 

Swedish Royal Family 366 

Swimming Records 252, 268, 269, 279 

Swine in U.S 234 

Switzerland, Army of 356 

T 

Tammany, Society of 346 

Tariff Rates, U. S 91,92 

" Revision 102, 104 

Tax Department,N. Y. City 496 

" Rate, U. S. Cities 395, 396 

Taxable Property of U.S. Cities.395 
Taxes, Receiver of, N.Y. City ..495 

Tea and Coffee 233 

Teachers in U. S. Schools 302 

Telegraph Inforniation.198, 199, 284 

Telephone Statistics 200,284 

Temperance, Sous of 329 

Temperature, Normal, in U. S. 62 
Tennessee Election Retu rns 485-487 

" Society of Army of 354 

Tenuis Records 278,279 

Territorial Expansion of U.S. .174 
Territories of United States — 397 
Texas Election Returns — 487-489 

" Land Measure. 
Theatres, Ne\v York City. .499,543 

Theatrical Runs 281 

Tlieological Schools in U. S. . . .302 

Theosopliy 335,344 

Thermometers 58 

Thirteenth Army Corps 'Ass'n. 354 

Tide Table.s 64, 65 

Time Difference 30 

■' Divisionsof 28 

" Mail, from New York 72 

" Standard 28 

Tin , Prod uction of 227 

Tobacco, Pi-oduetiou of.l68, 229, 231 

Tonnage, Maritime 166 

Torpedo Flotilla, U. S. Re- 
serve 

Track and Field Records 

Tract Society, American..... 

Trade, Foreign, of U.S 16i 

Training Ships, U. S 

Transatlantic Steamers .224, 22a,52b 

Trap Shooting 2.77 

Treasury l)ei>artmeiitOfficials.399 

" Secretiiriesof the 118 

Treaties, Arliitration 130 

" Reciprocity 174 

Treaty, Chinese Commercial . ..128 

Tribaof Ren llur 330 

Trinity Sunday in 1905 27 

Troops in U. S. Wars 357 

Tropical Year 28 

Trotting Records '260 

Trust t'onipanies in N. Y. . ..504,525 
TrustM in Parly Platforms. .102, 104 

Turf, the American 258 

Til rkey , Army & Navy of . .356, 357 

Turkish Empire 359 

Tutuila 125 

Twilight Tables 37-48 



.423 
.269 
.341 
-165 
.423 



Army 405-413 

Army in New York City.. 544 

" Army Recruiting Require 

ments 413 

" Assay Othce in N.Y 541 

" A.ssistant Treasurers 401 

" Bankruptcy Law 188 

" Board ou Geographic 

Names 86 

" Ceusus 175 

" Civil Service Commission. .400 

" Civil Service Rules 194 

" Constitution 79-83 

" Consuls Abroad 424-426 

" Courts 402 

" Courts in N. Y. City. ..... .498 

" Currency Circulation..l54,155 

" Customs Duties 91,92 

" Daughters 1812, Society.. . .351 

" District Attorneys 403 

" Foreign Trade 163-165 

" Forestry Statistics 182 

" General Appraisers 541 

" Government 399-402 

" Industries 17: 

" Insular Possessions 124-126 

" IuternalRevenueReceipts.168 

" Judiciary 40: 

" LandOfiices 181 

" Life-SavingService 170,529, 541 

" Lighthouse Establishm't. 387 

" Manufactures 192,195 

" Marine Corps 416 

" Military Academy 404 

" Ministers Aoroaci 12o 

" Naval Academy 404 

" Naval Enlistmenta»iulPay 418 

" Navy 415-423 

" Navv Y'ards 422 

" Pension Statistics...l84,185,400 
" Population, 1-50, 172, 359, 

381-384, 385, 389, 391 

" Postmasters 401 

" Post-Office Statistics 149 

" J'roRie.ss 172 

" Public Debt 161 

" Public Lands 181 

" Receipts & Expenditures. 169 
" Revenue Cutter Service. . .170 

" Secret Service 195 

" Senate, Presidents Pro 

'i'enipore 117 

" Senators 431, 435 

" .Shipping Com' r, N. Y 541 

" Steamboat Inspection 170 

" Supreme Court 116,40; 

" Warships 418 

UniversalistGeii'lCouveuliou.338 

Universalists in IT. S 335 

Universities of U. S 300-.S21 

Uuiversitv ICxtension 325 

Uranus, Planet 49 

Urban Population in U. S 3S!t 

Usury, Penalty for 78 

Utah Election Returns 4ris» 



Venezuela, Area& Populatiou.359 

Army of 356 

Venus, Planet •. . , 27. 49 

Vermont Election Returus.489,490 
Veterans, ^ons of U. S. Army. .353 

Veterinary Examinations 197 

Vice-Presidents of U.S., List. . .117 

Vote 114,115 

Virginia Election Returns.. 490, 491 
Volunteer Lile-Saving Corps. .529 

Volunteers of America 345 

Vote of New York City 476 

" Popular and Electoral, 

114, 115,445,446 
Voters. Registration of 96 

" Qualifications for 94,95 

W 

Wage-Eabnees in U. S.. .192,193 
Wake Island 125 

Wales, Population of 367, 373 

Walking Records 267 

WarDep't Expenditures 169 

" Officials 399 

of 1812, Societies of 350 

" Survivor 185 

Secretaries of 118 

"Wars of U. S 357 

Wards in N. Y. City 570 

Warships of U. S 418 

Washington State Election 

Returns 492 

Water. High, Various Places.. 64 

Polo Championships 253 

Wealth in U. S 172 

Weather Bureau, N. Y. City .. . .541 

Flags 60 

Rules for Foretelling 58 

Weight of Men and Women. . . 78 

Weight- Throwing Records 267 

Weights 73-76 

West PointMilitaryAcademy.. 404 
W. Virginia Election Returns, 

492,493 

Wheat Statistics 230 

Wliiskey, Production of 235 

Whistle Weather Signals 60 

White House Rules 195 

V/ills 244 

Winds, Velocity of, in U. S 61 

Wine, Statistics of.. 235,236 

Winter, Beginning of, 1905 27 

Wireless Telegrapl i y 284 

Wisconsin Election Returns493,494 
Withdrawals from Custom- 

House 168 

Woman Suffrage 15, ^'a 

Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union ^.340 

Woman's Relief Corps 353 

V>'omen,Hfig!it and Weight... 78 
Women's Patriotic Societies. . .3.50 

Woodland AreajiuU. S 182 

Woodmen, Fraternal Order. . . .332 

Wool, Sfatisticsof 231,234 

World,StatisticsofCounlriesof.359 

World's Fair, St. Louis 16 

" YoiingWomeu'sChristiau 

Association 341 

Wrestling 270 

Wurtemberg, Royal Family.. .366 
Wyoming Election Returns. ..494 



Valuation, 
Pkopekty 



V 

Assessed, of 
IN U. S...... 160,395 



Velocity of Winds in U. S. 



61 



Yachting Records 2iil 

Yale Boat Races 249,2.50 

Yellowstone NatioufiJ Park — 83 

Yeomen of America 332 

V'oung Men' s (-'hi 1st. Ass' ns — 341 
" People's Christ' u Union. .340 

'L 

Zl Nr, PitODUCrjoN ok 227,229 

Zoological Society, New York. '293 



BEE ADVERTISINO INDEX ON PAGES 348, 547 AND 543. 



Notmomh^^^ ^YoTld Almanac. 11 



OF NOTEWORTHY ARTICLES OR PARAGRAPHS IN PRECEDING VOLUMES 

WORLD ALMANAC " 
Artici.ks, 



OF "THE 



Actors, Real aud Professional Names. . .1903 268 

Ala.ska Boundary Awarrt 1904 148 

A cohohc Drinks, Consiimptiou of ...l.V.'.lSOO'lOS 
A ,fil- "^^''^''^^'S '° "^^e United States..l888... 90 

Amerca, Four Centuries of 1901 106 

American Millionaires 1M0'> IS^ 

-Vrbitration.rutenuitioual Court of! "■ ' 



■^i!^^!'"^ Treaty with Great Britain. .1898... 87 
Armj.U. S. .General Officers WhoHave 
Risen from the Ranks 1900 409 

■rfw^sP- ^40 Regimental Records.. ..■.."]904.'.;351 

Australian Ballot System 1S92 90 

Australian Federation 1901 ' -^h-i 

Barge Canal, New York .■.■.■.•.lyoi ' 150 

Bartholdi Statue Described... . 1887 " 'H 

Battle/ 'alendar of the Republic ■'..1899.'.'.' 85 

• Hell rime on Shipboard 1902 27 

Bible Statistics 1894 "''19 

R^Pnin ^•'Jermen of New York," ListofaSSS^IlS 
British Throne, Order of Succession to, .1896 ..351 

Bryant's Index Expurgatoriiis 1893.. .192 

aiiacia. Boundary L,iue Controversy . .. 1902 ..184 

Cemeteries, National 1894 295 

Census, Eleventh U. S., How Taken.. ...■:i890" 57 

Census, Twelfth U.S., How Taken 196o""l02 

teutunes Ago 1894.'.' 42 

Chicago, luformaFoii' About.".".'.'.'.'.'.'."." 1893"423 

Chicago, Maps of 1893 423 

Chicago, World's Fair :::.. 1894 ' 81 

China, Opening to Commerce 1900 386 

China Bo.xer Rising-. 190-> ' ] 5S 

Chmese Exclusion Act of i8'9'2.'."'.'.'.'.".'.:.'.'"::i894:"l06 

Chinese Treaty with the U. S 1895 100 

Clearing- Houses of World, Statistics of..l890' ' 96 

Coins, American, Prices of Rare 1888 11'^ 

Co lege.?, American, Locations of 1902 318 

Columbian Postage Stamps Described...l893 ' 150 

Columbus to Veragua, Pedigree 1894 '82 

Commonest Proper Names iu Use 1898"256 

Conemaugh Flood 1891 '"fi" 

Con.stitutionof New York, New....'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'."lS95 " 93 

Constitutions, State 190^ "l56 

On,'!^Vi!;V'H"'^i,-^™'^"*^™<^'its, Proposeri..l890.'.'.' 78 
Counterfeits, Dangerous „ 1890 136 

^,l'?;,^1lS^'?lti?P..a5'l ¥aP 1899: 78 



Volume. P; 



52 

, 56 
. 30 
324 



Akticlks. 
Luminiferous Ether, The 1904 

5r?!:i°^V°"i?^*^"°^' In''ernationai:.'..'.'..'.'.:.189o: 

Mars, The Planet \h{\i 

Masonry, Degrees in iSX^ 

jSIedal of Honor. U.S. Military, List'of 

Persons Awarded 1899 ^x 

Medical and Surgical Progre.ss"'in"'t'he ' 

Milky Way, The.:..::'.: faos" ^q 

Millionaries, The American:.'..'.:.'.'.'"."" 1902' 'l^^ 

Mormons, The 1897" -^oq 

National Bank Capital, Wher'e"H'e'l'd.'.'::::i888'' 104 
Naval C4uns, Range of 1892 252 




Nicaragua Canal Treaty 1002 l ^7 

Novels, Hundred Greatest 1895 y^fi 

Panama, Treaty with ""iq04 '"laS 

Pan-American Conference '..'.;.'..'. i89o' fin 

paSs"<5rf6i8!.f ''"^^ "^^- •■■■■■"K-i? 

Poisons and Their Antidotes'":'. 1904 '"'S^ 

Porto Rico, Act for Civil Government.'.: 1901 "'"93 

Po.stage Stamps, Old, Prices of 1893 ■l.50 

Postal Statistics of the World 1890 '90 

Presidents of the U. S., Biographies'V., "" 

Prisoners' 




^il'?^"^^-''^ ^^''iy?£ Law of S. Carolina.:.'l894:..108 

Earth, Figure of the I9O0 .50 

Electricity, Death Penalty by .:.■:.'." 1889 "114 

Erie Canal, Dates of Opening and Clos-' 

ihg 1898 "V^ 

Executions by Electricity .■.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'; lS89"li4 

Fecmfrmv'-lf "f"'.?^ ^,^"^^"o" ::::::i893:::i85 

fecundity. Statistics of. 1895 oqt 

Fisheries of the United States : ::: 1893' 150 

Floricu ture jn the Un ited States. . 1892 ' '140 

onfJf S'^ 0/ t^eU. S. Army Since 1776 ;i902:::llo 

Gold Standard Act of 1900 1901 qi 

Governors of States, List of, frdm"'the ' 

Revolution isqr -\r,t^ 

Harvest Moon .■.■;.■■■;■; 19o5 " 49 

Hawaii, Joint Resolution Annexing::::.'."l899"' 96 

Hundred Best Books. Lubbock 1... ligs 247 

Hudson River, Dates of Opening and 

Closing 189.8 vy 

In Darkest England ....'.'.'.'.'.".'.'.'.'."■l891 "l89 

Income Tax of 1894 1895 "92 

Index Expurgatorias '.'."■.'1893 " 192 

TnS!^w?°*^ °^ V^^ ^°o" ^^ "^lie Weather...lS98::: 52 

Inheritance, Law of iqos ''''9 

Inter-Continental Railwav...:..!.V..'.:.".'.:.".'l891 ' 'i.^O 

International Marine Conference ■.1890::: 56 

Isthmian Canal Act 190^ 15R 

Italian Art Exposition '. 190^'29§ 

Labor Movementin U.S.,f;hron'6'l'o'g'v"ofl892 ^ 9'^ 
Lake Erie' d'^/p'^^'^JV^'- ?i«to?y of^^.°.'ii5::: 96 
To^5 A ®' ^^.^tesofOpemngandClosing.lSgS... 32 
Land Areas in the U. S. and Europe... ..1890::: 96 



1 qo*2 n R 

Prisoners' Commutation tabie"::;::::::::::::i9oo^'236 

Prohibition Party, Growth of 1889" 97 

Produce, Comparative Prices of "lS90 "l05 

Pseudonyms, Literary ■1964 ' 292 

Races of Mankind 1900' H 

RaUroad Facts lK9-2"i'4i 

Railroad Strike of July, 189'4'.'.':'.':'.': 1895 '98 

Railwaj; Between North and South 

America iS9i i -^n 

Rifles Used by Principal Arm'i'es'::::::::::::i902 ' 360 

Samoan Settlement... I90n 9« 

Sam oan Treaty I90i " w 

Sei.sinie Disturbances of 1902 ...'.". 190 ? "078 

^ ' ^, " in 1903 ',:::'l'904""'8 

Senators. U S., from 1789 . 1904"lI6 

§i vpr onp^?*^'^ ^^P*"^' Legislation 1894:::i02 

eiivei question 1886... 50 

Single Tax Explained.'.'.'.'.;;:;;:'.'.;.;:. i|o8 " 8P 

South Airican War and Map 1900 "^ 

South Carolina Exposition.^. .'.'.;;;::;;; 'l902 

South Carolina Liquor Daw.. 1894' 

Spain. Treaty of Peace with...'.;'. iSno" 

Spanish- American War, History of:.;.'.;;i899" 
St. Mary's Canal, Dates of Opening and 

L XOSmg , "IftOT 

stars, The Fixed.. .'.'.'..;■ 1900" 

Sub-Treasury Scheme of"t'he 'rk'rAier.s' 

Alliance...-. 1892 

Sunshine, Duration of, on'u.'s;''r'e'rri'tory' 1901 " 
Sun Spots, Their Influence on the Earth.'l90l"' 

Telescopes in the U. S., Large .":i889'l24 

Tornadoes, Statistics of,for%7 Years 1900"' 35 

1 orpedo Service of the World. .!. .1886 65 

Trusts fifufe'rf '^ ^'l^ ^'''^^^ «'^*^« 1892:::i40 

iru.st.s in the U. S., Principal 1903 iso 

Utah CommissKin, Report of 1890' 'lei 

Venezuelan Boundary Treaty .'.'.'.'.'.'isgo" 67 

Veto Power of the Executive in AH the™ 

V(jl<ipiiK 1S*^'2 

War Revenue Taxes... .::::;;'.;;"; 1902 

\\ anships of u. s. Since i775....'.';;';;':;':i9oo 

WP^nif AT^'^r"^ American Cities 1888: 

Wealth of Nations i«Qn ni 

Whi.st, Lawsof 1897 "9^1 

World- s Columbian Exposi't'ion:::::;;;'.;'.;:;:i893:;: 75 

World's Interuat'l Expositions',"Li:st"of '1192.;; 74 



. 94 

.295 

108 

88 

64 

37 
34 

91 
53 
49 



..195 
.. 93 
.356 
.109 



12 The Lewis and Clark Centennial E;x,position. 

AND ORIENTAL FAIR TO BE HELD AT PORTLAND, ORE., IN 1905. 

By act of the Unitod States Oongress, approved by President Roosevelt April 13, 1904, t'ol lowed by 
an invitation issued by the Secretary of State of the United States, there will be held, from June 1 to 
October 1, 1905, in the city of Portland, Ore., an important International Exposition, to be known as 
the Lewis and Olark Centennial and Oriental Fair. The Exposition will commemorate the 100th 
anniversary of the exploration of the Oregon country by an expedition commanded by Uapts. Meri- 
wether Lewis and William Clark, and planned by President Jefferson. 

AN AMERICAN EXPOSITION. 

The Oregon country comprised all of the present State.s of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and parts 
of Montana and Wyoming, an area of 300,000 square miles. As the acquisition of this region was one of 
the most important events in American history, because of the direct influence it had upon the subse- 
quent territorial expansion of the United States, the American people in general and those of the Pacific 
Coast in particular, backed by the Government, have decided that the Centennial shall be fittingly 
celebrated. The Exposition will demonstrate the marvellous progress of the Pacific seaboard, and, 
inasmuch as it will serve several millions of people who have never before had the opportunity of 
visiting a National Exposition, there should be many purchasers of novelties and foreign exhibits 
displayed here. The Centennial will be the first international exposition under the patronage of the 
United States Government to be held west of the Rocky Mountains. It is estimated that 5,000,000 people 
live in the section of country which is directly interested in making the Exposition the true exponent of 
its material progress and development. 

WILL COVER 402 ACRES. 

The Exposition will represent an expenditure approximating $5,000,000 when the gates shall have 
been officially opened on June 1, 1905. It will occupy 402 acres adjoining the principal resident district 
of Portland, on the gentle slopes and terraces overlooking Guild's Lake and the Willamette River. Of 
the gross area, 180 acres are on the mainland, including natural forest park and landscape gardens, while 
60 acres form a peninsula in the lake. Guild's Lake is a natural fresh-water body, 220 acres in extent, 
separated from the river by a narrow span of land. The grounds are 20 minutes' ride by electric car from 
the centre of the city, and have been pronounced by competent authority as, scenioaliy, the finest expo- 
sition site in the world. Five snow peaks in the distant mountain ranges are in plain view from all parts 
of the ground. 

TEN PALACES FOR EXHIBITS. 

Ten large exhibit palaces form the nucleus of the Exposition. Around these cluster the State, Ter- 
ritorial, and Concessions buildings, special pavilions, the Administration group, the Auditorium, and 
numerous smaller pseudo-exhibit structures. The main exhibit palaces are : (1) i'.griculture ; (2) Liberal 
and Industrial Arts; (3) Foreign Exhibits; (4) Forestry ; (5) Fine Arts; (6) Mines and Metallurgy: (7) 
United States Government Exhibit Building; (8) Territorial Building; (9) United States Fisheries, For- 
estry, and Irrigation Building; (10) Machinery, Electricity, and Transportation. The Forestry Building, 
constructed entirely of huge logs felled in the fore.sts bordering on the Columbia, will be the most strik- 
ing architectural creation ever seen at an exposition. 

READY TO RECEIVE EXHIBITS. 
The United States Government building will occupy the peninsula in the centre of Guild's Lake. It 
will cover three acres, will cost |250,000, and will have two towers, each of which will be 260 feet high. 
Arrangements have been made with the transportation companies so that exhibits displayed at St. Louis 
in 1904 may be siiipped to Portland through the opportunity offered by the free-return-freight rates es- 
tablished on goods sent to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. All the main exhibit palnceo will be 
under roof long before the time it is necessary to remove exhibits from St. Louis. The Liberal and In- 
dustrial Arts Palace, Foreign Exhibits, and other buildiugs were ready for the storage of exhibits 
November 1, 1904, and the remainder of the buildings will be completed by February 1. 1905. As Portland 
is the termini of four transcontinental railways, and as the Willamette River harbor is one of the 
boundaries or the Exposition site, enabling ocean steamers to discharge their cargoes, if necessar.v, di- 
rectly upon the grounds, thefacilitiesfor expeditiously and economically conveying, installing, and main- 
taining exhibits at the Lewis and Olark Centennial Exposition are adequate. 

STATE AND NATIONAL PARTICIPATION. 

The United States Government officially participates in the Centennial with complete exhibits repre- 
sentative of every division of governmental function and resource. Japan and China and other nations 
of the Far East will be represented with comprehensive displays characteristic of these countries. In 
recognition of the new era of Oriental trade relations, the exhibits from Asiatic lands will be significant. 
The following States in the Union have made appropriations for their participation : New York, Massa- 
chusetts, Virginia, Minnesota, North Dakota, Wyoming, Washington, Montana, Idaho, Utah, Galifcrnia, 
Oregon, Missouri, and provisionally Colorado, Nevada, Arizona, and other States and Territories with 
which negotiations al'e pending. 

NINETY-DAY LIMIT EXTENDED TO EXHIBITORS. 

The ninety-day limit for the return of articles of exhibit to the original point of shipment has been 
extended one year, in order to permit State and commercial exhibits at .St. Louis to be trans-shipped to 
Portland for the purpose of taking advantage of the opportunity afforded for exploiting new but rapidly 
developing trade liolds. As a special inducement to participating nations the Exposition will make lib- 
eral terms covering the exhibit and sale of foreign goods. 

THE CITY OF PORTLAND, 
with 130,000 inhabitants, is situated 110 miles from the Pacific Ocean, on the Willamette River at prac- 
tically its confluence with the famous Columbia. 

'Cvvonty national 6onventlons have already arranged to meet In Portland during the Exposition. The 
city is amply provided with the finest facilities for handling largo assemblies. Hotel accomniodatioiiB 
are equal to all demands, and reasonable rates will be charged. An inn of probably 1,000 rooms will be 
built on the Exposition firounds for the convenience of visitors. 




THE CMNt'll CLIl*. 

The simplest and 

cheapest made. 

Packed in boxes of 250. 

Price 30c. 

per thousand. 

Sample box, 10c. 





HUNT'S FLEXIBLE 

STEEIi KULElt. 

This Ruler has a perfectly straight 
ruling edge, cannot break or edge 
nick, and will lay flat on a rolling 
page of any book. Ink cannot lun 
down and blot. Every bookkeeper 
should have one. 

15-inch Ruler, price 50c., postpaid, 
18-inch Ruler, price 75c., postpaid. 

THE CHICAGO TELE- 
PHONE HOLDER. 



NIAGARA Clill'. 

JiniKfs or 

Better than 
pins for filing 
Letters, Rec- 

/■ \ // \\ crds, O 11 r d s, 
\ '/ \\ etc. Put up 
"^ ^ in boxes of 
^ 100 for desk 
Paf. Aug. 10,^91. use. 

Sample box, 15c. Price per 
thousand, $11.25. postpaid. 






The Kitefa.st Note Book 
Holder. 

Save an hour a day by using it. 
No springs to lift in turning 
leaves ; occupies no more space 
than Note Book aione. Saves the 
eyes. Insures accuracy. Price 
75c.j postpaid. 



NO« 2 NIAGARA CLIP. 

3Iediiini. 






SssJi 



It will save you time, money, and a 
vast amount of annoyance. Your 
telephone is always out of the way 
when not in use. It is an up-to- 
date necessity. Send for catalogue 
giving full particulars. Price, 
!|i!2.50 complete. 



Patented Aiig. 10. 1891. 

Our latest and best all-round 
Clip. Madeof Nickel Steel Wire, 
Combined qualities of our No, 1 
and No. 3. Price per thousand, 
S1.50; sample box, by mail, 
postpaid, 20 cents. 



A3IEKICAN TI3IE STAMP. 

Marks time by quarter-hour. 

As simple and 
durable as any 
Rubber Hand 
S t a m p. Turn 
handle until 
desired time is 
indicated. 

Price com- 
plete, !ji3.50. 

Send for de- 
scriptive circu- 
lar. 




9ATCNTC0 MAY le.lSS*. 

The Hayiie Siispeiulecl 

Inkwell. 

It leaves the entire surface 
of the desk clear of bottles. 
Holds two kinds of ink. The 
ink cannot evaporate or gather 
dust. Never out of order. 

Prices Postpaid: 

Plain Silver SI. 50 

Oxidized Silver.; 2.00 



No. 3 Giaut Niagara Clii>. 




Patented Avg. 10, 1897. 

THE GIANT NO. 3 is 

made to grip large quantities of 
papers. Easily applied, quick- 
ly removed. Put up in boxes 
of 100. Price 25c., postpaid. 
\ Price per thousand, J!^ 1.75. 



NIAGARA CLIP COMPANY 



AGENTS WANTED. 



37 PARK STREET, NEW YORK 



13 



Occurrences During Printing. 15 

Some weeks are occupied iu printing a volume so bulky as The World Almanac, and it is 
necessarily put lo press in parts or ' ' forms. ' ' Changes are in the mean time occurring. Advantage 
is taken of the going to press of the last form of the First Edition to insert information of the latest 
possible date, which is done below. The readers of the Almanac are requested to observe these 
additions, corrections, and changes, and it would be well to make note of them on the pages 
indicated. 

86. The National Civic Federation: The officers elected at the annual meeting at New York De- 

cember 15 were— August Belmont, Chairman (in place of Marcus A Hanna, deceased); 
First Vice-President, Samuel Gompers; Second Vice-President, Oscar S. Straus; Chairman 
Conciliation Committee, C. A. Moore; Chairman Welfare Department, H. H. Vreeland; Chair- 
men Trade Agreement Committee, Francis L. Robbins and John Mitchell; Chairman Execu- 
tive Council, Ralph M. Easley; Secretary, Samuel B. Donnelly. 

87. Labor Legislation: The New York Court of Appeals, November 29, decided that the eight-hour 

law of the State is unconstitutional. 

88. American Federation of Labor: Officers elected November 26, at the annual meeting at San 

Francisco— President, Samuel Gompers; Vice-Presidents, James Duncan. John Mitchell, 
James O'Connell, Max Morris. Thomas I. Kidd, D. A. Ha.ves, Daniel J. Keefe,aud William J. 
Spencer; Treasurer, John B. Lennon; Secretary, Frank Morrison. 
90. General Labor Organizations: Knights of Labor— General Master Workman, Simon Burns, 341 
Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; General Worthy Foreman, Henry A. Hicks, Williams and 
Terrace Avenues, Hasbroucli Heights, N. J.; General Secretary-Treasurer, Thos.H. Canning, 
Bliss Building, Washington, D. C. ; General Executive Board, Simon Burns, Pittsburgh, Pa?; 
Henry A. Hicks, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; John Fernau, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Frank B. Yourlson, 
Wilkinsburg, Pa.; Morris Carmody, Brooklyn. N. Y. Membership, 200,000. 
96. Woman Suflrage: In Australia women vote on equal terms with men, except in Victoria and 
Queensland, where they do not vote for members of the State Parliament, although voting for 
the Federal Parliament. 

113. National Republican League: At the biennial meeting at Indianapolis, Ind., October 5 and 6, 
1904, J. Hampton Moore, of Pennsylvania, waselected President: Sid B. Redding, of Arkansas, 
Vice-President; W. G. Porter, of South Dakota, Treasurer; Elbert W. Weeks, of Guthrie 
Centre, Iowa, Secretary. 

127. Panama Canal: The mission of the Secretary of War to Panama resulted in the composition of 
all differences between the two republics. The customs receipts in the Zone were turned over 
to Panama, which agreed to reduce its tariff from 15 percent ad valorem to 10 per cent, and its 
consular and port fees 60 per cent. Panama reduced her rate of postage to two cents, and ob- 
tained the right to furnish all stamps in the Canal Zone. 

137. Deaths: Brig.-Gen. Samuel M. Whitside, retired, at Washington, December 15, aged 65 years. 

162. Imports and Exoorts of Countries: The date of the United States returns is 1904,'instead of 
1903. 

175. American Indian: Expenditures on account of the Indian Service fiscal vear ended June 30 
1904, $10,438,350. 

190. Life Insurance: The life insurance business of Russia in 1903 was $39,321,400, written iu 
23,810 policies. 

232. Cotton Crop of 1905: The estimate of the United States Department of Agriculture for 1905 is 
12,162,000 bales. 

239. Cemetery Population: Spring Grove, Cincinnati, 83,000; Forest Lawn, Neb., 8,344; Calvarv, 
Toledo, O., 8,400; Calvary, Pittsburgh, Pa., 9,501; Crystal Lake, Minneapolis, 3,009; 
Oak wood, Syracuse, N. Y., 11,763 ;^Lakeview, Cleveland, O., 7,476; Riverside, Cleveland. 
O., 8,290. 

265. Automobile Records: At the Fresno trotting track, Fresno, Cal. , December 13, Barney Oldfieid, 
in his Peerless Green Dragon, broke all world's automobile track records from 15 to 50 miles 
His time for 15 miles was 14 miimtes 3 seconds ; for 25 miles, 23 minutes 38 1-5 seconds, and 
for 50 miles, 48 minutes 39 1-5 seconds. 

298. Carnegie Institution: Dr. R. S. Woodward, Dean of the School of Pure Science of Columbia Uni- 
versity, was elected President of the Carnegie Institution December 13. in place of Dr. Gil- 
man, resigned. 

322. Benefactions in 1904: John D. Rockefeller gave an additional $3,000,000 to the University of 
* Chicago on Christmas Day. 

350. State Homes for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers: Additional homes have been established at St. 
.Tames, Mo.; Columbia Falls, Mont. ; Milford, Neb. ; Vineland, N. J., and Oxford, N. Y. The 
Secretaryof the National Home is Gen. Charles M. Anderson, of Greenville, O. 

353. Cavalry Society of the Armies of the United States: President, Brevet Brig.-Gen. L. G. Estes, 
Washington, D. C. ; Secretary-Treasurer, Adjt. F. A. Easton, Worcester, Mass. Composed 
of officers who have served in the cavalry association of the service. Membership, 400. 

360. A new Spanish Ministry went into office December 16. as follows: Premier and Minister of 

Marine, General Azcarraga; Minister of Finance, Sefior Castellano; Minister of the Interior, 
SeQor Vardillo ; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Marquis Agnilar de C^mpo; Minister of Instruc- 
tion, Seizor Lacierva; Minister of Justice, Seiior Ugarte; Minister of Agriculture, Seflor Car- 
denas; Minister of War, General Villar. 

361. Heads of Governments: A revolution is in progress in Paraguay; Juan A. de Escurra is the de- 

facto President. 

370. British Navy: The following changes become effective m 1905 -Vice- Admiral Lord Charles 
Beresford, commanding the Channel fleet, succeeds Admiral Sir Compton E. Domville in 
command of the Mediterranean fleet; Rear- Admiral William Henry May, Comptroller of the 
Navy, succeeds Vice-Admiral Beresford in command of the Channel fleet. 

400. The President appointed Charles F. L^rvabee, of Maine, Assistant Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, December 14. 



16 Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition of 1007. 



smoclti's jFaiu at ^t. Hoitis in 1904. 

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition opened its'gates April 30, and closed them December 1, 1904. 
Tlie attendance was as follows : 

October, 27 days 3,622,329 

November, 26 days ... 2,617,4.50 
December, 1 day 203,101 



April. Iday 187,793 

Mav, 26 davs 1,001.391 

June, 26 days 2,124,836 



July, 27 days 2,343,557 

August, 27 days 3.088,743 

September, 26 days. . . 3,651,873 

The total attendance for 187 days was 18,741,073. The greatest attendance on one day was on 
St. Louis Day, September 15, 404,450. There were about 8,000,000 free admissions during the 

^c'ost— Expended bv Exposition Company, $22,000,000; by the States, ,$9,000,000; by foreign 
governments, $8,500,000; bv concessionaires, $5,000,000; total, $44,500,000. 

Receipts— Approximate amount received by Exposition Company from gate receipts and con- 
cessions (estimated), .$10,000,000; from United States (4overnment, $5,000,000; from city of St. 
I^ouis, $5,000,000; subscribed by citizens of St. Louis, $5,000,000; total, $25,000,000. The United 
States (Government also loaned theExposition $5,000,000, which was repaid out of admission receipts. 
The Exposition closed free of debt, but with little or uo prospect of dividends to the citizen sub- 
scribe^ rs. 

The score of large buildings contained 128 acres of exhibit floor space, far exceeding that of any 
other world's fair. The Government and nearly all the States and Territories had special buildings, 
while threescore foreign countries and colonies were repre.sented in exhibits. 

By way of comparison, it may be stated that the attendance upon the Chicago Exposition of 1903 
was 27,539,521, and upon the Paris Exposition of 1900, 50,000,000. 



Jamestoiuu ^Teccentcnnial IS.vpo.5iitton of 1907, 

Os May 15, 1907. will occur the 300th anniversary of the first permanent English -settlement in 
America at Jamestown. Va. It is proposed to commemorate it by an International Exposition. The 
General A.ssembly of Virginia has chartered tlie JamestownExpositiou Company, and made an appro- 
priation of $200,000. The managing offlcers of the company are: (Jen. Fitzhugli Lee, President; 
T. J. Wool, Third Vice-President ; G. T. .Shepperd, Secretary. The magnitieent site for the E.xposition 
has been selected at Sewell's Point, at a spot projecting into Hampton Roads, and about fonrmiles 
from Norfollv, being a twenty minutes' ride by electric car from Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Berkley, 
and twentv minutes bv steanier from Old Point, Hampton, and Newport News, and being the centre 
of population of one-ifourth of a million people. No more beautiful spot could be selected. It is 
imniodiately opposite the scene of conflict between the IMonitor and Virginia (better known a-s the 
Merrimaci, and within twenty miles of two of the cardinal points of American history— Jamestown 
Island and the battle-field of Yorktown. The harbor will adord a means of display on original lines 
which will be of surpassing beauty, and accessible at a smaller financial expenditure than any similar 
exposition ever held in America. " The minimum capital of this company is -SI, 000,000. A bill was 
introduced in Congress providing for the appropriation of $.'">. 0(X) ,000 for the Exposition. The House 
Committee on Industrial Arts and Expositions, to which the bill was referred, decided to report against 
the appropriation for an exposition, but to recommend that provision be made for a naval display. 
This was the situati(jn when this record closed. 

[For the Lewis and Clark Centeunal Exposition of 1905, at Portland, Oregon, see page 12.] 



THE WORLD'S SUBSCRIPTION RATES. 

Week Day Issue (in Greater New York and Jersey City) One Cent 

Week D.w Issue Elsewhere Two Cents I Sunday Five Cents 

Terms— Post AH K Free. 



Daily and Sunday: 

One Year $8.50 

Six Mouths 4.25 

p: vexing: One Year $3..50 

One Month .30 



DAtr.v Only: One Year.. .$600 

Six IMonths 3.00 

One Month JjO 

WoiiLo .Almanac for 1905. .25 
By Mail 35 



Three Months $2.15 

One Month 7.5 

Sunday: One Year 2.50 

Thrice- a- Week: 

One Year $1.00 

Liberal commission allowed club agents. Sample copies sent free. 
For England and the Continent and all Countries in tlve Universal Postal Union. 

Daily and Sunday: I Sunday: One Year $4.50 I Thrice-a-Week:| 

One Year $15.50 Daily Only: One Year $2,50 

One Month 1.401 One Year 12.00 I 

Postage Rates on The World. 

16 Pages Ic. 132 Pages 2c. | 48 Pages 3o, 

Forijign Rates Donlile. 
Address al! communic;itions, wbetlier concerning advertiBenientH or Bubscriptions, to THE WOULD, PlTLVI'ZEIt 
Bl)ILDIN(J, I'ark l!ow. New York City. Uemit bv Express Money Order, Draft, I'ost-Offiie Ord.'r or Registered Letter. 

Agents and aiibscribiTs should always state what edition of I'llE WOULD Is desired and for what period. OlLerwise 
there will be coiifusiou in tilling subseription orders. 

BKANCH OFFICES : 
WORLD UI'TOW.N OEFICE, i:<81 Ur.iadwav, between 37th and 38thatre«t«. (Reinoyed tr»in 36Ui 8lr»ol »ad Bri'«dw»y,) 
WOULD HAKLEM OFFICE, 211 Wegt 195th" Street. 
BROOKLYN, S9'^ Washington .Street, and 317 Fulton Streets , 
WASHINGTON, 1M5 Fenn»vlv«nia Avenue, N.W. 



The World. 17 



2rije SSloi-ltr, 



JOSEPH PULITZER. 



The year just closed marked the Two Hundredth Anniversary of American Journalism. 
Op May 11 THE WORL.D "reached its imajority" under the ownership ,and direction ot 
Joseph 'Pulitzer. On its twenty-first birthday it celebrated by reproducing the jniaugural, 
with ■n'lh'ioh tibe new owreer and editor introduced the "new" 'km,etropolltan newsipajper to the 

public it aspired to serv^e: .t,x, i,.;ir,.v, ^., 

'•The enitire WORLD ne^'spaiper property 'has been purchased by the unidersigwed, and 
will, from this day on. be under different managrement- — different in men, measures and 
method.'^ — ^different in purpose, policy and iprinoiple — different in objects and antorests — 
different in sympathies and convictions — different in head and heart. 

"Perfoirmiance Is better 'than peromise. Exuberant assurances are dheaip. I make none. 
I simply refeir tibe public ito the new WORLD itself, whidh ihencefarth ishall be the daily 
evidence of its awn \growin& improvement, iwith forty-ieaght .daily witnesses in its forty- 
eight colufmns. * 

"There is room in this ffreat and growing city for la ioumal that is not onHy iciheap but 
briffht, not onily bright but largre, not only largie but truly democratic — dediioated to tihe 
cause of the people rather than that of purse-potentates — devoted more to the news of the 
New than the Old World — that will expose all fraud and sham, fight all ipubli'c levils and 
abuses — that will serve and battle for the peoplie iwith eairn^est sincierity. i 

"In thait oauise and for that end solelv the new WORIiD is hereby (einUsiOeid and com- 
mitted to the attention of the intelligent puiblic. JOSEPH PULITZER." 

'This edd'torial commenit was added: 

"How faithfully the principles and Ideals of journalism then enunciated have been 
adher<rd to — 'haw well the promises then made have been kept — is for the public to say. 

"The constant and increasing prosperity of THE WORLD during all this period, land 
the many evidences it has received of popular approval, are gratefully acbnowllefdged a.g 
proof that its sincere desire to promote the .public good has not been altogether in vain." 

The Boistom News lietter of 1604, America's fi'rst 'newspaper, consisted of two pagefi 
seven by eleven inches in size. THE WORLD c.f 1904 has from fourteen to twenty pages of 
eight colunms, each twenty incht-s long. 

From many birthday greetings rhe following ar? reproduced as samples: 

Fr>m the .Springfield Union: "Our highly esteemed friend, the New York WORLD, bo- 
came of age yesterday, but It is not obliged to 'put away childish things.' THE W^ORI..D 
has spoken like a full-grown man thi'oughout its babyhood, childhood and youth. Twenty- 
one years ago Joseph Pulitzer promised that hi.s paper would serve and battle for the peo- 
ple with earnest sincerity. Mr. Pulitzer has kept his prcmdse. Congratulations to him." 

Fr>m the New Yorker: '•T:ie este-mcd WORLD has reached its 'majority under the 
editorship of Joseph Pulitzer anJ h.i5 achieved, perha^ps, even m'ore than the sanguine Mr. 
Pulitzer dared hope for. THE WORLD'S kind of journalism makes for public good, and 
tlie more of it the bettor." 

Norman Haipgo'Od, im Collier's Weekly: "The Morning 'R'ORLD has, in my opi'nlion, the 
most intelligent eiiitorial fiat:* ii thu city. Thar. i)age piobably counts with the voters more 
than the Post, the Tribune and The iTImes conibined. It is more original. It deals more 
sincerely with the facts. It has more of the trut'h of frash intelligence. In America democ- 
racy is real. The people cannot ba led bv the appearance of respectability. Their leader 
must give them heart and brain. ThifS country is full of papers w'hich are built ooi a familiar 
imodial, wiitih long, umuinspiirad, unliform proclamation's of virtue and condemnations of vice, 
■w-hioh satisfy stodgy readers in prospyrous attire but never take hold of a naked human 
heart and change its shape. Mr. Roosevelt, in conversation, has spoken of the vast number 
of well-informed journals through tiio iana which have no appre'ciable effect on the thought!; 
or de'eds lof the community. They are dead. They ttjhimk iliike collegie professors. They caurry 
on a tPaiddti'on unsuated to our people. They bore us." 

"THE EXPECTED HAPPENED." 

"The expeicted has happened as to the result of the election — the unexpected as to the 
magmitiude of the victory," said THE WORLD editorially the day tifter the election. 
itia Ketpubhcan Party, called to power in the political and business chaos of 1S1X3. is 
SI. II nding on the flowing tide of success. THE WO'RLD has never expected 'nor pre- 
fucted a different outcome of the campaign. It has never deceived itself nor attempted 
10 mislead its readers as to the extreme probability of Mr. Roosevelt's election. It has 
maae its fight on principle regardless of results. There is no connection between success 
and moraJ coT^^■'lctliolns." 

As to Mr. Roosevelt: « 

o^/.o'il^^.^i.^^'^^-'^^ *^°^^ ^*'* '^"^ ^'11 'Hot abate one jot of its opposition to all that the 
rresiaeait bas stood for most conspicuously in this campaign. But it ■will continue to 



18 The World 




criticise him when he seemis to it to be wrong, and will hope for the best. 

THE WORLD pointed out that whatever chance there may have been for the Demo- 
^r^iic nartv to win was tihrown away at St. Louis wtoen it betrayed lack of moral courag-e 
■i^o set itself ri-g-ht again on the vitail Question of honest money, and was only set 
rieht under compulsion by its nominee; that the declaration in the platform that "Pro- 
tection is robbery" was a wholly unnecessary branding of a policy tts old as our Gov- 
ernment hurting" its candidate in the doubtful States heavily interesiea m manufactures. 
THE WORLD'S exhortation to the managers of the campaign to "wake up" and its daily 
insistence that there "must be an aggressive and progressive eampaig^it, a campaign of 
ideas and principles, of popular enthusiasm for a great moral cause." if the party would 
iiistifv any hope of Parker's election, went unheeded until two weeks before the end of 
the campaign And then, it was too late. It seems plain that defeart was inevitable, but 
had the work of the last two weeks of the campaign been beg-un in July the showing: 
made would Have been ^ar,^^,^^tr' THa"- wbRLD said on November 28, 1903, that Roose- 
velt would be nominated to succeed himself in 1904. and not only that, that he would 
be nominated by aoclamation, in these words In a judicial forecast: 

"The schemers aeainst Roosevelt are powerless. They dare not go against that 
public opinion in the party which demands and expects his nomination. THE WORLD 
ventures to make, in the strictest confidence but without reservation, the prediction that 
Mr. Roosevelt will be the candidate of his party for Presidemt and will be nominated 
by acclamation. In fact, he is 'a,s good as nominated' already." 

Everybody knows that that is just what happened in June at the Chicago Convention. 

On January 7 THE WORLD announced exclusively that "when the new Republican 
State Committee organizes at the coming spring convention Governor Odell will be 
elected Chairman to ©uioceed Colomel George W. Dunn, of Binghamtan, the present head 
of the committee." 

THE WORLD had favored the nomination of Grover Cleveland as the "logical" 
candidate and the one who would be most likely to win if nominated against Theodore 
Romsevelt, but on April 4, just thre-e imonths before the .St. Louis Convention, It salid that 
Judge Parker would be the nominee, and that he would be nominated on the first ballot. 

TRIUJVIPHS OP' THE NEW DIPI,OMACY OF PUBLICITY. 

•nie new diplomacy of Publicity, introduced to civilization by THE WORLD when 
it appealed to the common sense and humanity of the two English-speaking people.s 
when they seemed ready to fly at each other's throats over the Venezuelan affair and 
restored peace and friendship between the belligerents by securing and publishing expres- 
sions of good feeling from leaders of thought on both "sides of tlie Atlantic, has made 
giant strides during the year, and achieved great triumphs. 

The most conspicuous convert to the new idea — "Publicity is the greatest moral 
force and factor in the universe" — is the White Czar. The fiist manifestation of Rus- 
sian appreciation of the value of a frank cultivation of the public opinion of mankind 
was in the cable message sent by the Czar, through Minister de Plehve, to THE WORLD 
in answer to - its request, assuring the people of America that no massacre would be 
permitted in Kishineff on the Russian Christmas. The Government of Russia gave to a 
newspaper what it had twice declined to give to the Governments of England and the 
United States. It was on unprecedented tribute from the Czar to a free press, and a 
sign of good will and consideration for the American people. The effect of the message 
was at once beneficial. All fears were allayed in the minds of American Hebrews for 
their brethren in Russia. 

Appealing directly to tihe Czar in the name of humanity and as a token of the friend- 
ship and good-will that ihad so long existed between Russia and the United States to 
send las a New Year's greeting an assurance of the safety of the friends and kins- 
peoiple of tens of thowsands of the former suhjects of the "Czair now iliving here, THE 
WORLD accomplished What the President and the Secretary of State had failed to 
do. In all the victories of Publicity as a moral force there has never been one more 
Striking or more beneficent than this. It demonstrated the truth of THE WORLD'S 
declaration that "The public opinion of the world is a new power, groater than any 
army or government." 

Press and pullpit joined in nnetlnted praise of THE WORLD for this work in tlie 
new diplomacy. 

Said the Jewisli World: "The mifis'sage whioh came from Russia Wirough De Plehve, 
the right hand of the Czar, and brought gladness to so many Jewidh hearts, is due to pub- 
licity, or to what some people call 'newspaper talk.' 

"It was publicity that aix>uised the iprotests of civilization against the threatened 
massacre at Kishineff. 

"The cry of "humanity tias reached the ears of the powcils that rule and ruin Rus- 
sia, and if the hand of the assassin is really stayed, it will ibe because of a lot of 
'new.sipaper tallk.' 

"It was putolicity in the form of 'newspaper talk* that caused the voice to be heard, 
and for much of this valuable talk and the assuring and assuaging message from 
Russia our gratitude Is due to the New York WORI^D." 

Tho Kansas City Timoss Lsaid: "A remarkable service rendered to civilization by a 
new.spaper! No government would intervene. Thoug'h there was open plotting of the 
Kishineff bigots, and the world shuddered with dread, it was Russia's internal affair. 
A newsipapor intervened! The Government at Washington was relieved of unipleasant 
rom.pli cat ions by the dianing of a newspaper. An American newspaipor did what govern- 



The World. 19 



ments could not do — brought an assurance that the Russian Government would protect 
the threatened Jews." 

The MUwaukee News said: "THE WORLD accomplished without friction that which 
the President and State Department could not havo accomplished without giving offense. 
The interviewer has risen superior to the diplomat." 

"The New York WORLD scored a big scoop when it got a cable message from the 
Czar of Russia. * * * It is the first time in the history of the Russian Empire that 
its autocrat has used a foreign newspaper as the vehicle of his official expressions. 
'1 HE WORLD very properly has received high pi-aise from all quarters for its signal 
success in drawing out the official denial," remarked the National Advertiser. 

"The policy o.f THE WORLD has been a glorious one in this affair, and it is entitled 
to great credit," said Rev. Dr. Parkhurst. r 

Rev. Dr. Lavcille. of 9t. Patrick's Cathedral, said: "THE WORLD deserves great 
credit and gratitude for its efforts in behalf of suffering humanity, and it is to be con- 
gratulated on its success." .,,,,, , ., „ 

Rev David James Burrell, of the Collegiate Marble Church, said: "THE WORLD 
is to be congratulated for Che part it has taken in flooding the infernal proposition with 
light. It is much better to spend one's energies in lighting a beacon than in wiping 

The Czar kept his word to THE WORLD. The Russian New Year's came on January 
7 and the Russian Government was found to have taken every precaution against a 
repetition of the massacre of April at Kishineff— or anywhere else in the Empire. The 
police, the Third Section and the soldiery had all received stringent orders for the pro- 
tection of the Jews, with the accompanying threat from De Plehve that he would hold 
the commanders personally responsible for any outbreak. 

The ice was broken, and the Czar found it easier, a few weeks later, to abolish the 
traditional Muscovite censorship so far as it applied to messages for foreign countries, 
and including ne^'spaper corresoondence ! This from a Government which drove THE 
WORLD correspondent who sent the exposure of the dreadful situation at Kishineff to 
the paper cmt of the country a few weelis before! 

"HARLEM IN FIFTEEN MINUTES" A FACT. 

The great $40,000,000 Subway and viaduct rapid transit railroad from end to end 
of the "old" City of New York, now the Boroughs of Manhattan and The Bronx, was 
opened with appropriate ceremonies at the City Hall and Mayor McClellan's hand on 
the electrical controller in the motorman's box of the first train over the line on Octo- 
ber 27. 

Thirty thousand people thronged City Hall Park, making a gala day of it, and 
shouting their approval of the new road, and one hundred thousand others massed 
themselves about the statloms along the Une. Their rallying cry was "To HarleTn in 
Fifteen Minuteis," and nearly all the accounts of the occasion began with these words 
or used them in the body of the article, and they were conspicuous in the headlines over 
the storj'. 

They were first uttered by THE WORLD in an editorial April 8, 1893, wlien it 
said: 

"To Harlem in Fifteen Minutest That and nothing less is rapid transit. That is 
what the city needs and the elevated road can never give. That is what the city will 
get unless impatience surrenders th.e prospect to the greed of the elevated monopoly. 
To Harlem in Fifteen Minutes!" 

The schedule run from the City Hall station to Ninety-sixth street, Harlem, for 
express trains is fourteen minutes! 

John H. Starin, the Nestor oif rapid transit, wlio was a member of the original 
Rapid Transiit Commission, appointed by Mayor Grant in 1890, and wiho is still a mem- 
ber, said: 

"This should be a day of speaial satisfaction to THE WORLD. It was THE WORLD 
that started agitation for rapid transit fully fifteen years ago. It has never flagged In ita 
z-eal for the i.iroject. Early and la';e it ha.'s kept up its cry for rapid transit. It secured 
and pubLishe^d a vast amount of information conoeaTiing urudergroimd roads throughout the 
world arijd made the idea familiar to its readers. 

"THE WORLD has advocated and helped to secure the passage of every law which has 
been secured to advance the project. Its entea-prise in sending a train-load of people to 
Albany on one occasion prevented the passaev, of a bill that would have been harmful to the 
projec/t. 

"THE WORLD advocated the lending of the city's credit to the enterprise when the 
Idea of municipal ownei^hip was a novelty, and it was THE WORLD, after consolidation 
helped to secure constitutional amendments that made possible the selling of the neces- 
•sary bonds to procted with the con?.trucUon of the road. For these reasons I say THE 
WORLD has special reason for congnxtulating itself and for being congratulated." 

"Back in those days,^' continued Gen. Starin. "THE WORLD was our one sup- 
port among the nev.-spapers. I: was always aggressively optimistic, while certain others 
were caricaturing us as guests at Barbarossa's table, fast alseep and our beards taking 
root in the table-top, and the big hols still not dug. • The work of" THE WORLD for 
rapid transit has been magnificent, and its importance can hardly be overestimated In 
fact, I have sometimes wondea^od wh.->ther we could have been successful without it " 

President Alexander R. Onr, of the Rapid Transit Commission, said: 
. "THE WORLD'S slogan, 'To Harlem in. Fifteen Minutes,' was adopted as a pledge. 
It IS now fulfilled. THE WORLD has reaison to feel proud of the course it has pursued 
in this matter." 

William Barclay Parsons, Chief Engineer of the Rapid Transit Commission: "It is an 
admLtt©d feict that THE WORLD has stood by the Commission and fought for the Subway 
fiTom the start. It has been the one unfalKng friend of rapid tranisHt among the news- 



20 The World. 



papers of New York. THE WORLD'S cry: 'To Harlem in Fifteen Minutes," is now pos- 
sible withi la coanpletetd subway." 

No public .<?ervice in the long list of those performed by THE WORLD affords It more 
satisfaction or has brougrht to it more commendation than its fifteen-year fight, most of tlie 
•time Bin^le-'hande.d, for real rapid transit for the Jltetropolis brought to a complete suc- 
ces.sful issue on October 27, 1904. 

THE WORLD AS A MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION. 

THE WORLD received recognition from many sources during the yeiar ais the surest 
medium through which to reach the people of this Republic. 

When the press of the country was ringing with criticism of Gov. James H. Peabody 
for his usurpation, of all the functions of government in Colorado during the Cripple Creek 
mining strike, and he was stung by the denunciations of his acts in deporting union 
miners from the State, he wrote his defense and sent it to THE WORLD for publication 
as the sure way to get it before the people of the whole country. 

Gov. La Follette, of Wisconsin, the plucky man who defied the powers of the Roosevelt- 
Spooner-Payne Republican organization in his State, told the public of hii3 plans, 
ambitions and hopes through THE WORLD. 

Governor-elect Joseph W. Folk, whose nomination by the Democratic Convention was 
in the face of the bitter opposition of the men who had run the party in Missouri for half 
la century, and whose election was a trium,ph of clecen'?y over both corrupt party 
machines, published his "platform" to ithe people through THE WORLD the day after 
his nominationi. He pledged himself to sta-mp out bribery from public life in the State, 
drive pi-ofessional lobbyists from the Capitol, make the solicitation of a bribe a felony, 
extend the statute of limitations to five years, make all franchises obtained by bribei-j" 
null and void, advocate the initiative and referenc"um, direct nominationra, home rule for 
cities, taxation of corporations. The ring renoi/iinated the rest of the old officers. 
Folk was triumphanitly elected, while "the rest of the ticket" was defeated and the State 
elected Republican electors for President for the first time in its history. Mr. Folk 
had the enthusiastic support of THE WORLD'S sister new^spaper and public servant, 
the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, while most of his party papers either bolted his nomination 
or were lukewarm in their support. 

Count Cassini, the Rus<sian Ambassiador to Washington, chose THE WORLD as the 
best medium to reach the American people with his statemenit of the Russian poslition 
in the war with Jaoan. 

Baron Kaneko, the famous Japanese statesman, promptly replied tnrough the same 
mediurn. 

His Holiness Pope Pius X. isent his first message to the children of the Church in 
America through THE WORLD, addressing an Easter Greeting to them. 

THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 

It need not be told to most American reade,rs that THE WORLD /hias presented to its 
Teaders tlie eairliest, most comiDlete and most reliable news from the Manchurlan battle- 
fields from the begimnine of hostilities between the Russians and the Japanese, besides pre- 
senting the views of statesmen of both contending nations, and soldiers and eailons of emi- 
nence the world over uoon the conflict. 

THE WORLD'S corps of noted war correspondents in the Orient includes brilliant men 
wiho earned fame in many previous campaigns. Foremost amonig them is E. F. Knight, 
•whose daring on the battle-field cost Ihim an arm. Then there are Henry James Whigham, 
Gov WlUiam Dinwiddle, who left his posit las 'the head of a Philippine province to become 
a WORLD correspondient: Cal. Edwin Emerson, picturesque soldier of fortune; Thom^as F, 
Millard, one of the stairs of the writing force that invaded China during the Boxer troubles, 
McKenzie and others. 

It was Dinwiddle who cabled that two-thousand-word interview with Lieut. -Gen. Baron 
Kodama. "the brains of the Jajoanese army," .lust before the wiar began, in whioh ha de- 
clared that Japan had an available fighting force of 400.000 men, and uredicted that the war 
would be a lon^g one. Dinwiddle, too, sent the graphic .<5toiry of the retreat from Liaoyang, 
with a powerful character sketch of that grim fighter Kuropatkin. 

There were splendid nictures. too. of the battle saenes and oamp and marching scenes 
takfU by THE WORLD'S artists on the field. But. of course, they reached New Youlk 
Ions, long after tlue news of )the action they portrayed. 

FIRST OF ALL A NEWSPAPER. 

Holding that the first duty of a newspaper is to prdnt the news, THE WORLD has 
stiiven to do so, and Its representatives are to bp found in almost every commumity in the 
world, leach instructed that its readens are to have the news, trouble, work and coat un- 
considered, so that "WORLD beats" are the accepted thing, the ordinary occurrence. 

When a malign growth was removed from the vocal cord of the German Empeipiw the 
di^linguiished patient wrote on a slip of paper under the eye of the ^eminent surgeons who 
had performed the operation "We'.l. is it cancer?" 

Th,at same quefition was asked at the same time in all German households and 
wherever the German nation was known and loved, but it was not answered until THE 
"V^'ORLD secured from the distinguished scientists who had attended the Kaiser the in- 
tenselv interesting historv of the case. The LStory of Prof. Moritz Schmidt, the surgeon 
wlio pWformed the operajtion. and Prof. J. Orth, who made the official examination of the 
poilypus removed. from the Emperor's throat, with theirs and the latest pictures of William 
rr., filled a whole page. 

It was THE WOrRLD which expo-'^ed the Dodge-Morse divorce scandal. The result of 
the exposure was a complete ovei-hauling of the proceedings by which the divorce granted 
to Mrs. Charles F. Dodee in 1S9S had been revoked, which made it necessary to annul the 
maariage of Mrs. Clemence Cowliee Dodge to Ohanles W. Morse, the millionaire Ice Tru.st 
king, 313 it had made her again Mrs. Dodge. All this had been done by the secret pro- 
CPissas of the divorce court which, undi&r the plea that the sciandals revealed in divorce pro- 
ceediners should not be putolic for reasons of ipuiblic moTiaJlty, wiere discovered by THiEJ 
WORLD, and the wihole revensiad by the Appellate Courts, re-establishing the Dodge dl- 



The World. 21 



vorco and the Morse miarriagie, aoid restoring the title lof "wife" to 'tihe rwomian who harl 
bepn niiado the .shuttlecock of the secret divorce court. Indictments wiej-e founid a-sainst 
some of those coiiicerned. but as Charles F. Dodge, 'tJlie keyistone .in the plot, bad ibeen aibUe, 
through .a defect in the exitrajdiition laws (between New York land Texas, to defy the au- 
thorities to bring ihim hack, the rigllitimg of Mi's. Morse is .the only result as yet. , , . , 

Readers of THE 'WORLD had the complete story of the several attampts, the la.st or 
which came very near success, to wreck the battle-ship Connecticut exactly one day earlier 
than the GovernTn.en.t ait "Wtaahington received, tihe report and seveaial days before any other 
newspaper could verifv 'it. . j-j 4. * 

There was 'an exclusive interview with '.HeUry G. .Davis, th'e Democratic oandidate for 
Vice-President, first pneseniting his views on the financial, ta,riff and other ipubhc qujee- 
tions t« 'hiis countrymen. • 

Tihe approaching mialiu'iasie of Miss Annie Russell and Oswald Torke iwas told ex- 
cursively, d.eniied iby other iparoers and confirmed Iby 'the formal announoamient of tihe com- 
iii.^ bridal. 

■THE WORLD was first and three weekis aihead of aiU contemporaries to name Mayor 
McClellan's new Police Commisisionor. , « ■ * tv,.,. 

It 'was the fi;rst to expose Uhe Panamla scandal and t'hie crookedness of sonUe or tne 
ccntractls in the ruraJl free-'delivery branch of fhe postal iservice. 

CHILD SLu'^VERY ABOLISHED. 

After one of the most persistemt fights ever maintained by a ne'wspaper THE 
WORLD had the satisfaction of seeing the bill for ihe suppression of child labor passed 
uranimouisly by boith houses of the Ne'w Jersey Leg<isla;ture and stgned by the Gov- 
ernor. The same day Justice Roesch declared the New York law forbidding the Mn- 
plo^ment of persons under fourteen to be constitutional. The financial interests that 
profited by the employment of child labor were po.werful, but they were helpless against 
the public, aroused by the facts daily marshalled by THE WORLD. It was a great 
triumph for humanity, and even in dollars and cents the IState will be richer with » 
healthy, educated working population than with all the wealth that could be produced 
by stunting the minds and bodies of youth. t t-i-q 

About the same time another victory was won for the children when THE WORLD S 
crusade for the playground on the site of the old .reservoir in the old Hudson City sec- 
tion of Jersey City was won. 

THE WORLD'S law forbidding the ignoble sport of tnap-shooting pigeons, tested by 
a gun club, was declared good law by Judge Gaskill. 

REMINDERS OF PAST SERVICES. 

Remindei-s, sometimes isad and sometimes startling, have not Jet the public forget 
during the year some of the past public services of THE WORLD. 

The death" of Bartholdi, the great French sculptor, reminded all America of THE 
WORLD'iS first service to them — the raising of the money for the erection of the massive 
pedestal upon which the statue of Liberty Enlightening the World stands at the ocean 
gateway to New York and the Republic. 

The release of Mrs. Mayhrick, the American womian who had -been for fifteen years 
a prisoner in an English prison on the charge of poisoning iher husband, but doubt of 
whose guilt was in every mind, recalled the efforts of THE WORLD to secure her 
release, and of the noble work of the late Mrs. Harriet Hubbard Ayer, for .many years 
a memtoer of THE WORLD'S editorial family, in behalf of her unfortunate country- 
woman. 

The tearing away of four solid blocks of houses just to the west of the very heart 
of the city, and the scooping out loif the soil thirty feet deep here for the station and 
switching yards of the Pennsylvania Railway, is a daily reminder of THE WORLD'S 
slogan, "Let us annex New York City to the .continent!" It Was its rallying cry in 
behalf of the $50,000,000 tunnel from New Jersey under Kiorth River and Manliattan 
Island, East River and into Long Island, through which trains of thirteen railroads may 
reach the heart of the city and Queens Borougli. 

THE WORLD'iS FIRST CONSPICUOUS PUBLIC SiERVICB. 

Fred'sriio Auguste Bartholdi. the French sculptor, who created the hai^bor colo9.SaI 
statue of Lilbrr'ty Enlightening the World, died at the age of seventy years, October 5. 

When 'the ipeople of France, desiring to give token of the friendship of the European 
Republic to its older sister in America, preseuted the colossall statue of Liberty Enlight- 
ening the World, which greets eveiT vlBitor entering the city's Seagate, and stars _ the 
heart of every American cominig home from abroad, Levi P. "Morton, 'the then Minister 
to France, acceioted it for t/he American 'peoipl.e on July 4. 1884. The statue, given 
Iby the Frencih ReT>ubIic. cost $200,000. But Congress refused to make the necessary 
appropriation of $100,000 for the construction of a pedestal for the magnificent gift, and 
the bronzed colossus seemed destined to lie and ru'st and rot in its casings where it 
(had Ibeen deposited by the shio which brouarht it over the ocean. 

an this emergency, THE WORLD, on Marcfh 16, 1SS5, said editorially: 

"Money must be raised to compiete the pedestal for the Bartholdi statue. It 

would be an irrevocable disgrace to New York City and the American Republic to have 
France send us this splen'did gift without ihavinig provided even so muc>h as a landdng 
place (for it. Th'ere is but one thing that can be done. We must raise the money. 

"TTUE WORLD is the people's paper; .and it now appeal's to the people to comei 
forward and raise this money. 'Let us not wait for the millionaire to give his money. 
It is not .a gift from the milliionaires of France to the millionaires of America, but a/ 
gift of the whole people of France to the whoile peopile of America." 

THE WORLD immediately opened the f^md with a contriibution of $1,000, _ am'd 
called upon the peoiple to give; let their .contribution be ever so smaill, but let it ba 



22 The World. 



somet'hlnig. The aim and ipunpose was to make it a "poipular" subscription. It was a 
long, upiiill (fight, for TiHIB (WORLiD liad neither the circulation nor the influence tJien 
t'h'it are now endoyed by it. It alternately entreated, upbraided and lashed the public. 
and in four months it raised the $100,000 needed, the contributors numbering 120.000. 
'Iflie notole (gi^niite pedestal, 1B5 feet lliig'h, on which Liberty hais sitood, lighting the' 
harbor for nineteen years, was built. 

THiE PEOPLE'S UNIVErRSITY. 

Fourteen pages are devoted to the Free Lecture System in the report of the Finance 
Department on the DoTjartmient of Elducation. 

I^he ptiiHirt shows thai, froon an experiment under the law proposed by THE 
WORLD, and presented in the Legislature at its request by the late Senator Reilly, there 
has develajied one of the best educational institutions in the world during the past 
sixteen years. 

Beginuimg with six lecture centres — in six schoolhouses — w'here one hundred and 
eighty-six lectures were delivered to audiences averaging one hundred and fifteen per- 
soiiis, the yre.e Lecture field has spread all over the city, and the season oif 1904-1905 
'has no less than one hundred and forty centres. There were 453 lecturers in the work 
last season. They delivered 4.6t;5 lectures to a total attendance of 1,134,000, although 
it was one O'f the hardest winters New York has experienced in half a century. 

The courses range over the sciences, arts, literature, mechanics, hygiene, biography 
and history, with a special endeavor to include topics of current popular discussion. 
The lecturers this season include Presidents Eliot, of Harvard; Wilson, of Prinoerton, 
and Finley, of the City College; ProT'. Ernest R. von Nairdoff, Prof. Charles L. Harring- 
ton, Prof. Oharles Zueblin, of Chicago University; Dr. Canfield, Ernest IngersoU and 
Dr. Livingston Farrand, ot Columbia University. '^ 

iln his report, Dr. Leipziger says: "The origlnial 'suggestion 'that lectures on scien- 
tific and historical subjects would be of great vailue to a laige class of the residents 
of the metro(ix)lis came from a leading newspaper of 'the city, THE WO'RLD." The 
report to the Finance Department gives similar credit, and THE WORLD has always 
looked upon this as anomg the proudest of its aohie'vements. 

SOME MINOR SERVICES. 

In response to the urgings, backed by examples and illustrations of the need and 
the practicability of salt water fire mains by means of which the wuters of the rivers 
might be used in cases of fire along the hundred miles of water front. Mayor McClellBn 
recommended and the Board of Estimaite made an appropriation of $5,50(J,UUO for the equip- 
ment of the lower part of the city in Manhattan and Brooklyn as a beginning'. 

By long and persi.'^itent fligihtinig the authorities were forced to cliean and pave the 
eighty foot strip from the Bowery to the Manhattan end of the new Williamsburg bridge, 
n.early 'a mile long, troin which hundreds of tenement houses had been removed, the strip 
to widen Delancey street. It had been a filthy menace to public health for four months. 
Sickness was common in the remaining tenements. Property owners had ajppealed to the 
authorities day by day for a restoration' of living conditions without re'sult. It too!4 
just fourteen days of the argument of "publicity" to convince tihe various oomimissioners 
that they must act. 

THIE WORLD found Mrs. Emily Zaumer's brother, lost to her for twenty-eight years, 
in a Milwiaukes hospital. 

Through the efforts of THE WORLD, Morris Siegel, who was starving and left his 
starving family to jump off Brooklyn Bridge, was released from Jail, received over ?100i 
cash and was given employment. 

Eleven-year-old James Keenan, sent from Brooklyn to Staten Island on aji errand 
the day his family moved to another part of the city, got lost in Manhattan, and became 
a police puzzle — all because he had failed to find his father at an appointed meeting 
place and his family had moved. His little brother saw his picture in THE WORLD, and 
thi"ough it he was lestored to his parents. 

Mrs. M. A. Austin, of Brooklyn, learned through THE WORLD that through the sale 
of a mine in Montana in which she had bought 1,000 shares for $150 twenty-five years ago, 
she was richer by $27<'),000, and that a search was being made for her to pay her the 
money. 

A portrait from THE WORLD was used in evidence in a divorce trial in Brooklyn, 
and Justice Dickey declared it was a perfect reproduction of the original photograph, 
and entirely competent, upon which a decree of divorce was gnanted. 

Through THE WORLD nine-year-old Walter Morris, who had lived four years with 
an aunt, his parets having die<l, was found for the solioitors who were s(\i-rching the world 
for Ihlim to giv? him a fortune to which he havl fallen heir bv the death of an English uncle. 

Orodit is given to a cartoon in THFJ WORLD for bringing the NTew York. New Havon 
and Hartford Railway to terms and forcing from the management a reasonable schedule 
of trains for the commutor-surburbanites. Hundreds of the commuters cut this cai'toon 
out and mailed it to President Mellen, who good-naturedly ordered the addition of six: 
new trains each way to the schedule. 

THE WORLD'S investigation of the horrors of the Chesapeake Bay oyster fleet, and 
the evidence it secured, brought brutal Capit. William Parksv of the schooner Cornelia A. 
Miles, to trial, and a .stopping of the abu'>:'es. United States Drstrtot-Attorner Rosa oaild 
a public triibute to the paper a^nd to Publicity. 

The exposure by THE WORTyD of the plan to cut a ninetv-foot slice fi-om the east 
side of (^'ntral Park imder the guise of widening Fifth avenue killed the scheme. 

Under the leadership of THE WORLD a delegation of fifty representative men from the 
best organ/izations in the city called on the Mayor to protest against the scheme, about to 
be put Into effect, of uisuriring the park.'? with temporary buildings, to be used as school- 
houses for the relief of the exi'sting congestion In the schools. It opened the Mayor's eyes, 
and the project was abandoned. 

The Appellate Term of the Supreme Oouirt ordered the reinstatement of Fire Chief 



The World. 23 



Bdward Croker on exactly the same points which were advanced and urged by THE WORLD 
when Oommissioner Sturgis tried him and insisted upon dismissJnK him from the depart- 
in en,t. 

DISTINGUISHED CONTRIBUTORS AND NOTABLE ARTICLES. 

Readers of THE WORLD have had tho benefSt of the results of the thoug'hts of the 
greatesrt. minds of the world during the year, its columns having- presented articles from 
eminent men and women on almost every topic of popular interest during the year. 

Among the notable contribiitors have been ex-President Grover Cleveland, Andrew Car- 
negie, Rev. Newell Dwight Hillis, of Plymouth Church; Richaj-d Harding Davis, Lieut. -Gen. 
Nelson A. Miles, Henry Loomis Nelson, Justice William J. Gaynor. and Justice Brewer, not 
to mention Finley Peter Dunne's "Mr. Dooley," Martin Green's "Man Higher Up," Roy 

L. McCardell's "Mrs. Nagg and Mr. " and Mr. Samuel G. Blythe's Washington satires, 

and a host of other regnlar features presented as a sort of dessert with the full meal 
always provided for WORLD readers. 

Edward L. Arnold presented a timely article on "<The Coist of War," and Lieut.-Gen. 
Nelson A. Miles, retired, an earnest one on "The Horrors of War." Frederic W. Hinrichs 
wrote "When President Roosevelt "Wa.? Brave." 

Paul Pierce, Superintendent of the Food Exhibit at the St. Louiis Fair, wrote of "Food 
Frauds.'' 

Kiichii Kaneko, the New "iark re^iresientaUve of the Yorozu, of Toklo, contributed an 
article showing that the Japanese look ujwn America as their teacher in oivilization, to 
wh'>ni they owe the r.iarvellous advance c.t the little island kin<gdoni to first plaoe jn the 
Orient. 

Bertha Liebson, tJie EJast Side Joan of Arc, who led the rebellion of the tenements 
against the landlords in the reint-increase troubles, todd the jritiful story of "How Land- 
lords Grind and Tenants Struggle to Pay." 

Mme. Marie Petite, the globe-trotting little Paxisienne, dealt with the "Foibles of the 
Men and Woniem of New York." 

Col. Artihur Lynch, the Irish patriot and former member of Parliament, who became 
ool&nel of the famous Irish Brii^ade in tho Boer War, and was tried and convicted and 
sentenced to hang tar it, but was pardoned by King Edward, told the stoiry of "How 1 Was 
Cast Into British Jails." 

Harriet E. Thomas, Secretary of the Newport Charity Organization Society, stirred so- 
ciety and its crust with an article showing "How the Poor of Newport Are Being Beggared 
by the Bounty of the Rich." 

Grover Cleveland had a true enthusiastic pen whan he wrote "\ Duck-Huntimg Trip." 

toir AUred Harnisworth, Bart., London's editori^ geniuis, "How to Achieve Business 
Success— Concentrate; Then Sell the New Thing and Sell It in the New Way.""~ 

Andrew Carnegie expressed his views on "The Asiatic War." 

Dr. E. A. ispitzka, the eminent student of braine, discussed Consul, the Bronx Zoo 
ohimpanzee, who smokes, eats with a knife and fork, uses a napkin, and has his Ufa 
mauied a>r W0O,0Ul>. and the questio'.i— "Does his biaiu prove man's monkey origin?" 

VV. L. D. Stokes explained "Apartment House Etiquette." 

"Pat" Sheedy and Richard Canfield di\ided a whole page in one issue, one as an 
art critic and the other as a connoisseur in old Chippendale furniture. 

George Meredith, the Englishman who took the breath away by suggesting "limited 
marriages" as a solution of "the divorce evil." 

Rev. Dr. I. K. Funk told how the supposed spirit of Beecher demanded the return 
of the Widow's Mite, an ancient coin loaned for a special purpose years before his 
aeath m 18ST. 

Bishop Tierney gave a dramatic story of how a Hartford priest gave up his church 
and renounced his vows for the love of a Hartford girl. 

BT AND ABOUT WORIC. 

havJ^innt^fh^ff/ +l!^^'''^5 ,?^ woman has been chronicled in THE WORLD, and women 
nave contributed their full share as chroniclers and the chronicled throughout the year, 
tions dnrinp- th^® ° '^ added to the attractiveness of the paper by their contribu- 

events tranc-,i^;r,.J ■'" ^-""^ Helen H. Gardener, whose gi-aphic pen-pictures of the thrilling 
Liaaspirmo in Japan during the war were highly interesting; Mme. Calve, and 
her "Musical Confessions;" Miss Jane Priscilla Sousa, the daughter 0(f the "March King," 
contributed an exquisite song, "Me and My Old Banjo;" Nan Patterson told about the 
difference between a life of luxui-y at $500 a week and that in a Tombs cell, ten by 
foar feet in size, and there was a remarkable story of Miss Faith Moore's suit of 
apartments in the St. Regis for which she pays $15,000 annual rental. 

Flora Estelle Sheffield, who has answered the question, "Can a woman artist suc- 
ceed in New York?" and Miss Boyd Dillon, "the girl Gib.son," who at nineteen has 
made a name for herself in the art world, told a remarkable story of her struggles; Miss 
Allean E. Starr, '06, wrote about "We Girls at Barnard." There were articles about 
Miss Katherine Harrison, H. H. Rogers's $10,000 a year secretary, and New York's first 
"social secretary," Mrs. Isabelle F. Nye, and her functions. 

There wa.^; a remarkable istoa-y about the big risks taken by life insurance companies in 
policies on the lives of women, afier discarding the policy of years against taking risks on 
women. Among the big policieis were two of $1,000,000 each on Mj:is. LeJamd Stanford, of 
San Francisco, and Mrs. James Dunsmuir, of Toronto; $150,000 on J. Stoat Fassett'is nwth- 
er-in-law, Mrs. E. B. Crocker, of Elmira. and $100,000 eaah on Miss Htelien Gtould and her 
sistrr Anna, the Countesis Castcliane; Anna Held and Mrs. J. Sloait Pasaett, while Lillian 
Nordiaa, Mrs. Leslie Carter and Mrs. Eliza J. Reynolds carry $50,000 policies on their lives. 

THE WORLD printed the only ph'^topra-ph of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller taken in thirty 
y\ears. it gave the true accoumt of how Fanny Y. Corv, the famous arU.«!t. defied her 
family to wed a cowboy. It told of Millionaire Duke's bachelor estate and its woman 
manager, aoid presented a pagvj-piotuire of the jewels, a marvellous coUectiion of gems, 



24 The World. 



■which Mrs. Gioelet 'tihought eha had lost, but after setting the police of three States to 
find them, found them heirself. in her safe. 

The story of Lottiie SuUivam, a libtle Colorado .girl, deiaf, dumb and bUnd, as trond'eirful 
as Helen Keller, and ebe mieeiting between these tv\'K) liviing miracles of the educational 
science, was giaphicaJly told. 

The only photograph ever taken of the Emipiiess, Cliiina's graind old woman, was re- 
produced exclusively in THE WORLD. 

Mrs. John Van Voaist, whase book set President Roosevelt talkinig about "race suicide," 
wrote a severe arraignment of "The Modern Society "Woman," and Mrs. Dore Lyon, editor 
of The Clubwoman, interestingly discussed the questioTi of dissiipatlom among fashionable 
women, and thtre wa,s a gxsod-naltured disoussion of the "Anti-K'iPsing iSooiieity" by its mem- 
beirs on one isiide, amd Mrts. Corne'lla Stiewair't Robiinson .^nd Mrs. Belle de Riivara on the 
other. Lady Oonstainee M'cKeinzie gave a p(?tsonal story of her exoitilng hunting tPlp in 
Texas, with lllustratioinis in colors, and Miss Flossiie, dauig'hter of John B. Phelps, wrote a 
bliood-tingler, "A Mile a Minute on an Ice-Yacht." Mlsis Oaksmith, on the "Between 
Time Fashion Season," aiid 'a description of the gown.s and millinery at the Horse Show, 
by a sitaff of experts, ware unique features in their respective seagoms. 

Mrs. John G. Carlisle, wife of the ex-Secretary of the Treasury, wrote on woman's in- 
fluence at .the ballot box, and Harriett E. Thomas, Secretary of the Charity Organization 
So'ciety, at Newport, starltted societiy by describing the isystem of oareleos Oharity in the 
fashion oaod'tal. 

IK THE REALM OP 'DISCUSSION. 

Interesting discussions of questions ot live .imfcercst engaged the brighter minds of 
the counitry during the year, and added zest to the column's of 'THE WORLD. 

"What Is the Ideal Working Day?" Drs. Gleorge P. Shrady and G. M. Hammond sub- 
mitted isichedules liin response to the question, 'each beginning "Rise and take a bath," 
each was marked "good for all ag:>s up to seventy years." John Claflin, Charles M. 
Schwab, Ludwig Nissen, John D. Crimmins. E. H. Gary, Emerson McMillin. Samuel R. 
Callaway, George H. Daniels and other leading business men of New Tork "up to seventy 
y<»ars" discussed the r.riip luh'S- 

Tha Did problem "What ©hall we do with our boy&?" was digcuissed by Rev. George B. 
Stewiart, Col. Albert L. Mills, Superintendent of West Pdi'nt Military Academy; George H. 
DanJelis, the veteran g-en.e.iial pa,sisenger agent of the New Y.ark Central Railroad; Thomas 
Hastings, the architect; D. B. St. John Roosa, D. D., LL. D.; President Rush Rhee.s. of 
the University of Rodhegter; Charles Stewart Smiibh, ex-Pr?.ftidienlt of the Chamber of Com- 
merce; Rear-AdmiiraJ George W. Melville, U. S. N^ and others. 

SPBOIAL NUMBERS. 

The New Year number set the pace for the best newspaper ever presented to the public, even 
from the office of THE WORLD. It opened with a splendid article on "World Wonders of 
190i," by Hamilton W. Mabie. Sig. Marconi and Prof. M. I. Pupin, of Columbia Univeraity, 
prophesied for electrical development. Robert E. Peary had la whole page for his 
plans for reaching the North Pole. Cornelius Vanderbilt, the machinist and inven'ior. 
^Iked about the application of electric power to surbui-tian traffic, and Chief Engineer 
W^illiam Barclay Parsons, Alexander E. Orr and August Belmont told in advance what 
has happened since in New York's rapid transit subway. Mayor McClellan and Comp- 
troller Grout made hopeful forecasits for the year in the city's government. Count de la 
Vaux wrote of the progress of ballooning, and Sir Thomas Lipton of .his chances of ever 
"lifting the America''s Cup." Charles Allen 'Munn, editor of Scientific American, reviewed 
the scientific events of the preceding year, and M. Curie, the discoverer of radiuniv 
indorsed Thomas A. Edison's answer to the question by declaring that "Radium as a 
medicine will be the mosit Important development of the new year." There were articles 
also by Secretary Moody, Capt. W. P. Hall, Jacob Gould SchurnTan, President of Cornell 
University; David R. Francis. James Hume Canfield, Winthrop E. Scarritt. John Bates 
Clarke, F. I. Allen, Thomas Comerford Mawtin, M. Bunau-Varilla, SAate Engineer Bona, 
Redfern, the international dressmajier; O. Henry and Clinton Dangerfield, each In review 
of the past or prophecy for the coming year. 

The Easter number was one of the most beautiful issues ever presented by THE 
WORLD. It presented the first message of the new Pope, Pius X., to the American people. 
His Holiness cabled: 

"Our heart is always with our American faithful. I rejoice to bestow my blessing 
as my Easter gift to THE WORLD'S readers." 

There wias a page of Baster month brides with their portraits, a two-page picture 
dn colors of the city's flower marts and the Ealster-decked ohuirdh interioi«. Dr. 
George R. Raipsford's own story of his church work, and a host of other good things. 

There was a special California number, with a special purpose of showing the winter 
beauties of the Pacific State. 

The Fourth of July number was a pretty souvenir of the Nation's birthday. Mayor 
Geiorge B. McClellan wrote of "What the Nation Owes to New York City." and Bishop 
Henry C. Potter, "The American of To-Day and To-Morrow." Secretary Ta£t contributed 
"The Next Step In the Development of the United States," and Mrs. Charles W. Fairbanks, 
the wife of the Vice-President-elect, "Woman's S'hai-e in Developing the Land of the 
Free." John R. Spears, historian of the Navy; Rev. Thomas I^ Slicer. William C. Hunt. 
John Bach McMaster, t'ne great historian; C. P. Austin and many others were represented 
in the number, which included a special music supplement, a patriotic song, "la the 
Fold.'! of the .Starry Flag," by Paul West, music by Victor Herbert. 

There was a speciial Subway iSouvenir number on the day of (lie opening of the 
Ra^jlld Transit uniierground raiilroad to public use, Ootober '27. a.nd .it wias la oompletrt 
history, description and piotorial expose of the .$40,000,000 work, In the construction of 
which an average of 4,100 men were employi-d l.'27.'> working days l)etween March 25. 1900. 
when Mavor Van Wyck broke ground at the ('"Ity Hall, and its comiillietlon. It I'ea.liae.l 
THE WORLD'S derriand "To Htirlein in Fifteen Minutes," and can carry 200,000,000 
passemgers a year. 



Mules in Case of Fire. 25 



fl^rlp til (tmt of ifctitrcnts. 

Drowuin«. 1. I.oosen clothing, ifauy. )£. Empty luugsof water by layingborty on ifsstomach, 
and lifting it by the middle so that tte head hangs down. Jerk the body a few times. 3. Pull tongue 
forward, using handkerchief, or pin witli string, if necessary. 4. 1 mitate motion of respiration by alter- 
nately compressing and expanding the lower ribs, abont twenty times a minute. Alternately raismg and 
lowering the arms from the sides up above the head will stimulate the action of the lung,s. Let it be done 
gentl.y but persistently. 5. Appl.v warmth and friction to extremities. G. Byholding tongue forward, 
closing the nostrils, and pressing the ' ' Adam' s apple' ' back (so as to close entrance to stomacli), direct 
inflation may he tried. Take adeep breath and breathe it forcibly into the mouth of patient, compress 
the chest to expel the air, and repeat the operation. 7. DON'T GIVE UP ! People have been saved 
after HOURS of patient, vigorous effort. 8. When breathing begins, get patient into a warmbed, give 
WARM drinks, or spirits in teaspoonfuls, fresh air, and quiet. 

Burns anil .Scalds. Cover with cooking soda and lay wet cloths over it. Whites of eggs and 
olive oil. Olive oil or linseed oil, plain, or mixed with chalk or whiting. Sweet or olive oil and lime- 
water. 

Iiislitnins> Dash cold water over a person struck. 

Snnstroke. Loosen clothing. Get patient into shade and apply ice-cold water to head. Keep 
head in elevated position. 

I>Iad l>og or 8nake Bite. Tie cord tight above wound. Suck the wound and cauterize with 
caustic or white-hot iron at once, or cut out adjoining parts with a sharp knife. Give stimulants, as 
whiske.y, brand.y, etc. 

8tiiisrs of Venomous Insects, etc. Apply weak ammonia, oil, saltwater, or iodine. 

Fainting. Place flat on back ; allow fresh air, and sprinkle with water. Place head lower than 
rest of body. 

Tests of Death, Hold mirror to mouth. If living, moisture will gather. Push p'\n into flesh. 
If dead the hole will remain, if alive it will close up. Place fingers in front of a strong light. If alive, 
they will appear red ; if dead, black or dark. If a person isdead decomposiiion is almost sure to set in 
after 72 hours have elapsed. If it does not, then there is room for investigation by the physician. Do 
not permit burial of dead until some certain indication of death is apparent. 

Cinders in the Eye. Roll soft paper up like a lamplighter, and wet the tip to remove, or use a 
medicine dropper to draw it out. Rub the other eye. 

Fire in One's (Jlotliing. _Do)i'i ?'i«i— especially not downstairs or out-of-doors. Roll on carpet, 
or \«rap in v/oollen rug or blanket. Keep the head down, so as not to inhale flame. 

Fire from Kerosene. 2)o?i' t uae water, it will spread the flames. Dirt, sand, or flour is the best 
extinguisher, or smother with woollen rug, table-cloth, or carpet. 

SnfTocation from Inhaling Illuminating Gas. Get into the fresh air as soon as possible and 
lie down. Keep warm. Take ammonia— twenty drops to a tumbler of water, at frequent intervals ; 
also, two to four drops tincture of uux vomica every hour or two for five or six hours. 

i^ntitfotfs Cor Jfoisonis, 

First. Send for a physician. 

Second. Induce vomiting, by tickling throat with feather or finger. Drink hoj^water or 

strong mustard and water Swallow sweet oil or whites of eggs. ~~ 

Acids are aiitidoteis for alkalies, and vice versa. 



Wif\tn tije 33oat ^ijerturus. 

Don't go out in a pleasure boat without being assured that there are life-saving buoys or cushions 
aboard sufficient to float all on board In case of an upset or collision. All persons should be seated 
before leaving shore, and no one should attempt to exchange seats in midstream or to put a foot on 
the edge or gunwale of the boat to exchange seats. Where the waters become rough from a sudden 
squall or passing steamers, never rise in the boat, but settle down as close to the bottom as possible, 
and keep cool until the rocking danger is passed. If overturned, a woman's skirts, if held out by her 
extended arms, while she uses her feet as if climbing stairs, will often hold her up while aboat may 
pull out from the shore and save her. A non-swimmer, b.v drawing his arms up to his side and push 
iiigdown with widely extended hands, while stair-climbing or treading water with his feet, may 
hold himself several minutes, often when a single minute means a. life; or throwing out the arms, 
dog fashion, forward, overhand and pulling in, as if reaching for something— that may bring him in 
reach of help. 



itttles in (tmt of iFi've* 

Crawl on the floor. The clearest air is the lowest in the room. Cover head with woollen wrap, wet 
if possible. Cut holes for the eyes. Don' t get fxcited. 

Ex-Chief Hugh Bonner, of the ISevv York Fire Department, gives the following rules applying to 
houses, flats, hotels, etc.: 

Familiarize yourself with the location of hall windows and natural escapes. Learn the location of 
exits to roofs of adjoining buildings. Learn the position of all stairways, particularly the tbp landing 
and scuttle to the roof. Should you hear cry of "fire," and columns of smoke fill the rooms, above 
all KEEP COOL. Keep the doors of rooms shut. Open windows from the top. Wet a towel, stuff' it 
in the mouth, breathe through it instead of nose, so as not to inhale smoke. Stand at window and get 
benefit of outside air. If room fills with smoke keep close to floor and crawl along by the wall to the 
window. 

Do not jump unless the blaze behind is scorching you. Do not even then if the firemen with scal- 
ing ladders are coming up the building or are near. Never go to the roof, unless as a last resort and 
you know there is escape from it to adjoining buildings. In big buildings fire always goes to the top. 
Do not jump through flame within a building without first covering the head with a blanket or heavy 
clothing and gaugins the distance. Don' t get excited : try to recall the means of exit, and if any fire- 
men are in sight DON'T JUMP. 

If the doors of each apartment,especially in the lower part of the house, were closed every night 
before the occupants retired there would not be such a rapid spread of flames. 



26 Personal Memoranda. 



personal filemoraittia 

OF THE OWNER OF THIS BOOK. 



NAME 

BUSINESS ADDRESS 

RESIDENCE ADDRESS 

BIRTHDAY : 

TELEPHONE NUMBER, OFFICE 

RESIDENCE 

RAILROAD COMMUTER TICKET, No 

FIRE INSURANCE POLICY, PREMIUM, AMOUNT When Due. 



LIFE INSURANCE POLICY, PREMIUM, AmouJIT WHEN DUE ^.. 



SAVINGS BANK BOOK, No 

AUTOMOBILE, No 

BICYCLE, No 

WATCH, No., Case Works 

WEIGHT, LBS Date 

HEIGHT, Ft Ins Date 

BUST MEASURE WAIST MEASURE. 

SIZE IN GLOVES HATS 

COLLARS SHOES 

CUFFS HOSIERY 



DATE OF THIS RECORD. 



The World Almanac Avill welcome suggcstioiif? for the improvement of tliis page. 



THE WORLD ALMANAC FOR 190^. 



27 



The astronomical calculations iu this work were expressly made for it by Dr. J. Morrisou, of 
Washiugtou, D. C. , aud are expressed iu local jnean tivie. 



Chronological Eras. 

Tbe year 1906 correspouds to the year 7413-14 of the Byzautine era; 5665-66 of the Jewish era, 
the year 666<) commeucing at suuset September 29; '2658 since the foundation of Rome accorciing 
to Varro; 2681 of the Olympiads (the first year of the 671st Olympiad commencing July 1. 1905); 
2565 of the Japanese era, and to the 38th of the Meiji; 1322-23 of the Mohammedan era, the year 
.1323 beginning on Marcli 8. 1905. The 130th year of the Independence of the United States of 
America begins on July 4, 1905. 



Dale of Beginning of Epochs, Eras, and Periods. 



Kayne. 

Grecian Mundane Era 

Civil Kra of C'onstanlinopie.. 

Alexandrian Era 

Julian Period 

Mundane Era 

Jewish Mundane Era 

Era of Abraham 

Era of the Olympiads 

Roman Eia (A. V. ('. ) 

Metouic Cycle 



Dominical Letter A 

Epact 24 



Bfp 


(in. 




5598. 


Sent. 




5508, 


Sept 




5502, 


Aug. 


29 


4713, 


Jan. 




4008, 


(Jet. 




3701, 


Oct. 




201."), 


( )ot. 




776, 


July 




7.^)3, 


Apr. 


r>4 


432, 


July 


16 



Name. 
Grecian or Syro- Macedonian Era. 

Era of Maccabees 

Tyrian Era 

Sidoniau Era 

Julian Year 

Spanish Era 

Augrustan Era 

Vulgar Christian Era 

Di'stniclion of Jerusalem 

IMolianuuedan Era 



B.C. 



A. n. 



Bepan. 

312, Sept. 1 

166, Nov. 24 

125, Oct. 19 

110, Oct. 1 

45, Jan. 1 

38, Jan. 1 

27, Feb. 14 

1, Jan. 1 

69, Sept. 1 

622, July 16 



Chronological Cycles. 

Lunar Cycle (Golden Number).. 6 
Solar Cycle .10 



Roman Indiction 3 

Julian Period 6618 



Vernal Equinox, 
Summer Solstice, 
Autumnal Equinox, 
Winter Solstice, 



Spring begins 
Summer begins 
Autumn begins 
Winter begins 



The Seasons. 



March 
June 

September 
December 



n. 


H. 




21 


2 


A. M. 


21 


10 


P. M. 


23 


12 


P.M. 


22 


7 


.A. M. 



Wmhiiiglon Mean Time. 



Morning Stars. 

Mercdry.— January 1 to March 9; April 23 to 
June 24; August 29 to October 12; December 15 
to end of year. 

Ven-us. —April 27 to end of year. 

Mars. —January 1 to May 8. 

Jupiter. —May 4 to November 24. 

Saturn. —February 12 to August 23. 



Evening Stars. 



Mercury. —March 9 to April 23; Juue 24 to 
August 29 ; October 12 to December 15. 

Venus. —January 1 to A pril 27. 

Mars.— May 8 to end of year. 

JupiTKR.— January 1 to May 4; November 24 
to end of year. 

S.ATURN.— January 1 to February 12; August 23 
to end of year. 



Note. —An inferior planet is a morning star from Inferior to .Superior Conjunction, and an evening 
star from Superior to Inferior Coujunctiou. A superior planet is a morning star from Conjunction to 
Opposition and an evening star from Opposition to Conjunction. 



Jamiary. 



1 Sunday. 

6 Epiphany. 

8 i. Sun. aft. 
15ii. " 
22iii. " 
29 iv. " " 



Epiphany. 



February. 



Church Memoranda for 1905. 

April. July. 



1 Wednesday. 

5 V. Sun. aft. Epiphany. 

12 vi. 

19 Septuagesima Sunday 
26 Sexagesima. 

Marc?i. 

1 Wednesday. 

5 Quinquagesima Sun. 

8 Ash Wedue.sday. 
12 i. Sunday in Lent. 
19 il. " " " 

25 Annunciation. 

26 iii. .Sunday in Lent. 
SOThurs. iMi-Careme). 129 St Peter. 



1 Saturday. 

2 iv. .Sunday iu Lent. 
9v. 

16 Palm Sunday. 

21 (iood Friday. 

23 Easter Sunday. 

30 i. Sunday aft." Easter. 

May, 

1 Monday. 

7 ii. Sunday aft. Easter. 
14 iii. " " " 
21 iv. " 
28 V. 



June. 

1 Thursday (Ascension 
Day). / 

4 Sunday aft. A.scension 
11 Whit Sunday. 
18 Trinitv Sunday. 

24 .St. John Baptist. 

25 i. Sunday an. Trinity. 



1 Saturday. 

2ii. .Sunday aft. Trinity. 
9iii. " 
16 iv. " 

23 v. 

30 vi. " " *" 

August. 

1 Tuesday. 

6 vii. Sun. aft. Trinitv. 

13viii. ' ■ 

20 ix. *' 

24 St. Bartholomew. 

27 X. Sunday aft Trinity 

Se2)teniher. 

1 Friday. 

3 -xi. sun. aft. Trinity, 
luxii. " 

17xiii. " " " 
24xiv. " " *' 
29 Michaelmas. 



October. 

1 XV. Sun. aft. Trinity. 

8xvi. " " 
ISxvii. " 
18 St. Luke. 

22 xviii. .Sun. aft. Trinity. 
29xix. 

Novemlier. 

IWednes. (All .Saints). 

5 X.X. .Sun. aft. Trinity. 

12xxi. 

19xxi«. " " 
26xxiii. " " " 
30 St. Andrew. 

December. 

1 Friday. 

3 Advent Sunday. 
10 ii. Sunday in Advent. 

17 iii. 

21 St. Thomas. 

24 iv Suuday in Advent. 

25 Christmas. 

27 St. John Evangelist, 



28 Standard Time. 



Ember and Rogation Days are certaiu periods of the year devoted to prayer and fasting. Ember 
Days (twelve annually) are the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after the first Sunday in Lent, 
after the feast of Pentecost (Whit Sunday), after the festival of the Holy Cross (September 14), and 
after the festival of St. Lucia (December 13). Ember Weeks are the weeks in which the Ember Days 

Rogation Days are the three days immediately preceding Holy Thursday or Ascension Day 



The Roman Catholic Daj-s of fasting are the forty days of Lent, the Ember Days, the Wednesdays 
and Thursdays of the four weeks in Adveut, aud certain vigils or evenings prior to the greater feasts. 
In the American Episcopal Church the days of fasting or abstinence to be observed, according to 



days before Christmas. 



Bibisions of Kiwu, 



The interval between two consecutive transits of a fixed star over any meridian or the interval 
during which the earth makes one absolute revolution on its axis is called a Sitlerenl Day, and is invari- 
able, while the interval between two consecutive transits of the Sun over any meiMdian is called an 
Apparent Solar Day, and its length varies from day to day by reason of the variable motion of the 
earth in its orbit, and tlie inclination of this orbit to the equator on which time is measured. 

A Mean Solar Day is tlie average or mean of all the apparent solar days In a year. Mean Solar 
r/joe is that shown by a well-regulated clock or watch, while Appai-enI Solar Tiuif: is that shown by a 
well-constructed snii-diiil; the ditlerence between the two at anytime is the Ji(iuationof Time, and 

The Astronomical Day begins at noon and the Civil Day 
" Mean Solar Days are both invariable, but one day of the 
i seconds of the former. 

The in^terval during which the earth makes one absolute revolution round the Sun is called a Side- 
real Year, aud consists of 365 days, O hours, 9 minutes, and 9. 6 seconds, which is invariable. 

The Tropical Year is the interval between two consecutive returns of the Sun to the Vernal 
Equinox, if this were a fixed ])oint, the Sidereal and Tropical Years would be identical ; but in conse- 
quence of the disturbing influence of the moon and planets on tlie sijheroidal figure of the earth, the 
Equinox has a slow, retrograde mean motion of .50". 26 annually, so that Mie Sun returns to the E<iui- 
nox sooner everj' year tliaii he otherwise would by 20 minutes 23. 6 seconds; the Tropical Year, there- 
fore, consists of'ses days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, aud 46 seconds. The Tropical Year is not of uniform 
length; itis now slowl.v decreasing at the rate of . 595 second per centurj', but this variation will not 
always continue. 

Julius Cfesar, in B.C. 45, was the first to reform the calendar by ordering that every year whose 
date number is exactly divisible by 4 contain 306 days, and all other years 365 days. The intercalary 
day wa-s introduced by counting the sixth day before the Kalends of March tioire; heuce the name 
bissextile, from bis, twice, and sex, six. He also changed the beginning of the year from 1st of March 
to the 1st of January, and also changed the name of the flftli month (Quintilis) to July, after himself. 
The average length of the Julian year is therefore SSSJ'i days, wliich, however, is too long b.v 11 
minutes and 14 seconds, and this would accumulate in 400 years to about three days. The Julian 
Calendar continued in use until a. n. 1582, when the date of the beginning of the seasons occurred 10 
days later than in b. c. 45, when this mode of reckoning time was introduced. 

The Gregorian Calendar was introduced by PopeGregory XIII. with the view of keeping the Equi- 
nox to the same day of the month. It consists of 365 days, but every year exactly <ii visible by 4 and 
the ceuturial years which are exactly divisible by 400 contain 366 days; aud if in addition to this 
arbitrary arrangement the ceuturial years exactly divisible by 4,000 contain 366 days, the error in the 
Gregorian system will amount to only one day in about 20 centuries. If. however, 31 leap years 
were intercalated in 128 years, instead of 32 as at present, the calendar would be practically exact 
and the error would not amount to more than a day in 100,000 years. The length of the mean 
Gregorian Year may therefore be set down at 365 days, 5 hours. 49 miiuites, 12 seconds. The Gregor- 
ian Calendar was introduced into England and her colonies in 1752. at which time the Equinox had 
retrograded 11 days since the Council of Nice in a. d. 325, when the festival of Kaster was establisli(>d 
and the Equinox occurred on March 21; hence September 3, 1752, was called September 14. aud 
at the .same time the commencement of the legal year was changed from March 2.5 to January 1, so 
that the year 1751 lost the months of January and February and the flret 24 days of March. The dif- 
ference between the Julian and Gregorian Calendars is now 13 days. Russia and the Greek Chinch 
still employ the Julian Calendar for civil and ecclesiastical purposes. 



Primarily, for the convenience of the railroads, a standard of time was established by mutual 
agreementiu 1883, by which trains are run and local time regulated. According to this system, the 
United States, extending from 65° to 125° west longitude, is divided into four time sections, each of 
15° of longitude, exactly equivalent to one hour, commencing with the 75th meridian. The first 
(eastern) section includes all territory between the Atlantic ct)ast and an irregular line drawn from 
Detroit to Charleston, S. C. , the latter being its most southern point, 'i'he sect)nd (central) section 
in(;ludes all the territory between the last-named line and an irregul.-ir line from Misnmrck. N. I)., to 
tli(^ mouth of the Hio Grande. Tlu> third (mountain) section includes all teriitor.x' lietween the lasi- 
naini'd Hue and nearly the western l)orders of Idaho, Utah, and Arizona. Thefonitli (I'acilici si'i-- 
tioii covers the restoftheconntry to the Pacific coast. Standard time Is unifonn inside each of lliesn 
Me(-lliius, ;ind the time of each section (litTers from that next to it by exactly one hour. Thus at 12 
noon In New S'ork City (eastern time), the time at Chicago (central time) is 11 o'clock a.m.; M 
Denver (mountain time), 10 o'clock a.m., ami at San Francisco (Pacific time). 9 o'cloek a.m. 
Standard time is H! minutes slower at Boston than true local time. 4 minutes slfiwer at Xew ^ ork. H 
minutes faster at Washington, 19 minuteR faster at Charleston, 28 minutes slower at Detroit, 18 
minutes faster at Kansas City, 10 nilnnt(>s slower at Chicago, 1 minute faster at St. J.iOUis, 28 minutes 
faster atbalt Lake City, and 10 minutes fasterat San Francisco. 



Easter Sunday. 



29 



^aiJle of Hags 3SrtU)cen ^too Hates. 

ATABLE OF THE NUMBER OF DA VS BETWEEiN ANV TWO DAYS WITHIN TWO YEARS. 



d 

1 


3 






u 
< 




1-3 


1^ 


3 
< 








> 



'A 


p 


c 
& 




i 




a 
< 


& 

g 



a 

1^ 




Ml 
< 


0- 

m 






> 


(U 


1 


~li 


32 


60 


91 


121 


152 


182 


213 


244 


274 


305 


335 


1 


366 397 


425' 456 


486 


517 


547 


578 


609 


639 


670 


700 


2 


21 


33 


61 


92 


122 


153 


183 


214 


245 


275 


306 


336 


2 


367, 398 


426 457i 487! ^18 


548 


579i 610 


640 


671 


701 


3 


3 


34 


62 


93 


123 


154 


184 


215 


246 


276 


307 


337 





368 399 


427 i 458 488 519 


549 


580 611 


641 


672 


702 


4l 4 


■55 


63 


94 


124 


155 


185 


216 


247 


277 


308 


338 


4 


369, 400 


428j 459 


489 520 


550 


5811 612 


642 


673 


703 


5i 5 


36 


64 


95 


125 


156 


186 


217 


248 


278 


309 


339 


5 


:i70l 401 


4291 460 


490 521 


551 


5821 613 


643 


674 


704 


6 6 


37 


65 


96 


126 


157 


187 


218 


249 


279 


310 


340 


6 


371 i 402 


430; 461 


491 522 


652 


583| 614 


644 


675 


705 


7 Vi 


38 


66 


97 


127 


158 


188 


219 


250 


280 


311 


341 


7 


372: 403 


431 4621 492| 523 


553 


5841 615 


645 


676 


706 


8 8 


39 


67 


98 


128 


159 


189 


220 


251 


281 


312 


342 


8 


373; 404 


432' 463S 493 


524 


654 


585' 616 


646 


677 


707 


9 9; 


40 


68 


99 


129 


160 


190 


221 


252 


282 


313 


343 


9 


374 405 


433. 464 


494 


525 


555 


586 


617 


647 


678 


708 


lo; 10; 


41 


69 


100 


130 


161 


lyi 


222 


253 


283 


314 


344 


10 


3751 406 


434 j 465 


495 


526 


656 


587 


618 


648 


679 


709 


11 U 


42 


70 


101 


131 


162 


192 


223 


254 


284 


315 


345 


11 


376 407 


435| 466 


496 


527 


557 


588 


619 


649 


680 


710 


12 12 


43 


71 


102 


132 


163 


193 


224 


255 


286 


316 


346 


12 


377; 408 


4361 467 


497 


528 


558 


5891 620 


650 


681 


711 


13 13 


14 


72 


103 


133 


164 


194 


225 


256 


286 


317 


347 ly 


37Si 409 


437 


468 


498 


629 


559 


690, 621 


651 


682 


712 


14 14, 


45 


73 


104 


134 


165 


195 


226 


257 


287 


318 


248,14 


379, 410 


438 


469 


499 


530 


560 


591! 622| 652! 683 


713 


15 15 


46 


74 


105 


135 


166 


196 


227 


258 


288 


319 


349 15 


3801 411 


439 


470 


500 


531 


561 


592: 623 653| 684 


714 


1(5 16 


47 


75 


106 


136 


167 


197 


228 


259 


289 


320 


850 16 


381! 412 


4401 471 


501! 532 


562 


593, 624| 6641 685 


715 


17 17 


48 


76 


107 


137 


168 


198 


229 


260 


290 


321 


351 17 


382 413 


44li 4721 502i 633 


663 


594! j251 655! 686 


716 


18 1>5 


49 


77 


108 


138 


169 


199 


230 


261 


2yl 


322 


352 18 


383 414 


442; 473; 503 


534 


664 


595 626, 656, 687 


717 


19 19 


50 


78 


109 


139 


170 


200 


231 


262 


2H2 


323 


353 19 


384: 415 


443| 474 504 


535 


565 


596 6271 657, 688 


718 


•20 20 


51 


79 


110 


140 


171 


201 


232 


263 


293 


324 


354 i2() 


385| 416 


444 1 475 1 505 


5;;i6 


566 


5971 628; 658, 689 


719 


21 21 


52 


so 


111 


141 


172 


202 


233 


261 


294 


325 


355; 121 


3861 417 


4451 476, 506 


537 


567 


598, 629! 6591 690 


720 


22 22 


53 


81 


112 


142 


173 


303 


234 


265 


295 


326 


356 22 


387' 418 


446 477! 507 


538 


568 


599: 630' 660, 691 


721 


21} 23 


54 


82 


113 


143 


174 


204 


235 


266 


296 


327 


357:123 


388 419 


447 4781 508 


539 


56!i 


60ul 631; 661 : 692 


722 


24 24: 


55 


8;j 


114 


144 


175 


205 


236 


267 


297 


328 
329 


358 124! S89 420 


448 479! 509 


540 


571 


6011 632; 662' 693 


723 


25 25l 


56 


84 


115 


145 


176 


206 


237 


268 


298 


35« |25; 390 421 


449i 480' 510 


541 


571 


6021 633I 663 "594 


724 


26 26 


57 


85 


116 


146 


177 


207 


238 


269 


299 


aso 


360 ,26 


3H11 422 


450 481 511 


•".42 


672 


603 


634: 664' 695 


725 


27i 27 


58 


86 


117 


147 


178 


208 


239 


270 


•:iOO 


331 


361 


27 


392' 423 


4.51 482 512 


543 


573 


604 


635 665 696 


, 726 


28' 28, 


59 


87 


118 


148 


179 


209 


240 


271 


301 


332 


362 


28 


393; 424 


452, 483; 513 


544 


674 


605 


636! 666 697 


; 7-27 


29 29 




88 


IIH 


149 


180 


210 


241 


272 


a02 


333 


363 


29 


394 .... 


4531 4841 514 


545 


575 


606 


637 1 667; 698 


728 


30 30 




89 


120 


150 


181 


211 


242 


273 


303 


334 


364 


;jo 


395-... 


454] 485; 515 


546 


576 


607 


638: 668; 699 


, 729 


31 1 31 




90 




151 




212 


243 




304 




365 


81 


3961 . . . . 


^455l....l 516 




577 


608 


. . . . i 6691 . . . 


t 730 



Tlip above table applies to ordiuary years only. For leap year, one day must be added to each 
number of days after February 28. 

E.XAMPi.K —To find the number of days between June 3, 1900, and February 16, 1901 : The flg- 
uresopposite the third day in the first .Tune column are 154; those opposite the si.xteenth day in the 
second February column are 41^2. Subtract the fii-st froat the second product— i. e. , 154 from 41*2, aud 
the result is 258, the number of days between the two dates. 



A Table Showing the Date of Easter Sunday in Each Year of the Nineteenth and 

Twentieth Centuries. 



1801 

1802 

1803 

1804 

1805 

1806 

1807 

1808 

1809 

1810 

1811 

1812 

1813 

1814 

1815 

1816 

1817- 

1818 

1819 

1820 

1821 

1822 

18^23 

1824 

18^25 

1826 

1827 

18'28 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 



-April 5. 
-April 18, 
-April 10. 
-April 1. 
-April 14. 
-April 6. 
-Mar. ^29. 
-April 17. 
-April 2. 
-April 'Z'2. 
-April 14. 
-Mar. 29. 
-April 18. 
-April 10. 
-Mar. 26. 
-April 14. 
-April 6. 
-Mar. 22. 
-April 11. 
-April 2. 
-April ^22. 
-April 7. 
-Mar. 30. 
-April 18. 
-April 3. 
-Mar. 26. 
-April 15, 
-April 6. 
-April 19. 
-April 11. 
-April 3. 
-April 22. 
-April 7. 
-Mar. 30. 



1835 
1836 
1837- 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1863 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 



-April 19. 
-April 3. 
-Mar. 26. 
-April 15. 
-Mar. 31. 
-April 19. 
-April 11. 
-Mar, 27. 
-April 16. 
-April 7. 
-Mar. 23. 
-April 1^2. 
-April 4. 
-April 23. 
-April 8. 
-Mar. 31. 
-April 20. 
-April 11. 
-Mar. 27. 
-April 16. 
-April 8. 
-Mar. 23. 
-April 1^2. 
-April 4. 
-April 24. 
-April 8. 
-Mar. 31. 
-April 20. 
-April 5, 
-Mar. 27. 
-.\pril 16, 
-April 1, 
-April 21. 
-April 12. 



1869- 
1870- 
1871- 
1872- 
1873- 
1874 
1875- 
1876- 
1877- 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881- 
1882- 
1883 
1884- 
1885 
1886- 
1887- 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 



-Mar. 28.. 
-April 17. 
-April 9. 
-Mar. 31. 
-April 13. 
-April 5. 
-Jlar. 28. 
-April 16. 
-April 1. 
■April 21. 
-April 13. 
-Mar. 28. 
-April 17. 
-April 9. 
-Mar. 25. 
-April 13. 
-April 5. 
-April 2.5. 
-April 10. 
-April 1. 
-April 21. 
-April 6. 
-Mar. 29. 
-April 17. 
-April 2. 
-Mar. 25, 
-April 14, 
-April 5. 
-April 18. 
-April 10. 
-April 2. 
-.\pril 1.5. 
-April 7. 



1902 
1!'03 
19()4 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
19^22 
19-23 
19-24 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
19'29 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



-Mar. 30, 
-April 1*2. 
-April 3. 
-April 23. 
-April 15. 
-Mar. ol. 
-April 19. 
-April 11. 
-Mar. 27. 
-April 16. 
-April 7. 
-Mar. 23. 
-April 12. 
-April 4. 
-April 23. 
-April 8. 
-Mar. 31. 
-April 20. 
-April 4. 
-Mar. 27. 
-April 16. 
-April 1. 
-April 20. 
-April 1^2. 
-April 4. 
-April 17. 
-April 8. 
-Mar, 31. 
-April 20. 
-April 5. 
-Mar. 27. 
-April 16. 
-April 1. 



1935- 

1936- 

1937- 

1938- 

1939 

1940- 

1941- 

1942- 

1943- 

1944- 

1945- 

1946- 

1947- 

1948- 

1949- 

1950- 

1951- 

1952- 

1953- 

1954- 

1955- 

1956- 

1957- 

1958- 

19.59- 

1960- 

1961- 

1962- 

1963- 

1964 - 

1965- 

19(>< ) - 

1967- 



April 21. 
April \% 
Mar. 28. 
April 17. 
April 9. 
Mar. 24. 
April 13. 
-April b. 
-April 25. 
April 9. 
April 1. 
-April 21. 
-April 6. 
-Mar. 28. 
April 17. 
.-Vpril 9. 
Mar. 25. 
April 13. 
April 5. 
April 18. 
April 10. 
April 1. 
April ^21. 
April 6. 
Mar. '29. 
.April 17. 
April 2, 
April 22. 
April 14, 
Mar. •2i). 
April 18, 
April 10. 
Mar. '26. 



I 1968 
1969 
1970 
1971 
1972 
1973 
1974- 
1975 
1976 
1977- 
1978 
1979 
1980- 
1981- 
1982- 
1983- 
1984 
1985- 
1986- 
1987- 
1988- 
1989 
1990 
1991 
19! >2 
1993- 
1994 
1995- 
1996 
1997 
1998 
1999 
'2000 



-April 14. 
-April 6. 
-Mar. 29. 
-April 11. 
-April 2. 
-April '22. 
-April 14. 
-Mar. 30. 
-April 18. 
-April 10. 
-Mar. '26. 

April 15. 
-April 6. 
-April 19. 
-April 11. 
-April 3. 
-April 2'2. 
-April 7. 
-Mar. 30. 
-April 19. 
-April 3. 
-Mar, 26. 
-April 15. 
-Mar. 31. 
-April 19. 
-April 11. 
-April 3. 
-April 16. 
-April 7. 

Mar. 30. 
-April 12. 
-April 4. 
-April 23. 



30 



Freezing, Fusing, and Boiling Points. 







Kivxt 


Biffrccncr. 










Clock Noon 


ACCOSDING TO 


At 


When It Is 12 o* 


Eastern 


Central 


Mountain 


Pacific 






L. 




(a) 


(b) 


(c; 


(d) 


London. 


Paris. 




Standard Time in the United States. 




IT IS AT 
















Arabia 


8.00 P. M. 
5.20 P. M. 
6.35 P.M. 
5.54 P. M. 
9.51 P.M. 
5.33 P. M. 


9.00 P.M. 
6.20 P» M. 
7.35 P. M. 
6.54 P. M. 
10.51 P.M. 
6.33 P.M. 


10.00 P. M. 

7.20 P.M. 

8.35 P. M. 

7.54 P. M. 
11.51 P. M. 

7.33 P.M. 

1.00 P. M. 


11.00 P.M. 
8.20 P. M. 
9.35 P.M. 
8.54 P. M. 

12.51 A. M. 
8.33 p. M. 
2.00 P. M. 


3.00 P. M. 
12.20 p. M. 

1.35 P. M. 
12.54 P. M. 

4.51 P. M. 
12.33 P. M. 

6.00 A.M. 


2.51 P. M. 


Amsterdam 


Holland 


12.10 p. M, 




Greece 


1.26 P. M. 


Jierlin • 


Germany 


12.45 p. M. 




India 


4.42 P.M. 




Germany 


12.23 p. M. 


Central Time (b)... 


.United States 


11.00 A.M. 


5.51 A. M. 


{'nnstantinODle 


Turkey 


6.56 P. M. 
5.50 P. M. 


7.56 P.M. 
6.50 P. M. 


8.56 P. M. 
7.50 P. M. 


9.56 P. M. 
8.50 P.M. 


1.56 P M. 
12.50 P. M. 


1.47 p. M. 


Copeiihageu 


Denmark 


12.41 P.M. 


Bublia 


Ireland 


4.34 P. M. 


5.35 P. M. 


6.35 P. M. 


7.35 P. M. 


11.35 A. M. 


11.26 A.M. 


Eastern Time (a).. 


.United States 




1.00 P.M. 


2.00 P.M. 


3.00 P. M. 


7.00 A.M. 


6.51 P.M. 


Hamburg 


Germany 


5.10 P.M. 


6.40 P.M. 


7.40 P. M. 


8.40 P. M. 


12.40 p. M. 


12.31 A. M. 


Havre 


France 


5.00 P. M. 


6.00 P. M. 


7.00 P. M. 


8.00 P.M. 


12 NOON 


11.51 A.M. 




China 


12.37 A. M.* 
6.29 A.M. 


1..37 A.M.* 

7.29 A.M. 


2..S7 A. M.» 
8.29 A. M. 


3.37 A.M.* 
9.29 A.M. 


7.37 P. M. 
1.29 A.M. 


7.27 P.M. 


Honolulu 


Hawaii 


1.19 A.M. 


Ijiverpoo], 


England 


4.48 P. M. 


5.48 P.M. 


6.48 P. M. 


7.48 P.M. 


11.48 A. M. 


11.39 A.M. 


London 


England 


5.00 P.M. 


6.00 P.M. 


7.00 P. M. 


8.00 P. M. 




11.51 A.M. 


Madrid 


Spain 


4.45 P.M. 


5.45 P.M. 


6.45 P. M. 


7.45 p. M. 


11.45 A. M. 


11.36 A. M. 




1.04 A.M.* 


2 04 A.M.* 


3.04 A. M.* 


4.04 A.M.* 


8.04 P. M. 


7.54 p. M. 


Melbourne 


A ustralia 


2.40 A.M.* 


3.40 A.M.* 


4.40 A.M.* 


5.40 A. M.* 


9.40 P.M. 


9.31 P.M. 


Mountain Time (c). 


.United State.s 


10.00 A.M. 


11.00 A.M. 




1.00 P. M. 


O.OO A.M. 


4.51 A.M. 


Pacific Time (d) 


.United States 


9.00 A.M. 


10.00 A.M. 


11.00 A.M. 




4.00 A.M. 


3.51 A. M. 


Paris 


France 


5.09 P.M. 
5. -50 P. M. 


6.09 P.M. 
6.50 P.M. 


7.09 P. M. 
7.50 P. M. 


3.09 P. M. 
8.50 P.M. 


■12.09 P. M. 
12.50 P. M. 




Rome 


Italy 


12.41 P.M. 




Sweden 


6.12 P.M. 
7.01 P.M. 


7.12 P.M. 
8.01 P M. 


8.12 P.M. 
9.01 P. M. 


9.12 P. M. 
10.01 P. M. 


1.12 P.M. 
2.01 P. M. 


1.03 P.M. 


St. Petersburg 


Russia 


1.52 P. M. 


Vienna 


Austria 


6.06 P.M. 
2.19 A.M.* 


7.06 P.M. 
3.19 A.M.* 


8.06 P. M. 
4.19 A.M.* 


9.06 P.M. 
5.19 A.M.* 


1.06 P. M. 
9.19 P. M. 


12,57 P. M. 


Yokohama 


Japan 


9.09 P. M. 



* At places marked * the time noted is in the morning of the following day. 

(a) ''Eastern " includes: New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, Norfolk, Charleston, Buf- 
falo, Pittsburgh, Montreal, Quebec, Ottawa, Toronto, etc. 

(b) "Cfntral" includes : Chicago, St. Louis, Minneapolis, .St. I'aul, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Omaha, Indianapolis, Cin- 
cinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, New Orleans, Memphis, Savannah, Pensacola, Winnipeg, etc. 

(c) "Mountain" includes: Denver, Leadville, Colorado Springs, Helena, Kegina, (N. W. T.), etc. 

(d) *' Pacific " includes : San Francisco, Portland (Oregon;, Victoria, Vancouver, Tacoma, Seattle, etc. 



.Sprciftc ®raUiti>.* 



Liquids. 



Timber. 



Sundriex. 



Metals and S/ones. 



Water 100 Cork 24 Indigo 77 Granite 278 

Searwater 103 Poplar 38 Ice 92 Diamond 353 

Dead Sea 124; Fir 55 Gunpovyder ....i 93 Cast iron 721 

Alcohol 84 Cedar 61 Butter 94 Tin 729 

Turpentine 99 Pear 66 C;iay I'iOBar iron 779 

Wine 100 Walnut 67:Coal 130:Steel 783 

Urine 101 Cherry 72 Opium ]34IBrass 840 

Cider 102 Maple 75 Honey 145|Copper 895 

Beer 102 Ash 84 Ivory 183|Silver 1,047 

Woman's milk..., 102 Beech 85 Sulphur 203!Lead 1.135 

Cow's " 103 Mahogany 106 Marble '270iMercury 1,357 

Goat's " 104 Oak 117 Clialk 279j(iold 1.926 

Porter 104 Ebony 133 (lilass 289iPlatiua 2.150 

The weight of a cubic foot of distilled water at a temperature of 600 F. is 1,000 ounces Avoir- 
dupois, verv nearly, therefore the weight (in ounces, .\voirdupois) of a cubic foot of any of tli(> sub- 
stances in the above table is found by multiplying the specific gravities by 10, thus:— one cubic foot 
of oak weighs 1,170 ounces; one cubic foot of marble 2,700 ounces, and so on. 

* Compared with water. 



Substances. 



Bromine freezes at. 

Olive oil freezes at 

Quicksilver freezes at 

Water freezes at 

Blsninlh metal fuses at... 

Copper fuses at 

Gold fuses at 

Iron fuses at 

Lead fuses at 

Potassium fuses at 



Reau- 


Centi- 


Fahren- 


mur. 


grade. 


heit. 


- 17.6° 


- 220 


- 7.60 


8 


10 


50 


- 31.5 


- 39.4 


- 39 








3'J 


211 


264 


507 


9G3 


1,'204 


2. '200 


1,105 


1,380 


2,518 


1,230 


i,5:« 


2,800 


260 


225 


617 


50 


62.5 


144.5 



Substances. 



Silver fuses at 

Sodium fuses at... 
Sulphur fivses at . 

Tin fuses at 

Zinc fuses at 

AIcolioI boils at... 
Bromine lioil.sat.. 

Ether boils at 

Iodine boils at 

Water boils at 



Reau- 


Centi- 


mur. 


grade. 


800O 


l,oou'o 


76.5 


95.6 


92 


115 


182 


2-28 


3-29.6 


412 


63 


74 4 


50 


63 


28.4 


35,6 


140 


175 


8U 


loo 



Fahren- 

h eit. 

r,8320 
204 
239 
44'J 
773 
167 
145 
96 
34';' 
212 



Authorities vary on some of these iioint.s. The best are given. 



