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Full text of "The World almanac and encyclopedia"







<J 



The Wori 




manac 



HND 




1917 



I8SDED BT 

•^HE PRESS PUBLISHING CO. (THE NEW YORK WORLD), 

Pblitzkr Building, 

Nkw York. 

The P'"ss Publishing Co. (The New York World), New York 



Big! America's 
great institutions 
use Packard trucks 
because they can't 
afford to take 
chances— must have 
the kind of delivery 
that is cheapest 
in the long run. 

Packard Motor Car Company, Detroit 



XHAINLESS 
TRUCKS 



lllltlMtlltlMlinlllllllllllllMillMIIMinilllMIIIIHIIIIIIIIIMMMHmilMIMMIII 



General Inde^ — Continued. 



PAGE 

\ N. y. city 1S8 

.8 186,187 

i.es 610 

). Court of 542 

jctiou 29J 

lOuse Statistics 372 

Navigation 73 

w York City 83i 

:rs Killed 2^J 

ics .98.212.290.293 

ieodetic Survey, U. S. 85 



U. S 



200 
.212,2t(6 



uction. 


212.2*6 


vlinta . . . 


. . 369 


ns 


. . . .3S9 


erican. Prices 


Paid 


1913) 




Value of . . . . 


. ...361 


tction .... 


. ...293 


Internal Revenue. . . i60 


ims 


. . . 541 


iletlcs . . . 


. 388-390 


tions . . . 


. . . .718 




719-721 




. .716-717 


cements . ... 


.709-711 


(It 


. . 70IJ 



tion of Signs 715 

ties 732-723 

63. Occupation 65 

nals 607-608 

ei:ts 702-708 

ence Marks .... 715 

Ltas 38(i 

on Fees, etc 712-714 

, Foreign ("1" 

anaUa. . 725 

'. Y City 898 

S., Statistics 696-721 

I. Statistics . . . 17,366,532.538 

of U. S. Army . . 462,465 

Dames ot America . . .616 

" of America, Nat- 

ioua! Society 616 
" XV 11. Century 

•iety 616 

Iters, Society 615 

I. Society of 6U 

^o (^oal Commission . . 201 

lection Returns 780-781 

opulatlon 747,748,759 

■ftd ^-I»5on^c Bodies 589 

'Pulation 761 

., Altar 4^ 

ablan Order 613 

t, Halley's 51 

,t8 (Vol. 1911). 

manders. U. S. Navy. .485-487 

merce, Cliamber of, N. Y...52i 

U. S. .185 

nd Labor Secretaries 568 

;ommission. Interstate .211,212 

-Jepartment Officials 540 

Development ot 199 

•'oreigu 239,242,213.244 



PAGE 

Concerts 665-656 

Confederacy, United Daughters . 616 

Confederate Soldiers' Homes 479 

•• States, Army and Navy So- 
ciety 617 

" Veterans' Camp 617 

" •' Sonsot 614 

United 618 

Conference Committee on Nat'l 

Preparedness 439 

Confucianism 600 

Congo State Statistics .. . . 366,532 
Congregational Churches, N Y 

City . . . 885.889,893 

Churches. Nat. Council . 59: 
Congrcgalionalists . . . 5'JS 

Congress, Acts of 801 

" Appropriations by 715 

" Library of 648-649 

" of State Societies 621 

" Party Divisions in 578-579 

•• Slxty-flfth 574-57 

'• Sixty-fourth 570-573 

Congressional Apportionment .569 
Connecticut Election Returns. . 781 

" Population 747,743.759 

Conservation Coram . N. Y 770 

'• of Natural Resources. . 147 

Constants. AstroQomical . . . 60 

Constitution of the U. S 86-90 

" of the State of New York 

(Vol 1908). 
" of N. Y.. Rejected (Vol 1916) 
Constitutional Government Natl 

Ass'n 19'> 

Consuls. Foreign, in U. S. . . .549-5.53 
N. Y. City. 679 

I " U. S.. Abroad 541-546 

Consul ai' Law of U. S. in Trade 
with Foreign Countries 251 

Service Exams 548 

Consulting Board. Naval 499 

Continents, Statistics of . . 75 

Contracts. Law of 320 

Convention of the Protestant 

Episcopal Church, Gen'l . 601-602 
Conventions, t'onncai . . 832 
Cooper Union for the Advance- 
ment of Science and Art ... 839 

Copper 98.242.291.293 

" Manufactures 24 

Copyright Law 650 

Corn, Statistics of . . 98,242,283,28 

'■ Exposition. NafI 286 

Coroners in N. Y. City 852 

Corporation Counsel. NY.. 8.52 

" Income Tax 158 

" Pensions in U. S 234 

Corporations. Tax 158.161 

Correction Dept.. N. Y City. 853 
Costa Rica. Statistics 17.366.532.538 



PAGB 

Craft Warning 69 

Credit Men, Nat'l Ass'n 160 

Credits Bill. Rural 272-282 

Creeds. Population by 600 

Creek Indian War 610 

Cremation Ass'n of America . . .377 
Statistics 377 

Cricket 432-433 

Crimes and their Penalties 298-302 

Criminal Courts, N. Y. City 855 

Cripples' Welfare Society 623 

Crops, Statistics of 283,284.287 

Cruisers. United States 489 

Cuba. Commerce of. .241.242.243.538 

" Statistics of . . . .17.110.141,366,532 

Cuban Government . . . .141 

Cubic Measure 77.79 

Cumberland Society. Army 617 

Currency Circulation, U S . 98.372 
Customers, America's 20 Best. . .231 
Custom-House Examination of 

Baggage 104-106 

Customs. Collectors, Principal 

Ports 541 

Court.. Appeals 100 

Ofllcials 541 

Receipts 98,360 

Tariff. U. S 101-104 

Cycles. Chronological 27 

Cycling Records 848-850 



w. Interstate 211-212 

New Y'ork 769 

the World 243-244 

■icretary of ........ . 539 568 

din U. S. Possessions . 241 

unercial Failures 99,375 

jilssion Government of Cit- 
ies in U S 762-765 

■f Fine Arts 663 

mittees. National ... 821 
ate Democratic .... 821 

Republican 822 

modi tics. Prices of 382.383 

rr-odores. U. S. Navy 485 

^t Names (Vol. 1914) 

^^chools, U. S 698 

mons. House ot 529 

munlcants. Church 598-599 

lensatlon Laws, Work- 

n's 252-267 

•)und Interest Table 82 

roUer'8 Office, N. Y 852 



Cost of Food 370,382,333 

" of Membership in Exchanges 373 
" of Wars (Vol. 1915). 
Cotton Manufactures. . , . 245 

" Prices for 269 

" Production 98,242.284 

•' Supply 268 

Counties, Debts of 364 

New York 76S 

County Court. New York 854 

Officers. N. Y. City 853 

Countries. Debts, etc 366 

Imports and Exports. 242,243,244 

of the World 532 

Production of . ...242 

Court League, World's 461 

•' of Arbitration of The Hague, 

132-134 

" of Customs Appeals 100 

•' of Honor 5S5 

" Tennis 400 

Courts. British 527 

" in New York City 854-856 

State 773-774 

•• of United States 542 

" State (see each State Elec- 
tion Returns). 
CoWBlnU. S 284.288 



Dairy Export Trade, American. 

282 

•' Products 282.284 

Dates. Memorable 32.35 

Daughters of America 585 

•' of Confederacy. United. . . 616 

" of 1812, United States 616 

" ot Founders and Patriots of 

America 617 

" of Holland Dames 616 

" of Isabella 585 

" of Revolution 613 

■• of the Amer. Revolution. . 614 

Cincinnati 612 

" King 590 

Day ot Week, How to Find 36 

" Length of 60 

Daylight Saving 33 

Days Between Two Dates 34 

Deaf and Dumb in U. S. (Vol. 1916). 

Death Roll of 1916 17,727-733 

" Statistics 322-323.325 

of Navy and Ma- 
rine Corps. ... 487 

Debt of U. S.. Public 363-364 

Debts of Nations 3f 

" Cities of U. S 364,762:^76„ 

•' of States in U. S . . . 364,36" 

" When Outlawed 37C 

Deceased Persons' Estates. 

310-316,317.31' 
Declaration of Independence.. 91.9 

Deeds, Acknowledgment of 31 

Deer, Season for Shooting 2f 

Defective Classes 32 

Delaware Election Returns 7f 

" Population 747.748,7 

Delegates to National Conven- 
tions 

Democratic Conventions . . . 

'• League of Clubs 

" National and State Commit- 
tees 821 

" Platforms 879 

Denatured Alcohol 296 

Denmark. Ministry 554 

'• Royal Family 510 

•' Statistics of 17.242.366.532 

Denominations. Religious. . .598-599 

Dental Examinations, N. Y 560 

" Schools in U. S 701 

Deposits in Banks 98.374.375.376 

Depth of Oceans 75 

Derby. English 403 

Descendants of the Signers of 
Declaration of Independence, ,615 



General Indei — Continued. 



PAGE 

Books, Maps, Engravings, etc. 245 

•■ of 1916 636-647 

" Postage 108,114 

" Production of 647 

Borax Production 293 

Borneo, Statistics 532 

BorouKO Presidents, N. Y. . . 852 
Botanical Gardens in N. Y . . . 661 

" Society of America '■?. . ..630 

Bourbon-Orleanist Family . . .. 513 

Bowling 42S-430 

Boxing 415-418 

Boycotting Laws 121 

Boy Scouts of America 509 

U. S 503 

Brandy, Production of. ... 294 
Brazil, Commerce ol. . . . 243,538 

•' Statistics of 17,366.532,537 

Brethren, Number of 598 

Brewers' Ass' n, U. S 2<i6 

Bridge Dept., N. Y. City. . . . 852 
Bridges, N. Y. City . . 869.870 

Brigades. N. G.. N Y . 769 

Brigadier-Generals. U. S. A., 

462,463,465 

Brighton~Handicap 402 

Bright's Disease, Deaths from 323 
B'rith Abraham Order . 585 

British Army 17.528 

■ Battleships, Tonnage of . . . . 501 

•■ Cabinet 527 

•■ Colonies 244,524 

' Columbia 534 

•■ Commerce 243 

•■ Courts of Law 527 

■■ Diplomatic Intercourse 519 

■■ Dominion Governors ... 523 

'• Dukes 529 

•■ Empire. Statistics . . . 524,532 
" Exports. .... 2'38 

" Government 527 

•■ Income Taxpayers. . . 160 

" Measures and Weights ... "9 

" Ministry 527 

•' Navy. ... . . 501,528 

•• Parliament . 529 

•• Population. . 524,525,530,53''! 

" Railways 231 

'■ Revenue and Expenditures 366 
•• Royal Family. . . . 523,526 

" Cost of 523 

" Throne, Order of Succession 
to (Vol. 1909) 
Brooklyn Federation of Jewish 

Charities . . 847 

" Handicap 402 

" Inst. Arts. Sciences . . .661 

" Navy Yard 747 

Brotherhood of Am. Yeomen. o8J 
•' of Andrew and Philip 591 

" of St. Andrew . . .592 
buckwheat Production . . . . 283 

Juddhism 598,600 

;udget of N Y. City 878 

iullding and T>o.T,n Associations 5G3 
" Commissioners and Inapec- 

tors. Society . . 622 

' Dept,, N. Y. City. . 852 

Operations in U. S 868 

Idlngs, Height of. In N. Y. . 701 
garia. Statistics of ..17.366,53.^ 

Royal Family of 510 

uUlon, Value of Sliver .... 368 

iJureau, Children's 129 

" Labor 122 

" of Buildings, N. Y 853 

" of Fisheries 193 

" of Licenses 850,853 

" of Mines, U. S 24i 

" of Municipal Research, N. Y.864 

" of Plant Industry 106 

•• of War Risk Insurance, U. S 141 

Burglary, Penalty for 298-302 

Burros In U. S 284 

Bushel Weights 78 



PAGE 

Butter Fat Production 288 

Buyers of American Goods, Best 231 



Cab Fares in Manhattan 870 

Cabinet Officers Since 1789 . 566-568 

of President Wilson 539 

Cable Telegraph Rates .. .203,201 

Cables in World 202 

Calcium, Production of 293 

Calendar tor 200 Years 36 

Greek and Russian 49 

Gregorian 30 

Jewish 49 

Mohammedan 49 

Monthly for 1917 37-48 

Ready-Reference 36 

Ritualistic 49 

Wheat Harvest 2S:i 

Calendare lor 1917 and 1918. . 35 
California Election Returns. . .7Si 

California Population 747,748,759 

Camniign Receipts and Dis- 
bursements 776 

Canada, Colleges of . . 725 

Debts, etc . . 366 

Dominion of 534-535 

Imports and Exports ...242,243 
Canadian Reciprocity (Vol. 1912), 
Canal Board. N. Y State . . . 770 

Panama 135,136 

Canals, Statistics. . . . 73.71 

Cancer. Deaths from 32 

■■ Research Society, Interna- 
tional 560 

Capital Bank US 371 

" Punishment .298-302 

Capitals. Foreign ... . 532 

•' of States 767 

Capitol, U. S 85 

Captains, U. S. Army 462 

" U. S Navy 485,486 

Carabao, Military Order . . . 212 

Cardinals, College of 607-608 

Carnegie Corporation of N. Y. . .652 

" Endowment for International 

Peace ... 651 

" Family 688 

" Foundation for Advancement 

of Teaching. . 651 

" Hern Fund . . 652 

" Institution ... . 6.5? 

" Museum 651 

Carrying Trade, United States, 

Foreign 238 

Cars, Railroad 98,235 

Carter Handicap 402 

Casualty Insurance in U. S 380 

Cathedrals of the World 599 

Catholic Benevolent Legion . 585 

•• Bishops 607 

" Church Extension Society . 592 
" Churches In N. Y. City, 

885,888,892,894 
" Educational Ass'n. . 592 

" Foreign Mission Soc . . 593 
" Fraternal League. . 685 

" Knights of America . . 585 
" Missionary Union. . . 593 

" Mutual Benefit Aas'n 58, 

•' Roman, Hierarchy . , . 607 
" Societies, Federation of . . . 593 

'• Summer School 626 

" Total Abstinence Union . . 597 
Catholics, Number of 598,600 



Catholic Works, United 597 

Catsklll Aqueduct .... 863 

Cattle 

Cavalry, Army. . . . 

Cement Production 

Cemeteries, National. .. . 

Census Officials, U S 

" U. S . Explained 

Centennial Exposition, Miss 

Central American Statistics. .366,532 

" and South American Trade 538 

., , Cereal Crops 283.284 

Business Failures In U. 8.. . 99,375 Certified Public Accountants' 
Butter 159,282,28^.' Examinations 560 



98,284,287,288 
473 
293 
479 
.540 
. 95 
18 



Certified Shorthand Ri 
Examinations. . . . 
Chamberlain, N. Y. Cit 
Chamber of Commerce, 

*' " '_. 

Champagne Statistics. . . . 
Chaplains, Army and Nav; 
Charities State Board, N. 

•• Dept.. N. Y. City.. . 
Chautauqua Institution. . 

Checks and Notes 

Cheese 

Chemical Society, Amer.. 

" Industry Society. . . 
Chemicals, Manufacture 

" Production of .... 

Chemistry In 1916 

Chess 

Chicago, Population 

Chicory Production 

Chief of Naval Operation 
Child Labor Law, Feder: 

" Welfare Board. N Y.i 

•• Workers in U. S ... 
Children. Vitality of Last 
Children's Bureau. . 

" Court, N Y CItv,. . 
Chile 17,242,213,3'- 

China, Society of Anicrit 
•■ Statistics of. 17,242,24 

Chinese Seeking Admi: 
U.S 

Chiropody Examinations, 

Chosen (Korea) 

Christadelphians, Number i 

Christian & Missionary Alii 
" Endeavor Union. . 

" Science 59 

" Socialist League 

" Unity Foundation. . . 

Christians, Number of. 

Chronological Cycles and F 

Church Adherents . . . 

" Days in 1917 

" Established, of England 

" Fasts 

•■ of God 

" Peace Union 

" Property In U S. . . . 

" Temperance Society . . 
Churches in the U. S 

•■ In N. Y City it 

" Seating Capacity of 

Cider Production 

Cigars and Cigarettes 

Cincinnati, Daughters of 

" Society of 6 

Circuit Courts of U S . . . .5 

Circular Measure 

Cities, Commission Governmei 
of 76 

" Area of 76 

" Debt of 364,76. 

" Distances between Europear 

" Distances from N. Y 

" Dwellings and Families (Vol 
1915). 

" Finances of. .... 

'• Largest of the Earth. . . 7 
" of U. S., Population of, 

^ 748-753,757,758,71 

" Of U. S., Statistics of . . .761 

" Sobriquets of 

" Temperature and Rainfall.. 
Citizenship Explained ... .15 

City Court, N. Y 

Magistrates, N. Y. City. 

Record. N. Y 

Civic Ass'n, American 

'• Associations, National... 

" Federation. National 
Civil Action, Arrests in. . 

'• Engineers' Society 

■• Lists of .Sovereigns 

" Service Comm'rs, N. Y . . 

•• " Comm'rs, N.Y.. .7 

" " Commissions, Nat 

•* •' Assembly 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGE 

.ank Statistics 373.375 

Citizens' League 864 

Population 754-756 

Residents, Education 

ol 655 

.White Stock, Pop. of, 

754-75() 

•ying Trade, U. S 23S 

% Value of 301 

ges 717 

nerce 239-241 

uls in N. Y. City. . .679 

in U. S 549-553 

'tries. Exports and Im- 

orta 242-244 

omacs Dismissed from 

". S 530 

jassies in U. S 547 

ns in U. S 36U 

ills 114-118 

nistrles 554 

sions, American Board. 633 

ley Orders 118 

.eys 80 

•oad Runs 233 

rs 71 

•ping 196 

•graph Rates 2U3 

le of the U. S 239,241 

Latin-American. . 538 

, Military Order of 615 

of United States, Vet- 
erans of 614 

os,Amerlcan Women Who 
lave Mar Tied . .520-522 

lers in U. S 754 

rs. Independent Order of .5.85 

merica 585 

'roducts 284 

Statistics 113-146 

jiation. .American . 147,628 
Penalty for. ... 298-302 
Statistics. .. . 366.532 
. Y. City . . . .711 

mmortals 525 

of America, University. 609 
.ers and Patriots of Amer 

613 

vh of July Accidents ... 292 

nee and Colonies 532 

Army and Navy 17,501 

Dlplomatrc Intercourse. . 517 

iovernment of 514 

Imports and Exports. . . .242,243 

Ministry 554 

Rulers of 514 

Statistics of 366 

ternal Aid Union 585 

Brotherhood 585 

rganizations 584-587 

irnities. College 722,723 

and Accepted (Colored) 

Masons 589 

i>l3t. Customs Tariff . . .103,104 

■masonry 538 

Sons of Israel, Independ- 

Order of 585 

ng and Fusing Points... 83 

. Trafflc Movement 236 

Academy 525 

lilies 513,514 

ernment 514 

stry 554 

inders 513,514 

lutlooary Era 35 

Churches 598.885,890 

'roductlon 284 

Marks of Steamers 
1916). 

•olnts 83 

.The 402 



J Purchase 137 

iws 28 

ectlve and Propagation 

s'n. American 316 

;hool System (Vol. 1916). 

e Production 291 

.y Movement 621 

Production ot 293 



PAGE 

General Education Board 626 

Federation of Women's Clubs 616 

Revenue Law 161-180 

Society of the War of 1812.. 618 

Generals, U. S. Army 462-463 

of the U. S. Army Since 1776 
(Vol. 1902). 

Geodetic Survey 85 

Geographic Board, U. S 99 

Society, National 631 

Geographical Research 555-557 

Society, American 628 

Geological Society of America.. .631! 

Strata 62 

Survey, Director 54ii 

Geology 559 

eometrical Progression 81 

George Washington Memorial 

Association 619 

Georgia Election Returns. . .783-784 

Population 717.748,759 

German-American Alliance of 

the U. S., National 623 

Diplomatic Intercourse 517 

Empire 532 

Government 514 

Ministry 554 

Royal Family 511 

Waiships, Tonnage of .... 501 

Germany, Commerce of 242,243 

" Population 367,532 

" Statistics of 17,366,532 

Gettysburg Speech, Lincoln's.. . 85 
Gifts, see "Benefactions." 

Gin, Production ol 294 

CJirls' National Honor Guard. .. .674 
Gleaners, Ancient Order of ... 585 

Goats in United States 284 

Goelet Family 692 

Gold Certificates, U. S 98.370 

" Coined 98,369 

" Consumption of 309 

" in Circulation 98,372 

" Mines. Product 368-369 

" Premiums on 373 

" Production of . 98,242.293,367-369 
Golden Cross, "United Order of .585 

" Seal, Order of 586 

Golf 420 

Good Friday in 1917 27 

" Templars, International 

Order of 58: 

Gould Family : 681-682 

Government, City ol N. Y. .852-853 

"NY State 770 

Securities 362 

Governments of the World. . . .515 
Governors Impeached (Vol. 1914) 

of British Dominions 528 

of New York 775 

of States in U. S .. . .766,778,820 

Staff. NY 770 

Grain Production of U. S 283 

Receipts 241 

Grand Army of the Republic ... 478 
Army of the Republic, Ladies 

of the 616 

Grapes, Production of 284 

Gravity, Specific 83 

Great Britain, see "British." 
Greece, Army and Navy of. ... 17 

Statistics of 240,242,366,532 

Greek Calendar 49 

" Church Adherents 598 

" Orthodox Bishops 609 

" Royal Family 511 

" Weights and Measures 80 

Greenbacks in Circulation 98 

Greenland 532 

Gregorian Calendar 30 

"Groundhog Day" 33 

Guam 137,139.532.747 

Guatemala, Statistics. . 17,366,532,538 

Guild of the Love ot God 593 

Gunboats. U. S 490 

Gunnery of U. S. Warships 496 

Gymnastics 428 

H 
Hack and Cab Fares, N. Y. .870 
Hague Convention (Vol 1916). 
" Court of Arbitration 132-134 



FA 

Halley'3 Comet 

Hall of Fame 

Hams, Production of 287 

Harness Racing 407,408 

Hairiman Family 689 

Harvard Boat Races 385 

Harvest Calendar, Wheat 283 

Havemeyer Family 685-687 

Hawaii. 1.37.139- 140,532,747.751.759 784 

Commerce with 241 

Hay Fever Ass'n, U. S 620 

Hay, Production of 284,287 

Haytl, Statistics of . 17,365,532,538 

Treaty with U. S 564 

Headquarters Army and Navy 
Medal of Honor Legion of the 

U. S of America 623 

Heads of Governments 515 

Health Commissioner, N. Y. . . .770 

Dept , N Y. City 853 

Ofncer,Port of New York. 770,853 
Heart Disease, Deaths from. ... 323 
Height of Buildings in N. Y 701 

and Weight of Men and 
Women 83 

of Mountains 67,75 

Hemp Crop 284 

Heptasophs, Improved Order.. 586 

Hermann's Sons 586 

Hero Fund. Carnegie 652 

Hibernians of America, Ancient 

Order of 586 

Hierarchy, Roman Catholic ... 607 

High Schools in U. S 699 

High-Tide Tables 70.71 

Highway, Dixie 765 

Lincoln 765 

Highways Commissioner, New 

York State 770 

Hindooism 600 

Historic Records Ass'n, The 

Modern 563 

Historical Ass'n, American. . . 628 

" Events, Dates of 35 

" Society, N Y 661 

Hockey Records 410 

Hog Statistics 287 

Holidays 31,33 

Homoeopathic Schools, U. S. . . .701 
Homes and Asylums In New 

York City 904-905 

" for Soldiers 479 

Homicides In U S 303 

Honduras, Statistics of. 17,366,532,538 

Honey Production 284 

Hops, Production of 284 

Horse Racing Records,402-404,407.408 

Horses 98 284 

Hospitals. N. Y. City 905-906 

" for the Insane 304 

Hotel Liquor Licenses, N. Y. . 297 

Hotels in N. Y City 884 

House of Commons 529 

" of Lords 529 

" of Representatlves.571-573,575-577 
Hudson River, Opening and 

Closing of 73 

Huguenot Society of America . . .597 
Human Being's, Money Value ol 363 

Human Cremations 377 

" Family 75 

Humane Society, American 321 

Humidity 61 

Hundred Years Ago 184 

Hunting and Game Laws 28 

Hurdle-Racing Records. .392,393,395 
Hurricane Warnings 69 



ICELAND B32 

Ice Skating 401 

I. C. A. A. A. A. Records 3Sf 

Idaho Election Returns 78' 

" Population 747.748.75 

Illinois Election Returns 784-78 

" Population 747,748,75 

Illiteracy Statistics 63 

Illuminating Engineering Soc. . .6" 

Immigration Into U. S 99,198.1 

Imperial Order ol the Dragon. .6 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGE 

-stroyers, U. S -. .490 

abetes. Deaths from 323 

t^lects 649 

Dialect Society, American. .'. . . .628 

DiarrhCBa, Deaths from 323 

Dickens Fellowship, The 699 

DiHerence in Time 3.i 

Digestibility of Foods 383 

Diplomatic Consular List. . 544-546 

" Intercourse 516-519 

Diplomats Dismissed 530 

Direct Primary (Vol. !914). 
Disbursements U S. Gov't. 98,360 
Diseases Causing Death. 322-323 325 
Disciples of Christ.598,603,885,890,893 
Distance and Time from New 

York City 120 

Distances at Sea Level 65 

•' Between Cities 120 

" in Nautical Miles from Am- 
brose Channel 197 

" to Foreign Ports 120 

Distilled Spirits 294 

District-Att'y's Office, N. Y. . 856 

U. S 543 

" Courts of U. S 542,856 

" Leaders, N. Y. City 876 

" of Columbia Gov't 782 

" Population, 747,748,759 

Division of Africa 531 

Divisions of Time 30 

Divorce Statistics 306-309 

Dixie Highway 765 

Docks and Ferries Dept., N. Y. 

City 2.39,8.57 

Dog Racing 400 

Domestic Animals In U. S. . . 284 

" Exports 98,245 

" Money Orders 113,35.'i 

" Rates of Postage 107,108 

" Weights and Measures . . 79 
Dominican Republic . . . .532,538 

Dominion of Canada d34-53"i 

Dragon. Imperial Order ol ... 618 
•• Military Order . . . . 618 

Drama Society 612 

•• The 666-672 

Dramatic League. Educational. 663 

• People 675-679 

Dress Chart, Men's 18 

Druggists' Exams , New York. 560 
Drugs, Dyes, Etc . M-anufrs. . . 245 
Drulds.United Ancient Order of, 585 

Dry Measure 76.77,79 

Dukes, Table of British 529 

Du Pont Family 689-690 

Duration of I.,ife 75 

Duties, Customs, U. S 101-104 

Dwellings in U S. (Vol. 1915). 

Dyes, Manufactures 245 

Dyestutfs Tax 176,177 



Eagi.es, Order op 585 

Earth. Facts About 55,60,75 

Earthquake Areas 60 

Earth's Atmosphere 51 

" Populalioa 75 

Easter Table ot Dates 34 

Eastern Star, Order of 585 

Ecilpse.s ill 1917 56 

Economic Ass'n, American. . . . 623 
Ecuador, Statistics of 17,366,532,538 

316 
631 
594 
770 
540 



PAGE 

Election, Presidential, of 1920 . . 823 

■■ Returns 778-820 

Superintendent of 770 

Elections, Board of, N. Y. . .770,853 
" Presidential 823.832 

Electoral Vote for President . 824,83 1 
Electrical Development Society 631 
" Engineers, American Insti- 
tute 628 

" Progress 206-210 

" Society, New York 656 

'• Units 80 

Electric Locomotives ^ 235 

" Railway Progress 207 

Electic Schools In U. S 701 

Electrotherapeutics 210 

Elements of the Solar System ... 55 
Elks, Benevolent and Protective 

Order of 585 

Ellen Wilson Memorial Homes. 184 

Embassies, Secretaries of . . . 54 1 

" Foreign 547 

Ember and Rogation Days. ... 30 

Embezzlements 304 

Emigration from U. S 198 

Employes in Factories (Vol.1916) 
" in Munition Plants 292 

Employment, Constancy of ... .384 

'• Offices, U. S 384 

" of Wage-Earners . . .246-248.384 

Employments in N. Y City 249-250 

Engineering 559,560 

" Education, Society for Pro- 
motion of 631 

England, see "British." 
" .Area and Population. 524, 525,530 

English Derby 403 

" Established Church 527 

•■ Holidays 33 

" Mile 81 

Engravings, Manufactures of. . .24 

Envoys 544 

Epiphany 27 

Episcopal Bishops 608 

Episcopalians 599 

Epochs. Beginning of 27 

Epsom Downs 403 

Epworth League 592 

Equatorial Radius 60 

Equity Ass'n, Actors' 663 

Eras, Chronological 27 

Esperanto 653 

Estate Tax . . . 169-171 

Estates, Administration and Dis- 
tribution of . . 310-318 

Estimate Board, N. Y. City . 853 
Eugenics Record Office 309 

European Banking Statistics. 373,375 
" Cities, Distances Between 12i! 
" Military Resources . 17 

" Ministries 554 

■• Sovereigns 523 

•■ War Chronology. . .. 840-812 

Europe, Research in 1916 556 

" Statistics of 532: 

Evangelical Adherents .598,599,885 

Evening Stars 27 

Events, Historical 35 

•• Record of 733-743 

'• Unique , . . 74.i 

Examination of Baggage . 104-lOfi 



Explosives in U. S . . . . 
Exports 98,231,238,239-245, 
232,287,238,. 
Exposition, Mississippi 

Centennial 

Expre.ss Companies, Report 

Offices in N. Y. City 

on Railroads 

Rates 



Factories in U. S. . . 
Facts About the Earth. 

Failures in U S 

Faith Associations 

Fame, Hall of 

Family Altar League. . . 
" Human . . . . 



Editorial Ass'n., National. 
Education, Ass'n, National. . 

" " Religious... 

" Commissioner, x'>I. Y State 

" Commissioners of U. S 

" Dept. of, N. Y . . 853,89? 

" General Board 626 

"Natl Soc. for Broader. .. 62) 

" New York City 896-900 

" of Foreign-Born Residents. 655 

" Southern Conference for . 626 

" Statistics of 696-701 

Iduoation.al Dramatic League . 663 

" Societies 625,62.'; 

gypt. International Tribunals. 134 

• Statistics of. . 242,244, 360,.531, 532 Expenditures, State 365 

ght-Hour Labor Laws. . . 121,122 " U. S. Gov't 360,365.366 

ection Expenditures, N- Y 776' Experience Table of Mortality. 380 



for Consular Service 

Examinations, Regents' 

Excelsior Handicap 

Exchanges of Clearing Houses 

" Cost of Membership.. 

"in N. Y. City 

Excise Commissioner, N. Y. . . 

" Dept.. N. Y. City 

Executions. Legal 

Exempt Property, N. Y. City 



IS 
560 

402 
372 
373 
872 

770 
853 
303 
877 



Famous Old People 

Farmers' National Congress 
Farm Loan Act, Federal. . . 

" Statistics in U. S 

Fast Days 

Fastest Ocean Passages .... 

" Train Records 

Fathers' Day 

Federal Child Labor Law. 

" Council, Churches of C 

" Employes 

" Farm Loan Act 

■• Government 

" Impeachments 

'• Income Taxpayers 

" Offices in U. S 

" Prisons 

" Reserve Board 

" " Notes 

" Trade Commission. 
Federation for National Ur 
of American Zio 
'• Civic 

" of Catholic Societies . . . 

" of Labor, American ... . 

" of Women's Clubs 

Feeble-Minded 

Fencing. 433 

Fermented Liquors 159, 

" Revenue Rec'ts 

Fiction in 1916 

Field Athletics 394.397-< 

" Family . . ■ 

" Officers, U. S. Army . 472- 

Film Productions ' 

Finance Dept., N Y. City. . . . 
Finances of N Y City.. 852.877 

" ot Nations 

Fine Arts Commission 

Fireaims, Deaths Caused by. . 
Fire Dept., N. Y. City 820,85: 

" Insurance Statistics 

Fires, Caused by Lightning... 

" Loss by. In United States. 

First Aid Ass'n, Nat'l 

Fish Culturist, N. Y 

Fisheries, Commissioners of 

" of the United States. . . 

" Society, American . . . 

" U. S Bureau of 

Fishing, Open Seasons for. 

Flag, National 

Flags, Sl.orra & Weather Slg 

Flaxseed Crop 

Fleece Crop 

Florida Election Returns . 

" Population 747,7'; 

'■ Purcliase of 

Flowers. Plants, Production 

" State 

Fluid Ounce:., American 

Imperial 

Folklore Society, American. 
Food, Digestibility of . .. . 

" Law, Pure 

" Nutritiveness of 

" Prices of 370 

Football Records 434 



General Index. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



.652 
2« 

.801 
627 



A PAGE 

A. A. A. Records 338,392 

A. A. U. Records ..597-400.423,426 

Abyssinia, Statistics of 531,532 

Academic Dress 714 

Academicians, National 659-660 

•' Royal 660-661 

Academy ot Arts and Letters . 6C1 

■' French 525 

*' ot Design, National. . . 659 

" of Medicine, American 627 

" of Political and Social Science 62/ 
" of Science,Arts&iLetters, Intel? 

•■ Royal 660-661 

" Science, National . . . 630 

Accidents 194,230,323 

" Fourtli ot July 292 

Accountants, Institutes of. ... 630 
Accounts, Commissioner, N. Y 853 

" When Outlawed 

Acknowledgment ot Deeds. . . 

Actor.i, Birthplaces, etc 675-679 

" Equity Ass' u . . ; 663 

" Fund of America 

" in N. Y. City 

Acts ot Congress 

Actuarial Society ot America 
Administration ot Deceased Per- 
sons' Estates 310-316 

Admirals. U. S Navy 484 

Adventists, Number of 598 

Aeronautical Engineers' Soc. . . 627 

" Society of America 627 

Aeronautic Records 430 

Aeronautics in the U. S 474 

Aero Science Club of America. . 480 

Afghanistan 532 

Africa, Division of 531 

•• Nations of 531 

" Research in 1916 556 

'• Statistics of 524,531,532 

Age of the Earth (Vol 1912). 

Agricultural Implements 245 

" Ranli of States 269 

Agriculture 242,283,284 

" Commissioner, N. Y 770 

" Department Officials 610 

" Secretaries List 567 

" U. S., Secretary .-. 539 

Air Pilots' Club 378 

Airs and Anthems, National . . ..547 

Airships 430 

Alabama Election Returns 778 

Alabama Population. . . .747,748,759 
Aia-Ska . . . 137,626,747,759,778 

" Railroad 238 

Albania. Statistics of 532 

Alberta 534 

Alcohol Statistics 294,296 

Alcoholic Strength ot Liquors .297 

Aldermen, N. Y. City 852 

Alfred B. Nobel PrUea 658 

Algeria 532 

Aliens 154,198 

All-Hallowe'en 33 

\lliance Francalse 129 

•• Reformed Churches 604 

Alsace-Lorraine 532 

Altar Colors 49 

" League, Family 597 

Altitudes, (jireatest, in States. . . . 67 
' Highest and Lowest Conti- 
nental 75 

Aluminum, Production of 293 

Ambassadors 516-519,544 

Amendments to U. S. Coasti- 

tution 89,90 

America. Area and Pop., etc. ... 75 

' British, Area, etc 524 

'■ Re,search in 1915 555 

American Academy of Arts and 

T.ptter8 661 

\n Acad, of Medicine.. . .627 
""emy Political and Social 
lence 627 



PAGE 

American Anatomists' Ass'n. . 627 

and Foreign Shipping 196 

Antiquarian Society 627 

Asiatic Association 627 

Association for Advancement 

of Science 627 

Ass'n of Anatomists 627 

Ass'n of Fairs & Expositions. 557 
Ass'n of Obstetricians and 

Gynecologists 627 

Ass'n of Oritjcial Surgeons.. 627 
Ass'n of Park Superintend- 
ents 623 

Ass'n of Pathologists and 

Bacteriologists 627 

Ass'n ot Prog. Medicine. . 62 
Ass'n of Societies for Organ- 
izing Charities 622 

Ass'n of Teachers of Jour- 
nalism 027 

Ass'n to Promote Teaching 

of Speech to Deaf .... 627 
Ass'n of University Profs. ..553 

Astronomical Society 627 

Automobile Ass'n 503 

Bar Association 628 

Battle Dates 610 

Bible Society 597 

Board Foreign Missions 633 

Bonapartes 578 

Bowling Congress 428 

Chemical Society 628 

Civic Association 622 

Civil War 610 

Cllmatologlcal Ass'ns 628 

Climatologlcal and Clinical 
Ass'n 628 



" College Fraternities 722-725 

" Cross of Honor 613 

" Cup Race (Vol. 1915) 

" Defence Society 847 

" Dairy Export Trade 282 

" Dermatological Ass'n 628 

" Dialect Society 628 

" Economic Association 628 

" Electrotherapeutic Ass'n 628 

" Entomological Society 628 

" Federation of Arts 617 

" " of Catholic Societies. . 593 

" of Labor .....123,124 

" Fisheries Society 628 

" Flag Association 618 

" Folklore Society 628 

" Forestry Association 147,628 

" Game Protective and Propa 

gation Ass'n 316 

" Geographical Society 628 

" Geographers, Ass'n of 630 

'■ Growth in a Century (.Vol. I9I0) 

" Gynecological Society 628 

" Historical Association 628 

" Humane Society 321 

" Indian 519 

" Indians, Society of 546 

" Institute of Architects 628 

" " Electrical Engineers. . .628 

" " ot Homoeopathy 628 

" of Mining Engineers . 628 

" Irish Historical Society 628 

" Jewish Historical Society. . 628 
" Laryngoiogical Association .628 
" " Rhinological and Oto- 

loglcal Society 628 

" Learned Societies 627-631 

" Legion 847 

" Library Association 628 

American Mathematical Soclety.625 

" Medical Association 628 

" Medico-Pharmaceutical 

League 629 

" Medico-Psycholog. Ass'n. . . .629 

" Microscopical Society 629 

" Multi-Milllonalres 680-692 

" Municipalities League 621 



PA 

AmerlcanMuseura of Nat.Historyi 

" National Red Cross 6. 

" Nature Study Society (i. 

' Neurological Association. . . .6' 
' New.spaper Publishers' Ass'n 6; 

" Numismatic Association 

■■ ' Society ( 

' Nurses' Ass'n ' 

" Onhthalmoloiiical Society. . 
' Order of Clausmen, Grand 

Clan: 6 

' Oriental Society 6 

•■ Oinlthoiogists' Union f 

' Oi thopedic Association 6.- 

' Osteopathic Society 6' 

• Otological Society 6 

' Peace and Arbitration 

League i 

'■ " Society i 

'• Pediatric Society t 

' Pharmaceutical Ass'n ( 

" Philatelic Society 

'■ Philological Association 

'• Philosophical Ass'n 

Society 

" Physical Society 

'• Physicians, Ass'n ol 

■ Pioneers of '98 

' Proctologic Society 

" Proportional Representatloi 

League 

' Psychological Association . . .. 

'• Public Health Ass'n 6ii 

" Railroad Securities Held 

Abroad 561 

" Rivers. Principal 72," 

" Roentgen Ray Society f 

" Scandinavian Foundation . . . 

'■ " Society 

'• Scenic and Historic Preserva 

tion Society 136 

" School Peace League 845 

'• Social Science Association. . .629 
■' Society, Federation Nat'l 

Unity f . 

•' " for the Control of Can- 
cer "' 

", " for Judicial Settlemen 
ot Internat'l Disputes 
" for Psychical Research. 6: 

" for Thrift 62„ 

" of Civil Engineers 629 

■• ot Internat'l Law 149 

" "of Landscape Archi- 
tects 617,629 

" " Of Marine Draftsmen .623 
'• " of Mechanical Engi- 
neers f 

" " ot Naturalists 6^ 

" " S. P. C. A 62o 

" Sociological Society 63" 

" Sportsmen, League 43! 

" Statistical Ass'n F* 

" Sunday-School Union , 

" Surgical Association i 

" Telephone & Telegraph Co. 

" Therapeutic Society 

American Tract Society " . 

•' Truth Society •* . 

•' Turf ....40. ' 

" Unitarian Association ',3 

" Urolo!;ical Association f 

" Vessels Built 

" Wars, Society of 6 

" Women Who Have Married 

Titles 520-; 

" Wood Preservers' Ass'n 

Americanization Committee, 

National 

America's 20 Best Customers. . . 

Ammunitions 

Amusements, N, Y. City. . . .86 

Ancient Accepted Scottish Rl 

Masons 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGE 

at and Modern Year 68 

- d Mystical Order Rosae 

Crucis 758 

lorra, Statistics of 532 

mals, Domestic, ol U.S.. 98,284 

.mlsm 600 

napolls Naval Academy 500 

nlversaries, List of 35 

• tarctic Research 557 

jthems and National Airs Ot7 

ittirax 325 

itimony Production 293 

tl-Capital Punishment Soc. . .321 
ti-Horse Thief Association. . .621 

l-Saloon League, The 622 

>plexy. Deaths from 323 

/ostollc Delegation 607 

)othecaries' Weights 79 

ipellate Division, Supreme 

Court, N. Y 773 

•jple Crop 284 

iportionment Act, New (Vol.1912) . 

of Congress 569 

"propriation, Naval 501 

propriations by Congress. . . .715 

' U. S. Army 481 

ricot Crop 2S4 

uarium in N. Y. City 661 

•bia ,532 

bic Numerals 82 

itration Committee of N. Y 907 

Court of 132-134 

Treatie-s (Vol. 19121. 

anum. Royal 584 

hsoioglcal Institute of Amer- 

a 630 

haeology 558 

hbishops in U. S 607 

rcliO'-y 408 

jctlc Club of America 630 

'• Research 556 

Vrea of Austro-Hungarian Emp..532 

Cities in U. S 762-76.3 

Continents 75 

Foreign Countries 532 

of Africa 73,524,532 

of America 75 

" of Asia 75,524 

" of Australasia 75,524 

" ofBelglum 532 

of Brazil 532 

of British Empire 524,532 

of Canada 524.534 

ol China 532,538 

of Cuba 140,53:i 

of Deserts 75 

• of Earth 75 

'• of Earth's Fertile Region 75 

" of Europe 75 

'• of France 532 

" of German Empire 532 

" of Great Lakes of U. S 57 

• of Greece 532 

" cf Islands 131 

' of Italy 532 

• of Japan 532,624 

" of London 528 

" of Mexico 532,536 

" of Montenegro 532 

• of Newfoundland 524,533 

' of N. America 75 

• of Oceans 75 

of Panama 532 

of Polar Regions 75 

of Rouraania 532 

- of Russian Empire 532 

• of Serbia 532 

" of South America 75 

• ol States 767 

• of Steppes of Earth 75 

• of Turkish Empire 532 

" of United States 98,532 

reas, Earthquake 60 

-gentlna 17,366,532,537 

Commerce of 243.533 

Izona Election Returns. . .778-779 

Population 747.748,7.59 

Kansas Election Returns 779 

Population 747.748,769 

ngton ConfederateMonument 
association 618 



i. 



PAGE 

Armed Strength of World 17 

Armenian Church Followers .... 698 

Armies of the World 17 

Armories, N. Y. City 769 

Armour Family 

Arms, Military Small 480-481 

Army Aeronautic Strength 474 

and Navy of Confederate 

States Society 617 

" and Navy Medal of Honor 

Legion 619,623 

" and Navy Union 619 

" Appropriation, U. S 481 

" Aviation 474 

" British 17,.528 

" Chaplains, U. S 476 

" Departments and Divisions. . 180 

" Field Officers 472-473 

" General OlBcers, Retired .. . 463 

" Generals, U. S 462,463,465 

" Law, U. S 440-461 

" of Cumberland Society 617 

" of Philippines 614 

" of Potomac Society 617 

" of Santiago de Cuba, So- 
ciety of the 614 

" of Tennessee Ass'n 617 

" of Tennessee Society 617 

•' of U. S , General Staff 462 

" of U. S , in New York City.. 711 

" Pay Table 477 

" Pensioners 149 

" Rank of Officers 465-472 

" Relative Rank 496 

'• Retired List 462,463 

" Uniform, Protection 508 

" United States 462-477 

Arrest in Civil Actions 320 

Arson, Penalty for 298-302 

Art Alliance of America 617 

•' Galleries, N. Y 661 

'• Progress in U. S 662-663 

Artillery Corps, Field Officers, . .473 

Artists 659-661 

•• InN. Y. City 249 

Arts, Amer. Federation of 617 

' and Letters, Academy 661 

Institute er 

" Commission, Fine 663 

^Asbestos, Production of 293 

Ashokan Reservoir 863 

Ash Wednesday, 1917 27 

Asia, Statistics of .524,532 

" Research in 1916 656 

Asiatic Institute 347 

Asphalt Production 293 

Assassinations 192 

Assault, Penalty for 298-302 

Assembly, New York State 771 

" of the Presbyterian Chuich.602 
Assessed Valuation of Property 

in U. S 365 

Assessments and Arrears Collec- 
tor, N. Y 85: 

Assessors, Board of, N. Y. C . 85; 

Assistant Treasurers, U. S 54 

Associated Press 656 

Association of American Geog- 
raphers 630 

■• of American Physicians. . . 630 

Astor Family 682-681 

" Library, N. Y. City 654 

Astrological Society 630 

Astronomical Constants 60 

" Phenomena for 1917 55.56 

Astronomical Signs and Symbols . 55 

Astronomy in 1916 558 

Asylums, N. Y. City 904-905 

Athletic Commission, N. Y 770 

" Records 388-400 

Attorney-General, U. S 539.567 

Audubon Societies, Nat'l Ass'n 509 

Australasia 366,524,556 

Australia 244,366,531 

Austria-Hungary Diplomatic 

Intercourse 516 

Army and Navy.. . . 17,501 

Ministry , 554 

Royal Family 5H 



Austro-Hungarian Gov'ment. . 

Automobile Ass'n, American... . 

" Chamber of Commerce, Ni 

tlonal ^t(l 

" Engmeers, Society of 503 

" Exports from the U. S 508 

" Imports and Exports 239,245 

" Laws 504-5U7 

" Manufactures 245.895 

■' Records 436-437 

Automobiles, Deaths 323 

" in N. Y. State 481 

Autumn, Beginning of 27 

Aviation 430 

Aztec Club of 1847 615 



Bacon, Prodttction of 287 

Baggage, Examination of... 104-106 
Bald Head Club of America. . . 621 

Bank Notes 98,370,372! 

Banking Statistics . .98,371,376,857-860 

Bankruptcy Law, U. S 305 

Banks in N. Y. City 857-859 

Baptist Churches. N. Y. City. 

885,889,893,894 

" World Alliance 595 

" Young People's Union 694 

Baptists. Number of 59S 

Bar Association, American 628 

N Y. City 908 

Barley, Production of 283 

Barometer Inrtioatlons 65 

Baseball Records 411-414 

Basketball 426 

Battle Dates, American 610 

Battlesliip Tonnage of Naval 
Powers 17,501 

Battleships. U. S 488-495,501 

Bavarian Royal Family 510 

Beans, Production of 284 

Beer Consumption 294 

Bees in U S 284 

Belgian Royal Family 510 

Belgium, Imports and Exports . 243 

"Statistics 17,366,532 

Bell Telephone Statistics 204 

Belmont Family 691 

Benefactions of 1916 693-695 

" Announced by Colleges 718 

." Endowments of, 1915 696 

Ben Hur, Tribe of 585 

Benzine Production 291 

Bequests in 1916 693-695 

Bethlehem, Star of 609 

Beverages, When to Serve 297 

Bhutan Statistics 532 

Bible Society, American 597 

New York 697 

Biblical Weights 80 

Bicycling Records 848-85f 

Bigamy, Penalty for 298-301i 

Big Brother Movement 587 

" Sisters 597 

Billiard Records 427 

Bird Census 147 

Birth Statistics 327 

" Stones If 

Bishops, English 627 

" of Religious Denominations, 

607-6- 

Blacklisting Laws 121 

Blind Men's Improvement Club 55' 

" Turners' Guild of N. Y 623 

Blindness (Vol. 1916.) 

Blue Goose. Order of 656 

B'nai B'rith, Order of 685 

Board of Education, N. Y. City, 

853 893 

•• of Elections, N. Y. City .... .'863 

'■ of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment, N. Y. City 863 

Boat-Racing Records 385-388,425 

Boiling Points 83 

Bolivia, Statistics of. .. 17.366,532,538 

Bonapartes, American 

Bonapartlsts. 



Statistlca of , ...243,366,532' Bonds, Government. 



PAGE 

rew Zealand 366,524 

ficaragua 17,366,532,538 

ncaraguan Canal Route Con- 
vention 565 

«ckel Production 293 

.•Jlcknames of Cities 820 

Nobel Prizes oaS 

Nobles of the Mystic Shrine . . .5R9 
Non-Smokers' Protective League.620 

Normal Schools in U. S 700 

North America, Population of. . . 75 

" ' Research 555 

" Carolina Election Returns. . 805 
Population. 747,750,759 
" Dakota Election Returns 805,806 
" " Poputlaion 747,750,752,759 
Northern Baptist Convention. . o93 
Northfleld Conferences and Sum- 
mer Schools 626 

N. W. Territories 534 

Norway Army 17 

" Ministries -554 

" Statistics of 242,366,532 

Norwegian Royal Family .. . . 512 
Notes, Bank, in Circulation. . 98,372 

" Promissory 319 

•' When Outla%ved 376 

Nova Scotia 534 

Novels of 1816 636 

Numerals, Roman and Arabic. . 

Numismatic Ass'n 629 

•• Society 629 

Nursery Products 284 

Nurses, Registration of 560 

Nurse Training Schools 701 

Nuts, Production of 284 



Oaks,The FraternalOrder of 5"6 

Oat Statistics 242,233,284 

Obituary Roll of 1916 727 

Objects Visible at Sea-Level ... 65 

Observatories 64,95 

Occupations, Population En- 
gaged in Industrial 128 

•• New York City 249,250 

" of College Graduates 655 

)ccurrences During Printing r 

>cean Marino Insurance 380 

" Passages, Fastest 197 

' Steamers 196 

Oceans, Area of 76 

" Depth of 75 

Odd Fellowship 538 

Offices, Federal 539-511 

Ohio Election Returns . . . 806-807 

" Population 747,750 ,759 

Oils, Manufactures 245 

Oklahoma Election Returns . 807-808 

" Population 747,750 ,759 

Old People, Famous 726 

Oleomargarine 159 

Oman, Statistics of 532 

One Hundred Years Ago ... .184 
Oneida, Society of the Sona of. ..C19 

Onion Production. . 284 

Ontario 534 

jpening of Navigation 73 

"ipera. The 664 

ptometry Examinations 560 

range Institution, Loyal 586 

.rchard Productions 284 

Order of Blue Goose 656 

" of Indian Wars of the U.S. . 624 

" of Washington 615 

Oregon Election Returns . . .808-809 

" Population 747,750,759 

Ores and Minerals 293 

Oriental Society, American 629 

Orleanist Family 513 

Ornithologists' Union, Amer 629 

Owls, Order of 587 

Oxford-Cambridge Boat Races 
(Vol. 1915). 



PACiNa Records 407 

Painting and Sculpture 659-660 

Palisades Interstate Part 741 

Palm Sunday In 1917 27 

Panama Canal 135,136 

r. " Zone 137,747 



PAGE 

Panama Statistics. .17,366,532 537,538 
Pan-American Society of the U.S.538 

Union 538 

Paper Manufactures 245 

Measure 76 

Tax, Printing 177 

Paraffin 245,291 

Paraguay 17,366,532,537,538 

Paralysis, Infantile 324-325 

Parcgi Post 108-112 

" Foreign 116.117 

Paris, Population 760 

Park Dept.. N. Y 853 

Parks, National 142. U3 

New York City 907-908 

•* State 744-745 

Parilament, British 529 

of Peace and Universal 

Brotherhood 620 

Parole Comml&aion, N. Y. C. . 853 
Party Divisions in Congress. 578-579 
Passengers Carried, R. R ... 98,230 

Passport Regulations 150-153 

Patent Office Procedure . . . 181-182 

Patents, Commissioners of 540 

Issued 99 

Patriotic Instructors, Ass'n 186 

" & Protective Order of Stags 587 

" Order Sons of America 613 

'• Societies 613 

Patrons of Husbandry, Nat'l 

Grange 75 

Pauperism 321 

Pawnbrokers' Regulat'na, N. Y.842 

Paymaster, N Y. City 852 

Pay, Officers & Men of Navies, 198-499 
Peace and Arbitration League 

American 845 

' Carnegie Endowment. ... 651 

" Forum, International 839 

" League lor World 75' 

" Movements 843 

" Plan. International S43 

" Proposal, Teutonic 844 

" Society, American 845 

N. Y 134 

" Treaties 843 

Peach Crop 2H4 

Peanut Crop 281 

Pear Crop 284 

Peas, Production 284 

Peat, Production 293 

Penal Institutions 304 

Penalties for Crimes. .^ 298-302 

■■ Usury 376 

Pennsylvania Election Returns, 

809-810 

Population 747.750,759 

Pension Commissioner. . . .540 

Disbursements, U. S 98,360 

Statistics 149 

Pensions, Corporation 234 

• Widow Mothers' 580-532 

Pentecostal Bodies 599 

People's Party Convention. .. . 832 
Per Capita Statistics. .98.364,365,367 
Periodicals & Newspapers. . . 657-658 

Periods. Chronological 27 

Perjury, Penalty for 298-302 

Persia, Statistics of 17,532 

Personal Estate, Dist'n of . .310-318 

Peru, Army 17 

Statistics of . . .243,366,532,537.538 

Petroleum 98,242,291,293 

Pharmacy Examlnat's in N. Y.550 

'• Schools in U. S 701 

Phi Beta Kappa 723 

Philippines, Commerce with. . . .241 

" Government 810 

'• Islands 137,138 

•• Society 503 

•■ Statistics of .366,532,747 

•• Weights and Measures of. . . 79 

Philosophical Society, Am 629 

Photo-Plays 672 

Physical Society, American 629 



Physicians, Ass'n Amer. 
Piers, New York City. 
Pig Iron Production. . 
Pigs on Farms, U. S. . 
Pilgrims, The. 



.630 
837 
"98,242,290 

284 

.194 



Pilot Commissioners N.Y 853 



Pistol Records 

Planetary Configurations, 1917.56,1. 

Planets f 

Plant and Structures Dept., 

N. Y. C 8{ 

" Industry, U. S. Bureau of. U 

Planting, Seed. In U. S i 

Platforms. National, of 1916. .879-&' 

Platinum Production 2! 

Plays 666-€'. 

Plums. Production 28 

Pneumonia, Deaths from 32 

Poet Laureate. The (Vol. 1914). 

Poland Statistics 5: 

Polar Commission, International If 

" Radius ( 

" Regions, Area and Population.; 

" Research 556-55 

Pole Star, Mean Time of Transit. 5 

Poles, Magnetic f 

Police Dept., N. Y. City 852,8' 

Poliomyelitis 324,3 

Political and Social Science 

Academy 6 

Political: 
Apportionment of Congressional 

Representation I 

Assas-sinations 

Assembly. New York T71-' 

Cabinet of President Wilson. . ' 
Campaign Receipts and Dla- 

buracmenta 

Committees 821- 

Commission Government of 

Cities in U.S 764-7 

Congress of United States. .570-f 

Conventions 

Divisions in Congress 578- 

Elecloral Vote. . 

Federal Government 539- 

Governors of States 

House of Representatives, 

571-573,575- 

Leaders, N. Y. City 

Legislature, New .York 

Legislatures of States 

Map 

Mayors of Cities in U. S. . .76 
New York State Government. 

Party Platforms 87. 

Pay and Terms of Legislators 
Presidential Election of 1920.. . 

•• Elections (1789-1916) 

States 778 

" Primaries (Vol. 1914). 

President's Salary 

Primary Vote, N. Y. State i 

Qualifications for Voting 

Registration of Voters I 

Senate, New York 7 

•• U. S 670,! 

Socialist Labor Party b 

State Elections, When Held. . 7 

Polo '' 

Pool Records 

Popular Vote, President 824 ' 

Population: 

Africa 7E,52. 

All Countries 36' 

America 

•• (British) 

Argentina 367 

Asia 75,524 

Australasia 75, 

Australia 367,1 

Austria-Hungary 5„- 

Belgium 632 

Beriin i;,-I§9 

Brazil 367,532 

British Empire 367.524,532 

Bulgaria i;/?§, 

■By Race 754,7R1 

"canada 367,524,f 

Centre of i; • 

Chicago 760 

Chile ••■ 

China .^2, 

Chosen (Korea) , 367,. 

Cities of Earth • • • 

" of U.S 748 

Color or Race 754 



PAGE 

jnlclpalltles, Amer. League. .621 
lunltlon Manutacturers' Tax. 

171-172 

" Plants 292 

lurderera. Punishment of. . 296-302 

lurders in U. S 3n3 

luseums, N Y 861 

luslc 664-665 

luslcal Pieces 670 

•• People. Ases, etc 675-678 

vlystic Circle, The Fraternal . .580 
" Order Veiled Prophets of 

Enchanted Realm 585 

•• Shrine. Nobles 58!) 

" Workers of the World 586 



N 

lAPHTHA Production 29! 

National Academy of Design 659 
" Academy of Sciences . 63!J 

" Airs and Anthems 54/ 

■• Americanization Committee. 359 
" American Woman Suffrage 

Ass'n 833 

" Arts Club 661 

• Assembly of Civil Service 

Commissions 185 

• Ass n for study and Preven- 

tion of Tuberculosis. .630 
' Association for Study of 

Epilepsy 631 

' Association for Constitutional 

Government 195 

" Association for Study of Ex- 

ceotional Children 621 

' Ass'n of Audubon Societies. .509 

' Aas'n of Credit Men 160 

' Ass'n of Letter Carriers 96 

• Ass'n of Manufacturers . . .131 
' Ass'n of Naval Veterans. . . 613 
' Ass'n of Patriotic Instructors 186 
' Ass'n of Postmasters 621 

As^'n of .^tat.e Universities. 617 
Ass'n Opposed to Women 

Suffrage 834 

Automobile Chamoer of Com - 

meroe iSl 

Bank Notes 98.370 

" Statistics 98,:7i.j73 

Banks. N Y. City 857.859 

Baptist Convention 59 i 

' Board of Medical E.'camlners.328 
'• Bowling Association ... 429 

'• Cemeteries 179 

" Civic Federation 130. 1 U 

" Committes M»ital Hygiene 63' 

" " on Prisons 304 

" Committees S21-S2j! 

" Conference of Charities and 

Correction 622 

" Conventions 832 

" Corn Exposition 236 

" Council of Congregational 

Churches 592 

' Council of Women Voters 620,834 

' Dera. League of Clubs . . 67 ( 

Ed;;.orial Aa^ociatlon . . 316 

Education Ass'n oil 

' Encampments, G. A. R . 17S 
' Flrst-Aid Association . . 212 

' Flag 90 

" Genealogical Society . . 631 

" Geogranhle Society 631 

" German-American Alliance. 623 
" Grange, Patrons of Hus- 
bandry 75 

" Guard, New York ... 761 

" Highways Protective Soc 62? 
I" Home Disabled Voluateera . . 479 
" Housing ."Vsiociation . 02; 

" Industrial Traffic League . 621 

" Indebtedness 363,365,366 

" Institute A'-ts and Letters. 617 
Social Science . 631 
" Model License League . . 656 
" Municipal and Civic League. 621 
•* One-Cent Letter-Postage As- 
sociation 620 

" Parks 142,143 



PAGK 

National Platforms 879-88 1 

" Preparedness, Conference 

Committee 439 

" Probation Association ... 302 

" Pure Food Law 15.5-157 

" Reading Circle 635 

" Reform Ass'n 304 

" Republican League 632 

" " Cong. Committee .... 82!) 
" Rivers and Harbors Con- 
gress . 97 

" Sculpture Society . . 660 

" Security League 193 

" Society for Broader Educa- 
tion 625 

" " Colonial Dames of 

America 616 

" " Colonial Daugliters. .61 
" " Daughters of Foun'rs 

& Patriots of Amer. 617 
" of New England Women 193 
" Spiritualists' Association 59 

" Statuary Hall Wi 

" Temperance Society 295 

" Union Assurance Society. . 58i 

" Unions, Labor 121 

" Veterans' Relief Corps.. 622 

•• W. C. T. Union 590 

" Women's Life-Saving League 200 
'■ " Trade Union 

League of Amercia . 236 

Mations, Indebtedness and 

Finances of ... . 366 

" Rulers of 51 

" Wealth of 366 

Matlve Language of Foreign- 
ers In U. S 754-756 

Natural History, Museum . , 661 
" Resources, Conservation of 14 

Maturallsts' American Society 630 

Naturalization 154-15." 

.Vautical Terms (Vol. 1915). 

Naval Academy of U. S 500 

" and .Military Order, Spanish- 
American War . RM 

" Appropriation 501 

" Architects and Marine En- 
gineers, Society of 631 

" Consulting Board . 499 

" Enlistmeut. ... . 49 

'■ History Society 619 

" Militia .500 

" OfRcers, Customs . . . . 54 

" Operations, Chief of 49 

•• Order of the United States. 619 

" Powers, Personnel 50) 

" Veterans, Natl Ass'n . . - . 613 

Mamies of the World. Warship 
Tonnage of 501 

.NTavigatlon, Opening <fe Closing 73 

Navy, Aeronautic Strength ... 474 

•■ British .501,523 

" Captains and Commanders, 

U. S 485-487 

'• Chaolains, U. S 476 

" Dep't Disbursements . . 98.360 
" Department Officials. . . . 539 

" Flag Offloers 481 

•' League of the U S. . . 487 

" Merchant, of U S 196 

" Aloi-tality of 487 

" Neutrality Board, State and 

National 496 

" Offlcials. List U. S 484-487 

" Pay of Officers and Men. 498-499 

" Pensioners 149 

" Rank of Officers 496 

" Recruiting Service 497 

" Secretaries, List 567 

" Secretary of 539 

•• Retired List 484.485 

■• Uniform. Protection of . . . . 508 
•• United States .. 4S(-50l 

" U.S. Vessels 488-196 

•' Yards, United States 496,747 

Nebraska Election Returns .797-798 
Population 717,749,759 

Negro Disfranctiisement (Vol. 1913). 

Population 761 

Rural School Fund 626 

Nepal, Statistics 632 



PAG 

Neptune. Planet 

Netherlands and Colonies ...... 5 

" Ministry 5. 

" Royal Family of 5 

'• Statistics of 17,242.366,5; 

Neutrality Board. State & Navy . 4! 

Nevada Election Returns 79, 

" Population 747,719.759 

New Brunswick 534 

iNew England Order Protection.. 586 
" Women. Nat'l Society. 193 
" Hampslilie Election Returns, 

798-79° 
" Hampshire Population, 

747,749,759 
" Jersey Election Returns 799 

" Population 717,749,759 

■ Jerusalem Church 597 

'■ Mexico I'JIection Returns 799 SiHI 
"Mexico Population . 747,749,759 

N6wfouudlaii<i 524,533 

Xewspaper Measure, Standard 81 

" Postage 10ft 

" Publisiers' Ass'n 6.56 

* Statistics of 17,243,365,532 

Newspapers and Periodicals. 657-658 
New York Ass'n for the Blind .623 

■• Bible Society 597 

" Budget 878 

" Chamber of Commerce.525 

" Civil Service 188 

" Clean ng-House. . . . 372 

" " Commerce, of 7C' 

" County Lawy's Ass'n 8^.. 

" Courts 854-S56 

■' Electrical Society. .. . 656 
'■ Finances of. . 852-877-878 

" " Government 852 

■■ Judici.ary 854 

" " Manufactures 233 

" Mayora of 775 

" " Occupations... . 249,250 

" " Peace Society 134 

" • Population, 

747,749,758,759,7(, 

" " Public Library 6M,66 

" " " Service Com- 
missioners r 

" " Stock Exchange ' 

" " Subways 237,h 

" Vote 803- 

" " Water Supply 

" " Zoological Society ...631 
N. Y. State .Ass'n Opposed to 

Woman Suffrage. . . .834 

" Automobiles in 481 

" " Canal Board 770 

" " Civil Service Commrs. 770 
" " Constitution Rejected 

(Vol. 1916). 
" " Counties, Political and 

Judicial Divisions. . .76? 

" Courts 773-7" 

" " Election Expenditures m 
" Election Returns. 800-804 

" Government 770 

" " Governors of 7''" 

" " Homes f 

" Hospitals for Insane. . . 

" " Judiciary 773-' 

" " Law Examinations 31? 
" " League of Savings am 

Loan Ass'ns 

•' Legislation In 1916.. 34a-. 

" " Legislature 7< 

" " National Guard 76s, 

" Officers 770 

" " ParliS and Reservations, 

714-745 

■• Population 802 

•' Primary Vote 838 

" Prisons 304 

" " " Manuf'g Industries 248 

" " Probation Com 309 

" " Proportional Represen- 
tation League 374 

" " Reformatories 304 

" Senate 771 

" Vote 800-80? 

•' Woman Suffrage Party.833 
" " Women. Society of 620 



Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech . . 85 

Linear Measure 77 

Liquid Measure 76,77,79 

Liquor Statistics. 158.159,291, 

295,290,297 

Literature of 1916 636-647 

Live Stock, Marlteting of . . 287 

on Farms, U S ,98,281 

Loan Act, Federal Farmers. .272-282 

'■ and Trust Cos., Statistics 371 

" Associations, Building and 563 

Loans, Foreign 360 

•• The Morris Plan 270 

Local Option, Liquor 296 



Lockouts and Strikes 
Locomotives 



126-12 
. 23 j 



London Officials, Populatioa 528,760 
Long Measuie , ... .79 

Lonsitude Table .... 63,64 

Lords, House of 529 

Lorillard Family 6S8 

Loss by Liglitiiin? in U. S. ... 3S1 
Louisiana F.lentioa Returns. 790-7)1 

"Populatioa 747,749,759 

" Puronase 137 

Lower Wall St Business Men's 

Association 194 

Lowest Points Below Sea Level 67 75 

Loyal American Life Ass'n '^^6 

' Legion of U.S., Military Order62j 
" Orange Institution . 586 

" Order Moose . . . 

Lumber in U S 143-146 

Lutberan Church in N. Y. (~'itv, 

885,890,893 
Lutherans. Number of . . . 598 
Luther League of America . . . 594 
Luxemburg, Statistics of . . . .366,532 
Lynchlne.' .. 



16: 



294 
538 



M 

xaCCabees, The 586 

' Woman's Beneat Ass'n. . 587 

Mackay Family 685 

iMadagascar Statistics 532 

Maile in U S A League, Wom- 
an's National 757 

Magistrates, N. Y. City. . S55-8.i6 
Magnetic Declinations . . 63 

'• Pole 57 

Mails, Domestic and Foreign. 107-120 
Mail Time to Cities . . . 120 

Maine Election Returns 791 

" Population ... 747,749,759 

Maior-Generals,U. S. Army 462.465 
Maiors, U. S Army. . . 
Males and Females In U. S. 

(Vol.1916). 
Malt Liquors, Statistics. . . 
Ma'.ichu-ia Statistics . 

Manitoba 534 

Man.^laughter, Penalty for. .298-302 
Manufacturers, Nat'l Ass'n of 131 

Manufactures 245-218 

" Autnmnijile 245,895 

* Exporten from U. S 245 

" Industries by 245.248 

of Greatoi .s''. Y 233 

S-a.x, Munition. . . 171-172 

" Uruguay, roxhibition of . 69, 
Manufacturing Establishments, 

98,245,218 
' Industries of N. Y State 

Prisons 248 

)S, Manufactures 245 

'olitical 777 

ohibition 777 

iman Suffrage 777 

^on Races, Long Distance 

pionship and 430 

ue Corps Mortality 487 

" United States 483 

3i.saster3 (Vol. 1913). 

Engineers, Society 631 

'nsurance 380 

.Merchant 196 

riner's Measure 7i 

rketing of Live Stock 287 



PAGE 

^. Cicy 903 

^u.c.Ule of (Vol. 1916). 

.Marriage and Divorce 306-309 

Marshals, United States 543 

Mars, Planet 55 

Maryland Election Returns. 791-792 

■ Population 747,749,759 

Masonic Grand Lodges,U.S. 588-589 

Masons, Colored 589 

Knights Templar 588 

Rovai Arch 583 

Scottish Rite, Ancient Ac- 
cepted 588 

Mass.ic'UHetts Election Returns 792 

Population 747,7 19,753,759 

MasterMates aad Pilots' Ass'u . .586 
-Materials, Tensile .Stiength of 81 
-Vlathematical Society, Amer 628 
Mayflower Descendants Soc . . 61 
Mayors of Cities in U. S. . .762-763 

" of New York City 775 

Measures, Ancient Greek and 

Roman 80 

•• Domestic 79 

■• Metric System of 76-78 

" Newspaper 81 

" Used in Great Britain 79 

■' Water 84 

Mechanical Engineers, American 

Society 630 

Mediation and Conciliation, U 

S. Board of 129 

Medical Ass'n, American . . 628 
" Southwest . . . 630 

Examinations, N. Y 560 

Examiners, Nat'l Bd. of. . .328 

Fraternities '. 723 

Progress in 1913 (Vol 1914). 

Schools in U. S 701 

Signs and Abbreviations. ... 79 

.303 Medicine, American .\cademy. 627 

Medicines. Manufacture of ....245 

Medico-Le.gal Society 630 

" Pharmaceutical League, 

.American . 629 

" Psychological Association, 

American 629 

Membersuip in Leading Ex- 

chan><p.^, Cost of 373 

Memorable Dates 32,35 

Men, Height and Weight of . . . . 
" in Occupations, N. Y. City 

249-2.50 

Men's Dress Chart 18 

" Fraternities 722 

Mennonites, Number of 599 

Menorah Ass'n, Intercollegiate. 623 

Merchant Marine 196 

' Navies of the World 196 

Merchants' Ass'n, NY.. . . 

Mercury, Planet 55 

Metals, Production of . . . . 293 

Methodist Bishops 609 

" Churches in N. Y City, 

886,890,893 

Methodists, Number of 599 

Metric System 76-78 

Metropolitan Handicap 402 

" League, Savings & Loan As- 
sociations 621 

" Museum of .\rt 6RI 

" Opei a House C64 

Mexico, Army of 17 

'• Commerce of 213.538 

" Statistics of 242,366,533.536 

Mica, Production of 293 

Michigan Election Returns. 792-793 

"Population 717,749,759 

Mileage of Railroads. 213-227,231,233 

Mile, English 81 

Miles, Knots and SO 

Military Academy of U. .S 464 

•' and Patriotic Societies ... .613 

" Departments, U. S 480 

Educational System 475 

Order Foreign Wars 61,5 

' Loval Legion of thcU.S 625 
" of America. United. . . 619 
'• of the Carabao . . 212 
" ol the Dragon 618 



Military Order of the Serpent . 

Resources of Europe 

Service, Liability for 

Small Arms 480- 

MilitiainN. Y.City 711, 

" Naval 

" of the Slates '. 

Milk, Production 284, 

" and Butter Fat Productions, 
288,; 

Millionaires, American 680-' 

.Mineral Oils 

•' Products of U. S 

'• Wiiters 293.; 

Mines, U. S. Bureau ; 

Minimum Weight ol Produce. . 
Ministers. Foreign, In Unltec 

States .516- 

" of Churches, U S 598- 

•' U. S . Abroad 516-519, 

Ministries of European Coun- 
tries 

Minnesota Election Returns... . 

" Population 747,749 

Mints, Coinage of 

" Supei intendent of 

Missionary Education Move- 
ment 

Mi.ssions, Am. Board Foreign. . 

Mississippi Centennial Exposi'n 

" Election Returns 794 

" Population . 747,749 

Missouri Election Returns.. 795 

'• Population 747,749 

Model License League 

Modern Histoiic Record Ass'n. 

" Language Ass'n of America. . 

" Woodmen of America, So- 
ciety of 

" Year 

Mohammedan Calendar 

Mohammedanism 

.M classes 

Monaco, Statistics of 

Monarchies and Republics 

Monetary Statistics 3P 

Money in Circulation t 

" Orders 113,1U 

Moneys, Foreign ... 

Mongolia, Statistics of 53' 

Monitors, US 

Mortroe Doctrine 

Montana Election Returns. 79. 

" Population 747,74' 

Montenegro Roval Family. 

•• Statistics of 17,30 

.Monthly Calendars for 1917 ..: 

" Wage Table 

Months, Length of 

Monuments in N. Y. City 

.Moon, Information About, 

37-48,51,52,53,55,5. 

Moonlight Chart for 1917 

Moon's Phases in 1917 

Moravians in U. S 599,886 

Morgan Family 

.MorninR Stars 

Morocco, Statistics of ."531,, 

Moiris Plan, The 2 

Mortality, American Experience 

Table of 38' 

" Statistics 322-323,325.48 

Mothers' Dav 32( 

■■ Pensions. Widow 580-.')8 

Motion Picture Actors and 

Actresses 678-679 

Motion Picture Houses, N. Y. C 861 

Pictures 672-674 

Motor Boat Records 425 

•' Car Laws 504-507 

Motorcycle Records 409 

Mountains, Highest 67.75 

Mount Vernon Ladles' Ass'n. . . 616 

Mules m U. S 98,284 

Multl-Millionaires. Amer 680-692 

Municipal Civil Service, N. Y. 

City 853 

" Courts, N. Y. City 854 

" Leagues 621 

" Research, Bureau of, N. Y . . 864 



paobI 

.ortals. Forty 52o| International 

-achment ot Governor Sulzer 
' 1914). 

-dchments. Federal 745 

perial Order of the Dragon. . .618 

JOrts 98.238-244,270,282.291.295 

!ome Tax Law 1«1-169 

" Federal Payers. . . 160 

" Payers, Brltlsn . . 160 

" Returns 158.160 

lebtedness of Nations . . .365,366 
National and State. . .363,364.365 
epsn'lence. Declaration of 91,92 
tependent Order ot Odd Fel- 

0W8, Manchester Unity 583 

la, Government of 5>i 

Statistics of 242,366 

ian, American 519 

Commissioners 540 

Population 519 

Wars 610 

of the United States, 

Order of 621 

lana Election Returns . 786 78? 

Population 747 ,748,759 

ians. Disbursements. U. S.360,519 
oor Athletic Records. . . .389,398 
istrlal Occupations, Popula- 
tion Engaged In 128 

:;ommlssion, N. Y 770 

Traffic League, NafI ; 6241 

Worlcers of the World 1251 

ustrles In U. S ^. . .98^^51 

Manufacturing i!45.2?F 

tntile Paralysis 324,325 

uenza. Deaths from 323 

abitants of Earth 75 

of U. S., see "Population." 

irltance Laws 310-316 

atlve and Referendum 851 



Egypt 

" Unions 

" University Union 50 j 

".Woman Suffrage Alliance . . .833 

Interscholastlc Records 390 

Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion 211-212,540 

" Park, Palisades 744 

Intestates' Personal Estate .317-318 

Intimidation Laws 121 

Inventions 15 

Inventors' Guild 6:to 

Iowa Election Returns 787-78'^ 

" Population 747,748.757.759 

Ireland, Area and Pop . 5:i4,523,5iii 

" Government of 537 

Irish Catholic Benev. Union . . .586 
Iron and Steel Statistics . . . 98,245 

Tonnage In U S. 196 

'" Production of 29:) 

Iroquois, Order of 586 

Irrigation In U. 3. (Vol. 1914). 

■ Statistics 148 

Islands, Area of 131 

Italian Government 51 1 

Ministry 551 

Royal Family 51 1 

ftalo-Turkish War (Vol. 1915). 

Italy Army & Navy . 17. 501 

Diplomatic Intercourse .. . .5Ih 
Statistics of 242,243.366,532 



ries. Deaths from 323 

le. Hospitals for 304 

tatlstlcs 327 

tute of Accountants 630 

uctors. College 697 

'ar Possessions of U. 3 137-139 

ance Statistics 378-381 

able of Mortality 380 

rcolleglateMenorahAas'n.. 623 

iecords 386 

'rohibltion Ass'n 321 

oclallst Society 617 

arslty Races 335 

est Rates in N. Y. Savlnss 

Banks 858<¥59 

n Public Debt. U. S . . 98.360 

'ables. Laws 81,83,376 

ior Dept. Offlclals 540 

Secretaries, List 567 

rnal Revenue Collectors. ..160 
Receipts, 

98,158-159,360 

Taxes. . 158-159 

rnatlonal Academy Sciences. 

Arts and Letters 617 

\thlet.lc Competition 410 

" Federation 391 

Jancer Research Society ... 560 
Defence League for Home 

Protection 623 

" Disputes. Soc. for Settle- 
ment 305 

' Industrial Union, The Work' 

ers' 125 

" Labor Unions 123.12! 

" Language CSS 

" Law, American Society 149 

" League of Press Clubs 656 

*" Money Orders 118 

" Order Good Templars 583 

" Order King's Daughters and 

Sons 478 

" Peace Forum 839 

" Peace Plan 843 

" Polar Commission 153 

" Races for America's Cup 
(Vol 1915). 

" Reform Bureau 622 

" Trade Union Statistics 128 



.'APAN, Statistics or, 

213,244.366,532,634 

Japanese Navy 501 

Government 624 

Java. Statistics ol 532 

Javelin Records 394 

leanes Foundation 626 

Jerusalem Church, The New.... 597 

Jert-lsh Calendar 49 

" Churches, N.Y.C 885,890.893.894 

•' Era 27 

Jews. Number of 598,600,605 

John F. Slater Fund 626 

Journalism. School of 633 

Judaism 600 

Judgments. When Outlawed . . .378 
Judiciary of New York City. . . 854 

'• of New York SUte 773-774 

" of States. (See each State 
Election Returns ) 

•■ of United States 542 

fulian Period and Year 27 

furaping Records 391.394,395 

Jupiter, Planet 55 

Jurors, Commissioner. N. Y . . 853 
Tiirv Outv. N. Y. City .... 860 

Justices of N . Y. State 773 

of tne U. S. Supreme Court 

Since 1789 568 

•■ of U. S. Supreme Court 542 

Justice. U. S. Department of 540 



•• ^ . rederal Chlla . ...195 

" Secretary of 539,56» 

Laborers in New York City.. 249-250 

Labrador (Vol. 1915). 

Ladles' Catholic Benev. Ass'n.. .584 

" of the G. A, R 616 

" of the Maccabees 586 

Lake Champlaln Association 21? 

" Mohonk Conference 695 

Lakes, Area Great 57 

Lambs In United States 284 

Land Lowest Point 67 

Measure, Texas TJ 

Offlce Commissioners 640 

Omces, U. S 271 

Lands, Public, In U. S 271 

Langu.igo Ass'n of America, 

Modern 630- 

International 653' 

Languages Spoken 649 

Larceny, Penalty of 298-302 

Lard. Production of 287 

Last Children, Vitality of 32S 

Latin-American Foreign Trade.. 538 

Republics 538 

Latitude and Longitude 63.6* 

Latter-Day Saints 590,S9f{. 

Law Courts. N. Y. City 85* 

Dept., N. Y. City 852 

Examinations 3i8,56(> 

of Contracts 32* 

Schools In U. S 701 

Lawn Tennis Records 405,406 

Laws, Inheritance Tax 310-316. 

New York State 348-355- 

Workmen's Compensatlon252-267 
Lead 292,293 



Kansas Election Returns . 7SS-780 

" Population 747,748.752,759 

Kentucky Election Returns 789-790 

" Population 747.748.759 

Khiva, Statistics of 533 

King. Daughters of the 590 

King's Daughters and Sons. In- 
ternational Order 478 

Knights and Ladies of Honor. . .586 

" Security 586 

'• of Columbus 586 

" of Golden Eagle 586 

" of King Arthur 864 

" of Labor 125 

" of Malta, Ancient and Illus- 
trious 586 

•' of Pythias .584 

■' of Royal Arch 586 

•' of Washington 46;! 

" Templar 588 

Knots and Miles 80 

Korea (Chosen), Statistics of. 366,532 



I.«ader3, District. N. Y. City. . 876 
League for World Peace 757 

" of Amer. Munlcipa'itl.'^ 62L 

Sportsmen ... . 435. 

" of Foreign-Born Citizens. ... • 

" World's Court. . ..r ....*>. 

Leap Year 36- 

Learned Societies. American. 627-631 

Leather Manufactures 245- 

Legal Executions 30* 

" Fraternities 722 

" Holidays 3t 

•' Information 306-321 

Legations. Foreign, In U. S . . . . 54/ 

" Secretaries of 544 

Legislation of N. Y. In 1916 . 348-355- 

'• of 1916, Review 329-347 

Legislature, N. Y. State 771 

Legislatures. Pay and Terms of 

Members 766. 

" (See each State Election Re- 
turns.) 

" State, When Next Sessions 

Begin 766. 

Leiter Family 691 

Length, Measures of 76 

Lenox Library 654 

Lent in 1917 27 

Leper Colonies 32$. 

Letter-Carriers, N. Y City ... .874 
Nat'I Ass'n of . . 96- 

" Postage w 

Liberia, Statistics of . .17,366,531,' 
t.ibraries of N. Y. City 90U 

" U. S 721 

Library of Congress 648,649 

" New York Public ^ 

License Fees in N. Y. City f 

'• Comm'r N Y. City ' 

Licenses, Number of Hotel .... 

Liechtenstein, Statistics of 

Lifeboat Requirements 

Life, Human, Duration of. . . 
" Money Value 

Insurance Statistics 

Saving Corps, U. S.Voluntee 
League, Women's. . . 

" Service 

Light. Velocity of 

Lighthouse Service 

Lightning, Loss by 



General IndeT^oaiintied. 



PAQE 

ilatloD— Continued. 

1 140,141,532 

nark 367,532 

velopment of 199 

th, by Continents 75 

>y Race 75 

atlon of States, see under 
-> names. 

367,532 

id 624,525,530 

' Wiilte Stock .'..'..'.. 754-756 

rlea 367,532 

367,53.' 

367.532 

itain and Ireland, 

524,525,530 

367,532 

139.532 

139,110,747 

orated Places in V. S.,748-751 

367 

ns In U. S 519 

Jal Occupations, by . 128 

,ad 521,525,530 

367,532 

.^an 367,532.624 

ewUh 605,606 

.argest Cities ol the Earth . 760-761 

iOndon 528,760 

/lexico 532,536 

<Iegroes In TJ. 3 761 

.Vetlierlands 367,532 

Newfoundland 524,533 

North America 75 

Norway 367,532 

Panama 532 

'arls 760 

hillpplnea 137,532 

)lar Region 75 

orto Rico 138,532 

ussla 367,532 

"land 524,525,530 

America 75 

367,532 

)n 367 .532 

eriand 367.532 

ey 367.532 

Ilia 532 

Xd states 98,367 .532 

" by states.... 747,759 

ales 525,530 

Grid's 75 

rk. Production of 287 

■t of N. Y., Commerce .... 769 

to Rico. .137,138,139,532,747,751,810 

" Commerce witb. . . 241 

/rta of World, Commerce . 243-244 

ortugal and Colonies 532 

•' Statistics of 17,366,367,532 

Port Wardens, N. Y. City ... 853 
Postal Bank Act (Vol. 1911). 

" Information 107-120 

" Savings System .118.119,371 

' Telegraph Cable Co 204 

ostmaster-General, U. S 539 

ostmasters-General, List of. .567 

" iNEtional .Vss'n 621 

of Cities in United States . . . 54 1 

ost-Offlce Dep't OfHcials 540 

" N.Y. City 874-875 

" Statistics 99,355.875 

" Roads, Rural 589 

Potato Crop in U. S 284 

Precious Metals, Statistics 293 

" Stones 293 

Premiums on Gold 373 

-^paredness. Conference 

Committee on National 439 

byterian Assemblies 604 

Churches la New York City . 

• 886.891,894 

.Church In the TT.S 624 

" General Assembly of .... 602 
byterlans. Number of . . . .599 

ident. Title and Term 829 

Wilson's Note to Belligerent 

Nations 846 

SldentsoftbeU.S 539.826 

Salary 539,823 

jsldeatlal Cabinet 539 



PAGE 

Presidential Cabinet OlticeiB .56&-568 

" Election of 1920.- 823 

" Elections 825 

" Succession 829 

" Term 829 

'• Vote 821329,830.831 

Press, Associated 656 

" Clubs, International League. 656 

" Statistics of 656 

Prices, Food 370 

" of Commodities 382,383 

" of Leading Stocks 356-359 

'• of Wheat 283 

Primary Elections (VoL 1914). 

New York. . .838 
Printed Matter, Postage. . ..108.U4 
Printing and Publishing Sta- 
tistics 657-65S 

Printing Office, V.S 96 

•' Paner T.ax 177 

PrinceEdwardjISlands 534 

Prison Association of >f. Y. . . .321 
Prisoners' Commutation Table.. 302 

Relief Society 321 

Prisons, Comm.. N. Y 770 

■ Federal 304 

Manufacturing Industries . . 248 

N. Y. State 304 

Private High Schools In IT. S . . 69" 
" Normal Schools in U. 3. . . .700 

Prize Fighting Records 415-418 

Probation Association, Nat'l. . 302 
Commission. N. Y. State .309 

Procreation Commission 309 

Produce, Minimum Weights of. . 78 
Production, Countries of . . . .242 

Development 199 

of Books 647 

Professional Schools In U. S . . . .701 
Progress of United States .... 98,99 

Prohibition 296 

" Association, intercollegiate . 321 

" Map 777 

" Nat'l Committee 553 

Promissory Notes and Checks.. .319 
Propagation of the Faith, Soc. . .593 

Property, Church, in U. S 605 

" Loss by Fire 381 

•• Valuation, U. S 365 

Prosecution of Trusts . . 189-191 
Protected Home Circle. ... 587 
Protestant Church, Bishops of ... 608 

" Episcopal Blshoos .608 

" " Church, General Conven- 
tion of 601-602 

r " Churches, N. Y. City, 

887,891,894 
Protestants, Number of . . .599,600 

Provident Loan Society 868 

Prune Production 284 

E»ruS8ia 632 

Public Accountant Examina- 
tions 560 

" Debt of Cities In U. S . . . 762-763 
•• " of States, Cities, Coun- 
ties 364 

•• U. S 98,36.3,364 

" Health Ass' n, American... 629 

Service, U. S 326 

•• High Schools, U. S 699 

" Lands of U. S 271 

•• Libraries 721 

" Library, N. Y 654 

•• Markets, N.Y 903 

" Printer, U. S 54ft 

'• Roads in U. S 692 

" Schools in N. Y. City 896 

" " ofU.S 699,700 

Salaries 99 

" Service Comm'rs 770,853 

" Works Dept., N. Y. City. . . 852 
Publicity of Political Contribu- 
tions (Vol. 1912). 

Publishing and Printing 657-658 

Pugilism 41&-418 

Pugilisiic Champions, and Re- 
ceipts 418 

Pupils, School, In U. 8 698 

Pure Food Law 155- 157 

Pythias, Knights ol 584 



PAC 



QtJALIFTCATIONS, VOTINO 836-? 

Quarantine, New York ik 

Quebec 53 

Qulclisilver Production 29 



Race, PoptrLATioN by ' 

Races of Mankind 

Racing Commission, N. Y. ...' 

" Records 402-404,42 36- 

Racquets, Record 

Railroad Accidents 

" Cars. Cost and Weight. . . 

" Commissions 228-22. 

" Earnings and Expenses. .213-227 

" Employes in U. S ?" 

" Equipment i, 

" Expresses 213-..- 

'• Mileage .213-227,231,233 

" Officials 213-227 

" Passengers Carried 98,230 

" Passenger Stations in N.Y.C.871 

" Pensions In U. S 234 

" Securities Held Abroad, 

American 56 

" Speed Records 2i 

" Statistics of U. S 213-2. 

" Stockholders 23. 

" Stocks and Bond List 356-359 

*• Terminals, Principal 229 

Railway Mileage of the World... 233 

" Passenger Cars 99 

" Property 228 

" Revenue 298 

Railways, British 231 

" Electric 207 

" Freight Carried zr 

"Grouped" by CapltallBf« .... 2. 

" Operated 9 

Rainfall, Normal, in the U. S . . 66 

" of Foreign Cities 67 

Rank of Officers, Army and Navy.49r 

Rape, Punishment for 298-30 

Rates of Postage 107,108,114-11. 

Ratification of the Constitution. 9 

Ratio of Silver to Gold 368 

R6ading Circle. Nat'l 635 

Ready-Reference Calendar 36 

Real Estate in N. Y. City 877 

Rear-Admirals, U. S. Navy 484 

Receipts and Disbursements, 

United States 98.360 

Rechabites, Independent Order 

of 587 

Record of Events 733-743 

Records, Athletic... 388-392,397-400 

Red Cross, American Nat'l 6' 

" Men, Inproved Order of ' 

Referendum, Initiative and .... 
Reform Association, National.. 

Reformatories, N. Y 

Reformed Chruches In N. Y., 

888,' 

" " Number ol 

" Church In America^ .... 

• " Episcopal Bishor 

Regattas in 1916 

Regents' Examinations, N. 

"University of N. Y 

Registration of Mail Matter. 

" of Nurses 

" of Titles to Real Estate. 5 

" of Trade-Marks i. 

Registration of Voters 

Reigning Families of Europe. 
Rejected Constitution of N. Y 

(Vol. 1916). 
Relative Rank In Army an> 

Navy 

Relay Races 392,393,39t> 

Relief Funds In N. Y. City... 502-603 

Religious Education Ass'n .594 

" Societies 590-597 

" Statistics... 59S;fiO0,598-6O5,6O7-609 
Representatives In Congress, 

571-573, 675-577 

" Salary of 573 

Republican Conventions 832 

" National and State Commit- 
tees 822 



4 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGE 

epublican Platforms 882 

spublic. Grand Army of ... . 478 

epu bites and Monarchies 75 

lesearch, Geographical, 1916 . 555-557 
"leservatlons, N. Y. State Parks 

and 744-745 

letired List, Army 462-463 

" Navy 484-435 

venue Collectors, Internal . . 160 

Lav, General 161-180 

of ations 366 

■^ jlpts and Taxes.98, 158-159 365 
.es & Expenditures, State.. 36: 

3 360,365,366 

levoiiitlon. Sons of the 612 

Revolutionary \Var 610 

"^evolver Shooting 438 

.node Island Election Returns, 

813-911 
" Population.747, 750, 753,759 

Rhodes Scholaiship 653 

Rice 242,283,234 

Rifle Shooting 426 

Rifles Used by Countries. . .480-4:; l 

Ritualistic Calendar 49 

livers and Harbors Congress, 

National 97 

■ Principal American 72,73 

" " Foreign 71 

Ro 649 

Roads. Public, in U. S 692 

Roads, Rural Post 589 

Robbery, Penalty for 298-302 

Rockefeller Family 684 

"Foundation 663 

Roentgen Ray Society 629 

Rogation Days 30 

""Oman Catholic Churches in »■. 

Y. City 888,892,894 

" Catholic Hierarchy 607 

"Catholics 598,600 

•' Era 27 

" Numerals 82 

" Weights and Measures 80 

toosevelt, Theo., Pedigree (Vol.1908) 

loque 409 

RoBaecrucian Order in America . . .758 
Rosicruciana In America,Societas.537 



Rowing Records 385-383 

Royal Academy 660-66! 

v Arcanum 534 

" Arch Masons . . 538 

•• Families of Europe . . . .510-51 1,526 

." League 587 

Roumania, Royal Family 512 

" Statistics of 17,366,532 

Rubber Imports 93 

" Production 363 

ilers of France 514 

of Nations 515 

m. Production of 294 

ming Records 391,392,394 

■1 Credits Bill 272-232 

olivery Service 355 

Post Roads 583 

1 Sage Foundation . 652 

Army and Xaw . . I7.vii 

ilomatic Intercourse . . .242,516 

lorta and Exports. . .242,243 

tisticaof .365,367,532 

-n Calendar 19 

mpire 532 

iovernment 514 

mperial Family 512 

'Inistry 554 

thodox Adherents 593 

242,283 

.VUskey 294 



.PE Deposit Co.'s in N. Y. .901 
tialety-First Campaign, Effects 

of the 323 

Federation 548 

Sage Foundation, Russell 652 

SaUIng Vessels 196 

St. Andrew, Brotherhood of . . . .592 

St. Swlthin'8 Day 33 

St. Vincent de Paul Society 692 

Salaries of Governors 766 

Salaries of Members of State 

Legislatures in U.S.. 766' 



of IT. 

of U. 



PAGE 

Salaries of Representatives in 

U. S. Congress 573 

S. Cabinet Officers ... 539 

, _ S. Senators 570 574 

Salary of the President 539-823 

Saloons in N. if. City 297 

S3.It 29 S 

Salvador,' Statistics'. '. '. ! i7,366',532',538 

Salvation Army 595,599 

Samoa 747 

Samoaa Islands 137,139 

Sand Production 293 

San Marino 51 

Santa Claus Association 541 

Santo Domingo, Debt, etc 366 

Saratoga Handicap. ... , 40 

Saskatchewan 534 

Saturn, Planet 55 

Sault ste Marie Canal 71,90 

Savings Banks of N. Y. City . .858,859 
Stat. of. 98,374,375,376 

Saxon Royal Family 51 

Saxony, Statistics of 532 

Scandinavian Foundation 621 

" Society, American 621 

Scarlet Fever, Deaths from . . . . 323 

School Libraries, U. S 721 

.Schools and College Enrolm't, . 7ii0 

" In U. S 698 

" New York City 896-900 

" of Journalism 633 

'• of Pharmacy 70 

" Peace League 845 

" Professional 701 

Sciences, .Vat'l .Academy 630 

" >fat'l Institute Social 631 

Scientific Progress in 1916. . . .553-560 

Scotland 524,525,530 

Scottish Clans. Order of 587 

" Rite Masons 533 

Sculling Marches 385-338 

Sculpture 659-660 

Sculpture Society, National . . 660 

Sea Level, Points Below 65,75 

Seamen's Act . , 197 

Seaports, Greatest 242 

Seasons, The 27 

Seating Capacity of Churches.. 599 

Secret Servif-e. U. S 96 

Securities Held Abroad, Amer- 
ican Railroad 562 

Securities, Government 362 

Seed Planting in U. S 50 

Seeds. Production of 284 

Senate, N. Y. State 771 

Senators, U. S 570,574 

" U. S., Salary of 570,574 

Serbia, Statistics of 17,366,532 

Serbian Royal Family 512 

Seventh Day Adventists 590 

Churches 888,892 

Seven Wonders of the World. . 99 

Sheep 98,270,284,287 

Sheriff, N. Y. City 853 

Sherman Law 191 

Shield of Honor .587 

Shintoism 600 

Shipbuilding in U. S 196 

Shipping, American & Foreign. 196 

Ship Registry 197 

Shootins Records.. 426,431,432.433 
Shorthand Reporters' Examina- 
tion in N. Y 560 

Shot-Ptittin<r Records 394.396 

Shrove Tuesday 31 ,33 

Siam. Statistics of 17,366,532 

Sidereal Day and Year 60 

Signals Weather 68,09 

Signers of the Declaration of 

Independence 92 

" of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, Descendants of . . . 615 

Silk Statistics 98.242 

Silver Bay Association 594 

" Certificates, U. S 98,370 

" Coined 98,369 

" in Circulation 98.372 

" Mines Product 368,369 

•• Production of .,.98,242,293,367-369 

Purchases by U. S 368 

Ratio to Gold 368 



Silver Source of. in U. S 

Simple Interest Table 

Simplified Spelling Board.... 

Single Tax 

Sinking Fund Comm'rs, N. Y. 
" of States 

Sixty-fifth Congress 

Sixty-fourth Congress. 570-57? 

Skating Records 

Slate, Production of 

Slat«r, John F., Fund 

Small Arms, MUitary 

Smithsonian Institution. . 

SnufT 

Sobriquets of Cities in U 

Soccer Football 

Socialist Convention 

" Labor Party 

" Party N.Tt'l Committee 

" " Principles 

" Society, Intercollegiate 

Societas Rosicruciana in An 

Societies in N Y City. .. 
" Learned.. . . . . 

" of War of 1812 

Society, Army of the Cumberb 
Control of Cancer. AmeriCc 
Elect.rioal Development.. . 

for Ethical Culture 

for Propagation of Faith .... 
' for the Promotion of Engi- 
neering Education ■ 

Libraries, U S '. 

' of Amer. Bacteriologists ( 

of American Indians 5 

of .American Wars 6 

of Army of Santiago de Cuba.6 
of Automobile Engineers. . .5 
of Building Commissioners 

and InSDKPtors 

of Chemical Industry 

of Colonial Wars 

of Mayflower Descendants 
of Naval Architects and ' 

rine Engineers. . . . 
of N. Y. State Women.. 

of Tammany 

of the .\rmy and Nav; 
Confederate States. . . 
of the Army of Tennessee 
of the Army of the Potom; 
of the Cincinnati . .6 

of the Sons of Oneida 

Promotion of Useful Giving. 

Sociological Society, Amer 

Solar Day 

" System 

Soldiers' Homes 

Solicitors-General, U S. (Vol. 19. 

Sons and Daughters of Liberty.. 5, 

of Confederate Veterans 61 

of St George 58 

of Temperance 5? 

of the American Revolution. 6 

of the Revolution r 

of Veterans, US 1 

Soudan 531, 

South Africa, Statistics of . .5^4,1. 

African Union ... 366 

America, Population of 

Research I 

and Central Amer. Trade. . .K 
Carolina Election Returns, . 8' 
Population. .717,750,70 
Dakota Election Returns 811-81 
Dakota Population .... 747,750,75 

Southern Baptist Convention.. .59 

Commercial Congress 10 

Conference for Education 

and Industry " 

Medical Ass'n 

States Woman Suffrage Cc 
ference 

Sovereigns of Europe 

Spain, Diplomatic Intercourse 

Importa and Exports 2 

Government ol 

Ministry 

Royal Family 

Statistics of 17,361 

Spanish- American War 



General Index — Continued. 



15 



PAGE 

ipanisli-American War, Naval 

and M ilitary Order 614 

" War Veterans, United 614 

Sp-Jcial Sessions Court N.Y.City 855 

Specific Gravity 83 

Speech, Lincoln's Gettysburg. . . 85 

Speed of Railroad Trains 232 

" ol Steamships 197 

Spelliug Board, Simplified. . . 851 

Spindles in Operation 268 

Spirits, Revenue Receipts 15** 

" Statistics of 159.294 

Spiritualists' AS3'n, National. . . .591 

" Number of 599 

Sporting Records 385-439,848-850 

Spring, Beginning of, 1917 27 

Square Measure 77,79 

Squash Records 400 

Stage, The 675-679 

Stags, Order of 587 

Standard Time 30 

Star of Bethlehem 609 

•• Table 54 

Stars, Morning and Evening. . 27 

State and Navy Neutrality B'rd . .496 

" and Territorial Governments .766 

•' and Territorial Statistics 767 

" Banlis, Loan and Trust Co.s. 

in N. Y. City 857-860 

'■ Board of Elections, N. Y. 770 

" Capitals 767 

" Committees, Political . 821-822 

" Dept. Officials 539 

" Flowers 589 

• Governments 778-820 

•• Indebtedness 364 

" Industrial Comm., N. Y. . . 770 

" Labor Bureaus 122 

•• Legislation, N. Y 348-355 

Review 329-317 

" Legislatures 778-820 

" Motor Car Laws 604-507 

" Officers, N. Y 770 

in N. Y. City 853 

" Officers. (See Each State 

Election Returns.) 
" Presidential Elections.. 778-820,829 
" Railroad Commissioners.. 228. 229 
'■ Revenue & Expenditures 365 

" Secretaries of 566 

" Secretary, U. S 539,566 

States and the Union 797 

" Agricultural Rank of 269 

" Area of 767 

" Debts of 364,365 

•' Greatest Altitudes in 67 

" Population of 747-753,757-759 

Statistical Ass'n, American. . 630 

Statuary Hall, National 148 

Statues in Manhattan 871 

Statutes of Limitations 376 

Steamboat Ins. Service, U. S .194 

Steam, Temperature of 84 

" Ve.ssels Built 99,196 

" Disasters (Vol. 1913) 

Steamships Speed of 197 

Steel 98.242,245,290 

" Tonnage in U. S 196 

Stock Exchange, N. Y 373 

Stockholders, Railroad 231 

Stocks, Prices of Leading. . , .356-359 

Stone Production 293 

Stony Brook Ass'n 594 

Storm Warnings 69 

Strata, Geological 62 

Street-Cle.ining Dept., N. Y. . 852 

" Accidents 323 

" Openings, Bureau, N. Y . . . 852 
Strength of Materials, Tensile.. 84 

Strikes and Lockout.<> 126-12.S 

Students in U. 3 697,698-708 

Submarine Cables 202 

Submarines. U. S 492 

Suburban Handicap 403 

Subway in N. Y 865-86S 

Suffrage, Woman 833 

Sugar 98,242,284,285 

Suicide, Statistics of 303.323 

Sulphur Production 293 

Sulzer Impeachment (Vol. 1914) 



PAGE 

Summer, Beginning of 27 

Sun, Eclipse of 56 

in Solar System 55 

on Meridian 37-48 

Rises and Sets 37-48 

Sunday-School Statistics 708 

Sun's I3istance from Earth. ... 60 
" Right Ascension and Dec- 
lination 58-60 

" Semi-Diameter and Hori- 
zontal Parallax 60 

Sunshine, Duration of 835 

Superintendents of Mints 541 

Supreme Court Justices of U. S 568 

" N. Y 773,854 

" OfU. S 542 

Surrogate's Court, N. Y 85! 

Surveyors of Customs 541 

Sweden, Ministry of 551 

' Statistics of 17,242,366,532 

Swedish Royal Family 513 

Swimming Records 421-423 

Swine in U. S 98.284 

Switzerland Statistics. 17,242,366,532 

Syndicalism 129 

Syrup Production 284 

T 

Tammany, Society of 613 

Taoism 600 

Tariff Commission 177,178 

Rates, U. S 101-104 

Tax Department, N. Y. City. . .853 

Dyestutfs 176 

Estate 169-171 

Income 158-159,161-169 

Corporation ... .158,164 

Laws, Inheritance 310-316 

Rate, U. S. Cities 762 

Rates of States 365 

Receiver of, N. Y. City . . .853 

Sinele 97 

Taxable Property, U. S 365,762 

Taxes, Internal Revenue. . . 153 159 

Tea and Coffee 242,286 

Teachers in U. S. Schools 697 

Telegrams Sent in U. S 99 

Telegraph Statistics 203-205 

Telephone Pioneers of America 623 

' Statistics 204-205 

Telescopes 95 

Temperance, Sons of 584 

■■ Society. National 295 

Temperature of Foreign Cities. 67 

Normal, in U. S 66 

of Steam 84 

Tenement-House Dept., N. Y. . 852 
Tennes.see Election Returns .812-813 

Tennessee Population 747,750,759 

Tennis Records 400,405,406 

Tensile Strength of Materials. , . 84 
Terminals World'sPrincipal ER.22P 
Territorial Expansion of U. S. 136,137 

Territories of U. S 136,767 

Teutonic Peace Proposal 8'<4 

Texas 137 

" Population 747,750,759 

" Election Returns 813-815 

" Land Measure 79 

Theatres, N. Y. City 861-862 

Theatrical Runs 671 

The Hague, Court of Arbitra- 
tion 132 134 

Theological Schools in U. S 701 

Theosophical Society, The. . .591,599 

Thermometers 65 

Thibet, Statistics of 532,538 

Tide Tables 70,71 

Tllden Foundation 654 

Timber in U. S 144 

Time Difference 33 

" Divisions of 30 

" from N. Y. toiOUies 120 

" Measure 79 

•' Standard 30 

Tin Statistics 98.242,291.293 

Titanic Disaster (Vol. 1913) . 

Tobacco 159,242.245,284.285 

" Revenue Receipts 158 

Tolls, Panama Canal 136 

Tonnage, Maritime 196 



PAGE 

Tonnage on canals 74 

■ of Vessels 196.199 

of Warships of the Princi- 
pal Naval Powers 501 

Torrens System 561,562 

Torpedo Boats. U. S 489 

Track and Field Athletics 394,397-400 

Tract Society, American 596 

Trade, Central and S. American 538 

Commission, Federal 180 

Foreign, of U. S 239-241 

Latin-American 538 

Marks, Registration 183,184 

Union League of America, 

National Women's 236 

Union Statistics 128 

Trains, Speed of 232 

Trap Shooting 431,433 

Travelers' Aid Society 119 

Protective Ass'n 617 

Treasury Department Officials . 539 

Notes 370 

Secretaries, List 566 

Tribe of Ben Hur 585 

Tribunals of Egypt, Internat'l . . 134 
Treaty Between the U. S. and 

the Republic of Hayti 564,565 

Trinity Sunday 27 

Triple AUiance (Vol. 1916) . 

Tripoli 532 

Tropical IMonth and Year 60 

Trotting Records 407 

Troy Weight 79 

Trust Companies 371 

Trust Companies, N. Y. City.. .860 
Trusts, Principal (Vol. 1913). 

Prosecution of 189-191 

Tuberculosis, Deaths from... 322,323 

Tumors, Deaths from 323 

Tunis, Statistics of 366,532 

Tunnels of the World 237 

Turf, The American 402-404 

Turkey 17,366 

" Imports and Exports 243 

Turkish Empire 532 

Tutuila 139,532 

Twilight Tables 37-48 

Typhoid Fever. Deaths from 323 

U 

Union op South Africa 531 

• Statistics of .366,532 

" Society of Civil War p'.C 

Unions, Labor 123,124 

Unique Events 743 

Unitarians 599,888,893,895 

United Amer. Mechanics 587 

" " Junior Order 587 

" Brethren Christ. End. Un. . 591 

Number of . . 5i9 

'■ Catholic Works 597 

" Commercial Travelers of 

America 587 

" Confederate Veterans 618 

" Daughters of Confederacy. . 616 
" Historical and Patriotic So- 
cieties of N. Y 847 

" Kingdom 366,524,525 

" Military Order of America .. 619 
" Order of Odd Fellows in 

America 583 

" Spanisii War Veterans . . 614 
" Workmen, Ancient Order of . .587 
United States: 

Aeronantics, in the 474 

Area 98,532 

Army 462-482 

" Appropriations 481 

" Chaplains 476 

" in New York City 711 

" Law 440-451 

" PayTable 477 

Assistant Treasurers 541 

Bankruptcy Law 305 

Board of Mediation and C3on- 

ciliation 129 

Boy Scouts 503 

Brewers' Association 296 

Bureau of Fisheries 192 

" of Mines 24' 

•' of Plant Industry 106 



16 



General Index — Continued. 



PAGE 

United States — Continued. 
Bureau of War Risk Insurance. 141 

Census Information 95 

Chamber of Commerce 185 

Civil Service 186,137 

Coast and Geodetic Survey 85 

" Guard 200 

Constitution 86-90 

Consuls Abroad 544 

Court of Customs Appeals 100 

Courts, United States 542 

'• in N. Y. City 856 

Custom Receipts 98 

Customs Duties 101-101 

Daugliters of 1812 6)6 

Debt 98,363,364,365 

Diplomatic Intercourse. . . .516-519 

Disbursements 98,360 

District-Attorneys 543 

Employment Offices 384 

Expenditures 360,366 

Exports 238,239-245 

Financial Statement 363 

Fislierles 192 

Foreign Loans 360 

" Trade , 338-241 

" Carrying Trade 238 

Forestry Statistics 143-146 

Geographic Board 99 

Government 539 

" Printing Office 96 

Hay Fever Association 620 

Importe and Exports 98,238-245 

Industries 98,245-248 

Insular Possessions 137-138 

Internal Rev. Officers 160 

Receipts,.. 98,158-159 

Taxes 158-159 

Interstate Commerce Com ... 540 

Judiciary 542 

Land Offices 271 

Law for Eight Hours* Work per 

Diem 121 

Lighthouse Service 201 

Manufactures 245-248 

Marine Corps 483 

Marshals 543 

Merchant Marine 196 

Mllltla 482 

Military Academy 464 

Ministers Abroad 51(>-.519,544 

National Parks 142,143 

Nav^'i Academy 500 

" Chaplains 476 

" Consulting Board 499 

•' Enlistment 497 

Navy 474,476,484-501 

" League 487 

" Pay Table 498-499 

■' Recruiting Service . 497 

" Vessels 487-501 

" Yards 496,747 

Notes 98,370 

rasaport Regulations 150-153 

Pension Statistics 98.149 

Population 98,367,532.747,759 

Postma.sters 511 

Post-Offlce Statistics 99,355 

Possessions 137-140 

Printing Office 96 

Progress 98,9S 

Public Debt 98,363 

" Health Service 326 

•• Lands 271 

'* R.oad3 692 

Receipts and bisburs'tjg! .'98,360,366 
Representatives. .571-573,575-577.579 

Revenue 360,366 

Secret Service 96 

Senators 570,574,579 

Steamboat Insp'n Service U.S. . 194 

Supreme Court 542 

'• Justices... 542,568 

Territorial Expansion 136,137 

" Treaty with Republic of 

Hayti 564 

Volunteer As.'j'n 615 

•• Llfe-Saving Corps 200 

Wars 610 

vVarshlp Tonnage 501 

WarsWps 488-496 



PAGE 

United States — Coatinued. 

Wealth of 98 

Universal Brotherhood 620 

Universallst Gen'l Convention. 591 
Universalista in U. S. . . . 599,889,893 

Universities 696-697,702,708 

University Forum of America. . 609 

" State of N. Y . . 631 

Uranus, Planet 55 

Uruguay 17,213,366,532,537,538 

" Exhibition of Manufactures. 695 
Useful Giving Society. . 617 

Usury, Penalty for. . . .376 

Utah Election Returns 815 

" Population 717,750,759 

V 
Valuation, Assessed, op Prop- 
erty 365 

Value of Foreign Coins 361 

Vanderbilt Family 680-681 

Varsity Eights 335 

Vaulting Records 394 

Veds nta Society §90 

Vegetables, Production of . . . 284 
Velocity of Winds in U. S. 69 

Venezuela 17,366,532,538 

Venus, Planet 55 

Vermont Election Returns. . «15,816 

" Population 747,750.759 

Vessels of U. S. Navy 488-495 

•■ Built, American 99,196 

•' Lost on U. S. Coast . . 200 

" Tonnage of 196 

Development.. . 199 

Veteran Corps of Artillery 618 

Veterans, U. S. Sons of 61 ' 

" United Confederate 618 

Veterans of Foreign Wars, U. S 614 
Veterinarv Examinations. . 560 

■' Schools 701 

Vlrelntfl Election Returns. <"6 817 

Virginia Population 717,751,759 

Volunteer Ass'n, United States 615 
Volunteers of America . 595 

Vote for President 825,830 

" of New York City . . 803 

" Popular and Electoral .. . 830-831 

Voters, Qualifications for 836-837 

W 

Wage-Earners in U.S.. 246-218,384 

•• Table, Monthly . . 82 

Wake Island 139 

Wales, Population of. . . .524,525.530 

Walking Records 391 393 

War Chronology, European 840-842 
" Dept. Disbursements . 98,360 

■• " Officials 539 

" of 1812. Society of 618 

" Relief Funds .503-50 3 

■• Headq'ters in N. Y.502-503 
" Risk Insurance, U. S. Bureau 141 

" Secretary, U. S 539 

" Secretaries' List 586 

Wars. US 610 

Warship Tonnage of the Prin- 
cipal Naval Powers 501 

Warships U. S 187-501 

Gunnery of 496 

Washington Election Returns 817,818 

" Headquarters Ass'n 616 

'• Knights of 463 

Washington's Farewell Add's. .93.94 
Washington Population .. . 747,751,759 

Waterfalls of the World 18 

Water, High, at Points on At- 
lantic Coast 71 

" Measures 84 

" Supply Board, N. Y 852,853 

N. Y. City 863 

Wealth of Nations 366 

of U. S 98 

Weather Flags 68 

Rules for Foretelling 65 

Wisdom 65 

Wedding Anniversaries 18 

Weight & Height — Men & Women.83 

" of Water 84 

Weights 76-80 

" Ancient Greek and Roman .. . 80 
" of Great Britain 79 



paqb 

Weights of Produce, Minimum . . 78 
Western Union Telegraph Co. . .203 

West Indies, Statistics 532 

" Point Military Academy. . . .464 

" Virginia Election Returns. . 818 

West Virginia Population. 7i7,751,75!> 

Wheat Harvest Calendar 283 

" Statistics 98,242,283.254 

Whiskey, Production of 294 

Whistle, Weather Signal 68 

White and Negro Population. ..761 

" House Rules 90' 

White Stock, Foreign-Born Pop- 
ulation 754,756 

Whitney Family 691 

Widow Mothers' Pensions. . .580-682 

Wills 321 

Wilson's, President, Note to 

Belligerent Nations 848- 

Winds. Velocity of, in U S. . . 69 
Wine, Statistics of ... .294,295,297 

Winter, Beginning of, 1917 27 

Wireless Telegraphy 209 

Wisconsin Election Returns. . . 819 

Wisconsin Population 747,751,759' 

Withdrawals for Consumption . 159 

Woman Suffrage 833-834 

" Map 777 

Woman's Benetlt Association of 

the Maccabees 687 

" Christian Temperance Union 590 
" National "Made in U. S. 

A," League 757 

" Relief Corps 623 

Women, Height and Weight. . . 83 
'■ in Occupations, N. Y. City. 250 
" Who Have Married Foreign 

Titles, American 520-522 

Women's Fraternities 722 

" Llfe-Saving League 200 

" Peace Party 845 

" Trade Union League of 

America 236 

Wonders of the World, Seven. . 99^ 

Wood Manufactures 245 

" Preservers' Association 146 

Woodland Area In U. S ... 143-146 

Woodmen of the World 587 

Wool Statistics 98.242,270,28* 

Workers In the U. S. by Age and 

Color or Race 250-251 

Workers' International Indus- 
trial Union 125- 

" of the World, Industrial 125 

Workmen's Compensation Law, 

252-26r 

Workers In U. S 250-251 

World Conference on Christian 
Unity (Vol. 1914). 

" Statistics of Countries 532 

'• "The, A Quarter Century His- 
tory of (Vol 1908). 

World's Athletic Records 391,392 

" Court League 461 

■• Crops 283 

'• Development 199 

" Purity Federation 622 

" Young Women's Christian 

"^ Association 59S 

Wrecks, Steamboat 194 

Wrestling 419-420^ 

Wiirttemberg, Royal Family. . . 513 
Wyoming Election Returns. 819,820 
Wyoming Population 747,751.759 



Yachting Records 388 

Yale Boat Races 385 

Year, Ancient and Modern 65 

Years, Length of 60 

Yeoman of America 587 

Young Men's Christ. Ass'ns .... 696 

People's Soc. of Christian 
Endeavor 590 

Women's Christ. Ass'n 596 

' ' Hebrew Ass'n 597 

Yukon Territory 534 



Zinc, Production op 291,293 

Zoological Gardens In N. Y 661 







The 

Germ- Killing Disinfecting 
White Paint 

BOIA 

A snow-white mineral paint in powdered 
form that is ready as soon as it is mixed 
f with water, to apply to wood, brick, stone 
or cement surfaces with either a brush or a 
sprayer. There is no waiting, straining or bother 
in its preparation, and it will not blister, flake 
or peel off, no matter how many coats are put 
on. Combined with this pigment is a germicide 

Twenty Times Stronger 
Than Pure Carbolic Acid 

but it is non-caustic and non-poisonous. It is 
absolutely harmless to man, beast or fowl, but 
it instantly kills lice, mites, fly eggs, etc., and 
the germs of contagious diseases that affect 
either humans or poultry or live stock. 

Used Instead 
of Whitewash 

By the Man in the Country for — 

Stables, poultry houses, hog pens, dairies, creameries, cheese 
factories, etc. Bright, cheerful, sanitary living quarters make 
healthy, better producing flocks and herds. 

By the Man in Town for — 

Cellars, factories, lofts, livery stables, garages, warehouses, ceil- 
ings, etc. Carbola paints health and sunshine into dark comers, 
reduces light bills and makes the premises clean and sweet- 
smelling. 

The cost is little — 10 cents and less per gallon — and everybody can afford to use it. 

Supplied by dealers everywhere. 

It is used and endorsed by many agricultural colleges, experiment stations 

and the best known poultry, dairy and breeding plants in the United States. 

Send for booklet, "The Disinfectant That Paints." 

CARBOLA CHEMICAL COMPANY, INC. 

7 EAST 42d STREET, Dept. 33 16- A NEW YORK CITY 




The ideal of the Steinway Piano is a 
beautiful voice. The work of the Stein- 
way family is to create a sensitive but 
permanent vehicle for its expression. 

"The Steinway realization means the elevation and further- 
ance of the great art of music. Their field is the world and 
mankind is the beneficiary. Rarely have men had such in- 
spiration and more rarely have they risen to the heights or 
possessed such unobscured and prophetic vision of the in- 
tellectual needs." 

Style "V" Upright, Mahogany, $550 
Style "M" Grand, Mahogany, $825 

So\A on easy monthly payments when so desired. 

Old pianos taken in exchange. 

Also pianos for rent at reasonable rates for town or country. 



STEINWAY & SONS 

STEINWAY HALL 
107-109 East 14th Street, New York 

Subway Express Represented by the 

Station at the Door Foremost Dealers Everywhere 



16— B 




Don't Get Bald! 

Here's the kind of a 
man who makes big 
money. Every inch 
of him tells you that. 
He gets what he goes 
after. 

But supposing his hair 
was thin, scraggly and 
dead-looking, or so oily 
that it lay flat and greasy 
on his scalp! Or suppos- 
ing that it was so dry that 
it shed DandrufE all over 
his shoulders! His hair 
would queer his whole 
appearance, wouldn't it? 

Pompeian HAIR Massage 

for Dandruff 

Good-looking hair! Healthy, vigorous hair? Ah, 
there's the final touch to a good money-making ap- 
pearance. Neglect of the hair brings on Dandruff 
and Scalp Itching. Both unsightly and dangerous. 
Premature baldness often results. Pompeian HAIR 
Massage stops Dandruff and Scalp Itching. Pom- 
peian HAIR Massage keeps the scalp healthy, and 
hence the 'hair vigorous, clean and good looking. 

Not oily, nor gummy, nor smelly. Delightful to 
use. Made by the reliable and experienced makers 
of the famous Pom-peian MASSAGE Cream and Pom- 
peian NIGHT Cream. 

Look your best. Keep your hair healthy. Begin 
today. 25c, 50c and $1 bottles at the drug stores. 
Ask for Pompeian HAIR Massage by name. At your 
barber's, too. . ; 

THE POMPEIAN MFG. CO., Cleveland, O. 
16— C 





Just the 
Typewriter 
for You 



The 



SOLD ON JUST THE TERMS 
THAT SUIT YOU 



IDEMINGTOVr 

JlV kJ lUr JW I OI^ X\ 



Our latest product, the latest thing in typewriters, the machine 
for which YOU have Ijeen waiting. 

The Junior is smaller and lighter than t!he Stan'dard Remlngtcm 
models — weighs only 17 pounds. 



It lis simpler. 
needed. 



You can quickly lea.m to opeo-ate dt. No lessons 



It has all the Remington essentials, standard keyboard, standard 
type, and writes letters of standard size — tihe kind with the 
hundred-dollar look. 

It sells for $50 — the first absolutely first-grade machl-ne at a 
medium price. 

It iis sold either for caslh or on easy payments — $5 down and $5 a 
imon'th. 



You aire not asked to buy 
■Ohe Reminston Junior until 
you know exactly what you 
are getting. We wiill send It 
on ten days' examination to 
any address within the first 
and second i>arcel post zones 
of any Remington bnandh 
office. If you decide not 
to keep It, return within ten 
days — no obligation invo'lved. 
Here is your chajice, your 
first cfhance, to get tihe 
typewriter you have always 
needed. Cut out this coupon 
and send it to us. 



MAILTHE COUPON TODAY 



Remington Typewriter Company 

(Incorporated) 

327 Broadway, New York 

Send me a Remington Junior Type- 
writer, price $50, on free examina- 
tion. It Ig understood that I may 
return the machine, if I choose, 
within ten days. If I decide to pur- 
chase it. I agree to pay for it In 10 
monthly payments of $5 each. 



16.D 



World Almanac. 



J 



ALL STEEL FIREPROOF $85 up 

Angle and Wood Frame IMMEDIME DELIVERY 




PHONE— BEDFORD 29. 



Portable 
Garages 



William Buchanan 

Dent. O 

488 SUMNER AVENUE 

■Factory: Brooklyn, N. Y. 



GUARANTEED 





ISTS 



ALL TRADES, PROFESSIONS 
Manufacturers, Social, Farmers* Financial, Etc. 

^ Our guarantee means that we refund postage on all mail matter 
A returned by the postoffice for any cause, over and above a 

X very small percentage for non-delivery. 

# Ask for estimates on addressing, folding, fac-simile letters. 



I United States Addressing & Printing Company | 

Z 26 Murray Street, New York 

16— E 



ELECTRICAL DEVICES 




RaOiaatOriU 



HOTPOINT RADIANT GRILL:— 
Operates from any lamp socket; boils, 
broils, fries and toasts either above or 
below the glowing colls. Performs any 
two operations at same time at cur- 
rent cost of one. Has three-heats; 
food may be started cooking on High 
heat and finished on Medium or Low; 
saves current. Furnished with two 
dishes and cover, which serves as re- 
fleeter or griddle. 

Dia. 714- inch PRICE $6.50 




Guaranteed Electric Irons 



The Iron with the hot point, 
cool handle and attached stand. 
Heating element guaranteed 
for ten years. Highly polished 
nickel finish. Furnished com- 
plete with eight feet cord and 
attachment plug. 

3 lb. Iron, $4.00 

5 and 6 lb. Iron, $4.00 




THE LAST WORD IN 
VACUUM CLEANERS 

A high grade Electric Cleaner and Sweeper com- 
bined. having a revolving brush inside the nozzle 
which picks up threads, lint, etc.. and raises the nap 
of the carpet. Light in weight. Made of aluminum. 
Fitted with high grade horizontal motor. Has control 
switch in handle,. Twelve-inch nozzle. Very economical 
to use. Consumes one cent's worth of current per 
hour. Fully guaranteed. 

Price, $25.00 



SEWING MACHINE MOTOR 
"SEW-E-Z" 

Here's the wonderful little Sew/ng Machine Attachment 

which runs the machine for you. At last you can sew 

without foot-pedaling; absolutely without the 

Slightest effort. This simple little wonder-worker 

changes your Sewing Machine (old or 

new) into an electric self-operating labor 

saver. 

A slight pressure of your toe on the foot 
control starts the machine. Just press a 
bit harder to go faster. 

Motor wound for operation on 110 to 120 
velts on either A. C. or D. C. 25 to 60 
cycles. A slight charge for other cur- 
rents is made. 

Sewing Machine Motor complete. .. .$15.00 

ALPHA ELECTRIC CO., Inc., 116-118 W. 29th St., N. Y. 

16-F 




MOST REMARKABLE 

are all of the New Models of the 




MULTIPLEX 
HAMMOND 
TYPEWRITER 



clergymen, physicians, instruc- 



FEATURES 
Instantly Interchangeable Type 

365 varieties; over 50 different languages. No bad aJiglunent. No Im- 
perfect Impressions of type as stroke is automatic "Just torn the knob. 

The Regular Multigraph 

is the standard for executives, authors, 
tors and students. 

Aluminum Multiplex 

the ligihtest and most portable of high-grade typewriters, weighing about 
11% pounds. 

Mathematical Multiplex 

carrying about 160 different characters, for the writing of all algebraic 
equations and mathematical problems — and all other kinds of work. 

Reversible Multiplex 

when the writing is reversed from English, as in Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, 
Persian, etc., immediately adapted to English also. 

Multiplex Copy-Writer 

has variable spacing of letters and many styles of type. "Your Copy is 
your Proof." As is the copy so will be the style of the printing. 

wide Carriage Multiplex's 

writing fines from regular up to 20 inches long. All Hammonds, however, 
accommodate any width of paper. 



Every Model 



is fitted to accommodate our many 
styles of type and our great variety 
of languages. Two sets on a ma- 
chine at once. "Just Turn the 
Knob" and presto there is one or 
the other. Other changes on the 
moment. 



Beauty of Work 



Is a pre-eminent feature in all of 
its models. 



Service 



to business Institutions exceeds 
and excels any other one class of 
its usage. 



Catalogues gladly sent for the asking 
Dealerships and Agencies are highly profitable 

THE HAMMOND TYPEWRITER CO. 



L 



581 East 69th Street 



New York City, N. Y., U.S.A. 



16-G 



Greater circulation than the 

largest periodical or newspaper is 
the number of daily readers of letters 
written by the Oliver. 



This wonderful result 
of maximum efficiency in 
typewriting is because the 
Oliver Typewriter has 
combined 

Easy operation 
Light touch 
Phenomenal speed 
Perfect alignment 
Durability and me- 
chanical simplicity 
Neater work 
Improved keyboard 

600,000 satisfied users 
have put us to the proof 
and enjoyed the benefits 
that come from good work 
economically accom- 
plished. 



Your typewriting ef- 
ficiency can be improved 
by Oliver methods. We 
were the first to intro- 
duce visible writing and 
so revolutionized the ma- 
chine writing world. 
Other improvements of 
equal importance are now 
available. 




Decide for yourself as did 
the 600,000 to get the 
facts from 



The OLIVER HPEWRITER COMPANY 

OLIVER TYPEWRITER BUILDING, CHICAGO 

Or telephone the nearest branch one In all principal cities. 

16— H 



"THE DUPLEX 

£M2s^ Perfecting Web Press 



FOR NEWSPAPERS 




Illustration of RepuT^r Style Model "B" Press. Other models are similar In ereneiral 
construction with differences required by tiheiir varIo\ia capacities. 

m,\ 11-4, 6 m I nm, Mm, cui, \{\\m m Deiiveiet qi 3,000 m Hour 

10(161 B-4, 6 Qfld 8 Pfloes, " " " " 01 6,000 PerHOllf 

iodeiCHjflnUPaoes, " " ' otisoo m Hour 

"" ■ DHUofioPfloa' QI 6.000 per Hour 



These presses are especially designed for the various needs of the in- 
termediate field of weekly and daily newspapers having circulations varying 
from 1,000 up to 6,000 or 7,000. Printing from the type form and on a 
continuous web, this line of presses is the most economical possible for 
such papers, and with the range of models offered, every publisher can 
find just the machine for his requirements. With this range of speed (not 
possible in any other style of flat bed press except the Duplex), a press 
amply adequate for future increase can be installed. 

Very simple in operation, convenient, using minimum power. Extremely 
economical in operation. Detailed pressroom figures furnished on application. 

Can also be used for cheap class of book and ca-talof work, etc. 

Catalog and complete information sent on request. 

Duplex Printing Press Co. 

BATTLE CREEK, MICH., U. S. A., or 
WORLD BUILDING - NEW YORK CITY 

16— K 




Marguerite Snow — Staning in "Metro" Pictures — is considered one of 

the most beautiful girls on the screen. To guard her 

precious beauty, she uses every day 

SempreQoyine 

Pronounced Sem-prau Jo-ve-nau 

Meaninst "Always Youn^^ 




i-TKeRnk 
(gmplexidn (§ke 



A unique Pink Cake. Keeps the 
skin soft and smooth and the 
complexion clear. Convenient 
and economical to use. A trial 
will convince you. Can be ob- 
tained at all Drug and De- 
partment Stores. 

Or send 4 cents for 7 -day 
trial cake to-day. 

Marietta Stanley Company 

Dept. 3401 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 



16-L 



The Springfield Metallic Casket Co. 

Springfield, Ohio, U. S. A. 

Burial Caskets of Quality 
Unsurpassed Construction 

The Springfield Metallic Caskets are made of the best grades of 
Bronze, Copper, 'Cast Metal,, Armco-Purity metals. More than seventy- 
five styles and combinations', which meet the demands of those wishing 
the very best as well as those of the average well-to-do. 

They protect the bodies of your dead from the hideous violations of 
the earth. They keep the remains sacred forever. In. points of design, con- 
struction and ^beauty we positively give the best value for the money, 
being far superior to a mere wooden casket. 





Copyright— C. Deuhle, Canton, O. 
The McKinley Monument at Canton, 
OUo. In this tomb lie the remains 
of the late President McKinley and 
his wife in Springfield Metallic Cas- 
kets of bronze. 



Tbe Springfield State Bronze 

The "Washington" 

Dark Statuary Bronze finish, highly polished. 
The most perfect burial receptacle known. U. S. 
Letters Patent No. 610537. 

Also manufacturers of Steel and Armco Purity 
Metal Burglar-proof Grave Vaults. Copper or 
Zinc metallic inner linings, Casket Carriages and 
Pedestals. A large and varied line of Casket 
Hardware in a variety of finishes. Cloth covered 
wood caskets, dry goods and sundries. Send for 
catalogs. 

"The Final Tribute" tells of the efforts of all 
peoples, even savages, to preserve the bodies of 
their dead. Send for it. 

For sale by the leading Funeral Directors 
everywhere. 

16-M 



Going up 


9 

• 


f@^^" 


■ (^^*f 


/ 


AGE -SO «3500 


//^\\ 




/^*l^ 


(j^rW^ 


r 


AGE .40 «300 /^f 4*^ IaS \ 


\^^^S^^!**^ / AGE 30 «700 
AGE 20 9 600 -. f^^if* 


down?^ 

-' ASG SO «500 1 



LJERE is your future charted for you, based on the actual average 
*^ earnings of trained and untrained men. 

Which way will you go? You'll either go up, through training, to 
a position that means good money and more comforts increasing as 
the years go by, or you'll go down, through lack of training, into the 
ranks of the poorly paid, and the usefid, earning period of your life will 
close much earlier. 

It rests entirely with you which way you go. You can make or break your 
own future. And now is the time to decide. Not next year, not next month, but 
now. You can go up if you want to. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

International Correspondence Schools 
Box 4388, Scranton, Pa. 



You can get the training that wiU 
command a trained man's salary. 
The International Correspondence 
Schools have helped hundreds of 
thousands of men to qualify for ad- 
vancement. Let them show you how 
you can prepare yourself, in your own 
home for the position you want in 
the work you like best. 

At least find out what the I.C.S can 
do for you, by marking and mailing 
this coupon. It will be the first step 
upward. 

Choose your future from 
this Ust, then get this cou- 
pon into the mail today. 



I 



Please explain, without obltgfatlag me, how I can quality 
lor the position before which I mark X. 



n ADVERTISING MAN 

Q Salesman 

O Commercial Law 

D BUSINESS 

a Certified Pub. Aecoantant 

D Bookkeeper 

Q Stenographer 

a ILLUSTRATOR 

G Window Trimmer 

D Show -Card Writer 

D Civil Service 

D TEACHER 

D Common School Subjects 

Q MECHANICAL ENOINKKK 

B Mechanical Draftamaa 
CHEMIST 



D ELECTRICAL ENGIMEEB 

D Electrician 

D Electric Car» 

D Telegraph Engrineer 

D Practical Telephony 

O Railroader 

D ARCHITECT 

D Contractor & Builder 

D CIVIL ENGINES 

O Surveying & Mapping 

D STEAM ENGINEER 

a MINING ENGINEER 

n Metallur«ijt 

D AGRICULTURE 

a Poultry Raising 

a AUTOMOBILES 



Name . 

Street 
Si No., 



I City. 
16-N 



State- 



The Great Temperance Agent 

Drunkenness was formerly a great evil In this country. In the Colonial 
days, in the Revolutionary period, and in the era which preceded the Civil 
War, overindulgence in drink was common in all grades of society. Many 
persons who are not yet willing to call themselves old, can remember a time 
\sihen it was not uncommon for the leading figures in a community — 
lawyers, physicians, hankers, merchants, and even clergymen — ^to drink 
heavily. The evil was recognized, but there seemed to be no effective 
remedy. Some States took the drastic step of adopting prohibition, but find- 
ing it ineffective, one after another gave it up, until only two or three 
retained it. 

Today no such conditions prevail. Insobriety is not tolerated in any call- 
ing of life or in any walk of society. Habitual open drunkenness has well- 
nigh disappeared. What has caused this revolution in social habits in half 
a century? There have been many circumstances which have contributed 
to it, but there has been one great factor — 

Temperance Has Advanced Coincidentally 
With the Growth in Popularity of Beer 

There can be no question of 'the fact that beer has contributed greatly 
to the cause of temperances. It contains so small a percentage of alcohol 
that it cannot properly be classed as an intoxicating beverage, which fact 
is recognized by many 'European Governments in their systems of licensing 
and taxation. It is wholesome, appetizing, nourishing, pure, and the best 
substitute for the heavy alcoholics. These are the reasons for beer's popu- 
larity and for its great success as a temperance agent. 

Of recent years prohibition has again been persistently advocated in the 
United States. A number of States have been persuaded to adopt it, and 
efforts have been made to foist it upon the whole nation. The economie 
effects of prohibition are dire; it is a breeder of hypocrisy and law-breaking. 
It is in prohibition territory that "moonshine" distilleries multiply, that the 
"bootlegger" plies his trade, and that the "blind tiger" has its lair. No 
official machinery has been devised that can cope with the vendors of illicit 
liquor in those regions. 

Prohibition Is An Obstacle in the Pathway 
of True Temperance 

By its encouragement of the use of ardent spirits, prohibition increases 
the evils, which its sincere supporters look to it to cure. The harmless 
beverages, such as beer, are driven out, and in their place come the heavily 
alcoholic drinks which are readily concealed and easily transported. Nos- 
trums purporting to be tonics and containing much alcohol are sold to 
innocent purchasers. The use of dangerous drugs almost always increases. 

Do not be cajoled into lending aid to Prohibition! 

18. —-Advertisement. 




HATCH BY ELECTRICITY 

THE MODERN METHOD 

The "liO-Glo" Incubators and Hovers are the Final Expres. 
sion of the Art of Incubation. Absolute control 01 

Heat— Moisture— Ventilation 

Insures bigger hatohes of healthier, stronger chicks. 
Tlieir all-metal construction mafces them 

Fireproof— IndestructibSe— Dependable 

They eEmdnajte all smoke, smell, worry, chilling and over- 
heating ramam sweet and sanitary, making incubation a posi. 
live source of pleasure and profit r -u .. ,• ■ .,,, ^^'^ v'*- *^'^,®"P^°°^ j 

Chicks are atronger and surer of life, because of the vitahzing by rhe -National Board 
influence of electrical current upon the egg germ. Of Dire Underwriters. 

"LO-GLO" ELECTRIC HOVERS 

Can be set indoors or out. merely a question of wire. Broods one or fifty thousand chicks 
better than "mother hen." All-metal construction, fireproof, sanitarj- and fill eT«ry possible 
requirement. Overcjowdiug impossible. 

"LO-GLO" EGG TESTERS 

Aie wonderfully efficient, cam also be used as a candling box. all-<metal and fireproof. Make 
the egg shell praotically transparent. 

"LO-GLO" CHICK RUNS 

All-metal for use vith our Hovers. Weather, cat and rat proof. Id^eal for baby chicks. 

Keep up with the times and equip with the all-metal, no-trouble, no-worry, sure -tto -catch 
"Lo-Glo " A trial will convince and convert you. Write now for interesting fi»e booklet. 