Uefjcil f^oiitiasii i« tfjf Uarious cStatts. 



31 



fANLT^RY 1. New Ykar's Days Iu all the 
States '(including the District of Columbia, Ari- 
zona, aud New Mexico), except Massachusetts, 
Mianesota, Mississippi, and New Hampshire. 

Jajjuaky 8. Anniversaky of the Battle 
OF Nkvv Oblkans : In Louisiana. 

January 19. Lke's Birthday: In riorida, 
Georgia, North Carolina. South Carolina, Vir- 
ginia, and Alabama. 

February 12. Lincoln'SiEirthday: In Con- 
necticut, Delaware, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jer- 
sey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, 
Washington (State), and Wyoming. 

February 22. Washington's Birthday : 
In all the States (including the District of Col- 
umbia, Arizona, aud Oklahoma), except Missis- 
sippi, where it is oijserved by exercises in the 
public schools only. 

March 2. Anniversary of Texan Inde- 
pendence : In Texas. 

March 7, 1905. Mardi-Gras : In Alabama 
and the parish of Orleans, Louisiana. In Florida 
in all cities or towns that have a carnival associa- 
tion for the purpose.of celebrating Mardi-Gras. 

April 19. Patriots' Day: In Ma.ssachusetts. 

April 21, 1905. Good Friday : In Alabama, 
Delaware, Louisiana, Maryland, Pennsylvania, 
Tennessee. ~ 

April 21. Anniversary of the Battle of 
San Jacinto : In Texas. 

April 26. Conpedekate Memorial Day : In 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. 

May 10. Confederate Memorial Day : In 
NortH Carolina and South Carolina. 

May (Second Friday). Confederate Day: 
In Tennessee. 

May 20. Anniversary op the Signinq of 
THE Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence : In North Carolina. 

May (last Friday) Pioneer Day : In Montana, 
observed in public schools. 

May 30. Decoration Day : In all the States 
and Territories (and District of Columbia), except 
Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, 
Texas. In Virginia, known as " Confederate 
Memorial Day. ' ' 

Junes. Jefferson Davis' Birthday': In 
Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and South 
Carolina. In Louisiana, known as "Confederate 
Memorial Day." In Virginia, in ipublic schools. 

June (first Monday), even years, general State 
election in Oregon. 

July 4. Independence Day : In all the States, 
District of Columbia, and Territories. 

July 24. Pioneers' Day: In Utah. 

August 16. Bennington Battle Day : In 
Vermont. 

September 4, 1905. Labor Day: In all the 
States and Territories (and District of Columbia), 
except Nevada, North Dakota, and Wyoming. 
In Louisiana, observed in Orleans Parish. 

September 9. Admission Day: In California. 

November 1. AllSaints'Day: In Louisiana. 



November ■— General Election Day: In 
Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Idaho, 
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mon- 
tana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New 
Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio (from 
5. 30 a.m. to 9 a. m. only), Oklahoma, Oregon (vote 
for Presidential elections only), Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Ten- 
nessee, Texas, West Virginia, Washington, 
Wisconsin, and Wyoming, in the years when 
elections are held therein. In 1905 in States 
holding such elections the date is Noveml)er 7. 

November ^ 190.5. Thanksgiving Day 
(usually the fourth Thursday in November): Is 
observed in all the States, and in the District of 
Columbia, Arizona, and New Mexico, though in 
some States it is not a statutory holiday. 

December 25. Christmas Day : In all the 
States, and in the District of Columbia, Arizona, 
New Mexico, and Oklahoma. 

Sundays and Fast Days are legal holidays, in all 
the States which designate them as such. 

There are no statutory holiddys in Mississippi, 
but by common consent the Fourth of July, 
Thanksgiving, and Christmas are observed as 
holidays. In Kansas Decoration Day, Labor Day, 
and Washington's Birthday are the only legal 
holidays by legislative enactment; other legal 
holidays are so only by common consent. In New 
Mexico, Washington's Birthday, Decoration Day, 
Labor Day, Flag Day (June 14), and Arbor Day 
are holidays when sadesignated by the Governor. 
In Wyonung, Labor Day is a holiday when so 
designated by the Governor. 

Arbor Day is a legal holiday in Arizona, Maine, 
New Me.xico, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, the day 
being set~T)y the Governor ; in Texas, February 
22 ; Nebraska, April 22; Utah, April 15; Rhode 
Island, May 11; Montana,second Tuesday in May; 
Florida, first Friday in February ; Georgia, first 
Friday in December; Colorado (school holiday 
only), third Friday in April: in Oklahoma, the 
Friday following thesecond Monday in March. 

Every .Saturdas' after 12 o'clock noon is a legal 
holiday in Maryland, New York, New Jersey, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, the District of Col- 
umbia (for banking purposes), and in New Or- 
leans, La., and Charleston, S. C. ; in Louisiana 
and Missouri in cities of 100,000 or more inhab- 
itants; in Denver, Col., June 1 to August 31; 
in Tennessee, for State and county officials. 

There is no national holiday, not even the 
Fourth of July. Congress has at various times 
appointed special holidays. In the second session 
of the Fifty- third Congress it passed an act mak- 
ing Labor Day a public holiday in the District of 
Columbia, and it has recognized the existence of 
certain days as holidays forcommercial purposes, 
but, with the exception named, there is no 
general statute on the subject. The proclamation 
of the President designating a day of Thanksgiv- 
ing only makes it a legal holiday in the District 
of Columbia and the Territories, and in those 
States which provide by law for it. 



Thksk holidays, with their names, had their origin in mediaeval England when the State religion 
was that of the Church of Rome, and they are still observed generally or in some parts of Britain 



January 6. Twelfth Dav, or Twelfth-tide, sometimes 
called Old Christmas Day, the same as Epiphany. The previous 
evening' is Twelfth Night, with which many social rites have long; 
been connected. 

February 2. Candlemas: Festival of the Purification of the 
Virg:in. Consecration of the lighted candles to be used in the 
church during the year. 

February 14. Or.D Candlemas: St. Valentine's Day, 

March 25. Lady Day: Annunciation of the Virgin, April 
6 is old Lady Day. 

June 24. Midsummer Day : Feast of the Nativity of John the 
Baptist. July 7 is old Midsummer Day. 

July 15. St. Swithin's Day. There was an old superstition 
that if rain fell on this day it would continue forty days, 

August I. Lammas Day; Originally in England the festival 
of the wheat harvest. In the Church the festival of St. Peter's 
miraculous deliverance from prison. Old Lammas Day is 
Au«^st 13. 



Skptembkr 29. Michaelmas: Feast of St. Michael, the 
Archangel. Old Michaelmas is October 11. 

November 1. All-hallowmas: All-hallows, or All Saints* 
Day. The previous evening is AU-hallow-eVn, observed by home 
gatherings and old-time fe.stive rites. 

November 2. All Souls* Day : Day of prayer for the souls 
of the dead. 

NovkmberII. Martinmas: Feastof St. Martin. Old Martin- 
mas is November 23. 

Decembrr 28. Childermas: Holy Innocents Day. 

Lady Day, Midsummer Day, Michaelmas, and Christmas are 
quai-ter (rent) days iu England, and Whitsunday, Martinmas, 
Candlemas, and Lammas Day in Scotland, 

Shrove Tuesday, the day before Ash Wednesday, and Maundy 
Thursday, the day before Good Friday, are observed bv the 
Church. Mothering Sunday is Mid-Lent Sunday, in whicii the 
old rural custom obtains of visiting one's parents and making them 
presents. 



32 



The French Jievohitdonary Era. 



as^atJlr of l^lfmoralile Bates. 



F. C. 1 

1183 Fall of 'Iroy. 
11182 Era of the Ureal. Pyramid. 
K"8 Carthage founded. 
776 Olympic Era began. 
75^ Koundatiou of Kome. 
588 Jerusalem talien by Nebuchadnezzar. 
536 liestoratfon of the Jews under Cyrus. 
509 Expulsion of T.arquins from Home. 
4S0 Xerxes defeated Greeks at Ther- 
mopylae. 
56 Caesar conquered Britain. 
4 Birth of Jesus Christ. 



|KK« (be great fire of London began 5jept.2. 18;« S. Carolina Nullification Ordinance. 
Iti79 Habeas Corpus Act passed in Eng-)8:<!) Horse invented the telegraph. 

land. 18:15 Seminole War in Klorida began. 

1682 Pennsylvania settled hyWilliamPenn 1837 Accession of Queen Victoria, June 20 
1685 Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1846 Texas annexed. 

Oct. •!• 



29 The Crucifixion. 
70 Jerusalem was destroyed by Titus. 
• 313 Constantiue converted toChristianity 
410 The Romans abandoned Britain. 
827 Egbert, first king of all England, 

Oct. 11. 
1066 Battle of Hastings. Norman Conquest 
1096 The Crusades began. 
1172 Ireland was conquered by Henry II. 
1215 King John granted Magna Charta, 

June 15. 
1265 First Representative Parliament, in 

England. 
1415 Battle of Agincourt, Oct. 25. 
1431 Joan of Arc was burnt, May -30. 
1453 Constantinople taken by the Turks. 
1466 T'he Wars of the Roses began. 
1462 The Bible was first printed at Mentz. 
1471 Caxton set up his printing press. 
1486 The feuds of York and Lancaster 

ended. 

1492 Col umbos discovered America, Oct. 12 
1517 The Reformation began in Germany. 

1619 Cortez began the conquest of Jlexico. 
1636 The first English Bible jirinted. 
1539 Monasteries were closed in England 
1558 Accession of Queen Eliza lieth, Nov. 17 
1566 Revolt of the Netherlands began. 
1572 TheSt.BartholoinewMassacre,Aug.24 

' 1688 The Spanish Armada defeated, July. 
1600 East India Company first chartered 
1603 Union of England and Scotland 

March 24. 
1605 The Gunpowder Plot in England. 
1607 Jamestown, Va., was settled. 
1609 Hudson River first explored. 
1616 Shakespeare died, April 23. 
1618 Thirty Years' War in Germany began. 

1620 Pilgrims by the Mayflower landed. 
1623 Manhattan Island settled. 

1634 Maryland settled by Roman Catholics 

1636 Rhode Island settled by Roger 
Williams. 

1640 Cromwell's Long Parliament assem- 
bled. 

1649 Charles I. was beheaded, J.an. .30. 

1653 Oliver Cromwell became Lord Pro- 
tector. 

1660 Restoration of the Stuarts. 

1664 New York conquered from the Dutch. 

1664 The great plague of London. 



1688 James II. abdicated, Dec. 11. 
1690 Battle of the Boyne, July 1. 
1690 First newspaper in America; at 

Boston. 
1704 Gibraltar was taken by the English. 

1713 Peace of Utrecht, A()nl 11. 

1714 Accession of House of IIanover,Aug.l 
1716 First Jacobite Rebellion in Great 

Britain. 
1720 .South Sea Bubble. 
1746 Battle of Fontenoy, April 30. 
1745 .Second Jacobite Rebellion in Great 

Britain. 

1756 Black Hole Suffocation in Calcutta. 

1757 Clivewon Battle of Plassey in India 
1769 Canada was taken from the French. 
1766 Stamp Act enacted. 
1773 Steam engine perfected by Watt. 
1773 Tea destroyed in Boston Harbor, 

Dec. 16. 
1776 Battle of Lexington, April 19. 

1775 Battle of Bunker Hill, .lune 17. 

1776 Declaration of Independence, .Tuly 4, 

1777 Burgoyne's surrender, Oct. 17. 
1779 Capt. Cook was killdd, Feb. 14. 
1781 Cornwallis' surrender at Y'orktown 

Oct. 19. 
1788 First settlement in Australia, Jan. 26. 



IM6 Sewing machine completed by Eliaa 
Howe. 

1846 The Irish Potato Famine. 

1846 British Corn laws repealed, June 26. 

1846 War with Mexico began. 

184S French Revolution. Republic suc- 
ceeded. 

1848 Gold discovered in California, Sept. 

1861 Gold discovered in Australia, Feb. 12 

1851 First InternationalExhibit'n, London 

1852 Louis Napoleon became Emperor, 
Dec. 2. 

1863 Crimean War began. 

1857 The Great Mutiny in India. 

1857 The Dred Scott decision. 

1869 John Brown's raid into Virginia. 

1860 South Carolina seceded, Dec. 20. 

1861 Emancipation of the Russian serfs. 
1863 Lincoln's Emancipation Proclama- 
tion, Jan. 1. 

1863 Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3. 
1865 Lee surrendered at Appomattox, 
April 9. 

1865 President Lincoln assassinated, 

April 14. 

1866 Battle of Sadowa. Prussia beat 

Austria. 

1867 Emperor Maximilian of Mexico ex- 
ecuted. 



1789 The French Revolution began July 14 1867 The Dominion of Canada establisned 
1789 Washingtonfirstinaug'ted President 1870 Franco-German War began, July 19. 
1793 Cotton-gin invented by Whitney. 1870 Capitulation of French at Sedan, 



i-gin 
1793 Louis XVI. of France executed,Jan. 21 
1796 Vaccination discovered by Jenner. 

1798 The Irish Rebellion. 

1799 Battle of Seringapatam ; death of 

Tippoo. 
1799 Bonaparte declared First Consul, 

Nov. 10. 
1801 Union of Great Britain and Ireland, 

Jan. 1. 
1603 Louisiana purchased from the French 

1804 Bonaparte became Emperor of France 

1805 Battle of Trafalgar; death of Nelson. 
1807 Fulton's first steamboat voyage. 
IS12 Second war with Great Britain. 

1812 The French expedition to Moscow. 

1813 Perry's victory on Lake Erie, Sept. 10. 

1814 The printing machine invented. 

1814 Scott's " VVaverley " published. 
1S15 Battle of New Orleans, Jan. 8. 

1815 Battle of Waterloo, June 18. 

1819 l-'irst steamship crossed the Atlantic. 

1820 Missouri Compromise adopted. 
1S23 Mouroe Doctrine declared, Dec. 2. 
1828 First passenger railroad in the 

United States. 
1830 Revolution in France, Orleanlst suc- 
cession. 



Sept. 1. 

1870 Borne became the capital of Italy. 

1871 The (Jermau Empire re-established. 
1871 The Irish Church was disestablished. 

1871 The great fire in Chicago, Oct. 8-U. 

1872 The great fire in Boston, Nov. 9. 
1876 Centennial Eiposit'n at Philadelphia 
ISSl President Garfield shot, 

1889 Brazil became a Republic. 

1889 Johnstown, Pa., flood, May 31. 

1893 World's Columbian Exposition at 

Chicago. 
1S94 Chinese-Japanese War began. 
1895 Cuban Revolution began, Feb. 20. 

1897 The Turkish-Greek "War. 

1898 The Spanish-American War. 

1899 Universal Peace Conference. 
1S99 The South African War began. 

1900 Buxer Insurrection in China. 

1900 The Galveston tornado, Sept. 8. 

1901 Death of Queen Vict<iria. 

1901 A8s:is8ination of President McKinley 

1902 M;irtiniqne destroyed by volianic 

eruption. 

1903 Republic of Panama eatablisheil. 
19U4 Thi Russo-Japanese War b»gan. 



STijr iFvcnc!) Mcbolutionar^ 35ta. 

In Sentember, 1793, the convention decreed that the common era should be abolished in all civil affairs, and that the new 
French era should begin on September 22, 1792, the day of the true autumnal e.iuiuox, and that each succeeding year should 
begin at the midnight of the day on which the true autumnal equinox falls. The year was divided '.'"■<) twelve months of 
thirty days each. In ordinary years there were five extra days, from the 17th to the 21st of our September, and at the end of 
ever/ fourth year was a sixth complimentary day. This reckoning was first used on November 22, 1793 and was continued 
until December 31, 1806, when it was discontinued, and the Gregorian calendar, used throughout the rest ot liurope, was re- 
sumed. The following were the dates for the year 1804, the last complete year of this style of reckoning: 



Vendcmiaire (Vintage), September 23 to October 22. 
Brumairc (Foggy), October 23 to November 22. 
Frimaire (Sleety), November 22 to December 21. 
Nivose (Snowyl, December 22 to .lauuary 21. 

Pluviose (Rainy), January 21 to February 20. 

Ventose (Windy), February 20 to March 19. 



Germinal (Budding), March 22 to April 21. 

Floreal ( Flowery), April 21 to May 20. 

Prairial (Pasture*, May 21 to June 20. 

Messidor (Harvest), June 20 to July 19. 

Thermidor (Hot), July 20 to August 19. 

Fructidor (Fruit), August 19 to beptember 18. 



The months were divided into three decades of ten days each, but to make up the 365 five were added at the end of Sep- 
tember : Prlmidl, dedicated to Virtue; Duodi, to Genius; Tridi, to Labor ; Quartidi, to Opinion, and Quinlidi, to Reward.. 
I'o Leap Year, called Olympic, a sixth day. September 22 or 23, Sextidi, " the day of tl.e Revolution," was added. 

To each tenth day, thirty-six in all, were assigned thirty-six " Fetes Decaduires," decreed by the National ( onventlon on 

■ • • ■ • •■ ■ I'.einir and Nature, the Human Race, the French People, Benefactors of llo- 

" ' '■ ■ "atred of Tyrants 

, Heroism, Diiln- 

, Childhood, Una- 

hood, Old Age, Sickness, Agriculture, Industry, our Ancestors, Our 1 osterity, (.oodnesi. 



To each tenth day, thirty-six in all, were assigned thirty-six " Fetes Decaduires," decreed by the National ( 
theeighteenthPrairlal, in honor of the Supreme P.eing and Nature, the Human Itace, the b rench 1 eople, Beuef. 
manity. Martyrs for Liberty, l.ibertv and Equality, the Republic, Liberty ot the VVprld, Love of Country, Hatre 
and T'raitors, Truth, .lustice, Modesty, (ilory an<i Immortality, Friendship, Frugality, (ourage. Good Faith, He 
terestednesB, Stoicism, Love, Conjugal Fidelity, Paternal Love, Maternal tenderness, I'llial 1 lety, Intanty, Chi 



Calcntiars for 1905 autr 1906. 



33 



1905 







a 
o 


S 
& 


* 


hi 
a 
a 


P4 


1 




Jan. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 






8 


9 10 


U 


12 


13 


14 






1ft 


Ifi 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 






22 


23 


24 


26 


26 


27 


28 






2a 


30 


31 












Kel). 








i 


2 


'3 


4 






5 


H 


7 


H 


9 


10 


11 






12 '13 14 


IS 


16 17 


18 






19 1 20; 21 


22 


23 


24 


25 






26 


27 


28 




•• 








Mar 








"i 


'2 


■3 


'4 






n 


fi 


7 


« 


9 


10 


11 






12 


l.S 


14 


In 


16 


17 


18 






19 


20 


21 


'i2 


23 


24 


25 






26 


27 


2«'29 


30 


31 






April. 


2 


'3 


"4 


6 


6 


'7 


i 

8 






9 


10 


l-i 


12 


13 


14 


15 






16 


17 


li 


19 


20 


21 


22 






2.'? 


34 


26 


26 


27 


28 


29 






30 
















May. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 






7 


H 


9 


10 


11 


12 131 






14 


1ft 


Ifi 


17 


18 


19 


20 






21 


22 


28 


24 


25 


26 


27 






28 


29 


30 


31 










June. 










1 


2 


3 






4 


ft 


H 


7 


8 


9 


10 






11 


12 


Vi 


14 


16 


16 


17 






la 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 






25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 







July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



i 



1906 



29 30 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar 



April. 



May. 



June. 



& 



2 3 
9 10 



iai3 

18119^20 
25 26 27 



1 

6 7 
14 15 

21 1 22 
28 



5 
12 13 

1920 
2627 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



30 31 



4 
11 
18 
26 

i 

8 
15 
22 
29 



12 13 

19:20 
26 27 



^tutiuetsarics. 



Jan. 



Jan. 


8. 


Jan. 


17. 


Jan. 


17. 


Jan. 


18. 


Jan. 


19. 


Jan. 


27. 


Feb. 


12. 


Feb. 


15. 


Feb. 


22. 


Feb.22-23. 


Marcl 


6. 


March 15. 


March 18. 


April 


1. 


April 


9. 


April 


12. 


Anril 


12. 


April 


13. 


-April 


14 


April 


19. 


April 


19. 


April 


23. 


-April 


27. 


April 


30. 


May 


1. 


May 


13. 


May 


13. 


May 


18 


May 


20. 


May 


24. 


June 


6. 


June 


16. 


June 


17. 


June 


18 


June 


28. 



DATES OF HI8T0BICAI. KVENTS CUSTOMARILY OR 

July 1. 
July 1-3. 
July 3. 



Emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln, 
1863. 

Battle of New Orleans, 1815. 

Franklin born, 1706. 

Battle of the Cowpens, S. C. , 1781. 

Daniel Webster born, 1782. 

Robert E. Lee born, 1807. 

German Emperor born, 1859. 

Abraham Lincoln born, 1809. 

Battle-ship Maine blown up, 1898. 

George Wii.shington born, 1732. 

Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. 

Boston Massacre, 1770. 

Andrew Jackson born, 1767. 

Grover (Cleveland born, 1837. 

Bismarck born, 1815. 

Lee surrendered at Appomattox, 1866. 

Fort Sumter fired upon, 1861. 

Henry Clay born, 1777. 

Thomas Jefferson born, 1743. 

Lincoln assassinated, 186.5. 

Primrose Day in England, Lord Beacons- 
field died, 1881. 

Battles of Lexington and Concord, 1776. 

Shakespeare born, 1564. 

Gen. Xf. S. Grant born, 1822. 

Washington was inaugurated first Presi- 
dent, 1789. 

Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet at 
Manila, 1898. 

First English settlement in America, at 
Jamestown, 1607. 

Society of The Cincinnati organized by 
officers of Revolutionary Army, 1783. 

The Czar of Russia born, 1868. 

Mecklenburg, N. C. , Declaration of In- 
dependence, 1776. 

Queen Victoria born, 1819. 

Gen. Nathanael Greene born, 1742. 

King John granted Magna Charter at 
Runnymede. 1216. 

Battle of Bunker Hlli, 1775. 

Battle of Waterloo, 1816. 

Battle of Fort Moultrie, Chavleston, 
«. C. , 1776. 



OCCASIONALLY OBSKKVED. 

Dominion Day in Canada. 

Battle of Gettysburg, 1863. 

Cervera's fleet was destroyed ofl San- 
tiago, 1898, 

July 4. Declaration of Independence, 1776. 
July 12. Orangemen's Day. 
July 14. The Bastile was destroyed, 1789. 
July 16. Santiago surrendered, 1898. 
July 21. Battle of Bull Run, 1861. 
Aug. 13. Manila surrendered to the Americans, 

1898. 
Aug. 16. Battle of Bennington, Vt. , 1777. 
Sep. 1. Capitulation of Sedan, 1870. 
Sep. 6. President McKinley shot at Buffalo,1901. 
Sep. 8. Battle of Eutaw Springs, 8. C. , 1781. 
Sep. 10. Battle of Lake Erie, Perry's victory, 

1813. 
Sep. 11. Battle of Lake Champlain, McDon- 
ough's victory, 1814. 

Battle of Chapul tepee, 1847. 

City of Mexico taken by the U. 8. troops, 
1847. 

Battle of Antietam, 1862. 

Battle of Chickamauga, 1863. 
Sejj. 20. Italians occupied Rome, 1870. 
Oct. 8-11. Great fire of Chicago, 1871. 
Oct. 12. Columbus discovered America, 1492. 
Oct. 17. Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, 1777. 
Oct. 19. Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, 

1781. 
Nov. 6. Guy Fawkes Day in England. The Gun- 
powder Plot discovered, 1604. 
Nov. 9. King Edward VII. born, 1841. 
Nov. 9. Great fire of Boston, 1872. 
Nov. 10. Martin Luther born, 1483. 
Nov. 25. British evacuated New York, 1783. 
Dec. 2. Battle of Austerlitz, 1805. 
Dec. 14. Washington died, 1799. 
Dec. 16 Boston ^' Tea Party, ' ' 1773. 
Dee. 16. The great fire in New York, 1836. 
Dec. 22. Mayflower pilgrims landed at Plymouth 

Rock, 1620. 
Dec.26-26. Battle of Trenton, N. J. , 1776. 
Dec. 29. William Kwait Gladstone born, 1809. 



Sep. 13. 
Sep. 14. 

Sep. 17. 
Sep. 19-20. 



34 



Ready-Reference Calendar.—"!. 



For ascertaining the Day of the Week for any given Time from the Beginning of the 

Christian Era to the Year 2200. 



TABLE OF CENTURIES. 



G F E D C B A 



A 
B 

C 
D 
E 
F 



B 



D 



E 



m 

G 



D 



G 



F 



D 



E 



Figures below for the Gre- 
gorian New Style. Refer 
to the letters above. 



15 

19 


16 

20 




17 
21 





Figure.s below for the Julian 

Old Sryle. Refer to the 

letters above. 














1 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


17 


18 


19 


20 







TABLE OF YEARS, 



5001 

01 



04 



05 11 16 22 



K 



19 



20 



23 



26 



21 27 



29 



32 



33 39 



36 



37 



38 



40 



44 I 50 
45 



51 



52 



53 



54 



55 



60 



67 



74 



76 



77 



84 



85 



86 



87 



89 



90 



91 



92 



93 



94 



95 

97 
98 
99 



Directions.— 1. In the 
Table of Centuries find the 
first two figures of the year 
desired, and in the Table of 
Years find the last two fig- 
ures of that year The let- 
ter at the intersection of 
the columns of the two 
tables Is the Year Letter. 

2. Under the Year Letter 
in the Table of Months 
find the Key Figure oppo- 
site the month desired. 

3. The day of the week 
desired can tlien be found 

. in the Table of Days at the 
intersection of the columns 
of the Key Figure and the 
day of the iiiouth.* 



Key 
Figure. 



TABLE OF DAYS. 



Sun. 



Wed. 



Thu. 



Fri. 



Sat. 



15 



22 



29 



Mon. 



Tue. 



Wed. 



Tha. 



Fri. 



Sat. 



Sun. 



16 



23 



30 



Tue. 



Wed. 



Thu. 



Fri. 



Sat. 



Sun. 



Mon. 



10 



17 



24 



31 



Wed. 



Thu. 



Fri. 



Sat. 



Sun. 



Mon. 



Tue. 



11 



18 



25 



Thu. 



Fri. 



Sat. 



Sun. 



Mon. 



Xue. 



Wed. 



Ig 



19 



26 



Fri. 



Sat. 



Sat. I Sun. 



Sun. i Mon. 



Mon. Tue. 



Tue. 



Wed. 



Wed. Thu 



Thu. Fri 



13 



14 



20 



21 



27 



28 



TABLE OF MONTHS. 



Leap 
Year. 



Jan. 
Feb. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 
Apr. 
May 



June 



July 


2 


Aug. 


5 


Sept. 


1 


Oct. 


3 


Nov. 


6 








Dec. 



D 



3 



5 I 6 
2 



fi. 



G 
1 
4 



•EXAMi'LE.— To find theday of the week on which Julv 4, 1905, falls: Find 19 in the Tabie of 
Centuries and 0.5 in the Tableof Years. The Year Letter ut"the inter-sectlon of their columns is I'. 
In tlio Tal)le of Months the key figure at tlie intersection of the F And July columns is7. lu the Table 
of Days t)ie day of the week at the iutersectiou of the key fli;ure (7) and day of the month (4th) col- 
unin.s is Tuesday, wliich gives tlie information desired. 

LicAP Ykars. -I'or Leap Years use .lanuary and February aj the top of (lie Tal)le of l^fonth.s op- 
lositethe words " Leap Year." In tlie Table of Years leap vesirs are underlined. Years ending lu 
in Old Style dates are leap years; in New .Style dates only wheai tlie Year Letter is F. 



posi 



Ready' Reference Calendar. — 2. 



35 



For ascertaining any Day of the Week for any given Time ivithin Two Hundred 
Years from the introduction of the New Style, 1753, to 1952 inclusive. ^ 



YEARS 1753 TO 1952. 


a 
b 


3 
4 
5 
6 

2 
3 

7 
1 
7 
5 
3 

i 

6 

4 
"2 


7 
1 
2 
5 
« 
3 
4 
3 
1 
6 
4 
2 
7 
5 


7 
1 
2 
5 
6 
3 
4 
4 
2 
7 
5 
3 
1 
6 


0. 
< 

3 
4 
5 

1 
2 
6 
7 
7 
6 
3 
1 
6 
4 
2 


cs 
<^ 

5 
6 
7 
3 
4 
1 
2 
2 
7 
5 
3 
1 
6 
4 


6 
^ 
1 

2 

3 

6 

7 
4 
5 
5 
3 
1 
6 
4 
2 
7 


D 

•-3 

3 

4 
5 

1 
2 
6 
7 
7 
5 
3 
1 
6 
4 
2 


5p 

< 

6 

7 
1 
4 
5 
2 
3 
3 
1 
6 
4 
2 
7 
5 


•^1 . 
^^ 

X! O 

2 4 
3' 5 

4 6 
7 '2 
13 
5'7 

!- 

6 1 

4 6 

7 '2 

i 

5 7 

_.!_ 

3 5 
13 


o 

7 
1 
2 
5 
6 
3 
4 
4 
2 
7 
5 
3 
1 
6 


d 

P 


1753g: 
1754d 


1781g 
1782d 


1800e 
1801a 


1828q 
1829a 


1856q 
1857a 


1884q 
1885a 


1900g 
1901d 


1928h 
1929d 


2 


1755e 
1756p 


1783e 
1784p 


1802b 
1803c 


1830b 
1831c 

lS32h 
1833d 


1858b 
1859c 

186011 
1861d 


1886b 
1887c 

1888h 
1889d 


1902e 
1903a 

1904k 
1905f 


1930e 
1931a 

1932k 
1933f 


3 


1757c 
1758f 


1785c 
1786f 


1804h 
1805d 


c 


4 


1759g 
1760q 


1787g 
1788(1 


1806e 
1807a 


1834e 
1835a 


1862e 
1863a 


1890e 
1891a 


1906g 
1907d 


1934g 
19353 


d 


7 


1761a 
1762b 


1789a 
1790b 


1808k 
1809f 


1836k 
1837f 


1864k 
1865f 


1892k 
1893f 


19081 
1909b 


19361 
1937b 


e 
f 


1 


1763c 
176411 


1791c 
1792h 


1810g 
1811d 


1838g 
1839d 


1866g 
1867d 


1894g 
1895d 


1910c 
1911 f 


1938c 
1939f 


5 


1765d 
1766e 


1793d 
1794e 


18121 
1813b 

1814c 
1815f 

1816m 
1817e 


18401 
1841b 


18681 
1869b 


18961 
1897b 


1912111 
1913e 


1940m 
1941e 


s 


6 


1767a 
1768k 


1795a 
1796k 

1797f 
1798g 


1842c 
1843f 


1870c 
1871t 

1872 m 
1873e 


1898c 
1899f 


1914a 
1915b 


1942a 
1943h 


li 


6 


1769 f 
1770g 


1844ni 
1845e 




1916U 
1917g 


1944a 
1945g 


k 


4 


1771d 

17721 


1799d 


1818a 
1819b 

182011 
1821g 


1846a 
1847b 


1874a 
1875b 




1918d 
1919e 


1946d 
1947e 


1 

m 
11 
P 
•I 


2 


1773b 
1774c 




184811 
1849g 


187611 
1877g 




1920p 
1921c 


1948p 
1949c 


7 


1775f 
1776ni 




1822d 
1823e 


1850d 
1851e 


1878d 
1879e 




1922f 
1923g 


1950f 
lOolg 


5 


1777e 
1778a 


1824p 
1825c 


1852p 
1853c 


1880p 
1881c 




1924q 1952q 
1925h 


3 


1779b 
1780n 




1826f 
1827g 


1854f 
1855g 


1882f 

isasg 




1926b 
1927c 


1 



Note.— The letters iu 
the list of "Years from 
1753 to 1952," refer to 
the table headed with the 
Months, the figures in 
which refer to the same 
figures at the head of the 
table of Days. For ex- 
ample: Toknowonwhat 
day July 4, 1905, will 
fall look for 1905 in the 
table of Years. The let- 
ter "f" is attached. Look 
for the same letter in the 
' table of Months and in a 
parallel line under July is 
the figure 6, which di- 
rects to column 6 in the 
table of Days below, in 
which it wiirbe seen that 
July 4 falls on Tuesday. 



TABLK OF DAYS. 



i 



;Mou(lay 

i Tuesday 
Wednesday 

iThursday 
Friday 
Saturday 

ISUNDAY 
Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesd. 
Thm-sday 

jlKiiday 

1 'Saturday 

;!SUNDAY 

!jMonday 
iTuesday 
jW'ednesd. 
iThur.sday 
[Friday 
'Saturday 
ISUNDAY 
JMomlay 
[Tuesday 
Wednesd. 
Thursday 
Friday 
Satuirtay 
SUNDAY 
Monday 
Tuesday 

yWedoesd. 



Tuesday 1 

Wednesday 2 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 9 

Thursday in 

Friday . 1 1 

Saturday I'J 

SUNDAY 13 

Monday 1-1 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY i'O 

Monday 21 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY y7 

Monday 

Tue<iday 

Wednesd. 'S(' 

Thursday 3] 



Wednesday 1 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday Ui 

Saturday 1 1 

SUNDAY 1 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



SUNDAY ly 



Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesd. 
Thursday 
Friday 
Saturday 
SUNDAY 26 
Monday 2T 
Tuesday 2P 
Wednesd. 2^ 
iThursday :it 
Friday 31 



Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Tlmrsday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 



Friday 1 

Saturday 2 
SUNDAY 3 
Monday 4 
Tuesday 5 
Wednesday 6 
Thursday 7 
Friday 8 

Satunlay 9 
SUNDAY lu 
Monday 11 
Tuesday 12 
Wednesd. 13i 
Thursday 14 
Friday 15 
Saturday IH 
SUNDAY 17 
Monday IS 
'niesday 19 
Wednesd. 20 
Thursday 91 
Friday 22 
Saturday 23 
SUNDAY 24 
Monday 25 
Tuesday 2t> 
Wednesd. 27 
Thursday 28 
Friday 29 

Saturday 



Saturday 1 
SUNDAY 2 
Monday 3 
Tuesday 4 
Wednesday 5 
Thursday 6 
Friday 7 

Saturday 8 
SUNDAY 9 
Monday 10 
Tuesday 1 1 
Wednesd. 12 
Tliursday 
Friday 
Saturday 
SUNDAY 16 
Monday 17 
Tuesday 18 
Wedne'sd. 19 
Thursday 20 
Friday 21 
Saturday 



SUNDAY 1 
Monday 2 
Tuesday 3 

Wednesday 4 
Thursday 5 
Friday 6 

Saturday 7 
SUNDAY 8 
Monday 9 
Tuesday 10 
Wednesd. 11 
Thursday 12 
Friday 



14 Saturday 



SUNDAY 15 



Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



SCNDAY 23 

Monday 24 

Tuesday 25 

Wednesd. 26 

Thursday 27 

Friday 28 
Saturaftv 



SUNDAY 22 



Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

SUNDAY 



SUNDAY 30;Mondav 
SUNDAY SliMonday SliTucsday 



23 

24 
25 
26 
27 
2S 
29 
30 
31 



36 



Greek Church and Russian Calendar^ 1905. 



Ritualistic Calendar. 

COI>OR9 FOB THE ALTA.B IN UsE IN KlTUALISTIC EPISCOPAL ChITKCHES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

WhUe.—Vrova. the First Service (First Vespers) of Christmas Day to the Octave of Epiphany, 
inclusive (except ou the Feasts of Martyrs) ; on Maundy Thursday (for tke celebration) ; from the First 
Service of Easter Day to the Vigil of Pentecost (except on Feasts of Martyrs and Rogation Davs) ; on 
Trinity Sunday, Conversion of St. Paul, Purification. Annunciation, St. John Baptist. St. Michael, 
St. Luke, All Saints, Saints who are not Martyrs, and Patron Saints (Transfiguration and Dedication 
of Church). 

iSed. — From First Vespers of Pentecost to the First Vespers of Trinity Sunday (which includes 
Ember Days), Holy Innocents (if on a Sunday), and Feasts of all Martyrs. 

Violet.— Frova. Septuagesima to Maundy Thursday f Easter Eve); Advent Sundav to Christmas 
Eve; Vigils, Ember Days (except in Whitsun Week), and Rogation Days; Holv Innocents (unless on 
Sunday). Black. — Cfood Friday and at fuueral.s. Oreen. —All other davs. 

These regulations as to colors are general. A more minute code changing with each year is 
published in the church almanacs. 



Jewish Calendar, 1905. 



New Moon, Fasts, Feasts, etc. 



5665. 
Sebat 1 




i&d5 


Adar 1 




Feb 


14 


Purim 






New Moon 




Nisan 1 
15 


Pa.ssover 


April 


Yiar 1 




ISIay 


14 




Sivan 1 






6 


Pentecost 


i I 


Tamuz 1 


New Moon .J. 


Julv 


17 


Fast of Tamuz 


4 i 


Ab 1 
9 


New Moon 

Fast of Ab (Destruction of 
Jerusalem) 


Aug. 

4 ( 


Elul 1 


New Moon 


Sept. 



7 

6 

19 

8 
6 

20 
6 

19 
4 
9 
4 

20 
2 

10 

1 



New Moon, Fasts, Feasts, etc. 



5666. 
Tisri 1 

3 
10 
15 

22 

23 

Hesvan 1 

Kislev 1 

25 

Tebet 



Sebat 
Adav 
Nisan 



10 
1 

1 
1 



New Moon (New Year), Rosh 

Hashonah 

Fast of Gniadaliali 

" Expiation (Voni Kippur) 

Feast of Tabernacle.s 

Eighth Day 

" Rejoicing with the Law 
New Moon 



Dedication of the Temple.. 
New Moon 



Fa-st of Tebet. 
New Moon 



1905. 

Sept. 30 
Oct. 2 
9 
14 
21 
22 
30 
29 
23 
29 
1906. 
Jan. 7 
27 
Feb. 26 
Maich 27 



Nov. 
Dec. 



The year 5665 is an embolismic perfect year of 385 days, and the year 5666 an ordinary perfect 
year of 355 days. 

Mohammedan Calendar, 1905. 



Year. 



1322.. 
1323.: 



Namie of Moctha. 



Dulkaada. 

Dulheggia 

Muharram.(New Year) 

Saphar 

RaDia I 

Rabia II 

.lomadi I _... 

Joraadi II 



Month Begins. 



Jan. 7, 1905 



Feb. 

Mar. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 



6, 

8, 
7, 
6, 
5. 
4, 
3, 



Year. 



1323.. 



Names of Montha. 



Rajab 

Shaahan 

Ramadan (Month of Absti- 
nence) 

Shawall _ 

.'Dulkaada 

.'Dulheggia 

.iMuharrani (New Year) 



Mouth Begins. 



Sept. 1. 1905 
Oct. 1, " 

' ' 30, ' ' 

Nov. 29. ' • 

Dec. 28, ' • 

Jan. 27, 1906 

Feb. 25, ' ' 



Greek Church and Russian Calendar, 1905. 

A. D. 1905, A. M. 8014. 



New 
Style. 



Jan. 14 
" 19 

Feb. 15 

March 11 

" 14 

" 18 

A pril 7 



23 



• 80 

May 6 

w 2" 
Jane 



Holy Days. 



Circumcision 

Theophany (Epiphanv).... 
Flypapante (Purification). 

Carnival Sunday 

Ash Wedne.sday 

First Sunday in Lent 

Annunciation 

Palm Sunday 

28lQreat Friday 

Holy Pascbi (Easter). ....... 

St. George......... .....:. 

Coronation or Emperor* 

Ascension Day 

I'entecdst 



Old Style. 


New 

.Stvi.e. 


Jan. 1 


June 19 


6 


Jillv 12 


Feb. 2 


Aug. 14 


" 26 


• 19 


March 1 


" 28 


5 


Sept. 12 


•• 26 


" 21 


April 10 
'' 15 


•• 27 


Oct. 14 


" 17 


Nov. 28 


" 23 


Deo. 4 


Mav 14 


" 22 


• '■ 26 


1906 


J uue 5 


Jan, 7 



Holy Days. 



Holy Ghost June 6 

Peter and Paul (Chief Apostles) " 29 

First Daj' of Fa-st of Theotokos .. A ug. 1 

Transfiguration " 6 

Repose of Theotokos " 15 

St. Ale.xaiider Nevsky* " 30 

Nativity of Theotokos Sept. 8 

E-xaltation of the Cross ^' 14 

Patronage of Theotokos Oct, 1 

First ]?ay of Fast of Nativity .... Nov. 16 

Entrance of Theotokos " 21 

Conception of Theotokos .Dec. 9 

Nativity (Christmas) " 25 



Old .style. 



•Peculiar to Ru.ssia. 





IsT Month. 






JANUARY, 


1905 


• 






31 Days. 


J9 

d 

o 

1 


s 

1 


Calendar for 
Boston, 

New England, N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and 8. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
Nkw York City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentuck}*, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 


Calendar for 

Charleston. 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Teias^New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern Callfotni.i. 


Q 


Son 
Risks. 


Sun 

Sets. 


Moon 
R. A s. 


Son 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. AS. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. A s. 


Sun 
Rises. 

H. M. 

7 3 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
R. * s. 


1 


S 


n. M. 

7 30 


H. M. 

4 37 


H. M. 

3 2 


H. M. 

7 25 


H. M. 

4 42 


H. M. 

2 59 


H. 

7 


M. 

19 


H. M. 

4 47 


H. M. 

2 56 


H. M. 

5 4 


H. M. 

2 48 


2 


M 


7 30 


4 38 


4 8 


7 25 


4 43 


4 5 


7 


19 


4 48 


4 00 


7 3 


5 5 


3 50 


3 


Tn 


7 30 


4 39 


5 11 


7 25 


4 44 


5 7 


7 


19 


4 49 


5 3 


7 3 


5 6 


4 51 


4 


W 


7 30 


4 40 


6 10 


7 25 


4 45 


6 6 


7 


19 


4 50 


6 2 


7 3 


5 7 


5 48 


5 


Th 


7 30 


4 41 


sets. 


7 25 


4 46 


sets. 


7 


19 




4 51 


sets. 


7 3 


5 8 


sets. 


6 


Fr 


7 30 


4 42 


5 56 


7 25 


4 47 


6 


7 


19 




4 52 


6 4 


7 3 


5 8 


6 16 


7 


Sa 


7 30 


4 43 


6 55 


7 25 


4 48 


6 58 


7 


19 




4 53 


7 2 


7 3 


5 9 


7 12 


8 


S 


7 30 


4 44 


7 54 


7 24 


4 49 


7 57 


7 


19 




4 54 


7 59 


7 3 


5 10 


8 8 


9 


M 


7 29 


4 45 


8 53 


7 24 


4 50 


8 54 


7 


19 


4 55 


8 56 


7 3 


5 11 


9 3 


10 


Tu 


7 29 


4 46 


9 50 


7 24 


4 51 


9 51 


7 


19 


4 56 


9 53 


7 3 


5 12 


9 55 


n 


W 


7 29 


4 47 


10 47 


7 24 


4 52 


10 47 


7 


18 


4 57 


10 47 


7 3 


5 13 


10 48 


12 


Th 


7 29 


4 48 


U 43 


7 23 


4 53 


11 43 


7 


18 


4 58 


11 43 


7 3 


5 13 


11 40 


13 


Fr 


7 28 


4 49 


A. M. 


7 23 


4 54 


A. M. 


7 


18 


4 59 


A. M. 


7 .3 


5 14 


A. M. 


14 


Sa 


7 28 


4 50 


13 41 


7 23 


4 55 


12 39 


7 


18 


5 


12 38 


7 3 


5 15 


12 33 


15 


S 


7 38 


4 51 


1 39 


7 22 


4 56 


1 37 


7 


18 


5 1 


1 34 


7 3 


5 16 


1 27 


16 


n 


7 27 


4 52 


2 38 


7 22 


4 57 


2 35 


7 


17 


5 2 


2 32 


7 3 


5 17 


2 23 


17 


Til 


7 27 


4 53 


3 38 


7 22 


4 58 


3 34 


7 


17 


5 3 


3 31 


7 2 


5 18 


3 20 


18 


W 


7 26 


4 54 


4 37 


7 21 


4 59 


4 33 


7 


17 


5 4 


4 29 


7 2 


5 19 


4 17 


19 


Th 


7 26 


4 55 


5 36 


7 21 


5 


5 31 


7 


16 


5 5 


5 28 


7 2 


5 19 


5 14 


20 


Fr 


7 25 


4 56 


6 30 


7 21 


5 2 


6 26 


7 


16 


5 6 


6 23 


7 2 


5 20 


6 9 


21 


Sa 


7 25 


4 58 


rises. 


7 20 


5 3 


rises. 


7 


15 


5 7 


rises. 


7 1 


5 21 


rises. 


22 


S 


7 24 


4 59 


7 


7 20 


5 4 


7 2 


7 


15 


5 8 


7 5 


7 1 


5 22 


7 13 


23 


M 


7 23 


5 


8 12 


7 19 


5 5 


8 14 


7 


14 


5 9 


8 15 


7 1 


5 23 


8 21 


24 


Tn 


7 22 


5 1 


9 24 


7 19 


5 6 


9 34 


7 


13 


5 10 


9 35 


7 


5 24 


9 27 


25 


W 


7 21 


5 2 


10 35 


7 18 


5 7 


10 34 


7 


12 


5 11 


10 34 


7 


5 25 


10 33 


2G 


Th 


7 20 


5 4 


11 45 


7 17 


5 8 


11 45 


7 


11 


5 12 


11 43 


6 59 


5 26 


11 37 


27 


Fr 


7 19 


5 5 


A. M. 


7 16 


5 10 


A. M. 


7 


10 


5 13 


A. M. 


6 59 


5 27 


A. M. 


28 


Sa 


7 18 


5 6 


12 54 


7 15 


5 11 


12 51 


7 


10 


5 14 


13 49 


6 58 


5 28 


12 40 


29 


S 


7 17 


5 7 


3 


7 14 


5 12 


1 57 


7 


9 


5 15 


1 53 


6 57 


5 29 


1 43 


30 


M 


7 16 


5 9 


3 4 


7 13 


5 13 


3 


7 


8 


5 17 


2 56 


6 57 


5 30 


2 44 


31 


Tu 


7 15 


5 10 


4 3 


7 12 


5 14 


3 59 


7 


7 


5 18 


3 55 


6 56 


5 31 


3 41 













SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day OF 






Day OF 






Day of 




Day of 




Day of 




Month. 






Month. 






Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. 


M. S. 




H. 


M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 


1 


12 


3 28 


8 


12 


6 48 


14 


12 9 11 


20 


12 11 10 


36 


12 12 41 


2 


12 


4 6 


9 


12 


7 13 


15 


12 9 33 


21 


12 11 27 


37 


12 12 54 


3 


12 


4 34 


10 


12 


7 38 


16 


12 9 53 


33 


12 11 43 


28 


12 13 6 


4 


12 


5 2 


11 


12 


8 2 


17 


12 10 13 


23 


12 11 59 


29 


12 13 17 


5 


12 


5 39 


13 


12 


8 26 


18 


12 10 33 


24 


12 13 14 


30 


12 13 27 


6 


12 


5 56 


13 


12 


8 49 


19 


12 10 52 


25 


12 12 38. 


81 


12 13 36 


7 


12 


6 23 














1 















rWILICHT. 










Places. 


Jan. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


Jan. 


Begins, a. m. 


Euds, p, M. 


Jan. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 






H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


M< M. 


H. M. 


Boston 


1 


5 48 


6 19 


11 


5 48 


6 28 


31 


5 46 


6 38 


New York.. 


1 


5 46 


6 21 


11 


5 46 


6 30 


21 


5 44 


6 39 


Waah' ton . 


1 


5 43 


6 24 


11 


5 44 


6 32 


21 


5 42 


6 41 


Chai-leston.. 


1 


5 35 


6 33 


11 


5 36 


6 40 


31 


5 30 


t) 57 



2d Month. 




FEBRUARY, 


1905 


• 






28 Da 


YS. 


■s 

a 
o 


■i 

V 

"S 

1 


Calendar for 
Boston , 

Mew England, N. Y. State. 

IMichigaii, Wiseonsin, 

N. ftiid 8. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
New York City, 
Connei-ticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 
Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado. 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 


Caleii.lar for 

Chari.ks'ion, 

Georgi.'i, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and SoiUlieni California. 


O 
Q 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 

SSTS. 


Moon 
B. i a. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sl'n 
Sets. 


Moos 

K. .6 S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Skts. 


Mo(>N- 

R. Jt S. 
H. M. 

4 50 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Skts. 


Moon 

R. A S. 


1 


W 


H. M. 

7 14 


H. M. 

5 12 


H. M. 

4 58 


H. M. 

7 11 


H. M. 

5 16 


H. M. 

4 54 


H. M. 

7 7 


H. M. 

5 20 


■H. M. 

6 55 


n. M. H. kj. 

5 33.4 35 


2 


Th 


7 13 


5 13 


5 47 


7 10 


5 17 


5 43 


7 6 


5 21 


5 38 


6 54 


5 33 


5 25 


3 


Fr 


7 12 


5 15 


6 31 


7 9 


5 19 


6 27 


7 5 


5 22 


6 23 


6 54 


5 34 


6 11 


4 


Sa 


7 U 


5 16 


sets. 


7 7 


5 20 


sets. 


7 4 


5 33 


sets. 


6 53 


5 35 


sets. 


5 


S 


7 10 


5 17 


6 42 


7 6 


5 21 


6 44 


T 3 


5 34 


6 47 


6 52 


5 36 


6 53 


6 


M 


7 9 


5 19 


7 40 


7 5 


5 22 


7 41 


7 2 


5 26 


7 42 


6 51 


5 37 


7 47 


/ 


Tn 


7 7 


5 20 


8 36 


7 4 


5 23 


8 37 


7 1 


5 27 


8 38 


6 51 


5 38 


8 39 


8 


W 


7 () 


5 31 


9 33 


7 3 


5 25 


9 33 


7 


5 28 


9 33 


6 50 


5 39 


9 33 


9 


Th 


7 5 


5 23 


10 30 


7 1 


5 2<5 


10 29 


6 59 


5 29 


10 28 


6 49 


5 40 


10 24 


10 


Fr 


7 4 


5 24 


11 27 


7 


5 27 


11 25 


6 58 


5 30 


11 23 


6 49 


5 41 


11 17 


11 


8a 


7 3 


5 25 


A. M. 


6 59 


5 28 


A. M. 


6 57 


5 32 


A. M. 


6 48 


5 42 


A. M. 


12 


S 


7 2 


5 27 


12 25 


6 58 


5 30 


12 22 


6 56 


5 33 


12 19 


6 47 


5 43 


13 11 


13 


M 


7 


5 28 


1 23 


,6 57 


5 31 


1 20 


6 55 


5 34 


1 16 


6 46 


5 44 


1 6 


14 


Tu 


6 59 


5 30 


2 31 


6 55 


5 32 


2 17 


6 54 


5 35 


2 13 


6 45 


5 45 


2 1 


15 


W 


6 58 


5 31 


3 20 


6 54 


5 33 


3 16 


6 52 


5 36 


3 11 


6 44 


5 45 


2 58 


16 


Th 


6 56 


5 32 


4 14 


6 53 


5 35 


4 10 


6 51 


5 37 


4 6 


6 43 


5 46 


3 53 


17 


Fr 


6 55 


5 34 


5 6 


6 51 


5 36 


5 3 


6 50 


5 39 


4 58 


6 42 


5 47 


4 46 


18 


Sa 


6 54 


5 36 


5 54 


6 50 


5 37 


5 51 


6 48 


5 40 


5 47 


6 41 


5 48 


5 37 


19 


S 


6 53 


5 37 


rises. 


6 49 


5 38 


rises. 


6 47 


5 41 


rises. 


6 39 


5 48 


rises?. 


20 


SI 


6 51 


5 39 


7 3 


6 48 


5 39 


7 4 


6 46 


5 42 


7 5 


6 3S 


5 49 


7 8 


21 


Tu 


6 49 


5 40 


8 16 


6 46 


5 40 


8 16 


6 44 


5 43 


8 16 


6 37 


5 50 


8 16 


22 


W 


6 48 


5 41 


9 29 


6 45 


5 41 


9 28 


6 43 


5 44 


9 27 


6 36 


5 51 


9 24 


23 


Th 


6 46 


5 42 


10 42 


6 44 


5 43 


10 40 


6 43 


5 45 


10 Gy 


6 35 


5 53 


10 31 


24 


Fr 


6 45 


5 44 


11 51 


6 42 


5 44 


11 48 


6 40 


5 46 


11 45 


6 34 


5 52 


11 36 


25 


Sa 


6 43 


5 45 


A. M. 


6 41 


5 46 


A. M. 


6 39 


5 48 


A. M. 


6 33 


5 53 


A. M. 


26 


S 


6 41 


5 46 


13 57 


6 40 


5 47 


12 53 


6 38 


5 49 


13 49 


6 33 


5 54 


12 38 


27 


M 


6 40 


5 47 


1 58 


6 39 


5 48 


1 54 


6 37 


5 50 


i 50 


6 31 


5 55 


1 37 


28 


Tu 


6 38 


5 48 


3 54 


6 37 


5 49 


2 50 


6 35 


5 51 


2 45 


6 30 


5 56 


2 32 




















































1 


























1 













SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day op 




Day of 




Dav of 




Dav of 




Day of 




MoMTH. 




Month. 




MOXTll. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. M. S. 




H. M. K. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. 8. 




H. M. S. 


1 


12 13 45 


7 


12 14 19 


13 


12 14 24 


19 


12 14 2 


25 


12 13 15 


2 


12 13 53 


8 


12 14 22 


14 


12 14 22 


20 


12 13 56 


26 


12 13 6 


3 


12 13 59 


9 


12 14 24 


15 


12 14 20 


21 


12 13 49 


27 


12 12 55 


4 


12 14 6 


10 


12 14 25 


16 


12 14 16 


22 


12 13 41 


28 


12 12 44 


5 


12 14 11 


11 


12 14 26 


17 


12 14 12 


23 


12 13 33 






6 


12 14 15 


12 


12 14 25 


18 


12 14 7 


24 


12 13 25 













TWILIGHT. 










Places. 


Feb. 


Begins, a. m. 

H, M. 


Ends, p. M. 


Feb. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


Feb. 


Begina, a. m. 

H. M. 


Ends, p. H. 




H. M. 


H. M, 


B. M. 


H. u. 


Boston 


1 


5 37 


6 50 


11 


5 27 


7 1 


21 


5 14 


7 13 


New York. 


1 


6 36 


6 51 


11 


5 27 


7 1 


21 


5 15 


7 13 


Wash 'ton. 


1 


5 35 


C 52 


11 


5 26 


7 2 


21 


5 15 


7 13 


Charleston 


1 


5 30 


G 37 


11 


5 24 


7 5 


21 


5 15 


7 13 





3d Month. 








MARCH, 190r». 










31 


Days. 


1 

i 


HI 

1 
5- 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

\-«w England, N. Y. St,8t». 

Rhchig«Ti, Wiscousio, 

N. and 8. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


f'flleiidar for 

Nkw York Citv. 

Connecticut, P^nnsyl 

vaniii, Ohio, Indifins, 

Illinois, Nebraska, and 

Northern Califoruia. 


Talcndar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansns, Colorado. 

Utah, Nevada. 

and Central California. 


Calendar for 

CHAP.LH3TON, 

Georgia. AUtiania. 
Louisiana, Texas, Nev 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern Califonna. 


o 
>. 

•A 

a 


Sun 
RiaBS. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
R. * s. 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Sets, 


Moon 
B. 4 s. 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Sets. 

H. M. 

5 52 


Moon 
B. A a. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. AS. 


1 


\v 


H. M. 

6 37 


H. M. 

5 49 


H. M. 

3 45 


6 


M. 

36 


H. M. 

5 50 


M. M. 

3 41 


H. M. 

6 34 


H. M. 

3 26 


H. M. 

6 29 


H. M. 

5 56 


H. M. 

3 23 


2 


Th 


G 35 


5 51 


4 29 


6 


;m 


5 51 


4 25 


6 33 


5 


53 


4 23 


6 27 


5 


57 


4 9 


3 


Fr 


6 33 


5 52 


5 9 


6 


33 


5 52 


5 6 


6 31 


5 


54 


5 2 


6 26 


5 


58 


4 52 


.4 


Sa 


6 32 


5 53 


5 44 


6 


31 


5 53 


5 42 


6 30 


5 


55 


5 39 


6 25 


5 


59 


5 30 


5 


S 


6 30 


5 54 


sets. 


() 


30 


5 55 


sets. 


6 28 


5 


56 


sets. 


6 24 


6 





sets. 


6 


^r 


6 28 


5 55 


6 29 


6 


28 


5 56 


6 30 


6 27 


5 


57 


6 31 


6 23 


6 





6 33 


7 


Tu 


6 27 


5 56 


7 26 


6 


26 


5 57 


7 26 


6 25 


5 


58 


7 2() 


6 21 


6 


1 


7 26 


8 


w 


6 25 


5 58 


8 23 


6 


24 


5 58 


8 23 


6 24 


5 


59 


8 21 


6 20 


6 


2 


8 18 


9 


Th 


6 24 


5 59 


9 19 


6 


23 


5 59 


9 18 


6 22 


6 





9 16 


6 19 


6 


o 
O 


9 11 


10 


Fr 


6 22 


6 


10 16 


6 


21 


6 


10 14 


6 21 


6 


1 


10 11 


6 ]8 


6 


4 


10 4 


11 


.Sa 


6 20 


6 1 


11 14 


6 


19 


() 1 


11 11 


6 19 


6 


2 


11 7 


6 17 


6 


5 


10 58 


12 


S 


6 19 


6 2 


A. M. 


() 


18 


6 3 


A. M. 


6 17 


6 


3 


A. M. 


6 15 


6 


6 


11 52 


13 


M 


6 17 


6 3 


12 11 


6 


16 


6 4 


12 7 


6 16 


6 


4 


12 3 


6 14 


6 


6 


A. M. 


14 


Tn 


6 15 


6 4 


1 7 


6 


15 


6 5 


1 3 


6 15 


6 


5 


12 59 


6 13 


6 


7 


12 46 


15 


W 


'6 14 


6 6 


3 2 


6 


13 


6 6 


1 57 


6 13 


6 


6 


1 53 


6 12 


6 


8 


1 40 


16 


Th 


6 12 


6 7 


2 54 


6 


11 


6 7 


2 49 


6 11 


6 


7 


2 45 


6 10 


6 


8 


2 33 


17 


Fr 


6 10 


6 8 


3 42 


6 


9 


6 8 


3 38 


6 10 


6 


8 


3 34 


6 9 


6 


9 


3 24 


18 


Sa 


6 8 


6 9 


4 27 


6 


8 


6 9 


4 24 


6 8 


6 


9 


4 21 


6 8 


6 


10 


4 11 


19 


S 


6 7 


6 10 


5 8 


6 


6 


6 10 


5 6 


6 7 


6 


10 


5 4 


6 6 


6 


10 


4 57 


20 


M 


6 5 


6 11 


risea . 


(^ 


5 


6 11 


rises. 


6 5 


6 


11 


rises. 


6 5 


6 


11 


rises. 


21 


Tu 


6 4 


6 13 


7 4 


(i 


3 


6 12 


7 4 


6 4 


6 


12 


7 3 


6 4 


6 


12 


7 2 


22 


\V 


6 2 


6 14 


8 19 


6 


1 


6 13 


8 17 


6 2 


6 


13 


8 15 


6 3 


6 


13 


8 10 


23 


Th 


6 


6 15 


9 32 


6 





6 14 


9 30 


6 


6 


14 


9 27 


6 1 


6 


13 


9 19 


24 


Fr 


5 58 


6 16 


10 43 


5 


58 


6 15 


10 39 


5 59 


6 


15 


10 36 


6 


6 


14 


10 25 


25 


Sa 


5 57 


6 17 


11 48 


5 


57 


6 16 


U 44 


5 57 


6 


16 


11 40 


5 59 


6 


15 


11 28 


26 


S 


5 55 


6 18 


A. M. 


5 


55 


6 17 


A. M. 


5 5(1 


6 


17 


A. M. 


5 57 


6 


16 


A. M. 


27 


M 


5 53 


6 20 


12 48 


5 


53 


6 19 


12 44 


5 54 


6 


18 


12 39 


5 56 


6 


l(i 


13 26 


28 


Tu 


5 51 


6 21 


1 42 


5 


51 


6 20 


, 1 38 


5 52 


6 


19 


1 33 


5 55 


6 


17 


1 19 


29 


W 


5 50 


6 22 


2 29 


5 50 


6 21 


2 25 


5 51 


6 


20 


2 21 


5 53 


6 


18 


2 8 


30 


Th 


5 48 


6 23 


3 10 


5 


48 


6 22 


3 7 


5 49 


6 


21 


3 3 


5 52 


6 


19 


2 52 


31 


Fr 


5 46 


6 24 


3 47 


5 


47 


6 23 


3 44 


5 48 


6 


22 


3 40 


5 51 


6 


19 


3 31 









SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 










Day of 
Month. 




Oav of 
Month. 




Day of 
Month. 






Day of 
Month. 




Day of 
Month. 








H . M . S . 




H . M . S . 




H. 


M. S. 




H. M, S. 




H, 


M. S. 


1 


12 12 33 


8 


12 11 


14 


12 


9 25 


20 


12- 7 40 


26 


12 


5 50 


2 


12 12 21 


9 


12 10 45 


15 


12 


9 8 


21 


12 7 22 


27 


12 


5 32 


3 


12 12 8 


10 


12 10 29 


16 


12 


8 51 


22 


12 7 4 


28 


12 


5 14 


4 


12 11 56 


11 


12 10 14 


17 


12 


8 33 


23 


12 6 45 


29 


12 


4 55 


5 


12 11 42 


12 


12 9 58 


18 


12 


8 16 


24 


12 6 37 


30 


12 


4 37 


6 


12 11 29 


13 


12 9 42 


19 


12 


7 58 


25 


12 6 9 


31 


12 


4 19 


7 


12 11 14 































TWiLICHT. 










Places. 


Mar. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, p. M. 


M.ar. 


Beg^iuB, A, M. 


Ends, p. M. 


Mar. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, p. M. 




H. U. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston 


1 


5 2 


7 23 


11 


4 45 


7 35 


21 


4 27 


7 47 


New York 


1 


5 3 


7 22 


11 


4 47 


7 33 


21 


4 30 


7 45 


Wash' ton. 


1 


5 4 


7 21 


11 


4 49 


7 31 


21 


4 33 


7 42 


Charlest'^n 


1 


5 


7 19 


n 


4 53 


7 27 


21 


4 40 


7 35 



i 


1th Month. 








AJ»RlIi, 1905. 








30 t)AYS. 


a 
o 


1) 

O 

rt' 


Calendar for 
Boston, 

Mew Englaiid, N. Y. Stale, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and 8. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
New York City, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, lodiaDH. 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Nortbem California. 


Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utali, Nevada, 

atidCeutva) California. 


Calendar for 

CHlItl.KSTON, 

Georgia, Alaba?ns, 

Lonisiaiia, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 

and Southern California. 


"a 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Sets, 


Moon 

.B. A S. 


HiSES. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. A 8. 


Sun 

UlSES. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

K. i S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
B. A a. 


1 


Sa 


H. M. 

5 44 


H. M. 

6 25 


H. M. 

4 19 


H. M. 

5 45 


H. M 

6 24 


H. M. 

4 17 


H. M. 

5 46 


H. M. 

6 23 


H. M. 

4 14 


H. M. 

5 49 


H. M. 

6 20 


H. H. 

4 7 


2 


S 


5 43 


6 26 


4 49 


5 44 


6 25 


4 4S 


5 45 


6 24 


4 46 


5 48 


6 21 


4 41 


3 


M 


5 41 


6 27 


6 17 


5 42 


6 26 


5 16 


5 43 


6 25 


5 16 


5 47 


6 22 


5 14 


4 


Tu 


5 40 


6 28 


sets. 


5 41 


6 27 


sets. 


5 42 


6 26 


sets. 


5 46 


6 22 


sets. 


5 


W 


5 38 


6 29 


7 13 


5 39 


6 28 


7 12 


5 40 


6 27 


7 10 


5 44 


6 23 


7 6 


6 


Th 


6 36 


6 30 


8 11 


5 37 


6 29 


8 8 


5 39 


6 28 


8 6 


5 43 


6 24 


7 59 


7 


Fr 


5 35 


6 31 


9 8 


5 36 


6 30 


9 5 


5 37 


6 29 


9 2 


5 42 


6 24 


8 53 


8 


Sa 


5 33 


6 33 


10 5 


5 34 


6 31 


10 2 


5 36 


6 30 


9 58 


5 40 


6 25 


9 47 


9 


S 


5 31 


6 34 


11 1 


5 32 


6 32 


10 57 


5 34 


6 31 


10 53 


5 39 


6 26 


10 41 


10 


M 


5 30 


6 35 


11 56 


5 31 


6 33 


11 51 


5 33 


6 32 


11 47 


5 38 


6 26 


11 34 


11 


Tu 


5 28 


6 36 


A. M. 


5 29 


6 34 


A. M, 


5 31 


6 33 


A. M. 


5 37 


6 27 


A. M. 


12 


W 


5 26 


6 37 


12 47 


5 27 


6 35 


13 43 


5 29 


6 33 


12 39 


5 35 


6 28 


12 26 


13 


Th 


5 25 


6 38 


1 36 


5 26 


6 36 


1 32 


5 28 


6 34 


1 28 


5 34 


6 28 


1 16 


14 


Fr 


5 23 


6 40 


2 20 


5 24 


6 37 


2 17 


5 26 


6 35 


2 13 


5 33 


6 29 


2 3 


15 


Sa 


5 21 


6 41 


3 2 


5 22 


6 38 


2 59 


5 25 


6 36 


2 56 


5 32 


6-30 


2 48 


16 


S 


5 20 


6 42 


3 40 


5 21 


6 39 


3 38 


5 23 


6 37 


3 37 


5 30 


6 30 


3 32 


17 


M 


5 18 


6 43 


4 17 


5 19 


6 40 


4 16 


5 22 


6 38 


4 16 


5 29 


6 31 


4 14 


18 


Ta 


5 17 


6 44 


4 54 


5 18 


6 42 


4 54 


5 21 


6 39 


4 54 


5 28 


6 32 


4 56 


19 


W 


5 16 


6 45 


rises. 


5 17 


6 43 


rises. 


5 19 


6 40 


rises. 


5 27 


6 32 


rises. 


20 


Th 


5 14 


6 46 


8 19 


5 15 


6 44 


8 18 


5 18 


6 41 


8 13 


5 26 


6 34 


8 3 


21 


Fr 


5 13 


6 47 


9 30 


5 14 


6 45 


9 26 


5 17 


6 42 


9 22 


5 24 


6 35 


9 10 


22 


Sa 


5 11 


6 48 


10 36 


5 12 


6 46 


10 31 


5 15 


6 43 


10 27 


5 23 


6 35 


10 14 


23 


S 


5 10 


6 50 


11 34 


5 11 


6 47 


11 30 


5 14 


6 44 


11 25 


5 22 


6 36 


11 11 


24 


M 


5 8 


6 51 


A.M. 


5 10 


6 48 


A. M. 


5 13 


6 45 


A.M. 


5 21 


6 37 


A. M. 


25 


Tu 


5 7 


6 52 


12 25 


5 8 


6 49 


12 21 


5 11 


6 46 


12 16 


5 20 


6 37 


12 3 


26 


W 


5 5 


6 53 


1 9 


5 7 


6 50 


1 6 


5 10 


6 47 


1 2 


5 19 


6 38 


12 50 


27 


Th 


5 4 


6 54 


1 48 


5 5 


6 51 


1 45 


5 9 


6 48 


1 41 


5 18 


6 38 


1 31 


28 


Fr 


5 2 


6 55 


2 22 


5 4 


6 52 


2 19 


5 7 


6 49 


3 16 


5 17 


6 39 


2 9 


29 


Sa 


5 1 


,6 56 


3 52 


5 3 


6 53 


2 5J 


5 6 


6 50 


2 49 


5 15 


6 40 


2 43 


30 


S 


4 59 


6 58 


3 23 


5 1 


6 54 


3 22 


5 5 


6 51 


3 21 


5 14 


6 41 


3 18 














^ 






.... 















SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day of 






Day of 






Day of 




Day of 




D»v OP 




Month. 






Month. 






Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. 


M. S. 




a. 


M. 8. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




M. M, 8. 


1 


12 


4 1 


7 


12 


2 15 


13 


12 37 


19 


11 59 9 


25 


1 1 57 57 


2 


12 


3 43 


8 


12 


1 58 


14 


12 21 


20 


1 1 58 56 


26 


11 57 46 


3 


12 


3 25 


9 


12 


1 41 


15 


12 6 


21 


1 1 58 43 


27 


11 57 86 


4 


12 


3 7 


10 


12 


1 25 


16 


n 59 52 


22 


11 58 31 


28 


11 57 27 


5 


12 


2 50 


11 


12 


1 8 


17 


11 59 37 


23 


11 58 19 


29 


11 57 18 


6 


12 


2 32 


12 


12 


52 


18 


11 59 23 


24 


11 58 8 


30 


11 57 10 



TWILICHT. 



Places. 


Apr. 


BegiDS, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


Apr. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


Apr. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. U. 


Boston 


1 


4 6 


8 2 


11 


3 36 


8 16 


21 


3 25 


8 32 


New York. 


1 


4 10 


7 58 


11 


3 50 


8 12 


21 


3 31 


8 26 


Wash ' ton. 


1 


4 14 


7 54 


11 


3 56 


8 7 


21 


3 37 


8 20 


Charleston 


1 


4 24 


7 43 


11 


4 10 


7 52 


21 


3 65 


8 2 










SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








DAVOpi 1 


Day op 




Day ok 




Day or 




Day of 




Month. 




MoSTH . 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. . M. a. 




11. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. 8. 


1 


11 57 2 


8 


11 56 23 


14 


11 56 11 


20 


11 56 19 


26 


11 56 46 


2 


11 56 55 


9 


11 56 19; 


15 


11 56 11 


21 


11 56 22 


27 


11 56 53 


3 


11 56 48 


10 


11 56 16! 


16 


11 56 11 


22 


11 56 26 


28 


11 57 


4 


11 56 42 


11 


11 56 14 


17 


11 56 13 


23 


11 56 30 


29 


11 57 7 


5 


11 56 36 


12 


11 56 12 


18 


11 56 14 


24 


11 56 35 


30 


11 57 15 


6 


11 56 31 


13 


11 56 11 


19 


11 56 16 


25 


11 56 40 


31 


11 57 23 


7 


11 56 27 



















TWILIGHT. 



Places. 


May. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


May. 

! 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, r. u. 


May. 


Begins, A. M. 


Euds, p. M. 




n. M. 


H. M. 


H. U. 


H. M. 


B. M. 


H. M. 


Boston. ... 


1 


3 6 


8 48 


11 


2 47 


9 6 


21 


2 31 


9 22 


New York, 


1 


3 13 


8 40 


1 11 


2 56 


8 56 


21 


2 42 


9 11 


Wash ' ton. 


1 


3 21 


8 33 


11 


3 5 


8 47 


i 21 


2 52 


9 


Charleston 


1 


3 42 


8 21 


i 11 


1 3 30 


8 22 


1 21 


3 21 


8 32 



6th Month. 








JUNE, 1905. 








30 Days. 


c 

s 

■5 


i 

•4-1 

o 

c 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

Neiv England, N. Y. Stnte, 

Michit;an. ^Vi8cnn3in, 

N. and S, Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
New York Citv, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
" Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Norlhern California. 


Calendar for 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Kevada, 

and Central California. 


Calendar for 

Charleston, . 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern -California, 


o 

c 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sdn 
Skts. 


Moon 
R. A s. 

n. M. 

3 49 


Sun 
Rises. 

H. M. 

4 33 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

H, M. 

3 51 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 

Sets. 


Moon 
R. i s. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
R. na. 


1 


Th 


H. M. 

4 27 


H. M. 

7 29 


H. M. 

7 23 


H. M. 

4 38 


H. M. 

7 18 


H. M. 

3 54 


H. M. 

4 54 


H. 

7 


M. 

2 


H. M. 

4 3 




Fr 


4 27 


7 29 


4 24 


4 32 


7 24 


4 28 


4 37 


7 19 


4 31 


4 53 


7 


2 


4 43 


3 


Sa 


4 2(1 


7 30 


sets. 


4 32 


7 25 


sets. 


4 37 


7 19 


sets. 


4 53 


7 


o 
O 


sets. 


4 


S 


4 2G 


7 31 


8 42 


4 31 


7 25 


8 38 


4 37 


7 20 


8-33 


4 53 


7 


3 


8 20 





M 


4 25 


7 32 


9 33 


4 31 


7 20 


9 29 


4 36 


7 21 


9 25 


4 53 


7 


4 


9 11 


6 


Tu 


4 25 


7 32 


10 22 


4 30 


7 27 


10 18 


4 36 


7 21 


10 14 


4 53 


7 


4 


10 1 


/ 


W 


4 24 


7 33 


11 2 


4 30 


7 27 


10 59 


4 36 


7 22 


10 55 


4 52 


7 


5 


10 46 


8 


Til 


4 24 


7 34 


11 41 


4 29 


7 28 


11 39 


4 35 


7 22 


11 36 


4 52 


7 


6 


11 28 


9 


Fr 


4 23 


7 35 


A. M. 


4 29 


7 29 


A. y.. 


4 35 


7 2;; 


A. M. 


4 52 


7 


6 


A. JI. 


10 


^a 


4 23 


7 35 


12 13 


4 38 


7 29 


12 12 


4 34 


7 21 


12 11 


4 51 


7 


7 


12 7 


11 


S 


4 2;! 


7 36 


12 51 


4 38 


7 30 


12 50 


4 34 


7 24 


12 50 


4 51 


7 


7 


1,2 48 


12 


M 


4 22 


7 36 


1 25 


4 38 


7 30 


1 26 


4 34 


7 25 


1 26 


4 51 


7 


7 


1 27 


i;] 


Tu 


4 22 


7 36 


1 59 


4 28 


7 31 


2 1 


4 34 


7 25 


2 3 


4 51 


7 


7 


2 8 


14 


\V 


4 22 


7 36 


2 37 


4 28 


7 31 


2 41 


4 34 


7 26 


2 42 


4 51 


7 


8 


3 


15 


Til 


4 22 


7 37 


3 18 


4 38 


7 32 


'3 22 


4 34 


7 26 


3 25 


4 51 


7 


8 


3 36 


1() 


In- 


4 22 


7 37 


4 2 


4 28 


7 32 


4 8 


4 34 


7 27 


4 13 


4 51 


7 


9 


4 25 


17 


Su 


4 22 


7 37 


rises- 


4 38 


7 33 


rises. 


4 34 


7 27 


rises. 


4 51 


7 


9 


rises. 


LS 


S 


4 22 


7 3S 


. 8 55 


4 38 


7 33 


8 51 


4 34 


7 27 


8 46 


4 51 


7 


9 


8 32 


19 


M 


4 22 


7 38 


9 41 


4 28 


7 33 


9 37 


4 34 


7 28 


9 33 


4 51 


7 


10 


9 31 


2(; 


Tu 


4 22 


7 38 


10 20 


4 39 


7 33 


10 17 


4 34 


7 28 


10 14 


4 51 


7 


10 


10 4 


21 


W 


4 22 


7 39 


10 55 


4 29 


7 3;{ 


10 53 


4 34 


7 28 


10 50 


4 53 


7 


10 


10 42 


oo 


Th 


4 22 


7 39 


11 20 


4 29 


7 34 


11 24 


4 34 


7 29 


11 33 


4 52 


7 


11 


11 18 


23 


Fr 


4 23 


7 39 


11 55 


4 30 


7 34 


11 54 


4 35 


7 29 


11 53 


4 52 


7 


11 


11 50 


24 


Sa 


'4 23 


7 40 


A. M. 


4 30 


7 34 


A. M. 


4 35 


7 29 


A. M. 


4^53 


7 


11 


A. M. 


25 


S 


4 23 


7 40 


12 23 


4 30 


7 34 


12 22 


4 35 


7 29 


12 33 


4 53 


7 


11 


12 22 


26 


M 


4 23 


7 40 


12 50 


4 30 


7 34 


12 51 


4 36 


7 29 


12 52 


4 53 


7 


12 


12 54 


27 


Tu 


4 24 


7 40 


1 18 


4 31 


7 34 


1 20 


4 36 


7 29 


1 22 


4 54 


7 


12 


1 27 


28 


W 


4 24 


7 40 


1 49 


4 31 


7 34 


1 51 


4 3(i 


7 29 


1 54 


4 54 


7 


12 


2 1 


29 


Th 


4 25 


7 40 


2 22 


4 31 


7 34 


2 26 


4 37 


7 29 


2 29 


4 54 


7 


12 


2 39 


30 


Fr 


4 25 


7 40 


3 


4 33 


7 34 


3 4 


4 37 


7 29 


3 8 


4 55 


7 12 


3 20 


m 


















. 


. 











SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 










Dav of 




Day of 




Day oi- 1 


Day of 




Day of 






aioNTH. 




Month, 




MoNin. 


Month. 


' 


Month. 








H. M. S, 


11. M. s.i 




11. M. 8. 




H. M. S. 




11. 


M. «. 


1 


11 57 32 


7 ■ 


11 58 3:5 


13 ■ 


11 59 43 


19 


12 59 


25 


12 


2 17 


>> 


11 57 41 


:■: Si- 


11 58 44 


14 


11 59 5() 


20 


12 1 12 


2() 


12 


2 30 


3 


11 57 51 


ft 


] 1 58 55 


15 


12 . 8 


21 


12 1 25 


27 


32 


2 42 


4 


11 58 1 


10 


11 59 7 


16 


12 21 




12 1 38 


•28 


12 


2 55 


5 


11 58 11 


11 


11 59 19, 


17 


12 34 


23 


12 1 51 


29 


12 


3 7 


6 


11 58 22 


12 


11 59 31 


18 


12 47 


24_ 


12 2. 4 


30 


12 


3 19 



TWILIGHT. 



Places. 



Hoston 

New York.. 
Wnsh'tori., 
Churlfstnu. 



Begin*, *. M, 


Ends, p. M. 


R. M. 


H. M. 


2. 17 


9 38 


2 29 


9 26 


2 41 


9 14 


3 13 


8 43 



June. 



11 
11 
11 
11 



Begins, a. m. 
>r. M. 

2 9 

2 23 I 

3 9 1 



Ends, p. M. 


Jnne. 


H. M. 




9 51 


21 


9 37 


21 


9 24 


21 1 


8 51 


21 



Begins 


, A. M. 


H. 


M. 


2 


8 


2 


22 


o 


35 




3 


9 



Ends, p. M. 



9 41 

9 28 
8 54 



7th Month. 



JULY, 1905. 



31 Days. 



c 
o 

s 




« 


£ 


o 


"o 


5- 




1 


Sa 


2 


S 


3 


M 


4 


Tu 


5 


W 


6 


Th 


1 


Fr 


8 


Sa 


9 


S 


10 


M 


11 


Tu 


12 


W 


13 


Th 


14 


Fr ! 


15 


Sa 


16 


S 


17 


M 


18 


Tn 


19 


W 


20 


Th : 


21 


Fi- 1 


22 


Sa 1 


23 


s 1 


24 


M 1 


25 


Tu 1 


2() 


w i 


27 


Th 1 


28 


Fr 


29 


Sa 


30 


S 


31 


M 



Calendar for 

BoSTnN, 

\«^ England, N. Y. Stale, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 



Sun 


Sun 


Rises. 


Skts. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


4 26 


7 40 


4 27 


7 40 


4 27 


7 39 


4 28 


7 39 


4 29 


7 38 


4 30 


7 38 


4 31 


7 37 


4 31 


7 37 


4 32 


7 36 


4 33 


7 36 


4 34 


7 36 


4 34 


7 35 


4 35 


7 35 


4 36 


7 34 


4 37 


7 34 


4 37 


7 33 


4 38 


7 33 


4 39 


7 32 


4 40 


7 32 


4 40 


7 31 


4 41 


7 31 


4 42 


7 30 


4 43 


7 30 


4 44 


7 29 


4 45 


7 29 


4 46 


7 28 


4 47 


7 27 


4 48 


7 26 


4 49 


7 25 


4 50 


7 24 


4 51 


7 22 



Moon 

R. ± S. 



3 43 
sets. 

8 18 

9 2 
9 43 

10 20 

10 54^ 

11 33 

A. M. I 

12 2 
12 37i 

1 16i 

1 58i 

2 46 

3 40 

4 37 
rises, i 

8 54 

9 26 
9 56 

10 24 

10 52 

11 20 

11 48 

A. M. 

12 21 
12 56 

i 37 

2 23 

3 17 

4 17 



Crttemifir for 

New Youk Citv, 

Connecticut, Feunsyl' 

vAuia, Ohio, Indiaoa, 

Illinois Nebraska, aud 

Northern California. 



Sun 


Sun 


Rises. 


Sets. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


4 32 


7 35 


4 33 


7 35 


4 33 


7 34 


4 34 


7 34 


4 35 


7 33 


4 35 


7 33 


4 36 


7 32 


4 37 


7 32 


4 37 


7 31 


4 38 


7 31 


4 39 


7 30 


4 39 


7 30 


4 40 


7 30 


4 41 


7 29 


4 42 


7 29 


4 42 


7 28 


4 43 


7 28 


4 44 


7 27 


4 44 


7 27 


4 45 


7 26 


4 46 


7 26 


4 46 


7 25 


4 47 


7 25 


4 48 


7 24 


4 49 


7 23 


4 50 


7 23 


4 51 


7 22 


4 52 


7 21 


4 53 


7 20 


4 54 


7 19 


4 55 


7 18 



Moon 



3 48 
sets. 
8 13 



8 

9 

10 



59 
40 

18 



10 53 

11 33 

A. M. I 

12 3 

12 40 



19 
2 
51 
44 
41 



rises, j 

8 52 

9 24 
9 55| 

10 241 

10 52 

11 21; 

11 50 

A. M. 

12 24 





41 
28 
21 
21 



Calendar for 

AV A9HINOTON, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Utali, Nevada, 

and Central California. 



Sun 


Sun 


Rises. 


Sets. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


4 38 


7 29 


4 39 


7 29 


4 39 


7 28 


4 40 


7 28 


4 41 


7 27 


4 41 


7 27 


4 42 


7 27 


4 42 


7 26 


4 43 


7 26 


4 44 


7 26 


4 44 


7 25 


4 45 


7 25 


4 46 


7 24 


4 46 


7 24 


4 47 


7 23 


4 47 


7 23 


4 48 


7 23 


4 49 


7 22 


4 49 


7 22 


4 50 


7 21 


4 51 


7 21 


4 51 


7 20 


4 52 


7 20 


4 53 


7 19 


4 54 


7 18 


4 55 


7 18 


4 56 


7 17 


4 57 


7 16 


4 58 


7 15 


4 58 


7 14 


4 59 


7 13 



Moon 

R. 4 9. 



3 53 
sets. 
8 9 

8 55 

9 37, 
10 16 

10 53 

11 33 

' A. M. 

12 4 
12 42 



22 
6 
55 
49 
46 



nses. 

8 48 

9 22 
9 54 

10 24 

10 53 

11 22 

11 53 

A.M. 

12 27 
1 3 



45 
32 
26 
25 



c.-ilpudar for 

<'h ari.eston, 

Georgifl, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern California, 



Sun 
Riass. 



55 

55 

56 

56 

57 

58 

58 

59 

59 





1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

5 

6 

7 

7 

8 

9 

9 

10 

11 

11 

12 



Sum 
Sets. 

H. M. i 

7 12, 
7 12, 
7 11 
7 lli 
7 11 
7 10 
7 10 

7 lo; 

7 9 



Moon 

R. A B. 



4 6 
f-etP. 

7 57 

8 44 

9 29 
10" 10 

10 50 

11 33 

A. M. 

12 8 
12 48 

1 32 



18 
9 
3 




rises. 

8 39 

9 16 
9 49 

10 23 

10 54 

11 26 
A. M. 

12 
12 35 



14 
58 
46 
39 
37 













SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 










Day of 






D»Y OF 






Day of 

MONTH. 




Day op 






Day of 




Month. 






Month. 








Month. 






Month. 






H. 


M. S. 




H. 


M. 8. 


H. M. S. 




H. 


M. S. 




H. M. S. 


1 


12 


3 31 


8 


12 


4 46 


14 


12 5 35 


20 


12 


6 6 


26 


12 6 17 


2 


12 


3 43 


9 


12 


4 55i 


15 


12 5 41 


21 


12 


6 9 


27 


12 6 17 


3 


12 


3 54 


10 


12 


5 4 


16 


12 5 47 


22 


12 


6 12 


28 


12 6 17 


4 


12 


4 5 


11 


12 


5 12 


17 


12 5 53 


23 


12 


6 14: 


29 


12 6 16 


5- 


12 


4 16 


12 


12 


5 20 


18 


12 5 57 


24 


12 


6 16! 


30 


12 6 14 


6 


12 


4 26 


13 


12 


5 28 


19 


12 6 2 


25 


12 


6 17 


31 


12 6 11 


7 


12 


4 36! 































TWILICHT. 










Places. 


July. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, p. M. 


Jn!y. 


Segins, A. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


July. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, p. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston 


1 


2 14 


9 54 


11 


2 24 


9 45 


21 


2 39 


9 34 


New York. 


1 


2 27 


9 40 


11 


2 37 


9 34 


21 


2 49 


9 23 


Wash' ton.. 


1 


2 40 


9 27 


11 


2 49 


9 22 


21 


3 


9 12 


Charleston. 


1 


3 13 


8 54 


11 


3 20 


8 50 


21 


3 29 


8 43 



8tii Month. 






AUGUST, 1905, 






■ 


81 Da 


vs. 

or 

N, 

aiiia. 
s. New 
ina, 
ifornia. 


-a 

•s 


1 

& ■ 

i 

■s 

5- 

a 


Calendar for i 

BOSTO.V, 1 

New England, N.Y. State, 
Michigan. Wisconsin, j 
N. and 8. Dakota, 
and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
Nkw York City, 

Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washinoton, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 

Dtah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 


Calendar f 

Chablesto 

Georgia, Alab 

Louisiana, Texa 

Mexico, Ariz 

and Southern Ca 


"o 

5- 

o 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sbtb. 


Moon 

K. « S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


, 1 

Sun Moon 
Sets. r. * s. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. <t S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 


1 


Tu 


H. U. 

4 52 


H. M. 

7 21 


II. M. 

sets. 1 


H. M. 

4 56 


H. M. H. M. 

7 17j sets. 


H. M. 

5 


H. M. 

7 12 


H. M. 

sets. 


H. M. 

5 13 


H. M. 

6 59 


H. M. 

sets. 


2iW 


4 53 


7 20 


8 19 


4 57 


7 16 8 17 


5 1 


7 11 


8 15 


5 14 


6 58 


8 8 


3Th 


4 54 


7 18 


8 56 


4 58 


7 15 8 54 


5 2 


7 10 


8 53 


5 14 


6 57 


8 49 


4Fr 


4 55 


7 18 


9 311 


4 59 


7 13 9 31 


5 3 


7 9 


9 30 


5 15 


6 56 


9 30 


5Sa 


4 56 


7 17 


10 5 


5 


7 12 10 6j 


5 4 


7 8 


10 6 


5 16 


6 55 


10 8 


6)S 


4 57 


7 16 10 39 


5 1 


7 1110 41 


5 5 


7 7 


10 43 


5 16 


6 54 


10 49 


7M 


4 58 


7 1411 17 


5 2 


7 1011 20 


5 5 


7 6 


11 23 


5 17 


6 54 


11 31 


8,Tu 


4 59 


7 13 


11 58 


5 3 


7 9 a.m. 


5 6 


7 5 


A.M. 


5 18 


6 53 


A. M. 


9W 


5 


7 11 


A. M. 


5 3 


7 7,12 1 


5 7 


7 4 


12 5 


5 18 


6 52 


12 16 


lOTh 


5 1 


7 10 


12 43 


5 4 


7 612 47 


5 8 


7 2 


12 52 


5 19 


6 51 


1 5 


llFr 


5 2 


7 9 


1 33 


5 5 


7 4' 1 38 


5 9 


7 1 


1 42 


5 20 


6 50 


1 56 


12,Sa 


5 3 


7 7 


2 28 


5 6 


7 3 


2 33 


5 10 


6 59 


2 37 


5 21 


6 49 


2 51 


13 S 


5 4 


7 5 


3 27 


5 7 


7 1 


3 31 


5 11 


6 58 


3 35 


5 21 


6 48 


3 48 


14 M 


5 5 


7 4 


4 27 


5 8 


7 4 30 


5 12 


6 56 


4 34 


5 22 


6 46 


4 45 


ISlTu 


5 6 


7 2 rises. 1 


5 9 


6 58 rises. 


5 13 


6 55 


rises. 


5 23 


6 45 


rises. 


16 W 


5 7 


7 1 


7 56 


5 10 


6 57 7 55 


5 14 


6 58 


7 53 


5 23 


6 44 


7 48 


17Th 


5 8 


6 59 


8 25 


5 11 


6 55 8 25 


5 14 


6 52 


8 25 


5 24 


6 43 


8 22 


18,Fr 


5 9 


6 57 


8 53 


5 12 


6 54 8 531 


5 15 


6 51 


8 54 


5 25 


6 42 


8 54 


19'Sa 


5 10 


6 56 


9 21 


5 13 


6 52 


9 21 


5 16 


6 49 


9 23 


5 26 


6 41 


9 26 


20,S 


5 11 


6 54 


9 49 


5 14! 6 51 


9 51 


5 17 


6 48 


9 53 


5 26 


6 39 


9 59 


21 iM 


5 12 


6 53 


10 20 


5 15 6 49 10 22i 


5 18 


6 47 


10 25 


5 27 


6 38 


10 33 


22 Tu 


5 13 


6 51 


10 53 


5 16 


6 48 10 56 


5 19 


6 45 


11 


5 28 


6 37 


11 10 


23 W 


5 14 


6 49 11 31 


5 17 


6 46 11 35 


5 20 


6 44 


11 39 


5 28 


6 36 


11 51 


24 Th 


5 15 


6 48 A. M. 


5 18 


6 45' A. M. 


5 21 


6 42 


A. M. 


5 29 


6 35 


A.M. 


25 Fr 


5 16 


6 46 12 14 


5 19 


6 4312 18 


5 22 


6 41 


12 22 


5 30 


6 34 12 35 


26 Sa 


5 17 


6 45 


1 3 


5 20 


6 42! 1 8 


5 23 


6 39 


1 12 


5 30 


6 32 


1 26 


27 S 


5 18 


6 43 


1 59 


5 21 


6 40 2 4 


5 23 


6 38 


2 8 


5 31 


6 31 


2 21 


28 M 


5 19 


6 41 


3 2 


5 22 


6 39 3 6 


5 24 


6 37 


3 9 


5 32 


6 30 


3 21 


29 Tu 


5 20 


6 40 


4 9 


5 23 6 37 


4 12 


5 25 


6 35 


4 15 


5 32 


6 29 


4 25 


30 W 


5 21 


6 38 


sets. 


5 24, 6 36 


sets. 


5 26 


6 34 


sets. 


5 33 


6 28 


sets. 


31 Th 


1 5 22 


6 37 


7 28 


5 251 6 34 7 28 


5 27 


6 32 


7 27 


5 33 


6 26 


7 25 













SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 










Day of 






Dav of 






Dav op 






Day of 






Day OF 




Month. 






Month. 






Month. 






Month. 






Month. 






H. 


M. S. 




n. 


M. a. 




H. 


M. 8. 




H. 


M. 9. 




H. M. H 


1 


12 


6 9 


8 


12 


5 30 


14 


12 


4 34 


20 


12 


3 19 


26 


12 1 46 


2 


12 


6 5 


9 


12 


5 22 


15 


12 


4 23 


21 


12 


3 4 


27 


12 1 30 


3 


12 


6 1 


10 


12 


5 14 


16 


12 


4 11 


22 


12 


2 50 


28 


12 1 13 


4 


12 


5 56 


11 


12 


5 5 


17 


12 


3 59 


23 


12 


2 34 


29 


12 55 


5 


12 


5 50 


12 


12 


4 55 


18 


12 


3 46 


24 


12 


2 19 


30 


12 37 


6 


12 


5 44 


13 


12 


4 45 


19 


12 


3 33 


25 


12 


2 3 


31 


12 19 


7 


12 


5 38 

























TWILIGHT. 



Places. 



Boston 

New York. 
Wash ' ton. 
Charleston. 



AJJg- 



Begins, A. M. 



2 57 

3 6 
3 15 
3 40 



Ends, p. M. 



9 16 
9 6 
8 57 
8 32 



Aug. 

11 
11 
11 
11 



Begins, A. M. 


Enda, p. m. 


Aug. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


3 13 


8 57 


21 


3 22 


8 48 


21 


3 29 


8 41 


21 


3 50 


8 20 


21 



Begiua, A. M. 



3 29 
3 35 
3 41 
3 59 



Ends, F. M. 



8 37 
8 31 
8 24 
8 7 





9th Month. 






SEPTEMBER 


, 1905. 






30 Days. 






calendar for | 


c 


niendar for 


Calendar for 


Calendar for 








Boston . 


New 


York Citv. 


W 


A3HINOTON, | 


ClIARI.ESTOM. 


a 


J4 


New EngUurt, N. Y. State, 


Connecticut, Pennsyl- | 


\ irgi 


nia, Keuturky, 


<>eotgia, Alabama, 


i 


8 


Mlchi{, 


ran. Wisconsin. ; 


rani.'i 


Ohio, iDdiaoa, 


Missouri 


Kansaa, Colorado, 


Loiiisiaim, Texas, New 


iT 


^ 


N. »nil S. Daltota, 


Illinois. Nebraska, and I 


Utah, Nevada, 


Mexico, Arizona, 


2 


o 


aUil Oregou. 


Nort 


lern CaliforoU. 


. and CeDtral'California. 


and Southern California. 


o 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Sun 


SCN 


Moon 


Sun 


Sum 


Moon 


Sun 


Sun 


Moo.i 


Q 


a 


Rises. 

H. M. 


Sets. 

H. M. 


n. * 8. 

H. U. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


B. S B. 


Rises. 

H. M. 


Sbt8. 


B. 4 8. 


Rises. 

H. M. 


Sets. 


B. as. 






H. U. 


H. H. 


B, U. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. H. 


H. U. 


1 


Fr 


5 22 


6 85 


8 4 


5 26 


6 33 


8 4 


5 28 


6 31 


8 6; 


5 34 


6 25 


8 6 


2 


Sa 


5 24 


6 33 


8 40 


5 27 


6 33 


8 41 


5 29 


6 30 


8 43 


5 35 


6 24 


8 47 


3 


S 


5 25 


6 33 


9 17 


5 38 


6 30 


9 19 


: 5^30 


6 29 


9 32 


5 36 


6 23 


9 30 


4 


M 


5 26 


6 30 


9 57| 


5 3'J 


6 28 


10 


5 31 


6 37 


10 4 


5 36 


6 31 


10 14 


5 


Tu 


5 27 


6 28 


10 43 


5 30 


6 27 


10 46 


5 32 


6 35 


10 50 


5 37 


6 20 


11 3 


6 


W 


5 28 


6 27 


11 30 


5 31 


6 25 


11 35 


5 33 


6 34 


11 39 


5 37 


6 19 


11 53 


7 


Th 


5 29 


6 35 


A. M. 


5 33 


6 23 


A. M. 


5 33 


6 22 


A. M. 


5 38 


6 17 


A. M. 


8 


Fr 


5 30 


6 23 


12 23 


5 33 


6 22 


13 38 


5 34 


6 21 


12 32 


5 39 


6 16 


12 47 


9 


Sa 


5 31 


6 21 


1 20: 


5 34 


6 20 


1 34 


5 35 


6 19 


1 29 


5 39 


6 15 


1 42 


10 


S 


5 33 


6 20 


2 19 


5 35 


6 18 


2 23 


5 36 


6 17 


2 27, 


5 40 


6 14 


3 38 


11 


M 


5 34 


6 18 


3 19 


5 36 


6 17 


3 22 


5 37 


6 16 


3 25 


5 41 


6 13 


3 35 


12 


Tu 


5 35 


6 16 


4 19 


5 37 


6 15 


4 22 


5 38 


6 14 


4 24 


5 41 


6 11 


4 31 


13W 


5 36 


6 14 


rises. 


5 38 


6 13 


rises. 


5 39 


6 13 


rises. 


5 42 


6 10 


rises. 


14 Th 


5 37 


6 13 


6 55 


5 39 


6 12 


6 54 


5 40 


6 11 


6 54 


5 43 


6 8 


6 54 


15 Fr 


5 38 


6 11 


7 23 


5 40 


6 10 


7 23 


5 41 


6 9 


7 24 


5 43 


6 7 


7 26 


16 


Sa 


5 39 


6 9 


7 51 


5 41 


6 8 


7 52 


5 42 


6 8 


7 54 


5 44 


6 6 


7 58 


17 


S 


5 41 


6 7 


8 20 


5 42 


6 7 


8 23 


5 43 


6 6 


8 25 


5 45 


6 4 


8 33 


18 


M 


5 42 


6 5 


8 52 


5 43 


6 5 


8 55 


5 43 


6 5 


8 59 


5 45 


6 3 


9 8 


19 


Tu 


5 43 


6 4 


9 28 


5 44 


6 3 


9 31 


5 44 


6 3 


9 35 


5 46 


6 2 


9 46 


20 


VV 


5 44 


6 2 


10 8 


5 45 


6 2 


10 12 


5 45 


6 1 


10 16 


5 47 


6 


10 29 


21 


Th 


5 45 


6 


10 53 


5 46 


6 


10 58 


5 46 


6 


11 2 


5 47 


5 59 


11 15 


22 


Fr 


5 46 


5 59 


11 45 


5 47 


5 58 


11 50 


5 47 


5 58 


11 54 


5 48 


5 58 


A.M. 


23 Sa 


5 47 


5 57 


A. M. 


5 48 


5 57 


A. M. 


5 48 


5 56 


A. M. 


5 48 


5 56 


12 8 


24S 


5 48 


5 55 


12 43 


5 49 


5 55 


12 47 


5 49 


5 55 


12 51 


5 49 


5 55 


1 4 


25 M 


5 49 


5 53 


1 47 


5 50 


5 54 


1 50 


5 50 


5 53 


1 54 


5 49 


5 53 


2 5 


26! Tu 


5 50 


5 52 


2 55 


5 51 


5 52 


2 58 


5 51 


5 51 


3 1 


5 50 


5 53 


3 9 


27iW 


5 51 


5 50 


4 7 


5 53 


5 50 


4 9 


5 52 


5 50 


4 10 


5 51 


5 51 


4 16 


28 Th 


5 53 


5 48 


sets. 


5 53 


5 49 


sets. 


5 53 


5 48 


sets. 


5 52 


5 49 


sets. 


29 Fr 


5 53 


5 47 


6 34 


5 54 


5 47 


6 35 


5 54 


5 47 


6 36 


5 52 


5 48 


6 40 


30 Sa 


5 55 


5 45 


7 12 


5 55 


5 45 


7 14 


5 54 


5 45 


7 16 


5 53 


5 47 


7 23 









SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day of 




DiV o» 




DlY OF 




Day of 




Dat of 




Month. 




Month. 


, 


Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. M. 8. 




H. M. 8. 


H. M. S. 




H. M. 8. 




H. M. 8. 


1 


12 


7 


11 58 3 


13 


11 55 59 


19 


11 53 51 


25 


11 51 46 


2 


11 59 42 


8 


11 57 43i 


14 


11 55 38 


20 


11 53 30 


26 


11 51 25 


3 


11 59 33 


9 


11 57 23j 


15 


11 55 16 


21 


11 53 9 


27 


11 51 5 


4 


11 59 3 


10 


11 57 2 


16 


11 54 55 


22 


11 53 48 


28 


11 50 45 


5 


11 58 44 


11 


11 56 41 


17 


11 54 34 


23 


11 53 27 


29 


11 50 25 


6 


11 58 24 


13 


11 56 30 


18 


11 54 13 


24 


11 52 6 


30 


11 50 6 



TWILICHT. 



Places. 


Sept. 


Begins, a. h. 


Endf, r. m. 


Sept. 


Begins, a. m. 


Eodi, r. M. 


Sspl. 


Bsgina, A. M. 

H. M. 


Eodi, P. H. 






H. M. 


H. M. 


n. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston 


1 


3 45 


8 14 


11 


3 59 


7 54 


21 


4 12 


7 34 


New York . 


1 


3 50 


8 9 


11 


4 3 


7 50 


21 


4 15 


7 31 


Wash' ton. 


1 


3 55 


8 4 


11 


4 7 


7 46 


21 


4 18 


7 28 


Charleston 


1 


4 9 


7 51 


11 


4 17 


7 36 


21 


4 20 


7 20 





10th Month 


• 




OCTOBER, 


1905. 






31 Days. 


g 


: 

is ■ 

e 

o 


Calendar for 

BosTO^, 

New EnRlami, N. Y. Stale, 

^^t■higaD, Wisconaiu, 

N. and B. Dakota, 

and Oregon. 


Calendar for 
Nbw York.Citv, 
Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, 

Illinois, Nebraska, and 
Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washingtom, 

Virginia, Kcntiickj-, 

Missouri. Kansas, Colorado, 

Utah, Nevada, 

and Central California. 


C»l*iidar for 

CHARtKST^tN. 

Georgia, AUhaiiift. 
LoiiiaiaiKi, Texas, New 

Mexico, Arizona, 
aud Soulhero Califoruia. 




Sun 
Risen. 

H. M. 

5 56 


Sun 
Sbts. 


Moon 

B. .t 8. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

B. A S. 


Sun 

RlSES^ 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. A S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. 4 S. 


1 


S 


H. M. 

5 43 


H. .M. 

7 52 


H. M. 

5 56 


H, M. 

5 44 


H. M. 

7 55 


H. 

5 


M. 

55 


H. M. 

5 44 


H. M. 

7 58 


H. U. 

5 54 


R. M. 

5 46 


H. M. 

8 8 


2 


M 


5 57 


5 41 


8 36 


5 57 


5 42 


8 40 


5 


56 5 42 


8 44 


5 54 


5 44 


8 56 


3 


Tu 


5 58 


5 40 


9 25 


5 58 


5 40 


9 30 


5 


57 5 41 


9 34 


5 55 


5 43 


9 48 


4 


VV 


6 


5 38 


10 18 


5 59 


5 39 


10 22 


5 


58 5 39 


10 27 


5 56 


5 42 


10 41 


5 


Th 


6 1 


5 36 


11 14 


6-0 


5 37 


11 19 


5 


59 


5 38 


11 23 


5 56 


5 40 


11 37 


6 


Fr 


6 2 


5 34 


A. M. 


6 1 


5 35 


A. M. 


6 





5 36 


A.M. 


5 57 


5 39 


A. M. 


7 


Sa 


6 3 


5 33 


12 13 


6 2 


5 34 


12 17 


6 


1 


5 35 


12 21 


5 58 


5 38 


12 34 


8 


S 


6 4 


5 31 


1 13 


6 3 


5 32 


1 16 


6 


2 5 33 


1 20 


5 59 


5 36 


1 30 


9 


M 


6 5 


5 29 


2 13 


6 4 


5 30 


2 15 


6 


3 


5 31 


2 18 


5 59 


5 35 


2 26 


10 


Tu 


6 6 


5 27 


3 12 


6 5 


5 39 


3 13 


6 


4 


5 30 


3 15 


6 


5 34 


3 21 


11 


VV 


6 7 


5 26 


4 10 


6 6 


5 27 


4 11 


6 


5 


5 28 


4 12 


6 1 


5 33 


4 15 


12 


Th 


6 8 


5 24 


5 8 


6 7 


5 26 


5 8 


6 


6 


5 27 


5 8 


6 2 


5 32 


5 8 


13 


Fr 


6 9 


5 23 


rises. 


6 8 


5 24 


rises. 


6 


7 


5 26 


rises. 


6 2 


5 31 


rises. 


14 


Sa 


6 10 


5 21 


6 22 


6 9 


5 22 


6 24 


6 


8 


5 24 


6 26 


6 3 


5 29 


6 33 


15 


S 


6 12 


5 20 


6 53 


6 10 


5 21 


6 56 


6 


9 


5 23 


6 59 


6 4 


5 28 


7 7 


16 


M 


6 13 


5 18 


7 27 


6 12 


5 20 


7 31 


6 


10 


5 21 


7 34 


6 5 


5 27 


7 44 


17 


Tu 


6 14 


5 16 


8 5 


6 13 


5 18 


8 9 


6 


11 


5 20 


8 J3 


6 5 


5 26 


8 25 


18 


W 


6 15 


5 15 


8 48 


6 14 


5 17 


8 52 


6 


12 


5 18 


8 57 


6 6 


5 25 


9 10 


19 


Th 


6 16 


i) 13 


9 36 


6 15 


5 15 


9 41 


6 


13 


5 17 


9 45 


6 7 


5 23 


9 59 


20 


Fr 


6 18 


5 12 


10 30 


6 16 


5 14 


10 35 


6 


14 


5 16 


10 39 


6 8 


5 22 


10 52 


21 


Sa 


6 19 


5 10 


11 30 


6 17 


5 12 


11 34 


6 


15 


5 14 


11 38 


6 8 


5 21 


11 49 


22 


S 


6 20 


5 9 


A. M. 


6 18 


5 11 


A. M. 


6 


16 


5 13 


A. M. 


6 9 


5 20 


A.M. 


23 


M 


6 21 


5 7 


12 34 


6 19 


5 9 


12 37 


6 


17 


5 12 


12 41 


.6 10 


5 19 


12 50 


24 


Tu 


6 23 


5 6 


1 42 


6 20 


5 8 


1 45 


6 


18 


5 10 


1 47 


6 11 


5 18 


1 54 


25 


W 


6 24 


5 4 


2 54 


6 22 


5 7 


2 55 


6 


19 


5 9 


2 56 


6 11 


5 17 


3 1 


26 


Th 


6 25 


5 3 


4 7 


6 23 


5 5 


4 7 


6 


20 


5 8 


4 7 


6 12 


5 16 


4 8 


27 


Fr 


6 26 


5 1 


5 22 


6 24 


5 4 


5 21 


6 


21 


5 7 


5 20 


6 13 


5 15 


5 17 


28 


Sa 


6 27 


5 


set8. 


6 25 


5 3 


sets. 


6 


22 


5 6 


sets. 


6 14 


5 14 


sets. 


29 


S 


6 29 


4 59 


6 26 


6 26 


5 1 


6 29 


6 


23 


5 4 


6 33 


6 14 


5 13 


6 44 


30 


M 


6 30 


4 57 


7 12 


6 27 


5 


7 17 


6 


24 


5 3 


7 21 


6 15 


5 12 


7 35 


31 


Tu 


6 31 


4 56 


8 6 


G 28 


4 59 


8 11 


6 25 


5 2 


8 16 


6 16 


5 11 


8 30 









SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day of 




Day op 




Day op 




Dav of 




Day of 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 






H. M. a. 


, 


R. M. S. 




H. M. s. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. S. 


1 


11 49 47 


8 


11 47 40 


14 


11 46 7 


20 


11 44 54 


26 


11 44 5 


2 


11 49 27 


9 


11 47 23' 


15 


11 45 54 


21 


11 44 44 


27 


11 43 59 


3 


11 49 9 


10 


11 47 7 


16 


11 45 41 


22 


11 44 35 


28 


11 43 54 


4 


11 48 50 


11 


11 46 52 


17 


11 45 28 


23 


11 44 26 


29 


11 43 50 


5 


11 48 32 


12 


11 46 36 


18 


11 45 16 


24 


11 44 18 


30 


11 43 46 


6 


11 48 14 


13 


11 46 22 


19 


11 45 5 


25 


11 44 11 


31 


11 43 43 


7 


11 47 57 






■^ ^ 













TWILICHT. 



Plaoks. 



Boston 

New York. 
Wash ' ton 
Charleston 



Oct. 


Begins, a. m. 




H. M. 


1 


4 24 


1 


4 26 


1 


4 27 


1 


4 32 



7 15 
7 14 
7 12 

7 7 



Oct. 


Beglus, A. M. 




H, M. 


11 


4 85 


11 


4 36 


11 


4 37 


11 


4 39 



Euda, p. M. 


Oct. 


BCKMIS. A. M.- 


H. M. 




M. M. 


6 58 


21 


- 5 20 


6 57 


21 


5 18 


6 56 


21 


5 16 


6 54 


21 


6 10 



Euda, p. M. 

H. M. 

•0 12 
6 14 
6 16 
6 23 





Uth Month 


• 




NOVEMBER, 


1905. 






30 Days. 


1 
s 

£ 


M 

s : 

1 i 
"3 

5- 

a 

W 


Culoudar f»r 

BOSTOM, 

New EuRlond N. Y. SUIe, 

MicliigHn, Wiaconsin, 

N. and 8. Dakota, 

and Orsgon. 


Calendar for 
Nbw York Citv, 
Connecticut. Pennsvl- 
1 vanlft, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Nebraska, and 
1 Northern California. 
1 


Calendar for 
Wasminqton, 
. Virginia, Kentucky, 
JMiBSOuri, KansH.<t, Colorado, 
1 Utah, Nevada, 
j and Cantral California. 


Calendar for 

Charlksto.n, 

Georgia, Alahnma, 

Louisiana, Texas, Neiv 

Mexico, Arizona, 
and Southern California. 


e 


Sum 

Rl.1E«. 


Sow 
Skts. 


Moon 
R. * a. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sum 
Seti. 


Moon 
B. 4 a. 


Sbn 
RiBEa. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. A S. 


Sun 
Risks. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 

R. A %. 


1 


H. M. 

6 32 


H. M. 

4 54 


H. M. 

9 4 


H. M. 

6 30 


H. u. 

4 57 


H. M. 

9 8 


n. M. 

6 26 


H. M. 

5 


H. M. 

9 13 


H. M. 

6 17 


H. M. 

5 10 


H. M. 

9 27 


2 


Th 


6 34 


4 53 


10 4 


6 31 


4 56 


10 8' 


6 37 


4 59 


10 12 


6 17 


5 9 10 86 


3 


Fr 


6 35 


4 53 11 4 


6 32 


4 55 


11 7 


6 29 


4 59 


11 12 


6 18 


5 8 11 23 


4 


Sa 


6 36 


4 51 A. M. 


, 6 33 


4 54 


A. M. 


6 30 


4 58 


A. M. 


6 19 


5 8 A. i\T. 


5 


S 


6 37 


4 50 12 5 


. 6 34 


4 53 


12 8 


6 31 


4 57 


12 11 


6 20 


5 7 13 20 


6 


M 


6 39 


4 49 


1 5 


6 35, 


.4 53 


1 7' 


a 33 


4 56 


1 10 


6 31 


5 61 1 16 


7 


Tu 


6 40 


4 48 


2 4 


6 371 


4 51 


2 5' 


6 33 


-4 55 


2 6 


6 22 


5 6i 8 10 


8 


W 


6 41 


4 47 


?, 2 


6 38 


"4 50 


3 2! 


6 34 


4 54 


3 2 


6 33 


5 5! 3 4 


9 


Th 


6 42 


4 46 


3 59 


6 39 


4 49 


3 58' 


6 35 


4 53 


3 58 


6 84 


5 4 3 56 


10 


Fr 


6 44 


4 45 


4 56 


6 40 


4 48 


4 55: 


6 36 


4 52 


4 53 


6 85 


5 4 4 49 


11 


Sa 


6 45 


4 44 rises. 


6 41 


4 47 


rises. 


6 37 


4 51^ 


rises. 


6 26 


5 Siripes. 


13 


S 


6 40 


4 43 


5 38 


6 43 


4 46 


5 31 


6 38 


4 51 


5 34 


6 26 


5 8! 5 45 


13 


M 


6 47 


4 43 


6 5 


6 44 


4 46 


6 8 


6 40 


4 50 


6 12 


6 37 


5 2 


6 24 


14 


Tu 


6 49 


4 41 


6 46 


6 45 


4 45 


6 50 


6 41 


4 49 


6 55 


6 38 


5 1 


7 8 


15 


W 


6 50 


4 40 


7 33 


6 46 


4 44 


7 37 


6 43 


4 48 


7 4l! 


6 39 


5 


7 55 


16 


Th 


6 51 


4 39 


8 24 


6 47 


4 43 


8 28: 


6 43 


4 47 


8 33: 


6 30 


5 8 47 


17 


Fr 


6 52 


4 38 


9 21 


6 48 


4 42 


9 25 


6 44 


4 46 


9 29: 


6 31 


4 59 9 42 


18 


Sa 


6 54 


4 37 10 32 


6 50 


4 41 


10 26 


6 45 


4 45 


10 39 


6 33 


4 5810 40 


19 


S 


6 55 


4 36 11 27 


6 51 


4 40 


11 39 


6 46 


4 44 


11 32 


6 33 


4 58 11 40 


20 


M 


6 56 


4 35 A.M. 


6 53 


4 39 


A. M. 1 


6 47 


4 44 


A. M. 


6 34 


4 57 A. M. 


21 


Tu 


6 57 


4 34 13 34 


6 53 


4 38 


12 36 


6 48 


4 43 


18 39 


6 35 


4 57jl2 43 


23 


W 


6 59 


4 33 1 44 


6 54 


4 38 


1 45 


6 50 


4 43, 1 45| 


6 36 


4 56 


1 48 


23 


Th 


7 


4 33 2 56 


6 55 


4 37 


2 55 


6 51 


4 42 


3 55! 


6 37 


4 56 


2 54 


24 


Fr 


7 1 


4 33 4 10 


6 56 


4 37 


4 8 


6 53 


4 42 


4 6[ 


6 38 


4 56 


4 2 


25 


Sa 


7 2 


4 33 5 35 


6 57 


4 37 


5 22 


6 53 


4 41 


5 20 


6 39 


4 55 


5 13 


26 


S 


7 3 


4 31 


sets. 


6 58 


4 36 


fiets. j 


6 54 


4 41 


sets. 


6 40 


4 55 


sets. 


27 


M 


7 4 


4 31 


5 50 


7 


4 36 


5 54 


6 55 


4 41 


5 59 


6 40 


4 55 


6 12 


28 


Tu 


7 5 


4 31 


6 46 


7 1 


4 35 


6 51 


6 56 


4 40 


6 55 


6 41 


4 55 


7 10 


29 


W 


7 6 


4 30 


7 46 


7 2 


4 35 


7 5ll 


6 57 


4 40 


7 56 


6 43 


4 55 


8 10 


30 


Th 


7 8 


4 30 


8 50 


7 3 


4 35 


8 54 


6 58 


4 40: 8 58 

■ i 


6 43 


4 54! 9 10 

] 


' 














!• •—•-.■)• 









SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Day OF 




Day OF 




Day OF • 


• 


Day OF 




Day OF 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 

* 




Month. 




Month. 






n. M. s. 




H. M. S, 


h; m. «. 




H. M. a J 




H. M. S. 


1 


11 43 42 


7 


11 43 47 


13 


11 44 31 


19 


11 45 26 


25 


fl 47 3 


3 


11 43 40 


8 


11 43 50 


14 


11 44 30 


30 


11 45 40 


86 


11 47 20 


3 


11 43 40 


9 


11 43 55 


15 


11 44 40 


31 


11 45 55 


37 


11 47 40 


4 


11 43 40 


10 


11 44 


16 


11 44 50 


33 


11 46 10 


. 88 


11 48 


5 


11 43 42 


11 


11 44 6 


17 


11 45 1 


23 


11 46 27 


39 


11 48 21 


6 


11 43 44 


13 


11 44 13 


18 


11 45 13i 


::"34 


11 46 44 


30 


11 48 43 


■^ 





















TWILIGHT. 



Places. 


Nov. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, e. m. 


Nov. 


Begins, A. M. 


Ends, p. u. 


Nov. 


Begins, a. m. 

H. M. 


Ends, p. M. 






H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


Boston.*... 


1 


4 58 


6 29 


11 


5 9 


V 6 19 


21 


, 5 20 


6 12 


New Yoi-k, 


1 


4 58 


6 29 


11 


5 8 


6 20 


21 


5^18 


6 14 


Wash 'ton. 


1 


4 57 


6 30 


11 


5 7 


6 31 


21 


5 16 


6 16 


Cliarleston 


1 


4 54 


33 


11 


5 3 


■6 36 


81 


5 10 


6 23 



J 





12th Month 






DECE3IBER, 


1905. 






31 Days. 






Calendar for 


Calendar for 




Calendar for 


Calendar for 


M 


, 


Boston, 


New 


T YOBK CiTV, 




Washington, 


Chahlebton, 






New Englaud. N. Y. StaU, 


Conuei 


ticut, PeunByl- 


\ 


ireinia, Kentucky, 


Georgia, Alabanja, 


% 


> 


Michigan, Wtscousiu, 


vania, 


Ohio, ludiana, 


Missouri, Kansas, Colorado. 1 


Louisiana, Texas, New 


N. and S. Dakota, 


Illinois 


, Nebraska, and 




UUh, Nevada, 1 


Mexico, Arirona, 


i 


1 
a- 


and Oregon. 


North 


}rn California, 


an 


i Central California. ! 

1 


and Southern California. 


t 
fr 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Su 


n 


Sun 


Moon I 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


a 


o 


Rises. 

H. M. 


Skt9. 


B. * s. 


RiaES. 


Sets. 


R, 1 a. 


RllRS. 


Sets. 


B. A a. 1 


Rises. 


Sets. 


K. «(. 






H. U. 


H. H. 


„. M.I 


H. M. 


H. M. 


a. 


». 


B. M. 


H. M. 


K. M. 


H. M. 


H. u. 


1 


Fr 


7 9 


4 30 


9 53 


7 4 


4 34 


9 56 


6 59 


4 39 


9 59 


6 44 


4 5410 9 


2 


Sa 


7 10 


4 29 10 54 


7 5 


4 34 


10 57 


7 





4 39 


11 o! 


6 45 


4 54 11 7 


3 


S 


7 11 


4 29 11 55 


7 6 


4 3811 56 


7 


1 


4 39 


11 58i 


6 46 


4 54 A. M. 


4 


M 


7 12 


4 38 


A. M. 


7 7 


4 33i A.M. 


7 


2 


4 38 


A. M. I 


6 46 


4 5412 3 


5 


Tu 


7 13| 4 28 


12 53 


7 8 


4 33 12 54 


7 


3 


4 38 


12 55; 


6 47 


4 54 


12 57 


6 


W 


7 14 


4 28 


1 51 


1 7 9 


4 33 1 51 


7 


4 


4 38 


1 51 1 


6 48 


4 54 


1 50 


7 


Th 


7 15 


4 28 


2 48 


7 10 


4 83, 2 47 


7 


4 


4 38 


2 46 


6 49 


4-54 


2 43 


8 


Fr 


7 16 


4 28 


3 45 


7 10 


4 33^ 3 43 


7 


5 


4 38 


3 41 


6 49 


4 55 


3 36 


9 


Sa 


7 16 


4 28 


4 43 


7 11 


4 33 4 40 


7 


6 


4 38 


4 38 


6 50 


4 55 


4 29 


10 


S 


7 17 


4 28; 5 41 


7 12 


4 33; 5 37 


7 


7 


4 38 


5 34 


6 50 


4 55 


5 23 


11 


M 


7 18 


4 28 rises. 


7 13 


4 34 rises. 


' 7 


7 


4 39 


rises. 


6 51 


4 55 


rises. 


12 


Tu 


7 19 


4 28 5 29 


7 14 


4 34; 5 33 


7 


8 


4 39 5 38 


1 6 52 


4 56 


5 52 


13. 


W 


7 19 


4 39; 6 19 


7 14 


4 34^ 6 24 


7 


9 


4 39 6 28 


; 6 52 


4 56 


6 42 


14Th 


7 20 


4 29 7 15 


7 15 


4 34 7 19 


/ 


10 


4 39 7 24 


! 6 53 


4 57 


7 37 


15 Fi- 


7 21 


4 29 8 15 


7 16 


4 34 8 19 


7 


10 


4 40i 8 23 


6 53 


4 57 


8 34 


16 Sa 


7 22 


4 29 9 19 


■ 7 17 


4 34 9 22 


7 


11 


4 40 


9 25 


6 54 


4 58 


9 34 


17 S 


7 22 


4 29 10 24 


■ 7 17 


4 34 10 26 


7 


12 


4 40 


10 28 


6 54 4 58 


10 35 


18 M 


1 7 23 


4 30 11 32 


7 18 


4 34 11 33 


7 


13 


4 40 


11 34 


6 55 4 58 


11 37 


19 Til 


17 24 


4 30 


A. M. 


7 19 


4 35 A. M. 


7 


13 


4 41 


A. M. 


6 55 4 59 


A. M. 


30 W 


7 25 


4 30 


12 40 


7 19 


4 35 13 40 


7 


14 


4 41 


12 40 


6 56 4 59 


12 40 


31, Th 


7 25 


4 31 


1 51 


7 20 


4 36 1 49 


7 


15 


4 42 


1 47 


i 6 56 4 .59 


1 45 


33 Fr 


! 7 26 


4 31 


3 2 


7 31 


4 36, 3 


7 


16 


4 42 


2 58 


; 6 57 5 


2 51 


23 Sa 


7 26 


4 32 


4 15 


7 31 


4 37! 4 12 


7 


16 


4 43 


4 9 


6 58 5 1 


3 59 


24 S 


7 37 


4 33 


5 27 


■ 7 21 


4 37, 5 23 


• 7 


16 


4 43 


5 19 


6 58 5 1 


5 7 


25 M 


7 37 


4 33 


sets. 