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16— P 



Rupture's Worst Enemy 





Get Rid of Elastic Bands, Springs 

and Leg-Straps. Such Harness Has 

Forced Thousands to Undergo 

Dangerous Operations 

Trusses like those shown above — the belt and 
leg-strap, elastic and spring contraptions sold by 
drug stores, surgical supply houses and many 
self-styled "Hernia Specialists" — make life 
miserable for everybody who wears them. 

And — even when drawn so tight you can 
scarcely stand to keep them on — they do no 
good whatever. 

Instead, they often do immense harm — they 
squeeze the rupture, often causing strangulation 
— dig into the pelvic bone in front — press against 
the sensitive spinal column at the back. 

The Plain Truth Is This 

Rupture — as explained in our free book — can't 
be relieved or cured — can't even be kept from 
growing worse — unless constantly held in place. 
Just as 3 broken bone can't "knit" unless the 
parts are held securely together. 

And — just as a bandage or splint is the only 
way a broken bone can be held — the right kind 
of a truss is the only thing in the world that 
can keep a rupture from coming out. 

What a difference it will make when you get 
that kind of truss! 

And you can get exactly that kind of truss — 
without risking a cent of your money. 

It's the famous Cluthe Truss or Clitthe Auto- 
matic Massager. 

Far more than a truss — far more than merely 
a device for holding the rupture in place. 

So different from everything else for rupture 
that it has received 18 separate patents 

Thousands say it is as comfortable as their 
clothing. 

No belt, elastic belt or springs around your 
waist, and no leg-straps. Self-regulating, self- 
adjusting. Can't shift or slip — the only truss in 
existence that is honestly guaranteed to hold 
your rupture every minute of the day. 

60 Days' Trial to Prove It 

We have so much fait'h in the Cluthe Truss — we 
have seen ii ■work wonders foi- so many othei-s — 
that we want lo make one especially for your case 
and let you try it on the most liberal trial plan 
ever offered to ruptured people for their protection. 

We'll ^ve !?ou 60 days' trial to prove that fWs 
tniBS will keep your rupture from coming out. 
■when you are working a.nd at all other time.s — 
tihat it will put an end to the trouible you've here- 

16— Q 



tofore had ttitli your lupture. If the trial we 
allow you doesn't pro\« it then the truss won't 
cost you a cent. 

How It Holds and Strengthens 

In addition to holding the rupture the 
Clut'lie T'lus.^ or Clut'he Autouiat.ic Matwaerer is 
coustaatly giving a strengthening massage 
to the weak ruutuied parts. 

All automaticailly — tho massage goes on all day 
lonfr.. nil without an\ attention whatever from you. 

This massage — which i^trengthens just as exercise 
strengthens a weak arm — is so remarkahly bene- 
ficial — that nearly all feel better and stronger^ 
get immediate relief after tiyiug this tiuHS. 

Get World's Greatest Rupture Book 

Don't go ton letting your r"upture get woiec — 
don't spend a cent on accouut of .a our lupfrure until 
you get our book of advice — which two c«nts for 
a stainij — or a penny for a postal will hiing you. 

This remaika'ble book — cloth-bound, 06 pages. 
21 separate articles, and 10 pliotograpliic pictiu-cs 
— took us over 40 yeais of day-after-day experience 
to find out all the facts we've put in it. 

It explains the dangers af operations and why 
they don't alwa.vs cme to stay cured. Tells why 
— ^for the protection of the publio-^rug stores 
should not be allowed to sell trusses. 

Exiplains why belt, spring and elastic trusses 
can do no good. Exposes the humbug "methods," 
"lacks." ''appliances.'' "plasters." ".systems," etc. 

..ind tells all about the Clutlie Tru£s — just how 
it hold.f — how it is water-proof — how it ends con- 
stant expense — how you can get it on 60 days' trial 
--thus giving you plenty of time to make sure of 
its wonderf'Ul holding and strengthening powers — 
aud gives names .tnd addressee of over 5.000 people 
wlio have tried it and want you to know about it. 

Write for it to-day — don't put it off — this book 
may be the means of adding many years to your 
life and of restoring you to fidl strength and 
usefulness. 

Just u.se the coupon, or simply say in a letter 
or postal. "Send me the Book." In \viitiTig us 
please give oiu- box number as below. 

— Box 12— CLUTHE SONS — | 

125 East 33rd St., NEW YORK CITT? 

Send me your Free Book on The Cure of 
Kupture. 



Name 




Occurrences During Printing. 



17 



OCCURRENCES DURING PRINTING. 

Important happenings while this latest edition ol the 1917 Almanac was being printed, but too 
late lor Insertion in their respective pages. The readers of the Almanac are requested to observe these 
additions, corrections, and changes, and It would be well to make note of them on the pages Indicated. 

620. 



American Women Who Have Married Foreign 
Titles — Miss Catherine Brltton married Prince 
Alfred Zuhohen Lohe-Schillingfurst, attache of 
the Austro-Hungarian Embassy, 1916. 

670. Sixty-fourth Congress. Senate — Senator WlUard 
Saulsbury, Dem., of Delaware, has been desig- 
nated President pro tempore. 

671. Sixty-fourth Congress. House of Representa- 
tives — Speaker, Champ Clark, Dem., of 
Missouri; Clerk, South Trimble, Dem., of 

686. Loyal Orange Institution (Orangemen) — 
Supreme Grand Lodge of the United States, 
recognized by and in affliiation with the Loyal 
Orange Institution throughout the world. 
George Stewart, Supreme Grand Master, 
Clinton, Mass. Rev. George T. Lemmon, 
Supreme Grand Secretary, Sand Lake, N. Y. 

613. Military and Patriotic Societies. Pioneers of 
America — National headquarters, Hamilton 
College, Clinton, N. Y. For boys of ages nine 
to twelve. Preparatory to the Boy Scouts of 
America. 

782. American College Fraternities — Delta Zeta 
Fraternity lor Women; founded October 24, 



1902. Active chapters, 13: alumnae, 6. Grand 
Secretary, Rennie S. Smith (office Y. W. C. A.), 
Hamilton, Ohio. 

727. Death Roll of 1916 — Dr. Walter B. Gunnison, 
Principal of Erasmus Hall High School, died 
Dec. 19; Rev. Dr. James M. Taylor, President 
Emeritus of Vassar College, died Dec. 19. 

766. State and Territorial Governments — Gov. 
John B. Kendrick, of Wyoming, will take office 
of United States Senator, March 4, 1917. 
Gov. Nat E. Harris, of Georgia, holds office 
until July, 1917. 

850. Bicycling — New York Six-Day Race in Madison 
Square Garden, December 18-23, 1916. Final 
standing: (1) Egg and Dupuy, 2,624 miles, 4 
laps, 49 points; (2) Root and Madden, 2,624 
miles, 3 laps, 69'/i points; (3) Spears and 
McNamara, 2,624 miles, 3 laps, 88 points; (4) 
Kaiser and Cameron, 2,624 miles, 3 laps, 108 
points; (5) Hill and Drobach, 2,624 miles. 3 
laps 116'4 points: (6) DeBaetesand Walthour, 
2,624 miles, 3 laps, 120 points. 

857. Banks in Manhattan — Chatham and Pbenlx 
Bank has moved from 192 Broadway to 149 
Broadway. 



PRINCIPAL BATTLESHIPS OF NAVAL POWERS. 

The table of battleships of foreign naval powers has been purposely omitted from this volume owing 
to the impossibility of obtaining accurate data due to war conditions. For table referred to see 1916 

ALMANAC. 



THE ARMED STRENGTH OF THE WORLD. 

Complied from the latest available data, but figures applying to the armies and navies of nations at 
war are subject to material change because of losses in battle, usual'y estimated at 10 per cent. For the 
Army and Navy of the United States, see pages devoted thereto. [Consult Index.) 

LAND FORCES OF THE PRINCIPAL STATES OP EUROPE, AND OF JAPAN; ALSO OF THE 
SECONDARY STATES OF EUROPE, ASIA, AND AMERICA. 



Countries. 



Germany 

France 

Russia 

Austria-Hungary 

Italy 

Great Britain.. . 

Japan 

Spain 

Belgium 

Netherlands... 

Denmark 

Sweden 

Norway 

Portugal 

Bulgaria 

Serbia 

Roumania 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

Greece 

China 

Mexico 



Peace 
Strength. 



a c 870,000 

6790.000 

1,384,000 

436.035 

d306,000 

el38,497 

250,000 

/132,000 

58,033 

' a a 23,000 

♦ O 13,725 
•75.255 
♦18,000 
A30,000 

66.583 

38,316 

113,257 

♦142,390 

210.000 

60,000 
400,000 

43,969 



Re- 
serves 



Total 

War 

Strength 



1.251 

1 



,530,000 

,516.507 

,016,000 

.163,965 

994.200 

,743,986 

,250,000 

,050,000 

291,967 

297,000 

71,609 

524,745 

92,000 

230,000 

433,417 

317,139 

466,743 

397,610 

890,000 

390,000 

300,000 

42.753 



5,400,000 
5,300,000 
5,400,000 
3,600,000 
3,-380,200 
3,000,000 
1,500,0.10 



182,000 
350,000 
320,000 
85,331 
600.000 
110,000 
260,000 
500,000 
355,455 
580,000 
540,000 
1,100,000 
450,000 



Total 
Avail- 
able, 
Unorg'd 



8,162,400 
2,620,302 
.),419,920 
6,376,466 
3,739,357 
7.427,000 
8,3)9,372 
2,889,197 
1,164,277 
851,635 
469,681 
527.716 
368,3.56 
871,476 
367,503 
554,143 
921,602 
221,244 
3,174,780 
514,260 
700,000163,430,000 
86.7421 3,013,595 



Countries. 



Brazil 

Persia . . . 

Siam 

Argentina . 

Chile 

Peru 

Venezuela. . 

Bolivia 

Colombia. . . . 
Guatemala . . 
Ecuador. . . 
Salvador . . . 
Nicaragua . . . 
Uruguay.. 

Hayti 

Montenegro. . 
Costa Rica. . . . 
Panama (police) 

Cuba 

Paraguay 

Liberia 

Honduras 



Peace 
Strength. 



33,000 
51,450 
15,000 
23,000 
19,666 

5,; 

9,600 

3,153 

5,1 

7,000 

7,810 

4,000 

2.500 

10,500 
5.000 

35,000 

1,000 

400 

11,034 

3,000 

600 

2.00'i 



Re- 
serves 



Total 

War 

Strength 



527,000 



392,000 
80,333 
17,192 
80,400 
85,000 
79,200 
78,535 
87,190 
65,716 
32,500 

170,000 
15,928 

None 
51,208 

None 

None 
67,000 

199,400 
53.284 



560.000 

150.000 
80.000 

415,000 

100,000 
22,480 
90.000 
88,153 
85,000 
85,535 
95,000 
69,716 
35,000 

180,500 
20,928 
35.000 
52,208 

None 
44,405 
70,000 

200,000 
55,284 



Total 
Avail- 
able, 
Unorg'd 



4,301,643 

1.714,000 

1.560,655 

1,078,576 

610,340 

901,569 

461,157 

415,945 

1,009,521 

338,298 

205,000 

175,45' 

85,00u 

75.372 

479.072 

68,200 

29,990 

66,948 

449,420 

90,000 

219,400 

56,116 



The actual amounts of the casualties of the several belligerent countries being unknown, therefore, they 
have not been considered. 

The data given Includes only forces available In, and by the particular countries, without reference to 
colonial possessions, except as noted below. 

♦ MlUtia basis or system, a Average annual contingent Included. 6 France, colonial army 134,000 
additional; part of this force In France c Germany, colonial army 10,599 additional, a Italy, colonial 
army 23,000 additional, e Great Britain, colonial army 117,517 additional. /Spain, colonial army 10,920 
additional, g Netherlands, colonial army 40,000 additional, h Portugal, colonial army 8,105 additional. 

NOTB — The number of effectives available would be from 50 to 75 per centum of the total number of 
avallables. The figures under "Total Available, Unorganized" are arrived at by taking a fixed percentage 
ol the total population, which Is supposed to represent the males of military age. 



18 



Famous Waterfalls of the World. 



MEN'S DRESS CHART. 

The foilowins is a specification of the proper attire for men on various occasions in the Fall and Winter, 
1916-17, prepared and copyrighted by The Haberdasher, New Yorlc. 



Day Wedding, 



Afternoon Call and Matinee 
Reception. 

Coat and Overcoat — Black cutaway, Chesterfield 

Overcoat. 
Waistcoat — To match coat, or white. 
Trousers — Striped gray worsted. 
Hat — High silit, with felt band, 
rihlrta and Cuffs— Stiff or pleated white. 
Collar — Wing or polie. 
Cravat — Pearl once-over, Ascot, or four-in-hand, 

to match gloves. 
Gloves — Pearl suede or glace, to match cravat. 
Boots — Patent leather, buttoned kid tops 
Jewelry — Pearl or moonstone links, studs and 

cravat pin. 

Business, Lounge and Morning Wear. 

Coat and Overcoat — ^Jacket, Chesterfield overcoat. 
Waistcoat — To match jacket, or fancy fabric 
Trousers — To match jacket, or of gray striped 

fabric with dark jacket. 
Hat — Derby or soft 

Shirts and Cutis — Pleated or neglige lancy. 
Collar — Fold or wing 
Cravat — Four-In-hand or tie. 
Gloves — Tan cape or chamois 
Boots — Laced caif or russet, high or low. 
Jeweh-y — Pearl, gold, or jewelled links, gold chain. 

Motoring, Golf, Driving, Country. 

Coat and Overcoat — Norfolk or jacket, belted or 

Chesterfield overcoat. 
Waistcoat — To match jacket, or fancy. 
Trousers — To match jacket or flannel knickers for 

field sports 
Hat — Cap, or soft hat. 
Shins and Cuffs — Neglige with soft cuffs 
Collar — Fold or soft outing collar 
Cravat — Four-in-hand or tie stock for riding 
Gloves — Tan cape or chamois. 
Boots — Laced calf or russet, high or low. 
Jewelry — Pearl or gold links, gold chain. 



Afternoon Teas, Ciiurcii and Promenade. 

Coat and Overcoat — Black cutaway or Chesterfield 

overcoat. 
Waistcoat — To match coat, or of fancy fabric. 
Trousers — Gray striped worsted 
Hat — High silk or soft. 
Shirts and Cuffs — Pleated white or lancy. 
Collar — Wing or fold. 
Cravat — Once-over or four-in-hand. 
Gloves — Gray suede or reindeer 
Boots — Patent leatlier or dull calf, laced or buttoned 

kid tops. 
Jewelry — Gold or jewelled links, studs and cravat pin. 



Evening Wedding, Bail, Reception, 
Dinner and Tlieatre. 



Formal 



Coat and Overcoat — Swallowtail, cape, skirted or 

Chester^eld overcoat. 
Waistcoat — White single or double-breasted of 

pique, linen or silk 
Trousere — Same material as ooat. 
Hat — High silk, with felt band. 
Shirts and Cuffs — Stiff linen or pique white. 
Collar — Poke, wing, or lapfront. 
Cravat — White tie of plain or figured pique or linen. 
Gloves — White glace or reindeer; white cape for 

theatre. 
Boots — Patent leather buttoned tops, patent 

leather pumps. 
Jewelry — Pearl or moonstone links and studs, or 

platinum bar-chain. 

Country Dance, Informal Dinner, Club, Stag, 
and at Home Dinner. 

Coat and Overcoat — Jacket, black or Oxford, 
Chesterfield overcoat. 

Waistcoat — Black, silk or linen, single or double- 
breasted. 

Trousers — Same material as jacket. 

Hat — Derby or soft. 

Shirts and Cuffs — Pleated white of linen or pique. 

Collar — Fold or wing. 

Cravat — Black silk tie. 

Gloves — Tan' cape, chamois, or gray suede. 

Boots — Dull calf, laced tops or gunmetai pumps. 

Jewelry — Gold or jewelled links and studs, gold 
bar-chain. 



BIRTHSTONES. 

Liot is adopted by the j^merioan National Ketail Jewellers' Association in convention Aug. 8, 1913, 



January — Garnet. 
February — Amethyst. 
March — Bloodstone and aqua- 
marine. 
April — Diamond. 
May — Emerald. 



June — Pearl and moonstone. 
July — -Ruby. 

August — Sardonyx and peri- 
dot. 
September — Sapphire. 



October — Opal and tourma- 
line. 

Novemlber — Topaz. 

December— Turquoise and 
lapis -lazuli. 



WEDDING ANNIVERSARSES. 



First— Cotton. 

Second — Paper. 

Thiid — Leather. 

Fourth — Fruit and Flowers. 

Fifth— Wooden. 

Sixth — Sugar. 

•Seventh — Woollen. 



Eigiuh — India Rubber. 

Ninth— Willow. 

Tenth— Tin. 

Eleventh— Steel. 

Twelfth — Sillc and Fine Linen. 

Thirteenth — Lace. 

Fourteenth — Ivoi'y. 



Fifteenth — Crystal. 
Twentieth — China. 
Twenty-fifth — Silver, 
Thiitieth— Pearl. 
Fortieth — Ruby. 
Fiftieth— Golden. 
Se\'enty-fifth— Diamond. 



FAMOUS 

Height 
Name and Location, in feet. 

Gavarnle, France 1,385 

Grand, Labrador 2,000 

Minnehaha, Minnesota. .. . 50 

Missouri, Montana 90 

MontmorencI, Quebec 265 

Multnomah, Oregon 850 

Murchlson, Africa 120 

Niagara, New York-Ontario 164 1 
HJukan, Norway 7801 



WATERFALLS OF THE 

Height 

Name and Locationt. In feet. 

Schaffhausen, Switzerland.. 100 

Seven Falls, Colorado.. . 266 

Skjaeggedalstos, Norway. . 530 

Shoshone, Idaho 210 

Snoqualmie, Washington . 268 

Staubbach, Switzerland 1,000 

Stirling, New Zealand 500 

Sutherland, New Zealand .1,904 
Takkakaw. Brit'h Columblal,200 
Twin, Idaho 180 



WORLD. 

Height 

Name and Location, in feet. 

Vettis, Norway 950 

Victoria. Africa 400 

Vorlngf OS, Norway 600 

Yellowstone(iipper>MontanallO 
YelIowstone(!ower)Montana 310 

Ygnasau, Brazil 210 

Yosemlte(upper)CalIfornla 1,436 
Yosemlte(mlddle), California 626 
Yosemlte (lower), California 400 



The World. 19 



K\)t smorltr. 



JOSEPH PULITZER. 
April lO, 1847 4« October 29, 1911. 



In a year filled with events of grave responsibility for journalism, both in our 
own country and in the history of foreig-n nations, THE WORlLrD, dedicated May 10. 
188.3, by its founder, Joseph Pulitzer, to the advancement of the interests of the 
American people, continued to uphold in memorable achievement during the year 19'16 
the tradition which for more than a quarter of a century has earned for it the leader- 
ship not only of American journalism but of \vo.rld journalism for all time. 

Always drastically and fearlessly independent in its news policies, as well as on 
its editorial page, THE WORT^D in 1916 gave to the American public the best and 
most accurate accounts that were available of the Drogres's of the European war. which 
on entering its third year of bloodshed became even more bitter and ruthless than in 
Its first two years of existence. A Presidential election, one of the most fiercely and 
closely fought in the history of our national politics, during which foreign influence 
was brought to bear that a candidate favorable to a foreign nation migtht be the 
Chief Executive of the United States, brought into international prominence the 
power of THE WORLD'S championship of the cause of pure Americanism. 

The propaganda of the German Government to violate the neutrality of the' United 
States in the interests of the central empires, wihich was exposed by THE WORLD 
in 1915, was further revealed in 1916 when plots involving most seriously the freedom 
of this country were discovered and disclosed to the public. 

Documentary evidence which came into possession of THE WORLD proved tlhat 
the driving force behind the Gore resolution and the McLemore resolution, whose pas- 
sage would have meant the surrender of American rights on the high sea/S and 
allowed the central allies to launch anew an unrestricted submarine warfare on the 
shipping of all nations, was The National German-American Alliance. The clearing- 
house of the alliance in its Congressional campaign was the office of Alphonse G. 
Koelble, and one of the principal lobbyists was shown to be T, L. Marsalis, a New 
York real estate operator. 

The programme which had been adopted by the alliance comprised three measures 
for immediate enforcement — 

1. Refusing passports to Americans travelling on the ships of belligerents. 

2. An embargo on all contraband of war from ports of the United States. 

3. Prohibiting Federal Reserve Banks from subscribing to foreign war loans. 
Back of these plans a programme was being prepared for the control of tiio 

Republican National Convention and the defeat of President Yv'^ilson in the Interests 
of the German cause. The revival of the Champ Clark boom for the Democratic 
Presidential nomination was traced to a suggestion made by the alliance. 

Among the names mentioned in the reports of the German lobbyists as being 
opposed to President Wilson's foreign policy were Senator Stone of Missouri, Chairman 
of the Foreign Relations Committee of the Senate; Senators Thomas P. Gore, James 
A. O'Gorman, G. M. Hitchcock, Marcus M. Smith, John W. Kern, James H. Lewis. 
James E. Martine, Hoke Smith, John D. Works, Wesley M. Jones, G. E. Chamberlain, 
Port J. McCumber, Albert B. Cummins, William E, Borah and Moses B. Clapp, an"d 
Representatives Claude Kltchin. James R. Mann. Joseph G. Cannon. James Hay. 
William S. Bennet. Dan V. Stephens. Charles Bennett Smith. Henry A. Cooper. Chao-les 
H. Dillon, Isaac R. Sherwood and Charles O. Lobeck. 

One week after its exposure of the Germam lobby in Congrress, THE WORLD 
made public documents showing that the German Government sent to the United 
States, and that the German Ambassador in Washington, Count Johann von Bernstorff, 
directed and paid for the activities of at least one secret agent whose business it was 
to influence through the press American public opinion in favor of Germany. 



5j5«j! The World — Continued. 



lems which, from his point of view, confronted the country in the face of a Presi- 
dential election. ,,, , , . ^, . . ., . ^ , ,, 

Four articles by Rudyard Kipling telling the story of the greatest sea fighit in all 
history — the clash between the British and German fleets off Jutland. May 31 — was 
another achievement for THE WORLD in 1916 that broughit it praise from papers 
at home and abroad. , „,^„ „^„„^ „ . ,„,„ 

Another exclusive series of special articles secured by THE WORDD' m 1916 was 
the personal narrative written by Captain Paul Koenig, commander of the German 
merchant submarine Deutschland. who piloted his ship from Bremen to Baltimore. 
Ajt the completion of his second trip across the Atlantic. Captain Koenig told of his 
trip by the pen of Henry Reuterdahl, the foremost naval critic in the United States, 
who secured an exclusive interview with the Captain for TiHH WORLD. 

MEXICO. 

The troublesome relations of this country with her southern neighbor Mexico, with 
its vital interest to every citizen of the United States, made the news from south of 
the Rio Grande of especial value. Owing to the unsettled conditions of affairs and 
the lack of any permanent or recognized government in Mexico, it was very difficult 
to secure any authentic information. 

One of the most striking iouri.alistic achievemen'ts of the year was the exclusive 
interview which was granted by General Carranza to THE WORLD representative at 
Mexico City. Robert H Murray. This was the first authoritative interview whicti 
General Carranza had ever given to a newspaper, and was secured by Mr. Murray only 
after six months' untiring effort to avrange the audience. 

In his statement to Mr. Murray, which he called a message to the American people. 
General Carranza said: 

"The solution of the problem is in the retirement of the United States force. Take 
the United States troops out of Mexico, where they are doing no good, and liave them 
patrol your side of the border while we protect lives on our side. We have quelled 
all armed opposition except in sporadic instances." 

When President Wilson, in his determination to enforce respect for citizens of the 
United States in Mexico and punish Villa for his raids acioss the border into the terri- 
tory of this country, despatched units of the National Guard of the various States to 
do patrol duty at the border. THE WORLD sent with the troops two trained corre- 
spondents, who j-emained at the border as long as there was serious danger oif inter- 
vention on the pait of this country. 

With General Pershing's regular troops on their dash into Mexico in pursuit of 
"Villa, THE 'VS ORiLD sent John Kirby, a member of its Waslijngton Bureau, who re- 
ported daily on the pi ogress of 'he American forces. 

PULITZER AERIA'L DERBY. 

A transcontinental air race for a trophy to be given annually by Ralph Pulitzer, 
publisher of THE WORLD, was announced by the Aero Club of America, but owing to 
the conditions on the Mexican border, which made it imperative to send United States 
troops into Mexico and mobilize all aviators for national service, the race, which had 
been scheduled to start September 2, was postponed for one year. 

The race was planned by THE WORLD to become a national annual event — the 
Aerial Derby of America — a measure toward national preparedness which shouJd in- 
teiest Americans in regaining their country's prestige in the air. As an event of 
sportsmanship and a test of aerial engineering development the transcontinental race 
was heralded by all as of national importan'ce. 

Hieh Administration officials were ciuick to give their approval to the idea, and 
said that they believed that the race would <io more to accentuate interest in aviation 
than any movement in recent years. 

THE WORLD BT AERIAL EXPRESS. 

The first aerial delivery of a metropolitan newspaper at Washington was achieved 
when Victor Carlstrom. flying from New York with a special edition of THE WORLD. 
established a non-stop flight record of three hours and four minutes between New York 
and Washington. 

The special edition of THE WORLD which was carried to Washington by Carl- 
Strom, who had as his passenger Alan R. Hawley, President of the Aero ClvLb of 
America, with a letter w'hich was personally delivered to President Wilson, contained 
an anneal for aerial preoarerlness indorsed bv a maloritv of the Governors of the 
States. The articles in THE WORLD showed that the States were prepared to furnish 
during the Summer 2.000 aviation recruits, and suggested that the Federal Govern- 
ment could tiain them at a cost of S2. 000. 000 — less than one-tenth the cost of one 
dreadnought. 

(jopies of THE WORLD were delivered to each member of the Cabinet, the Senate 
and the House of Representatives. It brought forcefully home to the legislators the 
necessity for increasing through Federal encouragement the now pitifully weak air 
defence of the country. 

Through the crvstallizing of sentiment by this special ae-rial edition Congress was 
induced to provide in its appropriation bills money which insures a greatly increased 
aviation equipment for the army and navy, 

THE NATIONAL ELECTION. 

A Presidential campaign which brought out the largest number of voters wTio ever 
cast their ballots in the history of American politics, and which was characterized by 
fierce attacks by both the great parties, brought THE WORLD in 1916 into 
prominence as the champion of American rights In all lands and on all seas and as 
the defender of the President who, with honor to the Nation, had kept 100,000.000 
of his fellow-citizens out of th-e world-war. 



The World— Continued. 23 



From the days early In June when the Republicans chose Charles Evans HuK'hes 
a« their candidate in the effort to defeat President Woodrow Wilson for re-election 
THE WORLD grave to the public .a forceful, clear and unbiased account of the 
progress of one of the most Intensely fought political battles since the founding of the 
RepUiblic. 

The Republican National Conve.ntion, held at Chicago coiincident with the meeting of 
the Progressive National Convention in the same city, was written for THE WORLD hy 
men and women of national reputations, who were themselves vitally interested in 
the outcome of tihe campaign and did much to influence the ultimate results of the 
election in November. Among THE WORLD correspondents who reported the National 
Conventions were William Jennings B.ryan. George W. Perkins. William Allen White. 
Bainbridge Colby. U. S. Senator William E. Borah an,d Ida M. Tarbell. in addition to 
the regular corps of THE WORLD'S political reporters, headed bv Louis Seibold 
Rollin Kirby. THE WORLD cartoonist, attended the oonvencions and save flrst-hana 
impressions of the men who gathered there. 

Trained political reporters accompanied the Republican candidate on his several 
trips about the country, writing accurate and unpiejudiced accounts of his receptions 
and speeches. Specie.l correspondents, experts in the field of political journalism, re- 
ported faliihfuUy the activities of the leaders of both of the parties, enablin.g the 
readers of THE WORIvD to have a truthful acaount of both sides of the fight. 

One of the most vigorous editorial ca.mpaigns in recent American newspaper history 
was carried on by THE WORLD during the course of the campaign, in which it chal- 
lenged all opposed to the attitude of the Administration to- put forward a more 
practical programme of procedure than had been follov/ed in dealing with tne •com- 
plicated Mexican and European problems which had conf touted the Democratic leaders. 

A conspicuously brilliant series of cartoons wa^ piinted by THE WORLD during 
the campaign, and many of them were copied by scores of papers in all parts of the 
country. Their scathing satire on the weaknesses of the Republican claims and the 
selfish ambitions of the Republican leaders was so forceful and telling that credit was 
given them as a very large faciior in returning the Wilson Administration. 

One of the notable aahievements of the campaign was the exclusive interview W'hioh 
THE WORLD obtained with Richard Olney, Secretary of Slate under former President 
Cleveland, in whicli he strongly upheld the poliicies of President Wilson and urged his 
re-election at such a ciitical time in American history, when a false step might plunge 
the country into -a needless and indefensible war. The inteiview wnich THE WOP.'iD 
secured with Mr. Olney was extensively copied in hundreds o.f papers tihroughout the 
country. 

One week, before tfhe electlion THE WORLD published its forecast of the political 
feeling of the country and made the prophetic statement in summarizing the results 
of its investigations that "Wilson may win a re-election by a victory in the Western 
States and without the need of New York's electoral votes." 

STATUE OP IjIB'BRTY ILLUMINATED. 

The Statue of Liberty, which, since it was first dediioated thirty years ago, has 
stood in total darkness except for the feeble flicker of its torch, was lighted through 
•the construction of a flood lighting svstem on Bedloes Island by popular subscriptions 
raised through the efforts of THE WORLD, which in 18IS6 raised a fund of $100 000 
•bv similar means to complete the pedestal on which the statue now stands. 

More than 75,000 persons gave amounts langing from a penny to $500 in order to 
complete the fund of $-30,000 necessary to provide for the construction of the lighting 
system, which was planned bv the foremost illuminating experts in the country. 
Patriotic organizations, clubs, civic societies and business houses rallied to the support 
of the movement as well as the thousands of individuals who gave their mite that 
the light of the statue might shine forth a welcome for all and be a symbol by night 
as well as b> day of the libeity for which our countiy so courageously stands. 

The mo'.'ement to provide for the illumination of the Statue oi Liberty received the 
active support of Cabinet officers, who, heartily approving of the idea, gave the 
plans their peisonal altentioix that the lighting plant might be completed on the day 
set for its inaugur-ition 

The dedication of the illumination was accompa.nied by an elaborate programme, the 
President of the United States being present at the ceremonies on his private yacht 
Mayflower and giving the signal for the turning on of the light for the first time. 
Among those who were included in the President's party on the yacht were Mayor 
Mitchel of New Yoik City, Ambassador and Madame Jusseiand of France, Ralpl 
Pulitzer. Cleveland H Dodge, and William >I. Calder. United States Senator-elect fron 
New York. A comim.ittee of 200 prominent citizens of New York City, which had beer 
appointed 'bv the Mavor to provide for tlie reception to President Wilson, witnessed 
the illumination of the statue from the U. S. S. San Francisco. 

At the conclusion of the ceremonies at the statue the Mayflower and the San 
Francisco returned to the Battery, where the members of the committee and their 
guests were taken in motor cars through electric paths of gold to the Waldorf-Astoria, 
where a public dinner in honor of the President of the United States and Mrs. Wilson 
brought the day to a brilliant close. „, ,, „ , ^ ,. j. 

The speakers at the dinner were former Senator Chauncey M. Depew, who delivered 
fhe oration at the dedication of the statue thirty years before; Ambassador Jusserand 
who read a mcssa.SG from the President of the French Republic; Henry L. Doherty 
President of the Society for Electiical Development: Ralph Pulitzer publisher of THE 
WORLD, and the President of the United States. . 

The guests of honor were the President and Mrs. Woodrow Wilson. His Excellency 
the French Ambassador and Madame Jules J. Jusserand, the 'Secretary of the Navy and 
Mrs. Josephus Daniels, the Secretary of ComimeTce and Mrs. William C. Redfleld. 
Mayor and Mrs. John Purroy Mitchel and Ambassador and Mrs. James W. Gerard. 

President Wilson, in accepting the lighting system on behalf of the Government or 
the United States, delivered an address which will maike ever memorable the day 
wliich witnessed the dedication of Liberty's illumination. He said in part: 



24 The World— Continued. 



"There are many moving circumstances connected with this day. connected with 

fhe things it recalls, connected with the things it suggests. I was reflecting as we saw 

t'he light stream upon that beautiful statue, that its source was outside the statue; that 

It did not proceed from Liberty, but proceeded from the light we are throwing on 

Liberty; and it occurred to me that, after all. it was a proper symbol of our life, 

"because we can take to ourselves the dignity of Liberty only as we Illustrate the fact 

nd the true spirit of Liberty, and the only light that we can contribute to the 

lumination of the world is the light that will shine out of our life as a nation upon 

at conception and upon that image. 

"There is a great responsibility in having adopted Liberty as our Ideal, because wa 
ust illustrate it in what we do. I was struck by the closing phrase of Mr. 
jlitzer's admirable little speech. He said that there would come a day when it was 
rcaived tha.t the Goddess of Liberty was also the Goddess of Peace, and throughout 
^ iast two years there has come more and more into my heart the conviction that 
•eace is going to come to the world only with Liberty. 

"With all due and sincere respect for those who represent other forms of Bovem- 
nent than our own. perhaps I may be permitted to say that peace cannot come so long- 
s the destinies of men are determined by small groups who make selfish choices 
f their own. 

"I wonder if we remember the sacrifices, the mutual concessions, the righteous 
Yielding of selfish right that is signified by the word and the conception of Libe^rty. I 
svonder if we all wish to accord equal rights to all men. 

"And so it is profitable that occasions like this should be frequently repeated and 
that we should remind ourselves of what sort of image we have promised to be. for th& 
world is enlightened, my fellow citizens, by ideals, by ideas. The spirit of the world 
rises with the sacrifices of men. the spirit of the world rises as men forget to b& 
3eUish and unite to be great. 

" 'This,' to repeat that beautiful phrase of Lincoln's in his Gettysburg address, 'Is 
lot a time of self-adulation, but a time of rededi'cation.* Let us determine that the 
ight that shines out of our lives upon the uplifted form of Liberty shall be a light 
pure and without reproacih." 

■ In his address. Mr. Pulitzer gave to George Williams of New York the credit of 
iiaving conceived the idea of illuminating the Statue of Liberty at night by flood light- 
ing and having brought the plans to THE WORIiD for executlion. 

ARTIST BLAKELOCK REDISCOVERED. 

It was through the efforts of THE WORLD that in 1916 Ralph A. Blakelock, 

msidered by many critics to have been America's greatest painter, was removed frojn. 

e Mlddletown Insane Asylum, where he had been confined for more than sixteen 

ars. and provided with a comfortable home, where he can again take up the work he 

ad been forced to abandon when commiitted to the State hospital. 

By taking him away from the depressing atmosphere of the asylum, where all his 
irtistic temperament was suppressed, it was hoped that some of Uhe genius which had 
)nce given such a remarkable touch to his brush might be brought back again and that 
us appreciation aind power to portray might be reawakened. 

ACCURACY AND FAIR PLAY. 

THE WORLD'S Bureau of Accuracy and Fair Play issued its third annual report 

howing that from July 1. 1913, to July 1, 1916. the bureau had dealt with 1.138 

Jses involving the question of accurac.v and fair play in the news and editorial 

ilumns. sustaining 700 complainants and publishing 415 corrections. There were 

n addition 101 publications in the interest of fair plav where THE WORLD was not 

It fault. Members of THE WORLD staff and its correspondents everywhere have 

vlmost without exception shown their hearty accord with t'he purposes and activities 

>f the bureau. A limited number of correspondents who have been convicted by the 

■ecords of habitual carelessness have been dismissed. There has been a materi.al 

ailing off in libel suits since the bureau was established, which means a corresponding 

■crease in public confidence and good will. 

While the bureau was cieated primarily for the purpose of promoting accuracy and 

Ir play in the columns of THE WORLD, serious efforts have been made to spread 

le Idea wherever newspapers are pulDlished. The svstem has appealed to many 

urnalists and teachers of iournalism throughout the United States who have adopted 

in their newspapers and classrooms. The publications of the bureau are regularly 

It to more than thirty colleges and universities where iournalism is taught 

The bureau h.as actively co-operated with the Federal authorities, the' District- 

torney's office and the Police Department in prosecuting scores of crooks and 

IndleTs who have tried to use the advertising columns cf THE WORLD and other 

v.'spapers to trap their victims. Convictions have been secured in many of these 

ses and in some instances the courts, before imposing sentence, have induced the 

irsons convicted to mak'e restitution. A number of misleading advertisements have 

■en cut out or rejected, and some persons whose advertisements were conside'red to 

misleading have been required to change them into plainer English. 

WAITE MURDER MYSTERY CLEARED. 

THE WORLD discovered Mrs. Margaret Horton. "the woman In the case " who 
as the studio companion of Dr. Arthur Warren Waite, convicted of the murder of 
lis father and mother-in-law and obtained the signed confession of Dr. Waite in 
yhich he admittea that he had administered poison to his father-in-law. 

SUNDAY WORLD ATHLETICS. 

^ore than 5,000 medals were awarded to the New York Citv school children who 
ook part In the athletic contests and play-garden competitions held under the direction 



The World — Continued. 



of THE SUNDAY WORLD. The athletic contests brought together more than 7r 
schoolboy athletes, an Increase of 10,000 over the entrants for the previous 
The walking clubs under the direction of THE SUNDAY WORLD also had a 
successful year, and THE SUNDAY WORLD Baseball League broke all record 
interest and numbers of teams competing. 

In the educational campaign against the spread of Infantile paralysis THE 
NING WORLD gave street displays for several weeks of moving pictures she 
methods suggested by the Department of Health for preventing the spread of 
■disease. 

A s:pecla'l lecturer accompanied the films on a dally tour of the city, and t 
were made at street corners in every part of the city that the people might be ta 
the means of holding in check the dread disease which was killing scores of 
women and children every day. 

So successful was THE EVENING WORLD campaign in New York City wit' 
movie educational show that other communities afflicted With the disease appi 
to the paper to send in the used films that similar popular street campaigms r 
be waged in their communities. 

EVENING WORLD'S RECORD OF PUBLIC SERVICE. 

In an effort to lessen the danger of the spread of the scourge of Infantile para 
THE EVENING WORLD inaugurated a health campaign to check the epld 
While th« disease was spreading rapidly throughout all the boroughs of Greater 
York, THE EVENING WORLD, with the indorsement of Arthur Woods, Police 
mlssloner; George H. Bell, License Commissioner, and many of t'Jie prominent 
"«Tans v/ho had given their services In the fight against the disease, started Its 
fiaign with the following obiects in view: 

1. To cleanse tenement-house areaways and sidewalks in the infested dlstri 
all dirt and refuse matter, 

2. To start a neighbor to neighbor educational movement against the spread 
disease, in which the volunteers who enlisted in the work talked with their nei 
and saw that the dirt in the districts was properly taken care of. 

3. To see that the law rej-arding the sale of fruit and vegetables from 
whioh were not protected by netting was rigidly enforced. 

EIGHTY-CENT GAS FIGHT WON. 

The Eighty-Cent Gas Bill which was passed by the New York Legislature 
-a signal victory for THE EVENING WORLD after a vigorous fight which th 
had waged for six years to obtain a uniform gas rate for the Borough of B 
The fight was begun after THE WORLD in 1906 had gained a victory by 
through the Legislature an Eighty-Cent Gas Bill for the Borough of Manhat 

The success of the Brooklyn bill was most marked because of tbe over 
lobby of corporation lawyers and politicians w.Tiich made itself felt in the 
confuse the bill that was championed by THE EVENING WORLD with a S 
which was introduced in. a mix-up of technicalities. 

It was 'also significant that not since the Public Service Commission wa 
pointed has it been possible to pass a mandatory rate bill of this nature 
Brooklyn Gas Bill was enacted. The Legislature has been solid against legisj 
came under tihe jurisdictJion of the commission. , ^ , . , 

The last Legislature, wihieh passed the bill advocated for six years by 
N.ING WORLD, realized that the failure of the efforts of the people of j 
secure eighty-cent gas was so apparent as to approach a public scandal. 
only three di.ssenting votes in both the Senate and the Assembly, these bein 
■on the grounds of standing by the principle of not interfering with the Pt 
Commission's rate-making powers. , , ^, ■^^ ^ ^ , 

When THE EVENING WORLD took up tihe fight for the Eighty-Cent < 
years ago. all Assemblvmen and Senators going to A.lbany each year wer 
to vote for the measure. Republicans and Democrats worked alike for th 
the measure, but were ne>ver able to hold enough votes to secure its enact 
years the bill failed only by one or two votes. The Public Service Comm) 
stepped in and fought for the 'bill, but it was not until the determined 
workers and Assemblyman Josephs of Broc^klyn was backed by the pi 
EVENING WORLiD fhat the measure was finally put through. 

When GovernoT Whitman signed the bill he declared it to be 
pleasures of his public life. 

GERMAjNY'S COURSE INFLUENCED. 

The reply of the German Government to the United States note 
Issue was influenced and partially moulded by an editorial which 
EVENING WORLD, aecordin? to a despatch sent by Karl von Wieg 
reputation of being In closer touch with German official sources tlha 
correspondent in Europe. 

The basis for the German reply, according to Mr, von Wiegand s Ir 
an EVEJ^riNG WORLD editorial, published under the caption "Germanys 
read In part: ^ ^ x,. . ! 

"If Germany were now to declare 'that 'Out o'f regard for the Ameri 
the sea. and for the sake of maintaining inviolate earlier principles of 
law, the Imperial Government had determined to discontinue submarine w 
practised, leaving it to the honor of the United States to uphold internal 
the rights of commerce Impartially and with an equal eye to all belUge. 
ffnany were to do this promptly and without reserve she would achieve a 
■worth more to her now and in the future than the destruction of a th 
^Ips." 



The World — Continued. 



BEACHES RESTORED TO PUBLIC. 

The diream of a Coney Island beach free to the people was realized w.hen the Court 
Vppeals the highest court in the State of New York, decided that the beach at 
y Island — that is, the land between the high-v/ajter mark and the low-water 
t — belongs to the State, and that the people have the rig-ht to use it. The fight to 
aim this strip of beach from private individuals, who had appropriated the land to 
ir own uses and were making the public pay them for enjoying its advantages, was 
•ted by THE EVENING WORLD and pushed by that paper to a successful conclu- 
1 in 1916. 

The case had been in the courts of the State of New York since 1913. when, at the 

ance of THE EVENING "WORLD, Attorney-General Caamody brought a test suit 

linst George C. Tilyou and his business associate, Mrs. Emolie Huber. to evict them 

■n portions of the beach which they had fenced in and which the public could not 

:h except bv paying an admission fee. In the decision which was handed down in 

3 Justice Benedict decided that the land in question belonged to the people of the 

e of New York, and this decision was affirmed by the Appellate Division in 1915, 

by the highest court in 1916. 

The decision cleared the way for the city's remodelling of the Coney Isiland water- 

t into a great waterfront park on city property worth millions of dollars. 

.nefficiency in city goveirnment was exposed by THE EVENING WORLD when it 

overed that the city had been spending thousands of dollars every year for the past 

teen years making a map of the city which would be antiquated and useless when 

pleted. The salaries for the year 1916 of the men who were engaged in making 

Taap were estimated to amount to more than $500,000. and it was shown that the 

oils of this bureau had been padded befoie each election for the past six years, 

being put to work temporarily beifore election to insure their infiluence on Election 

'he first of the widows' pensions, for which THE EVENING WORLD fought a two 
' campaign, were granted. One hundred and sixty-one pensions were granted 
• ithe law which had been signed by Governor Whitman in 1915 making piro- 
for the maintenance of 5 00 children. 

bert Colgate Wood wns forced to resign from the Public Service Commission after 
estigation by THE EVENING WORLD and after testimony had been heard before 
ilative committee on charges that he had demanded a fee In connection wi'th the 
ng of subway contracts under the dual subway system. 

continuation of the many fights which THE EVENING WORLD waged in past 
n the interests oif the women and children of the poorer sections of New York 
le paper in 1916 obtained the co-operation of the municipal authorities in having 
han one hundred street plays'rounds establhshed in all paits of the city, where 
'dren might enjoy their games and recreation in safety, v.'ithout fear of injury 
eet cars, teams or speeding automobiles. 

as estimated that moie than 200,000 children in the Boroughs of Manhattan, 

1 and the Bronx were cared for everv afternoon during the Sunvmer months 

■EVENING WORLD'S p)ay°Tounds. At the time THE EVENING WORLD, to 

e safety of the children of the tenements whose only playground was out in 

streets. s-'Uggested the closing of certain slieets for lecreation centres, there 

v ten of these playgrounds in the entire city. 

lost immediate need which was felt in the opening of the street playgrounds 

lecessity for obtaining competent supervisors for the children's games. For 

'ark and Playground Association raised by popular subsoi iption .$5,0 0, In 

instructors mig'ht be placed in each 'Of the street playgnounds. The benefit 

ervisor is that the children were kept within the street closed for the pur- 

iway from the nearby danger zones. 

Commissioner Arthur W8ocls. who gave his persona,! attention to the laying 

E EVENING WORLD playgrounds, heartily commended the activities of the 

indoised the playground movement in the foUoAving statement: 

">ening of 100 to 150 play streets will g-reatly relieve the situation, especially 

ment sections of the city, where park space is so limited Tliat play is 

the child goes without saying, and that it is a means for the prevention 

eliminating ihe gangster spin it is a recognized fact. Any money or energy 

lirection of wholesome plaj' for children is well spent and in line with 

'■^"ajlth axid rightful activities of the future citizen. I am hopeful that 

3 will see rapid strides in this direction and that practica,] plans may 

ew York City women from eveiry walk of life joined THE EVENING 
vives' Protective Leag-ue. which was indorserl by many of the most 

women and leaders of women's civic and social clubs in the city. 

tion of the league was prompted by the desire o.f THE EVENING 

e living conditions as good as possible under the steadily increasing 

.tuffs and the petty graft which v/as disclosed as existing in many of 

. stores of the city in their attempt to meet the stringent competition 

yusine.ss man. 

ittee of representative women who joined with THE EVENING WORLD 
ne league a success stated the prime objects of the association to be— 
e the cost of living wherever possible, 
high prices that were artificial. 
J just weight and measures from all dealers, 
late netty graft on common commodities, 
together against unwarranted strikes on the necessities of life, 
ange opinions and views through the news columns of THE EVENING 

rth practical methods of household economy. 



€Jf,urch dy±bi,v^ji<xiiaa Joi j.^^. 



THE WORLD ALMANAC FOR 19 

The astronomical calculations are given in local Mean Time and were made ex 
by Arthur Newton. 



Chronological Eras. 



The year 1917 corresponds to the year 7425-26 of the Byzantine era: 5677-78 of t 
year 5678 commencing at sunset September 16; 2670 since the foundation of Rome, a 
2693 of the Olympiads, or the first year of the 674th Olympiad, commencing July 1; 25'' 
era, and to the sixth year of the period entitled Taisho; 1335-36 of the Mohammeda" 
beginning on October 17, 1917. The 142d year of the Independence of the United Stat. 
on July 4, 1917. 



Chronological Cycles. 



Dominical Letter Gl Lunar Cycle (Golden Number). 

Epact 6| Solar Cycle 



181 Roman Indictio 
22 Julian Period. . . 



Name. 

Grecian Mundane Era 

Civil Era of Constantinople 
Alexandrian Era 
Julian Period 
Mundane Era . 
Jewish Mundane Era 
Era of Abraliam . 
Era of the Olympiads. 
Roman Era (AUG) . 
Metonic Cycle 



Date of Beginning of 

Began. 

..B. C. 5598, Sept. 
. " 5508, Sept. 

. . " 5502, Aug 
. " 4713, Jan 
. " 4003, Oct. 
. " 3761, Oct 
. " 2015, Oct. 
. " 776, July 
. " 753, Anril 

. . " 432, July 



Epochs, Eras, and Period; 

N'ame. 
Grecian or Syro-Macedonian Era. .i 

Era of Maccabees 

Tyrian Era. 



Sidonian Era 

Julian Year 

Spanish Era 

Augustan Era 

Vulgar Christian Era. . . 
Destruction of Jerusalem. 
Mohammedan Era 



The Seasons. 



D. 

Vernal Equinox, Spring begins March 20 

Summer Solstice, Summer begins June 21 

Autumnal Equinox, Autumn begins September 23 

Winter Solstice, Winter begins December 22 



H. 
11 

7 
9 
4 



M. 
30 

53 
38 



P M. 

P. M 

A. M 

A M 



} 



WasMngton JLc. 



Morning Stars. 



Merctjht — January 19 to March 29; May 16 to 
July 12; September 18 to November 3. 

Venus — January 1 to April 26. 

Mars — February 28 to end of year. 

Jupiter — May 9 to November 29. 

Saturn — January 1 to January 17; July 27 to 
end ol year. 



Evening Stars. 

Mercury — January 1 to January 19; 
to May 16; July 12 to September 18; N 
to end of year. 

Venus — April 26 to end of year. 

Mars — January 1 to February 28. 

Jupiter — January 1 to May 9; No 
end of year 

Saturn — January 17 to July 27. 



Church Memoranda for 1917. 



January. 

1 Monday. 

6 Epiphany. 

7 1. Sun. aft. Epiphany. 

14 U. " 
21 Ul. •' 
28 Iv. •' 

February. 

1 Thursday. 

2 Purification. 

4 Septuagesiraa Sunday 
11 Sexagesima Sunday. 
18 Quinquagesima Sun. 
21 Ash Wednesday 
25 1. Sunday in Lent. 

March. 

1 Thursday. 
4 II. Sunday in Lent 
11 ill. 

15 Thurs. (Mi-Careme) 
18 Iv. Sunday in Lent 
25 V. 

(Annunciation ) 



April. 

1 Palm Sunday. 

6 Good Friday. 

S Easter Sunday. 
15 1. Sunday after Easter. 
22 ii. 

3 St George. 
29 iii. Sunday aft. Easter 



May. 

1 Tuesday 

6 iv. Sunday aft. Easter 
13 Rogation Sunday. 
17 Ascension Day. 
20 1 Sun. aft Ascension 
27 Pentecost (Whit Sun ) i 

Jxme. 

1 Friday 

3 Trinity Sunday. 

7 Corpus Christl. 

10 i. Sunday after Trinity. 
17 il. ■• 

24 ill. 

(St. John the Baptist ) 



July 

1 iv. Sunday aft. Trinity, 

8 v. 

15 vi. •• 

22 vii. " 

29 vlii." " 

August. 

1 Wednesday. 

5 ix. Sunday aft. Trinity 

6 Transfiguration. 
12 X. Sunday aft. Trinity 
15 Assumption. 

119 xi. Sunday aft. Trinity 
26 xii. •' 



SevtemJ}er. 

1 Saturday. 

2 xlll. Sun, aft. Trinity 
9 xiv. 

16 XV. 

23 xvl. 

29 Michaelmas. 

30 xvli. Sun. aft. Trinity. 



Oc 

1 Monday 

7 xviil. Su 
14 xlx. 
18 St. Luk 
21 XX. Sun 
28 xxl. ■• 

No 

1 Thursda 

4 xxil. Sa- 
il xxlli. ' 
18 xxl v. " 
25 XXV. 
30 St. Andrew. 

Decerribi 

1 Saturday. 

2 1. Sunday In / 
9 il. " 

16 111. •• 
23 Iv. " 
25 Christmas. 
27 St. John (Ev 
30 1. Sun. aft. C 



tj( 



UUVUS OJ bILO 



CAME LAWS OF THE 

CLOSE SEASON FOR GAME 
}le shows tbe close season for all game ia the Uaitert States, with the exception 
id goal and a lew unimportant species. Where uo dates are given kind of game 
■e season at all times. Jjocal laws, where operative, should be consulted, 
he close season and the first date of the open season are given. 



Mamwals. 



.1 . . 

ifna. 
ta . 



Deer. 



Jan. ]-Noi-. I (s)... 

Nov. 1-Aug. 15. . .. 

;c. 16-Oi:t. 1, (a).. 

HQ U-NOT. 11. ... 

Jcl 15-Ang. 15 (.1) 12 

At all I'tmea 

To June 1, 1917 ... 

J-,n. I'-Sept. 1 

Mai. )0-Nov. 20 

1)«. i-Oct. 1 (a).. . 
Dec 1-Sept. 1 (.12). ■ 
"o 1925. . . 

\t ill times 

\t all limes 

\t all times . . .. 

To 1921 

At all times 

.lau 6-Sept 15 (a). 
Dec. 16. (let. 1 (12). 
At all times . 

(32) 

Dei. l-N(iT 10 ... 
Vov.*)-Nov. 10 .. 
J:in. 2-I>ec ; (a). .. 
.Ian. l-No7. I (a).. . 
Dec. 1.5-()ct. 1 . ... 

,A1 .ill times 

Oct. 16-Sept. 15 

Dec.liUDec. 1 (12) 

See note 'A\ 

Nov. 6-()ct. 16 (b) .. 
Nov. l6-0ct. 1». ... 
Feb. l-<)ci. 1 .. . 
At ail limes 



Jan. 1-Aiig. 20 (a)31 
At all times 



EiK, Autelope, 
Moose, Caribou. 



At all times .. 
At all times . . 



Jan. 1-Sept. 1 (1). 



At all times 
At all times 



At all times . 
At all tim^s 
At -sU limes... 



At all limes . . . 
Nov 30-.\oT. 10 (a; 



Dec. 16-Oct. 1 (1) 
AL all times ... . 
Oct. I6-S..pt. 15 
At all times 



Dec. 1-Nuv. 1 la).... 
Nov 1-Aug.l5 (.1). 
Dec lii-Dec. I . . .. 
At all times (9). .. 
J:iu. 1-Sept. I (!•:).. 
Dec. l-.Nov. 1 (a) . 



Jan. 1-Nov. 1 la). 
Nov. I.Oct 15... 

Dec 6-Nov. 15 

Dec I -Sept. 1 (12) 
Nov 1-Sep: l.i(a).. 
Dec. l-O. I. 15 I a> 
Dec l-\..v. II (12) 



At all times 
At all times . 



At all times . 

At all times 
At all times 
At all times 



At all times 
At all tiMies 
At all times. 

At all times 



At ail times 



Squirrel. 



Jao 


1-Aup. 1 


Jan. 


"ilSepl'.V.. . 



Babbit. 



Not. 23-Oct 8 . 
Oct. 16-Sept. 1.. 
Feb. l-X"V.l 
Mar. l-O :. 1 
Mai. 1-Oct 1 

Feb. )-.Viig i.'. 
Nov. l^hily I 
Jan. l-Sept. 1 
Jan 1-Sepi I 
Dec. 16-Jiily 1 
lao. 1-Nov 1 
Feb. 16-Ocl. 1 
Nov. l-Sej't. I 
Dec. 25-Nov 10. 
-Nov. 13-Ocl 12 
At all limes 

Jan. i-bct. is 
J tu. 1-Jiine 1 . . 

Dec. ilOct. 1 . 

To Oct 1,1919(12) 
Dec. 16-Xov. 10 
Dec. 1-JuQe 1. . . . 
Nov. 16-Oct. 1 (12) 
Local laws.. 

Oct. 21-Sepi."l5 



Jan.I-Ocl. 15 

Mar I -Oct I... 
Jau. l-Oct 8 (27) 
Jan. 1-Nov. 15 . .. 
Feb. 1-Nov. 1... . 



BiBDS. 



Feb. l-Aug. 31. 
.J.in. lO-Api. 1.. 



Jan. 1-Nov. 15.. 
J.in. 1-Nov. 1 ... 



Nov 1-Sept. 1. 
Dec. I-Oct. 15 
.Ian. 1-Nov. 1 
Local I.iws 

Jan. ijunei'(12) 



Dec. 1-Sept. 16 
Local laws... 



April 1-Oct. 1 .. 
Dec. 25-Nov. 10. 
»Ui 1-Oct 12.. 
Mai. 2-Oct. 1... 



Mar. 1-Oct. 1 

Dec. 16-NoT. 10. ... 

Feb. i-6ci'. I'iis) . 



.Jan. 2-Nov. 1. 



Dec. 1-Nov. i . . 
Jan 1-Nov. 1 . 



Nov. 16-Oct. 1 'Nov. 16-Sept. 1 (12) 



M.ir. 1-Sept. 15.... 
Feb. 1-Nov. 1 (29). 



■Dec. 1-Se|it. 15 ...IJan 1-Ort. 15 

Feb. I-Oct. 10(12) Feb. 1-Sept. 10 (12) 



Quail. 


M.ir. 


1-NoT. 1 



Feb. 2-Oct. 15., 

Feb. 1-Dec. 1 

Die l-Sepl. 1(1S).. 

At nil times 

Nov. 24-Oct. 8 

Jan. )-NoV. 15 

Mar. 15-\ov. 1 

Mar. 10-Nov.20(li) 

Mar. 1-Nov 20 

Dei. 1-Nov. 1 

Dec. 10-Nov. II 

Dec. 21-Nov. 10 

Dec. 15-Nov. 1 

Atalt times 

Jan 1-Nov. 15 

Jiin 1-Nov. 1 (12)... 
Mar. 1-Nov. 16. ... 

At all times 

Doc. 25-Nov. 10 

Nov. I'-Oct 12 

To Nov. 1, 1920 .... 

Dec. 1-Oi-t 1 

Feb. )5-Nov. IB 

Jnn. 1-Nov. 10 

At all tiities 

Nov KWNov. 1 

Jan )-Sept 15 

Dec. 1-Ocl. I (12).. 

Dec. 16-Nov. 10 

Jan. 1-Oct. 25 

In Oct. 1, 1918 

Mar. 1-Nov. 1 

At .-Ml limes 

At all limes 

Jan. 1-Nov. 30 

Nov 1-Oct. 1 (12),.. 

Dec. 1-Oct. !5 

Jan. 1-Nov. 1 

Mar. 16-NOV. 15 (12) 

Atall times 

Jan. 1-Nov. 15 

Feb. 1--Dec 1 

Nov. 1-Oct. 1 (12) .. 

Dec 1-Sept. 16 

Feb. 1-Nov. 1 (12).. 
Nov. I-Sept. 15(12) 

JDec. 1-Nov. 1 

At all times • 

To 1919 



Pra\r\e ch\ckeD, closed season .ill year. 5 li&il excented. 6 Female proiected .ill the year. 7 Snipe 

>nnecilcitt, Dec. 1-Sept. 12. 9 Deer r.iised in piicnte pieserves raav be VilleJ at any time. 10 Certain 

xcepttons 13 (Jobblers, June l-Apr. 15. 19 Sundays and Mon lays are also .insed se^ison^ for ducks and 

21 Kail, coot, mild ben, Dec. 1-Sepi. 1. 2! Excei't June 15-Sept 15 2" Between Noi. 24 .ind Jan. I, 

id ferret onlv 28 Cock plie.vant may be killed Oct. 6-Oct. 1, under permit '.'9 Itesidcnts o£ the .State may 

r own land at any time. 31 Se-ison vaiies accor.hng to latitude 32 Open season for few diys only 

33 Prairie ch'cken, Nov. I-Oct. 15 34 Open season about 4 da\ s in late fall. Law not appliciible to pos- 

d deei pioperly ta»i:e.i. Prohibitoiy laws against liunling doves and robins exist in nearly ail States. 

close season is prohibited in most States License fees fiom non-residents iei|niied In some States. 

and elk and deer without horns protected at all times, (b) Except deer without horns. Non-resident not 

d) Game animals or birds m:iy be killed at any tiine for food or clothing by native Indians or Esquimaux, or 

irs ill need of fooiI,but game so killed cannot be shipped or sold. 

Dates for deer hunting apply to Adirondack region only; lest of State no open season. Exceptions: 
I SuUivau Counties, Nov. 16-Nov. I. Fawns at all times. Hunting with dogs, traps or devices of any 

—Catching, killing, or the possession of live or dead, and robbing of nests prohibited at all times— «zeept 
, bawk, crow, owl, and blackbird. 

d shooting on Sunday prohibited. 

^me or birds taken in the State is prohibited. 



FISH LAWS, NEW YORK STATE, OPEN SEASON. 

-First Saturday in April to August 31. Minimum length, six inches. Not more tban ten 
trout may be taken or transported by one person in one day. Trout must not be t&kea by 
method than angling. 



al States, 1917. 



RAL STATES, 1917. 

<: UNITED STATES. 

1 season may be found by reversing dates. The difficulty of securing absolute accurac, 

this kind is very great, and absence in laws of many States of express legislation as to 

exclusion of date upon which seasons open and close malies exactness almost an Impossil 

npiled and corrected to December 1, 1916. 





. 










»nd Prairie 
;bicken. 


Wild Turkey. Pheasant. 1 


Woodcock. 


Duck, Goose, Brant. 


Plover, Snipe, 


B-Nov. 15 


Apr. 1-Dec.l(6).. Dec. 15-Nov. 15 


Jan. 1-Nov. 1 


Feb. 1-Nov. 1 


Feb. 1-Nov. 1 C 


J-Sept, 1 

times 






Feb.'ilo'ct! is'".'.... 

Feb. 1-Nov. 1 

Feb. 1-Oct. 15 




Dec. lii-Oct. l.»... 
Jan.ll-Nov. 11(13) 
At all times 


At all times 




Dec. 16-Sept. 1. 
Dec. 16-Sept. 1 
Feb 1-Oct. 16 


.Oct. 31 


Jan. 1-Nov. 1 


-Sept. 1 


At all times 


-Aug.16 


At all times. 


At nil times 

Nov. 04-O.-t.8 

At all times 

Dec. 26-Nov. 1.. . . 




Dec. 21-Sept. 1 

Jau. 16-Oct. 1 
Feb. 1-Nov. 1. .. 
Feb. I-Nov I 


Dec. 16-Sept. 1 
Dec. 1-Sept. 1 ( 
Dec. I-Aug. 16.. 


4-Oct. 8 


Nov. 24-Oct. 8. . . 
Ji.n. 1-Nov. 15 ... 
Jan. 1-Nov. 1 




Dec. Ve-Vov. i' ... 


VSept. 1... . 


Dec. 1-Sept. I (5 


-Nov. 20.... 


Mar. 10-Nov. 20.... 


Dec.20-Nov 20 ... 


Jan. 1-Nov. 1 


Feb. 1-N..V. 20 


Feb. 1-Nov. 20 ((. 


times 


Mar. 1-Nov. 20 ... 


At all times 


J;in. 1-Dec. I 


Feb. 1-Nov. 1 (10).. 


Feb. l-Dec. 1 (12 


-Aug.j5(4).. 




Dec. 1-Aug. 15 




Dec 2I-Sept. 7 


Dec. -.'l-Sept. 7. 


i6-0ct. I 


At all limes 


To J,rly 1, 1925 (J8) 


To July 1, 1920 .. 


Dec. 16-Sepl. 16 ... 


l)ec. 16-Sept. IB 


SI -Nov. )0(33) 


At nil times 


At all times 


Dec. 1-Oct. 1 


Jan. l_Se|it 16 


Dec. 16-Sept. 1 (' 


1-Sept. 1 


Dec. 16-Nov. 1 .... 


Dec. 15-Nov 1. ... 


Dec. I-Oct 1.. . 


Jan. 1-Sepl. 16. . 


Dec. 16-Sept. I i 


'1 times 




To 1918 

At all times 

Jan. 1-Nov. 1 


D^c. 1-Oct. 1 

At all times 

Dec. l-t)it. 15... 


Jiin. 1-Sept. 16 . . 

Jau. 1-Sept. 16 

J.in. Il-Ocl. 1. ... 


Dec. 16-Sept 1 
Dec. 16-Sept 1 
Dec. 1-Aug 1 = 




At alt times 


-Nov. I 




Mar. 1-Nov. 15 ... 


At all times 


Jan. 1-Nov. 15 . . 
N.A. 15-Oct. 1 .... 


Feb. 1-Nov. 1 

Dec. l6-,Sept. 16 .. 


Feb 1-Nov. 1. 


IS-Sept. 15(12) 


Dec. 1-Aiig. 16 


S5-N0V. lu ... 


Dec. 25-Nov. 10 . . . 


I>ec. 25-Nov. 10 


Dec. 26-Nov. 10... 


Feb. 1-Nov. 1 (12) 


Dec. 1-Aug. 16. 


l«-Oct. 12 (4). 




Nov. 13-tict. 12 (12) 


Nov. 13-Ocl.l2 .... 


Jan. 1-Sipt. 16(10) 


Dec. 1-Aug. 16 


1-O.t. I....\.. 


At all times 


At all limes .. . . 


De.. ]-Oct. 1 


Dec. Iti-.Sept. 16. ... 


Dec. )6-Sept. 1 . 


1-Sept. 7 




Dec. 1-Oct 1 (10)... 


At all times. ... 


Dec. 1-SepU 7 


Nov. 7-Sept. 7. 




May 1-Nov. 15. ... 




Jan. 1-Nov. 1 


Feb. 1-Nov. 1 


Feb 1-Nov. 1.. 


1 times 


Jan. 1-Nov. 1.. . 


At ail times... 


At all times 


Jan. 1-Sept. 16 


Dec 16-Sept. 1 


l&-?.epl. \5 ei2) 




Oct 16-Sept. 15 




Dec 21 -Sept. 7.. .. 


Dec. 21-Sept. r .. 


l-8epi. 1 


At all times. 


At iill times 




Jan. 1-Sept. 16. ... 


Jan. I-Sept. 16(12) 


1-Sept. 16 

I-Oct. I. . .. 




At all times 

At all times 

Dec 16-Nov. 10. ... 
At all limes 


Jan. 1-Nov. 1 


.Ian. 16-0< 1. 1. . .. 


Dec. 16-Sept. 16(1-. 
Dec. 1-Aug. 16(12) 
Dec !-Aug. lb . .. 
Dec 16-Sepl. 1 




Dec. l-<>ct. 1 (12). 
Dec. 1-Oct. 10(12) 


Dec. 16-Sept. 16.... 
J.in 16-Oct. 1 (12). 
Feb. l-Oct. 16 (12). 


l«-Nov. 10 ... 


To 1919 


26-Sept. 16 (4) 


Nov.26-Oct.2S(12) 


1-Oct. 1 





At all times(12).... 


Nov. 16-Oct. 1 


J:in. l_Sept. 16.. . 


Dec. 1-Sept. 16 . 




Mar. 1-Nov. 1 


At ail times ..'. 

At all times 

At nil times 


Jan. 1-Nov. 1 

Nov. 2-Oct. 1 

Dec. 1-Oct. 1 

Jau. 1-Nov. 1 


Feb. 1-Nov. I. . .. 

Dec. 1 .Sept. 7 

IVc. I6-Sept. 16(19) 
Fe)). 1-Oct. 16 .... 


hec. 16-Sept. I 
Nov. 2-Sept. 7 . 
Dec. 16-Sept. I ( 
Dec. 16-Sept. 1 ( 


J-Sept.7 

11 times 






Jan. 1-Nov. 16. ... 


1 Oct. 1(4).... 
1-Oct. 15 




Nov. 1-Oct. 1 (10)... 
Dec. )-Ocl. 15 


Dec.Vbct.is".'... 


J.1I1 16-Oct 1 (12).. 
Jan.l6-Ocl 1. . 


Dec. 16-Oct. 1 (1 


Deo. 1^0cl.l5 


Dec. 16-Sept. 1.. 


1-Nov. 1 


Mar.'l6-Nov.'i5 ... 




Dec. 1-Nov 1 

Jan. 1-Nov. 1 

Oct. 10-Oct. 1 ... 


Jan. 16-Oct. 1 

Feb. l-.N'..v I 

Dec. 1-Sept. 10.. . 


Dec 16-Sept. 1... 
Feb. I-Nov. I 






10 Sept. 10.... 


Oct. lO-Sept. 10... 


1-Nov. 1 


Jan. 1-Nov. 15 (12) 


Mar. 1-Nov. 1.. . 


Jan. 1-Nov. 1 


Jan 16-Nov. 1 


Dec. 16-Oct. 1.. .. 


I Nov. 1(4).... 


April 1-Dec. I. ... 


Feb. 1-Nov. 1 


Jan. I-Nov. 1 


leb 1-Oct 16.. . . 


Feb. I-Nov. I 


11 times 





At all times 




J:in. 1-Oct. 1... . 


J:in. 1-Oct. 1 (7). 


.l-8ept. 15 

1.14 Nov. 1(12). 




At all times 

Feb. 14-N"V 1 n2>. 


Dec. 1-Oct. 1 

Jan. 1-Nov. 1(12) 


Jan. 1-Sept. 16 

Feb. 1-Nov. 1 


Dec. l-Sept. 1... 
Feb. I-Nov 1.. 


Feb. 14-Nov. 1 (12) 


. 1 Sept. 16 (12) 
1-Oct. 16 




Nov. 1-Sept. 16(12) 

Dec. 1-Oct 16 

At all times 




Jan. 16-Oct. 1 (12).. 
|Jbm 1-at I 


Dec. 16 Oct. 1 (1 


Dec. 1-Oct. 15 


Dec. 1-Oct. I 


Dec. 16-Oct 1^ . 


.2-8ept. 1 (12). 
',16-Sept.l (15). 


At all times 


Dec. l-Sept. 7 

[Dec. 16-Sept. 15 


Dec. 1-Sept. 7... 
Dec. 16-Sepl. IS.. 





Lake Trout and Whiteflsh.— Lake trout not less than fifteen inches in length, and W 
h not less than X% pounds in the round, may be talten and posses.sed from April 1 to Septembe. 
th inclusive. Otsego whitefish, commouly called Otsego bass, not less than nine inches in leiif 
iy be taken and possessed from January 1 to October 31, both inclusive A person may tak' 
glingnotto exceed ten lake trout In one day. but whenever two or more persons are angling ' 
esame boat they may take not to exceed fifteen in one daj'. Whiteflsh may be taken in any t 
r or quantity. Lake trout and whitefi.sh may be taken in Lakes Erie and Ontario in any numl 
ftntity at any time and when so taken tna.y be possessed. 

Black Bass.— June 16 to November 30, inclusive. Minimum length, ten Inches. Uailt P' 
Dne person, fifteen; to a boat, two or more persons, twenty-five; bass must not be taken ' 
aer method than angling. 

Pickerel and Pike.— May 1 to March 1, inclusive. Pike, minimum length, t€n inches. P 
Inimum length (St. Lawrence Biver), twenty inches. 

Pike Perch.- Not less'than twelve inches in length may be taken and possessed in anyi 
mtity from May 30 to March 1, both Inclusive. 

'Ojjs.— Bullfrogs, green frogs and spring frogs maybe taken in any manner, possessed, b 
•la from June I to March 31, both inclusive. They shall not be taken, possessed, bought or 
' other time. 

(Long Island, Open Season.) 

lut.— April 1 to August 31, inclusive. 

iabow Trout.— April 16 to September 30, inclusive. 

K.— The State Fish and Qame Laws apply where not in conflict with the Long Island provlsi.' 



Standard Time. 



CHURCH FASTS. 

Roman Catholic Days of fastin? are the forty days of Lent, the Ember Days, the F 
,ur weeks in Advent, and certain vigils or evenings prior to the greater feasts, while al 
„lie j'ear are days of abstiueuce from flesh meat In the American Episcopal Chiirc: 

tasting or abstinence to be observed, according to the Book ol Common Prayer, art 
••vs of Lent, the Ember Days, the three Uosjation Days, and all the i''ridays of the 

iristmas Day. In the I'Jreek Churcli the fonr principal fasts are those in Lent, the \ 

ig VViiitsuutide, the fortnight before the Assumption, and forty days before Christmas. 

EMBER AND ROGATION DAYS. 

EE and Rogation Days are certain periods of the j'ear devoted to prayer and fasting Enr. 
ive!ve annually) about the beginning of the four seasons, and are the Wednesday, Fi'id 
iirday after tiie first Sunday in Ijent, in Spring; after the feast of Pentecost (WhitSundf 

; after the lestiva! of tlie Holy Cross, Autumn; and after the festival of St Lucia, Win 

/eeks are the weeks in which the J';mi)(M- bavs appear. 

tion Days occnr on the I'east of St. Jlaik, April 25, and on the three daj's immediately i 
iscensrou Day. ^^ 

DIVISIONS OF TIME. 

5 interval between two consecutive transits of a fi.xed star over any meridian or the inte; 
vliichlUe earth makes one absolute revolution ou its a,\is is called ?i Sidereal V>v.y , and is inv, 
hlle the interval between two consecutive transits of the Sun over any meridian is calle(i 
nt Solar Oay. and its lengtli varies fioin day to day by leason of the variable motion of '■ 
'',s orbit and the inclination of tliis oihit to tlie equator on which time is nieasuied. 
rt/i Solar Oav is t)ie average or mean of all the apparent solar days in a j'ear. j\le<m Sc 
lat shown by a well-iegulatod clock or watch, wliile Appaieni Solar Time is that shown I 
itructed suii-dial; tlie diHerence between tlie two at any time is the Eqiialion of Time, i 
'unt to 16 minutes and 21 seconds. The Astiouomical Day begins at noon and tlie Civil I 
iceding midnight. The Sidereal and Jlean Solar Days aie both iiivaiiable, but one day of i 
;t]ual to 1 dav, 3 minutes, and 66 .5")5 seconds of the foinier. 

nterval duriiig which the earth makes one absolute revolution lound the Sun is called.a .Si 

'■. and consists of 365da}'s. 6 hours. 9 minutes, and 9.6 seconds, which is invariable. 

J'ropical Year is the interval between two consecutive retiims of Ihe Srm to Die Ver 

. If tills were a fixed iioint, the Sidereal and Tropical Yeais would be identical; but in con 

„ ,,' the distuil)ing influence of the Moon and planets on the spheioidal figure of tlie earth. I 

10. x: has a slow, retrograde mean motion of 50". 26 annually, so that the Sun returns to tl;e Eq 

oonereverv year than he otherwise would by 20 minutes 23 6 .seconds; the Tropical Year, the 

, consists of 365 days. 5 bonis, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds. 'J'he Tiopical Year is not of nnifo 

th; itis now slowly decreasing at the rate of .595 second per century, but this variation will i 

■'s continue 

'sC;esar, in B.C. 45, was tlie first to reform the calendar bj' ordeiiiig that ever}' yeai whc 

.iber is exactly divisible by 4 contain 366 days, and all other years 365 days. The iuteicala 

introduced hv conntiiig the si':c//t day before the Kalends of JNfaich twice: hencf^ the iiai 

e, from bis, t^vice. and sex, si.x He also changed the beginninpof the 3'Par Irom Istof Blai 

itof .laiiuary, and also changed the name of the fiftli month (Quintilis) to July, aftei himse 

aiage lengtii of the .luliau year Is therelore 365M days, which, however, is too long by 

s and 14 seconds, and this would accumulate in 400 years to about three daj'.s. The .lull 

ar continued in use until a. o. l.">82, when the date of the beginning of the seasons occmred 

terthanin b. c 4.'). when tliis mode of reclconing time was introduced 

•Gregorian Calendar was introduced by PopeOiegory XIII with the view of keeping theEqi 
the same day of the month. It consists of 365 days, but every yeai exactly divisible by 4 ai 
iturial vears which are exactly divisible bv 400 contain 366 days; and if in addition to tli 
"v arrangement the centurial years exactly divisible by 4.000 contain 366 days, the error in tt 
111 system will amount to only one day In about 200 centuries. If. however, 31 leap yea 
ercfilated in 128 veais, instead of 32 as at present, the calendar would be practically exa' 
he eiror would not amount to more than a dav in 100.000 years. The length of the mea 
riaii Year mav therefore be set down at 365 days. .5 bonis. 49 minutes, 12 seconds. The Grego 
eiidar was iiitioduced into England and her colonies in 17.52. at which time the Equinox ha 
aded 11 <lavs shice tlie Council of Xice in a. n. 325. when tlie festival of Easter was estahlishe 
" Equinox occurred ou March 21: hence .September 3. 1752. was called .Septembei 14. ani 
■,ametimo the co^nmencemeut of the legal year was changed from Rfarch 2.5 to January 1, s« 
le year 1751 lost the months of .January and February and the first 24 days of Jlarch. The dif 
••between the .Tulian and Gregoiian Calendars is now 13 days. Russia and the Greek Churcl 
ploy the .Tulian Calendar for civil and ecclesiastical purposes. 

STANDARD TIME. 

rom a statement jn-epared by the United States Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C.) 

United St.ates adopted standard time in 1883, on the initiative of tlie American Railwa: 

on, and at noon of November 1 ■!. 1883, the telegiaphic time signals sent out daily from thi 

ervatory at Washington wete changed to the new system, according to which the 

of 75°, 90°, 105° and 120° west from Greenwich became the time meridians of Eastern, 

..onntaiQ, and Pacific standnrd time lespectively. 

etically, the divisions should he half way between the above meridians, but for general cou- 
the railroads change their time at the eii-'s of railroad divisions, so that Eastern standard 
5ed from the Atlantic Coast to an irregular line through Biiiralo, Salamanca, Pitt.sbur 
g,\V. Va. ; Hollo way, Ohio; ITnutlngton, W Va ; Bristol, Tenn ; Noiton, Va. ; Asheville, N 
, Augusta, Gn.: Columbia, S C. ; Central .Tunclion, Oa. Some of these cities use Eastern 
•ntral time, while the railroads use one time in one direction and the other time in the o 
>n. 

! same applies to the cities on the dividing lines between the Central and Mountain divis 
e running Uwough Bismarck, N. D , South Dakota, Nebraska, Coloi ado, Kansas, New Me 
exas to K\ Paso; also to the cities on the dividing line between the Mountain andPacific div' 
ne running through Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona. 
jrTime Dirt'erence table see Index. 

most all countries throughout the world use standard time based on the meridians 15° 
"-reenwicU, virhile some use standard time based ou the longitude of their national oljservat 



Centre of Population. 



S 



LEGAL HOLIDAYS IN THE VARIOUS STATES. 



Janttart 1. New Year's Day: In all States and 
District of Columbia, Porto Rico, Hawaii, and Alaslca, 
except Massachusetts. 

January 8. Anniversary op the Battle of 
Kew Orleans: In Louisiana. 

January 19. Lee's Birthday: In Alabama, Ar- 
kansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, and Virginia. 

February 12. Georgia Day: In Georgia. 

Febru.\ry 12. Lincoln's Birthday : in California, 
Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana. 
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, 
Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New 
York, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South 
Dakota, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming. 

February 14. admission Day: In Arizona. 

February 20. Mardi Gras, Shrove Tuesday: 
In Alabama and Florida (in counties having a carni- 
val)- in Louisiana, in the parishes of Orleans, St. 
Bernard, JeSerson, St. Charles, and St. John the 
Baptist. 

FEBRtTART 22. "WASBmoTOyi'a BlRTSDATr In all 
the States, District of Columbia, Porto Rico, Hawaii, 
and Alaska. 

March 2. Anntveksary of Texan Indepen- 
pence: In Texas. 

March 4. Inaugukation Day; In District of Co- 
lumbia in years when a President of the United 
States is inaugurated. _ 

March 22. Emancipatiok Day: In Porto Rico. 

March 25. Maryland Dat: In Maryland. 

ApbUiO. good Friday: In Alabama, Connecticut, 
Delaware, Florida, Louisiana. Maryland, Minnesota, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Porto Rico, Tennessee. 

April 12. Halifax Independence resolutions; 
In North Carolina. 

April 13. Thomas jepperson'3 Birthday: In 
Alabama. 

April 19. PATRroT.<?' Day: In Maine and Massa- 
chusetts. „ _ 

April 21. Annivebsabt of the Battle of San 
Jacinto: In Texas. , .,„ 

April 26. Confederate Memorial Day: In Ala- 
bama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississipni. 

May 10. CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL DAY: In North 
Carolina and South Carolina. „ 

May (Second Friday). Confederate Day: In 
Tennessee. _ ^ _„„ 

MAY 20 ANNIVERSARY OF THE SIGNING OF THE 

Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence: In 

MAY 30. Decoration Dat: In all the States and 
District of Columbia, Porto Rico. Hawaii, and 
Alaska, except Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana. Mis- 
sissippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas. 
Confederate Memorial Day: In Virginia, 

June 3 .Jefferson DAvis'a Birthday: In Ala- 
bama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, 
and Texas. In Louisiana, known as "Confederate 
Memorial Day." 



June 11. Kamehameha Day: In Hawaii. 

June 15. Pioneer Day: In Idaho. 

July 4. Independence Day: In all the States, 
and District of Columbia, Porto Rico, HawaU, and 
Alaska. 

JvhY 2i. Pioneers' Tiay: In Utah. 

July 25. Landing op American Troops: Porto 
Rico. 

August 1. Colorado Day: In Colorado. 

August 16. Bennington Battle Day: In Vc 
mont. 

September 3. Labor Day: In all the States 
District of Columbia, Pcrto Rico, Hawaii, a 

September (Third Saturday). Regatt 
Territory of Hawaii. 

September 9. Admission Day: In Ca 

September 12. "Defenders' Day": Ii 

October (First Monday). Missouri 
memorative of Missouri history): In Mis 

October (Secpnd Friday). Farmers 
Florida. 

October 12. colcjibt's Day: In Aiaf 
zona, Arkansa , California, Colorado, C 
Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kf. 
tucky, Maine, Maryland. Massachusetts, 
Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, N 
shire. New Jersev, New Mexico, New Y„ 
Oklahoma. Oregon, Pennsylvania, Porto Pico, I 
Island, Texas, Vermont, Washington. West Vlrg 

OcTO-RPS 18 Alaska Day; In Alaska- 

OrronFR ."51 ADMISSION Day: In Nevada. 

moWmber 1 ALL Saints' Day: In Louisiana. 

November 6, General Election Day: In mi 

°' NovEAOiER (Usually the last 'Thursday). Than 
rmNG Day; Is observed in all tlie States and In 
District of Columbia. Porto Eico, Hawaii, 
Alaska although it is rot a statutory holiday m 

•ncrirMBrR 25 CHRISTMAS Day: In all the Stat 
an? the pTstrict of Columbia. Porto Rico, Haw 

^"arbor day; m some of the States. The dat 

"""smTR^D?^' afternoon: In many of the States a 
Clti4 and District of Columbia. 

Sundavs and Fast Days are legal holidays 1 
theS?ate^ which designate them as such. 

There is no National holiday, not even the F 

1 nere "^4'" has at various times app( 

^' •'•''i^i,„iirinTR in the second session of the 

SI^?'!5^'r>!^S,irP« it Ds^ed an act making Labo 
thu-d Congress it pa^eo^^ o' Columbia, 

f.arr«ogni e'd the%xiltence of certain days . 
Jinvo for commercial purrcses, but, with the 
r*^' ^LIa \y\^TP is no genera statute on the 
Th?. n?rclfmatton of thi President designati, 

District ol Columbia and the lemtories. 



THE CENTRE OF POPULATION. 



CBN3TJ3 Year. 



1790.. 

1800.. 

1810.. 

1820.. 

1830., 

1840., 

1S50.. 

I860., 

1870., 

1880., 

1890. 

1900. 

1910. 



Approximate Location by Important Towns. 



Md. 



?3 miles East of Baltimore, 

18 miles West of Baltimore, Ma • . . . . , . • ■ ■ • • -• 
iO Slles Northwest by West of Washington, D. C. 
16 miles North of Woodstock, Va.... • • • - • • • • • 

19 miles West-Southwest of Mooreneld, W. Va.». . 

16 miles South of Clarksburg, W.Va^*... • 

2.3 miles Southe.ast of Parkersburg. w. Va." 



20 miles South of Chllllcothe Ohio 

48 miles East by North of Cincinnati, Ohio 

8 miles West by South of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

20 miles East of Columbus, Ind . 

6 miles Southeast of Columbus, Ind 

In the city of Bloomlngton, Ind -^ 



From ,. 
to Pol:>^ . 
Direct Llne.t 



40.6 
36.9 
50.5 
40.4 
55.0 
54.8 
80.6 



44 
58 
48 
14 
39 



* West Virginia formed part of Virginia until 1860. 
ecade. 



t Movement in miles during preceding 



Memorable Dates. 



MEMORABLE DATES. -(See .lao "Anniversaries.") 



83 Fall of Troy. 
J83 Era of th« (ireal Pyramid 
818 .Carthage founded. 
776 Olympic Era began. 
753 KoiindalioD of Home. 
583 .IfrusKiein taken by Nebuchadneizar 
636 Itestoiation of the .lews under Cyrus 
609 Ezpittsiou of Tartiuios from Home. 
480 Xeries defeated Ureeka at Tber- 
mopylffi. 

55 Caesar conquered Britain. 
1 Uiithof Jesus Christ. 

The Cn rifixion. 

,m was destroyed by Titus, 
tine converted toChriatianity 
]aus abandoned Itritaln 
iist liing of lLnglaud,Oct.l4. 
llastiiij;s, Xoriuan Conquest 
adcs be^an. 

^as con<iuered by Henry II. 
UD granted .Magna Charts, 
5. 

epresentative Parliament lu 
.nd. 
of Aginconrt, Oct. 25, 

Arc was burnt, May 30. 
itinople taken by tlie Turks. 
8 or the Roses began. 
iC was first printed at Mentz 
set up his printing press. 
»U8 discovered \inerica, ' >ct.l2 
.^formation began in (lermauy 
'orte7, began tlie conuuest of -Mexico. 
I'lie tiist linglish Dilile pi luted. 
Atouastoies were closed in Mngland. 
Accession of t^ueen iOlizabetti, Nov.l" 
5 Kevolt of the Nethe) lands began. 
■5 St Augustine, l-'la , seltle-I, 
'2 'rheSt.HaltlloIoioew Massacre, Aug. 2-1 
^ The ^^paniuli Artnada del'eateti, luly 
> Union of l^uglautl and Scotlan,!. 
■lamestown, Va., was settled May 13. 
Hudson ICivet tiist exptoied. 
Shakespeaie died, A pi 11 23, 
'3 'i'hlrty VearsMVai in* Germany began 
1 rilgilms by tlie Mayllower lauded. 
Manhattan Island settled. 
Maryland settled by Itoraan Catholics 
* Khode Island settled by Uoger 
VVllIiams 
10 Crom-vell's Long railiainent assem- 
bled. 
"Ihailes I. was beheaded, -'an 30. 
'lomweil became Lord Protector, 
flStoratlonof the Stiiai t?*. 
ew Yoik con<|uered from the Dutcli. 
he gi eat plague of l.omlon. 
'egieat nr« of l.on<lon be;?ftnSept.2 
*beaa Corpus Act passed In Eng 
and. 

'nsylvania settled by Wra. Penn. 
ocaliou of the Edict of Vantes 
^s II. abdicated, Dec. 11. 
; of the Uoyne, -luly 1, 

newsp.tper in America ; at 
ton. 

Itar was taken by the English 
of Utrecht, -\pril 11. 
sionof House of Ifanover, Aug.I 
-lacobite Uebellion in Great 
.itain; the second in 1145 
ith Sea Hubble. 
1745 llattle of Tontenoy, April 30. 
1166 lllack Hole Suffocation in Calcutta. 
1757 Clive won llattle of IMassey in India 
1759 Canada was taken from the French. 
1765 Starap -\ct enacted. 
1773 .Steam engine perfected by Watt. 
1713 Tea destroyed in lloston Harbor 

Dec. 16. 
1115 nattle of Lexington, April 19. 

1715 llattle of Hunker Hill, -lune 17. 

1716 Battle of Port Moultrie, Charleston 

8. C, June 28. 
1776 Declaration of Independence, -Tuly 4 

1776 Bitlle of Treuton, N. J., Dec 25-26. 

1777 llattle of Bennlnetnn, Vt., Aug, 16. 
1777 nurgoyne's surrender, Oct. II. 
1719 C«pt. Cook was killed, Teb. 14. 
1781 Corawallis's surrender at Vorktown, 

Oct. 19, 
]7g8 Flrstaettlemecl In Australia, Jan. 26. 



1189 The French Uevolutlon began July 14. 
1189 Washington first inaug'ted I'lesident, 

April 30. 
1793 Colton-gin invented by Whitney. 
1193 Louis -IVI.oC France eieciited.-lan .21 
1796 Vaccination discovered by Jenner. 
1198 I'he Irish lUbelllon. 
1799 lionaparte declared First Consul. 
1801 Union of Great Britain and Ireland, 

.'an. 1. 

1803 Louisiana purchased from the French 

1804 lionaparte became Emperoi of France 
1305 Battle of I'rafalgar; death of Nelson. 

1805 Battle of Ausierliiz, Dec. 2. 
1807 l-'iihon's first steamboat voyage. 
1812 Second war with (ireat Britain. 

1812 rhe French expedition to .Moscow. 

1813 Perry's victory on I. ake Erie, Sept. 10. 

1814 The printing machine luveuled 
1814 Scott's" Waverley " published 

1814 Battle of Lake Champlain, Mc Don- 
ou::h's Victory, Sept 11. 

1815 Battle of New Orleans, -Ian. 8. 
1815 Battle of ^Vaterloo, .lune IS 
1819 I'lrst -steamship crossed the Atlantic 
1823 Monroe Doctrine declaied, Dec. 2. 
1823 First passenger railroad in U. S. 
1830 Revolution ill France, Orleanist suc- 
cession. 

1835 Morse invented the telegraph 
1835 Seminole War in l'"lorida began, 
1635 Great Fire In New Yoik City, Dec 

16-17. 
1837 Accession of Queen Victoria, -lune 20 

1845 Texas annexed. 

1846 Sewing machine completed by Howe 
1846 The Irish Potato Famine. 
1846 British Corn Laws repealed, June 26 

1846 War with Mexico began 

1847 Biitle of Chapulteiiec, Sept. 13. 

1848 Frencn llevolutiou. Republic Buc 
ceeded. 

1848 Gold discovered in California, Sept. 

1851 flold discovered in Australia, Feb 12 
185) First International Eihibit'n, London 

1852 Louis -V.apoleon became I'^mperoi, 

1853 Crimean War began. 

1854 -lapan opened by Commodore Perry 
1857 The (ireat Mutiny in India. 
1851 rhe Dred Scoti decision, 
18M First Atlantic cable message. An;?, 4 

1859 -lohn Brown's raid into Virginia. 

1860 South Carolina seceded, Dec. 20. 

1861 Emancipation of the Russian serfs. 

1861 Battle of Bull Hun, luly 21- 

1862 Battle of Antiet-nm- S^p't- 17, 

1863 Lincoln's Emancipation Proclama- 
tioo, Jan, 1, 

1863 Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3. 
1863 Bittle of ChickamiU'.:*, Sept 19-20. 
1865 Lee surrendered at Appomattox 

April 9. 
1865 I'res. Lincoln assassinated, April 14 
18i1 Maximilian of .Mexico executed. 
1367 The Dominion of Canada established 
186'-i Financial 'BlacU Friday'' in N. Y 
<ept. 24. 

1810 I'rauco- German War began, July 19 
IS'O I' reiich rapitulat-'d at Sedan, Sept. 1 

1870 Rome became the capital of Italy. 

1871 'I he (ieiman Empire le established. 

1811 The Irish Chinch was disestablished 
1811 The great fire in Chicago, Oct. 8-1 1 . 

1872 The great fire in Boston, Xov. 9. 
1876 Prof. B^ll p.-rfrcled the telephone. 
1816 Centennial Exposlt'n at Philadelphia 
18:8 P.iris Eiposition- 

1881 President (iarfield shot, July 2, 

1882 TuKerculosis germ discovered h\ 
Dr. Ko<h. 

1886 Charleston, a C, eai (hquake, Aug.31 

1888 Great Bliziard m Eastern part ol 
U.S, March 1114. 

1889 Brazil became a Iterubllc. 
1S'(9 Johnstown, I'a , flood. May 31. 
18<»3 World's Fair at Chicago. 

1893 Queen Lllinokalanl of Hawaii de- 
posed, Jan. 16. 

1894 Chlnese-.lapanese War began. 
1394 Hawaii made a Kfpublic, July 4. 
1894 Battle of Yalu, Sept- H. 
1891 Capt. Dreyfus d-grad^d, Dec- 23; re- 
stored to rank, July 12. 1906. 



«. D. 

1895 Roentgen Ray discovered bv W. K. 
Roentgen, a German physicist. 

1895 Cuban Uevolution began, Feb. 20. 

1896 " Oieater New York" bill signed 
May 11. 

1891 The Turkish-Greek War. 

1898 The Spanish-American War. 

1693 Battles of San Juaii and El Cane;, 

July 1-3. 
1898 Battle of Santiago di- Cuba, July 3, 

1898 Battle of Omdurmaii, Se|.t 8, 
1890 Universal Peace Conference, 

1899 T'he South Africau War began, 
l$v9 Philippine-American War began, 

Feb- 4 

1899 Windsor Hot-1 fire (N, Y,), Mar. IT. 

1900 Pans Exposition. 
1900 B'txer Insiiirectlon in China. 
1900 Hnboken docks' fiu-, June 30, 

1900 The <;alvestou torniido. Sept, 8. 

1901 Death of Queen Vict'uia. 
1901 Agulnaldo captured by General Fun- 

sioii, .Mat. -^3 
1901 Paii-Ameiican Exposition, May !- 

Nov 2 
1901 Assassination of PrealdentMcKlnley 

Sept. 6. 

1901 MaicnnI signalled letter "S" across 
Atlantic from England to New- 
foundland, Dec. 12. First message 
sent ill Dec, 1902 

1902 Miirtiiiiqiie di 8tro\ ed by volcano. 
1902 Pennsylvania coal strike. 
1902 Cuban Republic inaugurated, May 20. 

1902 Edward VII crowned Xing of Great 
Britain, Aug 9. 

1903 Kishinev m issacre, 

1903 Republic ot Panama establlshe 

1904 The Oreiit Fire in Baltimore, Feb, 7. 
19ii4 The Rii680-.lapaiiesf War began. 

1904 St Louw Expi>Bition opened. Apiil 30. 
1^04 Steamboat General Slocum burned, 

June 15. 
190-i Battle of Miikilen, Feb. 20-Mar. 15. 
I9ii5 Battle of Sea of -lapaii. May 27-28. 

1905 Noiwav dissidvi'd un on with Sweden, 
190b Eruption of Vesuvius, April 5-12, 

1906 SiiD Francisco eai iliqiialie and con- 
fl.igration, April I.S-19. 

1908 Ameru an Battleship fl, et nearly cir- 
cumnavigated thi- (ilobe. 
1908 Gieat earthquake In Southern Italy. 
1908 Chelsea (Mass.) fiie, Apiil 12. 

1010 TheXoitli Pnle discovered April 6. 
1910 Repiihlli- of Pnrliiual pslablishrd. 

1910 Inion of Si.ut'n Ati lea. .May .11. 

1911 "the It:ill.Tn Tu'kisli ^Var began, 
1911 P,»tal Banks .-stablisbed in United 

States, Jail- 3. 

1011 President Dial of Mexico resigned. 
1911 The South Pole discovrred, Dee 14. 

1911 China prnclalmeil a Republic. 
191-/ Balkan War hngnn 

1912 Steamship IManic wrecked, AprllU. 

1913 I'aicel Post System ill U S., Jan. I. 
191 1 Ohio and Iii.liana flon.ls. Match 25-57. 
111! 1l,-l,elll"n in Mexico 
1913 Peace Palare at Hague dedicated, 

1913 Steamer Voliiirno disaster. Oct 9, 

1914 Geiiersl Eiirofean wai - 
1914 S-S. Empress i.f Ireland Bnnk,May59. 
1914 Great fire in Salem, June 25. 
1914 Panama Canal opened Aug. 15. 
1914 City of Mexico invested by the Con- 

stitutionalisis. Aug. 20. 
1914 Cape Cod Canal opened. 
1914 J>*pan dei *d war on Germany, Aog-93, 

1914 Austria dec'd war on Japan, Aug.2&, 
191b Pauama-Paclfi' International Expo- 
sition opened. Feb 20. 

1915 Steamship Lusitania sunk. May 7. 
101 S Great flood in Souiheru China. 80,000 

drowoed, July 14. 

191S Exvursion steamer Eastland disaster, 
July 24 

1915 Wireless commnnlcatlon lietween Ja- 
pan and United States established, 
July 21. 

1915 Steamship Arahic sunk, Aug. 19. 
19l-'> Italian liner Ancona sunk. Nov. 9. 

1916 Teutonic Peace Proposal mads. 



Old English Holidays. 



33 



TIME DIFFERENCE. 

Twelve o'Clock Noon Standard (EASTERNt) Time in the United States as Compared •with the 

Clocks in the Following Cities: 



Aden 


8 00 P.M. 

7 00 P M. 

5.20 PM 

7 00 P.M. 

6.00 P M. 

6.00 P.M 
12.03 PM. 
10.30 P.M. 

6.00 P M. 

5.00 P.M. 

7 00 P.M 

0.00 P.M. 


Dublin 


4 35 PM 
6.00 P.M. 

U 31 A.M. 

00 P.M. 

100 AM.* 

6 30 A.M. 

12.00 NOON 
4.24 P.M. 
5.00 P.M. 

5 00 p .M. 
5 00 P M 
1.00 A.M.* 


Melbourne 


3 00 AM* 


Alexandria 


Hamburg 

Havana 

Havre 


Mexico City. . . 


10 24 A M 


Anisterdaui 


Natal 


7 00 P M 


Athens 


Pari'? 

Pelronrad 

Rio de Janiero 

Rome 

Santiago (Chile) 

Sitlva. Alaska 

Stockholm. . . , 


fi Of) P M 


Berlin 




7 01 p M 


Berne 


Honolulu 

Lima 

Lisbon 

Liverpool 

London 


2 00 P M 


Bogota 

Bombny 


6 00 P.M. 

12 00 NOON 


Bremen 

Brussels 


8.00 A M. 
00 P M 


Constantinople 

Copenhagen 


Madrid 

Manila 


Vienna 

Yokohama 


6 00 P.M. 
2.00 A.M.* 



* At places marked » the time noted is in the mornln:; of the following day. 

•'Summer" time, wiiich is one hour later than that given in the table and which is to be used from May 
1 to October 1, was introduced in 1916 In all countries of Europe except Russia, Greece, and the Balkan 
States. (See statement below.) 

t "Easiern" ti£ie includes: New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, 
Norfolk, Charleston. Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Montreal, Quebec. Ottawa. Toronto, etc. 

"Central," which is one hour slo er than Eastern time, includes: Clevelandt, Chicago, St. Louis, 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Omaha, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Detroit^, New Orleans, 
Memphis, Savannah, Pensacola. Winnipeg, etc. 

"Mountain," >vhich is two hours slower than Eastern time. Includes: Denver, Leadvllle, Colorado 
Springs, Helena, Regina (N. W. T.), etc. 

"Pacific," which is three hours Glower than Eastern time, includes: San Francisco, Portland (Oregon), 
Victoria, Vancouver, Tacoma. Seattle, et". 

X By the law of the State of Ohio, which the Legislature recently refused to change. Central time is the 
legal time in all of that State. The trunk line railways at Cleveland, with the e.xception of the Erie, use 
Central time. There is a city ordinance which names Eas em time as the city time, but as above stated, 
it is at variance with the State law. Detroit has likewise adopted Eastern time. 



DAYLIGHT 

The movement known by this naTie proposes 
"to set the clock ahead" one hour ia the Summer 
months, or to be more exact, fro.Ti nlay 1 to October 
1; the idea being to substitute an hour of sunlight 
at one end of the day for an hour of artificial light 
at the other. 

The father of the movement was an Englishman, 
William Wlllett, who in 1907 published a booklet 
on the "Waste of Daylight " In 1908 a Daylight 
Saving bill was introduced in the House of Com- 
mons but failed of passage. The measure was 
ouposed on the ground of being needless, deceptive 
and confusing. 

On April 6, 1916, the German Federal Council 
passed a measure providing that on May 1, 1916, 
all clocks should be set aheal one hour. The meas- 
ure was adopted for hygienic and economic reasons. 
Within three months twelve European countries 
had followed the lead of Germany and "Summer 
Time" was in use in Germany, Holland, Austria, 
Turkey, England, France, Norway, Sweden, Den- 
mark, Italy, Switzerland, Spain and Portugal. 
Nova Scotia had the honor of introducing the new 
order in the New World. 

Practically no confusion resulted; everything 
went on as before, people doing exactly the same 
things at the same hour o'clock, but In reality the 
whole routine of lite had been brought one hour 



SAVING. 

nearer sunrise. The scheme had brought about 
in the simplest way a vital change affecting millions. 
A simple "twist of the wrist" had given these nations 
their place in the sun. 

In England, where the change was avowedly 
a war measure and not designed to outlast the war, 
a prime consideration was the conserving of the 
coal supply for naval and military uses. Also, 
it is estimated that the British people are saving 
812,000,000 on gas and electric light bills in a single 
season and that New York City by this means 
could save 51,500,000 annually in gas alone. On 
the other side of tlie account la the fact that the 
English companies quickly advanced the pric« of 
gas and electric light to the consumer, to meet the 
loss to tliemselves through lessened demand. Also, 
motorists are taking advantage of the greater num- 
ber of hours of daylight now to be enjoyed and the 
consumption of gasoline is increjising. 

The advantages to be gained are somewhat a 
matter of latitude : England and Germany are in 
a position to reap the greatest benefits; Scotland 
has an excess of Summer daylight, anyway, as is 
likewise the case with Scandinavia; In locations 
like our own .Southern States there is too little 
difference in the duration of daylight as between 
Summer and Winter to warrant the change. 

[Arthur Newton.] 



OLD ENGLISH HOLIDAYS. 

Thksk holidays, with their names, had their origin in medireval England when the State religion 
was that of the (ihurch of Rome, and they are still observed generally or iu some parts of Britain. 



Jancary 6. Twelfth Day, or T^velfth-tide, sometimes 
called Old Chiistmft.s Day, the same as Epiphany. 'The previous 
evening is Twelfth Night, with which m.any social ritea have long 
been connected. 

*FsBE0Ar.Y2. Candlemas: Festival of the Purification of the 
Virgin. Consecration of the lighted candles to be used in the 
church during the year. 

February 14. Old Candlemas: St. Valentine's Day. 

March 25. Lady Day: Annunciation of the Virgin. April 
Sis old Lady Day. 

JuxB S4. Midsummer Day ; Feast of the Nativity of John the 
Baptist. July 7 is old Midsummer Day. 

July 15. St. Swithin's Day. There was an old superstition 
that if rain fell on this day it would continvje foity days. 

August 1. LAM,\fAS Day . Originally in England the festival 
of the wheat harvest. In the Church the festival of St. Peter's 
miraculous deliverance from prison. Old Lamma3 Day is 
August 13. 



September 29. Michaelmas: Fe.-vst of St. Michael, the 
Archangel. Old Michaelmas is October M. 

NoYEMBKR I. All-iiallowmas: All-hallows, or All Saints' 
D<ay. The previous evening is All-hallow-e'en, observed by home 
gatherings and old-time festive rites. 

XovKMBER 2. All Souls' Day : Day of prayer for the aoals 
of the dead. 

November 11. Martinmas : Feast of St. Martin. OldMartln- 
mas is November 23. 

December 28. Childermas : Holy Innocents' Day. 

Lady Day, Midsummer Day, Michaelmas, and Christmas are 
quarter (rent) days in England, and Whitsunday, Martinmas, 
Candlemas, and Lammas Day in Scotland. 

Shrove Tuesday, the day before Ash Wednesday, and Maundy 

Thursday, the day before Good Friday, are observed by the 

Church. Mothering Sunday is Mid-Lent Sunday, in which the 

old rural custom obtains of visiting one's parents and making them 

) presents. 



"Also known as "Groundhog Day.'* 



34 



Easter Sunday. 



TABLE OF DAYS BETWEEN TWO DATES. 

A TABLE OF THE NUMBER OF DAYS BETWEEN ANY TWO DAYS WITHIN TWO YEARS. 



6 






a 


'u 
< 


>> 

3 


01 

a 

3 
•-3 


>* 

1-3 


to 
< 




o 
O 


> 


1 


6 


a 

OS 

■-9 


J2 




'^ 

^ 




a 
a 


1^ 

<-> 


to 

a 




o 
O 


> 



'A 


1 


1 


1 


32 


60 


91 


121 


152 


182 


213 


244 


274 


305 


335 


] 


366 


397 


425 


456 


486 


617 


547 


578 


609 


639 


670 


700 


2 


2 


33 


61 


92 


122 


153 


183 


214 


245 


275 


306 


336 


2 


367 


S98 


426 


457 


487 


518 


548 


679 


610 


640 


671 


701 


3 


3 


34 


62 


93 


123 


154 


184 


215 


246 


276 


307 


337 


3 


368 


399 


427 


458 


488 


519 


649 


680 


611 


641 


672 


702 


4 


4 


35 


63 


94 124 


155 


185 


216 


247 


277 


308 


338 


4 


369 


400 


428 


459 


489 


520 


550 


581 


612 


642 


673 


703 


5 


5 


36 


64 


95 125 


156 


186 


217 


248 


278 


809 


839 


5 


370 


401 


429 460| 


49L 


521 


551 


582 


613 


643 


674 


704 


6 


6 


37 


65 


96| 126 


]57 


187 


218 


249 


279 


310 


340 


6 


371 


402 


430 


461 


491 


522 


652 


583 


614 


644 


675 


705 


7 


7 


38 


66 


97 1 127 


158 


188 


219 


250 


280 


311 


341 


7 


372 


403 


431 


462 


492 


523 


653 


584 


615 


645 


676 


706 


8 


8 


39 


67 


98l 128 


159 


189 


220 


251 


281 


312 


342 


8 


373 


404 


432 


463 


493 


524 


554 


685 


616 


646 


677 


707 


9 


9 


40 


68 


99l 129 


160 


19U 


221 


252 


282 


313 


343 


9 


374 


405 


433 


464 


494 


525 


555 


586 


617 


647 


678 


708 


10 


10 


41 


69 


100 


130 


161 


191 


222 


253 


283 


314 


344 


10 


375 406 


434 


465 


495 


626 


556 


687 


618 


648 


679 


709 


11 


11 


42 


70 


101 


lol 


162 


192 


223 


254 


284 


315 


345 


U 


376 


407 


435 


466 


496 


527 


557 


588 


619 


649 


680 


710 


12 12 


43 


71 


102 


132 


163 


193 


224 


255 


285 


316 


346 


12 


377 


408 


436 


467 


497 


628 


558 


589 


620 


650 


681 


711 


13 


13 


44 


72 


103 


133 


164 


194 


225 


256 


286 


317 


347 


13 


378 


409 


437 


468 


498 


529 


659 


590 


621 


651 


682 


712 


14 


14 


45 


73 


104 


134 


165 


195 


226 


257 


287 


318 


348 


14 


379 


410 


438 


469 


499 


530 


560 


591 


622 


632 


683 


713 


15 


15 


46 


74 


105 


135 


166 


19d 


227 


258 


288 


319 


349 


15 


380 


411 


439 


470 


500 


531 


561 


592 


623 


653 


684 


714 


16 


16 


47 


75 


106 


136 


167 


197 


228 


259 


289 


320 


350 


16 


381 


412 


440 


471 


501 


532 


562 


593 


624 


654 


685 


715 


17 


17 


48 


76 


107 


137 


168 


198 


229 


260 


290 


321 


351 


17 


382 


413 


441 


472 


502 


533 


563 


594 


325 


655 


686 


716 


181 18 


49 


77 


108 


138 


169 199 


230 


261 


291 


322 


r.52 


18 


383 


414 


442 


473 


503 


534 


564 


595 


626 


656 


687 


717 


19 


191 


50 


78 


109 


139 


170 


200 


231 


262 


292 


323 


353 


19 


384 


415 


443 


474 


504 


535 


565 


596 


627 


'657 


688 


718 


20 


20 


51 


79 


110 


140 


171 


201 


232 


263 


293 


321 


354 


20 


385 


416 


444 


475 


505 


536 


566 


597 


628 


658 


889 


719 


21 


21 


52 


80 


111 


141 


172 


202 


233 


264 


294 


323 


355 


21 


386 


417 


445 


476 


506 


537 


567 


598 


629 


669 


690 


720 


22 


22 


53 


81 


112 


142 


173 


203 


234 


265 


295 


326 


356 


22 


3S7 


418 


446 


477 


607 


638 


568 


599 


630 


660 


691 


721 


23 


23 


54 


82 


113 


143 


174 


204 


215 


266 


296 


327 


357 


23 


388 


419 


447 


478 


508 


539 


569 


600 


631 


661 


692 


722 


24 


24 


55 


83 


114 


144 


175 


205 


236 


267 


297 


328 


358 


24 


389 


420 


448 


479 


509 


&4( 


570 


601 


632 


662 


693 


723 


25 


25 


56 


84 


115 


145 


176 


206 


237 


268 


298 


329 


359 


25 


390 


421 


449 


480 


510 


541 


571 


602 


633 


663 


694 


724 


26 


26 


57 


85 


116 


146 


177 


207 


238 


269 


299 


330 


360 


26 


391 


422 


450 


481 


511 


142 


572 


603 


634 


664 


695 


725 


27 


27 


58 


86 


117 


147 


178 


208 


239 


270 


300 


331 


361 


27 


39: 


423 


451 


482 


612 


543 


573 


604 


635 


665 


696 


726 


28 


28 


69 


87 


118 


148 


179 


209 


240 


271 


301 


332 


))62 


28 


39? 


424 


452 


483 


51? 


544 


574 


605 


636 


666 


697 


727 


29 


29 




88 


119 


149 


180 


210 


241 


272 


302 


333 


363 


29 


394 


... 


453 


484 


514 


545 


576 


6U6 


637 


667 


698 


728 


30 


30 




89 


120 


150 


181 


2111 242 


273 


303 


334 


364 


30 


39c 


. 


454 


485 


515 


54ti 


676 


607 


638 


668 


699 


729 


31 


31 




90 




151 




212 


1 24S 


... 


304 




365 


31 


39e 




455 




51h 




577 


608 




669 




730 



Tlie above tai)le applies to ordinary years ouly. For leap year, one day mu.st be added to each 
number of day.s after February 28. 

E.'CAMPiJs. — To And tlie number of days between June 3, 1900, and February 16, 1901 : Tlie fig- 
uresopppsite the third day in the first June cv)lnmn are 154; tho.se opposite the sixteenth day in the 
second February column are 412. Subtract llie^irst from the second product — i. e. , 154 from 412, and 
the result is 258, the number of days between the two dates. 



EASTER SUNDAY. 



A lABi.E Showing the Date of Easter Sunday in Each Year of the Nineteenth and 

Twentieth Centuries. 



:hoi- 

1802- 
1803- 
1804- 
1805- 
1806- 
1807- 
1808- 
1809- 
1810- 
1811- 
1812- 
1813- 
1814- 
1815- 
1816- 
1817- 
1818- 
1819- 
1820- 
1821- 
1822- 
1823- 
1824- 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 



-.•Vpril 5. 
-ApiillS. 
-ApiiUO. 
-April 1. 
-Aprill4 
-April 6. 
-Mar. 29 
-April 17 
-April 2 
-April 22. 
-April 14. 
-Mar. 29 
-April 18 
-April 10 
-Mar. 26. 
-April 14. 
-April 6. 
-Mar. 22. 
-April 11. 
-April 2. 
-April 22 
-April 7. 
-Mar. 30 
-April 18 
-.4.pril 3 
-Mar. 26 
-April 15. 
-April 6 
-April 19. 
-April 11. 
-April 3. 
-.\pril 22. 
-April 7 
-Alar. 30. 



1835- 
1836- 
1837- 
1838- 
1839- 
1840- 
1841- 
1842- 
1843- 
1844- 
1845- 
1846- 
1847- 
1848- 
1849- 
1850- 
1851 
1852- 
1853- 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857- 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861- 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 



April 19. 
April 3. 
Mar. 26. 
■April 15. 
Mar. 31. 
•April 19. 
■April 11. 
-Mar. 27. 
■April 16. 
■April 7. 
-Mar. 23. 
-April 12. 
■Apiil 4 
■April 23 
-April 8 
■Mar. 31. 
-April 20 
-April 11. 
-Mar. 27. 
-April 16. 
-April 8. 
-Mar. 23. 
-April 12. 
-April 4. 
-April 24. 
-April 8. 
-Mar. 31. 
-April 20. 
-.■^pril 5. 
-Jlar. 27. 
-April 16 
-April 1 
—April 21, 
April 12, 



1869- 

1870 

1871- 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875- 

1876- 

1877- 

1878- 

1879- 

1880- 

1881- 

1882- 

1883- 

1884- 

1885- 

1886- 

1887- 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 



28. 
17. 

9. 
31. 
13. 

5. 
28. 
16 

1. 
21. 
13. 
28 
17 

9 
25 



Mar. 

April 

April 

Mar. 

April 

April 

Slar. 

April 

April 

April 
-A pril 
-Mar. 
-April 
-April 
-Mar. 
-April 13. 
-April 5. 
-April 25. 
-April 10. 
-April 1. 
-April 21 
—April 6. 
-Jlar. 29 
-April 17 
-April 2. 
-:Mar. 25 
-April 14 

-April 5. 

-April 18, 

-April 10, 
— .^pril 2, 

-April 15 
— April 7 



1902- 

1903- 

1904- 

1905- 

1906- 

1907- 

1908- 

1909- 

1910- 

1911- 

1912- 

1913- 

1914- 

1915- 

1916- 

1917- 

1918- 

1919- 

1920- 

1921- 

1922 

1923- 

1924- 

1925- 

1926- 

1927- 

1928- 

1929- 

19,30 

1931- 

1932 

1933 

1934 



-Mar. 30. 
-April 12. 
-April 3. 
-April 23 
-April 15. 
-Mar. 31. 
-April 19. 
-April IL 
-Mar. 27 
-April 16. 
-April 7. 
-Mar. 23. 
-April 12. 
-April 4 
-April 23. 
-April 8. 
-Mar. 31. 
-April 20. 
-April 4. 
-Mar. 27. 
-April 16. 
-April 1 
-April 20 
-April 12 
-April 4. 
-April 17. 
-April 8. 
-Mar. 31. 
-A pril 20. 
-April 5. 
-Mar. 27 
-April 16 
-April 1. 



1935- 
1936- 
1937- 
1938- 
1939- 
1940- 
1941- 
1942- 
1943- 
1944- 
1945- 
1946- 
1947- 
1948- 
1949- 
1950- 
1931- 
1952- 
1953- 
1954- 
1955- 
1956- 
1957- 
19.58- 
1959- 
1960- 
1961- 
1962- 
1963- 
1964- 
1965- 
1966- 
1967- 



A pril 21. 
■April 12. 
•Mar. 28. 
■April 17. 
April 9 
Mar. 24. 
-April 13. 
•April 5. 
-April 25. 
-April 9. 
-April 1. 
-April 21. 
-April 6 
■Blar. 28. 
April 17. 
■April 9 
Mar. 25. 
April 13. 
•April 5 
April 18. 
April 10. 
April 1. 
April 21 
April 6 
Mar. 29 
■April 17 
■April 2 
April 22. 
■April 14 
■Mar. 29. 
April 18. 
-April 10. 
-Mar. 26. 



1968- 
1969- 
1970- 
1971- 
1972- 
1973- 
1974- 
1975- 
1976- 
1977- 
1978- 
1979- 
1980- 
1981- 
1982- 
1983- 
1984- 
1985- 
1986- 
1987- 
1988- 
1989- 
1990- 
1991- 
1992- 
1993- 
1994- 
1995- 
1996- 
1997- 
1998- 
1999- 
2000- 



•April 14. 
April 6. 
JIar. 29. 
•April 11. 
April 2. 
•April 22. 
■April 14. 
Mar. 30. 
■April 18. 
■April 10. 
■Mar. 26. 
-April 15. 
-April 6. 
■April 19 
-A pril 11 
-April 3" 
-April 22' 
-April 7. 
-Mar. 30 
-A pril 19'. 
-April 3. 
-Mar. 26 
-April 15' 
-Mar. 31 
-April 19" 
-April li; 
■April 3. 
-A prill 6 
-April 7 
-Mar. 30." 
•April 12. 
-April 4. 
-April 23. 



The French Revolutionary Era. 



35 



CALENDARS FOR 1917 AND 1918. 

















1917. 
















1 














1918. 




















5 
S 






3 








c 

3 
CO 


d 
o 


3 


■6 


3 


£ 






a 

3 


a 
o 


3 


t 
^ 


3 




7- 




c 

3 




t 

3 




3 


£ 


1 


Jan. . . . 




1 


? 


a 


4 


5 


6 


July. . 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Jan 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


July.. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




7 


8 


q 


in 


11 


1? 


13 




s 


V 


IC 


1 1 


12 


V.i 


14 




6 


7 


« 


W 


1(. 


11 


12 




V 


H 




10 


U 


12 


13 




14 


In 


16 


17 


18 


19 


•2(1 




15 


If 


17 


18 


U 


2( 


21 




13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 




14 


IS 


le 


17 


18 


19 


20 




■?.\ 


}.f 


i^H 


i!4 


i>5 


26 


■27 




22 


2? 


^4 


25 


26 


27 


28 




20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 




21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 




?8 


).<^ 


.■^n 


31 










2t 


31 


31 












27 


28 


M 


30 


31 








2b 


29 


30 


31 






, , 


Feb.... 










1 


2 


3 


Aug 








1 


2 


i 


4 


Feb.... 












1 


;; 


Aug.. . 










1 


2 


3 




4 


5 


fi 


7 


8 


fl 


in 




5 


h 


7 


i- 


i- 


1( 


11 




3 


4 


5 


6 


V 


S 


4J 




4 


5 


6 




8 


9 


10 




11 


\7 


i.s 


14 


I.S 


16 


17 




12 


1.- 


14 


15 


16 


17 


IS 




10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


l."- 


It 




11 


12 


VJ 


14 


15 


16 


17 




18 


19 


?.o 


>1 


^? 


23 


24 




u: 


2r 


21 


22 


2:- 


24 


25 




17 


18 


19 


2(: 


21 


22 


23 




18 


IS 


2( 


21 


22 


23 


24 




•?.?< 


^0 


/7 


;!S 










26 


27 


2H 


29 


3r 


31 






24 


26 


26 


27 


28 








25 


2t 


2/ 


28 


29 


30 


31 


March. 










1 


2 


3 


jept. 














1 


March 












1 


2 




















4 


5 


fi 


7 


8 


9 


in 




2 


:i 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


Sept. 


1 


2 


3 




5 


6 


7 




11 


1?. 


l.'^ 


14 


15 


16 


17 




9 


10 


U 


12 


ia 


14 


15 




10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 




8 


y 


1( 


11 


12 


13 


14 




IS 


19 


?n 


^1 


?.? 


23 


24 




16 


17 


18 


19 


2(: 


21 


22 




17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 




15 


u: 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 




?,S 


7.9S 


;^7 


28 


29 


3n 


31 




23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 




21 


^5 


26 


27 


28 


21, 


30 




2L 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


April.. . 


1 


7. 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 




30 
















31 
















29 


30 


. 








. . 




s 


9 


in 


11 


1? 


1.3 


14 


Oct 




1 


■>. 


3 


4 


5 


6 


April.. 




1 


•> 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Oct... 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




1,'i 


Ifi 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 




7 


fi 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 




7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 




6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 




7.2 


7.?, 


7.A 


7.F. 


•26 


27 


28 




14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


2(: 




14 


15 


16 


17 


\y 


li: 


20 




13 


K 


If. 


16 


IV 


18 


19 




29 


30 


' 












21 

28 


22 

29 


23 
30 


24 
31 


25 


26 


27 




21 

28 


22 
29 


23 
30 


24 


2. 


20 


27 




20 

27 


21 

28 


22 
26 


23 
30 


24 
31 


25 


26 


May... 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




















































R 


7 


8 


9 


in 


11 


12 


Nov... 










1 


2 


3 


May . . . 








1 


2 


3 


4 


Nov. . 


. . 




. 






1 


2 




n 


14 


15 


Ifi 


17 


18 


19 




4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


1(, 




5 


6 


7 


8 


y 


10 


11 




3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 




2(\ 


7.\ 


7.7. 


;^3 


24 


25 


26 




11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 




12 


13 


14 


15 


1(; 


17 


18 




10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 




'7.1 


28 


7,9 


30 


31 








18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 




19 


2!) 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 




17 


18 


1! 


2C 


21 


22 


23 


June. . . 


'?. 


4 


,5 


6 


7 


1 
8 


2 



Dec. . . 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


i 


June. .. 


26 


27 


28 


29 


3t 


31 


i 




24 


25 


2t 


27 


28 


29 


30 




10 


11 


15! 


13 


14 


15 


16 




2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Dec. . 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 




17 


18 


19 


?.n 


^1 


?.?. 


23 




9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 




9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 




8 


9 


1(1 


11 


12 


13 


14 




7.^ 


2o 


?.H 


7.7 


28 


29 


30 




16 


17 


IS 


19 


2(1 


21 


22 




16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 




15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


















23 


24 


!5 


26 


27 


28 


29 




23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


2K 


2! 




22 


23 


24 


2F 


26 


27 


28 










1 1 






30 311 


. . . .1 










if) 
















29 


30 


31 








. . 



Jan. 17. 
Jan. 19. 
Jan. 27. 
Jan. 29. 
Feb. 12. 
Feb. 15. 
Feb. 22. 
Mar. 5. 
Mar. 15. 
Mar. 17. 
Mar. 18. 
April 12. 
April 12. 
April 13. 
April 19. 

April 23. 
April 27. 
May 1. 

May 13. 

May 18. 



ANNIVERSARIES. 

DATES OF HISTORICAli EVENTS CUSTOMAHILY OR OCCASIONALLY OBSERVED. 

See also table of "Memorable Dates" and "Legal Holidays.' 



Franklin born, 1706. 

Robert E. Lee born, 1807. 

German Emperor born, 1859. 

William McKinley born, 1843. 

Abraham Lincoln born, 1809. 

Battleship Maine blown up, 1898. 

George VVasliington born, 1732. 

Boston Massacre, 1770. 

Andrew Jaclison born, 1767. 

St. Patrick's Day. 

Grover Cleveland born, 1837. 

Henry Clay born, 1777. 

Fort Sumter fired on, 1861. 

Thomas Jeffersou born, 1743. 

Primrose Day tn England; Lord Beacons- 

flelddied, 1881. 
Shakespeare born, 1564. 
Gen. U. S. Grant born, 182?. 
Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet at 

Manila, 1898. 
Society of The Cincinnati orKanlzed by 

officers of Rovolutlonary .4rray, 1783. 
The Czar or Russia born, 1868. 



May 24. 


June 


3. 


June 


14. 


July 


1. 


July 


3. 


July 


12. 


July 


14. 


July 


16. 


Aug. 


3. 


Aug. 


7. 


Aug. 


13. 


Aug. 


28. 


Sept. 


1. 


Sept. 


14. 


Sept. 


15. 


Oct. 


27. 


Nov. 


5. 


Nov. 


10. 


Nov. 


2.5. 


Dec. 


14. 


Dec. 


28. 



IS98. 



Queen Victoria bom, 1819. 
King George V. born. 1865. 
Flag D -y In the United States. 
Dominion Day In Canada. 
Cervera's fleet destroyed off Santiago, 
Orangemen's Day. 
The Bastile was destroyed, 1789. 
Santiago surrendered, 1898. 
Invasion of Belghim by Germany, 1914. 
Gen. Nathanael Greene born, 1742. 
Manila surrendered to Americans. 1898. 
Montenegro toran-e a kingdom, 1910. 
Capitulation oi Sec'an, 1870. 
City of Mexl co taken by U. S. troops, 1847. 
William H. Oaft born, 1857. 
Theodore Rocsevelt born, 1858 
Guy Fawkes Day In England. The Gun- 
powder F!ot discovered, 1605. 
Martin Luther born, 1483. 
British evacuated New 'Xork, 1783. 
Washington died, 1799. 
Woodrow Wilson lorn, 1856. 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY ERA. 

Tn September, 1793, the conTent!on decreed that the commoa era should be abolished in nil civil affafis, and that the new 
I'Vunch era should beg'iu on September 'ji, t79'2, tlie day ot the true autumnal etjniiiox, and that each Gticceedinp ^ eai should 
tjegin at the raiduljjlit of the day on which the tiue autumnal equinox falls. The yeai was divided iuto twelve months of 
thirty days each, lu ordinary years tiiere were five extra days, from the Uth to the '^Ist ol our Septenibei, and at the eod of 
every foul th year was ft sixth complimentary day. This reckoaing was first tiaed on November 2*i, 1793, aiid was continued 
tintll December 31, 1605, when it was discontiiineii, and the Gregorian calendar, used throii;;iiout tlie test of Europe, wae re- 
sumed. Th6 following were the dates foi the year 1804, the last complete year of this style of recltojiing : 



'Vendemiaiie (Vintage), September *iu toOctober22. 



Biumaire 

I'rimaire 

Nivose 

i'luviose 

Ventose 



( •''oggy ) 
(Sleety), 
(Snowy), 
( Itainy ), 
(Windy), 



October y3 to November 22. 
November 22 to DecemberSl, 
December 22 to January 21. 
January 21 to February 20. 
l-ebriiary 20 to March 19. 



(Hudding), Maich 22 to Apill 21. 
(Klowery), y\piii2] to May 20, 
(Pastuie), May 21 to June 20. 
(Ilarvest), J une 20 to July 19. 
(Hot), July 20 to j\tignBt 19. 

(Kiuit), ,,\ui;iist 19 to beplember 18. 



Germinal 

Floreal 

Prairial 

Messidor 

Thermidor 

Frnctidor 
The months were divided into thiee decades of ten days each, but to make up the Sn.i five weie added at the end of Sep- 
tember: l*rimidi, dedicated to VlUue; Duodl, to (ieniusi Tridi, to Labor; (^nartidl, to Opinion, and Quiulldi, to Itewaids. 
To Leap Vear, cajled Olympic, a sixth day, September 22 or 23, Sextidi, ** the day of the Revolution," was added. 

'I'o each tenth d ly, thirty-six in all, weie assigned thirty-six " l-'etes l>ecaduires," decieed by the National Convention oa 
the eighteenth I'ralrlal, in honoi of the Supreme IJeing and Nature, the Human Race, tlie Krench I'eople, llenefactors ot Hu- 
manity, Martyrs for IJberty, t.lberty and tCiiuality, the Republic, Liberty of the World, Love of Country, Hatied of Tyiants 
and Traitors, Truth, Justice, Modesty, (Jlory and Immortality, I'Vleodshlp, I'VugaMty, Courage, (iood Faith, Heroism, Hisln- 
tereatedness, Stoicism, Love, Conjugal Fidelity, Paternal Love, Maternal Tenderness, Filial Fiety, Infancy, Childhood, Man- 
hood, Old Age, Sickness, Agricultura, Industry, Our Ancestors, Our Foaterlty, Goodness. 



36 



Ready-Reference Caiendar. 



READY-REFERENCE CALENDAR. 

For ascertaining any Day of the Week for any given Time within Two Hundred 
Years from the introduction of tJie New Style, 1752, * to 1952 inclusive. 



COMMON YEARS. 1753 TO 1951. 



1761 
1801 



1762 
1802 



1757 
1803 



1754 
1805 



1755 
1806 



1758 
1809 



1753 
1810 



1767 
1807 



1773 
1813 



1763 
1814 



1765 
ISll 



1766 
1817 



1769 
1815 



1759 
1821 



1778 
1818 



1779 
1819 



1774 
1825 



1771 
1822 



1777 
1823 



1775 
1826 



1770 
1827 



1789 
1829 



1790 
1830 



1785 
1831 



1782 
1833 



1783 
1834 



1786 
1837 



1781 
1838 



1795 
1835 



1841 



1791 
1842 



1793 
1839 



1794 
1845 



1797 
1843 



1787 
1849 



1846 



1847 



1853 



1799 
1850 
1901 



1800 
1851 
1902 



1854 
1905 



1798 
1855 



1857 
1903 



1858 
19U9 



1859 
1910 



1861 
1907 



1862 
1913 



1865 
1911 



1866 
1906 



1863 
1914 



1869 
1915 



1870 
1921 



1867 
1918 



1873 
1919 



1871 
1922 



1877 
1917 



1874 
1925 



1875 
1926 



1881 
1927 



1878 
1929 



1879 
1930 



1882 
1933 



1883 
1923 



1885 
1931 



1886 
1937 



1887 
1938 



1S89 
1935 



1890 
1941 



1893 
1939 



1894 
1934 



1891 
1942 



1897 
1943 



1898 
1949 



1895 
1946 



1947 



1899 
1950 



1900 
1945 
1951 



LEAP YEARS. 1756 TO 1952. 



1764 
1768 
1773 
1776 
1780 
1756 
1760 



1793 


18b4 

1808 


1833 


1860 


1888 




1796 


1836 


1864 


1893 


1904 




1813 


1840 


1868 


1896 


1908 


• • 


1816 


1844 


1873 




1913 




1830 


1848 


1876 




1916 


1784 


1834 


1853 


1880 




1930 


1788 


1838 


1856 


1884 




1934 



1938 



1933 



1936 



1940 



1944 



1948 



W53 3 



39 



Note. — To ascertalD any 
day of tbe weel;. first look 
In the table for the year 
required, and under the 
months are figures which 
refer to the corresponding 
figures at the head of the 
columns of days below. 
For Bxample:-To know on 
what day of the week July 
4. 1917, will fall, look in 
the table of years for 
1917. and In a parallel line 
under .Tuly Is figure 7, 
which directs to column 
7 In which It will be seen 
that July 4 falls on Wednes- 
day. 



* 1752 same as 1772 from 
January 1 to September 2. 
From September 14 to 
December 31 same as 1780 
(September 3-13 were 
omitted). 



1 



Mouday 1 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 3 
Thureday 4 
Frid.iy 
Saturday 
SUNDAY 
Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesd. 10 
Tlinisday 1 
Friday 1? 
Salniday 13 
SUNDAY 14 
Monday 15 
Tuesday 16 
Wednesd. 1 
Thursday 18 
Fiiday 19 
Satin day 90 
SUNDAY 21 
Monday 2*J 
Tuesday 23 
Wednesd. 24 
Thursday 25 
Friday 26 
Saturday 2? 
SUNDAY 28 
Monday 29 
Tuesday 30 
Wtfduefid. 31 



Tuesday 1 
Wednesday 2 
Thursday 3 
Friday 
Satuiday 
SUNDAY 
Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 9 
Thursday 10 
Fiiday I 
Saturday 12 
SUNDAY 13 
Monday 14 
Tuesday 15 
Wednesd. Iti 
Thuisday n 
Friday 18 
Satuiday 19 
SUNDAY 20 
Monday 21 
Tuesday 22 
Wednesd. 23 
Thursday 24 
Friday 25 
Saturday 26 
SUNDAY 21 
Monday 28 
Tuesday 29 
Wednesd. 30 
Thursday 31 



Wednesday 1 
Thursday 
Friday 
Saturday 
SUNDAY 
Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 8 
Thursday 
Friday 
Saturday 
SUNDAY 12 
Monday 13 
Tuesday 14 
Wednesd. 15 
Thursday 16 
Friday 17 
Saturday 18 
SUNDAY 19 
Monday 2U 
Tuesday 21 
W^eduesd, 22 
Thursday 23 
Friday 24 
Saturday 25 
SUNDAY 26 
Monday 27 
Tuesday 28 
Wednesd. 29 
Thursday 30 
Friday 31 



Thursday 
Fi iday 
S.itmday 
SUNDAY 
Monthly 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 1 
Thursday 
Friday 

Saturday 10 

SUNDAY 11 

Monday 1*2 

Ttiesdiiy 13 

Wediiesd. 14 

Thuisday 15 

Friday 16 

Satui day 1 

SUNDAY 18 

Mondnv \9 

Tuesday 20 

VVedne.Hd. 21 

Thursday 22 

Friday V:^ 

Satuiday 24 

SUNDAY 25 

Monday 26 

Tuesday 2"] 

Wednesd. 2k 

Thursday 29 

Friday 30 

Satuiday 31 



Friday 
Satuiday 
SUNDAY 
Moiiduy 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 6 
Tliursday 7 
Fi iday 8 

Satuiday 9 
SUNDAY 10 
Mond.iy 11 
TuesfJay IV 
Wednesd. 13 
Tinnsday 14 
Fiiday 1" 
Satuiday IC- 
SUNDAY n 
Monday 18 
Tuesday 19 
Wednesd. 20 
Thuisday 21 
Friday 2? 

Satiinlay 23 
SUNDAY 24 
Monday 25 
Tuesday 20 
Wednesd. 27 
Thuisday 28 
1' I iday 29 

Satuiday 30 
SUNDAY 31 



Saturday 1 

SUNDAY 

Monday 

Tuesday 4 

Wednesday 6 

Tliuisday 

Fiiday 

Satuiday 

SUNDAY 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thuisday 

Fiiday 

Satuiday 

SUNDAY 16 

Monday 17 

Tue.sday 18 

Wednesd. 19 

Tliursday 20 

Friday 21 

Saturday 22 

SUNDAY 23 

Monday 24 

Tuesday 

Wednesd. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Satuiday 

SUNDAY 

Monday 



SUNDAY 1 
Moiiihiy 2 
Tuesday 3 
Wednesday 4 
Thursday 5 
Fri(hiy 6 

Satuiday 7 
SUNDAY 8 
Monday 9 
Tuesday 10 
Wednesd. 11 
Thursday 12 
Friday 13 
Satuiday 14 
SUNDAY 15 
Mobday JG 
Tuesday 17 
Wednesd. 18 
Tliursday 19 
Friday 20 
Saturday 21 
SUNDAY 22 
Monday 23 
Tuesday 24 
Wednesd. 25 
Tliursday 23 
Friday 27 
Saturday 28 
SUNDAY 29 
Monday 30 
Tuesday 31 





1st Month. 






JA 


NUAl 


lY, 1917. 








31 Days. 


1 




o 


Calendar (or 

BOSTON, 

New England, 

N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

Washington, and 

Oregon. 


Calendar for 

New York City, 

Connecticut, 

Pennsylvania, Oliio. 

Indiana, Illinois, 

Iowa, Nebraska, 

Wyoming and 

Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado, Utah, 

Nevada, and 

Central California. 


Calendar for 

Charleston. 

Georgia, Alabama. 

Louisiana. Arkansas, 

Texas, New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 


rt 


SUN 


SON MoonI 


Sun 


Sun 


MOON 


Sun 


Sun 


moon 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


P 


Q 


RISES. 


Sets. 


R. & 8. 


Rises. 


Sets, 


R. 4 B. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. & 8. 


Rises 


Sets. 


R. * 8 






H. M. 


B. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


M 


7 30 


4 38 


1 8 


7 24 


4 43 


1 6 


7 19 


4 49 


1 4 


7 2 


5 5 


12 56 


2 


Tu 


7 30 


4 39 


2 17 


7 24 


4 44 


2 14 


7 19 


4 50 


2 10 


7 3 


5 6 


1 58 


3 


W 


7 30 


4 40 


3 24 


7 24 


4 45 


3 20 


7 19 


4 50 


3 15 


7 3 


5 7 


3 


4 


Th 


7 30 


4 41 


4 28 


7 24 


4 46 


4 23 


7 19 


4 51 


4 17 


7 3 


5 7 


3 59 


5 


Ft 


7 30 


4 42 


528 


7 25 


4 47 


5 22 


7 19 


4 52 


5 16 


7 3 


5 8 


4 56 


6 


Sa 


7 30 


4 43 


6 20 


7 25 


4 48 


6 14 


7 19 


4 53 


6 8 


7 3 


5 9 


5 48 


7 


S 


7 29 


4 44 


7 5 


7 24 


4 48 


6 59 


7 19 


4 54 


6 53 


7 3 


5 10 


6 35 


8 


M 


7 29 


4 45 


rises . 


7 24 


4 49 


rises. 


7 19 


4 55 


rises. 


7 3 


5 11 


rises. 


9 


Tu 


7 29 


4 46 


6 16 


7 24 


4 50 


6 20 


7 19 


4 56 


6 24 


7 3 


5 11 


6 36 


10 


W 


7 29 


4 47 


7 17 


7 24 


4 52 


7 20 


7 19 


4 57 


7 23 


7 3 


5 12 


7 32 


11 


Th 


7 28 


4 48 


8 18 


7 24 


4 53 


8 20 


7 19 


4 58 


8 22 


7 3 


5 13 


8 27 


12 


Ft 


7 28 


4 49 


9 18 


7 24 


4 54 


9 19 


7 18 


4 59 


9 20 


7 3 


5 14 


9 21 


13 


Sa 


7 28 


4 50 


10 19 


7 23 


4 55 


10 19 


7 18 


5 


10 18 


7 3 


5 15 


10 16 


14 


S 


7 27 


4 51 


1121 


7 23 


4 56 


1120 


7 18 


5 1 


1118 


7 3 


5 16 


1113 


15 


M 


7 27 


4 52 


A.M. 


7 22 


4 57 


A.M. 


7 18 


5 2 


A.M. 


7 3 


5 17 


A.M. 


16 


Tu 


7 27 


4 54 


12 26 


7 22 


4 58 


12 23 


7 17 


5 3 


12 21 


7 2 


5 18 


12 11 


17 


W 


7 26 


4 55 


133 


7 22 


4 59 


130 


7 17 


5 4 


126 


.7 2 


5 18 


1 13 


18 


Th 


7 25 


4 56 


2 43 


7 21 


5 


2 39 


7 16 


5 5 


2 34 


7 2 


5 19 


2 17 


19 


Fr 


7 25 


4 57 


3 53 


7 20 


5 2 


3 48 


7 16 


5 6 


3 42 


7 2 


5 20 


3 24 


20 


Sa 


7 24 


4 58 


5 


7 20 


5 3 


4 54 


7 15 


5 7 


4 48 


7 1 


5 21 


4 29 


21 


S 


7 24 


5 


6 


7 19 


5 4 


5 54 


7 15 


5 8 


5 48 


7 1 


5 22 


5 29 


22 


M 


7 23 


5 1 


6 49 


7 19 


5 5 


6 44 


7 14 


5 10 


6 39 


7 1 


5 23 


6 23 


23 


Tu 


7 22 


5 2 


sets. 


7 18 


5 6 


sets. 


7 14 


5 11 


sets. 


7 1 


5 24 


sets. 


24 


W 


7 21 


5 4 


7 8 


7 17 


5 8 


7 10 


7 13 


5 12 


7 13 


7 


5 25 


7 20 


25 


Th 


7 21 


5 5 


8 26 


7 17 


5 9 


8 27 


712 


5 13 


8 28 


6 59 


5 26 


8 30 


26 


Ft 


7 20 


5 6 


9 41 


7 16 


5 10 


9 41 


7 12 


5 14 


9 40 


6 59 


5 27 


9 38 


27 


Sa 


7 19 


5 7 


10 54 


7 15 


5 11 


10 52 


7 11 


5 15 


10 51 


6 58 


5 28 


10 44 


28 


S 


7 18 


5 9 


A.M. 


7 14 


5 12 


A.M. 


7 10 


5 16 


1159 


6 58 


5 29 


1149 


29 


M 


7 17 


5 10 


12 6 


7 13 


5 14 


12 3 


7 9 


5 18 


A.M. 


6 57 


5 30 


A.M. 


30 


Tu 


7 16 


5 11 


1 15 


7 12 


5 15 


1 11 


7 9 


5 19 


1 6 


6 56 


5 31 


12 52 


31 


W 


7 15 


5 12 


2 21 


7 12 


5 16 


2 16 


7 8 


5 20 


2 10 


6 56 


5 32 


153 







SUN ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 






Day of 




Day op 




Day of 




Day of 




Day OF 




Month 


H M. 8. 


month 


H M. 8 


Month 


H. M. 8 


Month 


H. M. S. 


Month 


H M. 8, 


1 


12 3 41 


8 


12 • 6 49 


14 


12 9 11 


20 


12 11 10 


26 


12 12 42 


2 


12 4 9 


9 


12 7 14 


15 


12 9 33 


21 


12 11 27 


27 


12 12 55 


3 


12 4 37 


10 


12 7 39 


16 


12 9 53 


22 


12 11 44 


28 


12 13 7 


4 


12 5 4 


11 


12 8 3 


17 


12 10 14 


23 


12 12 


29 


12 13 17 


5 


12 5 31 


12 


12 8 26 


18 


12 10 33 


24 


12 12 15 


30 


12 13 27 


6 


12 5 58 


13 


12 8 49 


19 


12 10 52 


25 


12 12 29 


31 


12 13 37 


7 


12 6 24 



















TWILICHT. 



Places. 


Jan. 


Begins, A.M. 


Ends, p.M 


Jan 


Begins, a.m 


Ends, P M. 


Jan 


Begins. A.M 


Ends, P.M. 






H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston 


1 


5 48 


6 19 


11 


5 48 


6 28 


21 


5 45 


6 38 


New York 


1 


5 46 


6 22 


11 


5 46 


6 30 


21 


5 44 


6 40 


Wash' ton.. 


1 


5 43 


6 24 


11 


5 44 


6 32 


21 


5 42 


6 42 


Charleston 


1 


5 35 


6 33 


11 


5 36 


6 40 


21 


5 35 


6 48 



2d Month. 



FEBRUARY, 1917. 



28 Days. 



a 
o 

1 

o 


Day of the Week. 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, 

N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

Washington, and 

Oregon 


Calendar lor 

New York City, 

Connecticut, • 

Pennsylvania, Ohio, 

Indiana, Illinois, 

Iowa, Nebraska, 

Wyoming, and 

Northern California 


Calendar for 

WASHINGTON, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado, Utah, 

Nevada, and 

Central California. 


Calendar for 

Charleston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Arkansas, 

Texas, New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 





Sun 
Rises 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
B. & s. 


SUN 
RISES. 


Sun- 
sets. 


MOON 
R & S 


Sun 
Rises 


Sun 
Sets. 


MOON 
R. & 8. 


Sun 
Rises 


Sun 
Sets. 


MOON 
R & 3. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 


Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 


H. M. 

7 14 
7 13 
7 12 
7 10 
7 10 
7 9 
7 8 
7 6 
7 5 
7 4 
7 3 
7 1 
7 
6 59 
6 57 
6 56 
6 54 
6 53 
6 52 
6 50 
6 49 
6 47 
6 46 
6 44 
6 43 
6 41 
6 40 
6 38 


H. M 

5 14 
5 15 
5 16 
5 18 
5 19 
5 20 
5 22 
5 23 
5 24 
5 26 
5 27 
5 28 
5 29 
5 31 
5 32 
5 33 
5 34 
5 36 
5 37 
5 38 
5 40 
5 41 
5 42 
5 43 
5 45 
5 46 
5 47 
5 48 


H. M. 

3 22 

4 17 

5 4 

5 43 

6 16 
rises . 

6 10 

7 11 

8 12 

9 13 
10 16 
1122 
A.M. 
12 29 

137 

2 43 

3 43 

4 36 

5 20 
5 57 

sets. 

7 13 

8 30 

9 45 
10 58 
A.M. 
12 7 

1 12 


H. M. 

7 11 
7 10 
7 9 
7 8 
7 7 
7 6 
7 4 
7 3 
7 2 
7 1 
7 
6 58 
6 57 
6 56 
6 5G 
6 53 
6 52 
6 51 
6 49 
6 48 
6 47 
6 45 
6 44 
6 42 
6 41 
6 39 
6 38 
6 36 


H. M. 

5 17 
5 18 
5 20 
5 21 
5 22 
5 23 
5 25 
5 26 
5 27 
5 28 
5 30 
5 31 
5 32 
5 33 
5 34 
5 36 
5 37 
5 38 
5 39 
5 40 
5 42 
5 43 
5 44 
5 45 
5 46 
5 47 
5 48 
5 50 


H. M. 

3 16 

4 11 

4 58 

5 38 

6 12 
rises. 

6 12 

7 12 

8 12 

9 12 

10 14 

11 18 
A.M. 

12 24 
132 

2 37 

3 38 

4 31 

5 16 
5 54 

sets. 

7 14 

8 29 

9 42 
10 54 
A.M. 
12 3 

1 7 


H. M. 

7 7 
7 6 
7 5 
7 4 
7 3 
7 2 
7 1 
7 
6 59 
6 58 
6 57 
6 56 
654 
6 53 
6 52 
6 51 
6 50 
6 48 
6 47 
6 46 
6 44 
6 43 
6 42 
6 40 
6 39 
6 38 
6 36 
6 35 


H. M. 

5 21 
5 22 
5 23 
5 24 
5 26 
5 27 
5 28 
5 29 
5 30 
5 31 
5 32 
5 34 
5 35 
5 36 
5 37 
5 38 
5 39 
5 40 
5 42 
5 43 
5 44 
5 45 
5 46 
5 47 
5 48 
5 49 
5 50 
5 51 


H. M. 

3 10 

4 4 

4 52 

5 32 

6 7 
rises. 

6 15 

7 13 

8 12 

9 11 

10 12 

11 15 
A.M. 

12 20 
126 

2 31 

3 32 

4 25 

5 11 
5 50 

sets. 

7 14 

8 28 

9 40 

10 50 

11 58 
A.M. 

1 1 


H M. 

6 55 
6 54 
6 54 
6 53 
6 52 
6 52 
6 51 
6 50 
6 49 
6 48 
6 47 
6 46 
6 46 
6 45 
6 44 
6 43 
6 42 
6 41 
6 40 
6 39 
6 38 
6 36 
6 35 
6 34 
6 33 
6 32 
6 31 
6 30 


H. M. 

5 32 
5 34 
5 34 
5 35 
5 36 
5 37 
5 38 
5 39 
5 40 
5 41 
5 42 
5 43 
5 44 
5 44 
5 45 
5 46 
5 47 
5 48 
5 49 
5 50 
5 50 
5 51 
5 52 
5 53 
5 54 
5 55 
5 56 
5 56 


H. M. 

2 51 

3 45 

4 33 

5 16 

5 53 
rises. 

6 21 

7 16 

8 11 

9 6 

10 3 

11 3 
A.M. 

12 5 

1 8 

2 12 

3 12 

4 8 

4 57 

5 40 
sets. 

7 14 

8 24 

9 31 
10 38 
1142 
A.M. 
12 43 
























. . 

































SUN ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 






DAV OF 




Day OP 




DAT OF 




Day OF 




Day OF 




Month 


H. M. S 


Month 


H. M. S 


MONTH 


a M. s. 


Month 


H. M. S 


Month 


H. M. S. 


1 


12 13 45 


7 


12 14 18 


13 


12 14 22 


19 


12 14 


25 


12 13 14 


2 


12 13 53 


8 


12 14 21 


14 


12 14 20 


20 


12 13 54 


26 


12 13 5 


3 


12 13 59 


9 


12 14 23 


15 


12 14 18 


21 


12 13 48 


27 


12 12 54 


4 


12 14 5 


10 


12 14 24 


16 


12 14 15 


22 


12 13 40 


28 


12 12 43 


5 


12 14 10 


11 


12 14 24 


17 


12 14 10 


23 


12 13 32 






6 


12 14 15 


12 


ll2 14 24 


18 


12 14 6 


i 24 


12 13 24 







TWILIGHT. 



PLACES. 


Feb. 


Begins, A M. 


Ends, P.M. 


Feb. 


Begins, A.M. 


Ends, P.M. 


Feb. 


Begins, a.m. 


Ends, P.M. 






H. M. 


H. M 




H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston — 


1 


5 38 


6 51 


11 


5 28 


7 1 


21 


5 15 


7 13 


New York 


1 


5 37 


6 51 


11 


5 27 


7 2 


21 


5 15 


7 13 


Wash'ton.. 


1 


5 36 


6 52 


11 


5 27 


7 3 


21 


5 15 


7 13 


Charleston 


1 


5 31 


6 57 


11 


5 24 


7 5 


21 


5 15 


7 13 





3d Month. 






MARCH, 1917. 






31 Days. 


1 

2 

a 

a 


it 

o 

n 
*^ 

o 

5 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, 

N. Y. State. 

Mlcbigan, Wisconsin, 

N and 8. Dakota, 

Washington, and 

Oregon. 


Calendar for 

New York City, 

Connecticut, 

Pennsylvania, Ohio 

Indiana, Illinois. 

Iowa. Nebraska. 

Wyoming, and 

Northern CaUfomla. 


Cclendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado, Utah, 

Nevada, and 

Central California. 


Calendar for 

CBAJUiESTON, 

Georgia, Alabama, 
Louisiana, Arkansas, 
Texas. New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern CaUfomla. 


eA 


Sun 


SUN 


MOON 


Sun 


Sun 


MOON 


Sun 


Sun 


MOON 


Sun 


Sun 


MOONI 





» 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. ft 8. 


Rises. 


Sets 


R. ft B. 


Rises. 


Sets 


R. li. S. 


Rises 


Sets. 


R. ft S. 






H M. 


H. M. 


H, M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


B. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


Th 


6 36 


5 49 


2 10 


6 35 


5 51 


2 4 


6 33 


5 52 


158 


6 28 


5 57 


139* 


2 


Ft 


6 35 


6 51 


3 


6 33 


5 52 


2 54 


6 32 


5 63 


2 48 


627 


5 68 


2 29- 


3 


Sa 


6 33 


5 52 


3 42 


6 32 


5 53 


3 37 


6 30 


5 54 


3 31 


6 26 


5 59 


3 14 


4 


S 


6 31 


6 53 


4 17 


6 30 


5 54 


4 13 


6 29 


5 56 


4 8 


6 25 


6 


3 53 


5 


M 


6 30 


564 


4 47 


6 29 


6 55 


4 43 


6 27 


5 66 


4 40 


6 24 


6 


4 28 


6 


Tu 


6 28 


5 55 


6 12 


6 27 


5 56 


5 10 


6 26 


5 58 


6 7 


6 22 


6 1 


4 59 


7 


W 


6 26 


6 57 


5 35 


6 26 


5 58 


5 34 


6 24 


5 69 


5 32 


6 21 


6 2 


5 27 


8 


Th 


6 25 


6 58 


rises 


6 24 


5 59 


rises. 


6 23 


6 


rises. 


6 20 


6 2 


nses. 


9 


Er 


6 23 


5 59 


7 6 


6 22 


6 


7 6 


6 21 


6 1 


7 4 


6 19 


6 3 


7 1 


10 


Sa 


6 21 


6 


8 9 


6 21 


6 1 


8 7 


6 20 


6 2 


8 5 


6 17 


6 4 


7 58 


11 


S 


6 20 


6 1 


9 14 


6 19 


6 2 


9 11 


6 18 


6 3 


9 8 


6 16 


6 5 


8 57 


12 


M 


6 18 


6 2 


10 20 


6 18 


6 3 


10 16 


6 17 


6 4 


10 12 


6 15 


6 5 


9 58 


13 


Tu 


6 16 


6 4 


11 27 


6 16 


6 4 


1122 


6 16 


6 5 


1117 


6 14 


6 6 


11 () 


14 


W 


6 15 


6 5 


A.M. 


6 14 


6 5 


A.M. 


6 14 


6 6 


A.M. 


6 12 


6 7 


A.M. 


15 


Th 


6 13 


6 6 


12 33 


6 13 


6 6 


12 27 


6 12 


6 7 


12 21 


6 11 


6 8 


12 'i. 


16 


Ft 


6 11 


6 7 


134 


6 11 


6 7 


128 


6 11 


6 8 


122 


•6 10 


6 8 


1 3 


17 


Sa 


6 9 


6 8 


2 28 


6 9 


6 8 


2 22 


6 9 


6 9 


2 16 


6 8 


6 9 


158 


18 


S 


6 8 


6 9 


3 14 


6 8 


6 9 


3 9 


6 8 


6 10 


3 4 


6 7 


6 10 


2 48 


19 


M 


6 6 


6 11 


3 52 


6 6 


6 10 


3 48 


6 6 


6 11 


3 44 


6 6 


6 10 


3 3'4 


20 


Tu 


6 4 


6 12 


4 24 


6 4 


6 12 


4 22 


6 4 


612 


4 20 


6 4 


6 11 


4 12 


21 


W 


6 2 


6 13 


454 


6 3 


6 13 


4 63 


6 3 


6 12 


4 52 


6 3 


6 12 


4 48 


22 


Th 


6 1 


6 14 


sets. 


6 1 


6 14 


sets. 


6 1 


6 13 


sets. 


6 2 


6 13 


sets. 


23 


Ft 


5 59 


6 15 


7 17 


5 59 


6 15 


7 16 


6 


6 14 


7 14 


6 1 


6 13 


7 8 


24 


Sa 


5 57 


6 16 


8 32 


5 68 


6 16 


8 30 


6 58 


615 


8 26 


6 59 


6 14 


8 16 


25 


S 


5 56 


6 17 


9 46 


5 56 


6 17 


9 42 


6 56 


6 16 


9 37 


6 58 


6 15 


9 23 


26 


M 


5 54 


6 19 


10 55 


5 54 


6 18 


10 50 


6 65 


6 17 


10 44 


5 66 


6 16 


10 27 


27 


Tu 


5 52 


6 20 


1158 


5 53 


6 19 


1152 


5 53 


6 18 


1146 


5 55 


6 16 


1127 


28 


W 


5 50 


6 21 


A.M. 


5 51 


6 20 


A.M. 


5 62 


6 19 


A.M. 


5 54 


6 17 


A.M. 


29 


Th 


5 48 


6 22 


12 52 


5 49 


6 21 


12 46 


6 50 


6 20 


12 40 


6 53 


6 18 


12 21 


30 


Ft 


5 47 


6 23 


138 


6 48 


6 22 


133 


5 49 


6 21 


127 


5 61 


6 18 


1 9 


31 


Sa 


5 45 


6 24 


2 16 


5 46 


6 231 2 1111 5 47 


6 221 2 6 


5 60 


6 19 


151 









SUN 


ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 








Day of 






Day or 






Day OF 






Day OF 






Day OP 






MONTH 


H. 


M. S. 


MONTH 


H 


M. B. 


MONTH 


H 


M. 8. 


MONTH 


H. 


M. B. 


Month 


u. 


M. 8. 


1 


12 


12 32 


8 


12 


10 58 


14 


12 


9 22 


20 


12 


7 38 


26 


12 


5 49 


2 


12 


12 20 


9 


12 


10 42 


16 


12 


9 5 


21 


12 


7 20 


27 


12 


5 31 


3 


12 


12 7 


10 


12 


10 27 


16 12 


8 48 


22 


12 


7 2 


28 


12 


5 12 


4 


12 


11 54 


11 


12 


10 11 


17 


12 


8 31 


23 


12 


6 44 


29 


12 


4 54 


5 


12 


11 41 


12 


12 


9 55 


18 


12 


8 13 


24 


12 


6 25 


30 


12 


4 36 


6 


12 


11 27 


13 


12 


9 39 


19 


12 


7 65 


25 


12 


6 7 


31 


12 


4 17 


7 


12 


11 12 



























TWILIGHT. 



Places. 


Mar 


Begins, A.M. 


Ends, P.M. 


Mar. 


Begins, A.M 


Ends, p M. 


Mar 


Begins, A.M. 


Ends, P.M. 






H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston 


1 


5 3 


7 23 


11 


4 46 


7 35 


21 


4 28 


7 47 


New York 


1 


5 4 


7 22 


11 


4 48 


7 33 


21 


4 31' 


7 45 


Wash'ton.. 


1 


5 6 


7 21 


11 


4 50 


7 31 


21 


4 34 


7 42 


Charleston 


1 


5 7 


7 19 


11 


4 54 


1 7 27 


21 


4 41 


7 34 





4th Month. 






APRIL 


, 1917. 






30 Days. 


1 

o 


1 ' 
1 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, 

N. Y. State. 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

Washington, and 

Oregon. 


Calendar for 

New York City, 

Connecticut, 

Pennsylvania, Ohio, 

Indiana, Illinois, 

Iowa, Nebraska, 

Wyoming, and 

Northern California. 


1 

Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky. 

Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado, Utah, 

Nevada, and 

Central California. 


Calendar for 

Charleston, 

Georgia, Alabama^ 

Louisiana, Arkansas, 

Texas, New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 


a 


SUN 


Sun 


MOON 


SUN 


Sun 


Moon 


Sun 


Sun 


moon 


Sun 


Sun 


moon 








Rises. 


Sets. 


R. & 8. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. &, a. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. i 8 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. A S. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


S 


5 43 


6 25 


2 48 


5 44 


6 24 


2 44 


5 46 


6 23 


2 40 


5 49 


6 20 


2 27 


2 


M 


5 42 


6 26 


3 15 


5 43 


6 25 


3 12 


5 44 


6 24 


3 9 


5 47 


6 20 


2 59 


3 


Tu , 


5 40 


6 28 


3 39 


5 41 


6 26 


3 37 


5 42 


6 25 


3 35 


5 46 


6 21 


3 29 


4 


W 


5 38 


6 29 


4 


5 40 


6 27 


4 


5 41 


6 26 


3 59 


5 45 


6 22 


3 57 


5 


Th 


5 36 


6 30 


4 22 


5 38 


6 28 


4 22 


5 39 


6 27 


4 23 


5 44 


6 22 


4 24 


6 


Fr 


5 35 


6 31 


4 44 


5 36 


6 30 


4 45 


5 38 


6 28 


4 47 


5 42 


6 23 


5 52 


7 


Sa 


5 33 


6 32 


rises . 


5 35 


6 31 


rises. 


5 36 


6 29 


rises. 


5 41 


6 24 


rises. 


8 


S 


5 31 


6 33 


8 10 


5 33 


6 32 


8 7 


5 35 


6 30 


8 3 


5 40 


6 25 


7 50 


9 


M 


5 30 


6 34 


9 18 


5 31 


6 33 


9 14 


5 33 


631 


9 9 


5 38 


6 25 


.8 53 


10 


Tu 


5 28 


6 35 


10 25 


5 30 


6 34 


10 20 


5 32 


6 32 


1014 


5 37 


6 26 


9 56 


11 


W 


5 26 


6 36 


1128 


5 28 


6 35 


1122 


5 30 


6 33 


11 16 


5 36 


6 27 


10 57 


12 


Th 


5 25 


6 38 


A.M. 


5 27 


6 36 


A.M. 


5 29 


6 34 


A.M. 


5 35 


6 27 


1154 


13 


Fr 


5 23 


6 39 


12 23 


5 25 


6 37 


12 18 


5 27 


6 35 


12 12 


5 33 


6 28 


A.M. 


14 


Sa 


5 21 


6 40 


1 11 


5 24 


6 38 


1 6 


5 26 


6 36 


1 1 


5 32 


6 29 


12 44 


16 


S 


5 20 


6 41 


1 51 


5 22 


6 39 


147 


5 24 


6 36 


142 


5 31 


6 30 


129 


16 


M 


5 18 


6 42 


2 24 


5 20 


6 40 


2 21 


5 23 


6 38 


2 18 


5 30 


6 30 


2 9 


17 


Tu 


5 16 


6 43 


2 53 


5 18 


6 41 


2 52 


5 21 


6 38 


2 50 


5 29 


6 31 


2 45 


18 


W 


5 15 


6 44 


3 21 


5 17 


6 42 


3 20 


5 20 


6 39 


3 20 


5 28 


6 32 


3 19 


19 


Th 


5 13 


6 46 


3 47 


5 16 


6 43 


3 48 


5 18 


6 40 


3 49 


5 26 


6 32 


3 52 


20 


Ft 


5 12 


6 47 


4 14 


5 14 


6 44 


4 17 


5 17 


6 41 


4 20 


5 25 


6 33 


4 27 


21 


Sa 


5 10 


6 48 


sets. 


5 13 


6 45 


sets. 


5 16 


6 42 


sets. 


5 24 


6 34 


sets. 


22 


S 


5 9 


6 49 


8 34 


5 11 


6 46 


8 29 


5 14 


6 43 


8 24 


5 23 


6 35 


8 8 


23 


M 


5 7 


6 50 


9 40 


5 10 


6 47 


9 35 


5 13 


6 44 


9 29 


5 22 


6 35 


9 11 


24 


Tu 


5 6 


6 51 


10 40 


5 9 


6 48 


10 34 


5 12 


6 45 


10 28 


5 21 


6 36 


10 9 


25 


W 


5 4 


6 52 


1130 


5 7 


6 49 


1125 


5 10 


6 46 


11 19 


5 20 


6 37 


11 


26 


Th 


5 3 


6 53 


A.M. 


5 6 


6 50 


A.M. 


5 9 


6 47 


A.M. 


5 18 


6 38 


1145 


27 


Fr 


5 1 


6 54 


12 12 


5 4 


6 51 


12 7 


5 8 


6 48 


12 2 


5 17 


6 38 


A.M. 


28 


Sa 


5 


6 56 


12 46 


5 3 


6 52 


12 42 


5 6 


6 49 


12 38 


5 16 


6 39 


12 24 


S9 


S 


4 59 


6 57 


1 15 


5 2 


6 54 


1 12 


5 5 


6 50 


1 9 


5 15 


6 40 


12 58 


30 


M 


4 57 


6 58 


140 


5 


6 55 


138 


5 4 


6 51 


136 


5 14 


6 40 


129 







SUN ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 






Day of 




Day OF 




Day of 




Day of 




Day of 




Month 


B. M. 8 


month 


a. M. 8. 


Month 


H. M. 8. 


Month 


3. M. 8. 


Month 


H. M. 8. 


1 


12 3 59 


7 


12 2 13 


13 


12 35 


19 


11 59 8 


25 


11 57 57 


2 


12 3 41 


8 


12 1 56 


14 


12 19 


20 


11 58 55 


26 


11 57 46 


3 


12- 3 23 


9 


12 1 39 


15 


12 4 


21 


11 58 43 


27 


11 57 37 


4 


12 3 5 


10 


12 1 23 


16 


11 59 50 


22 


11 58 30 


28 


11 57 27 


5 


12 2 48 


11 


12 1 6 


17 


11 59 35 


23 


11 58 19 


29 


11 57 18 


6 


12 2 30 


12 


12 50 


18 


11 59 22 


24 


11 58 8 


30 


11 57 10 



TWILIGHT. 

Places. Apr. Begins, a.m Ends, p.m. Apr. Begins, a.m. Ends, vm. Apr. Begins, a ji. Ends, pm. 



Boston.. 
New York 
Wash'ton 
Charleston! 



1 

I- 1 
1 
1 



4 7 
4 10 
4 14 
4 25 



H. M. 

8 2 

7 58 
7 54 
7 43 



11 
11 
11 
11 



H. M. 

3 47 
3 51 

3 57 

4 11 



H. M. 

8 16 
8 12 

8 7 
7 52 



21 
21 
21 
21 



H. M. 

3 27 
3 32 
3 39 
3 57 



H. M. 

8 32 
8 26 
8 20 
8 2 



5th Month. 



MAY, 1917. 



31 Days. 



ja 






JA 




V 


o 


w 


s 


^ 


e 


« 


s 


A 


^ 


w 


o 


"3 


>, 


>. 


es 


c8 





Q 


1 


Tu 


2 


W 


3 


Th 


4 


Fr 


5 


Sa 


6 


S 


7 


M 


8 


Tu 


9 


W 


10 


Th 


11 


Fr 


12 


Sa 


13 


S 


14 


M 


15 


Tu 


16 


W 


17 


Th 


18 


Ft 


19 


Sa 


20 


S 


21 


M 


22 


Tu 


23 


W 


24 


Th 


25 


Ft 


26 


Sa 


27 


S 


28 


M 


29 


Tu 


30 


W 


31 


Th 



Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England, 

N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

Washington, and 

Oregon. 



Sun 
Rises. 



56 
54 
53 
52 
50 
49 
4 48 
4 47 
4 46 
4 44 
4 43 
4 42 
4 41 



40 
39 
38 
37 
36 
35 
34 



4 33 



32 
32 
31 
30 
29 
29 
28 
28 
4 27 
4 26 



Sun Moon 
Sets. r. 4 s. 



59 


1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
1 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

7 24 

7 25 

7 26 

7 26 

7 27 

7 28 

7 29 



2 3 
2 25 

2 46 

3 9 
3 35 

rises . 

8 13 

9 19 
1018 

11 9 
1151 
A.M. 

12 26 
12 56 

124 

1 49 

2 16 

2 44 

3 16 
sets 

8 26 

9 21 
10 6 

10 44 

11 15 
1142 
A.M. 

12 5 
12 27 
12 48 

1 10 



Calendar lor 

NEW York City, 

Connecticut, 

Pennsylvania, Ohio. 

Indiana, Illinois, 

Iowa, Nebraska, 

Wyoming, and 

Northern California. 



Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


4 59 


6 56 


4 58 


6 57 


4 57 


6 58 


4 55 


6 59 


4 54 


7 


4 53 


7 1 


4 52 


7 2 


4 51 


7 3 


4 50 


7 4 


4 48 


7 5 


4 47 


7 6 


4 46 


7 7 


4 45 


7 8 


444 


7 9 


4 43 


7 10 


442 


7 11 


4 41 


7 12 


4 40 


7 13 


4 40 


7 14 


4 39 


7 14 


4 38 


7 15 


4 37 


7 16 


4 36 


7 17 


4 36 


7 15 


4 35 


7 19 


4 34 


7 20 


4 34 


7 21 


4 33 


7 22 


4 33 


7 22 


4 32 


7 23 


4 32 


7 24 



MOON 
R. i S. 



2 2 
2 25 

2 47 

3 11 
3 38 

rises. 

8 8 

9 13 

10 12 

11 4 

11 47 
A.M. 

12 23 
12 54 

123 

1 50 

2 18 

2 47 

3 20 
sets. 

8 20 

9 15 
10 1 

10 39 

11 12 

11 39 
A.M. 

12 4 
12 27 
12 49 

1 12 



Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado, Utah. 

Nevada, and 

Central Callforala. 



Sun 
Rises. 



H. M. 



3 
2 

59 
58 
57 
56 
55 
54 
53 
52 
51 
50 
49 
48 



4 47 
4 46 
4 45 
4 44 
4 44 
4 43 
4 42 
4 42 
4 41 
4 40 



40 
39 
38 
38 
37 
37 



Sun 
Sets. 



Moon 
R. & s. 



H. M. 



52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 

6 59 

7 




1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
15 
16 
17 
18 
18 



H. M. 

2 1 
2 25 

2 49 

3 14 
3 42 

rises 

8 3 

9 7 
10 7 
10 58 
1142 
A.M 
12 20 
12 52 



22 
51 
20 
51 
25 



sets. 

8 14 

9 9 
9 55 

10 35 

11 8 

11 37 
A.M. 

12 2 
12 26 
12 50 

1 14 



Calendar for 

Charleston. 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana,, Arkansafl, 

Texas, New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 



Sun Sun 
Rises. Sets. 



H. M. 



13 

12 

11 

10 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

4 

3 

2 

2 

1 





59 

58 

58 

57 

56 

56 

56 

55 

55 

54 

54 

54 

53 



MOON 
R. & B. 



41 
42 
43 
43 
44 
45 
46 
46 
47 
48 
48 
49 
50 
51 
51 
52 
53 
53 
54 
55 
56 
56 
57 
58 
58 
59 


1 
1 
2 



157 
2 24 

2 52 

3 20 
3 52 

rises. 

7 46 

8 49 

9 48 

10 41 

11 28 
A.M. 

12 9 
12 45 



19 

52 

25 



38 
sets. 

7 56 

8 50 

9 38 
10 20 
10 5& 
1128 
1157 
A.M. 
12 25 
12 5^ 

1 19^ 







SUN ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 






Day OF 




Day of 




Day of 




Day op 




Day of 




Month 


B. U S 


Month 

8 


H. M. 8. 


Month 


H. M. S. 


Month 


H. M. S 


Month 


h. m. b. 


1 


11 57 2 


11 56 22 


14 


11 56 11 


20 


11 56 20 


26 


11 56 49 


2 


11 56 55 


9 


11 56 19 


15 


11 56 11 


21 


11 56 24 


27 


11 56 56 


8 


11 56 48 


10 


11 56 16 


16 


11 56 12 


22 


11 56 28 


28 


11 57 3 


4 


11 56 42 


11 


11 56 14 


17 


11 56 13 


23 


U 56 32 


29 


11 57 10 


6 


11 56 36 


12 


11 56 12 


18 


11 56 15 


24 


11 56 37 


30 


11 57 18 


6 


11 56 31 


13 


11 56 11 


19 


11 56 17 


25 


11 56 43 


31 


11 57 26 


7 


11 56 26 



















TWILIGHT, 



• Places. 


May. 


Begins, a.m. 


Ends, P.M. 


May. 


Begins, A.M 


Ends, P.M 


May. 


Beghis, A.M 


Ends, P.M. 


Boston 


1 


H. M. 

3 7 


h. m. 

8 48 


11 


H. M. 

2 48 


H. M. 

9 5 


21 


H. M. 

2 32 


H. M. 

9 22 


New York 


1 


3 14 


8 41 


11 


2 57 


8 56 


21 


2 42 


9 11 


Wash'ton.. 


1 


3 22 


8 33 


11 


3 6 


8 47 


21 


2 53 


9 1 


Charleston 


1 


3 43 


8 12 


11 


3 31 


8 22 


21 


3 21 


8 32 



6th Month. 






JUNE, 


1917 


• 






30 Days. 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 

O 

& 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

New England. 

N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

Washington, and 

Oregon. 


Calendar for 

New York City. 

Connecticut. 

Pennsylvania, Ohio. 

Indiana, Illinois, 

Iowa, Nebraska, 

Wyoming, and 

Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado, Utah, 

Nevada, and 

Central California. 


Calendar for 

Charleston, 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Arkansas, 

Texas, New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 


CS 


Sun Sun 1 


MOON 


SnN 


SUN MoonI 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


SUN 


Sun 


moon 


Q 


Q 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. & S. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. A 8. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. t 8. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. & S 






H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


U. M. 


H. M 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


Ft 


4 26 


7 30 


134 


4 31 


7 25 


137 


4 36 


7 19 


140 


4 53 


7 2 


149 


2 


Sa 


4 25 


7 30 


2 2 


4 31 


7 25 


2 6 


4 36 


7 20 


2 10 


4 53 


7 3 


2 23 


3 


S 


4 25 


7 31 


2 35 


4 30 


7 26 


2 40 


4 36 


7 20 


2 46 


4 52 


7 4 


3 1 


4 


M 


4 24 


7 32 


3 16 


4 30 


7 27 


3 22 


4 35 


7 21 


3 28 


4 52 


7 4 


3 46 


5 


Tu 


4 24 


7 33 


rises. 


4 29 


7 27 


rises. 


4 35 


7 22 


rises. 


4 52 


7 5 


rises. 


€ 


W 


4 24 


7 33 


9 2 


4 29 


7 28 


8 57 


4 35 


7 22 


8 51 


4 52 


7 5 


8 34 


7 


Th 


4 24 


7 34 


9 48 


4 29 


7 29 


9 44 


4 35 


7 23 


9 39 


4 52 


7 6 


9 24 


8 


Fr 


4 23 


7 34 


10 27 


4 29 


7 29 


10 24 


4 34 


7 23 


10 20 


4 52 


7 6 


10 8 


9 


Sa 


4 23 


7 35 


10 59 


4 28 


7 30 


10 57 


4 34 


7 24 


10 54 


4 52 


7 7 


10 46 


10 


S 


4 23 


7 36 


11 28 


4 28 


7 30 


1126 


4 34 


7 24 


1125 


4 51 


7 7 


1122 


11 


M 


4 23 


7 36 


11 54 


4 28 


7 31 


11 54 


4 34 


7 25 


1154 


4 51 


7 7 


11 54 


12 Tu 1 


4 22 


7 37 


A.M. 


4 28 


7 31 


A.M. 


4 34 


7 25 


A.M. 


4 51 


7 8 


A.M. 


13 


W 


4 22 


7 37 


12 20 


4 28 


7 32 


12 21 


4 34 


7 26 


12 23 


4 51 


7 8 


12 27 


14 


Th 


4 22 


7 38 


12 47 


4 28 


7 32 


12 50 


4 34 


7 26 


12 52 


4 51 


7 9 


1 1 


15 


Fr 


4 22 


7 38 


117 


4 28 


7 33 


121 


4 34 


7 27 


125 


4 51 


7 9 


137 


16 


Sa 


4 22 


7 39 


151 


4 28 


7 33 


156 


4 34 


7 27 


2 2 


4 52 


7 9 


2 18 


17 


S 


4 22 


7 39 


2 32 


4 28 


7 33 


2 38 


4 34 


7 27 


2 44 


4 52 


7 10 


3 2 


18 


M 


4 22 


7 39 


3 19 


4 28 


7 34 


3 26 


4 34 


7 28 


3 33 


4 52 


7 10 


3 52 


19 


Tu 


4 23 


7 40 


sets. 


4 28 


7 34 


sets. 


4 34 


7 28 


sets. 


4 52 


7 10 


sets. 


20 


W 


4 23 


7 40 


8 42 


4 28 


7 34 


8 37 


4 34 


7 28 


8 32 


4 52 


7 10 


8 16 


21 


Th 


4 23 


7 40 


9 15 


4 28 


7 34 


9 11 


4 34 


7 28 


9 7 


4 52 


7 11 


8 54 


22 


Fr 


4 23 


7 40 


9 44 


4 29 


7 35 


9 41 


4 35 


7 29 


9 38 


4 52 


7 11 


9 28 


23 


Sa 


4 24 


7 40 


10 8 


4 29 


7 35 


10 6 


4 35 


7 29 


10 4 


4 53 


7 11 


9 58 


24 


S 


4 24 


7 40 


10 30 


4 29 


7 35 


10 30 


4 35 


7 29 


10 29 


4 53 


7 11 


10 26 


25 


M 


4 24 


7 41 


10 52 


4 29 


7 35 


10 52 


4 35 


7 29 


10 52 


4 53 


7 12 


10 53 


26 


Tu 


4 24 


7 41 


1113 


4 30 


7 35 


1114 


4 36 


7 29 


1116 


4 54 


7 12 


1120 


27 


W 


4 25 


7 41 


1136 


4 30 


7 35 


1138 


4 36 


7 29 


1141 


4 54 


7 12 


1148 


28 


Th 


4 25 


7 41 


A.M. 


4 31 


7 35 


A.M. 


4 36 


7 29 


A.M. 


4 54 


7 12 


A.M. 


29 


Fr 


4 26 


7 41 


12 1 


4 31 


7 35 


12 5 


4 37 


7 29 


12 8 


4 55 


7 12 


12 19 


30 


Sa 


4 26 


7 41 


12 31 


4 31 


7 35 


12 35 


4 37 


7 29 


12 40 


4 55 


7 12 


12 54 







SUN ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 






DAT OF 




DAT OF 




Day OF 




DAT OF 




DAT OF 




Month 


H. M. 8. 


Month 


a. M. B 


Month 


H. M. B 


Month 


H. M. 8 


MONTH 


H. M. 8. 


1 


11 57 35 


7 


11 58 35 


13 


11 59 45 


19 


12 1 3 


25 


12 2 21 


2 


11 57 44 


8 


11 58 46 


14 


11 59 58 


20 


12 1 16 


26 


12 2 33 


3 


11 57 53 


9 


11 58 57 


15 


12 11 


21 


12 1 29 


27 


12 2 46 


4 


11 58 3 


10 


11 59 9 


16 


12 23 


22 


12 1 42 


28 


12 2 58 


S 


11 58 13 


11 


11 59 21 


17 


12 36 


23 


12 1 55 


29 


12 3 11 


6 


11 58 24 


12 


11 59 32 


18 


12 50 


24 


12 2 8 


30 


[12 3 22 



TWILIGHT. 

June. Begins, a.m Ends, p M. iJune. Begins, a.m. Ends, p.m. June. Begins, a.m. Ends, p.m. 



PlACBS. 



Boston. . , 
JNew York 
IVa^h'ton 
Charleston 



1 
1 
1 
1 



2 18 
2 29 

2 42 

3 14 



9 38 
9 26 

9 14 
8 42 



11 
11 
11 
11 



M. 



2 10 
2 23 

2 36 

3 10 



9 50 
9 36 
9 23 
8 49 



21 
21 
21 
21 



2 8 
2 22 

2 35 

3 10 



H. 

9 
9 
9 

8 



M. 

55 
41 

28 
53 





7th Month. 








JULV 


, 1917. 






31 Days. 


5 

a 
o 


i 


Calendar for 

BOSTON. 

New England. 
N Y state 


Calendar for 

New York City, 

Connecticut, 


Calendar for 

Washington. 

Virginia, Kentucky. 


Calendar for 

Charleston. 

Georgia, Alabama, 


1 




o 
>■ 

t3 


Michigan. Wisconsin 

N. and S. Dakota 

Washington and 

Oregon. 


Indiana, Illinois, 

Iowa. Nebraska 

Wyoming, and 

Northern California. 


Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado, Utah. 

Nevada, and 

Central California. 


Louisiana, Arkansas. 
Texas. New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 


c8 


SUN 


Sun MoonI 


Sun Sun iMoon 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


SUN 


SUN 


moon 


P 


Q 


Rises. 


Sets: 


R 4 S 


Rises . 


Sets. 


R. 4 S 


Rises 


Sets. 


R. 4 s 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. 4 S. 






H. M 


H. M 


H M 


H M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


s 


4 26 


7 41 


1 7 


4 31 


7 35 


1 13 


4 38 


7 29 


1 19 


4 55 


7 12 


136 


2 


M 


4 27 


7 40 


1 52 


4 32 


7 35 


1 59 


4 38 


7 29 


2 5 


4 56 


7 12 


2 24 


3 


Tu 


4 28 


7 40 


2 49 


4 33 


7 35 


2 55 


4 39 


7 29 


3 2 


4 56 


7 12 


3 22 


4 


W '4 28 


7 40 


rises . 


4 33 


7 34 


rises. 


4 39 


729 


rises. 


4 57 


7 11 


nses. 


5 


Th i 4 29 


7 40 


8 23 


4 34 


7 34 


8 19 


4 40 


7 29 


8 15 


4 57 


7 11 


8 2 


6 


Ft 4 29 


7 40 


8 59 


4 35 


7 34 


8 56 


4 40 


7 28 


8 53 


4 58 


7 11 


8 44 


7 


Sa 1 4 30 


7 39 


9 29 


4 35 


7 34 


9 28 


4 41 


7 28 


9 26 


4 58 


7 11 


9 21 


8 


S ; 4 31 


7 39 


9 57 


4 36 


7 33 


9 57 


4 42 


7 28 


9 57 


4 59 


7 11 


9 55 


9 


M i 4 31 


7 38 


10 24 


4 36 


7 33 


10 25 


4 42 


7 27 


10 26 


4 59 


7 11 


10 29 


10 


Tu 


4 32 


7 38 


10 51 


4 37 


7 33 


10 53 


4 43 


7 27 


10 56 


5 


7 10 


11 3 


11 


W 


4 33 


7 37 


11 20 


4 38 


7 32 


11 24 


4 44 


7 27 


1127 


5 


7 10 


1139 


12 


Th 


4 34 


7 37 


1153 


4 39 


7 32 


11 58 


4 44 


7 26 


A.M. 


5 1 


7 10 


A.M. 


13 


Fr 


4 34 


7 36 


A.M. 


4 39 


7 31 


A.M. 


4 45 


7 26 


12 3 


5 1 


7 10 


12 17 


14 


Sa 


4 35 


7 36 


12 31 


440 


7 31 


12 37 


4 46 


7 25 


12 43 


5 2 


7 9 


1 1 


15 


S 


4 36 


7 35 


1 16 


4 41 


7 30 


1 22 


4 46 


7 25 


129 


5 2 


7 9 


148 


16 


M 


4 37 


7 34 


2 7 


442 


7 30 


2 14 


4 47 


7 24 


2 20 


5 3 


7 8 


2 40 


17 


Tu 


4 38 


7 34 


3 4 


4 42 


7 29 


3 10 


4 48 


7 24 


3 17 


5 4 


7 8 


3 36 


18 


W 


4 38 


7 33 


sets. 


443 


7 28 


sets. 


4 48 


7 23 


sets. 


5 4 


7 7 


sets. 


19 


Th 


4 39 


7 32 


7 46 


444 


7 28 


743 


4 49 


7 22 


7 40 


5 5 


7 7 


7 28 


20 


Fr 


4 40 


7 32 


8 12 


4 45 


7 27 


8 10 


4 50 


7 22 


8 8 


5 6 


7 6 


8 a 


21 


Sa 


4 41 


7 31 


8 35 


4 46 


7 26 


8 34 


4 51 


7 21 


8 33 


5 6 


7 6 


8 28 


22 


S 


4 42 


7 30 


8 57 


4 47 


7 25 


8 57 


4 52 


7 20 


8 56 


5 7 


7 5 


8 56 


23 


M 


4 43 


7 29 


9 18 


4 48 


7 25 


9 19 


4 52 


7 20 


9 20 


5 7 


7 5 


9 22 


24 


Tu 


4 44 


7 28 


9 39 


4 48 


7 24 


9 41 


4 53 


7 19 


944 


5 8 


7 4 


9 50 


25 


W 


4 45 


7 27 


10 3 


4 49 


7 23 


10 6 


4 54 


7 18 


10 10 


5 9 


7 4 


10 19 


26 


Th 


4 46 


7 26 


10 30 


4 50 


7 22 


10 34 


4 55 


7 17 


10 39 


5 9 


7 3 


10 52 


27 


Ft 


4 47 


7 25 


11 3 


4 51 


7 21 


11 8 


4 56 


7 16 


11 13 


5 10 


7 2 


1129 


28 


Sa 


4 48 


7 24 


1142 


4 52 


7 20 


1148 


4 57 


7 15 


11 55 


5 11 


7 2 


A.M. 


29 


S i 4 49 


7 23 


A.M. 


453 


7 19 


A.M. 


4 58 


7 14 


A.M. 


5 11 


7 1 


12 13 


30 


M 


4 50 


7 22 


12 32 


4 54 


7 18 


12 39 


4 58 


7 14 


12 45 


5 12 


7 


1 5 


31 


Tu 


4 51 


7 21 


[ 1 32 


4 55 


7 17 


1 39 


4 59 


7 12 


1 46 


5 131 6 59 


2 6 









SUN ON MERIDIAN 


OF WASHINGTON. 






Day OF 






Day OF 




Day of 






Day of 






Day OF 




Month 


H. 


M. S 


Month 


H. M. S. 


Month 


H. 


M. S 


Month 


H. 


M. 8. 


Month 


H. M. 3. 


1 


12 


3 34 


8 


12 4 48 


14 


12 


5 36 


20 


12 


6 8 


26 


12 6 20 


2 


12 


3 46 


9 


12 4 57 


15 


12 


5 43 


21 


12 


6 12 


27 


12 6 20 


3 


12 


3 57 


10 


12 5 6 


16 


12 


5 49 


22 


12 


6 14 


28 


12 6 19 


4 


12 


4 8 


11 


12 5 14 


17 


12 


5 55 


23 


12 


6 17 


29 


12 6 17 


5 


12 


4 18 


12 


12 5 22 


18 


12 


6 


24 


12 


6 18 


30 


12 6 15 


6 


12 


4 28 


13 


12 5 29 


19 


12 


6 4 


25 


12 


6 19 


31 


12 6 13 


7 


12 


4 38 































TWILICHT. 










Places. 


July 


Begins, A.M 


Ends, P.M. 


July 


Begins. A.M. 


Ends. P.M. 


July 


Begins, A.M. 


Ends, P.M. 






H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M 




h. m. 


h. m. 


Boston.. .. 


1 


2 13 


9 54 


11 


2 24 


9 46 


21 


2 38 


9 34 


New York 


1 


2 26 


9 40 


11 


2 36 


9 34 


21 


2 49 


9 23 


Wash'ton.. 


1 


2 40 


9 27 


11 


2 48 


9 22 


21 


3 


9 12 


Charleston 


1 


3 14 


8 53 


11 


3 20 


8 50 


21 


3 29 


8 43 



8 th Month. 



AUGUST, 1917. 



31 Days. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



M 
8 
^ 






w 

Th 

Fr 

vSa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 

Sa 

S 

M 

Tu 

W 

Th 

Fr 



Calendar lor 

Boston, 

New England 

N. Y State 

Michigan, Wisconsin 

N. and S. Daicota 

Washington, and 

Oregon. 



S17N 
RISES 



52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

8 

9 

10 
5 11 
5 12 
13 
14 



Sun 
Sets 



7 20 



15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 



19 

18 

16 

15 

14 

13 

11 

10 

9 

7 

6 

4 

3 

2 





MOON 
R. 4 S 



59 

57 

56 

54 

53 

51 

50 

48 

46 

45 

6 43 

6 41 

6 40 

6 38 

6 36 



2 43 

4 

rises. 

7 57 

8 25 

8 53 

9 22 
9 55 

10 32 

11 14 
A.M. 

12 4 
12 59 

1 58 

2 59 
4 1 

sets. 
7 2 
7 24 

7 45 

8 8 

8 34 

9 4 
9 39 

10 23 

11 17 
A.M. 

12 21 

1 33 

2 50 
, 4 10 



Calendar for 

New York Citt, 

Connecticut, 

Pennsylvania, Ohio 

Indiana, Illinois, 

Iowa Nebraska, 

Wyoming, and 

Northern California. 



SUN 
RISES 



4 56 

4 57 



58 
59 
59 

2 
3 
4 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Sun 
Sets 



Moon 
R & s 



H. M 



7 14 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
5 23 
5 24 
5 25 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



13 

12 

10 

9 

8 

7 

5 

4 

3 

1 



59 

57 

56 

54 

53 

52 

50 

49 

47 

6 46 

6 44 

42 

41 

39 

38 

36 

35 



2 49 

4 5 

rises. 

7 56 

8 26 

8 55 

9 25 
9 59 

10 37 

11 21 
A.M. 

12 10 



Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado, Utah, 

Nevada, and 

Central California. 



SUN 

Rises 



1 

2 
3 
4 

sets. 
7 2 
7 24 

7 47 

8 11 

8 38 

9 8 
9 45 

10 30 
1124 
A.M 
12 27 

1 39 

2 55 
4 13 



Sun 
Sets. 



Moon 
R. 4 s 



9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
26 
27 



11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 



59 

58 

57 

55 

54 

53 

51 

50 



Calendar for 

Charleston, 

Georgia, Alabama. 

Louisiana, Arkansas, 

Texas, New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 



Sun 
Rises 



6 49 
6 47 
6 46 
6 44 
6 43 
6 41 
6 40 
6 38 
6 37 
6 36 
6 34 
6 33 



2 55 

4 11 

rises . 

7 56 

8 26 

8 57 

9 29 
10 4 
10 43 
1127 
A.M. 
12 17 

1 12 

2 10 

3 9 

4 9 
sets 

7 2 
7 25 

7 49 

8 14 

8 42 

9 13 
9 51 

10 36 
1130 
A.M. 
12 34 

1 44 

3 

4 16 



13 

14 

15 

15 

16 

17 

18 

18 

19 

20 

20 

21 

22 

22 

5 23 

5 24 

5 24 

5 25 

5 26 



SUN 

Sets. 



Moon 
R. & s. 



26 
27 
28 
28 
29 
30 
30 
31 
32 
32 
33 
34 



58 

58 

57 

56 

55 

54 

53 

52 

51 

50 

6 49 

6 48 

6 47 

6 46 

6 45 

6 44 

6 43 

6 42 

6 41 

6 40 

6 39 

6 38 



36 
35 
34 
33 
31 
30 
29 
28 
26 



3 13 

4 26 
rises. 

7 53 

8 28 

9 2 

9 39 

10 17 

11 
1146 
A.M. 

12 37 
131 

2 27 

3 24 

4 20 
sets. 

6 59 

7 26 

7 54 

8 22 

8 53 

9 28 

10 8 

10 55 

11 50 
A.M. 

12 53 

2 1 

3 12 

4 25 









SUN 


ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 






Day of 






Da\ of 






Day OF 






Dav of 




Day of 




MONTH 


a 


M. S. 


Month 

8 


H 


M. S 


Month 


H. 


M S 


Month 


H. M. 8 


Month 


H. M. 8. 


1 


12 


6 10 


12 


5 30 


14 


12 


4 34 


20 


12 3 19 


26 


12 1 46 


2 


12 


6 6 


9 


12 


5 22 


15 


12 


4 23 


21 


12 3 5 


27 


12 ■ 1 29 


3 


12 


6 1 


10 


12 


5 14 


16 


12 


4 11 


22 


12 2 50 


28 


12 1 12 


4 


12 


5 56 


11 


12 


5 4 


17 


12 


3 59 


23 


12 2 35 


29 


12 54 


5 


12 


5 51 


12 


12 


4 55 


18 


12 


3 46 


24 


12 2 19 


30 


12 36 


6 


12 


5 44 


13 


12 


4 45 


19 


12 


3 33 


25 


12 2 3 


31 


12 18 


7 


12 


5 37 








1 























TWILIGHT. 










PLACES. jAUg. 


Begins, A M 


Ends p M 


Au« 


Begins A M 


Ends P.M. 


Aug. 


Begins, A.M 


Ends, P.M. 






H M 


H M 




H M. 


H. M 




H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston.. . 


1 


2 56 


9 16 


11 


3 12 


8 57 


21 


3 28 


8 37 


New York 


1 


3 5 


9 7 


11 


3 21 


8 49 


21 


3 34 


8 31 


Wash'ton., 


1 


3 14 


8 57 


11 


3 28 


8 42 


21 


3 41 


8 24 


Charleston 


1 


3 40 


8 32 


11 


3 50 


8 20 


21 


3 59 


8 7 





9th Month. 






SEPTEMBER, 


1917. 






30 Days. 


i 

o 

s 

1 

o 


1 

2 

«-( 

o 
>> 

c3 


Calendar for 

B03T0N, 

New England. 

N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

Washington, and 

Oregon. 


Calendar for 

NEW YORK City. 

Connecticut, 

Pennsylvania, Ohio, 

Indiana, Illinois, 

Iowa, Nebraska, 

Wyoming, and 

Northern California 


Calendar for 

Washington, 

Virginia, Kentucky. 

Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado, Utah, 

Nevada, and 

Central California. 


Calendar for 

Charleston, 

Georgia, Alabama. 

Louisiana. Arkansas, 

Texas, New Mexico. 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 


s 


Son 


Son 


MOON 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Sun 


Sun 


MOON 


Sun 


sun 


MOON 


Q 


Q 


Rises 


Sets. 


R. 4 S 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. & s 


Rises 


Sets. 


R. & S 


Rises 


Sets. 


R i S. 






H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H M. 


H. M. 


H. M 


H. M 


H. M. 


H M 


H M. 


1 


Sa 


5 24 


6 35 


nses. 


5 26 


6 33 


rises . 


5 28 


6 31 


rises. 


5 34 


6 25 


rises. 


2 


S 


5 26 


6 33 


6 52 


5 27 


6 32 


6 53 


5 29 


6 30 


6 54 


5 35 


6 24 


6 58 


3 


M 


5 27 


6 31 


7 21 


5 28 


6 30 


7 24 


5 30 


6 28 


7 27 


5 36 


6 23 


7 35 


4 


Tu 


5 28 


6 30 


7 53 


5 29 


6 28 


7 57 


5 31 


6 26 


8 2 


5 36 


6 21 


8 14 


5 


W 


5 29 


6 28 


8 30 


5 30 


6 27 


8 35 


5 32 


6 25 


8 40 


5 37 


6 20 


8 56 


6 


Th 


5 30 


6 26 


9 12 


5 31 


6 25 


9 18 


5 33 


6 23 


9 24 


5 38 


6 19 


9 42 


7 


Ft 


5 31 


6 25 


10 


5 32 


6 23 


10 6 


5 34 


6 22 


10 13 


5 38 


6 18 


10 32 


8 


Sa 


5 32 


6 23 


10 54 


5 33 


6 22 


11 


5 34 


6 20 


11 7 


5 39 


6 16 


1126 


9 


S 


5 33 


6 21 


1152 


5 34 


6 20 


11 58 


5 35 


6 19 


A.M. 


5 39 


6 15 


A.M. 


10 


M 


5 34 


6 19 


A..M. 


5 35 


6 18 


A.M. 


5 36 


6 17 


12 4 


5 40 


6 14 


12 22 


11 


Tu 


5 35 


6 18 


12 53 


5 36 


6 16 


12 58 


5 37 


6 16 


1 3 


5 41 


6 12 


1 19 


12 


W 


5 36 


6 16 


1 54 


5 37 


6 15 


1 58 


5 38 


6 14 


2 3 


5 41 


6 11 


2 15 


13 


Th 


5 37 


6 14 


2 55 


5 38 


6 13 


2 58 


5 39 


6 12 


3 2 


5 42 


6 10 


3 10 


14 


Fr 


5 38 


6 12 


3 55 


5 39 


6 12 


3 57 


5 40 


6 11 


4 


5 43 


6 8 


4 5 


15 


Sa 


5 39 


6 10 


4 55 


5 40 


6 10 


4 56 


5 41 


6 9 


4 57 


5 43 


6 7 


4 59 


16 


S 


5 40 


6 9 


sets. 


5 41 


6 8 


sets. 


5 42 


6 8 


sets. 


5 44 


6 5 


sets. 


17 


M 


5 41 


6 7 


6 14 


5 42 


6 6 


6 16 


5 43 


6 6 


6 19 


5 45 


6 4 


6 26 


18 


Tu 


5 42 


6 5 


6 39 


5 43 


6 5 


6 42 


5 43 


6 4 


6 46 


5 45 


6 3 


6 56 


19 


W 


5 44 


6 3 


7 7 


5 44 


6 3 


7 12 


5 44 


6 3 


7 16 


5 46 


6 1 


7 30 


20 


Th 


5 45 


6 2 


7 41 


5 45 


6 1 


7 46 


5 45 


6 1 


7 52 


5 46 


6 


8 8 


21 


Fr 


5 46 


6 


8 22 


5 46 


6 


8 28 


5 46 


6 


8 34 


5 47 


•5 59 


8 53 


22 


Sa 


5 47 


5 58 


9 11 


5 47 


5 58 


9 17 


5 47 


5 58 


9 24 


5 48 


5 57 


9 44 


23 


S 


5 48 


5 56 


10 9 


5 48 


5 56 


10 16 


5 48 


5 56 


10 22 


5 48 


5 56 


10 41 


24 


M 


5 49 


5 55 


11 16 


5 49 


5 55 


1121 


5 49 


5 55 


1128 


5 49 


5 55 


1145 


25 


Tu 


5 50 


5 53 


A..M. 


5 50 


5 53 


A.M. 


5 50 


5 53 


A.M. 


550 


5 53 


A.M. 


26 


W 


5 51 


5 51 


12 28 


5 51 


5 51 


12 33 


5 51 


5 51 


12 38 


5 50 


5 52 


12 52 


27 


Th 


5 52 


5 49 


144 


5 52 


5 50 


148 


5 52 


5 50 


1 52 


5 51 


5 51 


2 2 


28 


Fr 


5 53 


5 48 


3 1 


5 53 


5 48 


3 4 


5 52 


5 48 


3 6 


5 52 


5 49 


3 12 


29 


Sa 


5 54 


5 46 


4 19 


5 54 


5 46 


4 20 


5 53 


5 47 


4 21 


5 52 


5 48 


4 23 


30 


S 


5 55 


5 44 


nses 


5 55 


5 44 


rises. 


554 


5 45 


rises 


5 53 


5 47 


nses. 







SUN ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON- 






Day OF 




Day of 




Day OF 




Day of 




Day of 




Month 


H M. 8 


MONTH 


H. M. S 


Month 


H M. 3 


Month 


H. M S 


Month 


H M. 8. 


1 


11 59 59 


7 


11 58 1 


13 


11 55 57 


19 


11 53 50 


25 


11 51 44 


2 


11 59 40 


8 


11 57 41 


14 


11 55 36 


20 


11 53 29 


26 


11 51 24 


3 


11 59 21 


9 


11 57 20 


15 


11 55 15 


21 


11 53 8 


27 


11 51 3 


4 


11 59 1 


10 


11 56 59 


16 


11 54 53 


22 


11 52 47 


28 


11 50 43 


5 


11 58 41 


11 


11 56 39 


17 


11 54 32 


23 


11 52 26 


29 


11 50 23 


6 


11 58 21 


12 


11 56 18 


18 


11 54 11 


24 


11 52 5 


30 


11 50 3 



TWILIGHT. 



PLACES. 


Sept. 


Begins, A M 


Ends, P..M. 


Sept 


Begins. A.M 


Ends P.M 


Sept. 


Begins, A M 


Ends, P.M. 






H. M 


H. M 




H. M 


a M 




H M. 


H. M. 


Boston.. . . 


1 


3 44 


8 15 


11 


3 58 


7 54 ■ 


21 


4 11 


7 34 


New York 


1 


3 49 


8 10 


11 


4 2 


7 50 


21 


4 14 


7 32 


Wash'ton.. 


1 


3 54 


8 5 


11 


4 6 


7 47 


21 


4 17 


7 29 


Charleston 


1 


4 9 


7 51 


11 


4 17 


7 36 


21 


4 25 


7 21 





10th Month. 






OCTOBER, 1917. 






31 Days. 


5 
§ 

1 

O 


o 


Calendar for 

Boston, 

Xew England, 

N. Y. State, 

Michigan, Wisconsin, 

N. and S. Dakota, 

Washington, and 

Oregon. 


Calendar lor 

New York Cmr, 

Connecticut, 

Pennsylvania, Ohio. 

Indiana, Illinois, 

Iowa, Nebraska, 

Wyoming, and 

Northern California 


Calendar for 

Washington. 

Virginia, Kentucky, 

Missouri, Kansas, 

Colorado Utah, 

Nevada, and 

Central California 


Calendar for 

Charleston 

Georgia, Alabama, 

Louisiana, Arkansas, 

Texas. New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 


a 


S0N 

Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


MOON 
R. & S. 


Sun 
Rises. 


Sun 
Sets. 


Moon 
R. & s 


Sun 
Rises . 


Sun 
Sets. 


MOON 
R & S. 


Sun 
Rises 


Sun 
Sets 


MOON 
R & S. 


1 


M 


H. .M. H. M. 

5 56 5 42 


H. M. 

5 49 


H. M 

5 56 


H. M. 

5 43 


H M. 

5 52 


H. M 

5 55 


H. M. 

5 43 


H M. 

5 56 


H. M. 

5 54 


H. .M. 

5 45 


H. M. 

6 6 


2 


Tu 


5 58 


5 41 


6 24 


5 57 


5 41 


6 29 


5 56 


5 42 


6 34 


554 


5 44 


6 48 


3 


W 


5 59 


5 39 


7 5 


5 58 


5 40 


7 10 


5 57 


5 40 


7 16 


5 55 


5 43 


7 33 


4 


Th 


6 


5 37 


7 52 


5 59 5 38 


7 58 


5 58 


5 39 


8 5 


5 56 


5 41 


8 24 


5 


Ft 


6 1 


5 35 


8 45 


6 


5 36 


8 52 


5 59 


5 37 


8 58 


5 56 


5 40 


9 18 


6 


Sa 


6 2 


5 34 


9 43 


6 1 


5 35 


9 49 


6 


5 36 


9 56 


5 57 


5 39 


10 14 


7 


S 


6 3 


5 32 


10 44 


6 2 


5 33 


10 50 


6 1 


5 34 


10 55 


5 58 


5 38 


1112 


8 


M 


6 4 


5 30 


1146 


6 3 


5 31 


11 50 


6 2 


5 33 


11 55 


5 59 


5 36 


A.M. 


9 


Tu 


6 5 


5 29 


A.M. 


6 4 


5 30 


A.M. 


6 3 


5 31 


A.M. 


5 59 


5 35 


12 8 


10 


W 


6 7 


5 27 


12 47 


6 5 


5 28 


12 50 


6 4 


5 30 


12 54 


6 


5 34 


1 4 


11 


Th 


6 8 


5 25 


148 


6 6 


5 27 


1 50 


6 5 


5 28 


1 52 


6 1 


5 32 


159 


12 


Ft 


6 9 


5 24 


2 47 


6 8 


5 25 


2 48 


6 6 


5 27 


2 50 


6 2 


5 31 


2 53 


13 


Sa 


6 10 


5 22 


3 46 


6 9 


5 24 


3 47 


6 7 


5 25 


3 47 


6 2 


5 30 


3 47 


14 


S 


6 11 


5 20 


4 47 


6 10 


5 22 


4 46 


6 8 


5 24 


4 45 


6 3 


5 29 


4 41 


15 


M 


6 12 


5 19 


sets. 


611 


5 20 


sets. 


6 9 


5 22 


sets. 


6 4 


5 28 


sets. 


16 


Tu 


6 14 


5 17 


5 11 


6 12 


5 19 


5 15 


6 10 


5 21 


5 19 


6 4 


5 26 


5 32 


17 


W 


6 15 


5 16 


5 43 


6 13 


5 17 


5 48 


6 11 


5 19 


5 54 


6 5 


5 25 


6 9 


18 


Th 


6 16 


5 14 


6 22 


6 14 


5 16 


6 28 


6 12 


5 18 


6 34 


6 6 


5 24 


6 52 


19 


Fr 


6 17 


5 12 


7 9 


6 15 


5 14 


7 15 


6 13 


5 17 


7 22 


6 7 


5 23 


7 41 


20 


Sa 


6 18 


5 11 


8 4 


6 16 


5 13 


8 11 


6 14 


5 15 


8 18 


6 8 


5 22 


8 37 


21 


s 


6 19 


5 9 


9 8 


6 17 


5 12 


9 14 


6 15 


5 14 


9 20 


6 8 


5 21 


9 38 


22 


M 


6 21 


5 8 


10 16 


6 18 


5 10 


10 22 


6 16 


5 13 


10 27 


6 9 


5 20 


10 42 


23 


Tu 


6 22 


5 6 


1129 


6 20 


5 9 


1133 


6 17 


5 11 


11 37 


6 10 


5 18 


1149 


24 


W 


6 23 


5 5 


A.M. 


6 21 


5 7 


A.M. 


6 18 


5 10 


A.M. 


6 11 


5 17 


A.M. 


25 


Th 


6 24 


5 4 


12 42 


6 22 


5 6 


12 45 


6 19 


5 9 


12 48 


6 12 


5 16 


12 56 


26 


Fr 


6 25 


5 2 


157 


6 23 


5 5 


1 58 


6 20 


5 7 


2 


6 12 


5 15 


2 4 


27 


Sa 


6 27 


5 1 


3 12 


6 24 


5 3 


3 12 


6 21 


5 6 


3 13 


6 13 


5 14 


3 12 


28 


S 


6 28 


4 59 


4 28 


6 25 


5 2 


4 27 


6 22 


5 5 


4 26 


6 14 


5 13 


4 21 


29 


M 


6 29 


4 58 


5 44 


6 26 


5 1 


5 42 


6 24 


5 4 


5 39 


6 15 


5 12 


5 30 


30 


Tu 


6 30 


4 57 


rises . 


6 28 


4 59 


rises. 


6 25 


5 2 


rises. 


6 16 


5 12 


rises. 


31 


W 


6 32 4 551 


5 40 


6 29 


4 581 5 46 


6 26 


5 1 


5 52 


6 16 


5 11 


611 







SUN ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 






Day of 




Day OF 




Day OF 




Day of 




Day OF 




Month 


H. M. S 


Month 


H. M. 8 


Month 

14 


H M. S 


Month 


H. M. S 


Month 


H. M. S. 


1 


11 49 44 


8 


11 47 37 


11 46 5 


20 


11 44 53 


26 


11 44 4 


2 


11 49 25 


9 


11 47 21 


15 


11 45 52 


21 


11 44 43 


27 


11 43 58 


3 


11 49 6 


10 


11 47 5 


16 


11 45 39 


22 


11 44 34 


28 


11 43 53 


4 


11 48 47 


11 


11 46 49 


17 


11 45 27 


23 


11 44 25 


29 


11 43 48 


5 


11 48 29 


12 


11 46 34 


18 


11 45 15 


24 


11 44 17 


30 


11 43 45 


6 


11 48 11 


13 


11 46 19 


19 


11 45 4 


25 


11 44 10 


31 


11 43 42 


7 


11 47 54 



















TWILIGHT. 



PLACES. 


Oct 


Begins, A.M. 


Ends, p M 


Oct. 


Begins, A.M 


Ends, p.M 


Oct 


Begins, a.m 


Ends, P.M. 






H. M 


H. M 




H. M 


H. M 




H. M. 


h. m. 


Boston 


1 


4 23 


7 16 


11 


4 34 


6 58 


21 


4 46 


6 43 


New York 


1 


4 25 


7 14 


11 


4 35 


6 57 


21 


4 46 


6 43 


Wash'ton.. 


1 


4 27 


7 12 


11 


4 37 


6 56 


21 


4 46 


6 43 


Charleston 


1 


4 32 


7 7 


11 


4 39 


6 54 


21 


4 46 


6 43 





nth Month. 






NOVEMBER, 


1917. 






30 Days. 


J3 

a 
o 

« 
5 
o 


1 

O 
4 


Calendar for 

BOSTON. 

New England. 

N. Y. State. 

Michigan, Wisconsin 

N. and S. Dakota, 

Washington, and 

Oregon. 


Calendar for 

New York Citt. 

Connecticut, 

Pennsylvania, Ohio, 

Indiana. Illinois, 

Iowa. Nebraska 

Wyoming, and 

Northern California. 


Calendar for 

Washington. 

Virginia, Kentucky 

Missouri, Kansas 

Colorado, Utah, 

Nevada, and 

Central California 


Calendar for 

Charleston, 

Georgia. Alabama, 

Louisiana, Arkansas, 

Texas, New Mexico, 

Arizona, and 
Southern California. 


^ 


Sun 


Sun 


MOON 


SUN 


SUN 


Moon 


SUN 


Sun 


Moon 


SUN 


SUN MOON 


Q 


Q 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. & S. 


Rises 


Sets. 


R. 4 s 


Rises 


Sets. 


B. & s. 


Rises . 


Sets 


R. & S. 






H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


Th 


6 33 


4 54 


6 22 


6 30 


4 57 


6 38 


6 27 


5 


6 45 


6 17 


5 10 


7 4 


2 


Fr 


6 34 


4 53 


7 30 


6 31 


4 56 


7 36 


6 28 


4 59 


7 42 


6 18 


5 9 


8 1 


8 


Sa 


6 35 


4 51 


8 31 


6 32 


4 54 


8 37 


6 29 


4 58 


8 43 


6 19 


5 8 


9 


4 


S 


6 37 


4 50 


9 34 


633 


4 53 


9 39 


6 30 


4 57 


944 


6 20 


5 7 


9 58 


5 


M 


6 38 


4 49 


10 36 


6 35 


4 52 


10 40 


6 31 


4 56 


10 44 


6 21 


5 6 


10 55 


6 


Tu 


6 39 


4 48 


1137 


6 36 


4 51 


1140 


6 32 


4 55 


11 43 


6 22 


5 5 


1151 


7 


W 


6 40 


4 47 


A.M. 


6 37 


4 50 


A.M. 


6 33 


4 54 


A.M. 


6 22 


5 5 


A.M. 


8 


Th 


6 42 


4 46 


12 37 


6 38 


4 49 


12 39 


6 34 


4 53 


12 41 


6 23 


5 4 


12 45 


9 


Ft 


6 43 


4 45 


136 


6 39 


4 48 


137 


6 36 


4 52 


1 38 


6 24 


5 3 


139 


10 


Sa 


644 


4 44 


2 36 


6 40 


4 47 


2 36 


6 37 


4 51 


2 35 


6 25 


5 2 


2 33 


11 


S 


6 45 


4 42 


3 36 


6 42 


4 46 


3 35 


6 38 


4 50 


3 34 


6 26 


5 2 


3 28 


12 


M 


6 47 


4 41 


4 39 


6 43 


4 45 


4 36 


6 39 


4 49 


4 34 


6 27 


5 1 


4 24 


13 


Tu 


6 48 


4 40 


5 43 


6 44 


4 44 


5 39 


6 40 


4 48 


5 35 


6 28 


5 


5 23 


14 


W 


6 49 


4 40 


sets. 


6 45 


4 43 


sets. 


6 41 


4 47 


sets. 


6 29 


5 


sets. 


15 


Th 


6 50 


4 39 


5 5 


6 46 


4 42 


5 11 


6 42 


4 47 


5 18 


6 30 


4 59 


5 37 


16 


Fr 


6 52 


4 38 


5 59 


6 48 


4 42 


6 5 


6 43 


4 46 


6 12 


6 31 


4 59 


6 31 


17 


Sa 


6 53 


4 37 


7 1 


6 49 


4 41 


7 7 


6 45 


4 45 


7 13 


6 32 


4 58 


7 31 


18 


S 


6 54 


4 36 


8 9 


6 50 


4 40 


8 14 


6 46 


4 44 


8 20 


6 32 


4 58 


8 36 


19 


M 


6 55 


4 35 


9 20 


6 51 


4 39 


9 24 


6 47 


4 44 


9 29 


6 33 


4 57 


9 42 


20 


Tu 


6 56 


4 34 


10 33 


6 52 


4 39 


10 36 


6 48 


4 43 


10 39 


6 34 


4 57 


10 48 


21 


W 


6 58 


4 34 


11 45 


6 54 


4 38 


1147 


6 49 


4 43 


1149 


6 35 


4 56 


1154 


22 


Th 


6 59 


4 33 


A.M. 


6 55 


4 37 


A.M. 


6 50 


4 42 


A.M. 


6 36 


4 56 


A.M. 


23 


Fr 


7 


4 32 


12 58 


6 56 


4 37 


12 58 


6 51 


4 42 


12 59 


6 37 


4 56 


1 


24 


Sa 


7 1 


4 32 


2 11 


6 57 


4 36 


2 10 


6 52 


4 41 


2 10 


6 38 


4 55 


2 6 


25 


S 


7 2 


4 31 


3 24 


6 58 


4 36 


3 22 


6 53 


4 41 


3 20 


6 39 


4 55 


3 13 


26 


M 


7 4 


4 31 


4 38 


6 59 


4 35 


4 35 


6 54 


4 40 


4 32 


6 40 


4 55 


4 21 


27 


Tu 


7 5 


4 30 


5 52 


7 


4 35 


5 47 


6 55 


4 40 


5 43 


6 41 


4 54 


5 28 


28 


W 


7 6 


4 30 


rises . 


7 1 


4 34 


rises. 


6 56 


4 39 


rises. 


642 


4 54 


rises. 


29 


Th 


7 7 


4 30 


5 14 


7 2 


4 34 


5 20 


6 57 


4 39 


5 27 


6 42 


4 54 


5 46 


30 


Ft 


7 8 


4 29 


6 15 


7 3 


4 34 


6 20 


6 58 

.... 


4 39 


6 26 


6 43 

.... 


4 54 


6 44 







SUN ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 






Day OF 




Day OF 




Day OF 




Day OF 




Day OF 




Month 


H. M. S 


Month 

7 


H. M. S. 


Month 


h. m. b. 


Month 


H. M. 8 


Month 


H. M. 3. 


1 


11 43 40 


11 43 45 


13 


11 44 20 


19 


11 45 27 


25 


11 47 2 


2 


11 43 38 


8 


11 43 49 


14 


11.44 29 


20 


11 45 41 


26 


11 47 21 


3 


11 43 38 


9 


11 43 53 


15 


11 44 39 


21 


11 45 56 


27 


11 47 40 


4 


11 43 38 


10 


11 43 59 


16 


11 44 50 


22 


11 46 11 


28 


11 48 


5 


11 43 40 


11 


11 44 5 


17 


11 45 1 


23 


11 46 27 


29 


11 48 21 


6 


11 43 42 


12 


11 44 12 


18 


11 45 14 


24 


11 46 44 


30 


11 48 42 



TWILIGHT. 



PLACES. 


Nov 


Begins, A.M. 


Ends. P.M. 


Nov. 


Begins, A.M. 


Ends, P.M. 


Nov. 


Begins. A.M. 


Ends, P.M. 






H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


Boston. . . . 


1 


4 58 


6 29 


11 


5 9 


6 19 


21 


5 19 


6 12 


New York 


1 


4 57 


6 29 


11 


5 8 


6 20 


21 


5 18 


6 14 


Wash'ton.. 


1 


4 57 


6 30 


11 


5 6 


6 21 


21 


5 16 


6 16 


Charleston 


1 


4 54 


6 33 


11 


5 2 


6 26 


21 


1 5 10 


6 22 





12th Month. 






DECEMBER, 


1917. 






- ( 


31 Days. 


5 

a 


« 


Calendar for 

Boston, 
New Kngland, 


Calendar for 
New York City, * 
Connecticut, 


Calendar for 
Washington, 


Calendar for 
Charleston, 




^ 


N. Y. State, 


Pennsylvania, Ohio, 


Virginia, Kentucky, 


Georgia, Alabama, 


^ 


Michigan, Wisconsin, 


Indiana, Illinois, 


Missouri, Kansas, 


Louisiana, Arkansas, 


« 


S 


N. and S. Dakota, 


Iowa, Nebraska, 


Colorado, Utah, 


Texas, 


New Mexico, 




-3 


Washington, and 
Oregon. 


Wyoming, and 
Northern California 


Nevada, and 
Central California. 


Arizona, and 
Southern California. 


^- 


SUN 


Sun 


Moon 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


Sun 


SUN 


Moon 


■ SUN 


Sun 


Moon 


Q 


Q 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. <k s. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. & s. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. & s. 


Rises. 


Sets. 


R. & a. 






n. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. 51. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


Sa 


7 9 


4 29 


718 


7 4 


4 34 


7 23 


6 59 


4 38 


7 28 


6 44 


4 54 


7 44 


2 


S 


710 


4 28 


8 21 


7 5 


4 33 


8 26 


7 


4 38 


8 30 


6 45 


4 54 


8 43 


3 


M 


7 11 


4 28 


9 24 


7 6 


4 33 


9^7 


7 1 


4 38 


9 30 


6 46 


4 54 


9 40 


4 


Tu 


712 


4 28 


10 25 


7 7 


4 33 


10 27 


7 2 


4 38 


10 29 


6 46 


4 54 


10 35 


6 


W 


7 13 


4 28 


1124 


7 8 


4 33 


1126 


7 3 


4 38 


1127 


6 47 


4 54 


1129 


6 


Th 


7 14 


4 28 


A.M. 


7 9 


4 33 


A.M. 


7 4 


4 38 


A.M. 


6 48 


4 54 


A.M. 


7 


Fr 


715 


4 28 


12 24 


710 


4 32 


12 24 


7 5 


4 38 


12 24 


6 49 


4 54 


12 23 


8 


Sa 


716 


4 28 


123 


7 11 


4 32 


122 


7 6 


4 38 


121 


6 50 


4 54 


117 


9 


S 


717 


4 28 


2 24 


712 


4 32 


2 22 


7 7 


4 38 


2 20 


6 50 


4 54 


2 12 


10 


M 


7 18 


4 28 


3 27 


7 13 


4 32 


3 24 


7 8 


4 38 


3 21 


6 51 


4 54 


3 10 


11 


Tu 


7 19 


4 28 


4 31 


7 14 


4 33 


4 27 


7 8 


4 38 


4 23 


6 52 


4 55 


4 9 


12 


W 


7 20 


4 28 


5 36 


7 15 


4 33 


5 32 


7 9 


4 38 


5 26 


6 53 


4 55 


510 


13 


Th 


7 20 


4 28 


6 40 


7 15 


4 33 


6 34 


7 10 


4 38 


6 29 


6 53 


4 55 


6 11 


14 


Fr 


7 21 


4 28 


sets. 


7 16 


4 33 


sets. 


7 11 


4 39 


sets. 


6 54 


4 55 


sets. 


15 


Sa 


7 22 


4 28 


5 56 


7 17 


4 33 


6 1 


711 


4 39 


6 7 


6 55 


4 56 


6 24 


16 


S 


7 23 


4 28 


7 8 


7 18 


4 33 


7 13 


7 12 


4 39 


7 18 


6 55 


4 56 


7 32 


17 


M 


7 24 


4 29 


8 22 


7 19 


4 34 


8 26 


713 


4 40 


8 30 


6 56 


4 56 


8 40 


18 


Tu 


724 


4 29 


9 36 


7 19 


4 34 


9 38 


713 


4 40 


9 41 


6 56 


4 57 


9 47 


19 


W 


7 25 


4 30 


10 49 


7 20 


4 35 


10 50 


714 


4 40 


10 51 


6 57 


4 57 


10 53 


20 


Th 


7 25 


4 30 


A.M. 


7 20 


4 35 


A.M. 


7 14 


4 41 


A.M. 


6 58 


4 58 


1159 


21 


Ft 


7 26 


4 30 


12 1 


7 21 


4 36 


12 1 


7 15 


4 41 


12 1 


6 58 


4 58 


A.M. 


22 


Sa 


7 26 


4 31 


1 14 


7 21 


4 37 


1 12 


7 16 


4 42 


1 11 


6 59 


4 59 


1 5 


23 


s 


7 27 


4 31 


2 26 


7 22 


4 37 


2 23 


716 


4 42 


2 20 


6 59 


4 59 


2 10 


24 


M 


7 27 


4 32 


3 37 


7 22 


4 37 


3 34 


7 16 


4 43 


3 30 


7 


5 


3 16 


25 


Tu 


7 28 


4 33 


4 47 


7 22 


4 38 


4 42 


7 17 


4 44 


4 37 


7 


5 


4 20 


26 


W 


7 28 


4 33 


5 51 


7 23 


4 38 


5 46 


7 17 


4 44 


5 40 


7 


5 1 


5 22 


27 


Th 


7 28 


4 34 


6 48 


7 23 


4 39 


6 42 


7 18 


4 45 


6 36 


7 1 


5 2 


6 18 


28 


Pr 


7 29 


4 35 


rises. 


7 24 


4 40 


rises. 


718 


4 45 


rises. 


7 1 


5 2 


rises. 


29 


Sa 


7 29 


4 36 


6 6 


7 24 


4 41 


6 10 


7 18 


4 46 


6 15 


7 2 


5 3 


6 29 


30 


S 


7 29 


4 36 


7 9 


7 24 


4 41 


7 13 


7 18 


4 47 


7 17 


7 2 


5 4 


7 27 


31 


M 


7 29 


4 37 


8 11 


7 24 


4 42 


8 14 


7 19 


4 48 


8 17 


7 2 


5 4 


8 24 







SUN ON MERIDIAN OF WASHINGTON. 






Day of 




Day of 




DAT of 




Day of 




Day OF 




Month 


H. M. S 


Month 


H. M. S 


Month 


H. M. 8 


Month 


H. M. 8. 


Month 


H. H, 8. 


1 


11 49 4 


8 


11 51 56 


14 


11 54 42 


20 


11 57 39 


26 


12 38 


2 


11 49 27 


9 


11 52 22 


15 


11 55 11 


21 


11 58 8 


27 


12 1 7 


3 


11 49 50 


10 


11 52 49 


16 ' 


11 55 40 


22 


11 58 88 


28 


12 1 37 


4 


11 50 14 


11 


11 53 17 


17 


11 56 9 


23 


11 59 8 


29 


12 2 6 


5 


11 50 39 


12 


11 53 45 


18 


11 56 39 


24 


11 59 38 


30 


12 2 35 


6 


11 51 4 


13 


11 54 13 


19 


11 57 9 


25 


12 8 


31 


12 3 4 


7 


11 51 29 



















TWILIGHT. 

Dec. Begins, a.m. Ends, pm. \ Dec Begins, a.m. Ends, p.m, Dec. Begins, a.m. Ends, pm. 



Places. 



Boston 1 

New York 1 

Wash'ton.. 1 

Charleston! 1 



5 29 
5 27 
5 25 
5 17 



M. 



6 9 
6 11 
6 13 
6 21 



11 
11 
11 
11 



5 38 
5 35 
5 33 
5 24 



6 9 
6 11 
6 14 
6 22 



21 
21 
21 
21 



5 44 
5 42 
5 39 
5 30 



H. M. 

6 12 
6 14 
6 17 
6 26 



Mohammedan Calendar;, 1917. 



49 



Ritualistic Calertdar. 

Colors for the Altar in Use in Ritualistic Episcopal Churches in the United States. 

White — From the First Service (First Vespers) of Christmas Day to the Octave of Epiphany Inclusive 
(except on the Feasts oJ Martvrs); on Maundy Thursday (for the celebration); from the First Service of 
Easter Day to the VlgU of Pentecost (except on Feasts of Martyrs anrt Rogation Days); on Trinity Sunday, 
Conversion of St. Paul, Purification, Annunciation, St. John Baptist, St. Michael, St. Luke, All Salnta, 
Saints who are not Martyrs, and Patron Saints (Transfiguration and Dedication of Church). 

/fed — From First Vespers of Pentecost to the First Vespers of Trinity Sunday (which includes Ember 
Days), Holy Innocents (if on a Sunday), and Feasts of all Martyrs. 

Violet — From Septuagesima to Maundy Thursday (Easter Eve); Advent Sunday to Christmas Eve; 
Vigils, Ember Days (except In \\'hitsun Week), and Rogstlon Days; Holy Innocents (unless on Sunday). 

Black — Good Friday and at funerals. Green — All other days. 

These regulations as to colors ere general. A more minute code changing with each year Is published 
In the church almanacs. 



Jewish Calendar, 1917. 



New Moon, Fasts, Feasts, Etc. 



5677. 
Tebet 
Sebat 
Adar 
Adar 
Nlsan 
NIsan 
Nlsan 
lyar 
lyar 
SIvan 
Si van 
Tamuz 
Tamuz 
Ab 
Ab 

Elul 



Fast of Tebet 

New Moon 

New Moon 

Purim 

New Moon 

t Irst Day of Passover 

Last Day of Passover 

New Moon 

Lag B'omer 

New Moon 

Pentecost 

New Moon 

Fast of Tamuz 

New Moon 

Fast of Ab (Destruction 

Jerusalem) 

New Moon. 



of 



1917 
Jan. 4 
Jan. 24 
Feb. 23 
Mar 8 
Mar. 24 
April 7 
April 13 
April 23 
May 10 
May 22 
May 27 
June 21 
July 7 
July 20 

July 28 
Aug. 19 



New Moon, Fasts, Feasts, Etc. 



5678. 
Tlsrl 
Tisrt 
Tlsrl 

Tisrl 

TisrI 

Tisrl 

Hesvan 

Kislev 

Kislev 

Tebet 

Tebet 



Sebat 1 
Adar 1 
Adar 14 



New Moon (New Year) ... 

Fast of Guadaliah 

Day of Atonement (Yom 

pur) 

Feast of Tabernacles 

Feast of Eighth Day 

Rejoicing with the Law. . . 

New Moon 

New Moon 

Dedication of Temple 

New Moon 

Fast of Tebet 



Kip- 



New Moon. 
New Moon. 
Purim 



1917. 
Sept. 17 
Sept. 20 

Sept. 26 



Oct. 
Oct. 8 
Oct. 9 
Oct. 17 
Nov. 16 
Dec. 10 
Dec. 16 
Dec. 25 

1918. 
Jan. 14 
Feb. 13 
Feb. 26 



The year 56/7 la an ordinary common year of 354 days; the year 5678 is an ordinary perfect year of 
355 dajs. 



Greek Church and Russian Calendar, 1917. 

A. D. 1917, A. M. 8026. 



New 
Style. 



Jan. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

AprU 

AprU 

April 

April 

May 

May 

May 

June 

June 

July 



Holy Days. 



Circumcision 

Theophany (Epiphany) 

Hypapante (Purification) 

Carnival Sunday 

Ash Wednesday 

Annunciation 

Pahn Sunday 

Great Friday . : 

Holy Pasch (Easter) 

St. George 

Ascension 

Corojation of Emperor* 

Pentecost 

Holy Ghost 

Pet«r and Paul (Chief Apostles) . 



Old 
Style. 



Jan. 1 
Jan. 6 
Feb. 2 
Feb. 19 
Feb. 22 
Mar. 25 
Mar. 26 
Mar. 31 
April 2 
April 23 
May 11 
May 14 
May 21 
May 22 
June 29 



New 
Style. 



Aug. 19 
Aug. 28 
Sept. 12 
Sept. 21 
Sept. 27 
Oct. 14 
Nov. 28 
Dec. 4 
Dec. 22 

1918. 
Jan. 7 



Jan. 
Jan. 



Holy Days. 



Transfiguration 

Repose of Theotokos (Assumption) 

St. Alexander Nevsky* 

Nativity of Theotokos 

Exaltation of Cross 

Patronage of Theotokos 

First Day Fast of Theotokos 

Entrance of Theotokos 

Conception of Theotokos 

Nativity (Christmas) 

Circumcision 

Theophany (Fplphany) 



Old 

Style. 



Aug. 6 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 30 
Sept. 8 
Sept. 14 
Oct. 1 
Nov. 15 
Nov. 21 
Dec. 9 

Dec. 25 

8027. 
Jai. 1 
Jan. 6 



• Peculiar to Russia. 



Mohammedan Calendar, 1917. 



Yeab. 



1335. 
1335. 
1335. 
1335. 
1335. 
1335. 



Name of Month. 



Rabia II 

Jomadi I 

Jomadl II 

Rajab 

IShaaban 
Ramadan (Month of Absti- 
nence 



Month 
Begins. 



.Ian. 25, 1917 

Feb. 23, 1917 

Mar. 25, 1917 

AprU 23, 1917 

May 23, 1917 

June 21, 1917 



Year 



1335 
1335 
1335 
1336 
1336 
1336 



Name of Month. 



Shawall 

Dulkaada 

Dulheggia 

Muharram (New Year) 

Saphar 

Rabia I 



Month 
Begins. 



July 21, 1917 
Aug. 19. 1917 
Sept. 18. 1917 
17, 1917 
16, 1917 
16, 1917 



Oct. 
Nov 
Deo. 



50 



Seed Planting in the United States. 



SEED PLANTING IN THE UNITED STATES. 

(Compiled from reports of the Department of Agriculture.) 
NEW ENGLAND. 



Kind of Crop. 



Com 

Wheat 

Oats 

Barley 

Rye 

Buckwheat...., 
White beans.... 

Potatoes 

Turnips 

Mangels 

Tobacco 

Hay 



Date of Planting. 



May 10 to 30 

Fall or Spring . . . . 

Apr, to May 

Apr. to June 20. . 
Apr. to May, Sept. 

Junel to 20 

May to June 

.A-pr. 15 to May 1 . 
July 1 to Aug. 3. .. 
Apr. 15 to May 5.. 
Seed bed Apr.. .. 



B«8t Soil. 



Sandy or clay loam. 

Clay loam 

Strong loam..... 

Strong loam 

Medium loam. 

Light loam 

Sandy loam 

Rich loam 

Sandy loam 

Strong heavy loam. . 
Sandy loam 



Amount of 
Matture 
per Acre. 



8 to 12 tons... 
18 tons 

6 to 8 tons.... 

7 to 8 tons,... 
7 to 8 tons.... 
4 to 6 tons.... 

7 to 8 tons.... 
15 to 20 tons. 
10 tons 

8 to 15 tons... 
8 to 12 tons... 



Amount of 
Seed per 
Arre(I). 



to 12 qts. . . 

bush 

to 3 bush... 
to 3 bush.. . , 
to 6 pecks, 
to IH bush, 
to 16 qts... . 
to 20 bush _ 

lb 

to61bs , 



Weeks 
toMa- 
tn rity. 

2C 

11-1£ 

10- If 

4C 

10-lE 

h-14 

12- 2C 

IC 

17-22 

9-12 



MIDDLE STATES. 



16-18 
41-43 
16-17 
13-16 
40-43 

8-10 
13-14 
14-22 
10-15 

8-15 
10-12 
15-18 

8-10 
16-20 



Corn 

Wheat 

Oats 

Barley 

Rye 

Buckwheat. ... 
White beans . . . 

Potatoes 

Sweet potatoes. 

Cabbage 

Turnips 

jrangels 

Flax 

Tobacco 

Hay, timothy.. 
Hay, clover. . . . 



Apr. 20 to May 30 
Sept, 20 to Oct. 20 

Mar. to May 

Mar. to May 

Sept. 1 to Oct. 1... 

June to July 

May to June 

Mar. to May 

May to June 

Mar. to July 

July 

May 

May. 

Seed bed Mar 

Aug. to Oct 

Feb. to Apr 



Medium loam 

Loam 

Moist clay loam 

Clay loam 

Sand or gravel loam 

Loam 

Sandy loam 

Loam„ 

Sandy loam 

Clay or sandy loam.. 

Loam 

Loam.. 

Limestone loam 

Sandy loam 

Clay loam 

Clay loam 



8 to 12 tons manure, 
8 tons; SOOlbs. ler 
8 tons; SOOlbs. fer. 
8 tons; SOOlbs.fer. 
8 tons; 3001bs.fer.. 

5 tons 

8 tons 

10 to 18 tons 



300 to 600 lbs. fer. 

id to 20 ' to u s ! ! ! ! . .^ 

Commercial fer 



6 to 8 qts 

2 hush 

2to2>ibush.. 
2to2>4bush.. 

IJ^bush 

h to 1?^ bush. 

IJ^bush 

8 to 15 bush... 
10 to 12 bush. 

4 to8oz 

2to51bs 

10 to 15 hush. 
20 qts 



6 to 8 qts. 
6qts , 



CENTRAL AND WESTERN STATRS. 



Corn 

Wheat 

Oats 

Barley 

Rye 

Buckwheat... 
White beans . 

Potatoes 

Turnips 

Mangels 

Flax 

Tobacco 

Hay 



Apr.l to Junel... 

Fall or Spring 

Apr.l to May 1. .. 
Fall or Spring (1). 

Sept. I to 30 

June 

.MaylO to JunelO. 
Mar. 15 to June 1 . 
July 15 to Auk. 30. 
Apr.l to .May 15 . 
Mar. 15 to May 15. 
Seed bed. Mar. . . . 
Apr, to May 



Black or sandy loam. 

Strong loam 

Clay loam 

Clay loam 

Light loatu 

Clay loam , 

Clay loam 

Sandy loam 

Loam or muck 

Sandy loam 

Loam 

Sandy loam 

Clay loam 



5 to 10 tons... 

8 tons 

8 tons 

8 tons 

8 tons 

5 tons 

8 tons 

5 to 10 tons... 
8 to 10 tons .. 
8 to 12 tons... 
10 to 15 tons. 
8 tn 10 tons... 
10 tons 



6qts 


16-20 


2 bush 


40-42 


2 to 3 bush.... 


12-14 


2 bush 


11-13 


1 to 2 bush 


35-40 


1 to 2 bush.... 


10-12 


IJ^bnsh 


12 


5 to 10 bush... 


10-20 


lto61bs 


10-16 


6to81bs 


22-24 


2to3peck.s.... 


15-20 


Oz. to6sq. rd. 


16-18 


8 to 15 lbs 





SOUTHERN STATES. 



Cotton 

Corn 

Wheat 

Oats 

Barley 

Rye... 

White beans ... 

Cabbage 

Watermelons... 

Onions 

Potatoes 

Sweet potatoes. 

Pumpkins 

Tomatoes 

Turnips 

Tobacco 

Cow peas , 



Feb. to May 15 ... 

Feb. to June 

Sept. to Nov 

Feb., May, Sept... 

Apr. to May 

Sept. to Oct 

Mar. to May 

Oct., Mar. to May. 
Mar 1 to May 10 . 
Feb.! to Apr. 10.. 
.fan., Feb. to Apr. 

May to June 

Apr. 1 to May 1. ., 
.lan.l to Feb. 19.. 
Feb. , Aug., Apr., 
Seed bed. Mar ... 
Mav 1 to July 15. . 



Sandy loam(2).... 

Rich loam 

Clay loam (2). ... 

Clay loam (2) 

Clay loam (2) 

Clay loam (2) 

Light loam 

Light loam 

Rich, light loam.. 
Loam or muck.... 
Light loose loam.. 

Sandy loam 

Rich, light loam.. 
Rich, sandy ioam„ 
Rich, light loam.. 

Sandy loam 

Sandy loam 



10 bush. cot. seed. . 

8 tons 

StolOtons 

StolO tons 

lOtons 

8 tons 

6 to 10 tons 

5 tons; 300 lbs. ler. 



8 to 12 tons. 



8 to 15 tons 

200 to 300 lbs. phos. 



1 to 3 bush. 
8 qts 

2 bush 

2Ji?bush...., 
2^ bush...., 
l>4bush 

1 io2bush. 
3^ to >^ lb... 

2 to 7 lbs.... 



StolO bush.. 
10 to 12 bush . 

4 to 71bs 

4 to9oz 

2to61bs 

oz. to6sq. rd. 
'2 to Specks.. . 



20-30 

18-20 

43 

17 

17 

43 

7-8 

14 

16-20 

16-24 

11-16 

12-15 

17-20 

14-20 

8-12 

18-20 

6-8 



(1) The standard varieties of seed planted in the several sections of the United States are as fol- 
lows: Corn — New England, learning, sanford, flint; Middle States, learning, white dent, yellow dent; 
Central and Western States, leaming, sanford.flint, white dent; Southern States, hickory king, goard- 
seed. Cox prolific. Wheat— Middle States, fultz; Central and Western States, fultz, poole, fife; 
Southern States, fulcaster. Oats— New England, white; Middle States, white, black; Central and 
Western States, gray Norway, silver mine, Russian ; Southern States. Texas rustproof. Barley- 
Middle States, mansbury; Southern States, Tennessee Winter. Rye— New England, white; Middle 
States, white. Winter; Central and Western States, Winter; SouthernStates^xcelsiorWiuter. Buck- 
wheat— Middle States, silver hull; Centraland Western States, silverhull. Potatoes— New England, 
green mountain, carmen 3, rose; Middle States, rose, carmen 3, rural 2; Central and Western 
States, hebron, rural, early rose, early Ohio. Tobacco— Central and Western States, yellow prior, 
Spanish, white hurley. Hav, clover— Middle States, medium red. Sweet Potatoes— Middle States, 
yellow Jersey; Southern States, yellow Jersey. Cotton— Southern States, Texas stormproof. Spring 
wheat IS to some extent grown in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and many other Stales It matures in 
eighteen to twenty weeks. 

(2) In Texas the black loam is a good soil for cotton, corn,wheat and most other field crops. 



Halley's Comet. 



51 



THE MOON. 



Of all the secondary planets the earth's satellite 
Is by lar the most interesting and important. The 
moon completes her circuit around the earth In a 
period whose mean or average length is 27 days 
7 hours 43.2 minutes; but in consequence of her 
motion in common with the earth around the sun, 
the mean duration of the lunar month, that Ls, the 
time from new moon to new moon, is 29 daj-s 12 
hours 44.05 minutes, which is called the moon's 
synodical period. If the earth were motionless in 
space the moon's orbit would be nearly an ellipse, 
having the earth in one of the foci; hence her dis- 
tance from the earth varies during the course of a 
lunar month. Her mean distance from the earth 
is 238,862 miles. Her maximum distance, however, 
may reach 252,830 miles, and the least distance to 
which she can approach the earth is 221,520 miles 
Her diameter Is 2,160 miles, and if we deduct from 
her distance from the earth the sum of the two radii of 
the earth and moon, viz., 3,963 and 1,080 miles, re- 
spectively, we shall have for the nearest approach 
of the surfaces of the two bodies 210,477 miles 
Her orbit is a very intricate one, because the earth 
In moving around the sun carries the moon along 
with it; hence the latter is sometimes ^vithin and 
sometimes without the earth's orbit. Its form is 
that of a serpentine curve, always concave toward 
the sun, and its plane is Inclined to the plane of the 
earth's orbit at an angle of 5° 0', in consequence of 
which our satellite appears sometimes above and 
sometimes below the plane of the earth's orbit, 
through which she passes twice in a revolution. 
These points of intersection \vith tlie ecliptic are 
called nodes, and it is only at or near them that 
eclipses can occur. The nodes have a retrograde 
motion, which causes them to make an entire revolu- 
tion in 18 years 218 days 21 hour8.22 minutes and 46 
seconds. Both sun and moon return to a node after 
18 years and 11 day's, so that an eclipse is followed 
by another of the same general character at the end 
of this period, which was well known to the ancients, 
who called it the Saros, and which was made use of 
by them in roughly predicting eclipses. 

The moon always presents the same face to us, 
as is evident from the permanency of the various 
markings on her surface. This circumstance proves 
that she revolves on an axis, and the time of rota- 
tion is exactly equal to the time of revolution around 
the earth, viz., 27 32168 days. The moon's axis Is 
not perpendicular to the plane of her orbit, but de- 
viates therefrom by an angle of about 6° 41'. In 
consequence of tins fact the poles of the moon lean 
alternately to and from the earth. When the north 
pole leans toward the earth we see somewhat more 
of the region surrounding it, and somewhat less 
when It leans the contrary way. This displacement 
Is known by the name of libration iu latitude 



The moon's motion* on her axis is uniform, but 
her angular velocity in her orbit Is subject to slight 
variations by reason of the form of her orbit; hence 
it happens that we sometimes see a little more of 
the eastern or western edge at one time than at an- 
other. This phenomenon is known as libration In 
longitude. 

The moon's surface contains about 14,657,000 
square miles, or nearly four times the area of Europe. 
Her volume is 1-49 and her mass 1-81 that of the 
earth, and hence her density is about 3-5 that of the 
earth, or about 3 2-5 that of water. At the lunar 
surface gravity is only 1-6 of what it is at the earth, 
and therefore a body which weighs 6 pounds here 
would weigh only 1 pound there. 

The centre of gravity of the earth and moon, or 
the point about which they both actually revolve 
io their course around the sun, lies within the earth; 
it is 1,063 miles below the surface. 

The attractive force of the moon acting on the 
water of our oceans is mainly Instrumental In rais- 
ing them Into protuberances or tides in such a man- 
ner as to give the total mass a spheroidal figure 
whose principal axis would continually coincide 
with the line joining the centres of the earth and 
moon, but in consequence of the resistance which 
this movement of the water encounters from con- 
tinents and islands, as well as from the liquid mole- 
cules themselves, the tidal wave can never arrive 
at any place until about one hour aft«r the moon 
has crossed the meridian of the place. 

The moon has no atmosphere and no water. 
The suddenness with which the stars are occulted 
by the moon is regarded as a conclusive proof that 
a lunar atmosphere does not exist, and the spectro- 
scope fiirnlshes negative evidence of the same char- 
acter. 

In remote ages the limar surface was the theatre 
of violent volcanic action, being elevated Into cones 
and ridges exceeding 20,000 feet high, and at other 
places rent into furrows or depressions of corre- 
sponding depth. The lunar volcanoes are now ex- 
tinct. A profound silence reigns over the desolate 
and rxigged surface. It is a dead world, utterly un- 
fit to support animal or vegetable life. 

THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE. 

The earth's sensible atmosphere Is generally 
supposed to extend some forty miles In height, 
probably further, but becoming at only a few miles 
from the surface of too great a tenuity to support 
life. The condition and motions of this aerial ocean 
play a most Important part in the determination 
of climate, modifying, by absorbing, the otherwise 
Intense heat of the sun, and, when laden with clouds, 
hindering the earth from radiating Its acquired heat 
Into space. 



HALLEY'S 

Of the great number of comets Vvhich have tem- 
porarily visited our solar system or have become 
permanent members oi it none has surpassed Halley's 
In historical associations, it nas a record dating 
back to B. C 240; its visitations spread alarm and 
consternation throughout Europe during the Mid- 
die Ages; was ttie first whose return was predicted 
by an Astronomer Royal of England, and will 
therefore, for these reasons, be an object of great 
scientific interest for all time For the Information 
of those who appreciate such matters the following 
are the elements of its orbit as deduced from the 
last visitation: 

Perihelion Passage 1910, April, 19.67. Greenwich 
Mean Time 



COMET. 

Eccentricity = 0.967281. 

Semi-axis major = 17 9468. 

Perihelion distance = 0.58720. 

Inclination to the plane of the earth's orbit = 
17° 47' 18". 

Longitude of the ascending node = 57" 16' 12". 

Distance from perihelion to node=lH'' 42' 16". 

Dally motion (mean) = 46" 669. 

Period = 76.030 years * 

Motion, retrograde. 

The semi-axis major and the perihelion distance 
are expressed in terms of the earth's mean distance 
from the sun, taken as unity. See also article on 
Hallev's Comet and on Comets in Almanacs of 
1910 and 1911 



•The nei Iodic time varies considerably by reason of the attraction of the planets, 
tion is about 76 8 years. 



Its average dura- 



52 



The Moon's Phases, 1917. 



THE MOON'S PHASES, 1917. 



1917 


Phase. 


Q 


BOSTON. 


New York. 


Washington. 


Charleston. 


CHICAGO. 


i 

1-1 


Full Moon 

Last Quarter. . . 
New Moon.. . . 
First Quarter . 


8 
16 
23 
29 


H. M. 
2 58 A.M. 
6 58 A.M. 
2 56 A.M. 
8 17 P.M. 


a. M. 

2 46 A.M. 
6 46 A.M. 
2 44 A.M. 
8 5 P.M. 


H. M. 

2 34 A.M. 

6 34 A.M. 
2 32 A.M. 

7 53 P.M. 


H. M. 

2 23 A M. 

6 23 A.M. 

2 21 A.M. 

7 42 P.M. 


H. M. 
1 62 A M. 
5 62 AM 
1 50 AM. 
7 11 PM 


>> 

1 


Full Moon 

Last Quarter. 
New Moon.. . . 
First Quarter. 


6 
14 

21 
28 


10 44 P.M. 
9 9 pm 
1 25 P.M. 

11 59 A.M. 


10 32 P.M. 
8 57 P.M. 

1 13 P.M. 

11 47 A.M. 


10 20 P.M. 
8 45 P.M. 

1 1 P.M. 

11 35 A.M. 


10 9 P.M. 
8 34 P.M. 

12 50 P.M. 

11 24 A.M. 


9 38 PM 

8 3 PM 

12 19 P.M 

10 63 AM. 


1 


Full Moon. . . . 
Last Quarter . 
New Moon.. 
First Quarter . 


8 
16 
22 
30 


5 14 P.M. 
7 49 A.M. 

11 21 P.M. 

6 52 A.M. 


5 2 P.M. 
7 37 A.M. 

11 9 P.M. 

5 40 A.M. 


4 50 P.M. 
7 25 A.M. 

10 57 P.M. 

5 28 A.M. 


4 39 P.M. 

7 14 A.M. 

10 46 P.M. 

6 17 A.M. 


4 8 PM. 

6 43 A M 

10 16 PM 

4 46 AM 




Full Moon . . 
Last Quarter . 
New Moon.. . 
First Quarter 


7 
14 
21 
29 


9 4 A.M. 

3 28 P.M. 

9 17 A.M. 

12 38 A.M. 


8 52 A.M. 
3 16 P.M. 

9 5 A.M 

12 26 A.M. 


8 40 A.M. 

3 4 P.M. 

8 63 A.M. 

12 14 A.M. 


8 29 A.M. 

2 S3 P.M. 

8 42 A.M. 

12 3 A.M. 


7 68 AM 
2 22 PM 

8 U A.M 
28a 11 32 P.M 




Full Moon . . . 
Last Quarter . 

New Moon 

First Quarter. . . 


6 
13 
20 

28 


9 59 P.M. 
9 4 P.M. 
8 2 P.M. 
6 49 P.M. 


9 47 P.M. 
8 52 P.M. 
7 50 P.M. 
6 37 P.M. 


9 35 P.M. 
8 40 P.M. 
7 38 P.M. 
6 25 P.M. 


9 24 P.M. 
8 29 P.M. 
7 27 P.M. 
6 14 P.M. 


8 53 PM 
7 58 P.M 
6 66 PM 
6 43 PM 


i 


Full Moon. . . 
Last Quarter. . 
New Moon.. . 
First Quarter . 


5 
12 
19 
27 


8 22 A.M 

1 54 A.M. 

8 18 A.M. 

11 24 A.M. 


8 10 A.M. 

1 42 A.M 

8 6 A.M. 

11 12 A.M. 


7 58 AM. 

1 30 A.M. 

7 54 A.M. 

11 A.M. 


7 47 A.M. 

1 19 A.M. 

7 43 A.M. 
10 49 A.M. 


7 16 A.M 
12 48 AM 

7 12 AM 
10 18 A M 


1 

•-s 


Full Moon. . 
Last Quarter 
New Moon. 
First Quarter . 


4 
11 

IS 
27 


4 56 P.M. 

7 28 A.M. 

10 16 P.M. 

1 56 A.M. 


4 44 P.M. 

7 16 A.M 

10 4 P.M. 
1 44 A.M. 


4 32 P.M. 

7 4 A.M. 
9 62 P.M. 

1 32 A.M. 

12 3 A.M. 

2 48 P.M. 

1 13 P.M. 

2 P.M. 

7 20 A.M. 
1 57 A.M. 

5 19 A.M. 
12 33 A.M. 

3 23 P.M. 


4 21 P.M. 
6 53 A.M. 
9 41 P.M. 
1 21 A.M. 


3 SO PM 

6 22 AM 

9 10 PM 

12 50 AM 




Full Moon. . . 
Last Quarter . . 
New Moon.. 
First Quarter. . 


3 

9 
17 
25 


12 27 A.M. 
3 12 P.M. 

1 37 P.M. 

2 24 P.M. 


12 15 A.M. 

3 P.M 

1 25 P.M 

2 12 P.M 


2d 11 62 P.M. 

2 37 P.M. 
1 2 pjn. 
1 49 P.M. 

7 9 A.M. 

1 46 A M. 

5 8 am 
12 22 A.M. 

3 12 P.M 

4 55 P.M. 
9 22 P.M.' 
9 18 A.M. 
1 A.M. 


2a 11 21 PM 

2 6 pm 

12 31 PM 

1 18 PM 




Full Moon. . . 
Last Quarter 
New Moon . . 
First Quarter. 
Full Moon . . . 


1 

8 

16 

24 

30 

7 
15 
23 
30 


7 44 A.M. 

2 21 A.M. 

5 43 A.M. 
12 57 A.M. 

3 47 P.M. 


7 32 A.M 

2 9 A.M. 
5 31 A.M. 

12 45 A.M 

3 35 P.M 


6 38 A M 

1 15 AM 

4 37 A.M 
23d 11 61 P.M 

2 41 P.M 


2 
o 


Last Quarter . 
New Moon. 
First Quarter 
Full Moon 


5 30 PM 
9 57 P.M. 
9 53 A.M. 
1 35 A.M. 


5 18 P.M 
9 45 P.M. 

9 41 AM 
1 23 A.M. 


■; 6 P.M. 
9 33 P.M. 
9 29 A.M. 

1 11 A.M. 


4 24 PM 

8 61 PM 

8 47 A.M 

12 29 A M 


1 


Last Quarter. . 
New Moon. , . 
First Quarter. . . 
Full Moon ... . 


6 
14 
21 

28 


12 19 P.M 
1 44 P.M. 
5 44 P.M. 
1 57 P.M. 


12 7 P.M. 
1 32 P.M. 
5 32 P.M 
1 45 P.V. 


11 55 A.M. 
1 20 P.M. 
5 20 P.M. 
1 33 P.M. 


11 44 A.M. 
1 9 P.M. 

5 9 P.M. 
1 22 P.M. 


11 13 A.M. 

12 38 P.M. 
4 38 P.M. 

12 61 P.M. 


fe 


Last Quarter . 
New Moon.. 
First Quarter . 
Full Moon . 


6 
14 
21 
2S 


9 30 A.M. 

4 33 A.M. 

1 23 A.M. 

5 7 A.M. 


9 18 A.M. 
4 21 A.M. 
1 11 A.M. 
4 55 A M. 


9 6 A.M. 
4 9 A.M. 

12 59 A.M. 
4 43 A.M 


8 65 A.M. 

3 68 A.M. 
12 48 A.M. 

4 32 A.M. 


8 24 A.M. 

3 27 A.M. 
12 17 A.M. 

4 1 A.M. 



Moonlight Chart, 1917. 



MOONLIGHT CHART, 1917. 



53 



« 



9 

e 



3 



^ 
S 



=5 

a 



Id 



§ 

3 



3 



3 
< 





^ 


% 




y 


§ 


o 


55 



J3 

a 

8 
Q 




Explanation. — The white spaces show the amount of moonlight each night. January 23, February 
21, etc., the time of new moon, there Is no moonlight for two or three nights; January 29, February 28, etc., 
the moon sets at or near midnight, when the flrst half of the night has moonlight; January 8, February 6, 
etc., full moon, when moonlight lasts the whole night; Jantiary 16, February 14, etc., the moon rlsea at ot 
near midnight, when the latter half of the night has moonlight. 



54 



Star Table. 



POLE STAR. 

MEAN TIME OF TRANSIT (AT WASHINGTON) AND POLAR DISTANCE OF POLARIS. 



1917. 


January. 


FEBRUAKY. ) 


March. | 


.\PRll.. 1 


May. I 


June. 


=3 
Q2 


Upper 
Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Lower 
Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Lower 

Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Lower 
Transit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Lower 
Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Lower 
Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


1 

11 

21 


p. M. 

H. M S. 
6 46 16 
6 6 46 
5 27 17 


1 It 

1 7 49 
1 7 48 
1 7 48 


A. H. 

H. M S. 

4 45 43 
4 6 19 
3 26 51 


e 1 It 

1 7 49 
1 7 5C 
1 7 5: 


A. M. 

a. M. 8. 
2 55 18 
2 15 53 
1 36 28 


/ // 

1 7 53 
1 7 56 
1 7 58 


A. M. 

H. M. S. 
12 53 11 
12 13 52 
U 30 38 p.m. 


t n 

1 8 2 
1 8 5 
1 8 8 


p. M. 
H. M. S. 

10 51 22 
10 12 9 

9 32 57 


1 II 

1 8 11 
1 8 13 
1 8 16 


p. M. 

H. M. s. 
8 49 51 
8 10 42 
7 31 33 


1 8 Ig 

1 8 iQ 

1 8 25 


1917. 


July. | 


AUGUST. 1 


September. ] 


October. | 


November. ] 


Dece.mber, 


o3 
OS 


Lower 
Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Upper 
Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Upper 
Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Upper 
Transit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Upper 
Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


Upper 

Tran- 
sit. 


Polar 
Dis- 
tance. 


1 
u 

21 


p. M. 
H. M s. 

6 52 25 
6 13 17 
5 34 10 


1 tt 

1 8 20 
1 8 20 
1 8 19 


A. M. 

H. M. 8. 

4 53 5 
4 13 57 
3 34 48 


* // 

1 8 18 
1 8 16 
1 8 14 


A. M. 
H. M. S. 

2 51 42 
2 12 30 
1 33 17 


1 II 

1 8 11 
1 8 7 
1 8 4 


A. M. 

H. M s. 
12 51 4 
12 14 48 
11 31 35 p.m. 


/ // 

1 8 

1 7 57 
1 7 53 


p. M. 

H. M 8. 

10 48 20 

10 8 59 

9 29 36 


1 II 

1 7 49 
1 7 45 
1 7 42 


P. M. 
H. M. S. 

8 50 12 
8 10 46 
7 31 18 


1 It 

1 7 38 
1 7 36 
1 7 34 



From June 16 to August 1 both the upper and lower transits take place during daylight. The azimutU 
at the time ol greatest Eastern or Western elongation can be easily computed from the formula: 

sin p 

sin A = 

cos I 
where A denotes the azimuth, p the polar distance, and I the latitude of the place. 

DATE OF GREATEST ELONGATION. 
To And the time of greatest Eastern or Western elongation, let H denote the hour angle, and I and p as 
before, then we shall have 

cos H = tan p tan I. 
And the hour angle in mean time is 

//m = W X 0.0664846. 
This quantity, Hm. added to or subtracted from the time of transit given above, according to the elonga- 
tion required, will give the mean time of the greatest elongation at any place whose north latitude Is I. 



STAR TABLE. 

FOR IDENTIFYING THE PRINCIPAL FIXED STARS. 



Name of Star. 



aAndromedse (Alpheratz) 
vPegasi (Algenib) 
aCassiopeiae (Schedir) . . . 

aArletis 

gPersei (Algol) 

aTauri (Aldebaran) 

rtAurigse (Capella) 

aOrlonls (Betelguese) . . 
aCanis Majorls (Sirlus) . 

aGeminorum (Castor) 

aCanis Mlnorls (Procyon) 
AGeminorum (Pollux) . 
aLeonls (Regulus) 



Decli- 
nation. 



+ 28 38 
+ 14 44 
+ 56 5 
+ 23 4 
+40 38 
+ 16 21 
+ ^5 55 
+ 7 24 
—16 36 
+ 32 4 
+ 5 26 
+ 28 14 
+ 12 22 



On Meridian. 



Upper. Lower. 

H. M. H. M. 

— 1 26.2+10 31.8 
— 1 21.3+10 36 7 
— 54 5+11 3 5 
+ 31.8+12 29.8 
+ 1 32.0+13 30 
+ 3 02+14 58.2 
+ 3 39.5+15 37.5 
+ 4 19.5+16 17 5 
+ 5 10.1 + 17 8.1 
+5 57.9+17 55 9 
+ 6 35 + 18 1.5 
+ 6 8.8 + 18 t.„ 
+8 32.1 + 20 30.1 



Name op Star. 



aVlrginls (Spica) . . 
aBootis (Arcturus) . 
3Ursae Mlnorls. 
aCoronEB Borealis.. 
aScorpll (Antares). 

aLyrse (Vega) 

aAqullJB (Altalr) . . . 
aCygni (Deneb)... 

aCephel 

lAquaril 

aPiscis Australls. . 
aPegasi (Marltab) 



Decli- 


nation. 


o / 


— 10 44 


+ 19 37 


+74 29 


+ 26 59 


—26 15 


+ 38 42 


+ 8 39 


+ 44 59 


+ 62 14 


— 43 


—30 4 


+ 14 46 



On Meridian 



Upper. 

H. M. 

+ 11 48, 
+ 12 39 
+ 13 18 
+ 13 58 
+ 14 51 
+ 17 
+ 18 13, 
+ 19 4 
+ 19 42 
+ 20 27 
+ 21 19, 
+21 26 



Lower. 

H. M. 

3+23 46 3 
3+ 41.3 
2 + 1 20 2 
4+ 2 0.4 
3+2 53.3 
8+ 5 2.8 
2+ 6 15 2 
9+ 7 6.9 
8+ 7 44 8 
6+8 29.6 
1+ 9 21 1 
7 + 9 28 7 



To find the time of the star's transit, add or subtract, according to the sign, the number In the second 
column of figures to the date of the transit of the pole star given above. Thus, for a Andromedse February 
11: Lower Transit of Pole Star is 4h. 6m. 193 A. M., to which add lOh. 31.8m. and we have 2h. 38m. p. m.; 
for December 1, we find 7h. 24m. p. m., etc. 

APPROXIMATE PARALLAX AND DISTANCE IN LIGHT-YEARS OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL 

FIXED STARS. 
By light-years is to be understood the number of years light requires to travel from the star to us. 

^. 



Polaris (Pole Star) 

a Auriga (Capella) 

a Canls Majoris (Sirius) . . . 
a Canls Mlnoris (Procyon) . . 
a Bootls (Arcturus) 
a Cejxtauri 



Parallax. 


Llght- 
Years. 


073 


45 


046 


71 


0.233 


15 


123 


27 


127 


26 


0.916 


3.6 



a Lyrae (Vega) . 

61 Cygnl 

S Casslopeise. 
Y Draconis. . 
85 Pegasl. 



Parallax. 



140 
0.300 
0.187 
127 
0.054 



Light- 
Years. 



23 
11 
17 
26 
60 



The determination of stellar parallax Is one of the most difficult and refined problems in practical or 
observational astronomy. It is to find the angle which the semi-diameter of the earth's orbit subtends at 
the star — an angle always very small, as seen from the above table, and which cannot be measured directly 
but by various processes too complicated to be explained here. 



Astronomical Phenomena for ike Year 1917. 



55 



ELEMENTS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. 



Name 

or 
Planet. 



Mercury 

Venus , 

Earth 

Mars , 

Jupiter 

Saturn , 

Uranus 

Neptune 

Name 

OF 
PLANET. 



Mean 

Dally 

Motion. 



14732 420 
5767.6696 
3548 192 
1886.5182 
299 . 1256 
120.4548 
42.2308 
21.530 



Sidereal 

Revolution — 

Days. 



"87.96925 
224 . 70080 
365 25636 
686 97987 
4332 6284 
10759.2225 
30688 5022 
60178.3060 



Distance from the Sdn. 



Mean. 



Astronomical Units. 
Greatest. 



387099 
0.723331 
1 . 000000 

1 523688 
5 202803 
9.538843 

19 190978 
30.070672 



. 466693 

0.728260 

1.016746 

1.665877 

5.454395 

10.071570 

20.094454 

30.327506 



Least. 



0.307505 
0.718402 
983254 
1.381499 
4.951211 
9.006106 
18.287502 
29.813838 



In 
Miles. 



35,960,500 

67,195,600 

92,897,400 

141,546,600 

483,327,000 

886,134,000 

1,782,792,000 

2,793,487,000 



Mercury 
Venus. . . 
Earth. . . 
Mars . . . . 
Jupiter. . 
Saturn . . 
Uranus. . 
Neptune 



Eccentricity 

of 

Orbit.* 



0.2056167 
0.0068150 
0167460 
0933198 
0483570 
0558482 
0470781 
0.0085410 



Synodlcal 
Revolution- 
Days. 



115,877 
583,920 

779^936 
398.866 
378,090 
369,650 
367,482 



Inclination ot 
Orbit to 
EcUptlc* 



7 11.2 
3 23 37.5 

i 51 "\'.6 

1 18 29.1 

2 29 30.6 

46 21 9 

1 46 41.2 



Orbital Velocity 

Miles 

Per Second. 



29.73 

21.75 

18.50 

14 98 

8 11 

5 99 

4 22 

3.37 



Name 

OF 

Planet. 



Mercury . 
Venus. . . 
Earth . . . 
Mars. . . . 
Jupiter . . 
Saturn . . 
Uranus. , 
Neptune. 



Mean Longitude 

at the 

Epoch.* 



115 4 3.26 

165 4 20 94 

99 47 20 22 

70 45 5 47 

242 24 21.96 

53 23 10 90 

294 57 2 33 

111 24 32.14 



Mean Longitude 

of the 

Perihelion.* 



76 5 10 9 
130 19 58 
101 25 37 7 
334 26 21 8 

12 54 18 

91 19 26 1 
169 14 25 8 

43 51 38.2 



Annual 


Sidereal 


Motion. 


ft 

+ 5 


7 


+ 


4 


+ 11 


6 


+ 15 


9 


+ 7 


6 


+ 20 


2 


+ 7 


4 


—18 


.9 



Mean Longitude 

of the 
Ascending Node. 



* Epoch 1912 January Id Greenwich mean time. 



47 17 17.4 
75 53 15.5 

48 52 42 '.6 
99 33 33.3 

112 53 17.7 

73 33 2.1 

130 48 38.9 



Annual 
Sidereal 
Motion 



- 7 
-17. 



-22 2 
-13 9 
-18.9 
-32.0 

-10.7 



Light at 



Perl- .Ap- 
helion lielioD. 



10 58 



94 
03 
52 
0.041 
012 
0.003 
0.001 



4 59 
1 91 
97 
36 
034 
010 
0025 
0.001 



Sun 

and 

Planets. 



Sun .... 
Mercury 
Venus. . . 
Earth... 
Mars . . . 
Jupiter. . 
Saturn. . 
Uranus . 
Neptune 



Semi-dhmeter 



At 

Unit 

Distance 



f 


tf 




15 


.59 


6 




3 


34 




8 


55 



5.05 
37.16 
21.17 
33 5 
38.7 



At Mean 

Least 
Distance. 



5 45 
30.90 



9 64 
23 12 
9 55 
1.84 
1.33 



In 

Miles 
(Mean) 



432183 68 
1504 24 
3850.67 

2274 37 
43758 03 
36558 86 
15096 43 
17411.34 



Volume 


Ma.ss. 


Density 


®= 1 


®= 1 


e= 1 


1303371.8 


329390 


2527 


054955 


054898 


99895 


0.921875 


Q 807328 
1.000000 


87574 


1 000000 


1 00000 


0.189953 


0.106478 


56055 


1352 809 


314 4985 


23247 


788 934 


94 0684 


11923 


55 550 


14 4033 


25928 


85.224 


16.7199 


0.19619 



Axial 
Rotation. 



D. H. M. s. 
25 9 7 12 
24 5 ? 

23 21 ? 
23 56 4.09 

24 37 23 
9 55 41 

10 14 24 
Unknown. 
Unknown. 



Gravity at 
Surface. 

©= 1 



27.6057 

. 37979 

85236 

1 . 00000 

32222 

57115 

10175 

, 98932 

86338 



1 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE YEAR 1917. 

ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS AND SYMBOT,S. 



o 

9 
© 



The Sun. 
The Moon. 
Mercury. 
VeniLS. 
The Earth. 



rf 


Mars. 


-n 


Jupiter. 




Saturn. 


iji 


Uranus. 


^ 


Neptune. 



<5 Conjunction. 

□ Quadrature. 

8 Opposition. 

Q A.scending Node. 

tj Descending Node, 



Two heavenly bodies are in ' ' conjunction " ( 6 ) when they have tlie same Ric/Iit Ascension, 
or are on the sa)?te meridian, i. e. , when one is due north or south of the other; if the bodies are 
near each otlier as seen from tlie earth, they will rise and set at the same time; they are in 
"opposition" (§) when in opposite quarters of the heavens, or when one rises just as the 
other is setting. "Quadrature" (n) is half way between conjunction and opposition. By 
"greatest elongation" is meant the greatest apparent ang^u^ar distance from the sun; the 
planet is then generallv most favorably situated for observation. Mercury can only be seen 
with the naked eve at ttiis time. When a planet is in its "ascending" (0) or "-ia=f.onriiniT'> 



' descending' 



(U) node it is crossing the plane of the earth' s orbit. The term "Perihelion" means nearest, 
and ' 'Aphelion ' ' furthest, from the sun. An "occultation " of a planet or star is an eclipse of 



and ' 'Aphel 

it by some other body, usually the moon. 



56 



Astronomical Phenomena for the Year 1917. 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE YEAR 1917 -Continued. 

I.— ECLIPSES. 

The year 1917 is notable for having seven eclipses, the greatest number possible; there were seven 
eclipses In 1805 and will be again In 1935 and In 1982; these lour are the only occurrences in the nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. 

The eclipses for 1917 will Include four of the sun and three of the moon, as follows: 

1. A total eclipse of the moon January 7-8, visible at New York and generally in North America. 





Moon Enters 






Moon Leaves 


PLACES. 


Shadow. 


Totality Begins. 


Totality Ends. 


Shadow. 




D. H. M. 


D. H. M. 


D. H. M. 


D. 


H. m. 


Boston 


Jan. 8 1 6 am. 


Jan. 8 2 16 a.m. 


Jan. 8 3 44 a.m. 


Jan. 8 


4 54 A.M. 


New York 


Jan. 8 12 54 A M. 


Jan. 8 2 4 a.m. 


Jan. 8 3 32 a.m. 


Jan. 8 


4 42 a.m. 


Washington . . . 


Jan. 8 12 42 A.M. 


Jan. 8 1 52 A M. 


Jan. 8 3 20 a.m. 


Jan. 8 


4 30 a.m. 


Charleston 


Jan. 8 12 31 a.m. 


Jan. 8 1 41 A M. 


Jan. 8 3 9 a.m. 


Jan. 8 


4 19 A.M. 


Cincinnati 


Jan. 8 12 12 A M. 


Jan. 8 1 22 a.m 


Jan. 8 2 50 a.m 


Jan. 8 


4 A.M. 


Chicago 


Jan. 7 12 P.M. 


Jan. 8 1 10 A M. 


Jan. 8 2 38 A m 


Jan. 8 


3 48 A.M. 


New Orleans 


Jan. 7 11 50 p M 


Jan. 8 10 A.M. 


Jan. 8 2 28 A M 


Jan. 8 


3 38 AM. 


Denver 


Jan. 7 10 50 p.m. 


Jan. 7 12 pm. 


Jan. 8 1 28 a.m 


Jan. 8 


2 38 A.M. 


Ogden 


Jan. 7 10 22 p.m. 
Jan. 7 9 41 p.m. 


Jan. 7 11 32 P.M. 
Jan. 7 10 51 P.M. 


Jan. 8 1 AM. 
Jan. 8 12 19 a.m. 


Jan. 8 
Jan. 8 


2 10 A.M. 


San Francisco 


1 29 A.M. 



The flrst apparent contact of the moon's limb with the shadow is 117 degrees from the north point of 
the moon toward the east. The last contact is 91 degrees from tlie north point of the moon toward the west. 

2. A partial eclipse of the sun January 23, invisible in America. Visible on the continent of Europe 
and in adjacent portions of Asia and Africa. Magnitude of greatest eclipse 0.725, the sun's diameter being 
unity. 

3. A partial eclipse of the sun June 19, Invisible in the United States. Visible in the Canadian North- 
west, Alaska. Siberia, and north polar regions. 

Magnitude of greatest eclipse 0.473, the sun's diameter being tmlty. 

4. A total eclipse of the moon July 4-5, Invisible In North America. Visible generally In the Eastern 
Hemisphere, and the ending visible in South America. 

5. A small partial eclipse of the sun July 19, visible only In the Indian and Antarctic Oceans. 
Magnitude of greatest eclipse 0.086, the sun's diameter being unity. 

6. An annular eclipse of the sun December 14, invisible in the Northern Hemisphere. Visible as a 
partial eclipse tliroughout the south polar regions. 

The path of the central or annular eclipse nearly spans the distance between Patagonia and Tasmania, 
and passes directly over the South Pole. 

7. A total eclipse of the moon December 27-28, visible In New York and generally in North America. 





Moon Enters i 








Meon Leaves 


Places. 




Shadow. 


Totality Begins. 


Totality Ends. 




Shadow. 






D. H. M. 


D. 


H. M. 


D. 


H. M. 




n. 


H. M. 


Boston 


Dec. 


28 3 20 AM. 


Dec. 28 


4 54 AM. 


Dec. 28 


5 10 A M 


Dec. 


28 


6 43 A.M. 


New York 


Dec. 


28 3 8 A.M 


Dec. 28 


4 42 AM. 


Dec. 28 


4 58 A.M 


Dec. 


28 


6 31 AM. 


Washington . . . 


Dec. 


28 2 56 A M 


Dec. 28 


4 30 A.M 


Dec. 28 


4 46 AM 


Dec. 


28 


6 19 A.M. 


Charleston 


Dec. 


28 2 46 A M. 


Dec. 28 


4 19 AM 


Dec. 28 


4 35 A.M 


Dec. 


28 


6 8 A.M. 


Clnctonatl 


Dec. 


28 2 26 A.M 


Dec. 28 


4 A.M 


Deo. 28 


4 16 AM. 


Dec. 


28 


5 49 A.M. 


Chicago 


Dec 


28 2 14 A.M. 


Dec. 28 


3 48 A M. 


Dec. 28 


4 4 A.M 


Dec. 


28 


5 37 A.M. 


New Orleans 


Dec 


28 2 4 A.M. 


Dec. 28 


3 38 A.M 


Dec. 28 


3 54 A.M 


Dec. 


28 


5 27 A.M. 


Denver 


Dec. 


28 1 4 A M 


Dec. 28 


2 38 A M 


Dec. 28 


2 54 A M. 


Dec. 


28 


4 27 A.M. 


Ogden 


Dec. 
Dec. 


28 12 36 A.M. 
27 11 55 P.M. 


Dec. 28 
Dec. 28 


2 10 A.M. 
1 29 AM, 


Dec. 28 
Dec. 28 


2 26 A.M. 
1 45 A.M. 


Dec. 
Dec. 


28 
28 


3 59 A.M. 


San Francisco 


3 18 A.M. 



The flrst apparent contact of the moon's limb with the shadow is 72 degrees from the north point of 
the moon toward the east. The last contact is 55 degrees from the north point of the moon toward the west. 



II 



Jan. 



Feb. 




—PLANETARY CONFIGURATIONS, 1917. 
(.Washington Mean Time) 



gr. elong. E. 19022'. 
in perihelion. 

stationary, 
in perihelion. 
§ N. 3° 5'. 



inferior. 



gr. hel. lat. S. 

stationary. 
§ N. 2° 53'. 

gr. elong. W. aeoS'. 



in perihelion, 
in aphelion. 



D. 


H. 


M. 






Feb. 25 


6 


58 


P.M. 


A 


28 


6 





P.M. 


A 


Mar. 3 


6 





P.M. 




4 


4 


41 


A.M. 


A 


18 


5 





P.M. 


(^ 


22 


12 


4 


P.M. 




22 


4 


19 


P.M. 


f^ 


22 


7 


3 


P.M. 


(S 


24 


3 





A.M. 


<S 


25 


2 


18 


P.M. 


A 


25 


7 





P.M. 




26 


1 





A.M. 




29 


12 





M. 


A 


31 


3 





A.M. 


(\ 


31 


11 


3 


A.M. 


A 


April 10 


2 





A.M. 




14 


8 





A.M. 


n 


16 


2 





P.M. 


A 


20 


5 


21 


P.M. 


A 


21 


10 


39 


A.M. 


A 


22 


10 


46 


A.M. 




22 


11 


7 


P.M. 


ftf 


24 


3 





P.M. 




26 


3 





A.M. 


A 


27 


9 


5 


P.M. 


6 



^Q. ,- ,. 
9 m aphehon. 

5 9 § S. 0° 43'. 

5 cT $ S. O" 56'. 

>2 Stationary. 
9 gr. hel. lat. S. 
» O superior. 
9 cT 9 S. 0° 39'. 

5 m perihehon. 

h O 

$ i; $ N. 30 0'. 

9 C 

^C 

$ C 

§ gr. elong. E. 20°22'. 

9 pi superior. 

hC 



The Magnetic Poles. 



57 













PLANETARY CONFIGURATIONS, 


1917 — Continued. 




D. 


H. 


M. 








D. 


H. 


M. 






May 


5 


9 





P.M. 


^5 9 -Ji 9 N. 0° 16'. 


Sept 


3 


5 





A.M. 


n7jo 

ij stationary. 




5 


10 





P.M. 


» Stationary- 




5 


3 





A.M. 




9 


6 





A.M. 


6 ^iO 




7 


6 


39 


P.M. 


d "^ C 




13 


1 





P.M. 


,5590 N. 0" 25'. 




9 


9 





P.M. 


9 int3. 




16 


3 





P M. 


5 5 3 inferior. 




11 


6 


45 


P.M. 






19 


.1 


38 


P.M. 


6 d€ 




12 


4 


4 


P.M. 


d h \ 




20 


6 


35 


A.,M. 


6 xK 




16 


3 


59 


P.M. 


d § C 




20 


11 


3 


A.M. 


6 5 € 




18 


7 





P.M. 


d 5 inferior. 