7 22 


4 38: Bets. 


7 


17 


4 44 


sets. 


6 59 5 2 


sets. 


30 Tu 


7 38; 4 34 


5 26 


7 22 


4 39; 5 31 


7 


17 


4 44 


5 36 


6 59 5 2 


5 50 


27 W 


7 281 4 34 


6 29 


7 22 


4 39i 6 34 


t 7 


17 


4 45 


6 38 


: 7 


5 3 


6 51 


28 Th 


7 28 


4 35 


7 34 


7 33 


4 40[ 7 37 


7 


18 4 46 


7 41 


7 


5 3 


7 52 


29 !■ r 


7 28 


4 36 


8 38 


! 7 33 


4 4ll 8 41 


7 


18 4 46 


8 44 


7 1 


5 4 


8 53 


30 Sa 


7 29 


4 37 


9 40 


7 33 


4 42 9 42 


7 


18 4 47 


9 44 


7 I 


5 4 


9 51 


31 S 


, 7 29 


4 37 10 41 


: 7 34 


4 43,10 42 


7 


18 4 48 


10 44 


,7 3 5 5 


10 47 









SUN ON 


MERIDIAN. 








Dav of 




Day op 




Day of 




I) * V OF 




Day of 




Month. 




Month. 




Month. 




MoMH, 




Month. 






H. M. S. 




H. U. B. 




H. M. S. 




H. M. 5. 




H. U. «. 


1 


11 49 4 


8 


11 51 56 


14 


11 54 41 


20 


11 57 37 


26 


13 37 


2 


11 49 27 


9 


11 53 3-2 


15 


11 .55 10 


21 


11 58 7 


27 


12 1 7 


3 


11 49 51 


10 


11 52 49 


16 


11 55 39 


oo 


11 58 37 


28 


13 1 36 


4 


11 50 14 


11 


11 53 17 


17 


11 56 8 


2;] 


11 59 7 


29 


12 2 r, 


5 


11 50 39 


12 


11 53 44 


18 


11 56 37 


24 


11 59 37 


30 


12 3 .35 


6 


11 51 4 


13 


11 54 12 


19 


11 57 7 


25 


13 7 


31 


12 3 4 


7 


11 51 30 



























TWILIGHT. 










PlaOEE. 


Dec. 


Begics, *. M. 


Ends, p. M. 


Dec. 


Begins, a. m. 


Ends, p. u. 


Dec 


Begins, a. u. 


Ends, p. u. 






H. u. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


If. «. 


Boston 


1 


5 29 


6 9 


11 


5 38 


6 9 


21 


5 45 


6 12 


New York. 


1 


5 27 


6 n 


11 


5 36 


6 11 


21 


5 42 


6 14 


Wash' ion.. 


1 


5 25 


6 13 


11 


5 33 


6 14 


21 


5 40 


G 17 


Charleston. 


1 


5 17 


6 30 


11 


5 25 


6 33 


21 


5 31 


6 20 



Our Moon. 



49 



principal ISlcments of tije <Solar Sgstem. 



Name. 


Mean 

Distance 

from Sun, 

Millions oi 

MUes. 


Sidereal 

Period, 

Days. 


Orbit 
Velocity, 
Miles per 
Second. 


Mean 
Diameter, 

Miles. 


Mass, 
Earth -I. 


Volume, 
Earth =1. 


Density, 
Earth —1. 


Gravity 
at Sur- 
face. 
Earth =1. 


Sun 


■■36.0 
67.2 

92.8 

141.6 

483.3 

886.0 

1781.9 

2791.6 


87.'969 
224. 701 
365. 256 
686.95 
4332. 58 
10759. 22 
30686. 82 
60181. 11 


23'to 35 

21.9 

18.5 

15.0 

8.1 

6.0 

4.2 

3.4 


866,400 

3,030 

7,700 

7,918 

4,230 

86,600 

71.000 

31.900 

34,800 


331100 
0.125 
0.78 
1.00 
0.107 
316.0 

94.9 

14.7 

17.1 


1310000 
0.056 
0.92 
1.00 
0.152 
1309 
721 
65 
86 


0.25 
2.23 
0.86 
1.00 
0.72 
0.24 
0.13 
0. 22 
0.20 


27 65 


Mercury 

Venus 


0.85 
83 


Earth 


1 00 




38 


Jupiter 

Saturn 


2. 65 
1 18 


Uranus 

Neplune 


0.91 

0.88 



The numberof asteroids discovered up to present date is about 460. A number of tliese small 
planets have not been observed since their discovery, and are practically lost. Consequently it 
IS now sometimes a matter of doubt, until the elements have been computed, whether the supfxjsed 
new planet is really new, or only an old one rediscovered. 



Of all the secondary planets the earth's satellite is by far the most interesting and important. 
The moon completes her circuit around the earth in a period whose mean or average length is 27 
days 7 hours 43. 2 minutes; but in con.sequence of her motion in common with the earth around the 
Sim, the mean duration of the lunar month, that is, the time from new moon to new moon, is 29 
days 12 hours 44. 05 miuutes, which is called the moou's synodical period. If the earth were mo- 
tionless in space the moon's orbit would be nearly an ellipse, having the earth in one of the foci; 
hence her distance from the earth varies during the course of a lunar month. Her mean distance 
from the earth is 238,850 miles. Her maximum distance, however, maj"^ reach 252,830 jniles, and 
the least dl.stance to which she can approach the earth is 221.520 miles. Her diameter is 2,162 
miles, and if we deduct from her distance from the earth the sum of the two radii of the earth and 
moon, viz., 3,962 and 1,081 miles respectively, we shall have for the nearest approach of the sur- 
faces of the two bodies 216, 477 miles. Her orbit is a very intricate one, because the earth in moving 
around the sun carries the moon along with it; hence the latter is sometimes withiu and sometimes 
without the earth's orbit. Its form is that of a serpentine curve, alway.s concave toward the sun, 
and inclined to the plane of the earth's orbit at an angle of 5° 9', in consequence of which our satel- 
lite appears sometmies above and sometimes below the plane of the earth's orbit, through which 
she passes twice in a revolution. These points or positions are called nodes, and no two consecutive 
nodes occupy positions diametrically opposite on the lunar orbit. The nodes have a retrograde 
motion, which causes them to make an entire revolution in 18 j'ears 218 days 21 hours 22 minutes 
and 46 seconds. This motion was well known to the ancients", who called it the Haros, and was 
made use of bj' them in roughly predicting eclipses. 

The moon alwaj's presents the same face to us, as is evident from the permanency of the various 
markings on its surface. This circumstance proves that with respect to the earth she revolves on an 
axis, and the time of rotation is exactly equal to the time of revolution around the earth, viz., 
27.32166 days. The moon's axis is not perpendicular to the plane of her orbit, but deviates there- 
from by an angle of about 6° 41'. In consequence of this fact, and of the inclination of the lunar 
orbit to that of the ecliptic, the poles of the moon lean alternately to and from the earth. When 
the north pole leans toward the earth we see somewhat more of the region surrounding it. and 
somewhat less when it leans the contrary way. This displacement is known by the name of libra- 
tion in latitude. 

The moon's motion on her axis is uniform, but her angular velocitv in her orbit is subject to 
slight variations by reason of the form of her orbit; hence it happens that'we sometimes see a little 
more of the eastern or western edge at one time than at another. This phenomenon is known as 
libration in longitude. 

The moon's surface contains about 14,685,000 square miles, or nearlj' four times the area of 
Europe. Her volume is 1-49 and her mass 1-81 that of the earth, and hence her density is about 
3-5 that of the earth, or .about 3 2-5 that of water. At the lunar surface gravity is only 3-20 of what 
it is at the earth, and therefore abod.v which weighs 20 pounds here would weigh only 3 pounds there. 

The centre of gravity of the earth and moon, or tlie point about which they both actuallv revolve 
in their course around the sun, liesiiKWifi the earth; it is 1,063 miles below the surface. 

The attractive force of the moon acting on the water of our oceans is mainly instrumental iu 
raising them into protuberances or tides in such a manner as to give the total mass a spheroidal figure 
whose principal axis would continually coincide with the line joining the centres of the earth and 
moon, but in consequence of the resistance which this movement of the water encounters from con- 
tinents and islands, as well as from the liquid molecules themselves, the tidal wave can never arrive 
at any place until about one hour after the moon has crossed the meridian of the place. 

The moon has no atmosphere and no water. The suddenness with which stars are occulted by 
the moon is regarded as a conclusive proof that a lunar atmosphere does not exist, and the spectro- 
scope furnishes negative evidence of the same character. 

In remote ages the lunar surface was the theatre of violent volcanic action, being elevated into 
cones and ridges exceeding20, 000 feethigh, and at other places rent into furrows or depressions of 
corresponding depth. The Imiar volcanoes are now extinct. A profound silence reigns over the 
desolate and rugged surfaca It Is a dead world, utterly unfit to support animal or vegetable life. 



THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHBBE. 
, , The egrtli's sensible atmosphere is generally supposed to extend some forty miles in height, prob- 
ably farther, but becoming at only a few miles from the surface of too great a tenuity to support life, 
ine condition and motions of this aerial ocean plav a most Important part in the determination of 
climate, modifyins, by absorbing, the otherwise intense heat of the sun, and, when la( 
clouds, Dlndering the earth from radiating its acquired heat into space. - ^^hilaker. 



laden with 



60 



The Moon's Phases, 1905. 



K\^t imoon's l^ijasES, 1905. 



Il 


Phase. 




Boston. 


New York. 


Washington. 


Charleston. 


Chicabo. 








H. M. 






H. M. 






H. M. 




H. M. 




H. M. 


- 


X 


New Mood. 


6 


1 33 


P 


M. 


1 21 


p 


M. 


1 9 


P.M. 


12 58 


P.M. 


12 27 


P.M. 


si 


First Quarter. 


la 


3 27 


p 


M. 


3 15 


p 


M. 


3 3 


P.M. 


2 52 


P.M. 


2 21 


P.M. 




Full Moon. 


'11 


2 30 


A 


M. 


2 18 


A 


M. 


2 6 


A.M. 


155 


A. M. 


1 24 


A. M. 


"-3 


Last Quarter. 


'11 


7 36 


P 


M. 


7 24 


P 


M. 


7 12 


P.M. 


7 1 


P.M. 


6 30 


P.M. 


>, 


New Moon. 


4 


6 22 


A 


M. 


6 10 


A 


M. 


5 58 


A.M. 


5 47 


A.M. 


5 16 


A.M. 


u 


First Quarter. 


12 


11 36 


A 


M. 


11 24 


A 


M. 


11 12 


A. M. 


11 1 


A.M. 


10 30 


A. .M. 


a 


Full Moon. 


J.9 


2 8 


P 


M. 


1 56 


P 


M 


1 44 


P. M. 


1 33 


P.M. 


1 2 


P.M. 


t 


Last Quarter. 


26 
6 


5 19 


A 


M. 


5 7 


A 


M. 


4 55 


A. M. 


4 44 


A.M. 


4 13 


A.M. 


a 


New Moon. 


12 35 


A 


M. 


12 23 


A 


M. 


1211 


A. M. 


12 


A.M. 


d 
5 11 29 


P. M. 


o 


First Quarter. 


14 


4 15 


A 


M. 


(14 3 


A 


^r 


fl 3 51 


A. M. 


d 3 40 


A.M. 


d 3 9 


A. M. 


c3 


Full Moon. 


21 


12 11 


A 


M. 


20 11 59 


P 


\r. 


20 11 47 


P. M. 


20 11 :?6 


P. M. 


20 11 5 


P. M. 


;5 


Last Quarter. 


27 
4 


4 51 


P 


M. 


4 39 


A 


M. 


4 27 


P. M. 


4 16 


P.M. 

"■J ' 


3 45 


P.M. 




New Moon. 


6 39 


P 


M. 


6 27 


P 


M. 


6 15 


P. M. 


6 4 


■It ■ 
P.M. 


5 33 


P.M. 




First Quarter. 


12 


4 57 


P 


M. 


4 45 


P 


M 


4 33 


P. M. 


4 22 


P.M. 


3 51 


P. M. 


a 


Full Moon. 


19 


8 54 


A 


M. 


8 42 


A 


Ht 


8 30 


A. .M. 


8 19 


A.M. 


7 48 


A.M. 


«<) 


Last Quarter. 


26 


6 29 


A 


M. 


6 17 


A 


M. 


6 5 


A. M. 


5 54 


A. M. 


6 23 


A.M. 




New Moon. 


4 


11 6 


A 


M. 


10 54 


A 


M. 


10 42 


A.M. 


10 31 


A.M. 


10 


A. H. 


^ 


First Quarter. 


12 


2 2 


A 


M. 


150 


A 


M. 


1 38 


A. M. 


1 27 


A. M. 


12 56 


A. M. 


S 


Full Moon. 


18 


4 52 


P 


.M. 


4 40 


P 


M. 


4 28 


P. M. 


4 17 


P. .M . 


3 46 


P.M. 


Last Quarter. 


•-'.5 


10 5 


P 


M. 


9 53 


P 


M. 


9 41 


P.M. 


9 30 


P. M. 


8 59 


P. M. 




New Moon. 


Ft 


1 12 


A 


M. 


1 


A 


M, 


12 48 


A.M. 


12 37 


A. M. 


12 6 


A, M. 


a; 


First Quarter. 


10 


H 20 


A 


^r 


8 8 


A 


M 


7 56 


A. M. 


7 45 


A. M. 


7 14 


A. t.t. 




Full Moon. 


17 


1 7 


A 


M 


12 55 


A 


M, 


12 43 


A. sr. 


12 32 


A. M. 


12 1 


A. ^^. 


l-> 


Last Quarter. 


24 


3 2 


P. 


M. 


2 50 


P 


M. 


2 38 


P.M. 


2 27 


P. M. 


1 56 


P. M. 




New Moon. 


2 


1 6 


P. 


M 


12 54 


P 


M. 


12 42 


P.M. 


12 31 


P. jr. 


12 


P.M. 


^» 


First Quarter. 


9 


1 2 


P 


M 


12 50 


P. 


M. 


12 38 


P.M. 


12 27 


P.M. 


11 56 


A. M. 




Full Moon. 


IH 


10 47 


A 


M 


10 35 


A 


M. 


10 23 


A. M. 


10 12 


A.M. 


9 41 


A. M. 


t-s 


Last Quarter. 


24 


8 24 


A 


\r 


8 12 


A 


M, 


8 


A.M. 


7 49 


A.M. 


7 18 


A.M. 




New Moon. 


31 

7 


11 18 


P. 


M. 


11 6 


P. 


M. 


10 54 


P.M. 


10 43 


P.M. 


10 12 


P. M. 


4-^ 


First Quarter. 


5 32 


P 


M 


5 20 


P 


w. 


5 8 


P.M. 


4 57 


P.M. 


4 26 


P.M. 




Full Moon. 


14 


10 47 


P. 


M. 


10 35 


P 


M. 


10 23 


P.M. 


10 12 


P. M. 


9 41 


P.M. 


in 


Last Quarter. 


23 


.1 26 


A. 


M. 


1 14 


A 


M, 


1 2 


A. M. 


12 51 


A.M. 


12 L'O 


A. M. 


■oj 


New Moon. 


30 
5 


9129 


A. 


M. 


8 17 


A. 


M. 


8 5 


A. M. 


7 54 


A.M. 


7 23 


A.^t. 




First Quarter. 


11 25 


P. 


M. 


11 13 


P. 


M. 


11 1 


P.M. 


10 50 


P.M. 


10 19 


p:m. 


d 


Full Moon. 


1.^ 


1 26 


P. 


>f 


1 14 


P. 


M, 


1 2 


P.M. 


10 51 


P.M. 


12 20 


P.M. 


-*-> 


Last Quarter. 


21 


5 29 


P 


M 


5 17 


P. 


M. 


5 5 


P.M. 


4 54 


P. M. 


4 23 


P.M. 


a 

Oi 


New Moon. 


28 


5 15 


P. 


M. 


5 3 


P. 


M. 


4 51 


P.M. 


4 40 


P.M. 


.. 4 9 


P.M. 


^ 


First Quarter. 


5 


8 10 


A 


M. 


7 58 


A. 


M. 


7 46 


A. M. 


7 35 


A.M. 


7 4 


A. M. 


£1 


Full Moon. 


13 


6 18 


A 


M 


6 6 


A. 


M 


5 54 


A. M. 


5 43 


A. Jt. 


5 12 


A.M. 




Last (quarter. 


21 


8 6 


A 


M 


7 54 


A, 


M 


7 42 


A. M. 


7 31 


A. M. 


7 


A.M. 


, 


New Moon. 


28 
3 


2 14 


A. 


M. 


2 2 


A. 


M. 


1 GO 


A.M. 


1 39 


A.M. 


1 8 


A.M. 




First Quarter. 


8 55 


P. 


M 


'8 43 


P. 


M. 


8 31 


P.M. 


d 8 20 


P. M. 


d 7 49 


P. .M. 


q 


Full Mooiu 


12 


12 27 


A. 


M. 


12 15 


A, 


M. 


12 3 


A. M. 


11 11 52 


P.M. 


11 U 21 


P. M. 


li 


T,ast Quarter. 


1*2 


8 50 


P 


M 


d 8 38 


P 


M 


(I 8 26 


P.M. 


d 8 15 


P.M. 


d 7 44 


P.M. 


o 


Nevv Moon. 
First Quart*?r. 


3 


12 3 


P. 


M. 


26 11 51 


A. 


M. 


26 11 39 


A. M. 


26 11 28 


A.M. 


■26 10 57 


A. M. 




1 53 


I". 


M, 


r 1 41 

(q 2 29 


P. 


M.. 


1 29 


P.M. 


1 18 


P.M. 


.,..12 4T 


P.M. 


a 


Full Moon. 


11 


641 


P 


M 


1*. 


M. 


6 17 


P. M. 


6 « 


V M 


5 35 


P. .M. 


?i 


T.a<!t Quart f-r 


19 


7 24 


A. 


M 


7 12 


A. 


M 


7 


A.M. 


« 49 


A M 


6 18 


A.M. 


0; 


Mew .%rooH 

■ 1 


2r. 

1 


1119 


P. 


M. 


11 7 


P 


1 


10 55 


P.M. 


10 J 1 


P M. 


in 13 


P.W, 



Moonlight Chart, 1906. 



61 



J«oonUflt)t (Jtijact, 1905. 



c 
o 



c3 



•-3 



P. 






C3 



3 



x 



o 




Explanation. —The white spaces show the amount of moonlight each night. January 5, Feb- 
ruary 4, etc. , show the time of new moon, when for about two nights there Is no moonlight ; 
January 13, February 12, etc. , the moon sets at or near midnight, when the former half of the 
night has moonlight; January 21, February 20, etc., the time of full moon, when moonlight lasts 
the whole night; January 27, February 2G, etc., when the moon rises at or near midnight, when 
the latter half of the night has moonlight. 



52 



Astronomical Phenomena for the Year 1905.' 



Astronomical Jlljntomcna for ti)e ¥far 1905. 



ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS AND SYMBOLS. 



5 
9 



The Sun. 
The Moon. 
Mercury. 
Venus. ' 
The Earth. 



cf 


Mars. 1 


11 


.Jupiter. 


h 


Saturn. 


^ 


Uranus. 


^ 


Neptune. 



Conjunction. 
Quadrature. 
Opposition. 
Ascending Node. 
Descending Node. 



Two lieavenly bodies are in ' ' conjunction " ( c5 ) when they have the same Rigid Ascension, 
or are on the sante meridian, i. e. , when one is due north ot i.ott?/t of tlie other ; if the bodies are 
near each other as seen from tlie eartli, they will rise and set at the same time; they are in 
"opposition" {§) when in opposite quarters of the heavens, or when one rises just as the 
other is setting. ' ' Quadrature ' ' is half way between conjunction and opposition. By 
"greatest elongation" is meant the greatest "apparent anguLnr distance from the sun; the 
planet is then generally most favorably situated for observation. Mercury can only be seen 
with the naked eye at this time. When a planet is in its "ascending" (Q) or "descending" 
(y) node it is crossing the plane of the earth' s orbit. The term "Perihelion" means nearest, 
and ' 'Aphelion ' ' farthest, from the sun. An ' ' occultatiou " of a planet or star is an eclipse of 
it by some other body, usually the moon. 

I.— ECLIPSES. 

In the year IftOS.there will be four Eclipses, two of the Sun and two of the Moon, as follows : 

1. A partial Is^clipse of the Moon February 19, invisible in America, but visible in Europe, 
Africa, Asia, and Australia. 

2. An annular Eclipse of the Sun March 5, invisible in America, but visible in a small portion of 
the southeastern coast of Africa, the southern half of Madagascar, the whole of Australia and New 
Zealand, New Guinea, Java, Celebes, and the southern extremity of Sumatra and the southern half 
of Borneo. 

The path of the annular Eclipse crosses the southern part of the Antarctic Ocean and the southern 
half of Australia 

3. A partial Eclipse of the Moon August 14, visible in America: 



Places. 


Moon Enters Shadow. 


Moon Leaves Shadow. 


Plxcks. 


Moon Enters Shadow. 


Moon Leaves Shadow. 


Boston 

New York 

Washington. . . 

Charleston 

.Sewanee 


Aug. 14, 9' 54.8 P.M. 

9 43.1 P.M. 

9 30.8 P.M. 
" 9 19.5 P.M. 
" 8 55.3 P.M. 


U. M. 

Aug. 14, 11 69 P.M. 
" 11 47.3 P.M. 
" 11 36 P.M. 
" 11 23.7 P.M. 
" 10 69.5 P.M. 


Cincinnati 

St. Louis 

Chicago 

Denver 

San Francisco. 


H. M. 

Aug. 14, 9 1.3 pji. 
" 8 38.» P.M. 

8 48.6 P.M. 
" 7 39.2 P.M. 

6 29.3 P.M. 


B. u. 

Aug. 14, 11 6.6 P.M. 
•' 10 42.4 P.M. 
" 10 62.8 P.M. 
" » 43.4 P.M. 
" 8 33.6 P.M. 



Magnitude of the Eclipse 0.292 (the Moon's diameter being considered unity) on the southern 
limb. 

4. A total Eclipse of the Suu August 30, visible in the eastern half of North America, the vrhole 
of Europe, western Asia, and the northern and central portions of Africa. 

The Eclipse begins on the earth generally at 5 hours 29.4 minutes, Washington mean time, in Lat 
37029. 4' N. and Long. 76° 20.4' W., which point is at the eastern end of Middlesex County, "Va, 
near the mouth of the Kappahannock Kiver. 

This Eclipse will not be visible vest of a line drawn through Fort Belknap, Mont.; Cheyenne, 
Wyo. ; Las Animas, Col. ; Camp Chadbourne, Austin, and Indianola, Tex. 

The path of the total Eclipse begins at sunrise a few miles northeast of Winnipeg, Man., and 
moving eastward and a little to the north, it ciosses James' Bay and Labrador, then bearing a little 
to the south it crosses the Atlantic Ocean and enters Spain : moving now in a southeasterly direction, It 
pa,sses a few miles north of Madrid and leaves Spain in Lat. 40o, Long. Oo near Castellon de la Plana; 
It then crosses the Mediterranean and the northeast corner of Africa, theKedSea, southern Arabia, 
and leaves the earth at sunset on the southern coast of Arabia in Lat. 18° 36. 4' N. and Long. 54° 49' 
E. , having traversed 151° 11.8' of longitude and 31o 38. 7' of latitude. 

The best localities tor observing the total Eclipse are the east coast of Labrador, Lat. 53° 24' N., 
Long. 56© 26' W. ; the northwest coa.st of Spain, Lat. 440 N., Long. 7° 40' W. ; at Castellon de la 
Plana, Spain, Lat. 39° 54' N. , Long. 0° 56' E. ; at Philippeville and Bona, on the northeast coast of 
Algeria, and at Braiga, on the Gulf of Sidra, in Tripoli. 



Pucks. 



Boston. 7r 

New York 

Wa^hingtfvn. . . 
Charlestou . . . , 
Sewanee,Tena. 



Eclipse Begins. 



Eclipse Ends. 



Aug. 30, 5 54.6 A.M. 

" 5 42.2 A.M. 

" 5 29.6 A.M. 
Before sunrise 



Aug 



30 



H. M. 

7 63.1 A.M. 

7 36.9 A.M. 

1 20 A.M. 

6 43.9 A.M. 
6 34.7 A.M. 



Places. 



Eclipse Begins. 



ChicaK 

St. Louis 

Winona 

New Orleaus,. 



Before sunrise. 



Eclipse Ends. 



Aug. 30, 



u. H. 

6 31.8 A.M. 
6 29.6 A.M. 
6 28 A.M. 
6 8.9 A.M. 



■ ( Local Mean Tlmf.) 
OCCULTATIONS. 



8tab. 


Immersion. 


Enieralon. 


n. Tiiiiri ( Aldf haraii^ 


H. M. 

Soptember 20 1 10 a.m. 
l)pf(>nil>er 10 7 35 p.m. 


H. M. 

2 3 A.M. 


a Tau ri ( A Id ebaran ) 


8 42 P.m. 



(WasMnoton Mean Tifne.) 



Astronomical Phenomena for the Year 1905. 



53 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE YEAR 1906— ContimitO. 



II. —PLANETARY CONFIGURATIONS. 

( Washington Mean Time. ) 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



II. 

4 

4 

O 

8 

9 

11 

V2 

12 

14 

22 

26 

27 

30 

30 

2 

4 

8 

10 

12 

14 

24 

24 

28 

4 

4 

5 

9 

9 

9 

21 

24 

31 

2 

4 

5 

6 

6 

6 

13 

20 

23 

23 

27 

28 

3 

3 

4 

4 

8 

11 

16 

17 

21 

21 

24 

25 

30 

June 1 

1 

2 

2 

13 

14 

17 

22 

24 



H. M. 

11 54 A.M. 

5 52 f-il- 
11 P.M. 

8 41 A.M. 
10 6 A. M. 

5 A.M. 
4 A.M. 

10 33 A. M. 

8 A. M. 

2 P.M. 

6 P.M. 

4 34 P. M. 

8 A.M. 
10 A.M. 

8 25 A.M. 

10 31 P.M. 
8 53 A. M. 

1 13 A. M 

3 P. M 
6 p. M 
1 p. M 

6 29 p. M 

5 3 A.M 

1 1 26 A. M 
11 p. M 

6 20 p. M 

6 11 P.M 

7 26 p. M 

11 P.M 
P.M 

49 P.M 



gr. hel. lat. N. 



stationary. 



6 5 I 

6 h^ 
d $ (3 
5 
o^4 O 

6 $ S 

5 gr.elong. W.24>io. 

n cf O 
9 inQ 

6h€ 

6 9 € 
6 TIC 



■ 6 he 



5 

1 



gr.elong. E.460 41'. 
h, OS. 10 1'. 



Apr. 



11 11 P..M. 

6 
9 
1 
6 



May 



A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 

_ 7 A.M. 

12 32 P.M. 

1 1 46 P. M. 

11 A.M. 

9 18 P.M. 

4 P.M. 

8 29 P.M. 

5 A.M. 

9 56 a.m. 



1 
7 
1 
8 
3 
4 
11 
5 
6 
9 
5 
7 



22 A. M. 

11 A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M 
P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
6 P.M. 
A.M, 
P.M 
A.M. 

. 47 P.M 

2 16 P. M, 
12 34 A.M. 

3 34 A. M. 

6 A.M. 

7 A.M. 

3 25 P.M 

6 A.M 

7 P.M. 

4 22 A. M. 

4 A.M. 



in perihelion. 

9® 

$ O superior. 

greatest brilliancy. 
6 cf C 
6h€ 

^ stationary. 

$ gr.elong.E.19oll'. 

9 stationary. 

d 5 € 
d -^S 
d 9 C . 
§ stationary. 

d (/■€ 

d $ O inferior. 

d 6 £. , . 
(5 § O inferior. 

d hC 
d $C 
d 9C 
d ^O 

8 dQ 
dm 13 

9 stationary. 

d cfC 

§ gr.elong.W.25o26r 

9int^ 

n h 




1], 5 S. lo42'. 
greatest brilliancy. 

stationary, 
stationary. 

h€ 

5 O superior. 



D. 

June 24 

25 

28 

28 

30 

July 3 

3 

4 

6 

11 

19 

26 

28 

Aug. 2 

2 

8 

15 

15 

23 

23 

26 

27 

29 

29 

30 

Sept. 5 

7 

11 

11 

15 

19 

23 

25 

26 

27 

Oct. 4 

8 

8 

12 

15 

15 

17 

26 

28 

• 31 

Nov. 2 

5 

8 

13 

19 

24 

25 

27 

28 

Dec. 1 

2 

6 

10 

14 

15 

21 

24 

25 

25 

30 

30 



H. 

6 

8 
3 



M. 

A.M. 
A.M. 
3 P. M. 



A. M. 
A.M. 



11 

8 

3 

11 

6 



11 23 P.M. 

4 
10 

11 11 P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 

16 a.m. 

.8 A.M. 
6 P.M. 

8 55 a.m. 

8 A.M. 

11 7 P.M. 

3 51a.m. 

10 A.M. 

3 41 P.M. 

3 A.M. 

9 58 A. M. 

12 P.M. 

8 16 A.M. 

3 A.M. 

9 P.M. 

4 9 A.M. 

1 51 P.M. 

2 p. M. 
6 47 P.M. 



12 
6 

9 

8 
4 

7 



A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 

8 a.m. 
9 34 P. M. 
6 44 A. M. 

3 P. M. 

9 43 P. M. 



3 
1 
3 

1 
3 
4 

1 
4 



a.m. 

A.M. 

P.M. 
49 A. M. 
54 A.M. 
19 P.M. 

P.M. 
14 A.M. 

2 46 A. M. 

10 A.M. 

2 2 a.m. 

7 A.M. 

4 A.M. 
12 51a.m. 
12 A.M. 

12 32 A. M. 

4 19 A. M. 

11 38 a.m. 
2 A.M. 
1 9 A. M. 

12 P.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 

3 P.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 

12 18 a.m. 

5 31a.m. 



5 
9 
4 
9 
11 



8 6© 




9 1 


n aplit'lion. 


d 9C 




d i|C 




6WQ 




® 


in aphelion. 


d (£ 




d 9 T| 




9 i 


,'r.eloiig.\v:45o-i4' 


d cf C 




6h€ 




6%€ 




d 9C 




5 


jr.elong.E27oi8'. 


d 5C 




d cTC 




? , ^ 


stationary. 


6h€ 




8 hO 




6V<S. 




UdO 




d 9 C 




d § O inferior. 


d $C 




d d€ 




§ 


stationary. 


6h€ 




9 mU 




5 


gr. elong. W. 18°. 


6 n<s. 




n S o 




^ 


stationary. 


d V (£ 




d $f 

6 dq, 

6 cf 1 




()1I old form). 


superior. 


d 


gr. hek lat. S. 


9 


in perihelion. 


d X€ 




d 9 f 




d 5€ 




h 


stationary. 


6 dO, 




d ^iC 




d 


in perihelion. 


dT|€ 




nf2 




8 T|0 




d 9S: 




§ 


gr.elong.E.21o41' 


d § «; 








d 'i C 




$ 


stationary. 


d ^S 




$ 


in perihelion. 


(i 5Q 


inferior. 


c5 5 9 




d 5C 




$ 


stationary. 




d N. 30'. 


d h C 





d d^ 



54 The Solar Parallax and Sun's Distance. 



K\)t <Solat parallax anti <Suu*j3 Bistantc. 

Of all the uumerous scientific problems that have enzaged the attention of matheuiaticians. 
scientists and astronomeis for many centuries, none is of more importance that that of the solar 
parallax or the determination of the Sun's distance from the earth. It is in fact the great funda- 
mental problem of astronomy ; it is the ' ' yard naeasure, " so to speak, or the astronomical unit by 
which we express the dimensions of the solar sj'stem and indirectly those of the sidereal heavens. 

Thus, when it is stated in astronomical works that the distance of a planet from the Sun or the 
earthis, for instance, 1.2473, we mean that the distance in question is 1.2473 times the earth's dis- 
tance from the Sun, whatever that may be. 

An accurate knowledge of the Sun's distance is necessary for the purpose of navigation, and for 
the more refined work in geodetic surveyiug, for we are thus enabled to determine the Sun's influ- 
ence ou the Moon and planets, and thus to compute their true places in the heavens by which the 
navigator and astronomer can determine his true position whether ou sea or land. 

In order to enable the general reader to understand the nature of paralla.x, as well as some of the 
difficulties attending its determination, the following illustration may make it clear. If two ob- 
servers were to view the Sun at the siune instant, from any two points— say the northern point of 
Spitzbergen in the Arctic Ocean and the southern point of Tasmania— they would refer the Sun to 
different positions on the celestial sphere, and the anptilar displacement is the parallax due to the 
actual distance between these two points of observation. The solar parallax is the angle under 
which the earth's radius is seen from the Sun's centre, and since the dimensions of the earth are 
very accurately known, the Sun's distance becomes known when we know the paralla.x. The deter- 
mination of this angle, which is a very small one, is attended with great ditticulties ; it is not, how- 
ever, measured directly, but is obtained by various processes, all of which involve delicate observa- 
tions and a profound knowledge of mathematics. The object of this article is not to explain these 
processes, which are far too abstruse for discussion here, but to trace 

THE HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM 
from the first rude attempts at its solution down to the present time, and to state the latest results 
arrived at by astronomers of our own day. 

The first attempt to determine the magnitude and distance of both the Sun and Moon, of which we 
have any authentic record, was made by Aristarchus of Samos, about 270 years before the Christian 
era It is not known with any degree of certainty how he proceeded to attack the problem, but his 
method must have been a very rough one, for he fixed the solar parallax at three minutes of arc, 
which would place the Sun only about twenty times farther from the earth than the Moon is. Nothing 
further was done in this direction for more than a century, when Hipparchus, by means of the di- 
mensions of the earth's shadow in lunar eclipses, confirmed the result of Aristarchus. 

This value was generally accepted among the ancients for about three centuries, or until the year 
A. D. 140, when Ptolemy, of Alexandria in Egypt, by the same process as that of Hipparchus, re- 
duced the parallax to 2' 50", which in turn became the accepted value for more than eight centuries, 
or during the greater part of the Dark Ages. 

About the year a. n. 920 Albategnius, an Arabian astronomer, by the same method, fixed the 
parallax at 3' 7", and the Hindoo astronomers, as we learn from a work entitled" Surya-Siddhanta, " 
chapter four, fixed it at 4'. 

No further advance was made in this direction for nearly six centuries, when Copernicus, the 
founder of modern astronomj', fixed the parallax at 3', and about half a century afterward, or in a. 
D. 1602, the celebrated Tycho-Brahe arrived at the same result. The method employed by the last 
two astronomers was the same as that used by their predecessors, viz. , by measuring the diameter of 
the earth's shadow where the Moon crosses it during a lunar eclipse. Thus we .see that during nearly 
nineteen centuries no material advance was made; the astronomers during that long period em- 
ployed the same method and of course reached almost the same result. In a. d. 1618 Kepler, 
one of the most original men of his time, devised a new method of determining the solar parallax. 
He was the first to suggest that the planet Mars be observed at the same time from two or more re- 
mote stations, and thence determine both the diurnal parallax of Mars directly and the solar parallax 
indirectly. By this method he obtained a value of 1', which, though greatly in excess of the true 
value, was a great improvement on the values hitherto obtained. 

The next advance in this line was made in a. d. 1647, when the astronomer Wendeliu observed 
that when tfce Moon is exactly at the ' ^ first quarter, ' ' or when exactly half her disc, a.s seen from the 
earth, is Illumined by the Sun. the lines joining the centre of the earth. Sun, and Moon form a right- 
angled triangle, with the right angle at the Moon, and therefore by measuring the angular distance 
between the Sun and Moon, when the latter is exactly half illumined, and using the Moon's distance 
as a baseline, the Sun's distance could be easily determined, and thence the solar parallax. This 
method is quite correct in principle, but not easily put into practice by reason of the difticully of de- 
termining just when the Moon is actually at the fii-st quarter. By this method Wendelin found a 
parallax of 15", which was a prodigious advance on all his predecessors. 

In a. d. 1672 Flamsteed, the first Astronomer- Royal of England, arrived at the next approxima- 
tion of the solar parallax. His method was that of Kepler, viz, the diurnal parallax of Mars. He 
found a parallax of 10", which is a still closer approximation to the truth, and in the same year 
Cassini,of France, by the same methods, arrived at a still closer value, viz. , 9". 5. 

Up to the middle of the eighteenth century only three methods were employed, all of them un- 
trustworthy and altogether incapable of giving accurate results. About the year 1760 it occurred to 
astronomers that those rare astronomical phenomena known as the transits of Venus over the Suu's 
disc could be utilized for this purpose with great advantage, and accordingly great ellorts were made 
to observe with the utmost accuracy, aud in the most favorable positions, the transits of 1761 and 1769, 
and the two subsequent ones of 1874 aud 1882. 

From the first of these Piugre, of France, and Short, of England, deduced from difTerent obser- 
vations of the phenomenon parallaxes of 10". 6 and 8". 8 respectively. The latter lias probably 
never been surpassed ,in point of accuracy. It is certainly very near the truth, us subsequent re- 
searches have shown, but unfortunately the results obtained by other astronomers were so dis- 
cordant as to cast distrust on all the values thus obtained. 

From the transit of 1769 Eulcr, a German astronomer, found a parallax of 8". 8, which is identical 
with that -of Short, but Hornsby, Lalande, Maskelyne (Astronomer- Royal of England), Pingro, 



,,, ... of 

8". 551, and from that of 1769 one of 8".5776, and from both transits combined 8".571. The second 
value, viz. , 8". 6776, was generally received by jistronomers untU about fifty years ago, when it was 



The Solar Parallax and /Suns Distance. 55 

THE SOLAR PARALLAX AND SUN'S DISTANCE— CojifjnMerf. 

"discovered to be quite too small ; it makes the Sun's mean distance to be in round numbers 96,000,000 
miles, which was given in our old school and college text books. 

It is thus seen that the results derived from the transits of Venus have not proved to be as satis- 
factory as was at first anticipated. Three methods of observation are employed, viz. : 

First.— The transit Is observed at points differing widely in latitude so as to shorten or lengthen the 
duration of the transit as much as possible. 

Second.— By observing from points differing very widely in longitude, so as to accelerate or retard, 
as much as possible, the time of external or internal contact. In both of these methods the observa- 
tions have to be mac'a when the Sun has a tolerably low altitude, but this, of itself, would not present 
any sreatdifHculty were it not attended by a far more serious one, viz., the "blacKdrop," thecause 
of which has yet to be explained. A short time before apparent contact the limbs of Venus and the 
!Sun appear to unite by a ligament or band, which renders it impossible to determine the exact time of 
apparent geometrical contact. 

Third.— There is also the photographic or .A^merican method, which is almost free from these disad- 
vantages, but the results obtained from all of them are discordant and unsatisfactory. For these 
reasons the method by the transits of Venus will, no doubt, be abandoned in future. 

In the theory of the Moon's motion there occurs a term whose coefficient is the ratio of the solar and 
lunar parallaxes, and since the latter is known with great exactness, the former can be found when 
the numerical value of the coethcieut becomes known. 

Meyer wa-s the first to use this method, and found a parallax of 8". 6 ; the celebrated La Place, 
whose analytical conduct knew no limits, found tlie same value ; Burg found 8". 62, and Plana, 
8". 629, values which are now known to be quite too small, anc for a while this method was aban- 
doned and the diurnal parallax of Mars again attempted. In 1833 Henderson, by comparing the 
observations on Mars made at the Cape of Good Hope with tliose made in Europe, found a value of 
9".028, and Taylor, bycomparing the observations made at Madras with those of Europe, obtained 
8".595. 

AMERICAN OBSERVATIONS. 

The United States Government sent out an astronomical expedition to Chile, under the command 
of the late Lieutenant Gi".iss, to observe Mars during the opposition of 1849 and 1850, and from the 
observations then made and those at Cambridge, Mass., and Washington, D. C. , the late Dr. B. A. 
Gould obtained a parallax of 8". 495, a value confessedly too small. 

This was the first attempt Ito determine this important astronomical constant by an American 
astronomer. Subsequently Professor Hall, using the observations made at Chile, Albany,.N. Y. ; Up- 
sala, Sweden, and Washington, D. C, found a parallax of 8". 778. B.vcomparing the observations of 
Mars made at Cape of Good Hope and Williamstown, Australia, with those at Greenwich, the late 
Professor Stone, of England, derived a parallax ol 8".943,"Sind Winnecke, using the observations made 
at the Cape and those of St. Petersburg, Russia, deduced a parallax of 8". 964, both of wnich are now 
regarded as considerably too large, but at that time (1863 and 1865) vvere very generally accepted, 
especially as they were in accord with other values deduced from theoretical considerations. 

About this time three of the most distinguished mathematicians of modern times, Le Verrier, 
Hansen, and Sir John Lubbock, made exhaustive researches into the parallactic inequality of the 
Moon's motion, with the view of arriving at the solar parallax. The first found a parallax of 8".95, 
•which was for several years adopted by the English and French nautical almanacs ; the .second, em- 
ploying two ditlerent sets of data, obtained two different values, viz., 8". 97, and 8". 9159, while the 
third found 8". 8103, a value at that time discarded, but now considered very accurate. Several other 
theoretical determinations were made, thus in 1872 Powalky, using the'mass of the earth as in- 
dicated by the motion of the Node of Venus compared with the recognized mass of the Sun, found 
a ■value of 8". 74, and in the same year Le Verrier derived three values, one from the motion of the 
perihelion of Mars of 8". 866 ; one from the motion of theNodeof Venusof 8".853,andoneof 8".859 
from the secular variations of Venus resulting from the observa.tions of 106 years. 

In 1867 three other values of the paralla.t deserve notice, viz. , the late Professor Stone, of Oxford, 
England, in revising Le Verrier' s value deduced from the parallactic inequality of the Moon's motion, 
and correcting an error made by the latter, derived a parallax of 8".91, a reduction of 0". 04 from Le 
Verrier' s value. Professgr Stone also rediscussed the obseivations of the transit of Venus of 1769, 
using more accurate data as regards the position of places on the earth, and obtained a value of 9" 91, 
avalue identical with the preceding, and Schultze, employing the observations of Mars made at 
Santiago, Chile, and Upsala, Sweden, during the favoraiile opposition of 1862, derived 8". 8*7. 

In 1877 Lindsay and Gill, from observations on the plant Juno, found 8". 765 ; and the late Pro- 
fessor Airy (.\.?tronomer- Royal of England) from the internal contacts of the transit of Venus in 1874, 
found 8". 76 ; and Stone from the external contacts of the same transit, 8". 88; while American as- 
tronomers found 8".a36, and Dr. Anwers obtained 8". 877, and from the transit of 1882 he found 
8".879, all of whicli are very discordant and unsatisfactory. 

In 1862 Foncault,of Paris, determined experimentally the velocity of lightand combining it with 
the value of the aberration constant, found a parallax of 8". 86, and in 1874 Cornu, also of Paris, re- 
peated this experiment under more favorable conditions, and combining his result with the aberra- 
tion of Struve, deduced a value of 8". 834. Three years afterward the experiment was repeated 
under still more favorable circumstances, and deduced a parallax of 8". 80, which is in clo.se ao-ree- 
meut with tliat found by the late Professor Harkne.ss, of Washington, from which it follows that the 
mean distance Ironi the earth to the Sun is, in round numbers, 92,790,000 miles, with a proljable 
error of about,75,000 miles more or le.ss. 

Quite recently an extensive series of observations have been made on the diminutive asteroid 
Eros with the view of deducing the solar parallax. The result.'i have not yet been reached, but it is 
not likely that they will be better than those previously found from observations on Mars It is now 
universally conceded by astronomers that the solar parallax lies between 8" 80 and 8". 81 which 
values are quite in accord with those previously found by Stone and Sir John Lubbock. It is also 
worthy of note that the distinguished mathematician and astronomer La Place morethanacenturv 
ago suggested a parallax of 8". 8, the value now very generally accepted. 

There remains now only one method by which we can ever hope to arrive at an accurate value of 
the sol^r parallax, viz, that of the light equation, or the n\Pthod by the velocity of light in connec- 
tion with the constant of aberration. 

We may now regard the problem as practically solved for all time, for no subsequent researches 
iu this direction will eser materially change the value now generally accepted The problem has 
required centuries for its solution. It is one of the grandest achievements of our race By patient 
and laborious observations, prolonud research, and nnremittins toil, nat\ne has been thus forced to 
yield up one of her grandest and most profound secrets, T l\l. 



56 



K^t ^nWn declination, 















WASHINOTON 


APPAltKNl 


NOON'. 














1905. 


January. 


February. 


March. 




April. 


o 


Maj'. 
/ II 


June. 




o 


t 


n 


o 


t 


ft 





t 


If 


o 


1 


II 





; 


II 


1 


23 


1 


16 S. 


17 


8 


27 S. 


7 


38 


37 S. 


4 


28 


25 N. 


15 


1 


8 N. 


22 


1 


51 N. 


2 


22 


56 


7 


16 


51 


16 


7 


15 


47 


4 


51 


32 


15 


19 


12 


22 


9 


53 


3 


22 


50 


33 


16 


33 


47 


6 


52 


51 


6 


14 


33 


15 


37 


2 


22 


17 


33 


4 


22 


44 


31 


16 


16 


1 


6 


29 


50 


5 


37 


30 


15 


54 


36 


22 


24 


50 


5 


22 


38 


2 


15 


57 


58 


6 


6 


42 


6 





20 


16 


11 


54 


22 


31 


43 


6 


22 


31 


6 


15 


39 


38 


5 


43 


30 


6 


23 


4 ■ 


16 


28 


56 


22 


38 


12 


7 


22 


23 


44 


15 


21 


3 


5 


20 


13 


6 


45 


42 


16 


45 


41 


22 


44 


17 


8 


22 


15 


55 


15 


2 


12 


4 


56 


52 


7 


8 


13 


17 


2 


10 


22 


49 


59 


9 


22 


7 


39 


14 


43 


5 


4 


33 


27 


7 


30 


36 


17 


18 


22 


22 


55 


16 


10 


21 


58 


58 


14 


23 


44 


4 


9 


59 


7 


52 


52 


17 


34 


17 


23 





9 


11 


21 


49 


51 


14 


4 


9 


3 


46 


28 


8 


15 





17 


49 


53 


23 


4 


38 


12 


21 


40 


18 


13 


44 


20 


3 


22 


54 


8 


36 


59 


18 


5 


12 


23 


8 


43 


13 


21 


30 


21 


13 


24 


18 


2 


59 


17 


8 


58 


50 


18 


20 


13 


23 


12 


23 


14 


21 


19 


58 


13 


4 


2 


2 


35 


39 


9 


20 


31 


18 


34 


55 


23 


15 


o8 


15 


21 


9 


11 


12 


43 


34 


2 


11 


59 


9 


42 


4 


18 


49 


18 


23 


18 


29 


16 


20 


57 


5© 


12 


22 


53 


1 


48 


19 


10 


3 


26 


19 


3 


22 


23 


20 


55 


17 


20 


46 


24 


12 


2 


1 


1 


24 


37 


10 


24 


30 


19 


17 


7 


23 


22 


58 


18 


20 


34 


25 


11 


40 


57 


1 





55 


10 


45 


41 


19 


30 


32 


23 


24 


33 


19 


20 


22 


2 


11 


19 


43 





37 


13 


11 


6 


33 


19 


43 


37 


23 


25 


45 


20 


20 


9 


17 


10 


58 


17 





13 


31 S. 


11 


27 


13 


19 


56 


23 


23 


26 


32 


21 


19 


56 


9 


10 


36 


42 





10 


10 N. 


11 


47 


43 


20 


8 


47 


23 


26 


64 


22 


19 


^2 


38 


10 


14 


57 





33 


50 


12 


8 


1 


20 


20 


52 


23 


26 


52 


23 


19 


28 


46 


9 


53 


2 





57 


29 


12 


28 


6 


20 


32 


35 


23 


26 


15 


24 


19 


14 


32 


9 


30 


58 


1 


21 


6 


12 


48 





20 


43 


57 


23 


25 


33 


25 


18 


59 


57 • 


9 


8 


46 


1 


44 


42 


13 


7 


42 


20 


54 


58 


23 


24 


16 


26 


18 


■J5 


I 


8 


-i6 


25 


2 


8 


15 


13 


27 


10 


21 


5 


38 


23 


22 


34 


27 


18 


29 


44 


8 


23 


56 


2 


31 


45 


13 


46 


25 


21 


15 


56 


23 


20 


28 


28 


18 


14 


7 


8 


1 


20 S. 


2 


55 


12 


14 


5 


27 


21 


25 


51 


23 


17 


57 


29 


17 


58 


11 








3 


18 


36 


14 


24 


15 


21 


35 


25 


23 


15 


•> 


30 


17 


41 


55 








3 


41 


57 


14 


42 


49 N. 


21 


44 


36 


23 


11 


42 N. 


31 


17 


2o 


21 H. 








4 


5 


13 N. 








21 


53 


26 JN. 









1905. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 




o 


f 


II 


o 


1 


n 


o 


1 


n 


o 


1 


II 


o 


1 


II 


o 


1- 


II 


1 


23 


7 


58 N. 


18 


4 


5'. N. 


8 


21 


43 N. 


3 


Ji 


35 8. 


14 


22 


39 8. 


21 


47 


12- S 


2 


23 


3 


50 


17 


49 


42 


7 


59 


54 


3 


^9 


53 


14 


41 


4!» 


21 


56 


24 


3 


22 


59 


17 


17 


34 


13 


7 


3" 


58 


3 


53 


8 


15 





45 


22 


5 


11 


4 


22 


54 


•JO 


17 


18 


27 


7 


15 


54 


4 


16 


20 


15 


19 


26 


22 


13 


32 


5 


22 


48 


59 


17 


2 


24 


6 


53 


42 


4 


39 


30 


15 


37 


53 


22 


21 


27 


6 


22 


43 


15 


16 


46 


4 


6 


31 


24 


5 


2 


35 i 


15 


56 


3 


22 


28 


56 


7 


22 


37 


9 


16 


29 


29 


6 


9 





5 


25 


37 


16 


13 


57 


22 


35 


59 


8 


22 


30 


36 


16 


12 


37 


5 


46 


30 


5 


48 


35 


16 


31 


36 


22 


42 


35 


9 


22 


23 


41 


15 


55 


30 


5 


23 


54 


6 


11 


2S 


16 


48 


57 


22 


48 


44 


10 


22 


16 


23 


15 


38 


8 


5 


1 


13 


6 


34 


16 


17 


6 


1 


22 
22 


54 


-'6 


11 


22 


8 


42 


15 


20 


30 


4 


38 


26 


6 


56 


59 


17 


22 


48 


59 


41 


12 


22 





38 


15 


2 


38 


4 


15 


35 


7 


19 


37 


17 


39 


16 


23 


4 


29 


13 


21 


52 


11 


14 


44 


32 


3 


52 


40 


7 


42 


8 


17 


55 


27 


23 


8 


49 


14 


21 


43 


22 


14 


26 


11 


3 


29 


40 


8 


4 


33 


18 


11 


18 


23 


12 


42 


15 


21 


34 


11 


14 


7 


37 


3 


6 


36 


8 


26 


51 


18 


26 


51 


23 


16 


i 


16 


21 


24 


38 


13 


48 


49 


2 


43 


29 


8 


49 


2 


18 


42 


4 


23 


19 


4 


17 


21 


14 


43 


13 


29 


48 


2 


20 


19 


9 


11 


6 


18 


56 


57 


23 


21 


33 


18 


21 


4 


26 


13 


10 


35 


1 


57 


6 


9 


33 


1 


19 


11 


30 


23 


23 


34 


19 


20 


53 


47 


12 


51 


8 


1 


33 


50 


9 


54 


49 


19 


25 


42 


23 


25 


7 


20 


20 


42 


48 


12 


31 


30 


1 


10 


32 


10 


16 


28 


19 


39 


34 


23 


26 


11 


21 


20 


31 


28 


12 


11 


39 





47 


12 


10 


37 


57 


19 


53 


4 


23 


26 


4S 


22 


20 


19 


46 


11 


51 


37 





23 


51 


10 


59 


18 


20 


6 


12 


23 


26 


56 


23 


20 


7 


45 


11 


31 


23 








28 N. 


11 


20 


29 


20 


18 


58 


23 


26 


36 


24 


19 


55 


23 


11 


10 


59 





22 


55 8. 


11 


41 


29 


20 


31 


■'2 


23 


25 


47 


25 


19 


42 


41 


10 


50 


23 


o 


46 


19 


12 


*2 


19 


20 


43 


23 


23 


24 


31 


26 


19 


29 


40 


10 


2;> 


37 


1 


9 


44 


12 


'>2 


58 


20 


55 


1 


23 


22 


46 


27 


19 


16 


19 


10 


8 


42 


1 


33 


8 


12 


43 


26 


21 


6 


16 


23 


20 


33 


28 


19 


2 


39 


9 


47 


36 


1 


56 


31 


13 


3 


42 


21 


17 


6 


23 


17 


51 


29 


18 


48 


40 


9 


26 


21 


2 


19 


54 


13 


23 


46 


21 


27 


32 


23 


14 


4-J 


30 


18 


34 


23 


9 


4 


57 


2 


43 


16 S. 


13 


43 


37 


21 


37 


35 S. 


23 


11 


5 


31 


18 


19 


47 N. 


8 


43 


25 N. 








14 


3 


14 S. 






. 


23 


7 


S 



^.astronomical (Constants. 

The mean obliquity of the ecliptic for the year 1904 is 23° '27' 6". 13. Mean annual dim- 
inution, U".46. 

The present accepted value of the soljir parallax is 8". Rl at the earth' s mean distance, wliicli 
is 92, 790, 000 miles, with a probable error of about 75, 000 miles more or less. 

The eccontrieity of the earth' s orbit is 0. 01B771 : we are therefore 3, 112, 500 miles nearer to 
the sun at perihelion (January 1) than at aphelion (about July 1). ■ 

Ijcngth of the sidereal year, 885 day?, 6 hours, 9 minutes. 9. 6 seconds of mean time. 

Length of the tropical year (from equinox to equinox), 365dflys, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 46.07 
seconds of mean time. 

Me'an distance from earth to moon. 238, 850 miles. 

The length of a second's pendulum, that is, one which vibrates once in a secoud, in vacuo, 



star Table. 



57 



ASTRONOMICAL CONSTANTS— Co?i<i7med. 



at any place whose latitude is /, is 39.01254 + 0.20827 sin* i inches. At New York it is 
39. 101 3 inches. 

The acceleration of gravity in one second of mean solar time Is 32. 086528 + 0. 173 293 sln2 1 
feet. The half of this is the distance through which a body falls (in a vacuum) In one second. 

The velocity of light Is 186, 330 miles per second. 

Light requires 8 minutes and 18 seconds to pass from the sun to the earth when at its 
nmin distance, as given above ; therefore, when we look at the sun we see him not where he 
actually is, but where he was about 8 minutes and 18 seconds ago ; his inie place is then always 
in advance of his apparent place. 

MEAN TIME OF TRANSIT (AT NEW YORK) AND POLAR DISTANCE OF POLE STAR. 



l9tlD 


Januaev. 


Fbbruary. 


March. 


°5 


Upper 
Transit. 


Polar 
Distance. 


Lower 
Transit. 


Polar 
Distance. 


Lower 

Transit, 


Polar 
Distance. 


1 
11 
2! 


•p. M. 
H. M. S. 

6 41 32 
6 2 2 
5 22 32 


1 II 

1 U 46 
1 11 44 
1 11 44 


A. M. 

H. M. S 

4 41 4 
4 1 36 
3 22 7 


1 II 

1 11 44 
1 11 46 
1 11 47 


A. M. 
H. M. S. 
2 60 34 
2 11 9 
1 31 46 


O 1 II 
1 11 49 
1 11 62 
1 11 66 



APRIt,. 



Lower 
Transit. 



Polar 
Distance. 



A. M. 




H. M.S. 


O ♦ II 


12 48 27 


1 11 68 


12 9 8 


1 12 1 


11 26 64 P.M. 


I 12 4 



May, 



Lower 
Transit. 



p. M. 

H. M. S. 

10 46 38 
10 7 24 
9 28 12 



Polar 
Distance. 



I II 

1 12 7 
1 12 10 
1 12 12 



June. 



l.ower 

Transit. 



p. M. 
H. M.S. 

8 45 6 
8 6 56 
7 26 46 



Polar 
Distance. 



I It 

1 12 14 
1 12 15 
1 12 16 



1905 


July. 


August. 


Septkmbkr. 




OS 


Lower 

Transit. 


Polar 
Distance. 


Upper 
Transit. 


Polar 
Distance. 


Upper 
Transit. 


Polar 
Distance. 




• 

1 
11 

91 


P. M. 
H. M. S. 

6 47 37 

6 8 28 
6 29 19 


1 II 

1 12 16 
1 12 16 
1 12 15 


A. M. . 

H. M. 8 
4 48 13 
4 9 3 

1 3 29 63 


/ II 

1 12 14 
1 12 12 
1 12 11 


A. M. 

H. M. S. 
2 46 46 
2 7 34 

1 98 20 


1 II 

1 12 6 
1 12 3 
1 12 





OCTOBKE. 



Upper 
Transit. 



A. M. 

H. M. S. O I II 

12 49 6 111 66 

12 9 48 1 11 63 

11 26 34 P.M.' 1 11 49 



Polar 
Distance. 



NOVEUBEB. 



Upper 
Transit. 



p. M. 

H. M.S. 

10 43 18 

10 3 66 

9 24 32 



Polar 
Distance. 



I II 

1 11 44 
1 11 41 
1 11 37 



Decbmbkr. 



Upper 
Transit. 



Polar 
Distance. 



p. M. 

H. M S.I O ' " 

8 46 9 1 11 a 

8 5 42 I 1 11 3'.> 

7 26 14 I 1 11 29 



From ,lune 16 to August 1 both the upper and lower transits take place during daylight. 
The azimuth at the time of greatest eastern or western elongation can be easily computed from 
the formula: j sin >1 = ^'° ^ 

CCS /. 

where A denotes the azimuth, p the polar distance, and I the latitude of the place. 

DATE OF GREATEST ELONGATION. 
To find the time of greatest eastern or western elongation, let H denote the hour angle, and I 
and p as before, then we shall have 

cos //= tanp tani. 
And the hour angle in mean time is 

Hm = H''x 00664846. 
This quantity, JETm, added to or subtracted from the time of transit given above, according 
to the elongation required, Avill give the mean time of the greatest elongation at any place whose 
north latitude is I. 

.Star ^TaiJle, 

FOR IDENTIFYING THE PRINCIPAL FIXED STARS. 



Name of Star. 



aAndromedfe 

vPega-si (Algenib) 

aCassiopeiffi 

oArietis 

ePersei (Ali?ol) 

aXauri ( Aldebaran) 

aAurigre (Capella) 

$Orionis (Rigel) 

"Orioiiis (Betelgiiese). .. 
aCauis Majoris (Slrius). 
aGemlnorum (Castor) .. 
3Geminorum (Pollux).. 
aCanit> Minor 



Declination 



O I 

N 28 31 
N 14 37 
N 55 58 
N 22 59 
N 40 34 
N 16 18 
N 45 54 
S 8 19 
N 7 23 
S 16 So 
N 32 7 
N 28 16 
N 6 29 



On Meridian. 



Upper. 

H. M. 

- 1 18.0 

- 1 13. 2 

- 42. 2 
4- 40. 
+ 1 39.9 
+ S 8.2 
+ 3 47. 1 
+ 3 47.6 
+ 4 27. 6 
4- 5 18.4 
+ 6 5.7 
+ 6 16. 6 
+ 6 11. 6 



Lower. 

H, M. 

+10 40. 
+10 44. 8 
+11 15. 8 
+12 38. 0' 
+13 37. 9 
+15 6.2 
+15 45. 1 
+lc 45.6 
+16 25. 6 
+17 16.4 
+18 3.7 
+18 14.6 
+18 9. 



Name of Star. 



aLeonis (Regulus). 
a Virginis (Spica) . . . 
aBootis (Arcturus). 

^Urese Minoris 

aCoronsB Borealis.. 
aScorpii (Autares). 

aLyrsB (Vega) 

aAqnilaj (Altair)... 

aC.vgni (Deneb) 

aCephei 

"Aquarii 

aPiscis Aus 

aPegasl (Markab).. 



Declination 



O I 
12 28 
10 37 
19 43 
74 35 
27 4 
26 12 
38 41 

8 36 
44 55 
62 9 

49 
SO 10 
14 39 



On Meridian. 



Upper, 
n. M. 
+ 8 40. 1 
+11 56.5 
+12 47.0 
+13 27.5 
+13 49. 7 
+14 59. 3 
+17 9.3 
+18 2L4 
+ 19 13.5 
+19 51. 5 
+20 35. 8 
+ei 27. 1 
+21 34. 7 



Lower. 

H. M. 
+20 38. 1 
+23 54. 5 
+ 45. 5 
+ 1 25. 5 
+ 1 47. 7 
+ 2 57.3 
+ 5 7.3 
+ 6 19. 4 
+ 7 11.6 
+ 7 49. 5 
+ 8 33.8 
+ 9 26. 1 
+ 9 82.7 



To find the time of the star's transit add or subtract, according to the sign, the numbers 
in the second column of figures to the date of the transit of the pole star given above. Thus, 
for a Andromed89 February 1. Lower Transit of Polar Star is 4 h. 41m. a. m., to which add 
10 h. 40 m. and we have 3 h. 21m. p. m.; for December 1, we find 7 h. 27.1m. p. m. ,etc. 



58 



Rides for Foretelling the Weather. 



STAR TABLE— Co».//7!7//-f/. 



APPHOXIMATE PARALLAX ANT) DISTANCE IN LIGHT-YEARS OF SOME OF THE 

PRDSiCIPAL FIXED STARS. . . 

By light-yeara Is to be understood the number of yeiars light requires to travel from the star to us. 



Polaris (Pole Star 

a AurigsB (Capella^ 

aCanis Majoris (Sirius) — 
aCanis Winoris (Procyon). 

a BoOtis (Arcturus) 

a CentJiuri 



Parallax. 



II 

0.073 

0.046 

233 

0.123 

0.127 

0.31(5 



Light- 
Yeara. 



45 
71 
15 

27 
28 
3.6 



a Lyrse (Vega). 

61 Cygni 

6 Cassiopeiae. .. 

V Draconis 

85 Pegasi 



Parallax. 



II 

0.140 
0.348-0.564 
0.187 
0.127 
0.054 



Light- 
Yea rs. 



23 
6-8 
17 
26 
60 



The determination of stellar parallax is one of the most diflicult and refined problems in practical 
or obsei-vational astronomy. It is to fn\Ci the angle which the .semi-diameter of the earth's orbit 
subtends at the star— an angle always very small as seen from the above table and which cannot be 
measured directl v but by various processes too complicated to be e.xplained here. 



Comparative Scales. 



Reau- 


Centi- 


Fahr- 


mur, 


grade, 


enlieit. 


8(|0. 


100". 


212^. 


76 


95 


203 


72 


90 


194 


68 


85 


185 


63.1 


78.9 


174 


60 


75 


167 


56 


70 


158 


52 


65 


149 


48 


60 


140 


44 


55 


131 


42.2 


52.8 


127 


40 


50 


122 


36 


45 


113 


33.8 


42.2 


108 


32 


40 


104 


29.3 


36.7 


98 


28 


35 


95 


25.8 


32.2 


90 


24 


30 , 


86 


21.3 


26.7 


80 


20 


25 


77 


16 


20 


68 


12.4 


15.3 


60 


10.2 


12.8 


55 


8 


10 


50 


5.8 


7.2 


45 


4 


5 


41 


1.3 


1.7 


35 








32 


- 0.9 


- 1.1 


30 


- 4 


- 5 


23 


- 5.3 


-6.7 


20 


- 8 


-10 


14 


-9.8 


-12.2 


10 


-12 


-15 


5 


-14.2 


-17.8 





-16 


-20 


- 4 


-20 


-25 


-13 


-24 


-30 


-22 


-28 


-35 


-31 


-32 


-40 


-40 



Water Boils 
AT Sea 
Lrvel. 



Alcohol Boils. 



Tallow Melts. 



Blood Heat. 



Temperate. 



Water 
Freezes. 



Zero Fahr. 



Bulcs for jForctcHiufi tfjt Wit^t^tx. 

' Adapted for Use with Ankroij) Barometers, 

a rising barometer. 
A rapid vise indicates un.settled weather. 
A gradual ri.se indicates settled weather. 

A rise with dry air and cold increasing in Summer indicates 
wind from the northward; and if rain has fallen, better weather 
may be expected. 

A rise with moist air and a low temperature indicates wind and 
rain from the northward. 

A rise with southerly winds indicates fine weather. 

.a steady barometer. 
With dry air and seasonable temperature indicatesa continuance 
of very fine weather. 

A FALLING BAROMETER. 

A rapid fall indicates stormy weather. 

A rapid fall with westerly wind indicates stormy weather from 
the northward. 

A fall with a northerly wind indicates storm, with rain and hail 
in Summer, and snow in Winter. 

A fall with increased moisture in the air, and heat increasing, 
indicates wind and rain from the southward. 

A fall with dry air and cold increasing in Winter indicatessnow. 

A fall after very calm and warm weather indicates rain with 
squally weather. 

The barometer rises for northerly winds, including from north- 
west by north to the eastward for dry, or less wet weather, for less 
wind, or for more than one of the.se changes, e.xcept on a few 
occasions, when rain, hail, or snow comes from the northward with 
strong wind. 

The barometer falls for southerly wind, including from south- 
east by south to the westward, for wet weather, for stronger wind 
or for more than one of these changes, except on a few occasions, 
when moderate wind, with rain or snow, comes from the north- 
ward. 

The above printed rules are in use by the Seawanhaka-Corin- 
thian Yacht Club of New York. 



DURATION OF Different Kinds of Weather in theSevbral 
Storms— Vicinity of New York. 



CRrricAL Winds. 



South to Southwest.. 
South to Southeast... 
East to Northeast 



Clear 
Hours. 



9 
14 
20 



Cloudy 
Hours. 



8 
13.4 
17.6 




Clearing 
Hours. 



14 

15.4 

20.6 



OB.TECTS VISIBLE AT SEA-LEVEL IN CLEAR WEATHER. 
The following table shows the distance at sea-level at which objects are visible at certain elevations : 



Elevation- Fkei. 


Miles. 

1. 31 

2.96 

3.24 

. 3.49 

• 3.73 

3.96 

, 4.18 

5.92 

6. f.l 


Elkvation— Fkkt. 


Miles. 


Elkvation— Fket. 


Miles. 


1 ..„, ..,..,;; 


30 


7.25 

7.83 
8.37 
8.87 

10;25 
11.07 
11.83 


90 


12.25 


5 •.,.......:..,.. 


,35 


100 


18.23 


6 .: ...: 


40 


150 


16.22 


7 •„ „ ..; 


45 


200 


18.72 


8 


50 


300 


22.91 


9 , 


60 


500 

1,000 


29.58 


10 , 


70 


33.41 


20 ;...: ; 


80 


1 mile 


96 10 


25 









Table of Magnetic Declinations. 



5.9 



ffl:alilc of J^afluetic declinations, 

Oe Variations of the Compass fob thk Epoch January, 1905 -With thk Annual Change 
from 1900 to 1995 for the principal places in the united states. 

A plus (+) Sign denotes West Declination; a minus (—) sign East Declination. For the annual 
change a plus sign denotes increasing West or decreasing East declination, and a minus sign the 
reverse. 
(Specially prepared for The World Almanac from reports of the United States Coast and Geodetic 

Survey.) 



State or 
Territory. 



Ala 

Alaska . 



Montgomery- 
Mobile 

Florence. 



o 
32 
30 
34 

Sitka !57 

57 
63 
66 
71 



Ariz. 



Ark. 
Cal.. 



Col .... 
C-oiin 



l>el 

Dist. of 

Col 

Florida... 



Geor^fia. 

lilalio 

Illinois.. 

liid.Ter. 
Indiana. 



St. Paul 

St. Michael 

Fort Yukon 

Cape Smyth 

Prescott 

Yuma 

Nogales 

Little Kock 

Sacramento.. .. 
San F'rancisco. 

Los Angeles 

San Diego 

Denver 

Hartford 

New Haven 

Dover 



Iowa 

Kansas.. 
Ky 



I>a.. 



3[aiue. ... 



MA 

iUass 

Mich- 
Minn 

Miss 



Station. 






el 






o 
86 
88 
87 
135 



Washington 38 

Tallahassee 30 

Jacksonville ....30 

Key West 24 

Atlanta 33 

Savannah 3; 

Boise 43 

Springfield 39 

Chicago 41 

Atoka 34 

Indianapolis .S9 

Fort Wayne 41 

DesMoiues 41 

Dubuque 42 

Topeka 

Wichita 37 40 97 20 

Frankfort 

Paducah 37 5 88 

Louisville 38 15 85 

Baton Rouge.... 30 27 91 
New Orleans... 30 90 

Shreveport 32 30 93 

Augusta 

Portland 43 39 70 

Eastport 44 54 66 

Annapolis '38 59 76 

Baltimore 39 16 76 

Boston 142 22 71 

Springfield 142 6 73 

Lansing 

Detroit 42 21 83 

Marquette '46 33 87 

St. Paul 144 58 93 

Dulnth 46 46 92 

Jackson 32 19 90 



48162 
29162 
34145 
18156 

44114' 

20110 
44 92 
34121 
48 122 
4!ll8 
43117 



105 

72 
72 
75 

77 
84 
81 
81 
84 
81 
116 
89 
87 
96 
86 
85 
93 
90 



>2 



- 4 

- 3 
-29 
-23 
-21 
-34 
^31 
-13 
-13 
-12 

- 6 
-16 
-16 
-14 
-13 
-13 



I 
3.0 



+ 

+ 

+ 3.8 
0.0 
55+ 3.0 
38+ 7.U 
10+ 5.0 
42+12.0 
24+ 2.0 
8+ 1.0 



+10 35 
+10 06 
+ 6 39 


+ 5 02 

- 1 44 

- 40 

- 2 31 



- 1 

- 
-18 

- 3 
*> 

- 7 

- 1 

- 

- 7 

- 5 

- 8 

- 2 

- 1 

- 4 

- 1 

- 5 

- 4 

- 6 
+16 
+14 
+19 
+ 5 
+ o 



+1: 

+11 
+ 1 
+ 1 

22 ^ 
5-8 
41-12 

12|- 5 



+ 2.0 

+ 3.7 

0.0 

0.0 

0.0 

0.0 

I6l+ 3.0 

+ 2.0 

+ 2.0 

+ 2, 



3.0 

3.5 

3.4 

2.7 

3.6 

3.2 

1.5 

4.2 

4.6 

3.4 

4.0 

4.0 

4.4 

4.6 

3.7 

3.7 

3.8 

3.9 

3.8 

3.5 

3.5 

3.6 

1.0 

1.3 

0.0 

3.0 

3.0 

1 

2.0 

4.5 

4.0 

5 

4 

5.0 

3.5 



+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
21i+ 
34 + 
14 + 
54 + 
36 + 
48 + 
191 + 
26 + 



04 
31 
18 
17 
06 
08 
28 
55 
22 
12 
32 

41; + 
3.5 + 
24' + 
22 + 
06 + 
21i + 

8:+ 

21 + 
10,+ 
22i+ 



State or 
Tkkritory. 



Miss.. 

Mo 



iMon.. 
Neb.. 



Nevada. 



N. H 

N. J 

N. Mex 

N. Y 



N. C... 

N. Dak. 
OUio 



Okia 

Oregon. 
Pa 



K. I 



.S. Uak. 
Teun 



Tex. 



Utah. 

Vt 

Va 



Wash. 
\\. Va. 
Wis 



Station. 



Wyo. 



Oxford 

Jefferson City... 

St. Louis 

Kansas City... .. 

Helena 

Lincoln 

Omaha 

Carson City 

Eureka 

Concord 

Trenton 

Santa Fe 

Albany. 

New Y'ork 

Ithaca 

Buffalo 

Raleigh 

Wilmington 

Bismarclc 

Pembina 

Columbus 

Cleveland 

Cincinnati 

Guthrie 

Portland 

Harrisburg 

Philadelphia. ... 

Pittsburgh 

Providence 

Columbia. 

Charleston 

Pierre 

Yankton , 

Nashville 

Knoxville 

Memphis 

Anstm 

Safa Antonio 

Houston 

Galveston 

El Paso 

Salt Lake 

Ogden 

Montpelier 

Burlington 

Richmond 

Norfolk „. 

Lynchburg 

Olympia 

Walla Walla 

Charleston 

Wheeling 

Madison 

jMilwaukee 

jSuperiorCity.... 
'Cheyenne 



•n p. 



£-2 



^°^ 



O I 

89 33 
92 9 

90 16 

94 38 
112 2 

96 42 

95 58 
119 46 
115 58 

71 29 

74 44 

105 57 

73 45 

74 

76 29 
78 54 
78 38 

77 56 
100 47 

97 14 

83 
81 42 

84 25 



o I t 

5 8+ 3.8 

6 55i+ 4.1 
4 43+ 4.3 

- 8 36+ 4.0 
-18 58+ 2.0 

- 9 58+ 4.0 
8 38'+ 4.0 

16 32+ 1.0 
16 06+ 1.5 
+12 32+ 2.0 
+ 8 6[+ 2.7 
-12 17.+ 2.6 
+11 19'+ 2.9 
+ 9 20+ 2.9 



+ 7 50 
+ 6 16 
+ 20 



+ 3. 
+ 3.4 

+ 2.8 



122 41 

76 53' 

75 10 

80 1 
71 24 

81 2 
79 56 

100 22 
97 25 
86 48 
83 55 
90 3 

97 44 

98 28 
95 20 
94 47 

106 29 
46111 64 
131112 
15| 72 32 
73 12 

77 26 

76 17 
79 9 

2122 54 
4 118 21 



+ 1 46J+ 
-14 24+3.7 
-10 47+4.3 
+ 54+ 3.7 
+ 2 41+ 8.7 
-1 5+3.7 

- 8 48+ 3.3 
-22 32 0.0 
+ 6 7I+ 3.0 
+ 7 56+ 2.9 
+ 3 47 + 3.4 
+12 14'+ 1.8 

- 12+ 3.1 
+ 39+ 3.0 
-12 18+ 3.6 
-10 46:+ 3.8 

3 17+ 3.8 



+ 29 
-50 
- 7 43 
-8 3 



+ 3.6 
+ 3.8 
+ 3.3 
+ 3.1 



81 38 
80 44 
89 25 
87 53 
92 4 
104 49 



6 58|+ 3.3 

— 6 381+ 3.3 
-11 19|+ 2.7 
-15 68+ 2.0 
-16 52+2.0 
+14 10+ 2.0 
+12 391+ 2.0 
+ 3 55+ 2.8 
+ 4 1I+ 2.7 
+ 2 26|+ 3.1 
-22 41! 0.0 
-21 12:+ 1.0 
+ 2 14;+ 3.4 
+ 1 20|+ 3.4 

— 4 57+ 5.0 

- 3 15+ 5.0 

- 9 22+ S.O 
-14 0+ 2.8 



EXTREME VALUES. 



Maine Mo. of Green R. 

(Brunswick). 47 191 68 10!+21 12 



l.U 



Alaska ...iDemarcation 

I Point. 69 41I141 



-39 50 



+10.0 



CONQUESTS. 



82 221- a 35!+ 3.0i|Haw'n IHonolulu |21 18jl57 52-10 191- 1.6 



Cuba (Havana. 123 8' 

Santiago !20 01 76 50!- 36;+ 2.511 Island.ilWaimea 

Potto 'SanJnan., 18 29 66 7|+ 53 + 2.0' 'Philip. 

Itico. Pti nce -.... 17 69| 66 40i+ 43|+ 2.0U pin es... 'Manila |14 36i 

*Manila7i200 58>East ' ~ "~ ~^ ^~ 



20 2155 38: 



K 62 



- 1.0 

- I.O 



60 



The Ancient and Modern Year. 



Wituti}tv jFlagB 



OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Weather Bureau furnishes, when practicable, for the benefit of all interests dependent upon 
weather conditions, the "Forecasts" which are prepared daily at the Central Office in Washington, 
i). C. , and certain designated stations. These forecasts are telegraphed to stations of the Weather 
Bureau, railway officials, postmasters, and many others, to be communicated to the public by 
means of flags or steam whistles. The flags adopted for this purpose are five in number, and of the 
forms and colors indicated below: 



EXPLANATION OF WEATHER FLAGS. 



No. 1. 
White Flag. 



No. 2. 
Blue Flag. 



No. 3. 
White and Blue Flag. 



No. 4. No. 5. 

Black Triangular Flag. White Flag with 
black square in 
centre. 







Clear or fair weather. Bain or snow. Local rain or snow. Temperature. 



Cold wave. 



When number 4 is placed above number 1, 2, or 3, it indicates warmer; when below, 
colder; when not displayed, the temperature is expected to remain about stationary. During 
the late Spring and early Fall the cold- wave flag is also used to indicate anticipated frosts. 

WHISTLE. SIGNALS. 

A warning bla.st of from fifteen to twenty seconds duration is sounded to attract atten- 
tion. After this warning the longer blasts (of from four to six seconds duration) refer to 
weather, and shorter blasts (of from one to three seconds duration ) refer to temperature ; those 
for weather are sounded fli'st. . 



Blasts. Indicate. 

One long Fair weather. 

Two long Rain or snow. 

Three long Local rain or snow. 



Blasts. Indicate. 

One short Lower temperature^ 

Two short Higher temperature. 

Three short Cold wave. 



By repeating each combination a few times, with intervals of ten seconds, liability to error 
in reading the signals may be avoided. 

As far as practicable the forecast messages will be telegraphed ut tlie expense of the 
Weather Bureau; but if this is impracticable, they will be furnished at the regular commercial 
rates and sent ' 'collect. ' ' In no case will the forecasts be sent to a second address in any 
place, except at the expense of the applicant. 

Persons desiring to display the flags or sound the whistle signals for the benefit of the pub- 
lic should communicate with the Weather Bureau officials in charge of the climate and crop 
service of their respective States, the central stations of which are as follows : 



Alabama, Montgomery. 
Arizona, Phoenix. 
Arkansas, Little Rock. 
California, San Francisco. 
Colorado, Denver. 
Florida, Jacksonville. 
Georgia, Atlanta. 
Idaho, Boise. 
Illinois, Springfield. 
Indiana, Indianapolis 
Iowa, Des Moines. 
Kansas, Topeka. 
Kentucky, Louisville. 
Louisiana, New Orlean.s. 
Maryland, Baltimore 
(for Delaware and Maryland). 



Massachusetts, Boston 

(for New England). 
Michigan, Grand Rapids. 
Minne.'iota, Minneapolis. 
JIississi(ipi, Vick-stjurg. 
Missouri, ( 'ohuiiliia. 
Montana, Helena. 
Nebraska. Lincoln. 
Nevada, Carson City. 
New Jersey, Atlantic C'ty. 
New Mexico, Santa Fo. 
New York, 1 tbaca. 
North Carolina. Raleigh. 
North Dakota, Bismarck. 
Ohio, Columbus. 



Oklahoma and Indian Territor- 
ies, Oklahoma. 
Oregon, Portland. 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
South Carolina, Columbia. 
South Dakota, Huron. 
Tennes.see, Nashville. 
Texa.s, Galveston. 
ITtah, Salt Lake. 
\'irginia, Ric'imond. 
Washington, Seattle. 
West Virginia, Parkersburg. 
Wisconsin, Milwaukee. 
Wyoming, Cheyenne. 



5ri)r ^nc(rnt anU JWotievn ¥eac, 

Thb Athenians began the year in June, the Macedonians la September, the Romans first In March 
and afterward In January, the Persians on August 11, the ancient Mexicans on February 23, the Mo- 
hammedans in July. The Chinese year, which begins early In February, Ls similar to the Moham- 
medan in having 12 months of 2S)an"d30 days alternately; but In ever.v nineteen years there are -seven 
years which have 13 months. This is not quite correct, and the Chinese have therefore formed a 
cycle of 60 years, in which period 22 intercalary mouths occur. 



Loss by Lightning iii the United /States. 



61 



OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AORICULTURE. 

STORM WARNINGS. 








Northeasterly winds. Southeasterly winds. Northwesterly windii^ SouLhwesterly winds. 



Red, black c^'iitre. 



Storm WaiTiings.—A red flag with a black centre Indicates tliat a storm of marked violence Is 
expected. 

The pennants displayed with the flags indicate the direction of the wind; red, easterly (from 
northeast to south) ; white, westerlj- (from southwest to north). The pennant above the flag iudicaie.s 
that the wind is expected to blow from the northerly quad rants; below, from the southerly quadrants. 

By night a red light indicates easterly winds, and a white light above a red light westerly winds. 

Jfim'icane Warning. —Two red flags with black centres, displayed one above the other, indicate the 
expected approach of a tropical hurricane, and also one of those extremely severe and dangerous 
storms which occasionally move across the Lakes and Northern Atlantic coast. 

Vtiotits of Wiintifi in tije iKnitctr States. 

Average hourly velocity of the wind at selected stations of the United States Weather Bureau, 
also the".highest velocitj' ever reported for a period of five minutes. (Prepared by W. L. Moore, Chief 
of the Weather Bureau, and revised to October 1, 1904, for The World Almanac. ) 



Stitioni. 



Abilene, Texas , 

Albany, N.V 

Alpena, Mich 

Atlanta, Ga 

Bismarck, N. D 

Boiso, Idaho 

Boston, Mass 

Buffalo, N. Y 

. Charlotte, N.C 

Chattanooga, Tenn., 

Chicago, 111 

C'inciunati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cust€r, Mont 

Denver, Col 

Detroit, Mich 

Dodge City, Kan 

Dubuque, low*.*.,., 

Dnluth, Minn 

Kastport. Me . 



Average 

Hourly 
Velocity. 


Highest 

Ever 
Reported. 


Mi 


Mi. 


11 


66 


6 


70 


9 


72 


9 


56 


8 


74 


4 


55 


n 


7'2 


n 


90 


5 


55 


6 


60 


9 


84 


7 


59 


9 


73 




72 


7 


75 


9 


76 


11 


75 


5 


60 


7 


78 


9 


78 




El Paso, Texa.s 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Galveston, Texas 

Havre, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Huron, S. D 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Leavenworth, Kan... 

Louisville, Ky 

Lvnchburg, Va 

Memphis, Tenn 

Montgomery, Ala 

Nashville, Tenn 

New Orleans, La 

New YorkCitv.N.v; 
North Platte, Neb.... 

Omaha, Neb 

Palestine, 'I'exas -.. 



10 

11 

6 

10 
6 

8 
5 



Mi. 

78 

64 

♦84 

; 76 

60 

69 

70 

, 60 

! 84 

! 66 

1 .58 

; 51) 
' It 

I 75 
i 60 
80 
96 
! (!0 
' 60 



Stations. 



Philadelphia. Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Me 

Red Blutr, Cal 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St, Vincent, Minn.... 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

San Diego, Cal 

San Francisco, Cal... 

Santa F6, N. M 

Savannah, Ga 

Spokane, Wash 

Toledo, Ohio . 






Vicksburg, SIis.s 

Washington, D. C. 
Wilmington, N.C... 



Mi. 

10 
6 
.5 
i 

11 

11 
7 
9 
5 
6 
9 
6 

r, 
t 

4 
9 
6 
5 



* it -3! 

M > ^ 

if W a 

Mi." 
76 
48 
60 
60 
78 
80 
60 
72 
60 
40 
60 
51 
80 
52 
72 
60 
66 
68 



♦Anemometer blew away, at a velocity of 84 miles per hour, September, 1900. 

STAXD.A^RD TABLE SHOWING VPJLOCITY AND FORCE OF WINDS. 



DCSCBIPTION. 



Perceptible 

Just perceptible . 

Gentle breeze 

Pleasant breeze.. 

Brisk wind 



Miles 
per 
Hour. 1 Minute. 



Feet 
per 



Feet 

per 

Second. 



1 


88 1 


2 


176 i 


3 


264 ' 


4 


352 


5 


440 


10 


880 


15 


1,320 


•A) 


,1,760 


26 


2,200 



1.47 
2.93 
4.4 
5.87 
7.33 
14.67 
22.0 
29.3 
36.6 



Force in 

lbs. per 

Square 

Foot. 



.005 

.020 

.044 

.079 

. 123 

.492 

1.107 

1.968 

3. 075 



Description. 



High wind . 



Very high wind. 

Storm 

Great storm 



Hurricane . 



Miles 


Feet 


Feet 


per 


per 


per 


Hour. 


Minute. 


Second. 


/ 30 
1 35 


2.640 


44.0 


3,08O 


51.3 


f 40 
1 45 


3, .520 


58.6 


3,960 


6a 


60 . 


4,400 


73.3 


/ 60 } 


5,280 


88.0 


I 70 


6,160 


102. 7 


f 80 
1 100 


7,040 


117.3 


8,800 


146.6 



Force in 
lbs. per 
Square 
Foot. 

4.428 

6.027 

7.872 

9. 963 

12. 300 

17.712 

24. 108 

31.488 

49. 200 



From 1890 to 1898 the property loss by tornadoes in the United States was $26,633,750 [See The 
World Almaxac for 1902, page 61]. The number of persons killed bv tornadoes 1889 to 1898 
Inclusive was 1,437. 



aoss ti^ UifiljtuCufl in ti)e WiniUti States, 

Thb Weather Bureau o£ the United States Department of Agriculture in October, 190O, issued a 

Eulletin giving these facts: In 1899 the total number of strokes of lightning which caused damage was 
,627t Dumber of buildings Injured, 6,256; value of property lost, $3,016,520: number of deaths by 
lightning during the year, 563; number of persons injured, 820; number of live stock killed in the 
fields, 4,251; value, $129,9.55. These are the latest available statistics. 

The Chronicle Fire Tables record 3,012 fires caused by lightning in the United States in 1902, the 
property loss occasioned thereby being $3,396,810. 



62 Normal Temperature and Rainfall in the United States. 



IJCotmal Eemperatute antr J^ainfall 

IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Table Showing the Normal Tkmpkrature fob January and July, and the Normal 
Annual Precipitation at Weather Burkau Stations in each of the States and 
Territories, also the Highest and Lowest Temperatures ever Reported from 
each of said stations, to december 31, 1903. 

(Prepared in the office of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, TJ. 8. Department of Agriculture, for 

The World Almanac for 1905. ) 



0) 

O 
H 

a 

a 

z 

< 
GO 



Ala.. 



Ariz.. 
Ark... 
Cal... 



Col. 



Conn. 

Del 

l>ist. 
Col. 



of 



Florida.. 

Ueorgin. 

Idaho 

Illinois 
Indiann. 
lo^va 



Kaiitiias 



Ky. 
lift. 



IHaliie... 

!>f d 

Alass 



Mich. 

illinn. 
niisH.. 

;uo. . 

JUont. 



Temperature 



Stations. 



/Mobile 

I Montgomery 

fGrant, Fort* 

< Prescott* 

(Yuma 

/Fort Smith 

t Little Kock 

(Red Bluff. 

< Sacramento 

(San Diego 

^Denver 

< Las Animas* 

(Montrose* 

/New Haven 

I New London* 

Del. Br' k water* 



Washington ... 
CJacksonville... 

< Key West 

( Pensacola 

r Atlanta 

< Augusta 

(.Savannah 

Bois6 

(Cairo 

\ Chicago 

(Springfield 

Indianapolis... 
("Des Moines 

< Duburjue 

( Keokuk 

(Dodge 

\ Concordia 

(Leavenworth*... 

Louisville 

/New Orleans 

(Shreveport 

/Eastport 

1 Portland 

Baltimore 

/Boston 

I Springfield* 

((3raud Haven*... 

< Marquette 

(Port Huron 

(Duluth 

-{St. Paul 

(St. Vincent* 

Vick.sburg 

/St. Louis 

I Springfield 

(Havre 

■^Custer, Fort* . 
(Poplar River*... 



Mean, 



reo 

48 
43 
32 
64 
34 
40 
46 
46 
54 
27 
22 
23 
27 
28 
33 

33 
55 
70 
52 
43 
47 
51 
28 
34 
24 
25 
28 
17 
17 
23 
25 
19 
24 
34 
54 
45 
20 
23 
34 
26 
26 
24 
16 
21 
10 
11 
-8 
47 
30 
32 
9 67 
14 71 
-5169 



82 
82 
78 
7;i 
92 
80 
81 
82 
72 
67 
72 
76 
72 
72 
71 
73 

77 
82 
84 
81 
78 
82 
82 
73 
79 
72 
77 
76 
75 
75 
77 
78 
77 
78 
79 
83 
83 
60 
69 
78 
71 
73 
69 
65 
69 
66 
72 
65 
82 
79 
76 



Ex- 
tremes. 



w 



102 
107 
103 
100 
118 
10 
106 
115 
110 
101 
105 
105 
98 
100 
95 
93 

104 
104 
100 
103 
100 
105 
105 
111 
106 
103 
107 
106 
109 
106 
108 
108 
106 
107 
107 
102 
107 
93 
9' 
104 
102 
94 
94 
108 
99 
99 
104 
10.3 
101 
107 
106 
108 
107 



- 1 

- 5 
7 

-18 

20 

-15 

-12 

18 

19 

32 

-29 

-31 

-20 

-14 

-10 

1 

-15 

10 

41 

7 

- 8 
3 
8 

-28 
-16 
-23 
-22 
-25 
-30 
-32 
-24 
-26 
-25 
—29 
-20 
7 

- 5 
-21 
-1 

- 7 
-13 
-14 
-25 
-27 
-25 
-41 
-41 

,54 

- 1 
-22 
-29 
-55 
-481 



ao 



C-3 

I* 3 



110 -63 



62.2 
52 
16.5 
16.4 

3.0 
44. 
53,6 
26.1 
20.9 
10.5 
14.5 
13.5 

8.9 
50. 3 
49.1 
32.6 

43. 5 

54.1 

38.5 

57.1 

52.0 

48.3 

51.9 

13.2 

42.8 

34.8 

38.0 

43.0 

33.1 

35.5 

34. 

19.8 

25.5 

38.4 

4,5. 8 

60.5 

48.6 

4.5.2 

42.3 

43.8 

4.5.0 

47.0 

34.8 

32.4 

31.6 

31.0 

27. 5 

16.6 

5.5. 7 

41.1 

4.5.7 

14.1 1 

13 t) 

10. 8 



CO 

■A 

O 
H 
w 

« 

'A 

H 

n 
z 
■*. 

< 



Neb. 



Nevada . 
N. C 



X. 


Dak 


N, 


II 


N. 


.1 


N. 


j>Iex. 


N. 


Y 



Stations. 



Ohio 

Okia 

Oregon. 



I'a. 



K. I 

s. c 

IS. Dak.. 



Teiiii . 



Texas 



Utah 

Vt 

Va 



Wash 
\V. Va. 
VViN. . 

Wyo 



(North Platte 

< Omaha 

(Valentine 

Winnemucca 

(Charlotte 

\ Hatteras 

(Wilmington 

/Bismarck 

IWilliston 

Manchester* 

(Atlantic City... 

< Cape May 

(New Brunswick 

/Santa Fe 

IStanton, Fort*.. 

(Albanj- 

\ New York City.. 

(Oswego 

(Cincinnati 

-J Columl>us 

(Toledo 

Sill, Fort* 

(Portland 

\ Ro.seburg 

(Umatilla* 

(Erie 

\ Philadelphia 

(Pittsburgh 

/Block Lsland 

t Newport* 

Charleston 

Yankton 

(Chattanooga 

.; ISlemphis 

1 Nashville 

f Elliott. Fort* 

; Brownsville* 

', El Paso 

(.Palestine 

/Fri.sco* 

t Salt Lake. 

Burlington* 

/ r,yn(^hhurg 

( Norfolk 

(Dayton* 

■I Olympia* 

(Tatoosh I.sland" 

INforgantown*... 

/ La ('rosse 

(.Milwaukee 

(Bridgor, Fort*.. 

< Clieyenno 

( Washakie, Fori" 



Tempkratitp.f 



Mean. 



19 
19 
14 

28 
51 
44 

47 

4 

3 
22 
32172 

34 74 
28174 
28:68 
34(68 
23173 
3«»'74 

25 69 
33 78 
28 75 

26 74 

35 82 
39:67 
40 66 



32 

27 
32 
30 



3 

2 

76 

74 
30 69 
30 70 
49 82 
13 74 
4l'78 
40 81 
3H KO 
30 77 
.57I.S4 
44)82 
43 82 104 
30 73i 93 



E.\- 
tremes. 



107 

106 

106 

104 

102 

92 

103 

106 

10' 

96 

99 

94 

100 

97 

95 

100 

100 

100 

105 

104 

102 

107 

102 

104 

110 

94 

103 

103 

89 

92 

104 

107 

101 

104 

104 

108 

102 

113 



76 lO'. 
71 1 97 
78 102 
40,79 102 
30if!,S 109 



38 
40 
35 
15 
19 
19 
25 



-35 
-32 
-38 
-28 
- 6 



.2 a 

■*-> — 



X-fi 



c3 Qj 

i.5 

Sp3 



18. 

31. 

19. 
8. 

52. 
866. 
5 54. 



-44 
-49 
-11 

- 7 

- 3 
-10 
-13 
-18 
-IH 



9 

80 
97 
73 104; 
69100| 
64 89] 
67 1 100 



l<r«7 10<i- 



644, 
2335. 
1739. 
20^38. 
1«130. 

93). 

■ 246. 
635. 

24 9. 
1641. 

6!39. 
20:36. 
• 444. 
- 850. 

756. 
34'26. 
1055. 

953. 
13.50. 
1424. 
1836. 

■ 5 9. 
6'46. 

■ 9' 7. 
2016. 

25 28. 
6 42. 
2 52 

26 27. 
253. 
7i92. 

■2546. 
4330. 
25 32. 
42 8. 
3812. 
54ill. 



The minus (--) sign indicates temperature Ik-Iow /.>'n). * N.il lunv a station of the Weather Bu- 
reau, ancl report is therefore for the period preceding its discontinuance lu a station. 



Facts About the Earth. 



63 



jFacts srtJOttt tl)r ISartt). 



A.CC0RD1NG to Clark, the eauatorial semi- diametei is '20,926,202 feet-.3963. 296 miles, and 
the polar semi- diameter is 20,854,895 feet=3950. 738 miles. One degree of latitude at the 
poie=69, 407 miles. One degree of latitude at the equator=68. 704 miles. 

POPULATION OP THE EARTH BY CONTINENTS. 
(From Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Soriety. ) 



CONTI- 

NHNTAI. 

Divisions. 

-Africa 

America, N.. 
America, St. 
Asia.. 



Area in 
Square Miles. 

Tl, 514. 000 

6.446,000 

6.837,000 

, 14,710,000 



Inhabitants. 



Number. 



127,000,000 
89,260,000 
36,420,000 

850,000,000 



PerSq. 
Mile. 



11.00 

13.80 

5.30 

57.70 



Conti- 
nental 
Divisions. 



Australasia 

Europe 

Polar Beg.., 

Total , 



Area iu 
Square Miles. 



3,288,000 
3.555,000 

4,888.800 



Inhabitants. 

Per Sq 
Mile . 

40 



Number. 



4,730,000 

380.200,000 

300,000 



1. 

106.90 
0.07 



51,238,800 1,487.900,000 29.00 



The above estimate was made by Ernest George Ravenstein, F. R. G. S. , the geographer and 
statistician, and -is for 1890. The population of North America, 1900, had increased to over 
100,000,000. ,-, ■ 

An e.^timate of population of the earth, made by Urs. Wagner and Supan, editors of 
"Bevolkerung'der Erde" (Perthes, Gotha. 1891), is as follow.s: Europe, 357,379,000; Asia, 
825,954,000: Africa, 163,953.000: America, 121,713,000: Australia, 3,230,000: Oceanic 
Islands, 7,420,000; polar retrions, 80,400. Total, 1,479, 729,400. The estimate of area of 
the continents and islands by the same authorities is 52,821,684. 

Ravenstein' s estimate of" the earth's fertile region, in square miles, ; is 28, 269, 200 ; steppe, 
13,901,000; desert, 4,180,0(K); polar regions, 4,888,800. 

' .The population of the earth at the death of the Emperor Augustus, estimated by Bodio, was 
54,000,000. The population of Europe hardly exceeded 50,000,000 before the fifteenth 
ceutury. — Mulhall. 

The area and cubic contents of the earth, according to the data of Clark, given above, are : 
Surface, 196, 971, 984 square miles ; cubic contents, 259, 944,035, 515 cubic miles. 

Murray (Challenger expedition) states the greatest depth of the Atlantic Ocean at 27,366 
feet; Pacific Ocean, 30,000 feet; Indian Ocean, 18, .582 feet; Southern Ocean, 25,200 feet; 
Arctic Ocean, 9.000 feet. The Atlantic Ocean has an area, in square miles, of 24,536,000; 
Pacific Ocean, 50,309,000; Indian Ocean, 17,084,0<K): Arctic Ocean, 4,781,000; Southern 
Ocean, 30, 592, 000. The highest mountain is believed to be Deodhunga or Everest, one of the 
Himalayas, 29, 002 feet. 
• For population of the earth according to creed, see Religiocis Statistics. 



POPULATION OF THE EARTH ACCORDING TO RACE. 
(Estimated by John Bartholomew, F. R. G. S. , Edinburgh. ) 



Race. 


Location. 

Europe, Persia, 
etc 

Greater part of 


Number. 
545,500,000 

630,000,000 

65,000,000 

150.000,000 


Race. 


Location. 


Number. 


Iiido - Germanic or 
Aryan (white) 

MougoliauorTuraiii- 
ian (yellow aud 


Hottentot aud Bush- 


South Africa 
A u s t ralasia 

& Polyne!5ia 
North & So. 

America 


150,000 
35,000,000 


Malay and Polynes- 
ian (brown) 

A mericau Indian 
(red) 




North Africa, 
Arabia 

Central Africa.... 


15,000,000 




Total 




Negro and .Bantu 
(black) „.. 




1,440,650,000 







The human family is subject to forty-eight principal governments. .As to their form they 
may be classified as follows : Absolute monarchies, Abyssinia, Afghanistan, China, Korea, Morocco, 
Per,sia, Russia, Siam. Turkey; Limited monairhies, Austria- Hungary, Belgium, British Empire, 
Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Montenegro, Netherlarids, Portugal, Roumania, Servia, 
Sweden and Norway, Spain ; Republics, Argentine Republic, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, 
Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Hayti, Honduras, Li- 
beria, Mexico, Nicaragxia, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador. Switzerland, United States of 
America. Uruguay, Venezuela. Besides these are the undefined despotisms of Central Africa, 
and a few insignificant independent States. 

The average duration of human life is about 33 years. One- quarter of the people on the earth 
die. before age 6, one- half before age 16, and onlv about 1 person of each 1(K) born lives to age 
65. 

EUROPEAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN. 



Lan- 

eUAGE.S. 



Number op Persons 
Spoken by. 



Propor- 

tidn of 

the 
Whole. 



Lan- 
guages. 



1801. 



1890. 



English 

Frendi 31.450,000 

German 30.320.000 

Italian 15,070,000 

Spanish 26.190,000 



I 801. _ 1890. 

20, ,5'20, 000111, 100,000 12.7 27.7 



51,200,000 
75,200,000 
33,400.000 
42,800.000 



19.4 12.7 

18. 7i 18.7 

9.3 8.3 

16.2 10.7 



Portuguese 
Russian 



Total 



Number of Persons 
Spoken by. 



J801. 



189a 

7,480,000' T3;^0,050 
30,770,000 75,000,000 



161, 800, 000 401 , 700, 000 



Propor- 
tion of 

THB 

Whole. 



100.0 



1890. 
3.2 

18.7 



100.0 



These estimates by Mulhall (1891) e-Khil>it the superior growth of the Engli.sh language in the last 
ninety years. Another authority (see "Rn?lish-Spp;ikintc Religious Communitie-s ") estimates the 
number using the English language iu 1896 at over 124, 130,000. 



64 



High-Tide Tables. 



FOR OOVKENOK'8 ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR. 

(Specially prepared from the Tide- Tables of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey for 

THE World Almanac. ) 
New York Mean Time. To express in Ea.steru Standard Time, subtract 4 minutes. 



1905. 


Jam 


ary. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Day of 
Month. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


4 46 


4 38 


5 49 


6 24 


4 34 


5 14 


5 54 


6 29 


6 2 


6 29 


6 34 


6 59 


2 


5 12 


5 41 


6 34 


7 14 


5 29 


6 9 


6 38 


7 6 


6 41 


7 2 


7 8 


7 33 


3 


6 5 


6 36 


7 23 


7 58 


6 20 


6 56 


7 15 


7 39 


7 14 


7 34 


7 46 


8 11 


4 


6 56 


7 27 


8 7 


8 38 


7 4 


7 35 


7 49 


8 10 


7 44 


8 4 


8 22 


8 49 


5 


7 44 


8 14 


8 46 


9 14 


7 44 


8 11 


8 19 


8 34 


8 12 


833 


9 4 


9 28 


6 


8 26 


8 58 


9 22 


9 46 


8 19 


8 43 


8 42 


9 3 


8 43 


9 8 


9 49 


10 13 


7 


9 8 


9 39 


9 50 


10 14 


8 49 


9 9 


9 9 


9 33 


9 19 


9 46 


10 38 


11 2 


8 


9 49 


10 19 


10 18 


10 43 


9 17 


9 36 


9 42 


10 9 


10 1 


10 29 


1133 


11 54 


9 


10 25 


10 56 


10 45 


11 18 


9 10 


10 4 


10 20 


10 50 


10 48 


11 17 




12 34 


10 


10 58 


11 32 


11 21 


11 59 


10 11 


10 38 


11 4 


11 39 


11 42 




12 54 


1 40 


11 


11 29 


.... 


12 




10 46 


11 19 


11 56 




12 12 


12 44 


1 58 


2 49 


12 


12 8 


12 7 


12 47 


12 50 


11 29 




12 34 


12 56 


1 14 


1 56 


3 6 


3 54 


13 


12 49 


12 49 


1 44 


1 49 


12 8 


12 19 


1 39 


2 8 


2 22 


3 8 


4 16 


4 54 


14 


1 42 


1 35 


2 48 


2 54 


1 4 


1 18 


2 49 


3 26 


3 31 


4 16 


5 19 


5 51 


15 


2 38 


2 31 


3 54 


4 8 


2 9 


2 28 


3 59 


4 36 


4 39 


5 14 


6 18 


6 42 


16 


3 34 


3 37 


4 51 


5 14 


3 19 


3 44 


5 3 


5 36 


5 37 


6 10 


7 11 


7 33 


17 


4 29 


4 39 


5 49 


6 18 


4 25 


4 58 


6 1 


6 31 


6 34 


7 


8 2 


8 20 


18 


5 22 


5 39 


6 44 


7 21 


5 29 


5 59 


6 54 


7 16 


7 26 


7 49 


8 53 


9 10 


19 


6 14 


6 34 


7 36 


8 2 


6 24 


6 52 


7 44 


8 10 


8 16 


8 39 


9 42 


9 55 


20 


7 4 


7 28 


8 24 


8 52 


7 16 


7 43 


8 34 


8 59 


9 6 


9 26 


10 80 


10 39 


21 


7 47 


8 19 


9 12 


9 40 


8 5 


8 33 


9 23 


9 47 


9 58 


10 15 


11 20 


11 26 


22 


8 41 


9 6 


10 


10 31 


8 54 


9 20 


10 13 


10 38 


10 51 


11 H 




12 9 


23 


9 31 


9 58 


10 50 


11 24 


9 42 


10 11 


11 5 


11 31 


11 44 


11 59 


12 10 


12 59 


24 


10 18 


10 50 


11 38 




10 33 


11 1 




12 6 




12 43 


12 59 


1 52 


25 


11 8 


11 44 


12 20 


12 39 


11 24 


11 55 


12 28 


1 9 


12 52 


1 44 


1 39 


2 41 


26 


11 59 




1 21 


1 44 




12 22 


1 28 


2 18 


1 48 


2 44 


2 30 


3 29 


27 


12 64 


12 56 


2 26 


2 58 


12 56 


1 29 


2 33 


3 24 


2 45 


3 39 


3 21 


4 16 


28 


1 46 


2 3 


3 32 


4 12 


2 


2 41 


3 34 


4 21 


3 40 


4 26 


4 15 


5 


29 


2 50 


3 14 




.... 


3 5 


3 52 


4 30 


5 10 


4 31 


5 9 


5 6 


5 44 


30 


3 54 


4 24 




.... 


4 8 


4 54 


5 19 


5 52 


5 15 


5 46 


6 54 


6 25 


31 


4 54 


5 29 


.... 




5 4 


5 45 






5 56 


6 23 







1905. 


July. 


August. 


Septe 


mber. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Day of 
Month. 


A.M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


p. M. 


A. M. 


p. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. u. 


P. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


II. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


6 39 


7 7 


7 5:} 


8 17 


9 9 


9 33 


9 3!t 


10 1 


11 4 


11 38 


1137 




2 
3 


7 24 


7 50 


8 40 


9 4 


9 59 


10 19 


10 29 


10 63 


11 59 




12 20 


12 31 


8 8 


8 32 


9 29 


9 49 


10 49 


11 8 


11 24 


11 49 


12 41 


i 


1 20 


1 28 


4 


853 


9 16 


10 16 


10 35 


11 43 






12 21 


1 52 


2 4 


2 22 


2 24 


5 


9 40 


10 3 


11 « 


11 24 


12 1 


12 42 


12 54 


1 25 


2 57 


3 8 


3 19 


3 23 


6 


10 29 


10 50 




12 3 


1 4 


1 46 


2 9 


2 33 


3 68 


4 7 


4 9 


4 16 


7 


1123 


11 40 


12 19 


1 3 


2 20 


2 67 


3 2.> 


3 38 


4 51 


6 


4 65 


6 4 


8 




12 23 


1 18 


2 »i 


3 36 


4 1 


4 28 


4 39 


5 37 


5 48 


5 37 


6 49 


9 


12 34 


1 23 


2 29 


3 15 


4 46 


5 2 


5 23 


5 33 


6 16 


6 29 


6 16 


6 28 


10 


1 35 


2 29 


3 '15 


4 20 


6 44 


5 65 


6 10 


6 19 


6 54 


7 5 


6 60 


7 3 


11 


2 44 


3 3'> 


4 55 


6 19 


6 35 


6 44 


6 60 


7 1 


7 25 


7 36 


7 24 


7 34 


12 


3 57 


4 38 


5.58 


6 14 


7 19 


7 27 


7 27 


7 38 


7 55 


H 3 


768 


8 8 


13 


5 4 


5 35 


6 51 


7 4 


7 58 


8 5 


8 


8 11 


8 24 


8 31 


8 34 


8 46 


14 


6 5 


6 28 


7 ;i9 


7 48 


8 33 


8 40 


8 28 


8 36 


8 56 


9 4 


9 11 


9 2!» 


15 


7 1 


7 19 


H 21 


8 30 


9 4 


9 10 


8 64 


9 


9 30 


9 43 


9 63 


10 14 


16 


7 63 


8 5 


9 1 


9 9 


9 31 


9 37 


9 25 


9 29 


10 9 


10 26 


10 36 


11 4 


17 


8 39 


8 50 


9 38 


9 42 


.9 57 


10 4 


9 54 


10 4 


10 51 


11 16 


11 25 




18 


9 25 


9 33 


10 9 


10 13 


10 28 


lo 33 


10 33 


lO 15 


11 44 




12 2 


12 18 


19 


10 8 


10 13 


10 : 9 


10 \ 


11 4 


11 12 


11 15 


11 33 


12 14 


12 40 


1 3 


1 15 


20 


10 49 


10 53 


Jl 10 


11 10 


11 48 


11 58 




12 8 


1 20 


1 44 


2 9 


2 22 


21 


11 28 


11 27 


11 49 


11 46 




12 39 


12 29 


1 8 


2 29 


2 51 


3 16 


3 80 


22 




12 4 




12 31 


12 62 


1 40 


1 37 


2 14 


3 39 


3 59 


4 20 


4 40 


23 


12 00 


12 45 


12 30 


1 2 { 


1 58 


2 47 


2 51 


3 23 


4 4 ! 


6 4 


6 19 


6 4i 


24 


12 35 


1 31 


1 24 


2 23 


3 13 


3 65 


4 3 


4 29 


5 39 


6 1 


6 14 


6 43 


25 


1 18 


2 21 


2 27 


3 28 


4 24 


4 58 


5 5 


5 29 


6 82 


6 66 


7 7 
7 58 
^4S 


7 8H 


26 


2 9 


8 15 


3 89 


4 29 


6 30 


5 57 


fl 1 


6 24 


7 24 


7 50 

8 40 


©10 


27 


8 16 


4 14 


4 ■\Q 


5 28 


6 24 


« 49 


?i 


7 17 


8 14 


28 


4 16 
519 


6 7 


6 50 


6 21 


7 14 


7 88 


8 7 


9 S 


9 83 


10 23 


1(1 9 


29 


5 58 


6 46 


7 11 


8 8 


8 26 


8 82 


H 56 


9 52 


10 25 


10 59 


30 


6 14 


e 45 


7 31 


7 59 


8 51 


9 13 


9 20 


9 47 


10 43 


11 22 


11 9 


11 61 


31 


7 4 


7 31 


8 24 


8 44 






10 10 


10 39 






11 56 


.... 



Greatest Altitude in Each State. 



65 



HIGH-TIDE TABLES— ConCmwffZ. 



TIME OF HIGH WATER AT POINTS ON THE ATLANTIC COAST. 

Tlie local time of higli water at the following- places may be found approximately for each day by 
adding to or subtracting from the time of high water at Governor's Island, N. Y. , the hours and 
minutes annexed. 



Albany, N. Y add 

Annapolis, Wd add 

Atlantic City. X. J sub. 

Baltimore, Md add 

Bar Harbor, Me add 

Beaufort, S. C... sub. 

Block Island. R. I sub. 

Boston, Mass add 

Bridgeport. Ct add 

Bristol, R. I sub. 

Cape Mav, N. J add 

Charleston, 8. C sub. 

Eastport. Me : add 

Fernandina, Fla sub. 

Gloucester, Mass add 

Hell Gate Ferry, East River, N. Y..add 

Islefc. of Shoals, N. H add 

Jacksonville, Fla add 

Key West, Fla add 

League Island, Pa add 

Marblehead, Mass add 

Naliant, Ma.ss add 

Nantucket, Mass add 

Newark, N. J add 

New Bedford, Mass..,.......' sub. 

Newburyport. Alass ..adrl 



H 


M. 


9 


SI 


8 


57 




•20 


1(» 


5-2 


'2 


4« 




S 




34 


8 


2'2 


a 


'_3 




14 




10 




4-2 


« 







18 


2 


55 


1 


53 


a 


n 




37 


1 


'24 


5 


23 


A 


■2 


•A 


2 


4 


21 




54 




1(» 


•■'. 


If! 



New Haven. Ct add 

New London, Ct add 

Newport, R. I sub. 

Norfolk, Va add 

Norwich, Ct add 

Old Point Comfort, Va add 

Philadelphia, Pa add 

Plymoutn, Mass add 

Point Lookout, Md add 

Portland, Me add 

Portsmouth, N. H add 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y add 

Providence, R. I add 

Richmond, Va , add 

Rockaway Inlet, N. V sub, 

Rockland, Me add 

Rockport, Mass ..„, add 

8alem, Ma.ss add 

Sandy Hook, N. .T sub. 

Savannah, Ga add 

Soutbport (Smith ville), N. C sub. 

Vineyard Haven, Mass add 

i Washington, D. C add 

Watch Hill, R. I add 

West Point, N. Y....... add 

Wilmington, N. C add 



H. 


M. 


3 


1 


1 


22 




22 




58 


2 







39 


;> 


41 


3 


12 


4 


49 


3 


10 


3 


16 


3 


51 




'-' 


S 


48 




25 


3 


1 


2 


50 


3 


9 




32 




T 




43 




36 


12 


1 




42 


2 


47 


1 






Example. —To find the approximate time of high tide at Atlantic City, N. J., on any day. find 
first the time of high water at New York under the desired date, and then subtract 20 miuute.s, as in 
the above table ; the re.sult is the time of high water required. 



<S?ccatest ^ItituTre in 22acij .State. 

FROM THE RECORDS OF THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



•Heig' t 
Feet. 



rtTATK OK 

Tkbritory . 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

» rkapsas 

V ' ■ TM :''ii 

bia.. 
; it-'y 

■ -t'ts. 



Name of Place. 



Clieauha Mt. (TalladegaCo. ) 

Mt. McKinley 

San Francisco Mt 

Magazine Mt 

Mt. Whitney 

Blanca Peak ,. 

Bear Mt 

Dapont 

Tenley 

Mossyhead 

Enota Mt 

Hyndmau Peak 

Warren 

Haley 

Sugarloaf 

Ocheyedan 

Kanarado i 

Big Black Jit. (Harlan (o. > 

Mansfield 

Katahdin Mt 

Great Backbone ;\It 

Mt. Greylock 

Porcujiine Mt 

Mesabi Rantre 

Pontotoc Ridge 

Cedar Gap 



40' 
4641 
7941 
8001 
522i 
4641 
365 
282) 
400i 
263! 
798; 
O73I 
009! 
140l 
600 
,554 
90H 
,100 
321 
,200' 
,400! 
.535! 
,023l 
,000 
5<S6i 
675 



State ob 
Territor y. 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

N. Hampshire 

New Jersey 

Ne.w Mexico..,, 

New York I 

North Carolina, 
North Dakota ..' 

Ohio , 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania,,, 
Rhode Island... 
South f 'arolina.. 
South Dakota... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia.. 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Name of Place. 



Heig't 

Feet. 

Mt. Doufjlas il,300 

White River Summit | 4,876 

Wheeler Peak '13.036 

Mt. Washington ] 6,286 

Kittatinnv Mt I 1,630 

Cerro Bla'nco 14,269 

5.344 
6,703 
2,707 
1,376 



Mt. Marcy (Adirondack).. 

Mt. Mitchell 

Sentinel Butte. 
Ontario 



Mt. Hood 

Bald Knob 

Durfee Hill 

Rocky Mt. ( I'ickens Co. ).. 

Harney Peak 

Mt. Leconte 

Chinati 

Mt. Emmons 

Mt. Mansfield..... 

Mt. Rogers ((^ra.vson Co. )... 

Mt. Rainier 

Spruce Mt. (Pendleton Co. ) 

Summit Lake 

Fremont Peak 



11,225 
2,994 

805 
3,600 
7,368 
6.612 
7,730 

13,694 
4,430 
5,719 

14,526 
4.860 
1.732 

13,790 



I 



. The above table was prepared for The World Almanac by the Geographic Branch of the 

■ res Geological Survey. It should be stated in connection with this table that it presents 

- whose heights are matters of record, and that in several cases in the high mountain region 

■■est and the Pacific Slope it is well known that there are higher points within the State or 

1 errit< r."^ ■ hose heights are not yet known with accuracv, and consequently cannot be given. 

This t,i le was revised by the United States Geological Survey to November 1, 1904. 

' Western end of Bearer County, Oklahoma, reaches 5, 000 feet elevation . 



66 



Latitude and Longitude Table. 



Hatitutie antr Houflitutre STatle. 

(Longitude Reckoned from Greenwich.) 
Specially prepared for The World Almanac. 
o r fr 



H. M. s. 
6 39 41. 8 W. 
9 14 20. 3 E. 
2 59 55. 8 E. 

4 55 ti.8W. 

VI 11. 4 E. 

5 20 2.9W. 

1 59 26. 7 E. 

4 50 4. 7 W. 

5 34 65. 2 W. 
5 5 56.5 W. 

11 54 52. 3 E. 
11 26 59. 7 E. 

2 4214.0E. 

26 35. 4 W. 
5 19 39. W. 
8 15 18. 8 W. 

1 34 54. 9 E. 



Acapulco, Mex 16 50 56 N. 

Adelaide, S. Anstralia*..34 55 38 S. 

Aden, Arabia 12 46 40 N. 

Albany, N. Y.* 42 39 13 N. 

Algiers* 36 4750 X 

Allegheny, Pa.* 40 27 42 N. 

Alexandria, Egypt 31 11 43 N. 

Amheret, Mass.* 42 2217 N. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. • 42 16 48 N. 

Annapolis, Md.» ;3S 58 54 N. 

Antipodes Island 49 42 S. 

Apia, Samoa 13 48 56 S. 

Archangel, Russia 64 32 6 N. 

Armagh, Ireland* 54 2113 N. 

Aspiuwall,S.A.,M 9 22 9 N. 

Astoria, Ore 46 11 19 N. 

Athens, Greece* 37 58 21 N. 

Attn Island, Alaska 52 56 1 x\. 11 32 49.6 E. 

Bahia, Brazil 13 37S. 2 34 8.4W. 

Baltimore, Md 39 17 48 X. 

Batavia, Java 6 7 40 S. 

Belize, Honduras ......17 29 20 N. 

Belle Isle, Lt 51 53 N. 

Berlin, Prussia* 52 3017 N. 

Bermuda, Dock Yard. ..32 19 24 N. 

Bombay* 18 53 45 N. 

Bonn, Germany* 50 43 45 N. 

Bordeaux, France* 44 50 17 N. 

Boston State House 42 21 28 N. 

Bridgetown, Barbados. ..13 5 42 N. 

Brussels, Belgium* 50 5110 N. 

Buenos Ayres 34 36 30 S. 

Calcutta 22 33 25 N. 

Callao, Chile, Lt 12 4 3 S. 

Cambridge, Eng. * 52 12 52 N. 

Cambridge, Mass. * 42 22 48 N. 

Canton, China 23 6 35 N. 

Cape Cod, Mass. , Lt 42 2 21 N. 

C. Hatteras,N. C. ,Lt 35 15 14 N. 

Cape Henry, Va. , Lt 36 55 29 N. 

Cape Horn 65 58 41 S. 

Cape May, N. J. , Lt 38 55 56 N. 

Cape Good Hope. Lt 34 2112 S. 

Cape Prince of VVales ...65 33 30 N. 11 11 56. 8 W, 

Charleston, S.C.,Lt 324144 N. 51932.0 W. 

Charlottetown, P. E. I...46 13 56 N. 

Cherbourg, France 49 38 54 N. 

Chicago, HI.* 4150 1 JST. 

Christiania, Nor. * 59 54 44 N. 

Cincinnati, O.* 39 819 N. 

Clinton, N. Y.* 43 317 N. 

Colombo, Ceylon 6 55 40 N. 

Constantniople 41 30 N. 

C:<)penliagen* 55 41 13 N. 

IJemerara(Geo'tovvnLt) 6 49 20 N. 

Denver, Col.* 39 40 36 N. 

Dublin, Ireland* ,53 23 13 N. 

Edinburgh* ,55 .57 23 N. 

EsLiuimault, B. C. , Lt 48 25 40 N. 

Father Point.Qne. , Lt...48 31 25 N. 

Fayal, Azores .J8 32 9 N. 

Fernandina, Fla 30 4018 N. 

Florence, Italv* 43 46 4 N. 

Funchal, Madeira 32 38 4 N. 

Galveston, Tex 29 18 17 N. 

Geneva, Switzerland*. ..46 11 59 N. 

(Glasgow, Scotland* 55 52 43 N. 

Gibraltar 36 6 30 N. 

Greenwich, Eng.* 5128 38 N. 

Halifax, N.S 44 39 38 N. 

Hamburg, Ger. * 5:? 33 7 N. 

Hanover, N. H.* 43 4215 N. 

Havana, Cuba 23 9 21 N. 

Hobart Town, Tas 42 513 25 S. 

Hong Kong, China* 22 1812 N. 

Honolulu (Reef Lt. ) 21 17 55 N. 10 31 28. W. 

Key West, Fla. ,Lt 24 32 58 N. 5 27 12. 3 W. 

Kingston, .Tarn 17 57 41 N. 

Lisbon, Portugal* 38 42 31 N. 

Liverpool* 53 24 5 N. 



5 6 26.0W. 
7 713.7E. 
5 52 46. 7 W. 

3 41 29. 5 W. 
53 34.9E. 

4 19 18.3 VV. 
4 51 15. 7 E. 
28 23.3 E. 
2 5. 4 W. 

4 44 15. 3 W. 
3 58 29. 3 W. 
17 28. 6 E. 

3 53 28. 9 \V. 

5 53 20. 7 E. 
5 9 3. \V. 

22. 7 E. 

4 44 31. W. 
7 33 46. 3 E. 

4 40 14. 6 W. 

5 2 5.0W. 
5 4 2.0 W. 
4 29 5.0W. 
4 59 50. 7 W. 

1 13 58. E. 



4 12 27. 5 W. 
6 32. 5 W. 

5 50 26. 7 W. 
42 53. 8 E. 
5 37 41. 3 W. 

5 1 37. 4 W. 
5 19 21. 9 E. 
156 3.7E. 
5018.8E. 

3 52 46. W. 

6 59 47. 6 W. 
25 21. 1 \V. 

12 43. 1 W. 

8 13 47. 1 W. 

4 33 49. 2 W. 

1 54 16. W. 

5 25 51. 1 W. 

45 1.5E. 

1 7 35.6W. 
619 9.7W. 
24 36. 8 E. 
17 10. 6 W. 
21 23. 3 W, 
O 0.0 — 
4 14 21. 1 W. 
39 m. 8 E. 