21 


7 





A.M. 


9 in n- 




19 


5 


22 


P.M. 


d 9C 




21 


9 


49 


A.M. 


6 V C 




27 


3 





A.M. 


§ stationary. 




24 


2 





A.M. 


5 in aphelion 




30 


12 





M. 


:*,' stationary. 




24 


4 





P.M. 


d, 5 "U 5 S. 2"> 6'. 


Oct. 


1 


7 





A.M. 


6 cf h cf N. 0° 40'. 




25 


9 


47 


A.M. 


6 h € 




3 


1 





A.M. 


$ in perihelion. 




28 


9 





P.M. 


5 stationary. 




4 


11 





A.M. 


5 gr. elong.W. 17''56' 


June 


5 


7 





P.M. 


6 cT 5 S. 3° 50'. 




5 


4 


19 


A.M. 


d ^' C 




8 


7 





A.M. 


d ^H dl^.O" 41'. 




10 


4 


17 


A M. 


6 h€ 




8 


9 





P M. 


d 5 1( 5 S. 3° 3'. 




10 


2 


28 


P.M. 


d d-C 




11 


6 





P..M. 


C5 cT $ S. 3" 31'. 




14 


11 





A.M. 


9 in aphelion. 




11 


7 





P.M. 


$ gr.elongW.23'32'. 




14 


11 


29 


P.M. 


d 5S 




17 


12 


43 


A.M. 


6 ^f C 




19 


2 


49 


P.M 


d 9 C 




17 


8 


43 


A M. 


6 cf C 


Nov 


1 


11 


17 


A.M 


d^t 




17 


12 


32 


P.M. 


d 5 C 




3 


1 





P M. 


d 5 O ."jupenor. 




20 


3 


2G 


P.M. 


6 9 C 




5 


5 





P.M 


V gr. heL lat. S. 




21 


11 


41 


P it 


6h€ 




6 


3 


24 


P.M. 


6h€ 




23 


4 





A.M. 


c^ m Q. 




6 


11 





P.M. 


uhO 




24 


2 





A.M. 


9 m perihelion. 




8 


8 


29 


A.M. 


6 d€ 


July 


3 


3 





P M. 


ff) in aplielion. 




15 


3 


42 


A.M. 


6 ii. 




4 


7 





P.M. 


d 9 h 9 N. 1° 4'. 




15 


12 





P.M. 


B m aphelion. 




7 


1 





A.M. 


5 in perilielion. 




18 


9 


38 


A.M. 


d ?C 




12 


11 





A.M. 


(5 5 O superior. 




26 


11 





A.M. 


)j stationary. 




14 


4 


45 


P.M. 


d V € 




28 


3 


22 


P M. 


d ^'6; 




15 


7 





P.M. 


V gr. hel. lat. N. 




29 


1 





A.M. 


s ^o 




16 


3 


33 


A.M. 


6 -f^ 




30 


3 





A M. 


9 gr. elong.E. 47° 18' 




18 


4 





P M. 


(5 § h $ N. 1" 25' 


Dec. 


4 


12 


34 


A.M. 


d >? C 




19 


1 


40 


P M. 


6b € 




6 


10 


29 


P.M. 


d d€ 




19 


6 


1 


P.M. 


d iJ fe 




11 


11 





P.M. 


n d" C-) 




21 


4 


4 


A.M. 


d V (£ 




15 


6 


34 


P.M. 


d 5 <E 




27 


4 





P.M. 


d hO 

6 '''1 t 




17 


1 





A.M. 


$ gr elong. E. 20° 20' 


Aug 


11 


6 


43 


A.M. 




17 


7 


53 


P.M. 


d € 




13 


11 





P.M 


d d-S 




24 


6 





P.M. 


§ stationary. 




16 


3 


10 


A.M. 


d h C 




25 


7 





A.M. 


d gr. hcl lat. N. 




20 


1 





A.M. 


8 in aphelion. 




25 


5 


38 


P..M. 


6 -ne. 




20 


4 


13 


A.M. 


d 5<?-. 




29 


12 





P.M. 


5 in perihelion. 




20 


2 


44 


P H. 


d 5 C 




31 


6 


56 


A.M. 


6h<5. 




22 


12 





P.M. 


$ gr. elong. E. 27'>23'. 




31 


12 





P.M. 


9 inQ- 



AREA OF THE CREAT LAKES OF THE OWTED STATES. 



"onfaHoT 



Greatft^c length In miles. . . . 
Greatest breadth in tnllea . . 
Deepest soundings In feet . . . 

Area in sauare miles 

Drainage in square miles. . . . 
Height above sea levd in feet. 
Latitude, north 



Longitude, west 



Boundary line ta miles 

TTnited Stat«3 Phcfe line In miles* (apnrox.V 



Superior Mlchlijan 



360 

ion 

1.008 
32.060 
44,100 

602.3 
46° 30' 



49= 
S4° 
92° 



00' 
30' 
06' 
2S0 
735 



320 

85 

870 

22,300 

43,500 

581.2 

41° 37' 

46° 06' 

84° 4.'i' 

88° 00" 

None 

1,200 



Huron. 



240 

101 

750 

23,000 

49,000 

581.2 

46° 00' 

43° 00" 

80° 00' 

84° 45' 

220 

470 



Erie. 

250 " 

57 

210 

10,000 

24,600 

572.5 

41° 23' 



42 
83' 



53' 
' 50' 
' 30' 
250 
350 



191 

53 

738 

7,200 

25,700 

246.2 

43° 10' 

44° 10* 

76° IC 

79° 53' 

160 

230 



* Shore Hoe scaled In steps of 5 milos and excludes islands. 



THE WACNETIC POLES. , ,^ ^ . „ . „ 

Thb eeoeraphlcal poles of the earth are the extremities of the fVnaplnary line passing 
throuRh Its centre of gravity and about which it revolves, and are therefore symmetrically 
locatPd with regard to the equator. . . ^, , ■ , _ . 

The magnetic poles, however, are not coincident with the geoKraphlcal poles, nor are 
thev diainetrically opposite to each other. Prior to the recent attempt of Anniradsen to 
determine the north magnetic pole, the only other was by Capt. James Ross in June. IbJl. 
who found the din of the mapmetic needle to be 80° 59' .5. In latitude 70 5 .2 N. and 
longltuae 96° 45' .8 W.. whlcli Is in Klni? ■William Land. Canada, The result of 
Amundsen's observations has not yet been published by the Norwegian authorities. 

For the south magnetic Dole, from a consideration of all the results available, 
according to t!he United States 'Coast and Geodetic Survey, the poslUon latitude 7^ .7 
S. and loTigHude IBS" "El. has bean tentatively adopted. These values are only rougbly 
approximate, and for that reason are given only In ti.egrees and tenths. 

Bv reason of the annual variation of the magnetic needle. It is believed that the 
magnetic poles are not stationary, but have a slow motion around the geograpmcai poies. 
The subject Is shrouded In mystery and constitutes one of the many as yet unsolved 
problems In terrestrial physics. 



58 



The Suns Right Ascension and Declination. 



THE SUN'S RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION. 

(WASHINGTON — APPARENT NOON.) 



Date — 


Apparent 


Apparent 


Datb 


Apparent 


Apparent 


1917. 


Right Ascension. 


Declination. 


1917. 


Right Ascension. 


Declination. 




H. M. 


s. 


» 


/ 


/f 




H. M. 


s. 


o 


' 


" 


Jan. 1 . . . . 


18 46 


47.50 


—23 





53.2 


Mar. 27 


23 


44.91 


+ 2 


34 


9.5 


2 


51 


12 32 


—22 


55 


43.3 


28. 


27 


23 10 




57 


37.0 


3 


55 


36.77 




50 


6.1 


29 


31 


1.29 


+ 3 


21 


9 


4.... 


19 


82 




44 


1.6 


30. 


34 


39.52 




44 


20.7 


5.... 


4 


24.45 




37 


30.1 


31 


38 


17 80 


+ 4 


7 


36 4 


6... 


8 


47.62 




30 


31.9 


April 1 


41 


56 15 




30 


47.4 


7 ... 


13 


10 33 




23 


7 


2... 


45 


34.60 




53 


53 4 


8 .. 


17 


32.53 




15 


15.7 


3.. 


49 


13 16 


+ 5 


16 


54 1 


9 . 


21 


54 20 




6 


58.1 


4.. 


52 


51 85 




39 


49 3 


10. 


26 


15 34 


—21 


58 


14.7 


5 


56 


30 68 


+ 6 


2 


38 4 


11 


30 


35 92 




49 


5 4 


6... 


1 


9.70 




25 


2-1 3 


12 


34 


55 90 




39 


30 6 


7.. . 


3 


48 91 




47 


67 6 


13 . 


39 


15 29 




29 


30 7 


8. 


7 


28 35 


+ 7 


10 


27.0 


14 . 


43 


34 06 




19 


5 9 


9 . . 


11 


8.03 




32 


49.2 


15. 


47 


52 19 




8 


16 3 


10.. 


14 


47.95 




55 


3 7 


16 . 


52 


9 66 


—20 


57 


2 4 


11... 


18 


28.16 


+ 8 


17 


10 5 


17 . 


56 


26 45 




45 


24 4 


12 


22 


8 69 




39 


9 


18 


20 


42 55 




33 


22 7 


13.. 


25 


49 52 


+ 9 





59.1 


19 


4 


57 95 




20 


57.6 


14... 


29 


30 70 




22 


40 2 


20 


9 


12 62 




8 


9.3 


15 .. 


33 


12 24 




44 


12 2 


21. . 


13 


26.55 


—19 


54 


58 4 


16.... 


36 


54 14 


+ 10 


5 


34 6 


22. 


17 


39 72 




41 


25 3 


17... 


40 


36.43 




26 


47 1 


23 .. 


21 


52.11 




27 


30 1 


18.... 


44 


19.13 




47 


49 4 


24 


26 


3.72 




13 


13 4 


19.. 


48 


2 23 


+ 11 


8 


41 


25. 


30 


14 52 


—18 


58 


35 6 


20 ... 


51 


45 74 




29 


21 6 


26 . 


34 


24.50 




43 


36 9 


21... 


55 


29.69 




49 


51.0 


27 


38 


33 67 




28 


18 


22.. . 


59 


14.07 


+ 12 


10 


8 7 


28 . 


42 


42 00 




12 


39 2 


23.... 


2 2 


58.91 




30 


14 3 


29 . 


46 


49.50 


—17 


56 


40 8 


24 . . 


6 


44 20 




60 


7 6 


30 . 


50 


56 15 




40 


23 2 


25 .. . 


10 


29 95 


+ 13 


9 


48 1 


31 


55 


1 96 




23 


46 9 


26.... 


14 


16 16 




29 


16 6 


Feb 1 


59 


6 93 




6 


52 3 


27 .. 


18 


2 86 




48 


29 7 


2 


21 3 


11 07 


—16 


49 


39 7 


28 .. 


21 


50.04 


+ 14 


7 


30.2 


3... 


7 


14 36 




32 


9 5 


29. .. 


25 


37 73 




26 


16 5 


4 . 


11 


16 83 




14 


22 2 


30... 


29 


25.92 




44 


48.6 


5 


15 


18 48 


—15 


56 


18 2 


May 1. . . 


33 


14.62 


+ 15 


3 


6.1 


6 


19 


19 30 




37 


57 8 


2 


37 


3 84 




21 


8 6 


7 . 


23 


19 32 




19 


21 4 


3 . 


40 


53.60 




38 


56 


8 . 


27 


18 54 







29 4 


4 .. 


44 


43 89 




56 


27 8 


9... 


31 


16 97 


— 14 


41 


22 1 


6 . 


48 


34.73 


+ 16 


13 


43 7 


10 .. 


35 


14 61 




22 


3 


6 .. 


62 


26 13 




30 


43.6 


11 


39 


11 49 




2 


23.9 


7... 


56 


18 10 




47 


27 


12... 


43 


7 60 


—13 


42 


33.6 


8.. . 


3 


10 63 


+ 17 


3 


53 8 


13 . 


47 


2 98 




22 


29.6 


9... 


4 


3 73 




20 


3 5 


14.. . 


50 


57 62 




2 


12.4 


10.. 


7 


57 43 




35 


56 


15 


54 


51 54 


—12 


41 


42.6 


11 .. 


11 


51.72 




61 


30 9 


16.. 


58 


44 74 




21 


4 


12 . 


15 


46 59 


+ 18 


6 


48 


17 


22 2 


37 25 







6.1 


13 .. 


19 


42.07 




21 


46 9 


18 


6 


29 07 


— 11 


39 


0.4 


14... 


23 


38.14 




36 


27.3 


19 


10 


20 21 




17 


43.7 


15... 


27 


34.80 




50 


49.1 


20 . 


14 


10 69 


— 10 


56 


16 3 


16.. . 


31 


32.07 


+ 19 


4 


61.7 


21. 


18 


51 




34 


38 6 


17. ... 


35 


29.92 




18 


35 1 


22 


21 


49 70 




12 


51.2 


18.... 


39 


28 34 




31 


58.8 


23 


25 


38 24 


— 9 


50 


54.5 


19. . 


43 


27.33 




45 


2.7 


24 


29 


26 16 




28 


48.9 


20... 


47 


26 87 




57 


46.4 


25 


33 


13 47 




6 


34.9 


21. . 


51 


26.97 


+ 20 


10 


9.7 


26 . 


37 


17 


— 8 


44 


13 


22.. 


55 


27.61 




22 


12.3 


27 . 


40 


46 30 




21 


43 4 


23 


59 


28 76 




33 


53. 8 


28 . 


44 


31 86 


— 7 


59 


6 6 


24. 


4 3 


30.43 




45 


14 2 


Mar. 1 


48 


16 89 




36 


23 


25 . 


7 


32 60 




56 


13 2 


2 


52 


1 38 




13 


32.9 


26 


11 


35 25 


+ 21 


6 


50 6 


3 


55 


45 36 


— 6 


50 


36 7 


27.. 


15 


38.37 




17 


6 1 


4 


59 


28 86 




27 


35 


28 . 


19 


41.95 




26 


59 6 


5 


23 3 


11 87 




4 


28.0 


29. 


23 


45 99 




36 


30 7 


6 


6 


54 46 


— 5 


41 


16 


30... 


27 


50 45 




45 


39 3 


7 


10 


36 62 




17 


59 4 


31... 


31 


55.32 




54 


25 4 


8 


14 


18 38 


— 4 


54 


38.6 


June 1 . . 


36 


59 


+ 22 


2 


48 6 


9 


17 


59 76 




31 


14 


2... 


40 


6.25 




10 


48 8 


10 


21 


40 79 




7 


46.0 


3... 


44 


12.29 




18 


25.8 


11 


25 


21.48 


— 3 


44 


14 8 


4.. 


48 


18.69 




25 


39 4 


12 


29 


1 85 




20 


40.8 


5.... 


52 


25.43 




32 


29.5 


13 


32 


41 96 


— 2 


57 


4.5 


6.... 


66 


32.61 




38 


56.0 


14 


36 


21 79 




33 


26.1 


7.. . 


5 


39 90 




44 


58 8 


15.. 


40 


1 38 




9 


45.9 


8.... 


4 


47.62 




50 


37 7 


16... 


43 


40 75 


— 1 


46 


4.5 


9.... 


8 


65.61 




55 


52.6 


17.. 


47 


19 93 




22 


22.2 


10.... 


13 


3.87 


+ 23 





43 2 


18. 


50 


58 94 


— 


58 


39.2 


11.... 


17 


12.40 




5 


9.6 


19... 


54 


37.77 




34 


56.0 


12.... 


21 


21.15 




9 


11 5 


20.. . 


58 


16.48 




11 


13.0 


13 


25 


30.11 




12 


49.1 


21.... 


1 


55.07 


+ 


12 


29.3 


14 


29 


39.26 




16 


2.1 


22.. . 


5 


33.55 




36 


10.7 


15.... 


33 


48.58 




18 


60.4 


23... 


9 


11.94 




59 


50.7 


16. . . . 


37 


58.02 




21 


14.0 


24.. 


12 


50.25 


+ 1 


23 


29.0 


17.... 
18.... 
19.... 


42 


7.68 




23 


12.9 


25.. . 


16 


28.51 




47 


5.1 


46 


17.21 




24 


46.9 


26. . . . 


20 


6.72 


+ 2 


10 


38.8 


£0 


26; 90 




25 


66.2 



The Suns Right Ascension and Declination. 



59 



THE SUN'S RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION — Continued. 


Date — 


Apparent 1 


Apparent 


Date — 


Apparent 1 


ilppafcflt 


1917 


Right A.scenslon. ( 


Declination. 


1917. 


Right Ascension. | 


Declination. 




H. M. 


3. 


o 


' 


" 




H. M. 


s. 


o 


/ 


'■ 


June 20 


5 54 


36.63 


+ 23 


26 


40.6 


Sept 15 


U 31 


34.84 


+ 3 


4 


15. S 


. 21 


58 


46.34 




27 


0.2 


10 


35 


10 17 


+ 2 


41 


7 2 


22 


6 2 


56 03 




26 


55 


17 


33 


45.50 




17 


55 9 


23 


7 


5 05 




26 


25 


18 


42 


20 82 


+ 1 


54 


41.8 


24 


11 


15 20 




25 


30 2 


19 . 


45 


50 15 




31 


25 3 


25 


15 


24 03 




24 


10 7 


20 


49 


31 52 




8 


6 8 


26 


19 


33 93 




22 


26 4 


21 


53 


6 93 


+ 


44 


46 6 


27 


23 


43 08 




20 


17 6 


22 


56 


42 42 




21 


25 1 


28 


27 


52 04 




17 


44 1 


23 


12 


18 00 


— 


1 


57.3 


29 


32 


80 




14 


46 3 


24 


3 


53 67 




25 


20.5 


30 


36 


9 33 




11 


23.9 


25 


7 


29.48 




48 


44 


July 1 


40 


17 62 




7 


37 2 


26 . 


11 


5 42 


— 1 


12 


7 4 


2 


44 


25 64 




3 


26 5 


27. .. 


14 


41 54 




35 


30 4 


3 


48 


33 38 


+ 22 


58 


51 5 


28 


18 


17.86 




58 


52.7 


4 


52 


40 80 




53 


52 5 


29 


21 


54 38 


— 2 


22 


14 


6. 


56 


47 93 




48 


29.6 


30 . 


25 


31 14 




45 


34 


6 


7 


54 71 




42 


42 9 


Oct. 1 


29 


8 16 


— 3 


8 


52 5 


7 


5 


1 15 




36 


32 7 


2 . 


32 


45 49 




32 


9 


8 


9 


7 24 




29 


58 7 


3.. 


36 


23 12 




55 


23.1 


9 


13 


12 96 




23 


1 5 


4 . 


40 


1 10 


— 4 


18 


34 6 


10 


17 


18 28 




15 


41 


5 . 


43 


39.43 




41 


43 2 


11 


21 


23.21 




7 


57 3 


6... 


47 


18 16 


— 5 


4 


48 3 


12. 


25 


27 70 


+ 21 


59 


50 9 


7.... 


50 


57 28 




27 


49 9 


13 


29 


31 76 




51 


21 6 


8. .. 


54 


36 S4 




50 


47 4 


14 


33 


35 37 




42 


29 9 


9 . 


58 


16 83 


— 6 


13 


40 4 


15. 


37 


38 51 




33 


15 9 


10 


13 1 


57 30 




36 


28 5 


16 


41 


41 16 




23 


39 8 


11.. 


5 


38.24 




59 


11 5 


17 


45 


43 30 




13 


41 8 


12 


9 


19 68 


— 7 


21 


49 


18 


49 


44 92 




3 


22 1 


13. 


13 


1 63 




44 


20 3 


19 


53 


46 01 


+ 20 


52 


41.2 


14. 


16 


44.12 


— 8 


6 


45 2 


20 


57 


46 53 




41 


39.1 


15 


20 


27.16 




29 


3 5 


21 


8 1 


46 51 




30 


16 1 


16 


24 


10.75 




51 


14 5 


22 


5 


45 92 




18 


32 5 


17 


27 


54.92 


— 9 


13 


17 9 


23 


9 


44 73 




6 


28 4 


18 


31 


39 69 




35 


13 4 


24 


13 


42 96 


+ 19 


54 


4 3 


19 . 


36 


25 05 




57 


5 


25 


17 


40 59 




41 


20.4 


20 . . 


39 


11 03 


—10 


18 


38 7 


26 


21 


37 60 




28 


16 9 


21 


42 


57 65 




40 


7 8 


27 


25 


34 00 




14 


54 2 


22 


46 


44 91 


—11 


1 


27 3 


28 


29 


29.78 




1 


12.4 


23 


50 


32 80 




22 


36 7 


29 


33 


24 95 


+ 18 


47 


11 9 


24 


54 


21 39 




43 


35 8 


30 


37 


19 48 




32 


53 


25 


58 


10.66 


—12 


4 


24.1 


31 


41 


13 40 




18 


15 9 


26 


14 2 


62 




25 


1 3 


Aug. 1 


45 


6.70 




3 


20 8 


27 


5 


51.30 




45 


27 


^ 2 


48 


59 38 


+ 17 


48 


8 1 


28 


9 


42.72 


—13 


5 


40.7 


3. 


52 


51 46 




32 


38 


29 . 


13 


34 88 




25 • 


42 1 


4.. 


56 


42 93 




16 


50 8 


30 


17 


27 81 




45 


30 9 


6 


9 


33 80 







46 9 
2B.2 


31 


21 


21 52 


—14 


5 


6 7 


6 


4 


24 10 


+ 16 


44 


Nov. 1 . 


25 


16 03 




24 


28 9 


7 


8 


13 80 




27 


49 2 


2 


29 


11 35 




43 


37 4 


8. 


12 


2 94 




10 


56 2 


3 


33 


7 48 


—15 


2 


31 5 


9 


15 


51 51 


+ 15 


53 


47 5 


4. . 


37 


4 45 




21 


11 1 


10 


19 


39.53 




36 


23.4 


5 


41 


2 26 




39 


35 7 


11 


23 


26 98 




18 


44 2 


6 . 


45 


92 




57 


44 7 


12 


27 


13 89 







50.2 


7 


49 


44 


—16 


15 


37 9 


13 


31 


24 


+ 14 


42 


41 6 


8 . 


53 


81 




33 


14 8 


14 


34 


46 00 




24 


19.0 


9 . 


57 


2 06 




50 


34 9 


15 


38 


31 35 




5 


42 6 


10. 


15 1 


4 16 


— 17 


7 


37 9 


16 


42 


16 10 


+ 13 


46 


52 6 


11. 


5 


7.13 




24 


23 4 


17 


46 


34 




27 


49 5 


12 


9 


10 95 




40 


51 


18 


49 


44 07 




8 


33 7 


13 . 


13 


15.65 




57 


1 


19. 


53 


27 29 


+ 12 


49 


5.4 


14 


17 


21.20 


—18 


12 


50 4 


20 


57 


10 02 




29 


24.8 


15 . 


21 


27.60 




28 


21 6 


21 


10 


52 26 




9 


32.5 


16. . 


25 


34 85 




43 


33 3 


22 


4 


34 02 


+ 11 


49 


28 8 


17 ... 


29 


42 91 




58 


24 9 


23 


8 


15 32 




29 


13 8 


18 


33 


51.83 


—19 


12 


66 1 


24 


11 


56 17 




8 


48 1 


19 . 


38 


1 56 




27 


6 6 


25. 


15 


36 58 


+ 10 


48 


11 9 


20... 


42 


12.08 




40 


56 


26. 


19 


16 56 




27 


25 6 


21 . 


46 


23 40 




54 


23.9 


27 


22 


56 12 




6 


29 4 


22... 


50 


35 51 


—20 


7 


29.9 


28 


26 


35 28 


+ 9 


45 


23 7 


23... 


54 


48.39 




20 


13 7 


29 


30 


14 06 




24 


8 7 


24 .. 


59 


2.03 




32 


35 1 


30 


33 


52.49 




2 


44 9 


25... 


16 3 


16 42 




44 


33 5 


31 


37 


30 57 


+ 8 


41 


12 4 


26.. 


7 


31.56 




56 


8 6 


Sept. 1 . . 
2. . . . 


41 


8 33 




19 


31 6 


27... 


11 


47.42 


—21 


7 


20.3 


44 


45 79 


+ 7 


57 


42 8 


28... 


16 


4.00 




18 


8 3 


3.. . 


48 


22 97 




35 


46 1 


29... 


20 


21.30 




28 


32.1 


4 .. 


51 


59 90 




13 


41 9 


30 .. 


24 


39.28 




38 


31.4 


5 . 


55 


36 59 


+ 6 


51 


30.0 


Dec. 1... 


28 


57.95 




48 


6.0 


6 


59 


13 07 




29 


12.5 


2 .. 


33 


17.27 




57 


15.5 


7 


11 2 


49.37 




6 


47 8 


3 ... 


37 


37.23 


—22 


5 


59.7 


8 


6 


25 47 


+ 5 


44 


16.9 


4... 


41 


57 82 




14 


18.3 


9 


10 


1.42 




21 


40.2 


5... 


46 


18 99 




22 


11.1 


10 '. '. 


13 


37.23 


+ 4 


58 


58.0 


6.. . 


50 


40.75 




29 


37.8 


11 


17 


12 94 




36 


10.4 


7 


55 


3.04 




36 


38.2 


12. 


20 


48.53 




13 


18.0 


8 


59 


25.86 




43 


11.8 


13. . . 


24 


24.02 


+ 3 


50 


21.2 


9... 


17 3 


49.18 




49 


18.8 


14 ... 


27 


59.46 




27 


20.2 


10 


8 


12.95 




54 


58.8 



60 



Earthquake Areas of the Earth. 





THE SUNS RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINA'TION — Continued. 


UAfE — 


Apparent 


Apparent 


Date— 


Apparent 


Apparent 


1917. 


Right Ascension. 


Declination. 


1917. 


Right Ascension. 


Declination. 


~ 


H. M. s. 


o / // 




H. M. s. 


o / // 


Dec 11 . 


17 12 37.16 


—23 11.5 


Dec. 22. . 


18 1 21.58 


—23 26 57 9 


12 . 


17 1 . 75 


4 56 9 


23... 


5 48.14 


26 35.1 


13 


21 26.72 


9 14 8 


24. . 


10 14.67 


25 44.1 


14 . 


25 52 00 


13 5 


25. 


14 41.12 


24 24 8 


15 


30 17.58 


16 27 3 


26 


19 7.49 


22 37 4 


16 


34 43 42 


19 21 7 


27 


23 33.73 


20 21 8 


17 . 


39 9.46 


21 48 2 


28 


27 59 82 


17 38.0 


18.. 


43 35.68 


23 46 6 


29 


32 25 72 


14 26 2 


19 


48 2.03 


25 16 7 


30 


36 51 41 


10 46 4 


20 . 


52 28 . 49 


23 18 7 


31 


18 41 16 86 


—23 6 38 8 


M---- 


56 55.03 


20 5 > . 4 









THE SUN'S SEMI-DIAMETER AND HORIZONTAL PARALLAX. 

(WASHINGTON — APPARENT NOON ) 





Sun's 


liUua tonal 




Sun's 


iquatorial 




Sun's 


Equatorial 


1917. 


Semi- 


Horizontal 


1917. 


Semi- 


Horlzontad 


1917. 


Semi- 


Horizontal 




Diameter 


Parallax. 




Diameter 


Parallax. 




Diameter. 


Parallax. 




/ tr 


// 




/ rr 


// 




/ // 


// 


Jan. 1 


16 17 87 


8.95 


May 11 


15 51.68 


8 71 


Sept. IS 


15 57 22 


8 76 


11 


17 67 


8 95 


21 


49.68 


8 69 


28 


59.97 


8.79 


21 


16 90 


8.94 


31 


48.12 


8 68 


Oct. 8 


16 2 70 


8.81 


31 


16 74 


8 93 


June 10 


46.90 


8.67 


18 


5.43 


8 84 


Feb. 10 


14 12 


8 92 


20 


46.05 


8.66 


28 


8 15 


8.86 


20 


12 07 


8.90 


30 


45.72 


8.66 


Nov. 7 


10 59 


8.88 


Mar. 2 


9 80 


8.88 


July 10 


45.78 


8.66 


17 


12.78 


8 90 


12 


7 27 


8 85 


20 


46 26 


8 66 


27 


14 73 


8.92 


22 


4 53 


8 83 


30 


47.25 


8.67 


Dec. 7 


16.18 


8 93 


April 1 


1 81 


8.80 


Aug. 9 


48.58 


8.68 


17 


17.20 


8.94 


11 


15 59 07 


8 78 


19 


50 28 


8 70 


27 


17 81 


8 95 


21 


56 37 


8 75 


29 


52.39 


8 72 


31 


16 17.88 


8 95 


May 1 


53.93 


8.73 


ISept. 8 


54.69 


8.74 









ASTRONOMICAL CONSTANTS. 

Mean solar parallax, 8".80. Nutation constant, 9".21. 

Aberration constant, 20". 47. Annual precession, 50" .2564+0" .000222 (t — 1900). 

ObUquity of the ecliptic, 23° 27' 8".26 — 0".4684 (t — 1900). 

Annual diminution of obliquity, 0".4684. 

Moon's equatorial horizontal parallax, 57' 2".63. 

Moon's mean distance from the earth (centre to centre), 238,862 miles. 

Sun's mean distance from the earth (astronomical unit), 92,897,400 miles. 

Velocity of light, 186,324 miles per second. 

Light travels unit of distance — viz. 92,897,400 miles in 498,580 seconds. 

Length of the Year — Tropical (equinox to equinox), 365.2421988 days. 
Sidereal or absolute revolution, 365.2563604 days. 
Anomalistic (from perihelion to perihelion), 365.2596413 days. 

Length of Day — Sidereal. 23 hours 56 minutes 4.091 seconds (mean solar time) . Mean solar, 24 hours 
3 minutes 56.555 seconds (sidereal time). 

Length of the Month — Synodlcal (from new moon to new moon), 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.8 
seconds. Tropical, 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes 4.7 seconds. Sidereal (absolute revolution), 27 days 7 hours 
43 minutes 11.5 seconds. Anomalistic (from perigee to perigee), 27 days 13 hours 18 minutes 33.1 seconds. 

Dimensions of the Earth — Equatorial radius, 3963.34 miles. Polar radius, 3949.99 miles. Eccen- 
tricity of the oblate spheroid, 0.0819981 



EARTHQUAKE AREAS OF THE EARTH. 

From Major de Moatessus de Balore's catalogue of 130,000 shocks, indicating with some 
scientific acciu'acyhow the symptoms of seismic activity are manifested over the earth's surface. 
The period of oliservaiiou includes generally the last fifty years ; but there is no reajon to suppose 
that a longer time would materially affect Uie proportionate numbers. 



Abka. 



Scandinavia 

British Isles 

France 

Spain and Portugal 

.Switzerland 

Italy 

Holland and North Ger- 
many 

Sicily 



Earth- 
quakes. 



646 
1.139 
2,793 
2,656 
3,895 
27,672 

2,326 
4,331 



Abba. 



Greece 

Russia 

Asia Minor 

India 

Japan 

Africa 

Atlantic Islands 

United States, Pacific 
C'oa.st . 



Earth- 
quakes. 

"10^06 

258 

4,451 

813 

27^2 

179 

1,704 

4.467 



Absa. 



United Stales, Atlantic 

Coast 

Mexico 

Ceutral America 

West Indies 

South America 

Java 

Australia and Tasmania. 
New Zealand 



EsTth- 
quakes. 



937 
5,586 
2,739 
2,561 
8,081 
2,153 
83 
1,923 



The most shaken countries of the world are Italy, Japan, Greece, South America (the Paciflc 
Coa3t),Java, Sicily, and Asia Minor. The lands most free trom these convulsions are Africa, Aus- 
tralia, Russia, Siberia, Scandinavia, and Canada. As a rule, where earthquakes are mostfrequent 
they are most severe. But to this general statement there are exceptions— Indian shocks, thongh 
less numerous, being often very disastrous. Loss of life In many cases depends, however, on density 
of population rather than on the intensity of the earth movement. Numerically, also, France has 
registered more seismic tremors than Spain and Portugal, but France in historic times has experienced 
no earthquake disaster approaching the havoc wrought by the one calamity at Lisbon. 



Humidity. 



61 



HUMIDITY. 

MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY. IN PERCENTAGES. 
From a table prepared by the United States Weather Bureau, showing the monthly and annual 
values of relative humidity at regular Weather Bureau stations In the United States, based upon 
observations made at 8 a. ft. and 8 p.m. respectively, 75th meridian time and covering a period ol 
about 14 years of record. 



SlATlONS. 



Abilene, Tex 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City. N. J... 

Baker, Ore 

Baltimore, Md 

Bismarck, N. Dak . , . 
Block Island, R. I.. . 

Boston. Mass 

Buffalo. N. Y 

Carson City, Nev. . . 

Charleston. S. C 

Charlotte, N. C 

Chattanooga. Tenn. . 

Cheyenne, Wyo 

Chicago, III 

Cincinnati, Ohio.. . . 
Cleveland. Ohio .... 

Denver. Col 

Des Moines, Iowa. . . 

Detroit, Mich 

Dodge City, If an. . . . 

Duluth, Minn 

Eastport. Me 

El Paso. Tex 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Galveston, Tex 

Grand Haven, Mich. . 

Hannibal. Mo 

Hatteras, N. C 

Helena. Mont 

Huron, S. Dak 

Indianapolis, Ind. ... 
Jacksonville, Fla. . . . , 
Kansas City. Mo. ... 

Key West, Fla , 

Knoxvllle, Tenn 

Lexington, Ky 

Little Rock, Ark 

Los Angeles. Cal 

Louisville. Ky , 

Marquette, Mich. . . . , 

Memphis, Tenn , 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Mobile, Ala 

Montgomery, Ala. . . . 

Nashville, Tenn 

New Haven, Ct 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Nonhfleld, Vt 

Oklahoma, Okla 

Omaha, Neb 

Oswego. N. y 

Parkereburg, W. Va. . 

Philadelphia. Pa 

Pierre. S. Dak 

Pittsburgh. Pa 

Portland, Me 

Portland, Ore 

Raleigh, N. C 

Rapid City, S. Dak.. . , 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City. Utah. 

San Diego, Cal 

San Francisco, Cal.. . , 

Sante Fe. N. M 

Savannah, Ga 

Shreveport, La 

Spokane. Wash 

Springfield. Ill 

Springfield, Mo 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo. Ohio 

Vlcksburg. Miss 

Walla Walla, Wash. .. 
Washington. D. C. . . . 
WlUlston, N. Dak. . . . 
Wilmington. N. C. . . . 
Yuma. ArlTi 



J:lD, 



69 

80 

76 

81 

75 

72 

74 

76 

72 

78 

64 

77 

72 

76 

52 

82 

77 

78 

o3 

7S 

83 

72 

80 

73 

47 

73 

84 

87 

75 

84 

68 

80 

78 

80 

75 

81 

76 

76 

77 

67 

72 

84 

74 

78 

83 

75 

75 

75 

79 

75 

79 

74 

76 

83 

81 

73 

74 

79 

75 

85 

73 

68 

9.2 

79 

74 

80 

74 

71 

80 

55 

77 

75 

84 

77 

77 

81 

82 

74 

86 

73 

80 

78 

45 



feb. 


.Mar 
59 


1 Anr. 
60 


Miiy 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 
64 


Nov. 
66 


Due. 
67 


Add 


68 


66 


63 


59 


61 


66 


64 


79 


77 


69 


71 


72 


72 


76 


77 


79 


81 


81 


76 


73 


70 


64 


64 


71 


76 


78 


74 


70 


73 


76 


72 


79 


80 


79 


83 


83 


84 


84 


82 


80 


SO 


80 


SI 


72 


66 


57 


58 


65 


44 


45 


52 


60 


70 


76 


61 


70 


67 


62 


67 


(i9 


70 


71 


74 


71 


72 


71 


70 


74 


73 


67 


64 


69 


65 


64 


65 


72 


76 


74 


70 


76 


79 


81 


86 


87 


87 


87 


83 


80 


78 


75 


81 


VI 


68 


66 


71 


72 


71 


75 


77 


75 


75 


71 


72 


78 


75 


69 


71 


72 


71 


71 


73 


72 


74 


76 


73 


58 


51 


43 


45 


40 


36 


38 


44 


53 


58 


68 


50 


77 


77 


74 


75 


79 


80 


81 


81 


78 


78 


78 


78 


70 


69 


62 


66 


72 


75 


78 


76 


71 


71 


72 


71 


72 


69 


64 


69 


74 


75 


77 


76 


74 


72 


75 


73 


59 


66 


55 


58 


58 


51 


52 


46 


50 


54 


62 


54 


81 


77 


72 


71 


73 


70 


71 


70 


72 


77 


80 


75 


74 


70 


62 


64 


65 


65 


67 


68 


69 


73 


75 


69 


77 


75 


70 


71 


71 


68 


70 


73 


72 


75 


75 


73 


55 


51 


48 


52 


46 


4!) 


44 


44 


46 


47 


50 


49 


VI) 


72 


66 


66 


70 


67 


70 


71 


69 


72 


78 


71 


81 


76 


70 


70 


70 


67 


70 


73 


75 


79 


81 


74 


72 


64 


61 


64 


63 


62 


6? 


63 


64 


66 


69 


67 


78 


75 


73 


69 


72 


71 


74 


74 


76 


79 


80 


75 


73 


74 


73 


79 


82 


83 


84 


82 


79 


77 


74 


78 


40 


30 


24 


23 


28 


45 


46 


47 


45 


44 


45 


39 


VI 


67 


66 


72 


73 


71 


72 


73 


71 


71 


70 


71 


85 


84 


84 


79 


SO 


77 


78 


77 


76 


8(1 


83 


80 


87 


81 


71 


72 


73 


70 


74 


76 


77 


80 


84 


78 


77 


68 


66 


70 


69 


69 


69 


72 


66 


72 


77 


71 


84 


82 


81 


83 


84 


84 


84 


81 


81 


82 


84 


S3 


m 


62 


52 


54 


52 


44 


42 


50 


56 


62 


66 


66 


79 


74 


65 


62 


67 


65 


66 


64 


69 


73 


77 


70 


V6 


71 


64 


66 


66 


63 


65 


67 


68 


72 


75 


69 


79 


76 


73 


74 


79 


SO 


81 


83 


81 


82 


82 


79 


VU 


72 


67 


68 


70 


68 


70 


69 


66 


69 


75 


70 


79 


76 


73 


74 


76 


74 


75 


78 


78 


79 


80 


77 


72 


70 


64 


70 


• 74 


77 


79 


77 


75 


74 


77 


74 


73 


70 


64 


67 


70 


71 


72 


69 


66 


72 


73 


70 


72 


70 


67 


71 


74 


74 


75 


75 


72 


72 


74 


73 


69 


72 


73 


76 


75 


76 


76 


73 


75 


66 


63 


72 


71 


68 


62 


65 


66 


65 


67 


67 


67 


70 


71 


68 


84 


80 


76 


73 


73 


72 


77 


78 


80 


82 


84 


79 


72 


70 


66 


68 


73 


74 


75 


73 


70 


72' 


74 


72 


78 


78 


73 


71 


73 


71 


73 


74 


76 


77 


77 


76 


83 


81 


78 


79 


79 


82 


84 


81 


78 


82 


84 


81 


74 


71 


66 


65 


70 


76 


79 


74 


71 


73 


76 


72 


73 


68 


64 


66 


69 


70 


72 


72 


69 


72 


75 


71 


73 


72 


71 


76 


77 


78 


79 


81 


78 


77 


75 


76 


80 


77 


75 


73 


77 


78 


79 


77 


74 


79 


79 


77 


74 


71 


68 


72 


72 


74 


75 


76 


74 


75 


74 


73 


76 


76 


70 


72 


75 


77 


S3 


84 


82 


80 


79 


78 


72 


68 


65 


72 


72 


69 


67 


68 


66 


70 


74 


70 


75 


72 


64 


64 


67 


66 


69 


67 


65 


70 


76 


69 


82 


77 


71 


73 


73 


73 


74 


74 


74 


77 


80 


76 


80 


78 


69 


70 


73 


72 


76 


77 


76 


78 


79 


76 


72 


68 


63 


68 


68 


70 


72 


74 


72 


72 


71 


70 


73 


71 


62 


58 


60 


56 


57 


57 


63 


70 


75 


65 


VV 


75 


68 


69 


70 


68 


69 


71 


69 


75 


76 


72 


74 


72 


69 


76 


76 


76 


SO 


81 


79 


77 


75 


76 


81 


74 


70 


69 


69 


64 


67 


72 


80 


85 


87 


76 


73 


71 


67 


71 


73 


77 


80 


78 


75 


75 


73 


74 


71 


68 


58 


56 


57 


51 


51 


51 


56 


64 


66 


60 


78 


81 


75 


77 


76 


79 


84 


82 


86 


82 


81 


80 


79 


76 


67 


69 


67 


67 


71 


75 


76 


77 


78 


73 


74 


71. 


65 


68 


68 


66 


68 


69 


66 


70 


74 


70 


80 


75 


66 


63 


68 


66 


70 


70 


71 


75 


80 


72 


70 


59 


49 


47 


38 


35 


36 


39 


52 


62 


72 


63 


72 


74 


74 


77 


78 


80 


SO 


78 


77 


70 


68 


75 


78 


78 


78 


79 


80 


84 


S6 


81 


79 


77 


80 


80 


55 


43 


35 


36 


31 


47 


47 


46 


47 


48 


55 


45 


77 


75 


73 


74 


79 


81 


84 


84 


SO 


79 


79 


78 


71 


68 


69 


73 


76 


75 


76 


74 


72 


74 


73 


73 


77 


68 


58 


56 


52 


44 


44 


54 


66 


80 


84 


64 


76 


73 


66 


69 


70 


67 


69 


71 


69 


74 


76 


71 


76 


71 


66 


71 


75 


73 


73 


72 


70 


72 


76 


73 


81 


79 


74 


75 


81 


82 


S3 


85 


81 


81 


83 


80 


80 


76 


69 


6!) 


70 


67 


70 


72 


73 


78 


80 


74 


72 


67 


69 


71 


76 


79 


81 


76 


71 


72 


72 


74 


79 


71 


61 


68 


53 


42 


43 


56 


68 


76 


85 


65 


71 


68 


63 


71 


73 


74 


77 


78 


76 


72 


72 


72 


80 


77 


63 


58 


64 


59 


57 


61 


70 


77 


79 


69 


79 


78 


76 


79 


81 


83 


84 


S3 


81 


79 


79 


80 


42 


41 


35 


36 


35 


43 


47 


44 


44 


42 


46 


42 



62 



The Geological Strata. 



THE GEOLOGICAL STRATA. 



The strata composing the earth' s crust is divided by most geologists into two great classes : 
1. Those generally attributed to the agency of water. 2. To the action of fire; which may be 
subdivided as follows: (a) Aqueous formations, stratified, rarely crystalline (sedimentary or 
fossiliferous rocks; metaraorphic or unfossiliferous). (b) Igneous formations, unstratified, 
crystalline (volcanic, as basalt; plutonic, as granite). 

The geological record is classified into five main divisions or periods : 1. The Archaean, life- 
less and da\vn of life. 2. The Palaeozoic (ancient life). 3. The Mesozoic (middle life). 4. The 
Cenozoic (recent life). 5. Quaternary, the age in which man' s first appearance is indicated. 



Pbbiods 


Eras. 


Series. 


Subdivisions. 


Quater- 
nary 
Period. 


Age of Primeval 
Man. 


Quaternary or 
Post Tertiary. 


3. Recent. 
2. Champlain. 
1. Glacial. 


Pleistocene. 


Cenozoic 
Period. 


Age of Mammals. 


Tertiary Era. 


4. Pliocene. 

3. Miocene. 
2. Oligocene. 

1. Eocene. 


English Crag. 

Upper Molasse. 

Rupelian and Tongrian of Belgium. 




Age of Reptile.s. 


Cretaceous 
Era. 


4. Laramie. 

3. Colorado. 

2. Dakota. 
1. Lower. 


Upper Chalk. 

Lower Chalk. Chalk Marl. 

Gault. 

Neocomian. Lower Greensand. 


Mesozoic 
Period. 


Jura- 
Trias. 


Jurassic 


3. Purbeck. 
2. Oolite. 
1. Lias. 


Wealden. 

Purbeck, Portland, Kimmerldge. 
Oxford Oolites. Lower or Bath Oolite. 
1. Lower Lias. 2. Marlstone. 3. Upper 
Lias. 




7.Trias- 
sic. 


4. Rhajtic. 
3. Upper. 
2. Middle. 
1. Lower. 


Kossen beds, Dachstein beds; Alpine 
Keuper. [Trias, In part. 
Muschelkalk Bunter-fSaudstein. 




Age of Coal 
Plant.s. 


Carboniferous 
Era. 


3. Permian. 

2. Carboniferous. 

1. Subcarbonifer- 
ous. 


2. Magnesian Limestone. 

1. Lower Red Sandstone, or Bothli- 

3. Upper Coal-Measures. [gendes. 

2. Lower Coal-Measures. 
1. Millstone Grit. 

Lower Carboniferous. Mountain Lime- 
stone. 


Palaeozoic 


Age of FLshes. 


Devonian Era. 


5. Catsltill and 
Chemung. 
4. Portage. 

3. Hamilton. 
2. Coniferous. 
1. Oriskany. 


Catskill Red Sandstone. " 
Chemung. 
Portage. 
Genesee Slate. 
Hamilton beds. 
MarcelUis Shale. 
Upper Helderberg, Scho- 
harie, Grit. 
Oriskany Sandstone. 


Old Red 
Sandstone. 


Period. 


Age of 
Invertebrates. 


Upper 
Silurian. 


3. Lower 

Helderberg. 

2. Onondaga, 
1. Niagara. 


Lower Helderberg. 

Onondaga Salt Group. Salina beds. 

Water Lime. 
3. Niagara Group. Wenlock Group. 
2. CJlintoii Group. 1 Upper 
1. Medina Sandstone. /Llandovery. 




Lower 
Silurian. 


3. Trenton. 

2. Chazy. 

1. Calciferous. 


3, Hudson Biver beds. Cincinnati 

Group. Lower Llandovery. 
2. Utica Shales. 
1. Trenton Limestone. Caradoc and 

Bala Limestone. 
Black River Limestone. 
Chazy Limestone. 

fOlciferous Sandrock. Magnesian 
, stone. 




Cambrian. 


Lower, Middle, and Upper Cambrian. 


Arc 


haean Period. 




Eoz 
Azo 


oic (dawn of life). 
Ic (lifeless). 


1. Laurentian. Huronian. 



Magnetic Declinations. 



63 



MAGNETIC DECLINATIONS. 



Oa Variation of Compass fob January, 1917 -With the Annual Change between 1910 

AND 1915 FOR THE PRINCIPAL PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

A plus f+) sign to the anuual change denotes that the declination is Increasing, and a minus (— ) 
sign the reverse. 



(Specially prepared for The World Almanac In the Office of 

Geodetic Survey.) 



the United States Coast and 



State 




2 


^1 


0-' 


to 
a 


i 

State 




2 


0) 




i 


OR 

Terri- 


Station. 


£■3 


o tc 


lb 


-J 


OR 

Terri- 


Station. 




•35 




«^ 


tory. 




C.1 


5.9 


rt 3 


3 


tory. 




a=« 


as 


«3 








< 


-2 >| 


a 
< 






< 






< 






o / 


o / 


O / 


t 






O / 


o / 


o ' 


/ 


AJa 


Montgomery. . 


32 22 


86 IS 


2 51 E 


+ 1 


Mo 


Jefferson City . . 


38 3J 


92 0£ 


7 47E 


+ 1 




Mobile 


30 42 


88 o; 


4 51E 


+ 1 




St. Louis 


38 3S 


90 If 


5 07 £ 







Huntsvllle. . . 


34 44 


86 35 


3 59E 







Kansas City . . . 


39 07 


94 3i 


9 24E 


+ 2 


Alaska . 


Sitka 


57 o; 


135 2( 


30 25 E 


+ 1 


Mon . . . 


Helena 


46 37 


112 05 


20 18 E 


+ 3 




Kodlak 


57 45 


152 24 


23 58 E 


—2 


Neb 


Lincoln 


40 4c 


96 42 


10 02 E 


+ 2 




St. Michael 


G3 2£ 


1G2 0! 


21 08 E 


—4 




Omaha 


41 16 


95 5S 


9 52E 


+ 2 




Dutch Harbor. . 


53 53 106 32 


16 36 E 


—4 


Nevada. 


Carson City . . . 


39 IC 


119 46 


17 47 E 


+ 3 




KJska 


51 59 182 28 
.34 34 112 30 


7 07E 
14 49 E 


—5 

+ 3 


N. H... 


Eureka 

Concord 


39 31 
43 12 


115 58 
71 29 


17 47 E 
14 17W 


+ 3 


Aria.... 


Prescott 


+ 6 




Yuma 


32 44 114 37 
31 20 110 56 


14 55 E 
13 39 E 


+ 4 
+ 4 


N. J . . . 
N. Mes. 


Trenton 

Santa Fe 


40 13 
35 41 


74 44 
105 57 


9 09W 
13 31 E 


+ 5 




Nogalea 


+ 3 


Ark 


Little Rock 


34 44 92 16 


7 02E 


+ 2 


N. Y... 


Albany 


42 4C 


73 45 


12 15W 


-l-B 


Cat 


Sacramento .... 


38 34 121 30 


17 27 E 


+ 3 




New York 


40 43 


74 OC 


10 05W 


+ 5 




San Francisco.. 


37 48 


122 25 


18 12 E 


+ 3 




Ithaca 


42 27 


76 2£ 


8 22W 


-t-5 




Los Angeles. . . 


34 04 


118 15 


15 58 E 


+ 3 




Buffalo 


42 55 


78 54 


7 08W 


+ 4 




San Diego 


32 43 


117 12 


15 30 E 


+ 3 


N. C... 


Raleigh 

Wilmington 


35 47 


78 3f 


2 59W 


+ 3 


Col 


Denver 


39 45 


105 06 14 48 E 


+ 3 




34 13 


77 56 


2 46W 


+ 3 


Conn. . 


Hartford 


41 46 


72 40 11 SOW 


+ 6 


N. Dak. 


Bismarck 


46 48 


100 47 


15 13 E 


+ 2 




New Haven. . . . 


41 18 


72 55 11 19W 


+ 6 




Pembina 


48 58 


97 14 


11 19 E 


+ 1 


Del 


Dover 


39 CO 


75 31 


7 47W 


+ 5 


Ohio... 


Columbus 


10 00 


83 00 


1 29W 


+ 3 


DIst. of 














Cleveland 


41 30 


81 42 


4 02W 


+ 3 


Col .. 


Washington 


38 53 


77 00 


5 55W 


+ 4 




Cincinnati 


39 08 


84 25 


59E 


-2 


Florida. 


Tallahassee .... 


30 23 


84 17 


2 20E 





Okia .. 


Atoka 


34 24 


96 09 


8 50E 


+ 2 




Jacksonville. . 


30 20 


81 39 


57E 


— 1 




Guthrie 


35 53 


97 25 


10 03 E 


+ 3 




Key West 


24 33 


81 48 


2 30E 





Oregon. 


Portland 


45 31 


122 41 


23 33 E 


+ 3 


Georgia 


Atlanta 


33 44 


84 22 


1 35 E 


— 1 


Pa. ... 


Harrlsburg .... 


40 16 


76 53 


7 33W 


+ 5 




Savannah 


32 05 


81 05 


18E 


—2 




Philadelphia... 


39 58 


75 10 


8 42W 




Idaho. . 


Boise.. 

Springfield .... 


13 37 


116 12 


19 51 E 


+ 3 




Allegheny 


40 29 


80 01 


4 45W 


+ 4 


lUInols. 


39 50 


89 39 


4 13 E 





R. 1... 


Providence . . . 


41 50 


71 24 


13 18W 


+ 6 




Chicago 


41 54 


87 37 


3 34E 


— 1 


S. C... 


Columbia 


34 00 


81 02 


25W 


+ 2 


Indiana 


Indianapolis . . . 


!9 47 


86 08 


58 E 


— 1 




Charleston. . . . 


32 47 


79 56 


1 15W 


+ 2 




Fort Wayne. .. 


41 03 


85 03 


15W 


+ 2 


S. Dak. 


Pierre 


44 22 


100 22 


13 09 E 


+ 2 


Iowa... 


Des Moines.. . . 


41 36 


93 36 


8 04E 


+ 1 




Yankton 


42 53 


97 25 


11 20 E 


+ 2 




Keokuk 


40 23 


91 23 


6 04E 





Tenn... 


Nashville 


36 09 


86 48 


3 35E 





Kansas. 


Topeka 


39 02 


95 43 


9 34 E 


+ 2 




Knoxvllle 


35 58 


83 55 


27W 


-1-1 




Ness City 


38 28 


99 54 


11 43 E 


+ 2 




Memphis 


35 08 


90 03 


5 36E 


+ 1 


Ky 


Lexington. . . . 


38 04 


84 30 


IDE 


— 1 


Tex 


Austin 


30 17 


97 44 


8 58E 


+ 3 




Paducah 


37 05 


88 37 


4 24E 







San Antonio ; . . 


29 27 


98 28 


9 34E 


-1-3 




Louisville. . . . 


38 15 


85 46 


1 02 E 


— 1 




Houston 


29 47 


95 20 


8 27 E 


+ 3 


La 


Baton Rouge. . . 


30 27 


91 11 


6 16E 


+ 2 




Galveston 


29 18 


94 47 


8 06 E 


+ 3 




New Orleans.. . 


30 00 


90 05 


5 47E 


+ 2 




El Paso 


31 46 


106 29 


12 49 E 


+ 4 




Shreveport .... 


32 30 


93 45 


7 32 E 


+ 2 


Utah... 


Salt Lake 


10 46 


111 54 


17 24 E 


-1-3 


Maine. . 


Bangor 


44 48 


68 48 


18 31W 


+ 6 




Ogden 


11 13 


112 00 


18 13 E 


+ 3 




Portland 


43 39 


70 17 


16 OIW 


+ 6 


Vt. ... 


Montpeller 


44 15 


72 32 


15 22 W 


+ « 




Eastport 


44 54 


66 59 


20 43W 


+ 6 




Burlington 


14 28 


73 12 


13 54W 


-(-« 


Md 


Annapolis 


38 59 


76 29 


6 35W 


+ 4 


Va 


Richmond 


37 32 


77 26 


4 52W 


+ 4 




Baltimore 


39 16 


76 35 


6 47W 


+ 4 




^Jorfolk 


36 52 


76 17 


5 26W 


-1-4 


Mass.. . 


Boston 


42 22 


71 04 


14 02W 


+ 6 




Lynchburg .... 


37 25 


79 09 


3 31W 


+ 3 




Plttsfleld 


42 27 


73 17 


12 27W 


+ 6 


Wash . . 


31ympla 


47 02 


122 54 


23 32 E 


-t-3 


Mich... 


Lansing 


42 44 


84 32 


45W 


+ 2 




Walla WaUa . . . 


46 04 


118 21 


22 05 E 


+ 3 




Detroit 


42 21 


83 03 


1 58W 


+ 3 


W. Va.. 


Charleston 


38 21 


81 38 


2 42W 


-f-3 




Marquette 


46 33 


87 22 


1 49 E 


—2 




Wheeling 


40 03 


80 44 


2 05W 


-(-3 


Minn . . 


St. Paul 


44 58 93 05 


8 42E 





Wis... 


Madison 


43 04 


89 25 


4 35 E 


— 1 




Duluth 


46 46 92 04 


8 34 E 


— 1 




Milwaukee. . . . 


43 04 


87 53 


3 02E 


— 1 


Miss... 


Jackson 


32 19 90 12 


6 21E 


+ 2 




L,a Crosse 


43 50 


91 14 


5 24E 







Oxford 


34 22 89 33 5 43 El 


+ 1 


Wyo . . . 


Cheyenne 


41 08 


104 49 


15 22 E 


-1-3 




EXTREME VALUES. 


=i 


Maine. . |N. E. Corner. . . | 


... .! 122 lOWI+6 II Alaska.lN.E. Corner... 1 | | 40 30 E| 




DEPENDENCIES. 




Cuba... 


Havana 


23 08 


82 22 


3 04E 





Haw'n I 


lonolulu 1 


1 18 157 52il0 55Ei+2 




Santiago 


20 00 


75 50 


53E- 


—3 


Islands. I 


lUo 


9 44 


.55 05 


9 13E 


+?i 


Porto 


San Juan 


18 29 


66 07 


3 04W 


+8 


Philip- 












aico. 


Ponce 


17 59 


66 40 


2 47W 


+ 8 


pines. I 


daalla, 1 


4 35 


120 58 


£3£ 






64 



Latitude and Longitude Table. 



LATITUDE- AND LONGITUDE TABLE. 

(LiONQiTODE Reckoned from Greenwich.) 
Specially prepared for Thk World Aliiamac. 



o t It 

Acapulco, Mex 16 50 56 

Adelaide, S. Australia*..34 55 38 

Aden, Arabia .' 12 46 40 

Albany, N. Y. *_ 42 39 13 

Algiers* 36 4760 

Allegheny, Pa. ♦ 40 27 42 

Alexandria, l^gypt- 31 11 43 

Amherst, Mass. *. 42 22 17 

Ann Arbor, Mich. *. . . .42 10 48 

Annapolis, Md. * 38 58 54 

Antipodes Island 4942 

Apia, Samoa... 13 48 56 

Archangel, Russia 64 32 6 

Armagh, Ireland* 54 21 13 

Asplnvvall,S.A ,I.t 9 22 9 

Astoria, Ore 4611 19 

Athens, Greece* 37 58 21 

Attn Island, Alaska ....52 56 1 

Bahia, Brazil 13 37 

Baltimore, Md 3917 48 

Batavla, Java 6 7 40 

Belize, Honduras 17 29 20 

Belle Isle, Lt 5153 

Berlin, Prussia* 52 3017 

Bermuda, Dock Yard.. 32 19 24 

Bombay* „ 18 53 45 

Bonn, Germany* 50 43 45 

Bordeaux, France* 44 60 17 

Boston State House .. 42 21 28 
Bridgetown, Barbadoes.l3 5 42 

Brussels, Belgium* 50 51 10 

Buenos Ayres 34 36 30 

Calcutta 22 S3 25 

Callao, Peru,Lt 12 4 3 

Cambridge, Eng.* 52 12 52 

Cambridge, Mass. * 42 22 48 

Canton, China 23 6 35 

Cape Cod, Mass. . Lt 42 2 21 

C. Hatteras,N. C. ,Jjt....351614 

Cape Henry, Va. ,Lt 36 55 29 

Cape Horn , , 55 58 41 

Cape May, N. J. , I..t 38 55 56 

Cape Good Hope, I.,t... 34 21 12 
Cape Prince of Vvales 65 33 30 

Charleston, 9. C.,Lt 32 41 44 

Charlottetown, P. K I.. .46 13 55 

Cherbourg, France 49 38 54 

Chicago, 111.* 4150 1 

Christiania, Nor.* 69 64 44 

Cincinnati, O.* 39 8 19 

Clinton, N. Y.* 43 3 17 

Colombo, Ceylon 6 56 40 

Constantinople 41 30 

Copenhagen* 55 41 13 

DemeraraCGeo'townLt) 6 49 20 

Denver, Col. * 39 40 36 

Dublin, Ireland* 53 23 13 

Kdlnburgh* 55 57 23 

Esquimault, B. C. ,J.t. . 48 26 40 
Father Point, Que. ,Lt 48 31 25 

Fayal, Azores 38 32 9 

Fernandina, Fla 30 40 18 

Florence, Italy* 43 46 4 

Funchal, Madeira 32 38 4 

Galveston, Tex 29 1817 

Geneva, .Switzerland* 46 11 59 

Gla-sgow, Scotland* 55 52 43 

Gibraltar 36 6 30 

Greenwich, Eng.* 5128 38 

Halifax, N.S 44 39 38 

Hamburg, Ger. * 53 33 7 

Hanover, N. H.* 43 42 15 

Havana, Cuba 23 9 21 

Hobart Town. Ta.s 42 53 25 

Hongkong, China* 22 IS 12 

Honolnln (Reef Lt. ) 21 17 55 

Hfey West, Fla. , Lt 24 32 58 

Kingston, Jamaica 17 57 41 

Lisbon, Portugal* 38 42 31 

Liverpool* 53 24 5 





H )if. S. 


N. 


6 39 41. 8 W. 


H. 


9 14 20. 3 E. 


N. 


2 59 65. 8 E. 


N. 


4 55 6.8W. 


N. 


01211.4E. 


N. 


5 20 2.9 W. 


N. 


1 59 26. 7 E. 


N. 


4 50 4.7W. 


N. 


6 34 55. 2 W, 


N. 


5 5 56.5W. 


S. 


11 64 52. 3 E 


S. 


11 26 59. 7 E. 


N. 


2 4214.0E. 


N. 


26 35. 4 W. 


N. 


5 19 39 W. 


N. 


8 15 18. 8 W. 


IV. 


1 34 54 9 E. 


N. 


11 32 49 6 E. 


S. 


2 34 8.4W. 


N. 


5 6 26.0W. 


S. 


7 713.7E. 


JM. 


5 52 46. 7 W. 


N. 


3 41 29 5 W. 


N. 


63 34. 9 E. 


N. 


4 19 18. 3 W 


N. 


4 61 15. 7 E. 


N. 


28 23.3E. 


N. 


2 5.4W. 


N. 


4 44 15. 3 W. 


N. 


3 58 29.3 W. 


N. 


17 28 6 E. 


a, 


3 53 28 9 W. 


N. 


6 53 20 7 E. 


s. 


6 9 3 W. 


N. 


22 7 E. 


N. 


4 44 31 \V. 


N. 


7 33 46.3 E. 


N. 


4 40 14. 6 W. 


N. 


6 2 6.0W. 


N. 


5 4 2.0W. 


S. 


4 29 5 W. 


N. 


4 69 50. 7 W 


s. 


1 13 58 E. 


N. 


11 11 66. 8 W. 


N. 


6 19 32 W. 


N. 


4 12 27. 6 W. 


N. 


6 32 6 W. 


N. 


5 50 26 7 W. 


N. 


42 63 8 E. 


N. 


5 37 41. 3 W. 


N. 


5 1 37. 4 W. 


N. 


5 19 21 9 hZ. 


N. 


1 56 3 7 E. 


N. 


50 18. 8 E. 


N, 


3 52 46. W. 


N. 


6 59 47 6 W. 


N. 


25 21. 1 W. 


N. 


12 43. 1 W. 


N. 


8 13 47. 1 AY. 


N. 


433 49.2 W. 


N, 


16416.0\V. 


N. 


5 25 61. 1 W 


N. 


45 1 5 E. 


N. 


I 735.6 W. 


N. 


619 9.7W. 


N. 


24 36. 8 E. 


-V. 


17 10. 6 W. 


N. 


21 23 3 W. 


N. 


0.0 — 


N. 


4 14 21. 1 W. 


N. 


39 53. 8 E. 


N. 


4 49 7.9W. 


N. 


529 26.0W. 


S. 


9 49 20. 5 E. 


N. 


7 36 41. 9 E. 


N. 


10 31 28. OW. 


N. 


5 2712.3 W. 


N. 


5, 710.7W. 


N. 


36 44. 7 W. 


N. 


01217.3 W. 



O t If 

Madison, Wis.* 43 4 37 N. 

Madras,Iudia* 13 4 8 N. 

Madrid, Spain* 40 24 30 N. 

Manila, Lt 14 35 26 N. 

Marseilles* 43 18 18 N. 

Melbourne, Vic* 37 49 53 S. 

Mexico (city)* 19 26 2 N. 

Monrovia, Liberia 6 19 5 N. 

Montreal, Que.* 46 3017 N. 

Moscow* 55 45 20 N. 

Mount Hamilton, Cal. » 37 20 24 N. 

Munich* 48 8 45 N. 

Nain, Labrador 66 32 51 N. 

Naples* 40 61 46 N. 

Nashville, Tenn.* 36 8 54 N. 

Nassau, Bahamas 25 6 37 N. 

Natal, S. Africa* 29 50 47 S. 

New Haven, Ct.* 41 18 36 N. 

New Orleans (Mint)... . 29 57 46 N. 
New York (Col. Univ,)* 40 45 23 N. 

Nice, France* 43 43 17 N. 

Norfolk, Va. (Navy Yd) 36 49 33 N. 

North Cape 71 11 ON. 

Northfleld, Miim.*. .. 44 27 42 N. 

Odessa, Russia* 46 28 37 N. 

Ogden, Utah* 4113 8 N. 

Oxford, Eng. (Univ.)* 51 46 34 N. 

Panama 8 67 6 N. 

Para, Brazil 1 26 59 S. 

Paris, France" 48 60 12 N. 

Pensacola, Fla. , Lt .. .. 30 20 47 N. 
Pernambuco, Brazil, Lt 8 3 22S. 

Petrograd* 59 66 30 N. 

Port au Prince, Hayti 18 33 54 N. 

Philadelphia, Pa. * 39 57 7 K. 

Point Barrowt 7127 ON. 

Portland, Me 43 39 28 N. 

Port Louis, Mauritius 20 8 46 S. 
Port Said, Egypt, Lt.... 31 15 45 N. 
Port Spain, Trmidad... 10 38 39 N. 
P. Stanley, Falkland Is. 61 41 10 S. 

Prague, Bohemia* 50 519N. 

Princeton, N. J.* 40 20.5^N. 

Providence, R.I.* 41 49 46 N. 

Quebec, Que. * 46 47 59 N. 

Richmond, Va 37 32 16 N. 

Rio de Janeiro* 22 54 24 S. 

Rochester, N. Y. * 43 917 N. 

Rome, Italy* 41 53 54 N. 

Saigon, Cochin-China* 10 46 47 N. 

SanDiego,Cal 32 43 6 N. 

Sandy Hook,N. J. ,Lt. 4027 40 N. 
San Francisco, Cal.*.... 37 47 28 N. 
San Juan de Porto Rico. 18 28 56 N. 

Santiago de Cuba 20 16 N. 

Savannah. Ga 32 4 52 N. 

Seattle, Wash 47 36 54 N. 

Shanghai, China 31 14 42 N. 

Singapore 11711 N. 

St. Helena Island 16 66 S. 

St. John's, Newfo' laud 47 34 2 N. 

St. Louis, Mo. * 38 38 4 N. 

Stockholm* 59 20 33 N. 

Suakim,E. Alrica.Lt 19 7 ON. 

Sydney. N. S. W.* 33 51 41 S. 

Tokio, Japan* 35 39 17 N. 

Tunis (Goletta Lt. ) 36 48 36 N. 

Utrecht, Netherlands*.. 52 6 10 N. 

Valparaiso, Chile 33 1 53 S. 

Venice, Italy* 45 26 10 N. 

Veracruz. Mex. ,Lt.... 19 12 29 N. 

Victoria, B. C. , Lt 48 25 26 N. 

Vienna, Austria* 48 13 55 N. 

Warsaw, Poland* 52 13 6 N. 

Washington, D.C.* 38 65 16 N. 

Wellington, N.Z.* 41 18 1 S. 

West Point, N.Y'.* 41 23 22 N 

Wllliamstown, Mass. * 42 42 30 N. 

Yokohama. Japan 35 26 24 N. 

Zanzibar (E. Consulate) 6 9 43 S. 



H. M. 8. 

5 57 37.8 W. 

5 20 59. 4 E. 
014 45. 4 W. 
8 3 50. E. 

21 34. 6 E. 

9 39 54. 1 E. 

6 36 26. 7 W. 
43 15. 7 W. 
4 54 18. 7 W. 
2 30 17. 2 E. 
8 6 34. 1 W. 
46 26. 1 E. 

4 6 42.7W. 
067 1.8 E 

5 47 12. W. 

5 9 27.8W. 
2 4 1.2E. 
4 61 42. 1 W. 

6 13 9 W. 
4 56 53. 6 W. 
2912.2E. 

6 51L0W. 
142 40.0E. 
612 35.8 W. 
2 3 2.2E. 

7 27 59.6 W. 
O 5 0. 4 W. 
518 8.8 W. 
314 O.OW. 
9 20.9E. 

6 49 14. 1 W. 
2 19 27. 8 W. 

2 1 13. 6 E. 

4 49 28.0\\^ 

5 038.6W. 
10 25 O.OW. 

4 41 1.2W. 

3 49 57. 7 E. 

2 915.6E. 

4 6 2.5 W. 

3 5126.0W. 
67 40. 3 E. 

4 58 37. 5 W. 
4 46 37. 5 W. 

4 44 52. 6 W. 

5 9 44.0M'. 

2 52 41. 4 W. 
5 10 21. 8 W. 
49 56 6 E. 

7 6 48.7E. 

7 48 38. 7 W. 
4 66 6 W. 

8 9 42.8W. 

4 24 29 8 W. 

5 3 22.0W. 

5 24 21. 7 M'. 
8 919.9W. 
8 6 55.7E. 

6 55 26. E. 
22 52 W. 

3 30 43 6 W. 
6 49 1 W. 
1 12 14. E. 
2 29 16 6 E. 

10 4 49 5 E. 
918 58.0E. 
41 14. 5 E. 
20 31. 7 E. 
446 34.8 W. 

49 22. 1 E. 
6 24 31. 8 W. 
8 13 33. 8 W. 

1 5 21.5E. 
124 7.4E. 
5 8 15.7 W. 

1139 6.5E. 

4 55 50. 6 W. 
4 52 50. 4 W. 
9 18 36. 9 E. 

2 36 44. 7 E, 



• Observatories. 



Lt. denotes a lighthouse. 



t Highest latitude in U. S. territory. 



Rules for Foretelling the Weather. 



65 



THERMOMETERS. 

COMPABATIVB SCALES, 



Reaii- 


Centi- 


Ynhr- 




mor, 


grade, 


eulieit, 




80». 


lOU-'. 


21 i". 


Watkr Boils 

AT S K A- 

Levkl. 


76 


95 


203 


72 


90 


194 




68 


85 


185 




63.1 


78.9 


174 




60 


75 


167 


Alcohol Bolls. 


56 


70 


1.58 




52 


65 


149 




48 


60 


140 




44 


55 


131 




42 2 


52.8 


127 


Tallow Melts. 


40 


50 


122 




36 


45 


UH 




33.8 


42 2 


108 




32 


40 


104 




29 3 


36.7 


98 


Blood Heat. 


28 


3,-> 


95 




25.8 


32.2 


90 




24 


30 


86 




21.3 


26.7 


80 




20 


25 


77 




16 


20 


68 




12.4 


16.3 


60 


Temperate. 


10.2 


12.8 


55 




8 


10 


50 




5.8 


7.2 


45 




4 


5 


41 




1.3 


1.7 


35 










32 


Watkr 


— 0.9 


-1.1 


30 


Frkkzes. 


— 4 


- 6 


23 




- 5.8 


- 6.7 


20 




- 8 


-10 


14 




-9.8 


-12.2 


10 




-12 


-15 


5 




—14.2 


-17.8 





Zero Fahr. 


—16 


-20 


- 4 




-20 


-25 


-13 




-24 


-30 


-22 




-28 


-35 


-31 




-32 


-40 


-40 





RULES FOR FORETELLING THE WEATHER. 

Adaptkd fob Usk with Ankboid Babometkbs. 

A RISING BABOMKTKK. 

A RATTD rise indicates unsettled weatlier. 

A gradual rise indicates settled weather, 

A rise with dry air and cold increasing In Summer indicates 
wind from the northward ; and i£ rain has fallen, better weather 
may be expected. . ^, , , , 

A rise with moist air and a low temperature mdicates wind and 
rain from the northward. 

A rise with southerly winds Indicates fine weather. 

A STK-^DY BAROMETER. 

With dry air and seasonable temperature iudicatesacoutinuance 
of Tery flue weather. 

A FALLING BAROMETER. 

A rapid fall indicates stormy weather. 

A rapid fall with westerly wind indicates stormy weather from 
the northward. . ^ , ,, 

A fall with a northerly wind indicates storm, with ram aud hail 
in Summer, and snow in Winter. 

A fall with increased moisture in the air, aud heat increasing, 
indicates wind and rain from the southward. 

A fall with dry air and cold increasing in Winterindlcatessnow. 

A fall after very calm aud warm weather indicates raiu with 
squally weather. . . , j, , 

The barometer rises for northerly winds, including from north- 
west by north to the eastward for dry, or less wet weather, lor less 
wind, or for more than one of these changes, e.xcept on a few 
occasions, when rain, haU, or snow comes from the northward with 
.strong wind. , . , „, t ^^ 

The barometer falls for southerly wind. Including from south- 
east by .south to the westward, for wet weather, for stronger wind 
or for more than one of these changes, except on a few occasions, 
when moderate wind with rain or snow, comes from the north- 

The above printed rules are in use by the Seawanhaka C!orln- 
thian Yacht Club of New York. 



Duration of Diffebknt Kinds of Weathke in the Several 
Storms— Vicinity of New York. 



Criticai. Winds, 

South to Southwest- 

South to Southeast 

East to Northeast 



clear 
Hours. 



9 
14 
20 



Cloudy 
Houts. 



8 
13.4 
17.6 



Rain 

Hems. 



8.3 
15.6 
31 



Clearing 
Hours. 



14 

15.4 

20.6 



WEATHEB WISDOM. 
SUNSET COL.ORS.— A gray, lowering sunset, or one where the sky is green or yellowish- 
green, indicates raiu. A red sunrise, with clouds lowering later in the morning, also indicates rain. 

HALO (.SUN DOGS).— By halo we mean the large circles, or parts of circles, about the sun 
or moon. A halo occurring after fine weather indicates a storm. 

CORONA.— By this term we mean the .small colored circles frequently seen around the sun or 
moon, A corona growing smaller indicates rain; growing larger, fair weather. 

RAINBOWS.— A morning rainbow Is regarded as a sign of rain; an evening rainbow of fair 
weather. 

.SKY COL.OR.— A deep-blue color of the sky, even when seen through clouds, Indicates fair 
weather; a growing whiteness, an approaching storm. 

FOGS.— Fogs indicate settled weather. A morning fog usually breaks away before noon. 

VISIBIIilTY.- Unusual clearness of the atmosphere, unusual brightness or twinkling of the 
stars, indicate rain. 

FROST.— The first frost and last frost are usually preceded by a temperature very much above 
the mean. 

OBJECTS VISIBLE AT SEA- LEVEL KT CLEAR WEATHER. 

The following table shows the distance at sea-level at which objects are visible at certain elevations. 



Elevation — I'EET. 


Miles. 


Elicvatiox— Fkkt. 


Miles. 


Elevattox — Kkkt. 


Miles.N 


1 , 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 _ .. 


1.31 
2.96 
3.24 
3 49 
3.73 
3.96 
4.18 
5.92 
6.61 


30 

35 

40 

45 

50 

60 


7.25 

7.83 

8.37 

8 87 

9.35 

10.25 

11.07 

11.83 


90 

100 

150 

200 

300 


12.25 
13.23 
16.22 
18.72 
22.91 


500 

1,000 „ 

1 mile :..: 


29.58 


10......".!..!.'.! 


70 


3a41 


20.„ 


80 


96.10 


fc:i.:z:vz:! !!!!!!! 







66 



Normal Temperature and Rainfall. 



NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL. 

Table 8ho\ving the Nobmai. Temperature for Jancaby akd July, and the Normal 

-Annual Pkkcipitation at Weathisk Bitheau Stations in each op thk Statbs and 

Tebritoribs, also the Highest and I^owest Temperaturics ever Keported from 

EACH OF SAID Stations, to January 1, 1916. 

(Prepared in the office of the Chief of the Wemher Bureau, U. 8. Department of Agriculture, for 

The World Almanac for 1917. ) 



a 

z 
< 

cs 
K 
H 

■<; 

H 



Ala... 

Ariz . 
Ark... 



Cal. 



Col. .. 

Conn. 
I). C 



Florida.. 

Georgia. 

Idaho.... 

Illinois.. 
Indiana, 
lovea 



Kansas 



Ky.. 

La. 



ninJne .... 

3Id 

iUass 



Mich.. 



Minn.. 
MlsM.. 
Mo ... 

IHont.. 



Stations. 



Birmingham 

Mobile 

Montgomery 

rFlagsuitf 

< Phoenix 

LYunia 

f Fort Smith 

I Little Iloclc 

f Fresno 

I IjOs Angeles . . 

' lied iilull 

I Sacramento . .. 

San J)iego 

I. San Francisco . 

( Denver 

\ G land Junction. 
(.Pueblo 

New Haven 

Wuslilngton .. .. 

rjncksouville 

I Jupiter 

i Key West 

1 I'ensacola 

l.'1'ampa 

Atlanta 

.Augusta 

Savannali 

f IJoise 

IPocatello 

(Cairo 

Chicago 

Ispringfteld 

Indianapolis 

f Ues Moines .... 

i Dubuque 

(Keoliuk 

(Concordia. 

< Dodge 

(.Wichita 

Ijouisville 

fNew Orleans ... 
Ishreveport 

[Eastport 

1 Portland 

iialtimore. 

Boston 

Alpena 

Detroit 

Marquette .. .. 

Port Huron 
(Duluth 

< Moorhead 

(St. Paul 

Viclisburg . . . 
( Kansas City. .. 

\ St. Louis 

I Springfield 

5 Havre 

} Helena 



TeMPERATURI' 



Mean 



46 
60 
48 
27 
60 
55 
3« 
41 
45 
64 
45 
46 
54 
50 
29 
25 
29 
27 
33 
54 
64 
69 
62 
60 
4-2 
46 
50 
29 
25 
35 
24 
26 
28 
20 
18 
24 
24 
27 
30 
34 
63 
46 
20 
22 
33 
27 
19 
24 
16 
22 
lO 
3 
12 
4 

26 
31 
31 
14 
20 



K.\-- 
trenies 



80 
SO 
81 
65 
90 
91 
81 
81 
82 


82 

2 
67 
57 
72 
79 
74 
72 
1 7 
81 
81 
84 
.SI 
81 

8 
80 
SO 
73 
71 
79 
72 
76 
76 
76 
75 
77 
78 
78 
79 
79 
81 
82 
60 
68 

i 4 

71 

66 
72 
65 
69 
66 
69 
72 
SO 
78 
79 
76 
6s 
67 



104 
102 
107 

93 
119 
12d 
108 
106 
115 
109 
115 
J 10 
110 
101 
105 
104 
104 
100 
104 
104 

96 
100 
103 

96 
100 
105 
105 
111 
J 02 
106 
103 
107 
106 
109 
106 
1U8 
110 
108 
10' 
10 
102 
110 

93 
103 
104 
104 
101 
101 
108 
101 

99 
102 
104 
101 
106 
107 
106 
108 
103 



-10 

- 1 

- 6 
-22 

12 

22 

-15 

-12 

17 

28 

18 

19 

25 

29 

-29 

-19 

-27 

14 

-15 

10 

24 

41 

7 

19 

- 8 
3 
8 

-28 



ao 






PJ 



49 5 

62.0 

51.2 

23.0 

7.9 

3.1 

41.3 

49.9 

9.7 

15 6 

i5. 

20.1 

10.0 

22.3 

14 

8.3 

12.0 

47.2 

43.5 

53 2 

60.2 

38.7 

56.2 

53 1 

49 4 

47.9 

50.3 

12.7 

-20 12.9 

-16 41.7 

-23 33. 3 

24,37.0 

25 41. 5 

30 32. 4 

32 34. 

-27 35. 1 

25 27. 5 

-26 20.8 

-22 30. 6 

-20 44. 3 

757.4 

- 5 45. 7 
-23 43.3 
-17 42.5 

- 7i43.2 
-13 43.4 
-27,33.2 
-24 32.2 
-27 32.6 
-25 30. 6 
-41 29. 9 
-48 24.9 
-4i;28.7 

- 15a 7 
-22 37.3 
-22 37. 2 
-29,44.6 
-5513.7 

42 12,8 



lllout ... 

Neb. , 

Nevada. 

N.t! 

N. l)iiU 
,\. H . 

N. J 

N. .Ilex.. 



N. Y. 



Ohio.. 

Okia 

Oregon 



Va. 



R.I 

S». C 



8. Dak .. 



Tenn. 



Texas 

Utah .. 

Vt, 



Va 

Wa»b 

W. Va.. 
Wis 

Wyo 



Stations. 



fKalispell 

iMilesCity 

fNoith Platte 

I Omaha 

(. Valentine 

Winnemiicca.... 
CCharlolte 

< Hatteia.s ... 
(.Wilmington . 

/Bismarcic 

IWillistOD 

Concord 

5 Atlantic City 

( Cape May 

I Koswell 

ISanta Fe 

f Albany 

I BIngliamton 

< Buffalo 

I New York City 
I, Oswego 

{Cincinnati 
c;olumbus 
Toledo 

Oklahoma 

( Portland 

} Roseburg ... 
(Erie 

< l^hiladelphia ... 
(Pittsburgh 

Block Island 

Charleston 

(Huron 

< Pierre . . 

( Yankton 

(Chattanooga ... 

< Mempliis. - 

(.Nashville 

f Abilene 

I Amarillo i. , 

; El Pa.so 

', Galveston 

I Palestine 

ISan Antonio... 

Salt Lake City 
f linriington. 

'i Nortlitield 

I Lynchburg 

iNorfollc 

(Seattle 

< Spokane 

I Walla Walla... 

( Elkins 

( Parkersburg ... 

i I^a Crosse 

( Milwaukee 

(Cheyenne 

< I>ander & Wasli 
( akie 



Temperaturk 



Mean. 



20 
14 
21 
20 
18 
29 
40 
46 
46 
7 
6 
21 
32 
34 
39 
28 
22 
23 
25 
30 
24 
32 
29 
26 
35 
39 
41 
26 
32 
31 
31 
49' 
10 
14 
16 
41 
40 
38 
43 
34 
44 
53 
46 
61 
29 
16 
15 
36 
40 
39 
27 
33 
29 
31 
15 
20 
26 



Ex- 
tremes. 



97 
111 
107 
107 
106 
104 
102 

93 
103 



0107 
69 107 
102 



69 
72 
73 
79 
69 
2 
70 

4 
70 
78 
75 
74 
80 
66 
66 
72 
76 
75 
68 
81 
72 
75 
75 
78 
81 
79 
82 
76 
80 
83 
82 
82 
76 
68 
67 
77 
78 
64 
69 
74 
70 
*76 
73 
70 
67 



99 
103 
110 

97 
104 

98 

95 
100 
100 
105 
104 
102 
108 
102 
106 

96 
103 
103 

i'2 
104 
108 
110 
107 
101 
104 
104 
110 
105 
113 

99 
108 
108 
102 
100 

98 
102 
102 

9ti 
104 
113 

97 
102 
104 
100 
100 



-34 

49 

35 

-32 

-38 

28 

- 6 
8 
5 

-44 

-49 

35 

- 7 

- 7 
-29 
-13 
-24 
-26 
-14 

- 6 
-23 
-17 
-20 
-16 
-17 

- 2 

- 6 
-16 

- 6 
-20 

- 4 
7 

43 
-40 
-36 
-10 

- 9 
-13 

- 6 
-16 

- 8 
8 

- 6 
4 

-20 
-27 
-35 

- 7 
2 

11 
-30 
-17 
-21 
-27 
-43 
-25 
-38 



« 

Q.O 

'3 

CD CO 

K^ 

1—1 *-> 

Sa 

16.9 
13.2 
18.9 
30.7 
22.5 

8.4 
49.2 
60 8 
51.0 
17.6 
15.1 
40 1 
40.8 
40.8 
15.8 
14 5 
36 4 
32.9 
37.3 
44.6 
36.2 
38.3 
36.9 
30 6 
31.7 
45.1 
34.4 
38.6 
41.2 
36.4 
44.4 
52.1 
21.1 
16.6 
25 4 
50.7 
50.3 
48 6 
24. 7 
22. 6 

98 
47 1 
43.0 
26.8 
16.0 
31.6 
33 8 
43.4 
49.5 
36.6 
18.8 
17.7 
42.8 
40.2 
31.2 
31.4 

13 •; 



17 6S 99, -3613. 9 



The minus (— ) sign indicates temperature below zero. 



TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL OF FOREIGN CITIES. 

(From Hann'8 Lehrbuch der Meteorologle and other sources.) 



67 



Annual 
Aver- 
age 
Rainlall 
Inches. 



City or Place. 



Alexandria .... 

Algiers 

Amsterdam .... 

Archangel 

Astrakhan 

Athens 

Bagdad 

Barcelona 

Berlin 

Bermuda 

Berne 

Birmingham. . . . 
Bombay .... 

Bordeaux 

Brussels 

Budapest 

Buenos Ayres. . . 

Cairo 

Calcutta 

Canton 

Cape Town .... 

Cayenne 

Cherrapongee*.. 

Christiania 

Constantinople. . 
Copenhagen . . 

Delhi 

Dublin 

Edinburgh . . . 



Mean 


Annual 


Annual 


Aver- 


Tem- 


age 


pera- 


Rainfall 


ture. 


Inches 


69 


8 


64 3 


27 


49 9 


26 


33.0 


16 


50 1 


6 


63 


16 


71 6 


9 


63 


21 


48 2 


23 


72 


55 


46 


46 


48 2 


27 


77 7 


75 


54.1 


33 


50 


29 


49 8 


24 


62 8 


34 


70.0 


1 


79 5 


65 


71.0 


39 


62 


25 . 


79.5 


116 




458 


41 5 


23 


57 7 


29 


45 3 


22 


77.0 


28 


50.1 


28 


47.1 


26 



City or Place. 



Florence. 
Franklort. . . 
Geneva . . . 

Genoa 

Glasgow . . . . 
Hamburg . . . 

Havana 

Hongkong. . 
Honolulu. . . 
Iceland... . 
Jerusalem . . . 
Lima. . . . 
Lisbon... 
London . . . 
Lyons. . 
Madeira . . . 
Madrid. . . 

Malta 

Manchester . 

Manila 

Maranham. . 
Marseilles. .. 
Melbourne. . 
Mexico. . . 

Milan 

Montevideo . 
Montreal. . 
Moscow. . . . 
Munich 



Mean 
Annual 
Tem- 
pera- 
ture. 



59 2 
50 
52 7 

61 1 

49 8 

47 
76 6 
71 2 
73 9 
39 

60 6 
66 7 
60 1 

50 8 

51 1 
66 
56.1 
64.0 

48 8 
80 1 

57 6 
57 
59 7 
55 1 

62 
41.9 
38 5 
48.4 



Annual 
Aver- 
age 
Rainfall 
Inches 



41 
24 
82 
47 
44 
29 
52 
85 
39 
30 
25 

2 
29 
25 
32 
27 

9 
20 
36 
76 
277 
23 
29 
23 
38 
44 
41 
21 
35 



City or Place. 



Naples 

Nice 

Odessa 

Para 

Paris 

Peking 

Petrograd .... 

Port Said 

Prague . . . . 
Quebec. . 

Quito 

Rio de Janeiro 
Rome. . . 
Rotterdam. . 
San Domingo 

Shanghai 

Smyrna 

Stockholm . . 

Sydney 

The Hague . . 
Tobolsk. . . . 

Toklo 

Trieste 

Valdivia 

Valparaiso. . 

Venice 

Vera Cruz. . . . 
Vienna . . 



Mean 
Annual 
Tem- 
pera- 
ture 



60 3 
58 

49 3 
7« 3 

50 
53 

39 6 
70 2 
47 5 

40 3 
55 
72 7 



60 


5 


51 





81 


.S 


59 





60 





42 


3 


62 


K 


52 





32 





56 


4 


55 





52 


(1 


57 


7 


55 


4 


77 





48 


6 



33 
29 
16 
94 
22 
25 
17 
2 
14 
40 
42 
43 
30 
23 

108 
44 
24 
17 
49 
26 
19 
58 
43 

106 
20 
26 

180 
25 



* In Southwestern Assam. It Is the wettest place in the world. In 1861 the rainlall there reached 905 
Inches. Panama — At Balboa Heights. Pacific section, mean annual temperature 80°: annual average rain- 
fall 71 Inches. At Colon, Atlantic section, mean annual temperature 80°; annual average rainfall 131 
Inches. The mean annual temperature of the globe is about 59° Fahr. The average annual rainfall in the 
world has been variously estimated at from 30 to 60 Inches It ranges from 458 inches In Cherrapongee, 
India to zero in the Sahara Desert An inch of rainfall makes 113 tons to the acre. New York City has 
an annual precipitation of 44.6 inches, or 5.039 tons to the acre. In 1914 it cost 0.733 cents a ton per mile 
to transport the freight of the United States. Hauling the water supply of an acre of Central Park land 
fifty miles by rail would, therefore, cost SI 846 a year It is estimated that the annual stream-flow of the 
earth is 6,500 cubic miles, or enough to replace all the material taken out of the Panama Canal every 2 Vi seconds. 

Highest Temperatures on Record — ^The highest temperatures occur in Northern Africa, in the Interior 
of Australia, In Southwestern Asia, and in Southwestern North America The record for the United States 
is 134° at Greenland Ranch, Cal., July 10. 1913. Ouargla. Algeria, has a record of 127.4° on July 17, 1879. 
and Jacobadad, India. 126' on June 13, 1897. Lowest Temperatures on Record — The minimum tempera- 
tures of Siberia and North America are much lower than any that have been observed in the southern hemi- 
sphere. Hann states that the lowest temperature ever observed was — 90.4° at Verkhoyansk, in Siberia. 
The lowest temperature ever recorded In the United States was — 65° at Fort Keogh, Miles City, Mont, 
January. 1888. The lowest temperature recorded in the Antarctic by Shackleton was — 57° on August 14. 

1908 (U. S. Weather Bureau) 

GREATEST ALTITUDE IN EACH STATE AND TERRITORY. 
FROM RECORDS O F UN I TED STATES GEOLOG ICAL SURVEY TO OCT. 1, 1916. 

Heig't 



State or 
Territory 



Alabama . 
Alaska . . . 
Arizona. . 



Arkansas . 
California . 



Colorado 

Connecticut . 

Delaware 

D of Columbia 
Florida . . 
Georgia. . 

Hawaii . . . 

Idaho 

lUUiois 

Indiana . 
Iowa. . 

Kansas 

Kentucky . . 
Louisiana . . 
Maine. . . 

Maryland .... 
Massachusetts 
Michigan . . . 



Minnesota.. 
Mississippi . , 
Missotirl. 



Name of Place. 



Cheaha Mt. (Talladega Co ) 

Mt. McKinley 

San Ftanclsco Peak (Coco- 
nino Co.) 

Blue Mt. (Polk-Scott Co.). 
Mt. Whitney (Inyo-Tulare 



Cos.) 

Elbert (Lake Co.) . 



Mt 

Bear Mt. (Litchfield Co) 

Centerville (Newcastle Co.) 

Tenley (Northwest) 

Iron Mt. (Polk Co.) 

Brasstown Bald (Towns- 
Union Co ) 

Mauna Kea (Hawaii Co.) 
Castle Peak (Custer Co.) . 
Charles Mound (J. Daviess 

Co) 

Carlos City (Randolph Co.) 
Prlmghar (O'Brien Co.) . ... 

On West Boundary 

Big Black Mt. {Harlan Co) 

Claiborne Co 

Katahdln Mt. (Piscataquis 

Co.) 

Backbone Mt. (Garrett Co.) 
Mt. Greylock (Berkshire Co.) 
Porcupine Mt. (Ontonagon 

Co.) 

Mesabl Range (St. Louis Co.) 
3 miles southwest of luka. 
Taum Sauk Mt. (Iron Co.) 



Heig't 
Feet. 

2 407 
20 300 

12.611 
2.800 

14.501 

14.402 

2.355 

440 

420 

325 

4.768 
13,823 
12,130 

1,241 
1,210 
1,800 
4,135 
4,100 
400 

5,273 
3,340 
3,505 

2,023 

1,920 

780 

1,750! 



State or 
Territory. 



Name of Place. 



Montana 
Nebraska . 
Nevada. . 



N. Hampshire. 
New Jersey . . . 
New Meidco. . , 



New York 

North Carolina 
North Dakota. 
Ohio 



Oklahoma. 
Oregon... . 



Pennsylvania. . . 
Philippines. . . . 
Porto Rico. . . . 
Rhode Island . 
South Carolina 
South Dakota. 



Tennessee .... 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington. .. 
West Virginia. 
Wisconsin. . . . 
Wyoming . 



Granite Peak (Carbon Co.). 

S. W. part Banner Co. . . . 

lEast Peak White Mts. (Es- 

I merelda Co.) . , 

Mt. Washington (Coos Co) 

High Point (Sussex Co.) 

N. Truchas Peak (Rio Arri- 
ba Co.) 

Mt. Marcy (Essex Co.). . 

Mt. Mitchell (Yancey Co.) . 

Summit in Bowman Co 

Near Bellefontalne (Logan 
Co ) 

West end of Cimarron Co . . 

Mt. Hood (Clackamas-Wasco 
Co ) 

Blue Knob (Bedford Co ) 

Mt. Apo .... ... 

Luquillo Mts 

Durfee Hill (Providence Co.) 

Sassafras Mt 

Harney Peak (Pennington 
Co.) 

Mt. Guyot 

El Capltan (El Paso Co.) 

Kings Pealc fWasatch Co ) 

Mt. Mansfield 

Mt Rogers (Grayson Co ) . . 

Mt. Rainier (Pierce Co.) . . 

Spruce Knob (Pendleton Co ) 

Rib Hill (Marathon Co.) 

Gannett Peak (Fremont Co.) 



Feet. 



The lowest point ol dry land In United States ia In Death Valley, Cal., 276 feet below sea level. 



12,850 
5,350 

13.145 
6,293 
1,809 

13,306 
5,344 
6,711 
3,500 

1,550 
4,750 

11,225 
3,136 
9,610 
3,532 
805 
3,548 

7.242 
6,636 
9,020 

13,498 
4,406 
5,719 

14,408 
4.860 
1,940 

13,785 



68 



The Ancient and Modern Year. 



WEATHER FLAGS 

OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Weather Bureau furnishes, when prjicticable, for the benefit of all interests dependent upon 
weather conditions, the "Forecasts" which are prepared daily at the Central Office in Washington, 
D. C. , and certain designated stations. These forecasts are telegraphed to stations of the Weather 
Bureau, railway officials, postmasters, and many others, to be communicated to the public by 
telegraph, telephone, "wireless'' and mail or by means of flags or steam whistles. The flags adopted 
Xor this purpose are five in number, and of the forms and colors indicated below: 



EXPLANATION OF WEATHER FLAGS. 



No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


White Flag, 


Blue Flag. 


White and 


Black Triang 






Blue Flag. 


ular Flag. 





No. 5. 
White Flag with 
black square in 
centre. 




Fair weather. 



Bain or snow. Local rain or snow. Temperature. 



Cold wave. 



When number 4 is placed above number 1, 2 or 3, it indicates warmer; when below, 
colder; when not displayed, the temperature is expected to remain about stationary. During 
the lata Spring and early Fall the cold- wave flag is also used to indicate anticipated frosts. 

WHISTLE SIGNALS. 

A warning blast of from fifteen to twenty seconds' duration is sounded to attract atten- 
tton. After this warning the longer blasts (of from four to six seconds' duration) refer to 
weather, and shorter blasts (of from one to three seconds' duration) refer to temperature ; those 
for weather are sounded first. 



Blasts. Indicate. 

One long Fair weather. 

Two long Raiu or snow. 

Three long Local rain or snow. 



Blasts. Indicate. 

One short Lower temperature. 

Two short Higher temperature. 

Three short Cold wave. 



By repeating each combination a few times, with intervals of ten seconds, liability to error 
in reading the signals may be avoided. 

As far as practicable, the foreca.st messages are telegraphed at the expense of the 
Weather Bureau ; but iL this Is impracticable, they are furnished at the regular commercial 
rates and sent ' 'collect. " In no case are tlie forecasts sent to a second address in any 
place, except at the expense of the applicant. 

Persons desiring to display the flags or sound the whistle signals for the benefit of the pub- 
lic should communicate with the Weather Bureau ofBcials in charge of the central stations 
of their respective States, which are as follows: 



Alabama, Montgomery. 
Arizona, Phoenix. 
Arkansas, Little Rock. 
California, San Francisco. 
Colorado, Denver. 
Florida, Jacksonville. 
Georgia, Atlanta. 
Idaho, Boise. 
Illinois, Springfield. 
Indiana, Indianapolis. 
Iowa, Des Moines. 
Kansas, Topeka. 
Kentucky, Louisville. 
Louisiana, New Orleans. 
Maryland, Baltimore 
(for Delaware and Maryland). 



Massachusetts, Boston 

(for New England). 
Michigan, Grand Rapids. 
Minnesota, Minneapolis. 
Mississippi, Vicksburg. 
Missouri, Columbia, 
Montana, Helena. 
Nebraska, Lincoln. 
Nevada, Reno. 
New .Teraey, Trenton. 
New Mexico, Santa Fe. 
New York, Ithaca. 
North Carolina, Raleigh. 
North Dakota, Bismarck. 
Ohio, Columbus. 



Oklahoma, Oklahoma. 
Oregon, Portland. 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
Soulii Carolina, Columbia. 
South Dakota, Huron. 
Tennessee, Nashville. 
Texas, Houston. 
Utah, Salt Lak« City. 
Virginia, Richmond. 
Washington, Seattle. 
West Virginia, Parkersburg. 
Wisconsin, Milwaukee. 
Wyoming, Cheyenne. 



THE ANCIENT AND MODERN YEAR. 

The Athenians began the year in June, the Macedonians in September, the Romans first In March 
and afterward in January, the Persians on August 11, the ancient Mexicans on February 23, the Mo- 
hammedans in July. The Chinese year, which begins early in February, is similar to the Moham- 
medan in having 12 mouths of 29 and 30 days alternately; but in every nineteen years there are seven 
years which have 13 months. This is not quite correct, and the Chinese have therefore formed a 
cycle of 60 years, in which period 22 intercalary months occur. 



SMALL CRAFT, STORM AND HURRICANE WARNINGS 69 

OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 
AS DISPLAYED ON THE ATLANTIC. PACIFIC, AND GULF COASTS. 
All square flags shown here are red with black centre when displayed as warnings. 
Small craft. Slorm. Hurricane. 









m 




R C 






NW. winds. SW. winds. NE. winds. SE. winds. 

Small Craft Warning — A red pennant indicates that moderately strong winds are expected. Slorm 
Warning — A red flag with a black centre indicates that a storm of marked violence is expected. The pen- 
nants displayed with the flags Indicate the direction of the wind: white, westerly; red, easterly. The pennant 
above the flag Indicates that the wind is expected to blow from the northerly quadrants; below, from the 
southerly quadrants. By night a red light indicates easterly winds, and a white light below a red light wasterly 
winds. Hurricane Warning — Two red flags with black centres, displayed one above the other, Indicate the 
expected approach of a tropical hurricane, and also one of those extremely severe and dangerous storms 
which occasionally move across the Lakes and Northern Atlantic Coast. Neither small craft nor hurricane 
warnings described above are displayed at night. 

The following new system of night storm-wamlng displays on the Great Lakes only became effective 
October 15, 1916: 

SrruM Craft Warning — A red pennant Indicates that moderately strong winds that will interfere with 
the safe operation of small craft are expected. No night display of small craft warnings Is made. North- 
east Storm Warning — A red pennant above a square red flag with black centre displayed by day, or two red 
lanterns, one above the other, displayed by night, indicate the approach of a storm of marked violence with 
winds beginning from the northeast. Soulheasl Storm Warning — A red pennant below a square red flag with 
black centre displayed by day, or one red lantern displayed by night, indicates the approach of a storm of 
marked violence with winds beginning from the southeast. Southwest Storm Warning — A white pennant 
below a square red flag with black centre displayed by day, or a white lantern beiow a red lantern displayed 
by night, indicates the approach of a storm of marked violence with winds beginning from the southuest. 
Northwest Storm Warning — A white pennant above a square red flag with black centre displayed by day, or 
a white lantern above a red lantern displayed by night, indicates the approach of a storm of marked violence 
with winds beginning from the northwest. Hurricane, or Whole Oale Warning — Two square flags, red with 
black centres, one above the other, displayed by day, or two red lanterns, with a white lantern between, 
displayed by night. Indicate the approach of a tropical hurricane, or of one of the extremely severe and dan- 
gerous storms which occasionally move across the Great Lakes. 



VELOCITY OF WINDS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

AVKRAGK hourly velocity of the wind at .selected stations of the United .Stales Weather Bureau, 
also the iiighest velocity ever reported for a period of live minutes. (Prepared by Chief of the U.S. 
Weather Bureau, and revised to January 1, 1916, for The World Alma.vac. ) 



SXiTIONS 



2 i: ■-* 



Abilene, Texas 

Albany, N. Y 

Alpena, Mich 

Atlanta, Ga.. 

Bismarck, N. D 

Bois6, Idaho- 

Boston, M^s 

Buffalo, N.Y 

Charlotte, N.C 

Chattanooga, Tenn... 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Custer, Mont.* 

Denver, Col 

Detroit, Mich 

Dodge City, Kan 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Duluth. Minn 

Ea,stport. Me ■ 



Mi. 

11 
6 
9 
9 
8 
4 

11 

11 
5 
6 
9 
7 
9 
7 
7 
9 

11 
5 
7 
9 



^w ^ 



Mi. 
66 
70 
72 
66 
74 
55 
72 
92 
62 
66 
84 
59 
73 
72 
75 
86 
75 
60 
78 
78 



Stations. 



El Paso, Texa-s , 

Fort Smith, Ark. ... 
Galveston, Texas -. 

Havre, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Huron, S. D 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Keokuk, Iowa 

KnoxviUe, Tenn 

Ixiaven worth, Kan.' 

Louisville, Ky 

Lynchburg, Va 

Memphis, Tenn 

Montgomery, Ala 

Nashville, Tenn 

New Orleans, La 

New York City, N.Y. 
North Platte, Neb.... 

Omaha, Neb 

Palestine, Texa.s 






Mi. 
6 
5 

10 

11 
6 

10 
6 
8 
5 
7 
7 
4 
6 
5 
6 
7 
9 
9 
8 
8 



Mi. 
78 
74 
93 
76 
70 
72 
75 
60 
84 
66 
74 
50 
75 
54 
76 
86 
96 
96 
66 
60 



Stations. 



Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Me 

Red Bluti; Cal 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

St. Vincent, Minn.*.. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

San Diego, Cal 

San Francisco, Cal.. 

Santa Fe, N. M 

Savannah, Ga 

Spokane, Wash 

Toledo, Ohio 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Washington, D. C... 
Wilmington, N. C 






Mi. 

10 
6 
5 
7 

11 

11 
7 
9 
5 
6 
9 
6 
7 
4 
9 
6 
5 
7 



Mi. 
75 
69 
61 
60 
78 
80 

102 
72 
66 
46 
64 
53 
88 
52 
84 
62 
68 
72 



^Stations discontinued. 

STANDARD TABLE SHOWING VELOCITY AND FORCE OF WINDS. 



DSSCRIPTlOlt. 



Perceptible 

Just perceptible 

Gentle breeze 

Pleasant breeze 

Brisk wind 



Miles 

per 

Hour. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

10 

15 

•-'0 

25 



Feet 

per 

Mlout«. 



88 
176 
264 
352 
440 

aso 

1,320 
1,760 
2,200 



Feet 

per 

Second. 



1.47 
2.93 
4.4 
5.87 
7.33 
14.67 
22.0 
29.3 
36.6 



Force in 

lbs. per 

Sqnare 

Foot. 



.005 

.020 

.044 

.079 

.123: 

.492 

1,107 

1. 968 

3. 075' 



DBscaipnoN. 



High wind . 

Very high wind 

Storm 

Great storm 

Hurricane 



Miles 


Feet 


Feet 


per 


per 


per 


Hour. 


MlDUt«. 


Second. 
44.0 


f 30 
35 


2.640 


3,080 


51.3 


f 40 
45 


3,520 


58 6 


3,960 


66.0 


50 


4,400 


7a 3 


f 60 
i 70 


5,280 


88 


6,160 


102.7 


/ 80 
\ 100 


7,040 


117.3 


8.800 


L46.6 



Force il 

lbs. pel 

Square 

Foot. 

4.42i 

6 027 

7.872 

9.963 

12.300 

17.712 

24. 108 

31. 488 

49.200 



70 



High-Tide Tables. 



HICH-TIDE TABLES 

FOR GOVERNOR'S ISLAND (NEW YORK HARBOR). 

(Specially prepared from the Tide Tables of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey for 

The World Almanac.) 

Eastern Standard Time. 



1917. 


January. 


February. 


March 


April 


May. 


Jone. 


Day of 
Month 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


p. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A M 


P. M. 


A. M 


p. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


2 26 


2 43 


3 59 


4 26 


2 22 


2 57 


3 47 


4 25 


3 47 


4 27 


4 26 


5 1 


2 


3 26 


3 45 


4 55 


5 22 


3 27 


4 3 


4 40 


5 12 


4 38 


5 11 


5 18 


5 44 


3 


4 22 


4 41 


5 43 


6 10 


4 26 


4 59 


5 25 


5 54 


5 23 


5 50 


6 6 


6 26 


4 


5 14 


5 38 


6 26 


6 52 


5 18 


5 46 


6 7 


631 


6 5 


6 25 


6 53 


7 10 


5 


6 1 


6 26 


7 5 


7 30 


6 2 


6 27 


6 44 


7 4 


6 43 


7 


7 39 


7 53 


6 


6 44 


7 11 


740 


8 4 


6 40 


7 2 


7 17 


7 34 


7 20 


7 34 


8 26 


8 39 


7 


7 24 


7 51 


8 12 


8 35 


7 15 


7 36 


7 47 


8 2 


7 57 


8 9 


9 14 


9 25 


8 


8 1 


8 29 


8 40 


9 4 


7 46 


8 6 


8 17 


8 30 


8 35 


8 48 


10 5 


10 14 


9 


8 33 


9 2 


9 6 


9 31 


8 14 


8 32 


8 49 


9 3 


9 17 


9 30 


10 58 


11 6 


10 


9 5 


9 35 


9 33 


9 59 


8 40 


8 53 


9 25 


9 41 


10 3 


10 16 


11 66 




11 


9 35 


10 7 


10 4 


10 33 


9 8 


9 20 


10 4 


10 24 


10 54 


11 8 


12 3 


12 58 


12 


10 4 


10 40 


10 42 


U 13 


9 40 


10 1 


10 51 


11 14 


11 55 




1 5 


2 1 


13 


10 35 


U 16 


1126 




10 18 


10 42 


11 49 




12 7 


1 5 


2 12 


3 4 


14 


11 14 


11 59 


12 1 


12 18 


11 2 


11 31 


12 15 


1 1 


1 16 


2 18 


3 21 


4 6 


15 




12 2 


12 59 


1 23 


11 50 




1 26 


2 27 


2 31 


3 26 


4 27 


5 3 


16 


12 48 


12 56 


2 11 


2 46 


12 29 


1 4 


2 51 


3 46 


3 43 


4 29 


5 27 


5 57 


17 


1 46 


2 1 


3 33 


4 16 


1 43 


2 33 


4 7 


4 51 


4 48 


5 25 


6 23 


6 46 


18 


2 53 


3 20 


4 47 


5 25 


3 11 


4 2 


5 11 


5 47 


5 47 


6 16 


7 14 


7 32 


19 


4 1 


4 33 


5 46 


6 23 


4 29 


5 9 


6 7 


6 37 


6 41 


7 5 


8 1 


8 16 


20 


5 4 


5 39 


6 44 


7 16 


5 32 


6 6 


7 


7 26 


7 31 


7 51 


8 46 


8 55 


21 


6 3 


6 37 


7 35 


8 6 


6 28 


6 58 


7 49 


8 11 


8 19 


8 35 


9 28 


9 33 


22 


6 57 


7 31 


8 24 


8 55 


7 18 


7 47 


8 37 


8 56 


9 5 


9 17 


10 8 


10 10 


23 


7 48 


8 23 


9 12 


9 43 


8 7 


8 33 


9 23 


9 40 


9 49 


9 59 


10 48 


10 44 


24 


8 38 


9 13 


10 


10 32 


8 54 


9 18 


10 8 


10 23 


10 34 


10 39 


11 25 


11 18 


25 


9 29 


10 5 


10 50 


a 22 


9 42 


10 4 


10 56 


11 9 


11 19 


11 19 


[12 2*] 


11 53 


26 


10 20 


10 58 


11 41 




10 28 


10 51 


11 45 


11 57 




12 4 




12 42 


27 


11 11 


11 53 


12 16 


12 40 


11 18 


11 41 




12 41 


12 1 


12 53 


12 34 


1 26 


28 




12 8 


1 16 


1 46 




12 12 


12 49 


1 41 


12 45 


1 43 


1 18 


2 15 


29 


n 53 


1 9 






12 3fi 


1 14 


1 49 


2 41 


1 35 


2 36 


2 15 


3 10 


30 


1 54 


2 16 






1 39 


2 22 


2 50 


3 37 


2 31 


3 26 


3 20 


4 7 


31 


2 58 


3 24 






2 45 


3 28 






3 30 


4 15 







1917. 


July. 


August. 


September 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Day of 
Month 


A. M. 


p. M. 


A. U. 


p. M. 


A M. 


P M. 
H. M. 


A M. 


P M 


A. M 


p. M 


A. M 


P. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


n. M. 


B. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


4 27 


5 3 


6 7 


6 29 


7 36 


7 56 


8 3 


8 26 


9 17 


9 49 


9 40 


10 17 


2 


5 31 


5 56 


7 4 


7 23 


8 20 


8 47 


8 52 


9 17 


10 7 


10 43 


10 25 


11 7 


3 


6 29 


6 49 


7 58 


8 15 


9 17 


9 37 


9 41 


10 9 


10 58 


11 39 


11 12 


11 68 


4 


7 24 


7 39 


8 49 


9 5 


10 8 


10 29 


10 33 


11 5 


11 52 




11 59 




b 


8 15 


8 29 


9 39 


9 56 


10 59 


11 23 


11 27 




12 37 


12 48 


12 51 


12 48 


6 


9 6 


9 18 


10 31 


10 47 


11 55 




12 3 


12 25 


1 37 


1 47 


1 43 


1 41 


7 


9 58 


10 9 


11 24 


11 40 


12 21 


12 53 


1 6 


1 26 


2 34 


2 42 


2 34 


2 35 


8 


10 50 


11 




12 19 


1 25 


1 55 


2 9 


2 28 


3 25 


3 34 


3 22 


3 28 


9 


11 44 


11 55 


12 38 


1 19 


2 30 


2 58 


3 9 


3 26 


4 10 


4 21 


4 6 


4 19 


10 




12 41 


1 39 


2 20 


3 34 


3 58 


4 3 


4 17 


4 52 


5 4 


4 49 


5 5 


11 


12 52 


1 41 


2 45 


3 23 


4 32 


4 51 


4 49 


5 3 


5 30 


5 44 


5 28 


5 49 


12 


1 55 


2 42 


3 52 


4 23 


521 


5 38 


5 32 


5 44 


6 5 


6 21 


6 8 


6 31 


13 


3 2 


3 45 


4 53 


5 17 


6 4 


6 19 


6 8 


6 22 


6 38 


6 57 


6 47 


7 13 


14 


4 7 


4 44 


5 46 


6 5 


6 43 


6 57 


642 


6 57 


7 10 


7 32 


7 27 


7 56 


15 


5 10 


5 38 


6 34 


6 49 


7 19 


7 31 


7 14 


7 28 


7 44 


8 9 


8 9 


8 42 


16 


6 6 


6 28 


7 16 


7 28 


7 51 


8 2 


7 43 


7 58 


8 21 


8 49 


8 52 


9 29 


17 


6 56 


7 12 


7 53 


8 3 


8 20 


8 30 


8 11 


8 30 


9 2 


9 34 


9 39 


10 22 


18 


7 42 


7 54 


8 27 


8 36 


8 47 


8 58 


8 43 


9 5 


9 47 


10 26 


10 30 


11 18 


19 


8 23 


8 31 


8 59 


9 6 


9 15 


9 29 


9 21 


9 46 


10 38 


11 25 


11 24 




20 


9 2 


9 7 


9 29 


9 32 


9 48 


10 5 


10 2 


10 33 


11 35 




12 20 


12 26 


21 


9 36 


9 39 


9 57 


10 1 


10 28 


10 49 


10 51 


11 28 


12 33 


i2 41 


1 26 


1 35 


22 


10 10 


10 9 


10 27 


10 35 


11 12 


11 39 


11 48 




1 44 


1 53 


2 31 


2 47 


23 


10 41 


10 38 


11 2 


11 15 




12 7 


12 36 


12 55 


2 51 


3 5 


3 34 


3 55 


24 


11 12 


11 10 


11 45 




12 41 


1 12 


1 54 


2 11 


3 53 


4 11 


4 33 


4 58 


25 


11 48 


11 49 


12 2 


12 35 


1 57 


2 28 


3 7 


3 24 


4 50 


5 10 


5 29 


554 


26 




12 28 


12 58 


1 38 


3 18 


3 44 


4 11 


4 29 


5 42 


6 6 


6 19 


6 47 


27 


12 33 


1 19 


2 7 


2 49 


4 28 


4 50 


5 8 


5 28 


6 32 


6 59 


7 7 


7 36 


28 


1 27 


2 14 


3 29 


4 3 


5 28 


5 48 


6 


6 23 


7 21 


7 50 


7 52 


8 21 


29 


2 33 


3 21 


4 44 


5 10 


6 22 


6 43 


6 51 


7 16 


8 8 


8 40 


8 35 


9 6 


30 


3 50 


4 28 


5 46 


6 9 


7 14 


7 35 


7 40 


8 6 


8 55 


9 27 


9 15 


9 48 


31 


5 4 


5 31 


6 43 


7 4 






8 28 


8 57 




.... 


9 52 


.10 30 



♦Note — On June 25, the two high tides occur between noon and midnight. 
l8 given In the A. M. column but Is bracketed as not belonging In that column. 



The earlier tide 



Principal Foreign Rivers. 



71 



HIGH- TIDE TABLES— Corei/mtcd 



TIMK OF HIGH WATER AT POINTS ON THE ATLANTIC COAST. 
The local time of liigU water at the following places may be found approximately for each day by 
adding to or subtractiug from the time of high water at Governor's Island, N. Y. , the hours and 
minutes annexed. 



Albany, N. Y add 

Annapolis, Md add 

Atlantic City, N. J sub. 

Ballimore, Md add 

Bar Harbor, Me add 

Beaufort, S. sub. 

Block Island. R. I sub. 

Boston, Muss add 

Bridgeport, Ct add 

Bristol, It. I sub. 

Cape May, N. J add 

Charleston, S. C sub. 

Eastport, Me add 

Fernandlna, Fla sub. 

Gloucester, Mass add 

Hell Gate Ferry, East Kiver, N. Y add 

Isles of Shoals, N. H add 

Jacksonville, Fla add 

Key West, Fla add 

League Island. Pa add 

Marblehead, Mass add 

Nahant, Mass add 

Nantucltet, Mass add 

Newark, >i. .1 add 

New Bedford, Mass sub. 

Newbnryport, Mass ..add 



H 


M, 


9 


31 


« 


57 




.50 


10 


5-2 


2 


46 




H 




34 


a 


22 


3 


2 




14 




10 




42 


3 







18 


2 


5.5 


1 


.53 


3 


11 




37 


1 


24 


5 


23 


3 


2 


3 


2 


4 


21 




54 




10 


3 


16 



New Haven, Ct add 

New London, Ct. add 

Newport, R. I_ sub. 

Norfolk, Va add 

Norwich, Ct add 

Old Point Comfort, "Va add 

Philadelphia, Pa add 

Plymouth, Mass „ add 

Point Lookout, Md add 

Portland, Me add 

Portsmouth, N. H add 

Poughkeepsle, N. Y add 

Providence, R. I add 

Richmond, Va add 

Rockaway Inlet, N. Y sub. 

Rockland, Me add 

Rockport, Mass add 

Salem, Mass add 

Sandy Hook, N. J sub. 

Savannah, Ga add 

Southport (Smithville), N. C. ... sub. 

Vineyard Haven, Mass add 

Washington, D. C add 

Watch Hill, R. I add 

West Point, N. Y add 

Wilmington, N. C add 



H. M. 



3 


1 


1 


22 




22 




58 


2 







39 


5 


41 


3 


12 


4 


49 


3 


10 


3 


IH 


3 


51 




7 


8 


48 




25 


3 


1 


2 


.50 


3 


9 




32 




7 




43 


3 


3« 


12 


1 




42 


2 


47 


1 






KXAMPLK — 'I'oiinrtthe approximate time of high tide at Atlantic City, N. .1. . on any day. Hud 
first the time of high water at New York under the desired date, aud then subtract 60 minutes, as in 
the above table; the result Is the time of high water required. 



AVERAGE RISE AND FALL OP TIDE. 



Baltimore, Md.. 

Boston, Ma-ss 

Charleston, S.C., 
Colon, Panama., 

Eastport, Me 

Galveston, Tex. 
Key West, Fla . . 
Mobile, Ala 



Feel . 


Inches. 

3 


1 


9 


8 


6 


1 


2 


1 


18 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


• > 



Fi.AcKa. 



New London, Ct. 
New Orleans, La 

Newport, R. I 

New York, N.Y. 
Old Point Comf't,Va. 
Panama, Panama . 
Pliiladelphia, Pa... 
I'ortlaud.Me 



I'eel. 


iQt-h'R. 


3 


9 


Noue 


None 


9 


8 


4 


4 


2 


6 


19 


7 


6 





9 


11 



Pl.ACBS. 



Sau Diego, CaL 

Sandy Hook,N. J.. 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Savannah, Ga 

Seattle, Wash 

I'ampa, Fla 

Washington, D.C.. . 



Feet. Inches. 



3 
4 
4 
6 
12 



7 
7 
9 
5 
2 
2 
9 



Highest tide at Panama, Panama, 2:i6 inches. Lowest tide at Galveston, Tex. , 13 inches. 



PRINCIPAL FOREIGN RIVERS. 

(See also table of Principal American Rivers.) 



RIVER. 



Amazon 

Amu Darya. . 

Amur 

Asslnlbolne. . 

Brahmaputra, 

Bug 

Congo 

Danube 

Darling 

Dnieper . . , . ' 
Dniester . . . . 

Drave 

Ebro 

Elbe 

Euphrates.. . . 

Gambia 

Ganges 

Garonne 

Hoangho 

Indus 

Irawadl 

Jordan 

La Plata 



Outflow. 



Atlantic Oc. 
Aral Sea. . . . 
Gulf Tartary. 
Red River of 

North.. 
Bay of Bengal 
Dnieper Rlv 
Atlantic Oc. 
Black Sea. . . 
Murray R!v . 
Black Sea. . . 
Black Sea . . 
Danube Rlv . 
Mediterran'n 
North Sea . . . 
Persiatf Gull 
Atlantic Oc 
Bav of Bengal 
Bav of Biscay 
Gulf Fechlll.. 
Arabian Sea . 
Bay of Bengal 
Dead Sea. . 
.Atlantic Oc 



.•^,800 
1,500 
2,600 

600 

1.680 

500 

3,000 

1.725 

1.160 

1.400 

800 

450 

400 

700 

1,700 

510 

1,500 

385 

2.600 

1,700 

1.250 

200 

2.^00 



RIVEB. 



Lena 

Loire 

Mackenzie. . . 

Madeira 

Majdalena. . . 
Maros . . . . 
Marne . . . . 

Mekong 

Meuse (Maas) 

Murray 

Nl9;er 

Nile 

Ob 

Oder' 

Orange . . . . 

Orinoco 

Paraguay . . . . 

Parana 

Pllcomayo. . . 

Po 

Rhine 

Rhone 

Rio Negro. . 



Outflow. 



Arctic Ocean. 
Bay of Biscay 
Beaufort Sea. 
-Amazon Riv 
CaribbeanSe 
Theiss Plver 
Seine Rive. 
China Sea. . 
North Sea . 
Indian Ocean 
Gulf of Guinea 
Medlterran'h 
Gulf of Ob... 
Baltic Sea . . 
Atlantic Oc. . 
Atlantic Oc. . 
Parana River 
Atlantic Oc. . 
Paraguay Rlv 
Adriatic Sea . 
North Sea. . 
Gulf If Lyons 
Amazon Hlv 



Mm 
!1 



2,800 

650 

2.300 

2.000 

950 

500 

3iO 

2,500 

5/5 

1 450 

2.900 

3.766 

2,o00 

550 

1,100 

1,600 

1.500 

2,450 

1,000 

420 

700 

500 

1,400 



RIVER. 



Rio Theodore 
(River of 
Doubt) . . . 

St. John. . . . 

St. Lawrence 



Sal win 



Sao Francisco 
S'lskatchewan 
Seine. . . . 
Shanaon. 
Taiius . . 
Thames. . 
Thelsa. . . 
Tigris. . . , 

aral 

Vistula. . , 
Volga .... 
Weser. . . . 
Yangtse . . 
Yenisei . . . 
Zambezi . . 



Outflow. 



Rlv. Madeira 

Bay of Fundy 

Gulf of St. 
Lawrence. 

Gulf of Mar- 
taban. . . . 

At antic Oc. . 

Lk. "Winnipeg 

English Chan. 

Atlr.ntlc Oc. 

At antic Oc. 

North Sea. . . 

Danube Rlv . 

Euphrates. . 
Caspian Sea . 
Gulf of Danzig 
Caspian Sea . 
North Sea . . . 
Yellow Sea . . 
Arctic Ocean. 
Indian Ocean 



Is 



950 
500 

2,150 

1,750 

1,200 

1,100 

475 

250 

550 

215 

SCO 

1,150 

1,400 

630 

2.300 

300 

3.400 

3,300 

1,600 



• Elstlmated length. 



PRINCIPAL AMERICAII^l^^ 




, and Tallapoosa Rivers. Ala 



Mobile River . . . 
OhioRlver. . .. • 
Atlantic Ocean. . 
Kennebec River. . . 
Gulf of Mexico . . 



Tiinctlon of Coosa 

fl«ny : : : •■ • : fce^Wcmu^tee and Oconee Rivers. Ga . 

-riff- ■• ly^»oV^<=«to« ana Flin. Rivers. Ga.. . - • • Ulss.slppi KW^ 

Big Horn S^^ondack Lakes, N- X^^- — yporks. Ala guU of Mexico 

l^^^WMrtor . Formed by Locust and Muioerry M Arkansas River ... . 

Black warrior staked Pla"V,i5ioX" . ■• • Atlantic Ocean 

il£ Habersham county, oa . • • • ^ _ .^. ^. . • . • Albemarle Sound. 



Canadian 
Cape Fear 



^}^'^'::^^.^'^^H^. 



Cheyenne KSn'of^Meheran and Nottoway 

Chowan wTton Mountains, N. Mex 

Cimarron Raton _^^^^ Plam. Jex ^^ ^j^^ • ^tah 

Colorado j^ction of Green and Grana nw 

Colorado iJ^per Columbia Lake B. C • 

Columbia . . Connecticut Lake. N. »• •;,-p;owah Rivers, Ga 



Rivers, N. C Arkansas River 

Matagorda Bay- ■ 

GuU of CaUfornla. 
Paciac Ocean . . ,• 
Long island Sound 



^mberland . . . jfSskuf MoJinUto N 



ys,. 



g^erffies-. : : : IgSiKounralns. Col 

Dolores Near Atlanta, Ga. .. .•■■ 

Flint Grten Lake county. Wis 

Fo"- • „ Near Raymond, Pa. .. • • 

Genesee - • - £i;^„an Mountains. N . Mex 

Gila. Southern Iowa . . . • • ■ • • 

Grand HiUsdale County. Mich 

Grand orand Lake, Col . . • ■ ■ „ ^ 

Grand • • • feF„e Ridge Mountains, N. C 

Great Kanawha, g^e Ri'feounty. Ky . . ■■ 

Green. . • Pnrahontas County, W. v a 

Greenbrier . • • f^^S Range. Col . 
Gunnison \?r=„" i^nrt County. N. _Y . 



Rockland County. 1 



Alabama River. . , 

Ohio River 

Delaware Bay. ■^■. 

Mississippi River. 

Grand River 

ApXchicola River.... 

Green Bay. 

Lake Ontario 

Colorado River . . ■ 
Missouri Rt''"^- ■ • • • 
Lake Michigan. . . 

Green River 

OhioRlver ■ 

Ohio River. ■-■^\-- 
Great Kanawha River. 

Grand Rtyer • • 

Newark Bay. . • • ; 
iSong Island sound . 

New York Bay. 



Chesapealte Bay. 
Lake Michigan. . 



Formed by JacKsou:> tt ....•■• 

Kalamazoo • • • ifjn^lla^SV^^^ ' ^^.l, ,„, Solomon River. Kan. Missouri River ^^ 

Kanawha junction of Smoky HU Fork an Kitlc Ocean 

Kansas • • • • h^"hampaljn County. HI ••■•■• • • Ati.^ ^^^^^ 

Iranebec*' '. • • Moosehead Lake Me j^ . . ■••;;; Green Bay 



S.ckr . : •• : \iSTXX^rpti^^i^^^ mvers. Mlch ._ . . . . . . . . . Itf^Uc Oce^an.^.^; • ■ 

Menominee ••• iJJT;-'te Mountains. N. H. Gult of Mexico. . . ■ 

Tv/iorrimao . . • • »y.'"X^ ._„ T oVp fl. Dak. . ■;■.■,!::■„ tqVb Minn. • . "^n" .V 4,1.. 



^^S.:. . :: ■M^^i.^^Xi- .. ^^^^h^-X^:. . : :e^^.^ 



350 
350 
150 
160 
90 
2,000 
500 
190 
300 
850 
900 
250 
500 
500 
50 
650 
650 
1,360 
1,400 
410 
350 
650 
375 
450 
250 
350 
250 
145 
560 
200 
280 
350 
450 
350 
175 
200 
50 
150 
350 
375 
436 
450 
200 



(a) 300 
320 
175 
250 
125 
150 
475 
14,200 
50 



Minnesota. . - 
Missourl-Mlss'pl 



,,^^««|^and Alabama Rive. 
Se^rw^^^-'^and fygarfs Valley R.vers.W. Va. 



• ■• • ■• ^XXfTo? Afc-V and Monongaheia Rivers. Pa . 

• ■ ■ '.Lyon County. Kan .•■••••;;;•■.■•.•.■. 



■ ■ Mo'Ste CountyTN- J- 
■;; wSstou county. Miss 



Ro^ylMonnt/^i^^^.^n A'^ C 



Mobile 

Mohawk. •■ • 
Monongaheia . 

Neosho 

Neuse. • • 

Ocmulgee 

Ohio. . ■ 

Osage. 

Passaic 

Pearl 

pecos . • ,,,•;■ It^uip Ridge Mountains, 

Pedee (Yadkin) . ^w^^w^county. Me. 

Penobscot . • • • |9,™|^ater River,. W I'O. . . 

|T<fHornMountaii^.A^yo . 
A leshany Mountatas W. ^ a 

In the Staked Plain./ ^^ 
T ake Traverse, Minn . ■ 

- , Koshkonong Lake, WIS.- 

Rock ^rthern Texas. . 

Sabine.,,,„ • ■ ' ■ho^^^^-ci^es. Wis 



Platte . 
Powder. . 
Potomac . 

Rid (ot'N^rth) 
Rio Grande 
Roanoke . 



Sacramento 
St. Croix 



St. Crolx ^^""K^rancols CouOtV. Mo ■ • • • • • pj ; 

St. Francis . . • -EVevard and Osceola Counties, tia. 



S^^^feSaieeRlver^aC. 
i«!SVy S.'iS.'and Klowee Rivers. S.C- 

blai^"a^u»hio::::::::-.:--; ;:::•.::.: 
r^°^^ndoah:.::NoHh^i^^^^^^^^^ 

Snake ''■^ 



St. John B 
St. Joseph.. 
San Joaquin 
Santee ■ • ■ • • 
Savannah . 
Schuylkill 



Hudson River 

Alleghany River ... 
Ariuinsas River. . . 

Pamlico Sound 

AitamahalUver.-. 
Mississippi Ri\ er .. 

Missouri River 

Newark Bay 

Gi'll of Mexico.. . . . 
Bio Grande River . . 
Wlnvaw Bay. o- ^ 

Penobscot Bay 

Missouri River. . . • 
Yellowstone River. . 
Chesapeake Bay.... 
Mississippi River. . 

Lake Winnipeg 

Gulf of Mexico.... • 
Ulhemarle sound... 
Mississippi River. . . 

Gulf of Mexico 

SuisunBay^ ..•••• 

Mlsslsslpp R ver. . 

MlsslsilPDl River. . 

Atlantic Ocean 

Lake Michigan 

Sacramento River. 

Atlantic Ocean 

Atlantic Ocean. .. . 
Delaware River . . . 

OhioRlver. 

Ipotomao River. . . . 
■ Columbia River. . . 



160 
300 
40C 
300 
280 
950 
460 
100 
850 
800 
300 
350 
1,260 
400 
4.50 
1.200 
700 
1,800 
240 
330 
460 
600 
200 
460 
400 
260 
350 
150 
450 
130 
226 
200 
9S0 



Canals. 



73 



PRINCIPAL AMERICAN RIVERfi— Continued, 



Names. 



Susquehanna. . 
Susquehanna . . 



Suwanee 

1 allahatchee. . 
Tallapoosa . . . 
Tennessee. . . . 
Tombigbee . . . 

Trinity 

Wabash 

Washita 

White 

Willamette. .. 
Wisconsin .... 

Yadkin 

Yazoo 

Yellowstone. . 
Yukon 



Sources. 



North or East Branch, Lake Schuyler and Otsego Lake, 

N. y 

West Branch, near Raymond, Pa 



Okefinokee Swamp, Ga 

Northern Mississippi 

Paulding County, Ga 

Formed by Clinch and Holston Rivers, Tenn 

Prentiss County, Miss 

Northern Te.xas 

Mercer County, Ohio 

Western Arkansas 

Northwestern Arkansas 

Cascade Range. Ore 

Northern Wisconsin 

See "Pedee." 

Junction ot Tallahatchee and Yalobusha Rivers, Miss. 

Rocky Mountains, Wyo 

Lake Lindeman, Yukon District, Canada 



Mouths. 



Length 
MUes. 



Chesapeake Bay 256 

Susquehanna River .250 



Gulf of Mexico. . . 

Yazoo River 

Coosa River 

Ohio River 

Mobile River. . . . 
Galveston Bay. . . 

Ohio River 

Red River 

Mississippi River. 
Columbia River. . 
Ml.sslsslppl River 

Mississippi River. 
Missouri River . . 
Be'-lng Sea 



SOS 
200 
240 
250 
1,200 
475 
530 
550 
550 
800 
275 
400 

300 
1,100 
2,200 



* Source of Missouri River, t Source of Mississippi River. J Total length from source of Missouri 
River to Gulf of Mexico. The Missouri River connects with the Mississippi 3 nxUea below Alton, 111. 
(a) Exclusive of affluents. 

OPENING AND CLOSING OF NAVIGATION 

ON THIS HUDSON RIVER, ERIE CANAL AND LAKE ERIE. 



NaVIGATTON Of THE ilunSON KlVEIt. 



River Open. 



Mar. 
Mor. 
Mar. 
April 
April 
Mar. 
Mar. 
M.ir. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
April 



28, 1901.. 
11, 1902 . 

14, 1903.. 
4, 1904.. 
3, 1905.. 

22, 1906,, 

29, 1907.. 

23, 1908.. 

15, 1909,. 

n, 1910.. 

22, 1911.. 
26, 1912.. 
n, 1913.. 
31, 1914.. 
IS, 1915 
3, 1916.. 



River Closed. 



Bee. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
D.c. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 



1901... 

1902... 

190:i... 

1904 .. 

19'i5... 

1906. . 

1907 .. 

1908... 

1909... 

1910.. 

1912... 

1913... 

1913 .. 

1914... 

1915... 



Days 
Opel.. 



248 
266 
263 
244 
267 
260 
233 
271 
283 
268 
288 
318 
288 
267 
278 



Xavigatiov of thk Erie Can.w.. 



Canal Open. 



May 7, 

April 24, 

May 2, 

May 5, 

May 4, 

May 2, 

May 1, 

May 6, 

May 15, 

May 15. 

May 15, 

May 15, 

May 16, 
fMay I5-i5 

May 16, 

Mav 15, 



19C1 . 
1902.. 
1903.. 
1904.. 
1905. 
1906.. 
1907 . 
1908.. 
1909 . 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
,1614.. 
1915.. 
1916.. 



Canal Closetl. 



Nov. 


30 






4 






28 






26.... 




Nov. 


28.... 






28 




Dec. 


10 




Nov. 


SO.... 




Nov 


16.... 




Nnv. 


15 




Nov. 
Nov. 


15.... 
15 .. 




Dec. 
Dec. 


1.... 

1.... 




Nov. 


30.... 





Navigable 
Davs. 



207 
224 
210 
205 
209 
211 
224 
210 
185 
185 
185 
186 
201 
201 
200 



Openln 


g o£ Laka 


Erie.* 




April 


20, 


1901 


April 


9. 


1901i 


April 


ti, 


1903 


May 


lo! 


1904 


April 


22, 


1905 


April 


16, 


1906 


April 


6, 


19u7 


Apill 


26, 


1908 


April 


22, 


1909 


April 


15, 


1910 


April 


16, 


1911 


Apill 


28, 


1912 


Apill 


13, 


1913 


April 


14, 


1914 


April 


16, 


1915 


1 April 


16, 


1916 



table 



At Buffalo. + Eastern and Middle Divisions, May 15, 1914; Western 
IS kept by the State buperintendent of Public Works. 



Division, May 25, 1914 The record In the above 



CANALS. 

Statement stowing the cost, length and navigable depth of the principal canals of the United States 
and Canada used for commercial purposes. 



Canals. 



Cost of 
Construc- 
tion.* 



Len'h 


Depth 


MUes 


Feot.t 


llH 


12 


7 


10 


20 


10 


35 


4 


3K 


22 


32 


5 


28 


6 


8-13 


25-30 


25 


12 


81 


12 


32 


5 


14 


9 


1GB 


6 


8 


7 


23 


4H 


8H 


7 


66 


7 


60 


6 


387 


12 


6 


6 


4H 


5 


370 


5 


38 


5 


8 


15 



Location. 



Albemarle and Chesapeake 

Augusta 

Beaufort 

Black River 

Black Rock Channel .... 

Brazos River 

Caloosahatchee 

Cape Cod (ship canal) . . . 
♦♦Cayuga and Seneca . . . 



tChamplaln 

Channel 

Chesapeake and Delaware 
Chesapeake and Ohio . . . 

Colbert .Shoala 

Company 

Dalles-Celllo 



Delaware and Rarltan 

Delaware Division 

lErle 

EsthervlUe-Mlnlm Creek . 

Fairfield 

Florlaa Coast Line 

Galveston and Brazos 

Harlem River (ship canal) . 



$1,641,363 

1,500,000 

502.078 

3,581,954 

3,000,000 

255.000 

425,000 

12,000,000 

2,232,632 

4,044,000 

450.000 

4.000,000 

11,290,327 

2,350,000 

90,000 

4,800,000 

4,888,749 

2,433,350 

52,540,800 

174,619 

50.000 

3,500,000 

340,000 

2,700,000 



Norfolk, Va., to Albemarle Sound, N. C. 
Savannah River, Ga., to Augusta, Ga. 
Beaufort Inlet, N. C , to Pamlico Sound. 
Rome, N. Y., to Lyons Falls, N. Y. 
Cotmects Lake Erie and Niagara River at Buffalo, 

N. Y. 
Brazos River to Matagorda Bay, Tex. 
Fort Myers to Lake Okeechobee, Fla. 
Connects Buzzards Bay and Barnstable Bay 
Montezuma. N. Y., to Cayuga and Seneca Lakes, 

N. Y. 
Whitehall, N. Y., to WatervUet, N. Y. 
Bet. Apalachlcola River * St. Andrews Bay, Fla 
Connects Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. 
Cumberland, Md., to Wf^hlngton, D. C. 
Colbert Shoals, Tennessee River, Ala. 
Miss. Rlv. at New Orleans, La., to Bayou Black. 
Columbia River, from Big Eddy to Celllo Falls. 

Oregon. 
New Brunswick, N. J., to Bordentown, N. J 
Easton, Pa., to Bristol, Pa. 
Albany. N. Y.. to Buffalo, N. Y. 
Wlnyaw Bay, 8. C. to Santee River. 
Alligator River to Lake Matlamuskeet, N. C. 
Mayport, Fla., to Miami. 
Oyster Bay, Tex., to Brazos River, Tex. 
Connects Hudson River (via Spuyten Duyvll 

(Sreek) and Long Island Sound. 



74 



Canals — CotUinued. 



Canau. 



Cost 0/ 

Construo- 

tlon.* 



Len'h 
Miles 



Depth 
Feet.t 



Location. 



Hillsboro 

lUlnol!! and Michigan 

Illinois & Mississippi (TTennepln) 
Inland Waterway (Lewes Canal) 

Lake Prummond 

Lake Landing 

Lake Washlngton-Puget Sound 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co. 
Louisville and Portland .... 
Mattamuskeet Out Fall. . 

Miami and Erie 

Miami 

Morris 

Muscle Shoals and Elk R. Shoals 

North New River 

N. J. Coastal Inland Waterway 

Ohio . . 

JOswego 

Pennsylvania 

Portage Lake and Lake Superior 

Port Arthur (ship canal) 

Sablne-Neches 

Salem 

Santa Fe 

Sault Ste Marie (ship canal) 



Schuylkill Navigation Co 

South New River 

Sturgeon Bay and Lake Mlch'n 

St. Clair Flats 

St. Lucie 

St. Mary's Falls 



Sl.302,000 
6,339,098 
7.320,000 

356,000 
2,800,000 
25,000 
5,000,000 
4,455,000 
6,716,086 

600,000 
8,062,680 
1,765,000 
5,100,000 
3,156,919 

581,504 

450,000 

a)4,695,204 

5.239,526 

7.731.7.50 

1,725,000 



1.081,000 



St. Mary's Falls (parallel canal) 
West Palm- Beach 



70,000 
4,000.000 

12,461,600 

792,400 

287,000 

1,180,000 

2,075,000 

9,400,000 

9,475,000 
474,988 



50 
96 
75 
12 
22 

4 

6>^ 
108 

7 

274 

79 

103 

16 

59 

114 

70 

38 

103 

25 

7 

16 

2 

10 

IH 

108 
25 

1^ 
25 
IH 

IH 

42 H 



6-8 

5 

7 

6 

9 

5 
36 

6 

9 

6 

6-8 

5 

5 

5-8 

6 

4 

12 

6 

20 

26 

26 

5-8 

5 

18 

6M 
6-8 
20 
20 
8-12 
18H 



Deerfleld to Lake Okeechobee, Fla. 

Chicago, ni., to La Salle, lU. 

Illinois River to Miss. River, near Rock I.. 111. 

Renoboth Bay to Delaware Bay, Del. 

Connects Chesapeake Bay with Albemarle Sound. 

Lake Mattamuskeet to Wysocklng Bay, N. C. 

Connects Lake Washington and Poiget Sound. 

Coalport, Pa., to Easton, Pa. 

At Falls of Ohio River, Louisville, Ky. 

Hyde County, N G. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, to Toledo, Ohio. 

Lake Okeechobee to Miami, Fla. 

Jersey City, N. J., to Phllllpsburg, N. J. 

Big Muscle Shoals, to Elk River Shoals Tenn. 

Lake Okeechobee to Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. 

Cape May to Bay Head, N. J. 

Cleveland, Ohio, to Dresden. Ohio. 

Oswego, N. Y., to Syrac se, N. Y. 

Columbia, Northumberland, Wllkes-Barre, Pa. 

From Keweenaw Bay to Lake Superior. 

Port Arthur, Tex., to Gulf of Mexico. 

Port Arthur Canal to mouth Sabine River, Tex. 

Salem River to Delaware River. 

Waldo, Fla., to Melrose, Fla. 

Connects Lakes Superior and Huron at St. 

Mary's River. 
Mill Creek, Pa., to Phlladelphla.Pa. 
Ft. Lauderdale to Lake Okeechobee, Fla. 
Between Green Bay and Lake Michigan. 
Canal through delta at mouth of St. Clair River. 
Stuart to Lake Okeechobee, Fla. 
Connects Lakes Superior and Huron at Sault Ste 

Marie, Mich. 
Connects Lakes Superior and Huron. 
Lake Okeechobee, Lake Worth, West Palm Beach. 



CANALS IN CANADA. 



Chambly 

Cornwall 

Lachlne 

Rldeau 

Sault Ste Marie (ship canal). 



Soulanges. 
lITrent . . 



Welland (.ship canal) . 
ttWlUlamsburg 



§728,999 

7,242,804 

13,404,970 

5,531,332 

5,000,000 

8,000,000 
13,611,000 

§29.250,951 
10,490, 1C4 




This canal overcomes the rapids between 

Chambly and St. .Johns. 
Cornwall to Dickinson's Landing. 
Montreal to Lachlne. 

Connects River Ottawa with Lake Ontario. 
Connects Lakes Superior and Huron at St. Mary's 

River. 
Casca'Je Point to Coteau Landing. 
Connects Lake Ontario and Lake Huron via 

Trent River. 
Connects Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. 
Along St. Lawrence River. 



* And Improvements. tNavigable depth. || Under construction. § Not including cost of improve- 
ments and changes in locks, etc., now under way and involving an additional cost of about $20,000,000. 
tt Consisting of the Farrans Point, Raoide Plat and Galops Canals, (a) Original cast of canal extending 
from Cleveland to Portsmouth, 317 miles, but now abandoned between Portsmouth and Dresden. 

t The Erie Canal, Oswego Canal and Champlain Canal are being enlarged by the State of New York 
to a depth of 12 feet, and with locks of a capacity to pass barges having a net tonnage capacity of 2,000 tons 
each. The enlarged CJhamplain Canal between Troy and Whitehall, a distance of sUty-one miles, was com- 
pleted and placed in commission in May, 1916. The Oswego (Barge)- Canal is now open between the Three 
River Point and Lake Ontario at Oswego for boats ofsix-foot draught, with a connection with the Erie Canal 
at Syracuse through a portion of the unimproved canal. Several large sections of the Erie Barge Canal al- 
ready have been completed and are In commission. Report of State Superintendent of Public Works in- 
dicated that entire canal from Hudson River to Lake Ontario will be ready for operation in the season of 1917. 

In July, 1916, there were 277 miles of completed Barge Canal in use as follows: Erie (Barge) Canal — 
Waterford to Jacksonburg (Mohawk River), 86 miles; Lyons to Falrport, 25 miles; Greece to Tonawanda, 
73 miles. Total. 184 miles. Champlain (Barge) Canal — Waterford to Northumberland (Hudson River), 
26 miles; Northumberland to Whitehall. 35 miles. Total, 61 miles. Oswego (Barge) Canal — Mud Lock to 
Oswego. 32 miles. Grand total, 277 miles. To tliis may be added the improved canal between Mud Lock 
and Baldwinsville, 5 miles, and between Three Rivers and Brewerton, 10 miles, which, though completed, 
may not be used in connection with the main line of canal, but which has opened Oneida Lake to canal traf- 
fic from its westerly end. 

The original estimated cost of enlarging the Erie, Champlain and Oswego Canals was SlOl. 000,000, but 
has since been increased bv 810,000.000 for terminals and $8,000,000 for branches. The plan of improvement 
covers 440 miles of construction and 350 miles of canalized rivers and lakes, or 790 miles altogether. 

** The coivt of enlargin? the Cayuga and Seneca Canal to the same capacity as the improved Erie 
Canal Is e-itimated at 87,000.000. 

TONNAGE ON CANALS. 

Sault Ste Marie in 1915, 71,290,304 tons; all New York Canala in 1915, 1,858,114 tona aa follows: 
Erie,l,155,235; Champlain, 503,030; Oswego, 142,312; Cayuga and Seneca, 26,384; Black River. 31,153. 



SoMB Foreign Canals. 



Suez— Mediterranean aud lied Sea.s 

Cronstadt— Petrograd 

Manchester— Manchester and Liverpool 

Kaiser Wilhelm (Kiel Canal)— Baltic and North Seas 

Elbe andTrave 

Berlin-Stettin (Hohenzollern Canal) 

Marseilles— Kiver Rhone 



103 
16 

61 

41 

136 

60 




Est)ZD.ited 
Co^U 

$127,000,000 
10,000,000 
8,'),000,000 
40,000,000 
6,000,000 
12,500,000 
20,000,000 



Facts About the Earth. 



75 



NATIONAL GRANGE, PATRONS OF HUSSANORY. 



Master — Oliver Wilson, Peoria, 111. Overseer — W. H. Vary, Watertown, N. Y. Lecturer— 
E. E. Chapman, Ludlow, Mass. Steward — F. C. Bancroft, Wyoming, Del. Assistant Steward — J. A. Sher- 
wood, Long Hill, Ct. Chaplain — A. P. Reardon, McLouth, Kan. Treasurer — Mrs. Eva S. McDowell, 
6 Norfolk Terrace. Wellesley. Mass. Secretary — C. M. Freeman, Tippecanoe City, Ohio. Gatekeeper — C. L. 
Rice, Austin, Minn. Ceres — Mrs. Esther E. Pattee, Laconla, N. H. Pomona — Mrs. Cora E. Ketcham, 
Hastings, Mich. Flora — Mrs Ella Pecltham, Newport. R I L. A. Steward — Mrs. Mabel H. Harland. Payette, 
Idaho, ffigfi Priest — C. M. Gardner. Westfleld, Mass. Priest Archon — Oliver Wilson. Peoria, ill. Priest 
Annalist — C. E. Spence, Oregon City, Ore. Executive Committee: C. S. Stetson, Chairman. Greene, Me.; 
A. B. Judson. Balfour. Iowa; W. N. Cady, Secretary. Mlddlebury, Vt. 

The National Grange has established over 30.000 subordinate granges throughout the United 
States. 

FACTS ABOUT THE EARTH. 

(Revised by the National Geographic Society of Washington, D. C, from the latest available figures and 

estimates ) 

The superficial area of the earth is 196,940.000 square miles — 140,295,000 square miles of water and 
56,255,000 square miles of land. The three great oceans comprise the Atlantic, 41,321.000 square miles; 
Pacific, 68,634,000 square miles, and Indian, 29,430,000 square miles. There are about 1,000.000 square 
miles of lalie and river surface on the land, and 1.910.000 square miles of islands in the seas. The diameter 
of the earth at the equator is 7.926 miles, and through the poles 7.899 6 miles. The average elevation of 
the land above sea level Is 2,300 feet. The average depth of the ocean below sea level is 12.600 feet The 
deepest place in the ocean yet found is off Mindanao, Philippine Islands, 32,088 feet. The highest moun- 
tain is Mount Everest, in the Himalaya.s, 29,002 feet. This gives a range of 6 1,090 feet or more, 11 H miles, 
between the bottom of the oceans and the top of the land. 

AREA AND POPULATION OF THE EARTH BY CONTINENTS. 





Area in 
Square 
MUes. 


Inhabitants. 1 


CONTINENTAI. 

Divisions. 


Area in 
Square 
Miles 


Inhabitants. 






Number. 


PerSq. 
Mile. 


Divisions. 


Number. 


JerSq. 
MUe. 


Africa 

America, N 

America, S 

Asia 


11.622.619 
8,589.257 
7.570,015 

17,206,000 


142.751.000 

140,084,000 

55,779,000 

872,522,000 


12 3 

16 3 

7 4 

.50.7 


Australasia . . . 

Europe 

Polar Regions 

Total 


3.312,613 
3,872.561 
5,081,935 


15,934,000 

464,681,000 

000,000 

1,691,751.000 


4 8 
120 


57,255.000 


29 5 



The total area of the land, given here, includes Inland waters and is the Sir John Murray estimate. 
In the areas of the several continents the Statistical Abstract and the Statesman's Yearbook have been fol- 
lowed in the case of North and South America, Europe and Australasia. In the case of Asia and Africa, where 
detailed surveys have never been made, planlmetric measurements of shore lines are relied upon The polar 
regions are, of course, only an approximation. Population statistics are from the Statistical Abstract and 
the Statesman's Yearbook. „^ „„„ „„„ 

The best estimates of the earth's area place the fertile regions at 29,000,000 square miles; steppes at 
14 000 000 square miles; deserts at 4,861.000 square miles; and polar regions at 6,970,000 square miles. 

' The population of the earth at the death of Emperor Augustus, estimated by Bodlo, was 54,000,000 
The population of Europe hardly exceeded 50,000,000 before the fifteenth century.— MaZAoZJ. The popula- 
tion of the earth, at Its present ratio of gain, will be about 4,000,000,000 in 2014 J , ACO ^ 

The proportion of females to each 1,000 males m 1910 was: United States 934; England, 1.068; Ger- 
many. 1,026. In France (1901). 1,033. 

HIGHEST AND LOWEST CONTINENTAL ALTITUDES. 



North America 
South America. 

Europe 

Asia 

Africa 

Australia 



Highest Point. 



Mount McKlnley. Alaska 

Mount Aconcagua. Chile- Argentina... 

Mont Blanc, France 

Mount Everest. India-China 

Kibo Peak. East Africa 

Mount Kosciusko. New South Wales. 



Ele- 
vation 
(Ft) 



20,300 
23,080 
15,782 
29,002 
19.320 
7.328 



Lowest Point. 



Death Valley, California 

Sea level 

Caspian Sea, Russia 

Dead Sea. Palestine 

Desert of Sahara 

Lake Torrens. South Australia. 



Below 

Sea Level 

(Ft). 



276 

'86 

1,290 

150 

25 



POPULATION OF THE EARTH ACCORDING TO RACE 



RACE 



Indo-Germanlc or 
Aryan (white) . . 

Mongolian or Tu- 
ranian (yellow 
and brown) 

Semitic (white) . . . 

Negro and Bantu 
(black) 



Location. 



Europe, America. 
Persia. India. 
Australia 



Asia.. . , 

Africa, Arabia, etc 



Africa. 



Number. 



795,000,000 



630,000.000 
70,000,000 

134,000,000 



Race. 



Malay and Poly- 
nesian (brown).. 

\inerlcan Indian, 
North and South 
(red and half 
breeds) 



Total 



Location 



Australasia. 



Number 



35.000,000 



27.000,000 



1,691,000,000 



For statistics of earth's population according to creed, see Religious Statistics. 

The human family <ls subject to 57 Independent and three quasi-Independent governments. The 
British Empire and Russia are the largest two, while Monaco with its eight square miles and San Marino 
with its thirty-eight square miles of territory are the smallest two. The absolute monarchies are Abyssinia. 
Afghanistan Morocco. Slam, Oman, and Monaco; the limited monarchies are Albania, Austria-Hungary, 
Belgium, Bhutan, British Empire, Bulgaria, Denmark. German Empire. Gr.eeee. Italy, Japan Liechtenstein, 
Luxemburg Montenegro, Nepal, Netheriands, Norway, Persia. Roumania, Russia, Serbia, Spain, bweden, 
and Turkey the republics are Andorra. Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica. 
Cuba Ecuador. Guatemala. Haiti. Honduras. Liberia. Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, 
Portugal Salvador, San Marino, Santo Domingo, Switzerland, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela. 

The average duration of human life Is about 33 years One-quartor of the people on the earth die 
before age 6, one-half before age 16, and only about 1 person of each 100 born lives to 65 



76 



Metric System. 



METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

The use of the metric system is obligatory In thirty-four countries of the world, including practically 
all the countries of South America, and all but three or four of the European countries. Its use Is also op- 
tional In the following eleven countries: Bolivia, Canada, China, Egypt, Great Britain and Ireland, Greece, 
Japan, Paraguay, Russia, United States of America, and Venezuela. Various names of the preceding sys- 
tems are, however, frequently used: In Germany, M kilogram = 1 pound; in Switzerland, 3-10 of a meter 
= 1 foot, etc. If the first letters of the prefixes deka, hecio, kilo, myria, from the Greek, and deci, centl, miU. 
from the Latin, are used In preference to our plain English, 10, 100, etc , it is best to employ capital 
letters for the multiples and small letters for the subdivisions to avoid ambiguities in abbreviations: '1 deka- 
meter or 10 meters = 1 dkm.; 1 decimeter or 1-10 of a meter = 1 dm. 

The Meter, unit of length, is nearly the ten-miUlonth part of a quadrant of a meridian, of the distance 
between Equator and Pole. The International Standard Meter is, practically, nothing else but a length 
defined by the distance between two lines on a platlnum-irldium bar at 0° Centigrade, deposited at the 
International Bureau of Weights and Measures, Paris, France. 

The Liter, unit of capacity. Is derived from the weight of one kilogram pure water at greatest density, 
a cube whose edge is one-tenth of a meter and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a metric ton. 

The Gram, unit of weight, is a cube of pure water at greatest density, whose edge la one-hundredth of a 
meter, and, therefore, the one-thousandth part of a kilogram, and the one-millionth part of a metric ton. 



The Metric System was legalized In the United States on July 28, 1866, when Congress enacted as 
follows: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assem- 
bled. That from and after the passage of this act it shall be lawful throughout the United States of America 
to employ the weights and measures of the metric system, and no contract or dealing or pleading In any 
court shall be deemed invalid or liable to objection because the weights or measures expressed or referred 
to therein are weights or measures of the metric system. 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted. That the tables in the schedule hereto annexed shall be recognized 
In the construction of contracts and In all legal proceedings as establishing in terms of the weights and 
measures now In use in the United States the equivalents of the weights and measures expressed therein 
In terms of the metric system; and said tables may be lawfully used for computing, determining, and ex- 
pressing in customary weights and measures the weights and measures of the metric system. 

MEAStTKES OF LENGTH. 



Metric Denominations and Values. 


Equivalents in Denominations in Use 


Myriameter 10,000 meters. 


6.2137 miles. 


Kilometer 1,000 meter.s. 

Hectometer 100 metere. 

Dekameter _ 10 meters. 

Meter 1 meter. 

Decimeter 1-10 of a meter 

Centimeter 1-100 of a meter. 

Millimeter „ .. 1-1000 of a meter. 


0.62137 mile, or 3. 2S0 feet 10 inches. 
32S feet 1 inch. 
393.7 inches. 
39.37 inches. 

3.937 inches. 

3937 inch. 

0.0394 inch. 



MJBiAsnKE.s OF Surface. 



Metric Denominations and Values. 



Hectare 10, 000 square meters. 

Are 100 square meters, 

Centare - 1 square meter. 



Equivalents iu Denomlnatioos iu Use. 



2. 471 acres. 
119.6 square jards. 
1,550 square inches. 



Measures op Capacity. 



Metric Denominations and Values 


Equivalents in Deuomlnatlous in Use. 


Name.s. 


Num- 
ber of 

Liters. 


Cubic Measure. 


Dry Measure. 

1 308 cubic yards 

2 bush, and 3. 35 pecks 

9. 08 quarts 

0.908 quart 

6.1022 cubic inches 

61.02 cubic incti 

0.061 cubic inch 


Liquid or Wine Measure. 


Kiloliterorstere. 

Hectoliter 

Dekaliter... - 

Liter 

Deciliter 

Centiliter 

Milliliter 


1,000 

100 

10 

1 

1-10 

1-100 

1-1000 


1 cubic meter- 

1-10 of a cubic meter. . .. . 

10 cubic decimeters 

1 cubic decimeter- 

1-10 of a cubic decimeter. 


264. 17 gallons. 
26.417 gallons. 
2.6417 gallons. 
1.0567 quarts. 
0.845 gilL 
338 fluid ounce 


1 cubic centimeter 


0.27 fluid dram. 



Metric System. 



77 



METRIC SYSTEM— Coniimied. 



WEIGHTS. 



Metric Denominations and Values. 


Equivalents i.v De- 
nominations IN Use. 


Names. 


Number 

of 
Grams. 


Weight of What Quantity of Water 
at Maximum Density. 


Avoirdupois Weight. 


Millier or tonueau 

Quintal 

Myriagram„ 

Kilogram or kilo 

Hectogram 

Dekagram 

Gram 

Decigram -.. 

Centigram 

Milligram 


1,000.000 

100,000 

10,000 

1,000 

100 

10 

1-10^ 

1-100 

1-1000 


1 cubic meter 

1 liectoUter 

10 liters 

X liter 


2204.6 pounds. 
220.46 pounds. 
22.046 pounds. 
2 2046 pounds. 
3.5274 ounces. 
0.3527 ounce. 
15.432 grains. 
1 5432 grains. 


1 deciliter 

10 cubic centimeters 

1 cubic centimeter 


10 cubic miilimeiers 


1543 grain. 


1 cubic millimeter 


0.0154 grain. 



TABLES FOR THE CONVERSION OF METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES INTO 

CUSTOMARY UNITED STATES EQUIVALENTS AND THE REVERSE. 

From the legal equivalents are deduced the following tables for converting United States weights 
and measures: 



METRIC TO CUSTOMARY. 



CUSTOMARY TO METRIC. 



Linear Measure. 



Me- 

i.ers=Iiis. 
1= 39.37 
2= 78.74 
3=118.11 
4=157.48 
5=196. 85 
6=236. 22 
7=275. 59 
8=314.96 
9=354. 33 



Meters 
1= 3 
2=, 6. 
3= 9. 
4=13. 
5=16. 
6=19. 
7=22. 
8=26. 
9=29. 



28083 
56167 
84250 
12333 
40417 
68500 
96583 
24667 
52750 



iVe- 

tem— Yards. 
1=1. 093611 
2=2 187222 
3=3. 280833 
4=4. 374444 
5=5. 468056 
6=6.561667 
7=7. 655278 
8=8. 748889 
9=9. 842500 



KUoine- 
t.ers= Miles. 
1=0. 62137 
2=1. 24274 
3=1.86411 
4=2. 48548 
5_3. 10685 
6=3. 72822 
7=4. 34959 
8=4.97096 
9=5. 59233 



Ins. =Cen- 
tlinelerx 
1=, 2.54 
2= 5.08 
3= 7.62 
4=10. 16 
5=12. 70 
6=15.24 
7=17. 78 
8^20. 32 
9=22. 86 



Feet=I\felers 
1=0.304801 
2=0. 609601 
3=0.91440'2 
4=1. 219202 
5=1.524003 
6=1. 828804 
7=2. 133604 
8=2. 438405 
9=2. 743205 



Yards = Me- 
ters. 
1=0.914402 
2=1. 828804 
3=2. 743205 
4=3. 657607 
5=4. 572009 
6=5. 486411 
7=6. 400813 
8=7.315215 
9=8. 229616 



MUes=KUo- 
vieters. 
1.60935 
3. 21869 
4. 82804 
6. 43739 
8. 04674 
9.65608 
11.26543 



!=■ 
2= 
3= 

4= 
5. 

6 

7, 



8=12.87478 
9=14.48412 



Square Measure. 






<«>^ 



1=0. 155 
2=0.310 
3=0. 465 
4=0. 620 
5=0. 775 
6=0. 930 
7=1. 085 
8=1. 240 
9=_1. 395 



"Cm « 



1=10.764 
2=21. 528 
3=32. 292 
4=43. 055 
6=53. 819 
6=64. 583 
7=75. ^47 
8=86. Ill 
9=96. 875 



SS2 g.2 



1= 
2= 
3= 

4= 
5= 
6= 

7= 
8 



1 196 

2.392 
3.588 
4.784 
5.980 
7.176 
8.372 
9.568 



9=10. 764 



Cubic Measure. 









s,s=l» 



1= 35. 

2= 70. 
3=105. 
4=141. 
5=176. 
6=211. 
7=247. 
8=282. 
9=317. 



314 
629 
943 
258 
572 
887 
201 
516 
830 



-0 02832 
=0 05663 
=0. 08495 
=0.11327 
=0. 14159 
=0. 16990 
=0. 19822 
=0. 22(;54 
=0. 25485 



Square Measure. 



=0N CQS 



1= 6.452 
2=12. 903 
3=19. 355 
4=25. 807 
5=32. 258 
6=38 710 
7=45. 161 
8=51 613 
9=58.065 



&3 1?^ 



1=0. 09290 
2=0. 18581 
3=0. 27871 
4=0. 37161 
5-0. 46452 
6=0. 55742 
7=0. 65032 
8=0. 74323 
9=0.83613 






1^ 



=0.836 
1.672 

=2.608 
3.345 
4.181 

_6.017 

=5.863 
6.689 
7.526 



Liquid Measure. 



S a§ 



^1 



1=0.338 
2=0.676 
3=1-014 
4=1.353 
5=1.691 
6=2.029 
7=2. 367 
8=2. 705 
9=3.043 




1=1.0667 
2=2.1134 
3=3. 1701 
4=4. 2268 
5=5. 2838 
6=6. 3403 
7=7. 3970 
8=8. 4537 
9=9. 5104 



1=0. 26418 
2=0. 62836 
3=0. 79263 
4=1.05671 
5=1.32089 
6=1. 58507 
7=1. 84924 
8=2. 11342 
9=2.37760 



Dry Measu 




1= 2.8378 
2= 5.6756 
3= 8.5135 
4=11.3513 
5=14. 1891 
6=17.0269 
7=19.8647 
8=22. 7026 
9=25.5404 



1=0. 35238 
2=0.70477 
3=1.05715 
4=L 40953 
5=1. 76192 
6=2. 11430 
7.=2 46668 
8=2. 81907 
9=3. 17146 



Liquid Measure. 



.•2 2 






1= 2.957 
2= 5,916 
3= 8.872 
4=11.829 
5=14 786 
6=17.744 
7=20. 701 
8=23. 658 
9=26.616 



? g 


§ 2 




S = ~ 


1 3 


a ^ 


1=0.94633 


1= 3.78633 


2-1.89267 


2= 7.57066 


3=2. 83900 


3=11. 35600 


4-3. 78533 


4=16. 14133 


6-4.73167 


5=?J. 92666 


6-6. 67800 


6=22. 71199 


7=6. 62433 


7=26. 49733 


8=7. 57066 


8„30. 28286 


9=8. 51700 


9=34. 06799 



78 



Minimum Weights of Produce. 



METRIC SYSTEM— Contimied. 



Weight (Avoirdupois). 



Cenll- 
gravis 

Grains. 


S5 


.2 ^i 

-is. ^^ 


^2 2>« 


Grahis 

1! 
Centi- 
grams. 




■« ^ A 2 


Long 

Tons 

II 

Metric 

Tons. 


1=0 1543 
2=0. 3086 
3=0. 4630 
4=0 6173 
5=0. 7710 
6=0.9259 
7=1.0803 
8=L 2346 
9=1.3889 


1= 35 274 
2= 70.548 
3=105 822 
4=141. 096 
5=176.370 
6=211.644 
7=246. 918 
8= 182. 192 
9=317.466 


1= 2.20462 
2= 4.40924 
3= 6.61386 
4= 8.81849 
5=11.02311 
6=13. 22773 
7=15. 43236 
8=17. 63698 
9=19. 84160 


1=0.9842 
2=1.9684 
3=2. 9526 
4=3. 9368 
5=4. 9210 
6=5. 9052 
7=6.8894 
8=7. 8737 
9-8.8579 


1= 6.4799 
2=12. 9598 
3=19 4397 
4=25.9196 
5=32 3995 
6=38. 8794 
1 7=45.3592 
8=51 8391 
9=58.3190 


1= 28.3495 
2= 56.6991 
3= 85.0486 
4=113.3981 
5=141. 7476 
6=170 0972 
7=198. 4467 
8=226. 7962 
9=255. 1467 


1=0. 45359 
2=0.90718 
3=1.36078 
4=1.81437 
6=2. 26796 
, 6-2.72155 
7=3.17515 
8=3 62874 
9=4. 08233 


1=1.0160 
2=2.0321 
3=3. 0481 
4=4.0642 
5=5. 0802 
6=6.0963 
7=7. 1123 
8=8. 1284 
9=9.1444 



THE METRIC SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED. 

Thefollowingtablesof the metric system of weights and measures have been simplified as much 
as possible for The World Almanac by omittinor such denominations as are not in practical, 
everyday use in the countries where the system is used exclusively. 

TABLEtS OF THLE SYSTEM. 

Length. — The deuomiuations in practical use are milUmelers (mm. ), centimeters (cm. ), meters 
(m. ), and kilometeis (km. ). 

10 mm. = 1 cm. ; 100 cm. = 1 m. ; 1,000 m. = 1 km. Note. —A decimeter is 10 cm. 

Weight.— The deiiominations m use are grams (g.), kilos' (lig. ), and tons (metric tons). 

1,000 g. = 1 kg. i 1.000 kg. = 1 metric ton. 

(Capacity .—The denominations in use are cubic centimeters (c C. ) and liters ().). 

1. 000 c. c. = 1 1. Note —A hectoliter is 100 1. (seldom used). 

Relation o£ capacity and weight to length: A cubic decimeter Is a liter, and a liter of water weighs 

^' APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS. 

A meter is about a yard; a kilo is about 2 pounds; a liter is about a quart; a centimeter is about 
^inch; a metric ton is about same as a ton; a kilometer is about % mile; a cubic ceutimeter is about a 
thimbleful ; a nickel weighs about 5 grams. 



PRECISE EQUIVALENTS. 



lacre = 

1 bushel ■ 

1 centimeter ■■ 

1 cubic ceutimelfv 

1 cubic foot 

1 cubic inch ■ 

Icubic meter ■ 

1 cubic meter ■■ 

Icubic yard ■■ 

Ifoot 

Igallon 

1 grain ■■ 

Igram 

Ihectare 

lincb • 

Ikilo 

1 kilometer . .. . 

inter 

inter .'. 

1 meter 



.40 hectare 

'35 liters 35. 

.39 inch 

= .OCl cubic inch... 

.028 cubic meter. 
' 16 cubic cent, t 16. 

= 35 cubic feet ....35. 

= 1.3 cubic yards... 1. 

,70 cubic meter... . 
= 30 centimeters 30. 
= 3.8 liters 3. 



■ 15 

= 2, 
25 

= 2. 



.065gram.. 



62 
5)1 
1 
.3 



grains 15. 

acres 2 

millimeters. 25 

pounds 2. 

mile 

quart (dry)... 
quarts (liq'd) 1 
feet 3. 



4047 
24 

3937' 
0610 
0283 
39 
31 
308 
7646 
48 
785 
0648 
43- 
471 
40 
205 
6214 
.9081 
057 
281 



1 mile = 

1 millimeter. = 

1 ounce (av'd)... - 
1 ounce (Troy) ..= 

Ipeck = 

1 pint (liquid) = 

1 pound = 

1 quart (dry) = 

1 quart Oiquid).. = 
Isq. ceutimeter. = 

Isq. foot = 

inch = 

meter = 

meter 

yard = 

1 ton (2, 000 lbs. ) = 
1 ton (2,240 lbs.)" 

1 ton (metric) ■ 

1 ton (metric) .. = 
lyard = 



Isq. 
Isq. 
Isq. 
Isq. 



. 1.6 kllometeis .. .. 1 609 

.039 inch „ 0394 

■■ 28 grams 28. 35 

31 grams 31.10 

8.8 Titers 8 810 

.47 liter 4732 

.45 kilo 4.">36 

. 1.1 liters 1.101 

.95 liter 9463 

= .15 sq. inch 1550 

.093 sq. meter 0929 

= 6.6 sq. c' timet' rs. 6 452 

■■ 1.2 sq. yards 1 190 

= 11 sq. leet 10.76 

.84 sq. meter 8361 

.91 metric ton ... .9072» 

. 1 metric ton 1 016 

= 1.1 ton(2,000ibs.) 1.102 

.98 ton (2,240 lbs.) .9842 

.91 meter 9144 



* Contraction for kilogram, t Centimeters. 



MINIMUM WEIGHTS OF PRODUCE. 

Tbe following are appro.\imate weights of certain articles of produce according to the laws of the United 
States: 

Per Bushel 



Wheat 60 lbs 

Com, not defined ... 56 

Corn, in the ear husked 70 

Com, shelled. 56 

Rye .56 

Buckwheat 42-52 

Barley. . 48 
Oats . ... 32 

Peas 60 

Beans, not defined . 60 

Castor Beans. . . 50 

Tomatoes . 45-60 





Per Bushel 


White Potatoes 


60 IDS 


Sweet Potatoes . . 


46-60 ■• 


Onions. . 


.50-57 " 


Carrots 


. 50 •• 


Tuinips. . . . 


55-60 *• 


Dried Peaches . . , 


33 •• 


Peaches, not defined 


48-54 •■ 


Pears, not defined . . 


. 45-60 •' 


Apples, not defined 


.44-50 •• 


Dried Apples . 


. 24-28 •• 


Clover Seed 


...60 •' 


Flax Seed (Linseed) 


. ..56 " 



Per Bushel 

Millet Seed 50 lbs. 

Hungarian Grass .Seed . .48-50 " 

Timothy Seed 45 '" 

Red Top & Blue Grass Seed. 14 ' 

Hemp Seed 44 " 

Salt (see note below). 

Indian Corn or Maize 56 " 

Corn Meal 48 '• 

Ground Peas 24 " 

Malt 30-38 " 

Bran 20 '• 



Salt — Weight per bushel as adopted by different States ranges from 50 to 80 pounds. Coarse salt 
In Pennsylvania Is reckoned at 85 pounds, and in Illinois at 50 pounds per bushel. Fine salt in Pennayl' 
vanla is reckoned at 62 pounds. In Kentucky and Illinois at 55 pounds per bushel. 



Domestic Weights and Measunes. 



79 



MEASURES AND WEIGHTS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

The measures of leng-th and the weights are nearly, practically, the same as those in use in the 
United States. The English ton is 2,240 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the Ions ton, or shipping ton 
of the United States. The English hundredweight is 112 lbs. avoirdupois, the same as the long 
hundredweight of the United States. The Englisli stone is usually equal to one-eighth hundred- 
weight of 112 lbs. , or 14 lbs. avoirdupois. The metre has been legalized at 39. 37079 inches, but the 
length of 39. 370432 inches, as adopted by France, Germany, Belgium, and Kussia, is frequently used. 

The Imperial gallon, the basis of the system of capacity, involves an errrir of about J part in 1,836: 
lOlbs. of water => 277. 123 cubic inches. (A late authority gives the weight of the Imperial gallon as 
10.017 pounds and of the United States gallon as 8.345 pounds. ) 

The English statute mile is 1,760 yards or 5,280 feet. The following are measures of capacity : 



Names. 



4 gills 
2 pints 
2 quarts 
2 pottles 
2 gallons 
4 necks 
4 bushels 
2 coombs 



piut - 

quart 

pottle _., 

gallon -.. 

peck 

bushel. . 
1 coomb... 
1 quarter- 



Pounds of 
Water. 



1.25 
2.5 
5 
10 

20 ■ 
80 
320 
640 



^uuuilius =^ J~ qu2ti L<;i • u-±v> 

A cubic foot of pure goM weighs 1,210 p 
710 pounds } pure platiaum, 1,2^0 poumls ; ti 



u en 



Cubic Inches. 



34.00 

69.32 

138.64 

277. 27 

554 55 

2218. 19 

8872. 77 

17745.54 



Litres. 



0.56793 

1. 13586 

2.27173 

4.54346 

9. 08692 

36.34766 

145. 39062 

290. 7813 



United States 
Equivalents. 



1. 20032 liquid pints. 
1.20032 '' quarts. 
2.40064 " 
1.20032 " gallons. 
1.03152 dry pecks. 
1.03152 " bushels. 
4.12606 " 
8. 2521 



1,210 pnunds ; puies 
"■'" ' *,in, 456 pouuds 



silver, 655 pounds ; cnst iron, 450 pounds; copper, 650 pounds ; 
; Hluminuui, lu3 pouuds. 



le&d 



DOMESTIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains = l scruple; 3 scruples=l dram; 8 drams=l ounce; 12 
ounces = 1 pound. 

Avoirdupois Weight (short ton): 27 11-32 grains = 1 dram; 16 drams = 1 ounce ; 16ounces— 1 
pound ; '-'5 poumls = 1 (luarter; 4 quarters = 1 cwt. ; 20 cwU = 1 ton. 

Avoiritupois Weight (long ton): 2711-32 grains= 1 dram; 16 drams=l ounce; 16ounc€s — 1 
pound; 112 pounds= 1 cwt. ; 20 cwt. = 1 ton. 

Troy Weight: 24 grains = 1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights = l ounce; 12 ounces = 1 pound. 

Circular lUeasiirt': 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes =°1 degree; 30 degrees •=■ Isign; 12 signs 
■= 1 circle or circumference. 

CUibic measure: 1, 728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot; 27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard. 

Dry Ueasure: 2pints=J quait; 8 quarts = 1 peck; 4 pecks = 1 bushel. 

liquid Pleasure: 4 gills =1 piut; 2 pints = 1 quart; 4 quarts = 1 gallon; 31>^ gallons •= 1 barrel ; 
2 barrels = 1 hogshead. 

Long illeasiire: 12 inches =.1 foot; 3 feet =1 yard; 5i4 yards =• 1 rod or pole ; 40 rods —1 fur- 
long; 8 furlongs = 1 statute mile (1,760 yards or 5,280 feet) ; 3 miles = 1 league. 

i^IariinTs' iUeasiire; 6 feet=l fathom; 120 fathoms = l cable length; 7J^ cable lengths — 1 
mile; 5,280 feet= 1 statute mile; 6,08.5 feet= 1 nautical mile. 

Paper Measure: 24 sheets = 1 quire; 20 quires = 1 ream (480 sheets); 2 reams — 1 bundle; 5 
bundles = 1 bale. 

Square measure: 144 square inches = 1 square foot; 9 square feet= 1 square yard ; 30!^ square 
.yards = 1 square 10(1 or percli; 40 .square iods = l rood; 4 roods = 1 acre; 640 acres = 1 square mile; 
liH square miles (6 miles square) = 1 township. 

Time lUea-sure: eOseconds = l minute; 60 minutes = 1 hour; 24 hours = 1 day; 7 days — 1 
week ; 365 days= 1 year; 366 days = 1 leap year. 

MEDICAL SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS. 
IJ (Lat. Recipe), take; aa, of each; lb, pound; 5, ounce; 3, drachm; ^, scruple; ni,, minim, or 
drop; Ooro, pint; f 5, fluid ounce; f 3 , fluid drachm; as, 5ss, half an ounce; |i,oneounce; 5 iss, 
oneounceand aliaif; 5 ij, twoounces; gr., grain; Q. S. , as much as suthcient; Ft. Mist. , let a mix- 
ture be made; Ft Haust. , let a draught be made; Ad. , add to; Ad lib. , at pleasure; Aq., water; 
M., mix; Mac, maceraf^; Pulv., powder; Pil , pill; Solv., dissolve; St., lefitstand; Sum., to be 
taken; D., dose; Dil., diliite; Filt , filter; Lot. . a wash; Garg., a gargle; Hor. Decub. , at bed time; 
Inject. , injection; Gtt., drops; ss, one- half; Ess. , essence. 



26,000,000 

1,000,000 

25,000,000 

12,500,000 

8,333,333 

6,250,000 

7,225,600 

3.612,800 

1,806,400 

903, 200 

451,600 

225,800 



TEXAS LAND MEASURE. 
(Also used in Mexico, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. ) 



square varas (square of 5,099 
square varas (square of 1.000 
square varas (square of 5,000 
square varas (square of 3,535 5 
square v.aras (square of 2,886.7 
square varas (square of 2,500 
square varas (square of 2,688 
square varas (square of 1,900.8 
square varas (square of 1,344 
square varas (square of 950 44 
square varas (square of 672 
_ _ square varas (square of 475 

5,645.376 square vanus (square of 75. 137 varas) = 4, 840 square yards 
To find the number of acres in any number of square vara-s, multiply the latter 
more exact, by 177^), and cut off six decimals. , „„„ „ , ., 

1 vara =• 33^ inches. 1,900.8 vara.s =■ 1 mile. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF THE PHILIPPINES. 



varas) =■ 1 league and 1 labor = 

vara.s) = 1 labor 

varas) = 1 league 

varas) = 14 league 

varas) = H league 

varas) =» J4 league 

varas) 

varas) = 1 section 

varas) = 14 section 

varas) = ]4 section 

varas) => i4 section 

varas) ■= 1-16 section 



4,605. 

■ 177. 

. 4,428. 

2,214. 

1,476 

1,107. 

1,280 

640 

320 

160 

80 

40 

1 

by 177 



5 acres. 
136 acres. 
4 acres. 
2 acres. 
13 acres. 
1 acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

acres. 

acre. 
(or to be 



1 pulgada (12 Unea) 
1 pie 
1 vara 
1 gantah 
1 caban 



.927 Inch. 

11 125 inches. 

33 375 inches. 

.8798 gallon. 

21.991 gallons. 



1 libra (16 onzo) — 1.0144 lb. av. 

1 arroba =■ 25.360 lb. av. 

1 catty (16 tae') = 1.394 lb av. 

1 pecul (100 catty) = 139.482 lb av. 



80 



Foreign Moneys. 



KNOTS AND MILES. 

The Statute Mile Iso,2S0feet. 

The British AUmiralty Knot or Nautical Mile is 6,080 feet. 

The StaCiite Knot is 6. 082. 66 feet, and is generally considered the standard. The numberof 
feet in a statute linot is arrived at thus: The circumference of the earth is divided into 360 degrees, 
each degree containing 60 V:nots or (360x60), 21,600 knots to the circumference. 21.600 divided 
into 131,38o,4o6— the number of feel in the earth's circumference— gives 6,082.66 feet— the length of 
a standard mile. 



1 knot _ 1. 151 miles I 4 knots = 4.606 miles 

2 knots —2.303 miles 5 knots = 5.757 miles 

3 knots =, 3.454 miles 1 10 knots => 11. 515 miles 



20 knots = 23. 030 miles 

25 knots = 28.787 miles 

6 feet = 1 fathom 



600 feet 
10 cables 



. 1 cable 
' 1 knot 



ANCIENT CREEK AND ROMAN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



WITH AMERICAN' EQUIVALKNTS. 
M'KIGHTS. 

The Eoman libra or pound = 10 oz. 18 pwt. 13 6-7 gr. 
The Attica mina or Dound = 11 oz. 7 pwL 16 2-7 gr. 
The Attica talent (6b minae) = 56 lbs H oz. put 17 

The Grecian furlong 
The Giecian mile = 



, Troy. 
Troy. 
1-7 gr., Troy. 



DRY MEASUKE. 

The Roman modus = 1 pk. 2-9 pint. 
The Attic choenix = nearly 114 pints. 
The Attic medimnus = 4 pk. 6 1-10 pints. 

LIQUID MEASUKE. 

The cotyle = a little over itj pint. 
The cyathus = a little over 114 pints. 
The onus = a little over 6% pints. 

LONG MEASURE. 

The Roman foot = 11 3-5 inches. 
The Roman cubit = 1 ft. 6% inches. 
The Roman pace = 4 ft. 10 inches. 
The Roman furloug =■ 604 ft. 10 inches. 
The Roman mile = 4,835 feet. 
The Grecian cubit = 1ft. 6!^ inches 

*The modern drachma equals 19 3 cents, 
is the value indicated by Tacitus 



■=504 ft. 4 1-5 Inches. 
4,030 ft, 

ilOXEV. 

The quadraus= 1 1-10 mills. 

The as = 13-10 mills. 

The sestertius = 3.58 -J- cents. 

Thesestertium (1.000 sestertii) = $36. 80-^. 

The denarius = 14. 35 -|- cents. 

The Attic obolus = 2.39 + cents. 

The drachma = 14. 35 + cents. * 

The mina (100 drachniee) = $14.35-^. 

The talent (60 miuse) = fe861.00+. 

The Greek stater =, aureus (same as the Roman f) 

= S3. 58,79. 
The stater = daricus = $7.16,66. 

t Did not remain, at all periods, at this value, but this 



BIBLICAL WEIGHTS REDUCKl) TO TROY WEIGHT. 





I,bs 


Oz. 


Pwt. 


Gr. 


The Gerali, one-twentieth oi a Shekel 

TheBekah, half aShekel 

The Shekel 





2 
125 





6 




5 
10 




12 






TheManeh, 60 Shekels '..'.'. '■.'.. 

The Talent, 50 manehs, or 3,000 Shekels ■.;; 



ELECTRICAL UNITS AND THEIR POPULAR DEFINITIONS. 

The watt is the unit expressing electrical energy as horsepower (hp) represents energy in mechanics. 
It Is the sum of the volt (pressure) times ampere (rate of flow) . Thus 2 volts times 2 amperes would give 
you 4 watts. Electrical energy is sold at so much per watt hour or more generally at a given amount per 
kilowatt hour — which means 1,000 watt-hours. This may represent 1 watt for 1.000 hours or say 1,000 
watts for 1 hour. 746 watts are equal to one horsepower or Inversely 1 kilowatt (kw) Is equal to IJ^ 
horsepower. 

The horsepower represents the energy required to lift a weight of 33.000 pounds — 1 foot in 1 minute 
or 550 liJS. 1 foot in 1 second. 

The ohm is the unit of electrical resistance and represents the physical property of a material which 
oHers a resistance to the flow of electricity permitting just 1 ampere to flow at 1 volt of pressure. For 
example, 1,000 feet of copper wire of 10 gauge has lust 1 ohm of resistance and allows the flow of 1 ampere 
at 1 volt. 

A dry battery is made by placing In a hollow receptacle of zinc a piece of carbon, the Intervening space 
being filled with a mixture contalng certain chemicals such as manganese dioxide, powdered carbon and 
some absorbent material such as sawdust, which is then saturated with salammoniac and the receptacle 
sealed. The chemical action set up produces a flow of electricity when the two electrodes, the carbon and 
the zinc, are cotmected by a conductor of electricity such as a wire, a lamp or a motor. 

Theodore Dwight. 



FOREIGN MONEYS. 
Easlish Ifloney: 4 farthings = 1 penny (rf) ; 12 pence ^ 1 shilling (.?) ; 20 shillings _ 1 pound (£). 

21 shillings = one guinea; 6 shillings = one crown. 
French .Honey: 100 centimes = 1 franc. 
German .Honey: 100 pfennig™! mark. 
Ru.sKian .^loney: 100 copecks = 1 ruble. 
Aiistro>Huni;arian jroney J 100 heller = 1 krone (crown). 
For United States equivalents, see tehle of " Value of Foreigu Coins in U. S. Jloney. ' ' 



Simple Interest Table. 



81 



TABLE OF GEOMETRICAL, PROGRESSION. 

(WHEBEBy any questions of Geometrical Progression and of Double Katio may be solved by Inspec- 
tion, the Number of Terms not exceeding 66 ) 



1 


1 


15 


16384 


29 


268435456 


43 


4398046511104 


s 


2 


16 


32768 


30 


636870i'12 


44 


879H09oU22208 


3 


4 


17 


65536 


31 


1073741824 


45 


17592186044416 


4 


8 


18 


131072 


33 


2147483648 


46 


. 35184372088832 


6 


16 


19 


262144 


33 


4294967296 


47 


70368744177664 


6 


3'2 


20 


624288 


34 


8589934592 


48 


140737488355328 


7 


64 


21 


1048576 


35 


171.79869184 


49 


28147497 6710656 


8 


128 


22 


2097152 


3d 


34359738368 


60 


OS294995 3421312 


9 


256 


23 


41943U4 


37 


68719476736 


51 


1125899906842624 


10 


512 


24 


83886(18 


38 


137438953472 


62 


2251799813685248 


11 


1024 


25 


16777216 


39 


274877906944 


63 


4503599627370496 


12 


2048 


26 


33554432 


40 


549755813«88 


54 


90071992547409:^2 


13 


4096 


27 


67108864 


41 


1099511627776 


55 


18014398509481984 


14 


8192 


28 


134217728 


42 


2199023255552 


66 


36028797018963968 



Illustbations— TUe 13th power of 2=Siy2, and the 8th root of 256=2. 



THE ENGLISH MILE. 

COMPARED WITH OTHICU EUUOPEAX MEASURES. 



English Statute Mile. 
English Geog. Mile.. 
French Kilometre.... 
German Geog. Mile.. . 

Russian Verst 

Austrian Mile 

Dutch Ure 

Norwegian Mile 

Swedish Mile 

Danish Mile 

Swiss Stunde 





■sa 

0.867 


French 
1 Kilom. 


= 5 


- * 


at . 

Is 
< 






o; 151 


IS • 

5^ 




1.000 


217 


1 508 


0.212 


289 


142 


213 


0.336 


1 150 


1 000 


1.8u5 


250 


1 738 


245 


0.3:« 


164 


0.169 


246 


386 


0.621 


540 


1.000 


0.135 


937 


0.132 


0.180 


0.088 


094 


133 


0.208 


4.610 


4 000 


7 420 


1 000 


6 953 


0.978 


1 333 


0.657 


694 


985 


1.643 


663 


575 


1 067 


144 


1 000 


0.141 


0.192 


0.094 


100 


0.142 


0.222 


4 714 


4 089 


7.586 


1. 022 


7.112 


1.000 


1.363 


0.672 


710 


1.006 


1.578 


3 458 


3. 000 


5 565 


0.760 


5.215 


0.734 


1.000 


0.493 


0.520 


0.738 


1.157 


7 021 


6 091 


11 299 


1. 523 


10 589 


1.489 


2 035 


1.000 


1.057 


1.499 


2.350 


6 644 


5.764 


10 692 


1 441 


10 019 


1.409 


1.921 


948 


1.000 


1.419 


2. 224 


4.682 


4.062 


7 536 


1 016 


7 078 


994 


1.3.54 


0.667 


705 


1.000 


1.567 


2.987 


2.592 


4.808 


0.648 


4.505 


0.634 


0.864 


0.425 


0.449 


0.638 


l.OOU 



STANDARD NEWSPAPER MEASURES. 

The Standard Newspaper Measure, as recognized and now In general use is 13 ems pica. The 
standard of measurement of all sizes of type is the ' ' em quad, " not the letter " m. " 

The basis of measurements adopted by the International Typographical Union Is the lower-case 
alphabet, from "a" to "z" inclusive, and the ems used are the same body as the type measured. 



4>^ Point 18 ems 

5 Point 17 ems 

Shi Point 16 ems 

6 Point 15 ems 



7 Point 14 ems 

8 Point 14 ems 

9 Point 13 ems 



10 Point 13 ems 

11 Point 13 ems 

12 Point 13 ems 



SIMPLE INTEREST TABLE. 

(Showing at Different Rates the Interest on .$1 from 1 Mouth to 1 Year, and on $100 from 1 Day to 1 Year) 





4 r 


iR CkNT. 


5 P 


BK Cent. 


1 6 Pkr Cs«t. 


,r 


KB CbnT. 


8 !• 


xn C'KXT. 


Time. 


i 


S 


i 1 


i 


i 


JS 


s 


i 


« 


1 


. I 

3 


«Q 


E 

m 


1 I i 




a 


6 


s ! 

3 


& 


5 


4 


<£ 


V 

U 


5 


Q 




5 




o 1 S 


One Dollar 1 month 


6 


2 " 




1 


7 
1 




i 


H 
3 




i 

1 


6 




i 
1 


1 
7 


1 


1 3 


3 " 


2 


6 " 




2 
4 






2 
5 


5 




3 
6 


■ 


1 * • 


3 

/ 


o 


1 


4 


12 " 


8 .. 


One Hundred Dollars 1 day . 




1 
2 


1 
2 




h 


a 

7 




1 
3 


6 
2 




1 
3 


t 




2 2 
4 4 


" " 3 " .. 




3 


4 




4 


1 




5 






5 


8 




6 7 


>• »• 4 '« 




4 


fi 




5 


3 




6 


6 




7 


7 


1 .. 


8 9 


" " 6 " . 




5 


6 




6 


9 




8 


2 




9 


7 


\ 


11 X 


•• " 6 " . 




fi 


7 




8 


3 




10 






11 


6 




13 3 


'• " 1 month 




33 


4 




41 


6 


. 


50 






68 


'i 




66; 7 


• 1 " 2 " 




66 


7 




83 


2 


1 




.. 


1 


16 


6 


1 


33 


3 


■• " 3 " 


1 






1 


25 




1 


5(J 




1 


76 




2 




, , 


•• ,, g .. 


2 






2 


50 




3 






3 


60 




4 




• • 


• • »• 12 " 


4 


.. 


.. 


5 






1 6 




• 


7 






8 


• • 


• • 



82 



Roman and Arabic Numerals. 



COMPOUND INTEREST TABLE. 

COMPOUND INTEREST ON ONE DOLLAR FOR 100 YEARS. 



Amount 


YeftYs. 


cent. 


Arctiiiitila- 
tion. 


AMOUNT 


Vears. 


Per 
cent. 


Acciiiiiiila- 
tioii. 


Amount 


Years 


Fer 
cent. 


AcctinuiLation. 


$1 


100 


1 


$2.70,5 


$1 


100 


^^ 


$81.58,9 


$1 


100 


10 


§13,780.66 




:oo 


o 


7.24,5 




300 


6 


131.50,1 




100 


11 


34,064.34,6 




100 


2W 


11.81.4 




J 00 


6 


339.30,5 




ino 


12 


83,521.82,7 




100 


3 


19.21.8 




100 


V 


81)7.72,1 




100 


15 


1,174,302.40 




100 


3M 


31.19,1 




100 


8 


2,199.78,4 




100 


18 


15,424,106.40 


1 


100 


4 


5(t.50.4 




100 


9 


5,529.04.4 




1(»0 


24 


2, 198,720.200 



YEARS IN WHICH A GIVEN AMOUNT WILL DOUBLE AT SEVERAL RATES OF INTEREST. 





At Simple 
luteresl. 


At Co.mpound I.vtkhbst. 


RiTK. 


At Simple 
Interest. 


At C 


UMPOUND ImKKK.ST. 


RlTK. 


Compounded 


Compounded 


Compounded 


Compounded 


Compounded 


Compounded 






Yenllj. 


.allj. 


Qtiniteil). 






Yenrly. 


ally. 


QuHiterl}. 


1 


100 yetxrs. 


69. 660 


69. 487 


69 237 


6 


16 67 


11. 896 


11.725 


11 639 


IW 


66 66 


46 556 


46 382 


46. 297 


6^ 


15 38 


11 007 


10. 836 


10. 750 


2 


50.00 


35 003 


34 830 


34.743 


7 


14. 29 


lO 245 


10. 074 


9.966 


2^; 


40 00 


28 071 


27. 899 


27.748 


7!^ 


13.33 


9 584 


9.414 


9 328 


3 


33 33 


23 450 


23. 278 


23 191 


8 


12 50 


9.006 


8.837 


8.751 


3^^ 


28.57 


20. 149 


19. 977 


19. 890 


SH 


11.76 


8.497 


8 327 


8. 241 


4 


25. 00 


17.673 


17 501 


17.415 


1 9 


11.11 


8 043 


7.874 


7 788 


4^ 


22 22 


15. 747 


15 576 


15. 490 


! 9^ 


10 52 


7.638 


7.468 


7.383 


fi 


20.00 


14. 207 


14. 035 


13 949 


10 


10 00 


7 273 


7.103 


7.018 


5ii 


18.18 


12. 942 


12. 775 


12. 689 


12 


8.34 


6.116 


5.948 


6.862 



MONTHLY WAGE TABLE.* 



Days. 


$10 


$11 


$12 


$13 


$14 


$15 


$16 


$17 


$18 


$19 


$20 


1 

2 

3 


.38 
.77 
1.15 
1.54 
1.92 
2.31 
2 69 
3.08 
3.46 
3.85 

4 23 
4.62 
5.00 
6 38 

5 77 
7.69 

10.00 

20.00 

30 00 

40 00 

50 00 

60 00 

70 00 

80 00 

90 00 i 

100 ool 

1 0.00 

120.0«)i 


.42 
.85 
1.27 
1.69 
2. 12 
2.54 

2 96 

3 38 
3.81 
4.23 

4 65 

5 08 
5.60 

5 92 

6 3. 
8 46 

11.00 

22 00 

33.00 

44.00 

55.00 

66. 00 

77 00 

88. OO 

99 00 

110.00 

121. 00 

132. 00 


.46 

.92 

1 38 

1 h5 

2.31 

2.77 

3 23 

3.69 

4.15 

4.62 

6.08 

6.44 

6.00 

6 46 

6.92 

9.23 

12.00 

24.00 

36.00 

48.00 

60 00 

72 00 

84.00 

96.00 

108.00 

120. 00 

132.00 

144.00 


.50 

1.00 

l.aO 

2 00 

2 50 

3.00 

3.5() 

4.00 

4 50 

6.00 

5.50 

6.00 

6.50 

7 00 

7 50 

10.00 

13 00 

26.00 

39 00 

52 00 

65.00 

78 00 

91 00 

104 00 

117.001 

130.00 

143.0O 

156.00 


.54 

1.08 

1.62 

2.15 

2.69 

3 23 

3.77 

4.31 

4.85 

5.38 

6 92 

6.46 

7. tlO 

7.54 

8 08 

10 77 

14 00 

28.00 

42.00 

56.00 

70.00 

84 00 

98.00 

112 00, 

126.00 

140.00 

154.00, 

168.001 


.58 
1.15 
1.73 
2.31 
2 88 
3.46 
4.04 
4.62 
5.19 

5 77 

6 35 
6.92 
7.50 
8.08 
8 66 

11.54 

16.00 

30 00 

45.00 

60 00 

75 OU 

90 00 

105.00 

120 00 

135.00 

150.00 

165 00 

180.00 


.62 

1.23 

1.85 

2.46 

3 08 

3.69 

4.31 

4.92 

6.54 

6.1.. 

6.77 

7 38 

800 

8.62 

9.23 

12 31 

16.00 

32 00 

48.00 

64.00 

80.00 

96 (lO 

112 00 

128 00 

144 00 

160 00 

176.00 

192.00 


.65 
1.31 
1 96 
2.62 
3 27 
3.92 
4... 8 

5 23 

6 88 

6 54 
7.19 

7 8.-> 

8 50 
9. 15 

9 81 
13 03 
17 00 
34.00 
51.00 
68 OO 
.S5 00 

10_'. 00 
119 00 
136 00 
153 00 
170. 00 
187.00 
204.00 


.69 
1.38 
2.08 

2 77 

3 46 
4.15 
4.85 
6.54 
6.23 
6 92 
7.62 
8.31 
9 00 
9.69 

10.38 

13. 85 

18 OO 

36 OO 

54 00 

72.00 

90 00 

108 00 

126 00 

144.00 

162. 00 

180 00 

198. 00 

216. 00 


.73 
1.40 

2 19 
2.92 

3 65 

4 38 
5.12 

5 85 
6.58 

7 31 
8.04 

8 77 
9.50 

10 23 

10 96 

14 62 

19 00 

38 00 

57 00 

76.00 

95 00 

114 00 

133.00 

152 00 

171 00 

190 00 

209. 00 

28. 00 


.77 
1.54 
2.31 


4 


3 08 


6 

6 

7 


3.85 
4.62 
6 38 


8 


6.15 


9 

10 

11 

12 

13 


6.92 
7.69 

8 46 

9 23 
10 00 


IC 


10.77 


15 

20 


11 54 
16 38 


1 month ... . 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 


20.00 

40 00 

60 00 

SO 00 

100. 00 

120 00 

140. 00 

160. 00 

180. 00 

200.00 


11 

1 year 


220.00 
240.00 



*aiz workijig days in the week. 







ROMAN AND 


ARABIC NUMERALS. 






1 


1 


XI 

XII 

Xlll 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

xvm 

XIX 


.. 11 
.. 12 
.. 13 
.. 14 
.. 16 
.. 16 
.. 17 
.. 18 
.. 19 
. 20 


XXX 30 

XL. 40 

L. 60 

I.X 60 

I,XX 70 


CCCC 

I> . 

I>C 

ncc 

I>CCC 

CM 

M 

MCMXVII .. 
MM 


400 


II 

Ill 

IV 

V 


2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 


600 

600 

. . 700 
.. .. 800 


.VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 


L,XXX or XXC. . 80 

XC 90 

C 100 

CC 200 

CCC 300 


.. .. 900 
.... 1000 
.... 1917 
2000 


x:...:: 


J^ *M. •>■••••• 





Height and Weight of Men. 



83 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY.* 



IJqnids. 



Timber. 



I 



Siuidriet. 



...lOOGork. 



Water . 
Sea-watei 

Dead Sea 124. Fir 

Alcohol 84 Cedar 

Tnrpentine 99il'ear 

Wine .. 100; Walnut 

Urine 101 Clierry 

Cider 102 Maple 

Beer 102'Asli 

Woman's milk 102|Beecli 

Cow's " 103 Maliogany 

Goat's " 104 Oak 



24 Indigo 77 



....103 Poplar 38 Ice 

55 Gunpowder 
61 Butter 



66 Clay 

.... 67 Coal 
. 72 Opium . 

76 Honey 

84 Ivory . . 

85 Sulpliur 

106 Marble . 

117 Clial Ic 



Porter ]04iEbony 133 Glass. 



92 

93 

94 

. 120 

..130 

134 

.145 

. .183 

203 

.270 

.279 

...289 



Metals and Stones. 



Granite.... 
Diamond . 
Cast iron.. 

Tin 

Bar iron . 

Steel 

Brass 

Copper .... 

Silver 

T-ead 

Meicury 
Gold . 



. 27» 

353 

. 721 

. 729- 

. 779 

783 

840 

895 

1.047 

.1.135 

1.357 

1.926 



Platina 2.150 



The weight of a cubic loot of distilled water at a temperature of 60° F is 1,000 ounces Avoir- 
dupois, iict-?/ /t^an^i/, therefore the weight (in otnices, .\V()irdupois) Ola cubic foot of any of the sub- 
stances in the above table is found by multiplyins tlie specific gravities by 10, thus:-oue cubic foot 
of oak weighs 1,170 ounces; oue cubic fool of marble 2.700 ounces, and soon. 

* Compared with water. 

FREEZING, FUSING, AND BOILING POINTS. 



Substances. 



Bromine I ree/.es at 

Olive oil freezes at 

Quicksilver freeiies at 

Winter freezes at 

Bismuth metal fu.ses at.. 

Copper fuses at 

Golu fuses at 

Iron fuses at 

Lead Hises at 

Potassium fuses at 



Heau- 
mur. 



- 17.6° 

8 

- 31.5 



211 

963 

l,lUo 

1,230 

260 

50 




Fahren- 
heit. 



- 7 6° 
50 

- 39 
32 

507 

2.200 

2,518 

2,800 
617 
144.5 



Substances. 



Authorities vary on .some of these points Th 



Silver fuses ai 

Sodium fuses at 

Sulpliur fuses at . . 

'IMu fuses at 

Zinc fuses at 

.\lcohol boils at .... 
Bromine boils at... 

Ktlier boils at 

Iodine boils at 

Water boils at 

best are given. 



Heau- 


Cenli- i 


miir. 


grade. ' 
1,011(1° 


800° 


76.5 


95 6 


92 


115 


182 


228 


329 6 


412 


63 


7-14 


50 


63 


28 4 


35 5 


140 


175 


80 


100 



r-ahren- 
helt. 

1,8320 
204 
239 
442 
773 
167 
145 
96 
347 
212 



HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF MEN. 

Tableop Average Height A>rD Weight of Males, Based o>r Analysis of 74,162 Accepted 

Applicants fob Life In-suraxce as Reported to the A.ssociation 

OF Life Insurance Medical Directors. 



IlUlGHl. 


A-e. 
16-24 


Age. 
26-29 

Pouii-1h 

125 
126 
128 
131 
13.-> 
138 
142 
147 
151 
155 
159 
164 
170 
177 
184 
190 


Age. 
30-34 

I'ounds. 

128 
129 
131 
134 
138 
141 
145 
150 
154 
159 
164 
169 
175 
181 
188 
195 


Age. 
35-39 


Age. 1 
40-44 


Ag.-. 
45-49 


Ag». 
60-64 


Ai;e. 
65-69 


A-e 
60-64 


Age. 
65-69 


5 feet 


Pounds 
120 
122 
124 
127 
131 
134 
138 
142 
146 
150 
154 
159 
165 
170 
176 
181 


Ponn«!s 

131 
131 
133 
136 
140 
143 
147 
152 
157 
162 
167 
173 
179 
185 
192 
200 


Pounds 
133 
134 
136 
139 
143 
146 
150 
155 
160 
165 
170 
175 
180 
186 
194 
203 


Poun-ls 

134 
136 
138 
141 
144 
147 
151 
156 
161 
166 
171 
177 
183 
1.S9 
196 
204 


l-MUM.ls 

134 
136 
138 
141 
145 
149 
153 
158 
163 
167 
172 
177 
182 
188 
194 
201 


Pounds 

134 
136 
138 
141 
145 
149 
153 
158 
163 
168 
173 
178 
•183 
189 
194 
198 


Pounds 

131 
134 
137 
140 
144 
148 
153 
158 
163 
168 
174 
180 
185 
189 
192 


Pounds. 


5 feet 1 inch 




6 feet 3 i iiclies 


140 


5 feet 4 i iiches 


143 
147 


fi io9t 6 i I idles 


151 




156 


5 feet 8 i iiclies 


162 


6 feet 9 inclies 

5 feet 10 inclies 

5 feet 11 inches 

6feet 

6 feet 1 inch 

6 feet 2 inches 

6 leet 3 inches 


168 
174 
180 
1S5 
189 
192 



A Height and Weight Table compiled by a Committee of the Medical Section o 
Fraternal ( ongress, 1900, which is tne analysis of 133,940 applications of selected 
instances differed very slightly from the above. 

HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF WOMEN. 
The following table gives the relative height and weight of women, 
ordinary clothing, however, is included: 

Heioht. 

5 feet 115 

6 feet 1 inch I'iO 

6feet2iiiche8 

5 feet 3 inches 

5. feet 4 inches 

5 feet 5 inches 

6 feet 6 inches 



f the National 
risks, in a few 



all ages. The weight of 





.Mini. 


Maxi- 


era'.;e. 


mum. 


mum. 


115 


98 


132 


120 


102 


138 


125 


106 


144 


130 


111 


150 


l;.5 


115 


1.55 


140 


119 


161 


143 


121 


165 



Height Average. 

5 feet 7 inches 145 

5 feet 8 inches 148 

5 feet 9 inches 155 

5 feet 10 inches 160 

5 feet 11 inches . 166 

6 feet 1"0 



Mii.l- 


M.-iii- 


muni. 


mum. 


123 


167 


126 


170 


131 


179 


136 


184 


138 


190 


141 


196 



84 



Tensile Strength of Materials. 



WATER MEASURES. 

"WEIGHT OF WATER. 



1 cubiciiicli .03617 pouud. 

I'i cubic inches .434 pound. 

1 cubicfoot 62.5 pounds. 

1 cubicfoot 7. 48052 U. S. gals. 

IS cubic feet 112.0 pound.s. 

35.84 cubicfeet 2240.0 pounds. 

1 cylindrical inch... .02842 pound. 

12 cylindrical inches .3-11 pound. 

1 cylindrical foot.. .. 49.10 pounds. 



1 cylindrical foot... . 6 U.S. gals. 

2. 232 cylindrical feet.... 112.0 pounds. 

45 64 cylindrical feet... 2240 pounds. 

1 imperial gallon.... 10 pounds. 

11.2 imperial gallous... 112 pounds. 

224 imperial gallons. ..22^10. pounds. 

1 U. S. gallon 8 355 pounds. 

13 44 U. S. gallons 112 pounds. 

268.8 U. S. gallons 2240. pounds. 



Note— The centre of pressure oi water agalns 
two- thirds the depth from the surface. One cubic 



ttiiesideof the containing vessel or reservoir i.s at 
foot salt water weighs 64. 3 pounds. 



THEORETICAL VELOCITY OF WATER IN FEET PER SECOND. 



IIkad, Fbkt. 



10 
12 
15 
18 

20 
22 



Velocity^ Feet 
l>er Second. 



2.5. 4 
27.8 
31 1 

34 

35 9 
37.6 



Hkad, Fbet 



25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 



Velocity, Feet 
per Second. 



40 1 
43 9 
47 4 
50 7 
53.8 
56.7 



HraD, FliET. 



5.3 
60 
65 
70 
75 
80 



Velocity, I'eet 
per Second. 



59 
62 
64. 
67 
69 
71 



Head, Feet 



85 

90 

95 

100 

125 

150 



Velocit\,Feet 


per Second 


74.0 


76 1 


78.2 


80 3 


89 7 


9S.3 



PRESSURE OF WATER PER SQUARE INCH AT DIFFERENT DEPTHS. 



1)EPTH 




Depth 




Depth 




])EPTH 






Piessuie 








Piessure. 1 




l*ie«sure. 


Fret. 


(l.s.) 


Feet. 


(lbs ) 


Fekt. 


(lbs.) ; 


Feet. 


• (lbs ) 


6 


2.60 


35 


15 16 


90 


38. 98 I 


160 


69.31 


8 


3.40 


40 


17.32 


100 


43 31 


170 


73.64 


10 


4 33 


45 


19.49 


110 


47 64 1 


180 


77.97 


15 


6.49 


50 


21.65 


120 


51. 98 


190 


82. 30 


20 


8 66 


60 


25.99 


130 


56 31 1 


200 


86.63 


25 


10.82 


70 


30. 32 


140 


60. 64 


215 


93 14 


30 


12.99 


80 


34.65 


150 


64.97 


230 


99. 63 



TEMPERATURE 

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 14.7 LBS. 



OF STEAM. 

DEGREES IN FAHRENHEIT SCALE. 



Pri SSURE 


Dej;reea 


Pressure 


l>e'5rees 


Pressure 


De"rees 


Presslke 


l>eeree8 


I'Ka 


of 


Per 


of 


Per 


o£ 


Pl.R 


of 


Sq. Inch. 


Temperatnre. 


Sq. Inch. 


Temperatnre. 


Sq. Inch. 


Temperatuie. 


Sq. Inch. 
80 


Temperature. 


1 


216.3 


12 


244.3 


32 


277 


323 9 


2 


219.4 


14 


248 3 


34 


279 6 


85 


327.6 


3 


222 4 


16 


252.1 


40 


286 9 


90 


331.1 


4 


225. 2 


18 


255.7 


45 


292 5 


95 


334.5 


5 


227. 9 


20 


259.2 


50 


297 8 


100 


337.8 


6 


230.5 


22 


262 5 


55 


302 7 


105 


341 


7 


233 


24 


265 6 


60 


307.4 


UO 


344.0 


8 


235 4 


26 


268 6 


65 


311 8 


115 


347.0 


9 


237.7 


28 


271 5 


70 


316.0 


120 


:i50.0 


10 


240.0 


30 


274.3 


76 


320. 


125 


352.8 



Steam flows into atmosphere at the rate of 650 feet per second. 



TENSILE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 



Materials. 



StlTALS. 




Aluminum castlnga. 


IS.OOO 


*■ sheets. ... 


24,000 


*' wire.. 


60,000 


" brvrs 


•.;-i,ooo 


Nickel ahimlnuin 


40,000 


Aluminum bronze . 


70,000 


Maogtiuese " 


60,000 


Phosphor " .. . 


46,000 


Tol.in " . . 


66,000 


BronM gun metal 


35,000 


Ptaltnuin wire (ati- 




neaied) 


32,000 


Platinum wire (not :in- 




nealed) 


56,000 


Tin 


3,60" 


Gold (cast) 


20,000 


Sliver (cist) 


40,000 


L.;ad 


3^000 


Zinc 


6,400 


Brass (cast) 


21,000 


Copper (cast) 


24,000 



I^Iaterials. 



MKTALS. 

Soft copper wire 

Hard " " ,., 

Cast iron 

** steel 

Wrought iron 

Soft steel 

Carbon steel (not :-n- 
ne;iled) 

Carbon steel(annealed ' 

" " oil lem- 

peied 

Xicke) steel (unnenl -d ) 
** *' oil tem- 
pered 

Rivet steel 

steel for bridges 

Medium steel 

Vanadium steel (oast). 

Chiominm nickel st^-e] 

** Tana •Mum 

steel 



Lbs.' 



Tensile 8treiieth is the resistamre of tiie fib 
their number, or to the are v of its tiaiisvers-? seciio'i, 
a tree. * Tensile stiength in pouoils persqu:iie inch. 



35,000 
60,000 
20,ii00 
60,000 
50,000 
58,000 

75,000 
80,u00 

85.000 
80,000 

90.000 
53.000 
60 000 
65,000 
TO.OOO 
81,400 

100,000 



Materials. 



METALS. 

Nickel xanadiuin Bt.eel 
Chrome nicxel vauad- 

ium steel 

Manganese st-el cast) 

•^ " (roll'd) 

WOODS, 

Ash 

Black walnut 

I leech 

Cedar .... 

Chestnut. 

Elm 

Hemlock 

Hickory 

I.neust 

Lignum vitae 

Maple 

White oik 

Live " 

Poplar 

Redwood 



Lbs.* 



99,700 

129,100 
90.000 
140,000 

14,000 
12,000 
14.500 
lOOiO 
10,000 
13,400 

8,700 
15,000 
22,000 
U.oao 
10,500 
14,.i00 
13,000 

7,000 
' .S.500 



Materials. 


Lbs. • 


WOODS. 




Spruce 


14,500 


White pine 


15,01)0 


Vellow " 


11,000 


Ued fir 


10,000 


Vellow fir 


12,000 


Teak 


14,000 


MISCELI ANKOt;S. 




Blue StTjne 


1,400 


Granite... 


600 


Limestone 


1,000 


JIarble 


700 




100 


Bricks (common) 


SOO 


" (best hand 




piessed) 


400 


Ordinar\- single 




le.-Lther belting.... 


3,000 


Ordlnnry double 

leather belting.. .. 




6,000 


Cotton l.ellinj 


6,000 



•e^ or parLici-8 ot a body to sepiraiion. It ia therefore poportfotial toi 
The fibres o£ wood are strongest aenr the ceatie of tha trunk or limb of 



United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 85 

THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON. 

The Capitol is situated iu latitude 38° 53' 20". 4 north and longitude 77° 00' 35".7 west from 
Greeuwlcb. It fronts east, and stands on a plateau eighty eight feet above the level of the Potomac. 

The entire length of the building from north to south is seven hundred and fifty-one feet four 
inches, and its greatest dimension from east to west three hundred and fifty feet. The area covered 
by the building is 153, H2 square feet. 

The dome of the original central building was constructed of wood, covered with copper. This 
wa.s replaced in lSo6 by the present structure of cast iron. It was completed iu 1865. The enliie 
weight of iron used is 8,909,200 pounds. 

Tlie dome is crowned by a bronze statue of Freedom, which is nineteen feet six inches high 
and weighs 14,985 pounds. It was modelled by Crawford. The height of the dome above the base 
line of the east fiout is two hundred and eighty-seven feet five inches. The height from the top of 
tliei)alustradeof the building is two hundred and seventeen feet eleven inches. The greatest diam- 
eterut the base is one hundred and thirt.v-tive feetfive inches. 

The rotunda is ninety-seven feet six inches in diameter, and its height from the floor to the top of 
the canopy is one hundred and eighty feet three inches. 

The Senate Chamber is one hundred and thirteen feet three inches in length, by eighty feet three 
inches iu width, and thirty-six feet in height. The galleries will accommodate one thousand i)ersons. 

The Representatives' Hall is one hundred and thirty- nine feet in length, by ninety-three feet iu 
width, and thirty-six feet in height. 

The southeast corner-stone of the original building was laid September 18, 1793, by President 
Washington with Masonic ceremonies. The corner-stone of the extensions was laid July 4, 1851, by 
President Fillmore. 

The room now occupied by the Supreme Court was, until 1859, occupied as the Senate Chamber. 
Previous to that time the court occupied the room immediately beneath, now used as a law library. 



LINCOLN'S GETTYSBURG SPEECH. 

(Address at the Dedication of Oeliysburg Cemete-iy, November 19, 1863.) 

Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth upon this continent a 
new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men aie 
created equal. 

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation 
so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of 
that war. We are met to dedicate a portion of it as the final re^tlng-pIace of those who 
here gave their lives that that nation might live. It Is altogether fitting and proper 
that we sliould do this. 

But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow 
this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it 
far above our power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember 
what we §ay here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, 
rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work that they have thus far so nobly 
carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before 
us; that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to the cause for which 
they here gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that the 
dead shall not have died in vain; that the nation shall, under God, have a new birth of 
freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not 
peiish from the earth. 

UNITED STATES COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 

The Coast and Geodetic Survey of the Department of Commerce Is charged with the 
survey of the coasts of the United States and coasts under the Jurisdiction thereof, and the pub- 
lication of charts covering said coasts. This Includes base measure, trlangulatlon. topography, and 
hydrography along said coasts; the survey of rivers to the head of tide water or ship navigation, 
deep sea soundings, temperature and current observations along said coasts and throughout the 
Gulf and Japan streams, magnetic observations and researches and the publication of maps showing 
the variations of terrestrial magnetism; gravity research, determination of heights, the determina- 
tion of geographic positions by astronomic observations for latitude, longitude and azimuth, and 
by trlangulatlon to furnish reference points for State surveys and to co-ordinate Governmental 
surveys. 

The results obtained are published In annual reports and In speclul publications; charts upon 
various scales. Including sailing charts, aeneral charts of the coast and harbor charts; tide tables 
Issued annually In advance; coast pilots with sailing directions covering the navigable waters; 
notices to mariners Issued weekly as a Joint publication of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the 
Bureau of Lighthouses and containing current Information nece.ssary for sate navigation; catalogues 
of charts and publlcitlons. nnd' such other publications aa may be required to carry out the 
organic law g)\ernlai the survey 



86 Constitution of the United States. 

Otonstitutiou of tije WLniWa states. 

Preamble, We, the people of the United States, in order to forma more perfect Union, establish 

Justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the gen- 
eral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do 
ordain and establish this Constitdtion for the United States of America 

ARTICLE I. 

Legislative Skction I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, wlUcb 

powers, shall consist of a Senate and House of Uepresentatives. 

House of Repre- Suction fl, 1. The House of Representatives shall be composeH of members chosen every second year by the 

sentativea. people of the several States, and tlie electors in each State shall have the quaiiticattous requisite for electors of the 

most numerous branch of the State Legislatuie. 

QoalificatSons of 2. No person shall be a Kejuesen tative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been 

Keprese uta-seven yeais a citizen of the Uulted States, and who ahail not, wheu elected, be an iuliabitaat o£ that State la 

tives. which he shall be chosen. 

Appoitionment 3. Ilepreseatativea and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the seveial States wliich may be inclii<led with- 

of liepresen-i n this Union according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the wUoJe number of 

tativca, free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indiaus not taxed, Ihiee-tifths of all 

other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made withm three yeais after the first meeting of tlie Congress of 

t he United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law dJtecl. The 

number of Uepresentatives shall not exceed one for every tnirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one 

Representative, and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire slmll be entitled to choose 

3; Massachusetts, 8; Uhotle Island and Piovjdence Plantations, 1; Cotmecticut, 6. New York, 6: New Jeisey, 4: 

Pennsylvania, S. Delaware, 1: Maryland. 6 , Virginia, 10- North Carolina, 5 , South Caiolina, 5, and Georgia, 3.* 

Vacancies, how 4. When vacancies happen In the representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue 

tilled, writs of election to till such vacancies. 

Otficeia, how 5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall haTe the sole power of 

appointed. i mpeachment. 
Senate, Sbction III, [See Article XVII., Amendments.') 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of 

t woSenatois from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall liave one vote. 
Classification of 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the tiist election, they shall be divided as 
Senators. eqnally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration 

of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration 
of the sixth year, so that one-third maybe chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or 
otherwise, during the recess of tlie Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make teuiporary appoint- 
ment until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 
QuaIi6cations of 3. No person shall be a Senator who shrill not have attaine*.' to the age of tliii ty years, and been nine years* 
Senators^ citizen of tne United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be 

chosen. 
President of the 4 The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they 
Senate. be eqnally divided. 

■5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice- 
President, or when he shall exercise the office of Piesident of the United States. 
Senate a court 6, The Senate shall liave the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they eball be 
foi tilal of ira- on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States >s tried, the Chief Justice shall preside ; and no 
peachments, person -shall be convicted without thr concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 
Judgment in 7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification 

caseof convic-to hold and enjoy any office of non •;, tiust, or profit under the United States ; but the party convicted shall never- 
tion. theless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 

ElectionsofSen- Sbction IV. 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senntors and Representatives shall be 
ators and Uep- presciibed in each SL'ite by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such 
resentatives. regulations, except as lo places of choosing Senators. 
Meeting of Con- 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday In 

giess. December, unless ihey shall by law appoint a different day. 

Oi^anization of Section V, 1 Kach House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and quaUfications of its own membersi, 

Congiesa. anda inajoiity of eachshaU constitute a quorum to do business; hut a smallei number may adjourn fiom day to 

day, and may be authoiized to compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties 

as each House may provide. 

Rule of pro- 2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with 

ceedings. the concurrence of two-thuds expel a member. 

Journals of 3. lilach House shal I keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting ench 
each House, parts as may in their jutigmen' requiie secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any 
question shall, at the desir oi one-fifth o; those piesent, be entered on the journal, 
Adjournmentof ' 4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more 

Congress. than three days, nor to any other placc than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Pay and pHvl- Skction VI. 1 The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascer- 
jpges of mem- talned by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. Tliey snail in all cases, except treason, felony, 
hers, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of theii respective Houses, 

ami >n going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not be ques- 
tioned m any other place. 
Other offices "2 No Senator or Hepresentative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office 
prohibited. under the authoiity of the United States whlcli shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been 
1 n«u eased during such time; and no person holdiug any office imder the United States shall be a member of either 
House during his continuance in office. 
Revenuebilla. Skction VII. I. All bills for raising revenue shall originate In the House of Representatives, but the Senate 

may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. 
How . bills be- 2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate shall, before It become a 
come laws, I aw. be piesented to the President of the United States; jf he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return .t, 
with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their 
j ournal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds Oi that House shall agree to pass the 
bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered ; 
and if approved by two-thirds of that House It shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses 
shall, be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on tne journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days 
(Snndavs excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if ne had 
signed a, unless the Congress by their adjournment present it^ return; m which case it shall not be a law. 

• See Article XIV., Amendments. 



Constitution of the United States. 87 

Approval and 3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and Hotiae of Representatives may 
veto powers be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United Stales; and 
0( the Presi" before tlio same sh:ill talie eiTect shall be approved by him, or beinj disripproved by him, sh.ill be repassed by two- 
deot, thirds of the Senate and the House of Representatives, according to tUe rules and limitations prescribed in tlia 

case of a bill. 
Powers vested Skctiox VIII. I. The Congress shall have power: 

in CoDCTess. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and 

general welfare of the United States; but oil duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United 
States. 

S. To borrow money on the credit of the United States. 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes, 

4. To establish an uniform rule ot naturalization and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throngbout 
the United Stntes. , ..... . 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and 
lueasures. 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States. 

7. To establish post-offices and post-roads 

8. To pi oiiiote the progress of science and useful .arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors 
the exclusive rights to their respective writings and discoveries. 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court. 

10. Todeline and punish piracies aud felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of 
nations. , j j . 

11. To declare war, ^rant letters of inarqne and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water. 

12. To raise and support armies, but uo appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than 
twoyeais. 

13. To provide and maintain a navy. 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces. 

16. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Uuiou, suppress insurrections, and repel 
invasions. 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may 
be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment o£ the otlicers, 
aud the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress. 

n. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) 
as may, by cession of particular States aud the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of Government of the 
United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the Sute 
in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dry-docks, and other needful buildings. 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper tor carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and 

all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United SUtes, or in any department ot 

officer thereof. ■ i l ,i t, t 

Immigrants, Skction IX. 1 . The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think 

how admitted, proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but 

a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

Habeascorpns. 2. The privifege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be su.speuded, unless when in cases of rebellion or 

1 nvasion the public safety may require it. 
Attainder. 3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

Direct taxes. -1. No capitation or other direct tox shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore 

directed to be taken. 
Rcgnlatlons re. 6. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

garding ens- 6. No preference shall be given by auy regul.-ition of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of 

toms duties, another, nor shall vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to entei , clear, or pay duties in another. 
Moneys, how 7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in con8e<|ueiice of appropiiationJ made by law; and a reg. 

drawn. ular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to 

Titles of nobll. 8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. And no person holding any office of profit or 

ityprohlblted. trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of auy present, emolument, office, or title of 

auy kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Powers of Section X. 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation, grant letters of marque and re- 

Stateadefined.prlsil, coin money, emit bills of credit, make anything but gold and silver com a tender in payment of debts, pass 

any bill of .attainder, ex post facto law, or law Impairing the oblig.ation of contracts, or grant any title ot nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost or duties on imiioits or exports, except 
what may be absolutely necessary for executing Its inspection laws, and the net pro.luce of all duties and imposts, 
laid by anv SUte on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States ; and all such laws 
shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war In 
time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, 
unless actually invaded, or in such Imminent danger as will not admit of delay. 

AKTICIiE n. 

Executive pow- Skction I. 1. The Executive power shall be vested In a President of the United States of America. He shall 

er, in whom hold his olflce during the term ot four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be 
vested. elected as follows: , , „ . ,. « i . i 

Electors. 5. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal 

to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the Stale may be entitled in the Congress; but no 
Senator or Representative or person holding an otfice of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an 
elector. . , . 

Proceedings ot 3. [The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least 
electors. shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a Ibt of all the persons voted 

for, and of the number of votes for e.ich, which list they shall sign and certify and transmit, sealed, to the seat 
ot the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, 
in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be 
counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of 
Proceeding* otthe whole number of electors appointed, and if there Oe more than one who have such majority, and have an equal 
the House of number ot votes, then the House ot Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President j 
Representa-aiid if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall In like manner choose 
tivea, the President. But in choosing the President, the vote shall be Uken oy States, the representation from each 

Stale having one vote. A quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the 
SUtes, and a majority of all the SUtes shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the Presi- 
dent, the person having the greatest number of votes ot the electors shall be the Vice-President. But If there 
should remain two or more who nave equai votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vlce-Presi- 

Tlme of chooa- 4. The Congress may determine ihe tlme'ot choosing the electors and the day on which they shall glva their 
ing electors, votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United Stales. 

* This clanse Is superseded by Article XII,, Amendments. 



88 Constitution of the United States. 

Qunllficattonnot 5. No pemoo eicceut a uatiiral bom citizen, or a citizeit of tlie Unitetl StattiS at the time of the adoption of 

the Presideot. this Coastitiitlon, shall be eligible to the ottice of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that othce who 
shall not have atLaiued to the age of thirty-tive years aud been fourteen years a resident withm the United plates. 
Pro V lei on in 6. In case of the removal of the Presideot from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the 

caseot' his diB- powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may bv law 
ability. piovlde for t'ne case of removal, deatli, resigaation, orinability, both of the President and Vice-President, decfaring- 

what officer shall then act as Presideut, and iiuch officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed or a 
President snafl be elected. 
Salary of the '. Th« President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall neither be Increased 
President. nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, aud he shall not receive within that period 
any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 
Oath of the S. Before he enter on the execution of his office he shall take the following oath or afHrmatlon : 

President. "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) thai I will faithfully execute the ottice of President of the United States, 

and will, lothe beat of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 
Duties of the Section U. 1. The President shall be C;ommander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and 
President, of the militia of the several States when called into the actual service of the United States ; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the 
duties of their respective otfices, and he shalf have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the 
United States except in cases of impeachment. 
Slaymake trea- 2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two- 
ties, appoint thirds of the Senators present concur ; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of t,he 
a in baasrtdors, Senate shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other 
judges, eic. olhcers of the United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall he e.s- 
lablished by luw ; but the Congiess may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper 
Sn the President alone, in the courts of law. or in the heads of departments. 
May fill vacan- 3. The President shall liave power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate 

cies. by granting coinmissioiis, which shall expire at the end of their next session. 

May make rec- Skction HI. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and 

ommendations recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary ami expedient; he may, on extrnordi- 
%to and con- nary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect tp 
veneCongress. the time of adionrninent, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors 
and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, aud shall commission all the 
officers of the United States. 
How officers Skction IV. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from 
may be re- office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes aud misdemeauora. 

'^'"'^- ARTICLE ni. 

Judicial power, Srction I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested In one Supreme Court, and In such inferior 

how invested, courts as the Congress may from time to time ordaiii ami establish. The judj^es, both of the Supterne an<{ inferior 
courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall at stated times receive for their services a compensa- 
tion which shall not be diminished during their continuance lu office. 
To what cases 1 1 Section II. I. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this Constitution, 

extends. the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, unde) their authority; to all c:ises atfectiug 

ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of adntiialty and maritime juiisdictlon; to coiitio- 
versies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States, between a SUate 
and citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens of tlie same State claiming lands 
uudei giants of ditferent States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects. 
Jurisdiction of 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, and tliose in which a State shall he 
the Supreme party, the Supreme "Court shall have oti^inal juiisdiction. In all the other cases before-mentioned tlie Suineme 
Court. Couit shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as 

the Congreas shall make. 
Rules respecting 3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, (shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the 
trials. State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not cpmniitted witiiin any State the trial ttliall be at 

such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed. 
Treason defined. Srction III, 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in 
adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be couvicted of treason unless on the 
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 
Howpunishea. 2. The Congress shall have power to dectaie the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work 

corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the life of the person attained. 

ARTICLE IV. 

Rights of States Section I. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acta, records, and judicial proceed- 
and records, Ings of every other SUite. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, 
and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Privileges of Sbction 11. 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in 
citizens. the several States. 

Executive requi- 2. A peison charged In any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall f!ee from justice, and be found 
sitions. i n another State, shall, on demand of the Executive anthority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be 

removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. 

Laws regulating 3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping Into another shall. In con- 
service or la* sequence ot any law or regulation therein, be discharged fiom such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on 
bor. claim of the paity to whom such service or labor may be due. 

NewStates,how Sbction III, 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress Into this Union; but no new State shall be 
formed and formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more 
.admitted. States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

Power of Con- 2, The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the terri- 
gress o V e r tory or other property belonging to the Uuited States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to 
public lands, prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State. 

Republican gov- Section IV, The United States shall guarantee to every State In this Union a republican form of government, 
emmentguar- and shall protect each of them against invasion, and, dn application of the Legislature, or of the Execntive (when 
anteed. the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. 

article v. 

Constitution, The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this 
howamended. Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for 
pioposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, 
when ratified by the Legislatures of three -fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as 
the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may 
be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred an<l eight shall in any manner affect the fiist and fourth 
chnses in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no State, without its cousent, shall be deprived of Its 
equal su^rage in the Senate. 

Validity ot ARTICLE VI. 

debts recog- 1, All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of thiis Constitution shall be as valid 

nized. agaioiit the United States under this Constitution as uutler the Coofederaiion. 



Constitution of the United States. 89 

Supreme law of 5. This Constitution and the lawa of the United States which shall he made in pursuance thereof and nil 

tiie land de- treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the Unit^jd States, shiill be the supreme law of the 

£ned. land, and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State 

to the contrary notwithst-indinsj. 

Oath, of whom 3. The Senators and Uepiesentativea before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and 

required and all executive and judicial orhcers, both of the United States and of the several St:ites, shall be bound by oath or 

for what, affirmation to support this Constitution , but no relig-ious test shall ever be re^uhed as a qualiHcatJon to any olHce 

or public trust under the United Stales 

ARTICLE VII. 

Rati6cation of The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sutBcient for the estiiblishment of this Constitution 

the Constitu- between the Suites so ratifyinK the same. 

*'°°- AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

ARTICLE I. 

KelieioQ and Congress shall make no law respectingr an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; 

free speech. <**■ abridging the freedom of speech or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to peti- 
tion the"Government for a redress of grievances, 

ARTICLE II. 

Right to bear A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security o£ a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear 
arma. arms shall not be infringed. 

ARTICLE III. 

Soldiers in time No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor In time of 
of peace. war but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE IV. 

Right of search. The right of the people to be secure in their pei-sons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches 

and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon piobaltle cause, suppoi ted by oath or 
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, aud the peisous or things to be seized. 

ARTICLE V. 

Capital crimes No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime unless on a presentment or Indictment 

and arrest of H gland jury, except in cases aiisiu^ iu the laud or naval forces, oi in the militia, when in actual service, in 

therefor. time of war or public danger ; uor shall any person be subject foi the same offence to lie twice put iu jeopardy of 

1 ife or limb ; nor Bhall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness airairist himself, nor be depiivedof life, 

liberty, or pioperty, without due process of law; uor shall private propei ty be talieu for public use without just 

compensation. ARTICLE VI. 

Right to speedy In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial 

trial. jury of tiie State aud distrii:t wiieieiu the crime shall have been coinmitted, wliich district shall have been previous- 

Iv ascertaine.l by l:iw, and to l)e intonned of the nature an.l cause of tlie ai-cu.sation ; to be confionted with the 
witnesses a«yainst him; to have compulsory piocess for obUiiunig witnesses in liis favor, aud to liave the as- 
sistance of counsel for his defence. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Trial by jury. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury 

shall be piescrved, and no fact tried by a juiyshali be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United Suites 
than according to the rules o£ the common law, 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Excessive bail. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual puniahments iafllcted. 

ARTICLE IX. 

Enumeration of The enumeration In the Constitution of certain righte shall not be construed to deny or disparage others re. 
rights. tained by the people. ARTICLE X. 

Reserved rights The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the SlaUs, are re- 

of States." served to the States respectively, o. to the people. 

ARTICLE XI. 

Judicial power. The judicial power of the United States snail not be construed to extend to any suit In law or equity, com- 

menced oi piosecnted against one of the United States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects o£ 
anv foreign Stale. 

^ ° ARTICLE XII. 

Electors in The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of 

Presidential whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the 
elections. person voteii for as Pi esideut, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-Piesident ; and they shall make 

distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the num- 
ber of voter for eacn, which list they shall sign and certify, and tiausmit, sealed, to the seat of the Goveinment of 
the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the Piesident of the Senate shall, in the pieseuce of the 
Senate and House of Kepreseotatives, open all the certificates, aud the votes shall then be counted ; ttie person hav- 
1 n" the Teatest numoer of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole 
nu'mber'of electors appomted; and if no person have such majority, then fioin the persons having the highest num- 
bers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as Piesident, the House of Kepresentatives shall choose im- 
mediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the repre- 
Bentation from each State having one vote ; a quorum foi this purpose shal' consist of a member or members from 
iwo-thirdsof the Slates, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Rep- 
resentatives shall nol choose a President, whenevir the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth 
day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other 

Vlw-PresMent. constitutional disability of the President. The peisoc having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall 
be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and it no person 
have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a 
quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole 
number shall he necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be 
eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

ARTICLE Xm. 

Slavery pro- 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary s-rvitude, eicent as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall 
hibited. have been duly convicted, shall exist within the Un-ied States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce Ibis article uy appropriate legislation. 



90 White House Rules. 



CONSTITUTION OP THE UNITED ST WKS—CmUimied. 



ARTICLE XIV. 

Protdctioii for I . All persona born or nfttnralized In the United Stites, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, aie citizens of the 
all citizens. United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or ent'orce any law whicit sbaiJ abridge the 
pi ivile^es or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of lifej liberty, or 
property without due process of htw, nor deny to any person within Its jurisdiction the equal protection of the luw& 
Apportionment ^> Representatives shall be apportioned amon^ the several States accoiding to their respective numberSi counting 

of Ilepresen- the whole number of persons in each State, erciudm^ Indians not tixeii. But when the right to vote at any election 
tatives. for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representntivea in Congress, the ei- 

ecutive and ;iudicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof. Is denied to any of the male mem- 
bers of such State, being of twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, ex- 
cept for paiticipation in reljelMon or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in tlie propor- 
tion whion the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of 
age in such State. 
Rebellion 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or 

against the holding any office, cUil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously Uiken an 
United States, oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as 
an executive or judicial officer of any SLile, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have eiigai,'ed in 
insurrection or rebellion against the same, or givet: aid and comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress niay» by 
a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 
The public 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law. Including debts Incurred for payment 
debt. of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection and rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither 

the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation Incurred In aid of insui rection or rebellion 
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations^ 
and claims shall be held illegal and void, 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions of thvs article. 

ARTICLE XV. 

Right of 8uf- 1, The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abiidged by the United States or 
It age. by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of sei vitude. 

"It The Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of this article by appropiiate legislation* 

ARTICLE XVI. 

Taxes on In- The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on Incomes, from whatever source derived, 
comes. without apportionment amotig the several States, and without regard to any census ui enumeration. 

AKTICIiE XVII. 

Senators elect- 1 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senatois Fmni each State, elected by the people 

••d by t he theieof, for six yeais; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State bhull have the qnali- 

people. ficiitioiis reqiiiHite tor electots of tlie most ntiiiierous branch of the State Leirislatuies. 

Filling of va- 'i. When vacanctea happen in the lepresentation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such 

eancies. Staie shall issue wilts of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That tlie Le:ri«lature of any State may 

empower the executive thsreof (o make temporary appolittiiient until the people fill the vacancies by election 

as the Legislature may direct. 

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it 
becomes valid as part of the Constitution. 



RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 

The Constitution w.as ratified by the thiiteen original States in the following order: 

South Carolina, M.ay 23, 1188, vote 149 to 73. 

New Hampshire, June 21, 1788, vote 57 to 46. 

Virginia, June 25, 1188, vote 89 to 79. 

New York, .Inly 26, 1788, vote 30 to 28. 

Noith Caiolina, Novemliei 21, 1789, vote 193 to 75. 

Khode Isl.md, May 29, 1790, vote 34 to 32. 



Delaware, December 7, 1787, unanimoual 
Pennsylvania, Decemljei 12, 1787, vote 46 to 23. 
New Jeisey, Deceitiher 18, 1787, nnanimously . 
Geotgin, Jannaiy 2, 1788, un;inimonslv. 
Connecticut, Jauuaiy 9, 1788, vote 128 to 40. 
M.TSsachusetts, Feliinaiv 6, 1788, vole 187 to 168 
Maryland, Apiil 28, 1788, vote 63 to 12. 



RATIFICATION OF THE AMENDMENTS. 

T.to X. inclusive were declared in force December 15, 1791. 
XI. was declared in force January 8, 1798. 

XII., legnlating elections, was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Delawaie, Massachusetts, and New Hampshiie, which 
rejected it. It was declared in foice Septeiubei 28, 1804. 

XIII. The emancipation amendment w.asiatitied by 31 of the 36 States ; rejected by Delaware and Kentucky, not acted on by Texas; 
oonditionally i.atitied by Alabama and Miasissippi. Pioclaimed December 18, 1865. 

XIV. Iteconstruction amendment w.os ratified by 23 Northern States ; rejected by Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, .and 16 Southern 
States, and not acted on by California. The 10 Southern States subsequently ratified under piessure, Piocl.aimed Jiilv 28, 1868. 

XV. Negro citi/.eusliip amendment was not acted on by Tennessee, rejected by California, Delawaie, Kentucky, Maryland, New 
Jersey, and Oregon; ratified by the remaining 30 Strifes. New Yorlt rescinded its ratiBcatiou January 5, 1870. Fioclaiined 
Maich30, 1870. 

XVI. Income tax amendment was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Floilda, Pennsylvanii, Rhode Island, Utah and 
Viiglnia. Dei^Iared in force Feiiruary 25, 1913. 

XVII. Providingfoi the direct vote of United States Senators by the people, was ratifie<l by all the States except Alabama, 
Delaware, Morida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louietaua, Maryland, Mississippi, Khode Island, South Carolina, Utah and 
Virginia. Declaied iii force May 31, 1913. 



WHITE HOUSE RULES. 

The foUowlncr rules have been arranged for the conduct of buslne.ss at the Executive OlTlces during 
the Winter of 1916-17:- 

The Cabinet will meet on Tuesdays and Fridays from 11 a. m. until 1 p. m. 

Senators and Representatives having business to transact will be received from 10.30 a. m. to 12m., 
excepting on Cabinet days. In view of the pressure of business at the Executive OfBcea during the Con- 
gressional session It would greatly facilitate matters If Senators and Members could telephone for an 
appointment before calling, as many will have first made appointments in this way. and those calling without 
appointments are therefore necessarily delayed In seeln? the T>re3l(lent. 

The Fast Room will be open dally, Sundays excepted, for the Inspection of visitors, between the hours 
of 10 A. M. and 2 p m. JOSEPH P TUMULTY, Secretary to the President. 



Declaration of Independence. 91 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

IN CONGRESS JULY 4, 1776. 

The unanimous declaration of tlie tbirteen United States of America. When in the Course of 
huiuau events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have con- 
nected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, tlie separate and equal sta- 
tion to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's Goa entitles them, a decent respect to the opiuious 
of mankind requires that tliey should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men aie created equal, tfiat they are endowed by 
their Creator with ceruiin unalienable Kight-s, that among these are Life Liberty and the pursuit of 
Happiuess. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Wen. deriving their just 
powersfrom the consent of the governed, 'Diat wheneverany Form of Government becomes destruc- 
tive of these ends, it is the llight of the People to alter or to abolish it, aiid to institute new Govern- 
ment, laying its foundation on sucli principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them 
shall seem most likely to eHect their Satety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that 
Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly 
all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufTerable, than 
to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed . But when a long train of 
abuses and usurpations, pursuing invaiiabl.v the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under 
absolute Despotism, itis their right, it is their duty, to throw otf such Government, and to provide 
new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and 
such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government The 
history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, nil 
having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, 
let Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless sus- 
pended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly 
neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those 
people would relinquish the right of Bepresentatiou iu the Legislature, a right iuestimable to them 
and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uucomfoo^able, and distant from the 
depository of their public Record.'., for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his 
measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness hisinva- 
sious ou the rights of the people. 

Hehasrefusedforalong time, aftersuch dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the 
Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large lor their exei- 
cise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and 
couvulsious within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose oi)Structing the 
Laws for Naturalization ofForeigners; refusing to pa.ss others to encourage their migrations hither, 
and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands 

Hehasobstructed the Aamniistration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing 

He^has made. fudges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount 
and payment of their salaries , „.« 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, aud sent hither swarms of OITlcers to harass our peo- 
ple, and eat out their substance. . , . , . 

He has kept among us, iu times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislature. 

He has affected to render the ililitaiy indepeudent of and superior to the Civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and 
unacknowledged by our laws, giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: 

Forquarteringlargeljodiesof armed troops among us: „ ., ^. ,_ , , ,j 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from puuishmeut for any Murders which they should com- 
mit on tlie Inhabitants of these States: 

For cutting olTour Trade with all parts of the world: 

ForimposmgTaxes ou us without oiirConseiU; ^^.,^ , 

For depriving us in many ca.se.s, of the benehtsof Trial by jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended oftences: , ^,- ^- ., 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an 
Arbiliary government, aud "enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit 
Instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies. . „ <■ ..,^ ,„».,fon,. 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundameutall.\ 

^^^Fors"fspendYngon1-'ow]f "legislatures and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate 

*°'^He'lias' alfdicated'lsovernment here, oy declaring us out of his Protection and waging War 

^'"HeV"^ plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our 

^^°He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of 
death desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances ol Cruelty .t peihdy scarcelj 
paralleled in the most Karbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. 

We has constrained our fellow-Citizens taken captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their 
Country, to become the executioners of their frieuds and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their 

Hetiasexciteddomesticinsurrections amongst us, and hasendeavored to bring on the inhabitants 
of our frontiers, the merciless lu<llan Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished 
^ftQtriintmti of all a""es. sexes aud conditions. . ... 

Iu every stage of tiiese Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: 



92 



Declaration of Independence. 



DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE— Coniimtcd. 

Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is 
thus luamea by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free peopla 

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from 
time to time of attempts by tUeir legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We 
have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have ap- 
pealed to their native justice aud maguanimity, aud wehaveconjured themby the tiesof our common 
kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and corre- 
spondence. They too have been deal to the voice of justiceand of consanguinity. We must, there- 
fore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the 
rest of mankind, Enemies in War, la Peace Friends. 

WE, THEREFORE, the Represektatives of the United States of America, in General. 
Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of tlie world for the rectitude of our inten- 
tions, do, in the Name, aud by authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish 
and DECLARE, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be free and independent 
States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, aud that all political eon 
nection between them and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that 
asFBEE AND i>fDKPENDKNT STATES, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract 
Alliances, establish Commerce, aud to do all other Acts and Thin§^s which independent States 
may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a hrm reliance on the protection of 
Divine Providence, We mutually pledge toeachotherour Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor. 

SIGNERS OP THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 



Naue, 



Adams, John 

Adams, Samuel 

Bai'tlett, Josiah 

Braxton, Carter 

Carroll, Charles 

Chase, Samuel 

Clark, Abraham 

Clymer, (Jeorge 

Kllery, William 

Floyd, William 

Franklin, Benjamin... 

Gerry, Klbridge 

Gwinnett, Button 

Hancock, John 

Hall, Lyman 

Harrison, Benj 

Hart, John 

He wes, Joseph 

Hey ward, Jr., Thos. . . 

Hooper, wm 

Hopkins, Steph 

Hopkinson, Francis... 
Huntington, Sam' 1 . . . . 

Jefferson, Thos 

Lee, Richard Henry . . 
Lee, Francis Lightfoot 

Lewis, Francis 

Livingston, Philip 

Lynch, Jr. , Thos 

M'Kean, Thos 

Middleton, Arthur 

Morris, Lewis 

Morris, Robert 

Morton, John 

Nelson, .Tr., Thos 

Paca, William 

Paine, Robert Treat. . . 

Penn, John 

Read, George 

Rodney, Caesar 

Ross, George 

Rush. Benjamin 

Rutledge, Edward 

Sherman, Roger. 

Smith, James 

Stockton, Richard .... 

Stone, Thos 

Ta.vlor, Geo 

Thornton, MaXthew. . 

Walton, George 

Whipple, William 

Wilirams. William 

Wilson , .Tames 

Witherspoon, John.. . . 

Wolcott, Oliver 

Wythe, George 



Colony. 



Mass. Bay.. 
Mass. Bay. 
N. Hamp.. 
Virginia . . . 
Maryland.. 
Maryland.. 
N. Jersey.. 

PeiMi 

Rhode Isl.. 
New York. 

Penn 

Mass. Bay. 
Georgia .. .. 
Mass. Bay. 
Georgia .... 
Virgiuia ... 
N. Jersey . 
N. Carolina 
S. Carolina 
N. Carolina 
Rhode Isl.. 
N. Jersey. 

Ct 

Virginia ... 
Virsinia ... 
Virginia . . . 
New York. 
New York. 
S. Carolina 
Delaware .. 
S. Carolina 
New York. 

Penn_ 

Penn 

Virginia . .. 
Mar j'land .. 
Mass. Bay. 
N, Carolina 
Delaware.. 
Delaware.. 

Penn 

Penn 

S. Carolina 

Ct 

Penn , 

N. Jersey. 
Maryland 

Pen n , 

N. Hamp. 
Georgia... 

Ct 

Ct 

Penn 

N.Jersey. 

Ct 

Virginia... 



Occupatioti. 



Lawyer 

Merchant .. 
Ph.vsician .. 

Planter 

Lawyer 

Lawyer..... 

Lawyer 

Merchant .. 

Lawyer 

I''armer 

Printer 

Merchant... 
Merchant... 
Merchant... 
Physician .. 

Farmer 

Farmer 

Lawyer 

fjawyer..... 

Lawyer. 

Farmer 

Lawyer 

Lawyer.. .. 

Lawyer 

Soldier 

Parmer.... 
Merchant.. 
Merchant . . 
Lawyer. . . . . 

Lawyer 

Lawyer. 

Parmer..... 
Merchant.. 
Surveyor. . . 
Statesman.. 

Lawyer 

Law.ver. 

T/awyer. ... 

Lawyer. 

General .... 
Lawyer. ... 
Physician.. 

Lawyer 

Shoemaker. 

Lawyer 

Lawyer..... 
Lawyer. . . . . 
Physician.. 
Physician.. 

Lawyer 

Sailor 

Statesman.. 

Lawyer. 

Minister . . 
Physician . 
I^awyer. . . . . 



Born 



Birthplace. 



Oct. 30, 1735 
Sep. 2'2, ITZ'i 
Nov.... 1729 
Sep. 10, 1736 
Sep. 20, 1737 
Apr. if, 17'11 
Feb. 1 .. 1726 
Jan. 24, 1739 
Dec. 22, 1727 
Dec. 17, 1734 
Jan. 17, 1706 
July 17,1744 

1732 

Jan. 12, 1737 

, 1731 

, 1740 

, 1715 

1730 

1746 

June 17, 1742 
Mar. 7, 1707 

1737 

July 3. 1732 
Apr. 13, 1743 
Jan. 20, 1732 
Oct. 14, 1734 
March. 1713 
Jan. 15, 1716 
Aug. 5,1749 
Mar. 19, 1734 

1743 

1726 

Jan. 20, 1734 

1724 

Dec. 26, 1738 
Oct. 31, 1740 

1731 

May 17, 1741 

1734 

1730 

1730 

Dec. 24, 1745 
Nov.... 1749 
Apr. 19, 1721 

1710 

Oct. 1, 1730 

1742 

1716 

1714 

1740 

1730 

Apr. 8, 1731 

1742 

Feb. 5, 1722 
Nov. 26, 1726 
1726 



Rraiutree 


. .Ma-ss 


Boston 


..Mass 


Amesbury. ... 


. Mass 


Newington .. 


.... Va 


Annapolis.... 


....Md 


Somerset Co. 


. . . Md 


Elizabethtow 


Q..N. J 


Philadelphia. 


Pa 


Newport 


.. R. I 


Setauket 


.N. Y 


Boston 


. Mass 


Marblehead.. 


..Mass 




Braintree.... 


. Mass 




.Ct 


Berkeley 


Va 


Hopewell 


..N. J 


Kingston 


..N. J 


St. Luke's.... 


.. S. C 


Boston....... 


. Mass 
...R.I 


Scituate 


Philadelphia. 


.... Pa 


Windham.,,, 


Ct 


Shadwell 


.... Va 


Stratford 


.... Va 


Stratford 


... Va 


Llaudaff. 


Wales 


Albany 


.N. Y 


Pr. George's Co. S. C 


New London 


.... Pa 


Middleton Pi 


..S. C 


Morrisania. .. 


.N. Y 


Lancashire .. 


. ..Eng 


Ridley 


.... Pa 


York... 


....Va 


Wye Hall.... 


....Md 


Boston 


. Mass 


Caroline Co... 


....Va 


Cecil Co 


...Md 


Dover 


...Del 


Newcastle . . . 


... Del 


Berberry 


....Pa 


Charleston... 


..S. C 


Newton 


Mass 


Ireland 


Princeton.... 


..N. J 


Pointoin Manor. Md 


] 


reland 
reland 


I 


Frederick Co. 


....Va 


Kittery 


...Me 


Lebanon. ... 


Ct 


St. Andrews. 


...Scot 




..Scot 


Windsor 


Ct 


Elizabeth Co. 


....Va 



July 41826 
Oct: 3.1803 
May 19,1795 
Oct. 10,1797 
Nov. 14, 1832 
June 19,1811 

Sept 1794 

Jan. 23,1813 
Feb. 15,1820 
Aug. 1,1821 
Apr. 17,1790 
Nov. 23, 1814 
May 27, 1777 
Oct. 8,1793 

1784 

Apr 1791 

1780 

Nov. 10,1779 

Mar 1809 

Oct 1790 

July 13,1785 
May 9,1791 
Jan. 5,1796 
July 4,1826 
June 19,1794 

Apr 1797 

Dec. 30,1803 
June 12, 1778 

1779 

June24,1817 
Jan. 1,1788 
Jan. 22,179K 
Rfay 8,1806 

Apr 1777 

Jan. 4,1789 

1799 

May 11,1814 

Sept 1788 

1798 

1783 

July 1779 

Apr.' 19,1813 
.Tan. 23,1800 
.Inly 23,1793 
July 11,1806 
Feb. 28,1781 
Oct. 5, 1787 
Feb. 23,1781 
June 24, 1803 
Feb. 2.180) 
Nov. 28, 1785 
Aug. 2,1811 
Aug. 28, 1798 
Nov. 15, 1794 
Dec. 1,1797 
June 8,1806 



91 
81 
66 
62 
96 
71 
69 
7-> 
93 
87 
85 
71 
45 
57 
53 
51 
65 
49 
63 
49 
79 
54 
64 
83 
63 
63 
91 
63 
30 
84 
44 
72 
73 
53 
61 
59 
84 
48 
64 
53 
49 
68 
51 
73 
96 
51 
4.-> 
65 
89 
64 
55. 
81 
66 
73 
72 
SO 



Washington's Farewell Address. 93 

WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS. 

EXTRACTS FROM HIS ADDRESS COUNSELLING THE MAINTENANCE OF THE 
UNIOX.— CONFINEMENT OF THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT TO ITS CONSTI- 
TUTIONAL LIMITATIONS, AND AVOIDANCE OF RELATIONS 

WITH FOREIGN POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 
(.To the People qf the Uniled States on JUis Approaching Jietirement from the Ptesidency. ) 

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop; but a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end 
but with my life, and the apprehension of danger natural to that solicitude, urge me, on 
an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to 
your frequent review, some sentiments, which are the lesult of much reflection, of no in- 
considerable observation, and which appear to me all-important to the permanency of your 
felicity as a people. These will be afforded to you with the more freedom, as you can 
only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have 
no personal motive to bias his counsel; nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, 
your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion. 

Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recom- 
mendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment. 

PRESERVATION OF THE UNION. 

The unity of government, which constitutes you one people, is also now dear to 
you. It is justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence — 
the support of your tranquillity at home, your peace abroad, of your safety, of your 
prosperity, of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee 
that, from different causes and from diflerent quarters, much pains will be taken, 
many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this 
is the pomt m your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external 
enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertlv and insidiously) 
directed — it is of infinite moment that vou should properly estimate the immense value 
of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should 
cherish a cordial, habitual and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to 
think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watch- 
ing for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest 
even a suspicion that it can, in any event, be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon 
the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, 
or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link tog-'ther the various parts. 

For this you have every inducement of svmpathy and interest. Citizens by birth or 
choice of a common country, that country has "a right to concentrate your affections. The 
name of America, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt 
the just pride of patriotism, more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. 
With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and 
political principles. Tou have, in a common cause, fought and triumpheJ together: the 
Independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels and joint efforts, of 
common dangers, sufferings, and successes. 

ENCROACHMENTS BT THE GOVERNMENT. 

It is Important, likewise, that the habits of thinking, in a free country, should In- 
spire caution in those intrusted with Its administration, to confine themselves within 
their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding, in the exeicise of the powers of one 
department, to encroach upon another. The spirit of encroachment tends to cons'olidate 
the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of 
government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to 
abuse it which predominates In the human heart. Is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth 
of this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, 
by dividing and distributing it Into different depositories, and constituting each the 
guardian of the public weal, against Invasio'ns by the others, has been evinced by 
experiments, ancient and modern; some of them in our own country, and under our own 
eyes. To preserve tl.em must be as necessary as to institute them. If, in the opinion 
of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be, in any 
particular, wrong, let I' be corrected by an amendment In the way which the Constitu- 
tion designates. But let there be no change or usurpation; for though this, in one 
Instance, may be the Instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free 
governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance, in perma- 
nent evil, any partial or transient benefit which the use can, at any time, yield. 

Observe good faith and justice toward all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with 
all; religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be that good policy does not 
equally enjoin It? It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and, at no distant period, a 
great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people 
always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course 
of times and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary ad- 
vantages which might be lost bv a steady adherence to it? Can It be that Providence 
has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with Its virtue? The experirnent, 
at least, is recommended bv every sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas! is it 
rendered impossible by its vices? 

ENTANGLEMENTS WITH FOTIEIGN POWEPvS. 
Against the Insidious wiles of foreign Influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow- 
citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to constantly awake; since history and 
experience prove that foreign Influence Is one of the most baneful foes of republican 
government. But that jealousy to bj useful, must be Impartial; else it becomes the. in- 
strument of the very Influence to be avoided. Instead of a defence against it. Excessive 
partiality for one foreign nation, and excessive dislike for another, cause those whom 
they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil, and even second, the arts 



S4 The Monroe Doctrine. 

WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS— Coftttniieci. 

of jnfiuence on the other. Real patriots, who may resist the intrigues of the favorite, 
are liaible to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupe^ usurp the applause 
^nd confidence of the people, to surrender their interests. 

The great rule of conduct for u?, in regard to foreign nations, is, in extending our 
commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far 
a^ we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. 
Here let us stop. 

Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote 
relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are 
essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to impli- 
cate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the 
ordinary combinations and collisions of her f-ipnd?hlps or enmities. 

Our detached and distant situation invites- and enables us to pursue a different 
course. If we remain one people under an efficient government, the period is not far off 
■when w^ may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such 
an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon, to be 
scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making 
acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may 
choose peace or war, as our Interest, guided by justice, shall counsel. 

PARTING COUNSELS. 

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and affectionate friend, 
I dare not hope that they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that 
they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running 
the course which hitherto has marked the destiny of nations; but if I may even flatter my- 
self that they may be productive of some pa-tial benefit, some occasional good: that 
they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against the 
mischiefs of fctrelgn intrigues, to gruard against the Impostures of pretended patriotism, 
this hope will be full recompense for the solicitude lor your welfare by which they have 
teen dictated. 

United States, September 17, 1796. GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



THE MONROE DOCTRINE. 

"The Monroe doctrine" was enunciated in the following words in President Monroe's message 
to Congress December 2, 1823 : 

"In the discussions to which this interest has given rise, and in the arrangements by which they 
may terminate, the occasion has been deemed proper forasserting, as a priuciple in which rights and 
interestsof the United Stales are involved, that the American coutinent.s,by the free and independent 
condition which they have assumed and maintain, are hencefortli not to be considered as subjects for 
future colonization by auy European power. » « • We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the 
amicable relations existiug between the United States and those powers to declare that we should 
consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to aii.v portion of this hemispheie as dan- 
gerous to our peace and safety. With the existiug colonies or dependencies of any European power 
we have not interfered and shall uot interfere. But with the governments who have declared their 
independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just 
principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppre.ssing tliem or 
controlling in any other manner their destiny by any European power in any otherlight than as the 
manifestation of an unfriendly dispositiou toward the United States. " 

Secretary of State Olney in his despatch of July 20,1895,onthe Venezuelan Boundar.v Dispute, said: 
"It (the Monroe doctrine) does not establish any general protectorate bj' the United States over 
other American States. It does not relieve any American State fiom its obligations as fixed by inter- 
national law, nor prevent any European power directly interested from euforciug such obligations or 
from inflicting meiMted pnnisliment for the breach of them. ' ' 

President Roosevelt in a speech in 1902 upon the results of the Spanish-American war, said: 
" The Monroe doctrine issimply a statement of our very firm belief that the nations now existing 
on this continent must he left to work out their own destinies among themselves, and that this conti- 
nent is no longer to he regarded as the colonizing ground of any European power. The one power on 
the continent that can make the power effective is, of course, ourselves; for in the world as it is, a 
nation which advances a given doctrine, likel.y to interlere in any way with other nations, must pos- 
sess the power to back it up, if it wishes the doctrine to be respected." 



The United States Senate on August 2, 1912, adopted the following resolution proposed by 
Senator Lodge, bv a vote of 51 to 4, the negative votes being those of Senators Cummius of Iowa, 
McCnmber of North Dakota, Percy of Mississippi, and Stone of Missouri, 

"Resolved That wlien any harbor or other place in the American Continent is so situated that 
the occupation thereof for naval or military purposes might threaten the communications nr tlie 
safety of the United States, the Government of the United States could not see without grave concern 
the possession of such harbor or other place by any corporation or association which has such a 
relation to another Government, not American, as to give that Government practical power of cou- 
trol for national purposes." _ . ,,.,,,.. ,_ ^ , ,, , , 

Thisaction of the Senate grew out of the report that a stretch of territory borderingon Magdalena 
Bav Mexico mi^iit be acquired by the subjects of a foreign country, and thus through their control 
by their own national Government become the base of permanent naval or military occupation. In 
explanation of the resolution Senator Lodge said: "The declaration rests on a much broader and 
older "-round than the Monroe doctrine. This resolution rests on the generally accepted principle 
that every nation has a right to protect its own safety ; and if it feels that the possession of any given 
harbor or place is prejndical to Its safety, it is its duty and rlglit to intervene " The Senate 
added that the opening of the Panama Canal gave to Magdalena Bay an importance that it had 
neverbefore possessed, as the Panama routes pass in front of it. 

Notbein" a joint resolution rpqnirina the concurrence of the House of Representatives and the 
signature of'the Pvpsident. the rpsolntion adopted as above was an expression of opinion of the 
Senate only. The other house took no action. 



Telescopes. 



95 



THE UNITED STATES CENSUS. 



THE Constitution requires that a census of the 
"United States shall be taken decennially. The first 
census was taken In 1790 under the supervision of 
the President; subsequent censuses, to and Including 
that of 1840, were taken under the supervision of 
the Secretary of State. In 1849 the administration 
of the census work was transferred to the newly or- 
ganized Department of the Interior, where it re- 
mained until the passage, In 1903, of the act creating 
the Department of Commerce and Labor, by which 
act the Census Bureau was transferred to the new 
department. Meanwhile Congress, by act approved 
March 6. 1902, had made the Census Office a per- 
manent bureau of the Government. Since March 
4 1913. when the Department of Commerce and 
the Department of Labor were separately organized, 
the Bureau of the Census has been attached to the 
former department. . , ^ ^ . 

The work of the Census Bureau Is divided mto 
two main branches, namely, the decenni.al census 
and special statistical inquiries, the latter mostly 
made in the Intervals between the decennial cen- 
suses The thirteenth decennial census was taken 
as of date April 15, 1910. It covered four main sub- 
jects: (1) population, (2) agriculture, (3) manufac- 
tures, and (4) mines, quarries, and oil and gas wells. 

The results of this census have been published 
and have been used wherever available for the 
tables ol the present Almanac and those preceding 
It. The aggregate cost of the census of 1910 was 
about 814,290,000, in addition to which 51,675,000 
was spent in carrying on the annual investigations 
of the permanent bureau during the census period. 
Of this amount §7,200,000 represents the cost of 
collecting the data through the employment of over 
70,000 paid enumerators, besides supervisors, clerks, 
and special agents The balance is the cost of tabu- 
lating and publishing the results. A more detailed 
account of the census of 1910 is given in the 1911 
issue of THE World almanac. 



The permanent work of the Census Bureau Is 
provided for by the act of Congress approved March 
6, 1902, and amendments thereto. These acts au- 
thorize and direct the bureau to make statistical 
Inquiries regarding the Insane, feeble-minded, deaf 
and dumb, and blind; crime, pauperism, and benevo- 
lence; deaths and births In the areas maintaining 
adequate registration systems; social and financial 
statistics of cities; wealth, debt and taxation; re- 
ligious bodies; electric light and jiower, telephones 
and telegraphs, and street and electric railways; 
transportation by water; cotton produced, consumed, 
imported, exported, and on liand, and active cotton 
spindles; stocks of leaf tobacco held by manufac- 
turers and dealers. The statistics of deaths (which 
now cover more than two-thirds of the population), 
of cities, of cotton produced, consumed, etc., and 
of tobacco stocks, are secured annually; the other 
statistics mentioned are collected at Intervals of 
five or ten years, but not in connection with the 
regular decennial censuses. The act of 1902 also 
provides for a census of manufactures in the fifth, 
year Intervening between the decennial censuse.s. 

The Director of the Census is appointed by the 
President of the United States and receives a salary 
of $6,000 per annum. The present director is Samuel 
L. Rogers of North Carolina. The permanent of- 
fice organization includes a chief clerk, William L. 
Austin; four chief statisticians — for Population 
William C. Hunt; for Manufactures, William M. 
Steuart: for Statistics of States and Cities, Starke 
M. Grogan, and for Vital Statistics, Richard G. 
Lappln; a geographer, Charles S. Sloane, and nine 
chiefs o' division. Tlie entire number of employes 
in the bureau at Washington Is now about 600; in 
addition there are about 70: special agents employed 
intermittently in the Southern .States for the col- 
lection of cotton statistics. The number of em- 
ployes in Washington was greatly increased during 
the decennial census; in August, 1910, it was more 
than 3,700, in addition to field employes. 



TELESCOPES. 

There are two kinds of telescopes, viz., refracting and reflecting. In the former the rays of 
light are made to converge to a focus by lenses, while In the latter they are made to converge by 
being reflected from the surface of a slightly concaved, highly polished mirror. 

The chief disadvantages of refracting telescopes are the chromatic and spherical aberrations 
of the lenses. In reflecting telescopes these aberrations can be done away with by using parabolic 
mirrors, but the great objection to the latter are the many mechanical dlfiQcultles that have to be 
o vGrcornc 

Owing to the travelling of the earth In Its orbit and revolving about Its axis, stars If viewed by 
a fixed telescope would soon disappear. It is thus necessary that a telescope be mounted so a star 
will always be In Its field. This Is accomplished by using an eq'v.atorlal mounting. 

In an equatorial mounting there are two axes, one called the "polar" that Is parallel to the 
axis of the earth, and the othor the "declination" at right angles to it. Hence, when a star is to be 
followed, the telescope Is clamped In position, and by means of clockwork follows the star so it 
always remains In view. , . , ,_ , . 

The magnllylng power of telescopes Is generally expressed in diameters, the practical limit of 
power being 100 diameters per Inch of diameter of the telescope. Thus the 36-lneh telescope at 
the Lick Observatory may give a magnifying power of 3.600 diameters. But such high power can 
only be used In a very clear atmo;phere, and consequently most astronomical observations are 
made at 1,000 diameters. „ 

REFRACTING TELESCOPES. 
The largest In the world are In the United States. The one at Yerkes Observatory, Geneva 
Lake, Wis , has an object lens 40 Inches In diameter with a focal length of 64 feet. The movable 
part of the Instrument turning on the polar axis weighs about 12 tons, and the clock 1 MJ tons. Other 
large telescopes are the 36-inch at Lick Observatory, Mt. Hamilton, Cal , where many Important 
.tstronomlcal discoveries have been made; the 2(i-lnch at the V. S. Observatory, Washington, D. C , 
and the 24-lnch belonging to Harvard University. There la a 30-lnch refracting telescope at the 
Alleghenv Observatory, Rlvervlew Park. Pa. ^ ^ 

Abroad is the 30-Inch at the Imperial Observatory, Pulovak (near Petrograd), Russia. 
This telescope has a platform at the lower end of the polar axis, from which observers can readily 
operate the Instrument. The Meudon Observatory (near Paris, France) has a 32-lnch, the Potsdam, 
Prussia, a 3l-lnch, and the Royal Observatory, at Greenwich, England, a 2«-lnch, There Is a 32- 
incb at the Nicolaieff Observatory of Russia. 

REFLECTING TELESCOPES. 
One of the most perfect instruments ever built is at Mt. Wilson Observatory, Pasadena, Cal. The 
mirror Is silver on glass, 60 inches In diameter, and weighs nearly a ton. The telescope Is moved by electric 
motors In right' ascension and declination. An Important feature in this Instrument is the different focal 
lengths that can be obtained. The 60-inch mirror has a 25-foot focus, but by a suitable arrangement of 
mirrors It is possible to get focal lengths of 80, 100 and 150 feet. At the same observatory is a 100-inch re- 
flector the tube with the mirror at the bottom is 43 feet long, and with the mountings weighs nearly 20 
tons There Is a 36-lnch reflector at Lick Observatory, Harvard University has a 28-inch and a 60-inch, 
and at the Yerkes Observatory is a 24-inch. , „ , ^ , ^ ,., ,. , „«.,.. 

Other notable reflectors are the Lord Rosse, at Birr Castle, Ireland, which has a mirror 72 inches In 
diameter of speculum metal and a focal length of 54 feet, a 48-Inch at Melbourne. Australia, a 60-Inch at 
Ealing England, a 48-lnch at Paris, France, and a 39-lnch at Meudon, France. The contract tor the con- 
struction of a 60-inch reflecting telescope for the National Observatory at Cordoba, Argentina, was awarded 
in 19"^ Work was started installing a 72-inch reflector in the Dominion Astronomical Observatory, Vic- 
toria li. C, Canada. 



96 Lifeboat Requirements. 



THE NATIONAL FLAC. 

The official flag of the Uhlted States bears forty-eight white stars In a blue field arranged in six rows 
of eight stars each. Two stars were added in 1912 by the adinisslon of Arizona and New Mexico to the 
Union. The garrison flag of the Army is made of bunting, thirty-six feet fly and twenty feet hoist, thirteen 
stripes, and in the upper quarter, next the staff, is the field or "union" of stars, equal to the number of 
States, on blue field, over one-third length of the flag, extending to tlie lower edge of the fourth red stripe 
from the top. The storm flag is twenty feet by ten feet, and the recruiting flag nine feet nine inches by four 
feet four Inches The "Union Jack" is blue with a star for every State in white The Coast Uuaid 
flag, authorized by act of Congress, March 2, 1799, was originally prescribed to "consist of sixteen 
perpendicular stripes, alternate red and white, the union of the ensign bearing the arms of the United States 
In dark blue on a white field " The sixteen stripes represented the number of States which had been ad- 
mitted to the Union at that time, and no change has been made since. June 14, the anniversary of the 
adoption of the flag, is celebrated as Flag Day in a large part of the Union. 

The National flag should be hoisted preferably at, but not earlier than sunrise, and never later than 
8 o'cloclt. When the National and State or other flags fly together the National flag should be on the right. 
When used on a bier or casltet at a funeral the stars should be placed at the head. In no case should tlie 
flag be allowed to touch the ground. The statutes of the United States forbid the use of the flag in 
registered trade-marks, and the use of the flag for advertising purposes is illegal. 

The President's flag consists of a blue background, in the centre of which appears the seal of the United 
States. 

The flag of Admiral of U. S. Navy is blue with four white stars — two horizontal and two perpendicular 
In centre. 

Tlie flag of Vice-.\dmiral of U. S. Navy is blue with three white stars — triangular. 

The flag of the Secretary of the Navy is blue with two white stars (perpendicular) at either end and 
white anchor in centre. 

The consular flag is blue with large white C in centre, surrounded by thirteen white stars. 

The flag of the Panama Canal consists of a blue square bearing the letters "P. C" in white. 

The flag of New York State is blue charged with the arms of the State. The flag of New York City 
consists of three perpendicular lines, blue, white, and orange (the blue nearest the flag staff); on the white 
bar ia the seal of the city, without the legend. 



THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

In this establishment practically all the printing for the United States Government Is done 
except the manufacture of paper money and postage stamps. Tiie Public Printer is the executive 
uead of the Government Printing Office. Directly or through his principal officers he purchases 
all materials and machinery subject to the provisions of law, disburses all money, appoints all officers 
and employes, and exercises general supervision over the affairs of the office. The Superintendent 
of Documents has general supervision over the distribution of all public documents, excepting those 
printed for the use of tlie two Houses of Congress and for the Executive Departments. He Is re- 
quired to prepare a comprehensive Index of public documents and consolidated index of Congres- 
sional documents, and Is authorized to sell at cost any public document in his charge, the distribution 
ot which Is not specifically directed. 

The principal officers are as follows: Public Printer, Cornelius Ford; Deputy Public Printer, 
Henry T. Brian; Chief Clerk, John L. Alverson; Private Secretary, Joseph P. O'Lone; Purchasing 
Agent, Edward S. Mnores: Superintendent of Work, Daniel V. Chlsholm; Foreman of Printing, 
T. Frank Morgan; Congressional Record Clerk, William A. Smith; Superintendent of Documents, 
Joslah H. Brlnker. 



UNITED STATES SECRET SERVICE. 

Thk Secret Service Division of the Treasury Department Is under the direction of Wm. J. Fiynn, 
chief of the division. The service Is principally engaged In detecting and prosecuting makers and 
dealers in counterfeit paper money and coin. Details are also furnished for the protection of the 
President of the United States. 

The arrests of counterfeiters number about 400 annually; other arrests are for bribery. Im- 
personating United States Government officers, perjury, and violating sections of the United States 
Revised Statutes relating to foreign and domestic obligations and coins. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF LETTER CARRIERS. 

The objects of the association are: First, to unite fraternally all letter carriers In the United 
States for their mutual benefit. Second, to obtain and secure rights as Government employes and 
to strive at all times to promote the welfare of every member. Third, to create and establish the 
United States Letter Carriers' Mutual Benefit Association, as defined In the Constitution and General 
Lawsgovernlngsald association. Fourth, in conjunction with the Post-Olflce Department, to strive 
for the constant Improvement of the service. Fifth, to create and establish the United States Letter 
Carriers' National Sick Benefit Association. The association has a membership ot 35,000. The 
dues are SI. 50 per annum. 

President — Edward J. Galnor, Muncle, Ind. Vice-President — AI. Tharp, New York, N.Y. Secre- 
ttiTV — ^Edward J. Cantwell, Washington, D. C. Treasurer — Charles D. Duffy, Chicago, 111. Head- 
quarters, 945 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C. 



LIFEBOAT REQUIREMENTS. 

Under date of August 17, 1916, the Steamboat Inspection Service of the Department of Commerce 
Issued the following: 

The Board of Supervising Inspectors at its meeting of January, 1916, revised all of the rules for life- 
boat requirements, for publication in four parts, namely; (1) Ocean and Coastwise, (2) Great Lakes, (3) 
Lakes other than the Great Lakes, Bays, and Sounds, (4) Rivera. 

Only one of these parts is ready for distribution, which is for ocean and coastwise vessels. 

Owing to the Seamen's Act, approved March 4, 1915, the rules for lifeboat requirements are very com- 
plex and extensive, and vary for the different classes of waters, and the bureau must decline to prepare a 
short statement of lifeboat requirements for publication, owing to the necessar" i^^'^mnleteness of any such 
statement. 



National Rivers and Harbors Congress. 97 

THE SINGLE TAX. 

The foUowtng statement of the single tax principle was written by Henry George, Sr.: 

We assert aa our fundamental principle the self-evident truth enunciated in the Declaration of 
American Independence, that all men are created equal and are endowed by their Creator with certain 
Inalienable rights. We hold that all men are equally entitled to the use and enjoyment of what God 
has created and of what Is gained by the general growth and Improvement of the community of which 
they are a part. Therefore, no one should be permitted to hold natural opportunities without a fair 
return to all for any special privilege thus accorded to him, and that value which the growth and 
Improvement of the community attaches to land should be taken for the use of the community: that 
each Is entitled to all that his labor produces; therefore, no tax should be levied on the products of 
labor. 