4 49 7, 9 W. 

5 29 26. W. 

9 49 20. 5 E. 
36 41.9 E. 



;> 7 10. 7 W. 
O 36 44. 7 W. 
12 17.3 W. 



o t ff 

Madison, Wis.* 43 4 37 N. 

Madras,India* 13 4 8 N. 

Madrid, Spain* 40 24 30 N. 

Manila, Lt 14 35 25 N. 

Marseilles* 43 18 18 N. 

Melbourne, Vic* 37 49 53 S. 

Mexico (city)* 19 26 2 N. 

Monrovia, Liberia 6 19 5 N. 

Montreal, Que. ■ 45 3017 N. 

Moscow* 55 45 20 N. 

Mount Hamil ton, ( 'al. * 37 20 24 N. 

Munich* 48 8 45 N. 

Nain, Labrador 56 32 51 N. 

Naples* 40 5146 N. 

Nashville, Tenn.* 36 8 54 N. 

Nassau, Bahamas 25 6 37 N. 

Natal, S.Africa* 29 50 47 S. 

New Haven, Ct.* 41 18 36 N. 

New Orleans (Mint) 29 57 46 N. 

New York(( 'olu. Col. )* 40 45 23 N. 

Nice, France* 43 4317 N. 

Norfolk, Va. (Navy Yd) 36 49 33 N. 

North Cape 71 11 N. 

Northfleld, Minn.* 44 27 42 N. 

Odessa, Russia* 46 28 37 N. 

Ogden, Utah* 4113 8 N. 

Oxford, Eng. (Univ.)*. ..51 45 34 N. 

Panama, Colombia 8 57 6 N. 

Para, Brazil 126 59 S. 

Paris, France* 48 6012 N. 

Pensacola. Fla., Lt 30 20 47 N. 

Pernambuco, Brazil, Lt. 8 3 22 S. 
Portau Prince, Hayti...l8 33 64 N. 

Philadelphia, Pa. • 39 67 7 N. 

Point Barrowt 71 27 N. 

Portland, Me 43 39 28 N. 

Port Louis, Mauritius.. .20 8 46 S. 

Port Said, Egvpt.Lt 3115 45 N. 

Port Spain, Trinidad 10 38 39 N. 

P. Stanley, Falkland Is. 51 41 10 S. 

Prague, Bohemia* 50 519N. 

Princetfm, N. J.* 40 20 58 N. 

Providence, R. I.* 4149 46 N. 

Quebec, Que. * 46 47 59 N. 

Richmond, Va 37 3216 N. 

Rio de Janeiro* 22 64 24 S. 

Rochester. N.Y.* 43 917 N. 

Rome, Italy* 41 53 54 N. 

Saigon, Cochin-China*..10 46 47 N. 

SanDiego,Cal 32 43 6 N. 

Sandy Hook,N. J. ,Lt...40 27 40 N. 

San Francisco, Cal.* 37 47 28 N. 

San Juan de Porto Rico. 18 28 56 N. 

Santiago de Cuba 20 016 N. 

Savannah. Cxa 32 4 52 N. 

Seattle, Wash 47 35 54 N. 

Shanghai, China 3114 42 N. 

Singapore, India 11711 N. 

St Helena Island 15 55 S. 

St..Tohn's,Nevvfo'land..4734 2 N. 

St. Louis, Mo.* 38 38 4 N. 

St. Petersburg, Russia*..59 56 30 N. 

Stockholm* 59 20 33 N. 

Suakim,E. Africa. Lt 19 7 N. 

Sydney, N. S. W. * 33 51 41 S. 

Tokio, Japan* 35 39 17 N. 

Tunis ((Joletta Lt. ) 36 48 36 N. 

Utrecht, Netherland.s*... 52 510 N. 

Valparaiso, Chile 33 1 53 S. 

Venice, Italv* 45 26 10 N. 

Vera Cruz. Mex. ,I,t 19 12 29 N. 

Victoria, B. C. . Lt. 48 25 26 N. 

V'^ienna, Austria* 48 1.'? 56 N. 

Warsaw, Russia* 6213 6 N. 

Washington, D.C* 38.55 15 N. 

Wellington, N.Z.* 41 18 1 S. 

West Point, N. Y.* 41 23 22 N. 

William.stown. Mass. * 42 42 30 N. 

Yokohama. .lapan 35 26 24 N. 

Zanzibar (E. Consulate) 6 9 43 S. 



H. M. S. 

5 57 37. 

6 20 59. 
14 45. 

8 3 50. 
21 34. 

9 39 54. 
6 36 26. 
43 15. 
4 54 18. 
2 30 17. 
8 6 34. 
46 26. 
4 6 42. 
67 1. 
6 47 12. 
6 9 27. 
2 4 1. 
4 61 42. 
6 013. 

4 55 53. 

29 12. 

5 611. 

1 42 40. 

6 12 36. 

2 3 2, 

7 27 69. 
5 0. 
518 8. 
314 0. 
9 20. 
6 4914. 

2 19 27. 
4 49 28. 
6 38. 

10 26 0. 
4 41 1. 

3 49 57. 

2 915. 

4 6 2. 

3 51 26. 
67 40. 

4 68 37. 
4 45 37. 

4 44 52. 

5 9 44. 

2 62 41. 

6 10 21. 
49 65. 

7 6 48. 

7 48 38. 
4 66 0. 

8 9 42. 

4 24 29. 

5 3 22. 

5 24 21. 
8 919. 

8 6 55. 

6 .55 26 

22 52. 

3 30 43. 
6 49. 
2 113. 

1 12 14. 

2 29 16. 
10 4 49. 

9 18 58. 
1114. 
O 20 31. 

4 46 34. 

49 22. 
6 24 31. 

8 13;«. 

1 5 21. 
124 7. 

5 8 15. 
1139 6. 

4 .56 50. 
4 52 5(). 

9 18 36. 

2 36 44. 



8 W. 
4 E. 
4 W. 
OE. 
6E. 

1 E. 
7 W. 
7 W. 
7 W. 

2 E. 
1 W. 

1 E. 

7 W. 
8E. 

W. 
8W. 

2 E. 

1 W. 

9 W. 
6 W. 
2E. 
W. 
OE. 

8 W. 
2E. 
6 W. 

4 W. 
8 W. 

W. 
9E. 

1 W. 
8 W. 
W. 
6W. 
W. 

2 W. 
7E. 
6E. 
6 W. 
W. 
3E. 

5 W. 

5 W. 

6 W. 
W. 
4 W. 
8 W. 
6E. 
7E. 

7 W. 

6 W. 

8 W. 

8 W. 
W. 

7 W. 
9W. 
,7E. 

OE. 

W. 

6 W. 

1 W. 
.6E. 
.0 s. 
.f:«:. 

Ce. 

■■( E. 

,w. 

IE. 

s w. 
. w. 

y E. 
4E. 

7 W 
5E. 
6 W. 
4 W. 

9 K. 
7E. 



' Observatories. 



Lt. denotes a light-house. 



t Highest laMtiide in U. S. territory. 



l^ostal information. 67 

{Revised December, 1904, at the New York Post- Office, for The World Almanac.) 

DOMESTIC RATES OF POSTAGE. 

All mailable matter for transmission by the United States mails within the United States is 
divided into four classes, under the following^ regulations. (Domestic rates apply to Canada, 
Mexico, Cuba, Tutuila, Porto Rico, Guam, Hawaii, the Philippines, and certain piaces in China 
served through the United States Postal Agency at Shanghai. ) 

First-Class .^latter.— This class includes letters, postal cards, ' ' post cards, ' ' and anv- 
thing sealed or otherwise closed against inspection, or anything containing writing not allowed 
as an accompaniment to printed matter under class three. 

Rates of letter postage to any part of the United States or its possessions, tiuo cents per ounce or 
fraction thereof. 

Rates on local or drop letters at free delivery offices, two cents per ounce or fraction thereof. 
At olRces where there is no free delivery by carriers, one cent per ounce or fraction thereof. 

Rates on postal cards, one cent (double or "reply" cards, twocents). Notliing must be added 
or attached to a postal card, except that a printed addre.ss slip not larger than 2 inches by % 
of an inch may be pasted on the address or message side. The addition of anytliing else .sub- 
jects the card to letter postage. A card containingany threat, ofTensivedun. or'any scurrilous or 
indecent communication will not be forwarded. Words on a postal card indicating the occupa- 
tion of the addressee, used to better identify him, are regarded as a part of the address; any- 
thing more— as the repetition of the words on a postal card, etc. , business or the several capaci- 
ties in which the addres.see serves, the various kinds of goods dealt in, and similar attempts at 
advertising— on the address side of the postal card is not regarded as a ' ' proper description of 
the person," and will subject the postal card to the letter rate. Cards that have been spoiled 
in printing or otherwise will be redeemed from the ongiiial purchasers at 75 per cent of their 
face value, if unmutilated. 

' ' Private Mailing Cards, " " Post Cards, ' ' bearing written messages may be transmitted 
in the domestic mails at the rate of a cent apiece, stamps to be affixed by the sender; such 
cards to be sent openly in the mails. 

1. To be entitled to the privileges of this act, the cards must conform to the following conditions : 

(a) Each (^ird must he an unfolded piece of cardboard, not eiceedins^ the size fixed by the Convention of the Universal 
Postal Union (9 x 14 centimetres, which is approximately 3 9-16 by 5 9-16 inches) nor less than the minimum size of domes- 
tic postal canis ('2 15-16 by 55^ inches). 

(b) The form of card .and the quality and weight of paper used in its manufacture must be substantially that of the 
Government postiil card of like size. 

(c) rhey mav be of any color which does not interfere with the legibility of the .address and postmark. 

(d) Each card must bear the words " Post Card *' at the top of the address side, unobstructed by any other matter ; said 
words to be placed thereon in conspicuous letters and in such manner as not to interfere with a perfectly distinct address and 
postmark. 

(e ) The address may be in writing, i>rinting, or by means of a hand-stamp, or adhesive label of not more than V of an inch 
by '2 inches in size, and the sender may, in the same manner, place his name and address on the back or the face of uie card. 

The message may be in writing or in print, 

2. Cards conforminsf to the foresroing conditions are transmissible in the domestic mails (including the island possessions), 
and to places in Cuba, Canada, and Mexico, at the postage rate of one cent each, and in the mails of the Postal Union at the 
postage rate of two cents each, prepaid by stamps affixed. ' 

3. Any card of foreign ori^^cin which, from its title in any language, appears to be a *' Post Card " and conforms to the 
requirements of this order as to size, form, quality, and weight, shall be admissible to the mails (domestic or international) 
when prepaid in United States postage stamps. 

4. When post cards are prepared by ])rinters and stationers for sale, they should, in addition to conformity with the require- 
ments of this order, also bear in the upper right-hand corner of the face an oblong diagram containing the words " Place postage 
stamp here." and across the bottom the words " This side for the add ress." 

5. Advertisements and illustrations in any color may be printed upon either or both sides of a post card, provided they do 
not, when placed upon the face thereof, interfere with a perfectly distinct address and postmark. 

6. The words *' Post Card " are authorized only on cards which conform to the conditions prescribed by this order ; other 
cards beariutf these words or otherwise purporting to be issued under authority of the act of May 19, 1898, are unmailable as 
"post cards.'' and, whether the message be written or printed, are subject to postage at the letter rate. 

7. The privilege uiven by the act is not intended to work a discontinitance of the Government postal cards. These will be 
issued and sold the same as heretofore ; and in all correspondence will be designated " postal cards," to distinguish them from 
*' post cards,'' provided for in this order. 

Rates on specially delivered letters, ten cents on each letter in addition to the regular postage. 
This entitles the letter to immediate delivery by special messenger. Special delivery stamps are 
sold at post-offices, and must be affixed to such letters. An ordinary ten- cent stamp" affixed to a 
letter will not entitle it to special delivery. The delivery, at carrier offices, extends to the limits 
of the carrier routes. At non- carrier offices it extends to one mile from the po.st-office. Post- 
masters are not obliged to deliver beyond these limits, and letters addressed to places beyond 
must await delivery in the asual way, notwithstanding the special delivery stamp. 

Prepayment by stamps invariably required. Postage on all letters should be /(t^/V prepaid, 
but if prepaid onefull rate and no more, they will be forwarded, and the amount ot deficient 
postage collected on delivery ; if wholly unpaid, or prepaid with less than one full rate and 
deposited at a post-office, the addressee will be notified to remit postage; and if he fails to do so, 
they will be sent to the Dead Letter Office ; but they will be returned to the sender if he is located 
at the place of mailing, and if his address be printed or written upon them. 

Letter rates are charged on all productions by the typewriter or manifold process, and on all 
printed imitations of typewriting or manuscript, unle.ss such reproductions are presented at 
post-office windows in the minimum number of twenty identical copies separately addressed. 

Letters (but no other class of mail matter) will be returned to the sender free, if a request to that 
effect is printed or written on the en veloiie. The limit of weight for first-class matter is four pounds. 

Prepaid letters will be reforwarded from one post-office to another upon the written request of 
the person addressed, without additional charge for postage. The direction on forwarded letters 
may be changed as many times as may be necessary to reach the person addressed. 

8ecoii<l-ClaH8 i>latter.— This chiss includes all newspapers and periodicals exclusively 
in print that have been ' ' Entered as second-class matter ' ' and are regularly issued at stated in- 
tervals as frequently as four times a year, from a known office of publication or news agency. 



68 Postal Information. 



to actual subscribers or news agents, and newspapers and publications of this cla.ss mailed by 
persons other than publishers. Publications having the characteristics of books and such as 
are not subscribed for on account of their merits, but because of other Inducement's, are not 
eligible to second-class privileges. Also periodical publications of benevolent and fraternal 
societies, organized under the lodge system and having a member.ship of a thousand persons, and 
of the bulletins and proceedings of strictly professional, literary, historical, and scientific iisso- 
ciations and institutions, trade unions, etc. , provided only that tliese be published at stated 
intervals not less than four times a year, and that they be printed on and be bound in paper. 
Publishers who wish to avail themselves of the privileges of the act are required to make formal 
application to tlie department through the postmaster at the place of publication, producing satis- 
factory evidence that the oi-ganizations represented come "within the purview bi the law, and 
that the obiect of the publications is to further the objects and purposes of the organizations. 

Rates of postage to publishers, o?;e ceM a pound or fractional pari thereof, prepaid in cur- 
rency. Publications designed primarily for advertising or free circulation, or not having a 
legitimate list of subscribers, are excluded from the pound rate, and pay the third-class rate. 

Second-class publications must possess legitimate subscription lists approximating 50 per 
cent of the number of copies regularly issued and circulated by mail or o^/ierw/se. Unless they 
do pound- rate privileges are revoked or withheld. 

Whenever the general character and manner of issue of a periodical publication is changed 
in the interest of the publisher, or of advertisers or other persons, by the addition of unusual 
q^uantities of advertisements, or of matter different from that usuallyappearing in the publica- 
tion, or calculated to give special prominence to some particular business or businesses, or 
otherwise— especially where large numbers of copies are circulated by or in the interest of 
particular persons — the second-class rates of postage will be denied that issue; and if there be 
repeated instances of such irregularities, the publication will be excluded from the mails as 
second- class matter. 

Such "Christmas," " New Year's, " and other special issues, including "Almanacs," as 
are excluded from second- cla-ss privileges by the terms above specified may be transmitted by 
mail only when prepaid by postage stamps at the rate applicable to third-class matter— one cent 
for each two ounces or fraction thereof. 

Publications sent to actual subscribers in tlie county where published are free, unless mailed 
for local delivery at a letter-carrier office. 

Rates of jKDstage on second-class newspapers, magazines, or periodicals, mailed by others than 
the publishers or news agents, one ant lor eachjonr ounces orfrarlion thereof. It should be observed 
that the rate is one cent for each four ounces, not one cent for each pape^' contained in the same 
wrapper. This rate applies only wlien a complete copy is mailed. Parts jf second-class publica- 
tions or partial or incomplete copies are third-class matter. Second-class matter will be entitled to 
special delivery when special delivery ten- cent stamps are affixed in addition to the regular 
postage. 

Second-class matter must be so wrapped as to enable the postmaster to inspect it. The 
sender' s name and address may be written in them, but any other writing subjects the matter to 
letter postage. The name and address of the sender may also be written on the wrapper. 

Third-Class iUatter.— Mail matter of the third class includes printed books, pamphlets, 
engravings, circulars in print (or by the hectograph, electric -pen, or similar process when at 
least twenty identical copies, separately addressed, are mailed at post-office windows at one 
time), and other matter \vholly in print, proof-sheets, corrected proof- .sheets, and manuscript 
copy accompanying the .same. 

The rate on matter of this class is o?i« cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof. 

Manuscript unaccampauled by proof-sheets must pay letter rates. 

Tbud-cla.ss matter must admit of easy inspection, "otherwise it will be charged letter .rates on 
delivery. It must be fully prepaid, or it will not be despatched. New postage must be prepaid fur 
forwarding to a new address or returning to senders. 

The limit of weight is four pounds, except single books in separate packages, on which the weight 
is not limited. It is entitled, like matter of the other classes, to special delivery when special delivery 
stamps are affixed in addition to the regular postage. 

Upon matter of the third class, or upon the wrapper or envelope inclosing the s-sime, or the tag or 
label attached thereto, the sender may write his own name, occupation, and residence or business 
addre.ss, preceded by the word "from," and may make marks other than by written or printed 
words to call attention to any word or passage in the te.xt, and nuiy correct any typoKraphical 
errors. There ma.v he placed upon the blank leaves or cover of any book, or printed matter of the 
third class, a simple manuscript dedication or inscription not of the nature of a personal correspon- 
dence. Upon the wrapper or envelope of third class matter, or the tag or label aitachcd thereto, may 
be printed atiy matter mailable as third-class, bin there nnist be left on the address side a space sul- 
ficient for tlie legible address and necessary stamps. 

Foiirtli-Clnss Matter.— Fourth-class matter is all mailable matter not included in the three 
preceding classes which is so prepared for malliuK as to be easily withdrawn from the wrajjper and 
exaniiiiod. It embraces merchandise and samples of every description, and coin or specie. 

Rate of postase, o»e cent for each ounce or fraction, lliereoi' (except seeds, roots, bulbs, cuttings, 
.scions, and plants, the rate on which is one centfor each two ounces or fraction, tlierrof). This matter 
must be fully prepaid, or it will not be despatched. New postaEje must be prepaid for forwarding or 
returning. The allixinjrof special delivery ten-centstampsinaddition to the rcRUlar postage entitles 
fourth-class matter to special delivery. (See remarks under ' ■ firsl-cUiss matter. " ) 

Articles of this cla.ss that are liable to injnn^ or deface the mails, such as glass, sutrar.nci'dlos, nails, 
peii.s, etc., nuist he first wrapped in a batr, box, or open envelope and then secured in another outside 
tube (U'box, made of metal or hard wood, withoutsharp corners or edses, and having a sliding clasp 
or screw lid, thus securing the articles In a double package. The public should bear in mind that the first 
Object of the department is to transport the mails safely, and every other interest is niaile subordinate. 

Such articles as poisons, explosives, or inflammable articles, live animals, insects, fruits or vege- 
table matter liable to decomposition, or substances exhaling a bad odor will not be forwardeil in 
any case. 

Firearms may only be .sent in detached parts. 



Postal Information. 69 



The regulations respecting the mailing; of liquids are as follows: Liquids, not ardent, vinous, 
spirituous, or malt, antf not liable to explosion, spontaneous combustion, or Ignition by sliock or jar, 
and not inrtam\uable (iuch as kerosene, anphtha, or turpentine), may b« admitted to the mails for 
transportation within the United State.s. Samples of altar or communion wine are mailable. When 
ill glass bottles or vials, such bottles or vials must be strong enough to stand the shock of handling in 
the mails, and must be inclosed in a metal, wooden, or papier-mache block or tube, not less than 
three-sixteenths of an inch thick in the thinnest part, strong enough to support the weight of mails 
piled in bags and resist rough handling; and there must be provided, between the bottle and said 
block or tube, a cushion of cotton, felt, or some other absorbent snftioienl to protect the glass from 
shock in handling; the block or tube to be impervious to liquids, including oils, and closed by a 
tightly fitting lid or cover, so adjusted as to make the block or tube water tight and to prevent the 
leakage of the contents in case of breaking of the glass. Wlieu inclosed in a tin cylinder, metal case, 
or tube, such cvlii^der, case, or tube should have a lid or cover so secured as to make the case or tube 
watertight, and should be .securely fastened in a wooden or papier-mache block (open only at one 
end), and not less in thickness and strength than above described. Manufacturers or dealers intend- 
ing to transmit articles or samples in considerable quantities should submit a sample package, show- 
ing their mode of packing, to the postmaster at the mailing office, who will see that the conditions of 
this section are carefully observed. The limit of admissible liquids and oils is not exceeding four 
ounces, liquid measure. 

Limit of weight of fourth-class matter (excepting liquids), four pound.s. 

The name and address of the sender, preceded by the word "from," also any marks, numbers, 
names, or letters for the purpose of description, such as prices. quantit.v, etc., ma.v be written on the 
wrapper of fourth-class matter without additional postage charge. A request to the delivering post- 
master may also be written asking him to notify the sender in case the nackasre is not delivered. 

Third or Fourth Class flatter Mailaole Without .Stamps.— Under .special permits post- 
age may be paid in money for third or fourth class matter mailed in quantities of 2, 000 or more 
identical pieces. For information concerning the regulations governing such mailings inquiry should 
be made of the postmaster. 

Ke«i.stration.— All kinds of postal matter may be registered at the rate of eight cm/s for each 
?>ar/fcrtf/e in addition to the regular rates of postage, to be fully prepaid by stamps. Each package 
must bear the name and address of the sender, and a receipt will be returned from the person to 
whom addressed. Mail matter can be registered at all post-ofHces in the United States. 

An indemnity— not to exceed $25 for anyone registered piece, or the actual value of the piece, if 
it is less than S25— shall be paid for the loss of first-class registered matter. 

Domestic Money Oroers.- Domestic money orders are issued by money-order post-oflBces for 
anv amount up to $100, at the following rates: 

" For suras not exceeding $2.50, 3 cents ; over $2. 50 to S5. 5 cents; over $5 to $10. 8 cents; over 
$10 to .$20, 10 cents ; over $20 to $30, 12 cents ; over $30 to $40. 15 cents ; over $40 to $50, 18 cents ; 
over .$50 to $60, 20cent.s; over $60 to $75, 25 cents; over $75 to $100, 30 cents. 

Stamped Envelopes.- Embossed stamped envelopes and newspaper wrappers of several 
denominations, sizes, and colors are kept on sale at po.st-offices. singly or in quantities, at a small 
advance on the postage rate. Stamps cut from stamped envelopes are valueless; but postmasters 
are authorized to s:ive good stamps for stamped envelopes or newspaper wrappers that maybe spoiled 
in directing, if presented in whole condition and with satisfactory evidence. 

All matte r concerning lotteries, gift concerts, or schemes devised to defraud the public, or for the 
purpose of obtaining money under false pretences, is denied transmission in the mails. 

Applications for the establishment of post-offices should be addressed to the First A,ssistant Post- 
master-General, accompanied by a statement of the necessity therefor. Instructions will then begiven 
and blanks furnished to enable the petitioners to provide the department with the necessary infor- 
mation. 

The franking privilege was abolished July 1, 1873, but the following mail matter may be sent free 
by legislative saving clauses, viz. : 

1. All public documents printed by order of Congress, the Congressional Record and speeches con- 
tained therein, franked by Members of Congress, or the Secretaryof theSenate, orClerk of the House. 

2. Seeds transmitted by the .Secretary of Agriculture, or by any Member of Congress, procured 
from that Department. 

3. Letters and packages relating exclusively to the business of the Government of the United 
States, mailed only by officers of the same, publications required to be mailed to the Librarian of ('on- 
gre.ss by the Copyright law, and lettei-s and parcels mailed by the Smithsonian Institution. All these 
must be coveredby specially printed "penalt.v' ' envelopes or labels. 

4. The Vice- President, Members and Members-elect and Delegates and Delegates-elect to Congress 
ma.v frank any mail matter, not over four ounces in weight, upon official or departmental business. 

"All communications to Government olficei-s and to Members of Congress are required to be prepaid 
by stamps. 



Suggestions to the Public (from the United Statex Offlciat I'ostal-Guid<').— Mail all letters, etc.. 
as early as practicable, especiall.v when sent in large numbers, as is frequently the case with news- 
papers and circulars. 

All mail matter at large post-offices is necessarily handled in great haste and should therefore in 
all cases be so pi-aixly addressed as to leave xo room for doubt and no excuse for kkror on 
the part of postal employes. Names of States should be written in full (or their abbreviations ver.v 
distinctly written) in order to prevent errors which arise from the similarity of such abbreviations as 
Cal., Col. ; Pa., Va., Vt. ; Me., Mo., Md. ; loa., Ind.; N. H. , N. M., N. Y., N. J., N. C. , D. C. ; 
Miss., Minn., Mass.; Nev., Neb. ; Penn., Tenu., etc., when hastily or carelessly w-ritten. This is 
especially necessar.y in addressing mail matter to places of which the names are borne by several 
post-offices in diflferent States. 

Avoid as rrrtich as possible using envelopes made of flimsy paper, especiall.v where more than one 
sheet of paper, or any other article than paper, is inclosed. Being often handled, and even in the mail- 
bags subject to pressure, such envelopes not infrequently split open, giving cause of complaint. 

Never send mone.v or any other article of value through the mail except either by means of a money 
order or in a registered letter. Any person who sends money or jewelry in an unregistered letter not 
only runs a risk of losing his property, but e.xposea to temptation ftvery one through whose hands his 
letter passes, and may be the means of ultimately bringing some clerk or letter-carrier to ruin. 

See that every letter or package bears the full name and post-offic* address of the writer, in order 
to secure the return of the letter, if theperaon to whom it is directed cannot be founri. A much larger 
portion of the undelivered letters could be returned if the names and addresses of the senders were 



70 Postal Information. 



always fully and plainly written or printed inside or on the envelopes. Persons who have large 
correspondence find it most convenient to use "special request envelopes;" but those who onlj' mail 
an occasional letter can avoid much trouble by writing a request to " return if not delivered," etc.. 
on th envelope. 

When dropping a letter, newspaper, etc., into a street mailing-box, or into the receptacle at a 
post-office, always see that the packet falls into the bo.x and does not stick in its passage; observ e,also, 
particularly, whether the postage stamps remain securely in their places. 

Postage stamps should be placed on the upper right-hand corner of the address side of all mail 
matter. 

Tie street and number (or box number) should form a part of the address of all mail matter directed 
to cities. In most cities there are many persons, and even firms, bearing the same name. Before 
depositing any package orother article for mailing, the sendershould assure himself that it is wr pped 
and packeii in ilie manner prescribed by postal regulations; that it does not contain unmailable matter 
nor exceed the limit of size and weight as fixed by law; and that it is fully pfepaid and properly 
addressed. The postage stamps on all mail matter are necessarily cancelled at once, and the value of 
those affixed to packages that are afterward discovered to be short-paid or otherwise unmailable is 
therefore liable to be lost to the senders. 

It is nulawf Id to .send an ordinary letter by express or otherwise outside of the mails unless it be 
inclosed in a Government-stamped "envelope. It is also unlawful to inclose a letter in an express 
package unless it pertains wholly to the contents of the package. 

It is forbidden by the regulations of the Post-Office Department for postmasters to give to any 
person information concerning the mail matter of another, or to disclose the name of a box-holder at 
a post-office. 

Letters addressed to persons temporarily sojourning in a city where the Free Delivery System is in 
operation should be maiked "Transient" or "General Delivery," if not addressed to a street and 
number or some other deslErnated place of delivery. 

Foreign books, etc., infringing United States copyright are undeliverahle if received in foreign 
mails, or mailed here. 

The foregoing rates, rules, and suggestions apply to iiostal matters in the United States. 



iForciflit JHails» 

POSTAGE RATES AND CONDITIONS. 

Thk rates of postage to all foreign countries and colonies, including Newfoundland (except Canada, 

Cuba, and Mexico), are as follows; 

Letters, per 15 grams (,i4 ounce) 5 cents. 

Postal cards, each 2 cents. 

Newspapers and other printed matter, per 2 ounces 1 cent. 

Commercial papers (such as legal and insurance [Packets notin excess of 10 ounces 5 cents. 

papers, deeds, bills of lading, invoices, -< Packets in excess of 10 ounces, for each 2 

manu.script for publication, etc.) - ( ounces or fraction thereof 1 cent. 

cio loonf inor<^iinnrii«o f Packets Hot in exce.ss of 4 ounces 2 cents. 

samples or mercnanuise. | p.^d^pi^ j,, excess of 4 ounces, for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof 1 cent. 

Registration fee on letters or other articles * 8 cents. 

On printed matter and commercial papers the limit of weight is 4 poumls 6 ounces, except that 
single volumes of books to Salvador. Canada, Mexico, Cuba are unrestricted as to weight. Size— 
The limit of size is 18 inches in any one dir ctioii, except that printed matter or commercial papers 
in rolls may be 30 inches long by 4 inches in diameter. 

Ordinai'yletters for countries of the Postal Union (except Canada and Mexico) will be forwarded, 
whether any postage is prepaid on them or not. All other mailable matter must he prepaid at least 
partially. Domestic rates apply to Porto Rico, Guam, Philippine Islands, Cuba, Tuluila, and Hawaii. 

CANADA. 

Letters, per ounce, prepayment compulsory 2 ceiit.s. 

Postal cards, each 1 cent. 

Newspapers, per 4 ounces 1 cent. 

Merchandise (not exceeding 4 pounds 6 ounces), per ounce 1 cent. 

Samples of aierchandise, same as to other Postal Union countrie.s. 
Commercial papers, same as to other Postal Union countries. 

Registration fee Scents. 

Any article of correspondence may be registered. Packages of merchandise are subject to the 
regulations of either country to prevent violations of the revenue laws; must not be closed against in- 
spection, and must be so wrapped and inclosed as to be easily examined. Samples must not exceed 
12 ounces in weight. No sealed packages other than letters in their usual and ordinary form may be 
sent by mail to (ianada. 

SHANGHAI, CHINA. 

Domestic postage rates and conditions apply to articles addressed for delivery in the cit.v of 
Shanghai, but for the other places in China (named below), served through the Uniti'd Slates Postal 
Agency at Shanghai, the Universal Postal Union (foreign) rates apply to letters, postal cards, and 
printed matter, and the domestic rate only to merchandise (fourth-class matter): 
•Chefoo, or Yentai, *Mankow, Nanking. 'Shanghai, Wucliang, 

C;hin Kiaiig, Ichang, Newchwang, Taku, Wnhn, 

Chung King, Kaiplng, 'Ningpo, Tientsin, *Yentai, or Chefoo. 

•Foochow, Kalsjan, Ourga, Wenchow, 

llangchow, Kiukiang, Peking, 

Merchandise may also be sent by " Parcels Post ' ' to the places marked *. 

MEXICO. 
Letters, newspapers, and printed matter are now carried between the United States and Mexico at 
same rates as in the United states. Samples, 2 cents f(jr first 4 ounces, and 1 cent for each additional 
2 ounces: limit of weight. 12 ounces. Merchandise other tluiii saiiiples may be sent by Parcels I'ost. 
No sealed packages other than letters in their usual and oniiii.iry form may be sent by mail to Mex- 
ico, nor ariv package over4 pounds 6 ounces in weight, excejjt Parcels Post packages to certain cities. 
(.See Parcels Post. ) 



Postal Information. 71 



FOREIGN MAILS— 03?)<m«erf. 



SAMPLES. 
Packets of samples of merchandise are admissible up to 12 ounces in weight, and the following 
dimensions apply to all Postal Union countries: 12 inches in length, 8 inches in width, and 4 inches 
in depth, or if they are in the form of a roll, 12 inches in length and 6 inches in diameter. Merchan- 
dise of salable value and goods not in execution of orders, or as gifts, must be paid at full letter rate. 

PARCELS POST. 

Unsealed packages of mailable merchandise may be sent by Parcels Post to Jamaica (including 
Turk's Island), Barbados, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Mexico, the Leeward Islands, the 
Kepublic of Colombia, Costa Rica. Salvador, British Ciuiana, Danish West Indies (St. Thomas, 
St. Croix, and St. John) and the Windward Islands (St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and 
the Grenadines). Trinidad, including Tobago, Venezuela (Bolivia and Chile, 20 cents per pound), 
Newfoundland, Honduras (Republic of), Germany, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Norway, 
Panama, Japan, Hong Kong, at the following postage rate: For a parcel not exceeding one pound in 
weight, 12 cents; for each additional pound or fraction thereof, 12 cents. The maximum weight 
allowed is eleven pounds— except that to certain places in Mexico and to all parts of Germany, Nor- 
wa.v, Hong Kong, and Japan the limit is 4 pounds 6 ounces— the extreme dimensions allowed for 
Mexico, Costa Rica, and Colombia being two feet length by four feet girth, and for the other countries 
not more than three feet six inches in length, nor more than six feet in length and girth combined. 
Parcels must be wrapped so as to permit their contents to be easily examined by postmasters. 
Poisonous, explosive, and inflammable substances are excluded. Parcels may be registered for 8 
cents each to any of the above places, except Barbados. 

Parcels for the following places in China and Korea are included in the Parcels Post mails for 
Japan, viz.: In Korea— Seoul, Chemulpo, Pingyang. Chinnampo, Kunsan, Mokpo, Masan, Fusan, 
Genzan. In China— Peking, Tientsin, Chefoo, Shanghai, Nanking, Hankow, Shasi, Soochow, 
Hangchow, Foochow, Amoj', also Island of Formosa 

Parcels for the following cities in China are included in the Parcels Post mails for Hong Kong, 
viz.: Shanghai, Canton, Amoy, Swatow, Foochow, Hankow, Haihow, Ningpo, Lin Kung Tan, 
Chefoo. 

A Customs declaration (furnished on application at any post-office) must be.attached to any 
Parcels- Post package. Parcels for Salvador must have two declarations, and parcels for Venezuela 
three declarations attached. 

Rates and comlitiotis to countries not in the Universal Postal Union are now the same as those to Uni- 
versal Postal tpiiimi countries. 

GENERAL REGULATIONS RESPECTING FOREIGN MAILS. 

Postage can be prepaid upon articles only by means of the postage stamps of the country in which 
the articles are mailed. Hence articles mailed in one countrj' addressed to another country which 
bear postage stamps of the country to which they are addressed are treated as if they had no postage 
stamps attached to them. 

Unpaid letters received from the Postal Union are chargeable with 10 cents per 15 grams (^ 
ounce). Insufficiently prepaid correspondence of all kinds is chargeable with double the amount oi 
the deficient postage. 

Matter to oe sent in the mails at less than letter rates must be so wrapped that it can be readily 
examined at the office of delivery, as well as the mailing office, without destro.ving the wrapper. 

Newspapers and periodicals sent in the mails to foreign countries other than those of the Postal 
Union should be wrapped singly. Those sent by publishers to regular subscribers in Canada, Cuba, 
and Mexico are transmissible as in domestic mails, except that packages addressed to Mexico and 
Cuba must not exceed 4 pounds 6 ounces in weight. 

The United States two-cent postal card should be used for card correspondence with foreign coun- 
tries (except Canada, Cuba, and Mexico, to which countries the one-cent card is transmissible), but 
where these cards cannot be obtained, it is allowable to «se for this purpose the United States one-cent 
postal card with a one-cent United States adhesive postage stamp attached thereto. Private cards can 
now be used if conforming in size, etc., to Government cards, and bearing words "Postal Card- 
Carte Postale. ' ' 

Mail matter of all kinds received from any country of the Postal Union is required to be refor- 
warded at the request of the addressee, from one post-office to another, or to any foreign country em- 
braced in the Postal Union, without additional charge for postage. 

All articles prohibited from domestic mails are also excluded from circulation in the mails to and 
from foreign countries. Postal cards or letters addressed to go around the world will not be for- 
warded, beingprohibited. 

The act of March 3, 1883, imposes a duty of 25 per cent ad valorem on all printed matter not 
therein otherwise provided for, without regard to mode of importation. Under said act all printed 
matter, except newspapers and periodicals, and e.xcept printed matter other than books imported in 
the mails for personal use, is subject to the regular duty of 25 per cent ad valorem. 
FOREIGN (INTERNATIONAL) MONEY ORDERS. 

When payable in Switzerland, Jamaica, New Zealand, the Leeward Islands, Belgium, Sweden, 
Norway, Japan, Denmark, Netherlands, the Bahamas, Trinidad, British Guiana, Austria, Hungary, 
Bermuda, Luxembourg, Chile, Egypt, Bolivia, Mexico, Liberia, Costa Rica, Peru, and the Transvaal, 
the charge is as follows: 

For order not exceeding $10, Scents; over $10 and not exceeding $20, 10 cents; over$20and 
not exceeding $30, 15 cents; over $30 and not exceeding .$40. 20 cents ; over §40 and not exceeding 
$50, 25 cents; over $50 and not exceeding $60, 30 cents; over $60 and not exceeding $70, 35 cents; 
over $70 and not exceeding $80, 40 cents: over $80 and not exceeding$90, 45 cents; over $90 and 
not exceeding $100, 50 cents. 

When payable in any other foreign country, the charge is as follows: For order not exceeding $10, 
10 cents ; over $10 and not exceeding $20."20 cents : over $20 and not exceeding $30, 30 cents ; 
over$30and notexceeding $40, 40 cents ; over$40and not exceeding $50, 50 cents ; over $50 and 
not exceeding $60, 60 cents ; over $60 and not exceeding $70, 70 cents ; over $70 and not exceed- 
ing $80, 80 cents ; over $80 and not exceeding $90. 90 cents ; over $90 and not exceeding $100, $1. 

The maximum amount for which a monej' order may be drawn payable in Cape Colony is $50. 
There is no limitation to the number of international orders that may be issued, in one day, to a 
remitter, in favor of the same payee. 

Domestic rates and reputations npplrj to money orders for Canada, (7u6a, Hawaii, Newfoundland , Porto 
Sico, and the Philippine Islands, also Windward Islands. 



72 



JDistMices Metween European Cities. 



postal Bfstances aittr Kimt from Kcto ¥(irfe (^itg. 

As Indicated by the Official Postal Guide, showing the distance by shortest routes and time !n 
transit by fastest trains from New York City. 



Cities in United States. 



Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Bismarck, N. JDak.. 

Boise, Idaho 

Boston, Mass 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cape May, N. J — 
Carson City, Nev. . . 

Charleston, S. C 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Cheyenne, Wyo — 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, O 

Cleveland, O 

Columbus, O 

Concord, N. H 

Dead wood, S. Dak.. 

Denver, Col 

Des Homes, la 



Miles. 



142 

882 

188 

1,738 

2,736 

217 

410 

172 

3,036 

804 

853 

1,899 

900 

744 

568 

624 

292 

1,957 

1,930 

1,257 



Hours. 



Cities in United States. 



3)^ 
24M 

6 

60^ 
92!^ 

7 

9J^ 

5 
109>4 
21^ 
32 
54 
23 
23 
19^ 
20 

9^ 
65J^ 
61J^ 
37^ 



Detroit, Mich 

Galveston, Tex 

Harrisburg, Pa 

iHartford, Ct 

Helena, Mont 

[Hot Springs, Ark.. 
Indianapolis, lud.. 
Jacksonville, Fla. . 
Kansas City, Mo. . . 

Louisville, Ky 

Memphis, Tenn 

Milwaukee, Wis... 
Montgomery, Ala. 

Montpelier, Vt 

iNew Orleans, La. . . 

jOmaha, Neb 

Philadelphia, Pa... 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

iPortland, Me 



Miles. 


Hours. 


743 


21 


1,789 


56H 


182 


6 


112 


4 


2,423 


89 


1,367 


55 


8U8 


23 


1,077 


30 


1,302 


38J4 


HM 


30 


1,163 


40 


985 


29!>^ 


1,057 


26 


327 


VU 


1,344 


34 


1,383 


43 


90 


3 


431 


13 


325 


12 



Cities in United States, 



Portland, Ore 

Prescott, Ariz 

Providence, R. I 

Richmond, Va 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah, 
San Francisco, Cal.. 
Santa Fe, N. Mex . . . 

Savannah, Ga 

Tacoma, Wash 

Topeka, Kan 

Trenton, N. J 

Vick.sburg, Miss 

Vinita, Ind. Ter.'... 
Washington, D. C. . 
Wheeling, W. Va.. 

Wilmington, Del 

Wilmington, N. C. 



Miles. 



Hours. 



3,181 

2,724 

189 

844 

1,048 

1,300 

2,452 

3,260 

2,173 

905 

3,209 

1,370 

57 

1,288 

1,412 

228 

496: 

117 

593, 



114>6 
94 

6 

\\M 
29 
37 
71>^ 
106 
82 
26 
102 
48 

2 
50 
42 

6 
14M 

5 
20 



DISTANCES AND MAIL TIME TO FOREIGN CITIES FROM THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 



By Postal Route to- 



Adelaide, via San Francisco 

Alexandria, via London 

Amsterdam, " " 

Antwerp, " " 

Athens, " " 

Bahia, Brazil 

Bangkok, Siam, via San Francisco. 

Bangkok. Siam, via London , 

Batavia, Java, via London 

Berlin 

Bombay, via London 

Bremen 

Buenos Ayres , 

Calcutta, via London 

Cape Town, via London 

Constantinople, via London 

Florence, via London 

Glasgow 

Grey town, via New Orleans 

Halifax, N. S 

Hamburg, direct 

Havana 



Miles. 



12,846 


SO 


6,150 


13 


3,985 


9 


4,000 


9 


5,655 


12 


5,870 


18 


12,990 


43 




36 


12,800 


34 


4,386 


9 


9,766 


24 


4,235 


8 


8,046 


25 


11,120 


26 


11,245 


25 


5,810 


11 


4,800 


10 


3,375 


8 


2,810 


7 


645 


2 


4.820 


8 


1,413 


3 



Days 



By Postai. Route to— 



Hong Kong, via San Francisco. 
Hong Kong, via Vancouver. ... 
Honolulu, tiia San Francisco... 

Liverpool 

Loudon 

Madrid, via London 

Melbourne, via San Fi'ancisco. . 

Mexico City ( railroad) 

Panama 

Paris 

Rio de Janeiro 

Rome, via London 

Rotterdam, I'io London 

St. Petersburg, via London 

Shanghai, via sau Francisco . . . 

Shanghai, via Vancouver 

Stockholm, via London 

Sydney, via San Francisco 

Valparaiso, via Panama 

Vienna 

Yokohama, via San Francisco. . 
Yokohama, via Vancouver 



Miles. 



10,590 



,646 
,540 
,740 
,926 
266 
,750 
,355 
,020 
,204 
,030 
,936 
i,370 
1,920 

,975 
,670 
,910 
,740 
,348 



Days 



33 

28 

12 

8 

8 

10 

29 

5 

7 

8 

22 

10 

9 

10 

32 

26 

10 

27 

31 

9 

24 

20 



distances iJetiucen lEuropran ©itirs. 



London 



Liverpool 
PABisr489 



Madbid 



Lisbon 



TRAVELLING DISTANCES 

BETWEEN THE 

PRINCIPAL CITIES IN EUROPE, 

IN MILES. 



Antwerp 



Hambubg 



Berlin 



Berne 

TUEIN 



Vienna 



Munich 



Rome 



Trieste 



Warsaw 



Constantinople 



Odessa 



Moscow 



St. Petkrsbukq 

Stockholm] 430 

Copenhagen I 416 1 846 



408 

836 



950 
1356 
1610 
1610 



363 
1339 
17,33 



1205 
842 
811 
693 



2408 1082 
ISlol 668 



806 
1725 

laso 

1617 
1769 
1171 
1087 



510 
1276 
2138 
1800 
2087 

22:« 

1731 
1318 



647 

487 

702 

1564 

1226 

1613 

1396 

1084 

671 



266 
840 
370 
436 

1298 
960 

1247 
.^W 

1110 



720 
'470 
414 
391 
1156 
2018 
1680 
1967 
2119 
1.S37 



69711041 



297 

'535 

296 

639 

633 

1021 

1883 

1546 



611 

837 

427 

401 

1048 

888 

398 

1699 

1240 



1832 j 1209 
1714 1091 



1176 
885 



685 
'270 



178 

678 

839 

605 

679 

1180 

1066 

576 

1903 

1418 

1387 

1269 

580 

208 



412 

497 



460 1602 



719 

727 

522 

1033 

1009 

895 

2025 

1737 

1706 

1688 

993 

620 



1530 

1804 
1889 



1506 
2167 
1897 
1746 
1828 
2593 
3345 
3117 
3414 
3286 
2384 
2012 



415 
1119 

1495 
1582 
1183 
1073 
1668 
1477 
1223 
1416 
1925 
2718 
2625 
2904 
2874 
1972 
1600 



908 1397 
1323 1812 : 

211: 472 

587! 859 

674' 948 

359 1 848 

500 989 

849 1182 

582: 970 

907 1397 

863 1352 1150 
1067 1.557 1355 
1899 2232 2030 
1760 2119 1917 
1843 2117 1916 
1699 1976 1774 
1219 1491 1289 

812 1181; 979 



202 
287 
1195 
1610 
270 
657 
746 
646 
787 
980 
768 
1195 



Metric System. 



73 



The Metric System has been adopted b.v Mexico, Brazil. Chile, Peru, ata , and except Russia 
and Great Britain, where it is permissive, by all European nations. Various names of the precedintf 
systems are, however, frequently used : In Germany, J^ liilogram = 1 pound; in Switzerland, 3-10 
of a metre = 1 foot, etc. If the first letters of the prefixes deka. hecto. kilo, inyHa. from the Greek, 
and (ie.ci,cenU,viili, from the Latin, are used in preference to our plain English, lO, 100, etc. , it is best 
to emplov capital lettere for the multiples and small letters for the subdivisions, to avoid ambiguities 
iu abbreviatious : 1 dekametre or 10 metres = 1 Dm. ; 1 decimetre or 1-10 of a metre = 1 dm. 

The Metre, unit of length, is nearly the ten-millionth part of a quadrant of a meridian, of the 
distance between Kquator and Pole. The International Standard Metre is, practically, nothing else 
but a length defined bv the distance between two lines ou a platinum-iridium bar at 0° Centigrade, 
deposited at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, Paris, France. ■ 

The Litre, unit of capacity, is derived from the weight of one kilogram pure water at greatest 
density, a. cube whose edge is one-tenth of a metre and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a 
metric ton. 

The Gram, unit of weight, is a cube of pure water at greatest density, whose edge is one-hundredth 
of a metre, and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a kilogram, and the one-millionth part of a 
metric ton. 

One silver dollar weighs 25 grams, 1 dime = '2}4 grams, 1 five-cent nickel = 5 grams. 



The Metric System was legalized in the United States on July 28, 1866, when Congress enacted as 
follows : 

"The tables in the schedule hereto annexed shall be recognized in tlie construction of contracts, 
and in all legal proceedings, as establishing, in terms of the weights and measures now in use in the 
United States, the equivalents of the weights and measures expressed therein in terms of the metric 
system, and the tables may lawfully be used for computing, determining, and expressing.in custom- 
arj' weights and measures the weights and measures of the metric system. ' ' 

The following are the tables annexed to the above: 

Measures of Length. 



Metric Denominations and Values. 



Myriametre 10,000 metres. 

Kilometre 1,000 metres. 

Hectonietio 100 metres. 

Dekametre 10 metre.s. 

Metre ; 1 metre. 

Decimetre 1-10 of a metre. 

Centimetre ^ 1-100 of a metre. 

MiUimetre 1-1000 of a metre. 



Equivalents in Denominations in Use. 



6. 2137 miles. 

0. 62137 mile, or 3,280 feet 10 inches. 



328 


feet 1 inch. 


393.7 


inches. 


39.37 


inches. 


3.937 


inches. 


0.3937 


inch. 


0. 0394 


inch. 



Measures of Surface. 



Metric Denominations and Values. 



Hectare 10,000 square metres. 

Are 100 square metres. 

Centare 1 square metre. 



Equivalents in Denominations in Use. 



2.471 acres. 
119. 6 square yards. 
1,550 square inches. 



Measures of Capacity. 



Metric Denominations and Vai^ues. 



Names. 


Num- 
ber of 
Litres. 


Cubic Measure. 


Kilolitre or stere 


1,000 

100 

10 

1 

1-10 

1-100 

1-1000 


1 cubic metre 


Hectolitre 




Dekalitre 


10 Ptibir* flPoi^1ftrp*^ 


Litre 


X oubic docim^tre 


Decilitre 




Centilitre 




MilUlitre 


1 cubic centimetre 







Equivalents in Denomination.s in Use. 



Dry Measure. 



1. 308 cubic yards 

2 bush, and 3. 35 pecks 

9. 08 quarts 

0.908 quart 

6. 1022 cubic inches 

0.6102 cubic inch 

0.061 cubic inch 



Liquid or Wine Measure. 



264. 17 gallons. 
26. 417 gallons. 
2. 6417 gallons. 
1. 0567 quarts. 
0.846 gill. 
0. 338 fluid ounce. 
0.27 fluid dram. 



74 



Metric System. 



METRIC SY^T^m— Continued. 



WEIGHTS. 



Metric Denominations and Values, 


Equivalents in De- 
nominations IN USK. 


I^ames. 


Number 

of 
Grams. 


Weight of What Quantity of Water 
at Maximum Density. 


Avoirdupois Weight. 


IVfillpr CiV triiiiipan 


1,000,000 

100,000 

10,000 

1,000 

100 

10 

1 

1-10 

1-100 

1-1000 


1 cubic metre 


2204.6 pounds. 

220. 46 pounds. 

22.046 pounds. 

2. 2046 pounds. 




1 hectolitre 


TVf vrifi£!Tani 


10 litres 




1 litre 




1 decilitre 




10 cubic centimetres 






1 cubic centimetre 


15. 432 grains. 
1.5432 grains. 
0. 1543 grain. 
0.0154 grain. 


BeciRvam 


1-10 of a cubic centimetre 


10 cubic millimetres 


Milligram 


1 cubic millimetre 



TABLES FOn THE CONVERSION OF METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES INTO 

CUSTOMARY UNITED STATES EQUIVALENTS AND THE REVERSE. 

From the legal equivalents are deduced the following tables for converting United States weights 
and measures: 



METRIC TO CUSTOMARY. 



CUSTOMARY TO METRIC. 



Linear Measure. 



Me- 

tres^Ins. 
1= 39.37 
2= 78.74 
3=118. 11 
4=157.48 
5=196.85 
6=236. 22 
7=275. 59 
8=314.96 
9-354. 33 



Metres=Feet. 
1= 3.28087 
2= 6.56174 
3= 9.84261 
4=13.12348 
5=16. 40435 
6=19. 68522 
7=22. 96609 
8=26. 24696 
9=29. 52783 



3Ie- 

t.res= Yards. 
1=1.093623 
2=2. 187246 
3=3.280869 
4=4. 374492 
5=5.468115 
6=6.561738 
7=7. 655361 
8=8. 748984 
9=9. 842607 



Kilome- 
tres= Miles. 
1=0. 62137 
2=1. 24274 
3=1.86411 
4=2. 48548 
5=3. 10685 
6=3. 72822 
7=4.34959 
8=4.97096 
9=5. 59233 



Ins. —Cen- 
timetres 
1= 2.54 
2= 5.08 
3= 7.62 
4=10. 16 
5=12.70 
6=15.24 
7=17. 78 
8=20.32 
9=22. 86 



Feel= Metres. 
1=0.304798 
2=0. 609596 
3=0. 914393 
4=1.219191 
5=1.523989 
6=1.828787 
7=2. 133584 
8=2. 438382 
9=2. 743179 



Yards = Me- 
tres. 
1=0.914393 
2=1. 828787 
3=2. 743179 
4=3. 657574 
5=4. 571966 
6=5. 486358 
7=6. 400753 
8=7.315148 
9=8. 229537 



Miles'= Kilo- 
metres. 
1= 1.60935 
2= 3.21869 
3= 4.82804 
4= 6.43739 
6= 8.04674 
6= 9.65608 
7=11. 26543 
8=12.87478 
9=14.48412 



Square Measure. 



^>* 






^ 



-I ^^'^ 






1=0. 155 
2=0.310 
3=0. 465 
4=0. 620 
5=0. 775 
6=0. 930 
7=1. 085 
8=1. 240 
9=1. 395 



1=10. 764 
2=21. 528 
3=32. 292 
4=43. 055 
5=53. 819 
6=64. 583 
7=75. 347 
8=86. Ill 
9=96. 874 






1= 
2= 
3= 
4= 
5= 
6= 

8= 




1.196 
2. 392 
3.588 
4.784 
5.980 
7.176 
8.372 
9. 568 
10. 764 



Cubic Measure. 


Cubic 

Metres 

Cubic 
Feel. 


Cubic 
Feel 

II 

Cubic 

Metres. 


1- 35.315 
2= 70.631 
3-105. 947 
4-141. 262 
5-176.578 
6-210. 894 
7=247. 209 
8-282. 526 
9-317. 840 


1=0. 02832 
2-0. 05663 
3=0.08495 \ 
4=0.11326 
5=0.14158 
6=0. 16990 
7=0.19821 
8=0.22653 
9=0. 25484 



Square Measure. 



u -^ 



J5 9, 



.3-3 



1= 6.452 
2=12. 903 
3=19. 354 
4=25.806 
5=32.257 
6=38. 709 
7=45. 160 
8=51. 612 
9=58.063 



8 S^ = S ■-- 



-0. 09290 
=0. 18581 
=0. 27871 
=0. 37161 
=0. 46452 
=0. 55742 
=0. 65032 
,0. 74323 
,0. 83613 






S..S' 



1=0. 836 
2=1.672 
3=2. 508 
4=3. 344 
5=4. 181 
6=5.017 
7=5. 863 
8=6. 689 
9=7. 525 



Liquid Measure. 



1=0. 338 
2=0. 676 
3=1.014 
4=1. 352 
5=1.091 
6=2. 029 
7=2. 368 
8=2. 706 
9=3.043 



vS 3 



1=1.0567 
2=2. 1134 
3=3. 1700 
4=4. 2267 
5=5. 2834 
6=6.3401 
7=7. 3968 
8=8. 4534 
9=9. 5101 



^ C5 



-0. 26417 
-0. 52834 
-0. 79251 
-1.0,')668 
-1.32085 
_1. 58502 
-1. 84919 
-2. 11336 
^2. 37753 



Dry Measure. 















■-rf 


w 




o = 


=•5 










^ 


03 




1- 


2 


8375 


2_ 


= 5. 


6750 


3^ 


- 8.5125 1 


4- 


=11. 


3500 


5-. 


-14.1875 1 


6- 


17. 


0250 


7= 


-19.8625 


8=22. 


7000 


9.= 


.25.5375 1 



cq 



1=0. 35242 
2=0.70485 I 
3=1.05727 
4=1. 40969 
.5=1.76211 I 
6=2.11454 
7-^-2.46696 
8=2.81938 
9=3.17181 I 



! Liquid Measure. 


Fluid 
Ounces 

Centilitres 


§ i 

1=0.94636 
2=1. 89272 
3=2. 83908 
4=3. 78544 
5=4. 73180 
6=5. 67816 
7=6. 62452 
8„7. 57088 
9=8.51724 


Gallons 
Litres. 


1= 2.957 
2- 5.915 
3= 8.872 
4=11.8:50 
5=14. 787 
6=17. 744 
7=20. 702 
8=23. 659 
9-26.616 


1= 3.78544 
2= 7.57088 
3=11.35632 
4=15. 14176 
5=18. 92720 
6=22. 71264 
7-26. 49808 
8=30. 28352 
9=34. 06896 



Minimum Weights of Produce. 



75 



METRIC SYSTEM— Con^nwed. 



Weight (Avoibdupois). 



Centi- 
grams 

y 

tfj'fl ins. 


Kilo- 
grams 

Ounces 
Av'd'ps. 


6l 1^ 
So = 3 "S 

1= 2.20462 
2= 4.40924 
3= 6.61386 
4= 8.81849 
5=11.02311 
6-13. 22773 
7=15. 43235 
8=17.63697 
9-19.84159 


Metric 
Tons 

y 

Ljong 
Tons. 


Chxiins 

Centi- 
grams. 


Ounces 
Av' d'ps 

II 
Orams. 


Pounds 
Av'd'ps 
II 
Kilo- 
grams. 


Long 
Ihns 

y 

Metric 
Tons. 


1_0. 1543 
2=0. 3086 
3=0. 4630 
4=0.6173 
5=0. 7716 
6=0.9259 
7=1.0803 
8=1. 2346 
9=1.3889 


1= 35.274 
2= 70.548 
3=105. 822 
4=141. 096 
5=176.370 
6=211.644 
7=246. 918 
8=282. 192 
9=317. 466 


1=0.9842 

2=1.9684 
3=2. 9626 
4=3.9368 
5=4.9210 
6=5. 9052 
7=6.8894 
8=7. 8736 
9=8.8578 


1 1= 6.4799 
2=12.9598 

1 3=19.4397 
4=25. 9196 
5=32. 3995 
6=38. 8793 
7=45. 3592 
8=51.8391 
9=58.3190 


1= 28.3495 
2= 56.6991 
3= 85.0486 
4=113. 3981 
5=141. 7476 
6=170. 0972 
7=198. 4467 
8=226. 7962 
9=255. 1457 


1=0.45359 
2=0.90719 
3=1.36078 
4=1.81437 
5=2.26796 
6=2. 72156 
7=3.17515 
8=3.62874 
9=4. 08233 


1=1.0161 
2=2. 0321 
3=3. 0482 
4=4.0642 
5-5.0803 
6=6. 0963 
7=7.1124 
8=8.1284 
9=9.1445 



THE METRIC SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED. 

The following tables of the metric sy.stem of weights and measures have been simplified as much 
as possible tor The World Almanac by omitting such denominations as are not in practical, 
everyday use in the countries where the system is used exclusively. 

TABLES OF THE SYSTEM. 

Liength.— The denominations in practical use are millimetres (mm. ), centimetres (cm. ), metres 
(m. ), and kilometres (km. ). 

10 mm. = 1 cm. ; 100 cm. = 1 m. ; 1,000 m. = 1 km. Note. —A decimetre is 10 cm. 

Weialit.— The denominations in use are grams (g. ), kilos* (kg. ), and tons (metric tons). 

1,000 g. = 1 kg. ; 1.000 kg. = 1 metric ton. 

< 'apacity .— The denominations in use are cubic centimetres (c. c. ) and litres (1.). 

1,000 c. c. = 1 1. Note. —A hectolitre is 100 1. (seldom used). 

Relation of capacity and weight to length : A cubic decimetre is a litre, and a litre of water weighs 
a kilo. 

APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS. 

A metre is about a yard ; a kilo Is about 2 pounds; alitre is about a quart; a centimetre is about 
J^ inch ; a metric ton is about same as a ton ; a kilometre is about ^ mile; a cubic centimetre is about a 
thimbleful ; a nickel weighs about 5 grams. 



1 acre =>> 

1 bushel =- 

1 centimetre =■ 

1 cubic centimetre = 

Icubicfoot =■ 

1 cubic inch — 

1 cubic metre = 

1 cubic metre = 

1 cubic j'ard = 

Ifoot = 

1 gallon = 

1 grain = 

Igram = 

1 nectar = 

linch = 

Ikilo = 

1 kilometre = 

1 litre = 

1 litre = 

1 metre = 



PRECISE EQUIVALENTS. 

.40 hectar. 4047 J mile ■ 

35 litres 35.24 ll millimetre = 

.39 inch 3937 1 ounce (av'd)... = 

.OOl cubic incli... .0610 1 ounce (Troy)... = 

.028 cubic metre. . 0283 1 peck = 

16 cubic cent, t 16.39 1 pint = 

35 cubic feet 35.31 1 pound = 

1.3 cubic yards... 1.308 1 quart (dry) • 

.T6 cubic metre... .7645 1 quart (liquid). = 
30 centimetres 30. 48 Isq. centimetre. ■ 

3.8 litres 3.785 Isq. foot = 

.065gram 0648 Isq. inch = 

15 grains 15.43 Isq. metre = 

2.5 acres 2.471 Isq. metre 

25 millimetres. 25. 40 Isq. yard • 

2.2 pounds 2.205 1 ton (2. 000 lbs. L 

.62 mile 62141 ton (2,2401bs. ) ^ 

.91 quart (drv)... . 9081 11 ton (metric) ■ 

1.1 quarts (liq'd) 1.057 Iton (metric) ■ 

3.3 feet 3.281 llyard > 



. 1.6 kilometres 1.609 

.039inch 0394 

^28 grams 28.35 

31 grams 31.10 

8.8 litres 8.809 

.47 litre 4732 

.45 kilo 4536 

. 1.1 litres 1.101 

.96 litre 9464 

.15 sq. inch 1550 

.093sq. metre 0929 

■ 6.5 sq. c'timetr's. 6.452 
. 1.2 sq. yards 1.196 

■ 11 sq. feet 10.76 

.84 sq. metre 8361 

.91 metric ton 9072 

= 1 metric ton 1.017 

■ 1.1 ton(2,000 1bs.) 1.102 

.98 ton (2, 240 lbs.) .9842 

.91 metre 9144 



* Contraction for kilogram', t Centimetres. 



|W[tnimiim WitiQf)tu of prot»uce» 

The following are minimum weights of certain articles of produce according to the laws of the 
United States : 



Per Bushel. 
Wheat 60 lbs. White Potatoes 



Corn, in the ear 70 

Corn, shelled 56 

Bye 56 

Buckwheat 48 

Barley 48 

Oats 32 

Peas 60 

White Beans 60 

Castor Beans 46 



Per Bushel. 
.60 lbs. 



Sweet Potatoes 55 

Onions 57 

Turnips 55 

Dried Peaches 33 

Dried Apples 26 

Clover Seed 60 

Flaxseed 56 

Millet Seed 50 



Per Bushel. 

Hungarian Grass Seed .50 Iba. 

Timothy Seed 45 '' 

Blue Grass Seed 44 '' 

Hemp Seed 44 '' 

Salt (see note below). 

Corn Meal 48 " 

Ground Peas 24 " 

Malt 34 " 

Bran 20 " 



Salt.— Weight per bushel as adopted by different States ranges from 50 to 80 pounds. Coarse salt 
in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 80 pounds, and In Illinois at 50 pounds per busliel. Fine salt in Penn- 
sylvania"is reckoned at 62 pounds, in Kentucky and Illinois at o5 pounds per bushel. 



76 



Foreign Moneys, 



Jlleasttrcs antr SHeiijijts of Crcat 33ritain. 

The measure*i of length and the vrelghts are nearly, practically, the same as those in use in the 
TJnited States. The English ton is 2,240 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the long ton, or shipping ton 
of the United States. The English hundredweisht is 112 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the lone 
hundredweight of the United States. The metre has been legalized at 39. 37079 inches, but the length 
of 39. 370432 inches, as atlopted by France, Germany, Belgium, and Russia, is frequently used. 

The Imperial gallon, the basis of the system of capacity, involves an error of about 1 part iu 1,836: 
10 Ib-s. of water = 277. 123 cubic inches. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



Names. 


Pounds of 
Water. 


Cubic Inches. 


Litres. 

0.56793 

1. 13586 

2.27173 

4. 54:^46 

9. 08(W2 

36. 34766 

145. 39062 

290. 7813 


United States 
Equivalents. 




1.25 

2.5 

5 

10 

20 •) 2 

320 fQ.^ 

640 J a 


34.66 

69.32 

138.64 

277. 27 

554. .55 

2218. 19 

8872. 77 

17745.54 


1. 20032 liquid pints. 
1.20032 " quarts. 
2. 40064 " 




2 quarts »= 1 pottle 


2 pottles — 1 g'aUon 


1 20032 " gallon.s. 




1.03152 dry pecks. 
1.03152 " bushels. 




4 bushels = 1 coomb 


4. 126U6 " 


2 coombs =• 1 quarter 


8 26_>1 " 



A cubic foot of pure goM wei2;h8 1,210 pound.s ; pure silver, 655 pounds ; cast iron, 450 pounds ; copper, 550 pounds ; lead, 
710 pounds \ pure platinum, l,i'VO pounds \ tin, 456 pounds , aluminum, 163 pounds. 



HBomcsttc 2l2afifl!)ts antr pleasures. 



3 scruples = 



1 dram; 8 drams =1 ounce; 12 
1 ounce; 16 ounces— 1 



Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains = 1 scruple; 
ounces = 1 pound. 

Avoircfiipois Weight (short ton): 27 11-32 grains = 1 dram ; 16 drams 
pound; 25 pounds = 1 quarter; 4 quarters = 1 cwt. ; 20 cwt. = 1 ton. 

Avoiraupois Weight (long ton): 27 11-32 grains =■ I dram; 16 drams = 1 ounce; 16 ounces— 1 
pound ; 112 pounds = 1 cwt. ; 20 cwt. = 1 ton. 

Troy Weight: 24 grains— 1 pennyweight; 20 pentiyweights=l ounce; 12 ounces— 1 pound. 

Circular Measure: 60seconds = l minute; 60 minutes = 1 degree; 30 degrees— Isign; 12 signs 
— 1 circle or circumference. 

Cubic illeasure; 1, 728 cubic inches — 1 cubic foot; 27 cubic feet — 1 cubic yard. 

Dry .Ueasure: 2 pints— 1 quart; 8 quarts =1 peck; 4 pecks — 1 busheL 

Liquid ^>Ieasure: 4giUs— Ipiut; 2pluts — 1 quart; 4 quarts — 1 gallon ; 31>^ gallons — 1 barrel ; 
2 barrels— 1 hogshead. 

liOiig .Pleasure: 12 inches— 1 Ipot; 3 feet— lyard; o}^ yards = 1 rod or pole; 40rods->l fur- 
long- 8 furlongs— 1 statute mile; 3 miles— 1 league. 

Mariner's .Xeasure: 6 feet— 1 fathom; l.:0 fathoms— 1 cable length; 7)^ cable lengths — 1 
mile; ."),280 feet— 1 statute mile; 6,08.5 feet— 1 nautical mile. 

Paper Measure : 24 sheets = 1 quire; 20 quires = 1 ream (480 sheets) ; 2 reams — 1 bundle; 5 
bundles ^^ 1 bale. 

Square Measure: 144 square inches — 1 square foot; 9 square feet— 1 square yard ; 30^ square 
yards— 1 square rod or perch; 40 square rods — 1 rood; 4 roods — 1 acre: 640 acres — 1 square mile ; 
36 square miles (6 miles square) — 1 township. 

Time .Ueasure: 60 seconds— 1 minute; 60 minutes — 1 hour; 24hours = l day; 7 days — 1 
week ; 365 days— 1 year; 366 days — 1 leap year. 

TEXAS L.\ND MEASURE. 



(Also used in Mexico, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. ) 



26.000,000 

1.000,000 

25.000,0U0 

12,500.0,(0 

8,333,333 

6,2.50,000 

7,225 600 

3,61 .800 

1,806.400 

903, 200 

451.600 

225.800 



varas^ — 1 league aud 1 labor — 
varas) — 1 labor — 

varas) = 1 league = 

varas) = }^ league 



varas) — }^ league 
varas) 



varas) = >4 league 



square varas (square of 5,099 
square varas (square of 1.000 
square varas (square of 5,000 
square varas (square of 3,5;35. 5 
square varas (square of 2,886.7 
square varas (square of 2.500 
square varas (square of 2.688 
square varas (square of 1,900.8 
square varas (square of 1,344 
square varas (square of 950.44 
square varas (sqviare of 672 
square varas (square of 475 
.5,645.376 square varas (square of 75.137 vara.s!) = 4,840 square yards — 

To find the number of acres in any number of square varas, multiply the latter 
more exact, by 177J^), and cut off six decimals. 

1 vara — .■53^ inches. 1.900.8 varas = 1 mile. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF THE PHILIPPINES. 



varas) — 1 section 
varas) — % section 
vara-s) — M section 
varas) — \^ section 
varas) = 1-16 section 



4, 605. 

177. 

4,428. 

2.214. 

1.476. 

1,107. 

1,280 

640 

320 

160 

HO 

40 

1 

by 177 



5 acres. 
136 acres. 
4 acres. 
2 acres. 
13 acres. 
1 acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

aero, 
(or to be 



1 pulgada (12 linea) 
1 pie 
1 vara 
1 gantah 
1 caban 



.927 inch. 
11.125 inches. 
33.375 inches. 

.8796 gallon. 
21.991 gallons. 



1 libra (16 onzo) 
1 arroba 
1 catty (16 tael) 
1 pecul (100 catty) 



1. 

25. 

1. 

139. 



0144 lb. av. 

360 lb. av. 

94 lb. av. 

482 11). av. 



jForn'tju iWonei)s. 



English Money: 4 farthings — 1 penny ((i); 12 pence— 1 shilling (s); 20 shillings - 

French i>l»uey: 10 centimes— 1 decime; 10 decimes = 1 franc. 

tiiernian iVIouoy: lOO pfennig- 1 mark. 

RuNsian :>louey: 100 copecks — 1 ruble. 

Austro-IIungarian Money: 1(K» kreutzer— 1 florin. 

For United States equivalents, see table of ' ' Value of Foreign Coins in U. S. Money. 



■ 1 pound (,,C). 



Compound Interest Table. 



77 



Jtutcrest HatDs cintr Statutes of limitations. 



Stated and 
Tkrritorik«. 



Alabama 

Arkansas.... 

Arizona 

Calilornia .. . 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

D. of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Mar.vland 

Massacluisetts. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 



Interest Laws. 



L«gftl 
Hste. 



S 
6 
6 

i 

8 
6 
6 
6 
8 



5 
6 
6 
6 

6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
5 
7 
6 
6 
8 



Rate Allowed 
by Contract. 



Vet cl. 

8 

10 

Aii.v rate. 

Any rate. 

Any rate. 

6 

6 

10 

10 

8 

12 

7 

8 

8 

10 

6 

8 

Any rate. 

6 

All}' rate. 

7 

10 

10 

8 

Any rate. 



Judsr- 

ments. 
Years. 



20 
10 

5 

5 
20 
('') 
10 
12 
20 

7 

6 
20 
20 
20(<0 

5 
15 
10 
20 
12 
20 

6' 
10 

7 
10 
10(6) 



VTUTRS 


OP 


IITATTONS. 




Open 


Notes, 


Ac- 


Years. 


counts, 




Ye.'irs. 




6» 


3 


5 


3 


4 


3 


4t 


2 


6 


6 


(«) 


6 


HII 


3 


8 


3 


5 


2 


till 


4 


5 


4 


10 


5 


10 


6 


10 


5 


o 


3 


15 


5Ui) 


5 


A 


6(c) 


6?5 


» 


3 


« 


6 


6 


«« 


« 


6 


« 


3 


10 


5 


8 


5 



States and 

TKBRrroRlKS. 



Nebraska 

Nevada 

N. Hampshire 
New Jersey ... 
New Me.xico. . 

New York 

North Carolina 
North Dakota. 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . 
Rhode Island. 
South Carolina 
South Dakota. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington . . 
West Virginia. 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Interest Laws. 



Legal 
Rate. 



t'er ct. 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
7 
6 
6 
6§ 



6 
6 
8 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
8 



Rate Allowed 
by Contract. 



Per rt. 

10 

Any rate. 

6 

6 
12 

6tt 

6 
12 

8 
12 
10 

6 
Any rate. 

8 
12 

6 

10 

Any rate. 

6 

6 
12 

6 

10 
12 



Staiutkk of 

LiMrTATIONS. 



Judg- 
ments, 
Years. 



5« 

6 
20 
20 

20()i) 
10 
10 
15 

5(/t) 
10 
5(f) 
20' 
20 

10(0 

10 
lOTt 

8 

8 
20 

6 

10 

20(0 

5(/.) 



Notes, 
Years. 



5 
4 
6 
6 
6 
6 
3" 
6 
15 
5 
6 
61! 
6 

. 6 

6 

6 

4 

6 

6 

5* 

6 
10 

6 

5 



Open 
Ac- 
counts, 
Years, 



4 

4 

6 

6 

4 

65§ 

3 

645 

6 

3 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

2 

4 

6§§ 

2ir 

3 
3 
6 
8 



*Uiiderseal, 10 years, t If made in State;if outside, 2 years. § Unless a dlfTerent rate is expressly 
stipulated. 1| Under seal, 20 years. ITStore accounts; otheraccounts3 years; accounts between mer- 
chant,s5 years. ttNew York has by a recent law legalized an.y rate of interest on call loans of $5,000 
orupward, on collateral securit.v. tX Becomes dormant, but maybe revived. §§Six years from last item, 
(n) Accounts betweeri merchants 2 years. (6) In courts not of record 5 years. (r) Witnessed 20 
years, (d) Twenty years in Courts of Record; injustice's Court 10 years. (e) Negotiable notes 6 
years, non-negotiable 7 years. (/■) Ceases to be a lien after that period. (A) On foreign judg- 
ments 1 year, (f) Ts alien on real estate for only 10 years, (/c) And indefinitely by having execu- 
tion issue every 5 years. (0 Ten years foreign, 20 years domestic, (n) Not of record 6 years. 
(o) No limit. 



Simple Kntctest ^atle. 

(ShowingatDitlerent Rates t he Interest on $1 from 1 Mouth to 1 year, and on $100 from 1 Day to! Year. 





4 Per Cent. 


6 Per Cent. 


1 «P 


er Cent. 


IF 


kkCent. 1 


8 


Per Cent. 


Time. 






a 


2 

— 


i 


A 


1 


a 

4) 


3 


1 


2 

a 


A 




a 


3 

=1 






'-> 


3 


a 


o 


4 


1 " 


w 


,* 


Q 


O 


5 


_Q 


O 


s 


One Dollar 1 month 


5 


R 


2 '' 












8 




1 






1 
1 


1 




i 

2 


3 


3 •' 




1 


1 




1 


3 




1 


5 






6 " 




2 






2 


5 




3 






3 


5 




4 




12 " 




4 






5 






« 






7 






8 




One Hiiiidred Dollars 1 dav. . 




1 


1 




1 


3 




1 


6 




1 


9 




2 


2 


h k i * 2 ^ ^ . . 




2 


2 




2 


7 




3 


2 




3 


8 




4 


4 


" 3 " .. 




3 


4 




4 


1 




5 






5 


8 




6 


7 


" 4 '' .. 




4 


5 




5 


3 




6 


tj 




7 


7 




8 


9 


" 5 " .. 




5 


6 




6 


» 




8 


2 




9 


7 




. 11 


1 


" 6 " . 




6 


7 




8 


3 




10 






11 


6 




. 13 


3 


•' "■ 1 month 




33 


4 




41 


« 




50 






58 


S 




. 66 


7 


" 2 " 




66 


7 




83 


2 


1 






1 


16 


6 




1 33 


3 


" 3 " 








1 


25 




I 


50 




1 


75 






2 .. 




6 " 








2 


50 




3 






3 


50 






4 




" 12 " 


4 






5 






6 






7 








8 





(SrompottntT interest KatU, 

COMPOUND INTEREST ON ONE DOLLAR FOR 100 YEARS. 



AMOtJNT 


Years. 


Per 

cent. 


$1 


100 


1 


1 


KK) 


2 


1 


100 


2V^ 


1 


100 


3 


1 


100 


'M 


1 


100 


4 



tlon. 



$2.70,5 
7.24,5 
11.81,4 
19.21,8 
31.19,1 
50.50,4 



Amount 


Years. 


Per 
cent. 


$1 


100 


41<1 


1 


100 


5 


1 


100 


6 


1 


100 


7 


1 


100 


W 


1 


100 


9 



Accumula- 
tion. 

'$8i758;9 
13L50,1 
339.3(1,5 

8(17.72,1 
2,lft9. 78, 4 
6,529.04,4 



Amount 


Years. 


Per 
cent. 


$1 


100 


10 


1 


100 


11 


1 


100 


12 


1 


100 


15 


1 


100 


18 


1 


100 


24 



Accumulation. 



§13,780.66 
34,064.34,6 
83,521.82,7 
1,174.302.40 
15,424,106.40 
2,198,720,200 



78 



Height and Weight of Men. 



COMPOUND INTEREST TABLE— f'Mi^Mmed. 



YEARS IN WHICH A GIVEN AMOUNT WILL DOUBLE AT SEVERAL RATES OF INTEREST. 





At Simple 
Interest. 


At COMPODNt* l.NTEREST. 


Ratk. 


At Simple 
Interest. 


At Compound Interest. 


R»TK. 


Compounded 
Yearly. 


Compounded 

Semi-Aunu- 

ally. 


Compounded 
Quarterly. 


Compounded 
Yearly. 


Compounded 

Semi-Annu- 

ally. 


Compounded 
Quarterly. 


1 

2 

1^ 

4 

Shi 


100 yeare. 
66.66 
50.00 
40.00 
33.33 
28. 57 
25. 00 
22.22 
20.00 
18.18 


69. 660 
46. 566 
35. 003 
28. 071 
23. 450 
20. 149 
17.673 
15.747 
14. 207 
12. 942 


69. 487 
46. 382 
34. 830 
27. 899 
23. 278 
19. 977 
17. 501 
15. 576 
14.035 
12. 775 


69. 237 
46. 297 
34. 743 
27. 748 
23. 191 
19. 890 
17. 415 
15. 490 
13.949 
12. 689 


6 

m 
i8^ 

12 


16.67 
15.38 
14. 29 
13.33 
12. 50 
11.76 
11.11 
10. 52 
10.00 
8.34 


11. 896 
11.007 
10. 245 
9.584 
9.006 
8.497 
8. 043 
7.638 
7. 273 
6.116 


11. 725 

10. 836 

10. 074 

9.414 

8.837 
8.327 
7.874 
7.468 
7.103 
5.948 


11. 639 
10. 750 
9.966 
9. 328 
8.751 
8.241 
7.788 
7.383 
7.018 
6.862 



PenuW.es for usiiiy difter in the various States. 

Arizona. California, Colorado, Indian Territory, Maine, Massachusetts (except on loan.s of less 
than $1,000), Montana, Nevada, Rhode Island, Utah, and Wyoming have no provisions on the 
subject. 

Loss oi'jirincipal and interest is the penalty in Arkansas and New York. 

Loss of priucipal in Delaware and Oregon. 

Uossof interest in Alabama. Alaska, District of Columbia, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Louisi- 
ana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Carolina (double amount if 
paid). North Dakota (double amount it paid), Oklahoma Territory, South Carolina, South Dakota, 
Texas, Virginia, Washington (double amount if paid), Wisconsin, and Hawaii. 

Loss of excess of interest in Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, 
Missouri, New Hampshire (three times). New Mexico, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Vermont, 
and West Virginia. 





Bomau antr Static Numerals. 




I 


1 


XI 

XII 


11 

12 


XXX 30 CCCC... 


400 


11 


2 


XL. 40 n 


.... 500 


Ill 


3 


XIII 


13 


L. 50 DC 


600 


IV 


4 


XIV 


14 


LX 60 Dec 


7(X) 


V 


5 

6 

7 

8 

9 


XV 


... . 15 


I.XX 70 DCCC 

LXXX or XXC. .. 80 CM 

XC 90 1>I 


800 


VI 

VII 


XVI 

XVII 

XVIII 

XIX 


16 

17 

18 

19 


900 

1000 


VIII 

IX 


C lOO.Vl.lI 

CC 200iVICi1IIV 

CCC 300[ 


2000 

1904 


X 


io!xx 


20 





mtxQ^t antr JSmrijuljt of JWrn. 

Table OP Average Hkioht a.^jd Weight of Males, Based on Analysis of 74,162 Accepted 

Applicants for Life Insurance as Reporteo to the Association 

OF Life Insurance Medical Directors. 



Height. 


Age. 
15-24 

Pounds. 
120 
122 
124 
127 
131 
134 
138 
142 
146 
150 
154 
159 
165 
170 
176 
181 


Age. 
25-29 

Pounds. 

125 
126 
128 
131 
135 
138 
142 
147 
151 
155 
1.59 
164 
170 
177 
184 
190 


Age. 
30-34 


Age. 
:!5-39 


Age. 
40-44 


Ag.. 
45-49 

Pounds. 
134 
136 
138 
141 
144 
147 
151 
156 
161 
166 
171 
177 
183 
1S9 
196 
204 


Age. 
50-64 


Age. 
66-69 


Age. 
60-64 


Age. 
66-69 


5 feet 


Pounds. 
128 
129 
131 
134 
138 
141 
145 
150 
154 
159 
164 
169 
175 
181 
188 
196 


Founds. 
131 
131 
133 
136 
140 
143 
147 
152 
157 
162 
167 
173 
179 
185 
192 
200 


Pounds. 

133 
134 
136 
139 
143 
146 
150 
155 
160 
165 
170 
175 
180 
186 
194 
203 


Pound-s. 

134 
136 
138 
141 
145 
149 
153 
158 
163 
167 
172 
177 
182 
188 
194 
201 


Pounds. 

134 
136 
138 
141 
145 
149 
153 
158 
163 
168 
173 
178 
183 
189 
194 
198 


Pounds. 

131 
134 
137 
140 
144 
148 
153 
158 
163 
168 
174 
180 
185 
189 
192 


Pounds. 










5 feet 3 inches 


140 


5 fppf 4 inches 


143 


6 feet 5 inches 


147 




151 




156 




162 




168 


5 feet 10 inches 


174 


5 feel 11 inches .. . . 


180 


6 feet 


186 


6 feet 1 inch 


189 


6 feet 2 inches 


192 


6 feet 3 inches 





A Height and Weierht Table compiled by a Committee of the Medical Section of the Nr.tioiial 
Fraternal Congress, 1900. which is the anal.vsis of 133,940 applications of selected risks, in a few 
instances differed very slightly from the above. 

HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF WOMEN. 

The following table gives the relative height and weight of women, all ages. Tlie weight of 
ordinary clothing, however, is ihcluded: 



Height. Average. 

5 feet 116 

5 feet 1 inch 120 

5 feet 2 inches 12.6 

5 feet 3 Indies 130 

5 feet 4 inches 135 

5 feet 5 inches 140 

5 feet 6 inches 143 



Mini- 


Maii- 


mum. 


muMi. 


98 


132 


102 


138 


106 


144 


111 


150 


115 


155 


119 


161 


121 


166 



Height. Average. 

.5 foot 7 inches 146 

5 feet S inches 148 

5 feet 9 Indies 155 

5 feet 10 inches 160 

5 feet 11 inches 165 

6 feet 170 



Mini- 


Hazi- 


mum. 


nium. 


123 


167 


126 


170 


131 


179 


136 


184 


1.38 


190 


141 


196 



Constitution of the United States. 79 

Constt^ution of ti)e WLnittti .States. 

Fre«mbie. WE, the people of the United States, in order to forma more perfect Union, establish 

justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the gen- 
eral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do 
ordaiu and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

ARTICLE I. 

Legislative Section I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which 

powers. shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. 

House of Repre- Skction II. 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the 

sentatives. people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the 
most numerous branch of the State Legislature. 
Qualifications of 2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been 

Repvese nt a- seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inliabitant of tliat State in 
tives. which he shall he chosen. 

Apportionment 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included with- 

of Represen- in this Union according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to tiie wh<jle number of 
tatives. free persons, iacludiug thase bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all 1 

other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of 
the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The 
number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall* have at least one 
Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hanipshire shall be entitled to choose 
3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1; Connecticut, 6; New York, 6; New Jt^rsey, 4; 
Pennsylvania, S; Delaware, 1; Maryland. 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 6; South Carolina, 5, and Georgia, 3.* 
Vacancies, how 4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue 

tilled. writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

Officers, how 5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of 

appointed. impeachment. 
Senate. Section III. \. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by 

the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. 
Classification of 2. Iminediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as 

Senators. equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration^ 

of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration 
of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every tecond year ; and if vacancies happen bv resignation, or 
otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may inalie temporary appoint- 
ment until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 
Qualifications of 3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a 

Senators. citizen of tne United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be 

chosen. 
President of the 4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall h^ve no vote unless they 

Senate. be equally divided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other oflficers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice- 
President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States. 
Senate a court 6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be 

for trial of im- on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside ; and no 
peachinents. person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 
J u dg m e n t in 7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqiialification 

case of convic- to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States ; but the party convicted snail never- 
tion. theless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 

ElectionsofSen- Section IV. \. The times, places, and manner of holdine elections for Senators and Representatives shall be 

ators and Rep- prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof ; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such 
resentatives. regulations, except as to places of choosing Senators. 
Meeting of Con- 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in 

gress. December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

Organization of Section V. 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members. 

Congress. and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 

day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties 

as each House may provide. 

Rule of pro- 2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with 

ceedings. the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member. 

Journals of 3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such 

each House, parts as may in their judgment require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any 
question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of tljose present, be entered on the journal. 
Adjournment of 4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more 

Congress. than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Pay and privi- Section VI. 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascer- 

leges of mera- tained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They snail in all cases, except treason, felony, 
bers. and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, 

and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not be ques- 
tioned in any other place. 
Other offices '2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appoiqted to any civil office 

prohibited. under the authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been 
increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of eitlier 
House during his continuance in office. 
Revenue bills. Section VII. 1, All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate 

may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. 
How bills be- 2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate shall, before it become a 

come laws. law. be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, 
with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their 
journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the 
bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered ; 
and if approved by t\vo-thirds of that House it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses 
shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days 
(Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had 
signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law. 

* See Article XIV., Amendments. 



80 Constitution of the United States. 

Approval and 3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and Hoose of Represenlatlves may 

veto powers be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States* and 
of the Presl- before the same shall take ttffect shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two- 
dent, thirds of the Senate and the House of Kepresentatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed In the 
case of a bill. 
Powers vested Skotion VIII. 1. The Congress shall have power: 
in Congress, To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and 
general welfare of the United States; but ail duties, imposts, and eicisea shall be uniform throughout the United 
States. 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States. 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes. 

4. To establish an uniform rule or naturalization and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout 
the United States. 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and 
measures, 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States. 

7. To establish post-ofticea and post-roads. 

8. To promote tne progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the 
exclusive rights to their respective writings and discoveries. 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court, 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of 
nations. 

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on laud and water. 

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than 
two years. 

13. To provide and maintain a navj-, 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces, 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel 
invasions. 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may 
be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers, 
and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress. 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) 
as may, by cession of particular St;ites and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of Government of the 
United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State 
in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, matcazines, arsenals, dry-docks, and other needful buildings. 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and 
all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Goverumcut of the United States, or in any department or 
officer thereof. 

Immigrants, Section IX. 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think 

how adniitted. proper to admit shall not be prohibited by tne Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but 
a tax or duty niav be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 
Habeas corpus. 2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or 

iuvasion the public safety may require it. 
Attainder. 3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

Direct taxes. 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore 

directed to be taken. 
Regulations re- 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

gardiug c u s- 6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of 

toms duties. another, nor shall vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 
Moneys, how 7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law ; and a reg- 

drawn. ular .statement and account of the receipts And expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to 

time. 
Titles of nobil- 8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. And no person holding any office of profit or 

ity prohibited, trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of 
any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign stat«. 
Powers of -Section X. 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation, grant letters of marque and re- 
States dt-tiued. prisal, coin money, emit bills of credit, make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts, pass 
any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

2, No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost or duties on imports or exports, except 
what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce or all duties and imposts, 
laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States ; and all such laws 
shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in 
time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, 
unlessactually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. 

ARTICLE II. 

Executive now- Srction I. 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall 
er, in whom hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be 
vested. elected as follows: ' 

Electors. 2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal 

to the whole numl)er of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress ; but no 
Senator or Representative or person holdmg an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an 
elector. 
Proceedings of 3. [The electors shall meet in their r*?spective States and vote by ballot for t^^o persons, of whom one at least 

electors. shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all tin* nersons voted 

for, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify and transmit, scrilfd. to the seat 
of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the SenuLe shall, 
in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, atid the v.it<'s shall then be 
counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number lie a majority of 
Proceedings of the whole number of electors appointed, and if there be more than one who have such majority, :ind have an equal 
the House of number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President ; 
Re p res e n - and if no |>erson have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall In like manner choose 
tatives. the President. But in choosing the President, the vote shall be taken by States, the representation fiom each 

Slate having om* vot«. A quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or memhei-s from two-thirds of the 
States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the chcfice of the Presi- 
dent, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shnll he the Vice-President. But -f thert 
should remain two or mor«i who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them bv ballot the Vice-Presi- 
dent.]* 
Time of chooB- 4. The Congress may ddtermine the time of choosing the electors and the day ou whkh they ehaLl |flve thiiir 
iQf electors. votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United Statiis. 



' Thin clause la superseded by Article XII., Ameudmeut-s, 



Constitution of the United States. 81 

QuAlificatloDS of 5. No person except a natural bora citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of 
the President, this Constitution, shalf be eligible to the office of Preaident ; neither shall any p«rson be eligible to that office who 
shall not have attained to the a^e of thirty-Hve years and been fourteen yeai-s a resident within the United States. 
Provision in 6. In case of the removal of the PieHldeut from office, or of his death, resijruatiou, or inability to discharge the 

caaeoC his dis- powers and duties of the said office, th« same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Confess niay by law 
ability. provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the Prusident and Vice-President, aeclaring^ 

what officer shall then act aa President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed or a 
President shall be elected. 
Salary of the 7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall neither be jncrea.ied 

President. nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period 
^ any otheremolument from the United States, or any of them. 

Oath of the 8. Before he enter on the execution of his office heshall take the following oath or affirmation : 

President. *' I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, 

and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 
Duties of the Section 11. 1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and 

President. of the militia of the several Stales when called into the actual service of the United States ; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the 
duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the 
United States except in cases of impeachment. 
May make trea- 2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two- 

ties, appoint thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the 
ambassadors. Senate shall appointambassadors, other public ministers and cons.uls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other 
jiidges, etc. officers of the United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be es- 
tablished by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers a-s they think proper 
in the President alone, in the coui'ts of law, or in the heads of departments. 
May fill vacan- 3. The President shall have power to till up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate 

cies. by granting commissions, which shall ex])ire at the end of their next session. 

May make rec- Section III. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and 

ommendations recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordi- 
to and con- nary occasions, convene both Houses, or either -of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to 
veneCongress, the time of adimirnment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors 
and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the 
officers of the United States. 
How officers Skction IV. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from 
may be re- office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

""> '^'' ARTICLE III. 

Judicial power, Skction I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior 

how invested, courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior 
courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall at stated times receive for their services a compensa- 
tion which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 
To what cases it Section II. 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this Constitution, 

extends. the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting 

ambassador, otlier public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiirtiou; to contro- 
versies to whirh the United Stiites shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States, between a State 
and citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens of the same State claiming lands 
under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects. 
Jurisdiction of 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, and those in which a State shall be 

the Supreme party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before-mentioned the Supreme 
Court. Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as 

the Congress shall make. 
Rules respecting 3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jurj', and such trial shall be held in the 

trials. State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State the trial shall be at 

such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed. 
Treason defined. Section III. 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in 

adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the 
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 
How punished. 2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishuient of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work 

corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the life of the person attained. 

ARTICLE IV. 

Hights of States Skction I. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, and judicial proceed- 

and records. ings of every other State. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, 
and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 
Privileges of Section II. 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in 

citizens. the several States. 

Executive requi- 2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found 

sitions. iu another State, shall, on demand of the Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be 

removed to the Slate having jurisdiction of the crime. 
Laws ri?gulating 3. No person held to service or labor m one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another shall, iu coa- 

service or la- sequence or any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on 

bor. claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

New States, how Section III. 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be 

formed and formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more 

admitted. States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

Power of Con- 2. The Concress shall have power to rlispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the terri- 

gress over tory or other property belona-inij to the United States: and nothing in this Constitution shall be sb construed as to 

public lands, prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State. 
Kepubiican gov- Section FV. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican form of government, 

ernmentguar- and shall protect each of them against inv.ision. and, on application of the Legislature, or ol; the Executive (when 

anteed. the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. 

AJ1TICL.E V. 

Constitution, The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose -amendments to this 

how amended. Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for 
proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, 
when ratified by the Lejislaturesof three -fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as 
the one or the other mode of ratification mav be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may 
be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner atfect the first and fourth 
olansea in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its 
equal suffrage in the Senate. • 

Validity of ARTICI^ VI. 

debts re cog- 1. All debts contracted and engajements entered into before the .adoptiou of this Constitution shall he as valid 

Qized. agaiust the United States under this Constitution ae under the Confederation. 



82 Constihition- of the United States, 

Supreme law of 2. Tl^s Constitution /flnd the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof and all 

the land de- treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 

fined, land, and the judjres in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of Any State 

to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Oath; of whom 3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Le^'slatures, and 

required and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or 

for what. attirmatiou to support this Constitution ; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office 

or public trust under the United States. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Ratification of The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Conatitution 

the Constitu- between the States so ratifying the same. 

^'''°* AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

ARTICLE I. 

Religion and Congress shall make no law respecting an establi.shment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; 

free speech. **"* ahridging the freedom of speech or of the press : or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to peti- 
tion the Government for a redress of grievances. 

ARTICLE II. 

Right to bear A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear 

arms. arms shall not be infringed. 

ARTICLE III. 

Soldiers in time No soldier shall, ia time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of 
of peace. war but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE IV. 

Right of search. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches 

and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or 
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 

ARTICLE V. 

Capital crimes No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime unless on a presentment or indictment 

and arrest of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in 

therefor. time of war or public danger ; nor shall any p«rson be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of 

life or limb ; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprivea of life, 

liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without jiut 

compensation. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Right to speedy In ail criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial 

trial. jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previous- 

ly ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the 
witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the as- 
sistance of counsel for his defence. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Trial by jury. lo suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury 

shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States 
than according to the rules of the common law, 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Excessive bail. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment* inflicted. 

ARTICLE IX. 

Enumeration of The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be conatrued to deny or disparage othera re- 

ritrhls. tained by the people. 

^ ARTICLE X. 

Reserved rights The powers not delegated to the United States by tl-e Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are re- 

of States. served to the States respectively, or to the people. 

ARTICLE XI. 

Judicial power. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, com- 

menced or prosecuted against one of the United States, by citizens of another State, or by citi7.ens or subjects of 
any foreign State. 

ARTICLE XII. 

Electors in The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of 

Presidential whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the 
elections. person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President ; and they shall make 

distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the num- 
ber of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of 
the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted ; the person hav- 
ing the greatest number of votes for President shall be the Presiilent, if such number be a majoi ity or the whole 
number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest num- 
bers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as Prei^ident, the House of Represenuitives shall choose im- 
mediately, by ballot, tlie President. But in choosing the President, the vote's shall be taken by States, the repre- 
sentation from each State having one vote ; a quorum for this uurpose shall consist of a member or members from 
two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Rep- 
resentatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth 
day of March next followlug, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other 

Vice-President, constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall 
be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole nmnber of electors appointed, and if no person 
have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a 
quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majnrity of the whole 
number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President ii;jll be 
eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

Slavery pro- 1. Neither slavery n'>r iiivolnut.irv s.-rvitude, except as a punishinenl f"r crime whi-reof the party thall 

hiblted. " have been <iuly convicted, shall exist within the I'nited States, or any place subject to their jurisdictlou. 
1. Congress eball have potver to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 



The Yelloxostone National Park. 83 

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES— Con<mt<€d. 
AUTICLiE XIV. 

Protection for 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United SUtes, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the 

all citizens. United States and nf the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the 
privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive auy person of life, liberty, or 
property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the taws. 
Apportionment 2. Representatives shall be apportioned amont^ the several States according to their respective numbers, counting 

of Kepresen- the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But %vhen the right to vote at any election 
tativea, ^or the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Uepresentatives in Congress, the ex- 

ecutive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male mem- 
bers of such State, being of twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, ex- 
cept for participation in rebellion or ottier crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the propor- 
tion vvhicn the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of 
age in such State. 
Rebellion 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or 

against the holding any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an 
UnitedStates. oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as 
an executive or judicial officer of any Stiite, to support the Constitution of the United ^t-^t^s, shall have engaged in 
insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid and comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by 
a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 
The public 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment 

debt. of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection and rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither 

the United States nor any Stale shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave ; but all such debts, obligations, 
and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

&. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions of this article. 

AltTICLiE XV. 

Right of 8uf- 1, The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or 

irage. by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of this article by appropriate legislation. 



RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 

The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in the following order : 



Delaware, December 7, 1787, unanimously. 
Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787, vote 46 to 23. 
New Jersey, December 18, 1787, unanimously. 
Georgia, January 2, 1788, unanimously. 
Connecticut, January 9, 1788, vote 128 to 40. 
Massachusetts, February 6, 1788, vote 187 to 168. 
Maryland, April 28, 1788, vote 63 to 12. 



South Carolina, May 23, 1788, vote 149 to 73. 

New Hampshire, June 21, 1788, vote 57 to 46. 

Virginia, June 25, 1788, vote 89 to 79. 

New York, July 26, 1788, vote 30 to 28. 

North Carolina! Novembfr 21, 1789, vote 193 to 76. 

Rhode Island, May 29, 1790, vote 34 to 32. 



RATIFICATION OF THE AMENDMENTS. 

I. to X. inclusive were declared in force December 15, 1791. 

XI. was declared in force January 8, 1798. ' 

XII., regulating elections, was ratitied by all the States except Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, which 
rejected it. It was declared in force September 28, 1804. 

XIII. The emancipation amendment was ratified by 31 of the 36 States ; rejected by Delaware and Kentucky, not acted on by Texas ^ 
conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi. Proclaimed December 18, 1865. 

XIV. Reconstruction amendment was ratified by 23 Northern States; rejected by Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern 
States, and not acted on by California. The 10 Southern States subsequently ratified under pressure. Proclaimed July 28, 1868. 

XV. Negro citizenship amendment was not acted on by Tennessee, rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, New 
Jersey, and Oregon ; ratified by the remaining 30 States. New York resciuded its ratification January 5, 1870. Proclaimed 
March 30, 1870. / 

Wi^z (Capitol at SMasfjiufltou. 

The Capitol is situated in latitude 38o 53' 20".4 north and longitude 77° 00' 35".7 west from 
Greenwich. It fronts east, and stands on a plateau eighty-eight feet above the level of the Potomac. 

The rotundais ninety-five feet six inches in diameter, and its height from the floor to the top of 
the canopy is one hundred and eighty feet three inches. 

The Senate Chamber is one hundred and thirteen feet three inches in length, by eiglity feet three 
inches in width, and thirtj'-six feet in height. The galleries will accommodate one thousand persons. 

The Representatives' Hall is one hundred and thirty-nine feet in length, by ninety-three feet in 
width, and thirty-six feet in height. 

The room now occupied by the Supreme Court was, until 1859, occupied as the Senate Chamber. 
Previous to that time the court occupied the room immediately beneath, now used as a law library. 



W^t ^ellotostonc TSTational ^arfe. 

The reservation known as the Yellowstone National Park, set apart for public uses by an act of 
Congress passed in 1872, covers a tract of about sixty-five miles in length, from north to south, and 
about fifty-five miles in width, from east to west, lying chiefly in Northwestern Wyoming, and 
overlapping, to a small extent, the boundaries of Montana, on the north, and Idaho, on the west. 
This gives an area of 3,312 .square miles, a tract that is nearly the area of the States of Rhode Island 
and Delaware combined, and nearly half as large as the State of Massachusetts. The Rocky Moun- 
tain chain crosses the southwestern portion in an irregular line, leaving by far the greater expanse 
on the eastern side. The least elevation of any of t!ie narrow valleys is 6.000 feet, and some of them 
are from 1,000 to 2,000 feet higher. The mountain ranges which hem in the.se valleys are from 
10,000 to upward of 11,000 feet in height, Electric Peak (in the northwest corner of the park, not 
farback of Mammoth Hot Springs) having an elevation of 11,1.55 feet, and Mount Langford and 
Turret Mountain (both in the Yellowstone Range) reaching the height of 11,155 and 11, 142 feet re- 
spectively. 



84 jPassport Megulations. 

Rules governing the granting and issuing of passports in the United States: 

1. Bv Whom Issued.— No one but the Secretary of State may grant and issue passports in the United States. — Revised Statutes, 
sees. 4075, 4078. ., i j ,. , j , 

A person entitled to receive a passport if temporarily abroad should apply to the diploni.itic representative of the United 
States in the country where he happens to be; or, in the absence of a diplomatic representative, to the consul-general of the Unit«d 
States; or, in the absence of both, to the consul of the United States. The necessary statement maybe made before the nearest 
consular officer of the United States. 

Application by a person in one of the insular possessions of the United States should be made to the Chief Executive of 
such possession. 

2. To Whom Issued.— The law forbids the granting of a passport to any person who is not a citizen of the United States.— 
Revised Statutes, sec. 4076. 

A person who has only made the declaration of intention to beoome a citizen of the United States cannot receive a passport. 

3. Applications. — A person who is entitled to receive a passport must make a written application, in the form of an affidavit, 
to the Secretary of State. * 

The affidavit must be attested by an officer authorized to administer oaths, and if he has an official seal it must be affiled. If he 
has nn seal, his official character must be authenticated by certificate of the proper legal officer. 

If the applicant signs by marli, two attesting witnesses to his signature are required. 

The applicant is required to state the date and place of his birth, his occupation, and the place of his permanent residence, and 
to declare that he goes abroad for temporary sojourn and intends to return to the United States with the purpose of residing and per- 
forming the duties of citizenship therein. 

The applicant must tal;e the oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States. 

The application must be accompanied by a description of the person applying, and sliould state the following particulars, viz.: 

Age, years; stature, ■ feet ■ inches (English measure); forehead, ; eyes, ; nose, ; mouth, ; chin, 

; hair, ; complexion, — — ; face, . 

The application must be accompanied by a certificate from at le.ast one credible witness that the applicant is the person he rep- 
resents himself to be, and that the facts stated in the affidavit are true to the best of the witness's knowledge and belief. 

4. Native Citizens. — An application containing the information indicated by rule 3 will be sufficient evidence in the case of 
native citizens. 

5. A Person Born Abroao Whose Father Was a Native Citizen oe the United States.— In addition to the statements 
required by rule 3, his application must show that his father was born in the United States, has resided therein, and was a citizen at 
the time of the applicant s birth. The Department may require that this affidavit be supported by th.at of one other citizen acquainted 
with the facts. 

6. Naturalizep Citizens In addition to the statements required by rule ?., a naturalized citizen must transmit his certificate of 

naturalization, or a dulv certified copy of the court record thereof, with his application. It will be returned to him after inspection. 
He must state in his affidavit when and from what port he emigrated to this country, wh.at ship he sailed in, where he has lived since 
his arrival in the United States, when and before what court he was naturalized, and th.at he is the identical person described in the 
certificate of naturalization. Tlie signature to the application should conform in orthography to the applicant's name as written in the 
naturalization paper, which the Department follows. 

7. Woman's Application.— If she is unmarried, in addition to the statements required bv rule 3, she shouM state that she has 
never been married. If she is the wife of a native citizen of the United States the fact should be made to appear in h^r appli- 
cation. If she is the wife or widow of 3 naturalized citizen, in addition to the statements required by rule I',, sne must transmit 
for inspection her husband's certificate of naturalization, must state that she is the wife (or widow) of the person described therein, 
and must set forth the facts of his emigration, naturalization, and residence, as required in the rule goveruiug the .application of a 
naturalized citizen. ^ 

8. The Child of a Naturalized Citizen Claiming Citizenship Through the Naturalization of the Parent In 

addition to the statements required l)y rule 3, the applicant must state that he or she is the son or daughter, .is the case may be, of the 
person described in the certificate of naturalization, which must be submitted for inspection, and must set forth the facta of emigra- 
tion, naturalization, and residence, as required in the rule governing the application of a naturalized citizen. 

9. A Residknt of an Insular Possession of the United SrATEs Who Owes Allegiance to the United States. — In 
addition to the statements r quired bv rule 3, he nmst state that he owes allegiance U the Unit, d State- and thai he does not 
acknowledge allegian e to my other governm nt; and must submit m affid ivit from at least two credible witnesses having 
good means of kn.iwledge in substantiation oi' his statements of birth, residence, and loyalty. 

10. ExpiKATioN <»F Passport. — A passport expires two years from the date of its issuance. A new one will be issued upon a 
new ap]>lic.ati<m, and if the applicant be a naturalized citizen, the old passport will be accepted in lieu of a certificate of naturaliza- 
tion, if the application upon which it was issued is found to contain sufficient information as to the naturalization of the applicant. 

11. Wife, Minor Children, and Servants.— When the applicant is accompanied by his wife, minor children, or servant 
who would be entitled to receive a p.assport, it will be sufficient to state the fact, giving the respective ages of the children and the 
allegiance of fhe servant, when one passport will suffice for all. For any other person in the party a separate passport will 
bf recpiired. A woin.an's passport may include her minor children and servant under the above-named conditions. 

12. Professional Titles.— They will not be inserted in passports. 

13. Pee. — By act of Congress approved March 23, 1888, a fee of one dollar is required to be collected for every citizen's passport. 
That auiount in' currency or postal money order should .accompany each application made by a citizen of the United States. 
Orders should l)e made payable to the Disbursing Clerk of the De])artment of Strife. Drafts or checks will not be accepted. 

14. Visas of Passports —They will not be procured by the Department of State from the representatives of foreign 
governments. 

15. Blank Forms op Application.— They will be furnished by the Department to persons who desire to apply for passports^ 
but are not furnished, except as samples, to those who make a business of procuring passports. 

16. Address. — Communications shonid be addressed to the Department of StAte, Passport Bureau, and each communication 
should give the post-office address of the person to whom the answer is to be directed. 

17. Rejection of Application. — Tlie Secretary of St.ate may refuse to issue-a passport to any one who, be has reason to be- 
lieve, desires it for an unlawful or improper purpose, or who is unable or unwilling to comply with the rules. 



Section 407S of the Revised Stitutes of the United Stat-s, ns amended by the act of Congress, approved June 14, 190!i, 
providing tb it ** the S-cret ry "f St ite may gritit an 1 issue pas^p rta, and canse pTssp'^rts to be granted, issued, and verified in 
roreicrn cuntrlea by an' h d'piomatlc O' co sular "fficer*; 'f th' Un ted Stat'-s, and by such cMt f or "ti er executive ofB er of the 
Insular possessions of the Un ted States, and nn 'er such rules as he f'r' s deit ahal' des gn te and presc Ibe for and on behalf 
of the Unted Stat s," the f.ireg ing ruh-s are hereby prescri'i d f'>r the granti g and asuing of passp^Tts in the United States. 

The Secretary of State is auth'irizd to make regulations on the subject of issuing and granting passports additional to 
these rules and not inconsistent with them. 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT. 

Oystkb Bay, New York, July 19, 1902. 



Declaration of Indejjendence. ' 85 

llcclatatioii of Kntrepnitrcncc. 

IN CONGRESS JULY 4, 1776. 

The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America. When in the Course of 
human events, it becorues nece.ssary fw one people to dissolve the political bands which have con- 
nected them with another, and to ass"time among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal sta- 
tion to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's tioii entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions 
of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by 
their Creator with certain unalienable Kights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of 
Hiippiness. That to secure these rights. Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just 
powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destruc- 
tive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Govern- 
ment, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them 
shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that 
Governments long established should not be changed-for light and transient causes; and accordingly 
all e.xperiencc hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufterable, than 
to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of 
abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under 
absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide 
new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and 
such is now the necessity which con.strains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The 
history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all 
having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, 
let Facts be subnjitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and neces.sary for the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless sus- 
pended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly 
ueglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those 
people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them 
and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the 
depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his 
measures. 

He has dis.solved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his inva- 
sions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the 
Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exer- 
cise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and 
convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; lor that purpose obstructing the 
Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, 
and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing 
Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount 
and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our peo- 
ple, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace. Standing Armies witljout the Consent of our legislature. 

He has attected to render the Military independent of and supeirior to the Civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and 
unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: 

For quartering "large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, hy a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should com- 
mit on the Inhabitants of these States: 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by jurj': 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences: 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, establi.shing therein an 
Arbitrary government, and "enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit 
iustrument for introducing the same ab.solnte rule into these Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Ijaws, and altering fundamentally 
the Forms of bur Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate 
for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War 
against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our 
people. 

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of 
death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelt.v & perfidy scarcely 
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of acivilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their 
Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their 
Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants 
of our frontiei-s, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished 
destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: 
Our repeated Petitions have been answered onl.v by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is 
thus marked by ever.v act which may define a Tyrant, is UBfit to be the ruler of a free people. 

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from 
time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction overus. We 
have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have ap- 



86 * Permanent Board to Settle Labor Disputes. 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE— Con^mwfd. 

pealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the tiesof our common 
kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and corre- 
spondence They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, there- 
fore, acquiesce in the necessity, whieli deuonnces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the 
rest of mankind. Enemies in War, In Peace Friends. 

WE THEREFORE, the Represent.^tives of the United States of America, in Ge.ver.al 
Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our inten- 
tions do in the Name, and by authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly pi'blish 
and DHX'LARE, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be free and independent 
States- thatthey are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political con- 
nection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that 
as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have tuU Power to levy War. conclude Peace, contract 
Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which independent States 
mav of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a tirm reliance on the protection of 
Divine Providence, We mutuallv pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor. 

(The foregoing declaration was, by order of Congress, engrossed, and signed by the following 
members:) JOHN HANCOCK. 

New Hampshire— Josiah Bartlett, Wm. Whipple, Matthew Thornton. 

Massachusetts Bay— Saml. Adams, John Adams, Robt. Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry. 

Rhode Island, etc.— Step. Hopkins, William EUery. 

Connecticut— Roger Sherman, Sam'el Huntington, Wm. Williams, Oliver Wolcott. 

New York— Wm Floyd, Phil. Livingston, Frans. Lewis, Lewis Morris. 

New Jersey— Richd. Stockton, Jno. Witherspoon, Fras. Hopkin.son, John Hart, Abra. Clark. 

Pennsylvania— Robt. Morris, Benjamin Rush, Beuja. Franklin, John Morton, Geo. Clymer, Jas. 
Smith, Geo. Taylor, James Wilson, Geo. Ross. 

Delaware— Caesar Rodney, Geo. Read, Theo. M'Kean. ,, , ^ 

Maryland-Samuel Chase, Wm. Paca, Thos. Stone, Charles Carroll of CarroUton. 

Virginia-George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Th Jefferson, Benja. Harrison, Thos. Nelson, jr., 
Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton. 

North Carolina— Wm. Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn. ^ , . . ,. 

South Carolina— Edward Rutledge, Thos. Heyward, junr. , Thomas Lynch, junr. , Arthur 
Middleton. .,,^ ,^ 

Georgia— Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, Geo. Wa lton. 

^Tljr Winittn states iJoartr on (Sfeofltapiiic tUCames. 

\n Executive Order issued bv President Harri.son Sept. 4, 1890, requires that uniform usage 
in regard to geographic nomenclature and orthography shall obtain throughout the Executive Depart- 
ments of the Government, and particularly upon maps and charts issued by the various departments 
and bureaus To this Board must be referred all unsettled questions concerning geographic names 
which arise in the departrtients, and it.s decisions are to be accepted by the departments as the standard 
authorityin such matters. C/i«irma)j — Henry Gannett, Geological Survey. Secrc^ar,;/— Charles S. Sloan, 
Census Office 4ndrew H. Allen, Department of State; A. B. Johnson, of the Light-House Board; 
Commander, Harry M. Hodges, Hydrographic Office, Navy Department; A. Von Haake,Post-Oflice 
Department; Prof. Otis T. Mason. Smithsonian Institution; Herbert G. Ogden. United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey: Frank Bond. General Land Office; Capt. H. T. Brian, Government Printing 
Office, John Hyde, Department of Agriculture; Capt. Charles W. Kutz, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 

Iletmanent iSoartt to Settle ILalJor lafsputes. 

At the conference of representatives of Capital and Labor, held in New York December 17. 1901, 
under the auspices of the National Civic Federation, a Permanent Board was appointed to settle dif- 
ferences between emplovt's and the labor unions . It is composed as follows: 

On Behalf of tne'Piiblic.—Grover Cleveland. Cornelius N. Blis.s, Charles Francis Adams, 
Archbishop John Ireland, Bishop Henry C. Potter, Charles W. Eliot. President Harvard University; 
Andrew Carnegie, Isaac N. Seligman, James Speyer, V. Everit Macy, John G. Milburn, Buffalo; 
Charles J. Bonaparte, Baltimore; Oscar S. Straus, Ralph M. Easley, David R. Francis, St. 
Louis, Mo. 



of 

Association!^. ,.„.*, -^ — . — - . ■ . ^. , t . - ,,r t^ c... ^ j 

Daniel I Keefe President Internjitional Association of Longshoremen; Warren E. Stone. Grand 
International Brotherhood of Locomotive Ensrineers; P. H. Morrissey. Grand Master Brotherhood 
of Railroad Trainmen; Joseph F. Valentine, President Iron Moulders' Union; James M. Lynch, 
President International Typographical Union; Edgar E. Clark, Grand Conductor Brotherhood of 
Railroad Conductors; James O'Connell, President International Association of Machinists; J. J. 
Hannahan, Grand Master Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen; William D. Mahon, President 
Amalgamated Association of Street and Railway Employes of America, Detroit; Denis A. Hayes, 
President Gla.ss Bottle Blowers' Association of United States and Canada; William Huber, President 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America; John Tobin, General President Boot and 

Representative Employers.— Charles A. Moore, President National Tool Company; H. H. 
Vreeland Metropolitan Street Railway Company; Marcus M. Marks. President of National Asso- 
ciation Clothing Manufacturers: Samuel Mather, Cleveland, J^). ; Charles II. Ta.vlor, President 
Newspaper Publishers' Association, Boston; Henry Phipps, T>irector United states steel Corpora- 
tion New York; August Belmont, President Tnterhorough Rapid Transit Cmnpany, New York; 
Luci'usTuttle President Boston and Maine Railroad. Boston; Frederick P. Fish, President Ameri- 
can Bell Telephone Company, Boston; Francis L. Bobbins, President Pitt'^burgh Coal Company, 
Pittsburgh- Henry G Davis, "foal Operator, KIkins, W.Va. ; Franklin MncVeagh, Chicago; Dan. R. 
Hanna, Cleveland; Otto M. Eidlitz, New York; W. H. Pfahler, e.\- President National Founders' 

^'rhe following are the officers of the National Civic Federation, OfRce, 241 Fourth Avenue, New 

York CItv- President; Samuel Gompers, First Vice-President; Oscar s. .Straus. 

Second Vice-President; Cornelius N. Bliss, Treasurer; Ralph M. Easley, Chairman Executive 
Council; Samuel B. Donnelly, Secretary. 



Labor Legislation. 87 

ILalJor SLtfltslation. 

ANTI- BOYCOTTING AND ANTI-BLACKLISTING LAWS. 

The States having laws prohibiting boycotting in terms are Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, 
and Texas. 

The States having laws prohibiting blacklisting in terms are Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, 
Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, 
Oklahoma, Oregon, Te.xa^ Utah. Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. 

The following States have laws which may be fairly construed as prohibiting boycotting: Connecti- 
cut, Florida, Georgia, Maine. Massachusetts, Michigan. Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New 
Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Porto Rico, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and 
Wisconsin. 

The following States have laws which may be fairly construed as prohibiting blacklisting: 
Georgia, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York. Rhode Island, and South Dakota. 

In the following States it is unlawful for any employer to exact an agreement, either written or 
verbal, from an employe not to join or become a member of any labor organization, as a condition of 
employment: California, Colorado, Connecticut. Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, 
New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Porto Rico, and Wisconsin. 

The World Almanac is indebted to Commissioner Wright, of theU. S. Bureau of Labor, for the 
summary of eight hours, anti-boycotting, and anti-blacklisting laws, revised to date. 

EIGHT- HOUR LAW.S. 

Arizona.— Eight hours constitute a day's work in all mines and underground workings. 

Arkansas.— Eight hours of labor constitute a day's work on public roads, highways, and bridges. 

California.- Eight hours of labor constitute a day's work, unless it is otherwise expressly stipu- 
lated by the parties to a contract. The time of service of all laborers, workmen, and mechanics 
employed upon any public works of, or work done for, tlie State, or for any political sub-divi.sion 
thereof, whether the work is to l)e done by contract or otherwi.se, is limited and restricted to eight 
hours in any one calendar day, and a stipulation that no workman, laborer, or mechanic in the 
employ of the contractor or sub-contractor shall be required or permitted to work more than eight 
hours in any one calendar day. except in cases of extraordinary emergency, shall be contained in 
every contract to which the State or any political sub-division thereof is a party. 

Colorado.- Eight hours constitute a day's work for all woikingmen employed by the State, or 
any county, township, school district, municipality, or incorporated town, and for workingmen in all 
underground mines or workings and in smelting and refining works. 

Connecticut.— Eight hours of labor con.stltute a lawful day'-s work unless otherwise agreed. 

DelavFare. —Eight uours constitute a legal day's work for all municipal employes in the city of 
Wilmington. 

District of Columbia.- Eight hours constitute a day's work for all laborers or mechanics em- 
ployed by or on behalt of the District of Columliia. 

Hawaii.— For all mechanics, clerks, laborers, and other empJoy6s on public works and in public 
offices eight hours of actual service constitute a day's work. 

Iclaiio.— Eight hours' actual work constitutealawful day's work on all .State, county, and munici- 
pal works. 

Illinois.— Eight hours are a legal day's work in all mechanical employments, except on farms, 
and when otherwise agreed ; does not apply to service by the day, week, or month, or prevent con- 
tracts for longer hours. Eight hours constitute a day's labor for persons a.ssessed to work on public 
higliwavs 

Indiana.— Eight hours of labor constitute a legal day's work for all cla.sses of mechanics, work- 
ingmen, and laborers, excepting those engaged in agricultural and domestic labor. (Jverwork by 
agreement and for extra compensation is permitted. The enniloyment of persons under fourteen 
years of age for more than eight houi-s per day is absolutely prohibited. 

loiva.— Eight hours constitute a day's labor on public roads. 

Kansas.— Eight hours constitute a day's work for all laborer's, mechanics, or other persons em- 
ployed by or on behalf of the State or any county, city, township, or other municipality. 

i>Iaryland. — No mechanic or laborer employed by or on behalf of the city of Baltimore shall be 
required to work more than eight hours as a day's labor. 

Massacliusetts.— Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and 
mechanics employed by or on behalf of any city or town in the Commonwealth upon acceptance of 
the statute by a majority of voters present and voting upon the same atany general election. 

Minnesota.— Eight hours constitute a day's labor for all laborers, workmen, and mechanics em- 
ployed by or on behalf of the State, whether the work is done by contract or otherwise. 

illissouri.— Eight hours constitute a legal day's work. The law does not prevent an agreement 
to work for a longer or a shorter time an('. does not apply to laborers p,nd farm hands in the service of 
farmers or others engaged in agriculture. It is unlawful for employers to w ork their employes i 
longer than eight hours per day in mines. ' 

Montana.— Eight honi-s constitute a legal daj'swork for persons engaged to operate or handle 
any first-motion or direct -acting hoi.sting engine, or any geared or indirect-acting hoisting engine at 
any mine employing fifteen or more men underground when the duties of fireman are performed by 
the person so engaged ; also for any stationary engineer operating a stationarj- engine developing fifty 
or more horse- power when such engineer has charge or control of a boiler or boilers in addition to his 
other duties. The law applies only to such steam plants as are in continuous operation or are operated 
sixteen or more hours in each twenty-four hours, and does not apply to per.sons running anj- engine 
more than eight hours in each twenty-four for the purpose of relieving another employe in case of 
sickness or other unforeseen cause. Eight hours constitute a da}''s labor upon roads and highways. 

Neliraska.- Eight hours constitute a day's work on public roads and on all public works in cities 
of the first class. 

Nevada.— For labor on public highways, in underground mines and smelters, and on all works 
and undertakings carried on or aided by the State, county, or municipal governments, the hours of 
labor are fixed at eight per day. 

Neve Slexico.— Eight hours are required as a day's laborou public roads and highways. 

New York.— Eight hours constitute a day's work for all classes of employes, except in farm or 
domestic labor. Overwork for extra pay is permitted, except upon work by or for the State or a muni- 
cipal corporation, or by contractors or sub-contractors therewith. The law applies to those employed 
by the State or municipalitj\ or by persons contracting for State work, and each contract to which the 
Slate or a municipal corporation is a partj' shall contain a stipulation that no workman, laborer, or 



88 General Labor Organizations. 

LABOR LEGISLATION— Co7iM»?ted. 

mochanlc In the employ of the contractor, sub-contractor, etc. , shall be permitted or required to work 
more than eight hours In anv one calendar day, except in cases of extraordinary emergency, 

Ohio.— Eight hours shall constitute a day's work in all engagements to labor In any maohanioal, 
manufacturing, or mining business, unless otherwise expressly stipulated in the contract. 

Oklaboma.— Eight hours constitute a day's laboron public highways. 

Oregon- — Eight hours constitute a day's labor on public roads. 

Pennsylvania.— Eight hours of labor shall be deemed and held to be a legal day's work in all 
ca-sesof labor and service by the day where there is no agreement or contract to the contrary. This 
does not apply to farm or agricultural labor or service by the year, mouth, or week. 

Eight hours out of the twenty-four shall make and constitute a day's labor for all mechanics, 
workmen, and laborers in the employ of tlie State, or of any municipal corporation therein, or other- 
wise engaged on public works; this shall be deemed to apply to mechanics, workin^jmen, or laborers 
in the employ of persons contracting with the State or any municipal corporation therein, for the 
performance of puijlic worl;. 

Porto Rioo. — No laborer compelled to work more than eight hours per day on public works. 