To carry out these principles, we are In favor of raising all public revenues for national. State, 
county, and munlcl:>al purposes by a single tax upon land values. Irrespective of Improvements, and 
of the abolition of all other forms of direct and Indirect taxation. 

Since in all our States we now levy some tax on the value of land, the single tax can be Instituted 
by the simple and easy way of abolishing, one after another, all other taxes now levied and com- 
mensurately Increasing the tax on land values until we draw upon that one source for all expenses of 
government, the revenue being divided between local government. State government, and the general 
government, as the revenue from direct taxes Is now divided between the local and State governments, 
or by a direct assessment being made by the general government upon the States and paid by them 
from revenues collected In this manner. The single tax we propose Is not a tax on land, and therefore 
would not fall on the use of land and become a tax on labor. 

It Is a tax not on land, but on the value of land. Thus It would not fall on all land, but only on 
valuable land, and on that not In proportion to the use made of It, but In proportion to Its value — the 
premium which the user of land must pay to the owner, either In purchase money or rent, for permis- 
sion to use valuable land. It would thus be a tax not on the use and Improvement of land, but on the 
ownership of land, taking what would otherwise go to the owner as owner, and not as user. 

In assessments under the single tax all values created by Individual use or Improvement would 
be excluded, and the only value taken Into consideration would be the value attaching to the bare 
land by reason of neighborhood, etc., to be determined by Impartial periodical assessments. Thus 
the farmer would have no more taxes to pay than the speculator who held a similar piece of land Idle, 
and the man who on a city lot erected a valuable building would be taxed no more than the man 
who held a similar lot vacant. The single tax In short would call upon men to contribute to the 
public revenues not In proportion to what they produce or accumulate, but In proportion to the 
value of the natural opportunities they hold. It would compel them to pay just as much for holding 
land Idle as for putting It to Its fullest use. The single tax, therefore, would — 

1st. Take the weight of taxation off the agricultural districts, where land has little or no value. 
Irrespective of Improvements, and put It on towns and cities, where bare land rises to a value of 
millions of dollars per acre. ^ , ^ . ... . ,,. 

2d. Dispense with a multiplicity of taxes and a horde of tax-gatherers, simplify government, 
and greatly reduce its cost. , ,,. , ,,, . 

3d Do away with the fraud, corruption, and gross Inequality Inseparable from our present 
methods of taxation, which allow the rich to escape while they grind the poor. Land cannot be hid 
or carried off, and Its value can be ascertained with greater ease and certainty than any other. 

4th. Give us with all the world as perfect freedom of trade as now exists between the States of 
the Union, thus enabling our people to share through free exchanges In all the advantages which 
nature has given to other countries, or which the peculiar skill of other peoples has enabled them to 
attain. It would destroy the trusts, monopolies, and corruptions which are the outgrowths of the 
tariff. It would do away with the fines and penalties now levied on any one who Improves a farm, 
erects a house, builds a machine, or In any way adds to the general stock of wealth. It would leave 
every one free to apply labor or expend capital In production or exchange without fine or restriction, 
and would leave to each the full product of his exertion. 

5th. It would, on the other hand, by taking for public use that value which attaches to land by 
reason of the growth and Improvement of the community, make the holding of land unprofitable to 
the mere owner and profitable only to the user. It would thus make It Impossible for speculators and 
monopolists to hold natural opportunities unused or only half used, and would throw open to labor 
the Illimitable field of employment which the earth offers to man. It would thus solve the labor 
problem do away with Involuntary poverty, raise wages In all occupations to the full earnings of 
labor, make overproduction Impossible until all human wants are satisfied, render labor-saving In- 
ventions a blessing to all, and cause such an enormous production and such an equitable distribution 
of wealth as would give to all comfort, leisure, and participation In the advantages of an advancing 
civilization, In securing to each Individual equal right to the use of the earth. It Is also a proper 
function of society to maintain and control all public ways for the transportation of persons and 
property, and the transmission of Intelligence; and also to maintain and control all public ways In 
cities tor furnishing water, gas, and all other things that necessarily require the use of such common 
ways. 

NATIONAU RIVERS AND HARBORS CONGRESS. 

The purposes of the congress as set forth In its Constitution are as follows: 

"The objects of this congress shall be the collection and preparation of all obtainable data touching 
the scientific improvement, development and uses of the rivers and harbors of the nation; these data to In- 
clude findings of the Board of United States Engineers and other scientific facts dealing with questions of 
waterway transportation and allied subjects. 

"To disseminate to as many of the people of the United States as possible the scientific knowledge col- 
lected and prepared, through the publications of this association. Its news bureau and Its field representa- 
tives — to the end that the people may be educated to the importance of waterway development, and that 
the greatest good to the greatest number may be had through the scientific Improvement and maintenance 
of our lakes, rivers, harbors and canals for navigation and commerce. 

"The membership of this congress shall consist of commercial, manufacturing and kindred organizations, 
waterway improvement associations, corporations, companies, and individual citizens engaged or Interested 
In commercial or industrial enterprises, who may subscribe to Its Constitution and contribute to the sup- 
port and prosecution of the objects of the congress." President — Hon. Jos. E. Ransdell, Lake Providence, 
La. SecretaTU-TreasuTer — S. A. Thompson, Washington, D. C. 



98 



Progress of the United .Staks. 



PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES 

IN AREA, POPULATION, AND MATERIAL INDUSTRIES. 
(Statement prepared by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce.) 



Area 6 square miles 

Population c no. 

Population per square mile c no 

Wealth d e dols 

Wealth, per capita d e dols 

Public debt, less cash in Treasury g dols 
Public debt, per capita. . . . dols 

Interest bearing debt h dols 

Amiual Interest charge dols 

Interest, per capita .... . . . dols 

Gold coined . dols 

Silver coined dols 

Gold in circulation j. . . dols 

Silver In circulation J dols 

Gold certificates in circulation. . dols. 

Silver certificates in circulation dols. 

United States notes (Greenbacks) in 

circulation dols 

National bank notes in circulation dels 

Federal Reserve notes dols 

Federal Reserve bank nl'tes dols. 

MiBceUaneouB currency in circulation I dols 



Total circulation of money 

Per capita . . . . . . 

National banks 

Capital 

Bank clearings, New York 

Total United States 

Deposits in National banlcs . . . 

Deposits in savings banks 

Depositors In savings banks . 
Farms and farm property d . . 

Farm products, value d 

Manufacturing establishments d 

Value of products d . 



dols 
dols 
. no 
dols 
dols 
dols 
dols 
. dols. 
... no 
dols 
dols 
.no 
dols 
United States Government receipts — 
net ordinary r . dols 

Customs . . dols 

Internal revenue dols 

United States Government, disburse- 
ments, net ordinary i . . dols 
War. . dols 
Navy. . . . dols. 

Pensions dols 

Interest on public debt dols 

Imports of merchandise dols 

Per capita dols 

Exports of merchandise dols 

Per capita .... dols 

Imports, silk, raw lbs 

Rubber, crude ... . lbs 

Tin plates lbs 

Iron and steel, manufactures of. . . dols 
Domestic exports, iron and steel manu- 
factures dols 

Domestic exports, all manufactures, dols 
Farm animals, value . . dols 

Cattle . ... no 

Horses . . no 

Sheep . . no 

Mules . .no 

Swine no. 

Production of gold dols 

Silver, commercial value . . . . dols 

Coal . long tons 

Petroleum gals 

Pig iron . tons 

Steel tons 

Tin plates . ... lbs 

Copper long tons 

Wool .lbs 

Wheat bush 

Com bush 

Cotton . bales 

Cane sugar ... . lbs 

Sugar consumed . lbs 

Per capita lbs 

Cotton consumed 500-lb bales 

Domestic cotton exported . lbs 

Railways operated. . miles 

Passengers carried ... no 

Freight carried 1 mile short tons 

Revenue, ton per mile. . ..cents 

Passenger cars no 

Other cara no 



1800. 



892,135 

5,308,483 

6 47 



82,976,294 

15.63 

82,976,294 

3,402,601 

0.64 

317.760 

234,296 

16,000,600 



10,500,000 

26,500,000 

500 



10,848,749 

9,080,933 

809,397 

10,813,971 

2,560,879 

3,448,716 

04,131 

3.102,601 

91,252,768 

17.19 

70,971,78r 

13 37 



.52,144 



1850^ 

2,997,119 

23.191,876 

7.88 

,135,780,000 

307.69 

63,452,774 

2.74 

63,452,774 

3,782.393 

0.16 

31,981,739 

1,866,100 

147,395,456 



131,366,526 

278,761,982 

12 02 



43,431,130 

251,354 

3,967,343,580 

123,025 
1,019,106,616 

43,592,! 
39,668;«86 



40,948,383 

9,687,025 

7,904,725 

1,866,886 

3,782,393 

173,509,526 

7.48 

144,'375.726 

6 23 



20,145,067 

1,953,702 

23,223,106 

M4,180,516 

17,778,907 

4,336,719 

21,773,220 

559,331 

30,354,21^ 

50,000,000 

50,900 

6,266.23' 



153.509 



18,829 



563,755 



630 

52,516.959 

100,485,944 

592,071.104 

2,451,443 

247,577,000 



422,626 

638,381,604 

9.031 



1880. 



3,026.789 

50,165,783 

16.86 

42,642,006,000 

850.20 

1,919,326,748 

88.27 

1,723,993,100 

79,633,981 

1.59 

62,308,279 

27,411,694 

( 225,695,779 

I 68,622,345 

7,963,900 

5,789,569 

327,895,457 
337,415,178 



973,382,228 

19.41 

2,076 

455,909,565 

37,182,128,621 



833,701,034 

819,106,973 

2,335,582 

12,180,501,538 

2,212,450,927 

253,852 

5,369,579,191 

333,526,501 
186,522,065 
124,009,374 

264,847,637 

38,116,916 

13,536,985 

96,777,174 

95,757,575 

667,954,746 

Jil2.51 

835.638,658 

10.43 

2,562,236 

16,826,099 

379,902,880 

71,266,699 



14 

121 

1.576 

33, 

11 

40, 

1 

34 

36 

34 

63 

1,104 

3 

1 



716,524 
,818.298 
,917,556 
,258.000 
201,8.00 
,765,900 
,729 ,.500 
,034,100 
000,000 
,717,000 
,822,830 
017,166 
835,191 
,247,335 



27,000 

232,500,000 

498,549,868 

1,717,434,543 

6,605,750 

178,872,000 

1,979,221,478 

39.46 

1,865,922 

1,822,061,114 

93,267 



1900. 



3,026,789 

75,994,575 

25.55 

88,517,306.775 

1,164.79 

1,107,711,268 

14.52 

1,023,478,860 

33,545,130 

0.44 

99,272,943 

36,345.321 

610,806,^72 

142,060,334 

200,733,019 

408,465,574 

313,971,545 
300,115,112 



79,008,942 

2,055,150,998 

26.93 

3,732 

621,536,461 

51,964,588,564 

84,582,450,081 

2,458,092,758 

2,389,719,954 

6,107,083 

«20,439,901,164 

4,417.;069,972 

(?207,514 

gll,4O6,926,701 

567,240,852 
233,164,871 
295,327,92'? 

487,713,792 

134,774,768 

55,953,078 

140.877,316 

40,160,333 

849,941,184 

10.93 

1,394,483,082 

17.76 

11,259,310 

49,377,138 

147,963,804 

20,478,728 



121 

484, 

2,228, 

43, 

13, 

41 

■> 

37 
79 
35 

240 

2,672 

13 

10 

849 

2S8 
522 

2,105 

10 

322 

4,477 

3 
3,100 

576, 
141,596, 



,913,548 
,846,235 
,123,134 
,902,414 
,537,524 
,883,065 
,086,027 
,079,356 
.171 

,741,100 
,789,310 
,062,218 
,789,242 
,188,329 
,004,022 
270,588 
1,636,621 
,229, .595 
,102,516 
,245,602 
,549,011 
,175,236 

58.91 
.603,516 
,583,188 
194,262 
,831,251 
,551,161 

729 

34,713 

.416.125 



1916. a 



3.026,789 
101.882,479 

/T87,739,071,690 

/1,9«5.00 

1,006,281,572,10 

9.88 

971,562,590.00 

22,896,664 60 

23 

(23,967, 37S 

i4.114J)66 

fc€30,190,647 

t236,344,876 

1,414,302,989 

490,786,334 

341,891,669 

720,089,7«3 

173,373,845 

8366,370 

2,098,262 

4,018,043,555 

39.23 

7,578 

I,067,481,00a 

190,842,707,724 

1162,777,508.000 

»i8, 136,018,000 

11,997,706,013 

<1 1,285,755 

040.991,449,090 

yl0,501,686,00e 

<?268,491 

(r20,672,051,870 

777,480,488 

211,866,222 

5512,740,770 

716,367,674 

<172,973,092 

1141,835,654 

1164,387,942 

122,902,897 

2.197,883,510 

t)21.26 

4.333,658,865 

41.98 

33,070,902 

267,775,557 

1,796,853 

23,393,250 

621,209,453 

2,658,917,330 

6,002,784,000 

60,715,000 

21,166,000 

49,162,000 

4,565,000 

68,047,000 

198,891,100 

£35,019,628 

1458,504,890 

ai, 162,026,470 

129,916,213 

223.513,030 

22,085,980,000 

1619,647 

1288,777,000 

11,011,505,000 

13,054,535,000 

111,068,173 

1493,239,040 

18,626,793,238 

186.04 

25,835,592 

3,084,070,125 

1263,547 

11.053,138,718 

1288,319,890,210 

10 733 

153,466 

(2,450,356 



United States Geographic Board, 



PROGRESS OF THE tTNITED STATES — Continued. 



American vessels built y tons 

Trading, domestic, etc tons 

Trading, foreign tons 

On Great Lakes tons 

Vessels passing through Sault Ste 
Marie Canal tons 

Commercial failures no. 

Amount of liabilities dols. 

Post-Offlces no. 

Receipts of P.-O Department dols. 

Telegrams sent (1) no 

Newspapers, etc. (3) no. 

I»ubUc schools, salaries (4) dols 

Patents issued no 

Immigrants arrived (5) no. 



1800. 



106,261 
301.919 
668,921 



903 
280,8W 



1850. 



279,255 
1,949,743 
1,585,711 

198,266 



18,417 
5.499,985 



2,526 



993 
369.9S0 



1880. 



157,409 
2,715,224 
1,352,810 

605,102 

1,734.890 

4,735 

65,752.000 

42,989 

33,315,479 

29,215,509 

9.723 

55.942,972 

13,947 

457.257 



1900. 



393,790 
4.338,145 

826,694 
1,565,587 

22,315,834 

10,774 

138,495,673 

76,688 

102.354.579 

63.167,783 

20,806 

137,687,746 

26,499 

448,572 



1916. a 

(225.122 
i6,517,88« 
(1,871,543 
(2,318,009 

156,399,147 

Z9.485 

zlll,241,421 

55,934 

<287 ,248,166 

(2) 90,000,000 

23,324 

1323,610,915 

(44,934 

298,826 

a Figures of 1916 are somewhat preliminary and subject to revision, b Exclusive of Alaska and 
Islands belonging to the United States c Census figures, relating to Continental United States: the figures 
for 1916 represent an estimate, d Census figures, e True valuation of real and personal property. / 1912. 
g 1800 to 1850, outstanding principal of the public debt, January 1 h Figures for the years 1800 to 1850 
include the total public debt. (1915. j Gold and silver cannot be stated separately prior to 1876. From 
1862 to 1875, inclusive, gold and silver were not in circulation, except on the Pacific Coast, where it is 
estimated that the average specie circulation was about 325,000. OOO. and this estimate is continued for the 
three following years under the head of gold. Alter that period gold was available for circulation, t As 
the result of a special Investigation by the Director of the Mint, a reduction of S135, 000,000 was made In 
the estimate of gold coin in circulation on July 1, 1907, as compared with the basis of previous years, and 
on September 1, 1910, a reduction of $9,700,000 was made in the estimate of silver coin. I Includes notes 
of Bank of UnRed States; State bank notes; demand notes of 1862 and 1863: fractional currency, 1870; 
Treasury notes of 1890-1891 to date, and currency certificates, act of June 8, 1892-1900. m Includes all 
deposits demand and time, n Includes value of buildings, 83,556,639,496. The Twelfth Census was the 
first to collect statistics of buildings on farms, o Includes value of buildings, $6,325,451,528. p Wealth 
production on farms, estimate of the Department of Agriculture, 1915. The figures of the various censuses 
are not comparable, reasons for which will be found In census reports, q Exclusive of neighborhood indus- 
tries and hand trades. Included in years previous to 1905. r "Ordinary receipts" Include receipts from cus- 
toms Internal revenue, direct tax, public lands, and "miscellaneous," but do not Include receipts from loans, 
premiums Treasury notes or revenues of Post-Offlce Department, s Includes corporation and individual 
Income taxes $124,867,430 in 1916. ( "Ordinary disbursements" include disbursements for war, navy, In- 
dians pensions payments for Interest, and "miscellaneous," but do not Include payments for premiums, 
principal of public debt, or disbursements for postal service paid from revenues thereof, a Imports lor con- 
sumption after 1850. p Based on general imports, u Domestic exports only after 1860. r 1914. j/ Includes 
canal boats and barges prior to 1880. f First six montlis. (1) Figures relate to the Western Union only 
and after 1900 do not Include messages sent over leased wires or under railroad contracts. (2) Estimated 
1912 (3) 1800 to 1850 Inclusive, from census of 1880; from 1880 to 1900, Inclusive, from RoweU'c News- 
paper Directory; after 1900 from Ayer's American Newspaper Annual. Figures for 1915 Include outlying 
Dossessions <4) Includes salaries for teachers only. (5) 1850, total alien passengers arrived; 1850, 15 months 
ending December 31; after 1850, fiscal years ending June 30. 

SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD. 



THE SEVEN WONDERS OF 

THE ANCIENT WORLD. 
Pyramids of Egypt. 
Pharos of Egypt. 
Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 
Temple of Diana at Ephesus. 
Statue of Jupiter by Phidias. 
Mausoleum of Artemisia 
Colossus of Rhodes. 



THE SEVEN WONDERS OF 

THE MIDDLE AGES. 
Coliseum of Rome. 
Catacombs of Alexandria. 
Great Wall of China. 
Stonehenge. 
Leaning Tower of Pisa. 
Porcelain Tower of Nankin. 
Mosque of St Sophia In Con- 
stantinople. 



THE SEVEN NEW WON- 
DERS OF THE WORLD. 

Wireless. 

Telephone. 

Aeroplane. 

Radium. 

Antiseptics and Antitoxins. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

X-Rays. 



UNITED STATES CEOCRAPHIC BOARD. 

Chairman — Andrew Braid, Coa.st and Geodetic Survey, Department of Commerce. Secretarv — Cbarles 
8. Sloaoe, Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. Headquarters, Waahington, D. C. 



Frank Bond. General Land Office, Department of 
the Interior. 

Goodwin D. Ellsworth. Post-Offlce Department. 

William B. Greeley, Forest Service, Department of 
Agriculture. ^^ .^ 

David M. Hildreth, Topographer, Post-Offlce De- 
partment. 

Frederick W. Hodge, Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Robert B. Marshall, Superintendent National Parks, 
Department of the Interior. 

WUllam McNelr, Bureau of Accounts, Department 
of State 



C. Hart Merrlam, Bureau of Biological Survey, De" 
partment of Agriculture. 

John S. Mills, Department of the Treasury. 

James E. Payne, Government Printing Office. 

George R. Putnam, Bureau of Lighthouses, Depart- 
ment of Commerce. 

Capt. Thomas Snowden, Hydrographer, Department 
of the Navy 

Charles W. Stewart, Library and Naval War Records 
Office, Department of the Navy. 

Major Ralph H. Van Deman, General StaS, War 
Department 



By executive order of August 10, 1906, the official title of the United States Board on Geographic 
Names was changed to United States Geographic Board, amd its duties enlarged. The board passes on all 
unsettled questions concerning geographic names which arise in the departments, as well as determining, 
changing and fixing place names within the United States and Its Insular possessions, and all names here- 
after suggested by any officer of the Government shall be referred to the board before publication. The 
decisions of the board are to be accepted by all the departments of the Government as standard authority. 
Advisory powers were granted the board concerning the preparation of maps compiled, or to be complied. 
In the various offices and bureaus of the Government, with a special view to the avoidance ot unnecessary 
duplication of work- and for the unification and improvement of the scales of maps, of the symbols and 
conventions used upon them, and of the methods, of representing relief. Hereafter, all auch projects aa are 
Of Importance shall be submitted to this board for adrtce before being undertaken. 



United States Court of Customs Appeals. 

UNITED STATES COURT OF CUSTOMS APPEALS 

(WASHINGTON. D. C.) 
Presiding Judge — Robert M. Montgomery. Associate Judges — James F. Smith, Orion M. BarbSJ, 
Marlon De Vrles, George E. Martin. AUorney-GeTieral — Thomas W. Gregory. Assistant Attornev-General — 
Bert Hanson. Clerk — Arthur B. Shelton (S3, 500). Marshal — Frank H. Briggs ($3,000). 

Sec. 188. There shall be a United States Court of Customs Appeals, which shall consist of 
a Presiding Judge and four Associate Judges, each of whom shall be appointed by the President, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall receive a salary of seven thousand dollars 
a year. The Presiding Judge shall be so designated In the order of appointment and In the commission 
Issued to him by the President; and the Associate Judges shall have precedence according to the 
date of their commissions. Any three members of said court shall constitute a quorum, and the 
concurrence of three members shall be necessary to any decision thereof. In case of a vacancy or 
of the temporary Inability, or disqualification for any reason of one or two of the Judges of said 
court, the President may, upon the request of the Presiding Judge of said court, designate any qualified 
United States Circuit or District Judge or Judges to act In his or their places and such Circuit or 
District Judges shall be duly qualified to so act. 

Sec. 189. The said Court of Customs Appeals shall always be open for the transaction of 
business, and sessions thereof may. In the discretion of the court, be held In the several judicial circuits, 
and at such places as said court may from time to time designate. 

Sec. 195. That the Court of Customs Appeals established by this chapter shall exercise 
exclusive appellate Jurisdiction to review by appeal, as herein provided, final decisions by a board of 
general appraisers In all cases as to the construction of the law and the tacts respecting the classi- 
fication of merchandise and the rate of duty Imposed thereon under such classifications, and the 
fees and charges connected therewith, and all appealable questions as to the jurisdiction of said board, 
and all appealable questions as to the laws and regulations governing the collection of the customs 
revenues; and the judgments and decrees of said Court of Customs Appeals shall be final In all such 
cases: Provided, however. That In any case In uhlch the judgment or decree of the Court of Customs 
Appeals Is made final by the provisions of this title, It shall be competent for the Supreme Court, 
upon the petition of either party, filed within sl.xty days next after the Issue by the Court of Customs 
Appeals of Its mandate upon decision. In any case In which there Is drawn In question the construction 
of the Constitution of the United States, or any part thereof, or of any treaty made pursuant thereto, 
or in any other case when the Attorney-General of the United States shall, before the decision of 
the Court of Customs Appeals Is rendered, file with the court a certificate to the effect that the case 
Is of such importance as to render expedient Its review by the Supreme Court, to req\iUe, by certiorari 
or otherwise, such case to be certified to the Supreme Court for Its review and determination, with 
the same power and authority In the case as If !t had been carried by appeal or writ of error to the 
Supreme Court: And provided further. That this act shall not apply to any case Involving only 
the construction of section 1, or any portion thereof, of an act entitled "An act to provide revenue, 
equalize duties, and encourage the Industries of the United States, and for other purposes," approved 
August 5, 19U9, nor to any case Involving the construction of section 2 of an act entitled "An act 
to promote reciprocal trade relations with the Dominion of Canada, and for other purposes," 
approved July 26, 1911. (Amendment as approved, August 22, 1914.) 

Sec. 196. No appeal shall De taken or allowed from any Board of United States General Ap- 
praisers to any other court, and no appellate jurisdiction shall thereafter be exercised or allowed 
by any other courts In cases decided by said Board of United States General Appraisers, but all 
apjjeals allowed by law from such Board of General Appraisers shall be subject to review only In 
the Court of Customs Appeals hereby established, according to the provisions of this chapter: 
Provided, That nothing In this chapter shall be deemed to deprive the Supreme Court of the United 
States pf jurisdiction to hear and determine all customs cases which have heretofore been certified 
to said court from the United Stales Circuit Courts of Appeals on applications for writs of certiorari 
or otherwise, nor to review by writ of certiorari any customs case heretofore decided or now pending 
and hereafter decided by any Circuit Court of Appeals, provided application tor said writ be made 
within six months after August 5, 1909: Provided further. That all customs cases decided by 
a Circuit or District Court of the United States or a court of a Territory of the United States 
prior to said date above mentioned, and which have not been removed from said courts by 
appeal or writ of error, and all such cases theretofore submitted for decision In said courts 
and remaining undecided may be reviewed on appeal at the Instance of either party by the United 
States Court of Customs Appeals, provided such appeal be taken within one year from the date 
of the entry of the order, judgment, or decrees sought to be reviewed 

Sec. 197. Immediately upon the organization of the Court of Customs Appeals, all cases 
within the jurisdiction of that court pending and not submitted for decision In any of the United 
States Circuit Courts of Appeals, United States Circuit, Territorial or District Courts, shall, with 
the record and samples therein, be certified by said courts to said Court of Customs Appeals for 
further proceedings In accordance herewith: Provided, That where orders for the taking of further 
testimony before a referee have been made In any of such cases, the taking of such testimony shall 
be completed before such certification. 

Sec. 198. If the Importer, owner, consignee, or agent of any Imported merchandise, or the 
Collector or Secretary of the Treasury, shall be dissatisfied with the decision of the Board of General 
Appraisers as to the construction of the law and the facts respecting the classification of such mer- 
chandise and the rate of duty Imposed thereon under such classification, or with any other appealable 
decision of said tsoard, they, or either of them, may, within sixty days next after the entry of such 
decree or judgment, and not afterward, apply to the Court of Customs Appeals for a review of the 
questions of law and fact Involved In such decision: Provided, That In Alaska and In the Insular 
and other outside possessions of the United States ninety days shall be allowed for making such 
application to the (Sourt of Customs Appeals. Such application shall be made by filing In the office 
of the clerk of said court a concise statement of errors of law and fact complained of; and a copy of 
such statement shall be served on the collector, or the Importer, owner, consignee, or agent, a3 
the case may be. Thereupon the court shall Immediately order the Board of General Appraisers 
to transmit to said court the record and evidence taken by them, together with the certified state- 
ment of the facts Involved in the case and their decision thereon; and all the evidence taken by and 
before said board shall be competent evidence before said Court of Customs Appeals. The decision 
of said Court of Customs Appeals shall be final, and such cause shall be remanded to said Board 
of (>eneral Appraisers for further proceedings to be taken In pursuance of such determination. 

SBC. 199. Immediately upon receipt of any record transmitted to said court for determination 
the clerk thereof shall place the same upon the calendar for hearing and submission; and such calendar 
shall be called and all cases thereupon submitted, except for good cause shown, at least once every 
sixty days: Provided, That such calendar need not be called during the months of July and August 
ot any year. 



United States Customs Duties. 



101 



UNITED STATES CUSTOMS DUTIES. 

A TABLE OF LEADING ARTICLES IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED STATES OR INTO ANY OF 

ITS POSSESSIONS (EXCEPT PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, GUAM AND TUTUILA). 

GIVING RATES OF ENTRY BY THE TARIFF ACT OF I9I3 

COMPARED WITH THE TARIFF ACT OF 1909. 

(The following table covers only the articles of principal Importance Imported.) 
(ad val. — ad valorem; n.s.p.f. — not specially provided for.) 
• EHectlve March 1, 1914. 



Rates op IJuty Under 



ARTICLES. 



SCHEDULE A— CHEMICALS. OILS AND PAINTS. 

Acids, n.s.p.f 

Alcoholic compounds, n.s.p.f 



Alkalies, alkaloids, and all chemical and medicinal compounds, 
preparations, mixtures and salts, and combinations thereof.... 

Ammonia, carbonate of, and muriate of 

Coal-tar products, not medicinal and not colors or dyes 

Drugs 



Glue, value not above 10c. per pound 

Oil, castor, gals 

Oil, olive in bottles, etc., gals 

Oil, whale, gals 

Opium, crude and not adulterated, containing 9 per cent, and over 

of morphia, lbs 

Paints, colors, pigments, etc 

Perfumery, cosmetics, containing alcohol 



Perfumery, casraetlcs, not containing alcohol 

Soap, castlle and unperfumed toilet soap 

Soap, perfumed toilet ■ 

Soda, bicarbonate of 

Sponges, not advanced In value by chemical processes . . 

Talcum 

SCHEDULE B— EARTHS, EARTHENWARE AND GLASSWARE 

Cement 

Earthenware, porcelain, decorated . 

Earthenware, common, not ornamented 

Glassware, decorated or cut 

Marble, manufactures of, except for jewelry 

Opera and field glasses, and frames for same. . ... 

Spectacles and eyeglasses, and frames for same 

SCHEDULE C— METALS AND MANUFACTURES OF 

Iron, bar, n.s.p.f 

Steel, n.s.p.f 

Automobiles, valued at S2,000 or more and automobile bodies. 

Automobiles valued at less than $2,000, and automobile chassis 
and finished parts of automobiles not Including tires 

Ckipper plates, n.s.p.f 

Pens, metallic, except gold pens 

Table and k.tchen utensils, metal 

Tin plates 

Pins, not jewelry 

Iron beams, girders, joists 

Cast Iron pipe, andirons, plates, stove plates, hollow ware.. . 

Aluminum, and alloys of any kind In which It Is the chief com- 
ponent, In crude form 

Watch movements and watch cases, clocks and parts thereof 

Zinc In blocks, pigs or sheets 

SCHEDULE D— WOOD AND MANUFACTURES OF. 

Briar wood and similar wood unmanufactured 

Paving posts, railroad tires, telephone, trolley and telegraph 



poles . 



House or cabinet furniture, and manufactures of wood or bark 

n.s.p.f 

SCHEDULE E— SUGAR, MOLASSES AND MANUFACTURES OF. 

Sugars and syrups of cane Juice 



or anmanutactured. 



Saccharin 

Sugar cane in Its natural state. 

Molasses, not above 40 degrees 

Maple sugar and maple syrup 

Qlucose or grape sugar 

Sugar candy, valued more than 15c. per pound • 

Sugar candy and all confectionery, n.s.p.f., valued at 15c. 
pound or less 



Law of 1909. 



Law of 1913. 



25 p.c. ad val. 
60c. lb. and 25 p.c 
ad val. 



25 p.c. ad val. 
He. lb. 
Free list 
IKc.lb.andlOp.c. 

ad val. 
2^c. lb. 
35c. gal. 
oOc. gal. 
8c gal. 



SI. 50 lb. 

30 p.c. ad val. 

OOc. lb. and 50 p.c. 

ad val. 
60 p.c. ad val. 
IKc. lb 
50 p c. ad val. 
5-8c. lb. 
20 p.c. ad val. 



Sc 100 lbs. 

60 p c. ad val. 

25 p ad val. 

60 p c. ad val. 

50 p c ad val. 

45 p c. ad val. 
Graduated rate. 

6- 10c. lb. 
Graduated rate 



per 



45 p.c. ad val. 
2 He. lb. 
12c gross 
40 p.c. ad val. 
1 2-lOc. lb. 
35 p.c. ad val. 
Graduated rate 
8-lOc. lb. 

7c. lb. 

Graduated rate 
Graduated rate 

15 p.c. ad val. 
10 p.c. ad val. 
35 p.c. ad val. 

Not above 75 de- 
grees polarl- 
scope 95-100 of 
Ic. per lb. and 
for each addi- 
tional degree 35- 
1000 of Ic. per 
lb. additional. 

65c. lb. 

20 p c. ad val. 

20 p.c. ad val. 

4c. lb. 

IHc lb. 

50 p.c. ad val. 

4c. lb. and 15 p.c. 

I ad val. 



15 p.c. ad val. 

10c. lb. and 20 
p.c. ad val. to 
40c. lb. and 20 
p.c. ad val. 

15 p.c. ad val. 
?ic. lb. 

10 p.c. ad val. 
10 p.c. ad val. 

Ic. lb. 
12c. gal. 
30c. gal. 
5c. gal. 

S3 lb. 

15 to 20 p.c. ad 

val. 
40c. lb. and 60 

p.c. ad val. 
60 p.c. ad val. 
10 p.c. ad val. 
30 p.c. ad val. 
He. lb. 

10 p.c. ad val. 
15 p.c. ad val. 

10 p.c. ad val. 
20 to 55 p.c. ad val 
15 p.c. ad val. 
45 p c. ad val. 
45 p.c. ad val. 
35 p.c. ad val. 
35 p.c. ad val. 

5 p.c. ad val. 
15 p.c. ad val. 
45 p.c. ad val. 

30 p.c. ad val. 
5 p.c. ad val. 
8c. gross 
25 p.c. ad val. 
15 p.c. ad val. 
20 p.c. ad val. 
10 p.c. ad val. 
10 p.c. ad val. 

2c. lb. 

30 p.c. ad val. 

15 p.c. ad val. 

10 p.c. ad val. 
10 p.c. ad val. 
15 p.c. ad val. 

Not above 75 de- 
grees polarl- 
scope 71-100 of 
Ic. per lb.; for 
every addi- 
tional degree 26 
-1000 of ic. per 
lb. additional.* 

65c. lb. 

15 p.c. ad val. 

15 p.c. ad val. 

3c. lb. 

IHc. lb. 

25 p.c. &a VOL 

20. lb. 



102 



United States Customs Duties — Continued. 



ARTICI.ES. 



SCHBDXTLE F— tobacco and MAirUFACTURES OF. 
Tobacco, wrapper, leaf 



Rates op Dutt Under 



Law of 1909 



Law of 1913. 



filler. 



Tobacco, 

Snuff 

Cigars and cigarettes 

SCHEDULE G— AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND PROVI- 
SIONS. 

Horses and mules and all live animals, n.s.p.f 

Barley, bushel of 48 pounds 

Barley malt, bushel of 34 pounds 

Oatmeal and rolled oats ... . 

Oats, bushel, 

Rice, cleaned 

Macaroni, vermicelli, and all similar preparations 

Butter and substitutes 

Cheese and substitutes therefor 

Hay 

Honey 

Hops 

Seeds, flax-seed. Unseed and other oil seeds, n.s p.f. (bu. of 56 lbs.) 

Seeds, castor 0)u. of 50 lbs) 

Fish, except shell fish, packed In oil or In oil and other substances; 
Fruits, apples, peaches, quinces, cherries, plums and pears. . . . 

l"rults, preserved, n.s.p.f 

Fruits, oranges, grapefruit, and limes In bulk .... 

Lemons . . . . 

Pineapples in bulk ... 

Nuts of all kinds, shelled or unshelled, n s.p.f.. . ... 

Spices, unground 

Chocolate and cocoa unsweetened, prepared or manufactured 

n.s.p.f, 

Chocolate and cocoa, sweetened, prepared or manufactured, valued 

at 20c. per pound or less 

SCHEDULE H— SPIRITS, WINES & OTHER BEVERAGES 

Brandy and other spirits manufactured or distilled from 

grain or other materials, n.s.p.f 

Champagne and all other sparkling wines, quarts. 
Wines, still. In casl;s, vermuth and similar beverages 
Wines, still, in bottles, nnarts .... 
Malt liquors, In bottles, jugs, gallons . ... 

Mineral waters, m bottles. Quarts 

SCHEDULE I— COTTON MANUFACTURES. 
Cotton thread, Jncolored, according to numbers 



Cotton thread, colored, bleached, according to numbers 

Cotton cloth, uncolored, according to numbers. . . 

Cotton cloth, colored, bleached, according to numbers . . . 

Cotton handkerchiefs or mufflers, hemmed or hemstitched, n.s.p.f 
Cotton clothing, ready made. . . . . . 

Cotton hosiery, pairs. 

Cotton shirts, drawers, and all underwear, n.s.p.f 



Cotton, plushes, velvets, corduroys 



Lace manufactures 

SCHEDULE J— FLAX, HEMP AND JUTE AND MANUFACT- 
URE.? OF. 
Flax hemp or ramie single yarns, finer than 80 lea or number.. . 
Mattings for floors . . . 



SCHEDULE K— WOOL AND MANUFACTURES OF. 

Alpaca, hair of 

Combed wool or tops, n.s.p.f , , , . 

Yarns . . 

Yarns of hair of angora goat and alpaca 

Cloths, knit fabrics, felts not woven and all manufactures of 

every description, wholly or chiefly of wool, n.s.p.f. . 
Blankets, n.s.p.f., and flannels 

Dress goods, women's and children's 

Clothing, ready made and wearing apparel of every description, 

n.s.p.f 

Carpets, woven whole tor rooms, and rugs . . . . 

Plushes, velvets and all other pile fabrics, cotton cut or uacut , 



51.85 lb to 

S2.50 lb. 
35c to 50c lb. 
55c. lb. 
S4.50 lb and 

25 p c ad val 



20-25 PC ad val 

30c bushel 

45c bushel 

Ic. lb. 

15c bushel 

2c lb. 

IJ^c. lb 

&'■ lb 

6c. lb. 

S4 ton. 

20c gallon 

Ifip lb 

25c. bushel 

25c bu.shel 

Graduated rate. 

25c. bushsl 

2c. lb 

Ic. lb. 

l^c lb. 

S8 per 1,000 

Ic. lb. 

Free list 

Graduated rate 

Graduated rate 



S2.60 gallott 
S9.60 per doz 
4.5c. to 60c. gallon 
SI. 85 per doz. 
45c. gallon 
30c. doz. 



2!^^c. lb. to 28c. lb. 

6c. lb. to 67c. lb 

Ic. sq. yard to 
12 4 c. sq. yard. 
Graduated rate 

Graduated rate 

50 p.o .id val. 

"Oc doz. to $2 doz. 
& 15 p c. ad val. 

60c doz. & 15 p.c. 
ad val. to S2.25 
doz. & 35 p.c 
ad val. 

9c. sq. yard & 25 
p.c. ad val. to 
12c. sq. yard & 
25 p c ad val 

60 p c. ad val. 



15 p c. ad val. 
3J^c. sq. yard 



Graduated rate 
Graduated rate 



Graduated rate 
Graduated rate 

Graduated rate 
44c. lb. & 60 p.c 

ad vaU 
10c. sq. toot & 

40 p.c. ad val. 
Graduated rate 



SI. 85 lb. to 

S2.50 lb. 
35c. to 50c. lb. 
55c. lb. 
S4.50 lb and 

25 p.c ad val. 



10 p.c. ad val. 

15c. bushel 

25c. bushel 

30c 100 Iba. 

6e. bushel 

Ic. lb 

Ic. lb. 

2i.^c. lb 

20c. p.e. ad val. 

S2 ton 

10c. gallon 

16c. lb. 

20c bushel 

15c. bushel 

25 p.c. ad val. 

10c. bushel 

Ic. lb. 

i^c. lb. 

}^c. lb. 

S5 per 1.000 

Ic. lb. 

Ic. lb. 

8 p.c. ad val. 

2c. lb. 



S2.60 gallon 
.S9.60 per doz. 
45c. to 60c. gallon 
81.85 per doz 
45c. gallon 
20c. doz. 



5 to 25 p.c. ad 

val. 
7 H to 27^ p.c. 

ad val. 
7H to 27M P.O. 

ad val. 
10 to 30 p.c. ad 

val. 
30 p.c. ad val. 
30 p.c. ad val. 
30 to 50 p.c. ad 

val. 
30 p.c. ad val. 



40 p.c. ad val. 



60 p.c. ad val. 



10 p.c. ad val. 
2He. sq. yard 



15 p.c. ad val. 
8 p.c. ad val. 
18 p.c. ad val. 
25 p c. ad val. 

35 p.c. ad val. 
25 to 30 p.c. ad 

val. 
35 p.c. ad val. 
35 p. c. ad val. 

50 p.c. ad val. 

40 p.c. ad val. 



Untied States Customs Duties — Continued. 



103 



ARTICLES. 



fiCHEDULE h — 6ILK AND SILK GOODS. 
Bnk partially manvrtactured, or spun sUk . . . . 



Stlk, wearing apparel , 

Silk, yarns, threads, artifloiaJ 

Silk, all manuiactures ot n.s.p.f 

SCHEDULE M— PAPEHS AN^D BOOKS. 

Printing paper, otber timn paper commercially known as hand- 
made or maeblne Jiand-made. valued above 2 >^e. perlb., n.s.p.f. 

Books, of all kltids. bound of unbound pampblets, engravings, 

photographs. n.s.p.I 

Paper, maDUIactures of, n.s.p.f 

Playing cards 



Rates or Doty Under 



Law of 1909. 



Law of 1913. 



SCHEDULE N— SUNDRIES. 

Beads, not threaded or strung 

Brushes 

Bristles 

Diamonds and other precious stones, cut but not set. 
Feathers and downs 

Furs, dresaed 

Purs, wearing apparel 

Gloves (leather) 



Gutta-percha and India rubber, manufactures of, n.s.p.I... 

Hal?, human, cleaned but not manufactured 

Leather, manufactures of, n.s.p.f. . 

Musical Instruments 

Phonographs, gramophones, gniphophones, or parts. . . . 
Pipes and smoker.s' articles 



Paintings and statuary, n.s.p.f. . 

Tovs •■•, ■• 

Dmbrellos, parasols, sunshades, n.s.p.f. 



35e. lb. and gradu- 
ated rate. 
60 p.c. ad val. 
45c. lb. to 60c. lb. 
60 P.O. ad val. 



3Hc. lb. to 15 p.c 
ad. val. 

25 p.c. ad val. 
35 p.c. ad ral. 
10c. pack and 20 
p.c. ad val. 

35 p.e. ad val. 
40 p.c. ad vaL 
7!^c. lb. 
10 p.c. ad val. 
20 to 60 p.c. ad 

val. 
20 to 49 p.c. ad val 

50 p.c. ad val. 
SI. 25 doz. to S5. SO 

doz. 
35 p c ad val. 
20 p c. ad val. 
40 p c. ad val. 
45 D c. ad val. 
45 p.c. ad val. 
Graduated rate 

15 p c. ad val. 
35 p c. ad val. 
50 p.c. a^l val. 



20e. lb. to 35 p.c. 

ad val. 
60 p.c. ad val. 
35 p.c. ad val. 
46 p.c. ad val. 



12 p.c. ad val. 



15 p.c. ad val. 
26 p.e. ad val. 
60 p.c. ad val. 



35 p.e. ad val. 

36 p.c. ad val. 
7c. lb. 

20 p.c. ad val. 
20 to 60 p.c. ad 

val. 
10 to 40 p.c. ad 

val. 
50 p.c. ad val. 
81 to 54.76 doz. 

pairs. 
10 p.c. ad val. 
20 p.c. ad val. 
30 p.c. ad val. 

35 p.c. ad vala 
25 p.c. ad val: 
20 to 50 p.c. ad 

val. 
16 p.c. ad val. 

36 p.c. ad val. 
35 p.c. ad val. 



Acids (not provided for 
under Schedule A). 

Aconite. 

Agates, unmanufactured . 

Agricultural Implements. 

Albumen, n.s.p.f. 

Alcohol, methyl or wood. 

Ammonia, nitrate and 

sulphate of. 
.Animals brought into U. 
3. temporarily or for 
breeding purpose?. 

Animals, wild, for exhibi- 
tion in zoological col- 
lections. 

Anthracite coal. 

Antitoxins. 

Aromatic (not garden) 
seeds. 

Arrowroot, not manufac- 
tured. 

Arsenic. 

Art, works of. 

Articles returned after 
having been exported. 

Asbestos, unmanufac- 
tured. 

Asphaltum. 

Bacon. 

Bagging for cotton, eto. 

Barbed fence wire. 

Barks, n.s.p f. 

Beans, n.s.p.f. 

Beef, fresh. 

Beeswax. 

Belting leather. 

Benzine 

Berries, n.s.p.f. 

Bibles. 

Birds. 

Bismuth. 

Bituminous coal. 

Books for the blind and 
for religious, phllo 
sophlcal, scientific or 
literary purposes, per 
sons or families from 



THE 

foreign countries, pro- 
fessional. 

Boots, leather. 

•Borax, crude. 

Brass, old. 

Brimstone. 

Briquets. 

Bristles, crude. 

Broom corn. 

Buckwheat. 

Bullion, gold or silver. 

Burlaps 

Cabinet wood. In the log 
rough, or hewn only. 

Calcium, B.s.p f. 

Camel's hair. 

Carbolic acid. 

Cash registers. 

Cattle. 

Cement. 

Chalk, crude. 

Charts for use of societies 
or United States 

Citizens of U. S. flying 
In foreign countries, 
personal effects of. 

Clapboards. 

Coal. 

Cobalt. 

Cocoa, crude, n.s.p.f. 

Cocoanuts In the shell. 

Cocoons, silk. 

Cod liver oil. 

Coffee. 

Coins, gold, silver and 
copper. 

Coke. 

Composition metal 
n.s.p f. 

Copper, in plates, bars 
Ingots or pigs, n.s.p.f. 
and ore. 

Copperas. 

Cork, unmanufactured 

Corn and corn-meal. 

Cotton and cotton bag- 
ging. 



FREE LIST, 

Cotton gins. 

Cotton waste. 

Cottonseed oil. 

Cream. 

Croton oil. 

Curry. 

Darning needles. 

Drawings, original. 

Drugs, not advanced. 

Dyeing and tanning 
materials. 

Dyewoods, n.s.p.i. 

Engravings, original. 

Etchings, original. 

Evergreen seedlings. 

Explosive substances 

Extracts for tanning. 

Fans, common palm leaf. 

Fats and grease. 

Fencing, barbed and gal- 
vanized wire. 

Ferromanganese. 

Fibres and grasses. 

Films, moving picture, 
American mar.-ufacture 
light struck or damaged 

Flat rails, iron or steel. 

Flax. 

Flint, flints and flint 
stones unground. 

Flocks. 

Flower and grass seeds 
n.s.p.f. 

Fossils. 

Fowls, water. 

Fruit plants, tropical and 
semi-tropical, for pur- 
pose of propagation or 
cultivation. 

Fruits or berries, n.s.p .f 

Fulminates. 

Furniture of persons or 
families from foreign 
countries. 

Furs, undressed. 

Galvanized wire. 

Gasoline. 



Glass plates or disks, 

rough-cut or unwrought. 
Glaziers' diamonds. 
Gloves, leather, n.s.p.f. 
Glue stock. 
Goat skins, undressed. 
Gold, bullion, medals, 

ore and sweepings. 
Gold, silver, copper of 

other metal coins. 
Grains, drugs, crude. 
Granite, urunanufactured, 

n s.p.f. 
Grasses and fibres. 
Guano, manures and all 

substances used only 

in manure. 
Gunny bags and cloth, oW. 
Gunpowder. 
Gutta-percha, crude. 
Hair, n.s.p.f. 
Hams. 

Handle bolts. 
Hand sewing needles. 
Harness, saddles and sad- 
dlery, or parts thereof. 
Harvesters. 

Hemlock bark, extract of. 
Hemp, n.s.p.f. 
Herbs, used as drugs, 

n.s.p.f. 
Hides of cattle. 
Hones and whetstones. 
Hoop Iron or steel, 

coated or not coated 

with paint. 
Hoops, Iron or steel, cut 

to lengths. 
Horns and parts of. 
Horsehair unmanfac- 

tured. 
Horseshoe nails. 
Horseshoes. 
Household effects. 
Ice. 

India rubber, crude. 
Indigo. 



104 



Custom House Examination of Baggage. 



THE FREE LIST— Con^iriwed. 



Ingots. 

Uistruinents, phllosoplil- 
cal and sclentlQcal. 

Inventions, models ot. 

Iodine, crude and re- 
sublimed. 

Ipecac. 

Iron Ore. 

Iron or steel bands, cut 
to lengUis and maQu 
tactUDes of. 

Iron or steel billets. 

Iron or steel nails, rails 
and scrap. 

Jute. 

Kerosene. 

Kindling wood. 

L>amb and lambskiiiB, un- 
dressed. 

Land fowls. 

Lard. 

Latbs. 

Leather, n.s.p f.. boots and 
shoes, harness, saddles, 
and saddlery, shoe laces, 
sole, uppers, vamps. 

Leaves used as drugs, 
n.s.p.f. 

Leeches. 

Lemon and lime juice. 

Lemon peel, not pre- 
served. 

Libraries. 

Lifeboats and Ufe-sav- 
Ing apparatus. 

Linotype machines. 

Lithographic stones not 
engraved. 

Lodestones. 

Logs. 

Loops, Iron. 

Lumber, planed or fin- 
ished, n.s.p f. 

Machines, for spreading 
tar and oil and for 
sugar making, lino- 
type, sewing, thrash- 
ing, typesetting. 

Magneslte, crude or cal- 
cined. 

Maize. 

Manganese, oxide and 
ore of. 

Manila. 

Manures. 

Manuscripts. 

Maps, over 20 years old, 
or for use of United 
States. 

Marrons. 

Marrow. 

Marshmallow. 

Meal, corn. 

Meats. 



Medals of gold, silver or 
copper. 

Metal composition, 
n.s.p.f. 

Milk, preserved or con- 
densed, etc. 

Mineral salts. 

Minerals, crude. 

Models of Inventions. 

Moss, crude or umnaDU' 
factured. 

Mowers. 

Music for the blind. 

MustarQ seed. 

Mutton. 

Nails. 

Naphtha. 

Needles, hand sewing 
and darning. 

Newspapers and periodi- 
cals Issued within 6 
months of time of 
entry. 

Nickel ore. 

Nitrate of potash or 
saltpetre, crude and 
soda. 

Nut oil. 

Nu.\ vomica. 

Oakum. 

OH cake. 

Oils not provided for In 
list under Schedule A. 

Orange juice, peel, not 
preserved, candled or 
dried. 

Ore, cobalt, copper, 
emery, gold, Iron, 
manganese, manganlf- 
erous Iron, nickel, sil- 
ver, tin, tungsten- 
bearing. 

Paper, printing, n.s.p.f., 
stock, crude. 

Paraffin and paraffin oil. 

Parchment. 

Paris green. 

Pearl, mother of. and 
pearl shells in natural 

Pebble, Brazilian. 

Periodicals and news- 
papers Issued within 6 
months of time of 
entry. 

Personal effects. 

Petroleum. 

Phosphates, crude. 

Phosphorus. 

Photographic, and mov- 
ing picture films not 
exposed or developed. 

Pigs, copper. Iron. 

Plants, fruits, tropical 
and semi-tropical, for 



propagation or cultl- 
vatlon. 

Plates, copper, glass. 

Platinum. unmanufac- 
tured. 

Plows. 

Plumbago. 

Fotash, carbonate, crude 
cyanide, sulphate. 

Potassium, cyanide ot. 

Potatoes. 

Printing paper not above 
2 He per lb. 

Prizes. 

Prussic acid. 

Pulp woods. 

Quinine. 

Radium. 

Rags, n.s.p.f. 

Ralls, flat. Iron or steel 

Railway bars. Iron or 
steel. 

Rapeseed. 

Rattan. 

Reapers. 

Reeds, unmanufactured 

Regalia and gems, stat 
uary and casts of 
sculpture. 

Roots, drugs, crude, n.s 
p.f. 

Rye and rye flour. 

Saddlery. 

Safety lamps, miners'. 

Sago. 

Salt. 

Saltpetre, crude. 

Scientific apparatus. 

Seeds, all flower and 
grass, n.s.p.f. 

Sewing machines. 

Sheep. 

Shellfish, and shells in 
natural state. 

Shingles. 

Shoddy. 

Shoes, leather. 

Silk, raw. 

Silver bullion, coins, 
medals, ore, sweep- 
ings. 

Sisal grass. 

Skins, undressed. 

Soda, arsenlate, ash 
cyanide, nitrate, sili- 
cate, sulphate. 

Sole leather. 

Specimens, botany and 
mineralogy and natu- 
ral history not for sale. 

Spermaceti oil. 

Spikes. 

Spirits, turpentine. 

Sprigs, cut. 



Stamps, foreign. 

Statuary. 

Staves. 

Steel, scrap. 

Stone. 

Strychnine. 

Sugar-beet seed. 

Sulphate of ammonia, 
copper. Iron, potash, 
soda. 

Sulphur. 

Sulphuric acid. 

Sumac, ground. 

Swine. 

T-raiis, Iron or steel. 

Tacks, cut. 

Talcum, crude, n.s.p.f. 

Tallow. 

Tanning material. 

Tapioca. 

Tar, and pitch of wood. 

Tea. 

Thrashing machines. 

Timber. 

Tin, except piates. 

Tobacco stems. 

Trophies. 

Turpentine. 

Twine. 

Type, old. 

Typesetting machines. 

Typewriters. 

Vaccine virus. 

Veal. 

Vegetable substances, 
crude. 

Vellum. 

Verdigris. 

Vitriol, blue. 

Wagons and carts. 

Waste 

Water fowls. 

Wax, vegetable or min- 
eral. 

Wearing apparel. (See 
below.) 

Weeds and wood used 
as drugs, n.s.p.f. 

Whalebone, unmanufact- 
ured. 

Whale oil, n.s.p.f. 

Wheat, n.s.p.f. 

Whetstones. 

Wild animals for exhltjl-^ 
tion In zoological col- 
lections. 

Wire, barbed fence, gal- 
vanized, nails, staples. 

Wood, n.s.p.f. 

Wood alcohol. 

Wood pulp. 

Wool, n.s.p.f. 

Works of art. 

Wrought Iron or st«el 
nails, n.s.p.f. 



CUSTOM HOUSE EXAMINATION OF BACCACE. 

TheTarlffof 1913 provides for the exemption from duty of weariusr apparel, etc., as shown in 
paragraph 642, as follows: 

642. Wearing apparel, articles of personal adornment, toilet articles, and similar personal effects 
of persons arriving m the United States; but this exemption shall include only §uch articles as were 
actually owned by them and in their possession abroad at the time of or prior to their departure from 
a foreign country, and as are necessary and appropriate for the wear and use nf such persons and are 
intended for such wear and use, and shall not be held to apply to merchandise or articles intended for 
other persons or for sale: Pi-ovided, That in case of residents of tlie United States returning from 
abroad all wearing apparel, personal and household effects taken by them out of the United States to 
foreign countries stiall be admitted free of duty, without regard to their value, upon their Identity 
being established under appropriate rules and regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the 
Treasury: JProvidedfurther.That up to but not exceeding one hundred dollars in value of articles 
acquired abroad by such residents of the United States for personal or household use or as souvenirs 
or curios, but not bought on commission or intended for sale, shall be admitted free of duty. 

BAGGAGE DECLARATIONS. 
The law requires that every person entering the United States shall make a declaration and entry 
of personal baggage. The senior member of a family present as a passenger may, however, declare 
for the entire lamily. A failure to declare articles acquired abroad and brought in as baggage renders 
the articles subject to forfeiture and the passengers liable to criminal prosecution. (Sections 2803 
aod 3«S2, K. S. ) 



Custom House Examination of Baggage. 105 

CUSTOM HOUSE EXAMINATION OF BAGGAGE-Co7i»nii^<t 

Theeiactnumber of pieces of baggage accompanying a passenger must be stated in the declara^ 
tion, including trunks, valises, boxes, band bags, and packages or bundles of every kind. Forms of 
baggage declaratious will be furnished passengers by the steamship ofHcers. The declaration should 
be prepared and signed at least one day before the expected arrival of the vessel. Declarations spoiled 
in preparation should not be destroyed, but should be turned over to the purser, who will furnish a 
new blank. 

When the declaration has been prepared and signed, the coupon at the bottom of the form must be 
detached aud retained by the passenger and the declaration delivered to the ship's officer designated 
to receive the same. After all the baggage aud effects of the passenger have been landed, the coupon 
which has been retained must be presented at the inspector's desk, and an inspector will then be 
detailed to examine the baggage. 

Passengers must acknowledge in person, on the pier, their signatures to the declarations. 

RETURNING RESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Returning residents of the United States must declare all articles acquired abroad, in tbeir 
baggage or on their persons, whether by purchase, by gift, or otherwise, aud whether dutiiiRle oriree 
of duty. Exemptiou, however, wiH be allowed by customs officers of articles aggregating not over 
$100 in value, it suitable for personal or household use or as souvenirs or curios, and whether Intended 
for the personal use of the passengers or as gifts or presents to others, provided the articles are not 
bought on commission for another person nor intended for sale. Articles so exempt from duty must, 
nevertheless, be declared. Articles belonging to one passenger cannot be included in the exemption 
of another. 

Usedoesnot exempt from duty wearing apparel or other articles obtained abroad. Such articles 
which have been used abroad may, however, be specifically noted on the declaration, and due 
allowance will be made by the appraising officers for depreciation through wear and use and duties 
charged upon the articles at their value in their cociditton as imported. 

Passengers must not deduct the $100 exemption in making out their declarations. Such deductions 
will be made by customs officers on the pier. 

All wearing apparel, personal aud household effects taken out of the United States by residents 
shall be admitted free of duty without regard to their value upon their identity being established. If 
remodelled, repaired, or improved abroad, the cost of such remodelling, repairing, or improvement 
must be declared, and receipted bills for sueh alterations should be presented. The cost of such 
repairs is subject to duty, but may be included by customs officers within the $100 exemption. If the 
cost or value of the repairs be not declared, the articles will be subject to duty upon their entire value. 

Citizens of the United States or persons who have at any time resided in this country shall be 
deemed to be residents of the United States, unless they shall have abandoned their residence in this 
country and acquired an actual bona flde residence in a foreign country. Such citizens or former 
residents who declare as nonresidents must present satisfactory evidence to the customs officers upon 
the pier that they have given up their residence in the United States and have become bona iide 
residents of a foreign country. . ,_.,^,,, 

The residence of a wife follows that of the husband, and the residence of a mmor child follows 
that of its parents. , , ,.„ . . , , ., , 

The examination of baggage will be facilitated and difficulties avoided if receipted bills for foreign 
purchases be presented, and if all articles acquired abroad be packed separately in one or more trunks. 

NONRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Nonresidents of the United States must declare all articles in their baggage or on their persons 
which do uol constitute wearing apparel, articles of personal adornment, toilet articles, or similar 
personal effects, whether intended lor their personal use or for others. They must also declare all 
articlesof wearing apparel, jewelry, and other articles of personal adornment, toilet articles, and 
similar eQects when not owned by them or when intended forother persons or for sale. 

HOUSEHOLD EFFECTS. 

Household effects, such as furniture, table linen, bed linen, tableware, etc., imported as baggage 
must be declared. If shown to the satisfaction of the customs officers to have been actually owned 
and used abroad by the passenger not less thau one year and not intended for any other person nor 
for sale such effects will be admitted free of duty. If not so owned and used abroad, duties must be 
paid thereon, unlesF included in the IJIOO exemption allowed returning residents. 

CIGARS AND CIGARETTES. 

Each passenger over eighteen years of age may bring in free of duty 50 cigars or 300 cigarettes, 
or smoking tobacco not exceeding three pouuds, if for the boua fide use of such passenger. These 
articles must be declared, but will be passed free by customs officers in addition to the $100 exemption. 

CONTESTED VALUATION. 

Passengers dissatisfied with values placed upon dutiable articles by the customs officers on the 
piermay demand are-examination. Application therefor should be made to the officers in charge 
immediately If, for any reason, this course is impracticable, the packages containing the articles 
should be leli in customs custody and application for reappraisemeut made to the collector of customs 
in writing within ten days after the original appraisement. No request for reappraisemeut can be 
entertainedafter the articles have been removed from customs custody. ,_ „. ., ^. ^. 

Examination of any baggage may be postponed if the passenger requests the officer taking his 
declaration to have the baggage sent to the appraiser's stores. , , , ^. . , ^, 

Currencv or certified checks only can be accepted in payment of duties, but upon request baggage 
will be retained on the pier for 24 hours to enable the owner to secure currency or certified checks. 

The ottering of gratuities or bribes to customs officers is a violation of law. Customs officers who 
acceptgratuitiesor bribes will be dismissed from the service, and all parties concerned are liable to 

Discourtesy or incivility on the part of customs officeiis should be reported to the collector at the 
custom house to the deputy collector or deputy surveyor at the pier, or to the Secretary of the 
Treasury Passengers should not, however, deem customs officers discourteous merely because such 
officers examine baggage thoroughly or appraise articles at a value different from that stated in the 
passenger' s declaration . 

BAGGAGE FOR TRANSPORTATION IN BOND. 

Baggage may be forwarded in bond to any other port of entry upon good reason therefor being 

^ °PMsengers desiring to have such baggage forwarded in bond sheuld so indicate on their declara- 



106 United States Bureau of Plant Industry^ 

custom: house examination of ba g a AG ^—Ccmtintied. 

tioDs.and also makea request therefor upon the inspectoral the time he is assigned' tO' the esanUna- 
tjon of their baggage. Similar action should be taken when it Is desired ta hare- baggage forwarded- 
to another country in transit through the United States. 

SEALSKIN GARMENTS. 
An act of Congre.ss of 1897, as amended in 1912, expressly forbids the importation intO' thB' United 
States of garments made in whole or in cart of the skins of seals taken in the waters at ths- Pacific 
Ocean. Unless the owner is able to establish to the satisfaction of the collector that the- garments 
are not prohibited by said act, they cannot be admitted. 

AIGRETTES AND OTHER PLUMAGE. 

Paragraph 347 of the present Tariff Act contains tbe following proviso: 

"The importation of aigrettes, egret plumes, or so-called osprey plumes, and the- feathers, qnlUs, 
heads, wings, tails, .skins, or i>arts of skins, of wild birds, either raw or manufacttired, and not for 
scientific or educational purposes, is hereby prohibited; but this provision shall not apply to the 
feathers or plumes of ostriches or to the feathers or plumes of domestic fowls of any liiud. " 

Any of the above-described prohibited articles will be excluded from eti try when brought in by 
passengere as trimmings on hats or other articles of wearing apparel, and will be confiscated whether 
found in the baggage or on the person. In cases where there has been no wilful intent to violate- 
the law, such prohibited articles may be exported to a foreign country. 

W. G. McADOo, Secretary of the- Treasury. 

THE SOUTHERN COMMERCIAL CONGRESS. 

President — Duncan U. Fletcher, JacksonvtUe. Fia. First Vice-PresideTU — Thomas 8. ,Southgate» 
Norfolk, Va. Second Vice-President — Albert P. Bush, Mobile. Ala. Managing Director — Clar- 
ence J. Owens, Washington, D. C. Treasurer and Resident Director — William H. Saunders, Washtagtoo. 
X>. C. 

The headquarters of the Congress Is at the Southern Building, nfteentli and H Streets, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Clarence J. Owens. Managing Director. 

Among the purposes of the organization are the following: 

(a) To promote and develop the Interests of the following sixteen States of tbe United States 
known as the "Southern States." to wit: Alabama. Arkansas, Florida. Georgia, Keatucky, Lonlstana, 
Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee. Texas. 
Virginia, and West Virginia. 

(6) To collect and disseminate Information regarding the resources and conditions of the said 
States and the opportunities and advantages offered In them for the safe atnd profitable Investment 
of capital; the attractions offered In the South to the homeseeker. artisan and laborer, and tbe Im- 
portance to the National Government of enacting proper legislation looking to the conservation 
of the natural resources of the South and the improvement of Its rivers, harbors and transporta- 
tion facilities. 

(c) To encourage, promote and foster tbe development of the resources of the South with its 
own capital and by Its own Inbabltants. 

{d) To encourage and obtain the establishment In the South of commercial, manufacturing. 
Industrial and other enterprises, and to foster those already existing therein. 

(e) To encourage, foster and promote the creation and establishment of Institutions and or- 
ganizations whose energies shall be principally directed toward the development of the material 
resources of the South, 

(!) To promote and develop proper Immigration to the South and to promote and foster the 
establishment of such organizations as may bring about the development et desirable Immigration 
to the South. 

(ff) To encourage the movement for the construction of good roads and for the extension of 
railroad and trolley transfiortatlon. 

Oi) To encourage, foster and develop patriotic and National sentiments throughout the South 
and elsewhere In the Nation, and particularly to promote, encourage and tester the feeling and desire 
for a greater Nation through a greater South. 

(0 To promote the Improvement of educational and other conditions which tend to develop 
the material resources and happiness of the residents of the South. 



UNITED STATES BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

The Bureau of Plant Industry studies plant life in all its r^ations to agriculture. It investigates the 
diseases of fruit and forest trees, truck crops and other plants, and carries on field tests and demonstrations 
of their control and prevention. It stsdies the bacteriological problems connected with plant production 
and also the factors of plant nutrition and distributes cultures of nitrogen-gathering bacteria for the 
inoculation of the seed of leguminous crop plants. It is engaged In the improrement of crops by breeding 
and selection and the acclimatization and adaptation of new crops and varieties. It is encouraging the 
production of drug-producing crops and other special crons. and is studying the general physiological 
problems inHuencmg the growth of plants, in co-operation with the Bureau of Animal Industry and the 
Forest Service it is conducting a campaign for the eradication of poisonous plants, especially in the vast 
stock-grazing areas of the West. It is investigating various technological problems in gonneotlon with 
crop production, particularly with reference to fibre and paper-oroducing plants and to the standardization 
and handling of grain. It is engaged in the study of various phases of economic botany and in the devising 
of methods tor the improvement ot forest-graiing areas. It Is carrying on a propaganda in the interest 
of good seeds for ttie farmer and the improvement in tbe quality of farm seeds. It is conducting extensive 
■work in the breeding and testing of the principal field crops, such as the small grains, corn, cotton, tobacco, 
-otorage crops, and sugar-producing plants, with special reference to the improvement of these crops. It 
^fs engaged in the operation of testing stations in the semi-arid regions for the co-operative Investigation of 
the problems encountered in crop production under the cgndltlons existing in ttoose areas. The adaptation 
;flnd breeding of crops is a «5ecial feature of this work, which also Includes physical determinations of the 
factors inftuenclng plant growth In those regions. 

It is conducting horticultural studies of garden crops and maintains an experimental farm for this ana 
.other tines of the work of the bureau. It is engaged in investigations of the transportation and storage of 
fruits, and in the general upbuilding of the fruit industry. It maintains greenhouses and trial grounds for 
the work of plant propagation and Improvement, it Ls engaged In the introduction of seeds and plants from 
'foreign countries and in the operation of plant introduction and testing gardens to aid in the development 
iQf new plant industries. It is also engaged in the Congresaioaal distribution of seeds and plants. 



Postal Information. 107 



postal Knfotmatfon. 



(Bevited by (he Post-Office Department for The World Almanac. Sections quoted by numbers in this subiect 

refer to the Postal Laws and lieguUUions.) 

DOMESTIC RATES OF POSTAGE. 

All mailable matter for transmission by the United States malls within the United States to or Irom 
or between the possessions oj the United States is divided into four classes, under the following regulations: 
CDomesttc rates apply to mall for Canada, Mexico, Cuba, Tutuila and Manua and other islands of the Samoan 
group east of longitude 171° west of Greenwich, Porto Rico, Guam, Hawaii, the Philippines, the "Canal 
Zone," the Republic of Panama, and Shanghai City, China, also to mall for officers or members of the crew 
of vessels of war of the United States, and officers and men of the United States Navy in the United States 
Naval Hospital, Yokohama, Japan, and to other places where the United States mail service is in operation.) 

First-Class Matter — This class includes letters, postal cards, "post cards," and anything sealed or 
otherwise closed against inspection (except as provided for under other classifications all matter wholly or 
partly in writing, whether sealed or unsealed, except manuscript copy accompanying proof sheets or cor- 
rected proof sheets of the same, or anythiug containing writing not authorized on mail matter of other classes. 

First-class or letter rate of postage to any part of the United States, its possessions, or the above-named 
countries, two cents per ounce or fraciian thereof. 

Rates on local or drop letters at free delivery ofHces, two cents per ounce or fraction thereof. At ofHces 
where there is no free delivery by carriers, and the addressee cannot be served by rural free delivery carriers, 
one cent per ounce or fraction thereof. 

Rates on postal cards, one cent (double or "reply" cards, two cents). Postal cards issued by the 
Post-Offlce Department may bear written, printed, or other additions as follows: 

(a) The face of the card may be divided by a vertical line placed approximately one-third of the dis- 
tance from the left end of the card ; the space to the left of the line to be used for a message, etc , but the space 
to the right for the address only. 

(6) Addresses upon postal cards may be either written, printed, or affixed thereto, at the option of the 
sender. 

(c) Very thin sheets of paper may be attached to the card on condition that they completely adhere 
thereto. Such sheets may bear both writing and printing. 

((f) Advertisements, illustrations, or writing may appear on the back of the card and on the left third 

2. The addition to a postal card of matter other than as above authorized will subject the card, when 
sent in the mails, to postage according to the character of the message — at the letter rate if wholly or partly 
in writing, of the third-class rate if entirely in print. In either case the postage value of the stamp impressed 
upon the card will not be impaired. 

3. Postal cards must be treated in all repects as sealed letters, except that those mailed for local de- 
livery will be returned to the sender If undeliverable and the name and address of the sender appear there- 
on. Undellverable "double" postal cards will be returned to the sender if known. 

4. Postal cards bearing articles of glass, metal, mica, sand, tinsel or other similar substances, are 
unmailable except when inclosed in tightly sealed envelopes with proper postage attached, or when treated 
in such manner as will prevent the objectionable substances from being rubbed o« or injuring persons hand- 
ling the mails. 

Cards that have been spoiled in printing or otherwise will be redeemed from the original purchasers 
at 75 per cent, of their face value if unmutilated. 

POST Cards (private mailing cards) bearing written or printed messages are transmissible In the 

mails. 

Private mailing cards ("post cards") in the domestic malls mtist conform to the following conditions: 

(a) A "post card" must be an unfolded piece of cardboard not exceeding approximately 3 9-16 by 
5 9-16 Inches, nor less than approximately 2Ji by 4 inches. 

(6) It must in form and in the quality and weight of paper be substantially like the Government postal 
card. 

(c) It may be of any color not interfering with a legible address and postmark. 

(c6 It may or may not, at the option of the sender, bear near the top of the face the words "post card." 

(e) The face of the card may be divided by a vertical line; the left half to be used for a message, etc., 
Irat that to the right for the address only. 

CO Very thin sheets of paper may be attached to the card, and then only on condition that they conw 
pletely adhere thereto. Such sheets may bear both writing and printing. , . ,. . ,. 

(ff) Advertisements and illustrations may appear on the back of the card and on the left half of the 

2. Cards, without cover, conforming to the foregoing conditions are transmissible in the domestic 
mails (including the possessions of the United States) and to Cuba, Canada, Mexico, the Republic of Panama, 
and Shanghai. China, at the postage rate of 1 cent each. 

3. When "post cards" are prepared by printers and stationers for sale, it is desirable that they bear 
in the upper right hand comer of the face an oblong diagram containing the words 'Place postage stamp 
here," and at the bottom of the space to the right of the vertical dividing line, the words "This space for 

4 Cards which do not conform to the conditions prescribed by these regulations are, when sent In the 
mails, chargeable with postage according to the character of the message — at the letter rate, if wholly or 
partly in \vriting, or at the third-class rate, if entirely In print. 

5 Cards bearing particles of glass, metal, mica, sand, tinsel, or other similar substances, are unmailable, 
except when inclosed in tightly sealed envelopes, or when treated In such manner as t,v111 prevent the objec- 
tionable substances from being rubbed off or injuring persons handling the mails. 

6 Cards mailed under cover of sealed envelopes (transparent or otherwise) are chargeable with postage 
at the first-class rate; if Inclosed in unsealed envelopes, they are subject to postage according to the char- 
acter of the message — at the first-class rate if wholly or partly in writing, or the third-class rate if entirely 
in print- and the postage stamps should be affixed to the envelopes covering the same. Postage stamps 
affixed to matter Inclosed in envelopes are not to be recognized in payment of postage thereon. 

Postage on all letters should be fullv prepaid, but if prepaid one full rate and no more, theywlU be 
forwarded, and the amount of deficient postage collected on deUvery; If wholly unpaid, or prepaid with less 
than one full rate and deposited at a post-offlce, the addressee will be notified to remit postage; and if he 
falls to do so they will be sent to the Dead Letter Office; but they will be returned to the sender if he is located 
at the place of mailing, and it his address be printed or written upon them „.,»». 

Letter rate is charged on typewriting and carbon or letter press copies thereof, and on all Imitations 
or reproductions of typewriting or manuscript obtained by printing, multigraph, mimeograph or similar 
mechanical process unless such reproductions are presented at post-office windows in the mimmum number 
of twenty identical unsealed copies. . ^. .^^ , «,„» „«. 

Letters and other matter prepaid at the letter rate — two cents an ounce or fraction thereof — (bu t no 
other class of mall matter) will be returned to the sender free if a request to that effect is printed or wnttCD 
on the envelope or wrapper. The limit of weight Is the same aa that for fourth-class matter. 



108 Postal Information. 



DOMESTIC RATES OF POSTAGE— Conttnued. 



Prepaid letters and other matter prepaid at the letter rate will be forwarded from one post-office to an- 
other upon the written request of the person addressed, without additional charge for postage. The direction 
on forwarded letters may be changed as many times as may be necessary to reach the person addressed. 
Nothing may be added to such letters except the forwarding address without subjecting them to new postage. 

Second-Class Matter — This class Includes all printed newspapers and periodicals that have been 
"Entered as second-class matter," under the act of March S, 1879, and are regularly Issued at stated Intervals 
as frequently as four times a year, from a known office of publication, and mailed by the publishers or news 
agents to actuaJ subscribers or as sample copies or to news agents for sale, and newspapers and publications 
of this class mailed by persons other than publishers or registered news agents. Also periodical publica- 
tions entered under the act of August 24, 1912, of benevolent and fraternal societies, organized under the 
lodge system and having a membership of a thousand persons, and the publications of strictly professional, 
literary, historical and scientific societies, and Incorporated institutions of learning, State Institutions of 
learning, trade unions, etc., provided that these be published at stated intervals not less than four times a 
year, and that they be formed of printed paper sheets without board, cloth, leather or other substantial 
binding. Also periodicals Issued by State Departments of Agriculture which are entered under the act of 
June 6, 1900. Publishers who wish to avail themselves of the privileges of the acts of August 24, 1912 and 
June 6, 1900, are required to make formal application to the department through the postmaster at the place of 
publication, producing satisfactory evidence that the organizations, societies, and Institutions represented 
come within the purview of the law. Publications designed primarily for advertising or free circulation, 
or circulation at a nominal rate, or not having a legitimate list of subscribers, are not entitled to the pound 
rate under the act of March 3, 1879. 

Rates of postage to publishers and news agents, one cent a pound or fractional part thereof, prepaid In 
currency. Newspapers (except weelUles) mailed by the publishers or by registered news agents for local 
<lellvery by city letter carriers and periodicals not exceeding 2 ounces In weight are subject to the rate of 
one (1) cent each, to be prepaid by stamps affixed or in money under special permits. Periodicals exceed- 
ing two ounces in weight mailed for local carrier delivery are subject to the rate of two (2) cents each, to be 
prepaid by stamps affixed or in money under special permits 

Publications which have not been admitted to the second-class are third- or fourth-class matter. 

Publications sent to actual subscribers In the county where printed and published are free, unless 
mailed for delivery at a city letter-carrier office. 

Rates of postage on second-class newspapers, magazines, or periodicals, mailed by others than the 
publishers or news agents, one cent for each four ounces or fraction thereof. Postage must be paid by stamps 
affixed or if 300 or more identical pieces are mailed at one time, under permit, it may be paid in money. It 
should be observed that the rate is one cent for each four ounces, not one cent for each paper contained in 
the same wrapper. This rate applies only when a complete copy Is mailed. Parts of second-class publica- 
tions or partial or incomplete copies are not entitled to second-class rates. Second-class matter is entitled 
to special delivery when special delivery stamps (or ten cents in ordinary stamps and the words "Special 
Delivery" placed on the wrapper) are affixed in addition to the regular postage. No limit of weight Is pre- 
ecrlbed. 

Second-class matter must be so wrapped that It may be easily examined. The sender's name and 
address may be written In them or on the wrapper, also the words "sample copy" when sent as such, or 
"marked copy" when It contains a marked Item or article. Typographical errors In the text may be 
corrected, but any other writing subjects the matter to letter postage. 

Third-CIass Matter — Mall matter of the third class Includes printed engravings, circulars in print 
(or by the mimeograph, multlgraph, hectograph, eleclrlc-pen, or similar process when at least twenty 
Identical copies are mailed at post-office windows at one time), and other matter wholly In print (except 
books), proof sheets, corrected proof sheets, and manuscript copy accompanying the same. Printed books 
are fourth-class matter, as is also miscellaneous printed matter weighing ?nore than lour pounds. See "Par- 
cel Post or rourth-Class Mail " 

The rate on matter of this class is one cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof. Postage must be paid 
by stamps affixed, unless 300 or more Identical pieces are mailed under special permit when the postage 
at that rate may be paid In money. 

Manuscript unaccompanied by proof sheets of the same Is subject to the letter rate. 

Third-class matter mast admit of easy Inspection, otherwise It will be charged letter rate on delivery. 
It must be fully prepaid, or It will not be despatched. New postage must be prepaid for forwarding to a 
new address or returning to senders by mall. 

The limit of weight Is four pounds. Packages of miscellaneous printed matter weighing over four 
pounds are mailable at the parcel post pound or zone rates. It Is entitled, like matter of the other classes, 
to special delivery when special delivery stamps are affixed In addition to the regular postage, or when ten 
cents In ordinary stamps are affixed In addition to the regular postage and the words "Special Delivery" 
are placed on the wrapper. 

Upon matter of the third class, or upon the wrapper or envelope Inclosing the same, or the tag or label 
attached thereto, the sender may write his own name, occupation, and residence or business address, pre- 
ceded by the word "from," and may make marks other than by written words to call attention to any word 
or passage in the text, and may correct any typographical errors. There may be placed upon articles of 
the third class, a simple manuscript dedication or Inscription not of the nature of a personal correspondence. 
Upon the wrapper or envelope of third-class matter, or the tag or label attached thereto, may be placed 
In writing or otherwise the words "Please do not open until Christmas" or words to that effect, and there 
may be printed any matter mailable as third class. Written designation of the contents such as "photo." 
"printed matter," is also permissible, but there must be left on the address side a space sufficient for a legible 
address, postmark and the necessary stamps. 



FOURTH-CLASS MATTER-PARCEL POST. 

Fourth-Class Matter Embraces that known as domestic parcel post mall, and Includes merchandise, 
farm and factory products, seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, scions, and plants, books (Including catalogues), 
miscellaneous printed matter weighing more than 4 pounds, and all other mailable matter not embraced 
In the first, second, and third classes. 

Rates of Postage on Fourth-Class or Parcel Post Matter — To Be Fully Prepaid — Unsealed — 
are as follows: 

(a) Parcels weighing 4 ounces or leas, except books, seeds, plants, etc., 1 cent for each ounce 
or traction thereof, any distance 

(6) Parcels weighing 8 ounces or less containing books, seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, scions. 
and plants, l cent for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof, regardless of distance. 

(c) Parcels weighing more than 8 ounces containing books, seeds, plants, etc., parcels of mis- 
cellaneous printed matter weighing more than 4 pounds, and all other parcels of fourth-class matter 
weighing more than 4 ounces are chargeable, according to distance or zone, at the pound rates shown 
In the following table, a fraction of a pound being considered a full pound: 



Postal Information. 



109 



FOURTH-CLASS MATTER— PARCEL POST — CorUintied. 



Weight. 



1 pound . . 

2 pounds . 

3 pounds . 

4 pounds . 

5 pounds . 

6 pounds . 

7 pounds . 

8 pounds . 

9 pounds . 

10 pounds . 

11 pounds 

12 pounds 

13 pounds . 

14 pounds . 

15 pounds 

16 pounds 

17 pounds 

18 pounds . 

19 pounds 

20 pounds . 

21 pounds . 

22 pounds . 

23 pounds 

24 pounds . 

25 pounds . 



Local 
Rate.* 



1st Zone 

Rate. 
50 MUea. 

See note below 



30.05 
.06 
.06 
.07 
.07 
.08 
.08 
.09 
.09 
.10 
.10 
.11 
.11 
.12 
.12 
.13 
.13 
.14 
.14 
.15 
15 
16 
.16 
.17 
.17 



S0.05 
.06 
.07 
.08 
.09 

10 
.11 
.12 
.13 
.14 
.15 
.16 
.17 
.18 
.19 
.20 
.21 
.22 
.23 
.24 
.25 
.26 

27 
.28 
.29 



2d Zone 
Rate. 

50 to 150 
Miles. 



$0.05 
.06 
.07 
.08 
.09 
.10 
.11 
.12 
.13 
.14 
.15 
.16 
.17 
.18 
.19 
.20 
.21 
.22 
.23 
.24 
.25 
26 
.27 
.28 
.29 



Weight. 



26 pounds . 

27 pounds . 

28 pounds . 

29 pounds . 

30 pounds . 

31 pounds . 

32 pounds . 

33 pounds . 

34 pounds . 

35 pounds . 

36 pounds . 

37 pounds , 

38 pounds . 

39 pounds , 

40 pounds . 

41 pounds . 

42 pounds , 

43 pounds . 

44 pounds , 

45 pounds 

46 pounds 

47 pounds 

48 pounds 

49 pounds , 

50 pounds . 





lat Zone 


2d Zone 


Local 


Rate, 


Rate. 


Rate.* 


50 Mlhvs. 


50 to 150 




See note below 


Mllea. 


S0.I8 


$0.30 


$0.30 


.18 


.31 


.31 


.19 


.32 


.32 


.19 


.33 


.33 


.20 


.34 


.34 


.20 


.35 


.35 


.21 


.36 


.36 


.21 


.37 


.37 


.22 


.38 


.38 


.22 


.39 


.39 


.23 


.40 


.40 


.23 


.41 


.41 


.24 


.42 


.42 


.24 


.43 


43 


.25 


.44 


.44 


.25 


.45 


.45 


.26 


.46 


.46 


.26 


.47 


.47 


.27 


.48 


.48 


.27 


.49 


49 


.28 


.50 


.50 


.28 


.51 


.51 


.29 


52 


.52 


.29 


.53 


.53 


.30 


.54 


.54 



Note — Where the distance by the shortest regular mall route from the office of origin to the office of 
delivery In the first or second zone Is 300 miles or more, the rates of postage are six cents for the first pound 
or fraction of a pound and two cents for each additional pound or fraction of a pound. 



Weight. 



1 pound. . 

2 pounds 

3 pounds . 

4 pounds. . 

5 pounds. . 

6 pounds. 

7 pounds. . 

8 pounds. . 

9 pounds. . 

10 pounds. . 

11 pounds. . 

12 pounds.. 

13 pounds. 

14 pounds. 

15 pounds. . 

16 pounds.. 

17 pounds. 

18 pounds.. 

19 pounds.. 

2 pounds. . . 



3d Zone, 


4th Zone, 


5th Zone, 


6th Zone, 


7th Zone, 


8th Zone, 


150 to 300 


300 to GOO 


600 to 1,000 


1.000 to 1.400 


1.400 to 1,800 


all over 1,800 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Rate. 


Rate. 


Rate. 


Rate. 


Rate. 


Rate. 


SO 06 


S0.07 


S0.08 


S0.09 


$0.11 


SO. 12 


.08 


.11 


.14 


.17 


.21 


.24 


.10 


.15 


.20 


25 


.31 


.36 


.12 


.19 


.26 


.33 


.41 


.48 


.14 


.23 


.32 


.41 


.51 


.60 


.16 


.27 


.38 


49 


.61 


.72 


18 


.31 


.44 


57 


.71 


.84 


20 


.35 


.50 


65 


.81 


.96 


.22 


.39 


.66 


.73 


.91 


1.08 


.24 


.43 


62 


.81 


1.01 


1.20 


26 


.47 


.68 


89 


1.11 


1.32 


28 


.51 


74 


.97 


1 21 


1.44 


.30 


.55 


80 


1.05 


1 31 


1.56 


32 


.59 


.86 


1 13 


1.41 


1.68 


.34 


.63 


.92 


1.21 


1 51 


1.80 


36 


.67 


.98 


1.29 


1 61 


1.92 


.38 


.71 


1.04 


1.37 


1 71 


2.04 


.40 


.75 


1.10 


1 45 


181 


2.16 


.42 


.79 


1.16 


1.53 


1.91 


2.28 


.44 


.83 


1.22 


1.61 


2.01 


2.40 



* The local rate applis<5 to parcels mailed under the following conditions: (1) At any post-ofBce 
for local delivfry at such office. (2) At any city letter carrier office, or at any point within Ita de- 
livery limits, for delivery by carriers from that office. (3) At any post-office from which a rural 
route starts, for delivery on such route, or when mailed at any point on a rural route for delivery 
at any other point thereon, or at the office from which the route slarts. or for delivery on any other 
rural route starting from the <?ame office. 

Zones — Parcel Post Guide and Maps — For parcel post purposes the United States la 
divided into units of area thirty minutes square. Such units form the basis of the eight postal 
Zones. To ascertain in which zone a post-office is located from the office of mailing, a parcel post 
guide, costing 55 cents, and map, costing 20 cents, are jointly used. The guide applies to all offices, 
but a separate map is required for each unit. A zone key Is furnished with the guide and makes the map 
unnecessary. The guide and maps may be purchased by sending a postal money order to the Third 
Assistant Postmaster-General, Wasiiington, D C. Stamps are not accepted. The unit numbers are also 
printed in the U. S. Official Postal Guide, which may be consulted at any post-office and purchased by re- 
mitting the price by money order to the Disbuising Clerk, Post-Offlce Department, Washington, D. C. 

Alaska, Hawaiian, and Philippine Islands, etc. — The eighth zone rate of 12 cents for each pound 
or fraction thereof on all parcels weighing more than 4 ounces (except books, seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, 
scions, and plants, weighing 8 ounces or less) applies (1) between the United States and the Hawaiian Islands; 
(2) between the United States and Its postal agency at Shanghai, China; (3) between any two points In Alaska 
and between any point In Alaska and any other point In the United States; (4) between the United States 
and the Canal Zone; (5) between the United States and the Philippine Islands; (6) to, from, or between 
Guam, Tutulia, and Manua and other Islands of the Samoan group east of longitude 171° west of Greenwich, 
and the United States and Its other possessions; (7) between the United States and Its naval vessels stationed 
in foreign waters. 

Canada, Cuba. Mexico, and Republic of Panama — The rate of 12 cents for each poimd or fraction 
thereof also applies to fourth-class matter. Including seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, scions, and plants (but 
excepting books and other printed matter on which the rate Is 1 cent for each two ounces or fraction 
thereof In all cases), weighing more than four ounces and not exceeding 4 pounds 6 ounces when mailed to 
Canada, Mexico, Cuba, and the Republic of Panama, (Parcels weighing up to U pounds may be sent 



110 Postal Information. 



FOURTH-CLASS MATTER— PARCEL POST — Continued. 



to Mexico and the Republic ol Panama as foreign parcel post mall under the parcel post conventions with 
those countries.) 

The Limit of Weight of fourth-class matter Is 50 pounds for parcels mailed for delivery within 
the first and second zones, and 20 pounds for all other zones. 

Limit of Size — Parcel post matter may not exceed 84 Inches In length and girth combined^ 
In measuring a parcel the greatest distance in a straight line between the ends (but not around the 
parcel) is taken as its length, while the distance around the parcel at its thickest part is taken as its 
girth. For example, a parcel 35 Inches long, 10 inches wide, and 5 inches high measures 65 Inches 
in length and girth combined. \ 

Name and Address of Sender — A parcel of fourth-class matter may not be accepted for mailing 
unless It bears ttie name and address of the sender, which should be preceded by the word "From," 

Additions to Fourth-Class Mail — There may be placed on fourth-class matter, or on the 
wrapper or cover, tag or label, any marks, numbers, names, or letters for purpose of description, 
or any writing which is permissible on third-class matter There may be written on the blank leaves or cover 
of any book a simple manuscript dedication or inscription not in the nature of personal correspondence. 
Space sufQcieut for a legible address, postmark, the necessary postage stamps, and any words necessary lor 
forwarding or return, must be left on the address side of parcels. 

Inclosures — There may be Inclosed with fourth-class matter a written or printed Invoice showing 
the name and address of the sender and of the addressee; the names and quantities of articles Inclosed 
together with Inscriptions indicating, "for purpose of description," the price, style, stock number, size, 
and quality of the articles; the order or file number, date of order, and date and manner of sUpment, and 
the Initials or name of the salesman, or of the person by whom the articles were packed or checked. 

Inscriptions, such as "Merry Christmas," "With best wishes." "Do not open until Christmas," 
or words to that effect, may be written on fourth-class mall, or on a card Inclosed therewith. 

Communications Attached to Parcels — When It Is desired to send a communication with 
a parcel on which postage at the fourth-class rate has been fully prepaid, the communication may 
be placed in an envelope fully prepaid at the flrst-class rate and addressed to correspond with the 
address on the parcel and then be tied to or otherwise securely attached to the outside of the parcel 
In such manner as to prevent its separation therefrom and not to interfere with the address on the 
parcel. The stamps to cover the postage on the parcel must be affixed to the wrapper of the parcel, 
and those to pay the postage on the communication must be affixed to the envelope of the commvinl- 
cation. Parcels to which such communications are attached are treated as fourth-class matter. 
Only one special delivery fee is required on such parcels sent as special delivery matter. 

Public Library Books, otherwise mailable as parcel post matter, may bear any printed or written 
mark constituting a necessary inscription for the purpose of a permanent library record. 

Proprietary Articles of Merchandise, such as harmless medicinal preparations, soaps, tobacco, 
food products, etc., put up In fixed quantities. In original sealed packages, by the manufacturer so as to allow 
examiinatlon of the packages In tbeir simplest mercantile form and lat)elled in printing so as to show the 
nature of contents, quantity, and name of the manufacturer, are mailable at the fourth-class rates of postage. 
If such sealed packages are Inclosed In an outer wrapper, the latter must not be sealed. 

Meats and Meat-Food Products — Before meat or meat-food products of cattle, sheep, swine, 
or goats may be accepted for mailing from one State or Territory to another State or Territory, the 
certificate of inspection or exemption required by Sec. 477, Postal Laws and Regulations, must be 
filed with the postmaster. Such certificate must be prepared and furnished by the sender. 

Game — The dead bodies of any wild animals or birds, or parts thereof. Including furs, skins, 
plumage, etc., lawfully killed and offered for shipment, may be accepted for mailing only when the 
parcels are plainly marked to show the actual nature of the contents and the name and address of 
the sender. The dead bodies, or parts thereof, of any wild animals or birds which have been killed 
or offered for shipment in violation of the laws of a State. Territory, or district, are unmailable. 
persons sending such articles and the addressees knowingly receiving them in violation of the law 
being liable to a fine of not more than S200. (Sec. 477 H , Postal Laws and Regulations.) 

Nursery Stock, Including all field-grown florists' stock, trees, shrubs, vines, cuttings, grafts, 
scions, buds, fruit pits, and other seeds of fruit and ornamental trees or shrubs, and other plants 
and plant products for propagation, except field, vegetable, and flower seeds, bedding plants, and 
other herbaceous plants, bulbs, and roots, may be admitted to the mails only when accompanied 
with a certificate from a State or Government inspector to the effect that the nursery from which 
such nursery stock is shipped has been Inspected within a year and found free from injurious insects, 
and the parcel containing such nursery stock is plainly marked to show the nature of the contents 
aad the name and address of the sender. (Sees 478 and 478H, Postal Laws and Regulatioas ) 

Place of Mailing — Parcels of fourth-class matter weighing more than four ounces must be 
mailed at a post-offlce, branch post-office, named, numbered, or lettered station, or delivered to a 
rural or other carrier duly authorized to receive such matter. Parcels weighing four ounces or less 
not sent as insured mail may be deposited in letter or package boxes 

SENDER'S RECEIPTS FOR ORDINARY FOURTH-CLASS PARCELS. 

The postmaster at the mailing office may, on payment of one cent, give the sender of an ordinary 
parcel of fourth-class mail a receipt therefor. A postage stamp to cover the charge for the receipt shall 
be aflixed thereto. The name and address of the addressee of the parcel shall be written In the receipt by 
the sender. (Section 4583^, Postal Laws and Regulations.) 

The purpose of this receipt is to provide senders of fourth-class parcels, when desired, a record 
evidencing their mailing, for wtuch a fee of one cent is charged Their issuance does not in any way insure 
the parcels against loss while in the mails and no receipt is obtained from the addressee upon delivery. 
Persons who desire either of these latter facilities should insure their parcels. 

Receipt will be given on tag form 3817. The name and address of the addressee shall be written on 
the tag by the sender, who may place his own name thereon if he desires, and affix on the tag a one-cent 
postage stamp in the space provided. The tag shall be tied to the parcel before mailing. The postal em- 
ploye accepting the article shall compare the address on the tag with that on the parcel, postmark the stamp 
to show the date of acceptance, detach the receipt, and deliver it to the sender. 

When such receipts are desired by firms and individuals mailing a number of parcels at one time a Firm 
Registration Book is used. Each sheet must have affixed postage stamps at the rate of one cent for each 
parcel listed thereon, which stamps shall be postmarked and the sheet returned to the sender. These sheets 
are to be filled out by the sender. 

When such receipts are desired by patrons residing on rural routes, the parcel should be delivered to 
the rural carrier, payment being made at the time at the rate of one cent for each parcel, in addition to 
the postage. The earrier will obtain receipts at the post-offlce to which he Is attached, affix stamp, post- 
mark, and deliver the receipts to the senders on his next trip. 

INSURANCE OF FOURTH-CLASS MAIL. 
Fees and Conditions — Fourth-class mall shall not be registered, but may be insured against injury, 
loss or rifling in an amount equivalent to its actual value, but not to exceed S5 In any one case, on pay- 
ment of a fee of 3 cents; not to exceed 325 on payment of a fee of 5 cents; not to exceed $50 on payment ot 



Postal Information. Ill 



FOURTH-CLASS MATTER— PARCEL FOST—CmOlnued. 



& fee of 10 cents, or not to exceed SlOO on payment of a fee of 25 cents, in addition to the postage, both to 
be prepaid by stamps affixed: but indemnity will not be allowed in cases of loss of such mail addressed to the 
Plmippine Islands, unless the loss occurred in the postal service of the United States. Such man may be insured 
at any post-ofBce or station thereof, or by rural carriers. The sender must flU out an Insurance tag, which 
will be furnished him on request, to be attached to the parcel. R«turn receipts for insured parcels may 
be obtained by indorsing the parcels "Return receipt desired." When an article is so damaged as to render 
it wholly worthless, it is regarded as lost, provided it was packed and indorsed in accordance with the postal 
requirements. In cases where articles are not rendered worthless, payment will be made for the actual, 
usual, direct and necessary cost of repairs required to place them In a serviceable condition. Claim must 
be made within six months from the date the parcel was mailed. 

COLLECT-ON-DELIVERY SERVICE. 

Cotiditions and Fee — Parcels of fourth-class or parcel post matter may be sent C. O. D. from 
one money order post-offloe to another on payment o( a fee of 10 cents In addltlou to the postage, 
both to be prepaid with stamps affixed. The amount to be remitted to the sender must not exceed SlOO. 
The remittance is made by post-offlce money order, the lee therefor being included in the amount collected 
from the addressee. A C. O. D. tag furnished by the postmaster must be filled in by the sender and at- 
tached to the parcel. Such a parcel becomes automatically Insured up to S50, without additional charge 
against the non-receipt of returns, therefor, if delivered, and against loss, rifling or damage In an amount 
equivalent to the actual value of its contents. 

A receipt Is given to the sender of a C. O. D. parcel at the time of malllne, but no return receipt 
la furnished, as the remittance shows that delivery has been made. Examination of contents of a 
C. O. D. parcel is not permitted until It has been receipted for and all charges paid. 

PREPARATION AND WRAPPING OF MAIL MATTER. 

Examination — Fourth-class or parcel post matter must be so wrapped or enveloped that the 
contents may be examined easily by postal officials. When not so wrapped, or when bearing or 
containing writing not authorized by law, the matter will be treated as of the first class. Nailed 
Boxes — Parcel post mail may be inclosed in boxes to which the lids are nailed or screwed, provided 
the lids can be readily removed with a chisel or screw driver tor examination of contents. 

Wrapping — All matter should be securely wrapped so as to bear transmission without breaking. 
or Injuring mall bogs, their contents, or the persons liandllng iheKu Many articles are damaged In the 
mall« for the reason that they are not properly wrapped to withstand the necessary handling. Umbrellas, 
canes, golf sticks, and similar articles must be reinforced by strips of wood or otherwise sufUclently wrapped 
to withstand handling and transportation. Hats must be packed in strong boxes; If In ordinary pasteboard 
hat boxes they must be properly crated. But flowere, candies, etc., should be Inclosed in strong and suitable 
boxes. Stove castings and pieces of machinery should be protected with exce slot or similar material and 
wrapped In cloth or strong paper or be properly boxed or crated. Mailable hides and pelts must be 
thoroughly wrapped to prevent the escape of grease. Parcels weighing 20 pounds or under are generally 
carried l^^lde mail bags with other mall; those weighing over 20 pounds are usually carried outside mall 
bags. They should be wrapped with that understanding. Parcels Improperly or InsufQclently wrapped 
will not be accepted for transmission In the malls. 

Harmful Articl&s not absolutely excluded fFom the malls, but which, from their form or nature, 
might, unless properly secured, destroy, deface, or otherwise damage the contents of the mail bag. 
or harm the person of any one engaged in the postal service, may be transmitted in the mails only 
when packed In accordance with the postal regulations. Sharp-pointed or sharp-edged instruments 
or tools must have tlieir points and edges protected so that they cannot cut through their covering, 
and be thoroughly wrapped. Powders and all pulverized dry substances must be so wrapped that 
none of the contents of the package will Mft out. Pastes, salves, etc., not easily liqueflable most be 
inclosed in water-tight contiinors and placed in strong boxes and securely wrapped. 

Liquids — Admissible liquids in packages not exceeding the limit of weight of fourth-class matter wlU 
be accepted for mailing when intended for delivery at the office of mailing or on a rural route starting there- 
from when Inclosed Ui a glass or metal container securely Inclosed and heavily wTapped, provided it is not 
necessary to trans[)ort them over steam or electric railways. 

Admissible liquids and oUs, pastes, salves, or other articles easily liqueflable, will be accepted for 
mailing, regardless of distance, when they conform to the following conditions: 

(a) When in strong glass bottles holding 4 ounces or less, the total quantity sent in one parcel 
shall not exceed 24 ounces, liquid measure. Each bottle shall be wrapped In paper or other absorbent 
stibstance and then all placed in a box made of cardboard or otlier suitable material and packed in 
a container made of double-faced corrugated pasteboard of good quality. The corners of the con- 
tainer must fit tightly and be reinforced with tape so as to prevent the escape of any liquid if the 
contents should be broken, and the whole parcel shall be securely wrapped with strong paper and 
tied with twine. Single hottle.s of liquid holding 4 ounces or less may also be packed as prescribed 
In the followln:; paragraphs (b) and ic): 

(b) When in glass bottles holding more than 4 ounces, the total quantity sent in one parcel shall 
Dot exceed 16 ounces liquid measure. The bottle must be very strong and must be inclosed in a 
block or tube of metal, wood, papi-^r mache or similar material: and there must be provided between 
the btttle and the block or tube a cushion of cotton, felt, or other absorbent. The block or tube, 
if of wood or papier mache, must be at least one-eighth of an inch thick for bottlc! holding 8 ounces 
or less, and at least three-sixteenths of an Inch thick for bottles holding more than 8 ounces. The 
block or tube must be rendered watertight by an application on the inside of paraffin or other suit- 
able substance and must be closed by a screw top cover with sufficient screw threads to require at 
least one and one-half complete turns before It will come off. The cover must be provided with a 
washer, so that no liquid could escape if the bottle should be broken. Any number of bottles 
separately packed as herein prescribed may be included in a single package if the limit of weight and 
size for fourth-class matter be not exceeded. 

(c) Bottles containing liquid may also be packed in strong and tight receptacles of wood, metal, 
or waterproof corrugated pasteboard. Space must be left all around the bottle, which must be 
filled with bran, sawdust, or other absorbent material in sufficient quantity to absorb all the liquid 
If the bottle should get broken. 

id) When in a me'al container, the weight limit of the parcel Is the same as for other fourth-class 
matter. The container must be securely sealed and inclosed in a strong box. 

<e) When in parcels weighing more than 20 pounds, mailable liquids in securely sealed glass 
bottles or metai cans will be accepted for mailing to offices in the first and second zones when packed 
In strong boxes and surrounded with sawdust or other suitable substances to protect the contents 
from brealtage. All such packages to be marked "FRAGILE — THIS SIDE UP," or with similar inscrip- 
tions and to be transported outside of mail bags. 

All packages containing liquid must be marked "FRAGILE " 

Fragile Articles — Articles easily broken must be very securely wrapped for safe transmission. 
Among such articles are: Amber, cakes, candles, challs, china, combs, clocks, delicate mechanisms, fans. 



112 Postal Information. 



FOURTH-CLASS MATTER — PARCEL POST — Coratnued. 



flowers, fountain pena, hats. Instruments of precision, millinery, musical Instruments, pipes, plaster-of-parls 
articles, plumes, pottery, porcelain, phonographs and phonograph records, test tubes, typewriters, watches, 
wax articles, etc. Giass, croctery, Iragile to\/s, and other Iragile articles must be so packed as to prevent the 
escape of particles or pieces from the packages If broken In transit. Cigars should be packed In a maimer 
to prevent damage by shock or Jar. Maps, drawings, paintings, etc., must be suitably protected with stout 
material to prevent damage. When not flat, they should be rolled around a stout stick and carefully wrapped 
or Inclosed In a strong pasteboard tube. All such articles should be marked "FRAGILE." Eggs will 
be accepted lor local delivery when so packed In a basket or other container as to prevent damage to other 
mall. Eggs will be accepted for mailing regardless of distance when each egg Is separately wrapped and 
surrounded with excelsior, cotton, or other suitable material and packed In a strong container made of 
double-faced corrugated pasteboard, metal, wood, or other suitable material and wrapped so that nothing 
can escape from the package. AU such parcels shall be labeled "EGGS." Eggs In parcels weighing more 
than 20 pounds will be accepted for mailing to offices In the first and second zones when packed In crates, 
boxes, baskets, or other containers having tight bottoms to prevent the escape of anything from the 
packages and so constructed as properly to protect the contents. Such packages are to be marked "EGGS — 
THIS SIDE UP," and to be transported outside of mail bags. Eggs for hatching shall be accepted for mail- 
ing, regardless of distance, when each egg is wrapped separately and surrounded with excelsior, wood-wool, 
or other suitable material and packed in a basket, preferably with a handle, or other suitable container, 
lined with paper, fibre-board or corrugated pasteboard, in such a way that nothing can escape from the 
package. Such parcel shall be labeled "Eggs for Hatching," "Keep from Heat and Cold," "Please Handle 
with Care," or other suitable words, and shall be handled outside of mall sacks. 

Perishable Articles— Parcels containing perishable articles shall be marked "PERISHABLE." 
Articles likely to spoil within the time reasonably required for transportation and delivery shall 
not be accepted for mailing. Butter, lard, and perishable articles, such as fish, fresh meats, dressed 
fowl, vegetables, fruits, berries, and articles of a similar nature which decay quickly, when so packed 
or wrapped as to prevent damage to other mall, will be accepted for local delivery either at the office 
of mailing or on any rural route starting therefrom. When Inclosed In an Inner cover and a strong 
outer cover of wood, metal, heavy corrugated pasteboard, or othei suitable material, and wrapped 
so that nothing can escape from the package, they wUl be accepted for mailing to ail offices to which 
In the ordinary course of mall they can be sent without spoiling. But<.i.r, dressed fowl, vegetables, 
fruits, and other perishable articles In parcels weighing more than 20 pounds will be accepted for 
mailing to offices in the first and second zones when suitably wrapped or Inclosed and packed In 
crates, boxes, or other suitable containers having tight bottoms to prevent the escape of anything 
from the package, and so constructed as properly to protect the contents. All such parcels to be 
transported outside of mall bags. Vegetables and fruits which do not decay quickly will be accepted 
for mailing to any zone if packed so as to prevent damage to other mall. 

Forwarding and Return — A new prepayment of postage at the rate applicable between the 
forwarding office and the one to which fourth-class matter is to be forwarded must be made by the 
addressee or by some one for him each time It is forwarded. A new prepayment must likewise be 
made before undellverable fourth-class matter may be returned to the sender by mail. 

Requests for Further Informatioa should be addressed as follows: Third Assistant Post- 
master-General, Division of Classiflcation, relative to the classification and admissibility of matter 
as parcel post mall, rates of postage, limit of weight and size, permissible inclosures and additions, 
attaching communications to parcels, etc. Third Assistant Postmaster-General, Division of 
Registered Malls, relative to the Insurance and C. O. D. features. Second Assistant Postm;.8ter- 
General, Division of Railway Mall Service, relative to the admissibility to the mails and wrapping 
of matter which from its form or character would be liable to Injure the malls or the person of postal 
employes. 

ADDITIONAL POSTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 
Unmallable Matter — Unmailable domestic matter — that Is, matter which is not admissible to the 
United States mails for delivery in the United States or In any of its possessions — includes: 
All matter Illegibly, incorrectly, or insufficiently addressed. 

All second-class matter and all matter of the third or fourth class not wholly prepaid; and letters and 
other first-class matter not prepaid one full rate — 2 cents. 

All matter exceeding the prescribed limit of weight or slzfe. There is no limit of weight for second-class 
matter or for books and documents published or circulated by order of Congress. 

Postal cards or post cards which bear delineations, epithets, terms, or language of an Indecent, lewd, 
lascivious, obscene, libellous, scurrilous, defamatory or threatening character, or calculated by the terms 
or manner or style of display, and obviously Intended to reflect injuriously upon the character or conduct 
of another, also articles bearing such matter upon the wrapper or outside cover. Dunning postal or other 
cards are Included in this class. 

Post cards bearing particles of glass, metal, mica, sand, tinsel, or other similar substances, are unmailable. 
except as provided under "First-Class Matter." 

All matter concerning any lottery, gift, enterprise, or similar scheme, offering prizes dependent In whole 
or In part upon lot or chance, or concerning fraudulent schemes devised for the purpose of obtaining money 
or property imder false pretences, representations or promises. 

Spirituous, vinous, malted, fermented or other intoxicating liquors of any kind; poisons of every kind, 
and articles and compositions containing poison (except as prescribed in par. 4. sec. 472), and poisonous 
animals, insects, and reptiles, and explosives of every kind and Inflammable materials, including matches, 
moving picture films (unless made of cellulose-acetate), gasoline, naphtha, benzine, denatured alcohol, and 
all liquids having flash point at or below 80' F.. and infernal machines, and mechanical, chemical, or other 
devices or compositions which may ignite or explode, and disease germs or scabs (except as prescribed In 
sec. 473). and other natural or artificial articles, compositions, or materials of whatever kind which may 
kill, or in anywise hurt, harm or injure another, or damage, deface, or otherwise injure the mail or other 
property, live animals (except as prescribed in sec. 476), guano or any article exhaling bad odor, whether 
sealed as first-class matter or not. shaW not be admitted to the malls. (Par. 2. sec. 472.) 

Poisons, Explosives, Inflammable Materials, Dangerous. Articles, Intoxicating Liquors, 
Etc. — Section 472. All kinds of poison and all articles and compositions containing poison, and 
all poisonous animals. Insects and reptiles, and explosives of all kinds and Inflammable 
materials, and Infernal machines and mechanical, chemical or other devices or compositions 
which may ignite or explode, and all disease germs or scabs, and all other natural or 
artificial articles, compositions or materials of whatever kind which may kill or In anywise hurt, 
harm, or Injure another, or damage, deface, or otherwise Injure the mails or other property, 
whether sealed as first-class matter or not. are hereby declared to be nonmailable matter, 
and shall not be conveyed In the malls or delivered from any post-office or station thereof, 
nor by any letter carrier; but the Postmaster-General may permit the iransmlsslon In the 
malls, under such rules and regulations as he shall prescribe as to preparation and packing, 
of any article hereinbefore described which are not outwardly or of their own force dangerous 
or Injurious to life, health or property: Provided, That all spirituous, vinous, malted, fer- 



Postal Information. 113 



ADDITIONAL POSTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS — Continued. 

mented or other Intoxicating liquors of any kind, are hereby declared to be nonmailable 
and shall not be deposited In or carried through the malls. Whoever shall knowingly deposit 
or cause to be deposited for mailing or delivery, or shall knowingly cause to be delivered by 
mall according to the direction thereon, or at any place at which It la directed to be 
delivered by the person to whom It Is addressed, anything declared by this section to be 
nonmailable unless In accordance with the rules and regulations hereby authorized to be 
prescribed by the Postmaster-General, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars, 
or Imprisoned not more than two years, or both; and whoever shaM knowingly deposit or 
cause to be deposited for mailUng or dtellvery, or shall knowingly cause to be delivered by 
mall according to the direction thereon, or at any place to which It Is directed to be de- 
livered by the person to whom It Is addressed, anything declared by this section to be non- 
mailable, whether trajismltted In accordance with the rules and regulations authorized to be 
prescribed by the Postmaster-General or not, with the design. Intent, or purpose to kill, or 
In anywise hurt, harm, or Injure another, or damage, deface, or otherwise Injure the malls 
or other property, shall be fined not more than Ave thousand dollars, or Imprisoned not more than 
ten years, or both. 

2. Spirituous, vinous, malted, fermented, or other intoxicating liquors of any kind, poisons of 
every kind, and articles and compositions containing poison (except as prescribed in the fourth 
paragraph hereof), and poisonous animals, insects, and reptiles, and explosives cf every kind, and 
Inflammable materials (including matches, kerosene oil, gasoline, naphtha, benzine, turpentine, 
denatured alcohol, «tc.), and infernal machines, and mechanical, chemical or other devices or com- 
positions which may ignite or explode, and disease germs or scabs (except as prescribed in sec. 473), 
and other natural or artificial articles, compositions, or materials of whatever kind which may kill, 
or in anywise hurt, harm, or injure another, or damage, deface, or otherwise injure the mail or other 
property, live animals (except as prescribed in sec. 476), raw hides or pelts, guano, or any article 
exhaling bad odor, whether sealed as flrst-class matter or not, shall not be admitted to the mails. 

3. Liquids not spirituous, vinous, malted, fermented, or otherwise Intoxicating (Including 
samples of altar or communion wine used In church services), and not liable to explosion 
or spontaneous combustion or Ignition by shock or jar, and not Inflammable, fruits or 
vegetable matter liable to decomposition, comb honey, soft soap, paste or confections, oint- 
ments, salves, and articles of similar consistency, may be admitted to the malls for trans- 
mission In the domestic malls when Inclosed in packages In conformity with the conditions 
prescribed In sees. 474 and 475. 

4. Medicines and anaesthetic agents, which are not outwardly or of their own force dangerous 
or injurious to life, health or property, and not in themselves unmailable, may be admitted to the 
mails for transmission in the domestic mails when inclosed in packages in conformity with the con- 
ditions prescribed in Parcel Post Regulations; Provided, That the terms "medicines" and "anaesthetic 
agents" shall not be construed to mean poisons; Provided funher. That the article mailed bears 
the label or superscription of tlie manufacturer thereof, or dealer therein, or of the licensed physician, 
surgeon, dentist, or veterinarian preparing or prescribing the same. 

Third- or Fourth-Class Matter Mailable Without Stamps — Under special permits postage may 
be paid in money for third- or fourth-class matter mailed in quantities of 250 or more identical pieces of the 
fourth class, or 300 or more identical pieces of the third class. For information concerning the regulations 
governing such mailings inquiry should be made of the postmaster 

Special Delivery Service — Ten cents on each letter or other article, In addition to the regular postage, 
entitles the article to immediate delivery by special messenger. Special delivery stamps are sold at post- 
offlces. and must be affixed to such mall. Ordinary stamps to the value of ten cents In addition to the regular 
postage, affixed to a letter or other piece of mall, will entitle It to special delivery If It is marked "SReclal 
Delivery." The delivery, at carrier offices, extends to the limits of the carrier rou.tes. At non-carrier offices 
It extends to one mile from the post-offlce. Also to patrons of rural routes residing within one-half mile of 
such routes. Postmasters are not obliged to deliver beyond these limits, and letters addressed to places 
beyond must await delivery In the usual way, notwithstanding the special delivery stamp. 

Registration — All domestic mall matter except fourth-class matter may be registered at the rate 
of ten cents for each piece in addition to the regular rates of postage, to be fully prepaid by stamps. Each 
piece must bear the name and address of the sender, and a receipt will be returned from the persoh to whom 
addressed, when Indorsed "receipt desired," or words of similar import. Mail matter can be registered at 
all post-offices in the United States. 

In case of the injury or loss of domestic registered mail in the postal service, indemnity will be paid for 
the value thereof, not exceeding S50 00 in any one case of flrst-class matter, and not exceeding S25.00 in any 
one case of third-class matter. Indemnity within the prescribed limit will be paid for the market value of 
merchandise lost or the actual, usual, direct and necessary cost of repairs whichever the department may 
decide upon, and the actual, usual, direct and essential expenses incurred in the duplication of valuable 
papers, or the original cost of such papers when they are not or cannot be duplicated Claims for indem- 
nity must be made within one year from the date of loss of domestic mail and date of mailing of foreign mall. 
The limit of indemnity paid for registered articles lost in the international mails is fifty francs. 

Domestic Money Orders — Domestic money orders are Issued by money-order post-offices for any 
amount up to SIOO. at the following rates: 

For sums not exceeding S2.50, 3 cents; over S2.50 to 35, 5 cents; over S5 to 310, 8 cents; over 310 to 
320, 10 cents; over S20 to S30, 12 cents; over $30 to 340, 15 cents; over 340 to S50, 18 cents; over 550 to $60, 
20 cents; over 860 to 375. 25 cents; over S75 to $100, 30 cents. 

All domestic money orders must be made payable at a designated money order office, but those Issued 
at any money order office in the continental United States, excepting Alaska, may be paid at any money 
order office In the continental United States, excepting Alaska, if presented for payment on or before the 
expiration of the tlilrtieth day following the date of Issue. If presented after that date and within one year 
from the last day of the month in which issued, they shall be paid only at the office designated In the money 
order as the paying office, or repaid at the office of issue. 

Stamped Envelopes — Embossed stamped envelopes and newspaper wrappers of several denomJnatlona, 
sizes and colors are kept on sale at post-offices, singly or In quantities, at a small advance on the postage rate. 
Stamps out from stamped envelopes or wrappers are valueless, but postmastfirs are authorized to give good 
stamps for stamped envelopes or newspaper wrappers that may be spoiled in directing. If presented in a 
substantially whole condition. 

Applications for the establishment of post-offices should be addressed to the Postmaster-General, 
accompanied by a statement of the necessity therefor. Instructions will then be given and blanks furnished 
to enable the petitioners to provide the department with the necessary information. 

The franking privilege was abolished July 1, 1873, but the following mall matter may be sent free by 
legislative saving clauses, viz.: 

I. All public documents printed by order of Congress, the Congressional Record and speeches con- 
tained therein, franked by Members of Congress, or the Secretary of the Senate, or Clerk of the House, 



114 Postal Information. 



ADDITIONAL POSTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS — Continued. 

2. Seeds transmitted by the Secretary of Agriculture, or by any Member of Congress, proetired from 
that department. 

3. Letters and packages relating exclusively to the business of the Government of the United States, 
mailed only by offlcers of the same, and letters and parcels mailed by the Smithsonian Institution. All 
these must be covered by specially printed "penalty" envelopes or labels. 

4. The Vice-President, Members and Members-elect and Delegates and Delegates-elect to Congress 
may frank any mall matter to any Government ofBclal or to any person correspondence, not over four ounces 
In weight, upon official or departmental business. 

All communications to Government offlcers and to Members of Congress are required to be prepaid 
by stamps unless Inclosed in "penalty" envelopes furnished for replies. 

Suggestions to the Public — Mall all letters, etc., as early as practicable, especially when sent In large 
numbers, as Is frequentlv the case with newspapers and circulars. • 

All mall matter at large post-offlces Is necessarily handled In great haste and should therefore In all 
cases be so plainly addressed as to leave no room for doubt and no excuse for error on the part of 
postal emplovfe. Names of States should be written In full In order to prevent errors which arise from the 
similarity of "such abbreviations as Cal., Col.; Pa., Va., Vt.: Me., Mo., Md.; loa., Ind.: N. H., N. M.. N. Y., 
N. J., N. C, D. C; Miss., Minn., Mass.; Nev., Neb.; Penn., Tenn., etc., when hastily or careles.sly 
written. This Is especially necessary In addressing mall matter to places of which the names are borne by 
several post-offlces In different States. 

Avoid as much as possible using envelopes made of flimsy paper, especially where more than one sheet 
of paper, or any other article than paper. Is Inclosed. Being often handled, and even In the mall-bags 
subject to pressure, such envelopes not Infrequently split open, giving cause of complaint. 

Never send money or any other article of value through the mall except either by means of a money 
order or In a registered letter or by Insured parcel post. Any person who sends money or valuables other- 
wise not only runs a risk of losing his property, but exposes to temptation every one through whose hands 
his letter passes, and may be the means of ultimately bringing some clerk or letter-carrier to ruin. 

See that every letter or package bears the full name and post-offlce address of the writer. In order to 
secure the return of the letter If the person to whom It Is directed cannot be found. A much larger portion 
of the undelivered letters could be returned If the names and addresses of the senders were always fully and 
plainly written or printed on the envelopes. Persons who have large correspondence find it most convenient 
to use "special request envelopes;" but those who only mail an occasional letter can avoid much trouble 
by writing a request to "return If not dehvered," etc., on the envelope. 

When dropping a letter, newspaper, etc.. Into a street malllng-box, or Into the receptacle at a post- 
offlce, always see that the packet falls Into the box and does not stick In Its passage; observe, also, particu- 
larly, whether the postage stamps remain securely In their places. 

Postage stamps should be placed on the upper right-hand corper of the addressed side of all mall matter. 

Imitations of postage stamps are not permissible on mall matter. 

Space should be left on the addresB side of all mall matter sufficient for a legible address and for all 
directions permissible thereon, for postage stamps, for postmarking, rating, and any words necessary for 
forwarding or return. Watermarks or printing In light tints which do not render the reading of the address 
difficult will be permitted. 

The street and number (or box number) should form a part of the address of all mall matter directed 
to cities. In most cities there are many persons, and even firms, bearing the same name. Before depositing 
any package or other article for mailing, the sender should assure himself that it is wrapped and packed In 
the manner prescribed by postal regulations; that It does not contain umnailable matter nor exceed the 
limit of weight as fixed by law; and that it Is fully prepaid and properly addressed. 

It Is unlawful to send an ordinary letter by express or otherwise outside of the mails unless It be Inclosed 
In a Government-stamped envelope of sufficient value to pay the postage to which it Is subject. It Is also 
unlawful to Inclose a letter In an express package unless it pertains wholly to the contents of the package. 

It Is forbidden by the regulations of the Post-Offlce Department for postmasters to give any person 
Information concerning the mall matter of another, or to disclose the name of a box-holder at a post-offlce. 

Letters addressed to persons temporarily sojourning In a city where the Free Delivery System is In 
operation should be marked "Transient" or "General Delivery," If not addressed to a street and number 
or some other designated place of delivery. 

Foreign books, etc.. Infringing United States copyright are undelitierable 11 received In foreign malls, or 
mailed here. 



FOREIGN MAILS. 

POSTAGE RATES AND CONDITIONS— See Exceptions Below. 

The rates ol postage to all foreign countries and colonies except Canada, Cuba, Mexico and Panama 

are as follows: 

I>etters first ounce or less, 5 cents; each additional ounce 3 cents. 

Postal cards, each 2 cents. 

Newspapers and other printed matter, per 2 ounces 1 cent. 

Commercial papers (such as legal and insurance f Packets not in excess of 10 ounces 5 cents. 

papers, deeds, bills of Jading, invoices, manu-< Packets In excess of 10 ounces, for each 2 ounces 

script for publication, etc.) ^ or fraction thereof 1 cent. 

aomnioQ r.f mornhonriico ! Packcts uot lu excess of 4 ounccs 2 cents. 

oampies oi mertnanuise. | packets in excess of 4 ounces, for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof ... 1 cent. 

Registration fee on letters or other articles 10 cents. 

On printed matter and commercial papers the limit of weight is 4 pounds 6 ounces, except that single 

volumes of books to Salvador, Canada, Mexico, Cuba, and Panama, are unrestricted as to weight. Size — 

The limit of size is 18 inches in any one direction, except that printed matter or commercial papers in rolls 

may be 30 inches long by 4 Inches in diameter. 

Ordinary letters for countries of the Postal Union (except Canada and Mexico) will be forwarded, 

whether any postage is prepaid on them or not. All other mailable matter must be prepaid at least partially-. 

Domestic rates apply to matter for Porto Rico, Guam, Philippine Islands, Cuba, "Canal Zone," Republic 

of Panama, Tutulla, Hawaii, Shanghai City, U. S. Naval Vessels and officers and men of the U. S. Navy 

in the U. S. Naval Hospital, Yokohama, Japan. 

EXCEPTIONS. 
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, NEWFOUNDLAND, BAHAMAS, BARBADOS. BRITISH 
GUIANA, BRITISH HONDLTRAS, DUTCH WEST INDIES, AND LEEWARD ISLANDS. 

The rate on letters for these countries is two cents for each ounce or fraction. The Postal Union rates 
apply to postal cards, post cards, printed matter, commercial papers and samples. 



Postal Information. 115 



FOREIGN M.A1-LS— Continued. 



GERMANY.* 

The postage rate on letters for Germany by direct ocean transportation is two cents an ounce. Letters 
paid at the two-cent rate are despatched only by steamers able to land the malls at a German port. Letters 
paid at the Postal Union rate are despatched by the quicltest route. 

A fast steamer sailing for Germany via Plymouth and Cherbourg carries letters for Germany prepaid 
at the Postal Union rate and at the two-cent rate — the letters paid at the five-cent (Postal Union) rate are 
landed at Plymouth (the quickest route), whereas the letters paid at the two-cent rate are carried through 
to Germany by the transatlantic steamer. 

The Postal Union rates apply to postal cards, post cards, printed matter, commercial papers and samples 
regardless of the route by which sent, also to letters despatched via England and France 

CANADA. 

Letters, two cents for each ounce or fraction of an ounce. 

Postal cards and post cards, one cent 

Double postal cards (with paid reply), two cents 

Second-class matter (newspapers and periodicals), one cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereoL No 
limit of weight. 

Printed matter (except second-class), one cent for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof. Limit of weight 
4 pounds 6 ounces, e.xcept for single volumes of printed books. 

Fourth-class matter (domestic parcel post) not exceeding 4 ounces in weight is subject to the rate of 
one cent for each ounce or fraction of an ounce, and when exceeding 4 ounces in weight is subject to the 
rate of 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof. Packages of seeds, plants, etc., not exceeding 4 ounces in 
weight are subject to the rate of one cent for each ounce or fraction of an ounce, and when exceeding 4 
ounces are subject to the rate of 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof. Limit of weight 4 pounds 6 ounces, 
except for a single book. 

Commercial papers, samples, printed books and miscellaneous printed matter may be mailed at the 
Postal Union postage rates and under the conditions applicable to such articles in foreign mails. 

Any mailable matter may be registered, but cannot be sent as insured mail. 

Sealed articles, other than letters in their usual and ordinary form, are unmailable. But unsealed 
packages may contain, in sealed receptacles, articles which cannot be safely transmitted in unsealed 
receptacles; provided the contents of the closed receptacles are plainly visible or are precisely stated on the 
covers of the closed receptacles and with the packages so wrapped that the outer cover can be easily opened. 
P>repayment of postage upon any article, except the reply half of a double postal card, can be effected 
only by means of United States postage stamps. Letters will be despatched if prepaid one full rate of 
postage. Postage on other articles must be prepaid In full. 

CUBA. 

Letters, 2 cents for each ounce or fraction of an ounce. 

Postal cards and post cards, 1 cent. 

Double post cards (with paid reply), 2 cents. 

Second-class matter (newspapers and periodicals), 1 cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof. No 
limit of weight. 

Printed matter (except second-class), 1 cent for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof. Limit of weight 
4 pounds 6 ounces, except for single volumes of printed books. Packages of miscellaneous printed matter 
and packages of books weighing over 4 pounds but not over 4 pounds 6 ounces may also be sent as fourth- 
class matter at the rate of 12 cents a pound. 

Fourth-class matter (domestic parcel post) not exceeding 4 ounces in weight is subject to the rate of 
1 cent for each ounce or fraction of an ounce, and when exceeding 4 ounces in weight Is subject to the rate 
of 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof. Packages of seeds, plants, etc., not exceeding 4 ounces in weight 
are subject to the rate of 1 cent for each ounce or fraction of an ounce, and when exceeding 4 ounces are 
subject to the rate of 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof. Limit of weight 4 pounds (3 ounces, except for 
a single book. 

Commercial papers, samples, printed books and miscellaneous printed matter may be mailed at the 
Postal Union postage rates and under the conditions applicable to such articles in foreign mails. 

Any mailable matter may be regist«ied, but cannot be sent as insured mail 

Liquids and fatty substances (except samples) are unmailable 

Sealed articles, other than letters in their usual and ordinary form, are unmailable. But unsealed 
packages may contain, in sealed receptacles, articles which cannot be safely transmitted in unsealed 
receptacles; provided the contents of the closed receptacles are plainly visible or are precisely stated on the 
covers of the closed receptacles and with the packages so wrapped that the outer cover can be easily opened. 

Prepayment of postage upon any article, except the reply half of a double postal card, can be effected 
only by means of United States postage stamps. Letters and postal cards must be despatched whether 
prepaid or not. Postage on other articles (except fourth-class matter) must be prepaid at least In part, 
and on fourth-class matter in full. 

MEXICO. 

Letters, 2 cents for each ounce or fraction of an ounce. 

Postal cards and post cards, 1 cent. 

Double postal cards (with paid reply), 2 cents. 

Second-class matter (newspapers and periodicals), 1 cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof. No 
limit of weight. 

Printed matter (except second-class), 1 cent for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof. Limit of weight 
4 pounds 6 ounces, except for single volumes of printed books. Packages of miscellaneous printed matter 
and packages of books weighing over 4 pounds but not over 4 pounds 6 ounces may also be sent as fourth- 
class matter at the rate of 12 cents a pound. 

Fourth-class matter (domestic parcel post) not exceeding 4 ounces In weight is subject to the rate of 
1 cent for each ounce or fraction of an ounce and when exceeding 4 ounces In weight is subject to the rate 
of 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof Packages of seeds, plants, etc.. not exceeding 4 ounces In weight 
are subject to the rate of 1 cent for each 2 ounces or fraction of an ounce, and when exceeding 4 ounces 
are subject to the rate of 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof. Limit of weight 4 pounds 6 ounces, except 
for a single book. 

Parcels may also be sent by foreign parcel post under the conditions of the parcel-post convention with 
Mexico. The limit of weight is 4 pounds 6 ounces, except that to certain places parcels weighing up to 11 
pounds may be forwarded. (For list of places see "Postal Guide ") 

Customs declarations must be attached to all parcels of fourth-class matter and all packages sent by 
foreign parcel post. 

Commercial papers, samples, printed books and miscellaneous printed matter may be mailed at the 
Postal Union posta ge rates and imder the conditions applicable to such articles in foreign maUs. 

•The 2-cent letter rate to Germany Is suspended owing to war. All letters for Germany are now 
subject to the Postal Union rate of 5 cents for the first ounce or less and 3 cents for each additional ounce 
or fraction thereof. 



116 Postal information. 



FOREIGN MAIVS— Continued. 



Any mailable matter may be registered, but cannot be sent as Insured mail. 

Sealed articles, other than letters In their usual and ordinary form, are uninallable. But unsealed 
packages may contain, in sealed receptacles, articles which cannot be safely transmitted in unsealed 
receptacles: provided the contents of the closed receptacles are plainly visible or are precisely stated on the 
covers of the closed receptacles and with the packages so wrapped that the covers can be easily opened. 

Prepayment of postage upon any article, except the reply hall of a double postal card, can be eHected 
only by means of United States postage stamps. Letters will be despatched if prepaid one full rate ol 
postage. Postage on other articles must be prepaid in full. 

Matter addressed to Mexico must, in all cases, bear as part of the address the name of the Slate in tcMcb 
the city or town is located. For example, Aeapulco, Guerrero, Mexico; not Acapulco, Mexico. 

PANAMA. 

Letters, 2 cents for each ounce or traction ol an ounce. 

Postal cards and post cards, 1 cent. 

Double postal cards (with paid reply), 2 cents. 

Second-class matter (newspapers and periodicals), 1 cent for each 4 ounces or traction thereof. No 
limit of weight. 

Printed matter (except second-class), 1 cent for each 2 ounces pr fraction thereof. Limit of weight 
4 pounds 6 ounces, except for single volumes of printed books. Packages of miscellaneous printed matter 
and packages of books weighing over 4 pounds but not over 4 pounds 6 ounces may also be sent as fourth- 
class matter at the rate of 12 cents a pound. 

Fourth-class matter (domestic parcel post) not exceeding 4 ounces in wejght is subject to the rate of 
1 cent for each ounce or fraction of an ounce, and when exceeding 4 ounces in weight Is subject to the rate 
of 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof. Packages of seeds, plants, etc., not exceeding 4 ounces in weight 
are Subject to the rate of 1 cent for each ounce or fraction of an ounce, and when exceeding 4 ounces are 
subject to the rate of 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof. Limit of weight 4 pounds 6 ounces, except for 
a single book. 

Parcels up to 1 1 pounds in weight may also be sent by foreign parcel post, under the conditions of the 
parcel post convention with Panama. 

Customs declarations must be attached to all parcels ot fourth-class matter and all packages sent by 
foreign parcel post. 

Commercial papers, samples, printed books and miscellaneous printed matter may be mailed at the 
Postal Union postage rates and under the conditions applicable to such articles in foreign mails. 

Any mailable matter may be registered, but cannot be sent as insured mail. 

Liquids and fatty substances (except samples) are unmallable. 

Sealed articles, other than letters in their usual and ordinary form, are unmallable. But unsealed 
packages may contain, in sealed receptacles, articles which cannot be safely transmitted in unsealed 
receptacles; provided the contents of the closed receptacles are plainly visible or are precisely stated on the 
covers of the closed receptacles and with the packages so wrapped that the cover can be easily opened. 

Prepayment of postage upon any article, except the reply half of a double postal card, can be eflected 
only by means of United States postage stamps. Letters and postal cards must be despatched whether 
prepaid or not. Postage on other articles (except fourth-class matter) must be prepaid at least in part, 
and on fourth-class matter in full. 

SHANGHAI, CHINA. 
Articles Intended for delivery in the city of Shanghai, China, are subject to United States domestic 
postage rates and conditions, but letters specially addressed via Europe-Siberia are subject to the foreign 
rate. Certain matter may also be sent by foreign parcel post. 

UNITED STATES NAVAL VESSELS. 

Mall matter for officers or members of the crews of United States vessels of war stationed abroad ia 
subject to domestic postage rates and conditions. Packages of fourth-class matter exceeding 4 ounces 
in weight are subject to the rate of 12 cents for each pound or fraction of a pound when the vessels are stationed 
in foreign waters. Articles should be addressed "U. S S. (name of vessel), care of Postmaster, New York, 
N. Y." and be fully prepaid. Mail so addressed will be forwarded to the vessels, whether at domestic or 
foreign ports. Express packages will not be received unless they conform to the postal regulations and are 
pISced in the mail with the postage properly prepaid. 

UNITED STATES NAVAL HOSPITAL, YOKOHAMA. JAPAN. 

Mail tor officers and men of the United States Navy In the United States Naval Hospital at Yokohama, 
Is subject to domestic rates and conditions, the same as that for officers and men on U. S. naval vessels 
stationed abroad. 

SAMPLES OF MERCHANDISE 

must be bona fide trade samples without any salable value. Wrapping — Samples of merchandise must 
be wrapped so that the contents may be easily examined without Injury to wrappers. Permissible 
Writing — They must bear no writing except the name or the social position of the sender, a manufacturer's 
or trade mark, numbers, prices and Indications relating to the weight, size, dimensions and quajJtity to 
be disposed of, and words which are necessary to precisely Indicate the origin and nature of the merchandise. 
Weight — Packages of samples must not exceed 12 ounces In weight. Size — The size must not exceed 
12 inches in length, 8 inches in breadth, and 4 inches in depth, except when in the form of a roll, they may 
be 12 inches in length and 6 Inches in diameter. Postage — The postage on samples Is 2 cents for the first 
4 ounces or less, and 1 cent for each additional 2 ounces or fraction of 2 ounces. Register all valuable 
articles. Registration fee 10 cents. 

PARCEL POST. 

Postage, 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof; greatest length (unless specially noted below), 3 leet 
6 Inches; greatest length and girth combined (unless specially noted below), 6 feet; limit of weight (imless 
specially noted below), 11 pounds; value not limited; registration fee, 10 cents. 

Unsealed packages of mailable merchandise may be sent by parcel post to Argentine Republic (parcels 
cannot be registered; see item "Customs Declarations"), Dutch Guiana (parcels cannot be registered; see 
Item "Customs Declarations"), Uruguay (parcels cannot be registered; see item "Customs Declarations"),* 
Hungary, Bermuda, Jamaica, Including Cayman Islands, Turks Island, Including Calcos Islands, Barbados 
(parcels cannot be registered), the Bahamas, British Honduras, Mexico (limit ot size, 2 feet in length, 4 feet 
In girth; limit of weight for places named in "Postal Guide," 11 pounds; for other places, 4 pounds, 6 ounces). 
Leeward Islands (Antigxia, Anguilla, Barbuda, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, Redonda, St. Kitts, and the 



Postal Information. 11 



FOREIGN MAILS — Continued. 