South UaUota. —For labor on public highways a day's work is fixed at eight hours. 

Tennessee.— Eight hours shall be a day's work upon the highways. 

Texas.- Eight hours constitute a day's work on public hiahways. 

Utah.— Eight hours constitute a day's work upon all public works and in all underground mines or 
workings, smelters, and all other institutions for the reduction or refining of ores. 

Washington.— Eight hours in any calendar day shall constitute a day's work on any work done 
for the State, county, or municipality. In cases of extraordinary emergency overtime maybe worked 
for extra pnv. 

West Virginia.— Right hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and me- 
chanics who may be employed by or on behalf of the Slate. 

VViscon.sin.— In all engagements to labor in any manufacturing or mechanical business, where 
there is no express contract to the contrary, a day's work shall consist of eight hours; but the law does 
not apply to contracts for labor by the week, month, or year. In all manufactories, workshops, or 
other places used for mechanical or manufacturing purposes, children under eighteen years of age 
and women may not be compelled to work over eight hours a day. Eight hours constitute a day's 
labor on public highways. 

Wyoming.— Eight hours' actual work constitute a legal day's work in all mines, State and munici- 
pal works. 

United States.— Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and 
mechanics who may be employed by or on behalf of the United States. 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. 

President, Samuel Gompers, 4'23 G Street, N.W. . Washington, B.C. ; Secretary, Frank Morri- 
son, .same address; Treasurer, John B. Lennon, Bloomington, 111. ; First Vice-President, James Dun- 
can, Hancock Building, Quincy, Mass. ; Second Vice-President, John Mitchell 1108 Stevenson 
Building, Indianapolis, Ind.; Third Vice-President, James O'Conne!', 402-407 McGill Building, 
Washington. I>. C. ; Fourth Vice-President, Max Morris, P. O. Box 1581, Denver, Col. ; Fifth Vice- 
President, Thomas I. Kidd. 56 Fifth Avenue, Chicago. Ill ; Sixth Vice-President. D. A. Haves, 
SoO Witherspoon Building, Philadelphia. Pa. ; Seventh Vice-President. Daniel J. Keefe, 407-408 
Kllcs Temple Building, Detroit, Mich.; Eiehth Vice-President, William J. Spencer, P. O. Box 7. 
Davton. O. The Federation is composed of 121 aftiliated national unions. 31 State branches. 5'70 
city centr.ll unions, and 1,264 local union.s. Tlie aggregate membership is 1,900.000. The afliliatod 
unions publish about 245 weekly or monthly papers, devoted to the cause of labor. The otlicial 
organ is W\& American Federalionixt , edited by Samuel Gompers. About 1,271 organizers of local 
unions are acting under the orders of the Federation. The object.s and aims of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor are officially stated to he to render employment and the means of subsistence le.ss pre- 
carious by securing to the workers an equitable share of the fruits of their labor. 

INTERNATIONAL UNIONS COMPRISING THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. 
Actors' National Protective Union of America. Lew Morton. 8 Union Square, New York, N. Y. 
Allied Metal Mechanics, International A.ss n of. John E. Devlin, 421 Valentine BuilduiR, Toledo, O. 
Asbestos Workers of America, National Association of Heat, Frost, and General Insulator. P G. Jes- 

sen, 3403 Manchester Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 
Bakery and Confectionery Workers' International Union of America. F. H. Harzbecker, 263 North 

Avenue. Chicago, 111. 
Barbers' International Union, Journeymen. Jacob Fischer, Box 517, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Bill Posters and Billers of America, National Alliance. J. J. McCormick, 1020 Chicago Opera House 

Block, Chicago. 
Blacksmiths, International Brotherhood of. Robert B. Kerr. Suite570-586 Monon Building, Chicago. 
Blast Furnace Workers aiui Smelters of America, International Association of. Wm. J. Clarke, 128 

Sandnskv Street, Buftali), N. Y". 
Boiler-Makers and Iron Sbipbuilders of America, Brotherhood of. W. J. Gilthorpe, Room 406, 

Portsmouth Building, Kansas (;ity, Kan. 
P.ookbinders, International Brotherhood of. James W. Dougherty, 1113 Westchester St. , New York. 
Boot and Shoe Workers' Union. C. L. Baiiie. 434 Albany Building, Boston, Sfas. 
Brewery Workmen. International Union of United. I,ouis Kemper, Booms 109-110 Odd Fellows' 

Temple, corner seventh and Elm Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Brick, Tili^, and Terra Co' ta Workers' Alliance, International. George Hodge, Rooms 209-10 Garden 

City Block..')*; I''ifth Avenue, Chicago. III. 
Bridgeand Structural Iron Workers, International Association of. J. W. Johnston, 144 East 115th 

Street, New ■S'ork, N. Y. 
Broominnkers" Union, International. Oliver A. Brower, 14 Swan Street, Amsterdam, N. Y. 
Brusliinakers' International Union. .Tohii M. IVfcf'-Jroy, 833 Leiand Street I'li!ladelphi;i Pa. 
Building Emplovos of America, International Union of. Jitmes McLean, 119 D"nri'orn .St., Cbioaeo. 
Carpenters anil .Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of. F. Duffy, P. O. Box 520. Indiaimpoll.s.lnd. 
Carpenters and Joiners. Amalgamated Society of. Thomas Atkinson, 382 KastOSd .street, N. Y. 
Carriage and Wagon Workers, International. P. J. Mulligan, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N, Y. 
Carvers' Association of North America, International Wood. John S. Henry. 2.54 Bowery. N. Y. 



General Labor Organizations. 89 

GENERAL LABOR ORGANIZATIONS— (7on<i«M€d. 

Car Workers, International Association of. C. C. Gaskins, 356 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 

Cement Workers, American Brotherhood of. Thos. K. Ryan, 401-424 Hay ward Building, San Fran 
Cisco, Gal. 

Chainmakers' National Union of the U. S. of A. Curtin C. Miller, 1384 West Broad St., Columbus, O. 

Cigar-Makers' International Union of America. George W. Perkins, Room 82o Monou Block, 320 
Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 

Clerks' International Protective Association, RetaiL Max Morris, Box 1581, Denver, CoL 

Cloth Hat and Cap Makers of North America, United. Max Zuckerman, 74 East Fourth St., N. Y. 

Commercial Telegraphers' Union of America, the. Wesley Russell, 530 Monoii Building, Chicago. 

Compressed Air Worters, International Union. John Sheehy, 406 Grand Street, Hobokeu, N. J. 

Coopers' luternational Union of North America. J. A. Cable, MeriwetherBuilding, Kan asCily,Kan. 

L'urtaiu Operanves of America. Amalgamated Lace. M. F. Sullivan, 3044 Lawrence Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Cutting Die and Cutter Makers, International Union of. G. H. Goslin, 4 Woodlawn Avenue, Wor- 
cester. Mass. 

Elsctrical Workers of America, International Brotherhood of. H. W. Sherman, Corcoran Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Elevator Constructors, International Union of. Henry Snow, 40 Park Avenue, Chicago, Hi. 

Engineers, National Brotherhood of Coal- Hoisting. T. E. Jenkins, 506 The Temple, Dauville, 111. 

Engineers, International Union of Steam. R. A. McKee, 224 Masonic i'emple, Peoria, Hi. 

Engravers, International Association of VV'atch Case. F. Huber, Box 263, Canton, Ohio. 

Firemen, international Brotherhood of Stationary. C. L. .Shamp, Rooms 2-4, 2502 North 18th 
Street, Omaha, Neb. 

Flour and Cereal Mill Employes, International Union of. A. E. Kellington, 112 Corn Exchange, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Foundry Emploj-eS, International Brotherhood of. Geo. Bechtold, 1.310 Franklin Avenue, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Freight Handlers and Warehousemen's Union of America, Interior. P. J. Flannery, 188 West 
Van Buren Street, Chicago, 111. 

Fur Workers of the United States and Canada, International Association of. C. E. Carlson, General 
Delivery, Spokane, Wash. 

Garment Workers of America. United. B. A. Larger, Rooms 116-117 Bible House, New Vork, N. Y. 

Garment Workers' Union, International Ladies'. John Alex. Dyche. 25-27 Third Avenue, N. Y. 

Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the United States and Canada. William Launer, Rooms 930- 
931 Witherspoon Building, Juniper and Walnut streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Glass House Employes, International Association of. W. R. Broadfield, Streator, Hi. 

Glass Snappers' National Protective Association of America, Window. L. L. Jacklin, 409 Bayard 
Street, Kane, Pa. 

Glass Workers' International Association, Amalgamated. William Figolah, S'Ifil Union Avenue, 
Chicago, 111. 

Glove Workers' Union of America, Internatloual. A. H. Cosselman, Gloversville, N. Y. 

Gold Beaters' National Protective Union ot America, United. W. Norris Batturs, 316 Beckett 
Street, Camden, N. J. 

Granite Cutters' National Union. James Duncan, Hancock Building, Quincy, Mass. 

Grinders' National Union, Table Knife. Richard Odlnm, 80 Olive Street, Meriden, Ct. 

Hattersof North America, United. Martin Lawlor, Room 15, 11 Waverlej' Place. New York, N. Y. 

Hod Carriers and Building Laborers' Union of America, International. H. A. Stemburgh, Room 
622, 56 Fifth Avenue, Chicago, III. 

Horse-Shoers of United States and Canada, International Union of Journeymen. Roady Kenehau, 
1548 Wazee Street, Denver, Col. 

Hotel and Restau.ant Employes' Internatio'-al Alliance and Bartenders' International League of 
America. Jere. L. Sullivan. Commercial Tribune Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Iron, Steel, and Tin Worl^ers, Amalgamated Association of. John Williams, House Building, Smith- 
field and Water Streets, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Jewelry Workers' Union of America. International. William F. Shade, 3032 North Eighth Street, 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

Lathers, International Union of Wood, Wire, and Metal. William Walker, 518 Superior Building, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Laundry Workers' International Union, Shirt, Waist and. Miss Hannah A. Mahonev, p. O. Box 11, 
Station 1, Troy, N. Y. 

Leather Workers on Horse Gtoods, United Brotherhood of. J. J. Pfeiffer, 435 Gibraltar Building. 
Kansas City. Mo. 

Leather Workers' Union of America, Amalgamated. John Roach, Room 52, Forrest Building, South 
Fourth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Longshoremen's Association, International. Henrv C. Barter, 407-408 Elks Temple, Detroit, Mich. 

Machine Printers and Color Mixers of the Un'ted States, National Association of. C. Ca-sey, 425 
Tenth Avenue, New York City. 

Machinists, International Association of. George Preston, 908-914 6 Street, N. W.,McGill Build- 
ing, Washington, D. C. 

Maintenance of Way Employes, International Brotherhood of. C. Boyle, 304 Benoist Building, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Marble Workers, International Association of. Henry Roberts, 273 Porter Street, Detroit,Mich. 

Mattress, Spring, and Bedding Workers' International Union. C. F. Mvers, Station B, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Meat Cutters and Butchers' Workmen of North America, Amalgamated.' Homer D. Call, Lock Box 
317, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers, and Brass Workers' Union of North America. James J. Cullen,Ger- 
mania Bank Building, Spring Street and Bowery, New York,N. Y. 

Metalworkers' International Association, Amalgamated Sheet. John E. Bray, 313 Nelson Build- 
ing, Kansas City, Mo. 

Metal Workers' International Union, United. C. O. Sherman, 148 W. Madison Street, Chicago, 111. 

Mine Managers and Assistants' Mutual Aid Association, National. 'William Scaife, Springfield, 111. 

Mine Workers of America, United. Wm. B. Wilson, 1106 State Life Biiildiiig, Indianapolis. Ind. 

Moulders' Union of North America, Iron. E. J. Dennev, 530 Walnut Street; Cincinnati, Ohio. 



90 General Labor Organizations. 



GENERAL LABOR ORGANIZATIONS— Cowfmwcd. 



Musicians, American Federation of. Owen Miller, 20 Allen Building-, St. Louis, Mo. 

OilandGas Well Workers, International Brotherhood of. Jay H. Mullen, 330 South Soto Street, 

Los Au£:elat>,Cal. 
Painters. Decorators, and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood of. J. C. Skemp, Drawer 199, 

Lafayette, Ind. 
Paper-Bo.x Workers. Internationa! Union of. Victor Kofod. 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Paper- Makers of America, United Brotherhood of. Thomas Mellor, 57 Smith Building, Watertown, 

N. Y. 
Pattern- Makers' League of North America. J. B. McNerney, 25 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Paving Cutters' Union of the United States of America and Canada. William Dodge, Albion, N. Y. 
Photo- Engravers' Union of North America, International. H. E. Gudbrandsen, 282 Hodge Avenue, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Piano and Organ Workers' Union of America, International. Charles Dold, 849 North Irving 

Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
Plate Prmters' Union of North America, International Steel and Copper. T. L. Mahan, 319 S 

Street, N. E., Washington, D. C. 
Plumbers, Gas Fitters, Steam Fitters, and Steam Fitters' Helpers, of United States and Canada, 

United Association of. L. W. Tilden, 506-507-608 Bush Temple of Music, Chicago, 111. 
Potters. National Brotherhood of Operative. T. J. Duffy, Box 50, East Liverpool, Ohio. 
Powder and High Explosive W^orkers of America, United. James G. McCrindle, Gracedale, Pa. 
Print Cutters' Association of America. National. T. I. G, Eastwood, 480 West 165ih Street, N. Y. 
Printers' Association of America, Machine Textile. George Udell, 368 Branch Avenue, Provi- 
dence, R. I. 
Printing Pressmen's Union. International. M. P. Higgins, 35 Washington Street, Charlestown, Mass. 
Quarryvvorkers International Union of North America. P. F. McCarthy, Barre, Vt. 
Kailroad Telegraphers, Order of. L. W. Quick, Star Building, St. Louiy, Mo. 
Railway Clerks, International Association of. A. W. Anderson, Hollywood, 111. 
Railway Employes of America, Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric. W. D. Mahon, 45 

Hodges Block, Detroit, Mich. 
Railway Expressmen of America, Brotherhood of. F. E. Modie, Suite 602-603, 56 Fifth Avenue, 

Garden City Block, Chicago. 111. 
Rubber Workers' Union of America, Amalgamated. Clarence E. Akerstrom, 38 Grant Street, 

Cambridge, Mags. 
Sawsmiths' National Union. Charles G. Wertz, 351 South Illinois Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Seamen's Union, International, of America. William H. Frazier, IJ^a Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
Shingle Weavers' Union of America, International. W. H. Clock, Everett, Wash. 
Shipwrights, Joiners, and Caulkers of America, National Union of. Thomas Durett, 108 Mar.shall 

Street, Elizabeth, N. J. 
Slate and Tile Roofers' Union of America, International. H. J. Harms, 637 Sheffield Avenue, 

Chicago, 111. 
Slate Quarrymen, Splitters, and Cutters, International Union of. Robert J. Griffith, Box 275, Ban- 
gor, Pa. 
Spinners' Association, Cotton Mule. Samuel Ross, Box 367, New Bedford, Mass. 
Stage Employes' International Alliance, Theatrical. Lee M. Hart, care of Bartl's Hotel, State and 

Harrison Streets, Chicago, 111. 
Stereotypers and Electrotypers' Union of North America, International. George W. Williams, 

534 WarrenStreet.Roxbury District, Boston, Mass. 
Stove Mounters' International Union. J. H. Kaefer,166 Concord Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 
Tackmakers' International Union. A. E. Lincoln, Fairhaven, Mass. 
Tailors' Union of America, Journeymen. John B. Lennon, Box 597, Bloomington, 111. 
Teamsters, International Brotherhood of. E. L. Turley, 147 Market Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Te.xtile Workers of A merira. United. Albert Hibbert, Box 713, Fall River, Mass. 
Tile Layers and Helpers' Union, International Ceramic, Mosaic, and Encaustic. James P. Reynolds, 

108 Corry Street, Allegheny, Pa. 
Tin Plate Workers' Protective Association of America, International. Charles E. Iiawyer, Rooms 

20-21, Reilly Block, Wheeling, W. Va. 
Tip Printers, International Brotherhood of . T. J. Carolan, 187 Ferry Street, Newark, N. J. 
Tobacco Workers' International Union. E. Lewis Evans, Room 56, American National Bank 

Building, Third and Main Streets. Louisville, Ky. 
Travellers' Goods and Leather Novelty Workers' International Union of America^ Chas. J. Gille, 

Room 25. 110 North Fourth Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
Tube Workers, International As.sociation of. John B. McDonough, 327 Orange Street. Reading, Pa. 
Typographical Union, International. J. W.Bram wood, Boom 7, De Soto Block, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Upbolsterers' International Union of North America. Anton J. Eugel, 28 t^reenwood Terrace, 

Cliicago, 111. 
Weavers' Amalgamated Association, Elastic Goring. Thomas Pollard, Box 46, Easthampton, Mass. 
Weavers' Protective Association, American Wire. E. E. Desmond, 139 Skillman Avenue, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
Wood Workers' International Union of America, Amalgamated. Thomas I. Kidd, 616-617 Garden 
City Block, Chicago, 111. 

NATIONAL UNIONS 
NOT AFFILIATED WITH THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. 
Bricklayers and Masons' Union. William Dobsoii, 41 summer Street, North Adams, Mass. 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen. J.J. Haiiiialum, I'eoria, HI. 
Brotlierhood of Railroad Traiimien. A. E. King, Cleveland, O. 
Brotherhood of Railroad Conductors. W. J. Maxwi-ll, Cedar Ksipids. la. 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. C. H. Salmons (Meveland. O. 
Brotherhood of Railroad Switchmen. M. R. Welch, 530 Ellicott Squ:ire, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Bro herhood of Operative Plasterers. T. A. Scully, 1215 Orange Street, Indianapolis. 
National Association of Letter Carriers. E. J. (nut well, Hiitchins Building. Washington, D. C. 
Postal Clerks' National Union. Charles Dvorak. 506 south Wood Street, Chicago. 
Stone t niters' Association. J. F. McHugh, 803 Filth Street, N. W., Wa.shington, D. C. 
Stone Masons International Union. John Reichweiu, 536 Concord Street, Indianapolis. 



United iStates Customs Duties. 



91 



SUnitctr cStatcs Customs 23utifs. 

A TABLE OF LEADING ARTICLES IMPORTED, GIVING RATE AT ENTRY BY THE 

TARIFF ACT OF 1897. 

N. e. s. inrticates " when not elsewhere specified." Tables .showing comparison with the Rates by 
the Taritl of 18H3 and the McKiuley TaritFof 1890 were printed in The World Almanac for 1895, and 
the Wilson Tariff of 1894 and the Dingley Tariff of 1897 in the edition of 1898. 



Alcohol, aniylic, or fnsel oil 

Animals for l)reedin!f purposes.. 

Barley, bushel of 48 lbs 

Beads 

Beef, mutton, and pork 

Beer, ale, not in bottles 

Beer, porter, and ale, in bottles. 

Bindnigs, cotton 

Bindings, flax 

Bindings, wool 



Blankets. 



Blankets, value 40c. to 50c. 



Bonnets, silk 

Books, charts, maps 

Books, over 20 years old, for public 

libraries 

Bronze, manufactures of 

Brushes 

Butter, and substitutes for 

Buttons, sleeve and collar, gilt 

Canvas for sail.s 

Caps, fur and leather 

Carpets, treble ingrain 



Carpets, two-ply. 



Carpets, tapestry Brussel.s 

Carpets, Wilton, Axrainster, velvet 



Cattle (over one year old).. 

Cheese, all kinds 

Cigars and cigarettes , 



Clocks, n. e. s 

Clothing, ready-made, cotton, n.e.s. 
Clothing, ready-made, linen, silk, 

and woollen 

Coal, anthracite 

Coal, bituminous 

Coflee 

Confectionery, all sugar 



Copper, manufactures of 

Cotton gloves 

Cotton handkerchiefs, hemmed 

Cotton handkerchiefs, hemstitched. 
Cotton hosiery 



Cotton shirts and drawers. 



Cotton plushes, unbleached. 



Cotton webbing 

Cotton curtains , 

Cutlery, more than $3 per doz. 



Cutlery, razors, over $3 per doz. 
Cutlery, table knives 



Cutlery, table knives, over $4 f. doz.. 
Diamonds (uncut, free), cut and set 

Diamonds, cut, but not set 

Drugs (crude, free), not crude 

Dyewoods, crude 

Dye woods, extracts of 

Earthenware, common 

Earthenware, porcelain, plain 



Tariff Kate. 



He f> lb. 

Free. 

SOc.perbushel. 

35 p. c. ad val. 

2c. TH ft. 

20c. ^ gal. 

40c. 

45 p. c. ad val. 

45 

50C. f, lb. and 

60p.c. ad val. 
22c. "^ ft. and 

30 p. c. ad val. 
33C;t*ft. and35 

p.c.ad val. (a) 
60 p. c. ad val . 



Free. 

45 p. c. ad val. 

40 

6c. f. ft. 

50 p. c. ad val. 

45 

35 " 

22c. ^sq. yd.& 

40p.c. ad val. 
18c 'Psq.yd.& 

40 p.c. ad val. 
28c. ^sq. yd.& 

40p.c. ad val. 
60c.l^sq.yd.& 

40 p.c. ad val. 
27J^ p.c.ad val. 
6c. f, ft. 
S4.50 f> ft. and 

25 p.c. ad val. 
40 p. c. ad val. 
50 

60 ' ' (A) 

Free. 

67c. ^ ton. 

Free. 

50 p.c. ad val. 

(if more than 
1.5c. f. ft. ). 
45 p. c. ad val. 
50 
45 

55 " 

50c.to$21ftdoz. 

pairs and 15 

p. c. ad val. 
60c. to $2.25 f 

doz. & 15 

p. c. to 50 

p. c. ad val. 
9c. 1^ sq. yd.& 

25 p.c.ad val. 
45 p. c. ad val. 
50 
20c. 1^ piece & 

40 p. cad val. 
$1.75 f* doz. & 

20 p.c.ad val. 
16c. each and 

15 p.c.ad val. 
45 p. c. ad val. 
60 
10 
He. IS ft. and 

10 p.c. ad val. 
Free. 

%c. f> ft. I 

25 p. c. ad val. 
65 " i 



Flax, manufactures of, n. e. s 

Flowers, artificial 

Fruits, preserved in their own juice. 



Fruits, apples 

Fruits, oranges, lemons, n. e. s 

Fur, manufactures of 

Furniture, wood 

Gla.ssware, plain and cut 

Glass, polished plate, not overl6.\24. 

Glass, silvered, not over 16x24 

Glass bottles, over 1 pint 

Gloves, men's, ladies', children's... 

G lucose 

Glue, value not over 7c. per lb 

Gold, manufactures of, not jewelry. 
Hair of hogs, curled for mattresses. 

Hair manufactures, n. e. s 

Hair, human, unmanufactured 



Earthenware, porcelain, etc., dec- 
orated 

Eggs 



Engravings , 

Extracts, meat 

Fertilizers, guanos, manures. 

Firearms 

Fish, American fisheries , 

Fish, smoked, dried 

Flannels 



lalitt Kate. 



Flannels, value 4()c. to 50e. 



Hams and bacon 

Hay 

Hemp cordage 

Hides, raw, dried, salted, pickled. 

Honey 

Hoops, iron or steel, baling 

Hops. 



Horn, manufactures of 

Hor.ses, mules 

India-rubber, manufactures of 

India-rubber, vulcanized 

Instruments, metal 

Irou.maniifacturesof, n. e. s 

Iron screws, }4 inch or less in length 

Iron, tinned plates 

Ivory, manufactures of, u. e. s 

.lewelry 

Knit goods, wool, value not over 
30c. f, ft 



60 p. c. ad. val. 

5c. ^doz. 
25 p. c. ad val. 
35c. "^ ft. 
Free. 

Free. 

He * ft. 

22c. f, ft. and 

30 p.c. ad val. 
SSc. ^ ft. a; id 

35 p.c.ad val. 
45 p. c. ad val. 
50 
1<'. ^ ft. and 

35p.c. ad val. 
25c. f. bu. 
Ic. fi ft. 
35 p. c. ad val. 
35 
60 

8c. ^ sq. foot, 
lie. 

ic. ^ ft. 

* 

li«.c. f ft. 
2j|c."#ft di). 
45 p. c. ad val. 
10 
35 

20 p. c ; not 
drawn, free. 
5c. f, ft. 
$4 * ton. 
2c. ^ ft. 
15 p. c. ad val. 
20c. 1?, gal. 
5-lOc. « ft. 
12c. 1* ft. 
30 p. c. ad val. 
$SOiihead(/i). 
30 p. c. ad val. 
35 
45 
45 

12c. fl ft. 
l^C. f. ft. 
35 p. c. ad val. 
60 



Knit goods, woollen apparel, 30 to 
40c. 1^ ft 



Knit goods, woollen apparel, over 

40c. f> ft 

Knit goods, silk 

Lard 

Lead, pigs, bars 

Lead, type metal 

Leather manufactures, n. e. s 

Linen manufactures, n. e. s 

Linen, wearing apparel 

Macaroni 

Malt, barley 

MatcliPS, friction, boxed 

Matting, cocoaand rattan 

Meerschaum pipes 

Molasses, n. e. s 

Mufts, fur 

Musical instruments 

Nails, cut 

Nails, horseshoe 

Newspapers, periodicals 



44c. f% ft. and 
50 p.c. ad val. 

44c. f, ft. and 
50 p.c.ad val. 

44c. " ((•) 

j60 p. c. ad val. 

1 2c. f, ft. 

i2)^c. " 

ilj^c. " 

;35 p.c. ad val. 

!45 

160 

,l^c. •» ft. 

J45C. f( bu. 

1 8c. ^ gross. 

6c. ^ sq. yard. 

60 p. e. ad val. 

40° to 56°, 3c. 

13 gal. (/). 
35 p. c. ad val. 
45 

6-lOC. "f, ft. 
2Mc. " 
Free. 



92 



United States Customs Duties. 



UNITED STATES CUSTOMS DUTIES— Cbwiiftiieti. 



Articles. 

Oiicloth, value over ioe. . 
Oil, olive 



Oil, olive, rue.s 

Oil, whale aud seal, xoreign, u. e s.. 

Onions 

Opium, licjuid preparations 

Opium, crude and unadulterated.. 

Paintings and marble statuary 

Paper manufactures, n. e. s 

Paper stock, crude 

Pepper, cayenne, niiground 

Perfumery, alcoholic 



Photograph albums 

Photograph slides 

Pickles , 

Pins, metallic 

Pipes of clay, common, 40c. ^ gross. 

Poultry, dressed 

Potatoes 

Pulp wood, for paper-makers 



Quicksilver 

Quinine, sulphate, and salts. 

Railroad ties, cedar 

Rugs, Oriental 



Salmon, dried or smoked. 
Salt 



Sauces, n. e. s , 

Sau.sages, bologna 

Sausages, all other 

Sealskin sacques 

Silk, raw 

Silk, spun in skeins 

Silk laces, wearing apparel 

Skins, uncured, raw , 

Skins, tanned and dressed 

Slates, manufactures of, n. e. s. 
Smokers' articles, ex. clay pipes. 



Tariff Kate. 



8 to -iOC. f>, sq. 

yd. (i). 
oOc. 'f, gal. , in 

bottles, etc. 
■10c. '^ gal. 
8c. "f, gal. 
40c. f^ bu. 
40 p. c. ad val. 
$liitb. 
20 p. c. ad val. 
36 

Free. 
2>^c. f ft. 
60c. 'P lb. aud 45 

p. c. ad val. 
35 p. c. ad val. 
•25 
40 
35 

15c. ^ gross. 
5c. '% ft. 
25c. ^ bu. 
1-12C. '^ ft., 

mechanical- 

lyground(,0. 
7c. "f, ft. 
Free. 

•20 p. c. ad val. 
lOc. fl sq. f. & 

40 p. cad val. 
, jc. * ft. 
12c. f^ 100 ft., 

packages; 

8c. If^ 100 ft., 

bulk. 
40 p. c. ad val. 
Free. 

25 p. c. ad val. 
36 

Free. 

35p.c.adval.(d 
60 

Free. 

20 p. c. ad val. 
20 
60 



Articles. 



Soap, castile 

Soap, toilet, perfumed 

Spirits, e.xceptbay rum 

Straw manufactures, u. e. s 

Sugars, not above 16 Dutch standard 

Sugars, above 16 Dutch standard 

Tea 



Tin, ore or metal 

Tin plates 

Tobacco. cigar wrappers, not 

stemmed 

Tobacco, if stemmed 

Tobacco, all other leaf, stemmed. . . 
Tol)acco, unmanufactured, not 

stemmed 

Umbrellas, silk or alpaca 

Vegetables, natural, n. e. s 

Vegetables, prejiared or preserved. 
Velvets, silk, 75 p.c. or more silk. . . 

Watches aud parts of 

Wheat, bushel of 60 ft 

Willow for ba.sket- makers 

Willow manufactures, n. e. s 

Wines, champagne, in i^-pt. bottles 

or les.s 

Wines, champagne, iu bottles, ^ pt. 

to 1 pt 

Wines, champagne, in bottle.s, 1 pt. 

to 1 qt 

Wines, still, in ca.sks containing 

more than 14 p. c. absolute alcohol. 

Woods, cabinet, sawed 

Wool, first class 

Wool, second class 

Wool, third cla.ss, n. e. s. , above 

13c. I^ft 

Wool or worsted yarns, value not 

over 30c. ^ ft. 
Wool or worsted yarns, value 30c. to 

40c. 1^ ft. 
Wool or worsted yarns, value over 

40c. f, ft. 
Woollen or worsted clothing 



T.iriff Il.it«. 



IWc. -% ft. 
15c. f. ft. 
$2.25 prf.gal 
30 p. c. ad val. 
96-lOOc. f>ft.(m 
15*5- 100c. " 
Free. 

li^c. ^ ft. 

$1.85 • ' 
$2.60 ' ' 
50c. " 



one. 

50 p. c. ad val. 

25 
40 

$1.50 ^ft. and 
lop. cad VHl. 
40 p.c. ad val. 
25c. Ipi bu. 
20 p. c. ad val. 
40 

$2 1 doz. 



fS4 " 

$8 " 

50c. ^ gal. 
$lto$21i^Mft 
lie. ^ ft. 
12c. " 



7c f. ft. (e). 
27i»jC i* ft. & 

40p.c.a<l val. 

88i^c.lftft.&40 

p.c.ad val.(/). 

38i^c. 1* ft. & 

40 p.c. ad val. 
44c. ■p ft. & 60 

p. cad val. 



* The Dinglcv Tariff increases rates on women's and children's gloves uniformly 75c per dozen 
pairs; on men's gloves the rates are the same as the Wilson rates, (n ) Valued at more than 5oc. per lb., 
33c. per lb. and 40 per cent ad val. (b) Specific duties ranging from $1.50 to $6 on eucli article and 35 
per cent ad val. (c) On goods above 40o. and not al)Ove 70c. per lb. ; duly on goods above 70c. per lb., 
44c. per lb. and 55 per cent ad val. (<0 Value $1 per li). , 20e. per lb. and 15 per cent ad val. . witli in- 
creasing duty of 10c. per lb. for each 50c. additional value up to $2.50: all over $2.50 per lb , 60c. per lb. 
and 15 per cent ad val. (ei Wool valued at 12c. per lb. or less, 4c. per lb. ; above 12c. duty is 7c. per lb. 
(f) Two prices only in Dingley bill, 30c. and less, and above 30c. (.r/j If not over 10c per lb. 
(h) If valued at $150; if more, 25 per cent ad val. (/) Above 56°, 6c. per gal. {.)') And 15 to 20 per 
cent ad val. (/c) On woollen an additional duty of 44c. per lb. (0 Chemical wood pulp, l-6c. per lb. 
(7rt) When not above 75°, but for every additional degree by polariscopic test, 35-1, 000c. per pound ad- 
ditional, and fractions of a degree in proportion. 

Articles of merchandise entering the United States from Hawaii and Porto Rico and entering 
those possessions from ihe United states are exempt from duty. 

The act of Congress approved March 2, 1902, provides that the customs duties on articles entering 
the Philippines from the United States shall be the same as on those entering from foreign countries. 
On articles entering the United States from the Philippines the full tariff rates shall be collected, 
except that a 25 per cent reduction shall be granted on articl s produced and grown in the Philippines. 

RKOULATIONS RESPECTING EXAAUNATION OF BAGGAfiE. 

Residents Of the United states returning from abroad are met by a sustoms officer to whom they 
will make a dechtration, under oath, stating the number of trunks in their po'^sossion, their dutiable 
contents, etc. A failure to declare dutiable goods renders Ihe same liable to seizure and confiscation, 
and the owner to flue and Imprisonment. Customs ollicials are forbidden by law to accept " tips. " 

Returning travellers b.v observing the following precautions will promote a quick and easy exam- 
ination of their effects: (1) Prepare a detailed li.'St of all articles obtained abroad, wiih the prices paid 
therefor or the value thereof, specit.ving separately articles of wearing apparel and other personal 
effects, all of which will be apprai.sed at the market price in the country where purchased. |2) If 
possible keep the original receipted bills for purchases of importance for exhibition at time of ap- 
praisal. (3) In packing trunks place all articles purchased In such a position that they may easily be 
found and shown for apiiraisemeiit. ' 

All personal effects taken abroad as baggage and brought back in the saine condition will he ad- 
mitted free, but if improved in condition they are dutiable. From the aggregate value of all articles 
purchased abroad (unless they are intended for other persons or for sale) goods to the value of SlOO 
will be deducted, iis that amount of personal property is admitted free of duty. 

Government officers are foroidden by law to accept anvthing but currency In payment of duties. 
In cass passengers are dissatisfied witfi the value placed on dutiable articles, application maybe 
made to the Collector in writing within two days, and tho appraisement v^ilI be reviewed by a Oenei'ai 
Appraiser, 



Naturalization Laios of the United States. 93 

Natttralijation Hatos of tlje 33nttttr ^States. 

Tete conditions under and the manner in which an alien may be admiited to become a citi- 
zen of the Cuitad Slates are prescribed by Sectioas 2, 165-74 of the Revised Statute.-, oi the 
United States. 

DECLARATION OF INTENTIONS. 

The alien must declare upon oath before a circuit or di>trict court of the United States or a 
district or supreme ccurt of the Territorie-i, or a court of record of any of the 8tate.s having 
common law jurisdiction and a seal and clerk, two years at least prior to his admission, that it 
is, bona fide, his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever 
all allegiance and tidelity to any foreign prince or State, and particularly to the one of which 
he may be at the time a citizen or subject. 

OATH ON APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION. 

He must at the time of his application to be admitted declare on oath, before some one of the 
courts above .specified, ■ 'that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and th the 
absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign iiriiice, 
potentate. State, or .sovereignty, and particularly, by name, to the prince, pnteniiite. State, or 
sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or subject. ' ' which proceedings mast be recorded 
by the clerk of the court. 

CONDITIONS FOR CITIZENSHIP. 

If it shall appear to the satisfaction of the court to which the alien has applied that he has 
made a declaration to become a citizen two years before applying for final papers, and h;is re- 
sided continuously within the United St;ite.s for at least five years, and within the Slate or Ter- 
ritory where such court is at the time held one year at least: and that during that time ' • lie has 
behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the 
United States, ami well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same, ' ' he will be ad- 
mitted to citizenship. If the applicant has borne any hereditary title or order of nobility he 
must make an express renunciation of the same at the time of his application. 

SOLDIERS. 

Any alien of the age of twenty- one years and upward who has been in the armies of the 
United States, and has been honorably discharged tiierefrom, may become a citizen on his peti- 
tion, without any previous declaration of intention, provided that he has resided in the United 
States at least one year previous to his application, and is of good moral character. (It is 
•j udicially decided that residence of one year in a particular State is not requisite. ) 

MINORS. 

Any alien under the age of twenty- one years who has resided in the United States three 
years next preceding his arriving at that age, and who has continued to reside tlierein to the 
time he may make application to be admitted a citizen thereof, may, after he arrives at the age 
of twenty-one years, ana after he has resided five years within the United States, including the 
three years of his minority, be admitted a citizen Tbut he must make a declaration on oath and 
prove to the satisfaction of the court that for two years next preceding it has been his bona fide 
intention to become a citizen. 

CHILDREN OF NATURALIZED CITIZENS. 

The children of persons who have been duly naturalized, being under the age of twenty-one 
years at the time of the naturalization of their parents, shall, if dwelling in the United States, 
be considered as citizens thereof. 

CITIZENS' CHILDREN WHO ARE BORN ABROAD. 

The children of persons who now are or have been citizens of the United States are, though 
lx)rn out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, considered as citizens thereof. 

CHINESE. 

The naturalization of Chinamen is expressly prohibited by Section 14, Chapter 126, Laws 

of loo2. 

PROTECTION ABROAD TO NATURALIZED CITIZENS. 

Section 2, 000 of the Revised Statutes ol the United States declares that "all naturalized 
citizens of the United ."States while in foreign countries are entitled to and shall receive from 
this Government the same protection of persons and property which is accorded to native-born 
citizens." 

THE RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE. 

The right to vote comes from the State, and is a State gift. Naturalizntion is a Federal right 
ami is a gift of the Union, not of any one State. In nearly one- half of the Union aliens (who 
have declared intentions) vote and have the right to vote equally witli naturalized or native- 
born citizens. In the other half only actual citizens may vote. (See Table of Qualifications for 
Voting in each State, on another page. ) The Federal naturalization laws npplv to the whole 
Union alike, and provide that no alien may be naturalized until after live years' residence. 
Even after five years' residence and due naturalization he is not entitled to vote unless the laws 
of the State confer the privilege upon him, and he mav vote in several States six months after 
landing, if he has declared his intention, under United States law, to become a citizen. 

INHABITANTS OF THE NEW INSULAR POSSESSIONS. 

The inhabitants of Hawaii wore declared to be citizens of the United States under the act of 
1900 creating Hawaii a Territory. Under the United States Supreme Court decision in the in- 
sular cases, in May, 1901. the inhabitants of the Philippines -and Porto Rico are entitled to full 
protection under the Constitution, but not to the privileges of United States citizenship until 
Congress so decrees, by admitting the countries as States or organizing them as Territories, 



94 



Qualifications foT Voting. 



(^ttaltftcatCotts foe Uottng in asaci) .State of tl)e ggnton, 

(ComTnunicated toTHH World Almanac and corrected to date by the Attorneys-General of the respective States.) 
In all the States except Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming the right to vote at general elections is restricted to males of 21 years 
of age and vipward. (See also "New York," next paje. ) Women are entitled to vote at school elections in several States. They 
are entitled by law to full suffnage in the States of Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. (See article entitled '* Woman Suffrage."*) 



Statks. 



Requirements as to Citizenship, 



Previous Residhnck Required. 



In 

State. 



Alabama*. Citizen of United .Stales oralieu 2 yrs. 

who has declared intention. | 
ArizonaT* Citizen of United Statpsoralien 1 yr.. 

I \vhohasdeclarediutention(a)l 
Arkansas* Citizen of United Statesoralienjl yr.. 

who has declared intention. I 



Calif raia* 

Colorado*. 

Conn.* 

Delaware* 

Dis. of Col. 
Florida* .. 



1 yr. 



1 yr.. 



Citizen b.v nativit.v, naturaliza- 
tion (90 days prior to elec- 
tion), or treaty of Q.ueretaro. I 

Citizen, native or naturalized, . 
male or female, who is duly| 
registered. 

Citizen of United States who 
can read English language. 

Citizen who shall has'e paid a : 
registration fee of $1. 

See foot note on following page. 

Citizen of the United Stales — il yr.. 

Georgia (i) Citizen of the U.S. who has paid il yr.. 
all his taxes since 1877. 



1 yr... 
30dys 
6 mo.. 

90dys 

90dys 



1 yr.. 
1 yr.. 



Idaho* 

Illinois*... 
Indiana*... 
Iowa * 



Kansas*... 

Kent'ky*. 

Louisia'a* 



Maine* .... 
Maryla' d* 



Mass.* 

Michigan* 

Minn.* 



Miss. * 

Missouri*.. 

Montana*. 
Nebraska* 



Citizen of the United States, 
male or female. 

Citizen of the United States (6). 



Citizen or alien who has de- 
clared intention and resided 
1 year in United States. 

Citizen of the United States — 



6 mo. 



1 yr.. 



6 mo. 



6 mo. 



Citizen of United Statesoralien 6 mo. 

whohasdeclaredintention(/j) 
Citizen of the United States (6) 



Citizen of United States (/). 



Citizen of the United States . 
Citizen of the United States . 



Citizen who can read and 
write (l>). 

Citizen of the United Slates or 
alien who declared intention 
2 years and 6 months prior to 
November 8, 1894 'J>). 

Citizen of United States who 
has been snca for 3 months 
preceding election i,b). 

Citizen of the United States 
who can read or understand 
Constitution. 

Citizen of United Statesoralien 
wlio has declared intention 
not le.ss tliiin 1 year or more 
than 5 before election. 

Citizen of the United States (b) 

Citizen of United States or alien 
who hius declared intention 
30 days before election (6). 



1 yr... 

2 yrs. 

3 mo.. 
1 yr... 

1 yr... 
6 mo.. 

6 mo.. 

2 yrs.. 
1 yr... 

1 yr... 
6 mo. 



In 

Countv, 



3 mo. 

6 mo. 
6 mo. 



30dys 

90dys 

eOdj's 

60dys 
30dys 
6 mo 



1 yr.. 



3 mo.. 
6 mo.. 

6 mo.. 

20d3'S 



In 

Town 

3 mo. 



SOdys 



6 mo.. 



In Pre- 
cinct. 



3 mo. 
30 dys 
30 dys 

30 dys 

10 dys 

30 dys 



6 mo.. 30 dys 



30d.ys 
60 dys 



SOdys 
60 dys 



3 mo.. 
6 mo.. 

6 mo.. 

20dys 



SOdys SOdys 

1 yr... 1 yr... 
60dys60dys 

SOdys 30 dys 
40dys SOdys 



30 dys 
30 dys 



10 dys 
60 dys 

6 mo .. 

3 mo .. 
1 day. 

6 mo .. 

20 dys 

30 dys 

lyr(c) 
60 dys 

SO dys 
10 dys 



Persons Excluded from Suffrage. 



Convicted of treason or other 

felonies, idiots, or insane. 
Idiot, iu.sane, felon. 

Idiots, insane, convicted of fel- 
ony.failure topay poll-tax, U. 
S. soldiers, or mariners. 

Chinese, idiots, insane, embez- 
zlers of public moneys, con- 
victed ot infamous crime, t 

WUile confined in public prison, 
under guardianship, jicwt coin- 
pos mentis, insane. 

Convicted of heinous crime, un- 
less pardoned. 

Insane persons and paupers or 
persons convicted of felony. 

Idiots, duelists, convicted of fel- 
ony or any infamous crime. 

Convicted of felony, bribery, or 
larceny, unless pardoned, 
idiots, and insane. 

Idiots, in.sane, convicted of fel- 
on.v, bigamists, polygamists, 
under guardianship. 

Convicted of felony or bribery 
in elections, unless restored 
to citizenship. 

United Slates soldiers, sailors, 
and marines, and persons 
convicted of infamous crime. 

Idiots, insane, convicted of in- 
famous crime,U.S. soldiers (/i). 

Convicted of treason or felony, 
insane, underguardianship(d). 

Convicted of treason, felony, or 
bribery in an election, idiots, 
and insane (h). 

Idiots, insane, felons, under in- 
dictment, inmates of prison or 
charitable institution except 
Soldiers' Home. 

Paupers and Indians not taxed. 

Felons not pardoned, lunatics, 
non cnmpox meiitU, bribery. 

Paupers and persons under 
guardianship. 

Indians with tribal relations, 
duelists and accessories. 



Convicted of treason or felony, 
unpardoned, under guardian- 
ship, insane, Indians lacking 
customs of civilization. 

Insane, idiots, Indians not tax- 
ed, felons, persons who have 
not paid taxes, bigamists. 

Persons in poorhonses or asy- 
lums at public expense,those 
in prison, orconvlcted of in- 
famous crimes (p). 

Felons not pardoned, idiots, 
insane, U. S. soldiers, sea- 
men, and marines, Indians. 

Convicted of treason or felony, 
unless restored to civil rights, 
persons non coinpos mentis (h). 



♦Australian Ballot law or a modification of it in force. + Or a person unable to read the Constitution in English and to 
write his name, (a) Or citizens of Mexico who shall have elected to become citizens under the treaties of 1848 and IS."*-!. PoU-ttx 
must be paid for current year, (b) Women can vote in school elections, (c) Clergymen are qualitied after six months' residence in 
precinct, (d) Also public emberzlers, persons guilty of bribery, or dishonorably discharged soldiers from the Unitetl States service, 
unless reinstated, (f) Those able to read and write, or who own $aoo worth of property assessed in their name, or whosa 
father or grandfather was entitled to vute on January 1, 1867. (g) Also soldiers, sailors, and marines in (J. S. service, (h) No 
soldier, seaman, or marine deemed a resident because stationed In the State. (i)The Australian system sometiinea prevaiU la 
municipal primaries in Georgia, but same is made applicable by rule of party ordering primary and not by the law. 



Qualijteatioiis for Voting. 



9S 



QUALIFICATIONS FOR VOTll>iG— Continued. 



States. 



Requirements as to Citizenship. 



Citizen of the United Stfites.. 



Nevada * .. 

N.Hanip.* 

N. Jersey* Citizen of the United States. 



Citizen of the United States (a) 



Previous Residence Required 



In 

State. 



N. M. Ter. 



6 mo. 

6 mo. 
1 yr.. 



Citizen of the United States.. 



N. York*..!Citizen who shall have been a 

I citizen for ninety days prior 

to election. 

Woman othe'rwisequ.alifieil but for sex m.iy vote .it vi 
to raise inone|y by tax or assessment if she owns pro 
tor of tovfn not entitled to vote on proposition for 
town liabilit y unless he or Ms wife own property 
ment roll. i 

N. Car Citizen of the United States.. 

N. Dak. *.. [Citizen of the United States 
and civilized Indian. t (a.) 



Ohio* Citizen of the United States (a) 



Okla.Ter.*|Citizen of United States («) t. 



6 mo. 



lyr(A) 



llajje ele 
perty i 
raising; 
in town 



2yrs. 
1 yr... 



Oregon ' 



Penna. 



Rhode I. 
S. Car 



S. Dak. 



Tenn.* 
Texas* 



Utah*. 



Citizen of U. S. or alien who has 
declared intention more than 
1 year prior to election («). 

Citizen of the United States at 
lea.st one month, and if 22 
years old or more must have 
paid tax within two years. 

Citizen of the United States. 

Citizen of the United States (e) 

Citizen of the United States or 
alien who has declared inten 
tion, Indian who has severed 
tribal relations (a) 

Citizen of the U. S. who has paid 
poll-tax of preceding year. 

Citizen of the U. S. or alien 
who has declared intention 
six montlis prior to election. 

Citizen of the United States, 
male or female. 



In 
County 



30dys 

6 mo.. 
5 mo.. 



30 dys 

6 mo.. 



3 mo. 

4 mo. 



In 
Town. 



30 dys 



il) 



In Pre 

cinct. 



30 dys 
6 mo.. 



Persons Excluded from Suffrage. 



30 dys 



(O 



ctionsor| town m e e tings 
n villaffle or tow n. Elec- 
of money or in:curring 
assesse d on las t assess- 



6 mo. 
6 mo. 



1 yr...30dys20dys 



6 mo.. 
6 mo. 



4 mo.. 
90 dys 

20 dys 



1 yr. 



Vermont* 



Virginia* 
Wash'u* 



West Va. * 



WNis. • 

Wyom. *... 



Citizen of the United States.. 



2vr(;;) 
2yr(c) 

6 mo{ 



1 yr.. 
1 yr... 



1 yr.. 



1 yr.. 



60dys60dys30 dys 
None. None. None. 



See note at foot of page 

Citizen of the United States 
and all residents of Territory 
prior to Statehood (,a). 

Citizen of the State 



Citizen ofUnited States or alien 
who has declared intention, 
and civilized Indians. + (a) 

Citizen of the United States, 
male or female. 



1 yr... 
30dys 

6 mo. 
6 mo.. 



2 vrs. 
1 yr.. 



1 yr... 
1 yr.. 
1 yr. 



2 mo. 



6 mo. 



4 mo.. 
3 mo.. 
1 yr... 



Idiots, insane, unpardoned con- 
victs. Indians, Chinese. 

Paupers (h). 

Idiots, paupers, insane, con- 
victed of crime, unless par- 
doned or restored by law (j). 

Convicted of felony, unle.ss 
pardoned, U. s. soldier. sailor, 
or camp follower, Indians. 

Offenders a rainst elective fran- 
chise rights, guilty of bribery, 
betting on elections, and per- 
.sons convicted of bribery or 
infamous crime and not re- 
stored to citizenship by the 
E.xecutive Convicts in House 
of Refuge or Reformatory not 
disqualified. 

Convicted of felony or infamous 
crime, idiots, lunatics. 

Under guardianship, persons 
non compos tnentis, or con- 
victed of felony and treason, 
unless restored to civil rights. 

Idiots, insane, and felons, per- 
sonsin U.S. military and naval 
service on duty in Ohio. 

Felons, idiots, insane. 

Idiots, insane, convicted of fel- 
ony, Chinese. 

Convicted of perjury and fraud 
as election officers, or bribery 
of voters. 



6 mo Paupers, lunatics (g). 

4 mo.. 4 mo.. Felons, bribery unless par- 
doned, insane, paupers. 
lOdyslO dyslunder guardianship, insane, 
I convicted of treason orfelony, 
unless pardoned, U.S. soldiers, 
seamen, and marines. 

Convicted of bribery or other 

infamous offence. 
(d) Idiots, lunatics, paupers, con- 
victed of felony. United States 
soldiers, marines, and seamen. 
60 dys Idiots, insane, convicted of 
treason or crime against elect- 
ive franchise,unless pardoned. 
3 mo.. 3 mo. Those who have not obtained 
the approbation of the local 
board of civil authority. 
1 yr... 30 dys Idiots, lunatics, paupers" (/) (j). 
90'dysj30dys 30 dys Idiots, lunatics, convicted of 
infamous crimes, Indians not 
taxed. 
60dys|l0dys (d) Paupers, idiots, lunatics, con- 
victed of treason, felony, or 
bribery at elections. 
lOdj'SjlOdys 10 dys Under guardianship, insane, 
convicted of crime or treason, 
betting on elpctions. 
OOdys 10 dys 10 dys Idiots, insane, felons, unable 
to read State Constitution in 
the English language. 



* Australian Ballot law or a modification of it in force, f Indian must have severed tribal relations. § One year's residence in 
the United States prior to election required, (a) Women can vote iu school elections, (b) Owners of re.ll estate, one year. 
(c) Ministers in charge of an organized church and teachers of public schools are entitled to vote after six months* residence in the 
State, (d) Actual residence in the precinct or district required, (e) Who has paid six months before election any poll-tax then due, 
and can read and write any section of the State Constitution, or can show that he owns and has paid all taxes due the previous year 
on property in the State assessed at $300 or more, (f ) Or convicted of bribery, embezzlement of public funds, treason, forgery, per- 
jury, felony, and petty larceny, duelists and abettors, unless pardoned by Legislature, (g) Or persons non compos mentis, convi,tt-.l of 
bribery or infamous crime, until restored to right to vote, under guardianship, (h) Also persons excused from payinsr tax.-s ,'it 
their own request, and those unable to read the State Constitution in Engl. sh, or write. (j>No soldier, seaman, or marine 
deemed a resident because stationed in the.State. (k) Inhabitance not resideine. (1) Thirty dav^ in electirin district. 

In Virginia. — Voting qualifications. Ail persons who six months b-f.re the election have paid therState poll-taxes for the 
three preceding years. Also any person who 8er^'ed in time of war in the army or navy of the United States, of the Confederate 
States, or of any Stale of the United States or of the Confederate States. 

Residents of the District of Columbia never had the right to vote therein for national officers, or on other matters of national 
concern, after the territory embraced iu it was ceded to the United States and became the seat of the general government. 



96 Woman Suffrage. 



(Continuation of ' ' Qualifications for Voting, ' ' on preceding pages. ) 

The registration of voters is required in the States of Alabama. California, Colorado, Connecticut, 
Delaware, Florida, Georgia. Idaho. Louisiana, Maryland. Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, 
Mississippi (four months before election), Montana. Nevada. New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, 
South Carolina. Tennessee, Utah. Vermont, Virginia, and the Territories of ArizonaandNew Me.Yico. 

In New York it is required generally except as resnects town and village elections held at a dif- 
ferent time than the general election. Personal appearance not required in towns or villages of less 
than 5,000 inhabitants 

In Pennsylvania voters are registered by the assessors. If any voter is missed by assessors and 
not registered he can swear in his vote. 

In Ohio it is required annuallv in cities of 100,000 or over, and quadrennially in cities having a 
population of 14.000 and less than 100,000. 

In Illinois registration of voters is required by law, and in Cook County, where Chicago is located, 
persons not registered are not entitled to vote; but outside of Cook County generally they can vote if 
not registered by swearing in their votes, and producing two witnesses as to their qualifications as an 
elector. 

In Towa in cities having 3. 500 inhabitants. In Nebraska in cities of over 7,000 inhabitants. 

In Kentucky in cities and towns having a population of 3,000 or more, in Kansas in cities of 2,000 
inhabitants and over, in North Dakota in cities and villages of 800 inhabitants and over, in Ohio in 
cities of the first and second class, in Maine in all cities and in towns having 500 or more voters. 

In Missouri it is required in cities of 100.000 inhabitants and over. 

In Oklahoma it is required in all cities hAving a population in excess of 2,500. 

In Rhode Island non- taxpayers are required to register yearly before June 30. In Texas in cities 
of 10,000 inhabitants or over. In South Dakota registration is required prior to general biennial elec- 
tions. 

In the State of Washington all voters in all cities and towns and all voting precincts having a vot- 
ing population of 250 or more must be registered. 

The registration of votei-s is not required in Indiana or New Hampshire. It is prohibited in 
Arkansas by constitutional provision. In Wisconsin in all cities, not in country or villages. 

In Wyoming no person can vote without registering. If sick or absent at time of registration, can 
make proof of fact by two witnesses, and be registered on election day. 



212aoman Sutfrtrijc. 

In the United States women possess suffrage upon equal terms with men at all elections in four 
States: In W^yoming, established in 1869; in Colorado, 1893; in Utah, in 1895, and in Idaho, in 1896. 

In Kansas women possess school suflfrage, established in 1861, and municipal suffrage, estab- 
lished in 1887. 




Ohio in 1894. 

Two States permit women to vote upon the issuance of municipal bonds: Montana, established in 
1887; Iowa, in 1894. 

Louisiana gave all women taxpayers the suffrage upon all questions of public expenditures in 1898. 

In 1901 the New York Legislature passed a law providing that "a woman who possesses the 
qualiJications to vote for vil use or for town officers, except the qualification of sex, who is the owner 
of property in tlie village assessed upon the last preceding assessment roll thereof, iseutitled to vote 
upon a proposition to raise money by tax or as.sessment. ' ' 

In Great Britain women vote for some local officers, but not for members of Parliament. 

In manv European countries, in Australia and New Zealand, in Cape Colony, in Canada, and in 
parts of 1 udia women vote on various terms for municipal or school officers. 

The National American Woman's Suffrage Association— Mrs. C. Chapman Catt, 205 West 
57th Street, .New Yoric, Pre.sident; Honorary President, Susan B. Anthony, Rochester, N. Y.; Vice- 
President-at- Large, Rev. Anna II. Shaw, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Corresponding Secretary, Kate M. Gor- 
don New Orleans. La.; Recording Secretary. Alice Slone Blackwell, Boston, Mass.; Treasurer, 
Harriet Taylor Upton, Warren. O. ; Laura (Uay, Lexington, Ky. , and Mary T. Coggeshall, Des 
Moines, la.'. Auditors. National! feadquarters, Warren, O. 

The New York State Association Opposed to the Extension of the Suffrage to Women has its 
Central Committee in New York t!it.v. Its officers are as follows: Mrs. Lvman Abbott, President; 
Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge, First Vice-President; Mrs. Kliliu Root, Mrs. Richard Watson Gilder, Mrs. 
William Putnam, Mrs. Philip S. Van Patten, Mrs. Willuvm .1. Wallace, and Mrs. (ieorge Parkhurst, 
Vice-l'residents; Mrs. (ieorge Waddington, Treasurer; iSfrs. George Phillips, Secretary, 377 West 
End Avenue, New York. There are also organizations in Massachusftt.s, Illinois, Oregon, Iowa, and 
Washington, and others are being formed. These associations are founded with the object of testi- 
fying to legislative committees aiid through the medium of the public press that the opposition to 
woman suffrage is based upon what Is claimed to be "the intelligent conviction of representative 
women in all lines of social. Industrial, and domestic progress. ' ' 



Democratic National and State Committees. 



97 



29tmoccatic :i?^ational antr ^tatc Committees. 

DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE. 
Apijointed by the Democratic National Coavantioa at St Louis. Mo., July, 1904. 



Chair man 

Secretarij 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

Oalit'ornia 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Dist. of Col 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Territory 

Iowa , 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts.. . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 



Thos. Tagg.\RT. . .Indianapolis. 

Urey Woodson Owen.sboro, Ky 

H D. Chiytoii Eut'aula. 

Arthur K. Dalauy. Juneau. 
B ^n. M. Crawford. .Phoenix. 
Win. H. Martin... Little Rock. 

, 1\I. F. Tarpey Alameda. 

John I. MuUins.. , .Denver. 
. H. S. Cummings.. .Stamford. 

R. R. Kenney Dover. 

.James L. Norris. . .Washinj^toa. 
, J?ii"son B. Browne. Jacksonville. 

.Ol.u'k Howell Atlanta. 

. Palmer P. Woods.. Honoluiu. 
..Simon P.Donnelly. Cceur d'Alene. 

Roger C. Sullivan.. Chicago. 
. Thomas Taggart. . .Indianapolis. 

.R. L.Williams Muscogee. 

.Oha.?. A. Walsh... .Ottumwa. 
.John H. Atwood. .Topeka. 

.Urey Woodson Owensboro. 

.N. C Blanchard. ..Shreveport. 

I-. V. Baughman. .Baltimoi-e. 

.Wm. A. Gaston Boston. 

. D. J. Oampau Detroit. 

. T. T. Hudson St. Paul. 



Mississippi 0. H. Williams.. ..Jackson. 

Missouri Wm. A. Roth well. Moberly. 

Montana C. W. Hoffman Helena. 

Nebraska J. C. Dahlman .... Omaha. 

Nevada John H. Dennis. ..Reno. 

New Hampshire. True L. Norris Portsmouth. 

New Jersey W. B. Gourley Paterson. 

New Mexico H. B. Fergussou. . .Santa Fe. 

New York N. E. Mack Buffalo. 

North Carolina. . . Josephus Daniels.. Raleigh. 

North Dakota II. D. AUert Bismarck. 

Ohio John R. McLean. .Cincinaati. 

Oklahom.i R. A. Billups Cordell. 

Pennsylvania J. M. Guifey Pittsburgh. 

Rhode Island . . . .G. W. Greene Wooneocket. 

Soutfi Carolina. ..B. R.Tillman Trenton. 

South Dakota E. S. Johnson Pierre. 

Tennessee R. E. Mountcastle. Nashville, 

Te.xas R. M. Johnston Houston. 

Utah D, H. Peery Salt LakeCity. 

Vermont B. B. Smalley Burlingion. 

Virginia J. Taylor E Hyson.. Richmond. 

Washington John V. Terry Seattle. 

West Virginia. ..John T. McGraw. .Grafton. 

Wisconsin T.E.Ryan Waukesha. 

Wyoming J. E. Osborne Rawlins. 



DEMOCRATIC STATE COMMITTEES. 



States. 


Chairmen. 


Post-Otfices. 


Secretaries. 


Post-Otfices. 


Alabama 


H. S. D. MallQry 


Selma 


John C. Pugli 


Birmingham. 
Little Rock 




Prescott 




Oaiitornia 


Timothy SpoUacy 

Milton Smith 

John J. Walsh 


Bakersheld 

Denver 

Norwalk. 


Thos. J. Walsh 

Thos. H. TuUey 

E S. Thomas . 


San Francisco. 


Connecticut 


New Haveu. 




Wiilard Saulsbury 

Arthur T.Williams. .. 
M J, Veomans 


Wilmington 

Fernandina 

Dawson 




Florida 


James E. Crane ; 

.T W Goldsmith 


Tampa. 




Ciias. H Jackson 

Clias. Boescheust^in. . 

W, H. O'Biien 

S. B. Morrissey 

Hugh P. Farrelly 

Louis McKeown 

E. B. Kruttschnitt.. .. 
E. L. Jones 




Chas. E. Arney 








Chicago, 

Indianapolis. 

Waverly, 


Indiana 


Indianapolis 

Harlan .... 


Jos. L. Reiley 

C.W.Miller 


Iowa • 






Charles McCrura 

Percy Halv 


Kentucky 


Bowling Green 

Nev/ Orleans 

Waterville 

Havre de Grace . . . 

Boston 

Flint 


Frankfort 


Louisiana 


Robert S. Landry 

Dennis E. Bowman 

Lloyd Wilkinson 

Geo. P. McLaughlin... 
A R Canfield 


New Orlpflns 




Waterville 


Maryland 


Murra.v Vandiver 

Williams. McNary. .. 
E. O. Wood 




Massachusetts 

Michigan 


Sandwich. 
Clare 


Minnesota 


Frank A. Day 

C. L. Lomax 

W'. N Evans 




M F. Kain 


St Paul 


Mississippi 


Greenwood 

W.-st Plains 

Butte 


L. P. Haley 




Missouri - .... 


Ovid Bell 


Fulton 


Montana 


H. L. Frank 


T O Kurtz 


"Helena 


Nebraska 


T. S. Allen 

James G. Sweeny 

T. H. Madigan, Jr.... 
William B. Gourley... 
J.H.Crist 


Lincoln 


Phil, Koh! 


Wayne. 

Reno. 

Manchester 


Nevada 

New Hampshire.. . 


Carson City 

Concord ... 


E. L. Bingham 

John P. Bartlett 

William K.Devereux. . 

Chas. F. Eastley 

John N. Carlisle 

Alex. J. Peild 


New Jersey 


Paterson 


Asburv Park 


New Me.^ico 


Santa F6 








Great Neck 

Raleigh... 


Watertown. 
Raleigh. 
Grafton. 
VVapakoneta. 


North Carolina 


F. M. Simmons 

B. S. Brynjolfson 

Harvey C. Garber 

J. J. Dunn 


North Dakota 

Ohio 


Grand Forks 

Columbus 

Alva 


John Connol ly 

E S Niphnis 




W. L. Chapman 

J B Rvan. 


Oregon 


Alex. .Sweek 


Portland, 


Portland 


Pennsylvania 


James H. P. Hall 

P. H. Qninu 


Ridgway 


P. Gray Meek 


Bellefonte. 


Rhode Island 




Edward M. Sullivan... 
J T Parks . . . 


Providence. 

Columbia. 

Watertown, 


South Carolina 


Wilie Jones 


Columbia 


South Dakota 

Tennessee 


John W.Martin 

F. M. Thompson 

James B Wells 

Simon Bamberger 

Ejnory S. Harris 

J. Taylor Ellyson 

J. W. Goodwm 

JohnT. McGraw 

A. P. Warden 


Watertown 

Nashville. 


John B. Hanten 

T B Carroll 


Texas 


Brownsville 

Salt Lake City 

Bennington 

Richmond 

Seattle 


.leff. McLemore 

Joseph M. Cohen 


Austin. 

Salt Lake City. 

Winooski. 

Walker's Ford. 

Seattle 


Utah 


Vermont 


Virginia 


Joseph Button 

Thomas J. Church 

Stuart H. Bowman 

Geo ^V Levis 


Washington 


West Virginia 




Philippi. 
Madison. 
Rawlins. 


Wisconsin 


^^aukesha 


Wyoming 


F D. Hammond 


Casner 


Warren Galvin 







98 



Itepuhlican National and State Committees. 



Bfpul)Hc«ni TJCational antr ^tatr (tamwiiiittn. 

REPUBLICAN NATIOAAL COMMITTEE. 
Appointed by the Republican National Convention at Chicago, June, 1904. 



Chairman G. B. Cortelyou, Washington. 

Secretary Elmer Dover Ohio. 

Tinasurer Cornelius N. Bliss. .New York. 

Alabama Chas. H. Scott Montgomery. 

Alaska John G. Heid Juneau. 

Arizona W. S. Sturges Piiceni.x. 

Arkansas Powell Clayton Eureka Springs 

California George A. Knight.. San Francisco. 

Colorado A. M. Stevenson. . .Denver. 

Connecticut Chas. F. Brooker. . Ansonia. 

Delaware John E. Ad dicks.. .Wilmington. 

Dist. Columbia. .Robert Reyburn. . .Washington. 

Florida J. N. Coombs Apalachicola. 

Georgia Judson W. Lyons . . Augusta. 

Haw.aii A. G.M.Robertson.. Honolulu. 

Idaho W. B. Heyburn Wallace. 

Illinois Frank O. Lowden. .Chicago. 

Indiana Harry S. New Indianapolis. 

Indian Ter P. L. Soper Vinita. 

Iowa Ernest E. Hart Council Bluffs. 

Kansas David W. Mulvane.Topeka. 

Kentucky John W. Yerkes. . .Danville. 

Louisiana Walter L. Cohen... New Orleans. 

Maine John F. Hill Augusta. 

Maryland Louis E. McComas.Hagerstown. 

Massachusetts. . .W. Murray Crane, .Dalton. 

Michigan JohnW. Blodgett. .Grand Rapid:.;. 

Minnesota Frank B. Kellogg.. St. Paul. 

Mississippi L. B. Moseley Jackson. 



Missouri Thomas J. Aikens.St. Louis. 

Montana John D. White Lewiston. 

Nebraska Chas. H. Morrill. ..Lincoln. 

Nevada P. L. Flanigan Reno. 

New Hampshire. Frank S. Streeter. .Concord. 

New Jersey Franklin Murphy.. Newark. 

New Mexico Solomon Luna Los Lunas. 

lNe\; York Wm. L. Ward Port Chester. 

North Carolina. .E. C. Duncan Raleigh. 

North Dakota Alex. McKenzie. . .Bismarck. 

Ohio Myron T. Herrick .Cleveland 

Okl; homa CM. Cade Shawnee. 

Orej on Chas. H. Carey Portland. 

Pennsylvania. . . .Boies Penrose Philadelphia. 

Philippines Henry B. McCoy. . .Manila. 

Porto Rico Robert H. Todd. . .San Juan. 

Rhode Island Charles R.Brayton. Providence. 

South Carolina. .John G. Capers Charleston. 

Scuth Dakota.. ..J. M. Greene Chamberlain. 

Tennessee W. P. Brownlow. . . Jones))oro. 

Texas Cecil A. Lyon Sherman. 

trtah C E. Loose Provo. 

Vermont James W. Brock. . .Montpelier. 

Virginia George E. Bowden. Norfolk. 

Washington Levi Ankeny Walla Walla. 

West Virginia. .,N. B. Scott Wheeling. 

Wisconsin Henry C. Payne Milwaukee. 

Wyoming Geo. E. Pexton.. . .Evanston. 



REPUBLICA?] STATE COMMITTEES. 



States. 


Chairmen. 


Post-Offices. 


Secretaries. 


Post-Offioes. 




Jos. O. Thompson 

H. L. Reramel 

Geo. Stone 


Birmingham 

Little Rock 

San Francisco 

Colorado Springs.. 


N. L. Steele 


Birmingham 


Arkansas 

California 


W. S. Holt 


Little Rock ' 


E. F. Woodward 

Chas. W. Cochran 

George E. Hinman 

Frank L. Sp3akman. . . 

Joseph E. Lee 

John H. Deveaux 

J. A. Wheeler 


San Francisco. 


Oolorado ... 


D. B. Fairley .. 


Denver. 




Michael Kenealy 

Lewis H. Ball 


Willimantic. 




Faulklaud 

Gainesville 

Atlanta 

Chicago 

Winchester 

Mt.Ayr 


Wilmington. 


F'lorida 


Henry S. Chubb 

W. H. Johnson 

Rov O West 


Jacksonville. 




Savannah. 




Springfield. 
Frankfort 




James P. Goodrich 






Geo. R. Estabrook 

Clyde Miller 


Marshall town. 




W. R. Stubbs 


Osage Citv. 




R. P. Ernst 


Covington 


Thos. L, Walker- 

M. J. McFarlane 

Byron Boyd 


Lexington. 


Lousiaua 


F. B.Williams 

F. M. Simpson 

John B. Hanna 

Thomas Talbot 

Gerrit J. Diekema 

James A. Martin 

Fred. W. Collins 

Thos. J. Akins 

Lee Mantle 

H. C. M. Burgess 

Geo T Mills 


Patterson 


New Orleans. 




Bangor 


Augusta. 


Maryland 


Bel Air 

Boston 


John C. Siniermg 

James B. Reynolds 

D. E. Alword 


Baltimore. 


TVTassacliusetts 


Boston. 




Holland 


Clare. 




St Paul. 


Chas. A. Warner 

T. V. McAllister 

A. F. Shriner 


Aitkin. 


Mississippi 


Jackson 

St. Louis 

Butte 


Jackson. 
St. Louis. 


Montana ..... 


Chas. D. French 

A. B. Allen 

T. R. Hofer 


Butte. 


Nebraska 


Lincoln 

Carson City 


Teoumseh. 




Carson City. 
Franklin. 


New Hampshire. . . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 


Jacob H. Gallingei' 

Frank O. Briggs 

H O. Bursoin 


Thos. F. Clifford 

J. Herbert Potts 

Chas. V. Safford 

Reuben L. Fox 

F A. Hull 




Jersey City. 


Santo Pc 


SanteFe. 




B. B. Odell, Jr 

Tbos. S. Rollins 

7. R Hanna 


Oneonta. 






Asheville. 


North Dakota 


Eargo 


M. H. Jewell 


Bismarck 


Oliio 


OrrinB. Gould 

Charles H. Filson. . . 

Frank C.Baker 

Boies Penrose 

Frank E. Holden 

Ed mund H. Deas 

Frank Crane 

J. (t. R. McOall 

E. H. R. Green 

Wm Spry 


Wellston 

Guthrie - 


Walter F. Brown 

V. W. Whiting 

Edwin R. Brysou 

W. R. Andrews 

Nathan M. Wright.... 

James H. .lohnson . 

E. A. Warner 


Toledo. 


Okl/ihonia 


Enid. 


Oregou 

Pennsylvania 

Riinde Island 

South Carolina 


Portland 




Philadelphia 

Providence 

Darlington 

Pierre . ... 


Meadvillo, 
Providence. 
Columbia. 
Pierre. 




Huntingdon 

Terrell 


J Hale 






G. W. Johnson 

B. J. Sanford 


Corsicana. 


Utah • 


Salt Lake City .... 

Middlebury 

Alexandria 

Seattle 


Salt Lake City. 


Vermont 


Thad. M. Chapman... 


Alfred E. Watson 

R. A.,Fulwiler 

J. WySysons 


Hartford. 
Staunton. 




E B Palmer . . .. 




West Virginia 


Elliott Northcott 

W D Connor 


Huntington' 

Milwaukee 


Wm. Glasscock 

Henry F. Cocheras 

Robert P. Fuller 


Morgantown. 
Milwaukee. 




J. A. VanOrsdel 


Cheyenne. 









People's Party National Committee. 99 



ptoijitJition parts National Committee. 

Chairman OLIVER W. Stewart, Chicago, 111. 

Vice-Chairman A. G. ^^'OLFENBAEGEB, Lincoln. Neb. 

Secretary James A. Tate, Harritnan, Tenn. 

Treasurer SAMUEL DiCKIE, Albion, Mich. 

Arkansas— J. M. Parker, Dardanelle; H. Brad.v, Beebe. California— A. B. Taynton, Oakland; F. 
F. Wheeler, Los Angeles. Colorado -John Hipp, Denver; J. N. Seoul ler, Denver. Connecticut— F. G. 
Piatt, New Britain; C. E! Steele, New Britain. Delaware— G. W. Todd, Wilmington; A. R. Tatum, 
Wilmington. Florida— A. L. Izler, Ojala; F. Trueblood, Br.adentown. Idaho— S. S. Gray, Star; H.A. 
Lee, Weiser. Illinois— O. W. Stewart, Chicago; F. S.Regan, Rockford. Indiana— F. T. McWhirter, 
Indianapolis; 0. Eckhart, Auburn. Iowa— A. H. Coates, Perry; Malcolm Smith, Cedar Rapids. 
Kansas— E. R. De Lay, Emporia ; T. D, Talmadge, Hutchinson. Kentucky— T. B. Demaree, Nicholas- 
ville; J.D.Smith, Paducah. Maine— V. B. Gushing. Bangor; N. F. Woodbury, Auburn. Maryland- 
F. O. Hendrickson, Cumberland; JohnN. Parker, Baltimore. Massachusetts— J. B. Lewis, Jr., Reading; 
H. S. Morley, Baldwinville. Michigan -Samuel Dickie, Albion; F. W. Corbett, Adrian. Minnesota — 

B. B. Hangan, Fergus Falls; G. W. Higjjins, Minneapolis. Missouri— C. E. Stokes, Kansas City; H, P. 
Faris, Clinton. Nebraska— L O. Jones, Lincoln; A. G. Wolfanbarger, Lincoln. New Hampshire- Ray 

C. Durgin, Nashua; L. F. Richardson. Peterboro. New Jersey— Joel G. Van Cise, Summit; W. H. 
Nicholson, Haddontield. New York— Wm, T. Wardwell, New York; J. H. Durkee, Rochester. North 
Carolina— Edwin Shaver, Salisbury; J. M. Templeton, Cary. North Dakota— T. B. Ostlund, Hillsboro; 
M. H, Kiff, Tower City. Ohio— H. F. MacLane, Toledo; Robert Candy, Columbus. Oregon— F. Mc- 
Kercher, Portland; W. P. Elmore, Brownsville. Pennsylvania- C. R. Jones, Philadelphia; A. A. 
Stevens, Tyrone. Rhode Island— U. B. Metcalf, Pawtucket; Smith Quimby, Hills Grove. South 
Dakota — O. V. Templeton, Woonsocket; O. E. Hopkins, Brookings. Tennessee — J. A. Tate, Harriraan; 
A. D. Reynolds, Bristol. Texas -J. B. Cranfill, Dallas; J. G. Adams, Ft. Worth. Vermont— W. T. 
Miller, Grand Isle; P. L. Page, Uarre. Virginia— G. M. Smitlideal, Richmond: J. W. Bodley, Staunton. 
Washington- R. E. Dunlap, Sf-attle; W. H. Roberts, Latah. West Virginia — T. R. Carskadon, Keyser; 
IJ. A. Clayton, Fairmont. Wisconsin — J. E. Clayton, Milwaukee; Alfred Gabrielson, Eau Claire. 
Wyoming— L. L. Laughlin, Toltec; C. J. Sawyer.'Laramie. Arizona— F. J. Sibley, Tucson; J. O. 
Watson, Phoenix. Oklahoma— Charles Brown, Cherokee ; S. 51. Monroe, Oklahoma City. 



People's parts National <2^ommittee. 

Cliairman James H. Fereiss, Joliet, 111. 

Vice-Chairman W. S. MORGAN, Hardy, Ark. 

Secretary CHARLES Q. De FRANCE. Lincoln, Neb. 

Trer,»urer GEORGE F. WASHBURN, Boston, Mass. 

Ala J. Gilb'rt Johnson. Orrvi lie J.' A. Hurst Walnut G've.J. P. Pearson Columbiana. 

Art.. ..A. W. Files Little Rock. .J. E. Soanlan Bee Branch.. W. S. Morgan Hardy. 

Cal D. P. Rice Occidental. . .A. J. Jones Parlier Rob't Shetterly. ..Spenceville. 

Col E E. T, Haxen Holyoke R. H. Northcott Akron A. B. Gray Denver. 

Conn..T. L. Thomas Forestville ..Wm. W. Wheeler. Meriden. 

PloridaW. R.SIiields Blountstown.W. F, Woodford. . .Farradale.. . .D. L. McKinnon. . .Marianna. 

Ga W. F. McDaniel. ..Conyers A. J. Burnett Carrolton ...O, S. Barrett Thomaston, 

Idaho.. Harry Watkins Boise R. D. Jones Boniiers F'y.E. E. Cox. NewPlym'th. 

Illinois Joseph Hopp Chicago A. C. Van Tine Flora J. S. Felter Springfield. 

IndianaS. W, Williams. . .Vincennes. .. John H. Caldwell. Lebanon F. J. S. Robinson. .Cloverland. 

Iowa. ..L.,H. Wei ler Nashua J. R. Norman Albia S. M. Harvey Des Moines. 

Kansas Dr. F. B. LawrenceBldorado Rev.O. H. Truman. Abilene J. A. Wright SmithOentre. 

Ky Jo A.. Parker Louisville Joe A. Brad burn. . .Louisville ...A. H. Cardin View. 

La Leland M. Guice. .Longstreet . . J. W. Burt Simsboro Wm. McHenry Pawnee. 

Maine .L. W.^mith Vinalhaven.. Albion Gates Carroll John White Levant. 

Md F. A. Naille Baltimore Henry F. Magness. Baltimore. . .Frank H. Jones. . .Baltimore. 

Mass... Geo. F. Washburn. Boston E. Gerry Brown,, .. Brockton Dr. P. P. Field Boston. 

Mich. ..James E. McBride.Gr'd Rapids. Edw. S. Grece Detroit Mrs. Marion Todd.Springport. 

Minn.. . .A .• M. Morrison Mankato Thos. J. Meighen . .Forest vil le.. . A. H. Nelson Minneapolis. 

Mis8...R. Brewer Aubrey Abe Steinberger. ^.Okoloua J, H. Simpson Watson. 

Mo Dr. J. T. Poison... La Clede ....A. M. Ballew .Hale A. E. Nelson St. Louis. 

Mon....J. H. Calderhead.. Helena William Clancy. . .Butte AbramHall Miles City. 

Neb James. T. Brady. ..Albion. ......Elmer E. Thomas. .Omaha C. Q. De France. ..Lincoln. 

Nev Harry P,Beck Virginia C'y. Newton Richards.. Reno J. B. McCul lough.. Reno. 

N. H... George Howie Manchester .PhilippevGaron.. . .Manchester .D. B. Currier Hanover. 

N.J... .J. A. Edgerton East Orange. Geo. L. Spence Atlantic C'y- John S. De Hart. .Jersej^ City. 

N. Y. ..Frank S.Johnston.Schenectady.Darwin Forrest Green Island. M. G. Palliser New York. 

N. C A. C. Shuford Newton James B. Lloyd.. . .Tarbor(> J. P. Sossaman Charlotte. 

N. Dak.W. H. Standish Grand Forks. John MostuI Leonard Thomas Stanley.. .Hamilton. 

Ohio. . .Hugo Preyer Cleveland Dr. R.H.Reemel in. Cincinnati. . . Wm. Allerton Alliance. 

Oregon.Jas. K. Sears McCoy P. E. Phelps Vale Dr. J. L. Hill Albany. 

Penn...Theo. P. Rynder..Erie J. P. Correll Easton James A. Fulton. . McKeesport. 

R. I....Barth. Valette E.Providence. 

S. C . . . . E. Gi Istrap Pickens. 

S. Dak. John Campbell — Miller W. C. Buderus Sturgis Wm. Dailey Flandreau. 

Tenn... A. L. Miras Antioch Sid. S. Bond Jackson H. J. Mullens Franklin. 

Texas.. Jas. W. Baird Paris W. D. Lewis Corn Hill....W. R. Cole Dallas. 

Utah. ..S. S. Smith Ogden S. G. Deihl Hooper J. M. Lamb Vernal. 

Vt Andrew J. Beebe ..Swanton. 

Va W. H. Tinsley ...Salem V. A. Witcher Riceville ....G. T. Loeffler Ducat. 

Wash.. Edw. Clayson, Sr. Seattle C. C. Gibson Davenport. ..H. Packard Snohomish. 

W. Va..S. H. Piersol Parkersburg.A. C. Houston Union Dr. R. S. Davis Kirby. 

Wis Robert Schilling. .Milwaukee..Wm. Munro Superior Frank Emerson. ..Oakfield. 



100 National Grange, Patrons of Ilushaiidry. 

^Socialist ilai(jor ^^artg T?(rational Committcf* 

Henry Kuhn, National Secretary, 2-6 New Reade Street, New York Citv. The National Execu- 
tive Committee is composed of: Edward C. Schmidt, Recording Secretary; .John J Kiuueally 
John. I. J>onohue, T. Walsh, August Gillhaus, .Julius Hammer, Adolph Klein. 

The party is organized in local organizations known as "sections. ' ' sucli sections existing in thirty- 
two States. Any ten persons in any city or town of the United States may form a section, providing 
they acknowledge the platform and constitution of the Socialist Labor party and do not lielong to any 
other political party. In places where no section exists, or where none can be formed, any person 
complying with the aforesaid provisions may become a member-at-large upon applicalioii to the 
National Executive Committee. Sections are not permitted to charge initiation fees. ,A11 imestions 
of importance arising within the party are decided by general vote. At each meeting oi the section 
a chairman is elected, and the same rule holds good with all standing^ommittees. 



<Socialist ^avts "National (tommitttt, 

William Mailly, National Secretary, 269 l:)earborn Street, Chicago. This organization, which 
in the last Presidential canvass bore the name ol the Socialist party, was officially known as the 
Social Democratic party in New York and Wisconsin to conform to the election laws in reference lo 
filing nominations. The National Committee is composed of one representative from each organized 
State, of which there are thirty-live at this time, as follows: Alabama, B. Andrus, Birmingham; 
Arizona, H. H. Keays, Groom Creek; Arkansas, L. W. I>owry, Little Kock; California, N. A. 
Richardson, San Bernardino; Colorado, A. H. Floateii, Denver; Connecticut, W. E. White, New 
Haven; Florida, W. R. Healey, Longwood; Idaho, C. T-". Carter, Boise; Illinois, B. Berlyn, Chicago; 
Indiana, S. INI. Reynolds, Terre Haute; Iowa, .lohn M. Work, Des Moines; Kentucky, Charles Q,. 
Towner, Newport; Kansas, A. S. McAllister, Herrington; Louisiana. W. Putnam, Evangeline; 
Maine, C. L. Fox, Portland; Massachusettts, .Tohn C. Chase, New York City; Michigan, W. E. 
Walter, Bad Axe; Minnesota, S. M. Holman, Miuneaoolis; Missouri, G. H. Turner, Kansas City; 
Montana, J. D. Graham, Livingston, Neb.; Nebraska, C. Christensen, Salida, Col.; New Hamp- 
shire, M. H. O'Neil, Nashua; New Jersey, C. Ufert, West Hoboken; New York, Morris Hillquit, 
New York City; North JJakota, Tonnes Thams, Fargo; Oliio. H. H, Caldwell, Dayton; Oregon, B. F. 
Ramp, Salem; Oklahoma, R. Maschke, Kingfisher; Pennsylvania, ,T. Mahlon Barne.s, ^Philadelphia: 
South Dakota, Samuel Lovett, Aberdeen; Texas, .Tohn Kerrigan, Dallas; Vermont, John W. Arvid- 
son, Rutland; Washington, George E. Boomer, Prosser; Wisconsin, Victor L. Berger, Milwaukee: 
West Virginia, F. A. Zimmerman, McMechen. 



<a^ontinnital parts National Committee. 

Board of Directors: J. P. Lynch, Chairman, 3044 Wentworth Avenue, Chicago; Clark Ervin, 
Secretary, 170 East 32d Street, Chicago; B. C. Coy, Treasurer, 3046 Wentworth Avenue, Chicago; 
C. P. Girteu, 5500 Wentworth Avenue, Chicago; H. C. Stewart, 43d Street and Lake Avenue, 
Chicago; Charles Lucas, 35tb Street and Cottage Grove Avenue, Chicago. 



jJCational HitJertg ll«rtg "National Committer. 

Stanley P.Mitchell, Chairman; A.J. Edmonson, Secretarj', 91.6 La Rose Street. Mem phis, Ten n.; 
T.Starr Murfree, District of Columbia; A. C. Conly, Maryland; R. E. Gilchrist, New. Jersey: W.T. 
Scott, Illinois; H. R. Turner, New York; Con. Rideout, New York; O. C. lloss, M'isconsin; J. M. 
Morton, Indiana; ,1. W. Schooler, Kentucky ; B. K. Monroe, Pennsylvania; S. L. Foster, Alabama; 
C. T. Thomas, Georgia; Samuel Burdette, Washington; Nelson Mentor, Mississippi; James Butts, 
Virginia; A. H. Brahaw, Louisiana. 



Sauitetr (Jtijristian parts National Committrr. 

William R. Benkert, Chairman, Davenport, la.; Rev. C. H.Thomas, Vice-Chairman, Chicago; 
D. H. Martin, Secretary, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Kittle Benkert, Assistant secretary, Davenport, la.; J. F. 
E.. Leonard, Treasurer, Ainsworth, la.; A. F. F. Jensen, Dorchester, Wis. ; R. J. Caverly, Moline,IlI. 



National (Krangc, patrons of jEfustjantrrs. 

Jtia.ster— Aaron Jones, South Bend,Ind. Overseer— O. Gardner, Rockland, Me. Xrc/ici-er— N. J. 
Batchelder. Concord, N. H. S(eivard—W. C. Jewett, Worcester, Mass. Cfiaplain—W. K. Thomp.son, 
South Carolina. Trea-'wrer— Mrs. EvaS. McDowell, Rome, N. Y. Secretary— C. M. Freeman, M ash- 
ington, D. C. OnteJce^^per—Qeorge W. Baird, Minue.sola. Ceres— Mrs. M. M. Wilson, Magnolia, III. 
Pf;mona— Mrs. Cornelia Atkeson, Morgantown, W. Va. Flora— Mrs. B. Wolcott, Covington, Ky. 
//I'flA/'ricst— George B. Ilorton, Fruit Ridge, Mich. Priest virc/ion—Obadiah Gardner, RocUland.Me. 
I^-iesl jlnnrtJw(—0'-""."er Wilson, Magnolia, III. Mrecutive Committee— K. B. Norris, Cliairman, Sodus, 
N. Y. ; 0. J. Bell, Secretary, East Ilardwick, Vt. ; F. A. Derthick, M.antua. Ohio; Anron Jones, 
ex offi.c/0. South Bend. Ind. Secret ary' s Addresx—C M. Freeman, 614 F Street, Washington, D. C. 

The following reforms are officially favored bv the National Grange, representing the farmers of 
the United States: 1. Postal savings banks. 2. Enactment of pure food laws. 3. Rural free-mail 
delivery. 4. Additional powers to the Interstate Commerce Commission. 5. Speedy construction of 
the Nicaragua Canal by the United States. 6. To prevent the pooling of railroads. 7. Imparti.tl 
investigation of foreign trade relations. 8. Election of United States Senators by popular vote. 9. 
Settlement of inUirnational differences by arbitration. 

The National Grange has established 27,689 subordinate granges in 44 States and Territories. 



National Farty Flatforms of IdOJf.. 101 

National llarts l»latforms of 1904. 

PLATFORM OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY, ADOPTED AT ST. LOUIS, MO., 

JULY 8, 1904. 

The Democratic party of the United States, in national convention assembled, declares 
its devotion to the essential principles of the Democratic faith which bring us together in 
party communion ^ 

Under ihem local self-government and national unity and prosperity were alike estab- 
lished. They underlaid our independence, the .sLiucture of our free republic, and every 
Democratic extension from I^ouisiana to California.., &nd Texas to Oregon, which preserves 
faithfully in all the States the tie between taxation and representatijn. They yet inspire 
masses of our peope, guarding jea,lously their riyiTs and liberties, and cherishing tneir 
fraternity, peace and orderly development. They itniind us of our duties and re- 
sponsibilities as citizens, and impress upon us, particularly at this time, the necessity of 
reform and the rescue of the administration of government from the headstrong, arbitrary 
and spasmodic methods which distract business by uncertainty, and pervade the public 
mind with dread, distrust and perturbation. t, 

Fantlmueiital I'riiiciyles. — The application of these fundamental principles to the 
living issues of the day is the first step toward the assured peace, safety and progress of 
our nation. Freedom of the press, of v'onscience and of speech; equality before the law 
of all citizens; the right of trial by jury; freedom of the person defended by the writ of 
habeas corpus; liberty of personal contract untrammeled by sumptuary laws; the su- 
premacy of the civil over the military authority; a well-disciplined militia; the separation 
of church and State; economy in expendicujes; low taxes; that labor may be lightly bur- 
dened; the prompt and sacred fulfilment of public and private obligations; fidelity to 
treaties; peace and friendship with aO nations; entangling alliances with none; absoluLj 
acquiescence in the will of the majority, the vital principle of republics — these are doc- 
trines which Democracy has established as proverbs of the nation and they should be con- 
stantly invoked, preached, resorted to and enforced. 

Cuiiital j»ud Labor-. — We favor the enactment and administration of laws giving 
labor and capital impartially their just rights. Capital and labor ought not to be enemies. 
Each is necessary to the other. Each has its rights, but the rights of labor are certainly 
no less "vested," no less "sacred" and 710 less "inalienable" than the rights of capital. 

Constitniioiifil Guarantees. — Constitutional guarantees are violated whenever any 
citizen is denied the right to labor, acquire and enjoy property or reside where interests 
or inclination may determine. Any denial thereof by individuals, organizations? or go\- 
ernments should be summarily rebuked and punished. 

We deny the right of any executive to disregard or suspend any constitutional privilege 
or limitation. Obedience to the laws and respect for their requirements are alike the su- 
preme duty of the citizen and the official. 

The military should be used only to support and maintain the law. We unqualifiedly 
condemn its employment for the summary banishment of ' citizens without trial or for the 
control of elections. 

_ We approve the measure which passed the United States Senate in 1S9G, but which a 
ivopubiican Congress has ever since refused to enact, relating to contempts in .-Federal 
Courts and providing for trial by jui-y in cases of indirect contempt. 

Waterways. — We favor liberal appropriations for the improvement of waterways of 
the country. When any waterway like the Mississippi raver is of sufficient importance 
to demand .special aid of the Government, such aid should be extended with a definite 
plan of continuous work until pernianent improvement is secured. 

We oppose the Republican policy of starving home development in order to feed the 
greed for conquest and the appetite for national "prestige" and display of strength. 

Kco3!oi!iy of AdJtiinjislrjitioii.- Ijarge reductions can easily be made in the an- 
nual expenditures of the Government without impairing the efficiency of any branch of 
the public service, and we shall insist upon the strictest economy and frugality compatible 
with vigorous and efficient civil, military and naval administration as a right of the peo- 
ple too clear to be denied or withheld. 

We favor honestv in the public sprvice, the enforcement of honesty in the public ser- 
vice, and to that end a thorough legislative investigation of those ex.ecutive departments 
of the Government already known to teem with corruption, as well as other departments 
suspected of harboring corruption, and the punishment of ascertained corruptionists, with- 
out fear or favor or regard to persons. The persistent and deliberate refusal of both the 
Senate and House of Representatives to permit such investigation to be made demonstrates 
that only by a change in the executive and in the legislative departments can complete ex- 
posures, punishment and correction be obtained. 

Federal Government Contj-aet.s With Trusts. — We condemn the action of 
the Republican party in Congress in refusing to prohibit an executive department from en- 
tering into contracts with convicted trusts or unlawful combinations in restraint of inter- 
state trade. We believe that one of the best methods of procuring economy and honesty 
in the public service is to have public officials, from the occiipaht of the White House 
down to the lowest of them, return as nearly as may be to Jeffersonian simplicity of living. . 

Executive IJ.suriiatiou. — We favor the nomination and election of a President 
imbued with the principles of the Constittition, who will set his face sternly again.st 
executive oisurpation of legislative and judicial functions, whether that usurpation be 
veiled under the guise of executive construction of existing laws, or whether it take refuge 
in the tyrant's pleas of necessity or superior wisdom. 

Imperialism. — We favor the preservation, so far as we can, of an open door for 
the world's commerce in the Orient without any unnecessary entanglement in Oriental 
and European affairs, and without arbitrary, unlimited, irresponsible and absoltite govern- 
Jiii.nt anywhere witliin our jurisdiction. We oppose, as fervently as did Oeorge Washington 
himself, an Indefinite, irresponsible, discretionary and vague absolutism and a policy of 
colonial exploitation, no matter where or by whom invoked or exercised; we believe with 
Thoma.? Jefferson and John Adams that no government has a right to make one set of 
laws for those "at home" and another and a different .=et of Iaw.«i. absolute in their char- 
acter, for those "in the colo.aies." All ii'en under the American flag are entitled to the 
protection of the institutions whose emblem the flag is; if thev are inht^rently unfit for 



102 National Party Platforms of 190U- 

those institutions then they are inherently unfit to be members of the American body 
politic. Wherever there may exist a people incapable of being governed under American 
laws', in consonance with the American Constitution, the territory of that people ought 
not to be part of the American domain. 

We msist that we ought to do for the Filipinos what we have already done for the 
Cubans, and it is our duty to malie that promise now, and upon suitable guarantees of 
protection to citizens of our own and other countries resident there at the time of our 
withdrawal, set the Filipino people upon their feet, free and independent, to work out 
their own destiny. The endeavor of the Secretary of War, bj' pledging the Government's 
indorsement for "promoters" in the Philippine Islands, to make the United States a part- 
ner in speculative legislation of the archipelago, which was only temporarily held up by 
the opposition of the Democratic Senators in the last session, will, if successful, lead to 
eiitanglements from which it will be difficult to escape. 

Tlie Tariff.^ — The Democratic party has been, and will continue to be, the consistent 
opponent of that class of tariff legislation by which certain interests have been permitted, 
through Congressional favor, to draw a heavy tribute from the American people. This 
monstrous perversion of those equal opportunities which our political institutions were es- 
tablished to secure has caused what may once have been infant industries to become tlie 
greatest combinations of capital that the vvorid has ever liuown. These especial favorites 
of the Government ha.ve, through trust *netliods, been converted into monopolies, thus bring- 
ing to an end domestic conipetUion, which was the only alleged check upon the extravagant 
profits made possible by the protective system.' These industrial combinations, by the 
financial assistance they can give, now control the policy of the Republican party. 

We denounce protection as a robbery of the many to enrich the few, and we favor 
a tariff limited to the needs otf the Governiment, economically administered, and so levied 
as not to discriminate against any industry, ciass or section, to the end that the burden.s 
of taxation shall be distributed as equally as possible. 

We favor a revision and a gradual reduction of the tariff by the friends of the masses 
for the commonwealth, and not b.v the friends of its abuses, its extortions and its dis- 
criminations, Iceeping in view the ultimate ends of "equality of burdens and equality of 
opportunities," and the constitutional purpose of ' raising a revenue by taxation, to "wit, 
the sujjport of the Federal C;overnment in all its integrity and virility, but in simplicity. 

Trusts uiKl Ijii1u-»v£u1 Coinljina,ii»)iis. — We recognize that the gigantic trusts 
and combinations designed to enable capital to secure more than its just share of the 
joint products of capital and labor, and wiiich have bt:en fostered and promoted under Re- 
publican ru.e, are a menace to beneficial competition and an obstacle to permanent busi- 
ness prosperity. A private monopoly is indefensible and intolerable. 

Individual equality of opportunity and free competition are essential to a healthy and 
permanent commercial prosperity, and any trust or monopoly tending to destroy these by 
controlling production, restricting competition or fixing prices, should be prohibited and 
punished by law. We' especially denounce rebates and discrimination by transportation 
companies as the most potent agency in promoting and strengthening these unlawful con- 
spiracies against trade. 

We demand an enlargement of the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, to 
the end that the travelling public and shippers of this Government may have prompt and 
adequate relief- from the abuses to which they are subjected in the matter of transportation. 
We demand a strict enforcement of existing civil and criminal statutes against all sucii 
trusts, combinations and monopolies; and we demand the enactment of such further legis- 
lation as may be necessary to effectually supjjress lliem. 

Any trust or unlawful conibination engaged in interstate commerce which is monop- 
olizing any branch of business or production should not be permitted to transact busines.-j 
outside of the State of its origin. Whenever it shall be established in any court of com- 
petent jurisdiction that such monopolization exists, such prohibition should be enforced 
through comprehensive laws to bo enacted on the subject. 

RecIaiuu.tion of Arid liUiids iaikI I>oiiiesti«5 IJevelopjuent. — We congratu- 
late our Western citizens upon the passage of the law known as the Newlands Irrigation 
Act for the irrigation and reclamation of the arid lands of the West — a measure framed 
by a Democrat, passed in the Senate by a non-partisan vote, and passed in the House 
•against the opposition of almoist all Republican leaders by a vote the majority of which 
was Democratic. We call attention to this great Democratic measure, broad and com- 
prehensive as it is, working automatically throughout all time without further action of 
Congress, until the reclamation of all the lands in the arid West capable of reclamation 
is accomplished, reserving the lands reclaimed for home seekers in small tracts, and rigidly 
guarding against land monopoly, as an evidence of the policy of domestic development 
contemplated by the Democratic party, should it be placed in power. 

Istlnjuian Canal. — The Democracy when intrusted with power will construct the 
Panama Canal speedily, honestly and economically, thereby giving to our people what 
Democrats have always contended for — a great interoceanic canal, furnishing shorter and 
cheaper lines of t-nansnortation and broader and less trammeled trade relations with the 
other peoples of the world. 

American Citizeusliip. — ^We pledge ourselves to insist upon the just and lawful 
protection of our citizens at home and abroad, and to use all proper measures to secure 
for them, whether native-born or naturalized, and without distinction of race or creed, the 
equal protection of laws and the enjoyment of aU rights and privileges open to them un- 
der the covenants of our treaties of friendship and commerce; and if under existing treaties 
the right of travel and sojourn is »lenied to American citizens, or recognition is withheld 
from American passports by any countries on the ground of race or creed, we favor the 
beginning of negotiations with the governments of such coimtries to secure by new treaties 
the removal of these unjust discriminations. We demand that all over the world a duly 
authenticated passport issued by the Government of the United States to an America i 
citizen shall be proof of the fact that he is an American citizen and shall entitle him to 
the treatment due him as such. 

Klecticm of Senators by tlie Pen plc.^We favor the election of Unltetl States 
Senators by the direct vote of the people. 

Statehood for Territories. — ^We favor the adimission of fhe twritory of Okia- 
homa and the Indian Territory. Wo also favor the immediate admission of Arizona and 
New Mexico as separate States, and a territorial government for Alaska and Porto Rico. 



National Farty Flatfortn$ of 190 Jf. 103 

We hold that the officials appointed to administer the government of any tei-ritory. as 
■well as with the district of Alaska, should be bona fide residents at the time of their 
appointment of the territory or district in which their duties are to be performed. 

Condeuination of Polygamy. — We demand the extermination of polygamy within 
the jurisdiction of the United States and the complete separation of church and State in 
political affairs. 

Merchant Marine. — ^We denounce the ship subsidy bill recently passed by the 
United States Senate as an iniquitous approi^riation of public funds for private purposes 
and a wasteful, illogical and useless attempc to oveicome by subsidy the obstructions 
raised by Republican legislation to the growth and development of American commerce 
on the sea. 

We favor the upbuilding of a merchant marine without new or additional burdens upon 
the people and without bounties from the public treasury. 

Keciprocity. — We favor liberal trade arrangements with Canada, and with peoples 
of other countries, where these can be entered into with benefit to American agriculture, 
manufactures, mining or cominerce. 

Monroe Doctrine. — We favor the maintenance of the Monroe Doctrine in its full 
integrity. 

Army. — We favor the reduction of the army and of army expendittire to the point 
historically demonstrated to be safe and sufficient. 

Pensions and Onr Soldiers and Sailors. — The Democracy would secure to 
the surviving soldiers and sailors and their dependents generous pensions, not by an ar- 
bitrary executive order, but by legislation which we grateful people stand ready to enact. 
Our soldiers and sailors who defend with their^lives the Constitution and the laws have a 
sacred interest in their just administration. They must therefore share with us the hu- 
miliation with which we have witnessed the exaltation of court favorites, without dis- 
tinguished service, over the scarred heroes of many battles; or aggrandized by legislative 
appropriations out of the treasuries of a prostrate people, in violation of act of Congress, 
which fixes the compensation and allowances of the military officers. 

Civil Service. — The Democratic party stands committed to the principles of civil- 
service reform, and we demand their honest, just and impartial enforcement. We denounce 
the Republican party for its continuous and sinister encroachments upon the spirit and 
operation of civil-service rules, whereby it has arbitrarily dispensed with examinations 
for office in the interests of favorites and employed all manner of devices to overreach 
and set aside the jjrinciples upon which the civil service was established. 

School and Race (inestions. — The race question has brought countless woes to 
this country. The calm wisdom of the American people should see to it that it brings 
no more. To revive the dead and hateful race and sectional animosities in any part of 
our common country means confusion, distraction of business and the reonening of wounds 
now happily healed. North, South, E.'ist and West have but recently stood together in line 
of battle from the walls of Peking to the hills of Santiago, and as sharers of a common 
glory and a common destiny we should share fraternally the common burdens. We, there- 
fore, deprecate and condemn the bonrbonlike. selfish and narrow spirit of the recent 
Republican convention at Chicago, which sought to kindle anew the embers of racial and 
sectional strife, and we appeal from it to the sober common sense and patriotic spirit of 
the American peonle. 

The Repnhlican Administration. — The existing Republican administration has 
been spasmodic, erratic, sensational, spectacular and arbitrai-j'. It has made itself a satire 
upon the Congress, the courts and upon the settled practices and usages of naitional and 
international law. 

It summoned the Congress into hasty and futile extra session, and virtually adjourned 
it, leaving behind in its flight from Washington uncalled calendars and unaccomplished tasks. 

It made war. which is the sole power of Congress, without its authority, therebv 
usurping one of its fundamental prerogatives. It violated a plain statute of the United 
States as well as plain treaty obligations, international usages and constitutional law; and 
has done so under pretence of executing a great public policy, which could have been mor» 
easily effected lawfully, constitutionally and with honor. 

It forced strained and unnatural constructions upon statutes, usurping judicial inter- 
pretation and substituting Congressional enactment decree. 

It withdrew from Congress their customary duties of investigation which have hereto- 
fore made the representatives of the people and the States the terror of evildoers. 

It conducted a secretive investigation of its own and boasted of a few sample convicts, 
while it threw a broad coverlet over the bureaus which had been their chosen field of 
operative abuses, and kept in power the superior officers under whose administration the 
crimes had been committed. t 

It ordered assault upon some monopolies, but, paralyzed by its first victory, it flung 
out the flag of truce and cried out that it would not "run amuck" — leaving its future 
purposes beclouded by its vacillations. 

Appeal to the Conntry. — Conducting the campaign upon this declaration of our 
principles and purposes, wo invoke for our candidates the support, not only of our great 
and time-honored organization, but also the active assistance of all of our fellow-citizens 
who, disregarding past differences upon questions no longer in issue, desire the perpetu- 
ation of our Constitutional Government as framed and established by the fathers of the 
republic. 



PLATFORM OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY, ADOPTED AT CHICAGO, ILL., 

JUNE 22, 1904. 

Fifty years ago the Republican party came into existence, dedicated, among other 
purposes, to the great task of arresting the extension of human slavery. In 1860 it elected 
its first President. During twenty-four of the forty-four years which have elapsed since 
the election of Lincoln, the Republican narty has held complete control of the Government. 
For eighteen more of the forty-four years it has held partial control through the possession 
of one or two branches of the Government, while the Democratic party during the same 
period has had complete control for only two years. 

This long tenure of power by the Republican party is not due to chance. It Is a 
demonstration that the Republican party has commanded the confidence of the Americati 



104^ National Party Platforms of 1901^. 

people for nearly two generations to a degree never equalled in our history, and has dis- 
played a high capacity for rule and government which has been made even more con- 
spicuous by the incapacity and infirmity of purpose shown by its opponents. 

The Republican party entered upon its present period of complete supremacy in ISLtT. 
We have every right to congratulate ourselves upon the work since then accomniished, for 
it has added lustre even to the traditions of the party which carried the Government 
through the storms of civil war. We then found the country, after four years of Demo- 
cratic rule, in evil plight, oppressed with misfortune, and doubtful of the future. Public 
credit had been lowered, the revenues were declining, the debt was growing, the Adminis- 
tration's attitude toward Spain was feeble and mortifying, the standard of values was 
threatened and uncertain, labor was unemployed, business was sunk in the depression 
which had succeeded the panic of 1S93. hope was faint, and confidence was gone. 

We met these unhapp\- conditions vigorously, effectively and at once. We replaced 
a Democratic tariff law based on free-trade principles and garnished with sectional pro- 
tection by a consistent protective tariff, and industry, freed from suppression and stimu-- 
lated by the encouragement of wise laws, has expanded to a degree never before known, 
has conquered new mai-kets and has created a volume of exports which has surpassed 
imagination. Under the Dingley Tariff labor has been fully employed, wages have rieen 
and all industries have revived and prospered. 

TIi«- Golrt Standartl Eatssblishetl. — We firm'.y established the gold sitandar.i. 
which was then menace^ with destruction. Confidence leturned to business, and with 
contidence an unexaimpled prosperity. 

For deficient revenues supplemented by improvident issues of bonds we gave the coun- 
try an income which produced a large surplus, and which enabled us only four years 
after the Spanish war had closed to remove over one hundred millions of annual war 
taxes, reduce the public debt and lower the interest charges of the Government. 

The public credit, which had been so lowered that in time of peace a Democratic 
administration made large loans at extravagant rates of interest in order to pay cur- 
rent expenditures, rose uncjer Republican administration to its highest point, and enabled 
us to borrow at 2 per cent., even in fime of war. 

We refused to palter longer with the miseries of Cuba. We fought a quick and vic- 
torious war with Spain. We set Cuba free, governed the island for three years, and then 
gave it to the Cuban people with order restored, with ample revenues, with education 
and public health established, free fj-om debt, and connected with the United States by 
v%ise provisions for our mutual interet-ts. 

We have organized the government of Porto Rico, and its people now enjoy peace, 
freedom, order and prosperity. " 

Accoiisplislinieiits in Pliilippines. — In the Philippines we have suppressed in- 
surrection, established order, and given to life and property a security never known there 
before. We have organized civil government, made it effective and strong in adminis- 
tration, and have conferred upon the people of those islands the largest civil liberty they 
have ever enjoyed. By our possession of the Philippines we were enabled to take prompt 
a^d effective action in the relief of 'the legations at Pejking, and a decisive part in pre- 
venting the partition and preserving the integrity of 'China. 

Tlie Paiiainn Canal Beg-nn. — The po'SSes.sion of a route for an Isthmian oanal, so 
long the dream of American statesmanship, is now an accomplished fact. The great work 
of connecting the Pacific and A4tlantic by a canal is at last begun, and it is aue to the 
Republic^in party. 

Otl!«»r Aeeonii>15sI»nients. — ^We have passed laws which will bring the arid lands 
of the United States within the area of cultivation. 

We have reorganized the army and put it in the highest state of efficiency. 

We have passed laws for the improvement and support of the militia. 

We have pushed forward the building of the navy, 'tihe defence and proteotion of our 
honor and our interests. 

Our administration of the great departments of the Government has been honest and 
efficient, and wherever wrongdoing has been discovered the Republican administration 
has not hesitated to probe the evil and bring offenders to justice without regard to party 
or x)olJtieal ties. 

Anti-Tru.st L.aTvs Enforced. — Laws enacted by the Republican party which the 
Democratic party failed to enforce, and which were intended for the proiection of the public 
against the unjust discrimination or the illegal enicroachment of vast aggregations of 
capital, have been fearlessly enforced by a Reipublican President, and new laws insuring 
reajsonab'le publicity as to the operations of great corporations and providing additional 
remedies for the prevention of discrimination in freight rates have been passed by a Re- 
publican Congress. 

In this record of achievement during the past eight years may be read the pledges 
which the Republican party has fulfilled. We promise to continue these policies and we 
declare our constant adherence to the following principles: 

The Tarifl". — Protection which guards and develops our industries is a cardinal policy 
of the Republican party. The measure of protection should always at least equal tlie dif- 
ference in the cost of production at home and abroad. We Insist upon the maintenance 
of the principles of protection, and therefore rates of duty should be readjusted only when 
conditions have so changed that the puljlic interest demands their alteration, but this work 
cannot safely he comniitt(>d to any other hands than those of the Republican party. To 
intrust it to the Democratic party is to invite disaster. 

Whether, as in 1892. the Democratic party declared the protective tariff unconstitu- 
tional, or whether it demands tariff reform or tariff revision, its real object is always 
the destruction of the protective system. However specious the name, the purpose is ever 
the same. A Democratic tariff has always been followed by business adversity; a Repub- 
lican tariff by business prosperity. To a Republican Congress and a Renublican President 
this great question can be saf«Iy intrusted. When the only free-trade countrv among 
the great nations agitates a return to protection, the chief protective country should not 
falter in maintainintr it. 

Commereial ReelprocifT .Seeiiredl. — ^We have extended widely our foreign mar- 
kets, and we believe in the adoption of all practicable methods for their further extension, 
including commercial reciprocity wherever reciprocal arrangements can dc effected con- 



National Party Flatforras of IQOJf.. 105 

siptont with the principles of protection, and without injury to ATnerican agriculture, 
American labor or any American industry. 

Integrity of tlie IVational Cnrrenoy. — We believe it to be the duty of the Re- 
publican party to uphold the gold standard and the integrity and value of our national cur- 
rency. The maintenance of the gold standard, established by the Republican party, cannot 
safely be committed to the Democratic psirty, which resisted its adoption, and has never 
given any proof since that time of belief in it or fidelity to it. 

Ut»))ail<liiis: tlie Mercliant Marine. — ^While every other industry has prosipered 
undp.r the fostering aid of Republican legislation, American .shipping engaged in foreign 
trade, in competition with the low cost of construction, low wages and heavy subsidies ot 
foreign governments, has not for majiy years received fro^m the Government of the United 
States adeauate encouragement of any kind. We therefore favor legislation wliich will 
encourage and build up the American merchant marine, and we cordially approve the legis- 
lation of the last Congress, which cre-arted the Merciiant Marine Commission to invetstigaite 
and report upon this subject. 

A Aavy for Defence. — A navy powerful enough to defend the United States against 
any attack, to uphold the Monroe Doctrine, and to watch over our commerce, is essential 
to the safety and the welfare of the American people. To maintain such a navy is the 
lixed policy of the Republican party. 

Chinese Exclusion. — We cordially approve the attitude of President Roosevelt and 
Congress in regard to the exclusion of Chinese labor and promise a uuntinuance of the 
Kepubljoan policy in that direction. 

Civil Service La^v Enforced.— The Civil Service Law was placed on the statute 
books by the Republican party, which has always sustained it, and we renew our former 
declaiations that it shall be thoroughly and honestly eniorced. 

We are always mindful of the country's debt to the soldiers and sailors of the United 
btates and we believe in making ample provision for them, and in the liberal administra- 
tion of the pension laws. 

,.,^'***^*'"s^t*o»»al Arbitration.— We favor the peaceful settlement of international 
differences by arbitration. 

We commend the vigorous efforts made by the Administration to protect American 
citizens in foreign lands and pledge ourselves to insist upon the just and equal protection 
of all our citizens abroad. It is the unquestioned duty of the Government to procure for 
all our citizens, without distinction, the rights of travel and sojourn in friendly countries, 
and we declare ourselves in favor of ail proper efforts tending to that end. 

Our great interests and our growing commerce in the Orient render the condition of 
China of high importance to the United States. We cordiahy commend the policy pursued 
iii that direction by the Administrations of President McKinley and President Roosevelt. 

Biegro ULsfrancIiisenient. — We favor s,uch Congressional action as shall determine 
whether by special di.'--criminations the elective franchise in any State has been uncon- 
stitutionally limited, and if such is the case, we demand that representation in Congress 
and in the Electoral College shall be proportionately reduced as dixec-ted by the Constit-i- 
tioii of the United States. 

Capital anil Labor.— Combinations of capital and of labor are the results of the 
economic movement of the age, but neithsr must be permitted to infringe upon the rights 
and Interests of the people. Such combinations, when lawfully formed for lawful purposes. 
are alike entitled to the protection of the laws, but both are subject to the laws, and 
neither can be permitted to break them. 

Tribute to McKinley. — The great statesman and patriotic American, William Mc- 
Kinley, who was re-elected by the Republican party to the Presidency four years ago, 
was assassinated just at the threshold of his second term. The entire nation mourned iiis 
untimely death, and did that justice to his great qualities of mind and character which 
history will confirm and repeat. 

President Roosevelt Eulogized. — The Ameo-ican people were fortunate in his 
successor, to whom they turned with a trust and confidence which have been fully justified. 
I'resident Rooseveit brought to the great responsibilities thus sadly forced upon him a 
clear head, a brave hearty an earnest patriotism and high ideals of public duty and public 
service. True to the principles of the Republican party and to the policies which that party 
had declared, he has also shown himself ready for every emergency and has met new and 
vital questions with ability and with success. 

The confidence of the peop.e in his justice, inspired by his public career, enabled him 
to render personally an inestimable service to the country by bringing about a settlement 
of the coal strike, which threatened such disastrous resnits at the opening of Winter in 19U2. 

Our foreign policy under h'.s administration has not only been able, vigorous and dig- 
nified, but in the highest degree successful. The complicated questions which arose iii 
Venezuela were settled in such a way by President Roosevelt that the Monroe Doctrine 
was signally vindicated, and the cause of peace and arbitration greatly advanced. 

His prompt and vigorous action in Panama, which we commend in the highest terms, 
not only secured to us the canal route but avoided foreign complications which might have 
been of a very serious character. 

He has continued the policy of President McKinley in the Orient and, our position in 
China, signalized by our recent commercial treaty with that empire, has never been so high. 

He secured the tribunal by which the vexed and perilous question of the Alaskan 
boundary was finally settled. 

Whenever crimes against humanity have been perpetrated wliich have shocked our 
people, his protest has been made and our good offices have been tendered, but always 
with due regard to international obagations. 

Under his guidance we find ourselves at peace with all the world, and never were 
we more respected or our wishes more regarded by foreign nations. 

Pre-eminentlv successful m regard to our foreign relations, he has been equally for- 
tunate in dealing with domestic questions. The country has known that the public credit 
and the national currency were absolutely safe in the hands of his Administration. In the 
enforcement of the laws he has shown not only courage, but the wisdom which under- 
stands that to permit laws to be violated or disregarded opens the door to anarchy, whil; 
the just enforcement of the law is the soundest conservatism. He has held firmly to th(e 
fundamental American doctrine that all men must obey the law; that there must 1^ nto 



106 national Party Platfoi'ms of 190Jf.. 

distinction between rich and poor, between strong- and weak; but that justice and equal 
protection under the law must be secured to every citizen without regard to race, creed 
or condition. 

His Administration has been throughout vigorous and honorable, high-minded and pa- 
triotic. We commend it without reservation to the considerate Judgment of the Americars 
people. 



PLATFORM OF THE PEOPLE'S PARTY, ADOPTED AT SPRSNCFiELD, ILL., 

JULY 4, 1904. 

' The People's party reaffii-ms itis adherence to the basic truths of the Omaha platform of 
1892, and of the subsequent platforms of 189G and 1000. In session in its fourth national 
convention on July 4, 1904, in the city of Sprinigfield, 111., it draws inspiration from the 
day that saw the birth of the nation as well as its own birth as a party, and also from 
the soul of him who lived at its present place of meeting. We renew our allegiance to the 
o'd-fashioned American spirit that gave this nstion existence, and made it di-stinctive among 
the peoples of the earth. We again sound the key-note of the Declaration of Independence 
that all men are created equal in a political sense, which was the sense in which that in- 
strument, being a political document, intended that the utterance should be understood. We 
assert that the departure fi-orn this fundamental truth is responsible fo.r the ills from which 
v,-e suffer as a najtion. that the giving of special privileges to the few has enabled them to 
dominate the many, thereby tending to destroy the political equality which is the corner- 
stone of democratic governiment. . 

Holding fast to the truths of the fathers we vigorously protesit against the spirit 
of mammoniem and of thinly veiled monarchy that is Invading certain sections of our 
nationa,! life, and of the very administration itself. This is a nation of peace, ajid we de- 
plore the appeal to the spirit of force and .militarism which is shown in ill^dvised and 
v-iinglorious boasting and in moo^e harmful ways in the denial! of the rights of mian 
under ma.rtial law. 

A political democracy and an industrial despotism cannot exist side by side; and 
nowhere is this truth more plainly shown than in the gigantic tranispurtation monopolies 
which have bred all sorts of kindred trusts, subverted the governments of many of the 
States, or established their official agents in the National &ivernment. We submit that 
it is better for the Government to O'wn the railroads than for the railroads to own the 
Government, and that one or the other alternative seems inevitable. 

We call the attention of our fe>Uow-citizents to the fact that the surrender of both of 
the old parties to corporative influences leaves the People's party the only party of 
refonn in the nation. 

Therefore we submit the following platform of principles to the American people: 

(Money and Banks. — The issuing of money is a function of government, and shoyld 
never be delegated to coirporations or individuals. The Conistitution gives to Coijigress alone 
power to issue money and regulate its value. 

We therefore demand that all money shall be isisued by the Government in such 
quantity as shall maintain a stability in prices, every dollar to be full legal tender, none 
of which shall be a debt redeemable in other money. 

SavinRs Banks. — We demand that po.=ital savings banks be established by the Gov- 
ernment for the safe deposit of the savings of the people. 

Lrabor.— Wf believe in the right of labor to organize for the benefit and pi-otection 
of those who toil; and pledge the efforts of the People's party to preserve this right in- 
violate. Capital is organized and has no right to deny to labor the privilege which it 
claims for itself. We feel that intelligent organization of labor is essential; that it raise* 
the standard of workmanship; promotes the efficiency, intelligence, independence and 
character' of the wage earner. We believe with Abraham L/incoln that labor Is prior to 
capital, and is not its slave, but its companion, and we plead for that broad spirit of 
toleration and justice which will promote industrial peace through tne observance of 
the principles of voluntary arbitration. 

We favor the enactment of legislation looking to the improvement or conditions for 
wage earneiTS, the abo'Iition of child labor, the supression of sweat shops, and of convict 
labor in competition with free labor, and the excluision from American shores of foreign 
pauper labor. 

We favor the shorter work day, and declare that if eight hours constitute a clay's labor 
in Government service, that eigiht houns should constitute a day's labor in factories, work- 
shops and mines. 

Initiative ami Referentluni. — As a means of placing all public questions directly 
under the control of the people, we demand that leg'al provision be made unaer which the 
people may exerci.se the initiative, referendum and proportional repreeentation and direct 
vote for all public officfrs with the right of recall- 

Tlie Jjand. — Land, including all the natural sources of wealth, is a h.eritage of all 
the peoplf', and should, not be monopolized for speculatiive purposes, and alien ownersihip of 
land should be prohibited. 

Human Rights We demand a return to the original interpretation of the Con- 

sititution and a fair and impartial enforcement of laws under it, and denounce government 
by injunction and imprisonment without the right of trial by jury. 

'I'riist.s and M<nioi»oly. — To prevent unjust discrimination and monopoly the Gov- 
eiTiment should own and control the railroads, and those public utilities which in their 
nature are monopolies. To perfect the iwstal service, the Government should own and 
operate the general telegrajjh and telephone siysteme and provide a parcels post. 

As to these trusts and monopolies which are not public utilities or natural monopolies, 
we demand tihat those sipecdad privileges which they now enjo.v, and whldh alone enable 
them to exist, ahould be immediaAely withdrawn. Corporation9 being the creatures of 
government sthould b« subjected to suoh governmental regulations and control as will 



National Party Platforms of 190J^. 107 



adequately protocn the public. We demand the taxation of monopoly privileges, while 
they remain in private hands, to the extent of the value of the privileges granted. 

We demand that Congress shall enact a general law uniformly regulating tno power and 
duties of all incarponated companies doing interstate business. 



PLATFORM OF THE SOCIALIST PARTY, ADOPTED AT CHICAGO, ItL., 

MAY 5, 1904. 

J TTie Socialli?t party in convention assembled, makes its appeal to the American 

people as 'the defender and preserver of the idea of liberty and self-government, in whicn 
thf nation was bom: as the only political movement standing for the progra.mme and 
principles bv which the liberty of the individual may become a fact; as the only p:»litic.5! 
organization" that is democratic, and that has for its purpose the democratizing of the 
whole of society. ^ , „ ,. ^. ' ,, ^ ■, r.-.i. 

To this idea of liberty the .Republican and Democratic parties are equally false. They 
alike struggle for power to maintain and profit by an industrial system which can be pa^e- 
served only by the complete overthrow of such libertiejs as we already have, and by the 
still further enslavement and degradation of labor. 

Our American insiitutione came into the world in the name of freedom. They have 
been seized uixrn by the capitalist class as the means of rooting out the idea of freedom 
from among the people. Our State and National Legislatures have become the mere agencies 
of ereat protected interests. These interests control the appointments and decisions of the 
judges of our courts. They have come into what is practically a private ownership of all 
the functions and forces of government. They are uisdng these to betray and conquer 
foreign and weaker peoples, in order to establish new markets for the surplus goods which 
the people make, but are too poor to buy. They are gradually so invading and restricting 
the right rf suffrage as to take away unawares the right of the worker to a voce or voice 
in public affairs. By enacting new and misinterpreting old laws, they are prepai-ing to 
attack the liberty of the individual even to speak .or think for himself, or for the common 
good. I 

By controlling all the sources of social revenue, the possessing class is able to silence 
what might be the voice of protest against the passing of liberty and the coming of tyranny. 
It completely controls the university and public school, the pulpit and the press, and the 
arts and literatures. By making the"se economically dependent upon itself. It has brought 
all the forms of public teaching into servile submi-s^sion to its own interests. 

Our political institutions are also being used as the destroyers of that Individual pi*op- 
erty upon which all liberty and opportunity depend. The promise ot economic independ- 
ence to each man was one of the faiths upon wh'ch our institutions were rounded. But 
under the giiise of defending p; ivate property, capitalism is using our political institutions 
to make it impossible for the vast majority of human beings ever to become possessors of 
private property in the means of life. 

C.'^-pitalism is the enemy and destroyer of essential private proiperty. Its develop- 
ment is through the lesalized confiscation of all that the labcr of the working class pro- 
dac"-?. above its subs-istence-wage. The private ownership of the means of «iiH)lo>yment 
grounds society in an economic slavery which rendei-s intellectual and political tyrany 
inevitable. 

Socialism comes so to organize industry and society that every individual shall be 
secure in that private property in the means of 'ife upon which his liberty of being, thought 
and action depend. It comas to rescue the people from the fast increasing and successful 
assault of capitalism upon the liberty of the inilividual. 

IT. — .\s an American socialist party, we pledge our fidelity to the principles of inter- 
national socialism, as embodied in the united thought and action of the socialists of all 
nations. In the industrial development already accomplished, 'he interests of the world's 
workers are separated by no national boundaries. . The condition of the most exploited and 
oppressed workers, in the most remote places of the earth, inevitably tends to arag down 
all the workers of the world to the same level. The tendency of the competitive wage svs- 
tem is to make labor's lowest condition the measure or rule of its universal condition. 
Industry and finance are no longer national but international, in both organization and 
results. The chief significance of national boundaries, and of the so-caiied patriotisms 
which the ruling class of each nation is seeking to revive, is the power whdch these 
give to capitalism to keep he workers of the world from uniting, and to throw them 
against each other in the struggles of contending capitalist interests for the control of the 
yet unf-TploitPd markets of the world or the remaining sources of profit 

The socialist movement, therefore, is a world-movement. It knows of no conflicts of 
intPiosts betwf-en the workers of one nation and the workers of another. It stands for the 
freedom of the workers of all nations; and, in so standing. It makes for the full freedom of 
all humanity. 

Ill — The socialist movement owes its birth and growth to that economic development 
or world-proce.'^.fl w-hich is rapidly separating a working or producing class from a possess- 
ing or capitalist class. The cla.ss that produces nothing possesses labors fruits and the 
opportunities and enjoj-ments these fruits afford, while the class that does the world's 
real work has increasing economic uncertainty, and physical and intellectual misery for its 
portion. _ 

The fact that these two class ea have not yet become fully constciouis of their distinction 
from ea«h other, the fact that the lines of division and interests may not vet be clearlv 
drawn, does not change the fact of the class conflict. 

This cass str.jee> is ere to the private ownership of the means of °n-ployment, or the 
tools of production. Whenever and wherever man owned his own land and tools and by 
them produced only the things which he used, economic independence was possible But pro- 
duction or the making or goods, has long ceased to be individual. The labor or scores or 
®T,"J- """''^•2 •..?"^,r'^ '"*° almost every article produced. Production is now social or 
coUeotive. Practically everything ;s made or done by many men^ometimea separated by 



108 National Party Platforms of lOOJf. 

eeas or continents-^working together for the same end. But this co-operation in production 
is not for the direct use of the things made by the workers who make them, but for the 
pi"Ofit of the owners of the tools and means of production; and to this is due the present 
uivi'Sion of society into two classes; and from it have sprung a.11 the mised'ies, inha.rmonies 
and CTntradictions of our civilization. 

Between these two clasises there can be no possible compromise or identity of interests, 
any more than there can be peace in the midst of war, or light in the midst of darkness. 
A society based upon this class division carries in itself the seeds of its own destruction. 
Such a society is founded in fundamental injustice. Thei« can b-e no passible basis for 
social petice, for individual freedam, for mental and moral harmony, except in the con- 
scious and complete triumph of the working class as the only dag's that lias the right or 
power to be. 

IV. — The socialist programme is not a theory imposed upon society for its acceptance or 
ratjection. It is but fhe interpretation of what is, sooner or later, inevitable. Capitali.sm ia 
s|ready struggling to its destruction. It is no longer competent to orga,nize or administer 
the work of the world, or even to preserve itself. The captains of industry are appalled 
at their own inability to control or direct the rapidly socializing forces of tnaustry. The 
so-called trust is but a sign and form of the developing socialization of the world's work. 
The universal increase of the uncertainty of employment, the univei'sal capitalist deter- 
mination to break down the unity of labor in the trades unions, the widespread aDOve- 
lien.sians of impending change, reveal that the institutions of capitalist society are passing 
under the power of inhering forces that will saon desti-oy them. 

Into the midst of the strain and crisis of civilization the socialist movement comes as 
the only conservaitive force. If the world is to be saved from, chaos, from universal dis- 
rder and misery, it inust be by tiie union of the workers of all nations in tlie socialist 
movement. The Socialist party coanes with the only proposition or programme for intelli- 
gently and deliberately organizing the nation for the common good of all in citizens. It is 
the first time that the mind of nian has ever been directed toward the conscious organiza- 
tion of society. 

Socialism means that all those things upon which the people in common depend shall 
by the people in common be owned and administered. It means that the toois of employ- 
ment shall belong to their creators and users; that all production shau be for the direct 
use of the producers; that the making of goods for profit shall come to an end; that we 
shall all be workers together; and that all opportunities shall be open and equal to all men. 
V. — To the end that the workers may seize every possible advantage that may strengthen 
hem to gain complete control of the powers of government, and thereby the sooner es- 
tablish the co-operative comimoni wealth, the Socialist party pledges itself to watch and 
work, in both the economic and the political struggle, for eajch successive immediate in- 
terest, of the working class; for shortened days of labor and increases of wages; for the 
insurance of the workers agaimst accident, sickness and lack of employmem; for pensions 
for aged and exhausted workers; for the public ownership of the means of transporiation, 
communication and exchange; for the graduated taxation of incomes, inheritances, fran- 
chi.^es and land values, the proceeds to be appilied to the public employment and improve- 
ment of the condition of the workers; for the complete ©duoation of children and their 
freedom from the workshop; for the prevention of the use of the military against labor in 
the settlement of strikes; for the free administration of justice; for popular government, in- 
cluding initiative, referendum, proportional representation, equal suffrage of men and 
women, municipal home rule, and the recall of officers by their constituent^; and for 
every gain jor advantage for the workers that may be wrested from the capitalist system, 
and that may relieve the suffering and strengtlien the hands of labor. We lay ujxin every 
m.i.n elected to anv executive or legislative office the first duty of .striving to procure what- 
ever is for the workers' most immediate interest, and for whatever will le.ssen the 
economic and political powers of the capitalist and increase the like powers of the worker. 

But, in so doing, w^eare using these remedial measures as means to tne one great 
end of the co-operative commonwealth. Such measures of relief as we may be able to 
force from ca,pitalism ,a.re but a preparation of the workers to seize the whole powers of 
government, in order that they may thereby lay hold of the whole system of indu.stry, <xnd 
thus come into thtir ri.ehtful inheritance. 

To this end we pledge ourselves, as the party of the working class, to use all 
political power, as fast as it shall be intrusted (o us by our fellow-workers, both for. their 
immediate interests and for their ultimate and complete emancipation. To this end we 
appeal to all the workers of America, and to all who will lend their lives to the service of 
the workers in their stru.ggle to .gain their own, and to a.ll who will nobly and disinter- 
estedly give their days and enere-ies unto the workers' cause, to cia..«it in their lot and faith 
With the Socialist party. Our appeal for the trust and suffrages of our fellow-workers is 
at once an appeal for their common good and freedom, and for the freedom and blossoming 
of our common humanity. In pledging ourselves, and those we represent, to be faithful 
to the appeal which we make, we believe that we are but preiiaring the soil of that 
Economic freedom from wiiich will spring the freedom of the whole man. 



PLATFORM OF THE SOCIALIST LABOR PARTY, ADOPTED AT NEW YORK, 

JULY, 1904. 

The Sociall.st Labor party of America, in convention assembled, reasserts the inallen- 
1 ble right of nian to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. 

"We hold that the purpose of government is to secure to every citizen the enjoyment 
if this right: but taught by experience we hold furthermore that such right Is Illusory to 
the majority of the people, to wit, the working class, under the present system of economic 
Inequality that is esisentially destructive o^ their life, their liberty and their happiness. 

We hold that the true theory of politics is that the machinery of government must be 
controlled by the whole people; but again taught by experience we hold furthermore that 
the true theory of economies is that the means of production must likewise be owned. 



National Party Platforms of 190^. 109 



operated and controlled by the people in coanmon. Man cannot exerois© his riglht of -ife, 
lil>er»y and the -pursuit of ha.pplness without bbe ownership of the land o<a and the tool wlt% 
which to work. Deprived of these, his life, his liberty and his fate fall Into the hands oi 
the class that owns those essentials for woirk and production. 

We hold that the existinj>r contradiction between the theory of democratic government 
and the fact of a despotic economic system — the prdvate ownershilp of the natural and 
social opportunities — divides the people into two classes, the capitaJist cfass and tha 
working class; throws society into the convulsions of the class struggle, and perverts gov- 
ernment to the exclusive benefit of the capitalist claiss. 

Thus labor is robbed of the wealth which it alone produces, is denied the meaais of 
self-employment, and. by compulsory idleness in wage slavery, is erven deprived oC iha 
necessaries of life. . ^^ ,_ ^ ,, , , 

Against such a system the Socialiist Labor party raises the baimer of revolt, and de- 
n.and's the unconditional surrender of the capitalist class. ■ 

The time is fast comin?- when, in the natural course of social evolution, this system, 
through the destructive action of its failures and crises on the one hand, and the con- 
structive tendencies of its trusts and other capitalist combinations on the other hand, will 
have worked out its own downfall. „ » . ^ ^ , , 

We therefore, call upon the wage workers of Ameirioa to organize under the banner 
of the Socialist Labor party into a claiss-conscdous body, aware of its rights and determined 
to conquer them. , ■* , , , 

And w^e also call upon all other intelligent citizens to place themselves squarely upon 
thp ground of w'orj'ting class interests, and join us in this mighty and noble work of 
human emancipation, so that we may put summary end to the existing barbarous clas.s 
c</nflict by placing the land and all the means of production, transportation and distribu- 
tion into the hands of the people as a collective body, and substituting the co-operative 
commonwealth for the oresent state of planless production, industrial war and social 
•cijisordcr — a oomSm.c^n-'weal.th iJi which every worker shall have tihe free exercise and full 
benefit of his faculties, multiplied by all the modern factors of oivilization. 



PLATFORM OF THE UNITED CHRISTIAM PARTY, ADOPTED AT ST. LOUIS, 

MO., MAY 2, 1904. 

We, the tTnited Christian party, in national mass convention assembled, in His name, 
in the city of St. Louis, Mo., May 2, 1904, acknowledging Almighty God as our Flather and 
Jesus Christ as our leader, commander, governor and king; believing that the time has 
now come when all Christians and patriots should unite on the day of election and vote 
direct on ail questions of vital importance, and apply Christian golden ruie to all gov- 
ernment by and for the people, do hereby declare that the platform and purpose of the 
United Christian party is and shall be to work and stand for union in His name, according 
to the Lord's Prayer, for the fulfilment of God's law through direct legislation of the 
people governed by the golden rule, regardless of sex, creed, color, nationality. 

As an expression of consent or allegiance on the part of the governed, in harmony witli 
the above statements — 

We also declare in favoir of direct legislation providing for e.n equal standard of mioraJs 
for both sexes, and most vigorously oppose the traffic in girls and all forms of the 
social evil. 

We are opposed to war and condemn mob violence. 

We favor government ownership of coal mines, oil wellis and public utili'ties. 

We are apposed to government revenue from the manufacture and sale of intoxicarting 
liquor as a bevei-age. 

We are opposed to all trusts and combines contrary to the welfare of the coimmon 
people, and declare that Christian government through direct legislatloin will regulate the 
trusts and labor problem according to t.he golden rule. 



PLATFORM OF THE NATIONAL LIBERTY PARTY, ADOPTED AT ST. LOUIS, 

MO., JULY 7, 1904. 

We, the delegates of the National Liberty party of the United States, in conventioa 
assembled, declare our unalterable faith in the eisS'ential dociti-ine of human liberty, the 
fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. 

Under no other doctrine can the people of this or any other country stand together in 
good friendship and perfect union. Equal liberty is the first concession that a republican 
fcrm of government concedes to its people, and universal brotherhood is the cementing tie 
w'hich binds a people to respect the laws. 

It has always been <so where caste existed and was recognized by law or by common 
consent, that the oppreission of the weaker by the stronger has attained and a degree of 
human slavery been realized. Such a condition of affairs must necessarily exist where 
universal suffrage is not maintained and respected, and where one man considers that by- 
nature he was born and by naiture dies better than another. 

The application of the fundamental principles of the rights of men is always the 
paramount issue before a people, and When they are strictly adhered to there is rvy disturb- 
ing element to the peace, prosperity, or to the great industrial body politic of the country. 

We believe in the supremacy of the civil as against the military law, wlien and where 
tht civil IS respected. But when the civil law has been outraged and wrested from the 
hands of authority it should be understood that military law may be temporarily instituted 

Law and order should take the place of lynching and mofo violence, and polygamy 
should not survive, but polygamy is more tolerable than lynching, and we regret that a 
groat national party could overlook lynohing, and vet denounce polvgamy. 

Citizens of a democracy should be non-partisans, always casting their votes for the 
^ J.Ju° ^^'"^ country and for their best interests, individually and collectively. 

The right of any American citizen, to support any measure inisitead of party should not 



110 National Party Platforms of IdOJj.. 

be questioned, and when men contorm tihamselves to party instead of principles they become 
party slaves. There were 2,500,000 such slaves among our colored population in 1900, all 
voting strictly to panty lines, .reg-ardless of. their maiterial welfare. "We are isatd.sfied that 
Ihsy did not serve their heist interest in that section of the oounbry in which the greater 
nuiiiber of them live by doiaig .so. 

These being our thoiuffhts and ideas of how tihe Govern.raent's affairs should be con- 
ducted, we miost respectfully tsoibjnit them to all liberty-loviintr and Christian-hearted 
people, that they may act upon them in a spirit oif justice and equity, "with good will to 
all, malice towaird none." 

Snltragre. — ^We ask for universal suffrage, or qualification whlicih does not discrim- 
inate ag-ainst any reputable citizen on account of color or condition. 

Cllizensliip. — ^We ask that the Federal Government erufarce its guairantee to protect 
its citizens, and secure for them every right giiven under the Cooisi-ituitiooi of the United 
States, wherever and whenever it is necessary. 

Ijyneh La^v. — We appeal to all forms of Catholic and Probestai-vt religions to assist 
us to awaken the Chrirabiaai consciences of all clas.ses of tihe American people, private citi- 
zens and officers, to wipe out the greatest shame known to civiHzed nations of the world, 
Whose very root seems to have been planted in this, one of the mosit proud of all nations of 
lis civilization — "lynoh law," the preignator of anaaichism, the most daiig'erous system 'o 
revolutionize our Kepublic. 

We ask that the naiional lawis be so remedieid as to give amy citizen, being next of kin, 
the right to demand an indemnity of the National Government for the taking of life or the 
injuring of any citizen othei- than by due process of law. And that where ihe property of 
a citizen is wilfully destroyed by a mob, t.he Federal Government s'hall be held to make 
restitution to the injured panties. 

The Army. — ^We demand an iincrease of the regular army, making six negro regi- 
ments instead of four, and an equal chance to colored soldiers to become line officers. 

We favor the adjustment of all grievances between the wage earner and the capitalist 
by equitable resources without injustice to eather or by methods of coercion. 

We fiirxnly protest again-st interference of the Government in the Orient until r>ax3i- 
mount political i&iues of the races, capital and labor are settled and settled right at honie. 
Pensions for tlie Ex-Slaves. —We firmly believe that the ex-slave, who sea-ved 
the country for 246 years, filliing the lap of the nation with wealth by their labor, should 
be pensioned fiiom the overflowing treaisuii-y of the country to which they are and have 
been loyal, both on land and sea, as provided in the bill introduced in the Senate of the 
United •States by Senator Hanna, of the iState of Ohio. 

Government Ownership and Public Carriers.— .We ask that the generV. 
Goevrnment own and control all publdic earriers in the United States, so that the citizens 
of the United States oould not be denied equal iacicomanodations Wliere they pay with the 
same lawful money provided by the Government as a oirculating medium and as a legal 
tender for all oibil ligations. 

American Citizens Deprived of Self-Government. — The people of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, the capital of the nation, sihould be given the right to participate in the 
selection of President and Vice-President of the United States, and should be allowed repre- 
sf-ntation in the two branches of Conigrese. and the election of a Goa'ernor, Mayor, City 
Council, and such other officers as are necessary for the proper governanient of the District 
of Columbia. We indorse the Gallagher resolution looking to the ©stablashment of self- 
government ,of the District of Columbia. 



PLATFORM OF THE PROHIBITION PARTY, ADOPTED AT INDIANAPOLIS, 

JUNE 30, 1904. 

The Prohibition party, in national converution assembled, at Indianapolis, June r.O. 
1004, recognizing that the chief end of all government is tihe establishment of those prin- 
ciples of righteousness and justice- which have been revealed to men as the will of the 
ever-living God, desiiring His blessing upon our national life, and believing in the perpetua- 
tion of the high ideals of government of the people, by the people and for .the people. 
estab!ished by our fathers, makes the fallowing declaration of principles and purposes: 

The Most Important Question in American Politics. — The widely prevail- 
ing system of the licensed and legalized sale of alcoholic beverages is so ruinous to 
individual interests, so inimical to public welfare, so deatructive of national wealth and 
60 subversive of the rights of great masses of our citizenship, that the destruction of the 
traffic is, and for yeans has been, the most important question in American politics. 

iR-nored toy Democratic and Repuhllcan Leaders. — ^We denounce the lack 
of statesman.ship exhibited by the leaders of the Democratic and Republican parties in their 
refusal to recognize the paramount importamce of this que.sitioii, and the cowardice with 
which the leaders of tihese parties have oourt'ed the favor of those whose selfish interests 
are advanced by the continuation and augmentation of the traffic, until to-day the influ- 
ence of the liquor triaffic pr-aotically dominates national, Staite and local government 
throughout the nation. 

Reg^nlation a Failure — 1-icense Money a Bribe. — We declare the truth, 
demonstrated by the experience of half a century, that all methods of dealing with the 
liquor fraffic wlTlch recognize its right to exist, in any form, under any system of license 
or tax or regnilation, have proved powerless to remove its evils, and useleiss as checks upon 
its growth, while the inslgnlficanrt; public revenues which have accrued therefrom have 
seared the public comscience against a recognition of its iniquity. 

Prohibitory Law. Administered by Its Friends, the Only Hope. — ^We 
call public attenton to the fact, proved by the experience of more than fifty years, that to 
•■secure the enactment, and enforcement of prH>hibitory legislation, in which alone lies the 
hope of the protection of the people from the liquor traffic, it is necessary that the legis- 
lative, executive and judicial braimohes of government should be in the handis of a political 



National Party Flctforms of 1904. 



Ill 



■;^^^;-;:Z^:^:^:r^-^^ an. ple^^ea to its ««.od.\.eat in law. 

■and to the execution of those laws. , „,. _,„.,„„ +v,» -prnchihi- 



enforcement 



lion and sa _e of a'cnholic beia.a«eo declare that there is not only no 

Xo Other Issue «« Equal Importallee.v^ ^ ^^ but that the so-called 

other issue of equal ""P^^rtance before the Amei ican pe ^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ electorate of 

l^c^uTr^y ^rei^'^n'^a^r.^Ta^rsuht^'^fug'^^^^^^^^^ cover o. which they wra^g.e for the 

spoils of office. „ , ,s„ a„<.«tinns Recognizing that the intelligent voters 

of t-^e"c^*u"nf^' ray^^^r'SnS.' -^^at^ti" upon o^^- ^--t'°- °^ ^^^'"^ ^°"''^^™- "^ 
declare ourselves in favor of: 

Tbe impartial enforcement of all law. . „ppii<;ation of the principles of 

^"^4"more''&t'i'ma?"refatfon\"et"^l^•the people and government, by a wise application of 
*^^ i^lcT'ShVnys^^n^oJ.f 'lawris'l^U tarilf schedules in the hands of an omni- 

^^' T'lt? aoXin^"'af uniform laws to all our country and dependencies. 

The Iffin'o? united State^ ^'-^':'J^,,l\Tl^e°l-S ^v^^^' laws. 

The extension and honest admimstration of the cm^ ^ryee ^.^^^^^^^ of the people 

The safeguarding of eyeTj ""zen ine^ery place unaei in , ^^^ constitution. 

of the United States, in all the rights ^^^I'^'^'fAP^.,"'^ ' t^Dn contribute, in every 

Internationa, arbitration, and we declare that our >mtnn^^^^^^^ ^^ p^^^ between 

manner consistent with national dignity, to the peimaneoi ebidJi 
^'^ ThL° reform of our divorce law«, the final extirpation of polygamy, and the^ 
^^il^\^rLt^^ S^'^nS^^aSt^^^n^t^ll our eitie.. 

PLATFORM OF THE CONTINENTAL PARTY, ADOPTED AT CHICAGO, ILL., 

AUGUST 31, 1904. 

. ,, TT ■^^A iafotP« in first national convention assembled, in 

^ The continental Pa^'ty of the Una ted States, m f>i^^^ ^^ principles: 

the city of Chicago. August 31, 1904, announceb ^ " « ^^ forth in its chavter, are: "To enlist 

The objects and ends of the Continental P?,'t^i_-^„f L^^^^^in ea-nest and honorable efforts 

the co-operation of lesal voters throu^hof, ^™™menf , and in "their etead, to secure the 

to repeal unjust laws m f^'^ry branch of gmernmen^^ 'establish justice, insure domes- 

irtlT^^^ifmV.^^rTnX"t\ie^^°eS the election or appointment to 

office of honest and capable men. ^^Wajinine- to money, the tariff, transportation. 

Paramount i^^^^^--^^"" ^Z^.lT thfl^Ztrlhie^^^ pre-eniinemly' live issues, 

trusts and corporations, the rac« PJ^'^,'"' ^h^ they a?e settled right. 

Whioh can never b« -f -^"f "^."*'^,f " f ""''' relations with na^tions of the Eastern Conti- 
Tariff.— Without referring to our trad„®i„^|f ^j^n^ wn advocated by that eminsnt 

nent, we declare our adherence to the Principles o£recipioc^>^.^ republics. To this end 
snate.man, James G. Blaine.^ applied to Canada a^^^ inten.'ed to bring abo.it 

we favor such Congi-essional a'Jtion as shall imtiaxe a rm) ^^^ language of 

k^?!«ilfe:^?4L^eri"iL^?^o^nffT^ui'onl'^co.S^Sltr^^^^ Cape Horn and the NoHh 

""^^ Money.-.We believe that the -oney que^ion i^^J^J-^ ^^^^y^^l^^'t^^ 
involves not only the gold standard, J^ut the tar^^eaier q ^^ ^^^ banks? He 

issue and control the Paper currency o€ the natoon^ country, 

who controls the money of a country ff>titrol^tne gowmm ^^^^ .^ .^ interna- 

We believe that t^« '^^f^^y ^^""'^oate h^d^^^^ and N^w York; that its 

\^^^ -ol*e^nn^^m^^^%^rti^^l4rfh^^P^^^^ ^^Z^'^^^ L'^^^l 

\^^}^s^r^T^e'v?J^r^^^6l^ o"f b^o^trfhe'^RtpubUcal and Dlnocatic parties 
and dictated the main planks of their national platforms. Tjolitical parties of this 

We believe that it is this ?"l>sOTV.ency of the two of th" codtr7 into the hands of 
country to the money trust that is fast plains the wealth of tne^^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

lr!r^\liu^^^^\rirsrJa r^^'^^^^^ which .threatens to be more 

arbitrary in its demands than any monar<^y of the pm World National Govern- 

men;'^'^hfci\r"(foUl'u^rlfil l^^i^^\"oM1^sTites:\".t'"A%h the Republican party has 
'"'^^Ast' j="h^rto'°theTn;roachmen,t. of the money power we advocate the following 

•^^""^f'-^ot authorizing national banks to issue notes of credit should f ^^^epea^loualAn 
money of every description should be issued by the general Government, and be equal m 

''"""posurbanfe for^eposit and check should be established-one in every city, oounty- 



112 National Party JPlaiforms of WOJ^.. 



tovm and village, the surplus funds thus accruing to be loaned to the people at interest 
not exceeding Z par cent per annuim. ^ ^ ., ^ ,^ , , ^. ■ 

The one hundred and twelve million dollaa-s Government funds deiposdted In banKS 
*ould be withdrawn aaid loaned to the several Stateis on deposit of State bonds. 

Transportation. — Constantly recurring aecidents on all lines of railroad, causing 
gT(Mt loss of life and the erippMng and mang-iing of hundreds of passengers, demand the 
nio«!t searching investigation ajid prompt and efficient legal remedies whereby railroads 
shall be operated for th« safety and convenience of the public, rather than for the purpose 
of declaring the usual dividend on watered stock. , , ^ ^. 

Durins- the year 1901 the railroads of England, which are owned and operated by tne 
Governmient, tran.sported an immense number of passengers without a single fatality. In 
th's eountrv a person virtuallv takes his life in his hand when he steps aboard a train of 
cars. We believe that the fatalitaes of railroad travel In the United States can be traced 
directly to the empio^Tnent of cheap and careless employes, the overworking of engineers 
and conductors, and the neglect to take proper precautions aga-ins.t accidents, with a view- 
to "cut down operating expenses," and thus enable railroad officials to declare the usual 
dividends to stockholders. , , , ^ .»• 4.1. 

As a remedy for such abuses we demamd the pro-seoulion for manslaughter oX the prin- 
cipal officers of a railroad comipamy on whose line the death of a passeniger shall be traeed 
directly to the carelessnesis or incompetency of their e^mployes, or to their incapacity 
caused by long hours of continuous labor. 

Government Railroads.— To give work to the unemployed, furnish cheaper and 
more equitable rates of transportation, insure the safety and convenience of the travelling 
public, and test the practicability of government ownership of railroads, the United States 
Gcernment .should at once proceed to construct, equip and operate one or more linos 
of four-track railway, extending from the Atlanti'C to the Paoif^c coast, and one or more 
similar lines from the Gulf of Mexico to points near our northeirn bounOary. 

Labor. — We believe in the right of labor to organize for the benefit and protection 
of tbose who toil. Capital is organized, and has no right to deny labor the priivlege whjr:h 
it claims for itself. Intelligent organization of labor is demanded to preseri'e the right;? 
of the laborer. It raises the standard of workmanship and promotes the efficiency, intelli- 
gence, independence and character of the wage earner. 

We believe with Abraham Lincoln that labor is prior to caipital and is not its slave, 
but its companion, and we plead for that broad spirit of tolerance and justice which will ■ 
promote industrial peace through the observance of juet principles of arbiiration. 

We favor the enactment of legislation lookin.? to the' improvement in conditions for 
wage earners, the abolition of child labor, the suppression of sweat-shops and of convict 
labor in competition with free labor, a.nd the exclusion from .4.mierican shores of foreign 
pauper labor and Asiatic labor of every nationality. 

We favor the sihorter workday, and declare that eight hours s'hould constitute the 
maximum workdav in all manufacturing establisihTnents. workshops, mines and all other 
induPtrial establishmeints. and that where great skill and responsibility are required of 
an em-ploye, as in the case of railroad engineers, train dispatchers, steamboat employes, 
etc., no person should be continuously employed more than six hours of the twenty-four. 

Trn.sts an«l Cornorations. — All raiilrcad and other corpora'ions doing business In 
two or mm-e .States should be chartered by Congress, and then only after a close scrutioy 
of their capitalization, a strict investigation revealing their intentions, and a most guarded 
rpftriction of their powers and operations. The creating of "corners" and the establishing 
of exorbitant prices for products necessary to human existence should be made a criminal 
offence against the officers, directors and stockholders of a corporation so offending, sub- 
jecting them, to severest penalties. A man is no less a robber because he is able to hold 
up his victim by due process of law. 

The P1ii1ij»i>ines.. — The Philippines, the same as Cuba, should be guaranteed ulti- 
mate independence and a stable government under the protection of the United States. 

The Electoral Collejre.— The CongTessional district, instead of the State, s'hould 
bp made the unit in the Electoral College, apportioning to each district one Presidential 
elector, to be chosen ^cfyr the voters of that district. 

Taxation. — We d-emand such legislation as will place the burdens of government 
upon that class of people ■pvho have been moist favored by special acts of government, and 
to this end we favor a araduated propertj^ tax, exempting from its provisions property cf 
the individual to the amount of ."SIO.OOO or less. "We al.so demand that a 10 per cent tax. be 
levied annually upon all unoccupied and unimproved land. 

]Ve\i- Primary Larr. — ^We demand the enactment by the several Staites of a primary 
"■lection law. bv which all candidates for public office sh.all be selected by direct vote of 
the people, without the aid of a delegate convention. 

We denounce government by the gavei in party conventions, and demand the elimina- 
tion of the party "boss" from party politics, by whatever method it can be brought about 

Initiative and Referenflum. — The election laws of the several .States should be 
chan}-ed. by constitutional a.mendment when neces'?a.r>-, so as to provide for direct legisla- 
tion by the method known as the initiative and referendum. 

ftnalificationi.s of Electors. — Eax^h State should pn,=isrss the sole right to deter- 
mine by ipgi.slation the qualifications required of voters within its jurisdiction, irrespective 
ot race, co^or or sex. 

Con^ititntional Revision. — ^The Constitution of the United States siliould be 
revised and amended in accordance with the method provided in Article "V., that our funda- 
mental law may answer the demands of a century of civilization and progress. 

Appeal to Independent Voters. — Relieving our demands to be practicable and 
just, we apix-al to all who believe in majority rule, to all who are wea.rv of Standard i)il 
government, tr a.ll who are opposed to gavel government In party polities, and to all 
others who desire the welfare of all the people, to unit* with us in advocating the principles 
herein enunciated until they shall be enacted Into laws for the government of this Republic 
-^,-3. Republic founded by Washington and .Tefferson and the Continental Congress, and f rst 
defended and protected by the Continental Army of the United States , 



AjypoHionment of Representatives. 



113 



jJCatiout-rl Association of democratic ®lut)s 

de.e^f?es^«erc°af&^^^^^^^^^^ and is c'co^posecl of 

junction with the National Democratic ComnV^lxT^ a:nA ^\^^ ^Jv^ f^ 

furthenng the interests of the Democratic par™-Xhe Unitld Itates l^hTfh^rr"^' ,<-'0"""it 'ee in 
are ' ' To foster the formation of pernianeiu n^mocratic clnh« «n4^ i^ J ^? objects of the Association 
States and iasnre them active coiiperation n di^S/ati^^ Jet%rsonf2^^^ "'« United 

To preserve the Constitution of the United States tlie antnnnm,- ^r f^V c! P""<r'P'<*s of government, 
and.freedom of elections. To resist revolutiot arv cl 4^1^^^^^^^ '"^'J' self-grovernment. 

the imposition of taxes be.vond the necessit es ot /ovenimen t e^^^ P°''^er. To oppose 

economy in all branches of the public service ^rronoose nnnePP^«.r.l ^J^^^^ '^"^ promote 

the benefit of the lew at tire expense of the man v To nnnnii IfoL > ^- ^'ommencial restrictions for 
and builds up mouoDoly. To maintain inviolate ke fundK^talTri iHn es 0?^"''^'^^ ^^'^P^-''^ ''-"^o'- 
before the law.', and to cooperate with the reRular oreani?ar m, ?f thi^AlJ,' "'^?'°'''''''<^>'' 'Equality 
ot Democratic men and Democratic measures " 'organization of the Democratic party in support 

YorkfsecrLTaA-f.fax'^fl'Jl^^.'if^FNeTS President William R. Hearst, of New 

James K. Jone.s/of Arkansa^ Channcev F Black of pL^„^>°.mV'?;^L^.^V^^^^ "f Indiana: 

York:; Benton McMillin, of Tennessee rOeorffrHlimlieit of ^iw^B?£"'^'^ >^^'i'"P^^' ■!'•., of New 
James L. Slayde, of Texas; W. J. Stone of Missom'i%^,r^nifr^ C. C. Richards, of Utah; 
Howell, of Georgia; E. Chambers SmitlVf North (^^^^^^^ "' ^^w York; K. P 

Faulkner, of West Virginia; J. C. Dahlmah of Nebrlika^ Rla?r V o?' "^/^V''''"-, ""^.^'i!": Charles J. 
of Washington, D C ^-^'""""'"' "' -^^eorasKa, Blair J^ee, of Maryland; C. B Blethen 

The headquarters of the Association are room 11, Tribune Building, New York. 

Kational Bepiiiilican Urague of tfje sanitttr .States 

^^^?^^^^^S^^'i^^^Ml%SL^^,^^^ in Chickering Hal,, ^ew 

assembled in national convention nursfuuu to a call^ssedh? r^.^^'''''" ;?•"'■'' ^^r,^^'' United States. 
• City. It is composed of the Republi^can clubs of the Tinifpri «totL^® Republican Club of New York 
national organization. Its purpose r<f-'oSLaKndFd^ States and united in a 

the Republican party, narticularly the vounger men and tl p^ a msto enlist recruits for 

have since been held at Baltimore 1S99- Nashviiip ^ijoa ?<■ -^ ^."^'^yS-., National conventions 
ville, 1893; Denver, 18 »4rc eveland 1S95^^ MiTw^ ^f^^' Bumilo, 1.S92; Loui^l 

nial sessions aft=-rward): St. Paul 1900 r'hica-o ImoI' ^nm' Detroit, 1897; Omaha, l.>-98 (bi^pn- 
Philadelphia: Vice-Pres dent, James TSherWnn r b^^n,.i^-^e^'"*~:^'"*'®'^^f ^- J- Hampton Moore 
Centre, la. ; Treasurer. Sid. B Redding, Li t? le Rock Ar^° ' Secretary, Elbert W. Weeks. Guthrie 



Srije 25Irctoral Uote. 

THE following is the electoral vote of the States as based upon the Apportionment act of 1900; 



States. 



Alab.ima.. . 
Arkans:is. . . 
California , . 
Colorado.. ., 
Connecticut., 
Delaxvare. . . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

low.a 



Electoral 
Votes. 



n 

9 

10 



.5 

13 
3 
27 
l.'i 
13 



•Statks. 



Kansas 

Kentucky 

Lonisiaua ^^. 

Maine \/,, 

Marj-iand.../. .. 
Massachusetts. . . 

Michi^.nn 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montan.T 

Nebraska 



Electoral 
Votes. 



10 
13 
» 
t> 

8 
16 
14 
11 
10 
18 



States. 



Nevada 

New H.impsliire 
New .Tersfv. . ,, 

New York '. 

North Carolina. 
North Dakot.%... 

Ohio 

Oregon ., 

Pennsylvania... 
Rhode" Island... 
South Carolina., 
South Dakota..., 



Electoral 
Votes. 



Electoral votes necessary to a choice. 



4 
12 

:j9 

12 
4 

23 
4 

34 
4 
9 
4 



States. 



Tennessee 

Texas - . 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virffinia, 

Washlnjrtdn 

West Virprinin... 

Wisconsin 

Wvomitw, . , 



Total. 



Electoral 
Votes. 



12 

.18 
Z 
4 
12 
6 
7 
13 
3 

476 



be entitled to six electoral Votes and'the^econd to fou? eSmf #otes'!' ^''''^' '"' ^'^^ "'"' ^^^^^^^ 

^DDortionmcnt of a^epresentatibes 



IN THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES 



Under — 



Constitution 

First Census 

Second Census..., 

Third Census 

Fourth Census 

Fifth Census 

Sixth Census 

Seventh Census .. 
Eighth Census.... 

Ninth Census 

Tenth Census 

Eleventh Census.. 
Twelfth Census. 



Census. 



Year. 

1790 
1800 
IHIO 
J 820 
1830 
1840 
18.50 
J 8(50 
1870 
J 880 
1890 
19(J0 



Population. 



3,929,214 

6,31)8.483 

7.2.39,881 

9,«33.822 

12.806,020 

17,069,4.53 

23,191,876 

31,443,321 

38.5,58,371 

60, 155, 783 

62.622,250 

74, .565, 906 



AppOP.TrONMENT. 



Year. 

"ITSJT 
1793 
1803 
181::! 
1823 
1833 
1843 
18.53 
3863 
1873 
1883 
1893 
1901 



Itatio. 



30,000 

33,000 

33, OOo 

35.0(10 

40, 000 

47, 7< 

70,680 

93,^23 

127,381 

131.4L'5 

ir,i.9ii 

173.901 

1?'4,182 



Whole Number 

of Kepresen- 

tatives. 



65 
105 
141 
181 
213 
240 
223 
233 
248 
293 
325 
356 
386 



114 



Presidential W.ections. 



I^rtsitfential fSlrctionis 



FROM 1789 TO 1900. 

AOOREQATE POPUXAR VOTE AND ELECTORAL VOTE FOR CANDIDATES FOR PRESI- 
DENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT AT EACH ELECTION. 
TJn-™ There is uroperly speaking, no popular vote for President and Vice-President ; the people vote for electors, and 
thosr^o'^^in eacii^ltate Le^t thefe'in aSd^ote for the candidates for ^7^}-^^^^ """"t^^'^'^'^'i- ^IVnfthX^. 
„,fl.r vMe for electors orior to 1824 is so meagre and imperfect that a compilation would be useless. In most of the States, 
F Pl„rrih/n a auarter™nturvfo^^ establishment of the Government, the State Legislatures ''apr,ointed» the 

Presreutia^ electo"s"and the pe^>ple therefore voted only indirectly for them, their choice being e:.pressed by tteir votes for 
Sers of the Legislature. In this tabulation only the agi^regate electoral votes for candidates tOr President and Vice-Presi- 
dent in the first nine quadrennial elections appear. 

ELECTORAL VOTES. 
iwco T..o„i^„. f^lini P^ch elector voted for two candidates for P'esident. The one who received the largest number 

3 Geor.^Washiniton was chosen PresiJeut and John Adams Vice-President. , „ v ^ ,■ i. ^ ,• . 

l,w. f^ *T . p„H»r«HRt 71 ■ Thomas Jefferson, Republican, C3 ; Thomas Pinckney, of South Carolina, Federalist, 
« l^?^R.rf of New York p!epublVoin 3o7sam>.^^^^ Massach'usetts, Kepublican' 15 ; Oliver Ellsworth, of Con- 

59 ; Aarou Burr, of New ^"j^' f '^P'Ji';' „S, of New York, Kepubiicau, 7 ; John Jay, of New York, Federalist, 5 ; James Iredell, 
necticut, luderendent, 11 '^'^^^'f^y^^^^"^^^ of' Virginia : John Henry, of Maryland, and S. Johnson, of North Caro- 

tTM%^lt::ill"^^^''-'^^-^^^^^^^ ^O"* Carolina, Lderalist, 1 vote. John Adams was 

choJen President. Id Thoma^^^^^ 

ney;^^;ii^^^S^%e Jr^i^^ Jf^, '^here ^-ga tie voteforJeff^sou a^ -- thecho;. devolv^dupo^ 
":rdtimT4rsk™r Burr ?fcdv?dlhe";tes'^^^^ which, b^ing the next largest vote, elected him Vice-President. 

"^^"^^al ^ ThTcorsUtution of the United States having been amended, the electors at this election voted for a President and 

l'J:*-o . ■ li „V f^r tw« <.» iriidates for President The result was as follows,: For President, Thomas Jeffereon 

RrpTblS;'^"'; Ch He's C. lrnclr;,^Fe'^t\'f^t!°[4^' FlirVice-President, George Clinton, Kepubhcau, W. ; Kufus King, of 

Nen-ork Federalist, 14. Jefferson was chosen President and Clinton Vice-President. . , .^ „ ,. -n ., r , 

V««8 For Pr sident James Madison, of Virscinia, Republican, 122 ; Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina, Federalist, 

of Pennsylvan'ia, li J°ohn^Ma;shalT,'of Virginia^, 4; Robert d. Harper? of Maryland, 3. Vacancies, 4. Monroe was chosen 
President and TomplcinsVice-P^sident Republican, 23,., John Q. Adams, of Massachusetts, Republican, 1. 

ciiosen President aud Daniel D. Tompkins Vice-President. 



ELECTORAL AND POPULAR VOTES. 



Year of Election , 



1824 



1828, 



1832 



Candidates for 
President, 



Andrew Jackson. . . 
John Q. Adams*... 

Henry Clay 

Wm. H. Crawford. 



Andrew Jackson*. 
John Q. Adams... 



Andrew Jackson*. .. 

Henry Clay 

John Floyd 

William Wirt (c) 



States. 



Tenn. 
Mass. 
Ky .. 
Ga... 



Tenn. 
Mass.. 



Tenn . 

Ky... 

Ga... 
Md... 



1836 



1840. 



1844. 



Martin Van Buren* . 

W. H. Harrison 

Hugh L. White 

Daniel Webster 

Willie P. M.anguin., 



N. Y. 
O.... 
Tenn. 
Mass . 

N. C. 



W. H. Harrison*... 
Martin Van Buren. 
James G. Birney. .. 



James K.Polk*. 

Henry Clay 

James G. Birney 



Polit- 
ical 
Party. 

Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 



Popular 
Vote. 



Dem .. 

Nat. K. 



Dem . . 
Nat. R, 
Ind.... 
Anti-M 



O.... 
N. Y. 
N. Y. 



Tenn. 
Ky... 

N. y. 



155,872 

105,321 

46,587 

44,282 



647,231 

609,097 



Plu- 
rality. 



50,551 



(b)99 
S4 
37 
41 



138,134 



687,602 
530,189 

33,108 



Dem . 

Whig. 

Whig. 

Whig.. 

Whig^ 

Whig.. 
Dem . . 
Lib ... 



Dem . 
Whig. 
Lib .. 



761,549 
736,656 

1^276,017 

1,128,702 

7,059 



1,337,243 

1,299,068 

62,300 



167,313 



Elec- 
toral 
Vote. 



178 
83 



Candidates for 
Vice-President. 



John C. Calhoun*. 
Nathan S.anford. . . 
Nathaniel Macon . . 
Andrew Jackson.. 
M. Vim Buren.... 

Henry Clay 

John C.Calhoun*. 
Richard Rush ..... 
William Smith 



219 M. Van Buren*. 
49 John Sergeaut.. 



....I 


11 
7 


24,893 


170 


, 


26 
14 
11 

234 
60 


146,315 


38,175 


170 
105 



Henry Lee. 

' Amos Ellinaker (c).. 

Wm. Wilkins 



R. M. Johnson (d)* 
Francis Granger. . . 

John Tyler 

: William Smith 



States. 



S. C. 

N. Y. 
N. C. 
Tenn. 
N. Y. 
Ky .. 

S. C. 
Pa... 
S.C. 
N. Y. 
Pa... 
Mass . 
Pa... 
Pa... 



^'.y. 



John Tyler* 

R, M.Johnson.. . 
L. W. Tazewell. . 
Jjimes K. Polk... 
Thomas Earle . . . 



I George M. Dallas*. 

i T, Frelinghuysen. . . 

Thomas Morris 



Va.. 

Ala. 



Polit- Elec- 

ical toral 

Party. Vote. 



Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep . , 
Rep.. 
Rep.. 
Rep . 



Dem . . 
Nat. R. 
Dem . . 

Dem . . 
Nat. R. 
Iu.1 ... 
Auti-M 
Dem .. 



Dem . 
Whig. 
Whig.. 
Dem 



1^2 

30 

24 

13 

9 

2 

TiT 



189 

49 

11 

7 

30 



147 
77 
47 
23 



234 

48 

11 

1 

~m 

106 



Presidential Elections. 



115 



PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS— ConftMwed. 



Year of Election. 


Candidates for 
President. 


States. 

La ... . 
Mich.. 
N. Y.. 

X, H.. 
N, J.. 

N. H.. 
Mass . . 

Pa ... . 
Cal.,.. 
N. Y.. 

Ill ... . 
Ill ... . 
Ky.... 

Tenn.. 

Ill .... 
N.J... 


Polit- 
ical 
Party. 

Whig. 
Dem .. 
F.Soil. 


Popular 

Vote. 


Plu- 
rality. 


Elec- 
toral 
Vote. 

163 
127 


Candidates for 
Vice-President. 


States. 

N. Y.. 
Ky.... 
Mass.. 


Polit- 
ical 
Party. 


Elei.- 

toral 
Vote. 


1848 


Zacfaary Taylor* 

Lewis Ca.ss.". 

Martin Va7i Buren 


1,360,101 

1,220,544 

•>91,263 


il39,557 


Millard Fillmore* 

William 0, Butler: 

Charles F. Adams 


Whig. 
Dem . . 
F. Soil. 

Dem .. 

Whig 

F.D... 

Dem .. 
Rep .. 

Amer.. 

Rep... 
Dem . . 
Dem .. 
Union. 


163 
"127 


1852 


Franklin Pierce* 

Winlield Scott 

John P.Hale 

D.aniel Webster (k) 


Dem .. 

Whig . 
F.D.(i) 
Whig.. 

Dem . . 
Rep . . . 
Amer.. 
Rep... 
Dem . . 
Dem . . 
Union . 


1,601,474 

1,380,516 

156,149 

1,670 


220,896 


254 
42 

174 
114 

8 

180 

12 

72 

39 

e212 
21 

f214 

80 

286 
e ■• 

'42 

18 

i 

184 
hl85 

214 

155 

219 
182 

168 
233 

277 
145 

22 

271 
176 

^M2 
155 


William R, King* 

William A, Graham. . . . 
George W. Julian 


Ala . . . 
N. C. 
Ind.... 


264 

42 


1836 


James Buchanan* 

John C. Fremont 

Millard Fillmore 


1,838,169 

1.341,264 

874,538 


496,905 


J. 0. Breckinridge* 

W illiam L, Dayton 

A, J, Donelson 


Ky.... 
N.J... 

Tenn.. 

Me. . . . 
Ga.... 
Ore.... 
Mass.. 


174 
114 

8 


iSOO 


.^br.1ham Lincoln* 

Stephen A . Douglas 

J. C. Breckinridge 

John Bell 


1,866,352 

1,375,157 

845,763 

589,581 


491,195 


Hannibal Hamlin* 

H. V. Johnson 


180 
12 




Joseph L.aue 

Edward Everett 


72 
39 








1864.'. 


Abraham Lincoln* 

George B. McClellan... 


Rep,.. 
Dem .. 


2,216,067 
1,803,725 


407,342 
"3067156 
"7627991 


.\iidrew Johnson* 

Georgs H, Pendleton... 


Tenn.. 



Rep .. 

Depi .. 

Rep .: 
Dem . . 


212 
21 


1868 


Ulysses S. Grant* 

Horatio Seymour 


Ill .... 
N. Y.. 

Ill .... 
N, Y.. 

N. Y.. 
Pa ... . 
Ind.... 
Mo ... 
Ga.... 
Ill .... 


Rep... 
Dem .. 

Rep,.. 
D.&L. 

Dem .. 
Temp. 
Dem . . 
Dem . . 
Dem .. 
Ind,... 

Dem .. 
Rep... 
Gre'nb 
Pro.,.. 
Amer,. 


3,015,071 
2,709,615 


Schuyler Colfax* 

F. P. Blair, Jr.., 


Ind.... 
Mo.... 


214 

80 


18T2 


Ulysses S. Grant* 

Horace Greeley 

Charles O'Conor 

James Black 


3,597,070 

2,8.34,079 

29,408 

5,608 


Henry Wilson* 

B. Gratz Brown 

John Q. Adams 


Mass.. 
Mo.... 
Mass.. 
Mich.. 
Ind.... 
Ga.... 
Ill .... 

Ky.... 
Mass.. 


Rep ,. 
D.&L. 
Dem .. 
Temp. 
Lib.... 
Dem .. 
Dem . . 
Dem . . 
Dem .. 
Dem .. 
Lib.... 

Dem . . 
Rep .. 
Gre'nb 
Pro.... 

Amer.. 

Rep .. 
Dem . . 
Gre'nb 
Pro.... 

.Amer.. 

DenlTT 
Rep .. 
Pro.... 
Gre'nb 

DeniT! 
Rep .. 

Pro 

U, L,.. 
U'd L. 
Amer,. 


286 

47 




Thomas A. Hendricks.. 

B. Gratz Brown 

Charles J.Jenkins 

David Davis 


George W.Julian 

K. H. Colqnitt 


5 
5 




John M. Palmer 

T. E. Br.amlette 

VV.S. Groesbeck 

Willis B. Machen 

N. P. Banks 


3 
3 






1 
1 

1 


1876 


Sanmel J. Tilden 

Rutherford B. Hayes*. . 
Peter Cooper 


N. Y.. 



N. Y 


4,284,885 

4,933,950 

81,740 

9,522 

2,636 

4,449,053 

4,442,035 

307,306 

10,305 

707 


250,935 
7,018 


T. A. Hendricks 

William A.Wheeler*.. 

Samuel F. Cary 

G ideon T. Stewart 

D. Kirkpatrick 


Ind.... 
N. Y.. 





N. Y.. 


184 
185 




Green Clay Sniith 

James B. Walker 


Kv.... 
Ul .... 



Pa ... . 

Iowa.,. 
.Me.... 
Vt 

N, Y.. 
Me.... 
Kwm. . . 

Mas.s.. 
Cal ... 

N. Y.. 
Ind ... 
N.J... 
Ill .... 
Ill .... 
N. Y.. 




1880 


James A. Gartield* 

W. S. Hancock 

James B. Weaver 

Neal Dow 

John W, Phelps 


Rep,.. 
Dem .. 

Gre'nb 
Pro.... 

Amer.. 

Dem .. 
Rep... 

Pro.... 
Gre'nb 
Amer.. 

Dem .. 
Rep ... 
Pro.... 
U. L.. 
U'd L. 
Amer,. 


Chester A. Arthur* 

William H. English 

B. J. Chambers 

H. A. Thompson 

S. C. Pomeroy 


N. Y.. 
Ind.... 
Tei... 



Kan... 


214 
155 


1884 


(Jrover Cleveland* 

James G. Blaine 

John P. St, John 

Beinatnin F, Butler. . . , 
P. D, Wigginton 


4,911,017 

4,848,334 

151,809 

133,826 


62,683 


T. A. Hendricks* 

John A. Logan 

William Daniel 

A. M. West 


Ind.... 
Ill .... 
Md.... 
Miss... 


219 
182 








1888 


Grover Cleveland 

Benjamin Harrison* . . . 

Clinton B, Fisk 

Alson J. Streeter 

R. H. Cowdrv 


0,538,233 

6,440,216 

249,907 

148,165 

2,808 

l,!i91 

6,556,918 

5,176,108 

1,041.028 

264,1.33 

21.164 


98,017 


^llen G, Thurman 

Levi P. Morton* 

John A. Brooks 

C, E. Cunningham 

W. H. T. Wakefield... 
James B, Greer 




N. Y.. 
Mo.... 
Ark... 
Kan... 
Tenn.. 

Ill .... 
N. Y. . 

Va 

Tex.... 
N. y.. 


168 
233 




James L, Curtis 




1893 


Grover Cleveland* 

Benjamin Harrison 

James B. Weaver 

John Bidwell 

Simon Wins. . . . 


N. Y.. 
Ind ... 
Iowa... 
Cal . . . 
Mas,s.. 


Dem . . 
Rep... 
Peop . . 
Pro.... 
Soc. L. 


380,81" 


Adlai E. Stevenson*... 

Whitelaw Reid 

James G. Field 

J.ames B. Cranfill 

Charles H. Matchett... 


Dem.. 
Rep .. 
Peop . . 
Pro.... 
Soc. L. 


277 

145 
22 








1896 


Willi.am McKinley* 

William J. Brvan 

Willi.am J. Bryan 

Joshua Levering 

Johu M. Palmer 

Charles H. Matchett 

Charles E. Bentley 


() 

Neb... 
Neb... 
Md . . . 
Ill .... 
N. X.. 
Neb... 

O 

Neb... 
III.... 

Pa 

Ind.... 
Mass.. 

la 

O 


Rep,.. 
Dem. i 
Peop ) 
Pro.... 

N. Dem 
Soc, L. 
Nat. Ci) 


7,104,77H 

6,502,925 

132,007 

133,148 

86,274 

13,969 


601,8.54 

1;::: 


Garret A. Hobart* 

Arthur Sewall 

Thomas E. Watson 

Hale Johnson 

Simon B. Buckner 

Matthew Maguire 

James H. Southscate . . . 


N. J .. 
Me.... 
Ga-. .. 

Ill 

Ky. ... 
N. J... 
N. C .. 


Uep, . . 
Dem .. 
Peop... 

Pro 

N. Dem 
Soc. L. 
Nat. (j) 


2-1 
149 

27 


1900 


William McKiiiley*... 

William J. Bryan 

John G. Woolley 

Wharton Barker 

Eugene V. Debs. 

Jos. F. Mallonev 

J.F. R. Leonard" 

Seth H.Ellis 


Rep... 
Dem.P 
Pro.,.. 

MP(m) 
Soc.D. 
Soc. L. 
UC{n) 
UIl (o) 


7,207,923 

6,:-:68,l33 

208,914 

50,373 

87,814 

39,739 

1,059 

,5,698 


849,790 


Theodore Roosevelt*. . . 

Adlai E. Stevenson 

Henry B. Metcalf 

Ignatius Donnelly 


N. Y.. 
111:.... 



Minn.. 

Cal 

Pa ... . 

Ill 

Pa ... . 


Rep. .. 
Dem.P 
Pro.... 
MP(iii) 
Soc.D. 
Soc. L. 
UC(n) 
U II (0) 


292 
155 




Valentine Kemmel 

John G. Woolley 

Samuel T. Nicholson. . . 





For Presidential Election of 1904, See First Page of Election Returns. 

* The candidates starred were elected, (a") The first Republican Partv is claimed by the present Democratic Party .as its pro- 
genitor, (b) No candidate having a majority of the electoral vote, the House of Representatives elected Adams, (c) Candidate of 
the Anti-Masonic Party, (d) There being no choice, the Sen.ate elected Johnson, (e) Eleven Southern States, being within the 
belligerent territory, did not vote, (f ) Three Southern States disfranchised, (g) Horace Greeley died after election, and Demo- 
cratic electors scattered their vote, (h) There being a dispute over the elector-al vote of Florida, Louisiana, Oregon, ami South 
Carolina, they were referred bv Congress to an electoral commission composed of eight Republicans and seven Democrats, which, 
by a strict party vote, awarded 185 electoral votes to Hayes aud 184 to Tilden. (i) Free Democrat, (j) Free Silver Prohibition 
Party, (k) In Massachusetts. There was also a Native American ticket in that State, which received 184 votes, (m) Middle of 
the Road or Anti-Fusion People's Party, (n) United Christian Party, (o) Union Reform Party. 

For popular and electoral vote by States in 1900 and 1904 consult Index. 



IIG 



Justices of the Uniped States Supreme Court. 



^resitrents of tlje Sluitetr .States. 



Name. 



TTcbrge Washington. . . . 

John Adams 

Thomas Jefferson 

James Madison 

James Monroe 

John Qiuncy Adams... . 

Andrew Jackson 

Martin Van Buren 

William H. Harrison . . . 

John Tyler 

James K. Polk 

Zachary Taylor 

Millard Fillmore 

Franklin Pierce 

James Bnchanau 

Abraham Lincoln 

Andrew Johnson 

Ulysses S. Grant 

Rutherford B.Hayes... 

James A. Garfield 

Chester A. Arthur 

Grover Cleveland 

Benjamin Harrison 

Gro\'er Cleveland. ... 

IVVilliam McKinley 

i'rheodore Roosevelt — 



Birthplace. 



Westmoreland Co., \'a. 

Quincy, Mass 

Shadwell, Va 

Port Conway. Va 

Westmoreland Co., Va. 

Quincy, Mass 

Union Co., N. C.*.... 

Kinderhook, N. Y 

Berkeley, Va 

Greenway, Va 

Mecklenburg Co., N. C. 

Orange Co., Va 

Summerhill, N. Y 

Hillsboro, N. H 

Cove Gap, Pa 

Larue Co., Ky 

Raleigh, N. C 

Point Pleasant, O 

Delaware, O 

Cuy.'ihoga Co., O 

Fairfield, Vt 

Caldwell, N.J 

Korth Bend, O 

Caldwell, N.J 

Niles, O 

New York Citv 



Wi-i 
ns.i 
1743 
1151 
l-iSS 
1767 
1767 
1782 
177a 
179U 
179.5 
1784 
1800 
1804 
1791 
1809 
1808 
182-i 
1822 
1831 
1830 
1837 
1833 
1837 
1843 
1858 



Paternal 
Ancestry. 



English 

English . . . . 

Welsh 

English 

Scotch 

English . . . . 
Scotch-Irish. 

Dutch 

English , . . . 

English 

Scotch-Irish. 

English 

English 

English 

Scotch-Irish . 
English . . . . 

English 

Scotch 

Scotch 

English . . . . 
Scotch-Irish. 
English . . . . 

English 

English . . . . 
Scotch-Irish . 
Dutch 



Resi- 
dence. 

V^.TT 
Mass . . 

Va 

Va 

Va 

Mass . . 
Teun.. 
N. Y... 

O 

Va 

Tenn.. 
La .... 
N. Y... 
N. H.. 

Pa 

Ill 

Tenn.. 
D. C. 

O 



N. Y... 
N. Y... 
Ind ... 
N. Y... 

O 

N. Y.. 



Inaugurated . 



Age. 



Y'ear. 



1789 
1797 
18U1 
1809 
1817 
182.T 
18-.'9 
1837 
1841 
1841 
1845 
1849 
1850 
1863 
1857 
18G1 
1865 
1869 
1877 
1881 
1881 
1885 
1889 
1893 
1897 
1901 



57 

62 
58 
58 
59 
58 
62 
55 
68 
51 
60 
65 
50 
49 
66 
52 
67 
47 
54 
49 
61 
48 
65 
56 
54 
43 



Politics 



Fed . . . 
Fed . . . 
Rep.t.. 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep.t. 
Dem . . 
Dem '^. 
Whig. 
Dem ., 
Dem ., 
Whig. 
Whig. 
Dem . 
Dem . 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Deal . , 
Rep... 
Dem . 
Kep... 
Kep... 



Place of Death. 



Mt. Vernon, Va. 
Quincy, Mass.. . 
Monticello, Va. . 
Montpelier, Va. . 
New York Citv. 



Washington, D. C... 

Hermitage, Tenn 

Lindenwold, N. Y. . . , 

Washington, D. C 

Richmond, Va . . 

Nashville, Tenn 

Washington, D. C 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Concord, N. H 

j Wheatland, Pa 

Washington, D. C 

Carter's Depot, Tenn 

;Mt. McGregor, N. \. 

JFremont, O. 

' Long Branch, N J . . , 
New York City 



Indianapolis, lod. . . 



Buffalo, N. Y. 



1799 

1826 
1826 
1836 
1831 
1848 
1845 
1862 
1841 
1862 
1849 
1S5U 
1874 
1869 
1868 
1865 
1875 
1885 
1893 
1881 
1886 



1901 
1901 



* Jackson called himself a South Carolinian .and his biographer, ICendall, recorded his birthplace in Lancaster County, S. Q.. but 
Partou has published documentary evidence to show that Jackson vvas born in Union County, N. C, less than a quarter mile from 
the South Carolina line. + The Democratic party of to-day claims lineal descent from the first Republican party and President 
Jefferson as its founder. X Political parties were disorganized at the time of the election of John Quincy .\dam3. He claimetl to be 
a Republican, but his doctrines were decidedly Federalistic. The opposition to his Administration took the name of Democrats and 
elected Jackson President. 

More details of the lives of the Presidente were given in The WorlC Almanac for 1902, p.ages IIS and 119. 

K%t lliresitfrjitial ^ttcccs.?jiou. 

The Presidential .succession is flxed by chapter 4 of the acts of the Forty-ninth Conarress, first ses- 
sion. In case of the removal, death, resisnation, or inability of both the President and Vice-President, 
then the Secretary of istate shall act as President until the "disability of the President or Vice-President 
is removed or a President is elected. If there be no Secretary of State, then the Secretary of the 
Treasury will act; and the remainder of the order of succession is as follows: The Secretarj' of War. 
Atiorney-Geueral, Postmaster-General, Secretary of the Navy, and Secretary of the Interior. Tlie 
acting President must, upon taking ortice, convene Cou.firre.ss, if not at tlie time in se.ssion, in extraor- 
dinary session, giving twenty da.ys' notice. This act applies only to such Cabinet otlicere as shall have 
been appointed by the advice and consent of the Senate, and are eligible under the Constitution to the 
Presidency. ^ — 

Ju.«3ticc.?s of tijc iJiTitetJ ^tatci* cSnijrtme ®:oui*t. 

(Natues of the Chief Justices in italics.) 



Name. 



Julin Jay, N. Y 

John Rutledge, S. C 

William Gushing, Mass 

.lames Wilson, Pa 

John Blair, Va 

Robert H. Harrison, Md.. 

James Iredell, N. C , 

Thomas Johnson, Md 

William Paterson, N. J_. 

J(jhn liutledge, S. C 

Samuel Cha.se, Md 

Oliver Mlsinorth, Ct , 

Bushrod Washington, Va. 

Alfred Moore, N. C 

.Tohti MarshaU, Va 

William Johnson, S. C... 
Brock. Ijivingston, N. Y. 

Thomas Todd. Ky 

Josepli Story, Mass 

(Jabriel Duval, Md 

Smith Thompson, N. Y... 

Robert Trimble, Ky 

Jolm McLean, Ohio 

Henry Baldwin, Pa 

James M. Wayne, Ga.. 

Rmi'T B. Taiiey, Md 

Philip P. Barbour, Va.. 

Joliii Catron, Tenn 

John McKinley, Ala 

Peter V. Daniel, Va .... 
Samuel Kelson, N. Y.. 



Servick. 



Term. 



1789 
1789 
1789 
1789 
1789 
1789 
1790 
1791 
1793 
1795 
1796 
179(1 
179H 
1799 
1801 
1804 
1806 
1807 
1811 
1811 
182:; 
182»; 

IH-Ji) 
1830 
183.5 
1836 
1836 
1837 
1837 
1841 
1 1845 



1795 
1791 
1810 
1798 
1796 
1790 
1799 
1793 
1806 
-1795 
1811 
1800 
181:9 
1804 
1835 
-1834 
1823 
-1826 

-1845: 

■1836 
l>S-!3 
1H2S 
1.S61 
1844 
1S67 

-1864 
1841 

-1865 

-18.52 
I860 

■187'.i 



21 



Born. 



1745 
1739 
1733 
9il742 
1732 
111745 
9il751 
2 1732 
1745 
1739 
1741 
1745 
1762 
1755 
1755 
1771 
1757 
1765 
1779 
1 752 
1767 
1777 
1785 
1779 
1790 
1777 
1783 
1786 
1780 
1785 
1792 



Died. 



1829 
1800 
1810 
il798 
1800 
1790 
1799 
1819 
1806 
ilSOO 
1811 
1807 
1829 
1810 
1835 
1834 
1823 
1826 
1845 
1844 
1843 
1828 
1861 
1844 
1867 
1864 
1811 
1S65 
18.52 
1860 
1873 



Name 



Levi Woodbury, N. H 

Robert C. Grier, Pa 

Benj. R. Curtis, Mass 

John A. Campbell, Ala... 

Nathan Clifford, Me 

Noah H. Swayne, Ohio 

Samuel F. Miller, Iowa... 

David Davis, 111 

Stephen J. Field, Cal 

Salmon P. Chase, Ohio 

William Strong, Pa 

Joseph P. Bradley, N. J.., 

Ward Hunt, N. Y. 

MorrUon H. Waitp, Ohio... 

.lohn M. Harlan, Kv 

William B. Woods, "(Ja 

Stanley Matthews, Oliio... 

Horace Gray. Mas.s.... 

Samuel Blatcliford, N. Y. 
LuciusQ. C. Lamar, Miss... 

Melville W. Fuller, -IW 

David J. Brewer, Kan 

Henry B. Brown, Mich... 

George Shiras, Jr. , Pa 

Howell E.Jacksou, Tenn. 

lOdward TJ. White, La 

lUifus W. Peckham, N.Y. 

.loseph McKenna, Cal 

Oliver W. Holmes, Mas.s. 
William R. Day, Ohio... 



Service; 
Term. 



1845-1851 
1846-1870 
1851-1857 
1853-1861 
1858-1881 
1861-1881 
1862-1890 
1862-1877 
1863-1897 
1864-1873 
1870-1880 
1870-1892 
1872-1882 
1874-1888 

1877- 

1880-1S87 
1881-1889 
1881-1902 
1 882-1893 
1888-1893 

1888- 

1889- 

1890- 

1892-1903 
1893-1895 

1893- 

1895- ... 
1898- ... 

1902- ... 

1903- ... 



Born, 



1789 
1794 
1809 
1811 



23 1803 



11 



1804 
181fi 
1815 
1816 
1808 
1808 
1813 
1811 
1816 
18:« 
1824 
1824 
1828 
1820 
1825 
1833 
1837 
1836 
1832 
1832 
1845 
1837 
1843 
1841 
1849 



Died. 

1^51 
1870 

1874 
1889 
1881 
1884 
1890 
1886 
1899 
1873 
1895 
1892 
1886 
1888 



1887 
1889 
1902 
1893 
1893 



1895 



S2)eakers of the TTnlted States House of Representatives. 117 



Uice^^^ucsitfcuts of tlje SSnitctJ states. 



N^us. 



John Adams ,. 

Thotima Jefferson 

Aaron Burr 

George Clinton 

Elbriilge Gerry 

Daniel D. Tompkins 

Joiin C. Calhoim 

Martin Van Buren 

Uichard M. Johnson 

John Tyler 

George M. Dallas 

Millard Fillmore 

William U. King 

John C. Breckinridge 

Hannibal Hamlin 

Andrew Jolinson 

Schuyler Colfax 

Henry Wilson 

William A. Wheeler 

Chester A. Arthur 

Thos. A. Hendricks 

Levi P. Morton 

Adlai E. Stevenson 

Garret A. Hobart 

Thi-'odore Roosevelt 

Oh is.W.FairbauksC elect 



Birthplace. 



Quincy, Mass 

Shadwell, Va 

Ne\vark, N. J. . 

Ulster Co., N. Y 

Marblehead, Mass 

Scarsdale, N. Y 

Abbeville, S. C 

Kiuderhook, X. Y 

Louisville, Ky 

Greenway, Va 

Phitadeljihia, Pa 

Siunmerhill.N. Y 

Sampson Co., N. C. 

Lexington, Ky 

Paris, Me 

Italeigh, N. C 

New York City, N.Y.. 

FarmingtoD, N. H 

Malone.N. Y 

Fairfield, Vt 

Muskingum Co.,0 

Shoreham, Vt 

Christian Co., Ky 

Long Branch. N. J. . , . 
New York City, N. Y . 
Unionville Center, O,. 



1735 

1743 
17511 
1739 
1744 
1174 

nso 

1790 
1792 

isoo 

1780 
182) 
1809 
1808 
1823 
1812 
1819 
1830 
1819 
1824 
1835 
1S44 
1858 
185-J 



Paternal 
Ancestry. 



English, ... 
Welsh .... 

English 

I'^nglish 

I'^nglish 

English . 

Scotch-Irish 

Dutch 

E;ig!ish . 

English ..... 
English..... 

ICriirlish 

English 

Scotch 

English 

English 

English 

English 

English 

Scotch-Irish . 
Scotch-Irish. 

Scotcli 

Scotch-Irish . 

English 

Dutch 

English 



M.TSS. 

Va... 
N. Y. 
N. Y. 
M.a-ss. 
N. Y.. 
.S. C, 
N. Y.. 
Ky .. 
Va . . . 
Pa... 
N. Y.. 
.\la... 
Kv .. 
Me... 
Teun. 
Ind... 
Mass.. 



N. Y. . 
N. Y.^ 
ml... 
N.Y.. 
III.... 
N. J.. 
X. Y. 
Inl... 



^= 



1789 
1797 
1801 
1805 
1613 
1817 
1825 
1833 
1837 
1841 
1845 
1849 
1853 
1857 
1861 
1865 
1869 
1873 
1877 
1881 
1885 
1889 
1893 
1897 
1901 
1905 



Fed .. 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Dem.. 
Dem. . 
Dem.. 
Dem.. 
Whig. 
Dem.. 
Dem.. 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Dem.. 
Rep... 
Dem.. 
Rep... 
Rep... 
Kep... 



Place of Death. 



Qnincy, M.'u% 

Monticello, Va 

Staten Island. N. Y.. 
W,-ishington, D. C... 
W.ashington, D. C. .. 
Staten Islaud, .M. Y. . 
W.ashington, D. C... 
Kinderhook, N. Y... 

Fraukfort. Ky 

Richmond, Va 

Philailelphia, Pa.. . 

Buffalo, N. y 

DaIla.sCo., Ala 

Le.xington. Ky 

Bangor, Me. 

Carter Co., Tenn 

Mankato, Minn 

Washington, D. C... 

Malone, N. Y 

New York City, N.Y. 
Indianapolis, Ind. , , . 



Paterson, N. J . 



1826 
1826 
1836 
1812 
1814 
1825 
1850 
1862 
1850 
1862 
1864 
1874 
1853 
1875 
1891 
1875 
1885 
1875 
1887 
1886 
1885 



1899 



9t! 
83 
80 
73 
70 
51 
68 
79 
70 
72 
72 
74 
67 
54 
81 
66 
62 
63 
68 
56 
66 



53 



3|rrsitrcnts pro temijore of tfje sauitetr States eSenate. 



Congress. 


Years. 


Name. 


State. 


Born. 


Died. 


Congress. 


Years. 


Name. 


State. 


Born. 


Died. 


1, 2 


1789-92 


John Langdon 


N. H. 


1739 


1819 


19, 20 


1826-23 


Xathaniel Macon 


N.C.. 


1757 


1837 




1792 


Richard H.Lee 


Va.... 


1732 


1794 


20-22 


1828-32 


Samuel Smith 


Aid... 


1752 


1839 


2, 3 


1792-94 


John Langdon 


N. H. 


1739 


1819 


22 


1832 


L. W. Tazewell 


Va... 


1774 


1860 


3 


1794-95 


Ralph Izard 


S.C... 


1742 


1804 


22, 23 


1832-34 


Hugh L.White 


Tenn . 


1773 


1840 


3. 4 


1795-96 


Henry Tazewell 


Va.... 


1753 


1799 


23 


1834-35 


Geo. Poindexter 


Miss.. 


1779 


1863 


4 


1796-97 
1797 


Samuel Livermore. . .. 
William Bingh.am 


N. H. 
Pa . . . 


17.32 
1751 


1803 
1804 


24 
24-26 


183.1-36 
1836-41 




Va... 
Ala... 


1790 
1786 




4, 5 


William R. King 


1853 


D 


1797 


William Br.tdford.... 


R. I.. 


1729 


1808 


26. 27 


1841-42 


Saml. L. Southard.... 


N.J.. 


1787 


1842 


5 


1797-98 


Jacob Read 


S.C. 


1752 


1816 


27-29 


1642-46 


W. P. Mangnm 


N.C.. 


1792 


1861 


D 


1798 


Theo. Sedgwick 


Mass.. 


1746 


1813 


29. 30 


1846-49 


D. R. Atchison 


Mo... 


1807 


1886 


5 


1798-99 


John Laurence 


N.Y.. 


1750 


1810 


31, 32 


1850-52 


William R. King 


Ala... 


1786 


1853 


» 


1799 


James Ross 


Pa . . . 


1762 


1847 


32, 33 


1862-54 


D. R.Atchison 


Mo... 


1807 


1886 


6 


1799-1800 


.Samuel Livernrore . .. 


N. II. 


1732 


1803 


33, 34 


1864-57 


Jesse D. Bright 


Ind... 


1812 


1875 


6 


1800 


Uriah Tracy 


Ct.... 


1755 


1807 


34 


1857 


.lames M. Mason 


Va ... 


1798 


1871 


6 


1800-1801 


John E. Howard 


Md .. 


1752 


1827 


35, 36 


1857-61 


Ben.i, Fitzpatrick 

Solomon Foot 


Ala... 


1802 


1869 


6 


1801 


Janies Hillhouse 


Ct.... 


1754 


1832 


36-38 


1861-64 


Vt.... 


1802 


1866 


7 


1801-02 


Abr.aham Baldwin 


Ga . . . 


1754 


1807 


38 


18S4-66 


Daniel Cl.ark 


K. H. 


1809 


1891 


7 


1802-03 


Stephen R. Bradley.. 


Vt ... 


1754 


1830 


39 


1865-67 


Lafavette S. Foster... 


Ct.... 


1806 


1680 


8 


1803-04 


John BrovvTi 


Kv... 


1767 


1837 


40 


1867-69 


Benjamin F. Wade... 


Ohio . 


1800 


1878 


8 


1804-05 


Jexse Franklin 


-V.C. 


1758 


1823 


41, 42 


1869-73 


Henrv B. Anthony... 


R. 1.. 


1815 


1834 


8 


1805 


Joseph Anderson 


TelHl. 


1757 


1837 


43 


1873-75 


M. H. Carpenter 


Wis.. 


1824 


1881 


9, 10 


1605-08 


Samuel Smith 


Md... 


1752 


1839 


44, 45 


1875.79 


Thomas W. Ferry 


Mich . 


1627 


1896 


10 


1808-09 


Stephen R. Bradley.. 


Vt ... 


1754 


1830 


46 


1879-81 


A. G. Thurman 


Ohio . 


1613 


1893 


10. u 


1809 


John Milledge 


Ga.... 


1757 


1818 


47 


1881 


Thomas F. Bayard. . . 


Del... 


)82S 


1898 


11 


1809-10 


Andrew Gregg 


Pa... 


1755 


1835 


47 


1881-83 


Diivid D.avis 


111.... 


18)5 


1686 


11 


1810-1) 


John Gaillard 


S. C 


1765 


1826 


48 


1883-85 


Geo. F. Edmunds.... 


Vt .. 


1828 




11. 12 


1811-12 
1812-13 


John Pope 


Kv... 

G.a.... 


1770 
1772 


1S45 
1834 


49 

49-51 


1885-87 
1687-91 


John Sherman 

John J. Ingalls 


Ohio.. 
K.an.. 


1823 
1833 


1901 


12, 13 


Wm. H. Crawford . . . 


1900 


13 


1813-14 


Jos. B. Varnum 


Mass., 


1750 


1821 


52 


1891-93 


C. F. Manderson 


Neb.. 


1837 




13^15 


1814-18 


.lohn Gaillard 


s. c. 


1765 


1826 


53 


1893-95 


Ish.am G. Harris 


Tenn. 


1818 


1897 


15. 16 


1818-19 


James Barbour 


Va.... 


1775 


1842 


54-58 


1895- 


William P. Frye . 


Me... 


1831 




16-19 


1S20-26 


John Gaillard 


S. C. 


1765 


1826 















.^jjcait 


zxn of X\)z 


21 


. S. I^ouse of Bcprrsentatibcs, 




Con:;r.'SS. 


Years. 
1789-91 


Name. 


state. 


lioru. 


Diud. 


Congress. 


Years. 


Name. 


State. 


Burn. 


Died. 


1 


F. A. Muhleubur^.. .. 


Pa... 


1750 


1801 


29 


1845-47 


John W. Davis 


Ind... 


1799 


1850 


2 


1791-93 


Jouathau Trumbull.. 


Ct. . . . 


1740 ' 1809 


30 


1847-49 


Robert C. Winthrop.. 


M-.ass.. 


1609 


1894 


3 


1793-95 


f. A. Miihlenburg;.... 


Pa... 


1750 1 1801 


31 


1849-31 


Howell Cobb 


Ga . . . 


1815 


1868 


4, 5 


1795-99 


Jonathan Davton ... 


N. J.. 


1760 1624 


32, 33 


1651-55 


Linn Bovd 


Kv... 


1800 


18.59 


6 


1799-1801 


Theo. Se.iswick 


Mass.. 


1746 ' 1813 


34 


1855-57 


Nathaniel P.Banks.. 


M.ass.. 


1816 


1894 


7-9 


1801-07 


Nathaniel Macon 


N.C. 


1757 ' 1837 


35 


1857-59 


James L. Orr 


S.C 


1822 


1873 


10, 11 


1807-11 


Joseph B. Varnum... 


Mass.. 


1730 1821 


36 


1859-61 


Wm. Pennington .... 


N.J.. 


1796 


1862 


12. 13 


1811-14 


Henrv Ciav 


Kv... 


1777 1852 


37 


1861-63 


Galusha A. Grow .... 


Pa... 


1823 




13 


1814-15 


Langdon Cheves 


S.C. 


1776 1857 


38-40 


1663-69 


Schuvler Colfajc 


Ind... 


1823 


1885 


14-16 


1615-20 


Henrv Clav 


Kv. . 


1777 1 1852 


41-13 


1869-75 


James G. Blaine 


Me... 


1830 


1893 


16 


1820-21 


John W. tavlor 


N.Y., 


1784 1854 


44 


1875-76 


Michael C. Kerr 


Ind... 


1827 


1876 


17 


1821-23 


Philip P. Barbour 


Va.... 


1783 


1841 


44-46 


1876-81 


Samuel J. Randall... 


Pa... 


1828 


1890 


18 


1823-25 
1625-27 




Kv... 

n: Y.. 


1777 
1784 


1852 
1854 


47 
48-50 


1881-83 
1883-89 


JohnW. Keifer 

John G. Carlisle 


Ohio. 
Kv... 


1836 
1635 


. 


19 


John W. Tavlor 




20-23 


1627-34 


Andrew Stevenson ... 


Va.... 


1784 


1857 


51 


1889-91 


Thom-as B. Reed 


Me... 


1639 


iwi 


23 


) 834-35 
1835-39 


John Bell 


Tenn . 
Tenn. 


1797 
1795 


1869 
1849 


52, 53 
54, 55 


1891-95 
1895-99 


Charles F. Cn.sp 

Thomas B. Reed 


Ga.... 
Me. . . 


1845 

18.19 


1896 


24, 23 


James K. Polk 


1902 


26 


1839-41 


R. M. T. Hunter 


Va.... 


1809 


1887 


66, 57 


1*99-1903 


David B. Henderson. 


la.... 


1640 




27 


1841-43 
1843-45 


John White 


Ky... 
Va.... 


1805 
1805 


1845 

1848 


68 


1903- 


Joseph G. Cannon. . . 


Ul.... 


1836 


. . . > 


28 


John W. Jones 





118 



SECRETARIES OF STATE. 



Pbesidents. 



Washington 



Adams.. 



Thomas Jefferson 

Edmund Randolph.. 
Timothy Pickering.. 



Jefferson. 
Madison . 



Monroe. ... 
J. Q. Adams 
Jackson. .. 



Van Enren. 

Harrison 

Tj-ler 



Polk... 
Taylor 



Cabinet Officers. 



.Tohn Marshall 

.lames Madison 

Robert Smith 

James Monroe 

John Quincy Adams 

Henry Clay 

Martin Van Buren. ... 
Edward Ijivingston... 

Louis McLane 

John Forsyth 



Kesi- 
dences. 



Va.... 

Mass . 



Va . 



Md . . 
Va .... 
Mass . 
Kv... . 
N. Y, 

La 

Del. . 
Ga 



Daniel Webster.. 



Hugh S. Legare 

Abel P. Upshur 

John C. Calhoun .. 
.Tames Buchanan- 
John M. Clayton .. 



Mass... 



S. C. 
Va ... 
S. C. 

Pa 

Del... 



Date 
o£ Ap- 
point- 
ment. 

1789 
1794 
1795 
1797 
1800 
1801 
1809 
1811 
1817 
1825 
1829 
1831 
1833 
1834 
1837 
1841 
1841 
1843 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1849 



Presidents. 



Fillmore. 



Pierce 

Buchanan .. 



Lincohi. 
Johnson 
Grant . ... 



Hayes 

Garfield ... 

Arthur 

Cleveland 
B. Harrison 



Cleveland... 
McKinley . 

Roosevelt. . 



Cabinet Officers. 



Kesi- 
dences. 



Date 

of Ap- 
points 
ment. 



Daniel Web.ster 

Edward Everett 

William L. Marcy 

Lewis Cass 

Jeremiah S. Black 

William H. Seward... 

Elihu B. Wa.sliburn ... 

Hamilton Fisli 

William M. Evurts ... 

James G. Blaine 

F. T. Frelinghuysen... 

Thomas F. Bayard 

James G. IJlaine 

John W. Foster 

Walter Ci. Gresham ... 

Richard Gluey 

John Sherman 

William K. Day 

John Hay 



Ma.ss . 

isr. y: 

Mich . 
Pa. 

N. Y. 



Ill 

N.-^^Y. 

Me ...'. 
N. J... 
Del.... 
Me .... 
Ind.... 

Ill 

Mass. 
Ohio. 



SECRETARIES OF THE TREASURY. 



Wa.shington 

4 i 

Adams 

Jefferson 

Madi.$on 

Monroe 

J. Q. Adams 
Jackson 

Van Buren.. 

Harrison 

Tyler 

Polk !."."!!'.'.'.'.'. 

Taylor 

Fillmore 



Alexander Hamilton... 
Oliver Wolcott 



Samuel Dexter.... 
Albert Gallatin. 



George W. Campbell.. 
Alexander J. Dallas.... 
William H. Crawford. 



Richard Rush 

Samuel D. Ingham.. 

Louis McLane 

William J. Duane.... 

Roger B. Taney 

Levi Woodbury 



Thomas Ewing . 



Walter Forward 

John C. Spencer 

(Jeorge M. Bibb 

Robert J. Walker. 

William M. Meredith. 
Thomas Corwiu 



N. Y... 


1789 


Ct 


1795 


fc t 


1797 


Mass... 


1801 


' » 


1801 


Pa 


1801 


4 4 


1809 1 


Temi .. 


lhl4 


Pa 


1814 


Ga 


1816 




1817 


Pa 


1825 


" . 


1829 


Del 


1831 


Pa 


1833 


Md 


1833 


N. H... 


1834 I 


•• ( 


1837 1 


Ohio. ... 


1841 1 i 


( ( 


1841 ' 


Pa 


1811 ! 


N. Y... 


1843 


Kv 


1844 


Miss 


1845 


Pa 


18-19 


Ohio ... 


1850 



Pierce 

Buchanan.. 



Lincoln- 



Johnson . 
Grant 



Hayes ... 

Garfield 

Arthur... 



Cleveland ... 

B. Harrison 

Cleveland ... 
McKinle.v .. 
Roosevelt... 



James Gutlirie 

Howell Cobb 

Philip F. Thomas 

John A. Dix 

.Salmon P. Chase 

William P. Fesseuden 
Hugh McCulloch 



Ky.... 

Ga 

Md 

N. Y. 
Oliio . 

Me 

Ind 



George S. Boutwell... 
Wm. A. Richardson .. 
Benjamin H. Bristow 

Lot M. Morrill 

John Sherman.. 

William Wiiidom 

Charles J. Folger. 

Walter Q. Gresham... 

Hugh McCulloch 

Daniel Manning 

Charles S. Fairchild.... 

William Windom 

Charles Foster 

John G. Carlisle....:. 
Lyman J. Gage 



Mass . 



Ky 

Me .... 
Ohio... 

Minn. 
N. Y.. 
Ind.... 



Leslie M. Shaw la. . 



N. V. 

jMinii. 
Ohio . 
Kv ... 
Hi. ... 



SECRETARIES OF WAR. 



Washington 
Adams 

JeM'erson 

Madison 

Monroe 

J. Q. Adams 
Jackson 

Van Buren.. 

Harrison 

Tyler 

Polk ..".'.';;;;!'.! 

Taylor 



Henry Kno.x 

Timothy Pickering. 
James McHenry 



John Marshall 

Samuel Dexter 

Roger Griswold 

Henry Dearborn 

William Eustis 

John Armstrong 

James Monroe 

William H. Crawford. 

Isaac Shelb.y 

Geo. Graham ((/d. hi.). 

John C. Calhoun , 

James Barbour 

Peter B Porter 

John H. Eaton 

Lewis Cass 

Benjamin F. Butler 

Joel R. Poinsett 

•Tohn Bell : 



John McLean 

John C. Spencer 

James M. Porter 

William Wilkins 

William L. Marcy 

George W. Crawford. 



Ma.ss... 


1789 1 


' > 


1795 


Md 


1790 1 


^ ^ 


1797 1 


Va 


1800 i 


Mass... 


1800 t 


Ct 


1801 


Mass... 


1801 


• ' 


1809 


N. Y... 


1813 


Va 


1814 1 


Ga 


1815 


Ky 


1817 


Va 


1817 1 


S. C 


1817 


Va 


1825 


N. Y... 


1828 


Tenn... 


1829 


Oliio ... 


1831 


N. Y... 


1837 


S. C 


1837 


Tenn... 


1841 


' ' 


1841 


Ohio ... 


1841 


N. Y... 


1841 


Pa 


1843 


' ' 


1844 


N. Y'... 


1845 


Ga 


1849 



Taylor 

Fillmore.... 

Pierce 

Buchanan . 



Lincoln... 
Johnson . 

Grant 



Edward Bates 

Charles M. Conrad.. 

Jeffer.son Davis 

John B. Floyd 

Joseph Holt 

Simon Cameron 

Edwin M. Stanton... 



Hayes . 



Garfield 

Arthur 

Cleveland ... 
B. Harrison 

Cleveland . . 

McKinley . . 

Roo.sevelt. . . 



U. S. Grant (ad. in. )... 
Lor. Thomas (ad. in. ) 

John M. Schofield 

John A. Rawlins 

William T. Sherman.. 
William W. Belknap.. 

Alphonso Taft 

James Don. Cameron.. 
George W. McCrary... 

.Alexander Ramsey 

Robert T. Lincoln 



Williatn C. Endicott.. 

Bedfield Proctor 

Stephen B. Elkins 

Daniel S. Laniont 

Ku.sse.ll A. Alger 

Elihn Root 



William H. T^ft. 



Mass... 

Vt 

W. Va. 
N. Y.. 
Mich . . 
N. Y.. 

Ohio. '. '. 



Presidential Cabinet Officers. — Continued. 



119 



SECRETARIES OF THE INTERIOR. 



Presidents. 



Cabinet Officers. 



Taylor jThomas Ewing.. 

Fillmore James A. Pearce.. 



Resi- 
dences. 



It lerce •••••* . 
Buchanan . 
Lincoln ... . 



Johnson '. 



j'i'hos. M. T. ilcKernoii.. 
Alexander H. H. Stuart 

Robert McClelland 

Jacob Thompson 

Caleb B. Smith 

John P. Usher 



Grant. 



James Harlan...;. 

Orville H. Browning„ 

Jacob D. Cox 

Columbus Delano 



Ohio . 
Md .. . 

Pa 

Va .... 
Midi. 
Mis.s . 
I lid ... 



Iowa . 
Ill ... . 
Ohio... 



Date 
of Ap- 
point- 
ment. 

1S49 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1853 
1857 
1861 
1863 
1865 
1865 
1866 
1869 
1870 



Peesidknts. 



Grant 

Hayes 

Garfield 

Arthur 

Cleveland .. 

B. Harrison. 
Cleveland ... 

McKinley ... 

Roosevelt . . 



Cabinet Officers. 



Zachariah Chandler... 

CarlSchurz 

Samuel J. Kirkwood.. 

Henry M. Teller 

Lucius Q. C. Lamar... 

William F. Vilas 

John W. Noble 

Hoke Smith 

David B. Francis 

Cornelius N. Bliss. .>^.. 
Ethan A. iHitchcock.. 



Resi- 
dences. 



Mich.. 

Mo 

Iowa.. 

Col 

Miss .. 
Wis .... 

Mo 

Ga 

Mo.... 
N. Y., 
Mo.... 



Date 

of Ap. 

point- 

nieut. 

1875 

1877 
1881 
1882 
1885 
1888 
1889 
1893 
1896 
1897 
1899 
1901 



SECRETARIES OF THE NAVY. 



Adams .... 
JelTerson . 



Madison . 



Monroe 



.1. li. Adam;- 
Jackson 



Van Buren. 



Harrison . 
Tyler 



Benjamin Stoddert.. 



Robert Smith 

Jacob Crowninshield.... 

Paul Hamilton 

William Jones ;., 

B. W. Crowninshield.. 



Smith Thomp.son , 

Samuel L. Southard, 



John Branch 

Levi Woodbury 

Mahlon Dickenson., 



James K. Paulding.. 
George E. Badger 



..jAbel P. Upshur 

' ' David Henshaw , 

" 'Thomas W. Gilmer. 

" 'John V. Mason 



Md 


1798 


' ' 


1801 


'■ 


1801 


Mass... 


1805 


S. C 


1809 


Pa 


1813 


Mass... 


1814 


' • 


1817 


N. Y... 


1818 


N. J .... 


1823 




1825 


N. C ... 


1829 


N. U... 


1831 


N. J 


1834 


' • 


1S37 


N. V... 


18:!S 


N. (• ... 


1841 


•• 


1841 


Va 


1841 


Masij... 


1843 


Va 


1844 


<b 


1844 



(Polk . 



Taylor 

Fillmore- 



Pierce 

Buchanan . 

'Lincoln 

JJohiison .... 
iGrant 



George Bancroft.. 

John Y. Mason ;.... 

William B. Preston .. 
William A. Graham.. 

John P. Kennedy 

James ('. Dobbin 

Isaac Toucey 

Gideon Welles 



Hayes . 



Garfield 

Arthur 

Cleveland ... 
B. Hani on. 
Cleveland ... 
McKinley ... 
Roosevelt....! 



Adolph E. Borie 

George M. Robeson 

Richard W. Thompson. 

Nathan Goff, .Ir 

Vv^illiam H. Hunt 

William E. Chandler.... 

William C. Wliitney 

Benjamin F. Tracy 

Hilary A. Herbert 

John D. Long. 



IWilliam H. Moody. 
iPauI Morton 



Mass... 
Va 



N.C . 
Bid.... 
N. C. 
Ct 



Pa 

N. J ... 

Iiid 

W.Va. 

La 

N. H... 
N. Y... 



Ala... 
Mass. 



111. 



1845 
1846 
1849 
1850 
1852 
1853 
1857 
1861 
1865 
1869 
18<;9 
1877 
1881 
1881 
1882 
1885 
1889 
1893 
1897 
1901 
1902 
1904 



SECRETARIES OF AGRICULTURE. 



Cleveland ...INorman J. Colman 'Mo 

B. Harrison. Jeremiah M. Rusk Wis... 

Cleveland ...i.T. Sterling Morton Neb.... 



1889; iMcICinley ... 1 James Wilson . 

18891 Roosevelt... . 
1893!) I 



la. 



1897 
I 1901 



POSTMASTERS-GENERAL.* 



Washington 



Adams 

Jetterson . 



Madison 
Monroe.. 



J. Q. Adams 
Jackson 



Gideon Granger 

Return J. Meigs, Jr. 
John McLean 



V^au Buren. 



Harrison., 
Tyler 



Polk 

Taylor 

Fillmore 



Pierce 

Buchanan ... 



Samuel Osgood 

Timothy Pickering. . 
Joseph Habersham. . 



William T. Barry. 
Amos Kendall 



John M. Niles 

Francis Granger.. 



Charles A. Wickliffe. 

Cave Johnson 

Jacob CoUamer. 

Nathan K. Hall 

Samuel D. Hubbard... 

James Campbell 

Aaron V. Brown 

Joseph Holt 



Mass ... 


1789 


* i 


1791 


Ga.. 


1795 


*» 


1797 


" 


1801 


Ct 


1801 




1809 


Ohio ... 


1814 




1817 


" ... 


1823 


" 


1825 


Ky 


1829 




1835 


" 


1837 


Ct. 


1840 


N. Y... 


1841 




1841 


Ky 


1841 


Tenn... 


1845 


Vt 


1849 


N. Y. 


1850 


Ct 


1852 


Pa 


1853 


Tenn... 


1857 


Ky 


1859 



! Buchanan . 
Lincoln. .... 



Johnson . 
Grant 



Hayes ... 

Garfield" 
Arthur- 



Cleveland ... 

B. Harrison. 
Cleveland ... 

McKinley... 
« b 

Roosevelt .. 



Horatio King IMe .... 

Montgomery Blair.. Md.... 

William Deiinison Ohio . 



Alexander W. Randall 

John A. J. Cresswell 

James W. Marshall 

Marshall Jewell 

James N. Tyner 

David McK. Key 

Horace Maynard 

Thomas L. James 

Timothy O. Howe 

Walter Q. Gresham 

Frank Hatton 

William F. Vilas 

Don M. Dickinson 

John Wanamaker 

Wilson S. Bissell 

William L. Wilson 

James A. Gary 

Charles Emory Smith... 



Henry C. Payne Wis. 

Bobert J. Wynne Pa. . . 



Wis..., 

Md 

Va 

Ct 

lud.... 
Tenn... 

N. Y.'.'. 
Wis.... 
lud.... 

la 

Wis.... 
Mich... 

Pa 

N. y.... 

W. Va. 

Md 

Pa 



1861 
1861 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1869 
1874 
1874 
1876 
1877 
1880 
1881 
1881 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1888 
1889 
1893 
1895 
1897 
1898 
1901 
1901 
1904 



* The Postmaster-General was not considered a Cabinet officer until 1829. 

ATTORNEYS-GENERAL. 



Washington Edmund Randolph.. 
" i William Bradford... 
Charles Lee 



Adams.. 



Jefferson 



Madison . 



Theophilus Parsons.. 

Levi Lincoln 

Robert Smith 

John Breckinridge... 
Caesar A. Rodney 



Va 


1789 


Pa 


1794 


Va 


1795 


" 


1797 


Mass... 


IGOl 


( i 


1801 


Md 


1805 


Ky 


1805 


Del 


1807 


( ( 


1809 



Madison . 
Monroe... 



J. Q. Adams 
Jackson 



Van Buren.. 



William Pinkney.. 
Bichard Rush 



William Wirt. 



John McP. Berrien... 

Roger B. Taney 

Benjamin F. Butler.. 

Felix Grundy 



Md .... 
Pa....v. 
".....1. 
Va 



Ga 

Md 

N. Y.. 

i » 

Tenn!! 



1811 
1814 
1817 

1817 
1825 
1829 
1831 
1833 
1837 
1838 



120 



Diploonatic Intercovrse. 



ATTORNEYS- GENERAIv—Cor!/M?«eff. 



Pkestdents. 



Cabinet Officers. 



Van Biiren..iHenry D. Gilpin 

Harri.sou iJohn J. Crittenrlen 

T.vler I 

'■ Hughs. Leg'are 

" .lolin Nelson 

Polk John Y. Mason 

" Nathan Clifford 

" Isaac Toncey 

Taylor Keverdy Johnson 

Fillmore John J. Crittenden 

Pierce Caleb Cushingr 

Buchanan ... Jeremiah S. Black 

'• ... Edwin M. Stanton 

Lincoln Edward Bates 

Titian J. Coffey((«:(. in. 

Janie.s Speed 



Johnson . 



Henry Stanbery. 





Date 


Resi- 


of Ap- 


dences. 


poiut- 




nient. 


Pa 


1840 


Ky 


1841 




1S41 


s. c 


1841 


Md 


1843 


Va 


1845 


Me 


1846 


Ct 


J 848 


Md 


1849 


Kv 


1850 


Mass... 


1853 


Pa 


1857 


Ohio ... 


1860 


Mo 


18«1 


Pa 


1863 


l^j ..... 


1864 
1865 


Ohio ... 


1866 



Pkesipents 



Johnson 
Grant 



Haves 

Garfield 

Arthur 

Cleveland ... 
B. Harrison. 
Cleveland ... 

McKinley ... 
Roosevelt... 



Cabinet Ofiicers. 



William M. Evarts 

Ebenezer R. Hoar 

Amos T. Ackernian 

George H. Williams 

Edwards Pierrepout .... 

Alphouso Tal't 

Charles Devens 

Wayne MacVeagh 

Beiujamin H.Brewster. 
Augustus H. Garland.. 
William H. H. Miller.. 

Richard Olney 

Judson Harmon 

Joseph McKeima 

John W. Griggs 

Philander C.Knox 



William H. Moody Mass. 



Resi- 
dences, 



N. V... 
Mass... 

Ga 

Ore 

N. Y... 
Ohio ... 
Mass... 

Pa 

Pa 

Ark 

Ind 

Mass.... 
Ohio . . 

Cal. 

N. .T.... 
Pa ... . 



1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1881 
1881 
1885 
1889 
1893 
1895 
1897 
1897 
1901 
1901 
1904 



SECRETARIES OF COMMERCE APJD LABOR. 



Roo.sey el t ..i George B. Cortelyou.. ..|N. Y. ..| 19031 |Roosevelt. ..1 Victor H. Metcalf |Cal. 



1904 



XoTK.— The individual .States have been represented the following nnmber of times in Cabinet positions : Massachusetts, 32; 
Ni'W York, ;il ; Pennsylvania, 28 ; Ohio, 23; Virginia, 22 ; Maryland, 16; Kentucky, 16; Connecticut, 9; Indiana, 9; 
(leorffia, 8 ; Tennessee, 8 ; Illinois, 8 ; Missouri, 7; Maine, 6; South Carolina, 6; Wieconsin, 6 ; Delaware, 5; Iowa, 5; 
Michigan, 5; New Jersey, 5 ; Mississippi, 4 ; North Carolina, 4 ; Louisiana, 3 ; Minnesota, 3 ; New Hampshire, 3 ; West Vir- 
ginia, 3 ; Vermont, 2 ; California, 2; Alabama, 1 ; Arkansas, 1 ; Colorado, 1 ; Nebraska, 1 ; Oregon, 1. 



diplomatic Kntrrtotirsr. 



Ai.L representatives not otherwise designated bore the title of minister plenipotentiary orenvoj' 
ixtraordinarv or both. 

CREAT BRITAIN. 

UNITED STATES MINISTERS TO GREAT BRITAIN. 



PREStDKNTS. 


Ministers. 
'I'homas Pinckney 


States. 

S.C... 
N.T.... 

Va. .'.'.'. 
Md .... 
It. I.... 

Mass. .. 

Pa....'!! 
N. Y.... 
I*a 

N. y.... 

Va 

Del.. .. 

X. v.... 

Va. .'.'.'. 
Mass, .. 
Md .. .. 
N. v.... 

Mass . . . 


Date.* 


Presidents. 


Ministers. 


States. 
I'a 

Mass!.'! 
.Md .. !! 


Date.* 




1192 
1196 
1796 
1803 
1806 
1811 
1815 
1817 
1817 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1831 
1831 
1832 
1836 
1841 
1845 
1845 
1849 
1849 


Fillmore 

Pierce. . 




1852 






1853 






Buchanan 

Lincoln 

.lohnson 

Grant, 


George M. Dallas 

<t (( (( 


1856 




j. Tames Monroef 


1866 


.Jefferson 


Charles Francis Adams 


1861 


Madison 

ft 


.lonathan Kusseil, ch. d'aff. ,, 


1861 
1868 








Mass. .. 
Ohio.... 
\. Y.... 

Pa 

X. Y.... 
Mass... 

;;i!!!;i 

Del.. .. 
Ohio.... 
It. I.... 
X. Y.... 


1869 




Kichard Uush 

lUifus Kinc 

Albert Gallatin 

W. ]?. Lawrence, eh. d'aff 

.lames Barbour 

Louis McLane 

Washington Irving» ch. d'aff. 


i( 




1870 


J. Q. Adams.. 


Edwards rierrepont 

.lohn Welsh 


1876 
1877 


'* 


(( 


Wm. .1. lloppin, ch. d'aff 


1879 
1880 


Jackson 


Garfield 

Arthur 

Cleveland. . .. 
B. Harrison. _j 
Cleveland. . . . 
McKinley 

Roosevelt 


(( It (( 
(t f( It 
Edward .1. Phelps 


188" 
1880 
1885 


(t 






1889 


Tvler... "."".*.! 
Pblk 


Andrew Stevenson 

Edward Everett 


Thos. F. Bayard, ambassailor. 

.lohn Hay, ambassador 

Henrv AVhite, ch. d'aff 

.losep"h H. Choate, arabass uior 


1893 
1897 
1898 




(.Jeorge Bancroft 

.7. C, B. Davis, ch. d'aff 

Abbott Lawrence 


1899 


Taylor 


1899 



BRITISH MINISTERS TO THE UNITED STATES. 



SoVKREIGNS. 



Ministers. 



'tieorge III.. . . 'George Hammond 

'* .... I Phineas Bond, ch. d'aff 

*' Robert Liston ....... 

" .... [Edward Thornton, ch. d'aff. .,.,,. ... 

" .'Vnthony Merry 

'* . .. . ITiavid M. Erskine 

" .... F'rancis .lames .lackson 

" .... I.lohn Philip Morier, ch. d'aff 

" .... I Augustus .lohn Foster 

" 'Anthony -St. ,Iohn Baker, ch. d'aff 

** 'Charles Bagot 

lirorge IV Gibbs Crawford Antrobus, ch. d'aff. 

•'* Sir Stratford Canning 

Henry Unwin Addington\ ch. d'aff.. 
Charles Richard Vaughanl 



Date.* 



William IV.. 



Charles Bankhead, ch. d'aff. 

. ; Henry .Stephen Fox 

. litichard Pakenham 



1791 
1795 
1796 
1800 
1803 
1806 
1809 
1810 
1811 
'815 
1816 
1S19 
1820 
1823 
182B 
1825 
18Ji5 
1836 
1844 



Sovereigns. 



Victoria. 



Edward VII. 



Ministers. 



.John I'\ T. Crampton, ch. d'aff 

Sir Henry Lytlon Bulwer 

•lohn F. T. Crampton, ch. d'aff 

'* " " envoy and miu. 

Philip Griffith, ch. d'aff 

.lohn .Savile Lumley, ch. d'aff 

Lord Napier 

Lord Lyous • 

.loseph Hume Burnley, ch. d'aft" 

.Sir Frederick W, A. Bruce 

Francis Clark Ford, ch. d'aff 

Sir Edward Thornton 

Lionel S. Sackville West 

Sir Julian Pauncefotet 

** *' ambassador. . . 



Hon. Sir Mirhsel n. Herbert, .amb. 
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, amb. 



Date.* 

1847 
1849 
1851 
1852 
1853 
18,55 
1857 
1859 
1864 
1865 
1867 
1868 
1881 
1889 
1893 
1893 
1902 
1903 



*I)afe of commission. fMonroe was appointed alone in 180"^, and then jointly with Pinkney in 1806. iJLnterLord ranncefote. 



Diplomatic Intercourse.— CoaUnued. 



121 



FRANCE. 

UNITED STATES .MIXISTEKS TO 



UAXCE. 



Presidents. 



Miaieters. 



, 



Conf sdei'iition ThomaH .Teffersou 

WashingLoQ.. William Short, ch. d'aff 

" . . Gouverueiir Morris 

** .. James Monroe 

'* .,; Charles C. Pjnckuey 

j { Charles C. Pinckney 

John Adams.. ^ John Marshall, 

j (Elbridge Gerry 

(Oliver Ellsworth 

" ,. •< William Vans Murray 

] ( William K. Oavie 

Jefferson 'itobert ii. Livingston 

" John Armstrong 

Madibon Jonathan Kiissell, ch. d'aff . . 

" Joel Barlow, 

** "William H.Crawford 

" ' Henry Jackson, ch. d'aff . . , , 

*' Albert iiallatiu 

JTonroe James lirowu 

Jaclison ^\i^i:^m C. Hives 

'* Nathaniel Niles, ch. d*aff.. ., 

** Edward Livingston. , 

" 'IhoniaH P. Barton, ch. d'aff. 

Lewis Cass 



Van Ruren 



•States. Date. t*KEsiDEXTS, 



Va... 

t( 

N. Y.'. 
Va... 

s. c. 

Va..'.' 
Mass. 
CI.... 
Md... 
X.O.. 

X. r.. 



n. I. 
ct..., 

(!a. . , 
Ky... 
Pa.... 
(,a.... 
Va... 
VI.... 
La.... 
Pa.... 
Ohio . 



1790 
1192 
1794 
1791J 
1197 
1797 
1797 
1799 
1799 
1799 
1801 
1804 
1810 
1811 
181.S 
1815 
ISld 
1823 
1829 
1832 
1833 
1835 
1836 
183ti 



Miuisters. 



jTyler . 



Polk 

Taylor 

Fillmore... 
Pierce 



liuchauaii .. 
r.iucoln .... 
■lohiisou . . . 



[(irant 

Hayes 

(Garfield 

.\rthiir 

Clbveland .. . 
B. ilarrisoa., 



Cleveland . 
McKiiiley . 

Ko a v-lt . 



f.ewis Cass 

I Henry I.edyard, c\i. d'aff..!! 
[William It. King 

.1. (.. Martin, ch. d'aff. ..!.!! 

iiich.ird Kush 

William C. Itives. .!!!!!!!! ! 

Henry .S. Sunford, ch. d'liff.! 

.lohn V. Mason 

W. K. Calhoun, ch. d'aff 

Charles .1. Faulkner 

William L. llayton !!!! 

.John Higelow 

.John Hay. ch. d'aff 

■lohn A. bix ! . .!! 

Elihu li. Washburue...!!!!! 

iLdward F. .Noyes 

Levi P. Morton ! ! ! ! ! 

Kobert M. McLaue!!!!! !! ! !! 

Whitelaw Keid 

T. .leflferson Coolidge 

.James B. Eustis, amba.-sadoi 
Horace Porter, auiba^saiior.. 



States. I Date. 



1-UE.NCII MI.VI.STEIW TO THE UXITED SI' ATE.s 



Ohio ... 


Ib3l> 


Mich... 


1842 


Ala.... 


1S44 


N. C... 


1S4H 


Pa 


11547 


Va 


1849 


" 


1849 


Ct 


1853 


Va 


1853 


s. C... 


1859 


Va 


1860 


X..>.... 


1861 


N. Y... 


18li4 


Ill 


181)11 


N. V... 


181) li 


Ill 


181)9 


Ohio.... 


1877 


N V.,. 


1881 


.** 


1881 


Md 


1885 


X. Y... 


1689 


.Mass... 


1892 


La 


1893 


X. Y... 


1897 


*' ... 


1897 



Government. 



Louis XVI. 



Convention.. 
Directory.... 



Consulate... . 

n 

Xapoleou 1. . 
Louis XVIlV. 

Charles X . . . 

L. Pj:ilipp*i. . 

L. Napoleon.. 



Ministers. 



Count de Moustier 

M. (Hto, ch. d'aff 

Colonel Ternant 

Edmond C. (Jenet 

Joseph Fauchet 

Pierre Auguste Adet. . 



L. A, Pichon, ch. d'aff. 

General Turreau. 

M. Serurier 



Date. 



Government 



jG. Hyde de NeuviMe 

[Count de Menou, ch. d'aff 

: liaron de Mareuil 

Count de Meuou, ch. d'aff 

Koux de Uochelle 

M. .Serurier 

Alphonse I'ageot, ch. d'aff 

Edouard Pontois r. 

Alphonse Pageot, ch. d'aff 

L, Adolph Aime Fourier de Hacourt. 

Alphonse Joseph Yver Pageot 

Guillaume Tell f..avallee Poussin 

E. A. Olivier Sain de Uoislecomt*;. . . 



1788 


Xapoleou III. 


1789 i 


»t 


1791 


»t 


179S ; 


»* 


1794 1 


't 


1795 ' 


*i 


1795 1 


«* 


1801 1 


• ' 


1805 1 


'• 


T811 




1811 


X.ir. 1 tetence.. 


1816 


Pres. Thiers, . 


1822 


" 


1824 


Pr..\l!icMahou 


1S27 1 


It 


1830 


t( 


1831 


it 


1835 


Pres. <irevy.. 


1837 ; 


Pres. t'arnot.. 


1839 


t« 


.1840 : 


Pres. Faure.. 


1842 


• ' 


184S 


Pres. Loubet.. 


1850 





Ministers. 


Date. 


(,ounl de Sartiges 

Viscount .Julea Treilhard, ch. 
Henri .Mercier 


d'''a'ff!!!! 


1851 
1859 
1860 


Viscount .Jules Treilhard, ch. 
Louis de (ieofrov, ch. d'aff. 


d'aff.... 


1863 
1864 


.Marquis de Moutholou 


1865 


.J ules lierthemy 


1866 


Count de Faverney, ch. d'aff. 
I'revo.-it I'aradol 




1869 




1870 


.Jules lierthemy. .. 


1870 


Viscount .Jules Treilhard 


1870 


Henry de liellounet, ch. d'aff. 
.Marquis de Xoailles 




1871 




1872 


A. Bartholdi 


1874 


F. de Vaugelas, ch. d'aff ' 

Mamime Outrey. . 


1876 
1.S77 


Theodore .1. 1). Koustan 


1882 


J. Patenotre 


1891 




1891 


" ambassador ,.... 


1S93 


(* ,t I 


1893 




189S 




1898 


Jean A. A. .1. Jusserand. amb 


ss.idor..' 


190-' 



AUSTRIA AHD AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

UNITED STATES MIXISTEKS TO AUSTRIA. 



Presidents. 



')"an Buren... 



i'yler . . . . 

I'olk 

I'aylor... . 
lillmore . 



Pierce 

' 'Ut'liauau . 
t.iucoln . , . 



.lohi 



Grant . 



Ministers. 



Pa. 



Henry A. Muhlenberg 

.J. U. Clay, ch. d'aff 

Daniel .Jenifer 

Wm. II. Stiles, ch. d'aff 

.1. Watson Webb, ch. d'aff.... 

C. .J. McCurdy, en. d'aff 

T. 31. Koote, ch. d'aff 

H. P. .Jackson, miu. res 

J. tilancy .Jones 

Ansou Burlju^ame 

.John I.othrop .Motley 

(-Jeorge W. I.ippitt. ch. d'aff.. 

.John Hay, ch. d'aft" fill. . 

lleury M. Watts !Pa... 

.John .lav |X. V 

Godlove'S. Orth Ind . 



States. 



Md... 
Ga. . . 
X. Y. 
Ct . . . 
X. Y.. 
Ga... 
Pa. .. 
^Lass. 



t. 1. 



Date. 



IS38 
1840 
1841 
1845 
1849 
1850 
1S52 
1853 
1868 
1861 
1861 
1867 
lv67 
1868 
1S69 
1875 



Presidents. 



Gr;int.... 
Hayes. . . 
(iarKeld. 
Arthur .. 



Cleveland ... 



B. Harrison.. 
Ch'veland . .. 
McKinlt-3' .. . 



Ministers. 



States. Date. 



Edward F. Beale JD. C. . 

•John A. Kasson ila 

William Walter Phelps X..J... 

rMphonso Taf t '< ihio . . 



Uoosevelt . 



.John M. Francis 

A. M. Kiely 

James Feuner Lee, ch. d'aff . 

.Vlexander U. l.awton 

Frederick D. Grant 

Bkrtlett Tripp 

Charlemagne Tower 

•Addison C. Harris 

itobert S. McConuick 



iBLdlamy Storer, amlassailo: 



X. y .. 

Va 

.Md 

Ga 

X. v.... 

S. Dak., 

Pa 

lud .... 
Ill .... 



Oliio... 



1876 
1877 
1881 
1882 
1884 
1885 
1685 
18s7 
18-9 
1893 
1897 
1899 
1901 
1901 
1902 



AUSTRIAN MIXISTERS TO THE UXITED STATES. 



Emfkkors. 


Slinisters. 


Date. 


E.MPERORS. 


Ministers. 


Date. 


I'erdinaud 1. . 


Baron de JIareschal 

Chevalier Ilulsemann, ch. d'aff 

" " mia. res 

Count Nicholas Giorgi, min. res 


1838 

1>41 

1841 

1855 

1863 ■ 

1865 

1867 

1868 

1874 


Franz .Joseph. 




1875 


Franz Joseph . 


Chevalier E. S. von Tavera, ch. d'aff.. 


1877 

18'9 


Count Llppe-VVeissenfeld. ch. d'aff. . . . 
Baron Ignatz von Schaeffer 


1881 
1882 


(C 


Count Lippe-Weissenfeld, oh. d'aff.... 

Chevalier E. S. voa Tavera 

L. Hengelmuller von Hengervar 

amb.. 


1885 




Baron de F'rankenstein, ch. d'aff 

Baron Cnaries de Lederer 


18S7 
1895 


CI 


Baron von SL-hv^arz Seaborn 


1902 



122 



Dqylomatie Inter coiirse,~Cm\inmd. 



RUSSIA. 

UNITED STATES MIKISTERS TO KLSSIA. 



Prksidksts^ 



Ministers. 



Madison 'John Quincy Adams . 

** T-evett Harris, ch. d*atf. 

" William riukney 

George W. Campbell .... 

Henry Middleton 



Monroe., 



J. Q. Adams., 
.lackson. 



Van Buren.... 



John Randolph ^, . . 

.lames Buchanan.. .. .. 

' i.Iohu U. llay, ch. d'aff . . . . 

William Wilkins 

.Tohu U. Clay, ch. d'aff 

George M. Dallas 

W. W. Cliew, ch. d'aff 

Churchill C. Camhreleiitj;. . 

Charles S. I'odd 

Ralph .1 . IngersoU 

Arthur P. Uagby 

Neil S. Brown 

Thomas II. Seymour 

Francis W. Pickens. ..*... 

John AppJeton — . 

Lincoln jCassius M. Clay ■,. 

** iSimon Cameron 

** iBayard Taylor 



Tyler 
Polk. 



I'lllmore.. 
*'ieice. .. . 
Buchanan 



states. 


Date. 




Mass... 


1809 


1 


I'a 


1S14 


( 


Md 


1816 




Tenn... 


1818 




S. C... 


18«0 
1820 




Va 


1830 




Pa 


I83i 
1833 




":!.... 


1834 




»< 7 


1835 




Ki 


1837 






1839 




X. Y.... 


1840 




Ky 

It 


1»41 

1846 


!i 


-Ua.. .. 


1848 
1860 




iTenn... 




jCt 


1853 




IS.C... 


1858 




IMe 


1860 




iKy 


1861, 




yL 


1862 


■ 


•n. y,... 


1862 





PRKSIDENT8. 



Lincoln 

Grant 



Hayes. 



GarHeld. 

Arthur.. 



Cleveland. .. 
B. Harrison. 



Cleveland. . . 
McKinley. .. 



Ri osevelt . 



Ministers. 



Cassias M. Clay , 

Andrew G. Cur tin 

James L. Orr , 

Marghall Jewell , 

Kugene Schuyler, ch. d'aff.. ., 

George H. Boker 

E. \V. Slough ton , 

Wickham Hoffman, ch. d'aff. 
John W. Foster 



WicklJam Hoffman, ch. d'aff. 

William H. Hunt 

Alphonso Taft 

(Jeorge V. M. Lothrop 

Lambert Tree 

George W. Wurts, ch. d'aff... 

Charles Emory Smith 

Andrew D. White 

Clifton U. Breckinridge 

Ethan A. Hitchcock 

amb 

Charlemagne Tower, aiub 

(t if 

Robert S. McCorniick, amb... 



States. Date. 



Ky... 
Pa..., 
S. C. 
Ct.... 
N. Y.. 
I'a.... 
N. y.. 



iDd.. 



N. Y.. 

La.. 



Ohio.. 
Mich. 
111. .. 

ra.... 



N. Y... 
Ark. .. 
Mo.... 



Pa.. 
111.. 



18G3 
1869 
1874 
1S73 
1S74 
1875 
1878 
1879 
1880 
J 880 
1881 
1882 
1884 
1886 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1892 
1894 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1899 
19U2 



RUS.S1AN MIXISTEUS TO THE ITNITED STATES. 



Empkrors. 



Alexander I 



Nichola.s I. 



Alex. II. 



Ministers. 



Andre de Dasehltoif, ch. d'aff 
Count Theodore ite Pahleu... 

Andre de l)aschkoff 

Chevalier IMerra de Poletiea. 

(ieorge Elli.sen. ch. d'aff 

Haron de Tuyll 

I'.aron de Maltitz, ch. d'jilT. . 

liaron de Krudener 

CJeorjfe Krehmer, ch. d'alt. . . . 

Alexander de liodisco 

Edward de Stoeckl 

Waldemar Bodisco, ch. d'aff. 



Date. 

1809 
1810 
1811 

1819 
1822 
1823 
1826 
1827 
1838 
IS38 
1854 
1868 



Emperors. 


MiDlstersr. 


Ales. 11. 
•t 

it 

Alex. \\\ 
Nicholas 








Alexander (iorloff, cli. d'aff ... 




Baron Henri d'Offeaberg 

XicDolas de Voigt, ch. d'aff 






Nicboliis Shishkin 






\\\\\ 




Baron Gu.stave Schilling, ch. d'aff 

Prince (..'antacuzene. 




E. de Kotzebue ,. 


Count Cassini, ambassador... 



Date. 

1869 
1871 
1872 
1874 
1875 
1880 
1882 
1892 
1893 
1893 
1896 
1898 



GERMANY. 

UNITED STATES MINLSTERS TO THE GERMAN EMPIRE. 



GERMAN MINLSTERS TO THE UNITED STATES. 



^RESIDENTS. 


Ministers. 


States. 


Date. 


Peksidents. 1 Ministers. 


States. 


Date. 


Grant 


George Bancroft 

Nicholas Fish, ch. d'aff 

.1. C. P.ancroft Davis 


X. Y.... 

(I 
Mass. . . 

Pa 

Mass. . . 
N. Y.... 
Mass. . . 
Cal 


1871 

1874 
- 1874 
1877 
1873 
1878 
1879 
1881 
1882 


Arthur John A. Kasson. 

Cleveland (ieorge H. Pendleton 

B. Harrison 'WilliMm Walter I'hplns 


la 

Ohio. .. 
N.J.... 

Mich!!! 
N. T.... 

Pa...!!! 


1884 
1886 . 
1889 


Hayes 


H. Sidney Everett, ch. d'aff. . 
Bavard Taylor 


Cleveland 

McKinley!!!! 
Roosevelt 


Theodore Uimyon, amb 

Edwin 1". Uhl, ambas.sador.. 
Andrew D. White, amb 

Charlemagne Tower, amb 


1893 
1896 


Garfield.!".!!! 
Arthur 


H. Sidney Everett, ch. d'aflt.. 

Andrew b. White 

H. Sidney Everett, ch. d'aff. . 
A. A. Sargent » 


1897 
1897 
1902 



Emperors. 


Ministers. 


Date. 


Emperors. 


Ministers. 


Date. 


William I 




1871 
1871 

1882 
1883 

1884 
1888 


William 11.... 

it 

** .... 




1891 






Theodore von HoUeben 

Baron von Saurma-Jeltsch, amb 

Baron Mai von Thielmnnn. amb 

Herr von Holleben, ambassador 


1892 


" 


Count von Benst, ch. d'aff 


1893 
l!j95 


M, 




1898 


William II.... 


Count Arco Valley 





ITALY. 

UNITED STATES MINISTERS TO ITALY. 



Presidents. 


Ministers. 


Slates. 


Date. 


Presidents. 


Ministers. 


States. 


Date. 


Lincoln .... 


George P. Marsh 


___ Vt 


1861 
1861 
1861 
1861 
1861 
1861 
1882 
1885 


B. Harrison.. 
Cleveland. ,!! 

McKinley 

Roosevelt 


Albert G. Porter.. 


lud .... 

Pa 

R. I.... 

Pa 

Mass... 
' «( 


1889 


Johnson 


" " ..^.;.l " 


William Potter 


1892 


Grant 




.T. .1. Van Alen, ambassador*. 

Wayne JiacVeagh. amb , 

William F. Draper, amb 

George Von L. Meyer, umb.... 


1893 


Hayes 

Garfield 


4< 14 «( 


1893 


4* 44 .4 


1897 


Arthur 

Cleveland." ! ! ! 


William Waldorf" Astor! ! ! 
John B. Staflo 


!!! n.!y.'!! 

. .. Ohio. .. 


1901 
1901 



* Mr. Van Alen was confirmed by the Senate but declined, and Mr. MacV'eagh was appointed. 



The National Flag. 



123, 



DIPLOMATIC INTERCOURSE— Con«n?«erf. 



IT A \7^ -Continued. 



1TAL1.\X jriXISTEBS TO THE UNITED STATES. 



Kings. 



Sfinisters. 



I Date. 



V. Emmanuel. Chevalier Joseph Bertinatti 

** ..(llomeo Cantaeflii, ch. d'aff 

'* .., Chevalier Ma; ^c foCerruti 

** .. iCount Luigi Colobiano, ch, d'aff . . . 
** ., Covmt Lui'^iCorti . 



1861 
1866 
1867 
U69 
1870 

ICount Litta, ch. d'aff 1874 

Baron Allierto Filaae 1875 



Kings. 



Humbert . 



V. Em-nan. II. 



Ministers. 



Date. 



Prince Camporeale, ch. d'alf IsSO 

Baron de Fava ] >^ i 

Marquis Imperiali, ch. d'aff . It91 

Baron de Fava ] vg-i 

" " " ambassador.. 1S93 

" " '■ ■• 1893 

E. Mayor des Planches, ambassador... I 1901 



SPAIN. 

CXITED ST.VTES MlXISiEHS TO SPAIN. 



Pbesidknts. 