Virgin Islands), Colombia (limit of size, 2 Jeet In length, 4 feet In girth), Costa Rica, Salvador (see Ite 
"CuBtoms Declarations"), British Guiana, Danish West Indies (St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas), ai 
the Windward Islands (Grenada, Grenadines, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent), Trinidad, Including Tobag 
Venezuela (see Item "Customs Declarations"), Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Chile, Newfoundland, includii 
Labrador. Parcels for Labrador can only be forwarded during the months of July, August, and Septembe 
Honduras (Republic oO, 'Germany, including Cameroon (Kamerun), Toga, German Samoa, German Ea 
Africa and German Southwest Africa: Greece (parcels cannot be registered), Italy, Including Erythre 
Benadlr, Bengazi. and Tripoli In Tripoli (Barbary) and Republic ol San Marino and Islands o! Carpat< 
and Rhodes. Liberia*, Netherlands (parcels cannot be registered; see item "Customs Declarations"), Ne 
Zealand including Cook and Fanning. Islands; Nicaragua, Guatemala. Norway, Japan, including Formes, 
Karafuto (Japanese Saghallen), and Korea (Chosen); Hongkong, Including Kowloon and Chung Choi 
Colony of Hongkong; Austria, including Durazzo, San Giovanni de Medua, Santi Quaranta, Scutari, at 
Valona, all in Albania*, Gibraltar (parcels cannot be registered; see Item "Customs Declarations"), Frent 
Guiana (parcels cannot be registered; see item "Customs Declarations")*, Belgium, {France, excludii 
Algeria and Corsica (parcels cannot be registered; see item "Customs Declarations"), Great Britain an 
Ireland (parcels cannot be registered), Australia, including Tasmania, Denmark, including Faroe Islanc 
and Iceland; Sweden. China (parcels for non-steam served places must not exceed 25 cubic decimeters (one cub 
foot) in volume; Haytl, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Duteh West Indies; Curacao and Aruba, Bonair 
Saba. St. Eustatlus and the Dutch part of St. Martins (parcels cannot be registered; see item "Custon 
Declarations"); French West Indies; Martinique, Guadeloupe (Including Marie Galante, Deseade, Ia 
Saints, Petite Terre, St. Bartholomew and the French portion of St. MarCins) (parcels caimot be registere* 
see item "Customs De<;laratiohs'0, Panama. Parcels must be wrapped so as to permit their contents l 
be easily examined by postmasters. The presence, in an unsealed parcel, of .sealed receptacles contaJnlt 
mailable articles which cannot be safely transmitted in the unsealed receptacles, will not render the parc' 
unmallable, provided the contents of the sealed receptacles are plainly visible, or are unmistakably indicate 
by the method of packing or by a precise statement on the covers. But such sealed receptacles will n( 
be admitted to the parcel post unless inclosed In an outside cover open to Inspection Any article absolute! 
prohibited admission to the regular malls for any country Is also Inadmissible to parcel post malls for tht 
country; but no article is excluded from parcel post malls solely because It Is dutiable in the country < 
destination. ^Liquids, poisonous, explosive, and Inflammable substances are excluded. 

CUSTOMS DECLARATIONS. 

A "Customs Declaration" Form 4402 (which will be furnished on application at the post-oflBce or 
station) must be properly and fully filled out, stating the actual contents, value, etc , of the parcel. Genert 
terms, such as "merchandise" or "samples," will not answer; the contents must be accurately describee 
"Customs Declarations" must be firmly attached to the cover of the parcel, but not pasted or affixed so tha 
they will seal the package and prevent examination of the contents without damaging the cover. I 
addition to being tied by means of a cord passing through the eyelet, the tag should be bound fiat to th 
parcel (with the front or "declaration" side facing out), so that the tag cannot be used as a handle to 111 
the parcel while In transit. 

Two (2) copies of the "declaration" (form 4402) must be attached to each parcel for Argentine Republit 
Dutch Guiana, Dutch West Indies, French West Indies, Netherlands, French Guiana, Gibraltar, Salvado) 
and Uruguay, and thr^e (3) copies to each parcel for Venezuela. 

France — Two copies of the special customs declaration, "Form No. 2 Bis" (4402^), showing in additio 
to the usual entries the gross weight of the parcel and net weight of the contents, mu-st be attached to paicc! 
for France. One copy may be pasted to the package, but the other copy must be affixed in such a manne 
that it can be readily removed at the exchange office where the mail is prepared for despatch to France 



GENERAL REGULATIONS RESPECTING FOREIGN MAILS. 

Rates and conditions to countries not in the Universal Postal Union are now the same as those to Universe 
Postal Union countries. 

Postage can be prepaid upon articles (other than the reply half of double postal cards) only by mean 
of the postage stamps of the country in which the articles are mailed. Hence articles mailed In one countr: 
addressed to another country which bear postage stamps of the country to w.v.lch they are addressed an 
treated as if they had no postage stamps attached to them 

Unpaid letters received from the Postal Vnlon and Insufficiently prepaid correspondence or all klndi 
is chargeable with double the amount of the deficient postage. 

Matter to be sent in the malls at less than letter rates must be so wrapped that it can be readil; 
examined at the office ol delivery, as well as the mailing office, without destroying the wrapper. 

Packages of newspapers and periodicals sent in the mails to foreign countries are restricted to a singlt 
(outside) address. Those sent to Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, and Shanghai (City), China, art 
transmissible as in domestic mails. 

The United States two-cent postal card should be used for card correspondence with foreign countne! 
(except Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, and Shanghai City, to which countries the one-cent card is trans- 
missible), but where these cards cannot be obtained, it is allowable to use for this purpose the United States 
one-cent postal card with a one-cent United States adhesive postage stamp attached thereto. Privatt 
cards can be used if conforming in size, etc., to Ciovernment cards, such cards should bear the words "posi 
card." 

Mall matter of all kinds received from any country of the Postal Union is required to be reforwardec 
at the request of the addressee, from one post-office to another and in the case of articles other than parcel 
post packages, to any foreign country embraced in the Postal Union, without additional charge for postage. 

All articles prohibited from domestic malls are also excluded from circulation In the mails to and from 
loreign countries. Postal cards or letters addressed to go around the world will not be forwarded, being 
prohibited. 

* Service suspended (except to German Samoa) on account of war at time Almanac was printed. 

t Service to the French Departments (states) of Aisne, Ardennes, Aube, Haute-Marne, Haute-Saonne, 
Marne, Meurthe et Moselle, Meuse, Nord, Olse, Pas de Calais, Seine-et-Marne, Somme, and Vosges sus- 
pended. 

t Liquids and oils, pastes, salves or other articles easily llqueflable are admis.slble, provided they are 
packed In accordance with the regulations prescribed for the admission of such substances to the United 
States domestic parcel post malls, except to Belgium, Bermuda, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Re- 
public, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Hungary, Manchuria, Martinique, Nicaragua, and Peru. 



18 



Posted Information. 



FOREIGN MAILS — COTUinued. 



FEES FOR INTERNATIONAL MONEY ORDERS. 
Fees are subject to change. 



' DOMESTIC RATES. 

, Table No. 1. 

' When payable in Babamas, Bermuda, British 
Juiana, British Honduras, Canada, Canal Zone, 
!uba, Martinique, Me.xico, Newfoundland, the 
'hilippine Islands, the United States Postal Agency 
.t Shanghai (China) and ceitaln islands in the West 
ndies, listed in the Register of Money Order Offices 

Use the Domestic form for these Orders. 



. . 3 cents 

5 cents 

8 cents 

10 cents 

12 cents 

. 1 5 cents 

18 cents 

20 cents 

2.5 cents 

. 30 cents 



or Orders from 




SOD 01 to 


S2 50 


rom S2.51 to 


So 


S5.01 to 


SIO 


" SIO 01 to 


S20 


" S20.01 to 


S30 


" S30.01 to 


S40 


" $40 01 to 


S50 


" S50.01 to 


S60 


" S60 01 to 


S75 


•• S75.01 to SlOO 



INTERNATIONAL RATES. 

Table No. 2. 
When payable in Apia, Austria, Belgium, Bo- 
livia, Chile, Costa Rica, Denmarli, Egypt, France, 
Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, Greece, Hon- 
duras, Hongkong, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Liberia, 
Luxemburg, Netherlands, New South Wales, New 
Zealand, Norway, Peru, Portugal, Queensland, 
Russia, Salvador, South Australia, Sweden, Switz- 
erland, Tasmania, Union of South Africa,* Uruguay, 
and Victoria 

Use the Internutionul form for these Orders. 
For Orders from 

SOO 01 to SIO 10 cents 

From SIO 01 to S20 20 cents 

•■ S20 01to S30 30 cents 

•' S30 011O S40 40 cents 

" S40 01 to S50 . 50 cents 

" S50 01 to S60 60 centa 

'• S60 01 to S70 70 cents 

■■ S70 01 to S80 80 cents 

" S80 01 to S90 90 cents 

" S90.01 to SlOO 1 dollar 



Observe that for orders payable in the countries referred to in Table No 1, only the Domestic rates 
ire to be charged and the Domestic forms are to be used. 

* The Union of South Africa comprises the provinces of the Cape of Good Hope (formerly Cape Colony), 
;he Transvaal, the Orange Free State (foimerly Orange River Colony), and Natal (including Zululand). 



POSTAL-SAVINGS SYSTEM. 



INFORMATION FOR DEPOSITORS ANNOUNCED BY POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 

Object — 1 The Postal-Savings System Is established by authority of the act of Congress approved 
rune 25, 1910, for the purpose of providing facilities for depositing savings at Interest, with the security 
)f the United States Government for repayment. 

Safety — 2. The faith of the United States is solemnly pledged to the payment of deposits made In 
postal-savings depository offices, with accrued Interest thereon, as provided by the Postal-Savings act. 

Who May Deposit — 3. An account may be opened and deposits made by any person of the age of 10 
Kears or over In his or her own name, or by a married woman in her own name and free from any control 
>r Interference by her husband. 

4. Deposits will be accepted only from individuals, and no account will be opened In the name of any 
corporation, association, society, firm or partnership in tlie name of any pereon as an officer of a corporation, 
association, or society, in tne name of any person as a member of a firm or partnership, or in the name of 
two or more persons jointly. No account will be opened in the name of one person in trust for or on behalf 
of another person or persons. 

5. A person may open a postal-savings account at any depository post-offlce. but no person may at 
the same time have more than one postal-saving account either at the same office or at different offices. 

6. All accounts shall be opened in person by the depositor or his authorized representative After 
opening an account, a depositor may forward subseciuent deposits to the post-office by registered mall or 
by money order made payable to the postmaster. See paragraph No. 26 

No Charges to Depositors — 7. No charges or fees are collected or required from depositors In 
connection with the opening of a/ccounts or the subsequent deposit or withdrawal of moneys. 

How to Open an Account — 8 When a person applies to open an account, he shall furnish the 
necessary Information to enable the postmastei to fill out an application, which the depositor will then 
be required to sign. 

Deposits — 9. Deposits are evidenced by postal-savings certificates Issued In fixed denominations of 
SI, S2, S5, SlO, S20, S60, and SlOO, each bearing the name of the depositor, the number of his account, the 
date of Issue, and the name of the depository sfflce The depositor shall sign a duplicate of each certificate, 
which the postmaster will retain. 

10. No account may be opened for less than SI. nor will fractions of a dollar be accepted for deposit. 
>(See paragraph 1 1 relative to postal-savings cards and stamps.) 

11. No person is permitted to deposit more than 51,000 in any one calendai month nor to have a total 
balance to his credit at any time of more than SI, 000 exclusive of accumulated Interest. 

12. Postal-savings certificates are not transferable or negotiable and are payable only to the person 
•to whom issued, except as provided In paragraphs 27, 28, and 29. 

13. On opening an account a deposlto- is supplied with an envelope in which he may keep his savings 
certificates. This envelope bears Information for his guidance, and a blank ledger record on which an 
account of his deposits and withdrawals may be kept. 

14. If a postal-savings certificate is lost or destroyed the depositor should notify the postmaster. 
Upon compliance by the depositor with the necessary requirements, a new certificate will be Issued by the 
Third Assistant Postmast€r-General If deemed proper. 

15. Postmasters are not permitted to receive Issued postal-savings certificates for safe-keeping. 

Postal- Savings Cards and Stamps — 16. Amounts less than SI may be saved for deposit by pur- 
chasing 10-cent postal-savings cards and 10-cent postal-savings stamps. Each postal-savings card bears 
blank spaces in which such stamps may be affixed from time to time. A postal-savings card with nine 
postal-savings stamps affixed will be accepted as a deposit of SI either In opening an account or in adding 
to an existing account or it may be redeemed In cash 

17. Poatal-savlngs cards and stamps are not valid for postage, and postmasters will not exchange 
them for postage stamps nor exchange postage stamps for postal-savings cards or stamps. 

Interest^lS. Interest at the rate of 2 per cent, per annum will be allowed on the amount represented 
by each postal-savings certificate, payable annually Interest will not be paid for any fraction of a year. 

19. Deposits will bear Interest from the first day of the month next following that in which made. 

20. Interest will continue to accrue annually on a postal-savings certificate as long as It remains out- 
standing, certificates being valid until paid, without limitation as to time. 

21. Compound Interest Is not allowed on an outstanding certificate, but a depositor may withdraw 



Travelers' Aid Society. 119 



POSTAL-SAVINGS SYSTEM — Continued. 



Interest accrued and make a new deposit, subject to the restriction that deposits at Interest will not be 
receli'ed for less than SI. 

Withdrawals — 22. A depositor may at any time withdraw the whole or any part of the deposits to 
his credit, with any interest payable thereon, by surrendering, at the office of Issue, postal-savings certUlcates, 
properly indorsed, for the amount to be withdrawn. 

23 A depositor presenting a certificate for payment In fuU shall Indorse It in the presence of the 
postmaster or his representiitlve and surrender It. The postmaster or his representative, upon being 
Batlsfled as to the depositor's Identity, will then make payment. 

24. When a depositor desires to withdraw only a part of the amount represented by any certificate, 
the depository postmaster will cancel the certificate, after paying any interest that may be due thereon, and 
issue a new certificate or certificates covering the amount remaining on deposit, which will bear mterest 
from the first day of the following month. ...,.._ . j 

25. When a depositor desires to withdraw the Interest payable on any certificate, he will be required 
to give his receipt for the amount of the Interest paid. The postmaster will enter on the back of th« 
certificate the date of the Interest payment. 

Deposits Not Made in Person — 26. When a depositor, for good and sufiJclent reason. Is unable to 
appear In person to make an additional deposit, the amount to be deposited may be sent by a representative 
or forwarded by registered mall If the money order service Is not available, by a money order made payable 
to the postmaster. Postal-saWngs accounts may be opened by mall. This Important extension of the 
service will liave the practical effect of bringing postal-savings facilities within the reach of every person 
In the United States. A person residing at a post-offlee not authorized to accept postal-savings deposits 
may open an account on or alter that date by applying to his local postmaster, who will act as agent for a 
nearby post-offlce authorized to accept such deposits. After an account has been opened deposits may 
be made either In person, by a representative, by money order, or by registered mall If the money order 
service Is not available. 

Wltiidrawals Not Made In Person — 27. When, for good and sufficient reason, a depositor Is unable 
to appear in person to make a withdrawal, a blank order for the purpose will be furnished upon his appli- 
cation by mall or at the request of hla representative. When the order has been properly filled out and 
signed by the depositor, his signature witnessed by a disinterested person, and the order returned to the 
postmaster, together with each certificate to be paid properly Indorsed, payment will be made to the de- 
positor's reprasentatlve, or a money order covering the amount withdrawn, less the money-order fee, will 
be forwarded to the depositor. ^ , 

28. When a depositor who Is unable to appear in person desires to withdraw the interest payable on 
any certificate, the blank order furnished will be accompanied by a receipt for the interest to be paid. 
Upon return of such papers, properly signed by the depositor, the postmaster wlU make payment as provided 
in paragraph 27. 

Death of Depositor — 29. In case of the death of a depositor the Third Assistant Postmaster-General 
win authorize the payment of the amount standing to his credit to the executor or administrator of his estate 
upon compliance with necessary requirements. In case of the death of a depositor intestate, where no 
formal administration Is desired by his relatives, the Third Assistant Postmaster-General may authorize 
the postmaster, upon obtaining an affidavit In proper form, to pay the amount to the persons entitled under 
the State laws to receive it. ^ . j , 

Account of Woman Who Marries — 30. A woman who opens an account and afterward marries 
should present her postal-savings certificates to the postmaster at the Issuing office In order that the cer- 
tificates may be Indorsed as payable to her In her new name. The postmaster will receive no further deposits 
from a woman who marries and falls to comply with this requirement. . ^. ^ . , 

Postal-Savings Bonds — 31. A depositor may exchange the whole or any part of hla deposits In sums 
of S20, SlOO and S500 ur United States registered or coupon bonds bearing interest at the rate of 2H per 
cent per annum, payable semi-annually, redeemable at the pleasure of the United States after one year 
from date of issue, and both principal and Interest being payable 20 years from such date In United States 
gold coin. The exchange may be made as of January 1 and July 1 of each year. 

32. A depositor desiring to convert his postal-savings deposits Into bonds on January 1 and July I 
of any year shall make application to the postmaster at least one month previously on a form which will 
be supplied in triplicate lor the purpose At the time of making application the depositor shall mdorse 
and surrender postal-savings certificates covering the amount of the bonds desired, and the postmaster 
will give him a receipt for the certificates. When the bonds applied for have been issued by the Secretary 
of the Treasury, he will forward them direct to the depositor. The exchange is considered as taking effect on 
the date when the bonds begin to bear interest (January i or July 1), and any yearly interest due on the 
certificates surrendered will be paid by the postmaster on or after that date. A person may hold any amount 

33. Postal-savings deposits which have been exchanged for bonds are not counted as a part of the 
maximum of S1,000 allowed one depositor, and there Is no limitation upon the amount of postal-savings 
bonds which may be acquired by a depositor. , , . ^ „ ,. , 

34. Postal-savings bonds are exempt from all taxes or duties of the United States, as well as from 
taxation In any form by or under State, municipal, or local authority. , ^ ■ j .„ 

35 Postal-savings bonds can be procured only by the surrender or postal-savings deposits and wlU 
not be Issued to persons who are not depositors, but whether In registered or coupon form they may, after 
receipt by the depositor, be sold or transferred at any time. A leaflet containing additional Information 
concerning postal-savings bonds may be obtained from the postmaster. 

Information — 36. Further Information concerning the Postal-Savings System may be obtaliied by 
application at any depository post-office or by addressing the Third Assistant Postmaster-General, Division 
of Postal Savings, Washington, D. C. ^ ,^ ■ ,. ..,. ^ », ■ , „ „>,„,« 

A person desiring to open a postal-savings account should visit the post-office in person, where 
full Instructions will be given. If for any LOod reason he cannot visit the office a representative may be 
sent, who will be lastructed how to proceed. 



TRAVELERS' AID SOCIETY. 



PresideTU— Gilbert Colgate. Hon Vice-Presldems—Cardina.1 Farley, Hon. Jacob H. Schiff, BLshop 
David H Greer. V ice-Presidents — Rev. Dr. Francis Brown, Rev. Dr. Samuel Schulman. TreasuTer— James 
McAlpln Pyle Chairman of Executive CommiUee — Rush Taggart. (general Secretary — Onn C. Baker. 
Headquarters — 465 Lexington Avenue, New York City. „ . . ^ , , , , „.,„„ „„,, 

The Travelers' Aid Societv Is non-gectarian, non-polItical and non-commercial In organization and 
work has national and international co-opt^ratloii. Object: Protects and assists all travellers, especially 
young women, girls and boys, without fee or gfAtUity. Safeguards in all the emergencies of travel froni In- 
fluences and dangers vicious, morally, financtaiSy. and pbysSi^ally. Prevents error, extortion and crime, 
relieves suffering, and combats vice of every form. Trained* wpnjen agents, recognized by pfnclal badge, 
meet trains and boats. S«Dp9ft,e<J by voluntary po;?t^;).l)utj.C«s.. 



120 



Distances Between European Cities. 



DISTANCES FROM NEW YORK TO CITIES IN UNITED STATES. 

Distances herein shown are the official distances between New York City and the various cities now 
used by the War and other Government Departments. 



Cities. 


Miles. 


Cities. 


Miles. 


Cities. 


Miles. 


Cities 


Miles, 


Albany, N. Y 


145 


Cleveland, Ohio... 


584 


Louisville, Ky . . . 


871 


St. Paul, Minn 


1,322 


Albuquera'e, N. M. 


2,261 


Columbus, Ohio. . . 


637 


Lynchburg, Va.. . 


401 


Salt Lake City, 




Alliance, Neb 


1,828 


Concord, N. H. . . 


310 


Manchester, N. H. 


292 


Utah 


2,442 


AmariUo, Tex 


i;882 


Cumberland, Md. . 


380 


Memphis, Tenn. . . 


1,157 


San Francisco. Cal. 


3.191 


Atlanta, Ga 


876 


Dead wood, S. Dak. 


1,899 


Meridian, Miss . . . 


1,142 


Santa Fe, N Mex. 


2,211 


Atlantic City, N. J. 


136 


Denver, Col 


1,930 


Milwaukee, Wis. . 


997 


Savannah, Ga . . . 


845 


Augusta, Me .... 


413 


Des Moines, la . . . 


1,270 


Mobile, Ala 


1,231 


Seattle, Wash 


3,136 


Baltimore, Md 


188 


Detroit, Mich .... 


693 


Montpeller, Vt.. . 


329 


Sheridan, Wyo. . . 


2,141 


Birmingham, Ala. 


990 


Duluth, Minn .... 


1,391 


Newark, N. J. . . . 


9 


Shreveport, La 


1,454 


Bismarck, N. Dak. 


1,767 


El Paso, Tex 


2,310 


New Orleans, La. . 


1,372 


.Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 


1,459 


Boise, Idaho 


2,738 


Fargo, N. Dak 


1,564 


Norfolk, Va 


347 


Spokane, Wash . . 


2,797 


Boston, Mass. . . . 


235 


Ft. Worth, Tex . . . 


1,805 


Ogden, Utah. . . . 


2,405 


Springtteld, 111 


1,017 


Bristol, Tenn .... 


605 


Galveston, Tex . . . 


1,782 


Oklahoma, Okla . . 


1,608 


Springfield, Mass.. 


139 


BuHalo, N. Y 


442 


Gr. Rapids, Mich . 


821 


Omaha, Neb 


1,405 


Superior, Wis 


1,386 


Burlington, Vt 


303 


Greensboro, N. C . 


516 


Parkersb'g, W. Va.. 


586 


Syracuse, N. Y. . 


293 


Butte, Mont 


2,450 


Harrlsburg, Pa. . . 


195 


Pendleton, Ore 


2,968 


Tacoma, Wash. . 


3,231 


Cape May, N. J. . 


172 


Hartford, Ct 


113 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


91 


Tampa, Fla 


1,195 


Carson City, Nev.. 


2,983 


Helena, Mont . . . 


2,452 


P-hcenix, Ariz 


2,742 


Topeka, Kan 


1,437 


Charleston, S. C . 


739 


Hot Springs, Ark 


1,350 


Pittsburgh. Pa . . 


444 


Trenton, N. .1. . . . 


57 


Charleston, W. Va 


616 


Indianapolis, Ind 


825 


Portland, Me 


350 


Vicksburg. Miss. . . 


1,282 


Chat'nooga, Tenn 


847 


Ishpemlng, Mich 


1,274 


Portland, Ore 


3,204 


Vinlta, Okla 


1,426 


Cheyenne, Wyo . . 


1,921 


.lackson. Miss . . 


1,238 


Prescott, Ariz 


2,719 


Washington, D. C . 


228 


Chicago, lU. (N. Y. 




Jacksonville, Fla 


983 


Providence, R. I . . 


190 


Wheeling, W. Va. . 


510 


Cent.) 


982 


Kansas City, Mo. 


1,342 


Reno, Nev 


2,947 


Wichita, Kan... 


1,549 


Chicago, III. (Penn. 




Knoxville, Tenn. . 


736 


Richmond, Va . . 


343 


WUmmgton, Del, 


118 


R. R.) 


912 


Little Rock, Ark 


1,290 


Roanoke, Va. . . . 


454 


Wilmington, N. C 


588 


Cincinnati, Ohio. . 


757 


Los Angeles, Cal . . 


3,149 


St. Louis, Mo 


1.065 







MAIL DISTANCES AND APPROXIMATE TIME TO FOREIGN CITIES FROM NEW YORK. 
(For Distances, Irrespective of Mail Routes, see Index.) 



By Postal Houte to- 



Adelaide, via San Francisco 

Alexandria, via Loiidou 

Amsterdam, " " 

Antwerp, " " 

Athens, " " 

Bahia, Brazil 

Banglcok, Siam, via San Francisco 

Baugkoli, Siam, vid London 

Batavia, Java, vid Loudon 

Berlin 

Bombay, via London 

Bremen 

Buenos Ayres 

Calcutta, v/a London 

Cape Town, VKt London 

Constantinople, via London 

Florence, ■uia London 

Glasgow 

Greytown, via New Orleans 

Halifax, N.S. (rail) 

Hamburg, direct 

Hamburg, Dia London 

Havana 



Stntnte 
Miles. 



845 
15(1 
985 
Udll 
655 
87U 
9111) 
125 
8011 
385 
7tio 
235 
(145 
12(1 
245 
810 
801) 
371) 
815 
PB7 
820 
340 
366 



Days. 

~28" 
12 

8 

8 
U 
14 
43 
41 
34 

8 
22 

S 
24 
24 
25 
11 

9 

8 

7 

9 
9 
3 



By Postal Uootk to 



Hongkong, ii/« San Francisco... 
HonoUUn, via Sau Francisco . 

Liverpool 

London 

Madi'id, via London 

ftlanila, viaSan Francisco 

Melboiiirie, viiifian Fiauci.sco 

Mexico City (railroad) 

Panama 

Palis 

Petrograd,7)/o London 

Rio de .laneiro 

Rome, via London 

Rotterdam, via London 

San .Itiaii, Porto Ilici) 

.Shanghai, win , San Francisco 

shanghai, ?)ta Berlin. . 

•Stockholm, ii/rt Londo)i 

Sydney, i))a San Francisco 

Valparaiso, t)(.a Panama . . 

Vienna 

Yokohama, via San Francisco . 



St.iture 




Allies. 


Dnys. 


10, 590 


27 


5,645 


12 


3.540 


7 


3,740 


7 


4.925 


9 


11, 583 


31 


12.265 


27 


3, 750 


5 


2, 355 


6 


4, 020 


8 


5 370 


9 


6, 204 


17 


5,030 


9 


3, 935 


8 


1,730 


6 


9,920 


25 


14,745 


22 


4,975 


10 


11,570 


26 


5,915 


22 


4,740 


9 


7.345 


20 



DISTANCES BETWEEN EUROPEAN CITIES. 



London 



LlVlSRPOOI, 



PARIS 



Madrid 



TEAVKLLING DISTANCES 

BETWEEN THE 

PRINCIPAL CITIES IN EUROPE, 

IN MILES. 



Lisbon 
Antwkrp 

HAMBURG! 



Beri^in 

BERNJ' 

Turin 



Vienna 
Munich 
Rome 



Trieste 
Warsaw 
Constantinople 



Odessa 
Moscow, ^50 



Pethograd 

Stockhot.mI 430 

Copenhagen! 4l6r846 



406 1356 

8361510 

I252I1SIO 



363 
1339 
17^ 
2408 

ioio 



1205 
842 
811 
693 

1()82 



668 



806 
1725 
1330 
1617 
1769 
1171 
1067 



510 
1276 
2138 
1800 



2087 
2239 



1731 
1318 



647 

487 

702 

1564 

1226 

1513 

1395 

1084 

671 



266 
840 
370 
436 
1298 

1247 

399 

lUO 

697 



m 

470 
414 
391 
1156 
2018 
1680 
1967 
2119 
1337 
1047 



297 

535 

295 

639 

533 

1021 

18^3 

1545 

1832 

1714 

1176 

885 



611 
837 
427 



401 
1048 

888 

398 
1699 
1240 
1209 
1091 

685 



270 



178 

678 

839 

605 

579 

1180 

1066 

576 

19^ 

1418 

1387 

1269 

580 



412 

497 
460 



719 

727 

522 

1033 

1009 

895 

2025 

1737 



1706 

1588 

993 



620 



1530 
1804 
1889 
1602 
1506 
2157 
1897 
1746 
1828 
2593 
3345 
3117 
3414 
3286. 
2384 
2012 



415 
1119 
1495 

1582 
1183 
1073 
1668 
1477 
1223 
1416 
1925 
2718 
2625 
2904 
2874 



1972 
1600 



908 
1323 



211 

687 
674 

■359 
500 
849 

'582 
9()7 
863 

1067 

1899 



1760 



1843 



1699 
1219 



489 
1397 
1812 



472 



J59 
948 
848 
989 

1182 



970 
1^7 
1352 



1557 



2232 



2119 



2U7 



812 



1976 



1491 



U81 



202 

287 

1195 

1610 

270 

657 

746 

646 

787 

980 

768 

1195 

1150 

U35 

2030 

1917 

1915 

1774 

1289 

979 



LABOR LEGISLATION. |^21 

BOYCOTTING. BLACKLISTING. AND INTIMIDATION LAWS. 
TSB States having laws prohibiting boycotting In tenns are Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, 

The States having laws prohibiting blacklisting in terms are Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Cali- 
fornia, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Mississippi (ap- 
plies to telegraph operators only), Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New'Mexico, North Carolina, North 
Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin, 

BoycoUing and picketing by peaceful and lawful means are declared legal by a Federal statute. 

A number of States have laws concerning intimidation, conspiracy against workiugmen, and 
Interference with employment, viz.: Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, 
Idaho (applies to mine employes only), Illinois. Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachu- 
setts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New 
\^ork. North Dakota. Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Porto Rico, Rhode Island. South Dakota. 
Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wisconsin. 

In the following States it is unlawful for an employer to exact any agreement, either v^ritten or 
verbal, from an employe not to join or become a member of a labor organization, as a condition of 
employment: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Idaho, Indiana, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, 
Mississippi (applies to telegraph operators only), Nevada. New Jersey Oregon. Pennsylvania. 
Porto Rico, Bout, h Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin. 

EIGHT- HOUR LAWS 
Alaska.— Eight hours constitute a day's labor on all public works and in all mines and workings, 
smelting and reduction works, and at coke ovens. 

Arizona.— Eight hours constitute a day's labor on all public works and in all mines and workings, 
smelling and reduction works, blastfurnaces, rolling mills, etc. 

Arkansas.— Eight hours constitute a day's work on public highways and bridges and for railway 
telegraph operators. 

California.- Unless otherwise expressly stipulated, eight hours constitute a day's work. The 
time of service of all laborers, workmen, and mechanics employed upon any public works of, or 
work done for, tlie State, or for auy political sub-division thereof, whether the work is to be done by 
contract or otherwise aud of employSs in mines and smelters, is limited and restricted to eight hours 
in any one calendar day. 

Colorado.— A day's work for all workingmen employed by the State, oi any county, township, 
school district, municipality, or incorporated town, and for all employes in underground or open 
cut mines or workings, aud in smelting and refining works, is restiicted to eight hours. 

Connecticut.- Eight hours of labor constitute a lawful day's work unless otherwise agreed. 
Railroad telegraph operators controlling the movement of trains may workbut eight hoars, except at 
stations kept open only in the daytime. Engineers, firemen, machinists and other mechanics em- 
ployed instate institutions may work but eight hours, except in case of emergency 

Delaware.— Eight hours constitute a lawful day's work for all municipal employes of theCity of 
Wilmington. 

District of Cohimbia.—A days work for all laborers and mechanics employed by the District 
of Columbia, or by auy contractor or sub-contractor upon any public works of the District, is limited 
to eight hours. 

Hawaii.— For all mechanics, clerks, laborers, and otheremployes on public works and in public 
offices eight hours of actual service constitute a day's work 

Irtalio.— Eight hours' actual work constitute a lawful day's labor foi manual laborers employed by 
the day on all State, county, aud municipal works. Labor in mines and smelters is limited to eight 
hours per day. 

Illinois. — Eight hours are a legal day's work in all mechanical employments, except on farms, 
and when otherwise agreed ; the law does not apply to service by the year, month or week. Eight 
hours constitute a day's labor on the public highways. 

Incllana.—Eight hours of labor constitute a legal day's work on the public roads, and for all 
cla.sses of mechanics, workingmen, aud laborers, excepting those engaged in agricultural and 
domestic labor. Overwork by agreement and for extra compensation is permitted. 
Iowa. — Eight hours constitute a day's labor on the public roads 

Kansas.- Eighthoiirs are adaj''swork for all laborers, mechanics, or other persons employed 
by or on behalf of the State or any county, city, township or other municipality. 

Kentnck.v. —Eight hours constitute a day's work on all public works of the State. 
Maryland. — No mechanic or laborer employed by the Mayoror City Council of Baltimore, or by 
anyagent or contractor under them, shall be required to work more than eiglit hours as a day's labor. 
Ma.88acliueetls.— Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and 
mechanics employed by or on behalf of the Commonwealth or any county therein, or of any city or 
town In the Com men wealth upon acceptance of the statute by a majority ol voters present aud voting 
upon the same atanv general election. 

Minnesota.- Eight hours constitute a day's labor for all laborers, workmen, or mechanics em- 
ployed b.v or on behalf of the State, whether the work is done by contract or otherwise. 
"Mississippi. — Eight hours are a day's laboron highways 

Missonri. -Eight hours constitute a legal day's work. The law does not prevent an agreement 
to work for a longer or a shorter time and does not apply to agricultural laborers. It is unlawful for 
employers to work their employ6s longer than eight hours per day in mines and smelters, or as 
tram despatchers, etc. . on railroads, unless the office is open only during the daytime. Eight hours 
area day's labor on highways, and on all public works in cities of the second class. 

.>Iontana.— Eight hours constitute a legal day's work for persons engaged to operate or handle 
hoisting engines at mines. The law applies only to such plants as are in operation sixteen or more 
hours per day, or at or in mines where the engine develops fifteen or more horse-power, or where 
fifteen or more men are employed underground in the twenty- four hours. A day's labor on public 
works and in smelters, underground mines and in railroad and other tunnels is limited to eighthours. 
Nebraska.— Eight hours constitute a day's work on public roads and on all public works in cities 
Of the first class. 

Nevada.— For labor on public highways, in and about all mines, In smelters, plaster and cement 
mills, as train despatchers, etc. , on railroads, and on all works and undertakings carried on or aided 
by the State, county, or municipal governments, tbe hours of labor are fixed at eight per day. 

New Jersey.-Elght hours is the limit of aday's work by any person employed by or on behalf 
Of the State or any municipality thereof. ^, ,. ^ ., . 

New Mexico. -Eight hours constitute adays labor in all employment by or on behalf of the 
State or municipality. 

New York.— Eight hours constitute a day's work on highways, aud on work done by or forthe 
State, or a municipal corporation, whether directly by contractors or sub-contractors; also for all 



122 



Labor Legislation — Continued. 



•classes of employes, except in farm or domestic labor, thougli overwork for extra pay is permitted ia 
private employtueots. 

Nortb Wakota.—Kight hours area day's labor on public roads 

Ohio.— Eight hours constitute a day's work ouall public works; also in all engagements to labor in 
any mechanical, manufacturing or mining busmess, unless otherwise expressly stipulated in the 
contract. 

Oillahoma-— Eight hours constitute a day's labor on all public works, and in underground mines. 
Oregon-— Eight hours constitute a day's labor ou ail public works, and in underground miues 
yielding metal. 

Pennsylvania.— Eight hours of labor shall be deemed and held to be a legal day's work in all 
casesof labor aud service by the day where there is no agreemeutor contract to the contrary. This 
does not apply to farm or agricultural labor or to service by the year, month or week Eight 
hours constitute a day's labor for all mechanics, workmen, and laborers in the employ of the Statfe, 
or of any municipal corporation therein, or otherwise engaged on public works. This act shall be 
deemed to apply to employes of contractors. Engineers hoisting workmen at anthracite coal mines 
(nay work but eiglit hours oer day. 

Philippine Islands.— liiglit hours constitute a day's work on highways. 

Porto IMeo. —No laborer may be compelled to worl; more than eight hours per day on public works. 
South Ualiota. —For labor ou public highways a day's work is fixed at eight hours. 
Tennessee.— Eight houisshall be a day's work on the highways. 

Texas.— Eigtit hours constitute a day's work on the highways, and by train despatchers, etc., 
except at stations where but one operator is employed. 

l/tah.— Eight hours constitute a day's labor ou all works carried on or aided by the State, county 
or municipal governments, and in all underground mines or workings, aud in smelters aud all other 
establistiments for the reduction of ores. 

Washington.— Eight hours in auy calendar day shall constitute a day's work on any work done 
for the State, or for any county or municipality, aud in underground coal mines. 

West Virginia. — Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and me- 
chanics who may be employed by or ou behalf ot the State, and for telegraph operators directing the 
movement of trains where three or more passenger or ten or more freight trains pass in "24 hours. 

Wisconsin.— fn all engagements to labor in any manufacturing or mechanical business, where 
there is no express contract to the contrary, a day's work shall consist of eight hours, but the law does 
not apply to contracts for labor hy the week, month or .vear. Eight hours constitute a day's labor 
on the public highwaj's. Employes ou public works aud train despatchers may be employed but 
eight hours per day. 

Wyoming.— Eight hours' actual work constitute a legal day's labor in all underground mines, in 
smelters, aud on all State aud municipal works. 

United States.— A. day s work tor all laborers, workmen and mechanics who may be emproyed 
by the UnitedStates, or by any coutractor orsub-contractorupouauy of the public worksotme United 
States, including dredging and rocls excavation in river and harbor work, is limited to eight hours. 
After January 1, 1917. 8 houis shall be deemed a day's work and the measure of a day's work for the 
purpose ot reckoning the compensation for services of employes of carriers engaged in interstate and foreign 
commerce by steam railwa.v. 

'i'HE World Alman.'^c is indebted to Commissioner Boyal Meeker of the U. S. Bureau ol Labor 
Statistics for this Summary ol Labor Legislation revised to date 

STATE LABOR BUREAUS IN THE UNITED STATES 



Location. 



Title 



Orgzd 



Dlst. ot Col. . United States Bureau ot Labor Stat 

Arkansas. . . . Bureau of Labor & Statistics 

Calilornla . . . Bureau ot Labor Statistics 

Colorado .... Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Connecticut.. Dept. ot Labor & Factory Inspection . .. 

Georgia Department ot Commerce & Labor 

Hawaii Depc of Immigratioa, Labor & Stat . 

Idaho Bureau ot Im-nigration, Labor & Stat. . . . 

Illinois Bureau ot Labor Statistics 

Indiana. . . . Bureau of Statistics 

Iowa Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Kansas Dept ot Labor & Industry 

Kentucky ... Bureau ot Agriculture, Lab. & Stat. . .. 
Louisiana.. . . Bureau of Labor & InJustri".! Statistics 

Maine Department of Labor & Industry 

Maryland. . . Bureau ot Statistics & Information 

Mas3achu3'tts Board of Labor & Industries 

Michigan. . . . Department of Labor 

Minnesota. . . Department ot Labor & Industries 

Missouri Bureau ot Labor Statistics 

-vlontaaa. . . . Department of Labor & Industry 

Nebraska. . . . Bureau ot Labor & Industrial Statistics. . . 

Nevada Bureau ot Labor 

N. Hampshire Bureau of Labor 

New Jersey . . Department of Labor 

New York. . . Industrial Commissioa 

N. Carolina. . Department of Labor & Printing 

N. Dakota. . . Department of Asrlculture & Labor 

Ohio Industrial Commission 

Oklahoma. . . Department ot Labor 

Oregon Bur. Labor Stat & Insp. Fac. Works' pa . 

Pennsylvania. Department ot Labor & Industries 

Porto Rico. . . Bureau ot Labor 

Rhode Island. Bureau ot Industrial Statistics 

S. Carolina.. . Dep t ot Agriculture Com. & Industry. . . . 
Tennessee. .. Dept. of Workshop and Factory Inspec'n.. 

Texas Bureau ot Labor Statistics 

Utah Bureau of Immigrat'n Labor & Stat 

Virginia. . . . Bureau ot Labor & Industrial Statistics. . 

Washington. . Bureau ol Labor 

West Virginia Bureau ol Labor 

Wisconsin . . . Industrial Commission 



1885 
1913 
1SS3 
1887 
1893 
1911 
1911 
1895 
1879 
1879 
1884 
188-5 
1876 
1900 
1887 
188i 
lSti9 
1883 
1887 
1879 
1893 
1887 
1915 
1893 
1S78 
1883 
1887 
1890 
1913 
1907 
1903 
1913 
1912 
1887 
1909 
1913 
1909 
1911 
1898 
1897 
1889 
1883 



Chiel Officer. 



Royal Meeker . . . . 

J. C Clary 

J no P McLaughUn 

E. V . Brake 

Patrick H Connolly 
H M. Stanley . . 
R. A Kearns ... 

Samuel J Ttich . . . 
L. D McCoy . ... 
r W BroUey . ... 
A. L. Urlck . . . . 
P. J. McBrlde . . . 
!. W. Newman ... . 
VVm. McGllvray 

R. A. Eddy 

Frank A White. . . 
A. W . Donovan . . 
J. V Cunningl.am 
W F Houk. . . 

J T. Fltzpatrick . . 
W J. Swindlehurst . 
Clias. W Pool ... . 
VV E. W.illace .... 

J S. B. Davie 

Lewis T. Bryant . . 

John Mitchell 

M L. Shipman 

W C. Gilbreath 

W. :■>. ■yaple 

Chas. L Daugherty . 

P H. HofI 

J. P. Jackson 

J ClarK Bills. ... . 
George H Webb. . . 

E. J. Watson 

'.V L. Mitchell 

C. W Woodman. . . . 

H. T. Haines 

James B. Doherty . . . 

E. W. Olson 

Jack H. Nightingale. 
C. H. Crownhart. . . . 



Address. 



Washington. 

Little Rock 

San Francisco. 

Denver 

Hartford. 

Atlanta 

Honolulu. 

Boise 

Springneld. 

Indianapolis 

Des Moines 

Topeka 

Frankfort 

New Orleans. 

Augusta 

Baltimore. 

Boston 

Lansing. 

St Paul. 

Jefterson City 

Helena. 

Lincoln. 

Carson City 

Concord. 

Trenton. 

Albany. 

Raleigh. 

Fargo. 

Columbus. 

Guthrie. 

Salem 

Harrisburg. 

San Juan. 

Providence. 

Columbia. 

Nashville. 

Austin. 

Salt Lake City 

Richmond 

Olympla. 

Wheeling. 

Madison. 



American Federation of Labor. 



IS 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. 

Headquarters— Washington, D. C. Presideru— Samuel Gompera. Secretery— Frank Morris. 
Treasurer— John B. Lennon. Bloomlngton, 111. First Vice-Presideni—Jsunea Duncan, Qulncy, Mass. Sect 
Vice-PreHdeTU—jB.mea O'Connell, Washington, D. C. Third Vice-President— D. A. Hayes, PhUade pi 
Pa. Fourth Vice-PresiderU — Joseph F. Valentine, Cincinnati, Ohio. Fifth Vice-Presidenl-John R. Alpl 
Chicago, III. Sixth Vice-PresiderU—H. B. Perham, St. Louis, Mo. Seventh Vice-Presideni — Frank Dul 
Indianapolis, Ind. Eighth Vice-PresiderU — William Green, Indianapolis, Ind. 

The federation is composed of 109 national and international unions, 5 departments, 45 State brancl 
718 oity central unions, and 689 local unions. The approximate paid membership is 2.045,793. The obje 
and aims of the American Federation of Labor are offlcially stated to render employment and means of a 
slstence less precarious by securing to the workers an equitable share of the fruits of their labor. 



INTERNATIONAL UNIONS COMPRISING THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOJ 

Garment Workers of America, United — B. A. Lax, 

Bible House, New York City. 
Garment Workers' Union, International Ladl^ 



Asbestos Workers, International Association of Heat 
and Frost Insulators and — Thomas J. McNamara, 
2516 Slattery Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
Bakery and Confectionery Workers' International 
Union of America— Charles Iffland, 212 Bush 
Temple of Music, Chicago, 111. 
Barbers' International Union, Journeymen — Jacob 
Fischer, 222 East Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 
Bill Posters and Billers of America, International Al- 
liance of — William McCarthy, Fitzgerald BuUd- 
Ing, 1482-90 Broadway, New York City. 
Blacksmiths, International Brotherhood of — Will- 
iam F. Kramer, Monon Building, Chicago, 111. 
Boilermakers and Iron Shipbuilders of America, 
Brotherhood of — F. P. Reinemeyer, Suite 7-12, 
Law Building, Kansas City, Kan. 
Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of — Walter 
N. Reddlck, 222 East Michigan Street, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 
Boot and Shoe Workers' Union — C. L. Baine, 246 

Summer Street, Boston, Mass. 
Brewery Workmen, International Union of the 
United — Joseph Proebstle, 2347 Vine Street, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 
Brick, Tile, and Terra Cotta Workers' Alliance, In- 
ternational — William Van Bodegraven, 2341 West 
Twelfth Street, Chicago, 111. 
Bridge and Structural Iron Workers, International 
Association of — Harry Jones, 304 American Cen- 
tral Life Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Broom and Whisk Makers' Union, International — 

W. R. Boyer, 851 King Place, Chicago, 111. 
Brushmakers' International Union — George J. Vltz- 

thun, 2052 Gates Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brother- 
hood of — Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Building, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 
Carriage, Wagon, and Automobile Workers of North 
America, International Union of — William P. Ma- 
Tell, 37 Lewis Block, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Carvers' Association of North America, International 
Wood — Thomas J. Lodge, 10 Carlisle Street, 
Roxbury, Mass. 
Cigarmakers' International Union of America — George 

W. Perkins, Monon Building. Chicago, 111. 
Clerks' International Protective Association, Retail 
— H. J. Conway, Lock Drawer 248. Lafayette, Ind. 
Compressed Air and Foundation Workers' Union of 
the United States and Canada — Henry Kuhlmann, 
12 St. Mark's Place, New York City. 
Coopers' International Union of North America — 
William R. Deal, Bishop Building, Kansas City, 
Kan. , .,, . 

Cutting Die and Cutter Makers, International Union 
of — William Bondy, 727 Manida Street, New York. 
Diamond Workers' Protective Union of America — 
Andries Meyer, 323 Washington Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 
Electrical Workers of America, International Brother- 
hood of — Charles P. Ford, Reisch Building, Spring- 
field, III. 
Elevator Constructors, International Union of — 
Frank J. Schneider, 418 Perry Building, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. „ J ^ 
Engineers, International Union of Steam and Op- 
erating—James G. Hannahan, 6334 Yale Avenue, 
Chicago, 111. 
Firemen, International Brotherhood of Stationary — 
C. L. Shamp, 3615 North Twenty-fourth Street, 
Omaha, Neb. _ , „ ^ ,_ ^ . 
Foundry Employes, International Brotherhood of — 
"George Bechtold, 810 Olive Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
Fur Workers' Union of United States and Canada, 
International — Andrew Wenneis, 1181 Broadway, 
New York City. 



Abe Baroff, 32 Union Square, New York Citi 

Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the Unl 

States and Canada — Harry Jenkins, Rooms i 

932 Witherspoon Building, Juniper and Wal 

Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Glass Workers' Union, American Flint — WilUan 

Clarke, Ohio Building, Toledo, Ohio. 
Glove Workers' Union of America, Internationi 

Elizabeth Christman, 166 West Washini 

Street, Chicago, 111. 
Granite Cutters' International Association of Ai 

lea. The — James Duncan, Hancock Build 

Quincy, Mass. 
Grinders' and Finishers' National Union, Po 

Knife Blade — F. A. Didsbury, 508 Brook Stl 

Bridgeport, Ct. 
Hat and Cap Makers of North America, United C 

— Max Zuckerman, 62 East Fourth Street, ; 

York City. 
Hatters of North America, United — Martin LaA 

Bible House, New York City. 
Hod Carriers', Building and Common Labo 

Union of America, International — A. Persioi 

State Street, Albany, N. Y. 
Horseshoers of United States and Canada, Ii 

national Union of Journeymen — Hubert S. ] 

shall, 605 Second National Bank Building, 

cinnati, Ohio. 
Hotel and Restaurant Employes' International 

liance and Bartenders' International Leagm 

America — Jere L. Sullivan, Commercial Tri 

Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers, Amalgamated ., 

elation of — M. F. Tighe, House Building, Si 

field and Water Streets, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Lace Operatives of America, The Chartered So 

of Amalgamated — David L. Gould, 545 Wes- 

high Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lathers. International Union of Wood, Wire, 

Metal — Ralph V. Brandt, 401 Superior Bull 

Cleveland. Ohio. 
Laundry Workers' International Union — H. L. 

rison. Box 11, Station 1. Troy, N. Y. 
Leather Workers on Horse Goods, United Bro 

hood of— J. J. Pfelffer, 504 Postal BuUdlug, 

sas City, Mo. 
Lithographers' International Protective and 1 

flclal Association of the United States and Ca 

— James M. O'Connor, Langdon BuUdlng, 

Broadway, New York City. 
Longshoremen's Association, International — Jo 

Joyce, 702 Brisbane Building, Buffalo, N. "V 
Machinists, International Association of — G 

Preston, 908 G Street N. W., Washington, 
Maintenance of Way Employes, Interna 

Brotherhood of — George Seal, 27 Putnam Av 

Detroit, Mich. 
Marble Workers, International Association 

Stephen C. Hogan, 406 East 149th Street, 

York City. 
Masters, Mates, and Pilots, American Assoc 

of — W. D. Tenniswood, 308 Vine Street, Cai 

N. J. 
Meat Cutters and Butchers' Workmen of . 

America. Amalgamated — Homer D. Call, 212 

Avenue, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Metal Workers' International Alliance, Amalgai 

Sheet — John E. Bray. 407 Nelson Building, 

sas City, Mo. 
Mine Workers of America, United — William < 

Merchants' Bank Building, Indianapolis, 1 
Miners, Western Federation of — Ernest Milli 

Denham Building, Denver, Col. 



;4 



National Unions. 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOS^Continued. 



iilders' Union of North America, International — 
'Ictor Klelber, 630 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, 
ihlo. 

Blclans, American Federation of — Owen Miller, 
535 Pine Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
aters. Decorators and Paperhangers of America, 
rotherhood of — J. C. Skemp, Drawer 99, La- 
tyette, Ind. 

lermakers. International Brotherhood of — J. T. 
arey, 127 North Pearl Street, Albany, N. Y. 
ternmakers' League of North America — James 
'^lison. Second National Bank Building, Ninth 
Id Main Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
era, Rammermen, Flag Layers, Bridge and Stone 
urb Setters, International Union of — Edward I. 
annah, 249 East Fifty-seventh Street, New York 
Ity. 

ing Cutters' Union of the United States of Amer- 
a and Canada — Carl Bergstrom, Lock Box 27, 
\bion, N. Y. 

to-Engravers' Union of North America, Inter- 
'.tional — Louis A. Schwarz, 5609 Germantown 
renue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

terers' International Association of the United 
ates and Canada, Operative — T. A. Scully, 442 
tst Second Street, Middletown, Ohio, 
ibers and Steam Fitters of United States and 
mada. United Association of — Thomas E. Burke, 
1 Bush Temple ol Music, Chicago, 111. 
ihers. Buffers, Platers, Brass and Silver Workers' 
Btal Union of North America — Charles R. Ath- 
ion, Neave Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
-Office Clerks, National Federation of— Thomas 
Flaherty, 317 Ouray Building, Washington, D. C. 
?rs. National Brotherhood of Operative — Jolm 
Wood, Box 6, East Liverpool, Ohio. 
ler and High Explosive Workers of America, 
ilted — H. A. Ellis, Columbus, Kan. 

Cutters' Association of America, National — 
;hard H. Scheller, 108 Washington Street, Lodl, 
J. 

ers and Color Mixers of the United States, Ma- 
ne National Association of — P. E. Lyons, 334 
jnton Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 
ers' Union of North America, International 
«1 and Copper Plate — James E. Goodyear, 1236 
5wn Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Ing Pressmen and Assistants' Union, Interna- 
lonal — Joseph C. Orr, RogersvlUe, Tenn. 
Sulphite, and Paper Mill Workers of the United 
tes and Canada, International Brotherhood 
-John H. Malin, P.-O. Drawer K, Fort Edward, 
Y. 

•y Workers' International Union of North 
lerica — Fred. W. Suitor, Scamplni Building 
rre, Vt. 

)ad Telegraphers. Order of — L. W. Quick, Star 
Idlng, St. Louis, Mo. 

ay Carmen of America, Brotherhood of — E. 
Ilam Weeks, 507 Hall Building, Kansas City, 

ay Clerks. Brotherhood of — W. V. H. Bright, 

ond National Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

ay Employes of America, Amalgamated Asso- 

ion of Street and Electric — W. D. Mahon, 104 

t High Street, Detroit, Mich. 

ay Postal Clerks, Brotherhood of — Urban A. 

Iter, Box 1302. Denver, Col. 

rs. Composition, Damp, and Waterproof 

rkers of the United States and Canada, Inter- 



national Brotherhood of — D. J. Ganley, 14 North 

Oxford Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Sawsmiths' National Union — F. E. Klngsley, 2915 

McPherson Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Seamen's Union of America, International — Thomaa 

A. Hanson, 570 West Lake Street, Chicago, III. 
Signalmen of America, Brotherhood of Railroad — 

D. R. Daniels, 28 Newton Street, Mansfield, Mass. 
Slate and Tile Roofers' Union of America, Interna- 
tional — Joseph M. Gavlak, 3643 West Forty- 
seventh Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Slate Workers, American Brotherhood of — Philip 

Jago, Pen Argyle, Pa. 
Spinners' International Union — Urban Fleming, 188 

Lyman Street, Holyoke, Mass. 
Stage Employes International Alliance, Theatrical — 

M. A. Carney, 107 West Forty-sixth Street, New 

York City. 
Steam Shovel and Dredge Men, International 

Brotherhood of — E. M. Foley, 508 Fort Dearborn 

Building, Chicago, 111., 
.Steel Plate Transferrers' Association of America, 

The— H. Wilbur Hoagland, 106 W. Sidney Avenue, 

Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
Stereotypers' and Electrotypers' Union of North 

America, International — Charles A. Sumner, Room 

29, Globe Building, Boston, Mass. 
Stone Cutters' Association of North America, Jour- 
neymen — Walter W. Drayer, American Central 

Life Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Stove Mounters' International Union — Frank Grim- 

shaw, 1210 Jefferson Avenue E., Detroit, Mich. 
Switchmen's Union of North America — M. R. Welch, 

326 Brisbane Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Tailors' Union of America, Journeymen — Thoma'' 

Sweeney, corner East Sixty-seventh Street and 

Stony Island Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers of 

America, International Brotherhood of — Thomas 

L. Hughes, 222 East Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 

Ind. 
Textile Workers of America, United — Sara Conboy, 

86 Bible House, New York City. 
Tile Layers' and Helpers' International Union 

Ceramic, Mosaic, and Encaustic — James P. Reyn- 
olds, 1 19 Federal Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Tobacco Workers' International Union — E. Lewis 

Evans, Iroquois Life Building, Louisville, Ky. 
Travellers' Goods and Leather Novelty Workers' 

International Union of America — Murt Malone, 

191 Boyd Street, Oshkosh, Wis. 
Tunnel and Subway Constructors' International 

Union — Michael Carraher, 206 East 12Sth Street, 

New York City. 
Telegraphers' Union of America, The Commercial — 

Wesley Russell, 922 Monon Building, Chicago, 111. 
Typographical Union, International — J. W. Hays, 

Newton Claypool Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Upholsterers' Union of North America — Jamea H. 

Hatch, Box 10, Station Y, New York City. 
Weavers' Amalgamated Association, Elastic Goring — 

Alfred Haughton, 50 Cherry Street, Brockton, 

Mass. 
Weavers' Protective Association, American Wire — 

E. E. Desmond, 99 Seventh Street, Harrison, N. J. 
Weavers' Union of America, International Shingle — 

William H. Reld, 202 Maynard Building, Seattle, 
Wash. 
White Rats Actors' Union of America — Harry 
Mountford, 227 West Forty-sixth Street New 
York City. 



NATIONAL UNIONS 

NOT -AFFILIATED WITH THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. 

layers, Masons and Plasterers International. William Dob.son, University Park Building, 

dianapolis, Ind. 

erhooQof Locomotive Engineers. Warren .S. Stone, Grand Chief Engineer, Cleveland, Ohio; 

. B. Prenter, General Secretary, Cleveland, Ohio. 

erhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen. A. H. Hawley, General Secretary and 

easurer, Jefferson Building, Peoria, 111. 

erhood of Railroad Trainmen. A. E. King, General Secretary-Treasurer, American Trust 

lilding, Cleveland, Ohio. 

aal Window Glass Workers. J. M. Neenan, Electric Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

of Railway Conductors of America. A. B. Qarretson, President, Cedar Rapids Savings Bank 

lildlng, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; C. E. Whitney, Grand Secretary. 



The Workers' International Industrial Union. 1^ 

KNIGHTS OF LABOR. 

General Executive Boalfd: General Master Workman, John W. Hayes, Washington, D. C. , Chair- 
man; General Worthy Foreman, WiKiam A. Denlson, Rochester, N. Y. ; General Secretary-Treas- 
urer, I. D. Chamberlain, Washington, D. C. ; Chris. Hill, Brooklyn, N. Y.; F. W. Bonehill. 
Eochrtster, N. Y. 

INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD. 

Headqttahters, 164 West Washington St., Chicago, III. Wm. D. Haywood, General Secretary- 
Treasurer; Joseph J. Ettor, Assistant Secretary and General Organizer. Executive Board — F. H. Little, 
A. C. Christ, M. J. Welsh, FrancLs Miller, W. E. Mattingly. 

Preamble — The working class and the employing class have nothing In common. 

Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a 
class, take possession of the earth and the machinery of production, and abolish the wage system. 

We find that the centring of the management of industries into fewer and fewer hands makes 
the trades unions unable to cope with the ever-growing power of the employing class. The trades 
unions foster a state of affairs which allows one set of workers to be pitted against another set oj 
workers in the same Industry, thereby helping defeat one another in wage wars. Moreover, the 
trades unions aid the employing class to mislead the workers into the belief that the working class 
have Interests in common with their employers. 

These conditions can be changed and the Interest of the working class upheld only by an orgg,n- 
Ization formed In such a way that all its members In any one Industry, or In all Industries, If necessary, 
cease work whenever a strike or lockout Is on In any department thereof, thus making an Injury 
to one an Injury to all. 

Instead of the conservative motto, "A fair day's wages for a fair day's work, ' we must Inscribe 
on our banner the revolutionary watchword, "Abolition of the wage system." 

It is the historic mission of the working class to do away with capitalism. The army of production 
must be organized, not only for the every day struggle with capitalists but also to carry on pro- 
duction when capitalism shall have been overthrown. By organizing Industrially we are forming 
the structure of the new society within the shell of the old. 

The organization differs from syndicalism In that great stress is laid upon having a form of 
organization to correspond, cell for cell, tissue for tissue, with capitalist Industry itself, and also 
because it seeks to build a new union on revolutionary lines rather than to attempt to change the 
present reactionary and out-of-date craft unions. The organization claims to have blended the 
practical features of socialism, anarchism, and syndicalism, and yet It is distinct from all three. 

The I. W. W. is composed of 535 recruiting and Industrial unions, having a total membership of 85,000, 
five national administrations — Hawaiian, Australian, New Zealand, Great Britain, and South African. 

Excerpts from Constitution and By-Laws follow: 

The Industrial Workers of the World shall be composed of actual wage-workers brought together 
In an organization embodying thirteen national industrial departments, national industrial unions, 
local Industrial unions, local recruiting unions. Industrial councils, and individual members. 

The annual convention of the Industrial Workers of the World shall be held on the third Monday 
of September each year at such place as may be determined by previous convention. 

Members-at-large shall pay an Initiation fee of S2.00 and SI. 00 per month dues and assessments. 
No working man or woman shall be excluded from membership In local unions because of creed or color. 

That to the end of promoting Industrial unity and of securing necessary discipline within the 
organization, the Industrial Workers of the World refuse all alliances, direct or Indirect, with existing 
political parties or antl-polltlcal sects. 

THE WORKERS' INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL UNION. 

Headquarters. Detroit, Mich. General Secretary-Treasurer, H. Richter, Detroit; General Organizer, 
Rudolph Katz. Maywood. N. J. General Executive Board— August Giihaus, New York City; A. Giergin- 
sky, Hartford, Ct.; Ingvar Paulsen, Roxbury, Mass.; W. A. Peyton, Cincinnati, Ohio; W. Hammerlindl, 
San Francisco, Cal. . , ,., ■ 

Preamble — The working class and the employing class have nothing In common. 
Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the toilers come together on the political field 
under the banner of a distinct revolutionary political party governed by the workers' class interests, and on 
the Industrial field under the banner of One Great Industrial Union to take and hold all means of produc- 
tion and distribution, and to run them for the benefit of all wealth producers. 

The rapid gathering of wealth and the centring of the management of Industries Into fewer ana 
fewer hands make the trades unions unable to cope with the ever-growing power of the employing 
class because the trades unions foster a state of things which allows one set of workers to be pitted 
against another set of workers In the same Industry, thereby helping defeat one another In wage wars. 
The trades unions aid the employing class to mislead the workers Into the belief that the working 
class have interests in common with their employers. 

Excerpts from Constitution and By-Laws follow: , ., ..^ ^ ,. 

The Workers' International Industrial Union shall be composed of actual wage-workera brought together 
In an organization embodying thirteen national Industrial departments, national Industrial unions, 
local Industrial unions, local recruiting unions, industrial councils and Individual members. 

A national Industrial union shall be comprised of the local Industrial unions of the various localitiea 
In America In a given Industry. , . , . », _ „i, v,._ 

The Industrial departments shall consist of not less than ten local unions, aggregating a membership 
of not less than ten thousand members. The Industrial departments shall be sub-dlvlded In Industrial 
unions of closely kindred industries in the appropriate organizations for representation In the depart- 
mental administration. The departments Included are: Department of Mlnhig Industry: -Trans. 
Dortatlon Industry; Metal and Machinery Industry; Glass and Pottery Industry; Food-StuSs Industry: 
Brewery Wine and Distillery Industry; Florlcultural, Stock and General Farming Industries; Building 
Industry; Textile Industries; Leather Industries; Wood Working Industries; Public Service Industries: 

^'^ The°amiual conventio"n s'tfall be held on the Sunday preceding the Fourth of July of each year at such 
Dlace as may be determined by previous convention. „ » 

Individual members may be admitted to membershlp-at-large In the organization on payment 
Of 50 cents initiation fee and 25 cents per month dues, together with assessments. 

None but actual wage-workers shall be members of the Workers' International Industrial Union. No 
member of the Workers' International Industrial Union shaU be an olBcer in a pure and simple trade union. 
No member of one industrial or trade organization In the Workers' International Industrial Union can at the 
same time hold a card In another industrial or trade organization of this body. No worklngman or 
vorklngwoman shall be excluded from membership because of creed or color. 



126 



Strikes and Lockouts in the United States. 



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

AS TABULATED BY THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 

IN the following table an effort has been made toshow the principal causes of thestrikes tabulated, though 
this has been dUIicult in many cases on account of the Indefinite character of the information available. 

NUMBER OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS. BY CAUSES, 1915. 



Matteh of Dispute. 



Increase of wages 

Decrease oP wages 

Non-payment of wages 

Increase of hours 

Decrease of hours 

Wages and hours 

General conditions 

Conditions and wages 

Conditions and hours 

Conditions, wages, and hours. . . 

Recognition of the union 

Recognition and wages 

Recognition and hours 

Recognition, wages, and hours. . 



Strikes. Lockouts. 



286 
90 
10 

7 

67 

133 

35 

28 

6 
11 
37 
26 

6 
10 



12 

10 

1 

■7 
2 
4 
1 

"i 

15 
1 



Matter of Dispute. 



For organizing 

For open or closed shop 

Discharge of foreman wanted. . . . 
Because of discharge of union men 
Because of employment of non- 
union men 

Discrimination 

Sympathetic 

Jurisdictional 

Miscellaneous 

Not reported 

Total 



Strikes. 



1,246 



Lockouts. 





12 


20 


12 


11 




60 


13 


40 


5 


S 




9 


1 


25 




113 


22 


208 


39 



159 



RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS. 1915. 



Result. 


Strikes . 


Lock- 
outs. 


Result. 


Strikes. 


Lock- 
outs. 


Result. 


Strikes. 


Lock- 
outs. 


Won 


164 
273 
128 


16 
30 
17 


pending arbitra- 
tion 


28 


2 


Pending 

Not reported 

Grand total .... 


140 
513 


31 


Compromised .... 


63 




Total 




Employes return' d 


593 


65 


1,246 


159 



As Shown In the following table the duration of the strikes that ended in 1915 varied from less than 1 
day to 3 years and 9 montiis, the latter being the strike of federated shopmen on the Harrlman lines that 
was finally called off In June. 

DURATION OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS. 



Duration. 


Strikes . 


Lock- 
outs. 


Duration. 


Strikes. 


Lock- 
outs. 


Duration. 


Strikes. 


Lock- 
outs. 




10 
30 
43 
41 
26 
29 
23 
24 
19 
12 


.... 

"i 
2 
2 

■■3 

2 
1 


10 days 


18 
12 
6 
13 
16 
16 
20 
22 
14 
13 


"i 

2 

1 
5 

1 
2 


32 to 35 days 

36 to 42 days 

43 to 49 days 

50 to 63 days 

64 to 77 days 

78 to 91 days 

92 to 199 days 

200 to 1,367 days. 

Total 


12 
21 
9 
20 
12 
13 
22 
15 


1 




11 days 


4 


2 days 


12 days 






13 days 


4 




14 days 


2 




15 to 18 days 

19 to 21 days 

22 to 24 days 

25 to 28 days 

29 to 31 days 


2 


6 days 


7 


7 days 


2 


8 days 




9 days 


531 


49 



The total duration of these strikes was 18,973 days and of the lockouts 3,075 days, the average dura- 
tion of the strikes being 36 days and of the lockouts 63 days. If, however, the 37 strikes and 9 lockouts 
which lasted more than three months are omitted from consideration, the average was 17 days for strikes 
and 27 days for lockouts. 

NUMBER OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS BY MONTHS IN WHICH STARTED, 1915. 



MONTH. 


Strikes. 


Lock- 
outs. 


MONTH. 


Strikes. 


Lock- 
outs. 


MONTH. 


Strikes. 


Lock- 
outs. 


Pend'g Dec. 31, '14 


37 
49 
45 
72 
88 
110 


17 
13 
12 
14 
16 
10 


June 


52 
94 
137 
146 
102 
102 


6 
14 

7 
14 

7 
10 


December 

Total 

Month not stated 

Grand tot^l .... 


70 


g 




Julv 




February 

March 


August 

September 

October 


1.104 
142 


148 
11 


April 




May 


November 


1.246 


159 



In the above table only those strikes are counted as pending December 31. 1914, which were actually 
settled during the year 1915. 

In 701 strikes and 144 lockouts the employes were connected with unions: in 117 strikes and 3 lockouts 
they were non-union employes; in 29 strikes they were non-union at the time of striking, but organized almost 
immediately after. 

NUMBER OF STRIKES IN THE 13 INDUSTRY GROUPS IN WHICH THE LARGEST 
NUMBER OF STRIKES OCCURRED, 1914 AND 1915. 





1915. 


1914. 


INDUSTRY. 


1915. 




1914. 


INDUSTRY. 


Strikes. 


Lockouts . 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts . 


Strikes. 


Lockouts . 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts . 


Metal trades 


280 
204 
127 
77 
65 
30 
30 


41 
27 
12 
7 
2 
33 


129 
275 
78 
54 
51 
47 
14 


Teaming 


28 
16 
14 
17 
13 

4 




2 
4 
5 

1 
1 

3 


34 


Building trades 

Clothing industries. . . 

Textile work 

Mining 


Furniture 

Theatrical employes. . 

Transportation 

Lumber 


18 
20 
52 
40 


Baking 


Printing and publish- 
ing 




Iron and steel workers 


20 



Strikes and Lockouts in the United States — Continued. 



127 



NUMBER OF STRIKES I-N THE 14 INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH THE LARGEST 
NUMBER OF STRIKES OCCURRED, 1914 AND 1915. 





1915. 


1914. 


OCCDPATION. 


1915. 


1914. 


OCCXJPATION. 


Strikes. 


Lockouts. 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts . 


Strikes. 


Lockouts. 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts . 




163 
30 
55 
42 
37 
42 

34 


16 

33 

2 

8 

13 

6 

9 


44 
47 
48 
35 
26 
27 

83 


Teamsters 


28 
26 

22 
20 
21 
20 
19 


2 

1 

2 

4 

2 

.... 


30 




Tailors 


14 


Miners, coal 

Carpenters 

Metal polishers 


Street-railway em- 
ployes 


27 
61 


Sheet-metal workers . . 
Electrical workers. . . . 
Weavers 


13 


Plumbers and steam- 
fltters 


9 
4 



The following table shows the number of strikes and lockouts in 1914 and 1915 by States and by sections 
of the country; on account of their incompleteness the figures for the two years do not admit of close com- 
parison: 

NUM<BER OF STRIKES BY STATES, 1915. 



State. 


Strikes. 


Lock- 
outs. 


State. 


Strikes . 


Lock- 
outs. 


State. 


Strikes. 


Lock- 
outs. 




1 

■"4 

2 

21 

4 

141 

14 

1 

"9 

"52 
21 
11 

6 
14 

3 


2 

"i 

1 
6 

'■'8 

■■'2 

"21 
9 
2 
1 
1 
1 


Maine 


6 

11 

131 

29 

11 

1 
37 

3 

2 

".5 

100 

196 

3 

1 

115 

5 

6 


.... 

7 
3 
3 

■■4 

■9 
22 

"is 

1 
1 


Pennsylvania 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina . . . 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 


148 
7 

'I 

1 

4 

9 

6 

5 

9 

25 

23 

15 

1 

1 


15 


Alaska 


Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 


1 


Arizona 


2 


Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Dlst. of Columbia. 
Florida 


'3 


Montana 

Nebraska 


Utah 




Vermont 


1 


Virginia 




Georgia 


New Hampshire. . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. . . 
North Dakota. . . . 


Washington 

West Virginia. . . . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

in several States... 

Total 


5 


Idaho 


3 


Illinois 


5 


Indiana 




Iowa 




Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 


Oklahoma 

Oregon 


1.246 


159 







The largest number of disputes occurred in the leading manufacturing States, New York, Pennsylvania, 
Connecticut. Massachusetts, and Ohio, having 801, or considerably more than half the strikes and lock- 
outs shown for 1915. . , , ,„ 

The following table shows the number of strikes and lockouts m cities In which 10 or more disputes 
occurred during 1915, with the number of disturbances occurring in the same city for the year 1914. Allow- 
ance for incompleteness of data should be made In comparing the two years. 

CITIES IN WHICH 10 OR MORE STRIKES OCCURRED IN 1914 AND 1915. 





191.5. 


1914. 


CiTT. 


1915. 


1914. 


City. 


Strikes . 


Lockouts. 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts . 


Strikes . 


Lockouts . 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts. 


New York, N. Y 

Bridgeport. Ct 

Philadelphia. Pa 

Chicago. Ill 

Cleveland. Ohio 

Boston, Mass 

Sprlugfleld, Mass. . . . 

Worcester, Mass 

Pittsburgh. Pa 

Toledo, Ohio 

Detroit, Mich 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Jersey City, N. J . . . . 


127 
51 
36 
25 
32 
26 
22 
20 
21 
16 
16 
17 
16 


15 
2 
6 

15 
3 
3 
1 
2 

"4 

3 

.... 


74 

3 

19 

24 

18 

27 

6 

8 

20 

8 

22 

2 

5 


Hartford, Ct 

New Haven, Ct 

St. Louis, Mo 

Newark. N. J 

Wilmington, Del 

Kansas City, Mo. . . . 

Seattle, Wash 

Baltimore, Md 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Waterbury, Ct 

Trenton. N.J 

Cincinnati. Ohio 

Reading, Pa 


15 
16 
14 
13 
13 
11 
11 
11 
12 
11 
10 
9 
9 


1 

■■'2 
2 

'"2 
2 
1 

"i 

2 
2 


3 

2 
9 
9 
2 

17 
5 

14 
1 
1 
9 

11 
3 



At the annual meeting of the American Federation of Labor in November. 1915, a statement was made 
In regard to the number of strikes occurring during the year preceding the meeting. This statement was 
made up from reports filed by the individual unions that compose the federation. The total number of 
these disturbances and their results were as follows: 



Result. 


1914-15. 


1913-14. 


Result. 


1914-15. 


1913-14. 


"Won 


552 
115 
218 


543 
118 
236 


Lost 


119 


60 




Total 




Pending 


1.004 


957 



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, JANUARY TO JUNE, 1916. 

According to data compiled from various sources by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
•the number of strikes and lockouts during the six months January to June, 1916, inclusive, was 1,719. The 
number similarly compiled during the first six months of the calendar year 1915 was 487. 



128 



Population Engaged in Industrial Occupations. 



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES— ConrtnMed. 

NUMBER OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS BEGINNING IN EACH MONTH. JANUARY T< 

JUNE. 1916. INCLUSIVE. 



Kind or Dispute. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Month 

Not 
Stated. 


Total 


Strikes 


151 

8 


157 

5 


215 

8 


317 
11 


478 
15 


201 
12 


133 

8 


1,66: 


Lockouts 


6", 






Total 


159 


162 


223 


328 


493 


213 


141 


1,71<. 



The column for June Includes disputes that began In that month only. During this month 152 oth 
disputes were reported which either began in preceding months or the date of begiunlng was not give. 
These disputes have been placed in the columns in which they belong. 



INTERNATIONAL TRADE UNION STATISTICS. 

THE following table shows the membership of trade unions in the principal trade union countries, a^ 
cording to returns received through various sources. The returns are for the year 1913. Canada trac 
unionists are estimated to number 150,000. Australia (in 1912) 497,925. 





TRADE UNION MEMBERSHIP 






Country. 


Total 
Mem- 
bership. 


Country. 


Total 
Mem- 
bership. 


COUNTRY. 


Total 
Mem- 
bership. 


Austria 


748,760 

202,746 

152,787 

1,026,302 

3 835 600 


Hungary (1912) 

Italy (1912) 


97,000 

971,667 

220,275 

71,544 

64 108 


Sweden 

Switzerland (1912) 

United Kingdom 

United States 


97,25 


■Rplgiiim 


131,38 
3,928,19 
2,604,70 


Denmark 


Netherlands 




New Zealand 


German Empire 


Norway. . 













DISTRIBUTION OF THE ANNUAL DISBURSEMENTS OF TRADE UNIONS IN VARIOUS 
COUNTRIES FOR THE YEAR 1912. 
(Source: Supplement 11 to the Relchsarbeitsbl<itt, pt. 2, pp. 68, 69, Berlin, 1915.) 



Country. 



Germany. ... 
Great Britain . 

Austria 

Sweden 

Netherlands. . 
Denmark .... 
Switzerland. . 

Norway 

United States. 



:(a) 
:(b) 



.(c) 



Total Dis- 
bursements. 



816,375,933 

2,941,481 

18,562,775 

2,703,498 

505,927 

326,254 

746,406 

307,477 

431,553 



Unemployment 

and Travelling 

Benefits. 



Amount. 



52,330,744 

14,238 

2,901,769 

401,958 
64,228 
23,532 

418,197 
27,058 
39,662 

255,867 



Per- 
cent. 



14.23 



15.63 

14.87 

12.69 

7.21 

56.03 

8.80 

9.19 



Sickness, Invalid- 
ity, Funeral, 
and Other Social 
Benefits. 



Amount. 



83,721,801 

341,988 

5,571,298 

590,680 

26,130 

58,084 

47,454 

97,060 

167,787 

2,500,074 



Per- 
cent 



22.73 



30.02 
21.85 

5.17 
17.81 

6.36 
31.57 
38.88 



Strike and Lock- 
out Benefits. 



Amount. 



83,465,914 

75,281 

6,675,337 

324,996 

138,283 

68,467 

66,878 

73,442 

141,861 



Per- 
cent 



21.16 



35.96 
12.02 
27.33 
20.98 
8.96 
23.88 
32.87 



Administration, 

Propaganda,Lega 

Aid, Publications 

Libraries, Etc. 



Amount. 



86,857,414 

509,974 

3,414,371 

1,385,864 

277,286 

176,171 

213,879 

109,917 

82,243 



Per- 
cent 



41.85 



18. 3S 
51.26 
54.81 
54.00 
28.65 
35.75 
19.06 



(a) Social-Democratic, Christian, and Hirsch-Duneker trade unions, (b) Independent trade societies 
and non-militant workmen's federations and societies, (c) Bulletin of the Department of Labor, State of 
New York, 1913, p. 413; only data relating to benefit expenditures are discussed in the Bulletin. 



POPULATION ENCAGED IN 



The following table gives the percentages of total occupied 
groups In the eight leading Industrial countries prior to the war: 



INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATIONS. 

population for the principal 



Occupation Group. 



Great 
Britain. 



Agriculture 

Commercial occupations... 

Conveyance of men. goods 
and messages 

Mines and quarries 

Metals, machines, Implements 
and conveyances 

Building and works of con- 
struction 

'i;,exttle fabrics 

Dress 



12.66 
11.39 

8.20 
5.00 

7.89 

6.77 
6.92 
7.23 



France. 



2.89 
1.59 

4.35 

4.20 
4.55 
8.05 



Ger- 
many. 

35.11 
6.30 


Aus- 
tria. 


Hun- 
gary. 


Italy. 


Bel- 
glum. 

21.90 
11 79 


60.80 
3.34 


70.15 
2.56 


59 06 
3.43 


2 89 
3.25 


1.70 
1.56 


1.55 

.78 


3.12 
.89 


2.03 
6.46 


6.99 


2.78 


2.15 


2.14 


5.95 


6.99 
3.75 
5.39 


2.96 
3.26 
3.92 


1.48 

.37 

2.85 


5,02 

4.81 
6.64 


7.28 
6.86 
7.86 



United 

States. 



c52 



A distinct Classification adopted by United States Census Bureau based on 1910 census is as follows: 
All occupations, 3S,167,33ri (consisting of .3u,(l91,5(i4 males and 8,075,772 females) with per cent, in 
parentheses showinsj distribution of total. Agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry, 12,659,203 
(33.2); extraction of minerals, 964,834 (2.5); manufacturing and mechanical industries, 10,658.881 (27.9); 
transportation, 2,637,671 (6.9); tr.ide 3,614.670(9.5); public service (not elsewhere classified), 459,291 
(1.2); professional service, 1,663,569 (4.4); domestic and personal service, 3,772,174 (9.9); clerical 
occupatious, 1,737,053(4 6). 



The Alliance Francaise. 



129 



So diverse are the views on Syndicalism held by 
Syndicalists and their avowed enemies that a mid- 
dle course will give a clearer outline of Its alms and 
expectations than would a full statement drawn 
from the many and conflicting reports available to 
date. 

Syndicalism was bom of the growing differences 
and controversies within labor and trade unions. 
The first symptoms appeared in France, whence the 
doctrine soon spread to Italy, to England and thence 
to America. Syndicalism Is antagonistic to govern- 
ment, to existing labor unions and to capital alUte, 
and is even designed to supplant socialism. 

Born In the brain of the intellectuals within the 
great unions. Syndicalism has made a profound Im- 
pression upon workers within and without the 
unions in a remarkably short time. The doctrine of 
Syudicalism demands the turning over of every and 
all means of production and distribution to the 
Syndicalist trade unions, to be controlled by said 
unions so that the workmen will become their own 
employers, th«s securing the whole product for 
themselves. The first objective aim is to eliminate 
the present owners, but means to accomplish this 
vary. 

In France the Syndicalists adopt the general 
"strike," but in a different sense from which strikes 
are known in America. For Instance, the Syndicalists 
strike not for higher wages. Primarily they aim at 
the total cessation from all activity, stoppage of 
mails, lighting, transportation and every activity 
that now binds society together. They depend upon 
non-interference or co-operation of the army (in 
Europe) and upon crippling the power of all estab- 
lished government wherever the army is not a fac- 
tor. They rely upon the consequent uprising of all 
society wherever active Syndicalism prevails, and 
trust to the peaceful reapportionment of all au- 
thority and rights to the associated labor and trade 
unions true to the doctrine of Syndicalism. 



SYNDICALISM. 



The government is regarded as the greatest enemy 
by the Syndicalists. They claim that corrupt po- 
litical control makes just economic control impos- 
sible. While the objects to be attained seem reason- 
able enough, the means of accomplishing these ob- 
jects are dangerously speculative and appear to 
threaten society with anarchy In its direst form. 

Syndicalism demands that social revolution come 
through labor unions in order to abolish capitalism, 
wlvereaa Socialists expect to work reform by political 
agitation through Parliamentary majorities. Syn- 
dicalists see the futility of all endeavor to obtain 
government majorities and hence ignore the govern- 
ment altogether in their propaganda, relying upon 
the genius of Syndicalism to permeate the mind of 
the masses sufficiently to sap the strength and power 
of government opposition and thus obtain all their 
demands by a bloodless revolution. 

Prior to the war France had approximately 600,000 
avowed Syndicalists. Agricultural Italy was a ver- 
itable hotbed of Syndicalism. Organized farm la- 
borers controlled over 200,000 acres of tillable land, 
which were farmed on the co-operative plan, and 
the entire Italian railway system was under the in- 
fluence of advanced Syndicalism. 

At a conference of Syndicalists held in England in 
November, 1910. 60,000 professed followers at- 
tended, since which date their doctrine has spread 
considerably, especially among the more Intelligent 
of the industrial workers. 

Here in America Syndicalism first showed its head 
during the labor troubles at Lawrence, Mass., under 
direction of the Industrial Workers of the World. 
The Syndicalists have also widened and extended 
the definition of the word labor by including in its 
comprehension all workers who are actively useful 
within the community. This includes the physician, 
teacher, artist, and those engaged in other profes- 
sions. 



UNITED STATES BOARD OF MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION. 

Commissioner — William L. Chambers. AssistuTU Commissioner — G. W. W. Hanger. Members of Boari 
— William L. Chambers, Martin A. Knapp, and G. W. W. Hanger. 

(Created by act of Congress, Approved July 15, 1913.) 

The purpose for which the board was established Is to settle by mediation, conciliation and 
arbitration all controversies concerning wages, hours of labor, or conditions of employment that 
may arise between any common carrier or carriers engaged In the transportation of passengers or 
property wholly by railroad, or partly by railroad and partly by water, lor a continuous carriage 
or shipment from one State or Territory of the United States or the District of Columbia, to any 
other State or Territory of the United States or the District of Columbia, or from any place in the 
United States to an adjacent foreign country, or from any place in the United States through a foreign 
country to any other place In the United States, and their employes, which Includes all persons 
actually engaged In any capacity In train operation or train service of any description, whether the 
cars upon or in which they are employed are owned or held and operated by the carrier under lease- 
or other contract. 

The Commissioner Is appointed by the President for a term of seven years, salary S7,500, 
and Ig the executive officer of the board, which consists of the Commissioner and not more than 
two other ofllclals of the Government, who are designated by the President. The Assistant Com- 
missioner Is appointed by the President, salary S5,000 per annum. 

Since the organization of the board and up to June 30, 1916, fifty-six controversies between railroada 
and their employes engaged in train operation have reached the stage where an appeal for the services of 
the Board of Mediation and Conciliation was made. In all of these cases an adjustment of the controversy 
was secured by the board, forty-five cases having been settled by mediation alone, while eleven were settled 
by arbitration. 



CHILDREN'S BUREAU. 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. 

Headquarters, Washington, D. C. Chief of Bureau, Julia C. Lath; -.n (55,000) : Helen L. Sumner, 
Assistant Chief (S2.400). 

The Children's Bureau was created by an act of April 9, 1912, to -.visti^. ■) and report upon 
all matters pertaining to the welfare of children and chlld-UIe among t . :■. \..e , of our people, and 
especially to Investigate the questions of Infant mortality, the birth ra', • la age, juvenile courts, 
desertion, dangerous occupations, accidents, and diseased children, 'iinpio/ '.ont and legislation 
affecting children in the several States and Territories. 

For the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1916, an appropriation of 5164,640 was made by Congress, pro- 
viding for a staff of seventy-six persons. With this staff and appropriation the organization of the bureau 
falls into certain divisions, as an industrial division, a social service division, a division on child hygiene, a 
statistical division, and a library division. 



THE ALLIANCE FRANCAISE. 

The Federation of French Alliances In the United States and Canada number 150 groups. The officers 
of the federation are: HonoTary president — J. J. Jusserand, French Ambassador. President — J. L« Roy 
White, Baltimore. Vice-Presiderus — M. Alexander, T. Mason, New York; H. Klrke White, Detroit; G. 
Desaulniers, Montreal; A. Legallet, San Francisco, Cal.; B. E. Young, Nashville, Tean. Secretarv — M,, 
Louis Delamarre. Treasurer — M. T. Tileston Wells. OfBce, 200 Filth Avenue, New York City. 



130 The National Civic Federaiion. 

THE NATIONAL CIVIC FEDERATION. 

OFFICE. 1 MADISON AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

AN organization of prominent representatives of capital, labor, and the general public formed in 1900 
as the direct outgrowth of conventions held in Chicago and New York in 1898-1899. Its purpose is to 
organize the best brains of the Nation in an educational movement seeking the solution of some of the great 
problems related to social and industrial progress; to provide for study and discussion of questions of national 
import; to aid thus in the crystallization of the most enlightened public opinion; and. when desirable, to 
promote legislation in accordance therewith. National organizations of manufacturers, farmers, wage- 
earners, bankers, lawyers, economists, scientists, churchmen, merchants, trade and transportation repre- 
sentatives and many other class societies meet frequently to discuss their respective interests. The object 
of The National Civic Federation, in addition to creating departments to study national problems, is to 
provide a means by which all these elements of society may come together and consider questions in which 
they have a common interest. 

OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

President. V. Everit Macy; Vice-Presidents, Samuel Gompers, Charles S. Barrett; Treasurer, Isaac N. 
Seligman; Chairman Executive Council. Ralph M. Easley; Chairman Industrial Economics Department, 
John Havs Hammond; Chairman Welfare Department. Louis A. Coolidge; Chairman Woman's Depart- 
ment, Miss Maude Wetmore; Chairman Taxation Department, E. R. A. Seligman; Chairman Department 
Compensation Industrial Accidents, August Belmont; Chairman Department Regulation of Public Utilities, 
Emerson McMlllin; Chairman Social Insurance Department, George W. Perkins; Chairman Food and Drugs 
Department, Vincent Astor; Chairman Department on Reform in Legal Procedure, Alton B. Parker; Chair- 
man Department on Regulation of Industrial Corporations, Jeremiah W. Jeaks; Chairman Department on 
Pensions, William R. Willcox; Secretary, D. L. Cease. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
ON THE PART OF THE PUBLIC: 

William Howara Taft (Fellow, Yale University), New Baven, Ct.; Franklin MacVeagh (former Secre- 
tary of the Treasury), Washington, D. C; Elihu Root (former United States Senator), New York City; 
Charles S. Barrett (President Farmers' Educational and Co-operative Union of America), Union City, Ga.; 
Andrew Carnegie (Philanthropist), New York City: Robert Bacon (former Ambassador to France), New 
York City; Nicholas Murray Butler (President Columbia University), New York City; James Speyer (Speyer 
& Co.), New York City; Francis Lynde Stetson (Attorney). New York City; Robert M. Thompson (Chair- 
man Executive Committee Navy League), Washin^on, D. C: V. Everit Macy (Capitalist), New York 
City; Marcus M. Marks (President Borough of Manhattan), New York City; Albert Shaw (Editor 
"Review of Reviews"), New York City; Theodore Marburg (Political Economist), Baltimore, Md.; 
Jeremiah W. Jenks (Professor of Government, New York University) , New York City; Benjamin Ide 
Wheeler (President University of California), Berkeley, Cal.; Talcott WiUiams (Director of the School of 
Journalism, Columbia University), New York City. 

ON THE PART OF EMPLOYERS: 

Nicholas F. Brady (President New York Edison Co.), New York City; Louis A. Coolidge (Treastirer 
United Shoe Machinery Corporation), Boston, Mass.; George B. Cortelyou (President Consolidated Gas 
Co.). New York City; James Couzens (former Vice-President Ford Motor Company), Detroit, Mich.; 
Henry P Davison (J. P. Morgan & Co.), New York City; T. Coleman du Pont (President Equitable Office 
Building Corporation), New York City; Otto M. Eidlltz (Building Trades Employers' Association). New 
York City; Adolph Lewisohn (Director General Development Co.). New York City; Samuel Mather (Pick- 
ands, Mather & Co.), Cleveland, Ohio; Ogden L Mills (Director International Paper Co.), New York City; 
J. G. Sohmidlapp (Banker), Cincinnati, Ohio; Louis B. Schram (Chairman Labor Committee United States 
Brewers' Association), New York City; A. H. Smith (President New York Central Lines), New York City; 
Frank Trumbull (Chairman Board of Directors, Chesapeake and Ohio Railway), New York City; Theodore 
N. Vail (President .American Telephone and Telegraph Co.), New York City; Harris Welnstock (Weinstock- 
Nichols Co.), San Francisco, Cal. 

ON THE PART OF WAGE-EARNERS: 
Samuel Gompers (President American Federation of Labor). Washington, D. C; Warren S. Stone 
<Grand Chief International Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers), Cleveland, Ohio; James Duncan 
(President Granite Cutters' International Association of America), Quincy, Mass: James M. Lynch (former 
President International Typographical Union), New York City; A. B. Garretson (President Order of 
Railway Conductors of America). Cedar Rapids. Iowa; W. G. Lee (President Brotherhood Railroad Train- 
men), Cleveland. Ohio; T. V. O'Connor (Pre-sident International Longshoremen's Association), Buffalo, 
N. Y.; William D. Mahon (President Amalgamated Association of Street Railway Employes of America), 
Detroit. Mich.; Timothy Healy (President International Brotherhood of Stationary Firemen). New York 
■City; W. S. Carter (President Brotherhood Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen). Peoria, 111.; John Golden 
(President United Textile Workers of America), New York City; William A. Coakley (President Inter- 
national Lithographic Press Feeders' Protective Association), New York City; Daniel J. Tobin (President 
International Brotherhood of Teamsters), Indianapolis, Ind.; John F. Tobtn (General President Boot and 
Shoe Workers' Union). Boston. Mass.. Joseph F. Valentine (President International Molders' Union of 
North America), Cincinnati, Ohio; Denis A. Hayes (President Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of United 
States and Canada), Philadelphia, Pa., and members of Executive Council. 

DEPARTMENT ON COMPENSATION FOR INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS AND 

THEIR PREVENTION. 
Chairman, August Belmont; Chairman Committee on Legislative Policy. Francis Lynde Stetson; 
Chairman Committee on Uniform State Legislation, George Sutherland; Chairman Legal Compensation 
Committee, P Tecumseh Sherman; Chairman Committee on Accident Prevention, Louis B. Schram; 
Chairman Committee on Statistics and Cost, Cyrus W. Phillips; Chairman Joint Commission to Study 
Operation State Laws. Cyrus W. Phillips; Chairman Committee on Plan and Scope and Finance, Otto M. 
Eidlltz; Secretary, Miss Gertrude Beeks. 

WELFARE DEPARTMENT EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

Chairman, Louis A. Coolidge; First Vice-Chalrman, Cyrus H. McCormlck; Second Vice-Chalrman, 
Emerson McMlllin; Third Vice-Chalrman, Percy S. Straus: Treasurer, Isaac N. Seligman; Director, Miss 
Gertrude Beeks; Chairman Pension Department, William R. Willcox; Chairman National Survey Welfare 
Committee, W. G. Mather; Chairman New York Welfare Committee, W. L. Saunders; Chairman Welfare 
Exhibit Committee. Leslie Graff; Chairman Food Values Committee, Dr. Edward K. Dunham; Chairman 
Minimum Wage Commission, A. J. Porter; Secretary, Miss Mary G. Potter. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. WOMAN'S DEPARTMENT. 

Chairman, Miss Maude Wetmore, Rhode Island; Secretary, Mrs. Rogers H. Bacon, New York City; 
Treasurer, Miss Anne Morgan, New York City; First Vice-Chairman, Mrs. Robert W. Lovett, Boston, 
Mass.; Second Vice-Chairman, Mrs. Charles E. Hamlin, Washington, D. C; Third Vice-Chalrman, Mrs. 
Alfred E. Bates, Washington, D. C; Fourth Vice-Chairman, Mrs. Bayard Henry, Philadelphia, Pa.; Fifth 



Area of Islands. 



13: 



THE NATIONAL CIVIC FEDERATION — Continued. 



Vice-Chalrman, Miss Maud Rives Borland, New York City; Sixth Vlce-Ghairman, Miss Agnes C. Lau 
New York City: Mrs. Mary Hatch Wlllard. New York City, Chairman New York and New Jersey Sectlo 
Mrs. Francis McNlel Bacon, Jr., New York City; Chairman District of Columbia Section, Mrs. Archlba 
Hopkins, Washington, D. C; Chah-man Virginia and West Virginia Section, Mrs. J. Allison Hodges, Ric: 
mond, Va.; Chairman New England Section, Mrs. George T. Rice, Boston, Mass.; Chairman Alabama Se 
tlon, Mrs. Cyrus Pitman Orr, Birmingham, Ala.; Chairman Mississippi Section, Mrs. Walter M. SlUei 
Rosedale, Miss.; Chairman North and South Carolina Section, Mrs. B. Frank Mebane, Spray, N. C; Chal 
man Florida Section, Mrs. William Brooks Young, Jacksonville, Fla.; Chairman Missouri Section, Mi 
Henry C. Flower, Kansas City, Mo.; Chairman National Industrial Employees' Committee, Mrs. H. S. . 
Beale, Washington, D. C; Chairman National Government Employes Committee, Mrs. Henry A. Pec 
ham, Washington, D. C; Chairman National Vacation Committee, Mrs. Rogers H. Bacon, New Yo 
City; Chairman National Country Life Committee, Mrs. Thomas M. Owen, Montgomery, Ala.; Ctialrmi 
Press and Publication Committee, Mrs. Gilbert Montague, New York City; Chairman By-Laws CommltW 
Mrs. Lindon W. Bates, New York City. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MANUFACTURERS. 

President, George Pope; Secretary, George S. Boudinot; Assistant Secretary. W. M. Benney; Treasui 
Henry Abbott; General Manager, J. Philip Bird. Headquarters, 30 Church Street. New York. 

DECLARATION OF LABOR PRINCIPLES. 

1. Fair dealing Is the fundamental and basic principle on which relations between emplo; 
and employers should rest. , . , , 

2. The National Association of Manufacturers Is not oppo.sed to organizations of labor as sUi 
but It Is unalterably opposed to boycotts, blacklists and other illegal acts ot interference with 1 
personal liberty of employer or employe. 

3. No person should be refused employment or In any way dl.scrlmlnated against on accoi 
of membership or non-membership In any labor organization, and there should be no dlscrlnilnat 
agaln.st or Interference with any employe who Is not a member of a labor organization by memb 
of such organizations. .... 

4. With due regard to contracts. It Is the right of the employe to leave his employment wh 
ever he sees fit. and It Is the right of the employer to discharge any employe when he sees fit. 

5. Employers must be free to employ their work people at wages mutually satisfactory, with. 
Interference or dictation on the part of Individuals or organizations not directly parties to si 
contracts. , . , .» . v, . 

6. Employers must be unmolested and unhampered in the management of their business 
determining the amount and quality of their product, and in the use of any methods or systemi 
pay which are just and equitable. .... , , , ^ 

7. In the Interest of employes and employers of the country, no limitation should be pla 
upon the opportunities of any person to learn any trade to which he or she may be adapted. 

8. The National Association of Manufacturers disapproves absolutely of strikes and locko 
and favors an equitable adjustment of all differences brt,ween employers and employes by ^ 
amicable method that will preserve the rights of both parties. . v, . 

9. Employes have the right to contract tor their services In a collective capacity. b\it any < 
tract that contains a stipulation that employment should be denied to men not parties to the ( 
tract Is an Invasion of the constitutional rights of the American workman. Is against public pol 
and Is In violation of the conspiracy laws. This association declares Its unalterable antapon 
to the closed shop and Insists that the doors of no Industry be closed against American work) 
because of their membership or non-membership in any labor organization. 

10. The National Association of Manufacturers pledges Itself to oppose any and all leglsia' 
not In accord with the foregoing declaration. 



AREA OF ISLANDS. 



Islands. 



Amboyna 

Australia 

Azores a 

Baffin Land. . . . 
Bahamas o . . . . 

Balearic a 

Banks 

Bermudas a. . . 

Block 

Borneo 

Bornholm 

Canary a 

Cape Breton. . . 

Cape Cod 

Cape Verde a . . 

Caroline a 

Celebes 

Ceylon - 

Corfu 

Corsica 

Crete 

Cuba 

Cyprus 

East Indies c. . 

EUesmere 

Falkland a. . . . 



Square 
Miles. 



262 

2.946.651 

920 

236.000 

5.400 

1.935 

25,000 

20 

*8 

284,000 

210 

2,850 

3,120 

380 

1.480 

560 

72.000 

24,700 

300 

3.400 

2.900 

44.164 

3,600 

40.000 
5,500 



Islands. 



Formosa 

Gotland 

Governor's 

Greenland 

Great Britain . 

Guam 

Hawaiian a. . . . 

Hayti 

Hebrides a 

Helgoland 5. . • . 

Hainan 

Hokkaido 

Hongkong 

Honshiu 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Jamaica 

Japan a 

Java 

Jersey 

Ladrones d. . . 
Leeward a. . . . 
Long Is., N. Y 

Luzon 

Madagascar. . . 
Madeira 



Square 
Miles. 



14,000 

1,150 

t'A 

827,300 

88.600 

210 

6,449 

28.800 

3,000 

13,000 
36,500 

30 
87,500 
39,800 
32,600 
4,200 
160,000 
48,400 

45 

701 

1,376 

41,000 

227,000 

510 



Islands. 



Madura 

Malay Archl. h. 

Malta 

Man 

Manhattan (N 
y. City) ... . 

Martha's Vine- 
yard 

Mauritius 

Melville Land. . 

Mindanao .... 

Nantucket. ... 

Newfoundland. 

New Guinea. . 

Xew Hebrides. 

North (N. Z.). 

North Devon.. 

North Somerset 

Nova Zembla 

Orkney a. . . . 

Peraba 

Philippines a. 

Pines 

Prince Edward. 

Prince of Wales 

Porto Rico. . . 



Square 

Miles. 



2,000 

100 
230 

22 

120 

710 

20.000 

30,290 

60 

42,000 

330.000 

a 5.100 

44.468 

24,000 

12,000 

35,000 

375 

380 

115,026 

614 

2.134 

15,000 

3,604 



Islands. 



Reunion 

Sakhalin 

Samoan a 

Sardinia 

Scillyf! 

Shetland a. . . . 

Sicily 

Skye 

South (N. Z.) . 
Southampton.. 
South Georgia 

Sumatra 

Tasmania 

Terra del Fuego 

Tenerlffe 

Trinidad 

Tutuila 

Vancouver. . . . 
West Indies 
British o . . . . 
VV. Spltzbergen. 
Windward a. 
Zanzibar .... 



Squ 
Mil 



29 
1 



5! 
l'. 

16; 
21 
11 



* Miles in length, t In circumference. J In diameter. § German naval base consisting of a 
rising about 175 feet above the sea, one mile long by about one-third mile wide, a Area of entire « 
b See Philippines, etc. c See Borneo, etc. d See Guam, etc. 



32 Permanent Court of Arbitration of The Hague. 

— '-■ — ■ . . -— .. -f^LHi „ii 

PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION OF THE HAGUE. 

PROVIDED FOR BY THE CONVENTION SIGNED AT THE HAGUE JULY 29, 1899. 

(The following list corrected to September 1, 1916.) 

Argentina — His Excellency Mr. Estanlalas S. Zeballos, LL. D.. formerly Minister for Foreign Affalra 
d WoraWp. 

j Mr. Culs Maria Drago, LL. D., formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs and Worship. 
■ His Excellency Mr. Carlos Rodriguez Larreta, LL. D., formerly Minister lor Foreign Affairs and 
jrshlp. 

Mr. Joaquin V. Gonzales, Senator, President of the National University of La Plata, formerly Minister 
the Interior. 

Austria-Hungary — Mr. Henri Lammasch, LL. D., AuUc Councillor, Member of the House of Lords 
the Austrian Parliament. 

Hla Excellency Albert de Berzevlczy, Privy Councillor, formerly Minister of Religion and Public 
tructlon In Hungary. 

His Excellency Baron Ernest de Plener, LL. D., Privy Councillor, President of the Supreme Court of 
3it. 
Mr. Francois Nagy, Confidential Counsellor of His Imperial Majesty. 
Belgium — Baron Descamps, Secretary-General of the Institute of Int;ernatlonal Law. 
Mr. Ernest Nljs, Counsellor of the Court of Appeals of Brussels. 
Mr. Leon Arendt, Director-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 
Jules van den Heuvel, Minister of State. 

Bolivia — His Excellency Mr. Severe Fernandez Alonso, LL. D., formerly President of Bolivia. 
His Excellency Mr. Claudio Pinilla, LL. D., Minister of State. 
His Excellency Mr. Elldoro Villazon, formerly President of Bolivia. 

His Excellency Mr. Ignaclo Calderon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the 
ted States, formerly Professor of Law In the University of La Paz, formerly Minister of Finance. 
Brazil — His Excellency Mr. Lafayette Rodrigues Perelra, LL, D., formerly President of the late 
)orlal Council of Ministers. 
His Excellency Mr. Ruy Barbosa. LL. D., Senator, formerly Ambassador. 

His Excellency Mr. Clovls Bevliaqua, LL. D., Law Officer of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 
His Excellency Mr. Ubaldlno do Amaral Fontoura, LL. D., formerly Deputy, Federal Prefect, and 
itrator on the Brazilian-Peruvian Arbitration Commission. 

Bulgaria — Mr. Stoyan Daneft, LL. D., President of the Council of Ministers and Minister for Foreign 
ilrs. 

Mr. Dimitri Standoff, LL. D., formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister at Paris and Brussels. 
Mr. Nicolas Ghenadleff, LL. D., Barrister, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs. 
Ctille — Mr. Carlos Concha, LL. D., formerly Minister of State. 
Mr. Miguel Cruehaga, LL. D., formerly Minister of State. 

Mr. Manuel Alejandro Alvarez, LL. D., formerly Legal Adviser to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 
Mr. Eliodoro Yanez, formerly Deputy and Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

Ctiina — His Excellency Wu Ting-fang, formerly Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
he United States of America, formerly Imperial Commissioner for the Revision of Laws. 
His Excellency Hoo-Wel-Teh, formerly Minister at Toklo. 
His Excellency Liou She-Shun, Vice-MInlster for Foreign Affairs. 

His Excellency J. van den Heuvel, Belgian Minister of State, formerly Minister of Justice. 
Colombia — Gen. Jorge Holguin, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs, Financial Delegate in Europe. 
General Marceliano Vargas, formerly Minister of the Interior. 
His Excellency Mr. J. Marceliano Hurtado. Minister to the Quirinal. 
Mr. Felipe Diaz Erazo, Counsellor of Legation at Paris. 
Dr. Ignaclo Gutierrez-Ponce, Minister at The Hague, London and Vienna. 

Cuba — Mr. Antonio Sanchez de Bustamante, LL. D., Senator, Professor of International Public and 
ate Law at the University of Habana. 

Mr. Manuel Sangully, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs and Senator. 
Mr. Cosme de la Torrlente, formerly Secretary of State. 

His Excellency Mr. Juan de Dies Garcia Kohly, LL. D., Minister at The Hague, formerly Judge of 
Court of Appeals, Assistant Secretary of Justice, and President of the Civil Service Commission. 
Denmarlt — His Excellency Mr. J. H. Deuntzer, LL. D.. Privy Councillor, formerly Professor at the 
'ersity of Copenhagen, Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Mr. Axel Vedel, Chamberlain, formerly Director at Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 
Mr. C. E. Cold, Counsellor of Court of Appeals of Copenhagen. 

Mr. D. Nyholm, Honorary Councillor of State and Member of the Mixed Tribunal at Cairo. 
Dominican Republic — Mr. ApoUnar Tejera, Minister of Justice and Public Instruction, formerly 
Ident of the Supreme Court and Deputy. 
Mr. Cabral y Baez, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs. 
Mr. Manuel A. Machado, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs. 
Mr. de J. Froncoso de la Concha, Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Ecuador — His Excellency Mr. Honorato Vasquez, LL. D., Deputy and Senator, Under Secretary of 
; at the Department for Public Instruction and Foreign Affairs, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Ipotentlary at Lima and Madrid. 

Hla Excellency Mr. Victor Manuel Rendon, formerly Minister at Paris. 
His Excellency Mr. Gonzalo F. Cordova. LL. D.. Minister at Washington. 
His Excellency Mr. Augusto Aguirre Aparlcio, LL. D., Minister at Lima. 
France — Mr. Leon Bourgeois, LL. D., Senator, Minister of Labor. 

Mr. A. Decrals, Senator, formerly Ambassador to Italy, to Austria-Hungary, and to Great Britain, 
erly Minister of the Colonies. 

Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, Minister Plenipotentiary, Senator. 

Mr. Louis Renault, Minister Plenipotentiary, Law Officer of the Department for Foreign Affairs. 
German Empire — Mr. ICrlege, LL. D., Counsellor of Legation, Director of the Department for 
Ign Affairs. 

Mr. von Martltz, LL. D., Superior Confldentlal Counsellor of the Regency, Professor at the University 
iriln. 

Mr. de Staff, LL. D., President of the Superior Court of Marienwerder. 

His Excellency Chevalier von Treutleln-Moerdes, Director at the Ministry of Justice, Counsellor of 
\. 

Great Britain — The Hon. Sir Charles FItzpatrIck, Member of the Privy Council, Chief Justice of the 
ime Court of the Dominion ef Canada. 

The Earl of Desart, K. C. B., formerly Solicitor to the Treasury. 
The Right Honorable James Bryce, O. M., formerly Ambassador at Washington. 
Sreece — Mr. Denis Stephanos, Deputy, Member of the Institute of International Law, formerly 



Permanent Court of Arbitration of The Hague. 133 

PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION OF THE UAGVE— Continued. 

Minister for Foreign Affairs, Chief of the Civil Cabinet of the King, and Minister of Justice (twice). 
His Excellency Mr. Georges Strelt, Professor of International Law at the University of Athens. 
Mr. Michel Kebedgy, formerly Judge of the Mixed Court of Appeals at .Alexandria. 
Mr. N. PoUtls, LL. D., formerly Professor of the Faculty of Law of Paris, Associate of the Institute 
of International Law, Minister and Director-General of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 

Guatemala — Mr. Antonio Batres Jauregul, Councillor of State, formerly President of the Judicial 
Power and ol the Supreme Court of Justice, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs and Public Instruction, 
formerly Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Rio de Janeiro and at Washington. 

Mr. Carlos Salazar, Substitute Dean of the Faculty of Law, Guatemalan Counsel at the Court of Justice 
of Central America, formerly Member of the Court of Appeals. 
Mr. Antonio Gonzalez Saravla, Judge of the Supreme Court. 
Mr. Alberto Mencos, formerly Minister of Special Mission. 

Haytl — Mr. Jaques Nicolas Leger, Barrister, formerly Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary at Washington. 

Mr. Solon Menos, Barrister, formerly Secretary of State for Finance, Commerce, Justice and Foreign 
Relations. 

Mr. F. D. Legitime, Publlclste, formerly President of Haytl. 

Mr. Tertulllen GuUbaud, Barrister, formerly Member of the Constitutional Assembly, formerly Senator. 
Italy — Mr. Victor Emmanuel Orlando, Lawyer, University Professor, Member of Parliament, formerly 
Minister of Justice. 

His Excellency Tommaso Tlttonl, Senator, Ambassador at Paris. 

Dr. Carlo Schanzer, LL. D., Member of the Superior Council of Public Health and of Public Benevo- 
lence and Assistance; formerly Minister of Posts and Telegraphs. 

Japan — Baron Itchiro Motono, LL. D., Ambassador at Petrograd. 

Luxemburg — Mr. Henri Vannerus, I*resldent of the Council of State, formerly P>resldent of the 
Superior Court of Justice. 

Mexico — Mr. Jose Ives Llmantour, LL. D., formerly Minister of Finance and Public Credit. 
Mr. Pablo Macedo, LL. D., formerly President of the Monetary Commission. 
His Excellency Mr. Carlos Perreyra, Minister at The Hague and Brussels. 
Mr. Joaquin D. Casasus, LL. D.. formerly Ambassador at Washington. 
Montenegro — (No appointments have been made). 

Netherlands— His Excellency Jonkheer A. F. de Savornin Lohman, LL. D., formerly Minister of the 
Interior. 

Jonkheer G. L. M. H. Ruvs de Beerenbrouck, LL. D., formerly Minister of Justice. 
Mr. P. W. A. Cort van der Linden, LL. D.. Member of the Council of State, formerly Minister of Justice. 
His Excellency Jonkheer A. P. C. van Karnebeek, LL. D., Minister ol State, formerly Minister for 
Foreign Affairs. 

Nicaragua — Mr. Desire Pector, Consul-General at Paris. 
Mr. Simon Planas Suarez, LL. D., Minister at Lisbon, Rome and The Hague. 
Mr. Leon Vallez, Consul-General of Nicaragua in Belgium. 

Norway— His Excellency Mr. George Francis Hagerup, LL. D., formerly Minister of State and Presi- 
dent of the Council. 

Mr. Sigurd Ibsen, LL. D., formerly Minister of State. 
Mr. H. J. Horst, formerly President of the Lagthing. 

Panama — His Excellency Dr. Belisarlo Porras, formerly Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary at Washington, formerly Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at San Jose, Costa 
Rica. , ^ „ 

Mr. Ramon M. Valdes, LL. D., formerly Minister at Washington, London, and Brussels. 
Persia — His Excellency Mlrza Samad-Khan Momtazos-Saltaneh, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary at Paris. 

His Excellency Mlrza Hassan-Khan Muchlr ul Devlet, formerly Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary at Petrograd. 

Peru — Dr. Ramon RIbeyro, Member of the Supreme Court of Justice, formerly Minister of State. 
Dr. Luis F. Vlllaran, Rector of the University of San Marcos, Member of the Supreme Court of Justice, 
formerly Minister of State. „ 

His Excellency Dr. Manuel Alvarez Calderon, Minister at Berne, formerly Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary at Brussels 

Mr. Llzardo Almazora, LL. D., Judge of the Supreme Court, formerly Minister of Justice. 
Portugal— His Excellency Mr. Fernando Matozo Santos, formerly Peer of the Realm and Minister of 
Finances and Foreign Affairs. 

His Excellency Mr. Francisco Antonio da Velga Belrao, Councillor of State, formerly Minister for 
Foreign Affairs and of Justice. 

His Excellency Mr. Jose Capello Franco Frazao, formerly President of the Chamber of Deputies. 
His Excellency Mr. Artur Pinto de Miranda Montenegro, LL. D., formerly Minister of Justice 
Roumania — Mr. Theodore G. Rosettl, formerly President of the Council of Ministers, formerly Presi- 
dent of the High Court of Cassation and Justice. 

Mr. Jean Kallnderu, LL. D., formerly President of the High Court of Cassation and Justice. 
Mr. Jean N. Lahovary, Minister of Agriculture, of Industry, ol Commerce, and of Domain, formerly 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs. 
Mr. Constantln G. Dlssescu, formerly Minister of Worship and Public Instruction. 
Russia — Mr. A. Sabouroff, Secretary of State, Member and President of the First Department of the 
Council of the Empire, Senator, Privy Councillor. 

Mr. Tagantzeff, Member of the Council of the Empire, Senator, Privy Councillor. 
Baron Michel de Taube. Permanent Member of the Council of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Pro- 
fessor of International Law at the Imperial University of Petrograd, Councillor of State. 

Salvador — Mr. Manuel Delgado, LL. D., formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs, formerly Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, formerly Rector of the National University. 

Mr. Salvador Gallegos. LL. D., formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs, formerly Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary. „ . . ^ . 

Mr. Salvador Rodriguez Gonzalez, LL. D., formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs, of Justice and 
Public Charities. 

Mr. Alonso Reyes Guerra, LL. D., Consul-General at Hamburg, Germany. 

Serbia — Mr. George Pavlovltch, formerly Minister of Justice, President of the Court of Cassation, 
Professor of Law of the University of Belgrade. ^ j , .. , 

Dr. Mllenko R. Vesnltch, LL. D., formerly Minister of Justice, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary at Paris. 

Siam — Mr. Corraglonl d'Orelll, LL. D., Counsellor of Legation at Paris. 

Mr. Jens I. Westengard, General Adviser to the Siamese Government. 

Spain — His E.\cellency Mr. Eduardo Dato y Iradlez. Deputy, formerly Minister of Justice. 

His Excellency Mr. R. M. de Labra, Senator, Barrister at the Court of Cassation. 



134 The New York Peace Society. 

PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION OF THE HAGU E— Continued. 

His Excellency Mr. Manuel Garcia Prleto, LL. D., formerly Minister of State and Minister of Justice. 

His Excellency Mr. Juan Alvarado y del Saz, Deputy, formerly Minister of Finance and Marine 

Sweden — Mr. Knut Hjalmar Leonard de Hammarskjold, LL. D., formerly Minister of Justice, and 
Minister Plenipotentiary at Copenhagen. 

Mr. Johan Frederlk Ivar Afzellus, LL. D., Member of the First Chamber of the Diet. 

Mr. Johannes Hellner, LL. D., formerly Minister. Member of the Supreme Court. 

His Excellency Baron Carl Nils Daniel Blldt, D. Litt., Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to Italy. 

Switzerland — His Excellency Mr. Charles Edouard Lardy, LL. D., Swiss Minister at Paris. 

Mr. Eugene Huber, LL. D., Professor at the University of Berne. 

Col. Leo Weber, LL. D., formerly Federal Judge, Colonel of the Military Justice, Audltor-ln-Chlef of 
the Swiss Army. 

Turkey — His Highness Ibrahim H. Pasha, formerly Ambassador at Rome. 

His Excellency Osman Bey, First President of the Court of Cassation. 

Mr. Haladjlan Effendl, LL. D. of the University of Paris, Deputy from Constantinople, former Minister 
of Commerce and Public Works. 

Mr. Cheref Bey. Licentiate of Laws of the University of Paris and Constantinople, Professor of Public 
General Law and Administrative Law at the University of Constantinople. 

United States — Mr. George Gray, formerly United States Senator. 

Mr. Oscar Straus, formerly Secretary of Commerce and Labor, Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary at Constantinople. 

Mr. Ellhu Root, formerly Secretary of State, Secretary of War, and United States Senator. 

Mr. John Bassett Moore, Professor of International Law at Columbia University, formerly Counsellor 
of the Department of State. 

Uruguay — Mr. Juan Zorilla de San Martin, LL. D., formerly Minister Plenipotentiary at Madrid, 
Lisbon, and Paris. 

Mr. Jose Pedro Massera, LL. D., Member of the Chamber of Deputies. 

Mr. Manuel B. Otero, Barrister, Senator. 

Dr. Francisco Arroyo Parejo, LL. D., formerly Procuror-General. 

Venezuela — Dr. Carlos Leon, LL. D., formerly Minister of Public Instruction, formerly Member of 
the Court of Cassation. 

Dr. Nlcomedes Zuloaga, LL. D., formerly Member of the Court of Cassation. 

Gen. Manuel Antonio Matos, formerly Senator, formerly Minister of Finance. 

Secretary-General — Baron Michlels van Verduynen. 

First Secretary of the Court — Jonkheer W. Roell. 

The Administrative Council — The Administrative Council consists of the Minister for Foreign 
Affairs of the Netherlands and the diplomatic representatives at The Hague of the ratifying powers. 

DECISIONS RENDERED BY THE PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION AT THE HAGUE. 

October 14, 1902 — In the matter of the case of the Plus Fund of the Callfornlas between the 
United States and Mexico. 

February 22, 1904 — Respecting the preferential claims of the creditor nations of Venezuela 
under the protocols of May 7. 1903. 

May 22, 1905 — In the difference between France, Germany and Great Britain on the one band, 
and Japan on the other, respecting leases held In perpetuity. 

May 22, 1909 — In the matter of the Casablanca dispute between France and Germany. 

August 8, 1909 — In the matter of the dispute between Great Britain and France, respecting 
the right of certain Muscat Dhows to fly the French flag. 

October 23. 1909 — Respecting the maritime boundary between Norway and Sweden. 

Sept. 7, 1910 — In the North Atlantic Fisheries case between the United States and Great Britain. 

October 25, 1910 — In the Orinoco steamship case between the United States and Venezuela. 

February 24, 1911 — In the "Savarkar" case between Great Britain and France. 

Nov. 11. 1912 — In the "Interest" case between Russia and Turkey. 

May 3. 1912 — In the "Canevaro" case between Italy and Peru. 

May 6, 1913 — In the "Carthage" case between France and Italy. 

May 6, 1913 — In the "Manouba" case between France and Italy. 



INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNALS OF EGYPT. 

In 1876. as the result of negotiations between the Ottoman and Egyptian Governments and the 
various Christian powers having representatives at Cairo, certain courts were created in Egypt for 
the trial of civil and commercial causes arising between natives and foreigners of different nation- 
ality, as well as all questions of real estate between any person and suits of foreigners against the 
Egyptian Government and memljcrs of the Khedlval family. These mixed tribunals. In civil 
matters within their exclusive jurisdiction, superseded the consular courts. A mixed tribunal con- 
sists of five Judges, three of whom are foreigners and two natives. The foreign Judges are appointed 
by the Khedive on the recommendation of the great powers, each of which Is represented by 
from one to three Judges. There are three tribunals of original jurisdiction (first Instance), one 
each at Cairo, Alexandria, and Mansura. and a Court of Appeals at Alexandria. The United States 
Is represented In these courts by the following Judges: 

Court of Appeals. — Somervllle P. Tuck of New York (appointed 1908; appointed to Court of 
First Instance 1894). 

Court of First Instance. — William G. Van Home of Utah (appointed 1902); Pierre Crabltes 
of Louisiana (appointed 1911). « 



THE NEW YORK PEACE SOCIETY. 

This society was founded In 1815, merged with the American Peace Society in 1828, refounded 
In 1906 and Incorporated In 1910. It has a membership of 1800, with branches in Poughkeepsie, 
Albany, North Tonawanda, and elsewhere. 

Its purpose is "To foster a spirit of justice and good will among the nations, to promote the 
Judicial settlement of international disputes and to support public measures which tend to remove 
causes of enmity, to unite nations in friendly co-operation and to hasten the coming brotherhood 
of man. ' 

Both men and women are eligible for membership In the society, and receive free its monthly 
magazine and tickets to its annual course of lectures. 

The officers of the society are: President — Andrew Carnegie. Secrelary — William H. Short. 
Treasurer — Central Trust Company of New York, Forty-second Street branch. Headquarters, 70 Fiftb 
Avenue, New York City. 



The Panama Canal. 



135 



THE PANAMA CANAL, 

The organization for the completion, maintenance, operation, government and sanitation of the 

anama Canal and Its adjuncts and the government of the Canal Zone consists of the following departments. 

efflces and agencies, and such others as may be established by the Governor of the Panama Canal on the 

Isthmus or elsewhere with the approval of the President of the United States, all to be under the direction 

of the Governor, subject to the supervision of the Secretary of War: 



Executive Department — Headquarters, Balboa 
Heights; Gen. George W. Goethals, Governor; C. A. 
Mcllvalne, Executive Secretary; W. P. Copeland, 
Chief Clerk; C. H. Calhoun, Chief Division of Civil 
Affairs; Capt. Harry D. Mitchell, Chief Division of 
Police and Fire; A. R. Lang, Superintendent Division 
of Schools; Charles R. Williams, District-Attornej^ 
Ancon, Canal Zone. 

Department of Operation and Maintenance — 
Headquarters, Balboa Heights; Lieut.-Col. Cliester 
Harding, Engineer of Maintenance; Lieut.-Col. J. J. 
Morrow, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., Assistant to 
the Engineer of Maintenance; C. J. Embree. Office 
Engineer; Capt. W. H. Rose, Electrical Engineer; 
D. E. Wright, Resident Engineer; F. H. Cooke, De- 
signing Engineer; T. B. Monniche, Engineer of 
Docks. Cristobal; Capt. T, H. Dillon, Superintendent 
of Gatun Locks, Gatun; W. G. Comber, Resident 
Engineer, Paraiso; D. C. Nutting, Jr., Superinten- 
dent Mechanical Divi.slon, Balboa; Commander H. 
I. Cone, U. S. N., Marine Superintendent; Lieut. P. 
P. Bassett, Captain of the Port, Cristobal; Lieut. 
A. B. Reed, Captain of the Port, Balboa; Board of 
Local Inspectors, Lieut. P. P. Bassett, Lieut. A. B. 
Reed, and J. Macfariane. headquarters Balboa 
Heights; First Lieut. Cresweli Gariington, Assistant 
Engineer Division of Fortiflcations; George M. Wells, 
Resident Engineer Building Division; R. H. White- 
head, Superintendent Pacific Locks, Pedro Miguel; 
F. D. WlUson, Chief Hydrographer; O. E. Malsbury. 
Assistant Engineer Section of Surveys; C. C. Sned- 
eker. Supervisor, Coco Solo, Cristobal. 

Supply Department— Major W. R. Grove, Chief 
Quartermaster, Balboa Heights; Capt. F. H. Smith, 
Assistant Chief Quartermaster; C. H. Mann, Sales 
Agent, Cristobal; Robert K. Morris, General Man- 
ager Commissary Division, Cristobal. 

Accounting Department — Headquarters Bal- 
boa Heights; H. A. A. Smith, Auditor; T. L. Clear, 
Collector; John H. McLean, Paymaster; Ad. Faure, 
Chief Accountant. 

Health Department — Lieut.-Col Deane C. 
Howard, Medical Corps, XT. S. A., Chief Health Of- 
ficer, Balboa Heights; Major Elbert E. Persons, Gen- 
eral Inspector, Balboa Heights: Major Albert E. 
Trubv, U. S. A., Superintendent Ancon Hospital; 
Dr. M. C. Guthrie, Chief Quarantine Officer, Balboa 
Heights; Capt. H. P. Carter, Health Officer of Pan- 
ama; Ancon; Capt. D. W. Harmon, Health Officer of 
Colon, Cristobal. 

Washington Office — Major Earl I. Brown, U. S. 
A., General Purchasing Officer and Chief of Office; 
Ray L. Smith, Assistant to the Chief of Office: A. L. 
Flint. Chief Clerk, Purchasing Department. 

Panama Railroad Company — Samuel W. Heald, 
Superintendent. Balboa Heights; William F. Foster, 
Master of Transportation, Balboa Heights. Office 
In the United States, No. 24 State Street, New York. 
Courts— William H. Jackson, District Judge, An- 
con; E. M. Goolsby, Clerk, Ancon; W. H. May, 
Marshal, Ancon; S. E. Blackburn, Magistrate, Bal- 
boa: John W. Thompson, Magistrate, Cristobal. 

The Canal has a summit elevation of 85 feet above 
the sea. It is about 50 miles in length from deep 
water in the Caribbean Sea to deep water in the Pa- 
cific Ocean. The distance from deep water to the 
shore line in Limon Bay is about 4 1-2 miles, and 
from the Pacific shore line to deep water Is about 4 
miles; hence the length of the Canal from shore to 
shore Is approximately 41 1-2 miles. The channel 



ranges In width from 300 to 1,000 feet. The average 
bottom width of the channel in this project is 649 
feet, and the minimum width is 300 feet. The Canal 
has a minimum depth of 41 feet. The time required 
for the passage of a ship of medium size through 
the entire length of the Canal is estimate(j at from 
9 1-2 to 10 hours, and for larger vessels from 10 1-2 
to 11 hours. 

Tihe Gatun Dam along the crest is 8,000 feet long, 
including the spillway, or about 1 1-2 miles, and 2,100 
feet wide at its greatest width. The crest of the dam 
is at an elevation of 115 feet above sea level, or 30 
feet above the normal level of Gatun Lake, and 100 
feet wide. The width of the dam at the normal water 
lei'el of the lake, i. e., 85 feet above sea level, is about 
388 feet. 

The Panama Canal was opened to navigation on 
Augu,st 15, 1914. 

The actual construction cost at present estimated 
for completing the Canal is $325,201,000. wWch In- 
cludes 320,053,000 for sanitation and $7,382,000 for 
civil administration. These figures do not include 
the 850,000,000 paid to the New French Canal Com- 
pany and to the Republic of Panama for property 
and franchises. Hence It Is estimated tliat the total 
construction cost of the Canal to the United States 
will approximate 5375,000,000. 

Appropriations by Congress to March 31, 1916, 
5379,960,275 (which Includes appropriations for 
other than construction purposes) ; fortiflcations, 
•514.689,873: total credits by United States Treasury 
to March 31, 1916, 5394,650,149. 

TRAFFIC FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 
30, 1916. 

Covering the fiscal year from July 1, x915, to June 
30, 1916, and showing the number of vessels passing 
through the Canal In each direction: 

The number of ocean-going vessels nassing through 
the Canal during the period from July 1, 1915, to 
June 30, 1916, inclusive, was 787. Their aggregate 
net tonnage, according to the rules for the mea.sure- 
ment of vessels for the Panama Canal, was 2,479,761. 
The total quantity of cargo carried through the 
Canal on these ships was 3,140,046 tons. The 
aggregate of the tolls collected from the ships was 
52,399.830.42. The total amount expended on 
account of the operation and maintenance of the 
Canal was 86,999,750.15, leaving a deficit In the 
account of 54,599.919.73. The largest item in the 
operation and maintenance costs is the charge for 
dredging, which Is slightly over one-half of the 
total. The dredging in Gaillard Cut cost 
53,513,350.06, and the total dredging charge in 
thus account was 53,560,016.04. This is just about 
twice the charge for the preceding fiscal year, which 
was 51,769,475.59. The increased cost In this matter 
was due to the slides on both banks of the Canal 
north of Gold and Contractor's Hills, which caused 
the suspension of traffic from the middle of Septem- 
ber, 1915, to the middle of April, 1916, and the 
consequent great falling off in the amount of tolla 
collected for the year. 

The number of ships which passed through the 
Canal during the fiscal year 1915 (the Canal was 
opened to commercial traffic for the first time on 
August 15, 1914) was 1,088. TheU- aggregate net 
tonnage was 3,843,035. The cargo they carried 
through the Canal amounted to 4,969,792 tons. 
Their tolls amounted to 54,343,383.69, aiter all 
refunds had been made. 

For convenience the traffic In the two years 
may be compared in this form: 



Item 



No. of vessels 
Net tonnage. 
Tons of cargo 
Tolls 



Fiscal Year 
1915. 



1,088 

3,843,035 

4,969,792 

54,343,383.69 



Fiscal Year 
1916. 



787 

2,479,761 

3,140.046 

52.399,830.42 



Per Cent . 

1916 of 

1915. 



72.3 
64.5 
63.4 
55.3 



The vessels were distributed over the principal 
trade routes as follows: 



136 



Territorial Expansion of the United States. 

THE PANAMA CANAL — Continued. 



ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC. 



United States, coastwise . . . 
United States to South and 

Central America 

United States to Far East 

and Australia 

Atlantic terminus ol Canal to 

South & Central America. . . 
Europe to west coast of South 

America 

Europe to west coast of North 

America 

Miscellaneous routings 

Vessels In ballast 



Ves- 
sels 



2 
12 
20 
19 

3 

2 

1 

11 



Net 
Tonnage 



-11,039 

43,016 

94.719 

35.126 

8.988 

5.883 

4.869 

32,718 



Tons of 
Cargo. 



18.805 

73,329 

149,089 

23,455 

9,414 

9.790 
8,492 



PACIFIC TO ATLANTIC. 



United States, coastwise 

South and Central America 

to United States 

Far East and Australia to 

United States 

South and Central America to 

Atlantic terminus of Canal 
West coast of South America 

to Europe 

West Coast of North America 

to Europe 

Miscellaneous routings 

Vessels In ballast 



Total 70 236,358 292,771 Total 54 163.686 225,020 



Ves- 
sels. 



21 
2 

19 
5 

1 

2 
4 



Net 
Tonnage 



77,519 

10,234 

36,280 

17,135 

3,642 

12,109 

6,767 



Tons of 
Cargo. 



143,752 

5,559 

28,528 

27,521 

6,596 
13,064 



Distances from New York to San Francisco by water, former route. 13,135 miles; via Panama Canal, 
5,262 miles. New York to Hawa4i, former all-water route, 12.800 miles; by Canal. 7,000 miles. New 
York to Manila via Hawaii, former route, 17,800 miles; by Canal, 12,000 miles. 

The Canal brings Callao 4.320 miles nearer Liverpool by steamer, reducing the distance from 10,230 
miles to 5,910 miles and saving about 14 days In time. To Valparaiso the shortening in distance is 1,813 
miles, mailing It 7,185 Instead of 8,998, and the saving in time is about 6 days. By its means tlie United 
States has an all-sea route, which is from 2.500 to 3,000 miles shorter than routes from Europe. New York, 
via the Canal, is 3,779 miles from Caiiao, Instead of 9,769 as formerly, while New Orleans is only 3.264 
miles from Caiiao. 

Between New York and Yokohama the reduction is 3,729 miles, and that Japanese city is brought 
nearer to New York than Liverpool by 1,805 miles. Shanghai is 1,629 miles nearer to New York. Sydney, 
Aiistralla, is 3,806 miles nearer to New York, and the distance between the two cities is 2.382 miles less 
than the distance between Sydney and Liverpool. Wellington, New Zealand, is 2,542 miles nearer New 
York, and the distance between them is 2.759 miles less than between Wellington and Liverpool. Between 
New Zealand and Europe there is an average saving of 1.600 miles. — (From United States Consular Report.) 



PANAMA CANAL TOLL RATES. 

1. On merchant vessels carrying passengers or cargo, one dollar and twenty cents (SI. 20) per 
net vessel ton — each one hundred (100) cubic feet — of actual earning capacity. 

2. On vessels In ballast without passengers or cargo, forty (40) per cent, less than the rate of 
tolls for vessels with passengers or cargo. 

3. Upon naval vessels, other than transports, colliers, hospital ships, and supply ships, fifty 
(50) cents per displacement ton. 

4. Upon Army and Navy transports, colliers, hospital ships and supply ships, one dollar and 
twenty cents (?1.20) per net ton, the vessels to be measured by the same rules as are employed In 
determining the net tonnage of merchant vessels. 

The Panama Canal Act of 1912, providing for the permanent government of the Canal Zone 
and other regulations, was amended in a bill signed hv the President on June 15, 1914, known as the 
"Panama Tolls Exemption Repeal Bill." whereby the clause exempting American coastwise ves- 
sels from paying tolls was repealed. Full text of the Panama Canal Act of 1912 was printed In the 
1914 edition of The World Almanac. 



PANAMA CANAL NEUTRAL. 

ALL NAVIES OF THE WORLD MAY USE IT DURING WAR. 

It Is provided by treaties that the Panama Canal, like the Suez Canal, shall remain absolutely 
neutral. It "shall be free and open to the vessels of commerce and war of all nations and shall never 
be blockaded, nor shall any right of war be exercised nor any act of hostility be committed within It." 

Strict rules of neutrality have been devised for the passage of war vessels of the nations en- 
gaged In conflict. The warships will be compelled to pass through with the least possible delay and 
with only such Intermissions as may result from the necessities of the service. 

No belligerent may "embark or disembark troops, munitions of war or warlike materials In the 
Canal, except in the case of accidental hindrance of the transit, and In such case the transit shall be 
resumed with all possible despatch." 

The treaty provides that no warship will have the right to exercise the law of search on a com- 
mercial ship in transit through the Canal and the provision likewise protects all ships within three 
marine miles of either terminal. 

Ships carrying contraband either In the Atlantic or Pacific do so at their own risk, but warships 
may not remain In the three-mile zone longer than twenty-four hours, and the treaty stipulates 
that "a vessel of one belligerent shall not depart within twenty-four hours from the departure of a 
vessel of war of the other belligerent." 



ANIERICAN SCENIC AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION SOCIETV. 

The society was founded by Andrew H. Green. Incorporated In 1895. and Is a National society for 
the protection of natural scenery, the preservation of historic landmarks and the Improvement of cities. 
President — Geo. F. Kunz. Secretary — Edw. H. Hail, 154 Nassau St., New York. Treasurer — N. T. Phillips. 



TERRITORIAL EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Additions to the original territory of the Union, include Alaska. Hawaiian and Philippine 
Islands, Samoa and Guam, in tiie Pacific, and Porto Rico and Pine Islands, in the West Indies, 
and the Panama Canal Zone. The vrea of the original thirteen States (years 1783-1817) comprised 
892,135 square miles. 

The additions to the territory of the United States subsequent to the peace treaty with Great 
Britain of 1783 are shown by the following table: 



insular Possessions of the United States. 



137 



TEo-KlTORIAL EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES— Continued. 
ADDITIONS TO THE 'BERRITOBY OF THE UNITED STATES FROM 1800 TO 1900. 



TlBRUOKIAL DiTISION. 



liouisiana purchase . . 

Gained ^hrou gh 

treaty with Spain 

Florida. .............. 

Texas 

Oregon 

Mexican cession 



Tear 
1803 

1819 
1819 
1845 
1846 
1848 



Area 
Added. 
S. Miles. 



827,987 

13,435 

58,666 

389,166 

286.541 

529, 189 



TBKBITOHUI, DiTISION. 



Gadsden purchase. . 

Alaska 

Hawaiian Islands. , 

Porto Rico 

Guam 

Philippine Islands. , 
Samoa 



Year 



1853 

1867 
1898 
1898 
1398 
1898 
1899 



AreH 

Added. 

S. Miles. 



29,670 

590,88^ 

6,449 

3,435 

210 

114,958 

77 



Tebbitorial Division . 



Addit'nalPhUippines 1901 
Panama Canal Zone. 1904 436 

Total added area. .. 2851,171 

Total United States in- 
cluding original 13 States, 3,743,306 



Tear 



Area 
Added. 

S. Mllei. 



Payments for above were made by the United .States as follows: Louisiana purchase, $15,440,000; 
Gadsden purchase, $10,000,000; Alaska. $7,200,000; Florida, $5,000,000; Hawaiian Islands, pub- 
lic debt assumed to the amount of $4,000,OOo. 

By treaty of February 2, 1848, a payment of §8,250,000 was made to Mexico in consideration of 
the extension acquired by the boundaries of the United States, as defined in that treaty. 

The treaty of Paris, of December 10, 1898, terminating the Spanish- American war, provided for 
a money payment to Spain (for relinquishing claim to Porto Rico, Guam and Philippine Islands) of 
,$20,000,000, and a subsequent treaty of November 7, 1900, provided for a further payment of $100,- 
000 for other Philippine Islands. 

liv the first treaty the Philippine Islands were ceded to the United States, and the later treaty of 
November 7, 1900, ceded certain outlying islands of the Philippines not included in the first cession. 

A payment of 810,000,000 was made to the Republic of Panama under treaty stipulations govern- 
ing the control of the Panama Canal strip. 

No money payments were made upon the acquisition of the other Territories mentioned in the 
list. 

The United States did not acquire, by the Isthmian Canal Convention of November 18, 1903, any 
title to territory in the Republic of Panama, but merely a perpetual right of occupation, use, and 
control of and over a zone of land ten miles in width. For this privilege it paid to tbe Republic of 
Panama the sum of $10,Ooo,000, and undertook to pay the sum of $250,000 annually so long as such 
occupancy continued, such payments beginning on February 26, 1913. 



INSULAR POSSESSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

THE PHILIPPINES. 



The Philippine Islands, lying oft the southern 
coast of Asia, between Formosa and Borneo, In 
longitude 116° 40' and 126° 34' E., and latitude 4° 
40' and 21° 3' N., embrace 3,14i Islands and Islets, 
of which only 1,668 are named. They are bounded 
on the north by the China Sea, east by the Pacific 
Ocean, south by the Celebes Sea and Borneo, west 
by China Sea. The climate is one of the best in Dhe 
tropics. The thermometer during July and August 
rarely goes below 79° or above 85°. The extreme 
ranges In the year are said to be 61° and 97°, and the 
annual me.an 81°. The total land area is about 115,- 
026 square miles. The two islands, with areas ex- 
ceeding 10,000 square miles each, are Luzon, 40,969, 
being about the size of New York, and Mindanao, 
with 36.292 square miles. The only other islands 
having areas of over 1,000 square miles are: 

Samar 5,031 Paragua. . .4,027 Cebu 1,762 

Negros. . . .4,881 Mindoro.. .3,851 Bohol 1,441 

Panay 4,611 Leyte 2,722 Masbate. . . 1,236 

There are twenty Islands, each having areas be- 
tween 100 and 1,000 square miles, seventy-three be- 
tween 10 and 100, and 262 betiyeen 1 and 10 square 
miles, and the remaining 2,775 have areas of less 
than a square mile each. 