Ministers. 


VVasbington.. 


\V. Carmichael, ch. d'aff 


'* 


AVilliam Short, min. res 


■ •' 


Thomas Pinckuey 


** 


David Humphreys 


JeffersoQ 


Charles Pinckney 

G. \\. KrviutCt <-ti- d'aff 


" 




Official tCiations with Spaio 




were broken off from PiOS 




to IhU. 


:\Iadison 


G. V\\ Krvint; 










.1. o. AdacoM.. 
Jhcksoq 


Alexander H. Evarett 


Cornelius P. \ an Xess 




A. MiddletoD, Jr., ch. d*uflE... 


\'an Buren . 


John II. Eaton 




Aaron Vail, ch. d»aff 


Tvler 


Washington Irving 


Poik ... 


Komulus M. Sannder^ 


Taylor 

Pferce ....... 


Daniel M. Barringer 


Pierre Soule. 




Augustus C Dodge 


Ituchannn , .. 


VYiTliam Presion 


LiDColn 


Carl Schurz 



states. 



.M(i... 
Va. . . 
S. C. 
Ct.... 

s. c. 

Mass. 



Mass . 
Ga. . . 
Va. . . 
Mass. 
Vt.... 

s. c. 

Tenn . 
X. Y. 



K. C. 



La.... 

la 

Kv... 
Wis. . 



Date. 



1790 
1794 
1794 
1796 
1801 
1805^. 



1814 

1819 
1S23 
1825 
1829 
18.36 
1S37 
1840 
IS42 
1846 
1849 
1853 
1855 
1858 
1861 



Pebsidbnts, 



Ministers. 



states. 



Lincoln (Justavus Koerner 

" H..I. Perrv, ch. d'.ilt 

, ." .lohn P. Ilile 

Ur*nt ! Daniel E. Siclsles; 

': [Alvey .\. .Adee, ch. d'alf. 

'' .Caleb Ciishinii 

Hayes lames Kiisseii Lowell.... 

** ILucius Fairchiid 

(JarKeld I " " 

Arthur Hannibal Hamlin 

** lohn VV. Foster 

Cle eiand '.labez L. M. Curry 

Perry Belmont. 



B. Uarrisoi).. 



Cleveland . . . 
McKinley... 



Roosevelt . 



Thomas W. Palmer 

E. Burd Grubb 

A. Loudon Snowden 

Hannis Taylor 

Stewart L. Woodl;ord 

Official relations with Spain 

were broken off, April, 1898, 

to April, 1899. 
Bellamy Storer 



Atthur S.Hardy. 



.1111. .. 
. N. H. 

. Mass. 

! Wis.! 

'Me.;! 
. Ind.. 
. Va... 
. N. Y. 
. ilich. 
. N.J.. 
. Pa.... 
. 'Ala . . 
N. Y. 



Date. 



Ohio. , 

n.h!! 



1862 
• 864 
J 865 
1869 
1S73 
1874 
1877 
1880 
1880 
1881 
1883 
1885 
1889 
1889 
)S90 
1892 
1893 
1897 



1899 
1899 
U>02 



SPANISH MINISTERS TO THE UNITED STATES. 



KovEEEIGNS. 


Ministers. 


Date. 

1785 
1789 

1791 
1796 
1807 

1809 

1819 

1820 

1821 

1823 , 

1827 

1827 

1835 

1839 

1844 

1844 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1857 


SOVKREIGKS. 


Ministers. 


Date. 


tarlos IV 


Diego de Gardoqui, ch. d'aff 

.Jose Ignacio de Viar, ch. d'aff 


Isabella XL... 




1867 




5Iauricio Lopez Roberts . . . . 

Admiral Don .Jose Polo de Hernabe 


1869 




Jose Ignacio de Viar, j joint ) 

Jose de Jaudenes, ( ch. d'aff. )' 

Carlos M. de Irujo 


Amadeo 1 

Pr. Figneras.. 

" Castelar.. 

" Serrano . . 
AlphousoXlI. 

Alph. XIII... 
, t( 

. .« 


1872 
1872 
1872 




Valentin de Foronda, ch. d'aff 

Official relations with Spain were 

broken off from 1808 to 1814. 
Luis de Onis 


1874 


Fernan. VII . 


Jose Biunetti, ch. d'aff 

Felipe Jlendez de Vigo y Osorio ... 

Francisco Barca del ( 'orrai 

Enrique Dupuy de Lome, ch. d'aff 


18/8 
1879 
1881 




Mateo de la Serna, ch. d'aff 


18S3 
1884 


.. 




Emilio de Muruaga 


1886 


., 


F. H. Uivas y Salmon, ch. d'aff 




1890 




Jose Felipe Segario, ch. d'aff 


1891 






1892 


Isabella 11.... 






■ 1893 








1896 


u 


Fidencio Bourman, ch. d'.iff 

Angel Calderon de la Barca, min. res. . 
Jose ^laria Magallon, ch. d'aff 






1898 




Diplomatic intercourse broken off by 
the war. 


1899 




.4.1f onso Escalante 

Gabriel Garcia y Tassara 


Emilio de Ojeda 


1902 



rije National iFIas. 



Thp: official fla? of the United States bears forty- five stars in a blue field, arranged iu sis rows— the 
first, third, and fifth rows having eight stars each, and the others having seven stars each. The gar- 
rison flag of the Armv i.s made ofbunting, thirty-six feet fly and twenty feet hoist; thirteen stripes, 
and in the upper quarter, next the staff, is the field or "union" of stars, equal to the number of 
States, on blue field, over one-third length of the flag, extending to the lower edge of the fourth red 
stripe from the top. The storm flag is tweutv feet bv ten feet, and the recruiting flasr nine feet nine 
iiichesby four feet four inches. The "American Jack" is the "union" or blue field of the flag. The 
Hevenne Marine Service flag, authorized by act of Congres.s, March 2, 1799, was originally prescribed 
to ' 'consist of sixteen perpendicularstripes, alternate red and white, the union of the ensign bearing 
the arms of the United States in dark blue on a white field." The sixteen stripes represented the 
numberof States which had been admitted to the Union at that time, and no change has been 
made since. Prior to 1871 it bore an eagle in the union of the pennant, which was then substiiured by 
thirteen blue stars in a white field, but, the eagle and stars are still retained in the flag. June i4, the 
anniversary of the adoption of the National flag, is celebrated as Flag Day in the public schools, and 
by the disiJlay of the emblem on public buildings and private houses in a large part of the Union. 



124 Insular Possessions of the United States. 



Xusiilar ^losjsrssions of t\)t Winittts ^t^Un, 

THE PHILtPPINgS. 

The Philliipine group, lying off the southem coast, of Asia, between longitude 120 and 130 and 
latitude 5 and 20 approximately, number about 2.000 islands, great and small, in a land and sea area 
of 1,200 miles of latitude and 2, 400 miles of longitude. The actual land area is about 140,000 miles. 
The six New England States, New York, and New .Jersey have about an equivalent area. The island 
of J>uzon. on which the capital city (Manila) is situated, is the largest member of the groui). being 
about the si/,0 of the State of New York. Mindanao is nearly as large, but its population is very much 
smaller. The latest estimates of areas of the largest i.slands are as follows: Luzon, 44,400; Min- 
danao, 34,000; .Samar, 4,800; Panay, 4,700; Miudoro, 4,000; Leyte, 3,800; Negros, 3,300; Cebu, 
2.400. 

A census of the Philipiiines was taken by the Iinited States Government, under the auspices of 
the t'ensus Burea\i, in lV)02-3. a report on whicli lias not yet been published, but the estimate of 
population is about 8,000,000, of whom about 7,000,000 are civilized and the remainder savages. 
Jiaciallvthe inhabitants are principally Malays. The country had been in the possession of Spain 
since 1565, and the religion introduced by the projji-ietors has long been that of the natives. The 
church has been a strong ruling power aud the priesthood numerous. There are thirty dififerent races, 
all speaking a ditTerent dialect. 

' CLIMATE. 

The climate is one of the best in the tropics. The islands e.vtend from .5© to 21o north lati- 
tude, and Manila is in 14° Sb'. The thermometer during July s nd August rarely goes below 79o or 
above 85°. The extreme ranges in a ye:u' are .said to oe bio and9/0. and the annual mean 81o. 
There are three well-marked seasons, temperate and dry Irorn November to February, hot and drj- 
from March to JMay, and temperate and wet from .Tune to October. The rainy season reaches its 
maximum in July and August, when the rains are constant aud very heavy. The total rainfall has 
lOL'eu as high as 114 inches in one year. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Although agriculture is the chief occupation of the Filipinos, yet only one-ninth of the sur- 
face is under cultivation. The soil is very fertile, and even after deducting the mountainous areas it 
is probable that the area of cultivation can be very largely extended and that the islands can support 
population equal to that of Japan (42, OWJ, 000). 

The chiel products are rice, corn, hemp, sugar, tobacco, cocoanuts, and cacao. CofTee and cotton 
were formerly produced in large quantities— the former for export and the latter for home consump- 
tion; but the coffee plant has been almost exterminated hy insects and the home-made cotton cloths 
have been driven out by the competition of those imported from England. The rice and (uirn are 
principally produced in Luzon and Mindoro and are consumed in the islands. The cacao is raised in 
the southern islands, the best quality of it at Mindanao. Tlie sugar cane is raised in the Visaya.s. 
The hemp is produced in Southern Luzon, Mindoro, the Vis.ayas, aud Mindanao. It is nearly all ex- 
ported in bales. Tobacco is raised in all the islands, but the best quality and greatest anionntin 
Luzon. A large amount is consumed in the islands, smoking being universal among women as 
well as the men, but the best quality is exported. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, the exports from the United States to the Philippines 
were $4,832,900'. and the total imports from the Philippines for the same period_were .$12,066,934. 

The imports from foreign countries, year ending June 30, l!t03, were $32.9 ,1.882, and tlie ex- 
ports were $33,121,780. The principal foreign countries trading with the Philippines are Groat 
Britain, China, aud .Spain. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT FOE THE PHILIPPINES. 

On July 1, 1902, Congress passed (chapter 1369) "An act temporarily to provide for the 
administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands and for other purposes." 
Under this act complete civil government was established in the Archipelago and th'^ office oi Mili- 
tary Governor with military rule '.vas terminated. William H. Taft was appointed Governor by the 
President. Governor Taft was succeeded by Luke E. Wright in December, 1903, 



PORTO RICO. 



The island of Porto Rico, over which the flag of the United States was raised in token of formal 
possession on October 18, 1898, is the most eastern of the Greater Antilles in the West Indies and is 
separated on the east from the Danish island of St. Thomas by a distance of about fifl.v miles, and from 
Hayli on the west by the Mon a passage, seventy miles wide. Distances from San .luan, the capital, to 
important points are as follows: New York, 1,411 miles; Charleston, S. C. , 1,200 miles; Key West, 
Fla. 1,050 miles; Havana, 1,000 miles. 

The island is a parallelogram in general outline, 108 miles from the east to the west, and from 37 
to 43 miles across, the area being about .3,600 square miles, or somewhat less than half that of the 
State of New .Jersey (I)elaware has' 2,050 square miles and Connecticut 4,990 square miles). The 
population according to an enumeration made by the United States Government in 1900 .showed a 
population ot 953,243, of whom 589,426 are white and 363.817 are colored. The density was 264 to 
the square mile; 83. 2 per cent of the population cannot read. 

Porto Rico IS unusually fertile, and its dominant industrii s are agriculture and lumbering. In 
elevated regions the vegetation ot the temperate zone is not unknown. There are more than 500 
varieties of trees foimd in the forests, aud the plains are full of palm, orange, aud other trees. The 
principal crops are sugar, cotlee, tobacco, cotton, and maize, but bananas, rice, pineapples, and many 
other fruits are important products. The largest article of export from Porto Rico is coiiee, which is 
over 63 per cent ofthe whole. The next largest is sugar, 28 per cent. The other exports in order of 
amount are tobacco, honey, molasses, cattle, timber, and hides. 

The principal minerals found in Porto Rico are gold, carbonates, and sulphides of copper and 
magnetic oxide of iron in large quantities. Lignite is found at Utuado and Moca, and also yellow am- 
ber. A large variety of marbles, limestones, and other building stones are deposited on the island, 
but these resources are very undeveloped. There are saltworks at Guanica and Salinac on the south 
coast, and at Cape Rojo on the west,and these constitute the principal mineral industry in Porto Rico. 



Insular Possessions of the United States. 125 

INSULAR POSSESSIONS OF THE UxXITED STATES— Cow^wntcd. '~ 

The principal cities are Maya^uez, with 15,187, Ponce, 27,952 inhabitants: and San .Tuan, the 
capital, with 32,048. Tlie shipments of domestic merchandise from the United Stales to Porto 
Bico, year ending June 30. 1904, were 810,727,015. The exports of domestic merchandise to 
the United States were $11,576,912. The foreign trade, year ending June 30, 1903, was: Imports. 
$2,326,957; exports, $3,957,497. 

An act providing lor a civil government for Porto Rico was passed by the Fiftv-sixth Congress 
and received the assent of the President April 12, 1900. A statement of its provisions was printed in 
The World alm.a.xac for 1901, pages 92 and 93. 

Under this act a civil government was established, which went into effect Mav 1. 1900. There 
are two legislative chambers, the Executive Council, or " Upper House." composed of the Govern- 
ment Secretary, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Auditor, Commissioner of the Interior, and Commis- 
sioner of Education, and five citizens appointed by the President, and the House of Delegates, or 
"Lower House," consisting of 35 member.s, elected by the people. The island is represented near 
the Congress of the United States by a Resident Commissioner. 



CUAM. 

"^The island of < iuam. the largest of the Marianne or Ladrone Archipelago, was ceded by Spain to 
the United States by Article 2 of the Treaty of Peace, concluded at Paris December lO; 1898. It lies 
in a direct line from San Francisco to the southern part of the Philippines, and is 5,200 miles from 



San Francisco and 900 miles from Manila. It is about 32 miles long and 100 miles in circumference, 
about 8.661, of wHom 5,249 a)e in .Agana. the capital. The inhabitants are 



and has a population of 



mostly immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the Philippines, the original race of the La- 
drone Islands being e-xti net. The prevailing language is Spanish. Nine-tenths of the islanders can 
read and write. The island is thjckly wooded, well watered, and fertile, and posse ses an excellent 
harbor. The productions are tropical fruits, cacao, rice, corn, tobacco, and sugarcane. 

Commander Taussig, of the United States gunboat Bennington, took possession of the island and 
raised the United States flag over Fort Santa Cruz on Februarj- 1, 1899. 



TUTUILA. 

Tutuila, the Samoan island which, with its attendant islets of Tau, Olesinga, and Ofu, became a 
possession of the United .States by virtue of the tri-partite treaty with Great Britain and Germany 
in 1899, covers, according to the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department, fifty-four square 
miles, and has 5.80O inhabitants. It possesses the most valuable island harbor. Pago-Pago, in the 
South Pacific, and perhaps in the entire Pacific Ocean. Commercially the island is unimportant at 
present, but is extremely valuable is its relations to the commerce of any nation desiring to cultivate 
transpacific commerce. 

E.x-Chief .Tustice Chambers, of Samoa, says of Pago- Pago that ' ' The harbor could hold the entire 
naval force of the United iStates, and is so per;ect!y arranged that only two vessels can enter at the 
same time. The coaling station, being surrounded by high bluffs, cannot be reached by shells from 
outside.' ' The Government is increasing the cajmcity to 10.000 tons. 

The Samoan Islands, in the South Pacific, are fourteen in number, and lie in a direct line drawn 
from San Francisco to AucVvland, New Zealand. They are 4, 000 miles from San Franc!.sco, 2,200 
miles from Hawaii. 1,900 miles from Auckland, 2.000 miles from Sydney, and 4,200 miles from 
Manila. Germany governs all the group except the part owned by the United States. The inhabitants 
are native Polyne.si'ans and Christians of different denominations. 



WAKE AND OTHER ISLANDS. 

The United States flag was hoisted over Wake Island in January, 1899, bj' Commander Taussig, 
of the Bennington, while proceeding to Guam. It is a .small island in the direct route from Hawaii to 
Hong Kong, about 2, 000 miles from the first and 3,000 miles from the second. 

The United States possesses a number of scattered small islands in the Pacific Ocean, some hardly 
more than rocks or coral reefs,^over wliicli the flag has been hoisted from time to time. They are of 
little present value and mostlv uninhabited. The largest are Christmas, Gallego. Starbuck, Penrhyn, 
Phcenix, Palmyra. Howland. "Baker, Johnston. Gardner. Midway, Morell, and Marcus Islands. The 
Midway Islands are occupied bj- a colon v of telegraphers in charge of the relay in the cable line con- 
necting the Philippines with the United' ytates and a camp of United States marines, in all about 
forty persons. 

The Santa Barbara group is a part of California and the Aleutian chain, extending from the pen- 
insula of Kamchatka iii Asiatic Russia to the promontory in North America which separates Behring 
Sea from the North Pacific, a part of Alaska. 



HAWAII. 

Hawaii was annexed to the United States by Joint resolution of Congress July 6, 1898. A bill to 
create Hawaii a Territorv of tiie United States was passed by Congress and approved April 30. 1900. 

The area of the several islands of the Hawaiian group is as follows: Hawaii. 4,210 square miles; 
Maui. 760: Oahu, 600; Kauai. 590: Molokai, 270; Lanai, 150; Niihau, 97; Kahoolawe, 63. Total, 
6, 740 square miles. 

At the time of the discovery of the islands bv Captain Cook in 1778 the native population was 
about 200,000 This has steadilv decreased, so that at the last census tlie natives numbered bul31,019, 
wliich was less than that of the Japanese and Chinese immigrants settled in tlie islands. A census 
taken early in 1897 revealed a total Ijopulation of 109,020, distributed according to race as follows: 



Hawaiians 

Part Hawaiians, 

Japanese 

Chinese 



Males. 

16.399 

4,249 

19.212 

19,167 



Females. 

14.620 

4.236 

5,195 

- 2.449 



Total. 



31.019 

8,485 

24.407 

21.616 



Portuguese 
Americans., 
British 



Males. 



8,202 
1,975 
1,406 



Females. 

~6.89S 
1.111 

844 



Total. 

15,100 
3. 086 
2,200 



The remainder were Germans, French, Norwegians, South Sea Islander-v and representatives ot 
other nationalities. The American population was'i.73 per cent oTtSe whole. The American popu- 
lation has increased since annexation. 



126 



The Panama Canal. 



INSULAR POSSESSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES— Coritomerf. 



The first United States census ot the islands was taken in 1900 with the followin'e; result: Hawaii 
Island, 46,843; Kauai Island, 20.562; Niihau Island. 172; Maui Island. 25,416; Molokai Island and 
Lanai Island. 2.504; Oahu Island, 58,504. Total of the Territory, 154.001. The population of the 
citv of Honolulu is 39.306. 

'Nearly all the natives are Christians. In 1896 there were 23.773 Protestants, 26,362 Koman 
Catholics! 4,886 Mormons, 44,306 Buddhists, etc., and 10.192 not described. 

There are 71 miles of railroad and about 250 miles of telegraph in the islands. Honolulu, the 
capital, with a jiopnlation of 28,061. is lishted by electricity, and has most of the local features of an 
enterprising American city. The hulk of the business is done by Americans and Europeans. 

Ofsuiraf. of which it is said the Hawaiian Islands are much more productive in a given area than 
those of tlie West Indies, the exportation was .345, 370, .537 pouniis in 1899. Of coffee, the exportation 
was 337,158 i)ou nils in 1897; of rice, the exportation was 5, 499.499 pounds in 1897. Inthe matter of 
imports, nearly all of the necessities of life, aside from su^ar, fruits, and vegetables, are imported, the 
products of the United States beinar given the preference in nearly all cases. The exnorts from Hawaii 
to the United States in the twelve months ending June 30, 1903, were valued at S26,201,175, of 
which the item of sugar figured at $2.'>,31(».684. The imports into Hawaii from the United States for 
the same period were valued at. $10,787,666. The imports from foreign countries for the same 
period were ■1!3.1i2,013. exports $27,029. 

The new Territorial Government was inaugurated at Honolulu June 14, 1900. and the first Terri- 
torial Legislature began its sessions at Honolulu February 20. 1901. The ijegislature is composed of 
two house.s -the Senate of fifteen members, holding ollice four years, and the House of Representa- 
tives of thirty members, holding ollice two years. The Lagislature meets bieimiall.v, and sessions are 
limited to si.xtv davs. 

The Executive power is lodged in a Governor, a Secretary, both appointed by the President, and 
hold office four years, and the following officials appointed by the (iovernor, by and with the con- 
sent of the Senate of Hawaii: An Attorney-General. Treasurer,- Commissioner of Public Lands, 
Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry, Superintendent of Public Works, Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction, Auditor and Deputy, Surveyor, High Sheritr, and members of the Boards of Health, 
Public Instruction. Prison Inspectors, etc. They hold office for four years, and must be citizens of 
Hawaii. , 

The Jiidiciary of the Territory is composed of the Supreme Court, vi-ith three Judges, the Circuit 
Court, and such inferior courts a-s the Legislature maj' establish. The Judges are appointed by the 
President. The Territory is a Federal Judicial District, with a District Judge, District Attorney, and 
Marshal, all appointed by the President. The District Judge ha-s all the powers of a Circuit Judge. 

The Territory is represented in Congress by a Delegate, who is elected biennially by the people. 

Provision is made in the act creating the Territory for the residence of Chinese in the Territory 
and prohibition as laborers to enter the United States. " 



Wi)z 13 an am a i^anal. 

The treaty between the United States and the Republic of Panama, signed by the Secretary of 
State and the Minister from Panama, November 18, 1903 (the text of which was printed in The 
World Alman.^c for 1904, pages 142, 143, and 144), "by which Panama ceded to the United States 
in perpetuity " the use, occupation, and control of the zone of land and land under water for the 
construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and protection of said canal of the width of ten 
miles, extending to the distance of five miles on each side of the centre line of the route of the canal 
tobeconstructed, " etc., was ratified by the United Stjvtes Senate February 23, 1904, by the follow- 
ing vote: 

FOR RATIFICATION-66. 



Aldrich. Cullom. Heyburn. 

Alger. Depew. Hoar. 

Allee. Dietrich. Hcijikins. 

Allison. Dillingham. Kean. 

Ankeny. DoUiver. Kearns. 

Bacon. Dryden. Kittredge. 

Ball. Elkins. Latimer. 

Bard. Fairbanks. Lodge. 

Berry. Foraker. Long. 

Beveridge. Foster (La.). McComas. 

Burnhain. Frye.. McCreary. 

Burrows. Fulton. McCumber. 

Clapp. Gallinger. McEnery. 

Clark (Wyo.). Gam^jle. Mallory. * 

Clarke (Ark.). Gibson. Millard. 

(■!lay. Hale. Mitchell. 

Cockrell. Hansbrough. 

AGAINST RATIFICATION-14. 
Br'ilev. Culberson. Morgan. 

Bate. Daniel. Newlands. 

Blackburn Dubois. Patterson. 

Carmack. Gorman. 

Fourteen Democrats voted for and fourteen against ratification. Two Democrats— Clark, of 
' Montana, and Stone, of Missouri— were paired in favor of the treaty, and three Democrats— Over- 
man. McLaurin, and Martin— were paired against it, so in the tot^lvote sixteen Democrats were for 
the treaty and seventeen against it. The Democrats who were present and voted for the treaty were: 
Bacon, Berr.v, Clarke, of Arkansas; Clay, Cockrell, Foster, of Louisiana; Gibson, Latimer, McCreary, 
McEnery, Mallory, Money, Simmons, and Taliaferro. 

An amendment oflfeiedby .'Senator Bacon, providing for an arrangement to compensate Colombia 
for the loss of the Territory of Panama, was rejected by a party vote of 24 to 49, with the exception 
of Gibson and McEnery, Democrats, who voted with the Republicans. Four Democrats were absent 
when this vote was taken, and no pairs were announced for them. Some Republicans also were 
absent on this vote. 

The treaty went into effect February 26 with the exch.ange of ratifications between the repre- 
sentatives of the two countries and the proclamation of the President of the United States. 



Money. 

Nel.son. 

Penrose. 

Perkins. 

Piatt (ft.). 

Piatt (N. y.). 

Proctor. 

Quarles. 

Scott. 

Simmons. 

Smoot. 

Spooner. 

Stewart. 

Taliaferro. 

Warren. 

Wetmore. 



Pettus. 
Teller. 
Tillman. 



The Panama Canal. X27 



THE PANAMA Ckl^kX^—CoiUinrnd. 



PKO VISION FOR»THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CANAL ZONE 
Congress passed the following act, approved April 28, 1904, "to provide for the temnorarv 
(,'ovemmentof the Canal Zone at Panama, the protection of the canal works, and for other purooses - • ' 
• ' Be It enacted by tue Heaate and Uonse of Representatives of the United States of Atiiericain 
Congress assembled That the President is .hereby authorized, upon the acquisition of the property of 
the New Panama Canai Company and the payment to the Republic of Panama of the $10 000 000 
provided by Article 14 of the treaty between the United States and the Republic.of Panama 'therati- 
hcatious ot which were exchanged on February 26, 1904, to be paid to theUatter Government to take 
possession ot audoccupyqu behalf of the United States the zone of land and land under water of the 
width of 10 miles, extending to the distance of 5 miles on each side of the centre line of the -oute of 
the canal to be constructed thereon, which said zone begins in the Caribbean Sea 3 marine miles 
from mean low- wat«r mark and.extends to and across,theTsthmus of Panama into the Pacific Ocean 
to the distance of 3'marine miles from mean low-water mark, and also of all islands within said 
/.one, and in addition thereto the group of slands in the Bay of Panama named Perico, Naos, C^ulebra 
and Hamenco, aiid,fromtime to time, otany lands and waters outside of said zone which may be nec- 
.-ssaryand conyenientfortheiconstruction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and protection of the 




t reaty shall be made in lieu of the indefinite appropriation made in the third section of the act of J une 
28, 1902, and is hereby appropriated for said purpose. 

"Section. 2. That until the expiration of tlie I'Mfty-eighth Congre.ss, unless provision for the tem- 
porary government of the Canal Zone be sooner made by Congress, all the military, civil, andiudiclal 
l)()wers, as well as the power to make all rules and regulations necessary for the government of the 
» 'anal Zone, and all the rights, powers, and authority granted by the terms of said treaty to the United 
states.shall be vested in such person or persons, and shall be exercised in sucli manner as the President 
shall direct for the government of said Zone, and maintaining and protecting the inhabitants thereof 
in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion." 

THE ISTHJIIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Following: the ratification ot the treaty, the President appointed as members of the Isthmian 
("anal Commission to take charge of the construction of the canal, and the government of the Canal 
Zone, the following persons: Rear-AdmiralJohn G. Walker, U.,S. N. (retired). Chairman ; Major- 
(Jen. George W. Davis, U. S. N. (retired) ; William Barclay Parsons, New York; William H. Burr 
New York; Benjamin M. Harrod, Louisiana; Carl Ewald Ciunsky, California, and Frank .l.Hecker, 
Michigan. Messrs. Parsons, Burr, Harrod, and Grunsky are engineers, and Mr. Hecker was director 
of transportation for the Government during the Spanish- American War. 

_ Mr. John F. Wallace. General Manager of the Illinois Railroad System, was appointed Chief En- 
gmeer of the canal, and resigned hisconnection with the railroad to accept this position. 

GOVERNMENT OF PANAMA. 

Meantime Manuel Amador was inaugurated (February 20) President of the Republic of Panama, 
and appointed the following Cabinet: Minister of Government and Foreign Relations, Seilor Tomas 
Arias; Minister of Finance, Dr. Espriella; Minister of Public Instruction and Justice, Sefior Julio 
Fabrega; Minister of the Interiorand Public Works, Senor Manuel Quiutero. 

Senor Pablo Arosemeua was appointed Minister to the United States, succeeding Sefior Bunau- 
Varilla, resigned. 

The first United States Ministerto Panama was William I. Buchanan, of Iowa. He was succeeded 
by William W. Ru.ssell. who was transferred to Colombia in March, and John Barrett, the present 
Minister, was appointed. 

TRANSFER OF THE PROPERTY. 

On April 22 title to the property rights of the Panama Canal Company in the canal was dulv 
transttuieil by the company, at Paris, to the United States. The persons taking part in the legal 
Uirinaluios were President Bo and Director Ricliman for the Company, Assistant United States 
Attoriiej's-Geneial W. A. Day and Charles W. Russell for the United States, and Consnls-General 
John K. Gowdy and Robert Lewis for the United States and Panama respectively, the two consular 
representatives joining in affixing the seals and attesting the signatures to the instrument of 
transference. 

On May 9 the Panama Canal Company was paid $40,000,000 by a warrant of the Secretary of the 
Treasury on behalf of the United State.s. The Republic of Panama had also received the stipulated 
i^lO, OfJO, 000 to be paid by the United States. 

Under the authority of the act of Congress of April 28, which is printed above, the President 
decided that the Panama Commission shall report through the War Department, until Congress 
enacts laws for a permanent government of the Canal Zone. General Davis, of the Conimi.ssion, was 
appointed Governor of the Zone, and May 19 issued a proclamation from the "OflHce of the 
(ioveruor of the Isthmian Canal Zone Cnlebra,' ' addressed ' 'To the Inhabitants of the Canal Zone, ' ' 
announcing his authority and the purposes of his administration. The Governor subsequently ap- 
pointed new mayors, judges, treasurers, and secretaries for the municipalities within the Zone. 

The President in his letter of appointment clothing the Governor with executive power stated the 
following to be in general terms the principles by which the inhabitants of the Zone will be governed: 

"That no per.soii shall be deprived of life, libertv, or property without due process of law; that 
private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation; that in all criminal 
prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right of a speedy and public trial, to be intormed of the 
natnieand cause of the accusation, "to be confronted with the witnesses against him, tohavecom- 
pulxuy procp.ss for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his 
defiMicp; tliat excessive bail shall not be required nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel orunusual 
pniiishment inflicted; that no person shall be put twice in jeopardy forthe .same oflfence, orbe com- 
pelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; that the right to be secure against un- 
reasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated ; that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude 
shall exist except as a punishment for crime; that no bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be 
passed ; that no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, or of the rights 
of the people to peaceably assemble and petition the Government for a redress of grievances; that no 
law shall be made respecting the establishment of religion or prohibiting the tree exercise thereof ; pro- 
vided, however, that the Commission shall have power to exclude from time to time from the Canal 
Zone and other places on the isthmus, over which the United States has jurisdiction, persons of the 



1^8 The Chinese Commercial Treaty. 



THE PANAMA CANAL— Con^wiwed. 



following classes who were not actually domiciled within the Zone on the 26th day of February, 1904, 
viz.: Idiots, the insane, epileptics, paupers, criminals, professional beggars, persons afflicted with 
loathsome or dangerous contajjious diseases; those who have been convicted of felony, anarchists, 
those whose purpose it is to incite insurrections, and others whose presence it is believed bv the Com- 
mission would tend to create public disorder, endanger tlie public health, or in any manner impede 
the prosecution of the work of opening the canal; and may cause any and all such newlv arrived 
persons or those alien to the Zone to be expelled and deported from the territory eontrolfed by the 
United States, and the Commission ma.y defray from the canal appropriation the cost of such deporta- 
tion as necessary expenses of the sanitation, the police protection of the canal route, and the preserva- 
tion of good order among the inliabitants. " 

In October the President directed tlie Secretary of War to visit I'anama in the following month 
to confer with the authorities of the Republic, in order to settle any questions that may have arisen in 
reference to the administration of the Canal Zone, in its relations with theRepublic,"and relieve any 
friction that might exist. 

THE PROGRAMME OF CONSTRUCTION. 

The work on the canal, under the auspices of the Commission and direction of Chief Engineer 
Wallace, is now in full progress. As to its details, Walter Wellman says: 

"The work of constructing the Panama Canal will naturally be separated into three grand di- 
visions, considered from the engineering and purely constructive standpoint. First is the com- 
paratively simple matter of completing the excavation along the level stretches, and including the 
famous Culebracut, which, though a big operation, is not at all complicated or diflicult. Second is 
the building of theBahiadam, which is to create the interior fresh- water lake. This calls for en- 
gineeringskill of the highest order, and it is possible that the Commission may decide to do this part 
of the work itself instead of letting it out to contractors. It is well known that this is tlie only phase 
of the project which gives the engineers any anxiety, for they realize its difficulty and delicacy. 
Probably, also, American workmen will be sent out to build this dam, as it requires the touch of 
skilful and experienced hands, and cannot be left to .Tamaica blacks or Chinese coolies. The third 
division will bathe construction of the locks and the piers at the ocean ends of the channel. 

"But apart from all this is the task of disposing of the flood- waters of the Chagres; the sanitation 
of the entire district; the drainage of vast marshes; the effort to mitigate the mosquito pest and 
danger; the introduction of an ample supply of fresh water, and the civil and judicial administra- 
tion of the Canal Zone, with its population, a year or two hence, of pefhaps 40,000 or 50,000 
rougli and ignorant people.' ' 

Ratifications were exchanged at Washington January 13, 1904, and proclaimed the same day, 
of a treaty between the United States and Cliina for the extension of the commercial relations 
between them. The treaty had been ratihed bv the Senate December 18, 1903. 

The treaty provides for the privileges of diplomatic representatives of the respective powers, 
the recognition of consular officers, right of domicile trade, abolition of dues on goods in transit in 
the Empire, establishment of bonded warehouses, and the regulation of the importation of morphia 
and of mining rights, trademarks, patents, and copyrights. The following is the text of the most 
important provisions of the treaty: 

ARTICLE XII. 

The Chinese Government having in 1898 opened the navigable inland waters of the Empire to 
commerce.by all steam vessels, native or foreign, that maybe specially registered for the purpose, for 
'the conveyance of passengers and lawful merchandise, citizens, firms, and corporations of the United 
States may engage in such commerce on equal terms with those granted to subjects of any foreign 
power. 

In case either party hereto considers it advantageous at any time that the rules and regulations 
then in existence forsucli commerce V)e altered or amended, the Chinese Giovernment agrees to con- 
sider amicably and to adopt such modifications thereof as are found necessary for trade and for the 
benefit of China. 

TheChinese Government agrees that, upon the exchange of the ratification of this treaty, Mukden 
and Antung. both in the province of Sheng-kiug, will be opened by China itself as places of inter- 
national residence and trade The selection of suitable localities to be set apart for international 
use and occupation, and the regulations for these places set apart for foreign residence and trade, shall 
be agreed upon by the Government of the United States and China after consultation together. 

,. . ARTICLE XIIL .^ . , . ^. ^ v, „ v. 

China agrees to take the necessary steps to provide for a uniform national coinage which shall he 
legal tender in payment of all duties, taxes, and other obligations throughout the Empire by the 
citizens of the United States as we'I as Chinese subjects. It is understood, however, that all customs 
duties shall continue to be calculated and paid on the basis of the Haikwau Tael. 

ARTICLE XIV. ^ ^ r. .1 ,• 

The principles of the Christian religion, as professed bv the Protestant and Roman Catholic 
churches, are recognized a-- tpuching men to do good, and to do to others as they would have others do 
to them. Those who quietiv profess and teacli these doctrines shall not be harassen or persecuted on 
account of their faith. Any person, whether citizen of the United States or Chinese convert, who, ac- 
cording to these tenets, neaceabl V teaches and practices the principles of Christianity, -shall in no case 
be interfered with or molested therefor. No restrictions shall be placed on Cliinese joiiung Christian 
churches. Converts and non-converts, being Chinese subjects, shall alike conform to the laws ot 
China, and shall pavdne respect to those in authoritv, living together in peace and amity : and thelact 
of being converts shall not protect them from the consequences of anv offence they may have com- 
mitted before or mav commit after their admission into the church, or exempt them from paying legal 
taxes levied on Chinese subjects generallv, oxcent taxes levied and contributions for the support ot re- 
ligious customs and practices contrarv to 'heir faith: Missionaries shall notinterfere with the exercise 
by the native authoriti.-s of their jurisdiction over Chinese subjects; nor shall the native authorities 
make any distinction between converts and non-converts, but shall administer the laws without 
partiality, so that both classes can live together In peace. . ,. 

Missionary societies of the United States shall be permitted to rent and to lease in perpetuity, as 
the property of such societies, buildings or lands in all parts of the Empire for missionary purposes, 
and after the title deeds have been found in order and duly stamped by the local authorities, to erect 
such suitable buildings as may be required for carrying on their good work. 



President Roosevelt's Gall for a Peace Conference. 129 



l^rcsiKeut MooscUcirs eaU for a peace Otonfctrence. 

On October 30, 1904, tlieSecrptiiry of Htete, under tbe iustructions of the President sentanote 
to the representatives of the United States accredited to the governments signatories to' the acts of 
Tl!eH;i?ue Conference of 1899, rucuing the great work accomplished by that council of the nations 
tlic, iiuestions alfecting the riglits and duties of neutrals, the inviolability of private propertv in navai 
warfare, and the bombardment of ports and towns by a naval force, then left lor discussion bv a 
second conference, and the unanimous request addressed to the President by the Interpariiamentarv 
Union, held at St. Louis in connection with the World's Pair in Septeniber, 1904 that he should 
invite all the nations to send delegates to such a conference. The continuation of Secretary Hav's 
note was as follows: ^ " 

THE INVITATION TO THE POWEKS. 



ous 

fee ... _ .._ „ 

to it:5 hospitality should give voic^- to its impressive utterances in a cause wliicli the American Gov- 
ernment and people liold dear. He announced that lie would at an early day invite the other nations 
parlies to The Hague conventions, to reassemblt', with a view to pushing forward toward completion 
tlic work already begun at The Hague, by considering the questions which the tirst conference had 
left unsettled, with the express provision that there should be a second conference. 

In accepting this trust the President was not unmindful of the fact, so vividly brought home to 
aU the world, tliat a great war is now in progress. He recalled the circumstance that at the time 
when, on August 24, 1898,His Majesty the Kmperorof liussia sent fort li his invitation to the nations 
to meet in the interests of peace, the United States and Spain had merely halted in their struggle to 
devj.se terms of peace. While at the present moment no armistice between the parties now contend- 
ing is in sight, the fact of an existing war is no reason why the nations should relax the efforts they 
have so successfully made hitherto toward the adoption of rules of conduct which may make more 
remote the chances of future wars between theiu. f u 1899 the conference of The Hagiie dealt solely 
with the larger general problems which confront all nations, and assumed no function of intervention 
orsuggestion in Uie &€ttlemeiit of the terms of peace between the United State.s and Spain. It might 
be the same with a reassemiiled conference at the present time. Its efforts would naturally lie in the 
direction of further codification of the universal ideas of right and justice which we call internatioiial 
law; its mission would bo to give them future efl'ect 

The President directs that you wiU bring the foregoing considerations to tlie attention of the 
ISIinister for Foreign Aft'airs of tlie government to which you are accredited, and, in discreet con- 
terence witli him, ascertain to what extent that governnient is disposed to act in the matter. 

Should His Excellency invite suggestion as to the character of the questions to be brought before 
tlie proposed second peace conference, you may say to liim that at this time it would seem premature 
to couple the tentative invitation thus extended with a categorical prugnininie of subjects of dis- 
cussion. It is only by comparison of views that a general accord can be reached as to the matters to 
be considered by the new conference. It is desirable that in tlie formulation of a programme the dis- 
tinction should be kept clear between the matters which belong to tlie province of international law 
and those which are conventional as between individual governments. The final act of The Hague 
Conference, dated July 29, 1899, kept this distinction clearlj' in sight. Among the broader general 
questions affecting the riglit and justice of the relation of sovereign states which were then relegated to 
a future conference were the rights and duties of neutrals, the- inviolability of private property in 
naval warfare, and the bombardment of ports, towns, and villages by a naval force. The other 
matters mentioned in the final act take the form of suggestions for consideration by interested 
governments. 

POINTS TO BE DISCUSSED. 

The three points mentioned cover a large field. The first, especially, touching the rights and 
duties of neutrals, is of universal importance. Its rightful disposition atTects the interests and well- 
being of aU the world. The neutral is .something more than an onlooker. His acts of omission or 
commission mav have an influence— indirect, but tangible— on a war actually iu _progiess; while, on 
theotherhand.'he may suffer from the exigencies of the belligerents. It is this ijhase of warfare 
which deeply concerns the world at large. Efforts have been made time and again to formulate rules 
of action applicable to its more material aspects, as in the Declarations of Paris. As recently as 
April 28 of this year the Congres.s of the United States adopted a resolution reading thus: 

Kesolved by the Senate and House of llepresent:>tive,s of the United States of jVmerici, in Congress assenjblert. That itis 
the sense of the Congre,ss of the United States that it is desir.ible, in the interest of unit^>rmity of action by the maritime 
states of the world in time of war, that the Presi.ient endeavor to bring about an understanding among the principal maritime 
powers with a view of incorporatinj; into the periimnent law of civilized nations the principle of the exemption of all private 
property at sea, not contraband of war, from capture or destruction by belligerents.* 

Approved April 28, 1904. 

Other matters closely affecting the rights of neutrals are the distinction to be made between abso- 
lute and conditional contraband of war and the inviolability of the official and private correspondence 
of neutrals. . , , ^ j ^ > 

As for the duties of neutrals toward the beUige rent, the field is scarcely less broad. One aspect 
deserves mention, from the promiueuce it has acquired dnring recent times, namely, the treatment 
due to refugee beUigerent ships in neutral ports. ,., ^ ^ ■ , *.. ,u« 

It may also be desirable to consider aud adopt a procedure by which states non-signatory to the 
originalactsof The Hague Conference may become adhermg parties. „„o,,„.o f,.r 

You will explain to His ExceUeucv the Minister of Foreign Affairs that the present overture for 
a second conference to complete the postponed work of the first conference is not designed to super- 
sede other calls for the consideration of special topics, such as the proposition of the covernmeut ot 
the Netherlands, recently issued, to assemble for the purpose of amending the provisions of the ex- 
isting Hiigue Convention with respect to hospital ships. f-*e till tentative couveulioiis, that one is 
open to change in the light of practical experience,and the fVP?^1^^'''*'T^-?"i ?v,«^^,nHpL i-hiV-h c^ 

Finally, von will state the President- s desire and hope that the undying '".e'^o.-^'es w^'^-b clmg 
around The "Hague as the cradle of the beneficent work which had its beginning in 1899 maj ne 
strengthened by holding the second peace conference in that historic city. v w a v 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, ^ ,u * «, 

Responses of a favorable nature were received from Germany, ^raiice, Japan, tiuti tether po were. 
The Russian reply was cordial, but suggested that the conference be postponed until after tne 



130 



Citizens' Industrial Association. 



PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S CALL FOR A PEACE CONFERENCE— Coniiwtcd. 

conclusion of the war with Japan. Secretary Hay was preparing a statement of these replies when 
this edition of the Almanac was ready for the press. 

The Society for the Promotion of International Arbitration was organized at Chicago, February 
6, 1904, with the following officers: P)-esidmt—Kdva.\M\A J. James, President of the Northwestern 
University; Vice-Presidents— 3 Sicoh M. Dickinson, Robert T. Lincoln, ex-Amha.ssador to Great 
Britain, and Judge Lambert Tree, of Chicago; I^'easurer— James B. Forgau, Chicago. 

^rtJitratiott ^Treaties toitl) jForeisn potocrs. 

On November!, 1904, the Secretary of State and the Freucti Ambassador signed a treaty, provid- 
ing for the settlement by arbitration of disputes between the United States and France. The te.xt of 
the treaty was not made public, as it had to be submitted to the United States Senate in executive 
session for ratification, but it was known to be drawn on the lines of the Anglo-French arbitration 
treaty, the main features of which were that 

Piftereures which may arise of a le^ral nature or relating to the interpretation of treaties existing between the two con- 
tracting parties, and whiih it may not have been possil.l.' to settle hy diplomacy, shall tie referred to the Permanent Court of 
Arbitration established at The Hajue by the cmventiun of the 29th of .July, 1899 ; |iroyided, neverlheless, ihat they du not 
.affe-l the vital interests, the independence, or the honor of the two cuutracting States, and do not concern the interests of third 
parties. 

In each individual case the high contracting parties, before appealing to the Permanent Court of Arbitration, shall con- 
olnd ■ H s)>6cial arrangement detining clearly tlie matter in dispute, tlie scoi>e I'f the power uf the arbitrators, and the period to 
be fixed for the f<irmat!ou of the arbitral tribunal and the several stages of the proceedingi. 

The present agreement is concluded for a period of five years trum the day of signature of this treaty. 

The treaty with France was followed by treaties of the same tenor with Germany, Switzerland, 
and Portugal, and on December 12 with Great Britain. It was announced by the Department of 
State that assurances had been received from Italy, Russia, Me.xico, and other powers that they were 
ready to negotiate like treaties. Russia, however, suggested a radically difierent draft. 

K\\t CTiiijau <3?oljetnment. 

President of the Republic Tomas Estrada Palma. 

of Public Instruction - Leopoldo 

Manuel L. Diaz. 
Justice— Dr. Carlos 



Vice-President— Dr. Luis Estevez y Romero. 

Speaker of the Senate— Dr. Domingo Mendez 
Capote. . ^ 

Speaker of the Hou.se of Representatives— Dr. 
Santiago Garcia Canizares. 

President of the Snpreme Court of Justice— Dr. 
Juan Hernandez Barreiro. 

Secretary of the Interior — Eduardo Yero 
Buduen. 

Secretary of the Treasury— Jose Maria Garcia 
Montes. 



Secretary 
Cancio. 

Secretary of Public Works 

Secretary of State and 
Eugenio Ortiz. 

Secretary of Agriculture, Industry, and Com- 
merce—Vacant. 

Postmaster-General— Fernando Figueredo. 

Sanitar.v Chief— Dr. (!arlos Finlay. 

Assistant Secretary of the Treasury— Oscar 
Fonts Sterling. 

President's Secretary— Jorge Alfrede Belt. 



Havana— Gen. Emilio Nuflez. 
Matanzas— Ool. Domim^o Lecuona. 
Santa Clara— Gen. Jose Miguel Gomez, 



GOVERNORS OF PROVINCES. 

Puerto- Principe 



Gen. Lope Recio. 
Pinardel Rio— Col. f^nis Porez. 
Santiago de Cuba— Manuel Yero Sagol. 



iFisl)eriei3 of ti)e sauitrtr States. 

(Compiled by the United States Bureau of Fisheries. ) 



Sections. 



South Atlantic States (1902) 

Gulf States (1902) 

Middle Atlantic States (190L) 

New England States (1902) 

Great Lakes (1899) 

Mississippi River and Tributaries (1899) 
Minor Interior Waters (chiefly for 1900 

and 1902) 

Pacific Coast States (1899) 

Alaska Territory (1903) 

Total 



Vessels Employed. 



No. 



526 

714 

3,721 

1,479 

208 



183 
161 



6.992 



Tons. 



5,740 

9,221 

64,761 

46,543 

3,541 



9,286 
59,262 

188,354 



Persons 
Employed. 



23,452 
18.029 
93,661 
38,H79 
9,670 
11,155 

2,563 
19528 
13,106 



230.043 



Capital 
Invested. 



$2,991,149 

4,707,460 

25,()S(),371 

19,969,031 

6,617,716 

1,782,825 

287,680 

12,873,379 

9, 072, 012 

lB83,3Sl,t53 



Value of 
Products. 



$2,839,633 

3,494,196 

17,485,500 

12,280,401 

2,611,439 

1,781,029 

440,790 

6,278,639 

10,664^129 

$57,875,756 



(titi}tMn' Kntntstrial .Association. 

An association of employers of labor embracing local associations throughout the United States. 
The declared purposes are: To assist, by all lawful and practical means, the propci'ly constituted 
authorities of the State and Nation in maintaining and defending the supremacy of the law and the 
rights of the citizen. To assist all the peop]|e of Arnerjca in resisting encroachments tipon their con- 
stitutional rights. To promote and encourage harmonious relations between emiiln.vers'atid their 
employes upon a ba.sis of equal justice to both. To assist loca'. State, and national associations of 
manufacturers, employers, and einplpyiSs in their efforts to establish and maintain industrial peace, 
and to create and direct a public sentiment in opposition to all forms of violence, coercion, ana 
intimidation. 

Officers of the Association elected at New York City November 30, 1904: D. M. Parry of 
Indianapolis. President; .f. C. Craig, Denver, First Vice-President; James T. Hoile, Brookl.vn, 
Second Vice-President; George A. Davis, (^rand Rapids, Mich., Third Vice-President; A.C. Rq.^;en-; 
cranz, Evansville, Ind., Treasurer; A.C. Marshall, Dayton, C, Secretary, 



Record of Events in 190^. 



131 



aaecortJ of SSbents fit 1904. 



Dec. 30, 1903. Nearly 600 lives were lost in the 
Iroquois Theatre fire at Chicago. . 

Jan 4. Tlie United States Supreme Court de- 
cided that Porto Ricaus are not aliens. 

Jan. 6. Railroad accident near Willard, Kan., 
caused death of 20 persons and injury of 37 otiiers. 

Jan. 13. The commercial treaty between the 
United States and China was ratified in Washing- 
ton. President Roosevelt issuing a proclamation 
to that effect. 

Jan. 15. Joseph Chamberlain's Tarifl' Commis- 
sion met in London. 

Jan. 23. Fire in Aalesund, Norway, rendered 
10,000 people homeless. 

Jan. 25. Mrs. Florence May brick, after spending 
nearly 15 years in British prisons, convicted of 
poisoning her husband, was released on parole. 

Jan. 25. Explosion in a coal mine at Cheswick, 
Pa., caused the death of nearly 200 miners, 

Jan. 26. Wliitaker Wright, having just been 
sentenced to seven years' penal servitude in a Lon- 
don court, committed suicide. 

Jan. 29. Demand was made by the Thibet au- 
thorities that the Knglish expedition be withdrawn. 

Feb. 1. William H. Taft became Secretary of 
War, Elihu Root retiring. 

Feb 5. Arrangements for a loan of $50,000,000 
were completed by the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Feb. 6. Japan severed diplomatic relations with 
Russia, and the Russian Minister to Japan was 
recalled. 

Feb. 7-8. Fire in Baltimore's business district 
destroyed property whose value is estimated at 
$70,000,000; 140 acres, comprising 75 city blocks, 
with about 2,500 buildings, were burned over. 

Feb. 8. Vice-Admiral Togo with the main 
Japanese fleet engaged the Russian ships and 
batteries at Port Artliur. 

Feb. 10. The Czar proclaimed war with Japan. 

Feb. 15. Or. Manuel Amador was chosen Presi- 
dent of Panama. 

Feb. 22. The Hague Arbitration Tribunal de- 
cided unanimously that Great Britain, Germany, 
and Italy had right to a preference of 30 per cent 
of the customs duties of Venezuela. 

Feb. 23. The United States Senate ratified the 
Panama Canal Treaty by a vote of 66 to 14. 

Feb. 26. Fire in business district of Rochester, 
N, Y., destroyed $3,200,000 worth of property. 

Feb. 27 Fire destroyed the Wisconsin State 
Capitol at Madison; loss, |800,000. 

March 11. One of the tunnels under the Hudson 
between New Jersey and New York was completed. 

March 14. The United States Supreme Court de- 
cided by a vote of 5 to 4 that the Northern Securities 
Company was a trust and therefore illegal. 

March IB. President Roosevelt made a ruling 
that all Civil War veterans 62 years of age are en- 
titled to pensions. 

March 17. The Duke of Cambridge died. 

March 18. Daniel J. Sully, the New York cotton 
operator, failed. 

March 22. The United States Senate, in executive 
session, ratified the treaty with Cuba, embodying 
the Plntt amendment. 

March 28. United States Senator Joseph R. Bur- 
ton, of Kansas, was convicted at St. Louis of accept- 
ing a bribe. 

March 28. The French Chamber of Deputies 
passed a bill debarring the religious orders from 
teaching in France ; the vote stood 316 to 269. 

March 31. The British under Colonel Y'oung- 
husband repulsed the Thibetans. 

April 1. Premier Combes, of France, ordered the 
removal of religious emblems from the French 
courts of justice. 

April 5. Chicago voted overwhelmingly for 
municipal ownership of street railways. 

April 8. An Anglo-French Colonial treaty, cov- 
ering all disputed questions, was signed in London. 

April 9. Ex-Queen Isabella of Spain died at 
Paris. 



April II. German troops near Okahandjft, in 
Southwest Africa, defeated 3.000 Hereros. 

April 13. The Russian battle-ship Petropavlovsk 
was sunk by a mine or Japanese torpedo near Port 
Arthur. 

April 13. An explosion of powder on the U. S. 
battle-ship Missouri killed 29 men and injured 6 
more. 

April 15. Andrew Carnegie established a fund 
of $5,000,000 to provide for those who risk their 
lives for others, and for the widows and orphans 
of those who sacrifice their lives for others. 

April 20. Fire in Toronto destroyed 110,000,000 
worth of property. 

April 22. Contract for the transfer of the Panama 
Canal property to the United States was signed at 
Paris. 

April 26. Mr. WatsoD. leader of the Labor party 
in the Australian Parliament, formed a ministry. 

April 29. President Loubet and King Victor 
Emmanuel reviewed the French and Italian fleets 
at Naples. 

April 30. The Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
was opened at St. Louis. 

May 1. The Russians were driven from their 
position at Kiu-lien-Cheng by the Japanese under 
General Kuroki, and later were driven back still 
further. 

May 4. The General Conference of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church was opened at Los Angeles, 
Cal. 

May 6. France decided to reject the protest 
made by the Vatican against the visit of President 
Loubet to the King of Italy. 

May 6. The British, under Colonel Younghus- 
band, captured a strong position near Karo Pass 
from the Thibetans. 

May 7. The Japanese captured Fengwang- 
cheng, the Russians retreating without giving 
battle. 

May 18. The Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany cut off service to pool-rooms, thus crippling 
gambling on races. 

May 20. On account of the kidnapping of Per- 
dicaris, an American citizen, by Arabs, the whole 
South Atlantic squadron was ordered to Tangier. 

May 21. Franco recalled her Ambassador to 
the Vatican. 

May 26. The Japanese captured Kinchow and 
Nanshan Hill after a battle lasting sixteen hours. 

June 15. The excursion steamer General Slocum, 
having on board a Sunday-school picnic, was 
burned in the East River, and over 1,000 persons, 
mainly women and childien, were lost. 

June 16. General Count Bobrikoff, Russian Gov- 
ernor-General of Finland, was assassinated at Kels- 
ingfors. , 

June 16. The Russian Vladivostok squadron re- 
turned to that harbor after having sunk three Jap- 
anese transports in the Japan Sea. 

June 23. Admiral Togo met the Russian fleet off 
Port Arthur, disabling a battle-ship and a cruiser 
and sinking another battle-ship. The Russian fleet 
returned to Port Arthur. 

June 23. Republican National Convention at 
Chicago nominated Roosevelt for President and 
Fairbanks for Vice-President. 

June 24. Perdicaris and his stepson Varley, hav- 
ing been released by the bandit Rais Uli, arrived 
at Tangier. ~. ,_ ,, 

June 28. Steamer Norge was lost off the Scottish 
coast and 646 persons perished. 

June 30. Dr. Silas C. Swallow, of Pennsylvania, 
and George W. Carroll, of Texas, were nominated 
by the Prohibition National Convention at Indian- 
apolis for President and Vice-President respec- 
ti vely. 

July 4. The centennial anniversary of the birth 
of Nathaniel Hawthorne was observed at Concord, 
Mass. 

July 5. Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia, was 
nominated for President and Thomas H. Tibbies. 



132 



Record of JEvents in 1904. 



RECORD OF EVENTS IN 1904— Coniinztecf. 



of Nebraska, for Vice-President by the People's 
party at Springfield, 111. 

July 9. The Democratic National Convention 
nominated Alton B Parker, of New York, for 
President on the first ballot. Judge Parker sent a 
telegram to the Con ention saying that he re- 
garded the gold standard as irrevocably estab- 
lished and that he wished the Convention to un- 
derstand his position before it adjourned The 
Convention replied that it did not regard the gold 
standard to be an issue in the campaign. 

July 10. Henry G. Davis, of West Virginia, was 
nominated for Vice-President by tbe Democrats. 

July 11. Porflrio Diaz was elected President of 
Mexico, and Ramon Corral Vice-President. 

July 11. The British steamer Cheltenham was 
declared a prize of the Russian Vladivostok fleet. 

July 12. Employes in the meat-packing estab- 
lishments at Chicago, numbering IS.OOO, went on 

July 13. The Petersburg, of the Russian volun- 
teer Black Sea fleet, stopped the British liner 
Malacca and took her as a prize to Suez. 

July 24. The British steamer Knight Com- 
mander, with a cargo worth £50,000, was sunk by the 
Vladivostok squadron. 

July 25. Strike involving 24.000 operatives was 
begun in textile mills in Fall River, Mass. 

July 28. The Russian Minister of the Interior, 
M. Plehve, was assassinated at St. Petersburg. 

Aug. 1, The United States Government directed 
Minister Bowen to protest against the seizure of 
asphalt properties by the Venezuelan Government. 

Aug 5. Chief Justice Parker, of the New York 
Court of Appeals, resigned from the bench. 

Aug. 7. The British, under Colonel Young- 
"iiusband, entered Lassa unopposed, the Dalai Laiua 
having fled to a monastery. 

Aug. 8. Collapse of a bridge at Dry Creek, Pue- 
blo. Col., caused a railroad wreck in which 76 per- 
sons were killed and many injured. 

Aug. 12. A son was born to the Czar of Russia. 

Aug. 14 Turkey consented to give American 
schools equal rights with those of other powers. 

Aug. 14. Tbe Japanese squadron, under Admiral 

" Kamimura, engaged the Vladivostok fleet in the 

Strait of Korea, andsank the Russian cruiser Rurik. 

Aug. 16. A mob at Statesboro, Ga.. burned two 
negroes at the stake after they had been convicted 
of murder. 

Aug. 24-Sept. 2. The great battle of I.iaoyang 
was fought between the Russians and the Japanese. 

Aug. 27. The United States battle-ship Louisiana 
was launched at Newport News, Va. 

Sept. 7. The military manoeuvres on the Bull 
Run (Manassas) battle field, Virginia. %vere begun. 

Sept. 15. A son was born to the King of Italy. 

Sept. 20. Russia protested against the Anglo- 
Thibetan treaty. « 

Sept 21. King Peter of Servia was crowned at 
Belgrade. 

Sept. 22. The Contraband Oommipsion, sitting 
at St. Petersburg, declared coal, cotton, and iron 
contraband of war. 

Sept. 2.3. Don Jos^ Pardo was proclaimed Pres- 
ident of Peru. 

Sept 24. In a collision on the Southern Railway, 
near Knoxville, Tenn , 70 people were killed and 
125 injured. 

Sept. 29. The United States battlc-sliipConnecti- 
cut was launched at the New York Navy Yard. 

Oct. 3. The thirteenth International Peace Con- 
ference opened at Boston. 

Oct. 4-15. Battle of Yeu-Toi, in Manchuria. 



Oct 5. Triennial General Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church met at Boston. 

Oct, 14. The King of Saxony died. 

Oct. 19. The President directed Secretary Taft 
to go to Panama to reassure the people of the 
pacific intentions of the United States. 

Oct. 20. The President invited the signatory 
powers to a second peace conference at The Hague. 

Oct. 21. The entire Russian Baltic fleet entered 
the North Seu. 

Oct. 22. The Russian Baltic fleet attacked a 
British fishing fleet in the North Sea, sinking one 
vessel, killing two men, and wounding many 
others. 

Oct. 24. The Episcopal General Convention 
agreed on a new divorce canon. 

Oct. 24. A semi-official statement was issued in 
St. Petersburg expressing regret for the tin- 
fortunate North Sea incident. 

Oct. 25. General Kuropatkin was appointed 
Commander-in-Chief of the Rftssian Army. 

Oct. 25. The airship Arrow made a ten-mile 
trip at St. Louis. 

Oct. 26. The Earl of Dartmouth laid the cor- 
ner-stone of a hall at Dartmouth College. 

Oct. 27. The New York Subway was opened from 
City Hall to West 145th Street. 

Oct. 28. Russia and England agreed to arbitrate 
the North Sea difficulty. 

Nov. 1. Secretary of State Hay and the French 
Ambassador signed aji arbitration treaty at Wash- 
ington, D. O. 

Nov. 2. Miss Eva Booth was appointed Com- 
mander of the Salvation Army in the United 
States. 

Nov. 3. J. Pierpont Morgan presented the stolen 
Ascoli Cope to the Italian Government. 

Nov. 4. Canadian election i-eturus give the Lib- 
erals a majority of over 70. 

Nov. 8. The Republican Presidential ticket was 
chosen by a great popular and electoral majority. 

Nov. 10. The battle-ship New Jersey was 
launclied at Quincy, Mass. 

Nov. 12. The French Chamber ratified the 
Anglo-French treaty, including the cession of the 
French shore of Newfoundland. 

Nov. 12-20. The King and Queen of Portugal 
visited England. 

Nov. 15. An arbitration treaty was signed at 
Washington between Germany and the United 
States, 

Nov. 15. Prince Fushrmi, adopted brother of the 
Mikado of Japan, called on President Roosevelt. 

Nov. 19. First asseml)ling of representatives of 
the Russian Zeiustvos took place at St. Petersburg. 

Nov. 19. The statue of Fredeiick the Great. 
presented to the United States by Emperor 
William, was unveiled at the Army War College 
in Wasliington. 

Nov. 21. General Andr6, French Minister of War, 
resigned. 

Nov. 24. Prince Sviatopolkiuirsky. Russian 
Minister of the Interior, presented to the Czar 
the petition of the Zomstvos asking for a share in 
the national government. 

Nov, 30. Thy Japanese captured 203-Metre Hill 
at Port Arthur. 

Dec, 2. All (iilTerences between the United 
States and Fannina were si^ttled by an agreement 
between Secretary Taft and President Amador. 

Dec. 8. Mrs. Cassio Chadwick, millionaire 
swindler, was arrested and imprisoned in the 
Tombs, New York. 



Tk^ Jiussimi-Jap,mi(iS6 War. 133 



^^t Mxiuumx'Bapmxtnt Wiav, 




sion is imf)emtive for Jaaxtn by reason nolt' only "of ''her "{ncr ease in coin1nerce"but^alsa 
of her grawinig population. ■ 

The Boxer troubles in China strengthened the Russian position in Manchuria anrl 
When the.se disturbances ceased. Japan began to demonstrate a diplomaitic cam^naisn lu 
force Russia back. A diplomatic fencing match continued with the .presenilation of an 
ultimatuim by Jai>an in January. The conitemts of the Ru.ssian reply, sent to Tokio m 
Feibruary C, was known to the Mikado's ministers before it could be presented and was 
of so unsatisfactory a dharacter that the Jaipaiiese Minister at St. PetersbuW Count 
Ivurino, was eummarily recalled. The Russian Minister, Baron de Rosen, was 'recalled 



ay. iSubseauenit events have proved that Japan's military aiid naval prog- 
t 'ten years has been governed by the realization tihat aooiier or later wai- 



on t"he same day. 

ress in the last 't __ __ „..^, „,. ,^^^^ ..^^ 

v/ith Russia was inevitable. The Russia^is, on the other hand" "had counTed' on' being able 
to prevent a war. or. at least, to postpone it for soine years to come. At tJhe auitbreak 
of hostilities Russia was unpi-eipared, both as regards her army in Manchuria and her naval 
eatabliehment at Fort Arthur and Vladivostok, to cope wiith t)he Japanese. 

Tokio Icist no time in taking the aggressive. Two days after the severawce of diplo- 
matic relatioins her first blow was struck. |The main fleet of Janan, consisting of imei 
most of its six modern battie.^hip.s, several cruiser.? a.nd a largp flotilla of torpedo boits 
and destroyers, under Admiral Tog-o, suddenly attacked tihe Russian navafl force ait Port 
Arthur. It has become evident .vince then that the Ruissiams were altogether lacking in 
information about the preparedness and efficiency of their enemy, either in naval or land 
forces. The attack on the Port Arthur squadron was a oomiplete surprise. Despatches 
.generally agree that the precautions wlhich one would expect to be taken by any civilized 
po'wer's navy, even in a period of merely ".strained relatloais," were neglected by tihe 
Russians. The initial attack, made by night, was made by the torpedo boats, who.se com- 
manders had 'learned the theory of this branch of warfare in ithe United States. This at- 
tack damaged two ba'fctle.ghips and a first -class criiise.r. On the follo'wing day a. second 
attack was made, resulting in further damage to the Russia.n squadrop. Accurate details 
of the .extent of damage have never been made >publie, but ithe essential fact is thait there- 
after the Port Arthur squadron has never been strong enough 'to risk a "stand-up" naval 
battle with its enemy. 

On the same day a cruiser squadron with torpedo boats 'compelled the modern Rusaian 
cruisers VarJag and .Korieitz to leave the harbor of ChemiuUiw, Corea, and fight. The 
Russian vesseis, meeting a far superior force, could only fight a losing battle. They 
were destroyed, with a loss of .more than 500 men killed arnd woimded. Tlhis settled once 
and for all the question of Japan's naval supreimacy in the Pacific, and 'made it a simpie 
matter for Japan to carry out a scheme of 'land operations ipretiared long in advance, whose 
.effect was two-fold — tihe capture of Port Arthur and the ex'puision of Russian armies 
from Manohuria, involving the seizoire of the rail'way at Harbin, wfliicii would also cut 
off Vladivostok, Russia's more northern-port and garrison on the Pacific coast. 

The United Stabps at this stage declared a policy, previoualy formulated, which was 
of the higliest diplomatic impoptanoe to the nations directly and remotely concerned. Secre- 
tary Hay's proposals resulted in an agreement of the belligerent pow-ei-s to restrict tiheir 
operations to M.ancfhuria and that other Chinese lierritory should be respected. Neutral ity 
was proclaimed fby the United Staites on Febnuary II, the day after R.u.Ssia's declaration 
of war and the day of Japans declaration. Russia im-ade the ciaim that ho«.tile actions by 
Japan in advance of a declaration of war .were "treacherous," but civilization in general 
has discarded that notion as obsolelte. 

The supreme ■commamd of the R.ussian foix-es in tihe East at itli'e ou*breaIk of the war 
was vested in Vice- Admiral Alexieff. who is believed 'to be an illegitimate s'cion of the 
Imperial family. In the development of .Rusisia's advanioe on Manchuria he had dis- 
played marked administra'tive ability, hut when the test of war came 'he was .shown to 
bo sadly lackin.g in the qualities of a competent commander. His on.ly offensive move 
againat the enemij' appears to have been a sortie of tihe Vladivostok squadron .oif four 
cruisers, whiclh raided the -west coast of Japan and sank several 'merchant ^iujs. On 
February 20 he moved his 'headquarters from Port Arthur to Haitiin, The ail-ipointment 
of Vioe-iAdmiral Makharoiff to comimand the Fort Arthur fleet and of G'en. Kur^ipatkin, 
Minister of iWar, to command the armies in the East followed within three days. 

The story of the events between February and October is of an almost uncih'eo.Ked 
Japanese advance, and of a brilliantly executed Russian retreait. In some respects the 
movement of the Jauanese armies can be coimipared, for machine-like precison. to that of 
Khe Pruss.ian armies directed by Von Moltke against those of the Emiperor Naipolieon III. 
Again, a fair historical .comparison would liken Kuropatkin's (tactics to those of his 
predecessors in the defence aigainst the first Napol'eon on his niardh to .Moscow. 

Thie Japanese army began to 8)0 .moved into Corea on Fclrruary 18, eleven days after 
the finat sihot of the war had heen fired. In ten days more they had occupieti Pin.g Tang. 
the scene of one aC bhe decisive ba.ttHes in the war .with Cliiiia, without having ni'pt any- 
thing like resistan'ce in force. By the time the i-ttxring weaClier hajd made it poasilbie to 



134 2%e Russian-Japanese War. 

y THE RUSSIAN- JAPANESE WAR— Con^mwed. 



carry on .military ooeratlons on a grand scaie, the Ja(pa.nese Fliist Aitniy, under Gen. 
Kuroki. was at the Yalu River, which separates Corea frorni Manchuria. 

Ge'n. Kuropntk.in. on talcing command of tdie Russian forces in Man<?liiuria, found that 
he liad not more than 100.000 tro'OiDS in Eastern Slbe.ri_a, and these, for the nwst part, 
v/ere stationed at ©oints where tliey -were needed to gruard the railway, which was the 
only military communication witih Russia. Thi.s long and seemingly inadequate connection 
with his base 'was subieoted to the most seyei^e tests of modern warfare. The uroblem' 
before Kurapatki.n was to retard his eme-my's advance until he could coWect a force to 
ma'toh him. Collecting such a force meant the transportation of imen, 'hor.ses, supplies 
and guns over a single-tracik railioad, so poorly equipiped tlhat on some divisions of the 
5,000-mrile stretch of rail wood-bunnin.g locomotives haid ito be used, and at some points 
water for tihe locomotives had to be carried ftir many aniles, or carried In bucliet.s from 
streams. 

[The summary of the land campaign in Manchuria which follows is based largely upon 
the miliitary criticism written for THE SUNDAY WORLD bv I.ieutenantl-General Nelson A. 
Miles, U. S. A., retired.] 

First he reinfO'rced Geji. Qtoessell, in commamd of the Port Arthur ga.rrison, foresiee- 
ing that one of the first moves of Jajpan would be .to invest this stronghold by land and 
.sea. Stoessiel was left with 2.5,000 effecitives, including the crews of the fleet and the 
poldiery of the naval \ards. A force un.der Ge.n. Za.ss'iliitch was posted at the Yalu River 
to re.oist as far as possible the inevitable passage of dhe invaders into Manchuria. Zas- 
sulitch had about 18.000 infantry, 5.000 cavalry and 72 guns. Kuroki had 42.000 in- 
fantiT, 5,000 cavalry and 12'4 guns. Moreover, the Russian comimander. unable to divine 
what" point bis opponent would 'Ohoose for hi.s attaok, was obliged to spread his force 
over a great extent of territory. 

Kuroki, on April 2C, .senf piortions of the guards and second division to seize the 
Kvurito and Osenkito Islands in the Yalu, encountering feeble resisitanoe. By well-con- 
trived (Strategy, Kuroki so managed tOiat Zassuliteh concetitratfed his heaviest forces at a 
great distance from tihe point he had selected for the delivery of his principal aittack on 
May 1, and Kuroki's three divisions were thrown across the river, the Twelfth crossing 
a 'bridge built at Suikauchen on April ,'50. From Kinluto the Japane.?e artillery silenced 
the Russian guns on Conical Hili, and batterifs north of Wiju disprised of the Russian 
artillery force apposed at that point. The Secoind Division was manoeuvred so as to tafce 
the Rus-'jlans in fllank. On the morning of May 1 tbe Ja.panese forots had been so dis- 
posed that the order to advance was given for the first .inn^ortant land battle of the war. 
By a brilliant charge made across the Aiko River in an e.x.posied position, the Jaii>ane.se 
overcame whaJt at fii-st appeared to be a Russian advantage of position, and by mid- 
afternoon tiheir enemv was in full retreat. The Russians lost 2.(i(l0 killed and wounded 
in this affair; tihe Japanese a.bout 1,000. The victors captured 000 prisoners, 21 fieid 
pieces, 1,000 rifles, 350.000 rounds of ammunition and a great quantity of supplies. Zaa- 
sulitdh had disobeyed orders. Bell.ieving tha.t his positions warranted him in fighting a 
pitched battle, whereas hiiS orders required 'him only to make the enemy's ajivanoe ais 
trou/blesome a-s he could witihout serious loss, he ihad aspired 1o make an heroic reputation. 
Instead be was outgeneralled and outfought, with losses that 'his chief, Gen. Kuropatltin, 
cou!id iii afford. 

Zassi.litch moved his force slowly to the northwest, abandoning Fengwangcheng 
without resistance to the invaders. . Kuroki's advance was slow, while ne awaited the 
(levieloome'nt of the other prearranged nv>vcment« of his country's forces. The Japanese 
Second Army,' under Gen. Oku. 'nad by May 33 cut off the Port Arthur garrison's com- 
municaition with Gen. Kuropatkin and made itself master of the neck of the Diao-Tunig 
peninsula. The Third Japane,se Army, under Gen. Nodzu, mo\iod up froan TaJvUShan to i3iu- 
yen. In touch with Kuroki. by June S . 

Operations begun on 'May 23 by Gen. Nodzu's Third Army againsit Gen. .Stoe.^sel's ad- 
vanced positions iin .the Liao-iTung peninsula, disposed onoe and for all of any hO'pe the 
Russians may have had tihat they could restore the line of communiication beitween Mukden 
and Port Arthur and avert a siege of the latter fortress. These operations culminated in 
the battle of Nanshan. It was a compleite but hard-'won victory for Japan. In this 'battle, 
lasting unitil May 20, the Japanese first ex'hl.bited that apparent recklessness in sacrifice of 
lives in order to attain a desired Object which has distinguished their metho.l of war- 
fare Khro'Ugho.ut .this year's campaign. The Japanese fleet in Kauohan Bay. enabled the 
army ait 'length, after manv fruitless but desiperate .charges, to carry the positions held 
by t(he Russian Gen. Fock. and force the Matter's retreat southward. The Russians left 
COO dead and 50 .pieces of artillery beihind. The Jaipanese loss was about 4,300 in billed 
and wounded. 

The Russians began to conc'e.nitrate a large force at amd near Telissu on the line of 
the .railroad to Port Arthur, under Gen. Stakelberg, vilhO'Se apparent .punpose was seen 
to be a movement southward to the relief of the Port Arthur garrison. Gen. Oku moved 
50.000 m'en n.ear Port Adaniis and advanced northward in three colu.mns. On June 14 his 
force came into icollision wit'h Stakelberg's. The strategy of Ok.u enabled him within 
three days to catch the 'Russians, already In retreat, in an ambusli. The Ru.ssians losit 
4,300 to the Japanese 1.K53, in this battle. The Ru.ssians fell back to Kaiping. fro'in which 
position .they 'were driven on July 8. flghtimg only a rear guard action to protect their 
retreat, whidh was aocomralls'hpd wi.thout noteworthy loss. 

Ge.n. Nodzu had grained a iuncti'^n with Gen. Kuroki. and on June 27 had flanked the 
Russian.'?, ena.hlin.g bim to advance to Simuchen after tv/o days oif fighting. Kiiiroki ad- 
vanced towards Motien Pass and along the vali .iy of the Patao River, occupying Feni=:- 
shuiling Pass on June 29. Gen. Meschenko's Cossacks were raiding to the north and east 
of t.hls position and provision was made against an attack from that quarter. On July 8 
he gained other iiim>ortant positions at Hanchen and Sidoguir. 

This closed the first stage of the Japanese adva.n'Ce. Four armies had .now been 
landed. Kuroiki's was advaaicing on three roads towards Liaoyang hfning gained tihe prin- 
cipal passes which lead from the mountains westward into the Manohurian plains. Oku 
had moved 'Up the railroad ito Tasihichiao and Nodzu was teeyond the Fenschul Pass on 



The Russian-Japanese War. 135 



THE RUSSIAN-JAPANESE "^ h.^— Continued. 



thie road to Haicfti«ng. The Fourth Army, under Gen. Nogi, had taken vsa tJhie ta-^k of 
driving Stoessel'e forces ba'ck linto Port Arthur. In (tlhe middle of Juiy the Ja,mne<!.pl 
operations, heretofore directed by the General Staff, were i-ntrusted to Field Marsihal 

'The imminent danerer to tlhe Russian position noiw was a division of his forces ir 
case of a successful forward movement iby the enemy wit'h the object of seizing the "rail- 
road between Liaoyang and -Mukden. Kuroipatkin had been subjected to a vast deal of 
outicism i'n high quarters for his refusaa to take the offensive, and, indeed Russian 
prestige had suiffei-ed seriousiv tihrousthout civilization, first by naval disasbers a'nd second 
by the consitant, aithouefh slow, retrograde movement of the land forces. It was now 
judged time to take the aggressive, even though it was on a small scale Gen Keller 
was sent on July 17 with 20,000 men and 2A gims to attack the Japanese at Fengsihui 
Paws. His expedition failed. He lost 1,200 men without disilodgvng the enemy and he 
retired to a strong position in t/he Yantze Pass, where, ait least. ;he could protect tho 
retreat in 'case of need of the Russian forces to the south and west. Oltu maix-hpd ahead 
and on July 23 attacked Gen. Zaronbaieffs position before Tashichiao. After an all-day 
artiaiery attack, ^he moved at night agaioisit the Russian left, accomplisihing a turning 
movement which comioelled t.he Russians to abandon Ta.'-ihidhiao and Yinkow. The success 
of this movement deorived Russia of .its last .base on tJlie Chinese sea coast, and lout off 
supplies t'lferetofore received by the Poking railroad. 

Kuroki engaged Keller again on July 31 at Y^antze iPass and Y'usbulin, and after two 
days' fighting Keller retired towards Liaoyang. At tJhie .same time Oku and Nodzu made 
a conA)inod attack on the Russian right, fifteen miles beloiw Haicheng, and turned tiheir 
enemy norbhward. The Russians abaindoned Haichanig on Augu.st 2. Kuroki had lost 
2,400 men. to say nothiniar of the casualties in the other two armies, 'but tlhe point gained 
was tha»t ()he operations had forced tlhe enemy to a concentrated area, defending the rail- 
road to Liaoyang. The fighting hitherto had been in immmtainous country. The future 
operations were to be conducted in tlhe rich agricultural plain vyherein the Manohu con- 
Querors of China had their origin. 'The Russians were now extended allong a front of 
tw€'nty-ii\ie miles between Anping and the railroad at AnShainchan. The rainy season now 
enforced a comiparative truce, which 'endured through the greater part of August. This 
was to the ad^•antage of tlhe Russians, wiho had made most of 'the summer to toring up 
reinforcement.s and supplies to d.epots a-nd rendezvous at Hai-lbin and Mukden. 

On .Ohe morniing of August 26 the Jaipanese renewed tlhe attack. Thie Russian position 
was now extended along a eemi-circle of hills twelve miles from Liaoyang. and the force 
available consisted of about 148,000 .men with 400 guns, so disposed as to giuard all tihe 
three roads which 'centre upon Liaoyang. The Japanese right oonsis'ted of Kuroki's Fir.st 
Army, witlh Nodzu'e army in 'tlhe centre and O'kiu's on the left. These combined armoesi 
consL^sted of about 200.000 men with oGO guns. With this sui>erior force, Mars:ha/1 Ovama 
ordered a general ad\-ance. Kuroki turned the Russian left at tlh.e Taitse IRiver and Oku 
broke through tlhe Russian right near Anshanchan. Kuropatkin was compelled to move 
baick to a position only five miles distant from Liaoyang. The Russian retreat wa.s ac- 
co>mp)ished in good order, and without severe losses. Kuropatkin threw a coiii>s across 
the Tait.=.e River on August 29 to protect his left. Kuroki crossed the Taitse to desitroy 
this force, wnhile the other Japanese armies pressed the Russian left centre. Kuroipatkin 
discovered the dangerous character of Kuroki's move in time, and he ordered a strong 
force to envelop Kuroki. This failied. and the Russians were obliged to evacuate Liao- 
yang, the retreat beginning on September 3. Kuropatkin was in a tight place, but he 
managed, nevertheless, to make his escape with his whole army. The rear guard's hero- 
ism saved the day. One regiment, holding a necessary position at Talieniho, suffered a 
los.s of !i00 men. The army had retired upon Mukden on September 7. 

Persistent an-d circumstantial reports of the death of Gen. Kuroki. one of the ablest 
of the Jaipanese commanders, 'have since been received, but without official Japanese con- 
firmation. 

Again there w:as a long cess-atjon of severe operations, owing to the heavy rains. At 
last, on October 5, what was intended to be the decisive battle of tlhe war was joined. 
Kuropatikin. with a force .now ■estimat'ed at not far from .SOO.OOO men and with, for the 
firs't tiir.e, a superior force oif artillery to Oyama's, moved .forward against the Jaipa-nese 
I'ositioin. 

Gen. Kuropatkin. previous to this advance, had insipired his troops with a proclama- 
■llon in wiii'nh he decllared in erffect that now Russia was prepared to drive the enemy 
back and to begin a campaign 'wihose intent was to crush Japan. He had written to 
political supporters in St. Petersburg that for months they might expect to hear, 'him de- 
nounced as incoiiioetent and even as a traitor, but if they would have confidence, anil 
■retain for liian the Czar's esteem. ;he would take ait the right moment th-e aggressive. It 
has ail.'so .been reported from St. Peter.^burg that t'he Czar, grown imiipatient o\'er a 
long succession of 'mlliitary and naval reverses, ihad at lengtli ordered aggression pre-- 
maturely. 

The' Russian chan.ge of policy was in part a failure and in part a suceess. For a 
■week the armies, estimated as of atoout eq.ua! .strength in men, but, as has been said, with 
superior force of artillery on Kuropatkin's side, en.ga.ged in a stru.srgle, of which, as yet, 
military details are la'Cking. It is called the Battle of the Sha River. Enough is known. 
however, to wa.rran.t the judgment tiha.t thi'S was one of the greatest battles in modem 
history. Its particular feature was the lon.g-con tinned test of endurance on both sides. 
Men fought witlhout sleep, even without rest, day after day. 

The crucial niament of this battle was the occuipation, by the Ru.'^sians, of an emi- 
nence called Lone Tree Hill. It was e.ssential to the Russians that this sihould be ta,ken. 
from their enemy. After repeated failures a oharge, led by an officer named Putiloff. 
captured the p.-sition with severe loss. So brilliant was the achievement flbat the place 
was named Putiloff Hill in official orders. Its importance was demonstrated afterward 
by successive Japanese attaclks, all of which failed. Since then the two armies have 
been drawn i>p so close to one another that outix>sts ha^'e toeen engaiging in petty trade. 
a practice familiar to veterans of *he A'merica.n Civil War, and even have heUl wrestling 



136 The Rns^lan-Jrqninese War. 

' THE RUSSIAN-JAPANESE •WAB.—Coniinwd. 

and boxing 'matcihes. Winter -yineather has be^n pr^yalent tjirpugjh Noveniber at taia 
scen.e cwf confiiot. Each cammander ha^ made feaiits with, a view to feelini^out his adver- 
sary's weaker points, but it is believed tha> major operations along tlie Sha are hot likely 
to be resumed before spring. , 

The battle at the Sha was Imiiiortant in that it checked for a longer internal than 
hais ye.t been seen,' the Japanese advance. Both sides have since been receiving reinforce- 
nuents and a vast amo-urat of suipplies. It may be mentioned here that the Trans-Siberian 
railway has fulfilled thie demands made upon it to a far greater extent than military ex- 
I)erts believed it would. Estimates of the ■casoial.tie.s in the battle of tlie Sha River are 
not trustwortihy. Some correspondents have asserted that each side lost not les^s tlhan, 
45,000 men. 

When Gen. Stoessel was shut uip in Port Arthur, he announced his intentiO'n to ihold 
thiiS fortress to tihe last limi't of "his endurance. Since May no liess than four general as- 
saults, each oarefullv planned and eacih condiuoted with an astonishing disnagard of its 
cost in lives, have ibeen made by the Jap^anesie. 

Before the siege proper can be said to have begun, Togo's navy made several attemipts^ 
to block the harbor entrance with old steamships^ much as Holbson had done in tiha 
blockiade of Santiago in tihe war of America with Spain. These were not succes.sful. 
On April 13 Admiral Makharoff attemipted a sortie. The battleship Petropaiplovsk wag 
sunlt ju'?t outside 'the ha.rbor. Makharoff perished, with the famo.us Russian arti.'it Vassili 
Veres'tiohagin. Several eeneral bombardments of Port Arthur by Togo's flee;t failed of 
their purpose. On May l.T the Japanese battleship Hatsuse was desitroyed by a mine, and 
the Japanese cruiser Yoshino was accidentaily ram.ni'ed and sunk by tihe ci-uiser Kasuga 
of the same fleet. The Russian Vladivostok .squadron maide a second raid in June and 
sunk Ithree Japainese transports. Admiral Wittshaeft atte^mipted another dash out of Port 
Arthur wit/h thie Russian fieet on June 22, but, was driven back with los-^es mot yet as- 
certained. Again, August 10, the Russian fleet attempted to effect a .junction wi;h the 
Vladivostok squadron. Two cruisers were camipelled, to seek neutral ports and dismantlip. 
The Vladivostok squadron was disabled i'n a September sortie, and compeWed to return, 
to that port. It was not until Octol)er that official admission was made by Japan thait the 
baittleship Tashima, one of the best of Togo's fleet, had been destroyed months before. 
This left Togo with only four modern babtieshirs — the Asahi, Fuji, Mikasa and Shikis- 
■ hima. Tfliie Ctiin-Yen, classed as a battleshiji, is an antiquated Chinese-built vessel, and 
is not regarded as effective. 

The Japanese, after many failures and great loss of life, succeeded oh November 29 and 
30 in capturing an eminence known as 203-Metre Hill, which coinm^hds the harbor of Port 
Arthvir. Siege guns placed there destroyed or damaged almost all the vessels in the harbor. 
This made It impossible for the fleet to attempt a final sortie. 

In the early summer the Russians sent out the tonpedo boat destroyer Ryeshetelni. 
Which made Shanigihai. Her commander, under neutrality laws, agreed to dismantle her. 
Nevertiheless, Japanese toiroedo' boats attacked her at 'her ipier, and lafber a band-to-hand 
fight, tihe Russian comanander and his men Jumped overboard. The uncertain po.'iition in 
which this ileft other belliiffereiht vessels in Ohinese iports caused the comiriandieir of the 
torpedo boat Rastoropinv, whiich ran the blaekade and made Ohefoo on November 15 wit/li 
important despatches froan Stoessel to 'St. Petersburg, to blow up his vessel ratlher than 
allow her to fall into the enemy's hands. 

Stoiessel's deapabohes are variously described as saying that Port Arthur can !ho';d out 
indefinitely, as fixing a date beyond whic/h 'he cannot resist the Japanese, and as asking 
penmission to, surrender at once. The fo.urth, general land assault on Noivem/ber 26 and 
continuing to November 28 was r>..pulsed with heavy losses. , 

Tihe Simolensk and St. Peter.'^burg, two vessels of the Russian volunteer fleet, passed 
tihe DwrdaneWes in Julv. and Liter appeared in the Red Sea. 'holding uip and capturing 
Briti.=h and German v<'sselis. R/,=in.reKentations by tihe .sovernments concerned led Ru.=sia 
to restore these vessels' prizes and to undertake that they would confine their attention 
to sihips undoubtedly containimg comtraband of war. On Jnly 22 the steamer Arabia, German, 
but chartered bv an American ■ corhpamy, was seized in the Pacific by the Vladivostok 
souadron. ' This was the suibiect of remonstrance by the United States State Department. 
Two days later the Vladivostok vessels sank the British steamer Knight Commander 
with an Ameri'can carsro. Tlhis also called out a protest from Secretary Hay. 

In view of the non-eiffeotiveness of her Piacific fleet, Russia hastened, preparations to 
send the most formidat)le vessels of her Baltic fleet to bhe Pacific. Its first division, 
proceeding through the North Sea on the way to the Mediterranean to take the Suez Canal 
route, attacked by night a peaceful fleet of British steaim trawlers, killing two men. The 
incident created, for some days, an aipprehensio^n of war with Great Britain. The Russian 
Admiral, Rojestvenskv. declared that he had been attacked by torpedo boats, but his 
version .has not been corroborated by any abher testiimony. Russia acceded to the Hriti.sh 
demands, and a commission, consisting of four high naval officers. British, American, 
French and Russian, will sit at The Hague to determine the facts. Admiral Dewey 
declined an offer of anpointmient to the commission. 

The Russian Baltic fleeit. now on bhe way to the Far Bast, seems to consist of three 
divisions. The first division, under Admiral Rojestvensky. has passed the Suez Cana.l. It 
consisits of the battleships Sissoi. Veliky and Navarm, the cruisers Junstchug and A.lniaz, six 
destroyers and eight transports. In tihe second division, also bound through the canal, 
are the cruiisers Oleg. Tzumrud. Kuban and Terek, and tbe auxiliury cruisers St. Peters- 
Durg and Smolensk, wbicih have boem renamed Run ,anil Dneiiier, with five d'estroyei-s. A 
third division Is suppo.sed bo be on tjve- way to the East by way of the Cape of Good Hope, 
expecting to effnct a junction vvitli the rest in the Indian Ocan. Tliis squadron is ber 
lie\'ed to contain the babt'f^ships Kniaz, Suvaroff, Borodino, Alexander HI.. Oi«l and 
Ossliabia; the cruisers Admiral Nnkhuni.'ff, Dmitri Donskol, Aurora and Sviellana. 

On December 7, when this r-cord clo.«pd. the damage inflicted on the Fori Arthur ships 
was known in St. Petersburg, and the Cznr ordered a third sciuadron to be organized and 
to sail in February or March, liKW. This will consist of seven battleships, five cruisers and 
forty torpedo boats. Two of the babt'eships are brand new. 



Death Roll of IQOJ^. 



137 



Bcatlj aiioll of 1904, 



Allen. Harrison (69), BriKadier-General, Deputy 
Auditor of the Post-Oflice Department, Washing- 
ton, n. C, heart disease. Sept. 2g. 

Anthony, Daniel E. (80), editor, Leavenworth, 
Kan,, heartdisease, Nov. 12. 

Arnold, .Sir Edwin (72), poet, London, Eng , 
paralysis, March 24. 

Avery, Samuel Putuani (82), art dealer and col- 
lector, New York City, Aug. 12. 

Banks, Sir William M. (64), British surgeon, Lon- 
don, Eng., Aug. 9. 

Barniird, Joseph F. (80), jurist, Poughkeepsie. 
N. Y , Jan. 6. 

Barnes, Alired Cutler (62), banker, publisher, 
formerly Colonel of the 23d Regiment, N. G. 
N. Y., Brooklyn, N. Y., pneumonia, Nov. 28. 

Barr«'tt, VVil.>>ou (57), actor, London, Eng., 
shock following operation for cancer. July 22. 

Bartlioidi, Frederic Aiij^iiste (70), sculptor, 
creator of "Liberty Enlightening the World," in 
New York Harbor, Paris. France, tuberculosis 
Oct. 4. 



Age at death Is given in parentheses ; vocation, place, cause, and time of death when known fol low. 

Cainpbell, Timothy J. (64), ox-Representative in 
Congress from New York, New York City pneu- 
monia, April 7. ^. F " 

Cainbridjfe, Duke of— George William Fred- 
erick— (83), cousin of Queen Victoria, fornierCom- 
mander-in-Chief of the British Army, Londi/ii 
Eng., March 17. 7 ' 

Oandamo, Manuel, President of Peru May 7 

Oantield, Eugene (51), actor. New York City "May4 

Carpenter, Gilbert S. (68). Brigadier-General u' 
S. A. (retired). Montclair, N. J., Aug. 12 

Carry 1, Guy Wetmore (31), poet. New York City 
blood poisoning, April 1. 

Carter, Walter S. (71), lawyer, Brooklyn N Y 
pneumonia, June 3. " 

Cassagtiac, Paul de (61), French journalist and 
duelist, Paris, France, Nov. 4, 

Chadwick. John White (64), Unitarian minister 
author, poet. Brooklyn, N. Y., acute nephritis, 
Dec. 11. 

Chambers-Ketchum, Mrs. Annie (80), song writer, 
New York City, Jan. 27. 
Bartlett, John R., Rear- Admiral U^ S. N. (retired)r4 '^'^PP- Henry A. (60), Shakespearian scholar and 

dramatic critic, Dorchester, Mass., pneumonia. 
Feb. 19. 

Clemens, Mrs. Samuel M., wife of "Mark Twain," 
Florence, Italy, June 6. 

Cleveland, Ruth (13), eldest daughter of ex-Presi- 
dent Cleveland. Princeton, N. J., diphtheria and 
heart failure, Jan. 6. 

Cobbe, Frances Power (82), English author and 
philanthropist, London. Eng., April 5. 

Colgate. James B. (86), financier, philanthropist. 
New York, Feb 7. 

Connelly. Celia Logan (70), author and playwright. 
New York City, June 19. 

Cook, Augustus 1,50), actor. New V^ork City, March 
10. 

Cornell, Alonzo B. (72). ex-Governor of New York, 
Ithaca, N. Y., apoplexy and Bright's disease, Oct. 
15. 

(Joiidert, Frederic R. (71), lawyer, Washing- 
ton, D. C, heart trouble, Dec. 20, 1903 

Cowan, John K. (60), railroad president, (Chicago, 
III., heart disease, April 25. 

Croft, George W. (58), Representative in Congress 
from South Carolina, Washington, D. C, blood 
poisoning, March 10. 

Curtiss, Samuel Ives (60), American scholar and 
educator, London, Eng., apoplexy, Sept. 22. 

Daly, Dan (40), comedian. New York City, con- 
sumption, March 26. 

Davenport, Ira (63), ex-Representative in Congress 
from New York, Bath, N. Y., Oct. 6. 

De Lome, Dupuy (53), former Spanish Minister to 
the United States, Paris, France, cerebral hem- 
orrhage, July 1. 

Denby, Charles (74), diplomat, Jamestown, N. Y., 
heart trouble, Jan. 13. 

Devon, Earl of— Rev. Sir Henry Hugh Courtenay— 
(93), clergyman, London, Eng, Jan. 29. 

Di Cesnola, Louis P (72), author, antiquarian. New 
York City, acute indigestion, Nov. 21. 

Drinkhouse, Samuel (99), oldest life insurance 
pvesidnnt in the world, Easton. Pa., Jan. 25. 

Drown, Thomas M. (62), President of Lehigh Univer- 
sity, South Bethlehem, Pa., from effects of an 
operation. Nov. 16. 

Dudley, Thomas U. (67), P E. Bishop of Kentucky, 
New York City, heart disease, Jan. 22. 

Dvorak, Antonin (63), composer, Prague, Austria- 
Hungary, apoplexy. May 1. 

Dykman, Jackson O. (78), jurist, White Plains, N. 
v., general debility, March 9. 

Edson, Franklin (72), ex-Mayor of New York, New 
York City, Sept. 24. 



St. Louis, Mo., pneumonia, Nov. 22. 

B.itemun, Sir Frederick (80). physician and author, 
Norwich, Eng., Aug. 10. 

Beecher, Charles E. (48), paleontologist and edu- 
cator. New Haven, Ct., heart disease, Feo. 14, 

Belden, James J. (78), ex-Member of Congress 
from New York, Syracuse, N. Y., ursemic poison- 
ing, Jan. 1. . 

Bell, Laura Joyce (46), comic opera singer. New 
York, May 29. 

Berolde, Judith (Mrs. Edward Marshall), actress, 
Buffalo, N. Y., anseniia, April 7. 

Bishop, William D. (77), railroad president, ex- 
Meraber of Congress from Connecticut, Bridge- 
port, Ct.. heartdisease, Feb. 4. 

Bismarck, Prince Henry von (ho), soldier, diplomat, 
son of the great Chancel lor, Friodrichsruhe, Prus- 
sia, cancer of the liver, Sept. 18. 

Black, Chauncey F. (65), lawyer, statesman, Brockie, 
Pa., Dec. 2. 

Biaikie, William (61), athlete. New York City, 
apoplexy, Dec. 6. 

Blair, Jiiines L. (50), general counsel for the 
World's Fair at St. Louis, Mo., Eustis, Fla., 
cerebral congestion. J.in. 16. 

Blanc, Joseph (62), painter, Paris, France, July 5. 

Blaney, John W. (63), Represenlative in Congress 
from Massachusetts, Lynn, Mass., pneumonia, 
March 21. 

Bloomingdale, Joseph B. (62), merchant. New York, 
Nov. 23. 

Bobrikoff, Russian Governor-General of Finland, 
Helsingfors, Finland, assassinated, June 16. 

Bonaparte — Demidotf — Princess Matbilde — (83), 
society leader in the reign of Napoleon III., Paris, 
Jan. 2. 

Booth, Gharles H. (101), oldest life insurance policy- 
holder, Englewood, N. J., May 29. 

Braybrooke, Lord— Rev. Latimer Neville— (77), 
British clergyman and educator, London, Eng., 
Jan. 12. 

Breckinridge, William C. P, (67), statesman, 
Lexington, Ky., paralysis. Nov. 19. 

Brewster, Lyman D. (72), jurist, Dan bury, Ct., 
Feb. 14. 

Brigham, Joseph H. (65), Assistant Secretary of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C, June 29. 

Brown, John Young (69), ex-Governor of Ken- 
tucky, Henderson, Ky., Jan. 11. 

Bushnull, Asa S. (70) ex-Governor of Ohio, manu- 
facturer, Columbus, O., apoplexy, Jan. 1.5. 

Callaway, Samuel R, (57), railroad president, N-aw 
York City, June 1. 



138 



Death Roll of l90Jf. 



Elder, William H. (85), R. O. Archbishop of Cin- 
cinnati, Cincinnati, O., Oct. 31. 

Einmett, Daniel Decatur (90), minstrel, author of 
"Dixie," Mount Vernon, O. . June 29. 

Ernest, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld, Regent of 
Lippe (7o), Detmold, Germany, Sept. 26. 

Farreliy, Patrick (63), one of the founders of the 
American News Co., New York. April 23. 

Farren, Nellie (60), burlesque actress, London, 
Eng., gouty affection of the heart, April 28. 

Fawcett, Edgar (57), American poet and novelist, 
London, Eng., May 2. 

Finsen, Neils (43), Danish scientist who discovered 
the light treatment of lupus, Sept. 24. 

Fiske, Daniel W. (73), American author and educa- 
tor, Florence, Italy, Sept. 18. 

Fitch, Ashbel P. (56), ex-Representative In Con- 
gress from New York, lawyer, linancier. New 
York City, apoplexy. May 3. 

Foster, C'liarles (76), ex-Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, ex-Governor of Ohio, Springfield, O., cere- 
bral hemorrhages, Jan. 9. 

Friedrich, reigning Duke of Anhalt (73), Dessau, 
Germany, apoplexy, Jan. 24. 

Friedrich Wilhelm, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz (85), Neu-Strelitz. May 30. 

Fuller, Lawson N. (79), horseman, lawyer, New 
York City, July 14. 

Fuller, Mrs. Mary E., wife of Chief Justice Fuller 
(59), Sorrento. Me., Aug. 18. 

Fuiton, Chandos (58), theatrical manager and play- 
wright, New York City, result of an operation, 
Jan. 10. 

George loKiiig ofiSaxoiiy (72), Pilnitz, Sax- 
ony, Oct. 14. 

Ciierome, Jean lieoii (80), painter and sculptor, 
Paris, France, cerebral congestion, Jan. 10. 

Gilbert, Mrs. George H. (83), actress, Chicago, 111., 
cerebral apoplexy. Dec. 2. 

Gilmore, Fernando P. (57), Rear- Admiral, U S. N. 
(retired). New York City, Br ight's disease, Sept. 25. 

Gissing, George (45), English novelist, Dec. 28, 1903. 

Godwin, Parke (88), former editor of the Even- 
ing Post. New York City, Jan. 7. 

Goodall. Frederick t82), artist, London, Eng., July 
29. 

Ciiordon, John B. (72), ex-Confederate General, 
ex-U. S. Senator from Georgia, Miami, Pla., 
Jan. 9. 

Grace, William R. (72). ex-Mayor of New York, 
merchant. New York City, pneumonia and kidney 
disease, March 21. 

Green, Thomas M. (67), historian, Danville, Ky., 
April 7. 

Greenough, Richard S. (85), American sculptor, 
Rome, Italy, grip, April 23. 

Greenwood. Grace (Mrs. Sarah Jane Lippincott) 
(81), autlioress. New Rochelle, N. Y., asthma, 
April 20. 
Greer, James A. (71), Rear- Admiral, U. S. N., re- 
tired, Washington, D. C , June 17. 
Groesbeck, Stephen (64), Brigadier-General, U. S. 

A., retired. St. Louis, Mo , pneumonia. May 8. 
Guidi, Moiisignor (52), Papal Delegate at Manila, 

Manila, P. I., heart failure, June 26. 
Hiiinia, j>Iaren.H A. (67), U. S. Senator from 
Ohio, Washington, D. C, grip and typhoid fever, 

• Feb. 15. 
Hnrconrt, Sir Willisini Vernon (74), British 
statesman, Nuneham Park, near Oxford, Eng., 
heart failure, Oct. 1, 
Hardwicke, Earl of — Albert Edward Yorke— (37), 

British statesman, London, Eng., Nov. 29. 
Harrison, Burton N. (68), lawyer, Washington D. 

C, March 29. 
Hascall, Milo S. (75), Union General, banker. Oak 

Park, III.. Aug. 30. 
Hearn. Lafcadio (54), [author, Tokio, Japan, heart 

disease, Sept. 27. 
Hendri.T. .Joseph C. (51). banker, ex-Representative 
in Congress from New York, Brooklyn, typhoid 
fever, Nov. 9. 
Herran, Tonias (61), Colombian Minister to the 
United States. Liberty, N. Y., Aug. 31. 



Herzl, Theodore (44), founder of the Zionist move- 
ment, Vienna, Austria, July 3. 

Hickenlooper. Andrew (67), Union commander, 
civil engineer, Cincinnati, O., May 12. 

Hoar, George Frisbie (78), U. S. Senator from 
Massachusetts. Worcester. Mass., Sept. 30. 

Hoar, Samuel (59), lawyer. Concord, Mass., cere- 
bral hemorrhage and paralysis, April 11. 

Hole, Very Rev. S. Reynolds, Dean of Rochester 
(85), English preacher, author, and rose expert, 
Rochester, Eng.. heart disease. Aug. 27. 

Hollingshead, John (77), author and journalist, 
London, Eng., Oct. 10. 

Howard. Thomas B. (84), ex-Confederate General, 
Washington. D. C. July 7. 

Huntington, Right Rev. Frederick D. (85), P. E. 
Bishop of the Central Diocese of New York, 
Hadley. Mass., July 11. 

Hutton, Laurence (61), author, critic, and lecturer, 
Princeton, N. J., pneumonia. June 10. 

I»tabella II. (74). ex-Queen of Spain, grandmother 
of King Alfonso, Pans. France, intluenza and 
debility, April 9. 

Jackson. Frederick W (71), railroad president, 
Treasurer-General of the Society of the Cincin- 
nati, Newark, N. J., heart disease, June 14. 

Januu»tcliek, Fannv (71). actress, Amityville, 
N.Y., debility, Nov. 29. 

Jokai, Ufaiiruw (79), Hungarian writer and 
patriot. Buda-Pesth, Hungary, inflammation of 
the lungs. May 5. 

Jones, Samuel M. ("Golden Rule Joney ") (58), 
Mayor of Toledo, manufacturer, Toledo, O., com- 
plication of diseases. July 12. 

Joseph, Chief of the Nez Perces, Sept. 22. 

Keller, Count (54), Lieutenant-General of the 
Russian Army, killed in battle at the Yangtse 
Pass, near Liaoyang. July 29 

Kellogg, Stephen W. (82), ex-Representative in 
Congress from Connecticut, Waterbury, Ct., Jan. 
27. 

Keppel, Sir Henry (95), Admiral of the Fleet 
("Father of the British Navy"), London, Eng., 
Jan. 18. 

Kinkead, John H. (78), first Territorial Governor 
of Alaska, ex-Governor of Nevada, Carson (Jity, 
Nev., Aug. 15. 

Krnger, Steplianiis Johannes Pnnliis (79) 
("Oom Paul"), ex-President of the Transvaal, 
Clarens, Switzerland, pneumonia and heart 
disease, July 14. 

Leiter, Levi Z. (70), millionaire merchant. Bar 
Harbor, Me., heart disease, June 9. 

Lewis, Charlton T. (70), lawyer, editor of standard 
classical dictionaries, Morristown, N. J., cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. May 26. 

Loftus, Lord Augustus (87), British diplomat, Lon- 
don, Eng., March 9. 

liOngstrt-eT, James (83), ex-Confederate Gen- 
eral, near Gninesville, Ga.. pneumonia, Jan. 2 

Lorimer, George C. (66), Baptist minister. New 
York (I'lty, Aix-les-Bains, France, Seiit. 8. 

Lounsbui y, George E. (66), ex-Governor of Connect- 
icut, manufacturer, Karmingville, Ct.. Auk. 16. 

Lowther. James (64). Member of Parliament, former 
Chief Secretary for Ireland, London. Entr.,Sept.l2. 

McKinley. Abner (60), lawyer, promoter, brother of 
President McKinley, Somerset, Pa.. June 11. 

McLane, Robert A. (36), Mayor of Baltimore, suicide 
by shooting, May 30. 

Dlaknrollli .stephaii ()><i|iovieli (56). Vice- 
Adniiral of tlie Russian Navy, sank with the 
Petropavlovsk at Port Arthur in battle witli the 
.lapanese. April 13. 

Maria de las Mercedes, Infanta of Spain, Princess 
of the Asturias (24), sister of King Alfonso, wife 
of Prince Charles of Bourbon, Madrid, .Spain, 
chililbirlb. Oct. 17. 

Mitchell, John L. (62). ex-United States .Senator 
from Wisconsin, insurance president, Milwaukee, 
Wis., Juue 29. 

Monroe, John (53), banker, Pans, France, Dec. 1. 

Moss, Lemuel (75), Baptist educator and preacher. 
New York City, July 12. 



Death Roll of 1904. 



139 



Murray, William H. H. ("Adirondack Murray") 
(64), vireacher, author, aud traveller, Guilford, 
Ct., March 3. 
Nash, George K. (62), ex-Governor of Ohio, heart 

trouhle, Oct. 28. 
Nortlibrook. Karl of— George Thomas Baring— 
(78), former Governor-General of India, London, 
Eng., Nov 15. 
Oliver, Henry W. (64), capitalist, steel manufac- 
turer, politician, Pittsburgh, Pa., complication of 
diseases, Feb. 8, 
Osborn, Thomas O. (72), Major-General Volunteers 
Civil AVar, ex-U. S. Minister to the Argentine 
Republic, Washington, D. C, apoplexy, March 27. 
Pabst. Frederick (67), brewer, Milwaukee, Wis., 

Jan. 1. 
Palmer, Era.stus D. (87), sculptor, Albany, N. Y., 

old age, March 9. 
Parks, Samuel J. (40), walking delegate of House- 
smiths' Union, Ossining, N. Y., consumption, 
May 4. 
Pattison, Robert E. (53), ex-Governor of Penn- 
sylvania. Philadelphia, Pa., pneumonia, Aug. 1. 
Paxton, William M. (81), ex-President of Princeton 
Theological Seminary, Princeton, N. J., paraly- 
sis, Nov. 28. 
Payne, Henry C. (60), Postmaster-General of the 
United States, Washington, D. C, heart trouble 
Oct. 4. 
Payne, William H. (74), ex-Confederate General, 

lawyer, Washington, D. O., March 29. 
Phillips, Morris (70), editor, Huntington, N. Y., 

Aug. 30. 
Plehve, Wyatsrheslau Constantinovitcb 
(56), Russian Minister of the Interior, St. Peters- 
burg, Russia, assassinated, July 28. 
Prinsep, Valentine O. (66). painter, London, Eng., 

effects of an operation, Nov, 11. 
Pryor, William R. (46), surgeon and gynecologist, 

Aug. 25. 
Quay, Ulatthew S. (70), United States Senator 
from Pennsylvania, political leader, Beaver, Pa., 
stomach trouble. May 28. 
Ransom, Matthew W, (78), ex-United States Senator 
from North Carolina, Northampton County, N. O., 
heart disease, Oct. 8. 
Reclus. Elie (77), scientist, educatox-. Socialist, 

Brussels, Belgium. Feb. 16. 
Ehinelander, Frederick W. (75), President Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, New York City, Stock- 
bridge, Mass.. heart failure, Sept. 25. 
Richmond, George H. (55), dealer in rare books, 

Short Hills, N. J., apoplexy, Nov. 17. 
Ridley, Matthew W. (64)— Viscount Ridley— British 
statesman, Blagdon, Eng., heart failure, Nov. 28. 
Roberts, Isaic (75;, astronomer and geologist, 

Growborough. Eng , July 18. 
Roessle, Theophilus E. (70), hotel proprietor, Paris, 

Prance, Aug. 10. 
Rogers, Horatio (68), jurist. Providence, R. 7,, 

hemorrhage of the brain, Nov. 12. 
Rogers, John (75;, sculptor and designer. New 

Haven, Ct., creeping paral,yRis, July 27. 
Rufreles, George D. (71), Adjutant-General, U.S A., 

retired, Washington. D 0., Oct. 19. 
Sanwr, F^rank W. (54), theatrical manager. New 

York City, pneumonia, April 18. 
Schwarziunnn, Adolph (66), editor of "Puck," 

Brooklyn, N. Y., pneumonia, Feb. 4. 
Scott, Clement (63), English dramatic critic, June 

25. 
Seiss Joseph A. (81), Lutheran clergyman, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., June 20. 
Severn, Walter (74), English landscape painter, 

Sept. 22. 
Shepnrd, Edwin M. (62). Rear-Admiral, U. S. N., 

retired, Jaffrey, N. H., heart disease. 
Shields, Charles W. (79), educator, Princeton, N. J., 

Aug. 26. 
Simon, Sir John, K. C. B. (83), British surgeon, 

July 23. 
Simonton, Charles H. (75), Justice U. S. Circuit 
Court, Philadelphia, Pa., April 25. 



Sloan, George B. (73). banker and political leader, 

Oswego, N, Y., paralysis, June 10. 
Smiles, Samuel (92), author, England, April 17 
Smyth, Egbert C. (74), educator, theologian, An- 

dover, Mass., April 12, 
.Stanley, Sir Henry HI. (63), African explorer, 

London, Eng., May 10. 
Stephen, Sir Leslie (72), editor and author, London, 

Eng., Feb. 22. 
Sterling,Antoinette (Mrs. J.Mackinlay) (54),singer. 

London, Eng., Jan. 10. 
Sturgis, Julian (56). author, London, Eng., April 

Sullivan, John T., actor. New York City, heart dis- 
ease, June 19. 
Taber, Robert (38), actor, Saranac Lake, N. Y., 

consumption, March 9. 
Tallmadge, Frederick S. (81). President of the 
Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York 
New York City, June 20, 
Taylor, Henry C. (59), Rear-Admiral, U S N , 
commander of the Indiana in the battle off San- 
tiago, Cuba, Sudbury, Ont., peritonitis, July 26. 
Thompson, Sir Henry (74), surgeon and 

author, London, Eng., April 18. 
Thompson, Hugh S. (68), ex-Governor of South 
Carolina, Comptroller of the New York Life In- 
surance Company, New York City, Nov. 20. 
Thurber. Henry T. (50), lawyer, secretary to Presi- 
dent Cleveland, Detroit, Mich., appendicitis, 
March 17. 
Train, George Francis (75), traveller, promoter, 
author. New York City, heart disease resulting 
in nephritis, Jan. 18. 
Tuck, Dr. Henry (63). Vice-President of the New 
York Life Insurance Company, Seabright, N. J 
Sept. 2. 
Tyner, James N. (78), ex-Postmaster-General, 

Washington, D. C, paralysis, Dec. 5. 
Van Cott, Cornelius (66), Postmastei of New York 
City and Republican leader. New York City, Oct 
25. 
Verestcbaffin, Tasili (62). Russian painter, sank 
with the Petropavlovsk at Port Arthur, in battle 
with the Japanese, April 13. 
Vest, George CtJ. (74), ex-United States Senator 

from Missouri, Sweet Springs, Mo., Aug. 9. 
Von Hoist, Herninn Kdonartl (63), historian 

and educator. Freiberg. Germany, Jan 20. 
Von Lenbach, Franz (68), painter, Munich,Bavaria, 

May 5. 
Von Waldersee, Connt (72). Piussian Field 

Marshal, Hanover, Prussia, March 5. 
Von Zittel, Karl Alfred (65), paleontologist, Mun- 
ich, Bavaria. Jan. 6. 
Waldeck - Rous^sean, Pierre Marie (58), 
French statesman, Corbeil, near Paris, France, 
result of an operation, Aug. 10. 
Watson, George L. (53), English yacht designer, 

Glasgow, Scotland, heart disease, Nov. 12 
Watts, George Frederick (87), painter, London, 

Eng., bronchitis, July 1. 
Wayland, Francis (78), Dean of the Yale Law School, 

New Haven, Ct.. bronchitis, .Tnn. 9. 
Weightman. William (90). wealthy real estate 

owner, Philadelphia, Pa., debility, Aug. 25. 
Wbitney, William C'- (62), ex-Secretary of the 
Navy, financier. New York City, peritonitis and 
blood poisoning, Feb. 2. 
Wiman, Erastus (70), financier and promoter. New 

York City, paralysis. Feb. 9. 
Winston, Frederick H. (74), ex-U. S. Minister to 
Persia, lawyer. Magnolia Springs, Fla., Feb. 19. 
Withoft (.53), Vice-Admiral of the Russian Navy, 

killed in battle, Aug. 17. 
Woods. Sir Albert W. (88), Garter King at Arms, 

London, Eng.. Jan. 7. 
Worcester, Edwin D. (76), railroad official. New 

York City, June 13. 
Worth, William S. (64), Brigadier-General, U. S. 

A., retired. New York City, Oct. 16. 
Wright. Whitaker (57), prompter, London, Eng., 
suicide, Jan. 26. 



140 The Famous Old People of 1905. 

^\]t ifamoits (Dlti i^rople of 1903. 

Age. (Age at tJie last tiir'tliday Is, gi^en. , The list was made up for January 1, 1906.) 

105. Hiram Cronk, last surviving pensioner of tlie War of 1812, 

lul. David Wark, LL. IX , C'aiiadiau .SouatDr, oldest living legislator. 

95. Charles H. Haswell, civil and iiiephauicul engineer. 

90. Baroness Burdett-Coiuts. ,. ., , . , 

89. Adolf Menzel, Uernian painter; .^?-G|i)vernor L,iil)l}6ck, pt TexAS. 

H8. Daniel Huntington, painter; Uiissell iSage, JosiaH Crosby, of Maine. 

87. King Christian of Denmark, Sir Joseph Hooker, botanist.; Samuel Slpaij, • 

83. Ex-Secretary Bontwell, Bishop Watson, of I'last Carolina; ex-Senator Reagan, of'Texas. 

85. .Inlia Ward Mo'.ve, President, Palmer, of tjie Nortfixyesterii ^IuIuaI Life Insurance Company. 

81 John Tennlel, cartoonist; Florence Nightingale, Susan B. Authonj-, Baron Strathcoma, Fanny 
('msl)v, song writer. ^ .. 

83. SirWilliam li. Russell, jonrhallistiBir- Charles Tapper, Ristori, tragic actress; Senator Pettiis, of 
Ala')ama, ' :■ . 

89 Edward Kverett Hale, Prof. Alfred R. Wallace, Rev. Henry M. Field, DohftW G. Mitchell, 
Rev. Dr. Theodore Ij. Cuyler^ WilliJthl R. Alger. • i •■ ' 

81. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Prot. Goldwin Smith, ei-Spfeaker Grow, Rev. Dr. Robert 
Collyer- e-v^epator JlemyM. Puvis, of West Virginia. 

80. Protes'sor linggms, astronoiiier; Kivstmau Johnson, pahiter; e>[- Vice-President Levi P. Morion, 
George Jlacdonald. novelist; Senator i\;lorgan,,Lo(d Kelvin, Professor Doremus. 

79. Sir Wiliiani Aitken, pathologist: Professor March, philologist; D. O. Mills, financier. 

78. Karl Blind, ex- Eniiiiess Eusenie, ^ - -^ ■ ~ 

77. ' , , . . Pere ttyacinthe. Gen. Levv Wallace, .T. H. Stoddart, come- 

rlian; Manltrts of Ripoli. Lor(l Lis'ter. . 

76. Sir Henrv James, lawyer; De Freyelhet, Freijch statesman : ex-Senator JSdmnnds, Ibsen, dramar 
tist; ex-President Dwight, of ^ale; .lilies Verrif>, Count Tolstoi, Berthelot, French statesman; 
Clara Barton, Edward Atkinsoii, George Meredith, . ,, 

%. General Booth, Salvation Army le.ader; .losoph Jelfersoh.Carl Schnr?,, Senator AlliSbh, Senator 
Cullom, King Oscar of Sweden iind Norway, Viscount Peel, BIuratHalstead. , ,, 

74. President Diaz, of Mexico; limperor Fralieis Joseph; J. Q. A. Ward, sculptor; t/Onise Tilichel, 
French agitator; Salvini, trageillah; ex-Seci-etary Tracy, Gen. Oliver (). Howard, Bishop 
Doane, ex-Senator Jones, of Nevada; Senator Teller, Justin McCarthy. 

73. General Gallilfet, French pol(1ler; ejL-PresiiJent (iilman, of Johns Hopkins; George J. Gosehen, 
Frederick Harrison, positivist; Jienr.v Laboucliere, jounialjst; Hejiri Rocbefort, Victorleu 
Sardou, General Schnfield, Senator . Ifrye, .Joachim, violinist; Sir George SJares, Arctic e.\;- 
plorer; Anih.'vssador tJlioate, Sanaior Proctor. ... 

72. Field Marshal tiOrd Robert,s,Briti,sh Army; Maggie Mitchell, actress; Professor Vambery, Art- 
drew D. White,, Justice Shiras, Prof. William Crookes, General Ignatied, George H. Bough- 
ton, R. A.;G. W. .Cnstis r-.ee. , . - , 

71. Chief Justice Fuller, Field ?irarshal Lord Wolsel^y, Denman Thompson, actor; JiisticeHarlah, 
Dukeof Devonshire, Edmund rJlarence. Sfedrtian, poet; John L. Toole, coniediaii; Sir Lewis 
Morris, poet; ex-Secretary Bliss, Senator Piatt, of New York; Professor Koch, George W. 
Smaller, jonrDniist. . . . ■ . 

70. Senator Depew, President Eliot, of Harvard tJuiversity; Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avehury), 
Cardinal Gibbons. 

69. Pope Pins X., Leopold TL, ICingot the Belgians; Rev. Lyriiah Abbott, AIexan(Jer. Agassiz, 
IJouguerean, Freiich painter; e.K-Secretarv Carlisle, P.ishop Potter, Theodore Thoinas, "Mark 
Twiin," Charles Fraticis .Adams. Alfred 'Austin, poet; General shafter. Gen. FitzhuKh Lee; 
Richard Olney, e.\--Vice-Presiderft Stevenson, Gen. Stewart L. Woodford, Prime Minister 
Combes, of France; Sir Henrv Campbelt- r.annernian. 

68. Edward John Poynter, President of the lioy.il Academy; Prof. C. F. Cliaridler, Thomas Ralley 
Aldricli, Alma-Padema, painter; W. S. (Gilbert, dramatist; (ien. Joseph Wheeler. General 
Merritt, Joseph Ghamberlain, ex-Secretary Alsrer. William Winter, draiiiatic critic; Lord 
Br.assev, E<lward Dicey. Sir Norman r.ockver. Speaker Joseph G. Cannon, Senator Hale. 

67. Ex-President (Ui'velund, Whitelaw Reid, Geli. Horace Porter. W. D. Howells, novelist; 
William fj. .A.lden. author; Dr. Angell, px-Minister to Turkey; .L Pierpont atorgan. Andrew 
Carnegie, Sir Michael Hicks- Beach, Justices Brewer and Peckham, Miss Braddou, Swinburne, 
poet; Admiral Dewey. . ,, ■ , 

66. Prof. James fJryce, ex-Q'ieen Liliiioj^ali^ni, Jphn ..Hfvy., i^ecret^ry of St.'vte; Sir Henry 
., ilrvin;;, John Morloy,.tohn Wariivmiik t. President Lonbet, Generals Brooke and I?* S. Otis, 
F: Hoi)kinson Smi(l), Senator Bacon, Canlintil HalqDi. . , ■, -, , • j- 

65. Rcar-.\rimiral gcldev. Gen. ,Sir Redyer.s ,Bnller. General Miles, Senator Clark, of Montana; 
Senator Gormaii, Bishop Reaue, Asa BiKl Gartliner, John D. Rockefeller, King Charles of 
Rouraania. 



C4. L'apt, A. T INfahan, Henry Watterson, Tyabor Commissioner AV right, Clenicnce.ail, Palmer 

Cox, Sir Hirairi S. Maxiin, .Ausliii Dobson. poet; "(.)nid:i." Thomas Ilardy. novelist; 

ex-Speaker Henderson, Gener-al Kelly- Kenney, Lfird Reay, President of the British Acad- 

eitiv;Geii. S. B. M. Yoiing. riist,ice Oliver Wendell Holiiies. 
63. King' Edward VI L, Senator Ahirieh, Mihot J. Sfiyage, Rear-Admiral INJelville, .Tames Gordon 

Bennett, sir Wilfred Laurier, Cotiuelln, Marduiii ltd, Japaiiese statesfiian; Sir Charles 

Wvndham. 
62. Abdi'il Hamld, Sultan of Turkey; Prince Kro^otkin. .\nim DickinRon,General Corhih, General 

Chaffee, Cardinal Rampolla, Senatoi- Daniel, of Virginia; Lord Alverstone, Flammarion, 

a.strotiomer; Robert T. Lincoln, JoaquiiilVIiller. 
61. Justice McKenna. Christine Nilsson, Adelina Patti. Senators Spooner, Dillingham, and Nelson, 

,,D.i.vid B, Hill, Henry James. Jr., novelist; General Kurokl, SiiM'haries Dilko. 
60. Sarah Bernhardt, General Greely, John Hare, comedian; Modjeska, King Peter of Servia, 

.J\t wji^t .3«;e (ides We nfcaopc ''o\h ".! Fivo (■enlut''!* airo h man w<>« "i'l 8l fifty. But, the hal« ond hfarty genljeinj.q fit Wfj^W 
who liKs just lui-ntd slxi}' would pMhably (jret.'fl »i;nhii;1 tiiin/ il.iW'l mnonE <M I'l'"!',!". h'^'> "^ f-'*'!!"!!*; Tll.lt RiS Sll('.'?pt!»!i!fi?l 

m»v no! be ivomu'IsiI, (h«i«forc, « sfi'srsllni; dssli b.H b??ii Jisi.retiiy introJurfi a.Htr aii JisiT !ivj. 



The American MnUi-MUlionaires. 



141 



THE VANDERBILTS. 

DESCENDANTS OF COMJIODORE CORNELIUS VANDERBILT. 

Born on Staten Island, N. Y. , 1794; married, 1st, Sophia Johnson, 1813; 2d, Frances Crawford. 1869- 

died 1877. 



Childrkn. 



1. Phebe Jane Vanderbilt, b- 
1815; m. James M. Cross,lS41; 
d. 1863. 



!. EtheHndaVanderbill.b.lSlS 
m. Uaniel B. Allen, 1839; d 
1888. 



Grandchildren. 



1. Comelins Vanderbilt Cross, 
b. 18:!4; m. Emma Eldert; d 

19(12. 



2. Ethelinda Cross; m. Barrett 
Wilson Horton. 



3. Norman Cross. 



1. Vanderbilt Alien, b. 184D; 
m. 1st. Helena Monut, 1861 ; 

2d, Edith I)e Silvier, 1873; 3d, 
Edith Mott, 1890; d. 1898. 



2. William Barton Allen, b. 
1844; m. Mary Sutton; d 
1890. 



3. Franklin^Allea. 



4. Harry Allen, d. 1899. 



3. William Henry Vanderbilt, 
b. 1821; m. Maria Lonise 
Kissam, 1840; d. 1885. 



1. Cornelius Vanderbilt, h.l843;|l. William H. Vanderbilt, b. 



. Annie Allen, b. 1869; 
1S8S, John Wallace; d.(killed) 
18fl0. 



Greal-GrandeliildreD. 



Great-Great-Grandchildren. 



1. Marie Fatimeh Allen, b. 1870; 
m. John C. Wilmerding, Jr., 
1S92. 



2. Ethel Gladys 
Allen, b. 1875. 



De Silvier 



1. W. S. VandOrhilt Allen, b 
1861. 



2. Ethelinda Allen, b. 1863; m 
James H.Ward. 1892; d. 1899 



1. Allen Wallace, b. 1889. 



m. Alice Gwynne, 1867; d 

1899. 



2. Cornelius Vanderbilt,b. 1873 
m. Grace Wilson, 1896. 



3. Gertrude Vanderbilt. b. 1876; 
m, Harry Payne Whitney, 
1896. 



4. Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt, 
b. 1877; m. Elsie French, Jan 
II, 1901. 



. Marffarel T^onisa Vanderbilt; 
m. Elliot F. Sliepard, 1870. 



6. Gladys M.Vanderbilt, b.l885 



3. William K. Vanderbilt, b. 
1849; m. Alva Murray Smith, 
1874 (now Mrs. O. H. P. Bel- 
mont); 2d, 1903, Mrs. Afflin 
llarriman Sands. 



4. Emily T. Vanderbilt; m. 
William D. Sloane, 1874. 



1871; d. 1892. 



.Reginald C. Vanderbilt, b 
1S80; m. Cathleen G. Neilson, 
1903. 



I. Maria Louisa Shepard, b. 
1870; m. William Jay Schjet 
felin, 1891. 



. Edith Shepard, b. 1872; 
Ernesto G. Fabbri, 1896. 



3. Margaret Shepard, b, 1876: 
d. 1892. 



4. Alice Shepard, b. 1874; m, 
Dave Hennon Morris, 1896. 



5. Elliot F. Shepard, b. 1871; 
m. Mrs. Esther Potter, 1897 



1. Consuelo Vanderbilt, b. 1877; 
m. Duke of Marlborough, 
1895. 



2. Wiltiam K. Vanderbilt, b. 
1880 ; m. Virginia Fair, 1899. 



3. Harold S. Vanderbilt, b.l8x2. 



1. Florence A. Sloane, b. 1873 ; 
m. James A. Burden, Jr.,l»95 



2. Emily Vanderbilt Sloane, b, 
1877 ; m. William B. nsgood 
Field, la02. 



3, LilaVanderbiItSloane,b.l879. 



4, Malcolm D. Sloane, b. 1881. 



1. Vanderbilt B. Ward, b.l893. 

2. Mildred S. Ward, b. 1896. 



1. Cornelius Vanderbilt, b. 1898. 

2. Grace Viinderl.ilt, b. 1899. 



1. Flora Payne Vanderbilt 

Whitney, b. 1897. 

2. Vanderbilt Whitney, b. 1899. 



1. William Henry Vanderbilt, 
b. Nov. 24, 1901. 



1. Daughter, b. 1904. 



1. William Jay Schieffelin, Jr., 
b. 1891. 

2. Margaret Louisa Schieffelin, 
b. 1893. 

3. Mary Jay Schieffelin, II., b. 
1896. 

4. John .Tay Schieffelin, b. 1897. 

5. Louise Vanderbilt Si-hief- 
felin, b. 1901. 



1. Teresa Fahbri, b. 1897. 

2. Ernesto G. F.abbri, Jr., b. 

1900. 



1. Dave H. Morris, Jr., b. 1900. 

2. Louise Morris, b. 1901. 



1. John, Marquis of Blandford, 
b. 1897. 

2. Lord Ivor Charles Spencer- 
Churchill, b. 1898. 



1. Muriel Vanderbilt, b. 19iiO. 

2. Daughter, b. Nov. 1, 19o3. 

3. L'aughler, b. Jan. 3, 1904. 



1. James .A.. Burden, b. 1897. 



NoTB.— In the pedigrees of the Vandevbilts and Astors Ihe dales iu some iirstjiares, paXicularty of the. older branches *n^ 
pf ()ranche3 residing abroad, are subject to correction. The above f'»tjfe and. that pf th? f»\o\i W«re submitted tO ir)emb«ri ot 

tfes rfsjfecfiyj f-iffliiljssEd sff? iffijfl bv Jbf.li to (hf bfsj of fbfjf knowJedg** 



142 



The American MuUi-Milliouaires. 



THE VANDERBILTS-tontiiiuei. 



Childrkn. 



3. William Henry V;indeiW!l 
(Cootiiiued). 



fjrandrhilrlren. 



5. Frederick VV. Vanderbilt, b. 
185S ; m. Mrs. Alfred Tor 
ranee (iiee Antiiony ), 1S*0. 



6. Florence Adele VanderUilt; 
m. H. McKay Twomblev, 

1817. 



7. Eliza Osgnod Vanderbilt ; m. 
William Seward Webb, 188 



8. George Washington Vander- 
bilt, b. 1862 ; m. Edith Stuy. 
Tesant Dresser, 1S98, 



(; real-Grandchildren. 



1. KuthTwombley, b. 1S78; d. 



2. Florence Twombley, b. 1880. 
OirMTKay Twombley, b. 188:;, 



1. James Watson Webb, b. 1884 



J. William SewardWebb,b.l^87. 



:i. Fiederii a Webb, b. 1890. 



4. Vanderbilt Webb, b. 18!il. 



1. Cornelia Stuyvesant Vander- 
bilt, b. 1900. 



Oreat-Great-Graudchi'dren. 



•J. Emily Vanderbilt, b. 18'23 ; 
m. William K. Thurn, 1849 ; 
d. 1896. 



1. William K. Thorn, b. 1861. 



S.Emily Thorn, b. 1S53; m 
1st, Daniel King, 18ti9 ; 2d 
Jati'.es C. Parrish, 1878. 



I.Louise Alice King, b. 18"0 
m. Alexander Baring. 



3. Thorn, b. 1858; 

GustaT Kissell, 1881. 



m 



5. Cornelius .Jeremiah Vander- 
bilt, b. 1855 : d. 1882. 



6. Eliza Vanderbilt, b. 1828 ; 
m. George A. Osgood, 1849 ; 
d. 1895. 



7. Sophia Vanderbilt, b. 18.30; 
m. Daniel Torrance, 1849. 



1. Alfred Torrance, b. 1850 ; m 
Bertha Anthony, 1872; d.l8sS 
She married, 1880, Frederick 
W. Vanderbilt. 



2. Marie Torrance, b. 1852 ; m 
John Hadden, Jr., 1873. 



John Hadden, b. 1874. 



8. Maria Alicia Vanderbilt, b, 
1-31 ; m. Ist, Mch.las La 
Ban, 1S47. 



1. Bertha V. La Bau; m. George 
M. Browne. 



\ Edith La Bau ; m. Tiffany 
Dver. 



3. Lillian La Bau ; m. 1st, Eu- 
gene Blois ; 2d, Jose Ay mar, 
1897. 



9. Catherine Vanderbilt, b. 
1834; m. 1st, Smith Barker, 
1850; 2d, Gustave Lafitte, 
1861 ; d. 1S87. 



1. Clarence .Tohnson Barker, b, 
1853 ; d. 1896. 



2. Catherine Barker, b. 1857. 



3. Morris Lafitte. b. 1S«3. 



10. Marie Louise A^anderbilt, 
b. 183.t; m. Ist, Horace Clark, 
1861; 2d, Kobert Niven. Is60; 
d. 1891. 



1. Louise Clark, b. 1853; m. 1st, 
Clarence L. Collins, 1874 ; 2d, 
Capt. Barty Midford ; 3d, 
Count M. L.SuberTille,d.1S95. 



. Edith Lyman Collins, b. 
187S I m. Count Czaykowski 
(RechM Bey), 1897. 



2. Charlotte E. Niven; m. Count 
de .Sers. 



11. Frances Vanderbilt, b. 

1836 ; d. 18(56. 



12. George W. Vanderbilt, b, 
1841; d. 18i;6. 



Born 



THE COULDS. 

DE.SCENDANTS OF .lAY GOULD. 
May 27, 1836 ; married Helen Day Miller, 1863; died 1892. 



Chii.prkn, 



I. George Jay (ionld, b. 1864; 
m. Edith Kingdon, 1886. 



2 


Jay Gould, b 


1888. 






Marjorie Gw 
1890. 


ynne G 


..uld. 


b 


4 


Helen Vivian 


Gould, 


b. 1892. 
~,Ir., b. 


George Jay 

1896.- 


Gould, 



2. Edwin (Jould, b. 1866; m 
Sarah Shrady, 1892. 



3. Helen Miller (iould, h. 18 



4. Howard Gould, b. 1871; m, 
Katherine ('lemmons. 1898. 



5, Anna fJonld, b. 1875; m. 
Count Paul Marie Boniface 
de Casiellane, 1895. 



«. Frank Jav Gould, b. 1877; m 
Helen Margaret Kelly, 19ni. 



Grandchihiren. 



1. Kingdon Gould, b. 1887. 



1. E.iwin Gould, b. 1893. 



2. Frank Miller Gould, b. 1899 



1. Boniface de Castellsne, 

1897. 



2. George de Castellane, b. 18"8, 

S. Jay de Castell.ine, b. 1902. 

1 . Heleq Margaret Gould, b. 
1902, 



Great-Grandchildren. 



Great-Great-Grandchildr. n. 



The American Multi-Millionaires. 



143 



THE ASYORS. 

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN JACOB ASTOR. 



Bom at Waldorf, (.iennaiiy, 1763; married Sarah Todd, cousin of Heury Brevoort, Sn New York 1785- 

died 1848. ' ' 



CUILDKKN. 



Graudchildren. 



Great-Graiidchildren. 



1. Magdalen Astor, b. 1786; m, 
1st, Gov. Adrieu B. Heutzt-u, 

of .Saiit.i Cruz, 1H07; yd. Kev. 
Julm linsted, l!;il9; d. 1854. 



1. Charles Asior Brist< d, b.ll 



2. Jt.ho Jacob-Aslor, b.l788; d 

1834. _ _ 

3. El;za Astor. b. 1790; m. 
Count Ku!ni.ff, 1825; d. 1836 

4. William Hackbouse Astur, 
b. 1792; m. Marjj.iret Alida 
Armstrong, 1818; d. 1875. 



tJctober 
Bre\ oort. 
.Sf dgwick, 
15, 1&74. 



1847: 



m. Ist 
2d, ( 



r.ice A.'.i 



John Jacob Astor Bristed, b. 
1848; d. 1880. 



1867; d. January 



. Emily Astor, b. 1819; m. 
Samuel Ward. 1838; d. 1841. 



2. Ch^trles Astor 

18H9; 
ntUy, 



Great-Great-Grandiliildren. 



m. Mary 
1894. 



Biisted, b. 
Uosa Don- 



1. Mary Syniphorosa Bristed. 

2. Katharine Elizabeth Grace 
Biisted. 



1. Marg^iret Astor Ward, b.' 
1838; 111. .lohn Winthrop 
Chanler, 1856; d. 1875. 



1. John Armstrong Chanler, 
b. 1857; m. Amelie Kives. 

1888. 

Winthrop Astor Chanler, b. 
1859; m. Margaret Terry, 
1882, and had ibsue: 1. L.'iura 
Astor Chnnler; 2. John Win- 
throp Clianler. d. 1894; 3. 
Margaret Asloi Chanler; 4. 
Bcatiice Chanler, b. 1891; 5. 
Hester Chanler; 6. a son; 7. 
a son. 

3. Elizabeth Astor Chanler; m. 
John J. Chapman, r^98, and 
had i--8ue: Chanler Chapinau, 
b. 1901. 

4. William Astor Chanler. 
Itobert Winthrop Chanler; 

m. Jnlia Heminjrton Cham- 
berlain, 189:;, and had issue; 
Dorothy Chanler. 
6. Margaret Livingetor Chanler 

7. Ali'ia Beeliman Chanler; m. 
Temple Emmet, 1896, and 
had issue; 1. Elizabeth Em- 
met; 2. Maigaiet Emmet; '^, 
Aiida Emmet; 4. Temple Em- 
met, .Ir. 

8. Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler; 
m. Alice Chamberlain, 1890, 
and had issue ; 1. Lewis 
Stuyvesant Chanler, Jr.. b. 
ls9I; 2. Alida Chanler, b. 
1894; 3. William Ai,tor Chan- 
ler, b. 1895. 



2. John .lacob Aslor, b. 1822;'l. William Waldorf Astor, b. 



m. Cha I tie Augusta GibLcs, 
1846; d. 1890. 



3. Laura Astor, h. 1824; m. 
Franklin Delano, 1841. 



4. Marv Alida Asior, b. 1826 
m. John C;irey, 1850; d. 188L 



1847; m. Mary Dahljcren 
Faul, 1878; she died 1895. 



3. Margaret Laura Carey; m. 
lat. Baron de .Steurs; 2d, Elliot 
Zborowskv. 



5. Wllain Astor, b. 1830; m. 
Car. line Webster Schermer- 
horn, 1853 ; d. 1892. 



1. Arthur Astor Carey; 
Agnes Whiteside, 1889. 



1. William Waldorf Astor, b. 

1879. 

2. Pauline Astor, b. 1580; m. 
Capt. H. Spender /Llav, 1904. 

3. John Jacoi, Astor, b." 1886. 

4. Gwendolin, b. 1889; d. 1908. 



1. Reginald Carey. 

2. Arthur Graham Carey. 

3. Aiida Carey. 



2. Hamilton Astor Carey; d 

1893. 



1. Emily AstO', b. 
James J. Van Alen, 
1881. 



1. Margaret Eugenia VIctorine 
de Steurs. 

2. John Herbert Eugene Fran- 
cois de Steurs. 

3. Hubert Victor Arthur de 
Steurs. 



1854; m. 
1876; d. 2 



Mary Van .Men, b. 1876. 

.lames Laurens Van Alen, 
b. 1878; m. 1900. .Margaret 
Louise Post, and had issue: 
Jame"HeniyVatiAlen,b. 1902. 

Sarah Steward Van Alen, b. 
1881; in. 1902, Itobert J. F. 
Collier. 



2. Helen Astor, b. 1855; ni.!l. James Koosevelt Koosevelt, 
James Ko-'sevelt Koosevelt, h. 1879. 

18'8- d. 1893. 2. Helen Kebecca Roosevelt, 

b. 1881. 



3. Charlotte Augusta Astor. b. 1. Caroline Astor Drayton, b. 
1868; m. Isl, J. Colemaii| 1880. 

Diayton, 1879; 2d, George 2. Henry Coleman Drayton, b. 
Ogilvy Haig, 1896. 1883. 

3. William Astor Drayton, b. 
1888. 

4. Alida Livingston Drayton, 
b. 1890; d. 1898. 



144 



The American 3fuJti-3IiUionaires. 



THE ASTORS-Continued. 



Children. 


Grandcliildren. 


hreat-Grandchildven. 


Great-Great-Grandchi Idren. 


4. William Backhouse Aetor 
(Coutiuucd). 


5. Willi:im Astor (fontinued). 


4. .Tohii Jacob Astor, b. 18ii5:l. William Vincent Astor, b. 
m. Ava Luwle Willing, 1891. 1W)1. 

2. Ava Alice Muriel Astor, b. 
l:i02. 




S.Caroline Schermerhorn 
Astor, b. 1861; m. Marshall 
Orme Wilson, 1884. 


1. Marshall Orme Wilson, Jr., 
b. 1S85. 

2. Uichard Thornton Wilson, b. 
1886. 




ti. Henry Astor, b. 1832; m. 

Malviiia Dykeinan, I'-Si'. 






6. Ueiiry Astur, b. 1794 ; d. 1808. 


^ 






6. Uoiothea Astor, b. 1"S5; m. 
Walter Liiugdoa, IBli; d. 
1853. 


1. Sarah I.angdon, b. 1813; m. 
Francis K. Bureel, 1834; d. 
18117. 


1. William Walter Astor Bore 1, 
b. 18:i8; in. Mary Emily Mil- 
l.ank; d. 1892. 


1. Uobert John Ralph Boreel; 
m. Miss Ives. 




i. Eliza Boreel : m. Baron H . 
W. Pallan.lt; d. 






3. Alfred Boreel; m. daughter 
of Baron de Mydrecht. 






4. Robert Boreel; d. 1896. 






5. Daughter; m. Baron Otto 
Groenice. 






6. Daughter, unmarried ; d. 


- 




2. .luhn .1. A. Langdon, b. I8I4; 
d. 1837. 








3. Eliza Lang.ion, b. 1816; m. 
Matthew Wilks, 1842; d. 1899, 


I. Eliza Wilks; m. Ilyam K. 
Stevens, 1869. 






2. Alice Wilks; m. William N. 
Keefer, M. D. 


1. Matthew Wilks Keefer. 

2. I'etrena Keefer. 

3. Eliza Christine Keefer. 




3. Langdon Wilks, b. 1865; m. 
Pauline Kingsinill, 1891. 






4. Matthew Astor Wilks. 






5. Katherine Langdon Wilks. 






4. Louisa Lan^dou, b. 1819; in; 
Uehiucey Kane, 1841. 


1. Walter L.'ingd^'n Kane; b. 
1851; m. Mary Hunter, 1877; 
d. 1896. 


1. Carolyn Hunter Kane.b.l880; 
m. Edgar Morris Pheps, 1900, 
.in d hail issue: 1 Wallei Kane 
Phelps, b. 1901 ; 2. Henry 
Delafi Id Phelps, b. 1902. 

2. Helen Dorothy Kane. 




2. Pelancey Astor Kane, b. 
18J4; m. Eleanor Iselin, 1872. 


1. Deiancey Iselin Kane. 




3. John Innes Kane, b. 18r,5; 
n». Annie Schermerhorn, 1878. 






4. Louisa Langdon Kane. 






5. Emily Astor Kane; m. 
Augustus Jay, 1876. 


1. Deiancey Kane Jay. 

2. Augustus Jay. Jr." 




6. Sybil Kent Kane. 






7. Wooilbury Kane. 






8. Samuel Nicholson Kane. 






6. Walter Lanydon, b. 1821; m. 
Catherine Livingston, 1847; d. 
1893. 


1. A sou; d. 




~ 


6. Wooilbiny Tinngtlou, b. 1824; 
m. Helen Colford Junes, 1M7; 
d. 1892. 


1. Wondtiury Gersdorf Lang- 
don, b. 1850; m. Sophia E. 
Montgomery, 1882. 


1. Sophie E. I.angdon. b. 1883. 

2. Woodburv G. Langdon, Jr. 
3.) 

4. y Three younger children. 




7. Cecelia Langdon, b. 1827; m. 
Jtan de Notbeck, 1849. 


1. Eugenia de Notbeck, b. ls.-2. 






2. Cecelia de Notbeck, b. 1856. 






3. A daughter. 






4. A son. / 






8. Eugene Langdon, b. 1832; 
m. Hiirriet Lowndes, 1859; 
d. 1H68. 


1. Marion Langdon, b. 1864; m. 
lioyal Phelps Carroll, 1891. 


I. Marlon Dorothea Carroll. 


\ 


2. Anne L. Langdon. b. 1866; m. 
Howard Townsend, 1894. 


1. Anne Langdon Townsend. 

2. Howard Van Kens!>elacr 
Townsend. 

3. Eugene Langdon Townsend. 



THE CARNECIES. 

BESCENDANT OF ANDUEW CARNEGIE. 
Born at Dnmferraliiie, Scotland. I8:>7; nituriod, 1887, Louise Wliitfield. 



Childrbn. 


Grandcbil.lren. 


Great-Grandchildren. 


Great-Great-Graodchildren. 


Margaret Carnegie, b. 1897. 









There are relatives of Mr. Carneg:ie re8idin<; jn the United States, including his brother, Thomas Carnegie^ and family ai 
Pittaburgh, Pa., but Andrew Caniei^ie iS alone the founder of the American inulti-millionaire family. 



The American Mtdti-Millionaires. 



145 



THE ROCKEFELLERS. 

DESCENDANTS OE WILLIAM A. ROCKEFELLER. 
Born 1811; niariied Eliza Davidson. 



Childken. 


Gr.<indchildren. 


Great-Giandchil.iren. 


Gxeal-Great-Grandcliildren. 


1. John D. Ruckefeller, b. 1839; 
m. Laura C. Sjiellman, 1867. 


I. Elizabeth Uockefeller, b. 
I8B9; m. Tier. Dr. Charles A. 
Strong, 1889. 








8. Edith Kocliefeller, b. 1812; 
m. Harold McCormick, 1896. 


1. JohnRockefellerMcCormick, 
b. 1897 ; d. 1»01. 






2. Powler JTcCormick, b. 1899. 


. 




3. Daughter, b. 1903. 

4. r>aught^5, b. SjEt, ?8i,1.9W. 










3. Alta Rockefeller, b. 1874; 
m. E. Parmalee Prt-ntice. 


:!■: :.^ ■!..■■ . V . ; 


. 




4. John D. Rocliefeller, b. 1877; 
m. Abby Green AMrich, 1901 . 


1. Danghter, b. Nov. 10, 190:1. 




S. WilliamRockefeller, b. 1841; 
III. Aluiira Geraldine Good- 
sell, lBb4. 


1. William G. Korkefeller. b. 
1873; m. Elsie Stillman, 1896. 






t. Emma Rncliefeller, b. 1875; 
ni. Dr. David Hunter Mc- 
Alpin, 1896. 








3. Percy Averv Rockefeller, b. 
1877;' m. Isabel G. Stillman, 
1901. 


1. Isabella Kockefeller, b. 1902. 






4. Ethel Geraldine Rockefeller, 
b. 1880. 







THE MORGANS. 

DESCENDANTS OF JUNIUS SPENCER MORGAN. 
Born 1813; married, 1836, Juliet Pierpont; died 1890. 



CUILDEE^. 



1. John Pierpont Morsau, b, 
lb37; m. lat, Anjelia StUrges: 
2ti, 1S65, Frances Louise 
Tracy. 



2. Sarah Spencer Murs:aii, b. 
1839; m. 1866, George Hale 
Morgan; d. 1896. 



3. Mary Lyrnau Morgan, b. 
1844; m. 1867, Walter Hayues 
Burns; he died 1897. 



4. .luniua Spencer Morgan, b. 

1846, d. 18;»8; unmarried. 



fi. Juliet Pierpont Morgan, b 



Grandchildren. 



Great-Orandcbiidren. 



I. Louisa Pierpont Morgan, b. 
1866; m. 1900, Herbert Livmg- 
ston Satterlfe. 



2. John Pierpont Morgan, J 
b. 1867; 111. 1890, Jane Norton 
Grew. 



3. Juliet Pierpont Morgan, b. 

1870; m. 1894, William Pier- 
son Hamilton. 



4. Anne Tr:icy Morgan, b. 1873 



I. .Tuniiis Spencer Morijan; ni 
Josephine Adams Petry- 



2. Caroline Lucy Morgan. 



3. George D. Moi^an. 



1. William Burns ; died an in 
fant. 



2. Walter Spencer Morgan 
Burns. 



3. Mary Burns; m. Lewis Ver 
non Harcourt, 



1847; m.Kev.John B.Murgan. ^^ j^jjjj Junius Morg^ 



. Ursula Junius Morgan. 



1. Mabel Morgan Satterlee. 



1. Junius Spencer Morgan, b, 
1892. 



2, Jane Norton Morgan. 

3. Frances Tracy Morgan. 



4. Htnry Slcrgis Morgan. 



Great-Great-Grandchildren. 



1. Helen Morgan Han'ilton. 



2, Pierpont Morgan Hamilton. 



3. Laurens Morgan Hamilton. 



I. Sarah Spencer Morgan. 



2. Alexander Perry Morgan. 



1. Doris Vernon Harcourt. 



3. Olivia Harcourt. 



THE COELETS. 

DESCENDANTS OF KOBERT GOELET. 
Born in New York, 1809; married Sarah Ogden; died 1879. 



Childben. 


Grandchildren. 


"• Great-Grsndchildren. 


Great'Great-GrandcbiMren. 


1. Robert Gnelet, b. Xew York, 
Sept. 29, 1841 ; m. Henrietta 


1. Uob-vt Walton Gi.elet, b. 
March 19, 18S0. 






Louise Warren, 18;9 ; d. 
April 27, 1899. 


2. Beatrice Goelet; d. 1897. 






2. Ogden Goelet, b. June Tl, 
1846; m.Mav U. Wilson, 1877; 


I. Roh,-rt Goelet; m. Elsie 
Wheltn, 1904. 






d. Aug. 27, ld97. 


2. Mav Goelet; m. the Duke of 
Rozburghe, 1903. 







146 



The, American Multi-Millionaires. 



THE HAVEMEYERS. 

DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM FREDERICK HAVEMEYER. 
Bora in New York, 1804; married Sarah Agnes Ciaig, 1828; died November 80, 1874. 



Childekn. 


Grandchildren. 


Great-Grandchildren. 


Great-G reat-Grandchi Idren. 


1. William Havemeyer, b. 18 — ; 
d. 1834. 








2. Sarah Clianiller Huvemeyer; 
m. Hector Armstrong, 1856. 


1. William F. H. Armstrong. 






3. .Icihn Craig Havenieyer, b. 


1. Harriet Francis Havemeyer. 






New York, 1833; m. Alice 


2. .John Francis Havemeyer; 
m. Mary Hayward Mitchell, 

1899. 


1. Helen Mitchell Havemeyer. 






2. John Francis Havemeyer. 






3. Alice Louise Havemeyer. 






4. Henry Havemeyer, b. ; 

m. Mkry J. MoUer, 1864; d. 


1. William Moller Havemeyer; 
d. 1900. 






1886. 


2. William F. Havemeyer 2d- 
d. 1904. 








3. J. Blanche Havemeyer; m. 
Adair Campbell. 








4. Edythe Havemeyer. 








5. A);nes J. Havemeyer; m. ' 

Burnham; d. 1893. 








fi. Harry Havemeyer; d . 






5. Hector Craig Havemeyer; d. 

December, 1889. 








6. James Havemeyer; m. Delia 
Couklin, 1870. 


1. James Craig Havemeyer; m. 
Adah Bryant. 








2. Agnes Havemeyer; m. John 
V. A. Cattus. 






1. Laura Amelia Havemeyer; 
m. Nov .30, 1869, Isaac Walker 
Maclay. 


1. Julia Havemeyer Maclay; m. 
Charles Ward Hall. 


1. Charles W. Hall, 




2. Archibald Maclay Hall. 




3. Hector Craig Hall. 






2. Agnes Craig Maclay. 








X William Frederick Maclay. 








4. Henry Havemeyer Maclay. 








5. Archibald Maclay. 








6. Laura Grace Maclay. 






8. Charles W. Havemeyer; m. 


1. Julia Loomis Havemeyer. 






Julia Loomis, 1874; d. 1895. 


2. Loomis Havemeyer. 






9. William Frederick Have- 
meyer, b. March 31, 1860; m. 
Josephine Harmon, 1877, 


1. Hector H. Havemeyer, b. 
1878; m. Ilay M. Russell, 

1902. 








2. Martha J. Havemeyer, b. 
1879; m. William R.Willcox, 
19US. 








3. Arthur Havemeyer, b. 1882. 








4. Uayjnond Havemeyer, b. 







THE HAVEMEYERS. 

DESCENDANTS OF FBEDEKICK CHRISTIAN HAVEMEYER. 
Born in New York, February 5, 1807; married Sarah Osborne Townsend, 1831; died July 28, 1891. 



Children. 



1. Frederick Christian Have- 
mever; married. 



2. Charl'S O. Havemeyer; died 
iu infancy 



3. Mary O. Havemeyer; m. 
Lawrence Elder; d. 1864. 



• 4. George W. Havemeyer; d 
1861 ; unmarried 



ft. Kate B. Havemeyer; m 
Louis J. Belluui. 



Grandchildren. 



1. Frederick H. Elder; died un 
married, \%M. 



2. Minnie H. Elder; m. Mc 
Coskey Butt. 



1. Mary Louise H. Belloni. 



2. Kate 11. Belloni ; m. Lau- 



rence Griffith. 



3. Sadie H. Bellnni. 



4. George (Miss) H. Belloni; in, 
Dr. George E. McLaughlin. 



Great-Grandchildren. 



1. Robert McC'oskev Butt. 



2, Laurence H. Butt. 



1. Louie Belloni Griffith. 



1. Katherine Havemeyer Mc- 
Laughlin. 



Great-G reat-Granilchildren. 



The American M alt l- Millionaires. 



147 



THE HAVEMEYERS-Cominued. 



CHILnKKV. 


Grandchildren. 







Great-Grandchildren. 


Great-Great-Grandchildrcn. 


6. 1 heodnre Augustus Have- 
mpyer, b. in New Ynrk, May 
17, l'^39; m. Eiiiilie de Loosey; 
d. 1897. 


1. Theodore A. H.iTemcyer; m. 
Katherine Aymar Sands. 


_ 




2. Henry O. Havemeyer; m. 
Clmrl.itte Whiting. 








2 other sons and 5 d:iughters. 






7. Henry 0. H.iTemever. b. in 
New York. Oct. !8, l;>47; m. 


1. Adeline Havemeyei. 






Louiaine Waldruu EMer, 18:?3. 


2, Horace Havemeyer. 








'i. Electra Havemeyer. 






8. Sarah Loniae Havemeyer; m- 


1. Charh's F. H. Jackson. 








2. Louise A. Jackson. 















THE LORILLARDS. 

DESCENDANTS OF PETER LORILLARD. 
Boru jrarch 17, 1796 ; married Catherine Griswold; died 1867. 



CnrLCRBN. 


Grandchildren, 


Great-Grandchildren. 


Great-Grcat-Grandchildren. 


I. Pierre I.orillard, b. 18.-i3; m. 
Emily Taylor, I85Sj d. 1901. 


1. Emily Lorillard, b. 1858; m 
William Kent, 1881. 


I. William Kent, b. April 14 
1882. 






2. Emily L. Kent, b. Oct. 2:i 

1884. ^■ 






3. Peter Kent, b. March 3 

1887. 


, 




4. Richard Kent, h.Feb. 6, 1904 






2. Pierre Lorillard, b. 1860; m. 
Caroline J. Hamilton, 1881. 


1. Pit-rre Lorillard, b. March 10 
1852. 






2. Griswold Lorillard, b. June 

1885. 






.1. Griswnld N. Lorillard, b. 
1863; d. 1888, unmarried. 








4. Maude Louise Lorillard, b. 
187.!; m. Thomas Snffcrn 
Taller, 1893; 2d, Cecil Baring, 
London, England, Nov. 8, 
1903. 


1. Lorillard Tailer, b. Dec. 25, 
1897. 




2. George Lorillard, uomar- 
rifd. 








3. Loiitfi Lorillard; m. Kath- 
erine Beekman. 


1. Louis Lorillard. 








2. George Lorillard. 








3. Beekman Lorillard. 






4. Jacob Lorillard; m. Frances 
A. Uhlhorn. 


I. Augnsta Lorillard; m. Will- 
iam H. Sands. 


1. Harold A. .Sands. 






2. .'Vnita L. Sands. 


-.-... .f. -f.i- 1 -* . ---- ■ 


S. Eva Lorillard; m. Col. Law- 
rence Kip, 1867. 


I. Lorillard Kip; d. 1896. 


■ 




2. Eva Maria Kip; d. 1870. 




- - - 




3. Edith Kip; m. Richard Mo- 
Creery. 






6. M.iry Lorillard; m. Henry I. 
Barbey. 


1. Henry G. Barbey. 






2. Mary L. BarK-y; m. Alfred 
Seton, Jr. 








3. Ethel Lynde Barbey; m. A. 
Lanfear Norrie. 








4. Helene Barbey; m. Count 
Hermann de I'ourtales. 








5. Eva Barbey. 






7. Catherine Lorillard; m. 
.Tames I*. Kernv'chan. 


. James Lorillard Kernoch.'in; 
m. Eloise Stevenson; d. 1903. 


•-_--.; ,, 




^ 


2. Catherine Lorillard Kerno- 
chan; m. Herbert C. Pell. 


1. Herbert C. Pell, Jr. 

2. Clarence C. Pell. 









THE ARMOURS. 

DESCENDANTS OF PHILIP DANFORTH AR5X0UR. 
Born in Stockbridge,N.Y., May 16, 1832; married, 1862, Malvina Belle Ogden; died Jan. 6, 1901. 

Children". 



1. Jonathan Dgden Armour, b, 
186:i; m. LoIit:i Sheldon. 



2, Philip DinforthArm^nr, Jr. 
h. 1869; m ISM; d. 1900. 




148 



The Alfred Bernharcl Nohel Prizes. 



THE AMERICAN MULTI- MILLIONAIRES.— Con/m?terf. 



THE BELI^ONTS. 

DESCENDANTS OF AUGUST BELMONT. 
Bornat Alzy, Germany, Dec. 6, 1816; married, 1849, Caroline Slidell Perry; died Nov, 24,1890. 



ChildrSn. 


Granlch-.idren. 


Great-Ghahdchildren. 


Great- Great-Grandchildren. 


1. Perry Belmont, b. 1851 ; m. 
1899, Jessie Uobbins. 








2. August Belmont, b. 1853; m. 
Elizabith HamiUon Morgan; 
she d. 1»98. 


1. Angust Belnioat, Jr., b. 1882. 






2. Kaymnud Belmout, b. 1868. 








3. Morgan Belmont, b. 1892. 






3. Oliver Hazard PerryBelmont, 
b. 1868 ; m, 1st, Sara Swan 
Whitney, 1883 ; 2d, Alva E. 
Smith (Vanderbilti, 189o. 


1. A daughter. 






4. Frederika, b. 18S4 ; m. J877, 
Samnel S. Howland; d. 1902. 




■•>- .-'-.-;«;- 


.- 


6. Raymond Belmont, b. 1866; 
d. Ia87. 








6. Jennie Belmont; d. 1875. 


• ' 1 ill /' . >,. 


:a ;*;•■>,. A 


1 



THE WrtlTNEYS. 

DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM COLLINS WHITNEY. 

Born in Conway, Franklin Co., Mass., July 5. 1841; married, 1st, 1869, Flora B. Payne, daughter of 
Henry B. Payne, of Ohio, who died Feb. 4, 1893; 2d, Sept. 28, 1896, JMErs. Edith Sybil Randolph, 
who died May 6,1899. He died Feb. 2, 190f ,y .„ ,,.,,., 



Children. 


Grandchildren. 


Greal-Gran'dchildren! 


Grfat-Great-Grandchildren. 


1. Harry Payne Whitney, b. in 
New York, April 29, 1872; m. 


1. Flora Payne Whitney, b. 
1897. 






Gertrude Vanderbilt, IS96. 


2. Vanderbilt Whitney, b. 1899. 






S. Pauline VVhitnfy;m.Almeric 


1. Pauline Facet, b. 1896. 


■ ■. ;; ■ , •■•;:. 1 - .■., 




Hugh Paget, 1895. 


2, Flora Payne Paget; d. 








3. Alice Paget, b. 1899. 






3. Payne Whitney; m. Helen 


1. Daughter, b. Fib. 5, 190:;. 




. 


^ Hay, 1902. 


2. Son, b. Aug. 17, 1904. 






4. Dorothy Payne Whitney. 








S. Child; d. Feb. 3, 1883. 









THE LEITERS. 

DESCENDANTS OF LEVI ZEIGLER LEITBB. 

Born at Leltersberg, Washiagton Co., Md., 1834; married Mary Theresa Carver, October 18, 1866; 

died at Bar Harbor, Me., June 6, 1904. 



Children. 


Grandchildren. 


Great-Grandchildren. 


Great-Great Grandchildren. 


1. Joseph Leiter, b. in Chicago, 

December 4, 1868. 








2. Mary Victoria Leiter. b. May 


1. The linn. Mary Irene Curzon. 






27, 1870; m. April 22, 1N95, 
Rt. Hon. George Nathaniel 
Curzon, now l,oid Curz"M of 
Kedleston, Viceroy of India. 


2. The Hon. Cynthia Blanolie 
Curzon. 






3, The Hon. Alezandiia N. 
Curzon. 






3. Nancy I.athrop Carver Leiter; 
m. November 29, l!i04. Major 
Colin Powys Campbell. 






p 


4. Marguerite Hyde Leiter (en- 
gagement to tlie Earl of Suf- 
folk announced). 


.r,'.. r.i i ..'■: 


:,:. 





Ai.FRKD Bkrxh4iRij Nobel, the inventor of dviuiraite. died in Norway in 1895, leaving the res- 
idue of his fortune, estimated at about SIO.OOD.OTO, for the foundation of five annual prizes to be 
awarded for the most iinuortant discoveries in physics, clieuiistry, and pliysioloigy or medicine; for 
thernostremarl<able Iiterai->- work of an idealist tendencv, and for the greatest service rendered to 



tl-x' ,. .^^^ ^ - , - .- - - ^ 

the cause of peace during the year. 'I'lie value of each prize will be about %^40,()00. InaddKionto the 
prizes, provision is made for ftie ftstalilisliuient of Nobel lu.stluites, where researclies may he carried 
,on, and of special fuiuls from whicli grants may be given, to promote the objects wliicli the founder 
had at heart. Tlie l)eueftts of fhe foundation are open to all nationalities and sexes. Full details can 
pe obtained from tho Board of KduoftHon, I,ondori, or the Comito Nobol Norvegian. 'A Victoria 
Terra.Mse.^^hrlstUuiia, Norway The awards made In IflOl were: Physics Baron Rnyk'igh, oi^llie 
RritisU K*)ynl lnHtj|itli(>n; clierri islrv. Sir Wilhani Kamsay; rnedicine. Prof. {'avlofT, Hf. Petersburg 
TMlHta-iy A.-.itdftny of Medicine-' liiriratin'f, Kiederic Mistr.ll, of France, arid J ost^i Ecl)e£;(!!nv, Of 

B^ti\))\ pf.%fl?,t)iD bistiiiue of int» ititttlofiftl Law-llie first mwl to .an instltiitlou. 



United States Post-0 ffice Statistics. 



149 



sanitetr ^uun po.^t=#fa'ce .statistics. 



Fiscal 


Number of 
Post-offices. 


Eiteat of Post 
Koutes in Miles. 


Revenue of {he 
Department. 


Expenditure of tile 
Department. 


Account Paid for 


Yeabs. 


Coni^iensat'ou to 


Transportation 












Postmasters. 


of the Mail. 


1865 


20,550 


142,340 


$14,556,159 


$13,694,728 


$3,383,382 


$6,246,884 


1870 


28, 492 


231,232 


19,772,221 


23.998,837 


4,673,466 


10,884 6.53 


1875 


35,547 • 


277,873 


26,791,360 


33,611,309 


7,049,936 


18 777 201 


1880 


42,989 


343.888 


33,315.479 


36,542,804 


7,701,418 


22,255,984 
23 19() 0;!'2 


18S1 


44,512 


344.006 


36,785,398 


39,251,736 


8,298,743 


1882 


46.231 


343.618 


41.876.410 


40,039.635 


8,964,677 


22,846 112 


1883 


47,863 


353,160 


45,.508,()93 


42.816,700 


10,319,441 


23 0(>7 323 


1884 


50,017 


359.530 


43.33S,127 


46,404,960 


11,283,831 
11,431,305 


25 359 816 


1885 


51,252 


365.251 


42,560,844 


49,. 533, 150 


27,765 124 


1886 


53,614 


366, ()67 


43,048.423 


50,839,435 


11,348,178 


27,553 239 


2 8S7 


55,157 


373,142 


48,837.610 


52,391.678 


11,929.481 


28 135 769 


1888 


57,281 


403,977 


52,695,176 


55,795.358 


12.600,186 


20 151 168 


1889 


58,999 


416,159 


56,175,611 


61,370.847 


13,171,382 


31,893,359 


18! 10 


62,401 


427,991 


60,882,097 


65,930,717 


13,753,096 


33,885,978 


18»1 


64,329 


439,027 


65,931,786 


71,662,463 


14,527,000 


36 805 621 


18!»2 


67.119 


447.. 591 


70,930.475 


76,323,762 


15,249,565 


38 837 236 


IbttS...... 


68,403 


453,. S32 


75.896.933 


81,074,104 


15,862,621 


41,179.054 


1894 


69, 805 


454, 746 


75, 080, 479 


84,324,414 


15, 899, 709 


4.5,375,359 


1895 


70, 064 


4.56,026 


76,983,128 


86, 790, 172 


16,079.508 


46.336,326 


1896. 


70,360 


463,313 


82,499,208 


90, 626, 296 


16,576,674 


47,993,067 


1897 


71,022 


470,032 


82,665,462 


94,077,242 


16,917,621 


49,862,074 


1S98 


73,570 


480. 462 


89,012,618 


98,033.523 


17,460,621 


51,780,283 


1899 


76, 000 


496,948 


95,021.384 


101,632,160 


1S,223.5(J6 


5;i,331,557 


1900 


76, 688 


500.982 


102,354,579 


107,740,268 


19.112,097 


55.772.881 


1901 


76,945 


511,808 


111,631,193 


115, 554. 920 


19,9+9.514 


57,691,953 


1902... ■... 


76,215 


507,. 540 


121,848,047 


124,785.697 


20.783.919 


60, .533. 217 


190:i 


74,169 


506.268 


134,224,443 


138, 784, 488 


21,631,724 


64,706,965 


1904 


71,131 


406,818 


143,582,624 


152,362,117 


22,273,344 


69,200,197 



Of the whole number of post-offices at the close of the fiscal year June 30, 1904,5,365 were Presi- 
dential offices and 65,766 were fourth- class otfices. 

The number of pieces of postal, matter of all kinds which pass through the mails of the United 
States annually is about 8,500,000,000. The annual aggregate number of letters transmitted through 
the po.st-offlces of the world may be estimated at 20,000,000,000, and ot newspapers,12, 500,000, 000. 

POSTAL REVENUE OF FIFTY LARGEST CITIES IN 1904. 

The receipts by the Post-Office Department from fifty principal offices of the United States In the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, were as follows: 

Cities. Amount, i Cities. Amount. 



New York City, Manhatt3n$14,135,S44.1I 

CJiiraso, 111 ln,51ii.B92.04 

Philadelphia, Pa 4,o9i!.906.'28 

Boston, Mass 4,]S5,278.S4 

St. I.ouis, Mo 3,2.'>l,949.n 

Brooklyn, N. Y 2,02ti,-.'4.3,86 

Cinciuirati, Ohio 1, 098,200.18 

Pittsburgh, Pn 1,511,653.48 

San Fra:i Cisco, Cal Ij.Wfl.iigo.GH 

Baltimore, Md I,,i02,347.21 

Cleveland, Ohio l,3sn,59i.64 

Kansas City, Mo 1,213,883,04 



Detroit, Mich. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Milwaukee, Wis. . . . 
Washington, 1>. C. . 



1,175,015.27 

1,130,08 li.80 

1,123,800,39 

975.4t)4.19 

967, 19-2.36 



St. Paul, Minn |733,716.20 

ludian.apolis, Ind 727,899.14 

Louisville, Ivy 699,861.39 

Uochester, N, Y 660,792.14 

New Orleans, La 655,841.89 

Denver, Col 638,507.93 

Newark, X., 1 616,269.52 

Columbus, Ohio 553.984.49 

Los Angeles, Cal 6,50,217.80 

Atlanta. Ra 848,556. :;S 

(Smaha, Xeb 535,571.91 

Providen.e, K. 1 51:1,132.48 

Toledo, Ohio 471,177,41 

Des .Moiues, Iowa 462,1.13.73 

Richmond V'a 375,189.93 

Memi.hi.s.Tenn 371,317.02 

Seattle, Wash 361,372.18 



Cities. 
Dayton, Ohio... 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
New Haven, Ct. 
Portland, Ore.. 



Amount. 

»360,965.45 
3b< ■,608.44 
364,602.62 
353,2'i3.20 



Hartford, Ct 343,235.l6 

Nashville, Tenn 330.431.19 

Alb.any, N. Y 325,852.22 

(Jrand Uapids, Mich 32 1,530.56 

Dallas, Tex 313,79.^.61 

Worcester, JIsss 302,068 .92 

Springfieid, Mass ". 294,T24.V7 

Scranton, Pa 277,S4:.92 

.Jersey City, N. J 276,921.94 

Racine, Wis 275,046.74 

Allegheny, Pa ; 533,159. Jp 

Portland, Me.'.,..',.'..' 221,248.83 



DOMESTIC MONEy-ORDERS ISSUED IN 199*. 

States and Territories. Amount. Stales and Territories, 

Maine $4,167,326.14 Forto Itico, 

M.Hrylaud i. 2i713,060.69 Khode Island 

Massachusetts i . 13,206,728.^5 

Michi-an 16,054,369.80 

Minnesota 10,081 ,302.73 

Mississippi 4,747,657.80 

Missouri 12,792,581.81 

3,916,614.97 

Nebraska ." . '.'.'. . . . . I . . 7,266.881 .42 

Nevada . . .<.„..7.....;.. 1,.'!84,516.26 

New tiampshire '.. 2,229,447..i7 

New .Jersey 6,627,727.:iO 

Neiv Mexico 1,286,430.11 

New York .32,447,651.46 

North Carolina 2,891,438.73 

North Dakota 3,474,132.75 

Ohio 19,239,971.08 

Oklahoma 3,276,859.87 

OreKon 5,575,3J0.33 

Pennsylvania ;...... 31,.897,191.1'i 

The mimber of domestic mouev-orders Issued in the-fiecftl y^6t 1604 was 50, 7W, ItW 
to $383,49.3,373.81); niujiber of i-Qternatioiift! money- order?, 1,888, 73<); muoiint, $:37.S7 



states ,and Territories, 

Alab.ima 

Alask,a 

Arizona.'; 

v\rkansas 

California 

Colorado 7,312,058.01 

Connecticut 5,450,o69.22 

Delaware... 

District of Columbia.. . . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 2,845,135.78 

Idaho 3,315.073.51 

Illinois 23,S26,J84.2G 

Indiana 11,942,414.30 

Indian Territory 2,178,760.27 

Iowa 11 ,398,403,15 

Kansas 10,113,300.01 

Kentucky 3,108,617.71 

Louisiana 4,819,209.82 



Amount. 

$5,168,697.55 
l,176,'i92.23 
2,47.i,604.(l'; 
5,096, 764. .=.6 

22,155,229.37 



506,014.70 Montana 

1,977,158.16 
3,234,146.09 
5,224,488.92 



Amount. 

$l,i.l2,94-.'.:i6 

I,s60,;i97.o« 

2,:ici:, 171.40 

3,. 02.241. 1:! 

3,S65,I3".I7 

15,829,075.73 

2,46.>,0!'6.4I 

2,1 16,448.44 

4,O9;:.087.18 

10.183 S52.43 

4,142,815,17 

11,179,533.72 

I,493,:<S3.84 

14,«!IS.1K 

26, 34.00 

106,013.06 

j<.>,il80.o0 



Total $:iS3.462,S73,8i) 



.South Carolina.. .' 

South IJakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

\'ermont 

Vir^^iuia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisc'us n 

Wyoming 

(luam 

Shanghai U.S.Postal.ig'i 

ijupt. M. O, .Svat-m 

Tutuila .' 



: Bmmititlntr 
6,305.75. , 



150 



Monetary Statistics. 



jHonetarw .Statistics. 

^, (Compiled from the Reiiort of the Director of the Mint. ) 

MONETX'RV SYSTEMS AND APPROXIMATE 8 TOCKS OF MONEY IN THE AGGREGATE 
AND PER CAPITA IN THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD JAN. 1, 1903. 



COUNTIIIKS. 



United States 

Austria-Hungary. . 

Belfriuni 

British Empire : 

Anstral;isia 

Canail.T 

Cape Colony, . . , 

Great Britain... 

India 

S, African Rep. . 

Bulgaria 

Cuba 

Denmark 

Egypt 

Ffuland 

Frant-e 

Germany 

Greece 

Hayti 

Italy 

Japan 

Netiierlands 

Norway 

Porttijjal 

Routnania 

Russia 

Servia 

South Am. States. || 

Spain 

Sweden , ... 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

Cent. Am. States |-f- 

China tt 

Mexico ft 

Si.mi tt 

Sts.Settlem'ts.lftt 
Total 



Estimated 
Popula- 
tion, 



Stock of 
Gold. 



79,800,000 $1 ,248,000,000 



47,100,000 
6,700,000 

5,600,000 

5,400,000 

5,4110,000 

41,600.000 

295,200,000 

1 ,200,000 

3,700,000 

1,6011,000 

2,611(1,1100 

9,800,000 

2,700,000 

38,900,000 

56,4011 Olio 

2,4i 10,1100 

1,0011,000 

32,60ii,<if" 

47,600,000 

6,300,00" 

2,200,000 

6,400,000 

6,000,000 

130,900,111.1(1 

2,600,0(1(1 

.38,800,0110 

18,6iiO,'JOO 

6,200,000 

3,300,000 

24,000,000 

4,200,(100 

330,100.000 

13,600,000 

6,30(1,(100 

5,100,000 



► 283,000,000 
X 16,0iJi,i,(J0(i 

» 128,600,000 

t 33.8011,(10(1 

t 37, ,'.00,000 

t 54H, 100,000 

** 63,2(111,11(1(1 

t 29,200,000 

I 1,000,000 

t 2,000,000 

» lr.,600,(.IOO 

t 30,000,000 

J 4,10'i,(l(l(l 

t 947,7(1(1,(10(1 

t 763,61111,11(1(1 

X 200,000 

* 1 ,000,000 

* 107,7011,000 

* 62,600,000 

* 21,300,000 
« 8,2ii0,0 1(1 

* 5.300.000 
X 14,300,1100 

* 74o, 200,000 
t 1,900,000 

* 77,601,000 
» 75,800,000 

* 17,80(1,000 
t 29,900,000 
t 50,000,0 11 

» 2,000,000 



t 8,6(10,000 
t 1 ,000,000 



,285,600,000 $5,382,600,000 



Stock of Silver. 



Full 

Tender. 



Limited 
Tender. 



$573,200,000 $100,100,000 
■ 31,10(1,000 



Total. 



Uncovered 
Paper. 



t 20,000,000 



* 515,800,0(JO 

t'2,boo",ooo 



* 373,,i00,000 

* 62,800,11(11 

t 500,0110 

» 1,001,000 

t 16,000,110(1 

* 52,600,1101' 



» 4,000,000 



t3t(,( 100,(101 
« 7,000,000 
760,000,000 

* 106,000,000 
» 193,(100,000 

* 240,000,000 



X 6,600,000 



* 6,100, 

* 6,70ii' 
t 1,000, 

*1 16,800, 



,000 
,1100 
,000 
000 



t 1,21111, 
t 2,900 
t 1,500, 

* 5.9iiii, 
» 6,400 

} 6(111, 
»46,3n0, 
*144,70O, 

tl,0;iii, 

* 1 ,200, 

* 21, 711(1, 

* 30,400, 

* 4,(100, 
» 3.6(10, 
" 6, .'.00, 

t 800, 

*104,6UO, 

i 1,700, 

» 16,200, 

»173,700, 

* 7,000 
§ 10,700, 
1 10,000 



000 
,000 

,000 

('00 
,000 
imO 
000 
00 

,0011 

000 

UK 
000 
,000 
,(1(10 
000 
000 
000 
,000 
000 
000 
,000 
,000 
,000 



$673,.3OO,0Oul $466,100,000 

* 81,1(10,000 * 46,600.000 

tt 25,600,0(10 X 108,300,000 



« 6, 

tl 
»116, 
51 
1 

4 
1 



I 



* 2,000,000 



*6, 

+ 

*419, 

* 207, 

til, 

* 2 
t»37! 

* 30, 

«66, 

*3, 

*6, 

X 

*104, 

JI. 
" 20, 

* 173, 

* 7. 
510 
t4ii 

* 7 
7,50 

* 106 

* 193 

* 242 



,100,000 
,700,000 
,000,000 
,8(1(1,111111 
,800,000 
,200,0011 
,911(1.(1011 
,6ii0,0(J0 
,900,000 
,400,000 
6110,1111(1 
800,(100 
5(10,000 
,500,000 
2011.11110 
700,000 
400,000 
60,1,11011 
,500,0tl0 
511(1, iiOll 
800,000 

,600,000 

,700,000 
,211(1,000 
,700,000 
,011(1.(1(1(1 
,700,000 
,000,000 
,1100,000 
,000,000 
,0' 10. Ill 111 
,000,000 
000,000 



* 56,9(10,000 



* 117,900,0110 
* 32,4.11.1,111111 



X 1,000,000 



• 7,8(10,000 



X 9,100,(100 

* 158,200,000 

* 184,100,0110 

* 48,7110,000 

* 3,600,000 

* I71,.30n,(iiiO 

* 61,3110,000 
t 20,800,000 

* 7,900,000 

* 63,ii00,0li0 
II 8,100,001 

* 4,3011,00(1 
*1 ,082,700,000 

* 142,900,000 

* 29,000,000 

* 20,700,000 



* 30,200,000 



* 54,0110,(101 
"' 2,600,000 
^ 4,100,0(10 



$2,947,400,000 $921,900,OOOI(|3,869,:«IO,000,$2,933,500,000 



Pee Capita. 



Gold. Silver. Paper. 



J15.64 
6.01 
2.39 

23.38 

6,26 

15.62 

13.18 

.21 

24.33 

.27 

1.26 

5.96 

3.(16 

1,62 

24.36 

13.64 

.08 

l.llO 

3.31 

1.31 

4,02 

3,73 

.98 

2,38 

6,7(1 

.76 

2.0.1 

4,08 

3.42 

9,06 

2.08 

.48 

■ ■ .63 
.16 



$4.19 



,8.44 
1.72 
3,82 



1.11 

1.24 

.42 

2.80 

1.75 

1.(111 

.78 

.94 

2,27 

.65 

.22 

!0.79 

3,68 

.63 

2,20 

1.16 

.64 

10,68 

1,69 

1.20 

.13 

.80 

.68 

.63 

9,34 

1.35 

3,24 

1.67 

1.66 

2.27 

7.79 

30.63 

47.45 



3.00 



10.54 

' 2'.83 
.11 

' .'27 

3 .00 

'3.37 
4.07 
3,26 

20,29 
3,5(1 
5.27 
1.29 
3.92 
3,59 

11.67 
1,35 

' 1.72 

27.9(1 

7.68 

6.68 

6.27 

' V.i9 

3.97 
.41 

.80 



$2.2' 



Total. 



$29.79 
8.72 
22.37 

24.49 

18.04 

16,04 

18.81 

2.07 

25.33 

1.32 

2.19 

11.23 

3.71 

B.ll 

39.22 

20.48 

21.00 

6 711 

9.74 

3.24 

18.62 

8.91 

13.85 

3.86 

6.60 

3.16 

30,43 

21,111 

10.35 

18.57 

.■'.,75 

9.;3 

2.27 
12,. 39 
31.20 
48.25 

"$9^47 



* Information furnished through United States representatives. t Estimate, Bure;iu of the Mint. X L'Ecouomistc, 

European, January, 1902 (Stock in Banks). 5 C. Cramer Frey. || Except Bcdivia and Colombia. 1[ Includes Aden, 
Perim, Ceylon. Hong Kong, Labuan, and Straits Settlements. ** Report of Hned Commissioner of P;iper Currency. t+ The 
value of the monetary stock of silver standard C'.untries has not been changed to c.nfonn to the decline in silver values. 
The monetary stock of Mexico and other countries ^^here the Mexican dollar circulates is given in Mexican dollars. 





WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF 


GOLD AND 


SILVER IN 1903. 




Countries. 


Gold. 


Silver. f 


Countries. 


G 


dd. 


Sil 


•er. 


United States... 
INlexico 


Oz., fine. 

3,660,0(10 

616,524 

911,118 

3,289,409 

4,316,538 

1,191,582 

108,609 

3,412 

1,291 

262 

999 

3,737 

48 

32,262 


Value. 

$73,591,700 

10,677,500 

18,834,.500 

67,998,100 

89,210,100 

24,632,200 

2,245,100 

70,600 

26,700 

5.400 

20,700 

nj.ioo 

1,000 
666,9011 


Oz., fine. 

64,300.000 

7(1.499,942 

3,149,591 

343,214 

9,682 8'.6 

151,83,'. 

1,624,048 

6,822,152 

80';,335 

4,090,876 

I,0.;2,n7 

468,830 

747,359 

146,289 

8,969,596 

2,!)'I7,.355 


Coin'-Vn!. 

$70,206,000 

91,151,400 

4,072,2011 

443,800 

12,519.30(1 

196,300 

2,099,800 

7,528,000 

1,042,500 

5, 289, 200 

1,373,-300 

693,200 

966,.300 

189,200 

11,597,100 

3,358.200 


Colombia 

Ecuador 

Brazil 


Oz., fine. 

131,795 

13,272 

110,016 

4,087 

77.948 

101.6.58 

28,6(;9 

90,716 

96,881 

354,334 

146.125 

652,87'3 

56,899 


Value. 

$2,724,400 

274.400 

2,274,200 

84.500 

1,611,300 

2,101,500 

592,6(10 

1.875,-300 

2,002,700 

7,394,700 

3,1'Oii.Olin 

11,428,900 

1,176,200 


Oz., tin". 
1,128.799 

l'.746".li74 

2,1 16,063 

542,428 

170,413,67(1 


Coin's Val. 
$1,459,600 






Africa 


Venezuela 

Gui.ana (British). 
<iuiana (French), 
Peru 




Australasia 




Austria-Hungary 
Germany 

Italv , .' 


2,268.300 

2,735,900 

701,-300 


Central America. 

.Tap.an 

China 






(ircece 

Turkey 


Korea 

India (British).. 
East Indies(Br.). 

Total 








Great Britain.,.. 




16,747,378 

1 


$326,527,20(1 


#220.311,600 


Chile 



He AV^l^i onf>,yuii i,nu^-io^ ,1,0.50. -/uu I 

Fine oume^^old, $20.67r834-f ; fine ounce of silver, $1 .29'29'29-)-, coining rate in ITnited States TiTver doTTars, 



COINAOI5 OF N.ATIONS IN 1903. 



CoUNTRIKS. 



Unite.l States... 
Philippine Isls.. 
Austria-Huuf^'y. 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Australasia 

Can.ada 

Great Britain. .. 

Hong Kong 

India , .. 

Straits gettlem'ta 
St'yi't- ••!••(■ 



Gobi. 



$43,683,97 
'5,670.r.6l 



64,106,1154 
48,3i4,f,12 



Silv 



$19,874,410 
17,4:8,713 
4,734,471 



311,539 

9,618.975 

6,755,647 

53,632 572 

18,842,8(1 



Countries. 



Frriuce 

liiilo-China. . ,, 

(tennany 

Italy 

.Tripan 

Mexico 

Morocco 

Netherlands 

nutch E. Indies, 

Norway. ... 

Persia 



494,300iH'eru. 



(Jold. 



$17,198,h28 



22,245,886 

25,5"2 

I4,,'.48,296 

683,689 



207,738 



149,267 
643,294 



$305,673 

10.778,311 

14,313.096 

20.698 

374.8'S 

27,238,45(1 

4,.'i3:,146 

.361.800 

402,(100 !a11 

135,742 

7,(146,743 

165,25ll 




$208,367,849 



Monetary Statistics. 



151 



MONETARY STATISTICS— C'o?i<t?i«cd. 







COMMERCIAL 


RATIO OF SILVER TO GOLD. 






1687 


14.94 

14.81 
14.55 
15.68 
16.17 
1.1.70 
15.V9 
15.50 
15.35 
15.37 


1864 


15.37 
15.44 
15.43 
15.57 
15.59 
15.60 
15.57 
15.57 
15.63 
15.92 


1874 


16.17 
16.59 
17.88 
17.22 
17.94 
18.40 
18.05 
18.16 
IS. 19 
18.64 


1884 


18.57 
19.41 

20.78 
21.13 
21.99 
22.09 
19.76 
20.92 
23.-2 
26.49 


1894 .... 


32 56 


170" 


1865 


1875 


1886 


1895 . 


;ii 60 


1750 


1866 

1&67 

1868 


1876 


1886 


1896 

1897 


30 66 


1800 


1877 


1887. 

1888 


34 28 


1825 


1878 


1898 




Ig50 


1869 

1870 


1879 


1889 


1899 


34 36 


I860 


1880 


Il890 

1891 


19011 


33.33 


1861 


1871 


1881 


1101 


34 68 


1862 


1872 ... 


1882 


1892 

1893 


1902 


39.15 


1863 


1873 


1883 


1903 


38.10 



BULLION VALUE OF ZlVyi 



GRAINS OF PURE SILVER AT THE ANNUAL AVERAGE 
PRICE OF SILVER. 



Ykak. 


Value. 


1 Ye.\r. 


Value. 


Year. 


Value. 


Yeak. 


Value. 1 


Ykae. 


Value. 


1840 


$1. 023 


1876 


$0. 894 


1883 


$0. 858 


1890 


$0.809 1 


1897 


$0,467 


ia50 


1.018 


1877 


,.929 


1884 


.859 


1891 


.764 


1898 


.456 


18«5 


1.035 


1S78 


.891 


1885 


.823 


1892 


.674 1 


1899 


.465 


1870 


1.027 


11879 


.868 


1886 


.769 


1893 


.603 


1900 


.479 


1873 


1.004 


11880 


.886 


1887 


.757 


1894 


.491 


1901 


.461 


1874 


.988 


11881 


.876 


1888 


.727 


1S95 


.506 


1902 


.408 


1875 


.964 


Il882 


.878 


1889 


.723 


1896 


.522 1 


1903 


.443 



PURCHASES OF SILVER BY THE UNITED STATES. 



Act Authorizing. 



February 12, 1873 

January 14, 1875 

Febriiaiy 28. 1878 

July 14, 1890 (to November 1, 1893, date of the repeal of 
the purcha.sing clause of .the act of July 14, 1890) 

Total 



Fine Ounces. 



5,434,282 

31.603.906 

291,292,019 

168,674.682 



497,004,889 



Cost. 



$7,152,564 

37.571,148 

308,199,262 

155.931.002 



$508,853,976 



Average Price 



$1. 314 
1.189 
1.058 

.924 



$1,024 



the 



SOURCES OF GOLD AND SILVER PRODUCT OF THE UNITED STATES. 
The following table, compiled from report.s made by the mint officers and agents, as to 
sources of production for the calendar year 1903, shows the distribution among the various gold and 
silver producing States and Territories of the amount of gold and silver extracted from quartz, the 
amount of gold obtained from placer, and the amount of silver obtained from lead ores and copper 
ores as by-product. 



Statks 
andTer- 
ritobiss. 



Gold. 



Qimrl/. Placer. 



Alabama . 
Alaska,... 
Arizona... 
California 
Colorado. . 
Georgia.. . 

Idaho 

Maryland. 
Michigan.. 
Montana.. 
Nevada.. . 
N.Mexico. 



Fine Ozs. 

2--'2 

131,862 

216,584 

596.607 

1,069,364 

1,989 

47,506 



198,776 

174,4*8 

7,499 



Fine Ozs. 

15 

288,209 



Silver. 



Quartz. Lead Ores. 



Fine 0/.s. 
49 
180,161 
4,8001 1,911,451 
189,1221 325,612 
29,025 



Fine Ozs. 



195,000 
144,482 



1,230 

36,231 

22 

23,290 
1,762 
S,544 



2,917,326 »10,343,'.'48 
1,303 



872,Sll 
1 

4,691,158 

5,151,631 

12,349 



6,042,225 



450,303 

465 

104,242 



Copper 
Ores. 



Fine Ozs. 



1,300,000 
496,927 



49,991 
8,682,643 



86,365 





Gold. 


andTer- 
ritories. 


Quartz. 


Placer. 
Fine Ozs. 




Fine Ozs. 


N.Car'Iina 


4,6-1 


438 


Oregon 


55,447 


10,000 


.S.Carolina 


5,092 


127 


S. Dakota. 


339,803 




Tennessee. 




3 


Tex.as.. .. 




.... 


Ut.ah 


192,094 




Virginia. . 


216 




Wash*gton 


20,5?3 


1,000 


Wyoming. 




401 
691,219 


Total... 


3,062,762 



Silver. 


Quartz. 


Lead Ores. 


Copper 
Ores. 


Kine Ozs. 

124,699 
271 


Fine Ozs. 
"l',000 


Fine Ozs. 
13,076 


273,646 


.... 


.... 


454.376 
361,622 


8,258,303 


3,195,007 
17,073 


166,637 

t26 


143,614 


6,260 


16,836,528 


25,682,882 


13,844,232 



* Lead and copper ores. 

Ratio op Sources of Silver Product of the Uxited States. 



SOHKCE. 



Quartz mills. 
Lead bullion., 



1899. 



Percent. 
28.0 

51.1 



1900. 



Per C'^nt, 
27.4 

60.8 



Per ceut 
27.8 

46.7 



1902. 



1903. 



Per cent. Per cent. 

29.4 I 29.9 

48.5 I 45.6 



SOUBCK. 



1899. 



, Per tent 
Copper bullionj 20.9 
Total ....I 100.0 



1900. 



Per cent. 

21.8 

100.0 



Per cent. 
25.5 

100.0 



1902. 



Percent. Per cent. 
22.1 24.5 



lOO.O 



100.0 



Approximate Distribution 
Gold and Silver i 



BY Producing States and Territories of the Product of 
N THE United States for the Calendar ^ ear 1903. 



States 

AND 

Territortes. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

California . 

Colorado 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Kansas 

Michigan 

Montana 

Nevada 

Kew Mexico . . 



Gold, 
Value. 



$4,4' 10 

8,614.700 

4,-357,6 

16,1M.,500 

22,640,100 

62,000 

l,57O.40O 

9,700 

4,411,900 

3,388,000 

244,600 



Silver, 




Coining 


cial 




Value, 


$185,665 


$7V,544 


4,379,281 


1,829,034 


1,204,364 


503,010 


16,795,410 


7,014,708 


517 


216 


8,413,608 


3,513,990 


126,931 


62,59i; 


64,«46 


27,O0C 


16,345,600 


6,826,842 


6,529,939 


2,727,270 


233,632 


97,578 



Total Value. 

(Silver at 

Commercial 

Value.) 



$4,400 

8,692,244 

6,186,634 

16,607,610 

29,554,808 

62,216 

5,084,396 

62,296 

27,000 

11,238,742 

6,115,270 

342,178 



States 

AND 

Tkbkitories. 



North Carolina 

Oregon 

South Carolina 
South Dakota. 

Tennessee 

Tex.as 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington.. . 
Wyoming 



Total. 



Gold, 
Value. 



$70,500 
1,29",200 

10'i,700 

6,8j6,700 

800 

3,697,400 

i;;,500 

279,900 
3,600 



#73,591,700 




Silver, 
Comm.-r- 

rial 
Value. 



$5,940 

63,720 

162 

119,448 

7,020 

245,:!76 

6,046,272 

5,130 

I59,0.tO 

lu8 



$70,206,060' $29:322,000 



Total Value. 

(Silver at 

Commercial 

Value.) 



$76,440 

1,353.920 

100,862 

6,946,14t 

7,s20 

246.S7C 

9,748,672 

18,630 

438,930 

3,708 



$109,913,200 



152 



Monetary Statistics. 



MONETARY STATISTICS— Conimwed. 



UNREFINED GOLD AND SILVER OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, ITS DISTRIBUTION BY 
STATES AND TERRITORIES, AND ALSO REFINED DOMESTIC BULLION NOT DIS- 
TRIBUTED, AT THE MINTS AND ASSAY OFFICES FROM THEIR ORGANI- 
ZATION TO CLOSE OF CALENDAR YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1903. 



LOCAI.ITV. 



jMabaiua 

Alaska 

Arizona 

C.-ilifornia 

Conuecticiit . . . 

Colorado 

t^eort^ia 

Idalio 

Icdiana 

Iowa 

Kausas 

Maiue ...'. 

Maryland . . . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

N. Hampshire. 
New Mexico.. 



Gold. 



$L'79,S68.77 

19,4J0, 092.66 

14,806,447.66 

796,713,756.13 

126.82 

97,82S,178.00 

10,243.686.70 

44,059,321.44 

438. S6 

1,318.17 

159.83 

35,703.62 

22,523.93 

502,871.93 

9,180.62 

893.61 

92,134,.f,77.83 

2,340.26 

45,701,359.07 

48l.:-;4 

7,533,587,32 



Silver. 



Total. 



$884.24 

167,626.27 

14,266,093.21 

4,633,487.63 



25,447,367.35 

12,064.52 

2,129,323.34 

2.29 

8.03 

1.02 

3,719.21 

■J8.72 

4,390,474.13 

118.57 

6::8.62 

22,607,936.96 

273,226.13 

105,756,179.25 

1.75 

7,263,779.08 



$280,743.01 

19,fi07,6i8.93 

29,070,540.87 

801,347,242.76 

126.82 

123,275,545.35 

10,266,740.31 

46,174,644.7s 

441.15 

1,326.20 

160.86 

39.422.N3 

22,572.6.=i 

4,893,346.06 

9,299.19 

1 ,432.23 

114,742,513.79 

276,5i;6.39 

151,457,638.32 

483.09 

14,797,366.40 



LocAMTV. 



New York . . . . 
N. fMrcliiiH... 

Oklahoma 

Uref^on 

South Carolina 
South Dakota.. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Dtah 

\'erniout 

Virginia 

Washington. . . 
West Virginia. 
Wisconsin. . . . . 

Wyoming 

Other sources . 
PortoHico,1902 

Unrefined. . . 

Refined 

Grand total. 



Gold. 



$1,058.83 

12,215,068.01 

181.69 

28,770,863.72 

2,922,001.40 

91,446,776.76 

92,654.65 

11,641.27 

9,04'.'.978.76 

80,036.35 

1,796,570.42 

2,388,298.74 

243.74 

1,109,77 

1,010,184.29 

42,227,559.10 

6.7 98,75 

1,321,315,070763 

972,504,582.47 

2,293,819, 653. 10)834,907, 729. is 



Silver. 




262,074,134.26 
682,833,594.92 



Total. 

$1. 
12,288 




1,673,389,204.89 
1.655,338,177.39 



3,128,727,382.28 



PRODUCT OF GOLD AND SILVER FROM MINES IN THE UNITED STATES. 1 886- 1903. 



Calbnoar Yeak. 



1886.... 
1S87.... 
1888.... 
1889.... 
1890.... 
1891... 
1892.... 
1893... 
1694.... 
189.5.... 
1896.... 
1897.... 
1898.... 
1899.... 
l!00.... 
1901.... 
1902.... 
1903.... 



Fine ()uncC8. 



1,693,125 

1,596.375 
1.604,841 
1,587,000 
1.688,880 
1,604,840 
1,596,375 
1,739,323 
1,910,813 
2,254.760 
2,568,132 
2,774,935 
3,118,398 
3,437,210 
3,829,897 
3, 805.. 500 
3.870,000 
3,560,000 



Value. 



$35, WO, 000 
33,000,000 
33,17.'5.000 
32, MOO, 000 
32.845.000 
33.175.000 
33,000.000 
35,9.55.000 
39, .500. 000 
46,610.000 
53,088,000 
57,363,000 
64,463,000 
71,053,400 
79,171.000 
78.666,700 
80.000,000 
73,591,700 





Silver. 




Fine Ouncea. 


Gommerc-ial Value, 


Coining Value. 


39,440.000 


!ii39.230,000 


$51,000,000 


41.20p,000 


40,410,000 


53,-350,000 


45.780,000 


43.020.000 


59,195,000 


60,000.000 


46,750,000 


64,646,000 


54.-500,000 


57.225(000 


70.465,000 


58.330,000 


57.630,000 


75,417,000 


63.500 000 


55.563,000 


82.101.000 


60,000.000 


46.800.(X)0 


77,-576,000 


49,500.000 


31,422,000 


64,000,000 


55.727,000 


36.445.000 


72,051.000 


58,835,000 


39,655.000 


76,069.000 


53,860,000 


32,316.000 


69,637,000 


64,438,0(.K) 


32,118,000 


70,:J84.000 


54,764,500 


32,858,700 


70,806,626 


57.647,000 


35.741.000 


74,533,000 


55,214,000 


83.128.400 


71.387,800 


55.. 500.000 


29,415,000 


71,757.575 


54.300,000 


29.322.000 


70,206,000 



PRODUCTION OF THE PRECIOUS METALS SINCE 1492. 

The following table exhibits the production of gold and silver for period>s since the discovery of 
America aiid the commercial ratio of silver to gold at the end of each period: 



Years. 



1492-1520.... 
1521-1560.... 
1561- WOO.... 
1601-1640.... 
1641-1680.... 
1681-1720.... 
1721-1760 ... 
1761-1800.... 
1801-1810 ... 
1811-1820 ... 
1821-1830 . . . 
1831-1840. . . . 

1841-1850 

1851-1860 

1861-1870.... 
1871-1880...:' 



Gold. 



$107,931,000 

204,697,000 

189,012,000 

228,572.000 

2.39,655,000 

313,491,000 

580.727,000 

511,675,000 

118,1.52,000 

76,063,000 

94,479,000 

134.841,000 

-363.928.000 

1..332,9Sl,00(l 

1,263,015,000 

1,150 814,000 



Silver-Coining 
Value. 



$54,703,000 
297,226,000 
597,244,0(!0 
678,800,000 
584,691,000 
579,869,000 
811,712,000 
1,273,468,000 
371,677,000 
224,786,000 
191,444,000 
247,930.000 
324,400,000 
372,261,000 
507.174,000 
918,578,000 



Ratio. 

10.~75" 
11.30 
11.80 
14.00 
15. CO 
15. 21 
14.75 
15.09 
15.61 
15.51 
15. SO 
1.5. 75 
15. 83 
15. 29 
1.5. 56 
18.05 



Years. 



1881-1890. 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 



1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 



Gold. 



$1,059, 
130, 
146. 
1-57 
181 
198 
202, 
236, 
286, 
306, 
2.54 
262, 
295 
325, 



,892,000 
,650,000 
,298,000 
.494,800 
,175,600 
,763,600 
.2.51.600 
073,700 
879,7(1(1 
,724,100 
,576,300 
373,300 
,889,600 
527,200 



Total f 10,9oO,120,6i;0 $12,074,591,100 



1,298 
177 
198 
213 
212 
216 
203, 
20 
218, 
21' 
224 
223 
215, 
220, 



,820,000 
,352,000 
,014,400 
,944,400 
,82y,60(i 
,566,900 
U69,20(i 
413.000 
,576,8(10 
,648,200 
,441,200 
,691,300 
861,800 
371,600 



Silver Coining „ .. 
Value. !'«"<'• 

19.76 
20.92 
23.72 
26.49 
32. 56 
31.60 
30. 66 
34.28 
.35.03 
34. .36 
33.33 
34.68 
?■'■>. 15 
38.10 



THE WORLD'S INDUSTRIAL CONSUMPTION OF GOLD AND SILVER IN 1901. 





GOLO. 


SILVER. 


Countries 


Countries. 


W'g't, 

Kilos. 

3,553 


Value. 


W'g't, 


Coining 


Commerc'l 




Kilos. 


Value. 
$1,888,100 


Value. 

^$876,200 




Au»t.-Hung. 


$2,361,300 


46,431 


I'araguay,. 


Belgium,... 


2,543 


1,690,100 


20,000 


831,200 


386,700 


rortugal... 


Brazil 


750 


498,400 








Russia 


Cent. Amer. 


9. 


1,200 


31 


1,300 


600 


SanS:ilvdor 


Egypt 


1,077 


716,800 


6,o::4 


209.21)0 


97,100 


Sweden . . . . 


Finland 


196 


129,600 


1,937 


80,500 


37,400 


Swit7.erl;tmi 


France 


21,600 


14,366,400 


189,600 


7,879,800 


S,65i;,700 


U. States.. 


derm.any... 


10,743 


7,139,8011 


160.000 


6,2:'.4,000 


2,893.000 


All other.. 


Gt. Britain. 


23,,sl2 


15,826,50'J 


226,050 


9,353,100 


4,340,100 




Hetnerlands. 


5,000 


3,323,000 


21,000 


872,800 


405,000 


Total.... 


628 


417,400 


10,951 


466,100 


211,200 





Gold. 



W'g't, 
Kilos. 



3 

2.000 

4,269 

31 

600 

6,300 

26,149 

5,000 



114.245 



Silver. 



Value. 

" l?2,000r 
1,329.200 
2,S::0.600 
20,700 
398,800 
4,187.000 
17,379,110 
3.328,000 



Weight, 

Kilos. 



♦;6,927,400 1,319,249 



100 

9,5011 

114,-33 

168 

6,000 

70.000 

399.714 

60,000 



$4,200 

394.800 

4,768,:;00 

7,000 

249.100 

2,909,200 

16,612,100 

2,078,000 



$64,828,100 



Commerc'l 
Value. 



$1,900 

18i,200 

2,212,800 

3,300 

116,700 

i,;'5o,ioo 

7,709,100 
964,300 



$25,443,700 



Monetary Statistics. 



153 



MONETARY STATISTICS— Co?ifwiMerf. 



PRESENT MONETARY SYBTEM OF THE UNITED STATES ILLUSTRATED. 





Gold* Coin, 


Standard Silver Dollars. 


Subsidiary Silver Coin. 


Minor Coin. 


Weight 


■ii£ grains to the dollar. 


412.5 grains. 


.'185.8 gr.iins to the "| 
dollar. 


5c. piece: 77.16 ijraius, 75 p. c. 
copper, 25 p. c. nickel. 


Fineness 


90U-1000. 


900 lOnO. 


900-100(1. 


Ic. piece: 48 prains, 95 p. c. CO|i- 


Kilio lo gold.. 




15.98s to 1. 


14.953 to I. 


Limit ot issue. 


Unlimited, 


Bullion on ha,nd : est'm'd 


4100,000,000. 


Needs of the people. 






. ma.'iimuni, $.=;77,b00,0U0. 




Denominations 


$_0,flO, $5,$-2>^. 


$1. 


50 cents, 25 cents.lO cents. 


5 cents, 1 cent. 


Lvgal tender.. 


Unlimited. 


llcilimited, unless other- 
wise coutr.uted, 


Not to exceed $10. 


Not to exceed 25 cents. 


UeceivsWe — 


For •■ill public .lues. 


For all pul>lic dues. 


For all dues up to $10. 


For all dues Uj) to' !5 tents. 


ExcliHiige.'vbie. 


For trold certificates, as 
iielriw. :nid subsidiary 
and minor coin. 


For silver certificates and 
smaller coiu. 


For minor coiu. 




lietleemable ... 


. t ..... 




In '* lawful money " at 
the Treasury in sum.s 
or uiulliples of $20. 


In "lawful money" at the 
Treasury in sums or mul- 
tiples oi $20. 




Gold Certificates. 


Silver Certificates. 


United States 
Notes. 


Treasury Notes of 
1k90. 


National Bank 
Notes. 


Limit of issue. 


Unlimited for gold 


Quantity of silver 


$346,681,016. 


No further issues ; 


Unlimiteii by law, ex- 




C'»in unleA-i gold re- 


dollars coined. 




volume steadily 


cept bv volume of U.S. 




ser\f f;iilB below 






diminishing by re- 


b"nds neces.s.-irv to de- 




$10ii,0OJ,CW0. 






demption with 
silver doPars. 


posit .as security. 


Denominations 


$iO,ono, $6,000, 


$100, $50, $:'0, $10,!$1,'100,$-Il0,$100,$'i0, 


$1,000, $100. $50. 


$1,000, $501, $100, $50, 




$l,uu0, $,500. 


$.-.,$i,|l. 


$■.'0, $10, $i. 


$2iJ, $10, $5, $■.', 
$1. 
Unlimited, unless 


$■.10, $10, $5. 


Legal tender. . 


Not a tender. 


Not a tender. 


For all debts, public 


Not a tender. 








and pri\ ate, exeept 


otherwise con- 










customs a;id inter- 


tracted. 










est on puMic debt. 






Receivable 


For all public dues. 


For all public dues. 
For silver and minor 


For all public dues. 


For all public dues. 


For all dues except cus- 
toms. 


Exchangeable.. 


For subsidiary and 


Fqr subsidiary and 


For silver and minor 


For sul-sidiary silver 




minor coin. 


coin. 


minor com. 


com. 


and minor com. 


Jledeemable. . . 


In gold coin at the 


In silver dollars at 


In coin at the Treas- 


tn eein at the Treas- 


In *' lawful money" at 




Treasury. 


the Tieasury. 


ury, 


ury. 


the Treasury, or at 
bank of issue. 



' Lawful money" includes gold coin, silver dollars. United States noi.es, and Treasury notes. Uni.ed, States notes 
regulation receivable tor customs so l0i:g as thev continue reHeema'ile in coin. There are still in use smtll ainounti of $1 an3 



are by 



$2'Unit-d Slates and national bank n-'tes; al,-<o$500 .and $1 OuO silver certificates. Treasury notes were i-^sued for purchases of 
silver tjullion, wliich is being coined into dollars wherewitH th' notes are, bein» redeemed .as rapidly as practicable. The 
issue of national bank notes is practically dependent upon the market price of United States bonds ; when the premium is high 
itis not profitable to issue notes. 

The above table was prepared for The World AL^):AKAC by Maurice L. Muhleniari, former Deputy 
Assistant United Statijs Treasurer, New York, 



COINAGJS OF THE MINtS OF THE tNITED STATES FROM THEIR ORGANIZATION, 1792. 

TO DECEMBER 31, 1903. 



Dbnominations. 



1) luble eagles. 
Kagles 



Half eagles 

Three-dollar pieces ("coinajre dis- 
continued under act of Septem 
bflr26, 1890') 

Quarter eagles. ...*. ...,.w.._ 

Dollars (coinage discontinued 
under .act of September 26, 
18901 

Dollars. Louisiana Pnrcli;ise Ex- 
position (act of June 28,1902). 

Total gold 



SILVI^R. 

Do'lars (coinage discontinued 
act of Fell. 12, 1873. resumed 
act of Feb. 23, 1878) 

Trade dollars ( discontiuuetl :ict 
of Feb. 19, 1S87). , 

Do'Jars ( I.afavette souvenir, :ict 
ofMarchS, 1899) 

Halt dcdlars 

II ilf dollars(Columb'n souvenir) 

1^0 irter dollars 

l^u:irter dollars (Colb'n souvenir) 

Twenty-cent pieces (coinage dis- 
continued, act of May 2, 1878) 



Pieces. 



Values. 



83,336,686 |i,666,733,H'0.6o 



37,83!S,49I 
59,957, 5'.i7 



539,792 
12,072,660 



19,499,337 
3B0.258 



378, :<84,9J 0.00 
299, 7S7,-. 85.00 



1,619,378.60 
30,181,650.00 



19,499,337.00 

550,o,i;8.D0 



213,494.S-1 $2,.'?96,457,2:!'..00| 



569,491,198 
36,965,924 

50,000 

317,943.249 

5,0()2,lo5 

305,870,3,'::; 

40,023 

1,355,"00 



$369,491,198.00 

35,965,924.00 

60,000.00 

158,971,124.60 

2,-501,052.50 

7b,4''.7,.'i95.76 

10,005.75 

271 ,000.00 



Denominations, 



Dimes 

Half dimes(coinige discontinued, 
act of February 12, 1873) 

Three-cent |(ieces(coinage discon- 
titiued, actof Feb. 12, 1873).... 



Total silver.. 



MINOR. 

Five cent pieces, nickel 

Three-cent pieces, nickel (coin- 
ajje discontinued, act of Sep- 
tember 26, 1890) ^ 

Two-cent pieres, bronze (coinage 
diseontinued.act of September 
26, 1890) 

One-tent pieces, capper, (coinage 
disoopliuued, act of February 
21. 1857) 

One-cent pieces nickel (coiiiiige 
■ act of April 22, 



Pieces. 



434,765,614 
97,604,388 
42,736,24" 



1,810,823;I24 



dis-'ontintiei 

ist; 

Oue-ceut pieces, bronze 

Half-cent pieces, copper (coin- 
age discontinued, act of Feb- 
ruary 21, 1857) 

Total minor 



462,110,779 
31,378,316 
45,601,000 

156,288,744 

200,772 000 
1,296,596,317 

7,986,982 



,200,739,S7M 



Values. 



$45,476,561.40 
4,880,219.40 
1,282,087.20 



$S96,36«,7i;n.fi0 



$23,105,638.95 



941,349.48 



912,020.00 



1,662,887.44 



9,007,720.00 
12,966,963.1 J 



89,9'>6.11 

~$4'l,53.'i, 105.16 



Total coinage. 



Silver-dollar coinage under act 
March 3, 1891, $5,078,472 ; June 12 



4,225,050,323 J3,333,:i59,409.65 

sof April 2 1792 $S,031.2.38-, Februarv 28, 1S7S, $378,166,793 , Jaly 14, 1890, $36,087,285 ; 
1898, $42,139,872 ; June 13, 1898, $09,987.63^ ; tot:cl, $569,491, 198. 



154 



Sanking Statistics. 



iSanttiufl .Statistics. 

THE NATIONAL BANKS OF THE UNITED STATES. 
(From the annual report of the Comptroller of the Currency. ) 



Year 

Ending 
Sept. 1. 


No. of 
Balik.s. 

2.072 


1880.. 


1888.. 


3,093 


188l». 


3.170 


1890.. 


3,353 


18tU.. 


3,577 


1892.. 


3,701 


1893.. 


3, 759 


1894.. 


3,755 


1895.. 


3,716 


1896.. 


3, 682 


1897.. 


3,620 


1898.. 


3,581 


1899. 


3,561 


1900.. 


3.604 


1901.. 


3.969 


190 i.. 


4,269 


1903.. 


4,700 


1904.. 


5,134 



Capital. 



$454. 

583, 
596. 
625, 
660, 
679, 
684, 
672, 
660, 
652, 
638, 
615, 
608, 
608, 
635, 
673, 
722, 
761 



215,062 
539. 145 
302.518 
089,645 
108,261 
076, 650 
342,024 
951,450 
287,065 
725, 750 
173,895 
818,725 
674,895 
754, 600 
511,286 
763, 767 
797,806 
682,495 



Surplus. 



$120,145, 
184.416. 
194,818. 
208,707. 
222,766. 
237,761. 
246.918. 
246,001, 
247,466, 
248,235, 
249,044, 
244,281. 
247,930. 
251,950, 
268,4.51, 
302,513. 
353,105, 
390,452, 



649. 
990. 
192. 
786. 
668. 
865. 
673. 
328. 
002, 
323, 
948 
879. 
970. 
843. 
548. 
154. 
524. 
345. 



Total Dividends. 



Total 
Net Earninc: 



§36. 
46 
46 
51 
50 
50 
49 
45 
45, 
45. 
42, 
44. 
46. 
48, 
51, 
68 
63, 
75, 



111,473. 
531,657. 
618,060. 
158,883. 
795,011. 
400,713. 
,633,195. 
333,270. 
969,668 
525.947 
394,241. 
291,971. 
691,502. 
033,094. 
699, 779. 
199.493. 
565,848. 
588,889. 



«!45 
65 
69 
72 
75 
66 



99 j 68 
0(.> 41 



46, 
49, 
44, 
50, 
54, 
8^ 



00 81, 
62(106, 
10 109, 
00 112, 



186.034.00 
.360,486.73 
,618,265.07 
,055.563.52 
,763.614.00 
.658.015.27 
7.50,952.09 
955,248.00 
860. .557. 00 
742,318.00 
273,314.00 
032. 972. (H) 
346,692.00 
276, 836. 60 
853,797.00 
581,476.85 
881,530.97 
936,426.00 



Ratio of 


Ratio of 


Dividends 
to 


Dividends 
to Capital 


Capital. 


Surplus. 


8.02 


6.35 


8.02 


6.10 


7.82 


5.89 


8.19 


6.14 


7.70 


5.76 


7.42 


5.60 


7.25 


5.33 


6.07 


4.09 


6. 96 


5.06 


6.97 


5.05 


6.64 


4.78 


7.17 


.5.15 


7.67 


5.45 


7.88 


5.58 i 


9.05 


5.72 j 


10.92 


6.99 


8.79 


5.91 


9.92 


6.56 



Ratio of 

EarningB 
to Capital 

and 
Surphis. 

"~7.88 
8.57 
8.80 
8.65 
8.60 
7.27 
7.38 
4. 05 
5.15 
5.52 
4.99 
5.82 
6.34 

10.14 
8.16 

10. 12 

10.21 
9.80 



BES0URCE8 AND LIABILITIES OF STATE BANKS, LOAN AND TRUST COMPANIES, 
SAVINGS AND PRIVATE BANKS, 1903-1904. 



Classification. 



Krxmtrres. 

Loaii.s on real estate 

Loan.s on oilier coUateral security. . 

Other loans and discounts 

Overdrafts , 

United .states bonds 

State, county, and municipal bonds. 

Railroad bonds and .stocks 

.Bank stocks 

Other stocks, bonds, and securities. . 
Due from other banks and bankers. 
Real estate. furnil\ire,and fixtures. 

Checks and otlier cash items 

Cash on hand 

Other resources... 

Total 

Liabilities. 

Capital stock 

Surplus fund 

Other undivided profits 

Dividends unpaid 

Indi\ idual deposits 

Due to other banks and bankers 

Other liabilities 

Total 



State Banks. 
6,923 Banks. 



$122,876,098 

101,.338,799 

1,47.1,461,787 

21,409,941 

8,990,401 

9,717,694 

3,822,107 

901,086 

5)32,752,013 

422,980,626 

84,860,010 

54,871,243 

210,523.670 

15,2,38,699 



Loan and Tntflt 

Companies. 
585 C'impanies. 



$2,863,744,173 



$347,421,197 

153,296,022 

69,111,578 

494,296 

2,073,218,049 

163,021,474 

57,181,557 



$110,004,189 

655,276,770 

382,324.598 

267,315 

1,167,777 

19,646,092 

32,791,004 

4,072,802 

609,833,340 

378,727,864 

67,458,034 

3,526,685 

60,621,740 

54,569,537 



Savings Banks. 
1,167 Banks. 



$2,380,287,747 



$2,863,744.173 



$237,745,488 

254,604,398 

75,185,178 

165,396 

1,600,322,325 

175,177,031 

37,087,931 



$1,099,110,398 

49,630,790 

262,265,906 

766,847 

12,657,348 

1.32,485,892 

291,978,655 

28,601,3,56 

1,024,300.572 

140,832,115 

50,91.3,:«9 

144,715 

24,565,888 

57,103,2.36 



Private Bunks. 

854 Banks. 



Total. 
9,619 Banks 



$8,176,257,607 



$22,543,009 

191,492,747 

28,417,996 

1,965 

2,918,775,329 

560,105 

13,466,456 



$16,076,440 

16,10;>,199 

47,520,994 

1,869,311 

438,602 

1,438,893 

3,240,862 

274,525 

3,779,795 

20,507,120 

4,941,331 

833,899 

6,866,713 

6f2,175 



$123,549,859 



$17,407,130 
4,705,932 
2,427,930 
84,503 
95,791,4.54 
1.289,477 
1,843,433 



.$2,380,287,7471 $3,175,257,6071 $123,549,859 



$1,348,067,125 

822,255,558 

2,165,573,285 

24,313,414 

23,254,128 

163,288,571 

331,832,623 

3;5,849,768 

1,970,665,720 

963,047,725 

208,173,264 

69,376,542 

301,578,011 

127,563,647 

^ 8,542,839,386 



$625,116,824 

604,099,099 

175,142,682 

746,160 

6,688,107,157 

340,048,087 

109,579,377 

$8,542,839,386 



Statement Showing the Amounts of Gold and Silver Coins and Certificates, United 
States Notes, and National Bank Notes in Circulation October 1, 1904. 



Gold Coinnncludingbullion in I'reas' y ) 

Gold Certificates* 

Standard Silver Dollars 

Silver Certificates* 

Subsidiary Silver 

Treasnrv Notes of 1890 

United States Notes 

Currency Certificates, act .Tune 8, 1872* 

National Bank Notes 

Total 



General Stock 
Oct. 1, 1904. 

$1,351,455,968 

558,' 851,028 



110,300,314 

11, 96;, 000 

346,681,016 



456,079,408 



$2,835,333,734 



In Treasnrv 
Oct. 1, 19(?4'.+ 



$223,098,966 
14, '710, 902 



11,460,297 

105, 901 

9,756,258 



14,051,921 



$273,184,245 



Amount in Circula- 
tion Oct. 1, 1904. 



$641,844,863 

486,512,139 

76,000,2.50 

468. 139, 876 

98.840,017 

11,860,099 

336,924,758 



442,027,487 



$2,562,149,489 



Amount in Circula- 
tion Oct. 1, 1903. 



$622, 5.50, 934 

394,097,6.59 

75,9.59,483 

458,522,216 

94,867,102 

17,335,208 

336,378,769 



404,906,698 



$2,404,617,069 



Population of the tTnited States October 1, 1904, estimated at 82,214,000 ; circulation per capita, $31.16. 

» For redemption of outstandini; certificates .an exact e<|uivalent in amount of the appropriate kinds of money is held In th( 
Trertsn.ry, and is not included in the account of money held as assets of the Government. 

fTliis .sLiteuient of money helil in the Treasury as assets of the Government does not include deposits of public money lij 
flational Bink depositaries to the i-re.lit of the Treasurer of the United States, and amounting to $104,5(56,226,96, 

For a full statement of assets see Public Debt Statement, 



KlSCAh 

Yeah. 

1860r. 

1870 

1880 .... 



Amount 
in Circulation. 



BANKIN G 

UNITED STATES CURREN.CY 



Banking Statistics . 

" STAllS'lH;S-f,b,ifej«<;d." 



155 



$435,407,252 
075,212,794 
973,382,228 



Circulation 
per Ciipita 

§13.85 
17. 50 
19.41 



1890.... 
1900.... 
1901.... 



Amount 
in Circulation. 



CIRCULATION7"lg6g?9(T4r 



iCirnilation 
[per C'apit.i 



$1,429,2.51,270 §22 si. 
2,055.1,50,998 20.94 
2,175,387,2771 27.98 



I Fiscal 
Year. 

!i962.~ 

1903 

1904 



Amount 
in Circniation. 



$2,249,390,551 
2,307,692.169 
2.519.142,860 



Circulation 
per Capita. 

$28.43 
29. 42 
30.77 



BANKING STATISTICS OF EUROPE 

Capitai., Spkcie. Circulation, Ktc. , of.the Principal Foreign Bank.s June 30 1904 

: [Expressed lu Alillious of Dollars.! -lii «-•->, jussh. <iu, i.»U4 



EimoPEAN Banks.* 



Imperial Bank of Germany.. 

Banks of Issue of Germany. . . 

Bank of .Austria-Hungary... . 

National Bank of Belgiuin 

National liank of Bulgaria... 

National Bank of Denmark.,. 

Bank of Spam 

Bank of Finland 

Bank of France 

National Bank of Greece 

(Bank of Italy. 

Italy 1 Bank of Nap'les » 

( Bank of Sicily ) 

Bank of Norway 

Bank of Netherlands . . . 

Bank of Portugal 

National Bank nf Koumania.. 

ir.n,.! I "*■''' "f England.. 

United JaanksofScStland. 

'^'"g'''"°(Bank.s of Ireland.. 

Imperial Bank of Uussia 

Natjoual Bank of S;'rvia 

Koyal Bank of Sweden 

Banks of Issue of Switzerland 

Imperial Ottoman Bank 

Bank of .lapan . . . . . 

Bank of Algiers 

Total 



Capital. 



28.9 

15.8 

41.9 

9.i> 



Gold. 



•J'J9.6 



1.8 




6.8 


23.0 


28.9 


11.0 


1.9 


4 1 


35.2 


53.1.9 


3.9 




28.9 


90.6 


ll.ti ) 


19.6 


( 


7.9 


3.5 




8.10 


26 , 6 


14. H 


6.2 


2.9 


I:-; 2 


7U.8 


170.5 


45.3 




35.5 




28.3 


429.0 


l.l 


3.6 


11.9 


15.9 


30.1 


22.5 


24.0 




15.0 
50t).2 




1668.1 



Silver. 




"62^8 




"99' 1 




,5 
218.6 




■-•1.1 





Total 
Specie. 



209.9 

14.2 

292 4 

21.5 

2.7 

23.0 

170.1 

4.6 

754.5 

.6 



21.1 


111.7 


2.7 


22.3 


.4 


8.3 




6.7 


12.4 


69.0 


6 9 


I'.M 


.8 


14.0 




170.5 




28.7 




16.4 


43.2 


472.2 




3.5 


1.3 


17.2 


1.7 


24.2 




9.8 




36.4 




7.3 


491.5 


2513.8 



Circula- 
tion. 



356.5 

32.3 

335.6 

124.1 

7.7 

30.2 
310. M 

14.5 
832.4 

25 . 2 
164.5 

f.3.5 

11.0 

16.5 
92.. i 

73.0 
3v.2 
139.3 
36.2 
33.9 
347.5 

7,4 
39.8 
43.2 

5.6 

101.3 

21.5 



Deposits 

and 
Current 

Accounts. \ 



3,288.0 



130 


.2 


20 


9 


31 


9 


13 


8 


14.0 




9 


134 





4 


2 


196 


1 


16 


5 


79 


9 


15 


3 


11 





1 


6 


6 


3 


30.3 



Loans. 


Rale of 




Discount. 




Per Cent. 


267.3 


4 


43.5 




142.0 


3.5 


112.8 


3 


13.4 


8 


13.6 


4.6 


185.4 


4.5 


11.0 


5 


246.9 


3 


11*. 2 





2%.0 

605.1 

264.3 

22B.3 

.4 

13.8 

248.0 

48.2 

24.2 



2321 .0 



2481.6 



66.7 


6 


27.4 


& 


9.3 


& 


11.8 


6 


41.1 


3 


26.1 


6.6 


15.7 


6 


175.1 


3 


341.2 




197.2 




203. S 


5.5 


3.2 


6 


27.5 


4.5 


197.1 


4 


31.5 




33.4 


5.84 


19.4 





»Statem«nt of European Banl,8 frmn " BuUetin De Statiatique " July, 1904. except depmits at.d loan s of Banks of Scotlnnd 
and Ireland, and the capital stock ot the various banks, flncludes also de|i0sits belun-in--- to tne Treasury scotund 

JTRANSACTIONS OF THE NEW YORK CLEARING-HOUSE. 



Y^EAR 

Ending 
Skpt. 30. 



1885. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894.. 

1895.. 

1896.. 

1897.. 

1898. . 

1899. . 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903., 

1904.. 




Capital. 



$58,612,700 
60, 812, 700 
60,772.700 
60,422,700 
60,922,700 
61,622,700 
62.622,700 
60,622,700 
59,022,700 
58,272.700 
58, 922, 700 
74,222,700 
81,722,700 
100,672,700, 
113,072,700, 
115,972, 700 1 



Clearings. 



$2.5,2.50,791,440 
37, 660, 686,, 572 
34,053,698,770 
36,279,905,236 
34,421,380,870 
24,230.145,368 
28,264,379,126 
29, 3.50, .894, 884 
31,;)37,760,948 
39.853,413,948 
57,368,230,771 
51,964,588,572 
77,020,672,494 
74,753,189,435 
70,833,055,940 
59,672,796,804 



Balances Paid 
Money. 



,$1,295,355,252 
1,753.040,145 
1,584,635,500 
1.861,500,575 
1,696,207,176 
1,585,241,634 
1,896,574,349 
1,843,289,239 
1,908,901,898 
2,338,529.016 
3,085,971,379 
2,730,441,810 
3,515,037,741 
3,377.504,072 
3,315,516,487 
3,105,858,576 



Average Daily 
Clearings. 



$82,789,480 
123,074,139 
111,651,471 
118,561,782 
113,978,082 
79,704,426 
92,670,095 
96,232,442 
103,424.954 
131,. 529, 419 
189,961,029 
170,936.147 
254,193,039 
245,8US,()49 
233.005,447 



Average Daily 


Balaticea 


Balances Paid" 


to 


in Money, 


Clearings 


$4,247,069 


5.1 


5,728,889 


4.7 


5,195,526 


4.6 


6,083,335 


5.1 


5,616,580 


4.9 


5,214,611 


6.5 


6,218,276 


6.7 


6,043,571 


6.2 


6,300,0(16 


6.0 


7.717,918 


5.87 


10.218,448 


5.37 


8,981,716 


5.25 


11,600,785 


4. .57 


11,110,210 


4.51 


10,906,304 


4.(8 


10,183.143 


5.20 



EXCHANGES OF CLEARINC-HOUSES OF UNITED STATES CltiES. 



Clearing- 

HOUSK at — 

New York 

Bo-itoii 

C'liicago 

Pliilaiielphia. 

St. Louis 

San Francisco 
Baltimore. ... 
ritt.sburffh.. .. 

<'iiiciiiiiati 

Kansas City.. 
Xew Orleans. 
Minneapolis.. 

Detroit 

I>ouisville 

Cleveland 

Other cities. . . 
Total 



Exchanges for Years Ended September 30- 



1904. 



1903. 



$59, 672, 796, 804 if 70, 833, 655, 940 
6,419,272,150 6,837,767,883 

8,808,093.268 "■"■ 

5,491,236,568 
2,682,218,323 
1,513.927,257 
1,097.603.459 



1,986.720.497 

1.196.854.400 

1,095,400,926 

961,992.245 

793,558,708 

516,588,762 

539,702,428 

700,078,208 

8,673,269,979 



8,627,554.264 

5,968,775,428 

2,465,057,926 

1,513,511,886 

1.169,531,519 

2.381.454,231 

1,153.865.500 

1,046,312,379 

853,077,687 

731,558.965 

523, .569. 677 

529,260,038 

804.810,901 

8.629,032,745 



1902. 



$74,753,189,436 

6,912,674,641 

8,341,534,350 

6.729,C42,760 

2,517,556,942 

1,310,956,178 

1,193.978,925 

2,113,602.538 

1,043,330,300 

963.936,322 

663.918,045 

711,326,700 

577.338,1164 

489,822,665 

749,470,621 

7,947,339.516 



116.021.618,003 



1901. 



1900. 



$77, 020, 672, 494 .f51. 964, 588, 572 



7,149,901,648 

7,414.643,569 

5,296,823,192 

2,112,410,079 

1,134,499,932 

1,182,838,784 

1,970,779,481 

937.038,200 

894,222,415 

602,266,603 

572,871,392 

398,444,261 

4.53,971,572 

670,. 504. 113 

6, 804,. 389, 777 



114.616,277,512 



6,299,128.611 

6,811, 0.52,!S28 

4,679,455,332 

1.656.343,626 

1,017,115.942 

1,072,172,396 

1.189,590.102 

792,434.9,50 

738,817,138 

500,671,071 

58;1193,116 

424,771,513 

414,413,3,59 

417,838.383 

5,9 85,0t>8..505 

84.540.685.444 



iotai j.u'.^,iou,aia,tJ«'.z:ii4,oos.»37,t>6t> iit>.u'..ix.HA»,m>a j.i'i.oj.o,.^/ ;,oi.^ o^.o^o,onj.-t- 

01e»ping-Hoiise returns prepared for Thk Wokld Almanac by jVssistaut Manager W. J. Gilpin, of New York Clearing-House 



156 



Statistics of Savings Banks. 



NUMBER OF DEPOSITORS, AMOUNT OF DEPOSITS, AKD AVERAGE TO EACH DEPOSITOR. 
.. . • • .;; 1903-1904. 



^ 



States ■ 

AND 

Teekitoeies. 



Maine 

N. Hampsliire... 

V^errnont 

MaBsaehnselts 
Rhode Island... 
Connecticut.... 



N. Eng. States 



New York 

New .Jersey 

Pennsylvania.. 

Delaware 

Marj'land 

Dis. of Columbia 

East' n States 



Number of 
Depositors. 



211,217 
loi»,9o6 
139,8.53 
1,723,015 
« 132.556 
461,387 



2,827,984 

2,406,660 

246,0.56 

420,965 

27,532 

b 152,038 

13,203 



3,266,454 



Amount of 
Deposits, 



$76,405,222 
66,140,710 
46,958,291 

608,415 410 
64,841,318 

212,177,974 



$1,074,938,925 

1,166,091,444 

77,710,785 

135 541,905 

7,134,8.59 

61,852,712 

2,144,470 



Average 
to Each 
Depositor. 



Stat£s 

ANn 

Tkkeitoeies. 



$361. 74 
413. 50 
3.S5.77 
353. 11 
489. 16 
459. 8 



i.lO 



484. 
315. 82 
321.97 
2.59. 15 
406.83 
162. 42 



$1,450,476,175 $444.05 



West Virginia... 
North Carolina. 

S' Ibern States 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois id).. 
Wisconsin .. 
Minnesota.. 
Iowa 



Middle States. 
California 



United States. 



Number of 
Depositors. 



5,208 
h 22,388 



Amount of 
Deposits. 



$925,357 
4,333,888 



27,596 

92,686 
26,112 

^ 416,897 

4,703 

76,432 

c 241,020 



857,849 
b 325,560 



$5,259,245 

48,764,176 

8,976,509 

141,403,282 

866,551 

19,238,652 

88,947,2"' 



7,305,443 



$308,195,348 
221,308,918 



$3,060,178,611 



A verage 

to Each 

Depositor, 

$il77. 68 
193. 58 



$190.58 

526.13 
343. 77 
339. 18 
184. 04 
251.71 
369. 04 



$359.25 
679. 78 



$418.89 



« Includes 10 banks in liciiiidation. ti Partially estimated. cEstimated. d!122 State banks hav- 
ing savings dSpartinents. Whole number of banks reported. 1,157, 

No returns for 1903-1904 from the following States and returns for previous years are given: 
Alabama, 1.S93-94, depositors. 2,500; amount of deposits, $102,347. New Me.xico, 1H94-95, de- 
positors, 217; amount of deposits, $37,951. AVasliington, 1894-95, depositors, 5..512; amount of 
deposits, .$1, 148,104. Oregon. 1895-96, depositors, 1,631; amount of deposits, $972,298. Georgia, 
1890-97, depositors, 5,384; amount of deposits, .S2S8,010. South Carolina, 1900-O1, depositors, 23 - 
164; amountof deposits. $5, 785,792. Florida, 1899-1900, depositors, 877; amount of deposits $225 - 
395. Louisiana. 1899-1901), depositors, 10, 518; amount of deposits. $3,284,892. Texas, 1899-1906, 
depositors<S.986; nmountof deposits, $584, 424. Tennessee, 1900-1901, depositors,19,823: amount 
of deposits, $3, 519,. 333. 

SAVINGS BANKS, DEPOSITORS, AND DEPOSITS IN THE UNITED STATES EVERY TEN 
YEARS FROM 1830 TO 1890 AND ANNUALLY SINCE 1894. 



Yeae. 


Number of 
Banlts. 


Number of 
Depositors. 

387085'" 

7S. 701 

2.51,354 

693,870 

1,630,846 

2,3c!5.582 

4,258.893 

4. V'/ 7. 687 

4,875.519 


Deposits. 


Ykae. 


Number of 
Banks. 


Number of 
Depositora. 


Deposits. 


1830 

1840 

18.50 

1,860. . . . . 
1H70 

i.sso 

1890 

1894 

1895 


36 

61 

lOH 

278 

517 

629 

921 

1,024 

1,017 


$6,973,304 

14.(l,-'>l,.V.!0 

4:;. 431, 130 

149,277,504 

549.874.358 

819.106.973. 

1.524.844,506 

1,747,961,280 

1,810,597,023 


1S96.... 
1S!)7. .. 
1M»8 .. . 
1899.. . 
1900... 
1901... 
1902... 
1903... 
1904.... 


988 

980 

979 

942 

1,002 

1.007 

1.036 

1,078 

1.157 


5,065,494 
5,201,13,2 
5,385,746 
5,6.S7,818 
6,107.083 
6. 3.58. 723 
6.666,672 
7,035.228 
7,305,443 


$1,907,156,277 
1,939,376,035 
2,065,631,298 
2,230.366,9.54 
2. 449.. 547, 885 
2,.5!l7,094,580 
2,750,177,290 
2,935.204,845 
3,060,178,611 



The above and following tables were compiled from the report of the Comptroller of tbe Currency. 

NUMBER OF DEPOSITORS AND AMOUNT OF DEPOSITS IN EUROPEAN CO^JNTRIES. 
(Latest reports received by the Comptroller of the Currency.) 



CoUNTKIES. 



Australia, Coniraonwealtli of. 

Austria 

Belgium 

Canada 

I)enmark 

France 

Germany 

Holland 

Hungary 

India (British) 

Italy 

.Tapan 

New Zealand 

Norway 

Ron mania 

Russia, including Asiatic 

Finland 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Brtish Ci)lonles 

United Stales , 

Total 



' Period. 



1902 

190l-(i-_' 

1903 

1903 

1902 

19ti2 

1901 
1911-02 

1902 

1902 

190:; 
1902-03 

1902 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1902 

1903 

1900 

1903 
1902-03 

1904 " 



N umber 

o-£ ■ 
Jieposi tor's. 



1,086,018 
4.946,307 
3,688,448 

213,638 

1,203,120 

11 298,474 

15,432 211 

1,330.275 

1.717,.515 

866,693 
6,740,138 
7,467,452 

261,948 

718,823 

14o,.507 
4,9.50,607 

226,894 

1,892 ..586 

1,300,000 

11,093,469 

354,275 

7.305,443 
82,639,841 



Total 
Deposits. 



$164 

876 
141 

60 
236 
847 



2 273 

"'"72 

432 

34 

482 

40 

83 

89 

7 

445 

21 

151 

193 

966 

32 



161,981 

i,941,933 
,851,419 
.771,128 
,170,057 
,224,910 
,406,226 
,738,817 
,810.515 
,656,371 
1,263,472 
1,887,186 
;,332,823 
,6^.3,481 
,426,031 
,iil4,951 
144,278 
480,442 
,000,000 
,8.54,253 
:,936,217 



$3,06(1,178,611 
$10,669,885.i0i 



Average 
Depostt 
Acc'Ouilt. 

$151.15 

177.29 

67.92 

289.14 

196.29 

75.01 

147.38 

54.83 

251.91 

39 98 

71 ..55 

6.48 

146 .;!4 

124.69 

51.04 

89.90 

98.19 

80.54 

148.46 

87.15 

92.97 



Average 
Deposit Per 
luhal it.'int. 



$418.89 



\ Ji418^9 
2] '....' 



$43.47 

3347 

20.37 

10.99 

9641 

21.75 

.39.98 

13.60 

21.92 

.15 

14.52 

.90 

49.61 

39.94 

1.26 

3.16 

7.60 

, 29.14 

62.26 

22.82 

2.78 



$37,38 



Stock Zisf and -l^rice.s of Leadmi^ i^tocks i^i 190^. 



15\ 



.Stocfe Hist anti prices of Heatfintj <Stoclts in 1904. 

OUTSTANDING STOCK, BONDED INDEBTEDNKiSS, AND MILEAGE. 
Highest and Lowest Prices on the New York Stock Exchanoe in 1903 and 1904. 



Stocks. 



Stock 
Outstanding. 



50,000,000 I 
50,000,000 ) 
15,500,000 I 
15,500,01)0 ) 
45,000,000 
45,000,(t«y 
14,000,1100 
lo8,8l.'t;,700 
14,(100,000 



Adanw Express !512,ooo,oOO 

Amaleamatetl Copper 153,887,900 

Aiiiei-iciin Beet Sugar* ^i...-..» 15,000,000) 

Americjui Beet Sugar pld.*..,. 4,600,000 J 

American ( !ar & FoihkUt 30,000,000 

American Car & Foundry pfd 30,000,000 

American Cottou Oil 20,237,100) 

American Cotton Oil pfd 10,ly8,tioo) 

American Express 18,000,000 

American Hide & Leather 4........ 11,274,100 f 

American Hide & Leather pfd ; 12,548,300) 

American Ice* ..j..v.i;. 25 000,000 i 

American Ice pid.* 15,000,000) 

American Locomotive *...;. i.j J — 25,(i00.000 j, 

American Locomotive pfd. * 24,100,000 J 

American Malting* 14,500.000 f 

American Malting pfd. * 14,440,000 ) 

American Smelting & Refining 

Americaii Smelting & Refiuiug pfd 

American Steel Foundries 

American Steel Foundries pfd 

American Sugar Refining* 

American Sugar Reliuing pfd. * 

American Telegraph & Cal)le 

American Telephone & Telegraph.. 

American Toliaeco pfd 

American Woollen* 2^,^01,100 

American Woollen pfd.* 20,000,000 

Anaconda Copper Mining* 30,000,000 

Atchison, Topeka &. Santa Ee lu2,0(K),ooo ( 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe pIVl n4,lH0,53o) 

Atlantic Coast Line :j6,H50,oOO 

Baltimore& Ohio 

Baltimore & Ohio pfd 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit*. 

Brooklyn Union Oas 

Bufralo, Rochester& Pittsburgh 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh pfd 

Canada South e rn 

Canadian Paci fie 

Chesapeake & (3hio 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 

Chicago Great Western. 

Chicago Great Western deb 

Chicago G real Western pfd. "A " 

Chicago Great Western pfd. "B" 

Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville 

Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville ijfd 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul pfd 

Chicago, Bock Island & Pacific 

Chicago, St. P. , Minn. & Omaha 

Chicago, St. P., Minn. & Omaha pfd 

Chicago* Alton 

Chicago & Alton pfd 

Chicago & Northwestern 

Chicago & Northwestern pfd 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, t'hie. & St. L 

Cleveland, Cincinnati. Chic. & St. L. pfd 

Colorado Fuel & Iron : 

Colorado Fuel & Iron pfd 

Colorado & Southern 

Colorado & Southern 1st pfd 

Colorado & Southern 2d pfd 

Columbus & Hocking Coal & Iron 

Consolidated Gas 

Continental Tobacco pfd 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 

Delaware & Hudson 

Denver & Rio Grande 

Denver & Rio Grande pfd , 

Detroit Southern 

Detroit Southern pfd 

Erie 



124,262,000 I 
.59,i<«2,75lJ 
45,000,000 
15.0110,000 
9,000,000 ) 
fi.OOO 1100 j 
15,000 300 
84.500,000 
,fi2,7!«,400 
110 839,100 
.36,424,600 
26,114 100 
11,372,400 
9,4x9,190 
10,500,000 I 
5,0(10,(1110 i 
58,1«3,900 ) 
48,;83,400> 
74,817,100 
18,558,900 I 
11,2.59,900] 
19,549,800 I 
19,544,000 S 
48,.336,()0O I 
22,395,120/ 
,27,989,3101 
10,000,000/ 
23,932,000 I 
2,000,000/ 
31,000,000 ; 
8,500,000 ■ 
8.500,0(KI ^ 
7,000,000 
80,0(10.000 
48,844,600 
26,2(10.000 
41,020.000 
38,000.000* 
44,400,000/ 
10,500,000 t 
6..5O0.00O ) 
112.378,900 



Erie 1st pm[]].il.[\]\\[[\^^]^l.iy.'....... '47,'892,"400 [ 

Erie 2d pfd 16,000,000) 



. Boiuls 
Qiitstundrng. 



$12,000,000 



3,000,000 

7,887,000 
3,979,050 

3,810,000 
722 000 
471,000: 



ft. a 

■a .J 



ti 



14 



Date Pay- 
ment" Last . 
Diviiieiitl 
Deciareii.(a) 




Dec. 1,1904 235 i204 
Nov. 28, 1904 75S()' Z'M 

■ ■ 3Usi'' 26 

3,1905 

2. 1904 

1, 1904 

1,1904 



\ 11^ .Ian. 

y^ Ma.v 
1% Nov 

n 



1 

1)4 



fi 



my,- 73 
41%; xiH 

93 J 603^ 



Feh'.'i5,190_ 
Apr. 15,1902 

Oct." ^'i, 1904 

Oct.' 15. 1899 
Oct, 25,1904 



Dec. 1,1904 46'/^ 
Dec. 1.1904 9SM' 82 
Jan. 3,1905 235 il71 

U^ 2M 

37?^! 10 

11?^: 4 

i-M 16J^ 

31% 10i,v „„ 

95% 67Hl05 
5M 2i^ 1% 

2-1 Ji^; VM' 28% ... 

-_.. h%% ^16% 821^, 46 

Oct. 11,1904; 99>3 8O14I15 88%: 
i 20 i 4>^! \o]4 ■ii2 
•5"?- l'l?»f.6«>^' 38 I 57^, 26^ 



Highest 

250 ^20 

25 j 19 
80 , 74 
34%' 14% 

9:%! 67 
37J^' -ZM 
97 



219 
11% 
48% 

4^* 
3K^ 



180 

M 
11^ 

6>b 
24}^ 
16^ 
753^ 

2)^ 
16 



Jan; 3. 1905 U.i% loT)^ I53 



28,000,000 



236,885,500 

37,531,000 

227,262,530 

§67,324,180 
15,000,000 

14,838,000 

20.000.000 

58,738,086 

77,674,354 

171,015,100 



14,442,000 

12§,.596,500 

100.497,000 

26.376,800 

23,000,0001 

162,220,800 

58,183,730 

1^,423,0001 

19,103,000, 

821,0001 
1,450,000 

3 Of57,000: 
7.652,0001 

49,584,500 

I 

S,170,000 



1 

1%, . - 

IM'.ran. 3. 1905 123' " 115' "lUl 
l!l;s,'pt. 1.1904 92 77 94 
I'-oOct. 15,1904169 117Jiil49l,.. 
2 Aug. 1.1904119;,! 130 



I - ■ ■ ■ , 145« 7% 

l%Oct. 15,1904! 80 65 

1/2 Nov. 18. 1904 125"^ 58 

/ 2 Dec. 1,19041 89% 54 

I 2J^Feb. l,1905103>v 843^ 

Dec. 10. 19(14 n8i,.Jl06 



2 
2 
2 

3 

3 

IM 
3 
1 
1% 

2 

23fe 

'iH 
2 

:% 

3 
2' 



(2.'/-8 

86% 
38 



Sept. 1,1904104 71%lOl!| 
Sept. 1,19041 96% 82%i h6>k; 
71VSl 285^' 70'," 
Dec. 1.1904,225 il70 1229!^ IH.5 
Aug. 15,1904 151 jl21 160 ~ ,niU 
Aug. 15, 1904 160 'l40 165 135)| 
Aug. 1.1904! 78)^ t 571^,1 72 64 
Sept. 1, 1904 138% 115^ 135% 109>^ 
Nov.30,19(Hi 531,,, 27«, 51 28« 



Jan. 



2' 
2 
VA 

m 
i 



122 

81 
.119% 
149 130 
20 lo 
94'^i 69U 
120% 61 
89M, 64 
104 I 875(S 
!i55}^ 101^ 



2,1905184 'il70' 
29% 13 
July 1.1.1904 91MI 83 
Feb. 29,19041 851^' 63 
^ ■••■ I 46% 24 

Dec. 28,1904i 73 1 73 
Dec. 28,19041 .. I .. 
Oct. 2.5.1904183^133 
Oct. 25,1904,19414 168 
Oct. 1, 19114 JO(jj^ 1.32 
A UK. 20, 1904 162 115 
Ang.20,1904l94 |l60 

.... j 3714 18^ 

Jan. 3,1905' 74"^' 60 



200 
26 
90 



28M 
181 
12% 



f4%l 471^ 
39Ii:| 20 

96' I 65' 
177^137^ 
185% 171 
173^130 
160 1135 
192 |l65 
47M( 33 
85HI 75 



.Ian. 3. 19(15 225 ,1.53 2l4;^|]6o^ 
Jaii. 3,1905 250 il90 237 207 
gent. 1,1904 99?6 66 93%' 68)^ 
Oc7. 20,1904 119 ,112 115 loo 
Apr. 15,1902 82.!<j; 24 58j^ 25Mj