Population. 
The census of 1903 showed a population of 7,635,- 
426, of whom about 9 per cent., or 647,740 are non- 
Christians, and nearly seven millions are more or 
less civilized. The estimated population for 1915 
was 8,937,597. Racially the people are principally 
of Malay stock. The civilized tribes are practically 
all adherents of the Catholic Church, the religion 
being introduced Into the country by the Spaniards 
when they took possession of the Islands in 1565. 
The Moros are Mohammedans and the other wild 
peoples have no recognized religious beliefs. The 
wild tribes form about 10 per cent, of the entire 
population. 

There are about twenty-flve different tribes In 
the Islands speaking some one of nineteen dialects, 
the most populous tribe being the Visayans, who 
constitute 47 per cent, of the entire civilized popu- 
lation; second, Tagalogs, 20 per cent,; third, Ilocanos, 
about 10 per cent.; Bicols, 7 per cent.; Pangaslnan, 
6 per cent.; Pampangan, 5 per cent.; Cagayan, 3 per 
cent., and Zambalan, 2 per cent. 



The Islands with large populations are: Luzon, 
with 3,798,507 inhabitants, of whom 223,506 are un- 
civilized; Panay, 743,646 (14,933 unclviUzed) ; Cebu, 
592,247 (all civilized); Mindanao, 499,634 (252,940 
unclviUzed); Negros, 460,776 (21,217 uncivilized); 
Leyte, 357,641 (all clvUized); Bohol, 243,148 (all 
civilized); Samar, 222,690 (688 uncivilized). The 
capital of the Archipelago is Manila, with 266,943 
Inhabitants. Other towns are: In Luzon, Bauan 
(39,094), Lipa (37,934), Laoag (34,454), Batangas 
(33,131), San Carlos (27,166), Tabaco (21,946), hi 
Samar, Calbayog (15,895); in Panay, Janluay (20,- 
738), Miagao (20,656), Hollo (19,054); in Cebu. 
Argao (35,448), Cebu (31,079), Barlll (31,617), Car- 
car (31,895), Sibonga (25,848); In Leyte, Baybay 
(22,990), Ormoc (16,128). 

The density of population In the Philippines 
is about 74 per square mile; that of Java is not less 
than 595; that of the continental United States is 
about 31 per square mile. There are about 20,000 
Americans and Europeans In the Islands, including 
troops, while the number of Chinese is estimated at 
50,000. 

EDtJCATION. 

Education has been practically reorganized by 
the Americans. The total annual enrolment for the 
year 1915 is 610,519. The total number of .schools 
Is 4,284. Altogether 803 permanent school buildings 
of all classes have been completed since the begin- 
ning of American occupation, representing a total 
of 4,234 rooms. In August, 1915, 10,502 teachers 
were employed, of whom 483 were Americans and 
10,019 Filipinos. The English language exclusively 
is taught in the public schools, and emphasis Is 
placed on Industrial training. 

In Generai,. 

Vital statistics are confined to Manila, population 
(1914), 266,943; death rate for the last quarter of 
1915 was 23.98 per 1,000, and the birth rate 33.62 
per 1,000. Among the American residents, however, 
the death rate is only 10 to 15 per 1,000. 

The assessed real estate property value as of Oc- 
tober 1, 1915, was 8341,228,755. The reported value 
of church buildings, mostly CathoUc, is §20,849,355. 
The bonded Indebtedness of the Philippine Govern- 
ment, including the bonded Indebtedness of the 
cities of Manila and Cebu, is 816,125,000. 

In 1914 there were 73 newspapers and neriodicals 



138 Insular Possessions of the United States— Vont'tnved 



published in the i nds, 17 being In English, 7 in 
English and Spanish, 1 in English and native dia- 
lects, 1 to English and German. 15 in Spanish, 10 in 
Spanish and native dialects, 20 in native dialects, 
and 2 In Chinese. 

On December 31, 1914, there were In operation 
685 post-ofBces, free delivery municipal letter-car- 
rier service in 447 municipalities, 302 money-order 
offices, 439 postal savings banks with 48,876 ac- 
counts. OI the 48,876 depositors 41,414 are Fili- 
pinos. 

The total kUometerage of telegraph and cable 
lines on December 31, 1914, were 9794.60 and the 
number of telegraph offices 303. Of the 303 tele- 
graph offices 7 are wireless stations. 

There are in operation about 714 miles of rail- 
road, of which about 582 miles are In Luzon, 72 
miles In Panay, and 60 mllea In Cebu. Manila has 
an urban and suburban electric railway system op- 
erating about 40 miles of line. Already more than 
9,400 mUes of public roads have been built. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Although agriculture Is the chief occupation of 
the Filipinos, yet only one-ninth of the surface is- 
under cultivation. The soil is very fertile, an<l even 
after deducting the mountainous areas It is probable 
that the area of cultivation can be very largely 
extended and that the islands can support a popula- 
tion equal to tiiat of Japan. Out of 800,000 farmers, 
less than 2,500 operate large farms. The Bureaus 
of Education and Agriculture through combined 
effort have in five years more than doubled the 
production of corn, while the rice crop increased 
40 per cent.: the cocoanut Industry developed 300 
per cent, in eight years, while the exports of sugar 
and tobacco practically doubled in ten years. Only 
a small fraction of the land is cultivated. 

The chief products are hemp, rice, corn, sugar, 
tobacco, cocoanuta and cacao, hemp being the roost 
Important commercial product and constituting 40 
per cent, of the value of all exports. 
Imports aw Exports. 

In the year ended June 30, 1916, the imports of 
merchandise from the United States into the Philip- 
pines were 523,804,367, and the total exports from 
the Philippines for the same period to the United 
States were 828,838,526. 

The imports of merchandise from foreign countries, 
year ended June 30, 19i6, were 822,169,258, and 
the exports were $32,625,505. The principal foreign 
countries trading with the Philippines are Great 
Britain, France, French East Indies, China, Japan, 
and Spain. 

Civil GovERNifENT of the Philippines. 

Under the Act of Congress approved July 1, 1902, 
the Governor-General and members of the Upper 
Houseof the Legislature, the Philippine Commission, 



were appointed b;- the President. Wm. ft. Taft, 
the first Governor-General, was sacceedcci by Luke 
E. Wright In December, 1903, by Ucmy Clov Ide 
in 1906, James F. Smith in 1906, W. C'iimoron 
Forbes In 1909, and Francis Burton Harrison tn 
1913. At first there were 8 and later 9 members 
of the commission, 5 Americans and 3 Filipinos; 
members of the commission were secretaries of the 
four executive departments — Interior, Finance and 
Justice, Commerce and Police, and Public Instruc- 
tion. In 1907 the elective Assembly was established, 
forming the Lower House of the Legislature, its au- 
thority being limited to the so-called civilized 
provinces, of which there are 38, each with a Governor, 
Treasurer and Prosecuting Attorney or fiscal, who 
are elected for terms of four years. The judiciary 
consists of the Supreme Court, with seven Judges: 
Courts of First Instance and Justice of the Peace 
Courts. The Philippine Constabulary, which is 
distributed throughout the Archipelago in 125 sta- 
tions, consists of 341 officers and 4,972 enlisted men. 

Of the laws recently enacted by the Legislature may 
be mentioned that authorizing the Governor-General 
to purchase the Manila Railroad, that creating the 
Philippine National Bank, and a general revision 
of administrative legislation under the title "Admin- 
istrative Code of the Philippine Islands." 

By the Act of Congress approved August 29r 
1916, the Philippine Commission Is abolished, 
there being substituted as the Upper House of the 
Legislature a Senate composed of 24 membei-s, and 
instead of the Assembly, a House of Representatives 
of 90 members, all of whom are to be elected at 
triennial elections, excepting two Senators and nine 
Representatives who are to be appointed by the 
Governor-General to represent the non-Clu-istian 
provinces. This act generally enlarges the powers 
of the Insular Government, and embodies as a pre- 
amble the following statement: 

Whereas, It was never the Intention of the people 
of the United States in the Incipiency of the war 
«-ith Spain to make it a war of conquest or for 
territorial aggrandizement: and 

Whereas, It is, as it has always been, the purpose 
of the people of the United States to withdraw 
their sovereignty over the Philippine Islands and 
to recognize their independence as soon as a stable 
government can be established therein; and 

Whereas, For the speedy accomplishment of such 
purpose it Is desirable to place in the hands of the 
people of the Philippines as large a control of their 
domestic affairs as can be given them without, in 
the mean time, impairing the exercise of the rights 
of sovereignty by the people of the United States, 
In order that, by the use and exercise of popular 
franchise and governmental powers, they may be 
the better prepared to fully assume the responsi- 
bilities and enjoy all the privileges of complete 
Independence. 



PORTO RICO. 

The Island of Porto Rico, over which the flag of the United States was raised in token of formal pos- 
session OB October 18, 1898, is the most eastern of the Greater Antilles in the West Indies and Is separated 
on the east from the Danish island of St. Thomas by a distance of about fifty miles, and from Haytfon the 
west by the Mona passage, seventy miles wide. Distances from San Juan, the capital, to Important points 
are as follows: New York, 1,411 miles: Charleston, S. C, 1,200 miles: Key West, Fla., 1,050 miles: Havana. 
1,000 miles. 

The Island is a parallelogram In general outline, 108 miles from the east to the west, and from 37 to 43 
miles across, the area being about 3,604 square miles, or somewhat less than half that of the State of New 
Jersey (Delaware has 2,050 square miles and Connecticut 4,990 square miles). The population according 
to an enumeration made by the United States Government in 1900 was 953,243, of whom 589,426 were white 
and 363,817 colored. The density was 260 to the square mile in 1900: 83.2 per cent, of the population 
could not read. The population In 1915 is reported as 1,198,970. 

Porto Rico is unusually fertile, and Its dominant Industries are agriculture and lumbering. In elevated 
regions the vegetation of the temperate zone Is not unknown. There are more than 500 varieties of trees 
found in the forests, and the plains are full of palm, orange, and other trees. The principal crops are sugar, 
coffee, tobacco, and maize, but oranges, bananas, rice, pineapples, and many other fruits are Important 
products. The largest article of export from Porto Rico is sugar. The next Is tobacco. Other exports in order 
of amount are coffee, fruits, molasses, cattle, timber, and hides. 

The principal minerals found in Porto Rico are gold, carbonates, and sulphides of copper and magnetic 
oxide of Iron in large quantities. Lignite Is found at Utuado and Moca, and also yellow amber. A large 
variety of marbles, limestones, and other building stones are deposited on the Island, but these resources 
are very undeveloped. There are salt works at Guanica and Saltna on the south coast, and at Cape Rojo 
on the west, and these constitute the principal mlaeral Industry In Porto Rico. 

The principal cities are Mayaguez, with 16.939. Ponce, 35.027 Inhabitants: and San Juan, the capital, 
with 48,716. The shipments of domestic merchandise from the United States to Porto Rico, year ended 
June 30, 1916, were 534,927.311. The exports of domestic merchandise to the United States were 560,906,- 
453. The foreign trade, year ended June 30, 1916, was: Imports, 33,058,400: exports, 55,883,589. Exports 
of sugar to United States In year ended June 30, 1916, 545,799,299. 

An act providing for a ciy^l government for Porto Rico was passed by the Fifty-sixth Congress and 
received the assent of the President April 12, 1900. A statement of Its provisions was printed in The World 



Hawaii. 139 



PORTO RICO — Continued. 



Almanac for 1901, pages 92 and 93. President Roosevelt In hla message to Congress In December, 1908, 
recommended the granting of United States cltlzeuship to the Porto Ricans, and bills were Introduced In 
the Sixty-second and Sixty-third Congresses providing for citizenship and revision of the organic act, but 
they failed to reach a final vote. In the first session of the Sixty-fourth Congress a new organic act for 
Porto Rico was passed by the House of Representatives, and on May 23, 1916. the bill was passed, giving 
the Porto Rican Government all its Internal revenue regardless of whether the goods on which it is paid are 
used In Porto Rico or this country. Heretofore revenues on goods used in the United Slates have gone to 
the Federai treasury. Property and educational qualifications are provided for applicants for citizenship. 

Under the act of 1900, there are two legislative chambers, the Executive Council, or "Upper House," 
composed of the Government Secretary, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Auditor, Commissioner of the In- 
terior, and Commissioner of Education, and five citizens appointed by the President, and the House of 
Delegates, or "Lower House." consisting of 35 members, elected by the people. Tiie island is represented 
In the Congress of the XJnlted States by a Resident Commissioner. 

The Legislature in 1914 authorized the issue of bonds in the amount of Sl.000,000 for the construction 
of public Improvements and a further issue of bonds in the sum of 3150,000 for additional work on the 
Irrigation systems, and provided for secondary railroads subventioned by the Government of Porto Rico. 

In 1915 it made women eligible for membership on school boards, designated a Mothers' Day, estab- 
lished a system of Juvenile courts, authorized the sale to laborers of certain public lands; granted to former 
owners of real property sold for taxes subsequent to July 1, 1901, or to any one interested therein, the right 
oi redemption and provided for the protection of Porto Rican cigars from fraudulent misrepresentation. 



CUAM. 

The island of Guam, the largest of the Mariana Archipelago, was ceded by Spain to the United States 
by article 2 of the Treaty of Peace, concluded at Paris, December 10, 1898. It lies in a direct line from 
San Francisco to the southern part of the Philippines, and is 5.044 miles from San Francisco and 1,506 miles 
from Manila. It is about 30 miles long and 100 miles in circumference, and has a population of 12,517. 
The inhabitants are mostly immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the Philippines, the original 
race of the Mariana Islands being nearly extinct. The prevailing language is English. Spanish and 
Chamorro are also spoken. Nine-tenths of the islanders can read and write. The island is thickly wooded, 
well watered, and fertile, and possesses an excellent harbor. The productions are tropical fruits, cacao, 
rice, corn, tobacco, and sugar cane. The island of Guam was discovered by Hernando de Magallanes on 

The'island was captured by the U. S. S. Charleston, Capt. Henry Glass commanding, Jime 21, 1898, 
the American flag raised over Fort Santa Cruz, and a salute fired. Later the island was made a naval station, 
and Commander E. D. Taussig, of the U. S. S. Bennington, took possession February 1, 1899. The 
Governor is a naval officer, and the island has a marine garrison as well as a station ship. 



TUTUILA (AMERICAN SAMOA). 



Tutuila, the Samoan island which, with Its attendant Islets of Manu'a, Olosega, Ofu, Aunuu and Rose, 
became a possession of the United States by virtue of the tripartite treaty with Great Britain and Germany 
in 1899 covers, according to the Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Commerce, fifty-five square 
fflUes and has (by census of February 1, 1912) 7.251 inhabitants. It possesses the most valuable island 
harbor Pago-Pago, in the South Pacific, and perhaps in the entire Pacific Ocean. Commercially the island 
is unimportant at present, but is extremely valuable in its relations to the commerce of any nation desiring 
to cultivate trans-Pacific commerce. ,j ». ..^ .i, 

Ex-Chief Justice Chambers, of Samoa, says of Pago-Pago that "The harbor could hold the entire naval 
force of the United States, and is so perfectly arranged that only two vessels can enter at the same time. 
The coaling station, being surrounded by high bluHs, cannot be reached by shells from outside." Capacity 
of coaling station, 4,200 tons. j „ . j, * „ j 

The Samoan Islands, in the South Pacific, are fourteen in number and lie in a direct line drawn from 
San Francisco to Auckland, New Zealand. Tutuila is 4,160 miles from San Francisco, 2,263 miles from 
Hawaii 1,580 miles from Auckland, 2,354 miles from Sydney, and 4,200 miles from Manila. The inhabitanta 
are native PoljTiesians and Christians of different denominations. 

The civil government is administered by a Governor, a naval officer nominated by the Navy Depart- 
ment and appointed by the President. All civil affairs are under the jurisdiction of the Navy Department. 



WAKE AND OTHER ISLANDS. 



The United States flag was hoisted over Wake Island on July 4, 1898, by Gen. F. V. Greene, com- 
manding Second Detachment Phllipnine expedition. It is a small island in the direct route from Hawaii 
to Hongkong, about 2,000 miles froni the first and 3,000 miles from the second. .^ ^ ^ ^, 

The United States possesses a number of scattered small islands in the Pacific Ocean, some hardly 
more than rocks or coral reefs, over which the flag has been hoisted from time to time. They are of little 
present value and mostly uninhabited. The largest are Christmas, Gallego, Starbuck, Penrhyn, Phoenix, 
Palmyra Howland, Baker, Johnston, Gardner, Midway, Morell, and Marcus Islands. The Midway Islands 
are occupied by a colony of telegraphers in charge of the relay in the cable line connecting the Philippines 
with the United States, In all about forty persons. , » .,, , .i, , , 

The Santa Barbara group is a part of California and the Aleutian chain, extending from the peninsula 
of Kamchatka in Asiatic Russia to the promontory in North America which separates Bermg Sea irom 
the North Paeiflc, a part of Alaska. 



HAWAII. 

Hawaii was annexed to the United States by joint resolution of Congress July 7, 1898. A bill to create 
Hawaii a Territory of the United States was passed by Congress and approved April 30, 1900. 

The area of the several islands of the Hawaiian group is as follows: Hawaii, 4,210 square milew Maul. 
760: Oahu, 600; Kauai, 590; Molokai, 270; Lanai, 150; Nllhau, 97; Kahoolawe, 63. Total, 6,740 square 

°^^At the time of the discovery of the islands by Captain Cook In 1778 the native population was about 
200,000. This has steadily decreased, so that at the census of 1910 the native born numbered but 98,157. 

TotaUforeig^n ^orn^^ states census of the Islands was taken in 1900 with the following result: Hawaii Island, 
46 843- Kauai Island, 20,562; Nllhau Island, 172; Maul Island, 25,416; Molokai Island and Lanai Island, 
2 504- Oahu Island. 58,504. Total of the Territory. 154,001. The population of the City of Honolulu was 



140 



Cuba. 



HAWAII — Continued. 



39,306. The population of Hawaii according to the 1910 census, made by the United States Census Bureau, 
was 191,909, Honolulu City having a population of 52,183. Estimated population in 1916 (by Territorial 
Board of Health), 237,623. 

POPULATION OP HAWAII, BY ISLANDS, 1910. 



Hawaii 


55,382 

2 

23,744 




131 Molokal 


1,791 


ICahooIawe 


Maul 


28,623 Niihau 


208 


Kauai 


Midway 


35 Oahu 


81,993 







BY COLOR OR RACE. 






Hawaiian 

Caucasian Hawaiian .... 


....26.041 
.... 8,772 
3,734 


Spanish 1,900 

Other Caucasian 14,867 


Black 

Mulatto 

All other 


158 

537 




Chinese 21,674 

Japanese 79,674 

Korean 4.633 


2 7.^fi 


Portueuese 

Porto Rlcan 


....22,303 
4.890 





The exports of domestic merchandise from Hawaii to the United .States, in the twelve mqnths ended 
June 30, 1916, were valued at 564,445,631. The imports into Hawaii from the United States for the same 
period were valued at 528,029,681. E.\port8 of sugar from Hawaii in year ended June 30, 1916, 
was 854,409,380. 

The value of Imports and exports for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, aggregated 598,769,062, the 
Imports valued at $34,098,210, and exports 564,670,852. (The imports from the United States have doubled 
during the last eight years.) The exports of pineapples have increased 8 1-2 times, or from about S800,()00 
to about $6,889,705 during the last seven years. The custom* receipts were 51,161,051. 

The Territorial bonded indebtedness was $8,024,000, or 3.87 per cent, of the assessed value of property, 
which is $206,970,229. 

Bank deposits aggregated 526,379,249, of which commercial deposits were 517,317,339 and savings 
deposits $9,061,910. 

There are 93 post-ofBces. There ar^ powerful wireless stations for transmitting and receiving messages 
to and from San Francisco and Japan and with vessels at sea. 

The number of schools is 223. There are 1,128 teachers, and the number of pupils has increased during 
the 16 years of Territorial government from 15,537 to 37,946. This is exclusive of 112 Japanese schools, 
given over to the teaching of the Japanese language and other Japanese ethics not Included in the curriculum 
of the public schools. The attendance at these schools for the year 1915 was 11,216. 

The Hawaiian Department, U. S. A., is the largest military department of the United States, while the 
Naval Station at Pearl Harbor is one of the most important naval depots and promises to eventually become 
the largest. 

The new Territorial Government was Inaugurated at Honolulu June 14, 1900, and the first Territorial 
Legislature began its sessions at Honolulu February 20, 1901. The Legislature is composed of two Houses — 
the Senate of fifteen members, holding office four years, and the House of Representatives of thirty members, 
holding office two years. The Legislature meets biennially, and sssaions are limited to sixty days. 

The executive power Is lodged in a Governor, a Secretary, both appointed by the President, and hold 
ofDce four years, «nd the following ofBcials appointed by the Governor, by and with the consent of the 
Senate of Hawaii. An Attorney-General, Treasurer, Commissioner of Public Land.s, Commissioner of 
Agriculture and Forestry, Superintendent of Public Works, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Auditor 
and Deputy, Surveyor, High Sheriff, and members of the Boards of Health, Public Instruction, Prison 
Inspectors, etc. They hold office for four years, and must be citizens of Hawaii. 

The Territorial Courts comprise a Supreme Court of three meraber.s, five Circuit Courts, of which one 
has three members, who sit separately, and the others one member each, and 29 District Courts. The 
Supreme Court and Circuit Court Judges are appointed by the President, and the District Magistrates 
by the Governor of Hawaii. The Circuit Courts are the courts of general original jurisdiction. They try 
law, equity, probate, and divorce cases. The First Circuit Court acts also as a court of land registration. 
The Circuit and District Courts act also as Juvenile Courts. The Territory is a Federal Judicial District, 
with two District Judges, Distrlct^Attorney, and Marshal, all appointed by the President. The District 
Judges have all the powers of a Circuit Judge. 

The Territory is represented in Congress bjf a delegate, who is elected biennially by the people. 

Provision is made in the act creating the Territory lor the residence of Chinese in the Territory, anfl 
prohibition as laborers to enter the United States. 



CUBA. 

THE island of Cuba is 760 miles long, and its width varies from about 25 miles to 100 miles. Its area 
comprises 45,881 square miles, or about that of Pennsylvania. rt has numerous safe and commodious 
harbors, that of Havana being one of the largest and finest in the world. Measuring from points of nearest 
approach to its neighbors, Cuba is about 100 miles from Key West, Fla., north; 54 miles from Haytl, east; 
130 miles from Yucatan, west, and 85 miles from Jamaica, south. There are 2,360 miles of railway lines 
and 200 miles of electric railways. 

The two principal agricultural staples of the island are sugar and tobacco. It also produces in consid- 
erable quantities fruits, vegetables, timber and metals, mainly iron, manganese and copper ore, and 
is adapted to coffee aiid cotton raising. The ground has no rival for fertility, and when duly cul- 
tivated gives marvellous results. The sugar cane when planted in superior ground is cut during 50 
years without being planted again. Cuba is superior to the rest of the tropical lands, with the pos- 
sible exception of Porto Rico. The whole land is mantled with rich soils, fertile calcareotis loams, 
which, under constant humidity, yield in abundance every form of useful vegetation of the tropical 
and temperate climes. It hM 1,246 miles of shaded roads ■ ■ ■ ■ - . 

of the temperature is 12 degrees. The average in January 
Value of farms, plantations, etc., 5120,000,000; tobacco 
though there are but few plantations, oranges, grapefruit, 
pineapples, cocoa, molasses, asphalt. Iron, nickel, mahogany, cedar, 
Cuba's annual sugar crop exceeds 5130,000,000. 

The Government Is republican in form. The President, who Is chosen by popular suffrage, serves four 
years and appoints his own Cabinet. The Congress consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, one 
Representative being chosen for every 25.000 inhabitants, as nearly as possible. The provinces, of which 
there are six, corresponding to the American States, elect their own Governors and control their own internal 
affairs. 

POPtTLATION. 

Population of Cuba In 1915, 2,511,098; provinces, as follows: 

Plnar del Rio 262,996 l Santa Clara 580,138 

Habana 659,818 Camagfley 159,026 

Matanzas 272,681 I Oriente 576,439 



and highways. The average fluctuation 
Is 70.3; July, 82.4; extremes, 60 to 92. 
crop, calculated at .532,000,000, and al- 
etc, produce annually 510,000,000, while 
etc., produce $10,000,000 also. 



United States Bureau of War Risk Insurance. 



14: 



CVBA—Continued. 



Population of cities as follows: 

Pinar del Rio 13,138 

San Antonio de los Banos 10,236 

Habana 312,370 

Matanzas 36,009 

Clenf uegos 34,546 

SanctI Splrltus 15,091 

Sagua la Grande 17,426 

FOREIGN Trade, 1914-15. 



Santa Clara 16,70 

Trinidad 12,56 

Camagiiey 33,60 

Guant&namo 12,67 

Holguln 10,56 

Manzanlllo 20.34 

Santiago de Cuba 48,60 



According to the latest statistics published by the 
Cuban Treasury Department, the trade for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1915, amounted to $347,- 
579,000, of which $128,132,000 represented Imports 
and $219,447,000 exports. Compared with the 
figures for the preceding year, there was a decline 
of $5,876,000 in Imports and an Increase of $48,450,- 
000 in exports. Of the Imports in 1914-15. $78,- 
972,000 worth came from the United States, $14,- 
098,000 worth from England, .$10,227,000 worth 



from Spain. $4,240,000 worth from France. $3,023, 
000 worth from British India, $2,428,000 worth fror 
Porto Rico. 82,219,000 worth from Germany, an 
$2,187,000 worth from Norway. The principa 
countries of destinatisn and the amounts purchase 
were as follows: United States, $185,995,000; En^ 
land, S24,2-18.000; Spain. $2,911,000: Canada 
$1,416,000. The returns show a big decrease in th 
trade with Germany and notable increases in th 
trade with the Scandinavian countries and th 
Netherlands. 



THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT. 

President (Salary, S25,000) Gen. Mario G. Menoca: 

Vice-President EnriC(Xte Jose Varona 

Cabinet. 

See'y_ of AgrictiUure, Commerce and Labor — ^Emllli 

Nunez. 
Secretary of Public Instruction and Fine Arts— 

Ezequiel Garcii Ensenat. 
Secretary of Health and ChaTiiies — Enrique Nunez 
Secretary of the Presidency — Dr. Rafael Montoro. 

Legislative. 

Sanchez I President (Speaker) of the House of RepreserUatines— 



Secretary of State — Dr. Pablo Desvemlne. 
Secretary of the Treasury — Leopoldo Canclo y Luna 
Secretary of Government — Aurello Hevia. 
Secretary of Justice — Cristobal de la Guardia. 
Secretary of Public Works — Jose Ramon VUlalon. 



President of the Senate — Dr. Eugenlo 
Agramonte. 



Dr. Orestes Ferrara. 



The Isle of Pines, which under the generally accepted survey is supposed to have an area o 
614 34 square marine miles, or about 621,381 acres, is situated oft the south coast of Western Cuba 
its nearest point to the larger island being about 34 1-2 statute miles distant, while the island Itsel 
and its adjacent keys form the southern barrier of the Gulf of Batabano, a bight which extend; 
northward to an extent sufficient to make Habana Province, to which the Isle of Pines is offlciall: 
attached the narrowest part of Cuba. The Isle of Pines is practically the only land southward o 
Cuba to Panama, from which It Is distant about 850 miles; it is 230 miles almost due east of Capi 
Cartuche, Yucatan, and 370 miles northwest of the island of Jamaica. 



UNITED STATES BUREAU OF WAR RISK INSURANCE. 

(William C. De Lanoy, Director (Salary, S5.000) ; J. B. B. Parker, Assistant Director. Headquarters, Treas- 
ury Department, Washington. D. C.) 



THE Bureau of War Risk Insurance was created 
by Act of Congress on September 2, 1914, to cover 
American vessels and their cargoes against the risks 
of war. It was to expire September 2, 1916, but on 
August 11, 1916, was extended for a further period 
of one year. 

During the two years of this bureau s existence 
it has covered war risk insurance on many vessels 
and cargoes where the market was small; and with- 
out the assistance which was granted by the bureau 
many of these vessels could not have sailed. 

From September 2, 1914, to August 3, 1916. the 
bureau issued 1,543 policies, Insuring ships and car- 
goes of a value of $139,113,737, for which the Govern- 
ment received in premiums $2,924,315.20, with a 
known loss to date of only $771,329.57, reduced 
through salvage by the sum of $58,811.42, reducing 
the net loss to $712,518.15. . , .u v. 

The expenses attending the conduct of the bureau 
up to July 3, 1916, a period of 22 months, has been 

OQO COO 47 

The bureau has a list of ports to which the rates 
are not made public but may be had upon appli- 
cation to the bureau. The published schedule of rates 
Is as follows: . , ,, ,^ . „^ ^ 

Hates — Rates from any ports in the United States 
to any ports in the world (other than those named in 
the special list), or vice versa, are on steam vessels 
as follows: . _ _^ 

Cargo, Freight, and Advances — 1. Between ports 
of the United States or its possessions, or between 
non-belligerent ports In the Western Hemisphere, or 
between the west coast of the United States and 
Japan or China, 5 cents per $100. 



2. Between United States ports and belllgereni 
ports in the Western Hemisphere, 10 cents per 8100 

3. Between United States ports and non-bel- 
ligerent ports other than above not north of Havr< 
In Europe nor east of Sicily In the Mediterranean, 
1-2 per cent. 

4. To ports in the Far East via Suez, 5-8 per cent. 

5. To all other ports, 3-8 per cent. 

Vessel (Voyage Risks) — By voyage, meaning from 
port of loading to not more than two ports of dis- 

1. Between ports of the United States or Its 
possessions, or between non-belligerent ports in the 
Western Hemisphere, or between the west coast ol 
the United Stages and Japan or China, 5 cents per 
sioo. .,,.„. 

2 Between United States ports and belligerent 
ports in the Western Hemisphere, 10 cents per 8100. 

3. Between United States ports and non-bel- 
ligerent ports other than above not north of Havre 
in Europe nor east of Sicily in the Mediterranean, 
1-2 per cent. . „ 

4. To porta In the Far East via Suez, 5-8 per cent. 

5. To all other ports, 3-8 per cent. 

Vessel (Time) — Time policies to be Issued for a 
period of 90 days only; rate, 1 1-4 per cent. 

If warranted to use only ports in the Western 
Hemisphere, 1-2 per cent. 

If .warranted to use only non-belligerent ports in 
the Western Hemisphere, 1-4 per cent. 

All rates subject to change without notice and 
effective from the date thereof. Rates for sailing 
vessels to be advised in each case. 



[42 Nanonal Parks in the United States. 



NATIONAL PARKS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The National parks and reservations mentioned below are under the supervision of the Secretary 
>f the Interior. Congress, by act of August 25, 1916, created a National Park Service, and placed thead- 
ninlstratlon of the National parks and monuments under the Department of the Interior in charge of a 
Jirector of such service. General information, the annual administrative reports, copies of the rules and 
legulations, and compilations of the laws relating to the parka may be obtained from the Secretary 
>f the Interior or from the supervisors of the parks. 

I Yellowstone Na.tion.4l Park Is In Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho, and has an area of 2,142,720 
^cres. The supervisor's address is Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. The park can be reached by the follow- 
ing railroads: Northern Pacific Railroad to Gardiner, the northern entrance, via Livingston, Mont.; Oregon 
short Line Railroad to Yellowstone, Mont., the western entrance; Chicago, Burlington and Qulncy Rail- 
*oad to Cody, Wyo., from which the eastern entrance of the park is accessible. Stage and private trans- 
portation connections for the reservation are made at all these points. The tourist season e.xtends from 
rune 1 to September 15. 

YosEMiTB National Park, California, Including the Yosemlte Valley and Mariposa Big Tree 
jrove, embraces an area of 719,622 acres. The supervisor's address is Yosemlte, Cal. The 
park can be reached from Merced on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe and the Southern Pacific 
Railroads by way of Yosemlte Valley Railroad, which runs to the western boundary, and by con- 
aectlons of the same roads to Raymond, on the southwest; stage lines run from the terminus of the 
i'osemlte Valley Railroad and from Raymond to Yosemlte Valley within the park. The tourist 
season extends from May 1 to November 1, but the park is accessible and hotel accommodations 
ire furnished the entire year. 

Glacier National Park, Montana, has an area of approximately 915,000 acres, of which 15,000 
icres have been surveyed. Within the limits stated there are 250 lakes, ranging from 10 miles to a 
tew hundred feet In extent. There are about 80 glaciers between 5 square miles and a few acres In 
irea. There are wild animals, plants, and rocks In number and quantity to satisfy the most ardent 
3tudent, and views of great variety, beauty and grandeur to gratify the artist and the lover of nature. 
The address of the supervisor is Belton, Mont. The park can be reached via the Great Northern Railway. 
The tourist season extends from May 1 to about September 15. 

Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, has an area of 207,360 acres. The super- 
visor's address is Ashford, Wash., The park is reached by stage or private transportation from 
Ashford, Wash., on the Tacoma Eastern Railroad, and by trail from Fairfax, on the Northern 
Pacific Railroad. The tourist season extends from June 15 to September 15. 

Sequoia National Park, California, has an area of 161,597 acres. The address of the 
supervisor is Three Rivers. Cal. This park may be reached from Visalla, on the Southern 
Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroads by way of the Visalla Electric Railroad 
Company to Lemon Cove, thence by stage or private conveyance to the Giant Forest within the 
park, or by private conveyance from Visalla via Lemon Cove. 

General Grant National Park, California, has an area of 2,536 acres. This reservation 
l3 administered jointly with Sequoia National Park, and the tourist season extends from June 1 to 
September 15. The address of the supervisor is given above. The park may be reached from 
Sanger, on the Southern Pacific Railroad, thence by auto stage or private conveyance, a distance 
of 46 miles to the park, also from Cuttler Station on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railroad, thence 39 miles by stage or private conveyance by way of Orosl and Badger to the park. 

Crater Lake National Park. Oregon, has an area of 159,360 acres. The address of the 
supervisor during the tourist months (June 15 to September 30) is Crater Lake, Ore., and during 
the balance of the year Klamath Falls, Ore. This park may be reached by stage or automobile 
from Klamath Falls, Medford, Chlloquln, or Ashland, Ore., on the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, contains 10.522 acres. The supervisor's 
address Is Wind Cave, S. Dak. This park may be reached by private conveyances from Hot Springs, 
on the Chicago, Burlington and Qulncy and the Chicago and Northwestern Railroads, or by similar 
conveyance from Custer, on the Chicago, Burlington and Qulncy Railroad. The reservation Is 
open to tourists the entire year. 

SULLYS HILL Park, North Dakota, on the shore of Devils Lake, has an area of 780 acres. 
The address of the supervisor is Fort Totten, N. Dak. Devils Lake, Narrows, and Toklo, on 
the Great Northern Railroad, are close to the park, and from these points the reservation can be 
approached by wagon or by boat (private conveyance). 

Platt National Park, at Sulphur, Oklahoma, has an area of 848.22 acres. Sulphur Is the 
post-office address of the supervisor. The town is accessible by the Atchison, Topeka. and Santa 
Fe and the St. Louis and San Francisco Railroads. The park, which Is open to tourists the entire 
year. Is within walking or riding distance of the railroads. .. 

Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, under the organic act approved June 29, 1906, con- 
tained an area of 42,376 acres, and the 5-mlle strip under the park jurisdiction for the protection 
of ruins, provided lor by the act, abutting the park, contained 175,360 acres. The 5-mlle strip was 
eliminated from park supervision by the act of June 30, 1913, and the boundaries of the park 
proper were changed so as to make the present aggregate area 76.51 square miles, or 48,966.4 acres. 
The addreas of the supervisor is Mancos, Col., the nearest railroad station, on the Rio Grande 
Southern Railroad. This station Is about 25 miles from the ruins, which may be reached only by 
horseback or on foot. The tourist season extends from May 1 to September 30. 

Casa Grande Ruin, Arizona, a reservation; has an area of 480 acres. The nearest railroad 
station Is Casa Grande, on the Southern Pacific Railroad. It may also be reached by private con- 
veyance from Florence, Ariz., on the Phoenix and Eastern Railroad. The address of the custodian 
Is Florence. 

The Mesa Verde National Park and the Casa Grande Reservation were set aside to protect the 
Instructive prehistoric ruins and other objects of antiquity which they contain. These ruins are 
being excavated and repaired and are open for the Inspection of visitors. Reports on the repair of 
such ruins have been Issued by the Department of the Interior, and more detailed accounts are 
distributed by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 

Rocky Mountain National Park, created by the act of January 26, 1915, Is In Colorado, about 45 
miles In an air line northwest of Denver. It has an area of approximately 229,000 acres, and is on both sides 
of the Continental Divide in the neighborhood of Longs Peak. The park may be reached from Lyons, 
on the Chicago, Burlington and Qulncy Railroad; from Loveland, on the Colorado and Southern Railroad; 
and from Granby, on the Denver and Salt Lake Railroad. 

Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, created by act of August 8, 1916, has an area of 
82,880 acres, and contains Lassen Peak. 10,437 feet elevation, still exhibiting some volcanic activity; the 
remarkable Cinder Cone, 6,907 feet elevation, erupted a few hundred years ago; many hot springs and 
mud geysers, seven lakes and many Interesting Ice caves and lakes of volcanic glass. The park may be 
reached from Red Bluff, Susanville, or Westwood, on the Southern Pacific Railway, and from Keddle, on 
the Western Pacific Railway. No appropriation has yet been made for administration of this park. 

Hawaii National Park, Territory of Hawaii, created by act of August 1, 1916, contains three 
celebrated Hawaiian volcanoes — Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Haleakala, wholly unique of their kind, the most 



Forests and Forestry. 143 



NATIONAL PAP.K3 IN THE UNITED STATES — Conltnued. 



famous In the world of science, and the most continuously, variously and harmlessly active volcanoes on 
earth. It also contains a wonderful-Jake of lava and magnificent tropical forests. No appropriation haa 
yet been made for administration ot tfils park. 

Hot Springs Reservation, Arkansas (the permanent reservation), has an area of 911.63 
acres. Eleven bathhouses on the reservation and twelve in the City of Hot Springs, as well as several 
boteis operated In connection with bathhouses, receive hot water from the springs; under lease with 
the Seeretary of the Interior. The address of the supervisor is Hot Springs. Ark. 

Preservation of American Antiquities — Uivder the Act of Congress approved June 8, 1906, 
Interdepartmental regulations governing the excavation, appropriation, etc., of prehistoric ruins or 
objects of antiquity have been promulgated by the Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, and War. 
Applications for permits to make excavations on the public lands, Indian reservations, or the 
national monuments nam^d below should be addressed to the Secretary of the Interior. The follow- 
ing have been preserved from entry and set aside as national monuments: Devils Tower. Wyoming; 
Montezuma Castle, Arizona; Petrified Forest, Arizona; El Morro, New Mexico; Chaco Canyon, New 
Mexico; Muir Woods, California; Natural Bridges, Utah; Lewis and Clark Cavern, Montana; 
Tumacacorl, Arizona; Navajo, Arizona; Mukuutuweap, Utah; Shoshone Cavern, Wyoming; Gran 
Quivira, New Mexico; Sitka National Monument, Alaska; Rainbow Bridge, Utah; Pinnacles, Cali- 
fornia: Colorado, Colorado; Papago Saguaro National Monument, Arizona; Capulin Mountain, New 
Mexico; Sleur de Monts, Maine: Dinosaur National Monument. Utah. 

Nine other National monuments within National forests have also been set aside under this act 
and placed under the Jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture, to whom inquiries in regard thereto 
should be addressed. Two otlier National monuments (Big Hole Battlelield, in Montana, and 
CabrlUo, In California) are under jurisdiction of the Secretary of War. 

FORESTS AND FORESTRY. 

(Report 01 year ended June 30, 1916.) 

Our forests now cover 550,000,000 acres, or about one-fourth of the United States. Forests 
puDllcIy owned contain one-fifth of all timber standing. Forests privately owned contain at least 
four-fifths of xhe standing timber. The timber privately owned is not only four times that publicly 
owned, but It^ls generally more valuable. 

The original forests of the United States contained timber In quantity and variety far beyond 
that upon any other area of similar size In the world. They covered 850,000,000 acres, with a stand 
of not less than 5,200,000,000,000 feet of merchantable timber, according to present standards of 
use. There were five great forest regions — the Northern, the Southern, the Central, the Rocky 
Mountain and the Pacific. 

The present rate of cutting for all purposes undoubtedly exceeds the annual growth of the forests. 
The great pineries of the Lake States are nearing exhaustion and heavy inroads have been made upon the 
supply of valuable timber throughout all parts of the country. 

The heavy demands for timber have been rapidly pushing the great centres of the lumber industry 
toward the South and West. In consequence, the State of 'W'ashington now leads In lumber production, 
followed closely by Louisiana, then Mississippi, North Carolina, and Oregon. Among the softwoods, in 
1915, the production of yellow pine lumber amounted to about fourteen and three-quarter billion feet; the 
Douglas fir of the Northwest held second place, with more than four and one-half billion feet, while white 
pine, with two and three-quarter billion feet ranked third. Of the hardwoods oak came first, with approxi- 
mately three billion feet, followed in the order named by cypress, maple, red gum, chestnut, yellow poplar, 
birch, and beech. 

We take from our forests yearly. Including waste in logging and in manufacture, more than 22,000,000,000 
cubic feet of wood, valued at about SI .375.000,000. 

We use in a single year 90,000,000 cords of firewood, nearly 40,000,000,000 board feet of lumber, 
150 000,000 ties, nearly 1,700,000,000 staves, 445,000,000 board feet of veneer, over 135,000,000 sets of 
heading, over 350,000,000 barrel hoops, over 3,300,000 cords of native pulp wood, 170,000,000 cubic feet 
of round mine timbers, nearly 1,500,000 cords of wood for distillation, over 140,000 cords for excelsior, 
and nearly 3,500,000 telegraph and telephone poles. 

About 4,333,000 cords of wood are used in the manufacture of paper, of which about 1,000,000 cords 
are Imported practically all from Canada. The demand for wood pulp is making a severe drain on the spruce 
forests, which furnish the principal supply, though a number of other woods, such as poplar, hemlock, pine, 
and balsam, are now being used in considerable quantities. Tests by the Forest Service of the United 
States Department of Agriculture have shown that pulp suitable for use in the manufacture of news and 
wrapping paper can be made from some ten species of native woods, including Sitka spruce. Western hem- 
lock, Engelmann spruce, red fir, v/hlte fir, and lodgepole pine. 

The demand for highly durable woods for railroad ties threatened to create a serious problem In many 
parts of the country where the supplies of white oak, chestnut, cedar, and cypress are growing less. In place 
of these, more plentiful woods, such as Southern pine, Douglas flr, tamarack, and hemlock, are coming into- 
use, largely in consequence of the introduction of treatment by preservatives which retard decay. 

UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE. 

The Forest Service Is one of the bureaus of the Department of Agriculture. It has charge of the 
administration and protection of the National forests and also promotes the practice of forestry 
generally through investigations and the diffusion of Information. 

The work of the Government In forestry was initiated by the appointment of Dr. Franklin B. 
Hough In 1876 as special agent in the Department of Agriculture. In 1.S81 a division of forestry 
was created In that department. In 1901 this division became the B\neau of Forestry, and In 1905, 
when the care of the National forests was plven to this bureau. Its name became the Forest Service. 
Previously the care of National forests had been In the hands of the Department of Interior. 
A law authorizing the President to set apart forest reserves was passed In 1891, but no provision 
for their administration and use was made until 1897. Previous to 1905 the Bureau of Forestry 
merely gave expert advice, on request, to the Department of the Interior concerning the application 
of forestry to the forest reserves. The change of name from "forest reserves" to "National forests' 
was made In 1907 to correct the Impression that the forests were, as "reserves," withdrawn from use. 
Since the Forest Service took charge of them the fundamental aim has been to open them to the widest 
use consistent with their proper protection. .. .rw. ... ... 

The National forests were set aside as follows: By President Harrison, 13,416,710 acres; by President 
Cleveland, 25,686.320 acres: bv President McKlnley, 7,050,089 acres; by President Roosevelt, 148,346,924 
acres. Since early In 1909 a careful readjustment of the boundaries has been going on. In consequence 
President Taft added to the National forests 4,333,847 acres and eliminated from them 11,680,578 acres, 
while to June 30, 1916, President Wilson has added 562,279 acres and eliminated 11,615,124 acres. Acts 
of Congress prohibit any additions by the President to the National forest area in Washington, Oregon, 
California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado. , ^r .«-. nn/. 

The present net area of the National forests, including Alaska and Porto Rico, is 155,407,92() acres, 
with an additional 706.975 acres acquired by purchase In the White Mountains and Southern Appalachjaa 
regions for National forest purposes. 



144 



Forests and Forestry — Continued. 



The expenditures upon the National forests for protection, administration, and Improvement at present 
exceed the revenues from the forests by about §2,500,000 to S3, 000,000 a year, depending partly on the se- 
verity of the fire season and partly on the activity of the general lumber market, and excluding the recent 
appropriation of $10,000,000 by Congress for roads and trails. The normal gross cost of administration 
and protection is approximately 34,750,000, wliile from $300 000 to §600,000 yearly is Invested In the 
construction of roads, traMs, buildings, and other permanent Improvements. The cost of administration 
Includes the cost of handling much free-use business, while the cost of protection is chiefly the cost ot 
protecting water supplies and future timber supplies. 

COMPARISON OF RECEIPTS FROM THE SEVERAL SOURCES FOR THE FISCAL YEARS 1916 

AND 1915. 



Fiscal Year. 


Timber. 


Grazing. 


Special XJses, Etc. 


All Sources. 


1916 


§1,412,592.51 
1,175,133.95 


31,210,214.59 
1,130,495.00 


§200,733.61 
175,840.40 


§2,823,540.71 


1915 


2,481,469.35 



Under the law 25 per cent, of the receipts are paid to the States in wiilch the National forests are 
located, to be expended for roads and schools. The amount to be paid to the States in this way from the 
receipts in 1916 is about §695,541.40. 

By the acts of Congress organizing them as States, Arizona and New Mexico also receive for their 
school funds an additional share of the receipts based on the proportion that their school lands within the 
National forests bear to the total National forest area in the States. The approximate amounts due on 
account of the receipts for 1916 are §31,046.12 to Arizona, and $10,329 to New Mexico. 

Congress has also provided that 10 per cent, of the receipts shall be set aside as an appropriation to be 
used under the direction of the Secretary of Agriculture for road and trail building in National forests in 
co-operation with State authorities or otherwise. The amount thus appropriated on account of fiscal year 

1916 receipts is $278,216.56. This, added to the amount carried over from 1915 receipts fimd, $151,089.21, 
and the amount appropriated for improvements, in the regular agricultural biU, $400,000, makes the total 
available for the construction of roads, trails, cabins, bridges, telephone lines, etc., on the National forests 
for the fiscal year 1917, §829,305.77. 

In addition to the foregoing the Federal Aid Road act, passed by Congress in 1916, appropriated ten 
million dollars for the construction and maintenance of roads and trails within or partly within National 
forests. This money becomes available at the rate of a million dollars a year for the next ten years. In 
general, the States and counties are required to furnish co-operation in an amount at least equal to 50 per 
cent, of the estimated cost of the surveys and construction of projects approved by the Secretary of Agri- 
culture. The apporllonmenta among the States is based on the area of National forest lards in each State 
and the estimated value of the timber and the forage resources which the forests contain. The total amount 
from all sources available for roads, trails and other improvements on the National forests during the fiscal 
year 1917 is §1,829,305.77. 

The total regular appropriation for salaries, general expenses, and improvements for the fiscal year 

1917 is $5,574,735.00, as against §5.553,256.00 for 1916. 

The grazing receipts for 1916 were paid by the holders of 28,052 permits to graze 1,860,635 cattle, 
horses, and swine, and of 5,276 permits to graze 7,886,473 sheep and goats. The receipts from timber sales 
were paid by approximately 11,000 purchasers to cut the equivalent of 545,428,000 board feet of timber. 
The receipts from special uses were paid by the holders of approximately 5,000 permits. In other words, 
these receipts represent profitable use of the forests by some 49.000 individuals or concerns. To the use 
for which payment was made must be added the heavy free use of the forests by the public. Figures for 
free use of timber are as follows: 





FREE USE OF TIMBER ON NATIONAL FORESTS. 




Fiscal Year. 


Number of 
Users. 


Cut. 


Value. 


1916 


41,544 
40,015 


Board Feet. 
120,853,000 
123,168.000 


§184,653 OO 


1915 


206,464.13 



In issuing permits for reservoirs, conduits, power-houses and transmission lines for commercial power 
development the Forest Service has steadfastly insisted on conditions designed to prevent speculative or 
perpetual holdings and to secure the full development of available power and the payment of reasonable 
charges for the use ot land. 

The total stand of timber on the National forests is estimated at nearly six hundred billions board feet. 

The following table shows the local cut of timber from the National forests In the fiscal year 1916: 





Cut Under Sale. 


Cut Under 


Free Use. 


) 


State. 


Written 
Permit. 


Without Written 
Permit. 


Total Cut. 


Oregon 


Board Feet. 

88,157,000 

70,679,000 

57,352,000 

47,249,000 

44,672,000 

48,187,000 

35,019,000 

39.611,000 

25,844.000 

17,761,000 

20,513,000 

20,896,000 

12,238,000 

5,323,000 

1,607,000 

1,355,000 

1,066.000 

1,156,000 

353,000 

266,000 


Board Feet. 

7,663.000 

20,969,000 

7,711,000 

8,861.000 

1,224,000 

1,918,000 

11,723,000 

9,627,000 

9,727,000 

4,479.000 

7,382.000 

5,224,000 

138,000 

329,000 

1,276,000 

216,000 

294,000 


Board Feet. 

2,297,000 

74,000 

192,000 

1,774,000 

4,889,000 

50,000 

3,000,000 

33,000 

126,000 

9,270,000 


Board Feet. 
98,117,000 
97 722 000 


Idaho 




65,255,000 


Montana 


57 884 000 




50,785,000 
50,155,000 


Washington 


Alaska 


49,742,000 
49,271,000 
35,697 000 




Utah 


^ew Mexico 


31,510,000 


Wyoming 


27,895,000 


South'Dakota 




26,120,000 
12,376,000 
5,662,000 
2,883,000 
1,571,000 
1,360,000 
1,156,000 


Arkansas 




Minnesota 


10,000 




Virginia 








North Carolina 




Michigan 


88,000 




441,000 
266,000 


New Hampshire 






145,000 
14,000 
65,000 




145,000 


Florida 


81,000 


60,000 


155,000 


North DaJcota 


65,000 




43,666 




43,000 
6,000 


Nebraska 


5,000 




Totals 


545,428.000 


99,078,000 


21.775,000 


666.281,000 



Forests and Forestry — Continued. 145 

The great areas contained In the National forests have now been brought to a condition where 
they are beginning lo serve the purposes of the West. The conservation of timber and forage through 
wife use and the protection of stream flow are the means of sustaining many industries which bAve 
contributed materially to the prosperity of the country. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE FOREST SERVICE. 

At the head of the Forest Service are the Forester, Henry 8. Graves, and the Associate Forester, A. F. 
Potter. The work Is organized under the following branches: Operation, James B. Adams in charge; Lands, 
E. A. Sherman In charge; Silviculture, W. B. Greeley in charge; Grazing, A. F. Potter In charge: Re- 
search, Including Forest Products Laboratory, Earle H. Clapp in charge; Acquisition of Lands under the 
Weeks law, William L. Hall in charge. 

The 153 National forests are grouped In seven districts, with a District Forester In charge of 
each, and headquarters as follows: District 1 (Montana, Northeastern Washington, Northern Idaho, 
Northwestern South Dakota, and Southwestern North Dakota), Missoula, Mont., F. A. SUcox, 
District Forester; District 2 (Colorado, Wyoming, the remainder of South Dakota, Nebraska, Northern 
Michigan, and Northern Minnesota), Denver, Col., Smith Riley, District Forester; District 3 (Arizona and 
New Mexico), Albuquerque, N. Mex., P. G. Redlngton, District Forester; District 4 (Utah, Southern Idaho, 
Western Wyoming, Eastern and Central Nevada and a small portion of Northwestern Arizona), Ogden, 
Utah, L. F. Knelpp, District Forester; District 5 (California and Southwestern Nevada), San Francisco; 
Gal., Coert Du Bois, District Forester; District 6 (Washington. Oregon, and Alaska), Portland, Ore., Geo. 
H. Cecil, District Forester; District 7 (Arkansas, Florida, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Georgia, North Caro- 
lina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, New Hampshire, Porto Rico), Washington, D. C, William L. Hall, 
District Forester. 

On July 1, 1916, the force employed by the Forest Service numbered 8,682. Of these 3.008 were em- 
ployed upon the National forests and 674 were engaged in administrative, scientlflc and clerical work at the 
Washington and district headquarters. Of the employes on the National forests the force engaged princi- 
pally in protective work numbered 2,078 men, as follows: Forest Rangers, 406; Assistant Forest Rangers, 
769; Forest Guards, 903. The protective force was therefore about one man for every 75,000 acres, or 117 
square miles. (Prussia has one man for every 1,700 acres, and Baden one for every 750.) 

BRANCH OF SILVICULTURE. 

The replacement of old stands by new growth Is accompUshed by regulating the cutting through the 
Insertion of special provisions in timber sales contracts in such a way as to iniure natural reproduction. On 
completely denuded areas, however, artificial reforestation by planting or sowing is generally necessary 
for the establistiment of a new growth of trees. The object of such work is usually to produce commercial 
timber, although in a number of cases the reforesting of denuded watersheds is undertaken primarily to con- 
trol and regulate th« flow of streams directly supplying cities and towns. During the year ended June 30, 
1916, over 10,000 acres In National forests were planted or sown to trees, chiefly Douglas flr. Western yel- 
low pine. Western white pine, white pine, and lodgepole pine. There are 21 Government nurseries which 
supply the NationaJ forests. These have a present stock of about 37,000,000 plants and are capable of sup- 
plying 15.000,000 a year. 

BRANCH OF GRAZING. 

The nimiber of stock grazed during the past season (1916), under permit, was 1,860,635 head of cattle, 
horses, and swine, and 7,886,473 head of sheep and goats. The annual productive value of this number of 
stock IS more than $30,000,000. The number of persons holding permits to graze live stock during the 
past year was 33,328. 

About 16 per cent, of all the sheep In the United States are grazed In the National forests. 

EASTERN NATIONAL FORESTS. 

The act of March 1, 1911, commonly known as the Weeks law, provides for the acquisition 
of forest lands on the watersheds of navigable streams. Its purpose Is to promote and protect the 
navigability of the streams by preserving the forest on the upland portions of their watersheds. 
Through this act means are afforded of extending the National forest system to regions where the 
Government has hitherto owned no forest lands and taken no direct part In forest preservation. 

The original appropriation was 32,000,000 per year for five and one-half years, beginning with 
the last half of the fiscal year 1911. The Agricultural Appropriation bill for the fiscal year 1913 
made the appropriation for 1912 and subsequent years available until expended. 

In order to concentrate the purchases where they will be of the greatest benefit from the stand- 
point of watershed protection, certain areas In the Appalachian region have been designated, aggre- 
gating 6,966,304 acres, to which purchases will be for the present confined. The United States 
Geological Survey has examined the greater part of this land, as required by law. In order to deter- 
mine whether or not the forest cover exercises a beneficial Influence In regulating the flow of navigable 
streams. Up lo July 1, 1916, 6,966,304 acres were reported upon favorably by the Geological Survey. 

The Forest Service has been designated as the bureau to receive proposals ol land and to examine 
and value lands for purchase. The National Forest Reservation Commission considers the recom- 
mendations of the Forest Service and approves the lands to be purchased and fixes the price to 
be paid. 

From April 1, 1911, to June 30, 1916, proposals were received covering 4.227,060 acres, of which 
3,547,414 acres were within the general areas in the White Mountains and the Southern Appalachians 
which had been selected for purchase. 

During the same period 2,137,269 acres were examined, and 1,329,487 acres were approved by the 
National Forest Reservation Commission. The total surveyed acreage under protection, including acquired 
and additional areas approved for purchase, is as follows: Georgia area, 96,385: Maine area. 24,825; New 
Hampshire area, 280,439; North Carolina area, 249,765; South Carolina area, 17,270; Tennessee area, 
223,204; Virginia area. 291,618; West Virginia area, 102,220. Total, 1,285.726. 

As these lands are acquired they are administered along the same lines as are the National 
forests In the West, and the above-named areas will, as title Is obtained and plans for handling them 
are prepared, be given formal designation as National forests. 

FOREST POLICY OF THE STATES. 

The movement for National forestry has been followed by a widespread development of State 
forest activities. New York and Pennsylvania, the pioneers In this field, Inaugurated State policies 
before the work of the National Government had awakened general Interest In forestry., but In most 
of the States forest work has been either a direct outgrowth ol Federal activities or Indirectly due 
to them. Ten or twelve years ago few States were giving their forest problems any serious considera- 
tion; to-day 32 have forest departments, 24 employ professionally trained foresters, and practically 
all show recognition of the need for a State forest policy. 

The appropriations for the yearly support of the several State forest departments vary greatly. The 
smallest Is $500; the greatest approximately 5315,000. Those which appropriate over $25,000 are: Pennsyl- 
vania, $315,000; New York, 3178,000: Minnesota, $118,000: Michigan, 5105,000; Massachusetts, $78,000, In 
addition to $175,0()0 tor the suppression of gypsy and brown-tall moths: Maine, 573,000: New Hampshire, 
$39,000; Washington and Wisconsin, $35,000 each; Oregon, $30,000, and New Jersey, $43,000. 



146 American Wood-Preservers' Association. 

FORESTS AND FORESTRY — CmMnvM. 

Systematic forest Are protection by the States has been greatly stimulated by the operation of the 
so-called Weeks law. under which the Federal Government co-operates through the Forest Service with 
individual States for protecting the watersheds of navigable streams, the Federal Government bearing 
In no case more than half the cost nor contributing more than S8,000 to any State in any one year. 
More than thirteen million acres of private and State-owned land are protected by Federal appropriations 
under this act, at an average cost of three-fourths of a cent per acre. Altogether, more than one hundred 
million acres are fairly well protected against forest flres under this law by the combined private. State, and 
Federal appropriations, at an average cost of less than two cents per acre. The States wiiich have entered 
Into co-operative agreements under this law are: Maine, New Hampsliire, Vermont, Massachusetts Con- 
necticut, New York, New Jersey, Maryland. Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Texas, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, South Dakota. Montana, Idaho. Washington, and Oregon. 

Tennessee. Alabama, Colorado, and Callfomia have organized fire-warden systems, but do not appro- 
priate State funds for Are protection. Maine, by means of a timber land tax, supports an efflcient forest 
fire service covering the unorganized townships In the northern part of the State; In the remaining townships 
each bears the cost of an ex-offlclo wai-den system. The Forest Service of Minnesota covers 20,000,000 
acres by systematic patrol and maintains a permanent field force of rangers and patrolsien, with ex-ofDcio 
town fire-wardens as an auxiliary force. Idaho has adopted a co-operative system of protection with 
private owners, under which the State pays Its pro rata share of the cost, on the basis of State-owned area 
within the area protected by a privately organized system. 

In the fifty years preceding 1913, forest flres had caused an average annual loss In the United 
States of about 70 human lives and at least 825,000,000 worth of timber, besides the loss of live 
stock, crops, buildings, and various kinds of Improvements worth many millions more. Added to 
this are the enormous losses from the destruction of young tree growth, soil deterioration, damage 
to water courses and water supplies. Interruption of business, and depreciation of property. 

New York has a State-owned "Forest Preserve" of 1,825.882 acres In the Adirondack and 
Catsklll Mountains, under fire protection, but not under forest management, which the State Con- 
stitution forbids. The entire central portion of these two mountain regions, comprising 7,200,000 
acres, is protected from flre by a State ranger system: in the rest of the State, town officers are de- 
pended on to keep flres down. Private owners are furnished tree seedlings at cost from the State 
nurseries, which also grow material for reforesting denuded portions of the preserve. Three laws give 
forest lands reduction of, or exemption from, tax assessment under certain conditions. Pennsylvania has 
more than 1,000,000 acres of State-owned forests and practises forestry on them, maintaining a State ranger 
training school at Mont Alto. These forests are chiefly in the mountains of the central part of the State, 
and protect streamflow as well as supply timber. Additional lands may be purchased at not more than 
$10 per acre. Private lands are orotected under a fire-warden system. The State distributes planting 
material. The same is true of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Maryland, Kentucky. Ohio, 
Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Idaho. 

Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan have large holdings of State forests. Minnesota has 
approximately 1,000,000 acres of school lands which are to be retained for State school forests, 
besides 43,000 acres now In State forests. Wisconsin has 400,000 acres reserved, and Michigan 
689,000. of whlch'^S 12,000 acres are used for exchange to add to the 277,000 acres permanently re- 
served In several large blocks In different parts of the State. South Dakota has 75,000 acres of State 
forest in the Black Hills. New Jersey 13,720 acres, and New Hampshire, Vermont, California, Connecticut, 
Massachusetts, Indiana, and Maryland from 2,000 to 9,000 acres each. 

In Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Michigan the tax on forest 
land may be levied chiefly on yield or Income. 

PRIVATE FORESTRY. 

While progress in the forestry movement has been mainly through public agencies, in the last few years 
a marked advance has been made by private owners. 

The greater part of the privately owned timber of the country is in the Northwest, where the liability 
of the timber to destruction by flre and the example of the protective work carried on by the Government led 
to the formation of flre protective associations among the timber owners. From the Northwest the move- 
ment spread over a considerable part of the timbered area in the Northern and Western States. At present 
there are forty associations of this kind in the States of Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana, 
Michigan, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont; Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, and North CaroUna. The 
associations are supported by assessments on an acreage basis and maintain a system of protection more 
or loss similar to that on the National forests. The land thus privately protected la estimated at approxi- 
mately twenty-five million acres. 

The practice of forestry by private owners is gradually extending in the Northeastern States, largely 
because condltions|in that region make it economlcaHy possible. The greatest progress has been made in 
Central New England, where excellent nearby markets, low-priced rough land, and a varied demand for 
forest products combine to make the growing of trees profitable. Many New England farmers are planting 
old pastures to white pine, and in some sections land with young tr«e growth Is valued more highly than 
similar land without. Considerable planting is also being done by the farmers of the Middle West in the 
form of farm woodlots and windbreaks. While these produce comparatively little saw timber they yield 
a large amount of firewood and post material, besides benefiting the farm by their presence. 



AMERICAN WOOD-PRESERVERS' ASSOCIATION. 

President — Carl G. Crawford, Louisville, Ky. First Vice-Presidmi — John Foley, Philadelphia. Pa. 
Second Vice-President — M. K. Trumbull, Kansas City, Mo. Seerelarv-Treasvrer — F. J. Angler, Baltimore, 
Md. 

The objects and purposes of the association shall be to advance the wood-preserving industry In all 
Ita branches; to afford its members opportunities for the Interchange of ideas with respect to improvements 
In the wood-preserving industry, and for the discussion of all matters bearing upon the industry of wood 
preserving; to maintain a high business and professional standard in all respects, and to standardize 
specifications for wood preservatives and their introduction into the materials to be preserved. 

The means to be employed for these purposes shall be meetings for the presentation and discussion of 
appropriate papers, and for social and professional intercourse; the publication of such papers and discussiona 
as may be deemed expedient; co-operation with other societies, associations and organizations in the work 
ef standardizing specifications- affecting the wood-preserving Industry, and all other things incidental or 
conducive to the attainment of the objects of the association or any of them, and as the members may from 
time to time consider advisable. 

Thirteenth annual meeting wUl be held to New York, N. Y., January 23, 24, and 25, 1917. 



Bird Census. 147 



CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 

The National Conservation Association, with headquarters in the Munsey Building, Washington, 
*.. C, is now the organized head ol the conservation movement in the United States. 

In a booklet explaining the objects ol the association is the Allowing; 

"The National Conservation Association is fighting for the prompt and orderly development of our 
natural resources, for the welfare of ourselves and our children, and for the rights of the plain people. The 
issoclatlon is bound neither by political considerations nor official connections. It is free to speak the 
whole truth. 

"That conservation means tne use of our natural resources for the benefit of us all and not merely for 
the profit of a few is already household knowledge. The task which the National Conservation Association 
has set for Itself Ls to get this principle put into practical effect." 

The association has no political afflliations, and is supported by membership dues and voluntary con- 
tributions. It publishes bulletins, legislative briefs, statements, and leaflets, and scrutinizes all Federal 
conservation legislation. 

Glftord Pinchot, P>resident: Charles W . Eliot. Honorary Pre sident; Harry A. Slattery, Secretary. 

The National Conservation Congress is the National clearing-house for the State Conservation Com- 
missions and Conservation Committees of National associations and all organizations concerned in the 
conservation of the country's natural resources. It is the organized head of the conservation movement 
in the United States. Its chief object is "to afford an agency through which the people of the country may 
frame policies and principles affecting the conservation and utilization of their resources, to be put into 
effect by their respective representatives in the State and Federal Governments." 

The Congress holds annual meetings "to provide for discussion of the resources of the United States as 
the foundation for the prosperity of the people." The Congress also undertakes "to furnish definite 
information concerning the resources and their development, use, and preservation." 

Membership dues range from SI a year to $100 or more, according to classification. 

The Congress is managed by its officers and an Executive Committee, and by an Advisory Board, 
consisting of one member from each National association having a Conservation Committee. 

President — E. Lee Worsham, Atlanta, Ga. Ex»cutive Secretary — Thomas R. Shlpp, 610 RIggs Building, 
Wafihington, D. C. Treasurer — Norman C. McLoud, Cleveland, Ohio. 

THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION. 

The American Forestry Association, with headquarters at 1410 H Street Northwest, Washington, D. C, 
was organized in 1882 and incorporated in January, 1&97. It Is devoted to the conservation of private. 
State and National forests and to public education in the knowledge of trees, their care and development. 
It is a voluntary organization for the inculcation and spread of a forest policy on a scale adequate for our 
economic needs, and any person is eligible for membership. It is independent, has no official connection 
with any Federal or State department or policy, and is devoted to a public service conducive to National 
prosperity. It asserts that forestry means the propagation and care of forests for the production of timber 
as a crop; protection of watersheds; utilization of non-agricultural soil; use of forests for public recreation. 

It declares that forestry is of immense importance to the people; that the census of 1913 shows our forests 
annually supply over one and a quarter billion dollars' worth of products; employ 735,000 people; pay 
8367,000,000 in wages; cover 550,000,000 acres unsuited for agriculture; regulate the distribution of water; 
prevent erosion of lands, and are essential to the beauty of the country and the health of the Nation, It 
recognizee that forestry is an industry limited by economic condltioas; that private owners should be aided 
and encouraged by investigations, demonstrations, and educational work, since they cannot be expected to 
practise forestry at a financial loss; that Federal and State Governments should imdertake scientific forestry 
upon National and State forest reserves for the benefit of the public. It will devote its influence and educa- 
tional facilities to Uie development of public thought and knowledge along these practical lines. 

It supports these policies: Federal administration and management of National forefits: adequate 
appropriations for their care and management; Federal co-operation with the States — especially in forest 
fire protection. State activity by acquirement of forest lands; organization for fire protection; encoiu^age- 
ment of forest planting by communal and private owners; non-political deiiartmen tally independent forest 
organization, with liberal appropriations for these purposes. Forest fire protection by Federal. State and fire 
psotective agencies, and its encour.iger;-ient and extension, individually and by co-operation; without adequate 
fire protection all other measures for lorest crop production will fall. Forest planting by Federal and St.ate. 
Governments and long-lived corporations, and acquirement of waste lands for this purpose: and also planting 
by private owners where profitable, and encouragement of natural regeneration. Forest taxation reforms 
removing unjust burdens from owners of growing timber. Closer utilization In logging and manufacturing 
without loss to owner; aid to lumbermen in achieving this. Cutting of mature timber where and as the 
domestic market demands it, except on areas maintained for park or scenic purposes, and compensation of 
forest owners for loss suffered through protection of watersheds, or on behalf of any public interest. Equal 
protection to the lumber industry and to public interests in legislation affecting private timberland operations, 
recognizing that lumbering is as legitimate and necessary as the forests themselves. Classification by experts 
of lands best suited for farming and those best suited for forestry ; and liberal National and State appropriations 
for this work. 

The membership of the association is close to 13,000 in every State in the Union, every Provmce m 
Canada and every civilized and semi-civilized country in the world. The subscribing membership is S3.00 
a year; contributing membership is SIO.OO a year; sustaining membership is S'25.00 a year and life membership 
is SIOO.OO. Members receive each month the American Forestry Magazine which contains articles on every- 
thing pertaining to trees, forests, and birds. 

President — Charles Lathrop Pack, Lakewood, N. J. Treasurer^JcMn E. Jenks, Washington, D. C. 
Executive Secretary and EdtJor-in-Ch ief — Percival S. Ridsdale, Washingto n. D. C. 

BIRO CENSUS. 

During the Summer of 1914 the Biological Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture took 
Initial steps toward a census of the birds of the United States for the purpose of ascertaining approximately 
the number and relative abundance of the different species. In view of the recognized value of birds to 
agriculture, such Information cannot 'ail to be of great value. 

One of the most abundant birds in the United States, possibly the most abundant bird. Is the roblp. 
It Is also one of the most sociable, and in the Northeastern part, where it is most abundant, it oommonly 
nests close to farm buildings, but almost never in extensive woods. 

No other bird is anywhere near as abtmdant as either the robin or the English sparrow, but several 
others are common enough to make then toial numbers run well into the millions. For every 100 robins 
reported in the 1914 census there were 49 catbirds. 37 brown thrashers, 28 house wreas, 27 kingbirds and 26 
bluebirds This last number Is particularly gratifying because only a few years ago nearly the whole blue- 
bird population of the Eastern States was destroyed by an unusually severe Winter. Since then the birds 
have been gradually recovering from the catastrophe, and this season's census shows that there are now 
several million bluebirds in Northeastern United States. . ^ ^^ ^ . „. » > .v 

This preliminary census shows that the most abundant bird on farms of the Northeastern States is tne 
robin; that the next is the English sparrow, and that following these are the catbird, the brown thrasher, 
the house wren, the kingbird, and the bluebird, in the order named. 

On August 29, 1916, the United States Senate ratified the treaty with Canada extending to all migratory 
birds the same protection on both sides of the Canadian border. 



148 



National Statitary Hall. 



IRRIGATION, UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PROJECTS. 

I IBRIQATION and crop results on projects. 1915. (Source: The Reclamation Service, Department of the 
Interior.) 





Project. 


Irrigable 
Acreage. 


Irrigated 
Acreage. 


Cropped 
Acreage. 


Value of Crops. 


State. 


Total. 


Per Acre 
Cropped. 


Arizona, 


Salt River 


219.691 
72,440 
20.320 
65.000 

150.000 

120,000 
30,813 
22,200 
16,326 
42.329 

129,714 
65,000 
24,796 
3,330 
45.000 
17.000 
38.000 
78,591 
10.099 

82,757 
34,000 
42,816 


179,350 
27,857 

8,928 
41,463 
76,705 
83,562 
18,203 

4,192 

4,261 
12,656 
70,007 
40,295 
13,470 

1,294 
33,876 

5,306 
27,254 
44.067 

7.800 

66,607 
22,000 
25,753 


171,832 
25,101 

6,930 
40,553 
69,818 
77,008 
18,185 

3,887 

4,243 
11,990 
68,130 
38,495 
11, .322 

1,287 
32,246 

3,603 
27,254 
43.063 

4.814 

54,919 
18,100 
24,833 


$3,661,769 

873,721 

220,422 

1,044,915 

1,526,873 

1,725,515 

635,363 

51,249 

80,000 

194,011 

1,263,617 

592,523 

245,684 

17,778 

1,103,389 

104,653 

377.488 

462.050 

254,425 

2,750,326 
668,650 
410,031 


$21 31 






34 81 




Orland 


31.81 


CJolorado 


Uncompahgre Valley. 

f Boise 

\ Minidoka 


25.76 




21.87 




22 41 




f Huntley 


29 41 


Montana 


J ivfillf T?iirpr 


13.18 
19 00 




Sun River. . 


Montana-North Dakota.. 

Nebraska- Wyoming 

Nevada 


Lower Yellowstone. . . 

North Platte 

Truckee-Carson 

r Carlsbad 


16.18 
18.55 
15 39 




21.70 




Hondo 


13.81 


New Mexico-Texas 


Rio Grande 


34 22 


Or^on 


Umatilla 


29 04 


Oregon-California 




13 85 


South Dakota 


Belle Fourche 

f Okanogan . . 


10 72 




52 60 


waatungxon 


t Yakima: 

Sunny.slde Unit 

Tieton Unit 

Shoshone 




Wyoming 


50.08 
37.00 
16 51 




Totals for irrigated 
areas covered by 
crop reports 

Additional irrigated 
areas not covered 
by crop reports: 
Boise 






1.330,222 


814,906 


i 
757,613 


818,164,452 


S24.00 


Idaho 


80,000 

4,500 
8,050 

50,000 


20,422 

4,500 
8,05C 

8,900 










Uncompahgre 

Valley 

North Platte 

Strawberry Val- 
ley 












Nebraska-Wyoming 








Utah 














Totals, recla- 
mation pro- 
jects 










1,472,772 


8£6,77S 


(a) 800,000 


(a) $19,000,000 


(a) $24.00 



(a) Estimated. 



NATIONAL STATUARY HALL. 

Works of art in the Capitol Building, Washington, have been acquired by gift from private individ- 
uals interested in the preservation of the historical, biographical, or pictorial art of the Nation; by the gift 
from States, as instanced by the statues of distinguished citizens forming the collection in Statuary Hall, 
and by purchase by the Government. A general supervision of the art works of the Capitol is exercised by 
the Joint Committee on the Library. This committee also has charge of accessions to the art works of the 
Capitol Building, except as otherwise provided by law. 

Statuary Hall, formerly the hall of the House of Representatives, was established as Statuary Hall by 
Act of Congress of July 2, 1864. By this legislation a National Hall of Statuary was created, and the Presi- 
dent was authorized to invite each State to contribute to the collection to be formed, two statues. In either 
marble or bronze, of deceased citizens of the State whom "for historic renown or from civil or military ser- 
vices" the State should consider as worthy of commemoration in this National Hall of Statuary. 

The following is a list of statues presented by the .States and the dates of the works: 



State. 


Name. 


Date. 


St.-vte. 


Name. 


Date. 


Alabama 


J. L. M. Curry 

Roger Sherman 

Jonathan Trumbull 

John W. Gorrie 

George L. Shoup 

James Shields 

Frances E. Willard 

Oliver P Morton 

Lew Wallace 


1906 
1872 
1872 
1914 
1909 
1893 
1905 
1899 
1909 
1909 
1913 
1904 
1914 
1877 
1901 
1901 
1873 
1872 
1889 
1913 
1916 
1899 
1899 


New Hampshire. . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Caroilna. . . 
Ohio 

Pennsylvania. . . . 

Rhode Island .... 

South Carolina . . . 
Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia..;] '.'.'.'.'. 

West Virginia'. '. 

Wisconsin ,..,.,. 


John Stark 


1894 


Connecticut .... 


Daniel Webster 


1894 






1886 


Florida 


Philip Kearnv 


1875 


Idaho 


Robert R. Livingston 

George Clinton 


1874 


Illinois . . 


1873 


Indiana 


Zebulon Baird Vance 

James A. Garfield 


1916 

1885 




Wi'liam Allen. 


1887 


Iowa 


James Harlan 

Samuel J. Kirkwood 

John J. Ingalls 

George W Glick 


J. P. G. Muhlenberg 


1881 
1881 


Kansas 


Nathanael Greene 

Roger Williams 


1869 




1870 


Maine .... 


William King 

Charles Carroll 

John Hanson 


Jolih C. Calhoun 

Stephen F. Austin 


1909 


Maryland 


1904 
1904 


Massachusetts. . . 


Samuel Adams 


Ethan Allen 


1875 




John Winthrop 


Jacob CoUamer 


1879 


Michigan 


Lewis Cass 


Washington 


1908 




Zachariah Chandler 

Henry Mower Rice 

Francis P. Blair 


R. E. Lee 


1908 


Mlnnftsota . 


John E. Kenna 


1901 




Francis H. Pierpont 

James Marquette 


1903 




Thomas H. Benton 


1895 



Ainerican Society of International Law. 



149 



UNITED STATES PENSION STATISTICS. 



War with Spain — Invalids or survivors, 24,101: 
widows and dependents, 4,371. 

War of 1812— Widows, 115. 

War with Mexico — Invalids or survivors, 513; 
widows, 3,785. 

Indian Wars — Invalids or survivors, 676: widows, 
1,902. 

Army nurses (women), 252. 

Total pensioners on the roll June 30, 1916, 709,572. 



NTTMBER OF ARMY AND NAVY PENSIONERS ON THE ROLL JUNE 30, 1916. 

Regular Establlsliment — Invalids or survivors, 
15,553; widows and dependents, 4,549. 

Service — Act of May 11, 1912, invalids or sur- 
vivors, 320,376; act ol February 6, 1907, invalids or 
survivors, 1,727. 

Civil War, General Law — Invalids or survivors, 
39.593: widows and dependents, 52,217. 

Civil War, Act of June 27, 1890 — Invalids or sur- 
vivors, 681; dependents, 3,725. 
Civil War, Act of April 19, 1908 — Widows, 235,536. 

Total number of original applications during fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, 59,395. 
Total number of original claims allowed for fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, 19,004. 
Number of pensioners on roll June 30, 1916 — Invalids or survivors, 403,120; widows and dei)endents, 
306,452; total, 709,572. 

Paid pensioners, during 1916, Sl.59,155,089.92. 

(For number of pension claims, pensioners and disbursements, by years, from 1867 to 1912, see World 
Almanac for 1913, page 166.) 

Expenses lor the Pension Bureau and Disbursing Office in disbursing pension fund for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1916, Sl.656,722.33. 

All the pension agencies have been consolidated, and all pensioners are now paid by the Commissioner 
of Pensions through the Disbursing Office of the Pension Bureau, Washington, D. C. 



TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS FOR PENSIONS FOR ALL WARS AND OF THE PEACE 
ESTABLISHMENT TO JUNE 30, 1916. 

War of the Revolution (estimated), 570,000,000; War of 1812 (service pension), 845,991,743.76; Indian 
wars (service pension), 513,790,299.13; war with Mexico (service pension), 550,422,229.22; Civil War, 54,- 
765 075 020.92; war with Spain and Philippine insurrection, 553,744,667.55; regular establishment. S39,- 
098,319.01; unclassified, 516,508,447.41. Total, 55,054,630,727. 

PENSIONERS IN EACH STATE AND TERRITORY JUNE 30. 1916. 



Alabama .... 


2,797 


Idaho 


1,947 


Alaska 


09 


Illinois. . . . 


48,888 


Arizona 


775 


Indiana 


43,264 


Arkansas. . . . 


7,626 


Iowa 


24,089 


California... 


25,051 


Kansas .... 


28,040 


Colorado. . . . 


6,980 


Kentucky. . 


18,487 


Connecticut. 


8,662 


Louisiana. . 


4,650 


Delaware . . . 


2,252 


Maine 


12.348 


Dist. of Col. 


7,781 


Maryland . . 


10,770 


Florida 


4,403 


Massach'ts. 


29,539 


Georgia 


2,593 


Michigan . . 


29,690 



Minnesota. . 
Mississippi . . 
Missouri .... 
Montana. . . . 
Nebraska. . . 

Nevada 

N. Hamp. . . 
New Jersey. . 
New Mexico. 
New Yor^. . . 
N. Carohna.. 



10,999 

3,472 
34,175 

2,050 

12,438 

345 

5,680 
17,844 

1,642 
59,094 

3,144 



N. Dakota. . 

Ohio 

Oklahoma.. . 

Oregon 

Pennsylv'a. . 
Rliode Island 
S. Carolina... 
S. Dakota.. . 
Tennessee . . . 

Texas 

Utah 



2,537 

67,123 

9,868 

6,752 

65,469 

3,881 

1,467 

4,669 

14,680 

7,275 

889 



Vermont. . . . 
Virginia. . . . 
Washington . 
W. Virginia- 
Wisconsin . . . 
Wyoming . . . 
Canal Zone.. 
Insular Pos. . 
Foreign 



5,663 

7,541 

8,621 

9,194 

17.123 

728 

1 

148 

4,359 



Total 709,572 



The following are the rates for total disability from causes incident to the .service: 
Army— Lieutenant-colonel and all otticers of higher rank. $30; major, surgeon, and paymaster, 
$25: captain, provost marshal, and chaplain. $20; first lieutenant, assistant surgeon, and deputy 
provost marshal, $17; second lieutenant and enrolling officer. S15; enlisted men. ^S. 

^avy— Captain and ofhcers of higher rank, commander, lieutenant commanding and master 
commanding, surgeon, paymaster, and chief engineer, respectively ranking with commander by law, 
$30- lieutenant, surgeon, paymaster, and chief engineer, respectively ranking with lieutenant by 
law, and pa.ssed assistant surgeon. S25; master, nrofessor of mathematics, assistant surgeon, assist- 
ant paymaster and chaplain. S20; first assistant engineer, ensign, and pilot. S15; cadet midshipman, 
passed midshipman, midshipman, clerks of admirals, paymasters, or other officers commanding 
vessels, second and third assistant engineers, master's mate, and warrant officers. $10: enlisted 

iVlarine Corps— Lieutenant-colonel and officers of higher rank, $30; major, §25; captain, 
$20; first lievitenant, $17; second lieutenant, $15; enlisted men. §8. 
[NOTE — See also New United States Army Law.] 



Pension at certain ages on account of service in the Civil and Mexican Wars. Act of May 11,1912. 

Anv person who served ninety days or more in the military or naval service of the United States 
during" the late civil war, and who has been honorably discharged therefrom, and who has reached 
the ageof sixty-two years or over, on making proof of such factsis entitled to receive a pension as 
follows: Agesixtv-two vears— For a service of 90 davs. $13.00 per month; 6 months. $13.50; 1 year, 
$14 00; 1!^ years, 814. 50; 2 years, S15.00; 23^ vear.s, $15.50. and 3 years and moie,S16.00. Age 66 
years— For'a service of 90 davs, $15. 00 iier month; 6 months, S15..50: 1 year, $16.00: 1>^ years, 
816 50- 2 vears, $17. 00; 2% vears, SIS. 00, and 3 vears and more, $19.00. Age 70 years-For a ser- 
vice of 90 davs, $18.00 ner month; 6 months, $19.00; 1 year. $20.00; 1>5 years. $21.50; 2 years, 
$23.00: 254 years, $24.00. and 3 vears and more $25.00. Age 75 years-For a service of 90 days, 
$21 per month; 6 months. $22.50; 1 year, $24.00; IJ^ years, S27.00.and2 years and more, $30. 00. 
And such pension shall commence from the date of filing the application in the Bureau of Pensions. 
Any person who sei-ved sixty davs or more in the war with Mexico, and who received an honorable 
discharge, is entitled to $30. 00 per month. Any person who was wounded in battle or in line of duty 
in the Civil War, and is now unfit for manual labor by reason thereof, or who from disease or other 
causes incurred in line of duty resulting iu his disability, is now unable to perform manual labor, is 
entitled to $30. 00 per month. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF INTERNATIONAL LAW. 

President— VM\m Root. Vice-President — Chief Justice White, Justice William R. Day.. P. C. Knox. 
Andrew Carnegie, Joseph H. Choate, John W. Foster, George Gray, WUUam W. Morrow, Richard Olney, 
Horace Porter, Oscar S. Straus, Jacob M. Dickinson, William H. Taft. Robert Bacon, Robert Lansing, 
Henry Cabot Lodge, John Basaett Moore. Recording Secretary— James Brown Scott. Corresponding 
Secretary — Charles Henry Butler. Treasurer — Chandler P. Anderson, Headquarters, Washington, D. O. 



150 Passport Regulations of the United States. 

PASSPORT REGULATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

1. Authority to Issue — Section 4075 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, as amended by 
the Act of Congress approved June 14, 1902, provides that "the Secretary of State may grant and Issue 
passports, and cause passports to be granted, issued, and verified In foreign countries by such diplomatle 
or consular officers of the United States, and by such chief or other executive officers of the insular possessions 
of the United States, and under such rules as the President shall designate and prescribe for and on behalf 
of the United States." The following rules are accordingly prescribed for the granting and issuing of 
passports in the United States: 

2. To Whom Passforts Are Issued — Section 4076 of the Revised Statutes of the United States 
(U. S. Comp. Stat. 1901, 2765) provides that "no passport shall be granted or issued to, or verified for, any 
other persons than those owing allegiance, whether citizens or i.ot. to the United States." 

3. By Who.m Issued and Refusal to Issue — No one but the Secretary of State may grant and issue 
pa;ssports in the United States (Revised Statutes, sections 4075, 4078), and he is empowered to refuse them 
in his discretion. 

Passports are not issued by American diplomatic and consular officers abroad, except In cases of emer- 
gency; and a citizen who Is abroad and desires to procure a passport must apply therefor through the nearest 
diplomatic or consular officer to the Secretary of State. 

AppUcations for passports by persons in Porto Rico or the Philippines should be made to the Chief 
Executives of those islands. The evidence required of such applicants is similar to that required of 
applicants in the United St.ates. 

4. Feb — By Act of Congress approved March 23, 1888, a fee of one dollar is required to be collected 
for every citizen's passport. That amount in currency or postal money order should accompany eat* 
application made by a citizen of the United States. Orders should be made payable to the Disbursing Cleri 
of the Department of State. Drafts or checks will not be accepted. 

5. Applications — A person who is entitled to receive a passport. If within the United States, must 
submit a written application in duplicate, in the form of an affidavit, to the Secretary of State. The applica- 
tion should be made by the person to whom the passport is to be issued, and signed by liim, as it is not proper 
for one person to apply for another. 

The affidavit must be made before a clerk of a Federal court or of a State court authorized by the Act 
of Congress of June 29, 1906, to naturalize aliens, within the iurisdiction of which the applicant or his 
witness resides, and the seal of the court must be affixed; but in any place where there is a Federal court 
the affidavit must be made before a clerk of such court. In any place where tliere Is an agent of the De- 
partment of State, the Secretary of State may, in his discretion, require the application to be made before 
such agent. The clerk of court or agent of the Department of State before whom the application is made 
must mall it directly to the Department of State. The applicant must state from what point he intends to 
leave the United States, and the date of his intended departure, and also if by a port of the United States, 
by what ship he Intends to sail. 

Each application must be in the hands of the Department of State or its agents at least five days before 
the applicant's departure from the United States. 

If the applicant signs by mark, two attesting witnesses to his signature are required. The applicant 
is required to state the date and place of his birth, his occupation, the place of his permanent residence, 
and within what length of time he will return to the United States with the purpose of refiidiiig and per- 
forming the duties of citlzensliip. He is also required to state the names of the foreign countries which 
he expects to visit, and the objects of his visits thereto. The latter statement should be brief and general 
in form, thus: "Commercial business." An applicant who sia.tes that he is going abroad on commercial 
business must support his application with a letter from the head of the firm or firms which he represents, 
stating the names of the countries it is necessary for him to visit and the objects of his visits thereto. An 
applicant who is going abroad for any other purpose must satisfy the Department of State that it is im- 
perative that he go and he should submit satisfactory documentary evidence substantiating his statement 
concerning the imperativeness of his proposed trip. 

The applicant must take the oath of allegiance to the United States. 

The application must be accompanied by a description of the person applying, and should state the 

following particulars, viz.: Age, ; stature, feet inches (English measure); forehead, ; 

eyes, ; nose, : mouth, ; chin, ; hair, ; complexion, ; face, ; special identifjlng 

marlcs, if any (scars, birthmarks, etc.). 

The application must also be accompanied by triplicate photographs of the applicant, on thin paper, 
unmounted, and not larger in size than three by three inches. One must be attached to the back of each 
application by the clerk of court or the department's agent before whom it is made, with an impression 
of such officer's seal so placed as to cover part of the photograph, but not the features, and the other sent 
loose, to be attached to the passport by the department. The loose photograph must be signed across its 
face, so as not to obscure the features, by the applicant, and the signature tliereon must correspond to the 
applicant's signature affixed to the application. Photographs on cardboard or post cards will not be accepted. 

The application must be supported by an affidavit of at least one credible witness that the applicant 
is the person he represents himself to be, and that the facts stated in the application are true to the best 
of the witness' knowledge and belief. This affidavit must be made before the clerk of court or the depart- 
ment's agent before whom the application is executed, and the witness must be an American citizen, who 
resides within the jurisdiction of the court or the department's agent. The applicant or his witness must 
be known to the clerk of court or the department's agent before whom the application is executed, or must 
be able to satisfy such officer as to his Identity and the bona fides of the applicant. 

6. Native Citizens — An application containing the information Indicated by rule 5, will be sufficient 
evidence in the case of native citizens; except that a person born in the United States in a place where births 
are recorded will be required to submit a birth certificate with his application. If a birth certificate is not 
obtainable, the application should be supported by an affidavit of the pliysiclan who attended the birth or 
affidavits of parents or other reputable pejsons having actual knowledge of the applicant's birth in this 
country. 

Passports issued by the Department of State or its diplomatic or consular representatives are intended 
for identification and protection in foreign countries, and not to facilitate entry into the United States, 
immigration being under the supervision of the Department of Labor. 

7. A Person Born Abroad Whose Father Was a Native Citizen of the United States — In 
addition to the statements required by rule 5, his application must show that his father was born in the 
United States, resided therein, and was a citizen at the time of the applicant's birth. In such case evidence 
of the father's birth in this country similar to that required in section 6 above should be submitted. 

8. Naturalized Citizens — In addition to the statements required by rule 5, a naturalized citizen 
must transmit his certificate of naturalization, or a duly certified copy of the court record thereof, with 
his application. It will be returned to him after inspection. He must state in his affidavit when and from 
what port he emigrated to this coimtry, and, if possible, what ship he sailed on, where he has lived since his 
arrival in the United States, when and before what court he was naturahzed, and that he is the identical per- 
son described In the certificate of naturalization. The signature to the appUcatlon should conform in orthog- 
raphy to the applicant's name as written in his certificate of naturalization, or an explanation of the 
difference should be submitted. 

9. Woman's application — If she is unman-ied, In addition to the statements required by rule 5, 



Passport Regvlations of the United States — Continued. 



151 



ahe should state that she has never been married. If she la the wUe or widow of a native citizen of the United 
States the fact should be made to appear in her application, which should be made according to the form 
prescribed for a native citizen, whether she was born in this country or abroad. If she is the wife or widow 
of a naturalized citizen, in addition to the statements required by rule 5, she must transmit for inspection 
her husband's certificate of naturalization, or a certified copy of the court record thereof, must state that ahe 
la the wife (or widow) of the person described therein, and must set forth the facts of his birth, emigration, 
naturalization, and residence, as required in the rules governing the application of a naturalized citizen. 
She should sign her own Christian name with the family name of her husband (thus; Mary Doe, not Mrs. 
John Doe). A married woman's citizenship follows that of her husband. It is essential, therefore, that 
a woman's marital relations be Indicated In her application for a passport, and that in the case of a married 
woman her husljand's citizenship be established. 

10. The Chcld of x Naturalized Citizen Claiming Citizenship Through the Naturalization 
or THE Parent — In addition to the 8ta.tementa required by rule 5, the applicant must state that he or she 
is the son or daughter, as the case may be, of the person described in the certificate of naturalization, which 
must l>e submitted for Inspection, and must set forth the facts of emigration, naturalization, and residence, 
as required in the rules governing the application of a naturalized citizen. 

11. A Resident op an lNsm.AR Possession of the United States Who Owes Allegiance to 
THE Unttbd States — In addition to the statements required by rule 5, be must state that he owes allegiance 
to the United States and that he does not acknowledge allegiance to any other Government; and must 
submit affidavits from at least two credible witnesses who are able to corroborate his statement as to birth, 
residence, and loyalty. No fee is required for the Issuance by the Department of State of an insular passport. 

12. Explration and Renewal of Passport — ^A passport expires si.x months from the date of its 
issuance. A new one will be Issued upon a new application accompanied by the old passport, and if the 
applicant be a naturalized citizen, the old passport will be accepted In lieu of a certificate &f naturalization, 
provided the application upon which the old passport was issued Is found to contain sufficient information 
as to the naturalization of the applicant. 

13. Renewal op Passport.— Passports issued by the Department of State, which have not expired, 
may be renewed by It for a period of six months upon the sworn applications of the holders; provided that 
the holders are residing In the United States at the time they make their application for renewal, that they 
intend to visit only those eoimtries named In the passports which they hold, and that they show to the satis- 
faction of the Department of State that it is necessary for them to do so. 

An application for the renewal of a passport must be In the form of an affidavit addressed to the Secre- 
tary of State. The affidavit must be made before a clerls of a proper court within the jurisdiction of which 
the applicant resides, and the seal of the court must be affixed; but in any place where there is an agent of 
the Department of State, the Secretary of State maiy, in his discretion, require the application to be made 
before such agent. The clerk of court, or the agent of the Department of State before whom the applica- 
tion is made, must mail it directly to the Department of State. 

The applicant must slate tliat he is a loyal citizen of the United States, give the name of the foreign 
countries which he expects to visit, and explain the object and necessity of his proposed \isits thereto. The 
same evidence as to the necessity of the applicant's going abroad will be required of a person applying for 
the renewal of his passport as that required by rule 5 of applicants for passports. The applicant must also 
state from what point he intends to loave the United States, and the date of his intended departure, and also, 
if by a port of the United States, by what ship he intends to sail. In addition, the applicant must submit 
a photograph of himself, which must correspond to the photographs attached to his passport and the appli- 
cation upon which it was issued. The photograph which must be on thin paper and about three by three 
Inches in size, must be attached to the application for renewal by the clerk of court or the agent of the De- 
partment of State before whom the application is made, and the seal of such officer must be impressed thereon. 

No passport shall be renewed more than twice. No fee is required by the Department of State for the 
renewal of a passport. 

A person abroad hoidtng a passport Issued by the Department of State may have it renewed for a period 
of six months upon presenting it to a diplomatic or principal consular officer of the United States, when 
it Is about to expire, with a sworn statement of the names of the countries which he expects to visit and the 
objects of his visits thereto. 

14. Wife, Minor Children, and Servants — When the applicant is accompanied by his wife, minor 
children, and maid-servant, who is a citizen of the United States, It will be sufficient to state the fact, giving 
their names in full, the dates and places of their births, and the allegiance of the servant, when one passport 
will suffice tor all. In such case, however, three photographs of each person sliould accompany the pass- 
port appHeation. For a man-servant or any other person In the party a separate passport will be required. 
A woman's passport may include her minor children and maid-servant under the alpve-named conditions. 
(The term "maid-servant" does not include a governess, tutor, pupil, companion, or person holding like 
relation to the applicant for a passport.) 

15 Titles — Professional and other titles will not be inserted in passports. 

16. Blank Forms of application — They will be furnished by the department free of charge to per- 
sons who desire to apply lor passports. Supplies of blank applications are also furnished by the department 
to clerks of courts and are held by the department's agents. 

17. ADDRESS — Coramimications should be addressed to the Department of State, Bureau of Citizen- 
ship, and each communication should give post-ofBce address of the person to whom the answer Is to be 

18. Additional Regitlations — The Secretary of State is authorized to make regulations on the subject 
Of issuing and granting passports additional to these rules and not inconsistent mth them. 

Effective May 1 1916 

THE WHITE House, April 17, 1916. WOODROW WILSON. 



DIRECrriONS CONCERNING THE USE OF PASSPORTS. 
Signature of passport. 



A person to whom a passport is Issued should 
a'iix his signature thereon, in the space designated in 
the lower left-hand corner, immediately upon its 
receipt. 

Visa of Passports. 

The department understands that passports 
should be visaed for entry Into the following-named 
eountries, by diplomatic or consular officers thereof: 
Austria-Hungary, British Empire, Bulgaria, France, 
Germany, Italy, Persia, Portugal, Roumanla, Rus- 
sia, Serbia, and Turkey. 
Special Regulaticns in Foreign CouNTRiEa. 

Upon arriv'a' in belligerent countries persons 
mas obtain Uu >nnat>on in regard to registration. 



et cetera, from the local autharities directly or 
through the nearest American Consulate. 

(The information given below is believed to be 
correct, yet it is not to be considered as authentic, 
as it relates to the regulations of a foreign country. 
For further and more authentic information con- 
cerning restrictions from travel in foreign countries, 
it is necessary to apply to diplomatic or consular 
representatives of those countries.) 

Austr/ia-Hungary — Persons going to Austria- 
Hungary should have their passports visaed by an 
Austro-Hungarian diplomatic or consular officer, 
preferably in the United States. Each person over 
nine years of age going to Austria-Hungary via Ger- 
many must bear a separate passport. (See para- 



152 Passport Regulations of the United States — Continued. 



graph headed "Germany.") Native American cit- 
izens and American citizens who were naturalized 
before September 27, 1906, should obtain authenti- 
cated copies of theli passport applications to submit 
with their passports to the AuBtro-Hungarlan diplo- 
matic or consular officers to whom they apply to 
have their passiwrts visaed. Married women should 
also submit their marriage certificates. In order 
to obtain an authenticated copy of a passport appli- 
cation, the applicant should send to the department 
an exact copy, with photograph attached, of his 
orislnal application. If possible, the copy for 
authentication should be sent to the department 
with the original passport application. 

BRITISH Empire — Persons going to British terri- 
tory should have their passports visaed by a British 
diplomatic or consular officer, preferably in the 
United States. A person going to the British 
Empire accompanied by his wife and minor children 
m^y have his family Included In his passport, but 
a photograph of each member of his family over 
fourteen years of age must be attached to his pass- 
port. Persons sailing for England from the port 
of New York should have their passports visaed 
by the British Consul-General In that city. The de- 
partment has been informed that rigid restric- 
tions have been placed upon all travel between Eng- 
land and the Continent of Europe, and that admis- 
sion to Belgium from Holland Is understood to be 
practically forbidden to travellers from England. 

Persons over fifteen years of age desiring to visit 
Australia are required to produce passports visaed 
by British diplomatic or consular officers. 

Bulgaria — Persons going to Bulgaria should 
haved their passports visaed by the Consul-General 
of Bulgaria at New York City, or by a diplomatic 
or consular officer of Bulgaria In some foreign country. 

Fa.^NCE — Persons going to France should have 
their passports visaed by a French diplomatic or 
consular officer, preferably in the United States. 
Every person going to France, unless he was natu- 
ralized since September 27, 1906, should obtain an 
authenticated copy of the application upon which 
his passport was issued and present It, with his pass- 
port, to the French diplomatic or consular officer 
to whom he applies to have his passport visaed, as 
in the case of a person going to Austria-Hungary. 
An application for a visa should be made at least 
three days before it is necessary to obtain the visa. 
An American citizen who does not go directly from 
this country to France, but sojourns in some other 
foreign country before visiting France, should in- 
quire of a French diplomatic or consular representa- 
tive in such foreign country concerning the special 
formalities which It will be necessary for him to fulfil 
before entering French territory. Persons who go 
to France by way of England are required to obtain 
special permits from the French Passport Bureau 
in London. Applications therefor must be made 
within three days of the date of sailing from England. 

Germany — Persons going to Germany should 
have their passports visaed by a German diplomatic 
or consular officer, preferably in the United States. 
Under German regulations, each person over nine 
years of age entering Germany must hold a separate 
passport. Native American citizens and Ameri- 
can citizens who were naturalized before September 
27, 1906, should obtain authenticated copies of 
their passport applications to submit with their 
passports to the German diplomatic or consular 
offcers to whom they apply to have their passports 
visaed, as in the case of persons going to Austria- 
Hungary. Married women should also submit their 
marriage certificates. A new visa of a passport 



by a German diplomatic or consular officer is required 
for each separate entry into Germany. In order 
to obtain a visa the bearer of a pajssport must apply 
in person to a German diplomatic or consular officer; 
The bearer most present two photographs, similar 
to the one on his passport, for the files of the German 
diplomatic or consular officer. A visa will not be 
granted tmiess the journey seems to be necessary, 
and the necessity must be shown by the bearer. 
If his journey is for business purposes, he must 
submit papers showing what business houses he 
intends to visit in Germany. If the Journey is for 
the purpose of visiting friends or relations, the urgent 
necessity of doing so must be shown. 

Italy — Persons going to Italy should have 
their passports visaed by an ItaHan consular officer, 
preferably In the United States. Under ItaHan 
regulations, each person over sixteen years of age 
entering Italy must hold a separate passport. 

Persia — Persons going to Persia should have 
their passports visaed by the Persian Minister at 
Washington. D. C. 

Portugal — Persons going to Portugal should 
have their passports visaed by a Portuguese diplo- 
matic or consular officer, preferably the Portuguese 
Consul-General in New York City. 

RouMANiA — Persons going to Roumania should 
have their passports visaed by a Roumanian diplo- 
matic or consular officer in some foreign country, 
there being no diplomatic or consular officers of Rou- 
mania In the United States. 

Russia — Persons going to Russia should have 
their passports visaed by a Russian consular officer, 
preferably In the United States, at San Francisco, 
Chicago or New York City. A person who desires a 
visa of his passport to cover a period longer than 
three months should make a special request to 
that effect. Russian regulations require that a 
passport must state definitely the names of the 
places in Russia which the holder expects to visit 
and the objects of his visits thereto, and must bear 
the photographs of all persons Included therein who 
are over ten years of age. Native American citizens 
and American citizens who were naturalized before 
September 27, 1906, should obtain authenticated 
copies of their passport applications to submit with 
their passports to the Russian consular officers to 
whom they apply to have their passports visaed, as 
in the case of persons going to Austria-Hungary. 

Serbia — Persons going to Serbia should have 
their passports visaed by the Consul-General of 
Serbia in New York City, or by a diplomatic or 
consular officer of Serbia in some foreign country. 

Turkey — Persons going to Turkey should have 
their passports visaed by a Turkish consular officer, 
preferably in the United States, at San Francisco, 
Chicago, Boston, or New York City. 

Extra Photographs. 

Persons going to belligerent countries may avoid 
inconvenience by carrying with them several extra 
unmounted photographs'slmllar to the ones attached 
to their passports. 

Routes of Travel. 

The department cannot undertake to advise 
American citizens concerning the routes they should 
take in travelling abroad. It may be said, however, 
that It Is objectionable for persons to travel through 
or from a belligerent country to a country which Is 
at war therewith. Consequently the Department 
of State declines to issue passports lor such travel. 

Departmfwt of State, 
W ashii.jton, July 18, 1916. 



LIABILITY FOR MILITARY SERVICE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES OF PERSONS RESIDING 

IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The Department of State has recently received numerous Inquiries from foreign-oorn persons 
residing In this country as to whether they may be compelled to perform military service In their na- 
tive lands and as to what penalties, by way of fines, confiscation of property, or Imprisonment in case 
of return, they will Incur If they fall to report to the authorities of their countries of origin for mili- 
tary service. Some of the Inquiries refer to persons who have obtained naturalization as citizens of 
the United States, others to persons who have made declarations of Intention to become American 
citizens, and still others to persons who have taken no steps toward acquiring American citizenship. 
Misconception and confusion concerning this matter appear to be current. 

The United States Is not a party to any treaties under which persons of foMlgn origin residing 
In this country may be compelled to return to their countries of origin for military service, nor Is 
there any way In which persons may be forced into foreign armies against their will so long as they 
remain In the United States. 

The department cannot undertake to give authentic, official Information either 'n general, as 
to the requirements of the military service laws of foreign countries and the pe . dltles provided 



International Polar Commission. 153 

PASSPORT REGULATIONS— ConMn^ed. 

therein Jor evasion of military service, or. In particular, as to the status and present or luture lia- 
bilities of Individuals under such laws. Information of this kind must be obtained from officials of 
the foreign countries concerned. 

The department Issues printed circulars concerning the status In their native lands of natu- 
rallzed citizens of the United States, natives of certain European countries, and these will be fur- 
nished to Interested persons upon request. It Is specifically stated In these circulars that the In- 
formation contained In them Is not to be considered as official so far as It relates to the laws and 
regulations of foreign countries. 

The United States has concluded treaties of naturalization with the following European coun- 
tries: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, the German States, Great Britain, Norway and Sweden. 
Copies of these treaties are to be found in "Treaties, Conventions, etc., between the United States 
of America and Other Powers" (Government Printing OfBce. 1910), and separate copies may be fur- 
nished by the department upon request. Under these treaties the naturalization of persons concerned 
as citizens of the United States and the termination of their former allegiance are recognized, with 
the reservation. In most of them, that such persons remain liable to trial and punishment In their 
native lands for offences committed prior to emigration therefrom. Including offences of evasion of 
military duty. The United States holds that no naturalized citizen of this country can rightfully 
be held to account for military liability to his native land accruing subsequent to emigration 
therefrom, but this principle may be contested by countries with which the United States has 
not entered Into treaties of naturalization. The latter countries may hold that naturalization 
of their citizens or subjects as citizens of other countries has no eflect upon their original military 
obligation, or may deny the right of their citizens or subjects to become naturalized as citizens of 
other countries. In the absence of express consent or without the fulfilment of military obligations. 
More specific information as to the department's understanding of the laws of these countries con- 
cerning nationality and military obligations may te found In the department's circulars mentioned 
above. 

It is Important to observe that an aiien who "declares his intention to become a citizen of the United 
States does not, at the time of making such declaration, renounce allegiance to his original sovereign, 
but merely declares that he Intends to do so. Such person does not, by his declaration of Intention, 
acquire the status of a citizen of ths Un'ted States. 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, August 14, 1914. 

LINCOLN MEMORIAL. 

The Sixty-first Congress, third session, passed an act, approveo February 9, 1911, "to provide 
a commission to secure plans and designs for a monument or memorial to the memory of Abraham 
Lincoln." The text of the act Is as follows: 

Be U enacted by the Senate and House of RepTesentatites of the United States of America in 
Congress assembled. That William H. Taft, * Shelby M. Cullom. Joseph G. Cannon, George 
Peabody Wetmore, Samuel Walker McCall, t H. D. Money, and Champ Clark are hereby created 
a commission to be known as the Lincoln Memorial Commission, to procure and determine upon 
a location, plan, and design for a monument or memorial In the city of Washington, District of 
Columbia, to the memory of Abraham Lincoln, subject to the approval of Congress. 

Sec. 2. That In the discharge of Its duties hereunder said commission Is authorized to employ 
the services of such artists, sculptors, architects, and others as It shall determine to be necessary, 
and to avail Itself of the services or advice of the Commission of Fine Arts, created by the act 
approved May 17, 1910. . , ,_ . ., ^ ,, .,..., 

SEC. 3. That the construction of the monument or memorial, herein and hereby authorized, 
shall be upon such site as shall be determined by the commission herein created, and approved by 
Congress, and said construction shall be entered upon as speedily as practicable after the plan and 
design therefor Is determined upon and approved by Congress, and shall be prosecuted to completion, 
under the direction of said commission and the supervision of the Secretary of War, under a con- 
tract or contracts hereby authorized to be entered into by said Secretary In a total sum not exceeding 
two million dollars. , ., . „., ^ , 

Sec. 4. That vacancies occurring In the membership of the commission shall be filled by 
appointment by the President of the United States. 

By Joint resolution, approved February 1, 1913, Congress approved the plan, design and location 
for the memorial recommended by the commission. 

The memorial Is being erected In Potomac Park on the axis of the United States Capitol and 
the Washington Monument, In accordance with plans prepared by Henry Bacon of New York City. 

Work on the construction of the memorial was commenced on Lincoln's Birthday, February 12, 1914, 
when the first sod was turned by the Special Resident Commissioner, ex-Senator Blackburn. The founda- 
tion was completed and the cornerstone laid February 12. 1915. One million three hundred thousand dol- 
lars has been appropriated by Congress toward the construction, which Is to cost 52,000,000, the memorial 
to be completed in lour years from the commencement of work. 

The foundation of the memorial, which is of reinforced concrete, rises 45 feet above the present grade, 
and will be surrounded by a mound of earth 1,000 feet In diameter. The exterior of the memorial proper Is 
of white Colorado Yule marble, and the Interior limestone. The only sculpture will be a colossal statue of 
Lincoln, designed by Daniel Chester French, flanked by two bronze panels bearing Lincoln's Gettysburg 
and Second Inaugural addresses. , . ^ 

• Joseph C. S. Blackburn, former United States Senator from Kentucky, was appointed by 
President Wilson on February 2, 1914, to fill the vacancy on the commission caused by the death 
of Mr. Cullom. t Thomas S. Martin, United States Senator from Virginia, was afterward appointed 
to fill the vacancy on the commission caused by the death of Senator Money. Secretary of the Memorial. 
Henry A. Vale, Office Building. United St ates Senate. 

INTERNATIONAL POLAR COMMISSION. 

Organized at Brussels, Belgium, May 29, 1908. Preside^it . Vice- President— 

Dr. Otto Norden-skjold, Sweden. .Seccemry— Rear- Admiral Robert E. Peary (U. S. N.). 

Members— Prof. E. Bruckner, Prof. G. Trabert, Prof. E. Oberhummer and Prof. A. Grund, 
Austria; Barou Roland Eotvos, Reav-Admiral A. Gratzl, Prof. R. de Kovesiigethy, and Dr. J.Kepes, 



Umberto Cagni, R. N.; Prof. G. Cora, Capt. Marquis Giovanni Roncagli, and Cavalier Petro Molxnelli, 
Italy; Dr. van der Stok, Capt. J. M. Phaflf, Dr. Van Everdingen,and J. L. H. Luymes, Netherlands; 
Prof. Mehedintl, Prof. Coculesco, and Prof. Stefan Popescu, Roumania; Prof. Rudmose Brown, 
Dr Williams. Bruce, Dr. Bartholomew, and Dr. Richardson, Great Britain; Gen. Lieut. Jules de 
Schokalsky and Dr. Knipovitch, Russia; Dr. Baron de Geer, Dr. Otto Nordenskjold, Dr. Hamberg 
and Dr. Andersson, Sweden; Prof. Erich Von Drygalski, Prof. AJbrecht Penck, Dr. Supan and 
Dr. Wiechert, Gennauy; M. M. Maurice Zimmerman, and Ernest Qourdon, France. 



154 Naturalization Laws. 



NATURALIZATION LAWS. 

The following paraphrase and condensation of the naturalization laws of the United States have 
been revised by the Commissioner of Naturalization of the Department of Labor, and Includes snob 
minor changes in the law as were provided by the amendments embodied In the acts of Congress, approved 
June 25, 1910, and June 30, 1914. 

The following courts alone have the power to naturalize aliens: United States District Courts 
DOW existing, or which may hereafter be established by Congress In any State, United States District 
Courts for the Territories of Hawaii and Alaska, also all courts of record In any State or Territory now 
existing, or which may hereafter be created, having a seal, a clerk and Jurisdiction In aotlons at taw or 
equity, or law and equity. In which the amount In controversy Is unlimited. 

The power to naturalize, conferred upon the above mentioned courts, la limited to persona re- 
siding within the geographlcaL limits over which their reapectlve Jurisdiction extends. 

DKCLARATION OF INTENTION. 

Any alien who Is a white person, or of African nativity or African descent. Is required. It be de- 
sires to become naturalized, to tile a declaration of Intention In the clerk's ofHce of any court having 
JurlsdlctloH over the i>lace In which he lives, and such declaration may not be filed until the alien has 
reached the age of eighteen years. This declaration must contain information as to the name, age, 
occupation, time and place of arrival in the United States, and must further show that it is the de- 
clarant's bona ilde InteutloB to become a citizen of the United States and to renounce forever all al- 
legiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state or sovereignty, and particularly to the one 
of which he may be at the time a citizen or subject. 

Aliens of the age of twenty-one years and upward, who have been honorably discharged from ser- 
vice In the armies of the United States, either regular or volunteer, are not required to make a declara- 
tion of intention. 

Any alien, of the age of twenty-one years and upward, who has served five consecutive years In 
the United States Navy or one enlistment in the United States Marine Corps, may be admitted to 
citizenship (under the act of July 26, 1894) without any previous declaration of intention. 

Under the act approved June 30, 1914. any alien of the iiga of twenty-one years and upward, 
who may under existing law become a citizen, who has served one enlistment of not less than four 
years to the United States Navy or Marine Corps, or who has completed four years In the United States 
Coast Guard, and received an honorable discharge or an ordinary discharge with recofnniCQdatlon for re- 
enllstment, or has completed four years of honorable service in the naval auxiUai-y service, is admissible to 
citizenship, upon his petition, without a previous declaration of intention, and without proof of residence on 
shore. 

The widow and children who are under age at the time that an alien who has made his declara- 
tion of Intention has died, without having secured a certificate of naturalization, are also exempted 
from the necessity of filing a declaration of Intention. 

By act of J\ine 25, 1910, any person who on May 1, 1905, was an inhabitant for five years and 
qualified to become a citizen of the United States and who for the five years preceding May 1, 1910, 
had resided In the United States continuously and who, because of misinformation In regard to bis 
citizenship, had In good faith exercised the rights and duties of a citizen of the United States because 
of wrongful Information and belief, may, upon oroof of these facts satisfactory to a court having 
jurisdiction to naturalize aliens, petition for naturalization without filing the required declaration of 
Intention upon compliance with the other requirements of the law. 

PETITIONS FOR NATURALIZATION. 

Not less than two years after an alien has filed his declaration of Intention, and after not less than 
flye years' continuous residence In the United States, he may file a pvetltion for citizenship in any one 
0* the courts above stated which has jurisdiction over the place in which he resides, provided he has 
lived at least one year continuously, immediately prior to the filing of such petition, In the State or 
Territory In which such place Is located. This petition must be signed by the petitioner in his own 
handwriting and shall give his full name, place of residence, occupation, place of birth and the date 
thereof, the place from which he emigrated, and the date and place of his arrival in the United States. 
If such arrival occurred subsequent to the passage of the act of June 29, 1906, he must secure a cer- 
tificate from the Department of Labor showing the fact of such arrival and the date and place there- 
of, for filing with the clerk of the court to be attached to his petition. If he Is married he must state 
the name of his wife and. If possible, the country of her nativity and her place of residence at the 
time of the filing of his petition, and. If he has children, the name, date and place of birth and present 
place of residence of each living child. The petition must set forth that he Is not a disbeliever In or 
opposed to organized government, or a member of or afflllated with any organization or body of per- 
sons teaching disbelief In or opposition to organized government; that he Is not a polygamlst or a be- 
liever In the practice of polygiimy, and that he absolutely and forever renounces all allegiance and 
fidelity to any foreign country of which he may, at the time of filing such petition, be a citizen or 
subject. This petition must be verified at the time It is filed by the affidavit of two credible wit- 
nesses, who are citizens of the United States and who shall state that they have known the petitioner 
during his entire residence (not exceeding five years) in the State In which the petition Is filed, which 
must be not less than one year, and that they have known him to be a resident of the United States 
continuously during the five years immediately preceding the filing of the petition; that during such 
time he acted as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the 
United States and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same. If a portion of the five 
years has been passed by the petitioner in some other State than that in which he resides at the time 
of filing his petition the affidavit of the witnesses may verify so much of the petitioner's residence as. 
has been passed In the State (not less than one year), and the portion of said five years' residence out 
of the State may be shown by depositions at the time of hearing on the petition. 

No petition may be heard until the expiration of at least ninety days after it is filed nor within 
thirty days preceding a general election. At the hearing upon a petition, which shall be at a date 
fixed by order of the court, the witnesses are required to again attend and testify In open court so- 
that the Judge or Judges thereof may be satisfied that the petitioner Is qualified and that he has com- 
piled with all the requirements of the law. 

Any alien who has borne an hereditary title or been a member of an order or nobility must re- 
nounce such title or position expressly before becoming naturalized. No alien may become natu- 
ralized, if physically capable, who does not speak the English language. 

Aliens who are admitted to citizenship by order In open court will be required to take the oath of 
allegiance and thereafter will be entitled to a certificate of naturalization. 

"The law also provides as to those persons, who though not citizens owe permanent allegiance to 
the United States, and who may become residents of any State or organized Territory of the United States, 
that they may be naturalized upon compliance with all the requirements of the law, except that they wUl 
not be called upon to renounce allegiance to any foreign sovereignty. 

At the time of filing his declaration of Intention an alien is required to pay to the clerk of the court 
a fee of one dollar. At the time of filing a petition for naturalization a petitioner Is required to pay to- 
the clerk of the court a fee of four dollars. This latter fee is for the cost of recording the petition and 
bearing the case, as well as tor the Issuance, If the petition is granted, of the certificate ol naturalization.. 



The National Pure Food Law. 155 



NATURALIZATION LAWS — Continued. 



NATURALIZATION OF WOMEN. 
The naturalization laws apply to unmarried alien women, and the foreign-bom widows of aliens (who 
were not naturalized) . The citizenship and allegiance of a woman married to an alien is governed by that 
of the husband, and it has been held by the courts that during the existence of the marriage relations with 
an alien, a woman can neither be naturalized upon her own petition, nor file a valid declaration of intention. 
A foreign-born widow of an alien may proceed upon the declaration of the deceased husband, and the alien 
wife of an insane alien may petition upon the declaration of the Insane husband, provided the wife has made 
a homestead entry under the United States land laws. 

CITIZENSHIP OF WOMEN. 

Any woman who is now or may hereafter be married to a citizen, and who might herself be lawfully 
naturalized, shall be deemed a citizen. A foreign woman who acquires American citizenship by marriage 
retains her citizenship after the termination of the marital relation if she continues to reside in the United 
Stales, unless she maizes formal renunciation thereof before a naturalization court; or, if slie resides abroad, 
she may retain her citizenship by registering before a United ftotes Consul within one year after the termina- 
tion of the marital relation. 

Loss of Citizenship bij Marriage — An American woman who marries a foreigner takes the nationality 
of her husband. At the termination of the marital relation she may resume her American citizenship, if re- 
siding in the United States, by merely continuing to reside therein; or, if abroad, \>y registering before a 
United States Consul within one yaar, or by returning to reside in the United States. Under this law, the 
Supreme Court of the United States affirmed a decision of a California court that an American woman mar- 
ried to an alien cannot vote in that State. 

CHINESE, JAPANE.se, ETC. 

The naturalization of Chinese is e.xpressly prohibited by Section 14, Chapter 126, Laws of 1882. 

Section 2169 of the United States Revised Statutes limits naturalization to aliens being free white per- 
sons and to aliens of African nativity or dascent. Under this section the various courts have denied natu- 
ralization to Afghans, a Fiji Islander, Hindus (East Indians), Indians, Japanese, and other Mongolians, 
Malays (Including a native of Burma), and members of the Asiatic races. 



THE NATIONAL PURE FOOD LAW. 

The Pure Food act, approved June 30, 1906, is entitled "An act for preventing the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or dele- 
terious foods, drugs, medicines and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other 
purposes." It took effect by its terms on January 1, 1907. 

The first section of the aot make.s rt unlawful for any person to manufacture within 
the District of Columbia or any Territory any article of food or drdg which is adulterated 
or misbranded, under a penalty not to exceed $500, or one year's imprisonment, or both, at 
the discretion of the court, fon- the first offence, and not "less than $1,000 or one year's 
imprisonment, or both, for each subsequent offence. 

Sec. 2 of the act makes it applicable to food or drugs introduced into any State 
from any other State, and from or to any foreign country. 

Sec. 3. That the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Agriculture, and 
the Secretary of Commerce and Labor shall miake uniform rules and regulations for 
carrying out the provisions of this act, includin'g the colleotian and examina'tion of 
specimens of foods and drugs manufactured or offered for sale in the District of Colum- 
bia, o.r in any Territory of tihe United States, or which shall be offered for sale in 
unbroken packages in any State other than that in w'hich they shall have been re- 
spectively manufactured or produced, or which shall be received from any foreign 
country, or intended for s'hipmen<t to any foreign country, or which may be submitted 
for examination by th-e chief health, food, or drug officer of any St(a'te, Territory, or 
the District ' of Columbia, or at any domestic or foreign port through which such 
product is offered for interstate oomimerce, or for export or import between the United 
Stat&s and any foreign pori or coumtry. 

Sec. 4. That the examinations of specimens of foods and drugs sliall be made 
in the Bureau of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture, or under the direction 
and supervision of such bureau, for the purpose -of determining froim such examina- 
tions whether such articles are adulterated or niisbra.nded within the meaning of this 
act; and if it shall appear fnom any such examination that any of such .specimens is 
adulteraited or misbranded within thie meanjng of this act. the Secreta.ry of Agriculture 
shall cause notice thereof to be given to the party from whom suoh sample was 
obtained. An\y party so notified shall be given an opportunity to be heard, under such 
rules and regulations as may be prescribed as afores-aad, and if it appears that any 
of tl>e provisions of this act have been violated by suoh pa.rty, then the Secretary of 
Agriculture shall at once certify the facts to the proper United States District-At- 
torney, with a copy of th« results of the analysiis or the examination of such article 
duly autihenticated by the analyst or officer ma.king such examination, under the oath 
of such officer. After judgment of the court, notice shall be given by publication in 
suoh manner a.s may be prescri'bed by the rules and regulations aforesaid. 

Sec 5. That it shall be the duty of each District-Attorney to whom the Secretary 
of Agriculture shall report any violation of this a.ct, or to whom any health or food 
or drug cflUcer or agent of any State, Territory, or the District oif Colum'bla shall 
present satisfactory evidence of any such violation, to catiise appropriate proceedings 
to be cniTiinenced and pi-osecuted in the proper courts of the United States, withK^nat 
^elay for the enforcement of the penalties as in such case herein provided. 

The sections descriptive of the articles which come within the scope 'of the act are 

"Sec 6 That the term 'drug,' as used in this act, shaiU Include all medicines and 
nreparatio^s recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary for 
internal or external use, an;d any substance or mixture of substances intended to be 
used for the cure, mitigation or prevention of disease of either man or other animals. 
The term 'food,' as used herein, shall include all articles used for food, drink, confec- 
tionery or condiment by man or other animals, whether simple, mixed or compcAind. 

"Sec. 7. That for the purposes of this act an article shall be deemed to be adiii- 
t^rated:" 



156 The National Pure Food Law — Continued. 

In case of drugs: 

••Plrst. If, when a drug- Is sold under or by a name recognized in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary, it differs from the standard of strength, quality or 
purity, as determined by the test laid down in the United States Pharmacopoeia or National 
Formulary official at the time of investigation: Provided, That no drug defined in the 
United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary shall be deemed to be adulterated 
under this pro'vision if the standard of strength, quality or purity be plainly stated, upon 
the bottle, box or other container thereof, although the standard may differ from that 
determined by the test laid down in the United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary. 

"SeooTid. If its strength or purity fall below the professed standard or quality under 
Which it is sold." 

In the case of confectionery: 

"If it contain terra alba, barytes, talc, chrome yellow, or other mineral substance or 
poisonous color or flavor, or other ingredient deleterious or detrim.ental to health, or any 
vinous, malt or spirituous liquor or compound or narcotic drug." 

In the case of food: 

"First. If any substance has been mixed and packed with it so as to reduce, or lower, 
or injuriously affect its quality or strength. 

"Second. If any substance has been substituted wholly or in part for the article. 

"Third. If any valuable constituent of the article has been wholly or in part extracted. 

"Fourth. If it be mixed, colored, powdered, coated, or stained in a manner whereby 
damage or inferiority is concealed. 

"Fifth. If it contain any added poisonous or other added deleterious ingredient which 
may render such article injurious to health: Provided, That when in the preparation of 
food products for shipment they are preserved by any external application applied in such 
manner that the preservative is necessarily removed mechanically, or by maceration in 
water, or otherwise, and directions for the removal of said preservatives shall be printed 
on the covering or the package, the provisions of this act shall be construed as applying 
only when said products are ready for consumption, 

"Sixth. If it consists in whole or in part of a filthy, decomposed, or putrid animal or 
vegetable substance, or any portion of an animal unfit for food, whether manufactured or 
not, or if it is the product of a diseased animal, or one that has died otherwise than by 
slaughter. 

"Sec. 8. That the term 'misbranded,' as used herein, shall apply to all drugs, or articles 
of food, or articles which enter into the composition of food, the package or label of 
which shall bear any statement, design, or device regarding such article, or the ingre- 
dients or substances ocntained therein which shall be false or misleading in any par- 
ticular, and to any food or drug product which is falsely branded as to the State, Terri- 
tory, or country in which it is manufactured or produced, 

"That for the purposes of this act an article shall also be deemed to be misbranded." 

In case of drugs: 

^;First. If it be an imitation of or offered for sale under the name of another article. 
Second. If the contents of the oackage as originally put up shall have been removed, 
in whole or m part, and other contents shall have been placed in such package, or if the 
package fail to bear a statement on the label of the Quantity or proportion of any alcohol, 
morphme, opium, cocaine, heroin, alpha or beta eucaine. chloroform, cannabis indica. chloral 
hydrate or acetanilide, or any derivative or preparation of any such substances contained 
therein. 

"Third. If its package or label shall bear or contain any statement, design, or 
device regarding the curative or therapeutic effect of such article or any of the 
Ingiedienlg or substances contained therein, which is faise and fraudulent." 

In the case ■of food: 

"First. If it be an imitation of or offered for sale under the distinctive name of 
another article. 

"Second. If it be labelled or branded so as to deceive or mislead the purchaser, or pur- 
port to be a foreign product when not so, or if the contents of the package as originally put 
up shall have been rem^oved in whole or in part and other contents shall have been 
placed in such package, or if it fail to bear a statement on the label of the quantity 
or proportion of any morphine, opium, cocaine, heroin, alpha or beta eucaine. chloro- 
form, cannabis indica, chloral hydrate, or acetanilide, or any derivative or preparation 
of any such substance contained tiherern. 

"Third. If in package form, the quantity of the contents be not plainly and con- 
spicuously marked on the outside of the package in termfe of weight, measure, or nu- 
merical count: Prcvided. however. That reasonable variations shall be permitted, and 
tolerances and also exemptions as to small packages shall be established by rules and 
regulations made In accordance with the provisions of Section 3 of this act. (The act 
of March 3, 1913, provides that no penalty of fine, imprisonment, or confiscation shall 
be enf'c'rced for any violation of its provisiorus as to domestic products prepared or for- 
eign products imported prior to eighteen months after its passage.) 

"Fourth. If the package containing it or its label shall bear anv statement, design 
or device reganding tihe Ingredients or the substances contained therein, which state- 
ment, design or device shall be false or misleading, in any particular: Provided. That 
an article of food which does not contain any added Tsoisonous or deleterious ingredients 
shall not be deemed to be adulterated or misbranded in the following cases: 

"First. In the case of mixitures or compounds which may be now or from tim« to 
time hereafter known as articles of food, under tihelr own distinctive names, and not 
an Imitation of or offered tor sale under the distinctive name of another article, if the 
najne be accompanied on the same label or brand with a statemlent of the place where 
said article has been manufactured or produced. 

"Second. In tihe case of articles labelled, branded or tagged so as to plainly indi- 
cate that they are compounds, imitations or blends, and the word 'ccAnpound.' 
'imUation' or 'blend,' as the case may be. is plainly stated on the package in which It 
is offered for sale: Provided, That the term "blend' as used herein shall be construed 
to mean a mixture of like substances, not excluding harmless coloriner or flavoring in- 
gredlents used for the purpose of coloring and flavorlnsr only: .\nd provided further, 
Tniat nothing In this act shall be construed as requiring or compelling proprietors or 



Inventions. 



157 



THE NATIONAL PURE FOOD 1^^}— Continued. 



irJeunufacturers of proprietaxy foo<ds which contain no unwholesome added ingredients to 
disclose their tirade formulas, except in so far as the provisiions of this act may require 
to secure freedom from adulteration or misbranding. 

"Sec. 9. That no deailer shall be prosecuted under the provisions of this act, when 
he can establish a guaj^anty signed by the wholesaler, jobber, manufacturer or other 
party res.iding: in the United States, from whom he purchases such articles, to the effect 
that the same Is not adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of this act, desig- 
nating it." 

The remaining provls)Oin.s of the act provide the methods of prosecuting offenders 
and desitroyinig goods imported or offered for import which are aduite.rated or falsely 
labelled. . 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 
(Bureau of Chemistry, Canl L. Alsberg, Chief, Washington, D. C. ) 
During the fiscal year 1915 4,412 official samples of foods and drugs shipped in interstate commerce 
and 873 unofficial samples were collected and examined; 20,238 Import shipments were examined at the 
Import laboratories; 767 cases were transmitted to the Department of Justice, in 276 of which cri mina l pro- 
ceedings and in 491 of which seizure proceedings were recommended; 501 criminal and 467 seizure cases, in 
all 968, were terminated hi the courts. 



ABOLISHING GUARANTY LEGEND AND SERIAL NUMBER ON FOOD AND DRUGS. 

It has been made to appear that (1) dealers in food and drugs have on hand a great many labels and 
containers printed or marked prior to the date of Food Inspection Decision 153 (May 6, 1914); (2) these 
labels and containers bear the legend "Guaranteed by (name of guarantor) under the Food and Drugs Act, 
June 30, 1906," or a serial number issued by the United States Department of Agriculture, or both; (3) 
these labels and containers, when so printed or marked, complied with the rules and regulations for the en- 
forcement of the Food and Drugs Act in effect at the time, and (■!) great financial loss wiU result to such 
dealers, .through their inability to use these labels and containers, if Regulation 9, as amended by Food In- 
spection Decisions 153 and 155, be enforced beginning on May 1, 1916. 

Accordingly, proceedings under the Food and Drugs Act, based on the shipment in interstate or foreign 
commerce, or the sale in the District of Columbia or the Territories, prior to May 1, 1918, of any article of 
food or drugs, will not be instituted solely on account of the fact that the label thereon or the container 
thereof bears the legend "Guaranteed by (name of guarantor) under the Food and Drugs Act, June 30, 
1906," or a serial number issued by the United States Department of Agriculture, or both, upon it being es- 
tablished that such label or container was so printed or marked prior to May 5, 1914, 



INVENTIONS. 

EPOCH-MAKING INVENTIONS BY PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES DURING THE LAST 
FIFTY YEARS, AS LISTED IN THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



Invention. 


Inventor. 


Date. 




BeU 


1876 


TvDewriter . . . 


Sholes 


1878 




Patterson 

Edison 

Edison 

Cowles 

Castner 

Eastman 

Edison 


1885 


Incandescent lamp 

Talking machine 


1880 
1878 


Electric furnace reduction. . 
Electrolytic alltali prod'ction 
Transp'rent photograph film 

Motion-picture machine 

Buttonhole-sewing machine. 
Carborundum 


1885 
1890 
1888 
1893 
1881 


Acheson 

Willson 

Acheson 

Tesla 

Westlnghouse. . 
Thomson 

French & Myers 

Beecher 

Lanston 


1891 


Calcium carbide 


1888 


Artificial graphite 


1896 


Split-phase induction motor. 


1887 
1869 


Electric welding . . .... 


1889 


Chain-stitch shoe-sewing ma- 
chine 


1881 


Continuous-process match 


1888 


Single-type composing ma- 
chine 


1887 



Invention. 



Type-bar casting 

Chrome tanning 

Disk ploughs (modern type) 

Welt machine 

Electric lamp 

Recording adding machine. . 

Celluloid 

Automatic knot-tying hai- 
vester machine 

Water gas 

Machine for malting barbed 
wire 

Rotary converter 

Automatic car-coupler 

High-speed steel 

Dry-air process for blast fur- 
nace 

Block signals for railways. . . 

Trolley car 



Harveyized armor plate. . . . 



Inventor. 



Mergcn thaler. 

Schulz 

Hardy 

Goodyear 

Brush 

Burroughs. . . . 
Hyatt 



Appleby. 
Lowe. . . 



Glidden 

Bradley 

Janney 

Taylor & White 



Gayley 

Robinson 

Van Depoele & 

Sprague 

Harvey 



Date. 



1885 
1884 
1896 
1871 
1879 
1888 
1870 

1880 
1875 

1875 
1887 
1873 
1901 

1894 
1872 

1884-87 
1891 



As compared with this list, note the following list of Important Inventions that have been made during 
the same period by foreigners, which has been compiled from information furniabed by the 43 examining 
divisions of the Patent Office: 



Invention. 



Electric steel 

Dynamite 

Artificial alizarene (dye) 

Siphon recorder 

Gas engine. Otto cycle 

Wireless telegraphy 

Smokeless powder 

Diesel oil motor 

Centrifugal creamer 

Manganese steel 

Electric transformer 

Cyanide process for extracting metal . 

Mantle burner 

By-product coke oven 



Date. 



1900 
1867 
1869 
1874 
1877 
1900 
1886 
1900 
1880 
1884 
1883 
1888 
1890 
1893 



Inventor. 



Heroult 

Nobel 

Graebe & Lleberman. 

Thompson 

Otto 

Marconi 

Vlelle 

Diesel 

De Laval 

Hadfleld 

Gaulard & Gibbs 

Arthur & De Forrest. 

Welsbach 

Hoffman 



Nationality. 



French. 

Swedish. 

German. 

English. 

German. 

Italian. 

French. 

German. 

Swedish. 

English. 

English. 

English. 

Austrian. 

Austrian. 



158 



United States Internal Revenue Receipts. 



UNITED STATES INTERNAL REVENUE RECEIPTS. 

SUMMARY OF INTERNAL REVENUE RECEIPTS FROM 1907 TO 1916. INCLUSIVE. 



Fiscal 

Years. 


Spirits. 


Tobacco. 


Fermented 
Liquors. 


Income 
Tax. 


Fiscal 
Years. 


Spirits. 


Tobacco. 


Fermented 
Liquors. 


Income 
Tax. 


1907 . 


$156,336,902 
140.158.807 
134.868.034 
148.029.311 
155.279.858 


$51,811,070 
49,862.754 
51,887,178 
58.118.457 
67.005.950 


$59.5b.,818 
59,807,617 
57,456.411 
60,572.288 
64.3fr7.777 




1912 

1913 

1914 . . . 

1915 

1916 


$156,391,487 
163.879.342 
159.098.177 
144.619.699 
1.58,682. 439 


$70..590.151 
76.789.424 
79.986,639 
79.957.373 

a88.063.9!7 


$63,268,770 
66,266,989 
67,081.512 
79.328.946 
88.771.102 




1908 






1909 

1910 

1911 




$71,381,274 

80.190,694 

♦124.937.2.52 



Of the miscellaneous receipts received in 1916 (total 31,678.021). 3819,654 was from playing cards, 
and 5458,772 from penalties, etc. Receipts from oleomargarine 31,4:85,970. (a) Including 3258,097 from 
sale of internal revenue stamps affixed to Philippine products, as provided for in the act of ,\ugust 5, 1909. 
* Income t!ax fro